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/2v/^' 'irtJ'i'^^ 



DICTIONARY 



or 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



Wakeman Watkins 



DICTIONARY 



OF 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



EDITED BY 

SIDNEY LEE 



VOL. LIX. 
Wakeman Watkins 



THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 

LONDON : SMITH, ELDER, & CO. 
1899 



UBBARY OF THE 




LIST OF WEITEES 



IN THE FIFTTMINTH VOLUME. 



O. A. A. . . O. A. Arruii. 
J. a. A. . . J. O. Aloeb. 

W. A. J. A. W. A. J. AXCBBOLD. 

W. A Waltsb Abhstboso. 

B- B-u . ■ ■ BicHABD Baowblu 
M. B Miss Batxsom. 

B. B Tas Bbt. Bonald Baydb. 

T. B TaoHAS Batsx. 

C. R B. . . C. Bathono Beazisy. 
O. C. B. . . Tbb latb O. C. Boasb. 

T. G. B. . . Tbx Rev. PBorsBSOB BoNmy, 
PJI.S. 

O. S. B. . . O. S. BouiABB. 

E. C-B.. . . The Masteb op Baujol Col- 
lege, Oxford. 

E. L C. . • E. iBTisa CabliIiB. 

W. C-B. . . Wilua]! Cabb. 

3. L. C. . . J. L. Caw. 

A. M. C. . . M188 A. M. Ci-BBEE. 

T. C Thohpson Coofbb, F.BJL 

W. P. C. . . W. p. CODBINBT. 

L. C Lionel Cubt, F.S 

H. D. . . . . HsNBs Davet. 

A. D. . . . • Adbtis Dobbon. 

C. D Cakpbeix Dodobom. 

O. T. D. . . G. Thobn DBURy. 

B. D Bobebt Dcnlop 



j P. G. B, 

; C. L. P. 

C. H. P. 
j J. O. . . 

I B. O. . . 

A. G. . . 
H. B. G. 
P. H. G. 
J. A. H. 
C. A. H. 
P. J. H. 
T. P. H. 

B. H. . . 



W. H. 
A. J. 



C. K. . . 
J. K. . . 
3. K. L. 
I. 8. L. . 
E. L. . . 
S. L. . . 
E. L-W. 
B. H. L. 
E. M. L. 



! M. MacD. 



. P. G. Edwasds. 
. C. Litton Pauhnxb. 

. C. H. FlBTH. 

. Jauxs Gaibdrbb, LL.D. 
. Bicbabd Garnett, LL.D., C.B. 
. Tbe Bet. Ai.bxaiii>bb Goboon. 
. H. B. Grenfell. 

> . P. HiNOEg Gbooue. 
. . 3. A. Hakilton. 

. . C. Auxander EUbbis. 

. F. J. Hartoo. 

. T. P. Hendebson. 

. . L1EOTENANT-C0LONELB.H0LOEN, 
F.S.A. 

. The Bet. WnxuM Hunt. 

. . The Rev. Auocstdb Jebsopp, 
D.D. 

. Charles Kent. 

. Joseph Eniqht, F.S.A. 

. Fbopbbsob j. K. Lacohtoh. 
, . L S. Leadam. 
. . M188 Euzabetb Lee. 

. Sidney Lex. 
, . Edwabc Lee-Wabneii. 

. BOBIN H. liEOOE. 

, . Colonel E. M. Lloyd, B.E. 

> . Michael MacBonaoh. 



VI 



List of Writers. 



X B. M. . . J. B. Maodonalb. 
M. ii. ... Shbbiff Macxay. 
E. C. H. . . E. C. Mabchant. 

D. 8. M. . . Pbofubob D. S. Maboououtb. 

E. H. M. . . B. H. BfABSHALL. 

H. E. If. . . Tbz Bioar Hok. Snt Hxbbbbt 

lfAZWELI,,BABT.,lI.P.,FJt.S. 

A. H. M. . . A. H. MiUiAB. 

N. U. . . . . MoBXAs MooBX, MJ>. 

3. B. M. . . 3. Babs Mdllikoeb. 

A. N Aiabbt Nicbolsok. 

G. L* O. N. O. Li Obtb Noboaix. 
D. J. O'D. . D. 3. O'DoHOOHUE. 

F. M. O'D.. F. M. O'DoNOOHCB, F.S.A. 

A. F. P. . . A. F. POLLABD. 

B. F Una Bbbtba Pobteb. 

D'A. P. . . . D'Abot Poweb, F3.0.S. 
F. B. . . . . Fbasbb Bai. 

W. B. B. . . W. E. Bhodes. 

J. M. B. . .3. H. Bioo. 

T. 8 Tbokab Sbccoxbi. 



0. F. 8. . 
O. W. 8. . 
L. 8. . . . 
G. 8-H. . . 

C. W. 8. . 
J. T-T. . . 

D. Ll. T.. 
J. B. T. . 

M. T 

T. F. T. . 
B. H. V. . 

8. W-«.. . 
A. W. W. 
P. W. . . . 
W. W. W. 



. MiBB 0. Fau. SiOTB. 

. Thb B«t. G. W. Spbott, D.D. 

. LisLix Btbphin. 

. Gbobob Stbonach. 

. C. W. Sutton. 

. James Tait. 

. D. LunmB Thomas. 

. 3. B. TRtlBSFKLD. 

. Mbs. Tout. 

. Pbofbssob T. F. Tout. 

. CouiNEt, B. H. Vbtcb, B.B., 
C.B. 

. Sib Spbnceb Walpolk, K.C3. 

. A. W. Wabo, LL.D., LittJ). 

. Paul Watbbbousb. 



Captain W. W. Wbbb, M.D., 
F.8.A. 

C. W-H. . . Chablbs Wblch, F.S.A. 

W. B. W. . W. B. WiujAMB. 

B. B. W. . . B. B. WOODWABD. 

W. W. . . . Wabwiok Wboth, F.S.A. 



DICTIONARY 



OF 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



Wakeman 



Wakeman 



■for 
Kbo 



WAKEMAN, SfR GEUIJGE (f. Xmn- 
1685), 'doctor of physic' anJ plivfician in 
ordinary to Queen C'utLorini! of Hrnganza, 
■was the son of Edwanl AViikeman (lo92 
1659) of tbe Inner Templi', by Mary (rf. 
1676), daughter of Hicbaru Cotton of Warb- 
lington, Sussex. The father was the grand- 
son of Uichard Wakeman (d. 1ij97) of Ueck- 
ford, Gloucestershire, nephew of .lohnW'ake- 
man [g. v.], laj^t abbot of Tewkesbury and 
first biahnp of Gloucester (cf. Dvdb,'//m(. 
of Tfwkubury, 180:l, p. 116). 

George Wakeman, who was a zealous Ro- 
man catholic, was educated abroad, probably 
in Paris, where be possibly prmluiiled in 
medicine. Like his elder brother Jiicliurd 
((/. 1662), who raised a truop of horse for the 
king, he was a staunch royalist, and upon 
his return to England lie became involved 
in a plot against the I'rotector, and was im- 

Srisoned until the eve of the Itestoration. 
n 13 Feb. 1661, as Wakeman of Beck- 
iford, he was created a baronet by Charles II, 
' "lough it seems that the patent was never 

•aled (WoTTON, BarunHaye, 1741, iv. 277). 
e tirst trace of Hir (jeorge's professional 
activity is in August 16<i8, wlien he appears 
to have been attendingSirJoseph Williamson 
(see Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1668, p. 524). 
He seems to have owed his appointment 
some two years later as phy.'iician in ordinary 
to Queen Catherine of Braganza mainly to 
the fact that he enjoyed the best repute of 
any Roman catholic physician in Englund. 
In their periured 'Xarrative' of the 'popish 
plot' Titus Gates and Israel Tcmge declared 
that Wakeman had been oH'ered 10,00()/. to 

■jison Charles II's 'possel.' It was pointed 
^ut that he could easily ell'oct this tlirough 
the agency of the queen. Wakeman, how- 
£ver,ob3tinateIy refused the task, and held out 

VOL. LIX. 



until lOjOOO/. v.'as ottered him. The tempta* 
tiontheu,accordingtothe ' Narrative,' proved 
too strong; he attended the Jesuit consult on 
;}0 Aug. 1678, received a large sum of money 
iin account, and, the further reward of a post 
as phvsician-general in the army having l)een 
promised him, he definitely engaged to take 
otf the king by poison. Wakeman was a 
man of very high reputation, and from the 
first the charge against him was repugnant 
to men of sense like John Evelyn. The 
govemmeut, too, were reluctant to allow 
any steps to be taken against him. But after 
their successes in the trials of the early part 
of 1679 the whig leaders wart; eager to fly 
nt higher game, and in aiming at Wakeman 
their object was to strike the queen. The 
government was constrained to yield to the 
pressure. Both jmrties felt that the trial 
would be a test one, and it proved most im- 
portant in determining thn future of the 
ogitation of which the 'plot' woa the in- 
strument. 

A\'akeman was indicted for high treason 
at the Old Bailey on 18 July 1679, the caae 
being tried by Lord-cbief-justice Scrogga. 
The chief witnesses for the prosecution were 
Bedloe and Gates, who swore that he had 
seen the paper appointing Wakeman to the 
post of physician-general and also his receipt 
for r,,00(}l. (on account of the 15,000/0, 
though it was elicited from him in the course 
of the proceedings that he wa^ incapable at 
the time alluded to of identifying either 
Wakeman's person or hLs handwriting. 
Scrogga animadverted severely upon the cha- 
racter of the evidence, and the jurj-, after 
asking if they might find the prisoners guilty 
of misprision of treason, and being told they 
could not, found nil the prisoners ' not guilty.' 
The eilect of the acquittal was considerable 

B 



. 



Wakeman 



Wakeman 



in dealing a direct blow at tlm plot and the 
credibility of its sponsors, nn<l ttt, thi; same 
time in freeing the queen from an odious 
suspicion. On the day following the triiil the 
Portuguese ambassador called mid tlianked 
Scroggs. Five days later Wakemnn enter- 
tained several of his friends at siijipcr. The 
next day 'he went to Windsor to sre her 
Majesty, and (they say) kissed the king's 
hand, but ia now gone beyond sea fo avoid 
being brought again into trouble' {Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 7th liep. App. i. 477). The 
verdict was supported in a pamphlft i>f 
' Some Observations on the late 'Trials by 
Tom Ticklefool;' but this was answered in 
a similar production, entitli'd 'The Tickler 
Tickled,' and there is little doubt tliiil the 
verdict was unpopular. It was ojwiily siiid 
that Scroggs had been bribed, while UeJIoe 
And Gates complained bitterly of the treat- 
ment they had received in the sumrainu-up. 
Scroggs was ridiculed in ' .V Letter from 
Paris from Sir fietirge Wukeraan to his 
Friend Sir W. S.' (1(381). The jury was 
termed an ' ungodly ' one, and the people, 
says Luttrell,' murmur very much.' It is 
noteworthy that in the conrse of evidence 
given at subsequent trials Gates entirely 
Ignored the verdict, and continued to speak 
of the bribe ufl'ered tii and accepted by the 
giieen's physician. Wakeman was back in 
London before 168."), when he was seen by 
Evelyn at Lady Tuke's; and ho had the 
satisfaction of giving evidence against Titus 
Gates on 8 May 1685, on the occasion of his 
first trial for perjury. Nothing is knowni 
of his further career. 

A William Wakeiiian, who was most pro- 
bably a connection of the physician's family, 
was an active shipping and intoUip^iice ag<>nt 
of the government at Uarnstaple during 
Charles II's reign {Cat. State Papem, Dom. 
passim). 

[The Tryals of .Sir George Wiikeman. W. 
Marshall, \V. Rumlcy. . .for Hitrh Tnasnn, 
1678. fol.; Burnet's Own Times. 1823, ij. 221 ; 
HowfU's State Trials, vii. 691-687 ; Willis 
Bund's Selections from Statu Trials, ii.Rlfl-018; 
LuttreU's Brief Hist. Relation, i. 17, 29. oO. 74, 
342; Eacbanl's Hist of England, 1718. iii. 45a, 
.■i61, 738; Burke's Landed Gentry, 1817. ii. 
1484; Lingard's Hist. of England, 18!n,ix.441- 
442 ; Jlanke's Hist, of England, iv. 88 ; Evelyns 
Diary,ii.221 ; Bnimston's Autobiography (C:itnd. 
Soc.), p. 181 : TwulveBad Men.ed. Soceoniljo. pp. 
108-76; Strickland's Queens of England, v. 638, 
655; Inrinp's Life of Judge Jeffreys, 1898; 
Brit. Mus. Cut.] T. S. 

WAKEMAN a//fl» WiciiE, JOnX (,f. 
1549), first bishop of ( Uoueester, was, accord- 
ing toapedigree in the British Mu8euni(^ar/. 



MS. 618r>), the second son of William Wake- 
man of Drayton, Worcestershire. Anthony 
Wood, in whose first edition he is con- 
founded with Robert Wakeman, fellow of 
.\11 Souls* in l.'iUi, says that he was ' a Wor- 
cestershire man born,' without citing any 
authority. It is certain that he became * 
Renedieiine, and it is possibly from tlj 

datum that Anthony AVuod infers that 

was educateil at Gloucester Hall, the Bene- 
dictine foundation at 0.xford. If the iden- 
tification made in the entry, 'abbot of 
Tewkesbury,' be correct, he supplicJJtcd in 
the name of John Wyclie, Benedictine, for 
the degree of B.D. on' 3 Feb. 1611 (Boase, 
He;/. Uuiv. O-tiin. i. 174"), and this is con- 

j firmed by AN'ood's guarded statement, based 
upon a manuscript in the College of .\rma, 

\ that when consecrated bishop he was of that 
degree. It is not improbable that he is the 
.lohn Wiche of the Benedictine house of 
Evesham, who on 22 Dec. 1513 was a peti- 
tioner for a coni/ettflire on the death of 'Tho- 
mas Newbold, abbot of Evesham (Letterr and 
Papfru of Henry nil, i. 4014). On this 
occasion Clement Lichfield, alias Wydi, 
prior of Evesham, l>ecanie ab1>ot, being 
elected on 28 Dec. 1513 (DuoDiLE, Mimaat. 
ii. 8). The niune not only suggests relation- 
ship, probably on the maternal side, but 
strengthens the presumption of a Worcester- 
shire origin. Notiiinif further is known of 
Wiche for nn interval of thirty-two years. 
On l!) March 1634 a coniji (tflire issued for 
the election of an abbot of the Benedictine 
monastery of Tewkesbury in the room of 
Henry Beeley, deceased ( fjefierf and Papers, 
vii. 419). Oil 27 .Vpril X'VAX the royalassent 
was given to the eh'Ction of John Wiche, 
late prior, as abbot {ib. 7(11 ). The tempo- 
ralities were restored on 10 June (I'A. 922). 
Wiche had secured his own appointment by 
obtaining the interest of Sir William King- 
ston [q. v.] and of Cromwell, and by then 
persuading his brethren to refer the election 
to the king's pleasure. At the end of July 
l.'iSTj both Cromwell and the king were 
staying at the monastery, and in October 
Wiche sent Cromwell a gelding and 5/. to 
buy him a saddle, conveying a hint of future 
gratifications. lie himself supplied infop- 
mation to thegoyemraent of the disafl'ection 
of one of his priors {ih. .Xiv. i. 942), and it is 
not suqvrising that on SI Jan. iri39 ho sur- 
rendered his monastery, receiving an annuity 
of four hundred inarks^ or 266/. 13^. 4rf. (Duo- 
dale, iJfonn^f. ii.o7). lie then seems to have 
taken the name Wakeman, by which he wa.« 
afterwards known. Upon his nomination to 
the newly erected see of Gloucester in Sg>- 
tember 1541 this pension was vacated. The 



Wakering 



Wakering 




i 



Xe of the letters patent for the erection of 
e bishopric is 3 Sept. 1641. Wnkenmn was 
insecrated by Cranmer, Bonner, and Thirlby 
at Croydon on 20 or 25 Sept. 1641. lu 1547 
attended the funeral of Henry \"III 
TRYPE, Et-cl. Mem. n. ii. 291), and on 
'eb. of the same year assisted at the con- 
on of Arthur Bulkeley as bishop of 
ir (Stbypb, Cranniei; p. 13()). VN'ake- 
mnn must hare had some pretensions to 
scholarship and theology. It is true that it 
•was in his capacity of abbot of Tewkeiibury 
that he signed the articles drawn up by con- 
vocation in 15.30; but in 1542, when Cranraer 
was projecting a revision of the translation 
of the New Testament, ho as.signed the He- 
elations toWakeman, with Dr. John Cliara- 
irs, bishop of Peterborough, as his colleague. 
akeman died early in December 1549, the 
spiritualities being taken into the hnnila of 
the archbishop on the sixth of Ihiit month, 
is place of burial is uncertain. While abbot 
Tewkesbury, A\'akeraan constructed a 
ilendid tomb for himself on the north-east 
de of the high altar, whicli is still to be 
en. He does not appear to be entitled to 
»ny further epitaph than that of an intrigu- 
g and servile ecclesiastic. 
In Bedford's ' Blazon of Kjiiscopacy ' (2nd 
it. 1897) two coats-of-arms are assigned 
m, the first on the authority of a British 
useum manuscript (AMU. MS. 12443), 
ing party per fess indented sable and argent 
ree doves rising count ercliiirged. This was 
iresiimably the coat granted to the bishop, for 
reference to the College of Arms shows 
ihat the second coat. Vert a saltier, wavy 
ine, -was granted in 1586 to his nephew 
ichard, great-grandfather of Sir George 
,' akeman [q. v.] 

[Cal. StHt« Papers, Dom. Hon. VIII ; Wood's 
thenx Oxon. ii. 766 ; Heame's Robftrt of 
Gloucester's Chronicle, pp. zx-xii ; Le Novc's 
Fasti, i. 436 ; Bennett's Hist, of Tewkesbury, 
] 831) ; Burnet's Hi-st. of the Reformation ; 
Lanad. MS. 980, f. 73; Uarl. MS. 6ian.] 

I. S. L. 
WAKERING, JOHX (rf. 1425), bishop 
of Norwich, derived his name from Wake- 
ring, a village in Ei!.sei. On 21 Feb. 1389 
he was instituted to St. Benet Sherehog in 
"~ i8 city of London, which he resigned early 
1396 (XEWcotTBT, Rrpertorium Eccle- 
timm, i. 304). In 1,395 he was already a 
aster or clerk in chancery, acting as re- 
iver of petitions to parliament (ifo<. Pari. 
, 3;i7 b, ;i48 a, 416 a, 455 a, 486 a, &c.) On 
5 Oct. 1.399 he was appointed chancellor of 
" e county palatine of Lancaster and keeper 
its great seal ( Wtlie, Henry IV, iii. 801 ). 
Ha did not hold this continuously, for on 




' 20 May 1400 the chancellor of the duchy 
was William Burgoyne ; but on 28 Jan. 1401 
Wakering was again chancellor, and again 
on 3 Sept. 1402 and 20 Feb. 1403 (Wyme, 
iii. 301 n.) 
I On 2 March 1405 Wakering became mas- 
I ter of the domua conversorum, and keeper of 
I the chancery rolls, offices he held for morw 
than ten vears (Newcoitkt, i. .340; Wyi.ie, 
iii. 301, from Uaie Soil, 7 Hen. IV). On 
26 May 1408 he is called clerk of the chan- 
cery rolls and of the domus conversorum 
(WvLiE, iii. 301 n.) He also held the pre- 
bend of Thame till 1416 (Lb Neve, /"rt/i^i, iii. 
221). On 10 March 1409 Wakering was 
appoint ed nrrhdeacon of Cant erbury ( W yli e, 
iii. .301 ; cf , however, Le 'Se\e, Fatti). He 
became canon of Wells on 30 July 1409 
(WnAiiTON, Anglia Sncra, i. 417). 

Wakering was probably the John who, 
with the bishops of Durham and London, 
treated in 1407 for the renewal of the Scot- 
tish truce (Wvi.iE, ii. 390). From 19 to 
31 Jan. 1410 he was keeper of the great seal, 
and while Sir Thomas Beaufort was absent 
from London from 7 May to 18 June 1411 
Wakering acted as deputy-chancellor (ib. iii, 
301, iv. 24 : Fn-ilern, viii". 694). 

On 3 .June 1415 Wakering resigned the 
mastership of the rolls on becoming keeper 
of the privy seal (Kal. and Inv.Rrch. ii. 1.30, 
132). On 24 Nov. he was elected bishop of 
Norwich (Capobave, Chron. Enyl. p. 311), 
and the same day the royal assent to the 
election was given. He was consecrated at 
St. Paul's on 31 May 1416 (Stitbbs, Reg. 
Smr. Angl. p. 64 ; Godwin, De Prteml. 
Angl. pp. 4;38, 439). On 27 May he received 
restitution of his temporalities (ib.; Fa^era, 
ix. .354 ). 

On 20 July 1416 Wakering was nominated 
joint ambassador to the council of Constance 
(ib. ix. 370). Monstrelet says that, at the 
instance of Sigismund, AVakering was in 
1416 (cf. Creiohtos, i. 3t)8) sent as English 
ambassador to the king of France, and went 
first to Calais (probably in August) and 
thence to Beauvais, where lie treated, but 
nothing was accomplished (Monstkklet, iii. 
147, ed. Sociftf de rllistoire de France). 

Wakering had left England for Constance 
by 16 Dec. 141B (Fm/ero. ix. 254, 371, 420), 
and was no doubt present in January 1417 
at the curious demonstration by thel^nglisfa 
bishops which accompanied the return of 
Sigismund to Constance as the close ally of 
England (VoN deb Habdt, iv. 1088, 1089, 
1091 ). Wakering appears to have acted in 
ab.solnte unanimity with Hallara, who since 
20 Oct. 1414 had 'led the English ' nation ' 
and directed its policy in the council. 

b2 



W'akering 



Wakley 



Together they urged that the reformation 
of the church should be immediately dealt 
■with. Sipismund and the German nation 
emphasiaeil the English di'mand. liut the 
cardinals declared tnat the next work of the 
council should be the papal election. On 
4 Sept. Ilallam died. The cardinals chose 
this moment to bring forward on SJ and 
1 1 Sept. protests urging' a papal election (ili. 
i. 921). The English party, for some unex- 
plained rea-xon, suddenly changed its front, 
deaerted Sigi.«mund, and appointed deputies 
to confer with the cardinals on the manner 
of election (jA. iv. Nl'tj). Henry V him- 
self seems to have been content with the 
change of policy of September 1417, and to 
haye consented to Henry rteHiifort [q. v.] 
(afterwards cardinal) visiting Constance tn 
strengthen tlie diplomatic compromi.sr which 
ArVakering and nis allies had established. 
AVakering was one of the English deputies 
for the conclave (iii. iv. 147-t) which <ni 
1 1 Nov. 1117, St. Martiu'a day, elected (Jddo 
Colouaa pope. Lassitude now settled down 
on the couneil, and sonn' of its leading mem- 
bers returned home. Before leaving Con- 
stance, Wakertng obtained from Martin that 
papal ratification to his appointment which 
had been so long delayed {.liifflin S<iciti, i. 
417). He was back in I'^ughiud before 
26 March 141H, when he held an ordinal inn 
at Norwich. It was his tirst appearance in 
his diocese. 

Wakering mercilessly sought out lollards 
throughout his dioct?se, though in no case 
■was a heretic actually put to death (FdXE, 
Actes and Monuments, bk. vi.) In the nine 
years of Wakering's episcopate 489 deacons 
and 504 priests were ordained in the diocese, 
most of them, however, by his suffragans, 
for Wakering ■«-as chiefly non-n^sident, being 
first tu Constance and, after 1422, much in 
London. Appropriation of church property 
by the religious houses had been stopped by 
statutes of tlie previous reign, but that this 
bad already been rife iu the diocese of Nor- 
wich is clear from Wakering's rejwrt to the 
exchequer in 1424, which states that sixty- 
live benefices in his diocese had been de- 
spoiled for the benefit of 'poor nuns aud 
bospitallers' alone. lie put Wymondhara 
under an interdict because the bells ■were 
not rung in his honour when he visited the 
towii (Wti-Ii:, iii. 301). lie completed a 
fine cloister, paved with coloured tiles, lead- 
ing from his palace to the cathedral, and 
a chapter-hou.se adjoining (Godwin, iJe 
Pmsul. Angl. pp. 43«, 439 ). Both are now 
destroyed. He presented his cathedral with 
many jewels, and was famous for generosity 
(of. « HAKTOX, Anglia Sacra, i. 417). 



Wakering, however, was soon summoned 
to matters outside his bishopric. On 3 Not. 
1422 he accompanied the funeral cortege of 
Henry ^ from Dover to London (Proctedingt 
nnil OnlinanceK of the Privy Council, iii. 5). 
On ft Nov. he was present at a royal council 
on the day before the meeting of parliament 
(ifj. iii. (i). In the parliament of 9 Nov. 
Wakering wius appointed one of the seven- 
teen lords who were to undertake ' the 
mainlcnnnce of law and the keeping of the 
peace' (I'A.) During 1422 and 1423 he was 
frequently a trier of petitions ( Rot. Pari. iv. 
170, 19.H a). t)n 20 Oct. 1423 he -waa an 
assistant councillor of the protectorate and 
a member of the king's council (ib. 1756, p. 
201 rt). His routine work as member of 
council kept him busily engaged in Ix>udon 
{Pnxffdinys ami Ordinance* of the Privv 
CohW/, iii. 69, 74-7, 118, 137, 14.S,144, 146, 
147, 149-62, 165, 166). On 3 March 1426 
Wakering offered the king ' in his necessi- 
ties ' the sum of five hundred marks (ib. pp. 
1(17, Um. He died on .Vpril 1425 at his 
manor of Thorpe (Le Nevk, Fasti, ii. 406). 
He was buried in his own cathedral ou the 
south side of the steps before the altar of St. 
(leorge. He established in the cathedral a 
perpetual cluuitry of one monk (Whartow, 
.itii/liti fiticra, i. 417; Blombfield, Norfolk, 
ii. 370). The long stone seat, with a 
panelled seat and small figures, now at the 
back of the choir, opposite the Beauchamp 
chapel, was part of \\'ukfring's monument, 
which was shattered during the civil ■war. 
His will, which was dated 29 March 1425, 
was proved on 28 April. 

[Rymer's Fcedora, vols. riii. ix. ; H. Ton der 
Ilardt'B Constantiensia Concilii Acta ot Decreta, 
eJ. 1698, l)k. i. iv. v.; Le Neve's Fa*ti, vols. J. 
ii. ; Newcourt's Repertorium Eccl. Lond. vol. i. ; 
Rolls of Parliament, vols. iii. iv. ; Monslrelot, 
ed. Si)cieti de I'Uistairc dc Fnitiop, vol. iii. ; Pro- 
ceedings and Onlinances of the Privj- Council, 
vol. iii.; Godwin, De PriEsulibuB Angliie, pp. 
438, 439; Continuatio H. Cotton, in Wharton's 
Anglia Sacra, i. 417 ; llnsted's Kent, vol. xii. ; 
Blomcfield'a Norfolk ; Wylies Henry IV, Tola. 
ii. iii. iv. ; Creighton's Papacy, vol. i.; Foas'a 
Biographia Juridica, p. 69o ; Jessopp's Diocesan 
Hist, of Norwich ; Ramsay's Lancaster and 
York, i, 328 ; Foie's Actes and Monuments, od. 
Townsond.] M. T. 

WAKLEY, THOMAS (1795-1802), re- 
former, bom at Membury in Devonshire on 
1 1 July 1 795, wa.s the yiuingest son of Henry 
Wakley (1750-1842) of Membury. He was 
educated at the grammar schools of Chard 
and Honiton, and at Wiveliscorabe in Somer- 
set. When lifteen years of age he was ap- 
prenticed to aTaunton apothecary named In- 



\Vakley 

cledon. He was afterwards truiiaferred tohia 
brother-in-law, I'lielps, a surgeon ofBoamin- 
ster, as a pupil, and from him passed to Coulson 
at Henley-ou-Thames. In 181") he proceeded 

■to London to study at the united 8uho<ils 
of St. Thomas's and Guy's, known as lliB 
Borough Ilospitalit. Thegrootor part of his 
medical knowledge was gained, however, at 
theprivate school of anatomy in Webb Street, 
founded by Edward (irainger[(). v.], who was 

(assisted by his brother, Kicbnrd Dufjard 
Grainger [q. v.] In October 1817 he qualified 
for membership of the Itoyal College of Sur- 
geons, and in the following year went into 



Wakley 



I private practice in the city, taking up his re- 
Isidence in Gerard's Hall. In 1819, with the 



. kssiatance ol Joseph Goodchild, a gi 
._ _.. ..... . ^-j^ 



overnor 
aughter 



of St. Thomas's Hospital, to whose 

ho was engaged, he pureha.ied a practice at 

^Kthe top of Ttegont Street, About sLx months 

^Bafter his marriage, on 27 Aug. 1820, hu was 

^Biairierously assaulted by several men and his 

^^p^Ue burnt to the ground. The authors of 

^Vtbese outrages were nevertraced, but by some 

^Bit was conjectured that they were members 

of Thistlewood's gang, an unfounded rumour 

having gone abroad that Wakley was the 

msaked man in ihe disguise of a sailor who 

was present at the execution of Thistlewood 

■ and his companions on 1 May 1820, and who 
decapitated tlie dead bodies in accordance 
with the sentence. Wakley had furnished 
his house handsomely and insured his belong- 
ings, but the Hope Fire Assurance Company 
refuse<l payment, alleging that he had de- 
stroyed his own house. The mutter wiis 
brought before the king's bench on 21 June 
1821, when Wakley was awarded the full 
amount of his claim with costs. He found 
that his practice, however, had totally disap- 
peared during the nine or ten months of en- 
forced inaction thatfollowed his wounds, and 
two years later he settled in practice at the 
north-east comer of Norfolk Street, Strond. 

I Although the charge of incendiarism was im- 
possible, it was several times revived by un- 
generous opponents in the course of his con- 
troversies, and on 21 June 1826 Wakley 
obtained ICK.V. damages from James Johnson 
(1777-1845) fq. v.j for a libel in the' .Medleo- 
Chirurpical jmirnal,' In which, with more 
malice than wit, he compared him to Lucifer. 

» During this period of his life Wakley made 
the acquointance of William C'obbett [q. v.], 
who also believed himself destined to be n 
victim of the Thistlewood gang. I'nder 
Cobbett'a radical influence he became more 
keenly alive to the nepotism and jobbery 
prevalent among leading surgeons. In 1823 
ne founded the ' Lancet,' with the primary 
object of disseminating recent medical in- 




formation, hitherto too much regarded as 
the exclusive property of members of the 
London ho.ipitals, and also with a view 
to exposing the family intrigues that in- 
llueticed the appointments In the metro- 
politan hospitals and medical corporations. 
For the first ten years of its existence the 
' Lancet ' provoked a succession of fierce en- 
counters between the editor and the mem- 
bers of the privileged classes In medicine. 
In the first number, which appeared on 
5 Oct., Wakley made a daring departure in 
commencing a series of shorthand reports of 
hospital lectures. These reports were ob- 
noxious to the lecturers, who feared that such 
publicity might diminish their gains and ex- 
pose their short cumlngs. On 10 Dec. 1824 
John Abeniethy ( 1764-18.'$ I ) [q. v.], the 
senior surgeon of St. Bartholomew's Hos- 
pital, applied to the court of chancery for an 
injunction to restrain the ' I/ancet ' from pub- 
lishing his lectures. The injunction was re- 
fused by lAtrd Eldon, on the ground that 
official lectures in a public placefor the public 

food had no copyright ve.>^tbMl in them. On 
June 1825, however, a second application 
wa;^ granted, on the plea that lectures could 
not be published fcr profit by n pupil who paid 
only to bear them. The injunctkni was, how- 
ever, dissolved on 28 Nov., because hospital 
lectures were delivered in a public capacity 
and were therefore public ])roperty. After 
this decision the heads of the medical profes- 
sion decided to admit t he right of the medical 
public to peruse their lectures, a right which 
the greatest of them, Sir Astley Paston 
Cooper [q. v.], had already tacitly allowed by 
promising to make no attempt to hinder the 
publication of his lectures, on condition that 
his name was omitted in the report. 

On 9 Nov. 1823 Wakli.-y commenced In 
the ' Lancet ' a regular series of ' Hospital 
Keports,' containing particulars of notable 
op<!ratlon8 in the London hospitals. The 
irritation produced by these reports, and by 
some remarks on nepotism at bt. Thomas's, 
led to the order for his exclusion from the 
hospital on 22 .May 1824, an order to which, 
however, he paid no regard. About 1825 he 
commenced making severe reflections on 
coses of mulpraxls in Ihe hospitals, which 
culminated mi 2!) .March 1828 In a desi;rip- 
tlon of a terribly bungling operation of litho- 
tomy bv Uransny Blake Cooper, surgeon at 
Guy's llospital. and nephew of Sir Astley 
I'astou Cuprier, in which It was plainly as- 
serted that Itransby Cooper was ' surgeon be- 
cause be was nephew.' Cooper sued Wakley 
for libel, and obtained a verdict, but with 
diimage.s so small as practically to establish 
1 Wukley's main contention of malpnixjs. 




Wakley 



1 Wakley 's expenses were defrayed by public 

'subscription. 

These were not the only lawsuits in which 
Wakley was involved as editor of the 
' Lancet.' On 26 Feb. ISlTj Fredericlc Tyr- 
rell [q. v.] obtained HOI. dumages in un iiction 
for libel arising out of the ' Lancet's ' review 
of his edition of Cooper's ' Lectures,' und 
somewhat later Roderick Macleod [q. v.] 
obtained 5/. damng'es for rertwtiuns in the 
'Lancet' on hia conduct as editor of the 
'London Medical and I'liyMiciil .Toiirnal.' 

In 1836 the ' l^iincet," which wiis nt first 
published from Bolt Court liy (jilbcrt Liuney 
Hutcliitisoii, wn,s removed to olliees in Lssex 

rBtreet, .Strand, Wakley acting: iu reality as 
Ytit own publisher. Si.x years Inter John 
Churchill undertook the respmisibility from 
iiis own place of buslnem in Prince's Street, 
Iteicester Square. In 18^47 Wakley again 
became liis own publi.ther, und removed the 
' Lancet ' to its present ollices at i'J'4 Strand. 
While Wukley was attackiiif; hospital 

L administration he was aUo carrying on a 

I campaign ajfuiiist the Hoyal College of Sur- 
geons. The contest arose out of the ho.-ipital 
controversy. In March l(S24 the court of 
examiners issued a by-law making it com- 

£ul8ory for medical 8tudent» to attend the 
(Ctures of the hospital surgeons, unless they 

kobtained certilicates fnira the professors of 
anatomy aud surgery in the university of 
Dublin, Edinburgh, (ilasgow, or Alxjrdeen. 
Wakley, who remembered his own ntudies 
under Kdward and Richard (irainger, cen- 
sured the regulation beciiiise it excluded 
many of the best iinatoniists from teaching 
t-o the evident disudvantage of the students. 
On inquiry be found tluit the court of exami- 
ners, which was si'lf-eleeted, was entirely re- 
cruited from the hospilul surgeon.'*. Seeing 
the hopelessness of redress from such a lx>dy, 
ho shifted his ground luid boldly a.<sftiled Ihu 

[constitution of the college. The college had 
been reconstit uted by royal charter in March 
IBUU on an oligarchic basis, after an attempt 
to procure a similor constitution by oct of 
parliament had been defeated in the House 
of Loid.s by tt general petition of the ordi- 
nary member,* presented by Lord Thurluw, 
At the pre.senl crisis Wukley advLsed that the 
whole body of surgeons should again petition 
parliament, requesting it to abrogate the ex- 
isting charter and grant n new one, iu which 
it should be a fundamenlal principle that any 
official vested with power to luuke by-laws 
should be appoiMteil bv the sull'ruge of nil 
the niemtiers of the college. Supported by 
James Wardrop [q. v.], surgeon to QeorgelV, 
Wakley commenced an agitation against the 
governing body of the college, which received 



Wakley 

large support, especially firom country sur- 
geons. \ igorous protests against varioua 
abuses from correspondents in all parte of 
England appeared in the ' Lancet,' and on 
18 Feb. 182(3 the first public meeting of mem- 
bers of the college was convened by Wakley 
at the Freemasons' Tavern. The meeting 
were about to draw up a remonstrance to the 
council of the college, when Wakley, telling 
them that they ' might as well remonstrate 
with the devil as with this constitutionally 
rott«n concern,' prevailed <m them in an im- 
passioned speech to petition parliament at 
once to abrogate the charter. The petition 
was presented in parliament by Henry War- 
burton [q. v.] on 20 June 1 827, and t he House 
of Commons ordered a return to be made of 
public money lent or granted to the coUege. 
The victory, however, proved barren, the in- 
Huence of the council being too strong with 
government to jirevent further steps being 
takeu. W'akley's own relations with the 
governing body did not improve, and early 
in I8.'il, while protesting against a slight put 
u[iiin Raval surgeons by on order of the ad- 
miralty, he was ejected from the college 
theatre by a detachment of Bow Street offi- 
cers, acting on the orders of the councU. In 
1813 a partial reform iu the constitution of 
tile collfge was etleeted by the abolition of 
I lie self-electing council and the creation of 
ffllowswith no limit ofiiuralier, to whom the 
electoral privileges were confided. Wakley, 
however, denounced this compromise as 
creating an invidious distinction within the 
ranki, of the profession, und his view U 
largely justified by the state of feeling at tbe 
present day. 

Finding iiimself thwarted in his efl'ortsby 
the coldness of politicians, he resolved 
himself to enter parliament. He removed 
from Norfolk Street about 1825 to Thistle 
Qrove (now Drayton Gardens), South Ken- 
sington, and in 1828 to 35 Bedford Square. 
He tir.st made himself known in Finsbury by 
supporting the reduction of the local rates. 
In 1832 und 18.'}4 lie iinsuccessfullycontested 
tho borough, but on IU Jan. 1835 he was re- 
turned. He made a great impression in the 
House of Commons by a sm>ec!i delivered on 
2oJune 18:)-'5 on behalf of six Dorset labourers 
sentenced to fourteen years' transportation 
under the law of conspiracy for combining to 
resist the reduction of theirwages. Iheenect 
produced by his speech eventually led to 
their pardon. Ho soon gained the respect of 
the house ns an authority on medical mattets, 
und was able by his forcible eloquence to 
command attention also on general topics. 
In 18;W he successfully introduced the medi- 
cal witnesses bill, providing for the proper 




remuneration of medical men c«lled to assist 
al post-mortem exaniinations. In 1840 he 
fluccetKled in preventing the post of public 
TACCinalors being contined to poor-law 
medical oflicers alone by obtaining a modifi- 
cation of the wording of Sir James G rahamV 
vaccination bill. In 1841 he Btrongly sup- 
ported the extramural burial bill [see Wal- 
KEB, Geouue Alj-ked]. In 1840 he brought 
in a bill to establish a uniform 8}'8tem of re- 
fist rat ion of qualified medicul practitioners in 
Great BrilninandLreliind. Thoughthebill did 
not pass, it led to the thorough sifting of the 
question before a select committee, whose 
deliberations resulted in the Medical Act of 
1868, in which Wakk-y's regi^tnltion clauses 
■were adopted almost entire. W'akley did not, 
however, entirely approve of that act, hold- 
ing that there should be more direct repre- 
sentation of the body of the profession in 
the me<lical council instituted by the act. 
Among other important parliamentary work, 
Le obtained the material reduction of the 
newspaper stamp duties in 1836. lie was 
an ardent reformer with strong sympathies 
with the chartists, an advocate for the repeal 
of the Irish union, a .strenuous opponent of 
the corn laws, and an eaemy to lawyers. 
He retire<l from parliament in 185l', finding 
that the pressure of work left him no leisure 
for his duties. On the foundation of ' Punch' 
in 1841 Wakley's parliamentary action be- 
came a favourite theme of satire, and he was 
constantly represented in the pages of the 
newjournal. li is assertion inspeokingagainst 
the cop\Tight act in 184^ that he could 

[write ' respectable' iioetry by the mile was 
jled out for special ridicule.and received a 

Fgenial reproof from Tom Hood in his ' Whim- 

< aicalities' (London, 1844 1. 

In 18ol he commenced in the 'l>ancet' a 
moat u.seful movement by issuing the results 
of analyses of food-stulFs in general con- 
sumption by the nation. The inquir>-, con- 
ducU'il under the title ' The " l^ancet '' Ana- 
lytical Sanitary Commission,' was an uncom- 
promising attack on the prevalent adultera- 
tion and .sophistication of food. The investi- 
gation, commencing in London, was carried 
in 1867 into several of the great provincial 
towns. It immediately caused considerable 
diminution in adulteration, and in 18o5 a 
parliamentary committee was appointed to 
considerthe subject. The resultol the tuquiry 
wras the adulteration act of 1800, known as 
Scholeficld's Act [s<h' Soholefield, Wil- 
UAUl, which rendered penal adulterations 
which affect<'d the health of consumers. 
Wakley was only moderately satisfied with 
the act. which did not deal with the fraudu- 
lent aspect of adulteration, and which left 



the appointment of analysts to the option of 
the local authorities. The former delect was 
amended in the Sale of Foods and Drugs 
Acts of 1875 and 1879. 

Wakley is perhaps better known to 
memory as coroner for West Middlesex than 
as radical [lolitician or medical reformer. 
He held the opinion that the duties of coro- 
ner required a medical rather than legal 
education. He supjjorted his views in the 
' Lancet ' by nunien5use.\amples drawn from 
contemporary inquests, and on L'4 .\ug. 1830 
presented himself to a meeting of freeholders 
at the Crown and Anchor Tavern, Strand, as 
the first medical candidate for the post of 
coroner of East Middlesex. He was nar- 
rowly defeated at the poll, but on 2r> Feb. 
1839 he waselectetl coroner for West Middle- 
sex. His efforts to raise the si at us of coroner's 
juries and establish a decorous mode of proce- 
dure at inquests aroused considerable dislike, 
and he wasaccused of holding too freijuent in- 
quests, especial objection lieing taken to his 
holding inquests on those whodied in prisons, 
asylums, and almshouses. On 10 Oct. 1839 
the Middlesex magistrates refused to pass the 
coroner's accounts, but a committee from 
their body, appointed to investigate the 
charges, coniplelelv justified Wakley's pro- 
cedure. His]iositIon was finally established 
on 27 July 1840 by the favourable rejiort of 
tt parliamenturj- committee appointed to in- 

3uire into these and subsequent points of 
ispute. The numerous instances iif practical 
sajjacity and of professional skill which 
Wakley gave in conducting inquests gra- 
dually won popular opinion completely to his 
side, n is humanity gained en til usiaslic praise 
from Dickens, who was summoned to serve 
on a jury in 1841. The must conspicuous 
example of his ])uwer was in 18-US in the 
cose of Frederick John White. In the face 
of the testimony of army medical oUicers, 
the jurj', instructed by in<iepen(lenl medical 
witnesses, returned a verdict thai the de- 
ceased, a private soldier, died from the efiects 
of a flogging to which he had been .sentenced. 
Their verdict prodiicetl such an impression 
that this method of military' punishment 
fell almost at once into comparative disuse, 
and was almost unknown when formally 
abolished by the Army Act of 1881. 

Wakley acquired some fame as lui exposer 
of charlatans. It was chiefly through his ac- 
tion that John St. John Long [q. v.] was 
brought to justice in IS-'JO. In the same 
year, on 4 Feb., he discredited ChaU>rl, 
the ' Fire King,' in the Argyll liooms, and 
on 10 Aug. 1838 he conclusively showed 
at fi K^inue held ivt his house in Bedford 
^^qllnrethul John EUiotson [q.v.], the senior 




VVakley 



8 



W'albran 



physician of Universitj- College Ilosjiital, n 
believer in mesmerisui, Imd bet'n diijx-d in his 
experiments by two liystfrieal girls. 11 i« 
remonstrances concerning the unfair treiit- 
nent of medical referees by assurance com- 
panies led to the establishment in 1851 of 
the New Kquituhle Life Assurance Company, 
and to a great improvement in the conduct 
of assurance agencies in general. At the 
time of his deAth he projected an imjtiiry 
into the working of the I^oor Law Amend- 
; ment Act of 18H4, which he thoroughly 
detested. The inquiry, however, did nut 
take place until three years later. 

Wukley died at Madeira on 16 May ISfii, 
and was buried on 14 .liine at Kensal Green 
cemetery. On !i Feb. 1820 he married (he 
youngest daughter of Joseph (ioodchild, ii 
merchant of Tooley Street, Loudon. Shi' 
died in lH57, leaving three sons. The two ' 
elder — Thomas Henry, .Kenior jiroprietor of 
the ' Lancet,' and Henry Memliury, n hiirris- 
ter — are living. The youngest, Jaraestionil- 
child, succeeded his latluT as editor of llif 
' Lancet.' On his death in I8M(! his hrotlier 
Thomas Henry and his .miu Thomas became 
co-editors. 

Theinterestsof AVakley's life were various, i 
but the motives governing his action were 
always the same. He hated injustice, espe- [ 
cially when he found it in ulliame with 
power. .Vthlt'tic in bodily hahit, he jKissessed 
a mind no less fitted for suect-ssful strife. 
Though he aroused strenuous opposition and 
bitter ill will among his cmitemporaries, 
time has proved his eonti^ntious in every 
instance of importance to be just. .Some of 
the abuses he denounced are still in exis- j 
tence,but t heir liarmfulness is acknowledged; | 
the greater number have been swept away, 
chiefly through his vigorous action. He was 
not accustomed to handle an opponent 
jfcntly, and many passages in his earlier din- 
tribes are almost scurrilous. But no feeling 
of personal malice entered into his contro- , 
versie-s ; he spoke or wrote solely with a view , 
to portraying clearly injustice or wrong- ' 
doing, and never with the purpose of paining 
or huniilialiug an enemy. Slany who op- 
, posed him on particular ([uestions became 
1 afterwards friends and sup])orters. A bust 
of Wakley by John Dell stands in the liall 
of the ' Ijincet ' office. A portrait, painted | 
by K. Sleadows, has been engraved bv 
W. 11. Egleton. ' i 

[PprigL't'a Life of Wnldey, 1897 (willi por- 
trails) ; Report of the Trial of Cooper v. Wuk- 
ley, 1829 ; I'Vancis's Onitora of the Age, 1847, 
pp. 301-21 ; Lancet, 1862, i. 009 ; Gent. Mag. 
1862, ii. 364 ; Corrected Report of the Speeches I 
delivered by Mr. Lawrence at Two Meetings of 



Membitrs of ttie Royal College of Sorgeona, 
1 82li ; Day's Brief Sketch of the Hounslow In- 
t)Uest, 1849; (iardiner's Fact« relative to the 
l«t« Fire and Allempt to murder Mr. Wakley, 
WiO; Walliis's Life of Prancis Place, 1808.] 

E. I.e. 

WALBRAN, JOHN RICHAKD (1817- 
1863), Yorkshire antiquary, son of John and 
Klizttbeth Walbran, was bom at Ttipon, York- 
shire, on 24 Dec. 1817, and educated at 
NVhixley in the same county. After leaving 
school he became assistant to his father, an 
iron merchant, and afterwards engaged in 
commerce on his own account as a wine 
merchauf. From his early years he had a 
marked tusto for historical and antiquarian 
sludieR, and all the time that he coula spare 
from his avocation was occupied with arehieo- 
togical investigations, especially with respect 
to the ecclesiastical and feudal history of hin 
native county. His sludy of the records of 
I'Viuntiiins Abbey led him to make a spe- 
ciality of the history of the whole Cistercian 
order. .\ pajjer by him ' On the Necessity 
of clearing out the Conventual Church <M 
Fountains,' writlen in 1846, originated the 
excavations at Fountains Abbey, which 
were carried out under his personal direc- 
tion. The tirst edition of his 'Guide to 
liipon'was printed in 1844, and was suc- 
ceeded by nine other editions in liis life- 
time. His chief work, 'The Memorials of 
the Abbey nf.S!. Mury of Fountains' (Surtees 
Soe. 18(vl"-78, -J vols".), was left unfinished. 
Another iiueomjileted work was his ' Hi.'<tory 
of riulnford, l)urluim,' 18.51. He also made 
some progress wit h a ' Ilistorj- of the Wnpen- 
tido) of riuro and the Liberty of Ripon,' 
and a 'History of the Parish of Ilalifai.' 
Although he had great literary ability, h# 
had a singulardisliki: lo the me'chanicai part 
of Huthiirship— that connected with printing 
- and had it not been for the encourugement 
aii<l leclmicnl a.ssislanco of his friend Wil- 
liam Iliirrisoii, printer, of Ripon, few of hi« 
writings would have been printed. 

Wuibran was elected F.S.A. on 12 Jan. 
iHoJ, and in 18.1(5 and I8.'j7 tilled the office 
of mayor of liipon. In April 1808 he was 
struck wi(h paralysis, and died ou 7 April 
1869. He was buried in Holy Trinity 
eliurehyard, Uipnn. 

He married, in September 1849, Jane^ 
daughter oC Itiehard Nicholson of Ripon, 
and left two sous, the elder of whom, Francis 
-Marmiuiuke Walbran of Leeds, is the author 
ot works on angling. Among Walbrau's 
minor jmiited works are the following- 
1. ' Ueneaiogicnl Account of the Lords of 



Studley Royal,' 1841 ; reprinted, with addi- 
tiuns, by Canon Ilaine in vol. ii. of ' Memo- 



^ 



Walburga 



Walcher 



I Bol 

HtKr 



riala of Fountains.' '2. ' A Summer's Day at 

Bolton AbbeT,' 1847. 3. ' Visitors' Guidu 

Kedcar,' 1848. 4. ' (Jn the Oath taken 

Members of the Parliamt-nt-s of Scotland 

■from 1641," 1854. 5. 'Notes on tliL- Miinu- 

Bcripts at Ripley Castle,' 1664. His mauu- 

cripts were after his death purcliosed liy 

Edward .Mtroyd of Iliilifax, and prt'.sented 

by him to York Cathedral Library. 

[Cnnon J. R«iu<-'s preface to Memoriuld of 

[^ountain.-i, 1878, vol. ii. ; Memoir by Edward 

Pcacoek, F..S.A., in Wnldmn's Guide to Itii>on, 

filth edit. 1875: Kipon Millennry livmnl, 18»2, 

ii. 175; portrait* tuct given in the ia>t two 

work..] C. W. S. 

WALBURGA or WALPUROA (rf. 

f79'f), saint, abbess of Heidenbeim, was the 

ster of Willibald [q. v.] and Wynnebald. 

Their legend c^lls them the children of a 

ertain Kicbard, but the name is an impossible 

Dae. Boniface (t)80-7->5) [i]. v.] ^^T0te from 

Tormany, asking that the two nun.t Lioba 

ad Walburga might be sent to him (Mim. 

' Afoffunt. ed. JaH'e, p. 490), and it is therefore 

supposed that Walburga was with Lioba at 

^hAN imljome, and that she went with her to 

^■Germany iu 752. Legend, no doubt wrongly, 

^^miakes Walburga acciim|>auy her brothers to 

^Hltaly in 7J1. I^he was present at the death of 

^"her brother Wynnebald in 7tll at Heiden- 

heim ^HoLDER-Eo(iKU, Mon. Oer. licriptt. w. 

80), and was made abbess of that double 

monaisterj-. She was living in or after 778, 

when an anonymous nun wrote lives of her 

"brothers. These lives have been wn.ingly 

cribed to Walburga herself, btieause the 

kuthoress was, like her, of English birth, a 

elative of the brothers, and a nun of liei- 

enheim. The writer refers to Walburga as 

one of her sources of information. 

[Mod. Uor. .Scriptorw, xy. 8U, 117, the best 

iiiiouof thp lives uf Willibuld and Wynnebald ; 

'Xifc of St. Walburga by a .Monk. Wolfhiird of 

Uemeden, written al tlierequt'st of Erchimbald, 

rliishoti of Eiohttiidt (S82-ai2l, who removid the 

elicsol Walburga from KiehstiiOl (whitlier llicy 

ad becu moTed in 870) lo Moiiheim, in 89.3, in 

kcta CjS. BoU. Fob. lii. o'i'i. There is a lung 

list of lives iu Chevalier's Ucpertoiro. Un the 

tTnlpurgis myth, see Koohhiilz, Drei (rtiu- 

gottinurn, Leipzig, 1870.] M. B. 

WALCHER (>l lObO), bishop of Dur- 
ham, was a native of Lorraine, of noble 
birth, who became a secular priest, and one 

I of the clergy of the church of Li^ge. In 

^K1071 he was appointed by the Conqueror to 

^Bfucceed .Kthelwine us bishop of llurham, 

^^and was consecrated at Winchester by 

Thomas, archbishop of York. As he was 

being led up the church for consecration, 

Queen Edith or Eudgyth (^rf. 1075) [q. r.], 



the widow of the Confessor, thinking of 
the lawlessness of the people of the north, 
and struck by his aspect — for he was very 
tall, and had snow-while hair and a ruddy 
comple.xion — is said to have prophesied his 
martyrdom. By the king's command he 
was conducted by Gospatric, eurl of North- 
umberland [q. v.], from York to Durhora, 
where he was installed on 3 April. The 
Conqueror visited Durham in 1072, and, ac- 
cording to u legend, determined to ascertain 
whether St. Cutbbert's body really lay there; 
but while Wolcher was celebrating mass 
before him ami lii.^ court on 1 Nov. a sudden 
heat fell upon him, and be left the church in 
haste. With Waltheof [q. v.l, who succeeded 
Gospatric in that year, Walcher was on 
friendly terms, finding him ready to carry 
out every disciplinary measure that the 
bishop desired to have enforced in his diocese. 
His church was in the handsof secular clerks, 
who lind little that was clerical about them 
either in dreas or life; they were fathers of 
families, and transmitted their positions in 
the church to their sons. One trace only 
existed of their connection with the earlier 
guardians of .St. Cuthbert's relic* : they used 
the Bene<iictine offices at the canonical 
hours. Walcher put an end to this, and, as 
they were seculars, made them use the same 
olHces as other clerks. Nevertheless, «ecular 
a.< he was, he greatly preferred the monastic 
to the clericol life, is said to have thought 
of becominir a monk, designed to make the 
clergy of his church monastic, and laid the 
foundations of, and began to raise, monastic 
buildings adjacent to it, but was prevented 
by deuth from going further. He actively 
promoted the restoration of monostlcism in 
the north which was set on foot by Eald- 
wine or .\ldwin, prior of AVinchcombe. 
.\ldwin, moved by reading of the many 
monasteries that in old time existed in 
Northumbriu, was eager to revive them, and, 
in company with two brethren from Evesham, 
settled lirst at Munecaceastre (Monkschester 
or Muncoster), the present Newcastle. Wal- 
cher invited them to come to hini, and gave 
them the ruined monastery at .Jarrow, where 
they repaired the church, and, being joined 
by others, raised monastic buildings. De- 
lighted with their work, Walcher gave the 
new convent the lordship of Jarrow and 
other possessions. He received Turgot [q.v.], 
and, approving of his wi.ih to become a monk, 
sent him to .\ldwin, and after a time invited 
.\Uhvin and Turgot to leave .\Iilrose, where 
they had settled, and gave them the old 
monastery of Wearmoutli. There, too, Aid- 
win restored tht< church and formed a con- 
vent, to which Walcher gave the lordship 




Walcher 



lO 



Walcot 



of tlie place. Tin; CnnqueTOr approved of 
AVulcber's work, and giivu liim tijf eliurch 
of Wallbiiiu, wliicli was sen'od by cunons, iii 
accordance with ils foundatiou [gfe under 
Uajiold, 1022---106«]. 

On tlie ftrrcat of Earl .Waltheof in that 
year thi^ kinp committed liis earldom to | 
Walcher, who, it is .siid, paid 400/. for it j 
(Kuo. Wesd. ii. 17). lie was untit for] 
temporal government, for ht- allowed himself 
to be guided by unworthy fa^•ou^ites. He | 
kept a large number of his fellow-country- 
men about him apport-ntly as guards, com- 
mitted the administration of the earldom to , 
his kinsman Gilbert, and put his jirivate ; 
nfl'airs into the hands of his chaplain, LeoI>- 
wine, ou whose jiidjjment he acted both in 
ecclesiastical and civil mutters. These men , 
were violent and unscrupulous, and were I 
much hated by the people. Another of his 1 
evil coansellors was Leofwine, the dean of 
Lis church. At the same time Walcher 
greatly Civoured a bigh-ljf>m thegn of his 
church named Ligulf, whose wife was a 
daughter of Earl Ealdred or .\Jdred, the 
son of Uhtred [q. v.], the sister-in-law of 
Earl Siward, and the aunt of Eiirl Wal- 
theof. Ligulf was an ardent votary >'f St. 
Cuthbert, and evidently upheld the rights 
of the people against the oppression of 
the bishop's oliicers, who were jealous of 
the favour .shown him by their lord. Leob- 
wine, the chaplain, specialty bated him, and 
insulted him even in the bishop's presence. 
On one occasion Ligulf was pro\oked to 
give him a fierce answer. Leobwine left the 
assembly in wrath, and begged Gilbert to 
rid him of bis enemy. Gilbert accordingly 
formed a band of some <if his own following, 
some of the bishop's, and some of Ijcobwine's, 
went by night to the house in wliieh Ligulf 
was staying, and slew him and the greater 
part of his people. When Walcher heard 
of this he was much dismayed, retreated 
hastily into the castle, nnd at once sent 
messengers through all the ctHintry to de- 
clare that he was guiltless of the murder, 
that he had banished Gilbert, and that he, 
was ready to prove his innocence bv the 
legal processor compurgatory oath. Tt was 
arranged that the malt er should be settled 
at an a.ssenibly of the eurldom at Gates- 
head, and the bishop and the kinsfolk of 
Ligulf exchanged pledges of peace. The 
assembly was held on I -I May 1080, and to 
it came all the chief men of the land north 
of the Tyne and a vast number of lesser folk ; 
they had hoard that the bishop still kept 
Ligulfs murderers with him, and showed 
them favour us beforctime, and so they came 
intent on mischief, for they were egged on 



by Ligulf's kinsmen, and specially by one 
Waltheof, and by Eodwulf Hus, the grand- 
son of Gospatric, the youngest son of Earl 
t 'htred. The bishop was afraid to meet the 
assembly in the o])en air, and sat in the church 
with his friends and followers, Gilbert, 
Leobwine, and Leofwine among them. Mes- 
sengers passed between the two parties with- 
out coming to any settlement. Suddenly, it 
is said, the chief man of the multitude out- 
side cried ' .Short rede, good rede, slay ye the 
bishoii." The bishop's foUowers outside the 
chureli were nearly al! slain. Walcher, 
when he knew the cause of the tumult, 
ordered Gilbert to go forth, hoping to save 
bis own life by surrendering the actual mur- 
derer. Ijoofwine, the dean, and some clergy 
next left the church, and they also were 
slain by the multitude. Walcher bade Leob- 
wine go forth, but ho refused. The bishop 
then went to the church-door and pleaded 
for his life; the rioters would not hearken, 
and, wrapping liis face in his mantle, he 
stcpiied forward and was slain. The church 
was set on fire, and Leobwine, forced by 
the flames to go forth, was also slain. The 
IxMly of the dead bishop was despoiled and 
hacked about ; it was carried by the monks 
of Jarrow to Durhiun, and tfiere haatily 
buried in the chapter-house. 

Wideber is described as learned, of lionour- 
abh; life, amiable temper, and pleaiiant man- 
ners ; ho was certainly weak, and at the 
least neglectful of his duty os a temporal 
ruler; the St. .Vllmus compiler charges him 
with a personal participation in the extor- 
tions of his oliicers, representing him as 
determined to compel bis subjects to repay 
the amount that be hod given for his earl- 
dom ; other and earlier writers throw all 
the blame on his favourites. After his death 
be was accused of having despoiled Woltham 
of part of its lands (Df Inventione Cruets, 
pp. i'>3-4 ). lie was regarded as a martyr. 

[Symoon of Durham i. 9-10, 58, 105-17. ii. 
195, -iOt, 208-11, Will, of Malinesbury's Gesta 
Kegum iii. c. 2"1, Gesta Pontiff, c. 132. Rog. 
Hov. i. 135 71. 2 (all Rolls .Series); A.-S. Chron. 
an. 1080, e<l. Plummer; Flor. Wig. gives appa- 
rently the best oMount of Walcher's murder, 
an. 1080; Hog. Wend. ii. 17 (Engl. Hist. 
Soc): Freeman's Norman Conquest, iv. 479-80, 
603-73.] W. H. 

WALCOT, Sir THOilAS (1659-16S5), 
judge, the scion of an ancient Shropshire 
family, was the second son of Humi'HRET 
\\ Ar,coT(1586-lfio()'),whowa8receiverofthe 
county of Salop in ItQo and high sberiiF in 
l(XM. He was greatly distinguished for his 
loyalty to Charles 1, and made many sacri- 
tices in the royal cause. Many of the family 



J 



Walcot 



II 



Walcott 



Ull 



pens presen-ed at Bitterley Court relate to 
im. He miirried Anne, daughter of Thomas 
Docwra of Poderich, Hertfordshire, and was 
burled at Lydbury on 8 June 1600. Por- 
traits of him and his wife are at Bitterley 
Court. His funeral sermon by Thomas I'roy- 
sell, minister of the poispel at Clun in Shro])- 
shire, and entitled 'The Uale of Opportu- 
nity,' was printed in London in UJ58. He 
left three sons— John (lO-U- 1702), his heir; 
Thomas, the subject of this article; and 
William, page of honour to diaries l.whom 
be attended on the scatlbld. The half of the 
blood-stained cloak worn by the king on 
that occasion is still preserved at Bitterley 
Court. 

Thomas wa« bom at Lydbury on 6 Aug. 
10211, and, having entered himself a student 
of the Middle Temple on iL' Nov. 1047, was 
called to the bar on 25 Nov. 1053, chosen a 
bencher on 11 Nov. 1071, and served as Lent 
reader in 1077 (liegisteris). Walcot practised 
in the court of the marches of Wales, and 
on 15 Feb. 1662 won made king's attorney 
in the counties of Denbigh and Montgomery. 
He was recorder of Bewdley from 1071 until 
his death (Nash, llitt. of H'orcester^/iire; 
BuBTON, I/inl. of llejrdlfy). He was one of 
the royal commissioners appointed to collect 
the money levied in Shrnpshire in 1073. In 
April 1670 Walcot became puisne justice of 
the great sessions for thecounties of .-Vnglesea, 
Camarron, and Merioneth, at a salary of 60/. 
a year, and was made one of the council of 
the marches of Wali-s. He became chief • 
justice of the circuit on 21 Nov. lOSl, and 
was knighted at Whit^'hall on the same dav. 
His arms were placed in Ludlow Castle 
(Clive, Doi-wnents relatini/ to t/ie Mnrchci). 
lie represented Ludlow in parliament from 
September 1079 to January 1081. .-Vs the 
• Welsh judges ' were not prohibited from 
practising in the superior courts at West- 
minster, he followed his prolession with such 
succe&s, esijecially in the court of king's 
bench (cf. Shower, Report «), t hat In- at tained 
the degree ofserjeant-at-law on 12 Miiy 1 tiSO. 
He was granted the king's license to act 09 
a justice of assize in his native county 
of Salop no/i obatante statiito on 19 Julv 
mas. Un 22 Oct. 1683 \\'alcot was pro- 
moted from the North Wales circuit to 
be one of the puisne justices of the king's 
bench, and aa such sat upon the trials of 
Thomas Rosewell [q. v.] for treasonable 
words, and of Titus Oates [q. v.] for petjury 
in I6ii3 (State Triah, x. 151, 1198). Hia 
patent was renewed by James II on 7 Feb. 
1685. He died at Bitterley on 6 Sept. lt»5, 
; the age of fifty-six, and was buried in the 
Bh church on 8 Sept. {Heifister). 




From subsequent litigation it appeared 
that Walcot died intestate and insolvent. 
His insolvency, howe%'er, may be attributed 
to his benevolence of heart, for he and Sir Job 
Charlton being appointed triLstees of the 
charitable will (dated 1074)of Thomas Lane, 
they repaired a house of Mr. Lane's (now 
Lane'd Asylum), and converted it into a 
workhouse for employing the px)r of Ludlow 
in making serges and woollen cloths, and 
spent large sums in carrying on the manu- 
facture ( WEVMAJf, Memhemfor Ludluw). 

Walcot married at Bitterley, on 10 Dec. 
1663, Mary, daughter of Sir Adam Lyttellou, 
bart., of Stoke Milburgh {Piirkk tiegitter), 
and had a son Humphrey, whose son sold 
Bitterley in 1765. 

[Bitterley papers, including loiters from 
Charles I. JuiJgo Jeffreys, and others, were in- 
dexe<l and reported on by Mr. (now Sir Henry) 
Maxwc'll-Lyte, and some are printed in Hist. 
MS;S. Coiam. lOlh Hep. App. iv. 418-20. See 
also Patent Rolls and Fines and Recoveries in 
thoRi«cord Office; Official Ret. Meiiib. of Pari.; 
Foss's Lives of the Judges ; Burke's Landed 
Gentry ; Walcot I'apers in British Museum, 
Aildit. M8. 20743 ; private information snppliod 
by Rev. J. R. Burton.] W. R. W. 

WALCOrr, .MACKENZIE EDWAllD 

CH.-VKLES (182I-1880), ecclesiologist, 
born at Wulcot, Bath, on 15 Dec. 1821, was 
the only son of .Vdniiral John Edward Wal- 
cott (UlKJ-lHOS), M.l'. for Christchurch in 
the four parliaments from 185910 1868. His 
mother was Charlotte Anne (1796-1803), 
daughter of Colonel John Nelley. Entered 
at Winchester College in 1837, Walcott 
matriculated from Exeter College, Oxford, 
on 18 June 1840. He graduated B.A. on 
25 May 1844, taklngn third class in classics, 
and pnicri'ded M..\. in 1847 and B.D. in 
I8ti0. He wft.f ordained deacon in 1844 and 
priest in 1K45. His first curacy was at En- 
field, Middlericx (1845-7); he was then 
curate of St. Margaret's, Westminster, from 
1847 to 1850, ami of St. James's, Westmin- 
ster, from 1850 to 1853. In 1801 he was 
domestic chaplain tohis relative, Lord Lyons, 
and as-siatanl minister of Berkeley Chapel, 
Mttvfair, London, and from 1807 to 1870 he 
held the post of minister at that chnpel. In 
1863 he was appointed precentor (with the 
prebend of Oving) of Chichester Cathedral, 
and held that prefiTuient until his death. 
.\lways ttt work on anliipiurian and eccle- 
siological subjects, ho wo.'S elected F.S.A. on 
10 Jan. 1801. He died on 22 Dec. 1880 at 
58 ISelgrave Koud, Ixindon, and was buried 
in Brompton cemelery. lie married at St. 
James's Church, I'icc-adilly, on 2(» July 1852, 
lloseanne Elizabeth, second daughter of 



Walcott 



12 



Waldby 



Major Frederick Brownlow and niece of the 
first Lord Lurgan. He left no issue. 

Walcot tcont ributed articles on his favourite 
topics to numerous magazines and to the i 
transactions of the learned societies, and he 
was one of the oldest contributors to ' Notes 
and Queries.' His separate works include: 
1. 'Parish Church of St. Jlargarft, Wc-it- 
minst^'r,' 1847. 2. ' Handbook for I'arish 
of St. James, Westminster,' 1^.50. 3. ' West- 
minster, Memorials of the City,' 1849; new 
ed. 1851. 4. ' The Eujrlish Ordinal: its His- 
tory, Validity.and Cutholicity,' 1851. 5. 'St. 
Paiil at Athens: a Sucred' I'oem,' 1851. 
6. ' William of Wykcham and his Colleges,' 
18o2; an 'early and long-chiTislu'd ambi- 
tion.' 7. ' Handbook for W'inchi'ster Cathe- 
dral,' 1854. 8. ' Dedication of the Temple : 
a Sacred Poem," 1854. 9. 'The Heatii of 
Jacob; a Sacred Poem,' 1807. 10. 'The 
English Episcopate: IJiographical Memoirs,' 
5 parts, 1858. 11. '(iuide to the Cathe- 
drals of England and Wales,' 1858 : new 
ed. much enlarged, 18(50; the descriptions 
of the several cathedrals were also published 
in separate ]iarls. 1 J. ' Guide to the South 
Coast of England,' 1859. 13. 'Guide to the 
Mountains, Lakes, and North- West Coast of 
England,' l8t>U. 14. '(Snide to the East 
Cott.1t of England,' ]8I>1 ; parts of the.sa 
works were issued separately. 15. ' Minsters 
and Abbey Uiiina of the L'nited Kingdom,' 
ISliO. Its. ' Church and Conventual Ar- 
rangement,' latJI. 17. 'Priory Church of 
Christchurch, Twyneham,' l8(ji!. 18. ' The 
Double Choir historically and pnicticnlly 
considered," 1864. 19. 'Interior of a Gothic 
Minster,' 1804. 20. ' Precinct of a Gothic 
Minster,' 1866. 21. 'Cathedralia : aCoustitvi- 
tional History of Cathedrals of the Western 
Church,' 18fl5. 22. ' Memorials of Stamford,' 
1807. 23. ' Battle Abbey,' 2nd ed. 18*17. 24. 
'Sacred Archaiology ; a Popular Uictionarv,' 
1868. 25. ' Leaflets [poems], by M. E.C. W.,' 
1872. 26. 'Traditions and Customs of 
Cathedrals,' 1872; 2nd ed. revised and en- 
larged, 1872. 27. 'Scoti-Monasticon, the 
Ancient Church of Scotland,' 1874. 28. 
' Constitutions and Canons Ecclesiastical of 
the Church of England,' 1874. 29. 'The 
Four Minsters round the Wrekin,' 187". 
30. ' Early Statutes of tlie Cathedral Cliurch 
of Chichester,' 1H77. 31. ' Church Work and 
Life in English Minsters,' 1879. 

Walcott contributed to the Rev. Henry 
Thompson's collection of ' Original Hallads,' 
1850, and to the Kev. Orby Shipley's 
' Church and the World,' l8»Hi. He edited 
in 1805, ' with large additions and copious 
notes,' Thomas Plume's ' .\ccount of Hishop 
Hacket,' and published, in conjunction with 



Rev. W. A. Scott Uoberfson in 1872 and 
1874, two parts of ' Parish Church Goods in 
Kent.' Many of his papers on the inven- 
tories and registers of ecclesiastical founda- 
tions were also issued separately, and he 
presented to the British Museum tlie follow- 
ing Additional manuscripts : 22136-7, 
24632, 24960, 28831, 29534-6, 29539-42. 
29720-7, 29741-4 i. 

[Bonse's Exeter Coll. Commoners; Foster*! 
Alumni Oion.; Men of the Time, 10th od.; 
Notes and Queries, 6th ser. iii. aO ; Brit, Mas. 
Addit. M8. 29743, ff. 8, 66, 68.] W. P. C. 

WALDBY, ItOnERT (4. 1398), arch- 
bishop of York, was a Yorkshireman. The 
village of Waldby is near Hull, but Godwin 
says ue was boni at Y'ork. John Waldby 
((/. 1393?), who was English provincial 
of the Austin friars, and wrote a number of 
expository works still preserved in manuscript 
in the Bodleian and other libraries (TasskB, 
p. 740), is said to have lieen a brother of 
llobert Waldby (Lire* af the Archhinhop* of 
York, ii. 428: cf. art. N.\88yN'UT0N', Willuh 
of). As they were both doctors of theology 
and Austin friars, some confusion has re- 
sulted. Robert seems to have become a 
friar in the Austin convent at Tickhill in 
South Yiirkshiro (/A.), unless his brother's 
retirement thither from the friary at York 
be the only basi.sof the statement (Tannbb). 
The occurrence of his name (as archbishop) 
in one of the old windows of the chajiel of 
University College, Oxford (^Wood, p. 65), 
has been supposed to imply membership of 
that society, but he may only have been a 
benefactor. hX. any rate he received most 
of his education abroad, going out toGascoay 
in the train of the Black t*rince, and pur- 
suing his studies at the university of 'fou- 
louse, where he devoted himself first to 
natural and moral philosophy, and then to 
theology, in which he became a doctor. 
Heau .Stanley inferred {Meinorinlsi of Wf$t' 
miiiMcr, p. 196) from a passage in hit 
epitaph that he was ' renowned at once ai 
a physician and a divine : ' 

Sacra' wriptune doctor fuit, ct geniturse 

IngcnuuN, metlicuti, et plelis semper amicus. 
If ' medicus ' be not u misreading of ' niodi- 
ciis,' it must surely be usL-d in a metaphori- 
cal sense. In an earlier line he is describecl 
as 'expertus in quovis jure.' 

Waldby took part in the ' earthquake 
council' which met at London in May 1382 
I to repress Wyclifitism, sitting as one of th« 
I four learned representatives of the Austin 
order, and described in the official record M 
I ' Tholosnnus ' (Fnariruli Ziztrniontm, p. 
,' 28ti). Iticlmrd IT commissioned him on 
I 1 .Vpril following, with the bishop of Dox 



Waldby 



Waldegrave 



■|Li 

0|ur 



nd others, to negotiate with the kings of 
istile, Aragon, and Nuvarre (Fieilern, vii, 
'i). In 1387 he was elected bishop of 
(in Gascony (Gams, p. 481). The Kng- 
bb government was replacing Clementist 
elates by supporters of I'rban VI (Tauzix, 
■p. 330). An ignorant emendation of ' Sodo- 
rensis ' for ' Adurensis ' in his epitaph has 
led many writers to make him bisnnp of 
Sodor and JIan ("Weeveii, p. 481 ). Boni- 
face IX translated him lo the archbishopric 
of Dublin on 14 Nov. 1390 or 1391 (Cotton, 
ii. lo ; Gams, p. 218). As his predecessor, 
Kobert de Wikeford ^q. v.], died in .\ugiist 
1390, and a certain fiuichard uppeara as 
bishop of Aire under 1390 (Mas-Latrie, 
p. 13tM), the earlier date, which is confirmed 
' the contemporary Irish chronicler Marle- 
arrough(p. l<i), seems preferable. Waldby 
'sat in the anti-Wyclifite council at Stamford 
in 1.302. In the list of those present given in 
the 'Fasciculi Zizanionim ' (p. 3.56) he is 
called John, which misled Leiand I p. 304 ), 
who concluded that his brother must have 
been archbii<hop of Dublin at that timi\ and 
ttributed to him a l)ook, 'Conlrii Wielevis- 
' which was. we cannot doubt, the work 
Hobert Waldby (Tasnek, p. 746). He 
Ued the onerous oHice of chancellor of 
eland, and exerted himself vigorously to 
otect the colonists against the septs of 
einster (Giluert, p. 26m ; Roll of the 
Zing'i Council, pp, 22, 2.'it3). In .January 
_|S93 he complained to the king that, being 
minded, by the advice of the Anglo-Irish 
lords, and others, to go to England to lay the 
evils of the country before the sovereign, 
the Earl of Kildare quartered a hundred 
|.*kememen' on the lands of liis seigniory 
' Ballymore in county Dublin (r"A. p|i. I.'IO- 
|S2). Kildare received a royal order to 
withdraw them. On the translation of 
lichard Mit ford from Chichesterto •Srilisbitry 
. October 1.191), Kictmrd II, who h«d rc- 
itlv spent some months in Ireland, got 
i'alJby translated to the former see, 'quia 
Hnajor pontificatus in seculari substantia 
minor erat ' (Walsinoham, ii. 218). He 
obtained the temporalities on 4 Feb. 1390, 
^but a few months later {'t Oct.) the pope 
^^Banslated him to the archbishopric of Vork, 
^■be temporalities of which were handed 
^^rer to him on 7 March 1397 (Le Nevb, i. 
^243, iii. 106). 

Waldby attended the parliaments which 
met in January and September in that year, 
but died on 6 Jan. 1398 (ib.\ his epitaph, 
however, gives 29 Dec. 1397 as the date). 
Richard, who three years before had excited 
adverse criticism by burying Bishop John de 
Waltham [q. v.] in West minster .Vbbey ' inter 




reges,' had Waldby interred in the middle 
of the chapel of St. Edmund : ' the first 
representative of literature in the abljey as 
^\ altham is of statesmnnship,' says liean 
Stanley, if his treatise against the Lollards 
and two or three scholastic manuals attri- 
buted to him can be called literature. His 
grave was marked by a large marble 
tombstone bearing bis ethgy, and a eulogis- 
tic epitaph in baiting Latin verse on a plate 
of brass. The inscription long since became 
illepibli', but is preserved in the 'Lives of the 
.\rclibi.shops of York' (ii. 427) and by 
Wecver(p. 481). II is biographer gives also an 
unfriendly copy of verses in which he was ac- 
cused of simony. He ascribes them to some 
monk's jealousy of the elevation of a friar 
to the archbishopric. There is a third set 
of verses in Weever. 

[The short biography of Waldby in the Lives 
of the Arcliljishopn of York, edited by Rainn in 
the Rolls ."^crios, was probably written about 
the beginning of the sixteenth century, and has 
very little value except as bupplying tbo oldest 
text of his epitaph; other authorities referred 
to are Rymor's Fcedera, originiil edition; Fas- 
ciculi Zizaniurum and WaUingham's Historia 
.Angticaniv, in tlio Rolls Series ; Lrlind's Comm. 
Dfi.'^criplt. Brilan. Oxford, 1709 ; Bale, DeScriptt. 
Miy. Brit. cd. I6S9; Pits, De Illu'.tr. Angliie 
8c riptt.. Paris, 1619; Tanntr's Bill.. Scriptt. Brit.- 
Hib. ; Wood's Colleges anil Hrtlls. of Oxford, ed. 
Peshall ; Henry dc Marleburrough, ed. Dublin, 
1809 ; Godwin, Do Prwsutibus Angliip, ed. 1748 ; 
Tanzio's Les dioceses d'Aire et de Dax pendant 
Ic Schisme ; Lo Neve's Fasti Ecclesiic Anglicanie, 
ed. Hardy; Cotton's Fasti Fcclesiae Uiberniie, 
1848 ; K. Eubel's Die Provisionos Pntlatorum; 
Oams's .Series Episcopomin Eoclesiie Cntholiae, 
Ratisbnn, 1873 ; Ma.H-Latrie'« Tresor de Chrono- 
kigic, Paris, 1889 ; J. T. Gilbert's Hist, of the 
Irish Viceroys; Stanley's Memorials of West- 
minster Ablvey ; Woevcr's Ancient Funeral 
Monuments, 1631.] J. T-t. 

WALDEGRAVE, Sir EDWARD 

(I517:''-1MI), |>olitician, born in 1518 or 
1017, was the second son of John Walde- 
grave {d. 1543) of Horley in Esse.x, by his 
wife, Lora, daughter of Sir John liochester 
of Essex, and sister of Sir Kobert Hochester 
[q. v.] He was a descendant of Sir Richard 
NValdegrave [q. v.], speaker of the House of 
Commons. On (lie death of his father, on 
6 Oct. I.'i43, Edward entered into possession 
of his estates at Borlev. In 1 Edward W 
(1547-8) he received a grant of the manor 
and rectory of West Haddon in Northamp- 
tonshire. He was attached to the Princess 
Mary's household, and on 29 Aug. Iflol was 
committed to the Fleet, with his uncle Sir 
Kobert Rochester and Sir Francis Engle- 
lield [q. v.], for refusing to enforce ihe order 



i 



Waldegrave 



14 



Waldegrave 



of the privy council by preventing the cele- 
bration of miss at Miiry's rijsideiice at Copt 
Hall, near Eppinp. Two days later they 
were removt'd to the Tower, whern Walde- 
grave fell sick, and received permission nn 
27 fiept. to ba iittcnded by his wife. On 
24 Oct. h(! waa permittfd to leave the Tower, 
though still a prisoner, and to reside ' in 
some liout'Bt house where he might be better 
tended.' On 18 March 15ol-2 he received 
permission to go to his own house, and ou 
24 April he was set at liberty and had 
license to repair to Mary at her request. 

On the death of Edward VI Waldegrave, 
whom Mary much esteemed for his suffer- 
ings ou her behalf, was sworn of the privy 
council, constituted master of the great 
wardrobe, and presented with the manors 
of Navestoek in Essex, and of Chcwton in 
Somerset. Ho wa.i returned for Wiltshire 
in the parliament of October 1553, and for 
Somerset in that of April 1034. In the par- 
liament of .laiiuary lo57-8 he represented 
Essex. On 2 Oct. l.j">L'. he wos knighted, 
on 4 Nov. was appointed joint receiver- 
general of t he duchy of Cornwall ( Cat. State 
Papers, Dnm. Io47-80, p. 55), iinil ou 
17 April 1554 he was appointed one of the 
commissioners at the trial of Sir Nicholas 
Throckmorton [q. v.] Waldegrave was a 
it. of the queen's marriage 



strenuous o|iponeut. 

with Pbiliii of Spain, and, with Lord Derby 
and Sir Ldwnvd Hastings, threatened to 
leave her service if she persisted. A pension 
of five hundred crowns bestov\-ed on him by 
Charles V early in 1554 quieted bis npposi- 
tion, and he undertook the otHce of com- 
missioner for inquiry into heresies. In 1557 
he obtained a grunt of the manor of Hover 
Cobham in Kent, and of the oHice of lieu- 
tenant of Wulthum or Epping Forest. On 
the death of his uncle. Sir Robert Rochester, 
on 28 Nov. 1557, he succeeded him as chan- 
cellor of the duchy of Lancaster. In the 
following year he formed one of the com- 
mission appointed to dispose of the church 
lands vested in the crown. On the death of , 
Mary he was deprived of bis employments, 
and "soon after was .sent to the Tower with , 
his wife, the priest, and the congregation, 1 
forjiermitting mass to be said in his house j 
{ib. pp. 173, 17«, 179, Addenda, 1547-05, 
p. 509, 510). He died in the Tower on 
Sept. 1501, aud was buried in the Tower j 
chapel. A monument was erected to his 
memory and that of bis wife at Borley. He , 
married Frances (<i. 159ti), daughter of Sir 
Edward Neville ((/. 1538) [q. v.] By her 
he ha<l two sons : Charles, who succeeded 
him in his Norfolk and Somerset estates, 
and was ancestor of the Earls Waldegrove ; ! 



f 



and Nicholas, ancestor to the WoldegraTM 
of Borley in Essex. They had nUo tbrge 
daughters : Mary, married to John Petre, 
first baron I'etre [see under I'btre, 8a 

' William]; .Mafrdalen, married to Sir John 
Soutbcote of Witluira in Essex ; and Cath»- 
rine, married to Thomas Gawen of Wilt- 
shire. 

[CoUins'a Peerage, 1779. iv. 42 1 -5 ; Strype's 
Roclosiasticul Meraorials, I8'22, n. i. 388, 4.M- 
459, III. i. 5<9; Strypo's Annals of the Refof- 
mation, i. i. 4U0, 404 ; Foxe'a Actea and Mona- 
inents, 1846, vi.22; Hastad's History of Kent, 
i. 396; Morant's Hist, of Essex, 1768. i. 182; 
Acts of the Privy Council, ed. Dosent ; Machyns 
Diary (Oamden Hoc.) ; Bacatus Lanrastrix. R»- 

j cord ed. ; Metcalfe's Book of Kniglits, p. 107 ; 
Fronde's Hist, of England, 1870, v. 3.^8, vi. US, 

! 138, r93, 443, 913, vii. 338-9; Gent. 3Ifl«. 
1S23, ii. 17; Notes and Queries, 11. vii. 16(; 
MisB .Strickland's Queens of England, ISoI, iii> 
410-14, 4.54.] E. I.e. 

WALDEGRAVE, FRANCES ELIZA- 
BETH ANNE, Countess Walpegbatb 
(1821-187!)), the daughter of John Hrahom 
[q. v.], the singer, was bom in Ix)ndon on 
4 .Ian. 1821. .She married, on 25 Mav 1839, 
John James Waldegrave of Navestoek," 
who died in the same year. She mi 
secondly, on 28 Sept. 1840, tteorgo Ed' 
seventh earl Waldegrave. After the m 
her husband wius sentenced to six moi 
imprisonment for.issnult. During his deten- 
tion she lived with him in the queen's bench 
prison, and on his release they retinid into 
the country. On the death of Lord Walde- 
grave on 28 Sept. 1.846, she found heradf 
possessed of the whole of the Waldegrave 
estates (including residences at Strawberry 
Hill, Cbewton, .Somerset, and Dudbrook, 
Essex), but witii little knowledge of ihe 
world to guide her conduct. In I his position 
she entered for a third time into matrimony, 
marrying on :W Sept. 1847 George (JranviUe 
Ilarcourt of Nunenam and Stanton Ilar- 
court, Hxfordshire. Her third Imsbiiud, who 
was a widower and her senior by thirty-six 
years .(being sixty-two at the date of th» 
marriage, while she was only twenty-six), 
was eldest son of Edward ifarcourt fq. ■v.V 
archbishop nf York, and a. follower of Ped, 
whom ho sui>ported in parliament as mem- 
ber for Oxfordshire. 

As Harcourt's wife, Lady Waldegrave fiwfe 
exhibited her rare capocity as a leader and 
hostess of society. Of her conduct to Jlaf- 
court. Sir WrUiom Gregory wrote in his 
'.Autobiography:' 'She was an exceJlent 
wife to hira,and neither during her life with 
him nor previously was there ever a whisper 
of disparagement to her character. No great 




Waldegrave 



Waldegrave 



*dy held her head higher or more rigorously 
•uled her society. Her home was always 
fay, and her parties at Xuneham were the 
liveliest of the time ; hut she never sutlered 
the slightest indecorum, nor tolerated im- 
proprieties.' She delighted in private thea- 
tricals, and her favourite piece, which she 
acted over and over apainboth at Xuneham 
and Wobum, was the ' Honey moon," bi'cause 
it hod some allusions to her own iiositiou. 
She always said she should have liked to 
act Lady Teazle, if it had not been that the 
references to the old husband were too 
pointed. The other pieces in which she per- 
formed were generally trunBlution.s of French 
vaudevilles. 

Some years before Ilarcourt's death she 
determined to reopen Strawberry Ilill, which 
had been left to her by her second iiu.-<bnnd, 
whose father had inlierited it from Horace 
Walpole. The mansion had been completely 
dismantled by Lord Waldegrave and denuded 
of all its treasures in 184i'. She preserved 
Horac<! Walpole's house exactly us it stootl, 
•ad restored to it many of its dispersed trea- 
sures. The stable wing was turned into a set 
of sleeping-room's for guests, and she joined 
it to the main building by two large rooms. 
These contained two collections, the one of 
eigrhteenth-centurv pictures of members of 
the families of \Vnlpole and AValdegrave, 
the other of portraits of her own friends and 
conteraporanes. Strawberry Hill, when 
finished, b4;cnmea still more convenient ren- 
desTOUS for the political and diplomatic 
society of Iv)ndon than Nunehara had been. 

Harcourt died on 19 Dec. ISfil, and then 
Strawberry Hill became her principal resi- 
dence, altiiough she occasionally resided at 
the Waldegrave mansions of Chewton in 
Somerset and DudbrooU in Essex, both of 
which places she restored and enlarg««l. On 
20 Jan. 1863 she married Chichester Samuel 
Parkinson Fortescue (afterwards Lord Car- J 
lingford), and from that time until her death 
her abilities, as well as her fortune, were de- j 

Sted to the succe.<s of his political career 
d of the liberal party with which he was 
lociated. Her salon at Strawberry Hill 
or at her residence in London, 7 Carlton 
Gardens, waa from the date of her fourth 
marriage until her death, sixteen years later, 
one of t he chief meeting-places of the liberal 
leaders. 

Lady Waldegrave may be described (in 
the words of La Bruy&re) as ' a handsome 
woman with the virtues of an honest man,' 
who united ' in her own person the best quali- 
ties of both sexes.' Her rewanl for tlie exer- 
cise of these virtues was the affectionate 
frieadabip with which she was regarded by 



all who knew her. In conversation she pre- 
ferred to listen rather than to shine. Flashes 
of wit occasionally came from her lips with- 
out effort or preparation, but she forgot her 
epigrumsttssoonasshe uttered them ; indeed 
she was known on more than one occasion 
to repeat her own jests, forgetting their origin 
and attributing them to other people. Her 
friends among politicians and men of letters 
included the Due d'Aumale, the Duke of 
Newcastle, Ix)rds Grev and Clarendon, M. 
Vande A\'eyer, Bishop Wilberforce, Abraham 
Hayward, and Bernal ( Jsbome. Among her 
associates who were nearer her own age, Sir 
William Harcourt (the nq)hew of her third 
husband). Lords Dufferin and .\mpthill, 
Julian Fane, and Lord Alccster wore per- 
hops the most noteworthy. 

Lady AA'aldegrave died without issue at 
her residence. 7 Carlton Gardens, Ix)ndon, 
on 5 July 1879, and was buried at Chewton, 
where LordCarlingford en-cted a monument 
to her memory and placed on it a touching 
record of his love and gratitude. I'ortraifs 
of Lady Waldegrave wore painted by Dubufe, 
Tissot, James Kannie Swinton, and other 
artists, but none were ver>' successful. A 
full-length marble statue was executed by 
ilatthew Noble. 

[Gregory's Autobiogrnpliy ; personal reeol- 
lections.] H. R. G. 

WALDEGRAVE, GEORGE GRAN- 
VILLE, i^cond Rauox Uadstock (1786- 
1857), vice-admiral, eldest son of William 
Waldegrave. first lord IJadstock [q. v.], was 
bom on 24 S<>pt. 178(3. In 1794 his "name 
was placed on the books of the Courageux, 
commanded by his father, but he seems to 
have first pone to sea in 1798 in the Agin- 
court, his futher's Hagship at Newfoundland. 
After eight years' service, on 16 Feb. 1807 
he was made a captain. From 1807 to 1811 
he commanded the Thames in the Medit.er- 
ranean, and from 1811 to 181.'"> the Volon- 
taire in the Mediterranean, and afterwards 
on the north coast of Spain. During these 
eight years he was almost constantly en- 
gaged in preventing the enemy's coasting 
trade, in destroying coast batteries, or in 
cutting out and destroying armed vessels. 
After paying off the Volontaire, he had no 
further service. On 4 Juno 1815 he was 
nominated a C.B. On 20 Aug. 1825 he suc- 
ceeded his father a-s Lord Radstock, and on 
23 Nov. 1841 was made a rear-admiral. He 
became a vice-admiral on 1 July 1851, and 
died on 11 May 1857. He married, in 182.3, 
Esther Caroline, youngest daughter of .Tohn 
Puget of Totteridge, a director of the bank 
1 of England, and left issue. His only son, 




Wald^rave 



i6 



Waldegrave 



GnuiTille Auiriistus ^Villiam, succeeded u 
third Baron Uadstock. 

During the last forty y*>nrs of his life R&d- 
Btock took an active part in the administra- 
tion of naval charities, and formed a curious 
and valuable collection of volame« and 
pamphlets relating to naval history. This 
was presented by his widow, Esther Lady 
Kadstock, to the library of the Roral United 
Service Institution, where it now is. 

[O'ByrnB's Xav. Biogr. Diet.; Foster'* Po«r- 
affo.l J> K. 1*. 

WALDEGRAVE, JAMES, first Earl 
Waij)BQIUVk (I68i>-1741), a descendant of 
Sir Edward \N'BUlej:™ve ^4. v.], was the eldest 
son of Sir Ilenrv WaldeCTave, bsrt., who 
on M .Ian. ItlSoAj— shortly after the birth 
of his first-born — w«s created by James II 
lUron Waldegrave of Chewton in Somerset. 
Next year the new peer was made comp- 
troller of the royal household and lopj- 
liuutonant of Somerset (see Elus, (\irrt»p. 
i. 3.18; cf EVKI.Y.V. Duiiy. 1850, ii. 24VI). | 
In November lti(>3 he went over to I*aris, 
taking a large sum of money thither for the 
king, and he died either at I'aris or St. (ler- 
main in the following year^cf Stuart I'auer*, 
Roxb. Club, 1S89, pp." 104 sq.> Apart from 
his being a Roman catholic, Waldegrave de- 
served well of James, for his great-grwid- 
father, Sir Edwanl, had been created a baro- 
net by Charles I in 1613 for gT«at and con- 1 
spicuous services to the royal cause. It was, 
however, to the fact that he had married in 
1684 Lady Henrietta b"itijames,elJest daugh- 
ter of James II by .\ml)ella Churchill q. v.], ' 
that he owed his elevation. Henrietta, lady 
Waldegrave, survived her husband many 
years, and lived to see her son following in 
the footsteps of .her uncle, the Duke of -Marl- 
borough, and eflectively opposing the inte- 
rests of her brother Berwick and her half- 
brother, the Old IVtender. When she died, 
on 3 .\pril 1730, at the age of sisty-three, 
the earl erected a monument to her in the 
chancel of Navestock church, Essex. An 
interesting little letter written' to this lady 
when she was but fifteen bv her father 
(dated • Windsor, 23 .\pril Kfc*^") is at the I 
British Museum (Addit. MS. 5015, f. 40); 
it is addreased to * Mis. Henriette Fit^ames 
of Maubuiaon.' 

James, so named after his royal grand- 
father, was educated in France. He married 
in 1714 a catholic lady, Mary, second daugh- 
ter of Sir John Webbe, hart., of Hatherop, 
Gloucestershire ; but upon her death in child- 
bed, on 2-.> Jan. 1718-19, he declared him- 
twlf a protectant, and not long afterwards 
he took the oaths and assumed his seat in 



the HotMe of Lords (13 Feb. 1721-2). The 
scandal excited among the Jacobites by hit 
abjuration, and the manner in which it was 
rvsented by his uncle, the Duke of Berwick, 
dispelled all siupicionsas to the genuineneu 
of his loyalty to the protestant suooewon, 
and his personal qualities soon recommended 
him very strongly to the Walpole*. Never- 
theless it was thought singular that Sir 
Robert shonld advance him so promptly to 
diplomatic pasta, and in 1741 one of the 
articles in the impeachment was that he had 
made so near a relative of the Pretender an 
ambassador ( Walpole, Corretp. ed. Coa- 
ningham, L 90). .\t first, however, Wal- 
degrave was only made a lord of the bed- 
chamber to George I (8 June 1723), and it 
was not until 1725 (11 Sept.) that he was 
sent as ambassador extraordinary to Paris, 
conveying congratulations from George I 
and the Prince of Wales to Louis XV upoi> 
his marriage. On 27 May 1727 he was ap- 
pointed to t^ more respi)ii«ible post of 
ambassador and minbter-plenipotentiary at 
Vienna. He set out next day, and a few 
days later, while in Paris, heard of the death 
of George I : but he proceeded without delay, 
and p?ached Vienna on 26 June. The ap- 
pointment had been made with care, Walde- 
grave being deemed a diplomatist eminently 
fitted to soothe and conciliate the emperor. 
His amiable demeanour doubtless contri- 
buted to fiKilitate the execution of the ar- 
ticles agreed upon mthepreliminaries recently 
signed between England, France, and the 
emperor at Paris. He was at Paris in the 
sniamer of I72S during the congrees of 
Soiasons, but he returned to Vienna, and wu 
not recalled until June 1730. In the mean- 
time, on 13 Sept. 1729, he had been created 
Viscount Chewton of Chewton and Eatl 
Waldegrave. On 7 .\ug. 1730 he was ap- 
pointed ambassador and minister-plenipo- 
tentiarvat Paris, in saoeeanan to Sir Horatio 
Walpole. His main butineas at the outaet 



was to hint jealousy and suspicion at any 
closer rapprochement between France aiu 
Spain ; and he was urged by Newcastle to 
keep a vigilant eye upon Berwick and other 
Jacobites in the French capital, and not to 
spare expense in ' subsisting 'Gambarini and 
other eflective spies (see AJdit. MS. 32775, 
f. 283). The position developed into a reiy 
ddicateone for a diplomatist, and the crosa- 
fire to whidi Waldegrave was exposed wat 
often perQoas. Spain wanted to alienate 
the English government from Franc*?, while 
several of tne French ministers actively 
sought to embroil England with Spain. Tbs 
tendencies of Fleuiy wet« wholly p*a6c, 
but the chief secretary, Germun Louis da 



Waldegrave 



»7 



Waldegra\ 



Chnuvelin, left no stone iinturneU to exas- 
perate him osainst the English. Chauve- 
lin did not hesitate at intrigues with the 
Pretender, of which the secret was revealed 
by hi? own carelessness, for having- on one 
occasion come papers to hand to the English 
ambassador, be added by mistake one of 
James's letters to himself. Tliis Waldegrave 
promptly despatched by a t-pecial messenger 
to England (to the Dukeof Xewcu.stle, 1 1 Oct. 
173t)). Walpole recommended the admini- 
stering of a bribe of o.fXXV. to 10,000/. (the 
smaller sum, he observed, would make a 
good many P'rench li%Tea). Nothing came 
of this ; but a few months later Waldegrave 
had the satisfaction of seeing C'hauvelin dis- 
missed (February 1737 : Flas-san, Diplom. 
Frnni;nuif, 1811, v. 75). Nevertheless, as the 
tension increased bet ween England and .Spa in, 
Waldegrave's position grew more difficult. 
lie described it as that of a bird upon a perch, 
and wondered it could last in the way it did. 
His furmerpopularity reached vanishing point 
jriben he cracked a joke upon the rrtmch 
■ivine. Yet even after t he declarat ion of war 
'Between England and Spain in October 1739 
he had to stay on at VersaiUe.'*, ffir Fleury 
still hesitated to break with England, and 
talked vaguely of arbitration ; and matters 

gutiuued in this unsettled state until the 
ath of the emperor, Charles \'I, on :J0Oct. 
40, which made a great European war in- 
eritable. Shortly after this event, Iiowever, 
"Waldegrave had to consult his health by 
returning to England, .\fter his departure, 
until the rupture of diplomaticrelations, busi- 
ness was carried on by his former chaplain, .'V n- 
tony Thompson, as chargf- d'ailiiires. Tlionip- 
Bon remained at the French capital until 
March 1744; in the following St-ptember be 
was created dean of Ilaphoe, ana held that 
preferment until his death on Oct. 1750 
iCoTTOS, Fafti Eccl. nib. iii. 363, v. iW j 
Walpole Corrmp. i. 261, 295). 

Waldegrave died of dropsy on 1 1 April 
1741 at Naveatock. There isacatholicstory, 
• repeatedly heard from a gentleman of most 
retentive memory and unimjieaclmble vera- 
city,' that on his deathbed he put his hand on 
his tongue and exclaimed, to the terror of the 
bystanders, ' This bit of red rag ha<< been my 
damnation,' alluding to the oath of abjura- 
tion (Oliver, ^'y//<w/io«.«,pp.69, 70). He was 
buried in the chancel of Navostock church, 
and a monument was afterwards erected to 
him there on the north side of the cliancel 
by his daughter-in-law, who became Duchess 
of Gloucester [see William Hesrt, Dukb 
OF Gloucesteb]. The first earl left two 
sons — James, second ejirl f^q.v.], and John — 
successively Earls Waldegrave, and a daugh- 

TOL. LIX. 



tcr Henrietta, born on 2 Jan. 1716-17, who 
married on 7 July 1734 Edward Herbert, 
brother of the Marquis of Powys j becoming 
a widow, the married, secondly, in 1738-9, 
John Beard, the leadingsinger at Covent Oar- 
den Theatre, of which he was also for a lime 
a patentee. J^ord Nugent wrote of the ' foolish 
match' that ' made so much ado. and ruined 
her and Heard ' ( AV;r Foundiiny Jlotpital/ttr 
Wit, 1784). Lady Henrietta died on 3 1 .May 
1753. 

Waldegrave was highly esteemed by Wal- 
pole and by George 11, who conferred the 
Garter upon him on 20 Feb. 1738 (cf. Cfutlt 
Hoicard Papert, p. 193). Despite his lack of 
personal advantages, he was held to be most 
skilful in pat lent lyfoilingan adversary 'with- 
out disobliging him ;' and, far from suspect- 
ing him of any concealed Jacobitism, Wal- 
pole confided in him more than in any other 
foreign ambiissador, with the exception of 
his brother. He conducted himstdf in his 
embassies, says Coxe, with consummnle ad- 
dress, and 'particularly distinguished him- 
self by obtaining secret information in times 
of emergency. His letters do honour to his 
diplomatic talenUs, and prove sound sense, 
an insinuating addres,", and elegant manners.' 
Waldegrave built for himself the seat of 
Navestock Hall, near Ifoinford, but this 
building was pulled down in iNll. 

Of the great mass of Waldegrave's diplo- 
matic correspondence now preserved among 
the Additional { IVlhara) manuscripts at the 
British Museum, the more important part is 
thus distributed: Addit. MSS. 23<i27, 32t)87- 
32802 passim (correspondence with the Duke 
of Newcostle, 17.11-9); Addit. 23780-4 
(with Sir Thomas Uobinson, 1 730-9) ; Addit. 
27732 (with Lord Essex, 1732-6); .\ddit. 
32754-801 (with Sir Benjamin Kwnc, 1728- 
1739); Addit. ;«751, 32775 (with Cardinal 
Fleury, 1728-31); Addit. 3277<5-85 (with 
Lord Harrington, 1731-1) ; Addit. 32785- 
32792 (with Horatio Walpole, 1734-6). 

[Harl. MSS.38I, 1154, and ."iS 1 6 ( Waldegrsve 
I family pedigree, arms, monuments, Sic.) \ Addit. 
M8. 19154; CoUins's Peerage, iv. 244; Doylo's 
Official Baronage; Gent. Mag. 1741, p. 221 ; Ed- 
mondson'g Baronagium Oenealogieam, iii. 283; 
Herald and Oenealogiat, iii. 424 ; Morant's 
Essex, ii. 232, 318, S92 ; Wright's Essex, ii. 735; 
Gibson's Lydinte Hall, 1876, p. 317; Foley's 
Rocords of the Engliab College, v. 382 ; Walde- 
grave'sMemoirs. 1821,pp.ri,Tii; Coxe'sMerooirs 
of Walpole, i. 347 acq. ; Mimoires du Marquis 
d'Argengon, 18A7, vol. ii. ; Filon's Alliance 
Anglaise, Orleans, 1860; Dangeau's Joamal.ed. 
1854, ii. 234, 390, iii. 58, v. 134, 172, 303; 
Wolseley's Life of Marlborough, i. 37; Arm- 
strong's Elisabeth Farnese. 1892, p. 3.57; Bau- 
drillarl's Philippe V et la Cour de France, 1889 ; 





I 



Waldej 



Waldegrave 



Walpole CoiTMpondence, ed. Cuuninghiini ; 
SUnhope's Hist, of EDgUod, ISjl, ii. 189, 279; 
Qaiirtorly Review, sxv. 392 ; NoUs aud Queries, 
2iidser. ix. 182, vii. 165, 6th gcr. x. 344.] 

T. S. 

WALDEGRAVE, JAMES, second Earl 
WALDEOKAVK(1715-1763),bornon 14Marcb 
1715 |X. S.), was the eldest son of James 
Waldegrave, first earl [q. v.], by his wife 
Mary, second daughter of Sir John Wobbe 
of Htttherop, Gloucestershire, lie was edu- 
cated at Eton. He succeeded to the peerage 
on the death of his father in 1741. Two 
years later, on 17 Dec. 1743, be was named ! 
a lord of the bedchamber to George II. 
Henceforth till the king's death lie became 
his most intimate friend and adviser. Rut 
he took no open part in public business, and 
Henry Pelham described him to Newcastle 
in 1751 as ' totally surrendered to his plea- 
sures' {Bedford Corretpondencf, ii. 84). In 
December 175:? he was induced by the king, 
much against his own will, toaccept the office 
of governor and keeper of the privy purse 
to George, prince of AVales, and was made a 
privy councillor, lie tried to give his roval 
pupil notions of common things, instructing 
him by conversation rather than books, and 
always stood his friend with the king. But 
in 1755 Leicester House resumed its former 
attitude of hostility to the court, and the 
princess and her friends made it their aim to 
get rid of Waldegrave and replace liim by 
Bute. When,earlv next year, the matter was ' 
discussed in a cabinet council, Waldegrave 
rather favoured the concession of the de- 
mand. In October 175(1 the king consented 
to the change, and Waldegrave was relieved 
from what he terms ' the most painful seni- 
tude." lie refused a pension on the Irish 
establishment in reward for his services, but 
accepted n tellership of the exchequer. He 
at the same time resigned the place of lord 
warden of the stannaries, which had been 
granted bira in 1751. During the last five 
years of the reign of George II he played 
on important though not a conspicuous part. 
In 1755 he was employed to disunite Pitt 
and Fox, who were harassing the govern- 
ment, of which they were nominally subordi- 
nate members. .\8 the result of his negotia- 
tion.", Fo.x was admitted to the cabinet. 
Waldegrave smoothed the way by terrifying 
Newcastle with ' a melancholy representa- 
tion ' of the dire consequences of an avowed 
combination between 1 itt and Fojc. Early 
in 1767, after the resignation of Newcastle, , 
the king, who could not endure the new 
ministers, Devonshire nnd Pitt, called in 
Waldegrave's aid to bring him buck. Several 
conferences took place, and both Waldegrave 



and Newcastle advised delay. Dut the king 
was determined, and instructed his fiavoarite 
to confer with Cumberland and Fox should 
Newcafitle fail him. After some weeks' ne- 
gotiations Fox was authorised to form apian 
of administration in concert with Cumber- 
land. Waldegrave approvetl it, and talked 
over the king's objections, though he antici- 
pated its failure. He thought that George II 
shouUl have negotiated in person with each 
candidate for office. The plan failed ; but in 
March 1757 the Devonshire-Pitt ministi7 
was dismissed. Thereupon Waldegrave w«« 
employed to notify to Sir Thomas Kobisson 
una Lord Dupplin the king's intention of ap- 
pointing them secretary of state and chan- 
cellor of the exchequer. As both refused 
office, Newcastle was again applied to. The 
latter showed Waldegrave a letter from 
Chesterfield, advising him to efi'ect a junc- 
tion with Pitt. Waldegrave admitted tlu< 
soundness of the reasons given, adding that 
he himself, even when nominally acting 
against them, had always advised George II 
to reconcile himself with Pitt and LeiceBt0 
House. But the king, as he had anticipated, 
refused to take Pitt as minister, and the 
interminist«rium continued. At length 
George II insisted on Waldegrave himself 
accepting the treasury. Waldegrave in vain 
plcAued that, though he might be usefdl ti 
tax independent man known to possess the 
roval confidence, as a minister he would be 
helpless owing to his entire want of parlia- 
mentary connections. He was premier for 
only five days, 8-12 June 1757. Fox's diffi- 
dence and Newcastle's intrigues shattered 
the embrvo administration ; and the crisij 
ended in Mansfield receiving powers to treat 
with the former and Pitt. On giving in hi» 
resignation, he openly admitted to George II 
that he considered the place of a minuster 
as thegreat.est misfortune which could hew- 
after befall him; and in his 'Memoirs' he 
reconled his conviction thnt as a minister 
he must soon have lost the king's confidence 
and favour on account of their dissigTee- 
mcnt on (Jerman questions. 

On 30 June 1 757 Waldegrave was invested 
alone witli the Garter, this single investiture 
being a verj' rare honour. He had been 
created LL.D of Cambridge and elected 
F.R.S. in 1749. 

Once again, in the next reigrn, W^alde- 
grave became involved in political affairs. 
When in 1703 Henry Fox meditated joining 
Bute, he went to Waldegrave and ' endea- 
voured to enclose the earl in his treaty with 
the court,' sounding him as to his willing- 
ness to accept cabinet office. Waldegrave 
desired time, and went to Windsor to con- 



Waldegrave 



19 



Waldegrave 



^i 



«ult the Duke of Cumberland. The duke 

would give no advice, and Wnldeprave wrote 

to Fox to cut ghort the ncgotintion. lie 

[■would not, says his relative, Ilonice Wal- 

poli-, quit his friend in order to join a court 

ne despised and hated. But he was not to 

be left at peace. Fo.\ next made use of him 

to reconcile Cumberland and Devon.shire : 

and nhortly afterward.s Kiptjy endeavoured to 

Lelicit from him an undertakinir to aceejit the 

JtrejiBury. Waldcprave told Walpole (who 

I in his house at the time) of the overture 

atk an expressive smile, which in him, 

rlio never uttered a bitter word, conveyed 

[the essence of sense and satire.' A short 

[time afterwards he ' peremptorilv declined * 

(the choice oflercd him of rhu French i-tn- 

rlMssy or the viceroynlty of Ireland. Yet 

[kfter his death the court boasted that they 

Ijftd gaine<l him. 

Ho died of smnll-i)OX on 1'!* .Vpril 1 "ti.'^. 
Had he lived longer, Walpoli- tbinks he 
aust hove become the acknowledged head 
'of the whips, 'though he was much looked 
up to bv very dillerent sets,' and his 'pro- 
bity, abilities, and temper' miglit have ac- 
complished a coalition of parties. Walpole 
had brought about the mnrringo of Walde- 
grave in l"j")!t with his own niece Maria, a 
natural daughter of Sir Kdward AN'alpole 
and Maria Clements. lie was then ' as old 
again as she, and of no ncTeenble figure ; but 
for character and credit the first match in 
England.' Ladv Woldegrave was, since the 
death of Lady Coventry, ' allowed the hand- 
somest woman in England,' and her only 
fault was extravagance. Ifeynolds painted 
her portrait seven times. After \A'alde- 
j^gTBve'* death she was courted by the Duko 
nf Portland, but secretly married Prince 
~7illiam Ileniy, duke o? Gloucester. The 
marriage was for a long time unrecognised 
by the royal family. She died at Brampton 
b«n 22 .\ug. 1807. " By Waldegrave she had 
Pthree daiighters, of whom Elizabeth married 
her cousin, the fourth earl Waldegrave; 
I Charlotte was the wife of George, duke 
^Kof Grafton; and .Vnna Iloratin, of Lord 
^^ulugh Seymour. Walpole gave Reynolds 
^Beight hundred guineas for a portrait of his 
^HUiree grand-nieces painted in 1780. 
^^ A portrait of ANaldegrave, painted by Rey- 
nolds, wa.< engraved by Thomson, S. Rey- 
l^nolds, and Mc.\rdell. The first-named 
engraving is prefixed to his ' Memoirs.' In 
"Vavestock church, Essex, there is a tablet to 
with a lengthy inscription. Ilis ' Me- 
Boirs' were not published till 1821, when 
hey were issued by Murray in a quarto 
rolume, with an introduction and appen- 
dices probably by Lord Holland. They are 



r— - 




admirable in style and temper, and their 
accuracy has never been impugned. Walde- 
i grave admits at the outset that it is not in 
I his power to be quite unprejudiced, but the 
impartiality shown in his character-sketch 
of Ilis friend Cumberland may atone for tho 
slight injustice he may have done to Pitt 
and the satirical strokes he allowed himself 
when dealing with the princess dowager 
and Lord Bute. Tho relations he details as 
subsisting between himself and George U 
redound" to the credit of both. AViildegrave'a 
insight is proved by the remarkable change 
ho foresaw in the character of his royal 
pupil when he should become king; and Ids 
comparison of the whig party to an alliance 
of (lifl'erent clans fighting in the same cause, 
but under diflerent chieftains, is admirably 
just. The 'Memoirs' were reviewed in the 
' Quarterly ' for July 1(^21, and tho 'Edin- 
burgh ' for June 1822. The writer of the 
latter notice, probably John Allen, gave, 
from a manuscript copy discovered after the 
publication of the work, the passage relating 
to George III just referred to. 

A\'aldegrttve having no male issue, the 
earldom passed to his brother. 

John Waldeorave, third Eabl (d.l784), 
entered the army and attained the rank of 
lieutenant-genenil and governor of Ply- 
mouth. He commanded a brigade in the 
attack on St. Malo in 1758 {Grenvitle Curretp. 
i. 238). He greatly distinguished himself at 
the battle of Minden in the folhiwiiig year; 
and Walpole ascribes tlie victorv chieHy to 
a manoou\TB conducted by him. In the early 
years of George III he acted with tbe oppo- 
sition, but was in I7t« made master of tho 
horse to (^ucen Charlotte. When in 1770 
l^irdBurrington de<'lared in parliament that 
no oflicer in England was fit to bo com- 
mander-iii-chier, he ' took up the afiront 
warmly without doors' (Walpole). He 
was named lord-lieutenant of Essex in Oc- 
tober 1781. lie died of apoplexy in his 
carriage near Uending on l."i Oct. 1784. 
He married, ' by the intrigues of Lord Sand- 
wich" (Siu C. 11. Williams, U'mkt, i. 184, 
Waliiole's note), Elizabeth, fifth daughter 
of Joiin, earl Gowcr. She had two sous and 
two daughters: the second son, Williiuu, 
created Lord Kadstockin 1800, is separately 
noticed; the eldest, George (1751-1769), 
succeeded as fourth Earl Waldegrave and 
rniirried his firat cousin, Elizabeth Laura 
Waldegrave, by whom he was father of the 
fifth, sixth, and eighth earls. 

[Wiilpolo's Jlemoirs of Oporgp II, 2nd edit, 
i. 91, 92, 291, 418, iii. 26-30, 198, 109, Memoirs 
of Goorgo 111, ed. Barker, i. 135, 1.50. 197, 212, 
213. ii. 74, 121, 129. iii. 268-71, iv. C'2, 63. 

02 




W^aldeg^rave 



•o 



Waldegrave 



M, IM, aad Latten, ad. Canoiiigfaaiii. paana ; t 
One'* Mlm Adaioiatnuoa. U. ISO, 23ft, 
SW : WaUtgnn'i Maaaoin ; Geat. Maff. 17*3 ' 
p. 901. ITM S. 199. 875. ISUii. 31«, 1859 n. i 
041, 643 : Erua'a Cat. Ea^. Poitnita; Dojia'* 
Ofiaal BaxQuaee ; Barb a FMngs : Knight'a 
BagL CyeiopMu, toL t. ; Stanhopc'i Hiac. of | 
Ekgl- chap, xxxir. ; aothoriliea cit*).] 

G. Lb G. N. 

WALDEGRAVE or WALORAVE, 
Sib RICHARD (</. 1402), spe^er of the 
Hooae of Commoiu, was the ton of Sir Ri- ! 
chard WaliUgrtre by hU wife, \f[nea Dau- 
_ . He was descended from the North- 
* aa^toilthire bmily dn-t.41ing at Walgrave. 
The earliest member of the familr known, 
Warine de Wal^rave, was father of John 
de Walgrare, sheriff of London in VJOH. 
Tlie dder Sir Richard, hia great^Tandson, 
ucwaod to France with Edwud III in 13^ 
(Rnom, Fadera, IH21, ii. 764), was re- 
tained to parliament in 1 335 for Liucolnahire, 
and in 1337 received letters from Edward per- I 
mittinghun toaccompany Ilenrr Buighersh ' 
'j.T.l.bbhop of Lincoln, to Flanders (i2. pp. 
07, 1027). In 1343 he received similar 
letters on the oeeaaioo <A his accompanving 
Hamphrev de Bohua, earl of Ilereforci, to 
Eranoe (»». iiu 806). i 

Hia aon. Sir Richard, resided at Small- 
bridge in Suffolk, and was retamed to par- I 
liament as a knight of the shire in the 
parliament of February 1375-6. Ue was 
elected to the first and second parliaments 
of Richard II and to that of 1381. In 1381 
he was elected speaker of the House of Com- 
Boas, and prared the king to dischai^ 
lliai from the oi^ee ; the first instance, says 
Xaaning, of a speaker desiring to be excust^d. 
Richard II, however, insisted on his fultilling 
his duties. During his speakership parlia- 
ment was chiefly occupied with the revoca- 
tion of the charters granted to the villeins 
by Richard daring Tvler's rebellion. It was 
diawlred in Februar^ 1381-2. Waldegrave 
asMMated Suffolk in the two parliaments 
oriSBS, in thoee of 1383, in that of 1386, 
in those of 1388, and in that of Januaxv 
1389-90. He died at Smallbridge on i May 
14Q2, and was buried on the north side of 
the pariah church of St. Mary at Bures in 
Eoex. He married Joan Silvester of Bures, 
ly whom he had a son, Sir Richard Walde- 
giare (cf. 1434), who took part in the French 
van, aaai sting in 1402 in the capture of the 
toWB of Caoquet and the island of Rh6 in 
Bketagne. He was ancestor of Sir Edward 
Waldegrave fq. v.] 

[Xanning's Speakers of the Hoose of Com- 
■OOB, 1850, p. 10; CoUins's Peerage. 1779. ir. 
417 : B<dls of Parliameot, ii. 100. 166 ,- Ckleodar 
•(FMentBoUf, 1377-«5 passim] B.La I 



WALDEGRAVE, ROBERT (li>o4?- 
1004 1, puritan printer and publisher, bom 
about loa4, son of Richard Waldegrave or 
Walgrave of Blacklay. Worcfstershire, was 
bound apprentice to William Griffith, sta- 
tioner, of London, for eight veors from 24 J une 
1568(Akber, Tntmcri/it/i. :i72). Walde- 
grave dimbtle&s took up the freedom of the 
Stationers' Company in the summer of lo76 
(the records for that year are lost). On 
17 June 1578 he obtained a license for his 
first publication ( ' A Castell for the Soule "), 
be^nning business in premises near Somerset 
House in the Strand. He removed for a short 
time in 1583 to a shop in Foster Lane, and 
in later years occaaionally published books 
in St. Paul's Churchyard at the sif^n of the 
Crane, and in Cannon Lane at the sign of the 
While Horse. But during the greater part 
of his publishing career in London he occu- 
pied a shop in the Strand. 

Waldegrave was a puritan, and from the 
outset his publications largely consisted of 
controversial works in support of puritan theo- 
logy. His eustomecs or friends soon included 
the puritan leaders in parliament, the church, 
and the press. 

In .\pril 1588 he printed and published, 
without givingnamesof author and publisher 
or place or date, the ' Diotrephes ' of John 
Udall [q.v.] The anti-episcopal tract, which 
was not licensed by the Stationers' Company, 
was judged seditions by the Star-chamber. 
The puritanic temper of Waldegrave's publi- 
cations had already excited the suspit-ion of 
the authorities. On 1(> April his press wa* 
seiied, and L'dall's tract was found in the 
printing office with othertractsoflike temper. 
Un 13 May the Stationers' Company ordered 
that, in obedience to directions issued by ths 
Star-chamber, ' the said booksshall be bumte, 
and the said presse, letters, and print iiip «! uffe 
defaced and made unserviceable.' Walde- 
grave fled from London, and was protected by 
Udall and by John Penry "q. v.] At the 
latter's peisua.<iion Waliieirrave agre«d to print 
in secret a new and extended series of attacks 
on episcopacy, which were to be issued under 
thepseudonym of Martin Mar-Prelate. Secur- 
ing, with Penry 's aid, a new press and some 
founts of roman and italic type, he began 
operations at the house of a sympathuef, 
Mrs. Crane, at East Moleeey, near Hampton 
Court. In June the officers of the Stationers' 
Company made a rain search for Waldegrave 
at Kingston. In July he put into type a 
second tract by Udall, and in November 
Penrv's ' Epistle.' the earliest of the Martin 
Mar-l*T«late publications. In this ' Epistle ' 
Peniy calledpublic attention to the perse- 
ention that Waldegrave, who had to support 



^m 



Waldegrave 



3T 



Waldegrave 



^^ him 



~ tn 

I 



a wife and six childrpn, sulTered at the bands 
of the archbishop of Ciint«rbury and bishop 
of London. 

In the following autumn Waldepfrave was 
'6ted and kept in prison for twenty 

eeks. But no conclusive evidence against 
him was forthcoming, and he was not 
brou(;bt to trial. Uti his release he resumed 
relations with his puritan friends, and in De- 
cemlwr 1588 he removed his secret press, 
■which had not been discovered, from Kast 
Molesey to the house of a patron of the puri- 
tan agitator8,Sir Richard Knighlley, at fa ws- 
ley, Northamptonshire. There Waldegrave 
■was known by the feigned name of Sheme 
•r Shainuel, and represented himself as en- 
_ g^d in arranpiiip Knightley's family papers. 
At Knightleys hous<? Waldegrave printed 
'The Kpitome'of Martin Mur-Prelate. At 
the end of the year he remove<l his secret 
press to the house of another sympathising 

Iron, John Hales, at roventry, and there 
le printed three more Martin Mar-Prelato 
tracts, namely, ' Mineral Conclusions,' ' The 
Supplication,^ and '11a' you any work for 
Cooper ? ' Of the tirst two publications 
"Waldegrave printed no fewer than a thou- 
sand copies each, with the assistance appa- 
rently i>r only one compositor. Early in 
April 1589 he set out, it was said, for Devou- 
abire, where it was his intention to print the 
puritan Cart Wright's ' New Testament against 
the Jesuits.' Hut he did no further work 
for the Mar-l'relute controversialists in Kng- 
land. Uis stay in Devonshire was brief, and 
he seems to have quickly crossed to France, 
making his way to Uochelle. There he 
printed in March 1.190 I'enry's ' .Vpju'lltttion ' 
and 'Some in his CoUours by Job Throck- 
morton [q.y.], Penry's friend and protector. 
In the summer of 1590 Woldegrave settled 
in Edinburgh. 

In Edinburgh Waldegrave ijursued his 
calling for thirteen years with little moles- 
tation and with eminent success. James VI 
at once showed him much fovour. Five 
volumes bearing his name as printer and 
publisher ajipeareJ in Kdinburgh with the 
date 151KJ. "rhese included 'The Confession 
of Ettith, subscribed by the Kingis Majestie 
and his Household ; ' itnd ' The Sea-Law of 
Scotland,' by William Wehvof)d [q. v.] (the 
earliest treatise on maritime jurisprudence 
published in Britain) ; while two works by 
John Penry, which bore no printer's name, 
place, or date, certainly came from W'ulde- 
grave's Edinburgh press in the same year. 
In 1591 the king entrusted V\'aldegrave 
with the publication of ' His Majesties I'oeti- 
call Exercises at vacant houres.' Soon 
Afterwards \\'aldegraye was appointed, for 



himself and his heirs, ' the king's printer. 
The first book printed by him in which ha 
gave himself that designation is ' Onomasti- 
con Poeticum' (1591), by Thomas Jock, 
master of the grammar school of Glasgow. 
Eorly in 1597 Waldegrave wos charged with 
treasonably printing as genuine a pretended 
act of parliament 'lor the abolishing of the 
Actes concerning the Kirk,' but he was ac- 
quitted on the plea that he was the innocent 
victim nf a deception. ' A Spirituall Propine 
of a Pustour to his People,' an early worK of 
James .Melville, which wa,sprinted by Waldo- 
grave in Edinburgh, bears the date 1589 on 
the title-page in the only known copy (now 
in the British Museum) ; the year is clearly 
a misprint for 1598. Among the more inte- 
resting of ^^'aldegTave's other publications at 
Edinburgh were : ' Acts of Parliament past 
since the coronation of the King's Majesty 
against the opponents of the True and cThris- 
tian Religion (LlOa); ' A Commentary on 
Revelations, by John Napier of Merchiston,' 
the inventor of lognritlims (1593); 'The 
Prohlemes of Aristotle, with other Pliiloso- 
phersand Phisil ions' (1.595; unique copy in 
the Bodleinn Library) ; James \l'»' Dremo- 
nologie ' ( 1 597 ), his ' True Law of Free M ■ )n- 
archiea ' (151)8), and his ' Itusilikou Iloron' 
(1(503); .Viesiinder Mcuitgoiueriu's 'The 
Cherrie and the Sloe' (!.V,I7, two editions); 
Alexander lluiue's'liyiiinesor Sacred Songti' 
(1.J99); Thomas t'artwTight's ' Answere to 
the Preface of the Rhemish Testament' 
( 1 (JO-2) ; and William .Alexander's' Tragedy of 
Darius' (l«0.i). 

Waldegrave pirated many English publi- 
cations, among others the diuntess of Pem- 
broke's 'Arcadia' (1.5i>9), Tusser's 'Five 
Hundred Points of Good Husbandry ' (1599), 
and Robert Southwell's ' St. Peters Com- 
plaint ' (160<J). 

Waldegrave seems to have followed 
James \'l to England when he ascended the 
I English throm.'. On 11 June lt)03, after an 
interval of more than fifteen years, he ob- 
tained a license once again for a publication 
fnmi the Stationerrt' Compnny in London. 
The work was ' TheTeti Uominundments with 
j the kiiiges arms at large qunrteri'd as they 
are.' Waldegrave seems to have resumed re- 
sidencein the Strand, but hediedwithiu little 
I more than a year of his re-settlement in Lon- 
' don (AR8EH,'7';-n/Mcn/»/,ii.282). Atthcdoee 
of KRU hiswiduw sold his patent, which had 
I descended to his heirs, of printer to the king 
' of Scotland. Robert Wnldegrave, probably 
a younger son of the printer, born in Septem- 
ber l.ji-Ki, entered .Merchant Taylors' School 
in XQOi'i {liomSMy, Merchant Taylort' School 
lieyieter, i. 49). 



Miii 



Waldegrave 



22 



Waldegrave 



[Arber's Transcript of thu Registera of the Sta- 
tioners' Company ; Arbpr's Introductory Sketch 
to the Miirtin Mitr-l'relate ControTorsy, 1879; 
Dicksonnnd Eilmond's Annals of Scottish Print- 
ing, 1890. pp. 394-476.] S. L. 

WALDEGRAVE, SAMUEL (1817- 
1809), bishop of Carlisle, second son of 
William, eight henrl WaldegraVH, by his wife 
Elizabeth, tiauffhter of Sauiuot ^Vhitbreiul 
[q. v.], wa8 horn at Cardington, BedlunLshire, 
on 13 Sept. LSI". He wa.s educated iil ( 'beam 
at a school kept byCbarles Mnyii ( 1 7i»:2- 1 (^40 ) 

!q. v.l, who taught lii!" pupils on the I'eKta- 
ozzian eysteni. l''rom here ho went to rSiiUiid 
College, Kxford, miitriciilafinK ou 10 April 
ISS-'j. Ilia college tutor was Tuit, afterwards 
archWshnp of Canterbury, who remained bis 
friend throughout his life. He graduated 
B.A. in iMliSt with a first class in classics and 
mfltheraiilic.s.und il.A. in 1842. On 22 Nov. 
18(i0 be received the degree of D.D. by 
diplomii. In 18,'Jtlhe wn.s elected to a fellow- 
tihip at .\11 Souls' College, which he retained 
till his marriage in lS4o, and was uUn ap- 
pointed librarian. He served the office of 
public examiner in the school of mathematics 
fit>m Michaelmna term 1842 tu Easter term 
1844. Waldegrave was orduineii deacon in 
1842, and was licensed to the curacy of St. 
Ebbe's, ( )xf(ird, having lor his fellow cuniles 
Charles Thomas Baring [q. v.] and Edward 
Arthur Litton. While at .St. Klihe's lie took 
a leading pnrt in the building of (he district 
church of Holy Trinity in lliat parish. In 
1844 he accepted the college living of Harford 
St.Martin, near Salisbury. In ISlobewnsap- 
pointed select preacher at Oxford, and iti ly.")4 
was cho.sen Hampton lecturer. His s(dectiou 
of a subject was indicative of the narrow 
limitsof bis theological. sympathies, and under 
the heading of 'New Testament Mitlena- 
rianism ' be elaborately refuted lln' views of 
those expositors who maintained the millen- 
nium theory. The ' Hampton Lectures * were 
published in 1855, and a second edition was 
issued in ISOIl. 

When Hubert Hickersteth [q. v.] was ap- 
pointed bishop of liipon in 18.")7, 1'almerslon 
presented Waldegrave to tho residentinry 
canonry at Salisbury vacated by bis prefer- 
ment. Although differing widely from tiie 
bishop, W'alter Kerrllamiltnn [q. v.], Wnl- 
degrave's relations with him were friendlv, 
and ho was elected proctor for the chapter in 
convocation. He generally took, in tlie de- 
bates of this Ijody, the side of 'the liberal 
minority' { Itln/it rated Lnndon Newn, 17 Nov. 
1800). When Henry >fontaguVilliera[q. v.] 
was translated to Durham, I'ulmerston nomi- 
nated Waldegrave for the vacant bishopric 
of Carlisle, and he was consecrated in \ork 



minster on 11 Nov. 18«J0. He was a realoo* 
bishop, and made his presence felt in all partft 
of bis diocese. His rule was on strictly 
'evangelical ' lines, and the clergy who dif- 
fered from him in opinions or procticea were 
resolutely discountenanced. He greatly B»- 
sisted church work in the poorer parishes 
of his diocese by founding in 1862 the Car- 
lisle Diocesan Church Extension Society, 
Waldegrave was not a frequent speaker in 
the House of Lords, but be supported Lord 
Shaftesbury in hiseiforta to legislate against 
extreme ritualism, and opposed vigorously 
all attempts to relax the law of Sunday ob- 
servance. One of his most elaborate speeches 
was in opposition to a c1bu,sp in the offices 
and oaths bill jjermitliug judicial and corpo- 
rato oflicittls to wear their insignia of olnc*; 
in placi* of worship of any denomination 
( //nH.<n)'rf,cl£.\iviii. l.'37tj). Although awhig 
in politics, he was strongly against Mr. Glad- 
stone's proposals for the disestablishment of 
the Irisli church. When the nrchbiishopric 
of Vdrk became vaciint in 1862, it is stated 
on good authority that Lord Palmerston wa« 
disposed to tran.slate Waldegrave, but tho 
offer was not made (Lokh IIouoiitok, Me- 
moir/; (lEN'EH.il. Okky, .1/cHioiW). Walde- 
grave's long and fatal illness first made itself 
fell in \^*GX, and at the beginning of 1869 
he was compelled to give up active worL 
After much acute suffering, he died at Itoae 
Castle on I Oct. lStJ9. His old friend Arch- 
bishop Tail visited him on the day of Lis 
denlh and saiil the commendatory prayer at 
his bedside. He was buried within the pre- 
cincts of Carlisle Cathedral, where, in the 
south aisle, is a recumbent efligy to lui 
memory. In 1845 he married Jane Ana, 
daughter of Francis Pymoflhellasella, Bed- 
fordshire. By her lie had a son Samuel Ed- 
mund, and a daughter Elizabeth Janet, who 
was married to llichnrd Reginald Fawkes, 
vicar of Spondon, Derbyshire. 

Besides his ' Hampton Lectures,' Walde- 
grave published numerous sermons and 
charges, the most important of these being: 
'The Wav of Peace.' univer-iitv sermons, 
1848, 4tli ed. 1 Sm ; ' Words of Eternal Life," 
eighteen sermons, 18ti4 ; 'Christ the True 
Altar, and other Sermons,' with introduction 
by Ilev. J. C. Uyle, 1870. 

[Memoir in Carlisle Diocesan Calendar, 1S70; 
Fergiisnu's Diocesan History of Carlisle ; Han- 
sjirii'g Pari. Debates, 1861-8; EosIit's Alnmnj 
Oxon. 171.)- 1886.1 E. H. M. 

WALDEGRAVE, Sib WILLIAM 
{_/?. I('i89), pbysieian, was probably the second 
son of Philip Waldegrave of Borley in Essex 
(n cadet of the family of Waldegrave of 
Chewton), by hia second wife, Margaret, 



Waldegrave 



Waldegrave 




tugbter of John Five of Easton in Essex, 
■nd, if so, was bora in 1618. He received 
the degree of doctor of medicine of Padua 
on 12 Marcb lOoH, and was admitted an 
honorary fellow of t he College of Physicians, 
lx)ndon, in December 1064. He was created 
a fellow of the college, by the charter of 
James II, in 1(586, but does not appear to 
have Ijeen admitted as such at the comitin 
majora extroordinaria of 12 April 1(587, 
vhich was specially convened iiir the re- 
Bption of the charter and the admission of 
"^ ! who were thereby constituted fellows. 
1 July U589 he was returned to the 

r of Lords by the college as a ' papist." 

He was physician to the queen of James II, 
and, OS Itinhop Burnet tells us, was hastily 
summoned, along with Sir Charles Scar- 
burgh [q. v.], to her majesty in 1(588, shortly 
" Bfore the birth of the Prince of Wales 
be ' Old Pretender '), when she was in 
of miscarrying. In 1(391 434/. 10«. 
ring to him from the estate of Henry, 
; baron Waldegrave (lluft. MSS. Oimm. 
Sth Rep. App. V. 446). He is there 
yled Sir \\'illiam, but his name does not 
appear in Townsend's 'Catalogue of Knights.' 
^le is believed to have died a bachelor. 
^■^[Munks Cull, of Phys.; Burnet's Uistorv of 
^w own Time, ii. 475-S; information from Hurl 
»ddegrBTe.] W. W. W. 

WALDEGRAVE, Wn.LIAM, first 
Baros Radsiock (1753-1825), admiral, se- 
cond sou of John, third earl Waldegrave, 
and nephew of James ^\'aldegTave, second 

»rl [q. v.l, was bom on 9 July 17,53. He 

Btered the navy in 1766 onboard the Jersey, 
ing the broad pennant of Comrandore 

fterwards Sir) Richard Spry [q. v.l, with 
^hom he served for three years in the Medi- 

rranean. He then joined the (Quebec, pning 
the West Indies under the commiind of 
Captain Krancis Reynolds (afterwards Lord 
Ducie), and on 1 Aug. 1772 was promoted 
bv Vice-admiral Parry to be lieutenant of 
tte Montagu. In January 1773 he was ap- 
pointed to the Portland, in .lanunry 1774 to 
the Preston, and in March 1774 to the Med- 

ty, going out to the Mediterranean us flag- 
p of Vice-admirai Man, by wliotn, on 
June 177o, Waldegrave was prnmoti-d 
the command of the Zephyr ."loiip. Ou 
May 177(3 he was posted to the Uipon, 
which he took out to the East Indies as 
flag-captain to Sir Edward Vernon U\. v.] 
His health broke down in the Indian climate, 
and he was compelled to return to England. 
In September 1778 he was appointed to the 
Pomona of 28 guns, in which he went to 
the West Indies, where he captured the Cum- 



berland, a large and troublesome American 
privateer. From the Pomona he was moved 
to the Prudente, in which he returned to 
England, and was attached to the Channel 
Heel. On 4 July 1780, in company with the 
Licorne, she captured the French frigate 
Cupricieuse, which, however, was so shattered 
that \\'aldegrttve ordered her to be burnt. 
In April 1781 she was with the fleet that 
relieved (iibraltar [see Darbv, Georgk'', and 
in December with the squadron under Reor- 
adrairal Richard Kempenfelt [qv.j that cap- 
tured a great part of the French convoy to 
the Bay of Bi.scay, in the immediate presence 
of a vastly superior French fleet. In March 
1782 he was appointed to the Phni'ton, at- 
tached to the ffrand fleet under Lord Howe 
which in October relieved (iibraltar. 

After the peace Waldegrave travelled on 
the continent, visited the Grecian Isles and 
Smj-rna, where, in 178o, he married Cornelia, 
daughter of David Van Lenne]), chief of 
the Dutch factory. He returned to England 
in 1786, but had no employment till, in the 
Spanish armoment of 17!*^), he wiis aiipoinled 
to the Majestic of 74 guns. When the 
dispute with Spain was settled, he again 
went on half-pay ; but on the outbreak of 
war in 1 793 was appointed to t he Couragoux, 
in which he went to the Mediterronean. 
After I he occupation ol' Toulon he was sent 
home with despatches, landing at Barcelona 
and travelling across Spain. lie returned to 
the fleet through Oermany and the north of 
Italy, but again went home con.seqiient on 
his promotion on 4 July 17S'4 to tho rank of 
rear-admiral. In May 1795 he had com- 
mand of a small sqiuidnm cruising to the 
westward. On 1 June he was promoted to 
be vice-admiral, and in the end of the year 
was .sent out to tlif Mediterranean, with big 
flag iu the IJartleiir, He continued with the 
fleet under Sir John Jervia (afterwards Earl 
St. Vincent) [q. v.], and, as third in com- 
mand, took part iu the battle of St. Vincent 
on 14 Feb. 1797. In honour of this great 
victory, the second in command, Vice-admi- 
ral Charles Thompson [q. v.],nnd the fourth, 
Rear-admiral Parker, were made baronets. 
A similar honour was ofl'ered to \\'aldegrave, 
who refused it, as inferior to his actual rank 
as the son of an earl. On returning to Eng- 
land, he was appointed commander-in-chief 
on tho Newfoundland station, and on 29 Dec. 
18CX) was created a peer on the Irish esta- 
blisliment, by the title of Uaron lUidstock. 
On 29 April 1802 he was made an admiral, 
but had no further employment. At the 
funeral of Lord Nel.son he was one of the 
supporters of Sir Peter Parker, the chief 
mourner. On 2 Jon. 1815 he was nominated 




J 



Walden 



\\'alden 



■ G.C.B. It was prscticallr the inadtotaoil 
of a new order, with a new etiqiu^e; iirit 
had previously be^n the riulom, if not tke 
rule, not to confer the K.B. on men of 
higher rank in the t^ble of ptocedeaee. H« 
died on ^ Aug. 18^, and w»s saeeeeded 
by his eldest son, George Granville W aMe 
^rare, second baron Kadstock [q. r.] 

[Balffr'ii Nar. Biogr. ii. 27 ; NaTal (%KMnd* 
(with a portrait), x. 26o ; Marshall's Roj. Kar. 
Biogr. i. 56 ; O'Byme's NaT. Biogr. Diet, p. *»7; 
Commissioo and Warrant Books in th« Pablie 
BccorI OfBeei Foster i P<en«e.] J. K. L. 

WALDEN, LoRM HOWARD Da [See 
Gsiprur, Joux Gumx, 1719-1797 ; Ellis, 
Crjrles Ai'orsrrs, 1799-186S.] 

