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O'DuiNN — Owen 







O'DuiNN Owen 




4 -J 






' , 




O. A. A. . . G. A. AiTKEN. 

W. A. J. A. . W. A. J. Archbold. 

R. B-L. . . . Richard Baowell. 

O. F. R. B. . G. F. Russell Babker. 

M. B Miss Bateson. 

B. B The Rev. Ronald Batne. 

T. B Tbosias Batne. 

C. R. B. . . C. R. Beazlet. 

H. £. D. B. The Rev. H. E. D. Blakiston. 

G. C. B. . . G. C. BoASE. 

T. G. B. . . The Rev. Professor Bonnet, 


W. C-R. . . William Carr. 

H. M. C. . . The late H. Manners Chi- 

A. M. C-e. . Miss A. M. Cooke. 

T. C Thompson Cooper, F.S.A. 

W. P. C. . . W. P. COURTNET. 

W. H. C. . . Professor W. H. Cdmminos. 

L. C Lionel Cust, F.S.A. 

J. A. D. . . J. A. DoTLE. 

R. D Robert Dunlop. 

C. H. F. . . C. H. Firth. 

J. D. F.. . . J. D. Fitzgerald. 

W. J. F. . . W. J. FrrzPATRicK, F.SJl. 

W. H. F-R. Sib Willum H. Flower, E.C.B., 


T. F. . . . i The Rev. the President of 

Corpus Christi Colleob, 

S. R. G. . . S. R. Gardiner, LL.D. 

R. G Richard Garnett, LL.D., C.B. 

J. T. G. . . J. T. Gilbert, LL.D., F.S.A. 

I. G Israel Gollancz. 

G. G Gordon Goodwin. 

A. G The Rev. Alexander Gordon. 

R. E. G. . . R. E. Graves. 

W. A. G. . . The late W. A. Greenbill, 



J. A. H. . . J. A. Hamilton. 
T. F. H. . . T. F. Henderson. 

J. J. H. . . J. J. HORNBT. 

W. H The Rev. William Hunt. 

W. H. H. . The Rev. W. H. Hutton, B.D. 
R. J. J. . . . The Rev. R. Jenkin Jones. 

C. L. E. . . C. L. EiNOSFORD. 

J. E Joseph Eniqht, F.S.A. 

W. W. E. . Colonel W. W. Enollts. 
J. E. L. . . Professor J. E. Lauqhton. 
T. G. L. . . T. G. Law. 
E. L Miss Elizabeth Lie. 


R. H. L. . . Robin H. Leqoe. 


List of Writers. 

A. G. li. . • 
J* £. Xi* • • 
J. H. li. • * 
M. MacD.. . 
J. R. M. . . 
J. M 

W. D. M. . . 
E. H. M. . . 
L. M. M. . . 
A. H. M. . . 


N. M 

G. P. M-Y.. 
J. B. M. . . 

A. N 

P. L. N. . . 
G. Le G. N. 
D. J. O'D. . 
J. S. O'H. . 

i. • \Jm • • • • 

J. L« • • • 
J. H. O. . . 
H. P 

V^« X ■ • • • • 

A. F. P. . • 

A. G. Little. 

John Edward Llotd. 

The Rev. J. H. Lupton, B.D. 

M. MacDonaoh. 

J. R. MacDonald. 

The Rev. James Mackinnon, 

The Rev. W. D. Macray. 

E. H. Marshall. 

Miss Middleton. 

A. H. Millar. 

Cosmo Monkhouse. 

Norman Moore, M.D. 

g. p. moriarty. 

J. Bass Mullinorr. 

Albert Nicholson. 

P. L. Nolan. 

G. Lb Grys Noroate. 


J. S. O'Halloran. 

The late Rev. Thomas Olden. 

John O^Leart. 

The Rev. Canon Overton. 

Henry Paton. 

The Rev. Charles Platts. 

A. F. Pollard. 

S. L.-P.. . 

B. P. . . . 
D'A. P. . . 
R. B. P. . 
J. M. R. . 
H. R. . . . 
L. C. S. . 
T. S. . . . 
W. A. S. . 

C. F. S. . 
G. G. S. . 
L. S. . . . 
G. S-H.. . 

C. W. S. . 
J. T-t. . . 
H. R. T. . 

D. Ll. T.. 
T. F. T. . 

E. V. . . . 
R. H. V. . 

A. W. W.. 
C. W-H. . 
H. T. W. . 
W. W. . . 

. Stanley Lane-Poole. 

. Miss Porter. 

. D'Arcy Power, F.R.C.S. 

. R. B. Prorser. 

. J. M. Riao. 

. Herbert Rix. 

. Lloyd C. Sanders. 

. Thomas Seccombe. 

. W. A. Shaw. 

. Miss C. Fell Smith. 

. G. Gregory Smith. 

. Leslie Stephen. 

. George Stronach. 

. C. W. Sdtton. 

. James Tait. 

. H. R. Tedder, F.S.A. 

. D. Lleufer Thomas. 

. Professor T. F. Tout. 

. The Rev. Canon Venableb. 

. Colonel R. H. Vetch, R.E., 

. A. W. Ward, LL.D., Litt.D. 

. Charles Welch, F.S.A. 

. Sir Henry Trubman Wood. 

. Warwick Wroth, F.S.A. 






1160), Irish historian, was horn in 1102, and 
belonged to a trihe which possessed, from the 
eleventh century to the reign of James I, the 
district now called Dooregan, from their 
tribe-name of Ui Riaccain,and the Irish word 
dnthaidh, inheritance. They were one of the 
septs of the old Irish kingdom of Ui Fail^he, 
now Offaly ; the present barony of Tina- 
hinch, Queen's County, includes their terri- 
tory, where many of tnem still remain under 
the anglicised names of Dunn, O'Dunn, and 
Doyne. Gillananaemh became chief poet of 
the king of Leinster, and composed historical 
poems of the same character as those of 
Flann [q. v.] and of Gillacoemhin. Five 
poems undoubtedly his are extant: (1) Of 
§28 verses, beginning * Aibhinn sin Eire ard : 
a chrich mac Miledh morgarg ' (* Oh ! plea- 
sant noble Ireland : land of the sons of valiant 
Milesius'). This celebrates the Milesian 
conquest; and a copy made in 1712 by the 
welt-known scribe John MacSolaidh is ex- 
tant, as well as one in the Cambridge Uni- 
versity Library of earlier date. (2) Of 280 
verses on the kings of Leinster, beginning 
'Coigeadh Laighean na leacht an riogh' 
(' Fifth of Ireland, Leinster of the tombs of 
the kings '). There is a copy in the ' Book of 
Ballymote/ a manuscript of the fifteenth 
century (fol. 55, col. 4, line 8). ^3) Of 128 
verses on the tribes descended from Colla 
Meann, Colla Uais, and Colla Dachrioch, the 
three sons of Cairbre Liffeachair, king of Ire- 
land. It begins 'Airghialla a hEamhain 
Macha' (' Oh ! men of Oriel, from the Navan 
fort'). A copy made in 1708 by James 
Maguire was in the collection of Edward 
OTReiUy [q. v.] (4) Of 296 verses on the 
kings of Connaught, beginning 'Findaidh 
seanchaidhe fir Fan ' (' Witness the historians 
of the men of Ireland *), There is a copy in 

TOL. X£n. 

the Cambridge University Library. (5) Of 
296 verses on the kings of Connaught, be- 
ginning, ' Cruacha Conacht rath co raith ' 
(* Rathcroghan, prosperous earthwork '), 
There is a copy in the * Book of Ballymote ' 
(fol. 56, col. 1, line 18). The libraries of the 
Royal Irish Academy and of Trinity College, 
Dublin, contain in their Irish manuscript col- 
lections further copies of these poems, and of 
others written by him. He died on the 
island of Lough Kee, co. Longford, called 
Inisclothran, on 17 Dec. 1160. 

[Book of Billymote. Facs. Dublin, 1887, 
MS. Reeves, 388, in Cambridge Univ. Library; 
E. O'Reilly in Transactions of the I bemo -Celtic 
Soc vol. i. Dublin, 1820; local information from 
Michael Dunn of Mountrath, Queen's County, in 
I860 ; O'Donovan's Note in Annals of the Four 
Ma'^ters. iv. 957.] N. M. 

1736), Irish poet, belonged to a family, of 
whom one member was abbot of Drumlane, 
CO. Cavan, in 1025, and another canon of 
Drumlane in 1484. They had long been 
settled on the shores of the lake of Mullagh, 
CO. Cavan, and Feardorcha was bom in the 
village of Mullagh. He was son of John 
0*Farrelly,8onof Feidlimidh OTarrellv, and 
was brought up in a literary house, ror his 
father wrote * Seanchas an da Bhreifne ' (* The 
history of the two Brefnys '), most of which 
his mother burnt in anger because the book 
deprived her of her husband's society. He 
wrote a poem on this incident and several 
others. Feardorcha was intended for the 
church, but, according to local tradition, was 
excluded owing to some sacrilegious act of 
his family in the war of 1641. He became 
a farmer, and lived all his life in his native 
district, where he enjoyed the friendship of 
Cathaoir MacCabe [q. y.], of Torlogh O Ca- 
rolan [q. v.] the harper, and other men of 


OTerrall 2 Offa 

letters who flourished in that district early lie had been a magistrate, grand juror, and 

in tlie last century. He wrote a poem in deputy-lieutenant for his native county, and 

Irish in praise of William Peppard of Kings- at niscleath was the oldest memberof the Irish 

court, ot which there is a copy in the Cam- privy council. He married, on 28 Sept. 1839, 

bridge University Library, niade by Peter Matilda (<f.l882),8econd daughter 01 Thomas 

Oalligan on 19 Dec. 1827; * Beir beannacht Anthony, third viscount Southwell, K.P. By 

uaim sioa go baile na ccraobh ' {' A blessing her he left a son, Ambrose, and a daughter, 

from me on Ballynacroe*); * Suibhal me cuig Maria Anne, who married in 1860 Sir Walter 

coige na Fodla ' (* I walk the five provinces Nugent, bart., of Donore, co. Westmeath. 
of Ireland ') ; ' Bhidh me la deas (* I was rLif^^ Times, and Correspondence of Bishop 

one fine day ); and others preserved m the Doyle; Private Correspondence of Daniel O'Con- 

manuscript books which formed the chief nel'l; Leinster Leader, 30 Oct. 1880; Burke's 

literature of farmhouses in Meath and Cavan Landed Gentry, ii. 1516; Lingard's England, 

in the last century. He was often entertained with marginal notes in manuscript by Bishop 

by the Mortimers of Cloghwallybeg and their Doyle ; personal knowledge.] W. J. F. 

km, the chief landowners of the district. r^T^T^ a ^ ^ -r^x ^ - 1. .t_ -c^ ^ o 

' ^ ^ . , ,, «,. OFFA (;7. 709), king of the East-Saxons, 

[Works ; Tranjuictions of the Iberno-Celtic ^^ ^^n of Sighere, king of the East^axons, 

Society, Dublin, 1820; local information.! ^^^^^ ^^.^^j^^^ ^^3 Wulfhere, king of the 

I Mercians. Sighere was succeeded on his 
OFERRALL, RICHARD MORE (1797- tbrone by his brother Sebbi, who, dying in 694. 
1880), governor of Malta, bom in 1797 at was himself succeeded bv his sons Sigheard 
Balvna, co. Kildare-the ancient seat of his ^J^^ Swefred. It is possible that Offa shared 
rnce-was eldest son of Ambrose OTerrall }^^ J"^« ^^^^ ^^}} \"s uncle and cousm ; 
(1752-1835), bv his first wife, Anno,daugh- \^^ '\ ^as not until the death of the latter 
ter of John Ba^ot. Unlike his brother John ^^^ ^^^.]^i^J^^ ^?\^ ^^« ^{^^ ^^-Saxo"* 
I^wis More, afterwards commissioner of (Bede,iii 30,iv.ll; Flor.Wig. (?<w«i/ojri«, 
police(rf. 1881),hedeclined,a8aconscientious '• 203). Being a youngman of most lovable 
catholic, to enter the protestant university of appearance, he was lovfully received as king 
Dublin. From an early age he joined in the K^ ,^^e whole people. He is said to have b^n 
struggle in Ireland for civil and religious m love with Kmeswyth, daughter of Penda, 
libertv, and long corresponded with James W ofthe Mercians though, as Penda died m 
Warren Doyle Tq. v.], the patriot-prelate of ^;^» ^^^ must have been too old for so yoiing 
Kildare. Aftertlie Catholic Relief Bill passed j » ^?ye'"- She incited him to give up kingdom 
in 1828, he became in laSl member of parlia- ! *°? 1™ ^"^ wife— probably some other lady 
ment for Kildare, his native county, which he ' Tr^ ^^^ ^^^^ « ^!^^^' ^"^ ' ^ he made a 
represented without interruption for seven- i pil^imagetoRomeinthecompanyofCoenred 
teen vears (1830-46), and afterwards for six ■ of Mercia and Ecgwine, bishop of Worcester, 
vears* (1859-6.5). He also sat for a short time , 4^ 1^™<^ >^ ^'^^ received bv Pope Constan- 
in 1850-1 forco.Longford,inwhichhisfamily tine,and,in common with Coenred, is repre- 
held propertv. He supported Daniel OTon- ^^^^^^ ^, attesting a spurious letter of the 
nell.whowr6te to his confidential friend P. V. i I^P« ^ Archbishop Brihtwald [q. v,l He 
Fitzpatrick,on3Junel834: * I do not believe seems tobe wronglydescnbwl in one charter 
that Mon» OTerrall will accept office.' In this «« King of the Mercians, and in another as 
opinion, however, the Liberator was yvrong. • ^^^« ^f the Kast-Angles. He took the ton- 
In 1835, under the Melbourne administra- [ «"^ ^^^ ^^^ ** ^<^°^*^- 
tion, OTerrall became a lord of the treasury; [Bedo's Eccl. Hist. iii. 30. iv. 11, v. 19 (Engl, 
in 183i> secretarv to the admiraltv, and in \ Hist. See.) ; Flor. Wic Genealogies, i. 250, 263 
lan secretary to the treasurv. On 1 Oct. | (Engl. Hist. Soc.) : Will, of Malmesburj*8 Gesta 
1847 he severed his connection with Kildare ! Reg^n™. i- 99 (HoUs 8it.\ and Gesta Pontiff. 

18.->l, on the ground that he declined to serve . ^''' ' ^^ * (^)' ^^ ^^'''''^ *^^"^^-l ^- ^' 
under Lord John Russell, the prime minister, OFFA (d. 796), king of the Mercians, was 
who in that year carried into law the Eccle- ' son of Thingferth, who was descended from 
sinstical Titles Bill, in opposition to the papal ■ Eoppa or Eowa, brother of Penda, king of 
bull which created a catholic hierarchy in ; the Mercians. In 757 (^tfas cousin Ethelbald 
~d. or ^Ethelbald (d. 757) '"q. v.], king of tte 

■all died at Kingstown, near Dublin, 

Mercians, was slain by rebels, led probably by 

« of eighty-three, on 27 Oct. 1880. Beornnsd, who usurped Ethelbadd*s throne. 



But Beomrsed was at once either slain by 
Offa or driven into exile by the people, and 
before the year closed Offa succeeded to the 
Mercian kingship (Flor. Wig. i. 66; Will. 
Malm. Cfesta Retpim, i. 79 ; Chronica Ma-- 
iora, i. 342). Internal troubles had greatly 
weakened the power of Mercia since the 

Sriod of ^thelbald's supremacy south of the 
umber, which had b<^n lost through his 
defeat by the West-Saxons at Burford in 754. 
Wessex had firmly established its indepen- 
dence, and the East-Angles, East-Saxons, 
and Kentish men were no longer subject to 
the Mercian king, while it is evident that 
the Welsh had grown formidable on his 
western frontier (Green). For fourteen 
yean after his accession nothing is known 
of Offa*8 doings ; those years were apparently 
epent in making good his position and re- 
ducing his kingdom to order. At the end of 
that time, in 771, he began a career of con- 
quest b^ the forcible subjugation of the 
Hestingi (SYKEOVf Hi8toriajRe^um,Hjp, 0pp. 
i. 44). Who these people were is not known ; 
it is suggested that they were the East- Angles 
(the two names might easily be confused by 
a copyist) (Stubbs), and on the other hand 
that they were a people who have given their 
name to the town of Hastings (Stm eon, u.s. n.) 
On the latter assumption Offa*8 campaign im- 
plies a triumphant march through the terri- 
tory of the East-Saxons, and would have to be 
reckoned as an early attempt at the conquest 
of Kent. It is with that kingdom that Offa 
is next found at war; he defeated the Kentish 
army in 776 at Otford, and his victory seems 
to have made Kent subject to him. At this 
time, too, the East-Saxons were no doubt 
brought under his supremacy, and their sub- 
jection would imply that he gained London, 
where he is said, though on no good autho- 
rity, to have built himself a residence. Hav- 
ing brought the south-eastern part of Eng- 
land under his dominion, he made war on 
the West-Saxons, and in 779 fought with 
their king, Cynewulf [q. v.], at Bensington, 
or Benson, in Oxfordshire, and took the town 
{AnffioSoJcon Chronicle^ an. 777). This vic- 
tory gave him Oxford and the territory north 
of the Thames that had been lost to Mercia 
by the battle of Burford, and south of the 
Thames the country between the Thames and 
the Berkshire hills as far west as Ashbury 
(Historia de Abingdon, i. 14 ; Parker, Early 
Hiftory of Oxford, p. 109). Offa next at- 
tacked the Welsh, and under him the Eng- 
lish for the first time obtained a permanent 
increase of territory west of the Severn. In 
the same year as that of his victory at Ben- 
sington he began a series of incursions across 
the riyer, ana finally, in order to check the 

retaliatory raids of the Welsh, defined and 
defended his frontier by an earthwork drawn 
from the mouth of the Wye to the mouth of 
the Dee. Offa*s dyke, as this earthwork is 
called, is, roughly speaking and reckoning 
Monmouthshire as Welsh, still the boundary 
between England and Wales, though the 
traces now left of it are few. Offa thus 
added to Mercia a large part of Powys, to- 
gether with the town of Pengwern, the mo- 
dern Shrewsbury (Rhys, Celtic Britain^ p. 
141 ; Annales Uambrenses, ann. 778-784 ; 
AssER, ap. Monujnenta Historica Britannica^ 
p. 471). The native population remained in 
the conquered land, and lived side by side 
with their conquerors. An opportunity of es- 
tablishing amicable relations with the West- 
Saxon kingdom occurred on the accession of 
Beorhtric or Brihtric [q. v.], when Egbert or 
Ecgberht {d. 839) [q. v.], afterwards king of 
the West-Saxons, a member of the royal Tine 
who had claims to the throne, fled for shelter 
to the Mercian court. Beorhtric desired that 
he should be expelled, and in 789 Offa gave 
Beorhtric his daughter Eadburg^a or Eadburh 
[q. v.] in marriage, and drove Egbert from 
his kingdom. 

The commanding position that Offa ob- 
tained south of the Humber was recognised 
on the continent, for Pope Hadrian I, writ- 
ing to the Frankish king Charles, or Oharle- 
ma^e, described him as king of the English 
nation, spoke of a baseless rumour that Offa 
had proposed to Charles that they should 
depose the pope, and declared that he had 
received ambassadors from him with pleasure 
{Monumenta Carolina, pp. 279-282). Offa 
soon had need of the pope*s assistance in a 
scheme for the consolidation of the Mercian 

S)wer. His conquests tended to impress on 
ngland a threefold political division into 
Northumbria, Mercia, and Wessex, and he 
desired to complete the independent organi- 
sation of his kingdom by the institution of a 
third and Mercian archbishopric, to the pre- 
judice of the rights of the see of Canterbury ; 
while it can scarcely be doubted that he saw 
that to weaken Canterbury would strengthen 
the hold of Mercia upon Kent. His plan was 
rendered possible by the fact that the con- 

Juest of Kent had made Archbishop Jaenbert 
q. v.] his subject. In accordance with his 
request the pope sent to England two legates 
named George and Theophylact, who, in a 
synod held at Celchyth, or Chelsea, in 787, 
sanctioned the surrender by Jaenbert of his 
rights over the sees of Worcester, Leicester, 
Lindsay, Elmham, and Dunwich, in order 
to form an archbishopric for the see of Lich- 
field, then held by Higbert [q. v.] This ar- 
rangement received the papal approval, and 




was completed in the course of the next 
year {EcclesiaHtcal Documents, iii. 444 seq.) 
At this synod Offa's son Ecgferth was nomi- 
nated king in conjunction with his father 
(not specially king of Kent, as Hen. Huxt. 
p. 128), though it is probable that his as- 
sumption of royalty was delayed until, in 
common with the erection of the new arch- 
bishopric, it received the express sanction of 
the pope. Moreover, at this synod Offa 
granted to the see of Rome a yearly payment 
of 365 mancuses for the relief of the poor and 
the maintenance of lights in St. Peter's 
Church {Ecclesiastical Documentij iii. 445, 
524). This grant seems to have been the 
origin of Peter's pence. The trade between 
England and Germany received the atten- 
tion of both Offa and Charles, and Offa was 
on terms of close friendship with Gerwold, 
abbot of St. Wandrille, who was several 
times sent to him on embassies by the Prank- 
ish king, and was employed by Charles to 
collect the customs at different ports, and 
specially at Quentavic, or Etaples, at the 
mouth of the Canche. On one occasion the 
friendly relations between the two kings were 
for a time interrupted. It is said that Charles 
asked for one oi Offa's daughters in mar- 
riage for his eldest son, that Offa refused 
unless Charles would give his daughter in 
marriage to Offa's son, and that Charles was 
deeply angered by this assumption of equality 
by the Mercian king. Whatever the cause 
may have been, the fact of the disagreement 
between the kings is certain. In 790 both 
of them stopped all trade between their coun- 
tries. Gerwold used his influence to arrange 
matters, and Alcuin [q. v.] wrote that he 
thought it likely that he should be sent to 
England to that end (Gesta Abhatum Fon- 
tariellensium, c. 16 ; Monunienta Alcuiniana, 
p. 167). The two kings soon became friends 
again. Letters from Charles to Offa request 
the recall to England of a Scottish priest re- 
siding at Cologne, promise immunity to pil- 
grims on their way to Rome and protection 
to merchants, and announce that gifts had 
been sent by the Prankish king to Offa and 
to Mercian and Northumbrian sees {Monu- 
menta Caroliiia, pp. 351, 357, 358 ; the letter 
from which Lingard, Preeman, and others 
derive the assertion that Charles addressed 
Offa as the * most powerful of the Christian 
kings of the west,' in Heciieil des Historiens, 
V. 620, is an obvious forgery, and as such 
has not been included by Jafit^ in his Monu- 
menta Carolina), 

Offa was a liberal benefactor to monas- 
teries, and a large number of extent charters 
purport to be grants from him to Christ 
Church and St. Augustine's at Canterbury, 

to Worcester, Peterborough, Evesham, St. 
Alban's, Rochester, and other churches. Some 
of these charters are forgeries ; but, setting^ 
aside their authenticity, their number alone 
seems to prove that nis benefactions were 
numerous, for otherwise so many would not 
have been attributed to him (all the refer- 
ences to these charters in Kbkble's Codex 
Diplomaticus are g^ven, and some of them are 
criticised by Bishop Stubbs in his article on 
' Offa, king of the Mercians,' in the Diction- 
ary of Christian Biography, iv. 68 seq.) He 
is said to have founded the abbeys of St. 
Albans and Bath (IIen. Hunt. p. 124; 
Will. Malm. Gesta Pontif. pp. 196, 316). 
Bath monastery he received in exchangre from 
Heathored, bishop of Worcester, in 781, and 
he may perhaps nave raised new buildings 
there ; but there were monks there when he 
received it (see Codex Dipl, No. 143). He is 
also credited with having restored Westmin- 
ster (Monasticon, i. 266), and with having 
granted land to the abbey of St. Denys at 
Fsxis{^JBCH,Cartularium ScLTonirum ji.S(yO). 
On the other hand, William of Malmesbury 
asserts that he despoiled many churches, 
Malmesbury, from which he took an estate to 
give to the see of Worcester, being among the 
number ( Gesta Pontiff, p. 388 ; Gesta Bef/um, 
i. 86). In the latt er years of his reign he made 
an alliance with ^thelred, king of Northum- 
bria (murdered in 796), and gave him one of 
his daughters in marriagtj in 792. In 794 
he caused Ethelbert or Sithelberht [q. v.], 
king of the East-Angles, to be beheaded, 
probably on account of some sign of impa- 
tience of the Mercian supremacy among nis 
people, and subdued his kingdom. This act is 
generally condemned as cruel and treacherous 
^ee under Ethelbert or ^Etiiblbbrht, 
Saixt]. He is said to have again made war 
on the Welsh and to have ravaged Rienuch 
in 795 {Annales Cambrenses, sub ann.) Dur- 
ing his last days the Kentish nobles made 
some attempts to shake off the Mercianyoke, 
and resisted the strenuous efforts of Ethel- 
hard or ^thelheard [q. v.], archbishop of 
Canterbury, who was devotecl to the Mercian 
cause, to keep them in order {Ecclesiastical 
Documents, iii. 495, 496). Offa died on 
29 July 796 (comp. Plor. Wig. i. 63, and 
Monum>enta Carolina, p. 357), and immedi- 
ately on his death Kent openly revolted 
under Eadbert Praen [q. v.] Save as regards 
the death of ^thelberht and W^illiam of Mal- 
mesbury's probably exaggerated accusation 
with respect to certain dealings with church 
lands, Offa left behind him a high character. 
He was certainly religious, and was a remark- 
ably able and active ruler. The correspondence 
between him and Charles the Qreat proves 



\jt» Am At • • 
VV . A» J • Am • 

XV. B-L. « . • 

G. F. R. B. . 

M. B 

R. B 

JL« ^Jm • • • • 

C B. B« > • 
H. £. D. B. 
O. C. B. ■ • 
T. O. B. . . 

G. A. AlTKEN. 

W. A. J. Abchbold. 

Richard Bagwell. 

G. F. RuBssLL Barker. 

Miss Bateson. 

The Rev. Ronald Batnb. 

Thosiab Batnb. 

C. R. Bbazlet. 

The Rev. H. £. D. Blakiston. 

G. G. Boase. 

The Rev. Professor Bonnet, 

W. C-R. . , William Carr. 

H. M. C. . . The late H. Manners Chi- 

A. M. C-E. . Miss A. M. Cooke. 

T. C Thompson Cooper, F.S.A. 

W. P. C. . . W. P. COURTNET. 

W. H. C. . . Professor W. H. Cdmminos. 

li. C Lionel Cust, F.S.A. 

J. A. D. . , J. A. DoTLE. 


C. H. F. . . C. H. Firth. 

J. D. F.. . . J. D. FrrzoERALD. 

W. J. F. . . W. J. FrrzPATRicK, F.SJL. 

W. H. F-R. Sir William H. Flower, K.C3., 


S. R. G. 
R. G. . . 
J. T. G. 

T. F. . . . i The Rev. the President of 

Corpus Christi College, 


S. R. Gardiner, LL.D. 

Richard Garnett, LL.D., C.B. 

J. T. GiLHEBT, LL.D., F.S.A. 

I* O Israel Gollancz. 

O. G Gordon Goodwin. 

^' ^ The Rev. Alexander Gordon. 

R. E. G. . . R. E. Graves. 

. The late W. A. Greenhill, 


J. A. Hamilton. 
T. F. Henderson. 


W. H The Rev. Willum Hunt. 

W. H. H. . The Rev. W. H. Hutton, B.D. 
R. J. J. . . . The Rev. R. Jenkin Jones. 

C. L. E. . . C. L. EiNGSFORD. 

J« K Joseph Knight, F.S.A. 

W. W. K. . Colonel W. W. Knollts. 
J. K. L. . . Professor J. K. Laughton. 
T. G. L. . . T. G. Law. 

E. L Miss Elxzabetb Lbe. 

S. L SiDNET Lbe. 

R. H. L. . . Robin H. Legge. 

W. A. G. 

J. C. H. 
J. A. H. 
T. F. H. 
J. J. H. 

Offor 6 Ofifor 

ment still remains. By his will, dated 5 Aug. His fine library, in which the ^ Bunyaniana' 
1580, he made many charitable bequests. In extended to fivehundred lots, was to have been 
public life he was so generous that he is called disposed of at an eleven days' sale at Sotheby's, 
by Fuller * the Zacchseus of London, not for his from 27 June to 8 July 1 865 ; but the greater 
lowstature,but for his high charity.' But the part was consumed by fire in the auction- 
simplicity of his private tast«s was the subject rooms on 29 June. The residue was sold as 
of a popular rhyme (Mach yn, Diary, p. 363) : salvage to an American agent for 300/. 
Offley throe dishes had of daily rest, Oftbr'sbest work was thebiographynrefixed 
An egge, an apple, and (the third) a toast. to a collected edition of Bunyan s * Works, 
„ ,. e T /J ico\ J u* i* 3 vols, large 8vo, 1853 (another edit. 1862). 
T P^T.-'^u'^l * J°5? ('^,- V^'^i' daughter of The works were unfortonatelv not printed in 
John ^lcheU8 or Mchols (perhaps the same chronological order. Although he was the 
prsonastheJohnMechelsabovementwned), earliest to realise the wealtl of material 
te had three sons, of whom one only, Henry, ^y^^ j ^j^ j^^ ^^^ ^^^^ p q^^ ^^ 
survived him. It was to a son of this Henry vjoj—^jji^ ^^ marred bv a cumbrous stvle 
Offley, Sir John Offley of Madeley, that Izaak ^ J^itter polemical spirit, while the edik 
Walton dedicated his 'Compleat Angler in j^^ introductions prefixed to the works are 

^^^' crowdedwith wearisome platitudes. Thebio- 

[Hunter's Chorus Vatum, as above, quoting a ^ j^ ^f Bunyan's writings is, however, 

manuscript History of the Family of Offley in admirable. Through the Hanserd KnoUys 

possessionof Mr Martin of Wors^^ Society, he issued in 1848 an accurate L 

Early Hist, of t^he Guild of the^^^^^^^^ .^l^ ^^ ^ ^j^j ^^ ^^^ * PUgrim's 

Companv, pt. n. pp. 172-3, and Adaenda, p. v v» » '^\ ^' r n .^i. i 

(wheV^. in\he epiUph. • Stafford ' is a mistake I'fop^ess, with notices of all the subsequent 

for 'Stratford'); Index to the Remembmncia, additionsandalterations made by the author, 

by W. H. and H. C. Overall, p. 37 ; H. B. Wil- Two other editions of the 'Pilgrim's l^ro- 

son's Parish of St. Lawrence Pountney, p. 230; gress,' with memoir and notes, * pnncipally 

Visitation of London, 1668, p. 64; Erdeswickes 
Survey of Staffordshire, p. 17 ; Harwood's Sur- 
vey of Staffordshire, p. 87; information from 
C. Welch, esq., librarian of the Guildhall.] 

J. H. L. 

OFFOR, GEORGE (1787-1864), bio- 
grapher, bom in 1787, was son of George 
Offor. He started in business as a book- 
seller at 2 Postern Row, Tower Hill, from 
which he retired with a competency. By 
the advice of his friend, J. S. (5. F. Frey, he 
learnt Hebrew, and afterwards studied Greek 
and Latin, while his knowledge of English 
black-letter literature, especially of theology, 

selected fromBunyan's works,' were published 
by him in 1856 and 1861. He also edited 
Bunyan's * Profitable Meditations,' a poem, 
4to, 1860. 

Offor's contributions to biblical literature 
comprise a revised edition of the * Hebrew 
Psalter,' 12mo, 1820, and a reprint of the 
* New Testament,' published in 1626 by Wil- 
liam Tindal, with a memoir of his life and 
writings, 8vo, 1836 (another edit, by J. P. 
Dabney, 8vo, Andover, U.S.A., 1837). He 
likewise contemplated a reprint of the first 
English version of the entire bible, by Miles 
Coverdale, for which the Duke of Sussex 

became very extensive. For a long period , offered to lend his copy ; and he left un- 
his collection of early printed EnglisYi bibles, t finished a history of the English Bible, il- 
psalters, and testaments, was one of the com- I lustrated with numerous facsimiles of the 
pletest in the kingdom. In religion a baptist, ' earlier editions. 

Offor was an enthusiastic admirer of John His other works are: 1. * An Easy Intro- 
Bunyan, and gathered together a unique col- duction to reading the Hebrew Language,' 
lection of Bunyan's scattered writings and \ 8vo, Ix)ndon, 1814. 2. * The Triumph of 
of the early editions of the * Pilgrim's Pro- Henry VIII over the Usurpations ot the 
gress.' In his zeal for the memory of Wil- Church, and the Consequences of the Papal 
liam Tindal he visited Brussels in the hope Supremacy,' 8vo, London, 1846. He edited 
of discovering among the archives accurate Increase Mather's ' Remarkable IVovidences ' 
particulars of his martyrdom, and while pur- in the ' Library of Old Authors ' series, 8vo, 
suing his researches in the neighbourhood at . 1866. 

Vilvoord, during the revolution at Brussels ■ In the British Mu.seum Library are many 
in 1830, he was taken prisoner by a detach- , books, chiefly bibles or books dealing with 
ment of Dutch troops, and for a short time j scriptural bibliography, with copious anno- 

was detained in the prison built on the 
ruins of the castle at Vilvoord, where Tindal 
was confined. Offor died at Grove House, 
South Hackney, on 4 Aug. 1864, and was 
buried in Abney Park cemetery. 

tations by Offor. 

[Gent. Mag. 1864, pt. ii. pp. 396, 528 ; Athe- 
naeum, 24 June 186iS. p. 831, 3 April 1886, p. 
449; Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. vi. 150, 486» 
viii. 20, 85, 160.] G. G. 



OFFORD, ANDREW (d. 1368), clerk or 
master in chancery, was a brother of John de 
Offord [q. t.] He probably owed his post to his 
brother^ influence, though he does not occur 
in this position till after John Offord's death. 
The first mention of Andrew Offord is on 
24 May 1343, when he was one of the com- 
missioners appointed to treat with the French 
Ambassadors before the pope (Mubihuth, 
p. 137; Foedera/u. 1224); he is there de- 
scribed as doctor of civil law. The oriffinal 
commission was not despatched, but Andrew 
Offord was sent to the pope in September, 
and early in November returned with im- 
portant news of the negotiations. After 
making his report, he was once more sent to 
Avignon on 3 Dec. to obtain letters of conduct 
for Ifidward IIFs commissioners ^Mubihuth, 
pp. 147-9, 162-3). He was still at Avignon 
in August 1344 {Fadera, iii. 19), but re- 
turned to England not long after. On 
30 March 1346 he received the prebends of 
Netherbury and Berminster, Salisbury, from 
the king, and when Edward went abroad in 
July was one of the council for Lionel, who 
was regent in his father*s absence {tb, iii. 60). 
Tn August, however, he was sent on a mission 
to treat for a marriage between the kin^s 
daughter Joanna and Alfonso of Castile (t^. 
iii. 68) ; in November he was further directed 
to ne^tiate a marriage between the Prince 
of \\ ales and one of the daughters of the 
king of Portugal (Newcourt, i. 79). On 
27 Aug. 1347 he received, with some other 
preferments, the prebend of South Newbold, 
York, and on 24 Jan. 1348 was made sub- 
dean of York; he was afterwards papally 
provided to the archdeaconry of Middlesex 
in 1349, was appointed provost of Wells on 
26 Feb. 1360, and prebendary of Masham, 
York, on 24 May 1360 ; he likewise held a 
prebend at Beverley. 

Offord was one of the persons appointed 
to accompany Joanna on her journey to 
Castile in January 1*^48. He was present 
at his brother's death on 20 May 1349, and 
next day delivered up the seal to the king 
at Woodstock. In August U349 he was em- 
ployed to treat for a truce with France, and 
in the autumn of 1360 and spring of 1361 
was engaged in the negotiations with Louis 
of Flanders and the French king. On 1 Dec. 
1862 he was sent to treat with William of 
Bavaria (Fftdera, iii. 147, 160, 163, 186, 188, 
206, 207, 216, 260). In August 13^53 he was 
for a short time in charge of the great seal, 
and in the parliaments of 1364 ana 1366 was 
a trier of petitions {Holls of Parliament, ii. 
264, 264). On 8 July 1366 he was sent to 
treat with Peter, archbishop of Rouen, and 
Peter, duke of Bourbon [Fccderay iii. 306). 


Andrew Offord appears to have died about 
the end of 1368. 

[Foedera (Record ed.) ; Murimnth (Rolls Ser.) ; 
Le Nere's Fasti Eccl. Angl. ii. 327, iii. 128, 201 ; 
Jones's Fasti Eccles. Salisb. p. 406 ; Newcourt's 
RepertoriQm,i. 79, 145; Fosses Judges of England, 
iii. 472-3.] C. L. K. 

1349), chancellor and archbishop-elect of 
Canterbury, has erroneously been called a 
son of Robert de Ufford, first earl of Suffolk ; 
in point of fact it is extremely doubtful 
whether there was any relationship whatever. 
John de Offord's own family no doubt be- 
longed to Offord in Huntingdonshire, where 
in 1276 a John de Offord held the estate of 
Offord Dameys. Of this estate the future 
chancellor had custody in 1332, till the legi- 
timate age of the heir. It is therefore pro- 
bable that he was a son or grandson of the 
earlier John de Offord ; but the only positive 
fact known as to his family is that he was 

brother of Andrew Offord fq. v.] Offord 

IS a doctor of civil law in 13^, and was 
no doubt educated at Oxford or Cambridge, 
probably at the latter, since he is commemo- 
rated among the benefactors of the university. 
He became a clerk in the royal sendee, and 
on 6 Nov. 1328 was appointed a commis- 
sioner to visit the free chapel in Hastings 
Castle; on 26 April 1330 he received the 
archdeaconry of Chester, but on 10 Dec. the 
appointment was revoked, as the post proved 
to be already filled {CaL Pat, Rolls Ed- 
ward Illf i. 354, 614, ii. 26). He received 
the prebend of Liddington, Lincoln, in 1" 8'\ 
and of Tottenhall, St. Paulson 17 ( )ci . I 31 ; 
other minor preferments held by Offord were 
the rectory of Boughton, Kent, which be had 
in December 1331 (Lit teres Cantuariemes, i. 
416, Rolls Ser.), a canonry at Wells before 
1336 {Report on Manuscripts of Wells Ca- 
thedral, p. 103), the prebends of Masham, 
York, from 1340 to 1348, and of Warham 
and Ayleston, Hereford, on 28 Jan. 1344. 
In January 1333 Offord was one of the com- 
missioners appointed by the Bishop of Lincoln 
to inquire into the infirmity of Abbot Richard 
of St. Albans {Gesta Abbatum, ii. 286-6). 
He was at this time dean of the court of 
arches, London, an office which he still held 
in November i;i33, when he was consulted 
by the prior of Christchurch, Canterbury 
{Litt. Cant, ii. 630,, and in 1336, when his 
assistance was asked for by the dean and 
chapter of Wells in a suit before the papal 

Offord was constantly employed by Ed- 
ward III in negotiations with the French 
and papa^ courts, for the first time on 6 Nov. 
1334, when he was one of the commissioners 


for the renewal of the truce with France 
{FiBdera, ii. 898). On 2G Nov. 1336 he was 
made archdeacon of Ely. On 15 Nov. 1338 
he was again a commissioner to treat with 
France, and in 1339-40 was employed on a 
mission to the pope to obtain a dispensation 
for the marriage of Hugh le Despenser (ib. 
ii. 1065, 1119). On 15 July 1341 Offord 
was once more a commissioner to treat with 
France, and in this capacity was ordered to 
attend at Aunteyn, near Toumay, on 3 Feb. 
1342; later in the same year he was em- 
ployed in Flanders and Brabant to conduct 
the negotiations with France in conjunction 
with Edward's allies in those quarters {ib, ii. 
1168,1185, 1191, 1196, 1199,1228). Pre- 
viously to 4 Oct. 1342 Offord was appointed 
keeper of the privy seal, in which capacity 
he had on that date charge of the great seal 
{ib, ii. 1213). On 29 Aug. 1343 he was ap- 

Eointed to treat for peace before the pope, 
ut on 29 Nov. the mission was postponed 
{ib. ii. 1232, 1239). On 2 Dec. Andrew Offord 
was despatched to the French and Roman 
courts to procure safe-conducts for his brother 
and the other commissioners who were going 
abroad about Easter (Mukimuth, pp. 152-3). 
On 11 April 1344 John Offord was made 
dean of Lincoln by the pope, who had been 
induced to confer the post on him by William 
Bateman, bishop of Norwich [q. v.] {ib, p. 167 ; 
Le Neve, ii. 32) ; he was admitted on 28 Aug. 
1344, but was not installed till 11 Sept. 1345. 
On 3 Aug. Offord was again nominated one of 
the commissioners to go to the pope {Faederaf 
iii. 18, 19), though from the account given by 
Murimuth {Chronicle j pp. 158-9) it would 
seem it was finally decided in a council held 
at London on 11 Aug. to send Offord and Sir 
Hugh Neville to the Roman court. They 
must have started immediately, for early in 
October despatches arrived from Offord at 
Avignon as to proposed ways of arranging 
peace {ib, p. 159). On 26 Oct. instructions 
were sent to Offord, who is now described 
as the king's secretary, to procure a dispensa- 
tion for the IVince of Wales's marriage with 
a daughter of the Duke of Brabant {Fwdera, 
iii. 25). Neville returned to England at 
Christmas, but Offord remained at Avignon 
till the end of I^nt, when, seeing that their 
negotiations would be fruitless, he and his 
coUeagne, William Bateman, left the papal 
court abruptly. Murimuth says that their 
departure was due to a suspicion that the pro- 
posed expedition of Luis de la Cerda to the 
Canary Islands was intended to be diverted 
against England. Offord reached England 
soon after Easter. At Michaelmas letters 
arrived from the pope, and a council, at which 
Offord was present, was summoned at West- 



minster on 16 Oct. to consider them. In the 
midst of the deliberations on 26 Oct. Offord 
was appointed chancellor, a post which for 
seven years previously had been held by lay- 
men (Murimuth, p. 177). On 8 Nov. Offord 
was appointed to treat with the papal nuncio 
{Foedera, iii. 02). On 1 July 1346 he was 
appointed to arrange with the merchants for 
loans for Edward's expedition to France (ib. 
iii. 84). After the death of Archbishop Strat- 
ford, Offord was papally provided to the see of 
Canterbury on 24 Sept. 1348. He received 
custody of the temporalities on 27 Nov., but 
before he had received the pall or consecra- 
tion he died of the plague at Tottenham on 
20 May 1349. He had retained the chancel- 
lorship till his death ; the seal was surrendered 
by hisbrother Andrew on 21 May {Fosderttf iii. 
185). Offord was buried by night at Christ- 
church, Canterbury, on 7 June. Birchington 
describes him as a man of great eloquence and 
wary in counsel {Anglia Sacra, i. 42). William 
Dene says that at the time of his appointment 
to the archbishopric he was weak and para- 
lytic, and that he owed his preferment to 
lavish bribery {ib. i. 118). 

[Muriinuth's Chronicle (Rolls Ser.); Whar- 
ton's Anglia Sacra, i. 42, 60, 1 18, 794 ; Le Neve's 
Fasti Ecclesioe Anglicanje ; Fcedera (Record ed.) ; 
Fo88*s Judges of England, iii. 473-6 ; other 
authorities quoted.] C. L. K. 

OTIHELY, MAURICE {d, 1513), arch- 
bishop of Tuam, is generally known as Mau- 
ritius de Portu. He was a native of co. Cork, 
a Franciscan friar, and Wood and others say 
that he studied at Oxford. As he describe 
himself as * Master of Arts,' he may have 
taken that degree at Oxford before enter- 
ing the Minorite order. He became regent 
of the Franciscan schools at Milan in 1488, 
and regent doctor of theology in 1491 at 
Padua, where he was still lecturing publicly 
on theology in 1499, 1504, and 1506. He 
is said to have acted for some years as prin- 
cipal superintendent of the press set up by 
Ottaviano Scot to at Venice, but of this no 
satisfactory evidence is forthcoming. He was 
minister in Ireland in 1506, and took part in 
deposing the general minister, ^gidius Del- 
phmus, in the first capitulum ffeneralissimum 
at Rome in that year. In 1506 also he 
was made archbishop of Tuam by Julius H. 
He continued to reside in Italy, and was 
present at the Lateran council in 1612. He 
at length departed to Ireland, but died at 
Galway in 1513, and was buried among the 
Grey friars there. 

He is chiefly known as the editor of many 
of the works of Duns Scotus. He edited| 
with omissions, expansions, and explanatory 
notes, the following treatisee of the subtle 

O' Flaherty 


doctor : * De primo principio/ * Theoremata/ 
'Expositio in XII libros Metaphysicorum/ 
'Qiuestiones in metaphysicam Aristotelis/ 
Venice, 1497, and elsewhere ; ' Comment, in 
lib. i. Sententiarum/ Venice, 1506 ; * Com- 
ment, ia lib. i. et ii. Sententiarum,' Paris, 
1513; *De Formalitatibus,' Venice, 1506, 
1617; * Collationes,' Paris, 1613. lie was 
the author of an 'Expositio quiestionum 
Doctoris Subtil is in quinque universalia Por- 
phyrii,* or ' Exp:>8itio in qusestiones dialec- 
ticas J. Duns bcoti/ begun at Padua and 
finished at Ferrara, 1499 (Venice, 1500, 
1519) ; of critical treatises on the same 
doctor's * Qusestiones in Metaphysicam,* *De 
Primo Principio,' and * Theoremata' (Venice, 
1497 ; Paris, 1513), and of a short treatise en- 
titled 'Enchyridion lidei,' or *De rerum con- 
tingentiaet divina predestinatione,' dedicated 
to Gerald Fitzgerald, the * great earl ' of Kil- 
dare (Venice, 1505). He also edited, while 
lecturing at Padua, a version of the four 
books of the sentences in hexameters called 
'Compendium Veritatum' (Venice, 1505^, 
and began an edition of the works of Francis 
de Mayronis (Venice, 1520). The * Distinc- 
tiones ordine alphabet ico ' sometimes attri- 
buted to him were the work of a Friar 
Uaurice of the thirteenth century. 

A relative, Domunall O'Fihely (Jl. 
1506), wrote * Irish Annals,* in Irish, dedi- 
cated to Florence O'Mahony, which were 
seen in manuscript in London in 1626 by 
Sir James Ware, but are now lost (O'Doxo- 
VAW, The Genealogy of Corca Laidhe ; Wabe, 
Irish Writers, 1704, p. 23). 

[Wadding's Annales and Scriptore<« ; Sbaralca, 
Sapplementum ad Script ores ; J. Duns Scoti 
Opera Omnia, Lyons, 1639 ; Wood's Athenae 
OxoD. ; Tanner's Bibliotheca ; Cotton's Fasti 
Ecfles. Hibern. ; The Grey Friars in Oxford 
(Oxford Hist. Soc); Brady's Episcopal Succes- i 
sion ; Gams^s Series Epi^coporum; Hardiman's ' 
Hist, of Galway, p. 265 ii.] A. G. L. 

OTLAHERTY, KODERIC (1629-1718), 
historiographer, bom in 1629 in the castle j 
of Moycullen, co. Galway, the ruins of which | 
are still standing, was the only son of Hu^h \ 
O'Flaherty by his wife Elizabeth Darcy. Ilis 
family, whose tribe name was Muintir Mur- 
chadha, traced their descent from Fiaibhear- 
tach, twenty-second in descent from Eochaidh 
Muighmeadhon, king of Ireland, who died in 
366. They were at first settled in Ma^h 
Seola, to the east of Lough Corrib, but in the 
thirteenth century were driven from their 
original home by the O'Connors, and con- 
quered a new territory in West Connaught 
from Lough Corrib to the sea. There were 
sevezal septs of the clan, and Hugh O'Flaherty 
WAS head of that of Gnomore and Gnobeg in 

the barony of Moycullen. On the death of 
Hugh in 1631, his son Roderic, then in his 
second year, was the acknowledged heir, and 
became a ward of the crown. 

Under the government established for Ire- 
land by the parliament of England after the 
civil war, O'Flaherty was deprived of much 
of his property. Through an appeal at law 
in 1653 he obtained restitution of a consider- 
able portion of his patrimonial lands, which, 
however, became of little value in conse- 
quence of heavy taxations and the general 
impoverishment of the country. O'Flaherty 
was educated in Galway, at the excellent 
school of Alexander Lynch, with whose son, 
John Lynch [q. v.], author of * Cambrensis 
E versus,' he formed a lifelong friendship; 
and also came to know the learned Capuchin, 
Francis Brown (Ogygiay p. 30), fiishop Kir- 
wan of Killala, and other learned men. He 
studied Irish literature and history under 
Duald MacFirbis [q. v.], then resident in the 
college of St. Nicholas in Galway. 

In 1677 he recovered by legal proceed- 
ings a further small part of the lands of 
which he had been dispossessed, and in 1685 
he published at London a quarto volume 
with the following title, ' Ogygia, sen rerum 
Ilibemicarum chronologia.* The book was 
printed by K.Everingham,and the Irish type 
used in it (in quotations and in giving the true 
forms of names) is that in which the sermons 
* Seanmora ar na Priom Phoncibh na Crei- 
deamh,' translated into Irish by Philip Mac- 
Brady [q. vj and John O'Mulchonn, were 
printed in 1/11 by Elinor Everingham. In 
this work the author treats of the history of 
Ireland from the earliest times to the year 
1684, with synchronisms and chrono-genea- 
logical catalogues of the kings of England, 
Scot land, and Ireland to the time of Charles H. 
He shows a thorough acquaintance with the 
chronicle of Tigheamacn O'Braein [q. v.], 
with the manuscript known as the * Book of 
Lecan,' with the * Liber Migrationum ' of 
Michael O'Clery [q. v.], and with much 
mediaeval Irish literature. He had also read 
Bseda, Higden, and Hector Boece. He dis- 
plays scrupulous accuracy throughout, and 
is a trustworthy guide to the history of the 
Irish kings. His work was the first in which 
Irish history was placed in a scholarlike way 
before readers in England, and it found its 
way into many good English libraries of its 
period. In a dedicatory epistle to J ames, duke 
of York, O'Flaherty mentions the old connec- 
tion between Ireland and Scotland, and traces 
the descent of the royal family of England to 
the ancient monarchs of Ireland. He refers 
to his own misfortunes after the death of 
Charles I, and laments that the restoration 

O' Flaherty 


of the monarch J in Englaod has not had the 
effect of redreBBing hia wrongs. 

A Latin pp«m by O'Flaharty on the birth 
of James, prince ot Wales, was published at 
Dublin ill lesa, under the tiile of ' Serenis- 
simi Wallin I'rincipiB, Klagnn Britunnite et 
HibeniI(o,cum appeDdicibus domiiiiiH lueredis 
COnspicui Oenethliacon.' 

Edward Lhuyd [q. v.] of Oxford, who 
TJsited U'Flaherty in 1700, described him aa 
'affable and laamed;' but, added Lhuyd, the 
late reToIutioua in Ireland had 'reduced Lim 
to great poverty, and destroyed bis books and 
papers.' In ' Archieologia Britannica,' pub- 
lisned in 1707. Lhuyd bore testimony to the 
erudition of O'Flaberty. 

in April 1709 living 'in a miserable condition 
at Park, aome three hours to the west of 
Galway.' ' I expected,' wrote Molyneux, 
' to hare seen here some old Irish manu- 
scripts, but his ill-fortune has stripped him 
of these as well as his other goods, so that 
he haa nothing now left but some few pieces 
of bis own writing, and a few old rummish 
books of histoty, printed.' O'Flaherty died 
on 8 April 1718, and was buried within his 
bouse at Parke, CO. Oal way. His treatise, left 
in manuscript, entitled ' Ogygia vindicated 
against the Objections of Sir George Mac- 
kenzie,' was published at Dublin in 1T75 by 
Charles O'Conor [q. v.] It formed an octavo 
volume, divided into twenty-one chapters, 
tbe last of which was unfinished in the 

Of the 'Ogygia' an inaccurate English 
version bv the Kev. James Hely of Trinity 
College, Dublin, appeared in two volumes in 

James Hardimau[<i.v.] for the Irish Archi 
logical Society in 184tl. The book gives an 
interesting account of the chief features of 
the country and of tbe islands off the coast, 
and of much of the local history. In this 
volume were printed original memoranda by 
O'Flaherty on Borlase's account of Ireland, 
written in 1682; on Chinese chronology, and 
on tbe relations of prelates in Ireland with 
Canterbury. A reproduction of a letter from 
O'Flaberty to Edward Lhuyd in I70(( was-in- 
cluded among the ' Facsimiles of National 
Manuscripts of Irelond,'edit«d by the present 
writer, pt. iv. p. '2, plate lev. 

No vestiges have been found of a work 
entitled ' Ogygia Christiana,' which O'Fla- 
berty was supposed to have compiled. A 
collection of unpublished letters of O'Fla- 
berty is now being prepared for the press by 
the author of the present notice. 

[Xictiolson's Itith Uistoriml Library. 1724 ; 

Ware's Writers of Ireland, 1740 ; DisssrlatioDS 
on History of Ireland, 1766; MiscelUny of Irinh 
Ari;liieol. Sue, Duhlin, 1846,] J. T. O. 

OTLYN, FIACIIA (i. 1256t, archbishop 
of Tuam. [See MacFlyks, Flokence or 


OFTFOE {d. 692), bishop of Worcester, 
also known as Oftofobis, Ostfok, Osto- 
FOBfB, OsTBOB, OsTFOKTtjs, was B pupil of the 
abbess Hilda [q. v.] ; he studied the scrip- 
tures in both Iter monasteries, Hartlepool 
and Whitby (Bsvx Hi»t. Eccl. iv. 23), and 
at Whitby he discharged the office of the 
priesthood (I^'lok. Wio. s.a. 691 ). He studied 
also underTheodoreof Canterbury, and jour- 
neyed to Rome ; on his return he preached to 
the Iluiccii in Worcestershire, and led an 
exemplary life. He was chosen bishop by 

Wilfridat the command of King, 'Ethelred of 
Mercia in 092 (Stubbs, RtgUtr. Sacr. Angl. ; 
not 691, ns in Flok. Wio.l llis signature is 
appended to a genuine charter of 092, by 
which jEthelred granted him the village of 
Hanbury in Worcestershire (Kehb lb, Codrx 
Dipt. Xo. 32). Another charter, in which he 
signs himself Oitoforis, must belong to the 
same year (ib. No. 36),for hodied in 692. Bale 
says be wrote homilies {Script. lUuftr. No. 
85), but the statement is not trustworthy. 

[Bsedte Hitt. Ercl. iv. 23 ; Flor. Wig. siib 
qduo, pp. 691, 602.] M. It. 

OGBORNE, DAVID (Jt. 1740-1761), 

artist, married and settled before 1740 at 
Chelmsford, Essex, where he is described in 
tbe register as a ' painter' or 'limner.' lie 
gained a certain reputation by his portraits of 
local provincial monsters, such as a winged 
fish taken at Battle Bridge, and a calf with 
six legs produced at Great Baddow; but he 
painted also a portrait of Edward Bright, a 
grocer of Maldon, Essex, who weighed 43J 
stone, and died 10 Nov. 17."iO, aged 29 [see 
under Lakbeht, Dasiel}. This portrait was 
engraved by James MacArdell [q. v.l, and 
published 1 Jan. 1750, Another of his por- 
traits was of Thomas Wood, the miller of 
Billericay (see Tranx. Soyal Coil, of Phyt. 
ii. 269-74, and Mato, Philosophy of Liring, 
1837, pp. 8.)-7), 

Ogborne is better known as tbe artist of 
' An exact Perspective View of Dunmow, 
late the l*riory in the County of Essex. 
With a Representation of the Ceremony and 
Procession in that Manor, on Thursday the 
20 June 17ol. Engraved from an Original 
Painting taken on the Spot by David Og- 
borne, published January 1752. Engraved by 
C. Mosley.' Thia prewnts the wdl-lmown 

Ogborne 1 1 Ogden 

' flitch of bacon ' ceremony, and shows in the [Gent. Mag. 1854, pt. i. p. 220; Trans, of 

foreground a portrait, more or less caricatured, Essex Archsolog. Soc. ii. 153; London Mag. iii, 

of the then vicar of Dunmow. Another well- W2, xiii. 411; Parish Register of Chelmsford, 

known Eascx print by Ogborne is * A Per- P«r F. Chancellor, F.R.I.B.A. ; Lowndes's Bibl. 

spective View oftheCounty Town of Chelms- Manual (Bohn).] G. G. 

ford in Essex. With the Judges Procession OGBORNE, JOHN (^. 1770-1790), en- 

??. V*®or*?«?*^ Entrance attended by the _ver, possibly the son of David Ogborne 

High Sheriff and his Officers, published [q.y.], who was baptised at Chelmsford on 

2 Aug. 1 i 62, engraved by T. Ryland. q Auff. 1765, was a pupil of Francesco Barto- 

Off borne also wrote some i)oetnr and plays. Iq^j ^q, ^ j j j^ ^^s one of the band of stipple- 

Of these the only piece prmted was The engravers who worked under that artist. He 

Merry Midnights Mistake, or Coinfortable produced some excellent specimens of engrav- 

Conclusion : a new Comedv. Chelmsford : f^^ i^ this branch of art, and later, by com- 

?r«. S^ , ^^^ ^**® , ?f ^^ ^' ^°?' fining a certain amount of work in Hne with 

1766. The prologue and epilogue are by that in stipple, produced a variety of effect. 

Qeorffe Saville Carey. The piece was pro- He engraved some plates after J. Boydell, K. 

duced, with indifferent success, by a company Smirke,and T. Stothard forBoydelFs * Shake- 

of ladies and gentlemen at the Saracens speare Gallery ,» and a great number of plates 

.1 Inn^Chelmsford. after Angelica Kauffmnnn, W. Hamilton, 

After 1/04 Ogborne appears to have left ^y. R. Bigg, R. Westall, T. Stothard, and 

Chelmsford, and the register there contains others. He was also largely employed in 

no record of his death. , ^ , engraving portraits, including those for J. 

By his wife Ruth, Ojrborne had at least Thane's Mustrious British Characters.' He 

three sons. 

the engraver, 
torian of Essex, 

^^^' appears on two plates after W. Hamilton. 

[Baker's Biogr. Dramatica, i. 647, iii. 37; A number of his prints were published by 

Albert Magazine and Home Counties Mis- himself at 68 Great Portland Street, London, 

cellany, Chelnisford. December 1865, p. 78; Qgborne is stated to have died about 1796, 

Smiths Bnt. Mezzotint Portraits ; register at ^^^ j^ jggS John Ogborne, at the same ad- 

ChelmsfoRi, per K Chancellor, F.KLB.A^ ^ ^^^33^ exhibited a picture at the British In- 

nn-Rnp-NTTT pt T7 a rp'TTT n 7KQ l*ftft*<^>» stitution, and in 1837 another at the British 

OGBORNE, ELIZ ABE 1 H ( 1 / 69-1863), ^^jg^g j^^ g^^t- ,11^ g^^.^^^ rpj^ j^ ^^^,^ ^^^ 

historian of Essex, born at Chelmsford and ^ ^^^ ^f ^^e same name. 
baptised 10 May 1769, was daughter of 

engraver, contributing the plates. She was 
assisted by Thomas Leman fq. v.], who con- OGDEN, JAMES (1718-1802), author, 
tributed * a Slight Sketch of the Antiquities born at Manchester in 1718, was a fustian 
of Essex * (printed at pp. i-iv), and by her cutter or shearer who in his early manhood 
relative Joseph Strutt [q. v.], the antiquary, travelled on the continent, resided for a year 
The book was printed in quarto, but, owing at the Hague or Lt^yden, and was a witness 
to want of encouragement and the impaired of the battle of Dettingen (1743). For a 
means of the family, only the first volume was time he acted as master of a school in connec- 
published (in 1817, though the title-page is tion with the Manchester Collegiate Church, 
dated 1814). This contains twentv-two and in the course ofyears published a number 
pirishes in the hundreds of Becontree, Walt- of volumes of turgid verse, some of which 
Lam, Ongar, and the liberty of Havering, have a local interest, besides an interesting 
Miss Oglwme died in Great Portland Street, and useful prose description of his native 
London, on '22 Dec. 1863, in her ninety-fifth town. His intelligent assistance in thecom- 
year. Some of her manuscripts fell into the pilation of the * Description of the Country 
hands of her servant, the wife of a marine- from Thirty to Forty Miles round Manches- 
atope dealer in Somers Town. Many of them . ter,' 1793, is acknowledged by Dr. John 
were used as waste paper (iVb^Mawi Queries^ '• Aikin in the preface to that work. By his 
Ist ser. ix. 322). The remainder was pur- fellow-townsmen he was usually styled 'Poet' 
chased in March 1864 by Mr. Edward J. Ogden, and is so designated in the 'Man- 
Sage, an Essex antiquary, who happened to Chester Directory ' for 1797. He died at 
be passing the shop at the time. i Manchester on 13 Aug. 1802, aged 83, and 


was buried at the collegiate church. The 
poet*8 son William (1753-1822), also an 
author, was an ardent radical reformer, and 
was imprisoned for sedition in 1817. A peti- 
tion which he presented to parliament, con- 
taining a complaint of the narsh treatment 
he had experienced in gaol, led to a debate 
in the House of Commons, in the course of 
which Canning is alleged, but apparently 
without good ground, to have described the 
prisoner as the * revered and ruptured Ogden * 
(cf. Notes and Queries, 4th ser. iii. 431, May 

James Ogden wrote : 1. * The British Lion 
Rous'd; or, Acts of the British Worthies: a 
Poem in Nine Books,' Manchester, 1702, 8vo. 
2. * An Epbtle on Poetical Composition,* Lon- 
don, 1 762. 3. * On the Crucifixion and Resur- 
rect ion : a Poem,' 1762. 4. * A Poem on the 
Museum at Alkrington, belonging to Ashton 
Lever,' 1774. 5. * A Description of Man- 
chester,' 1783 (anon.) This has been several 
times reprinted in the present century, the 
last edition, dated 1887, containing a prefa- 
tory memoir by Mr. W. E. A. Axon. 6. ' A 
Poem, Moral, Philosophical, Religious, in 
which is considered the Nature of Man, &c.,' 
Manchester, 1788 (anon.) 7. * The Revolution : 
an Epic Poem,' London, 1790. 8. * Archery : 
a Poem,' 1793. 9. * Emanuel ; or. Paradise 
Regained : an Epic Poem,' Manchester, 1797. 
10. * A Concise Narrative of all the Actions 
. . . during the Present War ' (Nos. 9 and 
10 were published in one volume.) 11.* Sans 
Culotte and Jacobine, an lludibrastic Poem,' 

[Axon's Memoir, mcntionod above ; Procter s 
Literary Reminisconcos and Gleanings, 1860; 
Proceedings of Manchester Literary Club, 1873- 
1874, p. 67; Raines's Vicars of Rochdale, ii. 
288.] C. W. S. 

1882), musical composer, son of Robert Ogden 

id. 1816), was born at Leeds on 13 June 
^ .806. His father while living at Leeds was 
in partnership with Thomas Bolton, a Liver- 

fool merchant. Ogden was educated at 
iceds, partly under Joseph Hutton, LL.D., 
minister of Mill Hill Unitarian Chapel. He 
became a unitarian, though his parents were 
members of the church of England. For a 
short time he was placed in the office of 
Thomas Bolton at Liverpool, but had no 
taste for mercantile life, and showed an early 
bent for music. When very young he played 
the violoncello at a concert, but his instru- 
ment was the piano. To forward his musical 
education, his mother (whose maiden name 
was Glover) removed to London. Here 
Ogden became a pupil of Ignaz Moscheles, 
and later of August KoUman [q. v.] He 



studied for a year at Paris under Pixis, and 
for three years at Munich under Stuntz ; in 
1827 he visited Vienna. 

Aft«r his marriage (1834), he settled in the 
lake district, at Lakefield, Sawrey, Lanca- 
shire. Here he lived the life of a country gen- 
tleman ; he was fond of angling, and deve- 
loped a considerable talent for drawing. 
James Martineau, D.D., when compiling his 
' Hymns for the Christian Church and Home,' 
1840, invited Ogden to supply tunes of un- 
usual metre. Ogden, after much persuasion, 
assented. The result was his ' Holv Songs 
and Musical Prayers,' published by Novello 
in 1842. A feature of the volume which 
evoked criticism was the adaptation as hymn 
tunes of pieces by Beethoven and others. 
From the seventh and much enlarged edition 
(1872) the adaptations are omitted. The style 
of Ogden's original music is not ecclesiastical, 
nor are his compositions well adapted for 
ordinary congregational use; but they possess 
great beauty, and their spirit is rightly indi- 
cated in the title of the volume. 

Ogden, though a shy man in society, was 
beloved by his friends, and a most congenial 
host. He was methodical in his habits, and, 
as a J.P. for Lancashire, made an excellent 
magistrate. He had a keen sense of humour, 
and could 'stand an examination in Dickens.' 
He died at Lakefield on 26 March 1882, and 
was buried on 31 March in Hawkshead 
churchyard. He married in 1834 Frances, 
daughter of Thomas Bolton, who sur\'ive8 
him; his son died before him, leaving a 

[Inquirer, 1 April 1882 p. 207, 22 April pp. 
261 seq. (memoir by William Thornely).] 

A. G. 

OGDEN, SAMUEL (1026 P-1697), pres- 
by terian divine, bom at Oldham, Lancashire, 
about 1626, was educated at Oldham gram- 
mar school and Christ's College, Cambridge. 
After graduating B. A., he was for some time 
master of Oldham grammar school. Li 16o2, 
having married, he was put in charge of Bux- 
ton Chapel, Derbyshire. He applied on 19 July 
1653 to theWirksworth classis for ordination, 
and was ordained on 27 Sept. 1663. Next year 
he was presented by the Earl of Rutland to 
the donative curacy of Fairfield, a mile from 
Buxton. No meeting of Wirksworth classis 
is recorded between 21 Feb. 1654 and 16 Jan. 
1665 (the minute-book has twelve blank 
leaves). For admission to Fairfield, Ogden 
went up to London to the * triers,' and ob- 
tained an approbation, 23 Oct. 1664, under 
their seal. lie held Buxton and Fairfield 
Chapels till 1667, when he obtained the 
vicarage of Mackworth, Derbyshire, from 




which he was ejected bj the Uniformit j Act 
of 1662. During the whole of his ministry 
he kept a boarding school. 

He did not at once continue his ministry, 
and was an occasional communicant, though 
not a 'fixed member/ of the established 
church. Till the Five Mile Act came into 
force, 25 March 1666, he kept on his school at 
Mackworth. He then went into Yorkshire, 
but returned and had a flourishing school at 
Derby. Under the indulgence of 1672 he 
took out a license on 8 May as a presbyterian 
teacher in the house of Thomas Saunders, at 
Little Ireton, Derbyshire. In 1085 the master 
of the Derby grammar school began a suit 
against him for competing with his school ; 
Ogden took the case to the court of arches, 
and spent 100/. on it, urging that there 
was room for two schools; he lost his 
case in 1686. Sir John Gell of Hopton, 
Derbyshire, at once put him into the Wirks- 
worth grammar school, of which he remained 
master till his death. After the Toleration 
Act, 1689, he preached regularly to noncon- 
formist congregations. He was seized with 
paralysis in the pulpit, and died on 25 May 
1697, ' aged upward of seventy ; ' he was 
buried on 27 May in Wirksworth Church. 
He married a daughter of Burnet, perpetual 
curate of Oldham. Samuel Ogden, D.D. [q. v.], 
was his great-grandson. 

Ogden was a good hebraist, conversed in 
Greek with * the pretended archbishop of 
Samos,' and wrote £atin verse in his old a^e. 
lie delighted in mathematics, and main- 
tained that ' very few good mathematicians 
were lewd and scandalous.' He was versed 
also in physics, and an excellent practical 
botanist, and was fond of music. He seems 
to have published nothing except, perhaps, a 
political pamphlet which he wrote at the 
time of the Rye-house plot, but of which no 
copy is known to be extant ; he left manu- 
script treatises on predestination and the in- 
termediate state. 

[Calamy's Acconnt, 1 7 1 3, pp. 1 89 seq., and Con- 
dDoation, 1727, i. 234 (the certificates of his 
augmentation, ordinatioD, approbation, and li- 
cense are given in full, a nearly unique collec- 
tion); Minute-Book of Wirksworth Classis, in 
Journal of Derbyshire Archseol. and Nat. Hist. 
Soc. Janoary 1880. pp. 174 seq.] A. G. 

OGDEN, SAMUEL (1716-1778), popular 
preacher, bom at Manchester on 28 July 
1716, was the only son of Thomas Ogden, a 
dyer of Manchester, who died in 1766, aged 
75, leaving a widow, who lived to be eignty- 
five. Ogden erected in the collegiate church 
of Manchester, to the memory of his father, 
a marble tablet with an inscnption in Latin. 
He was educated at Mancnester school, 

and admitted at King's College, Cambridge, 
as ' poor scholar * in March 1733, but * very 
happily escaped,' in August 1736, to St. 
Jonn's College, with the prospect of enjoying 
a Manchester exhibition. He graduated 
B.A. in January 1737-8, M.A. 1741, B.D. 
1748, and D.D. 1753 ; was elected a fellow of 
St. John's College on the Ashton foundation 
on 25 March 1739-40, became senior fellow 
on 22 Feb. 1758, and remained in that posi- 
tion until 1768. He was incorporated at 
Oxford on 11 July 1758. In June 1740 he 
was ordained deacon in the English church 
by the Bishop of Chester, and was advanced 
to the priesthood by the Bishop of Lincoln 
in November 1741. From that date until 
1747 he held the curacy of Coley in Halifax, 
and he was master of the free school at 
Halifax, communicating to his pupils 'his 
own exact grammatical mode of institution,' 
from 1744 until March 1753, when he re- 
turned to Cambridge, although he retained 
the curacy at Elana, in hb old parish, down 
to 1762. 

Ogden accepted the sequestration of the 
round church of the Holy Sepulchre at 
Cambridge, and preached there for about 
eighteen years to crowded conj^regations, 
consisting mostly of members of the uni- 
versity. He performed his exercise for * D.D.' 
against John Green [q. v.], afterwards bishop 
of Lincoln, in the presence of the Duke of 
Newcastle, the chancellor of the university, 
who was much gratified at the contest of 
intellect, and conferred on him, in 1754, the 
vicarage of Damerham in Wiltshire, which 
was tenable with his fellowship. The duke 
would have bestowed still further prefer- 
ment upon him, but Ogden did not prove a 
'produceable man; for he was singularly 
uncouth in his manner, and spoke his mind 
very freely upon all occasions.' In 1764 he 
was appointed to the Woodwardian profes- 
sorship of geology at Cambridge, and held 
it until his death in 1778. He resigned the 
living of Damerham in 1766 in favour of 
the Rev. Charles Ilaynes, who had been 
promised by the lord chancellor the rectory 
of Stansfield in Suffolk. From that year 
until 1778 Ogden held the college living of 
Lawford in Essex, with the rectory of Stans- 
field. Gunning gives an amusing specimen 
of the letters which he used to indite to the 
owners of valuable preferment whenever 
any piece of patronage fell vacant ; but his 
efforts to secure promotion were unsuccess- 
ful. He was a candidate for the mastership 
of St. John's College in 1765 and in 1775, 
but on the latter occasion only polled three 

Ogden preached at Cambridge to the last 




with H fit ftt jrtraly^H. In k **r^XfrA fi* h^ 
rli»5'i, ^>n :^:^ MirrrJi 177*?, and w** bririfr-l on 
f)i^ *oijth ai'J'r of thft ryimni'inlon taMe a? 
t. h '■. r- h 1 1 r/: li o f t h *• H ol r S*rprj 1 f. ?. r<:. A tafcl'rt 
wuH plft/'i"l in t:M; cfi'irch t./> h:^ xn*rmorT. 
lV'iri{( in rn^iny way* v«;r\'p<:norioii%. he hari 
^rfi'lniilly a/'/;'irnijlat<:d a con-^t'l^rabl*: for- 
tun", whi^'h jf«i»**:'I to hl^ HilativT^. He ha#l 
int'rn'li!'! that )ir. William Craven, master 
of St. John'i O/ll-r/e, i^houM U; hu re^i'luarr 
|f*((at«'4', firi'l Wl fh'\»ft^'tt*'A the will with htm : 
hut fnnr y «r« Jai'-r, Craven, thr^jugh Ogden'* 
irifliieTi';^', wa- ap)Kiint<Kl to the profe^^orjihip 
of Aruhi^', nn'l returne^l the will to Ogden 
with a ntmark that he hiul now a Hufficiencj 
for lj i 4 w an t n . A i 1 1 hat ( *raven would accept 
waM th«' gift, of hin Arabic Uxjkn. Ogden's 
portrait wa« pninted hy F. Vander Myn, and 
«ingrav*'d hy <l. Scitt for IIarding*« *IJiogra- 
pliirHJ Mirror/ 

< )gd<*n waM * an r>xci*llent claAftical Hcholar, 
a Mriontiflc divine, and a ])roficient in the 
Orient nl languiigeH/ Several descriptions 
have iH'en given of him in the pulpit. Oil- 
iHTt WakffipJd (Ltff, i. iio-7) depictH 'a 
largi*, black, Hcowling figure, a ])onderou8 
hiidy with 11 lowering viniige, embrowne<l by 
tin* liorn^rM of 11 Hiible periwig. IliH voice 
wnn growling and morone, and hifi mmtences 
dennltory, trirt, iind MnuppiHh.' Mainwaring 
dwcllN on liiM * portly figure, dignified air, 
brnad viniige, dnrk complexion, arched eytv 
lirowM nntl pi«»rcing ('yen, the, em- 
pliiil ic. (MnniniuKling ut teranco * ( lieinarks on 
Purnuitn of Litrrnturc^ p. (J.'J). i^iley Hpeaks 
of tli(« n1 riingeneMK of bin 1 one, * a moAt solemn, 
drnwling, whining tone ; he mtomed to think 
lip wiiM iitwayN in tht* pulpit * (Wyi^t^ Personal 
nwl I.Urrnvy iVrmor/V//*,])p. 202 .*J). Hut all 
tln»M(« writiTH bear witnoMH to the elFiHJt of 
luH itiHeourHf*H, wliieh wore* int^rsporHodwith 
HMnarkH en)ini>nlly brilliant and acute, but 
titonpigratnnmtif/ ( )gden, dettpit luR penury, 
IommI good eliiMT. I1 wan a Haying of his 
tbiH I be goone waM a nilly bird, too much for 
one, and not enough for two. 

OjidiMi waH the favourite priMirber of 
Ui>orgo 111: and l'>ni'Mt, king of Hanover, 
riM'ouimiMidod luN i«ermons to his chaplains 
an tbiMr niod«»l for bri'vitv and termniess. 
HoHWoll odmiriMl tboir *8ul>tilly of n^anon- 
intf.' impn»j«ved them ui)on Johnsons atten- 
tion, and mako*! mention of them in the 
• Toiir lt» the U«»bnde!«' so of^en that in 
Kowlnndson'.M enrii^atun^s be is sometimes 
i*«'|u>>vonted wit)) a \t>bnne in bis band or his 
^wKoi. .bOinson, at InM, ri»ad aloud the 
nix b Norm.^n on pr:>>er * with a distinct ex- 
pn»'.Mon nnd pleasing solemnity. Hopraised 
. . . bis elegant Ung\tag<' and remarkable 

&.?-;*riL-=5.«. and «Al'i L* fou^t infidels with 

*>zdr:n'5priblI*hr:iidl«coarsf*weTe: 1. Two 
5*r2i>aa prssachrd brfore the university of 
Ca3ibrli?»r. 17.>r?. '2. Ten s^rrmons on the 
•^rSeacy of prayer and intercession, 1770; 
ifnd edit. 1770. 3. Twenty-three sermons 
on the Ten Commandments. 1776. 4. Four- 
tei^rn ^ermoas on the articles of the Christian 
faith, 1777. Bishop Ilurd was delighted 
with them, and purposed putting these into 
the hands of the young princes (Kiltebt, 
Life ofHurd,!^. 133). 5. 'Collected sermons, 
to which are now first added ** Sermons 
on the lx>rd*s Supper." With an account of 
the Author's Life, and a Vindication of his 
Writings asrainst some late Objections,* 1780, 
•2voU.; 17156,2 vols.; 1788, 2 vols.; 1805, 
1 vol. The biographer was Bishop Samuel 
llallifax 'q. v.] ; the objector was John 
Mainwaring (a 'lellow-coUegian and friend ' 
of Ogden), in a volume of * Sermons, with a 
Dissertation on that Species of Composition,' 
1 780. He defended himself aga inst I lallifax^s 
censures in his anonymous * Remarks on the 
Pursuits of Literature,' 1798, pp. 14-24,62-6. 
Mathias, on the other hand, m a note to the 
advertisement to the fourth part of the 
' Pursuits,' praises Hallifax for this ^ kind and 
disinterested office.' In 1832 the Rev. T. S. 
Hughes piiblished Ogden's sermons as vol. 
xxii. of * Divines of the Church of England,' 
and prefixed to it a new account of his life. 

Ogden contributed to the Cambridge col- 
lections of verses. That on the accession of 
George III contained three seta by him, 
Latin, English, and Arabic, which produced 
a caustic epigram from the first Lord Alvan- 
ley (Manchester School Reg, Chetham Soc. 
i. 46 ; Notes and Qtieries, Ist ser. ii. 105). 

[Kostor's Alumni Oxon. ; Nichols's Illustr. of 
Lit. vi. 875, and Lit. AniHKl. i. 566 ; Bakcr*s 
St. John's, od. Mayor, i. 305, 308, 320, ii. 1072, 
1079, 1091-2 : Watron's Hallifax, pp. 406, 441, 
409 ; Life prefixed to Sermons, 1780 ; Gimniog*8 
Reminiscences, i. 236-40 ; Wakefield's Life, i. 
95-7 : Whitaker's Loidis, i)p. 387-9 ; Boswell, 
wl. Hill, iii. 248, iv. 123, v. 29, 88, 350-1.] 

W. P. C. 

OGILBY, JOHN (1(X)0-1676), miscel- 
laneous writer, was born in or near Edin- 
burgh in November 1600. He was of good 
family, but his father, having s]xmt his estate, 
bt^came a prisoner in the king's l>ench, and 
could give nis son little education. The youth, 
however, Wing industrious, saved a small 
sum of money, which be adventured with 
suctvss in the lotterv fi^r the adATincement 
of t \\o plantat ion in Virginia. He was thereby 
enabled to obtain his father s release* and bind 
himself apprentice to one Draper, a dancing- 




master in Gray*s Inn Lane. Before long he 
made himself perfect in the art, and by his 
obliging behaviour to the pupils acauired 
money enough from them to buy out tne re- 
mainder of his time. He now began teach- 
ing on his own account, and being soon 
reputed one of the best masters in the pro- 
fession, he was selected to dance in the Duke 
of Buckingham's great masque at court, when 
he injured himself and became slightly lame. 
At one time he had for his apprentice John 
Lacy {d. 1681) [q. v.], afterwaras well known 
as an actor and dramatist. Among his pupils 
were the sisters of Sir Ralph (afterwards 
Lord) llopton at Wytham, Somerset, and 
at leisure moments he learned of Sir Ralph 
how to handle the pike and musket. In 
1033, when the Earl of Strafford became 
lord-deputy of Ireland, he took Ogilby into his 
household to teach his children, and Ogilby, 
writing an excellent hand, was frequently 
employed by the earl to transcribe papers for 
him. Subsequently he became one of Straf- 
ford's troop of guard, and wrote some humo- 
rous verses entitled ^ The Character of a 
Trooper.' Appointed deputy-master of the 
revels in Ireland, he built a little theatre in 
St. Werburgh Street, Dublin, and was much 
patronised ; but upon the outbreak of the 
civil war in 1641 he lost everything, under- 
went many hardships, and narrowly escaped 
being blown up in Rathfurm Castle, near 
Dublin. To add to his misfortunes, he was 
shipwrecked in his passage from Ireland, and 
arrived in London quite destitute. Going on 
foot to Cambridge, several scholars, attracted 
by his industry, gave him Latin lessons, and 
he proceeded to translate Virgil. This trans- 
lation, and another which he made of .^Esop, 
brought him in some money. About 1654 
he learned Greek of David Whitford or Whit- 
field, at that time usher to James Shirley, 
the dramatist, who was keeping a school 
in Whitefriars. In the version of Homer, 
which he subseauently undertook, he is said, 
on doubtful autnority, to have been assisted 
by Shirley. 

At the Restoration, Ogilby made himself 
acceptable to Charles II and his court. In 
1601 he was entrusted with the sole conduct 
of the 'poetical part' of the coronation (CaL 
StaU Papers, Dom. 1660-1, p. 668). The 
device which he exhibited over the triumphal 
arch in Leadenhall Street was much ap- 
plauded, and is referred^ to by Dryden in his 
poem on the coronation ( Worhf, ed. Scott, 
1821, ix. 61). In 1662 he obtained the patent 
for master of the revels in Ireland in com- 
petition with Sir William D'Avenant. His 
old theatre in Dublin having been destroyed 
in the civil war, he built a new one at the 

cost of nearly 2,000/. He got into trouble by 
decoying away to his theatre John Richards, 
one of D'Avenant's company of actors, who 
were nominally servants to the Duke of 
York, and he nad to make ample apology 
(CaL State Papers, Dom. 1661-2, p. 466). 

On again settling in London Oguby trans- 
lated and published books until the great fire 
in 1666, when his house in Whitefriars was 
destroyed, along with stock to the value of 
3,000/. (ib. Dom. 1666, pp. 171-2). Im- 
mediately afterwards the corporation ap- 
pointed Offilby and his wife^s grandson, 
William Morgan, as ' sworn viewers ' or sur- 
veyors, to plot out the disputed property in 
the city. They subsequently surveyed the 
whole city, and their ground-plan was pub- 
lished in 1677 (Overall, JRemembrancia, p. 
46 n.) Ogilby was soon enabled to rebuild 
his house, and to set up a large printing 
establishment ; he was besides invested with 
the ornamental titles of ^ king's cosmographer 
and geographic printer.' He died on 4 Sept. 
1676, and was buried in St. Bride's Church, 
Fleet Street. Contemporary writers repre- 
sent him as a man of attr^active manners, 
great sagacity, and untiring energy. Accord- 
mg to Aubrey his wife was the daughter of 
Mr. Fox of Netherhampton, near Wilton, 
Wiltshire, a servant of Lord Pembroke, by 
whom he had an only daughter, Mrs. Morgan, 
mother of the William Morgan who assisted 
him in his business. But from his will (P. C.C. 
124, Bence) it is clear that Ogilby married a 
widow. Christian (? Knight), and it was her 
daughter by a former husband who was 
mother of William Morgan. There was 
another daughter, Elizabeth Enight. Mrs. 
Ogilby died in Whitefriars in 1681 (Adminis' 
tration Act Book, P. C. C, dated 16 June 

Ogilby printed many splendid books, mostly 
in folio ; several were illustrated, or, as he ex- 
pressed it, * adorned with sculpture,' by Hollar 
and other eminent engravers. On 25 May 1666 
the king, on his petition, issued a proclama- 
tion forbidding any one for fifteen years to 
reprint or ' counterfeit the sculpture in them,' 
an injunction renewed on 20 March 1667 ( Cal, 
State Papers, Dom. 1664-5, p. 384, 1666-7, 
p. 674). To facilitate the sale of them Ogilby 
established about 1664, under royal pa- 
tronage, a lottery in which all the prizes were 
books of his own editing and printmg or pub- 
lishing. The plague and the great fire of 
London seriously interfered with the working 
of this scheme, and he subsequently opened 
a new ' standing lottery,' the prospectus of 
which is to be found in the * Gentleman's 
Magazine ' for 1814 (pt. i. p. 640), wherein 
he quaintly complains that his subscribers 

Ogilby i6 Ogilby 

fin nut pay. Pepys, who collected Osrilby's king to prohibit any one for ten jears from 

publication^^ Relates his success in this lot ti^rj printing a folio bible snch as hi^. and to 

{Diary^ od. 1S49, iii. 159). commend his edition to all chorches and 

( )gi\hy*8 translation of Vir?il into heroic chapels, that he might thereby be enoonraffed 

n»r.4«» WHS first published in lar^e **vo in Ui40, in his de^ijirn of printing a polyglott bible 

ami was sumptuously reprint *rd in I6->4 in i Cnl. Staff Papers, Dom. l*36l-2, pp. 67, 68, 

royal folio, with plates by Hollar, and again 4-33). IIU bible was severely censored bj 

ill Hvo in 1065. His mastery over the heroic Bishop Wetenhall in his ' Scripture authen- 

couplot is creditable : his version is suf- tick and Faith certain,* 1686. In Acts tL 3 

Ilciimtly close to the words of Virgil — th*? word * ye" was substituted for * we.' 

inurh more so than Dryden's — and though Ogilbypuhli^hed in ten folio sheets a rough 

III' Mhowfl no trace of poetical feeling, he writes sketch of Charles IFs coronation, entitled 

in fair commonplace English. He was ridi- * The Relation ofhis Majesties Entertainment 

riiltKl, but his version continue<l to be bought passing through the City of London to his 

lint il Dryden's appeared, and the * sculpt ur»:s,* Ci>ronation,' 16^1 . This was followed in 1662 

whirli form a prominent feature in this as in by the splendid folio known as 'The Elnter- 

hin other books, were considerefl goo^lenoujrh tainm^^nt of. . .Charles II in his Passage 

to 1m! borrowed bv Drvden. His work heads throucrh the Citv of London,' &c. The letter- 

1 lio IJHt of the ' Lady's Library- ' in the * Spec- pre^s was revi-sed by the king's command by 

trtl or,* and in ourown day was included among Sir Edward Walker. Garter \ ih. Doul 1660-1, 

tin* lM)oks recommended for examination to p. 60"», 1*^1-:?, p. 350): the plates are ma^tly 

thoMO whom Dean Stanley of Westminster by Hollar. This work, of which another 

brought together with a view to enlisting edition was published by William Morgan 

thi'ir services in the production of a new in 16**5, has proved of great sen'ice in similar 

English dictionary. ceremonies of subsequent date. 

Ogilby also published in 1058 a beautiful During the last years of his life Ogilby 

folioeditionof the Latin original, embellishefl devot*?d himself to the production of books 

wit h 101 illustrations by Ijombart, Fait home, of gef)frraphy and topc^raphy, copiouslv illus- 

Hollar, and oth«»rs. Hisrhvmingpamphrase trated with maps and engravings by iHollar 

of. Esop's* Fables' folio w*'d in nJ5I,4to, be- and others. These were: 1. *An Embassy 

ing rocommond»*d in Home v^^rses by Sir Wil- from the East India Company of the United 

Ham Davenant and .Jamr*s Shirley. In UU>5 Provinces to the Grand Tartar Cham, Em- 

u M<»cond part a]>p<'ar^d in folio, which in- porour of China, delivered by their Excel- 

cluded some fabWfs of his own, calhrd lencir-s Peter de Gayer and Jacob de Keyzer 

*/Esopic8,'corapo-ed during his stay at Kings- at his Imperial City of Peking,' fol., Lon- 

t()n-(m-Tham«s in tliM time of tli*- plagii(>. don, H>(»9 (2nd edit., to which was added 

JJoth parts wen* isiiiM in folio in MUJ5 h^ * Atlas Chinensis* — also published separately 

and contain engravinj^n by W. Hollar, D. in UJ71 — 2 vols, fol., London, 1673). This 

Stoop, and F. Jiarlow. AiiotluT <fditjon, in ' work was compiled from the Dutch of ,Tan 

two vols. 8vo, is dated Ifi75. Ni»*uhof, Olfert, Dapper, and Amoldus Mon- 

()f his tranMation of Hom<-r the Mliad* tanus. 2. * Atlas Japanensis ; being remark- 
upprared in 1 <>(}(), and th«? * Odyss'ry ' in KUJ5, able Addresses, by way of embassy, from the 
lH>1h on imperial i»ap«fr, and with plat<'s by Ea^t India C<impany of the United Provinces 
Hollar and others. According to Sp^-nce to the Kraperor of Japan,' fol., Ix)ndon, 1670, 
(Ant^ulotcM, p. 276) it was thin illustrated compil<«d from Montanus. 3. * Africa,' fol., 
edition which first alliin-d Pojxt Uj read the ' London, 1670, translated from Dapper, and 
* Iliad* when he was a boy at seliool. With 'auj^^mentfd with obser\'ations.' In the pre- 
tlif assistance of Dr. John Worthington and fac«.* he jrives an entertaining account of his 
other divines Ogilby broiij^ht out at Cam- own writinjrs. 4. * America,' fol., London, 
briilgft in 1660 a nobh? edition of thu Bible 1671. 5. * Asia. The first part,' fol., Lon- 
( I wo vols, royal folio), illustrated with* choro- don, 167-^. The second part was the * Em- 
graphical sculps' by Ogilbv himself, and 107 i bnssy to the Emperour of China,' already pub- 
eiigravings hy N. .1. VisscIuT. Having ])rp- ' lished in 1^60, and again in 1673. 6. *Bri- 
fci-nti'd a Hj»h«ndidly bound copy of it to the tannia. Volume the first, or an Illustration of 
king on his first coming to the royal chaptd the Kingdom of England and Dominion of 
at Whitehall, he was commanded to supply ' W ile^*, by a Geographical and Historical 
other copitis for use in the chapel, closet, j 1) 'scription of the principal Roads thereof, 
and council chamber, at a cost of : printeo on one hundred copper plates,' fol., 
le presented another copy to the I-.ondon, 1^75 (2nd edit., revised and a 

Commons, for which ho received 
)ut August 1661 he petitioned the 

rently abridged, 1698) ; it was undertaken by 
the express desire of the king. This * noblede- 

Ogilby 17 


Bcription of Britain/ as it is deservedly called 
by Bishop Nicolson, never proceeded beyond 
the first volume, although Ogilby in his will 
earnestly requested William Morgan to finish 
it. Vol. ii. was to have contained views of 
English cities ; vol. iii. * A Topographical De- 
scription of the whole Kingdom.' 

Ogilby also projected the following atlases 
and maps : 1 . * A new Man of Kent/ 1670, en- 
graved Dy F. Lamb. 2. * Novissima Jamaicae 
Deacriptio/ 1671. 3. * Itinerarium Anglise, 
or a Book of Roads ... of England and . . . 
Wales/ in which he was assisted by W. 
Morgan, fol., London, 1675 (abridged as ' The 
Traveller's Guide' in 1699, 8vo). An * im- 
proved edition' by John Senex was issued 
m 1719 in two oblong quarto volumes as 
' An Actual Sur>'ey,* and other editions, with 
descriptions of the towns by John Owen and 
maps oy Emanuel Bo wen, appeared in 1720, 
both 8vo and 4to, 1724, 4to, 1731, 4to, 1736, 
8vo, and 1753, 4to, under the title of * Bri- 
tannia Depict a.' Smaller editions, called re- 
spectively * Pocket-Book of the lioads,' and 
' The Traveller's Pocket Book,' were published 
in 1721 and 1782, 8vo. 4. ' Tables of mea- 
tur'd Roads (of England and Wales, with 
Map)/ 8vo, 1676. 6.* London accurately sur- 
veyed . . . finished by W. Morgan,' eight sheets, 
1677. An 'Explanation' of this map was 
published in quarto during the same year. 
The copy of this * Explanation ' or * Key ' at 
the British Museum is believed to be unique. 
A facsimile has recently (1894) been edited 
for the Ijondon and Middlesex Archaeolo- 
gical Society by Mr. Charles W^elch, F.S.A. 
o. * Essex, actually surveyed ... by J. Ogilby 
and W' . Morgan,^ 1678. 7. * The Borough 
or Corporation of Ipswich . . . actually sur- 
veyed ... A** 1674, with views, nine sheets, 
1^8. 8. ' A large and accurate Map of the 
Citv of London.' 9. * Middlesex.' 10. 'Table 
of the North-West Roads' (of England). 
11. 'A new Map of. . .England and. . . 
Wales. W^hereon are projected all the prin- 
cipal Roads.' 

Offilby's name, thanks to the ridicule of 
Dryden in * MacFlecknoe' and of Pope in the 
' Dunciad,' has become almost proverbial for 
a bad poet. He is known to have written two 
heroic poems called *The Enhesian Matron' 
and ' Tne Roman Slave,' ana an epic poem in 
twelve books entitled * Carolies' in honour of 
Charles I, but the first two were never pub- 
lished, and the third was fortunately burnt 
in the fire of London (cf. preface to his 
'Africa '). He was also author of en unprinted 
play called ' The Merchant of Dublin,' and 
has lines affixed to a portrait of Charles II, 
1661. Though Pope sneered at Ogilby, he 
did not disdain to borrow from his ver- 

VOL. XLll. 

i Fion of Virgil's * Eclogues ' and translation of 

I Homer. 

Ogilby 's portrait, engraved by the elder 
William Faithome after a painting by Sir 
Peter Lely, is prefixed to his translation of 
Virgil. Another portrait by Lely was en- 
graved by Lombart. A third portrait, by 
Fuller, was engraved by Edwards ; there is 
also an engraving of him by Marshall. His 
bust is prefixed to his translation of -^sop's 
' Fables.' 

[Wood's Athena Oxon. (Bliss), iii. 739-44. 
996 ; Aubrey's Lives in Letters from the Bodleian 
Library, &c., vol. ii. pt. ii. pp. 466-70 ; Biog. 
Brit.; Baker's Biog. Dram. 1812; Gough'8 Brit, 
Topography; Lowndes's Bibl. Manual (Bohn); 
Notes and Queries, Ist ser. i. 153. 5th »er. xii. 7» 
78; Macaulay'8Hi8t.ofEngland(1855),i. 312«; 
Nicolson*8 Historical Libraries ; Dryden's Works 
(Scott, 1821), X. 452 ; Pope's Works (Elwin and 
Courthope), vol. iv. ; the English Translators of 
\ Virgil, by Professor J. Conington, in Quarterly 
Review for July 1861 ; Brit. Mus. General and 
Map Catalogues ; notes kindly communicated by 
J. Challenor Smith, esq. ; Evans's Cat. of Engr. 
Portraits, i. 253 ; Granger's Biogr. Hist of Engl. 
(2nd ed.). iv. 65-6.] G. G. 

OGILVIE. [See also Ogilvy.] 

(1793-1873), theologian, son of John Ogilvie 
of Whitehaven, Cumberland, who died at 
Duloe, ComwaU, 25 April 1839, by his wife 
Catharine Curwen of the Isle of Man, was 
born at Whitehaven 20 Nov. 1793, and ma- 
triculated from Balliol College, Oxford, on 
27 N0V.I8II. Aftertakingafirst class in 1816, 
he won the chancellor's prize for the English 
essay in 1817. He graduated B. A. 1815, M.A. 
1818, B.D. and D.D. 1842. In 1816 he was 
elected a fellow of his college, and took holy 
orders. He was tutor 1819-30, bursar 1822, 
and senior dean 1842. He was appointed a 
university examiner in 1823 and 1824, and 
examiner in the classical school in 1825. 
He greatly assisted Dr. Jenkinson, the 
master of Balliol, in improving the tone and 
discipline of the college, and contributed 
largely to giving it a foremost place in the 
university. About 1829 he was looked on 
as a leader of the high-church party in 
Oxford, but he gave little active support 
to the Oxford movement. He was a select 
preacher before the university in 1825, 1832, 
and 1844, and was made Bampton lecturer 
in 1836. 

Ogilvie held some clerical preferment 
'• while still fellow and tutor of Balliol. He 
was rector of Wickford, Essex, from 4 Jan. 
1822 to ia33 ; rector of Abbotsley, Hunting- 
donshire, from 30 Aug. 1822 to 1839 ; and 
vicar of DiUoe from 20 Oct. 1833 to 1840. 




The rectory and vicarage of Ross, Hereford- 
shire, conferred on him 6 Dec. 1839, he held 
till his death. For a time he acted as domestic 
and examining chaplain to Archbishop How- 
ley. He resigned his fellowship in 1834. On 
the foundation of a chair of pastoral theology 
in the university, Ogilvie became the first 
regius professor on 23 April 1842, and as pro- 
fessor he succeeded in 1849 to a canonry at 
Christ Church, under the provisions of the 
Act 3 and 4 Vict. c. 113. Through life he 
maintained a close friendship with Dr. Routh, 

E resident of Magdalen College, with whom 
e corresponded on literary subjects from 
1847 to 1854. He was also very intimate 
with Joseph Bianco White. While lecturing 
on 16 Feb. 1873 he was seized with paralysis, 
and died in his house at Christ Church, 
Oxford, two days later. He was buried in 
the Latin Chapel in Christ Church Cathe- 
dral. By his marriage, on 18 April 1838, 
to Mary Ann Gumell, daughter of Major 
Armstrong (who died 2 Oct. 1875), he had 
two daugliters. 

He published ; 1 . * On the Union of Clas- 
sical and Mathematical Studies/ printed in 
the * Oxford English Prize Essays,' vol. iii. 
1836. 2. 'The Apostolic Origin of the 
Three Orders of the Christian Ministry,' 
1836. 3. *The Divine Glory manifested in 
the Conduct and Discourses of our Lord. 
Eight Sermons before the University at the 
Jjecture founded by J. Bampton,' 1836. 
4. * Considerations on Subscription to the 
Thirty-nine Articles,' 1845. 6. 'On Sub- 
scription to the Thirty-nine Articles as by 
Law reauired of Candidates for Holy Orders 
and of the Clergy,' 1863. 

[Chapman's Reminiscences of Tliree Oxford 
Worthies, 187/5, pp. 43-52; Burgon's Lives of 
Twelve Good Men, 1891. pp. 15, 484; Guardian, 
19 Feb. 1873, p. 227 ; Men of the Time, 1872, 
p. 728 ; Boasoand Courtney's Bibl. Coniub. 1882, | 
iii. 1206; Couch's Reminiscences of Oxford, 1892, 
pp. 208, &c. ; Life of Rev. Joseph Blanco White, 
1845; information from his daughter, Mrs. Law- 
rence.] G. O. B. 

pGILVIE, JAMES (1760-1 820), scholar, 
claimed connection with the Ogilvys, earls 
of Findlator. He was born in 1700 in Aber- 
deen, and was educated there. He may 
be the .Tnmes Ogilvie who graduated at 
King's ColL'ge, Aberdeen, in 1790. Emi- 
grating to America, he for some time con- 
ducted a classical academy in Richmond, 
Virginia, leaving the impression of being *a 
man of lingular endowments,' gifted with 
Hhe power of rousing the mind from its j 
torpor and lending it wings ' (Southern lAte- 
rary MeMenfjery vol. xiv.) Of a philosophical 
temperament, Ogilvie developed from aschool 

rhetorician into a public lecturer, rebutting 
the theories of Godwin, of which in youth he 
had been enamoured. For a time he rented a 
room in a remote Kentucky cabin, where he 
wrote his lectures, depending to some extent 
for his living on pecuniary help from former 
pupils (i6.) He is said to have lectured with 
great success throughout Virginia and the 
Atlantic states. He returned to Scotland to 
claim the lapsed earldom of Findlater as a 
relative of James Ogih'y, the last earl of 
Findlater and Seafield of the Ogilvy line, 
who had died at Dresden in 1811 | see" under 
Ogilvt, Jambs, 1714 P-1770]. Ogilvie's pre- 
tensions, however, were not entertained. 
Constitutionally sensitive and excitable, and 
worn out with narcotics, he is said to have 
committed suicide in Aberdeen on 18 Sept. 

Ogilvie's * Philosophical Essavs ' appeared 
at Philadelphia in 1816. The book is sum- 
marily discussed in ' Blackwood's Magazine,' 
xvii. 198, and it is criticised at length by 
E. T. Channing in the 'North American 
Review,' vol. iv. 

[Autobiographical Sketch in Philosophical 
Essays; Recollections by a Pupil in Southern 
Literary Messenger, vol.xir. ; Irving*s Dictionary 
of Eminent Scotsmen ; information from Mr. 
George Stronach, Advocates* Library, Edinburgh, 
and Mr. P. J . Anderson, University Li brary, A ber- 
deen.] T. B. 

1615), Jesuit, bom about 1580, was the eldest 
son of Walter Ogilvie of Drum, near Keith. 
At the age of twelve he went to the conti- 
nent, and was there converted to Catholicism. 
About 1596 he entered the Scots College at 
Louvain, and subsequently visited the Bene- 
dictines at R^tisbon, and the Jesuit College at 
Olmiitz, where he was admitted a member of 
the Society of Jesus. He spent two years of 
novitiate at Brunn, and between 1602 and 
1613 lived at Gratz, Vienna, Olmiitz, Paris, 
and Rouen. At Paris he was ordained priest 
in 1613. Towards the close of the year he 
and two other priests, Moffat and Campbell, 
were ordered by the superior of the Scottish 
mission of the Society of Jesus to repair to 
Scotland. Ogilvie landed in the disguise 
of a soldier, under the assumed name of 
Watson, and, having separated from his 
companions, proceeded to the north, pro- 
bably to his native district. In six weeks 
he returned to Edinburgh, where he remained 
throughout the winter of 1613-14, as the 
guest of W^illiam Sinclair, advocate. Shortly 
before Easter (30 March) 1614 he set out 
for London on some mvsterious business. 
It has been alleged that lie had then a pri- 
yate interview with King James, but the 




story is probably one of the many rumours of 
Romanist intrigue which troubled the public 
mind after the excitement of 1592, and which 
laid the blame of the ' damnable powder- 
treason ' of 1 605 on the English Jesuits Garnet 
and Oldcome. Ogilvie paid a hurried visit 
to Paris at this time ; but his superior, Father 
Gk>rdon, thought his action ill-advised, and 
ordered his immediate return (see letter 
printed in James Forbes's Life of Ogilvie^ 
p. 12?!.) He was back in Edinburgh in June 
1614, where he continued his propaganda 
under the protection of his friend Sinclair, 
saying ma$s in private and holding inter- 
course with many, including the notorious 
Sir James Macdouald of Islay,then a prisoner 
in the castle of Edinburgh. He went to 
Glasgow in August, where he was discovered 
and arrested by order of Archbishop Spotis- 
wood (4 Oct. 1614). A few Romish books 
and garments, a chalice and an altar, some 
relics, including a tuft of the hair of St. Ig- 
natias, and some incriminating letters, ' not 
fit at that time to be divulgate/ were found 
in his possession. He was examined by a 
committee, consisting of the archbishop, the 
Bishop of Argyll, Lords Fleming, Boyd, and 
KiUyth, the provost of the city ot (Has- 
gow. Sir Walter Stewart, and Sir George 
Elphinston. The narrative. of the proceed- 
ings appeared in the * True Relation ' ascribed 
to Archbishop Spotiswood. Ogilvie refused 
to give information ('his busines,' he said, 
* was to saue soules*), and was sent to a cham- 
ber in the castle, where he remained till 
8 Dec., lacking nothing * worthy of a man of 
his quality,' and having the constant atten- 
tion of sundry ministers of the Kirk, who 
could not, however, argue him into a con- 
fession. Spotiswood had meanwhile informed 
the council of the capture and of the exami- 
nation of Ogilvie*s Glasgow accomplices; 
and they had on 1 1 Nov. issued a commission 
to him and to the treasurer-depute, the clerk 
of register, and Sir William Livingston of 
Kilsyth, or any three of them, the archbishop 
being one, to proceed to Glasgow to try all 
suspected persons, and generally to clear up 
the whole conspiracy (Register of Privy Court- 
cilj X. 284-6). Ogilvie was, however, taken 
to Edinburgh, and brought before five of the 
council. He refused to explain the contents 
of the letters which had been seized in GIps- 
gow, and conducted himself as before, until, 
under the painful torture of denial of sleep 
and rest, his ' braines became lightiiome,' and 
he gave up the names of some of his accom- 
plices. The proceedings were suspended for 
the Christmas recess, and the archbishop ob- 
tained ]>ermis8ion to ' keep him in his com- 
pany ' till his return to Eainburgh. Mean- 

while the king sent down a commission to 
Spotiswood and others to make a special 
examination of Ogilvie's tenets on royal and 
papal prerogative. The king's questions were 
put to Ogilvie on 18 Jan., but to little pur- 

Eose ; for, despite the endeavours of the arch- 
ishop and the arguments of Robert Boyd, 
principal of the college, and Robert Scot, a 
Glasgow minister, he not only maintained 
his obstinate attitude, but aggravated his 

Sosition by the statement * that he con- 
emned the oaths of supremacie and allege- 
ance proponed to be swome in England.' 
The catholic writers maintain that Ogilvie 
was put to severe torture during this ex- 
amination. Spotiswood himself admits that 
he suggested the infliction of it as the only 
means of overcoming the prisoner's obstinacy, 
but that the king * would not have these forms 
used with men of his profession.' If they 
merely found that he was a Jesuit, they were 
to banish him ; if they proved that he had 
been stirring up rebeUion, the ordinary course 
of justice was to be pursued. This examina- 
tion may have been confused with a subse- 
quent commission on 11 June against the 
Jesuit Moffat and his friends, in which the 
power of torture was given to the judges 
{Register of Privy Council, p. 336). Ogilvie's 
answers were sent to the king, who ordered 
the trial to proceed. A commission was 
issued on 21 Feb., and the trial was fixed 
for the last day of the month. Mr. Struthers 
returned to his persuasive arguments, though 
to no purpose ; * if he stoode in neede of 
their confort,' replied Ogilvie, * he shoulde 
advertise.* The trial took place in Glasgow 
before the provost and three bailies, who 
held commission from the privy council, and 
seven assessors, including the archbishop. 
In the indictment and prosecution Ogilvn* 
was told that it was not for the saying of 
mass, but for declining the king's authority, 
that he was on trial. This was in keeping 
with the king's list of questions, which to the 
presbyterian Calderwood * seemed rather a 
hindrance to the execution of justice upon 
the persons presently guiltie then to menu 
in earnest the repressing of Papists.' Ogilvi»* 
provoked his judges by saying : * If the kin "^ 
will be to me as my predecessors were to 
mine, I will obey . . ., but, if he doe otliei- 
wise, and play the runneagate from God, m 
he and you all doe, I will not acknowledge 
him more than this old hatte.' The arch- 
bishop's account of his subsequent conduct 
during the trial, at the swearing of the jury, 
and in his speech after the prosecution was 
closedi shows that Ogilvie maintained his 
stubbornness to the last. 

He was found guilty and was sentenced to 




behanged and qunrtered. Three lioura Utpr 
lie was led to the Bcaffold, where he hnd the 
ministrations of IVilliam Struthera and Ro- 
bert Scot, the latter reiterating that it was 
not for his religion but for his political 
offence that he had been condemned. The 
nuftrterinft waa not carried out. Father 
Forbes-Leith repeats the story that Ogilvie 
was told by ' the ' minister who attended him 
that he had been empowered to promise him 
the hand of the archbishop's daughter and the 
richest probond of hisdioee.'ieasadowry, pro- 
Tided he recanted (p. 311). Tliia ridiculoua 
tale is taken from a document attested 
at Douay on 23 Feb. 1672 by Failier James 
Brown, S.J., recfor of the college there in 
1688. The date of attestation raises sus- 
picion; moreover, as Mr. T. G. Ijtw has 
pointed out, the archbishop had no unmarried 
daughter. It is possible that the atory has 
grown out of the statement of the archbishop 
after the sentence of the court ; ' 1 will give 
yon both hand and heart, for I wish you to 
die a good Christian.' 

Two portraits of Ogilvie are known: (I) a 
contemporary half-length, copied at liome 
by Charles Weld, and engraved aa the fronti- 
spiece to James Forbes's ' Life of Ogilvie ; ' 
and (2) a full-length in the 'Life' of St. John 
Nepomuc (1730), pi. 16, The latter approxi- 
mates so closely to the conventional figures 
of the Jesuit hagiologies, and in features 
bears such close resemblance to the many ' 
other Johns celebrated in the book, that it I 
cannot be considered an authentic portrait. 

(Relit Lo Incarcentionis ot Marlyrii P. loannia ' 
Ogilbei . . . desfriptji ad verbum ?x autogrApho 
ipsiris, Dotuii. 16t^(reprinted nt Insolstadt aud I 
At Mainz in 1616); A True Retation of ibo Pro- | 
ceodiD<8 agcun-'t John Ogilvi'', aJflsuit . . . Edin- : 
burgh, I61S, probably written by Archbialiop , 
SpotJBirond : Raz'ster of Privy Council of Scot- 
land, 1. 161 S-lSlfl, 281-3. 2Sen.. 303, 304 n.,3!6, 
374 4S9:Pitciiirn'itCrimin«lTriali),, ' 
JQcludini IhedepositioneotOirilvie's accomplices 
in Otassov iind Edinbargh; Histories of Caldcr- 
wood and -Spotiswood ; the Htslorie of Jamoa the 
S.>it(Banii«yn« CTub),1823; L'Eglisa Catbo- 
lifue en £>oase: Hartyre de Jean Oallvie de la 
Compagnio de Jisus , . . par If P. James Forbw, 
Paris. 1 88-5 ; An Authentic Ai^nnnt of the Im- 
priwinmenl and M»r(yrdom of Father John I 
Ogilvie. •mnnlat*! by C. J, KarslHtp, S.J., Oliis- 
gow, 1877 (a tmnslation of tho Relntia) ; Nai^ ' 
rativBs of Scottish Calliolica. by W. FocUs- 
Leith, Kiiinhurgh, 1886. in which reference ia 
made to a Latin manoseript in the ArchivPsS.J., i 
entitled ' Proisftdings of ths Trial and Mode of 
D»atli of Father John Ogilvie.' Rpiliswofxl's 
Trnn Retation and the Relatio are roprinted in 
Jnmes Forhe-'a Life (anpra), and the former 
ii also reprinted in Piteaim.] Q. Q. 3. j 

OGILVIE, JOHN (1733-1813), pfesby- 
terian divine and author, bom in Aberdeen 
in 1733, was the eldest son of James UgilvJe, 

minister there. After graduatingat the Aber- 
deen University he was appointed to the 
I parish of Lumphanan in 1759, and in tbe 
I same year was transferred to Midmar, where 
he remained until his death. In 1764 be 
I preached before the high commissioner of the 
General Assembly of the Scottish Church ; 
I in 1706 he was made D.1>. by Aberdeen 
I University, and in 1775 was appointed one 
, of the committee for the revision of the 
; ' Scottish Translations and Faraphraaw.' He 
I married in January 1771, and had a family. 
He died at Aberdeen on 17 Nov. 1813. 
C^ilvie was one of a contemporary group 
' of Scottisll literary clergy. He frequently 
I appeared in the literary circles of London 
and Edinbnn^h, and wasa fellow of the Edin- 
buzyh Royal Society. It was to Ogilvie, 
while dining with Boswell in Londoo, that 
Johnson remarked, 'Let me tell you, the 
noblest prospect which a Scotsman ever eeee 
ia the high road which leads him to Eng- 
land.' At the age of sixteen he wrote the 
hymn, ' Begin, my soul, the exalted lay,' 
afWrwards included in ' Poems on aaveni 
Subjects;' but his most popular work at a 
hymn-writer is the paraphrase he contri- 
buted to the Scottish collection of 1781, 
' I«, in the last of days behold.' His poema 
are long, and showleamingrather than poetic 
gifts. Churchill, in the 'JoumCT,' refers to 
them as 'a tale of rueful length,* spun out 
'undcrdarkAllegory's flimsy veil.' Johnson 
'saw nothing' in the 'Day of Judgment,' but 
Boswell thought it bad 'no inconsiderable 
share of merit.' His philosophical works 
were mainly attempts to defend the theology 
of his (Jayagainst the deists and Hume. ' In 
"The Theology of Plato" he treats of topics 
not usually discussed bv the Scottish meta- 
physicians' (M'COBit, 'Sco/tuA PAHottmiy, 
p. L>41). 

His works are: 1. 'The Day of Judgment: 
a Poem,' Edinburgh, 1753. 2. 'Poems on 
several Subjects, with Essay on Lyric Poetry,' 
London, 176^, an enlarged edition of which, 
in two vols., appeared in 1769. 3. 'Provi- 
dence: an Allegorical Poem,' London, 17(J4. 
4. ' Solitude, or the Elysium of the Poets,' 
1765. 5. 'Sermona,' London, 1767. 6.'Para- 
dise : a Poem,' 1769. 7. ' Philosophical uid 
Critical Observations on Composition,' 2 vola. 
London, 1774. 8. ' Rona : a Popm in seven 
books, with ilap of the Hebrides,' London, 
1777. 9. 'InquirvintotheCausesoflnfideUty 
and Scepticism,'' I^ndon, 1783. 10. 'The 
Fane of the Druida,' 1789. 11. "TheThec- 
logy of Plato compared with the Principlea 



of Orecian and Oriental Philosophers/ 1793. 
12. ' Britannia : a national epic Poem in 
twenty books, with Dissertation on the Epic/ 
Aberdeen, 1801 (this volume contains an 
engraved portrait of the author). 13. * Pro- 
phecy and the Christian Religion/ Aberdeen, 
1808. 14. * Triumphs of Cnristianity over 
Deism/ Dalkeith, 180/). 

[Scott's Fasti Ecclesise, vol. iii. pt. i. pp. 537, 
638; Scots Mag. 1814, p. 79; Boswells Life 
of Johnson, ed. Hill, i. 421, 425 ; Julians Diet. 
of Hymnologj, p. 866; Nichols's Illustrations 
of Lit. Hist. iv. 835; Brit. Mus. Cat] 

J. R. M. 

OQILVIB, JOHN (1797-1867), lexico- 
grapher, son of William Ogilvie, farmer, was 
bom in the parish of Mamoch, Banffshire, 
on 17 April 1797. His mother was Ann 
Leslie, daughter of a farmer in a neighbour- 
ing parish. After receiving some elementair 
education at home, and attending the parish 
school for two Quarters, Ogilvie worked as a 
ploughman till he was twenty-one. In 1818, 
in consequence of an accident, one of his legs 
had to be amputated above the knee. After- 
wards Oplvie taught successively in two 
subscription schools, in the parishes of For- 
dyce and Qamrie, both in BaniFshire. At 
tne same time, by assiduous study and with 
the help of a neighbouring schoolmaster, he 
prepared for the university, and in October 
1824 he entered Marischal College, Aber- 
deen. Adding to his income by private 
tuition, he graduated M.A. on 14 April 1828. 
He remained in Aberdeen as a tutor till 
13 May 1831, when he was appointed mathe- 
matical master in Gordon's Hospital, an 
important educational establishment in the 
city. Marischal College conferred on him 
the honorary degree of LL.D. on 15 Jan. 
1848. He retained his mastership till July 
1859. He died of typhoid fever at Aberdeen 
on 21 Nov. 1867. 

To the ' Aberdeen Magazine,' 1831-2, 
Ogilvie contributed, under the signature 
* lota,* ten spirited * Imitations of Horace* in 
the Scottish dialect. In 1836 he worked for 
Blackie & Son's annotated edition of Stack- 
house's 'History of the Bible.* Messrs. 
Blackie engaged him in 1838 to revise and 
enlarge Webster's * English Dictionary,' the 
result being the * Imperial Dictionary, Enjr- 
liah, Technical, ana Scientific,* issued m 
parts from 1847 onwards,and published com- 
plete in 1850, and supplement 1855. In 1863 
Ogilvie issued an abrid^ent of the * Dic- 
tionary,* under the title * Comprehensive 
English Dictionary, Explanatory, Pronounc- 
ing, and Etiological,' the pronunciation 
being supennsed by Mr. Richard Cull. In 
1866 appeared the * Students' English Dic- 


tionary, Etymological, Pronouncing, and 
Explanatory,* in which etymology and defi- 
nitions received special attention. A feature 
of all three dictionaries was their engravings, 
the * Imperial ' claiming to be the first after 
Bailey's to use pictorial illustrations. Ogil- 
vie*8 last work was a condensation of the 
* Students' Dictionary,* entitled * English 
Dictionary, Etymological, Pronouncing, and 
Explanatory, for the use of Schools,* 1867. 
A t his death he was revising the * Imperial 
Dictionary,* which was reissued in 1882-3, 
under the editorship of Dr. Charles Annan- 

On 15 Nov. 1842 Ogilvie married Susan 
Grant, daughter of a farmer near Stone- 
haven, Kincardineshire. She predeceased him 
on 20 May 1853, leaving two daughters and 

a son. 

[Memoir prefixed to Imperial Dictionary ; 
Walker's Bards of Bon-Accord, 1887.] T. B. 

OGILVIE, WILLIAM (1736-1819), 
professor of humanity and advocate of com- 
mon property in land, bom in 1736, was the 
only son of James Ogilvie, proprietor of the 
estate of Pittensear, near Elp^in. At the 
age of nineteen he went to King's College, 
Aberdeen, intending to enter the church, 
and, after graduating in 1759, was appointed 
master of the grammar school, Cullen. His 
name appears m the list of students at Glas- 
gow University in the 1760-1 session, and 
at Edinburgh University in 1761-2. While 
attending Edinburgh University he was 
tutor to a Mr. Graeme, and at the beginning 
of the session (29 Nov. 1761), by the in- 
fluence of his relative, Lord Deskford (after- 
wards sixth earl of Seafield), chancellor of 
the university, he was appointed assistant 
to the professor of philosophy at King's Col- 
lege, Aberdeen. By permission of the univer- 
sity court, he finished his studies at Edin- 
burgh, and began work in Aberdeen in the 
winter of 1762. Two years later he suc- 
ceeded to the chair of philosophy. In 1766, 
on a reorganisation of class-work, he ex- 
changed chairs with the professor of hu- 
manity, and taught in that capacity until 
1817, when, owing to failing health, an as- 
sistant was appointed to do his work. 

Ogilvie was a learned classical scholar. 
'What I remember with most pleasure of 
Mr. Ogilvie,* says his pupil. Sir James Mackin- 
tosh (Memoirs^ i. 17), * were his translations 
of passages in classical writers.* These 
translations, which Mackintosh regrets were 
never published, were well known to Ogil- 
vie*s friends and pupils, and highly esteemed 
by them. He was also an ardent numis- 
matist (NicuoLB, Illustrations qf Lit, Hist 

Ogilvie 22 Ogihy 

iv. K»7), and LI- o.i.I-lI! 'ii -f «'r^.v":i»n c.-in? in ?.rniniLD Ir-jiflii; -r.. anJ hmve much in 

is now in iLr AU rJ— ■!* rn-^rr*.; y Muy^u::;- c: mmon wjiL rEOfn: zh^ ri-rs iff land natioua- 

IIo w:i> Jil>«' iK-%':ri : • M-irLur i^iii :Lr Liir hs;;ij.:in. Thrfci::l>r iLfrK-niiiites betw«»en 

art?, and hrijH-J ::* :Lv liiif-iv-'-fiJ siTTra:j«: i-r'^nrnv in Ihni a:;i proj-rrt t in ' movables/ 

madf u» n-Ci'Vir i-.r \\ir- AK rl— n I'liiirr- aci cinfid-r* ;i :■« be in m-Ii^put able maxim 

sitv a valuabl- Ci 'UaT.-n .■! liul...:. ]«i.i:'.iiir* in saiurhl liw iLut every individual has a 

U'tt t«i ii by an old >:ii;tr:!T u^mi-i M^'r.?.i-:i. rirb: !.• a ^Lare in ihe Und. He regards 

but lorlVit'-d by :!.•• tViu:; j •\ •. niairni i:i lurid vhlutsa* con?:*:inz of thr^e elements: 

ISIO: and !.■ t»jliv*'- AVi-ri^.":: ri:i\r!v":iy :>• ori£"inal li&iurd vaiuv. the value of im- 

owt's it* Natural ll.s'.'-ry Mu^ i;:a. f Jud-.-d pr.vemrnt*. and the potvntial value. The 

about irr.'i. Hi* iliii.' «.]r-ii : • Ani-rlL*a. Tir*: and third e!rmfrnt< should belong to 

and in irv*utbr L'.-Limt :a' vll'-ji-. N- w Y. rk. tLf i-'immunity. and fr.">m th>=-m a land tai 

iH>nt'errod on him :Lv b-iri-riry 'l-jri-^ oi ^:;ould \tr levied: the second is the legfiti- 

S.T.1>. His Wfli-kn.'wn iynijiii:;;]-* a\ lib tlitr n.ui*- property of the cultivator. To check 

Anu'rii-an peoj'Ie may ba%v b^tJ > ':Lr in- ciirrt-ni rvils be pro}N>ed an agrarian law 

flu»*nc«' with ib^* c-'lb>''*. Try— ti-T.! -u \\.:A would re>toiv the p^jtulation to the 

y^Mtmoiiit, i. -'•'*) writ-*. 'Hjihi- w;ii r— s il. and advocated the establishment of a 

teemed the mckst t-bvant M-bi-larin Si-.iilaiid land court with p^^wt^r to acquire land for 

(>f his day:' and the •Timi>' ••!" I'-'i Feb. aV.oTments. and t-^ assist the peasantr}' to 

l^^,^ in an obituary n-»iief, t'l** s 'far a* to buy their own farms. Although published 

sav that M.»s:ilvii* was '»ne of ihi- in.»i ac- f;n->nvm'iusly, the authorship of the book 

conlpli^bt•d >c]iolars of the a*:*'.' was well known. Ugilvie's 'bold agrari- 

O^ilvie's o»mii*cnon with AU-rd—^n Tr.;- anism attracted Si>me attention during the 

versity. bowe\ i-r. wa> principally >::;naliM*d f. rmmt of spi-culation occasioned by the 

bv tlie ]wrt 111- tO"»k in tlie agitation lor the French revolution ' (MACEiyTOSH. Memuin, 

union o\' Kin/s and Marisi'bal TollfCi-s. i. 17 I: and in a letti-r to the author, dated 

Tlu'se eolle^vs bad bt»fn founded as Si-parate 7 April 17>0, Dr. Thomas Keid, the philo- 

universities. and ibtri* wa* eoniid^Table N^]iher. says he had read the book and practi- 

wnste of money and talent in ivnseijuence. eully atynttl with it. Macculloch, on the 

In 17''>4 a plan of union was ti^^t p^>pi»se«b o'Awt band. characierisfS Ogilvie's schemes 

and was n-newt-d unsuooe>>t'ully in 1770. ns'n.i! impracticable only, but mischievous. 

In J7H»it was a>rain reviviHl. njrilviea*M*t- a;*d bis jirineipb-s and reasonings as alike 

injr in drawinir up tin* * Hut lines of a Plan false, shallow, and sojjhistical' {Liteinture 

fur uniting the I'niver.^itirs ni AlKTvbvn.' -f Pvliticftl K *jti»>7ntf,'p.'M0). George AVash- 

Tbe * rian " led tn a bmir and wnrni eonir.w injt«>n. who was deeply interesttxi in English 

vtT.-v, which lasted ft»r two yi-ars in the r.i:rieultun*,po>srs>i»d a copy, which was pre- 

Al>"VilHen jin-^s. Tb»* ci>m*s]>'»ndfnee was M-nted to the Hritisb Museum by Henry 

rolbrtf.d )»v rrofiss'»r Stuart, and ]nibli>bi'«l Stevens of Vermt»nt, the antiquary. The essay 

ill Ab'-rdet-n in 17^7. AltbouL'b tli** move- was repulilisbed in iM^l, with introduction 

t |;.m1\ i" w;]- sil-o one of tlw pi(»ne«'rs nf public in the cathedral, ( »ld Aberdwn. 

\.\,rur\"..', Mii'l in Mav 1704 be published a [UirthriL'ht in Lniul. l.iocmphieal notes, by 

|.fiMij»!ibf on thf sulij.ct. !>.('. Ma.-lKnmM; l>i.uRla>^ Description of the 

M'Miiuhile Iw had b»'*'n fiiviuL' consider- j.^ist Cixist of land. p. 198; ScottiHh Notes 

;ilil'- :itt#iitioii to thf lan<l, l)otb a> a ]iractical ai J Qm-rits, 188U ; C'«tlum!»ia College Calendiu' 

n^T!' iihnri-l and as on** who was interested .it" Tni>tee<, &o. 17i»:* list: 15rit Mus. C\it. ; 

in i}i«- i!i<".ntic politic*: of bis time. In Kinir's Ci»lU'g»» Oi^ioors and Graduates (New 

177:? I." -old ill- l*itt»'n>ear e>tate. and in Spuldinj: Cluh), p. 4i».J J. K. M. 

II.- i.JIoAin- y.-:.r h.Mi-ht f.,r 1 ,.XK)/. some qGILVY. See also Ouilvie.] 

jKi'.f 1.1 rid 111 .Mi«Tdi'<ii tnsijow what could be ' 

• loi.' Ii-. rjipjiil riiliivation. and thus gave OGILVY, Al.KXANPKK,second Barox 

iiri iinp'trj. to il,i. funning industry in the okInvkkuihai:ity {tl. I4r>r»), was the son of 

noiili ol ;"^<iiljiiid. So sucr«>stiil was he Sir John (.»gilvy, third son of Sir Walter 

Lhai III I''"': Ih- ho!«l tliiis .Xberdei-n pro- Ojrilvy of Audit erhouse see under Ocjilvy, 

' for \,(HA)/. In 17^*1 he published Sir \VAi.TJ:ii]. lie obtaimnl a charter from 

inoiihly in A lierdeen * An Kssay on the Alexander Set on, lord of Gordon, of Newton 

uf IVo|H*rly in Land.* 1 1 is proposals and other lands in the parish of Kirriemuir 

;iati) much of what haHHince been done on lo June 1434; from NicoU Borthwick 




of the lands of Ladinch to him and Janet 
Towers, his spouse, on 15 March 1438 ; and 
from William Gifford, of Balnagarroch, of 
the lands of Little Migny on 1 April 1439. 
He was sheriff of Kincardine (^Reg, Mag. 
Sig. Scot. 1424-1613, entry 376), bailie of 
Panmure (Exchequer Holis of Scot 1. 1437-64, 
p. 200), and keeper of Methven Castle (ib. 
p. 201). 

Along with the Earl of Crawford, Sir 
Alexander Livingstone, and others, Ogilvy 
about 1444 made a raid on the lands of 
Bishop Kennedy of St. Andrews in Fife and 
Angus, destroying the villages and farms, 
and taking captive his vassals. For this out- 
rage they were excommunicated, and the 
subsequent fate that overtook Crawford and 
Ogilvy was supposed to prove a divine rati- 
fication of the sentence. The earFs son, 
master and afterwards fourth earl of Craw- 
ford [see under Lindsat, Alexandeb, fourth 
Earl op Crawford], who for some time had 
been justiciary of the abbey of Arbroath, was 
in 1446 superseded by Alexander Ogilvy. 
The master of Crawford determined to main- 
tain possession of the abbey by force of arms, 
and Ogilvv resolved by force to oust him 
from it. ^Before the commencement of the 
battle on 13 Jan. 1446-6, the old Earl of 
Crawford, who suddenly appeared between 
the opposing forces as mediator, was acci- 
dentally shot by one of the OgihTS. The 
incident led to an immediate and furious 
conflict, in which the Ogilvy s were defeated. 
Ogilvy himself, who was severely wounded, 
was taken prisoner and carried to the castle 
of Finhaven, where, it is said, he was 
smothered with a down pillow by the 
widowed Countess of Crawford. By his wife 
Janet, daughter and heiress of William 
Towers, he had a son, John Ogilvy, third 
baron of Inverquharity. 

[Reg. Mag. Sig. Scot.; Exchequer Rolls of 
Seotl; Auchinleck Cbron.; Douglas's Baronage.] 

T. F. H. 

1727), of Forglen, Scottish judge, under the 
title Lord Forglen, was the second son of 
George Ogilvy, second Lord Banfl*, and Agnes 
Falconer, only daughter of Alexanderj first 
Lord Halkerston. On 28 March 1685 he 
was sued by Sir Alexander Forbes of Tol- 
<|uhoun for the value of a silver cup, which 
it was alleged he had taken out of the house 
of Forbes ; out on 23 April he pursued Forbes 
for defamation in making him the thief and 
resetter (receiver) of the cup, the result being 
that the council nned Forbes in twenty thou- 
sand merks, the one half to the king^s cashier, 
and the other half to the party aggrieved. 

The king's half of the fine was subsequently 
remitted, but the council compelled Forbes 
to pay Ogilvy's half (Lauder of Fottw- 
tainhall, Decisionsj i. 369, 362, 421, 427, 

Ogilvy was created a baronet 29 June 
1701, and sat in the Scots parliament as 
member for the burgh of Banfi^ in 1701-2 and 
1702-7. In June 1703 he and Lord Bel- 
haven were ordered into custody for having 
quarrelled in the parliament house in the 
presence of the lord high commissioner and 
come to blows. On the 30th of the month 
it was moved that, as they had acknowledged 
their offence, they should be set at liberty ; 
but the lord high commissioner would not 
consent until his majesty's pleasure was 
known. Ultimately, Lord Belhaven, for 
striking Ogilvy, was ordered to pav a fine 
of 5,000/., and to ask pardon on his knees at 
the bar of the lord high commissioner; but his 
^ace was pleased to dispense with the kneel- 
ing (cf. NARCissrs Luttrell, Short Mela- 
tion, V. 814, 316, 332). On 26 March 1706 
Ogilvy was appointed a lord of session, and 
he took his seat on 23 July following, with 
the title Lord Forglen. He was also named 
one of the commissioners for the union 
with England, which he warmly supported 
in parliament. He died 3 March 1727. By 
his first wife, Mary, eldest daughter of Sir 
John Allardice of AUardice, Kincardine- 
shire, he had four sons, of whom the second, 
Alexander, succeeded him, and the others 
died without issue. By his second wife, 
Mary, daughter of David Leslie, first Lord 
Newark, and relict of Sir Francis Kinloch of 
Gilmerton, he left no issue. 

[Lauder of Fountainhali's Decisions ; Foster's 
Members of the Scottish ParliiiTnont ; Bninton 
and Haig's Senators of the (Allege of J ustice ; 
Douglas's Scottish Peerage (Wood), i. 193-4.] 

T. F. H. 

OGILVY, DAVID, Lord Ogilvy and 
titular Eaul op Airlie (1725-1803), eldest 
son of John, fourth earl of Airlie, by Mar- 
garet, eldest daughter and heiress of David 
Ogilvy of Cluny, Aberdeenshire, was born in 
February 1726. He was educated at the 
university of Aberdeen, and afterwards at 
Edinburgh ; in the latter city, according to 
one authority, making * greater progress in 
what is called genteel accomplishments, such 
as fencing, dancing, music, iS:c., than in the 
more abstracted sciences ' ( The Female Re- 
belSf p. 42). Before his marriage he also ac- 
quired a reputation for gallantry. 

