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DICTIONARY 

OF 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



Abbadie Anne 



DICTIONARY 



OF 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



EDITED BY 



LESLIE STEPHEN 



VOL. I. 



Abbadie Anne 



MACMILLAN AND CO. 

LONDON : SMITH, ELDER, & CO. 

1885 

.V 



pf\^ 




LIST OF WBITEES 



IN THE FIRST VOLUMK. 



B. A. . • . . Pbofbssob Adamsok. 

S. A Shkldon Amos. 

A. J. A. . . Sis Alxxandeb John Abbuthnot, 
JK.CS.I. 

T. A. A. . . T. A. Abchbb. 

W.E. A. A. W. E. A. Axon. 

J. E. B. . . J. E. Bailkt, F.S.A. 

G. F. B. B. G. F. BrssELL Babkbb. 

T. B Thomas Batnb. 

E. I. B. . . E. IXOBESS BSLL. 

G. V. B. . . G. Vkbb Benson. 

G. T. B. . . G. T. Bbttany. 

W. G. B. . The Rev. Pbofessob Blaikib, D.D. 

J. B James Bbittbn. 

A. A. B. • . Abthub Aikin Bbodbibb. 

B. C. B. . . R. C. Bbowne. 
A. H. B. . A. H. Bullbn. 
T. H. C. . . T. Hall Caine. 

H. M. C. . H. Mannebs Chichbsteb. 

A. M. C. . Mias A. M. Clkbke. 
E. M. C. . Miss E. M. Clkbke. 

D. C. . / . . The late Duttok Ckx>K. 
T. C Thompson Coopbb, F.SA. 

C. H. C. . . C. H. CooTK. 
J. S. C. . . J. S. Cotton. 

W. P. C. . W. P. COUBTNET. 

M. C The Bet. Pbofessob Cbuohton. 

B. E^ D. . . Pbofessob B. K. Douglas. 



T. F. T. D. 
F E 

A« O. Jlim • • 

W. H. F. . 
E. A. F. . . 

V • vT. .... 

R. G 

J. W.-G. . . 
J. T. G. . . 

.A. vjr. • . . . 

E. W. G. . 
A. H. G. . . 
R. E. G. . . 

A. B. G. . . 

R. H 

T. F. H. . . 
G. J. H. . . 

w . Xl. .... 

W.H. ... 

B. D. J. . . 
T T 

.LaVa aaaa 

C« F. K. . . 
X. £i. K.. . . 

J. 8. K... . . 

J. K. Li, . . 

H. V. L. . . 
S. li. Ij. . . 



The Rev. T. F. Thiselton Dter. 

Francis Espinassb. 

A. C. Ewald. 

The Hon. and Rev. Canon Fbe- 
mantle. 

Pbofessob E. A. Fbeeman, D.C.L. 

James Gaibdner. 

Richard Gabnett, LL.D. 

J. Westbt-Gibson, LL.D. 

J. T. Gilbebt, F.S.A. 

The Rev. Alexander Gordon. 

E. W. GossE. 

A. H. Grant. 
R. E. Gbaves. 

The Rev. A. B. Gbosabt, LL.D. 
Robert Harbison. 
T. F. Hendbbson. 
Geobub Jacob Holtoakb. 
Miss Jennett Humphreys. 
The Rev. William Hunt. 

B. I). Jackson. 
Thomas Johnstone. 

C. F. Keaby. 
T. E. Kebbel. 
J. S. Keltie. 

J. K. Lauohton. 
Henri van Laun. 
S. L. Lee. 



VI 



List of Writers. 



S. J. L. . S. J. Low. 

H. R. L. . . The Rbv. H. R. Luard, D.D. 

O. P. M. . . G. P. Macdonkll. 

J. M-L. . . . JOHK HaCDONBLL. 

M. M. . . . MsEAB Mackat, LL.D. 

T. M Sib Thbodobb Mabtin, K.C.B. 

J. M James Mew. 

A. M Abthxjr Milleb. 

<;. M W. Cosmo Monkhousb. 

N. M Norman Moore, M.D. 

J. B. M. . . J. Bass Muixinoer. 

J. H. O. . . The Rev. Canon Ovkbton. 

J. B. P. . . J. Balfour Paul. 

J. F. P. . . J. F. Paywe, M.D. 

N. P The Rev. Nichc^s Pocock. 

£. R Ebnbst Radi>x>rd. 

J. M. R. . . J. M. RiGG. 



Gr. F. R. . . G. F. RODWELL. 

J. H. R. . . J. H. Round. 
L. S-T. . . . Lewis Sergeant. 
E. S. . . . Edward Smith. 
W. B. S. . . W. Barclay Squire. 
C. E. 8. . . Miss Stephen. 

L. S Lbslie Stephen. 

H. M. S. . . H. M. Stephens. 
H. R. T. . . H. R. Tedder. 
E. M. T. . . E. Maunde Thompson. 
W. H. T. . W. H. Tregellas. 

E. V The Rev. Canon Venables. 

A. W. W. . Profbssob a. W. Ward, LL.D. 
G. F. W. . . G. F. Warner. 
fl. T. W. . H. Trueman Wood. 
W. W. ... Warwick Wroth. 



V 






DICTIONARY 



OF 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



Abbadie 



Abbadie 



ABBADIE, JACQUES (or JAMES), 
D.D.(1654 ?-1727),dean of Killaloe, preacher, 
and christian apolo^st, was bom at Nay, 
near Pan, probably in 1654, although 1657 
and 1658 have been given. There is some 
colour for the assertion of Mr. Smiles that 
he was ' the scion of a distinguished Beamese 
family ;' although it is probable that the 
poverty of his parents would have excluded 
him from a learned career if some of the 
leading protestants of the district had not 
charged themselves with the expenses of 
his education. This was commenced under 
M. Jean de la Placette, the minister of Nay, 
and prosecuted successively at Puylaurens, 
Saumur, and Sedan, where, as is generally 
said, he took the decree of D.D. at seventeen 
years of age. An obituanr notice, however, 
which appeared in the 'Daily Oourant' for 
5 Oct. 172/ , says : * He was not above twentjr- 
two when he undertook of himself his admi- 
rable treatise on the " Truth of the Christian 
KeUgion." A few years later he took, with 
vast applause, his degree of doctor in divi- 
nity in the university of Sedan, and about 
the same year he was sent for by his electoral 
highness, Frederick William, elector of Bran- 
denbiuTflr, to be minister of the French church 
at Berfin.' The electoral summons found 
Abbadie at Paris, whither he had repaired to 
study the masters of protestant eloquence, 
and it was conveyed through the Count 
d'Espense, who had been commissioned by 
his master to make the selection. 

The conffiegation of refugees, small enough 
at first to be accommodated in an apartment 
of the Count d'Espense's residence, was aug- 
mented gradually by the zeal of the preacher, 
and by the increased emigration to Branden- 
bunr. caused by the revocation of the edict 
of Nantes in 1685. The elector ordered the 
ancient chapel of his palace to be prepared 

TOL. I. 



for the congregation, and the services were 
frequentljr attended by the younger members 
of his family. Abbadie's arrival in Berlin has 
been variously assigned to the years 1680 
and 1681. During seven or eight years he 
used his increasing favour with the elector 
to relieve the distress of the refugees from 
France, and especially from his native pro- 
vince of Beam. 

Among the earliest literary ventures of 
Abbadie w^ere four 'Sermons sur divers 
Textes de TEcriture,* 4to, Leyde, 1680 ; ' In- 
flexions sur la Pr6sence r6elle du Corps de 
J6su8-Christ dans I'Eucharistie,' 12mo, La 
Haye, 1685 ; and two highly adulatory ad- 
dresses on persons in high stations, entitled 
respectively *Pan6gyrique de Monseigneur 
TElecteur de Brandebourg,' 1684, 4to and 
8vo, Berlin and Rotterdam ; and * Pan6gy- 
riaue de Marie Stuart, Heine d'Angleterre, 
d'Ecosse, de France, et dlrlande, de^orieuse 
et immortelle m6moire, d6c6d6e h Kensing- 
ton le 28 d6cembre 1694,' 8vo, Amsterdam, 
1695, also published in England as 'A Pane- 
gyric on our late Sovereign Lady,' 4to, Lon- 
aon, 1695. These four productions, with other 
occasional sermons, were in 1760 repub- 
lished collectively, in three 8vo volumes, at 
Amsterdam, and preceded by an ' Essai his- 
torijue sur la Vieet les Ouvrages de M. Ab- 
badie.' The i)amphlet on the Eucharist was 
also renrinted at Toulouse, in 1835, under 
the title of * Quatre Lettres sur la Trans- 
substantiation,' and appeared in an English 
translation, by Mr. John W. Hamersley, as 
the 'Chemical Change in the Eucharisty'^ito, 
London, 1867. 

Abbadie's residence at Berlin was varied 
by several visits which he paid to Hol- 
land in 1684, 1686, and 1688, chiefly for 
the purpose of superintending the printing 
of several of his works. One of the most 



jT- ■ 



Abbadie 



Abbadie 



important of them he had already contem- ' 

Slated at Paris ; it bore the title of * Trait6 
e la V6rit6 de la Religion chr6tienne/ 2 vols. 
8vo, Rotterdam, 1684. The book went through 
a vast number of editions and was translated 
into several languages, an English version, 
by Henry Lussan, appearing in 1694. Com- 
pleted by a third volume, the *Trait6 de la 
I)ivinit6 de Notre Seigneur J6sus-0hrist,' it 
appeared at Rotterdam, 1689, seventh edition, ; 
Amsterdam, 1729. An English translation, 
entitled * A Sovereign Antidote against ^Vrian ; 
Poyson,' 12mo, appeared in London, 1719, and 
ag^in 'revised, corrected, and, in a few places, ' 
abridged, by Abraham Booth,' under the title ; 
of * The Deity of Jesus Christ essential to the ' 
Christian Religion,* 8vo, London, 1777. The 
entire apology for Christianity formed by the 
three volumes of the * Trait6,' which com- 
bated severally the heresies of atheism, deism, 
and Sociniamsm, was received with unani- 
mous praise by protestants and catholics. 
Abbadie continued to occupy his pastorate at 
Berlin until the death of tne great elector, 
which took place 29 April 1688. He then 
accepted the invitation of Marshal Schom- 
berff to accompany him to Holland and Eng- '■ 
land, and in the autumn of 1689 he went to 
Ireland with the marshal. It was in the 
Irish camp that Abbadie commenced one of 
his most successful works, which was pub- 
lished at Rotterdam in 1692, as ' L'Art ae se 
connoitre soi-meme; ou, La Recherche des 
Sources de la Morale,' 8vo, and went through 
many editions and amplifications. Transla^ 
tions of this work into other languages in- 
clude a popular English version by the Rev. 
Thomas Woodcock, * The Art of Knowing 
One-self,' 12mo, Oxford, 1694. 

After the battle of the Boyne, Abbadie 
repaired to London, where he was presently 
appointed minister of the French church in 
the Savoy, which had been founded about 
the year 1641. Abbadie subs^uently pub- 
lished a revised version of the French trans- 
lation of the English litur^ used at this 
church, with an epistle dedicatory to King 
George I. Abbadie's sermons have been vari- 
ously judged. He was often .appointed to 
deliver occasional discourses, both m London 
and Dublin, but his want of facility in Eng- 
lish prevented his preferment in England, 
and also excluded him from the deanery of 
St. Patrick's, Dublin, to which William lU 
wished to promote him. Abbadie's health 
suffered from devotion to his duties in 
the Savoy, and from the climate of this 
country. He therefore settled in Ireland, 
and in 1699 the deanery of Killaloe was con- 
ferred upon him by the king, whoee special 
&your he had attracted by a spirited Vindi- 



cation of the Revolution of 1688, * Defense 
de la Nation Britannique,' 12mo, La Haye, 
1693, written in answer to Bayle's * Avis 
important aux R6fugi6s,' 1690, and by the 
funeral oration on Queen Mary (Cotton, 
Fasti Ecclesice Hibemicce^ i. 412; Dwteb, 
Diocese of Killaloe, 8vo, Dublin, 1878). Ab- 
badie had also written, at the request of the 
king, ' Histoire de la demiere Conspiration 
d'Angleterre,' 8vo, London, 1696, which was 
reprinted in Holland and translated into 
English, and for which the Earl of Portland 
and Secretary Sir William Trumbull placed 
original documents at the author's disposal. 
It was this work, now extremely scarce, 
that chiefly helped Abbadie's preferment. 
After its production, * his majesty sent him 
to Ireland, with an order to the lords jus- 
tices to confer upon him some difi;iiity in 
the church, which order was complied with 
by his promotion to the deanery of fcllalow * 
(Daily Courant, 5 Oct. 1727). 

The remainder of Abbadie's life was 
spent in writing, preaching, and in the per- 
formance — not too sedulous, for he was fre- 
quently absent from his benefice — of the or- 
ainary duties of his office, varied by visits to 
England and to Holland, where most of his 
booKs were printed. Amongst his productions^ 
of this period the principal was entitled ' La 
V6rit6 de la Religion Cnr6tienne R6form6e,* 
2 vols. 8vo, Rotterdam, 1717, second edition 
1718, a controversial treatise which in its four 
parts attacks the characteristic doctrines of 
the Romish church ; it was translated into 
English, for the use of the Roman catholics of 
his diocese of Dromore, by Dr. Halph Lam- 
bert, afterwards bishop of Meath. The work 
was completed in 1723 in * Le Triomphe de 
la Provictence et de la Religion ; ou, I'Ouver- 
ture des sept Seaux par le Fils de Dieu, ou 
I'on trouvera la premidre partie de I'Apoca- 
lypse clairement expliqu6e par ce qu'il y a 
de plus connu dans I'llistoire et de moins 
contests dans la Parole de Dieu. Avec une 
nouvelle et tr^s-sensible D6monstration de 
la V6rit6 de la Religion Chr6tienne,' 4 vols. 
12mo, Amsterdam. Abbadie visited Hol- 
land to see * La V^rit6 ' through the press ; 
and afterwards stayed more than three years 
at Amsterdam, 1720-23, during the prepara- 
tion of * Le Triomphe ' and other works. 
He returned to Ireland in 1723. Abbadie's 
income as dean of Killaloe was so small that 
he could not afford a literarv amanuensis ; 
and Dr. Boulter, archbishop of Armagh, hav- 
ing appealed in vain to Lord Carteret, the 
lord lieutenant, on Abbadie's behalf, gave him 
a letter of introduction to Dr. Edmund Gib- 
son, bishop of London, and Abbadie left Ire- 
land. He established himself at Marylebone, 



Abbot 3 Abbot 

iRrbere be devoted much time and care to the Dorsetshire from the year 1 100. when Richard 

revision of his printed works for a complete Abbot was high sheritf <ft the county : bat 

•edition in four volumes, in which were also the immediate ancestors of the Speaker had 

to be included two unpublished treatises, resided for some generations at Snaftesburv. 

' Xouvelle Manieie de prouver ITmmortalit6 Charles was sent to Westminster in March 

de TAme,* and ' Notes sur le Commentaire 1763, before he was six years old, and at the 

philoeophique de M. Bayle.' Relying upon age of thirteen was admitted * into college.' 

a remarkable memory, he put off writmg In 1775 he was elected to Christ Church, 

until copy was demanded by the printer, where he went into residence in January 1776. 

These two treatises were thus unfinished. He won the college prize for Latin verse in hia 

and no trace of them could be found after first year, and in his sectind the chancellor's 

his death. Ue died at his lodging at Mary- prize) the subject being *Petrus Magnus;' 

lebone on Mondav, 25 Sept. 1727, in the 74th and so highly were such performances valued 

jear of his age (Haify Cuurant, 5 Oct. 1727; at that time, that the Empress Catharine, to 

I}aify F&Btf 6 Oct. 17'27 ; Historical jReffistery whom the verses had been presented, sent 

1727). him a gold medal. At tliis time the well- 

[Xiceron's Mimoires pour servir A raistoire ^own scholar, Markham, was dean of Christ 

des Hommes illiiKtreii dans la IWpnbliqne ties Church ; and for five successive years the 

Lettres, vol. xxxiii. ; Etsai historiqne, prefixed chancellor s prize was carried off bv Christ- 

to Sermons et Panegyriqnes, 1760 ; Bum's Hi»- Church men, among them being Abbot, Lord 

torj of the FrenchTwalloon, Dutch, and other Wellesley, and Lonl Grenville. On leaving 

Foreign Protetitant Refugees settled in England, Oxford in the summer of 1 778, Abbot spent a 

8vo, £ondon, 1846 ; MM. Haag's La France Pro- year in Switzerland in the studv of the civil 

testante; Illaire's Etude sur Jacques Abbadie law, and in the year following took chambers 

consider* comme PrWiaiteur, 8to Strasburg. }„ Lincoln's Inn, and began to keep terms at 

1858; Weisss History of the French Protestant the Middle Temple 

Refugees, 1854 ; AgneVs Protestant Exiles from j^ ^y^^ Abbot was elected Vinerian scho^ 

France in the reign of Lonis XIV. 2nd edinon. j^^ ^^ ^^^ university of Oxford, and five 

' '•' ' * I vears afterwards Vinerian fellow, appoint- 

ABBOT, CHARLES 
aometime fellow of N( 
his M.A. degree 

and D.D. in 1802. He was vicar of Oakley upon transferrinfr his attentions to the ejuitv 

Kavnes and Goldington, Bedfordshire, an'd courts, he found it necessarv to resign his fel- 

<;haplain to the Marquis of Tweeddale. In lowship and reside in London. He was now 

1798 he published a * Flora Bedfordiensis,' and earning by his profession about 1 ,500/. a vear ; 

in 1807 a volume of sermons entitled * Paro- but the work of the bar was t(x> hard for him : 

chial Divinity.* He also wrote a * Monodv * a life of unceasing and ungrateful toil,* he 

on the Death of Horatio, Lord Nelson,* in calls it, *from daybreak to midnight.' Ac- 

1805. His herbarium, prepared bv his wife, cordingly in 1794 he accepted the office of 

iapreservedatTurvey Abbey; it is" contained clerk of the rules in the court of King's 

infivefolio volumes, but its value for critical Bench, a place worth 2,700/. a year. He 

purposes is but smalL He became a fellow discharged his duty energetically for seven 

of the Linnean Society in 1793, and died at years, collecting and endorsing old records 

Bedford, October 1817. which had been left to moulder in garrets, 

[Gent. Mag. 1817, ii. 378 ; Journal of Botany. ??.^ T^^^'I!^ ^T, ^^* ^"'•. ^^^ "*^ f A^^ 

1881 n 401 J B. Kings Bench. At the expiration of this 

* *^* *■' * I period the Duke of I>e<Mis, who had been his 

ABBOT, CHARLES, first Barox Col- , schoolfellow at Westminster, offered him the 
CHESTER (1757-1829), speaker of the House borough of Helston in Cornwall. Abbot 
of Commons, 1802-1817, was bom 14 Oct. | accepted the ofler, and took his seat in the 
1767, at Abmgdon, Berkshire. His father, , House of Commons in the autumn of 1795. 
the Rev. John Abbot, D.D., was a fellow of l Having turned his attention to theintroduc- 
Balliol College, Oxford, and rector of All | tion of practical improvements in legislation, 
Saints, Colchester. His mother was Sarah, in his first session he obtained a committee 
danghter of Mr. Jonathan Farr, citizen of to inquire into the manner of dealing with 
London. Dr. Abbot died in 1760, and his expiring laws. Its report established the 
widow subsequently became the wife of , practice of making complete annual tables 
Jeremy Bentham, £00., father by a former of the temporary laws of the United King- 
marriage of the weU-known writer on juris- dom, so tnat none, as had formerly hap- 
pradenoe. The Abbots had been settled in , pened, should expire unobserved. In 1797 

b2 




Abbot 



Abbot 



he brought before parliament a plan for the 
due promulgation of the statutes in all public 
officeB and courts of justice, including magis- 
trates* courts, by furnishing them with a copy 
of all acts of parliament as soon as printed ; 
thus enabling them to see readily the state of 
the law which they had to administer, instead 
of being obliged to refer to private collections 
of acts. He was also ' exceedingly desirous 
to have introduced a more improved style 
and diction in all public acts, but the matter 
was full of difficulties, and, though exhorted 
by all, he was helped by none.' The project 
therefore fell to the ground {Memoir), 

In 1797 a finance committee was appointed 
by Pitt, of which Abbot was the chairman ; 
and for two years he gave his undivided at- 
tention to it. The committee made thirty- 
six reports, of which many were drawn up 
by Abbot himself; and one of the most bene- 
ficial results of his investigations was a 
bill for charging public accountants with 
the payment of interest. In the year 1800 
he obtained a committee to inquire into the 
condition of the national records. And in 
December of the same year he introduced 
the first Census Act for ascertaining the 
population of Great Britain. 

Abbot had always lived on terms of great 
intimacy with Addington, and on the latter 
becoming prime minister in February 1801, 
the member for Helston was selected to fill 
the post of chief secretary for Ireland. The 
office of secretary of state for Ireland, which 
was then held by Lord Castlereagh, was at 
the time abolished, and to do the work of the 
office a secretary to the lord lieutenant, and 
a keeper of the priv-j seal for Ireland, a sine- 
cure office which might be held for life, were 
appointed. The latter post was added to 
Abbot's secretaryship to compensate him for 
the loss of his situation in the King's Bench. 
He arrived in Ireland in July 1801, and in the 
following October received the tidings of the 
peace of Amiens, which liberated tne Irish 
government from its gravest anxieties. The 
remainder of his term of office was devoted 
to those official and departmental reforms 
for which he was so eminently qualified; 
but on the death of Ijord Clare, the Irish 
lord chancellor, in January 1802, Sir John 
Mitford, the successoi: of Addington in the 
speakership, received the great seal, and 
Abbot was recalled from Dublin to occupy 
the vacant chair. His diary and correspond- 
ence whilst in Ireland may still be reaa with 
great profit. 

Abbot was elected to the speakership on 
11 Feb. 1802. He paid, he says, to his nre- 
decessor 1,060/. for tne state coach which nad 
been buUt in 1701, 1,000/. for wine, and 500/. 



for furniture. At the general election or 
1802 the new speaker was returned for 
Woodstock, a seat which he held till 1806^ 
when, on the dissolution of parliament b^ 
Lord Grenville, he was returned for the uni- 
versity of Oxford. His tenure of office was 
far from uneventful. It fell to his lot to give 
the casting vote on Mr. WTiitbread's resolu- 
tions impugning the conduct of Lord Melville 
as treasurer of the navy, amid a scene long 
remembered as one of the most striking that 
have ever been witnessed within the walls of 
the House of Commons. Mr. Pitt had moved 
the previous question, and on the division the 
numbers were 216 on each side. Abbot turned 
as white as a sheet, says an eye-witness, and 

Eaused for at least ten minutes, after which 
e explained very briefly his reasons for 
voting in favour of the question being put, 
which was accordingly put and carried, to 
the intense grief of Mr. Pitt, who pulled his 
cocked hat over his face to hide the tears- 
which trickled down his cheeks. 

Two important controversies, touching the 
duty and authority of the speaker, occurred 
during Abbot's speakership. The earlier of 
the two arose on tne resistance by Sir Francis 
Burdett to the execution of the speaker's war- 
rant for committing him to the Tower in the 
year 1810. Sir Francis denied the legality 
of the warrant, and refused to surrender to- 
it; whereupon the question arose whether 
the sergeant-at-arms was empowered by Mr. 
Abbot's warrant to break open the doors of 
his house. The attorney-general. Sir Vicary 
Gibbs, gave a very gruarded opinion; but 
one, nevertheless, on wliich the sergeant 
felt justified in acting : he forced Burdett's 
doors, and the prisoner was conveyed to the 
Tower, where he remained till the prorogation^ 
set him free. He at once brought an action 
against both the speaker and the sergeant in 
the court of Kin^s Bench, when judgment 
was given for the defendants. The question 
was carried by writ of error to the Exchequer 
Chamber, and afterwards to the House of 
Lords, but in each case with the same result. 
The second of the two questions raised 
during Abbot's tenure of office was the right 
of the speaker to include in his address to the 
sovereign on the prorogation of parliament 
a reference to measures to which the house 
had not given its consent. In his address to 
the prince regent in July 1813, Abbot had 
introduced some remarks on the bill for the 
removal of Roman catholic disabilities which 
had been defeated in committee. Mr. Grant 
said in the debate, * What it is not lawful 
for the king to notice, it is not lawful for the 
speaker to express.' Lord Morpeth moved, 
6n 22 April 1814, that the address of the? 



Abbot 



Abbot 



speaker on the occasion referred to should not 
be drawn into a precedent. The motion was 
-defeated hy a large majority, hut, according 
to Sir Erskine May, the correctness of the 
doctrine upheld by the opposition has since 
been recognised in practice, and the speaker 
in addressing her majesty adverts only to the 
most important measures which have received 
the sanction of parliament during the session. 

Seventy years ago the office of speaker was 
more laborious than it is now, and in 1816 
Abbot's health gave way, and he was obliged 
to send in his resignation. He retired with 
a peera^, and selected the title of Colchester; 
be received a pension of 4,000/. a year for 
iiimself, and 3,000/. for his immediate suc- 
cessor. 

Abbot is certainly to be classed among the 
most distinguished men who liave ever occu- 
pied the chair. Perceval vainly urged him 
to become secretary of state in 1809. "VMiit- 
bread said that he was superior to any other 
.speaker he had ever known. He was formally 
thanked by the House of Commons in 1808 
for his upright, able, and impartial conduct ; 
and both IJord Liverpool and Lord Castle- 
Teagh spoke of him on his retirement in terms 

X'ficant of the general high opinion in 
b his qualities were held. His short 
speeches recorded in the Journals of tlie 
House of Commons, thanking admirals and 
generals for their exploits during the ereat 
war, are models of dignified panegyric. These 
jspeeches were collected into one volume by 
Sir. John Hickman, Lord Colchester's secre- 
tary, and published in 1829. 

Abbot's services as an ex-officio trustee of 
the British Museum had been so valuable 
that on his retirement from office the number 
of trustees was increased in order that he 
might be elected. The appointment of days 
for the free admission of the public, the open- 
ing of the library for the accommodation of 
students, and the purchase of almost all the 
collections that were added to it between the 
years 1802 and 1817, are due to his sugges- 
tions. 

The five years immediately following his 
retirement from the speakership were de- 
TOted to the restoration of his health ; and 
frpom 1819 to 1822 he travelled through the 
greater part of France and Italy, returning 
to England just before the reconstruction of 
the ministry consequent on the death of 
Lord Londonderry. During the next seven 
years he continued to take an active part in 
politics. He was a tory of the Siomouth 
rather than the Pitt schooL He was strongly 
opposed to the admission of the Roman ca- 
tholics to parliament ; and he has left us a 
•-very full account of the political negotiations 



of 1827, adopting the strong anti-Canning 
view which aistinsruished all that section of 
the tories. On 6 Feb. 1829 he made his last 
speech in the House of I^ords. He was then 
far from well; in the following month he 
became seriously ill. He lingered on throuffh 
April, and died rather suddenly on 7 May, m 
the 72nd year of his age. 

Shortly after his acceptance of the speak- 
ership, Abbot purchased the estate of Kid- 
brooke, in Sussex, which was his country 
retreat for the remainder of his life. Here 
he amused himself with planting and gar- 
dening", with drilling volunteers, and dis- 
char^ng the duties of a magistrate. He had 
married, in Dec. 1796, Miss Elizabeth Gibbes, 
eldest daughter of Sir Philip Gibbes, and 
was succeeded at his death by his eldest 
son Charles, who was postmaster-general in 
1858, and, dving in 1867, was succeeded by 
the present Lord Colchester, the third peer. 

Lord Colchester's Diary and Correspond- 
ence were published by his son in 1861 ; 
they extend over a period of thirty-four years, 
from 1795 to 1829, and are among the most 
valuable collections of the kind. The me- 
moir by the editor is the principal source 
of information. A selection from Abbot's 
speeches on the Roman catholic questio4 
appeared in 1828, and the collection of his 
addresses to military and naval commanders, 
which have iK'en already referred to, was 
published in 1829. 

[Diary aud Correspondence of Lord Colchester, 
by the second Lord Colchester, 3 vols. 1861 ; Life 
of Mr. Perceval, by Spencer Waljiole, 1874 ; Man- 
ning's Lives of the Speakers; Annual Rt^gister, 
1820.] T. E. K 

ABBOT, GEORGE (1562-1633), arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, was bom at Guildford 
on 29 Oct. 1562. His father, Maurice Abbot, 
was a clothworker of the town ; his mother's 
maiden name was Alice March or Marsh; 
their cottage, the birthplace of the archbishop, 
was * by the river s side, near to the bridge on 
the north side in St. Nicolas* parish,* and, 
after serving for some years in the seven- 
teenth and eighteenth centuries as an ale- 
house with the sign of * The Three Mariners,* 
remained standing until 1864 (Mukrat*8 
Surrey f p. 74). Abbot's parents were staunch 
protestants; they had first 'embraced the 
truth of the Gospel in Kin^ Edward's days, 
and were persecuted for it m Queen Mary's 
reign (by Dr. Story of infamous memory), 
and notwithstanding all troubles and moles- 
tations continued constant in the profession 
of the truth till their death,' wnich took 
place witliin ten days of each other in 
September 1606. George was their second 



Abbot 6 Abbot 

aon ; their eldest was Robert, bishop of Salis- in bishops a superintending pastorate and no 
bury; their sixth and youngest son, Maurice, separate order of the ministry. He always 
became an eminent London merchant (FuL- forcibly advocated reasonable obedience to 
LEB^s Abel RedimvuSj p. 639). Singiilarly sue- | the crown and all duly constituted authority, 
cessful as were the careers of this * happy but whenever the demands of loyalty con- 



temion of brothers,* it was on George alone 
that the hopes of his family were Irom the 
first unmistakably set. Before his birth his 
mother had a curious dream, long remem- 



flicted with his sense of duty he did not 
hesitate to act in accordance with the latter. 
Abbot's vehement support of the puritan 
position soon attracted the admiration of 



bered in his native t-own, prognosticating a ' Thomas Sackville, Lord Buckhurst, * a special 
great career for him, and news of the vision ' maintainer of the true religion,' who became 
brought Hhe best inhabitants of Guildford. . . chancellor of the university in 1591, and 
to the christening of the child* (Aubrey, ; appointed Abbot his private chaplain soon 
-Mwce/Zantie*, ed. 1857, p. 58). Abbot received afterwards. Five years later Oxford con- 
his early education at the free grammar school ' firmed this mark of esteem. On 6 Sept. 1597, 
at Guildford, and was * there bred up a ' at the comparatively early age of thirty-five, 
scholar* (t^t^.). When sixteen years ola he Abbot was elected master of University 
entered Balliol College, Oxford, in 1582 took College. According to Clarendon's unfriendly 
the degree of B.A., and became a probationer judgment. University was at the time * one 
fellow of his college on 29 Nov. 1583. In of the poorest collets in Oxford,' and the 
1585 he proceeded M.A., and at the same I ' learning sufficient fnr that province * small 
time took holy orders. During eight sue- {History y i. 126, ed. 1849). But of Abbot's 
ceeding years Abbot devoted hunself to the own learning there can be no genuine doubt, 
study of theolog}',and to tutorial work in the and the appointment gave him many oppor- 
university. In 1593 he received the degree tunities of exhibiting its quality with enect. 
of B.D., and four years later that of D.D. ; It was quickly followed by his nomination 
Abbot rapidly won an academical reputa- to the deanery of Winchester, in which he 
tion as a powerful preacher and efficient was installed on 6 March 1599-1600, and 
lecturer. His sermons at St. Mary's drew , before the year was out Abbot was chosen 
large congregations. In 1594 he began a | vice-chancellor of the university. To Lord 
course of lectures on the book of Jonah, con- ' Buckhurst, who succeeded Lord Biirghley as 
tinned at inter\als for many years * both , lord high treasurer in 1599, Abbot ascribed 
winter and summer on Thursdav mornings allthesepreferments, and he did not delay the 
early,' and in 1597, presumably wiien he took ' expression of his gratitude. W^riting to him 
the degree of D.D., he read publicly in the ' on 10 Oct. 1600, Abbot spoke of his * desire 
theological school at Oxford six theses, which to let men understand with how honorable 
were published in the following year. The a regard your lordship hath been pleased 
book was entitled * Quaestiones sex totidem ' now for diverse yeares to looke upon me, and 
prselectionibus in Schola Theologica C)xoniro ! of your lordship's owne disposition at every 

fro forma habitis discussoe et disceptatie anno first occasion so to think on my preferment, 
597, in quibus e sacra Scriptura et Patribus, ; as I had no reason in my conceit to looke for 
quid statuendum sit definitur,' and it was , or in any way expect ' (Dedication to Jmiah, 
aeemed worthy by Abraham Scultetus of ' 1600). In 1603 and in 1605 he was twice 
republication at Frankfort in 1616. In this reappointed to the vice-chancellorship. 
TOiume, as in all his published works. Abbot's | Abbot put all his energy into his rapidly 
theological position was forcibly enunciated. I increasing work at Oxford. Although a 
He had inherited /rom his parents a strong strict disciplinarian his pupils remembered 
affection for the reformed faith ; Oxford, as him with affection in after life. W^ith a 
he knew it in his undergraduate days, was ^very towardly one ' of them. Sir Dudley 
a puritan stronghold, and its tutors were ~ 
steeped in the theology of Calvin and St. 
Augustine. It was thus that Abbot became 
* stitfly principled ' in puritan doctrines, and 
his views, cast in a dangerously narrow 
mould, took from his habitually gloomy and 
morose temperament a fanatical colouring. 
A natural norror of disorder distinguish^ 
him &om the extreme section of the puritans, 
and made the separatists detestable to him. 
In questions of church government he was 
content to stand by episcopacy, but he saw 



Digg^s, he remained on terms of the closest 
intimacy until his death. * He calleth me 
father,' wrote Abbot in 1627, *and I term 
his wife my daughter. His eldest son is my 
godson, and their children are in love ac- 
counted my grandchildren.' Another of his 
pupils, Sir George Savile, who married a 
sister of Sir Thomas Wentworth, afterwards 
Earl of Strafford, left his son on his death ta 
Abbot's guardianship. In 1699 he wrote for 
his pupils a useful geographical treatise — ' a 
briefe aescription of the whole world' — which 



Abbot 



Abbot 



included an account of America, and was 
repeatedly reprinted, a fifth edition appearing 
in 1664. About the same time he concluded 
his lectures on Jonah, which received very 
^neral commendation, and he published them 
in London in 1600 with a dedication to Lord 
Buckhurst ; in 1613 they reached a second 
edition. Their occasional digressions into 
topics of general interest, like the prospects 
ot ]frote8tantism in France, explain much of 
their popularity. (A reprint of the work 
appeared in 1845, edited, with a life of the 
author, by Grace Webster.) Throughout 
the university Abbot at the same time kept 
strict order as vice-chancellor. He caused a 
number of religious pictures, which he re- 
garded as incentives to idolatr}', to be burnt 
in the market-place of the town, and on 
27 April 1601 he reported to the chancellor 
how he had arrested one Abraham Colfe, B. A., 
of Christ Church, * for publicly in the hall 
nii|.lcing a verv offensive declsuration in the 
cause of the late Earl of Essex.' But in 
his official capacity Abbot was also sum- 
moned to take part in the theological con- 
troversies raging outside the university. The 
citizens of London, who were mainly puritan 
in feeling, were in 1600 at feud with liichard 
Bancroft, their bishop, and Abbot with the 
vice-chancellor of Cambridge was called on to 
arbitrate in the dispute. Its origin was com- 
paratively simple. A crucifix that had long 
atXKxi in Cheapside had fallen down, and the 
bishop had oniered its re-erection. To this the 
citizens had demurred, and Abbot's opinion 
on the matter was invited. He unhesitatingly 
condemned the renovation of the crucinx ; 

* if,' he said, * a monument was required in 
Cheapeide, let an obelisk be set up there.' 
But, with his characteristic hatred of unruli- 
ness, he discouraged the citizens from taking 
the law into their own hands {Letter to the 
Citizens of Ixmdon, 1600). In the result 
Abbot's advice was rejected, and a plain ; 
stone cross took the place of the crucifix. 
But his remarks, which threw him into disfa- 
vour with Bancroft, attracted much attention. 
*The cross in Cheap is going up,' wrote 
Chamberlain to Carleton (3 Feb. 1600-1), 

* for all your vice-chancellor of Oxford and 
some other odd divines have set down their 
censure against it ' (Chamberlain's Letters^ 
Camd. Soc., p. 102). And in 1602, when 
Abbot preached in London at the Temple 
Church, one of hi? hearers testified to nis 
assured reputation by entering notes of the 
sermon in his diaiy (Manninoiiam's Diary y 
Camd. Soc., pp. 126-7). 

At Oxford, as in London, Abbot was not 
long able to maintain his cherished opinions 
un<mallenged. Before the close of tne six- 



teenth century there were signs of change 
in the religious atmosphere of the university,* 
but Abbot's conservative tone of mind did 
not enable him readily to grasp their signi- 
ficance. John Buckeridge, the chief tutor 
of St. John^s, had begun to brandish * the 
sword of Scripturt* ' against the puritans, and 
his pupil and later colleague, W illiam Laud, 
eagerly followed in his footsteps. When 
Abbot was vice-chancellor in 1603, Laud was 
proctor, and a collision between the two 
theologians was inevitable. In a divinity 
lecture delivered at St. John's College in the 
precedinfj year Laud had asserted the per- 
petual visibility of the * church of Christ 
derived from the apostles and the church of 
Home, continued in that church (and in others 
of the east and south) to the lieformation.* 
This was an admission of the beneficial in- 
fluence of the papacy, apiinst which Abbot 
rebelled. According to I leylin, Laud's friend 
and biographer. Abbot from that time * con- 
ceived a strong grud^ against [the preacher], 
which no tract of time could either abolish 
or diminish,' and certain it is that in 1603 he 
at once sharply reproved him and drew up a 
summary of his own views on this subject. 
It was Abbot's endeavour to show, by aid 
of much curious learning, how *the noble 
worthies of the christian world,' among whom 
he onlv numbered opponents of the papacy 
like "VValdo, Wycline, Huss, and Luther, 
* after they had finished their course, de- 
livered the lamp of their doctrine from one 
to another.' The pamphlet was widely cir^ 
culated in manuscript, and was unfortunately 
published by an anonymous admirer in 1624, 
when Laud was in a position to use it to the 
injury of Abbot's reputation with the king 
and the Duke of BucKingham (Laud's Diary y 
in his WorkSy iii. 146). It appeared, how- 
ever, without Abbot's name, but with his 
arms — three pears impaled with the arms of 
the see of Canterbury — engraved on the title- 
page. This is probably the work of Abbot's 
popularly called in error * Look beyond 
Luther* (II. Savage, Ballioferyugy p. 114). 
But the early quarrels with Laud did not 
cease here. In 1606, when Dr. Henry Airay, 
provost of Queen's and a friend of Abbot s, 
was vice-chancellor. Laud was openly repri- 
manded for a sermon preached at St. Mary's, 
*■ as containing in it sundry scandalous and 
popish passages.' And Abbot, according to 
Laud's sympathisers, brought all his influence 
to bear to the injury of the oflender. * He 
so violently persecuted the poor man, and so 
openly branded him for a papist, or at least 
very popishly inclined, that it was often 
made an heresy (as I have heard from his 
own mouth) for any one to be seen in his 



Abbot 



8 



Abbot 



company, and a misprision of heresy to give 
him a civil salutation as he walked the 
streets ' (Hbylin, ed. 1668, p. 64). 

Laud was not the only champion of dis- 
sentient views that Ahbot thought it neces- 
sary to attack at the time. ^ A certain auda- 
cious person who termeth himself Doctour 
Hill,* a seminary priest, had represented in a 
book printed at Antwerp that popery was 

* the true faith of Christ, and that England 
was ^ a sinke of wickednesse beyond all the 
nations of the earth * (see Foley, RecordSy 
vi. 192). The volume was a new version of 
Richard Bristow^s * Motives inducing to the 
Catholike faith,* *a book of great vogue with 
the papists* (Stbypb, AnnaUj II. i. 498). 

* At the intreaty of others,' Abbot spent a 
year and a half (1603-4) in preparing a re- 
futation of Bristow's and Hill s logic, and 
late in 1604 he published at Oxford, with a 
dedication to Lord Buckhurst, who had just 
been created Earl of Dorset, a fiercely worded 
pamphlet, 'unmasking' Dr. Hill, and showing 
ten of his reasons * to be very weake, and 
upon examination most insufficient for the 
purpose.* An eloquent eulogy on the reipn 
of Queen Elizabeth is to l^ found in its 
pages, and a justifiable attack upon Cardinal 
Allen's writings. A continuation of the work 
was partly written, but was never sent to 
press. The heated temper in which Abbot 
conducted controversial discussion did not 
always commend itself to the undergraduates, 
and when holding the office of vice-chancellor 
for the third time in 1605, he had to commit 
one hundred and forty of them to prison for 
disrespectfully sitting * with their hats on * in 
his presence at St. Mary's Church (Nichols, 
Progresses, i. 559 J. 

In 1604 Abbot s scholarship had been put 
to a more dignified employment. Early in 
that year a new translation of the Bible had 
been resolved on at the Hampton Court con- 
ference, and Abbot, with seven other Oxford 
graduates, was entrusted with the respon- 
sible task of revising the older translations 
of the four gospels, the Acts, and the Apoca- 
lypse. But these labours did not withdraw 
him from polemical literature or public af- 
fairs. In 1606, Abbot, as dean of Win- 
chester, attended convocation. The assem- 
bly was engaged in examining a work by 
Dr. Overall, * concerning the government of 
God's catholic church and the kingdoms of 
the whole world.* The book \'igorously advo- 
cated the doctrine of non-resistance to de facto 
rulers; it confirmed its conclusion by a misty 
interpretation of Old Testament history, and 
was imagined to strike a crushing blow at 
the political theories of the Roman catholics. 
Conyocation by a unanimous vote expressed its 



high approval of the volume, but James I was 
dissatisfied with this result : he feared that 
Overall*s doctrine would confirm eveiy suc- 
cessful usurper in undisturbed possession of 
the throne. Abbot had doubtless taken an 
active part in the discussion, and he had al- 
ready come into personal relations with the 
king ; once, in 1603, he had carried to him 
at Woodstock the congratulations of the 
university on his accession ; and again, in 
1605, he had been much in his company 
when the king had been entertained at Ox- 
ford by the chancellor, the Earl of Dorset, 
and had honoured with his presence several 
formal theological debates over which Abbot 
had presided. Upon Abbot, therefore, James 
conferred the distinction of addressing him 
a letter, partly written in his own hand, 
stating his views on the action of convoca- 
tion. * Good Dr. Abbot,* the king began, * I 
cannot abstain to give you my judgment of 
your proceedings in your convocation, as 
you call it.' And he proceeded to point out 
that he himself was no mere de facto ruler, 
but owed his throne to the highest claims of 
hereditary right. The letter marked a dis- 
tinct stage in the growth of Abbot's reputa- 
tion. 