WALDEN, ROGER (d. 140B». areh- 
biahop I'f Canterburr, is said to hare been of 
humble birth, the son of a butcher at Saffixn : 
Walden in Etsex {AmnaU*, p. 417; Usx, | 
p. 37). But the statement comes from sources 
not free from prejudice, and cannot perhape 
be entirely trusted. He had a brother John 
described as an esjuire • of St. Bartholomew's, 
Smitbfield,' who, when he made his will in 
1417, waapoaseaeed of considerable propertT 
in Eaaex (WrLiE, iii. 1:?7). Roger Walden s 
belle-mere (i.e. stepmother) was apparentlr 
living with John Walden at St. Bartholo- ' 
mew% in 1400( CAronujue dela Traiaon,^. 75). 
There was a contemp^jrarr, Sir Alexander 
Walden in Essex, but there is no evidence 
that they were in any way connected with 
him. Nothing is known of Walden'* edu- 
cation and first advance in life. Two not 
very friendly chroniclers give somewhat con- 
tradictory accoiuts of his acquirvments when 
made archbishop — one dei^ribing him as a 
lettered layman,the other as almast illiterate 
(£uZoSru<»i, iii. 377; AnnnUji,j>. 213). IIu> 
••llieat recorded promotion, the first of an 
aniwually numerous series of ecclesiastical 
amviintments, was to the benefice of St. 
Ueliers in Jersey on 6 Sept. 1371 {Ftrdera, 
▼i. e92; Le Nkvb, iii. l-.'3). The Percy 
family presented him to the church of Kirk- 
by Overblow in Yorkshire in 1374 ; but he 
was living in Jersey in 1378-9, and four 
years later received custody of the estates of 
Ileginald de Carteret in tliat island (Hoos, 
iv. 629; Fadera, vii. 349; Cal. Hot. Pat.i. 
269), He was ' locum tenens seu deputatus' 
of the Channel Islands, but between what 
daCea is uncertain {Fadera, viii. 64). He 
held the living of Fenny Drayton, Leicester- 
shire, which he exchanged for that of Barton 
in Kendal)- in 138o, when he is deM:ribed as 
kings clerk (ib. ii. 564 ; Fadera, vii. 349). 
His rapid advancement from 1387 onwards 
shows tliat he had secured strong court 



fMTaaz. In tbe July of that critical year hf 
was made •icbdeacoo ot Winchester, a posi- 
UoB wUdk he held until l:i9r>, but he wu 
'bettv f«ned in thinsa of the caimp and 
tlie wtxld than of the church and tbe study ' 
(Unc,pL37; LbXeve, iii. 20 1, and plenty of 
aecalmrcm|>loyment was found for him. Ap- 
nnimrf captain of Mark, near Calais, in 
OettAcr 13e7, which he vacated for the hieh- 
faaili&hip of Guisnes in 1391, he held alco 
from December 1387 (if not earlier) to 1392 
the iaaportant poeition of treasurer of Calais, 
in vhick c*pacity he acted in various n^o- 
tfatifflw with the French and Flemings, and 
joined tKe captain of Calais on a cattle raid 
into French territorv in 1388 (Fboissaki, 
ixv. 72, ed. Kervyn de Lettenhove; Fa-dera, 
viL 5«5, «7. ee9 ; WruK, iii. 125). 

Fran theae employments Walden was re- 
called to hecome aecret ary to Richard II, and 



ultimatdy succeeded John deWaltfaam^q.v.^ 
bishop of Salisbury, as treasurer of England 
in ISt^J ( UsK. p. 37 ; WAWlKOHiM, ii. 218). 
Meanwhile the stream of ecclesiastical pro- 
motion had not ceased to flow in his direc- 
tion. At Lincoln, after a brief tenure of one 
prebend in the last months of 1389, he held 
another from October 1393 to Januarv 1398 
(Le Xevk, ii. 126, 220; Firdera, viii. '23); 
at Salisbury he was given two prebends in 
1391 and 1392 (Jo.xes. Fasti EccUna Sarit- 
beriauU, pp. 364, 394) : he had others at 
Exeter (till 1396) and at Lichfield (May 
1394-May 1398 : Staford"* RegUter,^. 108; 
Le Nete^ i. 618). The rectory of Fordham. 
near Colchester, conferred upon him early in 
1391, heat once exchanged for that of St. 
-■Vndrew's, Holboni (Newcocrt. i. 274, ii. 
270). With the treasurership of England 
he receive*! the deanery of York, and in 
February 1397 the prebend of Willesden in 
St. Paul's (Le Neve, ii. 4-'il, iii. 124>. 

<Jn the banishment and translation of 
Anmdel, archbishop of Canterbury, in the 
autumn of 1397, Richard got Walden pro- 
vided to that see by papal bull, and invested 
him with the tempomlitie* in Januarv 1.^98 
( Annalet, p. 213 ; Le Xevk, i. 21 ). johnof 
Gaunt appointed him one of the surveyors 
of his will (Nichols, p. 165). He was pre- 
sent at the C-oventrv tournament, and took 
out a general pardon on 21 Nov. 1398 
for all debts incurred or oflences committed 
(including* insanum consilium ') in his ?.»r.-ular 
offices ( Trnuiim, p. 19: Firdera, viii. i;;?). 

When -Vrundel n'tumed with Henry of 
I^ancaster the pope quashed the bull he bad 
executed in Walden s favour, on the ground 
that he had been deceived (Annaies, p. 321). 
Walden's jewels, which he had removed 
from the palace at Canterbury, and six cart- 



A 



Walden 



«s 



Walden 



loads of ^oods, wliich be sent to Salt- 
^vuod L'ostle, uear llythe, had been seized 
and were restored to Arundel (Eiilor/ium, 
iii. 382 ; UsK, p. 37 ). His nrms — piles, a 
bend azure, Bmi a martlet d'or — for which 
Arundel's had been erased on the hangini^s 
at Lambeth, were torn down and thrown 
out of window {id.) His register was de- 
stroyed, and the records of his consecration 
and acts are lost (butcf. Wilkins, iii. 32H). 
Before the pope restored Arundel, Wnlden, 
still lie fnrtn archbishop, appeiircd bi'fure 
the Duke of Lancaster and the archbishop 
de juretX the bishop of Loudon's palace and 
besought their pardon ; his life was spared 
at Arundel's instance (UsK, p. 37; EuU»iium, 
iii. 386). Adam of Usk, who witnessed the 
scene, compares the two archbishops to two 
heads on one body. 

Walden was taken from the liberties of 
Testminster and committed to the Tower 
"on 10 Jan. 1400 on suspicion of complicity 
in the Epiphany plot against Henry iV', but 
was acquitted (4 Feb.) and set at liberty 
{Fiedfra, viii. 121; Annatet,y. 330; TrnUon, 
pp. 100-1). But according to the I'Vencli 
authority \ib. p. 77) last mentioned, he had 
been a party to the conspiracy. This testi- 
mony, however, carries no decisive weight. 

Walden was not allowed to want, receiv- 
ing, for instance, in 1403 two barrel.s of wine 
from the king; but lie felt himself 'in the 
dust and under foot of man' (Wyue, iii. 
125; Wll-KINS, iii. 378. 3k<.1; Ooi oh, iii. 
19). On the death of Uobert Hraybrooke, 
bishop of London, in .\ugust 1401, the for- 
giving .\rundel used his intliience in Wal- 
den'* behalf, and induei'd Innocent ^'1I 
to issue a bull providing him to tiiat see on 
10 Dec. 1404. Hut the king, who had a 
candidate of his own, refused at first to give 
his consent to the appointment; and it was 
only as a kind of consolation to .Xniiuli'l for 
the failure of his attempt to save Archbishop 
Scrope in tlie early summer of 14Uo that 
Henry at last gave way and allowed Walden, 
on making a declaration to safeguard the 
rights of the crown, to be consecrated on 
29 June at Lambeth (Wyme, iii. 1 2H ; Ll! 
Neve, ii. 293: WiuKTO.v,pp. U'J-'jO). He 
was installed in St. Paul's on 30 June, the 
festival of the saint ; the canons in the pro- 
cession weariitg garlands of rod roses (I'A.) 
But Walden did not live to enjov his new 
dignity long. Before the end oi the year 
he fell ill, made his will at his episcopal 
residence at Much Hadliam in Hertfordshire 
on 31 Dec. and died there on 6 Jan. 1400 
(GouoH, iii. 19). An interesting itfconut 
Bf bis funeral by an eye-witness, .John Pro- 
" ete, the clerk of the privy seal, has been 




I preserved (//<iW. MS. 431 108, f. 97 h, quoted 

' by Wtlie, iii. 127). The body, after lying 
in state for a few days in the new chapel 

I Walden had built in the priory church of 
St. Bartholomew's, with which his brother 
and L'.xecutor was connected, was conveyed 
to St. Paul's and laid to rest in the chapel of 
All .Saints in the presence of Clifl'ord, bishop 

i of Worcester, and many others. Before this 

I was done, however, Prophete uncovered the 
face of the dead prelate, which seemed to 

I them to look fairer thnti in life and like that 
of one sleeping. His tpitaph is given by 
Weover(p. 434). It says much for Walden s 
character and amiable qualities that, in spite 
of his usurpation, everj- one spoke well of 
him. Prophete praises hia moderation in 
prosperity and patience in adversity. Anin- 

' del, whose see he had usurped, adds his 
testimony to his honest life and devotion to 
the priestly office ; even Adaiu of Usk, who 
reproaches him with the secular employments 
of his curly life, bears witness to Ids amia- 
bility and popularity (I'A. ; WiLKiss, iii. 
282 • I'sK, p. 37 ). 

John Dnivtoii, citizen and gold.smith of 
London, by his will, made in 14")6, founded 
chiintries in St. Paul's and in the church of 
Totteidiam t'or the souls of W'ahlen and his 
brother and Via wife Idonea, as well ttstho8<t 
of Joluide Wall ham, bisiiop of Salisbury, hia 
predecessor as tri'asuror, and of Uiclmrd II 
and his queen {Newcodrt, i. 754). It is 
not known what connection had existed be- 
tween Dray tun iiud the two jirelates. By a 
curiotis coincidence, however, both NN'altham 
and Walden hud been rectors of Fenny 
Drayton. 

A luiiiiuscript collection of chronological 
tables of piitriurclis, popes, kings, and em- 
perors, misleadingly entitled ' Historia 
Mundi' (Cotton. .SiS. Julius R. xiii), has 
been attributed to Walden (Wvi.ie, iii. 126) 
on the strength of a note at iIr> beginning of 
the manuscript. Out this ascription is in a 
later hand, not (.artier than tlie i^ixteenth 
century. The manuscript ilsilf probably 
dates from the early part of the thirteentii 
century, which disposes of the alleged au- 
thorship of Widden. and is equally fatal to 
the attribution to liuger do Waltham (d. 

\ 1336) [q. v.] found in another copy of the 
'Historia '(Hurl. .MS. 1312). 

[Rymer's I'ojdera, original od. ; Cal. Patent 
Kolta of Richiird II, vols. i. and ii. ; Wilkine's 
Concilia Majmse Britunnis! ; AnDales Ricardi II 
et Henrifi IV (with Trokelowe), Walsiiigham's 
Historia .XnglicanH. and the Continuation of tliu 
Kulugiuiii IIi^to^iarum (vol. iii. I, nil in liolls 
Scr. ; Adiim of Usk. eti. Mnunih- Thompson; 
Froiasart, e»l. Kervyu de l>allenliovei Clironique 



i 



Walden 



Waldie 



de la TraiBon et Murt, de Ricbart deux, «!. Engl. 
Hist. Soc. ; Nichols's Royiil WilU ; Godwin. Da 
Pnesulibus Angliw. 1742; Wharton, l)e' Epi- 
scopiB Londoniensibug ot Ansavensibus; New- 
court's Ropprtorium Parochiale LoudnmrDBe ; 
Hennessy's Novum Ri>p. Eci-1. 1898,- Lo Nove's 
Fasti EccImiic Anglicanit, cd. Hardy; Jonos's 
Facti Eccle8ilt^ Sarisberiensis ; Rogistcr of 
Bishop SUtflbrd, ed. llingpston • Randulpli ; 
■Weever's Ancient Funerall Monnments ; Wylio's 
Hist, of Henry IV (whore most of the fiicts of 
■Walden's bioprnphy aro brought together) ; 
Hook 'a Archbishops of Canterburv- ; Milman's 
Hist, of St. Paul's.] " J. T-T. 

•WALDEN, TH0.\[A.8 (rf. 1430), Car- 
melite. [See Setter,] 

WALDHERE or WALDHERI f ^. 705), 
bishop of London, succeeded Hishuji Krken- 
wold [q. v.], who died in 093, and about G95 
gave Sebbi [q. v.], king of the Enst-Saxons, 
the monastic habit, receiving' from him a 
large sum for the poor. He was present at 
Sebbi's death. He received from Swaebraed, 
king of the Kaj't-Sa.xons, a grant dated 
13 June 704 (Coilej' Diplomat iruf, No. 
52). In a letter written about the middle 
of 705 to Brilitvvald [q. v.], iirclibishop 
of Canterbury, he speaks of a conference 
that was to be held in the t'uHowing 
October at Brentford between Ine [q. v.], 
king of the West-Saxons, and his chief men, 
ecclesiastical and lay, and the rulers of the 
East-Saxons, to settle certain matter.'i of 
dispute. lie and Ileddi [q-v.], bishop of the 
West-Soxons, had iirninpetl that the meeting 
should be peaceful, mid he was desirou.s of 
acting a« a penciMuaker at the conference; 
but (lie archbishop had decreed that no one 
ehould hold coniinitnion with the West- 
Saxons 60 long as f liey nb)-tnined from obey- 
ing his order relating to the divi^ion of their 
bishopric. Waldhere therefore laid his desire 
before Bribtwakl, deferring to hi.s decision. 
He must have died before the council of 
Cloveshn in 71l>, at whicli his successor, 
Ingwold, was present. The grant to Peter- 
borough attested by hira and Archbishop 
Theodore [q. v.] is an obvious forgery (Aniftu- 
Saxiiii Chronicle, an. (17'), Peterborough), 

[Bede's Hist. Eecli-s. iv. 11; Hnddnu and 
Btnbhs's EcclfS. Dor, iii. 1H-6, 3ul ; Diet. 
Chr. Biogr., art, • Waldhero ' by Bishop Sinbbs.] 

W. H. 

■WALDIE, CUAHLOTTE ANN, after- 
wards Mh.*!. Katox (1788-1869), author of 
•Waterloo Days,' bom on 28 Sept. 17SS, 
was second daughter of George Waldie of 
Hendersydo Park, Roxburghshire, by his 
wife Ann, eldest daughter of Jonathan 
Ormston of Newcastle-ujmn-Tyne, In June 



1815 she was, with her brother John and 
sister .lane (see below), on a visit to Bni»- 
sels. She wrote an account of her expe- 
riences which was published in 1817 undar 
the title of ' Narrative of a Residence ill 
Belgium, during the Campaign of 1815, end 
of a Visit to the Field of Waterloo. By an 
Englishwoman ' (London, Hvo). A second 
edition was published in 1853 as 'The Days 
of Battle, orl^uatre Bras and Waterloo; by 
an Engl i.sh woman resident in Brusstds in 
June 1815.' The latest edition, entitled 
' Waterloo Days,' is dated 1888 (London, 
8vo). The narrative is of greit excellence, 
and talces a high place among contemporary 
accounts by other than military writers. In 
1820 Charlotte Waldie published anony- 
mously, in three volumes, ' Romo in the 
Nineteenth Century' (Edinburgh, 12nio); 
second and third editions appeored respec- 
tively in 1822 and 1823. A fifth edition, 
in two volumes, was published in 1852. and 
a sixth in I8(i0. The book is largely quoted 
by Mr. .\, J. C. Ilare, and is still useful to 
travellers. 

On 22 Aug. 1822 Charlotte married Ste- 
phen Eaton, banker, of Stamford, of Ketton 
llall, liuthind, who died on 25 Sept. 1834. 
She died in London, at Hanover Square, on 
28 A]inl 1850, leaving two sons and two 
daugliters. 

Thomson of Ivliuburgh painted a minii- 
ture nf her at eigliteen years of age. Yellow- 
lees painted an unsatisfactory portrait in 
1824, and Edmonstone a half-length in 
1828. These pictures were at llendersrde 
I'ark in 1859. 

Uthor works by Mrs. Eaton are : L 'Con- 
tinental Adventures,' a story, London, 1626, 
3 vols. 8vo. 2. ' At Home ond Abroad,' • 
novel, Ivondon, 1831, 3 vols. 8vo. 
I Her youngest sister, Jank Waldie, aftei- 
I wards Mrs. Watts (1793-1826"), nutbor, 
' born in 1793, showed a taste for painting at. 
an early age, and studied under Nasmyth. 
She painted many pictures.mostly landscape; 
inspired by the beauty of the scenery sur- 
rounding her home. The figures in three or 
four of them are the work of Sir Robert Ker 
Porter[q,T.] As earlyas ISlOshee.'thibited 
at Somerset House a picture called 'The 
I Temple at PiEStum' (Addit. MS. 18204). 
Twenty-eight of her pictures were at Uen- 
dersycie Park in 1859, but many had been 
removed at the time of her marriage, and 
remained in the jKissession of her husband. 
In Sejitemher ISlBshe accompanied her sister 
Charlotte, with whom she has often been con- 
fused, and her brother John abroad, return- 
ing to Kngland in August 1817. The result 
, was a book entitled 'Sketches descriptive 



k 



Waldric 



a? 



Waldron 




I 




of Italy in 1610-17; with a brief Account 

of Travels in various parts of France and 

Switzerland ■ (London, 1820, 4 vols. 8vo). 

20 Oct. of that year she marrii;d CapUin 

l{ear-Admirul)Ge<(r^e Augustus 

'ittfof Lanffton Grange, Staindrop, IMr- 
lingtou (cf. 0'BrR.VE, Kaval Diiigrnjihy, p. 
1260), where, after losing her only cliild ,she 
died on 6 July 1826. 

A miniature painted by SI. Dupuis, a 
French prisoner at Kelso, when she was 
about twentv years of age, is a good liko- 
neiia ; after her death Edmonstone painted 
lier portrait from two indifferent miniatures. 
These portraits were at Ilendersyde Park in 
1859. 

[Barke's Landed Gentry, 1868 «.v. 'WnlJie,' 
1898 ».v 'Eaton;" Gent. Mug. 182G ii. 184, 
1859 i. 6fi5 ; Caliilogneof PicturM, dc, iit Hen- 
dersyde Park. 186y ; Boll's lntri«iucti'>n to 
Waterloo 0«y», 1888 ] E. L. 

WALDRIC (d. 1112), bULop of Loon. 

(t.\U)RlC.] 

ALDRON, FR.VNX'IS GODOLPHIN 

(1744-1818), writer and actor, was Iniru in 
1744. He became a member of Gurrick's 
company at Drury I.4ine, and is fir«t heard 
of on 21 (Jet. 1709, when he played a part, 
probably 31 arrall, in 'A New Way to pay 
Old Debts.' On 12 March 1771' he was 
Dicky in the 'Constant Couple.' J!o made 
little progress as an actor, and liis name 
rarely occurs in the bills. Garrick gave him, 
liowever, charge of the theatrical fund which 
lie eslablishcd in 17tiO, and he wu.'< at diffe- 
rent times manager of the Windsor, Uicli- 
mond, and other country theatres. On 
25 April 1772 ho was the original 8ir Samuel 
Mortage in Downing's ' Humours of thi' 
Turf On 17 May 177.1 Waldron took 
a benefit, on which occasion he was the 
original Metre, a i>arish clerk, in his own 
' Maid of Kent,'8vo, 1778, a comedy founded 
on a story in the 'Spectator' (No. 123). 
On 12 May 177u, for his benefit and that of 
a Mrs. Greville, he produced his ' Contrast, 
or the Jew and Married Courtezan,' played 
once only and not printed. Tribulation in 
the ' Alchemist ' followed, and on 22 or 23 
March 177(1 he was the original Sir N'eritas 
VLiion in Heard's 'Valentine's Day.' His 
' Richmond Heiress,' a comedy altered from 
D'Urfey, unprinted, was acted at llichmond 
in 1777, probably during his management of 
the theatre. On 19 Feb. 1778 ho was, at 
Drury Lane, the first Cacofatadri in I'orlnl's 
' Cady of Bagdad.' He also played Shallow 
in the 'Merry Wives of Windsor.' His 
'Imitation, 'a comedy, unprinted, was brought 
out at Urury ].,sne lor his benefit on 12 May 



1783 and coldly received. It is a species of re- 
versal of the' lieaux' Stratagem,' with women 
substituted for men and men for women. 
On the occasion of its production Waldron 
played .lustice Cluck in the ' Ladies' Frolic' 
The same year Waldron published, in 
octavo, 'An Attempt to continue and com- 
plete the justly admired Pastoral of the 
Sad Shepherd ' of Ben Jonson. The notes 
to this are not without interest. ' The King 
iu the Country,' a two-act piece, 8vo, 1789, 
is an alteration of the underplot of Hey- 
wood's ' King Edward the Fourth.' It was 
played at llichmond and Windsor in 1788, 
after the return of George III from Chelt«n- 
ham, and is included by Wuldron in his 
'Literary Museum.' 'lli'igho for a Hus- 
band,' t<vo, 1794, is a rearrangement of 
' Imitation ' before mentioned. It was more 
successful than tlie previous piece, wa« 
played at the llayiuurket on 14 July 1794, 
and was revived at Urury Lane in 1802. ItM 
appearance had been preceded on 2 Doc. 1793 
at the Haymarket by that of the ' ProdiraV 
1794, 8vo, an alteration nf the 'Fatal Ex- 
travagance,' which is j)rovided with a happy 
conclusion. In the preface to this Waldron, 
wlio had become the prompter of the Hay- 
market under the younger Colman, says 
he made the alteration at Colmiin's desire. 
At the Haymarket Wuldron was the first 
Sir Matthew Medley in Iloare's ' My Grand- 
mother' on ItJ Die 17^i;i. He was still 
occasiotiatly seen at Drury Lane, where he 
played Elbow in ' MetLsur-.' for Measure,' and 
the Smuggler in the ' Constant Couple.' On 
9 June 1795 he was, at the Haymarket, the 
first Prompter in (^Iman's ' New Hay at the 
Old Miirket.' For his benefit on 21 Sept. 
wi-re pnidured ' Love and Madness,' adajited 
by him fruiu Fletcher's 'Two Noble Kins- 
men,' and ' 'Tis a wise Child knows its own 
Father,' a three-act comedy also by him. 
Neither piece is printed. The 'Virgin 
Queen,' in five octs, an attempted sequel to 
the ' Tempest,' was iiriuted in octavo in 
1797, hut unuctcd. It is a wretched piece 
which the ' Hiograjihia Dramatica' declares 
' very happily executed.' The ' Man with 
two Wives, or Wigs for Ever,' 8vo, 1798, 
was acted probably in the country. The 
' Miller's Maid,' a comic opera in two acts, 
songs only printed with the cast, was per- 
formed at the Haymarket on 25 Aug. 1804, 
with music by I)avy. It is founded on a 
, ' Rural Tale ' bv Robert Bloomfield [q. v.], 
I was played for Mrs. Hnrlowp's benefit, and 
was tt success. Until near the end of his 
life Waldron made an occasional appearance 
at the Haymarket, ut which, as young Wal- 
dron, his son also appeared, his name being 



Waldron 



Wale 



found to Malevol*. • serrwat. in Mcinlirlr* 
' False auti Tru«\' lUrmarlte:. 11 Au^. ITs**. 

Wnldiwn «■»* not only aotor *ni jilir- 
wriijht, but also t>ditor and KvksfV.tr. In 
1780110 htv>U(tlit out an «s}it>>.>n o: l»o>wn«'s 
* lJ»»*oiu* AnjrlioAnu* ■ with soa* n.-^tr*. 
Prom W PnirT Lano ho issutsi in .vt*» -■• ir, 
17t*l* • Th* Ijtorarr Mu5>int:c. c<r Anv-ios! ar.5 
Mivlom IJopi^sitorA." »!>.< }iaKi*h«\i w^th 
•nothtTtitK>-j»ajri» a# 'Tho l.itomrr M ;:$(-=:. 
or a SoUvtiiW of Soatw l^M Tr*tt<s* f.-r=i- 
in(t a work of AMtsidoraMo l-.Joiary sn,-. 
iutli<|uarian intosvst. Ho f.^li.^wod lh:* -y 
with llio • Sh*k*ivarfan Mis.vl^ir.v ' .l.--r> 
don, l!*(»i\ four jvir:*. lt>' ',* s-,wr..; o-.^'.-.v. ..- 
of soarvv tract*, ohiorty fr.'-as r.-.ir..;vr.: :> .r. 
his pi»«!io*#ion, with n>>to> by hr.v.so": *:■..". ■>-> 
traits of aolots, j»,v.ns ^tV.rn 5:ay.;l'..>hv.'. Vy 
IVnno and Oorlvt.an.l othor ov.r;.^".* w.-r&v 
IWth of thoso hotoTvyx-atvus »v!Uv;;-r.* it* 
#oanv. AValdtvMi aU»> wr\<to >t »va:',\".; .•.::.-. 
li\ OS in tho • Ui>vr»vh;i'*' M-rr.^."' oa.-'.s 
17t»."»-S>, • Ftw Kotliv;i>ir.s ov. M.>.-vV.i:-.:--.:* 
Papors and Lo^sl l!<.>;r".:i-.t-.-.ts r.;r.v7:.v; 
to bi\ undor tho han.l a:'..i *<•*'. ot "^V. >.r.sV:- 
sjwar*' in tho|vvK-i»»*>:.>n .»;" S. lrs'".*v..i " " 7-.*', 
Sv«>V " A l\^anvndi.>-.:s ll.s:.-ry ,-:" :;.;■ V-;- 
lish Sta,^> \l>tV. U*n'..-\ -A" l" -■.'.:v;:.v. .: 
Misivl'.anoous l\v:ry * vlS.^. i:.^ •. 4r.,i • V:.; 
iVlohrattsl l{on;4.;»v •.r.f.f.:".:-,; K.^<.s".y --..".:■. 
Kuphuos iSoldo'.s Ij^y^oio ' ,'.S.^'- , w .:V. 
notos fonuiiu: a s'.;i-vV,-.r.cr.: :.■■ :";■.;' • S>.i"!»- 
sjH'a:\>aa M ;*.•»■ '.'.sv.y.^ II.- s,".*> <>>•.•.: T.V.;:-.i 
a n,>;;oo of Th.^aias Piv;-.^. :hi- *,-:.-r iv..; 
KvW.lor.toNioh/.T-'s'l.-.t-.rary Av.-,v.-.-:tv" 

Wa;dr.^a dio,: •.:•. XUrvh IS'.:*, jT.-^KiV.y *: 
his ho;sw in l*r;:ry Ijir.o, ILs xvrrA.: is 
!*irC;',r.sTophor ll*::,v. in :>.;■•«.>,:•.,•' >»i* 
jktinttsl hv HjT>,i-.v.; sv.,; fv^n>o.i Vv \V 
ti*rvvl:ur '.R Ki^^ vTssox-.y*,, ;■ *-'■ . II. s 
an:i.jv.,«:an vvr,:j-.'.iT;.""s o ■."*:.:■-•.;-,■ :■..*»•■...-:'' 
ol-t;::: to rsv.-jT" ■.:;."'.. *r.,5 *V..'w s riv,;Y ,•;■ 
T^>aJ;:;j »~'' *:r'..".:j: ,i,':.-r*. S-.:.-:-. ,-;' V-.s 
Jran:** »s w.tv priv/.-vi a?: »■•.:;-..•■.;: -r.- 
cins'.iTy .'T xa.uo ,,:V.r.-,j::: vJ.7.t,; yrs.s-.s 
NVi',,ir.T."s <.vr.v."u*:;.'n Vf ;>.;- •>*,■.>.'.-.■.•- 
h-i-r.: ■ . ir..; is sir. »,•:.■? r.^' r.:-\;T c--" Vny,--.; 
wV.iT •> k:;,'\vr. -IS "UT.liTv.' 



Oc: -:'» .V,v.-"z: 



M.S. 



*n' >, 



.>s » . 



• v. "..t-is :V.tr.;.v ,• M T-r . 
TV. I\tv4-* A=-i:* : -ih; 



VT r.' 



.■~:zirs X.-.--..1, i'r.- 






Ho appMK to have received hia eai^ edn- 
cati.-«n at Felsted school, and on 7 Hay 
1 7i.>< he w matriculated at Queen's College, 
Oxford. He z«^ded in the lale of Man, 
irboTf' he acted as commiasioner from the 
British cvTomment to watch the trmde of 
tbo inland in the interests of the excise. He 
.-.ioi i:i Eiurland prior to 1731, just after he 
had obtjdnod a new depntation £rom the 
British jK<Temment, 

$.v>n after his death his ' Gompleat Worin 
in Vorse and Ptv»se ' were ' printed for the 
w'^i^^TT and onthans.' London, 1731, fol. The 
io.-.;n»ti,T. to William O'Brien, earl of Inchi- 
.:.::::. is >i^od by Theodo^ Waldron. The 
irs: i-.-^ntains • Miscellany Poems,' and the 
s«v.=.'. part ivnsist* of "Tracts, Political and 
H.st.-rlcal." inrludinjT "W'aldron's principal 
w.--rk. "A lV-*,-rijniiin of the Isle of Man,' 
Tr..s ■K-.'^rk. written in 1726. was reprinted 
a: L.-'^i.-n. 1744. l^o: another edition 
apptATtd in 17!<>: and it was edited, with 
ar. :!::r.->iuo: .-ry notice and notes by William 
Hirr-S-T. V iHt -1>!?4> '<}. t.'. for the pnhli* 
i-At . .-r-f .-f the Manx Society lyol.xi. Douglas, 
"xv". >v.-."'. Sir Wsiter "Scott while writ- 
ir.^: • rvTirl". o: the Peak" made large use of 
tV.-.> w.-rk. an.? transfemd long extracts 
:>,s~ it :o his c.-:o* to that romance. Wal- 
,i.r; ::"s r ?-■».■- --■■: ; ."r. he characterised as ' a huge 
r.:ir.t-. -.r. wV-i.-h I Have attempted to discover 
!-.':t: sp:vl=:! r.s o: spar, if I cannot find 
trits/.rs." M."is: of the writers on the Isle 
,-:" Mas have elver. WaLiron's legends a 
jT.s-.i::ii=t plic* i= thtir works, 

.V~.-r.i ils .t'^.r w>-rks are : 1. ' A Per- 
swi*.*; \''ra;l.'r. :,> tho People of Great 
Br.:4;= :.• stir,.-, v.p :a viefence of their Ke- 
l.;..r. !:•.,•. L:>fr:y,' Lr.->::don. 171t>. ^vo. 
i;. -.V Svfrv;: =:.'.it':.i the Loyal Society, at 
:r.;' Mi;-H.-us>f :r. L.t.z-Ac:v: June the '7th, 
:::o. "lv;r.^ tie tV f.>r the Public 
Vr.-w.lvs^.Tl:-.;. ;-r j.::::rj: an end to that 
-.V.,-*: .•.::r.t:.:r4l Kit,: II; .■■=.' London. 1716^ 
■I:.-. -■-. ■ .V r.v=:. I:-.-.=:tly icanib'd to . . . 
i'--vTiv. I'rl-.t ■: W»lt#." London. 1717, 
t.l i. • ri-.t- i:7CT.:y ar..i Return, a Poem 
":-.'.;r.:';lv Lr.>v".r«'i :.-... L.'rl Xewport. son 
..::.• ..:r t - . . . K..iir.^. Eirl of Bradfoid' 
l.-v.l-::. ir'.r.-". :.'.. o.-Aa t^ on the 
•^>::-. .tMiy. VtV.-; :>.e Ans-versary of his 
M.v-,>:>"s -ivry Nit.v-.ty' 'London'. 173S, 
>\ ■ 

l-'i-.s-.."* ?■;".. X :<::>:» I576\ ?p. i*. 
•-■>! 4>. ;'.r X.Tis iz.l«iijr«». ?^ wr. vi. 31$; 
V..>:*r*.Vlirr ,H.-c :j>.^-:rU.' T. C. 



WALDP.OX. OEOiWE IcSi*. !:;>.• - . 
t.rp'>.rrifl-Tr i- : r-.-rt. b^rti :- l^-"j. wi# <.•:•. 
of Fri=:i* Wilir";- . : Lv>r..l.T.. wl;; \i-?.< .Ic" 
iceci-ri rr-=: 1= i-:.t=: tasilv is Li«ex. 



WALE. S.s CHARLES . ir^S-lS45V 
ir--.nl. •••m :- ■■> .Vv.*. ITiSS. was second 
5..-V. .•: r;;=:is Wil* •: Sa:flr'.»ed. Cambridge- 
shLrv. by L:-.^Lsik Kuiolphiaa. daughter ~of 



MichoUs Rahten of Liinebur^. Tlie family 
wu descended from Walter cle Waliul, who 
occurs in Domesday Book us a landholder 
in Northamptonshire. SeVBral members of 
the family acted as sheritF of that county. 
A Sir Thomas Wale was knight of the Garter 
in Edward Ill's reipn, and another Thomas 
was killed at Apincourt in 1415. A branch 
of the family migrated to Ireland Irite in the 
twelfth centurj- and founded Walestown. 
The branch to which Sir ClmrU'S belonged 
acquired Shelford in the seventeenth cen- 
tury. His father, Thomas Wiile (1701- 
1796), a type of the eighleenth-oenlury 
squire, kept a notebook, numerous extracts 
from which were printed by the Ifev. H. J. 
"Wale in ' My Grandfather's Pocket-book,' 
1883. Preti.xed is a portrait of Thomas 
Wale, <rt. 93. 

Charles was in 1778 sent up to London to 

learn arithmetic and fencing. In September 

1779, much aj^ainst his father's wish, he 

accepted a commission in a regiment which 

-was then being raised by Colonel Keatiiig, 

the 88lh foot. He went out with it to 

Jamaica, but on 13 April 1780 his fntber 

Bburchiised him (' cost \U)I.') a lieutenancy in 

'tile 97lh. That regiment went to Gibraltar 

with Admiral Darby's fleet in April 17W1, 

and served throughout the latter part of the 

IkBefence. In a letter to his fatiier on l(i Oct. 

H|^82, Wale described the great attack made 

^■B 13 Sept. by the floating batteriea(WALE, 

■^222). 

He obtained a company in the 12th foot 
on 25 June 1783, but wa.<< placed on half-pay 
soon afterwards. On L'3 May 17f<U he ex- 
changed to the 40th foot, and serveil with it 
in Ireland and the Channel Islands. lie 
married in 1793 and retired on linlf-iiay, be- 
coming adjutant of the Cumbridgeshire 
militia on 4 Dec. in that year. On 1 March 
1794 he was made major, and on 1 Jan. 17118 
lieutenant-colonel in the army. He returned 
to full pay on 6 Aug. 17t'9 as captain iu the 
20th. and served with that regiment in the 
—.expedition to the Helder in the autumn. 
■Bpn Its Jan. 1800 he was promoted to a 
KBtBJority in the 86th, and on 9 <.)ct. in that 
year to'tlie lieutenant-colonelcy of the 07th. 
tie joined that regiment in Jamaica, and 
brought it home at the end of 1801. In 
I 1 805 he went out with it to Bengal, but lie 
hKetumed to England and exchanged to the 
HISth foot on 10 June 1808. 
^^ He did not serve long with that regiment. 
He had been made colonel on 2o April 1808, 
^■Uld in March 180S) he was appointed a bri- 
^^Mdier- general in the West Indies. He 
^^Mmmanded the reserve in the expedition 
under Sir George Beckwith [q. v.], which 




took Guadeloupe in February 1810. lie 
was wounded iu the action of 3 Feb., and re- 
ceived the medal. On 4 June 1811 he was 
promot<'d major-general, and on 21 Feb. 
1812 he was appointed governor of Marti- 
nique, and remained so till that island was 
restored to France in 1815. He was made 
K.C.B. on 2 Jan. 1815. He was promoted 
lieutenant-general on 19 July 1821, and 
general on 28 June 1838, and was made 
colonel of the 33rd foot on 25 Feb. 1831. 
Ho died at Shelford on 1 9 .March 1 845. 1 1 is 
portrait, by Norlhcote, was lent by Mr. I». G. 
Wale to the third loun exhibition at South 
Kensington in 18(18 (Cat. Xo. 38). 

He was three times married: (1) in 1793 
to Louisa, daughter of Kev. Castcl Sherrard 
of Hunting-ton; (2) in 1803 to Isabella, 
daughter of Kev. 'Thomas Johnson of Stock- 
ton-on-Tees; (3) in 1815 to Henrietta, 
daughter of liev. Thomas Brent of Cros- 
comlH>, Somerset. She survived him, and 
he left seven sons and five daughters. 

His eighth son, Fkkdebick Wale ( 1822- 
1.S68), born in 1822, entered the East India 
Company's service in 1840, and was posted 
to the 48th Bengal native infantry oni> Jan. 
1841. He became lieutenant on 23 Feb. 1842, 
and captain oil 1 (Jnt. 1H52. Hewasappoiutivi 
brigade-major at I'eshawaron 19 Aug. 1853, 
and was serving there when his regiment 
mutinied at Lucknow in Mnv 1857. Ho 
took command of the Ist Sikh irregular 
cavalry (known as Wale's horse) ond served 
in the relief of Lucknow, and in the subse- 
quent siege and capture of it in March 1858. 
His corjis formed part of the second cavalry 
brigade, and the brigadier reported that AVale 
'showed 1)11 all occasions great lenl in com- 
mand of his regiment, and on 21 March led 
it most successfully in pursuit of the enemy 
till he was shot' {Xontfon Gazette, 21 May 
1858; see also Lord Uoherts, Forty-one 
Yean in India, i. 408 ). 1 le married -Vdelaide, 
daughter of Edward Presl of York, and he 
left two daughters. 

[fii-nt. Mag. 1843, i. 547; Burke's Landwl 
Oentry ; Wale's My Grandfather's Pocket-book, 
1883.] E. M. L. 

WALE, SAMUEL (rf. 1786), historical 
painter, is said to have been bom at Ynr- 
raouth, Norfiilk. He was first ingtnicted in 
the art of engraving on silver plate. He 

I studied drawing under Francis Ilarinan 
[q. v.] at the St. Martin's Lane academy, 
and his book illustrations show how much 

I he owed to Ilayman's example. He painted 
some decorative designs for ceilings at a 
time when the taste tor that stylo of oma- 

; mentation was on the wane, and be was 



Waleden 




occasionally employed in painting trades- 
men's signs, till iIr'so wort.' proliibited by 
act of parliament in 176:!. A wliole-lenglli 
port ruit of Shakespeare by Wale, whicli hung 
across the street outside a tavern near Drurj* 
Lane, obtained some notoriety owing to the 
splt-ndour of the frame and the ironwork by 
which it was suspended. The whole was 
said to have cost, iiOO/., but it had scarcely 
been erected when it hud to be remov ed, and 
the painting was sold for a trifle to a broker. 
Wale acquired a thoroiiifh knowledge of 
perspective by as.sistitig Jnhn Ovvynii ('i(. v.] 
m his architectural drnwingti, eapeci Jly in 
a transverse section of St. Paul's Cathedral, 
whicli was engraved and published in their 
joint names in 1752. But hia principal em- 
ployment was ill designing vignettes and 
illustrations on a small scale for the hook- 
sellers, a large numbiT of which were en- 
graved by Churle.s (irignion (1717-1810) 
[q. v.]i Among t he idiief of these were the 
illustrations to the ' History of England,' 
1710-7 ; 'The Complcnt Angler,' 1759; ' Lon- 
don and its Environs described,' 17(il ; 'Ethic 
Tales and Fables,' Wilkie's 'Fables,' 1708 
(eighteen plates); Chamberlain's 'History 
of London, 1770; Goldsmith's 'Traveller,' 
1774. He also puhlished numerous plates 
in the 'Oxford Jfagazine' and other periodi- 
cals. He e.\hibited ' stained drawings,' i.e. 
designs outlined with the pen and washed 
witliindianinkjUnd occa-sionally larger draw- 
ings in watercolours, at the exhibitions of the 
Society of Artists in Spring Gardens, 17l>0- 
1767, and designed the frontispiece to the 
catalogue in 17l>2. 

He became one of the original members of 
the Society of Artists of Great Britain in 
1766 and of tlio Royal Academy in I7(i8, 
and was the first professor of perspective to 
the academy. He exhibited drawings of 
scenes from English history, and occasion- 
ally scriptural subjects, descriiwd as designs 
for altar-pieces, from 1760 to 177H, when 
his health failed, and he was placed upon 
the Koyal Academy pension fund, being the 
first member who benefited by it. He con- 
tinued to hold the professorship of per- 
spective, though be gave private instruc- 
tion at his own house instead of lecturing ; 
and in 1782, on the death of Richard Wilson, 
he became librarian. He held both offices 
till hia death, which occurred on 6 Feb. 
1786 in Castle Street, Leicester Square. 
His portrait appears in Zoflany'a picture of 
the Royal Academy in 1772, engraved by 
Earlom. 

[Saodby's Hist, of tha Royal Academy, i. 86 ; 
'J'.dwards's A need, of Painters, p. 116; Red- 
»e's Diet, of Artists.] C D. 



WALEDEN, HUMPnREYDB{rf.l330P), 
judge, was a 'king's clerk ' on 8 Feb. 1290, 
when ho was appointed to the custody of the 
lunds of Simon de Montacule, first baron 
>lonta*;ute fq. v.l, in the counties of Somer- 
set, IJevon, l)orset,0.xford, and Buckingham, 
and on 16 Jan, 1291 to the custody of the 
lunds of the late Queen Eleanor (Pat. JiolU, 
pp. •HI, 468). He was among the clergy 
who submitted to Edward early in the course 
of his stnigglo with Archbishop Robert 
Winchelsey [q. v.], receiving letters of pro- 
tection on 18 Feb. 1297 (i'6. p. 236). On 
23 Sept. 1200 he received a commission of 
oyer and terminer ( lA. p. 474 ), and on 1 April 
l;!00 was appointed with three others to 
summon the forest oiPicera to carry out the 
perambulations of the forests in Somerset, 
borset, and Devonshire (I'fi. p. 506); but on 
14 Oct. others were appointed, as llumphrey 
and some of his colleagues were unable to 
attend to the bu.oiness (id. p. (i07). Hum- 
phrey was appointed a baron of the exchequer 
on 19 Oct. 1;1Wj, but he only retained his 
office till the following July (Madox, Hist. 
tif the Eichegufi; ii. 46, 32')). In December 
1307 ho is mentioned OB going be vond seas with 
Queen Margaret (Pat. li(tlh,'-p. 25). The 
temporalities of the archbishopric of Can- 
terbury were committed to him durine Win- 
ehelscy's absence in 1306 (8 June 1306 to 
26 March 1307 only ; see Clone Ilolh, Edw. IT, 
1307-13, p. 85). He acted as justice in 
1309, 1310, 1311, and 1314 (Pat. JiolU, 
pp^ 239, 255, 329, 472 ; Pari. Writs, pt. ii. 
p. 79, No. 5), in this last year to try certain 
collectors ond asses.sors of aids, and was 
summoned to do military service against 
the Scots on 30 June 1314. In 13 Ed- 
ward II {1310-20) he received a grant of 
the stewardship of various royal castles and 
manors in eleven counties, among which was 
the park of Windsor niid the auditorship 
of the accounts. Ho is mentioned also as 
.steward to the Earl of Hereford, and seems 
to have been appointed, at his desire, one 
of the justices to take an assize in which 
he was 'interested (Rot. Pari. i. 398 A). On 
31 March 1320 ho was summoned to give the ^_ 
king counsel on certain matters within hia ^M 
knowledge ( Close lUtlU, p. 226), and on ^B 
30 March 1322 received instructions to 
choose, with two others, suitable keepers of 
the castle of the 'king's contrariants' in 
certain of the southern ond eastern counties 
(ib. p. 435). On 18 June 1324 he was ap- 
pointed one of the bairons of the exchequer 
(Par/. Write, ii. 257, Nos. i;i8-9). He was 
summoned among the justices and others of 
the council to the parliament at Westminster 
by prorogation from 14 Dec. 1326 on 7 Jan, 



k. 



I 



Walerand 



Walerand 



1827. lie received a commission of oyer and 
terminer as late as 28 March 1330, but di.'d 
before 2(JJiine 1331 (Pa<./?o//»,pp. .5oB, 14«)- 

[Anlhoritiee cited in text ; Abbr. Rot. Orig. 
pp. 50, 62 : Foss's Judges of Kngland.] 

W. E. R. 

WALERAND, R(^BEUT (rf. 1273), 

judge, was the son of William Walerand and 

ImIx-Hu, eldeiit daughter and coheiress of 

Hugh of Kilpeck {Eicerpta e But. Fin. ii. 

252 ; Calendtirium GcnenlDi/icum, p. 770). 

The family claLmcd descent from W alerand 

the Huntsman of Domesday Book (IIoarb, 

Modem Wtlfuhire, ' Hundred of Cawden,' 

iii. 24). Robert's brother John, rector of 

Clent in Worcestershire, was in 126ij made 

Beneschal and given joint custody of the 

Tower of London. His sister Alice was 

mother of Alan PluKenet[q.v.]; and another 

sist«r, also named Alice, was abbess of 

Roms«y. 

Walerand waa throughout Henry Ill's 

i one of the king's ' familiares ' (C'/irun. 

Iw. I and Edit: II, i. 68; Rishanubh, 

de Bella, p. 118, Camden Soc.) 

aorig the knights of the royal hounohold 

stands in the same position as his friend 

Mansel [q. v.] among the clerks. In 

i he received the custody of the Marshall 

and in 1247 of those of John de 

lianes (Ercerpta e Rot. Pin. i. 458, 

14). In Easter 1240 he waa appointed 

eriff of Gloucestershire {Liit of Sheriffa 

1H31, p. 49; DnoDii-B, Baronage, i. 670). 

1250 the castles of Carmarthen and 

7ar<ligan were granted to him, together 

^ith the lands of Meilgwn ap Meilgwn and 

) governorship of Lundy (Ercerpta e But. 

ii. 87; Michel and Bemost, Bolen 

iatpom, vol. i. No. 2388). From June 

)1 till August 1258 he was a regular 

ticiar {Eiverpta e Bot. Fin. ii. 107-28*)). 

Is early as 1252 he is described as seneschal 

. Gascony (Boyat Letters, Henry III, ii. 

5), and in 1253 he accompanied Henry III 

iitlier, sailing on 6 Aug. 1253 from Port«- 

th and reaching Bordeaux on 15 Aug. 

[Walerand was present at the siege of B6- 

[liauges (^BSlei Gasoont, roL i. No. 4222). 

The affairs of Bergertu: seem to have been 

ccpecially confided to him (i/>. Nos. 3773, 

4301), and he was one of the deputation 

ent by Henry III to the men of Gensac on 

Ithe death of Elie Iludel, lord of Bergerac 

!{»6.No. 4301). Throiighout the 

reampaign Walerand steadily rose in 

Tenry's favour. He was one of the most 

limportant members of the king's council in 

7 Oascony. 

On Henry accepting for bis second son 



Edmund the crown of Sicily from Inno- 
cent IV and Alexander IV, Walerand was 
in 1255 associated witlt I'eter of Aigue- 
blanche [q. v.] as i king's envoy to carry out 
the negot iations wit h the pope ( Cal. of Papal 
Begistert, Papal Letter*, i. 312). Walerand 
was an accomplice of Peter's trick of per- 
suading the prelates to entrust them with 
blank charters, which they filled up at Rome, 
and so compelled the English church to pay 
nine thousand marks to certain firms of 
Sienese and Florentine bankers who had 
advanced money to Alexander on Henry's 
account ('Ann. Osnuy' mAntwleiiMonattici, 
iv. lot), 110; OlKNunES, Chron. p. 203; 
CoTTos, Hint. Anffl. p. 135; Matt, Paris, 
Chron. Majora, v. 511). At the parliament 
of Westminster on 13 Oct. 1255 Richard 
of Cornwall bitterly rebuked the bishop of 
Hereford and Walerand, because they had 
' BO wickedly urged the king to subvert the 
kingdom ' (Matt. Pabis, Chron. Majora, 
v, 521 ). 

Walerand now resumed his work as judge. 
In 1250 he was the chief of the Justices itine- 
rant at Winchester ('Ann. Winchester' in 
Ami. Moniutici, ii. 96). He wa« one of a 
commission of three appointed to investigate 
the crimes of AN'illiam do I'lsle, sherin of 
Northampton, in the famous case of 1256 
(Matt. Pakis, Chron. Majora, v. 577-80). 
On 12 June 125(3 Walerand was associated 
with Richard, earl of Gloucester, in an em- 
bassy to the princ<-s of Germany (Fcedera, i. 
342). About this time he was entrusted 
with the custody of St. Briavel's Castle 
and manor (Duqdale, Baronage, i. l!70), 
and a little later (1256-1257) he was made 
steward of all forests south of the Trent and 
governor of Rockingham Castle (i6.) On 
20 Feb. 1257 Simon de Mont fort and Robert 
W'alerand were empowered to negotiate 8 
peace between France and England (Boyal 
Letters, Henry III, ii. 121; Matt. Paris, 
Chron. Majora, v. 649, (t,50, 059). 

At the beginning of the troubles between 
king and barons in 1258 Walerand, though 
supporting the king, took up a moderate at- 
titude. He witnessed on 2 May the king's 
consent to a project of reform (Sekct Charters, 
p. 381 ; Fadera, 370, 371). He was so far 
trusted by the barons that he was appointed 
warden of Salisbury Castle under the pro- 
visions of Oxford (ih. p. 393). Other prefer- 
ments followed, some of which at least must 
have been given with the consent of the 
fifteen. In 12.59 he became warden of Bristol 
Castle (DuGDALB, i. 070), while a little later 
he was again crented-warden of St. Briavel's 
Castle, and on 9 July 1261 made sheriff of 
Kent, an office he held till 23 Sept. 1262, and 



Walerand 



3a 



Walerand 



ftt the Mme time be was made governor of tlie 
castles ofRocliester and Canterbury (Duu- 
SALE, i. 670; Litil uf Sheriffs to ]SJl,y. 07). 
On :i9 Jan. 12G'2 Walerand wa,s elected one 
of a commission of six, nf whom threH were 
Immtohs, to appoint sherirta (Fwdera, i. -110). 
On 10 Morcb be was made a member of tbe 
embassy appointed to negotiate pence witli 
France { Royal Letters, ii. 13}S; cf. Floret lliit. 
ii. 423; Matt. I'abis.v. 741 ; Ftrdera,i.iit*rj, 
380). Walerand witli his colleagues laid 
their report before the magnates in London 
a little later (Flore» Hist. ii. 4l'8), and peace 

I was finally made with J..ouis {Fadera, i. 38;i, 

'S89). 

Wftlerand's diplomatic skill was rewarded. 
In )'2til be was made warden of tbe Forest 
of Dean (Eicerptti e Hot. Fin. ii. 358). In I 
IMi Henry entrusted to Iiim the castles of j 
Dover,Marlboroug'b,and l<u(]fjer,ihall (Ulan- , 
ANGER, C'Amn. f/.-1«h., and TKOKF.r.o\vn, Oj>us 
Chroniconim, p. !>, in both of which be i.-s 
called ' Sir E. de Wnleran ;' Fhres Hist. ii. 
463; lied lioo/c 0/ Krcfiegiter, ii :<>6). He 
also became warden of the Cintjui* porta 
{Roynl Letters, Henry III, ii. 244). Uiiring 
tbechaneeUnrBhipuf Waherde .Merlon [([.v.] 
in 1262, tbe great s^eal was put into the bands 
of Walerand and Imbert of Minister. In 
1263, when I'rince Kdward committed hi.s 
robbery of jnweLs and money upon tbe New 
Temple, Walerand wasoneofhiscbief helpers 
('Ann. Dunstaple ' in Ann. Mun. iii. 222). 

In 12(!1 dineord between Henry and the 
barons was renewed. Walerand, together 
witti Jolin Mansel and I'efer of Savoy, were 
rtigarded as the three chief advisers of Henry 
(' .\un. Osney ' in Ann. Mon. iv. 128). In 
1263 tbe barons seired Walerand's lands. 
Henry resttored them, save tbo castle of 
Kilpeck (Dirai>Al.E, i. 670). Walerand bad 
rendered himself so iudi.spensable that in 
February 1263 tbe king excused himself fi-nra 
sending Walerand and Mansel to France, and 
despatched other envoys instead {Itoi/at 
Letters, ii. 239 ; misdated in Fadera, i. 
394). When tbe barons went to war against 
Henry in 1264, Walerand exerted himself 
on the royalist side, .\fter tbe battle of 
Lewes be and Worren of Hassingbourue .still 
held Bristol Castle in tbe king's name. They 

kxnarcbed to WiiUingford, where Richard 

'of Cornwall and Kdward were confined, and 
vigorously attacked the castle in the hope of 
relieving them, but failed (HisnANfiEn, 
Chron. de Bella, Camden Hoc. p. 40). After 
Evesliam he was rewarded by large grants 
(Dl'ODALE, i. 670), including most of the 
lands of Hugh de Neville (Liher de Antiguis 
l,gail<"' '>" Ixvi, Ixvii). Walerand pro- 
■'entence of disiohoritance 



against all who had taken up arms against 
the king at Eve.sbom ('Ann. Worcester' 
in Ann. Mon. iv. 45.')). He and Koger 
Leybourne induced the Londoners to pay a 
fine of twenty thousand marks to the king 
for tlieir transgressions {Liber de Antiyuu 
Ler/ibus, pp. 78, 80, 81). In 1266 Walerand 
was one of the original six who by the dictum 
of Kenilworth were elected to settle the go- 
vernment ('Ann. Waverley ' and ' Ann. Dun- 
staple' ia Ann. Mon. ii. 372, iii. 243; Floret 
Hist. iii. 12). 

Walerand now devoted himself to affairs 
in Wales. Owning much land in and near 
the Welsh marches, be had necessarily been 
freijuently employed in the Welsh wars, and 
was con.staut!y consulted as to the treat- 
ment of the Welsh (Ilot/nl Letters, Henry 
III, ii. 210, 2 Oct. 1202; Ftvderii, i. 339, 
340). On 21 Feb. 1267 a commission was 
issued, empowering him to make a truce for 
three years with Llywelyn ap ltrutfvdd,and 
with Edmund, tlie king's son, to make peace 
(Fti-dera, i. 472. 473, 474). He now re- 
sumed his work as judge, and from .\pril 
12(i8 till .\ugust 1271 we find munv records 
of assizes to he held before him (E.vcrrpta 
e Rot. Fin. ii. 441, 468 546: Abt/rerintio 
Plncitorum,m. 181, 182). When Edward 
went to the Ilnly Land be placed, on 2 Aug. 
1270, the guiirdinnsbip of his lands in the 
bands of four, of whom Walerand wos one 
(Ftrdera, i. 487). He died in 1273, before 
tbe king's return {Ann. Mon. iv. 254). 

The chronicler describes Walerand as ' vir 
strenuus.' He bad throughout his career 
been hated as a royal favourite, tliougb re- 
spected for bis ability and strength. A 
curious political poem from Cottoninn MS. 
Otho 1), viii., quoted in tbe notes to Rish- 
anger's ' Chronicoa de Hello ' (Camden So- 
ciety, p. 145), thus refers to him: 

Exhteredati prooeres Hont rege jubente 

Et mala tnictiiti Wiilerun R. dictti fcrenle. 

Walerand married in 1257 Matilda {d. 
130t>-7), the eldest daughter and heiress of 
Rnlpb Kussell, but left no issue (Duodalk, 
i. 670; cf. (Ml. (ieneal. p. 194). His 
nephew and heir, Robert, was an idiot, and 
never received livery of his lands, some of 
which passed to bis sister's son, Alan Plu- 
genet. 

Robert Walerand, the subject of this 
art ide, must be distinguished from Waleran 
Teutonicus, custodian of Herkhamstead in 
1241, to whom Henry gave tbo custody of 
several Welsh castles. 

[Calendarium Inquiiitionam post mort«ro, 
vol. i. ; Calendarium Gencalogicum ; Rymer's 
Foedera, vol. i. ; Abbrevijitio Plaeitorum ; Ei 



I 



Wales 



33 



Wales 



^cerpt» e RotuUs Pininni. voU. i. ii. ; List of 

Bheriffs to 1831. Publ. Roc. Office Lists and In- 

Fdexes, No. ix ; Deputy-Koeptr of Pul)l. Records' 

l82iid Rep. App. i. 259-60 ; Annuls of Oiiney, 

I^WiocheBtir, Burton, Dunstapio, Worcester, iind 

iWykes, in Annalw Jlonaatici, vols. ii. iii. iv. ; 

[Bed Book of tJie Exchequer, vols. i. ii. ; Chronicn 

PJotuinniii du Oxenedes; Rishunger's Chronicle; 

IFIores Historiarain, vol. ii.; Bart, de Cotton'* 

[Hintnria Anglicnnn ; Peckham'i; I/Stters, vol. ii. ; 

iBriyal Lettirs Henry III, vol. ii. ; Chmnicles of 

Rlward 1 and Kdward II, vol. i.; Trokelowc's 

Opus Chronicoram.p. 9 ; Mntthew Parin'e Chro- 

Inica majors, vol. v., the Innt eleven beim; in 
the Rolla SerieH ; Risbani^or's Cfaron. de Bello 
(Camden Soc.); Liber do AntiquisLegibna(Cjini- 
den Soc); Calendar of Patent Rolls ; Ciilondttr 
of Close Rolls; Calendar of Papal Reg'stors, 
Papal Lcllers, vol. i. ; Michel and Bemunt's 
S&les Gascons in Documents Inedits; Bimont's 
Simon de Montfort ; Dugdale'n Baroniige, i. 67U ; 
fitahbs's Select Charters; Foss'a Judges of Eng- 
land, ii. 504, 50S; Hoare's Modern Willsbiro, 
vols. ii. iii.] M. T. 

"WALES, J.VMES (1747-17!).",), portrajt- 
^painter and architwtural draugiitrfman, born 
Iin 1747, was a native of Pelerlieail, Aber- 
Ideensbire. Early iu life he went to Aber- 
jde<>D, whi-'re he was educated at Marischal 
[College, and soon dril'ted into art. Having 
I painti^fl » striking likeness of Francis Peacock, 
la local art amateur, he received a number of 
Icommissions for portraits, principally small 
tin size, and paintftd upon liuplntc, and occa- 
sionally sold a landscape ; but, bein^ dis- 
Igatisfied with his prosptjcts, lie went to 
[London. Practically self-taught , he bad a 
' faculty for profiting by what he saw, ami 
painted landscapi' in the manner of I'ous.sin ; 
out his exhibited works at the Itoyal Aca- 
Idemy and elsewhere between 17^*3 and 1791 
[•were portraits. In 1791 lie went tn India, 
[■where, although he painted numerous por- 
traits of native princes and others, and 
I fxecuted the sketches from which Thomas 
[Daniell [q. v.l painted his picture of Poona 
Durbar, whicii is said to be ' unrivalled per- 
' hapn for oriental grouping, character, and 
costume," his attention was mainly occupied 
in making drawings of the cave temples and 
, other Indian architectural remains. lie 
I worked with Daniell at the EUora excava- 
} tions, and twenty-four drawings by him are 
I engraved in Daniell's ' Oriental Scenery.' 
j He was engaged upon a series of sketches 
tof the sculptures of Elephanta, when he 
[died, it is thouglit at Thuna, in November 
1 1795. His wife .Margaret, daughter of Wil- 
'liajn Wallace of Dundee, and his family 
accompanied him to India ; and his eldest 
djiughter,Susauno,mBrriedSirCliarles Warre 
Malet [q.v.], the resident at Poona, in 1799. 
▼01.. LIX. 




[Memorial Tablet in Bombay Cathodml : 
Indian Antiquary, 1880; Scottish Notei and 
Queries, vols. iii. and ir. ; Burke's Peenige ; 
Thom's .Vberdeen ; Moor's Hindu Piintbeon, 
1810 ; Bryan's and Redgrave's Diets.] 

J. L. C. 

WALES, OWEN ok id. 1376), soldier. 
[See Owen.] 

WALES, WILLIAM {Haiy-UQS), 
mathemiiticiuii, was born about 1734. He 
first distinguished himself as a contributor to 
the ' Ladies' Diary,' a magazine containing 
mathematical problems of nu advanced na- 
ture [see TiPi-En, John]. In 17C9 he was 
.sent by the Uoyal Society to the Prince of 
Wales fort on the north-west coast of Hud- 
son's Bay to observe the transit of Venus. 
The results of his investigations were com- 
municated to the society ( Trautactiorm, l\x. 
467, 480, Ix. 100. 137), and were published 
in 177J under the title ' (fenerul Observa- 
tions made at Hudson's Boy,' London, 4to. 
During his stay at Hudson's Bay he em- 
ployed his leisure in computing tables of the 
equations to equal altitudes for facilitating 
the (ieterminatioii of lime. They ajipeareJ 
in the 'Nautical Atmanuc' for 177o, and 
were republished iu 17'J4 in his treatise on 
'The Met hod of finding the Longitude by 
Timekeepers,' London, bvo. 

Wales returned to England in 1770, and 
in 1772 he published ' iTie Two Books of 
Apollonius concerning Determtuate Sec- 
tions,' London, 4to, an attempt to restore 
the fragmentary treatise of Apollonius of 
I'erga. The task had been more successfully 
carried nut by Uobert Simson [q. v.] at an 
earlier date, but the results of his lalj<,ur8 
were not published until 177li iu his piislhu- 
moiis works. In 1772 Wales was engaged, 
with William Bayly [q. v.1, bv the board of 
longitude to accorajiany Cook in the Uesolu- 
tion on his second voyage round the world, 
and to make, astronomical observations. He 
retuniod to England in 1774, and on 7 Nov. 
1770 he was elected a fellow of the Royal 
Society. In 1777 the a-stroiKimicol observa- 
tions made during the voyage were pub- 
lished, with an introduction by Wales, at the 
expense of the board of longitude, in a quarto 
volume with charts and plates. In the same 
year appeared his 'Observations on a Voyage 
with Captain Cook ; ' and in 1778 his ' Re- 
marks on Mr. Forster's Account of Captain 
('ook's Last Voyage ' (London, 8vo); a reply 
to Johnnn Georg Adam Forster [q. v.], who, 
with his father, had accompanied the expe- 
dition a& naturalist, and had published an 
unauthorised account of the voyage a few 
weeks before Cook's narrative oppeored, in 



Wales 



34 



Waley 



which he made aeriooj refiectioiu on Cook 

and hU officers. Wales's pamphlet satis- 

t factorilv refuted these a^enion$, and drew 

[from Forvter in the nme year a ' Reply to 

IMt. Wales's Remarks ' (London, 4to). 

In 177ft Wales ^iled with Cook in the 
ISesolution onhis l&st voyage. They cleared 
the Channel on 14 July 1776. Cook was 
slain at Hawaii in 1779, and the expedition 
returned in 1760. On the death of Daniel 
Ilarrig, Wales was appointed mathematical 
master at Christ's Hospital, a post which he 
retained till his death. \t the commence- 
ment of his mastership he found discipline 
in a very bad state, but by a judicious seve- 
rity he soon brou^^ht afTairs to a better pa^q. 
He was • man of a kindly disposition, and 
bis pupils became much attached to him. 

Wale* took preat interest in questions of 
population, and instituted a series of in- 
quiries both in person and bv letter tnto (he 
condition of the country, ^e found, how- 
ever, that many people had a stmng dislike 
to any ' numbering of the people' from the 
belief that it was contrary to the injunctions 
of scripture, and he encountered so much 
[opposition that he became convinced of the 
impo8.sibility of carrying his researches very 
far. He published the result of his labours 
in 1781, under the title '.\n Inquiry into 
the Present State of the Population in Eng- 
land and Wales ' ( London, 8vo), in which 
he combated the belief then prevalent that 
population was decreasing. Wales died in 
London on 29 Dec. 1798. His daughter 
married Arthur William TroUope [q. v.], I 
who became headmaster of Christ's Uospital 
in 1799. 

Besides the works mentioned, he was 
^author of on ' Ode to William Pitt,' Ixindon, ' 
1762, fol. ; edited 'Astronomical Observa- 
tions made during the A'oyages of Bvron, 
Wallia, Carteret, and Cook,' London, i7S8, 
4to; aided John Douglas (1721-1807) [q.v.] 
in editing Cook's 'Journals' (Egerton MS. 
2180, passim): wrote a dissertation on the 
' Achronical Rising of t he Pleiades,' appended 
to William \'incent's ' Voyage of Nearchus ; ' 
and assi.sted Constantine John Pbipp3,second 
baron Slulgrave [q. \.\ in preparing his ac- 
count of ' A. Voyage towards the North Pole,' 
London, 1774, 4to. 

[Gent, Mftg. 1798, ii. 1165; TioUope's Hist, 
of Christ's Hospital, 18.34, pp. 95-6; Hutton's 
Philosophical and Mitthematical Diet. 1815; 
English Cyclopaslia, 18.57; Notes and Queries, 
Stnd ser. iv. 242 ; Allibone's Diet, of Engl. Lit. ; 
Thomson's Hist, of th« Royal Soe. App. p. Ivi; 
Nichols's Lit. Aneed. iii. 90 ; Vincent's Periplus 
of the Er^thrwin Sea, 1800, i. 83 ; Wntt's Biblio- 
theca Brit.l E. L C. 



WALET, JACOB (1818-1873), legal 
writer, bora in 1818, w»s elder son of 
Solomon Jacob Waley (d. 1864 1 of Stock- 
well, aad afterwsnls of 22 Devonshire Place, 
London, by his wife, Rachel Hort. Simon 
Waley Waley [q.v.] was his younger brother. 
He was educatM at Mr. Xeum.-gen'« school 
at Higlig»te,and University CoLlfire. Lmdon, 
and he graduated B..\. at London I'niversity 
in 1SJ9, taking the first place in both mathe- 
matics and olasrics. He was entered as a 
student at Lincoln's Inn on 3 Nov. 1837, and 
was called to the baron 21 Nov. 1842. Only 
three Jews had been called to the bar pre- 
viou«ly, (Sir) Francis Henry Goldsmid [q.v.] 
lieing the first. Waley practisi.-d as an equity 
draughtsman, and in time became recognised 
as one of the most learned conveyancers in 
the profession. Although conveyancers rarely 
appear before court, Waley was several times 
summoned incasesof particular ditficulty re- 
lating to real property. He acted as con- 
veyancing counsel for the Bedford estates, 
and, in conjunction with Thomas Cooke 
Wright and C. D. Wright, edited • David- 
son's I'recedents and Forms in Conveyan- 
cing" (London, l8.>S-<>o, 5 vols. 8vo). In 
1870 he was appointed one of the convev- 
ancing counsel of the court ofchancery. In 
16»J7 he was nominated a member of the 
royal commission to consider the law on 
the transfer of real property, and he had a 
large share in framing the re|>ort on which 
was based the lord chancellor's bill passed 
in 1874. 

Notwithstanding his mastery of his own 
subject, Waley had numerous other inte- 
rests. He was known as a political econo- 
mist, acting as examiner for the university 
of London, and in 1853-4 he was appointed 
professor of that subject at University Col- 
lege. Ho held the post until 1865-6, when 
the press of other work compelled his re- 
signation, and he received the title of emeri- 
tus professor. He was also, until his death, 
ioint secretary of the Political Economy 
Club. 

Waley was a prominent member of the 
.lewish community. In conjunction with 
Lionel Louis Cohen he organised the London 
synagogues into a corporate congrega- 
tional alliance, known as the ' United Syna- 
gogue.' On the formation of the Anglo- 
Jewish .Association he was chosen the first 
president, a post which lack of time com- 
pelled him later to resign. He was also 
president of the Jews' orphan asylum and 
a member of the council of the Jews' col- 
lege, where he occasionally lectured. He 
promoted the Hebrew Literary Society, and 
assisted to organise the Jewish board of 



L 

J 



guardians. He took much inteirest in the 
trtvitnientofJews abroad, and in 187i! wrote 
a brief preface to Mr. Israel Davis's ' Jews 
in Roumnnia,' in which he remonstrated 

IBgain.>t t he persecut inn« hiscountrymen wore 
■undergoing. He died in London on 10 .r\ine 
1873, and was buried in West Ham ceme- 
terv. Waley married, on 28 July 18-47, Ma- 
tilda, third daughter of Joseph Salomons, 
liy his wife Rebecca, sister of Sir Moses 
Haim Montefiore [q. v.] He left several 
children. 

[Jewish Chronicle, 27 Jano and 4 July 1873 ; 
laiw Times, 12 July 1873; Lioeoln's Inn Ke- 
,«ord8,ii. 170.] E. I. C. 

WALEY, SIMON W.AXEY (1837- 
1875), amateur musician, bom at istoek- 
Iwell, London, 23 Aug. 1827, was younger 
Inn of Solomon Jacob Waley (J. 1864) by 
fllis wife Rachel. He became a prominent 
aember of the London Stock Exchange and 
.leading figure in the Jewish community 
Iduring t lie critical period of the emuuciputiou 
l>f tlie Jews from civil disabilities. He took 
Itnuck inti^rest in thesubject of international 
Iraflic. .\.t the age of sixteen ho wrote his 
fCrst letter on the subject to the ' Railway 
Times ■ (28 Nov. 1843, p. 1290), and subse- 
luentlv to 22 May 1847 ( p. 71<)) in the same 
joumal. He contributed many letters to the 
'Times' under the signature ' W. London.' 
To the ' I>aily News ' of 14 Oct. 18o8, et seq., 
be wrote a series of sprightly letters on ' A 
Four in Auvergne,' afterwards Inrgely incor- 
P|K)r8fed into Murray's handbook to France. 
Waley was a highly gifted musician os 
well as a shrewd man of business. He began 
compose before he was eleven years old, 
ay of his childish com]>osition3 showing 
(?«t promise. His first published work, 
■^L'-A-rpeggio,' a pianoforte study, appeared 
1 1848. He was a pupil of Moscheles, (Sir) 
nUiam .Storndale Bennett [q.v.],andOeorge 
■Alexander Osborne [q. v.] for the pianoforte, 
nd of William Horsley [q.v.] and Molique 
for theory and composition. In addition to 
Wing a brilliant pianist, Waley became a 
prolific composer. His piibli.shed composi- 
iona include a pianoforte concerto, two 
pianoforte trios in B Hat and O minor (op. 
I6 and 20), many piano pieces and songs; 
ome orchestral pieces, &c.. still in manu- 
script. One of liis finest works is a setting 
of Psalms eivii. and c.xviii. for the syna- 
ue service. 
Waley died at 22 Devonshire Place, Lon- 
Jon, on 30 Dec. 1875, and was buried at the 
lewiah cemetery-. Ball's Pond. He married 
Inna, daughter of P. J. Salomons, by whom 
! had eight children. 



[Jswish Chronicle, 7 and 21 Jtio. 1878; 
Grove's Diet, of Music and Musicians, iv, 378; 
Brit. Mas. Cat.; private information.] 

F.O.: 



E. 
[Se« also 



WALEYS or WALENSI8. 

Wallensis.] 

WALEYS, WALEI8, WALLETS, or 
U\LET8, Sib henry i.k (d. 1302!'), mayor 
of London, was alderman of the word of 
Bread Street, and afterwards of ' Conlewaner- 
strete' (Cal. of Ancient Drrdt, v.2,2oO; City 
Recordt, Letter-book A, f. llti). He was 
elected aherifl'wit h O regory de Rokesley [q. v.] 
on Michaelmas day 1270, and the sheriits at 
once had a new pillory made in ' Chepe ' for 
the punishment of bakers who made their 
loaves of deficient weight, these culprits 
having lately gone unpunished since the de- 
struction of the pillory in the previous year 
tlirough the negligence of the bailiffs (RiLET, 
ChronicleK of the Mayors and SheriJT", 1863, 
pp. 127, 131). Ho entered upon his first 
mayoralty on 28 Oct. 1273, and was shortly 
afterwards admitted by the barons of the 
excliequer (I'A. p. 1H7). At the end of 
November Peter Cusin, one of the sheriffs, 
was dismissed from his office by the court of 
busting for receiving a bribe from a baker, 
upon wliich the mayor, sheriffs, and all the 
aldermen were summoned before the council 
and the barons of the exchequer. The citi- 
iti'ns answered that they were not bound to 
plead without the walls of the city, and that 
they were entitled to remove the sherifia 
wheu necessary; their pleas succeeded, judg- 
ment being given for them within the city, 
at St. Martin's-le-Graud. 

Waleys followed up liisproceedings against 
th'> bakers by ordering the butchers and fish- 
mongers to remove their stalls from West 
Cheap in order that that important thorough- 
fare might present a better appraranco to 
the king on his return from abroad. Oroat 
were the complaints of the t radosmen, who 
alleged before the inquest that they had rented 
their standings by annual piivments to the 
sheriffs (Hekbert, Jlist. of St. Michael, 
Civiiked Lane, pp. 39, 40). Walter Hervey, 
the popular leader and the predecessor of 
Waleys as mayor, championed their cause at 
Guildhnll, where ' a wordy strife ' arose be- 
tween him and the mayor, with the result 
that llervey's conduct was reported to the 
king's council. He was thereupon imprisoned, 
tried, and ultimately degraded from liis office 
of alderman (Shakpe, London and the King- 
dom, i. 109-10). Waleys next arrested 
several persons wlio had been banished the 
city by the late king four years before, but 
had returned. These ho imprisoned in 




Waleys 



Waleys 



NewMte, but nfterwar''s released on their 
promise to abjure the until the arrival of 
King Edward in England (11il£T, Chronicle, 
p. lg8). 

On 1 May a letter to the mayor, sheriffs, 
and commons from Edward I, who was 
absent abroad, summoned them to send four 
of their more discreet citizens to meet the 
king at Paris to confer with him, jirobably 
as to his approaching corniiation ( I'A. p. 17:J). 
Waleys wag the chief of the four citizens 
selected. Towards thy close of his mayoralty 
he broke up the vessels employed us publie 
and official standards of com measure, and 
new rinea strongly bound with brass hoops 
■were made and sealed (ib. p. 173). Waleys 
had very close ccmnecfion with France, and 
probably possessed private property or had 
great commercial interests in that country. 
This is evident from the fact that he was 
elected mayor of Bordeaux in 1270| the year 
following his London mayoriilty (t//. p. 167). 

Waleys was high in the royal t'uvuur, and 
this no doubt procured him his appointment 
Ba mayor of London for the second time iti 
1281, his second mayoralty lasting three 
years. On this occasion he appears to have 
been knighted by the king {Cnl. nf A>i<i/->tf 
Deeiln, ii. L'oS). His predecessor, Gregory ile 
Rokesley, had held office for six years, and 
also succeeded him for a few month.-!, when 
the king took the entire government of the 
city into his linntls, and appointed a war<len 
to fulfil the duties of mayor. In I:?S1 the 
king granted for the support of London 
Bridge three vacant plots of ground within 
the city: on two of those plots, at the ea.st 
side of Old Change and in I'aterno.Mter Itow, 
Waleys built several houses, tlie pndit.s of 
which were assigned to London Bridge 
(Stow, Surreif, p](. t>37, t)()4). Waleys 
again proved himself a good administrator. 
lie kept a sharp eye on the miller.s and 
bakers, being the first to give orders for 
weigliing the grain when going to the mill, 
and afterwards tlie flour ; he also bail a 
hurdle provided for drawing di.shonest bakers 
(Riley, C'hron. p. 240), During this year 
he assessed for the king certain plots of land 
and let them to the barons and good men of 
Winchelsea for hm\d'tng (Calendar <if Pat eii t 
liollt, 1281-92, p. 3). 

In 1282 AN'aleys and the aldermen drew 
up an important code of provisions for the 
safe keeping of the city grates and the ri\er. 
These ordinances embraced the watching of 
hostelries, the posting of sergeants ' fluent of 
speech ' at the gates to question suspicious 
passengers, and the simultaneous ringpng of 
curfew in all the parish churches, after which 
all gates and taverns must be closed (Riley, 



MemorinU of London, p. 21). In the same 
year he mode provl.sion for the butchers and 
fishmongers whom he had displaced in 1274 
from West Cheap by erecting houses and 
stalls for them on a site near Wool Church 
Haw, where the stocks formerly stood, now 
the site of the Mansion House. In the fol- 
lowing year he built the Tim prison on 
Coriihill, so called fmm its round shape, as 
a prison for night-walkers. The building 
also served the purpose of ' a fair conduit of 
s\v(?et waters' which Waleys caused to be 
brought for the benefit of the city from Ty- 
burn (Stow, Surtei/, 1633, p. 207). 

He also appears us one of the six repre- 
sentatives of the city sent this year to the 
]>arliament at Shrewsbury, these being the 
first known members of parliament for the 
city of London (SnAltrK, London and tAe 
Kingdom, i. 18). A significant proof of his 
vigorous administration as mayor is aflbrded 
by the king's mandate to the justices on 
eyre ot the Tower, and to all liailiifs, not to 
molest Waleys ' for having during the king's 
absence in Wales, for the preservation of 
the peace and ca.stigation of malefactors 
roaming about the city night and day, 
introduced certain new punishments and 
new methods of trial (judieia), and for 
having caused persons to be punished by 
imprisoniuent and otherwise for the quiet of 
the said city' [Val. Pnt. Rollf, 1281-92, 
p. 80). In 1284, the lost year of his 
mayoralty. Waleys obtained from the king 
a renewed grant of customs for extensive 
repairs to the city wall, and for its extension 
beside the Dliickfriars monastery {ib. p. 111). 

His wide dealings as a merchant brought 
liira and linkesley into conflict with the barons 
of the Cinque ports as to claims through 
the jettison of freights during tempests (ib. 
p. 168). On 17 June 1285 he was one of 
three justices ap]>ointed for the trial con- 
cerning concealed goods of condemned Jews?, 
involving ii large amount (ib. p. 1 76). On 
18 Sept. Waleys received a grunt of land 
adjoining St. Paul's Churchyard, whereon 
he built some houses, but these, proving to 
bo to the detriment of the dean and chapter, 
were ordered to be taken down, an enlarged 
site being granted to him for their re-erection 
(ill. TO. 193, 226). 

AValeys was much employed in the royal 
service: in Januory 1288 he was detained 
beyond seas on the king's special aflairs (ib. 
p. 291 ), and in June 1291 he was again abroad 
with a special protection from the king for 
one year. On fi Oct. following he was en- 
gaged for the king in Oascony with John de 
Havering, seneschal of Gascony (ib. p. 446). 
In April 1294 he had to return to England, 



Waleys 



37 



Walford 



I 



and nominnti-il William de Sauiiford us his 
sttomey in Ireland for one yent (I'i. lUOli- 
1301. p. (W). On II Oct. he rented the 
manor of Lydel for three years from John 
Wake (i'6. p. S6). In November 1294 he 
demised rentals of 301. a year in value from 
properties in St. Lawrence Lane, Cordwauer- 
Btrete, and Uowg-ate, to Edmund, the king's 
brother (jV.. p. lOC). On Ui Sept. I29« he 
received letters of protection for one year 
while in Scotland on the king's service 
(li. p. L»01). On 12 Jan. 1297 ho was 
appoiut^jd at (he head of u couimissiun to 
determine the site and state of Berwick-on- 
Tweed and assess property there (I'A. pp. 
22*i-7). Wttleys was commLssioned to levy 
A thoustnd men in Worcester for the king's 
service on 23 Oct. 1297 Ui. p. 393). 

In 1298 the aldermen and other citizens 
were summoned before the king at Wejsl- 
minster, when he restore<l to them their 
privileges, including that of electing a 
mayor. They accordingly elected Henry 
Waleys as mayor for the third time. He 
waa prtssenled to the king at Fulham, but 
shortly afterwards set out for Lincoln on 
■urgent private business, afterappointing depu- 
ties to act in his ab.*ence ( lilLEV, Liber A/bun, 
p. 10 ). lie was soon afterwards summoned by 
the king into Scotland, and hud to appoint 
a deputy {I'Ji. p. 528). The safe conduct of 
the city had l>e«'U a matter of concern to 
the king during the previous vear, and the 
warden aixl aldermen had received a special 
ordinance on 14 Sept. 1297. This was 
followed by a further writ from the king ' 
addri'ssed to Wnleys as mayor on 28 May 
1298 reifuiring him to preserve the peace of 
the city which had been much disturbed by 
the night brawls of bakers, brewsters, and 
millers (UlLEr, Memorials of London, pp. 
3ft-7). 

Walevs through his loyalty to the king 
incurred much enmity from his fellow- 
dtixens. There appears to liavo been during 
his last mayoniliy an open feud between 
iiim and his shertH'a, Itichard de Kefhum 
and Tliiimas Sely. These otBciaU apm-ored 
at a court of aldermen on Friday in I'ente- 
cost week 1299, and agreed to pay the large 
sum of \(M)I. if during the rest of the term 
of their shrievalty they should be convicted 
of having committed tresiia.«8, either by 
word or deed, against Waleys while mayor 
of London ( UlLEV,.V(f»i«nV;A<, p. 41 ). Abont 
the same time (18 April) Waleys received 
from the king, as a reward for his long ser- 
vice, a grant of hou-ses with a quay and other 
appurtenances in IJerwick-on-'l weed, for- 
feited to the king by Kalph, son of Philip, 
iknd partly burnt and devastated by the 




king's foot soldiers, he being required to re- 
pair the premises a . 'ay out up<'>n them at 
least a hundred marks {Cixl. Pat. RolU, 1292- 
1301, p. 406). 

On 2tj Dec. 1298 Waleys and Ralph de 
Sandwich [q. v.] were constituted a commis- 
sion of oyer and terminer relative to a plot 
to counterfeit the king's gn-at and privy seal, 
and to poison the king and his son ( ib. p. 459). 
In March KlOO, he being absent from Eng- 
land on his own atfairs, Stephen de liravea- 
ende was substituted for him on another 
commission concerning the theft of money, 

Iilate, and jewels from the house of Hugh de 
lernemutli in ' the town of Suthwerk ' (ih. 
11. ,547). W'aleys potseaaed much property 
in the city, including houses near Ivy Lane, 
Newgate Street ( I'A. p. 98 ), a house called ' Le 
Hales,' and St. liotolph's wharf (Kll.BT, Liber 
AUiiu, p. 478 ) ; but his place of business was 
proljahly iii the ward ol (."urdwaiuer, which 
he represented as alderman. 

Waleys appears to have died in 1302, in 
■which year nis executors procured a grant 
for an exchange of property with the priory 
of Holy Trinity, under the prnvisions of bia 
will. This was stated to have been enrolled 
in the court of busting, but no record of it 
can be found in the olhcial calendar (Cal. <jf 
Ancient Deed*, ii. 47). 

[Orriilgo'sCiiixensofLaiiitun ami their Kulcri; 
Thomson's Chronicli'S of Luodoa UriHge; 
Sliarpc'a ddendnrof Wills in the Court of Host- 
ing; anthoritics abovB cited. 1 C W-ie. 

WALFORD, COUNELILS (1827- 
1885), writer on insurance, born in Curtain 
Road, London, on 2 April 1827, was the 
eldest of five sons of Cornelius W'alford 
id. 1883) of I'ark House Farm, near (3oggea- 
hiill, Essex, who married Mary Amelia 
Osborn of I'entonville. He is said to have 
been for a short time at Felsted school. 
At the age of fifteen he becainu clerk to 
Mr. I'attisson, solicitor iit Withani, where 
ho acquired much exjH'rience in the tenure 
and rating of laud. He was a|>point«.>d 
assistant secretary of the Witham building 
society, and, haying in early life acquired a 
knowledge of shorthand, he acted as local 
correspondent of the ' Essex Standard.' 
About 1848 he settled at Withom as insur- 
ance inspector and agent. 

Walford was in 1857 elected an associate, 
and on a later date a fellow, of the Institute 
of Actuaries. About 1857 he joined the 
Statistical Society, and was for some time 
on its council, lie pnbli.shed in ]iart8, and 
anonymously, in l8-i7 his ' Insurance tJuide 
and Ilnn(ibook,' which was pirated and had 
n large sale in .\merica (2nd edit. 1807, with 
his name on the title-page). In 1858 hewaa 



w, 



W: 




Bm mil fiutvT 
»OjHtfiii/» 
MK >t| i »« t n j to oeemy teo Impi octavo 

IW «Ak. m4 iMt OMiplrte. Tolne erne 
MTB^ Mid codi of tbcai « wtoi o »J | 
MX hmmdnA pa^e* (aw Timma, 2 Jan. 
1479). Qae ftntWr fart oa}jr vm iaased, 
witb an eawjr oa ' Hcnditaxy 
bat large wtrriiU wcie left Cor 
tlw icaanuBfr voloaes. 

la 1876 WalfrW became a Mlow of tLe 
Hiatoneal Society ; ia 1«^1 he vu elected 
a Tiw' piywiffit, and be wu ita Tice-chair- 
naa Curiae tlia oaandt tbat all but led to 
iU diHVptMm. From 1877 to 1681 be rc*d 
ftifm befbce it — the moct importwit of his 
aO Bto ih at iona beiiig an ' Uatline History of 
the ll«nafatir Lei^ue,' reprinted from to- 
lUBB is. in 1681 for private circulatton. 
Ba eoBtiaued hi« addreewa to the Institute 
of Aetiwriea and the Statistical Societr, 
two of his p^en on ' The Famines of the 
World Put and Preaent,' which he r»ad 
before the tact society, being reprinted in 
1879. Tlieartiele on ' Fsmines' in the new- 
edition of the ' EncjrclopsBdia Britannica ' 
was also fi<ora his pen. He was a member 
of thr^ executive council of intematioiud 
law, and read papen to the members at 
tbfir raeetintr in London in 1879. 

Wslf/jnl liB/l ppijected in 1877 ' A New 
OmimU Cat«l/j|fue of English Literatnre,' 
and in that and succeeding yean danf^led 
th« project before the Librarr .Association. ' 
But the enteqirise collapsed with the reprint j 



•■'GiWbL' 
at Ae 
ooaulete 
Origin, 
HiMorr; 

18e& 'In 168$ he 
•F«a PM and Piiiiii*.' ''^ ■> 1^^ ' 

_ «f Ftews and 
PeMOeMca.' 

\%'alfccd. wIm — ai J MliI a I 

tkaaoaeor 
of the nualj foaudid Shoi«- 
.▼. In tkeartaaaaof 1884lie 
reriated, for hi* heahhls asba, the United 
State* and Canada, and altenileil three sbort- 
haid eemvationa. In Dceeahrr 1&H4 he 
gained the Sanme) Brnni pnae by his paper 
at the Inctitnteof AetaariesoB tha 'Hiirtaiy 
of Life Insmanee.' He lired in Loodon 
in two afioiniajr honsea in BelsiBe Park 



1881. 



Oaidens, whemlw had gathered around 
him a larjre librarr, and be dird there on 
■Ji< Sept. 1SS5, leat^ a widow (his third 
wile) and nine duUren, tfatee aona and ox 
dao^ters, by his first and aeeoad wivea. 
He was buried at Woking cemetery on 
3 Oct. A catalogue raisonn^ of a portion 
of his library was printed in May 1866 for 
circulation among his friends {S'otet and 
Querii-f, 5 June 18i»6, p. 4flO). His collec- 
tions on insurance were purchased by the 
Xew York Equitable Life losurance (?om- 
pany. The rest of ius library and the 
manuscripts for the completion of his • Insur- 
ance Cydopcdia' perished in a fin^ from 
lightning at his widow's house near Seven- 
oaks (Standard, 4 Sept. 1889). 

[Memoir by Dr. Westby-Gibson in Shorthand, 
Norember 1 885 ; In Hemoriam, )>y his kioamao, 
Edward Wnlford [q. v.], in No. 10 of Opuscaln 
of S«tte of odd Volumes; Western Antiquity, 
V. 162; Literary World, Boston, xy. 197-8; 



Walford 



Walford 



N 



^ 



Uook-Liire, ii. 177; Notes and Queries, 3 Oct. 
1885. p. 280; Biograph, 1880, iii. 161-164; 
infurnintioD from his brothers, Messrs. Wal- 
ford. of 320 Strand, W.C] W. P. C. 

WALFORD, EDWARD (1823-1897), 
compiler, burn on 3 Feb. 1823, at Hatfield 
Place, near Chelmsford, was t he eldest son of 
William Wttlford {d. \)<b'^^ of Hatfield 
IVverell, rector of St. Kunwald's, Colchester, 
by his wife Man,- Anne, daughter of Henry 
liutton, r«?ctor of Beaumont, Rssex, and 
chaplain of Guy's Hospital, and grand- 
daughter of Sir William IVpperell [q. v.], 
' the hero of l^onisburg.' 

Edward wa-s educated fir«t at Hackney 
church of England school, under Edward 
Churton [i\. v.] (afterwards archdeacon of 
Clet'elttiid ), and afterwards at Charterhouse 
under Au){ustu8 Page Saunders (afterwards 
dean of Peterborough). He matriculated 
from Bnlliiil College, Oxford, on 28 Nov. 
1840, and was elected to an open scholarship 
in 1841. In 1843 he gained the chiinci-llor's 
prize for I^tin verso, and in 1H44 ho was 
'proxiiue ' for the Ireland scholarship, .John 
Cfonington [tj. v.] being the successful can- 
didate. Walford graduated B.A. in 1845 and 
M.A. in 1847. He was ordained deacon 
in 1840 and priest in the year following. ' 
In 1847 and 1848 he gained the Denver 
theological prices. In 1846 he became ) 
assistant-master at Toubridge school, and 
from 1847 to 1850 he employed himself in 
Clifton and London in preparing private 
pupils for Oxford. Before 1853 he joined the 
Koman catholic communion as a lay member, 
ed to the English church in 18<>0, and 
again admitted to the church of liome 
in 1871. He returned to the church of 
England about a vear before his death. In 
June 1858 Walford l)ecame editor of the 
'Court Circular,' withdrawing in .luue lS.ji) 
after losing 500/. in the venture. From 
1859 to l8ti''i he was connected with 'Once a 
Week,' first a,s 8ul)-editor and afterwards as 
editor. He was editor of the ' Oentleman's 
Magazine' from January 186(5 till May 1868, 
when it passed under the management of 
Joseph lltttton with an entire change of 
character. From June to December I86'J 
he edit <n1 the ' llegister and Magaxine of Bio- 
graphy," u work which had been si arted at the 
commencement of the year with the view 
of supplying the place of the ' (ientleman's 
Mogozme' a-s a biograpliical record. It wus 
diucontiniicd at the close of the year. 

During his editorial labours Walford was 
also engaged in the publication of a series 
of biographical and genealogical works of 
reference. In 1855 appeareil ' Hardwicke's 
Shilling Baronetage and Knightage/ 'Hard- 




wicke's Shilling House of Commons,' and 
' Hardwicke's Shilling Peerage,' works which 
have since l>een issued annually. These were 
followedby other worksof a similar character. 
The most notable were the ' County Families 
of Great Britain,' issued in 1860, and the 
'Windsor Peerage,' issued in 1890. Ho 
edited ' Men of the Time ' in 1802. 

Wallord was an antiquary of some repu- 
tation. In 1880 he edited the 'Antiquary,' 
and in the following year, after relinquishing 
his appointment, he started a new periodical, 
entitled 'The Antiquarian Magazine and 
Bibliographer,' which he continued to edit 
till the close of 1886. From 1880 to 1881 
he was a member of the Archnjological As- 
sociation. He was also a meml>er of the 
ISoyal Archa?ological Institute of Great 
Britain and Ireland. He was on the council 
of the Society for l^serving the Memorials 
of the Dead, was one of the founders of the 
' Salon,' and a frequent contributor to ' Notea 
and Oueries.' He died at \'entnor in the Isle 
of Wight on 20 Nov. 1897. He married, 
first, on 3 Aug. 1847, Mary Holmes, daugh- 
ter of John Gray, at Clifton. By her he bad 
one daughter, Slary Louisa, married to Colin 
Campbell Wyllie. He married, secondly, on 
3 Feb. 1852, Julia Mary Christina, daughter 
of Admiral Sir John Talbot [q. v.] By her 
he left three sons ond two daughters. 

Besides the works already mentioned, 
Walford's chief publications were: 1. 'A 
Handbook of the Greek Drama,' London, 
1850, 8vo. 2. ' Records of the Great and 
Noble,' London, 1857, llimo. 3. 'Life of 
the Prince Consort,' London, 1861, 12mo. 
4. AVith George Waller Thornbury [q. v.l, 
' Old and New London,' London, 1872-8, 
6 vols. 8vo ; Walford's share being the last 
four volumes. 5. 'Louis Napoleon: a Bio- 
gn\phy,' London, 1873, 12mo. 6. ' Tales 
of our Great Families,' London, 1877, 2 vols. 
8vo; new edit. 1H90. 7. 'Pleasant Days in 
Pleasant Places," London, 1878, 8vo ; 3rd 
edit. 1885. 8. ' Londoniana,' London, 1879, 
2 vols. 8vo. 9. ' Life of Beaconsfield,' Lon- 
don, 1881. 12mo. 10. 'Greater I,ondon : a 
Narrative of its Hi.story, its People, and its 
Places.' London, 18.S1-4, 2 vols. 8vo. 11. 
'The Pilgrim at Home,' l^ndon, 1886, 
12mo. 12. 'Chapters from Familv Chests,' 
London, 1886, 8vo. 13. 'Edge llill : the 
1 Battle and Battlefield," Banbury, 1886, 8vo. 
14. 'The Jubilee Memoir of Queen Vic- 
toria,' London, 1887, Svo. 16. ' William 
I Pitt: a Biography,' London, ISfK), 8vo. 
16. ' Patient Griselda, and other Poems,' 
London, 1894, 8vo. 

He aliso edited : 1 . ' Butler's Analogy and 
Sermons ' ( Bohn's Standard Libr.) 2. ' Poli- 




Walford 



Walkelin 



tics an J Economics of Aristotle,' a new 
trttn8lation(Bohn'sCIassicalLibr.) 3. 'Eccle- 
siasticHl ?Iistory of Socrate?,' revised trans- 
lation (Holin'? Kcclcs. Libr.) 4. 'Eccle- 
siastical Ilistfiry of Soromen and the 
Ecclesiastical History of Pliilostorgius,' re- 
visiiJ translation (Bohn's Eccles. Libr. ) 
B. ' Ecciesia-stieal Iii?tory of Tlieo<loret and 
E vagri us,' rcrised t ranslation ( Bohn's Ecclcs. 
Libr.) 6. 'Poetical Works of Robert Iler- 
rick, with a Memoir,' London, 1H59, 8vo. 
7. ' Juvenal ' ('Ancient Classics for English 
Readers '), London, 1870, 8vo. 7. ' Speeches 
of Lord Erakine, with Life,' London, 1870, 
2 vols. 8vo. 

[BiogTBph, 187!). i, 436; Camden Pmtt's 
People of the Period ; Times, 22 ami 23 Nor. 
'1897; Uailj Chronicle, 23 Nor. 1897; Notes and 
iQucrico, 8th eer. xii. 440.] E. I. C. 

WALFORD, THOMAS (1752-1833), 
antiquary, horn on 14 Sept. 1762, was the 
only son of Thoraas Walford ((/. 1756) of 
Whitley, near Birdbrook in Essex, by his 
wife, Elizabeth Spcrgeon (rf. 1789) of Lin- 
ton in Cambridgeshire, lie was an officer 
in the Esses militia in 1777, and was ap- 
pointed deputy lieutenant of the county in 
1778. In March 171*7 ho was nominated 
captain in the provisional cavalry, and in 
May following was gazetted major. In Fe- 
bruary 1788 he was elected a fellow of the 
Society of Antiquaries, in t)ctober 1707 a 
fellow of the Linnean Society, in 1814 a 
member of the (iciilogicnl Society, and in 
1825 a fellow. In l^^Ks he publi.shed 'The 
Scientific TourisI through England, Wales, 
and Scotland' (LomJon, 2 vols. 12mo). In 
this work he noticed ' the principal objects 
of antiquity, art, science, and thcpicturestjue' 
in Great Britain, under the heads of the 
several counties. In an introductory essay 
he dealt with the study of antiquities and 
the elements of statistics, geology, mine- 
ralogy, and botany. The work i.i too com- 
prehensive to be exhaustive, and its value 
varies with Walford's jKjrsonal knowledge 
of the places he describes. 

Walford died at A\"hitley on 6 Atig. 1833. 
Ho published several papers on antiquarian 
subjects in antiquarian periodicals (e.g. Ar- 
cha-nlrtfiia , xiv. 24, xvi. 14.)— 'VO; Vftiista 
Mimumf^nta, iii. pt. .39 ; Liniienn Soc. Traits. 
lis. 15fi). and left several manuscripts, in- 
cluding a history of Birdbrook in Essex and 
another of Clare in Sussex. 

[Wright's Hist, of Essex, i. 611 ; Gent. Mag. 
1833, iu 469.] E. I. C. 

WALHOUSE. afterwards LmxETOS, 
"EDWAUD JOHN, first B.\ros Hathee- 
TOS (1791-1803). f.See Littleton.] 



"WALKDEN, l'ETEU(1684-1760),pres- 
byterianminister andduirist,tiorn at Flixton, 
near Manchester, on IG Oct. 1684, was edu- 
ooted at a village school, then at the academy 
of James Coninghara, minister of the pres- 
byterian chapel at Manchester, and finally 
at some Scottish university, where he gra- 
duated M.A. He entered his first mini- 
sterial charge on 1 May 1709 at Garsdale, 
Yorkshire, which he quitted at the end of 
1711 to become minister of two small con- 
gregations at Newton-in-Bowland and Hes- 
ketn Lane, near Chipping, in a poor and 
gparsely inhabited agricultural part of Lan- 
cashire. There he remained until 1738, 
when he removed to Iloleombe, near Bury 
in the same county. In 1744 ho was ap- 
pointed to the pastorate of the tabernacle, 
Stockport, Cheshire, and remained there 
tintil uis death on o Nov. 1769. He was 
buried in his own chapel, and his son 
Henry wrote a Latin epitaph for his grave- 
stone. 

His diary for the years 172.i, 1729, and 
1730, the onlv portion which has survived, 
was publisheii in 18(36 by William Holjson 
of Preston. It presents a vivid and curious 
picture of the hard life of a poor country 
minister of the period, and has suggested to 
Mr. Hall Caine some features of bis charac- 
ter of Parson Chri.st ian in the ' Son of Hagar.' 
Passages from his correspondence and com- 
monplace books liave also been printed by 
Mr. .lames Bromley in the 'Transactions' 
of the Historic Society of Lancashire and 
Cheshire (vols, xxxii. x.xxvi. xxxvii.) 

He was twice married : first, to Margaret 
Woodworth, who died in December 1715; 
his second wife's name is not known. lie 
had eight children, of whom one, Henry, 
was a mini.ster at Clitheroe, and died there 
on 2 .\pril 179.'). 

[Works cited ahove ; E. Kirk in Jlnachestor 
Lil."rury Club Papers, v. 56 ; Heginbothnm's 
Stockport, il. 300 ; Smiths History of Chip- 
piug, 1894; Nightingale's Laucn&hire Noncon- 
formity.] C. W. S. 

WALKELIN or WALCHELIN {d. 

10itt<), bishop of Winchester, was a Norman 
by birth, and is said to have been a kinsman 
of the Conqueror (Uudbome, in Wiiabtojt's 
Atijilia Sacra, i. 265, who also says that he 
WHS a famous doctor of theology of Paris). 
He was probably one of the clergy of the 
CJithedral church of Uouen,for Mauriliiis (rf. 
10t}7) knew him well and spoke highly of 
him, and he was one of William's clerks. On 
the deposition of Archbishop Stigand [q. v.] 
in 1070 ho was appointed by the king to the 
see of Winchester, which Stigand held in 



Walkelin 



4t 



Walkelin 



plurality, und was consecrated on SO ifny 
by the leg-ate Ermenl'rid. Tlie monks of St. 
'iwithun's were nt first displeased at having 
L foreign bishop eet over them, and, as a secu- 
lar, Walkelin at the outset of his episcopate 
vaj, by no mean.-i suti!ilii>d with his monastic 
chapter. He originattjd and headed a move- 
aent, that was joined by all the rest of the 
"^tishops belonging to the secular clergy, to 
displace the monks in the cathedral churches 
which had monastic chajiters and jjut canons 
in their places, and he and his party hoped 
to carrj' out this change even in Christ 
Church, Canterbury; for they held that, as it 
had metropolitan jurisdiction, it was un- 
worthy of its dignity that it should be in the 
mds of monks, and that in all cathedral 
thurehes canons would generally be more 
useful than monks. He brought the king to 
' to this change, and it only remained 
> gain the consent of Lanfranc [q. v.], which, 
'^Jbe had obtained the kings approval, 
Ad, he thought, be an easy matter, 
nfranc, however, was .strongly opposed 
the contemplated rhauge, and laid the 
alt«r before Alexander H (//. 1073), who 
ote a decided condemnation of it as regards 
Uanterburv, and ahso forbade it at Win- 
bester (£^ADMEIt, Ilinlurin Xncurum, col. 
157; LaxfraNC, Ep. 0; (Irata Ponlijicum, 
44 V \\'alk''lin was present at the coun- 
Pcils held by Lanfranc in 1072 and 1075. 
In l()7i* he began to build an entirely 
new cHthedral church on a vast scale; the 
^transepts of the present church are his 
I'work almost untouchinl. According to a 
story, i)robttbly true at least in the 
aain, he asked the king to give hira for his 
l>uilding as much timber from Ilempage 
rood, about three miles from Winchester, 
. the carpenters could cut down in three 
»ys and three nights. The king agreed, 
'and he collected together such a large num- 
ber of carpenters that they cut down the 
■whole wood within the prescribed time. 
Soon afterwards the king passed through 

»Hempage, and, finding bis wood gone, cried 
•Am I bewitched or gone crazy r* Surely 
I had a delightful wood hero .'' ' On being 
told of the bishop's trick, he fell into a rage. 
Walkelin, hearing of this, put on an old cape 
and went at once to the king's court at 
Winchester, and, falling at his feet, offered 
resign hi.< bishopric, asking only to be 
apiKiinted one of the king's clerks and 
stored to his favour. William wa.s a])peased, 
replied, ' Indeed, Walkelin, I am too 
odigal a giver, and you too greedy a re- 
.ver' (Aniiales de Ifintonin, nn. 1086). 
Walkelin whs employed by liufus in 
November or December 1088 to carry a 





summons to William of St. Calais fgee 
Cauilef], bishop of Durham, who was tnen 
at Southampton waiting for permission to 
leave tlie kingdom (MorKmlicon, i. 249), and 
in 1089 the king sent him with Gundulf 
[q. v.], bishop of Uochester, to punish the 
refractory monks of St. Augustine's. His 
new church was ready for divine service 
in 1093, and on 8 April, in the presence 
of nio.st of the bishops and abbots of the 
kingdom, the monks took posse.ssion of it. 
On the following St. Swithiin's day the 
relics of the saint were moved into it, and 
the ne.Tt day the demolit ion of the old minster, 
built by St. Kthelwold or .Kthetwold, was 
begun. Walkelin was present at the conse- 

I cration of Hattle Abbey on 11 Feb. 1094, in 
which year the king granted him St. Uiles's 
fair and all the rent.s belonging lo the king 
in Winchester. He attended the assembly 
held by the king at Windsor at Christ niiis 

i 1095, and while there visited William, bishop 
of Durham, on bis deathbed. .\l the coun- 
cil held at Winchester on l.'idct. 1097 he 
wuii on the king's side in tfie di.spute with 
.Vrchlii.shop .Vnselni [![. v.], whom he tried to 

^ dissuade from persisting in his demand for 
leave to go to Itome. When Kufus left 

' England in !*sovember, he appointed Walke- 
lin and Hanulf Flaiiibard [q. v.] joint 
regents. It is said that on Christmas day 
Walkelin received during the service rif the 
mass nn order from I he king to send him 
L'0<)/.immeilialely,and that, knuwingthat he 
could not raise that sum without ojqiressing 
the poor and robbing the church, he prayea 
to be delivered from this troublesome world. 
Ten days Inter be died, :! Jan. 1008 ; he 
was buried in his church, before the steps 
under the rood-loft. He was hmrned, wise, 
and pious, and so abstinent that he would 
eat neither fish nor flesh. The Winchester 
monks soon leartil lo regard hira with 

I affection; he added to the number of the 
convent and, besides raising a new and 
magnificent church, to the conventual build- 
ings; the western portal of his chapter-house 
still remains. The Winchester annalist only 

I records against him tliiit he approjiriated to 

I the bishopric three liiindred borates of land 
belonging to the convent, and says that he 
repented of so doing. 

Wnlkelin's brother Simeon, a monk of 

I St. I.luen's, whom he appointed prior of 
St. Swithun's, ruled the mona.stery well : he 
was appointed abbot of Ely in 1082, and 

' died in 1093, it is said in his hundredth 
year ( Anrmlea de Wintoniti, an. IOSl' ; Lilirr 
EtienftK, ii. c. 137). Gerard or (iirard 
( (/. 1 10f<) [q. v.], bishop of Hereford, and 
archbishop of York, was Walkelin's nephew. 



Walker 



42 



Walker 



[Aso. Je Wiuton, ap. Ana. Monust. vul. ii., 
Will, of Malmesbury's Geata Pontiff. (I^th Roll« 
Ser.); Ettdmer, Uisl'Nov.od.Migne; A.-S.Chron. 
App. ed. Plummer; Lanfranc's Epp. ed. Oilea; 
"Freemnn's Norman Conquest, <ind Will. Rufus ; 
Willis's Architect. Hist, of Winchester (Ari-hipol. 
Inst. 1846); Kitchin'a Winchester (llist. Towns 
«er.)] W. H. 

WALKER, AD.'UI (1731 ?-1821),aiitlior 
nnd inventor, born at I'atterdole in Wcat- 
morfland in 17.30 or 1731, was thu son of a 
woollen manufacturer. He was taken from 
school almost before he could read, but su])- 

fliedlackof instruction by unremitting study, 
le borrowed books, built for himself a hut 
in a secluded spot, and occupied his leisure 
ill constructing models of neighbouring corn 
mills, paper mills, and falling mills. His 
reputation as a student at the age of fifteen 
procured him the post of usher at Ledshara 
school in the West Kiding of Yorkshire. 
Three years later he was appointed writing- 
master and accountant at the free school at 
Macclesfield, where he studied mathematics. 
He also made some ventures in trade which 
were unsuece«.^ful, uiid lectured on astronomy 
at Manchester. The success of his lectures 
encouraged him, after four years at Maccles- 
field, to set up a seminary at Manchester on 
his own account. This, however, he gave 
up B little later for the purpose of travelling 
a-s a lect urer in natural philosophy, and, after 
visiting most of the great towns in Great 
Britain and Ireland, he met Joseph Westley 
v.], who induced him to lecturer in the 



ft 



aymarket iu 1778. Meeting with success, 
he took a house in George Street, Hanover 
Square, and rend lectures every winter to 
numerous audiences. He was engaged as 
lecturer by the provost of Eton College, 
Edward Hiirnard, whose example was fol- 
lowed by the beads of Westminster, Win- 
chester, and other publio schools. 

Walker amii.seJ bis leisure by perfecting 
various mechanical invent ions. .Vmongothers 
he devised engines for raising water, car- 
riages to go by wind and steam, a road mill, 
a. machine for watering land, and a dibbling 
plough. He also planned the rotatory light.s 
on the .Scilly Isles, erected on St. Agnes' 
Island in 1790 under his per.sonal superin- 
tendence. On 29 .Fuly 17/'2 he took out a 
patent (No. 10:?0) for an im]iriived harpsi- 
chord, called the ' Ocelestinii,' which wns 
capabli' of producing continuous tones. On 
21 Feb. 17sii, by another patent (No. 1533), 
he tntroduc'eil a method of therrao-veutiln- 
tion, on lines formerly proposed bv Saniue! 
Sutton, on l(i Miircb 1744 (patent "No. 602), 
with whose ideas, however. Walker was un- 
acquainted. He proposed to ventilate as 



well as heat a house without expense by 
means of a kitchen fire. His method, though 
economically fallacious, was not without in- 
genuitv. 

Wallier also constructed an ' eidouranion,' 
or transparent orrery, which he used to illus- 
trate his astronomical lectures. These were 
published in pamphlet form, under the title 
' An Epitome of .Vstronomy.' and reached a 
twenty-sixth edition in 1617. Walker died 
at Richmond in Surrey on 11 Feb. 1821. A 
medallion portrait by James Tassie is in the 
National Portrait Gallery, Edinburgh. 

His chief works were: 1. 'Analvsis of 
Course of Lectures on Natural and Experi- 
mental Philosophy,' 2nd edit. [Manche-iter, 
1771?], Hvo; 12th edit. London, 1H02, 8vo. 
2. ' A Philosophical Estimate of the Causes, 
Effect, and Cure of Unwholesome Air in 
large Cities' [London], 1777, 8vo. 3. * Ideas 
suggested on the spot in a late Excursion 
through Flanders, Germany, France, and 
Itjily,' London, 1790, 8vo." 4. ' Hemarks 
made in a Tour from London to the I^kes 
of Westmoreland and Cumberland,' London, 
1702, 8vo. 5. 'A System of Familiar Phi- 
losophy,' London, 17W, 8vo ; new edit. Lon- 
don, 1802, 2 vols. 4to. He was the author of 
several articles in the ' Philosophical Maga- 
zine' and in Young's 'Annols of Agriculture.' 
Walker had three sons — William ; Adam 
John, rector of Bedston in Shropshire ; and 
Ueane Franklin— and one daughter, Eliia 
(fl. 1856), who was married to Benjamin 
Gibson of Gosport, Hamp.shire. 

His eldest son, WiLr,i.\M Walkeb(1767 ?- 
181tj), born in 1766 or 1707, assisted hi* 
father in his astronomical lectures, and died 
before him, on 14 March 1816, at the manor- 
house, Haye.s, .Middlesex, leaving a widow 
I and children (Oenl. Mag. 1816, i. 374). 

Hi.'i youngest son, Deaxe Fbaskus 

I Walkek (I77H-18(l."j), born at Y'ork on 

24 March 177H, after the death of his brother 

j William coultnupd his father's lectures at 

Eton, Harrow, mid Kugby, as well as his 

]iopular discourse.^ in London. He died in 

rpj)er Tooting, Surrey, on 10 May 1865. 

By his wife, the daughter of Thomas Nor- 

I mansell, he left three daughters {ib. 18S6, 

ii. 113). 

[Gent. Mag. IS'il, i. 182; Allibone's Diet, of 
Kngl. Lit. ; WooJley's View of the Scilly Isles, 
18'22, p. 3111; Bernan's Hist, and Art of Warm- 
ing and Ventilating, 184S, ii. 14-10.] E. I. C. 

WALKER, ALEXANDER (1754- 

1831), brigadier-general, born on 12 May 

1764, was ibe eldest son of William AValker 

(1737-1771), minister of Collessie in Fife, 

I by his wife Margaret (rf. 1810), daughter of 



Walker 



Walker 



I 



N 



^ 
^ 



^Art 

Pi 



Patrick Mander8ton,an Edinbiirgli merchant, 
lie wosuTipointed a cadet inlheseniceof the 
!EaGt India Company in 1780. lie went to 
India in the same ship as the physician 
lleleniis So.olt [q. v.], with whom he formed 
a lifelong friendship. On 21 Nov. 1782 he 
became an ensign, and in the gome year took 
part in t he campaign imder Brigadipr-general 
Kichard Mathews directed against Hyder 
Ali's forts on the coast of Malabar. He was 
pre.'ent with the Sth battalion at Mangalore 
during the siege by Tippoo, and offered him- 
self as a hostage on the surrender of the 
fortress on 30 Jan. 1784. In recompense for 
the danger he incurred he received the pay and 
allowance of captain from the Bombay go- 
veminent while in the enemy's hands. Some 
time afterwards he was appointed to the mili- 
tary command in an exjwaition undertaken by 
the Bombay government with a view to 
establishing a military and commercial port 
on the north-west coast of .America, whence 
the Chinese were accustomed to obtain furs. 
After e.\ploring as far north as 63°, however, 
and remaining awhile at Nocitka Sound, the 
enterprise was abandoned, and Walker re- 
joined the grenadier battalion in garriiion at 
Bombay. On 9 Jan. 17H8 he received a 
lieutenancy, and in 17iK) sene<l under Colo- 
nel Jame.s Hartley [i). v.l as adjutant of the 
line in the expe(iition sent to the relief of 
the rajah of Travancore. In 1701 he (served 
under General Sir IJnbert .\l>ercromliy [ij. v.] 
as adjutant of the 10th native infantry during 
the campaign against Tii)poo. After the 
conclusion of the war a jpecial commission 
wag nominated to regulate the afliiirs of the 
province of Malabar, and Walker was ap- 
pointed an assi.slant. In this capacity he 
•howed ability, became known to the Indian 
•uthorities, and received the thanks of the 

arquis Wellesley. When the commander- 
in-chief of the Bombay army. General James 

luart [see under Stuart, Jamks, d. 1703], 

ie<led to Malabar, Walker became his 

secretary with the brevet rank of 

in. On ((Sept. 1797 he attained the regi- 

ental rank of captain, and in the .same year 
Was appointed qiuirtermaster-general of the 
Bombay army, which gave him the oflieial 
rank o< major. In 1708 he became deputy 
auditor-^neral. He took part in the last 
war against Tippoo, and was present at the 
battle of Seedaseer in 1709 and at the siege 
of Seringapatara. At the request of Sir 

rthur Wellesley, ho was selected, on ac- 

unt of his knowledge of the countrj', to at- 

ad the commanding officer in Mysore and 

alabar. 

In 1800 Walker was despatched to Giize- 
rat by the Bombay government with a view 





to tranqiiillising the Mahratta stAtes in that 
neighbourhood. His reforms were hotly 
oppo.sed at Baroda by the native officials, 
who were interested in corruption. The dis- 
content culminated in 1801 in the insurrec- 
tion of -Mulhar Kao, the chief of Kurrec. 
Walker took the Held, but, being with- 
out sufficient force, cniild do little until rein- 
forced by Colonel Sir William Clarke, who 
on 30 .\pril 1802 defeated .Mulhar Uao 
under the walls of Kurree. In June Walker 
was appointed political resident at Bnrodaat 
the court of the guikwar, and in this capa- 
city succeeded in establishing an orderly ad- 
ministration. On 18 Dec. 1803 he attained 
the regimental rank of major, and in 1805 
gained the approbation of the East India 
Company by negotiating a defensive alliance 
with the guikwar. In 1807 he restored 
order in the district of Katfywar, and with 
the 8\ipport of Jonathan Duncan (1756- 
1811 )[q, v.], governor of Bombay, suppressed 
the habit of infanticide which prevailed 
among the inhabitants. On 3 Sept. 1608 he 
attained the rank of lieutenant-colonel, and 
in 1800, after he lind embarked for England, 
he was recalled to Oiizerat to repel an in- 
vasion by Futtee Singh, the ruler of Cut<;h. 
Order was restored by his exertions, and in 
1810 he proceeded to England. In 1812 he 
retired ft-om the service. In 1822 he woa 
called from his retirement, with the rank of 
brigadier-general, to the government of St. 
Helena, then under the East India Company. 
He proved an active administrator, lie im- 
proved the agriculture and horticulture of 
the island by establishing farming and gar- 
dening societies, founded schools and libra- 
ries, ond introduced the culture of silk- 
worms. Ho died at Edinburgh on ."J March 
1831, soon alter retiring from his govern- 
ment. On 12 July 1811 he married Barbara 
(rf. 1831), daughter of Sir James Mont- 
gomery, bart., of Stanhope, I'eeblessbire. By 
her he Lad two sons : Sir William Stuart 
AN'alker, K.C.B., who succeeded to the 
estate of Idiwland in Edinburgh and Sel- 
kirk, wliii-li his father had purchased in 
18t)!); and James Scott. Walker, captain in 
the 88th regiment. While in India Alex- 
ander Wulker formed a valuable collection 
of Arabic, I'eraian.nnd Sanscrit manuscripts, 
which was jiresetited by his son Sir William 
in 1S4.'> to the Bodleian Library, where it 
forms a distinct collection (Macray, Annals 
of the IJuilleian Lilir. pp. 347-8). 

[Annual Biogr. and Obitnory, 1832, pp. 24- 
60; Gent. Mag. 1831, i. 468; Grant DufTs His- 
tory of the Mahratlos, 1873, pp. 662, 863, 626; 
DoJwell and Milcs's Indian Army List ; Burke's 
Landed Gentry.] E. I. C. 



J 



Walker 



44 



Walker 



WALKER, Sir ANDREW BARCLAY 

( 18:^4-1 H93), benefactor of Li veqiool.aecoiid 
L«on of Peter Walker (rf. 1870) uuii liis wife 
I Mar}', eldest dntigliter of Arthur Carlaw of 
Ayr, was born at Ayr on 15 Dec. 1824. He 
was educated at Ayr Academy and at the 
Liverjiool Institute. His father was a brewer 
at Liverijool and afterwards at Warrington, 
and in due time was joined in the business 
by his son, who acquired great wealth. .Vii- 
drew entered the Liverjxjol town council in 
1807, served the oflice of mayor in 187;( -1, 
in 1875-6, and in 1870-7, and wii« high 
sherifl'of Lanciishire in 1880. lie built the 
Walker art giiUery at a cost of upwards of 
I 40,000/., and presented it to the town. It 
was opened in 1877. He also provided, at 
the cost of I'OjOOO/., the engineering labora- 
tories in connection with the Liverpool L'ni- 
versity College, and spent other hirge sums 
in charity and in fostering art and literatur*'. 
To the village of ( iateJicre, near Liverpool, 
[he gave a village green and an institute, 
library, inid reading-room. In r(>eognitioii uf 
Lis puijiic services he was knighted on 
12 Dec. 1877, and created biironet on 12 Feh. 
I 188(J. Liverpool mude him her first honorary 
freeman in .Jnnuary 181X), and in December 
the same year lie was pri'sented with his 
portrait, painted by Mr. W. tj. Urchardsou. 
He died at his residence, (lateacre (Jrange, 
on 27 Keb. 1W3. He was twice married: 
first, in 18o3,toEliza, daughter of John Ueid; 
and, secondly, to .Maude, daughter of Charles 
Houghton Okeover of ( >keover, Stafi'ordshire, 
She survived him. By his first wife he had 
six sons and two daughters, and was suc- 
ceeded in the baronetcy by Lis eldest son, 
I'eter Carluw. 

[Maiichestpr Guardian, 28 Feb. 1893; Illus- 
trated London News, 4 March 1803, with por- 
trait (an earlier portrait is given in tht'SJime 
journHl, 20 Dw. 1873); Biograph, iv. 461; 
Burke's Peerage and BaronelJigc. J C. W. S. 

WALKER, AJS'THONY ( 172f>-17(l5), 
draughtsman and engraver, was burn at 
Thirsk in Yorkshire in 1720, the son of a 
tailor. Coming to Jjondon, he studied draw- 
ing at the St. Jlartin's Lane academy, and 
was insiructed in engraving by John Tiuney 
[q. v.] He was a clever artist, and became 
well known by his small book-illustrations, 
which were neatly executed from bis own 
designs. He also engraved for liny dell some 
large single plates, of which f he bivsl are ' The 
Angel departing frum Tobil and his Family,' 
after Reuibnmdt ; 'The Country .Vltorney 
and his Clients,' from a picture attributed to 
Holbein; 'Denlatus refusing the J'resents 
of the Samnites,' after P. da Cortona ; and 



'Law' and ' Medicine,' a pair, after A. van 
(Istade. 'I'heso were exhibited with the In- 
corporated Society of Artists in 1763-.'). 
Walker engraved the figures in Woollett's 
celebrated platr- of 'Niobe.' He died at 
Kensington on H May 1765, and was buried 
in the parish churchvard. 

WiiLUM W.\i.KKK (1729-1793), brother 
of .'Vnthony, was bom at Thirsk in November 
172!>, and apprenticed to a dyer. Subse- 
quent ly he followed his brother to London, 
and was taught engraving by him. He ex- 
celled in his book-illustrations, which are verr 
numerous, and was employed upon Sandby s 
' Views in England un<l Wales,' Throsby's 
' ^'iews in Leicnslershire,' and Harrison's 
' Classics.' For Boydell he executed a few 
large plates wLicli were less successful. 
These include ' Sir Baltliasar Qerbier and bis 
Family,' after Van Dyck, 1700; ' Diana and 
Calisto,' after Le .Moine, 17li7; 'The Power 
of Beauty," after P. Lauri, 1707 ; and ' Lions 
at Play,' after Rubens, 170'.l. Walker de- 
vised the practice of re-biting, of which 
Woollett made great use. He died in Uoso- 
man Street, (.Herkenwell. on 18 Feb. 1793. 

JouK W\LKEH ( fl. IKK)), son of William, 
became a landscai>e-engTaver, and assisted 
his father on many of his plates. He is 
known as tlie projector and editor of the 
' Cupper Plate Slagazine, or Monthly Cabinet 
of Picturesque Prints, consisting of Views 
iu Great Britain aiul Ireland,' 1792-1802, 
most of the plates in which were executed 
by himself. A selection from the earlier 
vol limes of this work was issued in a ditl'erent 
form by Walker in 1799, with the title ' TLe 
Itinerant.' 

[Uedgravo's Diet, of .\rtists; Dodd's manu- 
script Hist, of Knglish Engravers in British 
Museum (Addit. MS. 33407) ; Gent. Mag 1798, 
1. 279.] F. M. O'D. 

WALKER, Sir BALDWIN W.\.KE 

(1802 1870). admiral, son of John Walker 
of Whitehaven (d. lt<22), by Frances, daugh- 
ter of Captain Drury Wake of the 17th 
dragoons, and niece of Sir William Wake, 
eighth baronet, was born on Jan. 1802, 
He entered the navy in July 1812, was made 
a lieutenant on Ajiril 1820, and served for 
two years on the Jamaica station, then for 
three years on the coast of South America 
and the west coast of .\frica. In 1827 he 
went out to the Mediterranean in the Rattle- 
snake, and in 1828 was first lieutenant of 
the Etna liomb at the reduction of Kastro 
Moreu [seeLt'SHiNoiON, SirStephej?]. For 
this service he received the cross of the 
Legion of Honour and of the Redeemer of 
Greece. He continued in the Mediterranean, 



Walker 



45 



Walker 



serving in the Asia, Britwinia.and nnrham, 
and was mode commftnder on lo July 1>*'M. 
In that rank he served in the Viinpunrd, in 
the Mediterranean, from September 1886 till 
his promotion to post rank on 2-1 Nov. 1838. 
By permission of the adminihv he then ac- 
cepted a command in the Turliish navy, in 
which he was known at first a« Walker Bey, 
and afterwords as Yavir Pasha. In July 
1&40 the (.'apitan Pasha took the fleet to 
Alexundriaand delivered it over to Mehemet 
Ali, who then refused to let it (jo. Walker 
«umm<:ined the Turkish captains to a council 
of war, and jiroposed to them to land in the 
night, surround the pala^'e, carry oft" Mehemet i 
Ali, and .^end him to Constantinople. Tliis 
would probably have been done had not 
Mehemet Ali meantime consented to let the 
ships go ( Memoirs of Ilenry Itfevr, i. 285- , 
tJ8«J). Walker afterwards commanded the 
Turkish squadron at the reduction of Acre 
Cseo Stopfobd, Sib Kobebt], for which .«er- 
\'ice he was nominated a K.C. H. on 12 Jan. 
^1841 ; he also received from the allie<l sove- 
eigns the second class of the Iron Crown of 
'Austria, of St. Anne of Uu.ssia, and of the 
llt'd Eagle of Prussia. I 

Returning to England in 1845, he com- j 
anded the Queen ns flag-captain to Sir 
lohn West at Devonport, and in 1846-7 the 
I^onstunce frigate in tlie Pacific, From lft48 I 
Fto 1860 he was surveyor of the navy; he 
'-was created a baronet <m 19 July 1866; lie 
^became a rear-admiral in January 1858, and 
[in February 18(51 was appointed commnnder- 
lin-chief at the Cape of Good Hope, whenw 
lie returned in 1864. He became vice-ad- 
airal on 10 Feb. 1 86.'), and adrainil on 27 Feb. 
13870. He died on 12 Feb. 187(1. He married, 
ion J» Sept. 1834, Mary Catherine (./. 1889), 
[only daughter of Captain John Worth, K.N., 
land had issue. His eldest son. Sir Baldwin 
|W»ke W'aUter, the present baronet, is a cup- 
in the navy, and at the present lime 
1(1899) assistant director of torpedoes; his 
Icecond son, Charles, was lost iu the Captain 
'^on 7 Sept. 1870. 

[O'Byrne's Nanil Biogr. Diet.; Times, 15 Feb. 
1876; NnryLisU; Darke's Peenige, 1895.] 

J. K. L. 

WALKER, Sib CHAHLES PYNPAU 
BEArCHAMP (1817-1804). general, bom 
j-onTf^lct. 1817, was eldest son of Charles Lud- 
llow Walker, J. P. and D.L. of Gloucester- 
lihire, of Redlaiid, near Bristol, by Mary 
lAnne, daughter of Uev. Keginald Pyndar of 
or, Worcestershire, and Kempley, 
lloocestershire, cousin of the first Earl 
PBeauchamp. \\<^ was a commoner at Win- 
I Chester College from 1831 to 1833 (.Holoatk, 



Wtnehester Commontrt, p. 32). He wos 
commissioned as ensign in the 33rd foot on 
27 Feb. 1836, became lieutenant on 21 June 
1S;J9, and ctiptuiu on 22 Dec. 1846. He 
served with that regiment at Gibraltar, in 
the West Indies, and in North America. 
On Iti Nov. 1840 he exchanged into the 7tll 
dragoon guards. 

On '2') .March 18.54 he was oppointod aide- 
<le-camp to Lord Lucun, who commanded 
the cavalry division in the army sent to the 
East. He wiLS present at Alma, Balaclava, 
and Inkerman, and was mentioned in des- 
patches ( T^onrfon Gazette, 17 Nov. 1854). In 
the middle of October he was ordered on 
board ship for a change, and this enabled him 
to Iw pn?aent at the naval attack on Sebajst i>|iol 
on 17 Oct., where he acted a« aide-de-camp 
toLordGeorgePaulet on board the Bellero- 
phon. He was given the modal for naval 
service, as well as the Crimean medul with 
four clasps, the Turkish medal, and (he 
Me<ljidie (fifth cla.ss). 

(Jn 8 Dec. 1854 he was promoted major 
in his regiment, and in anticipation of this 
he left the Crimea at the beginning of that 
month. He was appointed assistant quar- 
tormaster-gsneral in Ireland on 9 July 1-865, 
and on 9 Nov. he was given an unattached 
lieutenant-<!olonelcy. On 7 Doc. l8.")8 he 
became lieulenant-cutonel of the 2ud dra- 
goon guards. He joined that regiment in 
India, and took part in the later operations 
for the suppression of the mutiny. He com- 
manded a field force in Ou<lh, with which 
he defeated the rebels at Bangaon on 
27 April 1859, and a month afterwards 
shared iu the action of the Jirwab Paaa 
under Sir Hope Grant. He was mentioned 
in despatches (ioiirf. fliiz. 22 July and 2 Sept. 
1859), and received the medal. 

From India he went on to China, being 
appointed on 14 .May I StH) assist ant quarter- 
master-general of cavalry in Sir Hope (iranl'a 
expedition. He was present ut the actions of 
Siuho, Chankiawan, and Pslikao. In the ad- 
vance on Pekin it fell to him togo on ahead to 
select the ciimping-grouiuls, and on 16 Sept., 
when Sir Ilarrj- Smith Parkes [a. v.], and 
others were treacherously seized (luring the 
truce, he narrowly ejtcaped. While waitiug 
for Parkes outside Tungchow ha sow a 
French oflicer attacked by the Chinese and 
went to his assistance. Ilis sword waa 
snatched fmrn him, and several men tried to 
pull him otr his horse, but he shook them 
olf, and gattoped back to the British camp 
with his porty of five men under a fire of 
small arms and artillery. He was men- 
tioned in despatches, received the medal 
with two clasps, ond was made C.B. on 



: 



Walker 

28 Feb. 1861. He had become colonul in 
the iinuy on 1 4 Dec. 1800. 

Having returned to England, ho went on 
half-imy on 11 June 1861, and on 1 July 
was appointed assistant quartermoster- 
generiU nt Shornclillu. He remained there 
till ;!1 March 18«.">. On 26 April he was 
madi* military attachfi to the embassy nt 
Berlin, and he held that post for nearly 
twelve years. In the Austro- Prussian war 
of 1806 he waa attoched to the headquarters 
of the crown prince's army as British mili- 
tary commissioner ; he witnessed the buttles 
of Kachod and Kiini^ffrat;!, and received the 
medal. The order of the red eagle (second 
class) was offered him, but he wns not able 
to accept it. He was again attached to the 
crown prince's army in the Franco-German 
war of 1870-1, and was present nt Weissen- 
burg, Wiirth, Sedan, and throughout the 
siege of Paris. He was given the medal 
and the iron cross. The irritation of the 
Germnns egiiinsl Kngland and the number 
of roving Englishmen made his duty not 
an easy one; but he was well ijiialifii'd for 
it by his tict and geniality, and his action 
met with the full approval of the govern- 
ment. 

He was promoted mnjor-genoral on 

29 Dec. 1873, his nink being afterwards 
antedate<l to 6 March 1K()K. He resigned 
his post at Berlin on '-il Mureh 1877, and 
became lieutenant-general on 1 Oct. On 
19 .Jan. 1878 he waa made inspector-general 
of military education, and In; \u-Ul tliat ap- 
pointment till 7 Oct. 1884, when he was 
placed on the retired list with the honorary 
rank of general. He hiul been made K.C.H. 
on 34 May 1881, and colonel of the 2nd 
dragoon guards on 22 Dec. in that year. He 
died in London on 19 Jan. 1894, and was 
buried in Brompton cemetery. | 

He had murrii-d in 1S4.'> Gcorgiana, 
daughter of Captiiin Kichnrd Armstrong of 
the lOOtli foot, .^he survived him. 

Ill' piibli-ihed: 1. 'The Organisation and 
Tactics of the Cavalrv Division ' (52 pp.) 
2. A translation of Major-gen»'rnI von j 
Schmidt's ' Instructions for Begiment? tak- | 
ing part in the Manoiui-res of n Cavalry , 
Division ; ' both of them in 1876, London, 
8vo, Extracts frjm his letters and journals 
during active sen'ico were published after 
liis death under the title ' Days of a Soldier's 
Life ■ (London, 18114), and contain much 
that is of general as well as of personal in- 
tere.st, especially in regard to the German 
wars. 

[Days of a Soldier's Life; StAndard, 22 Jan. 
1894 ; Official Army List, January 1884 ; private 
information.] E. M. L. 



46 



Walker 



' WALKER, CHARLES %T:XCENT 

(1812-1882), electrical engineer, born in 
1812, was educated as an engineer. As 
early as 1838 he recognised the importance 
of the study of the science of electricity, and 
took an active part in the newlv formed 
London Elect rical Society, of whiclj he was 
appointed secretary in 1843. He first ac- 
quired a reputation in 1841 by completing 
the second volume and editing the entire 
manuscript of Dionysius Lardner's ' Manual 
of Electricity, Magnetism, and Meteorologr,' 
which formed part of his Cabinet CyelopiEdia. 
From 184o to 1840 he acted as editor of the 
' Electric Magazine,' and in 1845 he was np- 
jiointed electrician to the South-Eastem 
Railway Company, a post which he held till 
' his death. During his connection with the 
company he introduced many improvements 
in the railway system, among others an ap- 
paratus to enable passengers to communicate 
with the guard, for which he took out a. 
patent (No. 347) on 5 Feb. 1866; and a 
' train describer,' for indicating trains on a 
distant dial, jMxtented on 24 March 1876 
( No. 1026). 

Walker also interested himself in subma- 
rine telegraphy, and on 13 Oct. 1848 sent the 
first suhniarine measage from a ship two 
miles off Folkestone to London Bridge, the 
shoni end of the cable being connected with 
a land line. In 1843 he assisted James 
I (ilai.-lier and George Biddell Airy, the as- 
tronomer royal, to introduce a system of 
time signals, which were tran.smitted from 
the royal observatory at Greenwich to various 
local centres by means of telegraph wires, an 
improvement of considerable benefit to com- 
merce and navigation (Nntur/;\iv. oO, 110). 
On 7 June 1855 he was elected a fellow of 
the Royal Society ; on 8 Jan. l.?58 a fellow 
of till' Royal .\st ronomical Society; in 1870 
he filled the oHiee of president of the Sixjiety 
of Telegraph Engineers and of Electrician*; 
and in 1869 and 1870 he was president of 
the Meteorological Society, of which he had 
been elected a member on 4 June 1850. 
Walker died at his residence at Tunbridge 
Wells on 24 Dec. 1882. 

He was the author of: 1. 'Electrotype 
Manipulation,' 2 parts, London, 1841, 8to; 
pt. i. 24th edit. ia50; pt. ii. 12th edit. 1849. 
2. ' Electric Telegraph Manipulation,' Lon- 
don, 1850, 8vo. These works were trans- 
lated into French and German. He edited 
Jeremiah Joyce's ' Scientific Dialogues' (Lon- 
don, 1846, 8vo), and translated Ludwig 
Friedrich Kaemtz's ' Complete Course of 
Meteorology' (London, 1845, 12mo), and 
Auguste do La Rive's ' Treatise on Electri- 
city ' (London, 185S-8, 3 vols. 8vo). 



Walker 



47 



Walker 



[Telegraph Joumril and Electricnl Biivicw 
J88a, xi). 16; Monthly Noticfa of tho Roynl 
Aetron. Soc. 1882-3, xliii. 182; EnBint-ering. 
1883, xxxr. 18; Quarterly JoumnI nf the Me- 
teorolopiail Soc. 1383, ix. 99; Jonrnul of Soc. of 
Tclesrniph EnRineeni, 1883, xii. I.) E. 1. C. 

WALKER, CLEMENT (rf.l6.-,l).autlior 

of the • IliftoTV of Independency,' was 

born nt Cliffe in Dorset, and is said lo 

have be«>n educated at Chri-st Church, 

OTford, but his name does not appear in 

the matriculation Higister (Wood, Athfna 

OjxtHiVr/w, iii. 291"). In 1611 he became a 

student of the Middle Temple, beinf{ d(!- 

««ribt?d as son and heir of Thomas Walker, 

esq., of Westminster (Foster, Alumni 

OjTonienifi, i. 1550). Before the civil war 

began Walker was made usher of the 

exchequer, an office which he held till 

Fehruarj- 1(>50 {Thr Care between ('. iVnller, 

S*q., and Ilmiifihrey Edirardf, ItioO, lol. ; 

The C(ue of Mr^. Maty Walker, 16G{), fol.) 

Walker had an estate at Charterhouse, near 

Wells, and was reputed to be an enemy to 

puritans ; but on the outbreak of the war 

■he espoused the piirliamentary cause, and 

I April 164.'} bet-ume a- membi-r of 

e parliamentary committee for Somerset 

IfsUANn, Onlinnnref, ItMC, p. iO). Me 

advocate to the court-martial which 

emned Yeomans and Dourchier for 

eking: to betray Bristol to Prince Rupert, 

id was at first a strong supporter of 

olonel Nathaniel Fiennes as governor of 

city (Wood, iii. 1*92; The ttco State 

\tartyri, 164.3, p. 11 ; Setiib, Memoirs of 

trittol, ii. 330, 34S, 374 S>). After the 

Isarrender of Bristol by Fiennes to Prince 

Walker became his moat bitter 

neiny, co-operated with Prynne in piiblish- 

pamphlets against him, and finally 

nin?d his condemnation by a court-martial. 

of these pamphlets ('An Answer to 

olonel N. Fiennes's Kelation concerning his 

■nderof Bristol ') W83 complained of by 

Say to the House of Lords on the 

Bund that it impugned his reputation. 

Walker waa consequently arrested, brought 

■fore the house, fined 100/., and ordered to 

,y •500/. damages to Lord Say. He refused 

make the 8ubmi.s.sion that was also 

lemunded, alleging that it was against the 

jrty of the subject, and that, as he was a 

Doner and a member of a committee 

nted by the House of Commons, he 

ght not to he judged by the lords without 

heard also by tho lower house. For 

kkis contumacy he was sent to the Tower 

(7 Oct. 1643), but released on bail (2 Nov.) 

he had petitioned the commons and 

ttised his articles against Fiennes to be 



presented to them (Ix>rdf' Joumnlt, vi. 232, 
240, 247. 2(.W. 282, 362 ; Cummons Journals, 
iii. 274, 311 ; The tnw Cniuvs of the Com- 
mitment nf Mr. C. H'alker to the Toiper, 
iai3, fol.) 

Walker was elected member for Wells 
about the close of 1046, and gjieedily made 
himself notorious by hi.s hostility to the 
independents (Jteturruof Sames of Members 
<if J'orlinment, i. 493). After the triumph 
of tlie army over the prcsbyterians he was 
accused of being one of the instigators of 
the London riots of 2(1 July lt>47. It was 
deposed to the committee of examination 
'that an elderly gentleman of low stature, 
in a grey suit, with a little stick in hi* 
hand, came forth of the house into the 
lobby when tho tumult was at the parlia- 
ment door, and whispered some of the 
apprentices in the e*r, and encouraged them.' 
Walker denied he was tho man, asserting 
that he had lo.st his health and spent 7,000/. 
in the parliament's cause, and ought not to 
be suspected on so little evidence. He 
describes himself in his history as opposed 
to all factions, both presbyterians ana inde- 
pendents, and never a member of any 
'juntos' or secret meetings (Hilton/ "f Inde- 
ppiuienci/, ed. 1601, i. /i.'t-G). In his 'Mys- 
tery of the Two Juntos,' published in 1647, 
he attacked with great vigour and acrimony 
tho corrupt ion of parliamentary govenxment 
which the Long parliament's assumption of 
all power had produced. 