Ogihy joined the Chevalier at Edinburgh 
on 3 Oct. 1745, bringing with him over six 
hundred men from Angus, of whom a large 
number were his dependents. He was 




\ ./'yiJ-^-J'iNh, Mriiioai^. ."Jri I'Jit. p. 
H/'#j. iifi'l iij.»n ]i<-'J f^'Hi'li Wi'li iji.'jj irj*', JJ':;.'- 

1,1 111 I'l i).« ''/ijjfijaij'l '.f till <:i-,;;r\. ],:t'iy 
0;/il\'. . v\)-'' '-^J*'' ♦iit!!'":.'". !::■'! b« ■■'! Ji r- 
(..i;i'li'l 1'/ r<JJi;:Jfi Jfi "•«"i»i:i.'! 'Jn!" !«;• ).;- ;i'>- 
M ij' « , i".n«'l t|i<- r••^>^■I• n« :ir <»■.;•;." iw, jini J 

III ll« I f'lJ'll ■i.iJr'-'i Ol«' hjlfi-lilj;- ;:l.'! IIJ'|.-1 <i\' 

llir •l.-in;,'<T- ot" tli»' '■:iJii|», .\\ Mii- U-ii'!!-*;!' 
I iill.jfK -li'- priiiuJi' '1 '.Miljt}.* n-i r',<-. ;ij]«l 
\\«)uM liol l#»' jM-r-ii-'wIi-'! l«i ;"» t'l ^ ■:illf|i«J:ir 
Hon-''. 0;.'ilv\'- r'-;,'iin'm I'lriin'l ilnn-jiar! 
ifj'l ii'* -•■r-'>ii'l liii<',:in«l, ^^ it It t h-it «if'l Ijf A I li"ll 
iipMi, w;i- til'" onlv |»'»j'lj'ifi of 1 !i«- -i-roii'l liiji- 
wliich raiiiv into nrti'iii liil'in- tin- <ii<-i;iv 
brnlii' nil'! tli'fl (• ^'oiiiiy I*r«l»M'li r'.- Oji< m- 
tiotis' in Lj^'KIIvici*' .1/* //io//vi, ii, lij'.jj. (Jm 
iic('()Ulit of tli«' -ii'liK'niHi-i 'if tin- iiijurli 
iwirtliwiirds Irom Stirling', l.n'ls U^ilvy vmi" 
iii'urlv tjiki'ii jiri-nrnT, Jifi*! lo-i .'iiin- of Iht 
lujf^Z"ap' ('^'. !'• 171). A I M«ihtri<-<' miiih- of 
I/ird O^ilvy H im-n wit*- ilrivrn ihiI of I In* 
town hy t li»'.'»lo»)|j-or-\\«ir IIii/;iril, ■•■iii t lut )i»-r 
tu j»n'V«'nt sn|»ii|i»"^ rniiiiu;.' IVom |'riin<-<' ( //y. 
n. -175). nj^ilw'- rr;'iiin'ni l'«ni;.'lit in i)ii< 
Hi'(M)n<l liiM' lit Ciiilodi'ri. Arii'i'tiif liattli- 
111* liiv i<>r SMin«' tiiiH* ron«'i'iil<-<i ni ( ''iriiifliv , 
litit lilt iin>it«>ly ^")t nil Imcii'iI u \c»i-| ndjn;; 
(ilV tluMij?l»ts nl"I"iiy,Minl rfuclh'ii Ndiwhv in 
HJif^'ty (('iii:>.M.ii:it .IiiiiNMioM., Mi'mnirs, \t. 

,",7.'{)* At I^rr^n-n lir W.I-, li\ onli'i- nl' tin* 
iriiVi'rnor, cnntiiH'd n |M'iMiiii-r m tin- i-ii-«tlc 
on )•> May 17li», ImiI Miri-i-i-d«d in iM'n)Mii{^ 
In Swi.'di'U, ■\vlirncf In* iiindi> lii> \\\\\ >iinlli 
fii I'Vunci*. Ijidy n^i|\\ wa.i not 11 1 ('id In 
d<Mi, tiiit mnaiiii'd nl lnvri'ni», wlurr, on 
iicrniiiit c>r h(>r act i\ ii \ in liif ri-liillinn, hiii- 
wn** srizi'd by ordrr nl' iiii> Duki* id'Ciiiiilirr- 
Ifind, and sent in .liim* a |iri>ni)i>i' in l-lilin- 
|iiir:.'li. In Ni>\«'nilH«r lnllt^\\in^• >ln" mu- 
fTi'di'd in nialtin^'^ iirr iM-npr, imhI Jnimd in-r 
liinliand in I'VatiiM-, w linr sIh* ilii'il in I7i'»r, 
lit t)i<' ^r^^* *d' thirl \ tlirri'. I.m-d ()i.'il\v 
fililninrd I'mni tin' I'^rrnrli liiin; a ii'i'inunl 
III" (not, railed nv;il\ \'s ri';;iiiii-nl. ami nlli- 
iiniti'lv lu' r*'**"' '•' 'l>«' I'-inK nl' lii'iitrnant - 
.iiiirral. l'<»r lii-' "-Iwin- in ilir i-rlirllinn In* 
y\}\A I'nrlVitrd 1»\ pMi li.iiiii-nt . Iini , Ii;i\ iiiu iirn- 
r-nnd u iVeo ])artlnii iiiidi r I In- ■•n-Mt •■i:d, in 
I , ,'^ 111* rt»tnrn«*d hmiii- , and in I ■ >^'.' Iif i>li- 
f.Hiii'd iin tll't nl" |i:tiliiiiiir||l I'm- HMiin\ in^' 

f.i.iliiili disilbiliMi'-^ iiliil ini-:i|»arit irs niTu 
tfJ.itMwI l*y his atlainili r ' lie \Mi- in iiTrMpt 
4,:«fM llur Frenrli Km^ t^^ n |iiii-i.»n. wlnrli 
iyrt|i>itt*<ili BoiiApMi'l<>, \\ Inn Ih' liii-anio Inad 
*wncli ^i»x •'rnniiiii , nlli'ii'd tn I'i'ii 
he dt*('liniMl ii 111! ilh'tl at Tor- 
ircli iSlKi. ■ ll«> «a''.'>a\'. l».Mi- 
yhletnan of lln* nld ••I'lmnl. Killtl 
Hilt to Iii> nii'MialN and drpoiidi'iit >, 

of til*. iu»s: c*iirr**c* niiiiiu*.'re.luL uf coun-^y, 
J!;i*-;.T.\v. uud iiniiriur.' liy Li* iir^■: wif* 
iwji'. u':'- >ui]mni»'t: hiiL during liit- >:':'"i?h 
f-arujii. /ij . .\J ur::u •"•*:.. da uciitvr '•- >ir JhTEt* 
J'.hii-: »!i*. .M.]'.. ol \W:Hrbtjl. J-an- 
,iri>}j;r-. uiiO ni»'c»- ni" I'uiricl: Mum.y. l.«rd 
Kli'riiT.i:. li«- Imd u rsui. l»avid. :::Lu.isir -arl 
of Airli*-. uii'J T"\v(i duui:li7»»rc. liv Li^ — -r.'ad 
wjf«'. Atj!i* . T!i:rd dtiUL'U***^ <»- .^iisii*+ S'rwart 
of JJlriirljill. l*'-rth-hir». ii* !»•*: u- is.'^'jr. • »n 
thi- d»-i-»a*--. 'vxjth >u' i-«u«:. of I>L"»"id ' »j.1vt, 
N\'aitt-r '»;;i]vy ol 4.'lr»vu. r'»ri'ur-liir*'. Inid 
I'lainj to \\i* titl*- of Ear] Airlt- li-f -rr th*? 
Ilon-J.' of Lord-, hin falM ■■' -\y'.\ fr'jin 
'ln'iij any d*r''i-i"n. WuJ't'rV ^■■^ll l>bv.d wa*, 
howi'Vi-r, r'.rjtiiiu*-d in 'lif lillv by hL'T "f jiar- 
liarni'iit on '2*\ Mav l^lVi, 

|r'lji valiiT J«ihri*-triijfc"!- Memnr> ; Y-trj Pre- 
t' iidi-r's Ojurnitiori** jl lKK-khan".»- I^lerj-ips ; 
Hi-t'/rii- oi" tli* J»i. ''tlii''L f-y H'in;t hijil C.'.am- 
li« r- . 'I'll*- \-t Tij;df K'i't-I". 1 •■'■:::: •« :7iii K'Siark- 
m' 1 1- In«'ili iit^ ot ih« Livrfr. (.'hitT.j.Tfr. :.l i Kami- 
ii' K. of tlm 1 iiular I.iukr an 1 I»u: I:'-?** o: Perth. 
I III- L'ini Mild J.ady ^irii '■>••. trii Mis* Fl'-rtnw 
.M'l»..nall. l-.din!.'i"i.:}j."l747; l»-.u;r'h»VS>/ti5h 
I'Mnij.'. (W,..;.!,, i. :j.5-0.] ' T. Y, H. 

OdILVV, Sir (iEOKGE. of llunliuras, 
HanlMiiri', first Loud Baxfp i '/. U»«."i3». wa* 
i-Ii|i-h| son of Sir NVultt-r Tyilvy of ]»antf and 
Ihmln^ni-, by IIi'I»'n, daiitrlit»T nf Walter 
I 'n|nliarl nf (.Vnmarty. He bad charttTs to 
biniM'If and Mar^run.'t Irvinp. bi* wife, of the 
barony of Dnnluu^as, IKMarcli 1010-11. and 
anoi Iht of I In* barony of Inscbedour, 14 Fi*b. 
Hl:f7 s. i )n :«) July 1027 bf was treated a 
baroriff of Nova S«*otia. 

I n M irbailina?* 1 02>* ( >pilvy slew bis cniigin 
.laiin'^ n^ilvy, but on makinfr ' assy tb men t* 
for tin* ^lan^diti-r li<» was not further pro- 
ri'cdrd a^-ainst ( Si».\i,i)iNiJ. MrmoriaU^i.Y'l). 
In .lannary hi.'SO b«> assi>ted <TonInn of 
Ibitbii'inax against .lames C'ricbton of Fren- 
draii^bt, wbi'n (lordnn was slain (Gokdox, 
/•.V/i7f/"//i .;/' Siitht'i'iand^ ])p. 41()-17), and 
al'iiT ( 'liclittiii was fnrri*d, tbrougb the at- 
larli.s \\{ iln» (lordnns, to jro south to Edin- 
biir^ib.Oiiilw in lU.'U bad liistwosonsquietly 
«'<ill\n\«'d tnliiin I SPM.IUMJ, i, ."H)). 

n^ilxy iVnin the lK\udnnin<; su])port«.Hl 
t'baili'N I in lii«» I'onti'Sts with the eove- 
nanii IN (( iniiitnN, iSi'ri/^ Aflnirs, i. 01). In 
I'rbinarx Iil.'l'.* In* pive information ti> the 
Mari|ni^ **\' Miintly of a pn>]>osi'd rendt*7.vous 
of I 111* r.iNi'iiaiit.Ts at Turritr, and, it was 
^ald. >.lr!in;:lvadvisi'd Hunt Iv to attack them 
tbiM'i*. but lliintlv I'ontented himself with 
di-plaxinu bis fon-es ^/A. ]>!>. iMO-lo; SfalD- 
iNtj, i. I.'ifi 7V \Vben Uuntlvi'ame to terms 
wuli Mi»iiiri»M». and many of the northern 
buiU on tins aivount came in and sipiedthe 
ei>\i>iiaiii. Ocilw ' stout Iv slood out the 

kioe's man (ib, i. 163), and he aJsn pre- 
vailed upon tbo %'iscouDl Aboyne not lo 
join his father in the soulh (ib. p. 173). 
Shortly afWrwardi, alon^ with Aboyne, he 
took measures for his ilefence, ana ^ter 
Aboyne broke up hia forces he still con- 
liDQed in arms (A. pp. 161,182). Learning 
a May of a prdecled reodexvous of covu- 
annters at Turriff, he proposed that an attack 
shoald be made oa iheni, and, with Sir Jolia 
Gordon of lladdo, he was appointed joint 
general of the forces, ' both of Ibem of known 
courage, but BanIT [Ogilvyl the wittier of 
the two. and lladdo supposed to be pliable 
to Banff's council and advice ' (Gokdon, 
Si»ts Afairi. ii. 25<t), Early in the morn- 
ing of 13 May the covenanters were surprised 
in their bfds, and completely defeated {ih. 

t,257; Sfaldiso, i. 185), the' incident being 
nown locally as the ' Trot of Turriff.' On 
the l&th Ogi'lvy and other barons entered 
New Aberdeen with eight hundred horse, 
and took posaeasion of the town, the cove- 
nanters taking to flight (Spalding, i, 186-7). 
On the SSnd the liarons left the town, and 
marched towards Strathbogie, on arriving at 
which they learned of the proposed expedi- 
tion of the northern covenanters to Join 
Montrose at Aberdeen. Thereupon they re- 
■olved to bar their way. and, crossing Ibe 
Spey under the leadership of (^ilvy, drew 
up on elevated ground within two miles of 
£l^n. Thia led toapar1ey,aDdbothparties 
came to an agreement to lay down their arms 
(i5.llW;GoKDO!r,SN>(«-l/o.V*.ii.26,3). On 
30 May Ogilvy and others took ship at Mac- 
duff, with the intention of proceeding south 
o tlie king (Spat-Dixs, i. lU^)i but meeting 
a ship in which were Aboyne and other 
loymlists returning to the north, they were 
persnaded to change iheir purpose. They 
landed on 6 June — Ogilvy being then pro- 
stcated by fever — at .\berdeen, where Aboyne 
proclaimed hii< lieutenancy in the north (i6. 
pp. 2(H~5). Montrose having left Aberdeen 
for the south, the northern royalists had an 
opportunity of retaliation, and Ogilvy joined 
ASoyne and others in spoiling the Earl 
SUrwchal's lands KJordon, S,vt» Affain, ii. 
376). About September Ogilvy went south 
to the king (Spildiso, i. ^31), and during 
hia absence his palace at Banff and his 
couDtry house at Inschedour were spoiled by 
tbe eorenanters under General Monro (GoR- 
DOK, iii. ^2-3 ; BALForK, AanaU. ii. 38^ ). 
Aa ftat r^arotion, the king in 1I14I pre- 
Hanttdlo hun «c thousand merks Scots in 
^^^^^^^Be was also by patent, dated at Not- 
^^^^Hfa 31 Aug. 104:^, created a peer of 
^^^Hl u Lord Banff. Banff was one of 
^^^^bo in 1634, ' barefaced and in pUin 

English,' accused iho Duke of Hamilton of 
treason (Claiienbon, Hist, of Ihf ItrbflUon, 
vii. 369). His subsequent life was unevent- 
ful, und be died on 11 Aug. 1G63. By ble 
first wife, Margaret, daughter of Alejiande* 
Irvine of Drum, Aberdeenshire, he had a 
daughter Helen, married to James Ugilvy, 
secondearlof Airlie[q. V.]; and by hissecond 
wife, Mary Sutherland of Duffus, Elgin, he 
had a son George, second lord Banli', and two 

[.Volhoritirsmpnlioued in Ibe test; DoDglas'i 
Scoltiah Peerage (Wood), i. 1 U2.] T. F. H. 

OGILVY, Sir GEOliGE, of Barraa 

(f. 11)34-1679), defender of Dunottar, waa 
descended from the Ogilvys of Batnagami^ 
Forfarehire, and was the son of \\^liam 
Ogilvy of Liungair, Kincardineshire, by 
Katherine, niece of Strahan of Thornton. In 
16.'U he married Elitabelh, daughter of the 
Hon. Sir John Douglae of Barras, Forfar- 
shire, fourth son of William, earl of Angus, 
and purchased Barras from his father-in-law. 
Having in early life served in the German 
wars, he was in 1651 appointed by the Earl 
Marischal, with the title of lieutenant- 
governor, to hold the earl's castle of Uunottor 
agaiuGt the forces of Cromwell. Special im- 
portance attached to the trust committed to 
him from the fact that the regalia of Scot- 
land had been placed in the castle, but for 
the supply of armaments and provisions he 
was almost wholly dependent on his own 
exertions. On 31 Aug. 16nl the committeo 
of estates addressed an order to the Earl of 
Balcarres authorising him to receive tho 
regalia from Ogilvy, whom they directed to 
deliver them up to Bnlcarres; but Ogilyr 
declined to do so on the ground thot Bal- 
carres was not properly authorised to relievo 
him of the responsibility which had been 
imposed on him by parliament. lie, how- 
ever, declared his readiness to deliver them 
up if relieved of re^ionsibility, or his readi- 
ness to defend his charge to the last if pro- 
perly supplied with men, provisions, and 
ammunition. The castle was summoned 1^ 
Cromwell's trooos to surrender on" 8 an' 
•2-1 Nov., but Ogilvy expressed his determinj 
tion to hold out. While the castle w< 
closely besieged, the regalia were, at the in^ ■ 
stance of the Countess Uowagei Marischal, 
delivered by I^ady Ogilvy to Mrs. Grainger, 
the wife of the minister of Kitmeff, who con- 
cealed them about her person, and, passing 
the lines of the besiegers without suspicion, 
took them to the church of Kinneff, where 
they were placed below the floor. Al- 
though Ogilvy had received a warrant from 
the Earl Manschtl empowerii 

empowering him to do- 

Ogilvy 26 Ogilvy 

liver up the castle to Major-general Deane, j OGILVY or OGIL VIE, JAMES, fifth or 
ho maintained a lirm attitude until he ob- sixth Lord Ogilyt of Airlie (d, 1605), 
tained terms as favourable as it was passible ■ was the son of James, fourth or fifth lord 
to grant. On 1 Feb. '[tM'2 he sent a letter : Ogilvy, by Catherine, daughter of Sir John 
to the king asking for spetniy supplies of Campbell of Calder, knight. He succeeded 
ammunition and provisions (Cai. Clarendon his father some time before 17 Dec. 1547, and 
State PaperHf ii. 1??). These were not granted he was a lord of the articles for the parliai* 
Lim, but on 12 April the king sent him a ment of 1559. On 10 March 1559-410 he 
message approving of his fidelity, urging him ; obtained from Donald, abbot of Coupar- 
to hold out till winter, and permitting him , Angus, a charter of the lands of Meikle and 
either to ship the regalia in a ve>sel sent to Little Forthar in the barony of Glenislt. 
transfer them to Holland, or to retain them With the lords of the congregation he waa 
should he think the removal would dis- ! present at the seizure of St. Johnstone's 
hearten the garrison (/A. p. 129). The castle (Perth) in June 1559 (CaL State Papers, 
was surrendered on 2(3 May. The conditions ; For. Ser. 1558-9, entries 880, 908). He 
were tliar the garrison should march out I was one of those who, at the camp of Leith 
with the usual honours, and be permitted to on 10 May 1560, ratified the treaty of Ber- 
pasa to their homes unmolested. The favour- wick with the English (Knox, H- orA*, u. 
able terms were 
taining ])ossession 
Ogilvy failed to deliver them up, 
Lady Ogilvy were detained prisoners in a ' the streets of Edinburgh, and his right arm 
room of the castle until 10 Jan. 1653, only was mutilated, by Sir John Gordon, son of 
obtaining their liberty when all hope of rt»- George, fourth earl of Huntly [see under 
Cf)vering tlie regalia was dissipated by a false 1 GoRDoy, Georoe, fourth Earl of IluirrLT]. 
but circumstantial report that they had been : The dispute had reference to the lands of a 
carried abroad. Ogilvv was also required lo ■ relative (ib. p. 45 ; Keith, Hist. 0/ Scotland, 
find <>aution in 2,000/. sterling. The regalia ii. 15(5 ; lie^, 1\ C. ScotL i. 218). Sir John, 
remained in concealment at Kinneff till the I who was one of the lovers of Maiy Stuart, 
Uestorution, when they were delivered up was subsequently executed at Aberdeen for 
by Ogilvy to Charles II. For his services in breaking his ward and engaging in rebellion. 
oonntjction with their preservation, Ogilvy Ogilvy joined the queen in the round- 
wa.s by h'tters patent, 5 March 16(50, created about raid against Moray after her marriage 
a baroiujt of Nova Scotia, and, 3 March 1(36(5 to Darnley (xb. i. 379). lie was one of those 

death. Ihj was buried at Kinneff, where , he signed the band for her at Hamilton on 
tli(T<» is u monument to him and his wife. ' 8 May 1508, but, having gone north to muster 
lie hiid a son, Sir William Ogilvy, who, in his forces, arrived too late to be of service to 
1701, published a pamphlet setting forth the her at Langside (Keith, History, ii. 818). 
special services of his lather us preserver of . Subsequently he took up arms under the 
the rejralia, in contrast to those rendered by ' Duke of Hamilton (Heruies, Memoirs, p. 
the Karl Marisclnil, llie. title being * A True 114), and on this account was, on "2 March 
Arcouni of the l*n>servation of the l?egalia 15(38-0, declared a rebel {Bet;. P, C. ScotL L 
of Scot land.' The ]>amplilet, whieh was re- <'»46), but on 15 April signed a 'band to the 
printed in the * Soniers Tracts,' gave rise, : king' (ib. p. 654). At the parliament held 
at the in>tan(M» of tin; Karl of Kintore, to an | at IVrth on 31 July 1569, he voted for the 
actiiJii before the privy council, which, on , queen's divorce from 13othwell («*A. ii. 8). He 
8 July 17()i', ])assed an act for burning the 1 attended the convention at Edinburgh after 
biok at the cross of ICdinburgh, and lined the murder of the regent Moray in 1670 
Ocfilvy's son David, on»^ of the defenders, in (Hekries, p. 123; Caluerwood, ii.544). In 
l.i'OO/. :Scots. Th«' male line failed in the ! April he, with other lords, signed a letter to 
person of Sir (u'orge Ogilvy, the eleventh 1 (Jueen Elizabeth, asking her * to enter in 
barnner, who died in 1K»7. such conditions with the Queen's Highness 

Bldry, ii. 230-6.] T. F. H. 

they made their escape (ib. iii. 7-8 ; Uebbieb, 

p. 130). Sulwequenllylioweot nbroad,and,at 
the insUlicu of Mury q^ueta of ^I'ols, he was 
.in AuffUBt 1571 sent with kILers epeciall; 
direct^ to Mar and Alonon to induce tUem 
to recognige htr (Libu>off, Lettrea de 
' Marie Sttatrt, iit. 356). On ID Jon. 1.175 
; Hary, in & Ivlter to the Archbiihop of (iloB- 
gow, «ent afaurancea of her good will to 
Lord Ogiltnr («. iv. 239), but some lime aftiT 
tlu« he appears to have written to Mary com- 
phuntng of the want of appreciation of hia 
■erTic«e<MHryto the Archbishop of Glatigow, 
25 Feb. 1576, a. p. :;93|. Some time before 
this hi: WHS placed in ward, and on I May 
1676 lie gave surety thnt, on his release from 
the pkhice of Linhthgow, he would within 
Sntv-eiffht hours enler bis person in ward 
within the city of Glasgow (Afj/. P. CSidW. 
I u. 527). In Soveraber 1577 he was, though 
still in ward, employed on behalf of Mary 
I to open up communicBlions with Morton 
I (LiAAXOFF, iv. 4U0). A^er Morton's re- 
I aJKnation of his regency in 1678, he was, on 
13 March, discharged of his ward (Jifff. 
P. C. Scotl. ii. 077 ), and on the 24lb he was 
' choaen a member of the new privy council 
\{ib. V. 076). lie was one of the -eight 
\ BotabUi men ' nominated by the king on 
1 8 Srat. for the reconciliation of the noulity 
(*. ui. 2.>-«; MoiaiB, Memmn, -p. 16). 
Htviag on H April been named by the aa- 
l| mnbly of the kirk aa one of the persons 
I < auKpected of pnpiairie,' a minister was ap- 
pcnnted to conter wilh him and report (Cal- 
OBKWOOD, lii.lOl), and ultimately, on 28 Jan. 
IfiSO-l, he subscribed the confession of faith 
((6. p. 501). He was employed bj the agents 
of Mary to be an intermediary with the King 
'Of Scots in persuading bim to co-operate 
with the pniposed Spanish invasion in 16)^) 
(LABuroFr, V. ITS): and wna subaeqiiently 
'•mpowcreoj to induce him to consent to go 
io :jp«iin (lA. pp. 214-10). lie was involved 
'~ tne ^ot for the fall of Morton, and was 
trof the aMixewhoconvicted him of treason , 
Jono 1681 (Caluebwqod, iii. 557; MorsiB, 
f. 32). He afterwards shared in Ibe re-, 
wtird* that followed on the establishment of | 
tfie new n^gimc, obtaining a charter of tike j 
office of twilie of the monastery of Arbroath, ! 
ondalsocharters tohimself and Jean Forbes, ; 
'his wife, and Janes, their eon, of llie castle i 
Vftha moDMlervooSlOot. \^-i{Ile'i.Mag. \ 
j6t^. grot. 1580^»3, entry 453), and of the ' 
lands of SchiuifO-. 1*^ Feb. 1582-3 {0,. p. 516), , 
%e attended the convention of estiiles on 
7 Dec. l&eS. which declared the raid of 
Kothven to be a crime of lose-majestt (C*l- 
- ;woOD,*iii. 21; Re^. P. V.HcoU. iii.tJU). 
the coronation of the queen, 10 May 
~ " '\tj followed in the proceasion be- 

hind the king (UitDFBWooD, v, 9(J), and in 
15041 he was sent to Denmark to assist at 
the coronation of (.'hristinu IV (ClLDER- 
wooD, V. 437;i(cy.P. C.Sr^tl.v.SiH). On 
tl Feb. 1598-9 he whb ordered to submit to 
the king and council a feud between him 
and the Earl of Atboll (ift. v. 523), and on 
ISt April the master of Hgilvy appeared for 
his father and himself, wlien .\tholl, having 
failed to appear, was ordered into ward in 
the castle of Dumbarton under pain of trea- 
son (ib. p. 552). On 7 Martsh KiOO Ogilvy 
was ordered, under pain of rebellion, to re- 
main in ward within hia place of Arbroath 
(Ui. vi. 91). This order was given owing to 
a feud between the Ogilvjs and Lindsays, 
with whom William Stewart, brother of the 
Earl of AthoU, waa associated. Un 23 March 
Ogilvy appeared and protested that, although 
he had subscribed an assurance to Alexander 
Lindsay, lord Spynie, he ought not to be 
held answerable for those of his kin who bad 
subscribed assurances for themselves, and his 

froleat was admitted ^I'i. p. 96). On 2 March 
0()2 cha^e was given by the council for 
the renewal of the assurances between the 
Ogilvvs and Lindsays {ih. p. 492). Ogilvy 
died in 1605. On 24 Feb. 1606-7 the king, 
in a letter on ecclesia^ticul matters to the 
council, ordered that trial be takfn of the 
'boinous oifences'cumiDitted at his burial) 
' wherein there was some superstitious cere- 
monies and rites used, as if the profession 
of Papistrie bad been specially licensed and 
tolerated' {Seg. P. V. &-otl. vii. 290). 

By hia wife Jean, eldeat daughter of Wil- 
liam, seventh Lord Forbes, Ogilvy had 
six sons and a daughter, .\raong the aona 
were James, acventh lord, whose son James, 
first earl of Airiie, is separatelv noticed; Sir 
Jiihn,towhomhisfather,on 13 March 1563-4, 

Bunted a charter of the lands of Kinlocb; 
avid, who bad a charter of the lands of 
Lawton. The daughter, Margaret, waa mar- 
ried to George Keith, fifth earl Marischal. 
[Tlic aattiurilies mentioned in tho tazt.1 

■I'. F. H. 

OGILVY, JAMES, first EaklopAirlib 
(1693i'-166(i), son of James, seventh lord 
Ogilvy, by his first wife, Lady Jean Ruth- 
ren, daughter of William, flmt earl ofGowrie, 
was born probably about 1593. His grand- 
father was James, sixth lord Ogilvv of Airlie 
[q.v.] He succeeded his fatheroB eighth Lord 
Ogilvy about 1618. For his attachment to the 
royalist cause during the struggle bet ween the 
court and the prosby1erians,Ciiarles I created 
him earl of Airlie by patent dated at York 
2 April 1639, During the Scottish war he 
suffered «eveTely,hiBefltatee being wasted tmd 

Ogiivy 28 OgiKy 

ftl] hi* h'/ i-^^ nz^i Z/t rh^t ^ZturA, -i that, wb^.^f^ -i/ .Sr'^fAOX'f. tjL vi. pt. L pp. 14, 22, 

r«-r/.*rk.-. a >/?*:r- ■».'.>.- '.f rr.- p^, • tLrv l:?-;. iV-^ I'l.'S, iCijf*. r»n i>J Jufv lt>43 he 

h*'.*: not. ivf* h.r.'. .n til h.- Ur.'i- » c j^^-it :»> 'wa.* cLirzrii witii Lirii ir^eAson in hia absence, 

cro-A' 'l;iy ' ' O//. .S/^jf//' Pop^r^i, Ihtzn. 1'^I4^>-1. ba* oion:in-L-iii a cl'>*r compianion of Montrose, 

p. "iop. If- vt:tr To ^o'lr ifi A pr.l 1*V4^J ro ai;*Lnz &.? Gce or Lie &itiea--d^-canip. In Au- 

fivoid takin;: th*r r/,v«:riAr.*., b'it, rrt'imln;: t'> sr:i-* I'.VW hr was -ent with despatches to the 

Sf-'itljirifl, uri- pr«-M:rir in tL*: cov>-riAattn:: kin;:, an-i t'TlI icio the hand« of the English 

uarliarn*?rit of l»;i:;. In th«: foli-^^in? y*Ar parIi&mTntarvtn>:>p9 near Proton in Lanca- 

Ih* iind hi.i thp'»: «/»ri'» j'lifi'rd Monfr^.^: fhrv tLir^ » Ki'shwoeth. v. 745*. He was taken 

wtTi; vimMn^Mt'.titiy f<irr*r:?«;d by |»arliam**nt pri^-on-r to Edinburzh. and remained incar- 

on 11 Vt'h. 1*>15, irx<m|if*d from paHon in c^nit*.-<i in thv Tulbooth thert for more than 

the treaty of Wir.itmiri-t^T, and »xcornmiini- a y»rar, und»:rzoing frequent examination, bat 

cated by the kirk on 'J7 July 1017. ISut con-tantlydtrclining to acknowledge the au- 

having obtained on iJ'i July UWt an a«nur- thority 01 th*: covenanters. He was frequently 

auce and rerni>.«ion fn^m M:ij<ir-;r*'neral Mid- vi?*ited by his mother, sister, and wife, who in 

dleton [see MiiiDLKioN, John, lir-t Eakl of AugUAt l»j44 p**titioned for his removal from 

Middleton', wIio was aiithori-«Ml to pacify tht- then plagu*>infected town, and obtained 

the north of Scotland in tlii.s way,]>firliami.'nt an ordt^r for his removal to the hass Rock. 
was obliged, though unwillingly, to n"»cind IJefore, however, this change could be 

his forfeiture on 17 .March 1»>17. 11*: did effected, Montrose had inflicted a severe de- 

not afterwards tak»; any active part in public feat on the covenanters at Kilsvth (lo Aug. 

atlairs, and di«d in l<;ti»J (Af-t^ of the. Par- 104.J), which practically placed the country 

liftmentM of Scotland, viii. p. '2'Si ). at his dispo?fal, and he sent orders to Edin- 

Wv marrifd about UU4 Lady Isabfrl burgh for the release of Lord Ogilvv and 

Hamilton, mtoiuI daiighti-r of Thoinas, lirst other prij^oners, which were at once o{)eyed. 

earl of Haddington, by whom h«; had thret; Kfjoining Montrose, Ogiivy resumed active 

sons and two daughters. Th«* sons were: Rjrvice, and was present at the battle of 

James, second earl ;q. v. , and Sir Thomas Philiphaugh (13 Sept. lG4o), where, the 

and Sir Havid Ogiivy. ()nedaughter,Isab<.d, royalist aruiv being routed, he was again 

cleverly enablerlhi^r brother James tr) ehcap<! captured, and, after confinement in several 

from tfie cattle of St. AiidrewH on the eve prisons, was on 10 Jan. 1640 tried at St. 

of liis inleiidrd execution; she died un- Andrews and condemned to death. The 

nuirried. Iler sirtter, Klixabeth, nuirried in day appointed for his decapitation was the 

1012 Sir John Carnegie of lialnanioon, For- 20th of that month; but on the preceding 

farshin' ( I''|{\hi:u, IChiIm of Sout/n'/t/,-, p. 4.'U). eve his elder sister changed clothes with him 

ICul. Sii.u- I'liiMT.. Don,." ir.MW ion, pissini; »» ^''« P"*'on in the cas^lle of St. Andrews, 

Arts (if III.. I'.i!luiti,.hiH.irs...,tlaml, Uiio-lfiOfi. , and he escajM'd. A thousand pounds St erhng 

p.isHiiii. II,iH..iii'm AtinnlH, iii. iJOK ; I )ouKliis'K ' wasolfenul for his Capture dead or alive. but 

iVern^M'. nl. WmuiI. i. .TJ. i\:\ ; i JiinliiMTH ( '.iniTiion- the n'ward was ineffectual : and in the foUow- 

vralili. i. "n'-i. \ H. I*. ing July he secured a pardon fr<mi Middleton, 

, which th(^ parliament were obliged to con- 

OOILV Y,^ .1 AMMS, heccuid lv\iti. of firm. He also gave satisfaction to the kirk, 

AiKLiiJ 1 UUo!'' 1701 h, the ehlest win of and Was released from excommunication. In 

James, tirM nir\ | tj. \.\ wiis pmhalily Ixirn May Iti 19 betook part in PI uscarden's rising 

about lt»l"». Sluinug ardenlly tht> royalist in t*ht> north. 

sy 111 pat hies of his tntlier, he, whil«' L.>rd {'mm the coronation of Charles II at 

t»i:il\y, totik a \er\ nelixe juirt on bilialf o( Scone in U'uA) Ogiivy t«.H>k st^rvice in the 

Charles I during the Scottish wars, lu ItilO Scottish army, and was capturtMl by Crom- 

he held Airlit* C«M ie auaiiiNi Moiitn»>e, tlnMi well's troojH'ri nearAlythin Forfarshire,with 

a covenanter; but. being itbligrd to. surn'mler, the ctmnnitte«» of e>tates, on '2S Aug. Itiol. 

he was permitted, with his witV, to escape, Me was then sent prisoner from Dundee to 

an incident for which Montros«» was >harply rvneniouth CastKsand thtnce to the Tower 

c!.:iUcn»:tHn»\ the tabh'.s (Cr/. Wi/^i- /'u/vrx. ul*^ London (HvLFoUR, Afmalf, iv. 1, 128, 

lK:n. ItilO.p.ViV Ket'usini; to oU'y theorder 'J\OrM h. A year later he was libenittnl on 

•.: : he Scott i>h pail i.nuein t.» appear lM'l*on» condition that he would not leave ]x)ndon 

zL-.iy. and »::vr caution tV»r Keepiiiii lUv peace, >\ iihout |HTmissivm ; but. on a general order, 

rL'i'.v\ was vUvla!\d a rebel, and was spei'ially he wns siH»n nvommilted to the Tower. In 

•!*r*'m parvlon. In February I t»i:» he one of his petitions lo Cn>m well he states 

accomnauitsl Montrv»>o to Charles Ts court, that he >\a> seiretlby a party of horse, under 

measures lor waging war against Ueneral Monck. while |ieaceably residing at 

icv»vonanrersv.'t*">'J t/Mi* i\ir/i*ii- 1 his mansion-house in Scotland/and protestA 



that he had never taken an active part against 
the Commonwealth {Cal. State Papers^ Dom. 
lt>50, p. (50). He remained a prisoner till 
January 1657, with the exception of three 
months* leave, granted in July 1655, for the 
purpose of visiting Scotland. He was released 
in 1657 on finding security in 20,000/. 

After the restoration he endeavoured to 
redeem his losses hy obtaining grants from 
Charles II, but without much result. He 
succeeded as second Earl of Airlie on the 
death of his father in 1666, and is frequently 
mentioned in the parliamentary proceedings 
of the reigns of Charles II and James II. 
At the revolution he declared for the prince 
of Orange, but for not attending the meet^ 
ings of parliament he was in 1689, and again 
in 1693, fined 1,200/. Scots, which, however, 
were remitted, and his attendance excused, 
on account of his old age and infirmities. A 
like dispensation was granted to him in No- 
vember 1700. He probably died in 1704, as 
on 31 July of that year his son David was 
served as his heir (Lindsay, Hetours to Chan- 
cerVt sub anno). 

Mark Napier savs that in his youth Lord 
Ogilvy courted Magdalene Carnegie, the 
youngest daughter of David, lord Carnegie, 
and afterwards wife of Montrose ; and tnat 
he was on his way to propose to her when, 
in fording a river, he was thrown from his 
horse ; regarding the ducking as an unfa- 
vourable omen, he proceeded no further on 
that errand (ifemoirs of Montrose, i. 66). 
He was, however, twice married : first to 
Helen Ogilvy, daughter of George, first 
lord Banff, by whom he had one son — David, 
who succeedeid him — and four daughters ; and, 
secondly, to Mary, daughter of Sir James 
Grant of Grant, the widow of Lewis, third 
marquis of Huntly, but by her he had no 
issue (F&iSEB, The Chiefs of Grant, i. 239). 

[Acts of the Pari laments of Scotland, 1641- 
1700, paasim; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1630- 
166S, passim ; Napier's Memoirs of Montrose, 
ii. 375-640 ; Balfour's Annals, iii. 252-430, iv. 
128, 314 ; Douglas's Peerage, ed. Wood. i. 33, 
34.] H. P. 

OGILVY, JAMES, fourth Eabl of Find- 
LATEB and first Eabl of Seafield (1664- 
1730), lord chancellor of Scotland, second son 
of James, third earl of Findlater, by Lady 
Anne Montgomery, relict of Robert Seton, 
eon of Sir George Seton of Hailes, Midlo- 
thian, was bom in 1 664. He was ed ucated for 
the law, and was called to the bar on 16 Jan. 
1685. He sat in the Scots parliament as 
member for Banffshire in 1681-2, and from 
1689 to 1695. At the Conyention parliament 
of I639 he made a speech in favour of King 
Jamesi and he was one of the five who dis- 


sented from the motion that the king had for- 
feited his right to the crown. Subsequently 
he took the oath to William and Mary, and in 
1693 — according to Lockhart, by William 
duke of Hamilton's means {Papers, i. 52) — 
he was constituted solicitor-general, received 
the honour of knighthood, and was appointed 
sheriff of Banffshire. In January 1695-6 he 
succeeded James Johnston [q. v.] as secretary 
of state, and in the following year he, though 
secretary, sat and voted in parliament in ac- 
cordance with the king's special directions. 
He supported the proceedings in the parlia- 
ment of 1695 against Dalrymple and others re- 
sponsible for the massacre ofGlencoe, but on 
23 July represented to Carstares that he had 
'acted a moderate part in all this,' and in regard 
to it expressed his willingness 'to be ordered 
by his majesty as to the method of serving him 
as is my dutv ' (Carstares, State Papers, p. 
258). On 28 June 1698 he was created Vis- 
count Seafield, and appointed president of 
the parliament which met at Eainburgh on 
16 July. On his arrival in Edinburgh on 
9 July he * met with a very great reception ' 
{ib. p. 84). According to JVlurray of Philip- 
haugh, he presided * very extraordinary well, 
both readily, boldly, and impartially ' (16. p. 
383), and he did much to assist in carrying 
the policy of the king to a successful issue 
{ih. passim). From the beginning Seafield 
was opposed to the formation of the African 
company (letter to Carstares, ib. p. 314). 
His kno wn antipathy to the enterprise aroused 
against him much hostile feeling in Scotland, 
and during the rejoicings in Minburgh, on 
the arrival of news regarding some advantage 
gained by the Scots against the Spaniards of 
Darien, his windows were broken by the mob 
(Marchmont Papers, iii. 210; Luttrell, 
Short Relation, iv. 660). Argyll, disgusted 
by Seafield's attitude, contemptuously af- 
firmed that there was in him 'neither honour, 
honesty, friendship, nor courage,* and said that 
if it were not * lessening * himself to * say it 
to a man who dares not resent it,' he would 
* send him as much signed ' (Carstares, State 
Papers, p. 494). He was appointed com- 
missioner to the general assembly of the kirk 
which met in 1700, and on 24 June 1701 he 
was created Earl of Seafield. He retained 
his political influence after the accession of 
Queen Anne, and on 12 May 1702 was con- 
tinued secretary of state, along with the Duke 
of Queensberry. The same year he was ap- 
pointed a commissioner to treat for the union, 
and on 1 Nov. he succeeded the Earl of 
Marchmont as lord high chancellor. In 1703 
he was appointed commissioner to the general 
assembly which met on 10 March. Accord- 
ing to Lockhart, he at this time did ' assure 

•J • . --- 

^.. .. ... ..- - ^ - - - V 

» .. : •• i.- 

•.■.-..::■■•. V ;.* '^^ ■■ -. ■ "Li- •■--.• .Ti_— •-" II-:.- \.l-Lr :-^i. t-£ — ^r.: j-rrhip* onend 

:.\' :. >.\ . ■ ' . •. "^ . L--^--*L* •-• L- : "-- ii.i.*~r^ • -. t'.t ^ri-e-r hin-1. other 

'■. :.".•. •..■■■ '. • ■-'T'-i I,- "K^" ._: 1 L*. : *:•- t .r "v-r- L vrr:-! \j -^-r^-in^ L:» I-*rd>hip 

'• i- . '. V.-. * *.: :,*-■'*■• .: •y.-L r":'-"'. r _^1: * : -i.^ :.'.-r:::_i" /'ij - r*. p. i:J4 u 

It ZL- .1^ :* : .--T'-i *..'"- jrlrvar.ors on which 

iT :h- S: tTi-^h privy 

^ . . .... , .. - - ..-...-- .-. .1 T^iT i"*« '.l-l-i. 'lii: :hv Trv-ason Uws 

'' . .- '.;. •;. ■ "r. • . . • "■ 7 -^ -r-; .-.-. •. .: r. : K-iI-ni ~-rr r!::^^;-! ;o So- :>:Lind, ihai 

J7 O •. - '-:••-:.-■..'.• r— rr-:-:.'';.- f -■-,:■ •-.- S- *'L^1 7»— r- ■K--r«- inoapaciiatt^l fri:>m 

fi.'.-.^* ••'..!. • .•: f,i.-. '.: iC I'. ..v.-. «•:. ".-r^:,.- i-^r* : :' ".rrr-: Brl:a;n. ar.-I that the 

i> M..-:. J7'.'f •*/ ;.■ V..-.- -ci-«;.i i:.:. :.'--ll.r: >.■> -.ii Vrr--. 4iv;rC*.Ti to ih»; malt tax. 

K.;'.. '..'.A"-:.. .-. '..■: Sl-s.ri..' '.: Twrr^iiilr Tit tz^.'.-z. TTii 1 .*• by the small majority 

K .*: . . f : / ^ <: .'. *; . - ::. . - -^r I . J .'i • :. ^ -i::: •- vr^ij ■: z S L : r ". v irVrrwirds FinJIat er was 

I J.-. 1 j-r ■*■*• Ii." rs •!:.'*■• 'rr.dir.. •-:-:': ^y ^i.- ii]>-:r.:-r: k^j-er o: the Errtai seal of »^cot- 
i/i ' » ^ i n f V J . :. . r:: i . . w h o. ;ir *-.• ' •. -r c'/ :. v: ■;•. : ' s lir. i. Fie al?- j ]■ >-*M^i a» cbanc»-'ll nr i n t he 
*fi ' .'.i ji* 'Ain<i r»;<: r: ii :. ♦! ». i • cr-- 'A- f , r t :.- c ip: ur-r c . in of *-**: :•:: . wLere hi? accomplishments 
of H v<r»5-':l ^-I'^fj ;.';:.«' to ?h«r J.»ar!-n c^mp^ii.v a.* i lawyer and L> pr.ictical tact wereof great 
ftfi'l tin: ffiiir'l'-r of ;?•! cap*;iin aij'l or^.--*, tj>- *^rv:ce in the sni-»th despatch of busine^^ 
pi-^'twl tfi;it Th«-;r'»v»rnirnent iri*en'ie«i to avoid Although indic:i?inj occasionally a certain 
fXf'.iiUii'j th" '^:u'*-uf:*'. of death- sympathy wi'h the Jacobites, he kept aloof 

S*:tii\Mj in Marrh 17'>i, w-u.« app^^inted a from Jac^ibite ir.tri^ue.«. lie diedon 15 AufT. 
/■oifjrfii-!i«iofiir for t|i«r union with Kn:;land, \7^), at the a:r»r of sixty-.«i.\. A portrait of 
iiri'l hf wh'^ ofi«r of tluj wjort activ*; ppjmoters S*^afi*?ld, by Kn»rllt-r. has been en^rraved by 
of tli«; twti-\ir*:. Af:corrlinjf to LfKrkliart, Smith: another, by Sir John Medina, b&- 
* wln'fi h«?, fi-* r-h»iiK''rlIor, -ijrn*'d the en^rrossed loners to the ColleL'e of Surereons, Rdinburj^h. 
i'X<ifi|)liri<'fii.ion of the Act of t'nion, h»; n?- Hy his wife Anne, daughter of Sir AVilliam 
turiii-rl it to thi; rh-rk, in the fuc of parlia- Diinljar of Durn, Rantfshire, hart., Findlater 
iiii'Ml, with tliiH (hHpi«in(( and crmtenining had three sons and two daughters. Tlie sons 
n-iiiiirl(, '* Now th'-n-'s uM'r finl of am? old w« -re James, lop 1 Desk ford, who succeeded as 
hfiiipr"' i J'ffpfr/t, i, 'JS't). \\*' WHS one of the . fifth earl of Findlater and second of Sea- 
Mi \i«'<-n S(v)lli^h p'|in^M«'nt.alivr' piMTs crhosi'n field, and was father of .Tames, sixth earl of 
ai \\if Hlll■^l■(■(^ill^' «»li*<'t.ion in 1707, and was Findlater 'q. v.^: William: and Geortre, who 
ri"('h().Hi<M III I'lich Kiih.if'qiHMit ijh'Ction up to passed advocate at the Scottish bar in lT-t% 
\\':*'i iiirliiMivi'. Ih* wart also in 1707 rhosen ■ and died unmarried in 1732. The dauphtvrs 

II iiumiIht 111' t iiM Kn^lisli privy rouncil, ami were Klizalxith, marrii'd to Charles, sixth earl 
Mil his ri'iiirn In Ivliiiliiirgh In- pro(luci»d to of I .aud(»rdjil(; ; atid Janet, married first to 
Mil- hinlM n\' m'N,ii)ii »i new coniinission up- i Hugh For])*'s, eldest son and heir-apparent 

Miiiihii^ him I'haiicollnrdf S(!ot hinil. Ihiiilils ' of Sir AVilliam Forl)es of Craipievar, bart., 

iiixmt;, linwi'MT, iiriscM us Id iIm' validity of and si.'ootidly to AVilliam Duff of Braco, 

I hi' iillirn nl'iiT 1 lii' union, hi- WHS inslt^ad aft iTwanls Karl of Fife. 

ii|i|Miitiir>| Im-il i'hii'f liiinin in th«' <'ourt af 'Sratield was,' says Lockhart, *finelynp- 

i'\i'hiM|urr, hi'iiij; iiihniltiMl tin JS May. St'a- eomplishfd, a h'arned lawyer, a just, judpe, 

lii'M Ki'rjM'il \t]\\\ 10!)/. as rciniprnsation court oous, and ^'ood natured, but withal so 

iumhiv lit ilii« time nf iho uuinii, hut in 1708 intirt'ly abandon *d to serve the court measur»'s, 

hi> )■<■'••' iTMfi'i ill coiinri-tion witli tin* be they what they will, that he seldom or 

1111 i\\y\ III' I hi" iniM^uii' WiM'i' iicliiiowh'dpMl tu'ver Consulted his own inclinations, but 

|t\ Mil' iTtnii 111' a |i'«ii'*ion of o.tKK)/. p»'r was a blank sheet of paper which the court 

ainiuiii I »u ufi dimr \o his fathrr, tho nii^jht fill up witli what they pleasM. Ashe 

ihnd liil oi I'lUilhitiM-. in 1711. hi' ado]>t(>d tlius saeritieed his hon«.ur and principles, so 

Ihi' ml .ii i'iii'l ni" I'ln.ll.iti'r ami S,\itii'hl. h»» likewise easily <h»si»rtrd his friend wht'n 

Mum i!ii- .'xi !i loii 111' till' mall ta\ lo his inttT»"*t (whieh hr was only firm toWlid 

S. lit III. I iti 1 . |:5. iiiulhihr was iihhuvd. at not stauil in eompi'titiou. He made a jrrmd 

I'l • III 1 II!,-.- ..| I .«,lvhiri. to mt»>i' for h»a\t' tiiriin'. aT\d ]»roi-.M'ih'il oxtn^nely well in the 

I" '•"" ■ >■' » hill l'»5- ih.' ri']H'al of th-Mini-MK Parliam^ui and Si»^-ioii. where lie drs]iatelied 

\.i • il'M I • I oi-IxImH. Ill* was 'hiMh well lni^in>'ss ti^ tlif Lreneral satisfaction of the 

a" * '" p- » l ^^ll'l tl»«' I I'-K avnij^^urd him .lud^i's* \ /V'/ir-v. i. ."l'^k This estimate may 

x\.ll !•:. I. d ' vv.ium' he hoju-d he muhr be niwpied s» far at lertst as it indicates 

th ' l»v I i'. .»'V y\-\ K^( ihe odjum he lay whenin lay his special sirenpth and weak- 

UM ! ! .» »' tu- -^.'iiiNir.imenial m prxMuotiui,- ue>s. but allowaiuv must Iv made f*xr the 

jli I ' ^'M. .\u\ . 'i i'l.',iM\l iMvausehe would Mi\mjr Jcuvbite bias of l.ookhsrt. Mackv 




Tvrote of him, * lie affects plainness and fami- 
liarity in his conversation, but is not sincere : 
is very beautiful in his person, with a ^aceful 
behaviour, smilinf^ countenance, and a soft 
tonpue' {Memoirs 0/ Secret Services, lSl-2). 

ICnrstiiresV State Papers ; Lockhart Papers ; 
Marchmont Paperfl, ed. Kose; Luttrell's Short 
EelatioD ; Macky's Memoirs of Secret Serv'cos; 
Burnet's Own Time ; Crawford's Officers of State, 
pp. 246-9 ; Brunton and HaigV Senators of the 
College of Justice, pp. 472-3 ; Douglas's Scottish 
Peerage (Wood), i. 686-7.] T. F. H. 

OGILVY, JAMES, sixth Earl of Find- 
later and third Earl of Seafield (1714 ?- 
1770), eldest son of James, fifth earl of Find- 
later and second of Seafield, by Lady Eliza- 
beth Hay, second daughter of Thomas, sixth 
earl of Kinnoull, was bom about 1714. 
While ou foreign travel he made the ac- 
quaintance of Horace Walpole, who, in a 
letter to General Conway on 23 April 1740, 
wrote of him, ' There are few young people 
have so good an understanding,' but referred 
to his * solemn Scotchery * as not a * little 
formidable' (Walpole, Letters, ed. Cun- 
ningham, i. 46). Before succeeding his 
father in 1704 he was known as Lord Desk- 
ford. From an early period he took an 
active interest in promoting manufactures 
and agriculture. In the parish of Deskford 
he opened, in 1752, a large bleachfield, and 
in Cullen he established a manufacture for 
linen and damask. From 1754 to 1761 he 
was one of the commissioners of customs for 
Scotland, and in 1765 he was constituted one 
of the lords of police. lie was also a trustee 
for the improvement of fisheries and manu- 
factures, and for the management of the 
annexed estates in Scotland. By his example 
and encouragement he did much to promote 
advanced methods of agriculture in Banff- 
shire. He introduced turnip husbandry, and 
granted lonj( leases to his tenants on condi- 
tion that within a certain period they should 
endorse their lands, and adopt certain im- 
proved methods of cropping. To prevent 
damage to young plantations on his estate, 
he agreed to give certain of his tenants, on 
the termination of their leases, every third 
tree, or its value in money. He died at 
Cullen House on 3 Nov. 1 770. By his wife, 
Lady Mary, second daughter of John Murrny, 
first duke of AthoU, he had two sons : James, 
seventh earl of Findlater and fourth earl of 
Seafield <d, 1811), the last earl of the Ogilvy 
line ; and John (d. 1763). 

[Douglas's Scottish Peerage, ed. Wood, i. 688 ; 
BoFBce WaIpole*8 Letters; New Statistical Ac- 
count of Scotland, xiii. 166. 229, 235. 323; 
CraiDODd*8 Annals of Banff (New Spalding 
Cinb).] T. F. H. 

OGILVY, JOHN (^. 1592-1(501), poU- 
tical adventurer, commonly called Powrie- 
Ogilvy, was descended from Sir Patrick 
Ogilvy, whose son Alexander, in the time of 
the Bruce, obtained the lands of Ogilvy and 
Easter Powrie. John was served heir of 
his father Gilbert in the lands and barony 
of Easter Powrie on '27 Aug. 1601 (Warden, 
Anf/us or Forfarshire, Dundee, 1886, v. 23). 
His sister Anne married Sir Thomas Erskine 
of Gogar, who was in 1619 created Earl of 

Ogihy came into, notice as a young man. 
In 1592 he was selected, apparently by 
James VI, to be the bearer to foreign 
countries of a secret despatch, in which the 
Scottish king discussed the advantages and 
disadvantages of a combined attack with 
Philip II upon England in the summer of 
that year. Ogilvy was, however, prevented 
from going abroad at the time, ana the des- 
patch was subsequently found upon George 
Kerr on the discovery of the Spanish blanks 
in December lo93(^i>^ MSS. Comm, Hat- 
field MSS. iv. 214; Scottish Hcview, July 
1893, art. ^Spanish Blanks,* p. 23). 

In the following year Ogilvy, * apparent of 
'■ Poury,* together with John Ogilvy of Craig 
I and Sir Walter Lindsay [q. v.], was proclaimed 
a traitor and * trafficking papist * {Beff. Privy 
Council, y. 172). He is next heard of in 
Flanders in 1595, when, professing to be an 
■ accredited agent of James, he entered into 
negotiations with the Scottish or anti- 
Spanish faction among the catholic exiles, 
' and at the same time offered his services on 
behalf of King Philip to Stephen d'lbarra, 
the Spanisli secret ary-at-wan From Flanders 
he went to Rome, and there presented to 
the pope, in the name of James VI, a peti- 
tion to which the king's seal was attached. 
In this document — * Petitiones qurodam 
Ser^* Regis Scotorum quas a Sanct™" Patr^ 
Clemente Papa perimpleri exoptat * {State 
Papers^ Scotl. Iviii. 83) — James promised sub- 
mission to the church of Rome, prayed for 
papal confirmation of his right to the Eng- 
lisn throne, and for money in aid of his 
military enterprises. Ogilvy supported the 
petition by a paper of * Considerations' drawn 
up by himself to show the good disposition 
of the king towards catholics (ib. Iviii. 84). 
Meanwhile he aroused the suspicions of the 
Duke of Sesa, the Spanish ambassador, with 
whom he intrigued in secret, and by Sesa's 
persuasion he went from Rome into Spain, 
accompanied by Dr. John Cecil, an English 
priest, who was then attached to the Spanish 
faction, and did not b«»lieve in the alleged 
catholic proclivities of James, or in the 
genuineness of Ogilvy *8 credentials. 




Arriving in Toledo in May 1596, Ogilvy 
exhibited a letter of cnidit from the .king 
of Scotland, and a memorial in which 
James proposed an offensfive and defensive 
alliance with Spain, and, as security for his 
own fulfilment of the terms of this treaty, 
offered to deliver his son, Prince Henry, into 
the hands of Philip. Cecil presented a 
counter memorial ; and this, together with 
the disclosure by d'Ib:irra of Ogilvy's double 
dealings in Flanders, led to his imprisonment 
in Barcelona pending the confirmation of his 
commission by the king of Scotland. This 
confirmation does not appear to have been 
ftent, while James denied to Queen Elizabeth 
that he had given Ogilvy any such commis- 
Hion. Ogilvy was still in prison in August 
\i}*Mf when" Erskine, his brother-in-law, 
arrived in Spain to intercede for him. lie 
was back in Scotland in December 1600, 
and, under the alias of John Gibson, was in 
th«; pay of the English secretary. Sir Robert 
Cecil. He was shortly afterwards in cus- 
ifxly at Edinburgh, and in danger of his life 
as a traitor ; but in March he effected his 
escape, and, after writing to James a letter 
in which he denied having ever made use 
of the king's commission in either Flanders, 
Italy, or Spain, he seems to have slipped 
abroad, and is heard of no more. 

[Summary of the Memorials that John Ogilvy, 
SIcottish biiron, sent by the king of Scotland, 
gave to his catholic majesty, in favour of a 
League Wtween the two kinars ; and what John 
Cecill. priest, an Englishman, on the part of the 
Earls and othi^r Catholic lords of Scotland, set 
forth to the cimtmry. in the city of Toledo, in the 
months of May and Juno lo96 ; printed, among 
Documents illust r.iti tig Catholic Policy (in the 
Miscellany, vol. xv. of the Publications of the 
Scottish History Society), by T. G-. Law; Bibl. 
Biroh. Brit. Mus. Addit .'M>^. 4120 ; Stale Papers, 
Sootl. lix. 6: Crtl. State Papers, Scotl. ii. 604. 
791-5, 799.] T. G. L. 

seventh Baron of Hoyxe ( //. 1707), was ; 
the son of Sir Walter, sixth baron of Hoyne, ., 
and succeeded his father in U'uAS. <^n 14 Oct. 
ItVi^l he was named an ordinary lord of session, 
with the title of Lord ]^>vne, and at the same , 
time riHvived the honour of knight IkkxI. In , 
January U?St> he riveived a ]H»nsion from the ' 
k'.nz. On II Mav of the same vear he was 
insultevl in the lliirh Strtvtof Edinburgh as 
he was returninir innw (HMirt by Campbell of 
C;-Idor, wlio >pHt in his face, calling him 
n:*cal and villain. The court of s^^ssiou 
ecummitt^^l Cauiphr^ll to prisou in the Tol- 
' laid the matter Wfon* the kinp, 
ed that CampU'll should ask his 
uxlon and theirs, and particularly 

Lord Boyne*8, on his knees. This he did on 
14 Sept. Ogilvy represented Banffshire in 
the Scottish parliament 1669-74, 1078, 1081- 
16^-2, 1685-6, in the convention of 1689, 
and from 1689 until 29 April 1693, when 
his seat was declared vacant because he had 
signed the assurance. Bumet states that 
he ' heard from some of the lords of Scot- 
land ' that on Queen Anne*s accession to the 
throne the Jacobites sent up Ogilvy of Boyne, 
* who was in great esteem amons^ them,' to 
propose to her * the design of bringing the 
Pretender to succeed to the crown upon a 
bargain that she should hold it during her 
life ; ' and that * when he went back he gave 
the party full assurance that she had ac- 
cepted it' (Oum Time, ed. 1838, p. 853). 
He is mentioned in 1705 in the Duke of 
Perth's instructions as one of those who 
had distinguished themselves by their loyalty 
to the exiled family since the revolution 
(Correspondence of Nathaniel Hookey i. 230), 
and as favouring a descent on England (1^. 
ii. 25). In Septeml)er 1707 he signed cre- 
dentials to his son James to treat with the 
pretender as to the means of his restoration 
to the throne {ib. ii. 47). On account of 
debt he was ultimately compelled to sell the 
estate of Boyne. By his first wife, Mary, 
daughter of Sir James Grant of Grant, he 
had a son James, a very active Jacobite (cf. 
Correspondence of Nathaniel Hooke), who 
ultimately settled in France ; and by his 
second wife, a daughter of Douglas of 
Whittinghame, he had Patrick, from whom 
the Ogilvys of Lintrathen are descended. 

[Lauder of Fountainhall's Historical Notices ; 
Burnet's Own Ti me ; Correspondence of Nathaniel 
Hooke (Roxburgh(; Club) ; Douglas's Baronage of 
Scotland, p. 289 ; Brunton and Haig*s Senators 
of the College of Justice. T. F. H. 

(rf. 1440), of Lintrathen, lord high treasurer 
of Scotland, was the second son of Sir Walter 
Ogilvy of Wester Powrie and Auchterhouse. 
The father was the * gude Schir Walter 
Ojrilvie ' of Wyntoun's * Chronicle,* who was 
killed in 1392, with sixty of his followers, 
at Gasklune, near Blairgowrie, by a body of 
highlanders of the clan Donnochy. His 
mother was Isabt^l, daughter and sole heiress 
of Malcolm Kamsay,knijrht of Auchterhouse. 
The Ogilvys trace th^ir descent from Gilbert, 
a younger son of Gilbrido, first thane of An- 
gus, on whom the bawny of Ojfilv}- was be- 
stowtHl by William the IJion. The eldest son 
of Sir Walter of Audit t'rhouse is * the gracious 
gi>i>d Lonl Ogilvy ' mentiontnl in the old bal- 
lad as *of the l>est amoni;* those slain at the 
battle of Ilarlaw in 1411. 


The seconil son, Walter, had a charter of 
various lands In tlie baronj of Lintrathen 
£n>ni Archibald, earl of Douglas, which 
confirmed bv Robert, dake of Albany, ni 
Nov. 1406. ' He had alio a ratificatinn from 
Alexander Ogilvy of Ogiivy of ihe lands of 
WeMer Powno on 2 Aug. 1428. On 8 June 
1424 hehadasBfe^^'Onducl forayear togo to 
Flanders {Oil. Doeumenti relating to Scot- 
fa»</,136r-loO!),entry962). After the airefita 
•f the nobles at Perth in 1435 [see under 
ihXEA I OF ScoTLAifr] he woa made lord hish 
treasurer, and henasalsoone of the jury who 
in the same year sat at the trial at Murdoch, 
duke of .\ibBnyT and his relatives. In 14:36 
1w founded and endowed two chuplninries in 
ttie church of Aiichterbouse for the safety 
ef the Muls of the king and queen, and of 
those who fell at the battle of Ilarlaw. 
"With other Scottish commissioners, he had 
fin 34 Jan. 1429-90 a safe-conduct to meet 
Ae English at Hawdenstank to redress 
eompUints(t3.entryl032). OallDec.1430 
be was appointed one of the special envoys 
to treat for tbe prorogation of a truce and a 
&m1 peace with Heniy, king of England (t£. 
entry 1037), and on 15 Dec. ne signed a truce 
iritfa England for fire vears from 11 May 1431 
fib. entry 1038). In 1431 lie was appointed 
treasnrer of the king's household, and was 
Rueoeded in the office of lord hi^h trea- 
mrer by John Myrton. He was one of those 
who, in 1431, attended the Princess Mar- 
nret into France on her marriage with the 
Saapbin. By warrant of the kinghe erected 
Aie tower or fortalice of Airlie, Forfarshire, 
into a royal c&atle. He died in 1440. By 
[sabel de Durward, heiress of Lintrathen, 
ke had two sons and a daughter. The sons 
were : Sir John of Lintrathen, hia heir, 
whose son. Sir James Ogilvy of Airlie, wea 
treated by James IV on 28 April 1491 a 
peer of parliament by the title of Lord Ogilvy 
rf Airlie; and Sir Walter of Auchieven, 
Irhose eldest son, Sir James, waa ancestor 
if tbe Ogilvys, earU of Findlater,and whose 
IBOond son. Sir Walter Ogilvy of Bovne, was 
inciMtorof the lords of Banff: The daughter, 
Siles, was married to Sir William Arbnth- 
UM. of Arbutlinott. 

[Col. DoeomeDis relating to S<»tlan<] ; CraW' 
hra'« OffHwn at Sute. pp. 356-T ; Dougliu'a 
bottish Peeragr. rd. Wood, i. UO.] T. F, H. 

OXJLACAS, SIAL (/. 1629- 1655), phy- 
ician, was a native of Donegal, and received 
pcnn<> medical education in Ireland, probably 
nVe&ce to Tractatut de Pcite) from a phy- 
Bcian of one of the hereditary tneAical 
hmilirs [see .>I*cDosLBVTl,thus learning the 
Wwkot an apothecary and a surgeon, as well 

as the Galenical knowledge necessarj for a 
phvsician. In 1028 he treated patients in an 
epidemic of plague in the towns of Figeac, 
Fons, Capdenac, Cnjarc, Rovereue, and 
Floyeiic, between Clermont and Toulouse, 
lie was encouraged in his work by the Bishop 
of Cahors ; and when the epidemic appeared in 
Toulouse he went thither, and was appointed 
to the charge of the jtenodocliium pestife- 
rariim,or hospital for those sick of the plague. 
In May 162(1, while residing in the hospital, 
he published ' Tractatus de Feste seu brevia 
facilis et eTjierta methodus curandi pestem 
authore Maglstro Nellano Olacan Ilibemo 
apud Tolosates pestiferorum pro tempore me- 
dico.' It was printed by Raymond Colo- 
merius, the university printer, and is dedi- 
cated to Giles de Masuver, viscomte d'Am- 
brieres. In the preface ie speaks of the fame 
of Ireland for learning in ancient times, and 
he notices the credit of the Irish physicians. 
The work itself is a piece of formal medi- 
cine, without cases or other observations of 

O'Glacan remained in Toulouse, was ap- 
pointed physician to the king, and became 
professor of medicine in the university. In 
1646 he still describes himself as a professor 
at Toulouse, but in that year removed to 
Itologna, where he also gave lectures, and 
published ' Curaua medii^iiH, Prima para: Fby- 
siologica,' in six books. The second part, 'W- 
thologica,' in three books, and the tliird part, 
' Semeiotica,' in four books, were published 

kt Bologna in 1655. Part i. has two curious 
prefaces, one 'lectori benevolo," the other 'lec- 
tori malevolo.' Commendatory verses ore 

irefixed, and among those of part ii. are some 

ly Gregory Fallon, a Oonnaughtman, who 
was at Bologna, and by another countryman, 
the Rev. Philip Roche, S.J, Fallon aaya 
that O'Glacan is in Italy what Fuchsius 
Germany. The ' Cursus' begins with 
a discussion of the utility of medicine, of ita 
nature, and of the several schools of medical 
thought, and then proceeds to lay down the 
whole system of the Galenists, without addi- 
tions front modem practice. In 1648 be 
edited, with tbe Bishop of Ferns and Sir 
Nicholas Plunket, ' Regni Ilibemite adsanc- 
tissimum Innocentem X I'ont. Max. Fyra- 
mides encomiast icic,' a series of laudatory 
poems in Latin addressed to the pope. The 
'face is by O'Glacan, and he mentions as 
friends in Italy Francis O'Molloy fq. v.], 
the author of ' Luce ma Fidelium;' Peter 
Talbot, Gerard O'Fearail, and John OTahy. 
The only other ascertained incident of his 
life is that be visited Rome. 
[Works : Cndei MedipamontariuB sen Pharma- 

ipwa Tolomina, Toulouse. 16*a.] N. M. 


Oglander 34 Ogle 

OGLAXDER, .S.-fc JMFIX <1->S>-I^w^. which slight lue was made by Sir Richard 

flinr:-*, »::'!•:-• - .n of >> W.Hlas ^'.'lini-rr \V.:.rsl.iy in his 'History of the Isle of 

I kr-i::hr»r'i ^n l»>;'i . '-f Nur.-v-l!. r.-.'ir Braiinz. W'l^hr ' { I^indon, 17?*l ), was edited in 1888 

I-l-of \Vi/ht. .'iri'! NVei- Iv:ir:. .S;i**-x. hy Li= from a transcript in the possession of the 

fir-!*. •a:i*.-, Ar.ri.'iaii^K'^-r -f Ai.tL ny Iniiin^- IJev. Sir W. II. Cope, bart., of Bramshill, 

t'^n fii Kr,i;:L*.'..n. I-lr *•.:■ Wi^'^it. wa* b.m on Hampshire, with introduction and notes, by 

li; M;iv 1 '^"';. Jit. Nunw»ll. wh»rr»r hi* family. W. Ii. I/Dng". 

which -.vriy -f Norman ori.-in. !iad Y^n «^tl W [jj,^ Oglander 3remoir8 : extracts from the 

hinr- tL': 0.r.r|.i....T. 11^ rr.;.rrK:ii.arwl trom macn^cripts r,f Sir J. Oglan-ler, K.T.. of Nun. 

liulliol (''A.'-jr, Oxtorl. on '* July \*M, well. I>lc of Wight, ed. W. H. Long. London, 

and f]t*ir rhr.<r vf-ar- rii^r- wirh.ut takinj l<>8S.4:o; Foster'^sAIumniOxon.: Berry's Oonnty 

a d»-;(r»r*:. If'.- ttl.-iO s[K-nt thr*.-; ynar? at the Ger.i!r*tl'5eTe§. 'Hants;' Addir. 3IS. 5524 f. 136; 

Middle T'.-rfjpl". hut wa- ii'it cilU-d to the Wuttoa's Baronetage. vol. pp. 492-3 ; CaL 

bsir. In IMJ-* h*' «iK'C»-:dwl to tbv family S:ate Pa p^^r?, Dom. 1628-31. 1634-5, 1637-40, 

app^>inl«;'i a»rpiitv-c:ov»:mor ot I'Mrtsmoiiin, "• - — ^ , V *"-""-*.-■";- ^«V « i .-* V»V 

oT,/i :» K'-M J^,.".t,- /,r... ^^.. 4^.f ti.^ T 1<. «f Commons Journals, in. 24-7, 435; Addit. MS. 

,w- ,. ,, *.. "v .1 T I ^^\\-- !.♦ 29319, ff. 69-73; Hist. MSS. Comm. 7th Rra., 

. j: ,. * fi/...- 1...^.. 1 i*..jw A pp. p. oo2; Notes and Queries, 1st ser. IX. h, 

VA.«!*L?.^'!^"!"!l'l^^!ll^-;'^ 1 f Jl'l'I'L^!;!^: ^ril ^er. vii. 66. 5th ser. p. 460 : Coll. Top. et 

Hampshire: Warner s Collections for 
shrievulty In; displayid jrrfat zeal and acti- the History of Hampshire.] J. M. R. 

vity in thf colK'ft ion of >jhip-njon*»v. f )n the 

out*bn.'ak r.f tin* civil war ho adln-re*! to the OGLE, SiK CHALONER (1631 P-1760), 
kinf*", and was supTSJ.'dfd in the deputy- admiral of the fleet, bom about 1G81, was 
governorship of tlu* Isle of AVif^ht by Colonel brother of Nathaniel Ogle, physician to the 
Cnrnr, by iviiom, in Jnn^' 1<;4'J, he was ar- forces under Marlborough, and apparently 
r«\sted as a dirliiu|ut;nt and st;nt to London, also of Nicholas <.>gle, physician of the blue 
ThcTii ho was detained pmding the invest i- squadron under Sir Clowdisley Shovell in 
gation of t lie oliargcs against him by the 1(397. He entered the navy in July l(i97 as a 
llouso of Cr)mmons, and eventually wa.s re- | volunteer per order, or king's letter-boy, on 
leased on gi\i"g a Ixmd to remain within board the Yarmouth with Captain Cleveland, 
the linos of communication. From this Tie afterwards ser^-ed in the Rest oration with 
bond he was di^clinrpcrl on ]'J April KUo. I Captain Foulis, in the Worcester and Suffolk, 
A contribution oi' i'MI. was levied upon his ! and passed his examination on 11 March 
estat ('. He was among those who waited on 1701 '2j being then twenty-one, according to 
(JharlcH I to express their loyalty ^m the i his certificate. On 29 April 1702 he was 
morrow nf his arrival at Carisljronk*? Castle, promoted to be lieutenant of the Royal Oak, 
lo Nov. Mi 17. He was again arrested and and on 24 Nov. 1703 to be commander of 

brought to London in .January KJoO-l on 
8us])i(:ion of treasoTiHl)l(^ designs, and was 
again n-leasf^d early iu the following February 
on giving security to remain witliin the lines 
of (■r)rMUiunieation. lie died atNunwell on 
L'M Nov. I<5.V>, and was buried in the family 
vault- in hrading church, wh<^n» his n^'um- 

tho St. Antonio. In April 1705 he was 
moved to the Deal Castle, which was cap- 
t ured off Ostend on 3 July 1 70(> by thr«e 
French ships. A court-martial, held on 
!*.> Oct., acquitted Ogle of all blame. He 
afterwards commanded the Queenborough ; 
on II March 1707-8 he was posted by Sir 

bent, elligy, iu full armour, was restored in (ieorge Hyng to the Tartar frigate, and in 
I ■'^71. her he continued during the war, for the 

< J^daiidep married, on I .Xug.K KM i, Frances, most part in the Mediterranean, where he 
(ilih <buiH.liier of Sir < leorge Mon* [{\. v.] of made some valuable prizes (Ch.uixock). In 
l.iufli'v, by Nxhotii lie had issue on<» sfui only, 17l() he commandea the Plymouth in the 
\N illiMni.creiiii'd II baronet by Charles II on ■ Baltic under Sir John Norris [q. v.]; and in 
1' Mic. hi«;.i. 'riii-iiile became extinct by 1717 the Worcester, under Sir George 
lhi« deiiili fif Sir Jli'iiry 1 Oglander, .seventh Byng. 

b.inifiet, Ml 1^71; bnl the name Oghnuler In *March 1710 he was appointed to the 
WM'Mi ,! unii d li\ hi* Miin in-l,'iw. (»0-gun ship Swallow, and, after convoying 

nj;JriiiliM''n difirv, eoulaining much matter I the trade to Newfoundland, thence to' the 
f lie.lorical nml ant ii|uariaii interest, of | Mediterranean, and so home, was sent early 




in 1721 to the coast of Africa. For several 
months the ship was disabled by the sick- 
ness of her men. On 20 Sept. Ogle wrote 
frt>m Prince's Island that he had buried fifty 
men and had still one hundred sick. In 
November he was at Cape Coast Castle, 
where he received intelligence of two pirates 
plundering on the coast. He put to sea in 
search of them. At Whydah ne learnt that 
the^ had lately captured ten sail, one of 
which, refusing to pay ransom, they had 
burnt, with a full cargo of negroes on board. 
On 5 Feb. 1721-2 he found them at anchor 
onder Cape Lopez. One of the ships, com- 
manded by a &llow named Skyrm, slipped 
her cable in chase, mistaking the Swallow for 
a merchantman. When they had run out of 
earshot the Swallow tacked towards the 
pirate, and, after a sharp action, captured her. 
She then returned to Cape Lopez' under a 
French ensign, and, eager for the expected 
prize, the other pirate, commanded by Bar- 
tholomew Roberts [q. v.], stood out to meet 
her. It was a disagreeable surprise when the 
SwaUow hoisted the English flag and ran out 
her lower-deck guns. Roberts defended him- 
self with obstinate brave^, but when he was 
killed the pirates surrendered. The whole 
number of prisoners was 262, of whom 
seventy-five negroes were sold. Of the rest, 
seventy-seven were acquitted on their trial 
at Cape Coast Castle ; finy-two were hanged ; 
nineteen died before the trial ; twenty, sen- 
tenced to death, were sent for seven years 
in the mines ; the rest were sent to England 
to be imprisoned in the Marshalsea. Ogle*s 
conduct in ridding the seas of this pest was 
highly approved, and on his return to Eng- 
land in April 1723 he received the honour 
of knigfatnood. He also received, as a 
special gift from the crown, the pirates' ships 
and effects, subject to the legal charges, and 
the payment of head-monev to his officers 
and men ; the net value of the proceeds was 
a little over 8,000/., and, thougn the officers 
and ship's company represented that it ought 
to be divided as prize-money, Ogle seems to 
have made good his contention that the 
captors of pirates were only entitled to head- 
money, and that the gift to him was per- 
sonal, to support the expenses of his title 
ICaptaitu^ betters, 0. 2). 

In April 1729 Ogle was appointed to the 
Bur£ora, one of the fleet gatnered at Spit- 
head under the command of Sir Charles 
Wager [q. v.J ; in 1731 he commanded the 
Edinbui^ m the fleet, also under Wager, 
which went to the Mediterranean ; and in 
1732 he was sent out to Jamaica as com- 
mander-in-chief [see Lbbtock, Richabd]. In 
Jane 1738 he was appointed to the Augusta, 

and on his promotion to be rear-admiral of 
the blue, 11 July 1739, he hoisted his flag 
in her, and, with a strong reinforcement, 
joined Haddock in the Mediterranean [see 
Haddock, Nicholas]. His stay there was 
short, and in the following summer he was 
third in command of the fleet under Sir 
John Norris. In the autumn he was ordered 
to take out a large reinforcement to Vice- 
admiral Vernon, whose exploit of 'taking 
Porto Bello with six ships ' nad inflamed the 

Eiublic with a desire for further achievement 
see Vernon, Edward, 1684-1767]. 

When Ogle joined Vernon at Jamaica in 
the middle of January 1742, the fleet num- 
bered thirty sail of the line, and, with some 
ten thousand soldiers, constituted by far the 
largest force that had ever been assembled 
in those seas. The attack on Cartagena in 
March and April was, however, a disastrous 
failure, and other operations attempted were 
equally unsuccessful. Vernon and the general 
were notoriouslv on bad terms, and l>Btween 
the navy and the army there was a bitter 
feeling, which showed itself in an open 
quarrel between Ogle and Edward Tre- 
velvan, the governor of Jamaica. On 3 Sept. 
1742 Ogle was charged before the chief jus- 
tice of Jamaica with having assaulted Tre- 
velvan on 22 July. The jury decided that 
Ogle had been guilty of an assault, and there 
the matter ended, the governor, through the 
attorney-general, requesting that no judg- 
ment should be given (A True and Genuine 
Copy of the Trial of Sir Chaloner Ogle, knt. 
. . . now published in order to correct the 
errors and supply the defects of a Thing 
lately published called The Trial of ^c, 

On 18 Oct. 1742 Vernon sailed for Eng- 
land, leaving the command with Ogle. The 
fleet was too much reduced to permit of any 
operations against the coasts of the enemy, 
who, on the other hand, had no force at sea, 
I and Ogle*8 work was limited to protecting 
the British and scourging the Spanish trade. 
The one circumstance that calls for mention 
is the trial of George Frye, a lieutenant of 
marines, for disobedience and disrespect, on 
16 March 1743-4. The court-martial, of 
which Ogle was president, found Frye guilty, 
and for that, and his ' great insolence and 
contempt shown to the court,' sentenced 
him to be cashiered, rendered incapable of 
holding a commission in the king's service, 
and to be imprisoned for fifteen years. The 
latter part of the sentence was afterwards 
pronounced illegal, and Frye obtained a 
verdict for false imprisonment against Ogle 
and the several members of the court-martial 
[see Mayne, Perrt]. Ogle was sentenced 





to pay 800/. dama^, which seems to have 
been eventually paid for him by the crown. 
On 9 Aug. 1743 Ogle was promoted to be 
yice-admiral of the blue, and on 19 June 
1744 to be admiral of the blue. He re- 
turned to England in the summer of 1745, 
and in September was president of the 
court-martial which tried sundry lieutenants 
and captains on a charge of misconduct in 
the action off Toulon on 11 Feb. 1743-4. 
With the later trials of the admirals Ogle 
had no concern, nor had he any further ser- 
vice. On 15 July 1747 he was advanced to 
be admiral of the white, and on 1 July 1749 
to be admiral and commander-in-chief, en- 
titled to fly the union flag at the main. He 
died in London on 11 April 1760 {Gent, 
Mag, 1750, p. 188). He was married, but 
seems to have died without issue. His por- 
trait is in the Painted Hall at Greenwich, 
to which it was bequeathed by his grand- 
nephew. Sir Charles Ogle [q. v.] Two 
mezzotint engravings by Faber and K. Tims 
are mentioned by Bromley. 

[Chamock's Biogr. Nav. iii. 402 ; official let- 
ters and other documents in the Public Record 
Office] J. K. L. 

OGLE, Sib CHARLES (1775-1868), 
admiral of the fleet, eldest son of Admiral Sir 
Chaloner Ogle ( 1 727-1 816), and grandnephe w 
of Sir Chaloner Ogle [q. v.], was bom on 24 May 
1775, and entered the navy in 1787, on board 
the Adventure, with Captain John Nicholson 
Inglefield [q. v.] After uneventful service 
in different ships on the coast of Africa and 
home stations, he was made lieutenant into 
the Woolwich, in the West Indies, on 14 Nov. 
1793. In January 1794 he was moved into 
the Boyne, flagship of Sir John Jervis, and 
in May was appointed acting-captain of the 
Assurance. On 21 May 1795 he was con- 
firmed as commander of the Avenger sloop, 
from which he was moved to the Petrel, and 
on 11 Jan. 1796, in the Mediterranean, was 
posted by Jervis to the Minerve. During 
the following years he commanded the 
Meleager, Greyhound, and Egyptienne, for 
the most part in the Mediterranean. In 1805 
he commanded the Unit6 frigate, and in 1806 
was appointed to the Princess Augusta yacht, 
which he commanded till August 1815, 
when he took command of the Ramillies in 
the Channel. In November 1815 he com- 
manded the Malta at Plymouth, and in 1816 
the Rivoli at Portsmouth. By the death of 
his father on 27 Aug. 1816 he succeeded to 
the baronetcy. He was promoted to be rear- 
admiral on 12 Aug. 1819, was commander- 
in-chief in North America 1827-30, became 
vice-admiral 22 July 1830, admiral 23 Not. 

1841, and was commander-in-chief at Ports- 
mouth 1845-8. He was promoted to be 
admiral of the fleet on 8 Dec. 1857, and died 
at Tunbridge Wells on 16 June 1858. Ogle 
married, first, in 1802, Charlotte Mai^aret, 
daughter of General Thomas Gage ^. v.] 
(she died in 1814, leaving issue two daugh- 
ters and a son, Chaloner, who succeeded to 
the baronetcy) ; secondly, in 1820, Letitia, 
daughter of Sir William Burroughs, bart. 
(she died in 1832, leaving issue one son, 
William, who succeeded as fifth baronet) ; 
thirdly, in 1834, Mary Anne, daughter of 
George Cary of Tor Abbey, Devon, already 
twice a widow (she died in 1842, without 

[Marshairs Roy. Nav. Biogr. i. 709 ; G'Byrne's 
Nav. Biogr. Diet. ; Return of Services in the 
Public Record Office; Journal of the Royal 
Geographical Society, vol. xxix. p. cxxxii ; Gent. 
Mag. 1858, ii. 189; Foster's Baronetage.] 

J. K. L. 

1878), newspaper correspondent, fourth son 
of John Ogle of St. Clare, near Ightham, 
Sevenoaks, Kent, was bom on 16 April 1851, 
and educated, with other pupils, under his 
father at St. Clare. He matriculated at the 
university of London in June 1869, and then 
devoted himself to the study of architecture, 
becominga pupil of Frederick William Roper 
of 9 Adam Street, Adelphi, London. He 
was a contributor to the ' Builder,' and in 
1872 he both obtained a certificate for excel- 
lence in architectural construction and was 
admitted an associate of the Royal Institute 
of British Architects. Soon afterwards he 
visited Rome, and in August 1875 went for 
some months to Athens, where he worked 
in the office of Herr Ziller, the royal archi- 
tect. While thus engaged, the proprietors of 
the * Times * newspaper accepted an offer of 
his services as their special correspondent in 
the war between Turkey and Herzegovina 
and the neighbouring provinces, and he ac- 
companied the Turkish force against the 
Montenegrins. The letters written by Ogle 
from Montenegro and the Herzegovina, from 
Greece, from Crete, and from Tnessaly, are 
full of picturesque details, brightened by a 
kindly numour. While residing at Volo, on 
the gulf of Thessaly, Ogle learned, on 
28 March 1878, that an engagement was im- 
minent between the Turkish troops and the 
insurgents occupying Mont Pelion and the 
town of Macrynitza. He at once proceeded 
to the scene of action, without arms and 
with a cane in his hand. The battle took 

5 lace, and was prolonged to the following 
ay, when Ogle, unable to obtain a hone 
to return to volo, slept at Katochori on 




29 and 30 March. On 1 April his head- 
less body was found lying in a ravine, and 
identified by a ecar on the wrist and a blood- 
stained telegram in his pocket-book ad- 
dressed to the ' Times.' The body was taken 
on board H.M.S. Wizard, and conveyed to 
the Piraeus, where it was accorded a public 
funeral on 10 April. It is believed that 
Ogle was assassmated by order of the 
Turkish commander, Amouss Aga, in re- 
venue for reflections made on his pillaging 
a village. To disguise the murder, a report 
was circulated that the correspondent was 
aiding the insurgents. In a parliamentary 
paper, issued on 18 June, Ogle is blamed for 
great imprudence in venturing among the 
belligerents without necessity, and his death 
was attributed to a wound received while 
retreating with the insurgents after the 
second battle of Macrynitza ; but the correct- 
ness of these statements was strenuously 
denied by his friends. 

[Streit's M^moire concemant les d^^tails du 
meortre commis contre la personne de Charles 
Ogle, 1878 ; Times, 2. 10, U, 26 April, 19 June 
1878; Graphic, 1878, xvii. 401, with portrait; 
lUostiHted LondoD News, 13 April 1878, pp. 
329, 330, with portrait.] G. C. B. 

COLE, GEORGE (1704-1 746), translator, 
was the second son oi Samuel Ogle of Bows- 
den, Northumberland, M.P.for Berwick, and 
commissioner of the revenue for Ireland, by 
his second wife, Ursula, daughter of Sir John 
Markham, hart., and widow of the last Lord 
Altham. Samuel Ogle died at Dublin on 
10 March 1718 (Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. 
V. 169). In 1728 appeared, as an appendix 
to James Sterling's 'Loves of Hero and 
Leander,' ' some new translations * made by 
the son George 'from various Greek authors.' 
To Ogle, ' an ingenious young gentleman,' 
the volume was dedicated. Ogle^ rendering 
of Anacreon had probablv some influence 
on Moore ; but Moore, in his ' Journal ' (iv. 
144^, denied a charge of plagiarism preferred 
against him on that gpround in ' John Bull,' 
12 Sept. 1824 (O'Donoqhub, PoeU of Ire- 
land, pt. iii. p. 187). 

In 1737 Ogle published the first and only 
volume of ' Antiquities explained. Being a 
Collection of figured Gems, illustrated by 
similar descriptions taken firom the Classics.' 
It is dedicated to the Duke of Dorset, and 
was based, he says, on a somewhat similar 
collection published in Paris in 1732. The 
book contains a well-executod engraving of 
each gem, with an explanation of its subject 
and ulustrative quotations from Greek or 
Latin authors, witii translations into English 
verse. ' Gualtherus and Griselda, or the clerk 

of Oxford's Tale,' appeared in 1739. In 1741 
Ogle contributed to ' Tales of Chaucer 
modernised by several hands.' It contains 
versions by Dryden, Pope, Betterton, and 
others. Another edition, in two volumes, ap- 
peared in 1742. Ogle's share in the woric 
seems to have been the prologues to most of 
the tales, and the tales of the clerk, haber- 
dasher, weaver, carpenter, dyer, tapestry- 
maker, and cook. He also supplied a con- 
tinuation of the squire's tale from the fourth 
book of Spenser's ' Faerie Queen.' This por- 
tion of the work — * Cambuscan, or the 
Squire's Tale' — was issued separately in 

Ogle married the daughter and coheiress 
of Sir Frederick Twysaen, bart., and died 
on 20 Oct. 1746. Their only child was 
the Right Hon. George Ogle (1742-1814) 
[q. V.I 

Ogle's literary^ aptitude was considerable, 
and he ranks high as a translator. Besides 
the works noticed, he published : 1. ' Basia ; 
or the Kisses,' 1731. 2. * Epistles of Horace 
imitated,' 1735. 3. 'The Legacy Hunter. 
The fifth satire of the second book of Horace 
imitated,' 1737. 4. ' The Miser's Feast. The 
eighth satire of the second book of Horace 
imitated, a dialogue between the author and 
the poet-laureate,' 1737. 

[Allibone's Diet, of Engl. Lit. ii. 1451 ; Gent. 
Mag. 1746, p. 658 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] E. L. 

OGLE, GEORGE (1742-1814), Irish 
statesman, bom 14 Oct. 1742, was the only 
child of George Ogle (1704-1746) [q. vj He 
was brought up at Kossminoge, near Camo- 
lin, CO. Wexford, under the care of one 
Miller, vicar of the parish, and was imbued 
through life with strong protestant feeling. 
But he had literary tastes, and composed, 
while at Kossminoge, two songs which are 
still popular. The earlier, called 'Banna's 
Banks,' beginning * Shepherds, I have lost 
my love,' was said to be inspired by Miss 
Stepney, of Durrow House, Queen's County, 
afterwards Mrs. Burton Doyne of Wells. 
The second, * Molly Asthore,' was written 
to celebrate the charms of Mary Moore, 
whose sister Elizabeth, daughter of Wil- 
liam Moore of Tinrahan, co. Wexford, subse- 
quently became his wife. Bums, writing to 
Thomson 7 April 1793, described Ogle's 
* Banna's Banks' as * heavenly,' and 'certainly 
Irish ; ' but it was included in Wood's * Song^ of 
Scotland,' 1851. A gentleman of wealth and 
fashion. Ogle appears to have been a frequent 
visitor at Lady Miller's assemblies at Bath, 
and he contributed to the volume, * Poetical 
Amusements at a Villa near Bath,' published 
by that lady's admirers in 1775 [see Milleb, 

Anna'. S.iuki ,*. ■!!;:« I- v; hT-;- -r ::. fr f- p. I'.'.-*-. Ktri.=.irT &::■=.>= d-:n:tni that he 
toil I'luKi r'> • 1*. ji.l.-r s ! .J* : Ir-'...r.-i" tLi Ln'i b :*L rl-^: :'ir i-rllTrry of such a mes- 
iii Siiinut'l Lii\it'.- • r ». 1..* ;.-. . J'i^/.a>.' ^hz-.. A'-c:ri.r^: :: li'rr accr-unt^, .Sir I5oyle 
whii-f ilu'rci> :i**ii:iii,"i : :.;::, •':.? T.i.- lyric K '.Lr wt* rr-i«' -il'L.'r f:r :he mcid»'nt. but 
kiittNMi »> ■ l»:ini.-h > rr- \* .' !!■ (.:•_■ ..:.:-! ::» tL^:- cr*:rn:j» r^rv r^p-jr:* SJid-ile *>gle alone 
imlili.-li aiiY Ml* h:> i-- ::.* '..'.li^ if. wi:L tLr >-;':^:ni.'.il::T:.;r:heru«^. In 178-3 
111 17ii> n^lr\\...- -L-i:-!: :..• Ir'-L j :*r- • 'jlr- w.:i a Inii—rri::-:!-!: Ir.?h privy council, 
liaiiii'Mt us miii;U r :' -r ^\ • \: ■: . ■■ ..:.:T.:.r.:: 67..: in :r.vf.'".l:"*-;r^' Trarob:ainHJthe jiat»*nt 
|i(> Mil !'i»r iliat I" ■!;-:.■ .• i.i y v.. j?:*. A j'!:iv-e •: f r-j:-:rjr -"i d-er^i* at Dablin, at a 
lirillMiit >ju'uki-r. L- •!- '...!..:. .1 .:. ■ *j".-:.i.2 ^:»!i.ry -f l,-"^"'.". a y^-ar. TLe step was taken 
HUiH'i-liiiixt'Miiul !ij ir.i!.'. - :.k' I.. "wi..*.?: :":.- • :> ::: >. n:- d;*Arra::r»/n:ri:t r'f his family 
Hpirit Hihl fiuT^-y !■: Kl- ii...!.ri' r. r.-i-]. !.i- : «i!:..!r*. i:* :: :- *.;jpi5*-«i.'bii: h:< constituents 
h> I III- ^liiwiiii: w;»ri:i:ij ■■:' i..- '.xj-r.-*-. :.*" w-r- o.-:-:-!::. and n-^ dinrrv-nct? appeai>.'d in 
{ lirnriruf Ihf Irl-h Jl- •■ f *' .«'. IK- Li? ]• "..'i-a; ji •:: .-n. Ilis zeal lor wisf r».'form 
ji)iiii*il(hi>\vltiL' {•:irT\.ui. :.,..::. • ..:. .!: :a^ ivi*i. : d.n:;iiis>L'.-i ; andin Aprilir-'HJ, when 
<>r('.\tt>n«liiig t«i Ip !iii. i !■ .; ilj." r.^*.-- ai:.: \\.f rtLiii-!;? of landlords and protestant 
II h»^n>lativi' in<i> ii-nl- in • . !.■■ \\.i- j]to<-i tlrrjy : • :Lv i-ranis were undt-r aiscu?.*ion, 
to fathdlit* t'm:iiir>]>:i^ n. iiui '\% .i- u *'..» ir.ih 1...- Iv-v^ribid li.r landlords as ' CTfat extop- 
u|»hnlilrrt»l' tlio t'«t.ilij.-i-- i I-:, irr':. Il* :' r- Ti.r.rr?' I IE'-tiil, RnglUh in Ireland, ii. 
177s 111* wan i'lrill':.j' 'i : ■ u ■: .• 1 Ky Jiar:;-y 4'>*'. In 17**;* Le opposed the Knplish po- 
(\»\ li'. a whi>kv i!i-.!!li'r ai.-i ii.- :i.U r ■■:* t:.- vrninit-:/.'* i-r .i->ials lor a refi^?ncv. In Fe- 
cuthiilii' IhMird. «<n ili- *:r".ii. i :}::»• L- h:ii ]..r.::»ry 17H.; hi- livn-uncii^ Ilobari'sCatholic 
piililii'ly said ihai ■ a p;ip *' c >\\\\ rwal'. »w a II- ".ir: liii'.. an iprxpliei^ied that the admission 
IiiIm' o;iih :is i-a-ily a- a p 'ai-h-d« jj." llirL: •: ca:L-.:iv« :• p 'lirii-al power must lead 
Hhot> wt ri' rxchanj- d. I'Ijt ihv c .mliaian:? ti:'.rr t • v ;'.«ir:»t!."kn or to a lepislativu union 
romaintMl unhurt. « •.'!•• d* il!ir««i tha- ihv r*— i Li\'KY. vi. .V .•* i. In 17^*0, when he became 
mark wliii-h K-d !•.• t1i.- ^ur i-iLivr had l-.-rii j Vini.»r .-f Wixf-inl, he retired fwm the 
nii.<ri'])t»rti'd. au.l h-- V.A r.-f-rr*--! no: t» H»;:-if of l'-.':r.:noijS and lived mainly on his 
•papi.-rs' hut Tm* r'l/v!-." >:.'^.'-Tiy aftTr.vards t-ita*-.-. IVl'.rMiH, i-o. Wexford. But in the 
he jiulilirly Mat'd tliM • -'.iij«; i:i:v.*pap-r? di.-TurK-d |^ .>f 179S he consented to re- 
hud mi.-rtjir'.vii:- d J* - - rj'irii' r.v '-»:; a fr- ♦.nt'.r ]iarl:amtni as member for Dublin. Ai- 
mer d' l;:i:'*, ''II b"]i.:.'iii;: j.'i :i \i \. 'o r-Jjjx ?k'; th'iujh h'-v..'ttd ajainst the lepslativo union 
jHipt-ry lav.-, nii'l i.a'l \, r v.«..":r ju'o }.)-! in 1 ■*'.*.». he was returned to the united par- 
iiiout li ^v1j:<}] li. Ii' \« r .-.-.ii. purvr li.-jriyTli.i? lifim»'n! i>f W'l a? the representative of 
he liat«d nn I.'.Ij p:iji--, '.'..'..'li '.v;!' f-ypj^'n l>uhliii. and tinaMy r^-tired in 1804. He 
to hi- tljun;*!.'-. JJi }..ii''J I,'/ r/jiih mi rJi^l uT Ih-ll'VU", C'>. Wexford, on 10 Auj^. 
uiTonnt of liii l.i;'li i Jtihr, man Juumnl^ 1-14. A statu-' to his memory, by John 
1 .fii!M- 177'- J. In 177'.»!ii !jt!:.ri.iij J*,Aand Smyth, was placed in St. Patrick's Cat he- 
thi- ojipo-jijofi ill J.ii-laij'i I'.f ii',» n-jtiii;f dral. Duhliii, at a cost of IW/. He had no 
wiHi ^'n:it« r \i\aiii s \,u\A .\«,ii!i*- c'»<n'iv»- (hildn-n. 

]Kiliry ill ]nl;,rj<l. J o.\ v.piti. lo i||.- I>ijk- Hi- will, dated i?0» Sept. 170*^, and wit- 

of Leiii>ii r e.xpliiliijn;; tin- rijilinjli ji- ofijji- n«--ed by .lohn Ilely-llutchinstin and John 

parliaiiii-iilary Miiiaiioii at V\i -f nun ti-r, nnd Swift Kiner>'in. beijueiiths his body to the 

expns-cd i-pi <ia! \'i\i\-t\ \\\ O^'ji'- di-nli- eh mrliyanl of liallycaniow, to repose beside 

faetifiM, * bf!i-aii.-e I Jj.ive nlwav- heard I lint hin late wife. He named as executor his 

he is a very hum -I man nn'l m t.'oo«l vvhi;' ' nejihew, (Jeiirjje ( Jirle Moore, aftenn'ards 

(Charleinoiit Tapirs in Uii.^ AfXS. ('o,fi„i. M.l'. for Dublin in i.>-'ti and 1S30, who in- 

I'Jth Hep. V. '^70). Ill !77I» n;»hr j«iiiie<i Inrit ed his ]»roperty. 
the a>socialioii ealh-d the MonK- of St. 
ratriek. in 17'*i* h«- herami. a er,hiiiel 1 1 'l-.w-l-n's II i-t. nf Ireland ; Crokors Songs 

idehvereda niesM«^r,.,,„rp.,rlin^r to come | .i,,,,.];.,-,. sketehosof Irish Political Charnotcrs, 
I ix)rd Kenmare to the eUert. that, the Londnn. 1791); O.riiwullisCorrospondenoc; Fitz- 
jfdicsof IndainI wei-e witislied with tln» pitriek*H SoerH Ser\-ice under Pitt; Frondes 

vili'pes they hud already ohtuiiu'd, and de- j lliNif.ryof iho Kiij^li.'ih in In-land ; Leokj-'s Hist. 

id uo more (Knuland, Life of O'Lcary, , of Ireland.] W. J. F. 




OQLE, JAMES ABEY (1792-1857), 
plijsiiriaii.'vras borDOD220ct. 1792 in Great 
Kussfll Street, London, where his father, 
Richard t)gle, had a Urge practice aa a gene- 
ralpraclitioner. In 1808 James waa sent to 
EtoD,Btthattimeunderthe rule of Dr. Joseph 
Goodall [q.T.] He atajed here only two years, 
and in Lent term 1810 entered a£ a commoner 
ofTrinity C'olle^,Oiford,oblainiDg a scholar- 
ship in the following year. In Easter term 
1613 he obtained a first class in mathematics. 
Adopting his father's profession, lie com- 
menced his medical studies at the Windmill 
Street school. On the proclamation of peace 
in IBl-l he availed himself of the opening- 
«f the couiineut, and in the coarse of that 
and some succeeding years he visited many 
of the most celebrated medioal schools in 
Fr«iice, Italy, and Germany. He also pa.ssed 
{as was customary in those days) some 
winter sessions in Edinburgh, studying under 
Professors Gregory, Duncan, Hamilton, Gor- 
don, Hone, and Jamieson ; and, through his 
Eton and Oxford acquainl&nce, gained ad- 
mtsaion to the intellectual society of the 
northern capital. Returning to London, he 
pnmied bia medical studies as a pupil of the 
Middlesex, and aubse<]uently of St. Bartho- 
lomew's, Hospital, and proceeded to the de- 
grees of M.A. and M.B. at Oxford in 1816 
and 1817 respectively. Settling in Oxford, 
be graduated M.D. in 1820, and was ap- 
poiBt«d Dutbematical tutet of hi« oM college 
(Trinity) in the same year. Oneof bispupils 
wasJotn Henry (afterwards Cardinal) New- 
man [q. T.], with whom he maintained an in- 
timate friendship in aller life, though he did 
not belong to his theological parly. He was 
elected RR-CP. in 1822, physician to the 
Radclifle Infirmary and to the Wameford 
Lunatic Asylum at Oxford in 1824, Aldrich 
prafeseor of medicine in the university in 1824, 
public examiner in ltt25, F.R.S. in I826,and 
clinicalprafessorofmedicineinl830. Inl836 
beny in a revison of the aniveralty statutes 
regntsting medical degrees, and obtained the 
institution of a public examination for the 
de«r«^ of M.B. 

In IMl appeared Ogle's only publics^ 
lion, ' A Letter to the Reverend (ho War- 
den of Wadham College, on the System of 
Education pursued at Oxford ; with Sug- 
tfeaiions for remodelling the Examination 
StatuUe.' TTiis pamphlet is noteworthy as 
eentaining the first suggi'stion of a natiiml 
science s<^bool at Oxfoi^, afterwards esta- 
blished bv a Btaliite proposed in 1851 by Sir I 
H. W. Acland. He anticipated also another I 
change, by his proposal that ' candidates for 
adouaMim to the university should have their 

tested in liTrtine'by ' 
tionof tliesame character as that we now term 
Responsions.' Ogle's successful professional 
career was marked by his delivering the Har- 
veian oration in 1844, and by hia appointment 
OB regiuB professor of medicine at Oxford by 
Lord John Husaell in 1851, in succession to 
Dr. John Kidd [a. v.] He was president of 
the Provincial Medical Association at ita 
meeting at Oxford in I8o3, and was exa- 
miner in the new school of natural science in 
18o4-£. He died of apoplexy, after an ill- 
ness of thirty hours, at the vicarage. Old 
Shoreham, the residence of his son-in-law, 
James Bowling Moiley [q. v.], on '2a Sept, 
, 1807; he was buried in St. Sepulchre's ceme- 
tery at Oxford. A portrait, by S. Lane, U. A., 
is now in the possession of his son. An en- 
graved portrait ia prefixed to a memoir in the 
' JUeilical Circular,' 28 July 1852. 

Ogle was much esteemed us a man of 
high professional and private character. His 
house at Oxford was the rendezvous of a 
wide circle of frienda. By nature cautious, 
he was inclined to adhere to the older tra- 
ditions of his profession, from the active 
practice of which he withdrew in his later 
years, although attending old friends and 

G'ving gratuitous advice to the poor. But 
• offered no opposition to the more modem 
developments ot scientific study at the in- 
firmary and in the university, which were 
the subject of kven controyerey at the lime. 

In 1810 Ogle married Sarah, vounger 
daughter of Jesion Homfraj, esq., of Broad- 
wat-ora, near Kidderminster. She died in 
18150, leaving four sons and five daughters, 
one of whom was wife of James Bowling 
Moiley. The third son, Dr. William Ogle, 
was formerly superintendent of statistics in 
the registrar-general's office. 

[Loadoa and Pri)T. Med. DirKlory, 18SS, 

LSog ; Med. Tinips and Ciazettc, 1857. ii. 3S5 ; 
niwt, IB.*i7, ii. 381 ; Brit. Med. Joam. 1857, 
p. 831 1 Med. Clrcnlar and Gsn. Had. Adreniser, 
18S2, p. 281 ; Scwman's Apologia, ed. 1882. 
p. 23S; Mnnk's Coll. of Phvs. 1878, iii. 245; 
lamily informutiOD i perBOnnl knowledge.] 

W. A. G. and E, H. M. 
OGLE, Sir JOHN (1509-1640), military 
commuodtT, was flflh son of Thomas Ogle of 
PiiichU-cli, Lincolnshire (rf. 3 Mov 1574). by 
Jane (d. 2, l.'iTl), daughter of Adlard 
Welby of Gediiey. Lintolnahire. The eldest 
son, Sir Richard Ogle, knighted on 23 April 
KWS. was sheriff of Lincolnshire in 1(W8, 
and died insolvent in the Fleet in 1027. Ilia 
portrait is at Ayscoughfee Hall. Born at 
Pinchbeck, John was baptised there on 
28 Feh. 156&-9. Devoting himself to the 
profession of arms, he became in 1691 ser- 


. :»:i~iuiT H-- "■*•"■* ircirar* is one of the 


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>> .• . -. r • -.1-. £ M.- . L* . ..- . - - .-..L-i "-■.-..:- r . _ .-. i T." Li' i ■ .i-" L lLLr:ii 1 ■ 1 :! : ij^r.-» of tne com- 

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r — '. .r V-7-. Tc:.-, l-„t; 'j^z. "« .-.z.i-i, Arr-rr- "^•L-'r. :rLz.-z'trT^ii ■ ■ '• ~ -'■•"yi*- -isArw in the 

-*_.*:■; ir nL..^i :i- rl:L^-.--'i : r.'r. lz.L ri- i-^thzj Bi "ry. 'j-'-w^w.^p. i'12. 0441. In 

r.-.x-.-i' •■.f: :./!•. i-.t_.v :r. t- -It tI^zij At-t.- l-fl-r 'r'.r "^i.* ir.Tii—'ni by James I a 

r,i.'.*. 'v-T ■• Li i.f-j T.-:. VrTr •«'1-1- 'ir ii"^*-»rT :; L z-i"^ iz.i .=.^*:r'.m' council of 

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It, -.-Koj- 'iTi*-rTiii\ ''.'ori. mot ion rhrou^rhoii^ ').*: kinj t> • 'jV- prt:;::n tio. ii. ihJl ; CaL State 
J^J'o!l pro-. i.'.r-r. Ari'l on*; of Oj-k'-earii-*' l'"f"-ri, I'-^r-S. p. A-1 \. 
'J'j*;i-- •AH." TO -'i[if;r-->. fi coii-|»inu.y whioh < L-k wa^ t'lric^i in Westminster Abbey on 
hrj'i lor i?-! olijw.r rlii- -rizun- of liirL^-lf an*! 17 March l'>>i*-4'J i Chester. 7?^. Wf^tmin- 
\\v 'ivt-ryrAhr.Tiu of h;-- ^/arri-on. \VL»rn >^-r --I'.iey. p. 134 ». His burial in the abbey 
l5jtrn«rv«Mt. tlj<: !• n'l'Toirh*- ji.'ir\'oj,p'i!;.;d to i-iaUon')r»'d in thvparishrepisterof St.Peter- 
JVif.'-'r Maurlr", ^Min"! a po-irjon of inflii»;iic»i h-P-xr. L'«n'lon. His will, dated 6 Dec. 
in I tr« flit, r^vj,. |.i.-irat*:'i tr, tak- any .-.rronj? It'i'J'^. wa.? proved on l."» July ltJ40 ( P. C. C. 
irii;i-iir>r a;/aiM-t. him. liwai)i<ir h<.' hid b'-»-n a ]'►.">. C.>v»-iitrv ). His widow, Klizabetht 
fri«-f.M ;iiid ;idmir-r of ( ),£["'» former chi»rf. Sir dau^htr-r of Cornelius de Vries of Dordrecht, 
J r:irj# I-. \ <p-. Muf ill l';i^, wlii'M urff-d by wa- the fxwrutrix. On 11 May l&2'2 a grant 
P»!irii'v*Idt'- ^n],iK,rUrn Ut plaf.-c* hi-! .S'oldii.T*! of d»^nization was made to Lady Elizabeth, 
lit til* ir di 'l^^^'.:^\, li»- d"lib»:rat<dy r*.-i'\*\. II i'^ O^'h-'s wife, and to John, Thomas, Cornelius, 
iitiif u'ii- had n/,f, |jo\v»;\*;r, bi-i;M Mjflici'iitly and Donjthy, his children, all of whom were 
d.ri.|..i., ii, tli«- ijirli'-r .-tnjf.r.., of thf mov*.'- bom in the Low Countries (Cal. 1019-23, 
fij'/ji, lo 'Aarrnnt hi- rmntinuano: in hi.-oflice, p. DiH)). Among the archives of the House 
Mild \,f\'(,n- \U-, \fiir r|«wd hir wa- huvn^t-th'il of Lonls is a draft bill (dated 1026) for na- 
<i {f',\>ru',r by Sir H'.nir*.' Xi-n? (rf Mori.KY, turaliijing Doric's wift', four sons, and seven 
A/// /,/ ///////.,/.////, i. |«;|, ii. 'j:',() I ; AVaoe- danght«rs (Hi^f. MS.S. Cumm, 4th Rep. p. 
• .^w, /W. l/.Mt, X. ;{|, 2J0 IM». Shortly 12l>); thi.s bill did not Ixjcome law. 
iilN / AJii'l III- (iiijilly hft th«- Low Count rii's. Anengravedportrait by William Faithome 

fii roiiidi nififi/i of his «i<rvir«!.s abn»ad, ajipoars in Dillingham's 'Commentaries of 

Jiifii<- I fll;ld.■0^'h.Il^rrl,nl of annson 1 1 Jan. Aore'U0r>7, p. 1U5). and is reproduced in 

Mil I \:,. \\ lull- ill Holland hi'hadnot wholly IJrowns * Gen«?sis of the United States * (ii. 
wy\n\it\ liWn'xr^ ai honn-, and wuh one of the , 091;. A bkck patch covers the left eye. 




The eldest son, Sir John Ogle of Pinchbeck, 
was knighted at Oxford on 2 Feb. 1645-6 ; 
and, dying unmarried on 26 March 1663, was 
buried in St. John the Baptist Chapel of 
Westminster Abbey (Chssteb, p. 168). A 
second son, Thomas {d, 1702), was knighted 
in 1660, and became gOTemor of Chelsea 
Hospital in 1696. Of Ogle's seven daugh- 
ters, Livina was wife of Sir John Man- 
wood fq. v.], the judge. The names of three 
other oaughters — Utricia or Eutretia (1600- 
1642), Trajectina, and Henerica — comme- 
morated his connection with the Low Coun- 

[Pedigree by Mr. Everard Green, F.S.A., in 
Genealogist, i. 321 ; Gardiner's History ; Cal. 
State Papers, 1690-1640; Markham's Fighting 
Veres, passim ; Van der Au*8 Biograph. Woor- 
denboek der Nederlander, xir. 58.] S. L. 

OGLE, JOIIN (1647P-1686P), gamester 
and buffoon, commonly known as 'Jack 
Ogle ' or • Mad Ogle,* the son of respectable 
and well-to-do parents, was bom at Ashbur- 
ton in Devonshire, and educated at Exeter. 
He lost his father when young, and, inherit- 
ing near 200/. per annum upon coming of age, 
went up to London, dissipated his estate, and 
gained notoriety by his duels, his licentious 
pranks and low humour. His sister, who, like 
himself, received a good education, became a 
gentlewoman to the Countess of Inchiquin, 
and subsequently mistress to the Duke of 
York. She may have been the Anne Ogle, maid 
of honour, with whom Pepys had the felicity 
of dining in 1609, but whom Roscommon, in 
his ' Faithful Catalogue of Eminent Ninnies,' 
described as ' lewd Offle.' Through her in- 
fluence Offle obtainea a saddle in the first 
troop of norse-guards during the colonelcy 
of the Duke of Monmouth (1668-1679). His 
necessities precluded him from maintaining 
a horse ana other proper eouipments of bis 
own, and there were many luaicrous stories 
of the shifts to which he was reduced in 
order to appear on parade. Steele, in the 
* Tatler ' (No. 132), describing the society of 
the Trumpet tavern, mentions how on enter- 
ing the room the company * were naming a 
red petticoat and a cloak, by which I knew 
that the Bencher had been diverting them 
with a story of Jack Ogle.* The bencher in 
question, writes Steele, * the greatest wit of 
our company next myself, frequented in his 
youth tne ordinaries about Charing Cross, 
and pretends to have been intimate with 
Jack Ogle. ... If any modem wit be men- 
tioned, or any town frolic spoken of, he 
ahakea his head at the dulness of the present 
age, and tells us a story of Jack Ogle.* The 
town reaidence of the * Captain/ as Ogle called 

himself, was Waterman's Lane, Whitefriars, 
a well-known hotbed of rascality. Accord- 
ing to Theophilus Lucas, he lost by cock- 
fighting what he gained at the gaming-table 
or in less creditable fashion. His excesses 
killed him in or about 1686, in his thirty- 
ninth year. His name was .long a byword for 
eccentric profligacy, his * diverting humours* 
being prefixed to such favourite * cracks * as 
the * Frolicks of Lord Mohun * and * Charles II 
and his Three Concubines.* The British 
Museum possesses a copy of his ' Hqmours ' 
in a chap-book printed for the Travelling 
Stationers at Warrington in 1805. His por- 
trait has been engraved. 

[Eccentric Magazine, i. 192-6; Lucas's Me- 
moirs of Gamesters, 183-92; Evans's Cat. of 
Engraved Portraits, p. 254 ; Granger's Biogr. 
Hist. 1779, iv. 199.] T. S. 

OGLE, OWEN, second Babon Oglb 
(1439.P-1486?), eldest son of Robert Ogle, 
first baron OgleTq- v.], and Isabel, heiress of 
Sir Alexander Kirkby of Kirkby Ireleth in 
Fumess, though about thirty years of age at 
his father's death in 1469, was not summoned 
to parliament until 1483 (Dugdale, Baro^ 
nagCf i. 263). Ogle was present on the royal 
side at the battle of Stoke in 1486, and in 
1493 or 1494 he, with other northern barons, 
accompanied Thomas Howard, earl of Surrey, 
to relieve Norbam Castle, which the Scots- 
were besieging. There is no record of his 
being summoned to parliament after Septem- 
ber 1485. By his wife Eleanor, daughter of 
Sir William Hilton, he left a son Halph,who 
succeeded him as third Baron Ogle, and in 
October 1509 received a writ of summons to 
the first parliament of Henry VIII. A younffer 
brotherof Owen, called John, was the founder 
I of the Lancashire branch of the family settled 
at Whiston, close to Prescot ; that branch 
was in the middle of the seventeenth cen- 
tury represented by an heiress, who car- 
ried the estate into the family of Case of 
Huyton ; in their possession it still remain? 
(Gbegson, Portfolio of Fragments^ p. 183, ed. 

On the death of Cuthbert, seventh lord 
Ogle, without male issue, in 1697, the barony 
fell into abeyance between his two daughters, 
Joan and Catherine. But Joan, who was 
wife of the seventh Earl of Shrewsbury, died 
in 1627. Thereupon Catherine, then widow 
of Sir Charles Cavendish, was by letters 

gitent, dated 4 Dec. 1628, declared to be 
aroness Ogle ; and on her death next year 
she was succeeded in the ancient barony by 
her son, William Cavendish, in whose favour 
a new barony of Ogle of Bothal had beei» 
created in 1620. He was further created Ear 




of Ogle and Duke of Newcastle in March 
1664 [see Cavendish, William, Duke op 
Newcastle]. His son, by the famous Mar- 
garet, duchess of Newcastle, died without 
male issue in 1691, and the barony of Ogle 
is in abeyance among the descendants and 
representatives of his three daughters — Mar- 
garet, who married John Holies, earl of Clare, 
and afterwards duke of Newcastle ; Cathe- 
rine, married to Thomas, earl of Thanet ; and 
Arabella, who married Charles, earl of Sun- 
derland. Bothal Castle went to Margaret, 
and has descended to the Duke of Portland. 

[Dugdale's Baronage ; Nicolas's Historic Peer- 
age, cd. Courthope ; Archseologia jEliana, xiv. 
296.] J. T-T. 

OGLE, SiK ROBERT de (d, 1362), 
soldier, was head of a Northumberland family 
long settled at Ogle in the parish of Whalton, 
eight miles south-west of Morpeth. The 
family rose to importance in consequence 
of the border warfare with Scotland. When 
David Bruce penetrated as far as Newcastle 
in August 1 341, Ogle distinguished himself by 
effecting the capture of five Scottish knights, 
and in the same year Edward III ffave him 

Ssrmission to castellate his manor^ouse at 
gle, together with the privilege of free 
warren on his demesne lands ^WTinx)UN, 
Chronicle f ii. 467 ; Archceologia ASliana, xiv. 
16,360; BuQDALEj Baronage, 11,262), Some 
remains of Ogle Castle, which was surrounded 
by two moats, are still to be seen. Ogle 
shared with John de Kirkby [q. v.], bishop of 
Carlisle, the honours of the resistance to the 
Scottish foray into Cumberland in 1345, when 
Sir William Douglas, the Knight of Lid- 
desdale, burnt Carlisle and Penrith (Wax- 
SIXGHAM, i. 266). In a skirmish with a de- 
tachment of the invaders, in which the bishop 
was unhorsed, Ogle ran the Scottish leader 
Alexander Stragan (Strachan) through the 
body with his lance, but was himself severely 
wounded. He fought at the battle of Neville s 
Cross, or Durham, as it was officially called, 
on 17 Oct. 1346, and took three prisoners — 
the Earl of Fife, Henry de Ramsay, and 
Thomas Boyd (Foedera, v. 533). There is a 
tradition that the captive king David was 
taken in the first place to Ogle Uastle. 

Ogle was in command at Berwick as lieu- 
tenant of W'illiam, lord Greystock, who was 
with the king in France, when the Scots 
took the town by surprise on the night of 
6 Nov. 1355 (I)UGDALE, i. 741). He made a 
brave resistance, in which two of his sons 
fell, and succeeded in holding the castle 
till help came (Hot. Pari, iii. 11). Grey- 
stock was condemned to forfeiture of life and 
property, but was afterwards pardoned on 

pleading that he had the king*8 orders to go 
to France. Ogle died in 1362 (^Cal, Ingtdgi' 
ttonum post mortemj ii. 254). His son Robert, 
who predeceased him, married Ellen, only 
child and heiress of Sir Robert Bertram of 
Bothal, three miles east of Morpeth, who in 
1343 obtained a license to build the castle 
there. A splendid gatehouse, adorned with 
contemporary shields of arms, still remains 
{Archceologia ALliana, xiv. 283 seq.) Their 
son Robert, who succeeded his grandfather, 
was under age, and John Philipot [q. v.] be- 
came his guardian (Dugdale, ii. 262 ; but c£ 
Cal. inortem, ii. 288, 319). Bothal 
Castle came to him on the death of his mother's 
third husband, David Holgrave, in 1405 or 
1406, and he immediately settled it upon his 
younger son, John, who had taken his grand- 
mother's surname of Bertram. But the day 
after Ogle's death on 31 Oct. 1409, his elder son, 
Sir Robert, laid siege to it, and drove out his 
brother {Rot, Pari, iii. 629 ; Hodgson, ITm- 
tory of Northu7nberlandj li. ii. 170). Bertram 
brought the matter before parliament, and 
the castle remained in his family until it be- 
came extinct in the direct male line. This 
was before 1517, when the fourth Lord Ogle 
styled himself Uord of Ogle and Bott«U.' 
Robert, first lord Ogle [q.v.J, however, seems 
to have been at least temporarily in posses- 
sion in October 1465. 

[Rotuli Parliamentorum ; Galendarinm In- 
qnisitioDum post mortem, od. Record Commis* 
fiion ; Rymer's Foedera, original edition ; Wal- 
singham s Historia Anglicana in the Rolls Ser. ; 
Wyntonn's Chronicle in the Historians of Scot- 
land; Dugdale 8 Baronage; Nicolas's Historic 
Peerage, ed. Courthope ; Hogdson s Northum- 
berland ; Archaeologia /blliana ; Hexham Priory 
(Surtees Soc.) ; Calendarium Rotulomm Pa- 
tentium, p. 229, and Calendariom Rotulorom 
Originalium, p. 301.] J. T-t. 

OGLE, ROBERT, first Bakon Oglb 
{d, 1469), was son of Sir Robert Ogle of 
Ogle, near Morpeth in Northumberland, and 

Sreat-OTeat-grundson of the Sir Robert de 
^le [q. v.] who fought at Neville's Cross. 
His mother, according to Dugdale, was Maud^ 
daughter of Sir Robert Grey of Horton, near 
Ogle; but others make her a daughter 01 
Sir Thomas Grey of Heton, near Wooler, 
and a granddaughter of the first Earl of 
! Westmorland (Gregsox, Portfolio qf Frag* 
' merits relatitig to the County of Lancaster ^ 
p. 183). . 

Ogle's father, who had been much em- 
ployed in negotiations with Scotland, died 
■ in 1436 or 1487, and the Sir Robert Offlft 
I who was commissioned, along with Sir Jcmn 
\ Bertram, in April of the later year to settle 
j some disputed questions with the Soottisli 




representatives, may have been the son 
(Fctdera, x. 696). One matter still in dis- 
pute in 1438 was the question of the com- 
pensation due to Ogle on account of his 
having been seized and held to ransom by 
the Scots in time of truce between 1426 and 
1435 (Rot, Pari. v. 44 ; Ordinances of the 
Privy Council, v. 93, 162,167). It was agreed 
that Ogle should be indemnified with a 
Scottish ship which had been seized at New- 
castle ; but this was found to have been sold 
by the admiral or his lieutenant, and Ogle 
was involved in a dispute with the latter, 
which was not ended until 1442. 

In 1438 Ogle was sheriff of Northumber- 
land, and in diarge of the east march of Scot- 
land until a warden was appointed (ti^. v. 100 ; 
DuGDALE, ii. 262). Little is then heard of 
him until 1452, when he was bailiff and 
lieutenant of Tyndale {Ord, Privy Council, 
V. 126). Three years later Ogle sided with 
the Yorkists when they took up arms, and 
brought six hundred men from the marches 
to the first battle of St. Albans. He pro- 
bably came in the train of the Earl of War- 
wick, who was warden of the west march ; 
and one account of the battle gives to Ogle 
the credit of the movement by which the 
Yorkists broke into the town, but this feat is 
ascribed in other versions to Warwick (Pa^- 
tan Letters, i. 332). Ogle was one of the 
commissioners appointed by the victorious 
party to raise money for the defence of Calais 
(Ord. Privy Council, v. 244). Shortly after 
Towton he and Sir John Conyers were re- 
ported to be besieging Henry Vl in a place 
m Yorkshire ' called Coroumbr ; such a name 
it hath, or much like ' (Paston Letters, ii. 7). 
His services to the Yorkist cause did not go 
unrewarded. Edward IV on 26 July 1461 
summoned him to his first parliament as 
Baron Ogle, and invested him (8 Aug.) with 
the wardenship of the east marches, lately held 
by his great Lancastrian neighbour, the Earl 
of Northumberland, who was killed at Tow- 
ton. With the wardenship went the offices 
of steward and constable of the forfeited 
Percy castles and many of the earFs lord- 
ships (DveDALE). 

In November he was entrusted with the 
negotiations for a truce with Scotland, and 
in the January following received a further 
grant of the lordship of Kedesdale and castle 
of Harbottle in mid-Northumberland, for- 
feited by Sir William Tallboys of Kjrme in 
Lincolnshire, afterwards called Earl of Ky me, 
who was executed after the battle of Hexham 
in 1464 (DvGDALE, i. 263; Warkwobth, 
p. 7; Hot, Pari, T. 477), To these were added 
other forfeited lands in Northumberland. In 
Oeboh&t 1462 Ogle distinguished himself in 

the dash upon Holv Island, which resulted in 
the capture of all the French leaders who had 
come over with Margaret of Anjou, except 
De Brezd (Historians of Hexham, Surtees 
Soc. I. cix.) During the operations against 
the Northumbrian strongholds in the winter 
Ogle assisted John Neville, lord Montagu 
[q. v.], in the siege of Bamborough, which 
surrendered on Christmas-eve (Three Fif" 
teenth'Century Chronicles, pp. 157-59 ; WoB- 
CESTEB, ii. 780; Paston Letters, ii. 121). It 
was betrayed to the Lancastrians again in 
the following year, but finally reduced in 
June 1464, and entrusted to Ogle as con- 
stable for life. Just a year later he was 
commissioned with Montagu, now earl of 
Northumberland, and others, to negotiate 
for peace with Scotland, and for a marriage 
between James UI and an English subject 
(Fmdera, xi. 646). 

Ogle died on 1 Nov. 1469. He married 
Isabel, daughter and heiress of Sir Alexander 
Kirkby of Kirkby Ireleth in Fumess, by whom 
he had. a son Owen, who is separately noticed, 
and a daughter Isabella, married first to Sir 
John Heron of Chipchase, and afterwards to 
Sir John Wedrington (Dugdale, ^arono^e; 
Archceologia ALliana, xiv. 287; Hexham 
Priory, Surtees Soc. p. Ixix). 

[Botuli Parliament Drum ; Calendarium In* 
qnisitionnm post mortem; Kyraer's Foedera, 
original ed. ; Proceedings and Ordinances of the 
Privy Council, ed. Nicolas ; "William of Worces- 
ter in Stevenfion's Wars in France, vol. ii., Bolls 
Ser. ; Three Fifteenth-Century Chronicles and 
Warkworth's Chronicle, published by the Cam- 
den Society; Dugdale's Baronage; Archaeologia 
^liana ; other authorities in the text.] 

J. T-T. 

(1696-1785), general, philanthropist, and 
colonist of Georgia, bom in London on 
22 Dec. 1696, was baptised next day at St. 
Martin*s-in-the-Fields. An elder brother, also 
named James, bom on 1 June 1689, died in 
infancy (Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. xii. 68). 
James Edward was third and youngest sur- 
viving son of Sir Theophilus Oglethorpe 
[q^. v.] of St. James's parish, London, by his 
wife, Eleanor W^all of Tipperary. He matri- 
culated at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 
on 8 July 1714, but had already obtained a 
commission in the British army in 1710. 
After the peace of 1712 he appears to have 
served as a volunteer imder Prince Eugene 
in Eastern Europe. 

In 1718, by the death of his brothers, he 
succeeded to Westbrook, and in 1722 he 
became member for Ilaslemere, and acted 
with the Jacobite t<)ries who supported Atter- 
bury . Soon afterwards a friend named Castell, 

^'j^.czryszr: ij. 'Jc:edioq)e 

"rni-*. •'-'< ■ >- vi:—..-- v i- ■ nr.r.t-i ii i n 'A- *"■. '.'^i 'eirriii-rpe embark^rd in 

ill"':'— V.:,--- "iri .•:;.»..!-■: •; v u- -i . : :i x. ITifr- " j,r* "s-.iiir- j^Lilr** ir Z'»^pr:':ri. jn-i in Novem- 

j"*i-i-- . -r -;!•'••. r' '.'- : —.1.— TTi^ ■:«•. n- >r -»-' -iL.1 -vt-h 'jJM ■j-rrrl-r-. F:-r nine years 

.. ,"•;...- ■ .•..•-! -r...- 1. -> , •:- -r;:. n ' "^r "litr .iif :f •^Ic'li TO mil "iiJt history ot' the 

hrr -- ••-. ■■••■;m. • I-- r >r - r- ina* n.-. '• u.n- )i t*- rr-ii itft iiitrnriiiaL Hr^ at once 

\- - ^- -." ■:£ T . "ji". :- ir*»uTir Mr :\jini: i -ar-afiu:" T7 ^irrr. :n Traioh was built 

nil - -■ -* 't^i?' .ii\v.»--.-. i:M 'jr r-r-il: '.> -"Ta .i" "arinmili ; md !i«* established 

■^ i ■ - r :-.' -r w^r,' *" t *. "^:^.'"— . t-*;i irirmil" ---i;in.'.ni T-.rii "he oarives, which re- 

■' V ■-'- " ■- '■: -.:.:. 7"-.- p. -->■-- na.iir-i i:inirki?n iir-nji !::.■? "^L.--."!- **"ijoumin 

.■■ - -.'>•.'. y • >■• •-•■ -:i.r-: -.iilus- "-L- '-itr !• li-n-- Fr-^h r iin>r«. mi of a more 

■- - •■• "'i v.. .' "^if.~' »i '-Lf- -rfrt!-."-? 'rjjnij. •v^T'* iiiiiel : s4:nie. German 

; ' -■ ■.-..»: •:''.':i . «-* l_*^."iT. prT-^rj^Ti. Tios^ T-riix-i-n oad haniahtrdtliem 

J, ■■■■- ■ -.* ,0, ...-.>■■■? \^"ft ,'\\u\, rrw^ Xxs'T.'x. riier*. Se'rtriili hizhlanders. 

■: - "' ■..»•? !»■ :» '.' ■ .f I- **♦-•■ rli-ni»-n'-; "r-*r«- "iirwii :i:* westward, and 

• • ^ • . . .•■ ".. "7.»» - 1 L- ■> la 'ir^i:.-;" r-nne-i ir Fr^-Lerlca. on an inland 

' ■. ■ •,'^... >••• j'v. i -..: .1 '-'-i-:. -..-rii'— : ir "lie oi- ;::.! .r ■!!•* .V^rjjnahx ab^at sixty 

■ .n. .-.-. -..iv ...;■-'-•: ."-r-.: l- Iil"!-fc ' ■•i:'^rLii:rpt* rerumeil ro England 

t ' • . .' " »• ■..'•..■.•■.■... .1. ...* : ■". i :r.r.;r::x "v-i liisi ^^v^anl Indian chiefs), 

'•..•' ,'• f* .-.►>.. ' ij v:-~ ■. r:»-. "^-"i L:i'i "-i*^ -ife''« :r hi* ib^trnoe at «ince illii*- 

*' ■ •- / •• "-■ ■'■■.». -■■r: \ ■■..I.—-? :'•? "rr-^i'j.'r L3.r'i-:ility 't' 101? Ljny which rested 

■ v' ■ . •■• ■'■ . ■■.••;■'.. I ..*. .*..v--r. •:». I ^'-"-T -- "--^ -izrr-zj in-i capacity of one 

V'.- / v f . ■. - :.■ • -•» -.1- i-.-..i- L- i =-Lz. iz.-: ^.i<:.-i^ •^'•a'::i:an'a had in them no 

.^ ; '■••.' -A •'■.-: ' '•■.•'.: 'r-.rr- rr. T.-zL-n- :*":':i.!:j:'i':.:n'ii5t7v. or civic virtue. 

V- ' /* ./. • .•>' — --..-■. ..n:--.u-::-. •"■■r'-:-!ir:»r -vl* 13 vlni-rs precipitate in his 

A - -• ■■..-..- -, :,.-.. ..•.-■•: 1--.-- :i..:»T :: ?:':«:?••' " rrs. and undulv and ob- 

.'■''••- .' * ■ - 1 ■• ' ■/ f .-■. •.-.-^ *-".■;-■ ■.: **:n^*-:lT :-:nd:r»n" is. :hem when chosen. 