In 1608 his patron, the Earl of Dorset, 
died, and on 20 May Abbot preached 
the sermon at his funeral in Westminster 
Abbey; it was published soon afterwards 
at the earnest solicitations *■ of diners of 
speciall qualitie and note,* with a dedication 
to Cicely, the widowed countess. But Ab- 
bot immediately found a new and equally 
influential patron. He became chaplain to 
the Earl of Dunbar, lord high treasurer of 
Scotland, who, as Sir George Hume, had be- 
come the intimate friend of James I before his 
accession to the English throne, and while 
in attendance upon him Abbot performed 
several important political ser\'ices. Lord 
Dunbar had for some years devoted himself 
to the re-establishment of episcopacy in Scot- 
land, a project in which the king was deeply 
interested, and he had so far succeeded sls to 
have obtained an act of parliament for the 
creation of a number of bishops, but the part 
they were to play in the presbyterian system 
of government, which was to remain, as far 
as possible, undisturbed, was not yet satis- 
factorily settled. In July 1608, a general 
assembly was summoned at Linlithgow, to 
give thorough eff*ect to the episcopal reforms, 
and Abbot, with Dr. Higgins, was ordered to 
accompany Lord Dunbar to put the claims 
of episcopacy before the Scotch ministers. 
Abbot was well received at Linlithgow. 
' The English doctors,* says Calderwood, the 
historian of the Scotch church, ' seemed to 



Abbot 9 Abbot 

liave no other direction but to persuade the cbired to be * so immaculate and unspotted 

Scots there was no substantial difference in from the world . . . that even malice itself 

religion betwixt the two lealms, but only in could never find true blemish in it/ In suc- 

things indifferent concerning government and ce^ive passagvs he was compared to David, 

ixiemomes^ {Hist, of Kirk of Scotland, "puh-- Solomon, Josias, Constantine the Great, 

lishedbytheWodrowSoCyVi. 735). A letter Moses, Hezekiah, and Theodosius; but ex- 

iromSootland reached James, describing with travagant adulation was the recognised 

enthusiasm the effect of Abbotts preaching homage that loyal subjects, and especially 

iOrig. Letters on Eccles. Affairs, Bannatyne the clergy, paid their sovereif^ at the time. 

Club, L 146). It is true that the Scotch and the warning tones in which Abbot here 

episcopate was not ultimately restored till addressed disturbers of the public peace 

1610, but Abbot's conciliatory- tone did much honestly expressed the value he himself set 

to prepare the way, and he Limself put the upon orderly behaviour and respect for au- 

fiiushing touch to the work in that year by thority. 

presiding at the consecration of the bishops It was thus that Abbot, whose theological 

of Glasgow, Brechin, and Galloway (Cal- attainments had already attracted James*s 

DERWOOD, vii. 150). notice, established a claim on his gratitude, 

This was only one of the services that and Lord Dunbar's influence with the king 

Abbot rendered James on his visit to Scot- insured that his reward should not be long 

land. While at Edinburgh, the trial of delayed. On 27 May 1609, within a few 

George Sprot, a notary of Eyemouth, charged months of his return from Scotland, Abbot 

with conspiring in 1600 to murder the king, was appointed bishop of Coventrs* and Lich- 

took place, and the man was condemned and field, and his enthronement took place on 

executed before Abbot left the city. Abbot 29 Dec. following. He had, however, scarcely 

carefully watched the proceedings, and at- visited his diocese when he was translated 

tended oprot on the scaffold. Tne plot in to a higher dignity, the bishopric of London, 

which the convict had taken part was Known and he was enthroned at St. Paurs on 12 Feb. 

as the Gowrie plot, and its chief authors, the 1609-10. But this preferment was little 

Earl of Gowrie and his friends, were alleged more permanent. In August 1610 Abbot 

to have invited James, in 1600, to a house consecrated a new churchyard presented to 

at Perth, and to have locked him in a room St. Bride's parish by his old benefactor's son, 

with a rufl&an who had been hired to kill the Earl of Dorset. In October he conse- 

him. James escaped ; the earl and his friends crated the Scotch bishops. At Oxford he 

were slain by the royal attendants, and an helped to establish Pembroke College out of 

order was issued to the ministers of religion the old foundation of Broadgates Hall, and 

throughout Scotland to hold thanksgiving throughout the year his letters to the Earl 
servicesfortheking'ssalvation; these services I of Salisbury show that he was repressing 

had been introduced at a later date into Eng- with a strong hand throughout his diocese 

land, andcontinued throughout James's reig^. any manifestut ions of sympathy with Koman 



But the Scotch ministers had resisted them. 
An act of parliament had been necessary t o en- 
force the order ; doubts as to the real circum- 



Catholicism. Tlie poet, John Davies of 
Hereford, who claimed an acquaintance with 
him in earlier years, congratulated him on 



stances of the alleged plot were still abroad j his promotion in a sonnet (Appendix to tlie 
at the time of Sprors execution, and they con- ' Scourt/e of Folly). On 20 Nov. 1610, Richard 



tinned to imperil friendly relations between 
James and his Scotch subjects. Abbot as- 
sumed the responsibility of attempting to 
remove the ground of disagreement, lie pub- 
lished the notes taken by the judge at Sprot*s 

trial, together with a lengthy account of the | as to Bancroft's successor. The choice wan 
'treasonable device betwixt John, Earl of generally expected to fall on l^ancelot An- 



Bancroft, archbishop of Canterbur}', diini, 
and Abbot preached a conventional ser^ 
mon in his praise on the Sundav following 
(25 Nov.). The two religious parties through- 
out England were soon anxiously speculating 



Oowry, and Robert Logane of Restalrig 
{commonly called Lesterig) plotted by them 
for the cruel murthering of our most gracious 



drewes, "bishop of Ely. Ablx)t had no belief 
in his own ciiances of promotion, and the 
death of Lord Dunbar on 30 Jan. 1610-11, 



sovereign.' The task was probably under- ' before the vacancy was filled, seemed to ex- 



taken at the suggestion of Lord Dunbar. 
The punphlet, which has been reprinted in 
the * Haneian Miscellany ' (ix. 560 et se^.), 
was penned in a spirit that, from a modem 
point of view, befitted the courtier rather 
than the historian. James's life was de- 



clude him altogether from the list of likely 
candidates. But James had already con- 
sulted Dunbar ; the earl had unhesitatingly 
advanced Abbot's claim, and his advice had 
been accepted. On 25 Feb. 1610-11, Sir 
Thomas Lake, clerk to the signet, informed 



Abbot 



lO 



Abbot 



Lord Salisbury that the kinff had chosen the 
bishop of London to be archbishop, * as being 
an able man, and recommended by the late 
Earl of Dunbar, whose memory is dear to 
his majesty/ Speed, the contemporary his- 
torian, speaks of his promotion as due to the 
' embassage ' in Scotland ; and Secretary 
Calvert wrote in March that * by a strong 
north wind coming out of Scotland, Abbot 
was blown over the Thames to Lambeth/ 
The appointment was received with general 
astonishment and misgiving. Abbot himself 
was wonderstruck. * Preferment did fly upon 
him,* says Fuller, * without his expectation/ 
And if the Anglican party were depressed, 
the puritans were content to conceal their 
enthusiasm. His conduct in Scotland, to 
which his promotion was ascribed on all 
hands, had not raised him in their estimation. 
He was stated, it is true, to be * of a more 
fatherljr presence than those who might have 
been his fathers for age in the church of 
England/ but one ground of his unfitness 
was urged on many sides. * He was never 
incumbent in any living with cure of souls ; * 
he had not experienced the sufferings of the 
lower clergy, and it was feared that his want 
of practical training would prevent him from 
sympathising with their trials and difficulties. 
Ilis one-sided tone of thought was more 
likely to render him inadequate for the post. 
The threatened disruption in the churcn of 
England, to which no one who mixed in 
public affairs could at the time close his eyes, 
surrounded the primacy with dangers which 
a statesman's conciliatory spirit alone could 
meet with effect ; and of tnat spirit Abbot 
had shown no certain sign. 

On 4 March 1610-11 Abbot was formally 
nominated to the see of Canterbury, and on 
9 April was* very honorably installed at Lam- 
beth' (NiCH0L8,iVt>^rc«*^*, ii. 424 w. ; Lb Neve, 
Fasti; seeHawlinson MS. at Oxford, C. 155, 
No. 54). On 30 April he took his seat in the 
high commission court, and on 23 June was 
sworn at Greenwich of the privy council. At 
first gloomy forebodings seemed unfounded. 
At court he met with a good reception. The 
king treated him with cordiality ; the queen, 
who could have had no aftection for his re- 
ligious views, was 'graciously pleased to give 
hmi more credit than ordinary, which . . . she 
continued to the time of her death.' Henry, 
Prince of Wales, regarded him with tne 
veneration that all who, like himself, ap- 

S roved his theology acknowledged to be his 
ue. Nor was he without friends among the 
officers of state. The Earl of Salisbury, lord 
high treasurer, lord chancellor EUesmere, 
and Sir Ralph Winwood, who became in 
later years secretary of state, sympathised 



with his opinions, and a lavish hospitality 
at Lambeth, which James I strongly recom- 
mended him to maintain, secured him the 
favour of man^ * lords spiritual and tem- 
poral, divers pri>'y councillors and men of 
highest rank.' But enemies of Abbot were 
also to be found among the king's council- 
lors. Sir llobert Carr, the king^ favourite, 
afterwards Viscount Rochester and Earl of 
Somerset, viewed his stem integrity with 
suspicion. Men like the Earl of Northamp- 
ton, once Lord Hennr Howard, a secret 
papist and pensioner of Spain, did not hide 
their disappointment at his elevation. Simi- 
larly the bench of bishops was not without 
malevolent spectators of his recent sue- 
cesses ; and among the judges with whom 
he was brought into close contact. Abbot 
found it impossible to keep on friendly terms 
with Sir Edward Coke. 

Abbot flung himself with vigour into the 
various duties of his office, but his early 
actions showed much want of tact and pre- 
vision. He saw that the Calvinist theology 
was losing its hold on the upper classes of 
society, and that Arminianism was taking its 
place ; but, with characteristic narrowness of 
i-iew, he charged the newer doctrines with 
either Roman catholic or sceptical tendencies. 
To destroy them utterly by means of the high 
commission court and of the other arbitrary 
tribunals in which he took his seat was his 
immediate aim. * Sentences of correction,' 
says Hacket, the biographer of Williams, * or 
rather of destruction, have their epocha in the 
predominance of Abbot in that [the com- 
mission] court.' From the catholics bitter 
cries at once rose. Recusants' fines were 
unceasingly inflicted, and defaulters for pay- 
ment imprisoned. * They mav expect,* wrote 
the Earl of Northampton oi some catholic 
prisoners in 1612, * little mercy when the 
metropolitan is mediator.' On 10 June 1615 
he summoned a prebendary of Christ Churchy 
Oxford, to appear before tne king on a charge 
of coquetting with popery because he had 
complained of the prevalence of puritanism^ 
and had failed to denounce its antithesis 
with fitting severity or frequency. In 1613 
he came into open collision with the Spanish 
ambassador. He imprisoned in his own 
palace a lady, Donna Luisa de Carvajal, an 
enthusiastic benefactress of the Enghsh ca- 
tholic college of Flanders, who was stajring 
at the Spanish embassy, and appeal had to be 
made to James to obtain her release. He 
employed spies in all parts of England, and 
he did not fear to attack men in the highest 
stations. He obtained full information of the 
relations existing between the Earl of North- 
ampton, the lora privy seal, and Spain, and 



Abbot 



II 



Abbot 



boldly challenged him to deny his belief in 
papftl doctrines at the council board in 1612. 
At the same time the earl was trying to 
suppress dama^n^ reports about himselfby a 
suit of defamation mthe Star Chamber against 
seyeral persons who publicly called him a 
papist, and Abbot is said to haye produced 
in open court a letter from Northampton to 
Cardinal Bellarmine, in which he declared that 
his 'heart stood with the papists ; ' the death 
of the earl, which took place in 1614, has been 
somewhat erroneously attributed by a few 
writers to the shock of this disclosure. Nor 
was Abbot willing to see the authority of 
the high commission court in the smallest 
degree abridged. In 1611 a Sir William 
Chauncy had been charged with adultery 
before that tribunal, and had, on disobeying 
its order to proyide a maintenance for his 
wife, been sent to prison. Chauncy had 
appealed to the lord cnief justice of the com- 
mon pleas against the high commission court's 
judgment, which Coke asserted to be ille^l. 
Abbot tried in yain to change Coke's opinion, 
and although the king finally settled the 
point in the archbishop's fayour, Coke treated 
Abbot's protest with irritating indifference. 
In 1616 Abbot was one of the commissioners 
appointed to report on Coke's opinion as to 
the interpretation of the pramunire statutes, 
and declared against it. Abbot was similarly 
anxious to enforce the utmost rigours that 
the law allowed him in cases of alleged 
Bcepticism, and in this procedure likewise 
Coke attempted to thwart him. In 1611 
two 'blasphemous heretics,' as he called 
them, Bartholomew Legate and Edward 
Wightman, were brought before his court. 
Abbot was from the first resolved that no 
mercy should be shown them. Their offence 
was mainly Arianism, and on 21 Jan. 1611-2 
he wrote to lord chancellor Ellesmere that a 
commission of three or four judges ought to 
deal with them as capital offenders, and that 
the king was anxious to see ' these evil per- 
sons ' receive at once *the recompenses of 
their pride and impiety.' He advised care 
in a later letter (22 Jan.) in the choice of the 
judges, and urged that those should be se- 
lected who ' make no doubt that the law is 
clear to bum them.' Coke was thus, he 
advised, to be excluded from the tribunal, for 
he was known to disagree with the arch- 
bishop's interpretation of the old statutes 
affecting heresy (Egerton Papers, Camd. Soc. 
pp. 44^-8). Ana Abbot was finally tri- 
umphant. Early in 1QI4 Legate was burnt 
at Smithfield, and Wightfaian at Burton- 
npon-Trent. In another case of a political 
complexion he approved the use of torture. A 
Somersetshire clergyman, Edmund Peacham, 



was charged, in 1614, with libelling the king* 
in a written sermon which had never been 
preached. Abbot was at the time receiving 
reports of catholic conspiracies, to which he 
always lent a willing ear. When, therefore, 
Pencham was brought before the privy council 
in his presence, and persisted in denying the 
allegea offence, Aboot readily assented to 
the proposal that he should be put to the 
'manacles.' Bacon has been charged with 
taking a very active part in the persecution 
of Peacham, but Abbot must oe credited 
with equal responsibility (Spedding, Life qf 
Baccuy v. 91). 

Abbot, however, did not confine his atten- 
tion to propagating his views at home. lie 
persuaded James I to use all his influence 
against Roman Catholicism and against 
heresies in every country of Europe. He 
sought information as to the state of religion 
abroad from the English ambassadors, and 
with Sir Dudley Carleton, the ambassador 
first at Venice and afterv^'ards in Holland, 
he maintained a lengthy correspondence. 
In Holland he jealously watched tne rise of 
Arminianism, and in 1612 he excited the 
king's hostility against Conrad Vorstius, 
recently appointed to the professorship of 
theology at I-ieyden, whose views were said 
to savour of Arianism and Arminianism. 
James, in fact, applied to the states general 
for the dismissal of Vorstius, and the request 
was granted. Grotius came over to England 
in 1613, to endeavour to soothe James s ex- 
cited feelings against the Arminian party of 
the United Provinces, and to counteract 
Abbot's influence, which was agg^vating 
the religious differences in Holland almost 
as much as in England. But Abbot resented 
his interference. He called him a busybody, 
and warned the secretarj- of state, Sir Halph 
Winwood, of his ambition and indiscretion. 
' You must take heed how you trust Dr. 
Grotius too far,' he wrote (1 June, 1613), 
and he reported how the Dutch envoy's con- 
versation with the king was ' tedious and 
full of tittle-tattle,' and how he compared 
the *■ factious contradictors ' of his own 
opinions in his own countrj- to 'our puritans ^ 
in England (Winwood, Memorials, iii. 459- 
60) — a comparison that was little likely 
to reconcile Abbot to his presence at court. 
But both at home and abroad Abbot looked 
forward to the conversion of his religious 
opponents, and he treated all foreigners who 
set foot in this country, and were willing to 
follow his religious guidance, with much 
generosity. In his lectures on Jonah at 
Oxford he had condemned in a forcible pas- 
sage the inhospitable reception often ac- 
corded to foreigners by ' the meaner people * 



Abbot 



12 



Abbot 



of England, and their groundless suspicions 
of 'outlandish folks/ He had bidden his : 
pupils use protestant aliens sls brethren, and 
such was his own invariable practice (Strtpe, 
Annals f II. i. 252). In 1612 an Italian friar 
desirous of conversion was installed in his 
palace; in the following year he made ar- 
rangements for the settlement in England of 
Antonio de Dominis, formerly archbishop of 
Spalato, who had renounced the catholic 
faith. Abbot offered Antonio, through Car- 
leton (16 Dec. 1613), * a private life in a 
university and 200/. a year,' but the plan was 
not very successful. Ihe prelate arrived and 
took up his quarters at Lambeth, but he was 
* an unquiet man, and not of that fair, quiet, 
civil carriage as would give him content- 
ment ' (Goodman, Court of James 7, i. 339). 
He obtained the deanery of Windsor and the 
mastership of the Savoy, but was still dis- 
contented, and a refusal of the reversion to 
the archbishopric of York caused him, in 
1622, to turn upon his benefactors. He 
attacked Abbot severely, and reproached him 
with withholding the 200/. originally pro- 
mised him ; finally he announced his inten- 
tion of returning to Rome, and thereupon 
Abbot ordered him, with the king's acqui- 
escence, to leave England within twenty days 
and return at his peril (21 March 1621-2). ; 
Abbot secured his loose manuscripts, in- 
•cluding the original manuscript of Sarpi's 
history of the council of Trent, of which he 
had long been anxious to obtain possession, 
and which was first printed at London under 
his direction in 1619 (cf. his letters in Lewis 
Attekbukt's Some Letters relating to the 
Council of Trenty 1705). With Casaubon Ab- 
bot remained on more peaceable terms. He 
freq uently received him at Lambeth, and stood 
with James I sponsor for one of his children 
on 4 Nov. 161 2 ( Cal State Papers) ; he aided 
with his influence the scholar's endeavour to ■ 
convert a Jew of Oxford ; he read over Ca- 
saubon's elaborate criticism on Baronius, and 
forbade the publication of a pirated version of 
some portions of the work (I^attison, Life of 
Casaubon, pp. 410, 418, 429). Abbot often 
raised funds for French or Dutch protest- 
ants in distress, and educated at Oxford at ! 
his own expense several Greeks and other \ 
foreigners. In 1619, he had the satisfaction 
of reconciling the Calvinists of Jersey to the 
church of England. In Ireland Abbot dis- 
couraged any conciliatory policy towards 
the catholics, and although he strongly con- 
demned the endeavours of the Scotch bishops 
to resist the practices of the English church, 
he maintained a personal intimacy with many 
of them. On 7 July 1616 he absolved the 
Marquis of Huntley at Lambeth from the 



excommunication recently imposed on him 
by the Scotch bishops for uis suspected 
papistical intrigues; and silenced the dis- 
content in Scotland that his reversal of this 
act of the Scotch episcopate was likely to 
rouse by a very cleverly worded if some- 
what casuistical letter (23 July) to the gene- 
ral assembly (Caldbbwood, JSTw/ory, vii. 218, 
226; Letters during Reign of James /, Banna- 
tyne Club, ii. 471 et seg.). 

In matters of wider political significance 
Abbot played an equally prominent part. 
His religious views had led him to form a 
definite foreign policy, of which the one aim 
was to crush S^pain and to be wary of France. 
The marriages of James's son and daughter, 
Henry and Elizabeth, were occupying the 
ministers' attention when Abbot joined their 
councils. Proposals had been made as early 
as 1607 for a marriage between the Princess 
Elizabeth and the Duke of Savoy, brother- 
in-law of the King of Spain, and in 1611 it 
was suggested that Prmce Henry at the 
same time should marry a Spanish princess. 
The scheme alarmed Abbot ; he vehemently 
opposed it at the council board, but his op- 
position would hardly have been successful, 
though Salisbury discountenanced the al- 
liances, had not the Spaniards themselves 
raised insuperable objections to the English 
terms. But Abbot was determined that, so 
far as he could help it, the debates, when 
they dropped in 1611, should not be reopened. 
The protestant Elector Palatine of Germany 
had offered Elizabeth his hand before the 
Spanish negotiations closed, and on this 
union Abbot set his heart. Prince Henry 
was of Abbot*s opinion. In September 
1612 the elector palatine came over to 
England, and Abbot and he were soon on 
friendly terms. A month or two before, a 
Spanisti ambassador, Zuuiga, had been in 
England to propose another Spanish suitor 
to Elizabeth in the person of the king of 
Spain himself. But Abbot, in a strongly 
worded letter to the king (22 July), haa 
shown how bribery and corruption of the 
courtiers were, according to his secret in- 
formation, the instruments on which Zuniga 
depended for the success of his mission (cf. 
Strypb, Amialsj iv. 564). It was by such 
means that Abbot cleared the path of the 
German prince, and matters made satisfac- 
tory progress. But the marriage seemed 
likely to be long and dangerouslv delayed. 
At the close of October, Prince flenry was 
taken fatally ill, and shortly afterwards died. 
Abbot, * like a grave and a religious church- 
man,' was with him to the last, and certified 
that he died in the true faith ; but the blow 
was a severe one for his prospects. His grief 



Abbot 13 Abbot 

verwhelmixig ; at the funeral in West- the like/ but he was anxious that ' no poor 
er Abbey he preached the sermon^ and man should be frrated on ' (Goodkak, Qmrt 
ndawere almost choked by his tears and of James /, ed. Brewer, ii. 157). Abbot him- 
dingpassion^showingthe inward sorrow self forwarded to James a basin and ewer 
heiut.' But, in spite of her brothers that sold for 140/. But in 1615, when the 
athy Abbot endeavoured to push on the king had still large debts that pressed for 
lations for the marriage of tne princess, payment. Abbot was one of those councillor 
^ Dec. 1612, he ceremonially affianced woo strongly urged an appeal to parliament, 
bd the elector at Wliitehall. On 29 Jan. though he did not discountenance what we 
8, he gave, in honour of the approaching should hold to be an exertion of undue influ- 
, a bimquet at Lambeth to tne German ence on the constituencies (Speddikg, Bacon, 
t's followers, which the elector ' took so v. 205). Abbot was not, however, courtier 
r that when thev were ready to sit enough to retain at any time the full confidence 
, himself came, though he were never of the king. In 1613 he twice came into open 
dor expected.' The entertainment was collision with him. Inthe first place, a dispute 
y of * the giver and receiver/ and the arose as to the will of Thomas Sutton, who 
r soon returned the courtesy. * He had bequeathed all his fortune to the foundi^ 
1 all the coimcil at Essex House, where, tion of the Charterhouse at Smithfield, and 
ard of the entertainment he found with James I attempted to divert the money to 
ehbishop, he showed him mure kindness his own uses. But Abbot would not sano- 
izesses than to all the rest put together.' tion the proposed malversation, which he 
;a fortnight later (12 Feb.) Abbot mar- attributed to the judges, and James had to 
le elector and the princess * in all points yield to the archbishop's representations. A 
ling to the Book of Common Prayer,' more serious quarrel m the same vear was 
ne of his political aims was thus, he occasioned by Abbot's disregard of tlie king's 
led, attained. But James I did not wishes in the matter of the divorce petitioned 
to be so well satisfied with the event for by the Countess of Essex, once Lady 
bot could have wished. In April his Frances Howard. The ladv insisted on the 
iter and son-in-law left England, and nullity of her marriage with the Earl of 
lector wrote to the archbishop from Essex. It was known that she was of profli- 
rbury that the king, who had resented gate temperament, and was, at the same time 
quest for the release of Lord Grey, a as she was petitioning against Essex, arranging 
»J prisoner and supporter of Arabella for her remarriage to the Earl of Somerset, the 
t, *did not use him like a son, but rather king's favourite. Her petition was referred 
youngling or childish youth not to be to a commission, consistmg of Abbot as presi- 
led ' (WiNWOOD, Memorials^ iii. 454). I dent, with five bishops and six civil lawyers, 
lector's friendship for Abbot was, how- The king was strongly in t he countess's favour, 
unimpaired. Before his departure he andurged Abbot to grant her suit. But Abbot 
ited him with a piece of plate of the took an opposite view. The countess was a 
ofl,000/.,althougn he made no presents : niece of the Earl of Northampton, his bit- 
T other of his English friends, except a , terest enemy in the council chamber, and he 

was not therefore prejudiced in her favour. 
There was very scanty evidence to prove her 
charges against her husband, and ^e made 
admissions in cross-examination which prac- 
tically invalidated all her testimony. Abbot 
knew the Earl of Essex to be * a religious 
nobleman,' and tried hard to protect him 
from what he looked upon as the immoral 
persecution of his wife and her friends. The 
king's personal inter\'ention could not change 
his opinion. Some days before the final hear- 
ing of the case, he begged to be rid of the 
business. He was staying with the king at 
Windsor, and he * fell down on his knees twice 
or thrice to entreat his majesty that he might 
be dispensed with from being on the commis- 
sion, which he would esteem a greater favour 
than all that he had received from him in 
being raised from a private position, and in 
so short a time, to the highest dignity.' But 



imall one to the lord chancellor Elles- 



sreneral home politics, Abbot found it 
It to steer a course that should not 
dise either his lovaltv or his honesty* 
he difficulty grew in intensity with 
year. He was willing, with charao- 
c generosity, to make some material 
ces for his sovereign in -his financial 
Ities; when the parliament of 1614 
d James the subsidies of which he 
greatly in need, Abbot wrote to the 
)s begging them to testify * their duty 
;heir sovereign ' by some free-will ofier- 
He urged every bishop to * send unto 
ing the best piece of plate which he 
nd if his majesty should be pleased to 
; of this,' he promised to move the 
as and others of the ' abler sort of 
^ according to their proportions to do 



Abbot 



14 



Abbot 



James was deaf to his entreaty, and Abbot 
determined to act justly at all hazards. He 
drew up an elaborate paper, in which he 
pointed out the evils attending facility of 
divorce ; he declared that * in the greatest 
breaches between man and wife, reconcilia^ 
tion is the best; and the worthiest pains 
that can be spared is to bring that about.' 
But on such arguments as these, and on the 
insufficiency of evidence. Abbot, with strange 
per^'ersity, did not, at the critical moment, 
lay any decided emphasis. He sent to the 
king a statement 01 his views, supported by 
numberless irrelevant quotations from theo- 
logians of the reformation era, which only 
served to exasperate James. The king replied 
in a letter, of which the first words ran : * I 
must freely confess to you I find the grounds 
of your opposition so weak as I have reason 
to apprehend that the prejudices you have of 
the persons is the greatest motive in breeding 
these doubts in vou.' Still Abbot did not 
swerve, and when he was called upon for his 
judgment, with the brevity that the king had 
einoined on him, he pronounced for the va- 
lidity of the marriage. But the majority of 
the commissioners — ^seven out of twelve — 
took an opposite view, and the marriage was 
finally annulled. Abbot's loss of favour at 
€Ourt by his conduct of this case was a 
general topic of conversation at the time, 
and all his subsequent misfortunes were 
ascribed by one contemporary writer to his 
persistent disregard of the king's wishes in 
the matter (Wbldon, Court of King JameSy 

Printed in Secret History of James Fs Court, 
81 1, i. 388). His presence at the marriage of 
the divorced countess and the Earl of Somerset 
in 1614 seems therefore inconsistent with his 
previous attitude. But it is probable that he 
knew that the davs of Somerset's ascendency 
were already numbered, and that this know- 
ledge did not make him unwilling to conciliate 
the king by his presence at the ceremony. 
According to Bacon's account of the mys- 
terious trial of Somerset and his wife for 
the murder of Overbury, papers had some 
time previously fallen into Abbot's hands 
which formed the basis of the accusation 
(Spedding, v. 288). And Abbot was about 
to introduce to James's notice George Villiers, 
who rapidly reconciled the king to Somerset's 
downfall. 

His introduction of George Villiers to 
court was the most disastrous step that 
Abbot ever took. It is true that Villiers at 
the time (10 Dec. 1615) s^led the archbishop 
his father, and Abbot declared that he would 
repute and esteem him for his son, but the 
queen prophesied truly when she told the 
firchbisnop 'if this young man be once 



brought in, the first persons that he will 

flague must be you that labour for him' 
Goodman, Court of James /, ii. 160, and 
RusHWOKTH, Collections, i. 456). When 
Villiers had been installed as the king's fi^ 
vourite, the question of the Spanish marriage 
once again came to the surface, and Abbot 
found that the views against which his whole 
soul rebelled had in Villiers their warmest 
advocate. Very st-eadily, between 1617 and 
1622, the scheme for Cliarles's marriage with 
the infanta of Spain took shape, and Abbot 
and his friends left no stone unturned to 
thwart its progress. To create war with 
Spain was their definite object, and Abbot's 
aily,Winwood, the secretary of state, who was 
always * exceedingly beholden,' as Ghambei^ 
lain had written (9 Jan. 1612-13), ' to that 
prelate for his ^^ood word and opinion,' has 
been charged with agitating for Sir Walter 
Raleigh's despatch on his last expedition in 
the hope of his breaking the peace with Spun 
(Gakdiner, History, ed. 1884, iii. 53). But 
here, at any rate, Abbot sufiered the bitter- 
est disappointment. Raleigh attacked the 
Spaniaras in South America, but, so far from 
England supporting his acts, he was charged 
before six English commissioners, of whom, 
as ill fortune would have it. Abbot was one, 
and proved to have been guilty of breaking 
his promise to his sovereign, and of injuring 
the subjects of the Mng of Spain (22 Oct 
1618). His execution, on a sentence passed 
upon him fifteen years before, followed, and 
Abbot was in no position to raise a protest. 
Winwood, whose complicity in Raleigh's 
aggressions was openly suspected, had died 
27 Oct. 1617, much to Abbot's grief, and the 
archbishop had to salve his conscience for 
Raleigh's death by attributing it to his 'ques- 
tioning ' of *■ God's being and omnipotence, 
which that just Judge made good upon him- 
self in over-humbling his estate, but last of 
all in bringing him to an execution by law, 
where he died a religious and christian 
death ' {Abbot to Sir Thomas Roe, 19 Feb. 
1618-19). And meanwhile the affairs of 
Abbot's friend in Germany, the elector pala- 
tine, were intensifying his desire of a war not 
only with Spain but with the catholic powers 
of the empire. The elector, as the champion 
of protestantism on the continent, had been 
chosen king of Bohemia, and the emperor 
and the catholic princes of Germany were 
arrayed against him. In the most vi'^gorous 
letter he ever penned, Abbot sketched the 
policy that England, as he thought, should 
at once adopt. Serious illness kept him from 
the council when the question of aiding the 
king's son-in-law was to be discussed ; but he 
wrote (12 Sept. 1619) to Naunton, the king's 



Abbot 15 Abbot 

eecretaiT : * I liave never more desired to be building is still standing, and ba$ undergone 

present at any consultation. I am satisfied in few all erat ions. Abbot's birthday. 29 Oct., 

my conjecture tbat the cause is just." There- is still commemorated ihoiv. and the axrh- 

fore he urged that England should j<Hn in the iHshop for the time being is the visitor of the 

electors war, and * let it be really pTOsecuted.* hospital. A brass in thv chapt'l. set up by Ab- 

he said, 'that it may appear to the world bot to the memory of his father and mother, 

that we are awake when God in this sort who both dird in 1606. is a testimony to his 

calleth to us.' He hoped that * our striking filial tenderness which wjis one of the few 

in * would lead aU the protestant powers of traits that his habitual morosenessof temper 

Europe to ' run the same fortune.* * For the never overeast. 

means to support the war/ he concluded. But outside Guildford the clouds still 

' providelHt I>eu3 * {Cabala^ ed. 1654, i. 169). gathered about him. A complication of dis- 

Creneroua enthusiasm, but little statesman- orders was already breaking down his health, 

ship, characterised t his utterance, and Abbot Bacon, wit h whom he had maint ained friendly 

suneredthehumiliation of seeing his proposals relations, was disgraced, and Abbot had him- 

flung on one side, and the Spanish marriage self moved for the attendance of the com- 

treaty proceeded with uninterruptedly. mons to hear his sentence in the House of 

On eveiT side Abbot found the tide against Lords [2 May 1621 >. The pride of Villiers 
him. In 1618 the king published, at the was still thwarting all his chmshed schemes, 
suggestion of Bishop Morton, * the declara- and Arminianism. always to him a detestable 
tion of sports ' sanctioning Sabbath amuse- heresy. wa5 aeoiiiring new force in England, 
menta, wnich Abbot regarded as imperiUing The synod ofi>ort, 1618. at which one of 
the religious faith of the people. His loyalty his own chaplains represented him, had 
could not prevail upon him to obey the decree end<^ in a barren expression of approval 
that authorised it to be read in churches. At of Calvinism, and little attention haa been 
Croydon, where he was at the time, he for- paid in England to Abbot's injunctions to 
bade its proclamation in the parish church : Carleton to use his influence against the 
James I ignored his resistance, but Abbot's spread of Arminianism in Holland, or to his 
position was not improved. Other misfor- suggestion that the hostility of the Dutch 
tunes accompanied this episode: the death in the East Indies, which was causing his 
(2 March 1617-18) of his brother Robert, a brother Maurice the utmost anxiety, was 
theologian of his own school, whom he had prompted by the .\rminian followers of Bar- 
consecrated to the bishopric of Salisbury, naveldt [see Abbot, Sir Maubice]. But a 
in December 1615, greatly grieved him, aj- curious accident in 16:? 1 brought on Abbot 
though the bishop s second marriage had fresh humiliations which cast a deep shadow 
caused a temporary estrangement between over the remainder of his life. In the summer 
the brotheiB. The queen, who had favoured of that year L#ord Zouch, with whom he had 
Abbot in spite of her opposite religious long been on friendly terms, invited him to a 
views, died on the same date in the vear fol- hunting party at Bramshill Park, Hampshire, 
lowing; and although the archbiskop had Crossbows were used in the sport, and on 
the satisfaction of hearing from her own lips '2-i July Abbot, when shooting at a buck, had 
on her death-bed a confession of adherence the misfortune to kill one Peter Hawkins, a 
to the protestant faith, he lost in her his last gamekeeper. The man had already been 
influential friend at court. Abbot preached warned to keep out of the huntsmen's way, 
the sermon at her funeral at Westminster and the coroner's jury returned a verdict of 
on 13 March 1618-19. prr infortunium su<b prftpri<e culpet. News 

Later in 1619 Abbot retired for a few days of the accident was sent to the king, who de- 
from public life with its wearing anxiety to clared that none but a fool or a knave would 
confer a munificent gift upon his native town, think the worse* of a man for such an occur- 
On 5 April 1619 the first stone was laid in his rence, and that the like had often nearly 
presence of ahospital 'for the maintenance of happened to himself. The archbishop was 
a master, twelve brethren, and eight sisters,' greatly distressed ; he prer^cribed for himself 
to be erected at his expense opposite Trinitv a monthly fast on Tuesilay, the day of the 
Church. He endowed the foundation witb misfortune, and settled 20L a vear un Haw- 
land to the value of three hundred pounds, kins's widow, * which,' in ( >ldys s words, ' soon 
which he obtained a license to purchase in procured her another husband* (Biog. Brit.), 
mortmain. It was incoiporated b^- charter But others would not allow the matter to 
14 June 1622. Booms for his pnvate use be lightly passed over. At the moment four 
and a chapel were attached to it, and he often ' bishops-elect were awaiting consecration. 
retired to its seclusion when he was oppressed John Williams had been nominated to the see 
by the heayy weight of public office. The i of Lincoln, John Davenant to that of Salis- 



Abbot 



i6 



Abbot 



bury, Valentine Gary to that of Exeter, and 
William Laud to that of St. Davids ; and 
in August Williams, who was perhaps per- 
sonally jealous of Abbot's successful career, 
and feared that public opinion might be 
against him if he took any other course, an- 
nounced that he should refuse to be conse- 
crated by Abbot. By the canon law he 
declared that homicide in a prelate made him 
irregular and incapable of exercising ecclesi- 
astical jurisdiction ; by the common law he 
forfeitea his estate ; to receive consecration, 
therefore, at Abbot's hands would be sacrilege. 
Laud on this occasion acted with Williams. 
The quarrel between him and Abbot, which 
had begun at Oxford at the beginning of the 
century, had not yet terminated. In 1610 
Abbot had used all his influence to prevent 
Laud's election to the presidency of St. John's 
College, Oxford (Laud's Diary in Works^ iii. 
134). In 1615, at the suggestion of his bro- 
ther, Dr. Robert Abbot, master of Balliol, he 
had charged Laud before the king with libel- 
ling him in an Oxford sermon ; Laud attri- 
buted his frequent disappointment of high 
preferment to the action of the archbishop, 
and he now seized the opportunity of reveng- 
ing himself upon his old persecutor. The 
king could not resist a petition for an inquiry 
into Abbot's alleged irreg^ularity, and a com- 
mission was nominated. It included Williams, 
Laud, and Gary, three of the bishops-elect 
(Davenant, the only one of them on good 
terms with Abbot, being excluded), three 
bishops, two judges of the common pleas, 
the dean of arches, and another. The opmion 
of the Sorbonne and other foreign universities 
was at the same time invited. Abbot felt 
the indignity keenly. His unhappy accident, 
as he wrote (29 Aug.), was *■ a bitter potion, 
on account of the conflict in his conscience 
for what sin he is permitted to be the talk of 
men to the rejoicing of the papist and the 
insulting of the puritan.' For some weeks 
he withdrew to nis hospital at Guildford. 
But towards the end of September he was 
frequently at court and treated by the king 
witn marked kindliness. He persisted in 
preaching occasionally in the country, * for 
which he was like to be in trouble ' (Yonoe's 
Diary, Camd. Soc., p. 43). At the beginning 
of October the commission began its sittings. 
Abbot desired to be represented by counsel 
(13 Oct. 1621), but the request was refused. 
His irregularity was, however, never esta- 
blished in England. Hunting was not allowed 
to be in itself a recreation inconsistent with 
the episcopate, and the kinff interpreted in 
the archbishop's favour the halting decision 
of the commission, whose members were 
evenly divided as to the scandal caused to 



the church by the homicide. The Sorbonne, 
whose professors thrice discussed the quflfr* 
tion, condemned him in vain, and Spelman's 
learned argument to the same effect passed 
almost unnoticed (Reliquice SpelTnannuB, pp. 
111-120, under date 19 Oct. 1621). It wis 
nevertheless thought fitting to grant Abbot 
a formal pardon or dispensation, which was 
duly signed by James, 24 Dec. 1621. But a 
slur had been cast upon Abbot's reputation 
from which he never quite recovered. Three 
of the bishops-elect still refused to be con- 
secrated by him, and he, in deference to their 
views, delegated the duty to the bi^op of 
London. 