In December 1(!48 Walker was one of 
the members who voted the king's conces- 
sions sufficient ground for an agreement 
with him, and was consequently erpelled 
from the house by ' Pride's Purge ' (II Dec. 
1648). He remained under nrre.<>t for about 
a month, which did not prevent him from 
publishing a protest against the king's trial 
( Old I'arlinmentan/ History, xviii. 468, 477). 
On the publication of tho second part of 
his ' History of Independency ' parliament 
ordered AA'alker's arrest and the seizure of 
his papers (24 Oct. 1649). A few davs 
later (13 Nov.) he was committed to the 
Tower to be trii-d for high treason (C'iMJimon*' 
Journals, vi. 312, 322; Masson, Ltfe of 
Milton, iv. 121, 147; Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1649- .50, p. 560). Walker was never 
brought to trial, but remained a prisoner in 
the 'Tower until his death in October 10.51. 
He was buried in tho church of All Hallows, 
Barking (Wood, iii. 292 ; cf. AiTBREr, Lives, 
ed. Clark, ii. 273). 

By his first wife, Frances, Walker had 

three sons — Thomas (6. 1626), Anthony 

(ft. 1629), Pet«r (4. 1631), bom at Cliffe, 

I Dorset (AVood, iii. 296). Another son, 



Walker 



48 



Walker 



John, who matriculated at Lincoln College, 
(Jxford, 8 Dec. lOoti, jjave Wood somo 
particulars about hie father (Foster, Alumni 
O.rotiiennet, i. loo"). 

WalktT was the author of: 1. 'The 
several Examinatinns ami CoufessionB of 
the Treacherous Conspirators a(j[ainst the 
City of Bristol,' 1043, 4to (see Seter, 
Memoirs of lirittol, ii. 297, 384, 368). 
'i. 'The true Ciiuses of the Coramitraent 
of Mr. C. Walker to the Tower.' 3. 'The 
Petition of Cleraeiit Walker and William 
Prynne.' These two are folio brnndsides 
printed in It5i3. 4. ' An answer to Culmiel 
N. Kiennes'.H Iti-lution concerning the Sur- 
render of }!ristol,' 1(U.'3, 4to. 5. "Articles 
of Impeachment exhibited to Parliament 
against Colomd N, Fieiines by C. Walker 
Mi<] W. Prvnne,' 1643, 4tf>. (5. 'A true 
and full Iit'liilion of the Prosecution, Trial, 
aud Condemnation of Colonel N. Fiennes,' 
1044, 4to ( by I'rvnno and Walker togelher). 

7. 'The Mv.stery of the two Juiitus, Presby- 
terian aud tndepeiideni,' 1047, 4to ( reprinted 
asa preface ti) the* 1 list' iryof Independency"). 

8. 'The History of Independency, with the 
Rise, ( irowth. and Practices of that power- 
ful and restless Faction,' 1648, 4to (part i.) 

9. 'A List of the Names of the Member.^ 
of the House of Commons, observing which 
are Officers of the Army contniry to the 
Self-denying Ordinance,' ll)48, 4to ; sub- 
sequently incorporated in part i. of the 
' History of Indepeiideney.' 10. ' \ De- 
claration and I'rotestutiou of W. I'rynne 
and C. Walker against the Proeeediug-s of 
the General and (General Council of the 
Army,' 1049, fol. 11. ' Si.x serious Queries 
concerning the King'.s Trial ' (this aud the 
preceding are both reprinted in the second 
part of the ' History of Independency '). 
12. ' Anarchia Anglicana, or the History 
of Independency, the second part,' 1(54(1, 4to. 
Like the first, this was published under the 
pseudonym of Theodnrus \'erax. It was 
answered by George Wither in ' Itespublicu 
Anglicana,' who alleges that the author is 
Verax on the title-page but not in the 
others. 13. ' The Case between C. Walker, 
Esq., and Huuinhrey Edwards,' lOotl, fol. 
14. ' The Case ol Mrs. M. Walker, the wife 
of Clement Walker, Esq.' 15. 'The High 
Court of Just ice, orCromwell's New Slaughter 
House in England, being the third part of 
the " History of Independency," written by 
the some Author,'' 1651, 4to. According to 
Aubrey, who derived his information from 
one of Walker's fellow prisoners. Walker 
wrote a continuation of his ' History ' giving 
an account of the king's coming to Worcester, 
which was unfortunately lost (Lives, ii. 273). 



A fourth part of the ' History ' was added by 
a certain T. .M., who published it with tho 
preceding tliree parts in one volume quarto 
m 1661. An abridgment in Latin of part i. 
of the ' History of Independency,' entitled 
' Historia Independent in?,' is included in 
' Sylloge Variorum Tractatuum,' 1649, 4to, 
(No. 5). and in ' Metamorphosis Anglorum,' 
1053, 12mo, p. 427. 

[Wood's AtheDse Oxonienses, ed. Blis.«i, iii. 
291-4; Aubrey's Lives, ed. Clark, 189!<; 
Uutchins's History of Dorset, od. 1863, toI. ii.; 
History uf Independonoy, ed. 1661.] 

C H P 

WALKER, Sir EDWAPvD (1613- 
lt)77), (iarter kiug-of-arms, born on 24 Jan. 
1011-12, was the second ,«tin of Edward 
Walker of Hoobers in the pari,'»h of Nether 
Slowey, Somerset, by Barbara, daughter of 
Edward .Salkeld of Corby Cast le in Cumber- 
land (Wood, Fanti, ii. 28 ; Cntntoffue of the 
Afhmoteaii MSS. p. 130). Walker entered 
the 6er\ice of Thomas Howard, earl of 
Arundel, at the time of the king's visit to 
Scotland in 16.'13, and accompanied .\rundel 
on his embassy to the em]>eror in 163(5 ( HU- 
toriiiil liifcourffn, p. 214 ; Cal. Clarendon 
Viipeni, i. 115). Arundel's influence as earl 
marshal opened the college of arms to 
Walker, and he was successively created 
Blanch Lion pursuivant-at-arms extra- 
ordinary (August 1635), L'oiige Croix pur- 
suivant (5 June 1(J87), and Che.'iter Herald 
(8 Feb. 1038) (Nohle, College of Arrnn, pp. 
242, 2411, 253; Cal. State Papers, Ltom. 
1035, p. 355). Arundel was general of the 
royal army during the first .Scottish war, and 
was pleased, says Walker, ' by his own elec- 
lion to make me his secretory-at-war for 
this e.\]x?ditiou, in which I served him and 
the public with the best of my faculties' 
(DiMourse, pp. 217, 203). Walker took 
purt ollicidlly in the negotiations with the 
Scottish coiutnis.sioner.'t at Berwick, of which 
Iio has left some notes (ib. p. 264; Uiit. 



MSS.Comm. 15th lien. ii. 295). On 23 April 
UUOlie was appointed paymaster of the gar- 
rison of Carlisle {Cat. State Papers, Dom. 



1040 pp. 14, 63, 1641-3 p. 123). 

When the civil war broke out AValker 
followed the king to York and Oxford, and 
accompanied liim in his campaigns. On 
24 April 1042 Charles sent Walker and 
another herald to demand the surrender of 
Hull, and to proclaim Sir John Hnthain 
traitor in case of refusal (Ilist.MSS. Comm. 
I5th Uep. ii. 95). About the end of Sep- 
tember 1642 the king constituted Walker 
his secretary-at-war, and on 13 April 1644 
he was sworn in aa secretury-extraordinary 
to theprivy council. He nccompamedCharles 



Walker 



49 



Walker 



dtiring the campaign of 1644, and was em- 
ployed to delixer the kinpf's oti'er of pardon 
to ^'aller's army after the battle of Cropredy 
Bridge, and to the army of the Enrl of Essex 
before its defeat in Cornwall (DucouTiem, 
pp. 34, 83; Hint. MSS. Comm. loth Hep. 
ti. 99-106). Walker waa with the king at 
Naaehy and through his wanderings after 
that battle, and at Oxford during the siege 
I and surrender (Oil. State Paiiem, Dom. 
1645-7, p. 147 ; IliMrKH, Life of fiir H'. 
' IhufdaU, p. 9()). In 1*544 Walker was 
created Norroy king-of-arras, though the 
I patent did not piiiw the signet till April 
1 1644, nor the gmst seal till 24 June (ib. p. 
121; XoBLK, p. :.';}9 ; Cnl. State Pajten, horn. 
[1644, p. 140). When Sir Henry St. Oeorge 
i£q. v.] died, Walker was appointed to suc- 
Iceed nim as Garter king-<3f-orms (:24 Feb. 
11645), and wiis sworn into the chapter of 
[the order on '2 .March 104.'( (i4. 1644-5, p. 
^8; Noble, p. 235; Hampeu, p. 78). The 
king knighted him on 2 Feb. Ut4>i. 

After the fall of Oxford Walker went to 
France, returning to England in the autumn 
of 1648, by permission of parliament (2 Sept.), 
to act as the king's chief secretary in the 

i negotiations at Newport. In lli49 he wa.s 
•t The Hague with ("harles II, by whom 
in February 1649 he was appointed clerk of the 
council in ordinary-, and in September made 
rsceiver of the king's moneys (HUt. MSS. 
Comiit. 15th Rep. ii. 112). fn .June 11550 he 
JKCompanied Charles II to Scotland, but im- 
inevliat*ily after landing his name waw in- 
cluded in the list of English royalists whom 
the Scottish parliament ordered to be 
banished from the country. Money was 
ordered for Walker's transportation, but as 
he got none he lingered on, and his stay 
wOjO connived at, {,)n 4 Oct. 1650 he was 
bordered to leave the court at once, and em- 
tbarked for Holland at the end of the month 
(ZHtcjurieji, p. 205 ; C'al. Clarendon Papers, 
._09; Sib .ii.MES BALForR, Works, iv. 83). 
ring the early part of this exile Walker 
I engaged in a constant stniggle for the 
aaint«nance of hi.s rights and privileges iis 
iGarter. Disputes arose orer the method of 
admitting persons to the order of I he (iartor 
(as, for instance, in 1650 over the investiture 
of the Marquis of Ormonde), in con.sequence 
of which Walker obtained a royal declara- 
tion (28 May 16.>0) affirming that it was his 
right always to be sent with the insignia on 
.the election of forei|:n princes and others, 
j Accordingly on 4 May 1653 Walker was 
employed to deliver the garter to the futuri! 
Wulinra III, then only two years and a half 
I old, and in 1664 he journeyed to Berlin to 
invest the great elector (23 March 1654). 




1 



! Speechea at the investiture of the Duke of 

Gloucester and the Prince of Tarentum, 

with letters to many other knights, are 

among bis papers (CaRTE, Original iMtert, 

i ii. 309 ; Cal. Clarendon Papers, ii. 175. 200, 

j 207. 33tl; Mhmolean MS. 1112). 

Walker received none of the annual fees 
due to him from the knights of the Garter, 
and it is «\ ident that his oillce brought him 
very little profit. His constant grumbling 
about this and about the invasion of his rights 
gave great annoyance to Hyde and Nicholas, 
both of whom held the meanest o|iinion of his 
character and cajiacity. ' SirEdward Walker,' 
wrote Nicholas in 1653, ' is a very i mi>ortunate, 
ambitious, and foolLsh man, that studies no- 
thing but his own ends, and every day hath a 
project for his particular good ; and if you 
do him one kindness and fail him in another, 
vou will lose him as much or more than 
if you had never done anvthing for him' 
(Su-holn* Papers, ii. 11 ). Hyde replied that 
Walker was a correspondent not to be en- 
dured, always writing impertinent letters 
either of expostulation or request. ' Why 
shouldyouwonder,'heob8erves,'thataheral<l, 
who is naturally made up of embroidery, 
should udorn all his own services and make 
them as important as he canP I would you 
saw homi> lettt^rs he Imtli heretofore writ to 
me in discontiait, by which a stranger would 
guess he had merited as much as any general 
could do, and was not enough rewarded' 
( Cal. Clarendon Papers, ii. 222, 346). 

In November 1655 Walker joined Charles LI 
at Cologne, and became once more secretary 
of the council (Xic/iolas Papers, iii. 1 16, 138). 
In the autumn of 1656 Charles got together 
a small iiriuy in the Netherlands. andWalker 
was again charged with the functions of 
secretary-at-war, a business which the want 
of money to pay the soldiers made particu- 
larly troublesome (C'n/. Clarendon Pavers, iii. 
18f)'208, 226). His salary for the othce con- 
sisted of four rations a day out of the pay 
allowed for refnrmados (Uitt. M8S, Comm. 
15th Uep. ii. 109). 

At the I'estnrat ion Walker was made one of 
the clerksof the council, with John Nicholas 
and .Sir ( leorge Lane as his colleagues. His 
remuneration, at first 50/. per annum, was 
rai.sed iti 1665 to 250/. [Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 16(50-1 p. 139, 1664-5, d. 318). The 
Long parliament had made li^dward Bysshe 
[q. v.] (iarter king-of-arms (20 Oct. 1646), 
who was now obliged to quit that office 
in favour of Walker; but Walker could not 
prevent his l>eing made Clarenceui (Addit. 
.US. 22883; Wood, Athena, iii. 1218). 
Walker had the arrangement of the cere- 
monies of the coronation of Charles II, and 



Walker 



5° 



Walker 



aeled as censor of the accounts published of 
the proceedings (Col. Stntr Paper*, Dom. 
1600-1 pp. 353, .W3, 006, 1661-L> p. 3.X): 
A*kmiilean MS. 8."(71. As head of the 
heralds' coUege he had schemes for the re- 
organisation of that body, the increa:!« 
of his own authority, ancl the better re- 
gulation of the method of granting arms 
(ib. 1133; Hiftorical DUcoHrtoi, p. 312; 
Cta. State Papert, Dom. 1660-1 p. 399, 
1661-:? p. 5GS). These involved him in a 
long-continued quarrel with Clarenceux 
and Norroy, whicli ended in the temporary 
suspension of provincial visitations ( i/>. 
1(503-4, pp. I'Ol. 212 ; Atimn/ean MS. SiO. 
ff. 777, "97 1. From 1073 to 1«76 he was 
engaged in a similar quarrel with the earl 
marshal, who, he complained, ' was prevailed 
upon to gfratify the covetousness of Andrew 
Hay, his secretary-, and the implacable and 
revenjreful humour of Thomas Lee, Chester 
herald, and others," by depriving liarler of 
Mveral rights never questioned before (.-IsA- 
moUmiMS. 1133, f. AoV 

Walker died on 19 Feb. U^7G-7, and was 
buried in tlie church of Stratford-on-Avon. 
His epitaph was written by DugdftleillAJlPKB, 
J^/t of Ilugdnlf. p. 402). He married, about 
Easter 1(U4, Agneta. daughter of John 
Reeve, D.D., of 'Bookem' {'i Bookham) in 
Surrey. By her he had only one daughter, 
Barbara, who married Sir John Clopton of 
CSkntoii, noarStnitford-iin-.\.Ton (Le Nevb, 
JW^rtM ./ Kmvht', p. IW). 

It w»s for the benefit of her eldest 
Mn, Edward Clopton, that Walker in 1664 
collected his ' Ilistoncal Discourses,' which 
were fituilly publishe<1 by her aeoocid aon, 
Hugh Clovptou, in 1705 (a later edition 
jna publisbed in 1707 with the title of 
* Historical Collections"). Tliis contain.^ a 
portrait nf Charles I on horseback, and a 
picture of the king dictating his orders to 
NValk»-r, who is represented as writing on 
the head of a drum. The most important 
«( tlMae is • namtire of the campugn of 
1<M4, entitled 'HLs Maje6tv"s Happy Pro- 
BRcs B7id Success from the SO March to the 
SS November Itvll." It was written at the 
kingji request, based on notes taken br 
WiJker omcially during the campaign and 
eamcted by the king, to whom it was pie- 
in April 1646. The original was 
I far tae parliamentarians at Naseby, 
to the king at Hampton Court in 
VtO, and finaDy returned to Walker. It 
-wM than sent to'Claiendon, who made great 
■M «f it ia the eighth book of his 'History of 
lk« BebeUioa.' A manuscript of it is in the 
Mill I of Christ Church, Oxford, and another 



Spkigoe, Anfflia Redivira, ed. 1854, p. 50; 
Clarendon State Paper*, iii. 317, 382 j Rt^ 
bellion, I. 120; Raxce, Uittory of England, 
vi. 16). 

The briefer narrative called ' Brief Me- 
morials of the Unfortunate Success of His 
Majesty's Army and .\ffairs in the Year 
1645' was written at Paris, at the request 
of Lord Colepeper, about January 1647 (ib. 
p. I<'>3 and table of contents). It was in- 
tended for the use of Clarendon (see Listeb, 
Life of Garendun, iii. 39). 

I The third paper is 'A Journal of several 
.\ctions performed in the Kingdom of Scot- 
land, etc., from 24 June 16o0 to the end of 
(^tober following' (cf. Clarendon State 
Papert, ii. So, and Sirhula* Paiiert, i. 200). 
The others are (4) a life of Walker's patron, 
Thomas Howard, earl of Arundel, written 
in 16.ll ; (.5) an answer to William Lilley's 

' pamphlet against Charles I (' Monarchy or 
So Monarchy in England'); (6) 'Observa- 
tions upon the Inconveniencies that have 

I attended the frequent promotions to Titles 
of Honour since King Jamee came to the 

I Crown of England ' (see Jiaiclinton MS. C 
■'>.*)7) : (7) ' OtMervations on Hammond 
L'Estrange's " Annals of the Keign of 
Charles I," ' 1655 ; (8) ' Conies of the Letters, 
Proposals, etc., that passea in the Treaty at 
Newport ' ifee Rattlinmn MS. A. 1 14). This 
simply contains the official papters exchanged 
and the votesof parliament : a fuller and mo<« 

I detailed account of the pn>ceedings is con- 
tained in the notes of Walker's secretary, 
Nicholas Oudart, which are printed in Peck's 
' Desiderata Curiosa.' 

I Walker was alao the author of (9) ' A 
Circumstantial Account of the IVeparations 
for the Coronation of Charles II, with a 
minute detail of that splendid ceremony,' 
l!<20, 8vo: (10) 'The Or^ler of the Cere- 
monies used at the Celebration of St. 
George's Feast at Windsor, when the 
Sovernsn of the most noble Order of the 
Garter is present,' 1671 and 1674, 4to. 

A number of Walker's unpublished manu- 
scripts on dider«nt ceremonial and heraldic 
questions are in dife«nt collections: 'On 
ue NeeesMries for the Installation of a 
Knight of the Garter,' Rawlin^on MS. B. 
110, 3; ' Renatte on the Arms borne by 
Younger Sons of the Kings of England,' 
Cal. OaTMidonMSS- iL 85; 'The Acts of 
the Knights of the Garter during the Civil 
War,' .VshmokMi MS. 1 1 10, f. I'vi (see Ash- 
Mole's Imttitmtim of the Onier of the 
Giaier, p. SOO) ; 'A New Model of Statutes 
for the (Mw of the Garter,' Ashmolean MS. 
1113, C90(. A hu;g« number ot papers con- 
«wii^ the histoi; of the order of the Oart«r 



Walker 



Walker 




»5^ 
til 
n( 
lii 
aiL 
lar: 

Hart 

^m -wo 



i different, heraldic questions are among 
Aiihmole's manuscripts in the Bodleian Li- 
brary. 

[Livss of Walker are contiiinod in Wood's 

.Fasti Oxonienses, od. Bliss, ii 28, and Mark 

oble's Uistory of thn CoUrge of Anns. Asli- 

olean MS. 423, ff. 8-5-8, conBisU of Walker's 

•Nfttivitjr and Accidents,' with Ashmole's astro- 

cal calculations and eonimciita thereon ; it 

ies many facts about Walker's career. A 

iber of papers rolatinf; (o Walker are among 

tlie manuscripts of Mr. J. Eliot Ho<lgkin, and 

calendared in the 15tli Keport of the Hist. M8S. 

Comm. pt. ii.] C. H. F 

WALKEK, FREDEIUCK (ia40-187r,), 
punter, was born in I.^ndon at 90 Great 
Titchfield Street on 26 May 1840. He was 
htlie fifth son and seventh child of AYilliam 
Henry Walker, and Ann (nie Powell) his 
Twife. He was the elder of twin*.. His father 
Vfts a working jeweller with a small busi- 
ness. Frederick Walker's grandfather, Wil- 
liam Walker, was an artiKt of some merit, 
and between 17P2 and 1S08 exhibited regu- 
larly with the Royal Academy and the Brit ish 
(Institution. Two excellent portraits of him- 
elf and his wife are still extant. Frederick 
fWalker ia also believed to have inherited 
-artistic ability from liis mother, who was a 
TToman of fine sensibilities, and at one time 
^npplemented the family income by her skill 
in embroidery. William Henry Walker died 
about 1847, leaving eight surviving childrtm. 
Frederick was for a time at a school in 
Cleveland Street, but such education as he 
had was chiefly received at the North Lon- 
ion collegiate school in Camden Town, 
elics from his schooldays show that the 
'on for drawing sprang up in him very 
nis earliest endeavours to train him- 
Tn any systematic fashion seem to have 
consisted in copying prints in pen and ink. 

In 1855 Walker was placed in an archi- 
Itect'a office in Gower Street, where he re- 
' mainetl until early in 1857. He then gave 

I up architecture, became a student at the 
Sritish Museum, and at James Mathews 
l^eigh's academy in Newman Street. A few 
lnonth.« later he began to think of the Koyal 
Academy, to which he was admitted as a 
student in March 1858. In none of these 
fi<>hrx>1§, however, was he a very constant 
attendant. Late in 1858 he took a step 
which had a decisive influence on his career. 
He apprenticed himself to Josiah W^ood 
Whymper, the wood engraver, whose atelier 
was at 20 Canterbury Place, Lambeth. 
There he worked steadily for two years, ac- 
quiring that knowledge of the wood-cutter's 
technique which afterwards enabled him 
profoundly to affect the progress of the art. 



c 




He never confined himself to a single groove, 
however. During his apprenticeship to 
Whymper he devoted his spare time to point- 
ing, botn in watercolour and oil, but entirely 
as a student. He trained himself in a way 
which seemed desultory to his friends, but 
it probably suited his idiosyncrasy. 

In 1869 Walker joined the Artists' Society 
in Langham Chambers. From this time 
date the earliest attempts at original crea- 
tion to which we can now point. His 
Langham sketches are numerous; they show 
a facility in composition and a felicity of 
accent not always to be discovered in his 
later work. By this time, too, he had be- 
come well known in professional circles as 
an illustrator and draughtsman for the wood 
engraver. Between the end of 1859 and the 
beginning of 186.5 he did a mass of work 
of this kind, most of hU drawings being 
' cut ' by Joseph Swain. These illustrations 
appeared in ' Good Words,' ' Once a Week,' 
' Everybody's Journal,' the ' Leisure Hour,' 
and the ' t'ornhill JIagazine,' and show a 
con.stantly increasing sense of what this 
method of illustration requires. Walker's 
connection with the 'Comhill' led to the 
most important friendship of his early years — 
that with Thackeray. He was employed by 
Swain to improve and adapt the novelist^ 
own illustrations to his ' Adventures of 
Philip,' but, after a very few attempts in that 
direction, was asked by Thackeray to design 
the drawings ab initio, with nothing but the 
roughest of sketches to guide him. The re- 
sult was excellent. The ' Philip ' series 
ended in August 1662. During it.s progress 
Walker also produced a certain number of 
independent drawings mostly done on com- 
mission from the brothers Dalziel, which ap- 
peared in ' Wav*ide Posies ' and ' A Round 
of Days,'publi8lied by Routledge. The most 
important of these drawings were ' Charity,' 
' The Shower,' ' The Mystery of the Bellows,' 
' Winter,' ' Spriiur,' ' The Fishmonger,' 
' Summer,' ' The \ illape School,' * Autumn,' 
and ' The Bouquet.' Six of them were af^«r- 
words repeated in colour. From the bro- 
thers Dauciel he also received his first com- 
mission of any importance, for a watercolour 
drawing — 'Strange Faces' — which dates 
from the end of 18rt2. .\fter the conclusion 
of ' Philip,' Walker illustrated Miss Thacke- 
ray's ' Storv of Elizabeth ' in the ' Comhill,' 
and made lirawing^, continually decreasing 
in number, for other periodicals. Thacke- 
ray's unfimshed ' Denis Duval ' was illas- 
trated by him. but about 1866-6 he practi- 
cally gave up illustration. 

In l8tiS he exhibited his first oil picture, 
■ The Lost Path,' at the Royal Academy. 



Walker 



s» 



Walker 



The same year he moved from Charles Street, 
Manchester Square, to No. 3 St. Fetcrsburgh 
Place, Bay.swuter, which he occupied for the 
rest of his life. In 1803 be puiuted oue of 
his most famous wntercolours, ' Philip in 
Ch\ircli;' and amonp smaller tUinffS, the 
'Young Patiuntp' 'The Shower,' and 'The 
VillaRe School.' lie was greatly afl'ected by 
Thackeray's death, which took place at Chriat- 
maa. Six weeks later, on 8 Feb. 1864, be 
was unanimously elected an associat.e of the 
' Old Watercolour' Society, his trial piece* 
beine 'Philip in Church, 'Jane Eyre,' and 
' Itetreshraent." .Vt the ensuinff exhibilion 
he was represented by these three drawings 
and by 'Spring.' In 18ft4 he exhibited 
'Denis's Valet and 'My l^>ont (iarden' 
(called 'Sketch' in the Catalogue); in IStio 
' Autumn,' and in 18(>(i ' The Bouijuet,'. send- 
ing also various less impnrtantthint^s — 'The 
Int roduetian,' ' The Sem]>strej!s,' ' The Spring 
of Life' — to the winter exhibitions. During 
these years he was unrepresented at the 
Royal Academy, but in l.H6t3 his ' AV'ayfarers' 
— on the whole perhaps the most successful 
of his oil pictures — was exhibited at Mr. 
Gambart'a gallery. In lt<67 be made his re- 
appearance at the Royal .Academy with the 
large oil picture of ' Bathers," now belonging 
to Sir Cnthhort Qnilter, hart., which was 
followed in IH(i8 by * \agrant!i,' now in 
the National (iallerj-; in 18(50 by 'The (Jld 
trate.'now the properly of Mr. .\. E. .Street ; 
and in 1870 by 'The Plough,' now owned 
by the Marqui.'* de .Misa. In 1871— the year 
of hi.'! election as an A.l{..\. and as an ho- 
norary member of the Belgitin Watercolour 
Society — he sent ' At the Bar' to Burlington 
House; in 1872 'The Harbour of Refuge,' 
and in 1675, the yearof hisdeatli,'The Right 
of Way.' His contributions to the Koyal 
Academy were otdy seven in number. 
Between 1808 and bis death he was repre- 
sented by some twenty-two drawings at 
the 'Old Watercolour" Society's, including 
'Lilies,' • The Gondola,' 'The First Swallow," 
' In a Perthshire Garden,' ' The Ferry," ' ( Jirl 
at the Stile,' ' The Housewife,* ' The Rain- 
bow:' watercolour versions of 'Wayfarers,' 
' The Harbour of Refuge,' and ' TheOldGate,' 
and by the famous ' Fishmonger's Shop.' To 
the Dudley Gallery he sent a small sketch 
or replica, in oil, of ' At the Bar,' and the 
cartoon for a poster, ' The Woman in White,' 
which may be said to have started the fashion 
of artistic ailvertising in this conntry. Some 
of his better drawings — ' The Wet Day,' for 
instance — were never exhibited during his 
life. 

Apart from his art, Walker's life was un- 
eventful. Ho was never married, and lived 



with his brother John — who died, however, 
in 1868 — his sister Fanny, and his mother. 
He twice visited Paris — in 1863, with Philip 
Henry Calderon ; and in 1807, the exhibition 
year, "with W. C. Phillips. lu 1808 he tra- 
velled to A'enice by .iea, seeing Genoa by the 
wav; two years later he paid a second visit, 
and spent a fortnight among the canals with 
bis friend William Quiller Orcbardson. On 
this occasion he reached Venice by way of 
Munich, Innsbruck, and Verona. But his 
imperfect education had left him unprepared 
to enjoy or appreciate foreign places, and his 
letters are strangely deficient in allusions to 
iinything connected with art. In December 
1873 he visited Algiers to recruit his health. 
After his return his condition improved, and 
during the autumn and winter of 1874 and 
springof l87o he hnished the drawingknown 
as ' The Rainbow,' worked on a picture of 
'Mushroom Gatherers," which was never 
finished, and completed his last oil picture, 
'The Right of \\ ay," now in the gallery ar, 
Melbourne. He died at St. Fillana, Perth- 
shire, at the house of Mr. 11. E. Watts, on 
4 June 187"i. His mother had died in the 
previous November, and his sister Fanny 
followed him in September l!^76. .\11 three 
were buried at Cookham, where a medallion 
by II. H. Armsteud has been put up in the 
church to the painter's memory. 

No record of Walker's life would be com- 
plete without a note on his friendships and 
on his curious love of certain sports. He 
was an enthusiastic fisherman, and at one 
time a bold rider to hounds. Among his 
close friends were Thackeray, Mrs. Rich- 
mond Ritchie, the Birket-Fosters, G. D. 
Leslie, Orchardsou, Sir John Millais, Arthur 
Lewis, Sir W. Agnew, and especially J. W. 
North. 

As to his art, few jminters have been so 
sincere and p<!rsonal as Walker. From 
tirst to last his one aim was to realise his 
own ideas and express his own emotions. 
Here and there an outside influence can be 
traced in his work, but the modifications it 
causes are accidental rather than essential. 
Echoes of the Elgin marbles can be recog- 
nised in a few over-graceful rustics ; both 
Millais and Millet had an effect upon his 
manner; but the passion which informs his 
work is entirely his own. His sympathies 
were rather deep than wide, so that he suc- 
ceeded better when ha had but one thing to 
say than when he had two or three. His 
earlier designs, when both data and method 
were simple, have a unitj', balance, and co- 
herence scarcely to be found in his later and 
more ambitious conceptions. Less perhaps 
than the works of any other artist of equal 



53 



Walker 




^ 



importance do his pictures suggest theories 
ana reasoned-out ipsthetic preferences on the 

fiart of their creator. As a leader.his viilue 
ies in the emphasis with which he reasserts 
that sinoeritv is the anteeedent condition for 
gjeat art. lie afTonls perhaps the most con- 
spicuous modem instancbof an artist reaching 
beauty and unity through an alraoiit blind 
obedience to his own instincts and emotions. 
Uis art was so new and attrnctive that it 
•waa sure to attract a following : but its value 
■was so personal that the school he foiind.vl 
could sciircely bo more than u weakened re- 
flection of the master. 

Two of Walker's pictures are in the Na- 
tional (jallery,' N'agrants'and the ' Ilarliotir 
" Befuge.' The best portraits of him are a 
(rcolour drawing, done by himself iit the 
of twenty-tivo, which belongs to Mr. 
G. Jfarkf, and Armstead's medalliun in 
Cookham church. 

[Life and Lfttors of Frederick Walker, )jy 
J. G. Marks ; Frederick Walker iiud his Works 
(Portfolio for .lune 1894), by Claude Phillips; 
An .■Vrtisl's Holidays (Mag. of Art for September 
1889). by J. C. Hodgson, R.A.; F.ssays on An. 
by J. Comyos-Ciirr ; Hist, of the Old Wiiter- 
coloor Soc. vol. ii,, by J. L, Roget ; Cat. of the 
cxhibitjoD of works of the kte F. Walker, .A.R..^. 
(preface hy Toni Taylor) ; Catalogueii of Royal 
Academy ; private infurmation.] W. A. 

WALKER, GEOUGE (1581?-1(W1), 
divine, born ahout lo81 at Hiiwkshead in 
Furness, Lancashire, was educated at the 
Hawksheiid grammar school, founded by his 
kinsman, Archbishop Edwin Sandys [q. v.] 
He was a near relative of John Wulker 
(rf. 158M) [q. v.] Fuller states that George 
AValker 'being visited when a child with 
the small-pox, and the standers-by expecting 
his dissolution, he started up out of a trance 
with this ejaculation, "Lord, take me not 
sway till I have showed forth thy praise," 
which made Lis parents devote him to the 
ministry after his recovery.' He went to 
St. .John's College, Cambridge, where he gra- 
duated B.A. in 1608 and .M.A.in 1(311. His 
former tutor, Christopher Foster, who held 
the rectory of St. John Evangelist, Watling 
Street, the smallest pari.-li in London, re- 
eigne<l that benefice in favour of Walker, 
who waa inducted on :J1) April 1014 on the 
presentation of the dean and chapter of 
Canterbury Cathedral (Hks.n'ESSY, Aor. Ile- 
prrt. Eccl. p. 310). There he continued all 
his life, refusing higher preferment often 
proffered him. In lt)14he accused Anthony 
Wot ton [q. v.] of Socinian heresy and blas- 
phemy. This led to a 'conference before 
eight leanied divines,' which ended in a vin- 
dication of Wotton. On 2 March 1618-lU 



he was appointed chaplain to Nicholas Fel- 
ton [([. v.^, bisho]) of Ely. He was already 
esteemed an excellent logician, hebraist, and 
divine, and readily engaged in disputes with 
' heretics ' and ' papists.' On 10 July 1621 
he was incorporated B.I), of Oxford. 

On 31 May ll)23 he had a disputation on 
the authority of the chureh with Sylvester 
Norris, who called himself Smith. An 
account of this was published in the follow- 
ing year under the title of ' The Summu of a 
Disputation between Mr. Walker . . . and a 
I'ojiish I'riest, calling himselfe Mr. Smith.' 

-Vbout the .sametime Walker wasaasociated 
with Dr. Daniel Featley [n. v.] in a dispu- 
tation with Father John Fisher (rt'al name 
Percy), and afterwards published 'Fisher's 
Folly Unfolded; or the Vaunting Jesuites 
Vanity discovered in a Challenge of his . . . 
undertaken and answered by O. W.,' 1624, 
4to. On 11 March 16;{3-1 he undertook to 
contribute 'KU. yearly for five years towards 
the repair of St. Paul's ( Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 16;W-1, p. -198). His puritanism was 
displeasing to Laud, who in 1635 mentions 
him in his yearly report to Charles I aa one 
' who had nil his time been but a disorderly 
mid peevi.'sh man, and now of late liiith very 
frowardiv preached against the Lord Bishop 
of Ely [VVhite] his book coiirerning the 
Lord's Day, set out hy authority ; but upon 
a canonical admonition given hiui to desist 
he hath recollected himself, and I hope will 
be advised' (L\i li, TruulIeK and Tn/al, 
ItW.'i, p. .136). In 1638 appeared his ' Itoc- 
trine of the Sabbath," which bears the im- 
print of Amsterdam, and contains extreme 
and peculiar views of the sanctity of the 
Lords day. A second edition, entitled 'The 
Holy Weekly Sabbath," was printed in 1641. 
His main hypothesis was refuted by H. Wit- 
sius in his ' De (Economia Fa'derum,' 1694. 

Walker was committed to prison on 
11 Nov. 1638 for some ' things tending to 
faction and dtniibedience toaulhorily ' found 
in a sermon delivered by him on the 4th of 
the same month ( Cal. State Pa/iern, Dom. 
1638-9, p. 98). His case was introduced into 
the House of Commons on 20 Mav Kill, and 
his imprisonment declared illegal. He was 
afterwards restored to his parsonage, and 
received other eonipc-iisntion for his losses. 
At the trial of Laud in llW3 the impristm- 
raent of Walker wiis made one of the charges 
against the archbishop (Laud, Troublen, f. 
237). When he was free again he became 
very busy as a preacher and author, VawT 
(if his works are dated 1641 : 1. 'God made 
visible in His Works, or a Treatise on the 
ICxtenial Works of God.' 2. ' A Disputa- 
tion between Master Walker and a Jesuite 



^ 



Walker 



54 



Walker 



in thu House of one Tbomas Uatos, in 
Bishop's Court in the Okl Bailey, concprn- 
ing the Kecleaiasticiil Function.' 3. 'The 
Key of Saving Knowledge,' 4. ' Socinia- 
nisme in the Fandamentall I'nint of Justi- 
fication discovered and confuted.' In the 
last, wliicli was directed against John Good- 
win [q. v.l, he revived Lis coarse imputations 
against Wotton, who found a vindicator in 
Thomas Oataker, in his ' Mr. .\nthony Wot- 
ton's Defence against Mr. Oeorge Walker's 
Charge,' Cambrid[?e. Itvll, l:iuio. In the 
following year Walker replied in ' A True 
Iteluiion of the Uhiefe Piisoages betweeno 
ilr. Anthony Wotton and Mr. George 
■Walker.' Goodwin in his ' Treatise on 
rJustiiication,' 1642, deals with the various 
doctrinal points raised by ^^■alke^. 

Walker joined tho Westminster assembly 
of divines in 11)43, in the records of which 
bo<ly his name often appears as that of an 
activi! and influential member. Gn 29 Jan. 
1 (544-5 he preached a fast-day sermon before 
tho House of Commons, which wa.s .shortly 
afterwards puWi.shed, wit li an 'Epistle 'giving; 
some particulars of his impri.soniuenl. In 
the same year ( 1 045 > he printed ' A ISrot herly 
and Friendly Ceii.sure of llm l''miur of a 
Dead Friend and Brother in CIlTi^tittn .\ffec- 
tion.' This refers to some utterance of 
W. I'rynne. On 26 Sept. 164.) parliament 
appointed him a 'trier' of elders in the Lon- 
don elassis. There is an inl cresting undated 
tract by him entitled ' .Vn F.xhorlation to 
Dearely beloved countrimcn, all the Na- 
tives of the Countieof Lancaster, inhabit- 
ing in and about the Citie of London, tend- 
ing to persuade and stirre them up to a 
vearely contribution for the erection of 
Lectures, and maintaining of some Godly 
and Painfull I'reJichers in such places of 
that Country as have most neede.' He 
himself did his share in the direction indi- 
cated, for, in addition to spending other sums 
in Ijancashire, he allowed the minister of 
Ilawksht.'ad 20/. a year, and the parsonage- 
house and glebe there were long called 
' Walker Ground,' from their being his gift. 
He was also a benefactor to Sion College 
library and a libeml supporter of the assem- 
bly of divines. 

Wood justly styles Walker a 'severe par- 
tisan,' but ho was aUo. as Fuller said, ' a 
man of an holy life, humble heart, and 
bountiful hand.' 

He died in his seventieth year in IfVil, 
and was buried in his church in Watling 
Street, which was destroyed in the fire of 
166C. 

IFullcr's Worthies; Wood's Fasti, i. 39SJ, ed. 
Blis«; Newcourt's lieportorium, i. 375; Wanl's 




Groshum Professors, p. 40 ; Dodd's Church 1 
tory, 1739, pp. 394, 402 ; Neal's Puritans, I 
edit. ii. 416 ; Brook's Puritaus, ii. 347 ; House of 
Commons' Journals, ii. 151, 201, 209, ir. 288, 
348 ; Hotue of Lords' Journals, iv. 214, 457. vi. 
469; Hist. MSS. Conun. 8th Kcp. App. p. 170; 
Jackson's Life of John Goodwin, 2Ddc<lit. 1872, 
p. 38 ; Gastrell's Notitia Cestriensis (Chetham 
.Soc.), ii. 619; Cox's Literature of tho Sabbath 
Question, 1865; MitcliullandStruthcrs's Minutes 
of the Westminster Assembly. 1874; Mitchell's 
Westminster Assembly, 1883 j Henncssy'sNomm 
Hoportorium, p. 310.] C. W. S. 

WALKER, GEORGE (1618-1690), go- 
vernor of Londonderry, was the son of 
George Walker, a native of Yorkshire, who 
became chancellor of Armagh, by his wife, 
Ursula Staidmpe. George ^^'ulke^ the 
younger was a native of "Tyrone, according 
to Harris, but others say he was bom at 
Stratford-on-Avon (Ware, Irith Writer*, 
ed. Harris ; \\'ooD, IJfe, ed. Clark, iii. 327). 
He was educated at Qla.sgow University, 
but his name does not occur in the ' Muni- 
' menta I'utversitatis,' and little is known of 
I him until his appointment in 1669 to the 
jiarishes of Lissan and Desert lyn in co. Lon- 
j donderry aiul Armagh diocese. He was 
I already luarrieJ to Isabella Maxwell of Fin- 
iiebrogue. In lti~4 he was presented to 
llonaghmnre parish, near Dungannon, and 
went to live and do duty in that town, but 
without resigning Lissan. Donaghmore 
church and parsoimge were in ruins alter the 
civil war, but the former was restored in 
1681, and in 16,S^ Walker built a substantial 
thatched house for himself In the following 
year he built a corn-mill in the village of 
Donaghmore. Walker appears to hare visited 
England in U)8t). 

At the close of lbK8 Londonderry stood 
on its defence, and Walker was advised by 
some man of rank, not named, to raise a 
regiment at Dungannon, and this he con- 
sidered ' not only excusable hut necessarj'.' 
Tile famous John Leslie [q. v.l, bishop of 
Cloglier, in the same county, Iiad had no 
' scriipli- on account of his cloth. Earlj- in 
l(i88-!> Walker rode to Londonderry to see 
the acting governor, IJobert Lwndy [q. v.], 
who sent driil-instructors and two troops of 
horse to Dunfrannnn, but ordered its evacua- 
tion on 14 March. Walker went in com- 
] mand of five companies to Strabane, whence 
he moved to Omagh by Lundy's orders. A 
fortnight later he was sent to Saint Johns- 
town, on the left bank of I he Foyle. Cole- 
raino being abandoned, the Jacobites were 
masters of the open country, and on 13 April 
^\'aUjer went to lx>ndonderry, but could not 
persuade Lundy that ho was "in danger. On 



Walker 



55 



Walker 



^■MUT 






the Ifitb the p&ssa^ of the Finn was forced 
at Cladyford, Lundy fled to Londonderr}', 
and the ^tes were shut ia Wnlker's face. 
The next day, he says, ' we got in with much 
difficulty, and some violence upon the sentry' 
{True Account). Walker certainly believed 
Lundy to be a traitor; but this was hard to 
prove, and he had Kinp AVilliom's commis- 
sion. His escape ou 19 April was therefore 
connived at, AValker and Baker becoming 
loint-govemors. The commissariat wiia 
Walker's special department, but bu bud the 
rank of colonel and a rejriment of nine hun- 
dred men under him. ' There were,' be says, 
' eighteen clergymen in the town of the 
communion of the church who, in tlieir 
turns, when they were not in action, liud 
prayers and sermons every day; the seven 
noncouforming miniaterswere equallycareful 
' their people, and kept them very obedit'iit 
uiet ' (I'A.) .luhu -Mackenzie (1(!J8? 
ij. v.] acted as clmpluiii to tfie pre.s- 
ns 01 Wolker's own regiment. It was 
ged that the cliurch people .should use 
the cathedral in the morniug, and the iion- 
confomiists in the afternoon. 

In the sally of 21 April Walker relieved 
Murray, whom he saw surrounded by the 
~ enemy, and with great couragi- laying about 
" (I'A.) A few days later lie had biniHelf 
a narn>w escape, being tr<?acheriiusly iired on 
while going to meet a flog of truce, ttiiker, 
falling ill in June, made John Michelburne 
[q.v.j his deputy, and when hedied tlu^ hitler 
remained joint-governor with Walker to the 
end of the siege. His conduct met with 
aome criticism. Mackenzie charges him with 
too gfreat subservience to Kirke. It was 
known that the Jacobites were making great 
efibrts to buy him, and some saluted him in 
the streets by the titles he was suppo.sed to 
wish for( Tnw Aveuimt, i July). It was re- 
ported that ho had secreted provisions, but 
Iiig house was searched at his own suggestion 
iftnd the calumny disproved. Mackenzie 

leases him of having preached a dishearteu- 
ing sermon just before the end of the siege, 
but his extant sermons and speeches are moiit 
inspiriting. The town was relieved by water 
on 28 July. Walker resigned his ofhce into 
the hands of Kirke, who alloweil him to nimie 
anew colonel for bis regiment. lie named 
Captain White, wlio had done good service 
during the siege. IVIichelborne was made 
•ole governor by Kirke. 

The rescued g8rri.son adopted a loyal ad- 
dress, which was entrusted to Walker, and 
he sailed from Lough Foylo on H Aug. (.\sn, 
Diary). This mission to England is .some 
irooi of the estimation in which he was held. 

e landed in Scotland, and received the 




freedom of Glasgow and Edinburgh on 
13 and U Aug. (Wituerow, p. 30a). On 
his way south he halted at Chester, where 
Scravenmore received him with open arms 
(cf. DwiER, p. 133 71.) He was in London 
a few days later, some admirers going as far 
OS Bamet to welcome him. On 20 Aug.. 
before his arrival, the Irish Six'iety appointed 
a deputation to wait on him with thanks for 
his services, and later he was entertained at 
dinner ( Concise View of the Irish Suriet;/). On 
<j Sept. he attended the society to represent 
that most of the houses in Londonderry 
were down, and to ask for help; 1,200/. 
was voted by the citv corapanie,s for im- 
mediate relief of the houseless j)eople (I'A.) 
Walker presented the Londonderry address 
to the king in person at Hampton L'ourt, 
and William gave him an order for ."),000/., 
remarking that this was no payment, and 
lliiit he considered his claims undiminished 
(MvcAULAl, chap. XV.) The money was 
paid next day ( Luttrbll, Diary, 25 Aug.) 
' It seemed,' said a contemporary writer, ' as 
if Loudon intended him a public Ivoman 
triumph, and the whole kingdom to bo actors 
and spectators of the cavalcade' (Dawsox, 
p. 270). Portraits of him were scattered 
Droadcast, ' The king,' wrote Tillotson on 
IS Sept., 'K'sides bis lirnt bounty to Mr. 
WiilkiT, whose inoilesty iseq\ial to liis merit, 
hath made him bishop of Londonderry (sic), 
one of the best hishoprics in Ireland ... it 
i.s incredible how everybody ia pleased '(Lady 
\lv»sv.\.\., Letters, <hI' \m\). Kzekiel Hop- 
kins [(J. v.] was still bishop of Derry, but it 
was intended to translate him, and Walker 
was named as his successor (Wociii, i/'/r, iii. 
20J)), There were doubts about his willing- 
ness to accept a mitn' [ih.) Hopkins died 
three weeks before Walker, who was thus 
actually bishop-designate only for that time. 
Ou 18 N'ov. a jietition from Walker was pre- 
sented to the House of Commons, setting 
fcirth the case of two thousand persons made 
widows and oqihans by the siege. He asked 
nothing for himself. Next day lie was i-alled 
in and received the thanks of the house. 
S]>eaker I'owle informed )iim that an address 
had been voted to the king for lO.OlXJ/. to 
relieve the sufferers, and desired Walker to 
give the thanks of the bouse to those who 
had fought with him, ' when those to whose 
care it was committed did most shamefully 
if not perfidiously desert t lie place' ('Com- 
mons' Journal' in Dwver, p. 1!Hm.» On 
8 (Jet. Walker was made D.I), at Cambridge, 
'juxtri tonorem regii praecepti,' but it is un- 
certain whether he was present (Wood, 
Life, iii. 312; Dwter, p. 113 >i.) He visited 
Oxford on his way to Ireland, and the 



Walker 



Walker 



chancellor of the university, tho Bpcond 
Duke of Ormonde, wrote to recommpiid hitn 
for the doctorate. On -26 Feb. m-*9-90 
Vice-chnncellor William Jane pn^sented him 
to convocation ns a divine of the church of 
Irelnnd, governor and preserver of DerPr' 
city, champion of liberty, ' utnujue Piillude 
uagniim iit ii militia nd tog^iiin n>dent'(i'i. 
p. S'2G). The diploma siij's that by saving 
Derry lie saved Irelnnd (Uawson, p. 272). 

Walker was at Ilelfust on 13 March l<i89- 
1690 (cnntempomrj' account in Be.vn, fft'/it. 
of Belfaxt, p. 1"S), when Sohombcrg nnd 
the Dukeof Wiirtemberg w^?re there. Wil- 
liam landed nt Ciirriokfergu.s on 14 June, 
and wa.i met by Walker outside the north 
gate of Relfa.«t' (I'A. p. 181 ; Dean Uatiks, 
Diarij, 31 May and !•"> June). Walker was 
agoin presented to the king by Schomht'rg 
and (Irnmnde (ib.) He followed him to the 
Bovtie, and fell at the pn,ssnge of the river 
on 1 Julv. 'What took him there? ' is said 
to have been the king's comment; but Story, 
the historian, who was himself pre?ent as a 
regimental clmnlnin, had heard that Walker 
was shot wliiir- going fn look after the 
wounded Sdidtulierg. If this was the case, 
WMllinm'-! siirciism was unjust, and it is 
doubtful whether he ever uttered it. ^\'a^ie^ 
was buried where he fell. Some years later 
his widow had the remains disinterred, as 
she believed, and buried on the south side 
of Castle Cnultield church with a suitable 
inscription, but it is not certain that the 
bones so tnmsferred were really Walker's 
(WiTHERow ; Dawson-, p. 273). 

Walker had several sons, four of whom 
were in King William's service ( Vindica- 
tion: Pedigree in IhvvElt, p. 13.j n.) 

While in London Walker was asked to 
write an account of the siege of London- 
derry, which he did in the form of a diarj-. 
It oppeared as ' A true Account of the Siege 
of Londonderry '(London, 1689,4to). Second 
and third editions were apee<lily called for 
in the same year; und also in the suuie year 
a German translation was published at ifiim- 
burg,and a Dutch version at Antwerp \flrit, 
Mujf. Cat.) Mackenzie saw Walker's' True 
Account ' in December, and his 'Marrntive' 
in answer to it wa.s not long delayeil ( Lon- 
don, 1(190, 4to). His object was In minimise 
Walker's share in the defenee, and he even 
goes so far as to make the absurd statement 
that Walker was not governor of London- 
derry-. A more serious accusation is that 
he claimed too much credit for himself, and 
gave too little to others, especially to the 
presbyterian ministers, whom he doe.R not 
name. Walker in his ' Vindication' (dated 
London, 1689, 4to, though Mnckeiui/s 



' Narrative' is dated 1690) is able to answer 
most of the charges brought against him. 
I'erha|)8 he was not careful enough to give 
credit to others, and especially to the heroic 
Adam Murray [q. v.]; but his book, which 
makes no pretence to completeness, wks 
written in a hurry to meet a pressing de- 
mand, and the general tone of it is not 
egotist ical. The whole fact* of the siege can 
be arrived at only by a careful compirisen 
of several narratives, but of these \\alker'8 
is by far the most vivid. The ' True Ac- 
count ' and ' Vindication ' should be read to- 
gether. 

In Burnet's manuscript there is much 
I praiseof Walker(prinfed bvDwYER.p.lSOn.), 
I and Macaulay, Swift, ani others wondered 
I why it failed to appear in his printed bit- 
I tory. 

I While ill London Wolker sat to Knellw 
by the king's de.'-ire. and the engraved por- 
I trait has been reproduced by Canon Dwyer, 
who mentions various relics (p. 135 n.) An- 
I other print is given in the '.lounial of the 
I Ulster Archteologicul Societv,' vol. ii. It 
was also engraved by Peter X'anderbunlt in 
I 1689, by Loggan, ]{'. White, Seheiiek, and 
others ("Bromley, p. 184). In lf'28 o iiillur 
was raised at Derry in memory of the long- 
buried governor, and his stntue was placed 
on the top. ' In one hand,' savs Macaulay, 
' he grasps a Bible. The other, pointing 
down the river, seems to direct the eyes of 
his furnished audience to the English top- 
masts in the distant bay.' 

[Authorities lis for Mukbav, Adam; Micho- 
uoHNK, John-; and Mackk-ixik. Jons. Sieee of 
Ixindouderry in 1689, by llie Kev. P Dwjer, 
London, 1893, contains a reprint of Wnlker'i 
'True Account' nad 'Vindication,' with ser- 
mona, speeches, Ictlors, and valuable aotts. 
There ia a memoir by the Uev. A. Dairton in 
the Ul'^ter Journal of Arohipolopy, toI. ii. 
KverytliinR that can be raked up ajmiost Wrtlker 
\H set forth in Withcrow's lierrv and Inai*- 
kilieii. 3rd Bd. Belfast, 1885.] ' K. B-u 

WALKER, GEORGE (rf. 1777), nri- 
vnteer, as a lad and a young man served in 
the Diileh navy, and was employed in fh» 
Levant jippnrently for the protection of trade 
against Turkish or (ireek pirates. Later on 
he became the owner of a merchant ship and 
coniuiiiiided her for some years. In 1739 he 
was principal owner nnd commander of the 
ship Duke William, trading from London to 
South Carolina, and, the better to prepare for 
defence, took out lettersof marque. His ship 
mounted 20 guns, hut had only thirty-two 
men. The coast of the Carolinas was in- 
fested by some Spanish privateers, and, in the 
absence of any English man-of-war, Walker 



Walker 



57 



Walker 






put the Duke Willinm at the Mrvice of the 
colonial govenuoviit . His offer wa* accepted ; 
he increased the number of his men to liiO, 
and preMntly succeeded iu driving the 
Spaniards off the coast. Towards the end of 
174:2 he sailed for England with three mer- 
chantmen in convoy. But in a December 
gale, as they drew near the Channel, the 
ship's seams opened, plunks started, and wit!i 
the greatest difficulty she was kept atloat till 
Walker, with her crew, managea to get on 
board one of the merchantmen. This was 
in very little better stale, and wag only kept 
afloat by the additional hands at thepumpf. 
AVhen finally Walker arrived in town, he 
learned that his agents had allowed the iii- 
iurance to lapse, and that he was a ruined 
man. 

For the next year he was master of a 
Teasel trading to the Baltic; but in 1744, 
when WOT broke out with Fruiice, he was 
offered the command of tli-» Mars, a private 
ship of war of 'JH guns, to cruise in company 
with another, the Boscawun, somewhat 
larger ond belonging to the same owner. 
They sailed from Dartuiouth in November, 
and on one of the first days of .Innunry 
1744-5 fell in with two homewiird-bnund 
French ships of the line, wliicli ruptured the 
Mars after the Boscawen hnd hurriedly de- 
serted her. Walker was sent a,« u prisoner 
on board the l*"leuron. On ti Jan. the two 
ihips and their priie were sighted by an 
English s(|uadron of four ship.s of tlie line, 
which separated and drew off without bring- 
ing them to action [see Breit, Joiix ; GlUP- 
TlJf, TllOM.W ; Mo.sTV.V, SiV.lGK"). The 
'renchmen, who were .sickly, undermanned, 
and hnd n large amount of treasure on board, 
were jubilant and boastful ; but lliey treiited 
"Walker with civility, and he was landed at 
£n.'st as o prisoner ot large. Only the very 
lext day the Fleuron accidentally, or rather 
ly gross carelessness, was hknvii up, and a 
'letter of credit whieh AValker lind wu.^ lost. 
e was, however, able to get tliis arranged, 
and within n month was exchanged. On 
returning to Kngland he was put in com- 
mand of the Boscawen, and sent out in com- 
pany with the Mars, wliioli Iiud been recap- 
tured and bought bv her former owners. 
The two cruised with but little success 
dnring the year, and, coming into the Chan- 
nel in December, the Boscawen, a weakly 
built ship, iron-fastened, almost fell to pieces: 
,nd only by great e.xertion8 on the pint of 
~alker was preserved to be run ashore on 
the coast of Cornwall. It was known in 
London that but for Walker's (ieterniineil 
nduct the ship would liave gone down in 
the open sea with nil hands; and he was 




almost immediately offered a much more 
important command. 

This was a s<juadron of four .ships — King 
George, Prince Frederick, Duke, and Prin- 
cess Amelia — kuown collectively as tho 
' Koyal Family,' which carried in the aggre- 
gate \'2\ guns and 970 men. The prestige of 
this squadron was very high, for in the sum- 
mer of 174.5, off Louisbourg [see Wabres, 
.Sir Petek], it had made an enormously 
rich prize, which, after the owners' share of 
700,000/. was deducted, had yielded 850/. to 
I each seaman, and to the othcers in propor- 
tion. The result was that far more raeJi 
I than were wanteduowofferedthemselve8,and 
I the ships were consequently better manned 
than usual. After cruising for nearly a 
year, and having made prizes considerably 
excelling :W0,000/., tho Boyal Fiunily put 
into Lisbon ; and, sailing again in July 1747, 
had been waiering in I^gos Buy, when on 
6 Oct. a large ship was sighted standing in 
towards CH))e .St. \'incent. This was the 
Spanish 70-gun ship Glorioso, lately come 
from the Spanish Main with an enormous 
omount of treasure onboard. The treasure, 
however, hnd been landed at Ferrol, and she 
was now on her waj' to Cadiz. Walker took 
for granted lliat she had treasure, and boldly 
attacked her in the King tieorge, a frigate- 
built ship of .S2 guns. Had the other mem- 
bers of the Royal Family been up, they might 
among t hem have managed the huge Spaniard ; 
as it was, it spoke volumes for Spanish in- 
competence that in an action of several 
hours' duration, in smooth water and fine 
weather, the King George was not destroyed. 
.She was, however, nearly beaten ; but on the 
Prince Frederick's coming up, the Glorioso, 
catching the same breeze, fled to the west- 
ward, where she was met and engaged by 
the Dartmouth, a king's ship of 60 guns. 
Tlie Dartmouth accidentally blew up, with 
the loss of every soul on Imard except one 
lieutenant i but rome hours later the 80-gun 
shij) Kusstll brought the Glorioso to action 
and suceei'deil in taking her. The Uussell 
was only half manned, and was largely de- 
pendent (in llie privateers to take the prize 
into the Tagus. One of his owners, who had 
Come to Lisbon, gave Wulker ' a very uncouth 
welcome for venturing their ship against a 
man-of-war.' ' Iliid the treasure, answered 
AX'alker, ' been aboard, as 1 expected, your 
compliment had been otherways; or had we 
let her esenjic from u.^ with that treasure on 
board, what had you then have said ? ' The 
Koynt Family continued cruising, with but 
moderate succesis — for the enemy's ships had 
been wiped off the sea — till the end of the 
war. jVitogether, the prizes taken by the 



Walker 



58 



Walker 



Royal Pamily under Walker's command 
were valued at about 4W,(XX)/. 

After the peace \\'iilker commanded a ship 
in the Nortu Sen trade, but eilher lost or 
squandered the money lie had made in this 
Royal I'amily. lie f;nt involved, too, in 
some dispute with the owners about the ac- 
counts, and was by them imprisoned for 
debt shortly after the outbreak of the seven 
years' war. How long he was kept a pri- 
soner does not appeiir, but ho bad no active 
employment during the war. Ho died on 
•20 Sept. 1777. 

[Voyages and Cruises of Commodore Walker 
during Ihe l»tu Spiinish nnJ Ireoch Wars 
(Dublin, 1782) ; Liiughton's Studies in Naval 
History, p. 225.J J. K. L. 

WAiKER, GEORGE (17»4?-1807), 
dissenliii); divine and mathematician, was 
born at Is'ewcastlc-on-Tyne about 1734. At 
ten years of age he was placed in the care of 
an uncle at l)urlinm, Tliomas Walker (rf. 
10 Nov. 1703), »uL'ces.<ively minister at 
Cockermouth.l 7^2, Uurhiim, 1730, and Leeds, 
1748, where Priestley describes him as one 
of ' the most lieretieal ministers ia the neigh- 
bourhood' (Rt'iT, PrifiKtleij, IWil, i. 11). 
He attended the Durham grammar sehoo! 
under Kichiird Uongworth. In tlie autumn 
of 1749, being then 'near fifteen,' he was 
admitted to the dissenting neademy at Ken- 
dal under Caleb Uotherluim [q. v.]; here, 
among the lay students, he met with his 
lifelong friend, John Manning (1730-1800). 
On Rotherhain's retirement ( 1 7iJl ) he was for 
a short timo under Hugh Moises [q. v.] at 
Newcastle-nn-Tyiie. In November \~»\ he 
ent<'red at ICdiriburgh I'liiversity with Man- 
ning, where he studied mathematics under 
Matthew Stewart [q. v. ', who gave hiiu his 
tasteforthat science. HeremovedtoGlasgow 
in 17.")'2 for the sake of the divinity lectures 
of William Leechnian [q. v.], continued his 
mathematical studies under Kobert Simson 

[q. v.l,and beard the lectures of Adam Smith 
q. v.], but learned more from all three in 
tneir private conversation than their public 
prelections. Among his cla.ssmates were 
Neweome Cappe [q. v.], Nicholas Clayton 
[q. v.], and John .\lillar (1735-1801) fq. v.], 
members with him of a college debating 
society. Leaving Glasgow in 1754 with- 
out graduating, he did occasional preach- 
ing at Newcastle and Leeds, ami injured his 
health by study. .\t Glasgow he had al- 
lowed himself only three hours' sleep. He 
was recovered by a course of sea balhiTig. 
In 1760 he declined an invitation to succeed 
Robert Andrews [q. v.] as minister of Piatt 
Chapel, Manchester, but later in the year 



accepted a call (in succession to Joseph Wil- 
kinson) from his uncle's former nock at 
Durham, and was ordained there in 1757 as 
' spiritual consul" to a ' presbyterian tribe.' 

At Durham he finished, but did not yet 
publish, his 'Doctrini) of the Sphere,' begun 
m Edinburgh. With the signature P.M.D. 
(presbyterian minister, Durham) he contri- 
buted "to the -Ladies' Diary' [see TiPPEK, 
John], thenedited by Thoma.s. Simpson (1710- 
17(51) [q. v.] lie left Durham at the begin- 
ning of 1702 to l>ecome minister at Filbv, 
NorfoUc, and assistant to John NN'hitesida 
{rl. 1784) at Great Yarmouth. Here he re- 
sumed his intimacy with Manning, now prac- 
tising as a physician at Norwich. He began 
his treati.se on conic sections, suggested to 
him by Sir Isaac Newton's 'Arithmetic* 
Universalis,' 1707. He took pupils in mathe- 
matics and navigation. Through Richard 
Price ( 1 723- 1 701 ) fq. v. ] he was elected fellow 
of the Uoyal Society, and recommended to 
William IV'tty, second earl of Shelbume 
(afterwards first Marquis of Lansdowne) 
[q.v.J, for I he post of his librarian, afterwards 
tilled by Joseph Priestley [1). v.], but de- 
clined it (1772) owing to his approaching 
marriage. He acceptea in the same year the 
ollice of mathematical tutor at Warrington 
Academy, in sueeession to John Holt {d. 
1772 ; see under Horslev, JoilS). Here he 
prepart'd for the press Ids treatise on the 
sphere, himself cut ting out all tlie illustrative 
figures (twenty thousand, for an edition of 
five hundred copies). It appeared in quarto 
in 1775, and was reissued in 1777. Joseph 
Johnson [q. v.] gave him for the copyright 
4t)/., remitted by Walker on finding the pub- 
lisher had lost money. The emoluments at 
Warrington did not answer his expectation. 
He resigned in two years, and in the autumn 
of 1774 beeame colleague to John Simpson 
(1746-1812) at High Pavement chapel, Not- 
tingham. 

Here he remained for twenty-four j'ears, 
developing unsu.^pected powers of public 
work. He made his mark as a pulpit orator, 
reconciled a division in his congregation, 
founded a charity school (1788), and pub- 
lished a hymn-book. His colleagues after 
Simpson's retirement were (1778) Nathaniel 
Pkilipps ((/. 20 ( let. 1842), the last dissent- 
ing minister who preached in a clerical wig 
(1785), Nicholas Clayton (1784), William 
Walters (</. 11 April 1806). Inconjunction 
with Gilbert Wakefield [q. v.], who waa in 
Nottingham 1784-90, he formed a literary 
club, meeting weekly at the members' houses. 
Wakefield considered him as possessing ' the 
greatest variety of knowledge, with the most 
masculine understanding' of any man be ever 



Walker 



59 



Walker 



^ 



knew (.Vrmoir* of Wakefielii, 1H04, i. 227). 
Nottingham was u fociis of political opinion, 
•which WoUier led both by special sermons 
and by drafting petitions and addresses sent 
ibrward by the town in favour of the inde- 
pendence of the I'nited States and the advo- 
cacy of parliBmentary and other reforms. 
His ability and his constitutional spirit won 
the high commendation of Edmund Burku 
[q. v.] Ilis reform speech at the county 
Jneetmg at Mansfield, 28 Oct, 1782, was his 

geatest eflbrt. "William Ilenrj- Cavendish 
;ntinck, third duke of Portland [q. v.], com- 
pared him with Cicero, to the disadvantage 
of the lotter. From 1787 he was chairman 
liof the associated dissenters of Xottiii^-ham- 
'fehire, Derbyshire, and port of Yorkshire, 
-whose object was to achieve the repeal of the 
Test Act*. His ' Dissenters' I'lea, Birming- 
ham [1790], 8to, was reckoned by Charles 
I James Fox [q. v.] the best publication on 
Ithe subject. He was an eorly advocate of 
The abolition of the slave trade. The variety 
of his interests is shown by his publication 
ii(17i)4, 4to) of his treatise on conic sections, 
rhile he was agitating against measun-s for 
be suppression of public opinion, which cul- 
^minated in the 'gagging act' of 1795. 

Towards the close of 1797, after a fruit- 



^_less application to Thomas Belsham [q. v.], 

^■^'alkcr was Invited to succeed Thomas 

^BSames [q. v.] as professor of theology in 

^■llanchester College. lie felt it a duty to 

^K comply, and resigned his Nottingham charge 

on o May 1798. There was one other tutor, 

but tlie funds were low, and Walker's appeal 

(19 April 1799) fur increased subscriptions 

met with scant response. I'rom 1800 the 

entire burden of teaching, including classics 

and mathematics, fell on him, nor was his 

lemuneration proportionally increased. In 

addition he took charge (1801-3) of the 

ongregation at Dob Lane Chapel. Fails- 

rorth. He resigned in ISO.'?, and the col- 

ge was removed to York [see Wellbb- 

OTED, CharlbsJ. 

Walker remained for two years in the 

Beighbourhood of Manchester, and continued 

take an active part in its Literary and 

Philosophical Society, of which he was elected 

president on the death of Thomas Fercival 

(1740-1804) [q.v.l In 1805 he removed to 

Wavertree, near tiverpool, still keeping up 

a connection with Manchester, lu the spring 

of 1807 he went to London on a publishing 

»nd. His powers suddenly I'uilwl. He 

at Draper Hull, London, nn 21 .\])ril 

and was buried in Hunhill Fields. 

[is portrait is in the possession of the Man- 

hestcr Literary and Philosophical Society, 

ad baa been twice engraved. He married 




in 1772, and left a widow. His only son, 
tJeorgo Walker, his father's biographer and 
author of ' I,*tters to a Friend' (1843) on 
his reasons for nonconformity, became a re- 
sident in France. His only daughter, Sarah 
(rf. 8 Dec. Ix-M), married,' on 9 July 1796, 
Sir George Cuylev, hart., of Brompton, near 
Scarborough. William Manning Walker 
(1784-1833), minister at Preston and Man- 
chester, was his nephew. 

Walker's theology, a ' tempered Arinnism,' 
plays no part in his own comiHisitions, but 
shows itself in omissions and alterations in 
his ' Collection of Psalms and Hymns,' War- 
rington, 17H8, 8vo. He wrote a few liymne. 
Many of his speeches aurl potitieul addressee 
will be found in his 'Life' and collected 
' Eitsays.' Besides the mathematical works 
already mentioned, he published: 1. 'Ser- 
mons,' 1790, 2 vols. 8vo. Posthumous were : 
2. 'Sermons,' 1808, 4 vols. 8vo (including re- 
prmt of No. 1). 3. ' Es-^^avs . . . prefixed . . . 
Life of the Author,' 1809', 2 vols. 8vo. 

[Obituary by Aikin, in AlhengDUin, Juua 1807, 
p. 638 : Life, by his Sod, prefixed to IJ^snys, also 
separutflly, 1809; Monthly Rcpositor)', 1807 p. 
217, 1810 pp. 261, 3.V2,"47.'i, SOO. o04. 1811 
p. 18, 1813 p. 577 ; Wieksteed'B Memory of the 
Just, 184;i, p. 127; Bright's Historicnl Sketch 
of Warrington Academv, 1859, p. 16; Munk's 
Coll. of Phys. 1861. ii."l83; CHrpenler's Pres- 
byterianisin in Nottinghiim [1802], p. 161; 
Halley's Lancashire, I8G9, ii. 305, 409, 468; 
Roll of 8tudcnts, Manchester Cull. 1868; 
Brownn'g Hist, of CoDgregntioniilism in Norfolk 
and Suffolk, 1877, p. 251 ; Nightingale's Lan- 
cashire Nonconformity, 1891 i. 17, 1893 T. 47; 
Julian's Diet, of Hyninology, 1892, pp. 12, 30.] 

A. G. 

WALKER, GEORGE (1772-1847), 
novelist, was horn in Fnlcon Sijuare, Cripple- 
gate, London, 24 Dec. 1772. At the age of 
fifteen lie was npiirenliced to n bookseller 
named Cuthell in Middle llow,Holborn,and 
two years afterwards started in the same 
business for himself with a capital of a few 
shillings. He remained in this business the 
whole of his life, and bi-came prosperous. 
He first transferred his shop tu Portland 
Street, where he added u musical publishing 
department, and finally, as a music publisher 
solely, he removed to Golden Square, and 
took his son George Walker (180;5-1879) 
[q. v.] into partnership with him. He died 
on 8 Feb. 1847. 

I le WTOte numerous novels after the then 
popular stylo of .Mrs. Uadcliire ; I. ' itomaiice 
of tilt! (,'ttvem,' l<ondon, 1702, 2 vols. 

2. 'ilainiled Castle,' London, 1794, 2 vols. 

3. 'House ofTyniuii,' London, 1795, 4 vols. 

4. ' Theodore Cyiibon,' London, 1 79(5, 3 vols. 



■ 



Walker 



60 



Walker 



5. ' Cintlielia.' London, 1797,4 vols.; French 
translation, I'nri-i, 1798-9. 6. 'Tlio Aapa- 
bond.'Lnndun, ITS'fl, 2 vols.; French trans- 
lation, ruri.", 1807. 7. 'The Three Spuniard.*,' 
London, IKUO, 3 vols.; French translation, 
Paris, IW)'"). 8. "Don Itaphuel,' London, 
1803, 3 vols. 9. 'Two Girls of EiKhleen," 
London, ISlMi, 2 vols. 10. ' Adventures of 
Timothy Thought less,' Loudon, 1S1:J. 
11. 'Travels of Sylvester Tramju^r,' London, 
1813. 12. ■ The' .Midnight Bell,' London, 
1824, 3 vols. lie also piihliNlu'd a vulume 
of poems, London, 1801, and 'The liatlle of 
Waterloo : a poem,' London, 1815. 

[London Direotory; Bingr. Unirorsello ; Brit. 
Mas. Cat.] J. R. M. 

WALKER. GKORGE (.1803-1879). 
■writer on c-hfss, horn in London in March 
18U3, was the son of George Walker (1772- 
1847) [q. v.] After his father's death in 
1847, tieorge AVallter went un to the Stock 
Exchange, where he practised until a few 
years hefore his death on 23 April 1879. lie 
■was hurled at Kensal Green. 

Asa chess-player AValker was bright with- 
out being extremely hrilliaut. His recorded 
g[ames with masters show that he was an 
adept in developing his men and making ex- 
changes, but lie admits that phiyer.s of the 
force of Moq>hy or Maedouiiell could always 
give him the odds of the [lavvn and move. 
He himself was a gwHt latulat'ir tfiiijntris 
act i in chess matters, and contended that it 
match between I'hilidnrand I'onziuni would 
surpass the play of any of his conteinpurarieH. 
Among the latter his hero was Labourdon- 
nais. whom he lended in his lust illness, and 
buried at his own expense in Ken.sal tireen 
cemetery [December 1840 ; see Macuosnell, 
At.EXANDKR], Walker wrote a memoir of 
the ' roi d'tchecs' for 'Bell's Life.' which 
■was translated for the I'arisian 'I'ahimede' 
(lo Dec. 1841) as ' Derniers Moineiils de 
Labourdonnais.' (Jther players celebrated 
by \\'alker are St. Amant, Mouret (the 
'Automaton'), .Tobii Cochrnne, George 
Perigal, and fcielous and Popert, the joint 
'primates of chess' ahtng witli Walker 
himself between the death of Mucdonnell 
and the rise of Staunton. From 1840 to 
1847, when he ceased playing first-rate chess, 
he was inferior only to Buckle and Staunton 
among Engli.*h players. 

As a writer on the game, George Walker's 
reputation was European. His firstpublica- 
tion. a pamphlet of twenty-four pages, on 
'New Variations in the Muzio Gambit' 
(1831, 12mo'). was followed in less than 
K year by liis ' New Treatise,' which 
■I "''d the chess 'Studies' of 



Peter I'ratt (1803, &c.) and the far from 
thorough 'Treatise ' by J. H. Sarratt (1808) 
as amended bv William Lewis in 1821; 
of the ' New Treatise ' a German version 
went through several editions. Walker's 
style was bright and often witty. To later 
editions was appended an e.xcellent biblio- 
graphy; but this has been almost entirely 
superseded by the ' Schachlitteratur ' of A. 
\'an der Liiide ( Berlin, 1880; cf. however, 
Che«ii Mantkixt, iii. 43). Walker's line chess 
library was dispersed hv Sothebv on 14 May 
1874 {U'entmiiieter Paprrt, 1 ^fay 1874), 
He was also a benefactor to the cause of 
chess as a founder and promoter of clubs, 
notably the AVestniinster tJhess Club (1832- 
l84;i), famous as the battle-ground of Mac- 
domiell and Laimurdonnais, and of Popert 
and iStauntun.uiid its successor in reputation, 
the St. George's Club, which still flourishes. 

\ good black-and-white portrait of 
Walker is civen in the ' Westminster Papers,' 
1 Dec. 1870. 

Walker's works comprise: 1. 'A New 
Treatise on Chejss: containing the rudiments 
of the science . . . and a selection of fifty 
chess problems,' London, 1832, 8vo ; 3rd ed. 
1841 (Em. 4 April); 4th ed. 'The Art of 
t'hess I'lav,' 1840. 2. 'A S.-lection of 
Games al (^hess, actually played by Philidor 
and Ilia contemporaries . . . with notes and 
additions,' London, 1835, 12mo. 3. 'Chess 
made Eai^v,' London, 1830, 12mo; 1850; 
Baltimore," 1837 and 1839. 4. 'The Phili- 
dorian : a Magazine of Domestic Games,' 
London, 18.H8 (chess, draughts, whist, &c.) 
5. 'On .Moving the Knight,' London, 1840, 
8vo. (1. ' Che.ss Studies: comprising one 
thousand games actually played during the 
last half-century,' London, 1844, 8vo; new 
edition, with introduction by E. Free- 
iKiroiigli, 1^93. 7. ' Chess and Chessplayers: 
consisting of Original Stories and Sketches,* 
London, 18"iO, 8vo. Among these papers 
(some of which hud been contributed to 
' Eraser," the ' Chess Player's Chronicle,' and 
other magazines) are interesting sketches of 
the ' .Vutoinaton,' Iluy Lopez, the Caff de la 
Regence, and stories of Doscliapelles, La- 
bourdonnais, and Mucdonnell. Walker 
edited I'hilidor's well-known 'Analysis of 
the Game of Chesa . , . with notes anil addi- 
tions,' in 1832 (Ijondon, 12mo) ; and three 
years later he thoroughly revised the 'Giiida 
to the Game of Drafts,' originally published 
by Joshua Sturges in 1800 (another edition 
1845), In 1847 he translated from th» 
French the ' Chess Preceptor ' of C. F. de 
jBeni.sch. He managed the chess column 
for ' Bell's Life ' from 18,^ to 1878. He is 
to be distinguished from William Green- 



Walker 



6i 



Walker 



wood Wnlker whn puhlished 'A Selection 
at Games at Cliess ' in 1836. 

[Che»8 PU\>r's Chronicle, 1 June 1870 (notice 
by the Rev. W. Wnyte); Bilgucr's Hiimiljiich 
des Sohachspitlg, Leipzig, 1801, p. 51 ; Westniin- 
Btrr Papers, 1 Dec. 1876; Wulkor's Chess 
Studies ed. Freeborough, 1893; Binl'a Ches» 
History, p. xii ; Polytechnic Journal. M«y nJiil 
September 184! ; Brit. Mua. Cat.; notes kindly 
given by the Rpv. W. Wuyte.] T. S. 

WALKER, OE( )UGK ALFRED (1807- 
188-4), philiitithropist and sanitary reformer, 
born lit Xottinffbnm on 27 Feb. 1807, was 
second fnn of Williura Walker, a jilumber 
of that city, hy his wife, Elizulx-th William- 
ton of Biirton-undcr-Needwood in StaflVird- 
ehire. Hisearlicst sclioolmiwti-r, Ilcnrv Wild, 
was a quaker of Xollen. A.s a younper son 
in a middle-c]as.s family of nine cliildren, 
Georgv.-Vlfred liadto choose betime.s his craft 
or profession. Bent upon going up to Lon- 
don to walk the hospitials, he began his pre- 
liminary --t udies before quit! ing Nott iuvfliam. 
On reaching the metropolis he pursued them 
at the .Muersgate Street school. In 1821) 

I he ■KOB admitted a licentiate of the Society 
of Apothecaries, becoming in 1831 a mem- 
ber o I the lloyal College of Surgeons. In 
1836 he atteiided St. Bartholomew's Hos- 
pital, and next year studied in Paris in the 
■wards of the Hotel Dieu. There he visited 
the great cemeteries on the outskirts of Paris, 
«nd continued his study of that great social 
evil of intramural interment to which his 
attention had been first directed in boyhood 
irben sauntering through the densely packe<l 
lyards of his native place, 
ring tlie autumn of 18/53 Walker re- 
timed to London, and entered upon medi- 
cal practice at 101 Dniry Lane. Ilis sur- 
Igerj was surrounded by intrainural church- 
yard. At great risk tn his health ho 
collected evidence on the .subject, and by 
liis writings forced his conclusions upon the 
public. His first book, which appeared in 
1830, was grimly entitled 'Gatherings from 
Graveyards.' Early in the following year 
he gave important evidence orally before 
a (elect committee of the House of Com- 
mons. This evidence formed the appendix 
to Walk4-r'8 next work, called ' The Grave- 
Vardsof London.'published in 1841. ' Grave- 
yard Walker," as he was thenceforth dubbed, 
drew up a petition to the House of Com- 
inons in 1842 which led to the appointment 
of B select committee, the labours of which 
finally insured the removal of the remains 
of those buried within populous localities. 
Vine letters from W'ulker to the ' Moniing 
Herald ' were collectively reprinted in 1843 
as ' Interment and Uisinterment : a further 





Exposition of the Practices pursued in the 
Metropolitan Places of Sepulture, and the 
IJeaults affecting the Healtli of the Liv- 
ing.' Walker's subsequent publicat ions were 
'Burial-ground Incendiarism,' 1846, and a 
series of lectures on the ' .\etual Condition 
of the Metropolitan Graveyards,' delivered 
in the Mechanics' Institution in Chancery 
Lane (1847), 'by order of the .Metropob- 
tan Society for the .Vbolition of Burials in 
Town.' In 1847 Walker himself obtained 
possession of the foulest grave-pit to be 
found in London, and removed its contents 
at his own expense to Norwood cemetery. 
This loathsome death-trap, in which ten 
thousand bodies were interred, was in the 
immediate neighbourhood of his surgery. 
It was a cellar (fifty-nine feet by twenty- 

I nine feet) underneath a baptist conventicle, 
midway on the west side of St. Clement's 
Lane, and known as Enon Chapel. In 1849 
he issued 'Practical Suggestions for the 
Establishment of Metropolitan Cemeteries;' 
his last work on that theme, published in 
1H51, was ' Gn the Past and Present State 
of Intramural Burying Places,' wliich in 
18.')2 ran into a second edition. It was 
largely owing to Walker's efforts that the 
act of 18.';0, which placed intramural inter- 

I mcnt-9 uniler severe restriction.-*, was passed. 

I .Ml through his career in London, Walker, 

j in addition to his surgery in Drury Lane, 

' had another houst; further west, at 11 St. 
James's Place, in its way almost as remark- 

j able. At the back of it he built warm 
vapour baths long bi-fori; David I'rquhart 
[q. v.] brought to the knowledge of Lon- 

I doners the luxury of the Turkish bath ; but 

I 11 St. James's Place was burnt down, batlis 
and all. 

Towards the close of his life Walker 
withdrew from London to an estate he 
purcha.sed, Ynysfaig House, near Dolgelly 

I in Carmiirllieiii^liire. He t,i>ent bis leisure 
in preparing for publication 'Grave Re- 
miniscences, or Experiencea of a Sanitary 
Reformer;' but that work was not com- 
plete<l. Walker died suddenly at Ynysfaig 
Ilouse on 6 July 1884. 

I Personal Hecullections ; obituary notice in 
Athenreum, 12 July 1884; Men of the Time, 
1884, p. 1083; Tiines, 7 July 1 884, and holo- 

j graph niriuii.script iiiipers and original correspon- 

j dene*.] C. K. 

•WALKER, SiE GEORGE TOWNS- 

] HEX1)( 1714-1842), generaI,bomon25 May 
17(54, was the eldest son of Major Nathaniel 
^^'alker, who served in a corps of rangers 
during the American war, and died in 1780, 
by Htnrietta, only daughter and heiress of 

i Captain John Bagster, R.N. , of West Oowes, 



Walker 



62 



Walker 



I«le of Wight. His great-gTeat-grandfather, 
Sir Walter Walker, of Busbey Hall, Ik>rt- 
fordshire, was advocate to Catherine of 
Braganza [q. v.], the ■wife of Charles II. 

By Queon CEorlottp's desire, he received 
a commission na en.sigii in the fl.")th foot on 
4 March \7t*-J. lie became lieutenant on 
1,3 SI arch 1783, and nn :!2 .funu was trans- 
ferred to the 71st, the 95th being disbanded. 
The 7l8t was also disbanded soon after- 
wards, and on \!i Muroh l"t:<4 he was trans- 
ferred to the 3Cth. He joined thnt regiment 
in India, and B«^r\'ed with (jeneral (after- 
wards Sir Henrj-) Coahy's force in the ope- 
rations against the Foligarts in the neighboiir- 
honil of Tinnevelli in February 1780, being 
placed in charge of the quartermaater-gene- 
ralVdepiirtment. lie was invalided home in 
17^7j and exchanged on 25 July to the 35th 
foot. In 1788he was employed on the staffin 
Ireland ns aide-de-camp to General Bruce. 
On 13 March 1789 he was made captain- 
lieutenant in the 14th foot, but, instead of 
joining that regiment inJamaica, he obtained 
leave to go to Germany to study tactics and 
German. 

On4Mayl7!^l Walkerobtained a company 
in the (iOth, all the battalions of which were 
in America ; but he seems to have remained 
at the depot, and in 1703 ho went to Flan- 
ders with a body of recruits who had volun- 
teered for active service. He was present at 
the action of 10 May 1704 near Toiirnay, 
and served in the quurlennBSter-generar.s de- 
partment during the retreat of the Duke 
of York's armv, being employed on various 
missions. WLen the army embarked for 
England he was made an inspector of foreign 
corps, and was sent to the Black Forest and 
Switzerland to superintend tho raising of 
Baron de Roll's regiment. I le made arrange- 
ments for the passage of the men through 
Italy and their embarkation at CivitaVeccliia, 
and returned to EngUind in .\ugast 17M. 

"W'alker was promoted major in the (Wtli 
on 27 Aug. In March 17fi7 he went to Por- 
tugal, and was aide-de-camp hrgt to (General 
Simon Fraser (</. 1777) [q-v.], and afterwards 
to the Prince of Waldeclt, who commanded 
the Angli -Portuguese army; but ill-health 
obliged him to go home in June. He was 
inspecting field-officer of recruiting iit Man- 
chester from February 1798 till March 1799. 
He then joined the 50th in Portugal, having 
become lieutenant-colonel in that regiment 
on 6 Sept. 1798 ; but in October ho was 
Biunmoned to Holland to act as British 
commissioner with tho Ru.'sian troiipa under 
the Duke of York. He afterwards accom- 
panied them to the Channel Islands, and so 
missed the campaign in Egypt, in which his 



regiment bad a share. He took over the 
commiind of the flOth at Malta in October 
1801, returned with it tolreland in 1802, 
and served with it in tho expedition to 
Copenhagen in 1807, being in Spencer's 
brigade of Baird's division. 

In January 1808 he went with it to the 
Peninsula, as part of Spencer's force. It 
was one of the regiments partieularlv men- 
tioned by Sir Arthur Wellesley in liis re- 
port of the battle of ^'imiero. It formed 
part of Fane's brigade, which, with An- 
struther'.s brigade and Robe's guns, occupied 
a hill in front of Vimiero, and was attacked 
by a strong column under Laborde. The 
French had nearly reached the guns when 
Walker wheeled his right wing round to the 
left by companies, poured a volley into tho 
flank of the column, charged it both in front 
and flank, and drove it m confusion down 
tlie hillside (see FrLER, pp. 105-7, where 
(lis own account of the charge is quoted). 

In the autumn he went to England, and 
the oOlh was commanded by Major (after- 
wards Sir Charles James) Napier during 
Moore's campaign. He returned with des- 
patches for Moore, but reached Coruiia two 
days after the battle. He was made colonel 
in'the array on 25 Sept. 1808. In 1609 
he served in the Walcheren expedition, at 
first in command of his regiment, and aftei^ 
ward.s as brigadier. 

In August 1810 he went back to the 
Peninsula with the rank of brigadier-general. 
He was employed for a year in the north of 
Spain, aiding and stimulating the authori- 
ties of Gallicia and the Asturias to raise 
troops and take a more active part in the 
war (see his letters to Lord Liverpool in 
War Offirp Original Comfpondenct,'So. 142, 
; at Public Record Office). Ho had per- 
j sunded Lord Liverjiool to let him take three 
I thousand British troops to Santona, but 
I Lord Wellesley interposed, and the men 
were sent to Wellington (Dcupatehes^Sa'pfX. 
Ser. vii. 208). Finding that he could do no 
good with the Spaniards, and having become 
1 major-general on 4 June 1811, ho applied to 
join the army in Portugal, and in (!)ctober he 
was given command of a brigade in the Sth 
(Leith's) division. 

At the storming of Badajor, on the night 
of 6 April 1812, M'alker's brigade was ordered 
to make a false attack on the San Vincente 
bastion, to be turned into a real attack if 
circumstances should prove favourable. The 
ladder party missed its way and delayed 
this attack for on hour. Meanwhile the 
breaches, which were on the opposite side of 
the fortress, had been assaulted in vain by 
the fourth and light division ; and the thirJl 



Walker 



63 



Walker 






divittiun, which had e«cala(]t-(l the castle, 
found it«clf unobleto push through into the 
town. Walker's hrigade (4th, 30th, and 
4-ltli regiments) reaclied the glncis undis- 
c>ivi-rt'd, but was met by ft hea\'j' fire as it 
descended by ladders into the ditch and 
placed them against the escarp. The ladders 
proved too short, for the wall was more than 
lliirty ffi'l high. Fortunately, it woa un- 
finiahied at the salient, and there tlie men 
mounted, by four ladders only. While some 
of them entered the town, Walker with the 
main body forced his way along the ram- 
parta, and made him.^lf master of three l>as- 
tions. Then a sudden scare (the fear of a 
mine, according to Napier) made the men 
torn, and they were cha.sed back to the San 
Vincente bastion, where they rallied on a 
battalion in reserve. 

Walker was shot while trying to over- 
come this panic and carry the men onward. 
The ball, fired by a man not two yards dis- 
tant, struck the edge of a watch which he 
was wearing in his breast, turned down- 
wanls and pa«9od out between his ribs, splin- 
tering one of them. He also received four 
bayonet woHnd.-*. lie was taken care of for 
a time by a French soldier, whom he was 
afterwards able to repay. He was so much 
weakened by loss of blood and by subsequent 
hsmorrhage that his life was for some time in 
danger, and he had to remain three months 
*t BftiJajoE before he could be sent home, 
"lift brifjude had lost about half its efl'ectivo 
etrengtii, but ita success had decided the fall 
of Badajoj;. Wellington inhisdespatch spoke 
of his conspicuous gallantry and conduct. 
[On 24 Oct. he was given the colonelcy of 

e Meuron's regiment. 
He was still .sufl'ering from his wounds 
^hen ho returned to the Peninsula in June 
1813. The army was in the Pyrenees, cover- 
the blockade of I'amplonH, when he 

lined it on 4 Atig. at Ariscun, and was 
^ilaced in command of the first brigade 
(riOth, Tlst, and 9"_'nd regiments) of the se- 
■COnd (Stewart's) division. Stewart had been 
•wounded in the action of Maya ten days 
before, and in his absence the division was 
iinande<l by Walker for a month. He 
■ present at the battle of the Nivelle on 

6 Nov.. but his brigade, which had suffered 
severely at >Iaya, was not octively 
engaged. Shortly afterwards he was given 
temporary command of the seventh (Lord 
~ Ihousie's) division, which formed part of 
Bcre^ford's corps. At the passage of the 
■Kire ond the actions near Bayoniie (10-1-"' 
Dec.) this division was in second line. It 
helped to drive the French out of their 
works at Hastingues and Oeyergave on 




23 Feb. 181 4. At Orthes, four days later, it 
was at first behind the fourth divi.sion, but it 
had a prominent sliare in the latter part of 
the battle, and in the pur.'suit. Walker was 
wounded while loading on one of his bri- 
gades. He was mentioned in NN'ellington's 
despatch, and was included in the thanks of 
parliament (see Dfspatchm, Suppl. Ser. viii. 
612, for his report to Beresford). 

In March he reverted to his former brigade, 
but in the middle of that mouth his own 
wound and the death of his wife caused him 
to leave the army and return to England. 
He received the gold medal with two clasps 
for his services in the Peninsula, was made 
K.C.B. in January 1815, and knight-com- 
mander of the Portuguese order of the 
Tower ond Sword in ilay. 

He was governor of (irenada from 7 April 
1815 to 17 Feb. 1810. On 21 April 1817 
he received the Q.C.B. He was made a 
member of the consolidated hoard of general 
ollicers, and groom of the chamber to the 
Duke of Sussex. On 19 July 1821 he was 
promoted lieutenant-general, and on 11 May 
1 825 he was appointed commander-in-chief 
at Madras. He took over that command on 
3 March 182t!, and held it till .May 1831. 
On 28 March 18.'}.j he was made a baronet, 
and received a grant of arms commemorating 
Vimiero, Badajoz, and Orllics. 

On 24 May 18.'?7 he was appointed lieu- 
tenant-governor of Chelsea Hospital, and on 
28 June 1838 he was promoted general. He 
had been made a colonel-commandant of the 
rifle brigade on 21 May 1816, Ue Meuron's 
regiment being disbanded in that year. He 
was subsequently transferred to the 84tb 
regiment on 13 May 1820, to the 52nd on 
19 Sept. 1822, and, "finally, to the 50lh on 
23 Dec. 1839. He died at Chelsea Hospital 
on 14 Nov. 1842. lie married, first, in July 
1 789, Anna, only daughter of Uichard Allen 
of Bury, Lancashire, by whom he had two 
daughters; and, secondly, in August 1820, 
Helen, youngest daughter of Alexander 
Caldeleugh ot Croydon, Surrey, by whom he 
had four sons and two daughters. 

Walker was a very handsome soldierly 
man ; his likeness is to be found in Thomas 
Heaphy's picture of the Peninsula heroes. 

[United Service Magaiinp, Decenibor 1842; 
Gent. Ha^;. 1843, i. 88 ; Fyler's History of the 
SOIh Rogimcnt ; Wellington Despatches; Na- 
pier's War in the Peninsula ; Jooes's Sieges in 
Spain : Boyal Military Calondnr, iii. 177 ; pri- 
vate information.] E. M. L. 

WALKER, ORORGE WASHHS-GTON 
(1800-1659), missionary, was boni in Lon- 
don on 19 March 18(XI. Ilia mother dying 



Walker 



64 



Walker 



early Bnd his father removing to Paris, he 
was broiiglit up by a grandmother at Xew- 
castle-on-Tyne as a uniturinn. Ho was con- 
firmed by a bishop, and placed at a Wesleyan 
school at IJarnard Castle. Apprenticed to n 
qiiakcr draper of Newcastle, he attended 
Friends' meetings, and in 1827 joined the 
society. An attachment to his master's 
daughter, who soon after became blind and 
died on 3 Xnv. 18:.'S, much influenced liis 
character at this time. In l8:il, iuobudiouce 
to a ' call,' he accompauiiHl James Uaek- 
houae, a mini.ster of Y(»rk, on a missionary 
visit to the Smitbem Hemisphere. They 
landed at Ilobart Town (now llobart) un 
8 Feb. 1S32, after a live months* voyage; 
Van Diemen's Land, as it was then culled, 
■wa.s n dependency of New South Wales, and 
chielly kimwu in England for its penal set- 
tlemenls. The governor, Sir George Arthur 
[q. v.], afforded the Friends every oppor- 
tunity of visiting the convicts, and at his 
request they furnished him with reports on 
penal discipline. They also visited the 
aborigines on Flinders Island. 

In Launceston they gathered a body of 
quakers who held I heir first yearly meeting 
in 1834, and who have since founded an 
excellent college in Hobart Town for the 
insfriidion of iheir young. By t}mt lirst 
yearly meeting Walker was acknowledged a 
minister. 

After three years in Tasmania they passed 
to Sydney, where tliey ma<le the actjunin- 
tance of Samuel Miirsdon fq. v.l, the oldest 
colonial chaplain, to whose labours f hey pay 
a high tribute in their journals. On return- 
ing to Hobart they were solieited by the 
new governor, .Sir .lohn Franklin [q. v.], to 
give information to his secretary. Captain 
Maconochie, for the report he was preparing 
for the House of Commons (Pari. Accounts 
and Pnperii, 1S;17-S, xlii. 31, note g). In 
1838, having visited all the .\u8tnilian colo- 
nies and having founded numerous tem- 
perance societies (for the drinking of spirits 
they considered the greatest evil of the 
land). Backhouse and Walker set sail for 
Cape Town, calling at Mauritius on the way. 
They visited all the mission .stations (num- 
bering eighty) in South Africa, of whatever 
denomination, wrote addresses and bad them 
translated into Dutch, and travelled over six 
thousand miles in a wagon or on horseback. 
They parted in September 1840, after nine 
years' united labours; Walker returned to 
Hobart and set up business as b draper, 
hut, having established a savings bank and 
a depot of the Bible Society, both in his 
shop, he soon l>ecame engaged entirely in 
these and other philanthropic works. lie 



waa a member of the board of education and 
on the council of the high school. 

Walker died at Hobart Town on 1 Feb. 
1859, and was buried on the 4th. On 10 Dec. 
1840 he married at Hobart Sarah Benson 
Mather, a quaker minister. 

In conjunction with Backhouse, Walker 
wrote several treatises of a religious charac- 
ter addressed to the inhabitants of the 
countries he visited and to the convicts of 
New South Wales and Van Diemen's Land. 

[Biieklinuse and Tylor's Life and Labours of 
Wiilkor. 181)2, 8vo; Backhouse's Visit to Aae- 
tr*!. Colonies, 1838-41, 8vo, Visit to Mauritius. 
&c. 1844, and Extmcts from Letters, 1838, 3rd 
e<lit. : Smith's Catalogne; Friends' Biogr. Cat. 
p. 681,] C. F. S. 

WALKER, SibHOVEN'DEN (//. 1728). 
rear-admiral, second son of Colonel William 
Walker of Tankardatowu, Queen's County, 
bv Eliiabeth, daughter of Dr. I'eter Cham- 
herlen (1601-1683) [q. v.], is said to have 
been born about 1060. It would seem more 
probable that he was quite ten years younger. 
Sir Chamberteii Walker, described as ' the 
celebrated man midwife,' was his younger 
brother. His grandfather, John Walker, 
married Marj-, daughterof Thomas Hoveuden 
of Timkardstown, apparently the grandson of 
Giles llovenden, who came to Ireland in 
the train of Sir Anthony St. Leger [q. v.] 
noveuden Walker's early service) in the 
navy cannot now he traced. The first mention 
of him is an captain of the Vulture fireship 
on 17 Feb. l(i!M-2. fnjm which date hetooK 
post. In the Vulture he was present in 
the battle of Barfieur, but had no actual 
share in it, nor yet in the destruction of the 
French ships at La Hogue. He was shortly 
afterwards appointed to the Sapphire frigate 
on the Irish station ; and, apparently in 
1694, to the Friends' Adventure armed 
ship. In 1095 he commanded theFore.sight 
of .50 guns, in which, when olF the Lizard, 
in charge of convoy, with the Sheerness 
frigate in company, he is said to have fought 
a gallant action with two French ships of 
si.xty and seventy guns, on 29 April 1696, 
and to have beaten them oIT(Charnoce). 
In June 1097 ho was appointed to the 
Content Prize ; in September to the Iloyal 
Oak, and in February H!97-8 to the Boyne 
as flag-captain to Vice-admiral Matthew 
Aylmer [q. v.], going out to the Mediter- 
ranean as coinmander-in-chief, with local 
rank of admiral — a condition that led 
Walker afterwards to raise the question 
whether he ought not to be paid as captain 
to an ndmirnl. The navy board, he com- 
plained, would only pay him as captain to 



Walker 



6s 



Walker 



W: 




8 vice-admirttl. On the return of the 
Boyne to England in November 1699 the 
ship was ordered to r>ay oft", and Walker 
asked for leave of absence to go to Ireland, 
where, he explained, he had a cause pend- 
ing in the court of chancery, in which his 
interests were involved to the extent of a 
thousand pounda. As the admiralty refused 
him leave till the ship waa safe in Hamoaze 
and her powder dischareed, he begged to 
' lay down ' the command. 

In December 1701 ho was appointed to 
the Burford, one of the fleet oft" Cadiz under 
Sir fieorge Rooke [q. v.] in 1702; and 
afterwards of a squaidron detached to the 
West Indies with Walker as commodore 
(Bi-KCRETT, pp. 599, 603). After calling 
at the Cape Verd Inlands and at Barbados, 
he arrivwi at Antigua in the middle of 
February, and was desired by Colonel 
Christopher Codrington [q. v.] to co-operate 
in an attack on Guadeloupe. The first 
part of the co-operation was to provide the 
land forces witli ammunition, which was 
done by making up cartridges with large- 
grained cannon powder ana bullets taken 
Irom the case-shot. Of flints there wos no 
•tor<,', nor yet of mortars, bombs, pickaxes, 
«rmdii><, and such like, necessary for a siege. 
With officers who had allowed their troops 
to be in this state of destitution, it was 
scarcely likely that a warm-tempered man 
h aa Walker could act cordially ; and it 
very possible that this want of ogrei?- 
WBS in a measure an-iwerable for the 
ure, though the account of the campaign 
^ " toattnbute it mainly to the inefficiency 
land forces. The ships certainly took 
men over to (tuadeloupe, put them 
aafely on shore, cleared the enemy out of 
■nch batteries as were within reach of the 
sea, and kept open the communications. 
When tie French, driven out of the towns 
and forts, were permitted to retire to the 
mountains, the English were incapable of 
lorsuin^ them, and finally withdrew after 
[estroying the town, forts, and plaiitations. 
Never did any troop.s enterprise a tiling of 
ihig nature with more uncertainty and 
under so many difficulties ; for they had 
neither guides nor iinything else which woe 
lieceesary ' (Bcbchbtt, pp, tJ03-4 ; Walker's 
tert to Burchett, Captain*' Letters, W. 
L vii.) In the end of May the squadron 
Tetumed to Xevis, where, a few weelcs 
later, it was joined by Vice-admiral John 
Graydon [q, v.], with whom it went to 
Jamaica, and later on to Newfoundland and 
England. 

eto 1707 Walker commanded 
id, in which, in the summer of 




an 
I mi 

w 

neii 



1700, he took out a reinforcement to Sir John 
Leake [q.v.] in the Mediterranean, and had 
part in tiie relief of Barcelona. In Decem- 
' ber 1707 he was appointed to the Uoyal 
■ Oak ; in January 1707-8 to the Itamilliea, 
and in June, unaera recent order in council 
(18 Jan.), to be captain resident at Ply- 
mouth, to superintend and hasten the work 
of the port, and to be commander-in-chief 
in the absence of a rtag-ollicer. On 
15 Miircli 1710 11 he was promoted to be 
rear-admiral of the white; about the same 
time ho wns knighted ; and on 3 April he waa 
appointed commander-in-chief 'of a secret 
expeditioQ,' with an order to wear the union 
flag at the main when clear of the Channel. 
The ' expedition ' intended against Quebec, 
consisting of ten ships of the line, with 
several smaller vessels and some thirty t rana- 
ports, carrying upwards of five thou.;and 
soldiers, commanded by Brigadier-general 
John Hill [q. v.], mailed from Plymouth in 
the b<'ginniug of May, and arrived in New 
Kngland on 24 June. The supplies and 
reinforcements which were expected to bo 
waiting for it were not ready, and the fleet 
did not sail for the St. Lawrence till 
30 July. As they entered the river it 
began to blow hard, and on 21 Aug. a dense 
fog and an easterly galu compelled them, on 
the advice of the pilots, to lie to for the 
night. By the next morning they had 
drifted on to the north shore, among rocks 
and islands, where eight transports were 
cast away with the loss of nearly nine 
hundred men, and the rest of the fleet was 
saved with the greatest difficulty. 

The stormy weatlu-r continuing, the pilots, 
' who had been forced on board the men-of- 
war by the government of New England, all 
judged it impracticable to get up to Quebec 
with a fleet.' The ships, too, were short of 
provisions; the design of the expedition 
Lad been 'industriously hid 'from the ad- 
miralty till the last moment ; ' a certain 
jierson — probably the Earl of Oxford is 
meant ^seemed to value himself very much 
that a design of this nature was kept a 
secret from the admiralty ' (Burchett, 
p. 778), and the ships were neither victualled 
nor fitted for what, was then a very ex- 
ceptional voyage. A council of war was of 
opinion that if they had been higher up 
the river when the gale came on, they must 
all have been lost ; and that now, being left, 
by the loss of one of the victuallers, with 
only ten weeks' provisions on short allow- 
ance, nothing could be done but to return to 
England as soon as possible. They arrived 
at St. Helen's on 9 Oct., ' and thus ended an 
expedition so chargeable to the nation and 

B 



• 



i 



wkidi BO aitwBXage ooaJd itmaooMj 

iprrtad, tn m Mma f Itow umadritMj 

S WM Mt on Cgot b^ tiiMe who Boned it ap 

' 'm ait g gut i o m sad p ey rM M i Ur iom ; 

it ocrMioiMtH tite drmwing Crom 

tmt umf in Flaaden, aaiitr eommutd of 

tfe Oake al lUHboron^ at lost atz 

ihnamtiA aen, wlien, iutead of beatiiif ap 

•ad <knrB at aea, tker might lure aone 

Ikeir eooBtijr Mrricak. Tbere nuT b« added 

M the Mi«fe(t«aM abroad an unlucky >cci- 

deot wUch happened at their return; for 

• akip of th« aqaadron, the Edgar of 70 

fBB* — Walker'a flagship — had not been 

Vaaajr di^ at aadxw at Spithead ere, by 

[vkat eaaaa ia BBlaKnni, she blew up and ail 

fthe maa wkidi ware on board her pen:^hed ' 

(a. p. 7S1). When the Edgar blew up, 

Walter was happily on shore ; but — among 

other things — all his papen were still on 

[board and were lost, a circiimrtanee which 

•fterwaida eao a c d him much trouble. On 

14 March 1711-12 he was appointed com- 

Band>rr-inH:hief at Jamaica, and sailed finally 

^firom Plymouth on 30 April with (he small 

aquadron and a convoy of a hundred mer- 

\ tiMnt ships. The command was unerentful, 

I and is mainly important as showing that 

nothin? in the conduct of the eTpeJition to 

the St. I^awrence was considert^l l)y the ad- 

i niralty as prejudicial to Walker's character 

I aa an officer. On the peace he was ordered 

to England, and arrived off Dover on '2& May 

1713. 

Shortly after the accession of George I 
AValker was called on by the admiralty to 
furnish them with an account of the Canada 
expedition. He replied that they had his 
official letters written at the time, that 
all his journals and other papers had been 
lost in the Edgar, and that any account he 
could write would be necessarily less per- 
fect than what they already bad. He was 
told that he must make out the best account 
he could, and was occupied with this when, 
apparently in April 1715, he received 
notice from his attorney that his half- 
pay had been stopped. His name had, 
in fact, been removed from the list of ad- 
mirals; not probably, oa he then and many 
others since nave believed, for imputed mis- 
conduct in the Canada expedition, but — as 
happened also to many others [cf. LLirdt, 
Sib Thomas; Hosier, Fkascis]— on sus- 
picion of .Tacobitism; the more so as the 
Canada expedition was certainly intended 
at the time as a blow to the Marlborough 
power. Walker, in disgust, left the country 
and settled in South Carolina as a planter. 
In a few years, however, he ri'lumed to 
England, and in 1720 published * A Journal, 



or Fall AeeoMBt al the late Expedition to 
Oaoad* ' (LondoB, 6to>, as a justification of 
hinaelf afsiaat ttoiftaienta that had been 
faoailT circslatfld. 

Aner tfak he aeasM to have resided 
abroad and ia Irelaad. In or about 1735 
Thamas Lediard '^q. t.1 was well acquainted 
with him in Hamburg and Ilanover. ' I 
found him,' he aavsv ' a gentleman of letters, 
good andcwlaitd'mg, i^dy wit, and agree- 
able ooBvetaation ; and withal the most 
atatemions man living ; for I never saw or 
heard that he drank anything but water, or 
eat anvthing but vegetables' ( Le0IaRI>, 
p. 8->5)'. He died in Dublin, of apoplexy, 
in 17:^. He was twice married, and left 
Uiue, by the second vrife, on- daughter, 
Margaret, who died unmarried about 1777. 

[The Memoir in Charaock's Biogr. Nar. ii. 
1.56, is very impeifcct. and in many reapecta 
inacennte. The accoont of his official career 
beragtreD is taken from the list Books, tbeCom- 
miadooaiidWatTant Books, bis own Letters (Cap- 
tains'L(Uer^W.).intbe PubUcnocord OfBce.from 
Bardiett's TransactioDs at Sea, I^iard's Naval 
Hist., and his own joomal of tlie expedition to 
C*nada. The history of his family is given in 
liriit. Mag. 1821, ii. 3S; a note to Notes and 
Queries, Stb s«r. ii. 37t. which differs from this 
in home details, seems less to )« depended on; 
a5, among other things, the writer did not know 
the correct spoiling of the maidi-n name of 
Walker's mother. In the Brili»li Museum Cata- 
logue a traosUcioQ from ihe Latin of Corncliits 
Oallas called ■ Elegies uf Old Age ' (LoDilon, 
168S, 8to) is doubtfully uttribntwl to Walkar 
(cf. Watt's Bibl Brit.)'; the awribotion seems 
highly improbable.] J. K. L. 

WALKBR, JAMES (1748-1808 ?), meiso- 
tint engraver, son of a captain in the mer- 
chant sen'ioe, was bom in 1 748. He became 
a pupil of Valentine Green [q. v.], but not 
in his fifteenth year, as has been alleged, 
for in 1763 Green himself had not begun to 
engrave in mezzotint. Walker's earliest 
published plate bears the date 2 July 1780. 
During the following three years he pub- 
lished a numlier of good portraits after 
Romney and others, some domestic scenes, 
' The Spell,' and • The Village Doctress,' after 
Northcote; a scene from 'Cymbeline,' alter 
Penny. In 1784 he went "to St. Peters- 
burg, being appointed engraver to the 
Empress Catluvriue II. Me remained is 
Russia till 1802, engraving numerous por- 
traits of the imperial family and of the 
Ivussian aristocracy, as well as pictures by 
the old masters in the imperial collection. 
Walker's appointment as court engraver was 
renewed by the Emperor .Alexander 1, and 
he was a member of the Imperial Academy 



Walker 



67 



Walker 



I 




of Art at St. Peterahurg. He returned to 
England with 8 pension in 11*02, wlien many 
of his plates were lost by shipwreck off Yar- 
moath. A list of these is given in ihu 
catalogue of a sale of liLs remaining plates 
and of impressions from the lost pinteji, at 
Sotheby's, on 29 No\. 1822. A portriiit of 
Alexander I was published after his return, 
on 1 May 1803. Walker is said to ha\e 
died about 1808, and this is not necessarily 
inconsistent with the fact that a number 
of his mezzotint.x were published for the 
first time in 1819, and one, 'The Triumph 
of Cupid," after Parmegiano, in 1822. 

[RedgravB's Diet, of ArtieU; ChalonerStnith's 
British M«zzotinto Portraits, IT. 1439.] C. 1). 

WALKER, JAMES (1704-1831), rear- 
odmirul, born in 17'54, waa son of James 
Walker of ' Innerdovat ' in Fife, by his wife 
Mary, daughter of Alexander Melville, iiflli 
earl of J..even and fourth earl of Melville. He 
entered the navy in IT'Uon board the South- 
ipton frigate, in which he served for five 
i, at first in the We.st ludies, and after- 
in the Channel. He was then appointed 
to the I'rincess Hoyal, the tlagsliip ofSir 
Peter Parker (1721-1811) [q. v.J, by whom, 
on 18 June 1781, he was promoted to be 
lieutenant of the Torbay, one of the squadron 
wlxich accompanied Sir Samuel (afterwards 
Viscount) Hood fq. v.] to North America, 
and took part in the action oil" the Chesapeake 
on 5 .Sept., as also in the oprat ions at St. 
Christopher in January 1782, and in the 
battle of Dominica on 12 April, when she 
sustained a loss of ten killed and twenty-five 
wounded. Walker, whose father was an inti- 
mate friend of Rodnev, was on the point of 
being promoted, when Kodnev was superseded 
by Admiral Pigut, aud the chance was gone; 
he wa* still in the Torbay when, on 17 Oct. 
1782, in company with the London, she 
engaged and drove ashore in Samiina Bay, in 
the island of Hayti, the French 74-gun ship 
Scipion. After the peace. Walker si)eat 
some years on the continent, in France, Italy, 
'"'^ ~ Germany. While in Vienna in 1787 lie 
news of the Dutch armament, and im- 
mediately started for England. On the way, 
near Aschaffenburg, the diligence, which 
carrying a considerable .sum of monoy, 
attacked by a party of robbers. Walker 
imped out and rushed at t liem ; but as he 
received no support from his fellow travellers 
he waa knocked on the head, stripped, and 
thrown into the ditch. When the robbers 
had retired, he was picked up and carried 
into .\8cha(l'enburg, where liis wounds were 
dKiised ; but the delay at Aschaffenburg, and 
»(terwarda Frankfort, prevented his reach- 



ing England till after the dispute with 
Holland liiid been arranged ; so he returned 
to Germany. In the following year he was 
offered the command of a Russian ship, 
but the admiralty refused him permission to 
accept it [cf Tbevexes", Jamesj. In 1789 
he was appointed to the Champion, a small 
frigate employed on the coast of Scotland ; 
from her he was moved to the Winchelsea ; 
and in 1793 to the lioyne, intended for the 
flag of Iteor-oilrairal AlHeck. As this ar- 
rangement was altered, and Sir John Jervis 
hoisted his flag in the Boyue, Walker was 
moved into the Niger frigate, attached to the 
Channel fleet under Lord Howe, and one of 
the repeating ships in the battle of 1 June 
1794. 

()a 6 July he was promoted to the 
rank of commander. After a short time as 
actiug-captain of the Gibraltar, and again M 
ciimmander of the Terror bomb, he was ap- 
pointed in June 1795 acting-capt^iiu of the 
Trusty of •")0 guii.s, ordered to escort five 
Kast Indiamen toalatitude named, and,' after 
having seen them in safety,' to return to 
Spithead. The spirit of his orders took 
Walker some distance beyond the prescribed 
latitude, and then, learning that some forty 
English merchant sliips were at CadiE wait- 
ing for^convoy, he went thither and brought 
them home, with property, as represented by 
tlie merchants in London, of the value of 
upwards of a million, ' which but for his 
motive exertions would have been left in 
great danger at a most critical time, when 
the Spaniards were negotiating a peace with 
France,' It was probably this very circum- 
stance that made the government pay more 
attention to the complaint of the Spanish 
government that money had been smuggled 
on board the Trusty on account of the mer- 
chants. Walker waa accordingly tried by 
court-martial for disobedience of orders and 
dismissed the service. WHicn the war had 
broken out, and it was no longer necessary 
to humour the caprices of the .Spaniards, he 
was reinstated in March 1797. Shortly 
after, ho was appointed to a gunboat in- 
tended to act against the mutineers at the 
Kore ; and, when that was no longer wanted, 
nsHCtiug-captainoftheGarland, to convoy the 
Baltic trade as far as Elsinore. IJetuming 
from that service, he was appointed, still as 
acting-captain, to the Monmouth, which he 
commanded in the battle of Camperdown, on 
11 Oct. As they were bearing down on the 
enemy, Walker turned the hands up and 
addressed them : ' My lads, you see your 
enemy ; I shall lay you close aboard and give 
you an opportunity of washing the stain off 
your characters [alluding to the recent 

p2 



Walker 



68 



Walker 



^ 



motiny] in the blood of yonr foes. Now, 
go to your quarters and do your duty.' In 
tbu battle, two of the Dutch Rhips struck to 
the Monmouth. 

On 17 Oct. Walker's promotion as captain 
■was cnnfirme<l. During the years imme- 
diately following, hchad temporary command 
of various ships in the North Sea, and in 
IHOl commanded the Isis of itO guns, in 
the fleet sent to the Qultic, and detached ] 
under the immediate orders of Lord 
Nelson for the battle of Copenhagen, in 
which Walker's conduct called forth the 
very especial approval of Nelson himself. ' 
The loss sustained by the Isis was very I 
great, amounting to 112 killed and wounded 
out of a complement of 360. In command 
of the Tartar frigate. Walker was shortly 
afterwards sent in charge of a convoy to the 
West Indies, where he was appointed t" the 
74-gun ship Vanguard, and on the renewal 
of the war took an active part in the 
blockade of San Domingo, in the capture of 
the French 74-gun ship Duquesne on 
2r> July 1808 (Tbotob, Batailles Namlfn tie 
la France, iii. 291-3), and in the reduction 
of Saint-Marc, whose garrison of eleven 
htindred men, on the verge of starvation, he 
received on board the Vanguard, as the only 
way of securing them from the sangiiitiiiry 
vengeance of the negroes. A few months 
later Walker returned to England in the 
Duiiuesne, and was then appointed to the 
Thalia frigate, in which he made a voyage 
to the Blast Indte.a with treasure and convoy. 
[He afterwards took a convoy out to Quebec, 
commanded n small smiadron on the (iuern- 
sey station, and in October iHd" wna ap- 
pointed to the Bedford, one of the ships 
which went to Lisbon and to Rio Janeiro 
with Sir William Sidney Smith q. v.] For 
the next two years Walker remained at Hio. 
where he was admitted to the friendship of 
tlie prince regent of Portugal, who on 150 April 
ISlo conferred on him the order of the Tower 
and Sword, and, when recalled to England, 

S resented him with his portrait set with 
iamonds and a valuable diamond ring. The 
Bedford was afterwards employed in the 
North Sea and in the Chanin'l, and in Sep- 
tember 1814 went out to the fiiilf of Mexico, 
where, during the absence of the tlag-ofScers 
at New Orleans, Walker was left as senior 
officer in command of the largo ships. (In 
4 June 1815 he was nominated a O.B. 
After the peace he commanded the .\lbion, 
^Queen, and Northumberland, which last w^as 
ud off on 10 Sept. 1818. This was the end of 
" ( long service afloat. He was promoted to 
1 leaMulniiral on 19 July 1821. He died 
• a few days' illness, on 13 July 1881, at 



Blachington, near Seaford. He was twice 
married, and left issue. 

[Marshall's Roy. Niir. Biogr. ii. (voL i. pt. ii.) 
848, 882 ; Ralfes Xav. P.iogr. iv. IH ; O'Byrne's 
N»v. Biogr. Diet. p. 1230 ; Gent. Mag. I8SI, ii. 
270.] J. K. L, 

"WALKER, JAMES (1770?-184n, 
bishop of Edinburgh and primus of Scotland, 
born at Fraserburgh about 1770, was edu- 
OAted at Marischal College, .\berdeen, whenca 
he proceeded to St. John sCollege, Cambridge, 
graduating H..\. in 1793, M.A. in 1796, and 
D.D. in 18211. In 1793 he wa.s ordained a 
deacon of the Scottish episcopal church. 
.\fter his return to Scotland he became sub- 
editor of the ' EncyclopfediaBritanuica,'the 
third edition of which was then being pre- 
pared by George Oleig [q. v.], bishop of 
Brechin. About the close of the century he 
became tutor to Sir John Hope, bart., of 
Craighall, and travelled with him for two or 
three years. In (termany he mode the ac- 
quaintance of some of the foremost philoso- 
phers and men of letters, ond devoted 
especial attention to metaphysical inquiry. 
The article on Kant's system in the supple- 
ment to the ' Encyclopaedia ' was the result 
of bis researches, at Weimar. On his return 
ho was ordained deacon and received the 
charge of St. I'eter'sChapel, Edinburgh. On 
no Nov. 1819, during a visit to llome, he 
conducted the first regular protestant ser- 
vice held in the city. In 1729 he resigned 
his charge of St. Peter's to his colleague 
Charles Hughes Terrott, and on 7 March 
1830 he was consecrated bishop of Edin- 
burgh, and about the same time was appointed 
first Pantonian professor at the Scottish 
Episcopal Theological College, an ofiiee 
which he retained until his death. On 
24 May 1837, on tlie resignation of George 
(Jleig, Walker was elected primus of the 
Scottish episcopal church. He died at Edin- 
burgh iin 5 -March 1841, and was buried in 
the Durying-grouud of St. John's episcopal 
chapel. He was succeeded as bishop of 
Edinburgh byCharhis Hughes Terrott, and as 
primus byWilliainSkinner(1778-1867)[q.T.] 

In 1829 Walker published ' Sermons on 
various Occasions ' (London, 8vo). lie was 
also the author of several single sermons, 
and translated Jean .InsephMounier's trea^ 
'On the Influence attributed to Philosoph( 
Freemasons, and to the lUuminati on 
Revolution of France' (London, 1801, 8vo). 

(Elinljurgh KvcniDgCouraiit, 12 March 1841 ; 
W. Walkers Life of Bishop Jolly, 1878, p. 152 ; 
Lawsi>n's Scottish Episcopal Church, 1813, p. 
419 ; Stephen's Hist, of the Church of ScotUsd, 
1841, iv. passim (with portrait); Gent. Mac. 
1841, i. 361.] E. L C. 






Walker 



69 



Walker 



WALKER, Sib JAMES (1809-1886), 

colonial governor, son of Andrew Walker of 

Edinburgh, wiig bom at Edinburgh on 

9 April 1809, and educated at the High 

rflchofil and at the university in that city. 

I Entering the colonial office as a junior clerk 

I in 1826, ho served with credit under several 

[secretaries of state, and on 11 Feb. 1837 he 

I became registrar of British Honduras, whence 

jho was transferred on 18 Feb. 1839 to be 

Ltreasurer of Trinidad ; here he acted as colo- 

rnial secretary from June 183H to Soptember 

18-10. In January 1841 he accompanied, as 

his secretary. Sir Henry Macleod, special 

I commissioner to British Guiana, fur tho pur- 
pose of settling the diHicultie.-s with thclegis- 
intare over tiao cinl list. He bccarae in 
7842 colonial secretary of Barbados. This 
colony was at that time the seat of the go- 
Temment in chief for the Windward group, 
fcnd during his service there Walker was 
sent in Soptemb<T 1850 to act as lieutenant- 
governor of Grenada, and in 1857 to till a 
similar position at St. ^'incent. He acted 
OS governor of Barbados and the Windward 
'Islands from 13 March to 25 Dec. 1859, and as 
I lieutenant-governor of Trinidad from 20 April 
jl8(X) to 25 March 1.8H2, when he was ap- 
lpoint«d governor in chief of the Barbados and 
Ithe Windward Islands. No special event 
I narked his period of government. On 4 Jan. 
1I8O9 he was transferred to the Bahamati, 
[which were then going through u time of 
B\-ere tinancial depression ; he retired on a 
Ipension in May 1871. and livc<l a quiet 
teountry life, first at Ujilunds, near Taunton, 
land lat«r at Southertdii, tittery St. Mary, 
iDeronshire, where he died on 28 Aug. 18^.5. 
iHe was a careful otlicinl rather than an able 
'administrator, became a C.B. in 1800, and 
K.C.M.G. in 1869. 

Walker married, on 16 Oct, 1889, Anne, 
daughter of George Bland of Trinidad, and 
hod one son and two daughters. His son is 
now Sir Edward Noel AVnIker, lieutenant- 
governor and colonial .teeretary uf Cejliin. 

I [Colonial Office List, 1884; Times, 31 Aug. 
1885 ; Dod's Pe«raRe,&c., 1884 ; Colonial Office 
Eecords.l U. A. H. 

WALKER, JAMES KOBEUTSOX- 
(1783-1858), captain in the royal navy, born 
on 22 June 1 THii, was eldest son of James Ro- 
bertson, deputy-lieutenant of IJosw-shire, and 
for many years collector of t lie customs at t he 
ort of Stomoway. His mother was Anna- 
ella, daughter of John Miickenzie of Boss. 
jHe probably served for some few years in 
[jnerchant ships ; he entered the ivavv in April 
1801 as able seaman on board thi' Inspector 
. sloop at Leith, but was moved into tbel'rin- 



cess Charlotte frigate, in which, as midship- 
man and masters mate, he served for two 
years on the Irish station. In May 1803 he 
joined the Canopus, the flagship of Rear- 
admiral George Campbell off Toulon in 1804, 
From her in March 1805 he was moved to 
the Victory, in which he was present in the 
battle of Trafalgar. When the Victory was 
paid off in January 180(5, IJobertson was 
sent, at the request of Captain Hardy, to the 
Thames frigate, in which he went out to the 
West Indies; there in April 1807 he was 
moved to the Northumberland, tho flagship 
of Sir Alexander Forrester Inglis Cochrane 
[<|. vj, with whom in December he went to 
the Betle-Isle. In April IWM he was ap- 
piiinted acting-lieutenant of the F'awn, in 
which, and afterwards in the Hazard sloop, 
he was repeatedly engaged in boat actions 
with the batteries round the coast of Guade- 
loupe. On 21 July 18011 his rank of lieu- 
tenant was confirmed. He continued in the 
Htiiurd till October 1812, and was over and 
over again engaged with the eriemy'sbat t eries, 
either in the boats or in the ship herself. 
Several times he won the approval of the 
admiral, but it did not take the form of pro- 
motion ; and in October 1812 he was ap- 
pointed to the .Vutelopc, the flagship of Sir 
,lohn Thoma-s Duckworth. In her in 1813 
he was in the Baltic, and in November was 
moved to the N'igo, the flagship of Uear- 
ailmiral Graham Moore. A lew weeks later 
the \'igo was ordered to be paid oU", and in 
February I8l4 Robertson was sent out to 
North .\merica for service on the lakes. 

In September lie joined (he Conliance, a 
shin newly launched on Lake Ohamplain, 
and being fitted out by Captain George 
Dowiiie. The English army of eleven thou- 
sand men, under the coramtind of Sir George 
I'revo.st (1767-181li) [q.v.], had advanced 
against I'latt.tburgon the Saninac, then held 
by an American force estimated at two thou- 
sand men, but aiipiwrted by a strong and 
heavily armed flol ilia. Prevost sent repeated 
messages urging Downie to co-operate with 
him in the reduction of this place, and in 
language which, coming from an officer of 
l'r«vo(.l's rank, admitted of no delay. The 
Coniiance was not ready for sen'ice, her 
guns tint fitted, her men made up of drafts of 
bad characters from the fleet, and only just 
got together when she weiglied anchor on 
1 1 Sept., and, iu company witli three smaller 
vessels and ten gunboats, crossed over to 
Plattsburg Bay. The American squadron 
was of nearly thiuble the force; but Downie, 
relying on the promi.sed co-operation of 
Prevost, closed with the enemy and engaged. 
But Prevost did not move ; the gunboats 



Walker 



70 



Walker 



IdiunefiiUy ran away ; ono of the small 
Tesaeb struck on a reef; Downie vras killed ; 
and I'obertaon, left in command, was obliged 
to surrenderafter the ConBance bad sustained 
a loss lof forty-one killed and eighty-three 
wounded, out of a complement of :/70, and 
was herself sinking. Sir James Lucas Yeo 

iq. v.^, the naval commander-in-chief, pre- 
erred charges of gross misconduct against 
Prevost, -who, however, died before he could 
be brought to trial. At the peace Robertson 
returned to England, was tried for the loss 
of the Confiance, and honourably acquitted. 
The next day, 'J9 Aug. 1815, he was pro- 
moted to the rank of commander. He had 
no further service ; on I'S July 1851 he was 
promoted to be captain on the retired list, 
[ «nd died on L'6 Oct. 1858. On 24 June 1824 
lie married, first, Ann, only daughter and 
Iieiress of William Walker of Oilgarran, near 
WhitahaTen, and thereupon assumed the 
name of Walker. He married, secondly, 
Catherine (d. 1892), daughter of John Mac- 
kenzie of UoB$. He left no issue. 

[O'Byrne's Nav. Biogr. D'cf.; James's Karal 
History, vi. 2U-22 ; Roosevelt's Niival War of 
1812, pp. 375-99; Burke's Landed (Jentrj. 1868. 
S.T. • Bobertson-Wslker.'] J. K. L. 

WALKER, JAMES THOMA.S (1826- 
189G), general royal engineers, sunevor- 
general of India, elde.^t son of John Walker 
of the Madras civil service.soraetirae judiro at 
Canniinore, and of his wife, Margaret Allan 
(</. 1830) of Edinburgh, was born iit Caniui- 
nore, India, on 1 Dec. 182tj. Educated by 
a private tutor in Wales, and at the military 
college of the East India Company at 
Addiscombe, he received a commission as 
second lieutenant in tlie Bombay engineers 
on 9 Dec. 1844, and, after the usual pro- 
fessional instruction at Chatham, went to 
India, arriving at Bombay on 10 Jlay 184(5. 
The following year he was employed in Sind 
to ofliciate as executive engineer at Sakkar. 

In October 1848 he was appointed an as- 
sistant field engineer in the Bombay column, 
under Sir 11. Dundas, of the force a.isembled 
for the Punjab campaign. At the battle of 
Gujrat on 21 Feb. h) was in command of a 
detachment of Kopiters attached to the Bom- 
bay liorse artillery, and he took part under 
Sir Walter Gilbert in the pursuit of the 
Sikhs and Afghans. He was favourably 
mentioned in despatches {London Oazr/tf, 
7 March and :i May 1849"), and received for 
his services the medal with two clasps. 

After the annexation of the I'unjab, 
W^alker was employed from 1849 to 1853 in 
making a military reconnaissance of the 
northern Tran-vlndus frontier from Peshawar 



to Dehra Ismail Khan. He took part at 
the end of 1849 in the attacks on Suggao, 
Pali, and Zarmandi under Colonel Brad- 
shaw, by whom he was mentioned in his 
despatch of 21 Dec. for the skill and ability 
witli which he had bridged the rapid Kabul 
river. In 18-jO he served under Sir Charles 
Napier in the expedition against the .\firidi8 
of the Kohat pas$, and in 1852 under Sir 
Colin Campbell in the operation against the 
L'tman Khels ; he was thanked by Camp- 
bell in field-force orders of 10 May 1852 
for his ingenuity and resource in bridging 
the swift Swat river. lu 1853 he served 
under Colonel Boileau in his espeditioa 
against the Bori Afridis, and was mentioned 
in despatches. 

But his active service in these frontier 
campaign.s was but incidental in the work 
of the survey, which he vigorously prose- 
cuted. It was attended with much danger, 
and in the country between the Khaibor 
and Kohat passes Walker was fired at on 
several occasions. With the aid of a khan 
of Shir Ali, who collected a considerable 
force, he reconnoitred the approaches to 
the .\mbeyla pas*, which ten vears later was 
the scene of protracted fighting between 
the Briti.*h. under Sir Neville Chamberlain, 
and the hillsmen. On the completion of the 
military sur\-ey of the Peshawar frontier, 
Walker received the thanks of the govern- 
ment of India, the despatch, H> Nov. 1858, 
commending his 'cool judgment and ready 
resource, united with great intrepidity, 
energy, and professional ability.' Walker 
was promoted to be lieutenant on 2 July 
18.')3,and,in recognition of his survey services 
on the frontier, was appointetl on 1 Dec. 
second assistant on the gn?at trigonometrical 
survey of India under Sir Andrew Scott 
Waugh [q. v.] He was promoted to be first 
assistant on 24 March 1854. Walker's first 
work in his new employment was the mea- 
surement of the Chach base, near .\tak, and 
he had charge of t he northern section of the 
Indus series of triiingtilation connecting thei 
Chach and the Karachi bases. 

On the outbreak of the Indian mutinv in 
1857, Walker was ottached to the stafl" of 
Brigadier-general (afterwards Sir) Neville 
Chamberlain, who commanded the Punjab 
movable column, and accompanied Cham- 
berlain to Delhi, where he was appointed a 
lield-engineer. On 14 July he was directed 
to blow in the gate of a serai occupied in foroo 
by the enemy, but could only obtain powder 
by applying to the nearest field-battery for 
cartridges. Carrying the cartridges himself, 
exposed to the enemy's fire, he succe(?ded in 
lodging them against the gate, lit the matcL, 



Walker 



71 



Walker 



I retired. The port-firt,- burned out, and 
again advunct'U und relit it. It again 

"iklled, and, procuring a musket, Walker 
went to tlie vicinity of the gate and fired into 
the powder, exjilodingf it at once and blow- 
ing in the gate. The attacking party rui^hed 
in and slew the enemy within. Walker was 
Beverely wounded by a bullet in the left 
thigh, and, before ho completely recovcri"d 
from tlw wound, was nearly carried off hy 
cholera. lie was promot*^ to Ije captain on 
4 Dec. 1«57, ond for his services in the 
mutiny received the medal, with clusp for 
Delhi, and the brevet rank of major on 
19 Jan. IK08, with a gratuity of one year's 

I pav on account of his wound. 

lt«turning to his survey duties, he n.»- 

I tiunied work on the Indus series, which was 
completed in IttllO, and he was afterwards em- 

I ployed in the Jogi Tila meridional series. 
In 18»J0 he again served under iSir Neville 
Chamberlain in the expedition against the 

1 Mahsud Waziris, and was present at the 
attack of the Barara Tanai. His services 

1 ■wei^e noticed by the general in command and 
by the I'unjab government, and he received 
the medal and clasp. Hero again he made 
every efl'ort to e.xtend the survey, and sent a 
map which he had made of the country to 

I the surveyor-general. 
In September iKtJO Walker wa« appointed 
astronomical assistant, and on 1^ March 
ld61 superintendent of the great trigonome- 
trical survey of India. In the next two 
years the three la-st meridional series in the 
north of India were completed, and Walker's 
first indei)endent work whs the measurement 
of the \ iragupatam base-line, which was 
completed in 1802. The accuracy achieved 
was such that the difference between the 
measured length and the length conijiuted 
from triangles, commencing 480 mileti avvav 
at the Calcutta b(i,*e-line and passing through 
dense jungles, was but hall uu inch. He 
next undertook u revision of Liimbton's tri- 
angulation in the south of India, with re- 
xneasuremeuts of the base-lines. 

On 'Jl I'eb. 18(>4 Walker was promoted to 
[bo lieutenant-colonel, and went home ou 
[furlough by way of Kussia, establishing very 
[friendly relations with the geodesists of the 
[Itussiun survey, which led to the supply of 
geographical information from St. I'eters- 
burgh and to a cordial co-operation between 
{the mirvey officers of the two countries. Uu 
[ST Feb. 18G!» ho was promoted to be brevet 
(colonel, .\baut this time it was decided to 
liindertake the great work entitled ' .\ccount 
[of the Operations of the Gr«it Trigonome- 
lirical Survey of India,' to consist of twenty 
I volumes. The first nine were published under 



the supervision of Walker, and the first ap- 
peared in 1871. It contains his introductory 
history of the early operations of the survey, 
and his account of the standards of meojiure 
and of the base-lines. Tiie secoud volume, 
also mainly written by Walker, consists of 
an historical account of the trianguhitioo, 
with descripti(ms of the method of procedure 
und of the instruments employed. The 
fifth volume is an account of the pendulum 
observations by Walker. In 1871-:^, when 
at homo on leave from India, he fixed, in 
conjunction with Sir Oliver Beaiichamp 
Coventry St. John [q. v.], the difference of 
longitutie between Tehran and London. He 
was retained at homo to make a thorough 
investigation of the condition of the plates 
of the ludian atlas, and wrote an im- 
portant memorandum on the projection and 
scale of the atlas. In 1873 he began to de- 
vote his attention to the dispersion of un- 
avoidable m'mute errors in the triangulation, 
with the result that no trigonometrical sur- 
vey is suj>erior to that of India in accuracy. 
Walker's work as superintendent of tlie 
great trigouometrical survey waa as much 
that of a geographer as of a geodesist. At 
his office at Dehra Dun explorers were 
trained, survey parties for every military ex- 
pedition organised, and native gur\-eyor8 des- 
patched to make discoveries, while their 
! work was reduced and utilised. Many valu- 
I able mops were published, and Wollier's map 
of Turkistan went through many editions. 
To Walker also was due the initiation of a 
scheme of tidal observations at ditlerent 
ports on the Indian coast. He elaborated 
the system and devised the method of iina- 
lysing the observations. In connection with 
tliese tidal observations, he further arranged 
an extensive scheme of spirit levelling, con- 
necting the tidal stations by lines of levels 
sometimes extending across the continent, 
On '2 June 1877 Walker was made a com- 

riiiion of the Bath, military division. On 
Jan. 1878 he was appointed surveyor-gene- 
ral of India, retaining the oflico of suix'rin- 
teiident of the great trigonometrical survey ; 
ou 31 Dec. of the same year he was promoted 
to be major-general, and on 10 May 1881 to 
be lieudenanl-general. He retired from the 
service on 12 Feb. 1883, and received the 
honorary rank of general on 12 Jan. 1884. 

Walker became a fellow of the lioyol 
Geogniphical Society in 1859, and in 1885 
was elected a member of its council. In 1885 
also he was president of the geographical sec- 
tion of the British Associat ion at .Yberdeen. 
lie was elected a fellow of the Hoyal Society 
in 18()5, was made a member of the Russian 
geographical society in 1868, an J of the French 



Walker 



7« 



Walker 



in 1887. In June 1883 lie was made an 
honorary LL.I). of Cambridge UniviTsity. 
In 1895 he took charge of the geodetic work 
of the internntioiittl geographical congress 
at the ImperiBl Institute in London. In 
May of that year he contributetl a vatuahle 
paper to the ' Philosophical Transact ion,* ' of 
the Itoyal Society (vol. cl.>;x.xvi.) entitled 
' India's Contribution to Geodesy.' Walker 
contributed to the 'EncycloptcdiaBritonnica' 
(9th edit.) articles on the Oxus, Persia, Pon- 
toons, and Surveying. He also contributed 
to the 'Journal of the Asialii! Society of 
Bengal,' the 'Transactions of the I!oyal 
Society,' and the Royal Cteographical Society's 
'Journal.' 

Walker died at his residence, 13 Cromwell 
Road, London, on 1(5 Feb. 18!M(, and was 
buried in Bmmptim cemetery. He married 
in India, on 27 April 1854, Aliciii, daiighter 
of General Sir John Scott, K.C.B., by Alicia, 
granddaughter of Dr. William Markhnm 

[f<}. v.], archbishop of York. His wife sur- 
vived him tind four children of the marriage 
— a son Herbert, lieutenant in the royal 
engineer, and three daughters. 

[India Ofiien Records; Roj-al Engineers' Re- 
corda ; Dpspatohes ; obituary notices in the Lon- 
don Times. Staudani, an<i other daily news- 
papers, February 1896, in L'Etoile Belgo. in 
Mature, March 1898, in Proceedings of the 

■ Soyal Society, vol. lix., in the Geographical Jour- 
nal, vol. rii., in the ScottiHh Geographical Magii- 
ane, vol. xiii, and in the Royal Kngineera' Jour- 
nal, vol. xxvi. ,■ Vibart's .\ddiscomije, ils Heraes 
and Men of Note ; Porter's Iliflory of the Corps 
of Royal Engineers ; Kaye's Hisl. of the Sepoy 
War ; private sources.] B. H. V. 

WALKER, JOHN, D.D. (rf. 1588), arch- 
deacon of Essex, graduated from Cambridge, 
B.A.in 1647, B.D. in lotlS, and D.Ii. in l.M), 
He was presented to the small living of 
Alderton, Sullblk, and at some time was a 
noted preacher at Ipswich. In Keliniary 
1562 he attended convocation as proctor for 
the clergy of Suffolk. In this capacity he 
voted in favour of the six articles for reform- 
ing rites and ceremonies, and signed the 
petition of the lower house for improved 
discipline. In 15(j4 he was licensed to be 
pari.sli chaplain in St. Peter's, Norwich. 
Here his gift of preaching was so much ad- 
mired that Matthew Parker, finding in liJ68 
that Walker was about to return to Alderton 
to ovoid an information for non-residence, 
suggested that one of the prebendaries named 
sinythe, ' a mere lay body,' should resign in 
' Walker's favour, who else ' might go and 
leave the city desolate.' Parker also ap- 
pealed to Lord-chancellor Bacon, as did the 
Duke of Norfolk, with the result that, after 



some delay, Walker was installed a canon of 
Norwich on i!0 Dec. 15ti9. In September 
of the following year Walker and some 
other puritan prebendaries protested against 
the ornaments in Norwich Cathedral. He 
was cited, it appears, to Lambeth in 1571 
in consequence of his pnritunism, but was 
collated to the archdeaconry of Essex on 
10 July 1571, to the rectory of Laindon- 
cura-Ba.sildon, ISssex, on 12 5>ov. 1573, and 
on 14 Aug. 1575 was installed prebendary 
of .Mora in St. Paul's Cathedral. 