'i ■ ■ - •' ^^ •....:.;■ .-. - ic.-.-=..r -.: Ti-^ ?- : iTrkT-^^^r. 1 ^*rrs:n oi no small im- 

' '. - '- ' ■ • ;*.• . f- > t:-. 'i.- t-r. i-:*T .r. i l."::!- ■."trniminity organised on 

i''.' ' -' ■ - .'-•'% ■.. f''.>..-*\*. '. .-■..'• :.i' ill- •=• :-: — zi ^z_ •■":•: prinoipl*^*. was dishoneM 

■ ■ * - ■ '. *- . ..-. ..-■-.': \'..r.i;*-: 'ik^ *7. i -vrinrLual. IzsioL acolonvas Georgia 

^■ ' ■ •■ ;•'■;■■ ^'-i -^ ..- /. ■; ''.'..'.i-nr.-ri ::-"'>-:* ■:v^ts- sire to be iound. Two 

'•• ■ ■■ ' '-^ ,v-.,. '■..•.-'.. ;i.. >.:.*,'' J.-l-:- re^trliTiin*. :!_r pr>bib:ti'''n of rum and of 

tj- ';• . • ■ ' * •■ -■ ':.- r.. V. ..'.*rv: .oe n-^: -liVTTy. w-re specially irksome. On 

"•" • "'• . '.'• •■ - . .i.. r..'i. 'h,,?:* his r-:*.irr. : <.i-«-rjii. «»i:lnrthorpe dismissed 

*!•''''• '. • •• ■'■■..;.■ r ':-.*;?..'.;( from 'Le ^rr.iir.j ?:"re\eeper. But he and hid 

h' ' '■'' ' '■ ' . •- /.'. *:.- ?.ri» jil'.^e, h<: C''^tr;.-"^r? *:?■ «i drm upi.m the other points, 

\u\i'\A '\ \ -..t, * '..'.■.' ♦}.,!* M.« V -ho'ild and lb- r^^T^ul: was a cijutinuou-* under- 

\)i- uii'N /,.. •.••/, ;,. f. '.•,;;; - .ij,« .",;»! on : an'l, current of dls^ti-^ fact ion and disloyalty. 

wliJiM ■.• J 11../).* \,( U/\. '■\.',T\,i\ f;i'j|*H of That was not the onlv element of discord 

chani' »« r, h* //;, r,'.'f. '.;'■ *'\i- '^\h 'S mWiiy; in :Le colony. Oirlethorpe's impetuous and 

nun. M'#f' '..* f, '■■• ■«■ ' ...: */, f,<; ^/,rf|i- i^rt iymp.'tth»:tic tr-mper led him to select fortho 

of fli-7'nfr.if.ii'i'.fi '/<M,./'l ir. till- /lioir*- of spiritual otatf of his colony John and Charles 

H'ttliT'. M< f y'.,'t* f f ixA ;,r,t to jri-.i. a \V»v-ley, h».-e<linj only their high moral ex- 

daini l'»i 11 pl.i/» m »}.• ",l',fiv. /lor i-. fli'pf colUriic*? and the attractive side of their 

any riii:'»ii t', ti.nil' »l,.i» 'yl< tli'iipi- <-v'r *'\- rharacttrrs, and overlooking the absence of 

j)('cl«'*i wli'illy »'» I .t ,.yt f|,i ivil-. iiiln-p-nt that tact, forbearance, and subordination 

III hi.s I '^|>' iiirii fit 'I fi' h-m\\.- nn- full of wliich for this special task were to the full iiimI' Ij'.m \',r iIh- -■.'ifiul n;- as n»M'dful. Charles Wesley went out in 

f'>''nit'r. 17'iO us Ojrlethorpo*s private secret an*. He 

n^Irth'Mpi' fiii'l iIh- tt\\i*r inrtli'CH, wlin had not be<'n hmg in the colony bi^ibre he 
o)ifn('d an ••Hire m 0|f| riiinci' Vhpfl, Wi-hI- ; rliKpleas«;d Oglethorpe. If we are to believe 

niin>ter, ri'c«'ivi'il IiIjcmiI imvnli- 'iihiicripiionM Wi'sloy's own account, his employer treats 

and a grant of |(»/HKi/. Irom pnrliiiiin'iit. Thi- him not only with harshness, but with petty- 

»*" ' -nt wuH di:ijfiiiil iini only M'wi nfiijfi' niiiidcd malevolence. Hut the solemnity of 

r», hill al'io \v\ a Imnicr for llii- their }»arting, wh«*n, in the spring of 1?30, 

.onieM Mgniiiht a^r^'.n'MMion hy Spiiin 
)utheni front iiT. On gromidN of 

* »gh't hornn went forth against the Spaniards 
with a wiiolly uncertain prospect ot return, 

.xpcdiency, nillu>r than of Norial neeniM to have touched tne hearts of both. 




and they were sincerely reconciled. But, even 
if friendahip had been restored, cordial co- 
operation had become henceforth impossible; 
and Charles Wesley, with the consent and 
approval of Oglethorpe, laid down his secre- 
taryship and returned to England. His 
brother, John Wesley, remained behind, and 
became even a greater source of trouble and 
of discord in the colony. But during Weslev*s 
tqjoum in Georgia, Oglethorpe was fully 
occupied with the chances of a Spanish in- 
vasion. Wesley's quarrels were with other 
officials, not with Oglethorpe. The selection 
of Whitfield to succeed Wesley did not 
greatly mend matters. He founded an orphan- 
age, and embroiled himself with the settlers 
by the dictatorial fashion in which he 
claimed to overrule the authority of natural 
guardians. But his energy as a religious re- 
vivalist led him for the most part to choose 
work in the old-established colonies, and left 
him but little time for disturbing the peace 
of Oglethor]^ and his followers. 

That portion of Oglethorpe's career which 
stands out conspicuous in importance and in- 
terest is the deience of his colony against the 
Spaniards. His alliance with the Indians 
was an embarrassment as well as a safeguard. 
It was certain that the Spanish authorities 
at St. Augustine, a chief seaport of Florida, 
would eagerly seixe on any pretext for an 
attack, and such a pretext might at any 
moment be given by the natives, acting, 
it well might be, under just resentment. 
A guard was posted by Oglethorpe at the 
Alatamaha, to prevent any of tne Geor- 
gian Indians crossing into Spanish terri- 
tory. During 1786 civil messages passed 
between Oglethorpe and the Spaniards ; yet 
it is clear that all along he distrusted their 
intentions. He strengthened the defences of 
Frederica, and sent for help to South Caro- 
lina. In the spring of 1736 the governor of 
St. Augustine, without any declaration of 
war, sent a force to reconnoitre the English 
position, with discretionary orders to attack 
if it seemed safe and advisable. Oglethorpe, 
however, used his ordnance so as to mislead 
the Spaniards regarding his position and re- 
fources, and the intended attack came to 

The political prospect in England made it 
almost certain that war would soon break 
out with Spain ; and as soon as America be- 
came the field of war, Oglethorpe knew that 
his colony would be in danger. He utilised 
a short season of security to return to Eng- 
land, and to organise the defence of his colony. 
While he was there a memorial was presented 
by the Spanish government to the ministry, 
demanding that neither Oglethorpe himself 

nor any fresh troops should be allowed to go 
to Georpa. Meanwhile it became known that 
the citizens of St. Augustine were being 
cleared out of their homes to make room for 
troops. Oglethorpe, with the approval of 
government, raised a volunteer regiment of 
six hundred men, with whom, in September 
1738, he reached Georgia. It is possible that 
the same lack of judgment which made Ogle- 
thorpe unfortunate in his clergy also acted on 
his choice of soldiers. A plot was discovered 
which was to have ended in the surrender of 
the officers and the desertion of several 
soldiers to the Spaniards. The summer of 1739 
was spent by Oglethorpe in a journey through 
the wilderness, in which he invited and se- 
cured the alliance of several distant tribes of 
natives. In that autunm war was declared 
against Spain, and Oglethorpe was ordered to 
harass St. Au^rustine. The mode of operation 
was left to his own choice. The Spaniards 
struck the first blow. Oglethorpe had fortified 
and garrisoned Amelia Island, some fifty 
miles south of Frederica. This the Spaniariis 
attacked, but their only success was to find 
and kill two invalids straggling in the woods. 
Oglethorpe soon retaliated with the capture 
oia Spanish outpost. He then determined to 
attack St. Augustine. Time was important ; 
Cuba was then under blockade by tne Eng- 
lish fleet ; the failure of that blockade, or 
even a composition, might at any time set 
free a relieving force. To make the expedition 
successful, it was needful that South Carolina 
should take part in it. But here, as was so 
often the case in our operations on the 
northern and western frontier, it was im- 
possible to secure efl^ective co-operation. In 
May 1740 Oglethorpe set forth with a land 
force, composed of his own regiment of 
G^rgian militia and of Indian allies, num- 
bering in all two thousand. They were 
also supported by four king's ships and a 
small schooner from South Carolina. Ogle- 
thorpe advanced as far as St. Augustine 
without encountering any serious opposition. 
He seized and occupied tnree small forts by 
the way ; but it soon became plain that the 
capture of St. Augustine was beyond his 
power and resources. The harbour had been 
so effectually secured that the ships were 
useless. A bombardment was tried and failed. 
The Indian allies withdrew, indignant at 
Oglethorpe's attempts to restrain tneir fero- 
city. Sickness, as might have been fore- 
seen, broke out, and the Carolina troops de- 
serted. The garrison which Oglethorpe had 
placed in one of the captured forts ventured, 
m defiance of his express orders, on a sortie, 
and were cut off. In June Oglethorpe ffave 
up the attempt on St. Augustme as hopeless, 




and retreated. Yet it is not unlikely that 
his invasion had acted as a check on Spanish 
aggression, since for nearly two years Georgia 
remained unmolested. 

But in the spring of 1742 came the crisis 
which was to form the most glorious incident 
in (.>glethorpe*s career as a colonist and a 
soldier. Thanks in part to Oglethorpe's 
arrangement, in part to tb' natural features 
of the position, an attack on the colony by 
land was fraught with difficulty. The colony 
was covered by St. Simon's Island, and no 
invading force could with safety leave that 
position in the rear. The island was guarded 
by a small fort — St. Simon's — to the south, 
by Frederica to the north. The only approach 
to Frederica was flanked by a dense forest, 
offering a secure protection to a defending 

Oglethorpe abandoned and destroyed St. 
Simon* 8, and concentrated the whole strength 
of his defence on Fn^derica. He was well 
ser\'ed with information by his Indian scouts. 
At the first approach of the Spanish van- 
guard he made a sally and beat them off. 
With a force ill-organised and of doubtful 
stability, a display of personal prowess was 
sure to be of service, and the knight-errant 
temper always present in Oglethorpe made 
such a line of action attractive. Fighting 
at the head of his troop, he captured two 
Spaniards with his own hands. I>ut the real 
brunt of the battle came later, when the flank- 
ing force, protected by the wood, attacked the 
main body of the Spaniards. The invaders 
fared much as Braddock fared thirteen years 
later in the Ohio valley, and were routed 
with heavy loss. Yet Oglethorpe was glad 
to avert by stratagem the possibility of a 
second attack. A Frenchman had joined the 
English as a volunteer, and had then de- 
serted to the invaders. Oglethorpe astutely 
used him as a channel for conveying to the 
Spanish commanden^ belief that the English 
were ready, and even eager, to meet a second 
invasion. He also said that he expected a 
fleet to come to his relief. By a strange and 
fortunate chance his statement was confirmed 
by the appearance of some English ships out 
at sea. Oglethorpe's combination of daring 
and strategy succtH'ded. Georgia was safe, 
and the pauper colony had moreover served 
its secondary purpose ; it had proved a bul- 
wark to the more ])r()sper()us neighbour on 
the northern front iefT^vVliitfield did not ex- 
aggerate tlie severity of the danger and the 
insuiricienry of tlu^ means whereby it was 
re])elh»d when he wrote: * The deliverance 
of (ii'orgia from the Spaniards is such as 
cannot Ih» parallehHl hut by some instances 
'^•it of the Old Testament.' Yet the peril 

was not yet at an end. One of the chief 
elements of danger was the ' self-sufficiency/ 
as one of their own colonists called it, of the 
officials of South Carolina. Not only were 
they supine in raising forces, but a pilot 
known to be a traitor m the employment of 
Spain was suffered to make himself well 
' acqiuiinted with Charlestown harbour. 

Oglethorpe had other difficulties to face. 
The Duke of Newcastle was then secretair 
for the southern department, and aa such 
had control over colonial affairs. The duke's 
ignorance of colonial geog^phy was astound- 
ing, while the ministry carried on without 
spirit a war into which they had been dragyi:ed 
against their will. During the spring of 1743 
Oglethorpe, while dreading the annihilation 
of his colony — a blow which would at once 
have involved South Carolina in invasion, 
and probably in servile war — had to confine 
himself to utilising his Indian allies for raids 
into the neighbourhood of St. Augustine. On 
13 Feb. of that year he was promoted to the 
rank of brigadier-general. Hitherto the title 
of general, habitually applied to him in con- 
nection with Georgian affairs, was purely 
honorary and conventional. 

The military operations against Spain soon 
involved Oglethorpe in financial difficulties, 
which compelled his return to England. The 
state of aflairs well illustrates the unsatis- 
factory want of method in the colonial ad- 
ministration of Great Britain in those days. 
No fixed sum was voted for the defence of 
Georgia, nor is there any evidence that in- 
structions were given to Oglethorpe author- 
ising him to spend money on that account. 
Yet it was manifest that supplies and the like 
must be paid for, and Oglethorpe accordingly 
incurred the necessary expenses, and met 
them by drawing bills on his English agent, 
a Mr. v'erelst, while at the same time he 
appears to have made it clear to Verelst by 
the form of the bills that the money was for 
the king's ser\'ice. Verelst therefore applied 
to Walpole, who was then chancellor of the 
exchequer, and Walpole authorised him to 
draw on the treasury for the sums required 
to meet the bills. After a time, however, 
Walpole withdrew this authority; but before 
the notification of this change irached Ogle- 
thorpe he had drawn more bills. The matter 
was then referred to the lords justices, who 
had been spc^cially authorised to supervise 
the finances of Georgia. They approved of 
the expenditure ; but when the bills were pre- 
sented at the treasury, the lords of that de- 
partment refused to meet them, nor is there 
any proof that Oglethorpe was ever re- 

It was Oglethorpe's intention to rerisit 




Georj^a after he had settled tkese financial 
troubles ; but two events changed his pur- 
pose. On 15 Sept. 1743 he marri^ Elizabeth^ 
the only surriving daughter and the heiress 
of Sir Nathan Wright. She brought him a 
much-needed fortune, including Cranham 
Hall in Essex, which was his home for the 
rest of his days. 

Soon afterwards, while Oglethorpe was 
raising troops for the defence of the colony, the 
Jacobite insurrection of 1746 broke out. He 
at once received orders to join General Wade, 
and to take with him the soldiers whom he 
had raised. He joined Wade at Hull, and ac- 
companied him in his march into Lancashire, 
where he and his men were transferred to the 
force which, under the Duke of Cumberland, 
harassed the retreating Jacobites. It is not 
unlikely that Oglethorpe's hereditary asso- 
ciations with the house of Stuart laid him 
open to suspicion. An absurd story found 
currency in later days to the effect that 
Oglethorpe was detected on the eve of Cul- 
loden in treasonable correspondence; that 
he therefore fled, and fortified himself as an 
armed rebel at his country seat in Surrey. 

It is certain that if Oglethorpe had any 
treasonable designs, of which there is no 
proof, they had been effectively anticipated. 
When, in December 1745, the Duke of Cum- 
berland returned to London, having, as he 
believed, crushed the rebellion, he lodged a 
charge of misconduct, accusing Oglethorpe of 
having lingered on the road in nis pursuit 
of the retreating Jacobites. 

A court-martial followed, and Oglethorpe 
was acquitted, but his career as a soldier was 
at an end, and he did not return to Georgia. 
For eight years longer he sat in parlia- 
ment. The utter collapse of opposition while 
Pelham was prime minister had relaxed 
the bonds of party discipline; the cause 
of the whigs was too triumphant, that of 
their opponents too hopeless, for either to 
insist on obedience. Oglethorpe was able 
to take up that position of a freelance which 
his keen and ready sympathy and his in- 
dependent temper made congenial to him. 
He had plainly cast behind him all linger- 
ing attachment to the house of Stuart. An 
attitude of sturdy independence towards 
Hanoverian ministers and a tendency to 
look with disfavour on all authority of 
which they were the centre were .all that 
remained of his hereditary Jacobitism. We 
find him twice supporting measures whereby 
foreign protestants might enjo^ full civic 
rights in the colonies, and <ioing his best 
to limit the arbitrary powers granted to 

In 1754 Oglethorpe was defeated in the 

contest for the representation of Haslemere, 
for which he had sat in parliament for thirty- 
twQ years. Thenceforth he disappeared from 
mibhc life. In 1752 the trustees of the 
Georgian colony had resigned their patent, 
and Georgia had become a royal province. 
For many years longer, however, Oglethorpe 
filled a prominent position in social life m 
London. He won Dr. Johnson*s regard by 
the support which he gave his * London' 
upon its appearance in 1738, and increased 
it by the stand he made against slavery in 
Georgia. In return, Johnson wished to write 
Oglethorpe's life. He was the friend of 
Walpole, Gk)ldsmith, Boswell, Burke, and 
Hannah More, keeping to the last his boyish 
vivacity and diversity of interests, his keen 
sense of personal dignity, his sympathv with 
the problems of life, his earnestness of moral 
conviction. His name is enshrined in the 
well-known couplet of Pope — 

One, driven by stroDg benevoleDce of soul, 
Shall fly like Oglethorpe from pole to pole 

(^Imitation of Horace, ep. ii.) 

On 1 July 1785 Oglethorpe died at Cran- 
ham. As if he was at once to become by an 
appropriate fate a hero of legend, he was de- 
scribed in two contemporary accounts as 102 
and 104 ; but, though his age is not mentioned 
on his monument, there seems no reason to 
doubt the accuracy of the record which makes 
him eighty-nine. A monument, with an ex- 
travagantly long inscription, was erected in 
Cranham Church to Oglethorpe and his 
widow, who died on 26 Oct. 1787. The 
Cranham estates descended to the Marquis 
de Bellegarde, the grandson of one of Ogle- 
thorpe's sisters. 

A three-quarter-length portrait of Ogle- 
thorpe in armour, engraved in mezzotint by 
T. Burford, is in the print-room at the Bri- 
tish Museum. Another, engraved by S. Ire- 
land, is mentioned by l^omley. 

[Mr. Robert Wright has gathered together all 
that can be known of Oglethorpe in an admirable 
biography. Mach of the material, especially that 
relating to Georgia, is still in manuscript. See, 
however, A True and Historical Narrative of the 
Colony of Georgia, 1741, and Account of the 
Colony of Georgia, 1741, both of which are re- 
printed in Force's Tracts, Washington, 1836, 
and Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. x. 63, where 
private letters — one from Oglethorpe — describe 
Georgia in 1738; Bosweirs Life of Johnson, 
ed. Hill, i. 127 ; Walpole's Letters ; Hannah 
More's Letters; Southey's Life of Wesley; 
Franklin's Memoirs, i. 162; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. 
ii. 19-22 ; Elwin and Courthope's Pope, iii. 392 ; 
Lecky's England in the Eighteenth Century, i. 
600-3; Gent. Mag. for 1785 and 1787.] 

J. A. D. 

Oglethorpe 48 Oglethorpe 


<>w«ii^)elethorp«i of Xewton Kymp, near Tad- ' acts of disgraceful sacrilege took place. Early 
caster, Yorkshire ( Stripe, Memorials, vol. iii. in 1548 the new order of communion had been 
pt.i.p. 173). Ife was born at Xewton Eyme, ' published, and letters were received from 
and was educated at Magdalen College, Ox- , somerset urging the college, in somewhat 
ford, where he graduated 1525 ; was ' indefinite but unmistakable terms, to 'the 
a<Imitted fellow about 1526, and graduated Redress of Religion.' Oglethorpe felt that 
M.A. in 1520, bein^ then in holy orders. He to keep his place he must comply. High 
ser\'ed the office ofjunior proctor in 1533. On mass was laia aside, and the English order 
21 Feb. 15'^) he was elected president of his of communion adopted, the president him- 
college.and grarluated as B.D. 12 Feb. 1536, ' self ministering. Not satisfied with this 
and D.I), five days later. He fulfilled the j amount of compliance, some of the fellows 
duties of vice-cliancellor* with great honour' sent a petition to the Protector accusing the 
in 1551. His ecclesiastical preierments were president of attempting to dissuade the so- 
many. From Archbishop Ileath, as a York- ciety from following nis directions. The 
«hireman, he received the rectory of Bolton charge was categorically denied in a letter 
Percy in 15.*U, and in 1541 a prebendal stall from Oglethorpe, dated 8 Nov. 1548, signed 
at Uipon (which in 1544 he exchanged for , by himself and eighteen other members of 
another in the same church). He also was . the college ^Bloxam, Magdalen College Be- 
collated to the stall of Lafford in Lincoln ' gistery vol. ii. pp. xliv, xlv, 300-3). In 1560 
Cathedral in 1536. In 1538 Cranmer gave ■ another fierce attack was made upon Ogle- 
him the living of Newington, Oxfordshire, thorpe by ten of the most puritanical of the 
one of the archiepiscopal peculiars, which he j fellows m a petition to the lords of the 
held till his elevation to the episcopate in council, accusing him of persecuting the 
1557. He was appointed to the college ^ ' Godlie * and favouring the * Papists,* their 
livings of Btieding and Sele, Sussex, in 1531, j grievance being summed up in twenty-five 
and to East Bridgeford in 1538 ; to the bene- articles. These he answered seriatim, denv- 
fico of his native place, Newton Kyme, in ing some and explaining others (ib, pp. 809- 
1541, and to that of Ilomald-Kirk in the ' 317). He also drew up *a further defence,' 
flnm(j year, and of St. Olave, Southwark, in ' to set himself right with the Protector 
1544. At an earlier poriod he? had been one and his council. In this he repudiated the 
of the canons of Henry VIII's foundation, I scholastic doctrine of transubstantiation and 
erected in 1532 on the suppression of Wol- solitary masses, and declared his approba- 
fley*s * (Cardinal College ; ' and on the conver- ' tion of the new * order and form ' of sen'ice 
sionofSt.Fridoswide's into a cathedral church 1 in English, provided * it be used godly and 
in 154H, a pension of 20/. was reserved for him reverently ' (ih, p. 318), He was, however, 
out of its revenues, lie was appointed canon I summoned to London to answer the char^, 
of Windsor in 1540. His stanaing as a theo- and in May was reported to have been * im- 
logian had btn^n previously fully recognised, ; prisoned for superstition,' and to be likely to 
and in 1540 he was named by Cranmer one lose his presidentship (Christopher Hales to 
ofthecommissionersto whom were addressed Rudolph Gualter, Original Letters j Parker 
the * Seventeen (Questions' on the sacraments, ! Soc. i. 187). The latter fear was not realised; 
on the answers to which was founded * The he kept his headship, and it is curious to find 
Erudition of a Christian Man * (Stuypb, Me- ; him not long after (1 Aug.) entertaining the 
vnoriah, vol. ii. pt. ii. p. 14 ; Ckaxmbr, i. 110, ; leading reformers, Peter Martyr and Martin 
Appendix, Nos. xxvii. xxviii.) ! Bucer, and the former for the second time 

Iho accession of Edwanl \'l, which placed j together with Coverdale on 19 May of the 
Somerset in supreme power, was the begin- ■ following year. The changes recently made 
niug of trouble to Oglethorpe, llis conduct ! in the ciiapel by order of the visitors, such 
shows him to have boenamnn of no strength as the demolition of the high altar and the 
of ehanictor, wit h litt 1»» love for the series of burningof the organ. cannot fail to have been 
ri^ligious ehanp»s through which the clergy ' very displeasing to Oglethorpe; and, though 
wen» luMug bust IihI, hut n»lurtuntlv accept inff I outwardly complying, it was abundantly 
them nit her than forego the cfignity and clear that at heart he was hankering after 
emi>lumeuts of ollioe. The society of' Mag- I the old system. In 1552, therefore, the 
dal«»u Colle^fe wns at that time greatly king*s council resolved on his removal; they 
dividtnl in n^ligious opinion. The majority, bt»lieved that he would impede the further 
including ( )glet hf>r]H», adhered more or less religious changes they had in view, and, by 
to the old faith; while the reforming . a tyrannical violation of the statutes, ap- 




pointed Walter Haddon [q.v.J, master of 
Trinity Hall, Cambridge, president in his 
place. The fellows remonstrated, to no pur- 
pose ; and Oglethorpe, seeing that resistance 
was vain, entered into an amicable, but not 
ver^ honourable, agreement with Haddon, on 
which he resigned the presidency, 27 Sept. 
1552, and BLaddon was admitted by royal 
mandate (t^. li. 320-1). 

On Mary's accession next year the intrud- 
ing president was removed by Gardiner, and 
Oglethorpe resumed his old place, 31 Oct. 
1553 (t6. p. It; Stbtpe, MemorialSf vol. iii. 
pt. i. p. 81). At the memorable disputation 
the next year between Cranmer, Ridley, and 
Latimer, and a committee of theologians 
elected from Oxford and Cambridge, he was 
one of the Oxford divines, and ou 14 April 
presented the Cambridge doctors for incor- 
poration (Stbtpb, Cranmer, i. 480). The 
same month he resigned his presidency. He 
had been appointed dean of Windsor in the 
preceding year, with the rectory of Haseley 
attached, and in 1555 became registrar of the 
Order of the Garter (Ryheb, Focdera, xv. 421), 
being the first dean of Windsor to hold that 
office. Higher preferment was not long in 
coming. He was nominated by Mary to the 
bishopric of Carlisle, and was consecrated by 
Archbishop Heath at Chiswick on 15 Aug. 
1 557. In little more than a year Mary died, 
and Oglethorpe was once more placed in the 
dilemma of having to choose between the old 
and the new form of religion. He showed 
some firmness when called upon to say mass 
before the aueen in the first days of her reign. 
Elizabeth lorbade him to elevate the Host, 
which, according to a Roman authority, he 
insisted on doing (STRTPE,^7inaZ«, vol. i. pt. i. 
p. 73). The coronation soon followed. In the 
vacancy of the see of Canterbury, it naturally 
fell to the Archbishop of York to perform 
the ceremony ; but Heath, alarmed by omi- 
nous presages of a change in religion, refused 
to officiate. Tunstall of Durham was too old, 
and perhaps shared in Heath's objection. It 
devolved, therefore, on Oglethorpe, as his suf- 
fragan, to take his metropolitan's place, and 
on 16 Jan. 1559, the other diocesan bishops 
attending, with the exception of Bonner, 
who, however, lent him nis robes for the 
function, he ^aced the crown on the head of 
Elizabeth, but it is asserted that he never 
forgave himself for an act the momentous 
consequences of which he hardly foresaw, 
and remorse for his unfaithfulness to the 
church is said to have hastened his end. 
The same month he attended Elizabeth's 
first parliament, when he expressed his dis- 
sent from the bills for restoring the first- 
fruits and tenths to the crown, and the royal 


supremacy, the iniquitous forced exchange of 
bisliops' lands for impropriate tithes, and 
other measures (Stbtpb, Annals, vol. i. pt. 
i. pp. 82-7). He was also present at tne 
opening of the disputation on religion at 
Westminster in March 1559, and was one 
of those who were fined for declining to 
enter on the dispute when they saw which 
wav things were tending. The fine imposed 
on him amounted to 250/., and he had to give 
recognisances for ffood behaviour {ib, pp. 129, 
137-9). On 15 May, together with Arch- 
bishop Heath and the other bishops who ad- 
hered to the old faith, he was summoned 
before the queen, and, on their unanimous 
refusal to take the oath of supremacy, they 
were all deprived {ib. pp. 206, 210). He 
only survived his deprivation a few months. 
He died suddenly of apoplexy on the last 
day of that year. The place of his death 
was probably a house in Chancery Lane, 
belonging to his private estate, which he had 
eiven to his old college in 1 556, reserving 
four chambers for himself. He was buried, 
4 Jan. 1560, in the adjacent church of St. 
Dunstan's in the West, Fleet Street (Bloxah, 
vol. iv. p. xxix ; Machyn, Diary, p. 221). 
Had his life been prolonged, Wood says, ' it 
was thought the Queen would have been 
favourable to him.' Some courteous letters 
passed between him, when residing at Ox- 
ford, and Bullinffer, chiefly letters of intro- 
duction, which have been printed by the 
Parker Society {Original Letters, i. 126, 
425). A letter of his, on his election to the 
see of Carlisle, to the Earl of Shrewsbury 
on Lancelot Salkeld's claim to the manor of 
Linstock, is contained in the Lansdowne 
MSS. (980, f. 312). Among the Additional 
MSS. (5489, f. 49) is a weak, shuffling reply 
of his to articles proposed by Sir Philip 
Hoby respecting the sale of the plate at St. 
George's Chapel, Windsor; he acknowledges 
he had consented to the sale and shared to 
some extent in the proceeds, but all the 
while disapproved of it. His replies to 
Cranmer's * Seventeen Questions,' referred to 
above, are printed with those of the other 
commissioners by Burnet in his * History of 
the Reformation ' (pt. i. bk. iii. records xxi. ; 
see also pt. ii. bk. i. records liii.) He founded 
and endowed a school and hospital at Tad- 
caster, near his birthplace (Stbtfe, Annals, 
iv. 212, No. xcix). His name appears on the 
list of benefactors to be commemorated at 
Magdalen on 31 Dec, the day of his death. 

[Wood's Athenae Oxon. ii. 792, 768, 807 Fasti, 
i. 66, 81, 96, 100, 102 ; Godwin, De Praesul. i. 
175; Foster's Alumni, 1500-1714, iii. 1088; 
Fuller's Worthies, ii. 226, Church History, ii. 
466, iv. 193; Strype, 11. cc; Jiymer's Foeders, 

Oglethorpe 50 Oglethorpe 

Z.V. 421, 446. 4S3, 577 : Bloxam's Magdalen in parliament for Haalemere, Surrej, from 

^_*.B^ ■ •• 1*1 1*1 * '*1**al * *V1* 1 1 Y#VA *11 **/YA 

family settled at Oglethorpe, a Ricfiiard Wall of Tipperary,' of a considerable 
hamlet in Hramliam parish, in the West , family in Ireland/ Swift mentions her often 
Kiilinsr of Yorkshirt\ His father, Sutton in the 'Journal to Stella,' and emphasises 
Oglethorpt^ (baptistnl at llramham in h\V2\ her cunning; she introduced Swift to the 
wa.< tilled by the i^arliament :?0.0(.KV. and had DuchesAof Hamilton ( Works, Tol. ii. passim), 
his fstates s«^uesiered and jriven to ceneral She died 19 June 1782, having borne seven 
William Fairt'ax ^l- v.**. who s>dd them to children to Of^lethorpe. Of these the eldest 
the Ringlev family. He married Frances, son, Lewis ( 168 1-1 704), succeeded his father 
daughter of John Matthews (Mat hew r) and as member for Haslemere. Evelyn mentions 
fn^nddaughter of An.'h bishop Tobie Mat hew him as fighting a duel with Sir Richard 
[q. v.\ and had twt> Siins: Sutton, who was ; Onslow. He died at the Hague of a wound 
created M.A. by the university of Oxford on received in Marlborough's attaek on the 
28 Sept. ll>63, became a royal j»a^\ student heights of Schellenbeig, just before Blen* 
of Ciniy's Inn, lt>o7, and, it is said, stud- heim. The second, Theophdus(l 1>82-1 720 f), 
master to Charles II : and Theo])hilus, who, also sat for Haslemere after his brother. He 
baptised 1-i Sept. Iti-X), entered the army so'm was aide-de-camp to the Duke of Ormonde, 
after the Rest oration as a private gentleman in and afterwards joined the Jacobite court of 
one of King Charles's newly raisiMl troops of St. Germains, where he died some time be- 
lifeguanls (Macaulat, //l>^ of Ettf/land, i, tween 1717 and 1720. Tlie third was General 
297). Oglethorpe belonginl to the Duke of ' James Edward Oglethorpe [a. v.]; the fourth, 
York*s troop, distinguishiHl by its green fac- Sutton, died young. OftheaaughterSyAnne, 
ings and standani. His name appears as t he eldest, was a resident at St. GKsrma ins, and, 
lieutenant-colonel of the king*8 regiment of it is said, a mistressof theOld Pretender ( ' her 
dragoons 19 Feb. lt>78 (IVALTON,p.20i>). It Ogletliorpian majesty* of Esmond), prior to 
was disbanded, and he returned temporarily . her return to England without a pass in 1704. 
to his troop of lifeguards. He was lieutenant- , The fact of her return being unauthorised 
colonel of the royal dragoons 11 June IG79, I enabled Godolphin and Harley to obtain in- 
an<l commanded the advance-guard of the i formation from her respecting the Jacobite 
Duke of Monmouth's arm vat the defeat of the correspondence. Accoiding to Boyer (--!»- 
Scottish covenanters at l^^thwell Dridgt» on nalM (/--Iw?!?, 1735,p. 127), her wit and beauty 
22 June. On 11 Aug. 1H79 he was guidon and gained the hearts of the ministers, and some 
major of the Duke of York's troop, of which maintained that Godolphin's jealousy of the 
Monmouth was colonel; held the same posi- . s«»cretary in their relations with the lady was 
tioii 30 April 1080 (ib, p. 273), and became the source of the breach between the two. 

Ho was made a brigadier-general and prin- France, and is said to have been made i 

cipal equerry to James II, and on 25 Oct. . Jacobite countess. She and her youngest 

l(iS'y was made colonel of th»» Holland rogi- sister died unmarried. Two others mamed, 

mont, or Buffs. IL* purchased the manor of one the Marquis de Maziera in Picardy, the 

Westbrook, Godalming, in 1G88. Ho took ' other the Marquis de Bellegarde. 

the field as a brigadier-genoral of Jameses j Some years after the death of Sir Theo- 

army, and after the king's fiight, not choos- i philus a crazy sort of pamphlet appeared 

ing to serve against one from whom he had without a printer's name (1707), purporting 

received many favours, he was deprived of to relate the hearsay of a Mistress Frances 

his militarjr emoluments, and his Higiment I Shaft oe, a serving-woman, according to 

'^ - - - jg^^i^ ^f ^^^ infant 

infant sonof Ogle- 
who became l^noe 

went to France (Luttkell); but in 1698 
ook the oaths to King William, and sat 

James Francis Edward, better known as the 
Chevalier St. Geoige or the Old Pretender. 




[lianning and Bra/s Surrey, vol. i. (pedigree, 
p. 614, and account of munor of Westbrook) ; 
KichoUt's Lit. Anecd. ii. 17; Dalton'a English 
Army Lists. 1660-85, pp. 209. 240. 254, 255, 
273, 277, 313; Cannon'H Hist. Rec. Brit. Army, 
3rd Buflfs ; Macaolay 8 Hist .of England, vol. i. ; 
Luttreirs Brief Historical Relation of State 
Affairs.] H. M. C. 

caUed, according to Colgan, Mabtanus Gob- 
MAX, and by the ' Four Masters ' Maelxthbe 
O'DuN'iAX, martyrologist, was abbot of Cnoc 
na Seangan, or Pismire Hill, near the town of 
Louth. This place was afterwards known as 
Cnoc na n Apstal, or the Kill of the Apostles, 
from the time of the consecrat ion of the church 
there by Archbishop Malachy Morgan [q. v.]> 
when it was dedicated to St. Peter and St. 
PauL It was an establishment for Augus- 
tinian canons, the founders being Donnchadh 
O'CarroU, chief of Oriel, and Edan O'Cael- 
laighe, bishop of Clogher. Marianus is termed 
in the * Martyrology of Donegal ' abbot of 
Louth. Ware, Harris, and Arclidall believed 
the abbey of Louth to be distinct from the 
abbey 01 Cnoc na Seangan; but in that 
case two monasteries, both for August inian 
canons, and both founded by the same prince 
and bishop, must have existed within a few 
perches of each other. This seems highly 
improbable, and we may assume with con- 
fidence that they are identical. 

Marianus is the author of a * Martyrology' 
composed during the reign of Roderic O'Con- 
nor [q. vj, king of Ireland, and between 1166 
and 1173, while Gilla mac Liag or Gelasius 
was archbishop of Armagh. This work was 
unknown in Ireland except by name until 
1847, when the Rev. Matthew kelly of May- 
nooth procured a copy of the only known 
manuscript preservea in the Royal Library 
at Bmsselfl. Two years after, the Rev. Dr. 
Todd obtained a loan of this and other manu- 
acripta from the Belgian government, and had 
a copy of it made by Eugene O'Curry. The 
* Martyrology,' which has never been pub- 
lished, is now about to be brought out by 
the Henry Bradshaw Society, under the 
editorship of Mr. \yhitley Stokes, D.C.L. It 
is a poem in the Irish language, and consists 
of 2,780 lines in the rather rare and difficult 
metre known as ' Rinnard/ in which the ' Ca- 
lendar of CEngus Ceile D6 ' is also composed. 
The poem is arranged in months, and has a 
stanxa for every day in the year, which con- 
tains the names of those saints whose fes- 
tivals fall on that day. There are also inter- 
lined and marginal glosses relating to the 
situation of the churches belonging to the 
saints mentioned when those saints are Irish, 
for Marianas does not confine himself to native 

saints. These glosses or scholia add much 
to its value as an historical authority. The 
preface informs us that it was taken largely 
from the * Martyrology ' of Tallaght. 0*Clery 
made great use of it in the compilation of 
the ' Martyrology of Donegal,' which was 
published in 18(54 under the editorship of 
Bishop Reeves and the Rev. Dr. Todd. All 
the names given in that work without a 
local designation are from Marianus, as well 
as those which have short local notices ; of 
these last many, if not all, are taken from the 

Marianus t«lls us he was led to undertake 
the work first by the hope of thereby secur- 
ing entrance into the kingdom of heaven for 
himself as well as for every one who should 
make a practice of chanting it ; in the second 
place he wished to supply the names of many 
saints, Irish and foreign, who were omitted 
from the 'Calendar of CEngus,' saints for 
whom the church had ordained festivals or 
prescribed masses ; and, lastly, in order to cor- 
rect the * Calendar of (Engus,' in which days 
of commemoration were assigned to many 
different from those appointed by the church 
at that time. He died in 1181. His day in 
the ' Martyrology of Donegal ' is 3 July. 

[Colgan's Act. SS. p. 737 ; Trias Thanm. p. 305 ; 
Annals of the Four Masters, iii. 57 ; Ware^s Anti- 
quities, chap, zxvi., and Bishops of Louth and 
Clogber at Edan ; Martyrology of DonegMl, Pref. 
p. xrii; Lanigan's Eccles. Hist. iv. 129, 131; 
O'Cuny's MS. Materials, pp. 361, 362.] T. 0. 

O'GORMAN MAHON, The (1800- 
1891), politician. [See Mahon, Charles 
James Patrick.] 

■ O'GRADY, STANDISH, first Viscount 
GuiLLAMORB (1766-1840), was the eldest 
son of Darby O'Grady of Mount Prospect, 
Limerick, and of Mary, daughter of James 
Smyth of the same county, lie was bom on 
20 Jan. 1766, and, entering Trinity College, 
Dublin, graduated BA. in 1784. He was 
called to the bar, and went the Munster cir- 
cuit. He was remarkable for wit as well as 
learning, and attained considerable practice. 
On 28 Slay 1803, after the murder of Lord 
Kilwarden, he became attorney-general, and 
was one of the prosecuting counsel at the trial 
of Robert Emmet. In 1805 he was made 
lord chief baron, in succession to Yelverton, 
lord Avonmore. He was a sound judge, and 
Chief Baron Pigot [q. v.], of the Irish exche- 
quer, expressed the opinion : * O'Grady was 
the ablest man whose mind I ever saw at 
work.' His witticisms on and off the bench 
were long remembered (D. 0. Madden, /re- 
land and its Rulers j i. 126). O'Grady was 
one of the first to suspect the duplicity of 


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\ » 




(Rodger's Aberdeen Doctors, pp. 201, 301 , 
^12; lABcet, October 1887, No. 8345, p. 739; 
Pec^le*8 Journal (Aberdeen), 1 Oct. 1887*] 

A. H. M. 

O'HAGAN, JOHN (1822-1890), judge, 
second son of John Arthur O^Hagan of 
Newry, co. Down, bom at Newry on 19 March 
1822, graduated B.A. at Trinity College, 
Dublin, in 1842, and proceeded M.A. in I860. 
fie was called to the Irish bar in 1842, and 
went the Munster circuit. An active member 
of the Young Ireland party, he was one of the 
counsel for Sir Charles Gavan Duffy on his 
trial for complicity in the rebellion of 1848. 
He also contributed to the * Nation,' both in 
prose and verse, his poems being distinguished 
€j the pseudonyms or initials Sliabn Cuil- 
luim, Carolina Wilhelmina, O., or J. 0*H. 
They are collected in * The Spirit of the 
Nation,' Dublin, 1874, 8vo. 

O'Hagan was appointed commissioner of 
the board of national education in 1861, 
took silk in I860, and was admitted a 
bencher of King's Inn in 1878. On the 
passing of the LiEind Law ^Ireland) Act of 
188I he was appointed judicial commissioner 
thereunder, with the rank of justice of the 
high court ofjustice, having previously quali- 
fied for the omce by being made her majesty's 
third Serjeant (31 May). He died on 12 Nov. 

O'Hagan was a good scholar and a com- 
petent lawyer, and was equally respected for 
nis integrity and admirea for his chivalrous 
character. He married in 18tlo Frances, 
daughter of Thomas 0*IIagan [q. v.], lord 
chancellor of Ireland. 

0*Hagan*s patriotic songs are held in much 
esteem by his countrymen of the Nationalist 
party. Besides them he published a lec- 
ture on Chaucer in * Afternoon Lectures on 
Literature and Art,' London, 1864, 8vo; 

* The Song of Roland,' a metrical version of 
the 'Chanson de Roland,' London, 1883, 
^•o ; * The Poetry of Sir Samuel Ferguson,' 
& critical essay, Dublin, 1887, 8vo ; and 
'Irish Patriotism: Thomas Davis,' in the 

* Contemporary Review,' October 1 890. * Joan 
of Arc ' (an historical study originally con- 
tributed to the ' Atlantis' in I808) appeared 
in a posthumous volume, London, 1893, 8vo. 

[O'Donofshne's Poets of Ireland ; Irish Law 
Times, 15 Nov. 1890; Sir Charles Gavan Duff/s 
Yoang Ireland. 1840-50, pp. 293, 565« 763, and 
Four Years of Irish History, pp. 582, 739; 
Ann. Reg. 1844, Chron. p. 304; Tbom*s Irish 
Almanac; Haydn's Book of Dignities, ed. 
Ockerby ; Cal. Dnbl. Grad.] J. M. R. 

0*HAOAN, THOMAS, first Babon 
CHaoait (1812-1885), lord chancellor of 
Ireland, omy son of Edward O'Hagan, a 

catholic trader of Belfast, was bom there on 
29 May 1812. He was educated at the Bel- 
fast academical institution, where he won 
the highest prizes, and, being at the time the 
only catholic student, was awarded by the 
votes of his fellow-students the gold medal 
for an essay on the * History of Eloaueuce, 
Ancient and Modem.' lie frequently took 
part in a debating society attached to the 
institution, and there developed command of 
language and great readiness of speech. On 
leaving the institution he became connected 
with the press. In Michaelmas term 1831 he 
was admitted a student of the King's Inns, 
Dublin, his certificate for admission being 
signed by Daniel O'Connell [4. v.] This was 
probably the commencement of his acquaint- 
ance with O'Connell. * In my earlier years I 
knew O'Connell well ; I was personally his 
debtor for continual kindness ' {O'Connell 
Centenary Address, 1875). He was admitted 
a student of Gray's Inn in Hilarv term 1834, 
and became a pupil of Thomas Cnitty [q. v.], 
the well-known pleader. In Hilary term 
1836 he was called to the Irish bar, and 
joined the north-east circuit. From 18136 to 
1840 he resided at Newry, editing the * Newry 
Examiner,' and practising on circuit, prin- 
cipally in the defence of prisoners. His con- 
duct of the paper was warmly praised by 
O'Connell : * I was assailed at every turn, and 
defended with zeal and spirit by nobody save 
the " Newry Examiner, a paper to which 
I really am more indebted than to any other 
in Ireland' (Correspondence of O^Cmnell, 
23 Oct. 1838, ii. 154). In 1840 O'Hagan 
removed to Dublin, and, though still con- 
tributing to the press, devoted his atten- 
tion mainly to the bar. In 1842 he was 
retained, with O'Connell, to defend Gavan 
Duffy (now Sir Charles Gavan Duflfv), in- 
dicted for a seditious libel in the ' Belfast 
Vindicator.' O'Connell, being detained in 
London by his parliamentary duties, returned 
his brief, and, by Gavan Duffy's wish, the 
case was left in O'llagan's hands. He con- 
ducted the defence with such marked ability 
as to draw compliments from the attorney- 
general (Blackbume) and the chief justice 
(Pennefather). From this time his success 
was assured, and his practice steadily in- 
creased. On the trial of O'Connell and the 
other repeal leaders in 1843-4, he was again 
counsel for Gavan Duffy, with Whiteside 
(afterwards chief justice) as his leader. In 
1845 he was junior counsel in a case that 
attracted considerable attention — an appeal 
to the visitors of Trinity College, Dublin, by 
Denis Caulfield Heron (afterwards Seijeant 
Heron), a catholic student, against a decision 
of the provost and fellows, refusing to admit 




him to a scholarship which he had won in 
the examination on the ground that the 
scholarships were by law not tenable by 
catholics. The visitors came to the same 

In politics O'Hagan was opposed to the 
repeal of the union, advocating instead the 
establishment of a local legislature for local 
purposes, with the representation of Ireland 
continued in the imperial parliament (Speech 
at meeting of Ilepeal Association, 29 May 
1843). His views not finding favour with 
0*Connell and the leading repealers, he 
ceased to attend the meetings of the repeal 
association. His first professional promotion 
was in 1847, when he was appointed assis- 
tant barrister of co. Long^ford. In the state 
trials of 1848 he was retained by the crown, 
but desired to be excused on the ground of 
his personal friendship with Gavan Duffy, 
one of the accused; the attorney-general 
(Monahan) at once acceded to his request, 
and withdrew the crown retainer; and 
0*Hagan felt constrained to refuse the re- 
tainer for the defence, which was subse- 
quently offered to him. In the following 
year he was appointed a queen's counsel, ana 
rapidly acquired considerable practice as a 
leader both on circuit and in Dunlin. Owing 
to his powers as a speaker and his popular 
sympathies, he was frequently retained in 
cases of a political or sensational character. 
The most remarkable was the trial at Dublin 
(7 Dec. 1855) of Father Petcherine,aredemp- 
torist monk of Russian birth, on a charge of 
contemptuously and profanely burning a copy 
of the authorised version of the scriptures. 
O'Hagan addressed the jury for the defence in 
a speech of great force and eloquence, and a 
verdict of * not guilty * was returned. In 1857 
he was transferred us nssistnnt-barrister from 
Longford to co. Dublin. In 1859 he was 
appointed third Serjeant, and elected a 
bencher of the King's Inns. He became soli- 
citor-general for Ireland in 1861 in Lord 
Palmerston's government, and in the follow- 
ing year attorney-general, and was sworn of 
the Irish privy council. At a by-election 
in 18(>3hewas returned for Tralee, notwith- 
standing the combined opposition of the con- 
servatives and nationalists. By the latter 
he was bitterly assailed, both as attorney- 
general and as a member of the board of 
national education, to which he had been 
a])p()iiited in 1858. In a manly and vigorous 
8pe«*ch at the hustings he justified his career, 
defended himself from the ' virulent acer- 
bity * with wliich he had been attacked, and 
upheld the national system of education as 
* the greatest boon and blessing which since 
emancipation was ever confen^ on Ireland 

by the imperial government.' In the same 
year in the House of Commons he again 
spoke energetically in defence of the national 
system on a motion by Major O'Reilly to re- 
duce the vote foir its expenses (18 July 1863). 
In January 1865 he was appointed a jud^ 
of the court of common pleas in Ireland m 
succession to Mr. Justice Ball. By an act 
passed in 1867 (30 and 31 Vict. c. 75) the lord- 
chancellorship of Ireland was opened to all 
persons without reference to their religioua 
belief, and, on the formation of the first Glad- 
stone ministry in December 1868, O'Hagan 
was appointed to the office. He was the 
first catholic who had held it since the reign 
of James II, and his appointment was re- 
ceived with much popular approval in Ire- 
land. In 1870, while the Irish Land Bill 
was passing through parliament, he was 
raised to the peerage (14 June) as Baron 
O'Hagan of Tullahogue in co. Tyrone, and 
took his seat in the lords on 21 June. Tulla- 
hogue was in early times a possession of the 
O'l lagans, and was the place where the 
O'Neill was inaugurated, the O'Ha^n and 
O'Cahan having the hereditary right to 
I perform the ceremony (Joyce, Short Sist. of 
I Ireland, p. 63). In the following session he 
; introduced and passed through parliament 
a bill to consoliaate and amend the laws 
relating to juries in Ireland (34 and 35 Vict, 
c. 65). Its main object was to prevent any 
partiality by the sheriff or hia officers in the 
framing of the jury panel ; this object it suc- 
cessfully effected, but it also altered the 
qualification of jurors, and admitted to the 
jury-box a class of men who were hardly 
fittetl for the position. 

In February 1874 O'Hagan resigned with 
the rest of the ministry. His decisions in 
the Irish court of chancery are reported in 
the * Irish Reports ' (Elquity), vols. iv.-viiL 
A successful common-law advocate suddenly 
called to preside in the court of chancery can 
at best ho])e to discharge the duties of his 
office in a satisfactory manner. This O'Hagan 
did, and his courtesy and impartiality met 
with general acknowledgment. But with 
his colleague, the lord justice of appeal 
(Christian), an able and erudite but some- 
what eccentric judge, his relations became 
unfortunately strained ; and at times scenes 
I took place in the court for which the chan- 
1 cellor was in no way responsible. During 
' the next six years O'Hagan sat regularly in 
' the House of Lords on the hearing of appeals. 
His judgments will be found in vol. vii. of 
i * English and Irish Appeal Cases,' and vols. 
I i.-v. of * Appeal Cases ' in the * Law Reports.* 
In 1875 he was selected to deliver the O^Con- 
nell centenary address in Dublin ; the il 




of a near relative prevented its actual delivery, 
but it was printed and circulated. A similar 
task was assiraed to him at the Moore cen- 
tenary in 187o ; twenty-one years before he 
had made the principal speech on the unveil- 
ii^ of Moore's statue in Dublin. In Irish 
e&cational questions he took an active in- 
teresty and supported the Irish Intermediate 
Education ana University Education Bills 
in the House of Lords (28 June 1878, 8 July 
1879). He was one of the original members 
of the intermediate education board esta- 
blifihed in 1878, and its first vice-chairman, 
and was appointed one of the senators of the 
Royal University of Ireland on its founda- 
tion in 1880. At the first meeting of the 
senate he was elected vice-chanceUor, and 
from that time forward constantly presided 
at the meetings of the senate and the council. 
In May 1880, on the return of Mr. Gladstone 
to office, he a^in became lord-chancellor of 
Ireland, and in the following vear strongly 
aapported the Irish Land Biu in the House 
of Lords, describing it as * the most im- 
portant measure that since the time of the 
union had been conceded to Ireland ' (1 Aug. 
1881). He resigned the chancellorship in 
November of that year owing to failing 
healthy but still continued to attend the 
jodicial sittings of the House of Lords. He 
was made a knight of St. Patrick in 1881, 
and elected an honorary bencher of Gray's 
Inn in 1883. He died on 1 Feb. 1885, at his 
town residence, Hereford House, Park Street, 
London. His body was removed to Dublin, [ 
and buried in Glasnevin cemetery. 

0*Hagan*s manners were menial and con- 
ciliatory. He never indulged in asperity of 
speech or demeanour towards his opponents, 
and almost invariably enjoyed their esteem 
and g^ood will. As a politician his career was 
honourable and consistent. His professional 
advancement was not due to politics; he had 
already reached the highest place at the bar 
before he sought a seat in parliament. From 
the time of the collapse of the repeal move- 
ment, he supported an alliance between the 
popular partv in Ireland and the English 
liberals, and he lived to see the Irish measures 
which he most desired passed as the result of 
that alliance. His papers and addresses and 
his principal speeches and arguments are col- 
lected in ' Occasional Papers and Addresses 
by Lord O'Hagan,' 1884; and < Selected 
Speeches and Arguments of Lord 0*Hagan,' 
eaited by George Teeling, 1886. 

He was twice marri^ : first, in 1836, to 
Mary, daughter of Charles Hamilton Teel- 
ing of Be&st ; and, secondly, in 1871, to 
Afice Marv, youngest daughter and coheiress 
of CSolonel^Towi^ey of Towneley, Lanca- 

shire. By his first marriage, one daughter 
only survived him, the wile of Mr. Justice 
John O'Hagan [a. v.] ; by his second marriage 
he left several children, of whom the eldest 
son (Thomas Towneley) is now second Baron 
O'Hagan. His statue, by Farrell, is in the 
Four Courts, Dublin ; his portrait, by Mr. 
George Kichmond, is in the possession of his 

[Times, 2 Feb. 1886; Freeman's Journal, 
2 Feb. 1885 ; Tablet, 7 Feb. 1886; Annual Re- 
gister, 1885; Report of the Trial of the Rev. 
Vladimir Petcherine, by James Doyle, Dublin, 
1866; Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, 1894; 
private information.] J. D. F. 

O'HAINQLI, DONAT, caUed by the 
* Four Masters ' Donngus {d. 1095), bishop 
of Dublin, was a member of a family whose 
home was at Cin61 Dobhth, co. Roscommon. 
He had been a student in Ireland, but, pro- 
ceeding to England, became a monk of the 
Benedictine order, and lived for some time at 
Lanfranc's monastery at Canterbury. On the 
death of Patrick, bishop of Dublin, who was 
drowned on his way to England on 10 Oct. 
1084, 0*Haingley was elected to succeed him 
by Turlough O'Brien [a. v.] and the clergy 
and people of Dublin. He seems to have been 
recommended by Lanfranc, who was anxious 
for the reform of several Irish practices. 
He was sent for consecration to Lanfranc, 
with a letter from his patrons explaining 
that, as Patrick was prevented by death from 
reporting to him how far the abuses com- 
plained of had been remedied, Donat would 
give him the information. He was con- 
secrated in Canterbury Cathedral in 1086, 
having made a profession of canonical obe- 
dience as follows : * I, Donat, bishop of Dub- 
lin in Ireland, promise canonical obedience 
to thee, Lanfranc, Archbishop of Canterbury, 
and to thy successors.' When returning to 
Dublin, Lanfranc gave him a present of books 
and ornaments for his cathedral of the Holy 
Trinity. He died on 23 Nov. 1096 of the 

Seat plague, which, according to the * Four 
asters,' carried off a fourtn part of the 
people of Ireland. 

He was succeeded by his nephew, Samuel 
O'Hainoli, who also had been a Benedic- 
tine monk, and was a member of the com- 
munity of St. Albans. He was elected by 
Murtough O'Brien [q. v.] and the clergy and 
people of Dublin, and was recommended to 
Anselm, archbishop of Canterbury, for con- 
secration. Anselm received him into his 
house, gave him instruction in ecclesiastical 
matters, and subsequently, on the Sunday 
after Easter 1096, assisted by four bishops, 
consecrated him in the cathedral of Win- 




Chester, just two years after its completion. 
Samuel had already made a profession of 
canonicnl obedience to Anselm and his suc- 
cessors. The account of Eadmer is that he 
was sent to Anselm ' according to ancient 
custom ; ' but the custom was certainly not 
ancient. IIS the first instance of the consecra- 
tion of an Irish bishop by the Archbishop 
of Canterbury was that ot Patrick in 1073. 
Eadmer apparently wished to exalt the see 
of Canterbury. C)n his return to Ireland 
Samuel disappointed the expectations formed 
of him by expelling some of the monks from 
the catlunlral of the Holy Trinity, and taking 
possession of the books and ornaments Lan- 
iranc had sent by l>onat as a gift to it. He 
also ordered his cross to be b^^me before 
him. Anselm wn>te to remonstrate with 
him. telling him that the ornaments belonged 
to the church and not to him, and that he was 
not entitled to have his cross borne before 
him, as he had not been investtnl with the 
pail. Anselm also wrote to Malchus, bishop 
of Waterford, to the same purport, enclosing 
a letter for Samuel, and rtH|uesting him to 
use his influence with Samuel. He adds 
that he had ordered tlie iHH)ple of Dublin to 
prevent the removal of the objtKJts referred 
to. Samuel died in 11:? I, being the last who 
bore the title of bishop of Dublin, all his suc- 
cessors being archbishoi>s. 

[D'Alton's Memoirs of the Arclibishopsof Dub- 
lin, lSij8, p. 35 ; Ware's ]Usho(>s. s.v. * Dublin ; * 
Ett'lmer's Hi>t. Nov. lib. ii. ad an. J T. O. 

O'HALLORAN, Sir .TOSKPH ( 17(53- 
18 1.*5 ), major-general in the East India Corn- 
pan y'.-> service, youngest son of Sylvester 
f/lialloran [q. v.", was born in co. Limerick 
on l:i Aug. 176'3. On 2i> Feb. 1781 he 
was appointed midshipman on boanl the 
PiHMt India Company's sloop of war Swal- 
low, and in .Tulv that vear obtained an in- 
fantr\- rad^jtship; was made ensign in the 
hf.nff'.i] arrav on 9 May 1782 and lieu- 
tftnanr on ft ,/an. \7So. In 1790 he married, 
and on 7 Jan. I70r» became captain. From 
June 179'J to October 1802 he was adjutant 
and quartermaster at Midnapiir, and was 
attached to the public works department. 
On the abolition of his office he rejoined his 
corps, the late 18th Bengal native infantry. 
In September 1803 he accompanied a force 
of all arms which crossed the Jumna for 
the subjugation of Bundelkund, and on 
12 ()ct. defeated fifteen thousand Marathas 
at Kopsah. His gallantry at the sieges of 
Bursaar and .Teswarree in January 1804 led 
to his appointment to supervise the opera- 
f- n irregular force of two thousand 

- ShajJk Kurub Ali, in the interior 

of Bundelkund. On 15 May he attacked 
and defeated, after a determined resistance, 
Raja Ram and ten thousand Bondeelas en- 
trenched amon^ the rocks and hills of M4- 
haba. On 1 July he commanded two bri- 
gades of irregulars in another attack on Raja 
liam and a force of sixteen thousand Bon- 
deelas and Naghas on the fortified hills of 
Thanah and Purswarree. Subsequently he 
served at the siege of Saitpur, and in De- 
cember attacked and stormed several other 
towns and forts. Li January 1805 he cap- 
tured the forts of Niagacre and Dowra, m 
Pinwarree, His services were noticed by 
the Marquis Wellesley. On 1 Nov. 1805 he 
was appointed commissary of supplies by 
Lord Lake, and, on the breaking up of the 
army on 1 June 1800, rejoined his regiment, 
and on 25 April 1808 att^iined the rank of 
major. He commanded the attack on the 
strongly fortified hill of Rogoidee, in Bun- 
delkund, on 22 Jan. 1809. Colonel Martin- 
dell [see Martutdell, Sir Gabriel! who 
commanded in Bundelkund, made O* Hallo- 
ran his military secretary ; and his conduct 
at the head of the mrst battalion 18th 
native infantry at the siege of the fortress of 
Adjeghur was specially noticed. He became 
lieutenant-colonel on 4 June 1814, served 
in the campaigns against the Nepaulese in 
1815 and 1816, in the first campaign cover- 
ing the district of Tirhoot, in the second at 
the siege of Hurreehurpur, and afterwards 
commanded his battalion in Cut tack during 
the disturbances there. For his ser>'ices he 
was made C.B. In August 1818 he was sent 
to join the first battalion 20th native in- 
fantry in the Straits Settlements, and on 
arrival there was appointed commandant of 
the 2oth Bengal native infantry. In January 
1825 he was appointed brigadier at Bar- 
rackpore. Before leaving he received the 
thuDKs of the government of the Straits 
Settlements for his zeal and marked ability, 
and received the unusual honour of a salute 
of eleven guns on his embarkation. In De- 
cember 1828 he bt»came a brigadier-general, 
and was appointed to the Saugor division of 
the army. He became colonel of a regiment 
on 4 June 1829. "With the expiration of his 
five years' period of staff service, on 23 Dec 

1833, ended his active military career of 
fifty-three vears, during which he had never 
taken any furlough or leave to Europe. 

O'Halloran landed in England m May 

1834. In February 1835 he received knight- 
hood at the hands of William IV, who ob- 
ser\'ed that the distinction was well earned 
by his long meritorious and pliant services, 
and by his consecration of his eight sons to 
the service of his country, 0*Halloran be- 

O'Halloran si O'Halloran 

came a major-general on 10 Jan. 1837. He 
was made K.U.B. in 1837, and G.C.B. in 
1841. lie became a member of the Kojal 
Asiatic Society of London in 1836, was 

Royal Colonial Institute (Colonies and Indian 
24 July 1886). 

[Burke's Colonial Gentry, 1891, i. 81 ; East 
Asiatic oociety oi i^naon in looo, was ij,^^ Army Lists; Military Annual (ed. by 
chosen an honorary member of the Koyal i Griffiths), 1844 ; a pamphlet entitled * Services 
Irish Academy in 1838, and received the of Sir Joseph O'Halloran,' printed and published 
freedom of his native city (Limerick) on by Marshall, 21 Edgware Koad, circa 1844.] 
25 Feb. the same year. He died at his resi- H. M. 0. 

tndonroi^S^N^YeSrm' tKffef A ' a?^^^"^ '^'''^^^''''^^^^^ 
». street accident, causiiig fracture of the gJJPlS n ' °"'"=^"»''«'™' '^"^^'- ^See 
neck of the thigh-bone. lie was buried in j '^ 

the catacombs at Kensal Green cemetery, ' O'HALLORAN, SYLVESTER (1728- 
immediately beneath the chapel. A memorial 1807), surgeon and antiquary, bom in Lime- 
tablet was placed in the wall of the south rick on 31 Dec. 1728, studied medicine 
cloister. ; and surgery at the universities of Paris 

O'Halloran married, in 1790, Frances, and Leyden. While on the continent he 
daughter of Colonel Nicholas Bay ley, M.P., paid particular attention to diseases of the 
of Redhill, Surrey, late of the 1st foot-guards eye, and at Paris wrote a treatise on that 
and brother of the first Earl of Uxbridge, organ. This he published, on settling in 
by whom he had a large family. His second practice at Limerick in 1750, under the title 
son,ThomasShuldham O'Halloran, is not iced of 'A new Treatise on the Glaucoma, or 


II is sixth son, Williah Little john 
O'Halloran (1806-1885), bom at Berham- 

Cataract.' It was the first work of the kind 
that issued from the Irish press, and O'Hal- 
loran's ophthalmic practice grew rapidly, 
pore on 5 May 1806, came to England in ' In 1752 he addressed a paper on cataract to 
i811, and on 11 Jan. 1824 received a com- the Royal Society, and this he afterwards 
mission as ensign in the 14th foot, which amplified imder the title of * A Critical Ana- 
corps he joined at Meerut. He served with lysis of a New Operation for Cataract.' In 

his regiment at the siege and storm of Bhurt- 
pore (medal) in 1825-6, obtaining his lieu- 
tenancy in action. In April 1827 he exchanged 

1788 he communicated to the Royal Irish 
Academy his last essay on the eye, entitled 
* A Critical and Anatomical Examination of 

into the 38th regiment ; served on the staff of the Parts immediately interested in the Opera- 
his father at Saugor, Central India ; and was tion for a Cataract, with an attempt to render 
employed on recruiting service in Belfast from the Operation itself, whether by Depression 
1832 to 1834. In the latter year he embarked or Extraction, more successful.' In 1765 he 
for Sydney with a detachment of the 50th published ' A Complete Treatise on Gangrene 
re^ment. Thence he sailed for Calcutta, | and Sphacelus, with a new mode of Ampu- 
r^oined the 38th regiment at Chinsorah in tation.' In 1791 a paper entitled * An At- 
1835, and accompanied it to England in 1836. tempt to determine with precision such In- 
He obtained his company by purchase on juries of the Head as necessarily recjuire the 
29 Dec. 1837, and retired from the army in Operation of the Trephine ' was printed in 
April 1840. He then embarked for South the 'Transactions' of the Royal Irish Aca- 
Australia, landed at Glenelg on 11 Aug. | demy ; and he subsequently published ' A 
1840, and purchased a property near Ade- new Treatise on the different Disorders aris- 
laide. In August 1841 he was appointed a ingfrom external Injuries of the Head,' which 
justice of the peace, in March 1843 a mem- ! displayed much original research. O'Hal- 
oer of the board of audit, in June 1843 private , loran laid down the new but very sound rule 
secretary to Governor Grey and clerk of the that concussion of the brain, characterised 
councils,and in January 1851 auditor-general by immediate stupor and insensibility, does 
of South Australia. In 1866 he acted as not reauire the trephine unless accompanied 
chairman of a commission for inquiring into ! by eviaent depression of the skull or extra- 
the administration of affairs in the northern ' vasation, neither of which produces dangerous 

territory. On 22 Jan. 1868 he retired, after 
serving the colonial government for upwards 
of twenty-four years. He died at Adelaide on 
15 July 1885, having married, in December 
1831, Eliza Minton, daughter of John Mon- 
tague Smyth. He left two daughters and 
three sons, the eldest of whom, Joseph 
Sylvester O'HalloiaOi is secretary to tne 

symptoms for some time after the accident 
which has given rise to them. Among other 
achievements, O'Halloran was the virtual 
founder, in 1760, of the county Limerick in- 
firmary, renting three or four houses which 
be threw into one. His * Proposals for the 
Advancement of Surgery in Ireland, with a 
retrospective View of the ancient State of 

OHAlL-nn fS O'Halloran 

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gazetted lieutenant-colonel of the yolunteer 
military force. When the present constitu- 
tion was splinted in 18o7, ne was returned 
to the legislative council at the head of the 

?oU against twenty-seven candidates. In 
863 he resigned his seat, and passed the rest 
of his life in retirement. He died at O'llal- 
loran Hill on 16 Aug. 1870. 

He married, first, on 1 Aug. 1821, Ann Goss 
of Dawlish, Devonshire, who died in Calcutta 
in 1823, leaving two children; secondly, in 
1834, Jane Waring of Newry, by whom he 
had three sons and one daughter. 

[South Australian Register, 17 Aug. 1870 ; 
Burke's Colonial Gentry, 1891, p. 82.] 

J. S. O'H. 

JOHN (1806-1885), captain. [See under 
O'Halloran, Sib Joseph.] 

0'HANLON,REDMOND(rf. 1681),Iri8h 
outlaw, known on the continent as Count 
Hanlon, was one of a clan called in Irish the 
Hanluain, who furnished a standard-bearer 
north of the Boyne. They were seated in the 
baronies of Orier, in co. Armagh, and their 
chief was wounded at the Moyry Pass when 
carrying the queen's colours in July 1595. 
Oghie O'Hanlon was knighted, and fell fight- 
ing under Mountjoy atCarlingford in Novem- 
ber 1600. On the settlement of Ulster under 
James I grants were made to various O'Han- 
lons; but they lost all during the civil war, 
and their ruin was confirmed by the operation 
of the Acts of Settlement and Explanation 
under Charles II. In his youth Kedmond 
appears to have served in the army during 
Strafford's government, and to have been 
discharged at the reduction of the forces 
which immediately preceded and partly 
caused the great Irish outbreak of 1641. 
He fled to France on account of his share in 
some affray. The date of his return to Ire- 
land is uncertain, but he became a leader of 
outlaws or tories in Ulster about 1670, when 
he had finally abandoned all hopes of regain- 
ing his patrimony. His brother Loghlin 
shared his fortunes. 

Arthur Capel, earl of Essex [q.. v.], who 
governed Ireland from 1672 to 1677, made 
many vain attempts to capture Ollanlon, 
who had become an intolerable scourge. The 
Duke of Ormonde returned as viceroy in 
August 1677, and soon turned his attention to 
the formidable tory. Redmond levied regu- 
lar contributions on the counties of Armagh, 
Tyrone, and Down. Much land lay waste, and 
no road was safe. His favourite haunt was 
Slieve Gullion between Newry and Dundalk, 
where his father had possessed lands, and 
one of his greatest enemies was Edmund 

Murphy, i^rish priest of Killevy, at the foot 
of those nills. O'Hanlon imposed penalties 
on all who resorted to Murphy — a cow for 
the first offence, two for the second, and 
death for the third. Captain William But- 
ler, who had the confidence of his kinsman 
the lord-lieutenant, lay with his company at 
Dundalk, and plotted the outlaw's destruc- 
tion with Father Murphy and Sir Hans 
Hamilton. Redmond could harm so many 
that he had interested friends even in the 
army. Two officers. Smith and Baker, of 
whom the latter was a local magistrate and 
proprietor, were among these, and he had five 
accomplices in Butler's own company. There 
were several attempts to arrest him in and 
after September 1678, but his intelligence 
was too good. He thought it prudent to rob 
in Connaught for a time, but returned to his 
old ground in the autumn of 1679. An out- 
law employed as a spy by Hamilton and 
Butler was murdered oy Lieutenant Baker, 
who, with singular impudence, presented 
his head to Ormonde ; and Father Murphy 
was imprisoned at Dundalk, lest he should 
give inrormation about his delinauencies and 
those of Ensign Smith. Murphy managed 
to get to Dublin, leaving his orother as a 
hostage, and his interview with the lord- 
lieutenant sealed Redmond O'Hanlon's fate : 
200/. was placed on his head, 100/. on Logh- 
lin's, and Sir Hans Hamilton was allowed a 
free hand. Henry Jones [q. v.], bishop of 
Meath, whose daughter was married to Mr. 
AnnesWof Castlewellan, tried to get a par- 
don for Kedmond on condition of his proving 
his sinceritv, first 'by bringing in or cutting 
off some 01 the principal tones,' and after- 
wards by keeping the district clear from 
them. Sir Hans Hamilton, who was edu- 
cated at Glasgow, hints that the bishop was 
bribed through his son-in-law. But Redmond 
was also intriguing with Roger Boyle [q. v.], 
bishop of Clogher, and Anuesley suggested a 
j little later that the government would show 
no mercy unless the outlaw informed about 
the French conspiracy which was supposed to 
be on foot in connection with Oatess plot ; 
but he told nothing, and probably there was 
nothing to tell. At two o'clock in the after- 
noon of 25 April 1681 he was asleep in an 
empty cabin guarded by his foster-brother 
Arthur O'Hanlon ; but the faithless sentinel 
shot him dead, and received 100/. reward for 
so doing. His wife, or reputed wife, who was 
an innkeeper's daughter, was much younger 
than he was, and is believed to have given 
the signal in revenge for his ill-usage. The 
secret commission which led to this result 
was written by Ormonde with his own hand. 
Loghlin O'Hanlon was killed towards the 




«nd of the same year by John Mullin, who 
received 60/. 

Redmond O'llanlon had at one time fifty 
men under his orders, and had often a band 
in each of the four provinces at once. His 
own disguises were many, and he more than 
once escaped by inviting soldiers sent after 
him to an inn, and making them drunk 
before they found out who he was. He once 
took to the water when hotly pursued near 
Carlingford, and when a dog was sent in 
After him drew the animal under, and dived 
or swam away. Many stories are told of 
his courage and strength, and some generous 
actions are ascribed to him, but also many 
murders. He sometimes left his native 
hills to lurk in the bog of Allen or other 
wild places, and once ventured as far south 
as Clonmel, where he rescued the great 
Munster tory Power from his captors. In 
Slieve Gullion and its neighbourhood many 
local traditions about him survive. A very 
old man, bearing the name of Redmond 
O'Hanlon, and claiming to be his descen- 
dant, died close to Silverbridge, co. Armagh, 
about 1889. Sir F. Brewster, writing imme- 
diately after the great tory's death, says he 
was a scholar and a man of part^, and adds 
that * considering the circumstances he lay 
under, and the time he continued, he did, in 
my opinion, things more to be admired [i.e. 
wondered at] than Scanderbeg himself.' 

[Carte MSS. vol. zxxix.; Carte's Life of the 
Dukeof Ormonde, bk. viii.; The Present State of 
Ireland, but more particularly of Ulster, presented 
to tlie People of England, by Edmund Murphy, 
Parish Priest of Killevy and titular chanter of 
Armagh, and one of the Discoverers of the Irish 
Plot, fol. London, 1681 ; Prendergast's Ireland 
from the Rpstoration to the Revolution. Of the 
two contemporary pamphlets mentioned by Mr. 
Prendergast at p. 122, one (published in 1681) is 
in the Bodleian, but not in the British Museum, 
in Trinity College, Dublin, or in the Royal Irish 
Academy. The otlier( published in 1682) is not 
in any of these four libraries. There is also a 
chap-book in the British Museum printed at 
Glasgow, with a motto from Wordsworth, but evi- 
dently taken from an older original.] R. B-l. 

O'HANLY, DOXAT {d. 1095), bishop 
of Dublin. [See O'Hainglt.] 

O'HARA, Sir CHARLES, first Lord 
Tyrawley (1640P-1724), military com- I 
mander, is said to have been a native of ' 
Mayo, but his patent of peerage (Lodge, 
Peerage of Ireland, iv. 201 n.) describes him 
as of Leyny, co. Sligo. If he was really 
«ightv-four at his death in 1724, he must 
have oeen bom in 1640 ; but it is just possible 
that he was ten years younger, and thus 
identifiable with Charles, second son of Sir 

William 0*Hara,knt., of Crebilly, co. Antrim, 
who was admitted fellow-commoner of Tri- 
nity College, Oxford, in June 1667, at the 
age of seventeen. In 1679 he was gazetted to 
a captaincy in the Earl of Ossory's regiment 
{Bnt, Mus. Add, MSSX having been Ossory's 
'tutor' (Lodge, Lc), that is, probably, tutor 
to his son James, second duke of Ormonde, 
who was bom in 1666. In 1688 he was 
transferred to the 1st foot-guards, of which 
he became lieutenant-colonel in March, and 
he was knighted in August 1689. He ser^'ed 
under William III in Flanders ; in 1696 
was made brigadier-general, in 1702 major- 

feneral, in 1704 lieutenant-general, and on 
3 Nov. 1714 general. Meanwhile, in No- 
vember 1696, at Ghent, he had been rewarded 
with the colonelcy of the royal fusiliers, now 
the 7th foot. His regiment, after being sta- 
tioned in the Channel Islands from 1697, was 
in 1703 sent on the Cadiz expedition under 
Ormonde. O'Hara distinguished himself at 
the capture of Vi^o and the burning of the 
Spanish fleet, but is said to have treacnerously 
thwarted Ormonde (Pabnell, WaroftheSuo- 
cession in Spain, p. 29). He was arrested for 
having connived at the plunder of Port St. 
Mary, tried by a court-martial, and acquitted. 
In 1706 Hara was created a peer of Ire- 
land, taking his title from Tirawley orTyraw- 
ley, a barony in co. Mayo. In 1/06 he pro- 
ceeded to Spain with his regiment, and was 
appointed second in command to the Earl of 
Gralway. At Guadalaxara his gallant defence 
of an outpost for two hours * only iust saved 
the army from a disgraceful surprise ' (Rus- 
sell, Peterborough, ii. 64). On 1 6 Jan. 1 707 a 
council of war was held at Valencia, in which 
Galway, Tyrawley, and Stanhope were in fa- 
vour of immediate offensive operations with 
undivided troops. Peterborough advocated 
delay, but appears to have been outvoted by 
the foreign generals. Galway, Tyrawley, and 
Stanhope put their opinions in writing, and 
sent them to England (Stanhope to Sir C. 
Hedges in Stanhope's War of Succession in 
Spain, App. p. 44). The result of the attempt 
to march on Madrid was the disastrous battle 
of Almanza, fought on 25 April 1707. Tyraw- 
ley, though the royal fusiliers were not pre- 
sent, was in command of the left wing of^the 
allies, and made two charges, which were re- 
pulsed by the Due de Popoli (Pabnell, op. cit. 
E p. 218-19; BoYBR,p.292). He was wounded, 
ut escaped with the cavalry to Tortosa (Stan- 
hope, op. cit. p. 231). He soon returned to 
England, either before September 1707 (Pab- 
nell, p. 230), or with his regiment in 1708. 
He took his seat as a peer 25 May 1710, and 
was sworn a privy councillor, being re-swom 
in 1714 by George I. His regiment was at 




Minorca 1709-13, and he was probably go- 
Temor of that island. In January 1711 the 
tory party in the House of Lords, in order 
to cement their alliance with Peterborough, 
summoned Ghdway and IVrawley to answer 
for the mismanagement of the war in Spain 
in 1707. Tyrawley * stood upon the reserve,' 
and said that 'when he was in the army he 
kept no register, and carried neither pen nor 
ink about him, but only a sword ' (Boteb, 
p. 485). On 9 Jan. Galway produced his 
* Narrative,' and on Peterborouffh's making 
adverse statements, Tyrawley oemanded to 
know, before he made any explanations, 
whether he was accused or not. The op- 
position raised a debate as to his right to an 
answer. Peterborough disclaimed any wish 
to accuse him, and Tyrawley then gave a 
short account, supporting Galway. On a reso- 
lution being pass^ declaring the three gene- 
rals responsible for the offensive operations 
and for the disaster at Almanza, Galway and 
Tyrawley petitioned (11 Jan.) for time to pro- 
duce answers, and the whig peers reconled 
two strong protests in their favour ; but no 
further steps were taken (Rogebs, Protests 
of the LordSf i, clxix, clxx). 

On 6 Nov. 1714 Tyrawley, having resigned 
his colonelcy to his son, was appointed com- 
mander-in-chief of the forces in Ireland, where 
he raised a regiment of foot in 1715. This 
post he retained till 1721. He was some 
time governor of the Royal Hospital near 
Dublin. He died on 8 or 9 June 1724, and 
was buried on 11 June in the chancel- vault 
of St. Mary's, Dublin. 

Tyrawley had married Frances, daughter of 
Gervase Rouse of Rouse-Lench, Worcester, 
who survived him, and died on 10 Nov. 1738. 
He left, besides his son James [q. v.], a daugh- 
ter Marv, who died in 1759 (Bubke, Extinct 
Peerage), He is described as a man of ' a 
good understanding, a large fund of learning, 
and fit to command an army' (Lodge, I.e.) 
Some official letters by him are preserved 
among the Tyrawley Papers (Adclit. MSS. 
1854^0, pp. 876-8), and also among the 
Ellis Papers (Addit. MS. 28946). 

[Lodge*8 Peerage of Ireland, vol. iv. ; Stan- 
hope's War of the Succession in Spain; Pamell's 
War of the Succession in Spain ; Cannon's His- 
torical Records of the British Army, 7th Foot ; 
Pari. Hist. vi. 938 seq. ; Burnet's Hist, of Own 
Time; Beyer's Annals of Queen Anne, 1735; 
Townsend's Cat of Knights ; Brit. Mas. Oat.] 

H. E. D. B. 

O'HARA, CHARLES (1740 P- 1802), 

feneral, governor of Gibraltar, bom about 
740, illegitimate son of James O'Hara, second 
lord Tyrawley, was educated at Westminster 
School, and wag appointed to a cometcy in 

the 3rd dragoons (now hussars), 23 Dec. 1752* 
On 14 Jan. 1756 he was appointed lieutenant 
and captain in the Colostream guards, of 
which James O'Hara was colonel. He wa» 
aide-de-camp to the Marquis of Granby [see 
Majwebs, John, 1721-1770] in Germany^ 
after the battle of Minden, and, with the 
brevet rank of lieutenant-colonel, was quarter- 
master-general of the troops under Lord 
Tyrawley in Portugal in the short but sharp 
campaign of 1762. On 26 July 1766 he was 
appointed commandant at Goree, Senegal, 
and lieutenant-colonel-commandant of the 
African corps, formed at that time of mili- 
tary delinquents pardoned on condition of 
their accepting life-service in Africa. He 
held three posts without detriment to hi» 
promotion in the Coldstream guards, in which 
ne became captain and lieutenant-colonel in 
1769, and vacated them on promotion to 
brevet colonel in 1779. He served in America^ 
as brig^ier-g^neral commanding the brigade 
of guards, from October 1780; distinguished 
himself at the passage of the Catawba on 
1 Feb. 1781, and received two dangerous 
wounds at the battle of Guilford Courthouse 
on 15 March following. He was with the 
troops under Cornwalhs that surrendered at 
Yorttown, Virginia, 19 Oct. 1781 (MacKin- 
non, ii. 11, 14). Comwallis wrote of him: 
*' His zealous services under my command, the 
pains he took, and the success he met with 
m reconciling the guards to every kind of 
hardship, give him a just claim, independent 
of old friendship, on my very strongest re- 
commendations in his favour' {Comwallis^ 
Correspondence, i. 183). O'Hara remained a 
prisoner in America until 9 Feb. 1782, when 
he was exchanged. He had in the meantime 
become a major-general. On 18 March 1782 
he received the colonelcy of the 22nd foot, 
and in May following was given command of 
the reinforcements sent from New York to 
Jamaica. Subsequently he returned home, 
and in 1784 Comwallis expressed regret that 
' poor O'Hara is once more driven abroad by 
his relentless creditors' (ib. i. 155). O'Hara, 
who was the intimate personal friend of 
Horace Walpole and Henry Seymour Con- 
way [^. v.], went to Italy, where he became 
acquamted. with Miss Mary Berry [q. v.], who 
was staying with the Conways at Home, and 
to whom ne afterwards became engaged. 
He appears to have been a major-general 
on tne staff at Gibraltar from 1787 to 
1790. Horace Walpole speaks of him as 
at home at the latter date, ' with his face 
as ruddy and black and his teeth as white 
as ever (Walpole, Letters, ix. 303), and 
alludes to his having been 'shamefully 
treated/ probably in not obtaining the lieu- 




tenant-governorship of Gibraltar. O'Hara 
was transferred in 1791 to the colonelcy of 
the 74th highlanders, which, being on the 
Indian establishment, was a more lucrative 
post than that of the 22nd at home. In 1792 
ne received the coveted lieutenant-governor- 
ship, and in 1 793 became a lieutenant-general. 
Later in the same year he was sent from 
Gibraltar to Toulon, to replace Lord Mul- 
grave in the command of the British troops 
before that place. O'Hara was wounded and 
made prisoner when the French attacked Fort 
Mulgrave on .23 Nov. 1793. He was taken 
to Paris, and kept a prisoner in the Luxem- 
bourg during the reign of terror until August 
1795, when he was exchanged with General 
Rochambeau. During his incarceration he 
told one of his fellow-prisoners, in the course 
of an argument : * In England we can say King 
George is mad ; you dare not say here that 
Robespierre is a tiger * ( ALOEB^p. 227-9). 
On nis return to England O'Hara was ap- 
pointed governor of Gibraltar in succession 
to General Sir Robert Boyd [q. v.] He 
wished the marriage with Miss Berry to 
take place without delay, but the lady was 
reluctant to leave home, and at the end of 
1790 the match was broken off. To the end 
of her life slie wrote and spoke of O'Hara as 

* the most perfect specimen of a soldier and a 
courtier of the past age.' 

O'Hara became a full general in 1798. At 
Gibraltar he proved himself a very active and 
efficient governor at a critical time. His old- 
faahioned discipline was rigid, but just and 
fair, while his lavish hospitality and agree- 
able companionship made him generally 
popular. In the military novel of ' Cjrril 
Thornton' (p. 101) the author. Captain 
Thomas Hamilton (1789-1842) [q. v.], gives 
his youthful recollections of tne * Old Cock 
of the Hock/ as O'Hara was called, in his 
Kevenhiiller hat and big jackboots, and 

* double row of sausage curls that projected 
on either flank of his toupee ; ' for although 
a young man of his years, in all other parti- 
culars ( )'I lara affected the old-fashioned garb 
of Ligonier and Granby. 

After much suffering from complications 
caused by his old wounds, O'Hara died at 
Gibraltar on 21 Feb. 1802. Although his cir- 
cumstances had been straitened in earlier 
years, he died rich. He left a sum of 70,000/. 
in trust for two ladies at Gibraltar, by whom 
he had families, for themselves and their 
children. I lis plate, valued at 7,000/., in- 
clusive of a piece worth 1,000/. presenttKl 
to him by the merchants of Gibraltar, he 
i)(»queatlie(l to his black ser\'ant. 

[ Army Tiists ; Mackinnon's Hist, of Coldstream 
Gatuxls, vol. ii. ; CornwallisCorresp. vol. i; Horace 

Walpole*8 Letters, paasim; Alger's Eoglishmen 
in the French Revolotion ; Extracts &om the 
Journals of Miss Berry, vols. i. and ii. ; London 
Gazettes, 1793 ; Toulon Despatches ; Nelson 
Despatches ; War OfBce and Colonial Office Cor- 
respondence, Gibraltar; Gent. Mag. 1802, pti. 
p. 278 (will).] H. M. C. 

O'HARA, JAMES, Lobd Kilvaihe and 
second LoBO Ttkawlbt (1690-1773), bom 
in 1690, was the only son of Sir Cliarlefl 
O'Hara, first lord Tyrawley [q. v.] He was 
appointed lieutenant in his father's regiment, 
the royal fusiliers, on 16 March 1703, and 
served at the siege of Barcelona in 1706. At 
the battle of Almanza he was on the staff, 
! and was woimded ; he is said to have 
saved Lord Galway's life. He afterwards 
served under Marlborough, and was severely 
wounded (Lodge, Peerage qf Ireiandf iv. 
202 n.) in the wood of Tasniere, near Toumai, 
during the battle of Malplaquet, 11 Sept 
1709 (cf. Murray, MarlboAniffh^s De9pat<^es, 
iv. 594, 606). He was with the regiment in 
Minorca, and on 29 Jan. 1713 8uc<^eded his 
father as colonel. On 2 Jan. 1722 he waa 
rewarded with an Irish peerage, and assumed 
the title of Baron Eilmaine m>m one of the 
baronies of co. Mayo. He took his seat on 
29 Aug. 1723. In 1724 he succeeded his 
father as second Lord Tyrawley, and was 
sworn of the privy council on 25 June. 

He appears to have been employed for 
some time in Ireland and Minorca, till 1727, 
when he was made aide-de-camp to George II, 
and on 20 Jan. 1728 appointea envoy-extra- 
ordinnry to the court of Portugal, where he 
remained as ambassador till 1741. He was 
extremely popular, and on his departure 
received from the king of Portugal fourteen 
bars of gold (Lodge, op. cit. 203 n.) He re- 
turned to England * with three wives and 
fourteen children' (Walpolb, Letters, ed. 
Cunningham, i. 215), and at once gained a 
reputation for wit at the expense of Lords 
Bath and Grantham and the House of (Em- 
mons. Meanwhile he had been promoted to 
be brigadier-general (1735), maior-general 
(1739), and lieutenant-general (1748), and 
was transferred to the colonelcy of the 5th 
(now 4th) dragoon gfuards in August 1739, 
quitting it in April 1743 for the captaincy 
and colonelcy of the second troop of horse- 

From November 1 743 to Februarv 1745 
he was ambassador-extraordinary in Russia. 
On his return he received the command of 
the 3rd troop of life-guards, with the office 
of gold-stick (30 April 1745), from which, 
in 1740, he was transferred to the 10th 
foot ; thence, in 1749, to the 14th draffoons; 
in 1752 to the 3rd dragoons ; and fimdly, in 




1765, to the colonelcy of the 2nd (Cold- 
stream) foot-|^ards. He became general on 
7 March 1761, and field-marshal on 10 June 
1763, and was also governor of Portsmouth. 

In 1752 he returned to Portugal as am- 
bassador, and was also governor of Minorca 
until 1756, when he was sent out on the 
Gibraltar expedition ( Walpole, LetterSy iii. 
1 9, George If, ii. 190, 216). On 14 Dec. 1757 
he was president of the court-martial on Sir 
John Mordaunt(1697-1780) [q. v.] ( Walpolb, 
ib. iii. 78), having been relieved at Qibraltar 
on 16 April 1757. In 1758 an attempt was 
made by Lord George Sackville and Sir J. 
Philipps to censure him in the House of 
Commons for his expenditure on works at 
Gibraltar. Tyrawley demanded to be heard 
at the bar, and prepared a memorial, on 
which Lord G^rge took fright, and procured 
a secret report. Tyrawley appeared before a 
committee of the house, which he treated 
with great freedom, and so browbeat his 
accusers that the house declared itself satis- 
fied of ' the innocence of a man who dared 
to do wrong more than they dared to censure 
him' {ib, iii. 108-9). Walpole characterises 
him as * imperiously blunt, haughty, and 
contemptuous, with an undaunted portion of 
spirit,' and attributes to him a ' great deal of 
humour and occasional good breeding.' Ty- 
rawley professed not to know where the 
House of Commons was ; and his ' brutality ' 
was again exhibited when he was president 
of the court-martial on Lord George Sack- 
viUe in 1760. 

When a Spanish invasion of Portugal was 
threatened in 1762, Tyrawley was appointed 
plenipotentiary and general of the English 
forces (Walpole, Letters, iv. 23; Chatham 
Corre/tp. ii. 174), but was soon superseded 
as too old, and returned to England dis- 

fusted in 1763 (Walpolb, George III, i. 
44). He does not appear to have held any 
important post after this, though he was 
sworn of George Ill's privy council on 
17 Nov. 1762. Lord Chatham, with whom 
he had long been on friendly terms ( Chatham 
Corre^p, i. 218, ii. 174), writes to Lady 
Chatham to make a ' How-do- vou call ' on 
his * fine old friend Lord Tyrawley ' in 1772, 
and a note acknowledging the visit is pre- 
8er\*ed (ib, iv. 208). Tyrawley, who had 
a seat at Blackheath (Lodge, 1. c), died at 
Twickenham on 14 July 1773, and was buried 
at Chelsea Hospital. 

Tyrawley married Mary, only surviving 
daughter of Lieutenant-general Sir W. 
Stewart, second viscoimt Mountjoy, but left 
no legitimate issue. He was considered 
* singularly licentious, even for the courts of 
Russia and Portugal ' (Walpole, George III, 

i. 144) ; and * T y's crew ' is coupled with 

'KpnnoulTs lewd cargo' by Pope (Imita- 
tions of Horace, Epistles, i. 6, 201). An 
illegitimate son Charles (1740P-1802) [q. v.], 
who was much with him, rose to distinction 
in the army. A large mass of his official 
despatches of various periods from Ireland, 
Minorca, Portugal, Russia, and Gibraltar is 
in the British Museum (Tyrawley Papers, 
Addit. MSS. 23627-23642; see also New- 
castle Papers, 32697-32895). 

[Lodge's Peerage of Ireland; Cannon's His- 
torical Records of the British Army, 7th Foot, 
10th Foot, 4th Dragoon Guards, &c. ; Walpole's 
Works and Chatham Correspondence, as abore ; 
Ann. Reg. and Gent. M^. 1773; Tindal's 
Rapin, iv. lOn. ; dates can be checked by the 
lists of Brit. Mus. Cat. Addit. MSS.] 

H. E. D. B. 

O'HARA, KANE (1714 P-1782), writer 
of burlesques, bom about 1714, came of an 
old Sligo stock famous for their musical taste. 
He was youngest son of Kane O'Hara of 
Temple House, co. Sligo, who in his will, 
dated 28 March 1719, named a sum to be ex- 
pended on his younger sons, Adam and Kane, 
during their minorities. Kane, the younger, 
entered Trinity College, Dublin, and gra- 
duated B.A. in 1732 and M.A. in 1735. He 
subsequently resided in Dublin, and inte- 
rested himself in music. The musical aca- 
demy at Dublin was founded in 1758 mainly 
by nis exertions. Meanwhile the Italian 
burletta had been introduced into Ireland 
by a family of musicians and actors called 
D'Amici. Dublin ran mad after the new 
form of entertainment, and in 1759 O'Hara 
undertook a travesty of it at the instance 
of Lord Momington, father of the Duke of 
Wellington. The result was an English bur- 
letta entitled ' Midas,' which he composed at 
the seat of William Brownlow, M.P., on 
Lough Neagh. 

O'Hara then lived in King Street, Dublin, 
where the Gaiety Theatre now stands, and 
John O'Keeffe states that he was present in 
this house with Lord Momington and Brown- 
low when the latter, with a harpsichord, 
helped to settle the music for * Midas.' The 
piece was played at Oapel Street Theatre, 
Dublin, in 1761. It was repeated at Co vent 
Garden, with Shuter as Midas, on 22 Feb. 
1764, when it was published. It was con- 
stantly revived in London, and was per- 
formed at the Haymarket as late as 23 July 

O'Hara followed up this success with a 
similar effort, entitled * The Golden Pippin,' a 
burlesque on the story of Paris and the three 
goddesses, which was first acted at Covent 
Garden on 6 Feb. 1773, with Miss Catley in 

O'llara 64 O'Hearn 

purcliiiMo this piece ^. , , ,_ ,..-- « . 

ii'i I . . I . .. I...... :i ..» 1.:^ tlii»if*<i < Tho book of Kaae O Hati rs r»»s*ssion of the prteseot 

• I iiiiiii mill pi'iiiiutM« M ill lUH lUoatre. ine ■» • v ■»■■ --*-*• ««nA ^^ 

'I- ii, • .1 1: I 1 :« i-*ji A k«» wnt€r; Irish JIm.i1-t jftiir. 1832; Genesis 

I v\ii Mlatiin Wliri nilhllsliiMl in l<nl. A bur- . • ... ^ *" 117 T T? 

, .. .. .. * , . . 4 !»• i\ » « Account of :h* SUkSft. W. j. F. 

liTiia ill hitrriiii- (iiiiiiilv, •A rino Day, was ^Nrrr * «•« . ^ . r^ ^^v-t^ttt /j f\-r\ 

,,..r„..„„^lrH.i\,«..Htth,.nny.narket ^ p-HARTAGADi. CFNETH (d 9,5), 

.... •-••-' A..M. IV7y. with IkiiUtor as Don Irish poet. ■«*• iu::t* of the north of Ire- 

M..I1..I,.. ir «.,«» in tho same year. ^°i' »"<* l>is^^«>55> i*.TW»rd«d by Tigheat- 

i»'ll„,» tl...... v-lirr. Iul..r .•oi,v..rtea l-'iold- ^^ """J*' }^^ .^*^ *^* -^ po^? <?" ^H 

lltllll% till «1>1< IIIIIII 11 ill! •»f\|l||\' k«tl<<» •< <»4-> - , ' . . w.^ ~ — • f 1 

roinplrtrlv hli.ul. I.ut. a.vsplto liis alHiotion. ^^^^"^ occur in the • Dmnsenchus, a work 
posell us .; I> wit aii\l lino jnMUloman. which relates the legendary history of the 
il.» WHS noiuhlv tall. Mu\ was nioknamed j ^^^8, lakes, plains, mountains and other 
St. Patrick's SUM.plt'. A favourito [talian ! topographical features of Ireland. It^ves 
^W of tht' day oontainM tho n^fndn -(^ho , a prose account of each place, followed by an 
no' haniio crudoltA,' and a panulv on tliis. account in verse. 

* Kane O'llara s cruel tall/ was written bv [Book of Leinster, facsimile: Book of Bally- 
a l>cal wag. which had inueh i)opularitv i'li mote, photograph ; Transactions of Iberno-CMtic 
Dublin as a Manp souir. In his old ap* he is i Society. Dubhn, 1820.] N. M. 
deseriUd a.^ having th.. apiHMimnce of u\n O'HEARN, FRANCIS (17o3-1801), 
old fop with Hpectach's and an antiquated Irish catholic divine, was bom at Lismore, 
wig, y.rt. withal a polit's sensible, agnH>abh» eo. Watcrford, in 1753, and educated at the 
rnan, th^: pink of g»'ntility anrl good bnvd- Irish College in Louvain, where he was or- 
in/,»)n'l nn ;irnijMingrompanion,th«iugh some- dained, and afterwardsbecame a professor, and 
whjit pri^y.' O'lfftra in jftt^-rl iff; moved fnun tinally rector. Daniel O'Connel I 'q. v.^ was 
Kin;.' -^p:«-.t, Dublin, to Molesworth Street ; for a short time a pupil of his in this college. 
but [fjiirli of hi-t tim<; wfn Hp'?nt on visits to While a student there, O'lleam attended the 
lh»- foijfjtrv -'rJiti of bin frienrls. He died on ' univ«»rsity of Louvain, and became a member 
17 .lujj'r 17"^ in Dublin. He left no will. oftheHemish*nation,'oneof the groups into 

Among t\tf: .^ong.H compo^od by Torlogh whieh, in accordance with old custom, the 
()'f,';irol:ui M. v.^ on Sligo men from whom university was divided. He became a diligent 
h«j hud rt'i'jWfA boHpitality is one entitled student of the Flemish language; and, more- 

* KianO'Hara.' A translation from the Irish, over, did much to foster the language, then 
by I'urhmg, of another — * The (>up of O'llara' ' much in neglect, among the Flemings them- 
— appears in Hardimaii'.s ' Irish Minstrelsy* i selves. He wrote several poems in Flemish, 
(vol. i. p. viii). of one of which the Bollandist Father de 

O'Hara, like O'KeefTe, was also gifted as , Buck has remarked that few Flemings of 
an artist ; his etching of Dr. William King, that day could produce so good a poem, 
the b'lirned Anglican archbishop of Dublin, I O'lleam was an accomplished scholar, and 
was copied by tlichardson. O Hara's own spoke several European languages fluently, 
portrait is still at Annaghmore, the seat of | lie was also an enthusiastic traveller, and 
his family in co. Slifjo. . had made journeys through most of the con- 

A skit called *Grigri, translated from the tinental countries on foot. On one occasion, 

•lapanese into Portuguese,' and clearly shown 
to be r)*Hara's, was first published in the 
* Duldin Monthly Magazine' for 1832. ' Irish 
Varieties' by J. D. Herbert, whose real name 
was Dowling, assigns to O'Hara the Dublin 
slang song, * The night before Larry was 
stretched ; ' but w^e know, on the authority 

while travelling in Turkey, he was suspected 
of instigating a rebellion against the sultan, 
and his arrest was ordered ; but he escaped 
to Russia, and, it is stated, wandered through 
a portion of Siberia, and returned to Belgium 
by Norway, a remarkable feat of travelling 
in those days. 



tbe p . 

'8 too advanced, he gS' 
supporr. to another leader of the popular 
part J, Van der Noot, whose iitlimate friend 
and counsellor he became. Van der Noot 
aaught to enliat the sympathiea of the Eng- 
lish, Qennan, and Dutch courts, and published 
a manifesto, whicb be despatched to those 
courts, O'Heam being sent ns envov to the 
Hague. When the French occupied Belgium 
in iriy, the members of the Inah College of 
Louvain became dispersed, and the building 
iroa uaed as a powder-magaiine. O'Hearn 
took refuse in Germany, thence returned 
to Irelund, and was appointed pariah priest 
of St. Tbomas's in Waterford, where he died 
in 1801. 

O'HELT, PATRICK (d. 1578), Roman 
ralholic bishop of Majo, called in Irish l^a 
ileili^he, was a native of Connaught, and 
earlv became a Franciscan. Proceeding to 
Spun in the fifth Tear after making his pro- 
temina, he entercJ the university of Alcala. 
Aft«r making much progress in the study of 
theology there, he was summoned to Romebj 
tbe prov incial of lii« order, and resided in I he 
'convent of Ara Csli.' His learning came 
to tbe noticeof Gregory XIlI,who, on4 July 
JSrfl, appointed bin to the Bee of Mayo. 
O'Hely set out for his diocese almost imme- 
diolely, with a companion, ConaghO'Rourhe; 
possing throush Paris, he landed at Dingle, 
CO. Kerry. He was at once srreste*! and 
broDcht before the Countess of Desmond, in 
theabaenceof her husband. Sheaenthimto 
Limerick to be examined, and af^r impri- 
sonment there be was conv^ed to Kilmal- 
lock. There O'Hely and his companion, 
O'Rflurke, were tried by Sir William Brury 
[q.T.]. condemned, and hanged, according 
to Renehan, on 22 Aug. 1678. Other au- 
thorities etate that at the trial O'Hely sum- 
moned Drury to appearbeforethe judgment- 
seAt of heaven : aDd,bydeferringihe date of 
tbe trial till laic in 1.579, they suggest a 
close connection between O'Hely's exhorta- 
tion and Tirarf'i death in October of that 
jw. There is no mention, however, of the 
trial or execution in the ' Slate Paper*,' Ca- 
tew MSS., or ' Annals of the Four .Master*." 
O'Hely w»H buried in the Franciscan con- 
vent at Aakealon, co. Limerick. 

IWadding'a Anoalcs Triom Ordioum. iii, 
IdS-d; Bruodinns's Propiigiuicnluin Cntholiev 
Tidei, pp. 433-7 : Roth's Aoaln^ta. ed. Mortiii. 
pp. 868, 382 ; O'SuUbtoo's Historin Calh. Hi- 


hemis CompBuiiiuni, pp.77, 1U4-6 ; De Burgo'a 
Hibetdin DomiQicaaa ; Brndy'a Episcopal tiuc- 
cesBioo. ii. iS3-S ; Gams's S«Hes Episcopomra ; 
Uoma's Spieilegium Oasoriease, iii. 36-7 ; 
O'lUill/a Irish Martyrs and ConfesBars. pp. 51- 
53, Hud Memori&ls, pp. 28-3(1 : Renehan 's Col- 
leetionB, pp. 27fi, 389, &o. ; Wabii'a Irieli Bio- 
gmphy; Cal. Sute Papers, Iraland, 1574-85, 
p. 133.] A.F.P. 

O'HEMPSY, DENIS(1695P-1807), Irish 

Hempson, waa son of Brian O'Hempsy, and 
waa bom on bis father's farm at Urajgmore, 
near Garvagh, co. Derry. Local tradition 
assigns Ilia birth to 1695. At three years of 
age ne had amall-pox and lost his sight, and 
at twelve began to leam to nlay the harp from 
Bridget Cl'Caban, a female harper. He after- 
wards received instruction from John Gar- 
ragher, Lochlann O'Fanning. and Patrick 
O'Connor, allConnaughtmeu. When eighteen 
he lived for a half-year in the house of the 
Cnnning family at {Garvagh. Mr, Cunning, 
Squire Gage, and Dr. Bacon subscribed and 
bought him a harp. Ha then travelled in Ire- 
land and Scotland for ten years. Sir J. Camp- 
bell of Aghanhrach and many other Scottish 
gentlemen entertained him. He paid n second 
visit to Scotland in 1745, and played before 
Prince Charles Edward at Ilolyrood. 

Subsequently be travelled dl over Ireland, 
and at last (''rederick .\ugustus llervey, 
fourth earl of Bristol and bishop of Derry 
[<!■ ^-]' S^"^^ ^i"" '^ house at Magilligan, 
GO. Derry, where he ended hia days. Lord 
and Lady Bristol came to the house-warm- 
ing, and their children danced to bis harp. 
In 1791, at tbe reputed age of eighty-aix, 
he married a woman from the opposite roast 
of Iniitbowen, and had one daughter. He 
attended the Bet&st meeting of harpers in 
1792. He used to play the harp with his 
long crooked nails, catching the string be- 
tween the flesh and tbe nail. Edward Bunt- 
ing, who heard him, saya that the intricacy 
and peculiarity of his playing amazed him, 
and that bis staccato and legato passages, 
double slurs, ahakes, turns, graces, ftc, com- 

i>en devised by modem improvers. Hiaharp, 
which was long preserved at Downhill, co. 
Derry, wag mode by Cormac Kelly in 1702 of 
white willow, witli a back of fir dug out of 
the bog. Tlieday before he died O'rtempq' 
sat lip in bed anj plaved a few notes on his 
harp to the Rev. Sir liarvey Bruce. He waa 
temperate throughout life, drank milk and 
water, and ate potatoes. He died in 1807, 
having, according to the current belief in the 
north of Ireland, attained the age of 112. 
His portrait was pablisLed by Bunting. He 




is mentioned in Lady Morgan's ' Wild Irish 

[Buntings Ancient Music of Ireland, Dnblin, 
1840.] N. M. 

0;HENEY, ^L\TTIIEW (d. I2O6), Cis- 
tercian biographer and archbishop of Cashel, 
called in Irish Ua Heinni, was a monk of 
the Cistercian house of Holy Cross in what 
is now Tipperary. He afterwards became 
archbishop of Cashel, and was made papal 
legate for Ireland in 1192 (Ann. InisfalenseSf 
ap. O'CoxoR, Ser. Hibem. Script, ii. 120). 
In the same ^ear he held a great synod in 
Dublin, at which the Irish magnates attended 
{ib.) His name rarely appears except in offi- 
cial documents, usually undated, relating to 
the affairs of various Irish churches ( Char- 
ttdaries of St. Mary's Abbey, Dublin, i. 143, 
145, ii. 28, 29. 198, Rolls Ser.; Register of 
St. Thomas, Dublin.y^. 308, 317, Rolls Ser.) 
In 1195 he is mentioned as one of the pre- 
lates who brought the body of Hugh de Lacy, 
first lord of Meath [q. v.], one of the con- 
querors of Ireland, to the abbey of Bective 
on the Boyne in Meath, for re-interment 
(Annals of Ireland in Chartularies of St. 
Mary's, ifubUn, ii. 307). He is said to have 
founded many churches, and to have been an 
able man, a worker of miracles, and religious 
beyond his fellow-countrymen. Retiring to 
his old monastery of Holy Cross, he died there, 
as a humble Cistercian monk, in 1206 (ih. ii. 
278 ; Annals of Loch Ci, i. 235, Rolls Ser.) 

O'lleney wrote a life of St. Cuthbert of 
Lindisfnme, letters to Popes Celestine III 
and Innocent III, and other tracts, none of 
which are known to be extant. 

[In addition to the authorities cited in the 
text, see Hardy's Descriptive Catalogue of Brit. 
MSS. iii. 23; Cotton's Fasti Eccles. Hibern. i. 5, 
2nd ed. ; C. He Visch's Biblioth. Cisterc. p. 104; 
Tanner's Bibliothcai, p. 392 ; Ware's Works, ed. 
Harris, i. 46*J, ii. 72 ; Brady's Episcopal Succes- 
sion.] A. M. C-K. 

O'HIGGIN, TKAGUE (d. 1617), Irish 
not;t, known in Irish writings as Tadhg dall 
Ua hUiginn, the most famous of his family 
of hereditary poets, was 8on of Cairbre 
O'Higgin, and brother of Maelmuire O'Hig- 
gin, catholic archbishop of Tuam (State 
Papers, Eliz. clix. No. 44). lie was bom in 
Magh Nenda, the plain bt'tween the rivers 
Eruo and Drobhai.s, on the southern boun- 
dary of Ulster, and was blind most of his 
lilV, whence his Irish sol)riquot of * dall.' His 
earliest extant poom was written before 1554, 
an address of fifty stanzas to Eoghan 6g Mac- 
Suihhno na dtuath, urging him to make 
friends with Manns O'Donnell [q. v.] and 
Shane O'Neill [q. v.] He wrote, between 
15()0 and 1 589, a poom of thirty-three stanzas. 

ui^g^ing the fusion under Cucbonnacht Ma- 
guire of the tribes called, from their an- 
cestor Colla DaChrioch, Sil CoUa, and in- 
cludinc' Maguire, MacMahon, and CKeUy, 
beginnmg ' Daoine saora siol gOolla ' (' Noble 
folk the seed of Colla 0; In 1573 he ad- 
dressed a verse panegyric on the O^Neills 
in fifty-two stanzas to Turlough Luineach 
O'Neill [q. v.], * Imda sochar ag cloinn Neill' 
C Many tne privileges belonging to the diil- 
dren ot XiaU'). In another poem of eighteen 

Quatrains, ' Lios gi^eine as Emhain dUlltaibh' 
'A sunny fort is an Emania to Ulster- 
men '), he praises Shane O'Neill's residence, 
comparing it to Emhain Macha, or Emania, 
the residence of the most ancient race of 
the kings of Ulster (Addit. MS. 29614 in 
Brit. Mus.) At Christmas 1677 he wrote 
a poem of seventy-seven stanzas describi 
a party at which he was a guest at Turloi 
Luineach CNeill's house of Craoibhe at tl 
mouth of the Ban, ' Nodhlaig do chuamar 
do'n chraoibh ' (* At Christmas we were at 
the Craoibh') (Egerton MS. Ill, in British 
Museum). Between 1670 and 1578 was com- 
posed his poem of sixty-eight stanzas in 
5 raise of Sir Shane MacOliver MacShane 
[acWilliam Burke, *Ferainn cloidhim 
crioch Bhanba ' (' Swordland, the realm of 
Ireland'), in which Burke's descent from 
Charlemagne is traced. Five texts of thia 
poem are extant: in the British Museum 
(Egerton MS. Ill), in Trinity College, Dubhn 
(F.4. 13). in the Royal Irish Academy (28. L. 
17 and 23 N. 11), and one in Mr. S. II. 
O'Grady's collection. A poetical address to 
Richard MacOliver Burke of sixty stanzas, 
' Mar ionghabail anma n^ ' (* Great circum- 
spection to the name of king *), was written 
about 1580. It asserts that chiers right to 
be inaugurated Mac William, the Irish title 
corresponding to the marquisate of Clasx- 
ricarde. After 1581 he wrote a poem of 
forty-two stanzas, * Tanac oidhche go heas^ 
coilie' (*One night I came to Eascoille'), 
which describes a night which he spent in 
the house of Maelmora MacSuibhne in the 
north of Donegal. He was at Drumleene 
in the ])arish of donleigh, co. Donegal, in 
June 1 588, and there wrote * Maighen dioghla 
druim lighen ' (* A field of vengeance is Drum- 
leene '), a poem of forty-five stanzas, lament- 
ing the battle about to take place between 
Sir Hugh O'Donnell and Turlough Luineach 
O'Neill, then encamped on the other side 
of the river Finn. He advises O'Donnell to 
go home and dismiss his clansmen. In 1587 
ho composed a feeling lament of thirty- 
seven stanzas for Cathal 6g O'Connor Sligo, 
his patron, * Derram cunt-as a chathail ' (' Let 
us balance our account, Cathal ! ') ; and be- 

lore laSB an addrEss oF forty-five stsnias to 
XoT, wife of Domhnall MacTadhg Mac- 
Oitluul 6g O'Connor Sligo, 'A mhor culm- 
mtc in cumonn ' (' Mor, remember the 
■flection '). About 1588 be wrote n warlike 
addreas of seventy stanlas urging Str Kriun 
lift Murtba O'Rourke [q.T.j to organise a 
gre&tattsck on the English; it begins, ' D'flor 
diogaid chomaillter Bithchain senfhocal nach 
Kroigbter ' (' Witb a man of war it is that 
fetee ia observed, the proverb cannot be 
kTereome '). Between 1666 nnd 1589 he 
vrote a poem of thirty-nine stanzaa, ' Mnirg 
iKcboB ar iniscbeithleann ' (' Woe for him 
fcat looks on Ennidcillea '), telling of a 
rieit pairl by him to Cuclionnacbt 6g, chief 
bf the M^uires, and containini; an admi- 
nkble description of the daily life and eur- 
K>Dnding9 of a powerful Irislt chief in his 
lastle. Other poenu, undoubtedly his, but 
t uncertain date, are ' lotunliuin baile 
rugh Leithbhir'<' Dear town of LilRird'), 
brtj-four venea in praise of the county 
Dwn of Donegal ; ' Dia do bbeatha a 
iheic Hhagnuu ' (' God save you, son of 
twins'), an address of 124 verses to Aedh 
CacMwhnuia O'Donnell ; an epigram on tlie 
ipt or 3Iac an Bhaird ; ' Fuaras fein im 
uitb o mhnaoi ' (' I myself ^ot good butter 
rom a woman'), a poem against bad butter 
BopiM of t]me four poems exist in the 
braryof the Royal Irish Academv); 'Fear 
tna an fear so shiar' (' A man of song this 
Icsteni man '), printed, with a translation 
ir Theophilua O'planagan, in 1808 (Trant- 
etiiM* of Gaelic Society of Dublin). His 
lit poem,' Sluagseisir tainic dom thig' ('A 
■Oil of eix men came into my bouse \ has 
KH printed, with a trtinslntion by S. H. 
rOmdy ^Catalogue of Irith Maneeriplt in 
%eBriti»h Mtueum). There is a copy in the 
krmiy of Trinity College, Dublin (H. 1. 17. 
. 116 b). The poem is a satire on six 
fHaraswho had plundered his bouse. 
O'Higgin's verses arewrittenin natural and 
pt pedantic language, and most of them show 
fEnnine vein of poetry, while they give a 
implete view of the learning, the habits, the 
lends, and the political views of an Irish 
ttsditary poet, and of the rewards and 
;erB of his calling. He consistently ad- 
ited the laying aside of old feuds, the 
■ion of the Irish nations or clans, and the 
q^iulaion or extermination of the English. 
izt«en other men of letters of his family 
e mentioned in the chronicles, of whom 
le miai« important were : 
Tadhg Mor O'Higgin (rf. 1316), poet, 
tKrib^ by the chroniclers as ' a nniversal 
ient in every branch of art appertain- 
to poetry.' He was tutor to Muglinus 

O'Connor Connacht, who died in l:i93, He 
instructed him in warlike exercises, as well 
as in letters, and taught him to despise any 
bed-clothes but a shirt of mail. O'Higgin 
wrote ■ Cach 6n mar a adhba ' (' Every bird 
after his nest '), a poem of forty-two four-line 
Btjinzas, in the hectasyllabiu metre known 
as rinnard, addressed to his pupil. 

Tadhg dg O'Higgin (d. 1448), poet, son 
of Tadhg, son of Oillacolumb, the elder 
O'Higgin, was trained in the poetio art by 
his brother, Ferghal ruudh, chief of tlia 
O'HigginH, and became bard to Tadhg O'Con- 
nor ftligo, and afterwards from 1403 to 
1410 to Tadhg MacMaelsbeachainn O' Kelly, 
chief of Ui ilaine in Connaught. In 1397 
he wrote ' Da roinn comhthroma ar ehrich 
Neiir ('Two equal ports in the territory of 
Nin!'), a poem of forty-aeven stanzas, on the 
inauguration as O'Neillof Nialog O'Neill, in 
which he explains that Ulster atone is equal 
to Connaught, LeinBtcr,Mun9ter,andMeath 
combined. He wrote another poem of 
thirtv-si-X stanzas to the same chief, ' O naird 
tuaid tic in chabair ' (' Help comes from the 
north '). In 1403 he wrote ' Mor mo chuid 
do chunnaid Thaidg' ('Great my share in 
the grief for Tadhg') on the death of O'Con- 
nor Sligo, and in 1410 one of forty stauiaa 
on the death of Tadhg O'Kellv, ' Anois do 
tuigfide Tadhg' (* Nnw Tadfig might be 
understood '). He also wrote forty-one 
stanzas, ' Fuilngidh bar len a leth Chninn ' 
(■ Endure your woe, O northern half of 
Ireland ! '), on the dimth of Ulick Mac Wil- 
liam lochtair, or Burke ; a religious poem 
of thirty-one stanzas, 'Atait tri comhralc 
im chionn ' {' Three combatants are before 
roe ') ; and a lament of twenty-eight verses, 
' Anocht sgaoiledh na scola ' (' To-night the 
schools are loosed'), for his elder brother, 
Ferghal niadh. This last was written whea 
he was thirty years old, 

Domhnall O'Higgin {d. 1603), pet, bom 
in Sligo, was son of Brian (J'lliggin, and 
is described in the ' Annals of the Four 
Masters ' us ' professor of poetry to the 
schools of Ireland.' He wrote a poem of 
thirty-three stanzas in praise of Ian Mac- 
Donald, ' Misde nach £dmarEire'('Somuch 
the wor«e that Ireland is not jealous'). He 
died on his return from a pilgrimage to 
Cora post ell a. 

Matbghamhain O'Higgin {Jl. ll>84), poet, 
was bard to the O'Bymea of Wicklow. He 
wrote n poem of 1'20 verses in praise of 
Leinsler, and of Feidhlimidh O'Byme, 
' Cred do chosg cogadh Laigheann ' (' What 
has checked the war of I^inster." ") j and 
a devotional poem, ' Naomhtha an obair 
iomradh De' ('A holy work it is to hold 


O'Higgins 68 O'Higgins 

dihco'ir-i-r of G',-3 'i. of which there i* a copy whom he defeated, and founded the fort of 

in rh<; Hrit:^hMua^-im<E?*:rron MS. Ill ». San Carlo*, which still exists. He grained 

('onii&c 0*Hi;r;rin « /f. l.V<ii. poet, eon of the croodwill of the Indians by his justice 

Oillac'ilumb (yihir/in, wrote a lament of and humanity, and uncovered some territory 

forty-five f>tanza>> on the death of Sir which the Spaniards had lost. In recogni- 

Donnchadh o;r O'Connor Sli^o. • Sion choit- tion of his services he was made a colonel 

chenn chumaidh Ohaoidhel * ( • Common 7 Sept. 1777, and soon after became a briga- 

bla.«t of IrL-h K>rrow * >. dier-j?eneral. In 1786 the viceroy Croii 

Maolrnuire rrHijr^rin (d. l.'iOl), po».-t, bro- appointed him intendant of Concepcion. He 

ther of Tadhg dall 0*ni;rjrin. became arch- entertained the French circumnavigator 

bi^)hf>p of Tuam, wa.s a friend of O'Connor Galaup de la P^rouse with great courtesy 

of life, evi'n in the time bet wt-^tn sowing com records that 'Monsr. Higfuins' was one of 
and eating bread, * A fhir threbas in tulaig* ' those who suffered for their devotion to tlie 
('() man that ploughest the hillside'), of; Stuart cause. He founded the city of San 
wliich there is a copy in the British Museum | .\mbrosio de Ballenar, and constructed the 
(Kg^rton MS. 111). He also wrote * A fhir road from Santiago to Valparaiso. In 1789 
tlieidh go fiwJh funnidh ' ( * O man who goest he became a major-general, and was appointed 
to the land of Hunset'), a j)o«.*m in praise of viceroy of Chili. At this time he prefixed 
In'land, of 13() verses; and some religious the O* to his patronymic of Higgins. lie sent 
pot'mH. home a sum of money to a London bankinf^ 

Domlinall O'llipgin (^/7. 1000), poet, son house for his relatives, and appointed as his 

of Thomas O'Higgin, wrote a poem of 104 
verses on the inauguration of Turlough 
liUinrach (VXeill, * Do thog Eire fear gaire' 

almoner Father Kellet, the parish priest ot 
Summerhill, who reported that his kinsfolk 
were very poor and very improvident. In 1 792 

( * In;land has chosen a watchman *). he rebuilt the city of Osomo, which had been 

burned bv the Indians, and was created a mar- 
quis. In 1 794 he became a lieutenant-general, 
and the year after viceroy of Peru. On 10 May 
1790 he handed over the crovemment of Chili 

[S. II. O'Grady's Catalogue of the Irlsli Manu- 
Hcripts in tho Britiyh Museum, in -which several 
illu.Ht rative oxamplcs of tho j)oems of tho O'llig- 
^iiiM aro printnl for the Hrst time, with oxcellent 
triirihlationH ; H. ()'Ii<'illv in Tnmsactions of the 
II)orn()-C«iltii« S<K'irty, Dublin, 1820; Annala 
Uio^hac'lita Kirnmn, o\. O'Donovan, Dublin, 
IH'il ; Tribes unii CuHtonis of Ily-Many, ed. 
O'Donovan ; Annals of bx'h Co (Rolls Sor.), ed. 
Ilenni'SMV, 1871; Manuscripts in Hritish Museum, 


to Kezabal y Ugarte, proceeded to Callao, 
and entered Lima in state on 24 Julv 1706. 
The eulogy pronounced at his public recep- 
tion in the theatre of Lima, 10 Aug. 1796. 
was published (Brit. Mus.) Early in his vice- 
royalty he befriended his fellow-countryman 

h:j;,.rlon 111 ana Aaditional 29614.] N. M. j^j^^ ^^^ j^^^ Mackenna [q. v.], who thus 

O'HIGGINS, Don AMIUl(^)SI(), Mar- ' commenced a distinguished career under his 

yris i>K OsoKNO ( 1720':'- 1801), viceroy of auspices. 

IVni, originally Am liuosi: Huir.iNs, was born When the war broke out between Enff- 

nboul I7l?(), of hunibb' pan«nts, on the Sum- land and Spain in 1797, O'Higgins took 

nierluU t»stat«',n««ar DanjjanCastle, co. Menth, active measures for the defence of the coast, 
anil as a small boy usimI tocarry letters to the ^ strengthening Callao and erecting a fort at 

pi>st for Lady li«'rtiv«». lie was sent to an Pisco. During his brief administration he 

unrb'. a Jesuit, in (\nliz, but, having no incli- devoted his chief attention to the improve- 

nat ion for tluM'huri-h, went out with a small ment of the lines of communication. He 

^>ari'i»l of gt»ods to Si>ulli .\iniTiea to try his died suddenly at Lima, aft^r a short illness, 

toftunt*. Ih^landiMlat Hut'uos .\y res. made on 18 March 1801. He left a natural son. 

his way aoiN>ss thi* ]>a!u]»as and oofililleras to Bernanio O'lligjrins, bom in 1780, and edu- 

Saiitiago. and thonoi' to Lima, where ht» set rated in England, who served on the popu- 

ny i\ stall under tho platl'orm k^( the eatht^ Inr side in Chili during the war of liberation, 

dial.atid hawked his jT'HhIs as a pedlar, with and btvame liberator of Chili and president 

little suivess. SubMMpiontly he got leave to of t he oongrt\«s. After passing many years in 

oxM»>irurt e:\vuehas. or n^-^i -places, in tl\e cor- ri'tin'ment, he died in 1846 (see A'pPLEToy : 

dilhrn. s,^ a< to t»pon up n rvMite Mweeu Dnxjo \^KRii\s Xtlk^x, Hiftoria General de 

r\\\U and Mondora. in which work ho was (^Ai7«*, L'^lM. and lirit Afiw. Cat.) 

tiuploud nlMut ImHV Tot\ years later the fAppWion's Enc. Amer. Biogr. under •O'Hie- 

xuvrv'Y ot rh«h siut huu as a oaf tain of ^jin,;- Markbams Hist, of Peru, Chicago, 1893.) 

cavalry acaiusi iht» Arauoauiau Indians. H. M. C. 



O' Hurley 

OHTHERE (Ji. 880), maritime explorer, 
was a Norseman by birth, who entered the 
■service of .Elfred the Great probably soon 
after the peace of Wedmore (878), or the 
frith of 886. He was rich, he tells us, when 
he came to seek Kine Alfred, in what was 
the chief wealth of the Northmen. For he 
had six hundred reindeer, all tamed by him- 
self, a score of sheep, and one of swine ; he even 
did a little tillage ; ' and what he ploughed, 
he ploughed with horses.' He may possibly 
have been connected with the house of Ottar 
{Ohthere) Heimsc6, mentioned in the ^ Ice- 
landic Land-nama-bok,' or Settler's Regis- 
ter. What we know of him for certain comes 
entirely from the account of himself and his 
Toyages that he gave ^ his lord King Alfred.' 
This account appeared in the West-Saxon 
king's version of the universal history of 
Paul us Orosius, completed between 878 and 
901, the year of ^^^Ifred's death. In it refe- 
rence appears to be made to two distinct 
journeys made by Ohthere at the bidding of 
King /Elfred — one to the north, the other to 
the south. Both were probably undertaken 
between 880 and 900. 

On his first journey, which he undertook 
for the objects of discovery and trade, Ohthere 
.started from his native district of Haloga- 
land, the furthest of the Norse settlements 
towards Lapland, *■ by the West Sea.' He 
wished to *find out how far the country 
went on to the north, and whether any one 
iived north of the waste ' that lay beyond 
Halogaland ; he also went to find the walrus 
or * horse whale,* because of the * good bone 
in its teeth ' and the usefulness of its hide 
for ship ropes. 

To begin with, he sailed due north for 
three days, ' as far as the whale hunters 
«ver go,' and then beyond this for three days 
more, round the North Cape of Europe. Now 
the land began to turn eastward, and he 
stayed a little, waiting for a western wind, 
with the help of which he went eastward, 
Along the north coast of Lapland, for four 
days; and then, as the land began to run 
south, ' quite to the inland sea,' he sailed five 
<lays more before the north wind. Crossing 
what we now call the White Sea, he entered 
the mouth of the Dwina, close to the spot 
where Archangel was built in 1688, and where 
«Ten then he found the country inhabited. 
Beween Halogaland and this point all was 
waste, except for a few hunters and fishers. 
Ohthere traded, as no English sailors and few 
Norsemen had done, with these ' Biarmians ' 
of the Dwina — Russians of ' Permia,' a dis- 
trict in the north-east of Russia — and they 
told him many stories about the country, 
which he leaves as doubtful, 'because he 

could not see the things they spoke of with 
his own eyes.' But he thought the language 
of these people was the same as that of the 
Finns. Beyond the White Sea he does not 
seem to have gone. 

On his second voyage he started from Halo- 
galand, north of Trondhjem, and reached a 
port on the south of Norway, called Scirin- 
gesheal, apparently in the fiord of Christiania, 
and thence sailed on to Haddeby, near Sles- 
wick, * where the English dwelt before they 
came into this country ' (Britain). The chief 
interest of the second journey is in relation 
to iElfred's * Description of Europe ; ' for it 
helped the king to fix with remarkable accu- 
racy, for the time, the localities of the people 
and countries of the European *■ Northland.' 

[iElfred's Anglo-Suxon version of Orosius's 
Universal History; Dr. Bosworth's edition of 
Vojages of Ohthere and Wulfstan, &c. ; Pauli's 
Life of Alfred the Great ; Corpus Poetanim 
Boreale.] C. R. B. 

O'HURLEY, DERMOT (1519 P-1584), 
archbishop of Cashel, called in Irish Diar- 
mait Ua Hurthuile, the son of William 
O'Uurley, by his wife, Ilonora O'Brien of 
the O'Briens of Thomond, was born about 
1619. His father, a well-to-do farmer at 
Lycodoon in the parish of Knockea, near 
Limerick, also acted as agent for the Earl of 
Desmond. Being destined for a learned pro- 
fession, he was sent, after receiving what edu- 
cation was possible for him in Ireland, to Lou- 
vain, where he took his degree with applause 
in the canon and civil law. Afterwards he 
appears to have gone to Paris, and about 1559 
he was appointed professor of philosophy at 
Louvain. Subsequently he held the chair of 
canon law for four years at Rheims, where he 
acquired an unhappy notoriety for contract- 
ing debts. He then proceeded to Rome, where 
he became deeply engaged in the plans of the 
Irish exiles against Elizabeth's government. 
On 11 Sept. 1581 he was appointed by Gre- 
gory XUI to the see of Cashel, vacant since 
1578 by the death of Maurice FitZjB^ibbon, 
and on 27 Nov. he received the pallium in 
full consistory. He was a mere layman at the 
time, and a contemporary congratulates him 
on the triple honour thus conferred on him : — 

Quid dicam? vel quid mirer? nova culmina? 

Uno te passu tot saliisse gradus ! 
Una sacerdotem creat, una et episcopon bora, 

Archiepiscopon et te facit bora simul. 

In the following summer he set out from 
Rome to take possession of his diocese, pro- 
ceeding by way of Rheims, where he dis- 
charged his debts ' recte et g^tiose,' and 
where he was in August detained for a time 




by a severe illness. He emlmrked at Cher- 
bourg, and landed at Skerries, a little to the 
north of Dublin, about the beginning of 
September. His baggage and papers he had 
sent by another vessel, which was captured 
by pirates, and in this way government was 
apprised of his intentions, and caused a sharp 
outlook to be kept for him at the principal 
ports. Disguising himself, and attended by 
only one companion. Father John Dillon, he 
made his way to Waterford ; but being re- 
cognised there by a government agent, he 
retraced his steps to Slane Castle, where he 
lay for some time concealed in a secret 
chamber. Becoming more confident, he ap- 
peared at the public table, where his con- 
versation aroused the suspicions of the chan- 
cellor. Sir Robert Dillon. Finding himself 
suspected, he proceeded by a circuitous route 
to Carrick-on-Suir, where, with Ormonde's 
help, he was shortly afterwards, about the 
beginning of October, captured. He was 
t«ken to Dublin, and committed to prison. 
Being brought before the lords-justices Arch- 
bishop Loft us and Sir Henry Wallop for 
examination, little of importance was elicited 
from him, though he admitted that he was 
'one of the House of Inciuisition,' and his 
papers revealed his correspondence with the 
Earl of Desmond and \'iscount Baltinglas. 
Walsingham recommended the use of * tor- 
ture, or any other severe manner of proceed- 
ing to gain his knowledge of all foreign prac- 
tices against her majesty's state;* but the 
lords justices, especially Loft us, were loth, 
out of respect for his position and learning, 
to resort to such extreme measures, and, on 
the ground that they had neither rack nor 
other instrument of terror, advised that he 
should be sent to London. Walsingham, 
however, impressed with the dangerous na- 
ture of his mission, suggested toasting his 
feet against the fire with hot boots, and a 1 
commission having been made out to Water- ' 
house and Fenton for that purpose, O'llurley 
was subjected to the most excruciating tor- 
ture, lie bore the ordeal wit h extraordinary 1 
patience and heroism, and was taken back to ' 
prison more dead than alive. Torture having 
failed, and government being advised that ' 
an indictment for treason committed abroad | 
would not lie, and fearing to run the risk of 
a trial by jury, O'llurley, after nine months' : 
imprisonment, was condemned by martial 
law. The warrant for liis execution was 
signed by Loft us and Wallop on 20 June I 
lo84, and next day, very t;arly in the mom- ; 
ing, h(i was executed,' being hanged for 
greater ignominy with a withen rope, at a 
lonely spot in the outskirts of the city, pro- 
bably near where the Catholic University 

Church now stands in St. Stephen's Green. 
His remains were interred at the place of 
execution, but were privately romoved by 
William Fitzsimon, a citizen of Dublin, who 
placed them in a wooden urn, and deposited 
them in the church of St. Kevin. H is grave 
became famous among the faithful for several 
miracles reputed to have taken place there. 
According to Stanihurst {Deseript, of Ireland, 
ch. vii.), one Derby Hurley, ' a civilian and 
philosopher,' wrote * In Aristotelis Physics.' 

[Rothe's Analects Sacra nova et mira de 
rebus Catholicoram in Hibemia, ed. Horan, 
Dublin, 1884, contains nearly all that is known 
aljout him. Rothe's account has been trans- 
lated, with additions and notes, by Mylas 
O'Keilly in Memorials of those who saffered for 
the Catholic Faith in Ireland, London, 1868, pp. 
55-84. A short devotional life by Dean Kinane 
was published at Dublin in 1893. In R. Ver- 
stegans Theatrnm Crudelitatnm Hereticomm 
noBtri tcmporis there is a sketch of O'Hurlcy 
undergoing torture and of his death by hanging. 
Bruodinus (Catalogns Martyrum Hibemomni.p. 
447) adds other tortures besides ' the boot,' for 
which there is no good authority. Other refer- 
ences arc : Records of the English Catholics, 
vol. ii., containing Letters and Memorials of 
Cardinal Allen, pp. 151. 155, 156, 162; Ca> 
dinal Moran's Spicilegium Ossoriense, i. 80; 
Brady's Episcopal Succession, ii. 10-22 ; O'Sul- 
levan Beare's Historise Ibemiae Compendinin, 
torn. 2, lib. iv. ch. xix, translated in Eenrhans 
Collect ions, p. 253; Irish Ecclesiastical Record, 
i. 475 ; Bagwell's Ireland under the Tudors, iii. 
116.] R. D. 