Abbot in subsequent years pursued his old 
course of action in public affairs with all his 
previous energy, and his differences with the 
court in both foreign and domestic policy 
grew rapidly wider. The commons, under 
the guiaance of Abbot's friend, Sir Dudley 
Digges, came to regard him as the champion 
of their interests against Buckingham and 
his creatures, and Abbot, in desJing with 
the Spanish marriage treaty, very rightly 
interpreted their sentiments. The proposed 
visit of Gharles and Buckingham to Idfadiid 
he opposed to the uttermost, and when^ on 
16 July 1623, the council was invited to give 
its consent to the marriage treaty, Abbot 
alone rose and showed by his awkward ques- 
tions his contempt for the arrangement. He 
only signed the articles on receiving orders to 
do so under the great seal, and James con- 
gratulated himself on his compliance even on 
those terms. But the king was startled to 
receive early in the following Aupist a letter, 
signed by the archbishop, aeclaiming anew 
with unmeasured vituperation against his 
toleration of popery, his indifference to par- 
liamentary government, and the journey of 
the prince to Spain. The letter was clearly 
proved to be a forgery, but whether it was 
the work of Abbot's enemies or of his too 
enthusiastic friends has never been known. 
A fruitless search was made for the author. 
Abbot was very backward in disavowing its 
authorship ; it well expressed his own senti- 
ments, and he thus incurred some of its re- 
sponsibility. But the letter agreed too closely 
with current public opinion to allow the go- 
vernment to make it the ground of any open 
action, and the ministers contented them- 
selves with forbidding its circulation. The 
events of the following months gave the 
anonymous letter-writer and the archbishop 
all the satisfaction they desired. The mar- 
riage negotiations fell through; Bucking- 
ham's haughtiness and evil temper ruined 
the scheme. On 6 Oct. 1623 Prince Gharles 
returned to England after having resigned 



Abbot 17 Abbot 

L to ike infuixa's bAmL Abboc*8 ioy Montagu to hU pniseiice. and. mikUr i^prov- 

CMBded: ke met the prince 00 nis ing him, bade him make such alterations as 

n LoBdoB at lAmbeth Stairs, and would leliere him of all »u5picion of Armi- 

ci Miet e d in his own bazge to York nianism. But Montagu appealed against 

On ± ilarch 1^2^-4 he took part in Abbot's reproof to the king, and James I 

■ce b e imiwtt lords and commons as reveraed the archbishop's judgment. The 

iflaiioni of England with Spain. A writer, however, was not yet satislied. lie 

Her he proeeeded to Theobalds to in- at once penned a fiercer vindication of his 

le king uiat the parliament was agreed own views^ entitled * Appello Csesarem,' and 

c hoHMir and safinr of England de- the king caused it to be licensed for the press 

i a hnach with Spain. His confident by Dr. AMiite, dean of Carlisle. Abbot was 

gciphoweTer.did not exactly meet with not informed of its publication: and before 

eiCT • apprormL and Abbot found him- he could protest against this intrusion on the 

from exerting any effective influence rights ot his office James died, and Abboc 

'ml Buckingham was at the same time had to defer any action in the matter. 
ng a French alliance, which was little The death of James was not £ivourable to 

tofT to Abbot, and that policy was the archbishop. He was not present at his 

to eompletioa before the dose of the deathbed, nor did he preach the funeral 

The duke's growing pride was bearing >ermon : the last offices were performed by 

m before it. Abfcot was at times so Bishop Williams. The new king was in the 

red' bv it that he feU sick, and had to hands of Buckingham, and was the friend of 

tiimfleff from court i 15 March ld2^-4>. , Laud. Abbot had, it is true, known him 

•Iter to Carleton \ IS Aug. 16:^4) he from his boyhood ; he had confirmed or 

the ^ rubs ' that all suffer alike ' who * bishopped ' him in 1617, when his ready 

stoop to that saiL' and adds that sue- answers to questions on religion had excited 

mnot always be insured by subser- the archbishop's admiration 1^ Nichols, iVo- 

* At the moment.* Abbot concluded, «/rp««#, ii. 6:M). He crowned Charles at 

e duke' stands higher than ever, and Westminster, but it was soon apparent that 

It tell what that presages* The church the king would tolerate no independent 

the last few vears had been compara- criticism from him on public or ecclesiastical 

peaeefuL AbUx was. as of old. cnari- aflairs. The Hou^ie of Commons appealed to 

tiding ^19 Sept. 1621 and 31 Jan. him, in \&2o, to suppress Montagu s second 

r) Frnich p^otestant refugees. * extra- book, * Appello Csesarem.' but the king inter- 

y sufferers in their country's calamity.* vened : he dissolved paziiament. and left 

18 proceeding with his former vigour Abbot powerless. In the <econd parliament 

; seminary priests* In letters to the of the reign. Abbot, in spite of ill-health 

I (12 Auf . 16±2 ) he uTeed. at the which compelled him to be carried into the 

iesize, and in accordance with his old house and to speak sitting, would not remain 

Older, 'the orderly preaching of Christ sOent. He was pres^^nt at a c<>nference with 

dy of obedience to the higher powers, the commons as to the English relatione 

a christian life, and not that ever\* with France, in which he. like the commons, 

oold take exorbitant liberty to teack showed decided sympathy for the French 

e listeth to the disquiet of the king, protestants : and his connection with Sir 

, and eommonwealth.* Count Mans^ Dudley Digges. who was managing Buckixur- 

i behalf of the elector palatine, was ham's impeachment, brought him into high 

:ed in 1624 to raise an army in Eng- displeasure at court. He was also suspected 

id the archbishop received lum on lus of cloee intimacy with Sir Thomas Went- 

in London. But just at the close worth, whose nephew. Savile. was his ward. 

les's reign dismites again threatened And Abbot made no endeavour to conciliate 

} authority. In 1624 he refused to his enemies. In the foUo^'ing year Charle» 

n Laud, now bishop of St. David's, to was in great need of money. A forced loan 

h onnmission court. At the same time had been proclaimed, and Dr. Sibthorpe, 

thrown into collision with one of. the vicar of Brackley. had jinrached a sermon 

pp ort era of Laud's t heology. Richard before the i udges at the N ort hampton assizes, 
;%U An Essex rector, in a pamphlet at- , exalting the royal prerogative and its right 

Rome, entitled * A Gag for the New ; of arbitrary taxation. Buckingham sugge?te«l 

* had struck a severe blow at the doc- ■ that it should be printed, and it was for- 

>f Geneva; the House of Commons warded to Abb^/t for his imprimatur, Wil- 

oed the work, and petitioned Abbot ; liam Murray, of the king's bedchamber, 

ah the author. The archbishop ap- brought the *ennon to Lambeth. .\bbr»t, 

id the matter calmly, snmmon^l ' who wa* ill in bed. read it and raued objec- 
I. ' c 



Abbot 



i8 



Abbot 



tions to its arguments. It sanctioned a loan 
for which there was neither law nor custom 
in England ; it praised thepapists and showed 
little sympathy with the German protestants. 
Murray returned a day or two later with a 
statement on the part of the kinff that Abbot's 
objections were groundless. Abbot asked the 
attendance of LAud, who, he believed, had 

Srompted the king to befriend Sibthorpe, to 
iscuss the matter with him. But, although 
Laud refused to come, he answered Abbot's 
* exceptions ' in a paper which Murray read to 
the archbishop, but which he refused to leave 
with him. Finally (3 May 1627) Sibthorpe's 
sermon was taken to the bishop of London, 
and published by his authority. But Abbot's 
want of compliance with the court policy was 
not to go unpunished. Buckingham, about 
to start on nis Rochelle expedition, could 
not leave Abbot to influence the council in 
his absence ; and he it was apparently who 
insisted on the archbishop's sequestration. 
On 5 July 1627 Lord Conway, secretary of 
state, went to Croydon, whither the arch- 
bishop had retired during his recent quarrel, 
and ordered him to witharaw to Canterbury. 
No cause was assigned, but Abbot was soon 
afterwards bidden to meddle no more with 
the high commission court, and, perceiving 
that he was to be stripped of all authority, 
he removed, towards tne end of Julv, to 
a private house that he owned at t'ord, 
near Canterbury. On 9 Oct. following, a 
commission was issued to five bishops, in- 
cluding Laud and other well-known enemies 
of Abbot, authorising them to exercise all 
archiepiscopal powers and jurisdiction in the 
place of Abbot (Rushwobth, Collections, i. 
431-3). That such an act on the part of 
Charles was signally unlawful admits of no 
question. Fuller attributes it to his *ob- 
noxiousness for that casualty' of 1621, but 
there is no ground for assigning to it other 
causes than Abbot's opposition to Bucking- 
ham's system of government, and Laud's 
personal enmity. 

At the end of the following year (1 1 Dec. 
1628) Abbot was restored to favour. He 
was received at court by the Archbishop of 
York and the Earl of Dorset, the son of his old 
friend, and by them introduced to the king, 
who bade him attend the council twice a week. 
But his authority was practically at an end. 
Laud had become bishop of London, and was 
alwavs at the king's side. In parliament, 
to which the lords had demanded that he 
should be summoned even during his seques- 
tration, he had endeavoured to maintain his 
independence. In April 1628 he declared 
liimself opposed to the king's claim of power 
to commit persons to prison without showing 



cause. Throughout the session he begged 
the lords to act as the commons desired, and 
he tried to bring about a compromise between 
the lords and commons in their disputes over 
the additional clause attached by tne lords to 
the petition of right, ' saving the king's just 
prerogative.' 

Abbot lived chieflv in retirement after his 
sequestration, and his public acts during the 
last four years of his life are few. On 24 
August lo28 he consecrated Eichard Mont- 
agu, with whom he had previouslv come into 
serious collision, bishop of Chichester, and 
Laud's presence at the ceremony showed that 
all doubts as to his inability to exercise ec- 
clesiastical jurisdiction had been removed. 
In 1631 he endeavoured to stay a controversy 
in which. Prynne had fiercely attacked thie 
practice of bowing at the name of Jesus ; but 
Laud i^ored Abbot's authority, and caused 
a book m favour of the practice, by an Oxford 
writer named Page, to be licensed after Abbot 
had announced his intention of suppressing 
it. Nevertheless, Abbot was constantly in 
attendance in the high commission court-, 
and tried to enforce conformity in the church 
with consistent love of order. Between 
October 1631 and June 1632 he refused to 
allow certain London parishes to place seats 
above the communion table; he struggled 
hard in matrimonial cases to maintain a hiffh 
standard of morality, and he punished the 
separatists, with wliom he never was in 
sympathy. * You do show yourselves,* he 
said to a number of them brought before him 
in June 1632, ' the most ungrateful to God, 
und to his majestv the king, and to us the 
fathers of the church.' On 3 July 1633 
Abbot again emphatically showed tnat the 
simple forms and ceremonies of religions 
worship were no matter of indifference to 
him, as they never had been throughout his 
life, and ba^e the parishioners of Cravford, 
Kent, receive the sacrament of the Lord's 
Supper on their knees at the steps ascending 
the altar. 

Throughout these last years Abbot was 
also actively watching over the interests of 
All Souls College, ot which he was visitor 
f.r officio. The office had never been a sine- 
cure for him. He had consistently endea- 
voured to enforce a strict disciplme upon 
the students, although not always with suc- 
cess. In 1616 Dr. Mocket, the warden, a 
friend of Abbot's, had published a book, en- 
titled * Politia Ecclesiie Anglicanas,' which 
claimed, as the king believed, undue authority 
for the primacy, and showed a want of respect 
for some of the thirty-nine articles. In spte 
of Abbot's protest the book was burnt, and 
Mocket is said to have died from the shock of 



) humiliktion. The act injured Abbot's 

. f tt Oribrd, and he was iinnble lo 

tvAmia dUorders al All Sini1«, which untised 
liim increaati^ anxiety. In 1633 he eeyervlv 
reprinuiided the omixn fat allowing ihe 
HludenU ia "spend thi^ir time in taverns and 
alehouKs, to the defamation of echulare and 
•uuida] of jQur house.' In 16:% be nii.t- 
iiendiMl a fellow for iireguUr conduct, and in 
]ti»3be wrote two Utters i'2 Jan. and 26 
May) fxpreuing his disapproval of the ex- 
travtunni expenditure (if the autboritip«. 
Near^ fifty years later, ArdibidUop Santroft 
attempted to r&<nforce Abbol'a niles (BuR- 
itows, Wortkie* <tfAH thuU, pu. 136 et bgij. ; 
MlKTIV, Ardiim of All Sotils Collrgt, pp. 
310-77). 

Dining the Wt few months of 1635, -Ab- 
bot's health, whicli had been for a long time 
iipparentlv bntaking, seetneil to revive ; and 
a friend wrote (30 Sept. 1632) thai ' if any 
•ither prelate gape after hlK benefice, hie 
grace perbap« . . . [may] eat. llie goose 
which shall (TTBie upon his ([rave" (Hart. MS. 
7000, f. 181 ; Fuller, f^nrri Sutory, ed. 
Ttrewar, vi. 44, uole). But -Abbot's death 
followed within the year. A well-known 
ritory recorded of liii^ last years shows the 
bitter trials that beset him to the end. On 
liis return to Cro\-don shortly before hid 
death he was incommoded by a crowd of 
women who surroiinded his coach, and on 
Ilia complainin([ of their presence, the shout 
was raised : ' Ye had best shoot an arrow at 
II*.' The archbishop died at Croydon, 4 Aug. 
^liSS, aged sevenlv-one. He was buried, as 
1i>- dewred, in Trinity Church, Guildford, and 
bin brother. Sir ^laiirice Abbot, erect«l in 
1635 an elaborate inanument to his memory, 
which is still etandins. By his will he left 
legacies to the poor of Lambeth and Croydon 
nnd to his servanls. Besides arranging for 
the endowment of his hospital, lie provided 
100/. to be lent to poor tradesmKO of Guild- 
ford, and urged the mayor to set up some 
manufacture in the town 'to find work for 
the younger sort of people : ' a room in the 
hos^tal nt oAsigned as a ' workhouse ' for 
the purpose. His friend, Sir Dudley Uigges, 
wa$ not forgotten, and to the Princess Eliioi- 
beth, whose marriage be had brought about, 
and whose husband he had befriended in 
vain, be hflijiieathed 2001. The residue of his 

Cropwty he left to his nephews and surt'iving 
rothers, Maurice and John. The greater 
]>art of his library he gave to bis successor 
at Lambeth, and it practically formed the 
nucleus of that great collection; some por> 
lion was at the same time reserved for the 
I- hapt erho II »e« of Wi nchester and Canterbury. 
.\nianghis books were found a large number 



of popish tracts that liehadM-ijiieiilralijd,and 
the Spanish ambassador demanded their sur- 
render to their owners at the close iif 1633 
(Cal. Clarendon Papers, i. 40). But it waa 
n<il only at bis death that .\bbot gave proof 
of his generosity. He liud been t lirunghout 
his life a benefactor of (Jxford, London, and 
Canterburv, as well as of Guildford. In IttlO 
he subscribed lOW. to the library of Balliol 
and to the reiNur of the college buildingB. 
He contributed largely to the new foundation 
of Pembroke, which was establislietl finally 
in 16:!4, and the first master wrote to the 
arcbbisliop to express the society's apprecia- 
tion (if his benevolence. He also iwnt 100/. 
to assist in the rebuilding of the Uxford 
schools, and another lOOJ. somewhat later 
(163;i) to aid the library of Uuiversitj Col- 
lege. .\1 Canterbury lie built a ' fair con- 
duit,' which he had determined to give to 
the town, but a quarrel as to his Jurisdiction 
in the city changed hispurpose. To I^ndon 
he ^ve 300/., in 1633, towarxls the repair of 
St. Paul's and the removal of licggnrs, and 
he wax always ready to assist private pen<ons 
in distress. 

It was inevitable that very vuriuiis esti- 
mates should be held of Abbot's character in 
the seventeenth centur\'. Whitclocho wrote 
that he left behind him 'the memory of a 
pious, learned, and moderate prelate' [Memo' 
ritilf, IP, ed. 1732; cf. Mat. £,nff PartiatHtnt, 
p. S3, ed. 1854). Clarendon attributes to him 
the downfall of the church in the L'ivil wars, 
and charges him with fostering religious fac- 
tions and indifference to ecclesiastical disci- 
pline {HUtoty, i. 134, ed. 1849). Fuller 
describes him as a grave man in his conver- 
sation and OB unblamable in his life, but 
unduly severe to the clergy in the high com- 
mission court (Churek Slatory, ed. Brewer, 
vi. 46). ether writers of Ihe time attribute 
to him 'remissness in visitation,' a cliorae 
depending mainly on Laud's account of the 
carelessness of his last report of the condition 
of his diocese. He proved himself, however, 
conscientious enougli at other times in the 
discharge of the duties of his office, to show 
that the accusation can only apply to bis 
lost days, when he was broken in health 
and spirit. Uf his narrowness of view and 
unconciliatory tone of niind we have already 
spoken. His occasional connivance at cruet- 
ties that in our eyes admit of no defence put 
these characteristics in a very repulsive 
lijiht ; but his resistance of unjust authority, 
his consistency of purpose, and his charitahlH 
instincts must he set in the opposite balance. 

Besides the works already enumerated, 
Abbot is credited with having written the 
account of the persecution of the pro^estants 
C2 



Abbot 20 Abbot 

in the Valteline, which appears in the seventh 386, and Dr. White Kennefs biographical notes 

edition of Foxe*8 ' Acts and Monuments/ on Abbot in Lansdowne MS. 984, are of very 

1631-2, and the * Judgment on Bowing at little value. The Domestic State Papm from 

the Name of Jesus/ published at Hamburg ^^^ to 1633 are full of references to his public 

in 1632. He is also said to have shared with and private life, and contain a vast number of 

Sir Henry SavUe the expense of republish- ^fj^"*"* T"** ^S? ""^ ,^^*"?""^^^" 

ing in 1618 BradwardinVs 'Cause of God Athen»Oxonienses; Sti^s Annals j^mw^ 

.^:«o4^ ♦!.*» -p^i.^.^o ♦ Ai>v^f A^^.,^ u:^ Memorials; Rvmers Fosdera; Hackets Life of 

against the Pelaguuw Abbot drew up bio- wiUiams ; an/ the publications of the Camden, 

graphical accounts (1) of his connect ion with Abbotrford, and Ban\iatyne Societies concerning 

the Essex drvorw case, prmted m the ' State the reign of Jamea I throw occasional light on 

Trials (u. 806-62) ; (2) of his accident m Abbot's life ; Nichols's Progresses is very useful 

Bramshill Park, printed, with other docu- for his relations with the court. It is important 

ments on the subject, in ^ Reliquise Spelman- to compare the views taken of him in Clarendon's 

niffi ' and in the ^ State Trials (ii. 1165-9) ; History, in Fuller's Church ^story, and in Neal's 

these papers, although written in the third History of the Puritans.] S. L. L. 

person, mav be confidentlv attributed to! .^«.rv«. a^^^«a^t^/,^wv« ,^j^x -.• - 
tis pTn («;pies of them in* manuscript are ABBOT, GEORGE (1603-1^48), religious 
among the Tanner MSS. at Oxford); and ^ter, has been persistently mistaken for 
(3) of his sequestration, printed in Rush- other George Abbots. He is invariably 
worth's * Historical CoUections ' (i. 434 et described as a der^an, which he never 
«w.), and reprinted bv ^^Ir. Arber (1882) in Yf?^ *"d^ f®^ P\^^l Maunce (or Morns) 
his 'English Gamer,*' iv. 536-76. Several Abbot, who had indeed a son Georoe, but not 
of his letters remain in manuscript at the this George. Similarly, in the bibbopaphn 
Bodleian among the Tanner MSS. ^ authonties, he is erroneously designated 

Abbot's portrait was several times painted, nephew of G^rge (Abbot), archbishop of 
and engravings after Vandergucht and Hou- p^"^^J^*>V^. 5® ^*» ^V? diiferent famfly 
braken are often met with. A portrait was J^^f both Sir Maunce Abbot and the arch- 
engraved in 1616 by Simon Pass, in oval, ^^^^If- This George Abbot was son or grand- 
with a view of Lambeth in the background, ^^— *^^^ "^^^ ^Jp*^ which— of Sir Thomas 
and eight Latin lines beneath (Evans, Cat. Abbot,kmght,of Easington, EastYorfal^ 
of Engraved Portraits, i. 1, ii. 1). A half- , *»^ Y** bom there in 16^-4, his mother (or 
length portrait, of uncertain authorship, is in ' grandmother) bemg of the ancient house of 
the chapel of Abbot's hospital at Guildford. , ^^^^^' , i. t^. , 

There is a gloominess of expression in these ; ^. h^s early, as of his later education, 
pictures which, while confirming the morose- \ not^g has been transmitted, ^liilst his 
ness of disposition usuaUv ascnbed to him, ^tings e\^dence npe and varied scholarship 
is vet tempered, on closeV examination, by f."^ <^^ture on somewhat out-of-the-way 
much natural kindliness. lines, e.g. Hebrew and patnstic— there is no 

record of academic training. 

[The ftdlest accounts of Abbot's life are to be i He married a daughter of the once &- 
found in the Biographia Britannica and in Hook's . mous Colonel Purefov of Caldecote, War- 
Lives of the Archbishops. The former was l^ \ wickehire : and as the inscription on his tomb 
William Oldys, and was reprinted at Guildford, —still extant there— tells us, he bravely held 
in a separate volume by Speaker Onslow, a tlie manorhouse against the Princes Rupert 
^low-townsman of Abbot in 1777. It is full of ^^^ Maurice during the great civil war. 

^fr°*^^f .^^P*?^ *^T-^'?'r???i'lt ' As a lavman and nevertheless a theolo- 
in the eighteenth century. Hooks Iafe(1875) • ^ ^^ • j^^^^^ ^^ ^^ . ^ j^ ^ 

attempts to incorporate with the older biography ^ ? iTi \.. • ^ \ 1. u*^ ^ • 

some more recenUy discovered information, but remarkable attainments, he holds a unique 

18 only very partially successful ; it is disfigured P^Sf \^ ^he literature of the period. His 

by many errors as to dates and by want of ' ^ nole Book of Job Paraphrased, or made 

syrapathywith Abbot's position. Hook gave a less easy for any to understand' (1640, 4to), is 

elaborate, but more valuable, account of Abbot in striking contrast with the prolixity of 

in his Ecclesiastical Biography, 1845. By far the contemporary commentators and exnositors. 

Ijest account of Abbot is to be found in Mr. S. R. His 'Ymdiciae Sabbathi * (1641) haa a deep 

Gardiner's sketches of him in his History of Eng- and permanent influence in the long Sabba- 

land. Original authorities for Abbot's biography farian controversv. His * Brief Notes upon 

are his own papers and works, referred to above, the whole Book *^of Psalms ' (1651, 4to), aa 

whichshouldbe compared with Laud's diaiy and its date shows, was posthumous. He died 

Heylm s Cypnanus Anglicanua, or the Life of q p u 1543 
Laud, on the other fide. Abbot's will was printed 

at Guildford by Onslow in 1777. Heame's bio- [MS. collections for History of the Abbots, 

graphical notice in Rawlinson MS. C. 146, f. by J. T. Abbot, Esq., F.S.A., of Darlington;. 



Abbot ri Abbot 

p. 1099; WoGdV Atli«e.«d.KM. 1 143. 5M smslH^t Nf h* fj^-di! cctsri::^ of diwrtk« 



CoxV litABmof the SaI^*:^ L :M. 441. 47*. frrot 1*X -c^rmrisw &d£ '■^ liinwflKMn kk 



31»f«. A. * C. IfiM^J A. t. 1.. ^ J^^ ..^ ^._^a:. ..^ .1^ A<v>cat5 of 



pAZT i.r Tb* ftuii: .-f :bf »«»-cat5 of fji* 



Cambridge, mdnatiiv RA. in 1*^7. HiV. fr Tbr iiio:Trr> . f -be ij;.r:b-ir«.: |«»»^.* 
in 1610, and BJ). in 1617. Haritr tan EaHt ia lt*l.!» b? tta* ^st' of the commit- 



braced the catholic rrligion. he nrcr^ to zht *: w^ 'i-^i^Tob^i : ^ Holland :*> Mettle the 

Continent, and in 1633 wa* a mrnsV-r ^f Tbr di*j.::T<* Tb»T were ^^.^nsTaBTlv ari^inf W- 

convent of St. John the Baptist ax AnTwrrp^ :wc«n ibe IVj:oh and Er^lidb Ea^Tlndia 

lie is the aathor of a verr <e&M>e p^^ical rraparie* a* : ^ :br:r tT^aW riibt* in the 



woii^ entitled *Jesii»jT»%iiivd: oraP-v-nr Ea«; Indies ar.d th-ir fishing riihis in the 

of the HoIt Xame of Jrtn^ in fivr V•>ke^ -.^nb *«**. Bi;: :br ivnfer^no** that fi4- 

(the first and eecond bookefk.br John Abbnt. lim-ed produced n> s»T:>iadorv result. In 

Penni«su Sapeiionun,* 16S3. 4to. It :* be- Hav 161.> AbHr h:is!*-lf |^id a visit to the 

lieyed that no further portion of thi* alni'-i^T East Indite and .^n hL* nium wa* ch<^«n 

unique poem was nrinted. The vrJume ha* drputy-^ivem«"»r "f iLr cs'tmpany, an annual 

two dedications : the primarr onr tnChaH-=-i>, oiSce :«■» which ht» ws> eiirh: tiroi*# in micw*- 

Prince of Wales, in verse, si^nar?d whh : he sumrv^lt^t-ii. Ihirincsub^wuent years the 

author^s name: the second in the S^iani^h disjunvements w-ih The l>iit<li inoTva>«>d in 

langoaffe, addressed ' A la *erenissima rvnora f^rtv. and in li^V* AMh^t wa> one of thi>5e 

I>o£a Maria de Austria, Infanta ^-^ £^paiia. appinnted to Treai in l^mdou with ci^mmis- 

Princessa de Gales,' dated fr.^m the o^nven: si.^ners fri^m IL^lland as to the }toacvful 

of St. John the Baptist at Antwerp, li* Nov. e>T.ihli<hment •»! the two c>^mpanie$ abn^d. 

1623. The date is remarkable a> temlinf to A tT«ity was si^mevi ('J June^, which s«»cui\\l 

prove that the news of the niptuiv .'f tL*^ twcv-thirds of the spice pnximv of the Mi>- 

match had not reached the last-nameil city at lucca Islands, where t he disputes liad jrn^wn 

that date, and readily accounts for the work hottt^st, to the Puich i>>miwnv, and the 

not being continued through the other Three remaining third T.» the Knglis^i (Kyxek. 

books. Charles left Madrid h Sept. OS. 1 «!»:*.. Fa,/<.rrr, .wii. 171 >. But this settlement 

[Dr. Bandinels Sale Cat., lot 707 : Si-.r. c'mH. ^^s not a permanent tme. In IttH) the l>utch 

Libr. B. 6, 12 : Farr'j. Jacol«an P«>etry. p. xHii. infrinj^il s*^me reirnlatiims of the trt^aiv, and 

363; LowDdes's Bibl. Man. ed. Bohn.] T. i\ Abbof in ci^mpany with Sir l>udley ftigg^^ 

ABBOT, Sib ^L^URICE or MOK15IS went on an embassy to Holland to set matters 

<156>5-1612>,an eminent merchant, guvemor once again on a surer finning. 'Hie tH»mmis- 

of the East India Company, and lord mayor sioners were at iirst well nivivinl ^^2l> No\. 

of London, was the fifth and youngest son of 16i*0^ by the IVimv of Orangt* and the 

Maurice Abbot, a cloth worker of Guildford, *tatos-general : but the l>utch wen* unwil- 

and was the brother of George Abbot, arch- ling to make any ot^nivssions, and luirsuinl 

bishop of Canterbury, and of Robert, bishop the negotiation>. acconling Xo the English 

of Salisbury [q. v.]. Comparatively little is accounts, with tt>o much duplicity to admit 

known of liis early life. He was baptised at of any effectual arrangi»ment. In Februnr\- 

Trinity Church, (Juildford, 2 Nov. 156o, was 162(V-*1 Abl>ot nMunuHl to IamuIou, and in 

educated at Guildford gprammar school, and an audience irnuiteil him bv .lamet* 1 he 

was probably apprenticed in London to his bitterly complaiutHl t>f the*lmse usngi*' to 

father's trade, bubsenuently he became a ' which lie had Ixvn subjiM'ti'd. It was clearly 

ftvemanoftheDrapers'ComiMiny, and rapidly • imiwssible to diminish tlu» actixc ftn^lingn of 
amassed great wealth as a merchant dealing 'jealousy that existed iM'tween the English 

in such various commodities as cloth, indigo, and Dutch residents in the Kast Indies, and 

spices, and jeweller^'. j AblM)t shared the >entiment to<» ht»artily to 

It is Abbot's connection with the manage- enable him to inipnm* the |M)sition of afliiin*. 



ment of the East India Company through 
a long and troubled epoch of its hist or}' that 
gives his career much of its importance. He 
was one of the original directors of the 
company, which was incorporated by royal 
charter in 1000, was among the earliest to 



In 16-M matters In'came nion* crit icnl. News 
rt^ached England that Amh(\vna, one of the 
chief trading de]M*)t soft he .Moluccas, had Ikmmi 
the scene of the muiiler of several English 
traders by the Dutch. At thi» time AblM>t 
was holding the ollice <if g<»\ernor of tha 



Abbot 22 Abbot 

company, to which he had been elected and the Duke of Buckingham for the remis- 
23 March 1623-4. Intense excitement pre- | sion of part of 20,000/. claimed by them from 
vailed throughout the country, and the ' the East India Company. In 1624, when 
greatest anxiety was evinced as to the steps he was again returned to parliament for 
that Abbot would take. He recognised at Kingston-upon-Hull, Abbot was appointed 
once the necessity of ' pressing the matter | a member of the council for establisning the 
modestly,* in order to avoid open war with colony of Virginia. It was in the same ye*r 
Holland ; but in repeated audiences with ! that he had b^n elected governor of the £ast 
the king and in petitions and speeches to | India Company, an office that he was still 
the privy council he insisted that demand holding in 1633, but which he resigned before 
should be made of the Dutch authorities to ; 1638 ; and during the time that he sat in 
bring the perpetrators of the outrage to ' parliament he was continually called upon 
justice. He spoke of withdrawing from the to speak in the company's behalf. On many 
trade altogether if this measure was not occasions he complained of the obloquy 
adopted, and after much delay the Dutch heaped upon himself and his friends, oe- 
agreed to give the desired reparation. But the cause it was supposed that their extensive 
death of James I saw the promise unfulfilled, foreign trade deprived this country of the 
and Abbot's efforts to piu-sue the question benefit of their wealth, and, with a discrimi- 
further proved unavailing. nation far in advance of his age, denounced 

But it was not only in the affairs of the the 'curiousness' of the English in forbidding 
East India Company that Abbot during the exportation of specie, and asserted the 
these years took a leading part. He was an economic advantages to the state of the 
influential member of the Levant Company company's commerce. 

before 1607, and the English merchant sen-ice On the accession of Charles I in 1625 
was, from the beginning of the seventeenth Abbot was the first to receive the honour of 
century, largely under his control. In 1614 knighthood from the new king (Authentic 
one of his vessels, named the Tiger, was as- Documents of the Court of Charles /, i. 16), 
saulted and taken by * M. Mintaine, a French- and he represented London in the earliest 
man of the Mauritius,' and Abbot sought re- parliament of the reign, although his old 
dress for the injury in vain. In 1616 he with constituency had tried hard to secure hb 
others received a bounty for building six new ser\*ices. He apparently supplied some of 
sliips. In 1612 he was nominated a director the jewellery required for Charles's corona- 
of a newly incorporated company * of mer- tion, and received on 5 July of the same year 
chants of London, discoverers of the north- < 8,000/. for a diamond cut in facets and set 
west passage/ and his statement that in 1614 in a collet.' On 15 Dec. 1626 Abbot became 
he * brought to the mint 60 pounds weight of alderman of the ward of Bridge Without, 
gold for Indian commodities exported 'proves and a few months later was chosen sheriff 
that his own commercial transactions con- of London. In 1627 the customs department 
tinned for many years on a very large scale, was reorganised, and Abbot with others re- 
Ile also expressed himself anxious a few ceived a lease of the customs on wines and 
years later to open up trade with Persia, and currants for three and a half years, in con- 
to wrest from the Portuguese the commercial sideration of a fine of 12,000/. and a loan to 
predominance they had acquired there. the king of 20,000/. Bdt he was no servile 

During the last twenty years of his life i agent of the crown. On 16 Sept. 1628 in- 
Abbot played a still more active part in , formation was sent to the king's council that 
public affairs. In 1621 he was elected mem- Abbot was one of the merchants who refused 
ber of parliament for Kingston-upon-Hull ; to pay a newly imposed additional tax on the 
shortly aften\ards was nominated one of the , importation ot currants, and that, while the 
commissioners forequipping merchant vessels ! quarrel was pending, he had broken into the 
to take part in a projected expedition against | government warehouse w4iere currants be- 
thepiratesof Algiers, and he appears to Iiave longing to him had been stored. But the 



l)eeu consulted by the king's ministers in 
every stage of the preparations, which were for 
a long period unaer discussion. On 17 Nov. 
of the samo year he became a farmer of the 
customs, and in 1623 he was empowered to 
administer ^ oaths to such persons as should 
either desire to pass the seas from this kingdom 
or to enter it from abroad ' (Rymeb, Fcpdera^ 
xvii. 467). A few months later he was en- 
gaged in personal negotiations with James I 



supreme authorities do not appear to have 
pressed the charge against him. In 1637 he 
was one of those entrusted by the lords of 
the admiralty with fitting out ships at the 
expense of the city of London in accordance 
with the ship-money edict of 1636, and the 
attorney-general ana the recorder of London 
shortly anerwards exhibited an information 
against him in the exchequer court on the 
ground that he had not provided sufficient 




■nmuiiiuuii- By ordrr 'i(:W kiiii;'? 
hnweter. the pn)ce*^inii^ tj^iiifl 

- iif tiooiloti. wbo look ' 
Whaif of (be iroint. 
' ]«rliiui]enl fur having 
■ iirr- (.1 U'lTship-iD'jDev. I 
t-^ Si: Mziiirio- AMm. who had on I 
1631 exchanspd iIm- vard if Bnd^ 
It tar that of Colrinan Slrc«t. h^cnmp , 
if I^ndiin. The usual dw<Tip- 
;. -.-pared lo celebnte hi.' ■ 
■ was from the pen of 
' Jramntisl. Lhilr one 
I ~~ work is now known. 
,. t....i>^uililibrary, llbearBthe 
lltU. ■I'.>ri«i-K.lViaiis..r i\ir Pnri or Har- 
bour of Pietr. Kxprest in »iiniin*TnmDphe«, 
Pn^nuus. and Sbowes at the LutJIiilion of 
the Right Honuiinihle Sir Maiu-ice Abbol, 
knight, into the Mavonlty of the famous 
snd &iue renowD«l citv Landau. Written 
liT Thomajs HeTirorHJ.' Lundon. 1638. In a 
d»^calion lo the new lord major. Heywood 
empfaauHA Abbot's popularity among hU 
felkiw-dtiieng, and Kfun tn the eitraordi' 
narilT Mccessful careers of hijaeelf and his 
two brotheT& 'Neithercan I omit the ha»- 
|iiD«s»e of TOUT decHUed father, remsrlnbli^ i 
in thr'ee moat fortunate »onne«.' In 'the I 
first ihow ' deHnibed bj- Herwood he makes j 
allnsinn In ' tfae trading' of the right honour- 
able the ]n*»ent lord mayor, who is a mer- i 
tliant free of the Turk^, Italian, French, 
MuscotT.nnd waalalegovernourof theEast- 
Indr ComjKny.' In another 'eh' <«-' a shep- ' 
henl wa« introduced to frpifr the cloth trade, 
in ttUefa Abbot was still engaged, and ^ub- , 
heqamtljr an actor in the pageant, in the 
chsnuter of an Indian. iddrM^ lalldaln^^- , 
r*n em m the new lord mavor b« the chief , 
^Hfarefaant of England, | 

^^B vbnae eummerce our natioD hath Wn Citn'it. I 
^^^AUrat's mayorallT, which covered the 
greater part, of the year 1639, was rendered 
Himewlint eventful bj the outbreak of nur 
with tile Soots, and by the departure of an 
Enfliab army fbr the northern border under 
the King hinuelf. On 7 March Abbot was 
ci)iutitut«l' the king's lieutenant within the 
citj and B u hurbs of London' d uri ng bia absence 
intbe uonh, and was ^ven full authority to 
ana, if OM^wary, the inbabitunleagainet the 
king'senemies, and at thediscretion of himself 
nnd the aldermen lo put in force marital Inw. 
In the following months be wan frequently 
lonisbed by the king's council to keep a 
et watch over the manufacturertt of shot 
■Mber warlike implements, and ordered to 
^arreald of suspected persons. Ai times 




iai energy in this directinM s««mi> to hav«> 
hseti esressive. ttti 2l* May br sent to thi> 
Fi>ul(n C'lfiRter ■ woman tu^prcti^ to have 
distrihutfd dtuiiuc the Whitsuntide hnlidaya 
a pamphlH by John Lilbume, tbe &unous 
•^lator: liui the Houw of Lords in the fol- 
lowiot(«ar ti?Teti*d Abbot'»iie(-iMOn(Zf<nwe 
of £u^ MSS.. HUt, MSS. Omh. Bfp. i 



practicallv ret iivd from puUic life. He died 
10Jan.l641~^lnot IfUa as Uusually given), 
and was buncd in St.Slrplien*sCburcli,Cair- 
man Strvet, IiOndon. 

Abbot niarrivd, firstly, Joan Auatno, 
daughter of Georgo Austen, of Shalfold, 
near Guildfonl, by whom he had live child- 
ren. Morris, tme of his Hnt$. was called to 
the bar as a member of the Inner Temple, 
and was one of the executors of the will 
of hi« uncle, the arclibishop. who left him 
several legactee. George Abbot, another of 
hia eons, became a probationer fellow of 
Merton College. Oxford, in 162J, and was 
admitted bachelor of civil law in 16.% 
(Wood, AthtTi. Ojoa. |ed. Blivl, ii SM). 
He carried the great banner at the funeral 
of bis uncle, tbe Archbishop of Canterbury, 
in tti33, and sat in the Long Parliament as 
M.P. for Guildford unUl bis death in \iW> 
lMrtnier»(,/ParUam^nt.i.t»i). Atbirdsou. 
Edward, was. it appears from petitions to the 
rinuse of Lords in lt>4l.inconliniuiIpecunian' 
d ifHr ultie* ( Bouti- ofLonU MSS., Jlirt. MSJi. 
Com. Bep. iv. 62, 72, 73, 8a 103t. After the 
death of his first wife in IfiiC. Abbot married, 
fur the second lime, Margaret, daughter of 
Bartholomew Barnes, an alderman of Lon- 
don, and she died on 5 Sept. 163a 

There is no certain record of the sittu- 
lion of Abbots house in London, but bis 
name occurs among those who in 1630 held 
'tenements from the great south door (of 
St. Paul's Cathedral) to the south-west cor- 
ner of the cloister wall ' \ Val. Staff Paptn, 
1629-31, p. 458), and he wag one of the 
commi^toners nomiuatod in 1631 for the 
repair of the cathedral. He erected in 1635 
an etaborale monument in Trinity Church, 
Guildford, to the memory of bis brother, 
the Archbishop of Canterbury, who bad died 
two years previously, and had appointed Sir 
Maurice an executor under his will. In 1633 
one Hobert Asliley dedicated his translation 
of an Italian work on Cochin China to .\bbot, 
and attributes to him the assertion that ' the 
remotest trafiique is always tlie most beiieii- 
ciall to tbe publick slocke, and the trade to 
East Indies doth fcrre eicell all otlier.' Ab- 
bot's whole career, which was begun uniler 
no external advnutages, is a remarkable in- 



Abbot 24 Abbot 

*-- — --■ ■■ ■ - r-imm _ immii.i.__ ■ 

stance ofwell-directed energy and enterprise; he was appointed one of the royal chap- 
it is one of the earliest examples we have of kins in oramary. In the same year he pub- 
the creation of enormous wealth by the ap- lished his * Antichristi Demonstration also 
plication of ^reat personal abilities to com- designed as a reply to Bellarmine. This 
merce, and illustrates the extraordinary de- treatise was regaraed by James with so 
yelopment of the English foreign trade at much approyal that he directed that a por^ 
the close of the sixteenth and opening of the tion of nis own commentary on Reyela- 
seventeenth centuries. tions (on the passage xx. 7-10) should be 

[Lifeof Dr. George Abbot, reprinted by Onslow appended to the second edition— an honour 

from the Biographia Britannica, with the lives of unaccorded, says Abbot's biographer, to any 

his twobrothers (Guildford,! 777) ;Kemembrancia other of the * great clerks^ of the realm 

of the City of London, 166, 304 ; W. N. Sains- (Abel Ited. p. 541). It may be added that 

bury's Colonial State Papers (East Indies, China, James's high estimate appears to have been 

Japan), 1600-24 ; Foster's Collectanea (}enealo- concurred m by Bishop Andrewes. But the 

gica, vol. i.; Brayley and Mantell*s Hifstory of work which chiefly served to establish 

Surrey, i. 392-3 ; Hevwood's Porta Pietatis, Abbot's reputation with his contemporaries 

edited by R W. Fairholt, in Percy Society's was his * Defence of the Reformed Catholike 

Publications, X. part "-PPf ^78 1 Calendars of ^f Mr. William Perkins ' (published in three 

^™^«?il^X"i "^ '^' 1580-1626. and ^ ^^^ ^ 1606-9). The 'Informed 

from 1619 te 1639.] S. L. L. Catholike\)f that eminent divine was ad- 

ABBOT, ROBERT (1560-1617), bishop mitted by writers of the Roman party to be 
of Salisbury, elder brother of George Abbot, the ablest exposition of heretical bebef, and 
archbishop of Canterbury, was bom at Guild- Abbot, in his * Defence,' clearly indicates his 
ford in Surrey, about 1560, and educated sympathy with the puritan party, deriving 
at the free school there. The talent he tne true tradition of the early church 
evinced in a school ^ oration ' on the anni- through the Albigenses, Lollards, Hugpie- 
versary of Queen Elizabeth's accession nots, and Calvinists, in distinct opposition 
(17 Nov. 1571) appears to have led to his not only to Tridentine doctrine, but also to 
election to a scholarship at Balliol College, the views of the Arminian party, which 
Oxford, where he shortly after entered {Id/e were then beginning to gather strength 
by Fbatlby, in Fuller's Abel Itedivivus, ed. within the English church (pt. ii. p. 56). 
1651, p. 540). He was elected fellow in 1581, In the concluding part Abbot drew 'the 
proceeded M.A. in the following year, and in true ancient Roman Catholike * as he him- 
1597 was admitted D.D. Having entered self conceived the character. He dedicated 
holy orders and been appointed lecturer both his performance to Prince Henry, who ac- 
at St. Martin's Churcn in Oxford and at knowledged the dedication in an autograph 
Abingdon in Berkshire, he soon began to letter in which he promised that Abbot 
attract attention by his abilities as a should not be forgotten in the future distri- 
preacher, and a sermon delivered at Wor- but ion of church preferment. In 1609 he 
cester resulted in his appointment as lecturer returned to his own college at Oxford as 
in that important centre, and subsequently master, a piece of preferment for which he 
to the rectory of All Saints in the same city, was indebted mainly to Archbishop Ban- 
About the same time a sermon which he croft's influence. He continued to preside 
preached at Paul's Cross procured for him over the society at Balliol until his promo- 
the valuable living of Bingham in Notting- tion in 1615 to the see of Salisbury. His 
hamshire, to which he was presented by John rule (of which his biographer gives a detailed 
Stanhope, Esq., an ancestor of the present account), while notable for assiduous care 
patron, the Earl of Chesterfield. His oratory, for the general welfare of the students, 
as contrasted with that of his brother, the appears, like that of Whitgift at Trinity 
archbishop, is thus charaoterised by Fuller : College, Cambridge, to have been distin- 
* Gteorge was the more plausible preacher, guished by a rigorous enforcement of dis- 
Robert the greater scholar ; George the abler cipline, and especially of religious obser- 
statesman, Robert the deeper divine; gravity vances (Abel Rediv. p. 543). In 1610 he 
did frown in George, and smile in Robert ' was appointed a fellow of the newly founded 
( Worthies, Surrey, p. 82). college at Chelsea, designed by King James 

Abbot's reputation was increased by the as a school of controversial divinity and a 

publication in the year 1594 of his ' Mirror bulwark against popery. In the same year 

of Popish Subtleties,' designed as a refutation he also obtained the prebend of Normanton 

of the arguments advanced by Sander and attached to the ancient church of Southwell, 

Bellarmine against the protestant theory of ^ the mother church ' of Nottir^hamshire. 

the sacraments. On the accession of James I In 1612 he was appointed by £ng James 



T^iis professor of diviuily at Oxford, in 
AucceBsion to Dr. HoIIbdi). During hU resi- 
dence in the imivMBity his Bympathy with ' 
ihe CalvimBtic pwtT wna tiiunietnbnbly 
evinced bv his Buspencion (when vice-chau- , 
cellorl of th-.HowBon, canon of Christ jfhurch, ' 
who had WDtured publicly to aniniadrert 

ri the DOtee to the Genevan Bible | and i 
bj a direct attaclt from the 
t that time preeidt 



e pulpit upon 
of St. John's 



College, for his Icuningg inwards llomsitism 
OIei LIS, L^e itf Laud, n.e7 : Aeriiu Reiit- 
i-irtu, p. 390). 