Bishop Aylmer summoned Walker in 1678 
to elect sixty of the clergy to be visitors 
during the prevalence of the plague. In 
1581 he was iirominent in the conviction of 
Robert Wright, Lord Rich's chaplain, who 
because of his ordination at Antwerp wag 
refused a license by the bishop; and on 
27 Sept. of the same year he assisted ^Ml- 
liam Charke at a conference in the Tower 
with Edmund Campion [q. v.], the Jesuit. 
The fourth day's dispute was chiefly in 
Walker's hands (cf. A Hemrmbrance of thf 
Conferencf had in thf Tower hrtiri.it M. D. 
Walker [sic] and J/. Willinm CAarke, Op- 
ponents, and Edmund Campion, 1583, 4to). 
Bishop Aylmer also employed him to collect 
materials for a work in refutation of Cam- 
pion's ' Decern Rationes,' and in 1582 ap- 
pointed him to confer with captured catholic 
priests. He preached at .\ylmer's visitation 
on 21 June 1583, but resigned the arch- 
deaconry about .\ugust 1585, and died before 
12 Dec. 1588, on which date the prebend in 
St. Paul's was declared vacant by his death. 

\\'ulker wrote a dedicatory epistle to ' Cer- 
taine Uodlie Homilies or Sermons,' trans- 
luted by KobiTt Norton from Rodolph Qual- 
ter, London, 1573, 8vo. 

[Cooper's Athenre Cantabr. ii. 37 ; Lo Neve's 
Fa.''ti, ed. Hardy, ii. 336, 412, -198; Tanner's 
Bibl. Urit. p. 748; Cal. Suite Papers, Dom. 
1547-80, p. 6t.i; Blomelield's Norfolk, iii. 665, 
iv. 187; Parker Correspondence, pp. 312, 313, 
382; Newcourt's Repert. Eccle«. i. 73, ii. 387; 
.Strype's Works (General Index).] 0. F. S. 

WALKER, JOHN (!«74-1747). ecclesi- 
astical historian, .son of Endymion Walker, 
was baptised at St. Kerrian's, E.'celer, 21 Jon. 
1673-4. His father was mayor of Exeter in 
](i82. On 19 Nov. 1(J91 he matriculated at 
Exeter College, Oxford, was admitted fellow 
on '•i Julv 1695, nnd became full fellow on 
4 July 1(19(5 (vacated 17(X)). On 16 Jan. 
1(597-8 he was ordained deacon by Sir 
Jonathan Trelawny [q. v.], then bishop of 
Exeter; he graduated 15. A. on 4 July, and 
was instituted to the rectorv of St. -Mary 
Major, Exeter, on 22 Aug. 1698. On 13 Oct. 



Walker 



73 



Walker 






Jm g|nda«te<l M.A. (apparently incor- 
M ktOunbridge, 170-J). 
The publication of Calamy's 'Account' 
(1702-1713) of nonconformist ministers 
silenced and ejected after the itestoration 
[see Caiaux, EDMrxD] suggested simulta- 
neously to Charles Goodall [q. v.] and to 
VV'alker the idea of rendering a similar ser- 
rice to the memory of the deprived and se- 
luegtered clergy. Goodall advertised for 
'^information in the ' London Gazette ; ' find- 
ing that Walker was engaged on a similar 
Pta«k, he gave him the materiuls he had col- 
lected. Walker collected part iculars by help 
of query sheets, circulated in variousdioceses ; 
thome for Exeter (very minute) and Canter- 
bury are printed by Calamy ( Church nnd lJi«- 
tenUrt Cumpar'd, 1719, pp. 4, 10). Among 
his helpers was Mary AsteU [q.v.] His dili- 
gence in amassing materials may be est imated 
Irom the detailed account gi\en in his pre- 
^^ace, and still more from examination of bis 
^HlsTge and valuable manuscript collections, 
^^bresented tu the Bodleian Lihnirv' in I7ri4 by 
^^RS'alker's son William, u druggi.'it iti K.\>-ter, 
ftnd rebound in 18tiW in twelve fulio and 
eleven quarto volumes; the lost' .Miiuiti's of 
l.tbe Bury Fresbvteriiin Classis ' (Chetliam 
Society, 1896) fmve been edited from the 
anscript in the Walker manuscripts. 
Walker's book appeared in 1714,folio, with 
itle 'An ,\ttempt towards recovering an 
Vccount of the Numbers and Sufferings of 
iie Clergy of the Church of England, Jleads 
' College?, Fellows, Scholars, &c., who were 
!<]uesler'd, Harrass'd, &c. in the late Times 
the Grand Hebellion : ClccuBinii'd by the 
linth Chapter (now the second volume) of 
r. Calamv's Abridgment of the Life of .Mr. 
Salter, 'together with an Examination of 
That Chapter.' A remarkable sukiicriptiou 
list contains over thirteen hundred names, 
be work consists of two parts: (0 a history 
' ecclesiastical affairs from lt}40 to ItitiO, 
the object being to show that the ejection of 
the puritans at the Hestomtion was a just 
epnsal for their actions when in power; {'i) 
, catalogue, well arranged nnd fairly well 
odexed, of the deprived clergy with par- 
iculara of their sufferings. The plan falls 
hort. of Calamy's, as it does not profess to 
live biograpliies ; the list of names adds up 
1 3,;i34 (Calamy's ejected add up to 2,4(1.")), 
but if all the names of the sutlering clergy 
Duld be recovered. Walker thinks they 
light reach ten thousand (i. 200). A third 
trt, announced in the title-page a.s an ex- 
ination of Calamy's work, was deferred 
pref. p. li), and never appeared, though 
7alamy is plentifully attacked in the preface. 
The work was hailed by Thomas Uisse 



a 




v.] in a sermon before the sons of the 
ergy (6 Dee. 1716) as a 'book of mar- 
tyrology ' and ' a record which ought to be 
kept in every sanctuary.' John Lewis [q. v.], 
whom Calamy calls a ' chumm ' of Walker's, 
and who liad formed high expectations of 
the book, disparages it, in ' Remarks ' on 
Bisse, as ' a farrago of false and senseless 
legends.' It was criticised, from the non- 
conformist side, by John Withers (rf. 1729) 
of E.xeter, in an appendix to his ' Iteply,' 
1714, 8vo, to two pamphlets by John Agate, 
an Exeter clergyman; and by Calamy in 
' The Chureli and tlie Dissenters Compar'd as 
to l^ersecutioii,' l71tl,8vo. With all deduc- 
tions, the value of Walker's work is great ; 
lie writes with vinilenceand without dignity, 
but he is careful to distinguish doubtful 
from authenticated matter, and be does not 
suppress the charges brought against some 
of liis sufferers. His tone, however, has done 
much to foster the impre.ssion (on the whole 
unjust) that the legislative treatment of 
nonconformity after the Kestoration was 
vindictive. An' Epitome' of the ' Attempt' 
was pulilifihwi lit Oxford, 1862, 8vo. A 
small abridgment of ttie ' Attempt,' with 
biographical additions and an introduction by 
Uof)ert \\ hit taker, was piiblislied under the 
title 'The Sufferings of the Clergy,' 1863, 
8vo. 

By diploma of 7 Dec. 1714 Walker was 
made D.D. at Oxford, and on 20 Dec. be was 
appointed to a prebend at E.xeter, On 17 Oct. 
1720 he was instituted to the rectory of 
I'pton I'yne, Devonshire, on the presenta- 
tion of Hugh Staflbrd, and here he ended hi.s 
days. He died in June 1747, and was 
buried (20 June I in his churchyard, near the 
east end of the north (ii!»l(> of the church. 
His tombstone bears only this inscription : 
' t'ndenieal It was buried a lute Rector of this 
Parish, 1747.' He married at Exeter Cathe- 
dral, on 17 Nov. 1704, Ulartba Brooking, 
who died on 12 Sept. 1748, iipe<l 67 (tomb- 
stone). In 1874 the north aisle of the church 
was extended, and the gravestones of Walker 
and his wife are now in the floor of the new 
portion, called the 'organ aisle.' 

[No life of Walker exists ; sotBa partienlars 
contributed by George Oliver (1781-1861) [q. v.] 
to Trewman'sExeterFljingPobt were reproduced 
with additions (partly from Boasf's Register of 
Kxet(>r College, 1879) by Mr. Wiaslow Jones in 
» letter to the Devon and Eieter Daily Gazette, 
19 Feb. 1887; Notes and Queries, 2Dd sor. xii. 
43.>, 4th »er. iii. 866; Macrny's Annals of the 
llodleian Libr. 1868, p. 167; Foster's Alumni 
Oxiin. 1&00-1714; Boase's Register of Exeter 
College (Oxford Uist. Soc), 1894, pp. 127. 272.] 

A. G. 



■ 



Walker 



Walker 



WALKER, JOHN (1731-1803), pro- 
fessor of imturnl hiatory at Edtnburg^b, was 
born in 1731 in the Canougate, Edinburgh, 
wheru bis father waa rector of tbe grammar 
school. He himself writes, ' I have been 
from my cradli- fond of vegetable life,' and 
it is recorded of him that he enjoyed Homer 
when be was ten years old. At this age also 
he rend Sut herluiid's ' Hort us Edinburgenais,' 
his first botanical book. From his father's 
grammar school he went to the university of 
Edinburgh in preparation for the miuistry, 
and about 175(3 his attention was attracted 
by the neglected remains of the museum left 
by Sir Andrew Balfour [ij. v.] He was 
licensed to preach on 3 April 1704, and on 
13 Sept. 1758 was ordained ministerof Glen- 
cross, among the Pentland Hills, seven miles 
south of Edinburgh, where he made the ac- 
quaintance of Henry Home, lord Kames, a 
member of the board of annexed estates, with 
whose wishes for the improvement of the 
highlands and islands he was in hearty sym- 
pathy. *>n 8 Jmie 17G2 Walker was trans- 
ferred t o MoUiit , and in 1 7W he was appointed, 
by the interest of Lord Kames, to make a 
survey of the Hobridiis, being at the same 
time commissioned to make a reitort to the 
Society for the I'ropagation of Christian 
Knowledge. On this occasion he travelled 
three thousand miles in seven months; and 
bis report, which ^^■as found among his pajiers 
after bis death and printed by his friend 
Charles St«wart under the title ' An Econo- 
mical History of the Hebrides ' (Edinburgh, 
1808, 2 vols. 8vo ; reissued in London in 
1812), is of tt most comprehensive and prac- 
tical character, liobert Kaye Greville re- 
cords in his ' Algic Britannicns ' (p. iii)that 
in manuscript notes by Walker, dated 1771, 
it is suggested that tbe Linniean genus .4/jn 
may be divide<l into fourteen genera, among 
•which he included /Wim almost with the 
limits now adojited, and PAaiffonnn, precisely 
equalling Aganlh's Laminaria — a somewhat 
remarkable anticipation. 

Walker was appointed regius professor of 
natural history at Edinburgh on I'l June 
177SJ, whilo retaining his clerical post at 
Moffat. His lectures proved attractive by 
their clearness, alt bough distinctly dry and 
formal in cliurai-ter ; and thf only works 
separately printed by him during his lifetime 
were a serien of syllabuses for the use of 
his students, stated in the most categorical 
form of Linnjean classifications and deliui- 
tions. These included : ' Schediasma Fossi- 
lium,' 1781 ; ' Delineatio Fossilium,' 1782 ; 
'Classes Fossilium.' 1787: and 'Institutes of 
Natural History,' 1792. 

On 7 Jan. 1783 he was transferred from 



Moffat to Colinton, near Edinburgh, where 
he devoted much attention ..o bis garden, 
cultivating willows and other trees. Oa 
the incorporation of the Hoyal Society of 
Edinburgh in this year, Walker was one 
of the earliest fellows, and one of his most 
valuable papers, 'Experiments on tbe Motion 
of the Sap in Trees,' was contributed to its 
'Transactions,' but the last papers which he 
published during his lifetime on kelp, peat, 
the herring, and the salmon, appeared in 
those of the Highland Society (vols. i. iL) 
On 20 May 174)0 he was elected moderator 
of the genera] assembly of the Scottish 
church. During the last years of bis life 
Walker was blind. Ho died on 31 Dec. 
1803. On 24 Nov. 1789 he married Jane 
Wallace Wauchope of Niddry. who died on 
4 May 1827. On 28 Feb. 17t}.5 he n>ceived 
the honorary degree of M.D. from (ilasgow 
I'niversity, and on 22 March 1705 that of 
D.I), from Edinburgh I'niversity. 

Walker's chief works were the two issued 
by his friend Charles Stewart after his 
death. The first boa been already men- 
tioned; the other was 'Essays on Natural 
History and Kural Economy' (London and 
Edinburgh, 1812, 8vo). 

[Memoir in Sir William Jardine's Birds of 
Great Oritain, Lundun, 1876; Scult's Fusti 
EccL Scot. 1. i. 119, 282, ii. 6.57.] G. S. B. 

WALKER, JOHN (1732-1807), actor, 
philologist, and lexicographer, was bom at 
Colney Hutch, a hamlet in the parish of 
Frieni Barnet, Middlesex, on 18 March 1732. 
Of his father, who died when he was a child, 
little is known. His mother came from 
Nottingham, and was sister to the Kt'V. 
James Murley, a dissenting minister at Pains- 
wick, Gloucestershire. He was early taken 
from school to ljt> instructed in a trade, and 
after his mother's death he went on the stage, 
and obtained several engagements with pro- 
vincial companies. Subsequently he per- 
formed at Drury Lane under the manage- 
ment of Garrick. There he usually filled the 
second parts in tragedy, and thoseof agrave, 
sententious cast in comedy. In May 1758 
he married Miss Myners,a well-known comic 
actress, undimmediately afterwards be joined 
the company which was formed by Barry and 
\^'oodwa^d for the oiH^ning of Crow Street 
Theatre, Ihiblin. He was there advanced to 
a higher rank in the profession, and, upon 
the desertion of Mossop to Smock Alley, he 
succeeded to many of tliat actor's characters, 
among which his Cato and his Brutus were 
sjiokeu of in termsof very high commendation. 

In June 17C2 Walker returned to Lon- 
don, and he and his wife were engaged at 



Walker 



75 



Walker 



(17{ 
is 



Covent Garden Theatre, lie returned to 
Dublin in 17tl) , but remoined tlwre only a 
short time ; and, Hfter piTforming at Bristol 
in tlie summer of 1768, lie finally quitted the 
stacre. 

In January 1769 he joined James Usher 
q. v.] in establisliing a school ut Kensington 
"ravel-pits, but the partnerr*hip lasted only 
About two years. WiiUier than began to 
tive those lectures on elocution which hence- 
forth Ibrmed his principal employment. Dur- 
ing o jjrofessional tour in .Scotlund and Ire- 
land he met with great .success, and ut ( <.\- 
ford the head.s of hnuses invited him to give 
privatf; lectures in the university. He en- 
"loyed the patronage and friendship of Dr. 
'ohnson, Edmund l-turke, snJ other distin- 
'ruisbed men (Bos well. Life nf Juh>iM>ii, ed. 
'Hill, iv. i06, i'2\ ). Through the nrgumenta 
of Usher he wns induced to join the Ifomun 
catholic church, nnd thi.<) brought about an 
intimacy between him nnd John Milner 
(1752 1826) [q. v.1, bishop of Castaliala 
(HusESIiETH, Life of Milner, p. 14). He 
generally held in the highest esteem in 
consequence of his philological attainments 
aiid the amiability of his character, but, ac- 
cordingto Madamed'.Vrblay," though modest 
in science, he was vulgar in conversation ' 
Diary, li. 237). By his lectures and liis 
itemry productions he amassed a competent 
fortune. He lost his wife in .'\pril I.S02 ; and 
he himself died in ToUenham Court Koad, 
lx>ndon, on I Aug. 1H07. His remoins were 
terred in the burial-ground of St. I'ancras 
;ClsaicK , St. Pancra* EpHnpht, 1 8«9, p. 1 4-5). 
His principal work is: I. 'A C'riliciil 
Pronouncing Dictionary and Expositor of 
the EnglL'ih Language,' London, 1791, 4to ; 
2nd edit. 1797; 3nf edit. 1K02; 4th edit. 
t'jth edit. 1810; 28th edit. I82(j. 
any other editions and abridgments of this 
which was long regarded as the 
:»tute-book of English orthoepy, have 
published in various forms. Une of 
'critically revised, enlargf?d, and 
ided'[by 1'. A. Xuttall^, appeared in 
Jon in 185"). 

is other works are: 2. 'A General Idea 

if a Pronouncing Ilictiouary of the Engli.-ih 

guage on a plan entirely new. With 

ibsenrations on several words that are 

ariously pronounced as a sjiecimen of the 

ork,' London, 1774, 4to. 3. ' A Dictionary 

the English Language, answering at once 

purposes of Uhyming, Spelliug, and 

onouncing, on a plan not hitherto at- 

Qpted,' London, 177o, 8vo. The third 

ition, entitled ' A Khyming Dictionary,' 

Appeared at London, 1H19, 12mo; and there 

"1 in the British Museum a copy with all 



the words, written by Alexander Eraser, in 
Mason's system of shorthand. The work 
was reprinted in 1824, 1837, 1851, 1866, 
and 1888. 4. ' Exercise* for Improvement 
in Elocution ; being select Extracts from 
the best Authors for the use of those who 
study the Art of Heading and Speaking in 
i'ublic,' London, 1777, 12mo. 5. ' Elements 
of Elocution; being the Substanceof a Course 
of Lectures on the Art of Heading, delivered 
at several Colleges ... in Oxford,' London, 
1781, 2 vols. 8vo; 2nd edit., with altera- 
tions and additions, London, 1799, 8vo ; 
reprinted, London, 1802, Boston (.Massa- 
chusetts), 1810; 4th edit. London, 1810; 
0th edit. London, 1820; othereditions 1824 
and 1838, 6. 'Hints for Improvement in 
the Art of IJeading,' London, 1783, 8vo. 

7. ' A Hhetorifttl Grammar, or Course of 
l^'ssons ill I'^locution,' dedicated to Dr. 
•lohnson, London, 1785, 8vo ; 7th edit. 1823. 

8. 'The Melody of .Speaking delineated; or 
Elocution taught like Music ; by Visible 
Signs, adapted to the Tones, Inflexions, and 
Variation of the ^'oice in Reading and 
Sjieaking,' London, 1789, 8vo [see STEELE, 
.TosHVAJ. 9. ' A Key to the Clo-ssical Pro- 
nunciation of Greek and Latin Proper Names 
... To which is added a complete Vocabu- 
lary of Scripture Proper Names,' London, 
1798, 8vo; 7th edit. 1822, reprinted 18,33; 
ond another edition, prepared by William 
Trollopc, 1833 [see under Tkollopk, Abthub 
William]. Prefixed to the original edition 
is a tine portrait of Walker, engraved by 
Heath from a miniature by Barry. 10. 'The 
\ caderaic Speaker, or a Select ion of Parlia- 
mentary Debates, Orations, Odea, Scenes, 
and Speeches . . . to whicli is prefixed •Ele- 
ments of Gesture,' 4th edit. London, 1801, 
12mo; 6th edit. 180ti. 1 1 .' The Teacher's 
Assistant in Englisli Composition, or Easy 
Rules for Writing Themes and Composing 
Exercises,' London, 1801 nnd 1802, 12mo; 
rc]irinted under the title of ' English Themes 
and Essays,' lOlli edit., 184i>; 1 1th edit., 1853. 
13. ' Uutliiies of English Grammar,' London, 
1805, 8vo; reprinted 1810. 

[Aildit. M.S. 27488, ff. 2i\h, 242; Athe- 
na;um, 1808, Hi. 77; Kdinbiirgh Catholic Miiga- 
?.ini<, new ser. (LonJon, 1837) i. 617; Gont. 
Mug. 1807, ii. 786, 1121 ; Lowndes's Bibl. Mun. 
eiL BuhD ; Lysons's Environs, Suppl. p. 27') ; 
Notes and Queries, 5th sor. ii. 146, 262, x. 447, 
xi. 36.] T. C. 

WALKER, JOHN (17.''.9-18:»1, man of 
science, bprn at Cockermouth in Cumber- 
land on 31 July 1759, wasthissonof a smith 
and ironmonger in that town. He was 
educated at tlie grammar .school, and after- 
wards engaged in his father's occupation of 



Walker 



76 



Walker 



bbcksmith. In 1779 W went to Dublin 
vith the intention of joining a privateer. 
Tha Taisel had, howerer, been taken br the 
F^«iicb,uid Walker, who fa«d already studied 
the art of eiigTBviiig at Oodteraioatli. placed 
kunaeU' under ma Mtift nameid Eedale. He 
■ad* tapid progress, and between 17l!>0 and 
I78S oantributed several plates to Walker's 
* liibanuaa Vagarine.' L uder the influence 
of Uw qsakan, BowvTer, he was sciaed with 
•eniplaa in regaid to his an, and, ahandooiaf 
it, se« i» a anool, wUdk was Curijr |ca$pe- 
rouo. Ue laid aaek winplMsii on a kiadW 
aatked of tieatinf hi* pafO*, and dcffvcated 
eoraonl piiiiiiih»>nt as sabmsire of das- 
cipuncc Although he aftcvwwds MSOOMsd 
tM fBfbaad stTbof a qnaker, he waa Mrrer 
maJmi iMo ^ Mkmriiw of the Frinds 
I rf» aiMpifinn that Us^thwas 
In IT^W p«hliahsd in Loadon 
iwi Ihii ' Blwnmlii iif Oii<if.is|ih i 
•ad of Natacml and Civil HistotT,' vhiek 
NM^ad a third edition in 1 MX). Withaview 
W iaamiiv the second edition, which ap- 
■MMHI I79a»andcf pwpannyn' Unirccaal 
QmsMmt, m0 nBnsctOQK a jonmsT tniovni 
tWRtaaMrfanof E|«IhmI and beiaad m 
mS, Ntm^ to sSia in the fcUvnv 
Tsar. TV»|tolectiT«dnty inosedin l>ih- 
bn was •• h«|[h thai ha w«s oiMiged to go to 
Laaioa to |rU kis bmkiL B»wmitm^ 
hi*»fh<»>tohwMwrf» Js^gbnMrQrTO- 
1S4 the nsMvisi, and maaVad to 

the . ^fixal. \\is ' raivacsal Gaaet- 

Icct i^Loa>iiJO,t$Tv> appe<arc«} in I796y 
i^ a MAth edUiun in ISI^ 

Soon altar mmI&i^ hi Loadak >i 
taiMd has altatioa to 
hiwuaW as a pupil at 
17W U Tiailad FWris. 
■otocial; kgr raAiaii^ t» 
^hs soMa^ dss ttaneas a^ ki^ 
eotoar. Ha wan »» t>-r»^ i>r Awadikipwiik 
Jmbw y apiar TW'> Ihoasaa nia* 

ra-v.'.aadYhainas ^ . ^,aniiiitiiwi< 
IxiiM a (««ai practu.-*! gMuii*. Ftv« l^n* 
hoprocvMsdto LsTdsn.and^(aikia»sd)LlX 
in ITW. lU Msaml th* wtalar in S>li»- 
Wuxh. and in f>4X» vrttted at ''^imnhaiaw ia 
Wl"ut.<<'«t'rt<»k' ' -wavtr. at 



B ■■■■iHik ■asconig 

Gw^ iWpitnl In 

I, a Ww M ■Maad 

otaka off yslnl i« 



Squsre. DissensioBS, howerer, arose, occa- 
sioned in part b^ some diSlereooes in method 
between Walker and Jenner, and Walker in 
eoaaeqiaeaee resigned the po«t on S Aug. 1 806. 
On 26 Aug. a new societv, the London Vac- 
cine Institution, was formed, in which 
Walker was appointed to an office similar to 
that which he had resigned, and continued 
to practise in Saliabnir Court. After the 
fwlalJishiiiit of the national vaccine boird 
br the cmremneat, the Jennerian Society, 
which had bllen into bad circumstances, 
was analgaiaated with the London Vaccine 
lastitatioo in l^JS, and Jenner was elected 
ynatdcBt of the new society, with Walker 
as direetor, an ofiee which he held until bis 
death. H« was admitted a licentiate of the 
CoUc«e of IVmsus ob 30 Sept. 1812. 
OaitBC tke latter aart of his life be laboured 
aaeeaangljr in Wnalf of yaecioation. He 
pcaetiaad aix dajs a wade at the various 
statioos of the aodeCr. Towards the end of 
his life he hoastwi that ha bad vaccinated 
neca than a hanitiiil thoosand persons. 
He diad in Loaion oa 33 Jane 18%. lie 
was a «aB of grant aiaipUeitT of character 
sad dfaMOMss «f thought, fie was a strong 
apfoaaat of the ataye trade, and made 
sexual att^apts to call public attention to 
the ahaaaa eoaaeeted with suttee. He mar- 
i«d at (]\h%\i ■ aa 3S Ort. 17W. 

Besidaa tka waifa lacatioiied. Walker was 
the aathor of: 1. 'On the Necessity for 
esatnctiaf Chnitiea between the Venous 
Ttaak* and Aa Vaatades of the Heart,' 
K diuhninh , \73Bi, Bwa. ± 'Fragments of 
Lettets aad olhar hpHS written in different 
of BaMaa aad la the Mediterranean,' 

i8Qt.8niL Ha*' ' " 'from 

tW Fwack tW¥aaaBl lan- 

thiQMkar Artaww of \i ■. ^^'^ ± w. ...U of 
MmC* liwidna, ITW, ISbo, and compiled a 
saall ^akaaa of 'Sakctaons from Lucian,' 
7th ad. Dahlia. 1830, limo. 

[Bpfi^ life tf Walkai. 1833 : Xenk's ColL 
a(Vhj& iii. IM; Saalh's Ftiaads' Books] 

E. I. C. 

WALKSK. JOHN (1770-183n, anti- 

\{aarr. ^Ma of John Walker of London, was 

bapciiwd at tha Aarch of St. Katherine Cree 

•w l< Feh. 1770^ aad was elected scholar at 

'i>:haslar in 17*'^ He matriculated from 

seaaat OiHi«ii na 14 Jan. 1788. gra- 

>t^ B.CJ^W 1797. In ' year 

tm alactad ftlbrw of N- . re- 

-iiauac hta MIowship till l-'.u '-^ 

tilM tlhs posts uf libraiian and < ' 

., ,_ • — t- • ^Hi k., •published » .>r.r> - 

!rom the ^ Gentle- 

. ... — — .ulon, 8vo) in three 

>ae^ thta aadwtskiag had been sug- 



Walker 



77 



Walker 



gested by Gibbon to the editor, John Nichols, 
■ome time before, but Nichols couUl not find 
leisure for the task (Nichols, Lit. Anerd, 
Tiii-.V)?; ii/./WiM/r.voLviii.p.xi). Wulker 
accomplished it with great judjjment, and 
was rewarded by the sale of a thousand 
oopies in a few months. A second edition, 
with an additional volume, appeared in 1811; 
and a third, also in four volumes, in 1814. 

"Walker made valuable researclies in the 
archives of the Bodleian Library and of 
other university collections. In 180i) he 
brought out 'O.xoniana' (London, 4 vols. 
I2mo), consi.sting of selections from books 
and manuscripts in the Bodleian relating to 
university matters. This was followed in 
1813 by "Letters written by Eminent Per- 
sons, from the Originals in the Bij<lleiaii 
Library and Ashmolean Museum ' (London, 
2 voL«. 8vo). Both are works of value, and 
have been largely used by succeeding writers. 
Walker was one of the original proprietors 
of the ' Oxford Herald,' and for several years 
assisted in the editorial work. 

In 1819 Walker was presented by the 
.warden and fellows of New College to the 
icarage of Homchurch in Essex, and re- 
lided there during the rest of his life, lie 
"lied at the vicarage on o April 1831. 

Besides the works mentioned, he was the 
luthor of ' Curia Oxoniensis ; or Observa- 
4ons on the Statutes which relate to the 
Jniversity Court' (3rd edit. Oxford, 182C, 
Bvo). He was the first editor of the ' Ox- 
University Calendar,' first published in 
11810. An ' auction catalogue ot his library ' 
I published in 1831 (Ixindon, 8vo). 
[Gent. Mag. 1831. i. 474; Foster's Alumni 
'Oxoo. 1715-1886; Allibonos Diet, of English 
Lit.; Mwcray's Annals of the Bodloinn Library, 
1890.] K. I. C. 

"WAIiKER, JOHN (1768-1833), founder 
I of the ' Church of God,' born in Koscommon 
fin January 1768, was the son of Matthew 
►"Walker, a clergyman of the established 
f churcli of Ireland. He entered Trinity Col- 
li^, Dublin, on 18 Jan. 1785, was chosen 
{ttolar in 1788, graduated U.A. in 1790, 
) elected a fellow in 1791, and proceeded 
"H.A. in 1796, and B.D. in 1800. 

Walker wos ordained a priest of the esta- 
blished church of Ireland. About 1803 he 
began to study the principles of Christian 
I fellowship prevailing among the earliest 
IChristians. Convinced that lat.-r departures 
erroneous, he joined with n few others 
lan attempt to return to apostolic practices. 
Their doctrinal beliefs were thone of the more 
lextremc Calvinists,and they entirely rejected 
■the idea of a clerical order. ( )n 8 (Jet. 1804 
■"Walker, convinced that be could no longer 





exercise the functions of a clergyman of the 
Irish church, informed the provost of Trinity 
College, and offered to resign his fellowship. 
He wus expelled on the day following. He 
was connected with a congregation of fellow- 
believers in Stafl'ord Street, Dublin, and 
supported himself by lecturing on subjects of 
university study. After paying 'several 
visits to Scotland, he removed to London in 
1819. 

Walker was no mean scholar, and pub- 
lished several useful educational works. In 
1833 the university of Dublin granted him 
a pension of 0001. as some amends for their 
former treatment of him. lie returned to 
Dublin, and died on 2.5 Oct. of the same 
yeor. Ilis followers styled themselves ' the 
Church of Ood,' but were more usually 
known as 'Separatists,' und occasionally as 
' Walkerites.' 

AmongWalker'spublicationswere: l.'I^et^ 
tera to Alexander Knox,' Dublin, 1803, H\o. 
2. 'An E.\postulatory Addre.s8 to Members 
of the Methodist Society in Ireland,' .'ird ed. 
Dublin, 1804, 12mo. 3. ' A. Full and Plain 
Account of the Horatian Metres,' Glasgow, 
1822, 8vn. 4. ' Essays aiid Correspondence,' 
ed. W. Burton, IxinSon, 1838, 8vo. 5. 'The 
Sabbath a Type of the Ix)rd Jesus Christ,' 
London, 186<i,8vo. He also edited : 1. Livy's 
' Ilistoriarum Libri qui siiperpiiiit.* Dublin, 
1797-1813, 7 vols. 8vo; Dublin, 1882, 8vo. 
2. 'The First, Second, and Sixth Books of 
Euclid's Elements,' Dublin, 1808, 8vn; first 
six books with a treatise on trigonometry, 
London, 1827, 8vo. 3. 'Selections from 
Lucian,' Olo-sgow, 1816, 8vo; 9th ed. Dub- 
lin, l.'<.")6, 12ino. For the opening of the 
Belhesda Chapel, Dorset Street, Dublin, on 
22 June 1794, he wrote two hymns, one of 
which, ' Thou Ood of Power and God of 
Love,' has been included iu several collections. 

[ Wolkir's Essayi and Curresp. (with portrait), 
1838; Motlden's Memoir of Peter Roe, 1842; 
Wills's Irish Nation, iv. 452; Gent. Mag. 1833, 
ii. 640; Heiuuina of Alexander Knox, 1836; 
' Millennial Harliingor, September 1 S3.5 ; A Briof 
Account of the Pe(n>Ic called .Separatists, Dub- 
lin, 1821 ; Julian's Diet, of Hyninology, 1892.1 

E. I. C. 
WALKER, JOHN (1781?-ia59), in- 
ventor of friction matches, was bora at 
Stockton-on-Tees in 1780 or 1781. He was 
i articled to Watson .Vlcock, the principal 
I surgeon of the town, and served him as 
assistant-surgeon. He hod, however, on in- 
surmountable aversion from surgical opera- 
tions, and in consequence tiinieJ his atten- 
tion to chemistry. After studying at Dur- 
ham and York, he set up a small business 
as chemist and druggist at 69 High Street, 



Walker 



78 



Walker 



Stockton, about 1818. He was a tolerable 
chemist, and was especially interested in 
searchinp^ for a means uf obtaining fire easily. 
Several chemical ra ix( ures were known whicli 
would ignite by a sudden explosion, but it 
had not been found possible to transmit the 
tlame to as-low-buming substance like wood. 
While \\'alk«;r was preparing a lighting 
mixture on one occasion, a match which had 
been dipped iu it took fire by an accidental 
friction upon the hearth. He at once ap- 
preciated the practical value of the discovery, 
and commenced making friction matches. 
They consisted of wooden splints or sticks 
of cardboard coated with .sulphur and tipped 
with a mixture of sulphidu of antimony, 
chlorate of potash, and gum, the sulphur 
serving to communicate the flume to the 
wood. The price of 11 box containing fifty 
was one .shilling. With each box was sup- 
plied u piece of sandpaper, folded double, 
through which the match had to be drawn 
to ignite it. Two and a lialf years after 
Walker's invention was made public Isaac 
Ilolden arrived, independently, at the samt.' 
ideaofcoatingwooden splinters with sulphur. 
The exact date of his discovery, according to 
liis own statement, was (!)ctober 1820. Pre- 
viously to this date ^\'alker'8 sales-book con- 
tains an account of no fewer than two 
hundred and fifty sales of friction matches, 
the first entry bearing the date "April 1827. 
lie refused to patent lus invention, con- 
sidering it too trivial. Notwithstanding, ho 
made a sufficient fortune from it to enable 
him to retire from business. lie died at 
Stockton on 1 May 1859. 

rOent. Mag. 1859, i. 656; Encyelopicdia 
Bnt. "Jth ed. XV. 625; Heaviiides'a Annals of 
Stockton, 1865, p. 106: Andrews's Bygona Eng- 
land, 1892. pp. 212-15; Northern Echo, 6 May 
1871: Daily Chronicle. 19 Aug. 1897; NoUs 
and Queries, 4lh ser. ix. 201.] E. I. C. 

WALKER, .JOSEPH COO PER (1762?- 
1810), Irish tintiqiinry. was bom probably in 
Dublin in or about 1762, and was educated 
underThomos Ball of that city. lie sutfered 
all his life from acute asthma, and iu his 
earlier years travelled a great deal in the 
hope of improving his health. For many 
year.s he lived in Italy. Of a studious dis- 
position, he utilised his leisure in making re- 
searches into Italian literature and Irish an- 
tiquities, his two favourite studies. After 
his return to Ireland he settled down in a 
beautiful house called St. Vulcri, Bray, co. 
A\'icklow, where he stored his various art 
treasures and his valuable library. Hero the 
rest of his life was passed, and hero he wrote 
the works by whicli he is beat known. He 1 



died on 12 April 1810, and was buried on 
1-t April in St, Mary's Churchyard, Dublin. 
Ho was one of the original members of the 
I Royal Irish Academy, in whose welfare 
ho took the warmest interest, and contri- 
buted various papers to its ' Tran.<action8,' 
Francis Hardy [q. v.], biographer of the 
I Earl of Charlemont, undertook a biography 
of Walker, which, however, when tiniaued 
in 181:^, showed such signs of the failure of 
I Hardy's mental power tliat the family pru- 
dently withheld it. On Hardy's death the 
materials were handed to Edward Berwick 
[q. v.], who does not seem to have finished 
his task. Many of Walker's letters are 
printed in Nichols's ' Literary lUustrstions ' 
^vii. (i9(5-758). 

I The following is a list of his works : 1 . ' His- 
tnrical Memoirs of the Irish Bards,' London, 
' 17Sti, 4to; new edit. 1818, 8vo. -J. • His- 
: torical Essay on the Dress of the Ancient 
{ and Modem Irish, to which is subjoined a 
Memoir on the Armour and Weapons of the 
Iri.ili,' Dublin, 1788, 4to : new edit. London, 
1818, 8vo. 3. ' Historical Memoir on Italian 
Tragedy,' 1799. 5. ' Historical and Critical 
Essay (lu the Kevival of the Dnuna in Italy,' 
Edinburgh, 1805, 8vo. Also 'Anecdotes on 
j Chess in Ireland,' a paper contributed to 
I Charles Vallancey's ' Collectanea de Rebus 
j llibernicis' [see VALLANt'EV, CuAKLEs], H«» 
' Memoirs of Alcssandro Tassoni ' were pub- 
^ lished posthumously in 1815, with a lengthy 
I preface by his brother, Samuel Walker, it 
contains also {Kiems to Walker's memory 
by Eyles Irwin [q. v.], Henry Boyd [q. v. J, 
William Hayley |q. v.l, and Itobert Ander- 
son (1770-1833) [q. v.J Walker loft behind 
him several works in manuscript, including 
a journal of his travels and matt^rials for 
' Lives of the Painters, Sculptors, and En- 
gravers of Ireland.' 

[Gent. Mag. 1787 i. 34, 1788 ii. 998, 1810 
i. 487 ; WilLs's Irish Nation, ir. 666 ; Brit. Mas. 
Cat. ; preface to Memoirs of Aleasandro Tanoni. 
ed. 8aniuel Walker.] D. J. O'D. 

WALKER, OBADIAH (1616-1699), 
master of University College, O.xford, was 
the son of William Walker of SVorsborodale, 
Yorkshire. He was bom at Darfiuld, near 
Barnsley (Hearsb, Collect, ed. Doble, i. 811, 
and was baptised ou 17 Sept. 1616. He 
matriculated at Oxford, 6 April 1633, at the 
age of sixteen, and entered University Col- 
lege, where ho passed under the care of 
Abraham Woodhead [q. v.] as tutor. He 
became fellow of his college in August fol- 
lowing, graduated B.A. 4 July 16S6, and 
M.A. 23 Anril 1638. He soon became a tutor 
of note in nis college and a man of mark in 



Walker 



79 



Walker 



lie uttivereity. During the civil war he was 
lect«d one of the standing extraordinary 
Jfgat^s of the university for public busi- 
He preached several times before the 
iirt, was favourably recarded by the king, 
id in l<i4tl was offered, but appears to have 
f'fused, his grace of bachelor of divinity. 
Through n part of this period he acted as 
allege bursar (cf. Smith, manuscript Tran- 
riptH, X. 210). In July 1618 the master 
ad fellows were ejected by the parlia- 
nenlary commissioners. AValker appears 
have now gone abroad and to have re- 
1 for some lime in Home, 'improving 
elf in all kinds of polite literaturt^' 
|6mith, Annali of Unittrtity Colttije). On 
"lie recommendatiou of John Evelyn about 
0, he heciaac tutor to a son of Mr. 
lildyard of Horsley in Surrey (Evelyn, 
tiary, ej. Bray, iii. ii), and the early per- 
ursion of his pupil to the church of iJome 
any probably be regarded as one of the re- 
ilt* of his tuition. On the Restoration he 
loi reinstntetl as fellow of his college ; ' after 
ring be(>n,' as he afterwards wrote to a 
lend in KJ78 (Smith, manuscript Trmt- 
'ipt-', X. W'2), 'heaved out of my place 
id wandred a long time up and down, I 
m nt last, by the good providence of (3od, 
et down just as I was.' Soon, however, he 
in left Oxford, and again travelled to 
iome, acting as tutor to a young gentle- 
man. By the college regi.'ttcr he appears to 
have been granted leave of absence in August 
L3f56l for the next four terms, and again 
dmilar permission.s on 31 Jan. 1G03 and 
I March 1 664, and for two terms on 14 Jan. 
1666 (t/niV. Coll. Jliy. pp. 70-82). 

On the death of the master, Dr. Thomas 

W'allter, in 160.5, Obadiah declined to con- 

[test Clayton's election to tlie vacant ofScc. 

le now, however, resided again in the 

leollege as senior fellow and tutor. He waa 

!• delegate of the university press in 166", 

tnd llirough his influence an offer was made 

|f> Anthony i\ W<X)d (whose acquaintance 

" jut this time he had accidentally made 

in the coach on the way to Oxford) for the 

printing of the ' History and -■Vntiquities of 

Jiford' (\\'ooD, Zi/e and Times, ii. 17.'i). 

he mastership became again vacant by the 

Idvath of Dr. Clayton on 14 Jime 1676, and 

Obadiah Walker was elected on '2'2 June 

1676 by the unnniuious consent of the fellows 

( Unir. Coll. lifij. p. f'9). Though, when writ iiig 

I a friend on 20 Nov. l67o, he complained 

Told age (Smith, manuscript Trayvscriptii,\. 

199), he soon proved himself an active head 

of the college. \\'ith energy he canvassed 

old members of thi- college for subscriptions 

Itowards the rebuilding of the big quadrangle, 



which was completed in .\pril 1677. The 
same year the college, under the auspices of 
their new master, undertook an edition in 
Latin of Sir John Spelman's ' Life of Alfred ; ' 
this they did ' that the W(jrld should know 
that their benefactions are not bestowed on 
mere drones ' (letter from O. W, 19 April 
1677, ib. p. 192). This publication, though 
often attributed to Walker alone, was a 
joint product ion, 'divers of the .society ossigt- 
ing with their pains and learning ' {ib.) ; it 
was dedicated to Charles 11 with a fulsome 
comparison of that monarch to Alfred. The 
character of some of the notes in the volume, 
and AA'ulker's connection with Abraham 
Woodhead's 'popish seminary' at Iloxton 
(Woodhead, who died in May 1678, left by 
will the priory at Hoxton to Walker), caused 
t he master's conduct to be noted in the Uouse 
of Commons towards the latter end of 
October 1678, when ' several things were 

fiven in against him bv the archdeacon of 
^liddlesex' {Hist. MSS. Comm. 12th Rep. 
App. vii. 150). He was ' much sus- 
pected at this time to be a papist ' (lA.), and. 
Wood, 'had not Mr. Walker had a 



friend in the house who stood up for him, 
he would have had a messenger sent for 
him ' (Wood, Life ami Time*, ed. Clark, ii. 
421) ; the same authority gives it that two 
of the fellows of the college made friends 
in the parliament-house to have the master 
turned out that one of them might succeed. 
Whatever inclination Walker entertained 
at this time towards the lioman church, 
on the heads of houses being called on 
17 Feb. 1679 to make returns to the vice- 
chancellor of all persons in their societies 
suspected to bo papists, he categorically 
denied that he knew of any such in his 
college. But in April of the same year 
his name was mentioned in Sir Harbottle 
Grimston's speech calling the attention of 
the house to the printing of ]>opisli books 
at the theatre at Oxford (ib. p. 449); and 
in June 1680 complaint was made to the 
vici^Kihancellor of the jKipish character of 
a sermon preached by one of his pupils at 
St. Marj-'s, and the booksellers in Oxford 
were forbidden to sell his book, ' The 
Benefits of our Saviour Jesus Christ to Man- 
kind,' because of the passages savouring of 
popery (i6. p. 488). The course he was steer- 
ing began to render him unpopular both in 
the town and university, where his main 
friends and supporters were Leyboume and 
Massey, and among the fellows Nathaniel 
Boys and Thomas Deane. 

On the accession of James II Walker's 
attitude soon became clear,for on 5 Jan. 1686 
he went to London, being sent for by the 



Walker 



80 



Walker 



king to be consulted as to changan in the 
university ({/»«>. Cull, Rei/Utfr). On this 
errand he remained away till nearly the end 
of the month, and on his recommendation his 
friend Massey is said to have been appointed 
dean of Christ Church. After Walker's return 
he did not go to prayers or receive the sacra- 
ment in the college chapel (Wood, L\fe, iii. 
177). One result of his interviews with the 
king soon became apparent, for by a letter 
from James, dated 28 Jan. 1686, it was 
ordered that the revenue of the fellowship 
Bet free by the death of Edward Hinchcline 
should be sequestered into the hands of the 
master and applied ' to such uses as we shall 
appoint, any custom or constitution of our 
said college to the contrary' (I'A. p. 110). 
In April in this year mass was held in the 
master's lodging, and on 3 May 1686 the 
master and three others wore granted a. royal 
license and dispensation ' to absent tUem- 
selves from church, common prayer, and 
from taking thi* oiitlis of supremacy and 
allegiance,' and under the same authority 
were empowered to travel to I^ondon and 
Westminster, and to come and remain in 
the presence of the (jiieen consort and queen 
dowager. This curious dispensation was 
ett'ected by immediate warrant signed by t he 
solicitor-general, as it could not have Ix'en 
safely passed under the privy seal (Evelys, 
Uiary, ed. Bray, iii. 21). In the same month 
Walker was also granted a license to print 
for twenty-one years a ti.it of thirty-seven 
Iloman catholic works, the only restriction 
being that the sale in any one year was not 
to exceed twenty thousand, and a private 
press for this purpose was erected in the 
college in the following year. He was al»f5 
able at this time to exercise influence over 
the printing operations of the university; for 
under the will of Dr. Fell, who died on 
10 July 1686, the patent of printing granted by 
Charles II was made over to Walker and two 
others {Hist. MSS. Comm. 7th Itep. -^pp. p. 
092), A chapel for public use was opened m 
the college on 15 Aug. 16ti6, rooms on the 
ground floorof the east side of the quadrangle, 
' in the entry leading from the quad on the 
right hand,' being appropriated for the pur- 
pose ; and the sequestered fellowship was 
applied for the maintenance of a priest, a 
Jesuit named Wakeman (Smith, AnnnU of 
Univerrity C'otlef/e). On the occasion of the 
king's visit to Oxford in September 1687, 
Wwker (who liad Ijeen created a J.P. for 
the county of Oxford, 7 July 1587) gave a 

Sublic entertainment in the college, and 
ames was present at vespers in the new 
chapel. Walker was consulted by the king 
as to the appointment of a new president of 



Magdalen; his sympathy was entirely with 
the sovereign, nothing, in his view, being 
plainer ' than yt he who makes us corpora- 
tions hath poweralso to uiunake us ' ( Bloxuc, 
MagdaUn Collegeand Ja-nut II, pp. 94, 237). 
By this expression of opinion and his gene- 
ral conduct his unpopularity was greatly in- 
creased, ' popery being the aversion of town 
and university (16.) In January 1688 the 
traders in the town complained of ' the 
scholars being frighted away because of 
popery,' and, says Wood, ' Obadiah Walker 
has the curses of all botli great and small ' 
(Wood, Life, iii. 209). The master, how- 
ever, boldly pursued his coarse, and in Fe- 
bruary 1688 erected the king's statue over 
the inside of the college gate {^ib. iii. 19-i). 
By means of correspondence he attempted 
this 3'ear to convert Lis old friend and pupil. 
Dr. John ItadcUffe [q. v.] In a final letter 
(written 22 May lft88} to the doctor, whom 
he was quite unable to convince. Walker de- 
clared that he had only been confirmed in 
his profession of faith by reading Tillotson's 
hook on the real presence, in deference to 
iladcIilTe's wishes, and in the same letter he 
speaks of • that faith which, aft«r many years 
of adhering to a contrary persuasion, 1 have 
through God's mercy embraced' (Pinis, 
Memoir* of Dr. Radcliffe, ed. 1715, p. 18). 
The young wits of Chnst Church were the 
authors of the following doggerel catch, 
which by their order was sung by ' a poor 
natural' at the master's door: 

Oh. old Obadiah, 

Sing Ave Maria, 

Bat so will not I a 
for why a 
I had rather bo a fool than a knave a 
(IRst. MSS. Comm. 12th Rep, App. vii. 200). 
Four days after the arrival of the Prince 
of Orange, Walker left t)xford, and before 
leaving moved his books and ' bar'd up his 
door next the street ' (Wood, Life and Time*, 
vol. iii. 9 Nov. 1688). Jits intention was to 
follow the king abroad, but on 11 Dec. he 
was stopped and arrested at Sittingbourne, 
in the company of GifTord, bishop of Madura, 
and Poulton, master of the school in the 
Savoy. The refugees were first committed 
to Jlaidstone gaol, and then conveyed to 
London and imprisoned in the Tower. On 
this event a somewhot scurrilous pamphlet 
was published in Oxford, entitled 'A Dia- 
logue between Father (iilTord, the Popish 
President of Maudlin, and Obadiah Wallcer, 
on their new college preferment in Newgate.' 
Meantime the vice-chancellor and the visitors 
of University College, having received a 
complaint from the fellows, met on 27 Jan. 
16S6-9, and agreed to siunmon the fellows 



VV^alker 



8i 



Walker 






and the Absent master to 8pp««rlH!rori> them, 
And on 4 Feb. 1689 the otticr of master wns 
declared vnoint, and filled by the election 
f the senior fellow. 
On the tirsl day of terra, 23 Oct. 1689, 
a writ of habeas corpus was moved for 
Walker, and the House of Commons ordered 
that he should be brought to the bar. He 
-was there char|;ed, fir.%t, with changing his 
religion ; secondly, for seducing others to it; 
thirdly, for kee]iing a muss house in the 
university of Oxford. To these charges he i 
made answer that he could not sny that he ' 
ever altered his religion, or that his prin- I 
"pies were now wholly in agreement with | 
church of llome. tie denied that he had 
seduced others to the Komish religion, 
«nd declare<l that the chapel was no more I 
Lis gift than that of the fellows, and that i 
£ing James had requested it of them, and j 
they had given a part of the college to his 
use. Having heard these answers, the com- 
mons ordered that he should be charged in 
the Tower by warrant for high treitson in 
being reconciled to the church of Rome and 
ther high crimes and mi.sdemeanours ( Com- 
lu JuurnriU, X. 275). 

Walker remained in the Tower till 31 Jan. 
689-90, when, having come to the court of 
ng:'» l>ench by h»l>eas coqtus, he was after 
tome diffieultv admitted to his lilx>rty on 
■vers' good bail (Luttrei.i-, Brir-f JMaiioii, 
"i. lO). On 12 Feb. he was continued in his 
:ognisances till the next term, but was 
eventually discharged with his bail nn 2 June 
1690 (ih. ii. 'lO ). lie was, however. e.wepted 
from Wdliam and Mary's act of pardon in 
Mav 1690. Walker now again lived for ii 
period on the continent, and after his return 
resided in London. Being in poor circum- 
stances, he was supported by his old scholar, 
br. Kadclirte, ' who sent him once a year a 
new suit of clothes, with ten broad pieces 
and twelve bottles of richest canary to sup- 
port his drooping spirits' (Woon, Life and 
Time»,'i. 8l). On his infirmitii';- increasing, 
lie eventually found an asylum in Undclitie's 
house. 

Walker died on 21 Jan. ltJ98-9, and was 
buried in St. Pancras churchyard, where a 
tombstone was erected to his memory by 
bb staunch friend, with the short inscription: 
O W 
per l>oiuim faniani 
et p^r int'jiroiam. 
1 1 is works are : 1 . ' Some Instruction con- 
cerning the .\rt of Oratory,' London, 16.>9, 
8vo. 2. 'Of Education, especially of young 
(Gentlemen,' Oxford, lfi7.'5. This work was 
deservedly popular, and n'ache<l a sixth 
edition in 1699. It shows its author to 
VOL. UX. 



have been a man of the world, with a shrewd 
understanding of the weaknesses of youth. 
3. ' Artis liationis ad mentem Nominalium 
libri tres," Oxford, 1673, Svo. 4. ' A Para- 
phra.se and Annotations upon the Epistle of 
St. Paul,' written by O. W., edited by Dr. 
Fell, Oxford, 1675, 8vo. A new edition of 
this work appeared in 1852, with an intro- 
duction by br. Jacobson, D.U., in which ha 
concludes that the book was first written 
by Walker, and afterwords possibly cor- 
rected and improved by Fell. 6. ' Versio 
l>atina et .\unotatione8 ad Alfredi Magni 
Vitam .loannis Spelman,' Oxford, 1078, fol. 
6. * Propositions concerning Optic Glasses, 
with tbeir natural Reasons drawn from Ex- 
i>eriment,'( >xford Theatre, 1679, 4to. 7. ' The 
IJenetits of our Saviour Jesus Christ to Man- 
kind," (.)xford Theatre, 1680, 4to. 8. 'K 
Description of Greenland' in the first volume 
of the ' English Atlas,' Oxford, 1680. 
9. ' Animadversions upon the Ueply of Ur. 
H. Aldrich to the Discourse of .Vbraham 
Woodhead concerning the Adoration of our 
Blessed Saviour in tlie Eucharist,' Oxford, 
1688, 4to. The printer is said to have sup- 
])lied the sheets of Abraham Woodheaa's 
discourses concerning the adoration, &c., 
which was edited by Walker in January 
1687, to Dr. Aldrich, whose answer to Wood- 
head's book app<!ared immediately. 10. 'Some 
Instruction in the Art of Grammar, writ to 
assist a young (ientleman in the speedy 
understanding of the Latin Tongue,' London, 
1691, 8vo. 11. 'The t^reok and I^)man 
History illustrated by Coins and Medals, 
representing their lieligious Kites,' &c. Lon- 
don, 1692, 8vo. 

[Univ. Coll. Register and MS8. ; Wood's Life 
nndTiines;tieDf.Miig. 1786, vol. i.; Gutch'sCol- 
k-etiim-ft C'uriosa, i. ^88 ; Pittis's Memoirs of Dr. 
Kadclitl'e; Wood's Atliente dxon. ed. Bliss, iv. 
4;t3 ; yraitli's Hist, of Univ. Coll. ; British Mu- 
seum and Buijleiaii Cntalogues.] W. C-n. 

WALKER, ItUilAUD (1679-1704), 
professor of moral pliilosophy at Cambridge 
University, was boni in 1679. lie wa« 
educated at Trinity C(d]ege, Cambridge, 
graduating HA. in 170(i, M.A. in 1710, 
B.I), in 1724, and D.D. ;*er reyiai literaa 
in 1728. He was elected a fellow of Trinity 
College, but in 1708 led Cambridge to serve 
a curacy at Upwell in Norfolk. In 1717 
Itichard Bentley, who had a difference with 
the junior bursar, John Myers, removed him, 
and recalled Walker to Canibri<)ge to fill 
his place, From this time an intimacy began 
betweenWalker and Bent ley which increased 
from year to year. He devoted his best 
energies tosustaining Bentleyin his struggle 
with the fellows of the college, and rendered 



UJ 



Walker 



82 



Walker 



him invaluublc n!d. On 27 April 1734 Bent- I 
ley \%n« sentenced by the college visitor, 
Tliomns Green (1658-1738) [q. v. J, bisbop of 1 
Elv, to be deprived of the mnstership of i 
Trinity College. On the resigntitinn of John 
lliw.liet, the vice-master, on 17 Muy 1731, 
Walker was appointed to bis plat-e, and reso- 
lutely refused to carry out the bishop's sen- 
tence. On25 June 173.1, at the instance of 
John Colbatch, a senior fellow, the court of 
king's bench granted a inandanius addressed 
to AValker, requiring hira to execute the 
sentence or to show cjiuse for not doing so. 
Walker, in reply, questioned the title of the 
bishop to the office of general visitor, and 
the alfair drugged on until 1736, when 
fireen's death put an end to thi> attempts of 
Bentlcy's opponents. Walker was the con- 
stant companion of Bentley's old age, and 
was introduced by Pope into the 'Dunciad' 
■with his patron (Popk, JVorks, ed. Elwin 
and Coiirthopo, iv. 201 5). 

In 1741 \Vidker was appointed professor 
of moral phitosoiihy at Carabridge, and in 
174r>hewas nominated rector of Thurpland 
in Norfolk, a living which he exchanged in 
1767 forthatof L ]iwell in tlie same county. 
Ho was devoted to liorticulture, and liiid a 
small garden within the precincts of Trinity 
College which wiis famous for exotic phmt.«, 
including the pini-'ajipli', banana, colfee shrub, 
logwood tree, and torch thi.itle, which, with 
the aid of a hothouse, be was able to bring 
to perfection. On 10 July 17(it) he purchased 
the principal part uf the lund now forming 
thebotanic garden nt Cambridge from Hichard 
Whish, a vintner, nnd <in 2o .Vug. 17(i2 con- 
veyed it to the uuiver.<ily in trust for its pre- 
sent purpose. In 1763 be published anfmy- 
mcuisly 'A Short Account of the lute Dona- 
tion of a Botanic (iarden to the Tniversity 
of Cambridge' (Cambridgf, Ito). He died 
at Cambridge, unmarried, on 15 Dec. 1764. 

[iloiiU's Life of Bentlcy, 1 S33, ii. 20, 81 , 349- 
(56, 370-84,400-6; .Scots SL-ig. 1764, p. 687; 
Annual Reg, 1760, i. 103 ; Willis's Arohilectuml 
llist. of Cambridge, 1 886. ii. 582-3, «46, iii. I4.i, 
J51 ; BlomeBold'sHiBt. of Norfolk, 1807, vii. 09, 
470.] E. I. C. 

WALKER, IIOBEIIT {,{. 165H?). por- 
trait-painter, was the ciiief painter of the 
parliamentary party during the t^ommon- 
wealth. Nothing is known of his early life. 
His moaner of painting, thougli .strongly 
influenced by that of Van Dyck, is yet dis- 
tinctive enough to forbid his being ranked 
among Van Dyck's immediate pupils. Walker 
is chiefly known by his portraits of Oliver 
Cromwell, and, with the exception of the 
portraits by Samuel Cooper [q. v.], it is to 
• thot posterity is mainly indebted 



for its knowledge of the Protector's features. 
The two best known types — the earlier re- 
presenting him in armour with a page tying 
j on his sash ; t he later, full face to the waist in 
armour — have been frequently repeated and 
copied. The best example of tho former is 
perhaps the painting now in the National 
Portrait Gallery, which was formerly in the 
jKissession of the Rich family. Thislikeness 
I was considered by John Evelyn (1620-1706) 
[(J. v.], the diarist, to be the truest represea- 
I tat ion of Cromwell which he knew (see 
Numiamata, p. 330). There are repetition^ 
' of this portrait at Althorp, Hagley, and eUe- 
I where. The most interesting example of 
I the latter portrait is perhaps that inthePitti 
Palace at Florence (under the name of Sir 
Peter l>'ly), which was acquired by theGraad 
Duke Ferdinand II of Tuscony shortly after 
l.'roniwell's death. In another jiortrait by 
Wolker, Cromwell wears a gold chain and 
decoration sent to him by t^ueen Christina 
of .Sweden. Walker painte<l Ireton, Lam- 
bert (examples of these two in the Na- 
tional Portrait Gallery), IHeetwood, Serjeant 
Keeble, and other prominent members of 
the parliamenturygovemment. Evelyn him- 
self !int to liim, as stated in his ' Diarj* ' for 
1 July 1648: 'I safe for my picture, in 
which there is a death's head, to Jlr. Wallcer, 
that excellent painter;' and again 6 July 
lO-OO : ' To Sir. Walker's, a gooil painter, who 
shew'd me on excellent copie of Titian.' 
Thi.i copy of Titian, however, does not ap- 
pear, as sometimes stated, to have been 
painted by Walker himself. One of Walker's 
most excellent pointings is the portrait of 
William Faithorne the elder [q. v.], now in 
the National Portrait Gallery. In'16.'J2, on 
the death of the Earl of Arundel, Walker 
was allotted «purtment« in Arundel House, 
which had bwm seized by the parliament. 
He is stated to have died in 1658. He 
painted his own portrait three times. Two 
similar portrait.* are in the National Portrait 
(iallerj- and at Hompton Court ; and one 
of these portraits was finely engraved in his 
lifetime by Peter I^ombart. A third example, 
%vith variations, is in the university gallerie* 
nl (ixford. 

[Will pole's Anecdotes of Painting, od.Wornum ; 
De Piles's Art of Painting{snpplomont) ; Xoble'« 
His;, of tho Uouse of Cromwell ; Granger'* 
Uiopr. Hist, of England (manuscript notes by 0. 
Seharf) ; Cat. of tho National Portrait GtiUery.] 

L. 0. 
WALKER, ROBEIIT (1709-1802), 
' W'oiidi'rful Walker,' was born at Fnder- 
crag in Seathwaite, Borrowdale, Cumber- 
land, in 170i), Iwiing the youngest of twelve 
children ; his eldest brother was bom about 



^ 



Walker 



8s 



COI 



ltiS4, and was ninety-four when be died in 
1778. Robert waa taught the rudiments in 
the littlu chapel of hia native Seathwaite, 
and afterwards apparently by Henry Forest 
(168S-1741), the curate of Lowe^water, at 
which place in course of time Wallter acted 
as 8choolma8t«r down to 1735, when he be- 
came curate of Soathwaile with a stipend 
of 5^ a year and a cottjige. In }7or> he 
computed his official inconu; thus: fi/. from 
I the patron, 5/. from the bounty of Queen 
Vnne, 3/. rent-charge upon some tenements 
f«t Ixiweawater, 4/. yearly value of house 
•nil garden, and 3/. from fees — in all 20/. 
per annum. Nevertheless, by dressing and 
faring a« a peasant, with strict frugality and 
with the aid of spinning, ' at which trade 
he waa a great proticieut,' he managed not 
only to support a family of eight, but even 
to save money, and when, in 17r)t>-6, it was 
proposed by the bishop of Chester to join 
the curacy of I'lpha to that of Setithwaite, 
Walker refused the offer lest he should be 
suspected of cupidity. A few years later 
the ear^cy was slightly augmented ; and 
tis hia children grew up and were appren- 
nliced his circumstances became easy, lie 
ras enabled to eani small sums as ' scrivener ' 
the surrounding village.s. He al.so acted 
1 schoolmaster, but for his teaching he made 
charge; 'such as could aflbrd to pay 
ave him wliat they pleased.' ' His scat wo-f 
rithin the rails of the altnr, the communion 
able was his desk, and, like Shenstone's 
choolmistress, the master employed himself 
the spinning wheel while the children 
rere repeating their lessons by his side.' 
"Tie pastoral simplicity of his life is graphi- 
cally sketched by Wordsworth, who alludes 
t o hia grave in the 'Excursion' <bk. vii. 
^■1. 3ol sq.), and in the eighteenth of the 
^■Duddon's Sonnets ' (' Seathwaite Cliapel ') 
^^kfers to Walker as the ' Gospel Teacher 
^HnboM good works forme<l an endless retinue, 
^^Hl pastor such as Cbaucor's verse portrnys, 
^^Boch as the heaven-taught skill of Herbert drew 
^^kod tender Goldsmith crowned with daathless 
pmise.' 
Walker died on 25 June 1802, and was 
buried three days later in Seathwaite 
iurchyard. His wife Anne, like himself, 
iraa ninety-three at the time of her death 
[January 1802). Walker's tombstone has 
ently been turned over and a new in- 
iption cut, while a brass has been erected 
I lus memory in Seathwaite chapel. Tlie 
Iter, as well as the parsonage, has been re- 
lilt since Walker's day. His character 
Bay have been idealised to some extent by 
Tordaworth (as that of Kyrle by Pope), 
[It there is confirmatory evidence as to the 



nobility of hia life and the beneficent in- 
fluence tiat he exercised. The epithet of 
' Wonderful ' attached to hia name by the 
countryside can scarce be denied to a man 
who with his income left behind him no 
lees a sum than 2,000/. 

[The chief nnthority for ' Wonderful Walker ' 
is the finely touched memoir embodied by 
Wordsworth in bis noloa to the Duddon Sonnets. 
See the Works of Wordsworth, 1888, pp. 825- 
833, and the Poems of Wordsworth, ed. Knight, 
1896, vi. 249, v. 298 ; see also Oent. Mug. 1760 
pp. 317-19, 1803 i. 17-19, 103; Christian Re- 
membrancer, October 1819; Klx's Notes on the 
Localities of the Daddon Sonnets (Wordsworth 
Society Trans, v. 61-78); Rawnslej's Euglish 
Lakes, ii. 191-2 ; Parkinson's Old Church Cluck 
1 880, p. 99 ; Tntin's Wordsworth l)ictioniir)-. 
1891, p. 30 ; Sunday Mag. xi. 34.1 T. S. 

WALKER, ROBERT FRANCIS (1789- 
1854), divine and author, son of Robert 
Walker of Oxford, was born there on 15 Jan. 
1789. He received his earlier education 
nt Magdalen College school, and while a 
chorister at chapel is said to have so at- 
tracted Lord Nelson by his singing that he 
gave him half a guinea. He entered New 
College, Oxford, in 180(S, and graduated 
B.A. in 1811, and M..\. in 1813. In 1812 
ho wtts appointed chaplain to Now College j 
in 1815 he became curati' at Tnplow ; at the 
end of 181(i or the beginning of 1817 he re- 
moved to Henley-im-Thames; and in 1819 
h«went to I'urleigh, Essex, where he was 
curate in charge to an absentee rector, the 
provost of Oriel College, Oxford. There he 
remained for thirty years, until failing health 
compelled him to give up his charge. In 
1848, struck with paralvsis, he went to reside 
at Great Baddow, near t'helmsford, and there 
he died on 31 Jan. 1854. He was buried at 
Purleigh. 

Ho was twice married : fir*.t, to Frances 
Lnngton at Cookham, Berkshire, in 1814 (by 
hor he hud four sons and one daughter, and 
shedied in 1824); and, secondly. to Elizabeth 
Palmer at Olnoy, on 30 Sept" 1880 (by her 
he had five sons, and she died in 1876). 

Walker took a keen interest in eccle,=i- 
a.stical movements, his sympathie." being with 
the evangelical party. He was specially 
interested in the (ierman sectinn of that 
party, and translated several of their works: 
1. liofacker's 'Sermons,' 1835. 2. Knim- 
macher's ' Elijah the Tishbite,' 183(i. 
3. 'Glimpse of the Kingdom of Grace,' 
1837. 4. ' Elishn,' 1838. 5. Burk's ' Me- 
moirs of John Albert Uengol, D.D.,' 1837. 

6. Earth's ' History of the Church,' 1840. 

7. Blumhardt's 'Christian Missions,' 1844. 

8. Leipoldt's ' Memoir of II. £. Rauschcu- 

*g2 



Walker 



84 



Walker 



btuck;' and he left at his deatU in mnnu- 
Bcript Beck's ' Pgychologv,' Bytliner's ' Lyru 
Prophetica,' Lavatcr's 'Life and Praycirs,' 
and grammars of Danish and Ariibic. In a 
memoir written by Lis friend, Ituv. T. Pyne, 
a number of extracts of verse by him are 
given. 

[FosUr's Alnmni Oxon. 1716-1886; Life by 
Rev. T. Pyne ; informution kiadly supplied by 
his son, Rev. S. J. Wiilker.] J. B. M. 

WALKER, SAMUEL (1714-1761), 
divine, l)oni at Exeter on Iti I>ec. 1714, waa 
t!ie fourth son of Robert Walker of AN'ilhy- 
comba Kaleigli, Devonshire, bv his wife 
Ma^aret, daughter of Kichard llall, rector 
of St. Edmund and All ILillows, Exeter. 
Robert Wallcor(UJ99-V7H9),hi8elderbrot her, 
made manuscript collections for tlie history 
of C^ornwall and Devon, which ut one time 
belonged to Sir Thomas PhiUippa (PAillijips 
AfSS. 134i).j, 13698-9). 

Samuel was educated at Exeter grammar 
school from 1722 to 1731. He matriculated 
from Exeter College, Oxford, on 4 Nov. 
1732, graduating B.A. on 2o June 17.")ti. In 
1737 he wiis appointed curate of Doddis- 
combe Leigh, near Exeter, but resigned his 
position in August 1738 to accompany Lord 
IJoIIp's youngest brother to France as tutor. 
Itetiirning early in 1740, he became curat* 
of Lanlivery in Cornwall. On the death of 
the vicar, Nicolas Kendall, a few weeks 
later, he succeeded him on 3 March 1739- 
1740. In 1740 he resigned the vicarage, 
which he hud only held in trust, and was 
ap[>otnlc'd rector of Truro and vicJtr of 
Ttiltuiid. .Although Walker had always 
been a man of exemplary moral character, he 
had hitherto shown little religious conviction. 
About a year after settling in Truro, how- 
ever, ho came under the iniluence of George 
Conon, the master of Truro grammar 
school, a man of saintly character. lie 
gradually withdrew himself from the amuse- 
meuta of his parishioners, and devoted him- 
self exclusively to the duties of hi.H ministry. 
In his sermons he dwelt espet-iully on the 
central facts of evangelical theology — re- 
pentance, faith, and the new birth, which 
were generally itssocialed at that time with 
Wesley and his followers. Such crowds 
attended his preaching that the town seemed 
deserted during the hours of service, and 
the playhouse and cock-pit were per- 
manently closed. In 1752 ne resigned the 
vicarage of Taltand on account of con- 
scientious scruples respecting pluralities. 
In 17.')4 he endeavoured to consolidate the 
results of his labours by uniting his con- 
verts in a religious socioty or guild, bound 



to observe certiun rules of conduct. In 
17-'ii> he also formed an association of the 
neighbouring clergy who met monthly ' to 
consult ui>on the business of their calling.* 
The methods by which he endeavoured to 
stimulate religious life resemble those 
employed by the Wesley*, who were much 
interested in the work BCConiplishud by 
Walker, and frequently conferred with him 
on matters of doctrine and organisation. 
In 1755 and 1756, when the question of 
separation from the English church occujiied 
t heir chief attention, John and Charles Wes- 
ley consulted Walker both personally and 
by tetter. Walker failed to convince John 
\Vesley of the unlawfulness of leaving the 
English church, but he helped to show him 
its inexpediency, and in 1758 persuaded him 
to suppress the larger part of a pamphlet 
which he hod written, entitled ' Reasons 
against a Separation from the Church of 
England,' fearing that some of the reasona 
which convinced Wesley might have a con- 
trary efl'ect on others. Walker strongly dis- 
approved of the influence exerted by the lay 
preachers in directing the course of the Wes- 
leyan movement. ' It has been a great fault 
all along,' he wrote to Charles Wesley, ' to 
have made the low people of your council.' 

Walker died unmarried on 19 July 1761 
atBlaekhea(h,atthehouseof William Legge, 
second earl of Dartmouth [q. v.], who had a 
great affection for him. He was buried in 
Lawiaham churchyard. 

Walker was the author of : 1. ' The Chris- 
tian : a Course of eleven practical Sermons,' 
London, 1755, 12mo; 12th ed. 1879, Svo. 

2. ' Fifty-two Sermons on the Baptismal 
Covenant, the Creed, the Ten Command- 
ments, and other important Subjects of 
Practical Religion,' London, 1763, 2 vols. 
Hvo; new edition by John Lawson, with a 
memoir by Edward Bickersteth [q. v.], 1836. 

3. 'Practical Christianity illustrated in Nine 
Tracts,' I/ondon, 1765, 12mo; new edition, 
lyl2. 4. ' The Covenant of Grace, in Nine 
Sermons,' Hull, 178?', 12mo, reprinted from 
the 'Theological Miscellany; ' new edition, 
Edinburgh, 1873, 12mo. 5. Ten sermons, 
I'Utitfed 'The Refiner, or God's Method of 
I'urifwng his People,' Hull, 1790, 12mo, 
reprinted from the ' Theological Miscellany ;' 
reissued in a new arrangement as ' Christ 
the Purifier,' London, 1794, 12mo; new 
edition, 1824, 12mo. 6. 'The Christian 
A rmour : ten Sermons, now first published 
from the Autlior's Remains,' Loudon, 1841, 
l8mo; now edition, Chichester, 1878, 8vo. 

[Sidney's Life and Ministry of Snmu»l 
W:Uker, 2nd ed. 1838 ; .Samuel Walker of Truro 
(Religious Tract Soc.); Byle's Christian 



85 



Walker 



I 



I 



^Of tbo Last Cenlury, 1869, pp. 306-27 : 
RihIou DiirrafOlt, 1815; Tyerman'H 
Life of .lolm W.tlev, 1870, ii. 207, 211, 241, 
250, 279, 317. 414, 685; Polwhele's Biogr. 
Sketches, 1831, i. 76; Ilervey's Lrttpra, 1837, 
p. 718 ; Life ot Countess of Huntinjidoii, ii. 51, 
•*14-lo; PenroMt's Christian Sincerity, 18211, pp. 
179-81 ; KlizHKeth Smiths Life Reviewed, 1780, 
pp. 17.36; Middleton's Biogr. Evangelioa, 1786, 
IT. 350-74; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715- 
1886; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. i. 122; Boase and 
CoDitney's Bibliotheca Coniub. ii. 646, iii. 1358. ] 

E. I. C. 

_ •WALKEK, SAYEU (1748-1826), pby- 
siciaii, was born iu London in 1748. After 
school e<liicntion he became a presbyteriaii 
minister at Enfield, Middlesex, but al'ter- 
irards studied medicine iu Ix)ndon iind 
Edinburgh, graduated M.I), at Aberdeen on 
31 Dec. 1791, and became a liceutiate of 
the College of Physicians of London on 
25 June 1792. He wa.« in June 1794 elected 
physician to the city of London Lj'ing-in 
Hospital, and his cliief practice was mid- 
wifery. He retired to CUl'tou, near Bri.'-tol, 
six months bi-fore his deiitli on 9 Nov. 182tJ. 
He publi.shed in 179f! 'A Treatise on Ner- 
vous Diseases,' and in 1803 'Observations on 
the Constitution of Women.' His writings 
contain nothing of permanent value. 

[Hunk's Coll. of Pbys. ii. 423 ; Gent. Mag. 
1826, ii. 470.] N. M. 

WAXKER, SIDNTIY (1795-1846), 
Shakespearean critic. [.See Wai.ker, Wil- 

tlAM SlDXEY.] 

WALKER, THOMA.S (1698 1744).actor 
and dramatist, the son of Francis ^^■nlke^ 
of the parish of St. Anne, Soho, was born 
in ltS98, and educat4?d at a school near his 
father's house, kept by a Mr. Medow or 
Midon. About 1714 lie joined the company 
of Shepherd, probably the Siiepherd who was 
at Pinkelhmnn's theatre, Greenwich, in 1710, 
and wa< subsequently, together with Walker, 
at Drury Lane, llarton Uaoth saw Walker 
plnyinp Paris in a droll named 'The .Siege 
of Troy,' and rfcommended him to the 
management of Drury Lane. In November 
1715 (probably ti Nov. > he seems to have 
played Tyrnd iu fibber's ' liichurd III.' 
On 12 Dec. 171.J be was Young Fashion in 
a revival of the ' Uelapse.' On 3 Feb. 171l! 
he was the first .Squire Jolly in the ' Cobbler 
of Preston,' an altera! ion by Charles Johnson 
of the induction to the 'Taming of the Slirew.' 
On 21 May 'Cato,' with an unascertained 
cast, was given for his benefit. On 17 Dec. 
he was the first Cardono in Mrs. Centlivre's 
ruel Gift.' He also played during the 
>u Alalia in 'Tamerloue'andl'orttas in 




' Cato.' Beauprf, in the ' Little French Law- 
yer,' was given next season, and on 6 Dec. 
1717 he was the first Charles in Gibber's ' Non- 
juror.' Pisonder in the ' Ikindmon,' Kameses 
— an original part — in Y'oung's ' liusiria ' 
(7 March 1719), and Laertes followed, and 
he was ( 1 1 Nov.) t he first Hrutus in Dennis's 
' Invader of his Couutrv,' an alteration of 
' Coriolanus,' and (17 Feb. 1720) the first 
Damn in Hughes's * Siege of Damascus.' 
Cassio and ^'emon in the ' First I'art of 
King Henry IV,' Alcibiades in ' Tiraon of 
Athena,' Phormaces in ' .Mithridates,' Octa- 
vius in ' Julius Cn:sar,' Aaron in 'Titus An- 
dronicus,' are among the parts he played at 
Drury Lane. On 23 Sept. 1721 he appeared 
al Lincoln's Inn Fields as Edmund in ' Lear,' 
playingduring hisfirst season Carlos in ' Love 
makes a Man,' Polydore in the ' I trphon,' 
Ilassanio, Hot.ipur.Don Sebastian, Oroonoko, 
Aimwell in the ' Beaux' Stratagem,' Young 
Worthy in ' Love's Last Shift,' Rellmour iu 
the ' Old Bachelor,' Poris in Miissinger's 
' Komun Actor,' Lorenio in the 'Spanish 
Friar,' and many other parts in tragedy and 
comedy. At Lincoln's Inn he remained until 
173.1, playing, with other parts, Antony in 
'Jtilius Cfpsar,' Adrastus in 'dOdipus,' Con- 
stant in the ' Provoked Wife,' Leandro in 
the 'Spanish Curate,' llephestion in ' Hival 
Queens,' A lexander t he Great , Captain PI ume, 
King in ' Hamlet,' Phucias — an original part 
— in the' Fatal Legacy '(23 April 17l'3).lioe- 
buck in Farquhar's ' Love and ii Bottle,' Ma.«- 
suniello, Lovemore in the ' Amorous Widow,' 
Wellbred in ' Everv- Man in his Humour,' 
llarcourt in the 'Country Wife,' Y'ovmgcr 
Belford in the. 'Squire of Alsatia,' Dick in 
the 'Confederacy.' Cromwell in' Henry \'I II,' 
Massini.*su in ' Sophonisba,' Marsan — an ori- 
ginal part — in Southeme's 'Money the Mis- 
tress' (19 Feb. 1726), Don Lorenzo in the 
' Mistake,' Pierre in ' N'enicu Preserved,' and 
Y'oung Valere iu the ' (iamester.' 

On29 .Ian. 1728 Walker took his great ori- 
ginal ]»urt of Ciiptain Macheatli in the ' Beg- 
gar's Opera,' a role in which his reputation 
was established. He was an tuditl'erent mu- 
sician ; but (lie gaiety and ease of his style, 
and bis bold dissolute bearing, won general 
recognition. On 10 Feb. 1729 he was the 
first Xer.xes in Maddcn's ' Themiatocles.' and 
on 4 March the first Frederick in Mrs. Hay- 
wood's ' F'rederick, Dukeof Bninswick.' ' Ly- 
sippus in a revival of the ' Maid's Tragedy' 
and Juba in 'Cato' followed. On 4 Dec. 
1730 he was the original Kamblo in Field- 
ing's 'Coffee-house Politician.' He also played 
Alyrtle in the ' Conscious Lovers,' Cosroe 
in the ' Prophetess,' Corvino in ' V'olpone,' 
ond Lord \\ ronglove in the ' Lady's Last 



« 



Walker 



86 



Stake,' and was, in the season 17.'30-1, the 
first Cassonder in Frowde's ' Philotas,' Adras- 
tu8 in Jeffrey's • Merope,' Pylades in Theo- 
bald's ' Orestes,' and Ilypsenor in Tracy's 
' J'eriaiulor.' 

On 10 Feb. 1733, at the new theatre in 
Covent (larden, Walker was the first Peri- 
plias Id Gay's ' Achilles.' At this house he 
played Lothario, Banquo, Hector in Drydi'n's 
' Troilus and Cressida,' Angelo in ' Measure 
for Measure,' Sempronius in *Cato,' Ix)rd 
Mordove in 'Careless Husband,' Timon, 
Carlos in the ' Fatal Marriage,' the Kinp in 
the ' Mourninp IJridc,' Ghost in 'Hamlet,' 
Fainall iu the ' Way of the World,' Colonel 
Briton, Hajozet, Henry VI in ' Richard III,' 
Young Kal[isli in the "School Boy,' Falcon- 
bridge, Dolabella in ' All for Love,' Horatio 
in ' Fair Penitent,' Norfolk in ' Uichard II,' 
Marcian in ' Theodosius.' Kit<> in ' Uecruit- 
ing OlKcer,' and Scandal in ' Love for Love.' 
The In.'.t part in which he can be traced at 
Covent Garden is Ambrosio in ' Don Quixote,' 
which he played on 17 .May 173i». In 1731»-40 
he appears to have been out of an engage- 
ment, but he played, 17 May 1740, JIacheuth 
for his benefit at Drurj- Lane. In 1740-41 
ho was seen in many of his principal parts 
At Qoodman's Fields. Bui after (mrriek's 
^arrival nt Goodman's Fields in 1741, Walker's 
same was taken from the bills and did not 
Iteappear until 27 May 1742, when the ' Beg- 
Igars Opera' and the 'Virgin Unmasked' 
were given for his benefit. He seems to 
have played in Dublin in 1742 as Kite in 
the • Uecruiting Officer,' with Garrick as 
Plurae. 

Walker's first dramatic efl'ort was com- 
preasing into one the two parts of DTrfev's 
' Mas.<(anie11o.' This was produced at I.in- 
cohi'.s Inn Fields, 31 .Inly 1721, with Walker 
as Mossaniello. John Leigh ^q. v.] wrote 
concerning this — 

Turn Walker his rreditors mMniag to chouse. 
Like nn houeot, good-natured yoaiig fellow, 

RFSoWd nil tho sammer to sUiy m the huuso 
.\nd rehearse by himself Mnssunlello. 

The 'Quaker's Opera," Mvo, 1728, a species 
of CfttcliiK'nny imitation by Walker of the 
' Beggars Opera,' was acted at I^.-e and 
Harper's liooth iu Bartholomew Fair. 
Whether Walker plavwl iu it is not known. 
Thi- • I'ttte of Villniiiy," 8vo, 1730, probably 
•u iuiiliilion of *ou>e older pUv, was given 
«l tJoiKluiau's Kiilds on 21 Feb. 1730 by Mr, 
and .Mr«. Oitlurd with lilile success. It is 
um>i|iJttl in merit, Honie parts U-iiig fairlv, 
othi>ra jK)orly, written. Iti 1744 Walker 
went lo Dublin, taking with him this plav, 
which was actt-d there under the title of I 



' Ijove and Loyalty.' The seoond ni^^ht 
was to have been for his benefit. Not being 
able to furnish security for the expenses of 
the house, he could not induce the managers 
to reproduce it. He died three days later, 
j 5 June 1744, his death being accelerated 

by iwverty and disappointment. 
I Walker was a good, though scarcely a 
, first-class, actor in both comedy and tragedy, 
j his forte being the latter. He played many 
leading parts in tragedies, most of them now 
whoUv forgotten. His l)est serious ports 
wern llajozet. Hotspur, Edmund, and Fal- 
conhridge ; in comedy ho was received with 
most favour as Worthy in the ' Recruiting 
OlHcer,' Bellmour iu the ' Old Bochelor,' and 
lliireourt in the ' Country Girl.' Rich said 
conceniing him that he was the only mas 
who could turn a tune [sing] who could [also] 
speak. Davies saj-s that Lis imitation as 
Mas.saniello of a well-known vendor of 
flounders was eminently popular, and that 
his Edmund in ' Lear ' was the best he had 
se<.'n. .Vfter his success in Macheath, in con- 
sequence of which Gay dubbed him a high- 
wayman, he was much courted by young 
men of fashion, and gave way to liabita oi 
constant intemperance, to which his decline 
in his profession and premature death weto 
attributed. 

Walker had a good face, figure, presence, 
and voice. His portrait as Macheath, painted 
by J. Ellys and engraved by Faber, jun., • 
companion to that of Larinia Fenton as 
Polly, is described in the ' Catalogue of En- 
graved Portraits ' by Chaloner Smith, who 
says that four copies are known. 

fWorks cited; I JencAt's Account of the Eng- 
li^^li Sta^c ; Biographia Drematira ; Hitchcock's 
Irish Stage ; Chetirood"* General History of tha 
Stage; Dornn's Annals of the .'^toge, od. Lowe; 
Pavies's Dramntie Mir^ellunies ; Belterton's 
ICurlls] History of th» English Stage; 
Georgian Era.] J. K. 

WALKER, THOMAS (1784-1836), 
police magistrate and author, son of Thomas 
Walker (1749-1817), was bom at Barlow 
Hall,Chorlfon-cum-Hardv,near Manchester, 
on 10 Oct. 1784. His father was a Man- 
chester cotton merchant and the head of the 
whig or reform partv in the town. In 1784 
be Ifd the successful opposition to Pitt's fus- 
tian tax, and in 1790, when he was borough- 
reeve, founded the ManchesterConstitutional 
Society. His warehouse was attacked in 
1792 by a 'church and king' mob, and in 
that year he was prosecuted for treasonable 
conspiracy: but the evidence was so plainlv 
jHTJured that the charge was abandoned. 
At the trial he was defended by Erskine, and 
among his friends and correspondents were 



Walker 



87 



Walker 



Charles Jsmes Fox, Lord Derby, Thomas 
I'aine, tuiJ many others. Uia portrait, aftor 
n picture by Komney, was engraved by Sharpe 
in 1796. 

The yoimger Thomas Walker went to 
Trinity College, Cambriilge, and praduated 
B.A. in I ^<0."' and M.A. in Itil 1. lie was culled 
to the liarat the Inner Temple on 8 May 1812, 
*ud, after the death of liis father, lived for 
some years at Longford Hall, Stretford, en- 
gsgiiif in township atfnirs, and dealing buc- 
ceasfiuly with the problem of pauueriom, 
'whicii subject became his siM-eial study. In 
1826 he published '( Hxservations on the 
Kature, Extent, and Ettects of Pauperism, 
and on the Means of reducin); it (2nd 
edit. 1831 ), and in 1834 • Suggestions for a 
Constitutional uiid Etticient Kefonn in 
Parochial Government.' In 1829 he was 
appointed a police magistrate at the Lum- 
beth Street court. On 20 May IS^^-'i he 
began the publication of ' The (Jriginal,' and 
continued it weekly until the following 
2 Dec. It is a collection of his thoughts on 
many ><ubjects, intended to raise ' the na- 
tional tone in whatever concerns us socially 
or individiiully; ■ but his admirable papers 
on health and gastronomv form the cliief 
attraclion of the work. Many editions of 
'The Original' were published: one, with 
merooira of the two Walkers by William 
Blanchard Jerrold [q. v.], came out in 1874 ; 
another, edited by William Augustus Guy 

tq. v.], in 1870 ; one with an introduction 
»y Henry Morley in 1887, and in the same 
year another -arranged on a new plan.' A 
selection, entitled ' 'J'he .\rt of Dining and 
of attaining High Health,' was printed iit 
Philndi'lphia in 1837; and another selection, 
by Felix Summerley (i.e. Sir Henry Cole), 
was published in 1881 under the title of 
' Aristology, or the Art of Dining.' 

Walker died unmarried at Brussels on 
20 Jan. 1836, and was buried in the cemetery 
there. A tablet to his memory was placed 
in St. Mary's, WhitechajK-l. 

[Oent. Miig. ISSfi, i. 321; JerroM's Memoir, 

noticed above ; Espiniissn's L:iiim.Nliire Wurt lues ; 

.Saywuril'a Biogr. uiid Critical Es>»vs, 1 808, ii. 

1.] "C. W. 8. 

WALKER, THOMAS (1822-18K8), 
journaliot, was Ixim on 5 Feb. 1822 in Miire- 

ir, Northuniplon. His parents sent him 
an academy in the Horse Market at the 
I of six, where he ri'ninined till ten. The 
headmaster yvna James Harris. His father 
dM whnn he was young, and his molher 
accepted the otfer of relatives at Oxford to 
take charge of him. He was taught cnr- 
pentering there in the work.ihop of Mr..Sraith. 
At the close of his apprenticeship he began 



business with Mr. Lee ; but he retired at 
twenty-four because it was uncongenial, and 
also because he had determined to become a 
journalist. 

He gave his leisure hours to self-training, 
reading the best books, and reading them 
often. He perused Thomas Brown's ' Phi- 
losophy of the Human Mind' five times in 
succession. He learned German in order 
to study Kant's works in the original. At 
a later period he was so much impressed by 
Coleridge as to read his ' Aids to Itotlection' 
and portions of the ' Friend ' once every five 
years. He equipped himself for the pursuit 
of journalism by liecoming an adept ut short- 
hand, and in September 184H he advertised 
I in the 'Times' for an engagement. Heforu 
di>ing so he hud formed three resolutions: 
'The first was to refuse no position, however 
, humble, jirovided it could be honestly ac- 
' cepted : the second, to profess less than he 
cnuld jierform ; and the third, to perform 
wore than he had promised." T. P. Ilealey, 
proprietor of the ' Medical Times,' engaged 
NValker as reporter. Walker also coutri- 
I Imted pu]H"rs to ' F.lir.a Cook's Journal.' 
Having made the acquaintance of Frederick 
Knight Hunt S). v.], assistant-e<litor of the 
j * Daily News,' he first wrote for that jnumal, 
and next obtained a subordinate post on the 
editorial stall', his duty being, to use his own 
words, ' to fag for the foreign sub-editor 
I [J. A. Crowe], translate for him, and con- 
1 dense news from the European and South 
I American journals.' In 1851 he became 
^ foreign and general sub-editor. On the death 
, of \V illiam Weir [q. v.] in 1868 he was up- 
pointed to the editorship. As editor he 
was distinguished for his support of the 
cause of Italian liberty, and by his confidence 
in the ultimate triumph of the federalists 
in the American civil war. I'nder the 
influence of Miss Martineau he advocated 
very strongly the justice of the action of 
the northern states, and refu-ied to yield to 
the strong pressure brought to bear by friends 
of the confederates. He resigned t he editor- 
ship in l.StiO to accept the charge of the 
'London Giizette,' a less arduous pi)sl. Ho 
retire<l on 31 July 1889, when the office of 
editor was suppressed. He died on Itj Feb. 
11^08 at his residence in Addison Itoad, 
Kensington, and was buried on 20 Feb. in 
Brompton cemetery. He was twice married, 
and o daughter survived him. His later years 
were devoted to jihilanthropic work in con- 
nection with the pongregtti ional church, in 
which he once held the honourable position 
of president of the London branch. He was 
n man of greiit strength of character. Dr. 
Strauss, one of his teachers, styles him 'a 



Walker 



88 



Walker 



Tery cormorant nt leaminp, and one of those 
rare men who have the faculty of acqiiiring 
knowledge ' (I{itnim«-e>ircs of an Old liohe- 
vtian, i. 11:.'). The {irinciplcs of domestic, 
colonial, and foreign jKilicy which he formu- 
lated and enforced on becoming editor of the 
'Daily News,' made that, joiirnurs fame ; and 
when he retired from conducting it, Mr. 
Frwlericli Greenwood wrote in the ' I'all 
JIall Giactte ' that Walker had been dis- 
tingiii.sLi'd as editor 'by a delicate sense of 
honour and preat political candour. He 
alwayti held aloof from partisan excesses, and 
hajt siidwn himself at all times anxious to 
do justice to opponents — not common 
nerita.' 

[Athensum, 26 Feb. 1898; privately printed 
[ Ueniuir ; Times, 20 Feb. 1898 ; Daily Chronicle, 
19Feb. 18&S.] F. H. 

WALKER, THOMAS LAHKIXS 
(</. 18lt0), iircliitect. son of Adam Walker, 
was a pupil of. Vii^rii^tu.-i Charles I'lipn [q. v.], 
and a co-executor of hie will. He designed 
(lH.'ja-9) All Sniuts' Church, Spieer Street, 
Mile End; IM.'W, Camphill House, Warwick- 
shire, for J. Cruddofk ; I r>.'19-lt). church at 
Attlel>orougli,Xunealon,forLord Ilarrowby; 
184(1-1'. St. I'hilip's Church, Mount Stroi"t, 
Bethnal (ireen; 181'!, hospita! at Hedwortli, 
'Warwickshire; 1842,Hurtahill church, War- 
wickshire; and restored the church at 
I Ilkeston, l)erhy^hir(•. 

During parr of his practice he resided at 
Nuneutnii, iind .oubsequently at I^'icestcr. 
Eraigrntiiij.' Ill China, lie died at Hongkong 
on II) Oct. \HW. 

He publi.shed various illustrated architec- 
tural works in the style of .Vuguslu." I'ujfin's 
productii>ii8, viz. ; 1 ' \'icar's Clo?e Wells,' 
l83t), 4to. •_'. ' Manor House and Church at 
Great ChalHcId, Wilts,' l-^;i7,4to. S.'.Mannr I 
House of South Wraxhall, Wilts, and Church I 
of St. IVferat Hiddleatone,' ieriS,4to. These 
three volumes are in continuation of Piigin's i 
' Kjtamples of Gothic .-Vrchitecturf,' and the I 
plates in the first-nuined are bv Augustus 
Welby Northmore I'ugin [q. v.'] 4. ' The 
Church of Stoke Golding, Leicestershire,' 
1844, 4to, for Weale's 'Quarterly Papers on 
Architect uri!.' He also edited Davy's 'Archi- 
tectural PreeeJeuts,' 1841, 8vo, in which he 
included an article on architectural practice 
and the specification of his own hospital at 
Bed worth. 

[Architectural Publicatioa Socielj's Diction- 
aiy; Gont. Mng. 1861, i. 337.] P. W. 

WALKER, Wn.LLVM (16->3-l(?R4), 
schoolmaster and author, was born in Lin- 
coln in ]62S, and educated at the public 
school there. He prtjceeded to Trinity Col- 



lege, Cambriilge, where he took his degree. 
He taught for some time at a private school 
at Fiskerton, Nottinghamshire, was head- 
master of Louth grammar school, and sub- 
sequently of Grantham grammar whool, 
where he is erroneously said to have had 
Sir Isaac Newton as a pupil. Newton, how- 
ever, had left the Grantham grammar school 
while Walker's predecessor, Jlr. Stokes, was 
^lill at its head, but there existed a friend- 
ship of some intimacy between the two 
when Walker was vicar of Colsterworth, 
after he had left Grantham. ^^'aU£er died 

on 1 Aug. mai. 

Walker's works show his two chief in- 
terests, p«?dagogy and theology. As a peda- 
gogue he gained a considerable reputation 
in his time, and was known as 'Particles' 
Walker from his book on that subject. His 
chief works are: 1. 'A Dictionary of Eng- 
lish and Latin Idioms.' London, 1(J70. 
-. ' Phraseologitt Anglo-Latina, to which is 
added Para-miologia Anglo-Latina.' London, 
11)72. 3. ' A Treati.so of English Particles,' 
London, 1(573, which has gone through many 
editions and been the subject of a great num- 
ber of editorial comments. 4. ' The Koyul 
( Lily's) Grammar explained,' London, 1(}74. 
n. ' .\. Modest Plea for Infants' Baptism,' 
Cambridge, lli77. fi. ' BaTma-fiaii' ^liaxi, 
the lloctrine of Baptisms,' London, 1678. 
7. ' English Examples of Latin Syntaxis,' 
London, 168.'}. 8. ' Some Improvements to 
the Art of Teaching,' London, 1693. 

[Aihente Oxen. iii. 407; NicholB'a Literary 
Illusfratiuns, iv. 28 ; Brit. Mu(. Cat.] 

J. R. M. 

WALKER, WILLIAM (1791-1867), 
engraver, son of .\lexauder Walker, by his 
wife, Margaret Sonierville of Lauder, was 
born at jfarkton, Musselburgh, near Edin- 
burgh, on 1 .\ug. 1791. His father was for 
siuiie lime a manufacturer of salt from sea 
water, but I his business proving unprofitable, 
he removed to Edinburgh, and there appri'n- 
ticed his son to E, .Mitchell, an engraver of 
repute. In IHlo young Walker came to 
London, and worked under James Stewart 
(I791-lf<6."t) [q. v.] and Thomas Woolnotb, 
Inter taking lessons in mezzotint from Thoma.« 
Lupton [q. v.] Obtaining, through the Earl 
of Kellie, an introduction to Sir Henry 
liaehuni fq. v.], he was employed to engrave 
a large plate of that artist's fine equestrian 
portrait of the Earl of Hopetoun, which 
estnbli.*lied his reputation, and he subse- 
quently engraved a number of the same 
painter's portraits, including those of Sir 
Walter ScotI and Raebum himself; the last 
is perhaps the finest example of stipple work 
ever produced. In 1828 Walker commia- 



Walker 



89 



Walker 



^ 



sioned Sir Tliomos I^wrence fq. v.] to paint 
a p<jrtriiit of Lord nnmgham, and of thin he 
publiHtiod an c-ngraving, obtaining a cast of 
Brougbam's face to insure accuracy. In 
1829, on his marriagi-, be settled nt 64 Mar- 
garet Street, where he resided until his death. 
In 1830 he produced his well-known por- 
trait of Uobert Bums ( to whose widow he 
■was introduced), from the picture by .\lex- 
ander Kasmyth, executed in stipiile and 
mezzotint with the assistance ol Samuel 
Cousins [q. v.] Of this plate Nasmyth is 
said to have remarked that it was a letter 
likeness of the poet than bis own picture. 
AValker's subsequent work comprises about 
■ hundred portraits of contemporarv nota- 
bilities, after various painters, chietfy in 
mezzotint, and all published by himself, with 
some interesting subject -pieces, of which the 
most important are 'The Reform Bill re- 
ceiving the Hoyal .\.ssent in iHHi,' after 
8. W. Ueynolds; ' Lutlier and his Adlierents 
at the Diet of Spires,' after G. Cattermole, 
1845 ; 'Caxtonpre.sentinghis first Proof-sheet 
to the A blxjt of Westminster,' after .1. Dovle, 
1850; 'The Literary I'urty at Sir .losliua 
KejTiolds's,' after J. JViyle; 'The Aberdeen 
Cabinet deciding U[Km the Expedition to the 
Crimea,' after .1. (JiltxTt ; and ' The Itistin- 
^i.shed Men of Science living 1807-8,' from 
a drawing by .1. (tilbert,.!. I,. Skill, and liim- 
aelf. Most of these compositions were of 
Walker's own conception, and great pains 
were taken over the likenesses and acces- 
sories. Upon tlie ' Men of .Science,' which 
was bis last work, he was occupied for six 
years. The original druwing of this is miw, 
■with an impression from tlie plate, in the 
National I'ortniitGallery, London, which also 
possesses the drawing and print of tiie ' .-Vlier- 
deen Cabinet.' Walker died at his house in 
Margaret Street, London, on 7 Sept. I8t)7, 
and was buried in Bromptun cemetery. 

EuzAUETH W'.»LKEK ( 18<KJ-l870), Ijorn in 
1800, wife of William A\'alker, was the 
second daughter of Samuel \\'illiani Rey- 
nolds [q. v.], by whom she was tauglit 
in her cbildlinod to engrave in mezzotint. 
At the age of fourteen she engraved a por- 
trait of herself, from a picture by Opie, and 
one of Thomas .\dkin. She afterwards 
became an excellent miniatuiv-nainter and 
Iiad many eminent sitters, incuiding tive 
prime ministers, Lonl Jlelbourne, Lord John 
Kussell, Lonl Aberdeen, Lord I'alraerston, 
and Mr. Gladstone. She also painted in 
oils, and her portrait of the Earl of Devon 
hangs in the nail of Christ f'luireh, Oxford. 
She 'was a frequent exhibitor at the lioyal 
Academy between 1818 ond 1850, and in 
1880 ■was appointed miniature-painter to 




I William IV. After her marriage she greatly 
assisted her husband in his various ■works. 
She died on 9 Nov. 1870, and was buried 
with him. Ctpie's portrait of Mrs. Walker 
when a child was exhibited at the Hoyal 
Acaderav in 1875, and at the Grosvenor 
Gallery in 1888. A small portrait of her, 
engraved by T. Woolnoth from a miniature 
by herself, was published in 1825. 

[Ri-dgriivt's Diet, of .Artists; Graves's Diet. 
of ArtisUi, 1760-1893; private information.] 

F. M. O'D. 

WALKER, WILLIAM SIDNEY 
( 17(i,'5-1840). Shakespearean critic, l)orn at 
Pembroke, South A\ ales, on 4 Dec. 1795, 
was eldest child of John AValker, a naval 
officer, who died at Twickenham in 1811 
from the effects of wounds received in action. 
The boy was named after his godfather. .\d- 
miral .Sir (William) Sidnev .'■^mith, under 
whom liis fiitlier bad served. His mother's 
maiden naraeWHsFalcniier. William Sidney, 
who was always called by his second chris- 
tian name. wa:% tt precocious child of weak 
physique. After .spending some years suc- 
cessively ut tt school at Doncaster, kept by 
his mother's brother, and with a private 
tutor at Forest Hill, he enlen'd Eton in 
1^1 1, He hud already developed a remark- 
able literary aptitude. At ten he translated 
miiny of .\nacreon's odes into English verse. 
At eleven he planned an epic in heroic vorse 
on the career of Gustavus Vasn.and in 181.3, 
when be was seventeen, he matiaged to 
publish by subscription the first four books 
in a volume entitled 'Gustavus Vasa, and 
other I'oems.' The immature work does no 
more than testify to the author'.^ literary 
ambitions. At Eton he learnt the whole 
of Homer's two poems by liearl, and wrote 
Greek verse with unusual corn-ctnesa and 
facility. There, too, he began lifelong friend- 
ships with Winthrop Mackworth Praed Tq.v.] 
end John Monti rie [q. v.], and. after leav- 
ing school, made some interesting contribu- 
tions to the ' Etonian,' which Praed edited. 
Walker, wlio was tliroiigh life of iliminutive 
stature, of uiicnuth appearance and manner, 
and abiioimally absent-minded, suffered 
much persecution at sehool from thoughtless 
companions. .Vfter winning many distinc- 
tions at Eton, he was entered as a sizar at 
Trinity Collegi>, Cambridge, on 16 Feb. 1814, 
but did not jiroceed to the university t ill tho 
following year. There he fully maintained 
the promise of his schooldays, fie n?ad enor- 
mously in ancient and modern literature. 
In Hl'i he published 'The Heroes of Water- 
loo : ail Ode,' as well as translations of Poems 
from the Danish, selected by .\ndreas An- 
dersen Feldborg.' In 1610 appeared another 



A 



Walker 



90 



Walkingaitie 



ode by ^^'ttlker, ' The Appenl of Poland.' 
He won the Cruvi'ii scliularehip in l8l",aiiJ 
the Poraon prize for Greek verse in 1818, and 
he was admitted scholar of Trinitv on 
8 April of the liitler year. Although his 
[ignorunce of muthemalies rendered his pass- 
ing the examination for the degree of J3.A. 
in 1819 a miilter of extreme difficulty, he 
■was elected on the score of his classical at- 
ptainments to a fellowship at his college in 
lltj20. His manners and bearing did not 
D8e at the univer.-ity tlu'ir boyish awkward- 
ness, but ho mttintiiined close ndatioiis with 
Praed and Moultrie, the friends of his boy- 
hood, and formed a helptul intimacy with 
Derwent ColeridjTf [u.v.J In 18:J4 he was 
an unsuccessful candidate for the Greek jirn- 
fessorsiiip in the university. He made no 
other ellbrt to enuage in educational work. 
While a fellow of Trinity he lived in seclu- 
sion in his college rooms, reaJint,' desultorily 
and occasionally writing for periodicals. lie 
contributed philolopical essays to the 'Clas- 
sical Journal,' and lioth verse and prose to 
Knight's ' (Quarterly Mii^oziiie.' In 1823 he 
prepared for publication Milton's newly dis- 
Icovered treatise ' l)e Ecclesia Christiana,' a 
rolume of which Charles itichard Sumner 
So. V.I, then librarian at Windsor, was the os- 
rtensifjle editor. In 1828 he edited for Charles 
Knight a useful ' Corpus Poetarum Latino- 
rum' (other editions 1648 and 1854). 

As an undergraduate Walker had been 
perj)le,xed by religious doubts, and had a{>- 
plied for guidance to Willijitn AMlberforce 
[(}. v.l Uuriog 1818-19 Wilberlorce wrote 
Iiim letters iu which be endeavoured to con- 
firm bis beliefs. The influence of Charles 
Simeon pacified him for a time, but he 
deemed himself distjualitied by bis scepti- 
cal views regarding eternal punishment from 
taking holy orders. .\s a conseijuence he 
lay under the necessity of resigning his 
fellow-hip ill 182!', The loss of his fellow- 
ship deprived him of all means of subsistence, 
and, owing to his unhnsinessliko habits and 
childish credulity, he was involved in debt 
to the amount of IJOO/. His old friend Praed 
came to his assistance in l.S'JO, and, after 
paying his debts, settled cm liim an income 
for life of (j2/. a year. To that sura Trinity 
College added 20/. (Jn this income of 7-1. 
Walker managed to support himself till his 
death. FIc moved to London in 1.8;!!, 
lodging at first in Hloomsbury, and then in tlie 
neighbourhood of St. James's Street, lie 
lived entirely alone, and a painful lialluci- 
natitm that he was possessed by n 'demon' 
gradually clouded bis reason. He neglected 
nia dress and person, and social intercourse 
with him grew imjjossible. To the last he 



was capableof occasional literary work, vhicli 
bore lew traces of his disease, and he ut 
times described to old friends with rational 
calmness the distressing symptoms of his 
mental decay. He died of the stone at his 
lodging, a single room on the top floor of 
41 St. James's Place, on 16 Oct. 184«. He 
was buried in Kensal Green cemetery. On 
the tomb were engraved some lines from his 
friend Moultrie's poem, called 'The Dream 
of Life,' in which the writer lamented the 
' sbupeless wreck' to' which ^^'alker's fine 
intellect was reduced in liis later years. 
Moultrie published in 1862 a collection of 
bis letters and poems, which show literary 
facility and versatility, under the title of 
'The Poetical Uemains of William Sidney 
Walker, formerly Fellow of Trinity College, 
Cambridge, with a Memoir of the Author.' 

Walker left voluminous manuscripts, in- 
cluding many discursive es-says in criticism 
11ml numerous notes on the text and versifi- 
cation of Shakespeare. Tlie pa])ers were 
examined by William Nouson Lettsom, one 
of AN'alker's school and college friends. .Vfter 
endeavouring, without much success, to in- 
troduce some sort of order into AN'alker's 
raultifariousShakesiwarean collections, Lett- 
siun piiblislieil in 18.'»4 ' Shakespeare's Versi- 
lic:itiou, and its Apparent Irregularities ei- 
pbilned by ICxamples from Early and Late 
English AVrilers.' This volume was printed 
at the expense of Mr. Crawshay (of the iron- 
master's family), who made Walker's ac- 
quaintance just U^fore he left Cambridge; it 
reached a second edition in 1857, and a 
third in 1AJ». There followed in 1800. in 
three volumes, which Lettsom also edited, 
' .V Critical Examination of the Text of 
Shakes])eare, with Kemurks on his Language 
and that of his Contemporaries, togetbej 
with Notes on hia Playsaud Poems.' Walker's 
two Shakespearean works mainly deAl with 
minute points of Shakespearean prosody and 
syntax, hut they embody the results of very 
vast and close reading in Elizabethan litems- 
ture. The wealth ol illustrative quotation 
has rendered them nn invaluable quarry for 
succeeding .Sbakespi-areaii commentators and 
.students of Elimbetban literature. Their 
defects are the want of logical arrangement 
of tbeheterogeneoug material and the ab.sence 
of an index. 

[Moultrie's Memoir, 1852 ; information kindly 
Huj>plicd l.y Dr. Aldis Wright.] S. L. 

WALKER- ARNOTT, GEORGE AR- 

NOTT ( 17V«-18(i8), botanist. [See Arnott.] 

WALKINGAME, FRANCIS (J. 1751- 
178o), 'writing master and accomptant and 
master of the boarding-school iu KensLng- 



Walkineion 



91 



Walkinshaw 



I 



ton,' was author of 'Tbe Tutor's Assistant ; 
being a Compendium of Arithmetic iiuJ a 
Complete Question-Book in five parts,' Lon- 
don, 1751, 12mo. The author himself 
brought out a twenty-first edition in 1785, 
and tbe work has ]>a£sod through countless 
editions since that date, remaining the most 
popular ' iVrithmetic ' both in England and 
Anierica down to the time of Colenso. A 
so-called seventy-first edition appeared in 
1831 (London, 12mo), and a so-called fifty- 
first in 181.'J (Derby. IJmo). Except the 
section dealing with the rule of three which 
needed modification, the work remained 
little altered down to 1854, when an ' im- 
proved edition ' was issued under the care of 
Professor J. R. Young. A comic ' Tutor's 
Assistant,' with cuts by CrowquiU, was 
publiiihed in 1843 (London, li?mo). 

[Walkinipiine's Tutor's Assistant. I7'>1. with 
a Hat of subscribers ; iJe Moi^io's ArilhrnuticHl 
Books, pp. 80, 96; Notes and Uutrios. Isl ser. 
T. 441, XI. •57. xii. 66, 2nd ser. ir. 29d ; Gent. 
Mag. 1788, i. 81; AthL-na-um, 1862, i. 754; 
Alliboae's Diet, of Knpl. Lit. ; Brit. Mus. Cut. 
enumeratlDg over thirty cdltiuus bet wwin 1761 
Knd 1868.] T. S. 

WALKINGTON, MCnOLAS db (./?. 
11 93? J, mediwval writer. [See Nicholas.] 

"WALKINGTON, THOMAS (</. 16:31), 
divine and author, a native of Lincoln, was 
I educated at Cambridge, where he graduated 
B-A. in 1590 7 and M.A. in IfVOO. He was 
elected to a fellowship at St. .John's College, 
Cambridge, on 26 March ItJOli. He wn.s in- 
corporated B.D. of 0.xford on 14 July 101 1, 
and proceeded D.L). of Cambridge in 1013. 
He was presented to the vicarage of Knunds, 
Northamptonshire, in 1008,and to the rectory 
of Wadinghaju St. Mary, Lincolnshire, in 
1610, and the vicarage of Fulham, Middlo- 
661, on 25 May lOl-'i. He died in 1021, tbe 
administration of his giwds being granted on 
29 Oct. of that year (Hesxesisv, Nuviim 
Jteitertorium £ccl. Londin.) 

Walkington was author of a curious 

volume that may be regarded os a forerunner 

of Burton's ' Anatomy of Melancholy.' ll 

wa-s entitled 'The Optick Glassn of Humors, 

or the Touchstone of a Golden Temperature, 

or the rhilosopher.>i Stone to make u Golden 

Temper. Wherein the four Complect ions, 

Sanguine, Cholericke, Phligmaticke, Melan- 

cbolicke are succinctly painted forth . . .by 

It. W., Master of .\rts.' The first edition 

[ seems to be that which is stated on the title- 

I page to have been printed by John U'indet 

; Ibr Martin Clerke in Ix)ndon in 1607. This 

' ■was dedicated to .Sir .Tit-itiniiin Lewin from 

I 'my study in St. Johns, Camb. 10 Kal. 



March. T. W.' (no copy of this issue ia in the 
British Museum). An undated edition, which 
I cannot be dated earlier than 1031, was 
' printed by \\'[illiam] T[urner] at Oxford. 
This is8u<-', which has the .same dedication 
a.« its predecessor, has on elaborately engraved 
title-page on steel, in which two graduates 
in cap and gown, repre.senting respectively 
the universities of Cambridge and (Jrford, 
hold between them an optic glass or touch- 
stone (Madin, £W/7y 0.rford Prefji, pj). 100- 
101). Mr. W. C. Hazlitt describes a frag- 
ment of an edition printed at Oxford with a 
different dedication addressed to the author's 
' friend, M. Carye ' (CoWw^o/m, 1st .ser.) I.4iter 
editions, with the engraved title-page, ap- 
peared in Loudon in 1039 and 1603. Ur. 
Farmer, in his 'Essay on the lioarning of 
Shakespeare' (1781), p. 40 n.), credited 'T. 
Wombweir with the authorship of VValk- 
ington'g treatise on the ' Optick Olasse,' and 
referred to a pas.'^age (trucoable to Scaliger) 
by way of illustrating .'^hy look's n;miirks on 
irrational antipathies ( Merchant of Venice, 
IV. i. 49). 

Walkington was ali*o author of 'An Ex- 
position of the two first verses of the sixth 
chapter to tbe Hebrews, in form of a Dia- 
logue, by T. W., Minister of the Word,' 
London,' 1009, 4to; of ' Theologicall Kules 
to guide ua in the Understanding and l^rac- 
tice of Holy Scriptures . . . also /Enigraata 
Sacra. Holy' Kiddles. . . by T. W., Preacher 
of the Word,' 2 pts. London, 1015, 8vo; of 
' liabboni, Mary Magdalen's Teares of Sorrow 
. . .'London, 1020, 8vo; and, according to 
Wood, of a sermon on Ecdesiastes xii. 10. 

[ Wood'.-* F.isti, i. 350.] S. L. 

WALKINSHAW, CLEMENTINA 
ll720.''-18O2), mistress of Prince Charles 
Edward, the youngest of the ten daughters of 
John Walkinshaw of Barrowfield and Cara- 
lachie, Glasgow, and of Catherine Paterson, 
was perhaps boni and brought up nt Homo. 
Her father had fought at Sberiumuir and 
been taken prisoner, but bad escaped from 
Stirling Castle and joined the I'hevnlier de 
St. George ut Har-Ie-l)uc. By him he was 
sent as a secret agent to Vienna, and in 
1719 he helped to eff'ect the liberation from 
Innsbruck of the Princess Clonientina So- 
bieski, the chevalier's plighted bride. In 
recognition of this service the princess stood 
sjMmsor to his daughter, who was baptised 
as a catholic by the names of C16mentine- 
Marie-Snphie. All this is mainly on the 
authority of a ' .Mfmoire ' addressed to 
Louis X\' in 1774 by Miss Walkinshaw's 
duughter. It is printed in tlie ' GCuvrea 
Complettes ' of the Due de St. Simon (1791, 



Walkinshaw 



9* 



Walkinshaw 



xii. 191-:J11), but could not possibly be by 
St. Simon, as Von licumont and others as- 
sume, for It relates to events five to ten years 
after his death. 

Clementina iind Prince Charles Edward 
seem to have luct first either at her father's 
bouse, Shawfield, in Glasgow, or at IJnn- 
nockbiim House, the seat of her Jacobite 
uncle, Sir Hugh Palerson, bart., where the 
prince spent most of .Tanuarv 174(t. Ho is 
said to have ' obtained from her a promise to 
follow him wherever Providence mif^ht lead, 
if lie failed in his atterapi ; ' luid, having 
i through iin uncle, ' General (Jram ' (probably 
iSir John Graeme), procured a nomination 
I to a noble chapter of eunonesses in Belgium 
(Mhnoire), she rejoined him at Avijfnon in 
1749 (EwALo), at Ghent in 17oU (I'ichot"), 
or mure probably at Paris in the summer 
of 175'.' (Lan'g). For several years i-lie 
shared bis wandering fortunes, passing for 
his wife under such aliases as Johnson and 
Thompson, and moving ahout to Ghent, 
Li6ge, Basel, Bouillon, and other place.-*. 
The connection was viewed by.lacohite.■^ with 
disfavour and mistrust, for Clementina had 
ja sister Catherine, who was bedcliamber- 
'woman and then houeekceper al Leicester 
House to George Ill's mother, the priocfss 
dowager of Wales, and to whom Clementina 
was thought to communicate the gravei-t 
secrets. Tlieir feelings of susiilcion imd di.s- 
likeare vividly de]>icted by Scott in bi.s novel 
' Hedgnuntlet.' Clementina's sister must 
have been twenty vears the elder if tlie third 
Earl of Bute ('l'713-17!)2) 'first came up 
from Scotland to Lonnon, seated on her lap' 
(Sir Waltkb Scott, Lettm, ii. UOS-fi). 
Itemonatrnnces. however, by Macnamaraand 
' Jemmy ' Dawliins ]iroved unavailing. Cle- 
mentina perhaps bore Prince Charles a son, 
who is said to have been baptised by a non- 
juring clergyman (afterwards Bishop Gor- 
don), and who mu.st have died in infancy. 
A daughter Charlotte was certainly (laptiscd 
as a catholic at Liege on '29 Oct. 175;<, not 
long before which date 'Pickle the Spy' 
writes word to the English government that 
' Mrs. Walkingshaw is now at Paris big with 
child ; thePretenderkeepsherwell.and.^eems 
to be very fond of her.* According, however, 
to Lord Klelio's niunuscript journiil, she soon, 
like the prince, took to drink, and once in a 
low Paris restaurant to his ' Vous etes une 
coquinc," retorted with ' Yourltoyal Highness 
is tmworthy to bear the nome of a gentle- 
man.' As, indeed, he was, if, according to the 
same spiteful source, he really ' often gave lier 
' as many as fifty tlirashings with a slick dur- 
ing the day.' Dr. King, who also was preju- 
diced, is much to the same ell'ect : ' She had 



no elegance of manners; and as they bad 
both contracted an odious habit of drinking, 
so they expiwed themselves very frequently, 
not onlj- to their own family, but to all their 
neighbours. They often quamded, and 
sometimes fought ; they were some of those 
drunken scenes which probably occaaiona" 
the report of his madness' {Anecdote*, 
207). 

Anyhow, on 22 .Tuly 1760 Clementina 
fled with her daughter from Bouillon to 
Paris, at the instigation, says the ' M6moire,' 
of the prince's lather, 'James III,' who 
allowed her ten thousand livres a year. Oa 
James's death in 176t> this allowance was 
first cut off, and then by Cardinal York re- 
duced to one half on her signing an affidavit 
that there lind been no marriage between her 
and his brother. The Comtesse d'Albertroff, 
as she now styled herself, withdrew hereupon 
to a convent at Meauv. Of her last days 
little definite is known, .^he died at Frei- 
burg in Switzerland in November 1S02, after 
ten years' sojourn there, and left l'2l. sterling, 
si.v silver spoons, a geographical dictionary, 
and three books of piety, bequeathing a louis 
apii'ce to each of her relatives, ' should any 
ol thera slill remain, as a means of discover- 
ing them.' lliimce Walpole wa« certainly 
wrong in writing (2'l Aug. 1784) that she 
died in a Paris convent ' a year or two ago ;' 
in September 1790 she was still in receipt 
of three thousand crowns a year from the 
cardinal. A portrait by Allan Ramsay is 
in ])(>ssessiun of Mr, James Maxtone-Graham 
of Cultoquhey. 

In July 1784 Miss Walkinshaw's daughter 
was living m jirnsiun in a Paris convent as 
Lady Charlotte .Stuart, when Prince Charles, 
who had vainly attempted to recover her in 
17ti(), sent for his ' chere fills' to come to 
him at Florence, and legitimated her as 
Duchess of Albany by a deed registered on 
Ii Sept. by the Paris parliament. She reached 
Florence on 5 Del., and on 2 Dec. moved 
with lier father to Home. Amiable and 
sen.sible, she soothed his last three years, and 
eiidciired herself also to her uncle. Cardinal 
York, who at first had dented her the title 
of duchess. She survived her father by only 
twenty months, dying at Bolopja on 14 Nov. 
17811 of the results of a fall from her horse. 
'Hie story of her marriage to a Swedish 
Count Kohenstart [see under Stuabt, Joax 
SolilESKi] seems an absolute fiction. 

[Lives of Prince Charles Edward by Pichot 
(4lK eJit. I'aris, 1846), Klose (Leipzig, 1842, 
Engl, trans). 1846), and A. C. Ewald (2 Tola. 
187.3); Tail's of the Centurv. Edinb. 1847. by 
Jolin .Subicski and Charles Edward Stnart. pp. 
78-128, to bL> used with extreme caution: Me- 



moira of Sir R. Simiige and A. Lunutden (2 vols. 
1856), by Denaistoan, i. 193, ii. 215, 319-2fi; 
Die Orafin von AlUiiy (2 vols. Berlin, 1860), hy 
Alfred yon Rcamont ; X)r. William King's Poli- 
tical and Literary Auecdoteii, 1818; Scott 'a 
Redgauntlet, ed. A. Lang, 1894 ; Burns'a Bonio 
Lhu of Albania, 1787, liod W. Walkcr'a noteti 
thereon in his edition of Chnnibera'a Life uf 
Burns, 1896, ii. 178-80; Prof. W. Jack on 
Burua's Unpublished Commonplaco Book iu 
Macmilliin'a Mag. for May 1870, pp. 33-42; 
Warislon'a Diary and Letters by Mrs. Grant of 
Laggan (S«)t. Hist. Soc. 1896, p. 328); Horace 
Walpole's Letters, viii. 492, 496, 498, 601, 622, 
•536 ; forty-four letters from Prince Charles 
K<lward, the Dncheas of Albany, and the 
Cuanteas of Albany to Gustarus III of Sweden 
(Forty-third Annual Report of Deputy-Keeper 
of Public Records, 1882. App. ii. pp. 21-3); 
A. H. Millar's CaieUea and Mansions of Ren- 
frewshire, s.v. 'Walkinshaw' (Glasgow, 1889) ; 
bii> Quaint Bits of Old Glnagow (1887) ; Lang's 
Pickle the Spy, 1897, with a likeness of Misa 
Walkinshaw from a miniature, and Companiona 
of Pickle, 1898.] F. H. O. 

WALL, JOHN (1588-1066), divine, was 
born in l.')88 ' of ffi-ntcol parents ' in the city 
of London and educated at Westminster 
school, whence he went to Christ Church, 
Oxford, in 1604, pradualing B.A. in 1(J08, 
M.A. in 1611, and RI). in 1018 (\VEi.en, 
Quetni'f Sehalam, p. 72). In Idl" he waa 
appointed vicar of 8t. Aldate's, O.xford, where 
be gained some fame as a preacher. In I 'iS'Si 

iJie received the degri* of D.I).; in liW2 he 
I made canon of Christ Church, Oxford ; 

"^ 163" he was appointed to the living of 
Cholgrove; and iu 1644 to a canonry at 
Salisbury. He was also chaplain to I'Lilip 
StanhojH.", first earl of Chesterfield [q. v.] 
\\'ood (Athena! O.ron.) describes him oa a 
' quaint preacher in the age in which he 
lived.' lie was deprived of his canonry nt 
Christ Church by the parliamentary visitors 
in Marcli 1648, but was restored on his sub- 
mission in the following September, and re- 
tained that and his canonry at 8nlinburf 
during the Commonwealth and Protectorate; 
be was also subdean and moderator of 
Christ Church. He died unmarried at Christ 
Church on 'JO Oct. 1666, and was buried in 
the cathedral. Archbishop Williams de- 
scribed Wall as ' the best read in the fathers 
that ever he knew.' He subscribed to the 
rebuilding of Christ Church in 1660, and 
gave some books to Pembroke College Li- 
brary, lie was also a benefactor to the city 
of Oxford, and his portrait, ' drawn to the 
life in his doctoral habit and square cap,' 
was bung in the city's council chamber. 
Wood, however, coudemns his neglect of 
Christ Church, to which he owed ' all his 




plentiful estate ' (Wood, Life and Timet, ed. 
Clark, ii. 90). 

Manj of Wall's sermons have been pub- 
lished in collections and separaUdy, the most 
important being: 1. ' Watering of .\ polio,' 
Oxford, 1625. 2. 'Jacob's Ladder,' Oxford, 
1620. 3. 'AL-B Seraphica),' London, 1627. 

4. ' Evangelical Spices,' London, 1627. 

5. 'Christian Reconcilement,' Oxford, 1668. 
«. ' Solomon in Solio,' Oxford, 1660. 

[Foster's AInmni Ozon. 1600-1714; Wood's 
AtbenieOxoa iii. 734, Fasti, i. 32.^,342,382, 
412. and Hist, et .\ntiq. iii. 447. 512 ; Walker's 
.SuflVrings, ii. 70, 106 ; Bri*. Mua. Cat ] 

J. R. M. 

WALL, JOHN (1708-1776), physician, 
born at I'owick, Worcestershire, in 1708, 
was the son of John M'all, a tradesman of 
Worcester city. Ho was educat«d at Wor- 
cester grrammar school, matriculated from 
Worcester College, Oxford, on 23 June 1726, 
graduated B.A. in 1730, and migrated to 
Merton College, where he was elected fellow 
in 1735, and whence he took the degrees of 
M.A. and M.B. in 1736, and of M.D. in 
1759. .Vfter taking his M.B. degree he 
began practice aa n physician in Worcester, 
and there continued till his death. In 1744 
he wrote an essay ( P/iihsojihicnl Trnntac- 
tiorm, No. 474, p. 213) on the use of musk 
in the treatment of the hiccough, of fevers, 
and in some other cases of spasm. In 
1747 he sent a pajH'r to the Royal .Scxiiety 
on 'the Use of Bark in Smallpox' (ib. No. 
484, p. 688). \\'hen cinehoua bark was first 
used its obvious and immediate efl'ect in 
malarial fever led to the opinion that it bad 
great and unknown jwiwers, and must l)e 
used with extreme caution, and this essay is 
one of a long series extending from the time 
of Thomas Sydenham [q. v.] to the first half 
of the present century, when it was finally 
determined that the evils anticipated were 
imaginary, and that bark in moderiite doses 
might be given whenever a gonernl tonic was 
Deeded, and to children as well as to adults. 
He published in the ' Gentleman's Magazine' 
for December 1751 an essay on the cure 
of putrid sore throat, in which, like John 
Fothergill [(]. v.], he records iiiid does not 
distinguish cases of scarlet fever and of 
diphtheria. Ho was the first medical writer 
to point out the resemblance of the condition 
in man to epidemic foot-and-mouth disease 
in cattle, a suggestion of great importance. 
In 1756 he published in Worcester a pam- 
phlet of fourteen pages, 'Experiments and 
Observations on the Malvern Waters.' This 
reached a third edition in 176.3, and was then 
enlarged to 158 pages. Like all works of 
the kind, it describes numerous cures obvi- 



oiisly due to other causes than the wntiTs. 
He recommended olive oil for the treatment 
of rniind worms in children, in ' Observations 
on the Case of the Norfolk Boy' in 1758, and 
agreed with Sir George Baker (1722-1809) 
[g. v.] in a letter as to the effect of lead in 
cider (London Med. Trans, i. 202). In 1775 
ho published a letter to William Heberden 
(1710-18(11 ) [(J. T.] on angina pectoris, which 
contains one of the earliest Lnglish reports 
of tt post-mortem examination ou a case of 
that disease. He had noticed calcitieation 
of the aortic valves and of the aorta itjself. 
lie died at Bath on 27 Juno 1776. He 
married Catherine, youngest daughter of 
Martin Sandys, a barrister, uncle of Samuel 
Sandys, first baron Sandys [q. v.] His son, 
Martin Wall [q. v.], collected his works into 
a volume entitled ' Medical Tracts,' which 
was published at Oxford in 1780. The 
prefiice mentions that ' an unremitting at- 
tachment to the art of painting engaged 
almost every moment of his leisure hours 
from his infancy to his death.' His portrait 
hangs in the board-room of the Worcester 
Infirmary. His picture of the head of 
I'ompuy brought to Caesar is at Hagley, 
Worce.stt'rsliire, and there is another in the 
hall of Merton College, Oxford. 

[Nash's History of Worcestorahire, ii. 12(1; 
Chambers's Biographical lUustr. of Worcpster- 
■hiro, 1820; Foster's Alumni Oxun.; informa- 
tion from Dr. M. Read of Worcest«r.] N. M. 

WALL, JOSEPH (1737-1802), governor 
of Oori«, bom in Dublin in 17.17, was a son 
of Garrett Wall of l)err}'knavin,near Abbey- 
leii in Queen's County, who is described as 
' a respectable farmer on Lord Knapton's 
estates.' At the age of fifteen Joseph Wall 
was entered at Trinity College, Dublin, but 
preferred an active career to the life of a 
student; and about the beginning of 17tiO, 
having entered the army as a cadet, he 
volunteered for foreign service. He dis- 
tiuguished himself at the capture of Havana 
in 1762, and at the peace returned with 
the ronk of captain. He next obtained an 
appointment under the Kast India Com- 
panv, in whose service he spent some time 
at mmbay. In 1773 he was a])pointed 
secretary nnd clerk of the council in Sene- 
gambia, where he was imprisoned by Macna- 
niara, the lieutenant-governor, for a military 
offence, with circumstances of great cruelty. 
He afterwards obtained 1,000/. damages by 
a civil action. After his release he returned 
to Ireland ' to hunt for an heiress.' He 
found one in the person of a Miss Gregory 
whom he met at an inn on his father's estate. 
But he pressed his suit 'in a style so 



coercive ' that she prosecuted him for assault 
and defamation, and ' succeeded in his con- 
viction and penal chastisement.' Wall had 
some time previously killed an intimate 
friend in one of bis frequent ' all'airs of 
honour,' and he now tran.sferred himself to 
England. He divided himself between l>in- 
don and the chief watering-plac«8, spending 
his time in gaming and amorous intrigues. 
At length, finding himself in embarrassed 
circumstances, he in 1779 procured through 
interest the lieutenont-governorshin of Sene- 
gal or Goroe, as it was generally called, with 
the colonelcy of a corps stationed there. 
Goree was the emporium of West African 
trade; but the governorship was not coveted, 
not only because the climate was bad, but 
on account of the garrison being composed 
of mutinous troops sent thither for punish- 
ment, and rccniited from the worst classes. 
On the voyage out Wall had a man named 
I'aterson so severely flogged that he died 
from the effects. Tne occurrence is said to 
have so affected hw brother, Ensign Patrick 
Wall, as to have hastened his death, which 
took place soon after he reached Goree. 

After having been governor and super- 
intendent of trade for rather more than 
two years, Wall's health gave way, and he 
prepared to leave the colony. On 10 July 
1782 a deputation of the African corps, 
who liad been for some time on a short 
allowance, waited on the governor and the 
commissary to ask for a settlement. It 
was headed by a sergeant named Benjamin 
Armstrong. Wall, who appears to have 
been in liquor, caused the man to be arrested 
on a charge of mutiny, and a parade to be 
formed. Ho then, without holding a court- 
martial, ordered him to be flogged by black 
slaves, which was contrary to military 
practice. Armstrong received eight hun- 
dred lashes, and died irom the effects some 
hours afterwards. On Wall's return to 
England several charges of cruelty were 
laid against him by a Captain liobertfl, 
one or his officers, and he was brought 
before the privy council and a courts-martial ; 
but the charges were for the time allowed 
to drop, as the ship in which the witnesses 
were returning wa.s Ijolieved to have been 
lost. He then retired to Bath. After- 
wards, upon the arrival of the principal 
witnesses, two messengers were sent to 
bring him to London, but Wall escaped 
from them at lieading, and thence to 
the continent. A proclamation offering a 
reward of 200/. for his apprehension was 
issued on 8 March 1784. He spent the 
succeeding years in France and Italy, living 
under an assumed name. In France he 



Wall 



95 



Wall 



■was received into the best society, ond was 
' universallv allowed an accomplished Bcliolur 
nnd a man of great science.' lie frequented 
especially the Scots and Irish colleges at 
l*ari«, and is even said to have served in 
the French army. lie ventured one or two 
visits to England and Scotland, during one 
of which he was married. In I7'J7 he 
came to live in England, having apparently 
a ' distant intention ' of surrendering him- 
self. On 28 (tct. 1801 ho wrote to the 
home secretary, Ixird Pelham, ottering to 
stand his trial, and wa-s soon after arretted 
ftl a house in Upper Thornhaugh Street, 
Bedford Square, where he was living with 
lii)< wife under the name of Thompson. 

Wall was tried for the murder of Arm- 
strong on JO Jan. 1(^02 at the Old Uailey 
by a special commission, presided over bv 
Ciiief-bnron Sir Archibald Macdonald. Wall 
himself addressed the court, but had the 
assistance of Newman Knowlys. afterwards 
recorder of London, and John (■'uljsequently 
Baron) Oumey, in examining and cross- 
examining witnesses. The chief evidence 
for the prosecution wa-s given by the doctor 
and onlerly-sergeaut who were on duty 
during Arm.strong's punishment. All the 
officers had died. The evidence was not 
shaken in any material point, and the 
charge of mutiny was not sustained. Wall 
declared that the prejudice against him in 
17*4 had been too strong to atford him 
a»urance at that time of a fair trial ; that 
the charges tlien made against him had 
b(^e^ disproved, and that the one relating 
to Armstrong cnme as a suqirise to him. 
The trial lusted from 9 a.m. till eleven at 
night, and resulted in a verdict of ' guilty.' 
Ajfler having been twice respited, he was 
ordered for execution on Thursday, ~S Jan. 
Gmat elffirts to obtain a pardon were 
vainly made by his wife's relative, Cliarlcs 
Howard, tenth" duke of Norfolk [q. v.], and 
the privy council held several deliberations 
on tne case. His fate was prfibubly decided 
by the apprehension that, in the temper of 
the public, it would be unwise to spare an 
officer condemned for brutality to his soldiers 
while almost contemporaneously sailors 
were being executed at Spit head for mutiny 
against their officers. At eight o'clock, | 
wluai Wall appeared from his cell in New- i 

"^ te, he was received with three shouts 
' an immense crowd who had assembled 

^to witness the carrying out of the sentence. 
The event is said to have excited more j 
public interest than any of a similar charac- 
ter since the death of Mrs. Brownrigg, and 
in case of a pardon a riot was even appre- , 
bended. The body was only formally dis- I 



sected, and, having been handed over to his 
family, was buried in St. Pancras Church. 
Wall left several children by his wife 
P'rances, fifth daughter of Kenneth Mac- 
kenzie, lord Fortrost.' (aflerwurils Earl of 
Seaforth). He was six feet four inches in 
height, and of ' a genteel ap|ieamnce.' Mr. 
F. Danby Palmer had in his possession a 
drinking-horn, b<'Bring on one side a carved 
representation of the punishment of Arm- 
strong, in which a label issuing from Wall's 
mouth attributes to him a barbarous exhor- 
tation to the flogger, and on the reverse a 
descriptive inscription. Evans mentions a 
portrait bv an unknown artist ( (^nt. Em/r, 
PortraitA,'22ibO). 

Wall had a brother Augustine, who 
served with him in the army till the peace 
of 176;(, and afterwards went to the Irish 
bar. He died about ITiriO in Ireland. He 
is described as 'a very polished gentleman 
of great literary acquirements,' whose pro- 
ductions in prose and verse were ' highly 
spoken of for their classical elegance and 
taste;' but his chief title to remembrance 
was the fact of his having been the first 
who published parliamentary reports with 
the full names of the speakers. 

[An Authentic Nnrnitiveof tbel.ifeof Jus«pb 
Wall, Esq , late (foveriior nf Goree, to which is 
annoiud ii Faithful iitid Comprehensive Account 
of his Kxreiition, Sad edit. 1802, was written 
by • a Military Officer,' who dascrlbos himielf 
as an intimate uf the family, .'^oe nli>o Slate 
Trials, 1802-3. pp. 61-178 (from Oumey's 
shorthand uoles) ; Trial of Liouteimnt-Colonel 
Joseph Wall, 1802 (from shorthand notes of 
Messrs. Blnnchurd and Ramsey) ; Mannal of 
Militnrv I^iw, 189 1, jip. 1114-5, 206-8; Browne's 
Namiti'ves of State Triids, 1882, i. 38-42 ; 
Trirtl of Governor Wall, published by Fred 
FiimiU (1867 ?), de.seribed as ' the only edition 
extJtnt,' with some additional pnliminary in- 
formation; Ocnt. Mag. 1802, i, 81; European 
Mjig. 1802, i. 74, 154; Ann. Bog. 1802, Append, 
to Chron. pp. 560-8; Notes and Queries, 3rd 
ser. viii. 438, fitb scr. viii. 208, 0th scr. ii. 
129 ; Georgian Era, ii. 466.] G. Lk G. N. 

WALL, MARTIN (1747-1824'), physi- 
cian, son of John Wall (170H-1770) [ii. v.], 
■was baptised at Worcester on 24 June 1747. 
He was educated at Winchester school, and 
entered at New College, Oxford, on 21 Nov. 
176a. He graduated B.A. on 17 June 1707, 
M.A. on 2 July 1771, M.D. on 9 June 1773, 
and was a fellow of his college from 17(33 
to 177H. He studied medicine at St. Bartholo- 
mew's Hospital, London, and in Edinburgh. 
He began practice at Oxford in 1774, and 
on 2 Nov. 177.'> was elect^K) physician to the 
liadclifi'e infirmary. He was appointed reader 



in chemistry in 1781, and delivered an in- 
augunil dissertiit ion on the st udy of chemistry 
on 7 May I7.S1, which hv printed in 1783, 
with an essay on the ' Antiquity and I'se of 
Symbols in Astronomy and Chemistry,' and 
'Observations on the Diseases jirevalent in 
the South Sea Islands.' He drank tea with 
Dr. Samuel .Tohn.son at 0.vford in June 1784 
(BoswBLi,, Li/e, 17i»I, ii. 0(12), and his essay 
was obviously the origin of the conversation 
on the advantage of physicians travelling 
among Ijurbnrous nations. In 176'") he was 
elected Lichfield professor of clinical medi- 
cine, an otiice which he retained till his 
death. He edited his father's essays in 1780, 
and in 17(^0 published ' C'ltiitcal Ub.serva- 
tions on the Use of Opium in Low Fevers, 
with Hemarks on the Epidemic Fever at < Ix- 
ford in KNj.' The epidemic was typhu.s. 
He was elected a fellow of the Collejfe of 
Physicians on 2"i June 17S7, Ilarveian orator 
in 178.'^, and in the same year F. U.S. He 
died on :;1 June \f<'2i. Boswell speaks of 
him OS ' this learned, ingenious, and pleasing 
pfentlemaii.' lie b'ft a son, JIartin Sandys 
AValt (178.J-1871), chaplain in ordinary to i 
the prince regent and to the British emba-ssy | 
at \ ienna. 

[Works; Foster's Akmni Oxon. 1715-1886 ; 
SItiDk's Coll. or Phya. ii. 372 ; Buswell's Life of 
Jobiuon, Ut edit.] N. M. 