O'HUSSEY, EOCHAIDH (/. 1630), 
Irish poet, in Irish Ua hEodhasa, belonged to 
a nortnern family of hereditary poets and his- 
torians, of which the earliest famous member 
was Aenghus, who died in 1360. Another 
Aenghusdiedin 1480, and in lolSCiothruadh, 
son of Athairne O'Hussey, whose poem, 
* Bui me na bhfileadh fuil Ruarcach ' (* Kurse 
of the poets, the blood of the O'Rourkes *), is 
still extant. Soon after his time the family 
became chief poets to Maguire of Fermanagh. 
Eochaidh began to write when very young 
(in 1 593), and hisearliest poem is on the escape 
of Aedh ruadh O'Donnell from Dublin Castle 
inlo92. It contains 228 verses. Hewrotefour 
poems, of 008 verses in all, on Cuchonacht 
Nlaguire,lord of Fermanagh, and seven ])oems 
on hiis sou, Hugh Maguire [q. v.] He travelled 
and, like all the poets, wrote panegyrics on 
his hosts. Of this kind are nis poems, of 
two hundred verses, on Tadhg O'liourke of 
Breifne ; on Eoghan 6f( MacSweeny of Done- 

§al ; on Feidhlimidh O^Beime, and on Richard 
e Burgo Mac William of Connaught. He 
wrote a poetic address of 152 verses to Hugh 
O'Neill, the great earl of Tyrone [q. v.], and 




one of forty-four verees to Rory O'Donnell, 
earl of Tjrconnel [q. t.1 He also wrote nu- 
merous poems on general subjects, such as * A 
dhuine na heaslainte ' (' man of ill-health ! '), 
in praise of temperance, and an address to 
the Deity. There are copies of his poems in 
the library of the Royal Irish Academy. 

[TransactioDB of Ibemo-Celtic Society, Dub- 
lin, 1820; Annala Rioghachta Eirennn, ed. 
O'llonoTaD, Dublio, 1851.J N. M. 

BRIGHDE id. 1614), who sunned himself in 
Latin Bbigidvs Hosseus, and adopted in re- 
ligion the name Bonaventura, Irisn Francis- 
can, was bom in the diocese of Clogher in 
Ulster, and admitted on 1 Nov. 1607 one of 
the original members of the Irish Franciscan 
monastery or college of St. Anthony of Padua 
at Louvam (Irish £cci. Record^ 1870, vii. 41). 
He had previously been at Douay (September 
1(305), and wrote thence in Irish to Father 
Robert Nugent asking him to use his influence 
to get the president of the college to send him 
to Louvain, because it was the best place for 
theological studies, and because the son of 
O'Neill was likely to be in that neighbour- 
hood. He mentions that he had been asked 
to go to Salamanca or Valladolid (Ualedulit) 
iCaL State Papers, Ireland, 1603-6, p. 311). 
He became lecturer at Louvain, first in 
philosophy, and afterwards in theology, and 
he held the oiEce of guardian of the college 
at the time of his death from small-pox, on 
16 Not. 1614 (Moran, 8picileg%um Ossoriense, 
iii. 52). He was held in the greatest esteem 
by his countrymen on account of his pro- 
found knowledge of the language and history 
of Ireland. 

His works, all composed in the Irish lan- 
guage, are : 1. A Christian catechism, en- 
titled ' An Teagasg Criosdaidhe ann so, Ama 
chuma do Bonabhentura o Eodhasa, brathair 
bochd dord San Proinsias accolaisde S. Antoin 
a Lobhain ' TLouvain, 1608, lOmo], reprinted 
Antwerp, lull, 8vo; and Rome, 1707, 8vo. 
It has a preface of thirty-two lines of verse. 
The Roman edition is called the second on 
the title-page ; it was revised by Philip Ma- 
guire of the college of St. Isidore in Rome 
and a friar of the order of St. Francis (Irish 
note, p. 259, recte 2f56). The copy 01 the 
edition of 1611 in the Grenville Library in 
the British Museum has the frontispiece of 
St. Patrick, which is wanting in most copies. 
2. A metrical abridgment of Christian doc- 
trine, banning ' Ataid tri Doirse air teach 
nDe ' (* There are three doors to the house 
of God'). Printed at the end of Andrew 
Donlevy's ' Irish Catechism,' Paris, 1642, pp. 
487-98. 3. A poem for a dear friend of his 

who fell into heresy, ' Truagh liom a chom- 
pain do chor ' Q Sad to me, oh companion, 
thv turn *), printed in the 1707 edition of his 
* Teagasg Criosdaidhe,' pp. 237-55. Manu- 
scripts in Sloane collection, British Museum, 
No. 3567, art. 7, and Egerton MS. 128, art. 4. 
The friend was Miler Magrath [q. v.], first 
protestant archbishop of Cashel. 4. ^ Qabh 
aithr eachas uaim' ('Accept my repentance '), 
written on entering the order of St. Francis, 
Sloane MS. 3567, art. 8; another copy in 
Egerton MS. 195, art. 15. 5. * Truagh cor 
cluoinne adhaimh * Q Sad the state of Adam's 
family '), on the vanity of the world, trans- 
lated from the Latin of St. Bernard, Sloane 
MS. 3567, art. 9 ; another copy in Egerton 
MS. 195, art. 16. 6. A poem of 184 verses, 
' longnadh m'aslaing a nEamhain ' (^ Won- 
drous my vision in the Navan fort '), on the 
inauguration of Rolfe MacMahon as chief 
of his clan, Egerton MS. HI, art. 80. 7. * A 
Poem for the Daughter of Walter [. . .] to 
console her for the Death of her Son and 
heir,' Egerton MS. Ill, art. 81. 8. A poem 
in praise of Felim, son of Feagh McHugh 
0*Byme, and of the province of Leinster, 
manuscript in Royal Irish Academy. 

[Anderson's Native Irish, pp. 56, 273 n, ; Bibl. 
Grenvilliana ; O'Curry's Cat. of Irish MSS. in 
Brit. Mas.; O'Reilly's Irish Writers, p. 168; 
Catof Library of Trinity College, Dublin ; Wad- 
ding'sScriptoresOrdinis Minorum, p. 56 ; Ware's 
Writers of Ireland (Harris), p. 102.] T. C. 

1790), Irish harper, for whose Irish chris- 
tian name Acland or Echlin is sometimes 
substituted, was horn at Drogheda in 1720. 
He was of a northern family, and was taught 
to play the harp by Cornelius Lyons, harper 
to the Earl of Antrim. He travelled to Rome 
and played before Prince Charles Edward 
Stuart there. He then visited France, and 
went on to Madrid, where he played to the 
Irish gentlemen living at that court, who 
praisea him to the king ; but his uproarious 
habits did not suit Spanish decorum, and he 
had to walk to Bilbao with his harp on his 
back. After returning to Ireland he went to 
Scotland, and there made many journeys 
from house to house. Sir Alexander Mac- 
Donald in Skye gave him a silver harp-key, 
long in the family, and originally left by 
another Irish harper, Ruaidhri Dall O'Cath- 
or O'Kane. Tne gift is mentioned by Bos- 
l in the * Tour to the Hebrides.' Kane 



played all the old native airs, as well as the 

treble and bass parts of Corelli's correnti in 

concert with other music. 

[Bunting's Ancient Music of Ireland ; Bos- 
well's Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides.] 

N. M. 

Oke 72 O'Keeffe 

OKE. fi¥J}Hf}K CYjLWELL (1^21- Eoglian himielf entered the church and be- 
]r74;. \hsnl vrlr^, Iwm at St. Colamb came pvish priest of DoneimileyCO. Cork. He 
Major. CViTDwall, on ^ F<»rb. l^!?!. was Mn wa* president of the bardic meeting held 
of Wiiliam Jan«r Ok#;. U*: comoi'^cc^d life at Charleville, oo. Cork, till his ordination. 
M a •^>llci'or>> a/:rC30untant. but bv 1S4^ was He wrote ' Ar treasgradh i nEachdhruim 
actif]? a/> a«*.«iAtant'Ckrk to The Newmarket do shiol Eibhir' ('All that at Aughrim 
U:rif:h of j>i?tic^. In l^•>o h^ b^rame a««i3t- an? laid low of the seed of Eber'), a poem 
ant -clerk to the lord major of London, and of eight stanxas, lamenting the d^eat and 
in 1 ¥'A hucci^^ed to the chief clei^Eship. denouncing the yictors. It has been printed, 
Oke*<« knowledge of criminal law and of its with a translation, by S. H. O'Gradj. He 
pra/!tir:al application broufrfat him a high re^ also wrote many otfier poems which were 
pijtation. lie died on 9 Jan. 1874 at Rose- current in the south of Ireland as long as 
da]'', .St. Mar^-'s Road, Peckham, and was Irij»h was generaUj read there. He died on 
biiri'-^l on the I'Tth at Nunhead cemetery, o April 1726, and was buried at Oldcourt, 
He married finst Flliza Neile Hawkins Cd, near Doneraile. A local stonecutter named 
\'*^>h and s'.'condly, on 20 April 1870, Donough 0*Daly carred an epitaph on his 
i^f eor^iana Percy, stepdaughter of G. M. tombstone, which states that he was a wise 
Hari'ey, of Upper Norwood. and amiable man, an active parish priest, and 

Oke was author of many standard legal a learned scholarly poet 'a bpriomhthean- 
workH, including : 1. ' The S^'nopsis of Sum- gadh a dhuithche agus a shinnsear ' Q in the 
mary (Convictions,' 8vo, 1^^48, better known original language of his country and bin 
bv the title of its second edition (1849) as ancestors '). Dr. John O'Brien, bishop of 
Mike's M agister ial Synopsis ' (14th edit, by Cloyne,also wrote a short epitaph in verse. 
Mr. 11. L. Stephen, 1893). 2. *An Im*- [O'Daly's PoeU and Poetry of Manst«r, Dnb- 
proved System of Solicitors' Book-keeping,' lin, 1849 ; S.H. O'Grady's Catalogue of the Irish 
nvo, 1849. 3. ' Oke's Magisterial Formulist,' Manuscripts in the British Museam : OHeilly 
8vo, I8o0 (7th edit, by Mr. H. L. Stephen, in Transactions of Iberno-Celtic Society. 1820; 
1893). 4. *The Laws of Turnpike Roads,' . Egerton M S. 154 in British Museum.] N. M. 
12mo, 1854 (and 18^K)). 5. 'The Friendly , O'KEEFFE, JOHN (1747-1833), dra- 
Societies' Manual,' 12mo, 1855; withdrawn ' mat ist, descended from an old catholic stock 
from circulation owing to its infringing the ' which had gradually sunk under the burden 
copyrij^ht of another work. 6. * A Handy of the penal laws, was bom in Abbey Street, 
Hook of the Game and Fishery Laws,' 12mo, Dublin, on 24 June 1747. His father was 
1801 (enlarged editions by J. W. Willis ' a native of Kill's CJounty, his mother an 
Bund). 7. * JuHtices' Clerks* Accounts,' 8vo, ' O'Connor of co. Wexford. He was educated 
|K(W}. 8. * London Police and Magistracy,' i by Father Austin, a Jesuit, who kept a school 
8vn, IWKJ. 9. * Friendly Societies' Accounts,' in Saul's Court. He afterwards studied art 
PJmo, 1H<)4. 10. * The Laws as to Licensing in the Dublin school of design, together 
liniH,' 8v(), 1872 (2nd edit, by W. Cunning- I with a brother Daniel. The latter exhibited 
liiim (ilen, 1 874). He wrote also * The fourteen miniatures at the Royal Academy, 
MajfiHterial I^wh of London,' which was London, between 1771 and 1786 (Graves, 
unn»)un(!ed in 1H(J3 to bo published by sub- i Catalogue). But John had meanwhile been 
script ion, but it never appeared. [attracted to the stage by a perusal of 

Farquhar s plavs. At fifteen he attempted 
a comedy — *The Gallant,' in five acts — and 
he afterwards obtained an engagement as an 
actor with Henry Mossop [q. v. J, the Dublin 
PiiiH'M, 17 Jan. 1871, p. 207] ' G. G. lessee, after reciting to him some passages 

HouMo and Courtney 'b Bibl. Cornub. ; Boase's 
(■olh'.t. (■(irnuW. : Times, 10 and 12 Jan. 1874; 
lIluMir. l^>nd. Ni'WH. Ixiv. 80 (with portrait); 
Graphic, ix. 124, l.'Jl (with portrait); Law 


from Jatfier's part. He remained a member 

V f T I n 1 r ^ I M 1 1 V / 7 iTwut ox T 1 ^rt.^^ of Mossoi)'8 stock companv for twelve vears. 

I s \ K !! Ivl ^ ^' ^"'^ '^''''"''' 1° the season of 1770-1 he played Gritiano 

1^1,. i\hAKNK\.| . J n J g Theatre to Macklin's 

at the Capel Street Theatre to Macklin*s 

OMxKEFE, K()(iH AN (l(jr)(M7L>«), Irish j Shylock. But when he had reached his 

t went v-third year his eyesight began to fail, 
nn attliction against which he long struggled, 
but, as in the case of his dramatic contem- 
porary, Kane O'Hara [q. v.], it ended in 
complete blindness about 1797. 

A\hile still an actor, O'Keeffe tried his 
hand at play\^Titing, and in 1773 his farce 
' Tony Lumpkin in Town/ founded on Gold- 

i)ort, wiM« Ijvirn at (Bienville, co. Cork, in 
W\i\, If(« niiirrit»d early, and had a son, 
whom h«» hrou^fht ii]» to be a priest, but who 
dunl at K(vhidli» in bronco m 1705) while 
»tutl>ing tln»ology. Ho wrote a poem of 
tirt\ MIX \,»r.Mes, "An tan naoh faicim fear* 
^' When I do not sm» a man '), on the death 
of tluM son. His wife had died in 1707, and 




smith 8 * She Stoops to Conquer/ was pro- 
duced in Dublin. The author sent it 
anonymously to Colman, the manager of the 
Haymarket Theatre in London, and on 
2 July 1778 it was put on the stage there 
with considerable success. It was published 
in the same year. From that date O'Keeffe 
proved an exceptionally prolific playwright, 
but mainly confined his efforts to farces and 
comic operas. His phraseology was quaint, 
and sometimes barely intelligible, but gave 
opportunities for ' gekS ' to comedians, of 
which they took full advantage. The songs 
in his operas had an attractive sparkle, and 
some, liKe * I am a Friar of Orders Grey ' and 

* Amo Amas I love a Lass,' are still popular. 
He was always a facile if not a very finished 

About 1780 OTCeeffe removed from Dublin 
to London, with a view to obtaining an 
engagement as an actor. But in this en- 
deavour he was not successful, and he con- 
sequently devoted himself to writing comic 
pieces, chiefly for the Haymarket and Co vent 
Crarden Theatres. He also sent verses for 
many years to the * Morning Herald.' His 
failing sight compelled him to depend largely 
on an amanuensis, but his gaiety was not 
diminished. He dictated many of his plays 
in his garden at Acton, whither he went to 
reside about 1798. 

At the Haymarket were produced his 
t * Son-in-Law,'^ comic opera (14 Aug. 1779 ; 
London, 1779, 8vo); t'The Dead Alive,' 
comic opera (16 June 1781 ; 1783, 8vo) ; 
t'The Ajfreable Surprise,' comic opera, 
with music by Dr. Arnold (3 Sept. 1/81; 
London, 178(5, 8vo ; Dublin, 1784 and 1787; 
printed in Cumberland's * British Theatre,' 
No. 232) ; t * The Young Quaker ' (26 July 
1783); *The Birthday, or l*rince of Ara- 

fon,' comic opera (12 Aug. 1783; 1783, 
vo) ; t * Peeping Tom of Coventry,' comic 
opera (6 Sept. 1784; 1787, 8vo); •'A 
Beggar on Horseback/ comic opera (16 June 
17a>; 1786, 8vo); *The Siege of Curzola,' 
comic opera (12 Aug. 1786 ; not published^ ; 

* Prisoner at Large,' a comedy (2 J uly 1788) ; 
* ' The Basket-Maker,' musical piece (4 Sept. 
1790) ; * London Hermit,' a comedy (29 June 
1793) ; • * The Magic Banner,' opera (22 June 
1796; not published separately, but appa- 
rently identical with * Alfred,' a drama, in 
the collected edition of 1798 ; on it James 
Pocock rq. v.] based his ' Alfred the Great, 
or the Enchanted Standard,' produced at 
Covent Grarden on 3 Nov. 1827. 

At Covent Garden were represented 
CEeeffe's * < The Positive Man ' (16 March 
1782) ; * ' Castle of Andalusia,' comic opera 
^2 Nov. 1782) ; *' Poor Soldier/ comic opera 

(4 Nov. 1783) ; • * Fontainebleau ' (16 Nov. 
1784); •^The Blacksmith of Antwerp' 
(7 Feb. 1786) ; * Omai,' a pantomime (20 Dec. 
1785) ; * * Love in a Camp, or Patrick in Prus- 
sia,' musical piece (17 Feb. 1786); '^TheMan 
Milliner ' (27 Jan. 1787) ; • * The Farmer,' 
musical piece (31 Oct. 1787) ; * * Tantara- 
rara Roguesall ' (1 March 1788) ; • * The 
Highland Reel ' (6 Nov. 1788); *The Toy,' a 
comedy (3 Feb. 1789) ; * 'Little Hunchback,' 
farce (14 April 1789) ; • * The Czar Peter,' 
comic opera (8 March 1790); * The Fugitive,' 
musical piece (4 Nov. 1790); ** Modem An- 
tiques,' a farce (14 March 1791) ; ' Wild 
Oats,' a comedv (16 April 1791); * Tonjr 
Lumpkin's Rambles,' musical piece (10 April 
1792) ; • * The Sprigs of Laurel,' comic opera 
(11 May 1793) ; * World in a Village,' a co- 
medv (23 Nov. 1793) ; < Life's Vagaries,' a 
comedy (19 March 1796); *The Irish Mimic ' 
(23 April 1796) ; * The Lie of the Day ' 
(19 March 1796); '^The Lad of the llilU,' 
comic opera, 9 April 1796 (reproduced 
with alterations as *The Wicklow Moun- 
tains,' 10 Oct. 1796 ; ♦ * Doldrum,' a farce 
(23 April 1796) ; * Olympus in an Uproar,' 
5 Nov. 1796 (altered from *The Golden 
Pippin,' a burletta, by Kane O'Hara) ; * Alad- 
din, or the Wonderful Lamp,' a melodra- 
matic romance (19 April 1813). 

At Drury Lane appeared in 1 / 98 O'KeefFe's 

* She's Eloped,' a comedy (19 May^ ; ' The 
Eleventh of June, or the Dagger- Woods at 
Dunstable ' (6 June) ; * A Nose Gay of Weeds,' 
interlude (6 June). 

O'Keeffe is also credited with producing 
many pieces which, imlike those already 
enumerated, are not mentioned by Genest. 
The additional pieces include * The Ban- 
ditti ' (1781 ) ; ' Lord Mayor's Day ' ( 1782) ; 

* Maid the Mistress,' * Shamrock,' and * Friar 
Bacon ' (1783) ; * Harlequin Teague ; ' * The 
Definitive Treaty ; ' * The Loyal Bandeau * 
(opera) ; * Female Club ; ' * Jenny's Whim ; ' 

* All to St. Paul's ;" The She-GaUant.' In 1 798, 
when O'Keeffe claimed to have composed 
fifty pieces, and he was totally blind, he 
published a selection from them by subscrip- 
tion in four volumes. He had disposed 
of the copyright of those marked t in the 
list already given, and was unable to include 
them. The volumes only contained those 
marked * above, all of which were now 
printed for the first time, together with * Le 
Uranadier,' intended for production at 
Covent Garden in 1789, but not performed. 

On 12 June 1800, owing to O'Keeffe's 
financial embarrassments, he was accorded 
a benefit at Covent Garden, under the 
patronage of the Prince of Wales. His 
' Lie of the Day ' was performed, and, at the 

O'Keefife 74 OKellv 

on«i i^f ihi* H'cond act, he was led on the 
Ma^' to th'livor a potfticul addreRH of hiH own 
t^^nn>'^s;tion. The U^nf^fit j)roduc<*d 300/., 
ik^\^\ '\\t^ IViniv of AVales w*nt him 50/. be- 

a8 *A Father** Lrnrtir^ "o H:i In.ix^i'rr'iii 
1834. lie had Hr^ir Lsrat=fi - ' L?.^> i 
volume of vers*?-. entLrl-ni •« ''inLAz-i*. or the 

».idi*s. In HiH^embtT IKKJ \w obtained an Transfer of the Laor^L' 
anuuit V of twenty guineas from (Movent Gar- i His son, John T'XtrciiAm * i^^-^^-r ITT-V 
dou n\Vatn\and8fnt to llarriH, the manager, 1803), who was broozh: op i3 i pp-tes- 
!H\ nt»\v plays, of which no uko appears to | tant, matriculated at Eiet»rr C^Hrnzv-. '->x- 
h:»>o Ihvu liiudi'. In January \H'20 a royal ford, 22 Nov. 17$^ iB.A- ISJl-. Ihroazce 
piMision friMU the privy purwnf one hundred ' chaplain to HLR.H. the I>^e cf ''.l*rtn«, 
cinnoni* a year was conferred on him. In : went out in 1^>3 to JamAica :o ■aiEr poe- 
l.*iLM> O'Keetle issued his rambling * lU»col- . session of a lucrative livinjr. but 'il-z*i ihrw 
luriinuH/ replete with siKrial and dramatic , wt^eks after his arrival, agei 2>. 
uoMsip, but not remarkabU; for accuracy. | His onlv daughter and rhipi cLiIi .\J)E- 
Y.iuU Morgan describtnl the book as • feeble, laidk (yfvKErFK(1776-l'N>jr». bi^m 5 Nov. 
but ainiable.' It was dedicated toCleorge IV. 1770 in Eustace .Street, Dublin, contributed 
In it O'KeeOb enumerates sixtVHMght pieces j thirty-four poems to Taylors ■ t.^ririn*! 
nl' his own composition. The * Kecollections ' Poems for Infant Minds by Several Young 
wiTi- condensed by Kichard Henry Stoddard | Persons,' London, 1804, 2 vols, {cf.yottfsand 
lor his volume, * Personal Keminiscences by j Quen'e^ff 7th ser. iii. 3^51-2 », and was aiithor 
< )'J\.'rH\s Kelly, and Taylor,' in the Bric-a- of • National Characters,* leOtf : * Patriarchal 
llrue siTies (New York, l^f75). Times,' London, 1811, 2 vols. i»^th edit. 

Ill his later years he was affectionately 1842); * A Trip to the Coast' I poems t.l"? 19, 

12mo; * Dudley,' a novel, 3 vols. 1^19, 
12mo; ^Poems'for Young Children.' lS49, 
12mo; and * The Broken Swonl. a Tale,' 
1804, 8vo. She also wrote * Zenobia. Queen 
of Palmyra. A Narrative founded on Ilis- 

Ii«iuI«mI by his only daughter, A<lelnide (see 
nil interesting manuscript letter by Ade- 
lnid«' O'Keelle, bound in one of the copies 
III' the * Kecollections' in the British Museum. 
Ill I he same copy are a few lines scrawled 

III i )'Ke«'ffe's own hand). .Vbout 1815 he n*- .' t<»ry/ 2 vols. 12mo, 1814 ; but this must be 
innl from London to Chichester (Xofes and I distinguished from the better known *Zeno- 
ijurrirMj 7th ser. ii. \)). From Chichester he j bia, or tin; Fall of Palmyra. An Historical 
n-mnvi'd in IHoO to Southampton. As lat«' as Romance' (New York, 1837; London, ISfc*), 
I hilt y«'ar he could diet at r VfTM; «*pistles with by William Ware, author of * Julian.' Miss 
till Ills youthful uliierity u'fj. 3rd sit. x. 307). (J'Keeffe died about 1855. 
WrAnvr his death his danght.T read t<. him , [ Recollect Iodh of John 0'Kccffe,Iy>ndon; Lidy 
ii.mM. ot Sir \\ alter N-otts novels, ami he Morgan's Memoirs, p. 381; Gilbert's Dublin. 
»xa.-,^'ratihedbytheM.wom.«ntious'()fCow- | 3 vols. lHr,d ; Biojrr. Diet, of Living Authors, 
.'hji, tin; leading charaet«T of his • .\greable | ihio; (Mark Ku-^mU's Kepresentative Actors', 
rii.i|inM'/ in Scott's •Tah'sol'my Landlord;' , l^ndon, 1876; Annual Biography, 1833; Dublin 
lull \\h<'n ho found that Seolt usrd the 1 riiivcrsity Magazine, 1833; Webb's Compend. 
I»liia.'i* * I'Voni Shakosprare t()()'Keeire' in , Irish Biography ; Epitaph on O'Keeffe's tomb in 
• .M . IJonari's Wrll,' ho reniark«Ml sardoni- , Soutluimpton churchyard; Gent. Mag. 18.33, i. 
i;.ill\,*Ah! the top and thr bnttnm of tlu' 37osiq. ; Baker's Biogr. Dnimatica; Genest's 
lu.ldi r: he might have shoved m.' a few sticks ! Account of the Stage, piissim; Notes and Queries, 
hi^h.r.' Ilf'dicd at Mcdfonl Cottage, South- , "<*^ '^*^^- "»• 361; O'Donoghue's Dictionary of .11, on 4 Feb. iKJ.'i, ag.'d s.'), after re- ^'''^J^ Poets.] W. J. F. 

i r.n 11.^ the last rites of th.' Konian cath.die ' O'KELLY, CHARLES (1021-D^5), 
i hinrii. A half-length nortrait ofO'KiM'lle Irish historian, the elder son of John O'Kelly, 
v\.i.^ piiinti'd in 17H(} l>y Thomas Lawrcnson • eighth lord oft he manor of Screen, co.Galway, 
..J v.!,an(l is now in the National Portrait 1 by Isma, daughter of Sir AV'illiam Ilill of 
(J.illiiy, London. It was engraveil in line . Hallybeg, eo. Carlow, was born at the castlo 
liv lining as a frontispiece to the ' Uecollcc- , of Screen in 1()1*1, and educated in the Irish 
I i«m...' ^ Ccdlege at St. Omer. St.>on after the outbreak 

1 1 l\»'«:ir»;'s * Wild ( >ats ' is played to this | of the civil war in Ireland he was summoned 
li.j.. undone of the most snc<'e.*;.sful of Huck- , home to join the royal army, lie accord- 
.i..ii. '.^ revivals was 'The Castle of Anda- ingly returned in l(34l*. and obtained the 
lu.^ia,' in which that actor took a leading part. , eom'mand of a troop of horse under the Mar- 
ili-' *e'tt popularity has not proved ' (juis of Ormonde. After the ultimate triumph 

ind his unpubli.shed and un- | of the parliamentarians he retired, with two 
which his daughter olfertMl for , thousand of his countrymen, into Spain to 
lath, did not fnid a purchaser. 1 servo Charles 1 1. On hearing, however, that 



O' Kelly 

Charles was in France, he proceeded thither 
with most of the officers and soldiers be- 
longing to the corps which he was appointed 
to command. When Cardinal Mazarin and 
Oliver Cromwell concluded the treaty of al- 
liance against Spain, in consequence of which 
the roTfld family of England were obliged to 
quit I* ranee, 0*Kelly and other exiles trans- 
&rred their services to the crown of Spain. 

He came to England on the restoration of 
Charles II, and, his father dying in 1674, he 
succeeded to the family estate, becoming 
ninth lord of the manor of Screen. His name 
appears on the list of the twenty-four bur- 
j^esses of the reformed corporation of Athlone 
in 1687. In the parliament summoned by 
James U to meet at Dublin in 1689, 0'Eelly 
sat as member for the county of Roscommon. 
He was commissioned in the same year to 
levy a regiment of infantry for the king*s 
service, to be commanded by himself, with his 
brother John as his lieutenant-colonel. This 
regiment was not long maintained, though he 
continued to serve the king with the title of 
colonel. He undertook to defend the province 
of Connaught, under the direction of Brigadier 
Patrick Sarstield[q. v.], with such force of the 
county militia as could be collected. Colonel 
Thomas Lloyd [q. v.] defeated this force on 
19 Sept. 1689, but (J'Kelly, on the rout of 
his inlantry, escaped with his cavalry. He 
was one of the garrison of the island of Bofin, 
on the western coast, at the time of its 
capitulation to the forces of King William 
on 20 Aug. 1691. Subsequently he was ap- 

S>inted to guard a strong castle near Lough 
lin, but he was compelled to surrender this 
post about 9 Sept., whereupon he proceeded 
to Limerick, then besieged by Baron de Gin- 
kell. On the conclusion of the treaty of 
Limerick he retired to his residence at Augh- 
rane, or Castle Kelly, where he died in 1695. 

He married Margaret, daughter of Teige 
O'Kelly, esq., of Gallagh, co. Gal way, and 
had one son, Denis, who became a captain in 
the Irish army of King James II, and on 
whose death in 1740 the family in the male 
line became extinct. 

Under disguised names he described the 
struggle between James II and William III 
in Ireland in a curious work entitled * Ma- 
cariie Excidium ; or the Destruct ion of Cyprus, 
containing the last Warr and Conquest of j 
that Kingdom. Written originally in Syriac 
by Philotas Phylocypres. Translated into 
iJatin by Gratianus Kagallus, P.R. And 
now Made into English by Colonel Charles 
O'Kelly,' 1692. This was first nrinted in 
1841 by the Camden Society in ' r^arratives 
illustrative of the Contests in Ireland in 1641 
and 1690/ under the editorship of Thomas 

Crofton Croker, and from a manuscript in his 
possession. It was afterwards * edited, from 
lour English copies, and a Latin manuscript 
in the Koyal Irish Academy,* by John Cor- 
nelius 0*Callaghan, and printed for the Irish 
Archaeological Society, Dublin, 1850, 4to. 
The Latin translation, made by the Rev. John 
OReilly, preserves many passages not found 
in the English version. O'Callaghan s notes 
abound in curious and valuable matter, and 
contain references to all the original sources 
of the history of that period. O'Kelly asserts 
that the successes of William III could not 
be ascribed to the cowardice or infidelity 
of the Irish troops, who were abandoned 
by James II without sufiicient trial, under- 
valued and neglected by their French allies, 
and betrayed by the policy of Tyrconnel. 
A new edition of the work, brought out 
under the superintendence of Count Plunket 
and the Rev. Edmund Hogan, S. J., under 
the title of * The Jacobite War in Ireland,' 
was published at Dublin in 1894, as a volume 
of the * New Irish Home Library.* 

O'Kelly was also the author of ' The O'Kelly 
Memoirs.' The manuscript volume contain- 
ing them was at the time of the French 
revolution in the possession of Count John 
James O'Kelly Farrell, minister-plenipo- 
tentiary from Louis XVI to the elector of 
Mayence, but it was lost in the disturbances 
of that period. These memoirs are stated 
to have embraced narratives of the parlia- 
mentarian war which commenced in 1641, 
and of the subsequent war of the revolution. 

[Keating's Hist, of Ireland, 1723, genealogical 
append, p. 1 ; Memoir by O'Callaghan ; Nichols's 
Cat. of the Works of the Camden Soc. p. 13; 
Croker's Narratives illustrative of the Contests 
in Ireland (Camden Soc), Introd. p. xi ; O'Dono- 
van's Tribes and Customs of Hy-Many (Irish 
Arch»ol. Soc.), p. 116; Story's Impartial Hist, 
of the Wars in Ireland, 1693.] T. C. 

O'KELLY, DENNIS (1720P-1787), 
owner of racehorses, bom in Ireland about 
1720, was brother of a cobbler. He came to 
England, when young, as a chair-man. His 
strength and presence of mind attracted a 
lady of high position, but the liaison came 
to an early ena. O'Kelly was again thrown 
upon the world, and made his livelihood as a 
billiard and tennis marker. He seems to have 
bettered his fortunes by a permanent con- 
nection with a noted courtesan, Charlotte 
Hayes, who afterwards became his wife. 
His first important step towards wealth was 
the purchase of the racehorse Eclipse. This 
horse, foaled in 1764, was bought when one 
year old after the death of his breeder, the 
Duke of Cumberland, by a cattle salesman 
named Wildman, for seventy-five guineas. 





Before the bone ran, O'Kellj acquired a 
«bare in him for the »um of 650 guin^, 
« vMt price in thoie dajB for an untried 
hone. It waa on the occasion of Eolipse's 
first race, the Queen's Plate at Winchester, 
that, over tJie second heat, O'Kelly made hia 
famous bet of placing the hoises In order, 
which he won by running Eclipse first and 
the rest nowhere. In beat races a flag was 
dropped when the winner passed the post, and 
aU hordes thai were not within 240 yards of 
the post were ignored by the j udge and were 
ineligible lo start in another lieat. Not 
long after O'Kelly became the sole owner of 
Eclipse for a further Bum of eleven hun- 
-dred guineas. In those days all the valuable 
sweepstakes at Newmarket were confined 
to members of the Jockey Club, and Eclipse's 
reputation made it impossible to mntch 
him for money. Consequently (.J'Kelly's , 
profile from him must have been derived 
jnore from his value as a sire than from his ! 
winnings. In July 1774 lie bought Scara- 
mouch (by Snap) at the sale of the Duke of | 
Kingston s stud, In 17H8 the Prince of i 
WalM won a Jockey Club pUte with Gun- I 
DOwder, wbich lie had bought of O'Kellv. , 
O'Kelly improved his social position by ob- i 
t«iniii^acommiiuuon in theMiddlesex militia, j 
in which Itu was successively captain, major, | 
And oolnDel. He bought acountryliouBe,lllay , 
Hill, at Epsom, and subsequently the famous 
-estate of Cannons, near Edgware, previously , 
the property of the Duke of Cbandos. , 

O Kelly was additionally famous in his 
day as the owner of a talking parrot, which 
whistled the lOllh Psalm, and was among 
parrots what Eclipse was among racehorses. 
O'Kelly is described by a contemporary as ' a 
short, thick-set, dark, harsh- visaged, and ruf- 
fian-looking fellow,' yet with ' the ease, the 
rmens, the manners of a gentleman, and 
attractive quaintnesa of a humourist.' 
He evidently showed no wish to turn his 
back on his poor relations, and it is to his 
credit that, although a professional gamester, 
he would never allow play at his own table. 
But he is said to have held post-obits to the 
Amount of 20,000;. from Lord Belfast. He 
■died at his house in Piccadilly on 28 Dec. 

Eclipse, his coHDungannon, and a number 
■of mares, were left to O'Kelly's brother to 
be carried on as a breeding stud. The rest 
of the property went to a nephew, who be- 
came a member of the Jockey Club, and ran 
Cardock for a Jockey Club plate in 1793. 
O'Kelly was determined that his property 
should not go as it bad come j and, acting on 
the same principle as another noted game- 
ster, Lord Chesterfield, he inserted a clause 

in his will that his heir should forfeit 400^ 
for every wager that he made. 

[A Genuine Memoir of Dennis O'Kellj, Lon- 
duD,17S8^Q8iil.MHe. IIBB; Scolt'a 
Sportsman's Repository ; Black's Joctey CIdIi and 
iis Foundera, 1891, passim.] J. A. D. 

O'KELLY, JOSEPH (1832-1883), geolo- 
lisC, bom in Dublin on 31 Oct. 1832, was the 
second son of Hatthiaa Joseph O'Kelly, who 
bad married Marearet Shannon. His father 
■was noted for a love of natural history, es- 
pecially of conchology, and yet more toe his 
activity in the cause of catholic emancipatjo 
Joseph O'Kelly entered Trinity Collie, Dub- 
lin, m 1848, proceeded B.A. in 1»52, and 
M,A. in 1860. He also obtained a diploma 
in engineering. After working for a few 
years under Sir Richard John Grifiith fq. t.^ 
he was appointed to a post on the GleologicB 
Survey of Ireland in 1854. In this capacity 
he was chiefly occupied in the field with the 
district around Cork, the igneous rocks of 
Limerick.and the coal fields of Queen's County 
and Tipperary, investigating the lost nameo, 
with the aid of colleagues, in great detail. 
But the work involved real hardships, such m 
exposure to stormy weather and accommoda- 
tion worse than humble. By these O'Kelly's 
health was seriously impaired, so that, after 
working for a time in GHlway,hewfts trans- 
ferred, in October 166o,io the post of secre- , 
tary to the Survey. In his new office hi» 
services were of great value, not only fi 
his extensive knowledge of Irish geology. 
bui also from his straightforward honesty too. 
genial disposition, which enabled him to 
diminish mction and to promote cardial 
co-operation inofficial circles. 

Ifis health proved to be permanently in- 
jured, and he died of acute bronchitu O" 
13 April 1883. His contributions to tli 
literature of geology, practically restricted 
to the memoirs publi^ed by the Surveyf, 
indicate his powers and his thoroughness ■« ft 
geological observer. He was elected a, men 
ber of the Royal Irish Academy early i 
1866, and married in 1870 Miss Dorothe* 
Smyth, by whom he had a family of five 
and four daughters ; these all surriTed h 

[Obituary natic^e iuGealogical Magnzine, 188% 
V. 288, and infurmstioij from Mrs. O'KbUj aid' 
friands.] T. G. T 

I O'KELLY, PATRICK (1754-1835 P), 

I eccentric poet, known as the ' Bard O'Kelly,*- 
I was born at Loughrea, co. Qalway, in IToi, 
He seems to have obtained a local reputation 
OS a poet before he published bis first volume,. 
' Killamey : a Poem,' in 1791. His fame 
rapidly spread, and subsequent volumes wem 
issued by suWription. When George ly 


77 . 


^aA in Ireland y O'Kellv was presented to him 
in Dublin. I lis majesty, when Prince of 
Wales, had subscribed for fifty copies of his 
■econd volume of poems. He travelled over 
the south and west of Ireland selling his 
books. In Julv 1808 he wrote the well- 
known ' Doneraile Litany/ which is his best 
production. It is a string of curses on the 
town and people of Doneraile, co. Cork, where 
he had been robbed of his watch and chain 
in the locality. On Lady Doneraile replacing 
his property, he wrote * The Palinode/ re- 
voking all the former curses. He met Sir 
Walter Scott at Limerick in the summer of 
182.'> (LocKHART,Zj/eo/iSt> W. Scott, 1 vol. 
Edinburgh, 1845, p. 602). O'Kelly died 
about 1835. 

His works, which are all in verse of a very 
pedestrian order, are : 1 . * Killamey : a De- 
scriptive Poem,* Hvo, Dublin, 1791. O'Kelly 
complained that Michael McCarthy's * Lacus 
Delectabilis,' 1816, was almost entirely taken 
from his poem. 2. ' The Kudoxologist, or an 
Ethicographical Survey of the Western Parts 
of Ireland: a Poem/ &c., 8vo, Dublin, 1812 
(containing the ' Doneraile Litanv *)• 3. * The 
Aonian Kaleidoscope/ 8vo, Cork, 1824. 
4. 'The Ilippocrene,' 8vo, Dublin, 1831 (with 

There was another Patrick O'Kelly who ^ 
published, in 1842, a * (leneral History of the 
Rebellion of 1798,' and translated works by 
Abb6 McGeoghegan and W. D. O'Kelly on 

[Brit. Mas. Cat. ; O'Donoghue's Poets of Ire- 
land ; Croker 8 Popular Songs of Ireland ; Watty 
Cox*s Irish Magazine, Soptomber 1810.] 

D. J. O'D. 

O'KELLY, RALPH (d, 1361), archbishop 
of Cashel. [See Kelly.] 

OKELY, FRANCIS (1719P - 1794), 
minister of the Unitas Fratrum, was bom at 
Bedford about 1710. He was educated at 
the Charterhouse school and at St. John's 
College, Cambridge, graduating 1739. 
About 1740 he took part with Jacob Rogers, 
an Anglican clergyman, in an evangelical 
mission at Bedford. (3n the advice of Ben- 
jamin Ingham [q. v.J, this movement was 
connected in 1742 with the Moravian mis- 
sion. Okely was ordained deacon bv a 
bishop of the Unitas Fratrum. On seeking 
priests orders in the Anglican church, re- 
cognition of his deacon's order was refused ; 
the act of parliament recognising the Unitas 
Fratrum as ' an ancient protestant episcopal 
church ' was not passed till 6 June 1749. 
Okely adhered to the Unitas Fratrum. In 
March 1744he was with John Gambold [q. v.] 
at the synod of the brethren at Ilerrnhaag. 

In 1745 a regular congregation was formed at 
Bedford, and a chapel erected in 1751. Later 
another chapel was built in the neighbouring 
village of Riseley. Okely was the first regu- 
lar minister (1755) of the Moravian chapel 
at Dukinfield, Cheshire, but left after two 
years to conduct a mission in Yorkshire. In 
March 1758 he accompanied John Wesley 
from Manchester to Bolton and Liverpool. 
About 1766, having again been settled at 
Bedford, he removed to Northampton, where- 
a chapel was built for him. Here he minis- 
tered to a congregation of the Unitas Fratrum 
till his death. 

Early in life Okely had been greatly in- 
fluenced by Law's * Serious Call/ 1728. He 
made the acquaintance of the author a few 
months before Law died, 9 April 1761, and this 
led him to study the works of Jacob Behmen 
f Boehme), to which he had first been intro- 
auced in his earlier acquaintance with John 
Byrom [q. v.] In a curious list of sympa- 
thisers with mysticism drawn up in Novem- 
ber 1775 by Richard Mather [q. v.], it is men- 
tioned that Okely ' professes great love to the 
mystics.* He devoted his later years to trans- 
lating works of this type in prose and verse, 
with commendatory prefaces and notes of 
some value. 

He died, while on a visit at Bedford, on 
9 May 1794, leaving a high character for 
piety and benevolence. 

He published : 1. * Twenty-one Discourses 
. . . upon the Augsburgh Confession . . . 
the Brethren's Confession of Faith,' &c., 1754, 
8vo (translated from the German). 2. *Paal- 
morum aliquot Davidis Metaphrasis Gro^ca 
Joannis Serrani/ &c., 1770, 12mo (with other 
Greek sacred verse, and a Latin version by 
Okely). 3. *The Nature . . . of the New Crea- 
ture . . . by Johanna EleonoradeMerlau/ &c.^ 
! 1772, I2mo (translated from the German). 
, 4. 'Dawnings of the Everlasting Gospel- 
' Light, glimmering out of a Private Heart's 
Epistolary Correspondence,* &c., Xorthamp- 
; ton, 1775, 8vo. 5. * A Seasonable and Salu- 
: tary Word/ &c. (collection of mystical pieces ; 
I not seen). 6. ' Seasonably Alarming and . . . 
' Exhilarating Truths/ &c.' 1778, 8 vo (metrical 
version of passages from Law). 7. * Memoirs 
of . . . Jacob Behmen,' &c. 1780, 12mo (trans- 
lated from several German writers ). 8. * The 
Divine Visions of John Engelbrocht,'&c. 1781 , 
8vo, 2 vols. 9. * A Display of ("lod's Wonders 
. . . upon . . . John Engelbrecht,' 1781, &c. 
10. *A Faithful Narrative of God's . . . Deal- 
ings with Hiel [Ilendrik Janseni/ &c. 1781, 
8vo. 11. *The Indispensable Necessity of 
Faith/ &c. 1781, 12mo (sermon at Eydon^ 
Northamptonshire). 12. *The Disjointed 
Watch ... a Similitude ... in Metre,' &c. 

Okeover 78 Okes 

17s'», 1-mo. IK» pT\'pjiT\\l f.^r publication a | foundation at Eton, where he was contem- 

trauiiUtivMi oi' Ivvlvm^'s • Way to Christ/ porary with William Mackworth Praed, 

whii'h was s.ijvrsivUsl by a reprint of an Lord Derby (the future premier), Pusey, and 

oKUt version : :iU^ Translations of Pierre Shelley (who was some years his senior), he 

Poirt'i's • M> stiv" Library/ Ger'.ao Petersen's became in due course a scholar and fellow of 

•Ihxine So^KyjuU^s.* J.vannes Theophilus's King's; was Browne's medallist in 1819 and 

• liennaniv* Tluv'.vvy/ Tauler*? • Conversion/ 1820. was appointed assistant-master at Eton 

llieVs •l.T'ttors* and ' Tr\»aii>os.' and "Me- in 182:^, and lower master in 1838. During 

nioirs of .1. ii. liichtel.' The • iientleman's the years of his mastership, and afterwards 

Ma^razine * 5|Vdk> of him as * a valuable or- at Cambridge, he was a conspicuous figure 

resivMideat.' in the school and college world, and innume- 

fGer.:. Maj. 17d4. i. 4S.i. 5iU; Pn>:e5tiint rable anecdotes grew up round his marked 

Uis;or:o«l R-o3?'> r-!.i'ive m th* M^ran12 shi«wd remarks, his slow and deliberate 

130 : 1>: ot; wr:::c.-, apr-rdei to Oke:.y Me- •; ,; „^^ , „^j phraseolo^-. He was a 
^'^:-'^rrf},T'-"^^"^f^^^^'^^- sucoessful tutor, having at timesas manyas 

ninety pupils, and impressed his colleagues, 

jprovement of geographical 

1^; ^*:^,. I*;ii« - W v.i. l TI..- ffraduat.Hl M.H. s^tu^lies bv the introduction of Arrowsmith's 

fro:/. N.'W (,',..^jr. t ».\! on •> July hi;W. . vtla? * in.l compendium, to which he con 

Ofi J J^n \K:u.-^'l'-n inar=rer of the choristers inbuted m-^st of the illustrative notes. Oi 

at W.Ji-'.h.. v.:.. r:!::iv.wi with -having given his election to the provostship of KingV ii 

ijoii'- *'j V..: •.•;..- Mia* thf-r- should Iv no is,-^>^ .,j^.. ,,f ^j^ first acts was to abandoi 

antt]r/.:..-..n:- ..N w-.....!., ofXuncdimittis or the privilege which entitled members o 

J J.'ri.-'J M-t .J .. U» '.ri!y ar-cordincr to the forme Kin^s College to take the B.A. degree with 

with tli.. .an .n«r.-yl.'nt lie answert^d that ,;,„u has Ivvn proved by the success of 

hf. wa< romm:tnd. '! by th*. bishop to give Kin^r's men in the tripos lists. Hisprovost- 

the notic.-, bur th- rl.:an pronounced him ship coincivle.! with the introduction of great 

contumacious an-l r.-movwl him from his chances in the universitv. the result of two 

oihc»» ot vic;ir for a week He appears to successive universitv wmmissions, and with 

..... , , . , ,, ^v^..-.«v .-..^ — „ignit\ -.. 

oi his pK'C*.s.tog;'Tl.^r with a pavan. all in „oss for thirtv-u-ht vears. The vear follow- 

fnv part*, ar.. in Hrit. .Mu^. Addit. M>. inchis ai>]..nntment is pnwost h*e filled the 

17, K». rt. l.»-L'.i. Anothnr fajitasia by nlHce of vic.-chancel lor. but after the expi- 

<)keover, in fiv^- parts, is in M>. I w9L>.f 9± ^^^-^^^ .,f i^,, ^.^..^^ ^,f ^jg^^ 1^^, ^^^1^ n^,^^r 

I Wood's Fm-ti. 1. .'iSO. 4GS ; Ili.^t. M.<V>. Cmm. airain Ix- induced t-^ serve. He was the edi- 

Kop. on MSS. r.t^ W. lis CaMi' .In.l. ^^So v f ^G : fir of a new ^.-ries of • Musa? Etonenses ' for 

Ko-. of ^^ ill-^. P. (■• C. r^HTllor,.] L. M. M. kog-In-V;. which he enriched with sketches 

OKES. Kir-UAIM) (iror-lS-^i^), provost of the authors written in l^tin, full of felici- 

of King's CoU.'gf-, Cambridge, was son of tons and witty phrases. The heraldic window 

rhouias V»'rn»'v ( )k»*s,asurfr'"On in extensive in the scho'»l nius»Mmi at Eton was his jrift 

i»viu*tict» at CambriJ;:*'. Of his tw»'nty chil- in conjunction with Dr. Ilawtrey. He ditnl 

sl'^Mi. Uichnrd was th»' nineteenth, and was at Camhridireon iJoXov. lS8S,andwasburit»d 

\s«iti at (^ambrid^^e nn '2'y Dec, 1707. Porson in King's Colh'je Cha}H»l. 
^tk'ta^-' * *. the house, and took a kindly [IVrsona! iir".»rmat:oii from old pupils and 

ij^i- ? Kichard. Educated on the j colleagues.] J. J. H. 




OKEY, JOHN (d. 1662), regicide, was, 
according to Wood, ' originally a drayman, 
afterwards a stoker in a brewhouse at Is- 
lington near London, and then a poor 
chuidler near Lion-key in Thames Street in 
London' (Fastiy 19 May 1649). Ludlow 
states that he was a citizen of London, had 
been ' first a captain of foot, then captain of 
horse, and afterwards major in the regiment 
of Sir Arthur Ilaslerig' {^Memoirs, ed. 1894, 
ii. 333). He was quartermaster of a troop 
of horse in Essex's army in 1642, and, as 
captain of horse, Okey took part in the 
defence of Lichfield in April 1643 ( Valour 
Crowned, or a True Helatum of the Proceed- 
ings of the Parliament Forces in the Close at 
llchfield, 4to, 1643 ; Peacock, Army Lists, 
p. 48). In the new model Okey was colonel 
of the dragoons, and fought at Naseby, where 
his regiment was set to line the hedges on 
the left flank of the parliamentary army {A 
Letter from Colonel Okey to a Citizen o/Lon- 
dony 4to, 1645). On 13 July Burrough Hill 
fort in Somersetshire surrendered to him, and 
he led the storming party at Bath on 29 July. 
On 1 Sept., during the siege of Bristol, he 
was tidsen prisoner by a sally of the garrison, 
but was released when it capitulated, and 
took part in the siege of Exeter (Sfbioge, 
Anglta Bediviva, ed. 1854, pp. 75, 84, 104, 
173). Okey adhered to the army in its dis- 
pute with the parliament in 1647 (Rush- 
worth, vi. 471). During the second civil 
war he served in South Wales and took part 
in the battle of St. Fagan's (8 May 1648 ; 
Phillips, Civil War in Wales, ii. 351), He 
was appointed one of the king's judges, at- 
tendea every sitting of that body excepting 
three, and signed the warrant for the king's 
execution (Naxson, Trial of Charles I), 

Okey assisted in the suppression of the 
levellers in May 1649, and was one of the 
officers created masters of arts at Oxford on 
19 May 1649 (Wood, Fasti), He took no 
part in the Irish campaign, but accompanied 
Cromwell to Scotlana in July 1650, and was 
left behind under the command of Monck 
when Cromwell pursued Charles II into 
England in August 1651. In August 1651 
he captured some Scottish commissioners 
who were raising forces near Glasgow, and 
in September took part in the storming of 
Dundee, of which he has left a graphic ac- 
count (Old Parliamentary History, xx. 23 ; 
MACKINNON, Coldstream Gxiards, i. 43). 

Politically, Okey belonged to the extreme 
partv in the army, was one of the presenters 
of tlie petition of 12 Au^. 1652, and was 
eager for the dissolution of the Long parlia- 
ment (Mercurius Politicus, 12-19 Aug. 
1652). Cromwell's expulsion of it, however, 

aroused his fears and suspicions, and he dis- 
approved of the terms of the instrument oi 
government and of Cromwell's assumption 
of the protectorate (Lfdlow, ii. 347, 356, 
406). In the parliament of 1654 Okey sat as 
member for Linlithgow and other Scottish 
boroughs. In November 1654 he and two 
other colonels circulated a petition, intended 
to be presented to parliament, setting forth 
their objections to the new constitution. 
For this ofience he was arrested, tried by 
court-martial, and condemned ; but, on Buh- 
mitting himself to the Protector's mercy, was 

Hardened as to his life, and simply casniered 
CaL State Papers, Dom. 1653-1654, p. 302 ; 
Thurloe, iii. 64, 147 ; Bubton, LHary, iv. 
167 ; Vaughan, Protectorate of Oliver Croyn- 
well, i. 85, 88). He retired to Bedfordshire, 
where he had bought a lease of the lord- 
ship of Leiffhton Buzzard and also the honour 
of Ampthill and Brogboro' Park {Cal, State 
Papers, Dom. 1660-1, p. 248; Ltsons, Bed- 
fordshire, pp. 39, 127, 683). Parliament had 
also settled upon him lands to the value ot 
300/. a year for his services in Scotland, so 
that, in spite of the loss of his commission, 
he was a rich man (^Comm^ons^ Journals, 
vol. "vii.) In 1657 Okey was concerned in 
getting up a protest against Cromwell's 
proposed assumption of the crown, entitled 
'The Humble and Serious Testimony of 
many Hundreds of Godly People in the 
County of Bedford' (Thubloe, vi. 228-30). 
He had been apprehended in July 1656 on 
suspicion of a share in the plots of the fifth 
monarchy men, and he appears to have been 
again arrested in the spring of 1658 ( Cal, 
State Papers, Dom. 1656-7, p. 581 ; t*. 1657- 
1658, p. 340 ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 5th Rep.) 
In Richard Cromwell's parliament he repre- 
sented Bedfordshire, but his speeches were 
few and brief (Burton, Diary, lii. 41, 43, 78, 
248). When the Long parliament again 
took the place of Richard, one of their first 
acts was to vote Okey the command of a 
regiment (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1658-9, 
p. 383). In October 1659 he supported the 
parliament against the army, but was de- 
serted by his regiment when he sought to 
' resist Lambert, and was cashiered by the 
council of oflicers (Ludlow, ii. 134-7 ; 
Thurloe, vii. 755, 774 : Commons^ Jour- 
nals, vii. 796). He continued, nevertheless, 
actively to oppose Lambert's action, planned 
the surprise of the Tower, and when his 
scheme was discovered took refuge with 
Admiral Lawson and the fleet (Ludlow, 
ii. 169, 176). When the parliament was 
restored Okey regained his regiment, and was 
one of the seven commissioners appointed 
on 26 Dec. for the temporary government of 

Okey 80 Okey 

■ ».. I •'/.« .'.'■■■<'■:. "i/ J'turnaU,\\\. 797, *»0oi. intended to turn the funeral into a political 

\t •."■ .•'.■ :h:^ o^mmanHor* r,f tht* parlia- demonstration. He was consequently pri- 

.. .• * i-.'.Arv'.. hf I'irciblv k»'pt the secluded Tately interred in the Tower {Cal. State 

" • V > o.:: of thf houst* wh»-n th* y tried to Papers^ Dom. 1661-2, pp. 344. :Vi*5 ). A por- 

• w .'ir M'Ats y'27 Ik-c. l»>>l^i, and w;i> cnn- tion of his forfeited property wa# re^rranted 

V .; ••■.*> uuliotod for a.s*ault ( OM Parlin- tn his widow by the DuKe of York (Ltsoxs, 

... . /. •-< Ht^t'^ry, xxii. ^51 ; pRyxNK. A ^*'>/>y Eniirons of Lmdon, ii. 460). His portrait 

/. l». iitttifnt found 1*1/ tfw (irand Jvry was engraved by P. Stent. 

pave It to L<.»ion»:l Urts^iter porarr tracts may 

y W I M7ux/*«*/iVi'rw^,20Morch-oApril IWX)). named: A Narrative of Colonel Okey, Colon Jl 

\ Mvr\ joiiiod Lambert in his attempt ^hI ri<inp. B«irksteAil. &o.. their Departure oat of Enuhnd, 

lUi) \\ii> with him at l>av^ntr}-. but contrivt^d and the L'npanilleled Trnichery of Sir Ti. I»., 

1x1 .M'lipt' when LambtTt wa.* takt-n \ Kenxett. l^^J-J ; The Sj>e-ches and Pr.iyors of John Bark- 

tC...'. ami CAnstt.EcfLafid Ct'vii^lh IJ-*)- -^t ^*»'»*' ^'^^^ ^^K^* ^'c., ^th jH>me dne and 

ilu'i;,'MonitionhefledfrnmEntrland,thoutrh, ^^*' .A nima.1 version*. 1662; CMonel John 

It ts >niii. not tillhehadsoujrhtau interxiew P^t'/ ^™'-^"J*^*^°' ^'^ *^ i^^^^P^f S?* '''^^^* 

NX II li t lu' kinp, and unsuccessful Iv bt-jrjred for ^"'*^' '^''^ 1 C. H. t. 

imi don 1 Ili^f. .V.S'.S'. O./w w. "ith Rep. p. 207 ). OKEY, SAMUEL (/. 1765-1 7?0), 

('rtiutally excepted from th<' act of ind»'mnity, mt'zzntint ensraver. is first described as 

In- Mniu'ht a rt'fiipe in (iermany, and was ad- Samuel Okev junior, and obtained premiums 

iinit.-d as a burposs nf Hanuu. In M\'2 in 17<V) and'li*»>7 from the Societv of Arts. 


>M\\ \ti have tuk»'n th»- additional precaution SiM^iety of -Vrtists an engraving of * An Ol 
ul" ul.tiiininp from Sir Ca-nrj*' Dnwninp, the Man with a Scroll* after Reynolds, and i 
i:nt:Ii-li miiii-trr to tli»- f*nit»Ml I'rovince?. 17«N * A Mezzotinto after Mr. Caswav.' II 


aii a>-iiraiif»' that 1j»- ba'J ri'i warrant for hi < j»r«Hluced a few fair engravinjjs in mezzt^ 

arri'^t. l^iit I>owiiiii/-a"ii:aiU'«-. w»T»' falsi\ tint, amouif his earlier works Mnir Mrs. 

and all thnM- w.-nr arn-t*..! and shipju-il Anderson, after R. E. Pine; Ijidy Anne 

».lVt.i En^dand. A- tii-y had already lu-en iJawsnn. afttT Kt'vnolds : Miss Ounninp, 

attainted by ar-t r,f parliament, only ]»ro..f of and * Th»» Ounninps as Hibernian Sistt-rs:* identity wa- nrf^iiin-d. and th«- jury at Nt-llv O'Rrien. after R^vnolds; William 

».n»-.. found a v.Tflict of ^niilty (1»» April). Powell the actor, after *R. Pvle : 'Miv* 

All thn't' w.-n- .xw-utid r,n P.» April ( Ltd- Grcvn and a Lamb,' afker T. Kettle; *A 

LOW. ii. :5.*50-n. In Okay's -p. cch on the Rur^romastrr/ after F. Hals. &c. In 1770 

M-atlold \u' ]»rofr<swl that he lu-tt'd with- li,. t'njrrave<l a print, * Sweets of Liberty/ 

uiit any malic; af.'ainst th»' kin^r, and had after J. Collett ; this was published bv hi'm 

Main.d nothin;: by In^ d.-ath, sayini: that he and a Mr. Reaks, near Temple Rar. In 1773 

was fully satisfied of th»- ju^tirM/ of the cause their names appear as joint publishers of an 

fnr wlii(!h he had foujrht, but exhort inp his en^rrave<l ]»ortrait bv (')kev of Thomas His- 

frirnd< to submit ]>eac»-ably to th*- existing cox, and as 'print sellers and stationers tm 

^ov.rnm»-nt ( T/tfi Spfffhit, JJiMrour^cs, tuul tin- Parade, >ewport, Rh.Kle Inland ' (r.S.> 

Vnnjvi'Aof Colonel John llnrhsten,!, Cohmfl They published a portrait of Thomas Hony- 

Ji>hn Oht-y, and Mr. Milvx Corhct, tnycthev nian* then' in 1774, and «me of Samuel 

//•//// an Arroiinf uf the Ormsinn and Man- . Adams in 1775. It is uncertain wliether 

nrr of ihcir Takin;/ ; Mrrrurintt PnhliruA, { )kev remained in America or n»tumed to 

10 -J i March \m'2 ; Pontalis, Jvan de Enp^land. A print by him, 'A Modem 

//'///, i. 2sl). Courtezan,' was published in 177-^ but ap- 

Oii the pfround that ()key had shown *a pears to have Ihhmi executed earlier. Neither 

MhM'of his horrid crime.' ami recommended his name nor that of Reaks appears in the 

.sul.ini-si(.n to the kinjL^ Charles IF granted (•♦•nsus of Newport, Rhotle Island {V , S.\ 

hi> wife, Mary okey, lic»*nst; to give Iut hu^ taken in 1774. 

ImimI's remains Christian burial (L>1 April). [I^kIltuvc's l)ict. of Artists: Chaloner Smith's 

|»......«rHtions were mad.? to bury him at British Mezzot into Portraits; Doild's manuscript 

but the order was revoked two ' Hist, of Engl i-shEngnivers (Brit. Mas. Add. MS. 

, on the ground that th<? relatives , 33403).] L. C. 




OKHAM, JOHN db (/. 1317), ludge, 
was in 1311 appointed to act with the king's 
eftcheator beyond Trent in enforcing the royal 
rights on the death of Antony Bek [q. t.], 
bishop of Durham. During the next few 
years he was clerk to the keeper of the ward- 
robe, Sir Ingelard de Warlee (Rolls of Par- 
liamefit, ii. 437), and cofferer of the ward- 
robe (Patent Bolls, p. 74). On 18 June 1317 
he was appointed a baron of the exchequer 
in succession to Richard de Abingdon [q.v.Ji 
incapacitated by sickness, and appears acting 
as judge until 1322, receiving summonses to 
parliament during that period, the last being 
a summons to tne parliament at York in 
1322. He appears as canon of the free 
chapel of St. Martin, London, in 1345, in 
which year he received the custody of the 
deanery of the chapel. He is not to be con- 
fused with the ' Sire Johan de Okham' men- 
tioned in a copy of the proposals of the 
ordainers of 1311 {Annales LondonienseSf p. 
200). The latter was John de Hotham or 
Hothun [q. v.], afterwards bishop of Ely. 

[Fo8B*8 Judges, iii. 282 ; Dagdale'sOrig. Jurid. 
Chron. Ser. p. 36 ; Abbr. Rot. Orig. i. 175, 290 ; 
C&l. Rot. Pat. p. 74 ; Rot. Pari. ii. 437 ; Pari. 
Writs, vol. ii. pt. iii. p. 1244 ; Ann. London, ap. 
Chron. Edw. I and Edw. II, i. 200 (Rolls Ser.)] 

W. H. 

OKINO, ROBERT (^.1626-1554), arch- 
deacon of Salisbury, was educated at Cam- 
bridge. It may be presumed that he was at 
Trinity Hall under Gardiner; according to 
a letter sent to Cromwell in 1538, he was 
brought up under the Bishop of Winchester. 
He was bachelor of civil law in 1626, com- 
missary of the university in 1629, and doctor 
of civil law in 1634. Probably in 1634 he 
was appointed commissary to Dr. Salcot or 
Capon, bishop of Bangor. He was also proc- 
tor of St. Lazar, and hence allowed to sell 
indulgences. There had been serious disputes 
in the chapter in the time of the late bishop, 
and Oking fell out with Richard Gibbons, the 
registrar, who in 1636 seized various papers, 
and accused Oking to Cromwell of reaction- 
air sympathies. Oking suspended Gibbons, 
who appealed, according to Cooper (AtheruB 
Cantaor, i. 197), to Sir Richard Bulkeley, 
chamberlain of North Wales. Bulkeley, how- 
ever, wrote to Cromwell that he had always 
heard Oking ' speak for annulling the Bishop 
of Rome*s autbority' (Letters and Papers 
Henry Vllly vui. 644). At Christmas 1630-7 
the opposite party seem to have taken the 
law into their own hands, and Okin^jp was 
nearly murdered while holding a consistory 
in Bangor Cathedral (t5. zii. i. 607). The 
bishop tried to get him preferment in 1638; 
and when he was translated to Salisbury in 

VOL. xui. 

1639, he took Oking with him as his commis- 
sary and chancellor. He appears to have been 
a moderate advocate of the Reformation. In 
1637 he was one of those appointed to draw 
up ' the Institution of a Christian Man ; * in 
1643 he was engaged in trials under the 
statute of the six articles. His name was 
also appended to the declaration made of the 
functions and divine institution of bishops 
and priests. In the convocation of 1647 he was 
one appointed to draw up a statute as to the 
payment of tithes in cities ; in the same con- 
vocation he was one of the minority opposed 
to the marriage of priests ; and when, in 1647, 
Thomas Hancock preached in St. Thomases 
Church, Salisbury, a sermon directed against 
superstition, Oking and Dr. Steward, who 
was Gardiner's chancellor, walked out of the 
church, and were reproved by the preacher. 
In spite of these indications of his belonging 
to the moderate party, he married as soon as 
it was legal to do so, and was deprived of his 
archdeaconry under Mary. He is supposed 
to have died before Elizabeth's accession. 

[Cooper's Athense Cantabr. i. 197 ; Dixon's 
Hist, of the Church of Engl. ii. 831 ; Letters and 
Papers, Hen. VIII. viii. 646, xii. i. 507 ; Strypo's 
Memorials of the Reformation, i. i. 368, ii. 336, 
Cranmer, p. 77, &c. ; Foxe's Acts and Men. v. 
465, 482-6 ; Le Neve's Fasti.] W. A. J. A. 

OLAF GoDFBEYSON (d. 941), leader of 
the Ostmen, and king of Dublin and Deira, 
is to be clearly distinguished from his kins- 
man and contemporary, Olaf Sitricson fq. v.] 
He was the great-grandson of Ivar Bein- 
laus, son of Regnar Lodbrok, and therefore 
of the famous race of the Hy Ivar. His 
father was the Godfrey, kin^ of Dublin, 
brother or cousin of Sitric, king of Deira, 
who vainly attempted to wrest Deira from 
^thelstan [q. v.] in 927. The earliest 
trustworthy mention of Olaf Godfreyson is 
in 933, when, in alliance with the Danes of 
Strangford Lough, he plundered Armagh. 
In the same year he allied himself with the 
lord of Ulster in the plunder of what is now 
Monaghan, but was overtaken and defeated 
by Muircheartach (d. 943) [q. v.], king of 
Ailech (Ann. UltonienseSf ap. O'CoxoR, Iter, 
Jlibem. Scriptt. iv. 260 ; Annals of the Four 
Masters, ed. O'Donovan, ii. 629). In 934 he 
succeeded his father in the Norse kingdom of 
Dublin (Ann. Ult. iv. 261, and Four Masters, 
ii. 631, where the dates given are two years 
behind the correct date). Next year he was 
again in the field, and took Lodore, nearDun- 
shaughlin, in what is now Meath. In 936 or 
937 he plundered the abbey of Clonmacnoise 
in OfFaly, and billeted his soldiers for two 
nights on the monks (ib.) Possibly taking 




advanttt^rt* of 01af*d absence, Donnchadh, 
kin^ ot' IrvUndy burnt Dublin. The former, 
however, was not long delayed by the ruin 
of hi* capital, for on 1 Aug. 937 he led an 
e\iHH.Ution against certain Danes who were 
»>jouruing on Lough Kea. These lie made 
prisoners and brought to Dublin, whence the 
inferi'nce (ToDi>. War of the Gaedhil with 
th^ Oaill p. i?Sl, Rolls Ser.) that the object 
of this attack was to compel the Danes to 
t:ikt> part in the ensuing expedition to Kng- 
land {^Four Masters, ii. ().*W, and Annals of 
CionmaaunW, quoted by O'Donovan, ib. ; cf. 
also Ann. rit. IV. 201). In 9:57 Olaf fought 
at the great battle of Brunanburh imderthe 
leadership of Olaf Sitricson [q. v.] In the 
nnit of the northern forces he escaped to his 
ships, and returned to Dublin in 9IJ8 (Anf/lo- 
iStutm Chron. ii. 88, Rolls Ser.; Ann. tilt. 
iv. I>t5:5; Four Masters, ii. GJiT)). The plun- 
der of KilcuUen in Kildare may more pro- 
bably Ih) ascribed to Olaf Sitricson, and 
to a' later date; but the year of Olaf God- 
fn*y8on*s return was again marked by the 
burning of Dublin and the plunder of the 
Norse territory by King Donnchadh (ib.) 
Shortly af^e^^va^ds (in 939) Olaf apparently 
left Dublin, and, soon after -Kthelstan's death 
in iU(), accepted, jointly with Olaf Sitric- 
son, n vaguely recorded invitation from the 
Northumbrians to * Olaf of Ireland ' to be 
their king (--l.-*S'. Chron. ii. 89; Flor. Wig. 
i. 133, Kngl. llist. Soc: Will. Malm. i. 157, 
RollsSer.; Rocj.IIov.i. 55, Rolls Ser.) With 
his kinsman he probably shared the kingship 
until his death m an obscure fight at Tyn- 
niugham, m^ar Dunbar, in 941 (A.S. Chron. 
ii.Sii; Sym. DrxELM. iZM^i?e/7. ii. 94, Rolls 
Ser. ; UotJ. llov. i. 55 ; Hen. Hunt. p. 162, 

Rolls Ser.) 

Olaf married Alditha, daughter of a certain 
larl namtMl Orm (M att.Westmon. ap. Luard, 
Florts llistoriarunif i. 498, Rolls Ser.) 

rin atldition to tlio authorities cited in the text, 
aae Ware's Antiq. Hibem. p. 131 ; Hodgson's 
Kortbttmberhind. ed. Ilinde, 1. 148 soq. ; Hobert- 
^*l Karly Kings of Scotland, i. 63; Skene's 
^tie Seotland. i. 361.] A. M. C-h. 

QjAj Sitricson (d. 981), known in the 
^^^{yi\r THE Red and Oi^p Cuar\n 

?iif the Sandal), leader of the Ostmen 

^5 ^tf of Dublin and Deira, has been fre- 

"Ji^^^nftised with Olaf Godfreyson [q. v.] 

9l!J!J^UtlW.^^^*^*^^^^^^° was of the race 

kaHy Iv*'> *"^ ^^^° great-grandson of 

" Ijlha ut. »on of Regnar Lodbrok. Ui 

^ ^JmT d» Sitric, king of Deira, wh< 

"f r^SklMUUn'B Bister, and died in 927. 

m -I iitft^P-'^^"^^^^^' ^M^/'<y- Celto' 

' Smi "WW^ ^^ saying that Olaf 



was a Scot by his father^s, a Dane by his 
mother 8, side ; but he probably had Celtic 
blood; and Florence of Worcester (i. 132, 
Engl. Hist. Soc.) calls him 'kin^ of many 
islands.' Upon the death of Sit no, .£thel- 
stan at once annexed Deira, driving out Olal^ 
who appears to have been too joimg it 
this time to resist effectively. Ilia uncle or 
cousin, however, Godfrey, king of Dublin, 
immediately left Ireland, and attempted to 
secure the succession to the Northumbrian 
throne. He was unsuccessful in obtaining 
the help of Constantine II of Scotland, who 
was at that time in alliance with .fthel- 
stan; and, after a vain attempt on York, 
was driven from the country with Olaf Sit- 

Probably a few years later Olaf married a 
daughter of Constantine II of Scotland, and 
the latter now changed his policv and sup- 
ported Olaf in his preparation tor the im- 
pending struggle for the recovery of the 
Danish kingdom of Deira. This alliance 
between Constantine and Olaf seems to hare 
been the cause of i£thel8tan*8 raid into Scot- 
land in 934, which probably kept the allies 
in check for three years. 

In 937 the great confederacy of Scots, 
Britons, and Irish was formed under Olif 
Sitricson, Constantine, and Olaf Godfreyson 
of Dublin. Entering the Dumber with a 
powerful fleet, Olaf Sitricson drove back the 
lieutenants of /Ethelstan in the north, but 
foolishly permitted himself to be held in 
check by negotiations while .-Ethelstan 
gathered his forces together. AVilliam of 
Malmesbury ( Gesta Regum, i. 143) tells the 
story that Olaf appeared in .>Et heist an's camp 
in the guise of a harper, to which mucn 
credit cannot be given ; but he seems to have 
made a night attack on the camp, which 
failed. The armies finally met on the famous 
field of Brunanburh, probably in Yorkshire. 
yKthelstan was completely victorious, and 
tho northmen were driven to their ships. 
Though it is dif&cult to distinguish the ac- 
tions of the two Olafs in the account of the 
battle given in the poem prt»ser\'ed in the 
'Anglo-Saxon Chronicle,* it is clear that 
neither Olaf Sitricson, as is stated in the 
'Egil-saga,* nor Olaf Godfrevson, was among 
the * death-doom*d in fight ;^ and the former 
probablv went back as he had come, by way 
of the Ilumber into Scotland. 

For the next few vears the chroniclers are 
again confused as to the actions respectively 
of Olaf Sitricson and Olaf Godfreyson, who 
had succeeded his father in the' kingdom 
of the Dublin Danes in 934. The latter 
certainly returned to Ireland after Brunan- 
burh, and it is probable that Olaf Sitricson 




joined him there, and that it was he who in 
940 plundered Kilcullen in Kildare. Mean- 
while ifithelfitan, shortly after his yictory 
at Brunanhurh, had hiuided over North- 
umbria to Eric of the Bloody Axe, son of 
Harold Harfa^ of Norway, to hold against 
the Danes {Hut. Reg, Olavi Tryggmjilii in 
Island, Scnpt,Hi$tl22). Soon after ^thel- 
stan's death in 940, the Northumhrians threw 
off their allegiance to his successor, Ead- 
mnnd, and called 'Olaf of Ireland ' to be their 
king. Olaf Sitricson is nrobably meant; 
but he was soon followea to England by 
Olaf Qodfreyson, with whom he apparently 
shared the kingship until the latters death 
in 941. Olaf oitncson went first to York, 
then, turning south, besieged Northampton 
and stormed Tamworth. Eadmund met him, 
probably near Lincoln, and, though the 
order 01 events is variously given, the arch- 
bishops Odo and Wnlfstan appear at this 
point to have intervened and enected a com- 

mise. By it all Deira north of Wat- 
Street was ceded to the Danes. In 942 
mund won back the five boroughs, Lin- 
coln, Leicester, Stamford, Nottingham, and 
Derby; and this success has been connected 
with the death of Olaf Godfreyson shortly 
before. But in 942 Olaf Sitricson, who now 
shared the kingship with Reginald Godfrey- 
son, obtained tne powerful support of Arch- 
bishop Wulfstan of York, with whom he was 
besieffed in Leicester by Eadmund in 943, and 
forced to flee by night. A^n a treaty was 
made this year, but not, it is to be inferred, 
so favourable to the Danes. Both Olaf 
Sitricson and Reginald Godfreyson were re- 
ceived into Eadmund's friendship and into the 
Christian church. 

Such a state of things was clearly ab- 
normal, and in 944, when Eadmund had gone 
south into Wessex, Olaf and Reginald seized 
the opportunity to make a raid into the terri- 
tory nom which they had been cut off. Ead- 
mund returned, drove them from the country, 
and formally annexed Deira. 

In the year of Olaf's expulsion from 
Northumbria, Dublin, the capital of the Irish 
dominions of his house, was sacked by the 
native Irish. Next year Olaf reappeared in 
Ireland, and either drove out Blacar God- 
freyson, who had been left in command, or, 
entering into alliance with him, restored 
Dublin and firmly established his rule over 
the Irish dominions of his family. In the 
same year he allied himself with the bitter 
enemy of his race, Congalach, king of Ire- 
land, against the Irish clanof theO'Cananain, 
and in 946 doubtless led the Dublin Danes 
in their attack upon the monastery of Clon- 
macnoise in Omdy. In 947 Olaif, still in 

alliance apparently with King Congalach, 
was severely defeated by Ruadhri O'Canan- 
nain at Slane in Meath, and lost many of 
his men. The alliance with King Congalach 
certainly terminated in this year ; for Dublin 
was again plundered, and Blacar Godfrey- 
son, who was in command on this occasion, 
was defeated and slain. It is possible that 
this was an attack made in Olaf 's absence ; 
for it was in 949 that he made his last 
attempt to regain his father^s kingdom of 
Deira. He then succeeded in establishing 
his power for three years, till the North- 
umbrians, with their usual faithlessness, rose 
against him, and he was finally driven from 
the country in 952. Northumbria submitted 
to Edred, and after 954 was ruled by his 

In 953 Olaf was again in Ireland, and, in 
alliance with Toole, son of the king of 
Leinster, made plundering raids into the 
modem counties of Waterford and Wick- 
low. Three years later he took in ambush 
and slew his old enemy, King Congalach. 
In 962, with the Gaill 01 Dublin, he pursued, 
defeated, and drove back to his ships a cer- 
tain Sitric Cam, possibly a Scottish chief- 
tain, who had landed in Ireland, and pene- 
trated as far as Kildare {Four Mctsters, ii. 
683 ; but cf . Todd, War of the Qaedhily p. 
286). Two years later Olaf met with a re- 
verse at Inistioge in the modem county of 
ICilkenny, and lost many of his men, but 
had apparently sufficiently recovered in 970 
to join the Leinstermen in the plunder of 
Kells, in what is now Meath, where he seized 
many hundred cows. He also gained a vic- 
tory over one of the Irish clans near Navan 
in Meath. It was possibly in this same year 
(970) that he entered into a short-lived alli- 
ance with the son of the late King Congalach, 
and defeated the reigning king, Domhnall 
O'Neill, at Kilmoon, near Dunshaughlin in 
Meath. A few years later, probably in 977 or 
978, Olaf slew the heir to the throne of Ireland 
of each of the two contending royal lines, 
those, namely, of the northern and southern 
O'Neill, and shortly after probably led the 
Dublin Danes to his last victory at Belan, 
near Athy in Kildare. 

In 980 was fought the fatal battle of Tara, 
which broke the power of the Norse king- 
dom of Dublin. With the Dublin Danes 
were fighting their kinsmen from the islands. 
It is uncertain whether Olaf was himself 
present ; but the battle was fiercely contested 
Dy his sons, * and it was woe,' says the chro- 
mder, *to both sides.' The Danes were 
completely defeated, Olaf's heir, Reginald, 
and a great number of his chieftains slain. 
With them Olaf saw the power he had 


Olaf 84 Olaf 

c^rri*rrl to a hei^rht far ^reat»:r than any of mLst^rablr patrimony of the island of Lewis 

hi- pn'<K'C*r5*J^orM Wvi lo^.and th*^ tierce s^pirit in the Hebrides, where he dwelt for some 

(if t[i»f oM Nor-»=r kinir wai? at hist broken, time. Growinjr di«oontented with his lot, 

Iff nt^icmM h'lA kingdom, and went on a he applied to Keirlnald f:>r a larger share of 

iil/rirnajr»r to lona. H^r^r, in 1*^1. he clo-wd hii rightful inheritance. This was refu^, 

li-i .'ormy UIk in p«rnit»:nc»r and peace. and about 1:^)6 Reginald handed Olaf over to 

OUf had a si ^t»:r fry da who married the fa- the custody of William the Lion of Scotland, 

rnou- Olaf Try t'2'va*i*)n<'//«mw^'riV///i,tranal. who kept him in prUi^n until his own death 

S I-ainy. i. ''M-W)). lie was thrice mar- in 1214. r>n the accession of Alexander IE 

ri'd : tir-t, foth*jdauarhfer of Con.-tantine II nlaf wa* relea.*ed. and returned to Man, 

of Scotland : ^roondl v, to rht- aij-t^rr of Mail- whence he shortlv set out with a considerable 


fUrt'jrhu-r of Muirchearrach (rj. fM'J) "•]. v.] was apparently reconciled to him, caused 

Hi- .-on* w»T** lU'jrinfild, who perished at him to marry hi« own wife's sister, the 

Tiini: ^flunijiraim, who ■rucc*r*'drrfl him in daughter of a noble of Canty re, and a^in 

Dublin, and di»*d in IfSlI: r:jitric, also king of assigned to him Lewis for his maintenance 

r»ijblin, diwl \(){'J: Aralt, slain in \(>J0: u'/y. "pp. 82-4). Olaf accepted the gift, and 

A ni unci J.-!* or Amai^rcuM. '*lain in Xorthumbria departed to Lewis. Soon after his arrival 

in J»'>J ; and OiJlaimtraic (?). He had also th»*re.Rejrinald(r)» bishop of the Isles, visited 

oni; duiifrhNrr, .Ma«'Imuire, who married the churches, and canonicallyseparati'd Olaf 

Mnla^liv or Mft»-l-cnhlainn II q. v.", and and his wife as beinj? within the prohibited 

rlird in lOJl ( li'nr 0/ t/ie Gaedhil^ p. '27H). degrees of relationship, whereupon Olaf mar- 

f.\rii.'I'>-^*axon Chron. ii. 8:»-91, Will, of ried Christina, daughter of Ferquhard, earl 

M'tlrrH-^^'iryV ^'e.Hta Rigiim, i. 147—58. Henry of Ross. 

of llMritifiK'lon, pp. \'t\t~CtZ, Svitirjon of Dur- Aroused to anger, Reginald's queen, the 

]j;iTfiH Flint. Hr-i.'. ii. 124 6. and IIlM. Dunclm. sister of Olaf's divorced wife, called upon 

lOnl.H. i. 170. KrrgfT of Hovf^lcn, i. 54-6. Gai- h^r son Godred to avenge the wrong done to 

rii;ir. i. 1 J8-0. W;ir of tho O.-i^r^lhil with the her house. The latter o^llected a force and 

lll oDonovun, ii. 617-57 ; Chron. of Pi.ts .md ^^T/' ^^"^ ^t^ '^^•'^^'^- ^'^ -^T "' the attack 

Srot« in Koll- of Scotland, p. 30.3; H(.min£riiis-s '^'^ Lewis. Lntenng into alliance, the two 

'chartiil. 1'>H. WifToni. ii. 441; John^tonr's cln»>ftains m 122.S succe«*sfully earned out-^ a 

Ariti'i. ('«-Ho-ScHnd. pp. .32-1; IVtrio'H Mon. "i?J»^ attack upon the little island of St. 

Hist. Hrit. p. 520; s(*.'ai«<oWarft'sAntiq. Ililcni. Colra, where Clodred was. The latter was 

on. I'U Mvj. ; Ljingolnjk'H Script. Uor. Dan. ii. taken and blinded, it is said, without Oluf's 

415, iii. 212 -I'J /'. ; Hol»ftrtsori"H Scotland under consent (ib. pp. 86-8; cf. Ann. Her/ii Jslan- 

Ijrr Kiirly KinKH, i. 50, 00 pk^., and HiMtori.-al flnrum^ ap. LAXfiEBEK, Scn'ptt. "^ '^ 

Kt-HaV^t PP- 1*'^'-^ • '^kt;nc'H (!«;ltic Scotlan*!, 1. S4). 

352 sftq. : K*i'"'''« *'»«^' KboniceiiH(!S, i. 1 14 wkj. ; , X,.xt summer Olaf, wh( " " 

rirccn'sOmqU'^stof Kn-laml. pp 252 Her, ;J70, ^.j,;,.,.^ „f ^j^^ j^j^^^ ^^^^ 

280sfv,.; HodgHonHNorthuml,.rrl«n.l,o.l.IIwide, =„n(-e more a portion of his inheritance, 
i. 142B«5q.] A. M. C-K. | jte^rinald was for<*<.Ml to agree to a com- 

Her. Dan. iii. 

ho had won over the 
to Man to claim 

/ytiOCHlAnnr, Muib]. HIh parentshnd been ported by Alan, lord of (4allownv, attempt »^d 
«^jled in religious marriage through tho in- ' to win back the i.sles. The Manxmen, how- 
ntion of Cardinal Vivian, jmpal legate, cv^t, refused to fight against Olaf and the 
1 (C*rew. Regum xMnnnioi ef Ifitm- , nifii of the isles, and the attempt faiU-d. 
i Munch, i. 70, Manx Soc.) Olafs Shortly aftvr Reginald, 

^__ . ^ , under pretext of a 

gd in IIS/'. ^"^ th()iigli ht' had b»»- ' visit to his suzerain, Henry III of England, 
_-• 4.^1.... 1 i. ,. , . . , hundred marks from his sub- 

went to the court of 

, and contracted a highly 

KiOginald assigned to Olaf tho | unpopular alliance between his daughter and 

his dominions to his h*gitimat«; son i extorte*! one hundre< 
, Utter, being a child, was set aside , j(»cts, wherewith he 
IflfhiBhalf-brothor Reginald. Some Alan of (ialloway ai 




Alan's son. The Manxmen rose in revolt, 
and called Olaf to the kinship. Thus, in 
1226, the latter obtained his inheritance of 
Man and the Isles, and reigned in peace two 
years (ib, p. 90). 

That Olaf did, however, possess both the 
title of king and considerable influence be- 
fore this date, would seem probable if two 
extant documents are rightly held to relate 
to him. The former of these shows him to 
have been at issue with the monks of Fumess 
in Lancashire with regard to the election of 
their abbot, Nicholas of Meaux [q. v.], to the 
bishopric of the isles (Dugdale, Monasticon 
Anglicanum^ viii. 1186). The second, dated 
1217, is from Henry III of England to Olaf, 
king of Man, threatening vengeance should 
he do further injury to the abl^y of Fumess 
TOliveb, Monumenta de Imula Mannia, 
ii. 42, Manx Soc.) 

In 1228 an attempt was made at negotia- 
tion for the settlement of the differences 
between Olaf and Reginald. Letters of 
safe-conduct to England were granted by 
Henry HI to Olaf Vit the purpose (Rtheb, 
FcederOj i. 303). The attempt, however, 
seems to have failed, for about 1229, while 
Olaf was absent in the isles, King Regi- 
nald took the opportunity to attack Man 
in alliance with Alan, lord of Galloway.. 
Olaf, on his return, drove them out, but 
during the winter of the same year Reginald 
made another attempt. Olaf, who appears 
to have exercised great personal influence 
over his men, met and defeated him at 
Dingwall in Orkney. Here Reginald was 
slain on 14 Feb. 1230 (Annals of England, i. 
148 ; cf. Chron, Mannuf, i. 92 ; Ann. R^ii 
l$landorumf ap. Lakoebek, Scriptt. Rerum 
Danicarumy iii. 88). 

Soon after this event Olaf set out to the 
court of his suzerain, the king of Norway ; 
for in spite of Reginald's formal surrender 
of the Kingdom to the pope and king of 
England in 1219, Olaf had remained faithful 
to Hakon V of Norway {Annals of Eng- 
land, L 147; Flatemn MS. ap. Oliver, 
Monumenta, i. 43). iBefore Olaf s arrival in 
Norway, however, Hakon had appointed 
a noble of royal race named Ospac to the 
kingship of the Isles, and in his train Olaf 
and Oodred Don, Reginald's son, were 
obliged to return. After varied adventures 
in the western islands of Scotland (ib. 
i. 43 seq.), Ospac was killed in Bute, and 
Olaf was chosen as the new leader of the 
expedition, which was next directed against 
Man. The Manxmen^ who had assembled 
to resist the Norwegpans, again, it is said, 
refused to fight agamst Olaf, and he and 
Godred Don divided the kingdom between 

them. Shortly after Godred was slain in 
Lewis, and Olaf henceforth ruled alone. 

In 1235 Olaf appears to have been in 
England on a visit to Henry III, who 
granted him letters of safe-conauct and of 
security to his dominions during his absence 
f Rtmer, FcBdera, i. 303). It was possibly 
auring this visit that Henry committed to 
him the guardianship of the coasts both of 
England and Ireland towards the Isle of 
Man, for which service he was to receive one 
hundred marks yearly and certain quantities 
of com and wine (ib. p. 341). In accepting 
this duty Olaf apparently renounced his 
allegiance to Hakon V of Norway, who at 
this time threatened the coasts, and who, in 
cohsequence of Olaf 's defection, had to aban- 
don his expedition. In 1236-7 Olaf appears, 
nevertheless, to have been in Norway on 
business to the king, and with the consent, 
moreover, of Henry IH, who guaranteed the 
safety of his dominions during his absence 
(ib. pp. 363, 371). Shortly after his return 
he died on 21 May 1238 (Annals of England, 
i. 150; cf. Chron. MannicB, i. 94). 

Olaf had several sons : Harold (d. 1249), 
who succeeded him ; Godfrey (d. 1238) ; 
Reginald (d. 1249), king of Man ; Magnus 
(d. 1265^, king of Man from 1252; and 
Harold (d. 126o) (Lanoebek, Scriptt. Her. 
Dan. ii. 212). 

[In addition to the authorities cited in the 
text, see Robertson's Early Kings of Scotland, 
ii. 98 seq. ; Beck's Ann. Famesienses, pp. 169, 
187 ; Torfans's Orcades, pp. 161-2; Hist. Rer. 
Norveg. iv. 195-6.] A. M. C-b. 

OLD, JOHN (fl. 1545-1555), translator 
and religious writer, was educated in all 
prohability at Cambridge, and about 1545 
was presented to the vicarage of Cubington, 
Warwickshire, by the Duchess of Somerset. 
He was probably the John Old, chaplain to 
Lord Ferrars, who was accused before the 
council, on 10 July 1546, of having been a 
'man of light disposicion concerning metiers 
of religion,' but, having confessed his fault 
and shown signs of repentance, 'was with a 
good lesson dismissed. In his ' Confession 
of the most Auncient and True Christen 
Catholike Olde Belefe,' 1556, he admits that 
he had been a Roman catholic at one time, 
and dates his conversion ' some ten or eleven 
years ago.' He was a commissioner for the 
dioceses of Peterborough, Oxford, Lincoln, 
and Lichfield, and also ' Register ' in the 
visitation of 1547, and made allusion to his 
experiences in the prologue to * The Epistle 
to the Ephesians' in one of his transla- 
tions. It IS suggested by Strype that at one 
time he kept a school, which ne must have 

Oldcastle 86 Oldcastle 

done, if he did it ut all, about this time. He 
was mach^ prebendary t)f Hedfortl Minor in the 
cathedral of Lincoln, and of Diinford in the 
cathedral of Lichtii'ld in lool . When Mary 
came to the throne he fled. He seems aft-er- 
wards not to have been alt^ipether satisfied 
with his conduct at the crisis, for he con- 
fosses that he had left his viearape * some- 
what bffoR* extreme trouble came' {^A Con- 
fejiKt'off, &c.); but he adds that there were 
other reasons than fear. He diH's not set^m 
to have left Knffland at omv, as Bi»con has 
recordtnl that Old ent^»rtained him and Ro- 
bert Wisdome when they were in hidinpf 
(Bkcox, Jt'wcl of Joi/). AVlu'n Elizabeth 

perhaps Roman, fortification, which had dis- 
appeared hj the fifteenth centoiy, is et'dl, 
or was until recently, attached to a farm- 
house occupying the site (Robinsox, Ca^tla 
of Herefordshire, 1869, p. 3; cfl Kellt, 
Directory of Herefordshire). It is probably 
unnecessary then to suppose that the familj 
had ever been connect^ with the small vil- 
lage of Oldcastle in the north-west comer 
of Monmouthshire, which one tradition has 
confidently pointed to as the birthplace of 
Sir John Oldcastle. Oldcastle has been 
claimed as a Welshman (^Arch^eoiot/ia Cam- 
Itrensis, ^ steer. I. '^7; 4th ser. viii. 1 25). But 
of this there is certainly no proof, least of 

xvedcd Mary, he must have been dead, all in the fact, if fact it be, that ne was known 
he was not n»ston'd Xo his prelx»nds. ! among the Welsh as *Sion Hendy o Went 

Old took part in the translation of Eras- - Iscoed,' which is a mere translation of John 
muMS * Pura phrase of the New Testament,' , Oldcastle of Herefordshire. On the other hand, 
London IT) 18, fol. : his share embraced the | it is quite likely that a fieimily living so dose 
canonical epistles. He is said to have after- to the marches, even if originally of purely 
wanls translated the liK>oks themst'lves. He ' P^nglish extraction, would luive Welsh blood 
also published a translation of live of Gual- ' in its veins, and some might fancy that they 
ters * Homilies,' under the title of * Anti- . could detect Celtic traits in his career. Of 
Christ,' I-oudon, lo'HJ; rt»j)ublished as *A | that career practically nothing is known 
short Description of Antichrist' in 1557. prior to 1401, and even his parentage and the 
He edited * Certaine Oodlv Conferences bt*- date of his birth are unsettled. According 
tweeneX.Kidlev...andH.Latimer.'Ix>ndon, ' to the pedigree which Mr. Robinson gives in 
155<^. 8vo: anotlier tniition, 1574. lie wn^te : \ the work quoted above from the * Visitation* 

to have been the second book ever printed , liaments of 1368 and 137'2 {JRetum of Mem" 

in Ireland, but it seems mort* probable that, bfrs of Par/iamnit, i. 179, 18« ; cf. CoOKE, 

like most of the books of the same kind, it ' J 'latitat ion of 1509, ed. F. W. Weaver). 

appeared really at Antwerp (cf. A'o/f* and ' Thomas Oldcastle, who held the same posi- 

Querii'Jff 3rd ser. iii. 29). '2, 'A Confession j tion in 13iK) and 1393, and was sheriff of 

of the most Auncient and True Christen , the county in 1380 and 1391, was probably 

Catholike Olde Belefe,' South wark, 1556, j his uncle; he died between 1397 and 140"J, 

gyo. having married the heiress of the neighbour- 

IStrv'pe's Cranmer. i. :i07. Mi-morials. ir. i. in«j family of Pembridge, and his son Richard, 

47 &c" ; I-^ Neve's Fsi&ti. i. o97. ii. 1 10 : Wotxi's wlio diwl in 14i*2, held lands in Herefordshire 

Atiiense Oxon. e«l. Bliss, iv. 604. Fasti, i. 101; and Worce^te^shire^^RoBlSSOy, ^7>/w»/it/u',i.; 

Acts of the Privy Council, 1542-7, p. 479 ; Cft/. Int/nis. jHK<t mortem M.(iby2b3; BEYOJff 

Colville's Worthies of Warwickshire, pp. oo3-4 ; I^ntneft, p. in«> ; Jiot. Part. iv. 99; KaUndart 

Becon's Works, vol. i. p. ix. ii. 422-4. Craumer s and Inventorits, ii. 53). 

Works, i. 9, ii. 63. Kidloy's A\ orks 151 ^nll in Oldcastle's biographers have usually repre- 

tho Parker SocO ;I>iionsIlibt. of the Lhurch of ^,.„|,^ \,^^ ^s an old man of nearly sixtj 

England, ii. 481. J >> . A. J. A. ^,^,^^^ ^^^ ^^^, ^^ j^j^ death, and have placed his 

OLDCASTLE, Sir JOHN, styled Lord birth witli some confidence in 1360(-4rcA«o- 

CobHAM (d. 1417), came of a family of hnjia CV//«ftrr??xi>, 4th ser. viii. 125; Gaspet, 

iHjnsideration, who were lords of the manor i. 4lM. I^ut tin* evidence available points to 

of Almeley near Weobley, in Western a considenible over-statement. Bale confused 

rt0f0(^rdshire, and whose estates touched him with J<>hn. third lord Cobham[q. v.], the 

2. '*'ve ftt Letton ((W. Inqui^, /xxf^ grandtather of his future wife, and thus erro- 

f. 124). A parcel of their lands in ^ neously made him the leader of the loUards 

vtB called Oldcastle, and this, no , in the parliaments of 1391 and 1395. These 

the mound beside the church on errors, and the way in which the fifteenth 

3 were still visible in the seven- and sixteenth century writers played upon 

ury. ITienamo Old Ca.-stle, which the first syllable of his name, have doubtless 

Jllly deriyed from some ancient, i led to an exaggerated estimate of the length 




of his life (Bale, * Brefe Chronycle * in Har- 
leian Miscellany, i. 251). Misled by this, the 
Elizabethan dramatists pictured Oldcastle, 
* my old lad of the castle/ the supposed com- 
panion of Henry Vs early follies, as the ' aged 
counsellor to youthful sin.' We have the 
statement of a not very trustworthy con- 
temporaiy that he was bom in 1378, which 
is probably much nearer the truth (Elmham, 
Ltber Metricus, p. 156). 

The coniecture that Oldcastle met Wi- 
clif in hiding at some castle of John of 
Oaant*8 in the west must be relented to the 
same category as Balers assumption that he 
was prominent in securing the passing of the 
great act of praemunire (ArchcBologia Cam- 
brenms, 4th ser. viii. 125). Weever asserts, 
in his poetical life of Oldcastle (1601), that 
in his youth he had been page to Thomas 
Mowbray, duke of Norfolk fq. v.], who was 
banished in 1398 and died ahroad in 1399. 

He makes his first appearance in contem- 
porary authorities as a trusted servant of the 
crown in the Welsh marches under Henry IV, 
nearly twenty years after Wiclifs death, 
and we hear little of his lollard opinions until 
the clergy took open action against him in 
the first year of Henry V. In November 
1401 'Monsieur JohanOldecastille' was sent 
op the Wye to take charge of the castle of 
Huilth (Ordinances of tlus Privu Council , i. 
174). A year or two later Oldcastle was 
told off to assist the constable of Kidwelly 
Castle on the Carmarthenshire coast witn 
forty lances and a hundred and twenty 
archers (t^. ii. 68). In the September fol- 
lowing the battle of Shrewsbury, the king 
empowered Oldcastle to pardon or punish 
sucn of his Welsh tenants as were rebels 
i^Fctdera^ viii. 331). He sat as knight of 
the shire for Herefordshire in the lengthy 
parliament which opened on 14 Jan. 1404 
(Returns of Members, i. 265; Wylie, i. 
400 seq.) In the summer, however, he was 
called upon to take temporary charge of the 
castle of Hay on the Wye, some eight miles 
south-west of Almeley (Ord. Privy Council, 
L 237). A few months later he was placed 
on a commission entrusted with the impos- 
sible task of stopping the conveyance of pro- 
visions and arms into the rebel districts of 
Wales (Wylie, ii. 5). He was sheriff of 
Hereforoshire in the eighth year of the reign 
(1406-7), and in the tenth joint custodian of 
the lordship of Dinas in the present Breck- 
nockshire ( DX76DALE, Baronage, ii. 67 ; Calend. 
Rotul, Chart, p. 359). 

The personal friendship between Oldcastle 
and the Prince of Wales doubtless dated 
from the years in which Henry was his father's 
lieutenant in Wales; and in the quieter times 

which followed the subsidence of Glendower's 
revolt the fortunes of the Herefordshire 
knight continued to rise. He was now, for 
the second time, a widower, and by October 
1409 he had secured the hand of a Kentish 
heiress, Joan, lady Cobham, granddaughter 
of John, third lord Cobham of Kent, a pro- 
minent figure under Richard U, who died at 
an extreme old age on 10 Jan. 1408 (Dug- 
dale, i. 67). Cobham Manor and Cowling 
or Cooling Castle, some four miles north of 
Rochester, at the edge of the marshes, passed 
to Joan, who was the only child of Cobham's 
daughter Joan and Sir John de la Pole of 
Chnshall in Essex. She was at this time 
thirty years of age, and had just (9 Oct. 1407) 
lost her third husband, Sir Nicholas Haw- 
berk, who had served in Wales ( Collectanea 
Topographicaet Genealogica,\u. 329 ; Habted, 
Hist, of Kent, iii. 429 ; ArchtBologia Can- 
tiana, xi. 49 seq., xii. 113 seq.) Shortly after, 
and probably in consequence of his mar- 
riage with Lady Cobham, Oldcastle was sum- 
moned to parliament as a baron by a writ 
directed to * Johannes Oldcastell, chevalier,' 
on 26 Oct. 1409, and received similar writs 
down to 22 March 1413 (Complete Peerage^ 
by G. E. C, ii. 317). This is now usuaUy 
regarded as the creation of a new barony in 
his favour. He is commonly styled, even 
in official documents, ' John Oldcastle, 
Knight, and Lord Cobham [dominus de Cob- 
ham] ; ' but we find Lady Cobham*s second 
husband. Sir Re^nald Bray broke, called 
' Dominus de Cowling,' after a portion of the 
property which she was to inherit from her 
grandfather (Collectanea Topographica, vii. 
341 ; cf. Walsingham, ii. 291). 

The favour of the prince presently secured 
the newly created oaron a further oppor- 
tunity of military distinction. In September 
1411 the prince, who was practically acting 
as viceroy for his sick father, took upon him- 
self to despatch an English force under the 
Earl of Arundel to the assistance of the Duke 
of Burgundy, and Oldcastle was associated 
with Arundel and Robert and Gilbert Um- 
phraville in the command (Ramsat, i. 130). 
Small as the force was, it at once turned the 
scale between the warring French factions in 
Burgundy's favour. By the middle of De- 
cember the English auxiliaries were dismissed 
with a remuneration, to raise which the duke 
had to pawn his jewels. Oldcastle in these 
years undoubtedly stood high in the favour 
of the prince, to whose household he seems 
to have been officially attached (Elmhah, 
Vita, p. 31 ; Walsingiiam, ii. 291). There is 
no hint, however, in the contemporary au- 
thorities, hostile as they are, to support the 
view adopted by the Elizabethan dramatists 

Oldcastle ss Oldcastle 

that hewaiionoof Ileury*sbooiicompanioD8. 338). Convocation sat well on into the 
Hale, imletHl, makes him confess at his trial summer, and accumulated fresh evidence 
U\ * 1^1 ut tony, i\^votou;«nes$, and lechery in ^ against Oldcastle. A laive number of Wi- 
iiirt trail youth/ but Tvhether he had au- clifite tracts were seized^ condemned, and 
thority for this is by no means clear; and ; burnt. In the course of the search a book 
in any oa<e he cannot r^fer to the time of containing a number of small tracts much 
llen^^■'s wild life in l^^ndon. For Oldcastle more dangerous in tendency was discovered 
was tlien already a convinced and prominent ' in the shop of an illuminator in Paternoster 
lollanl,andany inconsistency in his life would Kow, who confessed that Oldcastle was the 
no doubt have been eagi'rly'noted. How he [ owner. The latter was summoned to Ken- 
became a lollard it is nowimpt^ble to say. '■ nington, and in the king's closet there on 

But it is worth noticing that Herefordshire, 
and especially the district in which Almeley 

6 June the tracts were read in the presence 
of Henry and * almost all the prelates and 

lay, was a hotbed of lollardy in the last de- nobles of England.' The king expressed his 
cade of the fourteenth century. ^Villiam - abhorrence ot the views expounded in them 
Swinderby, the proceedings against whom in I as the worst against the faith and the 

1391 are griven at length by Foxe, was charged church he had ever heard. Oldcastle, being 
with having denied the validity of absolu- \ appealed to by him, is alleged to have con- 
tion by a priest in deadlv sin, at Whitney, \ feesed that they were justly condemned, and 
four miles south-west of Almeley : Walter . pleaded that he had not read more than two 
Brute, a Herefordshire layman, made him- I leaves of the book (ib, iii. 352). This en- 
self very obnoxious to the clergy- bv his here- ; couraged the clergy to make a general at- 
tical preaching, and was support eil by force, tack upon him for his open maintenance 
so that the king had in September 1393 to | of heresy and heretical preachers, especially 
order the officials and notabilities of Here- j in the dioceses of Lonaon, Rochester, and 
ford«hire, among them Thomas Oldcastle, to Hereford. It was thought prudent, how- 
see that the bishop was not interfervd with, I ever, in view of the close relation in which 
and that ill»;gal conventicles were no lon^T the culprit stood to the king, to consult 

held {Y(}TiZ, ActA and Monuments^ iii. Ill, 

131, n*6). 

Th^i *-*irlif*t evidence of Oldcastle's own 

Henry before taking any further steps. The 
bishops accordingly went to Kennington and 
laid tne matter before the king, who thanked 

lolUniojfinions b^-lonpato 1410,when, owing \ them, but begged them, out of respect for 
to th*: ijr.Iir:»-nA*;d pr^^aching of • Sir John the Oldcastle's connection with himsen and for 
ChAfilain,' th*: churclurs of lloo. llalsrow, ' the order of knighthood, to postpone any ac- 
and CViling, all on thf; estates of his wife, ' tion until he had tried what persuasion could 
w»;re laid unfi'.r interdict ( WiLKixs. Con- \ do to wean Sir John from his errors. If he 
cilia, Vn.'yj^ii). Mn ifi said to have done his failed, he promised that the law should be put 
ut most to con v*rn the prince himself to his into force m all its rigour. The clergy, we are 
viewH ( G^j'ta llcnrifi V, p. '2). Elmham told, were inclined to resent the delay, but 
( Vita J p. *.f\ ) declarer that llenrj- had already their leaders acquiesced in the king*s wishes. 
di*fmi<}Sfd him from his 8er\ice on account Henry- must have had good hopes of the suc- 
of his lollard h*;n.-si<-.s before he came to the cess of his intervention, for on 20 July he 
throne. But this fi^-ems to be contradicted issued a warrant for the payment at Michael- 
by the evidence of the proceedings against mas 1414 of four hundred marks, the balance 
him in 1413. OMcastl»/s position and ear- of the purchase-money of a valuable buckle, 
nestness certainly made him a most formi- |)erhaps part of the spoil of the French ex- 
dable leader of the. lollard party. He was pedition of 1411, sold to him by Oldcastle 
striving to secure the reformation of the and four other persons (-F(P</<Tar,ix. 41). But 
clergy in the lollard sense, and, according to Oldcastle was proof against the royal argu- 
Thomas Netter or AValden [q. v.", he had. at ments, and after a fined stormy interview at 
the instance of John IIuss, provided for the Windsor early in August, when the king chid 
diffusion of Wiclif's writings (Goodwin, him sharply for his obstinacy, he went oflT 
Htnry V, p. 167 ; Bale, p. 251). without leaVe and shut himself up in Cowling 

At the first meeting of the convocation Castle. Henry thereupon authorised Arun- 
which asst?mbled at St. Paul's on 6 March del (about 15 Aug.'i to proceed against him, 
1413,afortnightbt-rnrethedeathofIIenr>'IV, and issut'il (21 Aug.) astringent proclama- 
John Lay, a chaplain there present, was de- tion against unlicensed lollard preaching (i6. 
nounce(lasaheretic,andconfessed to having ix. 4(5; Wilkixs, iii. 352-3: cf. Bale, p. 
'celebrated* that very morning in the pre- 255). The archbishop sent his summoner 
•o ^Idcastle, though unable to produce ' with a citation to Cowling: but Oldcastle 

of his ordinary (Wilkiss, iii. \ refusing to accept personal service, another 




citation was affixed to the doors of Rochester 
Cathedral on 6 Sept. requiring him to appear 
before the archbishop at Leeds Castle, near 
Maidstone, on the 11th of the month (ib, 
p. 266, cf. ed. 1729, p. 117 ; Fasciculi Zizor 
niorum, p. 436; Walsingham, ii. 292). 
These citations were, according to one ac- 
count, twice torn down byOldcastle's friends, 
and, as he fkiled to appear at Leeds on the 
appointed day, he was declared contumacious 
and excommunicated. A further summons 
waa issued calling upon him to appear on 
Saturday, 23 Sept., to show cause why he 
should not be condemned as a heretic and 
handed over to the secular arm. Bale here 
inserts a confession of faith, be^nninff with 
the Apostles' Creed and including a defini- 
tion of the functions of the three estates of 
the church militant — priesthood, knighthood, 
and commons — which Oldcastle is aueged to 
have taken to the kin^. Henry declined to 
receive it, and, turning a deaf ear to his 
further suggestions that a hundred knights 
and esquires should clear him of heresy or 
that he should clear himself in single com- 
bat, allowed a summons to be served upon 
him in his own presence. Whereupon Old- 
castle produced a written appeal irom the 
jurisdiction of the archbishop to the pope, 
whom, according to Bale, he had roundly 
denounced as antichrist in his previous in- 
terviews with the king. Bale's narrative is 
generally based upon the archbishop's offi- 
cial account, of which the fullest form is 
printed in the ' Fasciculi Zizaniorum,' but he 
adds a ffood deal from sources which cannot 
always be traced even when he mentions his 

Oldcastle was arrested under a royal writ ; 
and when the archbishop opened his court in 
the chapter-house of St. Paul's on 23 Sept., he 
was produced by the lieutenant of the Tower 
(Devoir, IstueSy p. 324 ; Fasciculi Zizaniorum^ 
p. 467). Arunael, with whom sat Richard 
Clifford, bishop of London, and Henry Beau- 
fort, bishop of Winchester, was clearly un- 
willing to go to extremities, and £[ave Old- 
castle another opportunity of securing abso- 
lution by submission. But he presented 
instead a written confession of faith in Eng- 
lish, in which he defined his position on the 
four or five points on which his orthodoxy 
was principiQly impugned. He expressed his 
beliei in all the sacraments ordained by GK)d, 
believed the sacrament of the altar to be 
' Christ's body in form of bread,' and, with 
regard to the sacrament of penance, held that 
men must forsake sin ana do due penance 
therefor with true confession, or they could 
not be saved. Images, he said, were merely 
calendars for the unlearned, to represent 

and bring to mind the passion of our Lord 
Jesus Christ and the martyrdom and good 
living of other saints. * Hoso putteth feyth, 
hope, or trust in helpe of hem, as he scholde 
do to God, he doth in that the grete synne 
of mawmetrie [idolatryj.' As to pilgrimages, 
he held that a man might go on pUgrimage 
to all the world and yet be damnea ; but that 
if he knew and kept God's commandments, 
he should be saved, ' though he nevyr in hys 
lyff go on pilgrimage as men use now, to Can- 
tirbery or to Rome, or to eny other place ' (ib, 
p. 438 ; cf. Bale, ed. 1729, p. 121). Arundel, 
after consultation with his assessors, informed 
Oldcastle that his ' schedule' contained much 
that was good and sufficiently catholic, but 
insisted on a fuller statement of his belief on 
the two points, whether in the eucharist the 
consecrated bread remained material bread 
or not, and whether confession to a duly 
qualified priest where possible was or was not 
necessary to the efficacy of the sacrament of 
penance. Oldcastle, however, refused to add 
anything to what he had said in his schedule 
on these sacraments, although warned by the 
archbishop that by refusal he ran the risk of 
being pronounced a heretic. Informed bv the 
court of what the 'holy lioman Church had 
laid down on these points in accordance with 
the teaching of the fathers, he professed perfect 
willingness to believe and observe what 
* holy church ' had decreed and God wished 
him to believe and observe, but denied that 
the pope, cardinals, and prelates had any 
power of determining such things. The in- 
quiry was then adjourned untu the Mon- 
day (25 Sept.), when the court met at the 
convent of the Black Friars 'within Lud- 
gate ' (t6. p. 263 ; Gbegory, p. 107). It. was 
now reinforced by the presence of Benedict 
Nicolls [q. v.], bishop of^ Bangor; besides the 
bishops, twelve doctors of law or divinity sat 
as assessors, including Philip Morgan [q. v.], 
John Kemp [q. v.], and the heads of the four 
mendicant orders, among whom was Thomas 
Netter or Walden. Urged again to seek 
absolution, Oldcastle declared he would do 
so from none but God (Fasciculi Zizanio' 
rum, p. 443). The scene described by Bale 
— Oldcastle going down on his knees and 
imploring the divine absolution for the sins 
of nis youth — is perhaps only an expansion 
of this declaration. The archbishop tnen de- 
manded what answer he had to give to the 
summary of the church's faith and deter- 
mination on the eucharist, confession, the 
power of the keys and pilgrimages which 
had been handed to him ' in EngUsh for his 
better understanding thereof on the Sunday. 
In reply, he defined quite unmistakably hia 
position on the two critical points raised at 




the end of his first examination. If the 
church had determined that the consecrated 
bread was bread no longer, it must have been 
since the poison of property had infected 
her. As to confession to a priest^ it was 
often salutary, but he could not hold it essen- 
tial to salvation. There followed an argu- 
ment of which Bale gives a much fuUer 
account than Arundel, partly based on 
Walden's writings, and in the main, perhaps, 
trustworthy. Both sides quoted scripture 
freely in support of their views, and grew 
60 warm that at length Oldcastle roundly 
denounced the pope as the head of anti- 
christ, the prelates his members, and the 
friars his tail. He finallv turned to the 
bystanders and warned them against his 
judges, whose teaching would lead them to 
perdition if they listened to it (ib, pp. 443-6 ; 
Bale, pp. 264-72). Arundel then delivered 
sentence. Oldcastle was declared a heretic, 
and handed over to the secular arm. But 
the king, if not the archbishop, was anxious 
to save his life if possible, and a respite of 
forty days was allowed him in the hope that 
he would recant (Gesta Henrid, p. 3; cf. 
Walsingham, ii. 296^. Nevertheless, the 
Lollards were driven desperate by the pro- 
spect of what awaited them if the king's 
own friend were only spared on such con- 
ditions, and a hundred thousand men were 
declared to be ready to rise in arms for the 
lord of Cobham. The government is said 
to have replied by publishing the abjuration 
purporting to be made by Oldcastle, which 
IS printed in the 'Fasciculi Zizaniorum' 

S). 414 ; cf. Ramsay, i. 178, n, 6). It is un- 
ated, and may only be a draft prepared for 
a signature which was withheld. 

Henry's chaplain, who wrote before 1418, 
says that Oldcastle was relieved of his fetters 
by promising to recant and submit to the judg- 
ment of the convocation which was to meet 
in November, and seized the opportunity to 
escape from the Tower. His escape, which 
some of his enemies ascribed to demoniacal 
agency, was certainly^ rather mysterious 
(Elmham, Liber MetncuSy p. 99). One Wil- 
liam Fisher, a parchment-maker in Smith- 
field, in whose house he secreted himself, 
was hanged in 1416 on a charge of arrang- 
ing the escape (Ramsay, i. 180; Chron, ed. 
Davies, p. 183). Sir James Ramsay gives 
evidence to show that it was effected on 
19 Oct. ; but a royal prohibition to harbour 
Oldcastle, dated 10 Oct., the very day on 
which Arundel finally ordered the sentence 
to be publislied throughout England, points 
to nn earlier date (Fasciculi Zizantorunif 
p. 449 ; Tyler, Life of Henty V, ii. 373). 
That a widespread lollard conspiracy was 

presently on foot, and that the fugitive 
Oldcastle was engaged in it, cannot be 
seriously doubted, though the evidence is im- 
perfect, and their treason is perhaps painted 
Blacker than it was. The official indictment 
afterwards charged them with plotting the 
death of the king and his brothers, wiUi the 
prelates and other magnates of the realm, 
the transference of the religious to secular 
employments, the spoliation and destruction 
of all cathedrals, churches, and monasteries, 
and the elevation of Oldcastle to the position 
of regent of the kingdom (JRot. Pari, iv. 
108). A plan was laid to get possession of 
the king at his quiet manor of Eltham imder 
cover 01 a ' mommynge ' on the day of the 
Epiphany, 6 Jan. ( Gesta Men, p. 4 ; Gbegoby, 
p. 108). But it was detected or betrayed 
beforehand, and Henry removed to West- 
minster. News had reached him that twenty 
thousand armed lollards from all parts of 
the kingdom were to meet in the fields near 
St. Giles's Hospital on the western road out 
of London, and little more than a mile from 
the palace, on Wednesday the 10th (l?o^. Par/, 
iv. 108 ; Gestu Hen. p. 4). The night before 
the king ordered the city gates to be closed, 
thus cutting off the London lollards from 
those who would presently be flocking from 
the country into St. Giles s Fields, and drew 
up his force either in the fields themselves, 
or, as the mention of Fickett*8 Field, now 
Lincoln's Inn Fields, may seem to imply, 
between St. Giles and the city (Elhiiam, 
Vita, p. 31 ; the editor of the 'Liber Metricus* 
is probably wrong in translating * In Lanacri 
luce' (p. 97) by* In Longacre.' It occurs in 
the passage relating the Eltham attempt, and 
the glossator renders it * in festo Epiphanise'). 
The darkness, which caused several bodies of 
lollards to take t he roy al force for their friends, 
and the absence of the London contingent, 
which no doubt would have been the largest of 
all, made the task of dispersing a force wiiich 
was never allowed to consolidate itself an 
easy and almost a bloodless one (Walsing- 
H AM, ii. 298). The greater part, perhaps, heard 
of what was happening in time to turn and 
hasten homewards. Many, however, were 
taken prisoners, and at once brought to 
trial, but Olden stle was not among them. 

Oldcastle had been lying concealed in 
London since his escape from the Tower. The 
day after the collapse of the rising (II Jan.) a 
thousand marks was offered by proclamation 
to any one who should succeea in arresting 
Oldcastle. If the capture were effected by 
a corporate community, it should be granted 
perpetual exemption from taxation (FaderOy 
IX. 89; Balb, ed. 1729, App. p. 143). Redman 
(p. 17), who wrote under Heniy VIU, says 




villeins were promiBed their liberty if they 
took him ; but there is no such promise 
in this proclamation. At all events the 
loyalty of his lollard friends was proof 
against the temptation, and he remained at 
l^rge for nearly four years. He was sum- 
moned in five countv courts at Brentford to 
give himself up, and as he did not appear 
was (1 Julv) formally outlawed {Hot, Pari. 
iv. 108). He took refuge in the first place, 
it would seem, in his own county, lor in 
1415 he was lurking near Malvern, and a 

fremature report of the king's departure to 
'ranee emboldened him to send word to 
Richard fieauchamp, lord Bergavenny, at 
the neighbouring Hanley Castle, that he in- 
tended to have revenc^e u^n him for the 
injuries he had sufferea at his hands. On re- 
ceiving this notification Bergavenny hastily 
collected nearly five thousand men from his 
estates, and tried to hunt Oldcastle down. 
He escaped, but some of his followers were 
taken, and torture elicited from them infor- 
mation as to the place where Oldcastle kept 
his arms and money in the hollow of a double 
wall. His standard and banner, on which 
were depicted the cup and the host in the 
form of bread, were found with the rest. 
The news of the failure of Scrope's con- 
spiracy in July 1415 compelled him to lie 
in strict concealment again (Walsingham, 
ii. 306). It was at this time that Hoc- 
cleve wrote his appeal to Oldcastle to aban- 
don his lollard errors [see below]. When 
the impression made by Agincourt had lost 
its first freshness, the lollards began to 
move a^in. An alleged plot against the 
king's life when he was at Kenilworth at 
Christmas 1416 was ascribed to a follower 
of Oldcastle, and fresh proclamations were 
immediately issued for the arrest of the 
' Lollardus Lollardorum ' (Ramsat, i. 254 ; 
Kalendars and Inventories^ ii. 102). He was 
believed to have been deeply engaged in 
intrijBiies with the Scots. His 'clerK and 
chief counsellor,' Thomas Payne, a Welsh- 
man from Glamorganshire, was thrown into 
prison on a charge of arranging an escape of 
King James from Windsor, and Oldcastle 
himself was credited with instigating the 
attack which the Duke of Albany and the 
Earl of Douglas made upon Berwick and 
Roxburgh in October during the king's 
absence in France (Ramsay, i. 254-5). 
Walsingham (ii. 325) asserts that this was 
arranged in an interview between William 
Douglas and Oldcastle at Pontefract, and 
that he urged the Scots to send the pseudo- 
king Richard into England. Otterboume 
adds (ii. 278) that indentures to this effect 
between Albany and the lollard leader fell 

into the hands of the government. If the 
former writer may be trusted, he lay 
concealed for some time in the house of a 
villein at St. Albans. His presence was at 
length discovered, and the house surrounded 
by the abbot's servants. They found the 
bird flown, but seized some of his friends and 
books, in which the images and names of the 
saints and of the Virgin had been carefully 
erased. This may be doubtful, at least as 
to the time assigned, for local tradition 
declares that he had been in hiding for a 
twelvemonth or more in the Welsh marches 
among the hills between the upper Severn 
and the Vymwy. A secluded spot on Moel- 

Ssant, overlooking the latter river near 
eifod, and on the Trefedrid estate, is still 
known as Cobham's Garden. But his refuge 
became known to his enemies, and towards 
the close of this year (1417) he was surprised 
by a number of the followers of Sir Edward 
Charlton, fifth lord Charlton of Powis fq. v.], 
one of the chief lords-marcher, headed W the 
brothers leuan ab Grufiydd and Grunydd 
Vychan of Garth, near Welshpool . The scene 
of the encounter lay in the hilly district of 
Broniarth, between Garth and Meifod, and 
still bears the traditional name of CaeV Barwn 
(Baron's field). Oldcastle was only taken 
after a desperate resistance, in which several 
on both sides were injured or slain and he 
himself sorely wounded {Chron. ed, Davies, 
p. 46). In one version of the story a woman 
is said to have broken his leg with a stool 
as he struggled with his assailants {Liber 3fe- 
tricuSf p. 158). His injuries were so serious 
that when an order of the regent Bedford 

i dated 1 Dec.) reached Welshpool or Powis 
)astle, whither he had been taken, that he 
should be brought up to London at once, he 
had to make the journey in a ' whirlicote ' or 
horse-litter (Bale, ed. 1/29, p. 144; Tylbb, ii. 
391). Sir John Grey, son-in-law of the lord of 
Powis, conveyed him safely to the capital. No 
time was lost in bringing him before parlia- 
ment on 14 Dec, when he was summarily con- 
demned as an outlawed traitor and convicted 
heretic. Walsingham says he first implored 
his judges to temper justice with mercy, and 
aftei'wards denied their jurisdiction on the 
ground that King Richard still lived in 
Scotland ; but the official record says nothing 
of any protest, and none would have availed 
him. He was taken back to the Tower in 
the * whirlicote,' and drawn thence the same 
day on a hurdle to the new loUard gallows 
at St. Giles's Fields, where he was * hung 
and burnt hanging' {Hot, Pari iv. 108). fi 
is generally supposed that he was suspended 
horizontally in chains and burnt alive, but 
the statements of the authorities are con- 




sistent with his having been hun^ first and 
afterwards burnt. The lord of Powis received 
the thanks of parliament, but the payment of 
the reward had not been completed when he ; 
died in 1421 (id, iv. Ill ; Ttler, ii. 391 ; 
ArcJutoloyia Cambrensis, 1st ser. i. 47 ; Ellis, 
Letters, 2nd ser. L 86). 

Oldcastle was thrice married. By his 
first wife, Catherine, he had a son Henry, and 
three daughters — Catherine, Joan, and Maud 
— one of whom married a Kentish squire, 
Roger, son of that Richard Cliderowe who 
was parliamentary admiral in 1400 (Archtta- 
logia Cantiana, xi. 93 ; Jajces, Poems, ed. Gro- 
sart, p. 187^. His second wife, whose name is 
unknown, bore him no children. By Lady 
Cobham he had apparently one daughter who 
died young. His widow married before 1428 
a fifth husband. Sir John Harpeden (d, 1468), 
and, dying in January 1434, was buried in 
Cobham Church, where a fine brass to her 
memory still remains (Arch€eoloma Cantiana, 
U.S. ; Hasted, Kent, iii. 429). lus son, Henry 
Oldcastle, ultimately retained possession of 
the entailed Herefordshire estates of his 
father, and represented the county in par- 
Uament in 1437, 1442, and 1463 {Cal of 
Patent Rolls, pp. 276, 277 ; Cal. Inguis. post 
mortem, iv. 124 ; Return of Members, i. 
329, 333, 347 ). Almeley afterwards passed, 
through females, first to the Milboumes, 
and then, under Henry VII, to the Monnin^- 
tons of Sarnesfield close by, who held it 
until 1670 (Robinson, Castles of Hereford- 
shire, p. 6). 

Until the heat of the battle, in which he 
was one of the first to fall, had passed away, 
a calm judgment of Oldcastle was hardly to 
be expectea. His orthodox contemporaries, 
who had felt the ground trembling beneath 
them, could of course make no allowances for 
his violent language and his treason. The best 
of them, the churchmen, Walsingham, and the 
author of the * Gesta Henrici ' not excluded, 
did full justice to the kniehtly prowess and 
the uprightness which had commended him 
to young Prince Henry, but his heresy they 
could not pardon. Hoccleve, in the balade 
which he wrote at Southampton in August 
1415, on the eve of Henry's setting sail for 
France, entreated him to abandon a position 

No man with thee holdith 

Sauf cursid caitiflfs, heires of durknesse : 

For verray routhe of thee myn herte coldith. 

This poem has been recently twice printed : 
by Dr. (Jrosart in 1880, in his * Poems ' of 
Richard James [q. v.], who prepared an 
«""'**'**'5d edition of it about 1626 ; and by 
^min Smith from the unique manu- 
llipps, 8161) in ' Anglia ' (v. 9-42). 

The fierceness of the hatred Oldcastle aroused 
is best reflected in the verses of the prior of 
Lenton (Liber Metrieus, ^p. 82, 158; cf. 
Political Songs and Poems, ii. 244). He was 
popuhurly believed to have declared that he 
was Elijah, and that he would rise again on 
the third day. Capgrave charges him with de- 
noimcing civil property and marriage. With 
the rise of protestantism in the next century 
the tables were turned, and Bale, followed 
by Foxe, surpassed Elmham himself in their 
invectives unon the enemies of the ' blessed 
martyr of Cmrist, the good Lord Cobham.' 
But on the Elizabethan stage the old con- 
tempt of the heretic knight still lingered, 
and, on the strength of his friendship with 
Henry in his wild youth, he was pictured in 
Fuller's words as ' a boon companion, a iovial 
royster, and yet a coward to hdotJ He 
appears in the anonymous ' Famous Victories 
of Henry V,'¥nritten before 1688, as a cynical 
comrade of the prince in his robberies ; and 
Shakespeare, it seems clearly proved, elabo- 
rated the character into the fat knight of 
Henry IV, retaining the name in his first 
draft, and only substituting that of Falstaft 
in deference, so we learn on the authority of 
Richard James, writing about 1626, to the 
protests of the Lord C<H)ham of the time, and 
perhaps of the growing puritan party. This 
feeling was reflected in the old play, of which 
two editions were published in 1600, entitled 

* The First Part of the True and Honourable 
Historie of Sir John Oldcastle, the good 
Lord Cobham,' attributed to Munday, Dray- 
ton, and two other hands, and also in John 
Weever's poem, * The Mirror of Martyrs ; or 
the Life and Death of Sir John Oldcastle,' 
which appeared in 1601, and was reprinted 
by Mr. H. H. Gibbs in 1873 for the Rox- 
burghe Club. But * Henry IV ' seems to have 
been acted with the name of Oldcastle even 
after Shakespeare had made the change, and 
^ fat Sir John Oldcastle ' makes an occasional 
appearance in the literature of the first half of 
the seventeenth century. In the eighteenth 
century the controversy between the sup- 
porters and opponents of divine right touched 
for a moment the career of the loUard martyr 
and rebel (Matthias Earbert, The Occa- 
sional Historian, 1730). In our own day 
Lord Tennyson has dealt with it in his 

* Ballads and Poems,' November 1880. 

Horace Walpole reckons Oldcastle as the 
first English 'noble author;' but the only 
foundation for this is Bale's mistaken ascrip- 
tion to him of the lollard articles of 1396 
(Fasciculi Zizaniorum pp. 360-9). 

[The official record of Oldcastle's trial, drawn 
up by Archbishop Arondel, has often been 
printed : in Blackbonme's Appendix to his edition 




of Bale's Chronjcle, ia Bymor's Fceilefa (ir. 
61-6), io Wilkios'a ConoiliA (iii. 3S3-6J, and, m 
ita best focm, id tba edition of the Fascicali 
Zimniciriun id the Bolls Series. 'Wiilsinghnni's 
BisUirIa Aoglioano, in the same seriea, coDtHiaa 
an abridgment of it. It forma thu basis of Jobn 
Bnla's Srefe Chroojclc conceroyne the EiamiDBi- 
<70D and Dentil of the Blessed M»rtjr of Christ, 
Sjr Jobn Oldeenstrl). the Lrirde Cobhnni. The 
Srat Mitioo, printed in blaclc letter, and in 
octxvo, waa pnbliehed in 1544,probablj at Mar- 
borg; another aditiOD — according to Ames, the 
■ecnnil — mu printed at London apparently in 
1560. also in black letter and octsTO. It wns re- 
printed by the nonjoring Bishop Blackbourne 
in 1739,10 theHarleianMiscellany ( of 
the 1T44 edit, from the 3rd edit, of the work, and 
in rul. i. of the 1808 edit, from the 1st edit.), and 
in vol. xnn. of the Parker Society's Pnbliea- 
tlons(lS19). In addition to Arondel's record, 
Hale also drew npon the Fasciculi Zizaniorum, 
and the Doctrinale Fidel contra WiclsTistus of 
Thomas Netteror Walden [q. v.], and two BOnrces 
Tugnely described as Ex vetusto exemplari Lon- 
dinensiam and Ez ntroqne eiemplari. He men- 
tions H brief account by a friend of Oldcaatle'a, 
printed by Tyndala in 1630,of vhlch no copy is 
now knoan to exist (cf. Three Fifteoath-century 
Chr tnicles,' p. 90}. Poie, in his Acts and Monu- 
nen's ofthe Church (ed.CalMey, 1811), embodied 
Bale's namtive almost without change, and the 
special IItss of Oldcastle which hitre appeared in 
tAls and the last ceDtnrT haye been mainly based 
OD Foie. These are:"l. W. Gilpin's LItcs of 
Wycliffu. Cobham, Stc.. 1765, which was sevanil 
times reprinted. 2. Tbonias Gaspey's Life' and 
Timfsofths Good Lord Cobham, a vols. 12mo, 
ISO. 3. Andrew Morion Brown's Leader of 
the Lollardi: his Times and Trials, Sto, 1848. 
4. C. E. Hanrice's Lives of English Popular 
Lender* (1872, &c.), Svo, voL ii. To these may 
be added The Writings and Examinations of 
Wallet Brute, Lord Cobham, Ac, Svo. 1831. 
The Eenenl nulhoritlea for Oldcastle's life 
are : Rotali Parliamenlonim ; Ordioances of 
the Prify Council, ed. Nicolas ; Kjraera FiadorB, 
original edit. ; Caleadars of Inquiaitiona post 
mortem and Patent Bolls, published by the 
Kecord Commission; WuWnghani. Elmhnm's 
Liber Hetricus and Redmnn'a Historia Hen- 
nei V, in the Rolla Series; Elmham's Vita 
Henrici V(1727), and Ollerboume (1732). ed. 
Bearne ; Gesta H<>nrici V, ed. ICngtlsh Historical 
Society; English Chronicle, I377-U61, ed. 
Onries, and Three Fifteen ih-centucj Chron I cloe, 
published by the Camden Society ; Collectanea 
TopogniphicaetOenealogica.ed. Nichols ; Uont^ 
^'merysbire CoUeClions ( Powysland Club), vol. i. ; 
Panli'i Qesehichte Englands, vol. v. ; Wyiie's 
Hielory of Henry IV ; Ramsay's Lancastet and 
Y'>rk. Other aathorities in the text. For 
the litcmry history of Oldcastle. aee Richard 
James's Iter Laneast renae, Chetham Soc. 1845 
tintrod.), and his Poems, ed. Qrosarl, ISSD; 
Fuller'* Church History and Wortbias of Eng- 

land, ed. 1811; Halliwell'sCharacterofFalstaff, 
1841 ; New Shakspere Society's Publications. 
1879 (Inglaby's Cenluria of Prayao) ; Gairdnet 
andSpedding'sStudieslnEDglUli Hislory,1881 ; 
Anglia, V. 9.] J. T-t. 

jeeuit, who usually passed bj the name of 
IliLI, wa« bom at York in 1561, being the 
son of John Oldcorne, a bricklayer of that 
city. He was intended for the medical pro- 
fession, but, having a vocation for the priest- 
hood, lie crossed over to France, and after 
studying for some time ia the English Col- 
lego at Rheims, he was sent in lS^2 <o the 
English College at Rome, where he received 
holy orders in August 1587. On 16 Aug. 
1588 he and John Gerard (1564-1637) [q. v.] 
were admitted into the Society of Jesus by 
the father-general Claudius Aquaviva, and 
five orsi.x weeks later they were sent to Eng- 
; land in company with twoseculQrpricsta,and 
I landed on the Norfolk coast. Oldcomo was 
' employed for some time in London by Father 
' llenryQamettiq. v.], BUperiorof the English. 
■ Jesuits, whom he afterwards accompanied to 
Warwickshire. In February or March 1588- 
I 1589 Gamett placed him at Hindlip Hall, 
near W^orcester, the seat of the ancient ca- 
tholic family of Ilabingtoc. There he re- 
sided for sixteeD years, labouring lealously 
as a missioner, and making many mnverts. 
After the discovery of the gunpowder plot, 
Humphrey Littleton, who had been impri- 
soned on a charge of harbouring some of 
the conspirators, sought to save his own 
life by informing the privy council that 
Oldcorne was at Hindlip, and that Gamett 
also would probably he found there. Gamett 
and Oldcorne were arrested there, brought 
to London and imprisoned, first in the Gate- 
house, and afterwords in tbe Tower [sea 
Gaenett, Hbsbt]. Oldcorne was put to the 
torture, but be persistently denied all know- 
ledge of the plot. On 21 March 1605-0 be 
wBssentfrom the Tower to Worcester, where 
be was arraigned at the Lent assixea. Tbe 
charges brought against bim were, first, that 
he had invited Gamett, a denounced traitor, 
to lie concealed at Hindlip; secondly, that 
he had written to Father Robert Jones in 
Herefordshire to aid in concealing two of the 
conspirators, thus making bimself an accom- 
plice; and, thirdly, that be had approved the 
plot as a good action, allbougb it failed of 
efl'ect. He was found guilty ot high treason, 
and on 7 April 1606 he was drawn on a 
hurdle to Redhill, near Worcester, and there 
hanged, disembowelled, and quartered. Lit- 
tleton, who suffered at the same time, pub- 
licly asked pardon of God for having wrong- 
fully accused Oldcorne of tbe conspiracy. 