In_ tlie year 1813 Abbot took a leading 
part in the dispute respecting the complicity 
of the jvsiiil (Jamet in the Gunpowder plot 
— a controversy in which Bellarniine, Bishop 
.-\ndrewes, ' Eudieinon Joannes ' (the Jesuit 
L'Heureux), and Casaubon were likewise 
engaged. Abhot was invited to answer £u- 
diemoD Jonnnes, wjiosr treatise the cutholJc 
party regarded as a triumphant vindication 
..f Garnet. Ilia replj- was enlitled 'Anti- 
liigia udverwiB A_po1ogiiun Andrew Eudiemou 
Jonnnis.' ' It IS manifest,' says Jardine, 
'that, during ile composition, Dr. Abbot had 
free access to all the iloeumeutary evidence 
ugainst Garnet which was in the poesesston 
of the goveriLnient . . . and in consequence 
of the TMt body of evidence t hat it contuns 
... as well ns tin' powerful reasoning of 
the author, it is beyond all comparison the 
most important work wliich appeared in the 
course of the controversy.' 

In December 1B15, Abbot was consecrated 
by his own hrotber to the «ee of Salisbury. 
Ilia appointment was not made without con- 
siderable opposition. ' Abbot,* said King 
Jumee, ' I have had very much to do to make 
thee a bishop; but I know no reason for it, 
unleas it were hocause tbou writeHt against 
one ' — alluding to the fact that Abbot's ' De- 
fenc«' was a rqoinder to one Dr. SitAop, a 
Jesuit (AM Sfdiv. p. 64B). On quitting 
GsfordjAbbot delivered before the university 
a farewell oration in Latin, of which some 
tngmeate are still presen'ed. Ue was at- 
tended, with every mark of resnect, by the 
nmmbera of bis own coUeee and the heads 
of houses to the borders ofluB diocese. His 
discharge of the duties attaching to bis em- 
scop*t«, duringthe short period Inat be held 
the office, would seem to liave been in every 
respect mi'ritorious. He restored the cathe- 
dral which hail fallen into decoy, exercised 
a bountiful and discriminating hospitality, 
and devoted his best energies to the religious 
instruction of the jieople and the improve- 
ment of their socio! condition. He died 
2 March 1017-18 after much suffering from 
A Itainful laaWy induced by liis seden- 



tary habits. ' He was,' says Wood, ' ft pei^ 
son of unblameablo life and conversation, a 
profound divine, most admirably well read 
in the fathers, councils, and schoolmen.' 
Abbot was twice married ; the second time 
to u widow lady, Bridget Chej-nell, mother 
of Francis Cheynell, an eminent presbyteriau 
divine iu the time of the Commonwealtb. 
Tliis second marriage is swd to have dis- 
pleased his brother, the archbishop, who 
ignrded it as a " " ' . - . 



infringement of the apo- 
lat a bishop should be the 



stolic injunction that 

huabanu of one wife. By bis first wife 
Abbot had sous and a daughter, who was 
married to Sir Nathaniel Brent, warden of 
-Merton College, Oxford. Their daughter, 
Margaret, was married to Dr. Edward Cor- 

' bet, rector of Haseley in Oxfordshire, and 

j the latter presented some of the bishop's 

I manuscripts to the Bodleian. 

I Besides the works already mentioned, 
AblKit was the author of a laborious com- 
mentary on the Epistle to the Romans, a 
mBTiuscript in four volumes folio and one 
of the coll(H;lion pn'sented hy his grand- 
daught4!r'a husband to the Bodleian ; of his 
other contributions to controversial theoloj^ 
an account will be found in Middlelon, 'Bio- 

g'nphin Evongelica/ii. 881-2; 'Biographia 
ritannieo,' i. 19. 

[Lifu hy Fealley, in FuUcr's Alwl BedirivAUi. 
vol. ii.; Fuller's Church History; Wood. Athens 
Oion., ed. Bliss, ii. 2'J4-T; Criminal Trials 
(H. D. n. K.), ii. 366-7.] J- B. M. 

ABB0T,R0BP:RT ( 1588 ?-1662 ?), divine, 

has been strangely confused with others, e.g. 

1- I with Robert Abbot, bishop of Solisbury, and 



H of the humble 'BJeet«d 



lury, and 
of 1662 



(Palvgk's Nmtconf. Mem. ii. ^18) ; he hiu also 
been at different times erroneously separated 
into a Robert Abbot of Cronbruok, Kent ; 
another of Southwick, Hants ; a third of 
St. Austin's, London (the last being further 
described as a presbyterian, and as joining 
in the rebellion) ; while these were only the 
successive livings of the same Robert Ab- 
bot- He is also usuolly described as of the 
archbishop's or Guildford Abbots, whereas 
he was in no way related to them, albeit 
he acknowledges gratefully, iu an epistle de- 
dieutory of ' A Hand of Fellowship to Heipe 
Keepe'Ort Sinne and Antichrist' (1&'3, 
4to'), that it was from tlie archbishop he 
had 'received all his worldly maintenance,' 
as well as 'best earthly countenance' and 
'fatherly encouragements.' The 'worldly 
maintenance' was the presentation to the 
vicarage of Oranbrook, of which the arch- 
bishop was patron. Thiswas in 1616. He 
had received his education at Cambridge, 
where he proceeded M, A., and was afterwards 



Abbot 



26 



Abbott 



* incorporated ' at Oxford. His college re- 
mains unknown. 

In 1639, in the epi«tle to the reader of his 
' Triall of our Church Forsakers,* he writes : 
' I have lived now by God's gratious dispen- 
sation above fifty years, and in the place of 
my allotment two and twenty full.' The 
former date carries us back to 1588-9, or 
probably 1587-8, as his birth-year; the 
latter to 1616-7, the year of his settlement 
at Cranbrook. 

In his 'Bee ThankfuU London and her 
Sisters ' (1626), he describes himself as for- 
merly 'assistant to a reverend diuine . . . now 
with God ; ' and the name on the margin is 

* Master Haiward of Wool Church ' (Dorset). 
This must have preceded his going to Cran- 
brook. He was also the author 01 ' Milk for 
Babes, or a Mother's Catechism for her 
Children,' 164^5 ; and of ' AChristian Fanuly 
builded by God, or Directions for Governors 
of Families,' 1653. Puritan though he was 
in his deepest convictions and mildly Cal- 
vinistic in his creed, he wa^ed a prolonged 
warfare against the Brownists, and sought 
to cover their saint liest men and women 
with undeserved opprobrium. 

He remained at Cranbrook till 164t3, and 
in that year, having been called upon by the 

Earliament 'rules' to choose between two 
enefices, so as not to come under the ban of 
being a pluralist, he selected the far inferior 
living of Southwick, Hants. Later he suc- 
ceeded the extruded Udall, of St. Austin's, 
London, where he continued 'until a ripe 
old age.' In 1657, in ' Evangelical Peace,' 
he is described as ' pastor of St. Austine's, 
I»ndon.' He disappears silently between 
1657-8 and 1662. His books are terse and 
vivid, and fetch high prices on their rare 
occurrence. 

[Brook's Puritans, iii. 182, 183 ; Abbot's MSS. 
as under Abdot, Gbokob ( 1603-1 648) ; Walker's 
SufTerioKS, part ii. 183; Wood's Fasti, ed. Bliss, i. 
323 ; Bodleian and Dr. Williams's Library Catal. ; 
article in Encyc. Brit. (9th ed.) b^' present au- 
t hor, partly reproduced by permission of Messrs. 
A. & C. Black.] A. B. G. 

ABBOT, WILLIAM (1789-1843), actor 
and dramatist, was bom at Chelsea, and 
made his first essay on the stage at Bath in 
1806. He remained a member of the Bath 
company for some seasons. For one night 
only he^ appeared at the Haymarket, in the 
hummer of 1808, on the occasion of the bene- 
fit of Charles Young, the tragedian, return- 
ing afterwards to Bath. He reappeared at 
the Haymarket in 1810, and was first en- 
gaged at Covent Garden in 1812. He was a 
performer of light comedy and ju^-enile tra- 
gedy, but he took part in the melodramas 



which were then in vogue. He was assigned 
the part of Lothair upon the first production 
of the 'Miller and his Men.' For many 
years he continued to be a member of tlie 
Covent Garden company. * Mr. Abbot never 
acts ill,' wrote Hazlitt'in 1816. Macready, 
in his ' Reminiscences,' describing his own 
first appearance at Covent Garden in 1816 as 
Orestes in the ' Distressed Mother/ writes : 
' Abbot, as Pylades, was waiting for me at 
the side scene; and when the curtain had 
risen, gprasping his hand almost convulsiTdy, 
I dashed upon the scene,' &c. Abbot was the 
original representative of Appius Claadius 
and of Modus in Sheridan Knowles's plays 
of ' Virginius' (1820) and the ' Hunchback ' 
(1832). The critics applauded the spirit of 
his acting, and his ' acute sense of proprietv 
of emphasis.' In 1827 Abbot was engaged, 
at a weekly salarv of twenty napoleons, as 
stage mana^r of tlie English company visit- 
ing Paris, with Miss Smithson as tneir ' lead- 
ing lady.' He played Charles Surface amoof 
other parts ; but the ' School for Scandal 
was little admired at the Salle Favart. The 
season concluded in Paris, Abbot, with others 
of the company, attempted to g^ve Ijiglish 
performances in certain of the chief towns 
of France ; but the experiment was whoUv 
unsuccessful, the company was disbandeci, 
I and the English actors, m a most necee- 
' sitous condition, found their way home as 
best they could. Upon the first appearance 
of Miss Fanny Kemble in 1830 at Covent 
Garden, Abbot played Romeo to her Juliet. 
Leigh Hunt "wrote of his performance: 
' Mr. Abbot has taken it in his head that 
noise is tragedy, and a tremendous noise he 
accordingly makes. It is Stentor with a 
trumpet. . . . We hear he is a pleasant per- 
son everyii'here but on the stage, and such a 
man may be reasonably at a disadvantage 
with his neighbours somewhere.' Abbot 
was the author of two melodramas, the 
'Youthful Days of Frederick the Great' 
and ' Swedish Patriotism, or the Signal 
Fire,' produced at Covent Garden in 1817 
and 1819 respectively, and both founded 
upon French originals. Abbot left England 
to try his fortune in America, meeting there 
with small success. He died at Baltimore 
in distressed circumstances, 'shunned and 
neglected,' it was said, ' by those his former 
friendship served.' 

[Biography of the British Theatre, 1824; 
Genest's Hist 017 of the Stage in England, 1832 ; 
Donaldson's Recollections of an Actor, 1865.1 

D. C. 

ABBOTT, CHARLES, first Lord Tbk- 
TERDEN (176:?-1832), lord chief justice, -wis 
born 7 Oct. 1762, at Canterbury, in a house 



Abbott 



27 



Abbott 



311 the left-hand side of the west entrance to 
the cathedral. He was, to quote the epitaph 
srhich he wrote for his tomb two montns 
before his death, ^ Filius natu minor humil- 
limis sortis parentibus, patre vero prudenti, 
matre pia ortus/ that is, he was the second 
son of a respectable hairdresser and wig- 
maker, amonff whose patrons were the cler^ 
of the cathedral. As a lad Abbott is said 
to have helped his father in his business. 
Lord Campbell, who, in his ' Lives of the 
Chief Justices,' gives the most complete ac- 
count of him, describes Abbott as a ' scrubby 
little boy, who ran after his father, carrying 
for him a pewter basin, a case of razors, and 
a hair-powder bag.' Having been taught to 
read at a dame's school, he entered at seven 
the King's or Grammar School, where manv 
celebrated men have been educated. Abbott s 
ability was soon discovered by his teacher, 
Dr. Osmond Beauvoir. The late Sir Egerton 
Brydges, who was Abbott's schoolfellow, 
states that ' from his earliest years he was 
industrious, apprehensive, regular and correct 
in all his conduct, even in nis temper, and 
prudent in everything.' Another schoolfellow 
describes him as * grave, silent, and demure ; 
always studious and well-behaved.' The same 
informant says : * I think his first rise in life 
was owin^ to a boy of the name of Thurlow, 
an illegitimate son of the lord chancellor, 
who was at Canterbury Free School with us. 
Abbott and this boy were well acquainted, 
and when Thurlow went home for the holi- 
days he took young Abbott ^idth him. Abbott 
then became acquainted with Lord Thurlow, 
and was a kind of helping tutor to his son ; 
and I have alwavs heard, and am persuaded, 
that it was by his lordship's aid that he was 
afterwards sent to school with us.' About 
the age of fourteen he was put forward by 
his father as a candidate for a place as singing- 
boy in the cathedral. But his voice being 
husky, another boy was preferred. In after 
years, as chief justice, he went the home 
circuit with Mr. Justice Richardson, and 
visited the cathedral with his brother jud^e. 
Pointing, to a singer in the choir, he said, 
* Behold, brother Richardson, that is the only 
human being I ever envied. When at school 
in this town we were candidates for a cho- 
rister's place ; he obtained it ; and if I had 
gained my wish, he might have been accom- 
panying youaschief justice, and pointing nf? 
out as his old schoolfellow, the singing-man.' 
Abbott's proficiency in I^tin verse was 
remarkable ; and at seventeen he was captain 
of the school. His father wished that his son 
should be apprenticed to his trade, and the 
indenture.^ were actually signed, sealed, and 
delivered. Fortunately the trustees of the 



school saw their way to increase the amount 
of an exhibition, and he was thus enabled to 
go to Oxford. He entered Corpus Christi 
College 21 March 1781, where he obtained a 
scholarship. In 1783 he competed for the 
chancellor s medal for Latin composition, the 
subject being the siege of Gibraltar, ' Calpe 
obsessa.' lie failed to get the prize, being 
beaten bv Bowles the poet, then a scholar of 
Trinity, but in 1784 he won it by his verses 
on * Globus Aerostaticus,' the voyage in a bal- 
loon of Lunardi, who had about that time in- 
troduced the air-balloon into England. In 
1786 he gained the chancellor's medal for 
English composition by an essay * On the Use 
and Abuse of Satire.' This essay, which is 
printed in the first volume of the * Oxford 
Prize Essays,' begins in the approved prize 
style of the period: *In the early ages of 
nations, as in the youth of individuals, before 
the authority of the judgment is confirmed 
by the establishment of acknowledged truths, 
the passions are ever the most powerful 
springs of human action.' The essay deals 
separately with personal, political, moral, and 
critical satire. Clear as one of Lord Tenter- 
den*s judgments, it shows considerable read- 
ing; and it ends with the cautious remark, 
characteristic of the author : ' Perhaps we need 
not hesitate to conclude that the benefits 
derived from satire are far superior to the 
disadvantages, with regard both to theirextent 
and duration ; and its authors may therefore 
be deservedly numbered among the happiest 
instructors of mankind.' In 1785 Abbott 
took his degree of B.A., and he was soon 
afterwards made a fellow of his college and 
tutor. As private tutor of Mr. Yarde, son 
of Mr. Justice Buller, he became acquainted 
with that judge, who strongly urged him to 
go to the bar. *You may not possess,' he 
said in his pithy fashion, *■ the garrulity called 
eloquence, which sometimes rapidly forces up 
an impudent pretender, but you are sure to 
get early into respectable business at the 
bar, and you may count on becoming in due 
time a puisne judge.' He took Buller s ad- 
vice. On 16 >^ov. 1787 Abbott was admitted 
a student of the Middle Temple. He took 
chambers in Brick Court, and attended for 
several months the offices of Messrs. Sandys 
& Co., attorneys, in Craig's Court. After- 
wards he entered the chambers of Mr. Wood, 
who had been the instructor of Lord Ellen- 
borough and several other judges, and who 
was one of the chief pleaders of his day. 
Having there mastered the science of special 
pleading, he practised for several years as a 
special pleader under the bar. 

(hi 13 July 1795 he married Mary, daughter 
of John Langley Lamotte, of Basildon, Berk- 



Abbott 



28 



Abbott 



ehire. He had four children, two sons and 
two daughters, John Henr^*, Mary, Catherine 
Alice, and Charles {Gentleman*s Magazine, 
1832, ii. 571). His success as a special pleader 
induced him to ^ to the bar, or, to use his 
own characteristic words, to take that ' leap 
into the turbid stream of forensic practice 
in which so many sink, while a few — '' rari 
nantes in gurgite vasto " — are carried success- 
fully along to riches and honour.' Called to 
the bar by the Inner Temnle in Hilary t^rm 
1796, he loined the Oxford circuit, and, not- 
withstanding his lack of most of the quali- 
ties of an advocate, he obtained a laive 
practice. Appointed junior counsel to the 
treasury, he orew the indictments and was 
employed as counsel in several important 
state trials. In 1801 he was made recorder 
of Oxford. In 1802 he published his work 
on the ' Law relative to Merchant Ships and 
Seamen,' a subject which had been suggested 
to him by Lora Eldon. The choice was fortu- 
nate. Malynes's work on mercantile law had 
been published as far back as 1622, and con- 
siderably more than a century had elapsed 
since the appearance of Molloy s book, almost 
the only work on maritime or mercantile law 
to be found at the b^inning of this century 
in an English lawyer^ library. Abbott drew 
upon materials which haJ hitherto been 
neglect^ by most writers and judges. The 
civil law, the maritime codes of foreign 
countries, the * Notabilia ' of Roccus, and the 
treatises of Pothier and Emerigon were con- 
sulted. It may appear strange that so im- 
portant a work as the ' Consolato del Mare ' 
nad never been seen by Abbott, which he 
admits was the case. But the book displayed 
much learning. His treatment of legal ques- 
tions was novel. To appreciate the value of 
his work, one must know the character of 
English law books at the time of its appeai> 
ance. They were, with scarcely an exception, 
crude compilations of cases. A writer who 
sought to illustrate principles rather than to 
collect the decisions of courts and the acts of 
the legislature j ustly earned high praise. The 
book was successful to an extent not often 
realised by a legal author. It brought Ab- 
bott, tradition says, many briefs in commer- 
cial cases. It has passed through twelve 
editions. In this country it was edited by 
Mr. Justice Shee, and in the United States 
by Mr. Justice Story ; and it is still quoted 
as a book of authority by lawyers, who regard 
it as unsurpassed in its clear and simple 
enunciation of principles. In 1807 Abbott's 
practice had so grown that he returned his 
income as 8,026/. 5«. His success was not won 
bythe display of brilliant forensic abilities. 
^He had no striking talents,' says Lord 



Brougham. * He never was a leader at the 
bar.' * I believe,' says Lord Campbell, * he 
never addressed a jury in London in the 
whole course of his life.' Lord Camj^iell 
adds that on the few occasions when Aobc^ 
had to address a jury on circuit he showed 
' the most marvellous inaptitude for the func- 
tions of an advocate, and almost always lost 
the verdict.' He was offered in 1808* a seat 
on the bench, but his practice was so lucra- 
tive that he declined it. Aware of his de- 
ficiencies as a leader, he did not take silk. 
Owing to bad health he seems at one time to 
have thought of Quitting hisprofession; hxA 
on the death of Mr. Justice Heath, in Febru- 
ary 1816, he accepted a puisne judgeship in 
the court of Common Pleas. As a sexjeant 
he gave rings with the characteristic motto 
labore. He remained for a short time in that 
court, which was uncongenial to a man of 
his quiet demeanour. On the death of Mr. 
Justice Le Blanc, in May of the last year, he 
was moved into the Bang's Bench, l^eie his 
rise was rapid. Admonished by the decay 
of his faculties. Lord EUenborough resigned 
the office of chief justice in September 1818. 
There was a difficulty in choosing a succes- 
sor. Sir Samuel Shepherd, the attomev- 
general, was unpopular and in bad healtk; 
Gifford, the solicitor-general, was too younff. 
In these circumstances Abbott was selected, 
though with some misgiving. ' We endea- 
voured to do the best we could,* wrote Lord 
Eldon to Lord Kenvon after the appointment 
was made. * We could not do wnat would 
have been really unexceptionable. It was 
impossible ' (Twiss, L\fe of Eldon , ii. 824). 
On 4 Nov. 1818 Sir Charles Abbott was made 
chief justice. He had the good fortune to be 
supported by puisnejudges of rare ability, 
such as Bayley J., Holroyd J., and Little* 
dale J. Speaking of the Kmg's Bench in that 
period, Lord Campbell observes : * Before such 
a tribunal the advocate becomes dearer to 
himself by preserving his own esteem, and 
finds himseli to be a minister of justice in- 
stead of a declaimer, a trickster, or a bullv. 
I do not believe that so much important butt- 
ness was ever done so rapidly and so well 
before any other court that ever sat in any 
age or country.' Abbott's judgments, whicn 
are for the most part reported in Maule and 
Selwyn's, Bamewall and Alderson's, and 
Bamewall and Cresswell's Reports, are distin- 
guished by their perspicuity and moderation, 
clearness of reasoning, and absence of futile 
subtleties. Among the many judgments 
which he deliverea in cases of importance 
may be mentioned ^ The King af^ainst Bur- 
dett' (4 B. <$* Aid. 95), a leading case in 
the law of libel as to what constitutes pub- 








Abbott 2^ Abbott 

~ «ac« «o i^ jKt r«v 

^ JL 1- C 34r ^ «a v3ft> f^'ui^. " Out I ^ti9fecT.^ W «^«1. vjtk ^ 

^ JL J- Am. :^ «. ^v^ork I uk 5ttr« Vr « VE««i tai «£7v<t 9Mii 

mcik-t«c t&AS After xW fiwinjKC v>f tW WXl 
k«kiai^ v«:«ji V Vft 1y tW kNfew Wn ti> 

» t'> be draws W i^ Tmtm'ifc?^^ of tW W(&» After it Ia^ Kf<w»f tW «lMhi>w 

CBS or MnscKBc^ </ rve^Tv awe cc«> of :tj^ i^fwrMii fiwAtMv^sv' ItW l»Mklik iMii 

It wixk tk» li&ir!^ azkI %«»h» of Irfr. Vv 1««k iscfiikiTKL amI im l:^itf it VK4siM^>vm 

ho kmow titAZ wbe?» rvttsOBAiiHe dc«^ sbiertlbesSTAimof k»d«t9iN^ Lcv^I^Httr^MM 

staiited it is tbnr dspr to Mt^mit* Asd 5«u«« ul kk »mk«7!i tkftt ke mk Uwd^ir*- 

r one or BKre kvyesw vkc«e Wbit^ lerdiMA as tbe ;viKn^Vei>UBdI AftdKMOii^t 

be s«5pe<ted of Ifffc^T^f t^esi to tbe bia to «v kcwie. * Gvv duef jm$9>c>f. \ o« 

«ioe of too mivb soIci^tt absI T\^aBe^ viH kill voorwufl* ' It » dc«ie AbiMdr/ w«$ 

Abbon ps«t»ded At »TerAl ^nwrtmst kis AB5wr. IVnurk ilLW pn«mM oT«r tke 

kriAk. ASD>:«BZ ofbe-r« ibc««« c^ ikistle^ tr&Al At bAT in IS;^ of CbAr)et5 I\umt, tke 

md the CAto Street coBSKrAtoT^ Hotte mftTvv i:^ Rnstv?^ f xr m»icv>QdiK't And ncicWt 

inheiDOfis libeL And CoMKCt for lilel : of ^httr v«i tbe ^xmjioQ c^ tke nv45 m tbAt 

i oiflebAiced bi< d^ks witk iB-:^TAtx>Q cttr. tie <\>ald iK>t belp Ke47ATinc inmtiieiK^ 

i^nhr. In AvrQ IS:^ be was TAiwd. dckiv: the rroeee<biur!s AZhi oa tbe third dAT 

mstADce of 3tr. CAtmiiur. to tbe pe^:^ be was cvuLluwd to bis bed bj ab Attack of in- 

Oder tbe title of Batoci Tenterdoi c^ AASAmAtion. He rNomed borne on :^5 iVt^ 

m. He imivhr took patc in iioliticAl And died on 4 Not. His Ust wvds^ ntteivd 

non in tbe Hoa?e of LAtrds. He c«b- wben Abnost nxie\iiutnons« indieAted tbAt be 

bimself for tbe most pArt to debAtes. was tbinkinf of tbe duties wbicb be bAd ;k^ 

■1 topics^ respecting wbicb bi? opinion k^^disebAi^rd : * Gentle»eB«Tv>a Aie aII dij^ 

i weiffbt. He was iKit An Actire Iaw miKted.* He was buried. At bis own le^uost, 

yer. He did not STmnAtbi?^ with or in tbe Foondiing HospitAl, of whick be was 

B reforms in tbe criminAl Iaw wbicb a coTemor. 

Arried out by RomillT And Lord >f Ack- In no jense or CApAcitr was LordTenterden 

In 1830 he oppoised tbe pTCipcis^ to giVAt. As a Uwr^r be was suz^ASsed in 

ipnnishmentof deAtbforfonrerv. But Acuteness And erudition by some judji:«t» of 

not A little to impioTe tbe Admmistn- bis own time. He was totAlly destitute 

r some pATts of the common Iaw. In of elojueiK^, And rAtber deispijied it as An 

le introauced into pArliAment fire bills impediment to justice. He sbowed to dis- 

ODon the reports of the commissioners AdrAntAge in An o£Bce which MAns£eld luui 

aa been Appointed to inquii^ into tbe recently filled : And it was a eimve defect in 

of improvin|ir the Administrmtion of his conduct as chief justice tkAt he giAnted 

His nAme is AssociAted with certAin tbe perilous remedy oi criminAl infonnAtions 

le measures : e.g. 9 Geo. r\', c. 14. An in circumstAnces in which HAle And Holt 

rendering a written memorAndum ne- would bATe refused it. But he exhibited rare 

r to the VAliditT of certAin promises : good soise And si^reme reasonAblene^s. He 

. rV, c. 15, wiiich WAS intended to hAd no pleasure in deducing &om the common 

t a failure of j ust ice by reason of Taria- Iaw pAndoxes offensive to justice. The court 

between written or printed evidenoe orer which he presided was respected: And bis 

e recital of them upon the record : and decisicms are still referred to with deference. 
3 WilL I\', c. 71, for shortening the [CAmpbell*6 Lires of the Chief Jnstiecs; Foas's 

of prescription. A strong tory in Judges, ix. 68 ; Townseods Judges, ii. 234 ; Gem. 

s, he was conspicuous in his opposition Mag. for 1832, ii. 568 ; Law Jfagaziiie. ix. 233, 

}orporation and Test Bill, the Catholic 234, xzri. 51.] J. M-i. 



Abbott 30 Abdy 

ABBOTT, CHARLES STUART AU- , line Street, Bloomsbury. He was a frwuent 



BREY, third Lokd Teotbrdek (1834-1882), 
])ennanent undep-secretary for foreign affairs, 
was the son of the Hon. Charles Abbott, 
brother of John Henry, second Lord Tenter- 
den, and was bom in London on 26 Dec. 1834. 
He was educated at Eton, and in 1854 entered 
the Foreign Office, where in 1866 he was ap- 
)inted pr6cis writer to Lord Stanley. On 



re 



contributor to the exhibitions of the Koyal 
Academy between 1788 and 1800. Although 
he lacked the tast« and skill requisite knt 
producing a good whole-length picture, the 
heads of his male portraits were perfect in 
their likenesses, particularly those which 
he painted from the naval heroes of his time. 
His portrait of the poet Cowper is well known, 



April 1870 he succeeded to the peerage ! and the best likeness of Lord Nelson is from 



on the death of his uncle. In the following 
ytiar he was employed as secretary to the 
joint high commission at Washington ; sub- 
sequently he assisted the lord chancellor in 
preparing the statement regarding the Ala- 



bama claims, and at the general conference penurious disposition, he employed no assist- 



his hand. Many of the prints from his pic- 
tures are marked Francis Lemuel Abbott, but 
it is not known why he assumed this addi- 
tional Christian name, which was not be* 
stowed upon him at the font. Being of a 



ant, and consequently he was overwhelmed 
with commissions which he could not execute. 
Domestic disquiet, occasioned by his maniage 



on the subject he acted as agent for Great 
Britain. He was assistant under-secretary 
for foreign affairs from 1871 to 1873, when 

he became permanent under-secretary. In withawomanof very absurd conduct, preyed 
1878 he was a royal commissioner at the upon his mind and brought on insanity, which 
Paris Exhibition, and the same year was pro- i at last terminated in his death in 18(^. 
moted to the rank of K.C.B. Lord Tenterden : [Edwards's Anecd. of Painters, 281 ; Pilking^ 
was a distinguished freemason, being installed ' ton's Diet, of Painters, ed. Davenport; Biyan's 
provincialgrandmasterof Essex 2 Jul V 1879. Diet, of Painters and Engravers, ed. Stanley; 
He died 22 Sept. 1882. ' j Recigrave's Diet, of Artists (1878).] T. C. 

[Times, 23 Sept. 1882; Foreign Office Sketches ABBOTT, THOMAS EASTOE (1779- 
( 1 883), pp. 2o-40.] T. 1^ . H. ;i g^^^ poetical writer, was descended from a 

ABBOTT, EDWIN (1808-1882), educa- Suffolk family, and resided for many years at 
tional writer, bom in London on 12 May \ Darlington, where he served many offices of 
1808, was from 1827 to 1872 head master | local trust with jnreat credit. For his services 
of the Philological School in Marylebone. j in connection with the Royal Free (Grammar 
Besides elementary works on Latin and School, which he succeeded in placing in a 
English grammar he compiled a * CJomplete satisfactory state, he was presented with a 
Concordance to the Works of Alexander valuable testimonial by the inhabitants of 
Pope,' which was published in 1875. He that town. He died at Darlington 18 Feb, 
died on 12 May 1882. . 1854, aged 76. His works are : 

rPersonal information 1 ! ^' * ^^^^e : a Lyric Poem.' Hull, 1814. 

'■ '■' I 2. * The Triumph of Christianitv : a Mission- 

ABBOTT, LEMUEL (d, 1776), poetical | ary Poem, with Notes and other Poems.' Lon- 
writer, became curate of Ansty, Leicester- don, 1819. 3. *The Soldier's Friend; or, 
shire, in 1756 ; vicar of Tliomton, in the same Memorials of Bninswick : a Poem sacred to 
county, in 1773: and died in April 1776. ; the memory of his Royal Highness Fiede- 
He published * Poems on various Subjects. ; rick, Duke of York and Albany.' Hull, 1828. 
Whereto is prefixed a short. Essay on the 4. * Lines on Education and Keligion.' Dar- 
Stnicture of English Verse.' Nottingham, lington, 1839. 

1 765. [Latimer's Local Records of Northumberiand 

[Nichols's Leicestershire, iii. 1082, iv. 984; and Durham. 338; Gent. Mag. N.S., 1854, zli. 
Cresweirs Collections towards the History of 443 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] T. C. 

Printing in Nottinghamshire, 34.] T. C. ABDY EDWARD STRUTT (1791- 

ABBOTT, LEMUEL (1760-1803), por- 1846), writer on America, was the fifth and 
trait painter, was a son of a clergvman in youngest son of Thomas Abdy Abdy, Esq., 
Leicestershire — most probably the llev. Le- of Albyns, Essex, by Mary, daughter of James 
muel Abbott, vicar of Thornton [q. v.]. At Hayes, of Holliport, a bencher of the Middle 
the age of fourteen he became a pupil of , Temple. He was educated at Jesus College, 
Frank Hayman, after whose death, two years ' Camoridge, where he obtained a fellowship 
later, he returned to his parents, and tjr his (B.A. 1813; M.A. 1817). His death occuned 
own perseverance acquirea the art of taking a j at Bath, 12 Oct. 1846, at the age of 66. His 
correct likeness. About 1780 he settled in ' works are : 
London, and resided for many years in Caro- . 1. * Journal of a Residence and Tour in the 



Abdy 51 A Beckett 

States ^ N^rck AsKkm. fr'^m .V^cil H^^ * w«r? evsrriVis^MKv H« w»» ^i^^ tW 
October l?CU.';» T^^iiw LaL ISSS^ aar^Y ^k* t&tf -CVwttr ffistvHrr olT Gn^^^Mfti^ 

^^"^TTTT iTnm4iTH f-Ti *Vr *'^— twit ■ beCTad^i W ljw«rkVtlii»*'t\>aHk'Blick»t\^ 

■■■1 iMnj Bi ni to lytfy ^ ' ^^ c^:<»«>-'* \wh& tIh»C7i£Mi» W G«i.«» Cbfcikflfcaim^ V 

Jjomd. lS4i. ?^Tc^ VsBc a rnuasiar^.Mft awi tW *^^BBK4^.^<fif cW ti^niia$k I^raMdk' 

■fUrf In- Torn FaIkw;<AL 3ir. a Rk^kt. W&vy W Mir^ntif wtTk 

X. C. Hearr Okwi^^ J-P- vf Sihw HalL Is*!- 

►T, MAsiA ,i i!«jr^ («**». «» *r*K:L ';^ 1*^^* »^««'!«- ,5««<p ^» 

u>d JuK« S^h -W Star*. H<- I'*?* *-"^ ^*^*^ **^: !*^r*r^> 

•nd wife of the rJt. J. cu>i^>r *^K.^ ?n^^'r^' '^1^ i*jK ^ * 



She died IPJoIt l*«r. *T" '** ««*fnipol«»* k**** cf **«wk<nafd 

Hial infonuskA. ] J. H. R JUt IhMigii derxvui^ «o hiiic^ oT life» toae to 

HtemiuY^ be al^o Ya$ »c«t ^UBpnl ui ibe 

BECKETT. GILBERT ABBOTT mr^ui of lki» fCK^feKkm. H^va^dKumibT 

18561, comic writer. wa5 K«b at tke Mr. Boiler, tlie iKvne wcx^anr. a^^ a ptxvr^ 

y HaTCfstock IIOL Londco. 9 Jan. Uwc««BMij%i40ii«r.toiiMmmiBtotlie«^^ 

eia^aiDemberofanancieiit WOt^liiiY c«»BWt«d with the ABaoT«r iiiu^«; aad it 

which claims direct descent from the was owin^ to his reoort ^declared ^ tb^^ 

if St. Thomas a Be^et. arrhhisliop of minister to be one of tlie be»t ernr nr>M«nted 

MITT. He waseducated at Westminster to parliament^ that important alterations 

and following in the footsteps of his wexe made in the statute4»oo^ For this and 
William a Beckett (a strenaoos sop- «Hher $ervicess^ <^ a kindred character* Mr. 
of municipal reformX he joined the a Beckett was. at the earlv ag« of tbiitT^ 
'ofeesion, and was called to the bar at ^ght, appointed a metropolitan police magi- 
Inn, of which honourable society his strate. an office he occupied until his death 
ras also a member. From his earliest in 1S56. at Boulogne-^ur-Mer, from ty^ihus 
devoted much of his time to literature, fever. 

at Westminster, in conjunction with The following epitaph bv Doufflas Jexn>]d 

S0t brother William ~q.v/, he >tarted appeared in * Punch * sbonlv after his de- 

lers, entitled respectively the 'Censor' cease — the latter portion is inscribed on his 

e ' Literary Beacon,^ which attracted tomb in Hiffhgate cemeterv: *W> have 

ttention. Subseauently he produced, to deplore the loss of GilWt Abbott ^ 

» the first editor 01, 'flgaro in London* Beckett, whose genius has for more than 

ated by Seymour and CruikshankX the fifteen years been present in the^e pages; 

ate precursor of 'Punch.' He was present from the first sheet, 17 July 1841, 

irdsoneof theorigiiud staff of 'Punch.* till dO.\ug. 1856. On that day passed fri^ra 

ny years he was one of the principal among us a genial manly spirit, singularly 

Bmters of the 'Times' and *Monung gifted with the subtlest powers of wit au<l 

;' and under the siimature of *The numour, faculties ever exercised by their 

>ulatingPhilosopher, he contributed a possessor to the healthiest and most inni>- 

f articles to the ' Illustrated London cent purpose. As a magistrate, Gilbert ]\ 

subsequently continued under other Beckett, by his wise, calm, humane admini- 

y Mr. Shirley Brooks and Mr. George stration of' the law, gave a daily rebuke to a 

usSala. On one occasion the whole of too ready belief that the faithful exercise of 

icles in the ' Times ' were written by the highest and sravest social duties is in- 

le edited the ' Table Book,' which coii- compatible with the sport iveness of literary* 

rhackera3r'8'Le^nd of the Rhine,' and genius. On the bench his firmness, modera- 

sinibus ' — both illustrated by George , tion, and gentleness won him public respect, 

lank. In 1846 he conducted' the * Al- as they endeared him to all within their in- 

of the Month/ to which all the fluence. His place knows him not, but his 

re of the * Punch' staff (then includ- memory is tenderly cherished.' 

lech, Doyle, Lemon, Jerrold, and [Private information.] T. i\ 



A Beckett 



32 



Abel 



A BECKETT, Sir WILLIAM (1806- 
1 869 ), chiefjustice of Victoria, was the eldest 
son of William k Beckett, and brother of Gil- 
Iwrt Abbott & Beckett [q. v.]. He was bom in 
London 28 July 1806, received his education 
at Westminster School, and was called to the 
bar at Lincoln's Inn in 1829. Going to New 
South Wales, he was appointed solicitor- 
general of that colony in 1841, and subse- 
quently attorney-general. In 1846 he was 
made a judge of the supreme court for the 
district of Port Phillip, and he was nomi- 
nated chiefjustice of ^ ictoria in 1851, when 
the colony received a separate organisation. 
On the latter occasion he was knitted by 
patent. He retired and returned to England 
in 1863, and died at his residence in Church 
Road, Upper Norwood, Surrey, 27 June 1869. 

He wrote: 1. *The Siege of Dumbarton 
Castle and other Poems,' 1824. 2. A large 
number of the biographies in the * Georgian 
Era,' 4 vols., 1832-4. 3. * A Universal Bio- 
graphy ; including scriptural, classical, and 
mythological memoirs, to|yether with ac- 
counts of many eminent living characters. 
The whole newly compiled and composed 
from the most recent and authentic sources,' 
.*J vols., London [1835 ?]» 8vo, a compilation 
of little value. 4. *Tne Magistrates' Ma- 
nual for the Colony of Victoria,' Melbourne, 
1852. 5. * Out of Harness,' London, 1854, 
containing notes on a tour through Switzer- 
land and Italy. 6. * The Earl's Choice and 
other Poems,' London, 1863. 7. Legal judg- 
ments printed in collections of * Reports.' 

[Men of the Time (1868); Dod's Peerage 
(1869), 83; Beaton's Australian Diet, of Dates, 
1 ; Times, 1 July 1869, p. 10, col. 6; Catalogue 
of Printed Books in Brit. Mus.] T. C. 

ABEL {d, 764), archbishop of Rheims, 
wai* a native of Scotland ana Benedictine 
monk. In the early part of the eighth cen- 
tiu*y he left England in company with Boni- 
face, to aid him in his missionary work in 
Germany, and he did not again return to this 
country. Abel's missionary labours were 
mainly confined to the country we now know 
as Belgium. For many years he held an 
office of authority in the abbey of Lobbes, in 
Ilainaidt ; and in 744, through the instru- 
mentality of Boniface, who was at the time 
archbishop of Mainz, Abel became arch- 
bishop of Rheims. The office was a very 
arduous one. All ecclesiastical suits and 
disputes as to monastical discipline arising 
in a great part of France were referred to 
him. His predecessor, Melo, moreover, had 
been forcibly removed from his post by the 
council of Soissons (3 March 744), and many 
barons declared themselves the champions of 



Melo, and refused to reco^^nise AbeL Carlo- 

man,the king of the Frankish empire, favoured 

the new prelate ; but Pope Zacharias, after 

much hesitation, finally joined his opponents. 

He declined to confer upon him the pallium, 

and thus Abel's election was never confinnedL 

. Harassed by these quarrels, Abel at length 

I withdrew m>m Rheims, and surrendered the 

! see. He retired to Lobbes, and apparently 

i became abbot of the monastery there. The 

last years of his life he spent in ener* 

getic missionaij work in Hainault, Flanders, 

and neighbouring provinces, and he died at 

Lobbes on 5 Aug. 764. He was buried at 

Binche, near Jemappes. Subsequently he 

was canonised, and m the districts where he 

laboured the day of his death was consecrated 

to his memory. 

His works, which do not seem to have 
; ever been printed, are thus enumerated by 
Dempster and Tanner : 1. ' Epiatoks ad 
j Zachariam et Adrianum.' 2. ' Ad Rhemen- 
sem Ecclesiam.' 3. ' Ad Bonifacium Lega- 
tum.' 4. *Ad Lobienses Fratres.' 6. *Ad 
nuper Conversos.' 6. * De Mysteriis FideL* 

[Dempster's Historia Eccl^iastica (Mentis Soo- 
torum ; Tanner's Bibliotheca Britannico-Hiber- 
nica; Bollandists' Acta SS. (Augustus), ii. 111-7; 
Ghesqui^re's Acta SS. Belgii, vi. 353 ; Breyng 
and Hahn's Jahrbiicher des frankischen Beidtf- 
(741-752); AUgemeine deutsche Biographic; 
Migne's Hagiographique, i. 20.] S. L. L. 