WALL, lilCIIARD (li!94-1778),state8- 
man in the .Spanish service, was born in 
Ireland in UiSM, and belonged to the Water- 
ford branch uf that family (Uai.tos, ^-Jchii/ 
Li»tf). Me is lir<t heard of in 1718, when 
he served as a xolunteer iu the Spanish tleet 
■which was defeated ofl' Sicily by (ieorge 
Byng, viscount Torrington [q. v.] In 17i7 
he was a cajitain of dragoons, and went as 
Liecretarv with the IHike of Liria, Berwick's 
eldest .son, appointed Spanish ambas-sador at 
St. Petersburg. They ha<) an interview on 
their way with itie I'retender at Bologna, 
and halted also at \'ienna, Dresden, and 
Berlin. At St. i'etersburg Wall had one of 
hischronie fitsof melancholia, and entreated 
permis.sion to return to Spain. ' I placed all 
my confidence in Wall,' says Liria, ' and un- 
Ixisomed myself to him in all my unplea- 
santne.^ses, which were numerous, and when 
he left I had to remain without any one 
whom I could really tru.st.' Rejoining the 
Spani.sh army, Wall served under Don Philip 
in Lombardy, and under Montemarin Naples, 
and was next despatched t o the West Indies, 
where he conceived a plan for recovering 
Jamaica. In 17-47 ho was sent to Ai-x-la- 
Cliapelle and London to negotiate peace, 
went back to Spain by way of France in 



February 1748 (D'Abgenson, Mem.) to re- 
port progress, and on the conclusion of the 
peace of ALx-la-Chapelle in 1748 be was 
formally appointed to the London embassy. 
In October 1752 he was recalled. He was 
reluctant to leave England (Wjllpole, Let- 
ter*), ■where he had made the acquaintance of 
the elder Pitt and was very popular, though 
Lord Bath, afterwards hearing of his heraldic 
device, ' Aut Cajsar aut nihil,' said to Horace 
Walpole, ' The impudent fellow ! he should 
have token niunu aheneus.' He was re- 
called on account of his services being 
required at Madrid in settling commercial 
arrangements with the English ambas-sador. 
Sir Benjamin Keene [q.v.] Although he had 
occasional ditferences with Keene and his 
successor. Lord Bristol, Wall was regarded 
as the head of the English party, and the 
French intrigued against him ; but in 1752 
he received the grade of lieutenant-general, 
succeeded Carvajal as foreign minister, and 
in 17.>4, supplanting Ensenada, became se- 
cretary of stale. He gave proof of unselfish- 
ness by detaching the Indies, a lucrative 
department, from the foreign office and an- 
nexing it to the marine. Though a favourite 
with Ferdinand \'l and Charles III, the 
latter of whom he had helped to ploce on 
the throne of the Two Sicilies, and who had 
succeeded to the .Spanish crown in 17j>0, 
Wall was disliked and thwarted liy the 
queen-dowager, who sided with the French 
party. As early a.s 1757 he ineftectually 
tendered his resignation on the plea of ill- 
health. He was unable to prevent the pacte 
lU fftiuillr and consequent rupture with 
Knghind in l"l!l, and a feeling of jealousy 
towards foreigners weakened his influence at 
court. -Vfter repeatedly asking permission to 
retire, he pretended that his sight was im- 
paired, wore a shade over his eyes, and used 
an ointment to produce temporary inflamma- 
tion. By this device he obtained in 1764 
the acceptance of his re.«ignation. Among 
his labours in oIKce had been the restoration 
of the Alharabra, which he incongruously 
roofed with red tiles. lie received a pension 
of a liundred thou.sand crowns, the full 
pay of A lieutenant-general, and the pos- 
session for life of the Soto di lioma, a royal 
hunting seat near firanada, destined to be 
presented to the Duke of Wellington. It 
being damp oud uuheultby, he at first Tt>sided 
chietly at Alirador, a villa adjoining Granada, 
but after a time he fitted up Soto di Roma 
with English furniture, drained the four 
thousand acres of fields and woods, made 
new drives, and rendered the peasants thrifty 
and prosperous. There he resided from Oc- 
tober to May, attending the court at Aran- 



Wall 



97 



Wallace 



I 




juei for a month, and spondiug the. summer 
at Mirador. Henry .Swinburne (1743-'-1803) 
[q, v.] visited him at Soto di Homa in 1776, 
and was delighted with his sprightly con- 
versation, for which he Imd always been 
noted. He died in 1778. 

[Liria'g Journal in Coleccion de OocumeDtoii 
Bist. Espaiia, vol. xciii. Madrid, 1889; sumnmr; 
of this journal in Quarterly Rer. January 1892 ; 
Cuie's Mem. Kings of Spuin ; Ann. Hog. 1763, 
p. 113; MAm. de Luyues. v. 176; Corrogp. of 
Chatham ; Villa's Marquex de 1» Enseniida, 
Madrid, 1878; Ferrer del Rio's Hist. Cnrloa 
III ; Biisching'sMagazin fiir Oeogmpbic, ii. 68, 
Hambnrg, 1769; Walpole's Letters; Temple 
Bar. March 1898.] J. G. A, 

WALL, ■\Vn.LIAM (1617-I7:i8), divine 
and biblical scholar, son of ^Villillra Wall 
plrbeius of Sevenoaks, Kent, was born at 
Maranto Court Farm in the parish of Cheven- 
ing in that county on (i Jan. 1(346-7. lie ! 
matriculated from tiueeu's College, Oxford, j 
on 1 April 16t}4,procHt'(leil B..\. in 1667, and 
commenced M.A.in 1670, bt'ing incorporated 
in the latter degree at Cambridge in 1676. 
Aft«r taking orders he was (idmitled to the 
e of Shorebam, Kent, in 1674. fSub- 
uently he declini'd, from con.scientious 
•cruples, the living of Cbelstield, three miles 
from Shoreham, and worth 300A a year. 
However, in 1708 he accepted the rectory of 
Milton-next-Gravesend, about one-fifth of 
the value and at twelve miles' distance. In the 
same year he was appointed chaplain to the 
bishop of Kochester. His writings in de- 
fence of the practice of iufiiiit baptism were 
widely appreciated, and, in recognition of 
theirmerit, the university nf( Ixford conferred 
upon him the degree of D.I). by diploma, 
31 Oct. 1720. His chief antagonist, John 
Oale [q. v.], held a friendly conference with 
him in 1719 on the subject of baptism, but 
it ended without any change of opinion on 
either side. Wall died on V.i Jan. 1727-8, 
and was buried in Shorehiira church. 

Wall stands confi'ssedly at the head of 
those Anglican divines who have .*upiiorted 
the practice of infant baptl.sm, and liis ad- 
versaries, Gale and William Whiaton, and 
the baptist historiun Thomas Crosby, unite 
in praising his candour and piety. He was 
a great humori.st, and several anecdotes of 
him, related by his daughter, Mrs. Catharine 
Waring of liochester, are printed in lUshop 
Atterhiiry's ' Kpistolary Correspondence.' 
As a high-churchman ho was extremely 
sealous in Atterburv's cause. 

Subjoined is a fist of his writings: 1, 
'The History of Infant Ilaptism,' Lon- 
don, 1705, 2 pts. 8vo ; 2nd edit., with large 
additions, 1707, -Jto; 3rd edit., 1720; new 
VOL. LIX. 




editions, 'Together with Mr. Qale's Keflec- 
tions and Dr. Wall's Defence. Edited by 
the l.'ev. H. Cotton,' Oxford, 1836, 4 vols., 
and Oxford, 18tJ2, 2 vols.; reprinted in ' The 
.\ncient and Modern Library of Theological 
Literature,' 1889, 2 vols. A Latin transla- 
tion appeared under the title of ' Historia 
Baptismi Infantum. Ex Anglico vertit, 
nonnullis etiam observationibus et vindiciia 
auxit J. L. Schloh.*er,' Urumen, 1748,2 torn. ; 
Hamburg, 17')3, 4to. An abridgment of 
Wall's ' History,' by W. H. Spencer ap- 
peared at London, 1848, 12mo. 2. 'A Con- 
ference between two Men tliat had Doubts 
about Infant Baptism,' London, 1706, 12mo; 
2nd edit. 170«: iA\\ edit. 1767; 6th edit. 
179.5; 8th edit. 1807; 9th edit. 1809; lOth 
edit. 1812; new edit. 1833; again 1847. 
3. ' A Defence of the History of Infant Hai)- 
tism against the reflections of Mr. tiale 
and others,' London, 1720, 8vo. 4. ' Brief 
Critical Notes, especially on the various 
Headings of the New Testament Bookg. 
With a preface concerning the Texts cited 
therein from the Old Testament, as alsocon- 
cernin'.( the I'se of the Septuagint Transla- 
tion,' London, 1 730, 8vo. ."). ' Critical Not«8 
on the Old TestamiMit, wherein the present 
Hebrew Text is explained, and in many 
places amended from the ancient versions, 
more particularly from tliiit of the LXX. 
To which is prctixed a large introduction, 
adjusting the nuthority of the Miisoretic 
Bible, anil vindicating it from the objections 
of Mr. Wbiston and [.Vnthoiiy ('oUinsl the 
author of the Grounds and Keasons ot the 
Christian Religion,' London, 17;J-1, 2vols.8vo. 
[Atterbury's Epislohiry Correspondence ( 1 789), 
V. 1102 ; Crosby's Hist, of the English Baptists, 
i. 6, Iffl, iii.'u, 42; Foster's Alumni Oion. 
1500-I7U; Gent. Mug. 1784, i. 434 ; Hook's 
Eccl. Biogr. viii. B42 ; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. i. 
114; Notes and Queries, 1st ser. iv. 347. 490, 
3rd ser. v. 22.] T. C. 

WALLACE, EGLANTINE, L.tDv Wal- 

\Aca ((/. 18031, authoress, was youngest 
driughter of .Sir 'iVilliam Maxwell (d. 1771), 
of Monreith, Wigtonsbire, third baronet, and 
sisterof Jane Gordon, ducli ess of Gordon [q. v.] 
A boisterous hoyden in her youth, and a 
1 woman of violent temper in her maturer 
years, she was married on 4 Sept. 1770 to 
Thomas Dunlop.son of John Dunlop of Dun- 
Inp, by Frances .^nua, rlnughter and heiress 
of Sir ThomiLs W'alliiee (1702 177tl) of 
Craigie, fifth and la.st buronct. ' )n his grand- 
father's death Dunlop, inheriting Craigie, 
took thy name of Wallace and assumed the 
styleof a baroiut; but the property was deeply 
involved, and in 1783 he was obliged to sell 
all that remained of Craigie. It yvoitld seem 

u 



Wallace 



98 



Wallace 



to have been shortly &fC«T this that his wife 
obtained a legal separation, on the ^ound, 
it is said, of her husband's cruelty. It is 
probable that the quarrel was duo to pecu- 
niary embarrassment. A little lat^r Lady 
"Wallace was herself summoned for assault- 
ing a woman — apparently a humble com- 

rpanion — and was directed by the magistrate 

■to compound the matter. Leavinj? Edin- 
burgh, she seems to have settled in London, 
but u]>on hiT play ' The Whim ' being pro- 
hibited the stage by the licenser, she left 
England in disgust. In October 1789 she 
•was arrested at Paris as an English agent, 
and narrowly escaped with her life. In 
l"ii2 she wo-s in Brussels. There she con- 
tracted a friendiihip with (ieneral Charles 
Francois Dumouriej!, whom in 1793 she en- 
tertained in Lnndon, where she seems to have 
been well received in society. She died at 
Munich on "-'8 March 180.3, leaving two sous, 
the elder of whom was (ieneral [Sir] John 
Alexander Dunlnp Agnew "Wallace [q. v.] 
She was author of 1. ' Letter to a Friend, with 

I ft Poem called tiie Ghost of Werter,' 1787, 
4to. 2. ' Oiamond cut Diamond, a Comedy ' 
[from the French], 1787, 8vo. 3. • The Ton, 
a Comedy,' 8vo, 1788; it was produced at: 
Covent Garden on 8 April 1788 with a good 
cast, but, SQV.s ( lenest, was ' very dull ' and a 
dead failure. 4. 'The Conduct of the King 
of Prussia and General Dumouriez,' 1793, 
8vo ; this was followed by a separately issued 
'Supplement.' 5. 'Cortes, a Tragedy '{?). 
6. 'The Whim, a Comedy ,'1795, 8 vo. 7. 'An 
Address to the People on Peace and Reform,' 
1798, 8vo. 

[The Book of Wallace, ed. Rogprs (Omrapian 
Club), 1889, i. 87-8 ; Chamberss Triiditions of 

I Edinburgh, 1 8S9, p. 229 ; Jones's continuation of 
Baber'a Biograpbica Dmroatica. p. 733, whcro 
sbo is said to have been the wife of Sir James 
"Wallace [q. v.] ; Patarson's History of the 
Conntiea of Ayr and Wieton, 1. i. 296 ; Pater- 
floo's Lands and their Ownprs in Oalloway, 
i. 285 ; Autobiogr. of Jnne, Duchfss of Gordon 
(Introduction, Uent. Mag. 1803, i. 386). There 
are several outobiogniphical notes in ' The 
Conduct of the King of Prussia and General 
Dumouricz,' named above.'] J. K. L. 

WALLACE, GRACE, Ladt Wallace 

(d. 1878), author, was the eldest daughter 
of .John Stein of Edinburgh. She became, 
on 19 Aug. 1824, the second wife of Sir 
Alexander Don, sixth baronet of Newton 
Don, and the intimate friend of Sir Walter 
Scott. She had two children : Sir William 
Henry Don [q. v.] seventh baronet, the cele- 
brated actor; and Alexina Harriet, who mar- 
ried Sir Frederick Acclom Milbank, hart., of 
Hart and Hartlepool. In his 'Famili&r 



Letters ' (ii. 348) Sir Walter Scott writes to 
his son in 1835: ' Mama and Anne are quite 
well ; they are with me on a visit to Sir 
Alex. Don and his new lady, who is a very 
pleasant woman, and plavs on the harp 
delightfully.' Sir Alexander died in 1826; 
and in 18.'J6 his widow morried Sir James 
Maxwell Wallace, K.H., of Anderby Hall, 
near Northallerton, an officer who had served 
under Wellington at Quatre Bras and Water- 
loo, was afterwards lieutenant-colonel of the 
5th dragoon guards (when Prince Leopold, 
afterwanis king of the Belgians, was colonel), 
and died on 3 Feb. 1867 as general and colonel 
of the 17th lancers. Robert Wallace (1773- 
1 H/yi) Tq. v.] was his younger brother. Lady 
Wallace died on li2 March 1878 without 
issue by her second marriage. 

Lady AA'allace long and actively nursued a 
career as a translator of German and Spanish 
works, among: others : 1 . ' The Princess Dse/ 
185.'). 2. 'Clara; or Slave-life in Europe' 
(bvHackliinder), 185(5. 3. ' Voices from the 
Greenwood,' 18,')6. 4. ' The Old Monastery ' 
(bv Ilnckliinder), 1857. 6. ' Frederick the 
Great and his Merchant,' 1859. 6. ' SchiUei'a 
Life and Works ' (by Palleske), 1 859. 7. ' The 
Castle and the Cottage in .Spain' (from the 
SpanL-fh of Caballero), 1861. 8. 'Joseph in 
the Snow' (by Auerbach), 1861. 9. 'Men- 
delssohn's Letters from Italy and Switwr- 
land,' 1862. 10. ' Will-o'-llie-Wi.sp,' 1802. 
ll.'T,etters of Mendelssohn from 1833 to 
1847,' 18C.3. 12. ' Letters of Moiart,' 1865. 

13. 'Beethoven's letters, 1790-1820,' 1866. 

14. ' Letters of Distinguished Musicians,' 
1867. 15. ' Reminiscences of Mendelssohn' 
(bv Elise Polko), 18(58. 10. ' Alexandra 
Feodorowna' (by Grimra), 1870. 17. 'A 
German Peajiant llomance: Elsa and the 
Vulture' (by Von Hillem), 1876. 1 8. 'Life 
of Mozart ' (by Nohl), 1877. 

[Grove's Diet, of Music, vol. iv. ; AUibone's 
Diet, of EngL Lit. ; Brit. Mus. Cat. ; Record of 
the Sth Dragoon Guanls; Times, 7 Feb. 1867; 
Rogers's Book of Wallace (Grampian Club), 
i. 110-12; Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, 
1860.] O. S-H. 

WALLACE. JAMES (d. 167S), cove- 
nanter, son of Matthew Wallace, succeeded 
about 1641 to hi.s father's lands at Auchans, 
Ayrshire. Early in life he adopted the mili- 
tary profession, and became lieuten&Dt- 
colonel in the parliamentary army. He went 
to Ireland in the Marquis nf Argyll's regi- 
ment in 1C?42, and in 164-") was recalled to 
oppose the progress of Montrose. He joined 
the covenanters under General Baillie, and 
was taken prisoner at the battle of Kilsyth 
(Mbrmch and Simpson, Deeds of Montrose, 
1893, pp. 125, 339). Itetuming to Ireland 



Wallace 



99 



Wallace 



I 



before 1647, he wus appointed governor of 
Belfast in 1649, but. was deprived of the 
office in June of that year. Soon afterwardg 
he removed to Ked-hull, Ballycarry, near 
Carrickfergus, where he married, liemovinp 
to Scotland in 1660, when Charles II came 
to Scotland on the in\'itation of the Scots 
parliament, ^\'allnce was appointed lieu- 
tenant-colonel of a foot regiment under Lord 
Lome. At the battle of Diinbnr Wallace 
'was again made prisoner. On his colonel's 
petition, as a reword for his seri'ices, he wa5 
' referred to the committee of estates, that 
he may be assigned to some part of e.\cise 
or maintenance forth of the shire of Ayr.' 
Wallace lived in retirement from the Uesto- 
ration till the ' I'entland rising,' in which lie 
took a very active port as leader of the insur- 
gent.s. One of ^^■allace'8 earliest prisoners 
was Sir James Turner [q.v.], who had been 
his companion in arms twenty-three years 
before. Ituring his captivity Turner was con- 
stantly with ^VaIlace, of whose character and 
rebellion he gives a detailed account (Me- 
moin, Bannatyne Club, ji]). 148, 163, 173, et 
«qq.) On 28 5iov. 16(30 Wallace's forces ond 
the king's, under the command of General 
Daliell, came within sight of each other at 
Ingliston Bridge. Wallace was defeated, 
and, with his followers, took to flight (ib. 
pp. 181 soq.) He escaped to Holland, where 
ne took the name of Forbe.«. He was con- 
demned and forfeited in Aufjust 1067 by the 
jtutice courtat Edinburgh, and this sentence 
was ratified by parliament on 15 Dec. 1669. 
In Holland AVallace was obliged to move 
from place to place for several years to avoid 
his enemies, who were on the lookout for 
him. He afterwords lived in Uotterdam ; but 
on the complaint of Henry Wilkie, whom the 
king bad placed at the head of the Scottish 
factory at Compvere, Wallace was ordered 
from Holland. \\'allace, however, returned 
fome time afterwards, and died at Ilotterdam 
in the end of 1678. In 104t» or 1660 he 
married a daughter of Mr. Edmonstone of 
Ballycarry, and left one son, William, who 
succeeded to his fatlier'o property, as the 
sentence of death and fugitation passed 
against him after the battb^ of the Pentland 
was rescinded at the revolution. 

[Spalding's Hist, of Troubles, i. 218, ii, 168, 
and Letters from Argylo (Bannat}-no Club); 
LnmoDt's Diary (Moithuid Club), p. 19.T ; Cham- 
bers's Dirt, of Emioent Scotsmen ; Book of Wol- 
We, i. UO-6; Bcid's Irisli Preslivterian Church, 
18B7, ii. 117, 545-8; Patrick Adairs's Narra- 
ti' , 1866, p. 156; Steven's Scottish Church at 
i -iirdam, passim; Wtxlrow's Historj-, i. 205, 
;>ii;, ii. passim; L<iril Slrathallan's Hist, of tho 
House of Dmmmond, p. 306.] 6. S-n, 



•WTALLAOE, JAMES (d. 1688), minister 
of Kirkwall, studied at the university of 
Aberdeen, where he graduated M.A. on 
27 April 1659. He was shortly aftem-ards 
appointed minister of Ladykirk in Orkney, 
from which parish he was translated to Kirk- 
wall on 4 Nov., and admitted on 16 Nov. 
1672. On 16 Oct. 1678 he was also collated 
by Bishop Mackenzie to tho prebend of St. 
John in tno cathedral church of St. Mognus- 
the-Martyrat Kirkwall. He was ' deprived 
by the council ' of his ecclesiastical prefer- 
ments for his adherence to the episcopal 
form of church government at the revolu- 
tion of 1688-9. He died of fever in Sep- 
tember 1688. He mortified tlio sum of a 
hundri'd merks for the u.ne of the church of 
Kirkwall, which the kirk session received 
oti 14 July 168!t, and applieil in purchasing 
two commimion cups inscribed with Wal- 
loce's name. He married Elizabeth Cuth- 
bert, and had three sons and u daughter — 
James (see below), -Andrew, Alexander, and 
Jean. 

Wallace is known by his work ' A De- 
scription of the Isles of Orkney. By Master 
James AValloce, late Minister of KirkwalL 
Published after his Death by his Son. To 
which is added, An Essov concerning the 
Thiile of the .\ncient,s.' Edinburgh, 1693, 
8vo. Thi! work wii.s dedicated to Sir llobort 
Sibbald ["q. v.] In 1700 Wallace's son Jamas 
published in hi," own name ' .\ii .\ccount of 
the Islands of Orkney,' which appeared in 
London under the auspic<;s of Jacob Tooson 
[q.v.] This work, which makes no mention 
01 his father's labours, consists of the ' De- 
scription ' of ItllW, with some omissions and 
additions, including a chapter on the plants 
and shells of tlie Orkneys. The younger 
Wallace also suppressed tho dedication to 
Sibbiild and the preface, which last gave an 
account of his father's writings, and coolly 
substituted an affected dedication from him- 
self to the Earl of Dorset. Both editions are 
very rare. The original, with illustrative 
notes, edited by Joliii Small [q. v.], was 
reprinted at Edinburgh in 1883. 'An Ac- 
count from Orkney,' by James Wallace, 
larger than what was printed by his son, 
was sent to Sibbald, who was collecting 
statisticjil information regarding the coun- 
ties of Scotland (Nicholson. Scottish Huto- 
rical Library, 1702, pp. 20, f>3). "Wallace 
was described as 'a man remarkalile for inge- 
nuity and veracity, and he left in manu- 
script, besides sermons and miscellaneous 
pieces, "A Harmony of the Evangelists," 
"Commonplaces," a treatise of the ancient 
and modern church discipline ; and when 
seized with his lost illness was engaged 

h2 



■ 



Wallace 



lOO 



Wallace 



writing a refuUtion of the tenets of popery ' 
(Scott, Fanti, lu. i. 375). 

Jamks Wallace (_/?. 16S4-1724), son of 
the preceding, was M.D. and F.H.S. 
(though ht< does iiot appear in Thomson's 
list of fellows), and edited his father's ' De- 
scription' in 1693 and 170(>. In 1700 he 
contributed to the 'Transactions' of the 
Royal Society ' A Part of a Journal kept 
from Scotland to New Caledonia in Darien, 
with a short Account of that Country '(■P*''- 
Tranif. 1700, pp. 636-43). From a' passage 
in this [wper he seems to have been in the 
East India Company's service. He visited 
Darien, and gave plants from there to Petiver 
tad Sloane. In the same number of the 
' Tnuiaactions ' (pp. 543-6) is given an abs- 
tract of the 1700 edition of his father's work. 
Wallace was also the author of n ' History 
of Scotland from Fergus I to the Com- 
mencement of the Union,' Dublin, 1724, Svo. 
[Preface to original cditiaii of Description ; 
introduction to rrprint of Description : IVter- 
Idd's Bentals ; Scott's Fasti ; Notes nnd Queries, 
2nd ser. v. 89, vi. 533. For the son. see Notes 
and Queries, 30 Jon. 18&8 ; introduction to re- 
print ; Phil. Trans. 1 700 ; Britten and Boplgor's 
British and Irish Botanists ; Pulteaey's Sketches 
of Progress of Botany ; Pritzel's Thesnurus Lit. 
Botan.; Jackson's Guide to Liu of Bolanv.] 

G. S-K. 

WALLACE, Sir JAMES (1731-1803). 
admiral, bom in 1731, entered the navy as a 
scholar in the Koyal Acadt-niy at Portsmouth 
in 1 746. lie afterwanU ser^'ed in t he Syren, 
Vigilant, and Intrepid, and pass«'d his exa- 
mination on 3 Jan. K-'iS, when he was de- 
scribed on his certiticate as ' appearing to be 
21.' As he had been a scholar in the aca- 
demy, the age was probably something like 
correct. On 1 1 March 1 756 he was promoted 
to be lieutenant of the Greenwich (capturwl 
in the West Indies IH March 1757), under 
Captain Itobert Koddam [q. v.] In April 
1758 he was appointed to the Ripon, one of 
the squadron under Sir John Moore 1. 1718- 
1779) [q. v.] at the reduction of Guadeloupe 
in April 1769. In January 1760 he wiu 
appointed to the Neptune, going out to the 
Mediterranean as flagship of Sir Charles 
Saunders [q. v.] On 3 Nov. 1763 he was 
promoted to the rank of ci')mmander, and in 
the following April was appointed to the 
Trial sloop for the North .Vmcrican station. 
He afterwards commanded the Dolphin in 
the East Indies and the Bonetta in the Chan- 
nel; and on 10 Jan. 1771 was promoted to 
be captain of the Unicom. In November he 
was appointed to the Rose, a 20-gun frigate, 
vlueb in 1774 he took out to the N'orth 
Ammir*n station, where during 1775 and 



the first part of 1776 he was actively eng 
in thosedesultory ope rations against thee 
towns which were calculated to produce I 
greatest possible irritation with the least | 
sible advantage. In July 1776 he succ 
to the command of the 50-gun ship Experi- 
ment, in which in January 1777 he was sent 
to England with despatches — a ser\-ice for 
which be was knighted on 13 Feb. 

In July he returned to the North Ame- 
rictin Stat ion, and after several months' active 
cruising was, in July 1778, one of the small 
squadron with Howe for the defence of the 
Channel past Sandy Hook against the im- 
posing fleet under D'Est^iing [see HowB, 
RiciiABD, Earl]. The Experiment con- 
tinued with the squadron when Howe fol- 
lowed the French to Rhode Island, and in 
the manoeuvres on 10-11 Aug. After that 
she was left cruising, and on the 20th was 
oft' Newport when the French were stand- 
ing in towards it. Wallace drew back to 
the westward, ran down Long Island Sound, 
and reached New York by passing through 
Hell Gate, a piece of bold navigation pre- 
viously supposed to be impossible for a ship 
of that size. On the 2.)lh he joined Howe 
at Sandy Hook. In the following Decem- 
ber, while cruising on the coast of Virginia, 
the ship in a violent westerly gale was 
blown off the land; and Wallace, finding 
her in need of new masta and new rigging, 
for which there were no stores at New York, 
even if in her distressed condition it had 
I been possible to get there, bore away for 
England. When the ship was refitteii he 
I jo'med the squadron which sailed from St, 
llelens under Arbuthnol on 1 Mav. and 
with him turned aside for the relief of 
Jersey, then threatened by the French under 
the prince of Nassau. Hearing, however, 
that Nassau bad been repnlaecl and that 
some frigates had been sent from Ports- 
mouth, Arbuthnot pursued his voyage, leav- 
ing the Experiment to strengthen the force 
at Jersev. %Mien he was joined by the 
frigates, NVallace concerted an attack on the 
French squadron which had gone over to the 
mainland : and, finding them endeavouring 
to make St. Malo, he drove them into Can- 
cale Bay, followed them in, despite the pro- 
testations of the pilot, silenced a six-gun 
battery under which they had sheltered, and 
burnt two of the frigates and a small cutter 
that wer* fast on shore. The third frigate, 
the Danae of 34 guns, and two smaller 
veasels were brought ofl^ and sent to Eng- 
land. 

Wallace then rejoined Arbuthnot, who 
had been forced by foul winds to wait in 
Torbay, and sailed with him for New York. 



Wallace 



lOI 



Wallace 



I 



In September he was sent to the southward 
with a considerable sum of money for the 
payment of the troops in Oeorpia. On the 
24th he fell in with a detachment of 
D'Estaing's fleet, and was captured off 
Savannah. Being acquitted of all blame 
by the court-martial, be was appointed in 
March 1780 to the Nonsuch of fi4 guns, 
and in July, when on a cruise on the coast 
of France, captured tlie corvette Hussard, 
«nd on the 14th the celebruted frigate Belle 
Poule, commanded by the snme cnptnin, the 
•Chevalier de KerBorioii Coat lea, who had 
formerly commnnded the Dnnac, and was 
now killed in the engajjement. In the fol- 
lowing year the Nonsuch was one of the 
fleet which relieved Gibraltar in April [see 
Darbt, George'; and on the homeward 
voyage, while looking out iiheaJ, chased and 
ibrought to action tlii> Trench 74-guu ship 
Actif, hoping to detain her till some others 
of the fleet came u]i. The Nonsuch was, 
however, beaten off with heavy loss; but 
the Actif, judging it imprudent to pursue 
her advantage, held on lier course to Brest. 
Wallace's bold attempt was considered as 
creditable to him as the not supporting him 
was damaging to the admiral ; and in Octo- 
ber he was appointed to the 74-guu ship 
Warrior, which in December sailed for the 
est Indies with Sir Gleorge Brydgea liod- 



Dey (afterwords J.ord Rodney) fi). v.], and 
nok part in the battle of 1:^ April 1782. In 



^Hae 
^Hto< 

^■178.3 Wallace returned to England, and for 
the next seven years was on half-pay. In 
the Spanish armament of 1790 liecomiuauiled 
the Swiftstire for n tew months, and in ]~',Hi 
the Monarch, in which lie went to the Weal 
Indies, returning at the end of the year. 
On 12 April 1704 ho was promoted to be 
ear-admirul iiud appointed criinmaiider-in- 
chief at Newfoundland, with his flag in the 
jun ship Komney. With this one ex- 
ception, his squadron was composed of fri- 
ites and smaller vessels, intended for the 
Protection of trade from the enemy's pri- 
Rateers ; so that when a powerful French 
luadron of seven s-liip.'s of the line and three 
igiites, escaping from t'lidiz in .Vugu."! 17Stfi, 
ame out to North Americii, he was unable 
•to offer any serious resistance to it, or to 
prevent it doing much cruel damage to the 
hshermen, whose huts, stages, and Ixiats 
were pitilessly de.stroyed (Jajies, i. 409). 
.Wallace wa« bitterly mortified; but the 
oloni.sts and traders, .sensible that he hud 
one all that was possible underthe circum- 
tances, passed a vote of tlintiks (o him. lie 
Btumed to England early the next year, 
had no further service. Me had been 
le a vice-admiral on I June 1795, and 




was further promoted to be admiral on 
1 Jan. 1801. fie died in London on Jan. 
1803. Wallace has been sometimes con- 
fused with Sir Thomas Dunlop Wallace of 
Craigie, to whom he was only very distantly 
— if it all — related ; iind has been conse- 
quently described as the husband of Eglan- 
tine, lady Wallace [q. v.] It does not appear 
that Sir James Wallace was ever married. 

[The memoir in Rjilfe's Naval Biogr. i. 413. 
is exceedingly iinperfVct ; the story of Wallace's 
services is here given from tha passing certifl- 
cjtto. ooiumission and warrant-books, captains' 
loiters and logs in the Public Kecord Office. 
See also 15eat£on's Naval and Military Memoira, 
Jamnt's Naval History, and Troude's Balailles 
Navales dc> la France. Gont. Mag. 1803, i. 290 ; 
Navy Lists.] J. K. L. 

WALLACE, Sir JOHN ALEXANDER 
DUNLOP AUNEW (177o?-186-),general, 
born about 1775, was the only sim of Sir 
Thomas Dunlop Wallace, hart., of Craigie, 
Ayrsliire, by his lirst wife, Eglantine, lady 
Wallace [q. v.] 

He was given a commission as ensign in 
the 75th (highland) regiment on 28 Dec. 
1787, his family having hi-li>ed to raise it. 
He joined it in India in 1789, became lieu- 
tenant oil (i A]>ril 1790, and served in Coni- 
Wttllis's operations against Tijipoo in 1791-2, 
including the siege of SiTingiipataui. He 
acted as aido-de-camp to Colonel Maxwell, 
who commanded the lef) wing of the array. 
He obtained a company in the 5Hth regitnent 
on 8 June 17!W!, and returned to England to 
join it. Ho went, with it to the Mediter- 
riini'un in 1708, was present at the capture 
iif .Minorca, and in the campaign of 1801 in 
Egypt. It formed part of the reserve under 
Moore, and was very hotly engaged in the 
battle of Alexandria. It came home in 
1h02. He was jiromoted major on 9 July 
1803, and obtained a lieutenant-colonelcy in 
the 11th foot on 28 .\ng. If 04. .\t the end 
of I80o lie wii.s transferred to the Wth (Con- 
naught rangers) to command a newly raised 
second battalion. 

He went to the Peninsula with this batta- 
liua in 1800. With tlin'e hundred men of 
it he jiiined the lirst battalion at Campo 
Mayor, while the rest went on to Cadiz. 
The lirst battalion had sutlered in the Tala- 
vera campaign ; he set hiuiself vigorou.sly 
to restore it, and made it one cif tlie finest 
corps in the army. It greatly distinguished 
itself nt liiisnco. It was on the left of the 
third division, and when the French had 
gained the ridge, and seemed to have cut 
the army in two, a charge made by the 88th, 
with one wing of the 45th, drove them down 
headlong. Wellington, riding up, said, 



Wallace 



102 



Wallace 



* Wallnct^ I never saw a more gallant charge 
than thut just made by your regiment,' and 
made special reference to it in his despatch. 
PictoD, who was with Bnolher part of his 
division at the time, gave Wallace the credit 
of 'that brilliant exploit.' 

He commanded the HSth at Fuentes de 
Onoro, and was again particularly mentioned 
in Wellin^on's despatch. lie was also 
mentioned in the despatch after .Salamanca, 
where he was in eommaud of the right 
brigade of the third division (Pakenlmm's). 
During the retreat of the army from Hurgoa, 
he had a very severe attack of fever at Ma- 
drid. Conveyance in a cart to Santarem in 
verj- bad weather aggravated its efliscts, and 
he was dangerously ill for nearly eight 
months. lie saw no further service in the 
Peninsula; but he commanded a brigade in 
the army of occupation in France in the 
Litter part of 1815. He received the gold 
medal with two clasps, and was made C.B. 
in 18ir,. 

He had liecome colonel in the anny on 
4 June 1813, and on 12 .\ug. 1819 ho was 
promoted majur-general. lie waa given the 
colonelcy of the 88th on liOOet. lfi:11,and 
■was made K.C.B. ou l*i Sept. 1833. He 
l>ecame lieiiteimnt-general on 10 .Vug. 1837, 
and genera! on 11 Xov. 1851. He died at 
Lochr^un (louse, Stranraer, Wigtownshire, 
on lOi'eb. 1857, uged 82. Un 1'3 June 1829 
he married Janette, daughter of AVillintn 
Bodger, by whom he had five sons and, one 
daughter. 

[Gent. Mag. 1857, i.OT : Historical Record* 
of thr 88th Regiment ; Wellington Despiitdies ; 
Eobinson'-s Life of Picton, i. 327, Sec; Napier's 
Remarks on Robinson's ' Life of Picton ' in 
Peainsular War. 18.51, vi. 419 sq.] E. il. L. 

"WALLACE, Sir nicn.\ni) (1818- 
1890), connoisseur and collector of works 
of art, was at one time reputed to be the 
natural son of IJiclmrd Seymour Conway, 
fourth maniuis of Hertford, liis senior by 
only eighteen years. But the truth iu nil 
probability is that lie was the fourth Marquis 
of Hertford'.^ half-brother and the natural 
son of that nobleman's mother, Maria, ttef 
Fagiiani, marchioness of Hertford, who had 
married, ou 18 May 1798, Francis Charles 
Seymour Conway, third manjuis [see under 
SeVmoctk, Futxcis IsGRAM, second Marqi'ib 
OP Hertford]. He was born in London on 
26 July 1818, and was in early youth known 
as Uichard .Iack.snn. He was educated en- 
tiroljf under the ."iupervision of his mother, 
Maria, ludy Hertford. The intiuencea by 
which he was surrounded were on the whole 
more French than English, but he always in- 
BUted strongly on his English extraction. 



Most of his young days and early manhood 
were passed in Paris, where as ' Monsieur 
Kichard ' he became a well-known fimire in 
French society and among those who devoted 
themselves to matters of art. Before he wa» 
forty he had made a large collection of objets 
(fart — bronzes, ivories, miniatures, &c. — 
which was dispersed in Paris in 1867 at 
prices much above those he had paid. After 
the sale of his own collection he devoted 
most of his knowledge to the assistance of the 
fourth marquis (his reputed half-brother). 

On Lord Hertford's death, unmarried, in 
1870, Wallace found himself heir to such 
of his projierty as the deceased marquis 
could devise by will, including a house in 
Paris and Hertford 1 louse in London, the 
Irish estates about Lisbum, which then 
brought in some 50,000/. a year, and the finest 
collection of pictures and olifeU ttart in 
private hands in the world. 

During tlie war of 1870-1 Wallace equip- 
ped an aiiihulanee which, under the name 
of the Hertford ambulance, was attached to 
the 13th corps d'armfie; he equipped two 
more in Paris itself, one being placed under 
, French, the other under English doctors. 
I He also founded and endow^ed the Hertford 
' British Hospital, for the use of British sub- 
jfcts in I'uris, and subscribed a hundred 
thousand francs to the fund in aid of those 
who hud suH'ered by the bombardment. He 
wa.^ faithful to Paris during the siege, and 
is said, on excellent authority, to have spent 
at least two millions and a half of francs on 
aid to the besieged. On 24 Dec. 1871 he was 
created a baronet in recogtiition of his efforts 
during the siege. 

In 1873 Sir Kichard was elected M.P. for 
Lishurn, which constituency he continued 
to represent until 1886. In 1878 he was 
nominated one of the commissioners to the 
Paris Exhibition, at the close of which his 
services were rewarded with a knight com- 
mandership of the Bath ; he was alreadv a 
commander in the Ifgion d'honneur. lie 
was also a trustee of the National Gallery, 
and a governor of the National Gallery of 
Iri'Iaud, to both of which he had presented 
pictures. The last four years of his life 
were spent chietly in Paris, and there he 
died on 20 July 1890, leaving no surviving 
children. He was buried in the cemetery of 
Pere-Lachaise. Un 15 Feb. 1871 he was 
married to J ulio .\m61ie Charlotte, the daugh- 
ter of Bernard Castelnau, a French officer, 
who had alreadv bomo him a son. Lady 
Wallace died on'lti Feb. 1897. She left by 
will the great Hertford- Wallace collection 
to the English nation. A commission was 
appointed by the government of 1897 to 



Wallace 



"3 



Wallace 



I 



I 



I 



determine the future home of tho collection, 
and it n-os decided to acquire Hertford Houi^e, 
and to adapt it to the purposes of ri public 
museum. Sir Itichard Wallace dislilied sit- 
ting to artists. I'aul Biiudry made a sketch 
of him which was et^-hed by Jacquemart for 
the ' fJiizette des IJeaux- Arts,' and a portrait, 
■with but slight pretensions as a worlt of art, 
belong to the collection at Hertford House. 

[Fosters Buruneta(;e, 1882; Uazettcdcs Beaux- 
Arts ; Times, 2;J July 1890; private information.] 

W. A. 

WALLACE, IfOBEUT (1097-1771), 
writer on pnpulut ion, was only son, by liis wife 
Marearet Stewart, of Matthew Wallace, 
parish minister of Kincardine, Perthshire, 
■where he was born on 7 Jan. ItiUO-T. Edu- 
cated at Stirling grammar school, he entered 
Edinburgh I'niversity in 1711, and acted 
for a time ( 1720) as assistant to James (ire- 
gory, the Edinburgh professor of mat hematics, 
He was one of the founders of the Uankenian 
Club in 1717. On 31 .July 1722 he was 
licensed as n ])reacher by the presbytery of 
Dunblane, Perthshire, and he was presented 
by the Marquis of Annandole to the parish 
of Mofl'at, IJumfriesshire, in August I7'2:i. 
In 1733 he be<;ame minister of New I Trey- 
friars, Edinburgh. Here he offended t!ie 
Bovemmentof 173tl by declining toread from 
bis pulpit the proclamation against the Por- 
teous rioters, nolding that tlie church was 
spiritually independent in the celebration 
of public ■worship. He thereby rendered 
himself liable to severe penalties, hut no 
attempt was made to recover them, and on 
.30 Aug. 1738 he was translated to the Xew 
North Church. In 1742, on a change of 
ministry, he regained ecck'siastical intluence, 
being entrusted for ti ve years with the manage- 
ment of church business and the distribution 
of ecclesiastical patronage. I tilisingii sug- 
gestion of John Mtttliison of the High 
Church, Edinburgh, Wallace, with the aid 
of Alexander Webster [q. v.] of ihe Tolbooth 
church, Edinburgh, develnpwi the important 
scheme of llm ministers' widows' fund. On 
12 May 1743 Wallace was elected motierntor 
of the general assembly which approved the 
scheme, and in tlie end uf that year he sub- 
mitted it in London to the lord-advocate, 
who framed it into a legislative measure and 
superintended its safe progress intoan act (see 
manuscripts in possession of trustees of the 
fund). In June 1 74-t Wallace was appointed 
a royal chaplain for Scotland and a dean of 
the Chapel Uoyal. lie received the honorary 
degree of D.D. from Eilinhurgh University 
on 13 March 1763, and died on 29 July 1771. 
He was married to Helen, daughter of 
George Tumbull, minister of Tyninghame 




in Haddingtonshire. She died on 9 Feb, 
1 77ti, leaving two sons, Matthew and George, 
and a daughter, Elizabeth, all of whom died 
unmarried. Matthew become vicar of Ten- 
terden in Kent, and George is not iced below. 
Wallace published in 1753 a ' Uisserta- 
tion on the Numbers of Mankind in Ancient 
and Modem Times,' an acute and suggestive 
contribution to economics. One of the 
points in the work was a vigorous criticism 
of the chapter on the ' Populousness of An- 
cient Nations ' in Hume's ' Political Dis- 
courses.' Hume's position, however, re- 
mained intact; Wallace 'wholly failed to 
shake its foundations' (McCulluch, Litera- 
ture of Political Economy). The work was 
translated into French under tho super- 
vision of Montesquieu, and it was repub- 
lished in an English edition with prefatory 
memoir in 1809. In 1758 appeared his 
' Characteristics of the Present State of Great 
Britain,' a work indicative of insight and 
courage. In ' Various Prospects of Mankind, 
Nature, and Providence,' 17(il, a mela- 
pliysieal, economical, and theologically dog- 
matic treati.se, he recurred to his population 
theories, and by one pas.sage i> believed to 
have stimulated Malthus (see '.Mr. Matthus' 
in ILizutt's Spirit of thf Aye, and Talfourd 
ill Ttetronpeffiff ]ifnfit\\\. 185). 

His son (iEoniiE Wai.i.ace (</. 1805?), 
admitted a member of the Eaeiilty of Advo- 
cates, Edinburgh, on Ki Feb. 17o4, was aji- 
pointed a commissary of Edinburgh in 1792, 
and died about 1805. Some writers credit 
him with the memoir prefixed to the 1809 
edition of his father's ' Dissertation' (CuN- 
NIKOHAM, Churrh Jlitton/ nf Scotland, ii. 
407). George Wallace publi.shed: 1. 'Sys- 
tem of the Principles of tlu- Law of Scot- 
land,' 1700. 2. ' Thotights on the Origin of 
Feudal Tenures and the Ite.seent of -Ancient 
Peerages in Scotland,' 1783, 4to ; 2nd edit., 
• Nature and Ileseent of .'Vncient Peerages 
connected with the State of .Scotland,' 1786, 
8vo. 3. 'Prospects from Hills in Fife,' 
1796; 2nd edit. 18CX), a poem embodying 
resjiecfable descriptive sketches with his- 
torical allusions, in blank verse modelled on 
that of Thomson's ' Seasons.' 

[Refill's Fasti Ewl. Seotii'ansp. i. i. 67, 70, 
iv.65(; ; Book r,f Wallace,!. 108-200; Chambers's 
Biogr. Diet, of Eiiiiiieot Scotsmen ; Autobio- 
graph? (if Dr. Alexander Carlyle, chap. vi. ; 
Gent. Mag. 1849, i. 352 ; Hill Burton's Life and 
Correspondence of David Hume ; Alison's His- 
tory of Europe, cimp. v. ; (iibbon's Decline and 
Fallof tliuHoiiian Empire, chap, xliv.n.} T. B. 

WALLACE, ROBERT (1791-1850), 
unitarian divine, son of Kobert Wallace 
{</. 17 June 1830) by his wife rhoebo (d. 



Wallace 



104 



Wallace 



11 March 18S7), was born at Dudley, Wor- 
cestershire, on 26 Feb. 1791, and baptised on 
19 March by the name of Robert, to whicli 
in early life he sometimes added \\'illiam. 
His father was Bprivvnbroker; hisftrandfather 
was a Uumfriesshin> farmer. Two younger 
brothers joined the unitarian ministry, viz. : 
James Cowdan Wallace (179.'5.''-]B4i), uni- 
tarian minister at Totnes (1824-6), York 
Strei't, London ( 1827-8), Briphton ( 1828-9 ), 
Preston 0^29-31), ■\Varelmm (18:31-41), 
who wrote numerous hymns, .«ixly-iVnir of 
which are in J. It. Heard's ' Collection of 
Hymns,' 18.S7, 12mo ; and Charles Wallace 
{ 1796-1859), who was educated at Glasirow 
(M..\. 1817) nad Manchester College, York 
(^1817-19), and was minister at Altrincham 
and Hale. Cheshire (1829-06). 

Kobert WallaceH schoolmaster (till 1807) 
was John Todd, curate of St. Kenelm, Shroji- 
shire. In l.'^OH he ciime under thi' inHuence 
of .lames Ilews nranxby ] <{. v.l, who prepared 
him for entrance (Sepl ember lS10)ttt .Man- 
chester ('r)lloge, ttieii at York, under Charles 
Wellbeloved fq. v.] and John Fvi-nrick [q. v.] 
Among bi.< fellow .'^tndent.swas.IacobBretlell 
[q. v.] I..caving York in iHl.'j, he became 
(September) minister at Elder Yard, Chester- 
field. While here he conducted a private 
school for .''ixleh'n years. Ho distinguished 
himself in his denuminiition us a theological 
exponent, and as one of the best writers in 
the ' Monthly lieno.sitory ' and the ' Christian 
Reformer' on biblical mid patristic topics. 
Hi.s review (1h;14) of Newman's 'Ariims of 
the Fourth Century ' brought him into friendly 
correspondence with Tbonia." Tnrton [q. v.] 
His essay (183")) • On the rarenthetical oud 
Digressive Style of John's Gospel ' is a very 
able piece of criticism. In 1840 Manchester 
College was removed from York to Man- 
chester, and A\'aUace was appointed to suc- 
ceed Wellbeloved. lie left Cherterfield on 
11 Aug., and delivered in OefobiT his in- 
augural lecture as professor of critical and 
exegetical thi'ology. In 1842 he was made 
principal of the theological department. His 
theohigical position was conservative, but he 
was the first in his own denominaticra to 
bring to his cla-ssroom the processes and re- 
sults of German critical research. I5y bis 
pupils he wa.s ' not only respected but loved ; ' 
among them was Philip Pear.sall Caqienter 

The change to Manchester did not suit 
liis health ; after six years he resigned, and 
in June 1810 became minister of Trim .'Street 
Chapel, Ikth. He was made visitor of Lis 
college, became a fellow of the Geological 
Society, and worked hard ut the completion 
of his antitriuitariun biography (published 



March 1850). lie preached for the last time 
on 10 .March, and died at Bath on 13 May 
18-'i0. He was buried in the graveyard at 
Lyncomb, near Bath. His portrait was 
painted but has not been engTave<l ; a 
silhouette likeness of him is at the Jleniorial 
Hnll, Manchester. Hemarried (l825)Sophia 
(d. 31 May 1835), daughter of Michael 
Lakin of Birmingham, by whom he had a 
daughter, who survived him. 

His ' Autitrinitarian Biography,' 18.'>0, 
3 vol.". 8vo, was the result of nearly twenty- 
four years' labour. A few of the earlier 
biographies were published (anonymously) 
in the ' Monthly llepository,' 1831 ; part of 
the introduction in the 'Christian Beformer,' 
184o-6. In breadth of treatment and in 
depth of original research Wallace's work- 
manship is inferior to that of Thomas Rees 
(1777-18(14) [q. v.], but ho covers more 
ground than any previous writer, giving 
lives and biofrrnphies, continental and Eng- 
lish, extending from the Reformation to the 
opening of the eighteenth century. His in- 
troduction deals mainly with the development 
of opinion in Englandduring that period. His 
careful array of authorities is especially use- 
ful. Among his other publications were, 
besides sermons: 1. ' .\n Accnun toff he Revo- 
lution House at Whittinglon,' Chesterfield, 
1818, 8vo. 2. 'A Plain Statement ... of 
Initarianism . . . and . . . Review of the . . , 
Impro\ ed \'ersion,' Chesterfield, 1819, 8vo. 
3. • Dissertation on the Verb,' Chesterfield, 
1832, 8vo. 4. 'On the Ictis of Diodorus 
Sicnhw,' MancheJiter, l»4r), 8vo. He edited 
a 'Selection of Ilvmns for I'nitarian Wor- 
ship,' Chesterfield; 1822, 8vo; 2nd ed. 1826, 
8vo. 
I [Memoir (by Charles 'Wallaco), with list of 
] puViIications, in Christi.in Reformer, 1850, p. 
I 54!) ; Monthly Repository, 1827, p. 139 ; Cliri»- 
lian Rcformir, 1838 p. 'S 10, 1841 p. 202, 1850 
I p. 388. 18o!l [>. 081 ; Marob's Hist. I'reb. and 
Gen. Bapt. Churehes in West of England, 1835, 
p. 285 ; JIancbesitcr New College, Introductory 
Lecturej, 1841; Roll of Students, Manchester 
New College, 1868 ; Nightingale's Lancasbira 
Nonconformity [1891], i. 18; Julian's Diet, of 
Hymuology, 1892, pp. 1162, 1197, 1231 ; tomb- 
stone at Inhedgo Bnrying-groimd, Dudley ; in- 
formation from the Rev. John Wright, Sutton 
CnUiaeld, and the Rev. A. H. Shelley, Dudley.] 

A. G. 

WALLACE, ROBERT (1773-1855), 
postal reformer, born in 1773, was the second 
son of John Wnllaee(l712-l80o)ofCe8.snock 
and Kelly in ,\yr.'shire, by his third wife, 
Janet, third daughter of Robert Colquboun 
of tlie island of St. Christopher. His father 
was a West India merchant in Glasgow, who 






Wallace 



10$ 



Wallace 



I 
I 



•massed a large fortuue and became pro- 
prietor of several important eatates. The 
eldest son was Sir James Maxwell \\'allace 
[see Wallace, Grace, Ladt Wallace]. By 
the father's will Itobert Wallace receive<l 
I the estate of Kelly and part of the West 
Indian property, and was known by the de- 
signation of \Nallace of Kelly. lie was a 
devoted whig,and, ba he was a vigorous orator, 
his services were often in demand during the 
reform a^jitation before 18tS2. After the pass- 
ing of the Reform Hill he was tlie first mem- 
ber of parliament for(ireenf>ck under the act, 
and held that seat continuously till 1846. 
In parliament his chief elforts were directed 
towards law reform, especially in the direc- 
tion of having cheaper and simpler methods 
for the transfer of heritable property ; and, 
though he did not carry through any mea- 
sure specially for this purpose, he gave an 
impetus to reforms of this kind, and sug- 
gested plans which have since been adopted. 
His name is most intimately associated with 
the reform of the postal service, and with 
the introduction of the penny post. Al"ter 
repeated applications to parliament he suc- 
ceeded in having a royal commission ap- 
pointed in 1836 to report on the state of the 
posting department. The numerous reports 
made by the commission fully supported the 
charges brought against this department, and 
prepared the way for many reforms. \\'allnco 
was chairman of the committee chnrged 
with the e.tamination of Rowland Hill's 
penny postage scheme ; and it was by his 
casting vote that it was decided to recom- 
mend this scheme to parliament. He took 
an active interest in the realisation of cheap 
postage. In 1846 lie became embarrassed 
hnancially through the depreciation in value 
of some of his West Indian estates, and 
deemed it prudent to resign his seat in par- 
liament. The estate of Kelly was sold, and 
Wallace lived in retirement at Sealield 
Cottage, nreenock. After his resignation s 
liberal public subscription was made for 
him, which enabled him to spend his later 
years in comfort. He died at Seatield on 
i April 185j). He married Margoret, daugh- 
ter of Sir William Forbes of Craipievar, but 
left no issue. His sister, Anne Walloce, died 
unmarried in 1873 in her hundred and second 
year. 

I [Millar's Cnstlesnod Mansions of Ayrshire ; 
'Foster's Members of Pnrliamcint of Scotland; 
Glasgow Herald, 2 April 1856 ; Loyal Reformer's 
Gaiftte, 1832 ; Tranj-actions of Glasgow Archito- 
logicnl Soc. new st-r. i. 112.] A. H. M. 

'WALLACE. THOMAS, Baron Wai- 
l,ACE (1768-1844), only son of .Tames Wal- 
lace, barristcr-at-law (afterwards solicitor 



I and attorney-general to Oeorge HI), and 
, his wife Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of 
Thomas Simpson, Carleton Hall, Cumber- 
Innd, was bom at Brampton. Cumberland, in 
I 1766. He was educated at Eton and Christ 
Church, Oxford, where he was the contem- 
porary and associate of the Earl of Liverpool 
and of Canning. He graduated M.A. on 
18 March 1790, and D.C.L. on 5 July 1798. 
At the general election in 1700 he was 
elected M.F. for Grampound. His subse- 
q\ient elections were, for I'cnrhvn 171X5, for 
llindon 1 801', for Shaftesbury 1807, for Wey- 
mouth I8li', for Cockennouth 1813, and for 
Weymouth 1818, 181.K), and 1826. It waa 
as a supporter of Pitt that he first appeared 
in public life, and he consistently upheld 
h is {K>licy, except in regard to Roman catholic 
emuncipiition, which he strenuously opposed. 
Ill Jidv 1707 he was appointed to a seat at 
the admiralty, from wuich he was removed 
in May 180O to become one of the commis- 
sioners for the affairs of India. When Pitt 
retired in 1801, Wallace continued to hold 
ofBce underhis successor. Addington, and was 
niodea privy councillor on 21 May 1 801. M'hen 
Pitt resumed office in 1804, Wallace was in- 
cluded in the now government, which was 
diswdved by the death of Pitt in 1806. The 
colleagues of Pitt, after the death of Fox, 
were soon recalled, and remained in power 
till 1827. Wallace,in 1807 having returned 
to office, resigned it in 1816, and in 1818 be- 
came again a member of the government aa 
vice-president of the privy council for the 
management of trade. In 1820 he was ap- 
pointed chairman of the committee to con- 
sider the state of our foreign trade, nnd the 
best means for maintaining and Improving 
it. The proceedings were extended through 
several sessions, and an active and leading 
part fell upon Wallace, who laid the report 
oil the toble before the end of the session of 
1820, and afterwards introduced and carried 
through the legislature measures iutended 
to give them ellect. In 1823 he was suc- 
ceeded by William lliiskisson [q.v.Jat the 
[ board of trade, nnd received addresses irom 
many of the principal trading towns in the 
kingdom, thanking liim for his services to the 
commerce of the countrv. Wollace was soon 
appointed chairmiin of the committee selected 
to inquire into the irregularities and abuses 
existing in the collection and management of 
the Irish revenue. The recommendations of 
the committee were adopted. In May 1825 
Wallace submitted to tne house a measure 
to effect the assimilation of the currencies of 
I England and Ireland, which passed through 
I both houses without iinyreal opjiosition. In 
October 1823 he was appointed master of 




Wallace 



Wallace 



the mint in Ireland, which he held till the 
change of administration in May 1S27. Can- 
ning pressed him to join his government, but 
he refused. The death of Canning- was fol- 
lowed by the ministry of the Duke of Wel- 
lington, and on the same day as the publicat ion 
of the ministerial appointments (2 Feb. 1828) 
itwas announced that Wallace had been made 
a jieer. The title he assumed was Baron 
Wallace of Knaresdale. Till his death, on 
23 Feb. 18J4, Wallace resided at his seat, 
Featherstone Castle, Northumberland. Wal- 
lace married, lli Feb. 1814, June, sixth daugh- 
ter of Jolm Hope, second earl of Ilopetouu, 
and second wife of Henry Dundas, first vis- 
count Melville [q. v.] This lady died without 
issue on 9 June 1829. The peerage became 
ejctinct. The male heir was his cousin, John 
Wallace of the Madras civil service ; but the 
estates were left to Colonel James Hope, 
next brother to the Farl of Hopetoun and 
nephew to Lord ^^'allac«'s deceu.sed wife; he 
assumed the name of AVallace. 

[Oont. Mag. 1844, i. 423-30; Bnrke's Ex- 
tinct Peerages.] G. S-o. 

WALLACE, VINCENT (1814-1865), 
musical composer. [Sec Wallace, Wil- 
liam A'lXCEST.] 

WALLACE, Sin WILLI.VM {1272:-- 
lliO^), Scottish pL'iiernl and patriot, came of 
a family wliich had in the twelfth century 
become landowners in Scotland. The iiunif 
Walays or Wallenaia which Wallnce himself 
used, and various other forms, of which le 
Waleis or Waleys are the commonest in Ixith 
Engli.^h and Scottish records of the twelfth 
and thirteenth centuries, meant originally a 
Welshman in the language of tiieir Kiiglish- 
epeaking neighbours both in En^^land and 
Scotland. It was a surname of families of 
Cymrlo blood living on or near the borders 
ot Wales and the south-western districts of 
Scotland, origiiuiUy inhabited by the Cymric 
race of Celts, like the surimmes of Inglis 
and Scot in the English and Scottish de- 
batable and border laud. The family from 
which William Wallace sprang probably 
camti with the FitK.\!ans, the ancestors of 
the Stewarts, from Shropshire. To this con- 
nection Hliud Harry refers in the somewhat 
obscure lines as to Malcolm, the father of 
William Wallace: 
The Ri'fund [i.e. graDdson] ho was of great 

Wallace, 
The which Walks full irorthily that wrouRht 
When Walter hyr of Waillis from Warrjiyn 

Bocht. 
(O or Oye means grandson, but whether ' the 
second O' can mean descendant in the 
fourth degree is not certain.) The mother 



I of Walter, the first Stewart, was a Warenne 
I of Shropshire, and he may liave wooed, as 
' has been conjectured, a Welsli cousin with 
the oid of Kiciiard Wallace, the great- 
great-grandfather of Malcolm Wallace. 
I Uicardug Wallensis held lands in Kyle in 
Ayrshire under Walter, the first Steward, 
to whose charter in fovour of the abbey of 
I'aisley he was a witness in 11 74. The lands 
still bear the name of lUccarton (Uichard's 
town ). A younger son of Richard held lands 
in Itenfrewshire and Ayr under a second 
Walter the Steward eorly in the thirteenth 
century. He was succeeded bv his son Adam, 
the father of Malcolm, the father of W'illiam 
Walloco. William Wallace's mother wa» 
Jean Crawford, daughter of Sir lieginald or 
llainald Crawford of Corsbie, sheriff of Ayr. 
Malcolm Wallace towards the end of the 
thirteenth century held the five-pound laud 
of Elderslie in the parish of Abbey in Ren- 
frewshire under the family of Riccarton, aa 
well as the lands of .\uchenbothie in Ayr- 
shire. Elderslie is about three miles from 
Paisley, and continued in the Wallace family 
down to 1789, though it reverted to the 
Riccarton branch owing to the failure of 
direct descendants of Malcolm Wallace. 

I'robably at Elderslie William AVallace 
was bom; but there is little likelihood that 
an old yew in the garden, or the venerable 
oak which perished in the !>torm of February 
1856, or even the small castellated house now 
demolished, to all of which his name was 
attached by tradition, existed in hia lifetime. 
His father is said to have been knighted. 
Whether this is true or not, the family be- 
longed to the class of small landed gentry 
which it is an exaggeration to call either of 
noble or of mean descent. William wos the 
second son. His elder brother is called by 
Fordun Sir .\ndrew, hut by others, including 
niind Hurry, Malcolm. I'ordun says he was 
killed by fraud of tlie English. There is 
evidence that he wos alive in 1299, so that 
his death cannot have been the cause, as has 
been suggested, of the rising of Wallace. 
Still it is evident that his family, as well as 
himself, were enemies of England. His 
younger brother John was executed in Lon- 
don in 1307, two years after Wallace met 
the same fate. Both William and a brother 
named Malcolm are described its knights in 
o letter of 12&9 bv Robert Hastings, sheritf 
of Ro.\burgh, to Ivlward I (Xat. MSS. of 
S^itiaiid, ii. No. 8), which turns the balance 
in favour of Malcolm, and not Andrew, hav- 
ing been the name of the eldest brother. 

The date of the birth of Wallace is un- 
known. His biographer. Blind Horrv, who 
collected, nearly two centuries after, the tra- 



I07 



Wallace 



1 



ditions of Scotland, but who hod access to 
bookri now lost, unfortunately makes state- 
ments OS to t be age of AVallace which can- 
not be reconciled with one another. In the 
&nst book of his poem on Wallace Rlind 
Harry represents him as a child when Scot- 
land was lost in 1290, when Edward I took 
poaaession of it as arbiter of the disputed 
succession (i. line 145), and as eighteen years 
old at the date of his first allogfd ad^■etlturt■ 
■when he slew the son of Selby, constable of 
Dundee, about 1:?91. So the former state- 
ment would place his birth about 1278, unless 
'child ' means, as it sometimes did, a youth. 
The latt<;rwouldcJirry the birth of Wallace to 
1272. But in the eleventh book Harry maki's 
Wallace forty-five when he was sold to the 
Enelish in 1305; his birth is thus thrown 
back to 12*50. Nothing certain can be 
affirmed cicept that he was still young in 
1297 when he first took arms against the 
English, and began in the neighbourhood of 
Dundee and Lanark his career as the 
deadliest foe of Edward I. lie was educated 
first with an uncle Wallace, a priest at 
Dunnipace in Stirlingshire, from whom he 
learnt the Latin distich : 

Dii» till! vcrum, liliertas optima renira ; 
Nunquam servili sub nexu vivito, flli. 



n 



and afterwardrt, when In; took refuge with 
his mother at KiLspindie in the Carse of 
Qowrie, with anotiuT uncle, probably her 
brother, at the monastic school of Dundee. 
It was at this school he met John Rlair, who 
became his chaplain, and ' compiled in Dytn 
the I.*tin book of Wallace Life,' according 
to Blind Harry, who frequently refers to 
Blair as his authority. Education with such 
masters and companions must, have tneliidfd 
Latin, and we need not be surprised that the 
few documents preserved which were issued 
in his name are in that language. 

Apart from the copious narrative by Blind 
Harry of early adventures, consisting chiefly 
of the slaughter of Eiigli.shmen in single 
combst or against tremendous odds, by the 
almost superhuman strength with which 
Wallace is credited, his life can be traced 
only from 1297 to l'Mi5. It was in the 
Bummer of the former year that Wallace 
ifirgt appeared on the historic scene. It was 
'«n opportune moment for a Scottish rising, 
Edward I had taken advantage of the ilis- 
pute as to the succession to the Scottish 
throne to possess himself of the country. 
In 1290 he ravaged the country and made 
prisoner John de Baliol, at the time the 
occupant of the Scottish throne. John de 
Warenne (1231 P-1304) [q.v.j was appointed 
guardian or ruler of Scotlana as representa- 




tive of the English king, with IlughCressing- 
ham [q. v.] as treasurer, and Eugiish sheriffs 
were set up in the southern shires and in Ayr 
and Lanark. Next year the English barons 
and clergy were in open or veiled revolt against 
Edward I while the English king was ab- 
8orlie<l in preparations for the French war, 
to which he went in the end of August. 
The Scott ish nobles were di\ ided among t hem- 
selves by jealousies and were restrained from 
declaring against the English rule by fear 
of the forfeiture of their English fiefs. In 
May 1297 Wallace, at the head of a small 
band of thirty men, burnt Lanark and slew 
llezelrig the sheriff. Scottish tradition 
alHrmed the daring deed was in retaliation 
for the execution by the sherifl" of Marion 
Hradfiite, heiress of Lamington, whom Wal- 
Inee loved, upon a charge of concealing her 
lover, for wliom she had refused the hand of 
the sheritr's son. This seems more like a 
dramatic than an historical plot. The op- 
pressions and exactions of an officer who 
deemed Scotland a conquered country appear 
sufficient cause for Hezelrig's death. Wliut- 
ever may have been the proximate cause, the 
boldness of its execution made Wallace's 
reputation. He is from this time a public 
robber and murderer in the eyes of the Eng- 
li.*h king and English chroniclers, and a 
heaven-born leader in those of the Scottish 

rcople and their historians. The killing of 
lezelrig was the only specific charge in his 
indictment at Westminster. Its date is made 
by I'ordun the commencement of Wallace's 
military carei-r. It ispossible that the death 
of Ilezelrig was not Wallace's first exploit, 
, and that he had already engaged in a guerilla 
' warfare against the English olKcers whom 
Edward I had intntded into the kingdom. 
The commons of Scotlond, who only waited 
for a signal ond a leader, now flocked to his 
standard. Theconversionof an undisciplined 
niiillituJe into a regular army, as described 
by Kordiin, hears wiines.« at once to the small 
beginnings and the military talent of Wal- 
lace. He took four men as a unit and op- 
pointed the fifth their ntlicer ; the tenth man 
was officer to every nine, the twentieth to 
every nineteen, and so on to every thousand, 
and ho enforced iibscdute obedience to those 
officers by the penalty of death. lie was 
chosen by acclamation commander of the 
whole forces, and claimed to act in behalf 
of his king, John de Baliol, Edward I's 
prisoner. But ho showed wisdom by a.sso- 
ciating with him.self, whenever jiossible, re- 
presentatives of those barons who, encou- 
raged by bis success, supported him at least 
for a time. His first associate was Wil- 
liam de Douglaa ' the Hardy ' [q. v.], who 



Wallace 



Wallace 



joined him in a rapid march on Scone, where I 
the court of Willium de Urmesby [q. v.], the | 
justiciar, was dispi-rsfd, much boiity taken, 
and the justiciar Raved his life only by flight. 
They then sejiaruted. Douglas recovered the ] 
atrougholda of his native Annandalo, where 
he took the castles of Sanquhar and Duris- 
deer, while Wallace overran the Lennox. It 
may have been at this time he expelled .Vn- 
tony Bek [q. v.], the warlike bislmp of Dur- 
ham, from the house of Wishart, the bishop 
of (ilasffow, of which Bek had taken po.sses- 
sion. Wallace put in force with all the 
stringency in his power the ordinance of 
the Scottish parliament of 1296, by which 
English clerks were banished from .Scottish 
benefices — a necessary measure if Scotland i 
■was to be delivered from the English domi- 
nation, for English priests and friars minor 
took an active part as envoys and spies 
throughout the war. In July 1207 the , 
troops of Wallace and Douglas were reunited 
in Ayrshire. This was not a moment too 
soon, for Edward I's governor, Warenne, had 
sent his nephew Sir Jlenrv Percy and vSir 
Henry Clitlord, with the levy of the nor- 
thern shires, to repress the ScottUh rising. 
Collecting their forces in Cumberland in 
June, they had invaded Aunand&Ie, and, 
burning Loclmuiben to save themselves from 
a night attack, advanced by .\yr to Irvine, 
where the Scots force wiis pre])ared to en- 
gage them. At Irvine Uruce.who had sud- 
denty transferred his arms to the side of the 
Scottish patriots, again changed 8ide.s, and 
on i) July, by a deed still extant (Ca/emlur, 
Ko. 909), placed himself at the will of Ed- 
ward. It is uncertain whether Wallace was 
present at Irvine ; a fortnight later be had 
retired ' with a great compuny ' into the 
fore.st of Selkirk, ' like one who holds him- 
self against your peace,' writes Cres.'-ingham 
to Edward on '2S July (lA.), ami neither 
Cressiugham nor Percy dared follow him 
into the forest, whose natives were good 
archers and strenuoussupporters of the Scot- 
tish cause. The absence of Warenne was 
made an excuse for the delay, which enabled 
Wallace to organise and increase bis forces. 
Neither Warenne nor his depvities were 
capable generals, and they alio wed Wallace to 
lay .xiege to Dundee, and to occupv a strong 
posilioii on the north side of the Forth, near 
Cambuskennt'th .Vbbey, in the beginning of 
September, threatening Stirling Castle, the 
key of the Highlands, before they advanced 
to meet him with fifty thousand foot and a 
thousand horse. 

^^■allace took up his position at the base 
of the Abbey Craig, the bold rock where Lis 
monument now stands, which faces Stirling. 



It commands a retreat to the Ochils inac- 
cessible to cavalry, easily defensible by agile 
mountaineers against heavy-armed troops. 
On the plain below there is on the north 
side one of the many loops of the Forth as 
it winds through the corse land called the 
Links. The English lay between the river 
and the castle of Stirling. Attempt* at 
mediation were made twice by the Steward 
and the Earl of Lennox, a third time by two 
friars minor. ' Carry back this answer,' said 
Wallace, according to liemingburgh, who 
hag left 80 clear an account of that memo- 
rable day : ' we have not come for peace, but 
ready to' fight to liberate our kingdom. Let 
them come on when they wish, and they 
will find us ready to fight them to their 
beards.' He adds, ' Wallace's force was only 
forty thousand foot and laO horse.' When 
this answer was reported, the opinions of 
the English leaders were divided. The 
wooden bridge over the Forth — probably not 
far from the present stone one — was so narrow 
that some who were there reported that if 
they lui<l begun to cross at dawn and con- 
tinued till noon, the greater port of the army 
would still remain behind. But, provoked 
by Walloce's challenge, the English leaders 
mounted the bridge. Marmaduke de Th weng 
[see under Thweno, Rouert db] and the 
bearers of the standards crossed first. Thweng, 
by a brilliant dash, cut through the Scots 
force, attempting the manceuvre which, if 
Lundy's advice to cross by a neighbonring 
ford and take the Scots in the rear had been 
taken, might have succeeded. Th weng failed 
through want of support, and recrossed the 
bridge witbhisne|)hew. Few others had such 
good fortune. .\s they defiled two abreast 
over the bridge they were caught as in a net. 
Wallace's trooiis hod descended from the 
; .Vbbey Craig when he saw as many Engli.sh 
iLs they could overcome had crossed. The 
defeat was signal and soon became general. 
Xo reinforcements could be sent over the 
bridge, now choked with the dead and 
wounded. The story that Wallace had, by 
loosening the wooden bolts which held one 
of its piers, broken it down, appears less 
I likely, though there is evidence in the Eng- 
lish accounts that the bridge had, soon aft«r 
the battle, to be repaired. Some tried to 
swim the river and were drowned. A few 
Welsh foot escaped by swimming, but only 
a single knight. Five thousand foot and 
n hundred knights were slain. .\mong 
these was Cressiugham the treasurer, whose 
skin was cut in strips, which the Scots 
divided as trophies. Wallace, says the 
' Chronicle of Lanercost,' made a sword-belt 
out of one of the strips. English writers 



Wallace 



109 



Wallace 



I 



I 



attribute the defeat to Cressingh&m'g penu- 
riousness as treasurer and folly as a gene- 
ral. Warenne was at least equally to blame. 
Xor is it fair to try to lessen the merit of 
Wallace . Where ot hers had faltered or cone 
over to the enemy, he had almost alone Kept 
alive the spirit of his countrymen. Heselect<?d 
the field of battle at the place and moment 
■when a smaller force could engnge a larjrer 
with best hopes of success, and had been in 
the thick of the fight. His colleague in 
the command was Andrew Moray, son of Sir 
Andrew Moray, then prisoner in the Tower 
[see under McERAVorMoKAY, Sik Asdrew, 
d. 1338]. 

Niithing succeeds like success. The Stew- 
ard and Lennox aided ^^'allace in the pursuit 
of Warenne, but Wallace himself was now 
sole leader. His army grew by volunteers, 
but also by forced levies of all able-bodied 
men between sixteen and sixty. Bower, 
Fordun's continuator, probably a chaplain of 
Aberdeen, relates that the burge.«se,8 of that 
town having refused to obey Wallace, he 
marched north and hanged some of them as 
an example ; and there is other evidence of 
his forcible methods, as in the petition for 
reparation to Edward of Michael de Miggel, 
irho was twice captured and forced to join 
the troops of Wallace {Calendar, ii. 456). 
The castle of Dundee, probably by the aid 
of Scrjrmgeour, who was soon after made its 
constable, at once surrendered. Edinburgh- 
and lioxburgh were taken. Henry de Hali- 
l)arton recovered Berwick, but the castles 
of these towns were still held by English 
captains (Chronicle of Lriiierfo/t, p. 190). 
There is no specific mention of the fall of 
Stirling, which Warenne before his flight had 
committed to the custody of Mnrmudiike de 
Thweng, but we know tlmt it passed into the 
hands of the Scots. Roxburgh and Hadding- 
ton, and nearly all the great towns on the 
English side of the Forth, were bunrod (ib. 
p. 191). Scotland was free, and WnUace, 
still acting in the name of John de Daliol, 
crossed the border, and before. 18 Oct. harried 
Northumberland, and afterwards marched 
through \\'estmoreland and Cumberland, 
wasting the country, but without taking any 
stronghold. At Hexham some Scottish 
lancers threatened to kill the few canons left 
in the convent unless they gave up their 
treasures. Wallace interposed, and asked one 
of them to celebrate mass. Before the hont 
was elevated, he left tlie church to lake ofl" 
his armour, as was the pious custom, but 
tome Scots lancers carried ofl' tlie holy veasels 
while tiie priest was washing his hands in 
the vestry, so that the ."tervice could not be 
completed. Wallace ordered the sacrilegious 



soldiers to be sought for, but they were not 
t-o be found. He took the canons under his 
own special care, and on 7 Nov. issued letters 
of protection in his own name and that of 
Andrew Moray, as leaders of the army of 
Scotland in the name of Baliol. Their terms 
refute the calumny so often repealed, that 
^^'allace was an indiscriminate j»erseCutor of 
the clergy. Against English clerks who 
Bccept-ed Scottish benefices he was )>eyond 
doubt severe, nor could he always restrain his 
foUowiTS. But the man who had a chaplain 
as one of his friends, and was countenanced 
bv the chief bishops of Scotland, Uobert 
Wishart [q. v.] and ^^■illiam d« Lamberton 
Fq. v.], was not an enemy of the church of 
Itome or of Scotland, but of the churcliraen 
of England and of Edward. On St. Martin's 
day, 11 Nov., he appeared before Carlisle, 
whicii was summoned to surrender in the 
name of William the Conqueror. Tlie bur- 
ghers prepared to defend it, and Wallace, 
declining a siege, wasted the forest of Inglft- 
wood, Cumberland, and ' .Mlcrdale,' as far as 
("ockermouth. A snowstorm prevented liim 
from ravaging the bishopric of Durham, 
whose deliverance was attributed to the pro- 
tection of its patron, St. Cuthbert. 

Wallace returned to Scotland about 
Christmas 1297, and, apart from a casual 
though possibly true referenco to his being 
again in the fore.-t of Selkirk, the next cer- 
tain fact in his life is that he was at Tor- 
phicheii in West Lothian on 29 March 
\-29S. A grant of that date by Wallace has 
been preserved. He styles himself' Wilcl- 
mu.s ^^■alay8 miles, Custog regni Scotia^ et 
ductorexercituum ejusdem nomine principis 
domini JohanuisDei gratia regis Scotiie illus- 
tris de consensu communitatis ejusdem. . . . 
I pereonsonsum et assensura magnatum dicti 
i regni,' and confers on Alexander Skirmisher 
' (Scrymgeour) six marks value of land in the 
I territory of Dundee andthe oftiee of con.stable 
of that town in return for his homage to 
Baliol and faithful service in the army of 
Scotland as bearer of the king's standard. 
This document refutes the assertion made 
at the trial of Wallace that he had claimed 
the kingdom for himself. It also proves that 
after the death of Moray he acted as sole 
guardian, and probably also that some of 
the noblu.s were .still on his side, and that 
he had been elected guardian, though the 
remark of Lord Haihis appears just that 
how he obtained the office will for ever re- 
main problematical. John Major, who 
thinks he assumed it, states that there were 
families in his own time who held their 
lands by charters of Wallace, which indi- 
cates that his authority was recognised 



Wallace 



no 



Wallace 



hoik than «nd ftftorwKrdit as cunfumng a 
li|[al tillu. li. WHH itbtiul ikia timt', Bocord- 
In^ Uiijuuiif till'' l\>litic«l Sonj^s,' which du- 
•iiriliii •<> viviiUy thn Kntili«h popular view, 
tbal \V'itllit(«n wiu knijfUtatl : 

I>o piinJooo At (>quM al da eorro eignaa ; 
AM,-l|iit liiJiguaa MKlMt cam bob p(op« digons 

{PulUicai So,^, p. 174>. 

Muttuwhilu KdwaKi I, NiaaMd from Um 

war with Krauc^' by « trae*, ratanad to 

1 ' ^<ll II Miuvlk uxi pusktd <m the 

) u (i>r tho rvufwsl of vmr witli 

wKii-h hi» «oa Fhaoa Edw»rd kad 

xui>. VVriu WW* kned for bmb 

•uu iM|>j>iu«, Kud • inrtMiawit was evm- 

i iMMd to inwt M York o« 36 Majr. Ii Ml 

[^ Uw aOkk, bittt Ik* Swte bwoM linrltwwl 

(to M«Mkd. Md^tM IQirikk wtetM. lid hf 

VigoX tloituo^)^ • «mmMIm»«( tk» ckM>- 

l»i> ptiwiiail to twifato tkMi if 

Ko K<^MnMW ftato Hwtliail It 

ihiniaii ■Hiwitii^ln w fVi* 

nlMAw tUt WaOM* Mil ^fMMd 

j t>» vkw k«r<M( of KUck Iraau)* (tk« <bn«t of 

' Iko AKVr*>. (K-«r Xwburyk. oa tkt «kan» of 

tkv V ' . *Bti Jggwttmi Sir Ajwai im 

V«k .'uss oa li J cta«>. Ekftiak 

SVtfa «£Hw«.* ikiBk uil it M^r kaa» 

rgtoiBte wM iilkM kri WH 
>(t«toTtoM«k h wwUka^toliMlw 
K lyHto coaaiifeMA wick 



drawn up in four circles, called in Soots 
' schiltrons ' (an AngloSaxon term for shield- 
band<), which answered to the squares of 
later wmrfare, the lancers sittinc or Kneeling, 
with lances held obliquely, facing outwards. 
IWtween the schiltrons stood the archers, 
and behind them the horsemen. It was 
the natural formation to receive cavalry, the 
arm in which the Scots were weakest and 
tke English strongest, for most of the Scot- 
tish boroni had stared awav, and those pre- 
seaC wese not to be counted on. Jealousy 
against Wallace, always latent, broke out 
•t tkis cntieal moment among his supe- 
riota ia imnk. According to tne Scottish 
twrfitinM and tk« duoaiole of Fordun, Sir 
J«kB OoHy« tke yiiaa^i i . Sir John Ste- 
wart, aad WaQan disputed on the field 
wke waa to kokl tke mtfieme command. 
Aflar Baas Edward propoaed that while the 
Cxad the men and horses 
k» Mt fcr tkey had tasted nothing 
a>>da^of tka j aat iu i ia afternoon. 
■• tt kta faytaim representing 
aife» aa tfceia was only a 
Aam aad tke Scots, 
timxge in the name 
of d»Iaftkae» aaai,an>i HoIt Spirit. The 
•r d»lMI iw^ Bgod, Bokna, and 
«r Thaali, wwt stn^ at tka 
to tnia to tkei 
Tke 





l^xyiWNilk w 't^lu^ i^ttu Uttfv %««nr 



Wallace 



III 



Wallace 




tho 

■r; 

mc 

■liy 

an 

I won 



it«inent is that ' the Scottish knights 
(equestres), when the Eaglish came up, flwl 
without a blow, except a few who remained 
to draw up the schiltrons.' Amonp these 
was Wallace, tho real prompter and com- 
mander of the battle. His historic speech, 
*I baf brocht you to the ring, hop if voii can,' ' 
ferring to a well-known dance (Matt. | 
'bsi. p. 451 ; IIailkb, p. 259 n.), was pro- 
^ meant to glance at the desertion of the j 
_ tg, and to appeal to the infantry to fight 
[hough the knights had fled. The formatlun 
of foot soldiers in circles, witli lances facing 
outwards round the whole circumference, 
though known before, had never been so 
mplete in a Scottish army, and Bruce, if 
le fought that day with the English, learnt 
ra Wallace a lesson he applied with better 
•UCC8S8 at Bannockbuni. The Scots were 
hrgely outnumbered. According to the 
most trustworthy accounts, they were only 
ne-third of the English. But they had the 
vantage of the ground, and Edward had 
s own difficulties, if it be true, as stated 
ly Robert de Brunne, that Iiis Welsh troops 
'declined to fight. His brilliant leadership 
and superior force in cavalry and archers 
won the day. The loss of upwards of a bun- 
'red horses shows that the victory was not 
ioodless, but only one knight of importance 
(homo valoris), Sir Brian de Jay, master of 
tbe Temple, lost his life. Tlie slaughter of 
.he Scots was by the lowest estimate t*n 
ihousand men, and of the leaders there fell 
Sir .John Stewart, Sir John Oraham of Dun- ! 
dafi', the Ji//iu Achate* of Wallace, and 
Macdufi, the young earl of Fife, whose fol- 
lowers, like the men of Bute, the retainers 
wart, perished to a man. Wallace 
ted witu the remnant of the army to 
ig, where he burnt both the town and 
caAtle; but Edward followed on his 
and restored the castle. 
rom this date authentic evidence as to 
e life of Wallace, never so full as we coidd 
mh, becomes slender, and it is difficult to 
up the threads. After Edward quitted 
o field of Falkirk, Wallace is said to have 
turned to bury Graham in Falkirk church- 
.rd. It is disputed whether he was pre- 
at the burning of the boms of Ayr, and 
deed whether the burning took place after 
e battle of Falkirk ; but this is a point 
chiefly of local interest. Shortly after Fal- 
kirk he gave up the office of guardian ' at 
water of Forth,' possibly Stirling, and 
myn succeeded to that office. The state- 
of Blind Harry, which had been 
bted, that he went to France to the 
of Philip le Bel, probably in the fol- 
iwing year, 1299, has been coniirmed by 





documentary evidence ; but the minstrel has 
himself to blame for I he doubt by duplicating 
it, and making the first visit prior to the 
battle of Falkirk, and apporently after that 
of Stirling, a point in >\ allace's life when 
there was neither time nor occasion for such 
a visit. 

An important letter by Robert Hastings 
to Edward, dated 20 Aug. 1299, gives as of 
recent occurrence a spy's account of a dis- 
pute between the leading Scottish nobles in 
Selkirk Forest, caused by .Sir David Graham's 
demand for Sir ^^'illiam Wallace's lands and 
go<xls, as he was going abroad without leave 
of t he guardians. His brother. Sir Malcolm, 
interpmed, and said 'his brother's lands and 
goods could not be forfeited till it was found 
by a jury whether he went out of the king- 
dom for or against its profit.' Sir Malcolm and 
Ciraham gave each other the lie, and both 
drew knives. A compromise was made by 
which Comvn, Bruce, and Lamberton, thio 
bishop of St. Andrews, were to be joint 
guardians of the realm, while the bishop, 
as principal, was to have custody of the 
castles. It is plain the contest lay between 
the party of Comyn and the party of Bruce, 
and It deserves notice that Malcolm Wallace 
aided with the latter and with the bishop, 
who probably had already entered into a 
secret league with Bruce. >Vhat was de- 
cided as to Wallace's lands is not mentioned. 
On 24 Aug., St. Bartholomew's day, 1299, 
there is a casual notice that Wallace cut off 
the supplies from Stirling, then in the hands 
of on English garrison (Calendnr, ii. No. 
1949), but which surrendered in December 
to Sir John de Soulis [q. v.l 

The anonymous author of the Cotton 
manuscript (Claudius 1). vi. Brit. Mus.), 
who, though prejudiced against Wallace, 
appears to have had special sources of in- 
formation, mentions in the same year (1299) 
that Wallace, with five soldiers, went to 
France to implore the aid of Philip le Bel 
against Edward, who had been released 
from his French difficulties by the treaty of 
Montreuil, and by his marriage, 10 Sept. 
riiW, to I'hilip's sister, and was now pre- 
paring to renew the war on Scotland. The 
temporary friendship between England and 
France led Philip to imprison Wallace 
when he came to Amiens, and to write to 
Edward that he would send Wallace to 
him. Edward answered with thanks, and 
the request that he woidd keep Wallace in 
custody. But Philip changed his mind, and 
on Monday after All Saints, 1 Nov. 1299 or 
1300, probably the latter, there is a letter 
of introduction by him ' to his lieges de- 
stined for the Roman cotirt ' requesting them 



Wallace 



112 



Wallace 



to get 'the pope's favour for his beloved 
William Wallace, knight, in the matter 
which he wisliw to forward with his holi- 
ness ' (National MSS. Scotland, i. No. Ixxv.) 
Whether Wallace went to Rome in the y<?ar 
of the jiibiU'C we do not know, but the inter- 
necine conflict between Edward and Wal- 
lace has lefb its reSection in the lines of 
Dante : 

, . . ihe pride that thirsts for gain. 
Which drives the Scot and Knjlishman so hard 
That neither can within liis Und remain 
(Paradito, xix. 121). 

Meantime the Scots had sent an embassy 
to Rome to combat the claim of Edward to 
the supremacy of Scotland. A long memo- 
rial entitled 'Processus Baldri'di Bisset, 
contra flgmenta liegis .\ii)i!in>,' has been 
preserved in Bower'scontinuatinn of Fordun. 
It can scarcely be doubted that the object of 
Wallace in wishingto visit Rome was to sup- 
port this memorial. He received also letters 
of safe conduct from IInco, king of Norway, 
and from Baliol. These were once in a hana- 
per in the English exchequer, but now un- 
fortunately lo.st ; the description of them in 
the ' .'Vncient Kalendar ' of Bishop Stapylton 
in 1323 is important, and has not been sutfi- 
ciently noted (P.^lorave, ^a/f/irf/ir*, i. 1:54). 
Besides showing the support Wallace re- 
ceived, not only from Philip of France, but 
from the king of Norway, it appears from 
this brief entry that there had been both 
ordinances by and treaties betwt/en \\'allace 
and certain of the Scottish nobles, now lost . 
Probably he never presented the letter nt 
Home, and deemed his presence in Scotland 
more important ; nor is there any trace of 
his going to Norway. The next record of his 
name is a grant to his 'chere valet,* Edward 
de Keth, by Edward 1, ' of all goods he may 
gain from Monsieur QuiUaume de Waleys, 
the Iring's enemy,' by undated letters patent 
issued in or prior to 1303. It is remarkable 
that we have no certjiin evidence of his I 
having been in Scotland between 1299 and 
1303, BO that it remains possible he may 
have gone to Home or elsewhere. 

Meanwhile Boniface had claimed the do- 
minion of Scotland by a bull dated Anagni, 
27 June 1300, to which the English barons 
replied in their famous letter of 1;301 repu- 
diating all interference by the pope in the 
temporal affairs of England. Boniface there- 
upon abandoned Scotland and the Scot.-*, 
and on 13 .4ug. I.'i02 wrote a letter to the 
Scottish bishops exhorting them to peace 
with Edward (TttKiSBft, Xos. ccclxx. and 
ccclxxi.) Philip followed his example, and, 
securing terms for himself by the treaty of 
Amiens on 26 Nov. 1302, confirmed by that 



of Paris on 20 May 1303, made a separate 
and perpetual peace with England, in which 
Scotland was not included. 

The war, however, still went on, though 
what part Wallace took in it is not known. 
, There is no proof that he was at the battle 
of lioslin on 24 Feb. 1303, when Sir .lohn 
Comyn defeated John de Segrave [q.v.],the 
English commander. Edwiird now resumed 
the war in person and with greater vigour. 
Bruce surrendered at Strathord on 9 Feb. 
1-JOl ; Comyn and the principal barons sub- 
mitted ; and on 24 July Stirling fell. At 
this date at least, and probably for some time 
before, Wallace had been in arms, though 
not in command. His name occurs, with 
those of Sir John de Soulis, who had been as- 
sumed as an additional guardian of the king- 
dom — it is said ot the instance of Baliol — 
Wishart, bishop of Glasgow and the Steward 
of .S:olland, as specially excepted from the 
capitulation. 'As for William Wallace, it 
i.s agreed,' it ran, ' that he shall render him- 
self up at the will and mercy of our sovereign 
lord thi; king as it shall seem good to him' 
(KvLEV, Plaeitn Parlinmentaria, p. 370; 
Calendar, ii. Nos. 1444-5 and 1463). In 
a parliament of Edward at St. Andrews in 
the middle of Lent, Simon Fmser and Wil- 
liam Wallace, and those who held the castlo 
of Stirling against the king, were outlawed 
(Trivet, p. 376), from which it would ap- 
pear that Wallace had not merely cut off sup- 
plies to Edward's troops, but taken part id 
the subsequent defence of Stirling. 

The pursuit of Wallace proceeded with 
unremitting zeal, and lias left many tracea 
in tlie English records. A pajanent was 
made on 15 March 1303 in reimbursement 
of sums expanded on certain Scottish lads 
who by order of the king had laid an ambus- 
cade (ad ituidiandum) for Wallace and 
Froser, and other enemies of the king (Ca- 
lendar, iv. 482). A similar payment was 
made on 10 Sept. 1303 for the loss of two 
liorses in a raid against Wallace and Eraser 
((A. p. 477), and for other horses lost in a 
forav against him near Irnside Forest (ift.) 
On "12 .March 1304 Nicholas Oy8el,the valet 
of the Earl of Ulster, received 40/». for 
bringing the news that Sir William Latimer, 
Sir John Segrave, and Sir Robert Clifford 
had discomfited Eraser and Wallace at 
llopperew {Ui. p. 474), and three days after 
15*. was paid to John of Musselburgh for 
guiding Segrave and ClilTord in a foray 
agaiitst Eraser and Wallace in Lothian (*&, 
p. 475). It was provided on 25 July after 
the capitulation of Strathord that Sir John 
Comyn, Alexander de Lindesay, David de 
Graham, and Simon Fraser were to have 



Wallace 



"3 



Wallace 



» 



their sentences of exile or otherwise remitted 
if thev took Wallace before the twentieth 
day niter Christmas, and that the Steward, 
Sir John dcSoulis, and Sir IngT-amde I'mfra- 
ville were not to have letters of safe conduct 
to enable th«!m to return to the king's court 
till Wallace was captured (Calendnr, ii. No. 
1663; PAlxiluvB, pp. cxxix, 276, 281). 
At last, on 28 Feb. 1305, the step seems 
tohmve been taken which led to his capture. 
Ralph de Ualiburton, a Scottish prisoner in 
England, formerly a follower ot Wallace, 
was released till three weeks after Easter 
day, IS April, that he might be taken to 
Scotland to help the Scots employed to cap- 
ture William \N allace. He had already been 
there on the same errand, and Mowbray, a 
Scottish knight, became surety for his return 
to London (Calendar, iv. p. 373 ; Rtlet, 
Placita, p. 279). The actual captor, accord- 
ing to theEnplish contemporary chroniclers 
Langtoft, Sir Tliomas Gray in ' Scala Chro- 
nica, and the ' Chronicle of L&nercost,' and 
the later but independent statements of 
Wyntoun and Bower, was Sir John de Men- 
teith [q. v.] Menteilh took him, says Lang- 
toft, 'through treason of Jack Short kis man.' 
Possibly Jack Short was a nickname for 
Ralph de Hnliburfon. Whether another 
statement, that ho was surprised ' by night 
hi« leman bv,' was scandal or fact, wu have 
no means of knowing. Wyntoun, who wrote 
his ' Chronicle ' in 14ItS, is apparently the 
first writer who state.s Glasgow as the place 
of the capture, but is supported by tradi- 
tion. Haile.i doubted if Menteith ha.'! been 
justly charged with being an accomplice in 
the treachery, for he was then sheriff of 
Dumbartoti under Edward. He was at least 
handsomely rewarded for his share in the 
capture [ssee Mksteith, Siu Johs dk]. The 
English chroniclers and records emphasise 
the fact that Wallace fell by the hands of 
his own countrymen. That some of them 
■were always ready to thwart and even to 
betray him is a marked fact at various criti- 
cal points of his life. He never had the 
willing support of the general body of the 
nobles. Hut the tempter and the paymaster 
was Edward, and the evidence shows the 
share the English king, who, like all the 
greatest rulers, did not overlook details, had 
in every measure taken to secure the person 
of his chief antagonist. The independence 
of which Wallace was the champion had 
come into sharp cflnHict with the imperialist 
aims of the greatest Plantageuet. The latter 
prevailed for the time, but the Scottish 
jMiople inherited and handed down the spirit 
of Wallace. Hiii e.xample animated Bruce. 
His traditions grew till every part of Scot- 

YOL. LIX. 



land claimed a share of them. His ' life' by- 
Blind Harry became the secular bible of 
his countrymen, and echoes through their 
I later historv. It was one of the first hooka 
printed in Scotland, was e.Ypanded after the 
union in modern Scots homely couplets by 
Hamilton of Oilbertfield, and was con- 
centrated in the poem of Burns, in which 
'Wallace' is a synonym for liberty, 'Ed- 
I ward ' for slavery. 

Of the trial and execution of Wallace 
there is a contemporary account embodying 
the original commijtsion for the trial and 
' the sentence ( Cfironicles of Edward 1 and 
, Edward II, IJolls .Ser. p. 137, Stubbs'a note, 
pp. 139-42). On 22 Aug. 1305 Wallace was 
brought to London, where he was met by a 
mob of men and women, and lodged in the 
houses of William de Leyre in the parish 
of All Saints, Fenchureh Street. Leyre 
was a former sherill", and these houses were 
probably used as a prison. He was in 
custody of John de Segrave, to whom he 
hod been delivered by Sir John Menteith. 
On the following day, Monday the 23rd, he 
I was taken on horseback by Sir John and his 
brother. Sir Geoffrey Segxare, the mayor. Sir 
John Blunt, the sheriffs and aldermen, to 
the great hall of Westminster. He was 
placed on a scaffold at the south end 
with a laurel crown on his head, in 
mockery of what was said to have been his 
, boast that he would wear a crown in that 
1 hall. Peter Malory (the justiciar of Eng- 
land), Segrave, Blunt (the mayor), and two 
others hod been appointed justices for his 
trial. Malory, when the court met, charged 
Wallace with being a traitor to King Edward 
and with other crimes. He answered that 
he had never been a traitor to the king of 
England, which was true, for, unlike 80 
many Scottish nobles and bishops, he had 
never taken any oath of allegiance, but 
confessed the other charges. Sentence was 
given on the same day by Segrave, in t«rma 
of which the substance reflects light upon 
liifl life. It ran thus: 'William Wallace, 
a Scot and of Scottish descent, having 
been taken prisoner for sedition, homicides, 
depredations, fires, and felonies, and after 
our lord the king had conquered Scotland, 
forfeited Baliol, and subjugated all Scots- 
men to his dominion as their king, and 
had received the oath of homage and fealty 
of prelates, earls, barons, and others, and 
proclaimed his peace, and appointed his 
officers to keep it through all Scotland. 
You, the said William Wallace, oblivious 
of your fealty and allegiance, did, (1) along 
with an immense number of felons, rise in 
arms and attack the king's officers and slay 

I 



Wallace 



114 



Wallace 



Sir William He/elrig, sheriff of Lannrk, 
•when he waa holdins a court for the pleas 
of the king; (2) did -with your armed 
Adherents attack Tillages, towns, and castles, 
and isaue brieves as if n superior through 
all Scotland, and hold parliaments and 
Bssemblies, and, not content with so great 
wickedness and sedition, did counsel all the 
prelates, earls, and barons uf your jmrty to 
submit to the dominion of the king of 



Edward. He bad never asked Scotland to 
acknowledge the lordship of Philip, but he 
had asked that king to aid Scotland. He 
had been cruel in war, but so far as we 
know he had shown more reverence to the 
church OS the church than Edward. In 
another respect the sentence is remarkable 
in relation to a disputed point in English 
and Scottish history, and its hearing on the 
position of Wallace. Edward does not claim 



France, and to aid in the destruction of the 1 dominion over Scotland as of ancient right, 



realm of England; (S) did with your 
accomplices invade the counties of North- 
itmberland, Cumberland, and Westmoreland, 
burning and killing " every one who used 
the English tongue," sparing neither age nor 
sex, monk nor nun ; and (4) when (he king 
had invaded Scotland with his great army, 
restored peace, and defeated you, carrying 
your st-andard against him in mortal war, 
and offered you mercy if you surrendered, 
vou did despise his offer, and were outlawed 



or by the submission of the Scottish com- 
petitors and estates at Norham,but in plain 
words as a conqueror. It followed, though 
this flaw in their logic escaped Malory and 
the justices, that Wallace w^as not a rebel, 
but one who had fought against the con- 
queror of his country. The law of war had 
not perhaps odvanced far in the fourteenth 
century, but the difference between a rebel 
and an enemy was known. The trial, one 
of the first in the great hall of Westmin- 



in his court as a thief and felon according 1 .ster, is also proof that Wallace was treated 
to the laws of England and Scotland ; and as no ordinary enemv. In a sense, the 
considering that it is contrary to the laws view of Lingard. repudiated by Scottish his- 
of England thot any outlaw should be torians, is true : the fame of Wallace has 



allowed to answer in Iiis defence, your sen- 
tence is that for your sedition and making 
war against the king, you shall be carried 
from Westminster to the Tower, and from 



been increased by the circumstances of his 
trial and execution, for they wrote in in- 
delible characters in the annals of Etigland 
and its capital what might otherwise have 



tiie Tower to Aldgate, and so through the I been deemed the exaggeration of tlie Scot- 
city to the Elms at Smilhfield, and for your fi.sh people. 



robberies, homicides, and felonies in Eng- 
land iind Scotland yuu .shall be there hanged 
and drawn, and as an outlaw b«headed, 
and afterwards for your burning churches 
and relics your ho.irl, liver, lungs, and 
entrails froni which your wicked thoughts 
came shall be burned, and tinally, bi-cuuse 
your sedition, depredations, tires, and homi- 
cides were not only against the king, but 



In the records of Scotland and England 
and the contemporary chronicles he stands 
out boldly 88 the chief champion of the 
Scottish nation in the struggle for indepen- 
dence, and the chief enemy of Edward in 
t he premature attempt to unite Britain under 
one sceptre. His name has become one of 
the great names of history. He was a gene- 
ral who knew how to discipline men and to 



against the people of Englftn<l and Scotland, rouse their enthusiasm ; a statesman, if we 
your head shall be placed on London 1 {ridge moy trust indications few but pregnant, 
in sight both of land ond water travellers, | who, had more time been granted and better 
and your quarters hung on gibbets at New support given him by the nobles, might 



Castle, Berwick. Stirling, and Perth, to the | 
terror of all who pass by.' The ' Chmnicle 
of Lmercost' varies the list by substituting 
Aberdeen for Stirling, but the olficial sen- 
tence is a preferable authority. It was the 
ordinary sentence for treason, and shows 
the character attributed to the life of Wal- 
lace as seen by Edward and his justices. 
Wallace was, as he said, an enemy, not a 
traitor. He had never taken an oath to 
Edward. He had never claimed royal 
authority for himself, but acted in the name 
of Baliol us his king, as was known to 
Segrave and the other justices by the docu- 
ments taken from his person. He had 
never recognised Baliol's deposition by 



have restored a nation and created a state. 
He lost his life, as he had taken the liven 
of many, in the stem game of war. The 
natural hatred of the English people and 
their king was the measure of the natural 
affection of his own people. The latter has 
been lasting. 

There is no authentic portrait. Blind 
Harry gives a description of his personal 
appearance, which he strangely says was sent 
to Scotland from France by a herald. It 
runs: 
His Ivnimys gret, with stalvard paiss [pac«] 

and soQDd, 
His braanys [muscles] haid, his armea gret and 

ronnd; 



Wallace 



"S 



Wallace 



I 



N 



His hnndia maid lychi lik till a pawmer [pnl- 

mer]. 
Off maolik mak,ioi<A naltugnt and der; 
ProportioDjt lang and fayr was bin waaage; 
Bycht gad of gpecb, sad abill in curage ; 
Braid breyst and heycb, vith gtuidjr crag and 

grot; 
His lyppra round, his noya waa iiquar and tret; 
Bowanif bron baryt, on brovis and brois ly cht ; 
[i.e. Wary brown hair on browa and eyabrovrs 

light] ; 
Cler aapn> cyn, lik dyaniondia bryeht. 
Wndi/r the chi/n, on the Ufl st/d was tei/n, 
Be hurt, a wain ; hia colour vnvs sangweyn. 
IfounrlU III had in mony tiiuers place, 
Bot/nir and vxill kepyt wat hit face. 

[The sonices of the life of Wallace arc nume- 
rous but meagre. Of the contemponvry En);- 
liah chronicl««, Hemin^burgb, Lancrton, the 
Scala Chronica, the Floreii Hisloriiiruin of 
Matthewof Westminster, and the Chronicle of 
lianercfist are the most imixirtjiot. The poli- 
tical poems of Edward I, edited by Wright for 
the Camden Society, show the popular as dis- 
tlngoished from the ecclesiastical view, which 
agreesaa to Wallace's, but differs widely as to Ed- 
vard I's, character. There is no contemporary 
Scottish chronicle, but Wyntoun's Chronicle was 
written before 1424, and book yiii. chap. 20, which 
refers to the capture of Wallace by Sir John 
Menteith, is part nf the portion of Wyntoun 
which he fonnd written and adopted (bookviii. 
chap. 19). It may not improbably be by a con- 
temporary. The addition by Bower to the Scoti- 
ehronicon of Fordnn wus written before 1447. 
The records are to be found in Sir F. Falgraro's 
Dora meats illustrative of the History of Scotland, 
and Kalendsrs and Inventories of His Majesty's 
Exchequer, vol. i. ; Joseph Stevenson's Wallace 
Papers (Muitland Club), 1842. and Documents 
illustrative of the History of Scotland (1286- 
1306); and the Calendar of Documents edited 
by Mr. Joseph Bain for the Lord Clerk Register, 
vols. ii. and iv. For Blind Harry's account of 
Wallace see Heuhy thb Mijistbkl. A Latin 
poem ' Valliados libris tribus opus inchoatum,' 
by Patrick Panter, professor of divinity at St. 
Andrews, was published in 1633. W. Hamilton 
of Gilbertfield's Wallace (1722) is a modernised 
edition of BJind Harry, and became a favourite 
chap-book. The beat editions of BUnd Harry 
lira Dr. Jamieson's (1820) and that edited for 
lie Scottish Text Society by Mr. James Moir of 
Abf^rdeen. There are several modern lives, of 
which (he only ones deserving mention are the 
Life of Wallace by David Carrick (3nl ed. Lon- 
don, 1840). the Memoir by P. F. Tytler in the 
Scottish Worthies (2nd ed. London, 1845), a 
Hemoir l>y Mr. James Moir (1886), and an 
instructive Life by A. W. Mnrison (Famous 
Scots Series, 1898), who has attempted the diflS- 
cull, and the present writer thinks impossible, 
task of weaving together the anecdotes of Blind 
Harry and anthentjc facts. Lord Bute has pub- 
lished two lectures— (1) The Early Life of Wal- 




lace, 1876; (2)The6amingof thoBamsof Ayr, 
1878. English historians seldom write of him 
withoot prejudice, but Mr. C. H. Pearson's His- 
tory of England is an exception. Robert Ben- 
ton Seelcy [q. v.], author of the Greatest of the 
Phintagenets, compares him to Nana Sahib, rival- 
ling Matthew of Westminster, who compared 
him to ' Herod, Nero, and the accursed Ham.' 
Scottish historians can scarcely avoid partiality. 
The fairest account of Wallace's part in tlie 
war of independence is by R. Panli in his 
Oeachiehte Englands. IVtler, in hia History of 
Scotland, is fuller than Hill Barton as to Wal- 
lace, and in general tmitworthy. Hailes'a AnnaU 
is not so satiafiwlory as nsnal. The nnmerona 
poems and novels on Wallace do not aid history; 
bntMiss Porter's Scottish Chiefs (London. 1810), 
and Wallace, a Tragedy, by Professor Robert 
Buchanan (Glasgow, 1866), deserve notice for 
their spirit. There is u Bibliotbeca Wullnsiuna 
appended to the unonvmoag Life of Wallace 
(Olasgow, 1858). The Life itself is mainly 
taken from Carrii'k'i Memoir.] M. M. 

WALLACE, WILLIAM (1768-1843), 
mathematician, son of a leather manufac- 
turer in Pysart, Fifeshire, was bom there on 
23 Sept. 17rtS. On hia father's removal to 
Edinburgh, William wa,s apprenticed to a 
bookbinder, and afterwards became a ware- 
houseman in a printing office. Here, by 
his own industry, lie mastered Latin, French, 
and mathematics. After being for some 
time a bookseller's shopman, acting as a 
private teacher, and attending classes at the 
university, in 1794 he was appoint«d assis- 
tant tnat hematical teacher in Perth Academy. 
During thi.s period he contribut<.'d to the 
'Transactions of the Royal .Society of Edin- 
burgh ' and the ' EncycloiKcdia Britannica.' 
In 1803 his patron, John Piayfair [q.v.], ad- 
vised him to apply for the otfico of matho- 
matical master in the Royal Militarj' College 
at Great Marlow. This post he obtained as 
the result of competitive examiuation. He 
also lectured on astronomy to the students. 

In 1819 he succeeded (Sir) John Leslie 

tq. v.] as professor of mathematics in Edin- 
(urgb University, and occupied the chair 
till 1838, when he retired owing to ill- 
health, and was accorde<l a civil-list pension 
of 3(X)/. a year. He received the degree of 
LL.D. from the university on 17 Nov. 1838. 
He died at Edinburgh on 28 April 1843. 
His portrait, by Andrew Oeddes, is in the 
National Portrait Gallery, Edinburgh. 

Wallace was mainly instrumental in the 
erection of the observatory on the Gallon 
Hill, and of a monument to Napier, the in- 
ventor of logarithms. 

Wallace was the inventor of the eidograph 
for copying plans and other drawings, and 
of the chorograph, for describing on paper 



Wallace 



ii6 



Wallace 



any triangle having one side and all its 
anglei given. I 

Besides many articles contributed to the 
* Transactions ' of the Hoyal Society of Edin- 
burgh, the Hoyal Astronomical Society, and 
the Cambridgt^ Philosophical Society, to 
Leyboume's ' Mathematical Kepository,' 
' Gentleman's .Mathematical Companion,' 
' Edinburgh Encyclojxedia,' and ' Kncyclo- 
I picdia Uritannica,' Wallace wrote: 1. 'A 
slew liook of Interest, containing Aliquot 
Tables, tjTjly proportioned to any given rate,' 
London, 1794, 8vo. 2. ' Geometrical 
Theorems and Analytical Formulte,' Edin- 
burgh, iwm, «vo. 

I Chambert's Kmineot Scolamoii; Andorson's 
Scoctiah Nation ; TraOHictioos of Royvl Astro- 
oomieal Sooi<*ty, 9 Feb. 1844 ; Note« and Queries, 
4th ser. r. 279, Olb stir. x. 156.] G. S-H. 

WALLACE, WILLIAM (1844-1897), 
professor of moral philosophy ftt Oxford, 
bom at Cupar-Fife iin 11 May 1844, was son 
of .lames CuopiT Wallace, hou.scbuildor, by 
his wife, .lean Kt-Uoch, Ixith persons of con- 
siderable originality and force of character. 
After spi'mling four years nl the university 
of St. Andrews, Wallace gained an exhibition 
at Balliol College, Uxford, in 1834, and in 
1867 became fellow of .Merton College. In 
1k6H ho wasuppointed tutor of .Merton, and 
in 1H7I was chosi-n librnriun. lie graduated 
fl.A. in IH(1K and .M.A. in 1871. In 1882 
be was appointed Whyte professor of moral 
philosophy, and held that otiice, along with 
the Merton ttitorrthip, till his death, fifteen 
years later. 

As a professor he had great influence upon 
uiany giMierntioDS of students of philosophy 
at Oxford. In liiw li'cture.^ ho aimed not so 
much at the detiiiled exposition of philoso- 
vhical systems iis nt exciting thought in his 
Dostvrs. lie lectured without iioles, and 
•earned to develop his subject as he spoke; 
And the touches of humour with which his 
discourse was lighted up, the subtle beauty 
of enreesion which he often attained, com- 
bined with the gravity and earnestness of his 
manner, produced an impression of insight 
and sincerity which was unique of its kind. 

lie was killed by a bicycle accident a few 
miles from Oxforil on 18 Feb. 1897. In 
1872 he married Janet, daughter of Thomas 
Barclay, sherilf-elerk of Fife, by whom he 
bad a daughter and two sons. 

Wallace's writinir-i are almost all devoted 
to the exposition of f Jerman philosophy, par- 
ticularly of the philosophy of Hegel ; but be 
was no mere reproducer of other men's 
thoughts. He absorbed the ideas of the 
^ritflrs with whom he dealt, and asaimilated 



them to his own thought, so as to give to his 
exposition the effect of a fresh riew of truth. 
Well r«ad both in classical and modem 
literature, he was peculiarly sticcessful in 
freeing philosophical conceptions firom tech- 
nical terms and reclothing them in language 
of much literary force and beauty. With 
him the ettort to grasp the essential mean- 
ing of his subject always went along with 
the endeavour to express it in words which 
should have at once imaginative and scien- 
tific truth. 

Besides many reviews and essays in ' Mind ' 
and other journals, Wallace's published 
works were : 1. ' The Logic of Hegel,' 187S 
(translated from Hegtil's ' Encyclopaedia of 
Philosophical Sciences'), with on introduc- 
tion containing one of the earliest and most 
I luminous expositions of the Hegelian po'mt 
I of view in the English language. In 1893 
a second edition of his 'Logic of Hegel' 
t appeared with notes, followed in the next 
year by a volume of ' I'rolegomena,' based 
I upon his earlier introduction, but contsin- 
I ing much new matter. 2. ' Epicurenni.sm,* 
I 1880 (in the serii^ of ' Chief Ancient Philo- 
sophies ' published by the Society for Promo- 
ting Christian Knowledge). 3. ' Kant,' 1883 
(in 'Blackwood's Philosophical Classics'). 

4. ' The Life of .Vrthur Schopenhauer,' 1890. 

5. ' Ilegel's Philosophy of Mind' (translated, 
like the ' Logic,' from the ' Kncyclopsedia of 

, Philosophical Sciences"), with five introduc- 
tory essays. 6. 'Lectures and Essays on 
Natural "Theology and Ethics,' 8electe<l from 
J his manuscripts, ' edited, with a biographical 
I introduction, bv the present writer, Oxford, 
1898, 8\-o. 
[Personal knowledge.] E. C-d. 

WALLACE, ^VILLI.\M VINCENT 

( I81i IStJo), musical composer, was bom at 

Watcrford on I July 1813, his father, a 

Scot, being bandmaster of the 29th regi- 

I ment and a bassoon-player in the orchestra 

' of the Theatre Royal, Dublin, in which lua 

sons W'ellington and A'incent played the 

second flute and violin respectively. While 

' still quite a lad Vincent Wallace was a 

masterly player on the pianoforte, clarinet, 

i guitar, and violin. At sixteen years of age 

he was organist of Thurles Cathedral for a 

short time (Miuiral tt'urld, IStiS, p. 656), 

and appeared as violinist in a public concert 

at Dublin in June 1829, and in 1831 at a 

musical festival there, where he heard I*ag^ 

nini. He was also leader of the Dublin 

concerts, and played a violin concerto of his 

own at a Dublin concert in May 1834. In 

, 1834 he began to weary of the limited musical 

I possibilities of the Irish capital, married a 



Wallace 



117 



Wallack 



I 



daughter of Kelly of Blackrock,aud in August 
1835 set out for Australia. There he went 
straight into the bush, devoted some atten- 
tion to sheep-farming, and practieiilly abnn- 
doned music. lie also separated from his 
wife, whom he never saw again. Once when 
yisiting Sydney he attended an evening 
party, took part casually in a performance 
of a quartette by Mozart, and so captivated 
his audience that the governor, Sir John 
Burke, induced him to give a concert, Im 
himself contributing a present of a hundred 
sheep by way of j)ayment for his seats. 

Then Wallace begun his wanderings, an 
account of part of which Berlioz tells in the 
second epUogueof his' Soir6es de I'Orchestre ' 
(Paris, 1884, p. 413). He visited Tasmania 
and New Zealand, where he narrowly escaped 
assassination at the hands of savages, from 
whom he was saved under romantic circum- 
stances by the chiefs daughter. While on a, 
whaling cruise in the South Seas on the 
Good Intent, the crew of semi-savage New 
Zealanders mutinied and murdered all the 
Europeans but three, of whom Wallace was 
one. IVoceeding to India, Wallace was 
highly honoured by the beguiu of Oude, and, 
after wandering there some time and visit- 
ing Nepal and Ka-shmir, he went to \a\- 
paraiso at a day's notice, crossed the .\ndes 
on a mule, and visited Buenos Ayres ; thence 
to Santiago, where among the receipts of a 
concert he gave were some gamecocks. For 
a concert ut Lima he realised 1,()00/. In 
Mexico he wrote a ' Grand Mass ' for a musi- 
cal fete, which was many times repeated. lie 
invested his con.siderable savings in piano- 
forte and tobacco factories in America, which 
became bankrupt. 

In liWJ he wa.s back in London, where at 
the IlanoverSquun' Kooms he made his Eng- 
lish d^but as a pianist on 3 May (Muficnl 
World, 1840, p. tilij). In London he renewed 
bis acquaintance with Hey ward St. Ix-ger, an 
old Dublin friend, who introduced him to 
Fitzball, the re.sult being the opera ' Mari- 
tana,' produced with rare succesn at Drury 
Lane on 15 Nov. 1845. ' Matilda of Hungary ' 
followed in 1847 wit hone of the worst librettos 
in existence, by Alfred Bunn [q. v.] Wallace 
then went to Germany, with a keen desire to 
make his name known there, and there he 
wrote a great deal of pianoforte music. From 
overwork on a commission to write an opera 
for t he Grand Opfra at Paris.he became almost 
blind, and to ootain relief he went a voyage 
to the Americas, where he gave many con- 
certs with good success. 

In 1853 he returned to England, and on 
23 Feb. 1860 ' Lurline ' was produced under 
Pyne and Uarrisou at Covent Garden, with 




a auccess surpassing that of ' Mnritana.' On 
L'SFeb. 18«1 his '.\mber Witch 'was brought 
out at Her Majesty's, an opera which Wal- 
lace deemed his best work, and was followed 
in ]8(5:» and 1863 by 'Love's Triiunph ' 
(Covent Garden, 3 Nov.) and 'The Desert 
Flower '(I'ovent Garden, 12 Oct.) Hi.s last 
work wasan unfinished ojiera called' Est rella.' 
He died at Chateau de Bagen,in the Pyrenees, 
on 12 Oct. 1865 (and was buried at Kensal 
Green on 23 Oct.), leaving a widow (nee 
Hflene Stoepel, a pianist) and two children 
in indigent circumstances. 

^^'allace was a good pianist, and a lin- 
g\ii»t of considerable attainments. The list 
of his compositions lills upwards of a hun- 
dred Doges of the 'British Museum Cata- 
logue. 

[Authorities qnoted in the text ; American 
ryclopiitlia of Music and Mnsiciand, tho nrticlo 
iu which is by a personiil tViend of Wallace; 
Pougin's William Vioeent Wallace: Etude Bio- 
graphique et Critique, Paris, 1866; Athooieum, 
186,5, p. 542 ; Choir and Musical Becord, 1866. 
p. 75, where Himbault errs in most of his 
datm ; Musicid World, I8B0, p. 656, art. written 
by a fellow traveller of Wallace ; Musical 
Opinion, 1888, p. 64 (which quotes an article 
by Dr. Spark from the Yorkshire Post) ; Grove's 
Diet, of Music nml Musioinns; munuscHpt Life 
of Wallace by W. H. Grattan Flood; a con- 
densed list of Wallace's compositions is given 
in Strntton and Brown's British Musicnl Bio- 
graphy.] K. H. L. 

WALLACK, .lAMES WILLIAM 

(1791 !--18(14), actor, second son of William 
Wallttck ((/. March 1860, at Clarendon 
S<iuare, I^ondou, aged 90), a member of 
Philip Astley's company, and of bis wife, 
Kliittbeth Field Granger, also an actress, was 
born at Hercules Buildings, Lambeth, most 
probably in 1791 (other accounts have it 
that he was born on 17 or 20 Aug. 1704). 
His youngest sister, Elizabeth, was mother 
of Mrs. Alfred Wigan [see Wioan, .\lfkbd]. 
His brother, IIexby John Walij^ck 
(17VI0-1 870), born in 1790, acted in America 
about 1821, and appeared at Drury Lane on 
26 Oct. 1829 as Julius Csesar to his brother's 
Mark Antony. Subsequently he was stage- 
manager at (\jvent (iarden. He died in New 
York on 30 Aug. 1870. He played Pizarro, 
Lord Lovell in ' A New Way to pay Old Debts,' 
O'Donnell in ' Henri Quatre, Buckingham 
iu ' Henry \'IIl,' and other parts, and was 
on 28 Nov. 1829 the first Major O'Simper in 
' Follies of Fashion,' by the tiarl of Glengall. 
He married Miss Turpin, an actress at the 
Havmarket. In Americji he was received 
as llnralet. Sir Peter Teazle, Sir Anthony 
Absolute, and many other parts. 



Wallack 



ii8 



Wallack 



As a child James William was on the 
stage with other memNrs of his father's 
family, at the Royal Circus, now the Surrey 
Theatre, in 1708, in the pantomime, and in 
1804 he played as ' a young Uoscius ' at 
the German Theatre in Leicester Square, 
subsequently known as Dibdin's Sans >y)uci. 
Sheridan is said to hare recommended him 
to Dniry Lane, where his name as Master 
James Wallack appears in 180" to Nmto 
Boy in the pantomime of 'Furibond, or Har- 
lequin Negro.' On 10 Kov. 1808 he was, as 
Master Wallack, the first Egbert in Hooks's 
' Siege of St. Quintin.' lie then went for 
three years to Dublin, and on 10 Oct. 1812 
he was, at the newly erected buildings at 
Drury Lane, Laertes to EUiston's Hamlet. 
His name appears the following season to 
Charles Stanley in ' A Cure for the Heart- 
ache,' Cleveland in the ' School for Authors,' 
Sidney in ' Man of the World,' Dorewky, a 
chief of robbers, an original part- in Brown's 
• Narenskv, or the Road to Yaroslaf,' and he 
was the first Kaunitz in Arnold's ' Wood- 
man's Hut.' As Edward Lacey in ' Riches,' 
be supported Kean in his first engagement. 
He was the first Theodore in .\rnol(l's'Jean 
de Paris' on 1 Xov. 1814, and Alwvn in 
Mrs. Wilmot's 'Ina' on *2 .\pril 1815, and 
played .Malcolm in ' Macbeth, Altamont in 
the 'Fair Penitent,' Plastic in 'Town and 
Country,' Aumerle in ' Richard II,' Captain 
Woodville in the ' Wheel of Fortune,' Frede- 
rickin the 'Jew,' and Bertrandin ihe'Found- 
ling of the Forest,' in many of these parts 
supporting Kean. He was on 20 May the 
original Maclean in Joanna Baillie's ' Family 
Legend,' and played other original parts of 
little interest. While remaininj; at Drury 
Lane he was seen as Colonel Lambert in 
the ' Hypocrite,' Anhalt in ' I^overs' \'ows,' 
Ajialla in ' Tamerlane,' Loveless in ' Trip 
to Scarborough,' Tiberio in the ' Duke of 
Milan,' Wellbred in ' Every Man in his 
Humour,' Joseph in' 15chool for Scandal,' 
Captain Absolute, Norfolk in ' Richard III,' 
Alcibiades in ' Timou of Athens,' lago, 
Lovewell in ' Clandestine Marriage,' Rugan- 
tino. Young Clifford in ' Richard, Duke of 
York, or the Contention between York and 
Lancaster,' comjiiled from the three parts of 
' Henry VI,' Don Lodowick in I enley's 
alteration of Marlowe's 'Jew of Malta,' 
Faulconbridge, Lysimachus in 'Alexander 
the Great,' and other parts. During his 
engagement, which seems to have finished 
in 1818, he played, among many other origi- 
nal characters, Sedgemore in Tobin's ' Guar- 
dians,' o Nov. 1816; TorrLsmond in Ma- 
tnrin's 'Manuel,' 8 March 1817; Richard 
in Soane's ' Innkeeper's Daughter,' founded 



on ' Maiy, the Maid of the Inn,' 7 Apil, 
and Dongal in Soane's ' Rob Roy the Qi»- 
garach,' 23 March 1818. His chief success 
was as Wilford in the ' Iron Chest.' He 
also gave imitations. 

Wallacks <Ubut on the American sta^ 
was made on 7 Sept. 1818 at the Park 
Theatre, New Y'ork, as Macbeth. He was 
seen in many important parts, and returned 
to London, reopening at Drury Lane on 
20 Nov. 1820 as Hamlet. He played Brutus 
in Payne's ' Brutus, or the Fall of Tarquin,' 
and in ' Julius Ciesar ; ' RoUa in ' Piiarro,' 
in which he established his reputation; Corio- 
lunus Montalto, an original part in 'Mon- 
talto,' H Jan. 1821 ; Richard III ; Israel 
Bertuccio at the first production of Byron's 
' .Marino Foliero,' 25 April ; Artaxerxes, and 
Shylock ' after the manner of Kean ' in the 
trial scene from the ' Merchant of Venice.' 
He was seen also in one or two original 
parts. In June 1821 he incurred some re- 
sentment on the part of the audience on 
account of alleged disrespect to Queen Caro- 
line. His reception, except as Rolla, was 
cold, and he returned to .\merica. Through 
an accident to a stage-coach he sustained a 
compound fracture of the leg, which laid him 
up lor eighteen months and impaired his 
figure. Ibisppearing in New York in 1822, 
he played on crutches Captain Bertram, an 
old sailor, in Dibdin's * Birthday.' then, as 
Dick DashaU, dispensed with their aid. On 
14 July 1823 he was, at the English Opera 
House (Lyceum), Roderick Dhu in the 
' Knight of Snowdon ; ' on the 28th he was 
the Student in 'Presomplion, or the Fate of 
Frankenstein.' As Falkland in the ' liivals' 
he reappeared at Drury Lane in the autumn 
of 182il with the added duties of stage- 
manager, a post he retained for many years. 
He supported Macreiidy and Kean in many 
parts, and played others, including Icilios, 
Ghost in ' llamlet,' Macduff, Florizel, Hasb- 
inm in ' Jane Shore,' Ford, Edear, Charaloia 
in Massinger's ' Fatal Dowry,' Henri Quatre, 
Valentine in ' Love for Love,' Romeo, Charles 
Surface, Rob lioy, Mortimer, Don Felix in 
the ' Wonder,' Y'oung Norval, Petruchio, 
and Doricourt. He was the original Earl 
of I.*icester in ' Kenilworth,' 5 Jan. 1824 ; 
Count Manfred in ' Massaniello,' 1 7 Feb. 1 826; 
Richard Cceur de Lion in ' Knight.< of the 
Cross,' an adaptation of the ' Talisman,' AJes- 
sandro Massaroni in the ' Brigand,' adapted 
by PlanchS from ' Scribe,' 18 Nov. 1829; and 
Martin lleywood in Jerrold's 'Rent Day,' 
25 Jan. 1832. 

In 1832 Wallack went once more to Ame- 
rica, and in 1 837 was manager of the National 
Theatre, New York. On 31 Aug. 1840 ha 



Wallack 



119 



Wallensis 



^ 
P 




n 



I 



reappeared in London at the Haymarket, 
where he seems to hare been stage-manager, 
OS Don Felix in the ' Wonder,' and on 1 1 Sept. 
played Young Domton in the ' Road to Uuin ' 
to the Domton of Plielps. lie then went to 
Dublin, which place he bad previously visited 
in or near 182(5, and played Martin lley- 
wood. In 1841 he was n^rain at the Hay- 
market, then for the fifth time crossed to 
America, lia\ ing sutfered severe loss by the 
burning of the National Theatre. On 8 Oct. 
1)^44, in Don Cxsar de liazan, adapted by 
Gilbert h Beckett and Mark Lemon, he rose 
at the Princess's in London to the height of 
his popularity. In September 1845 he was 
back at the Park Theatre, New York. From 
this time he remained in America, act'mg in 
Philadelphia, New Orleans, and elsewhere, 
and spending much time at 'the Hut,' a 
prettily situated seat at Long Branch, where 
Le e.xerci«ed a liberal hospitality. In .Sep- 
t«mber 18.52 he assumed control of Brougham's 
Lyceum on Broadway, which he renamed 
.iWallack's Theatre, and in 1801 built the 
nd Wallack's "Theatre on Broadway at 
Thirteenth Street. He suffered severely from 
gout, and died on "25 Dec. 18<i4. lie eloped 
-with and married in I8l7adaughter of .John 
Henry Johnstone [ij. v.] ; she predeceased 
bim, dying in London in 1851. 

Wallack belonged to the school of Kemble, 
■whom, according to Tallbiird, he imitated, 
copying much ' of his dignity of movement 
and majesty of action.' lie had, liowever, 
little fervid enthusiasm or touching pathos. 
Joseph Jetl'ersou praises his Alessandro, Mas- 
8aroni,and Don Caesar do Bazan. Thackeray 
when in New York on his last vi:-it was 
much taken with his .Shylock. The ■ Drama- 
tic and Alusical Review ' speaks of him as the 
* king of mi'lodrama,' and jiraisivK highly his 
Joseph Surface, Charles Surface, Capt nin Ab- 
solute, Tom .Shullieton, Wilford, Martin lley- 
wood, and .Vlessandro .Mas-saroni. Mncready 
praises his t'haralois, and he delighted Fanny 
Kemble in tlie ' Rent Day.' Oxberry dechins 
that he was indilferent in tragedy.uduiiralilo 
in melodrama, and always plea.sing and de- 
lightful in light comedVi in which, however, 
the spectator was always sensible of a hidden 
want. 

Portraits of him in the fiarrick Club, not 
forming part of the Mathews collection, show 
him a dark, handsome man. A portrait of 
him as Ford accompanies a memoir in the 
' Theatrical Times,' vol. i. ; one as Alcssandro 
Massaroni, a second memoir in the ' Dra- 
matic Magazine ; ' and a third nn Charalois 
is given in Oxberry's ' Dramatic Biography.' 
Sketches of him in cliaracter by Millais are 
in existence in America, and are reproduced 




with other portraits in his son's * Memories 
of Fifty Years '(1889). 

His son, John J0HK8TONE Wallack (1819- 
1888), known to tlie public as IjEster Wal- 
lace, was born in New Y'ork on 31 Dec. 1819, 
and played with his father in Bath and else- 
where. His first appearance was as Angelo 
in 'Tortesa the Usurer,' by N. P. Willis. 
He was for some time at the Theatre Royal, 
Dublin, and played Benedick to the Rosa- 
lind of Helen Faucit in Manchester. His 
first appearance in London was at the Hay- 
market, in a piece called 'The Little Devil.' 
On 27 Sept. 1847, as .Sir Charles Coldstream 
in 'Used up,' he opened at the Broadway 
Theatre, New York. His career belongs to 
America, where he played a great number of 

farts, principally in light comedy, including 
)oricourt. Rover, Claude Melnotte, Wild- 
rake, Bassanio, Captain Absolute, and Sir 
Benjamin Backbite. He married a sister of 
Sir John Everett Millais, and died near 
Stamford, Connecticut, on ti .Sept. 1888. A 
year later there was published posthumously 
in New York his ' Jlemiiries of Fifty Years,' 
which gives details of his American career. 
[Gonest's Awount of the Knglish Stafje; 
Uminatic Mng.; i)xt>erry's Dramatic Bioj»nipliy ; 
Tliratriail/Tiiiies; Kranewspapor, 1.3 Jan. 186S; 
Uramntie ami Musical Ravio*, vnl. viii. ; Km 
Almanack, vivrious years; Clark Ku.iscU's Ro- 
pressntative Actors ; Mncreody's Romini.scenees ; 
.■^cott and Reward's Blancliard ; Tbespiua Mag. ; 
Now Monthly Mag. various years ; Dibdiu's 
Edinburgh Theatre; Forstor and Lewis's Dra- 
matic Essays; Gent. Mng. 1865, i. 387: Lester 
Wallack's Memories of Fifty Y'ears ; Autobio- 
graphy of Joseph Joffersoa.] J. K. 

WALLENSIS, WALENSIS, or Qa- 
LEN8I8, JOHN ( /?. 1215}, canon lawyer, 
was of Welsh origin. He taught at Bologna, 
and wrote glosses, but no formal apparatus, 
on the 'Compilatio Prima' and 'Compilatio 
Sefunda.' (In the 'Compilatio Tertia' he 
made a formiil apparatus, of which there are 
several niuniii-cTipts. The glusses full be- 
tween 1212 and 1210, for they were used by 
Tancred. Owing to a misreading, John has 
been styled of Volterra, and be has been 
further confounded with John Wallensis 
(>. 1283) [<i.v.],the Minorite. 

[.Schulto'sGoschiehto dca caiionischcn Ilechts, 
p. 180.] M. B. 

WALLENSIS or WALE YS, JOHN {JL 
1283), Franciscan, is described as* of Wor- 
cester ' in a manuscript of his ' Summa 
Collectionum ' at Peterhouse, No. 18, 1. He 
was B.D. of Oxford before he entered the 
order. He became D.D. and regent master 
of tlie Franciscan .schools of Oxford before 



Wallensis 



I90 



Wallensis 



1260. 8ub«eqaeotlT he taught in Paris, and 
is said to have been known there n* ' Arbor 
Vit«e.' In October 126l> be was again in 
England, and was sent by Archbishop 
Pe^ham ax ambatsador to the insutgent 
Welsh. He waa one of the five doctors de- 
puted at Paris in 1383 to examint* the 
doctnnes of Peter John Olivi. He was 
buri«d at Paris. 

Wallenais was a theologian of high repute 
•od a roluminous author; his popularity is 

ErovMl by the numerous extant copies of 
is writings, oj well as by the frequency 
with which lln'y were rejirinted at the end 
of the lif(<-<.-Dlh and be((miiing of tbe six- 
teenth centuries. A detjiilwl bibliography 
is given in Mr. A. (i. Little's 'Grey Frinrs 
in Oxford,' pp. 144 61. The following is a 
list of tile works written by or attributed 
to him : I. 'Hummade I'enittinlia,' found in 
four inanuMTipln. 2. ' Hreviloquium de 
Quotuor N'lrtulibud CnrdinrtlibuK,' or ' l)e 
Virtulibui AnlMjuDriim I'riiicipum ct I'hilii- 
sophuruiu,' In four nr tivf parts. It is found 
in ninny mnii(ii>cri|ili« and hiiH been printed 
in four rnrly i-dilmns. In one mnnuficript 
it is Ktnted to liiive been coiupoM-d nl the 
rniiiu'Kt of the binliop of .Mnnuelonne (Mfinl- 
peilier). ;i. ' llri'vili>ijuiHm de Snpienlia 
Biinct(inim,'ini'if,'lil i-[iii[iliTi»,su])plementary , 
to and printed with llir nlinvc. t. ' Ordi- ' 
uurium, or ' .Vlplmbctiim \'itii' Heligiowi',' 
in llirce |mrlK, ( I ) Dietnrtiiiu, (ti) Locarium, 
(8) ItiiuTnriiini, in seven umniiscripts and 
three iiriiil I'll editinnn. G. 'C'ommiiTiiliK|iiiiini,' 
or 'iSuniiim {'olti'ctionum ' or ' Collutiiinum 
Bdoranegeiiiid lliinuiHim,' or' l)n \ itie l!e(;i- 
mine,' or • Mnrgiirila Itiictonini,' or • C'oiii- 
munexLix^i luliiiuniiimni'iuTiiin Arjjdiuiuta,' 
n compeniliiim for t lii> use of yoiint; ]»rt'uohers. 
This is the ' 8umma ' (' ile Kepublicii ' added 
in the table of contents) in ttie Ciimbridge 
University Libmry, Kk II, 11. TIuto are 
six early printed editions. <!. ' I'loriloquiiim 
PhiloHophormn,' or ' l-'loriltiiiuiiiiu sive Cora- 
peiuiiuiu de Vila et IHctis illiiKtriuni I'liiU*- 
soplioniin,' or ' Ue I'liilosojilionim Itictis, 
Exeinplis, ft \ Itiri,' ten pnrtH, in six miuni- 
seripls and llirce printed editions. T. ' Motii- 
Idijiiliim vel ("ollei-illoi|iiliira,' a work in four 
parlH 'do \'ieiit et \irtiitibuK' for young 

Iireai'liers, rnlled ulrto ' Do t^uadior I'redica- 
iltiliiiH,' in live Hinnuscrlpt.-i ; iiol priiiti<<l ; 
iiseribed by I'uve to Tlioinik* .lt>rr [q. v.], 
who wns uIho called Dioinati Wallensis. 
h. ' Legll<Miuluni ttive liber do deconi I'reeep- 
tis,' or'HuinniH de I'reivptlx,' iiiKeven niaiiu- 
•oripts, some exlrnetn printed by t'luirnia, 
•Notioo sur un lunnii-tcrlt de Falaine,' 
IHfil, U. * Sununa luslitiip," or 'Trsotatus : 
do septum \'itiis ux [Oul. Alvemo] Pari- 



siensi,' ten parts, in two manuscripts, and 
in another form in the Exeter CoUe^ MS. 
7, $ 4. 10. * Manipoliis Florum,' begun by 
John Waleys, finished br Thomas Htbemi- 
cas [q. v.], consisting of extracts from the 
fathers in alphabetical order, found in 
numerous manuscripts, and twice printed. 
11.' Commentaries on the Bix^ks of the Old 
Testament, Exodus to Ituth, and Eccle- 
siastes to Isaiah.' Leland saw tbeve at 
Christ Church (Collfct. iii. 10), and in Bod- 
leian Laud. Misc. 34o there is such a collec- 
tion ascribed to John. In the catalogue of 
I Syon mona*tery they are ascribed toWaleya, 
' withmanyof the Works named above. 12. 'In 
Mythologicon Fulgentii.' This commentary 
was seen by Leland in the library of the 
Franciscans nt Heading (Collect, iii. 6"). It 
is found in two manuscripts bound with 
otiier works of Walevs, but it mav be by 
John de Ilidevnll fa.v'.] la. The ' ^positio 
Wallensis super V alerium ad Rufinum de 
non ducenda IJxore,' seen by Leland in the 
Franeiscans' Library, London, may be Ride- 
vall's. 14. Boston of Bury (Taxxer, jk 
xxxiii) and the Syon catalogue ascribe to 
him a work ' Ue Cura Pastoral!.' The work 
was in Ilarlcian MS. 032, f. 201, but is now 
missing. 15. Boston of Bury and the Sycn 
catalogue ascribe to him a work ' De Oculo 
Monili.' This was printed as Peckham's 
(CJilled Pithsaniis) at Augsburg, 1476. It 
ha.^ been ascribed also to Grosseteste, and 
with more reason to Peter of Limoges (llir- 
R<;AU,A'u/icMe<£r/raiV*, vi. ia4). 16. Fabri- 
cius ascribes to him without authority the 
' l>e (.)rl).;ine, Progressu et Fine Mahumeti,* 
Strnsburg, I oW, of which no manuscript is 
known. 17. The work ' In Fabulas Ovidii,' 
or ' lixpositiones s<'U Moralitat«8 in lib. i. (?) 
Metamonihoseon sIve Fabularum,' a.<cribetl 
to J. Wallensis by Leland, and to Wallensis 
or Johannes Grammaticus by I'anner, and 
printed as the work of Thomas Wallensis {ti. 
l.'jr>0?) [a. v.], has been shown by M. Hau- 
r6au to tw by Peter Berchorius (MHn. de 
fAvad. des Iiiscript. ixx. 4.'»-55). 18. ' Ser- 
niones do Tempore et de Sanctl.s,' also an 
■ Kxposltio sujier Pater Noster,' ore found in 
conjunction with his works, and may be by 
hira. Ul. The ' Postilluet Col lotiones super 
Johannem,' printed among Bonaventura's 
works, 15(S9, have l)een ascribed to Waleys, to 
Jorz (t>fDiN,vol. ili.coL 49), and to Thomas 
\\'allensis. 20. I.rf.-land ascribes to him also 
a 'Summa Confessorum,' which is John of 
Freiburg's: a • De Visltatione Infirmorum,' 
probably Augustine's, and a part of the 
' t>rdinarium,' described by hira as a separate 
work. Othertltles given br Boston of Bury 
may be derived from the ' Areviloquium.' 



Wallensis 



TSt 



Wallensis 



I 

I 



[little's Orey Friars in Oxford, pp. 144-91 ; 
Tanner's Bibliothecn. p. 434 ; Cut. Koyal MSS. 
Brit. Uus. ; Buteoun's (JaLslngue ofSjrun Moohs- 
tery. Bitle in hU Nolebwk iSelden MS. 64 Bl 
distingaishesJobn Gualensis, Minorilfof WorcM- 
ter anj doctor of Paris, auihor of the De Cura 
Fastonli, lu 'junior. 'j M. B. 