01dcome*8 head and quarters were set up in 
different parts of Worcester, and it is related 
that * his heart and bowels were cast into 
the fire, which continued sending forth a 
lively flame for sixteen days, notwithstand- 
ing the rains that fell during that time, which 
was look*d upon as a prodigy, and a testimony 
of his innocence* (Challoner, Memoirs of 
Missionary Priests, ed. 1742, ii. 488). 

His portrait was engraved by Bouttats, 
and Bromley was told there was a print of 
him by Pass. 

[Bromley's Cat. of Engr. Portraits, p. 64 ; Chal- 
loner 8 Memoirs of Missionary Priests, 1 742, ii. 
15, 476. 486 ; Dodd's Church Hist. ii. 415 ; 
Douay Diaries, p. 434 ; Granger's Biog. Hist, of 
England, 5th ed. ii. 83 ; Foley^s Records, iv. 202, 
vi. 164, vii. 568 ; Jardine's Narrative of the Gun- 
powder Plot, pp. 181, 182. 188, 200, 210 ; London 
and Dublin Orthodox Journal, 1836, ii. 406 ; 
More's Hist. Provincise Anglicanse S. J. p. 332 ; 
Morris's Condition of Catholics imder James I, 
p. 272 ; Morris's Troubles of our Catholic Fore- 
fathers, i. 163, 166, 191, ii. 496, iii. 113, 279; 
Olivers Jesuit Collections, p. 161 ; Cal. of State 
Papers, Dom. 1603-10, p. 736; Tanner's So- 
cietas Jesu usque ad Sanguinis et Vitse profu- 
sionem militans, p. 60 ; Winwood's Memorials, 
ii. 206.] T. C. 

OLDE, JOEQ^ 0^. 1545-1655), translator. 
[See Old.] 

OLDENBURG, HENRY (1615 P-1677), 
natural philosopher and man of letters, who 
sometimes signed himself anagrammatically 
as * Grubendol,* bom about 1615, was the 
son of Heinrich Oldenburg {d. 1634), a tutor 
in the academical gymnasium at Bremen, and 
aftferwards professor in the Royal University 
of Dorpat. The date 1626, usually given as 
that of Oldenburg's birth, is incorrect (Dr. 
Althaus in Beilage zur Allffemeinen 2^itung, 
Munich, 1889, No. 212) ; and the statement, 
so often repeated, that he was descended 
firom the counts of Oldenburg appears to 
have been merely a hasty inference from the 
fact that he is described in his Oxford ma- 
triculation certificate as * nobilis Saxo.* 

Oldenburg was educated at the evangelical 
school at Bremen, which he left for the Gym- 
nasium Ulustre in the same city on 2 May 
1633. There ho took the degree of master in 
theology on 2 Nov. 1639, the subject of his 
thesis being * De ministerio ecclesiastico et 
magistratu politico.' About 1640 he came 
to England, and lived here for some eight 
years, * gaining favour and respect from 
many distinguished gentlemen in parliament,' 
After 1648 he seems to have travelled on the 
continent, returning to Bremen about 1652. 
In August of that year a property which 

had been held by his father and grandfather, 
but which was probably of small pecuniary 
value, the Vicaria S. Liborii, was confirmed 
to him * free of all taxation.' 

In the sunmier of 1653 the council of 
Bremen sent Oldenburg as their agent to 
negotiate with Cromwell some arrangement 
by which the neutrality of Bremen should be 
respected in the naval war between England 
ana Holland. His appointment was inefiec- 
tually opposed, on the grounds that during 
his former residence in England he had taken 
the kin^s side against the parliament, and 
that he nad ' a peculiar temper, which pre- 
vented him from agreeing well with others/ 
His instructions were dated 30 June 1653. 
In a letter dated London, 7 April 1654, pre- 
served in the 'Acts of the Senate 'at Bremen, 
he announced the conclusion of peace between 
England and Holland on 5 April, and ofiered 
his further services. This ofier the council ac- 
cepted when Sweden attacked Bremen in the 
summer of that year. Oldenburg's new letters 
to Cromwell were dated 22 Sept, 

While diplomacy occupied a part of Olden- 
burg's time in England, he chiefiy devoted 
himself to scientific study or to literature. 
In 1654 he made the acquaintance of John 
Milton, then Cromwell's Latin secretary. 
Several of Milton's letters to Oldenburg are 

Published in Milton's ' Epistolae Familiares.' 
n the earliest of them (6 July 1654), Milton 
complimented Oldenburg on speaking Eng- 
lish more correctly and idiomaticiJly than 
any other foreigner that he knew. In May 
1656 Oldenburg was in Kent. Later in the 
year he was acting as tutor to Henry O'Brien, 
son of Barnabas, sixth earl of Thomond [q. v.], 
and to Richard Jones, son of Catherine, lady 
Ranelagh, the sister of the Hon. Robert Boyle ; 
and early in 1656 he arrived with his pupils 
in Oxfora. In June he himself was entered a 
student of the university, ' by the name and 
title of Henricus Oldenburg, Bremensis, no- 
bilis Saxo' (Wood, Fasti Oxon. pt. ii.) With 
Boyle, the uncle of his pupil Jones, Oldenburg 
enjoyed constant intercourse at Oxford. Wil- 
kins, Wallis, and Petty were also among his 
friends there. Encouraged by their example, 
he devoted himself to * the new experimental 
learning.' Writing to Milton early in 1656, 
he declared : ' There are two things I wish to 
study — Nature and her Creator.' And lat«r 
in the year he wrote to another friend, Edward 
Lawrence, that he believed there were still 
some few who sought for truth, instead of 
hunting after the vain shadows of scholastic 
theology and nominalist philosophy — men 
who dared to forsake the old Aristotelian 
methods, and cherished the belief that the 
world is not yet too old nor the living race 




too exhausted to bring forth something 

Oldenburg remained at the university until 
May 1667, when he accompanied his pupil 
Jones on a long journey to the continent. 
From Saumur, wnere they spent the first 
year, Oldenburg sent letters to Milton and 
Bo^le. In the second year he and his pupil 
yisited other parts of France and Oermany, 
and in Maj 1669 he wrote from Paris, where 
they remamed until their return to England 
in 1660. 

In November 1660 the society which after- 
wards became the Royal Society, and which 
had existed in a more or less nebulous con- 
dition since 1646, took definite shape. Among 
the first members proposed and elected 
(26 Dec.) were Oldenburg and his pupil 
lianelagh. Oldenbun^ was elected a mem- 
ber of the first council and he and Dr. John 
Wilkins were appointed the first secretaries 
(22 April 1663) ; but he received no salair 
until 1669. In the Birch MSS. at the British 
Museum (4441, f. 27) is preserved, in Olden- 
burg's handwriting, an account of the duties 
of the * Secretary of ye R. Soc' * He attends 
constantly,* the paper recites, ' the meetings 
both of ye Society and Councill ; noteth the 
obsenrables, said and done there ; digesteth 
jr" in private ; takes care to have y™ entred 
m the Journal- and Register-books ; reads 
over and corrects all entrys; soUicites the 
performances of taskes recommended and 
undertaken; writes all Letters abroad and 
answers the returns made to y™, entertaining 
a corresn. w*'* at least 30 psons [not fifty, as 
in Weld's * History'] ; employes a great deal 
of time and takes much pains in satisfying 
foiran demands about philosophicall matters, 
disperseth farr and near store of directions 
and inquiries for the society's purpose, and 
sees them well recommended, etc. Q. Whether 
such a person ought to be left vn-assisted ? ' 
It was with the intention that the sale should 
procure him a remuneration for his gratuitous 
services that he was authorised in 1664 to 

fublish the ' Transactions of the Society ; ' 
ut the net profit seldom amounted to 40/. 
a year. From June 1666 to the following 
March the sittings of the Royal Society were 
suspended, owing to the plague. Oldenburg 
ana his family remained in London, but es- 
caped the infection. In September 1666 the 
great fire of London ruined most of the 
booksellers, and greatly obstructed the pub- 
lication of Oldenburg's 'Transactions.' Boyle 
made vain endeavours to secure for Olden- 
burg, who was suffering much pecuniary 
distress, the post of Latin secretary formerly 
held by Milton. 
Whfle he held the secretaryship of the 

Royal Society, Oldenburg foreign corre- 
spondence grew very large. He could not have 
coped with it, he said, had it not been his habit 
to answer every letter the moment he re- 
ceived it. His aim is tersely expressed in 
his letter to Governor Winthrop (1667): 
* Sir, you will please to remember that we 
have taken to taske the whole Vni verse, and 
that we were obliged to doe so by the nature 
of our Dessein. It will therefore be requisite 
that we purchase and entertain a commerce 
in all parts of y* world w*** the most philo- 
sophicall and curious persons, to be found 
everywhere.' Among his correspondents was 
Spinoza. Oldenburg had visited Spinoza at 
Rijnsburg (Rhynsburg) in 1661, and nume- 
rous letters passed between them from that 
year to 1676. At first Oldenburg enthusias- 
tically urged Spinoza to publish his writings: 
' Surely, my excellent friend, I believe that 
nothing can be published more pleasant or 
acceptable to men of learning and discern- 
ment than such a treatise as yours. This is 
what a man of your wit and temper should 
regard more than what pleases theologians 
of the present age and fashion, for by them 
truth IS less regarded than their own ad- 
vantage.' But afterwards he became cautious, 
complaining that Spinoza confused God with 
nature, and that his teaching was fatalistic. 
In these letters Oldenburg defines his rela- 
tions to both speculative philosophy and 
exact science. 

The vastness of Oldenburg's foreign corre- 
spondence, which, though mainly scientific, 
was in part political, excited suspicion at the 
English court, and, under warrants dated 
20 June 1667, he was imprisoned in the 
Tower (cf. Pepts, 28 June 1667). He was 
in the Tower for more than two months, and 
Evelyn visited him there on 8 Aug. On 
3 Sept. Oldenburg wrote to Boyle that he 
had Deen stifled by the prison air, and had 
recruited his health on his release at Crayford 
in Kent, and was now falling again to his old 

The publisher threatened at the time to 
discontinue printing the ' Transactions,' and 
Oldenburg, in a letter to Boyle, expressed a 
wish that he had ' other means of gaining a 
living.' From the beginning of 1670 he 
accordingly undertook many translations. 
His 'Prodromus to a Dissertation by Ni- 
cholas Steno concerning Solids naturally 
contained within Solids,' 8vo, appeared in 
the following year. * A genuine Explication 
of the Book of the Revelation,' by A. B. 
Piganius, 8vo, 1671 ; * The History of the 
late Revolution of the Empire of the Great 
Mogol,' by F. Bemier, 8vo, 1671 ; and * The 
Life of the Duchess of Mazarine,' followed 

Oldenburg 96 Oldfield 

rapidly. He also translated into Latin some is represented in black coat, broad white 
of Robert Boyle's works. : bands, and plain sleeves sewed to the narrow 

Oldenburg's latter days were embittered armholes. The head is massive, and wears a 

by a disagreement with his colleague, Ko- long flowing peruke ; the face clean-shaved 
bert Hooke [q. v.]> the curator to the Iteyal , except a short moustache, the mouth firm, but 

Society. Hooke complained that Olden- the expression somewhat anxious. The right 

burg had not done justice in the 'Philoso- hand holds an open chronometer case, 

phical Transactions to his invention of the [Theonlyconnected account of Oldenburg's life 

hair-spring for pocket watches. The quarrel of any length is that by Dr. Althaus, published 

lasted for two years, and was determined by in the Beilage zur AUgemeinen Zeitung (Munich), 

a declaration of the council of the Royal 1888 No. 229-33, 1889 Nob. 212-14. See aUo 

Society, 20 Nov. 1676, that, * Whereas the Weld's History of the Royal Society, 2 vols. 8ro, 

publisher ofthe" Philosophical Transactions" London, 1848; Masson's Life of John Milton, 

hath made complaint to the council of the vols. v. vi. 8ro, London, 1877-80; Pollock's 

Royal Society of some passages in a late Spinoza: his Life and Philosophy, 8vo, London, 

book of Mr. Hooke, entitled "Lampas," &c., 1^0. In thearchives of the Royal Society are 405 

and printed by the printer of the said society, 9^'^]"^ 1«^^" and drafte by Henry Olc^nbuig, 

reflecting on the integritv and faithfulness bc^des a guard- b^k containing mnety-fourai 

^"r^ *?j ur-i,«- ;« iCifl ^^^^,^^^^4. ^f ditional letters to Boyle, and a commonplace-book 

of the said publisher in his management of ^^ ^^^^ ^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ P ^^ ^^^ 

the int^Uigence of the said society ; this Ellis. Bireh, Sloane, Harleian. Ward, and Egerton 

council hath thought fit to declare, in the j^g j^ ^^e British Museum. aU contain letters 

behalf of the publisher aforesaid, that they }yj oidenburj? and other documents bearing upon 

knew nothing of the publication of the said his life. His correspondence with Spinoza is 

book ; and, farther, that the said publisher given in Van Vloten and Land s Benedicti de 

hath carried himself faithfully and honestly Spinoza Opera, vol. ii. 1883, and in Ginsberg's 

in the management of the intelligence of the Opera Philosopbica of Spinoza, vol. ii. Svo, 1876. 

* * /. , , . ■ :„ „4.«.„«i,^i 4.«4.t:««.„ Collins et aliorum de Analysi Promota ; Corre- 

TrauBacnons his name is attached to thirty- ^enee of Hartlib. Hakk. Oldenburg, and 

four pap^-rs as author or translator. He also ^^^„ ^^ ^ j^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ j^ 1 ^^^^^ ^^^ 
edited and wrote the Latin preface to M. Governor Winthrop of Connecticut. 1661-72, 
Malpighi's M)issertatio epistolica de Bom- g^^^ Boston, 1878 (reprint from Proc. Massa- 
byce,' 4to, Londtm, 1669. In the archives . chusetts Hist. Soc.)] H. R. 

of the I loyal Society is a draft petition , 

(undated) by Oldenburg for a patent for \ OLDFIELD, ANNE (1083-1730), 
Huyghens's * New Invention or Watches actress, the granddaughter of a vintner, and 
ser^'ing as well for j* pocket as otherwise, daughter of a soldier in the guards, said to 
usefull to find y* Longitudes both at Sea and have been a captain who had run through a 
Land,' the riglit in which had been assigned fortune, was born in Pall Mall in 1683. Her 
to Oldenburg by the inventor. ! father was, perhaps, the James Oldfield of 

Oldenburg died suddenly in September . St. Marti u's-in-the-Fields who married Eliza- 
1677, at Charlton in Kent, leaving a son both Blanchard of the same parish on 4 Dec. 
Rupert, a godson of Prince Rupert, and a . 1682 (Chester, Marriage Licences). She 
daughter Sophia. He married twice. His was put with a sempstress in King Street, 
first wife, who brought him 400/., died in Westminster, where she spent her time in 
London in 1666. On 11 Aug. 1668 he ob- reading plays. Afterwards she resided with 
tained a license to marry in London a second her mother at the Mitre Tavern, St. James's 
wife, Dora Katherina, only daughter of John Market, then kept by her aunt, Mrs. Voss, 
Durie (1596-1680) [ci. v.] She brought him afterwards Wood. Parquhar the dramatist 
* an estate in the marshes of Kent,* worth 60/. overheard her reciting passages from the 

Martiii's-in-the-Fields (Chester, \ to Vanbrugh, a frequenter of the house, 
j«MJe>r,p.993). The Royal Society | who was struck by ner abilities. He in- 

half-length life-size portrait of 
lainted by John Van Cleef. He 

troduced her, accordingly, to John Rich 
[q. v.], the manager of Drury Lane, by whom 




she was engaged in 1692 at a weekly salary of 
fifteen shillings, soon increased to twenty. 
Concerning her hesitation to come on the 
stage, she said to Chetwood : * I long'd to be at 
it, and only wanted a little decent entreaties* 
(sic). To the same writer she said, concerning 
her early performances in tragedy : * I hate to 
have a page dragging my tail about. Why 
do they not give fMrs.] Porter these parts P 
She can put on a oetter tragedy face than I 
can.' Mrs. Cross had in 1699 temporarily 
deserted the stage, and Anne Oldfield made 
in that year, according to her biographer 
Egerton, her first appearance in that actress's 
part of Candiope in Dryden's 'Secret Love, 
or the Maiden Queen.' No record of Mrs. 
Cross in that character is preserved, although 
she played five years later Florimel in the 
same piece. 

The first character in which Mrs. Oldfield 
is traced is Alinda, an original part in a prose 
adaptation by Vanbrugh of the * Pilgrim ' of 
Beaumont and Fletcher, produced in 1700 at 
Drury Lane. Li 1 700 she was also the original 
Aurelia in the * Perjured Husband, or the 
Adventures of Venice,' of Mrs. Carroll 
(i.e. Susannah Centlivre [q. v.]), and Sylvia 
in Oldmixon's opera ' The Grove, or Love's 
Paradise.' In l/Ol she was the original 
Miranda in the ' Humours of the Age,' attri- 
buted to Baker ; Anne of Brittanie in Mrs. 
Trotter s * Unhappy Penitent,' the prologue 
to which she spoKe; and Queen Helen in 
Settle's ' Virgin Prophetess, or the Fate 
of Troy; in 1702, Uimene in Higgons's 

* Generous Conqueror, or Timely Discovery ; ' 
Camilla in Bumaby's 'Modish Husband;' 
I^y Sharlot in Steele's * Funeral, or Grief 
k la mode ; ' and Jacinta in Vanbrugh's' False 
Friend,' the prologue to which she recited ; 
and in 1703 Luda in FUrfey's ' Old Mode 
and the New, or Country Miss with her Fur- 
beloe : ' Lucia in Estcourt's * Fair Example, 
or the Modish Citizens ; ' and Belliza in Mrs. 
Carroll's * Love's Contrivance, or Le M^decin 
malgr6 lui.' She also played Hellena in ' The 

During this time her personal graces won 
recognition rather than her abilities. Wholly 
inexpert at the outset, she was long in 
acquiring a method. Colley Cibber, who 
watched her opening career, had grave doubts 
as to her future ; and Critick, in Gildon's 

* Comparison between the Two Stages,' 1702, 
speaks of her and Mrs. Rogers as ' rubbish 
that ought to be swept ofl* the stage with the 
dust and the filth' (p. 200). Cibber first 
recognised her merits when, at Bath in 1703, 
she replaced Mrs. Verbruggen [q. v.] as 
Lei^mora in *Sir Courtly Nice' (see Gent, 
Matf. 1761, p. 264). From this time she 


began to improve, and two years later she 
stood high in public favour. In Steele's 
'Lying Lover, or the Ladies' Friendship,* 
she was, on 2 Dec. 1703, the original Vic- 
toria; and on 6 March 1704 the original 
Queen Mary in Banks's 'Albion Queens.' 
Owing to the illness of Mrs. Verbruggen and 
the secession of Mrs. Bracegirdle, tlie part 
of Lady Betty Modish in Cibber's ' Careless 
Husband,' on 7 Dec. 1704, was, with some 
reluctance, confided to her. In a spirit more 
magnanimous than he often exhibited, Cib- 
ber subsequently owned that a large share 
in the favourable reception of this piece was 
due to her, praising the excellence of her 
acting and her manner of conversing, and 
saying that many sentiments in the character 
might almost be regarded as originally her 
own. In Steele's * Tender Husband, or the 
Accomplished Fools,' on 23 April 1705, she 
was the original Biddy Tipkin. After the 
union of Drury Lane and Dorset Garden 
theatres, she was, on 30 Oct. 1705, the first 
Arabella in Baker's ' Hampstead Heath.' 
During the season she playea the following 
parts, all original : Lady Reveller in the 
'Basset Table' of Mrs. Carroll, Izadora in 
Cibber's 'Perolla and Izadora,' Viletta in 
the 'Fashionable Lover, or Wit in Neces- 
sity,' and Sylvia in Farquhar's * Recruiting 
Officer.' Joining the seceders from Drury 
Lane to the Haymarket, she made her first 
appearance at the latter house as Elvira in 
the ' Spanish Friar,' playing also Lady Lure- 
well ; Celia in 'Volpone, Monimia in the 
' Orphan,' and many other characters ; and 
being the original Isabella in Mrs. Centlivre*s 
' Platonick Lady,' Florimel in Cibber s ' Mar- 
riage k la mode, or the Comical Lovers,' Mrs. 
Sullen in Farquhar's 'Beaux' Stratagem,' 
and Ismena in Smith's ' Phsedra and Hip- 
polytus.' At the same house in 1707-8 she 
created Lady Dainty in Cibber's ' Double 
Gallant, or Sick Lady's Cure ; ' Ethelinda in 
Rowe's 'Royal Convert ; ' and Mrs. Conquest 
in Cibber's ' Lady's Last Stake,' and she also 
played Narcissa in Cibber's * Love's Last Shift.' 
Returning in 1708 to Drury Lane, her 
principal parts — none of them original — 
were: Angelica in * Love for Love,' Elvira in 
' Love makes a Man,' Semandra in ' Mithri- 
dates,' Second Constantia in the ' Chances,' 
Euphronia in '/Esop,' Lady Harriet in the 
* Funeral,' and Teresia in Shadwell's ' Squire 
of Alsatia.' On 14 Dec. she was the original 
Lady Rodomont in Baker's 'Fine Lady's 
Airs, or an Equipage of Lovers;' and on 
11 Jan. 1709 Lucinda in 'Rival Fools,' 
Cibber's alteration of Fletcher's ' Wit at 
several Weapons.' Once more at the Hay- 
market, in partnership with Swiney, Wilks, 





Dogget, and Gibber, Mrs. Oldfield played 
many light comedy parts — Mrs. Brittle, 
Berintbia in the * Relapse/ and Lsetitia in 
the *()ld Bachelor' — and was the original 
Belinda in Mrs. Centlivre's * The Man's Be- 
witched, or the Devil to Pay.* 

Returning to Drury Lane, which thence- 
forward she never quitted for any other house, 
she was, on 7 April 1711, the first Fidelia in 

* Inj ured Love.' Between this period and her 
retirement and death she took many original 
parts, the principal of which are : Arabella, 
in the * Wife's Relief, or the Husband's Cure,' 
on 12 Nov. 1711, Johnson's alteration of 
Shirley's * Gamester ; ' Camilla in Mrs. Cent- 
livre's 'Perplexed Lovers,' 19 Jan. 1712; 
Andromache in the 'Distressed Mother,' 
17 March 1712, adapted by Ambrose Philips 
[q.v.] from Racine ; Victoria in Charles 
Snadwell's * Humours of the Army,' 29 Jan. 
1713 ; Emilia in * Cinna's Conspiracy,' 19 Fob. 
1713 ; Marcia in Addison's * Cato,' 14 April 
1713 ; Eriphile in Charles Johnson's * Vic- 
tim,' 6 Jan. 1714; Jane Shore in Howe's 
'Jane Shore,' 2 Feb. 1714; Violante in Mrs. 
Centli\Te's * Wonder a Woman keeps a 
Secret,' 27 April 1714 ; the heroine of Howe's 

* Lady Jane urey,* 20 April 1715 ; Leonora 
in Mrs. Centlivre's /Cruel Gift,' 17 Dec. 
1716 ; Mrs. Townley in ' Three Hours after 
Marriage ' of Gay, and, presumably, Pope 
and Arbutlinot, 16 Jan. 1717; Maria m 
Gibber's * Nonjuror,' 6 Dec. 1717 ; Mandane 
in Young's * Busiris,' 7 March 1719 ; Celona 
in Southern's * Spartan Dame,' 11 Dec. 1719; 
Sophronia in Gibber's 'Refusal, or the Lady's 
Philosophv,' 14 Jan. 1721 ; Mrs. W'atchit in 
Mrs. Centlivre's 'Artifice,' 2 Get. 1722; 
Queen Margaret in Philips's ' Humphrey, 
Duke of Gloucester,' 15 Feb. 1723 ; I^rmcess 
Catharine in Hill's ' Henry V,' altered from 
Shakespeare, 6 Dec. 1723; the Captive in 
Gay's * Captives,' 15 Jan. 1724; Cleopatra in 
Gibber's * Cjcsar in Eg>^pt,' 9 Dec. 1724 ; 
Lady Townly in the ' Provoked Husband,' 
10 Jan. 1727 ; Lady Matchless in Fielding's 

* Love in Several Masques,' 16 Feb. 1727 ; 
Clarinda in the ' Humours of Gxford,' attri- 
buted to Miller, 9 Jan. 1730; and Sopho- 
nisba in Thomson's ' Sophonisba.' She kept 
her powers to the end, acting this last part 
superbly ; in her delivery of the line addressed 
to Wilks as Massinissa — 

Not one base word of Carthage —on thy soul ! 

she startled him, and carried away the 
audienco. For her benefit, on 19 March 1730, 
she choso the ' Fair Penitent/ presumably 
playing Calista, ' a gentleman ' appearing as 
Lothario. Gn 28 April 1730 she made, as 
Lady Brute in the * Provoked Wife,' her last 

appearance on the stage. In her last yean 
she suffered much pain, and tears are said to 
have often trickled from her eyes while she 
was acting She died on 23 Oct. 1730, in her 
own house, at 59 (afterwards 60) Grosvenor 
Street. She had previously resided in New 
Southampton Street, Strand, and in the Hay* 
market. After lying in state in the Jeru- 
salem Chamber, her Dody was buried beneath 
the monument of Congreve in Westminster 
Abbey, at the west end of the nave. Accord- 
ing to the testimony of her maid, Margaret 
Saunders, she was interred ' in a very fine 
Brussels lace head, a holland shift and double 
rufiies of the same lace, a pair of new kid 
gloves, and her body wrapp^ in a windinc^ 
sheet.' This elicited from Pope the well- 
known lines : — 

Odious ! in woollen ! 'twould a saint provoke. 
Were the last words that poor Narcissa spoke ; 
No, let a charming chintz and Bmssels laoe 
Wrap my cold limbs and shade my lifeless faee : 
One would not, sure, be frightral when one's 

And — Betty — ^give this cheek a little red. 

Moral BlsBOj/s, i. 246. 

Her natural son, Arthur Main waring, was 
the chief mourner at her funeral, the nail- 
bearers being the Lord De la W^arr, John 
lord Hervey of Ickworth [q. v.], George Bubb 
Dodington, Charles Hedges, Walter Carey, 
and Captain Elliot. An application by Briga- 
dier-general Churchill for permission to erect 
a monument to her in Westminster Abbey 
was refused by the dean. 

She left two illegitimate sons, one by 
Arthur Mainwaring fq. v. J, and the other 
by General Charles Churchill [q. v.] Main- 
waring left almost his entire estate to her and 
Arthur, his son by her. A report was current 
that she was married to General ChurchilL 
Princess (afterwards Queen) Caroline told 
her that she had heard of the marriage, and 
was answered, ' So it is said, your royal high- 
ness ; but we have not owned it yet.' 

Her son by Churchill married I-Ady Mary 
Walpole, and Mrs. Gldfield was thus con- 
nected with some of the principal families in 
England, including that of the Duke of Wel- 
lington. By her will, proved on 2 Nov. 1730, 
she left her fortune, which for those days was 
considerable, between these two youths, after 
the payment of legacies to her mother, her 
aunt Jane Gourlaw, and her maid Margaret 
Saunders. Her house in Grosvenor Street she 
left to her son Charles Churchill, who died 
there on 13 April 1812. 

Ample testimony is borne to Mrs. Gld- 
field's beauty, vivacity, and charm, and to 
the excellence of her acting. As an expo- 
nent of both tragedy and comedy she can 




have had few equals. Chetwood, not too 
intelligibly rhapsodising, says : ' She was of 
a superior heigut, but with a lovely propor- 
tion ; and the dignity of her soul, equal to 
her force and stature, made up of benevolent 
charity, affable and good natur^d to all that 
deserv'd it '( General Hutt. of the Stage, p. 202). 
Campbell imagines her to have been, apart 
from the majesty of Mrs. Siddons, ' the most 
beautiful woman that ever trod the British 
stage.' Gibber, whose prejudices against her 
▼ielded to her fascination and talent, praises 
her * silvery voice,' and says that her improve- 
ment ' pro^eded from her own understand- 
ing,' with no assistance from any ' more ex- 
perienced actor.' More than one ot his plays he 
wrote with a special view to her. The extent 
of her powers could only, he holds, be gauged 
by the variety of characters she played. Uer 
figure improved up to her thirty-sixth year, 
and ' her excellence in acting was never at a 
stand.' To the last year of her life ' she never 
undertook any part she liked without being 
importunately desirous of having all the 
helps in it that another could possibly give 
her .... Yet it was a hard matter to give her 
any hint that she was not able to take or im- 
prove ' (Apology f ed. Lowe, i. 310). Steele in 
the * Tatler ' and the * Spectator ' bears warm 
tribute to her distinction and her power. 
Her countenance, according to Davies, was 
pleasing and expressive, enlivened with large 
speaking eyes, which in some particular 
comic situations she kept half shut, espe- 
cially when she intended to give effect to 
some brilliant or gay thought. In spright- 
liness of air and elegance of manner, says 
the same authority, she excelled all actresses. 
Swift {Journal to Stella, 1712-13) mentions 
her opprobriously as 'the drab that acts 
Cato's daughter.* Walpole, on the other 
hand, says, concerning ner performance of 
Lady Betty Modish, that had her birth placed 
her in a higher rank of life she would have 
appeared what she acted — an agreeable gay 
woman of quality, a little too conscious of 
her nat ural attraction. She was much caressed 
by people of fashion, and generally went to 
the theatre in a chair, attended by two foot- 
men, and in the dress she had worn at some 
aristocratic dinner. Thomson spoke with 
extreme warmth concerning her performance 
of Sophonisba as all that in the fondness of 
an author he could either wish or imagine ; 
and Fielding, in the preface to ^Love in 
Several Masques,' referred to her ' ravishing 
perfections.' A French author, unnamed, 
declared her, according to Chetwood, 'an 
incomparable sweet girV who reconciled him 
to the English stage. Richard Savage, whom 
she is saidto have saved from a death penalty 

he had incurred, and to whom she allowed 
a pension of 60/. annually (a statement made 
by Dr. Johnson and disputed, without any au- 
thority advanced, by Gait), addressed to her 
a eulogistic epistle, and, according to Chet- 
wood, an epitaph in Latin and English, which 
Johnson, ior no adequate reason, refused to 
accept as his. Her best parts in tragedy were 
Cleopatra and Calista. In comedy her Lady 
Townly has not been equalled. For her 
performance of this the managers presented 
ner with 50/. She was free from the arro- 
gance and petulance frequently attending 
her profession, was always reasonable, and 
benefited therebv,as successive managements 
denied her nothing. The only difficulty in 
her career occurred when she supplanted in 
several parts Mrs. Rogers, who consequently 
left the theatre in pique. The public, espous- 
ing the cause of Mrs. Rogers, hissed Mrs. 
Oldfield in certain parts. A competition be- 
tween the two actresses was arranged by the 
management, and Mrs. Oldfield chose the 

5' art of Lady Lurewell in the * Trip to the 
ubilee.' Her rival, however, well advised, 
withdrew from the contest. 

In spite of the frequent sneers of Pope, 
who, apart from other allusions, wrote in 
his unpublished ' Sober Advice from Horace,' 

EngagiDfy Oldfield ! who with grace and ease 
Could join the arts to ruin and to please, 

Anne Oldfield inspired warm friendships 
and afiection, and was greatly respected. 
In regard to both character and talents, she 
was above most women in her profession. 

A portrait of Mrs. Oldfield by Richardson, 
now in the National Portrait Gallery, Lon- 
don, was engraved by Meyer, E. Fisher, uiul 
G. Simon. A second, a folding plate, is pre- 
fixed to her life by Egerton, 1731 ; and 
another, engraved by G. King, is given in 
the title-page of her 'Memoirs,* 1741. An 
; autograph receipt for 2,415/. is preser^-ed in 
a copy of Egerton's * Life,' in the possession 
of the writer of this notice. 

[Four editions at least of the Authentick Me- 
moirs of the Life of that Celebrated Actrt-ss 
Mrs. Oldfield were published in the year of her 
death, 1730. In 1731 appeared Faithful Me- 
moirs of the Life, Amours, and Perfornmnces of 
.... Mrs. Anne Oldfield, by William Egerton. 
An abridgment of this was added in 1741 to 

; CurlUs Hi»tory of the English Stage, attnbutetl 
by him to Betterton, but said to be by Oldys. 
The Lovers* Miscellany, a Collection of Amorous 

, Tales and Poems, with Memoirs of the Life and 
Amours of Mrs. Ann Oldfield, 1731, 8vo, can- 
not be traced; Theatrical Correspondencu in 
draft; an Epistle from Mrs. Oldfield in the 
Shades to Mrs. Br — ceg — die upon Earth ap- 
peared in 1743; a life appears in Chet wood's 


Oldfield loo Oldfield 

History of the Sta(r«> ; Hres are also given in ways written Otefield or Oatefield Ttwice). 
Roes, the two BiogrAphi<*8 Generates, the Geor- By the Unifonnity Act (1662) ne waa 
gian Era, Galt'f Lives of the PUyers. and many ejected from Carsington. After this he 
other compilations. See also Ocnest's Accoant moved from place to place, sometimes at- 
of the English St«ge ; Horace Walpole's Letters, ' tending the established church, and often 

Jiemoriaisoi wesiminscer ADOey; ciiioers ADO- ,. t , "^ ^, , . ~ x i^ '7* — ^ 

logy, e<l. Lowe; Davies's Dramatic MiscelUnie. 8^^^» »V ^^ouse belongmg to John Spate- 

and Life of Garrick ; Doran's Annals of thp ™**^» ^^^ was mformed against for so doing. 

Stflge, ed. Uwe, &c. ; Notes and Queries, 2nd " ^^ proved that he was ten miles off on 

ser. ix. 420, xi. 123, 144, 3rd ser. vi. 148. 216. the specified day ; the informers were prose- 

318.] J. K. cuted, and one of them pilloried at Derby. 

OLDFIELD, HEXRY GEORGE (d, ^?yT'^V''^^}^^''^Y'^^Tl}^^ 

1791 ?).antiquar^', collaborated with Richard ^^Y' ^^^ ^.*^ ^'^ ^^I!!?® ^^^ t^\^' 

Randall Dv«)n in the compilation of * His- ??^ ^*« ^""^ ^^, Alfreton Church, where 

i/»z, i::ino); ana was tne autuor oi 'Anec- ■ i, ' i-T .v' T — V vT "■'. " — 

dotes of Archeiy, Ancient and Modem' Jl"" °S,^'f^«''^,«'»t«'«^^ *•>« pmuitiy: 
London, 1791, 8vo. To him also is ascribed ! (!)/<?»>•» (*• I Nov. 1664), who receiv^ pres- 
a brief description of the church of St. Giles, bvtenan ordination m September 1681, and 
Camberwell. printed without other title than "^er'^a'dg wnfomed ; (2) Joshua (wjpa- 
' Caml>«r«-cll Church,' and without place or i "'**?-' "°*'^oi»' (f> ^**}'/l°i!!' S';?'''^*?? *"} 
date of publication. In 1790 he was resi- ?'"'«*tf ^}^-^)^ **, ^^'''^^^^iL^?!'^ 
dent at Great Scotland Yard, Whitehall. As i J^J' So"t»»''wk ('^- ?l D**- 1696, a^ 32); 
his name is omitted from the title-page of the (.*> Sam«el, who receired nreabytenan ordi- 
secondeditionofthe'IIistoryandlntiquities i *15" T^i ^P"} 1«98, "nd was minister at 
of Tottenham High Cross,' it U probable that ^<^^Tx-u' r'"*;,*"'^ '"^-riAJ® '* ^'^ 

he was dead in 1792. •"^IJ'' ^^'1**''''*,(^X,?» '?. ^!=^^- ^ ^ 

r,,. T%- .. * T- ■ . .1. .o.. n .. lie published 'The rirst Last and the 

[Biogr. Diet, of Living Authors. 1816 ; Br.f. > Last F rst . . . substance of . . . Lectnwa 

Museum Cat.] J. M. K. 

(1()27 y-1682), ejected minister, was bom 

in the Country/ &c., 1666, 12mo (addressed 
by * J. 0. ' to the * parishioners of C. and W. in 
the county of D.*) Calamy mentions that he 

near Chest«»rfit4d, Derbyshire, about 1627. published** a larper piece about prayer.' His 

He was educated at the grammar school 
of Bromfield, Cumberland. Though of no 
university, he was a good scholar and mathe- 
matician. He held the rectory of Carsing- 
ton, Derbvfthire, having been appointed in 
or before 1(U0. His parialiioners, according 

last sermon at Carsington is in * Farewell 
Sermons,* 1663, 8vo (country collection). 
His * soliloquy ' after the passing of the Uni- 
formity Act is abridged in Calamy; some 
striking sentences from it are quoted in 
* North and South/ 1865, vol. i. ch. iv., by 

to ( -alamy, were * very ticklish and capri- Mrs. Gaskcll. 
ciouH, very hard to bo pleased in ministers/ 
but he suited them ; and, though the living 
was worth but 70/., he refused a better 
off*ir of the perpetual curacy of Tamworth, 
Warwickshire. He was present, as a mem- 
ber, at the first known meeting (16 Dec. 

1651) of the Wirksworth classis, of which ' 150 sq. ; Evans's List (manuscript) in Dr. Wil- 
he was a most regular attendant (fifteen 1 liams's Library ; Manuscript Minutes of Not- 
timeH moderator) till its last recorded meet- ! tingham Classis ; extracts from Carsington Ro- 
ing ( 17 Nov. 1658). His sermon before the eis^^'r P®r '^« ^^- F. H. Brett.] A. G. 

[Calamy's Account, 1713, pp. 172 sq., and 
Continuation, 1727, i. 233 ; Wilson's Dissenting 
Churches of London, 1814, iv. 157 ; Cox's Notes 
on tho Churches of Derbyshire, 1875 i. 8, 1877 
ii. 562 ; Minutes of Wirksworth Classis in 
Derbyshire Archa^ol. and Nat. Hist. Soc. 1880. pp. 

ra«;ntsdirected against theerrorsofSocinians, i with distinction on the staff of the armv 




was bom at Portsmouth on 29 May 1789. 
He was descended from Sir Anthony Old- 
field, created a baronet in 1660, and he 
claimed to be fifth baronet, but the proof 
was incomplete. A re-creation was deemed 
to be necessary, the cost of which Oldfield 
declined to incur, and the matter dropped. 
His father retired from the service about 
the date of Oldfield's birth, and purchased a 
small estate at Westboume, Sussex, which 
still remains in possession of the family. 
He died in 1793. 

In 1799 Oldfield's uncle, Major Thomas 
Oldfield [q.T.l, of the royal marines, was killed 
at St. Jean a A ere. The distinguished con- 
duct of this officer led to offers from Lord 
St. Vincent, Lord Nelson, and Sir Sidney 
Smith to provide for John Oldfield in the 
navy, while Earl Spencer offered a commis- 
sion in the royal marines, and the Marquis 
Comwallis a nomination for the Royal Mili- 
tary Academy at Woolwich. The latter 
was accepted. When Oldfield was old 
enough to go to Woolwich, he was only four 
feet six incmes high, and a dispensing order 
had to be obtained from the master-general 
of the ordnance to allow of his admission 
to the Koyal Military Academy, the mini- 
mum standard being then four feet nine 
inches. The junior cadets at that time went 
first to Great Marlow, Buckinghamshire, 
where he joined, on 23 Auff. 1803, and was 
afterwards transferred to Woolwich. When 
George III inspected the cadets on 29 May 
1805, Oldfield was one of the seniors. The 
king was struck with his diminutive stature, 
asked his name and age, and spoke to the lad 
of his uncle's services at St. Jean d'Acre. 

Oldfield joined the Trigonometrical Survey 
at Bodmin in Cornwall in September 1805. 
He was commissioned as second lieutenant 
in the royal engineers on 2 April 1806, and 
quartered at Portsmouth. He was promoted 
to be lieutenant on 1 Jtily* The following 
summer he was sent to Halifax, Nova Scotia, 
and after two years' service in North Ame- 
rica he returned to England, and in Septem- 
ber 1809 was stationed at Dorchester. He 
was promoted second captain on 1 May 181 1. 

From Dorchester he went to Fort George 
in Scotland, and remained there until ne 
embarked for Holland in 1814. He landed 
at Hellevoetsluis on 28 March, and entered 
Ant werp with Sir Thomas Graham on 5 May. 
He was promoted captain on 26 Jan. 1815. 
He was at Brussels on 7 April 1815, when 
he heard of Napoleon's escape from Elba, 
and at once packed his family off to Eng- 
land, to Westboume. Oldfield was sent to 
Tpres to construct new works of defence, 
and was entrusted with the inundation of 

the country round, a troublesome and thank* 
less operation. He shortly after joined the 
army of the Duke of Wellington as brigade- 
major of royal engineers. He made a sketch- 
plan of the plains of Waterloo for the use 
of the duke, and took part in the battle 
of Waterloo and the occupation of Paris. 
In April 1819, in consequence of a reduction 
in the corps of royal engineers, he was 
placed on naif-pay, and passed his time 
chiefly at Westboume. 

In October 1823 he was sent on a special 
commission to the West Indies. He returned 
in 1824, and was quartered for some years 
in Ireland. On 23 July 1830 he was pro- 
moted brevet-major and made a K.II. for his 
services in 1815. In September he was ap- 
pointed commanding royal engineer in New- 
foundland. On 1 9 Nov. 1831 he was promoted 
lieutenant-colonel. In October 1836 he re- 
turned to England, and was appointed to the 
command of the royal engineers at Jersey. 
In March 1839 he was sent to Canada as 
commanding royal engineer and colonel on 
the stafi*. He was there during the rebellion 
and rendered good service. On 9 Nov. 1841 
he was promoted colonel in the army, and 
appointed aide-de-camp to the queen. He 
retumed from Canada m the spring of 1843, 
and was appointed commandmg royal en- 
gineer in the western district, lie was pro- 
moted regimental colonel on 9 Nov. 1846, 
and was appointed to command the royal en- 
gineers in Ireland in 1848. On 20 June 1854 
he was promoted major-general, and went to 
live at Westboume. He became lieutenant- 
general on 10 May 1859. He was made a 
colonel-commandant of the corps of royal 
engineers on 25 Oct. 1859, and was pro- 
moted general on 3 April 1862. He died at 
Emsworth on 2 Aug. 1863, and was buried 
at Westboume. 

Oldfield was thrice married: first, on 
12 March 1810, at Dorchester, to Mary, 
daughter of Christopher Ardens, esq., of 
Dorchester, Dorset, by whom he had seven 
children (she died at Le Mans, France, on 
6 July 1820) ; secondly, on 8 July 1822, at 
Cheltenham, to Alicia, daughter of the Rev. 
T. Hume, rector of Arden, by whom he had 
eight children (she died at Plymouth on 
5 Feb.1840) ; and,thirdly, on 12 March 1849, 
at Plymouth, to Cordelia Anne, daughter of 
the Rev. D. Yonge (she survived him). 

Oldfield's eldest son, John Rawdon, was 
a colonel in the Bengal engineers ; Anthony, 
a captain in the royal artillery, was killed 
at Sebastopol ; Rudolphus, a captain in the 
royal navy, C.B., and aide-de-camp to the 
queen, died on 6 Feb. 1877 ; Richard was in 
tne royal artillery, and is now a general 




officer. Oldfield contributed * Memoranda | 
on the Use of Asphalte ' to the * Profes- j 
sional Papers of the Corps of the Royal Engi- j 
neers/ new ser. vols. iii. and v. ! 

[War Office Records ; Royal Engineers' Re- I 
cords; Despatches; private papers.] 

R. H. V . 

1729), presbyterian divine, second son of | 
John Oldfieltt or Otefield [q. v.], was bom at i 
Carsington, Derbyshire, on 2 Dec. 1666. His 
father gave him his early training ; he studied 
philosophy at Lincoln College, Oxford, and 
also at Christ's College, Cambridge, under 
Ralph Cudworth [q. v.] and Henry More 
(1614-1687) [q. v.] Refusing subscription, 
he did not graduate. He began life as chap- 
lain to Sir John Gell (</. 1689) of Ilopton 
Hall, Derbyshire. Next he was tutor to a son 
of Paul Foley [q. v.], afterwards speaker of 
the House of Commons. Foley offered him 
a living, but, after deliberation, he resolved 
to remain a nonconformist. (Calamy assigns 
the offer to Sir Philip Gell, d, 14 July 1719.) 
He then became chaplain, in Pembrokeshire, 
to Susan, daughter of John Holies, second 
earl of Clare, and widow of Sir John Lort. 
He crossed to Dublin, but declined an engage- 
ment there. Returning to England, he was 
for a sliort time assistant to John Turner (d, 
1092), an ejected presbvterian, then minis- 
tering in Fetter Lane, lie received presby- 
terian ordination, with three others, at Mans- 
field on 18 March 1687, his father and his 
uncle Richard Porter taking part in the cere- 
mony. Shortly afterwards he became the 
first pastor of a presbyterian congregation at 
Tooting, Surrev, said to have been partly 
founded by Defoe. 

Before February 1691 he had become 
minister of the presbyterian congregation at 
Oxford, where he renewed an intimacy with 
Edmund Calamy [q. v.], begun at Toot- 
ing. He had *a small auditory and very 
slender encouragement, but took a great deal 
of paius.^ He was shy at making friends 
with undergraduates; Calamy used to get 
liim to meet tliem at the coffee-house, when 
* they found he had a great deal more in him 
than they imagined.* With Henry Dod- 
well the elder [q. v.] and John Wallis, D.D. 

tq. v.], he formed friendships. At Oxford 
le took part in a public discussion on infant 
baptism, which considerably raised his repu- 

In 1694 he removed to Coventry as co- 
pastor with William Tong [q. vj of the pres- 
byterian congregation at the Leather Hall. 
Here lie started (before May 1695) an aca- 
demy for training students lor the ministry, 

in which Tong gave him some help. On 
6 Oct. 1697 he was cited to the ecclesiastical 
court for public teaching without license 
from the bishop. The case went from 
Coventry to Lichfield, and in November 
Oldfield went up to London and obtained a 
stay of ecclesiastical proceedings, transferring 
the suit to the king's bench. Here it was 
argued for several terms ; but Oldfield got 
the matter laid before William IH, and the 
suit was dropped on an intimation from the 
king that ' he was not plea8*d with such 

Oldfield left Coventry in 1699 to succeed 
Thomas Kentish as minister at Globe AUev, 
Maid Lane, Southwark, a chargepreviously 
held by his brother Nathaniel. lie brought 
his academy with him, and maintained it, 
first in Southwark, afterwards at Hoxton 
Square, where he was assisted by William 
Lorimer f 1641-1722) and John Spademan 

tq. v.], ana (after 1708) by Jean Cappel, who 
lad held the Hebrew chair at Saumur. Na- 
thaniel Lardner [q. v.] was for a short 
time at this academy in 1699 (perhaps also 
between 1703 and 1709). It gained the 
highest repute among dissenters. Early in 
his London career Oldfield became intimate 
with Locke, who was then engaged on his 
(posthumous) work on the Pauline epistles, 
lie made the acquaintance also of Sir Isaac 
Newton, who thought highly of his mathe- 
matical powers. On 2 May 1709, during 
Calamy's visit to Scotland, the degree of D.D. 
by diploma was conferred by Edinburgh Uni- 
versity on Calamv, Daniel Williams [q. v.], 
and Oldfield. By W^iUiams's wUl (1711), 
Oldfield was appointed an original trustee of 
his numerous foundations. 

It is worth noting that Oldfield preached 
the funeral sermon (1716) for Robert Fle- 
ming the younger [q. v.], the pioneer of the 
non-subscription ])rinciple. At the Salters* 
Hall conference [see Bradbury, Thomas] 
Oldfield was chosen moderator (19 Feb. 
1719), retained the chair after the secession 
of the subscribers, and signed the official 
letter in which the non-subscribers * utterly 
disown the Arian doctrine,' and maintain 
the doctrine of the Trinity and the proper 
divinity of our Lord. Lorimer, his colleague 
in the academy, was chosen moderator of 
the seceding subscribers, of whom Tong, his 
former colleague, now minister at Salters' 
Hall, was a strong supporter. It has been 
suggested that Oldfield's sympathies were on 
the same side, though as moderator he was 
bound to register the decision of the majority. 
This is not Dome out by his general attitude, 
nor by his somewhat arbitrary ruling on 
3 March, which was the immediate occasion 





of the split. His personal orthodoxy is placed 
beyond question by his pamphlet of 1721, 
but he underrated the consequences of the 

Oldfield had Benjamin Grosvenor, D.D. 
q. v.], as his assistant at Globe Alley from 
1700 till 1704. He thentook the whole duty; 
but his congregation dwindled, till in 1721 
it was revived by the appointment of Oba- 
diah Hughes, D.D. fq. v7|, as co-pastor. In 
April 1723 Oldfield was made one of the 
original agents for the distribution of the 
English regium donum. Late in life he had 
an apoj^lectic seizure, fell, and lost an eye. 
Otherwise he had good health, and under 
all reverses was patient and cheerful. He 
died on 8 Nov. 1729; funeral sermons were 
preached by William Harris [q. v.], and by 
Hughes. At Dr. Williams^s Library, Gordon 
Square, London, are a crayon portrait of 
him, and an oil-painting, which is engraved 
in Wilson's ' Dissenting Churches.' 

He published five separate sermons (1699- 
1721), including a thanksgiving sermon for 
the union wim Scotland (1707) and a 
funeral sermon for Fleming (1716); also: 
1. 'An Essay towards the Improvement of 
Human Reason in the Pursuit of Learning 
and Conduct of Life,' &c., 1707, 8vo. 2. ' A 
Brief, Practical and Pacific Discourse of 
God ; and of the Father, Son, and Spirit,' 
&C., 1721, Svo ; 2nd edit, with appendix, same 

[Fimeral sermons by Harris and Hughes, 1 730 ; 
Calamy't Abridgement, 1713, pp. 551 sq. (docu- 
ments connected with Oldfield's prosecution), 
and Own Life, 1830, i. 223, 264, 402, ii. 187, 
363, 410 sq., 439, 465, 525; Protestant Dis- 
senters* Mag., 1799, p. 13 ; Wilson's Dis- 
senting Churches of London, 1808, i. 78, 1814, 
iF. 160 sq., 392 ; Donton's Life, 1818, ii, 678 sq. 
(the * narrative of the Scotch commencement ' is 
untrustworthy) ; Bogue and Bennett's Hist, of 
Dissenters, 1833, ii. 213 sq. ; Sibree and Caston's 
Independency in Warwickshire, 1855, pp. 34 sq. ; 
Cat. of Edinburgh Graduates, 1858, p. 239 ; 
Wuddington*s Surrey Congregational Hist. 1866, 
p. 312 ; Jeremy's Presbyterian Fund, 1885, pp. 
102 sq.; Manuscript Minutes of Nottingham 
Classis; extract from Carsington Hegister, per 
the Rer. F. H. Brett] A. G. 

OLDFIELD, THOMAS (1756-1799), 
major royal marines, third son of Humphrey 
Oldfield, an officer in her majesty's marine 
forces, was bom at Stone, Staffordshire, on 
21 June 1756. His mother was a daughter of 
Major-general NichoUs, of the Honourable 
East India Company's service. His father 
died in America shortly after the affair of 
Bunker's HilL Oldfield accompanied his 
father to America in the autumn of 1774, or 

in the following spring. He served as a volun- 
teer with the marine battalion at Bunker's 
Hill on 17 June 1775. In this action he was 
twice wounded, and his wrist was perma- 
nently injured. After the action Oldfield 
accepted a commission in a provincial corps 
— it is believed Tarleton's legion. In 1776 
he took up a commission in the royal marines 
which was intended for his brother, although 
it was by an error made out in his name. 

Oldfield, who did not join the marines until 
the close of the American war, served with 
the 63rd regiment at the siege of Charleston, 
South Carolina, in 1780. He was promoted 
to a first lieutenancy in the royal marines 
on 16 April 1778, and, being distinguished 
by his intelligence and gallantry, was placed 
on the staff of the quartermaster-general's 
department. As deputy assistant-quarter- 
master-general he was attached to the head- 
quarters of the Marquis (then Lord) Com- 
wallis and to Lord Kawdon (afterwards 
Marquis of Hastings). He was constantly 
engaged under their immediate eye, and they 
repeatedly bore testimony to his zeal, gal- 
lantry, and ability. Oldfield was taken 
prisoner with Lord Comwallis at the capitu- 
lation of Yorktown. 

At the termination of the war Oldfield 
went to England, and was quartered at 
Portsmouth, when he purchased a small place 
in the parish of Westboume. He named it 
Oldfield Lawn, and it is still in possession 
of the family. In 1788 Oldfield went to the 
West Indies, returning in very bad health. 
In 1793 he was promoted captain, and again 
went to the AN est Indies m the Sceptre, 
64 guns. Captain Dacres. In 1794 Oldfield 
commanded the royal marines landed from 
the squadron to co-operate with the army in 
the island of St. Domingo. Oldfield dis- 
tinguished himself on every occasion that 
offered. In storming one of the enemy's 
works at Cape Nicholas mole, he was the 
first to enter it, and with his own hand 
struck the enemy's colours, which are now 
in possession of the family. He returned to 
England in the autumn of 1795 in precarious 

In 1796 Oldfield was employed on the re- 
cruiting service at Manchester and Warring- 
ton. The following year he embarked on 
board the Theseus, 74 guns, and sailed to join 
the squadron under the orders of the Earl 
of St. Vincent off Cadiz. Upon the Theseus 
reaching her destination she became the flafl^- 
ship of Nelson, then a rear-admiral. Oldfield 
was engaged in two bombardments of Cadiz 
in June 1797, in one of which he was wounded 
while in the boat with the admiral. 

Immediately after the second bombard- 




ment he sailed in the Theseus, accompanied 
by a small squadron, for Teneriffe. In the 
pliant but unsuccessful attempt upon this 
island Oldfield commanded the K>rce of royal 
marines which effected a landing from the 
squadron. His boat was swamped, but he 
swam to shore, and on landing received a 
contusion in the right knee. He materially 
contributed to the saving of the British 
detachment, whose temerity in attacking with 
so inferior a force was only equalled by the 
gallantry with which they carried the attack 
into execut ion. Its failure may be attributed 
to the loss of the cutter Fox, lO guns, which 
was sunk by the enemy's fire, with a con- 
siderabh' part of the force destined for the 
enterprise. It was in this affair that Nelson 
lost his arm. In a private letter, written 
after the battle of the Nile, Oldfield said 
that * it was by no means so severe as the 
affair at Teneriffe, or the second night of the 
bombardment of Cadiz.' 

Until the Theseus was detached to join 
Nelson (who had shifted his flag to the Van- 
guard, and gone in pursuit 01 the French 
squadron up the Mediterranean), Oldfield re- 
mainiKl with the fleet under the orders of 
the Earl of St. Vincent. At the battle of 
the Nile Oldfield was the senior officer of 
royal marines in the fleet, and obtained the 
rank of major for his services, his commission 
dating 7 Oct. 1798. Oldfield relates in a 
private lottiT how, after the disnjmointment 
of not finding the French fleet at Alexandria, 
the Zealous made the signal at midday on 
1 Aug. that it was in the bay of Aboukir. 
At half-past three the French fleet was 
plainly seen, and an hour afterwards Nelson 
bade the Theseus go ahead of him. Oldfield 
in the Theseus was alongside the Gucrrier 
at a quarter to seven o'clock, and having 
poured in a broadside which carried away 
ner main and mizen masts, he passed on to 
the Spartiole and anchored abreast of her, 
the admiral anchoring on the other side ten 
minutes later. After the action ( )ldfield was 
sent with his marines on board the Tonnant, 
and from 1 to 14 Aug. he only occasionally 
lay down on deck. Upwards of six hundred 
prisoners were on board, of whom 150 were 
wounded. Nelson sent word to ( )ldfield that 
nothing would give him greater pleasure than 
to serve him; but Oldfield replied that he 
wanted nothing. 

The Theseus remained for some time at 
Gibraltar and Lisbon to repair damages. 
Early in the spring of 17JI9 she sailed to 
join Sir Sidney Smith off the coast of Syria, 
and Oldfield took part in the defence of St. 
Jean d'Acre. On 7 April, at daybreak, a 
8ortie in three columns was made, Oldfield 

commanding the centre column, which was 
to penetrate to the entrance of the French 
mine. The French narrative of General 
Berthier, chef d'6tat-major of the French 
army in Egypt, relates how Oldfield's column 
advanced to the entrance of the mine and 
attacked like heroes ; how 01dfield*8 body was 
carried off by their grenadiers and brought to 
the French headq uarters. He was dying when 
taken, and breathed his last before he reached 
headquarters. * His sword,' says Berthier, * to 
which he had done so much honour, was also 
honoured after his death. . . . He was 
buried among us, and he has carried with him 
to the grave the esteem of the French armv.' 
His gallant conduct was eulogised in tbe 
official despatch of Sir Sidney Smith, and 
Napoleon, when on passage to St. Helena, 
spoKe of Oldfield's gallantry to the marine 
officers on board the Northumberland. 

Oldfield was of middle stature and dark 
complexion. He was of a social and gene- 
rous disposition, and had a strong sense of 
religion. A tablet in his memory has been 
erected in the garrison chapel at I^ortsmouth. 

[Despatches; Memoirs printed for private 
circulation.] R. H. V. 

BURLEY (1755-1822), political historian 
and antiquary, bom in 1755, was according 
to the * Gentleman's Magazine,' 1822, pt. ii. 
p. 566,* an attorney of great celebrity.' His 
name, however, is unknown to the *Law 
List.' He died at Exeter on 25 July 1822. 
Oldfield was a zealous pioneer of parlia- 
mentary reform, and the author of (1) * An 
Entire and Complete History, Political and 
Personal, of the Boroughs of Great Britain, 
together with the Cinque Ports ; to which is 
prefixed an original Sketch of constitutional 
rights from the earliest Period until the pre- 
sent Time,' &c., London, 1792, 3 vols. 8vo; 
2nd ed. 1704, 2 vols. 8vo. (2^ * Histoir of 
the Original Constitution of Parliaments from 
the Time of the Britons to the present Dav ; 
to which is added the present State of tlie 
Representation,' London, 1797, 8vo. 

Both works were subsequently reprinted 
under the title * A Complete History, Politi- 
cal and Personal, of the Boroughs of Great 
Britain, together with the Cinque Ports; 
To which is now first added the History of the 
Original Constitution of Parliaments,' &c., 
London (no date), 3 vols. 8yo. A final edi- 
tion, revised and amplified, entitled *The 
Representative History of Great Britain and 
Ireland; bein^ a History of the House of 
Commons, and of the Counties, Cities, and 
Boroughs of the United Kingdom from the 
earliest Period,' appeared in 1816, London, 

Oldhall los Oldham 

6 vols. 8vo. Oldfield also compiled ' A Key obtained his release and the reversal of his 

to the House of Commons, beinff a History outlawry and attainder on 9 Jul v. He was 

of the last General Election in 1818 ; and a again attainted in November 1459 as a fautor 

correct State of the virtual llepresentation and abettor of the recent Yorkist insurrec- 

of England and Wales/ London, 1820, 8vo. tion ; but on the accession of Edward IV the 

[Gent Mag. 1822, pt. ii. p. 666; Biogr. Diet, of attainder was treated as null and void. He 
Living Authors, 1816 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.; Edin- died between 1460 and 1406. Oldhall mar- 
burgh Review. June 1816.] J. M. R. ried Margaret, daughter of William, lord 

Willoughby of Eresby — buried in the church 

OLDHALL, Sir WILLIAM (1390 .»- of the Grey Friars, London-by whom he 

de Fransliam of the same county, was born q. v.), succeeded to Oldhall's Norfolk estates, 

about 1390. As an esquire in the retinue of and died in September 1400. An alleged son, 

Thomas Beaufort, earl of Dorset, afterwards Sir John Oldhall, appears to be mythical, 

duke of Exeter [q. v.l, he was present at the Besides his Norfolk estates Oldhall held (by 

siege of Uouen in 1418-19. lie also served purchase)the manors of East wich and Huns- 

underThomasdeMontacute,eurl of Salisbury don, Hertfordshire. On the latter estate he 

[q. v.], in the expedition for the relief of Cre- built, at the cost of seven thousand marks, a 

vant, July 1423, and won his spurs at the castellated brick mansion, which remained in 

hard-fought field of Vemeuil on 17 Aug. 1424. the crown, notwithstanding the avoidance of 

About this date he was made seneschal of his second attainder, and was converted by 

Normandy. By his prowess in the subse- Henry VIII into a royal residence. In 1558 

Quent invasion of Maine and Anjou he further it was granted by Elizabeth to Sir Henry 

uistinguished himself, and was appointed Caryfq.v.] It has since been transformed 

constable of Montsoreau and governor of St. into the existing Ilunsdon House. 
Laurent des Mortiers. In the summer of 1426 [ArchaologiH, vol. xxxvii. pt. ii. p. 334 et seq. ; 

he was employed m Inlanders on a mission BlomeHeld's Norfolk, ed. Parkin ;Hair8Chron.ed. 

tothe Duke of Burgundy concerning Jacque- isoi.pp. 117, 121, 127, 140-1,225; Will. Wore, 

line, duchess of Gloucester, then a prisoner p. 89; Itin. pp. 160, 370; Letters and Papers 

in the duke*8 hands. In October 1 428 he was during the Reign of Henry VI (Rolls Ser.). 

J ^ ▲ .^ .^ \^ .m^ ^ LbBB A \m. ^^ ^^^^m « M« .««• 1 .«-«.* iV .#% l a ^y^fc «% «« ^ w^ 4- ^^ . 1 11 _ A. ^ Z ._ . Of OOP 0/\l JV1 1 £\ r ? A 7 1 

of the Duke of Alen^on. He was present KoH. ed. Devon, p. 477; Rot. Pari. v. 
at the great council held at Westminster, ^»- *36 ; Ramsay's Lancaster and Yor 

210, 349, 
ork. ii. 163, 

, . ^ U- I 1 J 1 r v 1 J ~.u^- 330, No. 33 ; Clutterbuck 8 Hertfordshire, iii. 179; 

km to Richard, duke of \ ork, and a member ^^^^^^.^ Heafordshire. • Hundred .>f Branch: 

of his council, and the following year was j , ^ - Manning's Lives of the Speakers.] 
made feoffee to his use and that of his duchess j^ ^1 j| 

Cecilia of certain royal manors. In the dis- 
astrous struggle for the retention of Nor- OLDHAM, HUGH (d. 1519), bishop of 

mandy he commanded the castle of La Fert6 Exeter, founder of the Manchester grammar 

Bernard, which fell into the hands of the school, and a great benefactor of Corpus 

French on 16 Augr. 1449. Christi College, Oxford, was a native of Lan- 

Oldhall was with the Duke of York in cashire. This fact is expressly stated in the 

Wales in September 1450; was returned to original statutes of Corpus Christi College, 

parliament for Hertfordshire on 15 Oct. of where one fellowship and one scholarship 

the same year, and on 9 Nov. following was were appropriated to that county in his 

chosen speaker of the House of Commons, honour, but the exact place, as w^ell as the 

Indicted in 1452 for complicity in the in- date, of his birth is uncertain. Mr. Cooper 

8um?ction of Jack Cade and the subsequent {Atherus Cantabr.) thinks it was Crumpsell 

rebellion of the Duke of York, he was found in the parish of Manchester, whereas Roger 

fuilty, outlawed, and attainted on 22 June. Dodsworth maintains that it w^as Oldham. 

[e took sanctuary in the chapel royal of William Oldham, abbot of St. Werburgh, 

St. Martins-le-Orand,' where he remained in Chester, and bishop of Man, is said to have 

custody of the king^s valet until after the been his brother. He was educated in the 

battle of St. Albans on 22 May 1455, but household of Thomas Stanley, earl of Derby, 


1 06 


of whom Margaret of Richmond was the 
third wife, together with James Stanley, 
afterwards bishop of Ely, and William Smith, 
afterwards bishop of Lincoln, founder of 
Brasenose, and a great benefactor of Lincoln 
College, Oxford. With the latter prelate he 
is said to have maintained a lifelong friend- 
ship. Oldham went first to Oxford, but sub- 
sequently removed to Queens* College, Cam- 
bridge. He was chaplain to the 'Lady 
Marfifaret,' countess of Kichmond and Derby 
(with whom, perhaps, he first became ac- 
quainted while in the household of Thomas 
Stanley \ and was the recipient of a vast 
amount of preferment, among which may 
bo enumerated, though the list is by no 
means exhaustive, the rectory of St. Mildred, 
Bread Street, the deanery of Wimbome 
Minster, the archdeaconry of Exeter, the 
rectories of Swineshead, Lincolnshire, Ches- 
hunt, Hertfordshire, and Overton, Hamp- 
shire : t!ie masterships of the hospitals of St. 
John, Lichfield, and St. Leonard, Bedford; 
the pn^bends of Newington in the church of 
St. Paul, of Leighton Buzzard in the church 
of Lincoln, of South Cave in the church of 
York, &c. That, even before his elevation 
to the e])iscopate, he was an ecclesiastic of 
much consideration, appears from the fact 
thut on 24 Jan. 1503 (see Holinsheb, Chro- 
nicU'if) he was selected, together with the 
abbot John Islip [q. v."!, Sir Reginald Bray 
[q. v.] the architect (of^whom he was after- 
wanls executor"), and others, to lay the first 
stone of Henri' VII*s chapi^l in Westminster 
Abb»'y. Ultimately, by a bull of provision on 
27 Nov. 1504, he was j)romoted to the bishop- 
ric of PiXeter. During the period from 1510 to 
151.*J hp was engaged, together with Bishops 
Foxe, Fitz-James, and Smith, in the long 
altercation with Warliam, archbishop of Can- 
terbury, as to the prerogatives of the arch- 
bishop with regard to the probate of wills and 
the administration ofthe estates of intestates, 
a cause which, having been unduly sj)un out 
in the papal court, was finally referred to the 
king, who decided the points mainly in favour 
of the bishops. It must have been some 
time between 1513 and 1516 that Old- 
ham, according to the common story as told 
by John Hooker, alias Vowell, in Holinshed*s 
* Chronicles,* advised his friend Bishop Foxe 
[see Foxe, Richard] to desist from his 
design of building a college in Oxford for the 
reception of young monks belonging to St. 
Swit bin's monastery at Winchester while 
pursuing their academical studies, and to 
found instead a larger establLshment for the 
education of the secular clergy. * What, my 
l^rd.* he is represented as saying, with re- 
Uible prescience, if the story be accurately 

reported, ' shall we build houses and provide 
livelihoods for a company of bussing monks, 
whose end and fall we ourselves may live to 
see P No, no ! it is more meet a great deal 
that we should have care to provide for the 
increase of learning, and for such as who by 
their learning shall do good in the church 
and commonwealth.' The result of this 
advice was the foundation of Corpus Christi 
College, as ultimately settled in 1516 and 
1517, towards which object Oldham, be- 
sides other gifts, contributed what was then 
the large sum of six thousand marks. In 
return for these temporal gifts a daily 
mass was appointed by the founder, to be 
said in the chapel of the new college for 
Oldham, at the altar of the Holy Trinity — 
during his lifetime, ' pro bono et felici statu : ' 
after his death, for his soul and those of his 
parents and benefactors. The bishop died on 
25 June 1519 (more than nine years before 
his friend Bishop Foxe), being at that time, 
it is said, under excommunication on account 
of a dispute concerning jurisdiction in which 
he was mvolved with the abbot of Tavistock. 
He is buried in a chapel erected by himself 
in Exeter Cathedral, where there is a monu- 
ment bearing a striking, though somewhat 
coarsely executed, recumbent figure, recently 
restorecl by Corpus Christi College. Bishop 
Foxe was one of the executors of his will, 
and he desired that, in case he died out of 
his diocese, he should be buried in the chapel 
of Corpus. 

Francis Godwin, in his ' Catalogue of the 
Bishops of England,* says of Oldham: 'A 
man of more devotion than learning, some- 
what rough in speech, but in deed and action 
friendly. He was careful in the sa\'ing and 
defending of his liberties, for which con- 
tinual suits^were between him and the abbot 
of Tavistock. . . . Albeit he was not verv 
well learned, yet a great favourer and a 
furtherer of learning he was.' Godwin says 
that he could not be buried till an absolution 
was procured from llome. Possibly Oldham's 
ill opinion of the monks may have been con- 
nected with the ^continual suits between 
him and the abbot of Tavistock.' 

Oldham is now chiefly known as the 
founder of the Manchester grammar school. 
The various conveyances of the property 
which constitutes the endowment of the 
school are dated respectively 20 Aug. 1515, 
11 Oct. 1515, and 1 April 1525 ; but the 
statutes, which are a schedule to the inden- 
ture of feoffment, bear the last date. 

In the hall of Corpus there is a very fine 
portrait of Oldham, of unknown workman- 
ship, but evidently contemporary. There is 
a good engraving of this portrait by W. Holl. 




There is also another engraving — hnt whether 
it was taken from the same original or not is 
difBcult to say — sketched and published by 
S. Harding. No original is named on the 

[The present writer's Hist, of C.C.C. pub- 
lished by the Oxf. Hist. Soc. ; Cooper's Athense 
Cantabr. ; Whatton*8 Hist, of Manchester School; 
Wood's Athena Oxon. ; Godwin's Cat. of the 
Bishops of England ; Holinshed's Chronicles ; 
Archbishop Parker, De Antiquitate Britannicse 
Ecclesise ; Espinasse's Worthies of Lancashire.] 


OLDHAM, JOHN (1600 P-1636), one of 
the ' pilgrim ' settlers in New England, was 
bom in England about 1600. He arrived 
at Plymouth, New England, by the ship 
Anne in July 1623. He and nine others were 
* particulars,' or private adventurers, and did 
not belong to the regular body of the colonists. 
He brought a wiie, and probably children 
and servants, and was a man of some im- 
portance, as in the allotments at Plymouth 
in 1624 ten acres were assigned to him and 
his dependents, being more than to any other 
person. Soon after his arrival he was mvited 
by the governor to take a seat at the counciL 
lie ' was a man of parts,' says Nathaniel 
Morton, ' but high spirited, and extremehr 
passionate, which marred all' (^New England! 9 
Memorialy 1855, p. 79). One cause of his 
unpopularity may oe explained by his episco- 
palian views. With another restless person, 
John Lyford, a minister, he attempted ' re- 
formations in church and commonwealth.' 
The governor called a court ; the two were 
charged with plotting against church and 
state, and expelled the cplony, although 
Oldham's wife and family were allowed to 
remain (ib. pp. 75-6). Oldham went to Nan- 
tasket, afterwards known as Hull, whither 
he was followed by Roger Conant and Lyford. 
In April 1625 he returned to Plymouth with- 
out permission, and was expelled a second 
time in an ignominious manner. 

The Dorchester advent urere, who had com- 
menced a settlement at Cape Ann, chose 
Conant as governor, and asked Oldham, who 
had great sKill in dealing with the natives, 
to manage their Indian trade. He preferred 
to remain independent at Nantasket. In 1626 
he took a voyage to Virginia, and was 
wrecked on Cape Cod. In the midst of 
danger he made ' a free and large confession 
of the wrongs he had done to the church 
and people of Plimouth ' {ih. p. 78), regained 
the conndence of the colonists, and was en- 
trusted b}r them to convey a rioter to Eng- 
land. While in England he and John Dorrell 
purchased a lam tract of land near the 
mouth of the Charles river, title to which 

was contested by the company (first general 
letter to Endicott, 17 April 1629, in Young, 
Chronicles, 1846, pp. 147-50). He is believed 
to have returned to America in 1 629. A 

frant was registered to him and another, 
2 Feb. 1630, of a tract of country, four 
miles by eight, on the Saco river (Doyle, 
The English in America, 1887, i. 431). On 
18 May 1631 he was admitted a freeman. 

He was one of the first settlers in Water- 
town, where a larger measure of civil and 
religious liberty prevailed than in any of the 
other early plantations about the bay (Bond, 
Family Memorials of Watertown, Boston, 
1855, p. 863). Oldham doubtless took an 
active part in the resistance of the Water- 
town people to taxation without representa- 
tion, and in May 1632 he was appointed the 
representative of that town at the first meet- 
ing of the deputies of the several plantations 
which met to confer with the court about 
levying taxes for public purposes ( WiifTHBOP, 
History of New England, 1853, i. 91-2). 
His house at Watertown, near the weir, was 
burnt on 14 Aug. 1632 (1^. i. 104). He was 
the projector 01 the first plantation on the 
river or in the state of Connecticut. He tra- 
velled from Boston in 1633, with three com- 
panions, following the Indian trails, and 
lodging in their cabins (ib. i. 132). He was 
chairman of the first committee appointed by 
the court to consider the question of the en- 
largement of Boston. In September 1634 he 
was made * overseer of powder and shot and 
all other ammunition for Watertown and 
Medford ' (Bond, p. 863). 

In November 1634 the Indian chief 
Canonicus gave Oldham an island of one 
thousand acres in Narragansett Bay (WiN- 
THBOF, i. 175). Oldham and some of his 
fellow-townsmen took possession of Pyquag, 
on the Connecticut, and named it Water- 
town, changed to Wethersfield by the court 
on 21 Feb. 1G36-7. In May 1635, though 
not re-elected deputy, he was one of the 
committee appointed to report on the charge 
against Endecott of having defaced the king's 

Oldham was murdered by Indians in July 
1636, near Block Island, Rhode Island, while 
trading in his pinnace with the natives along 
the shore of Narragansett Bay (ib. i. 225-34 ; 
HiTBBARD, General History of New England^ 
1848, pp. 248-9). The murder was one of 
the causes of the Pequot war. His afiairs 
seem to have been left in an involved state 
(Savage, Genealogical Dictionary of First 
Settlers, 1861, iii. 308). 

[Besides the authorities quoted in the text, see 
Farmer's Genealogical Begister of First Settlers, 
Lane 1829; Francis'sHistorical Sketch of Water- 

Oldham io8 Oldham 

town, Cambr. 1830 ; Thacher's History of New Dorset, Sir Charles Sedley, and some other 
Plymouth, Bostou, 1835; Cheever's Journal of fine gentlemen and wits, who, in the first 
the Pilgrims at Plymouth, N.Y.. 1848; Young's instance, mistook for him the aired head- 
Chronicles of the I irst SetUers in Mass^husetts, ^^ter of the school. But though Oldham 

first of Oldham's ' Satires upon the Jesuits' 
(an expression of the popular panic at the 

Newton in Wiltshire, where he was'silenced' *'^t°* ^M 'PoP!^ plot ') and the ^^^?^ 

in lfifi2. served a small congregation at l^**"*^'"** ™«' 'P«'^"*=*J?"lJ'«r«» 

Edge in Gloucesterlhire, and '".'*« ^"J °P«? *° *•»« "^^ 9^ ft^*'""" 

ourable repute till about 1725 alwm.ana reprinted accoi^ngljrin 1680 in an 

Puritan Commonwealth, Boston, 1856; Martyn's w^othmg to show tlmt his meeting with 
Pilgrim Fathers of New England, N. Y., 1867 ; \t^ J?*?, ^^^^ ^^\ ^?^^ ^F° ^« <^*'^®®'- 
Winsor's Memorial History of Boston, 1882, i. He left Croydon m 1678, and seems m the 
79, 253 ; Goodwin's PuriUin Conspiracy, Boston, same year, on the recommendation of a har- 
1 883, and Pilgrim Republic, 1 888 ; Palfrey's Com- rister, Harman Atwood, whose death shortly 
pendious History of New England, Boston, 1884, afterwards he celebrated in a panegyrical 
vol. i. ; ■ Appleton's Cycloptfcdia of American : ode, to have accepted the post of tutor to 
Biography, New York, 1888, iv. 570.] 1 the grandsons of Sir Edward Thurland (not 

H. R. T. I Theveland), a retired judge, residing near 

OLDHAM, JOHN (16.53-1683), poet, ' S^^^J« (^^^T^' ;P»«7» ^^^^^ ^^^^^ 
was bom at Shipton-Moyne, near Tetbur^; ^^^ ^^^T?^k ^"^^ ^^L 
in Gloucestershire, 9 Aug. 16o3. John Old- ' w^^^'?,^!'*^, ^^" P"?*^' according to 
ham,hi8pandfather,wasrectorofNuneaton. ^ood without the authors consent, the 
John Oldham, his father, after residing as a 
nonconformist minister at Shipton, and at 
Newton in Wiltshire, where he was 'silenced ' 
in 1(562, served a small congregation at 
Wotton-under-Edge in ' 

survived in honourable »ww«vv. v***».^v«vx.-«v^ ,... r «- i. ^ » <t^ - -» n« t t 
(CAtAMT and Palmer, Nonconformist', Me- ^'^^""f^ llochester a ' Poenu..' The whole 
morial, 1803, iii. 368). These data both help ''^.}}'\! ^^^. "I»" }^t ,-l?i'"V tether 
to account for the straitened circumstances "^^^ *•»« Satire agwnst Virtue' and other 

under which Oldham entered life, and refute P'«'=^'' ''f,'* T^'^'^lior '^"'i''* "^^^ ^^^' 
the incredible tradition that his scurrilous *'"'" » a^H^onty, m 1681 ; and m the same 
' Character of a certain Ugly Old Priest' yf^ appeared a volume containing a number 
was 'written upon' his father (see Work*, °^ paraj.hraaes and onginal pieces which 
ed Thompson ni 16'' n) seemed to him hkely to catch the ear of the 

After receiving his'earlier education from *°Y"- , ^"* ^"''*"' ""^ convinced of the 
his father, and at Tetbury grammar school, f°"y f ^T""^""! IJPP? ^^^r ('-e-Jfterary 
where he is stated to have begun his career Y^J^)^^ *^« **? .« ,1'^®- v^*^*"* *'*'* J""" 
as a private tutor by assisting in his studies 0^^) 'L^l.^H^..^ W'"'^.^^*""* tutor to 
the sSn of a IJrisfol alderman, Oldham en- *•"« ^^ °^ ^ir WilLam Ilickes, at his resi- 
tered at St. Edmund Hall, O.xford, in 1670. ^ence near London fhrouffh him he became 
Although his ability and attainments are acquainted with the celebrated physician 
said to have found roco^ition h.-rn. ),«; Pr. Kichard Lower [q. v.], by whose advice 

to the 
„ no spe- 

ing"year"he"VufferJd" the\oss 'of lis' school i cific mention of niedicine among the 'thriving 
and college friend, Charles Jlorwent, the son »[** 1°" ^i}""^ ''* suWquently declined to 
of a lawyer at Tetburv, to whose memory abandon his muse. He is further said to 
he dedicated the elaborate of his poems ' •"*'« '«'^"*«'* »" °*'«'" °^ fe""- ^Vlmam Ilickes 
Soon after this he began life in the humble I *° accompany his son on an Italian tour. He 
position of usher in Archbishop Whitgiffs ' wasmuchbefriendedby the Earl of Kingston 
free school (since the parish school) atCroy- i (^V"'^'?'«i it"^^?"*' "^^^ ^".^ceeded to the 
don, where he remained about three yeare. *'*!? '° 1^-')' '""\." even said to have been 
In one of his satires, 'To a Friend ab6ut to . 'nyited by him to become his domestic chap- 
leave the University,' he gave vent to his [ ^'"?- ^''^ >"« ^^ unwilling either to take 
hatred of the position occupied bv him at ' ?'"<^'''« or to essay an experience which he 
this 'Grammar-1l$ride%vell ' ( U'orks.'m. 22) : ' ^»« graphically satirised in some of his best 

^ known lines ('Some think themselves ex- 

alted to the Sky,' &c., in ' A Satire to a 
Friend about to leave the University' in 

A Dancing- Muiitcr shall be better paid, 

Tho' ho instructs the Heels, and you the Head. 

During Oldham's residence at Croydon he Workt, iii. 23-4). In his last days he became 
is said to have received a visit from Rochester, personally known to Diyden and oUier wits 




of the town. It was at Lord Kingston's seat, 
Holme-Pierrepointy near Nottingham, that 
Oldham died of the small-pox, 9 Dec. 1683. 
One of the monuments in the fine church 
of the village commemorates the admiration 
cherished for him hy ' his patron ' (see the 
epitaph in Wood). The graceful tribute paid 
to his memory b^ Waller (which mentions 
Burnet among his admirers), and still more 
the noble lines of Drjden, show that his loss 
was felt in the contemporary world of letters. 
The imputation of malignity to Dryden, on 
the flrround of a perfectly just criticism 
frankly offered in his lines, is properly re- 
j»*cted by Sir Walter Scott {Drydews Works^ 
1808, XI. 99 seq.) Tom Brown addressed a 
eulogistic poem ' to the memory of John Old- 
ham • ( Works, iv. 244, ed. 1744). 

According to Oldham*s biographer, Thomp- 
son, 'his person was tall and thin, which 
was much owing to a consumptive com- 
plaint, but was greatly increased by study ; 
his face was long, his nose prominent, his 
aspect unpromising, but satire was in his eye.' 
Bliss mentions a portrait of him, in flowing 
locks and a long loose handkerchief round his 
head, engraved by Vandergucht, which was 
prefixed to the 1704 edition of his * Works ' 
(Bboxlet). Another portrait, painted by 
W. Dobson and engraved by Scheneker, is 
in Ilardinfl^'s 'Biographical Mirrour,' 1792. 

Oldham s productions deserve more notice 
than they have received. Their own original 
power is notable. I'ope, and perhaps other 
of our chief eighteentn-century poets, were 
under important literary obligations to their 
author. The chief of them are here grouped 
according to form and species. 

Whether or no the iWdaric dedicated by 
Oldham ' to the memory of my dear friend, 
Mr. Charles Morwent,' in date of composi- 
tion preceded his most celebrated ' Satires,' 
it must be described as the most finished pro- 
duct of his genius, and as entitled to no mean 
place in English 'In Memoriam' poetry. 
Cowley is evidently the master followed m 
this ode. Oldham's other Pindaric, in re- 
membrance of ' Mr. Harman Atwood,' is a 
less ambitious and less successful effort of 
the same kind. Among his other lyrical 
pieces may be mentioned his ode ' The Praise 
of Homer,' uninteresting except that one pas- 
sage in it conveys a suggestion of Gray ; that 
* Upon the Works of Ben Jonson,' an early 
piece, but neither inadequate nor hackneyed 
in its appreciation ofJonson's cardinal quali- 
ties ; ana, by way of a comparison not favour- 
able to Oldham, the ode for an ' Anniversary 
of Music on St. Cecilia's Day,' set to music by 
Dr. John Blow fa. v.] Some of his paraphrases 
of classical ana DibUcal poetry were likewise 

composed, without particular effectiveness, 
in the same metre, for which the ode ' Upon 
the Marriage of the Prince of Orange with 
the Lady Mary ' likewise shows him to have 
been lacking in natural impulse. The noto- 
riety of the lyric first known as * A Satire 
against Virtue ' was chiefly due to the density 
01 a public not accustomed to think for itself. 
Its irony, of which the vein is not peculiarly 
fine, was so imperfectly understood that he 
found himself oblig^ed first to explain his 

* different taste of wit 'in an * Apology ' (in 
heroic couplets), and then to indite a * Coun- 
terpart ' oae to the * Satire against Virtue,' 
commonplace in itself but for the daring 
Sira^ "kfyofiivov in its contemptuous refer- 
ence to * all the Under-sheriff-alities of Life.' 
Less mistakable is the Ivric ironv of the 

» Br 

* Dithyrambic ' (written in August 1677) in 
praise of drink, purporting to be ^ A Drunkard's 
Speech in a Masque.' 

From Oldham's avowal in the * Apology ' 
for the so-called ' Satire against Virtue ' that. 

Had he a Genius, and Poetic Rage 
Great as the Vices of this guilty Age, 

he would turn to ' noble Satire,' it may be 
concluded that up to this time (1679 or 
1680) his only attempt in this direction had 
been * Garnet's Ghost,' surreptitiously pub- 
lished as a broadsheet in 1679. The * Satires 
upon the Jesuits,' of which this was in 1681 
reprinted as the first, together with the pro- 
logue, stated to have been wTitten in 1679, 
' upon Occasion of the Plot,' are the best 
known among his works. The unrestrained 
violence of these diatribes may find some 
sort of palliation in the frenzv which they 
flattered. But Pope was well within the 
mark when he spoke of Oldliam as ' a very 
indelicate writer ; he has strong rage, but 
it is too much like Billingsgate ' (Sfence, 
Anecdotes, Singer's edit. 18t^0, p. 19 ; cf. ib, 
p. 136). ' Satire IV,' which Pope singled 
out from the rest as one of its author's most 
notable productions, is a clover adaptation 
of Horace's * Satires,' i. viii. (* Olim truncus 
eram,' &c.) 

In his biting * Satire upon a Woman, who 
by her Falsehood and Scorn was the Death 
of my Friend,' where full play is given both 
to his feverish energy and to his prurient 
fancy, the abruptness of the opening — a 
favourite device of the author's — should be 
noticed. But his gift of simulating wrath is 
perhaps best exemplified in his * Satire upon 
a Printer.' Horace, rather than Juvenal, 
was his model in the * iA'ttJT fn)m the 
Country to a Friend in Town, giving an 
Account of the Author's Inclination to 
Poetry,' one of the pleasant est as well as 




wittiest of his pieces, ending with a spirited 
rush. Pope's * Epistle to Arbuthnot ' may 
have owed something to this * Letter.* There 
is more bitterness, but equal vivacity, in his 
' Satire addressed to a Friend about to leave 
the University and come abroad in the World/ 
which closes with a fable, excellently told. 
More ambitious, but real I v inadequate and 
low in tone, is the * Satire in which Spenser 
is introduced, ' dissuading the Author from 
the Study of Poetry.* The passage referring 
to the calamities of authors has been often 

While in * original * satire Oldham cannot 
be said to have reached the height to which 
he was desirous of climbing, he is memorable 
in our poetic literature as one of the pre- 
decessors of Pope in the * imitative * or adapt- 
ing species of satirical and didactic verse. 
Boileau (certain of whose imitations were in 
their turn imitated by Oldham) had revived 
the popularity of the device of paraphrasing 
Latin satirical poetry while applving to 
modem instances it^ references and allusions. 
Oldham's first attempt in this direction 
seems to have been nis 'Horace's Art of 
Poetry, imitated in English, addressed by 
way of Letter to a Friend,* 1681 (see the 
' Preface *). But the same * libertine ' way, 
as he calls it, was more lightly and yet more 
completely pursued by him in his imitation 
of Horace's * Satires,' i. ix. (* Ibam forte via 
sacra * — * As 1 was walking in the Mall of 
late '), and in the other Horatian paraphrases 
and similar pieces published by liim in the 
same year. Most of these, which include re- 
productions of Horace, Juvenal, Virgil, Ovid, 
Catullus, Martial, as well as of Bion and 
Moschus, the Psalms, and Boileau, are in 
the heroic couplet ; but some of the lyrics 
are translated in Pindaric, i.e. irregular, 

Oldham's verse lacks finish, a defect spe- 
cially noticeable in a looseness of rhyme and 
in what Drvden censured as 

The harsh Cadence of a rugged Line. 

Of prose Oldham left behind him nothing 
beyond the * Character of a certain Ugly Old 
Priest,* an unpleasing effort in the grotesque, 
and a skotch entitled * A Sunday Thought 
in Sickness,' which contains certain resem- 
blances, probably unintentional, to the closing 
scene of Marlowe's * Doctor Faustus.' 

An ttdition of * Poems and Translations ' 
by Oldham was published in 1083, and one 
of his ' llenmins in Verse and Prose,* with a 
series of commendatory verses (including 
Dryden's ), in the following year. Subsequent 
editions of his works are dated 1685, 1686, 
1GU8, 1703, and 1722 ; but some of these 

may be merely made up by booksellers. 
Those of 1685 and 1686 are identical, except 
as to the date. The most complete edition 
is that cited in the text, by the eccentric 
* half-pay poet * Edward Thompson, in 3 vols. 
12mo, 1770. It is prefaced by a brief me- 
moir, and a statement of the editors 'point 
of view.* The notes are meagre and inaccu- 

[The Compositions in Prose and Verse of Mr. 
John Oldham, to which are added Memoirs of 
his Life ... by Edward Thompeon, 3 vols. 
1770; Granger^s Biog. Hist. 1779, if. 48; 
Wood's Athene Oxon. ed. Bliss, iv. 119; Biog. 
Brit. ; Seward's Anecdotes, ii. 167 ; Pope's 
Works, ed. Elwin and Courthope, passim; 
Wood's Life and Times (Oxf. Hist. Soc.), iii. 82- 
83 ; Dunton's Life and Errors ; Chalmers s Biog. 
Diet.] A. W. W. 

OLDHAM, JOHN (1779-1840), engineer, 
bom in 1779 in Dublin, was apprenticed 
to an engraver there, but subsequently be- 
came a mmiature-painter. Having a strong 
inclination formecnanic8,he invented a num- 
bering machine, which in 1809 he unsuccess- 
fully offered to the bank of Newry for num- 
bering their bank-notes. In 1812 the ma- 
chine was adopted by the Bank of Lreland, 
and he received the appointment of engineer 
and chief engraver. In 1837 he entered the 
service of the Bank of England, where he 
introduced many improvements in the 
machineryfor printing and numbering bank- 
notes. This machinery continued in use 
until 1852-3, when the system of surface- 
printing was adopted. He paid much atten- 
tion to marine propulsion, and in 1817 he 
obtained a patent (rio. 4169) for propelling 
ships by means of paddles worked by a steam- 
engine, an endeavour being made to imitate 
the motion of a paddle when used in the 
ordinary way. In 1820 he patented a fur- 
ther improvement (No. 4249), the paddles 
being placed on a shaft across the ship, and 
caused to revolve, being feathered by an 
adaptation of the gearing used in the former 
patent. Though a very imperfect contriv- 
ance, it has an interest from the fact that it 
was used in the Aaron Manby, the first sea- 
going iron ship ever constructed [see Manby, 
Aaeox]. a further development of the idea 
resulted in the construction of a feathering 
paddle-wheel, which was patented in 1827 
(No. 5455). His system of warming build- 
ings, introduced into the Bank of Ireland, and 
subsequently into the Bank of England, is 
described in the * Civil Engineer and Archi- 
tect's Journal,' 1839, p. 96. He died at his 
house in Montagu Street, Russell Square, on 
14 Feb. 1840, leaving, it is said, a family of 
seventeen children. 




IIU eldest son, Thomas Oldham (1801- 
1851), succeeded to his father's place at the 
bank. He was elected an associate of the 
Institution of Civil Engineers on 2 March 
1841, and in 1842 he read a paper 'On the 
Introduction of Letterpress l^inting for 
numbering and dating the Notes of the 
Bank of England ' Q^roceedings, 1842, p. 
166), and in the following year he con- 
tributed ' A Description of the Automatic 
Balance at the Bank of England invented 
by W. Cotton' {ib. 1848, p. 121). For the 
latter he received a Telfora medal. He died 
at Brussels on 7 Nov. 1851. 

[Mechanics* Magazine, xxxii. 400 ; Proceed- 
ings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, 1841, 
p. 14 ; Francises History of the Bank of Eng- 
land, ii. 232.] B. B. P. 

virtuoso, was the son of a dissenting minister. 
Early in life he went to India ' in a military 
capacity ' (Caulfield), but returned to Eng- 
land on inheriting from a near relation a for- 
tune said to be of 100,000/. In 1728 he was 
living at Ealing, Middlesex, where he occu- 
pied Ealixig House, formerly the residence of 
Sir James Montagu (1666-1723) [q. v.], baron 
of the exchequer (Lysons, Environs of Lon- 
don, ii. 228 ; Walpobd, Greater London, i. 
21). He had another house at Witton, near 
Hounslow, and a London house in South- 
ampton Row, Bloomsbury. He was intimate 
with Sir Hans Sloane, Dr. Mead, and other 
collectors, and began to collect natural and 
artificial curiosities, though with little taste 
or judgment. A ' choice collection of but- 
terflies ' was one of his principal acquisitions. 
He was a constant visitor at ' Don Saltero's ' 
coffee-house at Chelsea, where he used to 
meet Sloane and others, and compare shells, 
plants, and insects. He patronised the arts, 
collected paintings, and had also a taste for 
the turf. He was at length compelled bj 
his extravagant expenditure (chieny on his 
collections) to take refuge from his creditors 
within the sanctuary of the court of St. 
James's. Here be used to frequent the re- 
freshment-room, kept by one Drury, on Duck 
Island, in St. James's Park. He had at last 
decided to sell his collections, with a label 
over the door, ' Oldham's last shift/ when he 
was arrested by a creditor and sent to the 
king's bench, where he is supposed to have 
died. His career in several respects resembles 
that of Henry Constantine Jennings [q. v.] 

Oldham's portrait was painted more than 
once by his friend Highmore. A full-lene^h 
of Oldham (date 1740), engraved by J. Faber 
after Highmore, represents him in a green 
velvet hunting coat with a grun (Caulfield, 

op. cit, ; Bromlbt, Cat, of Engraved Por^ 
traitSf p. 286). Oldham was godfather to 
Nathaniel Smith the printseller, whose son, 
J. T. Smith of the British Museum, con- 
tributed an account of Oldham to J. Caul- 
field's ' Portraits, Memoirs, &c., of Remark- 
able Persons.' 

[Caulfield's Portraits, Memoirs, &c. 1813, ii. 
133-7 ; Granger's Biog. Hist. (Noble), iii. 349.1 

W. W. 

OLDHAM, THOMAS (1816-1878), 
geologist, bom at Dublin on 4 May 1816, was 
eldest son of Thomas Oldham and his wife, 
Margaret Bagot. He was educated at a pri- 
vate school, and began residence at Trinity 
College, Dublin, before completing his six- 
teenth year. In the spring of 18SS he pro- 
ceeded B.A., and then went to Edinburgh, 
where he studied engineering, and attended 
the geological lectures of Proiessor Jamieson, 
the two becoming intimate friends. After 
a stay of about two years in Scotland, he 
returned to Dublin. 

The work of Oldham's life may be divided 
into two periods — the one spent in Ireland, 
the other in India. Appointed in 1839 on 
the geological department of the ordnance 
survejr of the former country, he was engaged 
especially in surveying the counties of Kerry 
and Tvrone, the report of this work being 
published in 1843. At Trinity College he 
was appointed assistant professor of engineer- 
ing in 1844, and professor of geology in 

1845. He held official positions at the Dublin 
Geological Society, becoming its president in 

1846. In that year, too, he took the degree of 
M.A., and was also appointed local director 
for Ireland of the Geological Survey of the 
United Kingdom. 

In addition to official work, Oldham com- 
municated twelve papers on the geology of 
Ireland to the Dublin Geological Society, or 
to the British Association, and in 1849 had 
the good fortune to discover, in the Cam- 
brian, or slightly older, rocks of Bray Head, 
CO. Wicklow, the singular fossils or organic 
marks which have been named after him, 

In November 1850 Oldham was appointed 
by the directors of the East India Company 
superintendent of the Geological Survey of 
India, and reached that country early in the 
following year. Though his staff of assistants 
was small— about twelve in number — yet, 
largely owing to his industry and powers of 
organisation, rapid progress was made with 
the work, and in about ten years an area in 
Bengal and Central India twice as large as 
Great Britain had been surveyed and recorded. 
During this work coalfields had received 

Oldis 1X2 Oldisvvorth 

^ t .. V .ul » .v:£ : . .':i. an J. as the result, an elabc^ Cambndgie, on 17 May 1039 ; was elected to 

-. • *. »v..« • v *v. ".he C»al Resources of India ' a scholarship there on 17 April 1640 ( Admis- 

»k -M ■ -.K c<'ii ■ ^\i : .> tbr strcretary of st atefor that sion Books'), and, becoming a * conscientious 

.^ .« . « SixTt'c'n memoirs on separate sub- chunshman/graduated B.A. probably in 1642 

iv. -» ^v>. dLlss^ published. or ItUS. Soon after he was deprived of his 

• i .•..*iii*> .."^Arial labour? left him little scholarship on account of his royalist sym- 

•^. :/r ir.dej^-nient authorship, but he com- pathies. and proceeded to Oxford, where, by 

'■^ . .'A>.Ni .<n»:* paper (on upper cretaceous rirtut* of a letter written on 29 Jan. 164^-6 

XX v x> ,v. Ksistem IVfngral i to the 'Quarterly in his behalf by the chancellor, the Marauis 

^* • .-. •;»! .•! the i •♦-ologrjeal S'x^iety of London." of Henford, he was created M.A. on 20 July 

*...: \va> ioint author of another: he also lt>48. 

IM^HTS number a>xjut thirtv-four. But the Gloucestershire, where he succeeded his 

c\»mmenceil in l**r>K: (2i 'Records.' com- with Mhe livelv portraiture of Charles the 

liiTurt's oft ht'or^^anic remains obtained during monarch v. He died at Bourton-on-the-Hill 

the survey. Oldham's last work in India on -4 ?toY, 167?, and was buried in the 

was to complete the transfer of the library chancel of the church on the 27th. His will, 

and collection of the (Teological Survey dated the day before his death ^P. C. C. 73, 

from its form^^r quarters to the Imperial KincV appoints his brother William guardian 

Must'um of Calcutta. A quarter of a century to his daughter Hester, a minor, 

of arduous labour had so much weakened his ' i^ldisworth married Margaret Warren, and 

healili tliiit in 1S7<> he retired from the sur- besides thn^ dauchters (twoof them named 

vey, and, on his return to England, resided Muriel") who died infants, he had two sons, 

at Ruirhy, where he died 17 July 187*^. He Giles {^h. 16."K>^, a citizen of London in 1678, 

married in l^^'V) the daughter of William and Thomas {h. l(v>9>, and two daughters, 

r>ixon, esq., of LiverpDol, by whom he left a Mary {^h. l(>5o') and Hester (6. 1061). 

funiily of live sons and one ilaup-hter. He was the author of several separately 

* Udham was elected a member of the Royal published sermons and of * The Stone Rolled 
Iri^h Academy in 1*^:^. F.O.S. in 1>4^^. and Away, and Lite more Abundant : an Apo- 
F.K.?^. in 1S4S; he became a memljer of the lope urping Selfilenyal, New Obedience, 
Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal in IS")7. and Faith, and Tliankfulness.' Lowndes men- 
was four times its president. In 1**74 he t ions a quarto e\li (ion, 1(>60, but the earliest 
received the honorary de;rret.* of LL.n. from now known is London, lt)63. Another edi- 
Dublin. andin 1*^70 theroval meilal fn:>mthe tion. with the title 'The Holv Rovalist, or 
Roy:il Society, and a gold medal from the the Secret discontents of Church and King- 
Km]M?ror of Austria, after the Vienna ex- dora ; reduced unto Self-Denial, Moderation, 
hil/ition. lie was also a memljer of many anvl Thankfulness,' and without the king's 
si^rieties, British and foreign. ]»«>rtrait, w.*is publishetl in London, Ui(U. A 

[r H.ituary notiots in Quart. Journ. Gool. S.v. p«vm, entitU\l * Sir Thomas Overbury*s Wife 

L.iii.»n. 1S79, Proc. p. 4r>. and Geol. Maj. 187S. rnvaiU^vl,' is ascriKnl to Oldisworth, with 

p. ;N2..'<upp!enu.ntei ly informat'onfnvn K. 1». Sv'»rae Latin veriest see WELCH, -■l/MiM/?i*Jnv<f- 

(>, e>^.] T. O. R ;m«?i. p. 114>. He also wn>te, under the pseu- 

r\T T\ra -^..mtt.^- donvm of * Sketlius,' a manuscript poem 

- - ^ Codices RawlinMiniani, C. 422), entitle*! 

OLDISWORTH, GILKS a»U0-167S^, • A Westminster Scholar, or the Patteme of 

rovrili-t divine, w:is vouncrer sou of Robert Pietie.' It is a narrative, written in five 

OMi-w.trth of C«>ln Roirers. Glouci"itersliire. b,v»ks. in high-flown lanfiruag»\ describinir 

aiivl of Muriel, daughter of Sir Nioliola> aiul members of the families of Oldisworth and 

.«*• ~f Sir Thomas Overburv q. v. He Overbury umler fictitious names, with some 

at Coin Roirers in l«»lv». and was e\ pi ana tori* n-»ti'S in the mnrfifin. 

M Westminster Selio-^l. lit' wa< llis elder brother. Nicholas, also a West - 

a IK'usioner at Trinity College, minster scholar, was author of a volume of 




yerses dedicated to his wife, Marie Oldis- 
worth (7 Feb. 1644), and of * A Book touch- 
ing Sir Thomas Overbury,' &c. (Addit, MS, 
15476) which, he says, * I wrote from dicta- 
tion, and read over to my old grandfather. 
Sir Nicholas Overbury, on Thursday, 1 Oct. 

[Welches Alumni Westmon. pp. 113, 114 ; 
Foster's Alamni Oxon. early ser. iii. 1088; Ken- 
net's Register, pp. 386, 636,646, 865-6 ; Walker s 
Sufferings of the Clergy, pt. ii. 161-2 ; Wood's 
Fasti, ed. Blis9, ii. 95; Registers of Bourton, 
per the Rev. F. Farrer; Hunter's Chorus Vatum, 
Addit. MS. 24489, p. 156. For Nicholas Oldis- 
worth : Welch's Alumni Westmon. pp. 100, 101 ; 
Cole MSS. xiii. f. 191 ; manuscript notes in 
The Father of the Faithful (Brit. Mus. copy).] 

C. F. S. 

1654 ?), politician, was second son of Arnold 
Oldisworth {b. 1661) of Bradley, Gloucester- 
shire, by Lucy, daughter of Francis Barty, a 
native of Antwerp. The father, who resided 
in St. Martin's Lane, London, sat in parlia- 
ment in 1503 as M.P. for Tregony, and was 
afterwards keeper of the hanaper in chancery 
and receiver of fines in the king's bench (cf. 
Qii. State Papersy 1611-8, p. 381; Foster, 
Alumni Oxon,) On 81 May 1604 the rever- 
sion to the keepership of the hanaper was 
conferred on his eldest son, Edward (ih, 
16a3-10,p.ll6; f*. 1611-^, p. 358). Arnold 
Oldisworth had antiquarian tastes, and as 
a member of the Society of Antiquaries, 
founded by Archbishop Parker in 1572, read, 
on 29 June 1604, a paper on * The Diversity 
of the Names of this Island ' (Heabne, Anti- 
quarian Discourses, 1771, i. 98). The dates 
render Heame's bestowal of this distinction 
on the son Michael an obvious error {ib, ii. 

The son Michael matriculated from Queen's 
College, Oxford, on 21 Nov. 1606, aged fif- 
teen, and graduated B.A. from Magdalen 
Colle^ on 10 June 1611. He was admitted 
to a lellowship by the latter society in 1612, 
and proceedea M.A. on 5 July 1614. He 
soon afterwards became secretary to William 
Herbert, third earl of Pembroke, in his 
capacity as lord chamberlain. To his con- 
nection with the earl Oldisworth owed his 
election as M.P. for Old Sarum in January 
1624. He was re-elected for the same con- 
stituency in 1625, 1626, and 1628 ; but the 
university of Oxford, of which the earl was 
chancellor, rejected his recommendation that 
Oldisworth should become the university's 
parliamentary representative together with 
Sir Henry Mirtin> in 1627. On Lord Pem- 
broke's death in 1630, Oldisworth was for a 
time without employment, but in October 

TOL. xui. 

1637 he succeeded one Tavemer as secretary 
to Philip Herbert, earl of Pembroke or Mont- 
gomery, brother to Oldisworth's earlier 
patron and his successor in the office of lord 
chamberlain (Strafford Papers, ii. 115). 
Thenceforth he completely identified himself 
with his new master's fortunes. He had 
always inclined to the popular party. He 
was in the early part oi his parliamentary 
career a friend and correspondent of Sir John 
Eliot {Hist. MSS, Comm. 3rd Rep.), and 
when the civil war broke out he was popu- 
larly credited with a large responsibility for 
his master's adherence to the parliamentary 
cause. In both the Short and Long parlia- 
ments of 1640 he sat for Salisbury. * Tho' in 
the grand rebellion he was no colonel, yet 
he was governor of old Pembroke and Mont- 
gomery, led him by the nose (as he pleased) 
to serve both their turns' (Wood, Fasti, 
i. 356). On 5 July 1644 he appeared as a wit- 
ness against Laud at the arclibisliop*s trial, 
and testified to Laud's eff'orts to deprive his 
master of the right he claimed as lord cham- 
berlain to appoint the royal chaplains (Laud, 
Works, iv. 294-5). I lis services to the par- 
liamentary cause did not go unrewarded, and 
he was made one of the two masters of the 
prerogative office. 

When in the course of the struggle Lord 
Pembroke's association with the parliamen- 
tarians was confirmed by his election to the 
House of Commons, Oldisworth, who was 
popularly regarded as prompting everj' step 
in his master's political progress, received 
much uncomplimentary notice at the hands 
of royalist pamphleteers (cf. Cal, State 
Papers, 1645-7, pp. 565-6). Many pas- 
quinades on Pembroke and himself were pub- 
lished, with the object of emphasising the 
earl's illiterate and vulgar tastes, under the 
satiric pretence that Oldisworth was their 
author ; and librarians who have not made 
allowance for the unrestricted boldness of 
political satire have often accepted literally 
the anonymous writers* assurances respecting 
the authorship of the tracts (cf. Brit. Mus. 
Cat,) * Newes from Pembroke and Mont- 
gomery, or Oxford Manchestered by Michael 
Oldsworth and his Lord '(1648), which was 
mockingly signed by Oldisworth, was evoked 
by Oldisworth's presence at Oxford with his 
master, when the latter went thither to pre- 
side over the parliamentary visitation of the 
university. In the same year two other 
tracts professed to report on Oldisworth's 
authority Pembroke's * speech to the king con- 
cerning the treaty upon the commissioners' 
arrival at Newport at the Isle of Wight, 
and the earl's 'farewell to the king' on 
leaving the Isle of Wight. Both, it was 


Oldisworth 114 Oldisworth 

Dretended, were * taken verbatim by Michae^ OLDISWORTH, Wl LLI AM (1 680- 
Oldsworth.' Under like conditions appeared . 1734), miscellaneous writer, son of the Rev. 
next year Pembroke's * Speech at his Admit- ; William Oldisworth, vicar of Itchen-Stoke, 
tance to the House of Commons,' his' Speech : Hampshire, and prebendary of Middleton, 
to Noll Cromwell, lord deputy of Ireland,' \ alias Longparish, in Winchester, matricu- 
20 July 1049, 'A Thaknsgiving [sic] for lated at Ilart Hall, Oxford, on 4 AprillOOS, 
the Recovery of . . . Pembroke,' and his when aged 18. He left the university with- 
* Speech ... in the House of Commons upon out taking a degree, and probably, like his 
passing an Act for a Day of Thanksgiving friend Edmond Smith, with a greater repu- 
for Col. Jone's Victory over the Irish ' (1649). ; tation for wit than for steadiness of character. 
In the last Pembroke is made to say, * I love According to Rawlinson, he * served an 
my man, Michael Oldsworth, because he is uncle, a Justice of the Peace in Hampshire, 
my mouth, and pravs for me.' In one of the as his clerk,' and about 1706 he drilted to 
many satires, entitled * The Last Will and London, where he became a hack-writer for 
Testament of the Earl of Pembroke, also his the booksellers. His chief success arose 
Elegy ... by Michael Oldsworth ' (Nodnol, through his connection with the tory paper 
1660), the earl is represented as ordering the * Examiner,' of which he edited vols. ii. 
Oldisworth, his ' chaplain, to preach his , iii., iv., and v., and nineteen numbers of 
funeral sermon,' and to receive twenty nobles j vol. vi., when the queen's death put an end 
for telling ' the people all my good deeds and to it. Swift asserted that he nad never 
crying up my nobility.' In another lampoon, exchanged a syllable with Oldisworth, nor 
bearing the same title, and attributed to even seen him above twice, and that in 
Samuel Butler, author of * Iludibras,' Pem- mixed company (Scott, Life of Swifty p. 
broke charges his eldest son to 'follow the 134); and in the 'Journal to Stella,' 12 Marcli 
advice of Michael Oldworth * (cf. Lodge, 1712-13, wrote that * the chancellor of the 
Portraits, iv. 344). At a later date Oldis- | exchec^uer sent the author of the " Exami- 
worth was described as * Pembrochian Olds- ner " [i.e. Oldisworth] twenty guineas. He 
worth that made the P]arl, his master's, wise is an ingenious fellow, but the most con- 
speeches ' {EnfflantVs Co?ifusion, 1659). founded vain coxcomb in the world ; so that 

Pembroke died in 1(550, and Oldisworth I dare not let him see me, nor am acquainted 
was one of his executors (cf. Cat. Committee with him.' Through attachment to the 
for Compounding f pp. 1532-4, 1931). He sue- Stuarts, Oldisworth was present at the battle 
ceeded his master as keeper of Windsor Great of Preston, and, according to the 'Weekly 
Park. On 25 June 1651 he was appointed Pacquet' of 17 Jan. 1715-16, was killed 
u commissioner to inquire into a rebellion in with his sword in hand, being determined 
South Wales (Cat. State Papers*, 1651, not to live any longer. This rumour was 
p. 266), and he was continued in his post at incorrect ; for he survived the defeat, and 
tlie prerogative office by the council of state resumed his life in London, but with less 
after the dissolution of the Long parliament good fortune. Heame wrote to Rawlinson, 
in October 1653 {ih, 1653, p. 217). He seems on 28 Aug. 1734, to inquire whether Oldis- 
to have died a year later. worth was dead, and on 11 Nov. states that 

Oldisworth was regarded as possessing he ' dyed above four months since.' But 


project of a national academy in 1617. ' place of death, though a letter to him from 
Ilorrick, addressing a poem to him in ' lies- Alderman John Barber says that ' for many 
perides,' described him as ' the most accom- ' years before he dy'd, Oldisworth liv'd 
plished gentleman, M. Michael Oulsworth,' upon the Charity of his friends. He had 
nndforetoldwith barely pardonable exaggera- I several sums of me ... and, poor man, 
tion immortality for" his fame (IIerrick, ran into debt with every Body that would 
Worl's*, ed. Pollard, ii. 159). trust him; and at last would get into an 

Oldisworth married, in 1617, Susan {b. Alehouse or Tavern Kitchin, and entertain 
1501)). daughter of Thomas Poyntz, who was all Comers and Goers with his Learning and 
then dead, by his wife Jane, whose second ' Criticisms. He at last was sent to the 
luishnnd was one Dickerie, or Docwra, of King's Bench Prison for Debt, where he 
Lut(Mi, Bedfordshire (Chester, Marriage ■ dy'd. And Mr. . . . , the non-juring Par- 
Lirrnrcs, p. 994). son, that was corrector to Mr. Bowyer s 

[I'ostor's Ahimni Oxon. ; Wood's Fasti Oxon. Press, came and told me he was dead, and I 
.»d. Bliss, i. :ji3. 831, 3o6 ; Hoarc's Wiltshire, vi. gave him a Guinea to buy a coffin. This is 
390, 479.] S. L. all I know of that unhappy Man, who had 




^retit abilities, and might have been an 
Ornament to his Country.' Spence remarked 
of Oldisworth that he had extraordinary 
fluency in extempore Latin verse, and would 
* repeat twenty or thirty verses at a heat ' 
(AnecdoteSf p. 267) ; while Pope said of him 
that he coula translate an ode of Horace * the 
quickest of any man in England' ( Works, ed. 
El win and Courthope, x. 207). 

To Oldisworth are attributed: 1. 'The 
Cupid/ a poem, 1698. 2. ' The Muses Mer- 
cury ; or the Monthly Miscellany,' consisting 
of poems, prologues, songs, &c., never before 

Erinted. January 1707 to January 1708, 
oth inclusive. But the epistles dedicatory 
are signed J. O. 3. 'A Dialogue between 
Timotny and Philatheus, in which the Prin- 
ciples and Projects of a late whimsical Book, 
** The Rights of the Christian Church " [by 
Matthew Tindal, 17061, are fairly stated and 
answered. Written by a Layman,' vol. i. 

1709, ii. 1710, and iii. 1711. The last volume 
has numerous supplements, each with title- 
page. From Lintot's * Pocket-book ' (Ni- 
chols, Lit, Anted, viii. 298) it appears 
that Oldisworth received 75/. for the three 
volumes. The title was probably suggested 
by John Eachard's ' Dialogue between Phi- 
lautus and Timothy,' attacking Hobbes. 
4. ' Vindication of the Bishop of Exeter, 
occasioned bv Mr. Benjamin Hoadly's Re- 
flections on his Lordship's two Sermons of 
( f ovemment,' 1709. This was answered by 
lloadly in * The Divine Rights of the Bri- 
tish Nation and Constitution Vindicated,' 

1710, pp. 81-8. 5. 'Annotations on the 
**Tatler, written in French by Monsieur 
Boumelle, and translated into English by 
Walter Wagstaff",' 1710, 2 pts. They were 
marked by great eccentricity. 6. ' Essay on 
Private Judgment in Religious Matters' 
(anon.), 1711. Lintot paid 15/. 1«. for it. 
7. ' Reasons for restoring the Whigs' (anon.), 

1711, Probably satirical. The sum paid for 
it by Lintot was 2/. 12*. 8. ' The Iliad of 
Homer,' a prose translation, with notes, 1712, 
5 vols. ; 1714 and 1734, 5 vols. Oldisworth 
translated books 16 to end; his coadjutors 
were John Ozell [q. v.] and William Broome 
[q. v.] 9. ' The Odes, Epodes, and Carmen 
Sseculare of Horace, in Latin and English. 
With a translation of Dr. Bentley's Notes. To 
which are added Notes upon Notes, done in 
the Bentleian stile and manner' (24 pta., 6</. 
each), 17 1 2-13, 3 vols. Reissued with title- 
page dat«d 1713, 2 vols., as 'by several 
nands,' though some of the parts are dated 
1725. The translations were published se- 
parately as ' The Odes, Epodes, and Carmen 
Sfeculare of Horace in English verse. By 
Mr. William Oldisworth,' 2nd edit. 1719. 

These versions are described in * Notes and 
Queries,' 3rd ser. viii. 229, as * uniformly good, 
and frequently very elegant.' Monk, however, 
in his * Life of Bentley , condemns the * Notes 
upon Notes ' as * miserably vapid ; and their 
unvaried sneer is tiresome and nauseous.' 
10. 'State Tracts,' 1714. 11. ' Works of 
late Edmund Smith. With his Character 
by Mr. Oldisworth,' 1714; embodied by 
Johnson in the * Lives of the Poets ' as 
written 'with all the partiality of friend- 
ship,' though, he adds, ' 1 cannot much com- 
mend the performance. The praise is often 
indistinct, and the sentences are loaded with 
words of more pomp than use.' 12. * State 
and Miscellany Poems, by Author of " Ex- 
aminer," ' 1715. 13. * Callipoedia ; or the Art 
of getting pretty children. Translated from 
Latin of Claudius Quilletus,' 1729. 14. ' De- 
lightful Adventures of Honest John Cole, 
that Merry Old Soul' (anon.), 1732. 15. *The 
Accomplished Senator; from the Latin of 
Bishop Laurence Grimald Gozliski,' 1733. 
In an elaborate preface Oldisworth defends 
his character and asserts his independence. 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; Nichols's 
Lit. Anecd. i. ldl>2; Hearne's Collections, ed. 
Bliss, ii. 837. 849, ed. Doble, ii. 190, 395, 463 ; 
Rawlinson MSS. (Bodl. Libr.), v. 108, per Mr. F. 
Madan.] W. P. C. 

OLDMIXON, JOHN (1673-1742J, his- 
torian and pamphleteer, was a member of 
an ancient family which had been settled 
at Axbridge, Somerset, as early as the 
fourteenth century, and afterwards held the 
manor of Oldmixon, near Bridgwater. The 
historian's father, John Oldmixon of Old- 
mixon, gentleman, by his will of 1675, proved 
in April 1679 by his daughters Hannah and 
Sarah Oldmixon, left to his son John his 
best cabinet ; and when Elinor Oldmixon of 
Bridgwater, widow, died in 1689, letters of 
administration were granted to her children, 
John Oldmixon and Hannah Legg. Old- 
mixon's mother seems to have been sister to 
Sir John Bawden, knight and merchant, 
whose will was proved in the same year 
(Crisp, Abstracts of Somerset Wills, copied 
from Collections of the Rev. F, Broum, 3rd 
ser. p. 24, 4th ser. p. 106, 6th ser. p. 5; 
Weaver, Visitations of Somerset, p. 56, and 
Somerset Incumbents, pp. 76, 109, 2i>3, 281. 

In his * History of the Stuarts ' (pp. 421), 
Oldmixon, speaking of the disinterment of 
the remains of Admiral Blake, a native of 
Bridgwater, says that he lived while a boy 
with Blake's brother Humphrey, who after- 
wards emigrated to Carolina. Mr. John Kent 
of Funchal has pointed out that Oldmixon 
was in all probability author of the * HLstory 
and Life oi Robert Blake . . . written by a 


Oldmixon ii6 Oldmixon 

Gentlemau bred in his Family/ which ap- 
peared without date about 1740, and con- 
tains a quotation from * a modem historian/ 
who is Oldmixon himself. The political views 
are certainly in accordance with Oldmixon's. 
In 1096, when Oldmixon was twenty- 
three, he published * Poems on several Occa- 

translator of the ' Lutrin/ had assumed the 
merit of the whole work (Add. MS. 7121, 
f. 39). 

On 5 Oct. 1710 appeared the first number 
of * The Medley,' a weekly paper, which fol- 
lowed Addison's *Whig Examiner' in re- 
plying: to the tory * Examiner ' ( Catalogue of 

sions, written in Imitation of the Manner of I the H(^e Collection of Early Newspapers in 
Anacreon, with other Poems, Letters, and the Bodleian Library, jip. 22,28). 'TheMed- 
Translations,' and a dedication to Lord Ash- : ley,* which lasted until Aufjfust 1711, was 
ley, in which he said that most of the poems I started at the suggestion of Arthur Main- 
were written by a person in love. In 1697 he waring or Maynwaring [q. v.], and was writ- 
wrote * Thyrsis, a Pastoral,' which formed i ten by him, with the aia of Oldmixon (who 
the first act of Motteux's * Xovelty, or Every I had been recommended to Maynwaring by 
Act a Play ; ' and in 1698 * Amintas, a Pas- ; Garth) and oc<;asional assistance from Hen- 
toral,' based on Tasso*s * Amynta.' This play ley, Kennet, and Steele. In 1712 the papers 
had a ])rologue by John Dennis, but was not were reprinted in a volume, but, as there 
successful on the stage. In the same year was little sale, the impression was thrown on 
Oldmixon published * A Poem humbly ad- i 01dm ixon's hands, to nis loss (Zi/i" of ^rMwr 
drest to the Right Hon. the Earl of Port- Maynwarifif;,Ef!tq.,\7l6,m.xiy,l67-'d,l7l). 
land on his Lordship's Return from his Em- Gay, in *The Present State of Wit,' 1711, 
bassy in France,' in which he refers to Prior; spoke of the author of 'The Medley ' as a 
and in 1700 he produced at Drury Lane an man of good sense, but 'for the most part. 

opera,* The Grove, or Love's Paradise.' The 
music was by Purcell, and the epilogue by 
Farquhar. His last and best play, * The 
Governor of Cyprus,' a tragedy, was acted at 
Lincoln's Inn Fields in 1703. It was fol- 
lowed by ' AmoresBritannici : Epistles His- 
torical and Gallant, in English heroic Verse, 

perfectly a stranger to fine writing;' and he 
attributed to Maynwaring the few papers 
which were decidedly superior to the others. 
Oldmixon says that he was to have had 100/. 
down and lOO/. a year for his work upon 
'The Medley,' but t^hat he was never paid 
{Memoirs of the Press, 1742, p. 13). His 

from several of the most illustrious Person- | anonymous * Reflections on Dr. Swift's I-,et- 
ages of their Time,' 1703, and * A Pastoral ter to the Earl of Oxford about the English 
Poem on the Victories at Schellenburgh and Tongue' (1712) was a political attack ; and 
Blenheim,' 1704, dedicated to the Duchess it was followed in the same year by 'The 
of Marlborough. From January 1707 to I Dutch Barrier Ours, or the Interest of Eng- 
January 1708 Oldmixon published a quarto land and Holland inseparable,' an answer to 
periodical, * The Muses Mercury, or the the ' Conduct of the Allies.' 
Montlily Miscellany,' which contained verses In 1712 Oldmixon published two parts of 
by Steele, Garth, Motteux, and others (Ait- ' The Secret History of Europe,' in order to 
KEN, Life of llichard Steele, i. 147, \^A-2, expose the faction which had brought Europe 
192). to the brink of slavery by advancing the 

Oldmixon's work as an historian began in power of France. A third part appeared in 
1708, when he published in two volumes' 1713, and a fourth in 1715, with a dedication 
'The British Empire in America,' a history to the Prince of Wales, explaining that the 
of the several ct)l()nifts written to show the accession of George I had made it possible 
advantage to England of the American plan- I to bring the design to an end. Similar works 
tations. In 1709-10 he published ' The His- were 'Arcana Gallica, or the Secret History 
tory of Addresses/ a criticism of the ])rofes- I of France for the last Century,' 1714 : ' Me- 
sions of loyalty then, as at former political moirs of North Britain,' 1715; and 'Memoirs 
crises, so freely presented to the sovereign, of Ireland from the Restoration to the Present 
In 1711 he wrote to Lord Halifax, protest- i Times,' 1716, in all of which the designs of 
ing that a book of his— 'The Works of, papists and Stuarts against the protestant 
Monsieur Boileau, made English by several religion and the British constitution were 
Hands' (17ll-lo) — had been dedicated to his ' exposed. The anonymous ' Life and History 
lordship in another man's name, and without of Belisarius . . . and a Parallel between 
his consent or knowledge. Having quarrelled i Him and a Modern Heroe' (Marlborough) 
with the publisher, he had refused tocomplet« appeared in 1713, and in 1715 ' The Life and 
the work; but the missing poems had been Posthumous Works of Arthur Maynwaring, 
supplied by Samuel Cobb |q. v.] and John | Esq.,' with a dedication to Walpole, in 
Ozell [q. v.] He had had no opportunity to which, as well as in the preface, Oldmixon 
correct mistakes, and Nicholas Rowe, the I spoke of his own services to the party, and 




of the neglect he had experienced. In the 
* Memoirs of the Press ' he says that he 
saw much time-serving at the accession of 
Geor^ I, and men of different principles 
included in the ministry, whereupon, know- 
ing the evil that followed from a similar 
course under William III, he wrote a pam- 
phlet, * False Steps of the Ministry after 
the llevolution.' As an illustration of the 
way he was treated, he describes how he was 
disappointed in his efforts to obtain a com- 
mission as consul in Madeira for the princi- 
pal merchant in that island, who was his 
own kinsman, though Stanhope had pro- 
mised Garth that it should be done. Nearly 
two years after the king*s accession Oldmixon 
was offered the post of collector of the port 
of Hridgwater. It was represented that the 
profits were double the real amount, and he 
says that in a month after accepting the 
oilice he wished himself back in London, but 
relatives and friends persuaded him to stay 
(td. p. i«). * Mist's Weekly Joumar for 
2il July 1718 noticed that Oldmixon had re- 
tired from his garret to Bridgwater, and 
was intelligencer-general for that place to 
the * Flying Post.' A satirical list of a dozen 
treatises which might be expected from him 
was added. 

At Bridgwater Oldmixon acted as a sort of 
political agent (State Papers^ Public Record 
< )tlice, Dom., 1719, bundle 19,Nos.l31, 138, 
161), and was twice in trouble with the local 
authorities in 1718. The mayor summoned 
him to appear before him to disclose the 
names of certain persons who had paraded 
the streets crying * Ormond for ever : he is 
come : ' and the sexton and parish clerk laid 
an information that Oldmixon and others 
frequented the presbyterian and anabaptist 
conventicles, though of late they had come 
to the church {Hist, MSS. Comm. 3rd Rep., 
p. 319). In December 1718 Oldmixon asked 
Jacob Tonson to speak to the Duke of New- 
castle that he might succeed Rowe as poet- 
laureate, a post he would have had before, as 
Garth knew, but for Rowe. He was now 
banished in a comer of the kingdom, sur- 
rounded by Jacobites, vilified and insulted. 
He iva^, he said, the oldest claimant, and his 
present life was not worth living (Add, MS. 
28275, f. 46). He did not get the laureate- 
ship, however, and in 1720 other letters to 
Tonson contained further complaints of slight, 
and requests for money due to him (ib. ff 84, 
95, 133). 

At this time Clarendon's * History of the 
Rebellion' was much discussed, and Old- 
mixon felt it necessary to set the facts of 
history in a truer li^ht. In his 'Critical 
History of England/ in two volumes, which 

appeared in 1724-6, he attacked Clarendon 
and Laurence Echard [q. v.], and defended 
Bishop Burnet. Dr. Zachary Grey [q. v.l 
replied with a * Defence of our antient and 
modern Historians against the frivolous Ca- 
vils of a late Pretender to Critical History,' 
and this was followed by ( )ldmixon's * Review 
of Dr. Zachary Grey's Defence,' 1725, and 

* Clarendon and Whitlock compar'd,' 1727, 
in which he hinted that Clarendon's editors 
had taken undue liberties with the text. It 
is interesting to find that Dr. Cotton 
Mather, having made Oldmixon's acquaint^ 
ance, highly praised the * Critical History * 
for truthfulness in his * Manuductio ad Mi- 
nisterium,' published at Boston, Massachu- 
setts, in 1726, though he had previously re- 
sented reflections made by Oldmixon on his 

* Ilistorjr of New England ' (Nichols, Lit 
Anecd. li. 545). 

In 1728 Oldmixon printed * An Essay on 
Criticism as it regards Design, Thought, and 
Expression, in Prose and Verse,' and * The 
Arts of Logick and Rhetorick,' based upon a 
work by Father Bouhours. In these pieces 
he attacked Laurence Eusden the laureate, 
Echard, Addison, Swift, and Pope. He had 
already incurred Pope's anger in connection 
with the publication of * Court Poems,' 1717 
(Pope, ed. Elwiu and Courthope, vi. 436 ; 
Curliady 1729, pp. 20, 21), and various articles 
in the * Flying Post ' for April 1728, and he is 
said to have written a ballad, * The Catholic 
Priest,' 1716, which was an attack on Pope's 

* Homer' {ib, pp. 27-31). Pope revenged 
himself by giving Oldmixon a place in the 

* Dunciad ' (bk. ii. U. 283-90), and in the ' Art 
of Sinking in Poetry' (ch. vi.) Oldmixon 
figures also in the * Revenge by Poison on the 
;Ek)dy of Mr. Edmund Curll,' and * A further 
Account of the most deplorable Condition 
of Mr. Edmund Curll.' Steele is said to 
have satirised him in the * Tatler,' No. 62, 
as Omicron, the unborn poet ; but this is im- 
probable, especially in view of the remarks in 
No. 71. 

After three years of work, and at con- 
siderable expense, Oldmixon brought out in 
1730, or rather the end of 1729, * The His- 
tory of England during the Reigns of the 
Royal House of Stuart/ a folio volume that 
was afterwards to be followed by others 
which, taken together, make up a con- 
tinuous history of England. In this book 
he charged the editors of Clarendon's * His- 
tory' — Atterbury, Smalridge, and Aldrich 
— with alteriufj the text to suit party pur- 

Eoses, basing his statements on what he had 
een told by George Duckett [q. v.], who 
in his turn had received information from 
Edmund Smith [q. y.] Bishop Atterbury 



[q, v.], tben in eitile, the sole survivor of the I 

ErsoDS attacked, printed a ' Vindication ' of ' 
mfielf andfriendg.diited Paris, 26 Oct. 1731, I 
which was reprinted in I./)ndon. Other [latD- ■ 
phlets, including a 'R™Iy' by Oldmison 
and 'Mr. Oldmixon'a Keply . . . examined,' 
followed in 17>'t:^, containing^ vindications of 
the Earl of Clarendon and of the Stuarts, 
and charges Oldmixon with himself altering i 
Baniel'e ' Iliston',' which he had edited for 
Kennet's ' Complete Ilialorv of EnglaJid ' in 
1706. In June ITJiil Oldmison printed and 

SLve away at bis house in Southampton 
uildings ' A Keply to tho groundless and 
unjust KellectionB upon him in tliree Weekly ■ 
Miscellanies' (Gent. Mnff. 1T3I, p. 514;. 
1733, pp. 117,129, 140, SaS). It is true that | 
theearlicreditionsofOlsrendon did not give | 
the manuscript in its complete form, but Old- 
mixon had no Buflicient ground for the ex- 
plicit charges which lie made, and pasaagee 
which he said were interpolations were after- 
wards found in Lord Clarendon's hnndwriling 
{Edinlnirgh Bertew, June 1826, pp. 42-6), j 
Dr. Johnson unfairly said (Idler, No. 65) | 
that the authenticity of Clarendon's 'llis- | 
tory ' was brought in question ' by the two ' 
lowest of nil human beings— a scribbler for 
a party and a commissioner of excise,' i.e. , 
Oldmixon and Duckett. The second volume 
of Oldmixon's history, 'The History of Eng- I 
land during Iho Reigns ofKingAVillism and 
Queen Mary, Queen Anne, King George I. 
With ft large Vindication of the Author 
against the groundless Charge of Partiality,' 
appeared in 1735; and the third, 'The His- 
tory of England during the Ueigns of 
Henry VIII, Rdwanl VI, Queen Marv. 
Queen Eliiabcth,' in 1739. One main objecl 
was t.i show that our constitution was origi- 
nally (ret^, and that we do not owe our liberty j 
to the geniTositv of kings. 