ABEL, CLARKE (1780-1826), botanist, 
was bom about 1780, educated for the medi- 
cal profession, and on the occasion of Lord 
Macartney's mission to China was appointed 
physician on the staff of his lordship, but by 
the ^ood offices of Sir Joseph Banks he was- 
nommated naturalist with three assistants. 
He joined H.M.S. Alceste at Spithead on 
8 Peb. 1816, accomplished the voyage to 
China, where he made large collections, and 
on returning home on 16 Feb. 1817 the ship 
struck on a reef off Pulo Leat, at the entrance 
of the straits of Gaspar, and became a total 
wreck. A portion of the crew proceeded 
to Batavia in a boat ; the remainder were 
rescued from a position of great peril by 
H.M.S. Ternate on 6 March. 

The whole of Abel's collections went down 
in the ship, with the exception of a small col- 
lection he had previously given to Sir Georgs 
Staunton. The latter, on hearing of the cm- 
lector's misfortunes, at once returned the 
plants, and they were described by Robert 
brown in a botanical appendix to an account 
of the voyage written by Abel under the 
title of * Narrative of a Journey in the In- 
terior of Cliina, 1816-7,' London, 1818. In 
this volume will be found also descriptions. 



Abel 33 Abel 

of the 'orang-outang' and the boa, and his 1795; Xagler's AllgemeiDes Kiinstlep-Lexicon ; 
observations on the geology of the Cape have Duncomb'H History and Antiquities of the County 
been highly praiaed. Dr. Abel was subse- of Hereford, 1804.] E. R. 

quentlyappointedphysiciantoLordAmherst, ABEL, KARL FRIEDRICH (1725- 
the governor-general of India, and died in 1737), a celebrated player on the viol-di- 
that country on 24 Nov. 1826. The imme- ^mba, was the son of a musician, Christian 
diate cause of his death was a fever, but he Ferdinand Abel. He was bom at Cothen in 
had beenm feeble health for some time, and 1725, received his first musical education 
his constitution was never robust. He was a from his father, and subsequently entered the 
fellow of the Linnean and Geological Socie- Thomas Schule at Leipzig, where he was 
ties of London, and a member of the Asiatic probably a pupil of J. S. Bach. In 1748 he 
Society and Medical and Physical Society of entered the court band at Dresden, remain- 
Calcutta. Robert Brown dedicated a genus ing there until 1768. He left Dresden ' with 
to him, Abelia, founded on one of the plants three thalers in his pocket and six symphonies 
formerly presented to Sir George Staunton, in his ba^ ,' and his talent as a performer main- 

[Biog. Nouv. Univ. i. 109 ; Abel's Xamitive ; tained him during his wanderings until he 
Asiatic Journal, xxiii. (1827) 669 ; Gent. Mag. reached England in 1769. Here he found a 
xcvii. pt. u. (1827) 644.] B. D. J. patron in the Duke of York, and on the esta- 

ABEIL, JOHN (1577-1674), was a dis- blisliment of the queen's private band was 
t inguished architect of timber houses. He appointed one of her chamber musicians, with 
buUt the old town halls of Hereford and ft salary of 200/. a year. At his first concert 
Leominster; the former destroyed in 1861, Abel was announced to play his own compo- 
the latter in 1858. Both are illustrated by ' sitions on the viol-di-gamba, the harpsichord, 
John Clayton in his* Ancient Timber Edifices and an instrument of his own invention, which 
of England,' fol. 1846. The Hereford building he called the Pentachord; but after 1766 he 
was finished in the time of James I ; that only performed on the viol-di-gamba. On 
of Leominster in 1633. The following ac- the arrival in 1762 of John Christian Bach 
count of Abel is given by Price {Historical the two musicians joined forces, and in 1766 
Account of Leominster^ 1795) : * The most started their celebrated concerts. Abel was 
noted architect in this country of his time ; in Paris in 1772 and also in 1783, in which 
he built the market houses of Hereford, year he returned to Germany to visit his 
Brecknock, and Kington, and did the tim- brother Leopold August, who was also a mu- 
ber work of the new church at Abbey Dore. sician of eminence. He returned to London 
The said John Abel being in Hereford city < in 1786, and occasionally played at concerts 
at the time when the Scots besieged it, in the until his death, which took place, hast> 
year 1646, made a sort of mills to grind com, ened by his habits of intemperance, June 20, 
which were of great use to the besieged ; for 1787. Abel's compositions chiefly consist 
which contrivance and service King CJharles of instrumental music. As a player he was 
the 1st did afterwards honor him with the 1 remarkable for the beautv of his execution 
title of one of his majesty's carpenters. This on an instrument which was even in his days 
architect, after he was ninety years of age, almost obsolete, but to which he was never- 
made his own monument, wnich is in Sar- theless devoted. It is said that he declared 
nesfield churchyard, and engraved his own the viol-di-gamba to be * the king of instni- 
efliffT, kneeling with his two wives, and the ments ; ' and when challenged to play by 
emblems of his occupation, the rule, compass, , liichaixis, the leader of Drury Lane orchestra, 
and square, and he made the following epi- ! exclaimed, * What, challenge Abel 1 No, no, 
taph : — there is but one Qod and one Abel ! * He 

This craggy stone or covering is for an archi- > was a great admirer of the fine arts, and com- 

tect's bed, ! pletely covered the waUs of his rooms with 

That lofty buildings raised high ; yet now lyes j drawings by Gainsborough, which the painter 

down his heed : j used to give him in exchange for his music. In 

Ilis line and rule, so death concludes, are locked | person he was big and portly. He was twice 

u]^in Btore,^ ,.^ __ ^i. a. .•_. x. _ i. ' P*i^^®d ^J GainslDorough ; a portrait of him 

.1- _ 1-^ __ X ^ !.__ by Robineau is at Hampton Court Palace, and 



Bnild they who list, or they who wist, for he 
can build no more. 

His house of clay could hold no longer : 
May Heavens frame him a stronger. 

John Abel. 

Vive ut vivas in vitam setemam.' 

He died in 1674, aged 97. 

[Price's Historical Account of Leominster, 

VOL. I. 



another by an anonymous artist in the Music 
School at Oxford. 

[Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicinn^. 
i. 4; McndeFs MusikalisKshes ConversatiouH- 
Lexicon, i. 5; Allgemeino Deutsche Biographic, 
i. 13; P. Spitta's J. 8. Bach, i. 616. 985; Bar- 
ney's History of Music, iv. 678; Busby's History 

D 



Abell 



34 



Abell 



of MiLMic, ii. 617 ; H. Angelo*s Reminiscences, 
i. 19, 58, 184, 187, 190. 467; W. T. Parke's 
Musical Memoirs, i. 63, 62; Gent. Mag. Ivii. 
part i. 649 ; European Magazine, v. 366 ; Notes 
and Queries, 4th ser. ix. 39.] W. B. S. 

ABELL, JOHN (1660P-1716?), a cele- 
brated lutenist and alto singer, was sworn a 
' gentleman of liis majesty's chapel extraor- 
dinary ' 1 ^lay 1679. He was sent to Italy 
by Charles II to cultivate his voice, and re- 
tumed to England in 1681-2, when John Eve- 
lyn recorded of him in his Diary (27 Jan.) : 
* I never heard a more excellent voice ; one 
would have sworn it had been a woman's, 
it was so high, and so well and skilfully 
managed.' Between 1679 and 1688 he re- 
ceived from the crown large sums of * bounty 
monev ; * but at the Revolution he was dis- 
charged from the Chapel Royal as a papist, 
and went to Holland and Germany, wnere 
he supported himself bv his talents as a 
singer and player on the lute. In the course 
of nis travels he went so far as Warsaw, 
where it is said that he refused a request of 
the King of Poland to sing before the court. , 
Tlie day after this refusal lie was ordered to j 
appear at the palace. On his arrival, Abell i 
sat on a chair in the middle of a large hall, l 
No sooner was lie seated than the chair was , 
drawn up into the air until it faced a gallerj- 
in wliicli were the king and his courtiers, t 
At the same time a number of bears were 
turned into the hall, and Abell was given 
the alternative of singing or being lowered 
to the wild beasts. The terrified singer 
promptly chase the former course, and after- 
wards said that he had never sung better 
in his life. In 1696 overtures were made 
to liim through Daniel Purcell to return 
to England and sing on the stage at a 
salarv of 500/. a vear: but in 1698 he was 
still abroad (at Aix-la-Chapelle), though he 
offered to return and sing at the opera in 
English, Italian, Suanish, or Latin, for 400/. 
per annum, provided his debts were paid. 
In 1(J98 and 1699 he occupied the post of 
intendant at Cassel ; but he seems soon after 
t(\have returned to England, for Congreve 
heard him sing in 1700, and in 1701 he pub- 
lished two col lections of songs, prefixed to one 
<»f which is a poem in which he states that — 

After a twelve years' industry and toil, 
Abell, at hist, has reach'd his native soil. 

He published a song on Queen Anne's corona- 
tion, and a few manuscript compositions by 
him are to be found in contemporary collec- 
tions. The date of his death is unknown ; but 
in his later vears he is said to have been at 
Cambridge, and in 1716 he gave a concert at 
Stationers' Hall. Mattheson says that Abell 



possessed some secret by which he preserved 
nis pure alto voice unimpaired until old age ; 
his extreme carefulness in matters of diet is 
recorded by the same author. 

[Grove's Diet, of Music, i. 6 ; Cheque Book of 
the Chapel Royal (Camden Society's Publicatioiu, 
1872), pp. 17, 129; Evelyn's Diary (ed. 1S60), 
ii. 163 ; Hawkins's History of Music (ed. 1863), 
ii. 726 ; Congreve's Literary Relics, p. 322 ; Tom 
Brown's Letters from the Dead to the Living 
(Works, 2nd ed. 1707), ii. 36; Mattheson s Der 
vollkoramene Kapellmeister (1739) ; Mendel's 
Musikalisches Conversations-Lexicon, voLi.; Ellis 
MSS. (Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 28883, 67) ; British 
Museum Catalogue ; Catalogue of Library of 
Royal College of Music] W. B. S. 

ABELL, THOMAS U, 1540), catholic 
martyr, studied at Oxford and took the de- 
gree of M.A. in 1516. Nothing else is known 
of his early life, nor when it was that he en- 
tered the service of Katharine of Aragon; 
but it was certainly before the vear 1528, 
when he received a new year's gilt from the 
king as her chaplain. A year later Katharine 
sent him into Spain on a delicate and rather 
perilous mission to the emperor, Charles V. 
Ilenry VIII had then instituted his suit for 
a divorce before the legatine court in Eng- 
land, and had discovered to his surprise that 
his case was very seriously weakened by the 
fact that besides the original bull of dispen- 
sation for the marriage a brief had been also 
granted by Julius II, which completely met 
some objections he had taken to the suffici- 
encv of the other document. This brief waa 
in Spain, and he determined, if possible, to 
get it into his hands by artifice. Pressure 
was put upon Katharine's l^gal advisers, and 
through tnem she was induced to write to 
the emperor, earnestly requesting him to send 
it to England, as its production was of the 
most vital importance to her cause, and she 
was informed no transcript could be received 
in evidence. Abell was compiissioned to 
carry this letter to Spain ; but along with it 
he delivered one of his own to the emperor, 
stating that he had been expressly desired by 
the queen to explain that she liad written 
under compulsion, and that she particulariy 
begged he would by no means gfive up the 
brief as in her letter she requested him to do. 
Thus the emperor was made fully aware of 
the queen's position, and carefiillv avoided 
doing anything to prejudice her real interests 
even at her written rec^uest. 

After his return from this mission, Abell 
was presented by the queen to the rectory of 
Bradwell-by-the-Sea, in Essex, to whict he 
was instituted on 23 June 1680 (Nbwcoubt, 
Bepertorium^ ii. 84). Bv this time the legar 
tine court in England had been dissolved, 



Abell 35 Abell 



and Ileniy was «eekiiig the opinions of uni- w»s prwurvd a£:Hin>t them in p«rluuiient 
vt*r5hie8 in hie &Toar, which heingikhtained, early in the foilowin;? year. In that act 
liooks were puhlLshed by the king*< autho- Abell wa$ nameil. not as one i>f her active 
rity to show that marriage with a deceased accomplices, but as having lieen gnilty oi 
brother's wife could not be legalised by papal misprision by concealing her treas^ws : and it 
dispensation. To one of the^ publications was also charged against him that he had en- 
AbeU wrote an answer, entitled 'Invicta couraged ' the lady Katharine * after her di> 
Veritas/ which was printed in 1532 with vorre still to claim the title of qrnvn, and her 
the fictitious date ' Luneberge* on the title- ser\-ants to call her m^ a^inst the kinff s ex- 
page, to pat inquirers off the scent. He also press commands. At this time he had, as a 
preached boldly to the same effect, and, as a iellow-pris*mer in the Tower.one Friar Forest, 
natural conseqaence, was committed to the who, like himself, Mifft*red martxTihmi some 
Tower, where, as we find stated in a contem- vears later : and it would ap^iear that though 
porary letter, he and his fellow prisoner. Dr. Ijoth were for the moment sivtrtxl, they both 
Cook, parson of Honey Lane, were permitted, at this time expected to die together. This 
by some extraordinary oversight, to say mass we know fn»m the letters they wrt>te to each 
before the lieutenant ( Calendar uf State Pa- other in prison, which wen» printeil nearly 
jfert, Henry ^^II, vol. v., Xos. 1256, l-ti2). fifty years later in Bourchier s * Ilistoria Ec- 
During his imprisonment replies to his book ' clesiastica de Martyrio Fratrum * ( Ing^tlstadt , 
were published, which he in vain asked per- l.Vv^). Abell was of cours** de]>rivtHl of his 
mission to see. He was, howevtr, liljerated benefice of Brad well: but as the offence 
at Christ mas, with an injunction not to preach cluirged against him in the act was only 
again till after Easter ; and for a few mimths misprision, he seems to have nnunine<l in the 
he was again at liberty. But inJuly irjTtt we Tower for six years longer. On CK) July 
find search made for him again by order of 1540 he was one of n coni|>iuiv of six prison- 
Lord Chancellor Audeley : yet it appears he ers who were dnigginl out ot th«» Tower on 
was soon afterwards, if not at that very time, hurdles and siifiertni at Smithfield. llirtv 
attendant upon Katharine in her household, of them were protestant heretics, and were 
By this time the marriage with Anne Ik>leyn , burned at the stake : tlie other thnt*, of whom 
had taken place, and in December of the same Abell was tme, were linngeil, beheaded, and 
vear a deputation from the king*s council, quartered for tn»nson, the smvific charges 
lieaded by the Duke of Suffolk, waitwl on against them being denial ot the kingV su- 
Katharine at Bugden, to induce her t<» re- premacy, and atfirniing tlie validity of his 
iiounce her title of queen and accept the , marriage witli Katharine of Ariigtm. 
name of Princess Dowager. This she steadily , On the wall of his prison in the Tower, 
refused to do; and the deputation endea- ■ during his confinement, Abell car\eil the dt»- 
voured at first, with equally little success, viceof a /W/ with the letter .Von it to n»pn»- 
to impose an oath upon her servants incon- , sent his surname, surmounttMl by his chris- 
sistent with that which thev had already tian name * Thomas.' Tliis memorial of his 



sworn to her as queen. Suffolk and his col- 
leagues found upon inquiry tlmt tlie serv- 
ants had been instructed how to reply by Ka- 
tharine's two chaplains, Abell and Barker. 
Tliey dismissed a portion of the household. 



captivity remains, and is continually showTi 
to visitors along with the other inscriptions 
in the Beauchamp Tower. 

[WoimVs AtheiiR} Ox(»uit'nst»s; Calendar of 
Stttto Papers of Henry VIII, vols, iv.-vii. ; Sta- 



put the rest in confinement, and carried the tute 25 Henry VIII, c. 12 : lloiirchier's Historia 
two priests up to London, where they were ' Ecclesiastica, and Newcourt, eitwl alKive.] 
lodged together in the same grim fortress, j ^'^' 

from which Abell had been release<l only ABELL, WILLIAM (^.1640), alderman 



twelve months before. 

At this time Elizabeth Barton, popularly 
known as the Nun of Kent, had recently 
been arrested for her denunciation of the 



of London, was elect t»d alderman of Bread 
Street ward in 1(J3(5. IIo was a vintner by 
trade, and in 1637 became sheriff of I^ondon 
and master of the Vintners' Company. The 



king's second marriage, and she had already ^ guild was engaged at the time in a financial 
made open confession at St. PauFs that she ; dispute; with the king. Charles I had made 



had practised imposture in her prophecies, 
ravings, and trances. The opportunity was 
unscrupulously used to make her implicate 
as many as possible of those who had noto- 
riously disliked the king's divorce and second 
marriage as confederates with herself in a 
disloy^ conspiracy ; and an act of attainder 



heavy and illegal demands upon the vintners* 
resources, and on their resisting his propo- 
sals his ministers had threatened proceedings 
against them in the Star Chamber. But 
Abell undertook, at the instigation of the 
Marquis of Hamilton, and with the aid of 
Richard Kilvert, a liver^'man, stated to be 

d2 



Abell 



36 



Abercrombie 



the aldennan*8 cousin, to bring the vintners 
to terms. With some trouble he obtained 
from them a promise to pay to the king 40^. 
per tun on all wine sold by them, on the 
understanding that they might charge their 
customers an additional penny per quart. 
Abell was nominated one of the farmers of 
the new duty ; but many merchants refused 
to pay it, and Abell petitioned for means to 
coerce them. In 1639 Abell, whose name had 
become a byword in the city as a venal sup- 
porter of the government and as a placehuut^r, 
became the licenser of tavern-keepers, and in 
that office did not diminish his unpopularity. 
Barely a month elapsed aft«r the first meet- 
ing 01 the Long Parliament before Abell was 
summoned to answer the committee of griev- 
ances for his part in the imposition of the 
arbitrary duty of 40*. per tun on wine. On 
27 Nov. 1640 he was committ^ to the 
custody of the sergeant-at-arms by order of 
the Commons. Bail was refusea, and on 
26 May 1641 it was resolved to bring in a 
bill against Abell and Kilvert as * projectors ' 
of the 40*. duty, * to the end to make them 
exemplary.* On 1 Sept. following Abell was 
released on bail in 20,000/., and on 9 April 
1642, having been declared a * delinquent,* 
he oilered to make his submission to the 
house; on payment of 2,000/. his request 
was granted, and pardon promised him. Ten 
years later Abell was again imprisoned, but 
in the interval he had resigned his office of 
alderman. On 12 March 1652 he was given 
into the custody of Sir John Lenthall on the 
petition of certain persons to whom he owed 
money, borrowed in behalf of the Vintners* 
Company several years previously. He was 
not, nowever, kept in close confinement, but 
allowed to reside with his son at Hatfield, 
IlertJ*. On 5 May 1652 it was reported 
to the council of state that he had spoken 
* dangerous words * against the existing 
government, and measures were devised to 
keep him under closer surveillance. On 
25 Feb. 1653-4 he petitioned the judges sit- 
ting at Salters* Hall for the pajTnent of 
1,833/. 13*. Ad. owing to him from persons 
concerned with him in farming the wine duty. 
On 7 June 1655 a passport to Holland was 
given to him, but nothing seems ascertainable 
of his subsequent career. 

A number of pamphlets and broadsides 
condemning Abell's action in the matter of 
the wine duty appeared in 1640 and 1641. 
Soon after his first imprisonment by the Com- 
mons Thomas Heywood published (18 Dec. 
1640) a tract dealing witn * a priest, a judge, 
and a patentee,* in which Abell was severely 
attacked as the patentee. In 1641 appeared 
* An Exact Legendary, compendiously con- 



taining the whole life of Alderman Abel, the 
maine Proiector and Patentee for the raising 
of Wines.' He is here described as springing 
from the lowest class of society, and thriving 
through his extreme parsimony. His wealth 
is computed at from * ten to twelve thousand 
pounds.* He is denounced as having ' broken ^ 
both ' merchants and retailors,' and the city 
is described as rejoicing in his removal from 
his shop in Aldermanbury to a 'stronger 
house.* Other tracts relating to Abell, all 
of which appeared in 1641, bear the titles: 
'The Copie of a Letter sent from the Roaring 
Boyes in Elizium, to two errant Knights of 
the Grape in Limbo, Alderman Abel and Mr. 
Kilvert;* 'Time's Alteration;' and 'The 
Last Discourse betwixt Master Abel and 
Master Richard Kilvert.' An attempt to 
defend Abell from the charge of obtaming 
by undue influence the consent of the Vint- 
ners* Company to the wine duty was printed 
under the title of ' A True Discovery of the 
Proiectors of the "Wine Proiect,' and a reply 
to this defence appeared in ' A true Relation 
of the Proposing, Threatening, and Perswad- 
ing of the Vintners to yeeld to the Lnposi- 
tion upon Wines.' An engraved portrait of 
the aloierman by Hollar was issued in 1641. 
Above it is -wTitten ' Good wine needs not 
A-Bush nor A-Bell.* Abell is often referred 
to in hostile broadsides as ' Cain s brother,' and 
as ' Alderman Medium.* 

[Gardiner's Hist, of England, viii. 286-7 ; Com- 
mons* Journal, vol. ii. ; Calendars of State Papers, 
1638-41, 1652-3, 1656; Remerabrancia, 14».; 
Rushworth's Collections, iv. 277-8 ; Catidogaeof 
Prints and Drawings in the British Museum- 
Political and Personal — vol. i., where full ac- 
counts of the broadsides relating to Abell may 
be found.] S. L. L. 

ABERCORN, Ejurl of. [See Hamilton.] 

ABERCROMBIE, JOHN (1726-1806), 
a writer on horticulture, was the son of a 
market gardener at Prestonpans, near Edin-^ 
burgh. Having received some education, he 
began at an early age to work under his father ; 
and when about twenty-five, he found em- 
ployment in the Royal hardens at Kew, and 
Leicester House, and in the service of several 
noblemen and gentlemen. After a marriage 
which brought him a numerous family, he 
began business on his own account as a 
market gardener at Hackney. "While he 
was thus occupied, his biographer Mean as- 
serts that he was asked, about 1770, by 
Lockyer Davis, a well-known publisher, to 
vrnie a work on practical gardening: he con- 
sented only on condition that his manuscript 
should be revised by Oliver Goldsmith; and 
it is said that the manuscript was sent back by 



Abercrombie 



37 



Abercrombie 



Goldsmith unaltered, with the remark that 
Abercrombie's own style was that best suited 
to the subject. The story can hardly be 
true in relation to the first edition of Aber- 
crombie's earliest work, since that was not 
published by Lockyer Davis, who was the 
publisher of some of his subsequent produc- 
tions. It appeared in 1767, and was en- 
titled * Every Man his own Gardener, being 
a new and more complete Gardener^s Ka- 
lendar than any one hitherto published.' 
^ From a diffidence in the writer ' (this is 
Abercrombie's own statement), the volume 
was represented in the title-page as written 

* by Mr. Maw, gardener to the Duke of 
Leeds/ who had not seen a line of it before 
publication, and who is said to have received 
hOl. for this use of his name. ' Every Man 
his own Gardener ' soon attained a popularity 
which it has never wholly lost, a new edition 
of it having appeared in 1879. It supplied 
a want scarcely met by the chief work of the 
kind in vogue at the time of its publication, 
the ' Gardener's Kalendar ' of Philip Miller, 
4ind gave for the first time detailed instruc- 
tions which his practical experience enabled 
him to furnish. * Every Man his own Gar- 
dener ' had gone througn seven editions, said 
to be of 2,000 each, when, in 1779, Aber- 
x;rombie published under his own name, now 
well known, *The British Fruit Gardener and 
Art of Pruning.* Abercrombie was then in 
business at Tottenham as a market-gardener 
«nd nurseryman. He afterwards seems to have 
devoted hunself to the production of books 
on horticulture and to the revision and re- 
publication of his earlier works. A svstema- 
tic work on general horticulture, in wiich the 
-calendar form was discarded, with the title of 

* The Practical Gardener,' appeared after his 
death. In spite of his industry and the great 
success of some of his manuals, he had, during 
his last years, to depend for support on the 
bounty of a friend. He died at or about the 
n^ of 80, in the spring of 1 806, and left behind 
him the reputation of an upright man and a 
cheerful companion. A competent authority 
among his later editors or annotators, Mr. 
George Glenny, has called Abercrombie * the 
ffreat teacher of gardening.' Next to * Every 
Man his own Grardener,' the most popular of 
his works has been the * Gardener's Pocket 
Journal and Daily Assistant,' which in 18r)7 
had reached a thirty-fifth edition. Among 
his treatises on special departments of horti- 
culture are * The Complete Forcing Gardener ' 
(1781); 'The Complete WaU Tree Pruner' 
(1783) ; ' The Propagation and Botanical Ar- 
rangement of Plants and Trees, useful and 
ornamental' (1784); and *The Hot House 
Crardener on the general culture of the pine- 



apple and method of pruning early grapes,' 
&c. (1789) ; of which last work a German 
translation appeared at Vienna in 1792 *. 

[Mean's Memoir in second edition of the IVac- 
tical Gardener (1817) ; Biographical Sketch pre- 
fixed to the 35th edition of the Gardener's Pocket 
Journal (1867) ; Preface to Philip Miller's Gar- 
dener's Kalendar ; Catalogue of the British Mu- 
seum Library.] F. E. 

ABERCROMBIE, JOHN, M.D. (1780- 
1844), physician, was the only son of the 
Rev. George Abercrombie, one of the parish 
ministers of Aberdeen. He was bom on 10 Oct. 
1780, in Al^rdeen, where, at the grammar 
school and at Marischal College, he received 
his early education. In 1800 he went to 
Edinburgh to study medicine, and took his 
degree there in 1803. The mental aspects 
of medical science seem already to have at- 
tracted him, his inaugural address being 
*De Fatuitate Alpina, a subject to which 
he recurred in his work on the intellectual 
powers. He spent about a year in London 
m further study at St. George's Hospital, 
and soon after liis return to Edinburgh in 
1804 began to practise. From the outset of 
his career his fellow-citizens recognised in 
him a man of boundless energy ana of gene- 
rous public spirit. Becoming connected with 
the public tlispensary, he gradually gained 
an intimate knowledge ot the moral and 
physical condition of the poor, and found 
opportunities for the exercise of those habits 
of close and accurate observation which were 
already formed in himself, and which through- 
out his life he strove to teach to others, lie 
did much to train the medical students of 
his time. It is recorded as part of his sys- 
tem that he divided the poorer quarters of 
Edinburgh into districts, and allotted them 
to different students, himself maintaining a 
supervision of the whole. Meanwhile ne 
kept with scrupulous care a record of every 
case of scientific interest that came before 
liim. The results of his observations ap- 
peared in a series of papers on pathological 
subjects, contributed chiefly to the * Edin- 
burgh Medical and Surgical Journal ' from 
1816 to 1824. From these papers were elabo- 
rated his two cliief works on pathology, pub- 
lished in 1828, in which his aim was rather 
to group together well-tested facts than to 
theorise. On the death of Dr. James Gregory 
in 1821, Abercrombie, whose professional 
reputation stood very high, immediately be- 
came one of the cliief consulting physicians 
in Scotland. He failed, however, in his ap- 
plication for Dr. Gregory's chair of the prac- 
tice of medicine. In 1823 he was made a 
licentiate, and in 1824 a fellow, of the Col- 



Abercrombie 38 Abercromby 



lese of Physicians, and he received the com- 
plimentary appointment of physician in ordi- 
nary to the King in Scotland. About this 
time he began the works with which his 
name has been chiefly associated. Like Dr. 
Gregory, the friend of Keid, he was led 
away from science to metaphysics, through 



A list of his early papers is g^ven in Baigf- 
Delorme and Dechambre's * Ihct. EncycL des 
sciences m^dicales/ His principal works were 
the following: 1. 'Pathological and Prac- 
tical Researches on Diseases of the Brain and 
Spinal Cord; Edinburgh, 1828 ; 2nd edition, 
enlai^d, 1829. 2. * Pathological and Prac- 



a belief that his wide knowledge of nervous tical Keeearches on Diseases of the Stomach, 
diseases enabled him to throw light on men- the Intestinal Canal, the Liver, and the other 
tal problems. In 1830 he published a work Viscera of the Abdomen,' Edinburgh, 1828. 
on tne intellectual powers and the applica- 8. * Inquiries concerning the Intellectual 
tion of logical methods to science, followed Powers and the Investigation of Truth,' 
three years after\vards by another and shorter ; Edinburgh, 1830. 4. * The Philosophy of the 
work on the moral feelings. Both books ac- j Moral Feelings,' London, 1833. 5. A col- 
quired an instant popularitv, which even now ' lected edition of * Essays and Tracts,' chiefly 
has scarcely died away. Immediately after on moral and religious subjects, Edinburgh, 
their first publication they were brought . 1847. 

out in America. AVithin ten years there ap- | In < Hogg's Instructor,' iii. 145, will he 
peared ten English editions of the * Intel- ' found a portrait of Dr. Abercrombie, and in 
lectual Powers?, and in 1 860 it was still in j the 'Scottish Nation,' i. 3, a woodcut of 
such favour that it was introduced as a text- ; the medallion on his monument in the West 
book in the Calcutta University. The causes Churchyard, Edinburgh, 
of this popularity were, no doubt, partly the [ r^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^ j^^^^l i^jjj g.^ 
numerous cases set forth of pecidiar mental | wftness. 23 Nov. 1844 ; Rev. J. Brace's Funewl 
phenomena, whose detailed record made a Semion; Andersons Scottish Nation,!. 3; Hogg'.* 
dry subject easy and entertaining reading, , lnstnictor,iii.l45; Lol)lv8Al.ercrombiea8aText 
and partly the pious and practical tone m Book in the Calcutta University ; Cockbum's 
which the books were written, rendering. Journal, ii. 203-4.] G. P. M. 

them acceptable for educational purposes. 

They have now no philosophical value. Aber- ABERCROMBY, ALEXANDER ( 1 745- 
crombie's theor\' of the mind is such as might 1795), Scotch judge and essayist, the fourth 
be expected from a thinker of little ongi- and voungest son of George Abercromby, of 
nality, who was acquainted with the works Tullibody, in Clackmannanshire, was bom on 
of Reid, Brown, and Stewart, and who studi- 1 5 Oct. 1 745. Two of his brothers entered the 
ously kept himself from bold speculation as army, one of them becoming the celebrated 
from a thing savouring of impiety. Tlie facts general Sir Ralph Abercromby. Alexander 
which formed his own contribution to the studied at the university of Edinburgh, 
subject are verj* rudely classified, and are where he seems to have been chiefly dis- 
subjected to the most superficial analysis, tingjuished for his handsome person and en- 
Lord Cockbum no doubt referred to the * In- gaging disposition. He was admitted a mem- 
tellectual Powers 'and the* Moral Feelings,' , ber of the F'aculty of Advocates in 1766, 
when he said that Dr. Abercrombie's * fame and was soon afterwards appointed sheriff- 
would perhaps have stood liigher had he ' depute of his native county. Personal resi- 
published fewer books.' During his later dence, however, not being required, he con- 
years he wrote little besides a few popular tinned the practice of his profession at the 
essays, which were collected after his death. I bar. In 17o0 he resigned lus sheriffship and 
In 1835 the degree of doctor of medicine ' was appointed one of the advocates-depute 
was conferred upon him by Oxford. In the by Henrj- Dundas, then lord-advocate of 
following year the students of Marischal Scotland, and acquired a good practice. He 
College elected him their lord rector. Be- also helped Henrv- Mackenzie, the author of 
fore the disruption he hesitated long as to the * Man of Feeling,' to start the * Mirror,' 
the course which he should take, but he published at Edinburgh in 1779, and contri- 
finally decided to quit the established church. . buted to the * Lounger ' in 1785 and 1786. 
lie died ver>' suddenly on 14 Nov. 1844, of , Abercromby's papers show much correctness 
a somewhat exce])tional disease of the heart, of style and tenderness of expression. In 
a full account of which is given in the * Edin- 1792 he took his seat on the bench of the 
burgh Medical and Surgical Journal,' Ixiii. Court of Session under the courtesy title of 
225. The report, drawn up by Dr. Adam Lord Abercromby, and a few months a£te> 
Hunter, states that Abercrombie's brain wards was apj>ointed one of the lords com- 
weighed 6Ji oz., being only a little less than missioners of justician*. On 17 Nov. 1795^ 
the weight of Cuvier's. he died of pulmonary disease at Exmouth. 



Abercromby 39 Abercromby 



Iy>rd Abercromlrr's known contnbuii*m^ Well-nirton lWi«trfir>; for thr !««!:« i-i A ibnem 

to litermtni^ coosnt of ten papers in the >«• X*pi*r * Prninsnlar W*r, Nx* xii. ohap^ 6 

' Mirror' and nine in the 'Lounaer/ *^ "• *»* ^**'- ^li^-^^^^'^n ^tuh an>* on th«^ 

^ , , , , T» m«- eiuMrft. in :bf I niii-^l Srviiv Mnimxine Uhl 

[Xoti« of I/>rf AVreiomlT bv Henry lUt^ pulluhcd immi hlrt>0 H. M. S. 

kf nzie in the TnnMCtiow of the Rot«1 >arw<y ' ^^r^U^^^m-^-i- t^ » m-n^ . i-^^i ^tv 
of Edmbargh,ToLir.|«t l.«pp L] J- B. P. ABERCROmY, PAMD ,./. 1.01-if , 

was a Nrottish phTSician of the j^^ventertith 

ABEBCBOMBT,AL£XAXD£R<17^4- century. Half a c^^ntun after his death, his 

Is.'iSy, colonel, waa the youngest son of •NovaMedicinie Praxis '(1680^ was reprinted 

Sir Kalj^ AhercTomby. ajid was bom in at Paris ( 1740> : and daring his lifetime his 

1 7W. He entered the army at an early age. • Tuta ac efficax Luis ^"ener«e, sappe abs- 

and served as a volunteer with the d2iid re- que Mercuric ac semper ab^ue Salivatione 

giment in the expedition to the Helder in mercuriali, curandie MethMus" tlHS4. 8vo>, 

1799. He soon obtained his commission, was translated into French i Paris. 1K90V. as 

and saw service with his regiment in Egypt, by • celebre medicin dWncletenv : * and into 

lie was appointed aide-de-camp to his father's Ihitch (Amsterdam. Iti91 » by no less than 

<ild lieutenant and friend. Sir John Moore, J. B. Lusart. It was alsi^ translated into 

during his command in Sicilv in 1606. but German (Dresden. 17(1:?, 8vo^. His b«wks 

was not with him in Spain. Like his brother, also gave liim a place of honour in IlallerV 

Sir John, he was rapidly promoted, and in *Bibliotheca Medicinie Pmct.' (4 vols. 4to. 

1H08, when only twenty-four, became lieu- iii. ^19. 1779i His other professioiwl work^ 

tenant-colonel of the 28th regiment. He are: • De Variatione et Varietaie Pulsus 

accompanied his regiment when it was sent Obsenationes* (Ixtndon and Paris. lt>So>: 

tr> Portugal to reinforce Lord Wellington and *Ars explorandi MedicasFacultates Plan- 

after the battle of Talavera. He commanded t arum ex solo Sapore' (London. U>8.VS, 

it at the battle of Busaco, and in the lines 12mo>. His 'Opuscula' were collect e<l in 

of Torres Vedras, and as senior colonel had . 1687. 

the good fortune to command his brigade at ■ But it is as a metaphysician rather than 
the battle of Albuera. His ser\-ices there as a physician that he lives, and ought to live, 
were very conspicuous, and his brigade has Hi j; » i)iscours<' of Wit' (1(>8<)) — ^-n>ngly 
been immortalised by Xapier. He was soon assigned by s«ime writers to Patrick Aber- 
superseded, but commanded his regiment . oromby — lias somehow fallen out of sight, 
at the surprise of Arroyo de Molinos and |,iit nonetheless is it a more than onlinarilv 
the storming of the forts at ^Vlmaraz. In noticeable book. It an ttniates the (so-called) 
lf<12 he was removed to the staff of the • Scottish School of Phihisophy ' a century- 
army, and was present as assist ant-quartei^ nearlv : for in it IV. Thomas Ueid's nhi- 
master-general at the battles of Vittoria, the InsopViy of common sense — sinct^ plorifitMi by 
Pyrenees, and Orthes. He ser%ed in the same ] Sir William Hamilton — is distinctly taught . 
? — ■_ t^tfr — J ♦ -* rk..-*-,^ ^^ j^j^ y^rith it is the following: * .Vcademia 

Scientiarum, or the Academy of Sciences: 
being a Short and Easie Intn)diiction to 
the Knowledge of the Lilx'ral ArtN and 
Sciences, with the names of those famous 
authors that have written on anv ]uir1ioular 
Science. In English and Inline* (lt>87, 



capacity in 1815, and was present at Quat re- 
Bras, ti'aterloo, and the storming of Peronne. 
For his active senices he was promoted to a 
colonelcv in the 2nd or Coldstream guards, 
and made a companion of the Bath, a knight 
of the order of Maria Theresa of Austria, of 
the Tower and Sword of Portugal, and of St. 



George of Russia. He was returned to pai^ , 12mo). Tliis is arranged alphalx^tically 
liament in 1817 for the county of Clackman- ! from Algebra to Rectiline Trigonometry-. 
nan in the place of his brother Sir John, but | and is far ahead of its age. Eijunlly weighty 
retired in the following year. He was for i and characteristic is another trt^atise, 'A 
some time in command of the 2nd guards, i Moral Discourse of the Power of Interest : 



but retired on half-pay when there seemed to 
be no chance of another war, and died at his 
country seat in Scotland in 1853. He had 
no smi^ share of the military ability of his 
family, and was an admirable regimental and 



by David Abercromby, M.l>. and Fellow of 
tiie Colhnlge of Phvsicians in Amsterdam * 
(London, 1690, l2moV Tliis is dedicattMl 
worthily to Boyle. 'Almighty inten»st ' — 
perhaps the pnltotype of the American * al- 



staff officer: but the long peace which fol- mighty dollar* — is* hen* asserted to b«» *tlu 



lowed the battle of Waterloo gave him no 
opportunity to show whether he had his 
father's ability to command an army. 

[For his services see the Royal Military Ca- 
lendar, Tol. iv., and oceasioiial allusions in the 



undoubttnl cause of all the Transactions of 
the Politick AVorld.' The * Discourse* is 
packed with capital stories and racy and 
sometimes severely sarcastic sayings. 

Biographically, a little book of his, hitherto 



Abercromby 



40 



Abercromby 



entirely neglected, is the most interesting 
of all. Its title-page runs thus: 'Pro- 
testancy to be Embraced; or a New and 
InMlible Method to Reduce Romanists 
from Popery to Protestancy. A Treatise of 
great Use to all His Majestie*s Subjects, and 
necessary to prevent Errors ana Popery. 
By David Abercromby, [M.jD., Lately Con- 
verted, after he had Profess'd near nine- 
teen years Jesuitism and Popery. London, 
printed for the author by Thomas Hodgkin, 
1682,' 12mo. It was republished in 1686 
as * Protestancy proved Safer than Popery ' 
(12mo). 

There is a good deal of personal auto- 
biof^phical matter in the introduction, by 
which we learn that he was bom into a 
Roman catholic (Scottish) family, and edu* 
cated as such, * because that all his nearest 
relations were, and ever were, for the most 
part, zealous Romanists' (p. 13). 'I was 
bred up,* he says, * in my greener years at 
Doway, and in a short time became so g^ood 
a prohcient in the mysteries of popery, that 
I enter'd the order of Jesuits in Prance at 
my first instance : I lived amongst them full 
eighteen years and more, and I may say, 
without vanity, in some repute of a scholar, 
being judg'd after a solemn ezamen capable 
to teach divinity and philosophy in the 
most renowned universities of Europe, which 
is the Jesuits way of graduating their own 
men in divinity. I taught in France 
fframmar, in Lorrain mathematics and phi- 
losophy, and being graduate in physick, I 
practisd it not unhappily; and intend to 
practice it hereafter, with certain hopes, God 
willing, of the same good success ' (^p. 2-5). 

Ck)ntinuin^ on his spiritual and intellec- 
tual difficulties and doubts, he adds : ' Being 
thus perplexed in mind, and, as Hercules iw 
biviOf uncertain what way to make choice of, 
I came to Scotland, where, because of some 
repute I had got abroad of a scholar, I was 
put instantly to work by the Jesuits against 
M. Menzies, a professor of divinity in Aber- 
deen. I wrote then in a short time a treatise 
of some bulk against his way of defending 
the protestant religion, but neither to my 
own satisfaction, though several others, see- 
ing things but under one light, seem'd to be 
persuaded by my arguments; nor to the 
satisfaction of most Romanists, who thought 
and said my doctrine in some material points 
was not unlike or the same with that of 
Protestants' (pp. 10-11). He remained in 
Scotland about two years, and * after an 
accurate paraUel of Protestancy and Popery, 
and a scrupulous scrutinv of the most ma- 
terial grounds they both stood on,' he re- 
nounced the latter, and * came to London as 



to a safe sanctuary ' where he might ' sene 
God in all freedom and security' (p. 11). 
He protests: 'They [his Roman catholic 
friends and relatives] cannot say that any 
other motive but that of saving my soul in 
the securest way caus'd me to withdraw 
from them and side with Protestants. They 
know I was in a condition amongst them to 
want for nothing, being supplyed with all 
necessaries sufficiently ; but now I must rely 
on God's providence and my own industiy' 
(p. 14). There is rare acuteness and force 
in his argumentation. 

The last occurrence of his name is in the 
following work : * Fur Academicus sive Aca- 
demia Ornamentis Spoliata a Furibus, qui 
in Pamasso coram Apolline sistuntur, ubi 
Criminis sui accusantur et convincuntur 
Auctore Davide Abercrombio Scoto, MJ). 
Editio secunda, Amstelod. 1701 ' (12mo>. 
This consists of scholastic and medical dis- 
cussions. It would appear that he passed over 
to reside and practise as a physician in Hol- 
land (Amsterdam). The aate of his death 
is unknown. He was living, says Haller, 
* early in the eighteenth century.' It will 
be observed that in * Fur Academicus ' he is 
designated ' Scotus ' (Scoto). He is believed 
to have belonged to the Abercrombys of 
Seaton or Seatoun. Curiously enougn, so 
recently as 1833, Mr. James Maidment, of 
Edinburgh, printed privately for the first 
time * A Short Account of Scots Divines ' 
by him. 

[Al>ercroinby*8 books, as cite<l ; Catalogues of 
Scotch Writers (published in 1833 by Mr. Jamei 
Maidment), p. 62.] A. B. G. 