WALLENSIS or (5r.4LES8i8, THO- 
MAS (d. I'Joo), bishop of St. David's, was 
of Welsh origin. He was a canon of Lin- 
coln in l:i3o, when he witnessed a charter 
of Oroeaeteete's to the hospital of St. John, 
lodcester (NicHOUs. Leicestfrshirr, li. ii. 
324). He was a regent roastex in theology 
at Paris in li'38, when Grossetejste offi-rwi 
him the archdeacanrv of Lincoln with a pre- 
bend, writing- that he prefers his claims above 
all others although he is still young (Ohos- 
SBTHSTE, Let ten, p. li). In 1243 he took an 
active part in the dispute which arose be- j 
tween (jrossetcste and the abbot of Bardney. ' 
Matthew Paris aivcribes the origin of the 
suit againbt the abbot to the archdeacon 
(Chron. Maj. iv. 24tj). He was elected to 
the poor bishopric of St. David's on 16 July 
1247, and accepted it at Grosseteste's urging, 
and out of love for his native land. He ' 
■was consecrated on 26 July 1248 at Canter- ' 
bury. He was present at the parliament in 
Loudon, Ea.ster 12d.'}, and joined in excom- I 
municuting all violatfirs of Magna Carta. 
He died on 11 July li.'w. i 

[GrossetesU<'s Letters, j.p. 64.245,283 ; Mutt. , 
Poris's Cbron. Maj. iv. 246, 647. v. 373, ."135 ; ' 
Droifle'ii Curt. Unir. Paris, i. 170; Le Neve's ' 
Fasti, ed. Hardy, i. 292. ii. 43.] M. B. i 

WALLENSIS, THOMAS (rf. 1310), 
cardinal. [See JoEZ.'' j 

WALLENSIS or WALEYS.THOM.VS 
(</. 13.50 p),Dominican, presumably a Welsh- 
man, was educated at Oxford and Paris, 
and took the degree of master of theology. 
On 4 Jan. l.'J33 he a.^serted before the cnrdi- 
naLs at Avignon the doctrine uf the saints' 
immediate vision of Ood, against which John 
XXll had recently pronounced. He was 
charged with heresy on 9 Jan. bt^fore Wil- 
liam de Monte Hotuudo, on the evidence of 
Walter of Chatton, both Franciscans. He 
wao sent to the inquisitors' prison by 14Feb., 
and about 22 Oct. was moved to the prison 
of the papal lodging, where he was confined 
in oil about seventeen months. A long 
correspondence took place between the pope 
and Pnilip VI and the university of Paris 
on the subject of his trial. lie was ulti- 
mately released through French influence, 
and tlie pope accepted the doctrine of the 
immediate vision. There is a full account 
of the trial in the University Library, Cam- ; 




bridge, Ii. iii. 10, which contains a copy of 
Thomas's sermon. In the ' Calendar of Papal 
Petitions ' (ed. liliss, i. 146) he describes 
himself in 1340 as old, ]>aralysed, and de- 
stitute. His petition on l)ehalf of his one 
friend, Lambert of Poulsholt, who will pro- 
vide him with necessaries, for the parish 
church of Bisliopton, Wiltshire, was granted. 
The following is a lift of the works written 
by or attributed to him: 1. The epistle or 
tractate ' De Instanlibus et Momentis' (Ii. 
iii. tt'. 40-K) and ' Kesponsiones ' to certain 
articli3s objected against him. 2. His ' De 
Modo Componendi Sermones,' or ' De Art« 
Predicandi, of which then' are many manu- 
scripts, is addressed to Theobald de I'rsinis, 
or Cursinis, bishop of Palermo, 1338 60. 
3. His 'Campus F'lorum,' beginning ' F^ulcite 
me floribus.' consisting of snort tracts from 
the fathers and canouints, alphabetically ar- 
ranged, was sent by him to Theobald for 
correction. There is a copy at Peterhouse, 
No. 86. Leland ascribes to h'un a work of 
the same name, an Knglish-Latiu dictionary, 
which he saw at the Oxford public library, 
beginning ' Disciplina deditus apud Miram 
vallem.' There was probobly a copy of the 
same, cal1e<] ' Carapetlour,' at Syon monas- 
tery, and Bale knew of one at Magdalen 
College. Oxford, now lost. The ' Prompto- 
rium Parvulorum ' (ed. Way) contains fre- 
quent references to this lost work. 4. Com- 
mentaries on the B<>oks of the Old Testa- 
ment, Kxodus to Kuth, with Isaiah. ].,eland 
Kives the incipits of those which he saw at 
Warden Abbey, IMfordshire (Vollect. iii. 
12), and they are found in the Merton Col- 
lege MS. 19U. A cliiwly similar set of com- 
mentaries is ascribed to John Wallensis or 
Waleys [(|. v.^ !i. Hale also ascribes to 
Thomas ' De Sutura liestiarum,' a table of 
beasts or book of the natures of animals, 
which prvcedes the 'Commentaries' in the 
Merton manuscript. 6. Qu6lif gives reasons 
for assigning to Waleys a Commentar\' on tho 
first thirty-eight Psalms printed at Venice, 
1611, as the work of Thomas Jorr [q. v.l (a 
Domiuican wlio i.s also called Thomas Angli- 
cus and Thomas Wallensis): (^u£tif also as- 
signs to him 'SuperduosNocturnos Psalmos,* 
which Ijut'tif saw dated l.'}46 in a Belgian 
manuscri]it. 7. The commentary on the'De 
Civitate Dei,' printed as the joint work of 
Trivet and Thomas Anglicus (i.e. Jon) at 
Toulouse, 1488, and elsewhere, is probably 
by M'aleys and not by Jorz. 8. Oudin (vol. 
iii. col. 687) ascrilies to him ' Adversus Ico- 
noclastes, de formis A'eterum Deorum," and 
'Tractatus de F'iguris Deorum,' in the Paris 
MS. 5224. 9. The ' Super Boethium de Con- 
solatione Philosophic' and the 'De Concep- 



Waller 



133 



Waller 



tione Beate Virginia,' both print«d among 
the works of Acjuinas, cannot Imi definitely 
LAfisigned to either Waleys or Jori. 10. A 
Tcommentary on St . Mul t hew, bepi nni iig ' Tria 
rinsinuantnr,' which Lcland saw at the Fran- 
leiscans' Library, London (Cotlevt. iii. 50), 
and ascriljed to Waleys. 

[Oeniflo's C'tirt. Univ. Paris, ii. 414-42, con- 
tains th(t pnpiil correspundeaoe on the subjpct of 
IWaleysM hcri'sy; L^knd'e Comm. ds Script. 
Brit. pp. 307, 333 ; Baleson's Syon Cutulogue. 
Qnetif and Echard's Soript. Ord. Predic. i. o97, 
attemptii to distinguish the works of T. Wnk-ys 
from those of the Dominican Thomas Jorz, called 
also Anglicua and Waleys. Oudiii inclines to 
attribute all the Scripture commentaries found 
nnder the name of T. Waleys to Jorz.] M. H. 

WALLER, AUGISTUS VOLNEY 

(18115-1870), physiologist, son of William 
Waller of Klverton Farm, near Faversham, 
Kent, wa-s born on 21 Dec. 18Ri. His youth 
was spent at Nice, where his father died in 
1830. Waller was then sent back to Eng- 
land, where he lived, first with Dr. Lacon 
Lambe of Tewkesbury, and afterwards with 
William Lambe (17'io-1847) [q. v.], the 
kTegetarian. His father ."baring Lambe's 
L^iews, Augustus was brought up until the 
ftige of eighteen upon a purely vegetarian 
diet. Waller studied in I'aris, where he 
obtained the degree of JI.D. in 1840, and 
in the following year be was admitted a 
licentiate of the Society of Apothecaries 
in London. He then entered upon general 
medical practict" at St. Mary .Abbott's Ter- 
race, Kensington. He soon acquired a con- 
siderable practice, but lie wa.« irreKistibly 
drawn to scientitic inveetigntmn, and, after 
the publication of two papers in the ' Philo- 
sophical Transactions' for 1840 and 1850, 
he was elected a fellow of the Koyul Society 
in 18.")l. He ndimjuished bis practice in 
this year, and left Knj{laiid to live at Bonn 
to obtain more favourable opportuniti6.s fur 
carrying out his scientific work. Here he 
became associated with ProfeR«or Budge, 
and published three important papers in the 
'Com]>tes Kendiw' for l8ol and 18ij2, upon 
subjects of physiological intercut. For these 
papers he was awarded the Monthyon prize 
of the French iiciidemyof sciences for 18M, 
and for further work this prire was given to 
bim a second time in 185(1. The president 
and council of the lloyal Society also 
awarded him one of their royal medals in 
1860 in recognition of the importanco of his 
phy&icdngicnl methods and researches. 

Waller left Bonn in 185(1, and went to 
Paris to continue bis work in Flourens's 
laboratory at theJardin des I'lantes; but he 
sopn contracted some form of low fever, 



I which left him an invalid for the next two 
years. He accordingly returned to England, 
and, his health improving, he accepted in 
1858 the appointment of professor of 
physiology iu Queen's College, Birmingham, 
and the post of physician to the hospital, 
I These appointments he did not long retain. 
Threutenings of the heart afi'ection which 
evi^ntually proved fatal led him to seek 
rest, and, after staying two years longer in 
England, he retired first to Bruges and after- 
wards to Switzerland. With renewed pro- 
mise of health and activity, he took up his 
abode at Ueneva in 1868, with the purpose 
of practising as a physician, and he was 
almost immediately elected a member of the 
Societi- dc Physique et d'Histoire Naturelle 
in that town. Repaid a short visit to Lon- 
don in the spring of 187!) to deliver the 
Cr(X)i)ian lecture before the Royal Society, 
and he afterwards returned to Geneva, 
where he died suddenlv of angina pectoris 
on 18 Sept. 1870. He married, in 1842, 
Matilda, only daughter of John Walls of 
North End, Fulham, and by her had one 
son, Augustus Waller, M.U., F.IJ.S., the 
phvsiologist, and two daughters. 

\\'aller was endowed with u remarkable 
aptitude fororiginal investigation. Quick to 
perceive new and promising lines of research, 
and hii]>]iy in devising processes for follow- 
iii^'- thetn out, he possessed consummate 
skill iind address in experimental work. His 
disctiveries in connection with the nervous 
system constitute his most conspicuous 
claim to distinction, and the fields lie first 
traversed have proved fruitful beyond ima- 
giuation, for they have led directly to nearly 
j all that we know experimentally of the 
functions of the nervous system. His 
j demonstration of the cilio-spinal centre in 
j the spinal cord and of the vaso-const rictor 
! action of the sympathetic has withstood 
I the test of time, while his name will long 
be associated with the degeneration method 
, of sttidying the paths of nerve impulses, 
I for he invented it. He did not confine 
himself to a consideration of the nervous 
system, however, for be practically re- 
discovered the power which the white 
blood corpuscles possess of escaping from 
the smallest blood-vessels, while some of 
his earlier work was concerned with purely 
physical problems. 

Wiiller's pajKjrs are widely scattered, and 
have never been collected. The most im- 
portant are to be found in the 'Compter 
I uenduii,' in the ' Philosophical Magazine,' 
and iti the 'Philosophical Transactions.' 
The ' Wallerian D€>generation' is described 
' in the ' Comptes Itendus,' 1 Dec. 1851. The 



^ 



demonstration of the cilio-gpinal centre woa 
the result of work done jointly with 
Profeesor Budge, and is described in the 
' Compter Rendua ' for October 1851. The 
function of the ganglion on the posterior 
root of each spinal nerve is published in the 
•Comptes Rendua' (x\xv. 524). 'The 
Microscopic Observations on the Perfora- 
tion of the Capillaries by the Corpuscles of 
the Blood, and on the Uripin of Mucus and 
Pus,' appeared in the ' I'hilo.^ophical Maga- 
xine ' for November 1A46, while the 
'Microscopic Investigations on Hail' were 
printed in the same journal for July and 
August ISiiS and March 1847. 

[Obitoary noticr-s in the Proc. Rojnl .''oc. 
1871 . XX. 20, and in the Mimoires dc la Soo. de 
Physique et d'Histoire XalnrcUe de Genire, 
Come xxi., premiere piirtie, 1871 ; additionnl iu- 
fomutioD given by his son, Aiigastus Waller, 
M.D., F.R.S.] DA. P. 

WALLER, EDMUND (1(J06 1(W<7), 
pof't, the eldest son of RoIhtI Waller and 
Aniie, daughter of Griflith Hampden, was 
born on 3 March 16(K) nt the Manor-house, 
Coleshill, since 1632 included in Bucking- 
hamshire, but then in Hertfordshire. Like 
his contemporaries. Sir Hardress Waller 
[q.v.] and .Sir Williora Waller [q.v.l, he was 
descended from Hichard Waller [q. v.] He 
was baptised on 9 March KKX! at .\mersham 
(^AmertAam ParUh J{e<jifter), but his father 
aeems early in his life to have sold his pro- 
perty at Coleshill, and to have gone to 
Beacon.sfield, with which place the name of 
Waller will always be connected. ' He was 
bred under several ill, dull, and ignorant 
schoolmasters, till he went to Mr. DoUson 
at Wickham, who was a good .schoolmaster, 
and had been an Eaton schoUar' (.Viuuey, 
Briff Liret). His father died on 26 Aug. 
1610, leaving the care of the future poet's 
education to hw mother, who sent him to 
Eton, and thence to Cambridge, where hu 
was admitted a fellow-commoner of King's 
College, 22 March lli20. He had therefor 
his tutor a relative who is sold to have been 
a verv learned man, but there is no record 
of Waller having taken a degree, and on 
3 July UJ22 he wns admitted a member 
of J..incoln'8 Inn (Lincoln* Inn Admission 
Jt^/ulfr). 

He was, says Clarendon, ' nursed in par- 
liaments,' and, according to his own statement , 
he was but sixteen when he first sat in tbe 
house. The inscription on his monument 
mentions Agmondesham or Amerslmm us 
his first constituency; but there is some 
dilficulty with regarJ to this, as the right of 
Amersham to return members wns in abey- 
ance till tbe last parliament of James I 




(12 Feb. 1(524), and it has been su 
that AN'aller was permitted to sit for the 
borough in the parliament which met on 
1(3 Jan. 1621, without the privilege of taking 
part in the debates. In the parliament 
which was dissolved by the death of James I 
he sat for llchester, a seat which he obtained 
by the resignation of Nathaniel 'i'omklns, 
who had married his sister Cecilia ; he sat 
for (.'hipping Wycombe in the (irst parlia- 
ment of Charles I, and n^prescnted Amers- 
ham in the third and fourth. Waller ap- 
pears to have first attracted the attention of 
the court by securing the hand and fortune 
of Anne, the only daughter and heiress of 
one John Banks, a citizen and mercer, who 
died on 9 Sept. l(W(J. Tbe marriage was 
celebrated at St. Margaret's, ^\'e8t minster, 
5 July 1031. The lady was at the time a 
ward of the court of aldermen, and it was 
only after some dilficulty and the payment 
of a fine out of her portion thai the direct 
influence of the king enabled the poet to 

fiurge his ofience in having carried off the 
ttdy without the consent of her guardians. 
.\fter his marriage Waller appears to have 
retired with his wife to his house at Beacons- 
field. His father \vh him a considerable 
fortune, and this together with the sum, said 
to have been about f*fiOQl., which he re- 
ciived with his wife, probably made him, 
witli the exception of Rogers, the richest 
poet known to English literature. His eldest 
son, Robert, born at Heaconsfield on 1.S May 
1633, had Thomas Hobhes for his tutor, and 
was admitted a member of Lincoln's Inn, 
15 Juno UJ48, but does not appear, however, 
to have reached manhood. Mrs. AV'aller 
died in giving birth to n daughter who was 
baptised on 23 Oct. ItWJJ. After her death 
the poet is said to have taken f ieorge Morley 
[q.v.], afterwards bishop of Winclie-ster, to 
live with him, and under his influence to 
have devoted himsielf more clo.sely to letters. 
By him Waller is said by Clarendon to have 
been introduced to the 'Club "which gathered 
round Lutiiis Carey, lord Falkland, and it is 
probable that it was from tiie members of 
this society that he rec-eived his first recog- 
nition as a poet. In or about the end of 
IQHii his name first became connected with 
that of the lady whom he has immortalised 
aa Sacharissa [see Spescer, Dorotht, Cous- 
TEsa OK SujruEnr.AND], a name fomied, ' as 
he used to say pleasantly,' from saccbanim, 
sugar. The lady ajipears to have treated his 
suit with indid'erence, and the very elabo- 
rate letter which he wrote upon the occa- 
sion of her marriage affords no evidence of 
passion on his side, in spite of Aubrey's 
village gossip to the contrary. 



Waller 



Waller 



A cousin of John Ilampden, and by mar- 
riage a connection of CiromweU, M'aller's 
Bympathies appear, in th« early stages of the 
conflict between the king and the commons, 
to have been enlisted on the popular side. 
But he was at heart a courtier, and hud in 
reality no very deep political convictions. 
He had a natural dislike to innovations, and, 
us he himself afterwards said, he looked 
upon things with ' a carnal eye,' and only 
desired to be allowed to enjoy tiis considera- 
ble wealth and popularity in peace. He 
was extremely vain, and he saw in the 
House of Commons a convenient theatre for 
the exerci.se of his remarkable eloquence. 
On 1'2 .\pril ItWO he made liis tirst great 
speech, on the question of supply. This has 
Decn characterised by Johnson a.s ' one of 
those noisy speeches which disait'ectton and 
discontent regularly dictate ; a stieech filled 
with hyperbolical complaints of imoginary 
gp'ievances.' He expressed throughout the 
utmost respect for the person and diameter 
of the king, and the com))laiuts were no 
more hyperbolical than the grievances were 
imaginary. 

In the Long parliament which met on 
3 Nov. 1640 Waller was returned for St. 
Ives. In the attack on the ICart of Strafford 
he abandoned the party of I'yin, and in the 
debate u|K)n the ecclesiastical petitions, Fe- 
bruary ltt41, he gave further evidence of his 
sympathy with the moderate party. He 
spoke against the abolition of episcopacy in 
terms which have been praised by Johnson 
as cool, firm, and reasonable ; thuugh, in 
fact, the tone of his speech is absolutely con- 
sistent with that which he Imd delivered 
upon the question of supply. Both are cha- 
racterised by the same dislike of innovation 
which was, as fur as circumstances allowed, 
the one jiermuuent article of bis political 
creed. 

Waller's relationship to llampdcu pro- 
bably suggested him as a suitable person to 
carry up to the House of Lords the articles of 
imjH'achment ngaitist Sir Francis Crawley 
[q.v.] His speech ill presenting the charge was 
delivered at u cnnferenco of both houses in 
(he painted cliamlK'r on (i July Iti-H. It was 
lilled with classical nnd biblical quotations, 
and can hardty be cousidered a success as a 
piece of oratory' ; it was, however, immensely 
popular among the poet's contemporaries, 
and twenty tlioiisand copies of it arc said to 
have been sold in one day. There is no re- 
cord at length of Waller's speeches made 
during the remainder of the first half of his 
parliamentary career, but his occasional in- 
terferences in the debates were in the inte- 
rests of the king and his supporters. Cla- 



rendon's charge that he returned to the 
house after the raising of the royal standard 
in the character of a spy for the king is dis- 
tinctly contradicted by his own statement 
communicated by his son-in-law. Dr. Birch, 
to the writer of the ' Life ' prefixed to the 
edition of his poems of 1711 : and in any case 
it cannot be correct as to date, for he was 
certainly in his place in the commons on 
9 July, when he opposed the proposition that 
parliament should raise an army of ten thou- 
sand men. He is said to have sent the king 
a thousand broad pieces. He was impatient, 
as he said, of the inconvenience of the war, 
nnd no doubt desired its termination by the 
success of the king rather than that of the 
other side. Failing this, he was in favour 
of negotiation ; and when, on 29 Oct. 1642, 
the lords made a proposition to this end, he 
urged the commons to join them. 

In February 1043 he was one of the com- 
missioners appointed to treat with the king. 
His gracious reception by Charles at Oxford 
is thought to have confirmed him in the 
royal interest, but it is probable that the 
king was merely acknowk-dging his open 
services in the Ifouse of Commcms. There 
can, however, be little doubt that it was 
during the poet's stay at Oxford that the 
design afterwards known as ' Waller's plot ' 
was conceived. He was probably speaking 
the truth when he said of the enterprise 
that lie ' made not this business but found 
it ; ' but oil his return he became the channel 
through which the adherents of the king at 
Oxford communicated with those who were 
thought likely to be well disposed towards 
them in London. The object of the plot 
was to secure the city for tlie king; it was 
intended to .seire upon the defences, the 
magazines, and the 'Tower, from which the 
' Earl of Bath was to be liberated by the con- 
spirators and made their general. They pro- 
posed til secure the two children of the king 
and some of his principal opponents, while 
Charles himself, having been warned of the 
day, and, if possible, of the hour of the rising, 
was to be witli a force of three thousand 
men within fifteen miles of the walls. 

.\n attempt has been made to distinguish 

Waller's plot from another design, said to 

have been set on foot about the same time 

by Sir Nicholas Crisp [q. v.] The latter is 

credited with having intended to capture 

I I^ndon by force of arms, while the poet's 

' idea was merely to render the continuance 

of the war impossible by rais'mg up in the 

' city a peace party strong enough to defy the 

I house. Though AN'aller himself would no 

doubt have preferred that there should be 

, no resort to arms, there was but one plot. 



N 



A commission of array, dated 16 March, and 
having attached to it the p-eat seal, was 
brought to London by Lady d'Aubignv. She 
arrived on 19 May, having travelled from j 
Oxford in company with Alexander Ilamp- 1 
den, who came to demand from the parlia- 
ment an answer to the king's message of 
12 April. The commission was directed to 
Sir Nicholas Crisp and others, and even- 
tually reached the liands of liichard Cha- 
loner, a wealthy linendrajwr. Waller him- 
self was answerable for introducing to the 
plot this man Chaloner, and also his own 
brother-in-law, Natlianiel Tomkins, The 

foet at this time lived at the lower end of ' 
[olborn, near Hatton House, while Toni- 
kins's house was at the Ilolbom end of 
Fetter Lane. Meetings were held from 
time to time at one or other of these places, 
and reports made upon thedispositi'in of the 
people of the various parishes in which the 
conspirators lived. One IIas.sell, u king's 
messenger, and Alexander llam])den were 
continually carrying messages between the 
conspirators and Falldand in Oxford ; and on 
29 May matters were considered to be in 
such a satisfactory state that the first of 
these was sent off to Oxford and returned 
with a verbal answer begging the con- 
spirators to hasten the execution of their 
enterprise. 

The discovery of the plot has been 
assigned to various causes : a letter written 
by the Earl of Dover to his wife had fullen 
into the hands of t he committee, and Lord 
Denbigh had also told them of hints he had 
received; but it was probably upon the in- 
formation of one Roe, a clerk of Torakins, 
rho had been bribed by the Earl of Man- 
gter and Lord Saye, that Waller, C'ha- 
loner, Tomkins, and others were on 31 May 
arrested. 

The character of Waller has suffered 
severely by reason of hisconduct immediately 
after nis arrest. Promises were no doubt 
made to him, and, in the hope of saving his 
life, he disclosed all that he knew about the 
design. He charged the Earl of Xorthura- 
berland, the Earl of Portland, and Lord 
Conway with complicity in it ; the first of 
these made light of the charge, and upon 
bein^ confronted with his accuser was im- 
mediately set at liberty. The two other 
peers, after being detained in custody until 
31 July, were then admitted to bail and 
heard no more of the matter, although no 
one who has read the letter which the poet 
wrote to Portland (Sasdfokd, Ilhutrntions, 
p. 663) c«n have any doubt of the latter's 
guilt. Chaloner and Tomkins were tried on 
3 July by a court presided over by the Earl 



of Manchester, and, having been convicted 
and sentenced to death, were two days after- 
wards hanged in front of their own doors. 
The trial of Waller was postponed, but this 
is to be attributed rather to the dis'mcliua- 
tion of the house to proceed by martial law 
agaiiut one of its own members than to any 
consideration for the prisoner himself. Cla- 
rendon's suggestion that the delay was 
allowed 'out of Christian compassion that 
he might recover his understanding' can 
have little weight in face of the fact that on 
4 July, on being brought to the bar of the 
houxe to say what he could for himself be- 
fore he was expelled from it, the poet was 
able to deliver a speech which, in the opinion 
even of Clarendon hiraiwlf, was the means 
of saving his life. On 14 July he was by 
resolution declared incapable of ever sitting 
as a member of parliameot again. In or 
about September he was removed to the 
Tower, where he lay until the beginning of 
November in the following year. On 15 May 
164-1 a petition from hiui was read in the 
house — this was probably a reijuest that he 
might be permitted to put his affairs in 
order — andon'J3Sept. came another, begging 
the house to hold his life precious and to 
accept a fine of 10,000/. out of his estate. 
Before hia last petition was read an intima- 
tion had no doubt been given to Waller that 
his life was safe. Cromwell is said to have 
interested himself on his behalf, and large 
sums are reported to have been expended in 
bribery. There ore, however, no traces 
among the papers in the possession of his 
family of any extensive dealing with his 
estate excejit for the piirj)ose of raising the 
amount of^ his fine after his safety was 
assured. On 4 Nov. ' An Ordinance of Lords 
and Commons for the fining and banish- 
ment of Edmund Waller, Esquire,' was 
agreed to in the House of Lords. This de- 
clared that whereas it had been intended that 
Waller sliouUl be tried by court-martial, it 
had, upon further consideration, been 
'thought convenient' that he should be 
fined 10,000/. and hiiuished the realm. 
Twenty-eight days from <i Nov. were 
allowed him within which to remove else- 
where. 

It seems likely that before his departure 
he married, as his second wife, Mary Bracey, 
of the family of that name, of 'fhame in 
Oxfordshire. He spent the time of his exile 
at various places in France, having among 
his companions or correspondents John 
Evelyn and Thomas Hobbes. His mother 
looked after his affairs in England and sent 
him supplies, which enabled him to be men- 
tioned with Lord Jcrmyn as the only per- 



Waller 



136 



Waller 



sons among' the exileii able ' to keep a table ' 
in Paris. On 27 Nov. 1651 tbe House of 
Commons, after hearing a petition from 
him, revoked his sentence of banishment 
and ordered a pardon under the great seal to 
be prepared for him. Here, again, the in- 
fluence of Cromwell, moved by the interces- 
sion of Colonel .\drian Scrope [q. v.], who 
had married Waller's sister Mary, is said to 
Lave been at work. Nothing, beyond his 
appointment as one of the commissioners for 
trade in December 1655, is known of the 
poet's life between the date of his return 
and the Restoration, when, in spite of his 
previous vacillations, he resumed bis political 
career. 

In May 1661 he was elected for Hastings, 
and remained a member of the house down 
to the time of his death. The only matter 
of importance in which he was directly en- 
gaged was the impeachment of Clarendon ; 
but, as far as his public utterances went, the 
secondhnlfof his parliament arv career was in 
every way creditable to him. lie spoke with 
great courage against the dangers of u mili- 
tary despotism, and his voice was constantly 
raised in appeals for toleration for dissenters 
and more particularly for the quakers. 

In spite of his usually temperate habits — 
he was a water-drinker — Waller was a great 
favourite at the courts both of Charles 11 
and James II. But after the death (April 
1677) of his second wife he seems to have 
I spent most of his time upon his estate at 
Beaconsficld. He died at his house, Hall 
Bom, on 21 Oct. ltJ87, and was buried in 
the churchyard of the parish, where an ela- 
borate monument maiTcs his resting-place. 
Verses to his memory by various hands ap- 
peared in the following year, and an obelisk, 
still in existence, was subsequently erected 
over his grave. Waller is described by Aubrey 
as having been of above middle height and 
of a dark complexion with prominent eyes. 
Numerous portraits of him are in existence, 
of which undoubtedly the best is that by 
Comelis .Tansseni; (in the possession of the 
family) ; that in the National Portrait Gal- 
lerv, London, is by Rile^v, to whom Hymer 
addressed verses ' On painting Mr. Waller's 
Portrait.' The Duke of Buccleuch has a 
miniature of him by Cooper, and there is 
in the British Museum a chalk-and-pencil 
portrait of him by Sir Peter Lely. A fult- 
length portrait by Van Dvck belonged in 
1868 to Sir Henry Bedingfield, hart. {Cat. 
TMrd Uan Exhib. No. 6ii0). 

It is certain that the poems of Edmund 
Waller had been in circulation in manuscript 
some considerable time before their first pub- 
lication. His lines on the escape of Charles 



(then Prince of Wales) from drowning, near 
Sontauder, though subsequently retouched, 
were probably written in or about the time 
of the event which they celebrate ; but it was 
not until 1645 that the first edition of his 
poems was published. In 8pit« of this, his 
reputation was already so well established 
that Denham wrote of him in 'Cooper's 
Hill' (164-2) OS 'the best of poets,' and it 
is probable that no writer, in proportion to 
his merits, ever received such ample recog- 
nition from his contemporaries. Waller wSl 
always live as the author of ' Go, lovely 
rose,' the lines ' On a Girdle,' and ' Of the 
Last Verses in the Book j ' but it is diWcuIt 
at this distance of time to realise the justice 
of the description of him upon his monument 
as ' inter poetas sui temporis facile princeps.' 
He no doubt owed a very large portion of 
his popularity to his social position, his 
personal charm of manner, and his remark- 
al)Ie eloquence. His jmems made no great 
demand upon the understanding of his audi- 
ence, who were no doubt struck by their 
appropriateness to the occasions which had 
called them forth. He had no spontaneity, 
and very little imagination, and if he haa 
been highly praised for his 'smoothness' 
and his success in the use of the couplet, 
this was probably because his contempora^ 
ries had lost sight of others who had pr^ 
ceded and surpassed him. He was deficient 
in critical instinct, or designedly indifferent 
to the ]ierformances of any but those who 
were inauifHstly his inferiors. He wrote 
many complimentary verses, but praised no 
writer of the first class. He wos a sub- 
scriber to the fourth edition of ' Paradise 
Lost,' but, according to the Duke of Buck- 
ingham, his opinion of that work was that 
it was distinguished only by its length. 

Waller's first published lines appeared in 
' Rex Redux ' in 1633. These were followed 
by verses before Sandys's ' Paraphra.se of the 
Psalms,' and in ' lonsonus Virbiiis' in 1636. 
In 1645 three editions of liis collected poems 
were issued. That ' printed for Thomas 
Walkley ' (licensed on 30 Dec. 1644) is the 
first of these ; the edition ' printed by I. N. 
forHu. Mosley.'thesecond: and that 'printed • 
by T. W. for Humphrey Mosley,' the third, 
"fhe third edition consists merely of the sheets 
of the unsold copies'of the first, bound up with 
the additional matter contained in the se- 
cond. No other edition appeared until that 
of 1064, which is declared to be the first 
published with the approbation of the au- 
thor; in spite of this statement, the next 
edition (1668) is called the third. Others 
followed in 1682 and 1686, and in 1690 there 
appeared ' The Second Part of Mr. Waller's 



Waller 



'■«7 



Waller 



I 



^ 
^ 
^ 



^ 



Poems,' &c., with a preface by Francis Atfer- 
bury. An edition containinjf a number of 
engraved jiortriiits and a life of the poet 
was publishtHl in 1711, and in 1729 came 
Fenton's monumental quarto. 

The followiuff are the principal of A\'aller's 

rims, which were eeparntelv published: 
' \ Panep-ric to mv Loril Protector,' 
I6oo, 4to and fol. '2, ' "tUe Passion of 1 lido 
for ^Eneas,' by Waller and Sidney Godolphin, 
1658, 8vo ; reprinted, 1679. ». ' Upon the 
Late Storme and of the Death of 11 i:^ High- 
nesse Ensuing the Same,' a small fol. broad- 
aide; these lines were reprinted (1659, 4to) 
wth others by Dryden and Sprat on the 
same subject, ond (1(582, 4to) a.s 'Three 
Poems upon the Death of the Late Usurper, 
Oliver Cromwell.' 4. ' To the King upon 
Hia Majesty's Happy Hotuni,' 1660, fol. 
5. " To my Lady .Morton,' &c., 1661, broad- 
side. 6. ' A Poem on St. James's Park,' 
1661, fol. ; with this were included the lines 
' Of a War with Spain,' &c., wliicli bad first 
appeared in Carrington's ' Life of Cromwell,' 
1669. 7. ' Upon Iler Majesty's New Build- 
ings at Somerset House,' 1666, broadside. 

8. 'Instructions to a Painter,' 1666, fol. 

9. 'Of the Lady Mary,' 1677, broadside, 

10. ' Divine Poems,' 168.5, Svo. 

[Letters and pnpars in po<8S«sion of the 
&mily: Life pretuctd to WiiUcr'a PoemB, ed. 
1711; Biographia Urit.; Aubrey's Brief Lives; 
Clarendon's Hist, of the Rebellion, 182(i. iv. 8", 
61, 71, 74,79,20S; Claroudon'sLife, 1827. i. 42, 
53; Gardiner's Hist, of the Great Civil War; 
Eveh-n's Memoirs, 1818, i. 204-5, 23()-8, 244-8, 
254, "397. ii. 28(1; Pepys's Diary, 13 May 1684, 
22 May 1065, 23 .luno, 14 Nov. 1666, 19 Nov. 
1667; Lipseiiinb'sBuckiDghamsbirs, Tol.i.p.xix, 
ii. 1.19, ill. 159, 161, 180-3, 199. 205, 699, 643; 
Life by Pcrcind Stockdnle, prefixed to Waller's 
Poema, cd. 1772; Notes to Fenton's edition, 
1729; Johnson's Lives of the Poets; Seward's 
Anecdotes, ii. 152; Letters from Oriiida to 
Poliarchus, 1700; Grey's Debates, i. 13, 33. 37, 
364-5, vi. 14.'J, 232: Ma>.son's Life of Milton, 
passim ; Godwin's Commonwealth, iii. 333-9 ; 
Sandford's .Studies and Illnstrations of the 
Great Rebellion, pp. 660-3 ; Sir John North- 
cote's Notebook, p. 86 : Cunningham's London 
Past and Present, cd. Whealley, i. 229, ii. 303, 
468, iii. 4 ; Journals of the Hooses of Lords 
and Commons ; Wood's Athonie Oxon. ed. Bli.ss, 
ji. 390. 567, iii. 46-7, 516. 808, 824, iv. 344, 
379. 881 . 407, 652-9, 621 , 727. 739 ; Notes and 
ftneries, 1st ser. i. 165. vi. 293, 374. 423, xii. C, 
2nd ser. v. 2. vi. 164, ix. 421, xi. 163, 604, xii. 
201, Srd ser. i. 366, vi. 289, vii. 435, viii. 106. 
410, ix. 192, xi. 331, 4th ser. iii. 1, 204, 222, 
312. 444, iv. 19, 6th ser. i. 406, iii. 49, ix. 
286, 333, xi. 186, 278. 7th ser. xi. 266. 338, 
8t.h ser. iii. 146, vi. 166, 271. 316, vii. 37, 178, 
n. 287 ; MSS.in the British Maseum^Hunter's 




Chorus Vatum. Addit. 17018 f. 213, 18«U f. 
137, 22602 ff. 15/), 16, 30282 f. 88, 33910 f,182, 
Egerton, 669 ; in the Bodleian— Montagu MS. 
d. l,f. 47.] O. T. D. 

WALLER, SiK riARDRES-S (1604?- 
1866."), regicide, son of (tiorge Waller of 
(iroombridge, Kent, by Mary, daughter of 
Uiehard Hardress, was descended from lli- 
chard Waller [a. v.] Sir A\'illiam Waller 
[q. v.] waa his hrst cousin. He was bom 
uoout 1604, and was knighted by Charles I 
at Nonsuch on 6 .luly 1629 (Bkbiiy, Ktnt. 
trfneali'ffief,v. '296; Hasted, A>n/, i. 431; 
Metcalfe, Book ofKniyhts, p. 1 90). About 
16;10 he settled in Ireland and married Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Sir John Dowdall of Kil- 
finny, acquiring by his marriage the estate 
of Castletown, co. Limerick (Bi'kke, Ixinded 
Gentry, ii. 21 19, ed. 1894 ; Trial of the lin/i- 
ciden, p. 18). When the Irish rebellion of 
1641 broke out he lost most of his property, 
and became a colonel in the army employed 
agiiinst the rebels in Minister under Lord 
Incbiquin (HicKso.v, IrUh MiiKnacrerof WJ^l, 
ii. 97, 98, 112). Incbiquin sent him to Eng- 
land to solicit .supplies from the parliament, 
but he wrote hack that they were too occu- 
pied with their own danger to do anything 
(Cakte, Ormonde, ed. 18.51, ii. 305,' 470). 
On 1 Dec. 1642 he and thrtH> other colonels 
presented to the king at tlxford a petition 
Irom the protesfnnts of Ireland reciting the 
miseries of the countn.-, and pressing him for 
timely relief. The king's an.swcr threw the 
responsibility upon the parliament, and the 
petition is regarded by Clarendon as a device 
to discredit Charles (Rcshworth, v. 633; 
RelMfllion, vi. 308, vii. 401 n.) When Waller 
returned to Indand he was described by Lord 
Digby to Ormonde as a person ' on whom 
there have been ond are still prefit jealousies 
here' (Carte, v. 474, 514). In 1544 Waller 
was governor of Cork and chief commander 
of the Munster forces in Inchiqiiin's absence 
(il>. iii. 122; BELr.ls«fB, History of the Irish 
Catholic Von/edrrntion and War in Ireland, 
iii. 134, 162), though still distrusted .is a 
roundhead. In April 1645 M'nller was back 
in England, and wius given the command of 
a foot regiment in the new model army. and 
served under Fairfax till the war ended 
(SrKlOGE, Anglia Kniivirn, pp. lift, 283). 
"The parliament making Lord Lisie lord lieu- 
tenant of Ireland [see SiDNEr, Philip, third 
Earl of Leicester], Waller accompanied 
him to Munster, and was one of the four 
coramisaioners to whom the council proposed 
to entrust the control of the forces after 
Lisle's departure. Lord Incltiquin's oppo- 
sition frustrated this plan, and accordingly 
Waller returned to England and resumed 



Wallcr 



128 



Waller 



his command in the Englii>h army (Carte, 
iii.324; BELUNa8,iv. li>; Old Parliamentary 
UiKtory, xvi. 83). 

In llie summer of 1G47, wlwii parliament 
«nil llie army qiiitrn-lli'il, Wiilli-r (ullowed the 
lend of Cromwi'U, was one of t lie officers np- 
pointei] t(i ncgotialL' with the i-ommissinners 
of tilt' parliiiraent, and iu'lpeJ to draw up 
the (lifferent manifcstoi's published by the 
army {Ctarkf Papero, i. 110, 1 H, 217, L>7«, 
3fi3V He took no trreat part in the debates 
of the anny council, but bis few speecliea 
show good sense, mudcriition, and a desire 
10 coneiliate ( I'A. i. 33St, ,544, ii. 87, 103, 180). 
When the second civil war broke out Waller's 
regimentwusquarterediit F,xeter,and, though I 
there were soiui' local disturbances, he had 
no serious figlitiug lo do t Lorth' J'ltirnah, 
X. 26»; RusHVVomii.vii. 1130, 121H, 1306). 
In December 1(548 Waller acted as Colonel 
Pride's chief coadjutor in llie seizure and 
exctufion of presbyterian members of par- 
liament, and ]H>rsonally laid hands on Prynne 
(Old Parlinmentiiry Jlintoiy, xviii. 448; 
Walkek, Iliftory </ Int/rjir-ndmcy, li. 30). 
He was appointed one of the king's judges, 
signed the death-warrant, and was absent 
from only one meeting of the high court 
of justice (Nalso.v, '/'rial nf Uhnrlen 1). In 
the reconquest of Ireland h" took a promi- 
nent ]iart, following Cromwell tliitber with 
his regiment in I'ecember I(t49. As major- 
general of the fool, br' commnnded in the 
siege of Carlow in July U'uO, look part in 
the two sieges of UmiTick iii llioOainl KmI, 
laid waste the barony of liurren and other 
places in the Irish i[unrlirs, and a.isisted 
Ludlow in the subjugation of Kerry ( IjCDLOW, 
Memoirs, ed. 189 1^ i. :.'7."., 30l',"3iO; Gii.- 
litlHT, Aphuriitmicnt JiiKcoii-ry, iii. 180, 218, 
310, 3J4). When resistance ended he was 
actively engaged iu the >ietttement of the 
country ond flie transpliuitulicin uf the Irish , 
to Connaught (Puknukugaot, Vromitelliau \ 
.Settlement, pp. l'-*3, IDO, --'70). The Long, 
parliament granted him its n reward some l 
lands he rented fnmi tlie Miirqiiis oft (rmonde, 
and voted him an estate of the value of \ 
\,'2fXil. a vcar (Commnnn' Jnvrnah, vi. 433, 
vii. 270; Tanner MSS. liii. 13!t). 

Waller supporte<l I he elevation of Crom- 
well to the protoctorate, and was the only 
important oiucer present at his proclamation 
in Dublin (LcDl.ow, i. 37.0). He received, 
however, no preferment from Cromwell, and 
it was not till June 1607 that lands iu the 
county of Limerick were settled upon him 
in fulfllmeot of the parliament's promise 
(Ciinimnns' JoumaUi, vii. 492, 61 ti, 6.">3). 
Ludlow represents him as jealous of Lord 
BrogbiU, and intriguing to prevent Ma re- 



turn to Ireland {Menwim, ii. C). Henry 
Cromwell, on the other hand, thought Waller 
hardly used, and warmly recommended him 
to Thurloe and the Protector. ' I have ob- 
served him,' he wrote to the latter, ' to bear 
your highnesses pleasure so evenly, that I 
am more moved with that liis quiet and 
decent carriage than I could by any clamour 
or importunity to give him this recommen- 
dation' (Thurioe, iv. 072, vi. 773). On the 
fall of liichard Cromwell, Waller hastened 
to make hia peace with the parliament by 
getting possession of Dublin Castle for them, 
and by writing a long letter lo express his 
affection for the good old cause (Lddlow, 
Memoirf, ii. 101, 122). Yet he was not 
trusted, and Ludlow, when he was called to 
Ivngland in October 16.^)9, left the govern- 
ment of the army to Colonel John Jones. 
Waller justified this mistrust by refusing, 
ostensibly in the interests of the parliament, 
to let Ludlow land in Ireland at the end of 
Decemtjer ICM {if,, ii. 123, 147, 449), His 
conduct at this period was extremely am- 
biguous, and evidently inspired only by the 
desire to preserve himself. When >Ionck 
recalled the secluded members he became 
alarmed, and endeavoured to stop the move- 
ment, but was besieged in Dublin Castle by 
Sir Charles Coote, and delivered up by hu 
own troops {ib. pp. 18t5, 199, 229). Coote 
imprisoned him for a time in the castle of 
Athlone, but Sir William Waller (1597?- 
lOtiS) [q.v.] obtained permission for him to 
come to England, and the council gave him 
his freedom on an engagement to live quietly 
{ib. p. 239). ^ ^ ^ 

\\\ impeachment had been drawn up 
against him by the officers of the Irish army 
for promoting the cause of Fleetwood and 
Lambert and opposing a free parliament, but 
it was not proceeded with ; and .Monck,though 
distrusting him as too favourable to the 
fanatics, had no aniniositv against htm 
{Trinity College, IMUin, MS. F. 3. 18, 
p. 759; ^'arseti, Epistolary Ctiriositift, lat 
ser. p. 5o). But as a regicide the Uestoration 
made Waller's punishment inevitable. He 
escaped to France; but on the publication 
of the proclamation for the surrender of the 
regicides, he returned to England and gnve 
himself up. .\t his trial, on 10 tict. 1660, 
he at (irst. refused to plead, but finally con- 
fes.sed the indictment, tin 10 Oct., when 
sentence was delivered, he professed his peni- 
tence, adding that if he had sought to defend 
himself ho could have made it evident that 
he ' did appear more to preserve the king 
upon trial and sentence than any other' 
Trial I f the Heyicvl^^i, ed. 1660, pp. 17, 
72). His petition for pardon is among the 



il 






I 
I 



I 



E)^erton manoscripts in the British Museum 
(Eg. 2549, f. 93). 

Waller's confession and tbe efforts of his 
relatives saved his life. After being sen- 
tenced and attainted, execution was sus- 
pended on the ground of his obedience to 
the proclamation, unless parliament should 
pa» an act ordering tlie sentence to be 
cairied out. At firm he was imprisoned in 
the Tower, hut on '21 Oct. lt>61 a warrant 
■was issued for his transportiition to Mount 
Orgueil Castle, .lersey. He was still a pri- 
soner there in 1(3GC, and reported to be verv 
ill (C'nl. State Pu/m-ij; Dnm. m51-2 p. llH, 
1660-7 p. 192). His death probably took 
place in the autumn of that year ( r'A. 16(J8 
p. 229, Addenda 16(iO-70 p. 7U). An 
anon\'mous portrait was No. (i48 in the Loan 
Exhi'bition of l8t>6. 

Waller left two sons, .lohn and James, 
and several daughters. 0( the latter, Klizn- 
beth, who married, first. Sir Maurice Kenton, 
and, secondly. Sir William Petty [q. v.], was 
created on 31 Dec. Baroness of Shelburne, 
and wasthe mother ofCharles,tir,-t lordShel- 
burne. Another, Bridget, married IJcnry 
Cadogan, and was the mother of Williiim, 
first earl Cadogan ( Xoble, Lipf of the lif/i- 
cide»,-n. 300; Fir/MArRiCE,Xi/e of Sir M'il- 
linm Petty, p. 153). 

Waller published: 1. 'A Declaration to 
tbe Counties of Devon and ConiwaU,' 1048 ; 
reprinted in Kushworth, vii. 1027. 2. ' A 
Declaration of Sir Hardre->i« Waller, Miijc)r- 
generttl of the l'urliainent"s Forces in Ire- 
hmd,' Dublin and London, 1669-00, fol. 
(Kexnet, Retfuter, E'vle'itaxtirnl and Ciii'l, 
p. 24). 3. 'A Letter from Sir Ilnrdrvss 
Waller to Lieutenant-general Ludlow,' &c., 
1060, 4to ; reprinted in Ludlow's ' Memoirs,' 
cd. 1894, ii. 451. 

[A Life of Wnllor is conlainwl in Noble's 
Lives of the Regicides, and a ehort ekatch in 
Wood's Fasti Oxonienses, ed. Bliss, ii. 130; 
Burke's Landed Ocntry, ' WuUcr of Castle- 
town;' LiiiUow's Memoirs, ed. 1894; other 
authorities mentioned in the article.] C. H. F. 

WALLER, HORACE (1S33-1896), 
iter on .Vfrica, was born in London in 1833, 

. educated under Dr. Wttdhatn nt Brook 

'Oreen. lie was for some time in business in 
I>ondon, acquiring habits wbicb were of much 
wse to him m after life. In connection with 
the universities mission to Central Africa 
he went out in 1861 to the regions recently 
opuned up by David Livingstone [q. v.] and 
Sir John Kirk. For a period he worked with 
Charles Frederick Mackenzie [q. v.], bishop 
of Central Africa, and was a^ociated witu 
Livingstone in the Zambesi and Shir6 dis- 
voi. ux. 




tricts. Iletuming to England after the death 
I of Mackenzie in 18()2,hewus in 1807 ordained 
, by the bishop of Uocliester to the curacy of 
St. John, Cbatham; in 1870 he removed to 
I the vicarage of Leytonstone, Essex, and in 
1874 to the rectory of Twywell, near Thrap- 
ston, NortbampUjushire, which he resigned 
in 1895. Up|>o8ition to the slave trade was 
I one of the chief objects of his life. In 1867 
he attended the British and Foreign Anti- 
Slavery Society's conference in Paris, and in 
' 1870 he became a member of the committee 
of the Anti-Slavery Society. When in 1871 
the House of Commons appointed a com- 
mittee to investigate.' tbe East African slave 
trade, it W!ls owing to the influence of Ed- 
mund Miirge and Wiiller tliiit the committee 
decided to recommend Sir John Kirk for 
tbe appointment of permanent political agent 
at Zanzibar. I'ltimately a treaty b«aween 
the sultan of Zanzibar and Great Britain 
declared the slave trode by sea to be illegal. 
He lived on terms of close intimacy with 
(jeneral (lordon, and Uordon was a frequent 
visitor at the rectory of Twywell. 

\\'aller was elected a fellow of the Koyal 
(Ti'Ograpliical Society in I8ti4, died at East 
Liss, Hampshire, on 22 Feb. 189(1, ojid was 
btiried at Mtlland church fin 2fl Feb. 

After Stanley succeeded in discovering 
Livingstone, Livingstone'.s joiinials were en- 
trusted to Waller for publication. Tliey 
were issued in two large volumes in 1874, 
entitled ' Tbe Last .lounials of David 
Livingstone in Central Africa, from 18<J6 
until his death.' 

Waller wrote: 1. 'On some African 
Entanglements of Great Britain,' 1888. 
2. ' Nva-Hsuland; Great Britain's Case against 
Portugal,' 1890. 3. ' Ivory, Apes, and Pea- 
cocks: an African Contemplation,' 1891. 
4. ' Heligoland for Zanzibar, or one Island 
full of Free .Men to two full of Slaves,' 1893. 
5. ' Health 1 1 ints forCentral .\frica,' 1893, five 
editions. H. ' Slaving and Slavery in our 
British Protectorates, Nyssaland and Zanzi- 
bar,' 1894. 7. ' The Ca.se of our Zanzibar 
Slaves: why not liberate tbem!" 1896. 

[Guardian, 26 Fob. 1896 p. 31", 4 March 
p. 352 ; Times, 26 Feb. 1896 ; Black and White. 
7 Mareh 1896, p. 292, with portrait; Qeo- 
graphi.'al Journal, May 1896, pp. 568-9.] 

G. C. B. 
WALLEB, JOHN FRANCIS (1810- 
1894), author, born in Limerick in 1810, 
was the third son of Thomas Mauiisell Waller 
of Finnoe House, co. Tipperary, by bia wife 
Margaret, daughter of John N'ereker. He 
entered Trinitv College, Dublin, in 1827, 
and graduated b. A. in 1831. He was called 
to the Irish bar In 1833, and while studying 



« 



Waller 



130 



Waller 



in the chambers of Joseph Chitty [q. v.] 
he commenced his eontributions to periodical 
literature. On returning; to Iri'lnnd he went 
the Luinster circuit, but almost immediately 
joined the staff of the ' Dublin I'niversity 
Maijazine,' a periodical which had been 
founded a few months earlier. To this 
mojrozine Waller was a prolific contributor 
of both prose and verse for upwards of forty 
years, and he succeeded Charles James Lever 
fq. v.] as its editor. Ills most notable articles 
it were the 'Slinpfsby Papers,' under the 
Ipseudonym of 'Jonathan Freke Slingsby,' 
which appeared in book form in llfvjij, a series 
of humorous reflections somewhat after the 
manner of Wilson's ' Noctes Ambrosianie;' 
but, although he possessed a graceful fancy. 
Waller had not Wilson's intellectual powers. 
He best deserves remeiubraiica as a writer 
of verse, and especially as the author of 
songs, many of which, set to music by 
Stewart and other composers, attained a 
wide vogui.'. i^ome were translated into 
German. The best known are perhaps ' The 
Voices of the Dead,' 'Cushia ma C'hree,' 
and ' The Son^ of the Gla-xs.' Of the lajit- 
named, Richard Monckt on Jlilnes I first Baron 
Hou(fhton) [q. v.] said that it was one of 
the Ijest drinlting songs of the age. Waller 
also wrote the ' Imperial Odu' for the Cork 
Exhibition, I85l', and an ode on the 'En-c- 
tion of the Campanile of Trinity College,' 
which, with other pieces of the same sort, 
were published in 18(34 as ' Occasional Odes.' 
In \>^5'2 he received the honorary degree of 
LL.D. from Dublin University, in recognition 
of his eminent literary attainments. lie 
was for many years honorary secretary of 
the 1 loyal Dublin Society, lie became in 
I8IM a vice-president of the lloyiil Irish 
Academy, ana was also the founder, in l-^'S, 
and vice-president of the Goldsmith Ciiib. 
In 18(57 lie became registrar of the rolls 
coiirt, and on his retirement removeil to 
London, where his later years were spent 
in literary work for Cassell & Co. Ho died 
at Bishop Stortford on 19 Jan. 1894. II« 
married, in 18.3.'j, Anna, dnughterof William 
riopkins. Ity her he had two .wus and six 
daughters. 

The following is a list of \\'aller*a published 
works not alreadv niPntioned : I. 'Havens- 
croft Hall and other Poems,' 18o2. 2. 'The 
Dead Bridal,' IWM, 3. 'Occasional Odes.' 
18(U. 4. 'Uevelatiou9ofPeteBrowne,'l87i>. 
5. ' Festival Tales,' 1873, fi, • Pictures from 
English Literature,' 1870. lie was alsr> the 
editor of the ' Imperial Dictionary of Uni- 
versal Biography,' l^ondon, 1867-63, 3 vols, 
(also issued in sixteen parta); new edit. 
1877-84, 3 vols. ; and of editions of Gold- 



jimith'a • Works ' (1864-51, of Moore's ' Irish 
Melodies '(18(17), and of 'Gulliver's Travels" 
(1864), with memoirs of the authors prefixed. 
[Dublin University Mapizine, vol. Ixxxiii. ; 
Athenffium, 1804, i. 140;Iliirke'»Ijvnd«l Gentry.) 

C L F 

WALLER. RICH APiD (1395 ?ll462"f). 

] soldier and official, born probably about 

j l.'JOo, was son of John Waller of Groora- 

j bridge, Kent, by his wife, Margaret Lands- 
dale of Landsdale, Sussex. Groombridge 
had been purchased of William Clinton by 
Waller's grandfather, Thomas, who came 
originally from Lamberhurst in Sussex. 
Richard served in I he French wars under 
Henry V, and was present at Agincourt in 

] I4I0, where he is said to have captured 
Charles, duke of Orleans (Arrhtrol. Journal, 
i. :{80; Suiuie.r Archtrol. Coll. xvi. 271). The 
duke was entrusted to ^\■aller'» keeping at 
Groombridge as a reward for bis valour, 
and Waller found his charge so profitable 
that he was enabled to rebuild his house 

I there. On 17 Aug. 1424 Waller served 
under John, duke of Bedford, at the battle 
of Verneui! (litiynl Letten of Henry VI, ii. 
.'594). In 1433-4 be was "sheriff of the 
joint counties of Surrey and Sussex, and in 
1437-8 sheriff of Kent y^Lut* of Sherift, 
1898, pp. m, \m). In 1437 Orleans's 
brother, the Count of Angouli-me, was al.w 
entrusted to Waller's keeping {.Acts of the 
I'rii'i/ Council, v. 82 ; cf. A'aukix, iii. 267). 

I Waller was an adherent of Cardinal Beau- 
fort, and before 1439 became master of hia 
household. In that year he accompanied 
the cardinal to France on his embassy to 
treat for peace. In his will, dated 20 Jan. 
1446, Beaufort appointed Waller one of bis 
executors (Testamentn J'etunta, p. 352: 
Ejiitfolm Acadetnietr, Oxford Hist. Soc, 

: 1899, i. 200 ; Lettrrs of Mnn/nret <f Ayyou, 
Camden Soc, p. 101). In March 1442-3 
Waller was serving with Sir John Fastolf 
[q. v.], who terms Waller his ' right well- 
beloved brother' (Pnsion Letteni, i. 307), as 
treasurer of .Soraerset'sexpedition to Guienne, 
and iin 3 April he presented to the council 

' a .schedule of necessary purveyances for the 
array {Acts P. C. v. 256). He acted as re- 
ceiver and treasurer of a subsidy in 1450 
{Put. Pari. v. 173), and seems also to have 
been joint-chamberlain of thi' exchequer 

' with Sir Thomas Tyrrell. On 12 July of 
that year he was commissioned to arrest 
Jolm Mortimer, one of the aliases of Jack 

Cade (Paioiuve, Antirnt Kalendarr, ii. 

I 217. 218, 219, 220; Acti> P. C. vi. 96; 

I Devon, Insufs, p. 466). On 8 June 1466 he 

] wos summoned to attend an assize of oyer 

I and terminer at Maidstone to pnntsb rioters. 



Waller 



»3i 



Waller 



^ 



he was onu of the commissioners »p- 
ttU-d on 31 July 1458 to make public in- 
quiry into Warwick's unjustitiable attack 
on a fleet of Lubeck merchantmen [sec 
Nefille, KiCiUUD, Eabl op Warwu-k and 
SALlaBtTBY], He seems, however, to have 
made his peace vith the Yorkists after 
Edward I^ 's accession, and on 2U Feb. 
14fiO-l was made receiver of the king's 
CSsUm, land^, nnd manors in Kent, Surrey, 
Sussex, and llnrnp^hire (C'n/. Patent Rulh, 
Edw. IV, i. 1 11 1, while his eldest son 
Richard id. 21 Au)?. 1474), who hud repre- 
sented Hindon in tiie parliament of 1453, 
was on 1(J May 14tU made commissioner of 
array for Kent (ib. i. 560). \\'aller appa- 
rently died soon afterwards. 

By his wife .Silviii, whost! maiden name 
^ras Gulby, Waller had issue two sons — 
Richard and John — and a daughter Alice, 
who married 8ir John (tuildford. The second 
son, John ('/. \'>\7), was father of John (his 
second son), who was the ancestor of Ed- 
mund Waller the poet ; ami he was also 
gmndfather of Sir Walter Waller, whose 
eldest son, George, married Mary llardress, 
*nd was father of Sir llardress Waller [q v.] ; 
Sir ^^'llller"s second son, Sir Thoma--*, was 
father of Sir William Waller [q. v.] 

[Authorities cited ; Philpot's Villare Oiiitia- 
nnm ; Berry's County Oensnlogics "Kent,' p. 
2()6, * 8us«rx ' pp. 10!). 348; Uasteds Kent. i. 
430-1; Notos and Queries, 1st acr. ri, 231; 
Barko's Lande<l Goatry, 1898, ii. 1533; U. A. 
Wallsr's Family Itecords, 1808 (uf little value).] 

A. F. P. 

"WALLER, Silt WILLLVM (1697-'- 
1068), parliamentary general, son of Sir 
Thomas Waller, lieutenant of Dover, by Mar- 
garet, daughter of llenrj' Lennard, lord Dacro 
(Hasted, History of Kmt, i. 430; Bebbv, 
Kentifk Genenlo;iie», p. 296), was bom 
about 1.197. Sir Ilardress Waller "q. v.] was 
hii first cousin. William matriculated from 
Magdalen Hall, Oxford, on 2 Dec. 1«12, 
•oed lr> (T'osTHH, Alumni Oxon. LOOO-ITU ; 
Wood, At heme, iii. 812). On leaving the 
iiniversity he became a soldier, entered the 
Venetian service, fo\ight in the Bnhcmian 
wars against the emperor, and took part in 
the English e\pedit ion for the defence of the 
Palatinate (Waller, Recollect ions, p. 108; 
HiWHWoBTii, i. 1").'J). On 20 June U(22 he 
knighted, and on 21 Nov. 1032 he was 
itted to Gray's Inn (Metcaj,fb, Book of 
Knightt, p. 180 ; Foster, Oray't Inn liegi- 
tter. p. 197). 

Shortlv after his return to England Wal- 
ler mamed Jane, daughter of Sir Uichard 
Reynell of Ford House, Woolborough, 
Deronshire, n lady who waa to inherit a good 



fortune in the west. A quarrel with a ijen- 
tleman of the same family who happened to 
be one of the king's servants, in the course 
of which Waller struck his antagonist, led 
to a prosecution, which he was forced to 
compound by k heavy payment. This pro- 
duced in him 'so eager a spirit against the 
court that he was very open to any tempta- 
j tion that might engage him against it' 
I (ClaeesdoX, 7WW/i'on,ed. Macray, vii. 100;. 
As he wus also a zealous puritan. Waller 
I natunilly joined the opposition, and was 
I elected to the Long parliament in 1640 as 
I member for .\ndover. At the outbreak of 
the civil war he became colonel of a regi- 
ment of horse in the parliamentary army, 
and commanded the forces detached by Essex 
to besiege Portsmouth. It surrendered to 
him in September 1042 (ib. v. 442, vi. 32; 
//«/. AfSS. Comm. 10th Rep. vi. 148; Re- 
port nn the Duke of PortlancTg MSS. i. 50, 
(il ). At the close of the year Waller began 
the series of successes which earned him the 

I>opular title of ' William the Conqueror.' 
n December ho captured Farnlmm Castle, 
Winchester, Arundel Castle, and Chichester 
( ViCAES, Jc/iowA JireA, pp. 223, 228, 231, 
23.')). Parliament thereupon made him ser- 
geant-major-general of the counties of Glou- 
cester, W ilts, Somerset, Salop, and the city 
of Bristol, with a commission from the Earl 
of Essex (Lords' JournnU, v. tK)2,lK)0, fil?). 
Five regimenta of horse and as many of foot 
were to be raised to serve under him. In 
March 1643 \\'aller left his headquarters at 
Bristol, took Malmesbury by assault on 
21 Alarch, and on 24 March surprised the 
Welsh army which was besieging Ciloucester, 
capturing about sixteen hundred men. He 
then carried the war into Wales, forcing the 
royalists to evacuate Chepstow, Monmouth, 
and other garrisons, and evading by skilful 
marches the attempt of Prince Maurice to 
intercept his return to Gloucester. Imme- 
diately afterwards (2"! April 164.3) he also 
captured Hereford (contemporary narrntivea 
of these victories are reprinted in Ludlow's 
.VfOToj'r*, ed. 1894, i. 444; PiilLLirs, Civil 
ff'nr in Walef, ii. t(3-71 ; Uibliotheca Olou- 
cestreiuia, pp. 28, 193). 

In June 1643 Waller was summoned to 
the Nduth-west to resist the advance of Sir 
Ralph Jlopton and the Cornish army, and 
gained an indecisive battle on .5 July at 
Lansdown, near liath. Hopton and his 
forces made for Oxford, closely pursued by 
Waller, who cooped them up in Devizes. 
One attempt to relieve them was repulsed, 
and it seemed prohoble that they would be 
forced to capitulate ; but General Wilmot 
and a body of horse ixora (^.tford defeated 

k2 



Waller 



»3« 



Waller 



Waller on 13 July at Uoundway Down. 
Waller's foot wore cut in pieces or talten, 
and, with the few horse left him, he returned 
to Bristol : 

Great William the Cod., 

jeered a royalist poet. 

So fast hn did mn. 
That he lefc tuilf his name behind him 

(i4. p. 199; Clabe.vdojj, RfMlion, vli. 
99-121 ; Portland MSS. iii. Ill'; Deniiam, 
Po«iM, ed. 1671, p. 107). 

Waller left rSri.'«lol Jiis't before the siege by 
Rupert befpin, and returntsd to London t<i 
raise fresh forces. In spite of hia disaster 
his popularity had sutTeri^ no diminution, 
and the citizens at a meatinjif in the Guild- 
hall resolved to raise him a fresli army \>y 
aubscription. On 4 Nov. 164:i pttrtiamcnt 
.passed an ordinance associating the four 
Fcounties nf Hants, Sussex, Surrey, and 
Kent, and (;ivinjjtliem power to raise troops 
to bf( comniundeil by NN aller. The city was 
also Hiitlinriscd tn send Pfgiments of the 
triiirw'd hands ami auxiliaries to serve under 
hiui (Husband, Ordinnncm, KVlti, pp. ;?81, 
SIO, 3L>0, 379, 40*5, 475). The commission 
given Waller cnused a dispute between him 
and Essex, which ended in Octobur with a 
threat of resijj-niit inn on the part of Essex 
and a rote pkcinjj Walter under the lord- 
general's command {lAinU JnHrnnli, vi. 172, 
247). In December KU.'i Waller defeated 
Lord Crawford iit Alton, tiikinp a tliou- 
Hiind prisoners, and Arundel Castle fell into 
Lis hands on Li Jiin. 1lU4. Hy these two 
successes the royiilist attempt toj)enetrate 
into Sussex and Kent wu-sdenuitely slopped. 
On 21> .Mari-li 1(!U, iu ennjunction with Sir 
Willimu Hall'iiiir, Wiiller defeated the Earl 
of Forth and i^urd lluiitiui at Cheriton, near 
Alresford, thus regiiinin^ for the piirliamcnt 
thfl greater part (il llampsliire and Wiltshire 
(Oakdinkk, (,'rrnt Cin'l tt'tir, i. 254, 322; 
Illl.LIKH, The Sirffen of Arundel Ctutle, 
1864 ; out PiirUiimentiiril History, xiii. l"i). 
In May Essex and Waller simultaneously 
advanced upon Oxford, I'^sex hlix'kinfr np 
the city on the north and Waller on the 
(«outh. Charles slipped between their armies 
with about five tlumaaad men, and, leavinjr 
Waller to pursue him, Essex marched to re- 
gain the west of I'/iielaud. Waller proved 
unable to brin^' the liiuu; to an action tmttl 
Charles had rejoined the forces left in Oxford, 
and when hu did attack him at Oropredy 
Ilridge, near Itanbury, on 29 June, he was 
defeated and hist his puna ( Walxek, Hi»- 
iorieal Ducouraen, pp. 14-33; Fairfax Corre- 
*pond«nce, iii. 10ft). Tho disorganisation of 
Waller's heterogeneous,un|>aid, undisciplined 



army which followed this defeat enabled 
Charles to march into Cornwall. In Sep- 
tember 1644 Waller was sent west with & 
body of horse to hinder the king's return 
march towards Oxford, but he was too weak 
to do it efTectively. At the second battle 
of Newbun' on 27 Oct. lt>14 he was one of 
the .joint commanders of the parliamentary 
forces, attacked in company with Cromwell 
and Skippon the left wing of the royalists, 
and joined Cromwell in urpng a vigorous 
pursuit of the retreating king (Gardisek, 
11. 30, 40; Money, The Battlet of h'eiclmry, 
ed. 1884, pp. 221-3). In February 164^ 
Waller was ordered to march to the relief 
of Taunton, but his own men were mutinous 
for want of pay, Essex's horse refused to serve 
under him, and Cromwell's horse declined 
to go unless Cromwell went with them. 
Cromwell went under Waller's command. 
They captured a regiment of royalist cavalry 
near Devires, and attained in part the pur- 
pose of the expedition. The self-denying 
ordinance passed during his absence put an 
end to Wuller's career as a general, and he 
laid down his commission with great relief, 
saying that he would rather give his vote in 
the house than ' remain amongst his troops 
so slighted awddisesteemed ' as ho was (Gar- 
diner, ii. 128, 183, 192). In December 1045, 
when it was proposed to ajmoint him to com- 
mand in Ireland, be n-jected the oll'er, telling 
a friend ' that he had hod so much discourage- 
ment heretofore when he was near at hand 
that he could not think of l>eing again en- 
gaged in the like kind' (Wl>^ MSS. Comm. 
7th Ken. p. 237). 

Waller now became one of the political 
leaders of the presbyterian party. Hostile 
on religious grounds to liberty of conscience, 
he was a firm .supporter of the covenant and 
tho league with the Scots. ' None so pant- 
ing for us as brave Waller,' wrote Baillie 
when the Scottish army was about to enter 
England ; and Waller's zeal for the imposi- 
tion of presbyterianism on England was not 
abated by the growing strength of the in- 
dependents, lie thought that the tolera- 
tion the army demanded meant that the 
church would come to be goveme<l, like 
Friar John's college in 'Kabelais,' by one 
I general statute, ' Do what you list' (Bailmk, 
' letter*, ii. 107, 116; Vindication of tiir W. 
\ H'n//<'r, pp. 25. 148). 

' Waller had been a member of the com- 
I mittee of both kingdoms firom the time of 
I its origin, and in 1647 he was one of the 
committee for Irish affairs to which parlia- 
! ment delegated the disbanding of the new 
I model and the formation from it of an army 
I for the recovery of Ireland. In March and 



Waller 



133 



Waller 



I 



April 1647 he was twice sent to the head- 
4jiiarter8 at Sutlron Walden to pereunde the 
soldiers to enjrage for Irish tiervice, and 
Httrihut«d his iit-succet>.s to the intlueuce of 
the higher olHcers rather than any prenuine 
grievances nmonc their men (I'A. pp. 42-94 ; 
Clarke I'tipfm, i. fi; Lord/ Journalu, ix. 
152). Hy his opposition to the petitions of 
the army he earned its hostility, and came 
to be regarded as one of its chief enemies. 
In July 1(547, when eleven lendmg presby- 
tt'riun members of parliament were im- 
peached by the army. \Valler was accused 
not only of malicious enmity to the sol- 
diery, but also of encouruging the Scots to 
invade Kngland and of intriguing with the 
queen and the royalists (the articles of im- 
peachment, together with the answer drawn 
up by I'rynne on behalf of the accused 
members, are reprinted in the O/d Parlia- 
mentary llintitry. x\\. 70-1 ItS). .\t the end 
of July the Loudon mob forced the parlia- 
ment to recall its concessions to the army. 
And Waller was accused of instigating and 
Arranging the tumults which took ])Iace. 
From all these charges he elaborately, and to 
some extent successfully, clears himself in 
Lis poslhumouslv published 'Vindication' 
<pp. 44-10(3; cf. Itervlhi-tiuim, p. 116). 
\\ hen the presbyterians determined to resist 
by arms, \Valler was made a member of the 
reconstituted committee of safety, and or- 
dered to attend the Hou.^e of Commons, 
from whicli, with the other accused mem- 
l)ers, he had voIi;ntarily withdrawn himself 
On the collapse of the resistance of London 
he obtained a pass from the speaker and set 
out for France, was pursueu, releasetl by 
Vice-admiral ISatten, and landed at Calais 
on 17 Aug. 1(547 ( J'iiidicaticm, pp. \XU, 201 ; 
GaKDINKH, IlUtory of Ihe Great CinI ){'ar, 
ill. 349). On 27 Jan. 104s Waller and his 
companions were disabled from sitting in 
the present parliament, but on 3 June fol- 
lowing these votes were annulled (IJrsH- 
W0BTH,vii, 977, 1130). Itetuming to Eng- 
land and supporting the pnipostjd treaty 
with the king, Waller was one of the mem- 
l)er8 arrested by the army on fi Dec. 104H, 
and, on the charge of instigating the Scots 
to invade England, he was permanently re- 
tAined in custody when the rest were re- 
leased (fiAUDISEB, iv. 275; Old Parlinmrn- 
tanj Iliftury, xviii. 45*!, 4(i4, 4(ttl : Walkek, 
JlUtiiry of Jndfjieiidetuy, ii. 39). Ho de- 
ACribes himself as ' seized upon by the army 
•8 I was going to discharge my duty in the 
House of Commons, and, contrary to privi- 
le^ of parliament, made a prisoner in the 
queen's court; from tlience carried igno- 
ffiinioasly to a place under the exchequer 




j called " Ilell," and the next day to the 
I hang's Head in the Strand ; after singled 
I out as a sheep to the slaughter and removed 
to St. James's; thence sent to Windsor 
Castle aiul remanded to St. James's again ; 
lastly, tossed like a ball into a strange 
country to Denbigh Castle in \orth Wales 
(April Itiol), remote from my friends and 
T\'\uUoiii' (J{ec<jllfrtion», p. 1(34; Cal. State 
Paptrt, Dom. l(J»il, p. lol). Ho remained 
three years in prison, untried and uncon- 
demned. During the Protectorate Waller 
was in a very necessitous condition. The 
2,500/. which parliament had promised to 
settle u|)on him he had never obtained. Win- 
chester Castle, which was his property, had 
been dismantled bv the government to make 
it untenable, and his eslAtes had suffered 
considerably during the war. He possessed 
by grant the prisage of wines imp<.irted into 
England, but legal di8put«s prevented him 
benefiting bv it {Cal. Stntf Papers, Dom, 
1052-3 p. 1«7, \6M-7 p. 209, 1(157-8 pp. 
02, 109). On 22 Slarcb 1058 lie was again 
arrested an suspicion and brought before the 
Protector. ' He did examine me,' writes 
Waller, ' as a stranger, not as one whom he 
had aforetime known and obeyed; yet was 
he not discourteous, and it pleased the Lord 
to preserve me, that not one thing objected 
could l)e proved against me ; wi [ was de- 
livered '( 7i'fPo//«7/(/n.«, p. 11(1). These sus- 
picions were not unjust ; for Waller was 
already in communication with royalist 
agents, and in the spring of 1059 no one 
was more xealous in promoting a rising on 
behalf of Charles 11. Charles expressed 
great confidence in his affection, and (1 1 March 
Iti.W) ordere<l Waller's name to be inserted 
in (dl comniissions. Waller received this 
mark of confidence with effusion, kissed the 
paper, and said, ' Let him be damned that 
serve not this prince with integrity and dili- 
gence.' Some jiresbyterian leadeis wished 
to impose terms upon the king, and Waller 
was obliged to support them, though assur- 
ing Charles tliat the first free parliament 
called would remove them (Clarendon State 
Papen, iii. 429,437, 444, 440). 

AVhen Sir George Booth's insurrection 
broke out , Waller was again arrested (6 .\ug, 
1059), and, as he refused to take any en- 
gagement to remain peaceable, was sent to 
the Tower. He obtained a writ of habeas 
viirpiti, and was released on 31 Oct. follow- 
ing (i?«sj//«";(un.'<, p. 105 ; Cal. State Papem, 
Dom. 1059-60,pp. 107, 135). Waller joined 
Prynne and the other excluded members ia 
their unsuccessful attempt to obtain admis- 
sion to their seats in parliament on 27 Dec, 
1059 (OW Parliamentary Uittory, xxii. 30). 



Waller 



134 



Waller 



On 21 Fi'b. IfJGO Monck'a influence opened 
tlio iloord to lliom ull, Wiiller returned to 
liiH place, iind two <lHys later he was elected 
II jueiuliiT 111' the liisl^ council of state of the 
Coniuionwoallh. In that capacity he pro- 
moted I lie colling of a free parliament, and 
■wan useful to Monck in quieting the scruples 
of I'rvnne and other presbyterians (C'laren- 
dim mttite I'npers, iii. t)47, liiJ7 ; LuDLow, 
ed. 1804, ii. 235, 249; Kkstsett, RegUtcr, 
p, 0(5), 

At the Hesloration Waller ohtiiincd 
nothing, and, what is more s^urprising, asUe<l 
for nothing. He was elected to the Conven- 
tion us member for AV est minster, bnt did 
not sit in the next parliament (Old Parlin- 
inentari/ llUloni, xxii. 2 Id). He died on 
19 Sept. ItHid, and was buried with great 
pomp on !) Oct. in the c.liapel in Tolhill 
Street, Westmin.'iter. No uionumeni, how- 
ever, was erected to him, and the armorial 
bearings and other funeral decorations wen- 
pulled down by the heralds on the ground 
of certain technical irregularities in them 
(Wijun. Atliintr, iii. 81": cf, letter from 
Thomas Jekvll to Wood, K'o-j'/ .I/.S'. F. 42, 
f. 303, and L'al. Stall- Papers, Dom. 1608-0, 
p. 2.3). 

Of Waller as a getiernl Dr. Gardiner 
justly observes: ' If he hud not the highest 
qualities of a cnmnmndi.'r, he came short of 
them tt> much through want of character us 
through defect of militury skill. As a 
master of defensive tactics he was probably 
unequalled on either side ' ( lirrnt Civil If'nr, 
ii. 192). Clarendon mentions Waller's skill 
in choosing liis jmsitions, and terms him ' a 
right good cliooserof vantages' (/WW//'un,vii. 
ill). During his career as an iiidepHudent 
commumlir he was peq)etiially hampered 
by want of money. ' I never received full 
100,(100/.,' he complains, adding that the 
material of which his army was composed 
made it impossible for him ' to improve his 
8ucces.ses' ( I'iiiilication, p. 17). He saw 
the conditions of success clearly, though he 
could not persuade the parliament to adopt 
them, and was the iirst to suggest the for- 
mation of the new model (Gardixer, ii. o). 
Waller waged war, as he sjiid in his letter 
to Hopton, ' without ]personal animosities,' 
and was humane and courteous in his treat- 
ment of opponents (cf. Ludlow, Menuiii-K, 
ed. lKf)4, i. 4ol ; Wkbb, CSvil War in lleri- 
fnrdMre, i. 203 ; Memoirs nf Sir liichard 
BuUtriide, p. 120). He could not restrain 
his unpaid K(ddiers fn)m plundering, and 
regrets in his ' Uec<dleclions ' his allowing 
them to plunder at Winchester, holding the 
demolition of his own house at that place 
by the parliament an appropriate punish- 



ment (p. 131). At Winchester, and also tt 
Chichester, he allowed his men to desecrate 
and deface those cathedrals without any at- 
tempt to check them { Men-uriu* Rititiiitx, 
ed. Iti^."), pp. 133 52). I'robably he regarded 
iconoclasm as a service to religion. 

Waller married three times. IJy his first 
wife he had one son, who died in infancy 
(UnuRY, Kentish fSeneal'ifiiet, p. 296: lie- 
cllectioTiK of Sir if. Waller, p. 127), and a 
daughter .Margaret, who lunrried .Sir William 
Courteuay of Powderham Castle ( J'indicn- 
tiim, p. ii : Collins, Peerage, ed. Brydges» 
vi. 200); he married, secondly, Lady .\nne 
Finch, daughlerof the first Karl of Winchilsea 
((A. iii. 383; Jleco/lectionn, np. 104, lOt!, 119, 
127); thirdly, Anne, daughter of William, 
lord Paget, and widow oi Sir Simon Har- 
court (iV/, p. 129 ; CoLLiKs, iv. 443). Copious 
extracts Irom this lady's diary are given in 
t he ' Harcourt Papers ' ( i. 1 09), aiul an account 
of her character is contained in Edmund 
Calamy's sermon at her funeral ( T/ie llap- 
pinetx of those who sleep in Jestis, 4to, 1662), 
Uy his second wife Waller had two sons — 
(.Sir) William (rf. 1()99) [(j.v.landTliomas — 
and a daughter .Vnne, who married Philip, 
eldest son of.Sir. Simon Harcourt, died 23 Aug. 
1 004 , and was the mot her of Lord-chancellor 
Harcourt (Collins, iv. 443). 

A certain number of Waller's letters and 
despatches were publish<-d at the time in 
]mmphlet form, but none of his literary or 
autobiographicul productions appeared till 
after his death. 'Thev were three in num- 
ber: 1. 'Divine MetJitations upon several 
Occasions, with a Daily Directory,' ItiSO; 
a portrait is prefixed. 2. ' Recollect ions by 
General Sir William Waller.' Thisisprinted 
as lui aiipendix to 'The Poetry of .\nna 
Matilda, 8vo, 1788,pp. 103-39. A manuscript 
oft his work is in the library of Wadham Col- 
lege, Oxford. 3. ' Vindication of the Cha- 
nicter and Conduct of Sir William Waller,' 
17'.)". Prefi.xed to this is an engraved portrait 
of Wallerfrom a painting by I Jobert. Walker 
in the possession of the Earl of Harcourt. 
Waller also left, according to Wood, a 
' Militarv Discourse of the Ordering of Sol- 
diers,' wiiich has never been printed. 

Engraved ]>ortraits of \\ aller are also 
contained in ' England's Worthies,' by John 
\icars, and in .lasiah IJicraft's 'Survey of 
Ent'land's Champions,' both published in 
1047. A portrait by l.*ly, in t he possession 
of the Duke of Uiclimond, was l\o. 706 in 
the Xutional Portrait Exhibition of 1866, 
and an anonymous portrait is in the National 
Portrait Gallery, London. 

[.V lifo of Wttllor is given in Wood's AtheoB 
Oxoniensea, cd. Bliss, iii. 812. His two autobio- 



Waller 



135 



Wallich 



^ 



^ 



gmpbiml works give no coiisceutiTe account of 
iiis earavr. Utbcr aathoriiiui nicnlioned in the 
article. A long list of pamphlets rvlnting to 
bis military carct-r is pivca in tfao Catitloguc of 
Uio British MaMUm Library.] C. U. 1'. 

WALLER, Sm \VILLL\M (J. 1091I), 
informer, son of Sir William NN'aller { 1 597 ?~ 
lt568) [q. v.] by bis secoud wife, Anne Finch, 
distingiiisbed himself during the wriod of 
thepopi«h plot by his activity as a Nliddlesex 
]iuticti in catching prieMs, burning' Koman 
catholic books and vestments, and getting up 
evidence. He was the discoverer ot the meal- 
tub plot and ont! of the witnesses against 
Fitzharri?: (Xoutm, Examm, pp. Hi'I, '2~~, 
290; LcTTliELL, Diary, i. 7, l".', (V.t). In April 
1680 the king put him out of the commission 
of the peace (ib. i. 39J. AValler represt'nted 
Westminster in the parliaments of lti7i)and 
1681. During the reaction which followed he 
fled to Amsterdam, of which city be waa 
ndmittedaburgher(ClllusriE,/4/<?oV.VA(7/yc*- 
Aury, ii. 403,400). In l()^S3aud the following 
year he was at lln'men, of which place Lord 
Preston, the English ambassador at Paris, 
describes him us governor, titber political 
e.xiles gathered round him, and it bt'caine the 
nest of all the jjcrsons accused of the lust 
conspiracy, i.e. the Hye House plot. 'They 
style Waller, by way of commendation, a 
second Cromwell," adds Preston (llixt.MSS. 
Comm. 7th iiep. pp. 3(HJ, ;Jll, 347, atwj). 
When the prince of ( Jrauge invaded I'^ngland 
Waller accomjianied him, and he wu.s with 
the prince at Kxeter (;'/(. pp. 417, 433; 
Reresby, Diary, p. 410). Williiim, however, 
would give him no employment (Foxckoit, 
L\fe of Hal(fa.t; ii. L'lo, 324). He died in 
July 16(t9 (LirrKELL, iv. .W8). 

Waller is satirised a^ ' Industrious Arod ' 
in the second part of * Absalom and Achi- 
tophel' (11. 531 .M) : 

The lalmurs of this midnight magistrate 
Hight rie wth Corah's to preserve the 8tnte. 

He ia verj- often introduced in the httlluds 
and caricatures of the exclusion bill and 
popish plot times (see Cntuloyue of Satirical 
Print* in the British Museum, i. 609, (U3, 
060 ; Ruxbiiryhe Ballad*, ed. Ballad Society, 
iv. 156, 177, 181 ; Luyal Poem* cillected ly 
Sat Thompson, 1085, p. 117). Wuller was 
the author of an anti-cjitbolic pamphlet 
'The Tragical Historj- of Jetrer,' lti^5, ful. ' 
[Wood's Alhenas, iii. 817; other tiulhorities 
mcotioncd in tlic article.] C. 11. F. 

WALLEYS. [See W.*llen8Is.] 

WALLICH, NATHANIEL (1786- 
1854), botanist, was by birth a Dane, and 
was bom at Copenhagen on 38 Jan. 1781). 



Having graduated M.D. in his native city, 
where he studied under Vahl, he entered 
the Danish medical 8er%'lce when slill very 
voung, and in 1807 was surgeon to the 
Danish settlement at Serampore. When 
this place fell into the hands of the East 
India Compony in 1813, Wallich, with 
other officers, was allowed to enti^r the 
Kuglish service. Though ut first attached 
to the medical staff, on the resignation of 
Dr. Francis Hamilton in Iblo he was 
made superintendent of the Calcutta botani- 
cal garden. He ut once distinguished him- 
self by his great activity in collecting and 
describing new plants, causing them to be 
drawn, and distributing specimens to the 
chief English gardens and herbaria. In 
1830 ho began, in conjunction with William 
Carey (1761-18.34) Fq. v.], topublish William 
Uoxburgh's ' Flora Indica,'to which he added 
much original matter; but his zeal us a col- 
lector of new plants was greater than hia 
patience in working up existing materials, BO 
I that Can-y was left to complete the work 
I alone. Meanwhile Wallich was oHiciallydi- 
I reeled in this year to explore Nepal; and, 
j iK'sides sending many plants home to Banks, 
' Smith, Lumbert.Uudge, and Hoscoc (.V««oi'r 
and CurrtujHindenre vf Sir Jainrt Edward 
\ Smith, ii. 3-ltJ, 'Hi'!), issued two fascicles of 
I his 'Tentumen Flone Napulensis Illustratie, 
consisting of Botanical Descriptions and Li- 
thographic Figures of select Nipul Plants,' 
printed at the recently estahlislied Asiatic 
j Lithographic Press, Serampore, 1834 and 
I lS3li, folio. In 1835 he inspected the foresfa 
j of Western Hindostan, and in 1836 and 1837 
those of Ava and Lower Burma. Invalided 
homo in 1838, he brought with him some 
eight thousand specimens of plants, dupli- 
cates of which were widely aistributed to 
both public and private collections. 'A 
Numerical List of Dried Sjwcimens of Plants 
in the East India Company's Museum, col- 
lected imder the .Superintendence of Dr. 
Wallich' (London, 1H3H, folio), contains in 
all !l,148 species. The best set of theau 
was presented by the company to the 
Liniienn Society. ' In 1830, 18;31, and 1833 
Wallich published his most important 
work, ' riiint;e .\siatiaB llariores; or De- 
scriptions and Figures of u Select Number 
of unpublished Ea.st Indian Plants' (Lon- 
don, 3 vols, folif)). He then returned to 
India, where, among other ollicial duties, he 
made an extensive exploratiou of Assam 
with reference to the discovery of the wild 
tea shrub. He finally returned to Eng- 
land in 1847; and, on bis resignation of his 
post in ISiOO, he was succeeded by John 
Scott, gardener to the Duke of Devonshire 



* 



3 



Wallingford 



136 



Wallingford 



at Oliatsworth. As vice-tlI•eilidl'n^ of the 
Linneun Society, of whiefi lie lind beeu a 
fellow since ISiS, Dr. W'lillic-li freiiuently 
presided over its meetings in his later years. 
He died in London, in (Jower Street, IJlooms- 
bury, on 28 April 1854. 

Wallich was elected fellow of tlie Hoyal 
Society in 1829, und was also a fuHow of the 
Royal Asiatic Society. There is an oil por- 
trait of him, by Lucas, at I lie Liniu'im Society's 
apartmeuts, imd there is u lithnpraph, jmb- 
lished by MujTuire, in the Ipswich series. .\n 
obeli.'-k was erected to his memory by the 
East India Companv in tlie bntunical garden 
at Calcutta; and, tliough his name was up- 
plied by iii'veral twlanists to various genera 
of plants, the admitted genus Waltichia is a 
group of p.'ilms so named by William liox- 
burgn. In addition to llie more important 
works already mentioned, Wallich iscrediteil 
in the Itoyal Society's 'Catalogue ' (vi. 2o2l 
with twenty-one pnpt^rs, montly botanical, 
contributed by him between 181(i and 
1854 to the '.\siatick Kesearches,' 'Edin- 
burgh I'bilosopliical Journal,' 'Transactions 
of the Liunean Society,' of the 'Caleulta 
Medical and Physical Society,' and of the 
' Agricultural Society of India,' the '.fournal 

|of Botany.' ami the journiils of the .\siiitic 
Society uf Bengal and the liorlleultural 
Society, 

Ilis' son, CiEoitoK ('k.\ki,E8 'Wallicii 
(1815-1899), graduated -M.D. from l':din- 
burgh in 1830, became a lici-ntiate of the 
Roj-al College of Surgeons uf EJiuliurgh in 
1837, and entered the Indian medical 8er\ice 
in 1838. He received medals for bis ser- 
vices in the Suth'j and I'unjiib campaigns of 
1842 and 1847, nnd was field-surgeon dur- 
ing the Sonlhal rebellion in 1 8r(5~ti. In 18tS0 
ho was altaebed to the liulhlog nn lier sur- 
vey of the Atlantic bottnni for the purposes 
of the proposed cable, und for more than 
twenty years he continued to study murin'.' 
biology, publishing in IHiO ' Notes on the 
Presence nf .Vnimal Life iit ^'ast Depths in 
tbedcenn.'Knd in I8(i2 'The North .\llantic 
Sea-biil,' und receiving the gold medal of 
the Liunean Society for bis researches. He 

Idled on 31 March" 1899 (Lancet, 8 April 

^1899). 

[Gardeners' Chronielo, 18.14, p. 284; infur- 
matiou furuibhed bjr the latf i)r. G. C, Wiitlieh.] 

G. S. B. 

WALLINGFORD, Viscount (1647- 
lti32). [See KsoixYs, WiLLUM, Eael ok 

BA.NBtTRY.l 

WALLINGFORD, JOUN of (d. 1258), 
hi.<toricBl writer, [rives his name to a chro- 
nicle of English history existing inCottonian 



MS. Julius I), vii. tt, and printed by Gale in 
lOStl in bis ' IlisloriiB Dntannicas haxonicre 
Anglo-DoniciE Scriptores XV' (called by 
him vol. i., though generally described hi 
vol. iii. of Gale and Fell's collection). From 
internal evidence it appears that John of 
Wallingford became a monk of St. Albans 
in 1231, was in priest's orders, sen'ed the 
oflice of intirnmrer, either composed or simply 
copied as a scribe (scriptor) the chronicU- in 
question, and died at AVymondham, Norfolk, 
a cell of St. .Vlbans, on 14 Aug. 1258. 

John of Wallingford is confused by Gale 
in his preface, and by Freeman (yorman 
('tiiiijuest , i. 344 «.), with John, called de 
Cella, abbot of St. Albans, who studied at 
Paris, where he gained the reputation of 
being a ' Priscian in grammar, an Ovid in 
verse, and a Galen in medicine.' He was 
elected abbot of St. Albans on 20 July 
llU'i, rebuilt the west front of the abbey 
church, und di^d on 17 July 1214. 

The chronicle a>iSociated with John of 
Wallingford's name extends Irom 449 to 
10;}5. and, as publi-shed, take.s up only 
pp. .')25-5tt; but It is longer in manuscript, 
liir tiale, ns be says in his preface, omitted 
some things and abridged in other parts, 
.specially tbuse dealing with hagiology ; liLs 
omissions are more frequent than would be 
galhered from his text. The author evi- 
dintly used several excellent authorities, 
such us Rede, the Saxon priest's ' Life of 
Dunstan,' Florence of Worcester, and the 
like; but, though he makes some attem]>t4 
at comparison and criticism, has in.serted so 
many exaggerations and miscnncepi ions ap- 
parently current in his nwn time, and has 
tiirther so strangelv confused the results of 
his reading, that his production is histori- 
cally worthless. More than once he speaks 
of bis iuteution to write a larger chronicle. 

[Mull. Hist. Brit. Intnxl. p. 22, virtually re- 
pmtoil in llarJv's Cat. Mat. i, 625-6.1 

W. H. 

WALLINGFORD. mCHARD of 
(12fi2?-l3;5ti), abbot of St. Albans. [See 

I{ICI1AUI>.] 

WALLINGFORD. 'WILLIAM (rf. 
1488."), alibot nf }St. .\lbans, was from youth 
up a memk of St. Albans. He only left the 
house to study at the university, probably 
at Oxford (Iffl/istra Mon. S. Al/mw, i. 130 i. 
He was nn a<lmiuostrator rather than a re- 
cluse, and at the time of the death of Abbot 
John Stoke, on 14 Dec. 1451, was already 
archdeucon.cellarer, bursar, forest er, and sut- 
celhirerof the abbey of St. Albans (I'b. i. •'">). 
He wus a candidate for the succession when 
John Whethnmstede [q. v.] was unanimously 



Wallingford 



»37 



Wallingford 



elected on Ifi Jan. lA't'J. Throughout the 
abbacy of Whethauistede ^\■allingford held 
office as 'officiiil general,' arohilcacoii, and 
also as chhmtx-rlitin ((6. i. it, 17-3). Faction 
raged high among the mnuk^, and grave 
charges were then or later brought against 
AVallingford, which are detailed ot great 
length in Whelhamstede's ' Itegiater' (i6. i. 
102- So). Thev are, however, evidently an 
interpolation, probably bva monk jealous of 
Wallingford, and Whtttamstede not only 
took no notice of these accusations, but con- 
tinued Wallingford in all his offices. In 
1464 he was, as archdeacon, appointed by 
the abbot one of a commission for the exami- 



nation of heretics (I'A. 



2). Hamridge, 



^ 



Wallingford'g successor as abbot, soys that 
he first became distinguislicd as urehdeocon 
for bis care of education, training ten young 
monks at his own e.xpeiise, and for tlif lavish 
attention he bestowed nj>on the abbey build- 
ings and treasures, lie built • nmiiy fair 
new buildings' for the abbi'V, ranging l'n>m 
the library to a stone bakehouse, while tlio-e 
buildings which were falling into a ruinou- 
state be repaired. He also presented tlie 
abbey with many rich treasures, such lis n 
gold chalice ond precious gold-embroidereil 
vestments. Their value whs i(f*() marks. 

When, upon the death of WheHinmstedp 
on i!0 Jan. 14<>5, William Allion, the prior, 
■was on io Keb. elected his successor, Wal- 
lingford took a leading part in the electiim 
(ib. V\.-J7, '.10, 36, .'57). On 18 March the 
new abbot, with the common consent of the 
monks, created Wallingford prior of the 
monastery. His previous office of arch- 
deacon he c'intinued to exercise (I'A. ii. 60, 
90). In 1473 be was granted, with others, 
a commission for the visitatiuuol'the cunites 
and vicars of St. I'eter's, St. .Vndrew's, .St. 
Stephen's, and St. Michael's of the town of 
St. Albans {it>. ii. \W). As ]irlor he kejit op 
bis interest in the maintenance of the monas- 
tic buildings, spending 3(10/. on die kitcln-u, 
and within eight vears laving out ii thou- 
sand marks on the rejiairs of farms uml 
houses. He built a prior's hall, and added 
all that was necessary for it (Diul>Al.>;, 
Monasticon, ii. l'06 n.) 

After Abbot Albon's death on 1 July 1471!, 
Wallingford was on 5 -Vug. ununirnoiisly 
elected to succeed him. Wallingford's regis- 
ter covers the years from 147(> to Aiigii.st 
1488, though certain leaves are torn out I'rom 
the end of it. Wallingford took little part 
in outside alfairs. He resisted successfully 
certain claims of .\reliliishop Itourchier over 
the abbey, which were decided in the abbot's 
&vour upon appeal to liome {ib. ii. 20G >i. ; 
Newcome, Ilintory of St. Atbanr, p. SUti ; 




Clcttebbcck, p. 35). In 14nO Wallingford 
was appointed by the general chapter of Bene- 
dict ines at Northampton visitor of all Bene- 
dictine monasteries in the diocese of Lincoln, 
but he commissioned William Hardwyk and 
John Maynard to conduct the visitation in 
his place ( Ueyistrd, ii.'Jl!) ). Hisgovemment 
of the abbey was marked by regard for strict 
discipline tempered with generosity. Thus, 
while he deposed John Langton, prior of 
Tyueraouth, tor disobedience to his ' vLsitors' 
(A. 15 Mareh 1478, ii. 186), he gave letters 
testimonial lor the absolution of a priestwho 
bv misadventure had committed homicide t 
(ill. yO Aug. 147tJ, ii. L'4(i, L'47). He manu- 
mitted certain villeins and their children (ib. 
1480, ii. 208, 230). WaUingford sent in 1487 
John Kothebury, his archdeacon, to Uoma i 
in order to try to win certain concessions ' 
for the abbey, but the mission proved n failure 
Uh. ii. 288, 28i»). 

Wallingford's abbacy shows some of the 
weak points charact erist ic of fift eenth-cent ury 
inonasticism. There is a desire to make the 
hot of both worlds. The lay offices of the 
abbey were turned to advantage. Foreiam- 
jite, in 14711 Wallingfiird c^nilVrred the office 
of seneschal or steward of the liberty of St. 
-Vlbans, with all itseinoluments,nn William, 
lord Hastings (7iV»/M/rrt, ii, l'.li», 2(1(1), not- 
withstanding the fact that Abbot Albtiii had 
already in 1474 conferred the siime on John 
Forster for life. Three years afterwards Wal- 
lingford gave the oMice jointly to the same 
Lord Hastings and John Forster. However, 
Lord Hastings was put to death by Richard 
III soon after, and r'orster, alter being im- 
prisoned in t lie Tower for nearly nine months, 
' in hope of a mitigation of his piiuishnient, 
did remit and relea.se all his title and 
supreme interest that he had in his office of 
seneschal of St. Albans.' This is one in- 
stance of several {ih. ii. 207, 2(58) which 
show that the lay officii of the abbey were 
u'-ed for selfish ends. The attitude of Wal- 
lingford to the bishops was conciliatory as a 
rule, sometimes even obsequious. Thus, when 
he feared the lo.ss of the priory at Pembroke, 
given byDuke Humphrey, (liroiigh Edwanl's 
lesiiiuption of grants made by his three Lan- 
castrian jiredecessors, he applied humbly to 
the elinncellor, tieorge Neviih', bishop of 
Exeter, for his good offices, and through him 
secured a re-grant. The bishop later, in re- 
turn, was granted the next prejientation of 
the rectory of Slanraore .Magna in Middlesex 
(I'A. ii. 92). Mr. Hiley, in his introduction 
to the second volume of Wbethamstede's 
' Chronicle,' is, however, unduly severe in his 
inteqirutatiiin of many of Wallingford's acts. 

From the golden opinions of his imme- 



Wallingford 



138 



Wallington 



diate successor in the abbacy, Thomas Rnm- 
ridge, no less tliun from the simple enlrii-s ] 
in WuUiiifrford's own register, it is clear that 
he was efficient ami thoroughgoing, an excel- 
lent administrator, and a diligent defender of 
Ilia abbey. He voluntarily paid 1,830/. of 
debts left by his predecessor. He built n ' 
noble altar-screen, long considered the finest 
piece of arehileeture iu the abbey. l'iK>n 
this he spent eleven hundred marks, and 
another thousand marks in finishing the 1 
chapt^r-houfK', He built also, at the cost of | 
100/., a small chantry near the nllar on the , 
sonth side, in which he built his tomb, with 
his olligy iu marble. His tomb bears the 
inscription: 

Galielmns quartus, opua hoc laudabils cuius 
Extitit, hie paucat : Christus nbi pnemia 
reddnt. 

(Weever, Fuyterall Mon. p. "106). Two fine 
windows, a precious mitre, and two rich pas- 
toral staves were other gifts the abbey owed 
to his munificence. \\'hen he died in or 
about 1488 he left the abbey entirely freed 
from debt. 

The maiu interest of Wallingford's abbacy 
lies in the fact that the art of printing, 
brought into England a few years IJefore by 
Caxton, was then introduced into the town 
of St. Albans. The whole subject of the 
relation of the St. Albans press to other 
presses is obscure, and even the name of the 
St. Albans printer and his connection with 
the abbot vinknown (.Vmes, 'I'l/jidi/r. Antitj. 
ed. Dibdin, vol. i. p. civ ). -Vll t hat is certain 
is that between 14S0 and ll^Hlhis unknown 
printer issued eieht works, ihe first six in 
Latin, the last two in English. The most 
important aiid last of these was the famous 
'Bnke of St, Albans '[see Bf.rne](s,.Tui.iasa]. 
All thiit is clearly known of the St. .Vlbaus 
printer is tlint in Wynkyn do Worde's re- 
print of ' St. Albans Chronicle' the colophon 
states; "Here endith this present chmnich', 
compiled in a book and also emprinted by 
our sometime scluwlmaster of St. Albaii.' 
There is no clear proof of any closer relation 
W.tween Wollingford and the 'schoolmaster 
of St. Alban ' than bi-tween John Esteney, 
abbot of VVeslmiiistrr, and William C'axton. 
who worked under the shadow of Westmin- 
ster Abbey. Yet the probabilities of close 
connection in a little place like St. Albniis 
between the abbot, who was keenly interested 
in education, and the • schoolmaster,' who 
was furthering education by the ])rinting of 
books, are in themselves great, and arecon- 
tirmed by the fact that two of the eight books 
printed between 1480 and 14S(i bear the 
arms of the abbey of St . .Mbans (see for the 



discussion of the subject Mr. W. Blades'^ 
introduction to his Facsimile Rf print of the 
Lukeof iSI. Albaiu,hon&on, 1881, pp. 17-16, 
and E. (iollDox l)\:¥r'a liarly Pritited Boq};s, 
p. 140. Mr. ISIades is of opinion that no 
connect i<m between the schoolmaster and the 
abbey can be established ). 

[Nearly all that is known of WalliagfurJ is 
to bo found in his Register, whicli, with that of 
his prcdecostors, WhotJiiimstedc and Allion, is 
printed ia Mr. Riluy's Registra Joluvunis Wbet^ 
Immstedo, Willelnii Alboa et Willelnn Waling- 
forile, iu the RolL" Series; Wallingford's Ke- 
gislor is printed in ii. UU-290. ) M. T. 

WALLINGTON, NEHEMIAH (1598- 
1658), puritan, bom on l:i May 1598, was 
the leuth child of John Wallingtim (rf. 1641), 
a turner of St. Leonard's, Eastchcap, by 
his wife Elizabeth (d. 1(X)3), daughter of 
Anthony Hall (d. 1 597), n citizen and skinner 
of London. 

A little before 1020 Xehemiah entered 
into business on his own account as a turner, 
and took a house in Little Eastcheap, be- 
tween Pudding Lane and Fish-street Hill. 
Iu this abode he passed the remainder of 
an uneventful life. His puritan sympathies 
caused him occasional onxiety. In 1639 he 
and his brother John were summoned before 
the court of Star-chamber on the charge of 
possessiug prohibited books. He acknow- 
ledged thiit he had possessed I'rynne's ' Divine 
Tragedie,' Matthew White's • Newea from 
Ipswich,' and Henry Burton's ' Apology of 
an Appeale,' hut pleaded that he no longer 
owned them. I'or this misdemeanour he 
was kept under surveillance by the court for 
about two years, but suffered no further 
penalty. 

Wallington has been preserved from 
oblivion by three singular compilations of 
contemporary events. In 1630 he com- 
menced his ' Historical Notes and Medita- 
tions, 158;}-1649,' a quarto manu.soript 
volume, now in the British Mu.seum (Addit. 
M.S. "illta')). It consists of classified extract* 
from contemporary journals and pamphlets, 
which he enlarged with hearsay kuowledco 
and enriched with pious reflections. The 
work is chiefly occupied with political 
afliiirs. The latest event recorded is the 
evecntion of Charles I. In December 1630 
ho commenced a record of his private afliiirs, 
under the title ' Wallington's Journals,' in 
atjuurto volume, preserved in the Guildhall 
Library. It was formerly in the possession 
of William L-|)cott [q. v.], who indexed its 
contents. In 163:J he commenced a third 
quarto, now in the British Museum (Sloane 
MS. 1457), in which he recorded numerous 
strange portents which had occurred in variotiB 



Wallis 



*39 



Wallis 



» 



parts of Engknd, ' cheifly ' taking ' notice of 
Gods iiidgmi'nts iij>ou Sabbuth breakers and 
on Drunkards.' Ir. contains many extracts 
from his • Historical Notes.' 

Wallington died in the summer or autumn 
of 1(558. In IBlil or \&20 he was married 
to Grace, sister of Zathariuh and LiveweU 
Rampain. Zacharinh, a man of |ro<id estate, 
was slain by the Irish in 1041. LiveweU 
was minister at Hurlon, near Lincoln, and 
afterwards at Uroxliolme. By her Wal- 
lington had several children, of whom only 
a daughter, Sara, survived him. Slie wa.s 
married to a jiuritan, named John Ilaughton, 
on 20 Nov. 1641'. 

Wallington's ' Historical Notes ' wi-re 
pubUshed in 18U9 (Loudon, '2 vols. S\o) under 
the editorship of Miss If. Webb, witli the 
title 'Historical Notices of Kvenis occurring 
chiefly in the Keign of Charles I.' 

[Miss Webb's Intrudueliuii to Historical 
Notices..] E. I. C. 

WALLIS, Mis.s, afterwards -Mils. (,'amP- 
BELL (y/. 1789-1814), Bctres.4, the (liiiijrhter 
of a Country actor, was born at Iticlnuond 
in Yorkshire, and appeared in Dublin as a 
child under liic-hnrd Daly, whoso manage- 
ment of Smock .\lley Theatre began in 1781 
and ended in 1798. For her father's benefit, 
announced as her own, she caricatured the 
Fine Lady in ' Lethe.' She playeil wiili lier 
father in many country tlieatres, and, after 
the death of her mother, obtained tlirough 
the influence of Lord and Lady IJoslyn (Earl 
and Countess of Uosslynr*) an engagement 
at Covent Garden, where she appeared on 
10 Jan. 1789 as Sigismuuda in "Tancred and 
Sigismunda.' Leading business ap|ieiirs at 
once to have been aj*signed her, and ^be played 
during the season Delvidera, Koxalana, and, 
for her benefit, liosalind. In the cliaraeter 
last named she made her lirst appearance 
(17 Oct. 1789) at Hath. -Vuiantbis in the 
•Child of Natiire' followed on -'1 Jan. 17!H). 
She was subsequently seen as Liicile in 
'False Appearances,' Letitia Hardy, Indiana, 
Colistn in tlie ' Fair IVnitent,' La<!y Lniily 
Oayville, Maria in the •Citizen,' and lleatrice 
in 'Much Alio about Nothing.' .\t Hath 
or Bristol she remained until 1794, jiiaying 
a great round of characters, including Vio- 
lante in the 'Wonder,' Imogen, Widow 
Belmour, Julia de Kuubignfi (an original 
part) in Catharine .Metcalfe's uduplation so 
named, on '2ti Dec. 1790; Lady Townley, 
Portia, Monimia, Lady Amarantli in ' Wild 
Oats,'Juliet,LadyTeazle,Susan in ' Fnlliesof 
n Day.' Isabella in 'Measure for Measure,' 
Cordelia, Jane Shore. Constance in "King 
John,' Euphrasia, Lady Macbeth, Catharine 




in ' Catharine and I'etmchio/ Mrs. Ford, 
IJosamond in • Henry II,' Mrs. Beverley, 
Perdita, and very many other characters of 
primary importance. So great a favourite 
did she become that the pit was, for her 
benefit, converted into boxes (what is now 
known a» dress circle). The benefit pro- 
duced 145/., in those days a large sum. She 
also gave an addre.>-s stating her reasons for 
quitting the Bath Theatre. A second benefit 
in Bristol produced 103/. 

As ' Miss Wallis from Bat li ' she reappeared 
at Covent Garden on 7 Oct. 1794, playing 
Imogen. .She repeated many of the promi- 
nent characters in which she had been seen 
in Bath, including Juliet, Calista, Beatrice, 
and Cordelia, and plaved several original 
parts, of which the following are the most 
considifrable : Georgina in Mrs. Cowley's 
'Town before you,' (i Dec. 1794; Julia in 
Miles i'eter Andrews's 'Mysteries of the 
Ca.stle,' 31 Jan. 1795; Lady Surrey in Wat- 
son's 'England Preserved,' 21 Feb.; Augusta 
Woodbine in O'Keeffe's 'Life's Vagaries,' 
19 March; Miss IJussell in Macready's ' Bank 
Note,' 1 .May, founded on Tavenier's ' Art- 
ful Husband;' Joanna in Holcroft's 'De- 
serted Daughter,' 2 May ; Ida in Boaden's 
'Secret Tribunal,' 3 Jime; Emmeline in 
Iieynolds's ' Speculation,' 7 Nov. ; Julia in 
Morton's 'Way to get Married,' 2.'i Jan. 
1 79() ; Lady Danvcrs in Iieynolds's ' For- 
tune's Fool,' 29 Oct. ; Jessv in Morton's 
'Cure for the Heartache,' 10 inn. 1797 ; and 
Miss Dorilliin in Jlrs. Inch)>uld'.>i 'Wives os 
they were and Maids as they are,' 4 March. 
She had also been seen as Olivia in 'Bold 
Stroke for a Husband,' Cecilia in 'Chanter 
of Ac(rident8,' Julia in the ' Itivals,' Perdita, 
Eliza Itatelifly in the 'Jew,' Arethusa in 
' I'bila.'ter,' Lady Sadlife, Leonora in ' Lovers' 
tjiiiirrel.s,'and .\driiina in ' Comedy of Errors.' 
i Tlie last part in which her name as Miss 
I Wallis is traced is .Mrs. Belville in the 
• School for Wives,' 22 May 1797. At the 
close of the season she performed in New- 
castle and other towns in the north. She had 
during the previous season, unless there is a, 
mi^-taVii in the year, playetl on 2 July at 
Edinburgh Juliet to the Romeo of Henry 
Sidiluiis. Ill Juno or July 1797, at Glads- 
niuir, lliidctingtoushire, she married JameaJ 
Campbell of theJird regiment of guards, and' 
retired t'nim the stage. 

On 20 Feb. 1813, as Mrs. Campbelllate 
Miss Wallis, she reappeared at CoventJ 
( iarden, playing Isabella in Garrick's piece t 
named ; but she lost nerve and was a failure. 
She repeated the character once, but ot- 
lempted nothing else. In April she reap- 
peared at Hath for six nights, acting as 



Wallis 



140 



Wallis 



jy Townley and Hermione. The follow- 
Dg aeoaon she was again en?a?ed, and was 
8e«n in manv cbaract^rs, includiDg liutland 
in ' Earl of Kssex,' Ladv Ountk' in ' Lady's 
Last Stake,' Zaphira in ' I'arbarosaa,' and 
Marchioness in • Doubtful Son.' She never 
quite recovered her lost ground, however, 
and from this time disappears. 

Miss Wallis had a )fraoeful figure and a 
pretty, dimpled face. She had capacity for 1 
the expression of sadness but not of deep 
passions. Her comedy was pretty, but arti- 
hcial aud simpering. She had a voice plea«- 
ing but uncertain, deficient in range and 
imperl'ectly under control. She was charged 
with inattention and walking through uer 
parts. Of these. Miss Dorillon, in ' Wives 
as they were and Maids as they are,' was 
perhaps the best. She was also 8Ucoe.4sful 
OS .loauna in the ' Deserted Daughter,' Julia 
in the ' Way to get Married," and Jessy 
Datland in the 'Cure for the Heartache.' 
She was unrivalled in parts which required 
simplicity, an unaffectt^fl deportment, mo- 
desty and sweetness. This seems to have 
been her own character, her purity and 
simplicity of life having won her a high 
character and many friends. 

A portrait as Juliet, by John Graham, 
exhibited at the lioyal .\cademy in iri>0, is 
in the possession of l{ol)ert Walters, esq., of 
Ware l*riory, Hertfordshire. Itoraney painted 
her portrait in 1788, before she went on the 
Co vent Garden stage, as ' Mirth and Melan- 
choly.' This picture, sold for 50/, at l!om- 
ney's sale, was engraved by Keating, and 
published 4 Jan. 179{). She seems to have 
been Uomney's model at a later date. 

[Geoest's .\ccouot of the English Slagv; 
Monthly Mirror, various jeurs, especially Sep- 
tember IT'.t* ; Theatrical Inqui'-itfir, J813; 
Gillitand's Dramatie Mirror; Thespian iJiet. ; 
Notes and Uueries, 8th Mr. xii. 176, 21)1; 
Genu Mag. 1797, ii. 613.] J. K. 

WALLIS, GEOKGE (1740-1«)2), phy- 
sician and author, was bom at York in 1740. 
Ho studied medicine, and, after gaining 
the degree of M.D., obtained a large prac- 
tice at Vork. He was much attached to 
theatrical amusements, and hejsides <ither 
pieces composed a mock tragedy entitled 
'Alexander and Statira," which was acted 
at York, Leeds, and Edinburgh. In 1775 
a dramatic satire by him, entitled 'The 
Mercantile Lover*,' was acted at York. The 
play possessed merit enough for success, 
but it sketched too plainly the foibles of 
prominent citizens of the town. Through 
their resentment Wallis lost his entire 
medical practice, and was obliged to remove 



to London, where an expurgated edition of 
the play appeared in the same year. In 
I./)naon he commenced as a lecturer on the 
theory and practice of physic, and in 1778 
published an ' Essay on the Evil Conse- 
quences attending Injudicious Bleeding in 
IVegnancy ' (London, 1781, 2nd edit. 8vo). 
He died in I.ondon, at Red Lion Square, on 
•29 Jan. 1802. 

Besides the works mentioned, he was the 
author of: 1. 'The Juvenaliad," a satire, 
1774, 4to. 2. ' Penury,' a satire, 1774, 4to. 

3. * Xosologia Mettiodica Gcolorum, or a 
Treatise on the Diseases of the Eyes, trans- 
lated and 8elect«d from the Latin of Francis 
Bossier de Sauvages,' I.,ondon, 1785, 8vo. 

4. ' The Art of preventing Diseases and 
restoring Health, London, 1793 : 2nd edit. 
1796; German translation, Berlin, 18tX). 

5. 'An Essav on the Gout,' London, 17V»8, 
8ro. Ho edited the ' Works of "Thomas 
Sydenham on Acute and Chronic Diseases,' 
London, 1789, 2 vols. 8vo, and the third 
edition of (Jeorge Motherby's ' Medical 
Dictionary,' London, 1791, fol. 

[Gent. Mag. 1802. i. 188; Baker's Biogr. 
DrBm.1812; Watt"t Hibliotheoa Britan,; Rooks's 
Kegister of .\ulhors Living in Gr«at Britain.] 

B. I. C. 

WALLIS, GEORGE (1811-1891), 
keeper of South Kensington Museum, son 
of John Wallis (178:j-1818> by his wife, 
Mary I^ice (1784-18(U l,was bom'at Wolver- 
hampton on 8 June 1811, and educated at 
the grammar school from 1820 to 1827. He 
practised as an artist at Manchester fnim 
1832 to 1837, but, taking an interest in art 
education as applied to designs for art 
manufactures and decorations, he won one 
of the six exhibitions offered by the govern- 
ment in 184 land joined the school of design at 
Somerset House, Ix>ndon. He became head' 
master of the Spitalfields schools in January 

1843, and was promoted to the headmaster- 
ship of the Manchester school on 15 Jan. 

1844, which position he resigned in 1846. as 
he could not agree with cltanges in the plan 
of instniction originatedat Somerset House. 
In 1845 he organised at the Royal Institution, 
Manchester, the first exhibition ofartmanu- 
fnctures ever held in England, and in the 
same year he delivered the first systematic 
course of lectures on the principles of deco- 
rative art, illustrated with drawings on the 
blackboard. These lectures led Lord Claren- 
don, then president of the board of trade, to 
ask Wallis to draw up a chart of artistic and 
scientific instruction as applied to industrial 
art. This chart is said to have been the basis 
of the instruction afforded by the present 
science and art department (SviUXsa,Sdioob 



Wallis 



141 



Wallis 



^ 



of Art, p. 46). The royal commissioners for 
tbe Great Exhibition of iMol np|>ointed him 
a deputy commissioner, and he acted in 1850 
for several manufacturing districts and the 
■whole of Ireland. During the exhibition of 
18.'jl he was superintendent of the British 
textile division, and a deputv commissioner 
of juries. After the close of the exhibition 
he accepted, at the request of the board of 
trade, the headmastership of the Birmingham 
school of design. In 1853 he was one of the 
six commissioners sent by the government to 
the United States of America to report nn 
art and manufactures, and from his report 
and that of Sir .loseph Whitworth [q. v.] on 
machinery' was compiled ' Tlie InduBtry of 
the United States,' IS-W. During the great 
Intt'matifinal Exhibition of If^Oii he acted 
in the same capacity as he bad done in IS-Jl. 
He was actively engaged in the British sec- 
tion of the Paris universal exhibitions of 186.") 
jHid 1867. In 1858 he left Birmingham and 
ned the South Kensington Museum us 
•enior keeper of the artcnlleclion, nn n]ipoinf- 
menl which he relimiui.'ihed just jirior to his 
death. He fostered the system of circulating 
■worlu of art in provincial museums, (tn 
7 March 1878 he was elected E.S.A. He 
■wrote in all the leading art periodicaU, and 
•was one of the earliest contributors to the 
• Art Journal,' besides delivering a vast num- 
berof lectures on design niid kindred subjects. 
He died at 21 St. George's I'oad, Wimbledon, 
Surrey, on 24 Oct. 1891, and was buried iii 
Higfagate cemetery on 28 Oct. He married, 
on 80 June 1842, Slatilda, daughter of Wil- 
liam Cundall of Camberwell, and left issue. 
Besides prefaces to artistic works he wrote: 
1. ' On the Cultivation of a Popular Taste in 
the Fine Arts,' 1839. 2. ' The Principles of 
Art as applied to Design,' 1844. 3. 'Intro- 
ductory Address delivered to the Students 
of the Manchester Schonl of Design,' lt<44. 

4. 'The Industry of the United States in 
Machinery and Ornamental Art,' 1844. 

5. 'The Artistic and Commercial Itesulta of 
the Paris Exhibition,' 1855. 6. 'Ueeent Pro- 
gre^ of Design,' 185<!. 7. ' Schools of Art, 
their Constitution and Management ,' 1857. 
8. ' Wallis's Drawing Book, Elementarv 
Series,' 1869. 9. ' The Manufactures of Bir- 
mingham,' 1863. 10. 'The Uoval House of 
Tudor,' 1866. 11. 'Technical Instruction," I 
1868, 12. 'Language by Touch ,'1873. 13. 'De- 
corative Art in Britain, Past, Pre-sent, and 
Future,' 1877. 14. 'British Art, Pictorial. 
Decorative, and Industrial: a Fifty Years' 
Retrospect,' 1882. He edited Benjamin 
Waternouse Hawkins's ' Comparative Aua- 
tomr as applied to tbe Purposes of the j 
Artist," 1883. I 




[Art Joiiriuil, Dwember 1 89 1, p. .181. with por- 
trait; Daily Omphic, 28 Oct. ISOl.with portmit; 
lUust.rated'LondonNews, 17 Oct. 1891, wilhpor- 
trnil ; London Figiiro. 14 Oct. 1891, with portrait; j' 
Magazine of Art, Deeember 1891, with purtrait ; 
Bioeraph. 1879, ii. 177;SinimB'a Bibliotheca 
Stnffordieii«is, pp. 484-6.] O. C. B. 

WALLIS, JOHN (1616-1703), mathe- 
matician, was bom at Ashford in Kent on 
23 Nov. 1616. His father, the Kev. John 
Wallis (1667-1C22), son of Uobert Wallis 
of Finedon, Northamptonshire, graduated 
B.A. and M..\. frum Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, and was minister at Ashford from 
1602 until his death on 30 Nov. 1622. He 
married in 1612, as his s»?cond wife, Joanna, 
daughter of Henry and Mary Chapman of 
Godmersham, Kent, and had by her three 
daughters and two sons, John and Henrv'. 

Wallis's education was begun at Aahford ; 
but, on an outbreak there of the plague, he 
was removed in l(i2.'> to a private school at 
Ley Green, near Tenterden, kept by .Tames 
Mouat, a Scot. When it broke up in 16:J0 
Wallis ' was as ripe for the uuiversitv,' by 
his own account, 'as some that have been 
sent thither.' 'It was always my affecta- 
tion even from a child,' he wrote, ' not only 
to learn by rote, but to know tbe grounds 
or reasons of what I learn ; to inform my 
judgment as well as furnish my memory." 
When placed in 1630 at I'elsted school, 
Essex, he wrote and spoke Ijitin with fa- 
cility, knew (ireek, Hebrew, French, logic, 
and music. During the Cliristmns vacation 
of 1631 his brother taught him the rules of 
arithmetic, and the study ' suited ray humour 
so well that I did thenceforth prosecute it, 
not as a formal study, but as a pleasing 
diversion at spare hours,' when works on the 
subject ' fell occasionally in my way. For I 
had none to direct me what books to read, i 
or what to seek, or in what method to 
proceed. For mathematics, at thot time 
with us, were scarce looked on as academical 
studies, but rather mechanical — ns the 
business of traders, merchants, seamen, car- 
penters, sur^-eyors of lands, and the like.' He 
was admitted to Emmanuel College, Cam- 
bridge, at Christmas 1632, gained a scholar- 
ship on the foundation, and Ix^came noted as 
a dialectician. His course of study embraced 
ethics, physics, and metaphysics, besides ^ 
medicine and anatomy ; he being the first 
pupil of Francis Glisson fq. v.] to maintain 
publicly the circulation of the blood. He 
graduated B.A. and M.A. in 1637 and 1C40 
respectively, was ordained in the latter year, 
nnd became chaplain, first to Sir liicbard 
Darley at Buttercrambe, Yorkshire, then 
(ltM2-4) to the widow of Iloraf io, lord Vere, 



Wallis 



Wallis 



alternntely at. Caatle llodin^ham, Essex, 
and in London. Here, one eveninjj at supper, 
a letter in cipher was bronght in, relating 
to the capture of Chichester ou 27 Doc. 1642, 
which Wallis within two hours succeeded 
in deciphering. The feat made his fortune. 
He became an adept in the cryptologic art, 
until then almost unknown, and e.xercised it 
on behalf of the parliamentary party. He 
wM rewarded in 1843 with the sequestrated 
living of St. (inbrifl,Fenchurch Street, which 
he exclianged in 1()47 for that of St. Martin 
in Ironmonger Lane. In 1644 he acted as 
secretary to the assembly of divines at West- 
minster," and obtained by parliamentary 
decree a fellowship in Queens' College, Cam- 
bridge. This, however, he speedily vacated 
by his mnrrigge, on 14 March 1645, with 
Susanna, daughter of John and Kachel Clyde 
of Northinm, .Sus8e.x. Ho now came to live 
in London. Already zealous for the ' new ' 
or experimental philosophy, he associated 
there with Itobert Royle I q. v.] and other re- 
formers of scientific metnoil, whose weekly 
meetings, divided after 1649 between Oxford 
and I./ondon, led to the incorporation, in 
1663, of the Royal Society (for Wallis's ac- 
count of its origin, see Weld's Iliston/ of 
thf Iint)al Socifty, i. 30, 36). Having con- 
tributed ertectively to found it, ho long 
helped to sustain its reputation by impart- 
ing his own invent ions and expounding those 
of others. 

He was well oft', his mother at her death 
in 104.'1 having left hira a substantial estate 
in Kent, and the course pursued by him in 
politics, although devious, does not appear 
to have been di.shonest. He gave evidence 
against .-Vn-hbishop Laud in 1644 (PRTWifE, 
Canti-rliurifn Doomr, 1646, p. 73), but in 
1646 signed the remonstrance against the 
king's execution, and in 1649 the ' Serious 
and Faithful Representation.' ' Oliver had a 
great respect for him,' according to Anthony 
Wood, and he showed it by appointing him 
in 1649 Savilian professor of geometry in the 
university of Oxford, of which he was in- 
corporated M..\. from Exeter College in the 
same year. He further took a degree of 
D.D. on 31 May 1653, confirmed by diploma 
on 25 June 1(562. Hia succession in 1658 
to Gerard l^angbaine the elder [q. v.] aa 
keeper of the university archives, elicited 
Henry Stubbe's hostile protest, ' The Savilian 
Professor's Cose stated' [see Stitbbs or 
STtjBBES, HB!fBV, 1632-1676]. In 1653 
Wallis deposited in the Bodleian Library a 
partial collection of the letters deciphered by 
aim, with an historical preface, published by 
John Davys in 1737 in his ' Essay on the 
Art of Decyphering.' Wallis waa afterwards 



{ accused by I'rynne and Wood of having in- 
I terpreted the correspondence of Charles I 
{ captured at Xoseby ; but ' he had this in him 
of a good subject, that at this time, in 1645, 
he discovered nothing to the rebels which 
\ much concerned the public safety, though he 
satisfied some of the king's friends that he 
could have discovered a great deal' (Life of 
I Dr. John Baruick. p. 251 ). That this was his 
, plan of action he himself ejtpressly states in 
' a letter to Dr. John Fell [g. v.], dated 8 April 
llJ85 ; and the details of the services ren- 
dered by him in this line to the royal cause 
during some years before the Restoration 
were doubtless authentically known to 
Charles II. He was accordingly confirmed 
in his posts in 16(30, was nominated a royal 
chaplain, and obtained an appointment among 
the divinai commissioned in lij6l to revise 
I he praver- book. 

Wallis publishetl, in 1643, 'Truth Tried; 
or Animadversions on the I.,ord Brooke's 
Treatise on the Nature of Truth.' The 
perusal in 1647 of Ou^htred's 'Clavis Ma- 
theraaticie' may be said to have started his 
mathematical career, and his genius took its 
special bent from Torricelli's writings on the 
method of indivisibles. Applying to it the 
Cartesian analysis, Wallis arrived at the 
new and suggestive results embodied in his 
' Arithmetica Infinitorum' (Oxfonl, l(i56), 
the most stimulating mathematical work so 
j far published in England. Newton read it 
with delight when an undergraduate, and 
derived immediately from it his binomial 
theorem. It contained the germs of the 
differential calculus, and gave, ' in every- 
thing but form, advanced specimens of the 
' integral calculus' (De Mobgan, in the Penny 
Cyclopaidia). The famous value for »r, here 
' made known, was arrived at by the interpo- 
lation (the word was of his invention) of 
terms in infinite series. In the matter of 
' quadratures, first by him investigated ana- 
Ijrtically, Wallis generalised with consum- 
mate skill what Descartes and Cavalieri had 
already done. The book promptly became 
famous, and raised its author to a leading 
po.sition in the scientific world. 

He prefixed to the •Arithmetica Infini- 
torum' a treatise in which analysis was first 
applied to conic sections aa curves of the 
second degree. In a long-drawn controversy, 
begun in 16.55, he exposed the geometrical 
imbecility of Thomas Hobbes [q. v.] It ex- 
cited much public interest ; but after the 
death of his adversary, Wallis declined to 
reprint the scathing pamphlets he had di- 
rected against him while alive (cf. Hobbbs'b 
Works, ed. Molesworth, 1839-45, passim). 
' A numerical problem sent to him by the 



Wallis 



143 



Wallis 



?rench mathemBtician Fermnt led to a corre- ' 

•oudence, in which Lord Brouncker, Sir 

ienelm I'igby, I'Veniclc, and Schooten took 

t, publi-ht'd under the title ' Comnjercium 

Spistolicnm' (.Oxford, KWH). In a tract, ' De 

loide,' is3ue<l in UWJ, Wallis gnve cnrrect 

wers to two ijuestinns proposed by Pascal, 

and treated incidentally of the rectification 

1 of curves. IIU ' Mathesis Universalis' (Ox- 

iford, lUt>~) embodied the substance of his 

rprofesaorial lectures. 

In 1650 Christian Huygens sent to the 
[Koyal S<»ciety a. cryptographic nnnounce- 
Ejnent of his discovery of Titan. Wnllis re- 
Ftorted with an ingenious pfleiido-anagram, 
leapable of interpretatinn in many senijes, 
[which eventually enabled him to claim for 
JHir I'aul Neile and .Sir Christopher Wren 
[anticipatory observations nf the new Sa- 
tamiua satellite. Iluygens surrendered his 
priority in all goml faith, but was irritated 
to find that he had been taken in by a prac- 
[ lical joke. ' Decepisseme puto si potuisset,' 
• was nis private note on Wallis's letter to 
i him of 17 April lfJ66. line dated 1 Jan. 
1659 gave at last the reijuisite explanation 
I ((£i/('r<"* CompletfK de Chrl*tiaan Iluyyenii, i. 
'380, .H9«, 401, ii. 300). Wullis wos partial 
1 to his countrymen. In his 'History of Al- 
gebra' he attributed toTliomos Harriot [ij.v.] 
much that belonfre<l to Vieta. This narra- 
tion, the first of itj! kind, made part of his 
' Treatise on Algebra '(London, l(Wo). Roger 
I Cotes [fj. V.J said of the volume: 'In my 
mind Inere are many pretty things in that 
book worth looking mXo' (Corre»pundence of 
Nrirton and Oitps, ed. Edleston, p. 191). 

Wallis's ' Grommalica Linpute Angli- 
canjD ' (Oxford, November 1652) has been 
tacitly commended by many imitators, and 
often reprinted. To it was oppended a re- 
markable tract, ' De Loqnela,' describing in 
detail the various modes of production of 
articulate sounds. The study led him to the 
invention of a method for imparting to deaf- 
mutes the art of speech. ' I am now ujKin 
another work,' he wTote to Hoberl Hoyle on 
30 Dec. 1661, 'as hard almost as to make 
Mr. llobbes understand a demonstration. It 
\b to f«ach a person deaf and dumb to speak' 
(BOYIX, Woik», vi. 4o3). His patient was 
a youth named Daniel Wlmlley, exhibited 
in ltJ63 08 a triumph of tlio ni>vel curative 
process before Charles II, Prince Rupert, 
and the Royal Society, liis next success 
was with Alexander, son of Admiral Edward 
Popham [q. v.], previously experimented 
upon by Dr. William Holder [q. v.] Their 
respective shares in his instruction occa- 
, cioDed some dispute. 
'~H)n 26 Nov. 1666 Wallia laid before the 



Royal Society a correct theory of the im- 
pacts of inelastic bodies, based upon the 
principle of the conservation of momentum 
(I'hil. Trnnf. iii. 864). It was more fully 
expounded in his ' Mechanica,' i.ssued in three 
liarts, 1669-71, the mo.st comprehensive work 
im the subject then existing. Wallis's ' De 
.Est 11 Mans Hypothesis Nova,' appeared in 
1668. The essential jiart of the tract had 
been communicated to the Royal Society on 
6 Aug. 1666 (16. ii. 26.S, sec also iii. 652, v. 
2061, 2068). It is worth remembering chiefly 
for the sagacious assumption made in it that 
the earth and moon may, for purposes of 
calculation, be regarded as a single body 
concentrated at tneir common centre of 
gravity. 

After the Revolution, M'allis wm em- 
ployed as decipherer, on behalf of William 
in, by Daniel Finch, .second earl nf Not- 
t inglmm 'q. v.] Some of the correspondence 
submitted to him related to the alleged sup- 
posititious birth of the Prince of Wales 
(James III). On one of theae letters ho 
toiled for three months, on another for»ten 
weeks; and he wrote piteously to Notting- 
ham asking for ' some better recompense 
than a few good words; for really, my lord, 
it is tt hard service, requiring much labour 
OS well OS skill ' {Monthly Magnzhie, 1802, 
vols. xiii. xiv.) Consulted ia 1692 about 
the adoption of the Gregorian calendar, he 
strongly discountenanced the step, mainly 
on the ground that it would imply sub- 
serviency to Rome ; and his authority pre- 
vailed. 

At Sir Paul Neile's on 16 Dee. 1666, 
Samuel Pepys met ' Dr. Wallis, the famous 
scholar ana malliematieinn ; but he promises 
little.' The atcjiiaiiitance, however, con- 
tinued, and \\allis wrote to Pepvs, after 
the lap.«e of thirty-five years: ''Till I waa 
past fourscore years of age, I could pretty 
well bear up under the weight of those 
years; hut since that time, it hath been too 
late to dissemble my being an old man. My 
I .sight, my hearing, my strength, are not as 
they were wont to be' (Pbpis, Diary, ed. 
Braybrooke, v. 399). He died at Oxford on 
28 Oct. 1703, aged 86, and was buried in St. 
Mary's Church, where his son placed a mural 
monument in his honour. 

A full-length portrait of him in his robes 
was painted in 1701 by Kneller, who was 
sent to Oxford by Pepys for the purpose. 
Designed as a gift to the university, it waa 
hung in the gallery of the schools, where it 
remains. Kneller declared to Pepys: 'I 
never did a better picture, nor so good an 
one in my life, which is the opinion of all as 
has seen it.' Wallis expressed hie gratitude 



Wallis 



144 



Wallis 



'for the honour done me in plnctng so noble 
a picture of me in ao eminent a pUce' (I'A, 
pp. 401, 111). Kneller nlso drew a half- 
lengfth ofhi'* venerable sitter, whom he repre- 
sented holding a letter in his hand, vvith the 
adjunct K of a gold chain and medal given to 
him by the king of Prussia for deciphering it. 
Both pictures were engraved by Faber, the 
former by David Loggan [q. v.] and William 
Faithorne, junior [ij. v.], 08 well. His pur- 
trait, by Zoest, belouga to the Royal Society. 
Portraits of him by Loggan (lrt"8) and by 
Sonmans (1698) were engraved by Michael 
Burghers [q. v.] to form the frontispieces 
of the Hrst and third voluraea of his 'Opera 
Mathematica.' A portrait after Kneller is 
in the Xalioniil Purtrait Uallery, London, 
and a sixth jiortrait is in the Ultizi Gallery, 
Florence. 

Wullis lost his wife on 17 March lfi87. 
Ilia only .son, .lohit Wallis, born on '2ii Dec. 
iHM, graduated B.A. from Triuity College, 
Oxford, on '.) Nov. 1*1<1!I, was called to the 
bar in lil7(!, and married, on V Feb. 1682, 
EliMbcth, daughter of John Harris of 
Souiidess Housi", ( Ixfonlshire. By the death 
of her brntlier, Taverner Ilnrri.s, she in- 
herited a line estate, and she died in 1C9;!, 
leaving three children. Watlls had two 
daughters, ' liamlsonie young gentlewomen,' 
according to .lohn Aubrey ( /,i/r« of Eminent 
Afrri, 11. MX), of wliom the younger mar- 
rii'd William Henson of Towcesler, and 
died childless in 17(10; the elder, bom in 
KKti, married in Ki/ii Sir .lolui HIencowe 

['l.v.l 

Wallis was e lull 1 wed with 'a hale and vigu- 
[tOlU rorislilulion of Ixiity, niul a iniiid that 
Waa strong, si'p'iie, calm, and nut soon rullli-d 
and disi'oinjiii.'ncd ' (Ai/f of ll'iilli.", h\ John 
I,i'\vi«, Add. .M.S.:il.>tHMV "'It hath iR-en my 
lot,' ho wriile in UiU7. ' to live in a lime 
whiTi'iii liBV«> been niuiiy and great changes 
mill Hltt'ratliins. It hatli hern mv endeavour 
nil iilon;; Id act by niodnrate principles, be- 
tween tln' evlniiuitii's on either hand, in a 
modorati> cunijilianee with the powers in 
being.' ' Hereby,' lie added, ' I liavi- lK<en 
ahln to live eimy and iiHuful, though not 
gretil.' Me watilidis-d tlii>rouj;lily acceptable 
to neilhur royallHts nor repuhtieans, but 
eoiniiclled res)>ei't by lii» mastrrv of a d«n- 
geroim ail. 11" itleadily refused Leibnitz's 
ri>i|iii'H(a fi<r inroruialliui lis to liin mode of 
ill rHihi ring. In unit tu'iinit leal history Wallis 
r.Mili . as (lii> ((ii'uIi'kI of Newton's Knglish 
|in . iiinnrs, lie was n» lalxirious aJi he wa.s 
■ III, mill; anil, bv the jiidleioux u»i< of his 
piiwursiif genxraliiialiiiii, he pn<|Mir<'d all (he 
oubuiiqueni dmeiiVDrioii of that n^<. The 
prlnelpleii of auuhigy ami contiiuittv weni 



I introduced by him into mathematical science. 
His interpretation of negative exponents and 
unrestricted employment of fractional ex- 
ponents greatly widened the range of the 
Iiigher algebra. Finally, he invented the 
symbol for infinity, x. His memorv for 
'• figures was prodigious. He often wliiled 
away sleepless nights with exercises inmental 
arithmetic. On one occasion he extracted 
j the sfiuare root of a number expressed by 
1 fifly-tbree figures, and dictated the result to 
twenty-seven places next morning to a 
1 stranger. It proved exact. He made use of 
no special technique in ]>erformingsuch feats, 
working merely by common rules on the 
blackboard of his own tenacious mind (Phil. 
Trans, xv. 1269). 'Dr. Wallis,' Hearne 
wrote (Cullectiont, ed. Doble, 1881, i. 40), 
' was a man of most admirable fine parts, and 
great industry, whereby in some years he 
became so noted for his profound skill in 
mathematics that he was deservedlv ac- 
counted the greatest person in that profes- 
sion of any in his time. He was withal a 
good divine, and no mean critic in the Greek 
and Latin tongues.' 'An extraordinary knack 
of sophistical evasion ' was unju.stly at- 
tributed to him by those to whom his trim- 
ming polities were obnoxious. 

NVallis's collected mathematical works 
were published, with a dedication to Wil- 
liam III, in three folio volumes at the Shel- 
donian Theatre, Oxford, in 1693-9. The 
second CI'I'J'J) contained Sir Isaac Xewton's 
(irst published account of his invention of 
the Huxional calculus. In the third was 
inserted a statement by John Flamsteed 
1 1|. v.] regarding an ostensible parallax for 
tbe pole-star — 'a noble observation if you 
make it out,' Wallis wrote to him on 9 May 
ll>9.">. Me fully believed that the astronomer 
royal had ' made it out,' thereby showing 
complete ignorance of technical astronomy. 
His learned and laborious editions of ancient 
authors were reprinted in the same volume. 
Ho began with .'Vrchimedes, whose ' Arena- 
rius ' and ' Dimensio Circuli ' he corrected 
from manuscript copies, and published in 
1(S7(V Ptolemy's ' Harmonicon,' until then 
inedited, followed in 1680. In 1(588 ho un- 
earthed and sent to the press a fragment of 
Pappus's second book, together with Aris- 
tnrcbus's ' De Magnitudinibus et Distantiis 
ISolis et Luntc.' 

Wallis edited in 1878 the posthumous 
works of Jeremiah Horrocks [q. v.] In 1687 
ho publisheil his celebrated ' Institutio- 
Logicip,' reprinted for the fifth time in 1729. 
Mis various theological writings were 
gathered into a single volume in 1691, and 
t'hariM Edward de Uoetlogon [q. v.] pub- 



Wallis 



»4S 



Wallis 



lished Uis ' Seniions ' from the original 
manuscripts in 1791. 

fWollis's Account uf soma Passages in his 
own Life, in n letter to Dr. Thomas Smith, 
appended to Henrne's prefiicB to Petor I^iit;- 
tofi'» Chronicle ; HiMirnp's Works, vol. iii. p. cxl ; 
Biogr. Brit.; Wood's Fiisti Oxon. (Bliss), ii. 
124, 184, 264 ; Wood's Hist, of the University 
of Oxfonl (Oiitch). il. 869, 962 ; Ooneral Diet. ; 
Thomson's Hist, of the Roy. Society, p. 271 ; 
Kigaud's t'orrcspondcnco of Seieniifle Men, pas- 
sim ; Mayorin Kotes nndQueries, 2nd sor. ix. 96; 
■Sargeaunt's Hist, of Felsiod School, pp. 37-40 ; 
Foster's .Mutnni ; 'jrHDgt-r's Biogr. Hist, of Eng- 
land, iii. 283; Brewster's Life of Ncirton, ii. 
202; Europ. Mag. xxxiv. 308, xxxvi. 91,xlix. 
J45. 427, 429 ; (Eiivres de C. Huygens, pissim; 
Edlcsston's Corr. of Newton and Cotes, p. 300 ; 
Oilamy's Own Tiine«>. i. 272 ; Neal's Puritans 
(Toulinin), iv. 389; Life of Dr. J. Barwick. pp. 
61. 251 ; Cujori'a Uist. of MiithcmuticB, p. 192; 
Koase rtiill's Hist, of Mnlliemutics, p. 2.36; 
MonturU'a Hist, iles Mathematiqiies, ii. 68, 348, I 
iii. 801 ; tierh.'inlfs tieachichtu der hfiheren 
Analyse, pp. 34, 76; Marie's Hist, des .Sciences, 
ir. 149; Evelyn's Diary (Bray), i. 362, 461; ' 
AlUbone's Diet, of Engl. Literature ; Watt's 
Bibl. Brit. : Morel's De J. Wnllisii Orammatica | 
Lingua? Anglicante. Paris, 1895; Bromley's (Jat. 
of EDi»riived Portraits, p. 228 ; Evans's Por- | 
traits, i. 364; La Neve's Monumentn Anglicana, 
ir. 58; Lan«downo MS3. 987 ff. 91. 2ol, 258, 
1181 contains an analysis of Wullis's writings, 
763, f. 124, a letter liy him on ancient music; 
Addit. MS. 32449 includes his correspondence 
with Nottingham, 1691-2. In Dunton's Life and 
Errors (Nichols), ii. 6a8, is a copy of verses on 
Wallis's funenil, beginning : 

' Pll have the solemn pomp and stalely show 
Id geometrical progression go.'] 