In 1730, owinp, it is said, to Queen Caro- 
line's interi'st, Walpole ordered Oldmixon's 
sftlarv of UK)/, at Bridgwater to he doubled, 
but the money was irregularly paid (Meinoiri 
of the PrerK, jip. 46, 47 ), while the promised 
increase gave rise to a report that Oldmixon 
was a court writer. !kloreover, during the 
three rears which C)ldmix<m spent in town 
prepanng the aecond volume of the ' History' 
tiis deputy involved him in a debt to the 
crown wliieli after inquiry was reduced to 
360/., but Oldmixon was ordered to pay it a: 
once. This hi- managed to do from the ar- 
rears of lii» allowance of 100/. which the 

by an attack of gout, soon resigned. In 
July 17ll ho wrote to the Duke of New- 
castle in great trouble and distraction, ' 1 

am now dragged,' he wrote, ' to a place 1 
cannot mention, in the midst of all the in- 
Brmitiea of old age, sickness, lameness, and 
almost blindness, and without the means 
even of eubaisting ' (Add. MS. 32697, f. 
308). Hislast work 'Memoirs of the Press, 
Historical and Political, for Thirty Years Past, 
from 1710 to 1740,' with a dedication to the 
Duchess of Marlborough, was not published 
until immediately after hia death {London 
Magazine, 1742, p. 364). In the postscript 
Oldmixon asked those who wished to show 
their concern forhis misfortunes to subscribe 
towards a 'History of Christianity' which 
he had written some years earlier, on the 
basis of Boanage'a ' Iliatoire de la Religion 
dea Eglises reformSes.' 

Oldmixon died on 9 July 1742, aged 6fl, 
at his houaein Great Pulteney Street.having 
married in 1703 Eliiabeth Parry fthe license 
was granted on 3 March at the faculty 
office of the Archbishop of Canterbury). Ha 
was buried at Ealing on the I2th, near his 
son and daughter (Ltsous, Envirtmi ofJjM- 
don, 1795, ii, 236). Another son, George, died 
on 15 May 1779, aged 68 (FitiLKNER. Hit- 
tviy and Antiquitie* of Brentford, Ealing, 
and Ciitwick, 1845, p. 194). One daughter, 
presumably Mrs. Eleanora Marella (^Cusp, 
Somereet Willn, 4th ser. p. 106), sang at 
Ilickford's Rooms in 1746; and another, 
Hannah Oldmixon of Xewland, Gloucester- 
shire, died in 1789, aged 84 (Gent. Mag. 
1789, p. 89), A Sir John Oldmixon died in 
America in 1818 j hut nothing seems to be 
known of the title, or whether he was related 
to the historian '(Ni.tes and Queriee, 3rd wr. 
xi. 399, xii. 76). 

Besides the book.i already mentioned, Old- 
mixon published ' Court Tales,' 1717, and a 
1719, besides, of course, anonymous pam- 
phlets, translations, &c-, which have been 
foreotien. Of these the ' History and Life 
of Robert Blake' has been already mentioned. 
His historical work has little value now, 
as his main object in writing it was to pro- 
mote the cause of hie party. He never 
hesitated in attacking those on the otherside, 
whether dead or living. 

[OlJniUon'a Sremoirs of the Prraa is ihp chief 
Bourre of information for bin life. Tharo are 
nli'irt sketches in the Blog. Drum, and Gibber's 
Lives cif the Poets; and other particulars will 
he found in Nichols's Lit. Aneod. i. 662, ii. 83S- 
530, iv. B.^, viii. 17(1. 298 ; Nichols's Lit. nius- 
irations, if. 186, 282; Swift's Worts, ed.Scotl. 
:i. 128, 157, vi. 168, xiiJ. 227, 234-fi ; Pope's 
Works, pr). Elirio and Coiirthorpe, ii. S9, iii. 
I 24, 262, 261, 486, iv. 66, 334, 33S, »i. 436, ii. 
63, X. 206, 362, 4S7, 174 ; Gonest's Hiatory of 



the Singe, ii. IIS, 1Q3. 280-1 ; Lovodea'a Bibl. 
SIhudiiI (artjeUB ' Oidmixoa ' and ' CUiviidoa ') ; 
Disraeli's Cslnmitipa of Autlion ; MoDtblj Chro- 
nicle, 1729, pp. 225-6, 1781, p. 181 ;HiBt.M3S. 
Comm. 3rd Rep. pp. 304. 30S-7. 3S0, 362; 
ColliDBan'sHiit. of Somereet, iil. oSt.] 

G. A. A. 


e Oldihwoeth.] 

MHo), poet, son of Valentine OldiB, was born 
ID l&JO, an JeducDIedut Cambridge. He wae 
nude M.U. nf Cambridge ptr litrrat rmiae 
on 6 Oct. 1671, and honorary member ofthe 
<r<)n^ of Phyaicians on :J0 Sept. 1680. He 
<]ied in 1686, and wan buried near hie father 
in Great St. Ilelen'ii, by St. Mary Axe. Oldis 
publisbed ' A Poem on the Hestoration of 

UDoag the contributors of commendatory 
Terees to Henry Bold'a ' Poems Lyrique, 
Macaronique, Ueroique, &c.,' London, lt]64, 
and bos one of the poema in the volume ad- 
dressed to him. lie also contributed to 
Alexander Brome's ' Songa, and at her Poems,' 
London, 1664. John Phillips dedicated to 
(lldia his ' Macaronides : or Virgil Travesty,' 
London, 1673. 

[Memoira of the Family of Oldys, Bitch MS. 

4240(Brit. Mub.) ; Hunk's Coll. ot Fbyi. i. 413 ; 

CoTMr'B CollBdHnes Angla-l'oetlFa, it. ], 31. 36; 

Chalmere'l Biogmpbicul Dictiotuiry, xxiii. 339.] 


OLDYS, W ILLU M ( 1696-1 781 ), Norroy 
kin^Tof-arms and antiquary, bom, according' 
>o hia own statement, on 14-July 1696, pro- 
bably in London, was the natural son of Dr. 
WlLLUM Oli)Y8 (1{I30-170H>, an eminent 
civil lawyer. 

The antiquary's grandfather, William 
Dlkts (ISHII-'-lWo), born about 1591 at 
"Whitwell, Dorset, was a scholar of Win- 
cbetter College from 1605, and subBequentlj 
imuluBted from New College, Oxford (B.A. 
IBU, M.A. 1618, B.U. 1626, D.D.1643). He 
WB9 proctor in the universilv in 10^3, and 
vicar of Adderbury, OxfordsCini, from 1627 
till his death. As adevoted royalist be ren- 
dered bimaelf during the civil war obnoiioua 
to the supporters of the parliament in hia 
neighbourhood, and, fearful of their threats, 
he concealed himself for a time in Banbury. 
In 164.> he met by arrangement his wife and a 
eon, whfn on a journey either to Wmchester 
or Oxford, and resolved to ride a part of the 
wav with them. Some parliamentary soldiers 
had, h»)weveT, learnt of his intention, and 
intercepted him onthe road. He fled before 
Ibumin thedirection of Adderbury, butwhen 
be arrived in front of his own bouse, bia horse 

coneequently overtook him. 
dead (WiLKEE, Saffering» of the CUrgy, ii. 
323). A tablet in the chancel of Adderbury 
Church bears a long Latin inscription to hia 
memory. He married Margaret {d. 1705), 
daughter of the Iter. Ambrose Sacheverell, 
and left eleven children (Wood, Fo'ti Oj-on. 
ed. Bliss, ii. 64j Bbeslet, I[ut. of Banburu, 
pp. 397, 604). 

Of these, William the civilian, bom at Ad- 
derbury in 1636, gained a scholarship at Win- 
chester in 1618, wafl fellow of Kew College 
from 16ii& to 1671 (B.C.L. 1661,D.C.L. 1667), 
and was admitted an advocate of Doetora' 
Commons in IBTO. Hebecameadvocateof the 
admiraltjand chancelloroft he dioceiie of Lin- 
coln. Ho was removed from the former office 
in 1G03 for refusing lopronounce the Bailors 
acting against England under the orders cf 
Jnmea if guilty of treason and piracy (^Notet 
ttnd Qiienei, 3rd ser. i. 417). He u^succeas- 
fuliy contested the parliamentary representa- 
tion of Oxford University in 1706, and con- 
tributed the lifeof I'ompey to the coHDperative 
translation of Plutarch (1683-6), in which 
Dryden took port. lie died at Kensington 
in 170y. His ' great library ' was purchased 
by the College of Advocates at Doctors' Com- 
mons, whose books were finally dispersed by 
sale ill 1861. He was unniBrried, but he 
' maintained a mistress in a very penurious 
1804, p. 05). In his will he devised • lo bin 
loving cozen, Mrs. Ann UldyB,hisIwo Iiouwm 
at Kensington, with the residue of lii-' yiu- 
perty,' and appointed 'the said Ann Uld_v« 
whole and sole' executrix of bis wilt. Ann 
Oldya was the mother of the future king- 
of-orms. By her will, proved in 1711, she 
gave, after two or three trifling bequests, 
' all her estate, real and personal, to her 
loving friend Benjamin Jackman, ofthe said 
Kensington, upon trust, for the benefit of 
her eon William Uldys,' and she left to 
Jackman the tuition and guardianship of her 
son during his minority. 

After the death of his parents, WilHara 
the antiquary made bis way in life by his 
own abilitie.1. In 1720 he was one of thi) 
sufferers in tlie South Sea bubble, and was 
thus involved in a longand expensive lawsuit. 
In 1724 he removed to Yorkshire, leaving 
his books and mnnuecriplB in the care of 
Burridge, his landlord. The next six years 
he chiefly spent at the seat of the first Earl 
of Malton, a friend of his youth. Oldya 
was at i^eds soon after the death of Ralph 
Thoreeby the antiquary in 1726, and paia a 
visit lo nis celebrated museum (Olvis, L\fit 
qf Italdgh, 1736, p. xxxi). He remainedin 




Yorkshire for about sLx years, and apparently 
assisted Dr. Elnowler in editing the * Earl 
of Strafforde's Letters and Despatches,* 
2 vols. 1739. In 1729 he wrote an * Essay 
on Epistolary Writings, with respect to the 
Grand Collection of Thomas, earl of Straf- 
ford,' dedicated to the Earl of Malton. While 
on a visit to Wentworth House he witnessed 
the wilful destruction of the collections of 
the antiquary Richard Gascoigne [q. v.], con- 
sisting of seven great chests of manuscripts 
[see Gascoigne, Kichard, 1o79-1661 ?\ 

On returning to London in 1730, Oldys 
discovered that Burridge had dispersed his 
books and papers. The former included Lang- 
baiue's * Dramatick Poets,' with manuscript 
notes and references by ( )ldys. This anno- 
tated volume had passed into the possession 
of Thomas Coxeter, who, says Oldys in his 
second annotated copy of Langbaine, * kept it 
so carefully from my sight that I never could 
have the opportunity of transcribing into 
this [volume which] I am now writing in the 
notes I had collected in that.' The book in 
question afterwards belonged to Theophilus 
Gibber [q. v.], and from the notes of Oldys 
and Coxeter was derived the principal part 
of the additional matter fumisued by Cibber 
(or rather by Shiels) for the * Lives of the 
Poets,' 5 vols. 1753, 12mo. To the ' Uni- 
versal Spectator ' of Ilenrv Stonecastle [see 
Baker, Henry, 1C98-17/'4] Oldys contri- 
buted about twenty papers between 1728 and 
] 731 . While in 1730 Samuel Burroughs and 
others were engaged in a project for printing 
the 'Negotiations of Sir Ihomas lloe,' Oldys 
drew up * Some Considerations upon the Pub- 
lication of Sir Thomas Roe's Epistolary Col- 
lections ' (now in the British Museum, Addit. 
MS. 4H>8). 

Oldys had by 1731 brought together a 
valuable library. It contained * collections 
of manuscripts, historical and political, which 
had been the Earl of Clarendon's ; collec- 
tions of Royal Letters, and other papers of 
State ; together with a very large collection 
of English heads in sculpture, which alone 
had taken [him] some j^ears to collect at the 
expense of at least three score pounds.' In 
the course of the same year he became 
acquainted with Edward Ilarley, second 
earl of Oxford [q. v.], who purchased for 40/., 
with the prospect of * a more substantial 
recompense hereafter,' Oldys's collections, 
Svith tlie catalogues' he had drawn * up of 
them at his lordship's request.' 

Oldys had free access to Harley's cele- 
brated librarv, and one result of his studies 
there was the publication of *A Dissertation 
upon Pamphlets. In a Letter to a Noble- 
man ' [probably the Earl of Oxford], London, 

1 731 , 4to. It reappeared in Morgan's * PhcBnix 
Britannicus,' London, 1732, 4to, and in 
Nichols's * Literary Anecdotes ' (iv. 98-111 ). 
Oldys also contributed to the * Phoenix Bri- 
tannicus' (p. 65) a bibliographical history 
of * A Short View of the Long Life and 
Raigne of Henry the Third, King of Eng- 
land : presented to King James by bir Robert 
Cotton, but not printed till 1627.' Accord- 
ing to Dr. Ducarel, Oldys wrote in the* Scar- 
borough Miscellany,' 1732-4. John Taylor, 
the author of * Monsieur Tonson,' informed 
Isaac D'Israeli that * Oldys always asserted 
that he was the author of the well-known 


Busy, carious, thirsty fly ! 

which first appeared in the 'Scarborough 
Miscellany ' for 1732. 

The London booksellers employed Oldys 
in 1736 to see through the press a new edi- 
tion of Sir Walter Raleigh's * History of the 
World.' To this edition (2 vols. 1736, fol.) 
is prefixed * The Life of the Author, newly 
compil'd, from Materials more ample and 
authentick than have vet been published, by 
Mr. Oldys.' The ' Life ' occupies 282 pages, 
and embodies much labour and research. It 
was reprinted in 1740,8vo, and was prefixed 
to the collected edition of Raleigh's * Works,' 
8 vols. Oxford, 1829. Gibbon meditated a 
* Life of Raleigh,' but he relinquished the 
design from a conviction that * his ambition, 
exclusive of the uncertain merit of stvle and 
sentiment, must be confined to the hope of 
giving a good abridgment of Oldys ' (Gibbon, 
Miscellaneous Jf 'or ks^ 1837, p. 68). 

The * Life of Raleigh ' greatly increased 
Oldys's fame. He was frequently consulte<l 
at his chambers in Grav's Inn on obscure 
and obsolete writers bv eminent men of let- 
ters. He aided Thomas Havward in com- 
piling his * British Muse,' and Mrs. Cooper 
in her * Muses' Library,' and his jottings for 
a life of Nell Gwynne he gave to Edmund 
Curll. In 1737 Oldvs published anony- 
mously his * British Librarian : exhibiting 
a Compendious Review or Abstract of our 
most scarce, useful, and valuable Books in 
all Sciences, as well in Manuscript as in 
Print : with many Characters, historical 
and critical, of the Authors, their Anta- 
gonists, &c., in a manner never before at- 
tempted, and useful to all readers,' London, 
1738, Hvo. It was originally brought out as 
a mcuithly serial, in six numbers, from 
January to June 1737, though the post- 
script is signed * Gray's Inn, Feb. 18, 1737,' 
i.e. 1737-8. The work contains curious de- 
tails of works now excessively rare (cf. 
DiBDiN, Bibliomania^ ed. 1842, p. 52). 




In 1738 he was appointed literary secre- 
tary to the Earl of Oxford, with a salary of 
200/., and during his brief tenure of this 
office he frequently met George Vertue, 
Alexander Pope, and others. At the death 
of the earl in 1741 he received about three- 
quarters of a year's salary, on which he lived 
as long as it lasted, and K>r the next fourteen 
years earned his bread by literary drudgery 
h)r the booksellers. In 1742 Thomas Osborne 
[q. v.] the bookseller purchased for 13,000/. 
the collection of printed books, consisting 
of 20,748 volumes, that had belonged to the 
Earl of Oxford, and, intending to dispose of 
them by sale, projected an elaborate classi- 
litMl and descriptive catalogue. The editors 
selected by Osborne were Dr. Johnson and 
Oldys, who worked together at the task for 
several years. While tne catalogue was pro- 
gressiing Osborne issued proposals for print- 
ing by subscription * The Ilarleian Mis- 
cellany ; or a Collection of scarce, curious, 
and entertaining Tracts and Pamphlets found 
in the late Earl of Oxford's Library, inter- 
spersed with historical, political, and critical 
Notes.* Johnson supplied the 'Proposals' 
or 'An Account of this Undertaking,* as 
well as the preface to this work (8 vols. 
1744-tJ,4to), while Oldys selected ana edited 
the pamphlets. Oldys also drew up and 
annotated ' A Copious and Exact Catalogue 
of Pamphleta in tne Ilarleian Library,* 4to, 
which is a choice specimen of ' recreative 
bibliography.' This was issued in fragments 
with the * Ilarleian Miscellany,* and also in 
a separate form. It was reprinted by Park in 
the last edition of the ' Harleian Miscellany * 
(x. 357-471). A new edition of 'Health's 
Improvement,' by Thomas Moflfett Tq. v.], ap- 
pear€^d in 1746, with a memoir of tne author 
by Oldys, whose connection with Osborne 
then terminated. The editorship of Michael 
Drayton's * Works,' 1748, has been attributed 
to him, but he only furnished the * His- 
torical Essay ' to that edition and to the one 
of 1 753. 

between 1747 and 1760 Oldys contri- 
buted to the first edition of the ' niographia 
Britannica ' twenty-two exhaustive articles. 
A tabular description of his labours on this 
important work is given by Bolton Comey, 
who says : * It may be safely asserted that 
no one of the contributors to the " Bio- 
graphia Britannica " has produced a richer 
proj)ortion of inedited facts than William 
Oldys; and he seems to have consulted 
ever>' species of the more accessible autho- 
rities, from the " Foedera " of Rymer to the 
inscription on a print. His united articles, 
set up as the text of Chalmers, would occupy 
about a thousand octavo pages' {Curionttea 

of Literature Illustrated, ed. 1838, p. 177). 
In 1778, when Dr. Kippis undertook the 
editorship of the second edition of the * Bio- 
graphia Britannica,' he secured a portion of 
Oldys's manuscript biographical collections, 
which were quoted in the articles ' Arabella 
Stuart,' ' John Barclay,* * Mary Beale,' ' W. 
Browne,* and * Samuel Butler.' 

From 1751 to 1763 Oldys was involved in 
pecuniary difficulties, and, being unable to 
discharge the rent due for his chambers in 
Gray's Inn, he was compelled to remove to 
the Fleet prison. In 1763 he, in conjunction 
with John Taylor the oculist, published 
* Observations on the Cure of William Tay- 
lor, the Blind Boy of Ightham in Kent.' 
Oldys remained in confinement till Mr. 
Southwell of Cockermouth (brother of the 
second Lord Southwell) and other friends 
procured his release ( Gent Mag, 1784, pt. i. 
p. 260). John Taylor, however, states that 
it was the Duke of Norfolk who paid his 
debts and thus obtained his liberty. Soon 
afterwards the duke procured for him the 
situation of IS'orroy king-of-arms. He was 
created Norfolk herald-extraordinary at the 
College of Arms by the Earl of Effingham, 
deputy earl-marshal, on 16 April 1765, to 
qualify him for the office of^ Norroy, to 
which he was appointed by patent on 6 May 
following (Noble, College of Arms , pp. 386, 
419). Oldys appointed as his deputy Ed- 
ward Orme of^ Chester, the compiler of 
pedigrees for Cheshire families. * The heralds,' 
says Noble, *had reason to be displeased 
with Oldys's promotion to a provincial king- 
ship. The College, however, will always 
be pleased with ranking so good a writer 
among their body.' Francis Grose, Rich- 
mond herald, asserts that Oldys was accus- 
tomed to indulge ' in deep potations in ale,' 
and was so intoxicated at the funeral of the 
Princess Caroline that he reeled about while 
carrj'ing the coronet on a cushion. In refu- 
tation of this story Noble pointed out that 
the crown, when borne at the funeral of a 
king or queen, or the coronet at the burial 
of a prince or princess, is always carried by 
Clarenceux, and not by Norroy. In a con- 
temporary account of the funeral of the 
Princess Caroline, however, it is distinctly 
stated that the body was preceded by * Norroy, 
king-of-arms, carrying the crown on a black 
velvet Q\x%h\OTL^ {Gent. Mag, 1737, p. 765; 
Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. iii. 614). 

Oldys was connected with the College of 
Arms for nearly five years. His library was 
the large room up one flight of stairs in 
Norroy's apartments, in the west wing of 
the college. His notes were written on slips 
of paper, which he afterwards classified and 

Oldys 122 Oldys 

J.tI'.s ■-■'. ••. : It r*; >.::;•:::: Vu^ ju^^er.Jed on Kdward Vernon Utterson had an inter- 

:".'.. w.i" ^ ■ - -.■::: I". :::> way he loavtKl Langbaine, but it is not known what 

c\". -'■■.-•. -i. .. •"* : :.M*>'ri.UNiri'Uis Wcauie of it. It is hardly possible to take 

o v.. *.■..- - .'. :•"-*- 1." i' 1.1:0 ■: • Shdkt^ up any work on the history of the stagt- or 

>y. ir* . a:-. :'.- :;i :.:• =< v. -■ s l>aaj \\r-*\\ the lives of our dramatists without findiiif^ 

V.-. I i \- "uT^'v. .:>. *7» ".^■:i<i'.«: iciv.iC rh?? these curious collections of Oldys quoted to 

* V : : : - •! V:: c: ■ -^ " jlvvl iv.i-.vl :^ Kowe's illustrate some obscure point. 

* ■.' :* '.. ■■•': A" '!•- > ;>-•••. « •'iy* tre- Oldys also annotated a copy of FuIIit'-* 
..■..:-■■. : i-i-i •■ J. - -•. V "^< I" :::•■ !i.^iis»* i^f 'Worthies of Knpland * (I6o2), and the 
J v.:: l'-'- . T '.•-:• .\v/.>" :" Hi" r: «.Id7t*'*n. nott-s were transcribed by George Steevens 
'A ;. >. ':,■ i.x-.yT r> ^tt^vI :!:. r >.-»..■..' in the into his own copy of that work, which Ma- 
'.y -.■■..-". -.' ■'-a: '.-.r si.^b.: :::" be ob:-^»rd to lone aftenvards purchased for 43/. A copy 
■.v..:-.j'.- w.-.. •'..: :-'j.-r v>:-ors U.s List of Bishop Nicolson's 'Historical Lihrar\* 
'..■'■ r-.iry :r ■: ..•■':: w^s ■ U!:.t' L::?? 't ChdrUs » IT.'Ui), with a great number of manuscript 
{ "-:..' : .--r-XT-i '^ Sr J l-.-.i ILiwkirs's iidditi«^ns and references by Oldys, is pre- 
r :.• •.: : V\ .1." :.">• C '.-v'-ii: .Vv-^Itt.' I7o0. served in the British Museum. lie als) 
H- :.-': -.-..> .i;<i7:-.v.? •-:*■.::: v.- CI. c^' .'t auuotatetl 'England's Parnassus* (1(MX)). 
Arn^i ". ;■') Ay-::', ir^'l. av. I W15 bLi7'e*l .;ii an- 1 discovered the fact that its compiler 

* ..- ;••:. ::. •";. ■ r. r'.: :i:>'-. :" ::: »:*.'.. :rv!i v>t' was Robert Allott [q. v.^ This volume be- 
>". iV:.- ". [Vi .1- Whi-r:. II * :V.-r-. I J .*! :i loMi:>.'d suetvssively to Thomas Wart on and 
T.i. ..- r. ::■' .T:;!i' IT'*', a ■.:!::::. >r:>.'i us Colonel Stanley, at whose sale in 1813 it 
;r..-. .y.. rr-.:."'r. i-ir.iy-.-i •'..■: :"■;:>. rd- : \- was piux'hasfd by Mr. 11, Triphook for 
p.'-r.-v-. '.r. : j'*i!r.-I j-'s^f^si ^:i o: *.:.*. '':^ rliirrr.Hu iiuineas. 

.•-,■ •....!. •,.■..•.-. ;ir. i v;il;::iblT^ :i'..irk.:s*:r-.y:s. AmoUiT tlie works he left in manuscript 
'f;.-: '.r /..•..: i M!:.:;ri_- ■:* «'Mv>. : rv-ir r'.\ arv : I. k.vtraets ft)r a work to be entitled 
r -;'/;'.;■.. '.;'• *•» 'f.i'. i ,r. w.i.-s l.'-'.ir v-.J. -.:: I*^".: ' • Hie Tatrni : or a Portraiture of Patron:ii:e 
y>- ..'. *..■■ ;,',— --i'li ■ I Mr. J, H. Bv.r:: 'i arul IVpendiL-ncy, more especially as tlu-y 
r.', '. ■.■-•. An '.n^rr-jv ■.:;,- :r --.r. :: ly :ipjv:ir in their Domestick Li^Iit and Atli- 
i^::•* ,.-. ;:;.,,-ir.'j in til.- • Kiiroi-e.i'.i Maca- :i Us.' Addir. MS. 12.')23. -J. *Of Lond.m 
/ •■ :-.: . '.■.. r.'.h«r \7\*^''.'s : with Anecdotes of Collectors nf 
.. ',; ' .'■ i.r.rr-- 1 li. -.k- l-.I tu' '^ K .'xs. It-^marks «»ii B<>>k«elh*rs, and of th'• 
'^•; .■:..'!:,'■ 1 -A irli iii;ir;u'ior:p: :i : :> :-..--r Tul /> of Catalojjues.' Append«'fl 
■..■.,' •.:;..-. Ifi- tir<: an:: *..:■ I :.- Y .^woll"- * M.'moir of Oldys/ pp. oS-K?*). 
' .. ■ 'J I. t.^'i:. :.••"- • I»r;ini;iTio':\ !*•:<' :\. ■ Cira'. vu" of Bi»«^ks and Pamphlets n- 

; ; ■ ; / .: :..« i.;iii'i- L\x-iuiNF. G"- 'iiv.r.i; : ^ :Uf Cirv of L-mdon/ fol. This \vu< 

i'.K.'..'. ■'. . ,'.ij'T . In 17J7 !i" pu'.vha>- l :i U-v.: ly Srrvvon* to Uichard Gtiugh ^j. a. . 

— ;. : I..:.,f..i..'.T.jir'l (•■ir.rinri-.l :<• anii-^r.ito \vl'..> imaA'' i:s'.*of it in c-unpilin}; his •' ftriti-li 

;•. • .. •;.•■ .;i*--* ji-r:- III lit ill- lit-. Tl:;> r'.'{\v l\'p.^jr:ip!iy.* Th».* manuscript was sub-»*- 

V,-;: . J, ..--:.: -'■•! by I 'r. l!:".;!i. wlm li"ij!i»:irlir- 1 .^'.i-.iirlv -u S-.r .I.ihn Hawkins's library, wiiirh 

;•*.::.■■ Ji.-.'-.-ii \r.ii.-;i:j,. f' i^ n.»t iiit-r- ..•'.■>:? -v .-. I l»v ri re. 4. * Memoirs' relatiiij 

I.-;i-.-i. hi' r::i.-l \\::U r..r»- wrirr.-M in r!>' t.i :U... Family ."u* «>Idys' Addii. MS. V2Ai\ 

:i::i-.'!r."! .'iii'! b-f.v-t-:i rh" lln.- in .in »\- The .iiirwi >:t's r^'Iarini: t^ Dr. Oldys the 

Tr-:r>:!y -!.';;i'.l !.:iMi. I» crri:i:»^l rhr 1 -in oivilian ar»« pririrrd in th»' M i en t Ionian's 

,:'■• •■! I.»r. i*-r.'v. l.Mi .|, ..f ]>r-::i.»rv. \\h.> Majr-.i/inr'.* IT^-L p^ i, i». oL".>. .'). A oollec- 

iy.;i !■■ .1 rr:in-":j.* ■t' tlir n-i»-> inr.. an in:, r- :• -n '^t* ^'.v u:< by ( )ldys. »». Diary. »!>- 

l,;iv-l I- T-y-'t* Lanjl.s:!.- in ; v-l... **%-.■. It'-.l r.} Yf-^uvll's **Mem«»ir i>f nldy-.' 

\VM- tr ■:.: llL-h j* IVrcy* i-'pv :};:i; .I.^o.'li pp. I -J.>. diary was diseovcred in a 

Hasi'/w- '.i a:in-..Tri:M 1 iii- Lu:'.j!.:i'n'.-. whli.-h ivniiuonpuu"'' !.'.^''k <^i' the Rev. .I«)hn Bowl.- 

is n>w i!i rl-*- Hriti-'i Mr.--!i:n. <^.'.-*r^.^ i irj") ■ir'**^- H- v.". Jisually ealled D-miBowI.-, 

S:."Vr-r.-:i;i-wi>ir-ma..l.-arr:in-or:p: ■-t'oMvi'H ....uv in t!>.' "British Mnl-«'um t.Vddit. MS. 

n.'r.< i:-.* ■ a r.-py .■f [.anjKiin", whi«.'h is Ji^iiCi. P. was rir<T priiued in • Not«:< and 

;il<-^ n--w 'n :\\r Bri-i-li Mu—'im. having i^^urrir'-* I'^r F'-bniary l*-»il. T. Adv»-r<ar::i, 

ra--od :'..r •ijli :!>■ h;iT:=U ..t" .Sir Samu-l tn^m whicha <fl^vti."»n .if- t'hoioe N«'trs* wa«: 

^-t IV. N\ l-l-.> 1- n.>ru'^.l ;.ii .:h*T i^.»py ot ;i:..i ;i:>,r\r.irvis rerrintod under the titlV o{ A 
laM.:l'ainv. with many impoi-Mnt a-Miti-'n-* Lircniry A::i:qi:ary : Memoir. ^f Will- ;im Oldys, 
•,>\ iU' veu.s and Kivd. In 1>1*> Norr<.>y' Kinjr-at-.Vnus. L<.>udon. 1S62. Svo; 



Bwley'i Lifo of Fuller, p. 787 ; Bcloe-* Anac- 
dotca, i. 20Si BeiilUy's Excerpta Hitloricn, 

C76: Boawell'B Johnson (Croker). i. SU2 ; 
hfiold'H Bibl. of Sir W. Kaleigh, ISBSi 
Brydge^'sConsiint Lit. 1st edit. i. 438 ; Bryilgeo'i 
Raaticutit, u. aun. iv. 1B7 : Chnnilers'i Cjclo- 
pwlU-of Engl. Lit, 1st edit. ii. 121 ; Comoy'a 
Cviiwitics of Literatnra Illustrated, 2iid edit. 
p. 162; D'lareeli'B CnrtoeilitB of Ijioralure, 
TJ. 363 : Fry'n Bibliogiapbiral Mcmorenda, 
p. 33:GfDt.Miig. 1784 pt-. i. pp. 161,200, '.272, 
338. pt.ii. pp. 744. 9«,97S, 17Bfipt. i. pp.106. 
lOT, pr.. ii. p. 587 : Oough's Brit. Topography, 
17B0, i. ai, A67: Grose's Olio: Nichols's 
lUostr. oF Lit. ir. 168, Tit. fiS9 ; SicbaWe Lit. 
Anecd. vii. 300, x. BH; Notes and Queries, 
Tlh wr. ii. 510 (und general iodexcs); Taylor's 
Rocords of ray Uh. 1832. i. 2o.J T. C. 

priest and politician, was bom in 17^9 at 
Acres, a townland in the pariah of fanlobbus, 
near Dumnanway, CO. Cork, his parents being 
of the peasant class. Having acquired some 
itnowledge of clasaical literature, he went to 
a ntonaster; of Capuchin triars nt St. Malo ' 
In Britt&nj. There he entered the Capuchin ' 
order,aiid wasordained priest. Inthecourse 
of the war between Eng-land and France | 
which commenced in IToii prisoners of war | 
made by the French were confined at Bt. | 
Malo; manje of them were Iriahmeu and 
oilLoiii!!, and U'Leoiy wu appointed cbap- 
lain to the nrisons and hoepitnls. The Due , 
de ChoiFeul, minister of foreign ufl'airs, di- i 
recte<l O'Learv to persuade the catholic sol- 
diers to trnnslVr their allegiance to France, ! 
bat be tndi^anily epnmed the proposal. 
'I thought It,' wrote O'Leary l^ng after- 
ward* in his ' Reply to Weslev/'acrime to 
engage the king of Ensland's soldiere into 
the service of a catholic monarch against 
fheir protestant sorereign. I resisted the 
aolicitation, and my conduct was approved 
by the divine* of a monaeterj' to wnlcli 1 
then belonged, who unanimously declared 
that in conscience I could not have acted 
otherwise.' l!e continued to hold the chap- 
laincy until peace was declared in 17B2. 
Among distinguished personages whose in- 
timacy he enjoyed in France was Cardinal 
de Luynes, arcbbjehop of Sens. 

In 1771 he relumed to Ireland, and for 
MTeral rears he ofiiciated in a small edifice 

the city of Cork, long known as Father 
O'Leary 'g chapel, when? he preached to 
crowded congregations, his sermons being 
' chiefly remarkable for a happy train of 
strong moral rra-ioning, bold figure,and scrip- 
tural allusion.' In 1771) a Scottish phy- 

an named Blair, residing in Cork, pub- 
liahed n sceptical and blaaphemoiis work 
under the title of 'Thoughts on Nature and 

Religion.' O'Leary obtained permissionfrom 
Dr. Mann, proteetant bishop of the diocese, 
to reply to thisin' ADefeuceof tbeDivinity 
of Chriat and the Immortality of the Soul,' 
Cork. 1776. O'l^ary's ne.xt publication ap- 
peared about 1777. under the title ' Loyalty 
asserted; or the now Test- oath vindicated 
and provrf by the Mnciples of the Canon 
and IjivII Laws, and the Authority of the most 
Eminent Writers, with an Enquiry into the 
Pope's deposing Power, and the groundless 
I Claims of the Stuarts. In a. letter to a Pro- 
testant Gentleman.' In 1779 the hostile 
I French fleet rode menacing and unoppased 
in St. George's Channel, and much anxiety 
prevailed regarding the attitude of the Irish 
I catholic body. .\t this critical moment 
j O'Leary, in 'An Address to the common 
People of the Roman Catholic religion con- 
cerning the apprehended French InTasion,' 
j eiplsined to Irishmen their obligation of 
undivided allegiance to the Ilritish govem- 
' ment. In I7WJ he issued 'Remarks on 
the Rev. John Wesley's Letter on the civil 
Principles of Roman Catliolics and his de- 
fence of the Protestant Association,' Dub- 
lin, 1760, 8vo. This witty, argumentative, 
and eloquent treatise elicited from Wesley 
a reply which was noticed by U'Leary in a 
few pages usually printed with the 'Re- 
marks.' and entitled ' A rejoinder to Mr. 
Wesley's Reply.' Some years laterthe two 
controversialists met. Wesley noted in his 
'Journal 'on 12 May 1787: 'A gentleman 
invited me to breakfast with my old anta- 
gonist, Father (.I'Leary. I was not at all 
displeased at being disappointed. He is not 
the stiff, queer man thai I ex]iected, but of 
an easy, genteel carriage, and seems not to 
bewanlingeilberinsenseorleaming.' About 
17S0 John Howard visited Cork, and was 
introduced to {J'l^aiy, who was an active 
member of a society which had for some 
years been established in that city ' for the 
relief and discharge of persons confined for 
amall debts.' In after times Howard fre- 
quently boasted of sharing the friendship 
and esteem of the friar. 

I I'Learj's ablest work was ' An Essay on 
Toleration; or Mr, O'Leary'sPlea for Liberty 
of Conscience' [1780!']. One consequence 
of its publication was his election as one 
of the 'Monks of St, Patrick' or 'Monks of 
the Screw,' a political association which waa 
started by Barry Yelverton, afterwards lord 
Avonmore. lie was, however, only an hono- 
rary member of the association, and did not 
join in the orgies with which the sni-disant 
monks celebrated their reunions. In 1781 
he collected his ' Miscellaneous Tracts,' and 
published them at Dnhlin in a single octavo 




volume (LowNDESy Btbl. Manual, ed. Bolin, 
iu. 1723). 

In 1782 0*Leary publicly announced his 
support of the Irish national volunteer move- 
ment, and a body of volunteers known as the 
'Irish Brijjade 'conferred on him the honorary 
dignity of chaplain. Many of the measures 
discussed at the national convention held 
in Dublin were previously submitted to him. 
On 11 Nov. 1783 he visited that assembly, 
and met with a most enthusiastic reception. 
He was now the idol of his catholic fellow- 
countr}-men, who regarded him as one of the 
stoutest champions of the nationalist cause. 
But he was at the same time actually in the 
pay of the government. His biographer, Eng- 
land, gives the following account of his posi- 
tion : During his visit in Dublin a confiden- 
tial agent of the ministry proposed to him 
that he should write something in defence 
of their measures. On his refusal, it was 
intimated that his silence would be accept- 
able to the government, and that an annual 
pension of 150/. was to be offered for his 
acceptance without any condition attached 
to it which would be repugnant to his feel- 
ings as an Irishman r)r a catholic. A change 
in the administration occurred shortly after- 
wards, and the promise remained unfulfilled. 
It is doubtful whether this story is quite 
accurate. Before 17^4 he was obviously in 
receipt of a secret pension of at least 100/. a 
year, which hud been conferred on him in 
acknowledgment of the value set by the au- 
thorities on the loyalist tone of his writings. 
In 17H4 it was proposed to him, in considera- 
tion of an extra 100/. per annum, to under- 
take a new task, namely, to give information 
resjKicting the secret designs of the catholics. 
Lord Sydney, secretary of state in Pitt's 
ministrv, wrote thus to the Duke of Port- 
land, viceroy of Ireland, on 4 Sept. 1784 : 
* O'Leury has been talked to by Mr. Nepean, 
and he is willing to undertake what is wished 
for 100/. a year, which has been granted him ; ' 
and on 8 Sept. Orde, the chief secretar\', 
wrote to Nepean thanking him for sending 
over a spy or detective named Parker, and 
adding : * I am very glad also that you have 
settled matters with O'Lear}', who can get 
to the bottom of all secrets in w^hich the 
catholics are concerned, and they are cer- 
tainly the chief promoters of our present 
disquietude. He must, however, be cautiously 
trusted, for he is a priest, and, if not too much 
addicted to the general vice of his brethren 
here, he ia at least well acquainted with the 
art of raising alarms for the purpose of claim- 
ing a merit in doing them away.' Again 
Orde writes on 23 Sept. : * We are about to 
make trial of O'Leary's sermons and of 

Parker^s rhapsodies. They may be both, in 
their different callings, of very great use. 
The former, if we can depend upon him, has 
it in his power to discover to us the real 
designs of the catholics, from which quarter, 
after all, the real mischief is to spring.' Mr. 
Lecky remarks that Father OTieary, whose 
brilliant pen had already been employed to 
vindicate both the loyalty and faith of the 
catholics and to induce them to remain at- 
tached to the law, appears to have consented 
for money to discharge an ignominious office 
for a government which distrusted and de- 
spised him {History of England, vL 36^); 
while Mr. Froude does not hesitate to de- 
scribe him as * a paid and secret instrument 
of treachery' (The English in Ireland, ii. 
4ol). Francis Plowden, O'Leary's friend, 
ignoring the early date at which CLeary 
first placed himself at the goyemment's dis- 
])osal, asserted that the pension was granted 
to (.)'Leary for life in the name of a trustee, 
but upon the secret condition that he should 
for the future withhold his pen and reside no 
more in Ireland (Plowden, Ireland jnnce the 
Union, 1811, i. 6). The llev. Mr. Buckley 
was informed that the pension was accepted 
on the understanding that Mr. Pitt would 
keep his word as a man of honour in pro- 
mising that he would bring about the eman- 
cipation of the catholics and the repeal of 
the penal laws in case OXenry consented to 
write nothing against the union of the Irish 
with the British parliament (Lffe ofOLeary, 
18(58, p. 3o0). In an endeavour to extenuate 
O'Leary's conduct, Mr. Fitzpatrick says: * He 
had already written in denunciation of French 
designs on Ireland ; and what more natural 
than that he should now be asked to track 
the movements of certain French emissaries 
who, the government heard, had arrived in 
Dublin, and were conspiring with the catho- 
lic leaders to throw off the British yoke? 
This task O'l^ary, as a staunch loyalist, may 
have satisfied his conscience in attempting, 
especially as he must have known that in 
1784 the catholics as a body had no treason- 
able designs, though doubtless some excep- 
tions might be found ' {Secret Service under 
Pitt, 2nd edit. p. 224). O'Leary's biographer 
represents that the pension of 200/. was not 
offered him until 1789, after he had finally 

' left Ireland, and, although this is clearly iii- 

I correct, some doubt is justifiable as to whether 
the whole sum was actually paid him until 
he had ceased to concern himself with Irish 

] About 1784 O'Leary was solicited to write 
a history of the * No Popery ' riots in Lon- 
don under Lord George (Gordon. For a short 
time he entertained the idea, and began to 




jliut eventually Bbandoned 

111 1786 he YiTOte his 'Review 
of the Important Controversy between Dr. 
Carroll and the Rev. Messrs. Wharton 
and Hawkins ; including a Defence of C'le- 
tnentXJV.' Appeadedtoitis 'A Letter from 
Candor to the Right Hon. Luke Gardiner on 
his Bill for a Repeal of a part of the P^nal 
I^wa a^inst tlie Irish Catholics.' This waa 
written in 1779, and had appeared in the 
new^papersof that time. In 1785 and 178<i 
the peaceoflhe county ofCorkwasdieturbed | 
at night by mobs under the guidance of a ! 
leader who aKmrqed the name of ' Captain 
Right,' and ()'l.eary puhlished 'Addresses i 
to the Cnmmon People of Ireland, parlicu- | 
larly siich of them as are called Wliiteboys,' I 
demonstrating in a familiar, eloquent, and | 
bold modeof reasoning thefolly, wickedness, ' 
and illegality of their conduct. Ilispersonal I 
exenionswere further soliciled by the magia- 
trUes of the county, and he accompanied 
ihem to different plncea of worship, exhorted 
the deluded people to obedience ti> the laws 
<uid recpect for religion, and was successful 
in persuading numbers of them to quit the 
■Mociation. lie afterwards published ' .K 
Defence of the Conduct and WrilingB of the 
Rbt. Arthur tyLeary durinR the late Dis- 
turbances in the Province of Munster, with ' 
t fhll JnstificAtion of the iTish Catholie!i, and : 
an Account of the Risings of the Whit«- 
boys ; Written by Himself, in Answer to 
the FaUe Accu^alions of Tbeopbitus [i.e. 
Patrick Duigenan], and the Ul-grounded In- 
NDoationB of the Right Rev. Dr. Woodward, 
IiOfd Bishop of Cloyne.' 

The controversies iu which his equivo- 
cal position involved him induced him 
to qait Ii«land in 1789, when he was ap- 
pointed one of the cluiplains to the Spanish | 
enbasiyin London, his colleague there being i 
Dr. HuBsey, afterwards bishop of Waterford. < 
They afterwards had a dispute, and a ' Nar- | 
mtive of the Misunderatandlng between the 
Ber. A. O'Lcarr and the Rev. Mr. Huiwey ' | 
appeared in 1791 (Fitkpatrice, p. 265 n.) | 
On his arrival in London, OlJearj was 
anxiously sought after by his countrymen. 
Edmund Burke introduced him to the Duke 
of York, and always spoke with character- 
ictic enthusiasm of the good effect of his 
writings. He used to attend the meetings 
of the English catholic committee, hut he 
opposed its action, and look exception to the 
absurd appoIUlion of 'Protesting Catholic 

more generally 
IS assuming or 
r. Seeing hia 
with whom ho 

that beheld it. N< 
loved or revered; 
more pleasing in '. 
external simplicity, pers< 
was arguing were soiu 
treat him cavalierly; but then the solemnity 
with which he would mystify his adversttry, 
and ultimately lead him into the most dis- 
tressing absnnlitv, was one of the moat de- 
lightful scenes tfiat conversation ever ex)u- 
h\U:d' {Hut. Memoirio/tAeEngliiiACathoIiai, 
ld22,iv.43S). Successful efforts were meao- 
whila made by his friend Plowden to secure 
the full payment of the pension of 200/,, with 
qU unpaid arrears. 

St. Patrick's chapel, Sutton Street, Soho 
Souare, waa, during the later years of his 
life, the scene of his labours. His .'iermons 
were widely admired, and his auditory in- 
cluded all grades of society. His collec'tiona 
for a projected history of the Irish rebellion 
of irSIS he presented to Francis Plowden. 
He imhlished in 1800 an ' Address to the 
Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the Par- 
liament of Great Britain ; to which is added 
an Account of Sir H. Mildmay'a Bill relative 
to Nuns." This was followed by ' A Memo- 
rial in behalf of the Fathers of La Trappe 

IKssenters. Charles Butler, the 
of the committee, says : 'The appearance of 
Father O'Leary was simple. In fiis counte- 
nance there was a mixture of goodness, so- 
lemnity, and drollery which fixed every eye 

and the Orphans committed to their Care,' 
' which was probably the last of his literary 
: Inboura. Tttwards the end if 1801 he went 
to France for the benellt of his health. He 
was again in I.^ndon on 7 Jan. 1802, and 
died on the following morning nt No. 45 
Great Portland Street. His ' Funeral Ora- 
tion,' pronounced by the Rev. Morgan D'Arcv, 
has been printed. The body waa interred in 
Old St. Pancras churchyard, and a monu- 
ment waa placed over the grave by Earl 
Mciira, afterwards marquis of Hastings 
I (Addit. MS. 27488, f. ]f>6). This monu- 
l ment was repaired by public sulwcription in 
I 1851. Anotler was erected in St. Patrick's 
I Cliapel. When old St. Pancras churchyard 
waa taken by the Midland railway for the 
I extension of their station buildings, the re- 
I mnius of O'Leary were removed, and on 
I 3 Feb. 1891 they were interred in the calbo- 
; lie cemetery at Keneal Green, in a grave 
close (o that of Cardinal Wiseman {Tablet, 
28 Feb. 1891, p. 365). 
I His earliest biographer, England, in por- 
traying his character, states that 'good sense, 
I unaffected piety, and e.itensive knowledge 
j gained him the respect and admiration of 
the learned and grave, whilst by his un- 
I bounded wit, anecdotes, and unrivalled bril- 
liancy of imagination he was the source of 
delight and entertiunment to all whom ha 
admitted to his intimacy.' A more discri- 
minating critic, Mr. liecky, admits that 


.— :..- I" r. -" r'—.-^'.' u: i v i.- i. ^h .-jiktvper. Miss O'L'iary coniri- 

- . . - 1. 1 . . ^-i' :'•-■ •■-•-I rrTv- '••' various Irish journals from 
_ . .._- .'-- - -- .'..• r.- L". fL-.T arr; bii: after h»»r brothor had 

. , - ....-_ -■:—:-* :_: i l ■ -:rri *.Lr inrlTation of James Stephens, 

- -- -^ : V . -^L • -' .-• • L.r: .rrtT-:?»-r 'tf the Irish republic/ tn take 

• .:.-'---:::-- i^i lij^.v •: tL- • Iri-h Teople,' which was e?ta- 

. : ;•- .-:-i--- ■ Li"- :..-:.-■£ :i N -vember 1863, she wrote ex- 

_,-.:_- - - _ -I. -I Ti- --- *tIt :' r :hat journal, and soon became 

-^ siri":- iT:_i J. i.rT_r^.'i*i^i member of the band of poeii 

^ --..---- - ■ 1" 1 i 1 r ■ T_ -T^ j-.f-i :hr fenians, in imitation of the 

-> _.: r-:' -r. -t_ I V -^^I>. lirir-r* oft went v wars earlier, em- 

, , ^ - ■ : - -. - LT- ■ - i " - "-T-i — -T^-iiin^ their opinions. The 'Irish 

.. ^-.'--..! ;^- " —■■- ' - - :'-T " •«-** ?rizrrJ bv the government on 

\- y- .. :.-.:-> ". * S-Tv '.•c»Ti: i:» tslitor, John 0*LeuiT, and 

.... !.>-..-.- l: L "i-T r Li- r* :f;he movement were arit^sted, 

^ . . ^ ^^ ■ :..^ - : '."-*.: 1-1 i '^■rTi--?'. wLoracaped. and wasinhidinff 

■ _"- ■ * ■ 1' >-i£ni -n:. near iMiblin. emplovodMLiy 

.:. \ -1^ --_•:: - '—- ~ ^Lrrr messafires betweiin Sandv- 

i >■-. : -^- - .-r-i.'- i ;* — - - L- i :»-":l!r.. and to aid him ^nenlly 

^ ^ ~" ^ ^ ^ .: _ :v-.' r^ "Ir a5»:r*of the fenianon^anisa- 

. ^ ^ -^^ Y.T^^.'. f • : T. '^^"-Ti--- wi* arrested at Sand vmount 

.. ;•:—=:- - ". *- N . "."'o. tu: on the :?4th he escaped 

" - ^ * '.. • \ "■ : ' ^ - -■- '-"^ -3 T-rlfon. A sum of 200/. was 

--•_■"--.' "v*-i ":- y.>*' • Ijearr nn a mortgage on her 

..^ . ^ •_— . • 7 :l r.- 7-~ : ■ L.i i'-- xVnian leader in getting 

%r- 7- -":- ^r'.lijw* of the fenian movement 

. . •,- ^ . _ '». *- . l^t'T" ■*"r-: : > her home in Tipperanr, 

. "* \. .- :.* : ■-•: -i-rv :- r-*irement, devoting htr- 

^ ■ ^ "* -.. - ". -i " ■ -'-"i'-^- "--1 1>^'>- She then re- 

. * . * * i :-- :r -irrJ.-^hr.. who.aftorbeing im- 

^- >. ;'.. — — • - T- - - -i :;- 'Tt Jr^r* and exiled for titieen, 

^ ^ ^ - : 1 -::".-::.!■ T-ir T^".:mrd to Ireland. She 

, ^ .. - X .-.-.- -'^ A -7.--;- - :' l^ir p^-f-m*, entitU»d *Lav? 

^^ V , '^^ .'. ^-: -■ "-r**^- :' ■ .-"T^. :I —-. ir.i Fri».'nds,' wa« puV 

^ . V. ■ ^ • -' -••" - •- - " 1 .:'.- :" >-^l. It contain^ a 

.. ^.v^ . -* - ^'T ; -■'-': "^ -^-1 ■^- >"^^vJ: rvMr. T^W. Rolleston, 

'^ - ' .'"',--'"_' i- ■- L~ i7;-^v'-'-*.""r :r.":.'l>mofMissO'L»ary*j« 

-. V — i ' ^- -^' ^ '• -.'"■ ■*•_ "**/ " * 7' •:-• -'-'S r ..if.--' iivan Diifly, which had 

.^ - .v'^-^i:^ -" , •; ,.. :i- "^ ?.T ".•r i>- •..-.::.-• i».:t».:n I niversitvlJe- 

- V ^ ^^ ' ■; ^ ..^ -* ' ^-- "^ .-""•'. :~. - '^ ■.■-: :l. > r .>v*. under the title * A 

*"**■■■ " ; . .r ,^'. . 4^..: 1*1- - "-. '-V'" S.r.^-r" Mis^i • ''Lrary's songs aiv 

.-•..%.^ '^*^. * ^'". ^/*'- * j.'/^'-*> '£z7.- ?~-^" -.Tii - hit't liy *.>-».;. 'iietl in the natural 

***"% ^^^^^ Ax\ >-■ -•>•' ^i*o-.-~ -^-i ^ - "• '•'. ^i- li:i-:^ir- •::* :'-v Irish peasant. 

^^^ -^^iviiJ ,**\i. '*%>.»'>» ■■■ i-.*» >I'**-r-? > 5 ■^Irirvs I^iW o: C.-i3trv. Home, and 

5&Jrr>*..xj v.-vri^. -LN :5. V i^s}: M -- :->, :,. :-■::. :^.;: ; * m. m.uD. 

CIIb' v.^v.>x : v--^-: -.■>::: OLEARY. J« »SErH .'f. \<^^?\ song- 
^ >%.„...»< i-' * ^^' • • ■ "" ■ • """^ '• * ■-" : ■ ■ -.rvi^if". w..* K -rn in Curk al)out 

k» «** <- >^'*' * "v-vsv > ^ :-.dco...c.: r-. j -.j- ^.. ^ ,.^--. ■^. : v :;..,« ^ y^ >:up:iny of stroll- 

•^V>: >^*i****''*'^ "!''/■ ''^.* .^ r-'^-^." ■'■- V-V'^"'"^* '■-^- -■* •"'-M'rioal eX|HTioiiee 

"V %A«, .^«^ -^s^' •^"'*- 'V'- '" ' "• '^"i'' >'_:■::. :i> :l:e :!:iv..uv-r was iu-solvi-nt. 

^ ?'«y^ - >** ''^^*' '^ .. , ,*■ ■ «t' " .":.:' A'- .* 1-1> v.- »>"»:r.niT!iO'-d r > write for the 

X.. Vv-*- ^*»'^ ^■••■- '" ^.V-;"' '-r-: rt:-r^-n ::iMy. r'.ie • Fivr-holder/ a 

"i ■irr'.'. MS -ihr-.-r wiiioli w;i< «*dit».d bv John 
jaiikJML SL- S\ •>•** l>>*^'- I">^ J* ;.*■-. ;i:: 11:1*: rdriil l«»4i\ ( ^I,.■ar^■*seontri- 
*•^•^' Tv\. »i,A't viiM-*r in th- ' * -i ■!> w-rv o^isil.'rt'd vor\- iiowt-rful, and 
^^ • -2* b*»^»-«-^' ^^** b-'ini in I 1* w.i^ m it- »»unin> his tam<)ii< Itaivhana- 
(4HM»^ ^^*^^^ J j^^^ father I lian s mi^z, * Whiskey, drink divine/ api>ean>d. 




About 1818 he also wrote for the ' Baga- 
telle,' a short-lived Cork periodical ; and for 
a time he edited the * Cork Mercantile Re- 
porter.' Between 1825-8 he contributed to 
* Bolster's Cork Quarterly,' and to two Lon- 
don periodicals, the ' Dublin and London 
Machine ' and ' Captain Rock in London.' 
Richard Ryan [q. v. J, the Irish biographer, 
who seems to liaye known him, says in his 
'Poets and Poetry' (1826, ii. 141), that 
he was, in 1826, preparing a translation of 
Tibullus. In 1830 O'Leary published a 
pamphlet ' On the Late Election in Cork,' 
under the signature of 'A Reporter.' There 
mre also some poems by him in Patrick 
(yKeUy's 'Ilippocrene' (1831) ("see O'Kelly, 
Patrick] ; &na in 1833 a small collection of 
his poems and sketches appeared at Cork in 
an anonymous volume, entitled * The Tribute.' 
In 1834 he came to London and joined the 
staff of the * Morning Herald ' as parlia- 
mentary reporter. He seems to have met 
with little success in London, and drowned 
himself in the Regent's Canal about 1845. 
O'Leary has been confused with ' The Irish 
Whiskey-Drinker ' — i.e. John Sheehan. 

Another contemporary Joseph O'Leabt 
Of. 1835), a barrister, published 'Law of 
Tithes in Ireland,' Dublin, 1835, 8vo ; * Rent 
Charges in lieu of Tithes,' Dublin, 1840, 8vo ; 
'Dispositions for Religious and Charitable 
Uses in Ireland,' Dublm, 1847, 8vo. 

[Brit. Mus. Cat.; Windele's Cork and its 
Vleinity, p. 126 ; Ryan's Poets and Poetry, 1826, 
ii. 141 ; Beotley's Ballads, ed. Sheehan, 1869, p. 
142; Dublin and London Magazine, 1825-7; 
0*Donoghae*8 Poets of Ireland, p. 193.1 

D. J. O'D. 

OLEY, B.VRXABAS a602-1686), 
royalist divine, was baptised in tne old parish 
church of Wakefield on 26 Dec. 1602, as son 
of * Francis Oley, clarke,' who married Mary 
Mattersouse on 25 June 1600. He was edu- 
cated at Wakefield grammor school, which 
he entered in 1607. In 1617 he proceeded 
to Clare College, Cambridge, probably as 
Cave*s exhibitioner from his school, and gra- 
duated B.A. 1621, M.A. 1625, and B.D. A 
crown mandate for the degree of D.D. to 
him and two other eminent divines was 
dated 14 April, and published 17 June 1663, 
but the honour was declined. lie was elected 
probationer-fellow of the foundation of Lady 
Clare at his college on 28 Nov. 1623, and a 
senior fellow in 1627, and filled the offices of 
tutor and president. In these positions he 
showed great zeal and ability, the most illus- 
trious of his pujpils being Peter Gunning, 
bishop of Ely. Oley was also taxor for the 
university in 1634, and proctor in 1635. In 
1633 he was appointed by his college to the 

vicarage of Great Gransden, Huntingdon- 
shire, and held it until his death ; but for 
several years he continued to reside at 
Cambridge. The first steps for the rebuild- 
ing of the college, which was begun on 
19 May 1638, though not finished until 1715, 
were taken under his direction, and, accord- 
ing to George Dyer, the structure was much 
indebted to his ^benefaction, zeal, and in- 
spections.' Extensive purchases of bricks 
are recorded in the college books as having 
been made bv him, and he was called by 
Fuller its * Aiaster of the Fabric' He was 
a zealous loyalist, and when the university 
sent its plate to the king at Nottingham to 
be converted into money for his use, it was 
entrusted to his care and safely brought to 
the king's headquarters, August 1642. Par- 

I ticulars of the plate, and of the manner by 
which, through the skill of Oley, who knew 

I all the highways and byways between Cam- 
bridge and that town, the troops of Crom- 

' well were circumvented, are given in the 
* Life of Dr. John Barwick ' (pp. 23-7). He 
also lent a considerable sum of monev on 
the communion plate of Clare College, which 
is of solid gold and very valuable, and re- 
stored it to the college in 1660 on receiving 
a portion of this advance. There is a tra- 
dition in the college that its three other very 
old pieces of plate were preserved by his care. 
For not residmg at Cambridge, and for not 
appearing before the commission when sum- 
moned to attend, he was ejected by the Earl 
of Manchester from his fellowship on 8 April 
1644. He was also plundered of nis personal 
and landed property, and forced to leave his 
benefice. For seven years he wandered through 
England in great poverty. In 1643 and 1046 
he was at Oxford. Early in 1645, when 
Pontefract Castle was being defended for the 
king, he was within its walls, and preached 
to the garrison ; and when Sir Marmaduke 
Langdale was condemned to death in 1648, 
but escaped from prison, and lay hid for some 
weeks in a haystack, the fugitive at last 
made his way to London in the costume of 
a clergyman which was supplied by Oley. 
Next year he was very ill,* but God strangely 
brougnt me back from the Gates of Death.' 
For some time he lived at Heath, near Wake- 
field, and in 1652-3 he stf^ed * in the north 
privately, near the place of Lady SaviFs de- 
molished habitation' (Mayor, Ferrar, pp. 

In 1659 Oley returned to Gransden, when 
Sir John Ilewett ofWaresleyin Hunting- 
donshire pfave him some furniture, and on 
9 July 1660 he was restored to his fellow- 
ship by an order of the same Earl of Man- 
chester. Through the ' voluntary mediation ' 

Oley 128 Oley 

of Archbishop Sheldon, he was presented on of mine own * — and a preface, both by Olej. 
l^ Aug. 1(160 to the third prebendal stall of The three volumea were reissued in 167^ 
Worcester Cathedral, and on 8 Nov. 1(379 with a general dedication by him to Sheldon, 
lie was collated, on the nomination of Gun- , tlien Archbishop of Canterbury, and with a 

to discharge its duties; but he retained the , the suddain ingruence of a Lethargy or 
stall at Worcester until his death, being Apoplexy.* This dedicatory address andpre- 
then * the senior prebendary of venerable face are reprinted in Jackson's ' Works ' (^eA 
memory-' for his saint-like qualities, and 1844), vol. i. Some lines by him, prefixed 
having been the means of establishing a , to the translation of Lessius, entitled 
weekly celebration in the cathedral (HiCKKS, , * Ilygiasticon,' which appeared in 1G34, are 
Lift* of Dr, iniliam Hopkina : Frrrar and reproduced in Mayor's * Nicholas Ferrar,' 
hiii Friends, \S\)'l, pp. 22.% 271-2). Oley ' p. viii. Oley was one of those appointed by 
died at Gransden, at an e.vtremo old age, on Gunning to sort and revise all his papers, 
20 Feb. l<)85-0, and, in accordance with liis and a long letter on Ferrar from Dr. Robert 
will, was buried there on tht* night of221Vb. ^ Byng to him is printed in Packard's *Life 

* with a private and very frugal funeral.' An of Ferrar,* pp. 29-34, and reproduced in 
iuscrij)tion to his memory was placed on the Mayor's * Memoir,' pp. 7-11. Some of his 
wall at the west end of the interior of the letters were formerly in the possession of 
church. I Mr. Higg, vicar of Great Gransden, and other* 

Oley edited in l(Jr)2 * Herbert's Remains, or , are now at Clare College, 
sundry pieces of that Sweet Singer, 3Ir. , Oley's charitable gifts were widespread. 
George Herbert,' containing * A Priest to the To the church of Gransden he gave, m his 
Temple, or the count rey parson, Jacula lifetime, the pulpit (1633) and tbe wainscot 
Prum'Utum,' kc. Prefixed was an unsigned seats in the chancel (1081). He was the 

♦ prefatory view of the life and vertues of the , * first contriver and chief benefactor' of the 
uuthour, and excellencies of this lx)ok,' which , brick school-house, 1664, which he endowed 
was written by Oley. Th** second edition with 20/. a year. He built brick houses for 
appeared in MSIX as * A Priest to the'lVmple, six poor people upon his own freehold land, 
or the Country Parson,' with a new prefaee, leasing them for one thousand years to the 
signed Hiirnabas (->lev, and beginning with a churchwardens for the time being at a pep- 
confession oft he authorship of the nld notice. , percorn i-ent ; and he erected a vicarage, still 
The old ])reface was also reprinted at the , a solid and comfortable place of residnnce. 
fud. Both of them, but the new preface in ^ with barns, stables, outhouses, and a brick 
a slightly enlarged form, were contained in wall next the street and against the church- 
the editions of l()7o and 1701 , anrl reprinted yard, lie also gave one acre of freehold land 
in the editions of Herbert's * Works' by to * enlarge the Herd Commons at Hanginton 

"" ~"' ' '""•""' in that parish, and six leather buckets? 

ent Ciu^ual fires in the village. Warm- 

Piekering (1848) and Bell and Daldy ( 18.VJ). ! Laves ' i 
The manuscrint of *The Country I'ai-son' ' topreve 

of the facts set out in Izaak Walton's me- ^ put ting up canopies and pillars for the stalls 
moirt»f Herbert. Three volumes of the works | in the chapel {Cole MSS.; Addit. MS. 
of rhoniapJackson[q.v.],pn?si(lentof(.-orpus , r)S()i>, if. 086, 99a), and a like sum to St. 
ChriHti (-ollege, Oxford, appeared under the ^ Paul's Cathedral. 

tnlitorial care of Oley in lt553- 57. The first His will, dated 23 May 16S4, with ctxlicils 
i^*thi<m (1653) contains an account by him ' 19 Aug. 1084, 16 Oct. 1(^5, and 18 Oet. 
^ the work, acknowledging Jackson as his KKSo, is in the Lansdowne MS. 98^. f'»l. 
^MMkit-or in divines,' ana pronouncing him 1 046, &c., and Harleian MS. 7043, fol. 
^J%» Divine of his Rank and age.' The j 101, &c.. the last taken from the copy of 
' ' ' » 1 1 • . ,j Qj^ jj^ ^ ^1^ Thursby, the executor, and containing 

To the I his marginal notes. With the exception of a 
l)reface [ few specific legacies, all his property was bt»- 

\\^ HMider by him, and in the third volume 

57) wore an epistle dedicatory to Sheldon 
K which he announced that * God, by con- 
^mi me of disabilitie, hath taken away 
|lmm» and desires of publishing any work 

queathed to pious uses, and he only letY 
twelve pence to his brother, Joseph (Mey, 
and one copy of *The Duty of Man' to 
each of his children, as he had given them 
large sums in his lifetime. Other relatives, 




called ShillitOy Tomson, Dixon, and Pres- 
ton, are mentioned in the will. The books 
which he had taken from the library of Dr. 
Timothy Thurscrosse were left to the vicars 
of North Grimston, Yorkshire, in succession. 
His own books were to be sold and the 
proceeds to be expended by William Nicol- 
8on [q. v.], the Bishop of Carlisle, in pur- 
^shasm^ the works of certain specified divines 
for such parishes as he might select. A list 
of the books nven to ten poor vicarages in 
the diocese of Carlisle under this bequest and ! 
the agreement of the various incumbents are 
printed in Bishop Nicolson*s * Miscellany Ac- 
counts,* pp. 7-9. He inquired after their exist- 
ence ana condition at his primary visitation. 
The manuscripts of Jackson passed to Lam- 
plugh, bishop of Exeter. 

Oley left certain articles of furniture to 
Sir Jonn Ilewett in exchange for the gifts 
which he had received in 1659. To the dean 
and chapter of Worcester he gave 200/. for 
buttresses for the choir and the chapel at the 
east end of the cathedral ; to Clare College 
he left one hundred marks English for build- 
ing a library, and 10/. to the descendants of 
Jonn Westlev, 'that good workman that 
built the college,' through fear that the 
omission to state his accounts before the 
ro^alista were ejected from the university 
might have been prejudicial to his interests. 
The junior fellows of King's College received 
the sum of 50/. to be expended in making 
walks for their recreation, and money was 
left for the augmentation of poor vicarages. 

[Le Nere's Fasti, i. 352-3, where Oley is called 
Heyolt, iii. 81, 623, 637; Todd's Table of T. 
Jaekson's Writings (1838), p. iii ; WaltoD^s Lives, 
ed. Zouch (1807), pp. 320-1; Lupton's Wake- 
field School ; Bentham's Ely, p. 279 ; Hearne's 
T. Caii Vindicia, ii. 690-2 ; Letters from the Bod- 
leian Library, ii. 80-81 ; Walkers SufferiDgs of 
the Clergy, ii. 141-42; Notes and Queries, 2Dd 
aer. ii. 170; Kennet's Case of Impropriations, pp. 
288-90 ; Brit. Mus. Addit. MS. 24489, pp. 472- 
474; Ferrar and his Friends (1892), pp. 223, 
271-2 ; Life of J. Barwick, pp. 1 1 1-12 ; Baker's 
St. John's ColI.Cambr., ed. Mayor, i. 219, ii. 632, 
647 ; information from Rev. Dr. Atkinson, Clare 
College. A chapter on Oley, * his life, letters, 
benefactions, and will,' is in the History of Great 
Grnnsden. now being published by its vicar, the 
Rev. A. J. Edmonds ; and among the illastra- 
tions is a view of ' Barnabas Oley's Almshouses.' 
Oley is introduced into the last chapter of Short- 
house's romance of 'Johnlnglesant.'] W. P. C. 

OLIFARD, Sib WILLIAM (d. 1329). 
fSee Oliphant, Sib William.] 

OLIPHANT, CAROLINA (1766-1845), 
song and ballad writer. [See Naibne, Ca- 
rolina, Babonbbs Naibne.] 
VOL. xlii. 

(1818-1859), painter and designer of stained 
glass, son of Thomas Oliphant, Edinburgh, 
of an ancient but fallen family in Fife, was 
bom on 31 Aug. 1818 at Newcastle-on-Tyne, 
during the temporary residence of his parents 
there. He was trained as an artist at the 
Edinburgh Academy of Art. In early life 
the revival of Gotnic style and ornament 
led him to make a profound study of ec- 
clesiastical art, and while still very young 
he attained considerable reputation as a 
designer of painted glass in the works of 
Messrs. Wailes of Newcastle-on-Tyne. He 
afterwards removed to London, and worked 
much with Welby Pugin, especially upon 
the painted windows in the new Houses of 
Parliament. He also sent in a cartoon to 
the competition for the decoration of West- 
minster Hall, which was not successful. 
During this period Oliphant exhibited seve- 
ral pictures in the Royal Academy, the chief 
being a large Shakespearean study of the 
interview between Richard II and John of 
Gaunt, and a striking picture of the Prodi- 
gal Son 'Nearing Home.' In 1852 he mar- 
ried his cousin, Margaret Oliphant Wilson, 
who was then beginning to be known as a 
writer, and has since achieved a very wide 
reputation in many departments of litera- 
ture. His latter years were occupied with 
an energetic attempt to improve the art 
of painted glass by superintendinc^ the pro- 
cesses of execution as well as tne design, 
in the course of which he produced the win- 
dows in the ante-chapel of King's College, 
Cambridge, those in the chancel of Ayles- 
bury Church, and several in Ely Cathedral. 
The famous choristers' window at Ely was 
the joint work of Oliphant and William 
Dyce, R.A., the former oeing responsible for 
the original design. This work, however, 
was interrupted by ill-health, which obliged 
him to seek a warmer climate. He died at 
Rome in October 1859, chiefly from the 
effects of overwork. He had published in 
1856 a small treatise entitled * A Plea for 
Painted Glass.' 

Oliphant had two sons, both of whom died 
in early manhood afler making some pro- 
mising efforts in literature. The elder son, 
Cyril Francis Oliphant (1856-1890), who 

fraduated B.A. at Balliol College, Oxford, in 
883, published in 1890, in the series known 
as * Foreign Classics,' a biography and criticism 
of the work of Alfred de Musset, which was 
notable for some well-rendered translations 
from the French. The younger son, Francis 
Romano Oliphant (1859-1894), born at Rome 
after his father's death, graduated B.A. at 
Oxford in 1883. He issued in 1891 < Notes of 




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^ lot • * . "^^ :. "* :r. :■. rr ^ ■. .1 T ;. : : .. : :: 

'27 April 17S4, to Janet, dnuffhter of Hum- 
p'ir*»7 Colquhoan of Bamhill, who died on 
-7 June l'S>"5. leaving thive dauirlit»>rs. Mar- 
rir^t. Janet (who ranrrieil Robert Hart, 
zierchant in Glasffowl.and Anne ( who mar- 
re-i thr- l«ev. William Taylor, minister of the 
a.?*x*ia7e burgher congregation. Levenside). 

• 'liphanr was a * ^imd and racv theolo- 
r.m, and an interestinar and highly accom- 
p-:<hTil prvaoher.' 'There was a vein of 
h-2: ■!.ir which penaded his mind, and oc- 
CJ^i ':i;illy burst forth in the pulpit in some 
•trikir-i:. homelv. or quaint remark' (Z?io- 
::r-:f .V.ftVv^. by J. W. Taylor, 18."*L>). 

H-? WIS rhe author of two small pamphlets 
wiiijb. ha i an immense popularity in their 
iiv : 1. • The Mother's Catechism, doctrinal 
ar.i h;?:orlcal. dr"signe<l for the sch«x)l and 
f.i^iily : ani enlarz»?d for the benefit of youn? 
c-.^=:=.-i:::car.:s.* ll*m'>, Glasgow, 1772. Of 
!b.:* w:rk m?re than twenty editions were 
f.:rli?he'i before and after his death. '2, * A 
>.iC7a=:rr.:aI Catechism, designed for com- 
n: •.::::. "an:s old and young ... to which is 

;::r.r^ian abstract of that solemn mode 
;:* 'public aimiasion to the Lord's Table 
which hdi been practised in the parish of 
Kil^iam.vk.' i'2mo, Glasgow, 1779. This 
ha> al>.^ r-n through numerous editions. 
• "'l".vh.i~: als.? wrotr the hi.*tory of the parish 
■ : 1' inbar: .^n f .">r Sir J<^hn :?inclair's * Statis- 
:..\5.1 .\:c-. -.:=.: 0: So^r land.* 179:}. 

I rV.s': 7:^*77 K*?*-<rer of Dumliarton: tomb- 
«::": - l'-r:'.v.7^ :: c"r-irohv;ir«l : McKav's His- 
•77 cf K -.I— \7Z :•-'£; Sc«..:« Fa.^tT. pt. lii.: Irv- 

RfT. W ■■'..:.=■. 7jivl:7:'s AriLals. vol. i. ; 
7-..: r .-..'. ■.: . ■- .i'.V -= of Gl i*^Dw rnivcrsity ; Dr. 
\.'>..\7'.=? S. jTrR* r-.okoi R.-'ert Bums.] 

G. >*-H. 

A': -. 7 ". .". jir. -ir*: Lord «"^ltph.vxt i li. 17>CK>r \. 
^':.< :h- vliv*: s.^r. -.'■! Sir John Oliphant of 
.\V- riiljir . ;. i4-r'-^ ■. bv lsab»:'l, dauchtor of 
AV;\1-..T t 'j^lvy : A-.:c!::e7hou<e. and si>ter 
. :" .\lvxar..ir7 Orilvv. srcond Iwiron (.^erilvv 

* T • ■ 

In his vouth he 

w-v.: :> :.^ s".;.:y rho art of war, 
ar.x: ?'.;r.>-v.ufr.:lv:7sv-llvi in I:alv and el*e- 
wh' r\\ Hv w.«4 cTkAt'. .: a ^•.-^7 .*.:*me time be- 
::7e ■"m.^ Oct. i-t-'^>. when his nam^ so appears 
.■i> wi-rnvivs : .■» a charrer: an.: undt-r the iltlt* 
•: L."7.: I'liphir.t h-.* s.i: in the parli:inir'nT 
■::" 1-i Oct. 14»C. He had a cha7tt'r of the 
V;.7'::y :" Owr:->. Kir.o;ir.:i:>:-h'rr\ fr^m \i\> 

*■ *•« ^1** -fc'i 

'*- ••..— %^*: .'"»^"-— '•^•t*.-.^ \\ \ 'wT ll"*liVV on 

7 N;v. l4'>^.i:r^ .Vv.S.V'.S .r/.l4iM-lol:^ 
: 7. : 7v -> -% . In 1 470 hv h-: ] i : h- office ->f <hi'ritr 
.-' r-rh^hiTr .7:;v^r,:,.ri: :i* ^.f Srjthinfl, 
viii. .>% «. On -4 July 1474 the Marchmor.d 
h:r./.'. was ser.: with letter? to him and the 




Earl of Buchan to * staunch their gathering 
for the court of Forfar ' {Accounts of the Lord 
High Treasurer of Scotland, p. 61), and on 
28 Aug. to summon them for their gathering 
(ib,) The gathering seems to have resulted 
in bloodshed, for in September Oliphant was 
summoned to answer for the slaughter of 
Thorn of Preston (ib.) 

Oliphant was one of a commission named 
on 80 Aug. 1484 to negotiate a marriage 
between James, duke of Kothesay, heir-ap- 
parent of the Scottish throne, and Lady 
Anne de la Pole, daughter of John, duke of 
Sheffield, and niece of Richard. Ill of Eng- 
land (CaL Documents relating to Scotland, 
1367-1509, entry 1601), and also to treat 
for a peace and alliance with England (ib. 
eatry 1502). Of the treaty, concluded at 
Nottingham on 12 Sept. (ib^, he was one of 
the conservators (ib. entry 1506). He sat 
in the first parliament of James I V on 6 Oct. 
1488. when he was chosen a lord of the 
articles for the barons. He was also sworn 
a privy councillor, and in 1490 constituted a 
justiciary within his own bounds and those 
of Strathbaird. He sided with the king 
daring the rebellion of 1489, and, while the 
king was crushing the rising in the west, 
sent information to him of the movements 
of the rebel nobles in the north (Accounts 
of the Lord High Treasurer, p. 122). On 
26 Feb. 1490-1 he had a safe-conduct to 
England for six months (CaL Documents 
relating to Scotland, 1357-1609, entry 1660) ; 
and on 14 June he received a safe-conduct 
and protection for a year from Henry VII 
as ambassador to Charles, king of France, 
and the king and queen of Castile, Aragon, 
and Sicilv (t^. entir 1674). In 1491 he was 
bailie of Methven (Exchequer Bolls of Scot- 
land, ▼. 287), and in 1493 and subsequent 
years he was keeper of Edinburgh Castle 
(t;^. pp. 388, 466, 505). He was one of the 
lords chosen by the king to the session of 
14 Oct. 1495. He died about 1500. By his 
wife, Lady Isabel Hay, youngest daughter 
of William, first earl of Errol, he had three 
sons : John, second lord Oliphant (d. 1516) ; 
William of Berriedale, Caithness (acquired 
through marriage with Christian, heiress 
of Alexander Sutherland of Dufi'us) ; and 

[Authorities mentioned in the text ; Douglas's 
Scottish Peerage, ed. Wood, ii. 332-3.] 

T. F. H. 

OuPHAiTT (d. 1566), was the son of Colin, 
master of Oliphant (killed at the battle of 
Flodden in 1518), by Lady Elizabeth Keith, 
second daughter of William, third earl Ma- 
lischaL He succeeded his grandfather John, 

j second lord, in 1616, and was one of the 
Scottish nobles taken prisoner at the rout of 
Sol way Moss on 25 Nov. 1642 (Diurnal of Oc- 
currents, p. 25), his capturer being Dacre's 
servant (Hamilton Papers, ed. Bain, i. 325). 
He reacned Newark on 15 Dec, he and 
other prisoners being then so * crazed ' by the 
hardships of their march that their subse- 

?[uent journey to London was a little delayed 
t^. p. 335). The annual value of his lands 
was then estimated at two thousand merks 
Scots, or five hundred merks sterling, and 
the value of his goods at four thousand 
merks Scots (State Papers, Henry VIII, v. 
233). He remained in England in the cus- 
tody of Sir Thomas Lee, knt., but on 1 July 
1643 was allowed to be ransomed for eight 
hundred merks sterling, on condition that, 
along with other captive Scottish nobles, he 
shoiud acknowledge Henry VHI as lord- 
superior, should co-operate in procuring him 
the government of Scotland, and should 
exert his influence to get the infant Queen 
Man^ delivered to Henry, to be brought up 
in England. On obtaining his liberty he, 
however, made no attempt to fulfil these 
pledges, and he declined to enter himself a 
prisoner in England in August for making 
of his bond ana promise for the payment of 
the ransom. Wnen^Lord Huntly began a 
reformation of religion in his territories, 
Lord Oliphant, in February 1560, at a meet- 
ing at Aberdeen, promised to do as Huntly 
advised (CaL State Papers, For. Ser. 1569- 
1660, entry 710) ; but it is doubtful if he 
ever joined against the queen-dowager (ib. 
1560-1, entry 172). He died on 26 March 
1566. By Margaret, eldest daughter of 
James Sandilands of Cruvie, he had three 
sons and four daughters. The sons were : 
Laurence, fourth lord Oliphant [q. v. J; Peter, 
ancestor of the Oliphants of Langton ; and 
William. The daughters were : Catherine, 
married first to Sir Alexander Oliphant of 
Kellie, and secondly to George Dundas of 
Dundas ; Margaret, married first to William 
Murray of Abercaimy, and secondly to 
James Clephane of Carslogie ; Jean, to Wil- 
liam Moncriefie of Moncriefie; and Lilias, 
to Robert Lundie of Balgonie. 

[Diurnal of Occurrents (Bannatyne Club); 
Sadieir's State Papers ; State Papers, Hen. VIU ; 
Hamilton Papers ; Anderson's Oliphants in Scot- 
land, 1879, pp. xxxvii-xl; Douglas's Scottish 
Peerage, ed. Wood, ii. 333-4.] T. F. H. 

Oliphant (1529-1693), eldest son of Lau- 
rence, third lord Oliphant, by Margaret San- 
dilands, was bom in 1629. In 1643 he was 
sent to England as a hostage for his father. 
After the iJarnley marriage he, while master 


If'T*. jiresidt'd orer bv The kin^ (Motsie, 
Mf-mairh., ji. lf?i. In XoTexnber 15S() he 

Oliphant 13^ Oliphant 

'.i ' .yLiZL'-fA*. fe^ ht. r3::rfe?ri.i.Lrr zLrS-iier }il;iiTn art ended iL*- meednz of the parlia- 

'. f 'Lr: J"'«^v c'V'-^--- -- A'-T"-?": !'••>:• J.-r. in*»nT in tIk* che^]*' of Stirlinr on !♦> July 

•, .^^— '.r, '. f Lit i;', u-^ .5 }>-. rrr itlr . nrlji vuf (rhitrr«3 tt' answer before the council for 

r^.-y -\rr>.:*'rd t:^: Lr^d; i ," .- I- A:rll lh h:TtiC^k on Lord Rmhren ti'A. p. i^*: ///>^ 

I'rr. '.\-.r w^r*r .riTrri Vv tLt ^.Ui:l". :: Jsrrt-*^ iht ^f.?-/. p. I'Xh. and on 7 IK^. cau- 

ir^v- .-. •.: :v LIil "v^^L:.-: :w--j:j-f;ur L.-urf :j:il "wa* piren for him in 1,000/. that he 

-.'.;••■ jf-r- f U:liij '.rsfib'.^i h.? r^Vl» i"? :;. -n-.i-Ji on the 9th enter into ward in the 

;;7--> . I!r "ivcrr-ird*. "f!.:':--:.- .-liiVMi^-':^! itt?:^ of Pmne in Menteith i i?rfy. P. C. 

'jf •"•.-: -aet vrrir. i*.i ".vj.- -Mrriri LriT .' >•.:.'. ;:i. '*•■>■'• i. Subsequent Iv disputes be- 

'Z Mtv. H- **: v- 'Lt t-?izr f.r :Lt :rlil :f TTr-^Liin and the Earl of Caitliness occupied 

JV.';,wrIi '•-•r :L- riijrd-r f I*irT:l-T. ?:*:i;-i -Lr fivquem attention of the priyy council 

t'.*: 'ir.i f r iJ.'.Lw^ll*. sihrriijr :. :Lr .?. ;Y.^ias«inn. < >liphant died at Caithness 

' J i •-*r r. . a :* *i "w a- oa-r ri " L - •::::■: : -z:p : rtl : r. 1 • • •"? in . 1 -'i5<3, and was buried in t he church 

l.rS pr-— T.: t? V'.- n:irr":.j- . A* '.^k >a!::r f Wi/K. Ity Ladv Marpaiyi-t Ilay. s^.^cond 

V :/, • *i • J '■}- rj H a::- ; ! • . tj . u r-.J. ^ ".•':. p . f >: £ i ^uL: •. r of <^^ KTce. seventh «rarl of Enpi>l, he 

Ar.'i.'r'.^-. }-■: wa* ji'irniv-. i ^ mrail^r f :i.T LhiTw:- son* and thret* daughters. The sons 

I'Kvy coii:'.:! ' /6. j«. .V^^-. H^r ; 'Inrl rLr tv-tv : Laurrnce. master of Oliphant: and 

a-V'viati'/ij on J^rh-.lf of Marv a: H^:::;'.:::: J . Ln <.*!i^'Lant nf Newlands. The daughters 

on - May ].V;*, ai.d fou'Kr f .r h-r a: I-fl::j- w-r^ : Ellzslieih. married to William, tenth 

hid*:. On 'h:- acvo-iiir }.- wu* charj^i •:• rirl -f Anrii^: Jean, to Alexander Bruce of 

apj/--.r ^>-for•r tL*: r-ireir. and 1 nis -.-f :Le Cv.l:n:al:ndi-» : and Marjraret, to Sir James 

pr. vy i:u'\\\<'\\. and, failin.: t i do ?«".', wa* on J-.'Lr>!:'ne of Westerhall. 

:^ Ai;'. l-V** d-iiO!inc.-d w r-W an>i put to La .irvn>-, master of Oliphant (</. Ih***?), 

t}:«r L'*ni « /'/, p. »>.*>^^ I : b it ■ -n 'i April 1*V5? he wa* o 'ncfmed in the raid of Ruthven. and on 

hv^vA a • b-i!:d f t th»r Viwi • «''. p. •'••>4>. and Tbiiaccunt was in March lo'^char^ind, along 

on ] •'» Jijn«- Jijf'iin apjH ar»d a* a member of the wjrh h;* br>th^r-in-law. Kobert Douglas, son 

privy oouii'ii ^ih. p. ♦i7''>. 11^ was onn^ of of Wi'.liam Douplas of Lochleven, to quit 

^i.\*»- n Hppoint'rd by (^ti.— n Mary at R«ilton tb^ r^alm. Tbi^y set sail for the continent, 

(';i.»!«. on *i Mar*;] I !5#;j* m acT a-* advi^'-rs buT nevvr r-. ached it. Acoonlinff to Calder- 

with f 'ljat-l!p.ranlt. Huntly. find Argyll in w -xl. ''hey j^eri-iht-d by the way, and were 

tb«- 'T-tiral circiim-*;iiK'"« <tf Mit* kinjd'im i;»rvvr ^-rn ajain, they, nor ship, nor any be- 

< L w: \ -■«'•) I , Lf^ftr*.^ if*" M'lrif Stunrt, ii. id i. l-^n jin.' T hrreunf^. The manner is unc»'rtain, 

II*' aM.t.ili.fJ t!j*- ("iiivi nrinn at Pvrtb «•!! but the m'>*t •■"'•ram'^n report was that, btMnjf 

.*Jl July «.f th" -anw yi-ar. and vntel apuin>t invaded by H'^llanders or Flusingers. and 

i|j#. fjiii-i-fj'-divor'-<: from Hothw**]!! Itt^ff. P. ('. iL^htinir valiantly, slew one of the principal 

Sr-of/. ii. >•). An attuf'k on bim and lii^ i^rr- n{ their number, in revenpe whereof they 

vant- on l'* July ar tli^ in«tan<'i.< of tbf Earl wer** all -iunk, or. as others rt»port, after they 

of (jiitlin'-< wa* til'.* -iibj»'ct of d»*]ib**ration had rendere«l. they were hanged upon the 

by th<: nrivy council on ]-2 (»ct. it7j. pp. '^7- mast of the ship" ( ///Vori/, iv. 46). Another 

•10) an<I 'J'2 Nov. ( ///. o7 >^). report was that they had l>een made slaves 

Aft«-rrlicdMatli oftli«'r»-;.7»nt MorayinJanu- by the Turk.*, and detained in captivitv in 

ary l.')7r>. Lord Oliphant met tin- leaders nf the town of Aljjiors on the coast of ftar- 

the fjucfn'* party at IJnlithu'Ow, when.* they Imry ( Cal. Si-"ffijtli State Papers, lo09-ltK)3, 

had H crmfi-HMice with th** French aniba^sa- pj). 4.'51, 570). 

dor. lli< name ul.«o appi-ars anion? those [R,,^;. \\ t\ ^5..oll. vols, i.-iv. ; Cal. StAte 

wlir), iti .April l."370, snb-cribed a letter to Pa|K'ix, Sootl. St-r. and For. Ser. Ella.; Notts 

ElizalM'tb,p.'titionin£r h«-rto' enter into such and Qutrit-s. 7th ser. ix. 363; Hist. James tho 

coTiditions withtlie(^nft.n\ JliyhiH.'ssinScot- Si-xt. and David Moysie's Memoirs. l>oth in the 

land as maybe honourabh* f«ir all parties' I'annatyne Club: Caldcrtrood's History of the 

C(-ALi»KKWo'on, ii.ooO). Killijrrew, inaletter Chun-h in Sodtland : AmlcrsonV Oliphant s in 

to Hiir^dilev in 157.*}. mentirins that ( Hiphant ^>tl«"d. 1870. pp. xl-lxii; Douglas's Scotti>h 

joined the anti-Marian party after Morton's " J'ticni^ro (Wnoil), ii. 334.] T. F H. 

'siuc. ..sion to \\xi^Y^^\r,.ncy ( Cal. State Papers*, ' OLIPHANT, LAURENCK (1691 -1767^, 
'''op. St. 157l* 1, entry 7^1 ); but. lie appears 

Fop. St. 157l* 1, entry 7^1 ); but lie appears I.aird of flask, Jacobite, son of James 

tirenunt of Morton frf»m the regency, Oli- . Oliphant ot Newton, Perth8hire,8econd8on of 




Ck>rniy master of Oliphant, slain at Flodden. 
The estate of Gask came into the possession 
of the family in 1625. The family possessed 
strong royalist sympathies. At the rebel- 
lion of 1715 the lain! of Gask sent his two 
sons to support the insurgents, Laurence re> 
ceivinff a commission in Liord Rollo*s regi- 
ment dated 2 Oct. 1715. He was present at 
the battle of Sherriflmuir, and in January 
1 7 1 6 he acted as one of the garrison's adj utants 
during the short time that the Pretender re- 
maineii at Scone. After the suppression of 
the n»bellion he remained for some time in 
hiding, but subsequently he was permitted 
to return home unmolested. He succeeded 
his father as laird of Gask in 1732. On the 
arrival of the Chevalier in 1745, he joined 
him at Blair Athole. So indignant was he 
with his tenants for refusing to take up arms 
that he laid an inhibition on their cornfields 
(CiiA3fBER8, History of the Rebelliony ed. 
1869, pp. 63-4) ; but the prince on arriving 
at GasK laughingly removed the inhibition. 
Laurence, eldest son of the laird of Gask, 
bom 25 May 1724, acted as aide-de-camp 
of the prince at the battle of Prestonpans, 
and after the battle was sent by the prince 
to prevent the fugitive dragoons from taking 
refuge in Edinburgh. On his way thither 
he slew ten of them, and took a pair of 
colours. When the prince set out for Eng- 
land, he sent the laira of Gask back to Perth, 
to undertake, with Lord Strathallan, the civil 
and military government of the north, the 
duties discharged by Gask being chiefly those 
of treasurer. Both father and son were present 
at Falkirk and Culloden ; and after the battle 
of Falkirk, when the prince's troop?, on ac- 
count of the slight resistance and rapid flight of 
the enemy, dreaded some ambuscade, young 
Gask and the eldest son of Lord Strathallan 
went down together from the hill towards the 
town of Falkirk, in the guise of peasants, to 
obtain information (Home, History of the Re- 
bellion,-^. 175). When the prince, after Cullo- 
den, declined further to continue the contest, 
the laird of Gask and his son fled eastward into 
Aberdeenshire, and, after remaining in hiding 
for about six months in the neigubourhooa 
of the Dee, obtained, with other Jacobites, a 
passage in a vessel which landed them in 
Sweden on 10 Oct. 1746. Thence they 
passed south to France. The estates of Gask 
were seized by the crown and sold, but in 
1753 they were purchased by some friends 
and presented to Oliphant. On the death of 
Chanes, seventh lord Oliphant, on 19 April 
1748, Gask laid claim to the title, which, how- 
ever, was assumed by Charles Oliphant of 
I^angton, who died on 3 June 1751, and in 
his will acknowledged the laird of Gask to 

be heir to the title. The peerage was also 
confirmed to him by the Pretender in 1760. 
He was permitted to return home in 1763, 
but the attainder was not reversed. He died 
early in 1767. Oliphant married Amelia Anne 
Sophia, second daughter of William, second 
lom Naime. His heir, Laurence, paternal 
grandfather of Carolina, lady Nairne [q. v,}, 
the poetess, died on 1 Jan. 1792. 

[Histories of the Kebellion ; Andersoirs Oli- 
phantsin Scotland; Kington Oliphaot's Jacobite 
Lairds of Gask.] T. V. H. 


author of * Piccadilly,' only child of (Sir) 
Anthony Oliphant (1793-1859), by his wife 
Maria, daughter of Colonel Campbell of the 
72nd highlanders, was bom at Capetown in 
1829. Tnomas Oliphant [q. v.], the musician, 
was his uncle. His father, who was third son 
of Ebenezer Oliphant of Condie and New- 
ton, Perthshire, by Mary, daughter of Sir 
"William Stirling of Ardoch, had been called 
to the bar at Lincoln's Inn in 1821, and 

Practised for a time in London as an equity 
raughtsmau, but just before his son's birth 
he was appointed attorney-general at the 
Cape. Laurence's father and mother were 
both fervent evangelicals. The mother re- 
turned to Europe on account of her health, 
and took her son with her. He was sent 
to the school of a Mr. Parr at Durnford 
Manor, Salisbury. He spent part of his 
holidays with his motlier at Condie, an an- 
cestral home of the Oliphant family. Ilis 
father was in 1839 made chief justice of 
Ceylon, and was knighted. Lady Oliphant 
rejoined him in Ceylon in 1841. Laurence 
was sent out in the winter of the same year, 
in charge of a private tutor, who continued 
to teacn him in Ceylon; but his education 
was much interrupted. His father returned 
on two years* leave about 1846, and spent the 
time in a continental tour. Laurence was 
allowed to accompany his parents instead of 
going to Cambridge, as had been intended. 
The family spent tlie winter of 1846-7 at 
Paris, travelled through Germany and the 
Tyrol during 1847, and at the end of the 
year crossed the Alps to Italy. Here young 
Oliphant was present at some of the popular 
disturbances in the beginning of 1848. He 
went with his parents to Greece, and then 
accompanied them to Ceylon, where he acted 
as his father's private secretary, and was 
called to the colonial bar. At the age of 
twenty-two, he says, he had been engaged in 
twenty-three murder cases. In December 
1851 ne was invited by Jung Bahadur, who 
had touched at Ceylon on a return voyage 
from England, to join a hunting excursion 
in NepauL After reaching Khatmandu he 

. ' -».£... • 

134 Oliphant 

• -■ - :::^ J.: r lie ;'»iii him on a viait to the Circassian coasts. 

..^.. . ..- - .7. ::: 1 i: [Jt^ sailed at the end of Augrust, and made 

•■«■'-". .--■■ "^s ir '-:a- a short rush into the country. He after- 

• - r - .;'■■:._■ - 'f :■ - .'ii '.vartls joined the force under Omar Pasha, 

- . .7^ .;. . T'.k-i.n n- ind was present at the battle of the In^our. 

.7- ..: . . -^ .::: -^"-::r -.n- Tli^ fall of Kars made the expedition truit- 

'■ —"^ "■- I- Tisj- '.V?*: iuul alter much suifering, and a coni«- 

: . ? - :i '^'- iMiil. ijient illnt^s:^ durinsr the retreat, he returned 

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si;"-:. -AMs partly the fun of the thing, and in 

?• iiiv i'-'iTT^'t' an offer of confiscated estates if 

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'■ "T"?. ^'rim^d :o Knirhind. An account of 

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IV r.r'.r- . \< ^:v-'n in his * Patriots and 
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-": r ij'.-'ii-Jin ''i E;*:n to Hongkong, was 
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:..;.:.-■ ■ : ''..-. \ :■'■■ : r i:-.r.-'\A:: n to France. He 

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1 aiir!. -r:-::': -n r r :.:- -/ }.. n>-. In l'="".l < 'I-j h;ir*r travelled in Montenegro 

by th': Jiuke ot N-jwcaitl*; t-j and t:Is*.wLt re. and soon afterwaids accepted 


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an appointment as first secretary of legation 
in Japan. He arrived at Yeddo at the end 
of June 1861. On the evening of 5 July a 
ni^ht attack was made on tne embassy. 
Oliphant rushed out with a hunting-whip, 
and was attacked by a Japanese with a heavy 
two-handed sword. A beam, invisible in 
the darkness, interfered with the blows, but 
Oliphant was severely wounded, and sent on 
board ship to recover. He had to return to 
England after a visit to the Corea, where he 
discovered a Russian force occupying a re- 
tired bay, and obtained their retirement. 

Visits to Corfu with the Prince of Wales, 
then on his way to Palestine, and after- 
wards to the Herzegovina and the Abruzzi, 
were his only occupations in 1862. He 
was now compelled by * family considera- 
tions' to retire from the diplomatic service. 
Early in 1863 he ran over to look at the in- 
nurrection in Poland, and later in the year 
made another attempt, but was turned back. 
He then travelled in Moldavia, and went 
northwards to see a little of the Schleswig- 
Holstein war. He was now disposed to 
settle down. He had already once or twice 
canvassed the Stirling Burghs, and made 
himself popular with the electors. In 1864 
he joined Sir Algernon Borthwick and some 
other friends in starting a journal called * The 
Owl,' of which Thomas Onwhyn [q. v.] was 
the publisher. It was suggested at a dinner- 
party in fun, and was intended to be partly 
a mystification, supported by an affected 
knowledge of profound political secrets. Sir 
Alffemon Borthwick undertook to print it, 
and it caused much amusement to the 
initiated. Oliphant contributed only to the 
first ten numbers, retiring when it was taken 
up more seriously. In the following year 
he published 'Piccadilly: a Fragment of 
Contemporary Biography,' in 'Blackwood's 
Magazine ' (republished, with illustrations by 
K. Doyle, in 1870). 

In 1865 Oliphant was returned at the 
ffeneral election for the Stirling Burghs. He 
did little in parliament, and was not much 
edified, it appears, by the manoeuvres which 
attended the passage of the Reform Bill of 
1867. A sinjB^ular change now took place in 
his life. His rambling and adventurous 
career had given him much experience, but 
had not made up for a desultory education. 
He loved excitement,was a universal favourite 
in society, and had had flirtations in every 
quarter of the globe. He was a clear-headed 
man of business, had seen the mvsteries of 
official life, and was a brilliant journalist. 
From his earliest years, however, he had 
also strong religious impressions, and in his 
letters to his motnerspeculations upon his own 

state of mind and the various phenomena 
of religions of all varieties had alternated 
with sparkling descriptions of adventure and 
society. He had been interested successively 
in many of the books which reflect contem- 
porary movements of thought. He had read 
Theodore Parker, W. Smith's *Thomdale,' 
Maurice's writings, and Morell's * History of 
Philosophv.' His want of intellectual ballast, 
however, left him at the mercy of any pre- 
tender to inspiration. His oflicial and social 
experience had dispersed many illusions, and 
his * Piccadilly,' very brightly written, is not 
a novel proper, but a satire directed against 
the various hypocrisies and corruptions of 
society. He had come, he says, to think that 
the world at large was a ' lunatic asylum,' 
a common opinion among persons not them- 
selves conspicuous for sanity. He mentions 
in it ' the greatest poet of the age, Thomas 
Lake Harris,' author of * The Great Republic : 
a Poem of the Sun.' Harris is also typified 
in a mysterious prophet who meets the nero, 
and was, in fact, the head of a community in 
America. The creed appears to have been 
the usual mixture of scraps of misunderstood 
philosophy and science, with peculiar views 
about * physical sensations ' caused by the life 
of Christ m man, and a theory that marriage 
should be a Platonic relation. Oliphant 
had also some belief in ' spiritualism,' though 
he came to regard it as rather diabolical 
than divine. In 1867 he resided his seat in 
parliament, and joined Harris's community 
at Brocton, or * Salem-on-Erie.' Harris 
was in the habit of casting out devils and 
forming magnetic circles among his disciples. 
Oliphant became his spiritual slave. He 
was set to work on the farm, was ordered 
to drive teams and * cadge strawberries on 
the railway,' and, after walking all day, was 
sent out at night to draw water Hill his 
fingers were almost frost-bitten.' He made 
over all his money to the community. Oli- 
phant's mother also joined the community 
m 1868, and, though living at the same place, 
was not allowed to hold any confidential 
communication with him. After going 
through this probation the disciples were to 
regenerate the world, and mother and son 
are said to have * found perfect peace and 
contentment.' In 1870 Oliphant returned 
under Harris's orders, and was supported by 
a small allowance. He resumed nis former 
occupation by becoming * Times ' correspon- 
dent in the Franco-German war. He was 
with the French and afterwards with the 
German armies, and suddenly returned to 
America, in obedience, it is said, to a sign 
prescribed by Harris — namely, by a bullet 
grazing his hair. He soon came back, how* 




ever, and was again * Times * correspondent 
at Paris towards the end of 1871. His 
mother was permitted to join him there. 
There he met Alice, daughter of Mr. Henry 
le Strange of Hunstanton, Norfolk, and 
stepdaughter of Mr. Wynne-Finch. AH 
wlio knew her si)eak of her singular fascina- 
tion. She was twenty-six, and she had been 
much admired in society, btit shared some of 
Oliphant 8 dissatisfaction with the world. 
She adopted his creed, and they were en- 
gtig^l at the beginning of 1872. The con- 
sent , however, of H arris was required, and t he 
gt>nnine * human sentiment ' was to be con- 
sidennl as an * abstract and spiritual passion,' 
a text upon which Oliphant discourses in 
lt»t t ors quoted by his biographer. Her family 
won» naturally displeased at the pecuniary 


pp. ILH) 2) to have equivocated upon this 
orr«Mi«»n in a rather painful way, though the 
detniln are not very clear. He was married 
in .hiiu« IH72 at St. George's, Hanover 
»Spinns though it would seem the relation 
\Mi« n'gulated in some way by the spiritual 
rtuiliorilies (i7>. p. 125). In 1873 Ohphant, 
\\\\\\ bin wife and mother, r€»turned to Broc- 
t on by I lurris's orders. The wife and mother 
\MMi» employed in menial offices. Oliphant 
hiiumOr was directed to take part in various 
loiunirrrinl enteq) for the benefit, appa- 
(I'nlly, of the community, lie was in New 
> orK niul ( -anada, and occasionally sent over 
f.t l'!iif{laii<i. In 1874 he joined the * Direct 
I'lnliMl States ('able Company/ and was 
» inwu'hing a bill through the bominion Legis- 
Irtluri'.' lie learnt the secrets of commer- 
t-iii) ' riiigs/ and was kindly treated by the 

: I i'»» I .1 ay ( lould, u])on whose mercy he threw 
liliiiorir. In 1876 lie contributed to * ] 

bliuorir.' In 1876 he contributed to * Blark- 
^\ .ihiI'm Magazine ' the * Autobiography of a 
liiint Htock (.^ompany,' revealing some mys- 
^^.^wn of commercial juggler^'. He is said 
(.1 liiive shown much financial ability in 
tl»ni» transactions. 

Mimn while Harris had migrated to Santa 

lo.'.n, near San Francisco, and taken Mrs. 

Pit|ilii(nt with him. In the beginning of 

1 1. ^i ( )liphant went to San Francisco, to the 

v.ilUii of Mr. J. 1). AV'alker of San Ilafael, 

tthoao friendship he had won by an act of 

Kiuvlut'MM. His puq)ose was to see his wife, 

liiii jmi'Miission wiis refused, and he returned 

i.i hiocton. In the following autumn Mrs. 

itltphant left Santa Rosa, though still under 

(larri«'ri rule, and supported herself for a 

** lit at Vallego and then at Benicia, 

( a school. She was warmly ap- 

by the Califoruians, and Mrs. 

AValker was able to see her occasionally. 
It seems that about this time Harris bad 
discovered not only that the marriage was 
not a marriage of 'counterparts/ but that 
Oliphant had a spiritual * counterpart * in 
the other world, who inspired him with 
rhymed communications, and was therefore 
an obstacle to union with his earthly wife. 
His belief in these communicat ions strikes 
his bio^pher as the * only sign of mental 
aberration she ever noticed. Meanwhile 
Oliphant took up a scheme for colonising 
Palestine with Jews, and early in 1879 went 
to the East to examine the country, and en- 
deavour to obtain a concession from the 
Turkish government. An account of his 
journey was given in ' The Land of Gilead, 
with Excursions in the Lebanon/ 1880. The 
attempt upon the Turkish goverment failed^ 
and the scheme broke down. Oliphant re- 
turned to England, and there, in the early 
winter of 1880, he was rejoined by his wife* 
She had obtained Harris*8 permission to re- 
turn by accepting * irritating conditions on 
the freedom of their intercourse/ They 
made, however, a journey to Egypt in the 
winter, described by him in * The Land of 
Khemi, up and down the Middle Nile,*" 
1882. An accidental difficulty at Cairo pre- 
vented them from formally making over to 
Harris their right in the land at Brocton. 
In May 1881 Oliphant returned to America 
to see his mother, who was still at Brocton. 
He found her both ill and troubled by doubts 
as to the Harris creed. They went to Santa 
Rosa, where the sight of a * valuable ring' 
of Lady Oliphant's upon the finger of one 
of Harris's household staggered their faith. 
Oliphant took his mother, in spite of orders 
from Harris, to a village where there was a 
woman with an infallible panacea. She 
there died, in the presence of her son and 
their kind friend Mrs. Walker. Oliphant 
himself now became sceptical as to the pro- 
phet's inspiration, and, with the help of Air. 
\Valker, recovered his land at Brocton by 
legal proceedings. Harris and his disciples 
took a different view of these transactions. 
His wife had received a telegram from Santa 
Anna during his absence requesting her sanc- 
tion to placing him in confinement. This 
appears to have ended her allegiance to the 
prophet. Oliphant was again in England in 
January 1882, and prepared the volume 
called * Traits and Travesties/ 1882, consist- 
ing chiefly of reprints from * Blackwood's 
Magazine.' ( )liphant now took up the Pales- 
tine colonisation scheme. He travelled with 
his wife to Constantinople in the summer of 
1 882, and settled for some time at Therapia. 
At the end of the year they moved to Haifa 




in the Bay of Acre, in the neighbourhood of 
Tarious Jewish colonies. He wrote there his 
story * AltioraPeto/ 1883, in the * Piccadilly' 
style, the name beinj^ derived from a motto of 
his branch of the Oliphant family. At Haifa 
they collected a number of sympathisers, 
though they did not form exactly a commu- 
nity. Oliphant, it seems, was now regarded 
as a 'sort of head of affairs at Brocton,' 
which was no longer in connection with 
Harris. Visitors from Brocton, as well as 
natives and Jewish immigrants, gathered 
around them. They built a small house at 
Dalieh in the neighbourhood, and endea- 
voured to carry out their ideal of life. They 
gave expositions of their views to various 
im^uirers, and were not converted to * Eso- 
teric Buddhism.' A strange book, called 
' Sympneumata,' was written by them in 
concert and, as they thought, by a kind of 
common inspiration. Some who had sym- 
pathised, however, were alienated ' in fear ' 
and others ' in disgust.' Others regarded it 
as harmless nonsense. Oliphant also wrote 
' Massollam,' 1886, which gives his final 
judgment of Harris. 

During a trip to the Lake of Tiberias, at 
the end of 1880, Mrs. Oliphant caught a 
fever, and died on 2 Jan. 1887. Oliphant 
believed that she soon came back to him in 
spirit, and sent messages through him to her 
friends. Her presence was shown by strange 
convulsive movements. lie ret umed to Eng- 
land to carry out a tour which they had 
Elanned to take together. He was much 
roken, though he could still often talk with 
his old biightness. He wrote a series of ! 
papers in * Blackwood,' published in 1887 as 
* Episodes in a Life of Adventure ; or Moss 
from a liolling Stone,' which describe his | 
early career with great spirit. He also 
published at Haifa a description of Pales- 
tine and ' Fashionable Philosophy,' 1887, a 
collection of various stories. In 1887 he re- 
turned to Haifa, and wTOte a pamphlet called 
•The Star in the East' for the benefit of 
Mahommedans. It is said to have made one 
Arab convert, who was ' not much credit to 
his leader.' He returned to England and 
finished his last book, * Scientific lieligion ; 
or Evolutionary Forces now Active in Man,' 
1888. It helped to bring about him a crowd 
of ' spiritualists' and people capable of mis- 
taking twaddle about the masculine-feminine 
principle for philosophy. He visited America 
m 1888, and returned with Miss Rosamond 
Dale Owen, daughter of Robert Dale Owen 
[q. vj, to whom ne was married at Malvern 
on 16 Aug. A few days later he was seized 
with a dangerous illness at the house of his 
oldfineDd8|theWalker8,atSurbiton. Thence 

he was moved to York House, Twickenham , 
to be the guest of his friend Sir Mount- 
stuart Grant Dufi: The illness was hopeless 
from the first, though he was flattered by 
hopes of a miraculous cure. He was still 
cheerful and even witty to the last, and died 
peacefully on 23 Dec. 1888. 

The charm of Oliphant's alert and versa- 
tile intellect and sympathetic character was 
recognised by a wide circle of friends. It 
was felt not least by those who most re- 
gretted the strange religious developments 
which led to the waste 01 his powers and his 
enslavement to such a propnet as Harris. 
He was beloved for his boyish simplicity 
and the warmth of heart which appeared 
through all his illusions. Suggestions of 
insanity were, of course, made, but appa- 
rently without definite reasons. Remark- 
able talents without thorough training have 
throTNHi many minds ofi^ their balance, and 
Oliphant's case is only exceptional for the 
singular combination of two apparently in- 
consistent careers. Till his last years, at 
any rate, his religious mysticism did noi 
disqualify him for being also a shrewd 
financier, a charming man of the world, and 
a brilliant writer. His works have been 
mentioned above. He also contributed many 
articles to ^ Blackwood's Magazine ' and the 
* Times.' 

[Memoir of the Life of Laurence Oliphant 
and of Alice Oliphant, his wife, by Margaret 
Oliphant W. Oliphant, 2 vols. 1891. Oliphant's 
writings give many details of his early travels 
and adventures. Sec also Personal Keminis- 
cenccs of L. Oliphant, by Louis Leescbing 
(n.d.); and, for some account of the Brocton 
community from the other side, Brotherhood of 
the New Life : a letter from Thomas Lake 
Harris, 1893, and the Brotherhood of the New 
Life by Richard MacCuUy, Glasgow, 1893, pp» 
146-61.] L. S. 

OLIPHANT, THOMAS (1799-1873), 
writer and musical composer, was bom 
25 Dec. 1799, at Condie, Stratheam, Perth- 
shire, in the house of his father, Ebenezer 
Oliphant ; his mother was Mary, the third 
daughter of Sir William Stirling, hart., of 
Ardoch, Perthshire. After being educated 
at Winchester College and by private tutors, 
he became for a short time a member of 
the Stock Exchange, London, but soon re- 
linquished commerce to devote himself to 
literature and music. In 1830 he was ad- 
mitted a member of the Madrigal Society^ 
of which he afterwards became honorary secre- 
tary, and, for the use of its members, he adapted 
English words to a considerable number 
of Italian madrigals, in some cases writing 
original Tcrses, m others by merely trans- 

Oliphant 138 Oliphant 

lating. In 1834 he took part in the choru8, ! Edward I beyond seas. While at Sandwich, 
aa a bass vocalist, in the great Handel previous to embarkation for Flushing, he 
festival held in Westminster Abbey, and in | and Edward de Ramsay were allowed I2d. 
the same year published, under the pseudonym ■ a day, and each of their squires Qd* a day 

* Solomon Sackbut,' * Comments of a Chorus (Stevenson, Documents illustrative of the 
Singer at the Koyal Musical Festival in History of Scotland, ii. 40). Subsequently 
Westminster Abbey.' He also published in , Oliphant returned to Scotland, and supported 
183*') < A Brief Account of the Madrigal : W^allace in his endeavour to uphold Scottish 
Society ; * in l&iiO, * A Short Account of I independence. On the capture of Stirling 
Madrigals ; ' in 1837 ' La Musa Madrigalesca,* Castle fromHhe English in 1299, he was en- 
a volume containing the words of nearly trusted with its defence by the governor, Sir 
four hundred ' madrigals, ballets, and | John Foulis. After a feeble attempt to bar 
roundelays, chiefly of the Elizabethan affe, the progress of Edward in 1304, Comyn [see 
with remarks and annotations.' In 1837 he Comyn, John, the younger] grave in his sub- 
composed the words and music of a madrigal, I mission to Edward, and Stirling Castle re- 

* Stay one Moment, gentle Sires,' which he pro- ! mained the sole fortress in Scotland that had 
duced as the work ofan unknown seventeenth- not surrendered to the English king. Oli- 
century composer, Blasio Tomasi,and as such | phant, on being commanded to give it up, re- 

* Mount of Olives,' and the words for nume- ' and honour as a knight, but if permit ted would 
rous songs of Hatton and other composers, instantly go to France to inquire of Sir John 
By desire of the directors of the Philhar- ! Foulis what were his commands, and if they 

chorus, the composer conducting, at the to no such t«rms, and that Oliphant would 
Hanover Square liooms in March 18o5. \ retain the castle at his peril (Chronicle, p. 
He was engjiged for some years in catalogu- 326). During the siege all the goods and 
in^' tlie music in the British Museum, and j chattels of Oliphant were seized by Edward 
he occnsioually lectured in public on musical ' and bestowed on Gilbert Malherbe (CaL 
subjpcts. In 1871 he was elected president , Documeiits relating to Scotland, 1272-1307, 
of th<! Madrigal Society. He died unmarried, ' entry 1517). The siege continued for ninety 
on 9 March JH73, in Great Marlborough ! days (C^row teem (yrtyrjtIrft7tf^a/:^r,ed.Tliomp- 
Strcfit, and in the following April his valu- ' son, p. 2), and the reduction of the castle 
able collection of ancient music was sold by I taxed all Edward's ingenuity and resources. 
MoB.srs. Put tick & Simpson. : Thirteen 'great engynes' were brought by 

[Private knowledge.] W. II. C. ' ^'^^^ ^^^tter down its defences (Langtoft, 

■■ ^ -■ p. 326), the leaden roof of the refectory of St. 

OLIPHANT or OLIFARD, Sir Wll^ Andrews being melted down to supply leaden 

LI AM {d. 132U), of Aberdalgie, Perthshire, i balls for their use. The siege was under the 

was «» son of Sir Walter Olifard, justiciar ' immediate direction of Edward himself, who, 

of Lothian under Alexander I. This office in his eagerness to effect the fall of the castle, 


of Scot land [q. v.] at the siege of Winchester | use of Greek fire and the construction of 
Castle in 1 141, and enabled him to reach | two immense machines for throwing stones 
Scotland in safety. Sir William Oliphant's I and leaden balls, he made such breaches 
name first appears as witness to a charter of i on the inner walls, and so harassed the de- 
John, enrl of AthoU, some time before 1296 I fenders, that Oliphant offered terms of sur- 
(Jliftt. MSS. Omirn. 6th Rep. p. 690). Being render. It is stated that he stipulated for 
taken prisoner at the capture of Dunbar ' the freedom of himself and the garrison, but 
Castle in 121H>, after the defeat of the Scots that lOdward * belied his troth ' and broke 
army by .Folin do Warenne, earl of Surrey, ' through the conditions ; for 'W^iUiam Oli- 

Ir T307, entry 953), and then only ! Wyntoun, ed. Laing, ii. 362). The castle 

release on condition of serving j was surrendered on 24 July 1304 (jCaU 

Oliphant 139 Oliphant 

Documents relating to Scotland, 1272- [Authorities mentioned in the text; Ander^ 
1307, entry 1562), and Oliphant is mentioned i son's Oliphants in Scotland, 1879, pp. xii-xxi.] 
as a prisoner in the Tower on 21 May 1306 T. F. H. 

(d. entry 1668; Stbtbnson, Documents il- j OLIPHANT, Sib WILLIAM (1551- 
htstrative of the History of Scotland, p. 11). 1628), of Newton, advocate, son of William 
From Michaelmas 1306 till Michaelmas 1307 I Oliphant of Newton, in the parish of For- 
the sum of 6/. 2Qd, was paid for his main- • gandenny, Perthshire, was admitted to the 
tenance by the sheriffs of London to the | Scottish bar on 20 Oct. 1577. Five years 
committee of the Tower (Co/. Documents later (14 Oct. 1582) he was appointed a 
relatiny to Scotland, 1307-57, entry 36). j justicendepute (Pitcairn, i. 101), and in 
On 24 May 1308 Edward II gave command 1604 he acted as advocate-depute for Sir 
to the constable of the Tower to liberate | Thomas Hamilton, king*8 advocate. In the 
him on his giving surety for his good be- i same vear a commission was chosen to dis- 
haviour (i^. entry 45^. On his way to Scot- cuss tne question of union with England, and 
land he came to Lincoln, and took out of Oliphant was added as one ' best aifected 
prison four Scotsmen who had served under and fittest for that eirand ' (Reg, of Privy 
nim in Stirling Castle, who were to go with I Council, vii. 457). He was also a commis- 
him on the king's service into Gotland ! sioner (1607) for reforming the teaching of 
(^Botuii Scotiee, i. 61). He was in receipt of ' grammar in schools, which had fallen mto 
pay from the king of England in January | disrepute by the * curiositie of divers maisters 
1310-11 {Cal. Documents relating to Scot- .... taking upon thaim efter thair fantesie 
land, 1307-57, entry 193), and he was ap- ' to teache such grammer as pleases them ' 
pointed by Edward ffovemor of Perth, which ; (Acts of Pari. iv. 374). His reputation at 
neld out for six weeks against Robert Bruce, i the bar meanwhile advanced ; he appears in 
Ultimately it was captured by stratagem, ! many of the leading cases (Pitcairn ; Peg, 
Bruce, after retiring with his army for eight ' of Privy Council, passim). He was chosen. 

days, returning suddenlv during the night, 
and scaling the walls at the head of his troops. 
The town was taken on 8 Jan. 1311-12, 
when Oliphant was sent a prisoner to the 

with Thomas Craig, to defend the six mi- 
nisters in January 1606; but he gave up his 
brief on the eve of the trial, on the plea, 
as Balmerino explained, that the king's 

"Western Isles (Chronicle of Lanercost, p. promise of leniency, provided they acknow- 
272). On 22 Feb. 1311-12 the collectors of ledged their offence, did not justify their 
customs of wool and hides in Perth were re- , obstinacy (ib. vii. 478). He thereby won the 
quired to pay the whole of these to Oliphant, | king's favour, and was soon amply rewarded, 
in satisfaction of the king of England's . In 1608 the council, in a letter to the king, 
debt to him (CaL Documents relating to \ named him first of four who were * the most 
Scotland, 1307-57, entry 247). Oliphant learned and best experienced of their pro- 
obtained his freedom at least before 21 Oct. fession * (Denmylne MSS. A. 2. 39. No. 66). 
1313, when he received protection on his | In November 1610 he appears as a justice of 
setting out for Scotland, and for his return . the peace for Perthshire and the stewartries 
to England (ib, entries . 313, 339). On ; of Stratheam and Menteith (Beg. of Privy 
26 Dec 1317 he received from Robert Bruce | Council, ix. 78). 

the lands of Newtyle and Nynprony, For- > He was elevated to the bench in January 
farshire, to be held in free barony ; also, by 1611, in succession to Sir David Lindsay of 
subsequent charters, the lands of Muir- Edzell, one of the lords-ordinary. There- 
house in the shire of Edinburgh ; and by upon the privy council wrote a long letter 
charter at Scone, on 20 March 1326, the | to the king, in w^hich they declar^ how 
lands of Ochtertyre, Perthshire. He was popular had been the election of one * whose 
present at a great parliament held at Aber- | bipast cariage is and hes bene onlie force- 
brothwick in Aprd 1320, and his seal is i able to hald him in your Majesteis remcm- 
attached to the remonstrance then addressed berance ' (ib, ix. 592). Next year (19 June) 
to the pope asserting the independence of | he was nominated in a royal letter as king's 
Scotland. He wasalso present at aparliament j advocate, in succession to Hamilton, who 
held at Holjrrood on 8 March 1326. He had been appointed clerk of register. On 

died in 1329, and was buried at Aberdalgie, 
where the original monument to his memory 
is still in fair preservation. He left a son, 
Sir Walter Oliphant of Aberdalgie, who 
married the Princess Elizabeth, youngest 

9 July following he was admitted of the 
privy council as lord-advocate, and was 
knighted by the chancellor in conformity 
with a mandate from the king. He retained 
his seat on the bench (ib. ix. 403). Parlia- 

daughter of Robert Bruce. From him the I ment ratified his appointment in October, 
Lords Oliphant are descended. I and granted a pension of 1,000/. for life. 

Oliver 140 Oliver 

which the king had intimated to the council 
in a letter of 8 April 1611. 

He played a prominent part in the politi- 
cal stir of the closing years of Jameses reign ; 

have been a man of learning. In his vouth 
he attempted to follow the example of 
Daedalus, fitted wings on to his hands and 
feet, ascended a tower to get the help of 

the sederunts of the privy council show that the wind, threw himself off, and is said to 
he was present at almost every meeting. | have flown a furlong or more. Becoming 
In December 1612 he was one of a select , fri^^htened at the strength of the wind, he 
commission of five for the settling of con- fell and broke his legs, and thenceforward 
troversies between burgh and landward jus- | was lame. He attributed his failure to his 
tices of the peace (ib, ix. 503) ; in August ^ having omitted to provide himself with a 
1613 a commissioner for the trial of the tail, which would have steadied him in his 
Jesuit Robert Philip, in December 1614 for ' flight. He was advanced in years when, on 
the trial of Father John Offilvie [q.v.], and i 24 April 1066, there appeared the great 
in June 1015 for that of James Mofiat; in i comet, which, though seen with awe in 
December 1615 he was appointed a member , every part of Europe, was held in England 
of the reconstructed court of high commis- | and elsewhere to have been a presage of the 
sion, and in May 1616 one of the committee I Norman conquest (Freeman, Norman Can' 
to report on the book * God and the King,* guest, iii. 71, 72, 646-50). On beholding it 
which James had determined to introduce , Eilmer cried * Thou hast come, thou ^st 
into Scotland as he had done in England and ^ come, bringing sorrow to many mothers. 
Ireland. On 17 Dec. 1016 Oliphant was Long ago have I seen thee, but now more 
elected a member of the financial committee terrible do I behold thee, threatening the 
of the council known as the commissioners destruction of this country * (Will. AIalx. 
for the king's rents (ib. x. 676 ; Balfoxtb, | Gesta JRegum, ii. c. 225). The story seems 
Annals, ii. 65). As kind's advocate he ap- to have been popular. It is possible that 
pears in all the great political trials, notably Orderic, writing independently of William of 
those of Gordon of Gicht and Sir James Malmesbury, refers to Elmer's words (p. 492); 
Macdonald of Islay. He had the care, too, ] Alberic of Trois Fontaines (an. 1066) took 
of putting into force the new acts against | the story from William of Malmesbury. It 
the sale of tobacco and the carrying of hag- appears in the * Speculum Historiale ' of Vin- 
buts ; and the numerous prosecutions which cent of Beauvais {d. 1204), and is given by 
he carried out testify to his activity. The j Higden in his * Polychronicon,' where the 
parliament of 1021 ratified the possession of monk of Malmesbury is called Oliver, and 
the family lands to him and his sons James the story consequently is in the two English 
and William iu fee {Acts of Pari. iv. 662\ ' translations of^that work. Lastly, it was 
Charles I's proclamation prohibiting the hold- copied by John Nauclerus of Tubingen, 
ing of an ordinary seat in the court of ses- who wrote his 'Commentaries* about 1500. 
sion by officers of state and nobles compelled , Bale, in the 1549 edition of his * Catalogus,' 
him to leave the bench (February 1020). He attributes to Oliver the authorship of the 
died on 1 (13?) April 1628, and was buried *Eulogium Historiarum;* he corrects this 
in the Greyfriars* churchyard at Edinburgh. I strange mistake in the edition of 1557, where 
To Oliphant is due the present procedure , he quotes Capgrave as showing that the 
of examining witnesses in the hearing of < Eulogium * was compiled in the reign of 
the jury. Hitherto evidence had been taken i Edward III. He says that Oliver was the 

in the trial of one Listen, accused of the sent known to exist, 
murder of a certain John Mayne (Pitcairn). , 

[Register of the Privy Council of Scotland; j ^ [Will. Malm. Gesta Regumhbu.c. 225 (Rolls 
Acts of Parliament of Scotland ;Retours; Den- ^f J Ordenc p. 492, ed Duch^ne ; \ incent 

mylne MSS. in Advocates' Library, passim ; I l^T^'^o/ ?^'o?n''°i,?l5'^'''' ^\^' ^ 
Brunton ;ind Hair's Senators of the College of , ^\ 25 c 35 f 350 ; Higden s Polychronicon, 
Justice; Pitcairn's Criminal Trials .Anderson's !:\:: 222J Roll sjer.)j Job ^ Memo. 


kno^ _ _^ 

(f. 1066), astrologer and mechanician, a monk noV know Vhat Oliver of Malmesbury 'wm^ the 
ofMalmesbury,issaid by William of Malmes- , game with the Eilmer of William of Malmes- 
bury, who calls him Eilmer, a latinised bury's * Gesta Regum,' says that Bale is the only 
form of the English name ^thelmaer, to | authority for Oliver's existence.] W. H. 




OLIVER (d. 1219), bastard son of King 
John, by a mistress named Hadwisa, who 
must be distinguished from Iladwisa of 
Gloucester, John's first wife, is mentioned, 
along with such men as Hubert de Burgh, 
as a royalist champion during Louis's attack 
upon fCngland in alliance with the revolted 
English iMironsin the last year of John's reign. 
The invaders, advancing on Winchester, found 
their progress barred (June 1216) *by the 
great castle of the king, and that of the bishop, 
called Wolvesey,' overlooking the city, in 
which last was * Oliviers, uns fils le roi de 
has, qui escuiers estoit.' Later on (March 
1217), under Henry IIT, Oliver took part with 
Hubert de Burgh in the defence of Dover 
against the French. A grant was made 
him of ' unum dolium vini,' under date 8 Oct. 
1 21 5, by the king at Canterbury. The * Cas- 
tnim de Tonge' was given him at Roches- 
ter on 10 Nov. of the same year, and this was 
confirmed by Hennr III on 23 June 1217. 
The ' Mansio de Erdington' was granted him 
on 17 July 1216, and the property of Hane- 
don or Hamedon on 14 Marcti 1218, to hold 
'until Eva de Tracy, who claims it, shall 
have made satisfaction for the same with 
sixty marks.' 

Oliver left England in 1218 to join in the 
fifth crusade. Early in October 1218 he 
arrived at Damietta with the legate Pelayo, 
Earl Ranulf of Chester, Earl William of 
Arundel, and Lord William of Harecourt 
^Matt. Paris). In the following year he 
died at Damietta, but whether by disease or 
in battle is unknown. 

[Toumoi de Ham's Histoire des Dues de Nor- 
mandie et des Rois d'Angleterre, pp. 173, 
180 ; Close Rolls (Rotali Litterarum Clau- 
fianxm), 1215. 1218. pp. 230 b, 234. 235 b, 266, 
277 b, 207. 200, 312 A, 322, 355 [edit, of 1833] ; 
Oliveros Scholasticus in Eccard's Corpus Histo- 
ricum Medii iEvii. col. 1406 ; Historia Damia- 
tana, sub ann. 1218 ; James of Vitry's Historia 
Orientalis, lib. iii. sub ann. 1218, in Gesta Dei 
per Francos; Matth. Paris. Chron. Maj. 1218, 
Rolls ed. iii. 41. For Oliver's mother, Hadwisa, 
refer to Close Rolls, ▲.n. 1217, p. 326. Grant of 
2 Oct. from Lambeth mentions her, along with 
Eva de Tracy, as possessing Hamedon.] 

C. R. B. 

OLIVER, ANDREW (1706-1774), lieu- 
tenant-governor of Massachusetts, bom in 
Boston, Massachusetts, on 28 March 1706, 
was son of Daniel Oliver, by Elizabeth, 
daughter of Andrew Belcher. His father, a 
member of the council, was a son of Captain 
Peter Oliver, an eminent merchant, and 
grandson of Thomas Oliver, a surgeon and 
ruling elder of Boston Church, who arrived 
in Boston from London in 1632. Andrew 

graduated at Harvard in 1724. He was 
chosen a member of the general court and 
afterwards of the council. In 1748 he was 
sent with Governor Thomas Hutchinson as 
a commissioner to the A Ibany congress that 
met to conclude peace with the heads of the 
Six Nations, and arrange a rectification of 
the frontier. In 1766 he was appointed 
secretary of the province, ^^^len the British 
parliament passed the Stamp Act he ac- 
cepted the office of distributor of stamps, 
and in consequence nearly lost his seat on 
the council. On 14 Aug. 1765 he was hanged 
in effigy between figures of Lord Bute and 
George Grenville, on the large elm called the 
* liberty tree.' In the evening the mob, with 
cries of * Liberty, property, and no stamps ! * 
demolished the structure that was building 
for a stamp-office. The next morning Oliver 
signed a public pledge that he would not 
act as stamp-officer. 

A few months later it was rumoured that 
Oliver intended to enforce the Stamp Act, 
and on the day of the opening of parliament 
the * Sons of Liberty ' compelled him to 
march to the tree and there renew his pro- 
mise in a speech, and take oath before a 
justice of the peace, Richard Dana, * that he 
would never, directlv or indirectly, take 
measures for the collection of the stamp- 
duty.* In October 1770 he was appointed 
lieutenant-governor. Greatly to his annoy- 
ance, some letters which he nad written to 
Thomas Whateley, one of the secretaries of 
the treasury, in 1768 and 1769, fell into 
Benjamin Franklin's hands soon after Whate- 
ley*s death, and were laid before the assembly 
in 1772. The worst possible construction 
was put upon them, and Oliver's removal 

Oliver died at Boston on 3 March 1774. 
His remains were followed to the grave by 
a howling mob, and in the evening a coffin, 
rope, ana gallows were exhibited in the 
window of one of the public offices. Oliver 
married first on 20 June 1 728 Mary (d. 1732), 
daughter of Thomas Fitch, by whom he had 
two sous and a daughter, and secondly, on 
5 July 1733, Mary (d. 1773), daughter of 
William Sanford, sister of Governor Thomas 
Hutchinson's wife, by whom he had seven 
sons and seven daughters. Two of his sons, 
Andrew (1731-1799) and William Sanford 
(1748-1813), were prominent on the royalist 
side during the revolution. 

A photograph of his portrait by Copley is 
in Thomas Hutchinson s * Diary. 

[Whitmore's Descendants of W. Hutchinson 
and T. Oliver, 1866; Diary and Letters of 
Thomas Hutchinson, ed. P. 0. Hutchinson ; 
I Appleton's Cyclop, of Amer. Biogr.] G. G. 




1842), portrait-painter and associate of the 
Royal Academy, was born in 1774. In 1791 
he exhibited a portrait of himself at the 
Royal Academy, and in 1793 was admitted 
a student in the schools of that institution. 
He was a regular exhibitor at the Royal 
Academy and the British Institution for fifty 
years, his chief work being portraits, though 
he occasionally painted small domestic sub- 
jects or still-life. At one time Oliver had a 
large and fashionable practice as a portrait- 
painter, with a studio in New Bond Street. 
fie was elected an associate of the Royal 
Academy in 1807. Latterly his practice fell 
off, and he was appointed curator of the paint- 
ing school of the Royal Academy. Towards 
the end of his life his health failed, and he 
was supported to a great extent out of the 
Academy funds. Oliver died in 1842. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Graves's Diet, of 
Artists, 1760-1880 ; Sandby's Hist, of the Royal 
Aeademy ; Royal Academy Catalogues.] L. C. 