ABERCROMBY, JAMES, first Babojt 
DuNFEKMLiNB (1776-1858), third son of 
General Sir Ralph Abercromby [see Abbb- 
OROMBY, Sir Ralph], was bom 7 Nov. 1776. 
He was educated for the English bar, and 
was called at Lincoln's Inn m 1801, soon 
after which he obtained a commissionership of 
bankruptcy. Subsequently he became steward 
of the estates of the Duke of Devonshire. In 
1807 he entered parliament as member for 
Midhurst, and in 1812 he was retiumed for 
Calne, which he continued to represent till 
1830. Without special claims for promotion 
as a politician, he owed his success chiefly to 
Ids power of clear and judicious statement, 
and the prudent use he made of opportunities. 
His career was also influenced to a consider- 
able extent by the prominent part which he 
took in the discussion of Scotch business. 
In 1824 and 1826 he brought forward a mo- 
tion for a bill to amend the representation of 
the city of Edinburgh ; but altnough on both 
occasions he received large support, the 



Abercromby 



41 



Abercromby 



power of election remained until 1832 in the 
hands of the self-elected council of thirty- 
three. On the accession of the whigs to 
power under Canning in 1827, Abercromhy 
was appointed judge-advocate-general. In 
1830 he became chief baron of the exchequer 
of Scotland, and when in 1832 the office was 
abolished, he received a pension of 2,000/. a 
year. A parliamentary career beine again 
open to him, he was chosen along with Fran- 
cis Jeffrey to represent Edinburgh in the 
tlrst reformed parliament. As on various 
questions of privilege he had manifested a 
special knowledge of the forms of the house, 
he was put forward by his party as a candi- 
date for the speakership, but the vote was in 
favour of Maimers Sutton. In 1834 he en- 
tered the cabinet of Lord Grey as master of 
the mint, but the ministry became disunited 
on the Irish question. At the opening of 
the new parliament in 183o the condition 
of the political atmosphere was in some re- 
spects so uncertain, that the choice of a 
speaker awakened exceptional interest as a 
touchstone of party strength; and amid 
much excitement Abercromby was chosen 
3ver Manners Sutton by 316 votes to 310. 
A.8 speaker Abercromby acted with great 
impartiality, while he possessed sufficient 
decision to quell any serious tendency to dis- 
order. His term of office was marked by 
the introduction of several important re- 
forms in the management of private bills, 
rending to simplify the arrangements and 
minimise the opportimities for jobberv. In 
tpite of failing health he retained otlice till 
May 1839. On retiring he received a pen- 
non of 4,000/. a year, and was created Baron 
Dunfemdine of Dunfermline in the county 
of Fife. He died at Ck)linton House, Mid- 
lothian, 17 April 1858. 

Lord Duniermline, after his retirement, 
continued to interest himself in public affairs 
connected with Edinburgh, and was one of 
the originators of the United Industrial 
School for the support and training of desti- 
tute children, witn a provision for voluntary 
religious instruction m accordance with the 
beliefs of the parents. He wrote a life of 
bis father. Sir Kalph Abercromby, which was 
published posthumously in 1861. 

[Gent. Mag. 3rd series, iv. 547-551 ; An- 
laal Begiiiter, c 403-5 ; AnderNon, History of 
Bdinburgh (1856); Journal of Lord Cockbum 
1874) ; Memoirs of Lord Brougham, iii. 230- 
S81 ; Greville Memoirs, ii. 333, iii. 95, 201, 204, 
{13; Encyclopndia Britannica, 9th edit. i. 87.1 

T. F. H. 

ABERCBOMBY, JOHN (d. 1561 ?\ a 
^kotch. monk of the order of St. Benedict, 



I was a staunch opponent of the doctrines of 
I the Reformation, and on that account was con- 
demned to death and executed about the year 
1561 . He was the author of * Veritatis Defen- 
sio'and'HiereseosConfusio.' It does not ap- 
pear that either of these works was printed. 

[Deraiwter, Hist. Eccl. Gentis Scotorum, i. 28 ; 
Tanner, BibL Britannico-Hibemicii.] T. C. 

ABEBCROMBY, Sib JOHN (1772- 
1817), general, was the second son of the 
famous t^ir Ralph Abercromby, and the elder 
of the two sons who followed their father*8 
profession. He entered the army in 1786 at 
the age of fourteen, as ensign in the 75th 
regiment, of which his uncle Robert was 
colonel. He became lieutenant in the same 
regiment in 1787, and captain in 1792, and 
first saw service as aide-de-camp to liis 
father in the campaigns in Flanders in 1793 
and 1794. His iather's military reputation 
and dependence on his serv'ices caused him 
to rise rapidly. In May 1794 he became 
major in the 94th, and in July, when only 
twenty-two, lieutenant-colonel in the 112tK 
regiment. In 1795 he exchanged into the 
53rd, and accompanied his father to the West 
Indies in 1796 and 1797, to Ireland in 179H, 
and in the expedition to the Ilelder in 179J> 
as military secretary. Tliis was a post of 
more than usual importance on the staff of 
Sir lialph, who was extremely short-sighted, 
and haa in action to depend entirely for his 
knowledge of what was happening on his 
personal staff. In this capacity young Aber- 
cromby particularly distinguished himself, 
and on more than one occasion, notably at 
the attack on Morne Fortun6e in St. Lucia, the 
father owed much of his success to his 8on*s 

Swer of explaining the military situation, 
e was promoted colonel on 1 Jan. 1800, and 
thus removed by his rank from his father's 
personal staff, but was appointed a deputy- 
adjutant-general in the army under Sir Ralph 
in the Mediterranean, and attached to Gene- 
ral Hutchinson's division. In Kgjpt he 
jpreatly distinguished himself, and was at 
least twice publicly thanked by General 
Hutchinson in general orders. 

At the time of the rupture of the peace (»f 
Amiens in 1803, he unfortunately happened 
to be travelling in France, and with other 
travelling Englishmen was seized and im- 
prisoned by Napoleon at Verdun. Neverth<»- 
less in his absence he was promoted major- 
general in 1805, and made colonel of his old 
regiment, the 53rd, in 1807. He was at last 
exchanged for General Brennier, who had 
been taken prisoner by Sir A. Wellesley at 
the battle of Vimeiro in 1808, was allowed 
to return to England, and was appointed 



Abercromby 



42 



Abercromby 



commander-in-chief at Bombay in 1809. In 
this capacity he led tlie division from Bombay, 
which was to co-operate in the expedition sent 
by Lord Minto from India to capturtvthe Mau- 
ritius. This island, which formed the base of 
t he French fleet and of innumerable French 
privateers, caused immense damage to the 
Indiamen sailing between England and India, 
and Lord Minto had determined to subdue 
it. On his way the Ceylon, on which Gene- 
ral Abercromby nind his stali* had embarked, 
was taken by the French frigate ^'enu8, but 
on 18 Sept. was fortunately recaptured by 
Captain liowloy in the Boadicea. On 
'2'2 Nov. he left the ishind of Rodriguez with 
the Madras and Bombay divisions, and was 
joined, when in sight of the Mauritius, by the 
division from Bengal. He took command of 
the whole force as senior general present, and 
on 29 Nov. disembarkea at an om»n road- 
stead, and advanced with 6,;}00 Europeans, 
2,000 sailors lent to him by Admiral Bertie, 
and 3,000 Sepoys, upon Port Louis, the capi- 
tal of the island. On 30 Nov. he fought a 
hmart action, which showed the French 
general that resistance was impossible, and 
on 2 Dec. Decaen surrendered the island. 
Abercromby returned to Bombay in 1811, 
and continued to command the forces there 
till 1812, when he was appointed commander- 
in-chief and temporary' governor of Madras. 
This presidency had lately l)eini disturljed 
by the well-known mutiny of the Madras 
officers, on account of whicn Sir George Bar- 
low had been recalled ; but the quiet manner 
and good nature of General Abercromby had 
as good an effect as similar qualities had had 
during his uncle Sir Robert's command at 
Calcutta. In May 1813 Mr. Hugh Elliot 
assumed the govemorsliip, and in I)eceml>er 
of the same year General Abercromby's 
health was so much impaired by the climate 
that he had to go home. On his return ho 
was well received ; he had been promoted 
lieutenant-general in 1812, and was now in 
1814, on the extension of the order of the 
Bath, made a K.C.B. In 1815 his brother 
(leorge resigned the seat for Clackmannan 
to him, and in 1816 he was made a G.C.B. ; 
but his health was too bad for him to take 
any prominent part in politics, and on 
14 Feb. 1817, when on the continent for his 
health, he died at Marseilles, where he was 
buried with fiill militaiV honours. Some 
French wTiters have asserted that he was in 
command of an escort which conducted 
Napoleon to St. Helena ; but there does not 
seem to be any record of the presence of any 
troops or any general officer on board the 
Northumberland, e.xcept the ordinary com- 
plement of marines. Sir John seems to have 



possessed the military abilities of his family 
but had but little chance of showing them, 
except as military secretary to his father, 
and in the easy conquest of the Mauritius. 

[For General John Abercn)inby s services in 
early life aw the memoir of his father ; for his 
services in Eg\*pt see Sir R. Wihjon's Campaign 
in Egypt ; and for the capture of the Mauritius 
sc*e the denpatches in the Annual Register and 
Gentleman's Magazine, the Asiatic Annual Re- 
gister, and liady Minto's Lord Minto in India.] 

rL, M. S« 

ABERCROMBY, PATRICK (1656- 
1716 P), Scottish antiquary and historical 
j writer, was the third son of Alexander Aher- 
I cromby of Fettemeir in Aberdeenshire, a 
branch of the house of Birkenbog in Banff- 
shire, and which again was a mi^n^tion from 
Abercromby of Abercromby in Fifeshire. He 
was bom at Forfar in I606. Like David 
Abercromby he was bom into a Roman 
catholic family, and accordingly would not 
attend the parish school, but was probably 
educated first privately and then abroad (as 
he himself seems to indicate in the prefiice 
to his mag7mm opiuf). This probably ex- 
plains liis Roman Catholicism and adhesion 
to James 11. He graduated at St. Andrew s 
I'niversity in 1685. It has been alleged that 
he passed to the university of Paris, and 
there pursued his studies. His phras^ of 
having * spent most of his early years abroid' 
points rather to this having preceded his 
entry at St. Andrew's. On the completion 
of his professional course he is founa prac- 
tising as a physician in Edinburgh, accoraing 
to his biographers ; his title-pages, assure us 
that he was * M.D. : * he prooablv therefore 
gave himself to his professional duties with 
all fidelitv and success, although some con- 
fusion "With David Al)ercromby has appa- 
rently led his biographers to emphasise ais- 
proport ionately his career as a doctor. When 
his orother Francis, eldest son of the family^ 
was created Lord Glassford (or Glasford) on 
his marriage with Anna, Baroness Sempill, 
in July 1 68»5, Patrick was appointed physician 
i to James II. But this post he naturally 
vacated at the n^volution. 

When, in the reign of Queen Anne, the 
project of the union between England and 
Scotland took shape and substance, he rushed 
into the fray. Two considerable panopblets 
by him attest at once his capacity and seal: 
* Advantage of the Act of Security compared 
with those of the intended Union * (Edin- 
j burgh, 1707), and * A Vindication of the 
' Same against Mr. De Foe ' (Edinburgh, 
1707). Tlie logic was with Defoe, but the 
sentiment — more powerful — was with Aber» 



Abercromby 



43 



Abercromby 



cromby. The disadvantages of union, or, as 
he held, absorption and extinction, were near 
at hand, and the advantages remote and 
contingent on a thousand circumstances and 
uncertainties. Hence to Lord Belhaven and 
Allan Ramsay and Abercromby union with 
mighty England had the look of selling the 
national birthright of independence and free- 
dom won at Bannockbum. 

A minor work of Abercrombv was a trans- 
lation of M. Beaugu6's ' Litistoire de la 
Guerre d'Ecosse*( 1556) as follows: * The His- 
tory of the Campagnes, 1548 and 1549 ; being 
an exact account of the martial expeditions 
performed in those days by the Scots and 
French on the one hand, and the English and 
their foreign auxiliaries on the other ; done 
in French by Mons. Beaugu6, a French gentle- 
man: with an introductorv preface by the 
Translator' (1707). The '"^Preface ' is well 
written. The original was reprinted for the 
MaitlandClubbvoneof its members (Smythe 
of Methuen), wJio betrays slight knowledge 
of either the language or the book, or ability 
to judge of Abercromby*8 translation. More 
recently the Comte de Montalembert edited 
a reproduction (Bordeaux, 1862, 8vo). 

But the work that has kept Abercromby's 
name alive is his * Martial Atchievements of 
the Scots Nation ; being an account of the 
lives, characters, and memorable actions of 
such Scotsmen as have signalized themselves 
by the sword at home and abroad; and a 
siurvey of the military transactions wherein 
Scotland or Scotsmen have been remarkably 
concem'd, from the first Establishment of 
the Scots Monarchy to this present Time/ 
This extraordinary work occupies two great 
folios, vol. i. 1711,"^ vol. ii. 1716. The author 
modestly disclaimed the name of historian in 
vol. i., but in vol. ii. felt entitled to assume 
it. TTiere is much of myth and * padding/ 
but there is indubitably much more of genuine 
historical and biographical research. It could 
not have been otherwise ; for besides his own 
untiring exertions he was ably, seconded by 
Sir Thomas Craig, Sir George Mackenzie, 
Alexander Nisbet, and Thomas Kuddiman — 
the last his printer (in vol. ii.). With every 
abatement the ^ Martial Atchievements ' is a 
book of which Scotland, at least, may well 
be proud. Singularly enough, the date of his 
death is still uncertain. It has been assigned 
to 1715, 1716, 1720, and 1726. It has been 
alleged that he left, a widow in great poverty. 
In 1716 he must have been living, for Craw- 
ford, in his * Peerage,' calls him * my worthy 
friend.* Probably he died in or soon after 
1716. A manuscript, entitled * Memoirs of 
the Abercrombies,' elaborately drawn up by 
him, seems to have perished. 



[Works H» citeil ; Anderson's Scottish Nation ; 
A. Chnhnerji's Biog. Diet. ; G. Chalmers's Lift' of 
Rudcliman, pp. 68-9 : Crawfurd's Peerage (1716), 
p. 167 ; art. in Encyc. Brit. 9th td. by the 
present writer.] A. B. G. 

ABERCROMBY, Sir RALPH (1734- 
1801), the general who shares with Sir John 
Moore the credit of renewing the ancient 
discipline and military reputation of the 
British soldier, was bom at Meustry, near 
Tullibody, in October 1734. His father was 
a descendant of the family of Abercromby 
of Birkenbog, and wtis the chief whig landed 
proprietor in the little Scotch county of 
Clackmannan. Mr. George Abercromby had 
married a Miss Dundas, and had thus in- 
creased his own political importance and 
prepared an important connection for his son. 
Voung Ralph was educated at Rugby, and 
then studied law at the universities of Edin- 
burgh and Leipzig. But he felt such a dis- 
taste for the legal profession, that his father 
gave way to him, and in 1756 procured him 
a cometcy in the 3rd dragoon guards. In 
1758 he accompanied his regiment to Ger- 
many, where it formed part of the English 
force under the command of Prince Ferdi- 
nand of Brunswick, the victor of Minden, 
and he was soon appointed aide-de-camp to 
General Sir "William Pitt. He now saw a good 
deal of active warfare, and had a good oppor- 
tunity of studying the advantages and essen- 
tials of the strict discipline of the Prussian 
system. He was ])romoted lieutenant in 1760 
and captain in 176:^, and at the conclusion 
of peace went with his regiment to Ireland. 
Here he was stationed for several years, and 
had an opportunity of studying that countr}', 
which stood him in good stead at the most 
critical period of his military career. His 
life continued its even tenor of domestic 
and military occupation ; and the prolonged 
life of his father, who lived till the advanced 
age of ninety-five, saved him from the neces- 
sity of retiring from the service and looking 
after the paternal estate. In 1767 he mar- 
ried Miss Menzies, witli whom lie lived very 
happily, and was promoted in due course 
major m 1770, and lieutenant-colonel in 1773. 

But a change was at hand, and he was 
asked to contest the county of Clackmannan, 
which his prrandfather and other memljers of 
his familv had represented, in the whig in- 
terest, l^ie election was, like all elections in 
Scotland at the time, contested with extreme 
bitterness. His opponent, Colonel Erskine, 
was supported by all the old Jacobite fami- 
lies, who felt a |)ersonal animosity against 
the whigs. The election terminated, as often 
happened at this time, in a duel between 



Abercromby 



44 



Abercromby 



the two candidates, fortunately without any 
111 ishap to either side, and Colonel Abercromby 
was returned by the influence of his relative, 
8ir Lawrence Dundas. The plunge into 
politics was not a fortunate one for Colonel 
Abercromby. lie refused to vote for the 
interests and at the bidding of his powerful 
relative, and by his opposition to the Ameri- 
can war forfeited all chance of professional 
advancement. This opposition was the 
more creditable to him, as he longed to see 
service at the head of his regiment. His 
brothers did not feel as he did, and, while 
James Abercrombv fell at Brooklvn, llobert 
fought his way to high honour and the com- 
mand of his regiment. At last, disgusted 
with political life, lialph Abercromby gave up 
his seat in parliament and retired in favour of 
his brother Burnet, who had made a fortune 
in India, and then, retiring to Edinburgh, 
devoted himself to the education of Yiis 
children. 

The war with France destroyed the chance 
of his ending his life as a colonel on half- 
pay. He had no hesitation in applying for a 
command,and, having a great mibtary reputa- 
tionandmuch parliamentary influence,he was 
at once promoted major-general and ordered 
to proceed with a brigade to Flanders. It is 
not necessary to go into the details of the 
disastrous campaigns in Flanders under the 
Duke of York, but m every engagement Gene- 
ral Abercromby distinguished himself. He 
iirst made liis mark at Fumes, commanded the 
storming column at the siege of Valenciennes, 
and was publicly thanked by the Duke of 
^'ork for his conduct at Roubaix. It was in 
the retreat, however, that he was most con- 
8])icuou8. When tlie Duke of York returned 
1 () England, liis successors. General Ilarcourt 
and General Walmoden, proved incompetent, 
and on General Abercromov, who commanded 
t he rear column, fell the real burden of the re- 
t reat of the dispirited troops before the impetu- 
ous onset of the republican army. Under him 
Lieutenant-colonel Wellesley commanded 
t he 33rd regiment, and learned his first lesson 
in the art of war. On his return to England 
in the beginning of 1 795 he was made a knight 
of the Bath, and, almost to his own sur- 
prise, found himself considered his country's 
greatest general. He had learned from this 
<lisastrous retreat the terrible deterioration 
in the military discipline of the English army. 
His last campaigns had been those of Minden 
and the Seven Y'ears* war, and he had no 
difficulty in understanding the causes of the 
failure of the English. The American war 
of itself would have been enough to sap the 
discipline of any army, but there were yet 
further causes. Tlie American war, like all 



civil wars, had made the soldiery more fero- 
cious and less easy of control, and, like all 
wars abounding in defeats, had deprived them 
of confidence in victory; and at the beffinning 
of the French war they had no strong teelingfl 
to animate them, and no esprit de corpato U&» 
the place of strong feelings. The army wu 
like a neglected machine ; its officers knew 
they owed their grades to political inflaence, 
and the ministers were not slow to use these 
grades for political purposes ; while the sol- 
aiers were regarded as an unimportant &etor 
in an army, and were secured and provided 
for as cheaply as possible. The result of 
such corruption and false economy appeared 
in Flanders. Sir Harry Calvert, a keen ob- 
server, who afterwards became adjutant- 
general, remarked that Abercrombyns own 
brigade consisted of old men and weak boys, 
and reminded him of FalstalTs ragged ruf- 
fians. 

In November 1795 Abercromby was or- 
dered to start for the West Indies at the 
head of 15,000 men to reduce tbe French 
sugar islands. He was at first driven back 
by a storm, but reached Jamaica early in 
1/96. He at once set about his task. 'He 
first reduced the island of St. Luciay with 
its great and hitherto impregnable fortreu 
of Morne Fortun^e, and left his ablest lieu- 
tenant, Moore, to govern his acquisition. 
He then took Demerara, relieved bt. Vin- 
cent, and reorganised the defences both of 
that island and of Grenada. He also ex- 
amined the condition of the health of soldiers 
in tlie West Indian climate, had the uniform 
altered for the hot climate, forbade parades 
in the heat of the sun, established mountain 
stations and sanatoria, and encouraged per- 
sonal valour and self-reliance both in men 
and officers, by giving the former pecuniary 
rewards and small civil posts, and by placing 
the latter on the staff, even when not re- 
commended by the authorities. He went 
home for the summer, but returned at the 
end of 1796 and took Trinidad, of which he 
made Colonel Picton governor. He failed, 
however, at Porto Rico, through the inade- 
quacy of the force at his command, and then 
threw up his command from ill-health. 

His fame was more assured than ever, and 
he was sent to Ireland in December 1797 to 
command the troops there. He had had a 
great experience of the state of Ireland when 
his regiment was stationed there, and, know- 
ing what he did, refused to be hoodwinked by 
the oiHcials at Dublin Castle, or to connive 
at their schemes. The situation was a peri- 
lous one. The English cabinet and Lnsh 
officials had fixed their attention on the 
intrigues of the leading patriots and clnb 



Abercromby 



45 



Abercromby 



^ratorSy rather than on the populace who 
would take part in a rebellion. And this 
populace haa been inflamed to revolution 
pitch more by the arbitrary and cruel pro- 
ceedings of the troops in Ireland than by the 
declarations of demagogues or the bribes of 
the French directory. The late commander- 
in-chief Luttrell, Lord Carhampton, had been 
ferocious enough, but it was rather of the con- 
duct of the troops than of their commanders 
that the Irish people complained. The garrison 
of Ireland consisted nearly entirely of English 
and Scotch militia and protestant Irish yeo- 
manry. Without the discipline of soldiers, 
they committed most fearnil excesses, and 
the officials wished to condone their offences 
because the militia were only serving in Ire- 
land as volunteers, and could demand to be 
sent home. Abercromby was too thorough a 
soldier to meet their wishes, and on 26 Feb. 
17dd issued his famous general order, that 
the militia were far more dangerous to their 
friends than their enemies. The castle soon 
wished to get rid of this obnoxious Scotch- 
man who would abuse their yeomanry, on 
which they depended, and try to remove the 
militia^ whose services they wanted, and 
who seemed to expect that the Irish peasants 
should not be wantonly ill-treated ; the au- 
thorities soon made a pretty quarrel between 
him and Lord Camden, the lord lieutenant, 
on which Abercromby resigned his command. 
He soon found he was not in disgrace at home, 
for he was at once appointed commander of 
the forces in Scotlana. 

In 1799 he was summoned to London by 
Mr. Dundas to discuss a project for a descent 
on Holland. He was appointed to command 
the first division, and was informed of two 
distinct projects. The first was to co-operate 
with a fleet in captiuing the remnant of the 
Butch fleet which had been beaten at Cam- 

Serdown, and the second to make a powerful 
iversion, with the help of the Russians, in 
favourof the Archduke Charles and Suwaroff, 
who were both marching to invade France. 
On 18 Aug. he set sail with his division of 
10,000 men, effected a landing at the Helder 
after a smart action on 27 Aug., and on 
30 Aug. heard that the Dutch fleet had sur- 
rendexed to Admiral Mitchell, though nomi- 
nally to the Stadtholder. Thus the first 
project was accomplished ; the second could 
not be attempted without a larger force. 
On 10 Sept. he defeated an attack made on his 
position by General Daendels, and on 13 Sept. 
was supereeded by the Duke of York. When 
the Russians had disembarked, the duke or- 
dered an attack on Bersen, which took place 
on 19 Sept., but was roiled by the impetu- 
osity of the Russians, On 2 Oct. a yet more 



elaborate attack on Bergen failed. In this 
Abercromby had to lead the right column 
along the sand to £gmont-op-Zee. He wa& 
completely successful after an engagement 
in which he had two horses killed under 
him, but the operation failed through the 
failure of the other columns. These mlures 
were followed on 20 Oct. by the disgraceful 
convention of Alkmar, by which the English 
restored their prisoners, on condition that 
they should be allowed to embark undis- 
turbed. This failure disgusted Abercromby, 
but the ministry were so pleased with the 
capture of the fleet that they wished to make 
him a peer as Lord Egmont or Lord Bergen, 
but he refused indi^antly to have his name 
associated with a disgraceful failure. 

He now had a very few quiet months in 
his command in Scotland, wnere he was im- 
mensely popular, as was shown by his un- 
opposed re-election for Clackmannan durins^ 
his absence in the West Indies ; but he had 
for ever renounced political life, and resigned 
in favour of his brother Robert. He was 
then appointed to succeed Sir Charles Stuart 
in the command of the troops in the Mediter- 
ranean. He reached Minorca in June 1800, 
but the battle of Marengo prevented his 
being able to land in Italy as the ministr}^ 
had directed. He therefore waited for orders, 
and spent his time in trying to improve the 
physical condition and the morale of his 
army. Orders at last came for him to pro- 
ceed to Gibraltar, absorb a force under Sir 
James Pulteuey, and make u descent on Cadiz 
with the co-operation of Vice-admiral Lord 
Keith. He accordingly arrived at Cadiz on 
3 Oct. with 20,000 men, but failed to make 
a landing. The causes of the failure have 
been the subject of bitter controversy, but it 
may be asserted that no blame is to be laid 
on either side. Keith, who must have known, 
declared the anchorage unsafe ; Abercromby 
refused to land unless the fleet would stop 
with him a fortnight. He, however, made 
an attempt to land on fy Oct., but, owing to 
the slowness of the men in getting into the 
boats, not more than 3,000 men could have 
been got to shore in a whole day, and it 
would have been too dangerous to leave them 
unsupported. Admiral and general agreed, 
therefore, to retire. The latter had not to 
wait long for further orders, for on 24 Oct. he 
was directed to proceed witli all his troops to 
Egypt to expel or capture the French army 
left there by Napoleon. He reached Malta 
on 19 Nov., ana was delighted with its 
power of defence, about which he wrote to- 
the government, begging them to make Malta 
the head-quarters of the Mediterranean army 
instead ofMinorca. On 13 Dec. he left Malta,. 



Abercromby 



46 



Abercromby 



and cast anchor in the bay of Marmorice on 
'27 Dec. Here he waited six weeks, receiving 
some slight reinforcements, and discovering 
that the Turks were quite useless as allies. 
But while waiting he looked after his soldiers' 
health, and practised disembarkments until 
tlie whole force thoroughly understood how 
to promptly disembark, and every man knew 
hiH place in his boat. At last, jnviiig up 
any nope of assistance from the Turks, he 
set sail from Marmorice Bay with 14,000 in- 
fantry, 1,000 cavalry, and 600 artillery. On 
2 March he anchored in Aboukir Bay, and 
on 8 March effected a landing in force in a 
single day, thanks to former practice. The 
opposition of the French was vigorous enough 
to show Abercromby he had no mean enemy 
to encounter, and he decided to march slowly 
and cautiously to Alexandria. He had a 
couple of skirmishes on 13 and 18 March, and 
then heard that the French general Menou 
was coming out to attack him. On 21 March 
accordingly, the French made a violent at- 
tack, but without effect, owing to the splen- 
did conduct of Moore and his division, wlio 
held the right, and more particularly of the 
28th regiment. In the end Menou was 
beaten back with immense loss, including 
three generals killed, while the English loss 
was only 1,464 killed and wounded. Among 
the latter was Sir Ralph Abercromby, who, 
riding in front in his usual reckless manner, 
was wounded in the thigh by a musket-ball. 
He was carried to the Foudroyant, the flag- 
ship. * What is it you have placed under my 
head ? ' asked the woimded general. * Only a 
soldier's blanket,* answered the aide-de-camp, 
who afterwards became Greneral Sir John 
Macd(mald. * Only a soldier's blanket ? Make 
haste and return it to him at once.' When 
carried on board he seemed to rally, but the 
improvement did not last, and on 28 March 
he died on board the flagship. He was buried 
at Malta, where a simple monument was 
erected to his memory; a more enduring 
monument has remained in the peerage con- 
ferred upon his wife as Baroness Abercromby 
of Tullibody and Aboukir Bay; but the most 
enduring of all lies in his unstained honour 
as a soldier. 

When Abercrombv came to the front in 
the campaign in Flanders, England had not 
a single great or even tolerable general, imless 
we except Lord Cornwallis, and her army was 
in a terrible state of degeneration. "Wlien he 
died, after having served in every important 
campaign, he left many a worthy successor 
and an army second to none in everjrthing 
but equipment. He formed a regular scliool 
of officers, of whom may be mentioned John 
Moore, John Hope and Robert Anstrutlier, 



and James Kempt, his adjutant-general, 
quartermaster-general, and military secre- 
tary in Egypt, Hildebrand Oakes, Thomas 
Graham, Rowland Hill, Cradock, Doyle, 
Edward Paget, and his own sons, John and 
Alexander Abercromby — as goodly a collec- 
tion of officers as ever were formed by any 
general. It is more difficult to breathe the 
spirit of military prowess and military dis- 
cipline into an army than to win a battle ; 
and this is what Abercromby did. No 
wonder, tlien, that Moore ancl Hope for 
instance, probably his superiors in mditaiy 
ability, did not ^udge giving him the credit 
for such victories as Mome Fortun6e and 
Alexandria, which they really won, for they 
looked on liim as the regenerator of thie 
English army. No biographv of Sir Ralph 
would be complete whicn diet not notice his 
extreme short-sightedness, almost blindness, 
which made him depend for sight at different 
times on Moore, Kempt, and his son John, 
nor yet without noticing tlie singular sweet- 
ness and purity of his domestic life, which 
made all who came across him, from the 
Duke of York, whom he eclipsed, to Lord 
Camden, with whom he quarrelled, acknow- 
ledge tlie charm of his society. 

Sir Ralph left four sons : 1. Oeorge Ralph, 
M.P. for Edinburgh and Clackmannan, who 
succeeded his mother as Lord Abercromby, 
1821; 2. Lieutenant-general Sir John Ab«^ 
cromby, G.C.B. ; 3. James, M.P. for Edin- 
burgli, speaker, and flrst Lord Dunfermline ; 
4. Alexander, colonel, C.B., M.P., &c. 

[The beet authority for his life is a short Mfr* 
moir of his Father by James, Lord Dunfermline, 
publibluHl in 1861 ; Imt there are also short bio- 
graphies in Gleig's Eminent British Militaiy 
Commander^!, vol. iii., and the Royal Military 
Piinoranui, vol. iii. ; for the campaigns in 
Flanders set*, l»e.sides the despatches. Sir H. Cil- 
vt»rt's Journtil ; for the West Indian campaign^f 
sea the supplement to Bryan Edwards's mstory 
of the West Indies, and the Naval Histories of 
Brcntcmand James; for the expedition to ^^ypt 
consult Moore's Life of Sir John Moore, the ▼»- 
rious contemporary journals and magazines, and 
more particularly Sir Rolwrt Wilson's Expedi- 
tion to Egypt.] * H. M. S. 

ABERCROMBY, ROBERT (15S4- 
1613), a Scotch Jesuit, who, after entering 
the order, spent twenty-three years in assist- 
ing catholics abroad, and nineteenyears on 
the Scotch mission, where he suffered im- 
prisonment. Father Drew, in his * Fasti S. 
J.,* states that Abercromby induced Anne of 
Denmark, queen of James I, to abjure Lii- 
theranism, and to die in the profession of the 
catholic faith. A reward 01 10,000 crowns 
was offered for Iiis apprehension; but he 



Abercromby 47 Abercromby 



?8cap6d, and died at Bransberg College, able for the second Kohilla war and the mu- 
27 April 1613. tiny of the officers of the company's service. 

[Oliver's Collectanea a J. 16; Foley's RecoTds, ! ,./ft^^<^e reduction of the wild but war- 
^\(^ 2.1 T. C. "'^^ tribes of the RohiUas bv the orders of 

Warren Hastings after his disgraceful con- 

ABERCXEIOMBY, Sir ROBERT (1740- vention with the Vizier of Oudh, the district 
1827), military commander, was born at of Rampoor was given to Fyzoollah Khan, 
Tullibody, his father's seat in Scotland, in . one of tne Rohilla chieftains. On his death, 
1740, and was a younger brother of the i in 1793, the Vizier of Oudh wished to resume 
more famous Sir Ralph. His desire to enter this district for his master ; but the governor- 
the army was as great as his elder bn>- general supported the claim of Mahommed 
ther's ; and while Ralph was serving in Ger- ! Ali to succeed his father, Fyzoollah Khan. In 
many, Robert served as a volunteer in North ■ 1794, however, Mahommed Ali was murdered 
America with such gallantry, that, after i by a relative named Gholam Mahommed, and 
the battle of Ticonderoga in 1758, he was ' Abercromby was ordered by the governor- 
appointed an ensign, and in 1759 a lieutenant | general, Sir John Shore, to punish the mur- 
in the 44th regiment. He was present at the derer. Abercromby advanced with a small 
battle of Niagara and the capture of Mont- force, and after a long and well-contested 
real, was promoted captain in 1761, and re- . action at Battina defeated Gholam Mahom- 
tired on half-pay at the peace in 1763. He med. Ilis own ability and the gallantry of 
spent some quiet years in Scotland, but on his troops were at once acknowledged by Sir 
toe breaking out of the war with the Ame- John Shore ; but he was censured for admit- 
rican colonies felt none of the political scru- ting the murderer to terms, 
pies of his brother Ralph, and at once offered , The other important event of his command 
nis serA'ices to the gfovemment. They were ' was the mutiny of the company's officers, 
gladly accepted, because of the numerous re- This was chiefly caused by their being always 
tirements of officers from political reasons, regarded as inferior to the king's officers, 
and in 1772 he was appointed major in the though often in command of more service- 
62nd regiment, and in 1773 lieutenant-colonel able regiments, w^Iiich deprived them of any 
of the 3i th. He served with great distinc- chance of obtaining the more lucrative ap- 
tion throughout the war, and was present at pointments in the garrison or the field, 
the battles of Brooklyn, where his brother Abercromby's mildness and good temper 
James was killed, Brandywine and German- served him in good stead, and where a mar- 
town, at the occupation of Charleston, and tinet would have given rise to a regular re- 
the capitulation of Yorktown. His services hellion he managed to control the snirit of 
were tne more appreciated from his brother s disaffection till the arrival of new regulations 
well-known pobtical opinions, and in 1781 from England. He was now suffering so 
he waa promoted colonel, and made aide-de- much from a disease of the eyes that he was 
camp to the king. In 1787 he was made obliged to return home in April 1797. The 
colonel of the 75th regiment, and in 1788 best character of himself and of the tenor 
accompanied it to India. : of his command in India is contained in the 

In India during the next nine years he won i following passage from a private letter of the 
his chief military renown. In 1790 he was governor-general. Sir Jonn Shore : * My re- 
govemor and commander-in-chief at Bombay t spect for Sir Robert. Abercromby has in- 
and was directed by Lord Comwallis to co- creased with my knowledge of his character, 
operate with him in his attack on Mysore. | What he was at Bombay I know not ; he has 
He first occupied with his forces the Malabar been here mild, conciliatory, and unassuming 
coast, and not without some resistance from from the first, and it is only justice to him to 
the independent chieftains who either feared , declare that a more honourable, upright, and 
or loved Tippoo Sultan, and in 1792 marched : zealous man never served the company. I 
up from the west to meet Lord Cornwallis ! assure you with great truth that I have ever 
before Seringapatam. His march was com- found him anxious to promote the public 
plet^ly successml, and Tippoo had to sign good, either by his own efforts or those of 



the tripartita treaty of Senngapatam. For 
his eminent services he was made a knight 
of the Bath, and appointed to succeed Lord 
Comwallis as commander-in-chief of the 
forces in India. He left Bombay in November 

1792, but did not become commander-in-chief 
till the departure of Comwallis in October 

1 793. His term of office was chiefly remark- 



others. I certainly do not think his abilities 
equal to his situation, and there are few men 
wlio have abilities equal to it ; but I believe 
that his have been under-estimated, and that 
his greatest fault is his good nature. He 
will retire with a very moderate fortune, for 
money was never his object : he thinks too 
Uttleofit.' 



Abercromby 



48 



Abernethy 



He was promoted lieutenant-general in 

1797, elected M.P. for the county of Clack- 
mannan in the place of his brother Ralph in 

1798, was made governor of Edinburgh Castle 
in 1801, and a general in 1802. His increasing 
blindness maae it impossible for him ever 
again to take active service, and obligred him 
to resign his seat in parliament in 1802. He 
lived to the age of 87, and died at Airthrey, 
near Stirling, in November 1827, bein^ at 
the time the oldest general in the British 
army. He does not seem to have possessed 
the abilities of his brother Sir Kalpn, but al- 
ways did well whatever he had to do. As 
an Indian ^neral of that period Sir John 
Shore's testimony to his incorruptibility is 
the highest praise for a time wnen a com- 
mand m India was regarded as an opportu- 
nity for making a fortune. 

[For Robert Abercpomby's services see the 
Royal Military Calendar, 1820, vol. i. ; for the 
campaigns in Mysore see Comwallis's Corre- 
spondence, published 1861 ; and for his command- 
in-chief in India the Life of John, Lord Teign- 
mouth, by his son.] H. M. S. 

J ABERDEEN, Earls OF. [See Gordon.] 

ABERGAVENNY. [See Neville.] 

ABERNETHY, JOHN (1680-1740), 
Irish dissenting clergyman, was bom at Cole- 
raine, co. Londonderry, Ulster, on 19 Oct. 
1680. His father was then presbyterian 
minister there. His mother was a daughter 
of Walkinshaw of Walkinshaw, Renfrew- 
shire, Scotland. 

In his ninth year, on occasion of his father's 
being sent to London as representative of 
the Irish presbyterian church in affairs that 
concerned them, his mother removed to 
Londonderry, whilst he was sent to a rela- 
tive in Ballymena (or Ballymenagh). This 
was in 1689. To escape the rebellion and 
turbulence and confusion of the times, the 
ri'lative proceeded to Scotland, and carried 
Master John with him, having * no opportu- 
nity of conveying him to his mother.' lie was 
thus delivered from the horrors and perils of 
tlie famous siege of Derrj-, in which Mrs. 
Abernethy lost all her other children. His 
education was continued in Scotland for three 
years. He then returned to Coleraine ; but 
in his thirteenth year he is again found in 
Scotland as a student at the university of 
Glasgow. He himself condemned the un- 
wisdom of this premature sending of liim to 
tlie university. His career in Glasgow was 
a brilliant one. He must have been specially 
precocious in wit. He took his degree of 
M.A. with much Sclat 

At this time his leanings were towards the 



study of medicine or physic. He was per- 
suaded b^ his parents and other firiends to 
devote himself to divinity. Upon this de- 
cision he went to Edinburgh univerBity* 
His distinction at Glasgow college and his 
social attainments preceded him. He was 
at once admitted into the innermost circle of 
the cultured society of Edinburgh. The 
imvarying tradition is that he excelled as t 
conversationalist, drawing forth the wonder 
of ffrave professors (e.g. of Professor Camp- 
bell) and the more perilous homage of fair 
ladies' bright eyes. 

Patriotically and modestly putting aside- 
opportunities presented in Scotland, at the 
close of his theological course he returned 
to Coleraine. He there prosecuted his studies- 

Erivately. In a short time he was licensed 
y his presbytery to preach the gospel 
But being still imder twenty-one, he pro- 
ceeded to Dublin that he might get the 
advantages of further classical and theologi- 
cal study. When he left for the capital, he 
was practically under ' call ' to the (presby- 
terian) church at Antrim ; but naving 
preached in Wood Street, Dublin, that con- 
gregation eagerly sought to associate him 
as co-pastor with the Kev. Mr. Boyse, who 
was held in high esteem. There was th^t 
competition between the two congregations. 
According to use and wont the synod was left 
to decide. In the interval the competitton 
was complicated by a third ' call ' on the death 
of his venerable father, from his father's con- 
gregation of Coleraine. The synod deter- 
mined in favour of Antrim, and he was there 
ordained on 8 Aug. 1708. His admiring bio- 
grapher (Duchal) tells of such quantity and 
quality of work done in Antrim as few oonld 
have achieved. He toiled and witnessed as 
a primitive apostle might have done. By 
the mass of his intellect, united withun* 
eq ualled alertness of perception and fluency 
01 expression, he was marked out for a de^ 
bat«r; and perhaps no ecclesiastical courts 
in Christendom afford finer opportunities for 
an able debater than the synoos and general 
assemblies of the presbyterian churches. 
But he was more than a debater. His whole 
soul and heart were fired with zeal on be- 
half of his ignorant and superstitious fellow* 
countrymen ; and it is clear on perusal of 
the * Records ' that he lifted the entire Irish 
presbyterian church to a higher level of duty 
than ever before. 

Wlien he had been nine years in Antrim, 
he was called to Londonderry, but rejoioed 
when the synod retained him in his origi- 
nal charge. In 1712 the darkest shadoir 
of his lite fell broad and black upon 
the death of his wife, whose maiden 



Aberneihy 49 Abemethy 

was SiMwnnfth Jordan, lesriiig one son and Boy;ie and Chappin, of Dublin, and others. 
;hree daughters. A* Diarv' — m»Mges of which The effort was vain. In 17^ the ' non-«ub- 
ire giTen in Duchal's *Life — ^b^ernn at thii<> scribers' were *cut off* fh>m the ministry* 
iateCFebu 171:2-13) reveals how intenaewatf and membership of the Irish. prvsbTterian 
Ilia deaolation and sorrow, and equally how church, and formed themselve^i into a separate 
reaming and devout was his *walk with presbyterv. Sorrowful heart-burnings and 
Sod.' lus passionate, because compassionate, feuds followed. There can be no i[ue«tion 
ronoem for the Roman Catholics was most that, consciously or unct^nsciouslv, Abemethy 
remarkable, and his labours abundant. In now sowed the seed whiv^ blisshil or baleful 
1717 he was again involTed in competing harvest (according to opinion) had to be cut 
claims for him as minister. First there came down by the illustrious Dr. Henry Cooke 
A call from the ccmgregation of Ushers fullv a century later. But the * non-t^ub- 
f)uay, DnUin, in conjunction with the Rev. scribing* presbyterians still exist as unita- 
Mr.Arbudde. Then, almost simultaneously, rians. 