A. M. C. 
WALLIS. JOHN (1714-1793), county 
bistorian.tho.son i>f .lolin Wallace or Wallis 
of Croglin, CiimbtTland, was bom at Castle- 
nook, South Tindale, in tlif parish of Kirlt- 
haugli, Northnmberland, in t7H. il". niii- 
triculatcd from tiuwn's College, 'Jxford, mi 
3 Feb. 1732 3. He graduated B.\. in 17;57, 
and proceeded M..\. in 1740. Having tukfn 
orders, he held a curacy for a few years 
apparently in the neighbourhood of Ports- 
mouth. He afterwards liecarae curate of 
Sunonbum, Northumberland, where he in- 
dnlged his taste for botany, and collected 
during more than twenty years materials 
for his history of his native county. In 
1748 he published, by subscription, 'The 
Occasional Miscellany, in Prose and Verse' 
(Newcastle-on-Tyne, 1748, 2 vols. 8vo). It 
contained several sermons and two poems, 
'The Royal Penitent: or Human Frailty 
delineated in the Person of David,' in about 

four hundred rhyming couplets, and ' The 

VOL. LIX. 




Exhortation of the Royal Penitent,' a para- 
phrase of Psalm cvii. Wallis 's chief work, 
however, was ' The Natural History and 
.\nliquities of Northumberland, and so much 
of the County of Durham as lies between the 
Rivers Tvne and Tweed, commonly called 
North Bishopriek ' (London, 17(59, 2 vols. 
4to). The Brst volume, which is the more 
complete, deals with the minerals, fossils, 
plants, and animals of the county, the plants 
being named according to Ray. and including 
cryptogams. ' Unfortunately for his repu- 
tation as a correct man of science,' says 
Mr. N. J. Winch {Traiuiactiiim Natural 
llistori/ Society of Xorthumherland, ii. 14o), 
' two or three of the most remarkable plants 
which ho suppo.sed he had discovered growing 
with us were not the species he took them 
for.' The second volume deals with the an- 
tiquities, arranged in three tours through the 
county. On the death of the rector of Si- 
mondburn in 1771, the living was given to 
James Scott (17.33-1813) [q. v.], the once 
celebratiKl Auti-Sejanus, for political ser- 
vices, who proved ' a proud and overbearing 
superior, who hod more regard fur his spaniels 
than his curate ' (HoDuso.N, op. cit. p. 73). 
Wallis, being compelled to leave his curacy, 
was received into the family of his college 
friend Edward Wilson, vicar of llaltwhistle. 
In 1"T") h«' ucted as temporary curate at 
Haugbton-le-Skernc. and in the same year 
was appointed to Billingham, near Stock- 
ton, where he remained till midsummer 
1792, when uicrt>asingintirmitios obliged him 
to resign. In 1779 Thomas Pennant [q. v.] 
had tried in vain to secure some preferment 
for his brother antiquary from the bishop of 
Durham ( Nichols, X»<. Jin«cd. viii. 745 ) ; but 
throughout his life Wallisneverhad anything 
better than a curacy of 30/. a year(i'A.p. 743). 
.\bout two years before his death a small 
estate fell to him by the death of a brother, 
and Bishop Sliute fiarrington [q. v.] allowed 
him an annual pension from the time of his 
resigning the curacy of Billingham. Wallis 
then removed to the neighbouring village of 
Norton, where he died on 19 July 179.3. He 
left a small but valuable collection of books, 
mainly on natural history. His wife Elira- 
beth. whose fifty-six years of married happi- 
ness is said to have become almost proverbial 
in their neighbourhood, survived until 1801 
(WiJiCH, op. cit. p. 14.5). Some of Wallis'a 
letters to George Allan [l-^-l are printed in 
Nichols's ' Literary Anecdotes (viii. 759-60). 
[Gent. Mag. 1793, ii. 769; Hatchinson's His- 
tory of Cumberhind, ii. 367 ; Brewster's History 
of Stockton. 2nd edit. 1829 ; James Raine's 
Memoir of the Rev. John Hodgson, i. 140, ii. 
197; works cited above.] G. S. B. 



WALLIS, JOHN (1789-1866), topo- 
gjaphiT, born in Fore Street, Bodmin, on 
11 April 1789, was the son of John WuUis 
{17''j9-1843), attornpy and town clerk of 
Bodmin, by liis wife Isabella Mary, dnii^bt'er 
of Uenry Slogget, purser in the royal navy, 
lie was educated at Tiverton grammar 
school, and afterwards articled to his father. 
After being admitted a solicitor and proctor 
he motriciilftted from Eieter College, Ox- 
ford, on 17 Pec. 1818, gradnating li.A. on 
7 July iMi'O. and MA. on I'O .Marck 1821. 
On coinpli'ting his residence at O.xtbrd he 
was urdulncd in 1H17, and was appointed i 
vicar uf IJoJiuin on 17 Nov. of the same 
vear. He was a. capital burgess of the 
borough, and served the office of mayor in 
1822. In 1840 he becfirae an official of the 
arehd«u-on of Cornwall, a post which he 
retained tilt his death. 

Wallia was an ardent topographfr, and 
executed several maps and plans of Bodmin 
and the surrounding districts. His tirst 
publication was a reprint of the index to 
Thomas Mnrtyn's • Map of the County of 
Cornwall,' to which he appended a short 
[account of (he archdeacnnrv of Cornwall 
(Londun, iKKi.Hvo). lu Isi'.'j he published 
thirteen outline maps of the archdeacnnry 
and county of Cornwall, on the scale of 
four miles to the inch. Between 18H1 and 
1834 he published .sevenil reports and tables 
dealing with Bodmin borough, and between 
1827 and 1h;?H he published in twenty parts 
'The Bodmin Hpgi.iter,' containing elaborate 
collections relating to the past and present 
state of the borough, t>esides particulars 
concerning the county, archdeaconry, parlia- 
mentary districts, and poor-law unions of 
Cornwall. He projected also an ' Exeter 
Jiegister,' to comprise the rest of the see. 
I The first ])art was published in 18;51,but 
no more oppeared. In 1847 and 1848 he 
brought otit the ' Cornwall Register,' in 
twelve parts, whicli contained particulars 
concerning the Cornifih parishe.a, and vvius 
iiccora])anied by n map of Cornwall un the 
scale of four niili'S to an inch. 

Wallis died ut Bixlmiii vicarage, unmar- 
ried, on 6 Dec. 1806, and was buried at 
Berry cemeterj- on 11 Dec. Benidea the 
works mentioned he was the author of u 
'Family Register' (1827, 13mo), and of 
several small pamphlets, chiefly on topo- 
graphical subjects. 

[WalhVs Works; Gent. Mag. 1867, i. 124; 

'Boom and Conrtnov'a Bibl. Cornub. ; Fosters 

Alumni Oxon. 171')-1888; Fosters Index 

Eceles. ; West Briton, U Dec. 1866; Boase's 

Account of thu Familiss of Boue, 1876, p. 56.1 

E. I. C. 



WALLIS. Sib I'UOVO WILLIAM 
PAURV (1791-1892), admiral of the fleet. 
and centenarian, only son of Provo Feather- 
stone Wallis, chief clerk to the naval com- 
missioner at Halifax, Nova Scotia, was bom 
at Halifax on 12 .\pril 1791. His mother 
was a daughter of William Lawlor, major 
in the 1st l}att«lion of the Halifax regiment. 
It has been suggested that he was related 
to Coptain Samuel Wallis [q. v.], which is 
not improbable. It is more certain that ho 
was the grandson of Provo Wallis, a carpenter 
in the navy, who, after serving through the 
seven years' war, was in 177tJ carpenter of 
the Eagle, the flagship of Lord llowe in 
North America, ond appointed by him on 3 
March 1778 to Iw master-shipwright of the 
naval yard established at New York. Af^er 
the peace he was transferred to Halifax. 

At an earlv age young Wallis was sent to 
Eiigkud, anJ while there at school his name 
was Ivorne on the books of several dilTerent 
ships on the Halifax station. He actually 
entered tin- navy in October 1804 on board 
the t'leojiatra, a 32-gun frigate, commanded 
bv Sir Robert. Laurie. On her way out to 
the West Indies on 16 t'eb. \SOii the Cleo- 
palrii, after a gallant action, was captured 
by the French 40-gun frigate V'illede >lilan, 
which was herself so much damaged that a 
wwk Inter, 2.3 Feb., she surrendered without 
j re.sistnnce to the r«()-gun ship Leander. The 
CleoiMitrn was recaptured at the same time 
(James, Nacal History, iy. 26), and Laurie 
was reinstated in the command. Shortly 
afterwards Laurie was appointed to the \ille 
de Milan, commissioned as the Milan, and 
Wallis went out with him. In November 
1806 he was appointed acting-lieutenant of 
the Triumph, with Sir Thomas Mastertnan 
Hardy [ii-v.], and on 30 Nov. 1808 -was 
officially promoted to be lieutenant of the 
Curieux brig, which a year later, .S Nov. 
j 1809, was wrecked on the coast of Ouade- 
' loupe. He was then appointed tothonioire, 
, and, lifter one or (wo other changes, was 
appointed in January 1812 to the Shannon, 
comuinndecl by Captain (afterwards Sir) 
^ Philip Bowes Vere Broke [q.v.] He was 
second lieut<'nant of her in the brilliant 
capture of the Chesapeake on 1 June 1813, 
ond, being left— by the death of the flrst lieu- 
tenant and Broke's dangerous wound — com- 
manding officer, took the Shannon and her 
prizi' to Halifax. The prisoners, being con- 
siderably more numerous than the crew of 
the Shannon, were secured in handcufi's, 
which they themselves had provided. On 
9 July Wallis was promoted to the rank of 
commander, and, returning to England in t he 
Shannon in October, was appointed in Ja- 



nunry 1814 to the Snipe sloop. On 12 Aug, 
1819 he was advanced to post rank. 

From 1IS24 to 1826 he commanded the 
Piemen ou the Hulifux station: in 1838-9 
the Madagascar in the West Indies and off 
Vera Crur; and from 184^J to 1846 the War- 
spite in the Mediterranean. On 27 Au(f. 
ISijl he was promoted to the ranli of rear- 
admiral, and in 1857 was appointed com- 
mander-in-chief on the south-east coast of 
South America, from which he was recnlled 
on his promotion to be vice-admiral, 10 Sept. 
1857. He had no further service, but was 
Dominaletl a K.C.B. on 18 May 18(50, pro- 
moted to be admiral on 2 March 186.3 ; rear- 
admiral of the United Kingdom, 1869-70 ; 
vice-ndrairal of the I'nited Kingdom, 1870- 
187(5; G.C.B. 24 May 1873; admiral of the 
fleet, 11 Dec. 1877. By a special clause in 
Childers's retirement scheme of 1870 it was 
provided that the names of those old officers 
who had commanded a ship during the French 
war should be retained on the active list, and 
the few days that Wallis was in command of 
the Shannon brought him within tliis ride. 
His name was thus retained on the active 
list of the navy till his death. During the 
latter part of his life he resided mainlv at 
Fuutington, near Chichester, in full eujoy- 
ment of his faculties, and rt-ading orwritinj; 
with ease till a few months before the end. 
On hi.s hundredth birthday 02 April 1691) 
he received congratulations by letter or tele- 
gram from very many, including one from 
the queen, from the l*rince of Wales, the 
Duke of Edinburgh, the mayor and corpora- 
tion of Halifax, Nova Scotia, nnd the cap- 
tain and officers of the Shauuon, then lying 
at Falmouth. He died on 13 Feb. 1892, and 
was buried with military honours at Funt- 
ington on 18 Feb. W'allis married first, 
on 19 Oct. 1817, Juliana, daughter of Arch- 
deacon IJoger Massev, by whom ho had two 
daughters. He married, secondly, on 21 July 
1849, Jemima Mary Gwyne, a daughter of 
General Sir Robert Thomas Wilson [q. v.], 
governor of Gibraltar. 

[• Admiral of the Fleet Sir Provo W. P. Wallis : 
a Memoir.' 1/y Dr. J. G. Brighton, 1892 (with 
portraits) ; O'Byrae's Nav. Biogr. Diet. ; Royal 
Nary Lists.] J. K. L. 

WALLIS, RALPH (d. 1669), noncon- 
formist pamphleteer, known as ' the Cobler 
of Gloucester,' was, according to the minutes 
of the Gloucester corporation, admitted on 
8 June 16J48 ' to keepe an Englijih schoole 
at Trinity church ' (smce demolished). On 
5 Aug. 1651 the corporation paid the 
charges of his journey ' to London about the 
city bufliness.' On 24 Sept. 1658 he was 




I made a burgess and freeman of the city on 

I the ground of his 'many services.' At the 
Restoration he appears as a pamphleteer of 
the Mar-Prelate type, attoi'king with rude 
jocular virulence the teaching and character 
of the conforming clergy. Adopting the 
sobriquet ' I3il Awl ' (an anagram on Wallis), 
he called himself ' the Cobler of Gloucester,' 
and his pamphlets take the form of dialogues 
between 'the Cobler' and his wife. His 
earliest pamphlets appear to have borne the 
titles 'Magna Charta ' and ' Good News from 
Home.' On 18 Jan. 1(5(54 he is reported as 
■ lurking in London,' under the alias of 
Gardiner; he lodged in the house of Thomas 
Uawaon, jounieymon shoemaker, in Little 
Britain, and employed himself in dispersing 
hia pamphlets. Money for printing them 
was collected by James Forbes (1629?- 
1712) [q. v.], the independent. Corre- 
spondence between Wallis and his wife 
Elizabeth was intercepted. Two warrants 
(12 May mid 20 June) were issued for his 
apprehensiun. In September his house at. 
Glouce.'^ter and the housi'.s of Toby Jordan, 
bookseller at Gloucester, and others, were 
searched for seditious books. On 28 Sept. 
(Sir) Roger L'Estninge [q.v.] wrote to Henry 
Bennet (after«ttrd,s Itlarl of Arlington) [q.v.] 
that he had Wallis in custody. On 1 (Jet. 
Rawsou, Wallis, and Forbes wore examined 

; by the privy council. Wallis admitted his 
authorship, and declared himself to be iu 

) religion 'a Christian.' He obtained his re- 
lease, Sir Richard Browne (d. 1669) [q. v.] 
being his bail. In a petition to Arlington, 
Wallis affirmed that he ' only touched the 
priests that they may leam better manners, 
and will scribble as much against fanatics, 

! when the worm pets into his cracked pate, 
03 it did when he WTot« those books. In 

I April 1665 he was examined before the privy 
council for a new pamphlet, ' Magna Chorfa, 
or More News from Rome' (the British Mu- 
seum has a copy with title 'Or Magna 
Charta; More News from Rome,' 1666, 4to). 
On 15 April 1065 William Nicholson (1591- 
1672) [q. v.], bishop of Gloucester, wrote to 
Sheldon that, ' thoiigti much favour had been 
shown him 'Hie had specially attacked Nichol- 
son), ' he sells the books publicly in the town 

' and elsewhere, and glories in t hem.' In his 
last known pamphlet, ' Room for the Cobler 
of Gloucester' (1(568, 4to), which L'Estrange 
calls (24 April 1608) 'the damnedest thing 

I has come out yet,' he tells a story which is 

, commonly regarded ns the property of Maria 

, Edgeworth fq. v.] ' The Lord Bishop is 
much like that Hog, that, when some Ohil- 

j dren were eating Milk out of a Dish that 
stood upon a Stool, thrust his Snowt into 



ibe Dish, and druik up all ; not regarding 
the Children, who crved, "Take a Poon, 
I'ijf , take B I'ooii " ' ( |>. 39 ; cf. fiimplf Sutaii). 
\Valli»'» unecdoles, often brutally coarse, 
wte not alwoyii without foundation (see 
Unwu'lt, K'liiciinfnrmity in llfrlfurdfhire, 
IKH4, p. .V'JK). H.' died in 1608-9; the 
burial re({i«U"r of Ht. Mary de Crypt, Tilou- 
«Nt<ter, hoa the entry ' llandulphus Wnllis 
fuiaticio memorin.' wpull, Feb' 9.' In 1(170 
•np<-ared « t rai^l enl it led ' The Life iiiid Death 
of Kalph Walli*, the Cobler of Gloucester, 
loffether with Kouie inquiry into the Myetery 
ofC<mventicli'i«m;' it givee, however, no bio- 

aphical partirulnn. A later tract, 'The 
oblor of (JloueeBter Itevived ' (1704), 4to, 

nlaini uothiug ulj<^ut \\'allis. 

r STRbUix* prnnphlrlii nlxiri- noted ; Cnl. State 
'fSfm^.hoM. lll'U, WINA, and 1008; Olouces- 
l«nhir)i Nolua uiid Quvriaa, IHH7, iii. 433 ; Ex- 
tmHii from 01oHi'ii«l«r Corjvinilioii rrojrdi and 
pnriiih rcifiolcr, por llio Hiv. W. IJoyd. ] A. G. 

WALLI8, irollKliT (1794 lf<78), liiie- 
(•nKruvi'i', liuru in l.oiirlun <in 7 Nov. 1794, 
WHO B'lU iif 'I'lionini \Viillin, who wa» nn ossis- 
tiiiit c,r ('hiirl.'H lleiilh (I7MO-18-J8) [q. v.] 
unil diiid IM lH,')tl. III! wiiN luu);lit by his 
falhnr, iind became one of I lie iiblesl nf llie 
group of HiijiriMiU'ly "Itill'iil liiiidsfiipe-eu- 
gravur* wlio lliitiriKluMl ihiriii); the senind 
(|iiftrl<T nf Mil' prcwul I'cnhirv, pnrliciilorly 
etdellittn ill (lie iiili'r|irelnti(iu of the work 
of Jiimnili Miilliird \Viltiiuii 'I'liriier [<i. v.] 
Iln wa* eiiigiliiveil u|iiiii I li>' illiislnilions to 
Oooke'i"' Sriiitherii I '(inBt.uri';iigliiml,"riirner'g 
' Kii(f!iind mid Wales 'and ' Kivers of !•' ranee,' 
Heath's ' I'icturesnue Annual.' Jennings's 
' liiindsnipe Annual,' the fine editions of the 
works of Scott, Campbell, and Itogers, the 
* Keepsake,' the 'Amulet,* the ' Literary Sou- 
veDir,'and many ot her beautiful publ ications. 
On a larger scale he engraved various plates 
forthe' Art Journal 'from pictun'S by Turner, 
Oallcott, iStanfield, Fripp, and others, and 
many for the ' Turner Gallery.' AVallis's 
finest productions are the large plates after 
Turner, 'Lake of Nemi' and 'Approach to 
Venice ; ' a proof of the latter waa exhibited 
•t the Itoyal Academy in 1869, and on its 
oompletion he retired from the profession. 
The remainder of his lifewaapauedat Brigh- 
ton, where he died on 23 Nov. 1878. 

IlKNiiT Wai.i.18 (1806P-1890), brother of 
Uobert, practised for some years as an en- 
trover of small book-illustrations, but early 
in life was compelled by attacks of paralysis 
to seek another occupation. He then turned 
to picture-dealing, and eventually became 
the proprietor of the I'Veiich Gallery in Pall 
Mall, which he conducted successfully until 



shortly before his death, which occurred on 
15 Oct. 1890. 

Another brother, William Wallis, bom 
in 1 796, is known by a few choice plates exe- 
cuted for Jennings's ' Landscape Annual,' 
Heath's ' Picturesque Annual,' the ' Keep- 
sake,' &c. 

[AthcDJeam, 1 878, ii. 695 : Art Jonmal, 1 879 ; 
Redgmvi^'sDict. of Arti&ts; Times, 24 Oct. 1890; 
list of members uf the Anists' Aoimity Fund.] 

F. M. OD. 

WALLIS, SAMIEL (172s-179o), cap- 
tain in the navy, bom at Fentonwoon, near 
Camelford, Cornwall, and baptised at J.Ante- 
glos on 23 .\pril 1728, was the third son of 
John Wallis of Fentonwoon ( lt>80-176H) by 
Sarah (d. 1731), daughter of John Barrett. 
After serving through the war in a subordinate 
grade, AVallis was promoted to be lieutenant 
in the navy on 19 Oct. 1748. In Januarv 
1753 he was appointed to the Anson, -with 
Captain Cliarles Holmes [q. v.], and in April 
l?^ to the Torbay, the flagship of Vice- 
admiral Edward Boscawen [q.v.] InFebruary 
1756 he joined the Invincible,and on 30 June 
was promoted to command the Swan sloop. 
On 8 April 1757 he was posted to the Port 
Mahon, a 20-gun frigate attached to the 
fleet ■which went out to North America 
with .Vdmiral Francis Holbume [q.v.] In 
September 1758 he was appointed by Bo«- 
cawen to the Prince of Orange of 60 guns, ' 
one of the fleet , in the following year, with 
Sir Charles Saunders [q. v.] in the St. Law- 
rence. On the North American station in 
17(>0 and in the Channel fleet in 1761-2 he 
commanded the Prince of Orange till the 
peace. In June 1766 he was appointed to the 
Dolphin, then refitting for another voyagtt J 
similar to that which she had just maoal 
under the command of Commodore John 
Byron (1723-1786) [q. v.l In the Dolnhin, 
and having in company the Swallow sloopi 
commande<l by Philip r'arteret [q.v.], Wallis 
sailtMl from Plymouth on 22 Aug. After 
touching at >ladeira, Porto Praya in the 
Cape Verd Islands, and Port F'amine, where 
they cleared out and dismissed their victual- 
ler, the two ships pas.«ed through the Straita 
of Magellan and came into the Pacific on 
12 April 1767. Tlien they separated, nor 
did they again meet. Wallis, in the Dol- 
phin, at once kept away to the north-west, 
taking a course totally different from that 
followed by all his predecessors, none of 
whom, in fact, except Magellan and Byron, 
had primarily aimed at discovery. The 
others, whether Spaniards or Englishmen 
looking out for Spaniards, had stuck close 
to the track of the Spanish trade. The result 
was that Wallis opened out a part of the ocean 



Wallmoden 



149 



Wallmoden 



till then unknown, and first brought to 
European knowledfi^e tliu numerous islands 
of the Low Archipelago and of the Society 
Islands, including Tahiti, which Ik; called 
King George the Third's Island. Thence he 
made for Tinian, which he reached on 
19 Aug., having discovered wiiny new 
islands on the way. After staying a month 
at Tinian, he went to Bataviu, and thence 
home by the Cape of Good Hope, arriving in 
the Downs on 18 May 1708. Without 
having displayed any particular f^enius ax a 
navigator or discoverer, Wallis is fully en- 
titled to the credit of having so well carried 
out his instructions as to add largely to our 
knowledge of the I'ueilic; and still more to 
that of having kept his shi])'s company in 
fairly good health. During the whole voyage, 
though thrown entirely on their own re- 
sources, there was no serious outbreak of 
scurvy, and when the shi]) arrived at 
Batavia there was one man sick. JSatavia 
was then and always a ])estilent inl hole, and 
■while there many men died of fever and 
dysentery ; but on leaving Itatavia the sick- 
ness at once abated, and a month in Table 
Bay did away with much of the remaining 
evil. In November 1770 Wallis was a])- 
pointed to the Torbay, commissioned on ac- 
count of the dispute with Spain about the 
Falkland Islands; and in 1780 he for a 
short time commanded the Queen. In 1782 
he was appointed an e.xtra commissioner of 
the navy; the office was abolished in 178.'$, 
but was reinstituted in 1787, when Wallis 
was again appointed to it, and remained in 
it till his death at Devonshire Street, Port- 
land Place, London, on 21 Jan. 1790. His 
widow Betty, daughter of John Ilearle of 
Penryn, died at Mount's Bay on 13 Nov. 
18041 leaving no issue. 

Wallis'saccount of his voyage, first printed 
in Hawkesworth (1733), was repeated in 
Hamilton Moore's ' Collection of Vovages ' 
(1785), in Robert Wilson's Voyages ' (ltH)6), 
in Kerr's 'General II istory of Voyages '(1814), 
and in Joachim Ileinrich Campe's collection 
(Brunswick, 1831). Some of the charts and 
maps made by Wallis are in Addlt. MS. 
31693. 

[Oent. Mag. 1804, ii. 1080; Maclean's Trigg 
Minor, ii. 370 »q. ; Boase and Courtney's Bibl. 
Comubiensis, p. 8.50 ; Chamock's Biogr. Nav. vi. 
277: Naval Chronicle, xixiii. 89; Hawkes- 
worth's Voyages of Discovery, vol. i. ; Com- 
mission and Warrant books in the Public Record 
Office.] J. K. L. 

WALLMODEN, AMALIE SOPHIE 
MAJIIANNE, Countess oy Yabmouth 

S 704-1765), bom on 1 April 1704, was 
tighter of Johann Franz Dietrich von 



Wendt, general in the Hanoverian service, 
by his wife Friderike Charlotte, bom Ton 
dem Buscho, widow of General Welk, also 
in the Hanoverian 8er^•ice. In 1727 she was 
married to Gottlieb Adam von Wallmoden, 
' ()berhau]itmann ' of Calenberg, Hanover. 
Blonde, sprightly, amiable, niece of Lady 
Darlington, and' gn-at-niece of the elder 
('ountt'ss Platen, Frau von Wallmoden at- 
tracted in 1735 the attention of George II 
during his summer sojourn in thi; electorate. 
She receive<l from him without hauteur 
gallantries which he frankly communicated 
to the ({ueen, by whom they wt.To lut frankly 
encouraged. Caroline's complaisance was 
pn>luibly dictated rather by policy than by 
indifference, for a touch of bitterness is ap- 
panuit in t\w' Ah, mon Dieu I cela n'empecue 
jms,' with which on her deathbed she re- 
joined to the ' Non, j'uurai des miutresses ' 
with which the king met her suggestion 
that he should marry again. The king kept 
his word, and when the time of mourning had 
elapsed Frau von Wallmoden was brought 
over from Hanover and installed in St. 
James's I'alace. In 1739 she was divorced 
from her husband, and in the following year 
(24 March) she was created Countess of 
Yarmouth. Her advent was hailed by Wal- 
pole in the hope that her influence might be 
iwlitically serviceable. I.iady Yarmouth, 
however, proved entirely unfit for the role of 
a Pompadour, and had the good sense to 
abstain as a rule from meddling in court 
intrigues. On the death of the king, whoso 
aflection she never lost, she returned to 
Hanover, where she died on 19 Oct. 1765. 
She left issue two sons, Franz Ernst and 
Johann Ludwig von Wallmoden. The 
latter, born on 27 April 1736, was brought 
up at the English court- and reputed the 
fruit of her intimacy with the king. As, 
however, he w^as bom before the divorce, his 
paternity is doubtful. He entered the 
Hanoverian service, and bore high command 
with no great distinction in the war with 
the Frencii (1793-1801). He died at Han- 
over on 10 Oct. 1811. 

Some of Lady Yarmouth's letters are pre- 
served in Additional MSS. 6856, 23814 
f 578, 32710-969, and Egerton MS. 1722 
fi: 35, 132. 

[Duerre'sRcgesten desGcschlechtes von Wall- 
moden, pp. 248, 25.5 ; Malortio's Beitrage zur 
Gesch.deM Braanschweig-I/iinebnrgischan Baases 
u. Hofcs, v. 149; Vehac'8 Gesch. dcr Uofe des 
ilaases Braunscb veig, i. 273 ; Sicbenfach. Kunigl. 
Gr088.-Britanni8ch.n.Churf first l.Brftunschweig- 
Luneburgisch. Staats-CHlendar, 1740 p. 72 ; Lora 
Uerrey's Mem. i. 499 ; Lord Chesterfield's Let- 
ters, ed. MahoD, ill. 274 ; Bielfeld'a Friedrich 



Wallop 



ISO 



Wallop 



der Orosse u. sein Hof, i. 101 ; Collins's Peerage, 
ed, BrydgeB, ix. 4 1 3 ; Nicolas's Historic Peerage, 
eA. Courthope; Gout. Mug. 1765, p. 492; AUg. 
Deutscbo Biographie, ' Wallmoilon.'] 

J. M. R. 

WALLOP, Sir HENRY (1640P-1599), 
lord justice of Irelund, eldest son and heir 
of Sir Oliver Wallop of FarleigL- Wallop 
in the county of Koutbampton, aad nephew 
and heir of Sir John ^\'ulIop [q. v.], gover- 
nor of Calais, wan born apparently about 
1540. lie was J. P. for Hampshire in l.")69, 
and, being in that year kuighted by Queen 
Elizabetli at Busing, he was appoint^!, along 
with Sir William Kingsinill, to take u 
view of the defences of Portsmouth, and 
to provide the county of Southampton 
with anns and armour (Cal. Stale Piipers, 
Horn. lM7-m, pp. 368, 384). lie was 
rcturmMl M.P. for the town of l^uthampton 
to the parliament which met on 8 May 
157'i, and established a reputation for use- 
fulness. In 1575 he wos placed on a com- 
mittee of the house appomted to consider 
the nature of the petition to be made to the 
queen on the motions touching the reforma- 
tion uf discipline in the church, his own 
views tending in the direction of puritanisra. 
In (ho same session he was appointed, willi 
other members of the house, to confer with 
the lords in regard to private bills (D'Ewra, 
Journal, p. '277 ). Being a commissioner ' I'ur 
restraining the transport of grain out of the 
county of Surrey,' he dissented from the 
view of bis fellow-commissioners that they 
should regard their county as their family 
Olid send from it nothing that it wants, 
holding on the contrary 'that markets 
shoulde be free for ally men to bye . . . 
and vt y** most reasonable that one contrye 
shoulde helpe an other with socbe comodytes 
ns they are able to spare.' Dut being a 
' grote corn man ' his views on free trade 
were regarded a.s interested (HUt. MSS. 
Co}nm.7l}i Hep. p. (>2St). He suffered much 
at this time from agtie {i6. p. 631"), and from 
Walsingham be received a friendly warning 
against a spare diet and too free indulgence 
in mineral waters (Cal. Stale Paperi, Dom. 
1547-8(), p. 50'i). 

In consequi-nce of the death of Sir Edward 
Fitton [q. v.] Wallop was in July 1579 
offered the post of vice-treasurer to the 
Earl of Ormonde in Ireland, lie accept-ed 
with great reluctance, and received his 
commission on 10 Aug., but retained his 
seat inparliament^D'EwEs, J<?ur>ia/, p. 277). 
He landed at Wuterford on 12 Sept., but 
his health was so bad that on reaching 
Dublin he was obliged for several weeks 
to keep to his chamber. His appointment 



coincided with the outbreak of the Desmond 
rebellion, and Wallop, taking a pessimistic 
view of the situation, was sharply repri- 
manded by Burghley for his unconscionable 
demands on the queen's purse. He apolo- 
gised. Nevertheless, he was right in think- 
ing the situation critical, especially after 
the death of Sir William Drury [q. v.] in 
October. To Drury succeeded Sir William 
Pelham [q. v.\ and towards the latter end 
of February 1580 Wallop moved to Limerick 
in order to be near the seat of the war. He 
speedily detected the possibility of turning 
the rebellion to the benefit of the state by' 
erecting an English plantation in Munster, 
and on 22 April he e.\pounded his views 
on the subject to Walsingham (Cat, State 
Papers, Irel. ii. 219). After a severe illnesa 
he went, towards the endof July,to Askea^ 
ton, where he made discoverv of a feoffment 
of his estate by the Earl of Desmond before 
entering into rebellion, of which he subse- 
quently made capital use. 

In August Arthur Grey, fourteenth lord 
Grey de Wilton [q. v.], came over as viceroy, 
and Wallop, accompanying Pelham to Dub- 
lin, was present when the latter resigned 
tlie sword of state to Grey on 7 Sept. 
Ilim.self an advocate of strong measures, 
he was utterly dissatisfied with Elizabeth's 
temporising government, esjjecially at the 
practice of filling up the regiments with 
native Irish, and on 14 March 1581 he 
expressed a desire to be allowed to with- 
draw from his post. He w^as appointed 
commissioner for ecclesiastical causes 
10 April. In July he accompanied Grey on 
an expedit ion against Sir Turlough Luineach 
O'Neill [q.v.] But Elizabeth's parsimonious 
government and his own ill-health tilled 
him with despair. He had, he declared^! 
since his appointment as vice-treasu 
spent 2,000/. of his own money, and his 
inability to fulfil his obligations to the mer- 
chants of Dublin prevented him raising any 
fresh loans. He renewed his request to be 
allowed to retire ; but Elizabeth knew too 
well the value of an honest servant to 
, accede, and, in prospect of Grey's recall, she 
I appointed Wallop and .Vdam Loftus [q.v.], 
I archbishop of Dublin, lords justices on 
14 July 1.-j82 (Cat. Finntf, EUz. 3975). 

With his colleague he was on good terms, 
and Loftus urged his appointment as lard 
I deputy on the grounds of his ' sufficiency, 
carefulness, and perfect sincerity.' Eliza- 
beth e.xpressed herself satisfied with their 
I ' good husbandry of extraordinarj- charges.' 
] The renewal of the treaty with Turlough 
Luineoch in August 1582, whereby he con- 
sented to submit his claims to the considera- 



: 



Wallop 



i5« 



Wallop 



I 



tion of commiKsioners appointed by t lif crown ; | 
the prosecution by Ormoudt? of tbv Eurl nf 
Desmond ending in the capture uiid death i 
of the hitter in November iriH:j; the enpture, 
torture, and execution on 21 June 1584 of i 
Dermot O'Hurley [q-v.], titular nrthbishop 
of Cftshel, are the chief events markinir their 
tenure of ollice. Hut the whoh' period was ', 
one of universal distrft^s, when, as it was j 
graphically said, 'the wolf and the bi'st rebel 
lodged in one inn, with one diet and one ' 
kind of bedding-,' and it was with a feeling of 
relief that Wallop and Loftus surrendentd 
the sword of state to Sir John I'errot [q.v.] 
on 21 June 16H4. 

Immediatelv after the death of Sir Nicholas 
Malby fa. v.] VVallop had passed to himself 
on 10 March 1584 a patent of the castle of 
Athlone; hut this he was obliged tosurrender 
to Perrot on a pretext by the latter that he 
-wanted to make it the seat of his govern- 
ment. Being appointed a commissioner for 
suneying the hinds conKscated by the re- 
bellion of the Earl of Desmond, U'allop pro- 
ceeded to Limerick inSepletnlier,au(i,1mviiip 
-with much discomfort and sonn- persririitl risk 
travelled through the counties of Limerick 
and Kerry, he returned to Dublin towanis 
the latter end of November. During his 
' survey ' he had been much struck with the 
fertility of the soil in county Limerick, and 
at once put in a claim for the manor of .Any 
^Knockainy)andLoHgl!Gur. In March XnS'i 
he purchased a lease of the abbey lands of 
Enniscorthy, estimated to contain about 
12,'164 acres. Here he established u tlourisb- 
ing colony composed of Englishmen and ' tlie 
more honest sort of Irish,' and sitirted an 
export trade in ship planks and pipe-staves 
to the Madeiras and other wine-producing 
countries, ' being the first beginner of that 
trade in the kingdom.' In July the same 
year he obtained a lease for twenty-one years, 
an annual rent of '2'2/. I'n. 8//. and the 
naintenance of two English hnrsemen, of the 
abbey lands of Adare in county Limerick. 

Notwith.«tanding his disappmval of I'er- 
rot'g expedition against tlie .-Vntrim Scots, 
Wallop had at first regarded the dei)uty 
with favour, hut, perceiving after a time that 
' under pretence of dutifulness' he 'carried 
an unfaithful heart,' he joined the ranks of 
I'errot's enemies. His opposition led to an 
open breach between them at the council 
board, and, being violent ly reproached by the 
deputy. Wallop retaliated by not ively collect- 
ing information against I'errot. His pro- 
iuction of the Desmond feofi'nient in the 
cond session of Perrot's parliament ' fnis- 
tratcd an attempt on the part of the earl's 
fiiends to prevent his ttltainder,and obtained 



for him the queen's thanks. Lameness pre- 
vented him serving on the commission for 
the admeasurement of the forfeited land* 
in Minister; but on 26 April 1587 he wa» 
appointed a commissioner for passing lands 
to the undertakers in the plantation. At 
Miclmelmos he again obtained possession of 
Athtone Castle, but was almost immediately 
obliged to surrender it to Sir Richard Bing- 
ham [q. v.] lie received permission to visit 
England in November ; but the treason of 
Sir William Stanley and the danger that 
suddenly prcsentJid itself of an invasion hin- 
dered him taking advantage of it, not, how- 
ever, before he had so far prepared for his 
departure as to place his goods and plate 
on shipboard. "I'hu vessel to which they 
were entrusted was wrecked, and Wallop 
estimated hislossat 1,100/. On 2 July 1588 
he wiLS appointed a comiuig.sioner for e.vami- 
ningandcompounding the claims of the Irish 
in Munster, and on 12 Oct. was instructed 
to examine cert ainSpani-sh prisoners at Drog- 
heda. Ill-health caused him to be exempted 
from attending the lord deputy, Sir Willinra 
Fitiwiltiam (1520 lolKt) [(|.v.l, into Con- 
naught that autumn, and bespoke .somewhat 
slightingly of the ueces.sity of it. He sailed 
forEiiglandearly inApril l.">89,ttnd remained 
I there for rather more than six years, admi- 
nit-tering his olfice by deputy. On 22 May 
\W^i he was granted the abbey, co-stle, and 
lands of Ennisceily (fonnerly in the posse*" i 
sion of Edmund Sjionser), to be held for ever] 
by service of a twentieth part of a knight's 
fee, and the abbey and lands of Adare in free ' 
and common socage, ' in consideration of hia 
great expense in building on the premises for 
the defence oflhose parts.' The latter estate 
ho sulwequently, on 1 Feb. 1507, obtained 
license to alien to Sir.Tbonias Norria [q. v.] 
In September 1591 he entertained ElizabetE 
with great magnificence at Farleigh-AVallop 
(Hymkk. FfTttem, xvi. 120); but ill-hoalth 
pn'Vented him setting sail for Ireland till 
June 1595, and, being driven back byalormy 
weather to Holyhead, it was not until the 
middle of July that he landed at Waterford 
with treasure for the soldiers, whose wants 
he declared weiv extreme. 

Owing to the doubtful attitude nf Hugh 

O'Neill, earl of Tyrone [q, v.], the situation 

of the kingdom was even more critical than 

\ when he first came to Ireland, and it waa, 

ill liis opinion, no time to spare money. But 

' Klif.nbetb wn.s Ix-nt on trying less costly 

methods than nn attempt to suppress Tyrone 

I by force would have entailed, and on H .Tan. 

l.'SSWl Wallop and Sir Itobert (iardiner were 

' deputed to proceed to Dundalk to confer with 

i him. Tyrone, though he professed to regard 



Wallop 



«s» 



Wallop 



V V s ,. favdurkltly inclined towards hini, ' 
tl'uM'J to untur Diindalk.und llie 
iiK-iMiirra wiTi' fain to ireat with him in 
iiHeMit. The nepfotihtionslasted eleven 
'l'vr<inr |iilehcU his demundri hijfh, rv- 
Biiiriu^; libiTiy of conscience, the control of 
^9urraK^<^<J'''"j'''i'l<*cflaiu8,and tbeacknow- 
'igiuenl of O'Donnell's claims over Con- 
iiiighl. W'ullo]! ami Oiirdiner promised to 
tubuiil hi»tli'iiiniiils to the f<tate, aiidon these 
turuui th«,v ohiiiined n prolongation of the 
leoca for threii mcmtlis. ]Sut the familiar 
it_vlo in which tlioy hiid (iddrcssed him, as 
' our vervfrood lord.'signinpthemselves'your 
luviug Iriends,' drew down on them Klizn- 
bulh'ii wnilh I'or linvin«r ' kojit no manner of 
'grout ausH with the rebel.' XViiHop, altlioiifrh 
bo WIW wounded to the quick by ber repri- 
mand, defend(rd himself; but unfortuniitely 
he shortly afterwards gave (K-casion to Hurgh- , 
ley to tate him shiiridy to task for suggesting 
the desirability of providing the soldiers with 
frie/e miiiitles alter the manner of the native 
Irixli. Tbi? snggenliim appears reasonable 
eiiMiigli, hot Hiirghley, who ajiparently 
t boiigbl \\ (illop inclined to make a protit out 
of the business, told him it was ' an apparel 
unlit for II soldier that shal! use his weapon 
inlhetirld.' Ilia rebuke and the insinimtiim 
it imiiliedcnt Wallop to the heart, and, con- 
scious of bis infirmities, be desired to relin- 
quish his ollice. Hut Burgbley, if he spoko 
fuinrpty utiicially. did bis best to console him ! 
in private. | 

.\aotber year pa-sstnl away. .\t first, not- | 
■withstanding the trouble created by Fiagb [ 
MncHugb O'Hyrne |n v.], his plantation at 
Enniscorthy flourished apace, and in January 
1598 he supplied fifty lliousand pipe-staves 
and the like nuniWr of hooj)-lieads to govern- 
ment. Then misforl nne followed fast on mis- 
fortune. In MuyHrian lieagh attacked En- 
liiscortby, killed his lieutenant and forty 
soldiers, and made great hnvooof hisprojH'rty. 
In June his second son, Oliver, was shot by 
a party of Irish rebels in the woods. In 
August he had to announce the defeat of 
Uagenul at the Hlackwatsr. Never since he 
had known Ireland liad the outlook been 
more hopeless. For himself, he had already 
one foot in the grave, and begged piteoiisly 
Ui be relieved of his ollice before death over- 
took him. At last the welcome intelligenct> 
arrived, in March IMKI, that the queen had 
yielded to his entreaties, and uppointe<l Sir 
(ieorge Can^w (afterwards Maron (.'arew and 
Karl of Totnes) [q. v.] hissucce.ssor. But as 
the situation demanded ' the ctmtinnauce of 
Biich i«irnon» as he is, whose long service 
there hath given him so gtiod knowledge and 
oaporienoo in that kingdom,' he was required 



to remain some time longer in Ireland, and 
to receive '20». allowance daily for his extra 
services. The order for bis release arrived 
too late to be of service to him. The day 
before his successor arrived he died in otfice, 
on 14 Ai)ril l.i99. 

Bv bis last will, dated 31 Morch that year, 
he directed that bis fimeral should be as 
simple as possible. But he was accorded u 
burial in St. Patrick's Cathedral, Ihiblin, 
being interred near the middle of the choir, 
on the left side under the gallery, formerly 
called the lord-lieutenant's gallery. A brass 
plate (Addit. MS. 3248o, Q. 3 ) recording his 
services was fixed to the wall by his son 
Henry in ItiOs, and a fair monument erected 
to him ill Basingstoke church. His portrait, 
by Nicliobis llilliard, belongs to the Karl of 
I'ortMiiouth. lliswife Katherine, daughter 
of Kichard (iiflbrd of Sombornein the county 
of Southampton, survived him only a few 
weeks, dying on 16 July. She was interred 
beside him, as was also their son Oliver. 
.\mither son died in military service abroad. 
Wnllop was succeeded by his eldest son, 
Henry ( lotitS- U(4:i), some time his deputy, 
and father of liobert. Wallop [q. v.J tfie 
regicide. 

All private documents and memorials con- 
nected with NN'allop perished in the tire that 
destroyed the manoi^house of Farleigh-Wal- 
lop in"lU67. 

[CoUins's Pci-rage. iv. 30.5-17; Cal. State 
Piijxra, Dom. 1547-80 pp. 368, 384, 413, 602, 
824, 630, 1581-90 pp. 678, 602. I.i98-16«ll 
pp. 166, 283 ; Col. .State Papers. Ireland, I57'J- 
1699, |)a»sim; Cal. Carew MSS. ; Cnl. Fianls, 
Kliz. 3698, 3976. 4048. 4336, 4614, 4757, 4758. 
61U9, 611,5. .'1261. 6963, 6964,6027.0043.6218; 
t'litton MSH. Tims B. xui, ff. 319, 344, S.W, 
365, .189, 439, Titus C, vii. f. 153; Harl. 
MS.S. 1323 f. 30, T042 f. 3; Lnnsdowne M.H. 
ci'xxxviii. f. 9; Sloane M.SS. 1633 f. 20, 41U 
f. 16, 1117 fr. 3, 7, 1(», 4788 f. 31 ; Addit. MS. 
17620; Borlase's Reduction of Irrlnnd, p. 137: 
Mouck MdMDn's St. Pnlriok's. App. p. xlix ; 
Warner's Hist, of Hnmpsbire, iii. 116-27.] 

R. D. 

WALLOP, Sir JOHN (d. 15ftl), soldier 
and diplomatist, was son of Stephen Wollop 
by the daughter of Hugh Ashley. The 
family of Wallop had, according to a pedi- 
gree drawn up by Augustine Vincent [q. v.], 
been very long settled in Hampshire. They 
held various manors there, bpt John Wallop, 
who liveil in the time of Henry VI and Ed- 
ward IV. having inherited Farleigh, or, as it 
wa-s afterwards called, Farleigh-Wallop, from 
his mother, made that the chief residence of 
his family. A son of this John "Wollop, 
Itichard 'NVallop, was sheriff of Hampshire 



Wallop 



153 



Wallop 



in 1502, and seems to have died just after 
holding that ottice. By his wife, Elizabeth 
Hampton, he left no children, and therefore 
•was succeeded by his brother, Sir Robert 
^Vallop, and he, also dying without issue in 
1636, was succeeded by Sir John Wallop, 
his nephew. Thus it will be evident that 
Sir John Wallop had at first mainly his own 
exertions to depend on. lie is supposed tu 
have taken part in Poynings's expedition to 
the Ix)W Countries in 1511, and to have been 
knighted there [see Poyninos, Sib EdwabdI. 
He certainly was knicfhted before 1513, 
-when he accompanied Sir Edward Howard 
on his unfortunate but glorious journey to 
Brest {The French War of lolii-lS, ^avy 
liecords Soc., 1897, passim). In July 1513 
he was captain of the Sancho de Gara, a 
hiredship (Letters and Papers of Henry VII J, 
Nos. 4377 and 5761), and in May 1514 (ib. 
Ko. 5112) ho was captain of the Gret Bar- 
bara. In these years he did a great deal of 
damage to French shipping. On 12 Aug. 
1515 \ib. II. i. 798) he was sent with letters 
for Margaret of Savoy, regent of the Nether- 
lands, and this may really be the journey 
•which Strype {Memorials, I. i. 7), who has 
been followed by Collins {I'eeraye, ed. 
Brydges, iv. 297), places in 1513. 

In 1616 he left England on a more honor- 
able errand. Armed with a letter from 
Henry VIII (Letters and Papers, ii. i. 2360), 
dated 14 Sept. 1516, to Emmanuel, king of 
Portugal, he sailed to that country and 
offered his services at his own expense against 
the Moors. He remained fighting at or near 
Tangier, and then came back to England 
having been made a knight of the order of 
Christ. In Septemlxtr 1518 his name occurs 
as one of the King's pensioners, and for the 
next three years he was serving under 
Surrey in Ireland, frequently being the 
means of communication between the lord- 
deputy and Henry V'HI ( State Papers, ii. 
40-2, 51, 54, 62, 64). Wallop took a 
prominent part in the fighting in France in 
1522 and 1523 (Colli.ns, Peerage, iv. 298; 
Jjetters and Papers, ll. ii. 2014; Chron. of 
Calais, pp. 32, 33). Uoubtless as a reward 
he was on 31 March 1524 appointed high 
marshal of Calais. 

In September 1526 he was sent on an 
embassy, ile first went to Margaret of 
Savoy, then to the archduke, reaching 
Cologne on 30 Sept. He remained there 
till well on in November, writing to Wolsey 
as to the progress of the Turkish war. 
On 30 Nov. he was back in Brussels with 
Hacket, thence he returned again early in 
December to Cologne, and went on to 
Uainx. On 12 Jan. 1526-7 he was at 



I Augsburg. On 1 Feb. he was at Prague, 

and saw the entry of Ferdinand, king of 

the liomans. It was doubtless at this time 

, that ho received the two great gilt cups 

that he mentions in his will as having been 

given him by Ferdinand. On 26 April he 

! was at Ulmiilz. Un 20 May he was at 

i Breslau in Silesia, visiting the king of 

I'oland, who made vague but pleasant 

promises of hostility against ' the ungracioso 

sect of Lutere' {'State Papers, vi. 572). 

King Ferdinand would not let him go to 

I Hungary, where he wished to communicate 

I with the w^aiwodtf. On 11 July he was 

. at Vienna, and probably returned to Eng- 

, land in the autumn. He seems to have 

paid a hasty visit to Paris in January 1528 

(Letters and Papers, iv. ii. 3829). On 

] 29 Jan. 1528 he received an annuity of 

I fifty marks. About 17 F'eb. he left England 

'. on a formal embassy to France, and wrote 

' from Poissy on 29 FVb. that he had seen 

Francis and congratulated him on his re> 

: covery from illness. On 2 April 1528 lie 

I was at St. Maur ' sore vexed withe the 

I coughe and murre.' He was made, with 

' Richard I'uget, surveyor of the subsidies on 

: kerseys on 17 March 1528 at a joint salary 

j of 100/. He remained in I'aris for some 

time, but was at Calais on 2 June. 
I Wallop rapidly received valuable rewards 
; for his services. He had long been a gentle- 
man of the privy chamber. Un 1 March 
' 1522 he had received the constableship of 
Trim in Ireland, but had surrendered it 
before 1524. On 6 April 1529 he became 
keeper of the lordship and park of Dytton, 
Buckinghamshire. On 23 Juno 1530 he 
received a formal grant of the lieutenancy 
of Calais as ' from 6 ( J6tober last.' This was 
a promotion, as the lieutenant of Calais 
who commanded the citadel was next in 
rank to the deputy. He was at Calais 
during the great repairs of 1531. 
In April 1532 vV'allop was sent as am- 
' bassador to I'aris, which he visited at fre- 
(juent intervals as the English resident for 
the next eight or nine years. He went 
into the south of France with Gardiner and 
Bryan in 15<{3, and was at Marseilles on 
5 Oct. ot the meeting of F'rancis and the 
po)>e. Tlie Venetian Marin Qiustinian, 
writing from Paris on 15 April 15.'J3, spoke 
of Wallop as one who did not approve of 
the divorce. Ho was prolmbly in I»ndon 
in the middle of 1534, but was certainly 
back in Paris in December, and remained 
there for the first half of 15.16, taking part 
in the attempt to persuade Melanchthon to 
come to England. In October he was at 
! Dijon, and remained for some time in the 



Wallop 



»S4' 



Wallop 



south. lie was at Lyons from the beginning 
^ of 1536 till June. In July thi-re wa« a 
rumour that he was going to Spain. A 
curious letter to him from Henry, dated 
12 Sept. li>."J<?, directs him to inrestigate 
the strength of the French fortresses. On 
2 Oct. 1536 he was at ^'nlence, but back in 
I'aris in December. lie left Paris on 
1 March 1037 (Lettern and Pnpfrt, xn. 
i. 62<5), and was in London in May. 

Wallop was now rich, ns his undo had 
been some time dead. In 1538 be was 
granted the lunds of the dissolved monastery 
of Barlinch, Somerset, and some manors in 
Somerset and Devonshin'. In May lo3l) 
he was in the Pale of Calais, where there 
were troubles as to religion i I'i. xjv. i. 1008, 
1042). 

In February 1540-1 Wallop succeeded 
Bonner a.s ambassador resident at Paris; at 
Abbeville he was presented to the king of 
France and had an interview with theqneen 
of Navarro (.SVf7/c Papem, viii. 28!l, ef p. 318). 
He had reached Paris by June iri^O.and was 
«oon joined there by Carne. For the rest jif 
this year he followed the court, sometimes 
going an far as Koueii or C'liudebec. 

AV'illiam, lord Snndvs of the Vvne [q. v.], 
captain of (tuisnes, died on 4 ilec. 1540, 
ond Wallop's friends made a suecessful 
application iii liifl fa\our. It isstrungrvthut 
the cnptaini-y of (iiiisnes should hinu Ix-i^n 
considered ii more advantageous post than 
that which he utreaily ht'td, particularly as 
wo know tliiil Francis likoil him (///. \iii. 
415). Cliupuys, indeed, says that many 
thouglit he liiid been retin'd for fear he 
Bhould witli<lniw himself (ilj. Spanish, 1538- 
I ">42, p. 307). (In 18 Jan. IfiU iie was re- 
voked in fa\i>urof Lord W'illinni Howard 
(i"A. Hon. VIII, 1 iii. 514). Suddenly befell 
into disgrace. He was accused of 'sundry 
notable oU'euces and treasons done towards 
Ub' (cf. I'A. Spanish, 1538-42, p. 314), but 
in consideration of his long service he was 
allowed to explain his conduct (Letter* and 
J'a)>eri,x\\. 5H ). Itrouglil before the coun- 
cil (some liiiie earlier than 26 .March 1541), 
* at his first examination he stood very stitHy 
to bis truth and ('irciimspertiou, neither 
calling to reiuemlininco what lie hiid written 
with his own hiind. . . . WliereU)K)n the 
king's miijfsly of his goodness cau.sed his 
own sundry letters written to Pnte, that 
traitor, aud others to be laid before liim : 
which when fi(> once saw ami read be cried 
for luercy, acknowledging his odences with 
the ilanger lie was in by the same, and 
reliisiiig all shifts and trials, for indeed 
the things were most manifest. Ncver- 
tkeloM, ho made most earnest and hearty 



protestation, that the some nerer pKiaed 
him upon any evil mind or malicious pur- 
pose, but only upon wilfolness . . . woich 
he confessed had been in him, whereby he 
had not only in the things of treason but 
also [inl other ways . . . meddled above 
his capacity and whereof he had no com- 
mission, far otherwise than became a good 
subject. . . . Whereupon bis majesty con- 
ceiving that the man did not at the first 
deny Lis transgressions upon any purpose 
to cloak and cover the same but only by 
" slippemes of memory," being a man un- 
learned, and taking his submission pardoned 
him ' (ib. Uen. VUI, viii. 646). The queen, 
it seems, had made intercession, and Henry 
himself, who was fond of men of Wallops 
U'jic, would not need much persuading. 
"Thus he became captain of tJ uiyrn-s in March 
1541 (Lettert and Papert, xvi. 678). 

At Guisnes he remained, no doubt taking 
an active part in the engineering operations 
in the Pale of this time, and attending the 
meetings of the deputy's council, of which, 
OK c-uptain of Guisnes, he was a member. 
In 1543, when Henrv and Charles were in 
alliance and an English force was ordered 
to co-operate with the imperialists in the 
north of France, the Earl of Surrey supposed 
he should have the command: but, to his 
disapiiointment, it was given to Wallop, with 
Sir Thomas Seymour [q. v.] as his marshal ; 
Surrey had to accept a subordinate post. 
Tlic expedition effected little, though the 
soldiers were long in the field (CAron. of 
Calais, p. 211; Statf Papert, ii. 460 sq.) 
Wallop was ill during part of the operations, 
but gained great glory, and Charles V com- 
mended his conduct to Henry VIII i^Cal. 
State Papert, Spanish, 1642-3, p. 504). 

t)n Ciiristma-s eve 1543 Wallop was 
elected K.G., the king providing him with 
robes from Ilia own wardrobe. lie was 
installed on 18 May 1544. The war of that 
year kept him busily occupied, as he had to 
keep a largo number of men at Guisnes. 
During the next few years there are many 
notes of his activity in the 'Acts of the Privy 
Council.' On 19 June 1545 he was specially 
thanked by the council for his courage. In 
I I54ti he was placed on the second commit 
I sion for the delimitation of the frontier of the 
Houlonnnis, and in .March following he was 
appointed on the third commission for the same 
purpo.ie. As relations between France and 
ICngland grew strained. Wallop was involved 
in various frontier conflicts wnich were the 
subject of prolonged recriminations bet^ 
the English and French courts (Ol 
Sklvk, Con: Pol. passim). He retained] 
j post during the ensuing war, 1540-G 




Wallop 



Wallop 



I 
I 



after the conclusion of peace was on 29 Nov. 
1550 once more made a commissioner for 
the delimitation of the English and French 
boundaries. 

Wallop died of the sweating sickness at 
Guisnes on 13 July 1.5.51 ; he was buried 
■with some state there, presumably in the 
churchyard. He hud had a pood deal to do 
with the reptoration of the church (AiT/ireu- 
ioifia, Llil. ii. .184). His will, dated -.'2 May 
1551, is printed in CoUins's ' Peerage' and in 
I'Testamenta N'etusta ' (p. 732). lie left a 
lai^e annuity to Nicholas Alexander, who 
had been his secretary, and was afterwards 
banf^ed at Tyburn for cowardice. 

AVollop married, first, Elizabeth, daug-hter 
of Sir Oliver St. John, and widow of Gerald 
Fitzgerald, eighth eiirl of Kildare ; secondly, 

I Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Clement llarles- 
ton of Ockendon in the county of Esse.\. [ 
;6he survived him. By neither wife did he 
'leave any issue, nnJ his estates passed 
therefore to his brother. Sir Oliver ^^ allop, 
and, he dying in 1.560, his son Henry, who ' 
U aeparalely noticed, succeeded. Machyn, in 
speaking of the death of Wallop, calls hiiu 
' a, noble captain as ever wn.'s.' Chapiiys 
on 21 June lo.32 spoke of him as Ijeing better 
trained to war than to the management of 
political all'airs. His portrait, by Holbein, 
Delonga to the Earl of Portsmouth. ! 

SA Ufeuf Wallop, very full ami aocorate, is i6 
lioa's Peemn, e<l. Brydges, iv. 297 sqq. It 
mtut be sappTfraentcd by the Letters and | 
Papers of the Reign of Henry Vlll up to 1541, 
•lao by the Stale Papers, Henry VIII, the 
^vCalendar of .Stjito Papers, Spanish. 1527— 13. ' 
^■Tfae Acts of the Privy Coancil, vol. vii. uud the 
^■new aeries down to his death, have many entries 
as to his work at Guisnes. .See also Calendar 
of SUtePapere, Venetian, 1527-33, pp. 61, 313 ; 
Calendar of State Papers, Irish, 1509-73, pp. S, 
4;Carew MSS. (Book of Howth, &c.), pp. 228, 
L231 ; Carew MSS. 1516-1574, pp. 13. &c. ; 
ICalendar of State Papers. Poreign, 1547-53, pp. 
1293-329; Holinshed's Chron. iii. 602, vl. 306; 
iSapst's Deux Oenlilshrjnimes poetes u la Conr 
|de Henri VIII. pp. 68, 81, 112, 184-5,274,288; 
Jagwell's Ireland under the Tudors. i. 219; 
on'* Hist, of the Church of EngUnd, ii. 243; 
31o«m's Royal Navy, i. 456 «qq. ; Chronicle of 
(Oalaii, passim, Service* of Lord lirey He Wilton, 
. 2, Trevelyan Papers ii. 146, &e., Narratives 
of the Reformation p. 148, Machvn's Diary pp. 
J. 818 (Ihesii five publi.-ihcd by Ciimdcn .Soc); 
Strype's Memorials, I. i. 7, 235, 347, n. i. 6, &i-'., 
j. 4P2 : l)ugd«l.''s Monasticon, vi. 387 ; CoUin- 
on's Somerset, iii. 603.] W. A. J. A. 

WALLOP, JOHN, first E\Kr. or Ports- 
iotTTH (1090-1762), boni in 1690, was the 
third son of John Wallopof Farleigh-Wnllop, 
Hampshire, by his wife Alicia, daughter 



I and coheiress of William Borlase of Great 
Alarlow, Buckinghamshire. Kobert Wallop 

tn. v.] was his great-grandfather. John left 
'.ton in his nineteenth year to complete his 
education by continental travel. While on 
his way to Ueneva he .sened as a volunteer 
at the battle of Oudenarde. Subsequently, 
having passed a year of' academical exercita- 
tions ' at Oeneva, and another in ' visitation 
of the most eminent personages, and recon- 
noitring the most celebrated curiosities of 
I taly ,' he proceeded t o G erman j' . .\ t II ano ver 
he was 'admitted to the most conhdential 
familiarity' with the elector (afterwards 
George I). Meanwhile he had succeeded, in 
October 1707, to the family estates on the 
death of his elder brother. On his return to 
England he was elected M.P. for Hampshire, 
which he represented from 1 7 1 o to 1 720. On 
13 April 1717 he was named u htrd of the 
treasury 'by the particular nomination' of 
George I. Three years later, on 11 .lune 
1720, he wns created Baron Wallop and 
Viscount Lymington. Hotook nopniminent 
pnrt in public utliitrs. but, judging from the 
dates of the niipointments he subsequently 
received, must liave been a supporter of Waf- 
pole. These included the chief-justiceship in 
eyre of the royal forests north of the Trent 
(oDec. 1732),the lord-lieutenancy of Hamp- 
ehire (7 Aug. 1733), the lord-wardenship of 
the New Forest (2 Nov. 1733), and the 
governorship of the Isle of Wight (18 June 
1734). All these terminated in 1742. But 
on II .\pril 1743 Wallop was advanced to 
the earldom of Portsmouth, and in February 
1746 was re-named governor of the Isle of 
Wiglil. He was created D.C.L. of Oxford 
on 1 Oct. 1755, and had been a governor of 
the Foundling Hospital since 1739. He 
died on 23 Nov. 1762. In the church of 
Furleigh- Wallop, on the south wall, is a 
marble monument to him with a lengthy 
iostription, which has been quoted. Ports- 
mouth was twice married : first, in May 1716, 
to Bridget, eldest daughter of Chiirlea Bennet, 
first |earl of Tankerville ; secondly, in June 
1741, to Elizabeth, daughter of James, second 
lord GriHin, and widow of Henry Grey, by 
whom he had no issue. 

By his first wife he had John, viscount 
Lymington (1718-1749), who was M.P. for 
Andover from 1741 till his death, and mai«- 
ried Catherine, daughter and heir of John 
ConduJtt [q. v.]. Sir Isaac Newton's succes- 
sor as master of the mint. She was New- 
ton's niece and coheiress, and his papers and 
scientific collect inns came into the pt^ssession 
of her eldest son, John Wallop (1742-1797), 
who was, in succession to his grandfather, 
second Earl of Portsmouth. 




i 



Wallop 



Wallop 



[Collectanea Topograpbica ct Genealogiea, ^nii, 
380-7 ; Dovle's Officiiil Baronage ; U. E. C[o- 
kByn8]'8 and Burke's I'eernges; Oeut. Mm?. 
1762 p. 653, 18o4 i. 190-1 ; .Martin Doyle's 
Notes relutiug lo llio County of Wexford, pp. 
117-18 ; Br.iyley and Briiton's BeauticHof Kdr 
land, vi. 234 ; Hist. M.^W. Comm. 8tli Rep. App. 
00-92.] G. LkO.N. 

WALLOP, iacil.\til) (1616-1697). 
judge, born in IIJKJ, und baptisod nt Hup- 
Drooke on 10 Judl', was son of llichard 
AN'allo]) of Bugbrooke, Xortliamptonshire, 
and of Mary bis wife, sister and coheiress 
of WiHiam Spt-ncpr of Evt>rtoii in thu snmo 
county. His father was the tliird sou of 
Sir Dlivcr W'nUup of Fiirleifili-Wallnp, and 
youufferbrotliiTdl'Sir Henry \Vullo])( 1 ")1U?'- 
15!)t1) fq.v.] Richard the younger matricu- 
Intwl from Penibroke Coilepe. ( Lxford. on 
10 Oct. 1634, and jfruduated B.A. on '2 June 
IdHfj. He was culled to tlie bar by the 
Middle Tetuple in February lil4(I, and be- 
came a bi'ncber in ItKiti. In Iti";! he was 
treasurer of the Middle Temple. His poli- 
tical views were ant i- royalist, and lie was 
frequDiitly retained npninst the goviTiiiueiit 
instate trials during the reigns of t'bartes II 
and JamesII. lie was counsel tor Lord I'etre 
when the articles of impeaelinient were 
brought np against the live lords concerned 
in the popish plot in April Ui"'.i. In < October 
168U he acted for Sir tlliver Hutler in his case 
against the king, nnd in March llWl for the 
Duke of York, indicted for recusancy. 'In 
this occasion he moved that the trial mig'ht 
be put off till Easter, alleging that the ac- 
cused might then have a plea of cont'ormity. 
Thi.s was granted. He was leading counsel 
for William, vi.sconnt Staflurd,when brought 
to trial on 4 Itec. lIlSO. As counsel for the 
jirisoner, be spoke (7 May KiSl) iu support j 
of the plea in abatement in the case of 
Edward Fitzharris [tj- v] He was one of, 
tho counsel for the Earl of Dan by when 
brought to the court of king's bench from 
the Tower on 4 Feb. 16S4. lie defended 
l^urence Braddon [(|. v.] und Hugh .Speke 
[q. v.] iu February 1684, and argued for arrest j 
of iudgment, in the case of 'Ttiomas Itose- 
wcll [q. v.] (in il Nov. 1684. He was counsel 
for Baxter at bis trial in February 168,"), and 
in (he same month was lussigiied counsel for 
Titus Oates, when pleading ' not guilty' to 
the two indictments against him forpcriury. 
He al.so acted as counsel for the plaintill" in 
the cage of Arthur (lodden v. Sir Edward 
Hales [q. v.], in an action for debt ii]x>n the 
test act in June 1686. He was constantly 
incurring the displeasure of Judge Jeffreys, 
who never lost an opportunity of browbeat- 
ing bim. I 



I AVnllop was made cursitor baron of tlie 
j exchequer on 16 March 1696, and died on 
I 2i Aug. 1697. He was buried in the Temple 
I church on the 26lh. In his will, proved on 
1 28 Aug. 1607, he left all his property to his 
' widow Marie, with the care of hts daughter 
and her children. 

[Kdmundaon's Baronagium Gencalugicum, iii. 
247; Foster's Alumni; Fom's Biogr. Diet, of 
the Judges; Hist. MS.S. Comm. litli Rep. ii. 
26, 156; Cobbett'g State Trials, vii. coU. 1523- 
1526, viii. cols. 303-7, ix. cols. 1165-6, x. 
cols. 209-75, xi. cols. 498-9 ; Lultrell's Brief 
Relation, i. 69, 79, 195, 297, 322. 327-8, 380; 
ii. 32, 267 ; Woolrych's Memoirs of Judge 
Jeffreys, pp. 129-31, 144-5. 179-80; P.C.C. 
171 Pvno; Uuglirooko Parish Register per the 
Rev. A. 0. James.] B. P. 

"WALLOP. IfOBERT (1601-1667), re- 
gicide, bom on 20 July KJOl, was only son 
of Sir Henry Wallo]) of F'arleigh- Wallop in 
Hampshire, and of his wife Eliiiabeth (rf. 

, 1624). dmigbter und heir of Robert Corbet 
of Morton Corbet in .Shropshire. .Sir Henry 
(1668-lti42l, who was the eldest son of Sir 
llenry Wallop (l.J40?-lo99) [q. v.], fre- 

■ quentlysat in parliament between 1601 and 
1642, acted as his father's deputy at Hublin, 

I where he was knighted inAugu.-t l.'iOO, was 
sheriff of Hampshire in Hi02aiid in 160C1, and 
of Shro]isbire in lliOu, and was one of the 
coirnci! for the marches of Wales in 1617. 

) Robert matriculated from Hart Hall, Ox- 
ford, on o May 1615. Ho entered porlia- 

; ment before he was of full age, and sat in 
the House of C'ommons for nearly forty 
years. He was a zealous supporter of par- 
liament in its struggle with the king. Ho 
represt'iited .Vndover borough iu the ]iar1ia- 
ments of lt)21-2 and 162^-4. In those of 

j lt)2.') and 1625-8 ho sat for Hampshire. He 
was returned for Audover borough in 1627, 

, nnd retained his seat for that constituency 
during the .Short parliament of the spring 
of 1640, and through the Long parliament, 
which first met in October 1640. 

Wallo]) signed the protestation in the 
House of Commons on 4 May lt>41, was a 
member of the committee for Irish ali'airs in 
1642, and of the committee of both king- 
doms in 1644, when he acted on various sub- 
committees. He was included in the com- 
mission of 6 Nov. 1643 for the collection 
of tho Hampshire contingent towards the 
di'fenco of tho associated counties. Wallop 
was one of the judges at the trial of Charles II, 
but sat only three times (on 15, 22, and 

23 Jan. 1648-9). Ho was not present when 

st'ntence was pronounced, and did not sign 
the warrant. Un 14 Sept. 1049 he waa 

granted 10,000/.out of the confiscated e«tatei 



Wallop 



WalmesT 



I 



» 



of tlip Mftrquis of Wiiicliester m compeiisn- 
tiou for his losses during the war. 

Wallop wa* II member of thp first council 
of state of .luiie IC^H, and took t lie ' engfOge- 
t' at the meetinp on tht> 19lh; he was 
on the second council , 1 7 Feb. 1 1}50 to 
Feb. 1051. He was iirobublv not a mem- 
ber of the third, 17 Feb. to I'it Nov. 1651, 
but was elected on the fourth, December 
IGT)! to November ICoi', as member of which 
he took the oath of secrecy on '2 Deo. 16."il ; 
he was on the fifth council, Deci'nibcr Ui'r2 
to March ItiM, but was absent from the 
sixth. He !sat for HamjiKliire in Uichard 
Cromwell's parliament of l(iijJ<-S'. Wallop 
a republican at heart, and showed hi.s 
i-C'romwelliiin tendencies in February 
1659 by furthering the election of Sir Henry 
Vane the younger [q. v.] to represent the 
borough of Whitchurch in parliament. He 
■was chosen a member of the council of state 
of the restored Kump parliament in May 
1659, and of the new council at the second 
restoration of the Uiimp to hold office from 
1 Jan. till 1 .^pril l«GU. On 23 April 16IJ0 
he was elected .M.I', for Whitchurch. 

At the Restoration Wallop wa.s in treaty 
for his ])ardon, and the warrant was signed ; 
but matters had not been sufficiently pro- 
ceeded with before the pas.sing of the Act of 
Oblivion, when he was discharged from the 
House of Commons and ' made incapable of 
bearing any office or place of public trust ' 
(Commoiu Journals, viii. (il ), excepted 
from the act with pains and penalties not 
extending to life, and placed in the custody 
of the wrgeant-at-arms (11 June 16fi0). On 
1 July ItWl he appeared at the bar of the 
house, when evidence against him was 
heard, and when it was resolved to prepare 
a bill for the confiscation of his estates and 
of those of others included in the former act 
of attainder. The bill was to provide for 
the imprisonment for life of those then in 
custody, with the degradation of being 
' draviTi from tlie Tower of I<ondon upon 
sledges and hurdles, through the streets and 
highways, to and under the gallows at Ty- 
burn, with ropes alv^ut their necks,' on 
27 Jan. of each year, being the anniversary 
of the king's sentence of death. On 23 Aug. 
a grant was made to Thomas Wriothesley, 
fourth earl of Southampton [q. v.l, lord trea- 
surer. Wallop's brother-in-law, of AVallop'K 
forfeited estates, ]>ermitting but not com- 
pelling him to dis]>ose of them for the benefit 
of his sister Lady Anne Wallop and her 
family. In January llWi2 Wallop petitioned 
in vain for the remiission of the penalty to 
be inflicted on the 27th, ond enclosed a cer- 
tificate from his physician declaring him unfit 




I tohe 'exposed to the air at this season of the 
year.' In his petition he professed to have sat 
at the king's trial ' only at the request of hia 
majesty's friends, in order to try to moderate 
the furious proceedings.' 

Wallop remained in the Tower till 19 Nov. 
11107, wheu he died. He was buried at Far- 
j leigh on 7 Jan. UHJS. An anonymous por- 
I trait of him belongs to the Earl of Ports- 
mouth. 

Wallop married, first, Anne, daughter of 
Henry ^\ riothesley, third earl of Southamp- 
ton [q. v.] ; by her he had one son, Henry. 
Lady Anne died early in l(j<J2, and was 
buried at Farleigh on Ci March. Wallop 
married a second time, and at his death his 
widow petitioned for the enjoyment of her 
I late husband's estates. Ry May 16(!9 she 
I was remarried and petitioning under the 
name of Elizabeth Needham. 

The sou Henry ^Vallop, commonly called 
Colonel Wallop, was enabled, through hia 
uncle's influence, to enjoy the family estates. 
To his extravagance his father considered 
that he owed some of bis misfortunes. Ho 
married Dorothy (d. 1704), daughter and co- 
heir of John Bluet of Holcombe Regis in 
I Devonshire, and became the grandfather of 
John Wallop, first earl of Portsmouth [o. v.J 
He died in 1073, and was buried at Far- 
leigh. 

[Edmundson'R Baronagiam Genenlogieam, iii. 
247; Collins's Peerage (Brydges). iv. 317; 
Foster's Alamni ; Official Lists of M.P.'s ; Raw- 
don Papers, p. 409 , Woodward's Ilampsbiro, 
iii. 146; Ludlow's Memoirs (Kirth), ii. 51; 
Commons' Journals, vi. 141, 2(>9, 2U(i, 296, vii. 
220, 659, 800, viii. .'j9, 60 61 , 28fi ; Lords' Jour- 
nals, xl. 320 : Ilist. MS.S. Conim. ind Bep. vi. 4 ; 
Mosson's Milton, passim; Cui. iStule i^pere, 
Dom. 1625-70 passim; Noblo's Lives of the 
Regicides ; Extracts from registers of Farloigh- 
Wallop, kindly supplied by the Rev. J. Seymour 
Allen.] B. P. 

WALMESLEY, CHARLES (1722- 
1797), Roman catholic prelate and mathe- 
matician, seventh son of John Walmesley 
of Westwood Hou^e, near Wigan, I.,ancashire, 
by his wife Mary, daughter of William 
Greaves, was boni at Westwood on 13 Jan. 
1722 (Burke, Commonen, i. 278). He was 
educated in the English Benedictine college 
of St. Gregory at Douay, and in the English 
monastery of St. Edmund at Paris, where he 
made his profession as a monk of the Benedic- 
tine order in 1 739. Subsequently he took the 

' degree of D.D. at the Sorbonne. In the 
course of a tour through F]urope he explored 
the summit of Mount Etna, wnere he made 
scientific observations. His scientific attaia- 

I ments soon brought him into public notice. 



Walmesley 



158 



Walmesley 



and some of his aslronomical papers were 
inserted in tUe ' Pbilosophical Transactions' 
of 1745. In 1747 he entered into the dis- 
cussions to which the celebrated problem of 
the thret! bodies at that time gave rise; and 
his invetitigations, though scarcely known in 
his native country, were thought on the 
continent to be on a level with those of 
Clairault, d'Alcmbert, and Euler (Butler, 
Hi»t. Memoirs, 1822, i v. 434). lie produced 
in 1749 an analytical investigation of the 
motion of thn. lunar apsides, in which he at- 
tained npiiroximatfly correct results. He 
extended and completed hia theorem in 1758, 
and in 17<3l his conclusiona were confirmed 
by Matthew Stewart (1717-178.5) [q.v.], who 
reached nearly the same results by purely 
geometric methodsof investigation. Walme*- 
ley was also consulted by the British govern- 
ment on the reform of the calendar and the 
introduction of the 'new style.' He wa.s 
elected a fellow of the Uovnl Society of 
London on 1 Nov. 1750, and he was afso a 
fellow of the Uoyal Society of Berlin (Thom- 
son, Hint, of the Royal Hoc. .\ppendix No. 4, 
p. xlvi). 

From 1749 to 170.3 he held the office of 

frior of the monastery of St. Edmund at 
'aris, and in 1754 he waa sent to ICome as 
procurator-general of his order (.Ssow, AV- 
crolugy, p. VJQ), His election a.s coadjuf-or, 
eum jure guccessiom's, to Bishop I.Aurence 
York [q. v.l, vicar-apostolic of tne western 
district of England, was made by propaganda 
on 6 April li56, and was approved by the 
pope on 2 May. It was decreed that he should 
retain the Benedictine priory of St. Mnr- 
cellus in the diocese of Chalon. He was 
consecrated at Home with the title of bishop 
of Itama, in partibua, on 21 Dec. 1756. He 
administered the vicariate after the retire- 
ment of Bishop York in 17<S3, and succeeded 
to the vicariate on the death of his pre- 
decessor in 1770. 

During the ' no popery ' riots in London 
in June 1 780 a post-choise conveying four 
of the rioters, and bearing the insignia of 
the mob, Lurried to Bath, where Walmesley 
resided. These delegates from Lord George 
Qordoii'a association so inflamed the populace 
that the newly erected catholic chapel in St. 
James's I'aracie was gutt«d and demolished, 
as well as the presbytery in Bell-tree Lane ; 
and the registers, diocesan archives, and 
Walm esley's library and man iiscrlptsperished 
in the flames. 

In conjunction with his episcopal brethren 
and a large proportion of the laity, ^Valmes- 
ley consented in 1789 to sign the ' protesta- 
tion ' of the ' catliolic committee.' But he 
subsequently withdrew his signature, and 



when \\\\» protestation was reduced into the 

form of an oath, he called a synod of his 

I colleagues, and a decree was issued that 

I ' they unanimously condemned the new 

I form of an oath intended for the catholics, 

I and declared it unlawful to be talcen.' 

\\'alme8ley gave no sanction to the schisma- 

tical proceedings of the 'Cisalpine' party 

(Amuebst, Ilitt. of Catholic Emancipation, 

i. 1(M-71). 

He died nt Bath on 35 Nov. 1797, and 
was buried in St. Joseph's Chapel, Bristol, 
where there is a monument to nis memory 
with a Latin epitaph written by Father 
Charles Plowden [q. v.] 

Portraits of WKlmeiley are preserved at 
Downside and Lullworth, the latter being 
painted by Keenan. There is an engraved 
portrait in the ' Laity's Directory ' for 1802. 
His principal theological work is : 1. 'The 
General History of the Christian Church, 
from her Birth to her Final Triumphant State 
in Heaven, chiefly deduced from the Apoca- 
lypse of St. Joliu the Apostle, by Signor 
Pastorini Fa pseudonym],' sine loco, 177 1 , 8vo ; 
Dublin. l?90,8vo: London, 1798, .'Svo; Dub- 
lin, 1806, 1812, and 1816, 8vo ; Belfast, 1816, 
Hvo; Cork, 1820 and 1821, 8vo; and five 
editions published in America, one of which 
appeared at New^ York, 1851, l2mo. The 
work was published in a French translation 
at Rouen in 1777 (reprinted at St. Molo, 
1790, 3 vols.); in Latin, shortly afterwards, 
at Paris ; in German, by Abb6 tioldhagen, 
in 178.5 ; and in Italian in 2 vols, at Rome 
in 1798. A mischievous use was made of 
some portions of this work in Ireland in 
1825, when many of the people were under 
great political excitement. Certain passages 
extracted from it were printed on a brtMid- 
side sheet, and circulated gratuitously 
among the catholics of the northern coun- 
ties. This was done with great secrecy 
(CoTTOS, Ithemea and Doway, p. 63). 

His Other works are: 2. 'Analyse des 
Mesures, des Rapports, et des AnglM; on 
l(6duction des Intdgrales aux Loguitlunes 
et aux Arcs de Cercle,' Paris, 1749, 4to, 
This is an extension andexplanation of Cotes's 
' Ilarmonia Mensurarum.' 3. ' The Theory of 
the Motion of the Apsides in general, and. of 
Apsides of the Moon's Orbit in particular, 
written in French by Dom C. \\ almesley, 
and now translated into English ' [by J. 
Brown], London, 1754, 8vo. 4. 'Delnas- 
(|ualitatibus Motuum Lunarium,' Florence, 
1758, 4to. 5. ' On the Irregularities in the 
Motion of a Satellite, arising from the 
Spheroidal Figiire of its Primarr Planet,' in 
the 'Philosophical Transactions, 1768. 6.'0f 
the Irregularities in the Planetary Motions, 



Walmesley 



'59 



Walmesley 



^ 



I 



caused bv tlie Mutual Attraction of the 
Planets,' in tbe ' Philosophical Transactions,' 
1761. 7. ' Erekiel'a Vision Explained,' 
London, 1778, 8vo. 

[Brady's Epixcopal Snccessioo, pp. 223, 224, 
297-302; Gent. Mag. 1797, ii. 1071 ; Hutton's 
Philoeophical and Mathematical Diet. (1818); 
Le Glny's Notice .surC. Walmcsloy, Lillo (1868), 
8ro; Oliver's Cornwall, pp. 429, 627; Pan- 
nni'a Memoirs, pp. 433 n., 437, 443, 449; 
Eamblcr (1851), vii. 59, 430.] T. C. 

WALMESLEY, Sik THOMA.S (1537- 
1612), judge,t»lde8t son of ThomasWnlmesley 
of Showley-in-Clayton and L'unlifle-in-Ilish- 
ton, Lancashire, by liis wife Margaret (boni 
Livesey ), was born in l.')37. Ilis father was 
of sulncient substance to be rated in tlic 
gfeneral levy of arras of 1574 at a coat of 
plate, a long-bow, a sheaf of arrows, a cali ver, 
a scull and a bill; and of suflicient rank to 
be joined with Sir Kichard Sherbomi' us 
assessor of the Trawdi'u forest bridgi' 
reparation rate in 15715. He died nn 10 April 
15)34 (Ducat. Imhc. i. 54). The future judg(? 
^^ns admitted on 9 May 1559 student ut 
Lincoln's Inn, where lie was called to the 
bar on 15 June 1507, and elected bencher in 
1574, autumn reader in 157(J, Lent reader in 
1577, and autumn reader again in 1580, in 
anticipation of his call to the degree of the 
coif, which, notwitlistiindiug that lie was 
somewhat suspect of papistry, took place 
about Michaelmas. In 1583 he made before 
the court of common pleas a stout but 
inefi'ecttuil attempt to sustain the validity 
of papal dispensations and other faculties 
issued duinng the reign of Queen Mary 
(SnirrE, Ann. (fol.) ill. i. 194). He repre- 
sented his native county in the parliament 
of 1588-9, served on several committi'es, and 
contributed 25/. to the loan raiseil on privy 
seal in January of that year (Townsiie.vd, 
Hi*t. Coll. Iti8(), pp. 18-20; Hart. MS. 2219, 
f. Irt). On 10 May 1589 he was created 
justice of the common pleas. 

His reputation for learning was great, 
and he early evinced his independence by 
allowing bail in a murder case, contrary to 
the express injunctinns of the queen con- 
veyed through the lord chancellor. His 
temerity provoked a reprimand (February 
1592), but had apparently no more serious 
Con8e<iuence(C'n/.'S'/a^?Pa/>fr*,Dom. 1591-4, 
p. 188). His vigour gained him respect, and 
Southampton voted him its freedom on 
6 Feb. 1594-5. In 1597 he was assistant 
to tbe House of Lords in committee on 
certain bills. He was placed on the 
ecclesiastical commission for Chester on 
31 Jan. 1597-8, He was also a member of 
the special commission before which Essex 




was arraigned at York House on 5 June 
1000, and assisted the peers on his trial in 
Westminster Hall, 19-25 Feb. lOOO-l. He 
was continued in office on the accession of 
James I, and was knighted at Whitehall on 
23 July 1003. He was a raembcrof the special 
commission that tried on 15 Nov. following 
the' Bye 'conspirators. In regard to the impor- 
tantconstitutional quejstion raised by Calvin's 
case (CoBUETT, State 7'no/j<,ii. 559), whether 
natives of Scotland l)om since the accession 
of James I to the English throne were thereby 
naturolisLvl iu England, Walmesley evinced 
uncommnn independence and also a certain 
narrowness of mind. The matter was dis- 
cussed by » eunimittee of the House of Lords, 
with till' help of the common-law bench, 
Bacon, and other eminent counsel, in the 
painted chamber on 23 Feb. 1000-7, and on 
the following day was decided in the atfinna- 
tive by ten out of the twelve judges. Of the 
other two, one— Sir David Williams [q. v.] — 
was obsent ; Walmesley alone dissented 
(iMrds' Juuninlt, ii. 470). He adhered to his 
opinion on the subsequent argument in the 
exchequer chamber (Hilary tenn, 1008), and 
induced Sir Thomas Foster to concur in it. 

During his long judicial career Walmesley 
rode every circuit in England, except that of 
Norfolk and Suffolk. His account-book for 
the years 159t5-1001, printed in 'Camden Mis- 
cellany ' (vol. iv.), records in minute and 
curious detail his expenses on the western 
circuit and on the Oxford circuit during 
the autumn of 1001. By fair, and also, 
it was whispered, foul means, he amassed a 
large fortune, which he invested in broad 
acres in his native county. His principal 
seat was the manor of Dunkenhalgh, near 
Blackburn, to which he retired on a pensioa < 
towards the end of 1611 {Court and Tinier 
ofJamet I, i. 154). He died on 26 Nov. 
1612. His remains were interred in the 
chantry of our Ladv, appendant to Dunken- 
halgh manor, in tiie south aisle of Black- 
bum parish cliurch. His monument, whicli 
was copied from that of Anne Seymour, 
duchess of Somer^t, in St. Nicholas's Chapel, 
! Westminster Abbey, was ruthlessly de- 
molished by tbe insurgents on the outbreak I 
of the civil war (see the inscription in prose 
and verse in Whitaxek'.s W'halley, 4th 
edit. ii. 281 ). The present monument was 
erected in 1862. A full-length portrait of 
the judge and his lady is preserved in Diu- 
kenhalgh House. , 

In right of his wife (d. 19 April 1635), I 
Anne, daughter and heiressof Robert Shuttle- 
worth of Hacking, Lancashire, AVolmesley 
held the Hacking estates, which, with his 
i own, passed to his only son, Thomas, who 



Walmisley 



Walmisley 



thus became one of the magTiates of I^anca- 
shire. Bred in, he adherer! tn, the priiifiiilcs 
and jiractiees of the Koman cjitlinlio iluirch. 
He subscribed at Oxford, 1 July UiK!, but 
did not pnuluatp. He wiip entered student 
at Gray's Inn on It Nov. 1014, was knighted 
on 11 Aug. 1617, repretieuted the Lan- 
cashire borough of I'litlieroe in the parlia- 
ment of Ifi:.'!--, and Lancashire it«elf in 
that of 1623-4. lie dii^l at iJunkenhalgh 
on 12 March 1641-2, having married twice 
und leaving issue by both wives. His jms- 
terity died out in the mule line in 1711, but 
through the marriage of the last male de- 
scendant's youngest sister, Catherine Wal- 
mesley, first with IJobert, seventh baron 
Petre, and secondly with t'harles, fifteenth 
baron Stourton, is in the female line doubly 
represented in the peerage nt the present 
day. (For other branches of the family see 
BoRKE, Laiidei] Gentry.) 

(Shuttli>worth Aocounts (Chellium Soc), pp. 
91, 26.), 1077; St. Gnorgo'ti Vinitntion of Lan- 
caster (Chptham .Soc.), p. 67 ; Hist, of the 
Chantries within the County Palatino of Lanca- 
shire (Chatham Soc.) i. 165; Liincashiro and 
Cheshire Wills and IriTvnloriea (Chothara Soc.), 
iii. 193; Lam'a.>hire and Cheshire Wills and 
Inventorios (Clietliam .'<oc. n.s.), vol. ii.; Lancn- 
ahiro Lieutenancy under the Tudors (Clietbam 
.Soc.) ; Dr. Farmrr Chetham MS. (Chetham .Soc), 
Lane, and Chcsh. Rec. Soc., i. 234; Dugdale's 
Visitation of Yorkshire (Surleca Soc.), p. 14; 
Oenealos;ist, new ser. ed. Murray, x. 243 ; Chet- 
ham Misc. i. art. iii. 20, iii. art. iii. 8. vi. p. 
xxviii ; Lincoln's Inn Kecords ; Inner Temple 
Record's, i. 473 ; Addit. M.S. 12607, f. 7S ; Met- 
calfe's B(x>k of Knights; Wynne's Serjeanl-ftt- 
L»w; Ducdale's Orig. pp. 4R, 253, 261. 313, 378; 
Chion. Ser. pp. 97-100 ; Manning's Serriona ad 
I/egam, p. 240 ; Dr. Dee's Diary (Camden Soc.) ; 
Manningham's Diary (Camden .Soc.), p. 69 ; 
D'Ewos'a Journal of the Parliaments (1682), pp. 
439, 440, 468, 627, 629; Speddiog's Life of 
Bacon, ii. 173, 283; Button Corresp. (.Surtcos 
Soc.), p. 157; Cobbetfs Slate Trials, i. 1334, ii. 
fl2; Members of Pari. (Official Lists); Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1681-1615; Hist. M.SS. 
Coram. 8lh Rep. App. i. 272-3. 1 1th Rep. App. 
iii. 21. 12lh Rep. App. iv. 183. 229, 362, Hth 
Rep. App. iv. 683 ; Cul. Cecil INLSS. v. 469. vi. 
78, 210, 224; Foster's Alumni Omn. ; Gray's 
InnAdm.Reg.; Baines'sLaucashirced.Harland; 
G. E. C{oltayne]'8 Complete Psenige, 'Stourton;' 
Foas'a Lives of the Judges.] J. M. B. 

WALMISLEY orWALMSLEY, (Jll^ 
BEIJT ( lti80-17.''.I), friend of Kr. .lolinson, 
was descended from an ancient family in 
Lancashire [see Wai.mislkv, Siu Thomas]. 
He was born in 1680, and was the son of 
William Walmisley of the city of Lichfield, 
chancellor of that diocese from 1698to 171.S, 
nnd M.P. for the city in 1701, who married 



in Lichfield Cathedral on 22 April 1875 
Dorothy Gilbert, and was buried in the 
cathedral on 18 July 1713. He matricu- 
lated as commoner from Trinity College, 
Oxford, on 14 April 16i»8, but d'lil not fake 
a degree. In 1707 he was called to the bar 
at the Inner Temple, and became registrar 
of the ecclecia.*! ical court of Lichfield. He 
was probably a near relative of William 
Walmisley, prclwndarv of Lichfield from 
1718 to 1720, and dean from 1720 to 1730. 

Walmiiiley, 'the most able scholar nnd 
the finest gentleman ' in the city according 
to Miss .Seward, lived in the bishop's palace 
at Lichfield for thirty years; and Johnson, 
then a stripling at school, spent there, with 
David Garrick, ' many cheerful and instruc- 
tive iiours, with companions such a« are not 
often found.' He was ' a whig with all the 
virulence and malevolence of his party,' 
but polite and learned, so that Johnson could 
not name ' a man of equal knowledge,' and 
the benefit of this intercourse remained to 
him throughout life. He endeavoured in 
173o to procure for Johnson the mastership 
of a school al .Solihull, near Warwick, but 
without success. .\n abiding tribute to his 
memory was paid by Johnson in his ' Life' of 
Edmund Smith {Live* of tke Ports, ed. Cun- 
ningham, ii. 57-8). 

In April 17.36 AValmi.»ley, 'being tired 
since the death of my brother of living quite 
alone,' married Magdalen, commonly called 
Margaret or Margery, Aston, fourth of the 
eight daughters of Sir Thomaa Aston, bart,, 
of.\ston, Cheshire. II is marriage was said to 
have extinguished certain expectations enter- 
tained by Garrick of a ' settlement ' from his 
friend. Walmislev died at Lichfield on 
3 Aug. 1751, and his widow died on 11 Nor. 
1786, aged 77. Both are buried in a vault 
near the south side of the west door in Lich- 
field Cathedral. A poetical epitaph by 
Thomas Seward [q. v.] was inscribed on a 
temporary monument ' which stood over the 
graveduringa twelvemonth aft erhisdeceaae;* 
it is printed in the 'Gentleman's Magazine' 
(1785, i. 166). It is said that Johnson pro- 
mised to write an epitaph for liim, but pro- 
cra-stinated until it -was too late ; he may be 
acquitted of any share in the composition 
printed as his in the ' Gentleman's Magazine' 
( 1 797, ii. 726). A prose inscription to Wal- 
misley's memory is on the south side of the 
west door of Lichfield Cathedral. Johnson's 
eulogy from his 'Life' of Smith waa also 
inscribed on an adjoining monument. 

AValmialey's library was sold by Thomas 
t>sbornfl of Gray's Inn in 1756. The Latin 
translation of Byrom's verses, beginning ' My 
time, ye muses,' printed in the ' Gentle- 



Walmisley 



i6t 



Walmisley 



I 



I 



man's Mdguine ' (1745, pp. 102-3) aa by Q. 
Walmslcy of 'Sid. ("oil. Camb.,' Hiid gome- 
times Bttributed to tiilljert Walmisley, is no 
doubt by (ialfridus Wnlmsli-y, B..\. I'rom 
that college in 1740. Some correaponileiice 
bt.'tween (Jarrick and Johnson nnd Walmis- 
ley is printed in Garrick's ' Private Corre- 
spondence ' (i. 9-12,44-5), and in Johnson's 
' Letters,' ed. Hill (i. 83 sq. ) 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. 
ii. 316, iii. 650, viii. 467 ; Boawell's Johnson, 
ed. Hill, i. 81-3, 101-2, ii. 467 ; Johnson's Lt-l- 
ters, ed. Hill, ii. 49 ; Johnsonian Miscell., ed. 
Hill, ii. 416; Boswell's Johnson, ed. Croker, 
1848 edit., pp. 19, 24, 27-8; Gent. Mag. 1751 
p. 380, 1797 ii. 811 ; Uarwood's Lichfield, pp. 
78-9, 298 : Orm-rods Cheshire, ed. HeUby, i. 
726-6 ; .'ilmw's Suffordshire, i. 289, 300, 308 ; 
Seward's Poems and Letters, 1810, vol. i. 
brii-Iiiiii.] W. P. C. 

"WALMISLEY. THOMAS ATTWOOIJ 
(1814-18o(!), musician, born at Westminster 
on 21 Jan. 1814, was the son of Thomas 
Forbes Walmisley [q. v.] He showed early 
aptitude for music under his father's ffU'"- 
ance, and studied the higher branches under 
liis godfather, Thoma-i Attwood [q. v.], or- 
ganist to St. Paul's Cathedral. In his seven- 
teenth year AValmisley became organist to 
St. John the Baptist Church at Croydon, 
which waa destroyed by tiro in 1871 ; and in 
1832 he was approached by Mi>nck Sloson to 
write English opera. But as Walmisley had 
arranged to go up to Cambridge, he declined 
Mason's offer, and on 1 Feb. 1833 was elected 
organist to Trinity and St. John's colleges, 
Cambridge. At the former he ed'ected some 
improvements in the organ which ' were not 
only innovations, but were so unique as to 
constitute our organ an object of curiosity for 
many vears to come ' (cf. ' Hist, of the Organ 
in the'Chapel ofTrinity College,' bv Mr. O. F. 
Cobb in Trident, \h90). Walmisley himself 
wrote an article on some of the Cambridge 
organs in the ' Portfolio.' 

.\ short time after settling in Cambridge 
Walmisley graduated y\xis. Hac, hise.xercise 
being a psalm, ' Let Ond arise; ' and, wishing 
to graduate also in arts, he entered at Corpus 
Christi College, but migrated to Jesus before 
taking the deg^ree of B..\. in 1838, and pro- 
ceeding M.A. in 1841. In 1834 he wrote a 
fine anthem, ' O give thanks,' for the com- 
memoration at "rrinity, in which year he 
also composed his great service in B flat. In 
the following year he composed the ode for 
the installation of the Marquis of Camden as 
chancellor of the University, Malibran being 
one of the solo singers on the occasion, ana 
Sir George Thomas Smart [q. v.] the con- 
ductor. In 1836, on the death of John 

VOL. ux. 




Clarke-A\liitfeld [q.v.], Walmisley succeeded 
to the professorial chair of music, the office 
then bemg practically a sinecure. Walmis- 
ley instituted a system of lectures, in one of 
which he prophesied the ultimate supremacy 
of Bach's music, then almost unknown in 
ICngland. Between 1838 and 18&4 Walmis- 
ley wrote several anthems and services, in- 
cluding ' If the Lord Himself,' one of his 
finest works, 1)>4IJ; 'Ponder my words,' 
written for the reopening of .Tesus College 
chapel in 1849 ; ' Blessed is he,' in five parts, 
for the choir benevolent fund, 1854; the ser- 
vice in 1) (1843); that in B flat for double 
choir. Nearly all Walmisley's c^impositions 
were unpublished till after his death,when 
they were edilw) by his father, who survived 
hira. Ill 1844 Walmisley compiled and pub- 
lished a iKiok of words of anthems in use at 
various Cambridge colleges and a collection 
of chants ( 1845). In July 1847 he composed 
music for Wordsworth's ode, ' Fur thirst of 
power,' forthe in.stalltttion of the prince eon- 
sort as chancellor of the university, and in 
18.53 he published hi.s edition of Attwood's 
' Catheilrul Music,' and at one time or another 
he edited .nouie works by Mendelssohn and 
Hummel fur English use. 

In 18-18 Walmisley took his degree of 
Mus. Doc. He was a prodigious worker, 
his services as organist occupying btm on 
Sundays at one time from 7.16 a.m. to 0.16. 
He died at Hastings on 17 Jan. 1856, and is 
buriinl at Fnirlight , a neighbouring village. 

Walmisley's secular compositions, in addi- 
tion to th(.i.se already mentioned, are few in 
number, and include a symphony of which 
.Mendelssohn is said to have spoken disparag- 
ingly ; a couple of beautiful madrigals, ' Slow, 
fresh fount, and 'Sweet flowers;' a number 
of duets for oboe and pianoforte, only one of 
which appears to have been published, and 
some organ jiieces. Walmisley was a dis- 
tingui.ihod church-music composer and 
magniticent organist. A brass tablet to his 
memory is in the ante-chapel, Trinity College, 
Cambridge. 

[A bi«gruphi«!al sketch of T. A. WBlmisley. 
by J. S. Bumpus, appeared in Musical News, 
24 Feb. nnd 3 March 1894; aulhoritiaa quoted 
in the text; British Museum Catalogue of Music; 
Cambridge University CaU-udar; Grove's Diet, 
of Music and Musicians, passim.] It. H. L. 

WALMISLEY, THOMAS FORBES 

(178.'J-l8tJ<i), glee composer and organist, 
third son of William Walmisley, clerk of 
I the papers to the House of Lords, waa bom 
in Lnion (now St. Margaret's) Street, West- 
minster, 22 May 1783. He, like all his 
brothers, was a chorister in Westminster 
Abbey, and he was a scholar at Westminster 



Walmoden 



i6> 



Walmsley 



Khool from 1793 to 1798. He studied music 

under the Hon. John Spencer and Thomn.s 

Attwood [i|. v.], the pupil of Mozart, and 

I'was asriistant or);anist to the Female Oq>han 

'Asylum from ISIO to 1814. In 1814 he 



succeeded Robert Oooke (f. 1793-1814) 
[q. v.] as organist of St. Martin's-in-the- 
FieUU, which post he resigned, on a pension. 



in March 1854. lie was secretary of the 
stablished Concentr>res Sodales, which 

'vu dissolved in 1847, the wine becominf^ 
his properly, and was elected a professionnl 
member of'tho Catch Club in 1827. Wal- 
misley died on 23 July 1866, and was buried 
in the family grave at Brompton cemetery. 
In 1810 he married the eldest daughter of 
William Capon(17o7-1827)[(j.v.], draughts- 
man to the l)uke of York. His eldest son, 

Rhomas Attwood Walmisley [q. v.], whose 
*Cathedml Music' he edit«d in 1857, pre- 
deceased him. 

NS'ttlmisley composed fifty-nine glees, four 
of which (rained prizes (see Spectntorf'JH Aug. 
1830). He also composed ' si.x anthems and 
a short morning and evening .service ' (n.d.), 
and 'Sacred Songs,' London, 1841. As a 
teacher he wa.i well known; his most dis- 
tinguished pupil is perhaps Dr. Edward J. 
Hopkins. .\ portrait or him, painted by 
MacCaul, is in the po,-i.session of his son, Mr. 
Arthur Walmisley. 

[Grove's Diet, of Music and Mnsicians ; David 
Baptie's Sketches of the English Glee Composers ; 
Barker and .Stonning's WeBtmiastcr School Reg. ; 
privnte information suppliad by his iod, Mr. 
Arthur Walmisley.] F. G. E. 

WALMODEN, AM.\LIE SOPHIE 
MAUI.VNXE, Countess op Yabmoutii 
(1704-17tJ5). [See Wali.modex.] 

WALMSLEY, Sib JOSHUA (1794- 
1871), politician, son of John Walmsley, 
builder, was born at Liverpool on 29 Sept. 
1794, and educated at Knowsley, Lanca- 
shire, and Eden Hall, ^^'estmoreland. On 
the death of his father in 1807 he became a 
teacher in Eden Hall school, and on return- 
ing to Liverpool in 1811 took a similar 
situation in Mr. Enowles's school. He 
entered the service of a com merchant in 
1814, and at the end r>f his engagement 
went into the same business himself, and 
ultimately acquired a competency. He was 
an early advocate of the repeal of the duty 
on com, and was afterwards an active 
worker with Cobden, Bright, and others in 
the Anti-Cornlaw I.#8gue. In 182fi he 
took the presidency of the Liverpool Me- 
chanics' Institution, and about the same 
time there began his intimacy with George 
Stephenson, m whose railway schemes be 



was ranch interested, and with whom he 
joined in purchasing the Snibstone estate, 
near Ashhy-de-U-Zouch, wliere rich seams 
of coal were found. He was elected a mem- 
ber of the Liverpool town council in 1835, 
and did excellent work in improving the 
police, sanitary, and educational aflairs of 
the borough ; was appointed mayor in No- 
vember 1838, and knighted on the occasion 
of the queen's marriage. With Lord Pal- 
merston he unsuccessfully contested Liver- 
pool in the liberal interest in Juno 1841, 
He retired to Itanton .Vbbey, Staffordshire, 
in 1843, and at the general election of 1847 
was elected M.P. for I^icesler, but wa.s 
unseated on petition. He started the Na- 
tional Reform Association about this time, 
and was its president and chief organisi-r for 
many years. In 1849 he was returned as 
M.P. for Bolton, Lancashire, but in 1862 
exchanged that seat for Leicester, where his 
efforts on behalf of the framework knitters 
had made him popular. He lost this seat in 
1857, when he practically retired from 

Suhlic life, although he retained the presi- 
ency of the National Sunday League from 
18.V5to 1869. 

He died on 17 Nov. 1871 at his residence 
at Bournemouth, leaving issue. His wife, 
whom he married in 1816, and whose maiden 
name was Madeline Mulleneux,sur«-ived him 
two years. 

[Life, by bis son, Hugh Mallenenx Walmsley, 
1879, with portrait ; Dod's Purliamentary Com- 
panion, 1860 ; Free Sunday Advocate, December 
1871.] C. W. S. 

WALMSLEY. THOMAS (1763-1805), 
landsca[ie-painter, was descended from a 
family of good position at Rochdale, Lan- 
cashire, but was bom in Ireland in 171.13, 
his fntber, Thomas Walmsley. captain-lieu- 
tenant of the 18th dragoons, being quartered 
there with liis regiment at the time. He 

?uarrelled with his family, and came to 
x>ndon to earn his living, fie studied scene- 
painting under Columba at the opera-house, 
and was himself employed there andatCovent 
Garden Theatre, and at the Crow Street 
Tlieatre, Dublin. In 1790 he began to ex- 
hibit landscapes in London, where no resided 
until 1795, when he retired to Bath. He sent 
many pictures to the Royal Academy, chiefly 
views in Wales : but in 1796, the last year 
in which he exhibited, three views of Kil- 
larney. He painted chiefly in body-colour. 
His t rees were heavy and conventional, and 
he had no capacity for drawing figures, but 
he was skilful in painting skies, especially 
with a warm evening glow, which was well 
reproduced in the coloured aquatints by 



Walpole 



Walpole 



Fnincig Jukes and otliers, through which he 
18 best known at the present day. Of these 
several series were published both before and 
aft er his death ; views of the Deo and North 
Wales, 1792-4; larger views of North Wales, 
1800; views of Killarney and Kenmnn-, 
1800 i? : miscellaneous British scenery, lliOl : 
views in Bohemia, 1801 ; views of the Isle of 
Wight, 180i-3; miscellaneous Irish scenery, 
IWXJ; views in Scotland, I « 10. Walm.sley 
died at Bath in IbOo. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of .\rfists; Bryan's Diet, of 
Painters and Engravers.] C. D. 

WALPOLE, EDWAIJD (lo60 lB:ir), 
iesuit, son and heir of .lolm Walpole of 
Houghton, Norfolk, by Catherine Colibut 
of Coxford in the same county, was bom on 
28 Jan. 1559-60, matriculated as a fellow 
commoner at St. Peter's College, Cambridge, 
in May 157t^,the year after his cousin Henry 
Walpole [q.v.l had entered ut the same col lege 
as a pensioner. Here he was so powerfully 
influenced by his cousin that he embraced 
the Koman creed, and, making no secret of 
il. incurn-d the stern displeasure of both 
parents, insomuch that in 158.1 he was turni'd 
out of his home at llunghton, and adopted 
the name of Poor to indicate his want of 
means. Another cousin, William Walpole, 
of (he same way of thinking with himself, 
ott'ered him an asylum at North Tuddenham 
iu Norfolk He repaid this service by re- 
conciling AVilliara to his wife, from whom 
he hod been for "some years estranged. In 
October 1587 William Walpole died, leaving 
the great bulk of his large property to his 
cousin Edward, subject to the life interest 
of his widow. Just about this time John 
Gerard (1664-1637) [q. v.] w^os going about 
Norfolk among the recusant gentry, and siic- 
ceedijig to a wonderful extent as a prosely- 
tiser. .\mong the lirat to be won over was 
Edward Walpole. whom ho received into the 
Roman church ; at the same time Gerard in- 
duced him to sell the reversion of the manor 
of Tudiienhara for a thousand marks. In 
April 15SK Walpole's father, John of Hough- 
ton, died, leaving all he could leave to his 
second son, Calibut, and not even naming his 
elder son and heir in his will. Five months 
later Uobert , earl of Leicester, died. The earl 
had a life interest in the estates of Amy 
Kobi-art, which layconliguous to those of the 
Walpoles, and these now descended to Ed- 
ward Wttlpola as heir-at-law to Sir John 
Robsart, Amy's father. Edward Waljiolu 
at once surrendered by deed all claim and 
title on the Robsart and the Houghton 
estates to his brother Calibut, and, having 
thus denuded himself of his large possessions. 




he slipped away to the continent, determined 
to ofler himself to the Society of Jesus, as 
his cousin had done before. lie was in Bel- 
gium in 15SKJ, apparently on his way to Kome|- 
where hi? was ndmitteil to the English Col- 
lege on 'J'-i Oct. 15t)0, and remained two 
years studying theology. He was ordained 
priest on Ascension day 15'J2, and shortly 
afterwards was admitted into the society, 
and next month was summoned to Toumai 
to go through his period of probation. The 
news of his receiving priest's orders at Rome 
was before long carried home bv the spies 
who were watching him, and in 1507 he waa 
outlawed 'for a supposed treason done at 
Rome.' Undeterrea by this proclamation, 
Walpole returned to England t lie next year, 
and began to exercise his functions as a 
lioman priest and Jesuit missioncr, though 
hunted about from place In place, not seldom 
in great peril of his life. .Vt'ter his return to 
England he passed under the name of Rich 
as an alias. In ltK)5 he was granted a pardon, 
which would have put him in jiossession of 
the family estates on the death of his mother. 
Shesurvivedtill Itil:.'; but, instead of avail- 
ing himself of his legal ability, he renewed 
his deed of surrender to his brother, and the 
estates accordingly descended through him 
to Sir Robert Walpole and the earls of Or- 
foi'd. He had the reputation of being a 
preacher of no ordinary gifts. He died in 
London on 3 Nov. 1637, in his seventy- 
eighth vcar. 

[Jessop's One Generation of a Norfolk IIouhs, 
1878, anil the autlioritiiM there given ; cf. Foley's 
lit'cui-ds of the English College S.J., 1879.1 

A. J. 

WALPOLE. GEORGE (1758-1835), 
maior-g<!ncral, burn on 20 June 1758, was 
the third son of Horatio, second lord Wal- 
pole of Wolterton, who in 1797 succeeded 
his cinisin Horatio Walpole, fourth earl of 
Orford Iq. v.], as fourth Lord Walpole of 
Walpole, was created Earl of Orford in 1806, 
and died on 24 Feb. 180!», aged H(j. Horatio 
Walpole, first lord Walpole fq. v.], was his 
grandfather. His mother was Lady Rachel 
Cavendish (rf. 1805). third daughter of Wil- 
liam, third duke of Devonshire. He was 
commissioned as comet in the 12th light dra- 
goons on 12 May 1 777, and became lieutenant 
in the 0th dragoons on 17 .\pril 17H0. Ha 
returned to the 12th light dragoons as cap- 
tain-lieutenant on 10 Dec. 1781, and ex- 
changed to the 8th light dragoons on 13 Aug. 
1782. On 25 June 178."i he obtained a 
majority in the 13th light dragoons, and be- 
came lieutenant-colonel of that regiment on 
31 Oct. 1792. 

In 1795 he went with it to the West 

m2 



• 



Walpole 



164 



VValpoU 



Indies, and took a leading part in the sup- appointed under-flecretair (SO Feb. 1806); 



presBion of the maroon insurrection in 
Jamaica. The Trelawney maroons, who had 
risen, numbered fewer tlian seven hundre<l, 
but they had been joined by about four 
hundred runaway slaves, and the insurrec- 
tion threatened to spread. The country was 
extremely diflicult for regular troops, and 
two of the detachments sent against the 
maroons fell into ambushen, and their com- 
manders (Colonels Sandfordandp'itch) wen» 
killed. At the beginning of (Jclober Wal- 
pole was charged with the general conduct 
of the operations, and the governor — Alex- 
ander Lindsay, sixth earl of Balcarres [q. v.] 
— gave him the local and temporary rank of 
major-general. By skilful dispositions he 
captured several of the maroon 'cockpits' 
or stockades. On 24 Oct. the governor I Docking, and baptised there in October 1 



bill he did not retain this offiee long after 
Fox's death. lie was made comptpoller of 
cash in the excise office for the rest of his 
life. lie was M.P. for Dungarvan from lti07 
till 18l'0, when he resigns his teat. He 
died in .May l>:i3<5, unmarried. 

[Gent. Mag. 1835, ii. 547 ; CoUins's P« 
ex}. Brydgro, r. 674 ; Lord Lindsay t Lives 
the Lindsays, iii. 1 -1 it (for the msrooo war) ; 
Lord Hollnnd's Memoirs of the Whig PurtT, i. 
142; Burke's Peerage.] E. M. L. 

WALPOLE, HENRY(15o8-15{W),ie»uil 
eldest son of Christopher Walpole of Docfc^ 
ing and of Anmer Hall, Norfolk, by Maig 
daughter and heiress of Richard Beck! 
of Xarford in the same county, was bom 



wrote to the secretary of state: 'General 
"Walpole is going on vastly well. His figure 
and talents are well adapted for the service 
he is upon, and he has got the confidence of 
the militia and the countrj'.' By 22 Dec. 
he had come to terms with the insurgents. 
They were to ask pardon, to leave their 
fastnes-^s and settle in any district assigned 
to them, and to give up the runaway slaves. 
On these conditions he promised that they 
should not be sent out of the island ; and the 
terms were ratified by the governor. 

Only a few of the insurgents came in, and 
in the middle of .January Walpole moved 
against them with a strong culumn, accom- 
panied by dogs which had been brought 
from Cuba. They then surrendered, and were 
sent down to Montego Bay; and in March 
the assembly and the governor decided to 
ship theiii to Nova Scot IB. Walpole strongly 
remonstrated against what he regarded as a 
breach of faith. lie argued that the treaty 
might have been cancelled when the maroons 
failed to fulfil its terms, but that the gover- 
nor had deliberately abstained from can- 
celling it. lie declined a gift of five hun- 
dred guineas which the a.Ksembly vott.'d for 
the purchase of a sword, and obtained leave 
to return to England. His letter declining 
the sword was expunged from the minutes 
of the house (cf. Dallas, //w/. 0/ the Ma- self to take up the" work which Campion had 



Michael Walpole [4. v."' and Richard Wa 
pole [q.v.] were his younger brother*. Henry 
was sent to Norwich school in 156(t or 1567, 
where his master was Stephen Limbert., a 
Cambridge scholar of some repute in his day. 
He entered at St. Peter's College, Cambridgie, 
on 16 Jan. 1575, but he left the university 
without taking a degree, and in 157* he be- 
came a student at Oray's Inn, intending to 
follow in the footsteps of his father, who 
appears for some time to have practised as a 
consulting barrister, and of his uncle, John 
Walpole, a serjeant-at-law who would cer- 
tainly have been promoted to a judgeship but 
for his early death in 15*58. While Henry 
Walpole was at Gray's Inn he appears to 
have brought himself under the notice of the 
government spies by habitually consorting 
with the recusant gentry and the Roman 
partisans; and when Edmund Campion [q. v.l 
c-ame over to advocate a return to the papal 
obedience, \\'alpole was a conspicuous sup- 
porter of the Jesuit and his friends. Campion 
was hanged at Tj-biirn on 1 Dec. 1581, and 
Walpole stood near to the scaffold when the 
usual barbarities were perpetrated upon the 
mangled corpse. The blood splashed into the 
faces of the crowd that pressed round, and 
some of it spurted upon young Walpole's 
clothes. He accepted this as a call to him- 



rooru, 1803; Gardsbr, Jfitt. 0/ Jamaica, 
1873, pp. 232-ti). 

He was made colonel in the army on 
3 May 1790, but he retired from the service 
before 1799. In January 1797 he was re- 
turned to parliament J'or Derby, which he 
represented till 1800. lie was a follower of 
Fnx, and voted for reform. lie wasTiemey's 



begun; and under the inspiration which the 
dreadful scene had aroused he sought relief 
for this feeling in writing a poem of thirty 
stanzas, which he entitled '.Vn Epitaph of 
the Life and Death of the most famous Clerk 
and virtuous Priest, Edmund Campion, & 
Reverend Father of the meek Society of the 
.. blessed name of Jesus.' The poem, which 
second in his duel^with Pitt on Putney I contains many passages of much beauty and 
heath on 27 May 1798. When Fox came | sweetness, and indicates the possession of 
into office as foreign secretary, Walpole was [ great poetic gifts on the part of tie writer. 



Walpole 



165 



Walpole 



» 



I 



-was immediatelvprinted by oneoftbeauthor's 
friends, Valenger by name, apparently at bis 
own private press. It was widely circulated, 
and attracted ranch attention. The govern- 
iBent made great efforts to discover tbe 
aiitbor. Valenger was brougbt before the 
council, was lined heavily, and condemned 
to lose hi.s ears; but he did not b<>tray hi.< 
friend. Walpoh-, however, was under (frave 
suspicion, and thought it advimtble to slip 
awny to his father's bouse in Norfolk, where 
he was forsome time in hiding, till irn oppor- 
tunity came for passing over to the continent. 
lie arrived at iiheims on 7 July l')82, and 
at the college there be enrolled fiimself as a 
student of theology-. Next year Iin made his 
way to Home, was received into tbe English 
College on 28 April 1583, and in the follow- 
ing (Jctober was ailmilled to minor orders. 
Three months Inter he odered himst-lf to the 
Society of Jesus, and on 'J Feb. 1584 was ad- 
mitted among the probationers. A year 
later he was sent to France, where, at 
Verdun, he passed two years of pn)bntion, 
acting as 'prefect of the convictors.' On 
17 l>ec. 1688 he was ndmitled to priest's 
orders at Paris. 

About 1586 a staff of army cliaplains had 
been organised by Belgian je-suits, whose 
business it was to minister to the Spanish 
forces serving under the prince of Parma. 
Among these were soldiers of alnuist every 
European nationality, and it was important 
that the Jesuit chaplains should be good 
linguists. Wb1]m>K' was master of many 
languages, and was e.xaLtly the man for 
thi* work, which was now luid ujion him. 
He was emim-ntly niiccossful, and he did 
not spare himself; but on one occasion in 
the autumn of 1589 he fell into the hands of 
the English garri.scm at Flushing, and was 
thrown into prison among common thieves 
and cut-throats, and had to endure great 
sufferings, till his brothir, Michael Walpole, 
managed to cross over to Flushing and pay 
the ransom demanded for his release. In 
January 1590 he was set free and was still 
in Belgium, apparently exercising his func- 
tions as a catholic priest among the soldiery, 
when in October 1591 he was removed to 
Toumai to complete his third yenr as proba- 
tioner. 

In July 1592 he was summoned to the 
Jesuit college at Bruges. I'ursoiis's famous 
' Responsio ad Edietutu,' written under the 
name of Philopater [see Pailsoss, Kohkut, 
1540-1010], wiis published in the summer 
of 1592, and it was deemed advisable that 
an English translation of tbe Ixiok should 
be circulated coincidently with the apjiear- 
•nce of the Latin version. This translation 




was entruated to AVal|)ole, and while be 
was engaged upon it he received orders from 
Claudius Aquaviva, general of the society, 
to join Parsons in Spain. He was present 
at the opening of the chapel of the lately 
founded Jesuit college in Seville on 29 Dec. 
1592, and there he met his brother Richard, 
whom he had not seen for ten years. 
KichanI had already volunteered to engage 
in the English mission, but Parsons could 
not spare so able a coadjutor, and Richard 
had to wait his time. Henry, however, 
was possessed by the longing to return to 
England and emulate John Gerard's success 
as a jvroselytiser in Norfolk [see Gerard, 
John, I.'>ti4-Hi;17]. In June 159;^ Parsons 
told liim that it was decided he should bo 
sent to Englaiii!. Next month he was pre- 
sented to Philip II at the Escurial, and was 
very graciously received as a Jesuit father 
about to start on the English mission. It was 
not, however, till late in November that be 
actually set sail from Dunkirk on one of the 
semi-piratical vessels which at that time 
infested the Channel, having bargained tliot 
he should bo put ashore on the coast of 
E.>»se.\, Suffolk, or Norfolk, where he was 
sure to find friend.s or kinsfolk. With bim 
went Iwiv .-ioldiers of fortune who had been 
serving under the king of H[)ain and were 
tir«l of it. • t)ne of these wos 'I'homus, a 
younger brother of Ilenrj- \ValjK)Ie, now in 
liis twenty-sixth year. The voyage was 
disastrous from tbe first ; the wind was 
boisterous and adverse, the vessel could not 
touch ot any point near the East-Anglian 
coast, and was unable to stand inshore till 
they had got as far as Bridlington in York- 
shire, where at lust the three travellers were 
landed on (i Dec. and left to shift for them- 
selves. Tlie little party had scarcely been 
twenty-four hours on English soil before 
they were all arrested and committed to 
the castle at York. Henry Walpole at 
once confessed liim9»-lftt Jesuit father. The 
other two allowed that they hud served in 
Sir William Stanley's regiment in Flanders. 
This, it seems, was no offence in law, and 
the only charge which could be made against 
them was that they had connived at the 
landing of a Jesuit in England, which was 
a much more serious matter. The two 
made no difKculty of telling all they knew. 
Thomas Walpole even pointed out the place 
where his brother had hidden some letters 
and other incriminating documents on hia 
first landing. But Henry exhibited unusual 
stubbornness when under examination, and, 
following the example of his hero ('ampioa 
twelve years before, declared himself ready 
to defend his religious convictions against a 1 



I^member of the Yorkshire clerpy in ii publif 
discussion, in which he acquitted himself 
with only too great success and cleverness. 
In February he was committed to the care 
of the notorious Kichnrd Topclitl'e [q. v.], 
under whose charge he was curried to Lon- 
don and ])laced a close prisoner in the Tower. 
It was not till •>' April that he was sub- 
jected to his first e.xuiuination ujKin the in- 
formation wliicli the govfrnmeut had been 
collecting against him. This was a preli- 
minary to a long8iicces.sion of similarattempts 
to extort from the prisoner particulars which 
it was supposed lie only wa-s qualilied to 
furnish on tlu> movements of the catholics 
libroiul nnd the plots which were assumed 
to be hutching at home. Minute reports of 
the.se exiirainiitions were drawn up at the 
time vvliich have corae down to us. Wal- 
pole w».s jnit U]>on the rack again and again, 
and TnpciiHe seems to have used his utmost 
license in torturing his victim. In July 
lew he was still able to write, but after 
this he was handed over to To])clifle to treat 
na he pleased. There is some reason for 
thinking that there was a motive for keeping 
him alive. Henrv \N a Ipole was his father's 
eldest son and heir. His father was at this 
time in failing health, ami in the event of 
his son surviving him a considerable estate 
would have e-^-heated lo the crown. In the 
spring of loOf), however, he was sent back to 
\orkforlrittloii the capital charge.'-: ( Utlmt 
ho had abjured the reolm without license; 
(2) that he had received holv orders beyond 
the seas; and (ii) that he iiad returned to 
England as a Jesuit father and priest of the 
Roman church to exercise his priestly func- 
tions. Of course he was found guilty, though 
during the trial he acquitted him.<:elf with 

freat abil ity, and he was condemned to death . 
he sentence was carried out on 17 April 
1595. The long and minute accounts which 
have reached us of his conduct during the 
last few days of his life prove the great 
interest that was felt in his case, and though 
the judicial murder of Henry Walpole and 
of lifibert Southwell [q. v.J by no means 
briiiighl I u an end the massacre of the Jesuits 
niid wiuinary priests in the queen's reign, 
yet ttfliT tlii8year(l.">9'))the rack was much 
more sjmringly used than heretofore, and 
•uniething like hesitation was shown in 
aunding the Koman proselytisera to the 
gallows. 

A port rail of Henry AValpole, stated to 
Ik> coiileiiiponirv, waji preserved in the Kng- 
linh College al l{(ime till the general spolia- 
tion of the religioiiJ! houses, A copy of this 
wa* maile for tlir Inle Hon. Frederii-k Wal- 
nulii of Maiiiiingtiin Hull, Norfolk. A col- 



lection of nineteen 'Letters of Henry Wal- 
pole, S. J., from the original manuscripts at 
Stonyhurst College, edited with notes bv 
Aug. .Tessopp, D.D.,' was printed for private 
circulation in 1873, 4to. Only fifty copies 
were struck ofl". Twenty-live of these were 
presented to the fathers at Stonyhurat. 

[The cnrecr of Ilenry Walpole has been traced 
in detail by the writer of this article io 'One 
tienrraiiou of u Norfolk House,' 1878. The 
HUlhorities on which thr Matcments there made 
ar« based will be found in the notes. A short 
life of Henry Walpole was publiKhud by Father 
Crt*swell at JM<idrid eight months after the 
execution of his friend. A French transl.ilion 
of this i^punish urigituil was insued at Arms in 
Septeuilier 1.^96, and il has been asserted that 
an English version was also printed. This, 
howercr, is very doubtful. There is a full 
acoouiit of Walpole'a cireer, with some of his 
letters and details of his trial, in Diego do 
^'epi-s's Uisfuria Piirticuisr de la Pcrsecucion de 
Ingldtirra, published in quarto at Madrid in 
1599 (only four years after Walpolo's death), 
and in our own times much valuable informa- 
tion has been brought together in Foley's Re- 
cords of the English Province S. J. ; Mor- 
ris's Life of John Gerard; and in the Re- 
cords of the English Catholics under the Penal 
Laws, edited by the London Oratorians, 1878, 
vol. i. The Olficial Reports of Walpolo's ex- 
aminations in the Tower are abstracted in Cal. 
Dom. EliiL 1591-4 ; the originals are in the 
Rc^.•o^i Olfiou. The reports of the disputations 
at York, of the triid, and of the incidents at the 
uxecatiun must have been widely circulated. Wo 
find them quoted in unexpected places. Of 
course they were known to More (Hist. Prov. 
Angl.). but one is surprised to find extracts 
from them in the Kcrkelyke Historie of Core. 
Uaiiirt S. J., folio. Antwerp, 166S, iii. 37S. A 
devotional life of Henry Walpole, taken almost 
exclusively from Crcsswell's biography, was 
published by Father Alexis Possoz, S. J., at 
Tournai in 1869.] A. J. 

■WALPOLE, HORATIO, first Baroh 
\\ A Lroi.E OF WoLTERTON (1678-1 757), diplo- 
mat ist and politician, was the fifth son of 
KoWrt AVslpole, and the younger brother of 
Sir liolx'rt AValpole, first earl of Orford [q.v.] 
He was bom at Houghton on 8 Dec. 1078, 
and educated at Eton and King's Colhjge, 
Cumbridije. A copy of Latin verses by him 
was included in the ' Luctus Cantabri- 
giensi's' published on the death of Wil- 
liam III in I70:i. In the same year Horntio, 
or, as he was more usually called, Horace 
Walpole, was elected a fellow of his college. 
-After some hesitation as to the choice of a 
profession, and a brief residence as a law 
student at Lincoln's Inn, where he was ad- 
mitted on 2 Oct. 1700, Walpole entered 



Walpole 



167 



Walpole 






I 



parlJanmnt. A cunsUtent whig, and a mem- 
ber of the Hanover Club, he remained a 
member of the House of Commons for fifty- 
four years. On 24 July 1 702 he was returned 
for Castle Uiaing;, and he was re-elected by 
that constituency in May 1705, May 1708, 
December 1710, and April and September 
1713. On 2 Feb. 1714-15 he was returned 
for Beeralston, Devonshire, and on 2 Dec. 
1718 for East Looo, Cornwall. In the 
spring of 1723 he was returned for both 
East Looe and for Great Yarmouth, and 
chose to ait for the latter constituency. He 
■was again elected for Great Yarmouth on 
22 Aug. 1727 and 14 May 1730. Subse- 
quently, from 1") May 1734 till his summons 
to the upper house in June 1750, he sat fur 
Norwich. 

Wliile still a young member of the Houne 
of Commons, Walpole took ollice in tbe 
diplomatic service. In 17lXihewttsappointed 
secretary under General James Stanhope 
(afterwards first Earl Stanlp ipe ) I q.v.], envi jy 
and minister-plenipotentiary to the titular 
king Charles III of Spain, and accompanied 
his chief to Spain in the fXtU'dilKin which re- 
lieved Barcelona (May ). 1 mm 1707 tn 1 7tltl 
he acted of chief secretary to Henry Boyle, 
lord Carleton [<].v.], who during part uf this 
time was secretary of stale. In 1701' he 
was attached fo The Hague embassy, and 
in the following year uccompiuiied the 
ambassador. Lord Townshend, as secretaiy 
to the abortive peace conferences at Gertruy- 
denberg. He seems already ut this time to 
have gained Townshend's full contiilence ( see 
Towushend's letters in ManiurripU nf the 
JUarguegi Totrruhend, Hist. MW. Comm.; 
cf. Horatio Walpole's letters to his brother 
in Memnirt nf Sir lioliert Walpule, vol. i. 
App.) When on the advent of the whigs to 
power, at the accession of George I, Towns- 
nend became one of the principal secretaries 
of slate, he appointed \\ulpi:ile under-secrc- 
tarv'. Iti 1715 he was made secretary of the 
treasury on his brother's becoming first lord 
and chancellur of the e-tcbequer. In the 
same year he was sent to The Hague in 
order to support Lord Cadogan [see Cado- 
OA!J, William, first Eabl Cadogan] in his 
application for armed help against the ex- 
pected invasion of the Pretender, and in 
1710 ho was associated with the same mili- 
tary diplomatist as joint plenipotentiary for 
obtaining from the States-( ieneral a fleet 
intended, under the pretext of protecting the 
Baltic trade, to further the Hanoverian de- 
signs on the Bremen and Verden territories. 
Furthermore, the Dutch government was to 
be induced to enter into a defensive alliance 
with Great Britain and France (afterwards 




known as the triple alliance). Walpole 
strongly objected to the pressure e.\ercised 
bv the Honoverian interest, then much 
alarmed by the recent entry of Uussian troops 
into Mecklenburg, and as a matter of good 
faith he warmly deprecated asking the Dutch 
to a.ssent to a separate treaty, which, contrary 
to assurances previously given by him, had 
been concluded by Great Britain and France. 
In the end be obtained permission to quit 
The Hague, heaving the signing of the alli- 
ance treat V to his colleague (Meiwiirii 0/ Sir 
Jlo/ifrt Wal/mie, i. 180). Hardly had he 
arrived in England, when he was sent to 
George II, then at the Giihrde (November), 
as the bearer ofa despatch toStnnhope, which 
proTi-d the beginning of Townshend's down- 
fall [.see CllAKLKR TowssiiEND, second Vis- 
copntTowsshendJ. Intent upon diverting 
from the secretary of state to himself the 
blame for thedelav about the French treaty, 
Horace remained ignorant and unobservant 
of the king's suspicion of cabals with the 
I'rince of Wales on the part of Townshend 
and Bobert Waljxde (Stashopb, i. 241 se^.j 
When, however, the former was finally lUs- 
missed, and the latter resigned (April 1717), 
Horace Walpole likewise went out of olfice. 
Shortly before this he had securt>d for life 
i the ajipointment of surveyor and auditor 
' general oft he plantat ion (.Vmerican) revenues 
of thi! crown ( Calendar nf Trenmini I'apert, 
1717-1S>, ccxiii. 8 et al.) Oii the rcliirn of 
his brother and Town.shend to power in 1720, 
liewasnaiued secretary to the lord-lieutenant 
of Ireland, and in 1721 was reappointed secre- 
tary)to the treasury, on liia brot tier once mora 
becoming first lord. About 1720 Lady Cow- 
! per describes Horace's lodgings as a useful 
place forthesettlement of confidential court 
business {Dinry, p. 144). 

In 1722 (Mny-Juno) he negotiated at The 
Hague the grant of an auxitlarv force, at 
thi- highly critical time of the discovery of 
' .\tterbury'8 plot,' and in October 1723 he 
proceeded to I'urvs on what proved the most 
important diplimiitic etnplnyment of his 
career. The nominal piirpos*- of his mission 
was to arrange for the accession of Portugal 
to the quadruple alliance; but he was really 
sent to uproot Sir Luke Scbaub [q.v.], who 
was in Carteret's interest, and who hod 
gained much influence during the ascen- 
dency of Dubois. Watpiile, without suc-» 
ceeding better than Schuub in forwarding 
King George's wishes in the intrigue con- 
cemmg the La \'rilli6ro dukedom [see 
Georqe I], contrived to supplant Schaub, 
and was appointed envoy-extraordinary and 
minister-plenipotentiary in his place (March 
1724). lie had shown considerable judg- 



ment when after the dealh of the ri-gent 
Orlians (December 1723) power had tem- 
porarily patised into the hands of the Duke 
of Bourbon ami Madame He Prie, by keeping 
more or less at a distance Bolingbroke, who, 
foreseeinglhe eclipse of Carteret, wa» anxious 
• to conciliate the Townshend-Walpole in- 
'terest. And, furecustinjf in his turn the 
course of miiiistcriul changts in France, 
Horace Walpole Rriulnally pluced himself on 
afootingof ihorouKli confidence with I'leury, 
bishopofFrfjuslttlterwardsC'iirditmlFlcury), 
who in June I7l*6 wasdetinilivelyestablished 
in power. Fleury never forgtjt u visit which 
Walpole had paid him at Issy, when in 
December IV^.j persons not so well informed 
supposed him to Lave been banished from 
court (see St. Simos, MhnoireH, ed. lH(i3, 
X. 278 seq., where Sir Kobert and I loraco 
Walpole are said to have persuaded Fleury 
that t heir policy waa directed by his counsels, 
and where that policy is very caustically 
characterised). The preliminaries of I'aris, 
signed 3i May I "-'7, which averted what 
seemed the inevitable expansion of thee.xist- 
ing state of war into a general Euro[)ean con- 
flict, exhibit at its bci((ht thoco-opiTation of 
the French and English prime ministers, be- 
tween whom Horace was the chief inler- 
medinry agent. On the accession ofOeorge II 
(June) W alpole proceeded at once to Eng- 
land, armed with a letter from Fleury, pro- 
nii.sin;;ailhereni-e I 111 he 'system 'oft he Anglo- 
French eiitiitte, if the new king would uphold 
it, and, thoupb at first coldly received, was 
sent back by him to I'aris with a gracious an- 
swer. Soon afterwards the reconciliation 
between France and Spain, which Walpole 
bad laboured so per.-'i.'.lently to obstruct, was 
brought about, and (iermain Louis Chau- 
Velin, a friend of the Hourbon entente, became 
secretary of state ; hut thecontinnanceof an 
excellent understanding between Fleury and 
Walpole found expression in the settlement 
of the claims of Spain, satisfactory to Great 
Britain, arniuged at the congress of Soissons 
(Juno 172H), where Walpole was one of the 
plenipotentiaries, and in the treaty of Seville 
(November 172!*). which established a de- 
fensive alliance lietwei'n (Jreat Britain, 
France, and Spain (the Townshend manu- 
scripts comprise four volumes of Wal]»ole's 
Pans correspondence, of which extracts are 
given by CoxG, vol. i. ; of. as to the latter 
part of his French embassy, passages from 
t Lis Apoloffy). 

On the resignation of Townsbend (May 
^D) Sir Hobert Walpole oH'ered the vacant 
etaryship of state to his brother, who, 
however, declined it, chieHy from an honour- 
able unwillingness to justify the suspicion 



that heliad fomented the quarrel withTowns- 
hend with a view to succeeding him. While 
still in F>ance he was appointed to the 
otlice of cofferer of the household, which gave 
him a ready access to the king, and, having 
thereupon resigned his embassy, he was in 
November 17.'iO sworn of the privy council. 
He remained in Englnnd till October 173iJ, 
when he was sent to The Hague on a confi- 
dential mission, which led to his appoint- 
ment as envoy and minister-plenipotentiarj' 
there in the following year. He held this 
jmst til! 1740, though paying occasional 
visits to England, where he attended in par- 
liament. In the course of these years he 
was, together with his friend the grand 
pensionary Slingelandt, and his successor 
at Paris, James, lord Waldegrave [q. v.], 
largely instrumental in promoting the policy 
which, against the wish of George II, kept 
{Ireat Britain out of the iniquitous war of 
the Polish succession, and in 17;Vi led to the 
pence of ^'ienna (to this perio<l belongs the 
earlier part of his interesting correspondence 
with Hubert Trevor [q. v. 1, afterwards vis- 
count Hampden, who, after acting as bis 
secretary of legation at The Hague, in 1741 
succeeded him I here as minister. iSee Manu- 
mripts iif the Earl of liiu-kinghaiiuihire, IIi»t. 
.V.V-S". Oimm, Many of these letters had 
already been printed by CoxE, but very in- 
accurately. See also, for letters exchanged 
Ijetween the brothers in these years, Appendix 
to vol. iii. of the Memoirt <^ Sir Jtobert 
WnlfKtle). 

Horace Walpole's free and freqtient com- 
munications of his jxditical views to the 
king and queen were not always palatable, 
and she is said to have told him : ' Sir Kobert 
would have gone into the war' of the Polish 
succession, ' but you would not let him.' 
Before her death, however, he received many 
friendly communications from her, and in 
173tj, by her wisli, resided at Hanover as 
minister of state during a long visit of the 
king to his electoral dominions (cf, Hervky, 
•l/rinwir*, ii. 2tt7). Vet already in 1738 he 
was strongly in favour of a Prussian alliance, 
of nil things the most detestable to George II. 
In this year he warmly advocated the main- 
tenance of peace with Spain, and in March 
17;!l), in a speech of two hours, moved the 
address in the House of Commons thanking 
the king for the convention by which it was 
vainly hoped that war might be averted 
(Stakhope, ii. 27ol. In 1740 he strcnuouslv 
exerted himself in support of his brothers 

f)olicy of bringing altout an understanding 
letween Austria and Prussia, and his fore- 
sight in protesting against the obstinacy of 
Maria Theresa and her advisers and urging 



Walpole 



169 



Walpole 



the tu*e of every opportunity of securing the 
good will of I'russitt isnttested by numerous 
passages in hii! correspondence. 