OLIVER, GEORGE, D.D. (1781-1861), 
catholic divine and historian of Exeter, was 
bom at Newington, Surrey, on 9 Feb. 1781, 
and was educated, first at Sedgley Park, Staf- 
fordshire, and afterwards at Stonyhurst Col- 
lege, where he taught humanities for five 
years. From an early age he was devoted 
to the study of antiquities, and while at 
Stonyhurst he rode with John Milner, after- 
wards bishop of Castabala, to explore the 
abbey of Whalley (Husenbeth, Life of Mil- 
ner, p. 121). During the eleven years that he 
spent at Stonyhurst, Father Charles Plowden 
was his spiritual director, and took much 
interest in the progress of his literary studies 
(Oliver, Jesuit Collections, p. 168). He was 
promoted to holy orders at Durham by Dr. 
Gibson, bishop of Acanthus, in May 1806. 
In October 1807 he was sent to the ancient 
mission of the Society of Jesus at St. Ni- 
cholas, Exeter, as successor to Father Tho- 
mas Lewis (Western Antiquary, iv. 42). 
This mission he served for forty-four years, 
retiring from active duty on 6 Oct. 1851. 
He continued, however, to reside in the 

Sriory, and occupied the same room till the 
ay of his death. During the whole of his 
career he enjoyed the regard of members of 
his own faith, and was highly esteemed by 
his fellow-citizens of all denominations. 

Oliver was nearly the last survivor of a 
number of catholic priests, pupils of the Eng- 
lish Jesuits, who, though never entering the 
society, always remained in the service of the 
English province, and suWect to its superiors 
(Foley, Records, vii. 559). On 30 March 
1843 he was elected an honorary member of 

the Historical Society of Boston, U.S., and 
on 15 Sept. 1844 he was created D.D. by 
Pope Gregory XVI. On the erection of the 
canonical chapters in 1852, after the restora- 
tion of the hierarchy by Pope Pius IX, 
Oliver was appointed provost of the chapter 
of Plymouth, which dignity he resigned in 
1857. He died at St. Nicholas Priorv, 
Exeter, on 23 March 1861, and was buried 
on 2 April near the high altar in his chapel. 
Oliver's numerous works relate principally 
to the county of Devon, and are standard 
authorities. The titles of his chief publica- 
tions are: 1. 'Historic Collections relating 
to the Monasteries in Deyon/ Exeter, 1820, 
8vo. 2. * The History of Exeter,' Exeter, 1821, 
8vo ; 2nd edit. Exeter, 1861, 8vo. In some 
respects the first edition is more useful than 
the second. An index to the second edition, 
privately printed in 1884, was compiled by 
J. S. Attwood. 8. A translation of Father 
John Gerard's Latin ' Autobiography ' from 
the manuscript at Stonyhurst College; 

Erinted in fourteen Numbers of the ' Catholic 
Ipectator,' 1823-6. 4. * Ecclesiastical An- 
tiquities of Devon, being Observations on 
many Churches in Devonshire, originally 
published in the " Exeter and Plymouth Ga- 
zette," with a Letter on the Preservation and 
Restoration of our Churches,' Exeter, 1828, 
12mo ; written in conjunction with the 
Rev. John Pike Jones of North Bovey, who, 
however, only contributed the introduction 
and the descriptions of twelve churches. 
5. ' Ecclesiastical Antiquities in Devon, being 
Observations on several Churches in Devon- 
shire, with some Memoranda for the His- 
tory of Cornwall; 3 vols., Exeter, 1839-40- 
1842, 8vo. Although professedly a second 
edition of the former work, it possesses claims 
to be considered an entirely new one. The 
introduction is the only contribution of the 
Rev. J. P. Jones that was retained. An ex- 
tended edition was sent to the press, and 
partly printed, but never published. It was 
intended to contain a complete list, arranged 
in alphabetical order, of all the churches de- 
scribed by Oliver, many of which had not 
appeared in the previous editions. 6. * Clif- 
fordiana,' privately printed, Exeter [1828], 
12mo, containing a detailed account of the 
Clifford family, three funeral addresses, and 
a descriptive list of the pictures at Ug- 
brooke Park. The author made collections 
for an enlarged edition of this work. These 
were probably utilised in a series of thirteen 
articles on the 'Cliffords of Devonshire ' that 
appeared in the 'Exeter Flying Post' be- 
tween 1 June and 29 Sept. 1857. 7. * Memoir 
of the Lord Treasurer Clifford,' London 
[1828 P], 8vo, reprinted from the 'Catholic 




spectator ; ' tke article was subsequently 
Tewritten, and kftpeared in the ' Exeter Fir- 
ing Pom,' 22 and 29 June 1867. 8. ' Col- 
lections towards illustrating tiie BiosTaph^ 
of the Scotch, English, and Irish Members of 
the Societj of Jesus,' Exeter, ISSS, 8vo; a 
Mcond edition, limited to 260 copies, Lon- 
don, IStfi, 8to. Theea valuable biographical 
notices appeared originally in the 'London 
and Dublin Weekly Urthodox Journal,' voIh. 
ii.-iv. (1836-7). An interleaved copy of the 
work, witU numerous correetione and addi- 
tional notes b\ Canon Tiemev, and notes and 
transcripts hyW, B.TurubulI,iB in the posses- 
■ioD of tne Bishop of South watk (BoASKand 
CocRtmet, Bibl. (hrrmb. p. 410). 9. ' Merrye 
Englaunde; or the Goldene DaiesofOoode 
Queene Besse'(anon.), London, ItMl, 12mo. 
This first appeared as a aerial Btorr in the 
'Catholic Marine,' vols, ii., iii. {1838-9). 
The plot is laid in Cornwall, and is based 
upon the adventures and persecutions of 
some catholic families in that county. 
10. 'Description of the Guildhall, Eieter,' 
in conjunction with Pitman Jones, Exeter, 
1846, 13mo;9nd edit. 186S. 11. 'A View 
of Devonshire in MDCXXX, with a Pedi- 
gree of mostof itsGentry,by Thomas West- 
cote,' edited by Oliver in conjunction with 
Pitman Jones, Exeter, 1845, 4to. 12. ' Monss- 
ticon DicBcesis Exonientis, beinga Collection 
of Records and Instruments illustrating the 
ancient conventual, collegiate, and elee.- 
moaynarj Foundations in the Counties of 
Cornwall and Devon, with Historical Notices, 
and a Supplement, compnuini^ n list of the 
dedications of Churches in tiie Diocese, an 
amended edition of the Taxation of Pope 
Nicholas, and an Abstract of the Chantry 
Rolls,' Exeter, 1846, fol. An 'Additional 
Supplement . . . with a Map of the Diocese, 
Deaneries, and Sites of Religious Houses,' 
appeared in 1654. Without these additions 
the edition of Dugdale's ' Monasticon ' by 
Ellis and Bandinel must be considered in- 
complete. 13. ' Collections illustrating the 
History of the Catholic Religion in the 
Counties of Cornwall, Devon, Dorset, Somer- 
set, Wilts, and Gloucester. . . , With notices 
of the Dominican, Benedictine, and Francis- 
can Urders in England,' I^ondnn, 1857, 8vo. 
Some of the manuscripts of tliiu work are in 
the Cambridge Universitv Library (Mm. vi. 
40); others are at Stonyhurst College (Cat. 
of MSS. in Univ. Library. Cumbriilffe, iv. 
401), The copyright he preBpnIed to Dr. 
F. C. Huseubetb, together with very copious 
additions, and severtd corrections for a second 
edition. 14. 'Lives of the Bishops of Exeter, 
and a History of the Cathedral,' Exoter, 
J66I, 8vo. Ifi. LettcTB on ecclesiastical 

and parochial antiquities, family history, 
and biography, extending over a period of 
nine yeare, and communicated, under the 
signature of ' Curiosus,' to local newspapers, 
and principally to the ' Exeter Flying Post. ' 
Upwards of two hundred of these communi- 
cations were collected and inserted in two 
folio volumes by Pitman Jones, who added 
many valuable notes. Sir. Winslow Jones, 
son of the fatter, presented these volumes in 
1877 to the library of the Devon and Exeter 
Institution. Forty-eight of the communica- 
tions contain the memoirs of about seventy- 
five celebrated Exonians, 

Oliver was a contributor to all the English 
catholic periodicals of his time, his articles 
relating generally to catholic biography, his- 
tory, or antiquities. _ He also had the principal 

preparing t 

publication the ' Liber 

Pontificalis of Edmund Lncy, bishop of Exe- 
ter, which appeared in 1847, as edited by Ro- 
bert Barnes, without any mention of its chief 
editor, A cofy ofPofwhele's 'History of 
Devonshire,' with copious manuscript notes 
by Oliver, is preserved in the British Sluseum. 

A very characteristic lithographed portrait 
of Oliver was published shortly after his 
death by George G. Palmer of Exeter. This 
was reproduced as a frontispiece to Dr. 
Brushfield's ' Bibliography.' There is also 
an excellent statuette ( U'mfem Antiguarv, 
V. 153). *' 

[Tho Bibliogmphy of the Rev. O. Oliver, D.D., 
of Exeter, l>y T. N. Brushfiolil, M.D.. whs re- 
printod in IHSS, 8vo, from the TnuiBactions of 
tho D^vonshiro Association forths AdvunFomont 
of Science, Literature, and Ait, xvii. 266-76. 
Use has been made in this article of a copy of 
Dr. Bruahfleld's Bibliogruphy, with Dumsrous 
mnnuBCript additions, kindly lent by the author. 
Sea also Boase aod Courtney's Bill. Coruu- 
bieniiiB. i. 379, 410 ; Cntholic Miaccllnny, IS28, 
ii. 148; Gem. Mag. May 1861. p. 576; Husen- 
Vlh's Lifn of Milner, pp, 121. 361; Joumul of 
ArchKoloRicnl Inatituto, iviii, <Ofi ; Lowndes's 
Bibl. Man. (Bohn), p. 1723; Martin's Pri- 
vately Printed Books, 1854, p. 360 ; Notes and 
Qdsnes, 2nd ser. ix. 4tl4. fill, 3rd mr. v. 137, 
202, 6th scr. v. 396. 7th »er. J. 467. fil4 ; 
Oliver's Cornwall, p. 368. and J us uit Collections, 
p. 188; Tablet, 13 April 1861 p. 235 (by Dr. 
Hasenbeth), and 20 April p. 261 ; Trewmau's 
Eieter Flying Post, 27 March 1861; Weekly 
Register, 6 April 1861 p. 2, 13 April p. 2, 
30 April p. 10.] T. C. 

OLIVER. GEORGE, D.D. (1783-1807), 
topographer and writer on frcemasonrv, was 
descended from an ancient .Scottish family, 
some members of which came to England in 
the reign of James I, and were subsequently 
settled at Clipstone Park, Nottinghamshire. 
He was eldest son of Samuel Oliver, rector 

OhvK:r :^ Oliver 

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ey, in t Ih' ^ '"iitil v "f Vork, wii li 

I)«!Hcri|ilivi' Slii'lrlii'i III" lint 

tton iiiwl M'-iiiiXy till* (yorivt'iii 

MiiNiitis/ \H\y<. 21. 'Institutes of Masonic 
Jiiri.siiriHl«*n(:<>: bcin^ an Exemplification of 
t lio hnff lish J^ook of Constitutions,' Liondon, 




1B49, 12mo; reprinted in 1859 and 1874. 

26. ' Book of the Lodge, or Officer's Manual/ 
London, 1849, 12mo; 2nd ed., to which 
was added ' A Century of Aphorisms/ 1856 ; 
8rd ed. 1864; 4th ed. 1879. 26. *The 
Srinbol of Glory, shewing the Object and 
End of Free-Masonry/ London, 1850, 8vo. 

27. * Dictionary of Symbolical Masonry/ 
1853. 28. *The ReTelations of a Square, 
exhibiting a Graphic Display of the Sayings 
and Doings of eminent Tree and Accepted 
Masons/ London, 1855, 12mo, with curious 
emntiTings. 29. 'Freemason's Treasury/ 
ISSS. 30. *Papd Teachings in Freemasonry/ 
1866. 31. *The Origin of the Royal Arch 
Order of Masonry,' 1867. 32. * The Pvtha- 
fforean Triangle, or the Science of Numbers,' 
1875. 33. * Discrepancies of Freemasonry,' 
1875. He also edited the fourteenth edition 
of * Illustrations of Masonry,' by W. Preston, 
' bringing the Histoir of Freemasonry down 
to 1829, London, 1829, 12mo, 16th ed. 1840, 
16th ed. 1849 ; Ashe's < Masonic Manual,' 
1843, and again 1870 ; and Hutchinson's 

• Spirit of Masonry/ 1843. | 

Several of the masonic works contain the 
author's portrait. There is also a large en- 
grayed portrait of him, in masonic costume, 
published separately. 

fLiocoln. Rutland, and Stamford Mercury, 
8 March 1867 p. 4 col. 5 and 6, and 15 March 
p. 4 col. 6 ; Freemasons' Mag. 9 March 1867 
p. 185, 16 March p. 217; Notes and Queries, 7th 
Mr. vii. 288, 355 ; Gent. Miig. 1867. i. 537 ; 
Lowndes's Bibl Man. (Bohn), pp. 838, 1724; 
Dr. Brushfield's Bibliography of the Rev. G. 
Oliver of Exeter ; Cat. of Books in the Library 
at Freemasons' Hall, London, p. 28 ; Gowans's 
Cat. of Books on Freemasonry, p. 43 ; Simms's 
Bibl. Stafford. 1894. pp. 336-7.] T. C. 

ISAAC (1656 P-1617), miniature jjainter, 
appears to have been of French origin, and 
to nave been born about 1556. Sandrart, in 
his ' Teutsch Academie,' speaks of him as 
' membranarum pictor Londinensis/ and in 
the inscription below the portrait of him en- 
graved by Hendrik Hondius he is styled 

* Isaacus Oliverus, Anglus.' His contempo- 
raries appear to have idl regarded him as an 
Englishman (see Peach ak. Treatise on Draw- 
ing and Limning^ 1634). On the other hand, 
when he signs his name in full he always 
spells it * Olivier ' or * OUivier.' There is some 
ground for supposing that he is identical 
with ' Isaac Olivier of Rouen,' who on 9 Feb. 
1602 was married at the Dutch Church, Aus- 
tin Friars, London, to Sara Gheeraerts of 
London (MoE^s, Reoisters of Dutch Church, 
Austin Friars). The siege and capture of 
Rouen by the Guises in 1562 drove many 

VOL. xui. 

huguenots to take refuge in London, among 
whom may well have been Oliver's parents, 
with their boy of five or six years old. More- 
over, in the portrait by Hondius mentioned 
above there is seen through a window a river 
scene resembling nothing in England, but 
very like the scenery of the Seine near Rouen ; 
this may indicate the place of his birth. This 
identification would possibly lead also to 
that of the anonymous author of a treatise 
on limning {Brit, Mus. Harl MS. 6000), who 
alludes more than once to his late cousin, 
Isaac Oliver. Sara Gheeraerts, Olivier's wife, 
appears to have been daughter of Marcus 
Qneeraerta the elder [q. v.], by his second 
wife Susanna De Critz, who was certainly 
related to John De Critz [q. v.], serjeant- 
painter to James I. Francis Meres, m his 
'Palladis Tamia' (1598), selects the three, 
* Hilliard, Isaac Oliver, and John De Critz' 
as especially excellent in the art of painting. 
Assuming De Critz to be a cousin by marriage 
of Isaac Oliver, he maj well have been tne 
author of the said treatise on limning. There 
seems no ground for connecting Ohver with 
the family seated at East Norton in Leicester- 
shire, as stated in Burton's manuscript col- 
lections for that county (Nichols, Hist, of 
Leicestershire, vol. iii. pt. i. p. 489). 

Oliver was the pupil of Nicholas Hilliard 
[q. v.], as we learn from R. Haydocke s in- 
troduction to Lomazzo's * Art of Painting.' 
He followed Hilliard's manner in miniature- 
painting very closely, and often excelled 
nim. Their works, being very similar and 
contemporaneous in manv cases, have been 
frequently confused. Like Hilliard, Oliver 
painted most of his miniatures on a light 
blue ground (no doubt adopted by Hilliard 
from Hans Holbein), and sometimes on a 
crimson satin ground. The actual portrait 
often forms but a small portion of the minia- 
ture, great attention being given to the de- 
tails of costume, armour, jewels, and other 
accessories, with a decorative purpose. Oli- 
ver's portraits are to be found in nearly every 
important collection, such as those of the 
queen, the Duke of Buccleuch, the Duke of 
Devonshire, the Earl of Derby, Mr. James 
Whitehead, Dr. Lumsden Propert, &c. They 
have always been highly prized, and figured 
conspicuously at the exhibitions at South 
Kensinjrton m 1862 and 1865, at Burlington 
House m 1879, at the Burlington Fine Arts 
Club in 1889, and other exhibitions. He 
painted James I, his family, and most of the 
court and nobility of the time. Among the 
best known is the full-length portrait of Sir 
Philip Sidney, formerly Dr. Mead's, and now 
in the royal collection at Windsor. A big 
, limning of Henry, prince of Wales, in gilt 




armour, was in the collection of Charles I. 
A. series of miniature portraits of the family 
of Sir Kenelm Digby [q. v.] and his wife 
Venetia Stanley, done by Isaac and Peter 
Oliver, was formerly at Strawberry Hill, but 
is now divided between the collections of 
Mr. Winfffield Digby and Baroness Burdett- 
Coutts. Oliver usually signed with his initials 
in a monogram. Perhaps the earliest minia- 
ture known with a date is that of Sir John 
Clench (1583), in the collection of the Duke 
of Buccleuch. An interesting group of the 
three sons of the second Viscount Montagu, 
painted by Isaac Oliver in 1598, was one of 
the few treasures saved from the disastrous 
fire at Cowdray House in 1793. It is not cer- 
tain whether Oliver painted any miniatures 
of Queen Elizabeth, though there are some of 
her attributed to him. He certainly drew 
the portrait of her in the richly ornamented 
robes supposed, without ground, to be those 
in which she went to St. Paul's Cathedral to 
return thanks for the defeat of the Spanish 
Armada. This portrait was finely engraved 
by Crispin Van ae Passe the elder, and a pen 
drawing on vellum in the royal collection at 
Windsor may be Oliver s original drawing 
(see O'DoNOGHUB, Portraits of Queen Eliza- 
bethf p. 70, No. 160). Several pen drawings 
by Oliver exist, some being copies from old 
masters. Six drawings by him are in the 
print-room at the British Museum, two of 
which are signed * OUivier.* 

Vertue states on the authority of Antony 
Russel, a painter, that Oliver also painted 
larger pictures in oil, and he mentions two 
pictures of * St. John the Baptist' and * The 
IIolv Family' as then in Russel's possession 
(Brit. Mils. Add. MS. 21111. f. 50). Russel 
was doubtless well acquainted with Oliver's 
work. His grandfather, Nicasius Roussell 
or Russel, jeweller to James I, seems to 
have been a kinsman of Oliver. To Nicasius's 
son, Isaac Russel, Oliver stood godfather in 

1616, while Oliver's widow stood godmother 
to Nicasius, another of Nicasius*s sons, in 
1619. A portrait of Sir Thomas Overbury 
(1581-1613) [q. v.], on a blue ground, in the 
Bodleian Library at Oxford, is attributed to 

In 1610 Oliver had commenced a large 
limning of * Tlie Entombment of Christ/ with 
a great number of figures. This be left un- 
completed at his death, and it eventually 
passed into the royal collecti(m, where it still 
remains: it was the subject of unstinted 
admiration from his contemporaries. Oliver, 
who resided in Blackfriars, died on 2 Oct. 

1617. oged about 61, and was buried in the 

of St. Anne, Blackfriars, where a 
It was erected to his memory, with 

a bust and epitaph. This was destroyed in 
the great fire of London ; but Vertue saw a 
clay model of the bust in the possession ot 
Russel, with several leaves m>m Oliyei^s 
sketch-book (loc. cit. f. 62). By his will, 
dated 4 June, and proved 30 Oct. 1617 (P.C.C. 
93 Weldon), Oliver appointed his wife Elisa- 
beth his executrix, and bequeathed all his 
' drawinges aUreadje finished and unfinished, 
and Lymminge pictures, be they histoiyes, 
storyes, or anything of Lymming whatsoever 
of my owne hande worke as yet unfinished,' 
to his ' eldest sonne Peter, if he shall live 
and exercise that arte or Science which he 
and I nowe doe ;' and failing him, ' to suche 
another of my sonnes as will use and exercise 
that arte or Sk^ience.' As his younger sons 
appear to have been under age at the time 
of his death, they must have been sons of a 
later wife than tne mother of Peter Oliver 
[q. v.] If the identification ^yen above is 
correct, it would show that Oliver was twice, 
if not thrice, married — a not uncommon 
event in the small community of artists in 
London. He further mentions his kins- 
woman Judith Morrell, and signs his wiU 
* Isaac Oliver.* Oliver painted his own por- 
trait in miniature more than once ; one ex- 
ample is in the royal collection at Windsor. 
Russel (loc. cit.) also possessed an oil paint- 
ing of Oliver by himself, with those of his 
wife and children. Two engravinffs by 
Hondius and Miller are mentioned by Brom- 

[Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting (ed. Wor- 
num, pp. 176-83) contains all that was known 
of Oliver from Vertuo and other sources to the 
present time ; other anthorities cited in the text.] 

L. C. 

OLIVER^ JOHN {d. 1552), dean of 
Christ Church, Oxford, graduated in the uni- 
versity of Oxford. His degrees were B.C.L. 
on 30 June 1616, B. Can. L. and D. Can. L. 
on 20 May 1522, D.C.L. on ir Oct. 1522. 
He must have had powerful influence in the 
church, as he received very numerous pre- 
ferments. He may have been the John 
Oliver or Smith who became prebendary of 
Ilinton on 5 July, and of Norton on 20 July 
1512, both in the cathedral of Hereford. On 
22 Aug. 1522 he received the living of Win- 
forton in the diocese of Hereford, and in 
1522 he became an advocate at Doctors' Com- 
mons. He was also rector of St. Mary Mount- 

I ft 

haw, London, but resigned the living in 
1527. Oliver seems to have been one ot the 
many young men whom Wolsey advanced, 
and in 1527 was his commissary. On 4 Sept. 
1527 he received the living of Pembridge in 
the diocese of Hereford, and on 8 Sept. 1528 
that of A\1iitchurch, Lincolnshire ; he had 

Oliver m Oliver 

Vther minor preftfrments or promUes of pre- hardship, but was restored to his preferments 
fament Ila had now become prominent at at the Restoration, and, by Hyde s influence, 
An court as an active official of the new way made dean of Worceater on 13 Sept. 1660. 
cftlimkiiw-On22Feb.l628-9hewaaaentto He died 27 Oct. 1661, and was buried in 
taka the fealty of Elizabeth Zouche, the new Mo^alen College sntechapel. 
ibbewof Shaftesbury; and at the end of the [Foster's Alumni Oion. 1600-1714; Wood's 
nme yev be became prebendair of South- AtliBii»,ed. 30On„ BEjFaBtiOion. ed. 
wdl. In 1631 be was employed in the pro- Bli*s, i. 60; Laud's Worka (Libr. Anglo-Cath. 
•Mdinga about Henry's diTorce, and in 1633 Thoo!.). iii. 110, iv. 444, ri. 583, vii. ai5,5o3; 
Im was ODe of those consulted by the king as i Bloiam's Reg. ofMngilalenCoU. v. 82-.g; Welch's 
to the consecration of Cranmer. In the same | Alumai WeBtmon. i, ; Wood's Hist, nnd Antiq. 
he took part in the trial of James Bain- i L'niv. of Oif. ed. Gutch, i. 42S-9; Coote's Engl. 
[q. v.] for heresy. On 4 May 1533 Oliver CivilianB.p. 18^ Reg. Univ. of Oif. {Oif. Hint. 
was made dean of Christ Church, Oxford, in Soe,) i. 90; Lit. Rem. of King Bl». VI (Boi- 
M»ewon to John Hygdon rq.v.l He at, , burghe Club),p. 316.&0.: Le Neva's Fasti Ecci. 
tnded to other affairs, however, and in 1533 i^^s'- ': f 8, 619, m. 438; Leach's Visitors and 
fanwd one of the court which declared ?*,?"";'^,,!! t") P C^amd, So^O. pp. U3, 
j\ -rr ..■ . . T 1cm lao Latters aad irAwrs Hen. Vlll naaaim : 

Q«»n Katherme contumacious. 1° 1640 Fo«'a Aotsand Mon. ir703,&c.; Di.on's Hisr 
tewu consulted b^ convocation as to the , ^f^^^^ Church of Engl. i. 161-2, iii. 267; Stcype's 
nbdity of the king a mamage with Anne of , Craomer, p. 24, MemoriaU, i. i. 660. (i. i. 385, 
OeVM; and other similar public duties were u. 199. &c.. tn. i. 38, Sic; Acts of the Privy 
waflded to him (Actt of the Privy Council, i Council 1 W A J A 

1H2-7, pp. 118, 126, 292). 

When It was determined to aher the foun- OLIVER, JOHN (1C16-1T01), glass- 
dation of Cbrist'Church, Oliver had to resign ' nainter and master-mason, bora iu 1616, has 
Ilia douier^. This he did on 20 May 1545, : been without ground supposed to have been 
receiving m exchan^ the substantial pen- related to Isaac and Peter Oliver [q. v.], the 
celebrated miniature-painters. He was mors 
probably related to John Oliver, who was 
master-mason in the reign of James I. He 
appears to be identical with John Oliver, 
.e of the commissioners who transacted the who was city surveyor and one of the three 
lord-chancellor's busineaa in the court of commissioners for the rebuilding of London 
chancery. He took part in Gardiner's trial I after the great fire in 1066. Oliver appears 
•t the close of 1650, was a commissioner for ' to have executed many small glass-paint- 
the suppression of the anabaptists in Kent i ings for windows. One of these remains 
■ad Essex in 1651, and the same year ac- in Xorthill Cliurch, Bedfordshire, in a wju- 
ccmpanied the embassy to France to treat of , dow orlginallv put up by the Grocers' Com- 
the Icing's possible marriage. He took part pany, but no longer in its original position; 
in 1661 in the trials of Day and Heath, it is signed and dated 1664, and represents 
bishops of Chichester and Worcester, and, as ' the royal arms and other heraldry connected 
Lord-chancelloT iUch [q. v.] was ill, he I with the company. Another window at 
helped to clear off the chancery business. Christ Church, Oxford, signed and dated 
He died in Doctors' Commons about May | 1700, and presented by Oliver himself, por- 
1663. trays 'St. Peter delivered out of prison.' In 

Another John Olives (1601-1661) was i I.ambeth Palace there were formerly paint- 
bom in Kent, of an obscure family, in 1601, ings in a window {now removed), erected 
matriculated from Merton College, Oxford, I by Archbishop Sheldon, representing a sun- 
on 26 Jan. 1616-16, became a demy of Mag- dial with the archbishop's arms and a view 
dalen Collie on 7 April 1619, graduated of the Sheldoniau theatre at Oxford. He is 
B.A. OD 11 Dec. 1619, and became fellow in I probably also identical with John Oliver who 
16^. He also proceeded M.A. on 3 July engravedafewportraitsinmezzotinl.iuclud- 
1622, B.D.onl8 May 1631, D.D.on39 April ingacurious one of Lord-chief-just ice Jeffreys, 
1639. He was tutor to Edward Hyde, earl as earl of Flint (this he published himself at 
of Clarendon, when he was at Oxford, be- the 'Eagle and Child' on Ludgate Hill), and 
came vice-president of his college in 1634, who also etched some views of Tangier after 
held several livings and was made canon of Hollar. Oliver died in 1701, aged &6. In 
Winchester in 1638, chaplain to Uiid 1640, his will (P. C. C, 157, Byer), dated 19 March 
and president of Magdalen College in 1644. , 1690, and proved 18 Nov. 1701, he describes 
Laua left him one of nis watches by his will, himself as master-mason to the king, directs 
He WH duly qected in 1647, suffered great | that he shall be buried in St. Pauls Cathe- 


n of f Of. a year. He returned to Doctors' 
Commons, became a master in chancery in 
1547, and at some time master of requests: 
<ni Wriothesley's fall the same year, lit 

Oliver 148 Oliver 

dral, and gives legacies to his wife Susanna, under Mrs. Warner's management at the 

his daughter Grace Shaw, his son-in-law Marylebone Theatre. Her success gained 

George Seagood, and also to the Company of her an engagement with Madame Vestris at 

Glaziers. William Faithome the elder [q. v.] the Lyceum, which lasted from 1849 to 1855. 

drew his portrait. In 1855 she went to Drury Lane, where on 

[Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting, ed. Wor- 10 Oct. she played Matilda in * Married for 

num; Chaloner Smith's British Mezzotinto For- Monev,' and on 4 Sept. 1856 Celia in 'As 

traits.] L. C. you like it.' In the same year her perform- 

OLTVER, JOHX (1838-1806), Welsh anceof Helen in the 'Hunchback' won such 

poet, was born on 7 Nov. 1838 at Llanfynydd, P«« ^~™ ^^« critics that Buckstone offered 

a small village in Carmarthenshire, wWe her an engagement at the Ilayinarket There 

his parents kept a shop. He spent seven she wag geen in Tdfourds burlesque of 'Ata- 

years (1843-50) at the village school, and i*°\?^ ]^ ^P^^ ^^l' Acceptmg an offer 

nearlyfour at aCarmarthen school. Beforehe from Miss Swanborough, she became the lead- 

was sixteen he passed on to the presbyterian J?^ ^^"^^ "^, c^"?®^^^ «^^ burlesque at the 

college in the same town. Here he made Stra'id ^eatre for several seasons. On 

great progress with the regular studies, and ^ P^^' ^^ ^^^^ ^}^ ^"^7 ^^ ^^^^ 

read widely, on his own account, in English \f^}m^f of \e Queen, ye Earl, and ye 

and German literature. He was soon able Maiden; on 14 June 1859 Pauline in Bvron 8 

to preach with equal faciUty in Welsh and JV^^^fl^^'J^^®^ ^^^V^J^^'''^}y?l ^P^ 

English. He left college in his twenty-first k''?,"* ^'.J^n'''^.^ ^ ^'J^'^^T^ ^®^^ 

year, and abandoned an intention of con- Strike of the Cantons; and on ^Dec. 1860 

tinuing his studies at Glasgow, owing to the Prince m Byron s burlesaue, 'CinderelU. 
faUing health. Subsequently he preached ^^ ^^f Haymarket on l6 Nov. 1861 she 

occasionally, and devoted himself to Welsh ^^^ "^^ ^^r Mary Meredith m 'Our Ame- 

poetry. Most of his Welsh poems were "^^'^ Cousm on Sothem's first appearance 

written during his enforced retirement. His as Lord Dundreary m London. In 1863 she 
most ambitious 
the Prince of the 

are * The Beauties w. ^ ^ ^^^ ,..^^„ i. , -vt -r» ^ rm 

of Nain,' * The Wreck of the Royal Charter,' manageress of the ^ew Royalty Theatre, 

all showing great promise. His shorter and opened with a revival of the ' Ticket-o^^ 

poems, however, are his best, and there is Leave Man, and Reeces burlesque, 'Ulf the 

not a better in the language than * Myfyrdod,' ?^*1^,^'*Sj-^ ^"^ ^ ^^®^'F, and successful piece 

a meditation or soJiloquy. Of his English \}^' T.Craven, entitled ' Meg s Diversion 

poems, the bestareperhaps'Life^and'When yli»ch was produced on 17 Oct., she acted 

1 die ; ^ but being his earliest productions, ^^^^ ^^^ *"*,^*^^ played Jasper Pidgeon and 

they are inferior to his Welsh poems. Oliver FoPo^T^*"*^^ ^^^ P?^^ of Roland. On 29 Nov. 

died on 24 June 1866, in his twenty-eighth J^^ ^^^ P"^,^^ ^^« ^i^.^J' 9™"^*"^! 

year, and his remains were interred in the burlesque, * The Latest Edition of Black-eyed 

parish churchyard of Llanfynydd, of which Su»*°l ^^ ^^^ ^^ittle Bill that was taken up. 

he had sung so sweetly. His c6llected works The piece although it failed to please the 

(Welsh and English) were published at New- critics, had an unprecedented run, and on 

port,Monmouthshire,underthename*Cerddi l^f^P^™^™^"^^. f^^ ^^^ 5f?^*^^,.^^ ^ ^V^' 
Cystudd,' by his brother, the Rev. Henry 1«68, it was said that Miss Oliver had re- 
Oliver, with biographical preface and a photo- P«**®^ }^^ f^^S of ' Pretty See-usan, don t 
graphic portrait, in 1867, small 8vo. ^^ ""o, no less than 1/ / 5 times. During 
r„. , , . . . , . the run of this burlesque she produced as a 
[Biograpby as above, and biography in first piece Andrew Halliday's drama, ' Daddv 

Gray,' 1 Feb. 1868, and on 26 Nov. 1868 a 

Athraw, 1866, from the pen of the Rev. W. 
Thomas, M.A. ; article in Cymm, February, 
1894 ; personal knowledge.] R. J. J. 


always known as Pattie Oliver (1834- not very successful. 

serio-comic drama by the same author, en- 
titled * The Loving Cup.' Other burlesques 
were afterwards introauced, but they were 

1880), actress, daughter of John Oliver, a 
scene-painter, was bom at Salisbury in 1834, 
and appeared on the stage of the theatre 

and at Southampton her performances of 
children's parts attracted attention, till in 

On 3 March 1870 * Black-eyed Susan* was 
revived, and played for the four hundred and 
twenty-first time. The last night of Miss 

in that town when only six years old. Here Oliver's lesseeship was 30 April 1870, when 

the burlesque was given for the four-hundred- 
and-ninetieth time. After this period she 

1847 she made her metropolitan d6but was seldom seen on the stage. She was a 




▼erj pleasing actress and singer, and a general 
laTourite with the public. She led an un- 
blemished life, and gaye liberal aid to the 
ajped and unfortunate members of her profes- 
sion. She died at 5 Qrove End Road, St. John's 
Woody London, on 20 Dec. 1 880. She married 
liy license at the registry office, Marylebone, 
on 26 Dec. 1876, William Charles thillips, 
auctioneer, aged 31, son of William Phillips, 
auctioneer, of Bond Street, London. 

[Blanchard's Life, 1891, i. 143, ii. 513, 719; 
PlayeiB, 1860, i. 97-8, with portrait ; Era, 1 Jan. 
1881. p. 8; Theatre, 1 Feb. 1881, p. 127; Towns- 
liend's Handbook of 1868, 1869, pp. 364-5.1 

G. C. B. 

1648), miniature-painter, was eldest son of 
Isaac Oliver [q. v.], probably by his first wife. 
Like his father, he excelled in portrait- 
miniature, and attained as high a repute. 
He painted many of the court and nobility 
dunng the latter part of the reign of James I 
And the whole of that of Charles I, and was 
esneeially noted for his copies in water- 
colour of celebrated pictures by the old 
masters. Besides the great min iat ure of ' The 
Entombment of Christ,' begun by Isaac Oliver 
and finished by Peter, several miniatures by 
Peter Oliver, made at the king's request, are 
enumerated in the catalogue of Cliarles I's 
collection, beim^ copies of uistorical subjects 
After Raphael, Tit ian, Correggio, and Holbein. 
These were dispersed at the sale of the col- 
lection, but seven still remain in the royal 
collection at Windsor. On one of these pieces 
lie signs himself * P. Olivier fecit , 1628.^ He 
also made a number of drawings in sepia and 
blacklead. In the collection of portraits of 
the Digby family [see under Oliver, Isaac] 
there are two fine copies after Vandyck by 
Peter. His copy of Vandyck*s portrait of 
Rachel Massue de Ruvigny , countess of South- 
ampton, is one of the most remarkable works 
in miniature existing. Oliver resided at Isle- 
worth in Middlesex, where he died in De- 
cember 1648, and was buried beside his father 
in St. Anne's, Blackfriars. By his will, dated 
12 Dec. 1647, and proved 15 Dec. 1648 
<P.C.C. 184, Essex), he left his whole estate 
to his wife Anne. Antony Russel the painter 
fsee under Oliver, Isaac] told Vertue (Brit 
Mu8, Add, MS, 21111, f. 49) a story, that 
after the Restoration Charles II heard that 
Oliver usualljr made duplicates of all pictures 
which he pamted for the king, and, finding 
that Oliver s widow was still living at Isle- 
worth, went thither incognito to see them. 
When she declined to sell them until the 
king had seen them, he declared himself, and 
purchased the greater part of what was left, 
giving her in payment an annuity for life of 

300/. It was subsequently reported to the 
king that Mrs. Oliver had denounced in dis- 
respectful terms the royal mistresses to 
whom some of the pictures had been given, 
and her salary was consequently stopped. 
The rest of the limnings in Mrs. Oliver's pos- 
session passed into the hands of Theodore 
Russel, tather of Vertue's informant. Several 
portraits of Peter Oliver exist. At Hampton 
Court there is a portrait by Adriaen Hanne- 
man [q. v.]; of this there is a fine but anony- 
mous engraving, in which the picture is attri- 
buted to Vandyck. Hanneman is said to have 
painted a companion portrait of Oliver's 
wife. Bromley mentions a portrait of Oliver 
painted by himself and engraved by T. Cham- 
bars, as well as an anonymous etchmg. In the 
Earl of Derby's collection there is a leaf ot 
a pocket-book with drawings by Oliver in 
blacklead of himself on one side and of his 
wife on the other side. 

A license was issued in the diocese of 
Canterbury for a marriage between Peter 
Oliver of Sandwich and Elizabeth Tylman of 
Sellinge, on 18 Sept. 1602 (Cowper, Canter- 
bun/ Marriage Licenses) ; and on 8 April 1606 
a ^nt was made of the reversion to Peter 
Obver of the office of bailiff of Sandwich for 
life {Cal. State Papers, Dom. Ser. James I, 
1003-10). It does not appear likely that this 
was the miniature-painter ; he was probably 
a member of a remgee family known to be 
then resident at Sandwich. 

[For authorities other than those mentioned 
in the text, see under Olivbb, Isaac] L. C. 

OLIVER, RICHARD (1734 ?-l 784), 
politician, the only surviving son of Rowland 
Oliver, a puisne judge of the court of com- 
mon pleas of the Leeward Islands, and 
?Tand8on of Richard Oliver, speaker of the 
louse of Assembly in Antigua, was baptised 
in St. John's, Antigua, on 7 Jan. 1734-6. 
At an early age he was sent, to London, 
where he entered the office of his uncle, 
Richard Oliver, a West India merchant. 
He took up his freedom in the Drapers' 
Company on 29 June 1770, and on 4 July 
following was elected alderman of Billings- 
gate ward. At a by-election a few days 
afterwards he was returned to the House of 
Commons for the city of London, which he 
continued to represent until the dissolution 
of parliament in September 1780. On 6 Dec. 
1770 Oliver seconded Serjeant Glynn's mo- 
tion for a committee to inq^^uire into the 
administration of criminal justice {Pari, 
Hist, xvi. 1215-7). 

In March 1771 he became engaged in the 
famous struggle between the city and the 
House of Commons [see Cbosbt, Br^ss], 

— -r ~ Olh^er 

-i_. — - — , 1Z-- T_ E^2»-. Hi- pammit, whicb wM 

— _ ... z - - .^r ^. z: zir " Tir«r bv IL Pine in 1771 

- - . .- — - 11. i . :!f^~3'.»:.30:r8l«U]7,K74; 

i::^ — _._=: =?«T-anara?t. 1638-40. ir. 121, 

— — _ — - :C"— ti 287 : "Wtioc&Ils Jniu, 

. J- j:. -:. :^. CI nee. : 3£fiDoir of 

— zr:^ _"*--r'" 1'—- 3.T'*r*iTaL"f EbTiT E'btoij 

" !^ .?•. TT S3Jt-^. 362-77 : Beloe'i 

_ " _ ■ -j^>_-_:^ -•.: i- -... ii5-€; Oidmixoni 

■ ^"_ . : - ... 1^1— T = -jLrzna.. :T41, ii. 205.!15; 

_-■ -- - - ~ — ■- ZI-:7T" i: lit AnillerT Coini>tiiy, 

- ^ - - - -. : s, «:i". Orri'dge'f Some 

■ " - - ~ ■-: ■ :_ Ii^rzci- -r Xitrndcin and their 

_ - -- T ^-I' : 1:4!*: GeLt. Mif. 

- ■ - - ~ — .".3J*-40. 341. 1771 pp. 

- ' - * .:. . -1 iivi. 330, 37T2 pp 294, 

-^_- . ■ _ : — • — l4'-h 1776 pp. 4W-5, 

~-. T. . z .'>.' 5o:«- und Qnwe. 
_ > ~ _ * '^riL. i»etiCTi of Lisi» of 

- - : :_ .-T : -_^-sr. :-. :. pr. 140.158.] 
."_..-■ *G. F.K.B. 

-1 ^ 3. -TZIIT MTT'LEY (1766- 

.^_-_ Tjsr MTL tnc -"1 ikrt. 1766. 

- _ : - . - .^ -^^ z^ — 3 MtT 1779, on boud 

- . _ : ~ - - — -IT- -sr^:2iz liit- fiaz of Reu^ 

- i z: _-'- .. — ^ ~'-jT»" u T. '. and in her. 

-: . "-•- "^ -•-' tfrtTwiiTds Wu- 

- - ..- .:_--- > T". America in 
1 - .--■■:-".- ''^-.s" Isdir-S'. whew 

--; t .. --?:.-''?■> br'OTV St. 

■ - ; ^ _^ '~- — ": i •:-. SaMTEU 

I - - . -' .z . ~" .- ' ' ■•' ■: 'L*- Fivnch 

■* . - - - ~ ■*_ • _ _-.T>~ii *T^ I»*'pyET, 

.-. • . ■"-■-->". -..• A~r^T :"-i:nLfrwr- 

- . -_r.-~ : l'. - .:. ''-- ri.Qun^l, 

- - . _ - r -■ ■ "If Attivein 

'^ , "-.-■•• A rr- 'is with 

- -.~ ^T ; ' ".,^r:-.: alter th-? 

- - - - .'- - - .--".L:rr a -1 'Hrt. 

■■"'.. ■' r. -. - > .-=::rf;T.3Tr. :akinc 

" ■■ ■■ ' • - : - r- - ":- i'- .: *:."r a. i: n. In 

."■*.■ ■" .: . . . *" J" .:. n .."!.:' :- :Ii-rir"i s-I.'Oi' «intht* 

' _" - ^ ■ - - - - _i:. :^ : -: :• A: ril 17i») wa« 

- ._-.:.: '. -~i -J _: .. -. .-- . . -.->:-..! jv:«-r-.f:.:i' in tht^ 

_ ' - • ^ ; ._ : ■ nzL Lr.TT-£ z.Vi rVfiruarv 

-r^-.!-— r.". -:-:.'•-: - ... . .-. ""*-■.- :i :r:--'- z'-i-i': 'hi- Nvmesis 

^^;^r,^a, Eart.T- :~T. - .r ..: : .... '- '._-r ■_ ' ~ ■•- ;:- - --: -/nr ^lemcftid, in 

1^ -n^L .aifetfr^i % r-r'-rr.. ■-.-:- .:- — . : - tt-t- - * .t M-v-'-rranran. ami 

:t .z .--..-. •- ;** 7.. .-.-.- :.-■-•.-■ *■..-.* >*!V.l C'-'muji-si'^n 

jj.r. x-t.--j ■..---: - - -. ^ . . -__- 1 —;::-:.: -j.:n I rv-»ni ?V.^'pt 

Mir... I J • - - ._ - ; ; "^ -_ - -':.- >r.-tva; of the war 

^ -•.-.- .7 :--:- - i - . iT-.. --T-.: ." March ls.»:> to the 

1^ w»5 i.T^'* --: ■. • .- :- • . : - . - v _-. - _ - I.^v... i i —>.*: tL-e n»*XT two years 

"omai' JC-?- i ■". - " 4 -K t .-7-1 -. ' : .- - i^ . -.-->.- t = r '. v-i ■: n : he coast of France. 

p cb? m-ft^^r.:^*:'' •'■'■'- ■-% i -.r----- i I- StT --'rT '. S V^" <hr wa* in dock at rorts^- 

indnrfu^^i In ?:'..- U;..' .- pr— n; i::". i- : • 'li^rr. callin.: on Lord Nelson, 

j^tbe corporation pLtr*: ir tL.^ th-r!: .n :he of sailing to resume the 




•ommand off Cadix, expressed his concern 
that his ship was not able to accompany 
Idm. ' I hope/ answered Nelson, ' you will 
•ome in time to tow some of the rascals.' 
The Melpomene joined the fleet off Trafalgar 
the day after the battle, and did help to tow 
off the prizes. Oliver was appointea to the 
Mara, vacant by the death of Captain Duff, 
which he commanded on the coast of France 
till September 1806. In May 1810 he com- 
miasioned the Valiant, in which, in 1813-14, 
lie took part in the operations on the coast 
of the United States. He resigned the com- 
mand In July 1814, and had no further ser- 
▼ioe, though promoted in regular succession 
to be rear-admiral 12 Aug. 1819, vice- 
adiniral 22 July 1830, admiral 23 Nov. 
1S41. He died at his residence, near Dublin, 
on 1 Sept. 1850. Oliver married, in 1806, 
Mary, daughter of Sir Charles Saxton, hart., 
far many years resident commissioner of the 
navy at Portsmouth, and by her had a large 

[Marshall 8 Roy. Nar. Biogr. i. 725 ; CByrne's 
Kav. Biogr. Diet.; Gent. Mag. 1850, ii. 547; 
Return of Services in the Public Record Office.] 

J. K. L. 

1624), physician and mathematician, is said 
to have been educated at Cambridge. He 
certainly published his chief book at the 
university press, but his name does not 
figure In the university register, and no de- 
tails respecting his connection with the uni- 
Tersity are accessible. Before 1597 he was 
aettlea at Bury St. Edmunds as a physician, 
and usually described himself as ' Buriensis 
Fhiliatros. He practised his profession at 
Bury St. Edmunds until his death in 1624. 

OJiver was a mathematican as well as a 
physician, and wrote learnedly in both 
capacities. In 1601 he published ' A New 
Handling of the Planisphere, divided into 
three sections . . . pleasant and profitable 
generally for all men, but especially such 
as would get handines in using the ruler and 
compasse, and desire to reape the fruits of 
aatronomicall and geographicall documents 
without being at the charge of costly in- 
struments. Invented for the most part, and 
first published in English, by Thomas 
Olyver,' London, by Felix Kyngston for 
Simon Waterson and Rafe lacson, 1601, 
4to. In a dedication dated from Bury St. 
Edmunds 6 Jan. 1600-1, and addressed to 
Sir John Peter of Thomdon, Essex, he ac- 
knowledges obligations to * Clauius his 
Astrolabe.' Many diagrams 'appear in the 

In 1604 Oliver published at the press of 

John Legate [q. v.] at Cambridge four 
separate tracts bound in a single volume, 
and usually known by the title of the first 
tract : ' De Sophismatum Preestigiis cavendis 
Admonitio,' dedicated to Henry Howard, 
earl of Northampton, from Bury, 23 Nov. 
1603. This tract is succeeded by *De 
Rectarum Linearum Parallelismo et Concursu 
Doctrina Geometrica,' dedicated to Lancelot 
Browne [q. v.], * archiatro doctissimo,' and 
by * De Missione Sanguinis in Pueris ante 
annum decimum quartum Diatribe medica,' 
dedicated to William Butler (1536-1618) 
[q. v.], * medico et ^hilosopho prsestantiesimo 
amico suo charissimo Cantabrigiam.' The 
book concludes with * De Circuli Quadra- 
tura Thesis logica,* dedicated to * Adrian© 
Romano equiti aurato in Academia Wurce- 
bur^ensi Mathematicorum professori cele- 
berrimo nunc medico C8e8areo,'27 Aug. 1697. 
In Addit. MS. 4626 (art. 23 or 24) are two 
unpublished tracts by Oliver, respectively 
entitled 'Thomee Oliueri Buriensis Tabula 
Lon^itudinum et latitudinum locorum memo- 
rabilmm in Europa,' and * Mechanica Circuli 
quadrat ura cum equatione cubi et sphserss.' 

[Davy's AtheDae Suffolcenses in Addit. MS. 
19166, f. 267; Wood's Fasti Oxon. ed. Bliss, 
i. 610; Oliver's Works.] S. L. 

OLIVER, THOMAS (1725-1799), me- 
thodist preacher. [See Olivebs.] 

OLIVER, THOMAS (1734-1815), lieu- 
tenant-governor of Massachusetts, said to 
have been bom in Dorchester, MasRachusetts, 
on 5 Jan. 1734, was son of Robert Oliver by 
Ann, daughter of James Brown of Antigua. 
His father was living in Antigua in 1738, 
but had settled at Dorchester before 1747. 
Thomas graduated at Harvard in 1753. 
He probably resided at Dorchester until 
1766, when he purchased an estate on Elm- 
wood Avenue, near Mount Auburn, Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts, and erected the man- 
sion afterwards the residence successively 
of Governor Gerry, the Rev. Dr. Lowell, 
and James Russell Lowell. Being a man of 
fortune, he was not actively engaged in 
business, nor did he take much part in public 
affairs until March 1774, when he accepted 
the office of lieutenant-governor of the pro- 
vince and president of a council appointed 
by the king in a manner especially galling 
to popular feeling. The councillors were 
visited by bands of Middlesex freeholders, 
and one after another forced to renounce 
their offices. On the seizure by the royal 
troops of the public stock of powder pro- 
vided for the militia, the yeomen of the 
neighbouring towns marched to Cambridge, 
some of them bringing arms. General Gage 

^ - — ' 

L> liver 

'.-r -.ii n Tr* 

-.- ^. .-? 1 iH.i "j"^""!^.!-! "1 ."W*"- "■ ••mm 
7^:- :i.L',ii"" ur.iin. i :.- "-" in "-ii* 

-«-> • - - .-■' ■'p^* If. i.r'.-*''.".7 r-. ;r-^~r-i :*— 

•i^.— 1 L -"'-Si:! rHiTUr^sifr-' • l- l Uii.: r 
1-. Ti :j" m-i I .'ir.^'.jui ".-IT. If* t:i:.i: 

- J.- - r -—ar a- . - ■ . ir.- : ■. ^pr----i - - v .li t - ^,- 
Li;i. -.- mii iK'-^r r-'. i7::»rL .*.": ' :^ r^u^-ui- 

rnn iir larrie .n -at* -^.ghrii mind. He 
iii'T }f-i*axikt "h*- .antilori jf riir rhiker's Hetd, 
; I } •'■t-r Tr?»>-r. T -^rauiisrer. i hnus^ which 

"at- iiiii;'^ if "":iif "V-tacmn^^jr iisitricc made 
~j**;r jf£uiiiiuir'e»9. ■ »ii « •.••r'. 1*1'5 ht» met 
.' u'.'i r-ir*^. ■ ~iir- " -*THf*»Aii^ iirpr).* AT Gretnt 
>■— !L. 'IT mu "inncinsfi juzun^ a ii«le. Th* 
•Tif— 'ir- 3iiixiij»»j»-'i liyinr tair^ 'hotu&ndi, 
L.11L ~j£* Kuinjua )t -^iiefasovnTy ind CaptAin 
'r.ticr^iiar urrHi u -in* unnir***. In 'he tkirtv- 
h-\' mi r-iiruL ir -jf* -aiii if 5:r^-»ix3iiiiates, 
ii* x-w -aifra iiir if "ii«* rma. in a «TaCc of 
•- i'3i:r. uiii .-imnieT.-iT XHpnv-ti 'A «ight. 

Ti '.'. ."L- ".•!• ' Lritr -^niVTiiarefttl Bill 
y^-LT r Zr-sTTL ir '/ifmri's Cr?!**. but the 
L :"^'»"~.ft* :i'-»ri*r**i. laii tIik t.zlz was re- 
3ii- "--:•: •:• LjdoxaaiTTrir'ii. H**!^' niahireT 
T.i»-r* Li'ri Tirau'urii. Sir H'*nrT :^aiith.azid 

r -..-r ivirf^r.-irt!* -VTir* pp«»??»*n". AAer one 
.ii :.• 'u*i -LiSJ?©!- uxj: Tv^farr-r-LriiT roands 

• ~^itt.r« "• ■ iTr*T — •! ■ T*^ 

^-. laii ?v«ili ii:r .-rnni ia - ■ -iai-r. How- 

-^•r-. yii'i >'.-^. ^". ... p -.4! . B; ill* -!:v:'ir---rH: I-^li L'tiaaeLT. -iit* oiiAmpionof 
iLi.-^ii^ ^ l"'*- '•- Pll.xi.'.*:-^. i;i;;i':"-r : Ir-lir.:. f '.>t-r'..r7 tfir^-. Siia.*?*!. for one 

aiLi. -^ -, 

iu.4 -'I'^-rs. H- -• rvrr--*r.i*:r'; x- b^ia^' :f i 

_^nTl". T^'^TJILZ 1-.-T:«.'*»".'.C I" ll- -:~-a 


■"u^-v* H *-. ■:: Cisi'r ij-r. M-_-..i.- l— '■■•. 
AJ■L■.•t.l: ^ '-':■'--■?• .:' A~.-r. £-.'.-*7 ^ '-r ■ r. 

OLI^TIR. T"M ::->-I"?'.4-, [;.-.:>-. 

.* r.[i'. ' '"*'^. --:-'* — "^ tiriv- pi i.>- i- a h' y. ir: i 
111- '^•i '-*: 5*rri~i'->: '-f Mr. UirCrr. 1 ^iri-r.rr. 
u H '.li'anli. l-':ai r.. A Ti-i: •■•.■ \ prlz^-M.-Lt 
[I «*; ' -irv'i 'ni-S i-iib.-i jn ^o ►rn'-r •.!.- rir.j. 
'•|:'« "1!^^ -j^&sav wa.* wi'-h Ki:f.hj»:r. a -rt-irir- 
•uu*«.ii, It T^:':iill Fi*;!'!- in ^Kv -ani-: vrnr. 
■ 11 i 'iu'if ■''" ""^^ li"''ir and f'^ry nriin-it*?- he 
'.V ii.- " 1 . ■• i '^'d • li*^ 0' ' n-j ■!•.• ror. 1 1 •; a* on c»r U-cam ».- 
'iiu..wi IS rhe Ch'*»*»a crarrl»;n*:r, an app*ll;i- 
•uiii \^Iiifli a«iher»?d to him thp-iuarh-mr hi.-: 
^•arwer. After several minor fi^fht*, h- on 
15 Mav l«^l^ encounter*-d Gftor^*? r'oop*:r at 
)ioiilMy Uurat. Suirev, and, art»T thirtwm 
^^mndft of a «wwly cont^.'»r«;d «;n^a:f':m»'nt 
ifl^ioflMiWtoeB minuter, wan rJfTcIan-d the 
"^* m^l^MdAj, 17 Mav JHI I, h*. mot 
-M A SMpperton ISan^fri MirMl*." 

»of 60/., givftn by tlio iHH»i- 
># ContendcKl for in a 24- 
H tecond round Oliver re- 
iCk all but diHahlf.'d him ; ' 
^ time and adopt inf( Tom > 
billing on the retreat, he : 

- ::i :r-: z~^:z.rrxs i *t'j*. lat-ea^w intrrest was 
ZLin :— r-i iz. tI-* i£±:r ia birth ci^untriw. 
lai ■'■.^- 1=1 izi-jir -:.: ::^TirL? f l»»J}(XV. 
TT-r- =,1 i- ■ - * ir re?^*. • »LlT-rr : .ujrh* wirh 
ii.r 1. •: : -T ' =:-ri TriTrTT". - i" .a ''-t thirty- 
:' ir";. r: ^a : -i- t-.j- iry rV.l " • :!i- Ir>haian. 
' T. 1-: Jia. "-?i*"'"'llTTT i^:--.i-r-i T aiShclton 
1" "*.i-«r'.T. LrT-arir-i. H-r-:'ri?a:r^ ; bu: in a 
-x':.' "^.■:. a- irrz.-': :-r»"a-a:, N-r«l Painter. 
V N raWi::.hA=i..V :r:*JL.:a 17 Jaly 1-U 
:.r . -r -a- \\" .k. Hr wi* •.>- a:aroa»-«l to 
rljh: T a: "^rrlaj :a IV Frl. l-^i'I ir Hayes, 
M: : il-^i. >\r:z.z '"•i* : >: a: ich f r him; 
h;r h- -L-^-^ci rTV:;i: :*-Tb*-araai>r iarL-tirht, 
ani ill .'W-d '.'liv-r n:*ich lari'uiv. In en-*-ri w::h T. Hickaiaa. -b- z^i^-ILjhtnian, 
■ a 11' Jun- !m?1. and wi:h Bill Abb-rr on 
•; N .v. 1-21. i »livrr'« ar^ told a^n<r him. 
If»r \v^» no-x appoint M to tak-r charge of the 
rop^r-i an' I «tak«r> -'if the prize-rinj. and h*? 
w 1^ a on-tanr art-ndant at thv rin^r-^ide as 
o'..mmi«'sary. His lasr fijht was with Ben 
lium ar Hampt«in. MiilJltsex. nn 2> Jan. 
l-^U, wh»,'n hir won the victor^- in twruty- 
five miniit»-.«. <>n lo July IMO h*.* was sen- 
f»-nf»;d at the < Oxford assizes to three wt»eks' 
imj»ri.'innm»'nt for b^ing present at a tijjht 
betWM*-n tiill and NorWy. Huring hi< latter 
yoars li*? was a fruiterer and jzT»?engroi*er in 
I'imlic) and Chelsea. He died in I^^ndon 
in June 1 jS64, leaving a son, Frederick Oliver, 
also a pugilist and a commissary* of the ring, 
who died on .*J0 Jan. 1870. 

[Fistiana. by the editor of Bell's Life (\%^^\ 
pp. 92-3 ; Boxiana, 1818-24, ii. 95 &c., iii. 262, 




with |x>rtrait, iv. 233 &c. ; Miles's Pogilistica, 
1880. li. 89-103, with portrait ; Hannan's Guide 
to British Boxing, pt. ii. pp. 43-6 ; The Fancy, 
hj an Operator, 1826, i. 609-16, with portrait.] 

G. C. B^ 

OLIVER, WILLL\M (1659-1716), phy- 
sician, bom in 1669, belonged to the family 
of Oliver dwelling at Trevamoe, in Sithney, 
ComwalL He was entered in the physic line 
at Ley den University on 17 Dec. 1683, when 
aged 24, but his medical studies were inter- 
rupted by his joining the Duke of Monmouth's 
expedition to England, and serving with the 
troops as one of their three surgeons ( Robebts, 
Li/eofMon7nouthfi,26S). After its defeat 
he rode off the field with the duke. Lord 
Grey, and a few others. When they had 
ridden about twenty miles he proposed to the 
duke to turn off to the sea-coast of Somerset, 
seice a passage-boat at Uphill, and cross to 
Wales. This advice was not adopted, and 
Oliver rode away to Bristol, about twelve 
miles distant (Oldmixon, History under the 
Stuarts f p. 704). There he concealed him- 
self with his friends, and, after the * blood v 
assizes/ travelled to London with the clerk 
of Judge Jeffreys, to whom he had been 
recommended by a tory friend, lie then 
escaped to the continent, and made his way 
to Holland. In 168«) he was at Koni^sberg 
in Prussia, and he spent one winter m the 
most northern part of Poland ; but his name 
appears again in the list of the students at 
Leaden on 1 7 Feb. 1688. He accompanied 
William III to England in 168S as an officer 
in his army, and was soon rewarded for his 
services. C)n 30 Sept. 1692 Oliver (jualified 
as a licentiate of the College of Physicians at 
London, and he held from 27 April 1693 to 
1702 the post of physician to the red squa- 
dron. This causea him to be with the fleet at 
Cadix in 1694, and to spend two summers in 
the Mediterranean, during which period he 
eagerly prosecuted his inquiries in medicine 
and science. Ex tracts from two letters written 
by Oliver when with the fleet were communi- 
cated by Walter Moyle to the 'Philosophical 
Transactions,' xvii. 908-12, and a third letter, 
written at the same period, was published in 
the same * Transactions,' xxiv. i662-4. A 
letter 'on his late journey into Denmark and 
Holland,' about 1/01, also appeared in the 
* Philosophical Transactions/ xxiii. 1400-10. 
These communications led to his election as 
F.R.S. on 5 Jan. 1703-4. From 1702 to 1709 
he dwelt in London and Bath, his 'Practical 
Essay ' being dated from ' Red Lion Court 
in Fleet Street, July 10, 1704 ; ' ' but it is 
doubtful whether he ever practised at Bath' 
(Falookeb, Bath Hospital, ed. 1888, p. 11). 
From 1709 to 1714 be was physician to the 

hospital at Chatham for sick and wounded 
seamen, and from 1714 to 1716 he was phy- 
sician to the Royal Hospital at Greenwich. 
He died unmarried at Greenwich on 4 April 
1716, and was buried in the abbey church at 
Bath, where a monument was erected to his 

Oliver published in 1704 * A practical 
Essay on Fevers, containing Remarks on the 
hot and cold Methods of their Cure,' at page 
202 of which begins ' a Dissertation on the 
hot waters of Bathe,' the first draft of his 
subsequent work. The essay, through its 
author's references to Dr. Radcliffe, was at- 
tacked in * A Letter to Dr. Oliver, desiring 
him to reconcile some few of the contra- 
dictorv assertions in his Essay on Feavers,' 
dated from Tunbridge, 25 July 1704. The 
treatise on Bath was expanded into * A 
Practical Dissertation on Bath Waters ; to 
which is added a Relation of a very extra- 
ordinary Sleeper near Bath,' 1707, 1719 ; 5th 
edit. 1764. This account of the sleeper, 
Samuel Chilton, a labourer atTimsbury, and 
twenty-five years old, is also in the ' Philo- 
sophical Transactions,' xxiv. 2177-82, and 
was issued separately in 1707 and 1719. A 
further communication by him is in the same 
'Transactions,' xxiv. 1596. His rules for 
health, written for the use of John Smalley 
of Plymouth, his cousin, and a discourse of 
' Christian and Politike Reasons ' why Eng- 
land and Holland should not war with each 
other, with other manuscripts, are in the 
Sloane MS. No. 1770 at the British Museum, 
and a letter from him to Sir Hans Sloane is 
in the same collection, No. 4054. 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys. 2nd edit. pp. 493- 
494 ; Boase and Courtney's Bibl. Comub. ; 
Wright's Historic Guide to Bath, p. 194; 
Britton's Bath Abbey, p. 91 ; Peiich's Historic 
Houses of Bath, 2nd ser. pp. 73-6.] W. P. C. 

OLIVER, WILLIAM (1695-1764), phy- 
sician and philanthropist, bom at Ludgvan, 
Cornwall, on 4 Aug. 1695, was baptised on 
27 Aug. 1695, and described as son of John 
Oliver. The statement of some writers that he 
was the illegitimate child of William Oliver 
(1659-1716) [q. v.J may be dismissed from 
consideration. His family, originally seated 
at Trevamoe in Sithney, resided afterwards in 
Ludgvan, and the estate of Treneere in Ma- 
dron, which belonged to him, was sold, after 
his death, in 1768. When he purposed erect- 
ing a monument in Sithney churchyard to 
the memory of his parents. Pope wrote the 
epitaph and drew the design of the pillar 
{Quarterly Review , October 1875\ He was 
admitted a pensioner of Pembroke College, 
Cambridge, on 17 Sept. 1714, graduated M.B. 
in 1720, and M.D. in 1725, and, to complete 

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Williiirn H«».'in-, IJ.A., m I7l:^iri >i {lir^liin; lli'r fiii**«f wln-at-rioiir. TL- l.rTar-..*-- rt- 

now in 1 h«T li'iin'l r«ioni o( iIh- lio-piliil, in ih«' ripi'-nt o]MMH'<i a .-li-'p in Gr^^i: >:rrT''. inJ 

act of <'xniniiiinj/ ilini- pnl i<-nt:', fiiridiflalfH h'Hiii a^'(|iiiri'(i a larire lV»nune. Ti- * B:ith 

for adnii- i'lii. OliM-r': po-ii I'tn in tin- nurdi- 0|i\i-r* is still \v»fll known, 

cal worl'l nl' Miiili iii\'ilv(-'l him in Irouliltr. OliviT puhlisli*"*!, in 1703, * Myra : a pa*- 

Ai'cliilinl'l < 'Ii'liind, on»- ol" iln- iio}<pital )*\\r- , toral dialo^iif sacrod to the mti-m-'ry ol* a 

jreoris, WM '. di'iiii'-id in ! / l.'i on n i-lmp^ff of lady who di»*d '2\^ iJee. 17.% aired -.'».' His 

iinpropiT rondml, nnd fli" di niii-i^itl h-d i»> , * J'ract i(:al Ks.-ay on the l.'s»* and Abuse of 

many ])ani|ilil<l '. An in(|iiirv whm hrld into warm Katliin^ in (Jouty Cas<.'s * cam" nut in 

the cinMim'tliini't':., undi-r tin- pn-. idf-nry of 1 7o I . passtul into a second edition in 17«>1, 

IMiilip, hrnilH-mf Kulph. Allrn; tin* Ti'Multcd and intr» a third in 17(34. Pliilip Thii'knesse 

in C)livi'r*H rnnflnrl lif'in;.' Iii('hlv cnnnnrinlrd. ' insfrtf^l sonit; remarks on this essav in his 

in 1767 OliviT and .■••inif nilwr phy^iriaiiM in * Vah'tndinariairM IJatb Guide/ 1 7.S.), pj). JiO- 

>.y dcfdiniMJ in nMiiid any conHulla- ' .'«>. Oliver was also the anonymous author of 

'th Williiim ilavln's M.l>.|ij. v. {.and , * A Kaint Sketch of the Life, Character, and 

Lucas, M.h. j(|. V.I. in con.Hn|niMicn ' .Manners of tli(> late Mr. Nash/ which wa» 

reflections on the nsramlahusifofthe ' printed nt Hath for John Keene, and sold at 




3</. It was praised by Goldsmith as * written 
n'ith much ffood sense and still more ^ood 
nature/ and it was embodied in Goldsmith's 
Life of Beau Nash.' It also appeared in the 
Pablic Ledger' of 12 March 1761, and in 
the Rev. Richard Warner's * Histoiy of Bath/ 
pp. 370- 1. To the * Philosophical Transac- 
tions * for 1723 and 1765 respectively he 
contributed brief papers on medical topics, 
the former being addressed to Dr. Richard 

Oliver wrote some elegiac lines on the 
death of Ralph Thicknesse : he was standing 
ftt Thicknesse's elbow at the moment that 
Thicknesse fell dead as he was flaying the fi rst 
Bddle in a performance of a piece of his own 
composition at a concert in Bath (cf. Philip 
Thicknesse, New Prose Bath Guide, p. 33 ; 
NiCHOM, Lit, Anecd. ix. 263; Britton, 
Dath Abbey Church, p. 92 ; Brydges, Hesti- 
tutn, iv. 421-2). His lines to Sir John Cope 
' upon his catching Sir Anthony's fire by 
dnnking Bath waters/ are in Mrs. Stopford 
Sackville's manuscripts {Hist, MSS. Comm, 
&th Rep. App. iii. 132). 

Oliver applied to Dr. Borlase for minerals for 
Pope 8 grotto, and his name frequently occurs 
in the letters of Pope and liorlase at Castle 
liomeck, near Penzance. A letter to Oliver 
from Pope, dated 8 Oct. 1740, and the pro- 
perty of Mr. H. G. Bohn, was inserted with 
the first draft of the reply in Carruthers's 
' Life of Pope' (Bohn's Illustrated Library, 
1867, pp. 173-4). Several other letters were 
formerly in the possession of Upcott. One, 
iated 28 Aug. 1743, is printed in Roscoe's 
' Works of Pope,' i. 641-2, and it was re- 
printed with two otliers which were taken 
from the 'European Magazine/ 1791, pt. ii. 
p. 409, and 1792, pt. i. p. 6, in Courthope's 
LHlition, X. 242-5. In the summer of 1743 
; )liver wrote to Pope to free himself from all 
knowledge of John Tillard's attack on War- 
burton, which was dedicated to him without 
liis knowledge ( Works, ed. Court hope, ix. 
233). Two letters from Warburton to Oliver 
ire in Nichols's * Literary Anecdotes/ v. 681 - 
'}S2y and several communications from him 
to Doddridge from 1743 to 1749 are con- 
I'ained in the latter's ' Correspondence,' v. 223- 
226, a02-4, V. 06-7, 126-9. Three letters 
from Stephen Duck to him are printed in 
the 'European Magazine/ 1795, pt. i. p. 
90 and pt. ii. p. 79. He bestowed many 
favours on Duck, and was, no doubt, the 
polite son of iEsculapius depicted in that 
ftuthor's * Journey to Marlborough, Bath, &c.' 
[ Works, 1763, p. 75). A letter from Oliver 
to Dr. Ward on two Roman altars discovered 
It Bath is in the British Museum, Addit. 
MS. 6181, f. 63, and three more letters re- 

ferring to some dirty and miserly old ac- 
quaintance of Jacob Tonson at Bath in 1735, 
are in Addit. MS. 28275, fols. 366-61. 
Some manuscript letters to Jurin belong to 
the Royal Society. Benjamin Heath dedi- 
cated to him in 1740 * The Essay towards a 
demonstrative Proof of the Divine Existence ; ' 
plate 18 in the * Antiquities of Cornwall ' 
was engraved at his expense and inscribed 
to him by Dr. Borlase ; and the later impres- 
sions of Mary Chandler's 'Description of 
Bath ' contained (pp. 21-3) 'some verses to 
him acknowledging that he had corrected 
her poem, and that * ev'n Pope approved 
when you had tun'd my Lyre.' 

[Gent. Mag. 1764, p. 147 ; CoUinson's Somer- 
set, i. 165; Tunstall's Bath Rambles (1848), p. 
33 ; Peach's Historic Houses of Bath, 2nd ser. 
pp. 77-9 ; Britten's Bath Abbey, p. 98 ; Hunter's 
Bath and Literature, p. 89 ; Moiikland's Litera- 
ture of Bath, pp. 6-7, and Suppl. p. 61 ; Wright's 
Historic Guide to Bath, pp. 131-4; Murch'sBath 
Physicians, pp. 21-2 ; Falconer's Bath Hospital, 
passim ; Boase and Courtney's Bibl. Cornub. ; 
Foster's Alumni Ozon. ; Nichols's Lit. Anecdotes, 
iii. 636, V. 92; D.Gilbert's Cornwall, iii. 88; Pea- 
cock's Leyden Students (Index Soc.) ; Quarterly 
Review, October 1876, pp. 379-94 (by W. C. 
Borlase) ; Western Antiquary, vii. 8.1 

W. P. C. 

OLIVER, WILLIAM (1804.P-1853), 
landscape-painter, was bom about 1804. 
He painted in oil as well as in water-colours, 
but chiefly in the latter, and took most of his 
subjects from foreign scenery, especially in 
France and the Pyrenees. He began to ex- 
hibit in 1829, when he sent to the Society 
of British Artists * A Beach Scene in Kent ' 
and a * Fish Boat.' In 1834 he was elected a 
member of the New Society (now the Royal 
Institute) of Painters in Water-Colours, and 
his drawings appeared annually at its exhibi- 
tions until 1854. He also sent oil-paintinga 
to the Royal Academy from 1835 to 1853, and 
to the British Institution from 1836. He 
published in 1842 a folio volume of * Scenery 
of the Pyrenees/ lithographed by George 
Barnard, Thomas Shotter Boys, Carl Hughe, 
and others. 

Oliver died at Langley Mill House, Hal- 
stead, Essex, on 2 Nov. 1863, aged 49. 
There is an oil-painting by him of * Foligno ' 
in the South Kensington Museum. 

His wife, Emma Sophia Oliver (1819- 
1885), daughter of W. Eburne, coachbuilder^ 
of Rathbone Place, London, was bom on 
15 Aug. 1819, and married in 1840. She 
was elected a member of the New Society 
of Painters in Water-Colours in 1849, and 
exhibited also landscapes both in water- 
colours and in oil at the Royal Academy, 

- V- 

■ . X ■ 
■1-* . '. 

i --ry 

— • . i. 

\ r 


■• . •'. 

■.-%■ ! 




Sublisii his first poems (1817). The book 
id not succeed, and Keats, attributing the 
failure to Ollier*8 inactivity, quarrelled with 
him, and published his subsequent books 
with Taylor and Hessey. Shelley was more 
constant, although he, too, with equal un- 
reasonableness, complained of Oilier for insist- 
ing on the alterations which converted * Laon 
and Cythna ' into ' The Revolt of Islam,' and 
without which the sale would soon have been 
stopped by a prosecution. A 11 the subsequent 
woras of Shelley published in his lifetime, 
except * Swellfoot the Tyrant,* were nover- 
theleas brought out by Oilier, to whom the 
anfiold copies of * Alastor,' published in 1815 
by Baldwin and Cradock, were also trans- 
ferred. 'Julian and Maddalo* was also ad- 
vertised for publication by Oilier, but did not 
appear until printed by John Hunt, along 
with the posthumous poems, in 1824. Shelley*s 
letters to Oilier are published in the * Shelley 
Memorials,' and are very valuable for the 
literary history of his woncs. The most im- 
portant of Ollier's other publications were 
the collected works of Ciiarles Lamb and 
several of Barry Comwairs early volumes. 
In 1819 he published < The Literarv Pocket 
Book,' in which Shelley's poem of ' Aiarianne*s 
Dream' was first printed; and in 1820 he 
brouffht out the fint part of ' Ollier's Lite- 
rary Miscellany/ not continued. Besides a 
remarkable article on the German drama by 
Archdeacon llare, this publication contained 
Peacock's paradox, * The Four Ages of Poetry,' 
memorable for having provoked Shelley's 
* Defence of Poetry.' Shelley gave his essay 
to Oilier for the second part of the * Miscel- 
lany/ but thb never appeared; and when 
Ollier's unsuccessful busmess was shortly 
afterwards wound up, the ' Defence ' came 
into the possession or John Hunt, who pre- 
pared it for publication in 'The Liberal,' 
out that periodical also expired before it 
could be published. Oilier became, and long 
continuea, a literary adviser to Bentley, ana 
would seem, from a passage in one of Leigh 
Hunt's letters to him, to have contributed to 
the ' Naval and Military Gazette/ as well as to 
'Ainsworth's Magazine.' His independent 
publications were : 1. ' Altham and his Wife : 
a domestic Tale/ 1818. Of this Shelley wrote : 
' It is a natural story, most unaffectedly told 
in a strain of very pure and powerful English.' 
2. * Inesilla ; or the Tempter : a Romance, 
with other Tales,' 1824; also very well 
written. This had been announced for pub- 
lication several years before, but the compo- 
sition was impeded by the author's grief for 
the loss of a daughter. 3. 'Ferrers/ 1842, 
a romance on the execution of Earl Ferrers 
in 1700, somewhat in the style of Harrison 

Ainsworth, but much inferior. 4. ' Fallacy 
of Ghosts, Dreams, and Omens, with Stories 
of Witchcraft, Life-in-Death, and Mono- 
mania,' 1848; reprinted from 'Ainsworth's 
Magazine/ and published by the author him- 
self! Several letters from Leigh Hunt, pub- . 
lished in the lat tor's correspondence, cast an 
agreeable light unon Ollier's latter years^ 
showing that his literary tastes and sym- 
pathies remained unimpaired. He died at 
Old Brompton on 5 June 1869, while the 
letters which he had contributed to the 
'Shelley Memorials' were passing through 
the press. His son Edmund is separately 

[Athenaeum ; Leigh Hunt in Spectator. 18 June 
1859; Shelley Memorials; Leigh Hunt's Corre- 
spondence ; Shelley's Works ( Forman's edition). J 

K. G. 

OLLIER, EDMUND (1827-1886), au- 
thor, sou of Charles Oilier [q. v.], was bom 
in 1827, and privately educated. He ' be- 
held Charles I-Amb with infantile eyes, and 
sat in poor Mary Lamb's lap.' As a boy he 
used to listen to Leigh Hunt's and B. R» 
Haydon's stories. He adopted the profes- 
sion of literature, and, after some years of 
miscellaneous work, became connected with 
the * Daily News/ * Athenaeum,' ' Household 
Words/ and ' All the Year Round.' In 1867 
he republished verses whicli had originallv 
appeared in the periodicals under the title of 
* Poems from the Greek Mythology, and Mis- 
cellaneous Poems.' In the same year he 
contributed an edition of the first series of 
the * Essays of Elia/ with a memoir of the 
author, to 'Ilotten's Worldwide Library;' 
and in 1869 published an edition of Leigh 
Hunt's *Tale for the Chimney Comer.' Be- 
coming connected with the publishing firm 
of Cassell, I'etter, & Galpin, Oilier wrote a 
memoir of Dor6, &c., for the *Dor6 Gallery/ 
1870 : < Cassells Illustrated Historv of the 
War between France and Germany,' 2 vols. 
1871-2 ; ' Our British Port rait -Painters from 
Sir Peter Lely to J. Sant,' 1874; 'Cassell's 
Illustrated Ilistorv of the United States/ 
3 vols. 1874-7; 'Cassell's Hlustrated His- 
tory of the Russo-Turkish War,' 2 vols. 1 877- 
1879; * A Popular Historv of Sacred Art/ 
1882 ; 'Cassell's Illustrated I'niversal His- 
tory/ 4 vols. 1882-5. At the time of hia 
death he was engaged upon the * Life and 
Times of Queen Victoria.' The first eleven 
' chapters were by Oilier, and the remainder 
of the work by Robert Wilson. 

Oilier died at his house in Oakley Street, 
Chelsea, on 19 April 1886. He married a 
Miss Gattie, who survived him, but left na 
issue. Ho was a man of wide biographical 




«nd topogrupliieBl knowledge, bi 
■were cnieflj" compiled '' ' 

obviouB sources. 
[Times. 23 April 1866; Athenseum, 1 Mny 
*"' Brit. Mus. Cut. ; pereonal koowleilge 1 
L. C. S. 

in Paris. and graduated M..\. at the university 
in 1829, and M.D. in 1840. For some time he 
acted Bs tutor in the family of the Count de 
Cresnoi, hut in 1640 he commenced the 
practice of medicine in Paris. He was a 
fellow of the Anatomical Society of Paris, 
and at one period filled the poat of president 
of the Paris Medical Society. Lo ilia-Philippe 
in 1846 apjioiated him R knight of the Legion 
of Honour, and he waa promoted to the rank 
of officier in 1865 by Napoleon in. In March 
1863 he became physician to the Britiah em- 
bassy, and on 13 June in the fallowing year 
was knighted at Butkingham Palace. The 
iKiard of trade nominated him a juror for 
hygiene, pharmacy, surgery, and medicine in 
the French international exhibition in April 
1B65; in 1861 lie was appointed one of the 
committee for sanitary appliancea in the 
international eichibilion of 186^. and he 
became a fellow of the Koyal College of 
PhyBicians of London in 1869. He en- 
jojied for many years a targe practice and 
conaidecable social position. Inheriting by 
his marriage in 1841 with Laura, second 
daughter of Sir William Ciibitt, a large 
fortune, he was able to entertain on a large 
scale. The friend as well aa the physician 
of Count de Momy, he joined him in ex- 
tensive building operations at Deauville, near 
Trouville, a watering-place which they may 
be said to have created. The heavy respon^- 
bilities connected with this unremunerative 
speculation much clouded his later years. 
He died at Brighton on 14 Matth 1869. 

[Register and MagazioB of Biogmphj, April 
I860, p. 296 ; British Medical Jgurnal. 20 March 
1809, p. 274.] G. C. B. 

OLLIVANT, ALFRED (1798-1882), 
bisliop of LlandafT, son of William Ollivant 
and Elizabeih, daughter of Sir Stephen Lang- 
aton of Great llorwood, Buckinghamshire, 
some time alderman of London, was bom in 
Mancbestcr, where liia father was engaged in 
business, on 16 Aug. 1798. The family aftei^ 
wards removed to London, and Ollivant's 
father, whose a&irs had become involved, 
obtained a clerkship in the navy office, and 
then resided at 11 bmith Street, Northamp- 
ton Square. On 22 Aug. 1809 Alfred was 

admitted a scholar of St. Paul's School, along 
with anelder brother.LiuigBton. Risingtolie 
captain of the school, he was elected in 1817 
to a Oampden exhibition at Trinity College, 
Cambrid^. His career at the univeraitT 
was brilliant. After gaining a Perry eihihi* 
tion in 1819, in 1820 he was elected Craven 
acholar,andin 18:^1 graduated sixth wrangler, 
obtaining also — what was then the highest 
classical distinction — the senior chancelloi'a 
medal. Soonafterwardahewaselecl«dfellow 
of Trinity. In 18:>2 he gained the Tyrwhitt 
Hebrew scholarship, and in 1823 and 1823 
ihemembera'prireforaLatinessay. Hepro- 
ceeded M.A. in 1824, B.D, and D.D. in 1836. 
In 1827 he was appointed vice-principal 
of the newly foimdetl college of St. David, 
Lampeter, under theRev. Llewelyn Lewellin, 
afterwards dean of St. David's. In this office 
he continued sixteen years, during which be 
held several small preferments in Wales, and 
„v,.„;_.j . ipetent knowledge of the Ian- 

obtained a 

guage. He waa prebendary (third cursal) of 
St. David's, 28July 1839; sinecure rector of 

Llangeler, Carmarthenshire, ^ Feb. 1831; 
prebendary of St. Harmons, Brecon, 10 Nov. 
1831; vicar of Llangeler, 10 April 1833; 
rector of Bettws Bledrwa, Cardiganshire, 
31 March 1835; and vicar of Kerry, Mont- 
gomeryshire, 8 Nov. 1836 (Foster, Index 
Eccleaatticia, pp. 131-2). In 1&43 he vu 
elected to the regius professorship of diTinity 
at Cambridge, carrying with it the rectory 
of Somersham, Huntingdonshire; and is 
1849, on the nomination of Lord John Rus- 
sell, he was raised to the see of Llondaff 
(nom. ^9 Oct., cons. 2 Dec.) in succeeaion M 
Edward Copleslon [q- v.} 

His long episcopate of thirty-three yean 
was marked by much, useful work and by 
many reforms. For many generations no 
bishop had been, properly speaking, resident. 
Copleaton, aa deau of St. Paul's, spent 
much of his time in London. The small in- 
come, before the provision of one byatatnte, 
coupled with the want of a residence, had 
proved fatal to the interests of the see ; but 
Ollivant devoted himself wholly to his dio- 
cese, only leaving it to attend convocation or 
to sit in parliament when church quesliona 
were under discussion, or to fulfil his dutiea 
as a member of the Old Testament revision 
company. The proposal in convocation in 
1870 to revise the New Testament had been 
extended to the Old on his initiative. As a 
result of his self-denying labour he could 

Joint in the end (o a cathedral finally restored 
■om its ruins (the work, which commenced 
under his predecflssor.costing about 35,000i), 
whileaboutonehundredandseventy churches 
were built, restored, or enla^^ more ihu 





seventy parsonage-houBes added or rendered 
habitable, and a sum of not less than 860,000/. 
raised and spent on church work in his dio- 
cese. One of the most valuable efforts of 
hia episcopate was the establishment of the 
Church Extension Society (Morgan, Four 
Bufrapkical Sketches,^. 32). On 30 Nov. 1882, 
little more than a fortnight before his death, 
his portrait, painted by Ouless, was presented 
to him by Lord Aberdare in the town-hall 
at Cardiff in behalf of the clergy and laity of 
his diocese. He died at Bishop*s Court, Llan- 
daff, on 16 Dec. 1882, having been for some 
time the senior member of the bench, and was 
buried in the churchyard of his cathedral. A 
tomb, with his effigy in marble by Armit- 
atead, was erected by the diocese in his 
memory on the north side of the altar steps. 

By his wife Alicia Olivia, daughter of 
Lieutenant-general Spencer of Bramley 
Clrange, Yorkshire, who died on 13 July 
1886, in her eighty-fifth year, he had several 
children, of whom three sons survived him : 
Alfired, colonel B.S.C. ; Joseph Earle, chan- 
cellor of the dioceses of Llandaff and St. 
David's ; and Edward, colonel R.H.A. 

In person the bishop was tall and spare, 
with features said by many to resemble those 
of the Duke of Wellington. In advancing 
yean he suffered from deafness, but his in- 
tellect was keen and vigorous to the last. 

His published works, which are numerous, 
conaiat chiefly of sermons and charges, rang- 
ing in date from 1827 to 1881 . Among these 
may be specified: 1. 'An Analysis of the 
Text of tne History of Joseph,' in Hebrew, 
for the use of his students at Lampeter ; an 
interleaved copy of the second edition (1833), 
with the author's notes, is in the library of 
St. Paul's School, and another of the third 
edition (1836) in that of St. David's College, 
Lampeter. 2. * Some Account of the Con- 
dition of the Fabric of Llandaff Cathedral,' 
of which the first edition appeared in 1867, 
and the second, with plates, m 1860. 

[Gardiners Admission Registers of St. Paurs 
Senool ; articles in the Pauline, February 1883 ; 
Morgan's Four Biographical Sketches, 1892; 
Guardian, 20 Dec. 1882 ; Annual Register, 1882, 
p. 166; Le Neve*8 Fasti, ii. 257, iii. 656 ; personal 
knowledge.] J. H. L. 

OLLYFFE, JOHN (1647-1717), divine, 
son of John Ollyffe of Arundel, Sussex, was 
bom there in 1647. After spending three 
years at Cambridge he removed to Oxford, 
and matriculated at Queen's College on 
7 Feb. 1667-8. In 1672 he proceeded B.C.L. 
firom New Inn Hall, and took holy orders. 
He was instituted, in 1073, rector of West 
Aimer, Dorset, where he remained twenty 
years. In 1693 he was preferred to the 

rectory of Dunton, Buckinghamshire, where 
he remained until his death on 24 June 1717. 

Ollyffe had three sons: John {b, 1676), 
rector of Hedgerley , Buckinghamshire, 1699- 
1743 ; George {b, 1682), vicar of Kemble 1707, 
and of Wendover 1 716 ; and Thomas, vicar of 
Dunton and Ey worth, Bedfordshire, 1712-42, 
and rector of Denham, Buckinghamshire, 

Ollyffe published, besides separate ser- 
mons: 1. 'A Brief Defence of Infant-Bap- 
tism : with an Appendix, wherein is shewed 
that it is not necessary that Baptism should 
be administred by Dipping,* London, 1694. 
2. ' The Blessedness of Good men after 
Death : a Sermon Preached at the Funeral 
of the Rev**' Mr. Henry Cornish, B.D. . . . 
with a Preface to Rectifie some Misrepre- 
sentations, &c., in a late Pamphlet entitled 
** Some Remarks on the Life, Death, and 
Burial of the said Mr. Cornish," * London, 
1699. 3. ' An Essay towards a Compre- 
hension, or a Persuasive to Unity amongst 
Protestants. Humbly offered to the Con- 
sideration of the two Houses of Parliament, 
and especially to the Most Reverend the 
Archbishops, the Right Reverend the Bi- 
shops, and the rest of the Clergy assembled 
in Convocation,' London, 1701. 4. ' A De- 
fence of Ministerial Conformity to the Church 
of England: in answer to the Misrepre- 
sentations of the terms thereof by Mr. 
Calamy, in the Tenth Chapter of his 
Abridgement of the " History of Mr. Bax- 
ter's Life and Times," ' London, 1792. This 
was replied to by ' J. A.' in * A Letter to the 
Reverend Mr. John Ollyffe touching the 
Declaration of Assent and Consent to the 
Liturgy and the Imposition of certain things 
scrupled therein,' London, 1703, and by 
Edmund Calamy the vounger in *A Defence 
of Moderate Non-Conformity,' 3 pts. London, 
1703-6. The third part contains * an Index 
of some Peculiarities in Mr. OUyffe's manner 
of writing in this controversie.' Ollyffe 
replied with (5) * A Second Defence of Minis- 
terial Conformity to the Church of England,' 
London, 1706 ; and a^n with (6) * A Third 
Defence of Ministerial Conformity to the 
Church of England,* London, 1706. 7. * A 
Practical Exposition of the Church Cate- 
chism,' 2 vols. London, 1710. 

[Foster'sAlumni Oxon. 1600-1714; Hatchins's 
Hist, of Dorset, iii. 496 ; Wood's Atbenae Oxen, 
ed. Bliss, iv. 533 ; Kennet's Register, 837 ; Wil- 
son's Dissenting Churches, i. 380, i v. 75 ; Register 
of Arundel, per the Rev. J. E. G. Farmer ; Raw- 
linson MS. B. Ixxx.] C. F. S. 

Eabl of Cabhampton (d, 1829). [See under 
LuTTBELL, James.] 

. * - 


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ir*' ~- 1 zi. "*•' -" . .'.1. iz.i 

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i . ..." i. •,..•,•.',;, '.f Arr/.^./.. ;.'.;;:■ A rV/ r.'.i.-^ to lU'ak-riinv. c-?- Mrd'b, in 

N' • ••«. >*.<i/J' 1./ Mj'. Mj»i ■.».'■•' fff'-n fi'/i."^ w-.a oi'Mvath, and, withtheCoinaugUtzneii, 




tnTaded Munster and made peace for a year 
at Tullagh O^Dea, co. Clare. He came home 
through Coxmaught. His last expedition 
was in 1120, when he marched to Athlone 
to support Murchadh O'Maeleachlainn, who 
was attacked by the king of Connaught. He 
died at Derry on 9 Feb. 1121. He is praised 
for his fine physical form by the Ulster 
chroniclers, and for his virtues ; but, except 
aome traces of religious feeling shown in his 
relations towards two archbishops of Armagh, 
nothing but acts of unrelenting warfare are 
recorded of him. lie married Bebhinn, daugh- 
ter of Cenneidigh O'Brien, in 1090, and had 
by her two sons — Muircheartach, who died 
in 1 114, and Niall, who died in 1119. She 
died in 1110. 

[0*DoDordii*8 edition of Annala Rioghachtsi 
Eireami, Dublin, 1851, vol. ii. ; Colgan's Acta 
Sanetoram Hiberniae, Louvain, 1650; Clarendon 
MS. zlv. in British Museum.] N. M. 

(d. 1166), king of Ireland, son of Niall 
0*Lochlainn, son of Domhnall O'Lochlainn 
fq. v.], chief of the Cinel Eoghain, was ninth 
in descent from Domhnall, brother of Niall 
(870.^-919) [q. v.], king of Ireland, from 
whom, and not from their more remote an- 
cestor, Niall Naighiallach, the O'Neills take 
their name, according to O'Donovan. His 
family, who in later times were more often 
called MacLochlainn, were the senior branch 
of the Cinel Eoghain, the descendants of 
Eogfaan, son of Niall Naighiallach. He first 
appears in the chronicles in 1139, when 
he defeated the Clann Laithbheartaigh or 
0*Dubhdas of Ulster, and slew their chief, 
Mathghamhain. In 1142 he won a battle 
over the 0*Donnellys, a sept of the Cinel 
I^hain, in which he received a severe 
wound. The chiefship of the Cinel Eoghain 
was assumed in 1143 by Domhnall O'Gairm- 
leadhaigh, the tribe having expelled Muir- 
cheartach. He went to the Cinel Conaill, 
and, with their aid, displaced O'Gairmlea- 
dhaigh, and was established as chief of Cinel 
Eoghain. Cii Uladh MacDuinnsleibhe, king 
of Ulidia or Lesser Ulster, made a foray in 
1 1 47 into Famey, co. Monaghan. Muirchear- 
tach (^Neill led the Cinel Eoghain, in alliance 
with Donnchadh O'Cearbhaill and the Oir- 
ghialla, and attacked the Ulidians, whom 
they found at Uchdearc, co. Down, drove be- 
fore them to Dundrum, co. Down, and routed 
in a battle fought on the feast of SS. Peter 
and Paul, returning with much plunder to 
Tyrone. He again invaded Ulidia in 1 148, and 
took hosta^ ; but the Oirghiulla, who had 
marched with him, unexpectedly joined the 
Ulidians, and he had to retreat. He soon 

VOL. xui. 

returned, crossing the Ban at Toome Bridge, 
deposed Cu Uladh, and set up Donnchadh 
MacDuinnsleibhe as king of Ulidia. Later 
in the year he attended a convention of the 
chiefs of the Cinel Eoghain, the Oirghialla, 
and the Ulidians, who all swore to pre8er\'e 
general peace on a famous relic — the crozier 
known as the *bachall iosa* — in the pre- 
sence of Gilla MacLiag, archbishop of Ar- 
magh. The Oirghialla, Cinel Conaill, and 
Ulidians, all gave him hostages at this time. 
War, however, broke out in 1149, and he again 
invaded Ulidia and took many cattle, and re- 
ceived the king's son as a hostage. He went 
on with all his horsemen to Louth, and 
there received hostages sent by Tigheaman 
O'Rourke from Breifne. He next marched 
to Dublin, and received the submission of 
the Danes and hostages from Diarmaid Mac- 
Murchadha, king of Ijeinster. In 11 50 lie 
gave a gold ring of five ounces and other 
gifts to Flaibheartach O'Brolchain [q. v.l, 
coarb of Columba, and permitted a general 
taxation of Cinel Eoghain for the wants of 
the church of Derry. He marched to Inis- 
mochta in Meath, and there received hostages 
sent to indicate the acknowledgment of nib 
supremacy by Connaught, afterwards going 
on to Dunlochad, near Tara, where he ratifiea 
a treaty of peace with the foreigners of Dublin 
and Fingall. Turlougb O'Brien and Tur- 
lough O'Connor [q. v.] were engaged in war, 
and the Munstermen, under the termer, suf- 
fered a disastrous defeat at Moinmor in 
Munster in 1151. (Vljochlainn, taking ad- 
vantage of this, led the Cinel Eoghain, Cinel 
Conaill, and Oirghialla across tlie Erne at 
Assaroe, co. Donegal, to the Curlew Moun- 
tains. Turlough O'Connor, unable to resist 
such an attack after his long fighting with 
O'Brien, sent hostages. Next year O Loch- 
lainn expelled Donnchadh O'Cearbhaill from 
the kingship of the Oirghialla, in revenge for 
an insult to the Archbishop of Armagh. He 
met Turlough O'Connor at the Moy near 
Ballyshannon, co. Donegal, where tlu»y de- 
clared amity on the bachall iosa and some 
relics of St. Columba. Thev afterwards met 
at Rathkenny in Meath, and Diarmaid Mac- 
Murchadha also came to the meeting. They 
deprived Tigheaman O'Rourke of Con- 
mhaicne,a country consisting of Longford and 
the southern part of Leitrim, and divided 
Meath into east and west, giving the west 
to Murchadh O'Maeleachlainn, and East 
Meath to his son Maeleachlainn O'Maeleach- 
lainn. In 1153 he decided to try and re- 
store Turlough O'Brien, and marched to 
Creeve, co.AVestmeath. Tadhpr O'Brien, who 
had displaced Turlough (J'Brien, marched 
thither to attack him, and Turlough O'Connor 

i62 O'Lochlainn 



...— a." 

... a. 

■ .- iJtiL I^iannait O'Maeleicmainn- and set up h 
-■•_- T nrotlierDonnchadhO'MaeleMhkiimoT-riil 
^J*ath. He was threatened brtheConninata- 
mtm. who. with the men of B>?ifn? and rf 
Til -.mond. crossed Meath to attack iW Ob- 
chihUa. He came up with thtm at Aria, 
iind dfft-ated them with peat elau2bt«. Be 
:iiiai marched home, and immediittly tts 
Tj.Tar*'d Connaught as far as Tuam. ^x Gd- 
V .:- !~ VLT." He returned thence by way of Mw^ 
.-.z....: .: ' LiiL cnartered his arm von that country. l» 

\ ...- *:^i!T '.f bis old enemy CrGairmleadluugli ^ 

.:- -aVK-.*:: him in Tvrone after he bad, in Im 

^- ^ . _ -. -rutvi the chief of Fermanagh toentnpud 

-. « - --. . i:... :omhnallO'GwrmleadbaighaDd«T^ 

^ . - - .. • - :-..:- :iir iTfoilemen of thesept. Hedrfa^ 

• .^ - - . -i- a. m a pitched battle at Magh ham, 
: T - r.. ij- Newtown-Stewart, co. Tynmj, w 
. ':.T-ur-»d a creat booty of cows. He ii« i 

V . ^ . . . ....> r.ovrir O'Connor at Aasaroe to irnnaet 

- ^ -^.-t.m;t none was made. Inlllilhetoofc 

^ ^.r - . ^-,o^ from the Ui Briuin. and mutW 

- ^ - . :.- . ._-!. Breifne t o LickbU, co. ^Vestm^ 

t ■.-■-. "•:..- r.iaeric O'Connor and Dia^^mld3U^ 

' \..^:iiui:.h formallv submitted to hiiB,» 

-. ^ -.-•.. V-;,* idwr of Ireland not only by ngM. 

...-.- ^ T ^sabhn ' (* without opposition ) 

. • — . csT^a bv Irish historians to eiWP« 

.... .* ^-,-...^ inraV. In 1162 he aided Flu- 

- :.. : ''KriL-hain in improving Di-nr. 
--. ^- .'..:.>.. and plundered Finirall. The 

I :.: :. I'JO ounces of pold. He 
, . ... -.. : .imlred nunces of i?5ld f'^r 'be 

^V,sTnleathinllft:$. HeairaJJ 

■■-; ^- T of IVrrv, and t he catht-lri 

.. ::";•. 4. Tliellidian^aitackel 

.• .- ■: he in rt»tum ravap»*dthHir 

..-...- <i.,..i E.x^haidh MiicDiunn- 

- . ^. . - \..T.z. b'.imt their siron^li'^W 

- f.v..: rftunied wiili much 
j^., : ■ :ht' church of ^aiil.c;. 
^ .. -' ;.- -. trr-i.^h the king of llnlia 
>^ - : ":. ::•. "wi^h the sword of ?he 

' . - ^ .- vr Vilv a lK•^ut')an^lma^y 

sr :.- 1 :;:' our the eyes of tbij 
.. -; rr^ihinff an oath hn b^d 
.... \-v?,-':. .'.:"vr:lie war. Donncha^lh 

,., ■ - , ,. . . 7. -..l to n^veni?»'thi^ 

-. ■ . ^.i-. 5.r.:r.:.':t!ieCinelEoirhaiii 

?. .. . - . ^ ^ .^. ^. ;, v.- Lnin, n^ar ^■•'^v• 

..^ ■ * ■ "^ ^ ^ - . r ,v ATr--.sjh. MuireheartacV 

«,' L v-v*;*- -■ - i ..:■•- .. -. J -rvTv «".a:n in 1100. H* 

O-'i*^- * - ■ ■'^- *■";-. - -s ......... >v >.-> ST* Niall. 

^srfcu .V -■ •.->:--::.. . . . ^ _. . j,,^.. ^.r.>|. r:;r.i. 

1^ .:.> j_.x7-.:-. " . .. ; , . ^ - • .- y^*i — . xW. 170: Ruive>' 

,ft;;v».y V'''-':' ■'■;■" "■■r*" ■■ ■■■"■ " * - - -..>: -^-t .^.*.-i lVi\r:>. i>iiii(.r. -m.- 

,»K*«i .■: >^"--i:=-r* ''^ i> > .^- .^ • . . ^ V ■->*:. v»"IVr.ovai:'*T.»r-irr.i;lii 

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(1819-1877), lawyer and politician, eldest 
aon of Sir Michael 0*Loghlen, bart. fq.v.]' 
•ad Bidelia, daughter of Daniel Kelly of 
DaUin, was bom on 20 Sept. 1819, and was 
•dncated at nrivate schools in England, 
afterwards graduating B.A. at Dublin XJni- 
venity in 1840. In the same year he was 
dlled to the Irish bar, and went the Mun- 
■tor circuit; he took silk in 1862. From 
1866 to 18o9 he was chairman of Carlow 

rrter sessions, and from 1859 to 1861 held 
same position in Mayo. In 1863 he be- 
came M.F. for Clare, and in 1865 was made 
ft third seijeant-at-law for Ireland, becoming 
ncond serjeant in the following year. He 
ms appomted judge-advocate-general in 
Mr. Gladstone's ministry and a member of 
tlie privy council in December 1868; he 
beld the former office till November 1870. 
•He introduced and carried the bill enabling 
efttholics to obtain the position of lord 
chancellor of Ireland. His unassuming 
manner and his good nature made him uni- 
Tersally popular. He died suddenly, on 
S2 July 1877, on board the mail-boat while 
croesing from Holyhead to Kingstown. He 
was buried in the family vault in co. Clare. 
He was unmarried, and his brother Bryan 
ancceeded to the title. 

[Foster 8 BaronetagA and Knightage; Times, 
28 and 27 July 1877 ; Todd's Dublin Graduates ; 
Wazd's Men of the Beign ; Haydn's Book of 
Dignities.] D. J. 0*D. 

1842), Irish judge, bom in October 1789, 
was the third son of Colman O'Loghlen of 
Port, CO. Clare, hj his second wife, Susannah, 
daughter of Michael Finucane, M.D., of 
Ennis. He was educated at the Erasmus 
Smith school at Ennis and Trinity College, 
Ihiblin, where he graduated B.A. in 1809 
(Todd, Dublin GradtmteSj s.v.' 0*Loughlin'), 
and he was called to the Irish bar in Michael- 
mas term 1811. His first distinction was 
gained in 1815, in a case involving important 
questions of law, in which he was CConnelPs 
junior. The case came on for argument in 
the king*8 bench the day after the fatal duel 
between 0*Connelland D'Esterre, and O'Con- 
nell was in consequence absent. 0*Loghlen 
asked for a postponement, but, the other side 
objecting, he argued the case alone, obtained 
judgment in his favour, and was specially com- 
plimented by the court on the ability and learn- 
ing of his argument. He became a favourite 
with 0*Connell, was constantly employed as 
his junior, and succeeded to a large part of 
his practice when O'Connell became absorbed 
in politics. In a ' Sketch ' by Shell, written 

in 1828, he is described as an excellent 
lawyer, a master of the practice of the courts, 
in receipt of an immense income, and a great 
favourite with the judges because of the 
brevity, simplicity, and clearness with which 
his points were put. His custom was on re- 
ceipt of a fee to take the shilling from each 
gumea and put it in a box for his wife, and at 
the end of one term Mrs. 0*Loghlen is said 
to have received fifteen hundred shillings 
(OTlanaoan, The Irish Bar), On the pass- 
ing of the Catholic Emancipation Act 
(April 1829), the leading catholic barristers 
expected to be made king's counsel. The 
honour was somewhat unfairly deferred till 
Trinity term 1830, when, at the instance of 
Lord Francis Leveson-Gower (afterwards 
Lord Francis Egerton), then chiei secretary, 
0*Loghlen, Shell, and two other catholics 
were called within the bar (McCttllagh, 
Memoirs of Sheil, 1855, vol. ii. p. 53). 

In January 1831 O'Loghlen was appointed 
third Serjeant, and in 1832 he was elected a 
bencher of the King's Inns. In the same 
year he unsuccessfully contested the repre- 
sentation of the city of Dublin in parliament. 
For a few months in 1834 he was solicitor- 
general for Ireland in Lord Melbourne's first 
fovemment. At the general election in 
anuary 1835 he was returned for Dungar- 
van, and, on the formation of Lord Melbourne's 
second go vemment in that year, became again 
solicitor-general for Ireland, and in August 
of the same year attorney-general. In No- 
vember 1836 he was appointed a baron of the 
court of exchequer in Ireland, and in the 
following January he succeeded Sir William 
McMahon [q. v.l as master of the rolls. He 
was the first catholic law officer and the first 
catholic judge in Ireland since the reign of 
James II. In 1838, on the coronation of the 
queen, he was created a baronet. He died in 
(ieorge Street, Hanover Square, London, on 
28 Sept. 1842 (Dublin Evening Post, 1 Oct. 
1842 ; Times, 3 Oct. 1842). 

Both at the bar and on the bench O'Logh- 
len enjoyed a high reputation. O'Connell, 
writing to Lord Duncannon in October 1834, 
says: * Than O'Loghlen, a more amiable man 
never lived — a more learned lawyer, a more 
sensible, discreet, and, at the same time, a 
more powerful advocate never belonged to 
the Irish bar. He never made an enemy, he 
never lost a friend He possesses in an emi- 
nent degree all the best judicial qualities ' 
(Correspondence of O'Connell, ed. Fitz- 
Patrick, i. 490). On the bench he justified 
O'Connell's forecast of his judicial powers. 
* There never was a judge who gave more en- 
tire satisfaction to both the suitors and the 
profession ; perhaps never one sitting alone 





and deciding so many cases of whose deci- 
sions there were fewer reversals * (Irish Equity 
Reports, v. 130). He was so industrious, and 
so anxious to save the suitors of his court 
from unnecessary cost^, that he frequently 
undertook work which might properly have 
been referred to the master. He was very 
courteous, carried patience almost to a fault, 
and was especially kind and considerate to 
Youn^men appearing before him. His statue, 
Dy McDowell, is in the hall of the Four 
Courts, Dublin ; and another, by Kirke, in 
the Court House, Ennis. 

He married, 3 Sept. 1817,Bidelia, daughter 
of Daniel Kelly of Dublin. His eldest son, 
Colman Michael (second baronet), is sepa- 
rately noticed ; his third son, Bryan (third 
baronet), called to the Irish bar in 1856, 
admitted to the Victoria bar in 1863, has 
been twice attorney-general of Victoria, and 
premier of that colony 1881-3. 

[Annual Register. 1842, p. 292; O'Flanagan's 
Irish Bur. 1879; Sheil's Sketches, Legnl nnd 
Political, 1855; Times, 3 Oct. 1842; Burke's 
Peerajjp and Baronetage, 1894 ; Debrett's Baro- 
netiigo, 1894; Smyth's Law Officers of Ireland.] 

J. D. F. 

O'LOTHCHAIN, CUAN {d. 1024), 
Irish historian, was Primheices or chief 
man of learning to Maelsechlainn II [q. v.] 
After the death of that king in \0±2, the 
* Annals of Clonmacnoise * state that Cuan 
()*L()thchjiin and Corcrnn Cleirech governed 
Ireland. Tighearnach, who may have known 
some of (VLothchain's contemporaries, re- 
cords his death in 1024. He was slain by 
some men of Tetfia, co. Westmeath. He pro- 
bablv lived near Dun-na-sciath, Maelsech- 
lainiVs chief residence in Westmeath. He 
wn^e an account of the rights of the king 
of Tara, in the eleventh century the title of 
the king of Trnland, and of Tara itself, be- 
ginning ' Teamair toga na tulach * (*Tara, 
choice of hills'), of which there is a copy in 
the * l^^»>k of Ikllymote,' a fourteenth-cen- 
turv manuscript . fol. 351, column A, line 47. 
Tlie library of Trinity College, Dublin, has 
a o>PV (numbered H. .'^.3), which Dr. Petrie 
states* is more ancient ( Tarn Hill, p. 143), 
and other good copies exist. The poem bep^ins 
hv stating the rights of the king, then de- 
•orilHHi the several roads, ramparts, wells, 
and ^athl^ and the past history of each land- 
ttark, with some account of Cormac MacAirt 
y Oth^ famous dwellers at Tara, which 
~ to be A royal residtmce in the sixth 
I concluding lines give a lively 
ollowing of a king of Ireland 
century : the lesser king and 
to him. the learned man, tlie 
lUp-bearer, the smith, the ad- 

ministrator of the law, the builder of earth- 
works, the maker of shields, the soldier, who 
had all a right to be in the king*B house, ' do 
ibdis corm ' (* to drink liquor '); then follow 
the sorcerer, the chesa-plaver, the bufToon, the 
piper, and many others, all entitled to entei^ 
tamment. A poetical account of the origin 
of the name of the river Shannon, which 
forms part of the ' Dinnsenchus ' in the ' Book 
of Lecan,' is attributed to him in that manu- 
script. In the * Book of Leinster/ a twelfth- 
century manuscript, this passage is not attri- 
buted to any separate author, but (fol. 151) 
there is a long poem, undoubtedly by him, on 
the origin of the name of the hill of Dnimcree, 
CO. Westmeath. The direct statement of au- 
thorship in a manuscript written within one 
hundred and fifty years of the death of Cuan 
0*Lothchain is supported by the internal evi- 
dence of the poem. The name of the hill 
is derived from the fate of the sons of Eochu 
Feidlech, and the poem concludes by con- 
necting the history of the hill with Maelsech- 
lainn II, CVLothchain's patron, and tracing 
Maelsechlainn's descent from Eochu Feidlecn 
through Colman MacDiarmada, Cairpe Liph- 
echar, Feradach Fechtnach, and other kings. 
A prose treatise ascribed to him, ' Geasa agos 
buadha riogh Eireann* ('The restrictions and 
prerogatives of the kings of Ireland '), is con- 
tained in the * Book of Lccan,' and has been 
printed and translated by O'Donovan. 

[Book of Lein'-ter, facsimile, 1880; Book of 
Bnlljmote, fHcs. 1887; Leabhar ua g'Ceart, ed. 
O'Donovan, Celtic Society, Dublin, 1847 ; George 
Petrie's History and Antiquities of Tara Hill, 
1839. in Truus. of Royal Irish Academy ; Annala 
Rio^hachta Kireann, ed. O'Donovan, vol. ii. ; 
O'Currv 8 Ijectures on Manuscript Materials of 
Irish History; Whitley Stokes's The Bodleian 
I Dinnshenchas in Folk Lore. vol. iii. No. 4, where 
the text with translation of the article on the 
Shannon in the Bodleian manuscript Rawlinson 
B. 506 is printed.] N. M. 


( /?. 1686). Irish chronicler, belonged to a 
familv ofthereditarv men of letters in Con- 
naught, where he was born, probably at 
^ Cluainnahoidhche, near Lochnahoidhche. in 
' thoparishofClooncrafr, CO. Roscommon. He 
I was one of the authors of the * Annals of 
■ the Kingdom of Ireland' [see O'Clery, 
MrciFAEL"!, and, with the three other chief 
writers, was included by Colgan in the de- 
signation *Annales Quatuor Magistrorum' 
(Preface to Acta Sanctorum llihrrnief^ p. 7), 
which has become the popular name of the 
book. A trace of his influence in the work 
is the record of more than forty of the Ti 
Maelchonaire. Of these, two were di.«tin- 
guished ecclesiastics : Thomas, archdeacon of 




Tuam, who died in 1266 ; and Flathriy son of 
flthil, archbishop of Tuam, who died in 1629, 
and is described under Florence Conbt, 
the name by which he is known in English 
state papers. Neidhe, who is described as a 
aeancnaidhe or historian, is the earliest of 
the family. He died in 1136. 

Duinnin, who died in 1281, was ollamh of 
the Sil Muireadhaigh, the O'Connors, and 
allied clans, and was succeeded in office by 
many others of the family; Maoileoin the 
Deaf (<f . 1 266) ; Tanaidhe mor, son of Duinnin 
id. 1270); Dubhsuilech {d. 1270); Conaing 
(J. 1314) ; Tanaidhe (^d, 1385). Gregory, son 
of Tanaidhe {d, 1400), was heir to the office, 
and qualified for it, but was killed by a dart 
thrown at him by William MacDavid Burke, 
who mistook him for a foe. His importance 
is indicated by the eric of 120 cows which 
was paid as compensation for his homicide. 
Donnchadh the Fair (d, 1404) wrote a poem 
of 172 Terses still extant, ' Eisdigh a eigsi 
Banbha* ('Attend, O learned of Ireland*). 
It recounts the succession and deeds of the 
kings of Connaught. Maoilin (d, 1441) wrote 
a poem on the kings of Ireland, of which four 
lines are quoted under the year 1384 in the 
' Annals of the Four Masters.' He was buried 
at Kilbarry, co. Roscommon. 

Toma (d. 1468) is described as ' ollamh 
a seanchus agus a filidhecht' (' professor in 
history and in poetry'). He Uvea at Lisfea- 
rhain, co. Roscommon, and was buried at 

Erard (d. 1483) succeeded Toma as ollamh 
of Sil Muireadhaigh, and is described as 
learned both in Latin and in Irish. He was 
buried at Elphin, co. Roscommon. 

Siodhraidhe {d, 1487) succeeded him, and 
is praised by the chronicles for jocularity. 

Maurice {d, 1487) went to Donegal to 
teach poetry and there died. 

Maurice \d, 1543), son of Paidin, was rich 
as well as learned. He made a copy in a fine 
Irish handwriting of the * Old Book of Cail- 
lin,' now called the * Book of Fenagh,* in 1516, 
for the coarb of Fenagh, Tadhg O'Roduighe. 
This copy was in the possession of the catholic 
bishop oi Ardagh, himself a member of the 
{j&mily of O'Maelchonaire, in 1876. The book 
is a statement in prose and yerse of the 
tributes and privileges of the abbey of Fenagh, 
the ruins of which are still to be seen a few 
miles from the foot of the mountain Sithmor, 
CO. Lieitrim. In its general plan it resembles 
the more important Leabhar na g'Ceart,which 
states in prose and verse the rights and 
duties of the king of Ireland and his subject 
kings. In the manuscript Maurice O'Mael- 
chonaire states that the coarb O'Roduighe 
asked him to reduce to prose some of the 

verse of the original manuscript, and that 
he had done so (Book of Fenagh^ pp. 310, 
312). A printecl edition was prepared in 
1871 by W. M. Hennessy and D. HL Kelly. 

Maoilin {d. 1519) was ollamh of Sil Mui- 
readhaigh, but was later made their ollamh 
by the Fitzgeralds, and died at Abbeyderg, 
CO. Longford. 

John ijl, 1 566) wrote an interesting poem on 
Sir Brian-na-Murtha O'Rourke [q. v.], of 136 
verses, * Fuair Breifne a diol do shaeghlann ' 
('Breifne has obtained her due of a prince'). 

Maurice {Jl, 1601) wrote * Orpheus og ainm 
Eoghain ' (* Young Orpheus is the right name 
for Eoghan') (a harper named Ollalloran). 
He took part for one month (Colgax, Preface 
to Acta Sanctorum) in the compilation of the 
* Annals of the Four Masters.' 

Diarmait {Jl. 1601) wrote three poems on 
Our Lady, of which copies are extant, and 
which were prepared for publication by Dr. 
John Carpenter ,catholic archbishop of Dublin. 

Peter {Jl. 1701), son of Fearfasa, was poet 
to the O'Roduighe, and lived in Leitrim. He 
wrote a poem of 224 verses in praise of his 
patron's mmily : ' Niamhadh na huaisle an 
eagna ' (* Wisdom is the beauty of nobility ') ; 
one of sixty verses, in March 1696, on the 
illness, and one of sixteen verses on the want 
of liberalitv, of his patron ; and one on the 
misery of the Irish. There are copies in the 
Royal Irish Academy. 

[Annala Rioghachta Eireann, ed. O'Dono- 
van, Dublin, 1851 ; Colgan's Acta Sanctorum 
HibernisB, Louvain, 1646 ; The Book of Fenagh, 
ed. Hennessy and Kelly, Dublin, 1871 ; Irish 
Archaeological Miscellany, vol. i. ; O'Reilly in 
Proceedings of Iberno-Celtic Soc. Dublin, 1820.] 

N. M. 

TINE {Jl. 1660), Irish Jesuit. [See Mahont.] 

O'MAHONY, DANIEL (d. 1714), 
general in the French and Spanish services, 
came of an ancient Irish stock which claimed 
descent from Brian (926-1014) [q. v.], king 
of Munster. His brother Dermod attained 
the rank of colon^^l in James II's Irish army 
and distinguished himself at the Boy ne and at 
Aughrim, where he met his death. Having 
attained the rank of captain in the royal Irish 
foot-guards, Daniel went to France in 1692, 
and became major in the Limerick and Dillon 
regiments successively. He served under Vil- 
leroy in the north of Italy in the autumn of 
1701, and he held the command of Dillon's 
regiment during the absence of its colonel in 
January 1 702. The regiment was then forming 
part of the garrison of Cremona, and 0*Mahony 
woke up on 1 Feb. to find Villeroy a captive, 
and the Austrians, who had obtained entrance 

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O'Mahony 167 O'Mahony 

goflsa. Placed upon the extreme right, he at Versailles in 1702, < qu'il n'avait jamais 

was opposed to the Portuguese horse, whom vu personne rendre un si bon compte de 

he utterly broke and drove into the Ebro ; tout, ni avec tant de nettet^ d'esprit et de 

then, continuing his impetuous charge, he justesse, meme si agr^ablement/ When at 

rode OTer the enemy's artillery, and, as he the end of his first mterview Louis observed, 

could not carry it off, cut the sinews of four * But you have said nothing of my brave 

hundred artillery mules. In the meantime Irish ' at Cremona, O'Mahony replied, ' They 

the main body of Vendome's army was in fought in conjunction with the other troops 

retreat, and O Mahony had the utmost diifi- of your majesty/ 

cuity in rejoining. He was criticised for [O'Callaghan's Irish Brigades in tbe Service of 

havinff earned his successful onslaught too France, pp. 204-21, 231-6, 241-61, 273-8; 

far. lie was, however, placed at the head O'Conor's Military History of the Irish Nation, 

of the cavalry at Villa viciosa, and specially pp. 245, 264, 329, 336, 366; D'Alton's King 

distinguished himself. The Spanisn king James's Irish Army List, p. 266 ; O'Hart's Irish 

rewarded his valour by a commandership of Pedigrees, 1 887,i. 236. ii. 803 ; Wilson's James II 

the order of St. lago, producing a rent of ^^^ t^® ^^^^ of Berwick, vol. ii. passim; Sevin 

fifteen thousand livres (Bacallar y Sana, deQuincy's HistoireMiliUire, vols.iii. v.andvi. 

Qmentarios). 0*Mahony pursued the re- P**^°li ^?!°®^!!^,y*^Sl^^l^,''^^.^^^°°i°^^ 

treating army into Aragon, and captured at \f.'^^^^ ^^^f 216, 227. 281, 296 ; Ronsset's 

the stronghold of Illuel Lieutenant-general 7^'«'Lw^i5ff-tn^.«HTp' ^^^°«',"J^ 

T\ * * • J tr-n 1 •*i. 3 4. I. 76; ijellerive s Uistoire des Campagnes de Men- 

^°l ^J"^^"" de Wkroel with a detach- ^^•^' ^^ j^^^ ^^ Vendosme, 1715; Targe's 

ment of 660 men (Qtjincy, vi. 453). He Hist, de I'av^nement de la maison de Bourbon 

contmued to act m Spam under Vendome hu tr6ne d'Espagne, ii. 94-6 ; Relation exacte 

of the ancient Dorset family, had died passim; Bacallar y Sanas Comentarios de la 
about 1708, remarried Charlotte, widow of Ouerra de Espaiia, bk. iv. ; Lafuente's Historia 
Charles O'Brien, fifth viscount Clare [q. v.], General de Espana, xvii. 187, 207, 287-9.] 
and a sister of the Duchess of BerwicK. 1^* S. 
CMahony had been ennobled bv Louis XIV, O'MAHONY, JOHN (1816-1877), Irish 
and the marriage took place at St. Germains, politician, bom at Kilbeheny, co. Limerick, 
where the bridegroom was warmly received m 1816. His family was one of the oldest 
by the court. He did not, however, long and most popular in the country, and still re- 
flurvive his second marriage, dying at Ocana tained some small remnant of the tribal lands, 
in Spain in January 1714. By his first wife adjoining and partly j utting into the demesne 
he left two sons : James, who rose to be a of the Earls of Kingston. Hence, as well 
lieutenant-general in the Spanish service, as from more general causes of race and re- 
governor 01 Fort St. Elmo, commander of ligion, there was a permanent feud between 
the order of Saint Januarius, and inspector- the O'Mahonys and their powerful neigh- 
general of cavalry in the Spanish kingdom hours. The father and uncle of John were 
of Naples ; and Demetrius (Dermod), who both * out * in the rebellion of 1798. 
became ambassador from Spain to Austria, 0*Mahony was sent early in life to a good 
and died at Vienna in 1776. Neither of the classical school in Cork, and afterwards en- 
aons left male descendants. A collateral tered Trinity College, Dublin, but never took 
descendant, who also held the title Count a degree. He was a good Greek and Latin 
(/Mahonv, commanded a regiment of dra- scholar, and always more or less devoted to 
goons at Barcelona in 1766. linguistic and philological pursuits, especially 
' Le fameux Mahoni,' as he was called, to in connection with his native Gaelic tongue, 
distinguish him from others of his family In 1857 he published 'The History of Ireland, 
who had taken service under the Bourbons, by Geoffrey Keating, D.D., translated from 
was more than a dashing officer ; he was an the original Gaelic, and copiously annotated' 

accomplished soldier, and Bellerive says of (New \ork, 1857 V It is the best translation 
him with justice, 'He was not only always yet published. According to Dr. Todd, the 
brave, but laborious and indefatigable ; his Irish antiquary, Mt is a great improvement 
life was a continued chain of dangerous upon the ignorant and ai8hone&(t one pub- 
combats, desperate attacks, and honourable lished by Mr. Dermod O'Connor more than 
retreats' (C%n9tp.<2eFi?n(2osmtf, pp. 237-9). St. a century ago . . . but has been taken from 
Simon says of CMahony that he was a man a very imperfect text, and has evidently been 
of wit as well as of valour ; and Louis XIY executed [as O'Mahony himself confessed] 
assured De Chamillart, when O'Mahony was in great haste.' O'Midiony contributed to 

*, but it is 
states, lie 

J articles for French journala. Ilia 

BTticlM were mostly political, and generally 
somewhat poiiderouB in style. 

It is, however, as a man of action that 
O'Mahony is reroemhered. Through his 
whole lite he showed little citre for anything 
save the cause of bis country, and wi Utile 
for self as any man who has slrivun to serve 
Ireland. He was a repealer in O'Connell's 
time. But he had bolder aspirations than 
O'Connell and his immediate followers, and 
he seceded with the Young Irelanders in 
1845. In I9J8 he joined in Smith OTirieii's 
attempted insurrection [see O'Bribn, ^\'il- 
LIAM SmitrJ. After its collapse at Balliu- 
garry, co. Tipperarv, O'Maliony, with John 
Savage and others, maintained a sort of 
guemla stru^le on the borders of the coun- 
tiesof WaterfordandKilltenuy. Buthe,too, 
had to succumb and fly to france, where 
he lived in Paris for several years in great 

?iverty. In 1852 he left Paris for Kew 
ork. There, for several years, (TMabony 
found it impossible to do anything effective 
in the way of organising resistance to the 
English government in Ireland. The Emmet 
Monument Association had been founded 
about i864 by Michael Doheny, O'Mahony, 
aiid Others, to carrr on the struggle, hut it 
iailed to effect anything. Sometime in 1858, 
however, an envoy was sent , from a committee 
in New York comjiosed of O'Mahony and his 
friends, tu James Stephens in Dublin, with 
proposals for the foundation of a new secret 
organisation in Ireland, with the object of 
overthrowing the English rule and estAblish- 
ing on Irish republic. Stephens consented, 
under certain conditions, notably the Bead- 
ing over of definite sums of money at stated 
times. Thus originated what is commonly 
called the Fenian Brotherhood, a name, how- 
ever, which WHS not used in America till 
some years afterwards, and 
at all by the allied body in Ireland. The 
word seems an adaptation of the Irish ' Fiati 
Fianna ' or ' Fianna Eiriunn ' (i.e. champi( 
of Ireland). These terras were applied 
Irish heroic tales to the members of certi 
sepU who formed the militia of the ardrig 
or king of Erin. (Fionn was the chief war- 
rior in the Irish legends in which Oiain oi 
Oesian [q. v.] figured.) In the 'Fenian 
movement O'Mabonv played the greatest part 
next 10 that of Stepliens. For several years 
the Moeiety languished for lack of funds, only 
about 600/. in all reaching Stephens up to 
1863. Between tliat and ISHb some 8,000/. 
was sent over to Ireland, and this was the 
period of the greatest Fenian activity. Mr. 

Webb eslitaates the whole 6um contributed 
to the Fenian exchequer by the United States 
and Canada at ^,000/., but James Stephens 
sets it down as little over 40,000/. 

During all these years O'Mahony worked 
persistently, though exposed to much oppo- 
sition from many of his colleagues. In the 
later years of the movement, too, there woa 
constant conflict of opinion between himself 
and Stephens. In the alrartire attempt at in- 
surrection in Ireland in 1867, the ola Fenian 
movement, which Lord Kimberley stated in 
parliamentto hare been tlie most 'formidable 
effort since 1798 to sever the connection bo- 
ween England and Ireland, may be said to 
have come to on end, and with it the career 
of O'Mahony practically closed. The Fenian 
Brotherhood still dragged on a precarioua 
(. For several years O'Mahony re- 
mained head centre, but neither he nor it 
thenceforward had an^ appreciable influenCA 
'^n Irish or Irish- American politics. Througb- 
lut this period O'Mahony lived in g^at 
loverty. lie died in New York on 7 Feb. 
877. Ilisremains, which were brought back, 
to Ireland, were followed to Olaanevin b? & 
great concourse of people. O'Mahony was phy- 
ically a very powerful and handsome roan. 
[Personal knowledge ; Webb's Irish Biogr. 
Dublin. 18SB. The Celtic Muga^iine uf New Y'ork 
naay Articles on O'Mahooy by hit 
friend, Colonel Miehasl Kav^inagh, who. it i» 
understood, oontemplatee a full biography.] 

J. O'L. 
O'MALLEY, GEORGE (d. 1843), major- 
general, was a volunteer in the Castlebar 
yeomanry when the town was attacked hy 
the French under Humbert on 27 Aug. 179a, 
and was present when the place whs attacked 
a fortnight later by aatrong rebel force, whioh 
was defejited by the yeomatin and a com- 
pauy ol' Fraser fencibles. ©"MallBy was 
confirmed as a lieutenant in the Castleliar' 
yeomanry by Ijord Comwallis in recognition 
of his services,and soon after joined the North 
Mayo militia, from which he brought volim- 
teersto the 13th foot. He was appointed en- 
sign on 33 Feb. 1800; served with the 13th St 
Ferrol and in Egypt, where he was severely 
wounded in the action of 13 March 1801, and 
afterwards at Malta and Uibcaltar. For hi* 
success in recruiting in Ireland he received » 
company in the new secund battalion 89tJi 
foot on 35 April 1805, and served with it unlit 
Colonel Henry Aup-ustus (afterwards thir- 
teenth Viscount) Dillon or Dillon-Lee [q. v.] 
raised the lOlst foot, in which O'Malley Wb» 
ajipoiuted major. By bis activity and local 
connection in Mayo he assisted materially in 
forming there^ment. Ue served withit in. 
Ireland and Jersey, and was despatched 


O'Malley 169 O'Malley 

with three hundred men to St. John's, New 
BnuBwicky in 1808, when war with the 
United States was imminent, and the Ameri- 
cans were collecting a large force near that 
place. For his services in command of that 
gmrrison for eleven months, and the exem- 
plary conduct of the troops under his com- 
mand, he received the freedom of the city on 
19 July 1609. As major, he afterwards com- 
manded the regiment four years in Jamaica, 

the few clans of Ireland celebrated in the 
native histories as sea-rovers, and Graine's 
childhood was spent on the mainland of their 
country and among the islands of Inisbofin, 
Inisclerie, Inisturke, Inissearc, Inisdallduff, 
and Inisdevellan. She married, first, Domh- 
nall-an-choffaidh OTlaherty, son of Gilla- 
dubh O'Flaaerty, chieftain of Bailenaliinsi, 
CO. Galway, called in the State Papers Bal- 
lynehenessy, and at the present day Ballina- 

obtaining the brevet rank of lieutenant- . hinch. By him she had two sons, Eoghan, 
eolonel 4 June 1813. The regiment was dis- I who married Catharine, daughter of Ed- 
banded as the 100th in 1817. His repeated mund Burke of Castle Barry, and Murchadh. 
applications for employment in Europe were 1 Her husband was 'assured cousin in nine 
nnauccessful, but on 12 June 1815 he was degrees * to the Sir Murrough ne doe 
appointed to the 2nd battalion 44th foot, and . O'Flaherty (called by the Irish, Murchadh 
commanded it in Picton*s division at Quatre na dtuagli, of the axes), whom Queen Eliza- 
Bras and Waterloo. OnlSJunethebattalion beth recognised as head of the OTlaher- 
lost very heavily, being reduced to five officers ties. She married, secondly, Richard Mac 
and two hundred men. O'Malley was twice Oileverius Burke (called by the Irish, Ris- 
wounded and had two horses shot under him, deart an iarain, of the iron), who became 
but did not leave the field (C.B. and medal). Mac William lochtar, or chief of the Burkes 
He commanded the battalion in France imtil ' of Mayo, in 1582 (Annals of Loch Cf, ii. 
it was disbanded in 1816, when he was placed 453). By him she nad one son, Theobald 
on half-nay. He was appointed major 38th i (called in Irish, Tibet na long, of the ships), 
foot on 12 Auff. 1819, ana lieutenant-colonel 1 who married Medhbh, daughter of O'Connor 
88th Connaught rangers on 2 June 1825. He I Sligo. She must also have had a daughter, 
commanded that corps, which he had in a , if the statement in the state papers is correct 
fine state of discipline, until promoted major- ; that she was mother-in-law to Richard Burke. 
genendon23Nov.l841. He died in London called by the English * the Devil's Hook,^ 
on 16 May 1843. A statue was erected to and in Irish, Deamhan an Chorrain, fiend of 
him at Castletown, Isle of Man. , the sickle. She made many expeditions by 

[Armv lists; Naval and Military Gazette, fea, and was famous as a bold and active 
20 May'l843. p. 310.] H. M. C. leader. In I0/6, she, with her second hus- 

I band, came to Sir Henry Sidney at Galway, 

CyMALLEY, GItACE ( 1530 ?-l 600.*^), and made aUiance with him. He knighted 
Iriah chieftain's wife, called in Irish writ- ^ Richard Burke, with whom he conversed in 
ings Graine Ui Maille (ta being the femi- Latin, the only language, except Irish, which 
nine form of ua, grandson or descendant), Burke knew. Her husband died before 
and in the State Papers, Grany O'Mayle, 1 1586 (State Papers). In 1577 she was cap- 
Grainne 0*Mailley, Grany Ne Male, Grany , tured by the Earl of Desmond, and brought 
Nj Mayle, Ghrayn Ny Vayle and Grany Ne to Dublin soon after 1 July 1678. She waa 
ll!alley, was daughter of Dubhdara O'Malley, released, and in October 1582 was suspected 
chieftain of Umhaill Uachtrach Ui Mhaille, of plotting with the Earl of Thomond, Lord 
now the barony of Murrisk, co. Mayo, and of Birmingham, several Burkes, O'Madden, 
hia wife Margaret, daughter of Conchobhar 1 MacMorris, MacDavey, and Sir Murrough 
O'Malley, according to her own statement in ne doe O'Flaherty. She was reported to think 
state papers dated July 1593. She is often herself no small lady. At the end of the year 
callea in local traditions and son^ Graine j (t^.27Jan.l583),when Theobald Dillon came 
Mhaol. Maol, of which the nominative singu- into her country-, she swore to have his life for 
lar feminine after a noun is Mhaol, means 1 coming ; but her husband quieted her. Both 
cropped or docked, as in the well-known ' afterwards came to Sir Nicholas Malby [q. v.] 
Irish tale, ' Eachtra agus imtheact an mhadra to arrange not to pay 600/., arrears of taxes due 
mhaol ' (* The Adventures of the Dog with 
Docked Ears and Tail '), and hence tonsured, 
as in the name of an ecclesiastic of the 
eleventh century, Maolsuthain, translated by 

himself Calvus perennis. The incident or 
peculiarity which gave rise to the name in her 
case is not related in any of the numerous 
stories about her. The O'Malleys are one of 

from them to the government. Her husband 
being dead, she went to Carraicanchobhlaigh, 
her castle in Borrisowle, co. Mayo, with a 
thousand cows and mares, and in 1586 ob- 
tained letters of conduct from Sir Richard 
Bingham. He seized her, stating that she 
had plundered Aran Island, tied ner with a 
rope, and built a gallows for her. She waa 




let off on a pledge from the Devirs Hook, 
Richard Burke. When he rebelled, she fled 
to Ulster, and stayed with O'Neill and 
ODonneU, being unable to return owing to 
loss of her ships. She received Queen Eliza- 
beth's pardon through Sir John Perrot, and 
returned to Connaught. Sir Richard Bing- 
ham, who usually took an unfavourable 
view of the Irish, describes her, on 23 Aug. 
1593, 'as a notable traitress and nurse of all 
rebellions in the province for forty years.' 
On 5 May 1595 she sent a petition to 
Burghley for the restoration of one-third of 
her husband's lands to her. She died in 
great poverty a few vears later, and local 
tradition states that she is buried on Clare 

Numerous current stories of her adven- 
tures are unsupported by records. An old 
tune, known to all Irish fiddlers and pipers, 
is called after her, and is printed in Bunt- 
ing's * Ancient Music of Ireland.' In the 
south of Ireland it was regarded as a tune 
proper to the catholic interest, as is shown 
m Gerald Griffin's [q. v.] ballad, * Orange 
and Green.' 

[Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, 1674-85, 
1688-92, 1592-6; OTlahert/s Chorographical 
Description of West or H-Iar Connaught, ed. 
Hardiman, Dublin, 1846.] N. M. 

O'MALLEY, THADEUS (179&-1877), 
political writer, born at Garryowen, near 
Limerick, in 1796, completed at the age of 
twenty- three his studies for the Roman 
catholic ministry. He obtained preferment 
in America ; but, strong-willed and inde- 
pendent in spirit, he was in 1827 suspended 
by his ecclesiastical superior {Life of Bishop 
England). Returning to Dublin, he was at- 
tached to the cathedral in Marlborough Street, 
and officiated as an assistant priest imder 
Archbishop Daniel Murray [o. v.] 

Dr. James Warren Doyle [q. v.], in oppo- 
sition to O'C'onnell, had distmguished him- 
self by his powerful advocacy of a legal pro- 
vision fur the Irish poor ; and after the death 
of that prelate his mantle fell upon O'Malley, 
who, in a series of able public letters, resolutely 
demanded a poor law for Ireland. O'Malley 
also supported a system of national educa- 
tion, but was suspended by Dr. Murray be- 
cause he addressed a very caustic letter to 
Archbisliop M acHale in vindication of his own 
chief, whose public policy on the question of 
national education Dr. MacHale had severely 
impugned. After a short interval O'Malley 
was restored. To demonstrate his view on 
the subject, he published * A Sketch of the 
State of Popular Education in Holland, 
Prussia, Belgium, and France ' (2nd edition, 
1840, 8vo). Subsequently he received from 

the government the appointment of rector of 
the catholic university of Malta ; but having 
set on foot some reforms in discipline amon? 
the ecclesiastical students, he was rebuked 
and dismissed, O'Malley vainly urging that 
he ought not to yield to the behests of pro- 
testant lavmen in matters wholly pertaining 
to his ecclesiastical functions. He retumea 
to Dublin, and in 1845 started a newspaper 
entitled ' The Social Economist,' which soon 
fell into disfavour with the church in con- 
sequence of some articles deprecating the 
enforced celibacy of clerics. It was a viva- 
cious periodical, one column oifacetitB beijDg 
headed ' Sips of Punch.' Differing with 
O'Connell on the question of a complete re- 
peal of the act of union, he urged the esta^ 
blishment of a federal parliament for Ire- 
land, and the question was orally debated 
by both in public disputation; and in the 
end many former disciples of the Liberator 
flocked to O'Malley's standard. The priest 
followed up his advantage bj startm^ a 
newspaper called ' The Federalist,' in which 
his opinions obtained eloquent advocacy. 
Soon after he engaged in an effort to unite 
Old and Young Ireland. The former, headed 
by O'Connell, advocated moral force ; while 
Young Ireland favoured an appeal to arms, 
and seceded from O'Connell. For the next 
twenty years O'Malley remained in compara- 
tive retirement, living alone in a back lane 
of Dublin. 

In 1870, when Isaac Butt, Q.C., inaugu- 
rated the home-rule movement, he found in 
O'Malley a zealous and energetic ally. The 
priest supported the new movement by voice 
and pen, and rejoiced to see his early opinions 
becoming more widely popular. It was at 
this time that O'Malley issued anonymously 
* Harmony in Religion,^ in which some alleged 
divergence of opinion between Cardinals 
Manning and Cullen was pointed out, and 
some modifications in ecclesiastical discipline 
boldly urged. Cardinal Cullen now ruled the 
see of Dublin, and O'Malley was once more 
visited with archiepiscopal displeasure. His 
last publication, * Home Kule on the Basis of 
Federalism ' (London, 1873, 16mo), went to 
a second edition, and, in a prefatory letter 
of fourteen pages, is inscribed * To the Irish 
Conservative Party.' Though bold in urging 
changes of ecclesiastical discipline, O'Malley 
was unswerving on articles of faith. He died 
at his lodgings in Henrietta Street, Dublin, 
at the age of eighty-one, on 2 Jan. 1877, and 
was buried in Glasnevin cemetery. 

[Personal knowledge; Life of Bishop Eng- 
land ; Life, Times, and Contemporaries of Loid 
Cloncur^, Dublin, 1855 ; Webb's Compendium 
of Irish &ography.] W. J. F. 




1660), theologian and grammarian. [See 


1886), surgeon to Napoleon I, bom in Ireland 
in 1786, was the son of Jeremiah 0*Meara, 
a ' member of the leffal profession/ by Miss 
Murphy, sister of Edmund Murphy, M.A., 
of Trinity College, Dublin, and rector of 
Tartaraghan, co. Armagh. He is supposed to 
have been a descendant of the Irish medical 
family, of which Dermod Meara [q. v.] was 
a member (cf. Caicbbon, Royal College of 
Surgeons in Irekmd, p. 6). The statement 
has been repeated that he was educated at 
Trinity College, and at the Royal College of 
Surgeons, in Dublin ; but his name is not 
borne upon the registers of either society, 
and it is more probable that he studied sur- 

fery in London. He entered the army in 
804 as assistant-Burgpeon to the 62nd re^- 
ment, served with it in Sicily and Calabna, 
and in General Eraser's expedition to Egypt 
in 1807, and was senior medical officer to the 
troops which held the fortress of Scylia. 
After the conclusion of the expedition of 
1807, he was second in a bloodless duel at 
Messina in Sicily between two military 
officers, one of whom was 0'Meara*s old 
schoolfellow ; and owing to the intervention 
of Lieutenant-colonel Sir John Stuart, who 
was resolved to suppress the practice of 
duelling, O'Meara and nis principal, who was 
the challenger, were both ordered to leave 
the service. Subsequently O'Meara became 
assistant-surgeon on board H.M.S. Victo- 
rious (Captam Sir John Talbot), and lat«r 
was surgeon successively on board the Es- 
pidgle, the Goliath, and the Bellerophon 
when it received Napoleon in 1816. In both 
the Goliath and the Bellerophon he served 
under Captain Maitland [see Maitland, Sib 
Frederick Lewis], who spoke highly of him. 
During the passage from Kochewrt to Ply- 
mouth Bonaparte was attracted by his power 
of speaking Italian, and, when his own sur- 
jreon, Mengeaud, declined to follow him 
into exile, he asked that (VMeara should be 
allowed to accompany him to St. Helena as 
his medical attendant. The admiralty readily 
permitted him to join the emperor. Napo- 
leon seems to have felt little confidence in his 
medical skill, but treated him with greater 
friendliness than was agreeable to Montholon, 
Las Cases, and other members of his suite. 

O'Meara had foreseen that his position 
might become delicate and difficult. Lowe 
wished him to act to some extent as a spy 1 
upon his prisoner, and to repeat to him the 
private eonTersations of the emperor. He { 
reeommended that (yMeara's stipend should j 

be raised from 366/. to 520/. per annum, and 
for some time their relations were cordial. 
But Lowe soon detected O'Meara in several 
irregularities, for which he reprimanded him 
with asperity. O'Meara retaliated by with- 
holding his reports of Napoleon's conversa- 
tions. The breach rapidly widened, and 
0*Meara lent himself with increasing readi- 
ness to Napoleon's policy of exasperation. 
Lowe asked the government to recall O'Meara. 
Lord Bathurst at first declined, but in May 
1818 evidence of O'Meara's intrigues reached 
him from a source other than the governor's 
despatches, and in July O'Meara was dis- 
missed from his post. He carried with him 
from the island an autograph note from Napo- 
leon, dated 25 July 1818, which ran: * Je prie 
mes parens et mes amis de croire tout ce que 
le docteur O'Meara leur dira relativement 
k la position ou je me trouve et aux senti- 
mens que je conser\'e. S'il voit ma bonne 
Louise, je la prie de permettre qu'il lui baise 
la main.' Upon his arrival in England he 
despatched, on 28 Oct. 1818, a letter to 
the admiralty, insinuating that Napoleon's 
life was not safe in Lowe^ hands. The ad- 
miralty, by way of reply, informed O'Meara 
on 2 Nov. that his name had been erased 
from the list of naval surgeons. There seems 
no doubt that his conduct throughout was 
that of an indiscreet partisan, or rather puppet, 
of Napoleon ; and his diagnosis of his patient's 
case as one of liver disease induced by the 
malignity of the climate was falsified by 
Napoleon's subsequent death from a disease 
which is not affected by climate (Arnott, 
NapoleofiLS Last Illness). 

O'Meara's attitude rendered him extremely 
popular with a large party in England, and 
Byron, in his *Age of Bronze,' thus mentioned 
the incident of his dismissal : 

The stiff surgeon "who maintained his cause 
Hath lost his place and gained the world's 

O'Meara subsequently attached himself to the 
opposition, and espoused the cause of Queen 
Caroline. Moore the poet, writing in 1820 in 
his * Journal,' says that O^Meara devoted him- 
self to the queen's business, and collected her 
witnesses, &c., at her trial. He also became 
an active member of the lieform Club, joining 
the first committee in 1836, and was a warm 
adherent of Daniel O'Connell. 

O'Meara had commenced a pamphlet war 
against his enemy Lowe by the anonymous 
publication in 1817 of ' Letters from the Cape 
of Good Hope,' of which a French version 
appeared two years later. This was written 
in reply to Dr. William Warden's * Letters 
written on board the Northumberland and 

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;...-" :'• ■--. :-"... j t :* :—'..::;:. an .1 ^vm- 
: •.'.. ' . ii-j - •..•■:. H-T '^. jriphii.":! works 
■i!-. -. :. L-r j. l.-.j;. >.p-.i:i*.::-n. F-»r manv 
•..-;.-- -:.•: -V 1^ :L'- I'lri- '. rr^*]- ndfr.T of the 
■ 'i iM ■• ' .'.-■v-j.aj.vr. SLv dir^i in Pari* •■n 

\minj h».-r w/irk? of fiction are: 1. *A 
W'.iiJiirr.* TriaU/ a uovel. 3 vols. Loni.Km, 
I '"'•7, -vo. 2. ' IzuV J^iory/ 3 vols. London, 

If ol IJ'i'irri' i.n' ■■ '■ '^l' tii'i.r 
e l^ft in riiiiii'i -' f i|ii u I'lurn-ii 
IftknA, ^lii'li I"' l»"|«iMiilii/| Jo 

■iih IV>riii("nJ*''« jiMviii'- *!«Tn:- I"*!'*, **><'». r»fprinied under the title of * Iza: 
Ml on '{ Jhii" i^^'''' "I I'l" l'"iiHi* a StDry of Life in Uussian Poland/ London, 
goadt of «!ryhi|H'ln»i iii iIh- lnnd, j 1m77, hvo. .'J. * The Battle of Connemara/ 




London, 1878, 8vo. 4. ' Are you my Wife? 
a novel, 3 vols. I^ndon, 1878, 8vo. 6. 'The 
Old House in Picardy/ a novel, London, 
1887, 8vo. 6. ' Narka,' a novel, 2 vols. Lon- 
don, 1888, 8vo. 

Her biographical works are: 7. 'Frede- 
rick Ozanam, Professor at the Sorbonne, his 
Life and Works,* Edinburgh, 1876, 8vo. 
8. ' One of Ood's Heroines : a Biographical 
Sket4;h of Mother Mary Teresa KeUy, New 
York, 1878, 16mo. 9. /The Bells of the 
Sanctuary : Ma^ Benedicta, A^es, Aline, 
One of uod's Heroines, Monseigneur Dar- 
boy,' London, 1879, 8vo. Some of these bio- 
graphies had previously been published 
separately. 10. ' Henri Perreyve, and his 
Counsels to the Sick,' being a translation of 
Perreyve's 'Joum6e des Malades,' with a 
sketch of his life prefixed, London, 1881, 
8vo. 11. 'Madame Mohl, her Salon and 
her Friends. A Study of Social Life in Paris,' 
London, 1885, 8vo ; another edition. Boston, 
Massachusetts, 1886, 8vo; translated into 
French, Paris [1886], 12mo. 12. ' Queen by 
Right Divine, and other Tales, being the 
second series of *' Bells of the Sanctuary,"' 
London, 1885, 8vo. Id. 'Thomas Orant, 
First Bishop of Southwark,' London, 1874, 
8vo : 2nd edit., with a preface by Dr. 
William Bernard U Hat home, bishop of 
Birmingham, London, 1886, 8vo. 14. 'The 
Blind Apostle (Gaston de S6gur), and a 
Heroine of Charity (Madame Legras), being 
the third series of " Bells of the Sanctuary,"* 
with an introduction by Cardinal Manning, 
London, 1890, 8vo. l5. 'The Venerable 
Jean Baptiste Vianney, Cur6 d'Ars,' a bio- 
graphy, London, 1891, 8vo. 

[Irish Monthly, October 1889, xvii. .'>27; 
Times. 18 Nov. 1888, p. 1 col. 1, and 14 Nov. 
p. 6 col. 3 ; Tablet, 17 Nov. 1888, p. 789.1 

T. C. 

(1773-1855), admiral, bom in 1773, eldest 
son of Rear-admiral Comthwaite Ommanney 
(*/. 1801), entered the navy in 1786 on board 
the Kose firigate, commanded by Captain 
Henrj' Harvey [q- v.], on the Newfounaland 
station. He afterwards served, 1788-92, in 
the Mediterranean, and in July 1792 was ap- 
pointed to the Lion, which, under the com- 
mand of Sir Erasmus Gower fq. v.], took 
Lord Macartney to China. On 20 May 1793 
Ommanney was promoted to the rank of 
lieutenant, and on returning to England was 
appointed, in October 1794, to the Aquilon 
frigate, cruising in the Channel. In March 
1795 he was moved into the Queen Char- 
lotte, one of the ships with Lord Bridport in 
the engagement off Lorient on 23 June. On 

6 Dec. 1796 he was promoted to be com- 
mander. During the mutiny at the Nore he 
commanded gun-brig No. 28 for the defence 
of the Thames, and in December 1797 was 
appointed to the Busy brig, in which, during 
the next two years, he cruised in the North 
Sea with considerable success. In August 
1799, in company with the Speedwell brig, 
he stopped a fleet of Swedish merchant ships 
under tne convoy of a frigate. Ommanney 
had intelligence that some of these ships 
were laden with contraband of war, and 
were bound for French ports, and, as the 
frigate refused to allow them to be searched, 
he sent the whole fleet into the Downs for 
examination. His tact and determination in 
this business received the particular approval 
of the admiralty. In January 1800 he went 
to the West Indies, but was obliged by the 
state of his health to return in July. On 
16 Oct. he was advanced to post rank, and 
during 1801 commanded, in rapid succession, 
the Hussar frigate, the Robust, and the Bar- 
fleur, bearing the flag of Rear-admiral Colling- 
wood, in the Channel fleet. From 1804 to 
1806 he was flag-captain to Sir Erasmus 
Gower on the Newfoundland station. In 
1825 he was appointed to the Albion, in 
which, after some time at Lisbon, he joined 
Sir Edward Codrington [q. v.] in the Medi- 
terranean, and had an important part in the 
battle of Navarino on 20 Oct. 1827, for which 
he was made a C.B., and from the allied 
powers received the crosses of St. Louis, the 
third class of St. Vladimir, and the Redeemer 
of Greece. On 22 July 1830 he was pro- 
moted to be rear-admiral, was knighted on 
23 May 1835, and nominated a K.C.B. on 
20 July 1838. From 1837 to 1840, with 
his flag in the Donegal, he had command of 
the Lisbon station, and from September 
1840 to October 1841 he commanded at 
Malta, during the prolonged absence of the 
commander-in-chief. Sir Robert Stopford 
fq. v.] He became a vice-admiral on 23 Nov. 
1841, and admiral 4 May 1849. He was 
commander-in-chief at Devonport from 1851 
to 1854, during the latter part of which 
time the fitting out of the fleet for the Baltic 
brought a severe strain on nerves enfeebled 
by age. He died on 8 July 1855. Ommanney 
had married in 1803 Frances, daughter of 
Richard Ayling of Slidham in Sussex, and 
had by her four daughters. Lady Ommanney 
died a few days after her husband, on 17 Aug. 
Sir Francis Molyneux Ommanney, the navy 
agent and M.P. for Barnstaple, was the ad- 
mirars brother. 

f Marshall's Roy. Nar. Biogr. iii.(vol. ii.), 303 ; 
O'Bvrne's Nav. Biogr. Diet.; Gent. Mag. 1866, ii. 
316.] J.K.L. 




O'MOLLOY, ALBIN, or Alpiij 
O'MoELMHUAiDH (d, 1223), bishop of Ferns, 
was a native Irishman, who became a 
Cistercian monk at Baltinglass, and even- 
tually rose to be abbot of that house. In 
Lent 1186, when John, archbishop of Dub- 
lin, held a synod at Iloly Trinity Church, 
Albiii preached a long sermon on clerical 
coutinency, in which he laid all the blame 
for existing evils on the Welsh and English 
clergy who had come over to Ireland (GiR. 
Camb. OpfrOf i. 6^). Albin was shortly 
afterwards made bishop of Ferns or Wex- 
ford, the see having been previously declined 
by Giraldus Cambrensis. He was present 
at the coronation of Richard I on 3 Sept. 
1189 (Gesta Bicardi, ii. 79). On 5 Nov. 
he was appointed by Pope Innocent III, 
with the Archbishop of Tuam and Bishop 
of Kilmacduagh, to excommunicate the 
Bishop of Waterford, who had robbed the 
Bishop of Lismore ( CaL Papal Registers, i. 
16). In 1205 Albin received 10/. from the 
royal gift, and on 3 April 1206 was recom- 
mended by the king to the chapter of Cashel 
for archbishop (Calendar qf Documents rela^ 
tin*/ to Ireland, i. 2o8, 291). In November 
1207 Innocent addressed a letter to Albin 
with reference to persons who had been im- 
properly ordained. On 17 June 1208 Albin 
was sent by the king on a mission to the King 
of Connuught. On lo Sept. 1215 he had pro- 
tection while attending the council at Rome ; 
and nil 5 So])t. 1210 received custody of the 
bishnprio of Killaloo {ib, i. 385, 058,721). 
Will iuni Marshal, Grst earl of Pembroke [cj. v.], 
whil<' in Inland between 1207 and 1213, 
8eiz«'d two manors belonging to the Bishop 
of Intiis. For this Albin excommunicated ' 
him ; but the j-arl ])l(»ad(Ml that it was done ' 
in tiiin* of war, and rotain»*d the manors all I 
his lilt!. Art<»r Marshal's death, Albin came 
to tln! kin^ at Lorirjnn and petitioned for the 
restoration of his lands. Henry begged the 
bishoj) to al)s<jl v<' tin? duad, but Albin refused 
to do M) iiiili'.-s n-st oration were made. To 
this tin* youiigJT William Marshal [q. v.] and 
his brotlnTs rirl'iimid theirconsent, and Albin 
thrnciirsiMl tlwm.and foretold the end of their 
TViVM (Matt. Pakih, iv. 4i»2^. The quarrel 
appears to havo Ih'cu at a crisis in 1218. On 
Ih Aj)ril ot' that y^ar Albin was prohibited 
from prosj'cuting his jih-a against William, 
earl Marshal, and on 25 .lune llonorius III 
directed the Archbishop of Dublin and the 
legat<«to j'frect a reconciliation between the 
bishop and the earl (Cdlendar of Doniments 
relati/Kf to Ireland, i. 823 : CaL Papal Be- 
(fUtrrs\ i. 50). Albin died on 1 Jan. 1223 
(Annals of Loch Ce, i. 267). Matthew Paris 
speak^ "'" *m as conspicuous for his sanctity. 

Albin consecrated the infirmary chapel at 
the Cistercian abbey of Waverley on Nov. 
1201, and dedicated five altars there on 
10 July 1214. The monks of St. Swithin's, 
Winchester, made him a member of their 
fraternity. He appears as a witness to 
several charters in the ' Chart ularv of St. 
Mar>-, Dublin' (i. 31, 142-3, 147-8, Rolls 

[Matthew Paris, iv. 492 (Dr. Loard is clearly 
mistaken in identifying the Bishop of Ferns with 
Albin's Buccessor, John St. John) ; Annales Mo- 
nastici, ii. 253, 282 ; Surrey ArchsBological Col- 
lections, viii. 166 ; Annals of the Four Mjisten*, 
ed. 0*Donovan; Cotton's Fasti Ecd. Hib. ii. 
331 ; Ware's Works on Ireland, i. 430-40, ed. 
Harris; Lanigan's Ecclesiastical History of 
Ireland, iv. 264-6, 277.] C. L. K. 

O'MOLLOY, FRANCIS {Jl. 1600), theo- 
logian and grammarian. [Seie Mollot.] 

O'MORAN, JAMES (1735-17d4), lieu- 
tenant-general in the French service, was 
bom in 1735 at Elphin, co. Roscommon, 
where his father is said to have been a shoe- 
maker. Domiciled at Morin-le-Montagne, 
Pas-de-Calais, James was appointed a cadet 
in the regiment of Dillon in the Irish brigade 
on 15 Nov. 1752, and became a lieutenant- 
en-second on 14 Jan. 1759. He served in 
Germany in the campaigns of 1700-1. be- 
came sous-lieutenant on 1 March 17(>:3, sous 
aide-major on 4 Feb. 1769, captain on 16 April 
1771 , captain-en-second on 5 June 1770, cap- 
tain-commandant on 30 Jan. 1778, major on 
20 Oct. 1779, mestre-de-camp (colonel) on 
24 June 1780, lieutenant-colonel of Dillon 
on 9 .Tune 178o, and colonel of the re^riment 
on 25 Aug. 1791. He served as major in the 
trenches, and was wounded at the siepe of 
Savannah in 1779. He was in Grenada, West 
Indies, in 1779-82, and in America in 1783. 
On 6 Feb. 1792 he was appointed m;ir6cbal- 
de-camp (general of brigadfe), in which capa- 
city he served under Dumouriez in Cham- 
pagne and Belgium. lie captured Touniav 
and occupied Cassel. On 3 Oct. 1792 hV 
was made a general of division (lieutenant- 
preneral). On the representations of the 
Division Ferrieres, and apparently under 
suspicion of receiving English gold, lie was 
arraigned before the revolutionary tribunal 
of Paris, was condemned as a traitor to his 
country, * en contrariant les plans an moment 
tose of the year 2 (6 March 1794). 

[ O'Calhijrhan's Irish Brigades in tlm ^.Tvioe 
of France (Glasgow, 1870) for particular^ ..f the 
regiment of Dillon; Listo des G^ncnuix . . . 
Paris, year viii ; Pmdhomme's Les Crirms de la 
Revolution.] H. M. C. 




OltfORE, RORY or RURY OGE (d. 
1578), Irish rebel, called in Irish Ruaidhri 
o^ ua Mordha, was second son of Rory 
O^Mo^e, captain of Leix, by Margaret, daugh- 
ter of Thomas Butler, and granddaughter 
of Pierce or Piers Butler, eighth earl of Or- 
monde [q. v.] (cf. Lodge, Peerage of Irelandy 
ed. Archdall, iv. 19; and HarL MS, 1425, 
f. 1196). Sir Henry Sidney once called him 
' an obscure and base varle't,' but his family 
was one of the most important of the minor 
Irish septs, and also one of the most tur- 

RoBT 0*MoBB (Jl, 1554), the father, was 
son of Connell O'More {d, 1537), and early 
acquired the character of a violent and suc- 
cessful chieftain. On the death of Connell 
a fierce dispute broke out between the three 
sons — Lysaght,Eeda^h, and Rory — and their 
uncle Peter the tanist. Peter was for the 
time a friend of the Butlers. Consequently 
the deputy. Lord Leonard Grey, supported 
the sons ; and, although Peter was acKnow- 
ledged chief. Grey got hold of him by a ruse, 
and led him about in chains for some time. 
Kedagh then seems to have secured the chief- 
tainship, Lysaght having been killed ; but 
he diea early in 1542, and Rory, the third 
brother, succeeded. He, after a period of 
turmoil, agreed on 13 May 1542 to lead a 
quieter life, and made a general submission, 
being probably influenced by the fact that 
Kedagh had left a son of the same name, 
who long afterwards, in 1565, petitioned 
the privy council to be restored to his 
father^s inheritance. Like other Irish chiefs 
of the time, 0*More was only a nominal 
friend to the English. In a grant after- 
wards made to his eldest son his services to 
King Edward VI are spoken of: but they 
must have been of doubtful value, as an 
order of 15 March 1550-1 forbade any of 
the name of O^More to hold land in Leix 
(App. to Sth Rep, Dep.'Keep, Publ, JRec. 
Ireland), At some uncertain time between 
1550 and 1557 Rory O'More was killed, and 
was succeeded by a certain Connell O'More, 
who may be the Connell Oge O'More men- 
tioned in 1556 in the settlement of Leix (cf. 
Bagwell, Ireland under the Tudors, i. 400, 
and Cal, State Papers, Irish Ser. 1509-73, 
pp. 135,414). He was put to death in 1557 
(Annals of the Four Masters, ii. 1645). Rory 
left two sons, Callagh and Rory Oge. Callagh, 
who was brought up in England, was called 
by the English ' The Calougn,' and, as he de- 
scribes himself as of Gray s Inn in 1568, he 
may be assumed to be the John Callow who en- 
tered there in 1567 (Foster, Beg, of Graves 
Inn, p. 39). In 1571 Ormonde petitioned for 
the Caloogh's return, and soon afterwards he 

came back to Ireland, where in 1582 he 
was thought a sufficiently strong adherent 
to the English to receive a grant of land in 
Leix (Cal. State Papers, Irish Ser. 1574-85, 
pp. 392,412). 

Rory Oge O'More, the second son, was 
constantly engaged in rebellion. He received 
a pardon on 17 Feb. 1565-6, but in 1571 he 
was noted as dangerous, and in 1572 he 
was fighting Ormonde and the queen at the 
same time, being favoured by the weakness 
of the forces at the command of Francis 
Cosby, the seneschal of Queen's County, and 
the temporary absence of Ormonde in Eng- 
land. In this little rebellion the Butlers and 
the Fitzgeralds were united against him; 
but when, in November 1572, Desmond es- 
caped from Dublin, it was Rory Oge O'More 
who escorted him through Kildare and pro- 
tected him in Queen's County (cf. 12th Mgp, 
Dep,'Keep, Publ. Hec. Ireland, p. 78). He 
was mixed up in Kildare's plots in 1574, 
and taken prisoner in November. But he 
was soon free, and Sidney, when on his tour 
in 1575, wrote of him : * Rory Oge O'More 
hath the possession and settling-place in the 
Queen's (5ounty, whether the tenants will or 
no, as he occupieth what he listeth and 
wasteth what he will.* However, O'More 
was afraid of the deputy, and when Sydney 
came into his territory, he went to meet him 
in the cathedral of Kilkenny (December 
1575), and ^submitted himself, repenting (as 
he said) his former faults, and promising 
hereafter to live in better sort (for worse 
than he hath been he cannot be).' Hence 
we find a new pardon granted to him on 
4 June 1576 (ib, p. 179). But in the next 
year he hoped for help from Spain, and, 
pushed on by John Burke, his friend, he 
made a desperate attack on the l*ale. He 
allied himself with some of the O'Connors, 
and gathered an army. On 18 March 1576-7 
the seneschal of Queen's County was com- 
manded to attack Rory Ogo and the O'Con- 
nors with fire and sword (13M Pep. Dep,- 
Keep, Publ. Pec. Ireland, p. 25). There was 
good reason for active hostilities, as on the 
3rd the insurgents had burned Naas with 
every kind of horror. Sidney wrote to the 
council the same month : * Rory Oge O'More 
and Cormock M'Cormock O'Conor have 
burnt the Naas. They ranne thorough the 
towne lyke hagges and furies of hell, with 
flakes of fier fastned on poles ends * (Cal, 
State Papers, Irish Ser. 1574-85, p. 107; 
cf. Careto MSS. 1575-88, f. 1 10). Later in 
the year O'More captured Harrington and 
Cosby. They were rescued by a ruse. 
0*More's wife and all but O'More himself and 
one of those who were with him were killed. 

OMore 176 O'More 

lif'iT'a: V. 1' > "^ .-.i.-^V.T.rVMor^ fell upon final depamire in April 1640: the En^lLih 

Uir-v^r.'u. ■ !;.u-'i--s: ir. : "-ewe*!' him so government were busy in Scotland, and the 

: :.i. '^.^i'lev -ici-v :.* ;ri-z< sovinj when time seemed propitious for an effort bv the 

h:.> •% Mi'.i..*> •v-»r* ■> i'.^ -.T^r^j^i. Then rush- Irish citholica to repiin their last territories, 

•.!;: i-^'iu'- I ^•■■- i.r"* '.r-^<. '*- --H-'apeil prac- and to restore the splendour of their religion. 

::v' I.!'- uiA 'i '/:-"• .V> ^ l*"*'-'^'?. :. -ioH). O' More, who afterwards admitted to an Ewr- 

\\- -III ift-r^ir:* : .Tr.-r\i Cir. t; rur in I ish pr:rioner( Temple. HUt. of Irish Mebfl^ 

s\\ iT'. xr* ■ -r.TAr rvirr.Arv y.-^rarriok, //on. p. 1 ()•*$) that a ph)t hud been hatching for 

bar-:: : " r-»^T ' '^^ rv. :-- ■ i- '~j^is. he years, began negotiation^* with Jolin or Shaue 

wi- A.'.lfi ■^y :'-T F.'jTTi-r.jlv* .- J" :"-» L'^7'*. iVXeill, the preat Tyrone's younijer s<^n and 

j^vA L.i Lr:i : i^: :j t. I »;•*.■>-• jL*:'.r. H** last surviving heir, who was ac&nowledj?ed 

i»:: i -"T.. " "-.v-r. .MrlLry *«'Mr^. w-im by the Irish and on the continent as Earl 

J.ii:: B :."kr. - r. : :hf FUr*. ■: * " of Tyrone. Tie soundwl some of the dis- 

t . k .•'.-ir.-- :'. T;.-: Kni";.*:. ;:>• r. 1 i :" I'ontented gentry of Connauffht and Leinsttr, 

ar-rr -* x-: 'Kr!> .]*y. Jin 1 i '■'.:*':.'. j ^V.-^r^i liavinjr Jin ally among the latter in Colonel 

h m ". .' rr" -iTi ''-I ;..- ' ^ -ir-Tr;.'. ii- 'r*^ Rii:hard Plunkett. who was his wife's lirst- 

ciEir i- ^r-a' a r--b-l «i- hi- fa'h-r. ar.i. i:'"-r iTouiin. Plunkett, who was a needy man, 

a i;!'-r •.:' h;.'h*;r.i' an'] pi jri'l* rir.i'. :r. "W- .■■-. ^xa.* well known at the Emrlish court and 

h .■*•'-•. ^r. [.•: r«:'- *v*r*"l aim'.-* a".'. l-r!x. •■"^ i.* l~ Irish society, and had st?«»n service in»."i .n * -klrrr.i-fi n'-ar TimaJi-v. i^v.r^r.'i^ Fljjiiiers. Thedisbandingof Strafford's army 

C .^r.rv. I7A li'. l^'/r^K .M«'irv?"noal!r': h:=: !i.i.i left a yreat manv otficers and s*jldiers 

•a bl'yjd y Jir. ! bold y^iiin^ man.''T!.-- F:it w.rh. lit employment, and these very will- 

Mct"-r»rr'} ' an • i llu-* ri'.n-. r*Tiown"il. ar. : :"^'.-r- .r^ly l-.?reniAl to t he plotter. O'More'-* means 

bni*:*! ;/vfjr.;/riiari.' Att»T hi:* d^-ath :i.r in- :' persuasion w»?re mainly two: there was a 

^jr.hiif:*: of til'! ff'MoTf'H a-, a i"]*' wa«^-r.-. oiinoir for old Irish and Angli>Irisli fami- 

'fi*i/w..: ft ir*-iHr.'l ur-'l'T :Ii» T'llir*; W- s lies '.^ recover their lost estates or to win 

C'.r.'ij.- ri'J:;rij of Jr.-h U\'*'jr. . Cil. o: >*.i.:e r.ew ."»r^es : and there was something like a 

pAj.-e.-'j. ir.^'u -^.'-r., ari'l '.f jh<j ^"rtrew M.SS.; ceriir.'y 'hat the puritan parliament in Eng- 

•S* .•.».: I'^jATH. of f.f.«r Four M-t-tT'*. id. '.i- i w ^'old deal Iiarshly with the adherents 

(jl)'ji.A'''.t.. ;•/.'-. ','.. .11. : 4M'!,or:t; - 'jio:- ':. -.:* K^me. Many lont "a favouring oar: hut 

^^ . A J. A. ,•■ irrrtf^''. :l:a: n-rUin^r could bf done witli- 
O'MORE, JtOUV i ft. ]*;i'0 |»;.VJi. Iri^h .- i ri^i-r is Hsrer. His position made 
r».'b-l. oft*;n oail'"! M'^-j^r Mo ip; or M >r-. * »'M r^ "'iir d"es: t«» mediate U-tween 
i.'iii of (.'alv.'i'jjj O'Mor-. v.f|. fi.-i/-i..ri'l'-i fr -m :h-» FV.r iz.i •h'^ narive clans. 
iL.- anci'-ii! r-hi-f- of l,.i\. Aft.-r 'h- j-I m- I:: Frbr.:.iry l^l <.>'M' '•reapplied to Lonl 
tati'.tn of til- f^ij»--'rr- rv,-,n'y ?};»• O'M-ir-s M.viT.iir^ vv- Mv-'-riRE. Coxxor, ><»cond 
rai^-d variou- r«:-}i-]!ion-. v.hiirh wr- af*-r- Hakox of tyyissiLLEx'. who was in Dub- 
ward- rfckon^-d a- ir.u*'*-*--i\ lu w\m\fT. A lin f:.r :he p?ir'.ia3i-^ntar\-sr»s.*ion. with liujjh 
transplant ati'.ri to K-t.-v, T'lar*-, and Con- Oj.> M:icMah?r. "], v.'.' and others of rhe 
nauffiit wa-? uud'-rrak-h diiriiijf tlif r^ij-n of norhrrn pr^vi:: v. Riclielieu pr-'^mised arms, 
Jamv* I. of whirh 'li- .tTsi**. nap^r- con- amniuni:::::. an i ^i-^n-v to the titular Earl 
tain many d-tail-. iJur th-v k-pt alway- of Tyr^r.e :>■.;: :::v '.A"rr was kill^i-d in Spain 
dritVmj" back to th-.-ir di.-trir-t. and it in th- .-prir.r • :' IrUl. .md th^ conspirators 
wa< saiil that th-y iir-.-frrr-l 'iyinir thvr- to Transf'^rr-:-! t'r.rir h-pes '•'•ColMiel Owen Roe 
livin;j anywh-r- ♦•!-♦•. (.'hirdi-sT-r. with a n*X,.ill '.|. v.'. w'-T-'wis t*i-n in Flanders. 
r^lVrt-nce to Sj.ani-li Li-fory. call»-l thrm O'M »>.• ap]»Ars thr-iijl:-*.:* as the main- 
AVhito>. On.-.iftlii- hira-i^-d clan was -prinj '-vf "he w:;-;^' jl.-'-. and his parish 
Ruber's father. Calva*:}!. w}jo \i'.A b.-f.imr ].r;es:, T-'-"'!»-t**Con'irv, w.-iscli-'isen asthem'-s- 
pnssessrtl of n ca-tl" and lan'I- a* Jtallina -i-nirtr \'^ Owi-n II v. I: was (.**M'ire who 
m Kildarr. and th..--'.- w.-rv not atPv-t-d by >wiirr Ma-ruire. >:r Pr.rliintyNviil "q.v/.and 
the tran>]>lant-iti.*n. Kv^r. th*.* fl'l»-r son, the rest t.^ secrecy vHicKiy^y. L'^lhwi in the 
inhfritfd Ballir.a, niarrit-l a dauirliT-r -f Sir SeiPJif^etifh fV?jf?.ry. ii. liV'. Ab-'^ut 1 Sept. 
Patrick l>:irnfW:ill 'i]. v.~. the not-d catliolic 1'>41 it was dt-cided :■> seize Ihiblin Castle 
chamj»i'n. antl w:i< thus C'lnnect'd with the on o Oct., but the dav was afterwards 
Iv-t f;in:ilif'- .»f tli- rah-. chanced t.i the '2'^Tk\. iVM »re was to lead 
It lia- \>rvu -.I'.d tljat I >'Morv, who wa- in th" party charged w::h seizing th-.' lesser of 
po.»r ciroiiiistanc- -, ];ad lioj- .; ..♦" r^i^'wrin;: th«- twoVates. ' He visited Clster at the be- 
il;e linl- of his fj'.niily frmn >Tatl"..ird : but pnnin:Tof «>fber. shil'rinjj constantly from 
\\cT*' is no trai'- .»f any -ucli i-J.-a in that place ii» ]ilact' to avrid suspicion, and was 
>:;iJ' "ornsp Mi.bnct'. Tijrre w;i> a on*- of the five who maii- thr» linal arrangt^- 
r aknessaftirih.jirnat vict'.-oy's au'uts on the 15:h. The place of meeting 


wuthisBOD-in-law'BhoaBein Armaflli county, 
Sir Phelim O'Neill [q. v.] and Lord Maguire 
being present, tbere with Dim. But it ii) liard 
to b« bidden in the countiy, and Sir William 
Cole, in a letter dated 11 Oct.. warned the 
lords justices that there was mischief brewing 
(Salsoit, CoUeetimt, ii. S19). Ha did not 
name O'Hore. and nothing r^llj was known 
until the evening of 22 Oct., when IJwen 
O'CJonnollv made his statement to Lord-jus- 
tice Parsons, Lale that niifhtO'More went lo 
Lord Mngnire and told liim that the cause 
WBB lost. It is from Maguire's often printed 
naiTBtive that we know moat of the details. 
O'More. with Plunkett and Hugh O'Byme, ' 
escaped over the river, and was pi.Tha]is not ' 
at first suspected, for O'Connolly did not 
mention bim, nor does his name occur in the 
fint statement made by MacMahon, or in the 
letter of the Irish government to Lord Leices- 
ter. His brother-in-law, Lord KingBland,was 
one of those on whom the Irish government ' 
at first relied forthepreifervBtion of peace. 

The plot to seize Dublin Castle totally 
fiuled, but tile Ulster rebf^llion broke out as 
amangpd, and O'More almost at once appears 
in the field us colonel with a large, but only 
partiallvanned.forceunderbim. His brother ' 
Lewis llad the rank at first of captain, and 
afUrwords of colonel. O'More fought victori- 
odbIj at Julianstown, in Mealh, on Hit Nov., 
and acted aespokeamanfor the Ulster Irish at 
the conference held a few days later on the 
hill of C^fty. between their chiefs and the 
gentry of the Pale. The subslance of his 
speech, which had been carefully prepared, 
is preserved by Bellings (Gilbert, SM. of 
GmfederatioH and War, i. 36). In the pro- 
clamation of the Ionia justices, dated 8 Feb. 
lftil-2,« price was put upon h'ls head — 100/. I 
for its actual production, and .tOO/. for satis- 
factory evidence of having slain him. He 
was present wh<.'n Ormonde defe-aled the Irish | 
St Kjlnish on 15 April 1043. Carte says he ' 
wnt to Flanders about this time ; and, if so, ' 
heprobably returned with Owen RoeO'Neill, 
who reached Ireland in July. He was serv- I 
log in the King's County at the end of that I 
month, the title of general being accorded to , 
him bv the Irish thereabouts. On the formii- ' 
lion of the supreme council of the confederate | 
catholics at Kilkenny in (Jctober he was ap- ' 
pointed tocommandintheKing'sCountyand ; 
naif the Queen's County, and was present at j 
the taking of Birr In January 1642-3 ( SuC. 
JUSS. Crmm. 2nd Rep. p. 218). 

In spite of his miiny connections, O'More . 
was not thoroughly trusted by the .\nglo- i 
Iriah ; he wa» a Celt, and towards the Celtic 
party hedrifled more and more. The gentry 
" ' wercBoctnsorrvforthewar, which I 


ruined most of them; and when O'More cl_ 
fesaed to his brother-in-law Fleming that he 
was the real iirlginator of it, tbe latter an- 
swered that he found himself mistakeD, for 
he thought the devil had begun it (Cabtb). 
In 1644 O'More's name appears in a list of 
Owen Roe's followers, his title in tbe Irish 
cipher being ' the shoemaker ' (Con^emp. 
Himt. i. 60.5). In the same year he offered 
himself for service in Antrim's Scottish ex- 
pedition [see MicmtniELL, liAiniAL, 1609- 
1683], with a half-armed regiment of fif- 
teen liundred men (ib. i. 652). In 1048 he 
was living at Ballinakill, in tbe district 
where his elan once ruled (ib. i. 329). In 
the same year he was in arms against the 
Kilkenny confederation, and was employed 
by Owen Roe in abortive negotiations with 
Inchiquin (i"6. i. 747, 751). Early in the 
following year the author of the ' Aphoris- 
mical Discovery,' who regarded him as a 
mere temporiser, says be was one of O'KeiU's 
cabinet council, and that he tried to bring 
about on understanding between his leader 
and Ormonde, but only succeeded in offend- 
ing both (ib. ii. 21). After the declaration 
of Jamestown on 12 Aug. 16/iO O'More and 
his brother Lewis both took arms, and he 
commanded some foot in Connnught in the 
following year (ib. ii. 114. 158). He had 
L'lanricarde's coininis.iioii as cammuoder in 
Leinster, with full civU and m'Jitary au- 
thnrity (ib. lii. 1, 15). But the cause was 

3uite lost by this time, and O'More was 
riven into the remote island of Bolin. The 
author of the ' Aphorismicat Discovery ' says 
that be was hoaely deserted there by Bishop 
Lynch and others in December 1652; that be 
escaped to the Ulster coast, and hved there 
for n time disgiiisetl us a fisherman : and that 
he was reported to have escaped to Scotland 
(ib. iii. 143). It seems ijuite as likely that 
he perished obscurely in Ireland. Both 
brothers wereexcepted from pardon forlife or 
estate in the Cromwellian Act of Settlement 
12 Aug. 1652, and Lewis was soon after- 
wards hanped na guilty of murder (Ludlow, 
Memoir*, ii. 8). 

O'More wwi an accomplished man, and 
could speak well both in Enftlisb and Irish. 
He was undoubtedly the mam contriver of 
the rebellion ; but he was not n professional 
loldier, and played no great part in tbe war. 
He was distantly connected by marriage 
with Ormonde, and Carte gives him crecut 
for doing his beat to check the barbarities of 
which Sir Phelim O'Neill's followers were 
guilty. That he wa.' considered reasonable 
and humane by the protestauts may he in- 
ferred from the fact t Bat Lady Anne Parsons 
applied to him for prol«clion. His answer 




has been preserved (Hist MSS, Cormn, 2nd 
Hep. p. 218). He wrote like a gentle- 
man, but did not grant the lady*8 request. 
Popular tradition clings to the name of Uoiy 
()*5lore, but it is probable that some of this 
glory really belongs to Rory Oge, who gave 
the government so much trouble in Queen 
Elizabeth's time. 

[Calendar of Irish State Papers, 1603-25; 
Carte's Life of the Duke of Ormonde, bk. iii. ; 
NalsonV Collection, vol. ii. : Ludlow's Memoirs ; 
Temple's Hist, of Irish Rebellion, ed. 1766; 
Lodge's Peeraire, ed. Arcbdall, art. * Viscount 
Kingsland ; ' Hickson'e Ireland in the Seventeenth 
Century; Gilbert's Hisr. of the Confederation 
and War in Ireland and his Contemporary Hist, 
of Aifa'rH in Ireland ; Carte MSS. in the Bod- 
leian Libniry, psissim.] R. B-l. 

1036), Irish chronicler. [See 0*Maelcko- 


O'NEAL or O^NEALE. [See also 

1772), miniature-painter, was a native of Ire- 
land . He pract ised for many years in London 
aa a miniature-painter, and exhibited occa- 
sionally with the Incorporated Society of 
Artists, of which he was a fellow, being one 
of th(* artists who signed the declaration roll 
in 1 liS(\. ( )'Xeal is also stated to have painted 
landscapes, natural history, and *. Japan* 
pieces, the last for a printSeller in Cheapside. 
In 1772 he was living in Lawrence Street, 

[Pasquin's Artists of Ireland ; Graves's Diet, 
of Artists, 1760-1880; Catalogues of the Soc. of 
Artists ] L. C. 


1 See also O'Neill.] 

18S0), historical painter, was bom of British 
parentage at St. Petersburg on 7 Jan. 1817. 
He came to England at the age of six, and 
in 1836 entered the schools of the Royal 
Academv, where he formed a close friend- 
ship with Alfred Elmore [q. v.l, with whom 
]u» afterwards visited Italy. His first pic- 
ture, * A Student,' appeared at the Royal 
Academy in 1838, and was followed in 1840 
bv * Margaret before the Image of the Virgin,* 
aiul in 1811 by *The First Thought on 
Love' and * Theckla at the Grave of Max 
l*iceoloinini.' In 1812 he exhibited *Paul 
jind Franc sea of Rimini,' and * Peasants re- 
t urnin^ from the Vineyard ; ' in 1843, * Jeph- 
t hall's Daiigliter: the last day of mourning,' 
which was enjrraved in line by Peter Light- 
foot for tlui Art Union of London ; in 1844, 

' Boaz and Ruth,' which was purchased by 
the prince consort ; and in 1846, ^ By the 
Rivers of Babylon, there we sat down, yea, 
we wept, when we remembered Zion.' Sub- 
sequently his chief contributions to the 
Royal Academy were 'Mozart's Last Mo- 
ments,' 1849; * Esther,' 1860; * The Scribes 
reading the Chronicles to King Ahasuenis/ 
1861; 'Katharine's Dream,' 1863; 'Th^* 
Return of the Wanderer,' a work which 
marked great progress, and was engraved 
in mezzotint by \V. II. Simmons, 1866: 
'Eastward Ho!' the most popular of 
all his works, engraved in mezzotint by 
"\V. T. Davey, 1868; 'Home again,' also 
engraved by W. T. Davey, 1869; * A Volun- 
teer,' an incident connected with the wreck 
of the Royal Charter, 1860, in which year 
he was elected an associate of the Royal 
Academy ; ' The Parting Cheer,' 1861 ; ' The 
Landing of H.R.II. the Princess Alexandra 
at Gravesend,' 1864 ; ' The Lay of King 
Canute,* 1866 ; and 'The Last Moments of 
Raffaelle,' 1866. He exhibited also at the 
British Institution, where he had in 1840 ' A 
Musical Party * and * La Biondina in Gondo- 
letta,'and in 1843 a 'Scene from Twelfth 
Night,' and at the Society of British Artists. 
Latterly his work became very unequal, and 
it was often coarse of touch and crude in 
colour. He painted also landscapes and some 
portraits, among which were those of the 
l)uke of Newcastle, John Phillip, R.A., Ro- 
bert Keeley, and William Mackworth Praed. 
Some interesting portraits by him belong to 
the Garrick Club. 

O'Neil published in 18f)6 his* Lectures on 
Painting delivered at the Royal Academy,' 
and afterwards made some other attempts 
in literature. ' Two Thousand Years hence ' 
appeared in 1808; 'Modem Art in England 
and France' in 1869: 'Satirical Dialogues/ 
in verse, in 1870 ; and ' The Age of Stucco : 
a Satire in three Cantos,' in 1871. He was 
also an amateur musician and a good violin 
player, lie died at 7 Victoria Road, Ken- 
sington, I^ndon,on 13 March 1880, and was 
buried in Kensal Green cemetery. 

[Art Journal, 1880, p. 171: Times, 16 March 
1880, notico by Anthony Trollopo : Athenjeum, 
1880, i. 384; Academy, 1880, i. 220; Royal Aca- 
demy Exhibition Catalo^^Mies, 183S-79; Exhibi- 
tion Catalogues of the Soci«*tv of l>ritish Artists. 
1838-43; British Institution Exhibition OUa- 
logues. 1839-1861.] R. K. G. 

O'NEILL, CON BACACU, i.e. Claudus 
or the Lame, first Earl of Tyrone (1484 r- 
1559 .P), grandson of Henry O'Xeill, lord of 
Tyrone (d. 1489) [q. v.], and youngest son of 
Con O'Neill and Alice, daughter of Gerald 




iMtzgerald, eighth earl of Kildare fa. v.], was 
bom about 1484, and succeeded nis elder 
brother, Art Oge O'Neill, as chief of Tyrone 
in 1519. His connection with the house of Kil- 
dare rendered him naturally hostile to Henry's 
policy of anglicisinglrelana, and immediately 
on the arrival of the Earl of Surrey in 1520 
he invaded the English Pale. His attempt to 
obstruct Surrey's ffovemment was not, how- 
ever, very successml, owing to the hostility 
of Hugh * Black ' O'DonneU, and the support 
which the Earl of Ormonde rendered to the 
viceroy, and before long he submitted. In the 
hope of retaining him in his obedience, Henry 
flent him * a collar of gold of our livery,' and 
authorised Surrey to make him a knight, and, 
if possible, to induce him to repair to Eng- 
land. In the foUowingyear he consented to ac- 
company the viceroy against 0'Melaghlin,but 
was compelled, much to Surrey's annoyance, 
to return to defend his own country against 
O'Donnell, with whom his strife was in- 
cessant. He retaliated in 1522 by invading 
Tyrconnel, and was successful in capturing 
Ballyshannon, Bundrowes, and Belleek; but 
in a pitched battle at Knockavoe, near Stra- 
bane, he was utterly defeated by O'Donnell. 
In 1524 Kildare succeeded Ormonde as vice- 
roy , and at his installation O'Neill carried the 
sword of state before him. In 1528, during 
Kildare's detention in England, O'Neill ana 
Brian O'Connor [q. v.] did their utmost, 
acting on Kildare s instructions, to obstruct 
the government of the Earl of Ormonde. 
Some stronger hand than Ormonde's was 
needed to suppress them, and in 1530 the 
deputyship was transferred to Sir William 
Skeffington [q. v.] 

The restoration of Kildare, and his sub- 
stitution for Skeffington in August 1532, 
€«tablished things on their old footing, 
and complaints were soon rife that O'Neul 
was allowed to plunder the Pale at his 
pleasure. He supported the rebellion of 
* Silken Thomas,' but, after the capture of 
Maynooth, submitted to Skef&ngton at 
Drogheda on 26 July 1535. He renewed 
his submission to Lord Leonard Grey in 
the following year ; but the deputy, though 
he found him *very tractable in wordb,' 
could not, without employing force, ' where- 
unto time serveth not,' persuade him to put 
in hostages for his loyalty. The result was 
that next year (1537) O'Neill attacked 
Ardglass. Orey wished to retaliate by in- 
vading Tyrone, but he was overruled by 
the council, and commissioners were sent 
to treat with O'Neill, who found him * very 
reasonable,' but obstinate in his refusal to 
give hostages for his loyalty. He renewed 
his assurances of loyalty in the following 

year, but early in 1539 he concluded an 
alliance with Manus O'Donnell [q. v.] at 
Donegal, the object of which was supposed 
to be the restoration of Gerald Fitzgerald, 
the young heir to the earldom of Kildare. 
Failing to induce O'Neill to surrender Fitz- 
gerald, Grey invaded Tyrone, and ravaged 
much of his country. O'Neill and O'Don- 
nell in the autumn invaded the Pale with the 
greatest army, as some thought, that had ever 
been seen in Ireland. After burning Navan 
and Ardee,and accumulating immense booty, 
they were on their way homewards when 
they were overtaken and utterly defeated 
by 'Grey at Ballahoe. In May lf)40 O'Neill 
consented to parley with the lord justice. 
Sir William Brereton, at the Narrow-water, 
and promised to obser\'e the conditions of 
the treaty made with Skeffington in 1535. 
But his agents were at the time in Scotland 
negotiating for assistance, and there was a 
plot on foot to inveigle the lord justice to 
Fore in Westmeath, under pretence of par- 
leying, preparatory to a general attack on 
the Pale. 

The plot was frustrated by Brereton ; 
but the hollowness of O'Neill's professions 
was sufficiently apparent, and after vainly 
endeavouring ' by all honest persuasions to 
bring him to conformity,' St. Leger deter- 
mined to prosecute him with fire and sword. 
He was fortunate to detach O'Donnell and 
some of his urraghs or vassal chiefs from 
him, and in September 1541 he invaded 
Tyrone. O'Neill made an unsuccessful 
counter-attack on the Pale, and the lord 
deputy, after destroying * miche of his comis 
and butters, whiche is the grete lyvinges of 
the said Oneil and his followers,' retired. 
A few weeks later he again invaded Tyrone, 
and carried off several hundred head of 
cattle. A third invasion in December 
brought O'Neill to his knees. He sent 
letters to St. Leger at Armagh, offering un- 
qualified submission, and promising, as no 
O'Neill had ever done before, to surrender 
his son as hostage for his loyalty. It was 
doubtful if his submission would be ac- 
cepted, for the propriety of extirpating him 
and planting his country with English set- 
tlers had been seriously mooted. But the 
difficulties in the way of such a plan were 
insuperable, and St. Leger thougnt it wise 
to accept his offer, and ' to beate him, and 
siche like as he is, with the same rodde 
that they have often betenyour subjects here ; 
that is, to promyse theim faier, to wynne 
tyme, whereby other enterprises more beni- 
ficiall for your poore subjectes here mought 
be acheved.' Accordingly O'Neill, having 
promised to become a loyal subject, to re- 


O'Neill i8o O'Neill 

nounce the pope, to attend parliament, to | over his urraghsled to constant breaches of the 
cut down the woods between him and the ; peace, and there were not wanting signs that 
Pale, and to rebuild the ruined churches Tyrone himself was growing discontented 
in his country, was received to mercy. He . with his position, to which he was not recon- 
renewed his submission to St. Leger on ciled by the impolitic behaviour of subordinate 
19 May 1542, attended a parliament at Trim, ' officials,like Andrew Brereton, in calling him 
and shortly afterwards repaired to England, i a traitor. The government fixed it* hopes on 
St. Leger lending him two hundred marks the Baron of Dungannon, but it was inevi- 
* rather to adventure the losse thereof, then table that as power slipped from Tyrone's 
he should lette to come to your Majestie.' ! grasp, it should fall into the hands of Shane. 

On 24 Sept. he submitted to Henry at Still the result was not at first so apparent, 
Greenwich, and a week later was created and the baron was by no means a despicable 
Earl of Tyrone for life, with remainder to rival. One consequence of the struggle was 
his supposed son Mathew, alias Ferdorach that the country sufiered severely. *The 
O'Neill, alias Kelly, who was created at contre of Tyrone/ Cusack wrote on 27 Sept. 
the same time Baron of Dungannon, with 15ol, * is brought throughe warre of the 
remainder to the eldest son of the Earl of Erie and his sonnes (oon of them silves 
Tyrone for the time being. The expenses against other) to suche extream myserie aa 
01 his installation were borne by Henry, there is not ten plowes in all Tyrone.* 
who also gave him a gold chain of the value , * Hundreddis,' he calculated, 'this last yere 
of * three score pounds and wide,* and one and this somer died in the field throp^he 
hundred marks in ready money. Subse- famen.' At the request of the Baron of 
quently, on 7 May 1543, Tyrone was ad- i Dungannon, Tyrone was persuaded to go to 
mitted a privy councillor of Ireland, and on Dublin, and an attempt was made to restore 
9 July received a grant of lauds in Dublin the country to some sort of order. But even 
for his mainteniinee during his attendance with the assistance of government, the baron 
on parliament. His submission ])roduced a j was barely able to hold his own against 
profound sensation in Ireland, and St. Leger Shane, and after a year's trial Tyrone was, 
was in hopt^s that, if the arrangement could I in December 1552, restored, in the vain hoiH? 
only be continued for two genenitions, the . * that quiet and tranquillity would follow, 
country would bf for ever reformed. It was and that the Scots could be the more easily 
afterwards urjri'd by Tyrone's eld^'^t legit i- expelled from the northern parts.' But 
mate son, Shane, that, in surrendering his practically Shane was master of the situa- 
lands and consenting to hold them by Eng- tion, and in 1557 Tyrone and the Baron of 
lisli tenure, Tyrone exctvded his rights as Dungannon were obliged to seek shelter in 
chief of his clan : and it was doubtless true the I'ale. After Shane's defeat by Oalvaph 
that . intht'ory at least, an Irish chief possessed O'Donnell [q. v.], they were restored by the 
merely a life interest in the lands of his tribe. Earl of Sussex ; but m 1558 the bar<ni was 
But it pleased Shane to forget that the ar- murdered by Shane's orders, and T\Tone 
rangement was one established at the point of , once more fled for safety into the Pale, where, 
the sword, aiul that Tyrone's submivssion im- worn out with age and injuries, he died, 
plied the submission likewise not only of apparently, in 1559. 

nis imm(Mliat(* followers, but of his urraghs Con O'Neill married, first, Mary, a dauffhter 
as Well. It was not here that the real of Hugh Boy O'Neill, lord of Clandeboye, 
difficulty lay, but in the attempt to substi- who was mother of Shane [q. v.]; secondly, 
tute sucee.-sion by primogeniture f«)r that by a daughter of O'Byme, by whom he had a 
tanistry, and in the unfortunate accident son, Niall Riach, the father of Turlouffh 
that h'd to tin- choice of Mathew as Tyrone's J^reaslach. In addition to his putative son 
heir. Still, his acceptance of an English , Mathew or Ferdorach, he had among other 
title did ufUjU'stioinibly impair Tyrone's illegitimate children Henry, Con, a priest, 
authority. It was felt to be a degradaticm, i and Shane Glade, and two daughters, one of 
and it only wanted that some ambitious ' whom was married to Sorley Boy MacDon- 
rival, such as ultimately presented himself | nell, and the other to Hugh Oge MacMahon. 
in Shane O'Neill, should arise to oust him lord of the Dartrie. 

from his position, and restore things to their | ^gtate Papers, Henry VIII (printed): Oil. 
oia looting. ; State Papers, Irel. ed. Hamilton; Cal. Carew 

I^orsometime however, the amngementTyfs,^. Ware's Annals; Annals of the Fonr 
worked fairly well, and m 1544 Tyrone fur- | Masters, ed. O'Donovan ; Annals of Looh Ce. ed. 
nished ninety kerne to the Irish contingent Hennessy ; Marquis of Kildare's Earls of Kil- 
for service in France. But rumours were rife dare ; Irish Genealogies, Harl. MS. 1425.] 
o^ * es with Rome ; the claims of Tyrone R. D. 




O'NEILL, DANIEL(1612 P-1664), soldier, 
royalist, and poetmaster-general, elder son of 
OJn McNeill M'Fachartaigh O'Neill, by his 
wife, a sister of Owen Roe O'Neill [q. v.], was 
bom in Ulster about 1612. His fatner must 
hii distinguished from another Con O'Neill 
who was nephew of Hugh O'Neill [q. v.], the 
great earl of Tyrone, was younger brother 
of Owen Roe O'Neill, and also had a son 
Daniel (Bttrke, Extinct Peerage ^ p. 416). 
Ton M*Neill MTachartaigh O'Neill was 
very distantly related to the Tyrone branch 
of the O'Neills, (^Montgomery MSS. ed. Hill, 
n. 14) : he possessed lands in Ulster called 
Upper Claneboys or Clandeboye, Ards, and 
fc^liocht or Slut O'Neill, worth 12,000/. a 
year, and had seryed during Elizabeth's reign 
on the English side. In 1605, owing: either 
to a diiference with Lord-deputy Chiches- 
ter and dealings with the rebels, or to a 
riot in which his seryants came into colli- 
sion with the English troops, Con was im- 
prisoned at Carrickferg^. Thence he es- 
caped to Scotland, where he entered into an 
aCTeement with James Hamilton, afterwards 
viscount Claneboye [q. v.], and Hugh Mont- 
gomery, afterwards viscount Ards, to grant 
them two-thirds of his lands on condition of 
their obtaining his pardon. This was done, 
and Con afterwards liyed quietly on his re- 
maining estates. He left two sons, Daniel 
and Con (^ge ; the latter took an active part 
in the rebellion of 1641, became a colonel, 
and was killed in an action at Clones in 
1643 by a presbyterian minister after quar- 
ter had been giyen (Henky O'Neill's Diary 
in IjODGE, iJesiderata Cur, Hibemica, ii. 
492; Castlehavew, MemoirSy ed. 1753, p. 

Daniel, the elder son, was early introduced 
at the court of Charles I, and, unlike the rest 
of his family, became a protestant. He spent 
* many years between it [the court] and the 
Low Countries, the winter seasons in the 
one, and the summer always in the army in 
the other, which was as good an education 
toward adyancement in the world as that 
age knew any; he had a fair reputation in 
both climates, having a competent fortune of 
his own to support himself without depend- 
ence or beholmngness, and a natural insinua- 
tion and address which made him acceptable 
in the best company' (Clabendon, Hebellion, 
bk. viii. §§ 268 et seq.) Before 1635 he 
took service as a volunteer under Sir Horace 
Vere, and was also employed on missions to 
the titular queen of Bohemia and the elec- 
tor-palatine. Soon after his father's death 
Viscounts Claneboye and Ards managed to 
secure the remaining third of Con's property, 
leaving Daniel and his brother little more 

than 160/. a year. In 1635 O'Neill endea- 
voured to recover his heritage, and, armed 
with letters of recommendation from Arch- 
bishop Laud and the elector-palatine, pressed 
his suit at Dublin on Wentworth, who or- 
dered the two viscounts to treat with him. 
Nothing, however, came of the negotiation. 
Wentworth resented O'Neill's importunity, 
and threatened to put him in prison. This 
led to bitter animosity between the two, and 
O'Neill was henceforth one of "VVentworth's 
most active enemies. In 1636 O'Neill was 
again in the Netherlands, and next year served 
at the siege of Breda, being wounded in the 
thigh in an assault (Hexham, Siege of Breda^ 
1637, pp. 28-31, &c.) When the troubles 
broke out with Scotland in 1639 he was given 
the command of a troop of horse, * to which 
he was by all men held very equal, having 
had good experience in the most active armies 
of that time, and a courage very notorious' 
^Clarendon, viii. 268). After the retreat 
irom Berwick in Mav 1639 O'Neill returned 
to the Netherlands with let ters for the queen 
of Bohemia, and is mentioned as a devoted 
servant to Northumberland and Conwav. 
When the Scots again took up arms early in 
1640 Sir John Conyers eagerly pressed upon 
O'Neill a command in his regiment (Cal. 
State Papers y Dom. Ser. 1639-40, p. 422). 
At the rout of Newbum on 28 Aug. he was 
ordered to protect the rear, but after a sharp 
skirmish was surrounded and taken prisoner, 
being reported as dead. He was well treated 
by the Scottish officers, some of whom he 
had known in the Netherlands, and was re- 
stored to liberty at Ripon in October (Baillie, 
Letters, Bannatyne Club, i. 257 ; Nalson, i. 
426; RusuwoRTH, ii. ii. 1238; Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. Ser. 1640-1 , p. 5 ; Cal. Claren- 
don State Papers, ed. Macray, i. 204 ; Wel- 
FORD, Newcastle and Gatesheadin Seventeenth 
Century, p. 400). 

During the ensuing winter he was with 
the army in the north of England ; early 
next year he made another attempt to re- 
cover his lands by petitioning the House of 
Lords, which referred the matter to the ordi- 
nary courts of law ; the civil war stopped 
further proceedings. At the same time he 
was implicated in the first army plot, being 
early taken into consultation by l*ercy, Gor- 
ing, and others ; he was also, under the pseu- 
donym * Jjouis Lanois,' in communication 
with his relatives in Ulster, who were plan- 
ning the Irish rebellion, and his brother 
Con O'Neill was sent over to secure his ser- 
vices. In May he went down to York in con- 
nection with the second army plot, to sound 
Conyers and Sir Jacob Astley [q. vj as to 
the possibility of bringing the army to London 

C'Nilll 1S2 O'Neill 

, : •• K ^ J /.■ 7 - ; 1: \t>. 1-4. :. 157 ». that it would belong; before he ruTurn^^flro 

\ . ■ . .-^ .. - ^i- -. -v:;.: :'_rii7 "I assume his duties. H*^ arrived at Kilk^nnv 

■ 1 . --; .1- •■ ■ ->-■: T^-'>" 0-^m- on :?>{ Feb., and superintended the de>paTcli 

".•. .^ .:" .'::=; •:,? .: i i r>— of tifteen hundred troops for Srot land, but 

V- - ■■ • ■ " >' v". ■. -: * -e J .r.T ' 'Nrill othemrise the mission was unsui •ces>f ul. 
•\ .- - T^ : -. ■-. - i.- -■-.- T : ■- !i --:.Lr- .:: ■". U'Xeill had returned to Heauiiiuris hv 

■ .■ " ■. :- :_ V -i". I- ■. --■. ?7-"- * -> r- :2') . I une, and joined Rupert *s army in tim*- uv 
•«r •: .' ■ .: ... ? :: .i.-s.i- ■-•;"■ Bru-srl* r:ike part in tne battle of Marston Moor «*n 
.--::-- i' July: he commanded Rupert's rejrimtnt 

A .z:— "— :" *"-■ .*' *•''■•.* iT-i- n'r'-i '^^i ioo^ {^\y ford, Studir a 0/ tAf Grettt /tV- 

- - . ...- .:.• ...- : ." • ..r.r-- •-" '. ." A :j';-r hf:li*-ri, p. oOo ; Makeham, Life of Fuirfux, 

h.-: .V-. :- -- :. - i : ■-. ^-T*-7.".:-r ' Nr >- pp. b.U-i^. tie then joined the armv of 

• :7r.- : * ^^ ■ ' r '..•- - .-;. >.:.'. ■:.•. IV T\r '."■■■. rhtr wosr, at Bath, on 17 Julv, and nian-beu 

ar. i - .-.- :. :-T-- . !..r.>-^: .i* \ •. ™"? i lie .r. i::t'i D^^vonshire * Essex-hunt in<j*(<yNVill i.> 

L"..- .— i : ;.r._- *!.- >■>-•--. A:'"-: ;.r. -\.iz:> Frf^V'T inC\RTE, On'ffiiml I^'tters^ i. o>i-iH»; 

r. :• :- r.;.. • -.- r-' i-v :. rtr.i :.- "^ -.* ".li-z *-" 'aras present in ^k»pt ember when F.^-s^x 

;.'.•/ ' --• .:. r V '..- -'-r^r-sr.'-i'-.i:"*. ' -^ ill-i'Avd himself to be surrounded in Corn- 

-j*} I »;• }.- ■■'■:- ' .:.■■.:...•••>■; • > •!.- _■."- • i-ir^. w.ili. and f'mjrht at the second battle of New- 

.•::, i r. \ ]>"-. ••■':- ^ r- jjh' t... -".■... V 1.7 : ' ■.-■ b.iry -m i7 Oqx. He was n^rain at Oxtord 
L . .-••- if- J.;' -.-'i -.'.•■ a'^'T •■: ■".:'.: ". '" .: ::7'.n;r :he winter, and fouj^ht at XaSt/by oa 

•:. - V.;:- '1.- :.. . '.»'i : i' wr:.i r--Iv-i :. It Jme Ifi-io: he was then direi'tt:<l, on 

\:ii\,'-iv ■. i..:.'i, :'.•! ar* ir-l-f- ..f :.;_:; •:-;•..■* :*. iT .F-iiio. to pn^ceed to Falmouth to pmeun.* 

V.-,-' p-j- •':'#:. \'-', l^'tr. A:>*r f!ir*":>-Tv\..:::.- -iliiys. i.T»»bal-ly in order to secure a retr-.-at 

fji'j'.fi b. !!.'■ M'* i-t ',f Lorr]-. l.> :7..i'. 'A-.i : r IV.noe Charles ( II isbaxd, -l Col/ft timi 

ii'.-' ji'if.'-'i >i-. ;: 'iJl'-r'-nr*- Fi«:-t'.^»»ii t:>- tv.^ . ,-' ^ •,-:Vv.r//»-f*. lt)4»>, ]ip. iSo.Vn ; LrDL»»w. 

!.', .■.-•. ;.'. J:if.-.>i. -, U;Il' b«" wfi^ r-ir. vr i. :i .V-vt- er". e«:. 17.VJ. iii. 30o). Thence be was 

!.;.«■ p.'ij '.\ ji.-l.'-.ijib, t'l tb'r Tow^r. w:.-.::c- ?-=r." w;rh a letter *A' recommendation frnin 

',ii '» M:;. \.- • '-..rp.-'l in tVmale a*'lr-. i:: : C'". s I to <.>nn'"»ude, and landtd at Vas- 

FMi'i' b.«. ';i-. N, Itrii--«-]- ill ipiTf 1.1* pr- <.•«>•. ■. War^^rtord. on :i4 AiJff. 
<:!.:!/. ;»^ .',f.- !■..' Ii. ■ ;i T---? f '//■/•//-,,/> Jjjm >, ■ r- '. V r ' .■- n-.\" t'»»w vears ( '*N»'ill w:is prin- 

or tilt J n'f't- hii-fnf of l)iiiili-1 fifit-olt*, l»'sL : ■ ./.v -Ti^:'.^'— 1 in tniitless iH'irotiMti!''!!^ Im'- 

ffn'fili L.f'ij,t t,iif i,f IIh- 'l'oirf-,\ ii4i': T'A-rv. '..> ' I'.jU' * ^w-n Ro»' and < 'riii'iiiOt', 

f '',!!• in-,,, ' J-. Ill , I'll , \\. ]7o. \c.: /...-/'' ..!: I ::■. ::: : .iv ■••.r-i r .^ Mive rhe r'»vaii>t«it' 

Ji, II, /I'll ','•'•. .-.'•.: I.vM.Kv, l)\nru.'\. ;:. Ir ■^:i.:. I:: i'"47 b" was tn.atinL" wi:h 

J5:- :■. . Ami. : '-..'I, I. >:r.l:i:i>s T -.n: r and \\\o^ Sets ( TiT.NER, 

< 'II *;.' -.M, .»-... ',r r!:i: fl\i| 'A'jir O'N-ill M ■. {-*, lv::::.i*yn- Club. p. 47); mid in 

r-"jr!''l •-. J-.:._i..i.f! : l.i- t;:-* rouimi--':.-:; ' »i"*- ■ vr ■:" ':> ^^ir^- V'-.-ir he wa* despatebi.d 

v.;i-: ■::;!* o: r:i 1' -r j:. ' >.!<.ti«'1 M-hr.rii*-'.- r- I'i- by < 'r:::-. :. :•; * -^e.v ;iid at St. Ciermaiii>, 

iiiifj' iM\--'V, I.if ^f Milfoil, '•\. \\'2: Pi:\- w!.-:: 1.-. ' k v.iTr. a-^ sroonl. in ilu^ diirl 

(iii K.Jni"/ I.i-f\ p. 17 •: in 0<r.,fi.-r b«"A!:^ 1.-\v--:l l'-..' v ■•:;..; Wilm 1 M »"Neill t-^ Hr- 

\\\\\i i.'ipr- ;.* Abii.j'^n. f'.niT.biininu' i»t" iiy-rv-^- ::i« \i:{y. 'A •■■/■■..■. -Z, ^^ r<, i. 14»i-.V.i). 

tb*" I- 1 i '1> •.ifl:!;-.' of hi- irooj.- I Warm 1:- II- Turr.-.r.^- *■• Ir^ !ur: :. hv wa-? niail»» ;:nvennT 

T«».v. /'/■/'. ■ /.'/•;,. rf. :i. ^'2 \. Hi- j.n.moriun <■!" < »r::: :i .- % !. ^-v.-_--.;ar Is. and serv»'d with 

w:t- r»'',ir!' 1 i-y ( birl-- I. v,l,.i c .'ij.l n--: r:i--M;..vp:i :-. Cvirl'w iCv>ri k;lvvi:n. .Vr- 

fo:•_i^•• <'">iir- i.'-*:.;*y r-j S:i-;ii:"..rd. fn /;-v./r., . -i. 17.":'. pp. *^7. \-e. ) In .Inly Ii>4l», 

,Tu!n- l''i". I.- wii- l!_'],Ti::„r ;,♦ Crl-iisr-f-Mrf-r. Ji> l v-ri; t •■! Tri:::. Lv »l'-!Vndevl that town 

and on 1*7 S-].*. w.-:- .-it tb*- H:-r barrb- of aj .;n-: t!.-.' parliam-nrarian-. and in the 

Ni-wliiiry. l»(.r;:._- t-i-- win'i-r \.*- wn- at < )v- anTr;::in !.♦■ br^ujLt r.i a r^mv- -slV.l i«5-U'' the 

f.»ril I <'"\ Kir. Or ;/■.///.■■ /..///■rx.\-f. i. l'»;». In fiv^b i: r-iMiiri.-r.- with Own K<'r, wbit-h 

.lanuarv li;};Ui };•• \\.-i«; -..l.-r-;*'! tf) aei-ojn- liad b.-vu starrtl • arlv in rbr' vt-ar. .S"on 

pany ll.m !:;! M'i.-I»- nn.-U. -►■c'li'l •arl «if An- aft'-r !;*■ w;-.- >'.n: wi:h two thi'U-and K'}o\. 

trim •{. \. ."n t» Mrniond^-. with and f- ur liiiniir*.-! h-.-r^' to recover places in 

x\w «.tl ^M;t ..f ]. •■M.-iirin;: r.-n tiioii-anl Iri-h IJmwu and Antrim, but r'-tirnl s^ix lindinjf 

tri>''p> I'r lin^iiT"! and rbr'-v t]i<ii-ai;d t'«.»r tin* c -nntry c»nipIeT-lv in the powt-r of the 

Sei»ilan'l. < »'N. ■".l v. .i-; .-n i.".'- d t-r:i!> wirh parliani'-ntarians. n'Ntill wa^ now pninii-ted 

( »rni"nd'*, an-! bad _:i"»-ir intlu-n<-'* '-ver An- niai-ir-iTent-ral. a step wliich >ubs»Njuently 

trim, witli wi: .-.ii bf wa< ilisr:tntive>rin»-er'ib iVirTu^d nn*' of the char;:es br-niirht bv the 

\\\ a i-'Mir intr:_"i" of l»iLdiy'<. d-taib-.l at bi^lnip-; acrainst (.)rmvmdr' iCox. Ifihtnn'a 

jjr.'ar b--* ■** *'v TbirendMn. i \"Sv\U wa-j pre- A,i'j/, vd. ii.) For a >lii-rt time during: his 

\j.Mi- lure mad* •Lfrooni t^f the D»'il- uiu'b.-'s illness he actually commanded the 

cb rles, mub-r the impression. Ulster army, being the only man In.mi whom 




its various sections were willing to receive 
orders ( TMe Marquess of Ormondes Answer 
to the JDeclarationf &c., in Cox, vol. ii.) He 
endeavoured to bring the army to Ormonde^s 
assistance while Cromwell was marching on 
AVexford. Owen Roe died on 6 Nov. Daniel 
was proposed as his successor, and the nobility 
and gentry were generally in his favour ; he 
was also supported by Ormonde, but as a 
protostant lie was obnoxious to the papal 
party, and Ileber or Emer MacMahon [q. v.], 
bishop of Clogher, who had promised, if 
elected general, to hand over the command 
to O'Neill, made his conversion an absolute 
condition (Henry O^NeilFs Diary in Lodge, 
Desiderata Cur, Ilib, ; Cakte, Life of Or^ 
monde, iii. 532). O'Neill declined to abjure 
his faith ; the royalist cause in Ireland was 
now hopeless, and (^Neill sought terms from 
Ireton, who gave him permission to enlist 
five thousand Irish troops for the service of 
Spain or the States-General (O'Neill to the 
Xlarchioness of Ormonde in Carte, Original 
Letters,!, ^B^90), 

O'Neill arrived at the Hague just in time 
to accompany Charles II, who embarked at 
Terheyden on 2 June 1650 for Scotland. As 
in the case of most of Charles's followers, his 
expulsion had been already voted bv the 
Scottish parliament. Falling into the nands 
of the Scots, he was accordingly expelled, 
but was first forced to sign a document con- 
senting to his death if ever he returned. In 
October he was back at the Hague pressing 
his services upon the Spanish ambassador. 
He stipulated for the command of all the 
Irish in the Spanish dominions, with the rank 
of colonel-general. This was apparently re- 
fused ; and after a visit to Paris, O'Neill, in 
April 1651, again joined Charles in Scotland 
( N icoLL, Diary of Transactions^ Bannatyne 
Club, p. 52). Charles was now practically 
at liberty to choose his own followers. 
O'Neill remained in Scotland throughout the 
summer, and joined in the Scottish invasion 
of England ; ne was at Penrith on 8 Aug., 
but he ridiculed the idea of invading Eng- 
land while Charles was utterly unable to 
liold Scotland (Cart, Memorials of the Civil 
Wary ii. 306). After the battle of Worces- 
ter on 3 Sept. he made his escape to the 

From this time he was the busiest of the 
exiled intriguers, and his journeys in Hol- 
land, Flanders, France, and Germany were 
incessant. He was principally attached to 
the princess royal, but as ^oom of the bed- 
chamber to Charles II his influence was con- 
siderable ; at one time Nicholas complained 
that O'Neill directed all the correspondence 
of the court. In 1652 he was in England ; 

in March 1654-5 he paid another visit to 
estimate the prospects of a royalist rising 
Landing at Dover, he proceeded to London, 
where, after interviewing the principal 
royalists, he was arrested, but soon made his 
escape to Holland. In the same year his 
expulsion from France was stipulated in the 
treaty between Cromwell and Mazarin. In 
February 1657-8 he set out with Ormonde 
from Cologne, landed at Westmarch in Essex, 
and, leavmg Ormonde at Chelmsford, pro- 
ceeded to London, whence he returned in 
safety to Flanders. In August 1659 he ac- 
companied Charles through France to Fuen- 
tarabia, and returned with him to Brussels 
in November. 

At the Restoration O'Neill received nu- 
merous rewards for his loyal exertions ; he 
was made captain of the king's own troop 
of horse-guards, became M.P. for St. Ives, 
and was admitted a member of Gray's Inn. 
His numerous grants of land, in London and 
elsewhere, included one of fourteen hundred 
feet in length and twenty-three feet broad 
between St. James's Park and Pall Mall ; he 
was also sole manufacturer of gunpowder to 
the crown, and accoimtant for the regulation 
of alehouses. He received a pension of 500/. 
and a grant of the profits of all mines north 
of the Trent, the working of which he had 
investigated as early as 1641 (Cal. State 
Papers, Dom, 1641-3, pp. 12, 13, 1060-1). 
In March 1662-3 he became postmaster- 
general ; he paid 21,500/. annually for the 
lease, in return for which he had a monopoly 
of carrying letters, with liberty to luuke as 
much as he could from it provided he ad- 
hered rigidly to the rates fixed by parliament ; 
he was also empowered to make contracts 
with foreign postmasters for the transmission 
of letters abroad (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1661, &c. ; JoTCE, Hist of Post Office, pp. 
33-4). With the wealth he thus acquired he 
built Belsize House, Hampstead, * at vast ex- 
pense' (Evelyn, Diary, ed. Bray, ii. 106) ; 
he also had a country house at Boughton- 
Malherbe, Kent. He died on 24 Oct. 1664. 
Charles II, writing to the Duchess of Orleans, 
said : * This morning poor O'Neill died of an 
ulcer in the guts ; he was as honest a man 
as ever lived. I am sure I have lost a good 
servant by it.' Pepvs writes : * This day the 
great Oneale died ; \ believe to the content 
of all the Protestant pretenders in Ireland ' 
(Diarxi, ed. W'heatley, iv. 273-4 ; cf. also 
Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1664-5, pp. 43, 49 ; 
Edward Savage to Dr. Sancroft in Ilarl. MS, 
3785. f. 19). He was buried in Boughton- 
Malherbe church, and his tomb was subse- 
quently removed within the altar rails, but it 
no longer exists ; a full inscription on it stated 

O'Neill 184 O'Neill 

that he died in 1063, a^ed 60, both of which ; 6th Rep. p. 771 6, 7th Rep. pp. 74, 456, 9th and 
assertions are erroneou:^. 1 10th Rep. passim. 12th Rep. ix. 26-1, 495, 13th 

Clarendon draws an elaborate portrait of ^^V- ''• ^^ ; Nalron. Roshworth, and Thurloe's 
O'Neill : ' A p^at observer and discemer of Collections, throughout ; Journals of the Lordi 
men 8 natures and humours, and verv dex- and Commons for 1641-2 ; Clarendon's Hist, of 
terons in comi)liance wlien he found it use- ^,*1« ■^^^^"»?° ' Clarendon Stite Papers, ed. 
ful,' he had,*bva marvellous dexterity in il^^X.^'f i"' *"^ ^""^ ^>' ^^T^^' P?"'"^' 
his nature, an extraordinary influence ' over ' %^^^^ P*f "» P^^s*™ J NiehoUs Paper, 
^i , , I 11^- 4. ♦ ! (<-amaen Soc.), passim ; Ilatton Corr. (Camd«'n 

those with whom he was brought in contact. - ^ ^^ j ^,, . The Kinp's Packet of Letters, 1645. 
Natunilly inclined Mo ease and luxur>', his . pp g.,! , D^Ewes's Diarv in Harl. >LS. 164, f. 
industry was iiuMaligable when his honour ,.^7^. p^-thouse Papers, TkI. Day, pp. Iv-lrii. 2.5; 
refjuired it, or his particular interest ; * * he Lloyd's Memoirs, 1668, pp. 664-o; Barton's Diarr, 
was in subtlety and understandinpr much eJ.Rutt.vol. i.p. cxxx\nii, The Warrof Irelan'd. 
supt'rior to the whole nation of the old Irish* ' p. 114; Sir John Temple's Hist. of the Rebellion, 
— qualities which earned him the nickname 1646, p. 74; Borlase's Uist. of the Execnible 
of *Jnfullible Subtle,' and the distinction of Rebellion, 1662, pp. 152, 227; Col. Henry 
being tlu* iirst Irishman to occupy a conspi- O'Neill's Diary in Lodges Desiderata Curiosa 
cuous position at the court and m the Eng- ; Uiberuica, ii. 492. &c.; Castlehaven's Memoirs, 
lish administration. In UUl> he was described ^^' ^763, pp. 63, 87; Rinuccini's Embassy in 

w 1 r>i-Ti ^ i^ , throughout, especiHliy ,,,.. I... cMv^ ,^^ivt»57, «,^., 

don State Papers, and Gilberts *Contem- throughout; Dab-vrnplen Memorials of Great 
porary History of Alimrs;' many letters, \ Britain and Ireland, ii. 27 A pp.; Laud's Works, 
memoranda, and plans are among the Carte ; ed. 1 860, vol. vii. 122,226-7; Warburton's Prince 
MSS. in tlie Bodleian Librar}-. ' Rupert and Rupert MSS. ; Gill>ert*8 Coufedera- 

Ile married Catherine, eldest daughter of 1 tionandWar, and Cont. Hist, of Affairs, throui^h- 
Thomas, second baron Wotton, and widow out: Gardmcr's Uist of England, vols. ix. ami x. 

^ ■, r^ ^ r r^i ^ n ^ ^ c *-wv. «. .-.-^.*arquis ot W orccstor, IKb.*), p. 

was created Countess of Chesterfield for p^^^^^.^ Register of (Jray's Inn, p. 291 ; Pe.-r- 
hie; she died m 10t»(), and was buried at ^^g^s by liurke (Extinct). Collins, iii. 316. an-l 
Boughton-Malherbe. U'Xeill had no issue | Lodgo.ed. Archdall ; Husted's Kent, ii. 431. 4:^7 : 
by her, to whom he left all his wealth ; but j Dnlton's English Army Lists. 16«1-1714, i. 4-5; 
apparently he hud by a previous marriage a Notes and Queries, 6th ser. ii. 48.] A. F. P. 
son Jiarrv, whom he educated as a protes- ' r^'-i^TT^TT ▼ 1^1 rrr* 1^01 10- ^\ 
tant ; nothing more is known of him,ind he I .^^ ^EILL, KLTZA 0791-18. 2), actress, 
probably died yonng. I l^^^ Bkciier, Kmz.x, Lady.J 

I Thoro is consid(T.ible confusion in the O'Neill I O'NEILL, SfR FELIM (1004 .°-l 053). 
geucaloLry, jind O'Hart makes two persons of ^ [See O'Neill, SlU PlIEUM.I 
Daniel O'Neill, giving each a separate pedigree. 

For the genealogy and for Con O'Neill see Cal. ' O'NEILL, FLAITIIHHE.\RTACn {d. 




^ ...-,.. ^.Iges Peerage, ed. K""^'^K« ^*'. "y;";'; "^ "/'^^ ai,p.-a.. ..x the 

Arclidall, iii. 2-1 ; O'HMrtV Irish Pedigrees, ed. t'l»ronicles in 1004, when he ravaged the di.s- 
18S7, i. 721. T.n. For Daniel O'Neill Hee. be- ^riot of Lethchatliail, now U^cale,co. Down, 
sides ant horities quoted. Cal. State Papern, Dom. »^»i<l tlum part of the kingdom of I-esser I. Ister 
passim; Hist. M^S. Comin. Appendices to 3rd or I'lidia. He slew the king of Lethchatliail. 
i{e»' - ^M*, 4th Kep. passim, 6th Kep. passim, '. and in a second battle overthrew the Uli- 




dians and killed the heir of the chief of the 
Ui t^thach, tlieir allies. In 1006 he plun- 
dered Conaille Murtheimhne, a level district 
of Louth, but was attacked and defeated with 
great loss by Maelseachlainn II [jq. v.], kin^ 
of Ireland ; but next year he a^in invaded 
Ulidia, and slew another lord of Lethchathail, 
Cuuladh Mac Aenghasa, taking home seven 
hostages. In 1008 he plundered the rich 
idain called Magh Breagn^ in the south of 
Sleath.and in lOlO^in alliance with Munster- 
men under Murchadh, son of Brian (926- 
1014) [q. v.], king of Ireland, and with some 
of the southern O'Neills from Meath, he at- 
tacked Cinel Luighdheach, now the barony 
of Kilmacrenan, co. Donegal, then the patri- 
mony of the O'Donnells, and carried off three 
hundred cows. Later in the year he demolished 
Dun (lathach, a fortress in Ulidia. lie invaded 
the Cinel Conaill as far as Moy, co. Donegal, 
in 1012, and later marched right through it 
to Drumcliff, co. Sligo. In his absence, Mael- 
seachlainn invaded Tyrone, but retired, and 
Flaithbheartach attacked the Ards, co. Down, 
and again obtained a great spoil from the 
I'lidians. In 1013 he attacked Meath by 
way of Maighin attaed, a place not hitherto 
identified, but which is clearly Moynalty, 
CO. Meath, since the chronicle adds, * i ttaobh 
Ceanannsa * ( near Kells), a phrase which, by 
a misprint in O'Donovan's translation of the 

* Annals of the Four Masters,* is rendered 

* by the son of Cenanus.' The pass by which 
the Ulstermen came down may still be traced 
in the hills on the right bank of the river 
Borora, which here divides Cavan from 
Meath. He slew Muireadhach Ua Duibh- 
eoin, chief of Ui Micuaisbreagh in Meath, in 
1017, and in 1018 was at war with Mael- 
seachlainn, the king of Ireland. Next 
vear he again ravaged O'DonnelVs country. 
lie was defeated by the people of Magh 
Breagh in 1025, but again invaded Meath in 
102(5. In 1030 he went on a pilgrimage to 
Rome, and came back in 1031. It was a 
year of plenty, and he was able to lead a 
force into Inishowen. In 1036 he died, 
' iar ndeighbheathaidh agus iar bpennain ' 
(* after a good life and penance*), says the 
chronicle. He had t wo sons : Domhnall, who 
died in 1027; and Muireadhach, who was 
slain by the Ui Labhradha, a sept of the 
Ulidians, in 1039. 

[Annala Riogbuchta Eireann, ed. O'DonovaD, 
vol. ii. ; Annals of Ulster (»^olls Sor.), ed. Hen- 
nes*y and MacCarthv ; Annals of Loch C^ (Rolls 
Ser.), ed. Heunessy.J N. M. 

O'NEILL, HENRY (rf. 1392), Irish chief, 
called by Irish writers Enri aimhreidh or 
the Ck>ntentioas, was son of Niall mdr O'Neill, 

chief of the Cinel Eoghain, son of Aedh 
reamhar or the Fat, also chief, who died in 
1364, and was descended from Brian O'Neill, 
who was slain at the battle of Down in 1260, 
and was twelfth in descent from Muirchear- 
tach (d. 943) [q.v.], son of Niall (870.P-919) 
[q.v.] These points of descent explain seve- 
ral references to him in poetry. Some verses 
by Brian ruadh Mac Conmidhe [q. v.] in the 
poem * Temair gach baile i mbi ri ' (* Any 
demesne whatever in which there is a king 
may justly be held to be Tara'), addressed 
to Henry O'Neill (d. 1489) [q. v.], great- 
nephew of Enri aimhreidh, suggest that the 
Irish Enri is not Henricus, but 6nri, sole king. 
Enri aimhreidh is the earliest O'Neill of the 
name. The * Annals of 1-och 06' state that 
he was called the Contentious by antiphrnsis 
because he was so peace-loving. His de- 
scendants were among the most turbulent 
of the Ulstermen. He lived at Ardsratha, 
now called Ardstraw, co. Tyrone, not far 
from Strabane, where a gateway, flanked by 
towers and other fragments of his castle, is 
still to be seen, at the foot of Slieve Truim, 
a mountain often marked on maps as Bessy 
Bell. He never became chief of Cinel 
Eoghain, as he died in 1392, before his elder 
brother, Niall ogy whose son, Owen Eoghan, 
is noticed separately. Enri married his 
cousin Aiflric, daughter of Aedh O'Neill. 
She died in 1389, having borne him six sons: 
Domhnall, Brian, Niall, Huaidhri, Seaan, and 
Enri. The six sons, their followers, and de- 
scendants formed a sept known as Clann Enri, 
and afterwards as Sliocht Enri aimhreidh, 
most of whose lands at the plantation of Ul- 
ster became the property of the Earl of Aber- 
corn. Domhnall was taken by the English in 
1399, and sent a prisoner to England, but was 
ransomed in 1401, and in 1403 became chief 
of Cinel Eoghain. He was slain at Keenaght, 
CO. Derry, by Domhnall and Aibhne O'CaJdan 
in 1432. Brian made an expedition into 
Donegal in 1401. He was met by the Cinel 
Conaill under Toirdhealbhach, son of Niall 
garbh O'Donnell, and hard pressed while 
driving ofl^his spoil of cattle. At last he was 
surrounded, and after killing Enri O'Gairm- 
leaghaidh with one stroke of his sword, was 
himself killed bv Toirdhealbhach O'Donnell. 

[Annala RicghachUi Eireann, ed. O'Donovan, 
vols. iii. and iv. ; Bishop William Reeves's Acts 
of Archbishop Colton. Dublin. 1850; Annala of 
Loch Co, ed. Hennessy, vol. ii. (Rolls Ser.) ; Fitz- 
gerald's Statistical Account of Ardstraw ; Lewis's 
Topographical Diet, of Ireland, vol. i.; Egerton 
MS. 11 1 (Brit. Mu8.).fol. 38 b.] N. M. 

O'NEILL, HENRY {d. 1489), chief of 
Cinel Eoghain, called in Irish Enri Mac 
Eoghain UaNeill, was son of Owen or Eoghan 

O'Neill 186 O'Neill 

0*Neill 'q. v.~ and his wife Caitriona^daugh- the Earl of Ormonde, but had for some time 
terof AnlghalMacMahon, and waa twentieth been living with the daughter of MacWil- 
in dejicent from Niall (f^70?-W.h 'cj. v.]. king liam Burke, widow of Neachtan O'DonnelL 
of Irt'land. lie was u young man in 1431, ( The Earl of Ormonde marched against him, 
when he was taken prisoner by Neaclitan and compelled him to send away Bain- 
cyDonnell, who released him as one of the treabhach O'Donnell, and to take back liis 
conditions ofapeacewithEoghan O'Neill. In lawful wife. He deposed his father, who 
1435 Neachtan 0*I)onnell, in alliance with was probably in a state of senile decay, in 
Brian og O'Xeill, decided to attack Eoghan : 14oo,and was inaugurated O'Neill at Tulla- 
0*Neill and his sons Enri and Eoghan og. As hoge, in the presence of the Archbishop of 
Hoon as the news arrived, Eoghan, with Enri . Armagh and of all the O'Neills. He went 
and his brother, marched into the heart of j to war with the O^Donnells in 1456, and 

(VDonnell's country by the pass now known 
as the bridge of Duchary to the Rosses, the dis- 
trict between the Gweebara and Gweedore, 

established Toirdhealbhach Cairbrech as their 
chief, with whom in 1458 he successfully 
plundered Lower Connaught and Breifne. 

CO. Donegal, and there encamped. That a hos- ! In 14o9 he tried, with PInglish allies, to take 
tile army was able to live there shows that " the castle of Omagh from the Sliocht Airt 
the district can hardly have been less produc- , Ui Neil 1, but failed, and made peace with 
tive then than it is now. 0*Donnell attacked < them. The king of England sent him forty- 
the O'Neills, drove them out, and occupied . eight yards of scarlet cloth, a chain of ^Id, 
the camp. Enri O'Neill, after a short retreat, and other presents in 1463, thus recognising 
made a speech to his clansmen and to his him a chief king of the Irish. In 1464 he 
gallowglasscs, or hired men at arms, the Mac- plundered and burned Donegal as far as 
Donnells, and again led them against the Ballyshannon, and in 1467 ravaged Oireacht 
camp, lie led the assault, and drove O'Don- Ui Cathain or 0*Cahan's countrv, co. Derry, 
nell out. Mac Suibhne of Funad, lender of His alliance with MacQuillin still subsisted, 
the gallowglasscs of O'Donnell,- obstinately and they invaded Clanebov in 1470, and 
resisted MacDonnell, and seems to have led captured the castle of Sgathdeirge on Sket- 
oiY his men in good order. He retreated rick Island in Strangford I^ugh. In 1471, 
oast wards, probably with the intention of after a siege of six months, he took the castle 
murcliin^'- north along the Foyle, and so of Omagh, and later in the year plundt*r»'d 
r^'acliin^ Fauad, but was overtaken near Tirbreasail, co. Donegal. Five vears later 
Slieve Triiini, co. Tyrone, by Enri O'Neill, he again attacked the O'Neills of Clanebov. 
In the action which ensued MacSuibhne was and demolished their castle of Belfast. In 
defeated and taken prisJoner. l^rian O'Neill 1479 and 1480 he plundered Donegal. Tlie:^e 
tried to get into favour l)y giving up O'Don- were his last expeditions, and in 1483 he had 
neli'.s castle of Ballyshannon, aii<l coming to his son Con inaugurated chief of the Cin»4 
O'Neill with his two sons. (.)'Neill cut off Eoghain in his stead, and after six years of 
f>ne loot and one hand from each, and one retirement died in 1489. The poet Brian 
of the sons died at once. In 1 439 he marched ruadh Mac Conmidhe [q. v.], who also praised 
to Portnra on Lough Erne, and released the 1 his enemy, Neachtan O'Donnell, praises him 
chief of the Ma<ruires, who ha<l been made a as chief king of the Irish in a poetical 
prisoner in his own castle by one of his address of which there is a late copy in the 
vassals. With some English allies he again British Museum (Egerton MS. 111). 
defeated Neachtan O'Donnell in 1442, and 1 [Annala Kioffhachta Eireann, ed. O'Donovan. 
obtained from liini Castle Finn, CO. Donegal, vol. iv. ; Annals of Loch Ce, eii. Hcnnes-iv. 
the territorv of Cinel Moain, and the tribute I vol. ii. : Transactions of Ibemo-Celtie J^»>*. 
of Inishowen. In the same vear he fought , (O'Reilly), DuMin, 1820; S. H.O'Gmdy sCat.of 
for Mac(^iillin against Aedh Huidli O'Neill, ', Irish MSS. in British Museum.] N. M. 

and in 1441 sustained a severe defeat fight- O'NEILL, IIENKY (1800-18S0). Iri>h 
ingwith MacC^uillin ajjainst O'Neill of Clane- ' at Dundalk in 1800, issued 
boy, CO. Down, and had to give up his son two works which are held in high estima- 
Atjdh as a hostage. lie again helped Mac- ' tion by Irish antiquaries. Tlie first of these, 
(^uillin in 14o(), and in the same year his , entitled * The Most Interesting of the scul|>- 
son Niall was slain while on a forav bv his I turcd Crosses of Ancient Ireland, drawn to 
cousin Kuri, great-grandson of Enri aimh- ^ scale and lithographed by II. O'Neill,' an im- 
reiflh. lie aided his father in 14.")2 in ob- penal folio, containing thirty-six fine tinted 
tainiiig an eric from MaeMahon, wljo^had lithographs with descriptive letterpress and 
slain AlacDonnell, the chief of O'Neill's gal- an essay on ancient Irish art, was published 
lowglasses. Enri O'Neill had married the ' by the author, Ix)ndon, 18o7. It was fol- 
daughter of MacMurchadha, a 8tei)si8ter of ■ lowed by * The Fine Arts and Civilisation of 




Ancient Ireland, illustrated with chromo and 
other lithofomphR, and several woodcuts/ 
Ijondon, 1863. This ambitious work attempts 
to prove the existence of advanced civilisa- 
tion in Ireland at a prehistoric period, and 
to refute the conclusions of Dr. Qeorge Petrie 

tq. v.] in his * Ecclesiastical Architecture of 
Ireland' (1845). O'Neill maintained that 
the round towers were of pagan origin, but 
this view is now discredited ; nor have his 
other contentions borne the test of criticism 
as well as those which he attacked. He also 
wrote in 1808 a brochure claiming ' Ireland 
for the Irish 'and attacking 'landlordism.' 
His last production was a lithograph, with 
u careful description of the twelfth-century 
metal cross known as the * Cross of Cong.* 
O'Neill died at 109 Lower Gardiner Street, 
Dublin, on 21 Dec. 1880, in the same year | 
as his namesake the artist, Henry Nelson ' 
( rXeil [q. v.], leaving a family in straitened { 

[Irish Times. 24 Dec. 1880 ; Athenjeiim. 1881, 
i. 27 (where, and also in the Academy. O'Neill is 
wrongly credited with a separate work on the 
Round Towers) ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] T. S. 

O'NEILL, HUGH (rf. 1230), lord of Cinel 
Eoghain, often called less accurately lord of 
Tyrone, was perhaps a son of the Aedh or 
I nigh O'Neill whom the * Annals of Ulster' 
relate to have been slain in 1 177. The younger 
Hugh O'Neill seems to have become chief of 
the Cinel Eoghain about 1197. In 1199, 
while John de Courci was plundering in Ty- 
rone, Hugh went to some place near Lame, 
and was in the act of burning the town when 
the English took him by surprise. Hugh, 
however, defeated the English, and so forced 
De Courci to come back from Tyrone. Later 
in the same year O'Neill was engaged in war- 
fare with the Cinel Council and O'Heignigh 
the chief of Fermanagh, but in the end some 
sort of peace was made. In 1201 Hugh and 
<)*Heignigh went to help Cathal O'Connor 
(1160P-1224) [q. v.l in Ck)nnaught against 
Cathal Carrach and VVUliam Burke J[8ee 
under Fitzaldhelm, William]. They raided 
aA far as Tebohine in co. Roscommon ; but 
when Cathal Crobhderg wanted to proceed 
against Cathal Carrach and William Burke, 
the northern Irish refused, and turned home- 
wards. Burke and Cathal Carrach pursued 
them, and overtook them near Ballysadare. 
At first the men of Connaught would not 
join battle, but eventually they defeated and 
slew O'Heignigh, and compelled Hugh to give 
hostages to Cathal Carracn. It was perhaps 
in consequence of this defeat that Hugh was 
deposed oy the Cinel Eoghain in favour of a 
MacLochlainn. O'Neill, however, soon re- 

covered his lordship ; in 1207 Hugh deLacy^ 
earl of Ulster [q. v. J, made a raid into Tyrone, 
but could exact no pledges from O'Neill. In 
1209 Hugh O'Neill was plundering Inish- 
owen, and had a great fight with the elder 
0'Donuel,but eventually the two made peace, 
and united against the English. In 1211 Hugh 
defeated the English at Narrow- Water in co. 
Down, and next year repulsed an invasion of 
Tyrone by John de Gray, and afterwards 
burnt the castle of Clones, which the justiciar 
had lately erected. In 1214 he defeated the 
English with great slaughter, and burnt Car- 
lingford, and next year was again raiding in 
Ulster. In 1222 Hugh de Lacy returned to 
Ireland against the king^s consent, and, join- 
ing with Hugh O'Neill, destroyed the castle 
of Coleraine, and ravaged Meath and Lein- 
ster. O'Neill also supported De Lacy in his 
later warfare, which led to the despatch of 
William Marshal, second earl of Pembroke 
and Striguil [q. v.], to Ireland in 1224. In 
1226 ON^eill went to the aid of the stms of 
Koderic O'Connor (1116-1 198) [q. v.] against 
Hugh, son of Cathal O'Connor called Croibh- 
dhear^ [<!•▼•]» ^^^ set up Turlough O'Connor, 
Koderic 8 third son, as prince ot Connaught. 
O'Neill himself evaded the English, but Tur- 
lough was soon expelled and forced to take 
refuge in Tyrone, llugh O'Neill died a natu- 
ral death in 1230, though he was *the person 
that it was least thorght would find death 
otherwise than by the foreigners ' (^Aimah of 
Ulster, ii. 285). 

The Irish annalists speak of Hugh O'Neill 
with much exaggeration, as * a king who had 
never rendered hostages, pledges, or tribute 
to English or Irish ; who had gained victories 
over the English, and cut them ofl* with great 
slaughter ; who had never been expelled or 
exiled, and was the most hospitable and de- 
fensive that had come of the Irish for a long 
period ' {Annals o/Kilronan). The * Annals 
of Loch C6 ' call Hugh the * most generous 
king and very best man that had come of the 
men of Erinn for a long time.' Hugh O'Neill 
is spoken of as * worthy future arch-king of 
Ireland ' (Annals of Ijhter, ii. 285) ; and in 
a solitary reference to him in the English re- 
cords, he is said to have styled himself king of 
all the Irish of Ireland (Calendar of Dom-- 
metits relattm; to Ireland, i. No. 1840). In 
the same place reference is made to his having 
been brought into the English king's peace. 

[Annals of tlie Four Mnstcrs, ed. O'Donovan ; 
Annals of Loch Cc* (Rolls Ser.), and Annals of 
Ulster, ed. Ueunespy (the dates are given in 
accordance with the Ulster Annals; the chrono- 
logy of the Annals of the Four Masters is gene- 
raliv a year earlier) ; Webb's Irish Biography, pp. 
406-6.] C. L. K. 




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: ^'. !r . i' N- 7 1-— y- p-lled to ^^ubmit to him. Later in the vnar 

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.' >^i':v • 1-"— i^ninst the Karl of Desmond in Miiii?>r. 

■ - "_ ■ :,-' • :■ ■. '"^- r* .:?*<•■« ju»-ntlv, in January 158:?, he did jr^nJ 

iv I- *.'-- <^rvii.v by capturing John fiisack, of Alli*- 

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' ' ■ - V-7"- .. V T]w fact that, on a report ol" Tur- 

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■•.■ - - - . .: r" >•:-'*-•-: ■Jvbanch in 5lay l.WJ, he roilr* p..i*t- 

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of all the lands contained in the patent granted 
by Henry VIII to his reputed grandfather 
Con. But the government thoup^ht enough 
had already been conceded to him, and he 
was obliged to accept a patent which prac- 
tically confirmed the settlement arrived at 
by Perrot. 

Returning to Ireland, Tyrone was soon 
involved in fresh disputes with Turlough 
and Sir Ros MacMahon. In March 1588 
Perrot, who was beginning to lose con- 
fidence in his professions of loyalty, pro- 
claimed a general hosting against him ; but 
Tyrone at once submitted, went to Dublin, 
and put in two of his best pledges as guaran- 
tee to keep the peace. Commissioners Ben- 
yon and Merriman were sent to settle his 
difierences with Turlough, but he resented 
their intrusion, and in April invaded Tur- 
lough s territory with a large army. He took 
Turlough by surprise, and harried his country 
up to tne very walls of Strabane. But at 
Carricklea, on 1 May, he was utterly routed by 
the combined efforts of Turlough, Niall Garv 
0*I)onnell [q. v.], and Hu^h Mac Deaganach, 
and forced to seek safety m flight. The news 
of his defeat was received with great satis- 
faction in Dublin. ' Nothing,' according to 
Perrot, *had done so much good in the north 
these nine years.' But it required some- 
thing like a threat of instant war to compel 
him to desist ^m attempting to revenge his 
defeat by a fresh invasion. Later in the 
year Turlough took advantage of the pro- 
viso in his agreement to demand the restora- 
tion of his lands between the MuUaghcame 
mountains and the Blackwater. The privy 
council were inclined to concede his demand; 
but Tyrone swore he would lose his life 
sooner than surrender them. Lord-deputy 
Fitzwilliam was afraid that Shane CNeill's 
sons, who had found a patron in Turlough, 
and had a strong following in the country, 
would seize the opportunity to assert their 
claims. Turlough was consequently induced 
in May 1589 to waive his demand, and to 
consent to a renewal of the lease for the 
remaining four years at an increased rent of 
five hundred fat beeves. 

The new arrangement was equally distaste- 
ful to Tyrone and to Turlough, and served to 
embitter still further the relations between 
them. Depredations occurred on both sides, 
and Tyrone complained that Turlough was 
instigating Shane's sons, Hugh G^imhleach 
and Con, to plunder him. Fitzwilliam, who 
went to Newry to inquire into the matter, 
thought that Turlough was the principal 
sufferer, but he agreed in laying the blame 
on Shane's sons. About the end of the year 
Tyrone bribed Hugh Maguire [q. v.] with 

some cattle and horses to surrender Hugh 
Geimhleach, and if he did not, as was asserted, 
hang Hugh with his own hands on a thorn 
tree, he procured a han/^an from Cavan to 
execute him. Fitzwilliam was indignant, 
and summoned Tjrrone to Dublin. But the 
earl merely said he thought he had done well 
to execute him, * being the son of a traitor and 
himself a traitor ;' and having given surety 
in 2,000/. to appear whenever he was wanted, 
he was allowed to return home. But he sub- 
sequently professed sorrow for what he had 
done ; and Fitzwilliam, who was inclined to 
regard him with favour, gave him permission 
to go to England. On arriving at court in 
March 1690, he was for some time placed under 
restraint. But the deputy wrote eloquently 
in his behalf, urging that of his own know- 
ledge the I^ale had * felt great good and secu- 
rity in his neighbourhood,' and that so long 
as Turlough lived he was not really dan- 
gerous, though ' when he is absolute and 
hath no competitor, then he may shew him- 
self to be the man which now in his wis- 
dom he hath reason to dissemble.' He was 
accordingly * purged with mercy,' and re- 
turned to Ireland on 20 Aug. For some 
time he caused the government little or no 

In January 1591 his wife, the daughter of 
O'Donnell, died, and Tyrone, who had been 
attracted by the personal charms of Mabel 
Bagenal, daughter of Sir Nicliolas Bagenal, 
made overtures to her brother, Sir Henry, for 
an alliance with her. But Bagenal repulsed 
his overtures with contempt. Tyrone, how- 
ever, found opportunities to speak with the 
young lady in private, and, having succeeded 
m winning her affections, persuaded her to 
elope with him * to an honest gentleman's 
house within a mile of Dublin . . . when I did 
not once touch her until I had sent to Dublin 
and had entreated the Bishop of Meath to 
marry us together in honest sort, which he 
did' in August. The elopement caused a 
great sensation. Sir Henry refused to pay 
his sister's dowry, which henceforth became 
a principal grievance with Tyrone. Accord- 
ing to a statement attributed to Tyrone himself 
{Treiyelyan Papers, ii. 101 ), Mabel herself be- 
fore long regretted her rashness, and * because 
I did affect two other gentlewomen, she grew 
in dislike with me, forsook me, and went unto 
her brother to complain upon me to the 
council of Ireland, and did exhibit articles 
against me.' She died a year or two later, 
and so did not live to see her brother killed 
in battle by her husband. As for Tyrone, he 
declared that his chief object in marrying 
her was * to bring civility into my house and 
among the country people ' — a specious plea, 

O'Neill 190 O'Neill 

and likely to carry weight with the govern- 10 Oct. they encountered Maguire at Belleek, 
ment. * I and gained * a splendid victory ' over him. 

In July li")02 Tyrone was instrumental in During the fight Tyrone was wounded in 
persuading Hugh Roe O'Donnell [q. v.] to go the leg, of which he did not fail to make the 
to Dundiilk and submit to the deputy. But most ; but it was noticed in his disparage- 
as the year drew to a close rumours of a dis- ment that he * made earnest motion to be 
fluieting nature reached Fitzwilliam's ears, gone the day before the conflict.' lie pro- 
Hitherto Tyrone's ambition had been limited tested that Bagenal and Fitzwilliam had 
to crushing his rival, Turlough Luineach, and conspired to rob him of the honour that was 
asserting his supremacy as head of the ^ due to him; but the impression that he had 
O'Neills. Hostility towards Turlough rather assisted unwillingly at Maguire's discern- 
than towards the government was the motive fituro was shared by the Irish (O'Clert, 
of his conduct. Afterwards, when he was , Life of O^Donnell^ p. 65). After the battle 
fieen to be aiming at the separation of Ireland he retired to Dungannon, where he awaited 
from England, it became the fashion to ascribe ; the further development of events. In March 
to liim a degree of astuteness and duplicity 1594 Archbishop Loftus, Chief-justice Gar- 
of which he was certainly innocent. Private diner, and Sir Anthony St. Leger, being 
ambition, the influence of Hugh Roe 0*Don- , personne gratae, were sent to Dundalk to 
noil, and Spanish intrigues, rather than any ; treat with him. Tyrone, after keeping the 
statesmanlike interest in the welfare of his commissioners waiting some days, handed in 
country or regard for the catholic religion, a list of his grievances {Cal, Carew MSS.'ui. 
were at the bottom of his revolt. Cautious 87), chiefly to the effect that Fitzwilliam and 
even to timidity, he resorted to a system of Bagenal were knit together to take his life 
duplicity, to call it by no more offV'nsive title, and deprive him of all honour. Official 
which, while it proved wholly ineff^ective, has opinion was divided, the commissioners sug- 
served sufliciently to perplex his biographers, ' gesting the removal of Bagenal ; Sir Richard 
and to give rise to a view of his character , Bingham and Solicitor-general Wilbraham 
which has no foundation in fact. In May urging that Tyrone's country should be shired 
1503 he came to terms with Turlough I and partitioned as Monaghan had been. 
Luinoach, and the latter having resigned the ^ Eventually, on 16 March, * a kind of truce* 
clii»^t'tuinship in his favour, he was inaugu- was concluded, *to last till her majesty's 
rated O'Neill. Something of what had hap- pleasure touching the earl's griefs and peti- 
pened reacli(»d the oars of the deputy, who, tions may be ascertained.' 
failing to in voifflo him to Dublin, ordered him ' On 11 Aug. Fitzwilliam surrendered the 
to repair to Dundalk on 20 June, * so that, sword of state to Sir "William Russell. A 
underpretonceof border causes, we might lay day or two later Tyrone, in fulfilment of a 
hold on him there.' Tyrone obeyed the sum- promise he had made to Ormonde, but to the 
mons, expressed profound grief at having been evident astonishment of the council, appeared 
falsely uocused of disloyalty, and consented in Dublin, and, having deluded the deputy 
to concede a life interest in the district of with the belief that he was the most loyal 
Strnbane to Turlough. He was allowed to of subjects, was allowed to slip quietly 
return home. Fitzwilliam explaining tbat he away again. The deputy had soon good 
had not sufficient ground to proceed against reason to regret his short-sighted leniency. 
him on a charge of foreign conspiracy as Proof was forthcoming that he was secretly 
directed in her majesty's letters. supporting Maguire, and had arrived at an 

It was dforaod advisable to overlook his understandingwithFiaghMacHughO'Byme 
d<?lin(|uencie.s, and to employ him to recover ' [q. v.] Spanish gold was current in Tyrone, 
Hujrli Maguire [((. v. 1, who in. Tunehad invaded , and rumours were rife of a Spanish invasion, 
Coimaught and deleated the president. Sir supported from Scotland by the Earl of 
Richard l^iiigham, at Tulsk, co. Roscommon. ' Huntly. The government deemed an imme- 
It was a hazardous proceeding if, as there diate attack on Tyrone essential. Reinforce- 
were good grounds lor believing, Maguire monts under Sir John Xorris Tq. v."" were ad- 
was only acting on secret instructions from vertisedas beingonthe way ; but Tyrone had 
Tyrone and O'Donnell. Tyrone readily under- prior information, and struck the first blow 
took the task committed to him, but failed by invading Louth, which he burned up to 
to induce Maguire to submit. Accordingly, the very walls of Drogheda. When Xorri< 
in S"pteinl)er 159.3, Sir Henry Bagenal, landed at Waterford on 4 May 1595, the 
witli 14;^ horse and 'JOB foot, invaded For- fort at the lUackwater had fallen into 
mM ""'-*' ^Toni the side of Monaghan. At Tyrone's hands, and a day or two later En- 
\ he was joined by Tynme with niskillen was recapturedby Maguire. Be- 
d horse and six hundred foot. On fore Norris could take the field, Sligo Castle 




liad fallen, and its commander, George Bing- 
ham, been slain. On 24 June Tyrone was 
froclaimed a traitor in English and Irish at 
^undalk. There was plenty of skirmishing 
and considerable loss ofiife; but Norris failed 
to bring him to an open engagement, and 
Cecil, who thought the situation dangerous, 
advised a compromise. 'Iler majesty,' he 
wrote, * would be content to see what was in 
the traitor's heart, and what he would offer.* 
But Tyrone insisted on a general pardon all 
round, and to this Norris refused to consent. 
In the midst of the struggle old Turlough 
Luineach died, and Tyrone assumed the title, 
as he had for some time past possessed the 
authority, of O'Neill. * The coming to the 
place of O'Neill,* wrote Norris, * hath made 
the rebel much prouder and harder to yield 
to his duty, and he fiattereth himself much 
with the hope of foreign assistance.* As if 
to confirm Norris*8 statement, letters were 
shortly afterwards intercepted from him and 
0*lk)nnellto PhilipII and Don John d*Aquila, 
soliciting speedy assistance. But Tyrone pro- 
tested that he had never corresponded with 
Spain before 20 Aug., which was probably 
true enough, and, the government being wil- 
ling to accept his assurances, a truce was 
concluded on 2 Oct. for a week, but was sub- 
sequently extended to 1 Jan. 1596. Gardiner 
and Wallop were sent to Dundalk to come to 
some terms with him ; but Elizabeth thought 
their language too subservient to him, and 
substituted Norris and Fenton. On 9 April 
Maguire, MacMahon, and 0*Reilly sub- 
mitted on their knees in the market-place of 
Dundalk. But Tyrone and 0*Donnell re- 
fused to meet the commissioners anywhere 
except in the open fields, and, this being re- 
garded as undignified, intermediaries were 
appointed. * Free liberty of conscience * and 
local autonomy were the points chiefly in- 
f^isted on. But there were explanations, and 
Elizabeth having professed herself satisfied, 
A hollow peace was signed on 24 April. 

A day or two later a messenger arrived from 
Spain with a letter from Philip to Tyrone, 
encouraging him to persevere in his valiant 
defence of the catholic cause. There 
can be no question as to the nature or 
Tyrone*s answer, for it is extant in the 
archives at Simancas, and has been pub- 
lished (O'Cleby, liifeo/O'Donnelly'p. Ixxviii). 
But to Norris Tyrone declared that he had 
told the Spaniard who brought the letter 
that he and 0*Donnell had been received 
into the favour of their own princess, and 
therefore could not answer Philip's expectn- 
tionii. To put the matter at rest, he sub- 
mitted Philip's letter to Russell*s inspection. 
But in this he rather overshot his mark, 

for Russell retained the letter, and caused it 
to be transmitted to Philip, who was indig- 
nant at Tyrone's breach of faith. Tyrone 
excused himself by saying his secretary had 
run away with it. 

For the next two years it is impossible to 
describe the relations between Tyrone and 
the government as those either of settled 
peace or open war. So far as Tyrone was 
concerned, it was, of course, to his interest 
to avoid coming to an open breach with the 
government until the arrival of Spanish as- 
sistance was assured. The unfriendly rela- 
tions existing between Sir William Russell 
and Sir John Norris, and the obstinate blind- 
ness of the latter to Tyrone's real inten- 
tions, favoured his design. He manifested 
no eagerness to sue out his pardon, but when 
it arrived he received it, according to Fenton, 
* most dutifully, and, as a public token of his 
rejoicing, caused a great volley of shot to be 
discharged in his camp.* He proffered his as- 
sistance to restore order in Connaught ; but 
nothing came, as it was meant nothing should 
come, of his intervention. To everybody ex- 
cept Norris it was evident that he was merely 
spinning out the time. At the end of August 
1696 two * barks of adviso * were announced to 
have arrived at Killybegs, and Tyrone, O'Don- 
nell, and O'Rourke at once posted thither. 
Letters addressed by them to the king of 
Spain, the infante, and Don John d*Aquila, 
calling for instant support, were betrayed by 
Tyrone's secretary, Nott, but it was some 
time, 'owing to the handling of the matter 
by the Earl of Tyrone,* before any absolute 
knowledge of the correspondence came into 
the possession of the government. After 
this, further dissimulation on his part might 
have seemed impossible. Nevertheless, he 
was highly indignant at what he called 
Russell s breach of faith in attacking his ally, 
Fiagh MacHugh O'Byme, and threatened 
instant war unless the deputy desisted from 
his purpose. But Russell treated his threats 
with contempt, and Tyrone, after making a 
demonstration on the borders of the Pale 
and cutting off all supplies from the garrison 
at Armagh, abandoned his ally. 

In January 1597 Norris moved down to 
Dundalk, and the earl, ' contrary to the minds 
of his brethren and chief followers, who 
would have him still remain Irish,* consented 
to parley. He could not deny having written 
letters to Spain, but he laid the blame partly 
on O'Donnell, partly on the government. He 
protested his loyalty with * oaths deep and 
vehement.* But Norris doubted whether his 
words corresponded with * his heart or in- 
ward meaning,' and refused to assure him of 
the queen*8 pardon, though agreeing to an- 

O'Neill 192 O'Neill 

iiij rLat l.U ; '.r ijv? wr-r ■ r. •: ch&nj-i ac- any or htrr fortiam nation. <.>rmondo pn>mi<tsl 

c •nlir.*: •" c-y.-n-in*, nor r'.-«*i*ution madr t-Mransmit his zrievanc« and petitions, in 

him Ky thop- th;i* li.ii p;irj'.«I hi* country, which *fivtr lilj^rty of conscience for all the 

and :ha* his c-i-nf-.-lvr.:!-- c- ul-l not come >«> inhabitant.-i of Ireland' held the foremost 

s- H:.n.' Nv'Tt:?. IJ -'ircLi-r. rind Frnt«-in. who place. to Elizabeth, and on the*e tf rm? a truce 

ha«i b-»-n appoint vd •'• tr»-.i: with him. r^ for eiarht wtreks, <u>>>ei'juently renewed to 

1»li"d that they w-r** n-'t :«• b" 'I'.-lu'W with 7 June loP'?. was conclud^nl. 

li^ exi-uses. ani fix- 1 I'l April a.-» the la^t Hi>pard>^npaSM^d the great seal on 11 April 

day «»f L'rac". M-aiiwhil-.-i ^hip fr«)m Spain 1-V.*'?; but, f-^ding that the demands of the 

iirriv-l in I'-nvjal. and Tyrow hiistvned to cr> wn. if yielde<lto. would c^i^mpletelvdesTroy 

Li!l"r«l to l'*.'irn tL- n^-w*. II- a«*4rrt»-d nt hi- authority over hi* urrash*. he tooliadvan- 

th»' *;i:nf rim*- that, 'if all th»- Spaniard.* in taj^* of the expiration of the truce to besi«?j?e 

Spfiiii ^h'.iulil r'ini- inti Ir»-'.and. th^fV could th-* f .»rt on the Blackwater. His effort* to 

n"T alt»r his- mind fr^m b-.-inz .'i dutiful sub- ca[tMire it were not <ucce*<ful, but laok of 

jfpt I'l h-r majv-ty, if ]ir'inH*e was kept pr'">vi*iiin!i before loner reduced the garri.son to 

with Ijim:' but by tlii;? tiraL* neith»rr Norri:? th»* direst extremities. In Aucrwj^t a sStP'ns: 

nor ^^.'nTnnb^:li^•v^•d him,andTyroni'thouL'ht fire**, under the command of Marshal Sir 

it prud.-nt wr to iro to Dundalknn 1»' April. Henry Bagenal. was sent to relieve it : hut 

i »n 'J'J Mil}' liu**';ll .-iirr»'Tirl«-r»'d th- sword on 14 Aup. it was cut to pieces and almost 

of -tat»' TO Th'tnia*,lord nurm^h.aud o'l the annihilate<l by Tyrone at IWl-an-utha- 

saiii- thiy N'lrris wrote t'» Tyrone, ollVrinij a buidhe. or the Yellow Ford on the Blackwater. 

fiiiMl Tn»*-Tinff for •J'J Junv. Th».'n'*w d'.-puty, The trovemment was panic-stricken at the 

wli'i 'li-flan-d that h»- wa* • not ^-o covetous news. But Tyn»ne, whom ipht have marph«»d 

of Jipri'iri tliJit li»' wniiid iinT moM willinirly dirt-ctlynn r^ublin.showM no ability to pr-">tit 

Ip'.'irl.i-M f'» ■'■rrn* of huiiiili:iTii»n,' r'.-fu«».d to by hi< nn»*xpfcred victor^', and was eont'^nt 

b«- 'I- liid'-'i by Typtn.-'- •■xr-u-e-, and >:'.'rir.y to all-tw tli*' r»'mniints of BasT'-nal's aniiy to 

r^\trn',n\ liiiri for lii- 'li^lovaltv. A L'^-iier'al retn'at toNewrv, *><> that tli*- f^rt miirht !>■ 

b«.?;n;.' "vji- proflaiiii'-'l for tj .Juih-. iiTiil a d"liv-r<*d him, tf> the irovern«>r wherrof. C.i|h 

d:r.' or fv.'i l;it<r ('aptniri Turn*':' attack-il tain Williams, and his soldiers, he would :^vt; 

'I. r'iM«- l»'t -.v'-'fi N»\vry and AnnaL'li. Thv nn l>etl»T ronditi-ins than to depart in th»ir 

i:irl v.a r-.,nijil't»-ly tak'ii by ■"Urpri*-. but doubh-t sand hose only with rapier and daiTjer/ 

ni-'irui^'*-'! to»-fup«-, with tli** In-- mi' hi- h<irse As a ri-sult of the victory, the smoulderiuir 

ari'l luii , ifiio >i ri<i;/lii>"iirin^ Imrr. A"inau^h ♦*lenient3 of di'^content burst everj'wh»'re 

V..I fi". iriiialj'-'l by Turii'-r. and Tyrone into open activity. Nowhere Avas the i- tit vt 

V. iihdr-v. ijfTO" tip- j>lafkuat«r. (.»n 1 i .Tulv more visible than in Munster, which, in th»» 

tin- I'M'l 'li'jMity r.apiiin-d tin* fort on the expressive lancruape of the Irish aunaH>it<. 

rfj.icl-.v.jitrr, aii<i, bavin;: pl:u'«'<l a -trnn^rfrar- a;rain became 'a tr»^niblinjf sod.* But thr»-* 

ri-'ifi ill it, ntiirnijfl \n hiiblin. Jiut Tynme, months rdapsed befon/ Tyrt»n»' showed anv 

who * li:iri;r«d t w^'fity of hi- knavi- 1 hat were appreciation of the advantage he had Avon. .ir 

appoint*"! for tin; ib'f«'iifM' of tin- sconc<*,' man ifeste<l any desiirn of extending his oper.i- 

]ir«---<'d tin- trarri-oii so clo?.«'ly that I*oroiij:h tionslvyond the limitsof a provincial revi.»lt. 

was coinptlh'l to n*turn to their n-lii-f. Sue- In Octob^-r he sent a strong force into Mun- 

('.■•■rliii;i in thi-, but failini; lo <"oin«*to 'prick ster under Tyrrell, and Cecil was inform'Ml 

]»rolve' wiih Tyron**, In* wa<pu^hinijf forward *that the very day they set foot within tli»' 

to hiiiipmnon, wlu-n he was taken .suddenly province, Munster to a man was in arms l^efnre 

ill, and compelled tfimtire to Newry. Then3 noon.' The general estimation in which Ty- 

lie died, a f«'W days later. on 1*5 Oct. It was rone was at this time held may Ix* gathered 

anticipated that Tyron*- would s»'ize the op- from the fact that the kingof Spain was said 

iiort unity to overrun the I*ale, which. aec«)rd- to have stayed all Irish >hips that had not 

injj to I^ot't us, he could very easily have done, the earl's pass. Under his protection .Tame* 

* even to the gates of Dublin.' Tiut instead Fitzthomas Fitzgerald, commonly calbnl the 

of doing so, he wrote subniis>ively to the Sugan Karl 'q. v.], a-ssum^d the title of F.arl 

state, and on :22 Doc. humbly submit ted him- of Desmond, and before long found himself 

p.'" Vfj Karl of Ormonde at Dundalk,* and at the head of eight thousand clansmen, 

fnees of his heart professed most Donald MacCarthy, Florence MacCaxthy's 




riyaly seixed the opportunity, with Tyrone's 
consent, to have nimself proclaimed Mac- 
Carthy mor. The English planters fled with- 
out striking a blow, and the settlement on 
which English statesmen had set such store 
vanished like the unsubstantial fabric of a 


But Tyrone possessed few of those Quali- 
ties, of which foresight and breadtn of 
aim are not the least essential, that go to 
constitute generalship, and months of pre- 
cious time were lost during which he might 
have made himself master of Ireland, and 
welded into one homogeneous mass all those 
scattered elements of hostility towards Eng- 
land, to which recent events had imparted 
extraordinary vigour. When Essex landed 
at Dublin on 15 April 1599, the situation, so 
far as Tyrone was concerned, was practically 
unaltered. Essex's plan of first securing the 
three provinces of Munster, Leinster, and 
Connaught, ' that thereby the main action of 
Ulster may be proceeded with with less dis- 
traction,' whether his or the council's, has 
been harshly criticised ; but it was rather the 
manner of its execution than the plan itself 
that was mainly responsible for his failure. 
After a fruitless expedition into Munster, he 
returned to Dublin on 3 July with his forces 
'weary, sick, and incredibly diminished.' 
The wisdom of postponing further operations 
for that year was manifest to every one on 
the spot. But towards the end of July letters 
arrived from Elizabeth with peremptory 
orders to attack Tyrone with all speed. Ac- 
cordingly, on 28 Aug., Essex left Dublin with 
a wholly inadequate force of 2,500 men. As 
he approached the borders of Ulster there 
was some skirmishing between him and Ty- 
rone's outposts, but nothing like a general 
engagement. Tyrone, according to his wont, 
made overtures for a parley, and on 7 Sept. 
he and Essex met at a ford on the river Laffan, 
identified as Anagh-clint. What passea at 
this meeting has been much disputed, for 
Tyrone, according to Essex, fiatly refused to 
commit to writing the conditions on which 
he was willing to submit, and Essex, un- 
wisely as the event proved, consented to 
humour him. There is an interesting account 
of the meeting in the ' Trevelyan Papers ' (ii. 
101-4), in which Essex is made to say 'If I 
was sure you would not violate your oath 
and promise, as heretofore you have already 
done, I would be very well content to speak 
unto the Queen's majesty, my mistress, for 
you ' (cf. Addit. MS, 5495, f. 16). The gist 
of Tyrone's demands appears in a document 
called ' Tyrone's Propositions,' printed in 
Winwood s ' Memorials' (i. 119); but a fuller 
copy of the same, contained in a letter from 
VOL. xui. 

Captain Warren, has been printed in Gil- 
bert's * Account of the National Manuscripts 
of Ireland,' p. 249. The suggestion of trea- 
son on Essex's part may be dismissed as mere 
calumny. It was surely enough to condemn 
him in Elizabeth's eyes that he had shown so 
little regard for the dignity of the crown by 
consenting to treat on equal terms * as best be- 
comes solaiers * with a proscribed traitor. Sus- 
sex and Sidney would have shown themselves 
much more sensitive in this respect. It 
was agreed that commissioners should be ap- 
pointed to arrange the details of the pacifica- 
tion, and that in the meantime there should 
be a truce for six weeks to six weeks, until 
1 May 1600, either side being at liberty to 
break it on giving fourteen days' notice. 

On 8 Nov. Tyrone in a letter signed 
O'Neill— the style he now openly adopted — 
announced his intention not to renew the 
cessation, but in December he was induced 
by the Earl of Ormonde to consent to a truce 
for one month. The interval was employed 
in completing his preparations for an expedi- 
tion into Munster. Letters, little less than 
regal in style, were sent to MacCarthy Mus- 
kerry, to Floren