A like 'call' from the old congregation at In 1730 he accepted a call to Wood 
Belfast. In the free of both, ^Vntrim de- Street congregation in Dublin, on the death 
%ired to retain its beloved pastor. As be- of Mr. Boyse. And here his fame «$ a pul- 
fore, the s^'nod decided the matter and a:»- pit orator won back for him his original iit- 
iigned him to Dublin. This threw Abemethy fluence. His sermons were now noted for 
into no common agitation and perplexity, their pathos. Here he married a Miss B«)iil 
Aitertarryinj^ three months at Usners Quay (or Boyd), and was again happy in his 
ma an experimental or observing visit, he choice. 

felt that Antrim had the first cLiim upon In 1731 came on the greatest of all the 
Kim, and resolved accordingly, spite of the controversies in which Abemethy engagtKl. 
inpointment of the general synod. AMien The occasion was tlie notorious Test Act : 
liis resolution to remain at Antrim was but the contest grew to a demand for repeal 
bruited abroad, it was as though an eccle- of all tests and disabilities. The stand 
iiiastical earthquake shook the Irish presby- taken was ' against all laws that, upim at^- 
terian church. Such a thing as disobedience count of mere differences of religious opinions 
to a decision of the supreme court of the and forms of worship, excluded men of 
irhurch never had been heard or dreamed of integrity and ability from serving their 
us possible. But Abemethy stood firm; and country'.' He was far ahead of his age. He 
from less to more the thing grew to an as- . had to reason with the episcopal church, 
fiertion of resistance to mere authority, or, [ which held presbyterians for * schisma- 
fts it ultimately ran, * the tyrannical exercise , tics,' and with others who had to be con- 
nf ecclesiastical power.' His convict ions were vinced that it was possible for 'protestant 
coloured, if not shaped, bj* Bishop Hoadly's dissenters' and Roman Catholics to be ^ men 
famous sermon on the * Kingdom of Christ.' ' of integrity and ability.' John Abernethy's 
Henceforward he stood forth uncompromis- j is a venerable name to all who love freedom 
ingly for religious freedom, and disowned ' of conscience and opinion. He died in De- 
the sacerdotal assumptions of church courts, ' cember 1740. Tlie works of Abt»methy, 
higher or lesser, llie minister of Antrim other than his ecclesiastical writings, an» 
promulgated his new opinions in an associa- | *»till noticeable. The * Bi(>graphia Britunnicn ' 
tion of like-minded presbyterians, called T^e ' furnishes full details. Ilis * Discourses nn 



Belfa$t Society. The issue was a division of 
the one camp of Presbyterianism into two, 
known historically as subscribers and non- 
Aubscribers. Abemethy was at the head of 
the latter. 

In 1719 Abemethy's opinions and senti- 
ments fotmd memorable expression in a ser- 
mon on the text (Romans xiv. 5) : ' Let everv' 
man be fully persuaded in his own mind,' in 
which he nobly vindicated private judgment 
tnd christian liberty; but it was as fuel 
ftdded to fire. The jealousies waxed fast 
And furious. A breach or schism was 
threatened. To arrest it if possible, he pub- 
lished ' Seasonable Advice to the contending 
Parties in the North.' This was accompanied 
with a 'Preface' — an admirable one — by 



the Divine Attributes ' and his * Posthumous 
Sermons' (4 vols.) are still valued. His 
collected 'Tracts* (1751), when'in he mea- 
sures swords with Swift himself triumphant Iv , 
carry in them truths and principles great fy 
in advance of the age. 

[Life, by Duchal, pn*fixed to Strmoiis (1762); 
Kippis's BiographiH BritaDnieu : Irish IVi^byto- 
rian Church ; Eeids Prwjbytorinn Church in 
Ireland, iii. 234, seq. ; MS. Diary, 6 vols. 4to.] 

A. B. G. 

ABERNETHY, JOHN (1764-1831), au 
eminent surg^eon, was bom in I>ondon \\ April 
1764, the son of John Abemethv, a Lonuon 
merchant belon^ug to an Irisli family of 
Scotch extraction, whose father and grand- 
father, both of the same name, were Irish 



VOL. I. B 



Abernethy 



50 



Abernethy 



nonconformist divines, the second in descent 
especially being of some eminence. Claims 
have been made both for Ireland and for 
Scotland as the native country of Aber- 
nethy ; but his baptismal certificate, dated 
24 April 1766, at St. Stephen's, Walbrook, 
is given by Macilwain (lAfe of Abernethy ^ i. 
16), who states other facts on the authority of 
Abernethy himself. He was educated at the 
Wolverhampton Grammar School under Dr. 
Robertson, and at the age of fifteen was ap- 
prenticed to Mr. (afterwards Sir Charles) 
blicke, surgeon to St. Bartholomew's Hos- 
pital. He followed the surgical practice of 
the hospital and also the course on surgery 
(the only lectures then given there) of Mr. 
Pott. At the same time he attended the 
lectures on anatomy given at the London 
Hospital by Dr. Maclaurin and Sir William 
Blizard, the latter of whom by his instruc- 
tions, and further by appointing Abernethy 
prosector for his lectures, gave him his first 
impulse to the study of anatomy. In 1787 
he was elected assistant-surgeon to St. Bar- 
tholomew's, and held this appointment for 
twenty-eight years till he succeeded as full 
surgeon. He then began to lecture on ana- 
tomv at his house in Bartholomew Close, 
and speedily attracted a laive class, the 
numbers of which were swol&n when Dr. 
Marshall, the most popular anatomical 
teacher in the city, ceased to lecture. Aber- 
nethy's success was one of the causes which 
induced the governors of St. Bartholomew's 
to build a lecture theatre, where in 1791 he 
began to lecture on anatomy, physiology, 
ana surj^ery, and thus became the founder of 
the medical school attached to that ancient 
hospital About this time he was himself a 
diligent attendant at the lectures of John 
Hunter, with whom he had also private 
conferences on scientific matters, and whose 
influence greatly determined the bent of his 
mind. 

Throughout this period Abemethv was 
much occupied with anatomical and physio- 
logical observations, and published three short 
papers on anatomical subjects in the *" Philo- 
sophical Transactions' from 1798 to 1798. 
In 1796 he was elected a fellow of the Koyal 
Society. In 1814 he was appointed to lecture 
on anatomy and physiology at the College of 
Surgeons (there was no regular professorship), 
and held the office till 1817. His lectures 
were mainly devoted to explaining the 
Hunterian museum, then lodged in the col- 
lege, and to expounding the views of John 
Ilunter, of whose theory of life Abernethy 
constituted himself an ardent champion. 

In 1800 he married Miss Anne Threlfall, 
of Edmonton, by whom he left a family. 



Abemethy's scientific reputation and his 
popularity as a teacher grew rapidly, and big 
pnvate practice was sul^equentiy \eiy large. 
In 1815 he became full surgeon to St. Bar- 
tholomew's Hospital, and resigned this ap- 
pointment in 1827. He died after a lingei^ 
ing illness at Enfield 28 April 1831. 

Abernethy enjoyed dunug his lifetime 
the highest reputation as a surgeon, anato- 
mist, and physiologist, and exercised great 
influence on his profession. Thou^ his 
reputation has not quite stood the test of 
time, his influence is still felt in certain de- 
partments of practice. In anatomy he did 
no original work of any value, but was a veir 
brilliant lecturer, ana as such instructed 
most of the eminent men of the coming 

feneration. As a physiologist he became 
nown for some desultory and not very im- 
portant researches, but chiefly as the defender 
of John Hunter, whose views, after his death 
and before the posthumous publication of his 
lectures, Abemethv had almost a monopoly 
in expounding. As an operating surgeon 
Abernethy early became distin^piished for 
extending John Hunter's operation for the 
cure of aneurism (by li^ture at a distance) 
by tying the external iliac arteij. This was 
in 1/97, but he afterwards attained no ffreat 
fame as an operator — a fact which may have 
been partly aue to his long tenure 01 office 
as assistant-surgeon where few opportunities 
were allowed him. In later life ne became 
extremely averse to operate. His other chief 
contributions to practical surgery were a 

Saper on injuries to the head, in which he 
eprecated the indiscriminating use of the 
trephine, which was at that time customar]^; 
ana an important improvement which he m- 
troduced in the opening of lumbar abscesses 
by early incision without admitting air. His 
memoir on the Classification of Tumours 
deserves perhaps more attention than it has 
received. It is a rough but masterly sketch, 
quite in the spirit of recent investigations, and 
had it been more carefully worked out inight 
have been of great value. But the work by 
which he was best known, and on which he 
would himself have rested his fame, is the 
Essay on the Constitutional Origin of Local 
Diseases, which has profoundly influenced 
surgical practice. The title implies a truth 
little recognised when the essay first ap- 

E eared, though now universally admittea; 
ut the scope of the work does not bear out 
the title. At the present day the constitu- 
tional origin of diseases is conceived of in a 
different and far wider sense than it was by 
Abernethy, whose work deals almost entirely 
with the relations of local diseases to certain 
disorders of the digestive system. The first 



sketch of tliia p^T upiH'an)H in ■ SuikiiuiI 
Obeervatiou,' part ii. (IW)fi); it wa* iifl«P- 
wuds piibliahea in a more completK furm in 
SiugicAl Works," vol. i, (1811). In it he 
>.howa thttt on thtr oiii.' hand local irrilatioii 
will pTodnoe disorders of the digestive or- 
gans. Mid thnl this takes plac« hy a reflected 
operation ihrouf^h the nervous e^em (jip. 
ti-10). On. the DtLer band, he iusists u{H>n 
ttw variety of diseases which may rei«ull. 
bom dieorderB of the digestive organs, such 
S4 ■ diminution of I he funirtians of the brain, 
or delirium, partial nervoiu inactivity and 
inten«bility, muscular weakness, tremon. 
palsy, cunvalsions . . .' ' ,Uso local diseases 
in audi a eonstilution will become peculiar 
in their nature and difficult of cure' (p. 61). 
Although evincing great power of generaliaa- 
cion, these viaws were clearly extravagant 
and one-sid^ ' Id his lectures and praclice,' 
Myg a witness of the liifchest authority )^4ir 
James Paget), Aberuethy •simplified slill 
more, and «e«mad to hold only that alt local 
diseaiee which ore not the immediate conse- 
[iuenc« of accidental injur}' ore the results of 
diaordem of the digestive organs, and are iiU 
lo be cured by attention to the diet, by 
smaU do*es of mercury, and by pu^i^tives.' 
Tkeiie views were not only imparted by 
Ab«rnethy to the profession, but impreswed 
upon hia private patieuls. who were referred 
lo 'page seventy-two of my book, published 
by Ursbib. Longman ;' while the medicinal 
treatment indicated nbovo, which has become 
known all over the world as characteristic of 
English practice, suited admimbly the well- 
fed and free-li-ring Tiondnners who crowded 
faie consuIting-riMim. On the surgeons of hJH 
time the 'system' hod a happv effect in 
leading them to study the general health of 
their patients, and it maybe said to have 
introduced a new principle into surgical 
practice in EnKlaud. 

The secret of Abemethy's ascendency over 
the profession is not, however, to be found in 
hi« bonks, which, tbou^ h clearly written, are 
Himsy in texture. They contain fewer valu- 
able obserrationB than those of many men 
who have made much le^a hgurein the world, 
and are quite wanting in that beet orinnality 
which is based upon thnrouchneee of inves- 
tigation. •Indeeu.'saj'sSir James Paget, 'for 
(he obtwrvation of particular facts, and for 
the Dtrict induction of general truths from 
I hem, hia mind was altogether unauited : for 
he wa* naturally indolent, and early success 
rendered ind ustiy unnecessary.' So that to 
a gtndeot of the present day Abemethj's 
writings ar<? disappointing, and his celcbnty 
an enigma. 

The solution of the mystery is to be found 



rigorous and attractive per«OQulity, and 
in a. power of exposition to which cont«mpo- 
mriea have borne striking testimony. Sir 
Benjamin Brodie writes: ' Mr. .^bemHlhj was 
un iid[nimblet«aclier. He kept up our atten- 
tion so that it never llugged ; and (hat which 
he told us could not be forgotten, He did 
nut tell us so much as other lecturers, but 
what he did he told us well- His lectures 
were full of originnl thought, of luminous 
id ulmoBi poetical illustrations, the Tedious 



detiuls of d 



e anatomy being ncca- 



Hiunalty relieved by appropriate and omusing 
anecdotps. . . . Like most of Uis jiupils, I 
learned to look upon him as a being of a 
superior order' (BroDib's Autobiography, 
p. 23). lie seems, indeed, to have possessed 
enough of the arte of the advocate and the 
actor to secure unheaitatin? acceptance fur 
whatever he ehose to put forth. ' He re- 
ser^ed all his enthusiasm,' says Dr. Latham, 
■for his peculiar doctrine. He bo reasoned it, 
so acted, so dramalised it, and then in his 
own droll way he so disparaged the more 
laborious searchers after truth, calling them 
contemptuously " the Doctors," and so dis- 
ported himself with ridicule of every system 
but his own, that we accepted his doctrine 
in aU its fulness. We should have been 
oshamed to do otherwise. We voted our- 
selves by acclamation the profoundeat of 
medical philosophers at the easy rate of one 
half-hour's instniction. ...'We never left 
his lecture-room without thinking him the 
prince of pathologists, and ourselves only 
just one degree below him.' 

To this should be added that such admira- 
tion was not wosted on an unworthy cha- 
racter, Alwrnelhy was a man of blameless 
life, highly honourable in all his dealings, 
generous to those in need of help, incapable 
of meanness or servility. His olunt inde- 

Sendence and horror of 'humbug' were 
ouhtless among the factors uf that rudeness 
and even brutality of manner for which he 
was notorious, and of which many stranffe 
stories are told. Thisdefectwas fostered tn 
a, physical irritability probably connected 
witSi'thelatent heart-disease which ul 1 imalely 
closed his life. In the end it seems to have 
become a wilful and almost calculated eccen- 
tricity, in which he was confirmed by the 
experience that a mnaterly roughness com- 
manded the confidence of his parienta even 
belter than an amiability, posubly suggestive 
(if wenhneas. would have conciliated it. 

The following is a condensed list of Aber- 
nethy's writings. .4.11 but one are in octavo, 
and ^published in London: 1. 'Surgical and 
Physiological Essays.' Part i. On Lumbar 
Abscess, kc, 1793; Part ii. On Matter p^r- 



Abershaw 52 Abington 



spired, &c., by the Skin, 1 793 ; Part iii. Injuries On Monday, 3 Aug. 1795, Abershaw was 

ofthe Head, &c., 1797. 2. ' Surgical Ob8er\'a- banged on Eennington Common; his body 

tions on Tumours,* &c., 1804. Part ii. Dis- was afterwards set on a gallows on Putney 

orders of the Digestive Organs, &c., 1806. Common. The coolness with which Aber- 
3. * Surgical Works ' (containing the surgical , sliaw met his death prolonged his notoriety, 

papers of the above, with additions), 2 vols, and Ids name was commonly used as t 

1811, and later. 4. 'Account of Disease in synonym for a daring thief in the early 
the Upper Maxillary Sinus ' (Transactions of years of the present centurjr. He received 

Society for Improvement of Medical and Sur- nis sentence with extraordinary mngfrwiy 

gical Knowledro, 1800). 5. * An Inquiry into , putting on his own hat at the same moment 

Mr. Hunter's Theory of Ijife/ 1814. 6. * Phy- as the juds^ assiuned the black cap, and 

Biological Lectures, 1817. 7. * Introductory • 'obser^'ing nim with contemptuous looks' 

Lecture exhibiting Mr. Hunter s Opinions ' while pronouncing judgment. The few day* 

res][)ectin|^ Life and Disease,* 1819. 8. The that inter>*ened between his conviction and 

'Iiunterian Oration,* 1819, 4to. 9. *Re- execution he spent in sketching with cherrieft 

flections on Gall and SpurzheimV System on the walls of his cell scenes from his 

of Physiognomy and Phrenology,' 1821. daring exploits on the road. While being 

10. ^Ijectures on Surgery,* 1830; also in driven to the gallows he ' appeared entirely 
*Ijancet,* 1824-5; reprinted 1828. (All the unconcerned, had a flower in his mouth . .'. 
above, except three early phvsiological papers, and he kept up an incessant conversation 
are included in the * t\ orfcs,* 4 vols. 1830.) with the persons who rode beside the cart, 

11. Three Memoirs in * Philosophical Trans- frequently laughing and nodding to others 
actions:* *0n Two Malformations,* 1793; of his acquaintances whom he perceived 
* On Anatomy of the Whale,* 1796; * On in the crowd, which was immense ' (Orod^ 
the Foramina Thebesii,* 1798. 12. * Memoir and Public Advertiser, Tuesday, 4 Aug. 
on a Case of Heart-disease * in * Medico- 1795). In a pamphlet on his career, en- 
Chirurgical Transactions,' vol. i. 1806. titled * Hardened Villany Displayed,' whieh 

[Macilwain's Memoirs of John Al.ernethy, T^ published soon after his death, he is 

London, 1853, where a portrait is given; Biog. described as *a good-looking younj man, 

Diet, of Useful Knowledge Society (memoir by only 1>2 years of age. Anecdotes of Abei^ 

James Paget) ; Latham's Lectures on Clinical shaw credit him with the rude generosity 

Medicine, London, 1836, p. 75.] J. F. P. commonly ascribed to men of his vocation. 

On one November night, it is said, after 

ABERSHAT^ or AVERSHAWE, several hours spent upon the road, he was 

LOUIS JEREMIAH (1773?-179o), gene- taken ill at the * Bald-faced Stag/ and t 

rally known as Jerry Abershaw, was a no- doctor was sent for from Eongston. Aber- 

t^rious highwayman, and was for many years shaw entreated the doctor, who was in igno- 

the terror of the roads between liondon, ranee of his patient's name, to travel oadc 

Kingston, and Wimbledon. An inn near under the protection of one of his own men, 

Kingston named the ' Bald-faced Stag * ob- but the gentleman refused, declaring that 

tained an unenviable reputation as \\\^ head- he feared no one, even should he meet with 

quarters, and few who nassed by it escaped Al)ershnw himself. The story was frequently 

Abershaw*s violence. \\Tien in hiding he re])eated by the highwayman, as a testimony 

frequented a house in Clerkenwell near to thf* eminence he had gained in his piofes- 

Sanron Hill, known as the * Old House in sion. 

West Street,* which was noted for its dark [Knapp and Bald^-in's Newgate Calendar, iii. 
closets, trap-doors, and shdmg panels, and , 241-3 : Criminal Recorder (1804). i. 28-32; The 

had often formed the asylum of Jonathan Oracle and Public Advertiser for 31 July 1796 
Wild and Jack Sheppard (Pink*s History of ' and 4 Anp. 1795 ; Hon. G. C. Grantley Berkeley** 

Clerkentveli, ed. Wood, p. 365). All efforts Life and Recollections, i. 198 ; BrayleyandMan- 



to brin^ Abershaw to justice for a time 
proved mtile, but in January 1795 he shot 
dead one of the constables sent to arrest 
him in Southwark, and attempted to shoot 
another; for these crimes he was brought 
to trial at the Surrey assizes in July of tlie 
same year. Although a legal flaw in the 
indictment invalidated the case of murder 
against him, he was convicted and sentenet*d 
to death on the second charge of feloniou;; 
shooting. 



teir.s History of Surrey, iii. 66 ; TimWs £nglirii 
Ecctmtrics (1875), p. 546 ; Gent. Mag. (4th series) 
iv. 79 ; Walford's Old and New London, vi. 885, 
497.1 S. L. L. 

ABINGDON, Earl of. [See Berhb.] 

ABINGER, Baron. [See Scarlett.] 

ABINGTON. [See HABiNeTON.] 

ABINGTON, FRANCES (1787-1815), 
actress, was of obscure origin. Her maiden 
name was Frances or Fanny Barton. OT 



Abington 



53 



Abington 



3ther she knew nothing; her father, 
' served as a private soldier in the 

Guards, kept a cobbler's stall in 
IT Yard; her brother was an ostler 
away Yard. After she had risen to 
nd prosperity, her descent was traced 
certain Christopher Barton, Esq., of 
L, Derbyshire, who at the accession of 
m ELI left four sons, a colonel, a ranger 

of the royal parks, a prebendary of 
linster, anci^the grandfather of Frances 
i. She at first sold flowers and was 

as * Nosegay Fan.' Then singing in 
eets or reciting at tavern doors, she 
metimes carried within the Bedford 
azza coffee-houses, to amuse the com- 
ith the delivery of select passages from 
ts. She became the servant of a French 
r in Cockspur Street, from whom she 
d a taste in dress and a knowledge of 
.. She was afterwards cookmaid in the 
I ruled by Robert Baddeley, admired 
'.er date for his performance upon the 
f foreign footmen, Jews, and *• broken- 
1 ' parts. Frances Barton underwent 
igrnoble, painful, and vicious experi- 

* Low, poor, and vulgar as she had 
I contemporary critic writes, * she was 
anxious to acquire education. . . . She 
Q acquainted with the French authors, 
«ad and speak French with facility, 
lid converse in Italian.' In the sum- 
756 theHaymarket was opened under 
[lagement of Theophilus Gibber. On 
f. the comedy of the 'Busybody' 
esented, the bills announcing ' the 
er of Miranda by Miss Barton, being 
b essay." She appeared subsequently 
I Jenny in the * Provoked Husband,' 
!emona, as Sylvia in the * Recruiting 
' and in other parts. For more than a 
e was absent from London, fulfilling 
nents at Bat h and Richmond. She re- : 
d in November 1 756, as a member of the 
-Ane company, engaged at the recom- 
ion of Samuel Foote, and personated 
liant in the * Double Dealer,' and va- 
ther characters. In 1759 she was 
icribed in the bills as Mrs. Abington : 
become the wife of her music-master, 
the royal trumpeters. The marriage 
an unliappy sort. Soon terms of se- 
I were agreed iipon, and the husband 
e lived apart. She paid him annually 
iated sum, upon condition that he 
to approach her. At Drury Lane 
Hngton advanced but slowly. Mrs. 
rdand Mrs. Olive enjoyed possession of 
parts in the dramatic repertory, while 
iger actresses, Miss Macklin and Miss 
ra, inherited claims to the considera- 



tion of the managers. Mrs. Abington left 
England for Ireland, and was absent five 
years. Her success in Dublin was very great, 
and her Lady To wnley drew the most crowded 
houses of the season. Hitchcock, the histo- 
rian of the Irish stage, writes : ' So rapidly 
did this charming actress rise, and so highly 
was she esteemed by the public — even so 
early did she discover a taste in dress and a 
talent to lead the ton — that several of the 
ladies' most fashionable ornaments were dis- 
! tinguished by her name, and the '^ Abington 
cap " became the prevailing rage of the day.' 
She returned to Drury Lane upon the press- 
' ing in\'itation of Garrick, and for some 
: eighteen years continued a member of the 
I company, the most admired representative 
I of the grand coquettes and queens of comedy, 
greatly successml as Beatrice, LadyTownJey, 
, Lady Betty Modish, IVIillamant, and Char- 
lotte in the * Hypocrite.' She was not con- 
fined to impersonations of this class, however. 
She could descend to country girls, romps, 
hoydens, and chambermaids. Reynolos's 
best portrait of her exhibits her as Miss Prue 
in * Love for Love.' She could appear either 
as Lucy Lockit or Polly Peachum, as Biddy 
Tipkin or Mrs. Termagant, as Miss Prue or 
as Miss Hoyden. Her Shakespearian cha- 
racters were Portia, Beatrice, Desdemona, 
Olivia, and Ophelia. Murphy dedicated to 
her his comeay of the *W'ay to keep him,' 
in recognition of her genius, and oi those 
* graces of action ' which had endowed his 
play with brilliancy, and even with an air of 
novelty, twenty-five years after its first pro- 
duction. She appeared on some occasions as 
Lydia languish, and she was the original 
representative of Lady Teazle in 1777, the 
actress being then but a few years the junior 
of the performer of Sir Peter. No one com- 
plained, however, that her Lady Teazle lacked 
youth or grace or charm. Horace Walpole, 
who had bidden her welcome to Strawberry 
Hill, with as many friends as she might choose 
to bring with her, described her acting in 
Lady Teazle as equal to the first of her profes- 
sion — as superior to any effort of Garrick's ; 
she seemed to him, indeed, * the very person.' 
In 1782 she closed her long connection with 
Drury Lane, and transferred her ser\'ices to 
Coveiit Garden. Between 1790 and 1797 
she was absent from the stage, and it was 
believed that her professional career had 
closed. She reappeared for a season, how- 
ever, and was warmly welcomed by the 
public. Boaden wrote of her return to the 
st^e : * Her person had become full, and her 
elegance somewhat unfashionable; but she 
still gave to Shakes])eare's Beatrice what no 
other actress in my time has ever conceived : 



Abington 



54 



Abney 



and her old admirers were still willing to 
fancy her as unimpaired by time as the cha- 
racter itself.' Takinff no formal leave of 
her public, she enjoyed no farewell benefit, 
and was seen upon the stage for the last time 
on 12 April, 1799, when she J^ay^d Lady 
Racket in the after-piece of * Three Weeks 
after Marriage,' the occasion being the benefit 
of Pope, her fellow-player during many 
seasons. She is descrioed as possessed of a 
singularly elegant figure, whicn, towards the 
close of her career, acquired proportions too 
matronly for the youthful characters she still 
assumed,; she was of graceful address, with 
animated and expressive gestures. Her voice 
was not by nature musical, but her elo- 
cutionary skill was very great, and her 
articulation was so exact that every syl- 
lable she uttered was distinct and harmo- 
nious. Her taste in dress was admitted to 
be supreme by the many ladies of quality 
whose friendship she enjoyed. Garrick wrote 
of her, on the back oi one of her letters, 
that she was * the worst of bad women.' Of 
his merits as an actor she spoke enthusiastic- 
ally ; but she pronounced nim as a manager 
inconsiderate, harsh, and resentful. She 
maintained ^nth him a long and acrimoni- 
ous correspondence. He complained of her 
pee%4sh letters, of her want of zeal for the 
interests of the theatre, of her incessant 
querulousness. She alleged that he caused 
her to be attacked in the newspapers, that 
his harshness affected her health and spirits, 
that he spoke ill of her wherever he went. 
Again and again she asked that her engage- 
ment might be cancelled, and that she might 
be released from the inconvenience and dis- 
tress of her position at Drury Lane. Upon 
one occasion it was necessary to take coun- 
seFs opinion as to the proper night to be 
devoted to Mrs. Abington's benefit. Her 
salanr at Drury Lane was 12/. per week, 
'with a benefit 'and 60/. for clothes.' She 
was rarely called upon to play more than 
three nights a week. Mrs. Abington had 
conquered for herself a distinguished position 
in society. The squalor, the misery, and 
the errors of her early life were forgotten or 
forgiven in the presence of her signal success 
upon the stage, her personal beauty, wit, and 
cleverness. Boswell relates that in 1775, 
when Mrs. Abington begged Dr. Johnson to 
attend her benefit, he was * perhaps a little 
vain of the solicitations of this elegant and 
accomplished actress,' and that he mentioned 
the fact because * he loved to bring forward 
his having been in the gay circles of life.' He 
sat in the boxes, and at such a distance from 
the stage that he coidd neither see nor hear. 
* Why, then, did you go ? ' asked Boswell. 



* Because, sir, Mrs. Abington is a favourite 
of the public ; and when the public cares a 
thousandth part for you that it does for her, 
I will go to your benefit too.' He supped 
with Mrs. Abington, met certain personfi of 
fashion, was 'much pleased witk having 
made one in so elegant a circle,' and after- 
wards piqued Mrs. Thrale by saying ' Mrs. 
Abington 8 jelly, my dear laay, was better 
than yours. Mrs. Abington retired upon t 
comfortable independence, which it was said 
she much redu(^ by her losses at cards. 
John Taylor, of the ' Sun ' newspaper, in hia 

* liecords of my Life,' states that he remem- 
bered her * keeping a very elegant carriage, 
and living in a large mansion in Glar^ 
Street.' He had seen her, on the occasion 
of her benefit, surprise the audience by 
playing the low-comedy part of Scrub in the 
'Beaux's Stratagem.' He once witnessed 
her performance of Ophelia to the Hamlet 
of Garrick, when she appeared ' like a mac- 
kerel on a gravel walk.* He had met her 
at Mrs. CoswaVs, in Stratford Place, when 
she was treated with much respect by the 
company ; but she chiefly confined her con- 
versation to General Paoli. She lived at 
one time in Pall Mall. In 1807 she was 
occupying two rooms in the house No. 19 
Eaton Square. Taylor further states that he 
had seen her, long after her retirement from 
the stage, attired m a common red cloak, and 
with the air and demeanour of the wife of an 
inferior tradesman. She died 4 March 1815. 

[Secret History of the (Jrcen Rooms, 1790; 
Genest 8 Historj' of the Stage, 1832 ; Boaden's 
Life of Mrs. Jordan, 1831 ; Hours with the 
Pbiyers, 1881.] D. C. 

ABNEY, Silt THOMAS (1640-1722), 
lord mayor of London, was bom in Januax^' 
1639-40 at Willesley, Derbyshire, where his 
ancestors had enjoyed an estate for upwards 
of five hundred years, now, with Willesley 
Hall, in the possession of Charles Edward 
Abney-Hastings, earl of Loudoun. Sir 
Tliomas was the fourth and youngest son of 
James Abney, Esq., who was high sherifi* of 
his county in 1656, by his first wife, Jwae 
Mainwaring. His mother died during his 
infancy, and he was sent to school at Lough- 
borough, in Leicestershire, in order that he 
might be under the observation and control 
of l^dy Bromley, the widow of Sir Edward 
Bromley, knight, one of the barons of the 
exchequer in the reigns of James I. and 
Charles I. The date of the commencement 
of Abney's career in London is not recorded ; 
but we are told that * in early life he cast hia 
lot with the nonconformists, and joined the 
church in Silver Street under the care of Br. 



Abney 5S Abney 

and afterwards of the learned Mr. | died at Theobalds on the niffht of Tuesday, 
me* (Wnsoir, History of Dissentinff 6 Feb. 1722, in the eighty-third year of his 
r, i. 297). In his marriage license, ! age, and ten days after was buried at St. 
Aug. 1668, he is described as *of All \ Peter's, Comhill. His widow sur\'ived till 
in the Wall, London, citiaeen and \ 25 Jan. 1750. Dr. Watts resided with her 
per' (Mabshaix, Genealogist^ 1881, j until his own death, which took place on 
Le married Sarah, a younger daughter ; 25 Nov. 1748. 




ildren, of whom six died in infancy last surviving child and ultimate sole heir- 
fouth ; whilst only one son, Edward ' ess of her f&tner and mother, was ' lady of 
gentleman 'ofveiy promising hopes,' ; the manor of Stoke Newington,' and died 
to manhood and died in October 1704 ' unmarried in August 1782 at the age of 78. 
ITS of age. Lady Abney herself died - By her will she directed that on her death 
1 1608, and, like all her children, was ' the lease of the estate of Abney Park, to- 
i St. Peter's, Comhill. Abney was | gether with the rest of her property in Stoke 
ilderman of Vintir Ward, 5 Dec. Newington, should be sold, ana the proceeds 
lich, on 15 June 1716, he, being then ' of the same distributed amongst poor indi- 
her of the City,' left for the repre- i Aiduals or corporate charities. Since 1840 
lofBridjje Without. Abney ser>'ed Abney Park has been *a general cemetery 
) of sheriff of London and Middlesex , for the city of London ; ' and Abney House 
4. His shrievalty was illustrated was pulled down in 1845. 
corporation of the Bank of England, An elder brother of Sir Thomas Abney, 
he was one of the earliest promo- and the eldest 8ur\'iving son and heir of his 
in whose charter, 27 July IC^, his father, was Sir Edward Abney, LL.D., an 
nirs as one of the ori^nal directors, eminent civilian and M.P. for the borough 
robably with a special reference to ' of Leicester in the parliaments of 1690-95 
»s in this connection that he was and 1695-98, who was bom 6 Feb. 1631, 
byKing^yilliamIII. Sir Thomas knighted at Whitehall 2 April 1678, and 
asalsopresident, during many of the who died 3 Jan. 1728, having nearly com- 
irs of his life, of St. Thomas's Hos- pleted his ninety-seventh year, 
which he was a considerable bene- [Jeremiah Smith's Miraoire of Sir ThoniuH 
id to which he contributed an * ad- Abney, in * Tho Magistrsite and the Christian/ 
gift' of 200/. in honour of his 8vo, London, 1722; Bibliotheca Topojp^phica 
y (GoLDING, Historical Account of Britannica (1790), vol. ii. ; Nichols's History of 
Ui^s Hospital, 8vo, London, 1819). ^be County of Leict^ster, iii. part 2, fol. London, 
lord mayor in 1700-1, having been ^^^^ 5 Wihjon's History of Dissenting Churches 
>me years in advance of his turn for *"^* Meeting Houses in London, Westminster, 
Bon the recognition of the Pretender *"^ ^^outhwark (1808), i. 296-7; Orriclges Cit i- 
;X1V. Sir Thomas Abney carried ^en^ of Ixmdon and thei^^ 

#5 -1 ,• ot\ a ^ and Walfonls Old and New London, v. c. 44; 

*?. frt«» t^e corporation, 30 Sept. MarshaU's Genealogist (1881). vol. y.] 
William m, assuring him of their o \ /» V H Cr 

operation against his enemies, and ' 

t of the validity of his title to the ABNEY, Sir THOMAS (d. 1750), justice 
[n the parliament from 30 Dec. 1701 of the common pleas, was the younger son 
f 1702 Sir Thomas Abney was one of Sir Edward Abney, elder brother of 
smbers for the city of London. Sir Tliomas Abney, lord mayor of London, 

Aug. 1700 Sir Thomas Abney mar- by liis second wife, Judith, daughter and co- 
his second wife, Mary, the eldest heir of Peter Barr, of London. He became 
of John Gunston, Esq., upon whom, in November 1740 a baron of the exchequer, 
ath of her only brother and co-heir, and in Februaiy 1743 a justice of the com- 
hinaton, on 11 November following, , mon pleas. Abney fell a victim to the gaol 
the lease of the manor of Stoke ' distemper at the ' Black Sessions ' at the Old 
m, with a mansion not yet perfectly Bailey in May 1750, when, *of the judges 
and with grounds, afterwards of in the commission, only the chief justice 
1 beauty, incompletely laid out. It (Lee) and the recorder (Adams) escaped, 
bney House, alternately with their Those who fell a sacrifice to the pestilence 
Btreat at Theobalds, Hertfordshire, were Mr. Justice Abney, who diea 19 May; 
Watts found a home for the last Mr. Baron Clarke, who died on the 17tfi ; 
yeATSofhialife. Sir Thomas Abney | Sir Samuel Pennant, lord mayor ; and alder- 



Aboyne 5^ Acca 

man Sir Daniel Lambert ; besides several of j cia, Acca shared in his labours. He was made 
the counsel and jurymen.' : by Wilfirid abbot of Hexham (Ebdius^ cL 

[Fo88*8 Judges of England, viii. 96-7. 8vo. 62)» and on Wilfrid's death in 709 Acca was 
London, 1864. J A. H. G. ' chosen to succeed his master. 

As bishop of Hexham, Acca faithfiiillv 

ABOYNE, ViscoiTNT and Eabl of. [See carried out the work which Wilfrid bad be- 
GoBDON.] gun. Wilfrid brought to the adomment of 

ABRAHAM, ROBERT (1773-1850), a ™^^ "^ ^J? .^^^^i^^^t^o^ Yi^ ^ ^ 
T jltr «.!,•* I 7u i vni gathered from his loumeys on the Gontment. 

A^ '^h^^' ^" *•** ^"^ f Z^*^^^'' He buat the moiMter/church, which wm 
III .:™ '^^ ■* . '^tl?r- \^ * * '^"" dedicated to St. Andrew, and three others- 
elusion of the war in 1&15 when an im- St. Mary's, St. Peter's, and St. Michwsr.ipto. 
netus was given to architecture by Nash in „, „'' „ ^oy ' -n.«„ l,„iW5«« A«« 




a high position as an architect He ob- ; ^^^ ^ j^ ^ Jj, ^^^^^ Eddi Jcch!^) 
tamed an mtroduction to some of the chief • „„^^ ., „. .i „„ ^^^ „«i««j;j «.:*i, ^\a »^a 

Roman catholic families in Engknd, and ! *f,y* *''** *^*y T^tw 2n^^^^ 

,i,,-i .. ^-^A ' silver and precious stones, and ^urere arapea 

much valuable private connection. Among ^ j^ pu^i/a„d silks. A^a procui«l h^ 
his works may be mentioned the conserva- .,^^J^ i^^.^. ^„ j ^i ^ui^^ needed for the 
tories and garden buildings for the Earl of , "^Trhis'lSi^^ 

Norfolk House, for the Dui of Norfolk, the X^L^h^d ^^ in^^^.^H^ s'^^S 
Svnago^e near tJie Haymarket and the to Hexham a famous singeV, Maban by mmie, 
Westmins^ Bridewell. Abraham died i ^^^ j^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^ 

11 i^ec. loou. descendants of those whom St. Qr^^ory had 

[The Builder, viii. 598, 602 ; Art Journal sent to instruct in ritual the barbarous'Eng- 

(1851), 44 ; Redgrave's Diet, of Artists (1878).] ligh. Maban abode in Hexham twelve years, 

"^^ ^* till he had trained a choir. Nor was Acca 

ABYNDON, RICHARD de. [See s^tis^^ ^^^^ ™f «b' P/oviding for outwij^ 

Richard.] magnificence. He carefully brought together 

I a large and noble library, consisting of theo- 
ACCA (d. 740), fifth bishop of Hexham logical works and lives of the saints. 
(709-732), was a native of Northumbria, In administering his diocese, Acca was a 
and was brought up from childhood in the strict upholder oi ecclesiastical discipline, 
household of Bosa, who was made bishop of and showed a worthy example to his clergy 
York in 678 in the place of Wilfrid. Wilfrid and people. He was renowned for his theo- 
was deposed from his see because he refused logical learning, and his advice was freely 
to assent to the subdivision of the Northum- sought by students. His library at Hexham 
brian diocese according to the plan of Arch- was probably of great service to Bede, with 
bishop Theodore. It would seem that Acca ' whom Acca stood in intimate relations, 
sympathised with Wilfrid. He transferred 1 Their friendship began soon after Acca's 
mmself to Wilfrid's service, accompanied him , coming to Hexnam, as Bede dedicated his 
in his wanderings, and stood high in his con- ' * Ilexameron ' to Acca while still abbot. Bede 
fidence and affection till his death. He was \ mentions Acca as Iiis authority for several 
with Wilfrid in his missionary journey among I things which he narrates in his 'History* 
the South Saxons (Bede, H. JS. iv. 14-15). | (iii. 13, iv. 14). Eddius, in liis preface to 
He went with Wilfrid to Friesland, and \ his 'Life of W^ilfrid,* savs that he undertook 
visit«d St. Willibrord (H. JS. iii. 13). He . the work at Acca's instigation. Acca seems 
further accompanied Wilfrid to Rome. On ' to have acted as an adviser and patron to 
their return in 70o W^ilfrid was seized with I men of letters. He was in constant corre- 
sickness at Meaiix, and lay as though dead, spondence with Bede about his ' Commenta- 
but was restored by a vision of St. Michael, ries on the Scriptures,* and encouraged him 
On recovering consciousness his first question , to proceed with his work. Bede's Commen- 



was, * Ubi est Acca presbyter ? ' and to Acca 
alone he narrated his vision (Eddius, ch. 54). 
When Wilfrid, on his return to Northumbria 
in 705, settled in his favourite monastery of 
Hexham, and became bishop of the see, 
which embraced the southern part of Bemi- 



tanes on Genesis, on St. Mark's Gospel, and 
on the Acts of the Apostles are all dedicated 
to Acca ; and a poem of Bede on the Last 
Judgment, addressed to Acca, is interpolated 
into Simeon of Durham's * Chronicle ' (Twrs- 
DEN, 96, &c.). In the prologue to his ' Com- 



Accum 57 Acherley 

mentary on the Act«/ Bede writes to Acca : Ackermann, the art publisher, in order to in- 
* Accepi creberrimas beatitudinis tu® literas, troduce into Englana the liffhtingof towns by 
quibus me oommonere digpatus es, ne mentis gas ; and in 1810, when the London Chartered 
acumen inerti otio torpere et obdormire per- , Gaslight and Coke Company was fornfied, 
mittam.' One only of these letters of Acca Accimi was nominated one of its engineers, 
has come down to us (Bed^ Op, ed. 1563, t. It is said that the prompt adoption of this 
175 ; also Raike's Prwry of Hexham, i, 83). mode of lighting in London ana other large 
In this letter Acca beseeches Bede to write ' cities was greatly due to his * Practical Trea- 
a commentary- on St. Luke's Gbspel ; he tise on Gas Light,' which was published in 
combats the plea that the work has been suf- London in 1815 (8rd edit. 1816), and speedily 
ficiently done by St. Ambrose ; he urges the translated into derman, French, and Italian, 
need ot a simpler commentary, and humor- A second work by Accum on the same sub- 
ously exclaims, ' Beatum Lucam luculento , ject, entitled ' Description of the Process of 
sermone expone.' '\ manufacturing Coal Gas/ api)eared in 1819 

The end of Acca's life is obscure. In 732 | (2nd edit. 1820). He was made librarian of 
he was driven from the see of Hexham. AVe the Royal Institution in Albemarle Street, 
do not know the reason ; probably it was but a charge of embezzlement was brought 
some cause connected with the still uncertain against him shortly afterwards, and he was 
organisation of the Northumbrian dioceses, dismissed. On being brought to trial, he was 
It cannot have been for any reason disgrace- acquitted : but he immediately left England 
fill to him, since he was revered by the monks for Berlin. There, in 1822, lie obtained a 
of Hexham as a saint. Richard of Hexham professorship at the Technical Institute, 
(p. 35) records a story that Acca spent the which he retained till his death on 28 June 
years of his exile in organising the new dio- 1838. Accum published * Chemical Amuse- 
cese of Whithem, in Galloway. However I ment * (London, 1817, 4th edit. 1819), which 
this may be, Acca returned to Hexham be- was translated into German in 1824, and 
fore his death in 740. He was buried out- into French in 1827 ; and * Adulterations of 
side the east wall of the church, and two Food and Culinary Poisons * (London, 1820, 
stone crosses of elaborate workmanship were ; 2nd edit. 1820), wliich was translated into 
erected over his grave (Simeon, inTwysden, German in 1822. In 1826 he published a 
101). One of these crosses has been identi- : work in two volumes at Berlin on the phy- 
fied by Raine, and is engraved in the * Priory I sical and chemical qualities of building ma- 
of Hexham '(i. p. xxxiv). The remains of Acca terials (Physische und chemische Beschafftm- 
were twice translated, once in the eleventh heit der Banmaterialen). He also wrote on 
century and again in 1154. He is comme- * Crystallography* (London, 1813); on *Che- 
morated in the Calendar on 19 Feb. His mical Reagents ' (London, 1816), translated 
miracles are recorded by Simeon of Durham, into Italian in 1819; on the * Chalybeate 
s. a. 740, and by Aelred, abbot of Rievaux • Spring at Thetford ' (1819) ; on * Brewing* 
(Raihb, i. 184). (London, 1820); on the * Art of making 

[Bede, Hif^oria Ecclesiastics, book v. chaps. \Vine*(I^)ndon, 1820), translated into Frencli 
19, 20 ; Edditis, Vita Wilfridi, in Gale's Scrip- in 1821 ; on * Culinary Chemistr\'* (Ix)ndon, 
tores, i. 53, &c. ; Simeon of Durham, De Gestis 1821) ; and on the **Art of making whole- 
Regnm Anglorum,inTwy8den, Decem Scriptores, gome Bread ' (London, 1821). 
94, &a ; ako ed G. Hiiide for Surtees S<^ety, [Allgemeine Deutsche Biogmphie (1876); 
s^a 740 ; Richard of Hexham, in Raine s Pnory ^l^^^ Da« gelehrte Teutschland ; Neuer Ne- 
of Hexham (hurtees Society), k 18. 'Hie best ^j ^^^ Deutschen, xvi. 628.] G. F. R. 

modem account is given in Raines Preface, ^ 

-xxxiv.] M. C. AOHEDUN. [See Actox.] 