On the downfall of Sir Ilobert Walpole in 
1742 (February), Horace tlioujjht il prudent 
to burn a large part of their private cont-- 
spondence. He rendered conspicuous ser- 
vice both to the late prime minister and to 
the existing government by defending in the 
House of Commons ( December 1, doubtless 
much against the grain, bis brother's very 
doubtful step of taking sixteen thousand 
Hanoverians into British pay. When among 
the pamphlets published on the subject one by 
Lord Chesterfield and Waller, entitled ' The 
Case of the Hanover Tories,' bad created 
mtich attention, he was prevailed upon to 
write an answer to it under the title of 'The 
Interest of Great Britain steadily pursued' 
(April 1743), which ran through three edi- 
tions, but which, according to his own 
account, met with so little encouragement 
from ministers that he ubnndnned his in- 
tention of following it up with a second part 
(see his amusing letter to Trevor in Bmk- 
iiighavuhire Msa. p. 87). During the en- 
suing years, while taking no part in the 
contests for power and place, he remained a 
close observer of events and men, displaying 
his usual courage by a letter to the king in 
which he urged the appointment of I'itt as 
secretary at war( Jnnunry or February 174(i), 
and by a series of letters to the Duke of Cum- 
berland, as well as by nn interview (:i01W'. 
1747), in which he 8ou(,'lit to inijjn-ss iiiinn 
the duke, and through liim ujHin ilie king, 
that nothing but an oUiunce with Prussia 
could insure the conclusion of a satisfactory 
peace (CoXE, ii. I80 seq. ) The peace of Aijt- 
I»-Chapelle( 1748) left the I'ru.ssian alliance 
apparently still out of thetiiieBtion. Walpole 
pnnted some comments on it, under the title 
of '.\ Kha])Sody of Foreign Politics,' in which 
he advocated the exchange of tiibraltiir tor 
I'ortoUicoorSt. Aiignstin. In 174Sl(Man-h) 
he delivered an able speech, concurring, with 
the reverse of enthusiasm, in the grunt to the 
Empress Maria Theresa, and subsefjiiently be 
repeated its substance in a paper entitled • A 
Letter to a Friend,' which remained unpub- 
lished. His 'Observations on the Sy.steni of 
Affairs in n-OI,' which dwell with rhetorical 
bitterness upon the imjiolicy of 'subsidiary 
treaties in time of peace to (Jerman princes,' 
he had tlie b<ddne88 to lay before the king 
(printed ap. Coxe, ii. .'107 seq.) In 17o2 he, 
according to his nepliew, excited the ridicule 
of the House of Commons by voting for the 
subsidy treaty with .Saxony, against which 
he had delivered a convincing harangue 
(Memoiri of the Lait Tni Years uf George II, , 




i. '241 sqq.) Although AN'alpole's long in- 
timacy with Henry Pelbam had endeuin a 
suspension of their political connection, he 
was eagerly courted by the Duke of New- 
castle on bis succee<iing as head of the 
government (1754), and early in 1756 read 
to some f)f the chief memljers of the duke's 
cabinet a remorkable expression of his opinion 
on the inexpediency of the king's goinff , 
abroad, and of the desirability, in the case OT* 
his absence, of appointing the Duke of Cum- 
berland regent (CoXE,ii. 372 seq.) His advice 
was only part iully followed, and later in the 
year he fuilud in his efforts to efl'ect a recon- 
ciliation between Newcastle and Pitt. 

On 1 June 175ti Walpole, who chiefly on 
account of the receni murrioge of bis eldest 
son to B daughter of the Duke of Devonshire 
had solicited this rise in rank, was created a 
j>eer by the title of Boron Walpole of Wol- 
terton (bis scat near Aylslmm in Norfolk). 
He survived the grant of this honour for less 
thon a twelvemonth. In former years he had 
l)een much attiicted by the stone, but lie bad 
thought himself cured by a remedy of which 
he sent an account to the ivoyul Society. 
Tberetumof the disease early in 17r)7 proved 
fatal. lie dii'd on Ti Vr\>. of tliat year, and 
was burii'd in tbr' chancel of the parish church 
of Wickmere. near Wolterton. 

Horace; Wnljiole has been far from kindly 
dealt with by historical writers, jmrtly ]>erhap9 
in consequence of the dicta of his amiable 
nephew and nnme.-*ake, wbodi'scrilied hira as 
'a di'ad-weigbt' in liis brotber'sministry,and 
' one who km'w something of everything but 
how to bold his tongue or how to ajiply his 
knowledge,' lie:<ides adding further amenities 
as to the bomelv style of his language and 
oratory {Mi-mnirii of I he LatI Tm Years 0^ 
fleiirijr II, i. 140). But the younger Horace 
liad in 17,'>(5 been involved in a violent per- 
sonal quarrel with his uncle, in which the 
right seems to have been on the younger 
man's side. It concerned the establishment, 
against Lord Orford'a will, of a so-called 
mutual entail of the Houghton and Wol- 
terton estates, and the consequent exclusion 
from the former estate of his grandchil- 
dren and daughter (see Hobace 'WAi.roi.K, 
I^tterg, ed. Cunningham, ix. 486), Cardinal 
Fleurv qualified a compliment to his effec- 
tive eloquence by allowing that il was clothed 
in bad French. His Knglish speeches are 
described as delivered with a Norfolk accent, 
and he himself jested in parliament on the 
slovenliness of his dress. The engraving of 
^'an Loo's portrait of him, formerly at .Straw- 
lierry Hill, suggests a gross and unpleosing 
presence. Moreover, it is easy to perceive 
that at court and elsewhere the outspoken- 



iie«8 which formed part of his nature must 
frequently have been out of season. Yet his 
k-jnind was of no ordinary calibre, and his 
'moral courage was, like his intellectual 
capacity, fully worthy of Walpole's brother. 
In domestic politico ie was consistent, save 
when under the pressure of e.xceptional con- 
siderations affecting his party and its chief. 
In foreign affairs, whicn were the main 
busine.^of his life, he was alike far- and clear- 
sighted, and may without hesitation be held 
to have been one of the most experienced 
and sure-footed as well as sagacious diplo- 
matists of his times, not a few of whom were 
, trained under his eye. Moreover, both at 
^Versailles and at The Hague he understood 
'low to win complete confidence in the most 
important quarters. He seems to have been 
on effective but the reverse of a fastidious 
speaker in the House of Commons. His 
writings have the merit of unmistakable 
lucidity.and often of argumentative strength. 
In addition to the pamphlets by him alrwdy 
mentioned, two — on the question of war with 
Spain, and on tbeSpanish convention (1738) 
— evidently from his pen, were discovered 
at Wolterton by his biographer, lie also 
printed in 17(53 an 'An.»wer to the Latter 
Part of Lord Bolingbroke's I^ettt-rs on the 
Study of History.' llis ' Apologv-,' written 
towards the close of his life, and dealing 
with his transactions from 1715 to 1739, the 
' Uhapsody of Foreign Politics ' occasioned by 
the pacifications of 1748 and 1750, and two 
manuscript.'! on his favourite project of a good 
underst anding with I'russia ( 1 740 ), remained 
unpublished : but of the first named of thes«- 
the greater part is reprtiduced by his bio- 
grsnher. 

Horace Walpole the elder married, in 
1720, -Mary, daughter of Peter Lombard — 
the ' Pug" of Sir Charles Hanbury- Williams's 
elegant satire (Haxbi'bt-Willi.uis, IForfw, 
ed. Horace Walpole, 1822, i. 4^, and note). 
By her he had four sons and three daughters. 
The eldest son, Horatio (172.i-liS09), suc- 
ceeded, as second Baron Walpole of Wolter- 
ton, and was created Earl of Orford on 
10 April 1806. His third son, George, is 
eparately noticed. 

[Coxe's Memoirs of Horatio, Lord Walpole, 

3 ToU. 2nd edit. 1808, here cited as -Coxe,' ami 
Hemoirs of Sir Robert Walpole, Lonl Oriord, 

4 tqU. ed. 1816, here cited as Memoirs of Sir 
Bobcrt Walpole ; Earl Sunhope's (Lord Mahon) 
Hist, of Eni^land from the Peace of Ctrecht, 
5th edit. 1858; Hist. MSS. Comm. lUh Krp. 
App. pt. iv. (MSS. of the Marquis TovnsheDd, 
1887), 14th Rep. App.pt. ix. (MSS. of the Earl 
of BackinghamBhire, 1895); Robethon Curresp. 
Hanorer Papers, vol. viii., Stowe MSS., Britiab 



Mi>8. ; CoUios's Peerage of England, 5th edit. 
1779. vol. vii. ; other aathoriti<^ cit*d in this 
article Bod in that on Waipouc. .Sib RonairT. 
first Eari. of OaroBD.] A. W. W. 

WALPOLE, HOR.\TIO or HORACE. 

fourth Eakl or Orpokd( 1717-1 797), author, 
wit, and letter-writer, was b<im in Arling- 
ton Street (Xo. 17) on 24 Sept. 1717 (O.S.), 
being the fourth son of Sir Kobert Walpole, 
first earl of (Jrford ^q. v.], by his first wife, 
Catherine .Shorter, eldest daughter of John 
Sliorter of Bybrook, near .Vshford in Kent. 
He WHS eleven years younger than the rest 
of his father's ch i Idren, a ci rcu mst ance which, 
taken in connection with his dissimilariry, 
both personally and mentally, to the other 
members of the family, has been held to lend 
some countenance to the contemporary sug- 
gestion, first revived by Lady Louisa Stuart 
(Introduction to Lord Whamcliffe's edition 
of the Workt of Lnily Mary WortUy Munt- 
agu), that he was the son, not of Sir Robert 
Walpole, but of Carr, lord Hervey, the elder 
brother of John, lord Hervey, the ' Sporus ' 
of Pope. His attachment to his mother 
and his lifelong reverence for Sir Robert 
Walpole, of whom he was invariably the 
strenuous defender, added to the fact that 
there is nowhere the slightest hint in his 
writings of any suspicion on his own part 
as to his {Mirentage, must be held to discn?dit 
this ancient scandal. His godmother, he 
tells us (Correfj). ed. Cunningham, 18-'i7-9, 
vol. i. p. Ixi), was his aunt, Dorothy Wal- 
pole, lady Townshend: his godfathers the 
Duke of fTrafton and Sir Robert's younger 
brother, Horatio (afterwards Baron Walpole 
of Wolterton) 'a. v.] It was probably in 
compliment to liis uncle that he was chris- 
tened Horatio; but, as he told IMnkerton 
( If'a/poliana, i. 62), he disliked the name, 
and wrote himself ' Horace ' — ' an English 
name for an Englishman.' He received the 
first elements of his education at Bexley in 
Kent, where bewa-s placed under the charge 
ofa son of Stephen Weston ( 1066-1742 )[ii.v.1, 
bishop of Exeter. But he spent much of his 
boyhood in his father's house ' next the col- 
lege ' at Chelsea, a building now merged in 
the hospital. One of the salient events of 
his youthful days was his being taken, at 
his own request, to kiss the hand of tJeorge I, 
then (1 June 1727) preparing to set out on 
that lust journey to Hunover on which he 
died. Of this Walpole gives an account in 
his ' Reminiscences of the Courts of George I 
and George II ' ( Corrtsp. vol. i. pp. iciii, 
iciv ; see also Walpoliana, p. 25 ). 

On 26 .\pril 1727 he went to Eton, where 
his tutor was Hemr Blond, the headmaster's 



ralpole 



X7J 



Ipol 



^ 



eldest sou. From hi* own account hisabilities 
■were not remarkahle. ' I was a blockhead, 
and puslied up above my parts,' he wrote to 
Conway (Correop. i. 307). Hut there are 
other evidences that his powers were by no 
means contemptible. Amonp his school- 
mates were his cousins, the two Conways — 
Henry Seymour (afterwards .Marshal Con- 
way) [q. y.\ and his elder brother Francis 
Seymour Conway, lord Hertford [q. v.] — 
Charles Hanburi-M'illiamsrq.v.l,and(teorpe 
Augustus Selwyn ( 1719-1791) [q. v.] An- 
other contemporary and ii.ssociate was AVil- 
liam Cole (1714-1782) [q. v.], the antiiiuari-. 
But his cli>sest allies were Heorgeund Charles 
Montiijru, the sons of Rrigndier-general Ed- 
ward Montagu, and these formed with Wal- 
pole what wns known as tlie 'Triumvirate.' 
A still more important group, which con- 
sisted of 'NV III pole. Thomas rtray (afterwards 
the poet), Ricluird West, and 'Thoinas Ash- 
ton (1716-177fi) [q. v.], was styled the 
'Quadruple Alliance;' and this, which was 
a Fomhinution of a more literarv and poeti- 
cal character than the other, had not a little 
to do with Walpole's future character. The 
influence of (4ray in particular, both upon 
his j>oint of view iind his method of e\pre«- 
sjon, has never yet been sufficiently traced 
out. While at Eton (27 May 17.11) he was 
entered at Lincoln's Inn, but he never went 
thither. He left Eton on 2.3 Sejit. 17;i4, pro- 
ceeding, after an iutervol of residence in 
London, to his father's college at Cambridge 
(King's), where he began in March 173f). At 
Cambridge he found several of the Eton get, 
including Cole and the Conways. West 
had gone to Oxford, but Oray and Ashton 
■were at Cambridge, the one as a fellow- 
commoner at Pelerhouse, the other at King's. 
Of Walpole's university studies we know 
Little but the nam(>.'i of liis tutors. In civil 
law and anatomy he attended the lectures 
of Francis Dickins and \\'illiam Huttie [q.v.] 
respectively; his drawing-master was Ber- 
nard Lens fq. v.], and his mathemafical pro- 
fessor the blind Professor Saunderson [i|.v.], 
who appears to have told him frankly that 
he could never learn what he was trting 
to teach him ( Coireiij). ix. 467). In the 
classics his success was greoter, but not re- 
markable, and hi' confessed to Pinkerton 
(h'alpolianit, i, \0h) that he never was a 
good Greek scholar. In P'rench and Italian 
he wa«, however, fairly proficient, and already 
at Cambridge had made some literary essays, 
one being a copy of verses in the ' ftral ulatio 
Academin? Can tabrigiensis' of 17.'J6 addressed 
to Frederick, princeof Wales, on his marriage 
with Princess Augusta of Saxe-Uotha. 
On 20 Aug. 1737 Lady AN'alpole died, and 




WHS buried in ^^'estmineter Abbey under a 
eulogistic epitaph composed by her youngest 
son. Soon after this his father appointed 
him inspector of imports and exports in the 
custom-house, a post which he subeefjuenlly 
resigned, in January 17W, on receiving that 
of usher of the exchequer. Lat*r in the 
year he came into ' two other little pntenl- 
plttces,' a comptroUership of the pipe and 
clerkship of the estreats, which had been 
held fur him by a substitute. These three 
oflices must have then been wortli about 
1 ,200/. a year, and were due of course to his 
father's interest as prime minister. He quitted 
King's College in 17.S9, and at the end of 
March in that year left England in com]>any 
with Oray on the regulation grand tour. 
Walpole was to be pavmaster, but Oray was 
to he independent. They made a short stay 
in Paris and then went to Itheims, where 
they remained three months to improve 
themselves in the language. From Hlieims 
they went to Dijon and Lyons, where, after 
an excursion to Geneva, Walpole found 
letters from his father telling him to go on 
to Italy. Accordingly they crossed the .Vlps, 
travelling from Turin to Genoa, and ulti- 
mately, in the ('hristmaa of 1739, entered 
Florence. Here ihey were welcomed by the 
English residents, and particularly by Mr. 
(afterwards Sir Horace) Mann [(|. \.; the 
British mini.ster-pleui])oteutiar}', a distant 
relative of Wolpole, and subsequently one of 
his most favoured correspondents. With a 
brief interval they resided in the Casa Am- 
brosio, Mann's villa on the Amo, for lifteen 
months. Walpole, when his first passion for 
antiquities had cooled, f!a\e himself up to 
the pleasures of the place ; Gray continued 
to take notes of statues and galleries and 
to copy music. They paid a flying visit to 
Rome, but they remained at Florence until 
May 1741, when they began their homeward 
journey. At Ileggio a misunderstanding 
arose, of which the cause is obscure, und 
they separated. On Gray's side this WM 
never explained ; but after his death Wal- 
pole took all the blame nn himself (Corretji. 
V. 441 ; }l'(i//i<jlifitin, i. 90). Shortly after- 
wards he fell ill of quinsy, which might 
have ended seriously but for the timely ad- 
vent of Joseph Sjieuce [q. v.\ who sum- 
moned u ductor from Florence. Upon hia 
recovery Walpole returned to England, 
reaching Dover on 12 l^ept. 1741 (O.S.) In 
liis absence he had bwii returned member for 
Callington in Cornwall (14 May 1741). 

During his stay in Italy he had addressed 
to his friend Ashton, now tutor to the iJarl 
of Plymouth, an ' Epistle from Florence' in 
Dryden's manner; and he soon began to 



WalpoT 



T7» 



^Ipole 



correspond regulnrly with Mann, to whom 
ho hnu writt<ni n (irst letter on his return 
journey. He took uj) his residence at first 
with his father in Downing Street, and sub- 
Beqiiently at No. F> Arlington Street, to 
which house Sir Ilobert \N alpolu removed 
after his resignation and elevation to the 
peerage as Karl of Orford in 1742. No. 6 Ar- 
lington Strei't, now marked by a Society of 
Arts tablet, long continued to ho his resi- 
dence after liis father's dentil, and here, with 
intervals of residence at Hmigliton, the 
family seat in Norfolk, Ul- eontiiiiu'd to live. 
He hated Norfolk and the Norfolk scenery 
and jiroducts. IJiit there were eorae com- 
pensations for endless doing thi; honours to 
uncongenial guests in Lord Orford's great 
mansion in the fens. The house had a won- 
derful gallery of pictures, brought together 
by years of judicious foraging in Italy and 
Kngland, mid far too distinctive in character 
to be allowed to ]iass, as it eventuuUy diil, 
into the hands of Catherine of Itus.sia. This 
collection was to Walpole not only an object 
of enduring interest, but a prolongation of 
that ediitnlion tts n connoisseur which the 
grand tour luui Ix'giin. One of liis cievere-st 
jeiuT d'eaprit, the 'Sermon on I'aiuting,' was 
prompted liy the Houghton gullerv, and he 
occupied much of his lime about 1742-3 in 
preparing, upon the model of the ' .'Edes 
nnrberiui ' mid • (iiuslinianie,' iin ' .Kdes 
AVatpnliiiiiie,' which, besideti being something 
inoro ihiiii u mere catalogue, includes an e.\- 
Cellent introduction. It was afterwards 
published in 1747, and is inclinled in vol. ii. 
of the ' Works ' of 17i».s (|,ii. L'-.'l-78). 

Lord Urford died in Marcti 1744-5, leaving 
bii youngest son ' the house in Arlington 
Street . . . 5,000/. in money, and 1 ,()00/. a year 
from the collector's place in the custom 
Louse' (Ctirrefp. vol. i. p. Ixiv'). Any sur- 

{itiis (if the lust item wa.-< to be divided witli 
lis brother. Sir Kdword Wnliiole. After 
this, the nextnotahle thing in his uneventful 
career seems to have been the composition in 
174(5 of u prologue fur Kowe's 'Tamerlane,' 
which it was the custom to piny on 4 and 
5 Nov., being the anniversaries of King 
"William's birth and landing nt Torbay. The 
subject, as may be guessed, was the 'sup- 
pression of the lute rebellion' (1740). In the 
same year ( I "4(5 1 he contributed t wo papers 
to Nos. 2 and .'lof the ' Museum,' and wrote u 
bright little poem on some court ladies, en- 
titled ' The Beauties.' In August he took a 
country residence at Windsor, anJ resumed 
his interrupted intercourse with tiray, who 
had just completed his 'Ode on a Distant 
Prospect of Eton College.' In 1747, how- 
pver, came what must be regarded as the 



great event of his life — his removal to the 
neighbourhood of Twickenham. He took 
the remainder of the lease of a little house 
which stood on the left bank of the Thames 
at the comer of the upper road to Tedding- 
ton. Even then it was not without a his- 
tory. Originally the ' country box ' of a re- 
tired coachman of the Earl of Bradford, it 
had been siibse(|uently occupied by Colley 
Gibber, by Dr. Tallxit, bishop of Durham, by 
a son of the Duke of Chandos, and lastly br 
Mrs. Chenevix, the toywoman of SuifoUc 
Street, sister to Pope's Mrs. Ilertrand of 
Tiath, who sublet it to Lord John Sackville. 
\\'alpole took the remainder of Mrs. Chene- 
vix's lease, and by 174ft had grown so at- 
tached to the place that he obtained a special 
act to purchase the fee simple, for which he 
paid l,3i>t)/. 1(J». In some old deeds he found 
the site described as Strawbeirry-H ill-Shot, 
and he accordingly gave the house it« now 
hLstoric name of Strawberry Hill. 

Strawberry Hill and its development 
thenceforth remained for many years his 
chief iK'cupation in life. Standing originally 
in some five acres, he speedily extended his 
territory by fresh purchases to fourteen acres, 
which he a-ssiduously planted and cultivated, 
until it 'sprouted away like any chaste nymph 
in the Metamorphoses.' Then he began gra- 
dual ly to enlarge and alter the structure itself. 
' I am going to build a little Gothic castle at 
Strawberry Hill,' he says in January 1750 
(6'or/r»/<. li. 190). Accordingly, in 1753-4, 
he constructed a grand parlour or refectory 
with a library above it, and to these in 1760- 
17(U he added a picture gallery and cloister, 
a nmiid-tower and a cabinet or tribune. A 
great north bedchamber followed in 1770, 
uitd other minor additions succeeded these. 
Having gothici8e<l the place to his heart's 
content with battlements and arches and 
painted glass ('lean windows fattened with 
rich saints'), he proceeded, or rather con- 
tinued, to stock it with all the objects most 
dear to the connoisseur and virtuoso, pictures 
and statues, bonks and engravings, enamels 
by I'etitot and /incke, miniatures by Cooper 
and the Olivers, old chins, snufT-boxes, 
gems, coins, seal-rings, filigree, cut-paper, 
and nicknacks of all sorts, which gave it the 
a.'ipect ]iartly of a museum and partly of a 
curiosity shop. Finally, after making a ten- 
tative catalogue in 1760 of the draw^ingsand 
pictures in one of the rooms (the Holbein 
chamber), he printed in 1774 a quarto ' De- 
scription of the \'illa of Horace Walpole . . . 
at Strawberry Hill, near Twickenham, with 
an Inventory of the Furniture, Pictures, 
Curiosities, i^c' Fresh acquisitions obliged 
him to add several appendices to this, which 



I 



reprinted detinitively in 1784, accom- 
1 oy engravings. In this form it wiw 
^Wproduced in his posthumous • Works ' (ii. 
393-0I6). I 

The catalogues of 1774 and 1784 were 
printed at his own Oflieina Arbuteanii or 
private press at Strawberry. This he «et on 
foot in July 1757, in a cottage near Lis house, 
taking for his sole manager and operator nu 
Irish printer named William Itobinson. His 
first issue was the ' Odes ' of Gray, which he 
get up for the Dodsley.s in 1757. These in 
due course were followed by a number of 
works of varying importriiice. Of those from 
his own pen, the chief (in addition to the 
catalogues above mentioned) were 'A t'lita- I 
logue of the Uoyal and Noble Authors of 
England,' 3 vols. 1758; 'Fugitive Pieces in 
Verse and Prose," 1758; 'Anecdotes of Paint- j 
ing in England' (from Vcrtue's M8S.), 4 
vols. 1762-1771 [1780]; ' .V Calaloipe of 
Engravers who have been born or resided in 
England,' 1763 ; 'The Mysterious Mother, a 
Tragedy,' 1768; ' Miscellaneous .\ntiquities,' 
Xos. 1 and 2, 1772; ' .\ Letter loilu' Editor 
of the Mi.<cellanies of Thomas Chiitterton,' 
1779; 'Hieroglyphic Tales,' 1785; ' Essay im j 
Modem Gardening' (with a French version 
by the Due de Nivemais), 1785; and a 
translation of Voituie's ' Ilisloire d'Alcidnlis 
et de Zelide,' 1789. Besides these, he printed 
Hentzer's 'Journey into England,' 1757; 
Whilworlh's ' .■Vccount of Russia in 1710,' 
1758 ; Spence's ' Parallel ' (between Hill tht^ 
tailor and the librarian -Magliabecchi >, 1758; 
Lord Cornbury's comedy of 'The Mistakes,' 
1758; Lucan's ' Pharsalia,' with Hent ley's 
notes, 1760; Countess Temple's 'Poems,' 
1764; 'The Life of Lord Herbert of Cher- 
bury,' 1764; Hfnault's ' ComMie,' 1768: 
Uoyland's ' Poems,' 1 760 : 'Seven Originil 
Letters of Edward \'I,' 1772; (iraminont's 
'Memoirs,' 1772; Fitipatrick's ' Dorinda, a 
Town Eclogue,' 1775; Lady Craven's comedy 
of ' The Sleep-walker,' 1778 ; Hannah More's 
Bishop Bonner's Ghost,' 1789, and a number 
of minor pieces, single sheets, labels, and so 
forth. .\ll the earlier of thew books were 
printed by his first printer, Kobinsou. But 
Robinson was dismissed in 1 759, and, after 
on interval of occasional hands, was suc- 
ceeded by Thomas Kirgate, who continued 
10 perform his duties until WaljKjle's death. 

Apart from the historj' of Strawberry 
and its press, Walpole's life from 1747, when 
he came to Twickenham, has little incident. 
In 1 747 9 his real for his father's memory 
involved him in some party pamphleteering, 
the interest of which liiis now evH])orated. 
In the November of the Inst-raentioned year 
he was robbed in Hyde Park by the ' gentle- 



man highwayman,' James Maclaine [q. v.], 
und narrowly escaped being shot througu 
thi- head ( ll'urld. No. 103; Correnp. ii. 218- 
230). In 1753 he contributed a number of 
papers to the ' World ' of the fabulist Ed- 
ward Moore (1712 -1757) [q.v.],oneof which 
wa.s a futile plea for that bankrupt Beli- 
sarius, Theodore of Corsica, to whom be 
subsequently erected a memorial tablet in 
St. Anne's churchyard, Soho ; and in the 
same year he was mstrumental in putting 
forth the famous edition of Gray's 'Poems,' 
with the designs of the younger Bentley, 
the originals of which were long prescribed 
at Strawberry. In 1754 he became member 
for Castle Bising in Norfolk, a seat which he 
vacated three years later for that of Lynn. 
.\bout the same time he interested himself, 
but vainlv, to save the unfortunate Admiral 
Byng. But his chief distraction, in addition 
to his house and press, was authorship. Most 
of his productions have been enumerated 
above. But n few either preceded the esta- 
blishment of the press or were independent 
of it. One of the former class was a clever 
little skit, on the model of .Montesquieu, en- 
titled ' -V Let ter from Xo Ho,a Chinese Philo- 
sopher at London, to his Friend Lien Chi, at 
Peking,' 1757, anetlbrt which to some extent 
nut icipat ud t he famous ' Cit iren of the World ' 
of Goldsmith. Another .;>« (Feg/irit, three 
years later, wax 'The Parish Begister of 
Twiekenlmm,' a li.it in octosyllabics of the 
local notables, afterwards included in vol. 
iv.of his' Works.' To 1761 belongs 'The Gar- 
land,' a complimentary poem on George IH, 
first published in the 'Quarterly' for 1852 
(No. clx.xx). But his most imporlnnl effort 
was issued in December 1764. This was 
the 'Gothic romance' of 'The Ca^itle of 
Otranto,' further described on its title-page 
as 'Translated by Willinni .Marshal, Gent., 
from the original Ilaliiin of Dnuphrio 
Muralto, Canon of tin- church of St. Nicholas 
at Otranto.' The introduction gave a critical 
account of the supposed black-letteroriginal, 
the existence of which at first seems to have 
been taken for granted, even by Gray at 
Cambridge. It.s success was considerable. 
In a second editioti, which was speedily 
called for, Walpole dropped the mask and 
disclosed his intention in a clever preface. 
He had sought to blend the ancient and 
modem romance ; to combine supernatural 
machinery and every-day characters. Ilia 
account of the inception and iirogress of the 
idea as gi\en to his friend Cole (Corretp. iv. 
828) is extremely interesting ; but Ids book 
is more interesting still, for he had hit upon 
a new vein in romance, a vein which was to 
be worked by a crowd of writers from Clara 



■ 




i 



Keevo [q. v.] to Sir Walter — and after. With 
tho ' Ciistltr of Otrnnto ' tentatively and inex- 
pertly, but unmistiiliably, began the modern 
romantic revival. 

By the time the ' Castle of Otranto ' wa* 
in its second edition, Wnlpole had carried 
out a loug-cherif.hed project and started for 
Paris. This he did in September 176o. He 
saw much of cultivated French society, es- 
pecially its frreat ladies, of wliom his letters 
cont4iin vivacious accounts (cf. Cnrretp. iv. 
4<V>-73). Rut the most notable incident of 
this visit to France, and the pretext of later 
ones, was the fnen<!!<hip he firmed with the 
blind and brilliant .Miulaine du l>ell'and,then 
Bearing seventy, whose attraction to the 
inixtun> of independence, effeminacy, and 
real eenius which made upWulpole'scharacter 
speedily grew into a species of infatuation. 
lie hail no sooner quitted Paris than she 
wrote to him, and thenceforward until her 
death her letters, dictated to her faithful 
secretary, Wiart, continued, except when 
Walpole was actually visiting her (and she 
sometimes wrote to him even then), to reach 
him regularly. He went to Paris to see her 
in 17H7, and again in 177o. Her attachment 
l«,sti?d five years later, until 1780, when she 
died painlessly at eighty-four. She left 
W'ftlpole her manuscripts and her books. 
Many of her letters are included in theselec- 
tion published in iHlO, and eight hundred of 
the nriginnU were sold at the Strawberry 
Hill xale of 184^. Walpole's own letters, 
which he had prevailed upon her to return 
to him, tliough extant in 18l0, have not 
been printed ; and those received subsequently 
to 1774, a few belonging to 1780 excepted, 
were burnt bv her at Waljiole's desire. ( )ood 
Frenchman tliougli he was, lie no doubt felt 
apprehensive lesthieicompositionsin a foreign 
tongue should, in a foreign land, fall into 
unsympathetic keeping. 

(ine of his jeux iFetprit while at Pariis in 

176^) had been a mock letter from Frederick 

the Great to the self-tormentor Rousseau, 

ofiering him an asylum in his dominions. 

; Touched up by Helvfttius and others, this 

I miasire gave groat delight to the anti- 

fKousscau partT, and, passing to England, 

'helped to embitter the well-lrnown quarrel 

between Rousseau and David Hume (1711- 

1776) [q. v.] Three years later Wulpolo was 

himself the victim of spurifius documents. 

In March 1769 Thomas Chatterton [q. v.-], 

then at Bristol, sent to him, as author of 

the ' Anecdotes of Painting,' some frag- 

uenta of prose and verse, hinting that he 

could supply others bearing on tlie subject 

of art in England. Walpole was drawn, 

and replied encouragingly. Chatterton re- i 



joined by partly revealing his condition, 
and Walpole, consulting tiray and Mason, 
was advised that ho was being imposed 
upon. Private inquiries al Bath brought 
no satLsfnctory account of Chatterton, and 
he accordingly wrote him a fatherly letter 
of counsel, in which he added that doubts 
had l)een thrown upon the genuineness of 
the documents. He appears to have neg- 
lecte<l or forgotten Chatterton's subsequent 
communications, until upon receipt of one 
more imperative than the rest ('J4 .July), 
demanding the return of the papers, he 
snapped up both letters and poijma in a pet, 
j enclosed them in a cover w^ithout comment, 
I and thought no more of the matter until 
' Ixotdsmith told him at the Royal Academy 
j dinner, a year and a half later, that Chatter- 
ton had destroyed himself — an announcement 
which seems to have tilled him with genuine 
I concern. He might no doubt have acted 
I more benevolently or more con.sidcrately. 
But he had been misled at the outset, and 
' it is idle to make him responsible for 
Chatterton's untimely end iR-cause he failed 
to show himself an ideal patron. His own 
account of the circumstances, printed, os 
already stated, at his private press, is to be 
found in vol. iv. pp. 205-4.") ot his ' Works ' 
(see also Wilsons Chntterton, 1869). 

In May 1707 he had re.«igned his seat in 
]iarlinment, and in the following year pri>- 
duced two of liis most ambitious works — the 
' Historic Doubts on Richanl the Third,' and 
the sombre and powerful but unpleasant 
tragedy of the ' Mysterious Mother, already 
mentioned as one of the issues from the 
.Strawberry Hill press. From 1769, how- 
ever, the year of his last communication to 
Chatterton, until his death some eight-and- 
twenty years later, his life is comparatively 
barren of incident. It was passed pleasantly 
enough between his books and prints anS 
correspondence, but, as he says himself, 
' will not do to relate.' ' I.100 "at Princess 
Amelie's [at Gunnersbury House], loo at 
Lady Hertford's, are the" capital events of 
my history, and a Sunday alone, at Straw- 
berry, my chief entertainment ' ( Corretp. 
vi. :.'87). With being an author, he d»- 
cliired, be had done. Nevertheless, in 1773 
he wrote a little fairy comedy called ' Nattire 
will prevail,' which five years later was 
acted at the Haymarket with considerable 
success. He also printed various occasional 
pieces at the .Strawberry Hill pres,*, the 
more important of which have Ijeen enume- 
rated ; and he added to Strawberry itself in 
1770-8 a sjMjcial closet to contain a sene.s 
of drawing in soot-water which his neigh- 
Ixmr at Little Marble Hill, Lady Di Beau- 




N 



I 



^ 



clerk, had made to illustrate the ' Mysterious ' 
Mother.' But the more uotubJe events of 
his hifltorv between 1769 and 1797 are his 
succession in 1791 to the earldom of Orford 
at the death of the third earl, his elder 
brother's son, and his friendship with two 
chiirminj; sistei-s, Apnes and Mary Berry 

fq, v.], whose acquaintance he first made 
brraally in 1789, nine yeara after the death 
of Madame du Detfand. Travelled, accom- 

?lisbed, extremely amiable, and a little 
'rench, their companionship became almost 
a necessity of Ilia existence, In 1791 they 
blished themst'lves with ihi-ir father 
'ttosu to him in a house called Little Straw- 
berry, which had formerly been occupied by 
an earlier friend, the actress Kitty Clive. 
It was even reported that rather than risk 
losing the solace of their society he would, 
at one time, have married the elder sister, 
Mary. Rut this was probably no more than a 
passing thought, begotten of vexation at some 
temporary separation. His ' two Straw- 
Berries,' his 'Amours,' his 'dear Both,' as he 
plavfuUv called them, contintted to delight 
him with their company until bis death, which 
took place on 2 March 1797 at 40 (now 1 1 ) 
Berkeley .''quare, to which he had moved in 
Octolwr 17/9 from Arlington Street. He 
left, the sisters each 4,000/. for their lives, 
together with Little Strawberry and it« 
furniture. Strawberry llill itself passed to 
Mrs. Damer, the daughter of his friend 
General Conway, together with ^,000/. a 
year to keep it in repair. ,Vfter living in it 
for some time .«he resigned it to the Countess 
Dowager of Woldegrave, in whom the 
remainder in fee was vested. It subse- 
qiienlly passed to George, seventh earl of 
Waldegrave, who sold its contents by auction 
in 1842. ^^'hen he died four years later he 
left it to Frances, Countess of Waldegrave 
[q. v.] 

Walpole was, above all, a wit, a virtuoso, 
and a man of quality. As a politician he 
scarcely count.-*, and it is dilficult to believe 
that, apart from the fortuiifa of his father 
and friends, he took any genuine interest in 
public affairs. Hi.i critical taste was good, 
and as a connoisseur he would be rated far , 
higher now than he was in those early Vic- 
torian days when the treasures of Strawberry 
were brought to the hammer, and the mirth 
of the Philistine was excited by the odd 
mingling of articles of real value with a 
good many trivial curiosities which, it is 
only fair to add, were often rather presents 
he had accepted than objects of art he had 
chosen him.self. As a literary man he was ' 
always, and professed to be, an amateur, | 
but the ' Castle of Otranto,' the ' Mysterious ; 



Mother,' the ' World ' e8.says, the ' Historic 
Doubts,' and the 'Anecdotes of Painting' 
all show a literary capacity which oruy 
required some stronger stimulus than dilet- 
tantism to produce enduring results. If 
his more serious efforts, however, gimerally 
stopiied short at elegant facility, his personal 
qualities secured him exceptional excellence 
nsa chnmifjiifitr and letter- writer. The pos- 
thumous '.Memoirs'ofthereignsof George II 
and (leorge III, published by Lord Holland 
and Sir Uenis le Marchant in 1822 and 1845 
respectively, the 'Journal of the Reign of 
(ieorge III (1771-83),' published by Dr. 
Doran in 1859, and the ' lleminiscences' 
written in 1788 for the Misses Berry, and 
first published in folio in 1805, in spite of 
some prejudieo and bias, are not only im- 

Eorfant coiitribution.x to history, but contri- 
utions which contain many graphic por- 
traits of his eontemponirli s. It is as a 
letter-writer, however, that he attaius his 
highest point. In the vast and still incom- 
plete correspondence which occupies Mr. 
Peter Cunningham's nine volumes (1857- 
1859), it is not too much to say that there 
is scarcely a dull page. In these epistles to 
Mann, to Montagu, to Mason, to Conway, to 
Lady Hervey, to Lady Ossory, to Hannah 
More,tothe Aliases Berry, and a host of others 
(see list in Oirrenp. vol. ix. p. xlvi), almost 
every element of wit and humour, variety 
and charm, is present. For gossip, anecdote, 
epigram, descript ion, illustration, play fulness, 
pungency, novelfy, surprise, there is nothing 
quite like them in English, and Byrou did 
not overpraise them when ho called them 
' incomparable.' 

Of W olpole's person and character a good 
contemporary account is given in Pinkerton's 
'Walpoliami' (vol. i. pp. xl-xlv) and the 
' iVnecdotes," ttc, of \.. M. Hawkins (1822, 
pp. 105-(i). There are many porCraits of 
him, the must interesting of which are by 
.1. (i. Eckhurdt and Sir 'i'homas Lawrence. 
The former, which hung in the blue bed- 
chamber at Strawberry, represeuLs him in 
manhood ; the other in old age. There are 
also likenesses by Miintz, Hone (National 
Portrait Gallery, London), Zincke, Hogarth 
(at ten), Ueynolda (1757), Rosalba, Falconet, 
Dance, and others. 

Walpole's ' Works,' edited by Mary Berry, 
under the name of her father, Itobert Berry, 
were published in 1798 in 5 vols. 4to, with 
LjO illiLStrations. Gf the ' Royal and Noble 
Authors * an enlarged edition was prepared 
by Thomas Park, in 5 vols. (London, 1806, 
8vo). The standard edition of Walpole's 
' Anecdotes of Painting' was edited by Ralph 
N. Wornum in 1849 (3 vols.) The ' Memoirs 




of the Reign of Georpe III ' ■were re-edited 
by Mr. O. F. Russell Barker in 1 894 (4 vols.) 
Peter Ctinnin(fham's collerteJ edition of 
Walpole's' I/elt(!r.s' (1S67-9, 9 vols.) em- 
bodied many separately published volumes of 
his coireBpnndence wif h respectively Oeorg.? 
Montagu ( London, iHl^i, 8vo), William Cole 
(1818, 4to), Sir Horace Aliinn 11833, 8vo,Bnd 
1843-4, 8vo), with the Misses Berry (1840), 
with the Countess of Otnory ( 1 848 ), and with 
William Mn.ion (1860), besides his ' Private 
CorrespondenCB ' (18:iO, 4 vols.) 

[The nuthorilies for hiN lifo are hia own .Short 
Notes (Corretp. vol. i. pp. Ui-lixvii) and Remi- 
niieenaea(tA. vol. i. pp. ici-cxiv); Wurburlon'i 
Memoirs of Horace Wnlpole, 1851. 2 vols.; 
Sopley's llfiraco Wnlpole and liis World, 1884 ; 
and Uonwe Wulpole, by the present writer. 2nd 
edit. 1893, which lost contningan Appendix of 
Books priated at the Strawberry IJill presd. 
Thore is also an article on the press by Mr. H.B. 
Wheatley in Bibliographioa, May 18116. See 
also Kobins's Calnlojriie "f the Classic Contents 
of .Strawberry Hill, 1842; Cobbell's Memorials 
of Twickcnhiiin, 1872, pp. 294-327 ; Macaulay's 
Essay, Kdinlmrgli Review. October 1833 ; Hay- 
ward's Strawberry fl ill, Quarterly. October 1876; 
Honeage Jesse's Memoirs of George III, 1867 ; 
Miss Berry's Journals, &c., 186.'i: Lady Mary 
Coke's Letters and Jnumals, 1889-92 ; and Notes 
and Queries (especially the cuntributioiis of Mrs. 
Paget Toynbee),] A. D. 

WALPOLE, MTCn.A.EL (1570-1624?), 
Jesuit and controversialist, youngest of the 
four bruthors of Henry Walpole [q. v.], was 
baptised at Uockitip, i^orfolk, on 1 Oct. 1570. 
When John Gerard [a. v.] lauded in Norfolk 
in 1588 he soon made the acquaintance of 
tho Dockings liniisehold, and younj; Michael 
attached himself to the Jesuit father with a 
romantic devotion. When Henry Walpole 
was taken prisoner at Flushing, Michael 
Went to his assistance and procured his ran- 
som. He entered the Society of Jesus on 
7 Sept. 159.'{. We hear no more of him till 
Dofia Luisa <!e Carvajal came to Knglond in 
1(306, after which time ho appears to have 
twen her confessor or siiiritual adviser. In 
KilO, while ill attendance on thialady, he was 
arrested ami thrown into prison ; but on the 
intervention of the Spani.sh ambo-ssador be 
was released, though compelled to leave the 
country. In IHI.'J he returned to England 
in company with Uondomar, when Uofia 
Lnisa'a house was broken into and the Indy 
imprisoned. Wali>ole very narrowly escaped 
arrest. When Dofm Luisa died in l(il4, 
AValpole wa-s with her, and he aceorajianied 
her body on its removal to Spain next year, 
and died some time after 12 A.ug. 1624. 

Walpole exhibited more literary activity 
than any of the brothers of this family. His 



published works were: 1. 'A Treatiae on 
! the Subjection of Princes to God and the 
^ Church.' St. Omer, 1008,4to. 2. -Five Books 
of Philosophical Comfort, with Mai^giaal 
Notes, translated from the Latin of Boethius,' 
London, 1(100, 8vo. 3. ' Admonition to the 
English Catholics concerning the Edict of 
King James,'.St. Omer, 1610, 4to. 4. ' Anti- 
Christ Extant, against George Downham,' 
St. Omer, 161:J-14, 2 voU. f to ; 2nd edit. 
1632. 6. ' Life of St. Ignatius of Loyola,' 
St. Omer, lt)16, 12mo. This is a translation 
of Rihadeiieyra's life of the saint ; the little 
book went through several editions. 
I [The sources of Walpole's biography are re- 
ferred to or qnoted at largo in ' One Ueneration 
of a Norfolk Hoase,' by the present writer. Nor- 
wich, 1878, 4to. .Somefew unimportant additions 
to the infurmation there collecie<l will be fuuod 
in Foley's Records of the English Proriuce, and 
in his Collectanea.] A. J. 

WALPOLE, K.A.LPH de {d. 1302), bishop 
of Norwich and afterwards of Ely, was pro- 
bably a member of the family of the Walpoles 
of Houghton, which since the early part of 
the twelfth century had possessed a com- 
petent landed estjite in the fen country of 
West Norfolk and Northern Cambridgeshire, 
The fomlly name comes from the village of 
Walpole, iu the extreme west of Norfolk, a 
few miles north of Wislwch, Ely, where the 
I family possessed a town liouse, was another 
centre of its estates. The future bishop can 
without much hesitation bo identified with 
Italpli de Walpole. clerk, of Houghton, and 
son of John de Walpole, who in an undated 
deed gave a ]iicce of land in Houghton to 
Thomas of Cleochwardetoun (Collins, Peer- 
iiiffjW .30,ed. 1779; U\K, Xorfulk .■intiguarian 
MifCfllnny, i. 274). In that case he was the 
.«on of Sir John de Walpole and his wife 
Lucy. John was alive in 1254, and seems to 
have been succeeded by his son, Henry de 
Walpole, whofought with the younger Simon 
deMontfortagainiit Edward iu the Isle of Ely 
in 1267 (ill. i. 27.*i), and died before 1305. 

The younger brother Halph adopted an 
ecclesiastical career. He becamua doctor of 
divinity, jwssibly at Cambridge, where he 
possessed a messuage, which, on 21 June 
1 290, he obtained license to alienate in mort- 
main to Hugh de Balsham's new foundation 
of Peterhouse {Cal. Patent Jiolb, 1281-92, 
p. S71). He became rector of Somersham, 
lliintingdon.shire, and in 12(38 appears as 
archdeacon of Elj", holding this preferment 
for at least twenty years. In March 1287 
.^rchbishoji Peekham addressed him a letter, 
ordering hiin to make personal investigation 
at tiambridge of certain slanders on Peck- 
ham and otlier bishops alleged to have beett 



Walpole 



'77 



Walpole 



I 
I 



uttered by a ' religious' person at Cambridge 
{Prekhams letters, iii. 9«, IJoUs Ser. ) 

At tlie death of William de Middleton, 
Walpole became bishop of Norwioli. Kdward 
I's lieense to elect having been obtained, the 
'via compromissi' waa adopted, and a com- 
mittee 01 seven monks unanimouslv chose 
Walpole on 11 Nov. U'88. The election 
cau.sed great dissatisfaction in the diocese, 
and everj-body cursed the convent of Nor- 
wich, and in particular the seven electors 
(CoTTOx, pp. 169-170, who gives very full 
details oftlie whole election). A more friendly 
critic only praises Walpole for his industry 
( Wtke in Anil. Monaslici, iv. aiT)). The 
bisho])-elect at once proceeded I o Gascon v to 
present himself for approval by the king. 
lie found I'Mvvard at Honuegtirde ' in in- 
gressu Aragoniie,' and obtained from hira a 
cheerful consent to his election. On I'o.Ian. 
1289 Walpole was hack in England, and on 
1 Feb. visited Archbishop Peckham at South 
Mailing, where his temporalities were re- 
stored and urrangements made for his coro- 
nation. Before confirming Walpole the 
scrupulous archbishop in-^i.^ted that he should 
relinquish the grant of first-fruits which 
Bishop Pan<lulf [q. v.] had obtained from the 
pope to supplement the wasted revenue of 
his bishopnc (Wilkins, Concilia, ii. 404 ; 
Whartox, Anglia Sacra, i. 412). On 7 Feb. 
bis temporalities were restored (Cal. Patent 
BolU, 1281-92, p. 31 2 ). He was consecrated 
bishop by Peckham on Mid-Lent .Sunday, 
20 March, at Canterlmry (UxEXEnES, p. 272). 

As bishop, Wttlijtile took little part in 
politics, though his sympathies with the 
strong ecclesiastical and papalist party ulti- 
mately brought him into collision with the 
crown. He energetically supported Arch- 
bishop Winchelsea in his resistance to Ed- 
ward I'g excessive taxation of the clergy, 
and was one of the deputation Leaded by 
Richard de Swinfield [q. v.], bishop of Here- 
ford, appointtHl on 20 Jan. 1297 to explain 
to Edward the clerical position (Wii.kins, 
Concilia, ii. 220). Walpole was one of the 
three bishops who persisted in refusing the 
king'fidemands after Winchelsea had allowed 
indindual clerks to make a personal submis- 
sion to the king's will (IIishanqeb, Chron. 
p. 475, Rolls Ser.) 

Within his diocese Walpole showed great 
activity and energy. In the very first year 
of his bishopric he conducted a visitation 
(CoTT05,p. 172). In 1291 he took some part 
in the movement for a crusade. He kept Iiis 
promise to Peckham as to the levying of 
first-fruits fairly well, but not completely. 
It was almost set down as a merit to him 
that he did not take on this pretext a quarter 

VOL. LIX. 



of the sums that he might have exacted 
< Wilkins, Comilia, ii. 404). In his time 
the building of the cloisters of Norwich 
Cathedral was begun, ond the eastern and 
the southern sides still remain of his work. 
A stone on the south side bears an in- 
scription to that effect (Oenealm/ical May, 
October 1898, p. 242). He was tenacious 
of his rights, and had a long quarrel with the 
burgesses of his town of Lynn (Cal. Patent 
It.,lh, 1292-1301, pp. 11^3, 441, 458). 

In 1299 Walpolc! was translated to Ely. 
The election had been disputed between John 
Salmon [q. v.] and John de Langton [q. v.], 
who was supported by Edward I (' Ilistona 
Eliensis' in Anglia Sacra, i. (i.S9-40, gives a 
detailed account of the conflict; cf. 'Ann. 
Wigorn.' in ,4nH. Afo;i/J4/eci,iv. 542-3; Floret 
Hill. iii. 105-6). Ultimately Boniface VIII, 
who bad been appealed to, induced both 
Salmon and Langton to resign, and directed 
the monks attending his court to proceed to 
a fresh election. But they could not agree 
even now, whereupon the pope, irritated at 
their conduct, took the appointment into his 
own hands. On 5 June 1299 he issued at 
Anagni a bull, translating the bishop of 
Norwich to Elv {Cal. Papal Letten, 1198- 
1304, p. 582; 'plorea Hiat. iii. 105-6; Lb 
Neve, Fanti Eccl. Anglicana:, i. 332, erro- 
neously dates the translation 1 5 July). This 
was doubtless the reward of Walpole's ob- 
stinate adherence to the principle o( rlericis 
Inirrn, and is likely to have been displeasing 
to Edward I. However, Boniface siuoothed 
the wavforhig nominee by dealing liberally 
with tlie vanquished claimants. Langton 
wa.s allowed to hold the rich archdeaconry 
of Canterbury in addition to his existing pre- 
ferments. Uii 29 June Salmon was appointed 
by provision to Norwich, and allowed to 
impoverish Walpole's old see by charging it 
with the loan of thirteen thousand florins 
which he had raised to ' meet his expenses 
at Rome' {Cal. Papal LetUrt, pp. 582, 583). 
It is significant that Walpole's proctor at 
Home, Master Bartholomew of rerentino, 
canon of London, had also to contract loam 
of fifteen hundred marks and 200/. in his 
principal's name (ib. p. 590). These were 
also to ' meet his expenses at Rome.' 

On 10 Oct. 1299 Walpole received the 
temporalities of his new see (Cal. Patent 
Jtolli, 1292-1301, p. 441 ; Le Neve, i. 332, 
is a year wrong). Walpole ruled Ely for 
less than three years. His chief endeavour 
was to reform the disordered discipline of 
the chapter, with which oWect he compiled 
and enforced a new body of'^statutes (Bent- 
ham, Hift. of Ely, p. 154). He died on 
20 March 1303, the anniversary of his con- 



■ 






Walpole 



178 



Walpole 



secriktioii ah bishop (Cotton, p. 395). lie was 
buried on 1 April in his cathedral, under the 
pavement of the presbytery before the high 
altar. Uervey de Staunton [q. v.l, the jus- 
tice, was one of his executors {Cal. Clote 
7Jo//^131.'}-18, p. 20). 

[B«rt. Cotton, Annnleg Monastic!, Oienedes, 
Rishftiisrer, Flore* Historiaruiti. all in RolU 
.Ser. ; Wharton'n Anglia &icm, i. 412, 638. 63!); 
Cnle. of P'ltent Rolls, 1281-91, 1292-1301 ; 
Bliss'o Ciil. of Papal Letters. 1 198-1 304, pp. 682, 
683; Wilkins's Concilia, ii. 220. 271. 404; \ja 
Nore'ii K«.sti Eccles. Anglic, i. 332-3, 350. ii. 
462 (ed. Hardy); Godwin, De Pncjralibua Anclite, 
pp. 239, 433, 1743; .Stnbbs'g Registrnm 8:tcr\im 
Anglicnnum, p. 48 ; Jessopp's Diocej<an Hist, of 
Norwich, pp. 105-9 ; Bentham's Hist, und Anti- 
quitirs of the Cathedral Church of Ely, pp. 
1-53-4; Rye's Norfolk Antiquariiin Miscelliiny. 
i. 207-84, collects nearly all that is known 
of tlie onrly history of the Walpole family ; cf. 
Notes on the Walpolcs in Genealopical Mag. 
October 18D8.] T. F. T. 

WALPOLE, PtlClJAIiD 0564-1607). 
Jesuit and controversialist, was the second of 
the four brothers of Henry Walpole fp. v.], 
and was baptised at Docking, S'orfolk, on 
>< Oct. 15tU. -Vnother brother was Michael 
Walpole [q. v.] I'icliard entered at St. 
Peter's CoUeffe, Cambridge, on 1 April l.')7i>, 
a fortnight before his brother Ileiirv left tlio 
university. He was elected to one of the 
scholarships lately founded at his college 
by Edward, lord North \a. v.l, but took no 
degree at Cambridgf-. In the summer of 
1.0^4 he left England and at once became an 
ahimniit of the seminary at Rheiras. Here 
he continued only a few months, and on 
25 April 1585 he entered himself at the 
Eiigli.sli ( 'oUege at IJome. His ability and 
scholarahiji were at once n.>cogiiised, and, 
after remaining there for the next four years, 
he was admitted to priest's orders on 3 Dec. 
1589, and was then sent to Spain, where 
Father Parsons was busily engaged in found- 
ing the Spanish colleges for which Philip II 
provided the larger part of the fund.«. Par- 
sons at once recognised that in IJichard Wal- 
pole he would have a very able coadjutor. 
He became accordingly the first rector of 
the college of ^'nlladolid (1592), and in the 
ceremonials at the opening of the college of 
Seville in February 1593 he look a promi- 
nent part, and became rector there also. 
At this time he was admitted to the Society 
of .lesus. Though he had signified a strong; 
•wish \a accompany his brother Henry on his 
disa-strous mission to'England, Parsons over- 
ruled him, and kept the younger brother at his 
own side, while Henry Walpole was allowed 
to go on his way. When, ajfter Henry Wa!- 



pole's execution at York, Father CressweD' 
wrote his friend's ' Life ' (1696), the little 
book produced a profound impression upon 
Dona Luisa de Carvajal, who thereupon be- 
came consumed by a fanatical desire to set 
out for the conversion of England. This 
she did in 11306, and, after going through a 
great dtsal, she died in London in January 
1014 (Gardijteh, Uitt. of Ihf Spaniih Mar- 
riage, \. \\ et seq.) In the meantime 
Richard Walpole became her spiritual ad- 
viser, and in the will which Dona Luisa 
made previous to her departure from Spain 
he appears as the lady's executor. 

In 1 59ft Walpole was denounced by Edward 
Squire [q. v.] as having suggested the ' fan- 
tastic plot ' ' whereby it was said to have been 
contrived to poison Queen Elizabeth by 
rubbing a fatal salve upon her saddle. Squire 
was hanged, but no man of sense believed in 
the plot' (fJooDMAy, Court ofJamet 1, 1839, i. 
l.'iO). liichard remained in almost constant 
otteiulance on Father Parsons till his death 
at \'alladolid in 1607. 

lie published: 1. 'The Discoverie and 
Confutation of a Tragical Fiction devysed 
and played by Ed. Squyer, yeoman, sol- 
diar, hanged at Tyburn on the 23rd of No- 
vember 1598 — MDCXII.' 2. 'Answere to 
Matthew Sutcliffe's Challenge,' Antwerp, 
l«a'., 8vo. 

His vounger brother, Christopher (1569- 
IfXKJ?^,' born in October 1569, was one of 
John Gerard's early converts when that busy 
proselytiser was at work in Norfolk. He 
was admitted as a Jesuit at Rome on 27 Sept. 
1592. During the last few years of his hfe 
he seems to have been associated with his 
brother Richard in the management of the 
college at Vallalolid. He appears to have 
died in 1606. 

[In addition to the aothorities given above, 
see Authentic Mt-moira of that exquisitely 
villonous Jesuit Father Richarfl Walpole. . . . 
Illustrated with a very pertinent Appendix, 
Lond. 1733. Thi« pamphlet, in ICmo, was 
primed from a manuscript much fuller than 
that which was printed in quarto in 1899 in 
eight pages. It is exceedingly scarce. For 
Richard and Michael AValpole's connection with 
Dofia Lnisa, see Vida y Virtndce do la Venerable 
Virgen Doua Luisa de Carvaial y Mendoca. . . . 
Por el Licenciado Luis Mniioz. Madria, 1632, 
4to,pp. 100,181. &c. See also Foley '• Records ; 
Jessopp's One Generation of a Norfolk House ; 
and T. G. Law's Archpriest Controversy (Cam- 
den Soo.)] A. J. 

WALPOLE, Sir ROBERT, first Easl 
OP Orfokd (1676-1745), statesman, was 
bom in 1676 at Houghton, Norfolk. His 
great-great-grandfather, Calibut Walpole, 



I 

I 



■was a younger brother of K<lward W'alpole 
[q. v.], the Jesuit. Calibut's eldest son and 
neir, Robert Wolpole (the statesman's great- 
grandfather), was father of Edward Wal- 
pole of Houghton. This Edward (the states- I 
man's grandfather) was forward in promot- | 
ing the restoration of Charles II, for which 
service he was created knight of the Bath 
on 19 April 1661. He was elected to par- 
liament for the borough of King's L\'nn in 
1660, and again in 1661, and is said to have 
been an active and eloquent member of the 
House of Commons, and to have commanded | 
the respect of all parties (Coi-Ltss, Peerage, 
V. 660). He died on 18 March 1667, having 
been the father of thirteen children. Of these 
the eldest, Robert, born on 18 Nov. 16§P, 
was the father of the statesman. Robert 
Walpole, the father, was first returned for 
the borough of Castle Rising as a whig on 
12 Jan. 16S9, and again in 1695 and 1(598. 
Coxe repre!<ent8 him to have been an illiterate 
boor of^ the type of Squire Western. But 
according to Dean Prideaux, a somewhat 
censorious cont-emporary, he was the most 
influential whig leader in Norfolk. lie had 
been guardian to Lord Townshend, who 
was candidate in 1700 for the reversion 
of the lord-lieutenancy of the county [see 
TowjfSHBsn, Charles, second Viscount]. 
Upon him depended the goodwill of the 
important personages of the county in favour 
of his former ward. ' Beside him [Wal- 
pole] there is not a man of any parts or in- 
terest in all that party ' {Letters to John 
Ellis, Camden Soc. 1875, p. 195). He was 
a deputy lieutenant for Norfolk and colonel 
of militia. He died on 18 Nov. 17(X), aged 
50. His wife was Mary, only daughter and 
heiress of Sir Geoflrev Burwell of Rougliam, 
Sud'olk, knight. Ske died on 11 March 
1711, aged 58. By her ho had nineteen 
children. Sir Robert was the fifth child and 
the third son. Horatio, lord Wulpole [q. v.], 
was the fifth son. 

Sir Robert Walpole is stated by Ooie to 
have been born at Houghton, but no record 
of his birth or baptism appears in tlio parish 
register. A scurrilous mock crei'd composed 
during his ministry represents his real 
father to have been 'Burroll the attorney.' 
At the time of Sir Robert's death, on 
18 March 1745, a variety of statements 
were current as to his age. In a letter to 
General Churcliill, dated 24 June 1743, he 
reckons himself as having turned sixty-seven. 
As his birthday was without question on 
26 Aug., this would moke 1675 the year of 
liis birth. His son Horace confirmed this to 
Coxe. But the register at Houghton states 
his age at death in 1745 to have been 




stxty-eight, not sixty-nine. According to a \ 
manuscript in his mother's hand, headed 
' Age of my Children,' Robert, the fifth child, 
was bom on 26 .\ug. 1670(CoxB). ThatMrs. 
Walpole's entry was correct is apparent from 
the fact that her sixth child, John, who died 
young, was bom on 3 Sept, 1677, and her 
seventh, Horatio, on 8 Dec. 1678. The Eton 
College register, which Coxe had not seen, 
erroneously records his age as twelve on 
4 Sept. 1(390, the day of his admission; and 
his birthday, according to a convention com- 
mon in the register, is there set down as 
St. Bartholomew's day (24 Aug. ), thai being 
the nearest saint's day to the actual date. 
On 6 Aug. 1695 the register records his 
election to King's College, Cambridge, ut 
the age of 8event«en. Thus these two entries 
falsely assign 1078 as the year i^^M^irlh. 
The falsification was deliberat^mval^le 
was really clase upon nineteen years of age 
at the beginning of August 1695. Accoi3- 
ing to the statutes of Eton and of King's 
College, he would be superannuated and 
lose his chance of a King's scholarship un- 
less a vacancy occurred before his twentieth 
birthday; and he was nut captain of the 
school, but only third on the list. The false 
entries gave him a margin of two years 
within which \u'. could avail himself of a 
vacancy at King's. 

Before Wal pole's admission to Eton he 
was, according to Coxe, at a private school 
at Massingham, Norfolk. Little and Great 
Massingham are villages a few miles firom 
Houghton. Coxe states that he loft f)ton 
' an exci-llent scholar.' The headmaster, 
John Newborough, a scholar of repute, took 
a particular interest in him. Upon being 
told of the success of another pupil, the 
briUiant St. John, in the House of Com- 
mons, Newborough replied, ' But I am im- 
patient to hear that Robert Walpole has 
B]>oken, for I am convinced that he will be a 

?ood orator.' Walpole left. Eton on 2 April 
696, and was admitted at King's on 22 April. 
Wliile in residence at Cambridge ho suffered 
from a severe attack of small-pox. Later 
in life he recounted a saying of Dr. Robert 
Brady [q. v.], the physician who attended 
him, that ' his singiilar escape seemed a sure 
indication that he was reserved for impor- 
tant purposes.' 

On 26 May 1698 Walpole resigned his 
scholarship and left Camoridge, owing to 
the death in that year of his eldest brother, 
Edward. His second brother, Burwell, had 
alreadv been killed in the battle of Beachy 
Head [see Mitchell, Sib David] on 30 June 
1690. Robert therefore became heir to the 
estate. Although bis connection with Cam- 



bridge was thus prematurely terminated, he 
never forgot the associations of hia early 
life. His ' consistent patronage of King's men 
and Etonians was a source of annoyance to 
many persons' {Cole MS. xvi. f. 133: Lyte, 
J{ist. of Eton, p. 303). When in 1723 he 
was applied to for a contribution to the 
new buildings at King's he subscribed GlX)/., 
and, in reply to the thanks of the provost 
and fellows, said ' I deserve no thanks : I 
have only paid for my board.' Ilis intimate 
friends nt King's were Francis Ilare J^q . v.], his 
tutor, whom he afterwards appointea bishop 
of Chichester ; and Henry Bland, his school- 
fellow at Eton, whom be niiide elmplain of 
Chelsea Hospital in 1710, and dean of Dur- 
hnm in 17:i7. Hhind's .■son-in-law, William 
(Jeorge [q. v.l, was elected provost of King's 
in 1743 through Walpole's per.'ional interest 
(NiCHOL-s Lit. Aiiecd. ix. 702). 

Walpole had been originally intended for 
the church. His father now assigned to him 
the active maniigement of his estates, and 
from this time lie abandoned literary pur- 
suits. On 30 July 170O he married, at 
Knigbtsbridge chapel, Catherine Shorter, 
whom Coxe describes a.s ' a woman of ex- 
quisite beauty and accomplished manners,' 
but whom be erroneously states to hnvo been 
the dausbterof Sir John Shorter, lord mayor 
of Loudon in lt)88. She was, in fjiet, 
daughter of John Shorter of Bybrook in 
Kent, a Baltic timber merchant, and a son of 
the lord mayor (Horace Walpole to Mason, 
13 April 1782, Notfg and Qiierifn, 2nd ser. 
xii. U). There seems to have been some 
baste or secrecy about the marriage, for 
Hare, writing to Walpole on 8 Aug. follow- 
ing, mentions that Walpole's brother Horatio 
hud only heard of it the day before. Ilia 
wife brought him a dowry of 20,000/., but 
she was an extravagant woman of fashion 
and 'wasted large sums.' According to 
Horace Walpole, her dowry was ' spent on 
the wedding and christening . . . including 
her jewels' ( Letters, viii. 423). 

Walpole had already recommended him- 
self to influential friends. He was inti- 
mately acquainted with Charles Townshend 
(afterwards second \'iscount Townshend) 
^q. v.], his father's ward, his schoolfellow at 
Eton, and afterwards his brother-in-law. 
Still more important was the patronage of 
Sarah, then Countess of Marlborough [see 
Chubchili., John, first Dbkb of MahI/- 
BOBOPOil1,whichperhapsaroseoutof a friend- 
ship witli her son Charles, lord ChurchiU, 
also a pupil both of Xewborough and Hare, 
though a few years Walpole's junior. T<ndy 
Marlborough had a ' dilference ' wit h Walpole 
upon his marriage {Corre.fp, ii. 469, written 



in 172G), which was, however, afterwards 
settled. 

In November 1700 Walpole's father died, 
and he succeeded to the estates. The.se had 
been considerably diminished since the time 
of Elirabeth, probably by the necessity of 
making provision for a succession of large 
families. A paper in the handwriting of lus 
father, dated 9 June 1700, shows their e.x- 
tent at this time in Norfolk and Suffolk to 
have been nine manors in Norfolk and one 
in Sulfolk, besides outlying lands, with a 
total rent-roll of 2,169/. a year. On 11 Jan. 
following M'alpole was returned for the 
borough of Cost lo Rising, and a second time 
on 1 Dec. 1701. This seat he transferred to 
his brother Horatio upon the election of the 
first parliament of Queen Anne in July 1702. 
He himself was returned on 23 July 1702 
for the borough of King's Lynn, for which 
he sat during the rest of his career in the 
House of Commons. 

Walpole's name first appears upon the 
journals of the House of Commons as 
serving upon a committee for privileges and 
elections on 13 Feb. 1701, three days after 
the opening of the parliament in which ho 
first sat. He early familiarised himself with 
the forms of the house. He was the author 
in bis first session of a report from a com- 
mittee on a bill for erecting hospitals and 
workhouses in the borough of Lynn, and for 
the better employment and maintenance of 
the ))O0r, on which, however, no legislative 
action took place. His first speech in the 
House of Commons is traditionally recorded 
to have been a failure, arising from embar- 
rassment, but no record remains of its sub- 
stance or occasion. Nor was he at once 
successful, though, after a subsequent com- 
parative failure, Arthur Mainwanng, one of 
Lady Marlborough's circle, prophesieid to de- 
tractors that he would ' in time become an 
excellent speaker.' He first drew public at- 
tention to himself by a speech delivered in 
February 1702 in favour of compelling all 
heads and fellows of colleges to take the 
oath of abjuration. This was carried with- 
out a division. Walpole is described by a 
member present as having ' vehemently in- 
veighed ' against the academical nonjurors, 
then3by exciting fierce resentment at Cam- 
bridge' (Horatio \\'alpole to Robert Wal- 
pole, 28 Feb. 1702). His name now con- 
stantly recurs as teller upon divisions. The 
first occasion of this deserves to be noted, in 
view of his subsequent policy in ecclesiastical 
questions. On 19 Feb. 1702 he acted as 
teller against ' a clause to be added to a bill 
for the further security of his majesty's per- 
son and government, that persons who take 



I 



upon tbem offices iihall not depart from the 
^communion of the church of Encland ' 
(Commoni Journals, xiii. "oO). lie is said 
by Coxe to have fretjui-ntly practised himself 
in speaking duriuj^ this session. On 23 Dec. 
1702, by way of retaliation upon Sir Edward 
Seymour's motions for the resumption of 
King \\'illiam'8 grants, Walpole moved a 
resolution for u resumption of those of 
James II. His motion was negatived. Un 
25 Jan. 1704 he moved an amendment to the 
resolution of Sir Simon Ilurcourt [q. v.] that 
the House of Commons was the sole judge 
both as to elections and as to the (jualitica- 
tioDS of electors, a question raised by the 
leading case of Ashby v. White. Walpole's 
amendment to omit the words 'as to the 
qualifications of eluctors ' was seconded by 
nis staunch supporter the Marquis of >Iar- 
tington, but rejected (/"ar/. Hist. vi. 298- 
300). This debute was of the first impor- 
tance (Uallah, Constitutional History, iii. 
365, &c.) It involved a constitutional iswue 
in which the law courts and the two houses 
of parliament were concerned. Walpole's 
amendment was dexterously contrived to 
assert the privileges of the House of Com- 
mons as against the lords, but to vindicate at 
the same time the rights of electors to seek 
redress in the courts of law agiiiust artiitnitj- 
interference by the returning otlicers. .Ac- 
cording to Coxe it WBS defeated by only 
eighteen votes, but the ' I'arliameutury His- 
tory ' gives the numbers at 215 against and U7 
for the amendmi'nt ( vi. 300). In this con- 
troversy public o]iiiiion was with the whigs. 
From tfiis debate may be dated Walpole's 
reputation outside the House of Commons. 
The whig leaders in the lords, es[iec.iiilly 
Halifax aud Suiiderliind, began to admit hiui 
into their counsels (James Stiinhope to Uo 
bert Walpo!e,28 Oct. 1703). In theaututnn 
of 1703 and 1704 he appears to have been 
disposed to lingerat Houglitou. On 28 Oct. 
1703 the leaders of the opposition sent him 
a pressing message to attend, the intermi-- 
mediary being James Stanhope (ufterwards 
first Earl Stanhope) [q. v.] On 12 Oct. 1704 
the language of a letter to llie same ellect, j 
penned by S[)encer Corapton [([. v.], shows 
the advance NVulpoIe had mode in the esti- 
mation of the party. ' If Mr. Walpole should 
be absent, the poor whigs must lose any ad- 
vantage that may oH'er itself for want of « 
leader' (CoxB, ii. 6). On 14 Nov. Walpole | 
was back in his place, and for a second time 
gaveproof of his spirit of religious toleration 
by opposing leave to bring in a bill for pre- 
venting occasional conformity. The bill was, 
however, pushed by the high-church tories, 
and in order to prevent its rejection by the 




House of Lords, where the whigs were ia 
the ascendant, a proposal was made to tack 
it to a money bill. Against this Walpole 
voted with the majority (28 Nov.), and the 
bill, as had been foreseen, was lost in the 
upper house. 

The foundation of the fir.st government of 
Anne was the Churchill int^jreet, repre- 
sented by Marlborough and his duchess and 
Godolphin, whose son Francis had married 
their daughter. When they had alienated the 
tories, it became necessary to reinforce the 
[ composite administration from t he whigparty. 
Walpole had three recommendations: hisin- 
.tiraacy with (he family group, his industry 
i and talent, and the disposal of three poeket- 
, borough seats — two at Castle Uiting and one 
for King's Lynn. In 1705 the administration 
was re-lbvmed, aud on 28 June Walpole was 
appointed one of the council to Prince George 
of Denmark, lord high admiral of England. 
His position was a dilBcuU one. Godolphin, 
the head of the government, was distrustful 
of the whigs, and the whigs of Godolphin. 
An attack was made upon the odmiralty, 
and Walpole was put up to extenuate its 
shortcomings. On being reproached for 
speaking aga'mst his party, he rejoined, ' I 
never can be so mean to sit at a board when 
I cannot utter a word in its defence.' It 
vvu-s probably his experience of the difficul- 
ties attendant upon a government which was 
nothing but a formal association of antago- 
nistic personalities that led him in after life to 
insist upon political bomogeneousness in bis 
administrations. So far as this was feasible 
he made elforls to secure it forthwith. He 
l>ecum»' the intermediary for reconciling Go- 
dolphin to the whig leaders. With Devon- 
shire and Townshend Walpole was already 
intimate. His friend Lord Sunderland [see 
SpKXCEB, CiiiRLEJS, third Earl], another of 
the Churchill group, was appointed a secre- 
tary of state on 3 Dec. 170(i, through the 
intltience of Godolphin and the Duchess of 
Marlborough. Sunderland, like Wal])ole, was 
(or a policy of thorough. .Vfter a year of 
bickering and distrust, Ilarley was forced 
from oflieo by the threatened resignation of 
Marlborough and Godolphin (11 feb. 1708). 

In this struggle Walpole inspired the 
cautious mind of Godolphin with the resolu- 
tion to extrude the tory element. His services 
were recognised by his promotion. On 
25 Feb. 1708 Marlborough appointed him 
secretary at war, in place of his rival, St. 
John. His brother Horatio was made pri- 
vate secretary to Harley's suceessbr, Henry 
Uoyle. 

"The arts of management, which were 
Walpole's peculiar gift, were now put to a 



Walpole 



183 



Walpole 



» 



severe tost. Marlborough left, for Holland at 
t4ie end of March, and it fell to Walpole to 
tranaact his business with the queen. Anne's 
distrust of the whigs would in itself hnve 
involved him in some difficulty, for appoint- 
ments in the amiy were considered to be the 
sovereiffn's special prerogative, and the re- 
commendations of Walpole's chief were fre- 
quently disregarded for those of Mrs. Abigail 
Masham [n.v.1, notwithstanding the indigna- 
tion off heducuess. The inevitable ant agouism 
between Wal[)ole and the fuvourit* nat urally 
enhanced his intere^st with the duchess. (Jii 
21 Jan. iriO he was appointed to the more 

Erofitable place of treasurer of the navy, but 
e seems to have held his post at the war 
office till the following September. His new 
appointment was, as the duchess puts it, 
' by my interest wholly ' (Correfpondmee of 
Duchess of Marlborowjh, i. 288). It was 
while Walpole was at the war office that 
Marlborough successfully carried through 
the campaigns rendered memonible by Oude- 
narde and Mulplnquet, and the general's 
despatches from iibrond show the reliance 
placed by him upon WatpnleV bu.siness ciipa- 
city and personal loyalty. But, notwith- 
standing nis victorie.s, the Marlborough in- 
terest at court WHS on the wane. Tlie in- 
trigues of llarley and .Mrs. JIoRhnra had 
prevailed. The whigs began to be dismissed 
one by one. In April ITIOthe lord chamber- 
lain, the Marquis of Kent, was replaced by 
the Duke of Shrewsbury, known fnbe friendly 
to Harley. Sunderland was dismissed on 
13 June, and (lodolphin on 8 Aug. On 
28 Sept. George Granville, a tory, succeeded 
Walpole at tlie war office. Marlborough, 
writing to Waljwle from his camp on 20 Oct., 
after expressing hi.s vexation at this news, 
adds, ' I am expecting to hear by every post 
of a new treasurer of the navy.' IJut party 
government was not yet an established prin- 
ciple, and for the time A\'aIpole retained tlml 
place. 

While at tbe»ivar office Walpole was en- 
trusted by Godolphin with the uianngement 
of the House of C'limmons. lie had a whig 
majority iit hi.s hacit, the trial of strength 
having been the contest for the speakership 
of John Sniith{ IHOS -1^2.'J)[^l.v.]against\\'il- 
liam Bromley (l(t64-1732) [q. v.] on 2-i Oct. 
1705, in which Smith was suecesslul by forty- 
three votes (Hist. MSS. Comm. 12lh Hep. 
App. V. 183). fiodolphin, as Waljiolo after- 
wards told Etough, reposed so much confi- 
dence in him that lie even entrusted him with 
the compositioii of the speeches from the 
throne. On 13 Dec. 1709 John Doiben J^q.v.], 
Btthe instanceof Godolphin, culled the ntten- 
tionof the House ofCommons toSacbeverell's 



sermons [see Saciievehell, HeskyI. Godol- 
phin had Deen irritated by a personal allusion 
to hiinsflf as Volpono (Swift's Works, iiu 
1 73), and Sunderland was strong for impeach- 
ment . Walpole, with that moderation which 
marked his character, opposed, but, yielding 
toGodolphin's pressure, event uolly consented , 
to act as one of the managers for the com- 
mons {Conwions' Joumah, 14 Dec. 1709), 
Walpole's speech was delivered on 28 Feb., 
and mav be read in the ' State Trials' (xv. 
112). lie confined himself for the most 
part to the doctrine of non-resistance. Hi» 
argument on thi.'s point is quoted by Burltf * 
for its constitutional principle in his' Appeu ' 
from the New to the Old Whigs ' ( Work*, 
iv. 437). 

In the early summer of 1710 Walpole 
suddenly fell seriously ill. Ilis complaint 
was described by his clerk, James Taylor, in 
a letter of 16 June t« Walpole's brother 
Ilorotio as ' collero morbus,' ' which put all 
about him under dreadfull apprehensions for 
four hours '( 7'oK7ijrAoirf Papers, f. &), In 
the autumn the consequences of Sacheverell's 
trial justified his prescience (see Swipt, 
IVurkt, iii. 189). 'The tories had boasted i 
that none of the managers of the impeach- 
ment (should be returned, and had taken | 
care ever since the judgment delivered in 
March to keeii alive the popular enthusiasm 
for the culprit. At the general election the 
whigs sustained an unparalleled defeat*>l 
^^'alpolo him.sflf contested the county of 
Norfolk for the first and the lost time (cf. 
Onsluw M.SS. p. 518). On 1 1 Oct. he was 
declared at the bottom of the poll with 
;i,297 votes, eight hundred behind the two 
winning candidates (H. S. Smith, Parlin- 
mfiitjt of England, 1844, i. 220). He had, 
liowever, secured himself against exclusion 
from parliament, having been returned for 
King's Lynn on 7 Oct. Harley, being de- 
sirous of strengthening himself against the 
Jacobites by the inclusion of a few whigs in 
his administration, made flattering overture>| 
■to Walpole. lie was worth, he told himy'l 
luilf bis party. AVhen flattery proved in-j 
efl'ective, he tried threats. He sent him word^j 
that he had in his possesiiiou a note for wl 
contract of forage endorsed by Walpole. 
The message had a significance whicli Wal- 
pole could not have failed to appreciate. 
Wnljwle remained firm and still held to his 
post. On 2 Jan. 1711 he wrote officially 
acknowledging the recjiipt of his dismissal 
{Dartmouth MSS. p. 303). 

AN'ulpolo was now the leader of the opp(>-| 
>«ition in the House of Commons, narley**' 
first object was to make peace. On 29 Nov. 
Walpole moved on amendment to the 



Walpole 



183 



Walpole 



I 



address ' that no peace can be safe or honour- 
able if Spain and the West Indies are to be 
allotted to any branch of the house of Bour- 
bon '(Swift, 'Last Four Years,' fVor/cg,v. 
39). This, says Swift, 'was rejected with 
contempt by "a %'ery great majority' (16.) 
The same amendme'nt having been carried 
by two votes in the House of Lords, mini- 
sters now parried the blow by iin attnck 
upon thi'ir predecessors in otticc. A packed 
committee of lories reported t lint 30,30^,107/. 
of public monev wos unaccounted for. The 
deficit wa.s laid at the door of Godoljihiii, 
the leader of the whigs In the lords, and of 
Walpole. Walpole jiroraptly produced two 
pamphlets : ' The Debts of the Nation stated 
and considered,' nnd 'The Thirty-five Mil-' 
lions accounted for.' He coiiclu.sivelv esta- 
blished that 31,0OO,0rX)/. had already been 
accounted for, and that the debt of the navy. 
Ilia particular province, estimated at 
5,130,639/., did not exceed 574,000/. His 
explanations not only produced a .sensible 
revulsion in public opinion — they acquired 
him the credit of being, as Arthur Main- 
waring said, ' the best muster of figures of 
any man of his time.' 

- Walpole, the ministerialists felt, muat be 
crushed. His expulsion from the house was, 
said Bromley, the tory speaker, the ' imum 
necessarium.' Harley's veiled threat was 
forthwith given effect. The commissioners 
of public accounts reported on :!1 ]>ec. 1711 
that Walpole, as secretary at war, had been 
guUty of venality and corruption in the 
matter of two forage contracts for Scotland. 
In giving out the forage cnntmcts he had 
stipulated with the two contractors that 
one-fifth share in the contracts should be 
reserved for one Robert Mann [see Mans, 
Sib Uokacb], his relative and rent-receiver 
{Commons' Juunuxls, xvii. 2!1). The con- 
tractors, desirous of redeeming Mann's share, 
had drawn two notes of hand for 500 guineas 
and 500/. respectively. The first had been 
paid. Walpole's name appeared on the 
receipt. The explanation was that thi? con- 
tractor who had conducted the negotiatinn 
dying, the other, who wa.s ignorant of the 
name of Walpole's friend, handed to Wal- 
pole a note payable to his order. Wttl])ule 
endot^ed it and transmitted it to Mann. It 
■was proved that none of the money had been 
retained by himself. .ludged by the stan- 
dard of the time«, Walpole's share in the 
transaction was as regular as u minister's 
grant of a pension to a supporter. But the 
•unum necessarium' was eilected. Walpole, 
after being heard, was pronounced ' guilty 
of a high breach of trust and notorious cor- 
ruption.' This was carried by a majority of 




fifty-soven, his expulsion from the house 
by twenty-two, and his committal to the 
Tower by twelve (iZ>. 17 Jan. 171i-lL'). The 
dwindling majorities showed the real feeling 
of the house as to the justice of the proceetC 
ings. Ue was taken to the Tower ( Bailet, 
Iliit. of the ToiPfr, ii. (J44). A new writ 
was issued. Ou 1 1 Feb. 1712 he was again 
returned for Lynn. A petition was lodged, 
and on tJ .March the lioii.*e declared him to be 
ineligible lor the existing parliament and the 
election void (Commo/ui' Journals, xvii. 128^. 
He remained in the Tower till 8 July, ile 
left as a memorial his name written ou a 
window (H. Walpole, ' Noble Authors,' 
h'vrkf, \7d», i. 442). While in the Tower 
he was regarded as a political martyr, and 
visited by all the whig leaders. lie occupied 
his time in composing a pamplilet in his de- 
fence : ' The Case of Mr. Wa!j>oli!,iu a Letter 
from a Tory Jlember of I'urliament to his 
Friend in the Country.' lleraoining excluded 
from the hou3<i after his release, he diligently 
cultivated his political connections. He as- 
sisted SteelK [see Steelk, SlB Ric'Habd] in 
several political pamphlets. In September 
he visited Godoljikin on his deathbed, and 
was by him commended in touching terms 
to the I»uehess of Marlborough's continued 
patronagi>. At the dissolution of parliament 
(8.\ug. 17]3)he was again relumed for Lynn 
(31 .Vug. 171.'i). On the eve of the general 
election he published an anonymous pamphlet 
under the title of ' A Sliort History of the 
l'nrliaiui!!il .' It was an attack on the mini- 
sterial party. Pulteney [see I'uLTENEr, 
William] was courageous enough to write 
the preface, but no printer could be found to 
undertake the risk of printing it. .V ))rinting 
press was carried to NVatpole's house and the 
copies printed there. 

One of the earliest steps of the new parlia- 
ment, which met on 12 Nov. 1713, was the 
expulsion of Steele from the House of Com- 
mons for attacking the ministry in his pam- 
phlets 'The Fngli.fhmiin ' otid 'The Crisis.' 
Wiilpolehad thecreditof having co-operated 
in ' 111" Crisis.' He was dejiuted by the 
Kit-l'iil Club to make a siieeeli 'in cold 
blood,' the argument of whu'h was to lie 
noted by Addisou to form the basis of a 
defence which Addison was to compose 
and Steele recite (Lifr of ISUhop Sewton, 
p. 130). Walpole himself delivered in the 
House of Commons a constitutional argu- 
ment against the proceedings (see Hallah, 
Ciinst. Uisl. iii. 3r)7). Steele shortly after- 
wards published a defence entitled ' Mr. 
Steele's Apologv.' which he dedicated to 
AValpole(/'(fr/. 7/m/. vi. 1275). The kst 
six months of Anne's reign were to the 



Walpole 



Walpole 



whigs a period of apprehensiion, aroused by 
the queen's visibli* leaning to the Pretender 
and the suspected intrigues of Bolingbroke 
[see St. John, IIkxhyj. On 15 April 1714 
the whigs raised a debate upon the ((uestion 
' whether the protfstant succession in the 
house of Hanover be in danger under her 
majesty's government.' Walpole rejilied 
with much spirit to the defence made by 
Bromley, then secretary of state. With thot 



tiona for the peace of L'trecht. It was 
voluminous and detailed that its first and' 
second reading occupied from one to half- 
past eight o'clock on 9 June, and from 
eleven to four o'clock on 10 June. At the 
conclusion of the reading Walpole impeached 
Bolingbroke of high treason (I'arl. i/i^^ vii. 
66). The conduct of the impeachment, a» 
well as of that of the Uuke of Ormonde and 
the Earl of Strailbrd, was entrust<;d to Wal- 



Btrong sense of constitutional propriety, pole. On 4 Aug. 171-i he laid the articles 
which distinguished him, he insisted that of the impeachment of Bolingbroke before 
the responsibility was not, as the lories en- the House of Commons (State Trials, xv. 
deavoured to put it, upon the queen, but on 993), on the following day those against the 
the queen's ministers (/"nW. l/int. \\. 184fi). Duke of Ormonde, and on 31 Aug. those 



.Swift, writing on 18 Dec. 171 1. prophesied 
of Wal])ole, ' He is to be secretary of state 
if the ministry' changes.' Nevertheless it i.s 
remarkable tliat when tieorge I formed his 
first ministry, Waljwle was not only without 
a seat in the cabinet, but was forced to con- 
tent himself with the lucrative post of pay- 
roaster of the force.i and treas\irer of Chelsea 
Hospital. The fact is that Bothmar, George's 



agninst the Earl of Stafford. A doubt had 
arisen whether the conduct of Harley, earl of 
Oxford, amounted to treason. Walpole, who 
had prepared the articles against him, vigo- 
rously maintained the affirmative, and the 

continuance of proceedings against him waa 

consu<|uuntly resolved upon (7 July). ^^M 

It has been said that these proceediiig»^^H 
were unjust because the conduct of the late ^^^ 



agent in l^ondon, by whose advice he was ' ministers could only bo brought within the 



guided, disliked Walpole (s^e CoXE, ii. 119, 
125), and suggested no better place for him 
than a junior lordship of the treasury (Both- 
mar to Benistorff, 6 Aug. (O.S.) 1714, Mac- 
phfrtun Piipert, ii. 640). He was sworn a 
privy councillor on 1 Oct. 1714. The new 
parliament was summoned for 17 March 
1715. • Before the opening of the session 
Mr. Walpole was in full power,' wrote Lady 
Mary Wortley-Montagu [q.v.] His brother- 



law of t reason bv a strained interpretation 
' (Stashope, Jti^t. i. 191). What Boling- 
broke and (Jrmonde thought of the justice|of 
the case was shown by their flight. Oxford 
had no apprehension that a fair trial would 
I be denied him, and remained. It is true 
that Walpole pushed these measures with 
' determination. But malice bore no part in 
his action. By the universal consent of 
friend and foe he was, as Burke said, ' of the 



in-law, Lord Townshend, was nominally at 'greatest possible lenity in his character and 

the head of the governm ent, b ut the same '' >-■•--• " » > *• •■•- ■^t — ... 

acute observer writes, ' ^Valpole is already 
looked upon as chief minister. ^Tie was cer- 
tainly recognised as leader of the House of 
Commons, and moved the address attacking 
the late government. To a house now con- 
sisting of a large majority of whigs he an- 
nounced the intention of the ministers ' to 
bring to condign punishment ' those respon- 
sible for recent intrigues for the restoration 
of the Pretender. A committee of secrecy 
was appointed, and Walpole was chosen 
chairman on 6 April. On the following day 
he was taken ill, and on 3 May was ' in a 
very bad way' (anon, letter in Hut. Mi'iS. 
C'umm. 8th Hep. p. 59a). Despite his illness, 
he received full information of the commit- 
tee's proceedings, and on 9 June was suffi- 
ciently recovered to present to the House of 
Commons a report which he had himself 
prepared with indefatigable industry — 'amas- 
ter|jiece of party strategy' (IUn'KE, Hut. 
J?/iy/. V. 368). It consisted often articles (see 
TlHDAL, iv. 426) charging the late ministry 
with treasonable misconduct in the negotia- 1 be told the House of Commons, had been 



in his politic*' ('Appeal from the New to 
the Old Whigs,' M orkt, iv. 437). Lord 
Chester6eld, a political opponent whom he 
had disgraced, admitted that he waa ' very 
placable to those who had injured him mo?t ' 
(Lfttert, iii. 1418). Bolingbroke could 
never have returned to England without his 
consent, and, when he returned, '\\'ah>ole in- 
vited him to dine with him at Chelsea. 
Walpole's justification lies in the event* 
which followed. In the following autumn 
the rising of 1715 broke out. He knew that 
if the protectant succession, which he had 
at heart, wa^ to be preserved, the lime had 
come to strike. ^^- 

In recognition of these services Walpol^^^f 
was on 11 Oct, 1715 appointed by Towns-^^B 
hend first lord of the treasury and chan- 
cellor of the exchequer. The suppression of 
the rebellion was accompanied by unprece- 
dented clemency so far as the rank and file 
Were concerned, but of the rebel lords he de- 
termined to make an example. Efforts were 
made to bribe him. Sixty thousand pounds, i 



Walpole 



lis 



Walpole 



I 



; him for the life of the Earl of Der- 
-WMitwater [see Hadcliffe, Jajigs, third 
Eabl]. ^^'alpole'3 answer discloses not only 
the reasons which necessitated severity, but 
the secret informal iun upon wliich he had 
acted in the matter of the imj)eachraents. 
Derwentwater, hv told the house, had to his 
knowledffe been preparing for the rebellion 
* six months befire he n|ipenr(*d in arms.' 
Not e%'en the re monst ranees of Steele and a 
considerable section of his party could pre- 
vail on him to spare the earl. 

The extraordinary fatigues and anxieties 
of 1716, arising at a time when Walpole was 
already in bad health, brought on un illness 
in the spring <if 171U in which ' Lis life 
•was despaired of ' (Townshend to Stanhope, 
CoxE, ii. llt>). During hisubst^nce from the 
house the septennial bill, of which he hud 
already approved, was passed. Walpole re- 
tired for convalescence to a house he occu- 
pied at Chelsea, perhaps upon the site of the 
present M'ulpole Street. From here he 
wrote on 11 May to his brother Horatio 
that he 'gathered strength daily . . . from 
the lowest and weakest condition that ever 
poor mortal was alive in.' L)n July George 
I, accompanied by Stanhope, left for llan- 
OTer. 

A series of court intrigiiw now begun 
against Walpole and Townshend, set on 
foot by the king's German favourites, headed 
by Bothmar, who desired titles and pensions 
for themselves and coutincntal aggrandise- 
ment for their mast it. Sundi-rluud's rest- 
less ambition discerned an opportunity for 
his own advaneeinent, and !m gathered 
round him a cabal of disappointed wbigs. 
He was now lord privy soul with a seat in 
the cabinet. In the autumn of 171*5 he 
made his way over to (iermany, ostensibly 
to drink the \vat<'rs at Aachen, really to 
gain the ear of George I — a design which 
Walpole shrewdly foresaw (CoxK, ii. i')9). 
Walpole hud so far met the king's views 
as to foreign policy tbnt he supported the 
proposed acquisition of Ilremen and Verden 
iiom Sweden, but only because they offered 
increased facilities to a liritish Heet operat- 
ing upon the German coaJ!ts. But he abso-' 
liitely declined U> find money either for a 
war with Uussia or for the payment of a 
force of CJermun troops who had been taken 
into the king's service at tlie time of the 
pretender's invasion of Scotland. The king 
asserted that Walpole had promised to re- 
pay him the advance which bud b'.'en made 
out of the privy purse for this purpose ; 
Walpole protested ' before God that I cannot 
recollect that ever the king mentioned one 
syllable of this to me or I to him.' Sun- 




derland found the king incensed against 
Walpole on this account, Ue inflamed the 
kings resentment by suggesting that Wal- 
pole and Town.shend were intriguing with 
the personal friends of the prince regent, the 
Duke of Argyll, and his brother the Earl 
of Islay, with 'designs against the king's 
authority.' 

In October the king was anxious for the 
signature of a treaty with Franco by which 
France was to discard the pn?tender and 
England should guarantee the succession to 
the regent in the event of the death of the 
king (Louis XV) childless. This treaty 
Uoratio Walpole, then envoy extraordinary 
to Paris, Hally refused to sign on the ground 
that it would be a betrayal of his promises to 
the Dutch. This accumulation of grievances 
led to the dismissal of Townshend by ap- 
pointment to the lord-lieutenancy of Ireland 
in December I71ti. Walpolewould naturally 
have been dismissed with Townshend, but 
Townshend was the acting foreign minister, 
and the presence of Walpole in the cabinet in- 
spired confidence in the city wliigs (Thomas 
Brereton to Charles Stanhope, December 
1710, CoXB. ii. 149). Walpole determined 
to throw in hi.H lot with his chief. The ani- 
mosities of the king dLsapjiea red before the 
apprehension of losing the minister whoso 
reputation as a financier was one of the props 
■of his throne. Stanhope, whom vacillation 
or treachery had led to take side.s with Sun- 
derland, vvrott! to Walpole imploring him to 
persuade Townshend to accept the lord- 
lieutrnniicy and to remain in the cabinet 
(3,lan. I'l"). Townsheiid's acceptance im- 
plied the continuance of Walpole in otlice. 
lipou this basis a truce was established be- 
tween the contending factions. But so long 
as the king gave his confidence to Sunder- 
land and Stanho|>e, Townshend and Walpole 
did little beyond formally defend ministerial 
measures. The resulting friction became in- 
supportable. On April 1717 Stanhope an- 
nounced to Towusbeud his dismissal from 
the lord-lieutenancy. (In It) April Wal- 
pole nought an audience and re.-iigned the 
seals. Ten times did the king replace them 
in his hat (CoXE, ii. HJil). Wahxde. though 
touched by this confidence antl with tears 
in his eyes, persisted in his resignation. He 
did so upon the constitutional ground, on 
which he always insisted, of the indivisible 
rffsponsibility of an administration which he 
declined to share. On the same day be 
announced his resignation to the House of 
Commons by introducing a bill, ' as a country 
gentleman,' which a-s first lord of the trea- 
sury he had been instructed to prepare 
(5 March^. He had for some lime past con- 



'alpole 



i86 



Walpole 



t«mplated reducing tlie interest on the na- 
tional debt. Witn a view to this he had 
endeavoured to raise a loan of tiOO,OOOA for 
the government at four per cent. But the 
moneved interests took alarm. They abs- 
' taine^ from subscribing, and after three 
days no more than 45,000/. had been raised 
(Pari. UUt. vii. 42o, 8 March 1717). The 
new measure was for redeeming the debt, so 
£tr aa it did not consist of irredeemable 
annuities, and reducing the interest from 
■even and eight to live per cent. The sur- 
plus arising out of the taxes appropriated to 
the intero-st at its existing rale would then 
constitute a fund for the discharge of the 
capital of the debt. This was the Brst 

Seneral sinking fund (Tisdal, iv. 6Si-6). 
L concurrent agreement waa made with the 
^ bank of England and the South Sea Com- 
pany by which the interest due to them 
from government was reduced from six to 
five per cent., and thev agreed to advance 
2,500,000/. and 2,000,000/. respectively for 
the purpose of paying off such fundholdera 
•a snould decline to accept the reduction of 
their interest. ' I believe,' wrote Steele on 
19 March, ' the scheme will take place, and, 
if it does, Walpole must be a very great 
man ' ( Vorretp. ii. 423). While the measure 
waa passing through the house a violent 
altercation arose between Stanhope and 
Walpole. Stanhope had long been smarting 
under the reproaches with which Walpole 
had visited his defection to Sunderland. 
Irritated at the necessity of confessing his 
incapacity to deal with the financial ques- 
tion, Stanhope attacked WoljKjle for bestow- 
ing a reversion to an office upon his son. 
Walpole retorted to the effect that it was 
better so disposed than on one of the king's 
foreign favourites to whom Sunderland and 
Stanhope had truckled. * One of the chief 
reasons,' he added, referring to this, ' that 
mode tne resign was because 1 could not 
connive at some things that were carrying 
on' (Pari. Hut. vii. 460; 9 May 1717). 
Walpole entered into opposition with the 
declaration that he did not intend ' to make 
the king unea-sy or to embamus his affairs ' 
(ib. \il 449, le April 1717). This pledge 
he regarded as compatible with a harassing 
opposition to the king's ministers, between 
whom and his mojesty he distinguished (U>. 
vii. .56.")). 'The parties of WaI])ole and 
Stanhope,' wrote Pope in June 1717, 'are 
as violent as whig and tory' ( U'urKt, ix. 
S8S). So often did Walpole find himself in 
the same division lobby with Shippen [s«re 
SuiPPEN, William], the leader of the ex- 
treme tories, that Shippen caustically re- 
marked that 'he (^\'ulpoh3) was no more 



afraid than himself of being called a Joco- 
bit«.' 

In 1717 Walpole supported the tories in an 
unsuccessful attack upon Lord Cadogan [see 
CkDooAS, William], commander-in-chief, 
one of the allies of Sunderland and Slan- 

I hope, who had been accused of embexxle- 
ment in connection with the transport of 

j some Dutch auxiliaries. He echoed the 
tory outcry against a standing army, de- 

I clared twelve thousand men un adequate 
force, and opposed, though he finally voted 
for, the mutiny bill of 1718. llis tolerance 
upon religious matters has already been 
seen. In 1711 and 1714 he had warmly 
opposed the occasional conformity bill and 
the schism bill; yet in 1719 he resisted the 
repeal of this last act. He denounced 
(11 Nov. 1718) the quadruple alliance con- 
cluded on the previous 2 Aug. between the 
emperor, France, England, and subsequently 

I the L'nited Provinces, of which he was him- 

I self afterwards the advocate. He disap- 
proved the attack by liyngupon the Spanish 

{ lleet, though this must be acknowledged 
to have been consistent with his own pacific 
temper. It was also characteristic of his 
incapacity to maintain resentment that he 

I withdrew from the prosecution of the im- 

f peachment of Oxford. However factious 
his opposition may have seemed, the vigour 
of his attacks and the feebleness of ministers 
increased his iiiUuence in the House of 
Commons. His crowning op]>ortumty came 
with the introduction of the peerage bill on 
2 MaR'h 1718. The object of this measure 
was to limit the numlier of peers to 216, 
191 from England and 2o from Scotland. It 
was really aimed at the Prince of Wales 
(George II), whom it would prevent fr w i 
flooding the House of Lords with tory pefl^^H 
upon his father's death. It would, of coail^^| 
have rendered the lords thi< dominant mem- 
ber of the constitution, Walpole found the 
whig peers not indisposed to the measure. 
He wrote a pamphlet against it with tbe 
title of ' The Thoughts of a Member of the 
Lower House,' &c. He stirred up the oppo- 
sition of the more ambitious countrv gentle- 
men. He addressed a meeting of wfiig peers 
at Devonshire House in a ."jx-ech which pro- 
duced a complete revulsion of feeling. With 
them ho made arrangements for an opposi- 
tion to the bill when it reached the com- 
mons. On 8 Dec. in the House of Commons 
he demolished the proposal in ' a very mas- 
terly speech,' and secured its rejection by 
209 to 177 votes. 

In January 1720 the government began 
to entertain a scheme for the reduction of 
the irredeemable annuities which omountad 



W'alpole 



1S7 



Walpole 



I 



I 



to 800,000/. a year. An ofier was made by 
thf South Sea Company to take tliera over 
and to pay 7,567,000/. lor the privilege. The 
scheme was warmly opposed by ^^'alpole as 
financially and constitutionally unsound; 
nevertheless it was aceepted liy the house. 
Walpole published a pamphlet comlemuing' 
it by the title of 'The South Sen Scheme. 
Considered.' But speculation in South Sea 
stock spread like a lever. The I'rincess of 
Wales (Caroline) took tognmbling in stocks, 
and, AValpole having the reputation of ex- 
traordinary tinancial ability, she sought lii.s 
advice. To ^^'alpole's career this association 
proved of momentous importance. It was 
cemented, scandal said, by an intrigue be- 
tween the prince and Mrs. Walpole, ' which 
both he and the princess knew ' ( Ladv ( "nw- 
PEK, Diary, p. 134). On 20 Miiy 17l'0 Lady 
Cowper ■wTOI e, ' M r. W'aljKile so jMi.ssessed her 

tthe princess's] mind that there was nut room 
or tne least truth : ' and again, ' The prinre 
is guided bv the princess a.'* she is by Wal- 
pole ' (10 May 1720). He himself took ad- 
vantage of the public mania, bought largely 
in South Sea stock, and sold out at the top 
of the market at 1,000 per cent, profit. With 
the fortune thu.s acquired Lorebuilt lloughtim 
and began his famous CdUectiou «i' pictures. 
His a.ssociation with the prince through thr 
princess led to his l)ecoming an intermediari.' 
for the reconciliation of tue prince to the 
king. Sunderland felt the gmund slijiping 
under his feet. He made overtures to Wal- 
pole, who at first refused to take s«»rvice 
under him (ili. 1.") April 1720). As Walpolo 
afterwards expluined to Lord Holland, ' his 
[Sunderland's] temper was so violent that he 
would have done his best to throw me out 
of window' (Siielbubne, Aufnhiogr. i. 35). 
This probably ex])lains why Walpole was 
content to accept the inferior but lucrative 
position of paymaster of the forces instead 
of desiring to sit in the cabinet. Sunderland 
was deeply involved in the South Sea busi- 
ness, and, B.s Walpole had predicted the' 
collapse (Lady Cowper, Vinn/, p. \!i*^), he 
probably foresaw Sunderland's sjwedy and 
compulsory rellreraent. Hi.s personal disUku 
of Sunderland ptjrhaps led him, contrary to 
bis custom, to spend the summer of 172U in 
the country. 

Meanwhile South Sea stock was declining. 
By SeptembiT panic had set in. \N"alpole 
was called up from the countiy to assist the 
Bank of England with his tulrice. Ue 
drew what was afterwards known as ' t he 
bank contract," by which the bank agreed 
to take the bonds of the company at 400 per 
cent, premium for a sum of 3,700,000/. due to 
it. But the fall still continued. l'roni]ited 



by Sunderland, tho king, who used to say 
oi' Walpole that he could convert stones to 
gold (CoxE, ii. 6'20), now called upon him 
to produce a scheme for the restoration of 
public credit. In Lord Harvey's belief the 
commission was given him by Simderland 
with the expectation that he would fail, and 
that the odium attaching to the cabinet 
would be transferred to him. Walpole 
undertook the task. On 21 Dec. he pre- 
sented to the House of (Commons a plan 
suggested by Jacombe, undei^secretary at 
war, the substance of which was to engraft 
nine millions of South Sea stock into Bank 
and East India stock respectively. This 
propo.sal l)ecame law in 1720 (7 Geo. I, st. 1, 
c. o), but before taking elfect it was partly 
superseded bv another act of 1721 (7 Geo. I, 
c. 2), also Iramed bv Walpole, remitting 
more than 5,0OO,0O0"/, of tho 7,50(1,000/. 
which the South Sea directors had agreed 
to pay the iiublic. The 2,000,000/. was 
remitted in December 1723 (Pari. Hist. viii. 
.13) and other measures taken to lighten 
the disaster to the sufferers. While the 
tide of indignation was flowing in full force 
against the South Sen proraoli-rs, Walpole 
behaved with consummate tact and judg- 
ment. He pleaded extenuating circum- 
stances for Aiiilabie [see Aislabib, John], 
who had been compelle<l to resign the 
elianrellorship of the exchequer (23 Jan. 
1721). Ill' .successfully defended Sunder- 
land (15 Miircli), not for love of the man, 
but to avert the danger of a tory ministry. 
He inf>ist>>d that the accused directors should 
hi' aliovved counsel. His fairness drew 
obloquy upon himself. In the squibs and 
caricatures of the day he was nicknamed 
•Tho Screen' (CoxE, ii. 210). On 4 Feb. 
1721 .Stanhope, on 10 Feb. James Craggs 
the younger [ q. v.l, and on 16 March James 
Craggs tue elder ]^q. v.l died. Sunderland 
was compelled by public opprobrium t-o re- 
tire, and on .'( .\pril Walpole was ap|>ointed 
chancellor of the exchequer and first lord of 
the treasurv. On 10 Feb. his brother-in-law 
Townshend had taken Stanhope's post as 
secretary of state. An extraordinary con- 
juncture of circumstances had thus ri.'Stored 
till' two ministers to power and annihilated 
the (ipuosing faction. 

In tho administration that followed Wal- 
pole Ix'gnti by affecting a corajjarative indif- 
I'erence to foreign policv. As Palm wrote 
to tho emperor on 13 Dec. 1726, 'Sir R. 
Walpole . . . does not meddle in foreign 
'affairs, but receives accounts of them in 
general, leaving for the rest the direction of 
them entirely to ]..ord Townshend.' Walpole 
in return was left absolute master of home 



] 



Walpole 



188 



Walpole 



policy. He now prored himself the first 
great commercial minister since the days of 
Thomas Cromwell. On 19 Oct. 1721 the 
speech from the throne announced his pro- 
posals, fie recommended the removal of 
export duties from 100 articles of Uritigli 
manufacture, and of import duties from ^i^ 
articles of raw material, lie also relieved 
the colonies from e.Yport duties upon naval 
stores, hoping to encourage supplies for the 
navy from that source, and thereby to 
render the country independent of political 
contingencies in the Baltic. lie thus re- 
versed the traditional attitude of statesmen's 
minds towards imports. They were to bo 
treated, so far as pos.sible, as raw materiiils 
for our monufactures rather than as intnisi ve 
foreign products. Encourngemenl to impnrts 
would, he saw, facilitate exportation, which 
up to that time had ejtclusively mnnopolised 
attention. It is not unlikely that .Vrtliiir 
Moore [q.v.], who had been the real author 
of Bohngbroke'* commercial treaty with 
France in 1713, was Walpole'a adviser in this 
policy (llAKRor, liulingbroke, pp. 14'J, 245). 
The restless Sunderland now began to coquet 
with the tories. NVith the hope of getting 
rid of Walpole, he pugge.sted to the king liis 
appointment for life to the lucrative otlice 
ot postmaster-general. This would have 
excluded him from parliament. The proposal 
elicited from the king the reply, ' I will 
never part with him again.' (In 19 April 
1722 Sunderland died. Early in May \i 22 
the regent Orleans disclosed to Walpole 
the Atterbiiry conspiracy [see Atterburt, 
Francis], It was accompanied by a plot 
to assassinate Walpole himself (It. Walpole, 
J{nnini»rencf»,\>. c\i\). Walpole with charnc- 
teristic vigour ' took the chief part in un- 
ravelling this dark niysfer>' (Onslow MSS. 
p. i&'2). His usual moderation towards 
political oppnueuts .showed itself in pro- 
ceeding against the bishop by a bill of pains 
and penalties instead of by attainder. lie 
appeared as a witness against the bishop in 
the House of Lords, where a memorable 
duel of wits took place, ' but he was too 
hard for the bishop upon every turn ' (il>. 
t), 463). In the following October (17th) 
lie took the unprecedented step of suspending 
the Imbeus corpus act for a year — ' too long,'- 
Hollam not unju-'tly says. On 31 Oct. he 
intimated to the llouse of Commons his 
intention to introduce a bill for raising 
100,000/. by a special tax on the e-states of 
Roman catholics and nonjurors. This bill 
when brought into the house on 23 Nov. 
1722 proved to refer to Roman catholics 
only. Walpole justitied it, against the 
objection that it savoured of persecution,' 



upon purely political grounds — that the 
recent pint liad been hatched in Home, and 
that the Ifoman catholics were unanimously 
favourable to the restoration of the pre- 
tender. L"pon this reasoning the house 
rtivivi'd his original intention and extended 
the bill 10 all nonjurors (10 May 1723). 
The consequence was ' a ridiculous sight to 
see, people crowding to give a testimony of 
their allegiance to a government, and cursing 
it at the same time for giving them the 
•trouble' (Onflow MSS. p. 4fi3). This act 
(9 Geo. I, c. 24) was one of Walpole's least 
judicious measures, the disaffection it excited 
more than compensating for the aid it 
brought to the treasury. 

On 10 June 1723 the king rewarded Wal- 
pole's services by creating his eldest son 
liobert a peer, by the title of Lord Walpole 
of Walpole. For himself the minister nad 
refused the honour, a significant indication 
(hut lie regarded the House of Commons as 
/the seat of power. About this time the ele- 
ments of u new whig opposition began to 
crystallise. The centre was John, lord Car- 
teret [ii. v.], who had been nominated by 
Sunderland to succeed .Tames Craggs, jun., 
on o March 1721. He followed Sunder- 
land's example and intrigued with the tier- 
man dependents of the king. Daniel Pul- 
teney [q. v.] and .Sir John Barnard [q. v.], 
Wal|;ole'8 principal opponents on matters of 
finance, were at first the leaders of this fac- 
tion ill the commons; in 1726 the Earl of 
Chester6eld [see Stanhope, Philip Dob- 
Mliii] became the chief ally of Carteret in 
the lords. 

In the summer of 1723 Townsbend and 
Carteret, the two secretariesof state, accom- 
panied the king to Hanover, leaving Wol- 
iiule in undisputed possession of power in 
•jOgland. So tranquil were public atiiiirs 
that on 3D Aug. 1723 Walpole boasted to 
Townsbend that money could be raised at 
3/. 12i<. (W. per cent. Meanwhile Carteret 
was lit tempting to play again the part 
eimcled by >underland in 1710. A struggle 
took place at the Hanoverian court between 
Townsbend, supported by the Duchess of 
Kendal, and Carteret in alliance with Uern- 
storft' and Bothmar, the Hanoverian mini- 
sters. The immediate quest ion at issue, the 
Platen marriage [see George I], ended in 
the victory of 'I'ownshend and the substitu- 
tion <12 Oct. 1723) of Horatio Walpole 
[q. v.j for Carteret's agent, Sir Luke Schaub 
[q.T.J, as envoy to Paris, Carteret had in 
the meantime been casting about for sup- 
porters in parliament, and projected a coali- 
tion with the tories to oust Walpole. This 
intrigue was betrayed to Walpole in July 






1723 by BoUngbroke, who hnJ received a 
pardon in the previous Jlay. Bolingbroko 
suggested that Wnliiole should accept hia 
aid in forming sucli a coalition in hi.s own 
interest. Rut Wnlpole wiis no lover of in- 
trigue. When Sunderland made a similar 
proposal, ' Mr. Walpole took the other point 
ofatandingorfalling with the whiga'(CWr/i»fc 
Mas. p. 38). lie now a.s firmly rejected 
Bolingbroke'sovertures. It was at tlii3 period 
that ho detected Fulteney [.^ee PrLTENEt, 
William] in secrnt correspfrndcnce with Car- ■ 
teret, and never put confidence in him again ' 
(Ukbtei, Memoirs,!. 12). To wnshend's suc- 
cess over Carteret was mnrked by the dis- 
missal of Carteret from the secretaryship of 
state and his iippointnient ns lord-lieutenant 
of Ireland (3 April ITi't). From this time 
may be dated u resolution npimn^nt in Wal- 
pole to keep men of briirmnt talent out of 
nis administrations, lli' nominated as Car- 
teret's successor the Duke of Newcastle 
[see I'elham-IIoli.es, Thomas], ' having ex- 
perienced how trouble.'iomo a mon of parts 
was in that oflice'(H. Walpole, .V«n.i. 163). 
The natural consequence was that the whig 
opposition wa.'« constantly recruited by the 
men of promise whose numbers and abilities 
eventually proved equal to the overthrow of 
Walpole's odminislration. 

Carteret arrived in Ireland ( 23 Oct. 1724) 
in the midst of the e.\('itemeut aroused over 
• Wood's lialfpence.' This grant had been 
made by Sunderland to gratify the Duches.s 
of Kendal [see SciiiTLByBUKo, Countess 
Ehbenoakd Meli'sina von der], who bad 
sold it to Wood [see Wood, William, rf. 
17301 Walpole had, in fact, opposed it 
(Lord Midleton to Thomas Brodrick, 15 Aug. 
1725, CoxB, ii. 427), but it was his duty as ' 
first lord of the treasury to sign the treasury ' 
warrant of 23 Aug. 1722 authorising ' Wil- 
liam Wood of Wolverhampton to establish 
at or near Bristol his office for carrying out i 
the afi'airs of his patent giving him sole power J 
and authority to coin copper farthings and 
halipenco for the service of Ireland' (Hi'tt. 
MSS. Comm. 8th Rep. App. p. 79 a). The 
value was limited to 10*<,0<K)/. Walpole 
madediligeni inquiry into ihejustificjitiou of 
the outcry raised . I n a letter to T'ownshend 
on 12 Oct. 1723 he showed in detail that it 
was utterly baseless, and proved it by the 
verdict of a practical assayer (January 172}, 
Ck>XE, ii. 410). Hewas forresolute measures. 
On 24 Sept. and 3 Oct. 1723 he wrot-e angary 
letters to Grafton, Carteret's predecessor as 
lord lieutenant, for his weakness in face of the 
opposition to the patent in the Irish parlia- 
ment (MSS. Record Office). Carteret, whom 
Walpole Imd, perhaps on insufficient grounds, 




suspected of inciting his friends the Brod- 
ricks [see Bbodrick, Alan], who led the 
Irish party, to resistance, had originally been 
nominated lord lieutenant, as Sir W. Scott, 
in his ' Life of Swift,' says, by a ' refined re- 
venge,' that ho might carry the matter 
through with a Iiigh hand. Wood was said 
to have indiscreetly bott.ste<l, ' Mr. AValpole 
will cram his brass down their throats' 
('Fourth Drapier Letter,' Swift's Work-t, 
vi. 428). But it was never Walpole's policy 
to fly in the face of popular passion. lie 
bowed to the storm by rccoui mending to the 
king to substitute 40,(XH)/. for th.' 1(J<),000?. 
astnelimitnf value of the coin to be imported 
into Ireland (see the report of the pri\'y coun- 
cil, dated 24 July 1724, in Swift's Workf, 
vi. 36fi-76). l*rimat« Hugh Boulter [q-v.l 
had warned the ministry on 19 Jan. 1724 
that not even a reduction to 20,000/. would 
be accepted. He was right. Un 4 Aug. 
appearea the second ' Drapier Letter,' assail- 
ing Walpole's concession ns savagely as the 
original grant. Walpole then felt tJiat no 
safe course was left but to withdraw the 
patent altogether, and wrote to that effect 
to Newcastle on 1 Sept. 1724. But Towns- 
bend and the king were still for strong 
measuri'.'*, and Carteret, whoso private opi- 
nion was known tn be adverse to the patent 
(St. John Brodrick to Midletou, 10 May 
1724), went to Ireland determined to regain 
the royiit favour by his real in enforcing it. 
By December Carteret had come round to 
Walpole's opinion, and in May 172/5 the 
king, on Walpole's advice, consented that 
the patent should be cancelled. So tranquil 
was England during 1 724 that only one public 
•division took place in the House of Com- 
mons, where Walpole was now all-powerful. 
The year 1725 was marked by disturbances 
in Scotland. In February 1724 the English 
country gentlemen in parliament had ex- 
pressed a grievance at the evasion by the 
Scots of their share of the malt tax. Wal- 
))ole, apprehensive of exciting the latent 
disaffection of Scotland, at first resisted the 
proposal to enforce its levy ; but in Uecem- 
cember 1724 a motion was carried to substi- 
tute a duty of sixpence a barrel on beer in 
Scotland instead of the malt tax. In July 
1725 this led to a riot in Glasgow and a 
combination among the brewers of Edin- 
burgh to discontinue brewing, which it was 
expected would lead to fresh disturbances. 
Walpole had reason to believe that the riots 
were being fomented for political purposes 
by the Diiko of Koxburghe [see Keb, John], 
one of the Cart«ret faction, secretary of 
state for Scotland, who was persuaded that 
they would lead to Walpole's overthrow. On 



Walpole 



190 



Walpole 



26 Aug. 1725 the duke was dismissed. Wal- 
pole put in bis place bis trusted friend the 
Earl of liilay [see Campbell, Abchibald, 
third DuKB of Akoyli,]. In obedience to 
Walpole's instructions the earl levied the 
tax and put down the brewers' combination. 
From this time he continued to be Walpole's 
representativo in the government of Scot- 
land. The session in parliament of 1725 was 
made memorable by the impeachment for 
corruption of the Eiirl of Macclesfield [see 
Parker, Thomas], lord chancellor. It is 
said that Waljinle was jealous of the chan- 
cellor's personal influence with the king and' 
the German ministers. lie himself took the 
decisive measure of appointing a committee 
of the privy council to investigate the 
rumours against Macclesfield (Campbell, 
Lives of the C/iancfUors, iv. 618), and his 
friend Sir Oeorge Oxcnden moved the im- 
peachment in the commons. On the other 
hand, William Pulteney, now in open oppo- 
sition, and Sir William W'yndhamfq. v.], the 
leader of the tories, were the clianccllor's 
defenders. After George I's death Wulpolo 
refused to make Macclesfield any furthtT 
payments from the treasury in dincharge of 
the fine of 30,000/. which tlie king had pro- 
mised to di'fray (I'A. p. 53U). 

On 20 April 1725 Walpole seconded a 
motion miulo by Ixird Finch in the House 
of Common.-< for removing so much of Boling- 
broko's attainder as to enable him to succeed 
upon his father's death to the family estates. 
Walpole, who knew his restless temper, had 
always opposed his return, and in 173^ 
spoke of his yielding to it as ' a much rt'- 
peut^>dfault' (nKR\BV,Memoirt,i.2'24). He 
waa induced to support this motion oulj by 
the peremptory insistence of the king, 
prompted by tlio Duchess of Kendal, who 
pocketed a bribe of 11,000/, His reluctance, 
and still more his insertion of a clause in 
the Mt restoring Bolingbroke'sestates, which 
prevented Bolinghroke from exercising a 
&ee disposition over them, excited keen re- 
sentment (On»low MSS. p. 515). Boling- 
broko at once set to work to unite the scat- 
tered factions which had hitherto offered 
but a dejiultory and feeble opposition to 
Walpole's administration. 

In 1725 Walpole persuaded the king to 
revive the order of the Bath, ' an artful 
bank of thirty-six ribands to supply a fund 
of favours' (Hobacb Walpole, Remini- 
«eefiC8«, p. cxiv). He washimself on 27 May 
invested with the order, which he quitted 
on 26 June 1726 for the Garter. This pro- 
motion of a commoner, for the first time .since 
1660, caused much jealousy among the nobir 
lity, and suggested the nickname 'Sir Blue- 



string ' by which he was commonly assailed 
in the pasquinades of the time. 

Foreign affairs now first begun t<i press 
upon Walpole's attention. The treaty of 
^ ienna,sign6d on 30.\pril 1725, had elTected 
a coalition between Philip V of Spain and 
the emperor Charles VI of Austria. It was 
suspected to include, and in fact did so, 
secret articles for the wresting of Gibraltar 
from the English, of Hanover &om the king, 
for the restoration of the pretender, and for 
the suppression of protestantism. As a 
counter move tothi.s, Townshend, theu with 
the king, devised the treoty of Hanover. 
This established an alliance between Eng- 
land, France, and Prussia. In England an 
outcry at once arose that the country was to 
be sacrificed to the king's German dominions. 
Walpole, who had not been consulted, 
blamed Townshend as ' too precipitate.' He 
dreoded a war which.he wrote to Townshend 
on 13 Oct., was only to be justified by the 
imminence of an invasion. .Vs evidences of 
o projected invasion multiplied (Walpole to 
Townshend, 21 Oct. 1725, CoxE, ii. -WS), his 
dislike of the treaty abated, and on 19 Feb. 
1726 he carried in the House of Commons 
iin address expressing approval of it. Never- 
theless, he still resented Townshend's con- 
duct, and henceforth insisted upon being- 
made acquainted with the progress of foreign 
affairs (Hervev, Memoirs, i. 23). It is 
not without significance thot we find him 
on 19 June 1726 addressing a complimen- 
tary letter to Fleury. Townshend, on the 
other hand, resented this new departure. 
On 23 May 1726 Pozobueno wrote to Rip- 
perda, ' "The misunderstanding between 
Townshend and Walpole daily increases ' 
(CoxE. ii. .'501). 

While this rift was widening in the mini- 
stry, Pulteney, as leader of the opposition, 
was adding to his following in the House 
of Commons. In a letter to the emperor on 
17 Dec. 1726, Palm estimated liis supporters 
as nearly a third of the house, and outside 
the house as consisting ' in the richest and 
most considerable persons of this nation.' 
H is policy was an alliance with the emperor, 
^^'alpole's for the maintenance of friendship 
with France. Upon the a-ssembling of par- 
liament, on 17 Jan. 1727, Walpole dex- 
terously turned the popular feeling against 
Pulteney's policy by the king's speech which 
revealed the terms of the treaty of Vienna. 
So intense was the public indignation that 
ministers carried the address by 251 to 81. 

In December 1726 the opposition had 
started the ' Craftsman,' a paper chiefly in- 
spired by Bolingbroke. It contained scor- 
nlous invectives against the Walpoles and 



Km; 



much declamation againBt corruption. It 
produced a great effect upon the public 
mind, so much so that the tories confidi'ntAy 
Rntiuipated that, with the assistancw of the 
king's German chamberlain Fabrice and 
the Duchess of Kendal, Bolingbroke would 
supplant Walpole in the king's confidence 
(' Anecdote of Mr. Pelbam ' in CoxE, ii. JJTi!; 
cf. On.iloio MSS. p. 516). Bolingbroke, 
anxious to produce an impression on the 
king, induced the duchess to lay before him 
a memorandum against Walpole in the style 
of the ' Craftsman.' Walpole, hearing of 
thiB and shrewdly anticipating George I's 
distaste for declamation, insisted that the 
duchess shnuld pmcure Bolingbroke an 
audience. On Walpole'a inquiry as to the 
substance of Boiingbroke's indictment, the 
king replied 'Bagatelles! Bagatelles!' 
""evertheless, so shaken did Walpole feel his 
lition to be by the defection of thi' duchess 
that, if we are to believe a statement made 
by Pelham to Onslow ( Onj»A)ir .ViV.V. p. .116), 
ho was only dissuaded by the Duke uf Devon- 
shire ond the Princess of Wales from re- 
tiring with ft peerage in the summer of 
[Oeorge I's last visit to Hanover. This iu- 
•tion was strengthened by a serious ill- 
•wliich attacked him on 26 .\pril 1727 
JUSS. Comm. 9th Rep. .\pp. p. 401 l>), 
and was thought to endanger his life ( Pri- 
mate Boulter to Lord Towushend, 9 May 
1727). He was so weakened that in June, 
when anticipating dismissal by Oeorge IT, 
he burst into tears at a visit from Onslow, 
and 'declared he would never leave the 
court if he could have any office there, and 
would be content even with the comptrollers 
sUff' (Ongloir MflS. p. 517). 

The news of the sudden death of Geor]ge I 
on 12 June 1 727 reached Walpole at Chelsea 
on the 14th. Aware of the importance of a 
first audience, he 'killed two horses in 
carrying tlie tidings ' to the new king at 
Richmond ( Walpotiana, i. 86). The king, 
who when he quarrelled with his father had 
called Walpole ' rogue and rascal,' received 
him coldly and nominated his treasurer 
Compion [see Compton, Sib Spbhcbr] to 
draw up the declaration to the privy council. 
Compton, unequal to the task, requested 
Walpole to draft it for him. Walpole 
eagerly seiied the opportunity to put Comp- 
ton under an obligation. lie anticipated a 
possible impeachment, and promised Compton 
his support in parliament m return for pro- 
tection (Hebvet, Memoirs, i. 32-3). The 
courtiers at once began to trim their sails. 
' Sir Robert's presence, that used to make a 
crowd wherever he appeared, now emptied 
every comer he tumea to ' (I'j. p. 37). But 



the queen hated Compton, who had in- 
judiciously paid court to Mrs. Howard [see 
Howard, Hbsribtta], the king's mistress. 
Compton himself became sensible that he 
coulu neither form a ministry with the 
tories nor without them. The king was 
anxious for the maintenance of the French 
alliance; Horatio Walpole had Fleury's ear, 
and Fleury dismissed him to London to ex- 
hort George to adhere to his father's policy. 
I^ostly, Walpole appealed to the king's 
strongest passion — avarice. The civil list of 
his father had been fixed at 700,000/. Wol- 

fole ollered to make it 80O.(X»0/. [see 
'ri.TESEY, William]. Compton had pro- 
posed that the queen's jointure should be 
60,000/. a year ; Walpole undertook to ask 
for 100,000/. Compton had neither the 
courage nor the following to carry the 
larger proposals. The king greedily swal- 
lowed the bait. ' It is for my life,' he said 
to Wnlpole, ' it is to be fixed, and it is for 
your life.' On 24 June 1727 Walpole was 
reappointed first lord of the treasury and 
chancellor of the e.\chequer, and Townshend 
secretary of state. 

The new parliament met on 23 Jan. 1 728 
with a considerobte majority in favour of 
the ministry. Pulteney, who in 172^^ and 
1727 had assumed the part of financial critic 
on behalf of tlie opposition, attacked W'oi- 
])ole on the ground of an improper opplica- 
tion of the sinking fund. Walpole success- 
fully defended his version as to the state of 
.the national debt and the rate of its dis- 
charge, and carried the division by the de- 
cisive vote of 250 to 97 (4 March). But as 
public feeling had been aroused, especially 
by Pulteney's pamphlet ' On the State of 
the National Debt,' he deemed it prudent to 
_dmw up an elaborate report (Pari. Hut. viii. 
6.04), which was accepted by the House of 
Commons by 243 to 77 f8 April) and pre- 
sented to the king (1 1 April). In this se-ssion 
Walpole was placed in a critical position by 
the avarice ot the king, which he nnce de- 
clared one of his two principal dilBculties, 
Hanover being the other ( Kl3fG, Anecdotes, 
p. 41). The king complained that llo.OOO/. 
'was deficient on the civil list. The claim 
was more t han doubtful, and Walpole refused 
to endorse it. The tories thereupon made 
I overtures to the king, off'ering to add another 
I 100,000/., and George intimated plainly to 
I Walpole that he must either undertake to 
press the claim through parliament or resign 
(Hervet, MenwirK, i. 124). Walpole with 
much reluctance yielded, but the opposition 
in parliament was strong, and fourteen peers 
signed a protest (10 May 1729). The failure 
of the opposition to displace Walpole was 




due to the attaclc8 ou the expenditure of the 
secret-service fund, with regard to which' 
Georgu IT wospiirticularly sensitive. Thfse 
were led bvHhijipi'n (.'i .Iiilv 1727) and I'lil- 
tenev (21 Feb. 1727 and 20 Feb. 1728>. The 
result was that Atterbury's son-in-law llorice 
wrote to him on 24 June 1728, ' Walpole 
gains ground iind governs more absolutely 
than in the luttor reign. Mr. Pulteney's re- 
inova] from tin' lieutenancy of one of the 
Yorkshire Ridinps is one instance of his 
power.' The influence of the ministry with 
the king wiia strengthened by the success of 
the negotiatioii.'i for the treaty of Seville [see 
STASaopE, Wir.i.iAM, Iti90?-I756], signed 
on 9 Nov. 1729, which fir the time deprived 
the Jacobites of their last hope of aid from 
a foreign power. 

The opposition now conceived the project 
of undermining Walpole's power by depriv- 
ing him of the customary means of securing 
it in the House of Commons. On 16 Feb. 
1730 Sandys [see Sandys, Samtel] intro- 
duced the pension bill to disable persons in 
receipt of pensions from .«itling in parlia- 
ment. The king ordered Wnlpole to oppose 
it in the House of Commons, but he refused, 
leaving it ou this occa.sion, and in 1734 and 
1740, to be thrown out by the lords ( Hallam, 
Cotut. Hint. Hi. :i52). Meanwhile his rela- 
tions with Townsliend increased in difficulty. 
In 1729 an iiltercutiou between them ended 
in n scuflle and drawn swords. In December 
there were rumours of Townshend's retire- 
ment (Ladv Marv Howard to Lord Car- 
lisle, CarMe MSS. p. 62). The tories, 
sensible that the direction of foreign jwlicy 
WM passing into Walpole's hands, now 
violently attacked him on the score of the 
French alliance, of which he was known to 
be a warm luhocate. They inflamed the 
public mind with pretences that the Wal- 
noles were bel raying the interests of England 
ny neglecting to insist on the provision of 
tiie treaty of lUrecht, and of tuat of 1717 
for the demolition of the fortifications of 
Dunkirk. At the instance of Bolingbroke, 
Sir AN'. Wyiidham brought on a debate with 
the object of proving that Dunkirk was be- 
coming an increa.sing menace to the south 
coast, and indirectly of breaking the French 
alliance by insisting on its complete dis- ■ 
mantlement. In the debate which followed 
(27 Feb. 1729-30) \V'al]>o!c made a vigorous 
attack oil Rolingbroke, and carried an address 
approving the action of the ministry by 274 
to 149. So brilliant was Walpole's defence 
that the debate was currently spoken of as 
• the Dunkirk day ' (see CoXB," ii. 676, 687), 
'the greatest day,' said Horatio Walpole, 
*thst ever I knew.' In the course of this 



session Walpole broke with the accepted 
policy of controlling the commercial interests 
of the colonies by exclusive reference to the 
advantage of the mother countrv. He passed 
an act (the Hice Act, 3 Geo. ll, c. 28; the 
preamble of which affirms the then novel 
principle that the prosperity of the mother 

.country is aided by care for the prosperity of 
the colony. By this act Carolina was no 
longer compelled to export rice exclusively 
to tngland. In 173'5 he extended the same 

j privilege to Georgia (8 Geo. II, c. 19). On 

i the other hand, he renewed the charter of 

1 the East India Company till 1706, despite 

I the protests of the opposition, for the pay- 
ment of 20(1,000/. and the reduction by one 
per cent, of the interest due on account of 
Its loans to government. 

' On 15 May 17;iO Townshend resigned. 
.His ' irascible and domineering and jealous ' 
temiier (Heuvet. Menvi!r», i. 108) had long 
rendered him distasteful to the queen. "The 

I, death of Walpole's sister Dorothy, lady 
Townshend, mi 29 March 1726, had weakeneil 

' the link tliiit bound the two ministers 
together. Hut it was the queen who, as 

I Horace Walpole said, 'blew into a flame 
the ill-blood' between the two by her exclu- 
sive reliance ujMjn M'alpole. 'As long,' said 
Walpole, 'as the firm was Townshend and 
Walpole, the utmost harmony prevailed ; but 
it no sooner became Walpole and Townshend 
than things went wrong and a separation 
ensued.' Walpole, alive to the growth of 
the opposition and of the dangers attending 
a monopoly of power, now made overtures to 
some of its leaders. Wilmington [see 
CoMPTON, SpescerI, the king's favourite, he 
succeeded in detaching and made him lord 
privy seal. To Pulteney he offered Towns- 
nend's place with a peerage. The inter- 
mediary was the queen. But Pulteney re- 
fused all advances. Chesterfield, who had 
earned encouragement by betraying the 

, plans of the opposition to the queen, was 
made lord steward. Foreign affairs, nominally 
in the hands of Newcastle and Harrington, 
were entirely controlled by Walpole. 

The strength of AValpole's position and 
Fiis well-known toleration gave the dissenters 
hope that their claims as steady supporters 
of ills government might at lost be recognised. 
In 1727 he had passed the first (1 Geo. II, 
St. 2, c. 23) of a series of indemnity acts 
exempting from the test those who had not 
duly qualified themselves for the offices 
they held. They now agitated for a repeal 
of the Test and Corporation Acts. The 
Sacheverell affairhad taught Walpole caution 
in ecclesiastical matttirs. He did not think 
their request ' unreasonable,' but for a 



I 



I 

I 



minister confronted by n mixed opposition 
which the proposal would unite he thought 
it 'unBeasonabieNIlERVEy, iV<"mui>ii, i. 154). 
On the other hand, both in 1731 and again 
in 1733 he promoted n measure in favour of 
the dissenters in Ireland wliicli be was 
obliged to abandon (is irapnu'l icuble. 

The popularity which nuw fell to Walpole 
from bis eitraordinarj* success at home and 
abroad provoked the opposition to scandalous 
personal attacks. The 'Craftsman ' of 7 Nov. 
17;iO aflirnied that the hou.sekeepiiig bills nt 
Houghton amounted to l,'AK)/. a week. In 
ballads and broadsides be was represented as 
plundering the trea-sury and as selling the 
country to Krance. \Valpole himself was 
serenely indifferent, but on 7 .luly 1731 the 
grand ]ury of Middlesex presented ' I{nbin".s 
lUign' and others of the libels circulated in 
the streets, together with some numbers of 
the ' Craftsman.' This wan followed by a , 
number of succe-ssful prosecutions. Pulteney 
having published a pamphlet styled 'An 
Answer to one I'art of an Infamous Libel,' 
Jtc, in which be disclosed a conversation 
with AValpole on the reconciliation of the 
Prince of Wales with bis father, so incensed 
the king that he struck him off the roll of 
the privy council with his own hand. The 
year 1733 witnessed the introduction by 
Walpole of twolmportant financial measures. 
Of these the first was bis proposal to take 
i500,000/. from the sinking fund. The ob- 
jections to such a precedent were obvious, 
out Walpole's reasons deserve examination. 
The alternative, he told the country gentle- 
men, was raising the land tax, which in the 
previous session he hod cut down by a 
shilling, once more to two shillings in the 
pound. But II principal point of his policy 
was the reconciliation of the country gentle- 
men to the whig government. 1 lad he to 
make choice between them and 'the moneyed 
interest,' he would certainty have sacrificed 
the country gentry. ' A minister,' he once 
remarked, ' might shear the country gentle- 
men when he would, and the landed interest 
would always produce him a rich fleece in 
gilence : but tlie troding interest resembled 
a hog, whom if you attempted to touch . . . 
he would certainly cry out loud enough to 
alarm all the neighljourhood ' (D. Pulteney 
to the IJuke of Uutland, Rutland MSS. p. 
202). In this case the moneyed interest ap- 
proved because, as Walpole explained, the 
credit of the government had now risen to 
such a height that they ' apprehended 
nothing more than being obliged to receive 
their principals too fast.' This combination 
of interests triumphed over the opposition, 
and the proposal waa carried by i.'4o to 135 

TOL. LH, 



.votes (23 Feb. 1733). It was a triumph of 
political exigency over fiscal principle. 

The conciliation of the country gentry by 
the reduction of the land tax was preparatory 
to another financial change which, had it 
been effected, would have anticipatc<l the 
great reforms of the present century. This 
was the famous excise scheme of the same 
session. Walpole's attention had been drawn 
to the state of the customs' revenue. Since ' 
1723 he had checktnl the smuggling of tea 
and coffee by applying to them a compulsory 
warehousingsysteraundergovemment super- 
vision (see ADAM Smith, Wealth of NattoriK, 
bk. V. ch. ii.), thereby increosing ihe revenue 
derived from them by 120,000/. in seven 
years. No change was made in the name of 
the dutv, and the reform passed unnoticed. ._ 
He had (14 .March 1733) projected the ap- " 
plication of the same system to tobacco and 
wiiie. By so doing there would not merely 
be a check put upon smuggling. Under the 
existing complicated system of discounts, 
drawbacks, and allowancej*, with the aid of 
false weights and false entries, vast frauds, 
as he jKiinted out, had been detected, espe- 
cially upon re-exportation. His])r<iposol was 
to levy the full tax on tobacco and wine im- 
ported only when they were removed from 
the warehouses tor sale. W'here imported 
for re-exportation no tax was to be levied at 
all. The former of these two measures 
would, it wiui thought, check smuggling, 
' because the importer ' would never run any 
I risk, or be at any expense to evade the custom- 
I housf^ officers at the first gate, when at so 
many more afterwards he would be equally 
exjio.sed to be catched by the excise officer' 
(IIervey, Memoim, i. 184). The second 
would, as Walpole explained, ' tend to make 
London a free port, and bv consequence the 
j *market of the world.' Tlie change was, in 
I technical terms, a transfer of customs tfl 
' excise,' and therein the opposition saw their 
opjKirtunitv. Excise hod at various times 
been levied with vexatious incidents upon 
most of the necessaries of life. Its very name 
' was odious. The 'Craftsman' and the pam- 
"! phleteers discerned in the proposals the first 
j approach to an excise upon all articles of 
' food and clothing. Walpole had himself 
given some colour to the suggestion by re- 
imposing in 1732 (5 Geo. II, c. 0) the salt 
tax, which he had repealed in 1730 (3 Geo. II, 
c. 20'). Even then. Sir WiUism Wyndham 
had argued, ' it is one ate]) towards a general 
excise' (9 Feb. 17.'12), and Walpole had in- 
dignantly repudiated the suggestion (Pari. 
Hilt. viii. 960). But the course of events 
strengthened the public suspicion. Petitions 
against the scheme poured into the Iloust; 



L«f Commons. The houne iUelf was besieged 

Pbv ' amost extraordinary concourseorpeoplc' 

l^he city of London pruyod t-o be heard by 

counsel ai^iust the bill, and it8 petition waa 

■ escorted by a train of coaches that extended 
lAMm Temple Bar to Westminster. Discon- 
I tent began to pass into disiiSV-ction. The 
[army, it was said, could nut be D-lled on 

because the soldiers believed that tobacco 
would be raised in price. Inside the House of' 
Commons the ministerial majorities dwindled 
from sixty-one, on the introduction of the 
echeme on 14 March 1733, to seventeen on 

tlO April. On that night Walpole gave a 
supper to a dozen friends. 'This dance it 
will no further go,' he said, with tears in his 
eyes (Chatham Speeches, i. 69). On the next" 
<wy he moved ' that tlie bill be read ii second 
time on 12 June' (the recess). Frantic maiii- 

• festations of delight tlirouphout the country 

■ followed his ciipitulotion. AValpolewas bumt_ 
in effigy in the city (Carlisle MSS. p. Ill), 
where ne had incurred unpopularity by de- 
signating the formidable blind of petitioners 
'sturdy beggiirs' (14 Murcli 17;J3). The- 
king had taken tlie strongest personal in- 

I'terest in the biU. Its abandonment was fol- 
lowed by the summary dismissal of Lord 
Chesterfield, the lord steward, and of a group 
of peers in public employment who had co- 
operated witli him in tijiposing it. The Duke- 
of Bolton and Lord Cubhnm, both colonels 
tot household cavalry, were cashiered. The 
r opposition thereupon moved for leave to bring 
in a bill ' for securing the constitution by 
preventing officers, not above the rank of 
colonels of regiments, from being deprived 
of their commig-siions otherwise than by judg- 
ment of a court-martiul to bo held for that 
purpose, or by address of either house of par- 
liament' (13 Feb. 1734). Walpole in reply 
warned the hotwe of the constitutional danger 
of 'stratocracy' involved in tlie proposal. 
' Any minister,' he afterwards added to Lord 
ilervey, ' must be a pitiful fellow who would 
not show military officers that their employ- 
ments were not held on a surer tenure than* 
those of civil officers' (IIebvey, Memoirs, 
iii. 101). The motion was negatived with- 
out a division. 

Nevertheless, Walpole'a power had been 
shaken. It is true tint he could probably 
have carried theexcise billthroug