ACCUM, FRIEDRICH CHRISTIAN; ACHERLEY, ROGER (1665 P-1740), 
(1769-1888), chemist, was bom in Bucke- lawj-Qr, constitutional writer, and politician, 
bouTg, in Westphalia, in 1769. In 1793 he was the son and heir of John Acherley 
came to London, and engaged in some science of Stanwanline, or Stottesden, Shropshire, 
work, which led to the delivery of a course where he was tlie re/present at ive of a long- 



of lectures on chemistry and physics in 1803 
At the Surrey Institute, and to the publica- 
tion in that and the following years ot several 
treatises on chemistry and mineralogy, in- 
cluding a ' System of Chemistry ' in 1803, an 
^ Essay on tlie Analysis of Minerals' in 1804, 
and a ' Manual of Analytical Mineralocnr ' in 
1806. He afterwarda associated himself with 



established family. Roger was admitted a 
Student of the Inner Temple on 6 March 
168o, and called to the bar on 24 May 1691 
(Inner Temple Retji^ter), He married Eliza- 
beth, only daughter of Richard Vernon, Esq., 
of Hanbury, Worcestershire, and sister of 
Thomas Vernon, Esq., a celebrated lawyer, 
known especially for his * Reports,* ^joatkvv- 



Acherley 



58 



Ackermann 



mouslj published, on the * Cases argued and 
ndjudged in the Hiffh Court of Chancery.' 
For some years Acherley was engaged in dis- 
puting the will of Thomas Vernon, who died 
in 17 2 1, by which the wife of the former in- 
herited an annuity of 200/., and his daughter 
I^etitia received a legacy of 6,000/. The case 
was finally given against Acherley, on an 
appeal before the House of I^ords, on 4 Feb. 
1.25. 

Acherley was probably the first person who, 
in 1712, advised the moving of the \iTit for 
bringing over the electoral prince, afterwards 
Greorge il, to take his place in the House of 
Lords as Duke of Cambridge; but the in- 
trigues in which he indulged for the further- 
ance of this object were cut short bj' the 
death of Queen Anne, 1 Aug. 1714. There- 
after he pressed Barons Leibnitz and Bothmei^ 
for professional advancement in recognition 
of his admitted services to the house of 
Hanover. Down to 1731, however, he met 
with no substantial reward, and he appears 
to have passed his later years as an obscure 




21 March 1740). 

Acherley 's reputation rests upon his politi- 
cal, legal, and constitutional treatises, which 
have now, by lapse of time and the develop- 
ment of methods, been largely superseded. 
He believed in an extreme form of the ' social 
contract ' theory. The most elaborate of his 
works is *The Britannic Cimstitution: or, 
the Fundamental Form of Government in 
Britain,' fol. London, 1727, which was wTitteii 
to demonstrate the constitutional fitness of 
the accession of William III, and of the 
Hanoverian succession; a second edition, 
issued in 1759, incorporated * lleasrms for 
Uniformity in the State, Ijoinga Supplement 
to the Britannic Constitution,' which firsc 
appeared in 1741. Another work of Aeher- 
loy's is entitled * I'^ree Parliaments ; or, an 
iVrg^ment on their Constitution: proving 
some of their powers to be independent. To 
which is added an Appendix containing seve- 
ral original Letters and Papers which passed 
lietween the Court of Hanover and a gentle- 
man at London, in the years 1713 and 1714, 
touching the right of the Duke of Cambridge 
to reside in England and sit in Parliament. 
By the author of the Britannic Constitution,' 
8vo, London, 1731. Also Acherley is cre- 
dited with the authorship of an anonymous 
pamphlet of forty-six pages, called *The 
Jurisdiction of the Chancery as a Court of 
Equity researched,' 8vo, London, 1733, third 
i-dition, 1736. 

[Appeals to the House of Lords, 1725; A|>- 



pendix to AcherlcyV Vrw I^irliamentif, 1781; 
Nash's History and Ant iquitiet» of Worcestershire, 
1781, vol. i. ; Kcnibles State Papers and Corre- 
spondence, London, 18d7.] A. H. G. 

ACKERMANN, RUDOLPH (1764- 
1834), fine-art publisher and bookseller, was 
bom 20 April 1764, at Stolberg in Saxony. 
His father, a coach-builder and hame«- 
maker, removed in 1775 to Schneeberg, 
where Rudolph received his education and 
entered his fathers workshop. But he did 
not long follow this occupation. After 
visitinff l)resden and other German towns, 
he settled for some time in Paris, whence he 
proceeded to London. Here for about ten 
years he was engaged in making designs for 
many of the principal coach-builders. In 
1795 he married an Englishwoman and set 
up a print-shop at 96 Strand, removing the 
following year to No. 101, where he had 
already revived a drawing-school established 
by Wm. Shipley, the founder of the Society 
of Arts. In consequence of the increase of 
Ackermann's publisning business the school 
was closed in 1806, being at that time fre- 
quented by eighty pupils whose instruction 
was attended to by three masters. His exten- 
sive trade in fancy articles had given employ- 
ment for some years to many Inrench Snuffrit, 

Ackermann's ingenuity and enterprise were 
not directed to fine-art matters alone. In 
1801 he patented a method to render paper, 
cloth, and other substances wat^rprooi, and 
erected a factory- at Chelsea. He was 
am(mg the first Of private individuals to 
illuminate his place of business with ffas, and 
between 1818 and 1820 was occupied with a 
patent for movable carriagt* axles. The Re- 
paration of Lord Nelson's funeral car (l«y5> 
was entrusted to his skill. The establish- 
ment of lithography as a fine art in this 
country is due to liim. Having been intro- 
duced as a mechanical process by Mr. Andrfo 
of Offenbach in 1801 (Bepontory ofArU, 4^., 
1817, p. 225), it was chiefly used for copying 
purposes until 1817, when Ackermann set 
up a press, engaged Prout and other eminent 
artists, and made large use of lithoarraphy in 
his * Repositor}- ' and other publications. 
* A complete Course of Lithography, by J. A. 
Senefelder, translated from tne German 
by A. S[chlichtegroll],' 4to, was issued in 
1819 by Ackermann, who had visited the 
inventor the year before, and who narrates 
in a preliminary * advertisement ' his exne- 
rience of tht^ method. Tlie volume includes 
sp^^cimens of drawings executed at his press. 

The distn'Hs in Germany after the battle 
of l^'ipzig gave rise to a movement for the 
relief of the sutterers, mainly founded by 
Ackermann : and for two years he devoUd 



Ackermann 59 Acland 



Ing labour towards organising the dis- 
m of over 200,000/., of which more than 
If was contributed by public subscrip- 
he remainder consisting of a special 
rom parliament. For this service he 
d from the king of Saxony the order 
1 Merit, but modestly declined the 
xpressions of popular grratitude offered 
man towns in the course of a subse- 
visit to the Continent (see A short 



* University of Cambridge/ 1815, 2 vols. 
4to; 'Colleges of Winchester, Eton, West- 
minster, &c.,' 1816, 4to. W. H. Pyne and 
William Combe supplied the text tor these 
antiquarian works, the plates being drawn 
by A. Pugin, Rowlandson, Nash, and others. 
His remarkable series of ' Picture8C]^ue Tours ' 
in elephant 4to includes * The Rhine,' by J. 
G. von Geming, 1820; 'Buenos Aires and 
Monte Video,' by Vidal, 1820; 'English 



t of the successful Exerti(ms [of R, \ Lakes,* by Fielding and Walton, 1821 ; ' The 



utnn] on behalf of the Fatherless and 

s trfter the War in 1814, Oxf. priv. pr. 

6mo). In 1815 he collected and distri- 

large sum for the succour of wounded 



Seine,'byPuginandGendall,1821; 'The Gan- 
ges ana Jumna,' by C. R. Forrest, 1824 ; 
' India,' by R. M. Gnndl^ (atlas folio), 1826: 
and ' The Thames,' by Westall and Owen, 
n soldiers and their relatives. About ' 1828. The 'World in Miniature,' 43 vols, 
me period the Spanish exiles, like 12mo, 637 plates, was commenced in 1821 
ench SnUgris of a quarter of a cen- bv T. Rowlandson, and finished in 1826 by 
jfore, found in him a generous em- W . H. Pyne. He introduced from Germany 
He also printed and published I the fashion of the illustrated annual, upon 
Spanish translations and original which, between 1822 and 1856, English pub- 
and formed branch depots in several lishers expended large sums for illustrations 
American cities. Ackermann's Wed- and literary contributions. In the first rank 
evening * Literary Meetings ' during j of these popular gift-books stood his ' For- 
and April had become from 1813 get-me-not, first brought out in 1825 in a 
feature in the literary and artistic manner unapproached for typographical and 
In 1827 he returned to premises at artistic ment. It was continued imtil 1847 
nd, designed by J. B. Papworth. He under the editorship of F. Shoberl. 
I a second time, and in 1830 ex- ' [Notes and Queries*, 4th s«erie8, iv. 109, 129, 
ed an attack of paralysis which pre- 5th series, ix. 346, x. 18; Didaskalia (Frankf. a. 
him thenceforward from attending to Main), No. 103, 13 April 1864; Gent. Mag. 1834, 
9. He died at Finchlev on 30 March i. 560 ; Annual Biography, 1835.] H. R. T. 
Qd was buried at St. Clement Danes. ACKLAND, THOMAS GILBANK 
58t son, Rudolph, carried on a fin^art (1791.I844) divine, was educated at the 
8 m Regent Street, and died m 1868. charterhouse and St. John's College, Cam- 
^ of his numerous fine-art publications t^^dge. He became B.A. in 1811,Til.A. in 
lined m the two exceUent articles bv igil ^nd in 1818 was instituted to the 
1 Pfapworth] in * Notes and Queries ^^^ ^f g^ Mildred's, Bread Street, which 
J. The name of Ackeraiann IS mti- ^^ ^^{^ ^^u his death, 20 Feb. 1844 He 
associated with the 'Repository of published by subscription, in 1812,a volume 
^terature, lashions, Manufactures, ^f misceUaneous poems in the style of the 
hich at once became so succe^ful preceding centurj-f He is also the author of 

^''^^^^^^^^Z.^Kr'''^^^^ ifewsemons. ^ 

ned 3,000 subscribers. It regularly m * tlt xro • -cat 

d until 1828, when forty volumes had 1 [^"°'- ^*«- N*^' ™- ^^^^ 

reduced in monthly a?. M. parts, 1 ACLAND, Lady CHRISTIAN HEN- 

ihe editorship of F. Shoberl. Wm. RIETTA CAROLINE, generally called 

was a large contributor, and Row- . Lady Harkiet (1750-1815), was the third 

supplied many of the plates. The surviving daughter of Stephen, first earl of 
tions of fashions, mostly by well- Hchester, and was bom on 8 Jan. 1749- 
artist^, supply valuable materials for 50. In Nov. 1770 she was married, at 
ory of costume. Many of the contri- Redlynch Park, Somersetshire, to John 
to the 'Repositonr* were reissued sepa- Dyke Acland [see Acland, John Dyke]. 

'Dr. Syntax's Tour in search of the TN^hen her husband was ordered to attend 
nue' first appeared in Ackermann's his regiment to Canada in 1776, he was 
u Magazine, 1809-11, under the title accompanied by Lady Harriet Acland, and 
'Schoolmaster's Tour.' Among his the narrative of her sufierings during the 
iblications may also be mentioned campaign, which has been often printed in 
crocosm of London,' 1808-11, 3 vols, both England and America, forms one of the 
'cMBtminater Abbey,' 1812, 2 vols. 4to ; 1 brightest episodes in the war with the Ameri- 
wity of Oxford/ 1814, 2 vols. 4to ; ! can people. He was taken ill in Canada, and 



Acland 



60 



Acland 



she nursed him. On his partial recoverjr his 
pervices were required at tlie attack of Ticon- 
deroga ; but at the express injunction of her 
husband she remained behind. During the 
conflict he received a dangerous wound, and 
his heroic wife hastened to join him, and to 
bestow upon the sufferer the most devoted 
care and attention. Her husband commanded 
the British grenadiers, and his corps was 
often at the most advanced post of the army. 
( )n one of these occasions tiie tent in wliich 
they were sleeping caught fire, and both of 
them had a narrow escape of their lives. A 
few weeks afterwards tiie troops under the 
command of General Burgoyne were defeated 
in the second battle of Saratoga (7 Oct. 1777), 
when Major Acland was badly wounded in 
both legs and taken prisoner. With the pro- 
tection of a letter from Burgoyne to General 
Gates, and in the company of an artillery 
chaplain and two servants, she proceeded in 
an open boat up the Hudson River to the 
<^nemy. When she arrived at the outposts of 
the American army, the sentinel threatened 
to fire into the boat if its occupants stirred, 
and for eight * dark and cokl hours,' according 
to one account, though this is denied in the 
American papers, she remained waiting for 
the break of davlight, and for permission to 
join her husband. On her return to England, 
says the * Gentleman's Magazine,' her portrait, 
as she stood in the boat with a white hand- 
kerchief in her hand as a flag of truce, was ex- 
hibited at the Royal Academv and engraved. 
Some copies of the print are still in the posses- 
sion of the Aclana familv. Tlie storv that 
her husband died in a duel, that she became 
temporarily insane, and afterwards remarried, 
has no foundation in fact. She was left a 
widow in 1778 with two surviving children, 
her son, John, succeeding to the baronetcy, 
and her daughter, Elizabeth Kitty, marrying 
Jjord Porchester, afterwards second earl of 
Carnarvon. By this marriage the Acland pro- 
l»erty near Dulverton andTaunton ultimately 
passed to the Carnarvon family. Lady Har- 
riet Acland died at Tetton, near Taunton, on 
'21 July 1815. Her remains were interred 
at Broad Clvst on 28 July. Her portrait, 
painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds in 1771-72, 
and the property of the present head of the 
Acland tamily, was engraved by S. W. Rey- 
nolds. The painting was exhibited at Bur- 
lington House, at the Winter Exhibition, 
1882, and the face was that of a woman of 
great determination of character. Several 
years before, whilst a little girl, aged seven, 
she had been painted by the same artist stand- 
ing at her mother's knee. 

[Gent. Maff. 1815, pt. ii. p. 186; Burgoyne's 
State of the Expedition from Canada (1780); 



Mag. of AmericHii Hist. vol. iv. p. 49; Leslie 
and Taylor'H Life of Sir J. Reynolds, i. 439; 
Lippin(M>ttV Mag. xxiv. 452-8 (1879); E. B. de 
Fonbbiiique'8 Political and Military EpisodeH 
from Corruspondonce of (Jen. Burgoyne (1876), 
pp. 301-302 ; Travels in America by an Officer 
(i.e. Lieut. Anlmn-y), 1789, ii. 61-63.] W. P. C. 

ACLAND, Sir JOHN {d. 1613), was 
the second son of John Acland, of Acland in 
Landkey, Devonshire, who married Mary, 
daughter and coheir of Hugh Keddiff of 
Stepney. From his mother he obtained con- 
siderable landed property in the neighbour- 
hood of London, and increased his fortune by 
many-ing Elizabeth, the daughter of Geoige 
llolle,oi Stevenston,in Devon, and the widow 
of Robert Mallet, of WooUeiffh in the same 
county. On her death he took another rich 
widow as his second wife, Margaret, a daugh- 
ter of Sir Henrj' Portman of Somerset, who 
had been previously married to Sir Qabriel 
Ilawley. He was knighted by James I on 
15 March 1603-4 in the Tower of London, 
and at a bye-election (27 Jan. 1606-7), in 
the first parliament of that monarch, became 
knight of the shire for Devon. His charitable 
gifts were numerous. He settled on the 
mayor and town council of Exeter the rec- 
torial endowments of two parishes in that 
part of his native county which is known by 
the name of the South 1 lams, in order that the 
annual proceeds might be distributed among 
the poor of several parishes in Exeter and in 
other parts of the couiitv. When he acquired 
the estate of Columl>>fohn, in Broad Clyst, 
about four miles from Exeter, he built in the 
mansion a chapel for the use of the tenantry, 
and endowed it with a rent-charge for the 
support of the minister. A new nail, with 
cellars underneath, was erected by Exeter 
College, Oxford, shortly before his death, at 
a cost of about 1,0(X)/., and Sir John Acland 
gave towards the expenditure the large sum 
of 800/. Two scholarships, each of the annual 
value of S/., were founded by him at the same 
college. He died in 1613, and lies buried in 
Broad Clyst church, where a richly carded 
monument, with the figures of himself and 
his wives, preserves his memory. 

[Prince's Worthies of Devon; Visitations of 
Devon and Somerset ; Boase's Exeter College.! 

W. P. C. 

ACLAND, JOHN (/. 1753-1 796), author 
of a pamphlet on pauperism, was the second 
son of John Acland, of AVoodly, Yorkshire, 
M.P. for Callington, and the younger bro- 
ther of Sir Hugh Acland, sixth bim>net of 
C5olumb-John, co. Devon. He was instituted 
to the vicarage or rectory of Broad CJlyst (PoL- 
whelf/s Hii*tory of Devomhire^ 1 793, ii. 197), 



Acland 



6i 



Acland 



m his own petition, in 1753. In 1786 Acland 
>ublished * A Plan for rendering the Poor in- 
iependent on Public Contributions, founded 
>n the basis of the Friendly Societies, com- 
monly called Clubs, by the Kev. John Acland, 
>ne of His Majesty's Justices of the Peace 
for the County of Devon. To which is added 
ft Letter from Dr. Price containing his senti- 
ments and calculations on the subject. Tua 
res agitur, Exeter and London, 1786.' From 
allusions in this pamphlet it seems that 
Acland's ' plan ' was suggested to him by the 
failure of prexious legislation for the en- 
couragement of friendly societies in Devon- 
shire. An act of parliament had provided 
that the funds of friendly societies might be 

3^emented by grants in aid from the pro- 
of the poor-rate ; it provided, amongst 
other things, for the payment of sums of 
money on the marriages of members and 
the births of their children. In consequence 
of the burden entailed on the ratepayers for 
pa3rments on these accounts, the act was re- 
pealed. Acland desired a modified applica- 
tion of the principle. He proposed that 
' there should be established, by the authority 
of parliament, throughout the whole of the 
kingdom of England, one general club or 
society ' for the support of the poor in sick- 
ness, in old age, and when out of work. With 
certain exceptions, every adult male or female 
receivinff a certain wage was to be compelled 
to contru>ute to this frind, and a similar obli- 
gation was imposed on the bulk of the com- 
munity. In this way pauperism was to be 
gradually extinguished, and the recipients of 
aid from the frind might regard themselves 
as members of a State Friendly Society. 
There is an abstract of Acland's crude plan 
in Eden's ' State of the Poor ' (i. 373-80). It 
excited considerable attention at a time when 
the increase of the poor-rate was causing 
general anxiety. A bill based on Acland's 
plan was introduced into the House of Com- 
mons ^see Thomas Gilbert's speech there, 10 
Dec 1787), but came to nothing. Of a se- 
cond pamphlet by Acland, in refutation of 
Edward King's attempt to prove the public 
utility of the nationsd debt, the 'GTentle- 
man's Magazine' for November 1796 contains 
a brief and approving notice. There is no 
copy of this pamphlet in the library of the 
British Museum. 

[Family Commimications; Adand's Pamphlet; 
Parliamentary History, xxi. 1279.] F. £. 

ACLAND, J9HN DYKE {d, 1778), 
soldier and politician, was the eldest son 
of Sir Thomas Acland, who married Eliza- 
beth, daughter and heir of Thomas Dyke of 
Tetton, in Somerset. In the parliament of 



1774, which returned a large majority of 
representatives zealous for a continuance of 
the struggle with the American colonies, he 
took his seat for the Cornish borough of Cal- 
lington, and soon became prominent among 
the supporters of Lord North's minority for 
his warm advocacy of strong measures of 
war. When the prime minister, to the dis- 
may of his more resolute friends, made a 
conciliatory motion, substantially allowing 
the colonies to tax themselves. Colonel Acland 
stepped forth from the ranks and announced 
that he could not support the government 
in their action (20 Feo. 1776). The minis- 
terial resolutions were carried in committee 
by 274 votes to 88 ; but on the question that 
the house should agree, he again interposed 
and condemned them as ^ nugatory and hu- 
miliating.' In the following August he sug- 
gested to Lord North that several new corps 
should be raised ; but George III, though 
highly approving his ' laudable sentiments as 
a citizen and soldier,' discountenanced any 
such measure, but suggested that Colonel Ac- 
land should raise in the west the 200 men 
required for the augmentation of the 33rd foot, 
which he had joined as ensign, 23 March 
1774, and in wnich, through the interven- 
tion of the king, he purchased a company 
(23 March 1775). At tne opening of the new 
session (26 Oct.) he moved the address of 
thanks for the king's speech, and about the 
same time, as colonel of the first battalion of 
Devonshire militia, he presented to the king 
an address from that IxKly, the language of 
which was severely criticised by Dunning, 
Fox, and Burke (2 Nov.). Fox adverted to 
this address at a later date (22 Nov.), when 
Acland retorted that he was no adventurer 
or place-hunter, but a gentleman of inde- 
pendent fortune, and Fox fiercely replied that 
this was the first time any one had taken liber- 
ties in the house with his fortune, * whether 
real or ideal,' and would have continued in 
his invective had not the members interposed 
and put an end to the altercation. In the 
same month of November he a^n pressed his 
plans upon the king, who told the minister 
that he did not see his way to promoting 
Colonel Acland in Ireland, but that a majority 
might perhaps be got for him by purchase. 
On the whole George III was of opinion 
that Acland, ' though a spirited young man,' 
was of such exorbitant pretensions tnat he 
should be employed in the civil line. In De- 
cember of the same year he became major of 
the 20th foot, and went with General Bur- 
goyne's ill-fated expedition to America, where 
he acquitted himself with great bravery. His 
adventures are sufficiently described in the 
memoir of his wife. Lady Harriet Acland. 



Acland 



62 



Acland 



< )u his return to England the same fierceness 
of disposition was conspicuous. He was en- 
gaged in a duel on Bampton Down, in Devon- 
shire, and although he escaped without a 
wound, the exposure brought on a severe 
cold, from the effects of which he died at 
Pixton Park, near Dulverton, 31 Oct. 1778. 
When a young man he had made the grand 
tour with Mr. Thomas Townshend, after- 
wards Jjord Sydney ; and their portraits, as 
archers, were painted by Sir Joshua Revnolds 
in the summer of 1769 as a record of their 
friendship. Before it could be finished, how- 
ever, the friends quarrelled, and neither of 
them would pay the artist or take away the 
picture. At a subsequent date he was painted 
alone by Sir Joshua, and the picture, which 
is now in the possession of Sir T. Dyke 
Acland, was exhibited at Burlington House 
in 1882. The well-known painting of the 
* Archers * is the property of Lord Carnarvon, 
and was shown at the same place in the pre- 
vious year. 

[Corresp. of George III and Lord North, i. 
262, 300 ; Hansard for 1775 ; Leslie and Taylor's 
lloynolds, i. 348, 357.] W. P. C. 

ACLAND, Sir THOMAS DYKE (1787- 
1871), politician and philanthropist, was the 
ehlest son of Sir Thomas Dyke Acland, who 
married the only daughter of Sir Richard 
Tloare, and was bom in London on 29 March, 
1787. His father died when the boy was in 
his ninth year, and he became the heir to the 
familv estates. He was educated at Christ 
Church, Oxford, where he took the degree of 
B.A. on 23 March 1808, and became M.A. 
16 June 1814. On 15 June 1831, he re- 
ceived the honorary' degree of D.C.L. During 
his undergrraduate days at Oxford he aidea 
in founding Grillon's Club, of which many 
eminent politicians were members. In Octo- 
ber 181 2 ne was returned to parliament in the 
tory interest as meml)er for the county of 
Devon, but lost his seat in 1818, when the 
yeomanry brought forward Lord Ebrington 
as their champion, and remained out of par- 
liament until he was again returned for 
Devon m 1820. ^Vhen the Duke of Wel- 
lington declared himself in favour of catholic 
emancipation, he ^found an energetic sup- 
porter in Sir Thomas Acland. This offended 
his former friends, but drew to his side in 
the election of 1830 the whigs of Devon, 
who split their votes between him and his 
old antagonist. Lord Ebrington. By this 
time Sir Thomas Acland had spent, it was 
believe<l, over 80,000/. in his parliamentary 
contests. His new friends were displeased 
at his vote for General Gascoyne*s motion, 
. which caused the rejection of the first Reform 
Bill, and the loss o^ his seat was the penalty 



which he paid for his conduct. From 1831 to 
1837 he was without a seat in parliament ; 
but from the latt«r year imtil 1857 he repre- 
sented the division of North Devon in the 
conservative interest. He stood by protec- 
tion until 1840, but voted steadily 'with Sir 
Robert Peel through all the divisions which 
were forced on by Lord G^rge Bentinck 
and Mr. Disraeli. On 7 April 1808 he married, 
at Mitcham, Lydia Elizabeth, only daughter 
of Henry Hoare, of Mitcham Grove, nead 
partner in the banking firm of Messrs. Hoare, 
and an active supporter of all church work 
at home and in the colonies. In the house 
of his father-in-law he passed many happy 
days, and there he met many zealous churco- 
men. His interest in religious progress is 
shown by the references in the first volume 
of Bishop Wilberforce's life and by a passage 
in Sir Walter Scott's diary for 1828, where 
Sir Thomas Acland is styled ' the head of 
the religious party in the House of Com- 
mons.' Alexander Knox and Bishop Jebb 
were also numbered among Sir Thomas Ac- 
land's friends, and he is frequently men- 
tioned (under the initials of Sir T. A.) in 
their thirty years' correspondence. Lady 
Acland died in 1856, and m the next year 
her husband withdrew into retirement. His 
name was often on men's lips as the type of 
an independent politician and a thorough 
gentleman, and in 1861 a statue of him by 
Stephens was erected in Northemhayy Exeter, 
as a ' tribute of affectionate respect for pri- 
vate worth and public integrity. His death 
occurred suddenly at Killerton, Broad Clyst, 
22 July 1871. 

[J. B. Sweet's Life of Henry Hoare ; Exeter 
Western Times.] W. P. C. 

ACLAND, Sir WROTH PALMER, 
K.C.B. (1770-1816), lieutenant-general, was 
son of Arthur Palmer Acland, of FaiiAeld, 
and nephew of Sir Thomas Acland, Bart., 
and entered the army in 1787 as ensign in 
the 17th regiment. He became lieutenant 
in 1790, and captain in 1791, and was then 
placed on half pay. On the breaking out of 
the war with France all officers were required 
for active service, and Captain Acland was ap- 
pointed to the 3rd regiment or Buffs in May 
1793. He served in Flanders under the 
Duke of York, and in 1795 was promoted 
major, and purchased the lieutenant-colonelcy 
of the 19th regiment. In 1796 he accom- 
panied his regiment to Ceylon, and in 1799 
became by exchange captain and lieutenant- 
colonel in the 2nd or Coldstream guards, 
with which he served in Egypt. He became 
colonel in 1803, and, after serving at the 
battle of Maida, was appointed brigadier- 
general, and ordered to taice command of a 



Acontius 



63 



Acontius 



rigade fittinff out at Harwich for Portu^l 
a 1808. His Drigade sailed in company with 
ne under Brigadier-Greneral Anstruther in 
lay, and on reaching the Douro found orders 
rom Sir Arthur WeUesley to proceed to Ma- 
eira Bay. Here WeUesley covered the dan- 
nerous disembarkation of Acland*s brigade, 
nd then drew up the two bri^^es with the 
est of his army in a strong position at Vimeiro. 
^.eland's brigade was posted on the left of the 
hurchyard, which formed the key of the 
^Inglish position, and which would have been 
k post of much dangerif Sir Arthur WeUesley 
tad not perceived Junot's plan of turning the 
English lefty and sent the brigades on his 
»wn right to take position on Acland's left. 
Ls it was, Adana by a flank fire helped 
Lnstruther to drive down the main French 
ttaeking column, which was his chief im- 
portant service. lU-health made it necessary 
or him to leave Portugal soon after the 
lattle, and deprived him of the ^lorv of 
erving, like Anstruther, under Sir .tohn 
Aoore. In 1810 he was promoted major- 
;eneral, and commanded a division in the 
txpedition to the Scheldt, where, however, 
ittle glorj- was to be won. In 1814 he was 
iromot«d Ueutenant-general, and on the ex- 
ension of the order of the Bath made one 
)f the first K.C.B.'s. In 1815 he was made 
iolonel of the first battalion of the 60t.h 
egiment, and in 1816 died from the recur- 
ipnce of the fever which had threatened his 
ife in Portugal. 

[For Grenersl Acland*8 f-ieryioes see Philippart's 
ioyal Military Calendar, 1st edition, 1815; and 
or the battle of Vimeiro, Napier's Peninsular 
^ar, book ii. chap, o.] H. M. S. 

ACONTIXJS^ JACOBUS, latmized from 
VooKssio, AcoNCio, or Ck)xcio, Jacopo (1500 ?- 
.506 ?), jurist, philosopher, theologian, and 
ingineer, was bom at Trent in tne Tyrol 
kbout the beginning of the sixteenth century. 
Little is known of him before his coming to 
his country, except what is told in the 'Ep. 
id Wolfium,' from which we learn that he 
le voted many years to the study of the law, 
hat he passed some of his time in courts, 
md that ne applied himself to literature late 
n life. There is no authority for the state- 
nent that he was in orders. His attachment 
o ideas too Uberal for his sjte and country 
nade it expedient for him in 1557 to take up 
ua abode in Bile, at that time the home of 
Amo Gelso, Celio Secundo Curio, and many 
ither Italian protestants. He had been pre- 
teded two months by his Mend Francesco 
iettiy to whom was dedicated, in the most 
JfiBCtionate tenns, his first work 'De Me- 
hodo ' printed at Bftle in the following year 



by Pietro Pema, a protestant refugee from 
Lucca of merit and learning, who also brought 
out the first Latin and French editions of 
the * Stratagemata Satanee.' The treatise 
* De Methodo ' is written with elegance and 
precision. It was the commencement of a 
much larger work, which had long occupied 
the thoughts of the writer. Its object is to 
urg^ the importance of methodising existing 
knowledge. If thirty years were to be de- 
voted by a youth to purposes of study, the 
writer would recommend that the first 
twenty should be applied to investigating 
the principles of method. 

Betti and Acontius afterwards went to 
Zurich, where the latter made the acquaint- 
ance of Simler, Frisius, and Jo. Wolfius. He 
visited Strasburg, and came to England in 
or before 1559. He was well received, and at 
once showed the practical bent of his mind 
in a petition addressed to Elizabeth in De- 
cemlJer of that year, stating that having dis- 
covered many useful contrivances, such as 
new kinds 01 wheel machines, furnaces for 
dyers, brewers, &c., he prayed for a patent 
to secure him against imitators using them 
without his consent. The request was not 
granted, but on 27 Feb. 1560 he was aUowed 
an annuity of 60/., which was the cause of the 
subse<][uent dedication — DiwB JSlizabethre, 
the *mscription canonisante' of Bayle — 
of his * Stratagemata.' Acontius is careful 
to point out in the * Ep. ad Wolfium * that 
his merits as an engineer gained for him the 
pension ; but although he admits that it 
aUowed him leisure for study he refers to it 
in terms of measured gratitude. Letters of 
naturalisation were issued to him on 8 Oct. 
1561. 

Like other foreign nonconformists he 
attached himself to the Dutch church in 
Austinfriars. In 1559 Adrian Hamstedius, 
the minister, was excommunicated by Bishop 
Grindal for favouring certain Dutch ana- 
baptists and refusing to renounce their errors. 
He found a supporter in Acontius, who, 
having been forbiaden the sacrament by the 
bishop, addressed a long ' Epistola Apolo- 
getica ' to the congregation in defe ice of 
himself and Hamstedius. 

The ' Epistola ad Wolfii'm ' was written 
in December 1562, although not published 
until 1565. It is fuU of useful precepts for 
would-be authors, but is chiefly interesting 
from its autobiographical nature. 

Theology andliterature were not his sole 
occupations. Mazzuchelli styles him ' inten- 
dente di fortificazione.' It was represented 
to parliament in 5 Eliz. that Jacobus Acon- 
tyus, servant of the queen, had undertaken 
to recover at his own cost 2,000 acres of land 



Acontius 



64 



Acontius 



inundated by the Thames in the parishes of 
Krith, Liesnes, and Plumstead, and an act 
was passed decreeing that he should have as 
a reward one half of all such land recovered 
by him within four years from 10 March 
1562. He also petitioned the queen on the 
8ubject, and obtained a license on 24 June 
1563 to take up workmen. By 8 Jan. 1566, 
a tract of 600 acres had been won from the 
river. A portion was tigoin lost, and then he 
entered into a partnership with G. B. Casti- 
fflione and some English tradesmen to make 
further efforts. 

He enjoyed the patronage of the Earl of 
lieicester, to whom, in August 1564, he pre- 
sented a remarkable treatise on the use and 
study of history, which still remains in 
manuscript. 

In 1565 he brought out his famous *Strata- 
gemata Satanse,' printed at B&lc in Latin and 
French by his friend Pema. He dist inguishes 
between the fundamental and accessory dog- 
mas of Christianity, and reduces the number 
of the former to very few, among wliich are 
not reckoned those of the Trinity and Real 
Presence. The apostles' creed contains all 
necessary doctrines, and the numerous con- 
fessions of faith of different communions are 
the ruses of the Evil One, strata^/emata 
Safa/ue, to tempt man from the truth. Or- 
thodox divines have objected to the danger- 
ously catholic spirit displayed in this book, 
and the writer has been styled Arian, So- 
cinian, and even Deist. His Arianism can 
scarcely be doubted; his theological career 
in England certainly favours the charge. 
But he deserves all honour for the strong 
protests against capital punishment for heresy 
and for the liberal reasoning in favour of 
toleration which give the book its permanent 
place in ecclesiastical literary history. It 
attracted great attention. Three editions of 
the original text appeared in the sixteenth 
century, and eleven (three being in England) 
in the seventeenth century, besides French, 
English, (German, and Dutch translations. 
' Stratagemata Sathanie ' is placed in the 
appendix to the Tridentine * Index Libb. 
Prohibb.' (1569) among anonymous books. 
Evidently the title alone was suflicieut to 
condemn the book. The Koman Index of 
1877 describes it with fitting bibliographical 
accuracy. The opinions of theologians on 
the work have oeen collected by Crussius 
(Crtmii Animadc. pt. ii. 32) and Ancillon 
( Milange critique., i. 24-9). 

Acontiu8*8 heterodox religious opinions 
were once more to bring him into trouble. 
Tlie last we hear of him is from a letter 
dated 6 June 1566, in answer to a charge of 
Sabellianism. He is believed to have died 



shortly afterwards, leaving his papers under 
the charge of G. B. Castiglione, the queen*» 
master of Italian and groom of the privr 
chamber, who published the 'Timor & 
Dio.' 

The following is a bibliographical list of 
his works: — 1. *J. Acontius de Methodo^ 
h. e. de recta investig^andarum tradendamm- 
que scientiarum ratione,' Basilese, ap. P. 
Femam, 1558. First edition, reprinted it 
Geneva in 1582 ap. Eustathium Vi^n, 
' multo quam antea castigatiua:/ affam at 
Lugd. Bat. 1617, sm. 8vo, and in *(&. f,Yoma 
et aliorum de studiorum ratione opnscalt,^ 
Ultraj. 1651, sm. 8vo. 2. * Satanfe StTatag&> 
mata iibri octo, J. Acontio authore, aocewit 
eruditissima epistola de ratione edendorum 
librorum ad Jonannem Vuolfium 'ngurinum 
eodem authore,' Basileae, ap.P. Pemam,1565, 
4to. The genuine first edition, of extreme 
rarity. Bibliographers are unaware of the 
existence of two editions of this year. The 
one usually quoted is in smaller type, and is 
entitled ' Stratagematum Satanse bbri octo,' 
&c. Basilefle, ap. P. Pemam, 1665, am. 8vo. 
Reprinted BasileaB, 1582, 8vo, and * curante 
Jac. Grassero,' ib. 1610, 8vo, ib. ap. Wald- 
kirchium,1616,ib. 1618, ib. 1620, Amst. 1624, 
Oxon. G. Webb, 1631, sm. 8vo, Lond. 1648, 
Oxon. 1650, Amst. Jo. Kavenstein, 1652, 
sm. 8vo, ib. 1674, sm. 8vo, Neomagi, A. ab. 
Hoogenhuyse, 16i61, sm. 8vo. Hie Prendi 
translation is * Les Riizes de Satan receuil- 
lies et comprinses en huit liures,' Basle, P. 
Perne, 1565, 4to ; printed with the same type 
as the first Latin 4to, wanting the 'Ep. ad 
Wolfium' and the index. The first issue of 
the English translation is called 'Satan'a 
Stratagems, or the Devil's Cabinet-Council 
discovered . . . together with an epistle 
written by Mr. John Goodwin ana Mr. 
Durie's letter concerning the same,' Lon- 
don, J. Macock, sold by J. Hancock, 1648, 
4to. The date of Thomason's copy (British 
Museum) has been altered by him to 1647 ; 
he purchased it on 14 Feb. The translator 
announces that if the work found favour 
he would finish it, but only the first four 
books were published. There are three de- 
dications — one to the parliament, one to Fair- 
fax and Cromwell, and one to John Warner, 
lord mayor. The stock seems to have been 
sold to W. Ley, who issued it with a new 
title, * Darkness Discovered, or the Devil's 
Secret Stratagems laid open,' &c., London, 
J. M. 1651, 4to, with a doubt fujly authentic 
etching of * James Acontius, a Reverend Di- 
uine.' Thomason dated his copy July 7. A 
German translation came out at BAle in 1647, 
sm. 8vo, and a Dutch version, Amst. 1662, 
12mo. 3. * Eruditissima epistola de ratione 



Acontius 6s Acton 



dendorum librorum ad Johannem Vaolfium 
'igurinuin.' Dated Londiaiy 12 kal. Dec. 
562, first Dublished in the Latin ' Strata- 
emata ' 15o5, and to be found in the sub- 



Books &c. of Dutch Charch at QuildhaU ; Barn's 
Hist, of French &c. Refugees ; Dugdale's Hist, 
of Imbanking ; Cal. of State Papers (Dom. 1647- 
80, 1601-3, and App.] H. R. T. 



equent editions, but in none of the transla- ACTON, CHARLES JANUARIUS 
ions ; printed separately Chemnitz, Mauke, EDWARD (1803-1847), cardinal, was the 
791, 8vo. 4. ' Una essortazione al Timor j second son of Sir John Francis Acton, the 
li Die, con alcune rime italiane,nuovamente sixth baronet, of Aldenham Hall, near Bridg- 
neese in luce fda G. B.Castiglione],' Londra, ; north, Shropshire, by his marriage (for which 
ippreaso G^. Wolfio, s.a., 8yo. Dedicated to a papal dispensation had been obtained) with 
Sxsabeth. Chaufepi6 is the only person , Mary Anne, daughter of liis brother, Joseph 
who seems to have seen this very rare little ! Edward Acton, a lieutenant-general in the 
>iece. The printer learnt his art in Italy. ■ ser\'ice of the Two Sicilies, and governor of 
Se worked between 1579 and 1600, and Gaeta. The family had long been connected 
Mought out many Italian books. 5. ' Epi- with Naples, and the father of the future car- 
^ola apologetica pro Hadr. Haemstadio et dinal became commander-in-chief of the land 
uo aeipea' Written in 1562 or 1563, says j and sea forces of that kingdom, and a knight 
ierdes, who reprinted it (Scrintujn Anti- of St. Januarius, and he was also prime 
^Mornfm, vii. part i. 123) from the archives I minister of Naples for several years. Charles 
>f the Dutch church, now in the Guildhall . Januarius Edward was bom in the city of 
library ; contains much information respect- ' Naples 6 March 1803, and on the death of 
ing Hamstedius, the Dutch church, ana the his father in 1811 he, with his elder brother 
irriter. 6. ' Epistola . . . Londini 8 idus i Sir Richard, was sent to England for educa- 
Junii, 1566.' Keproduced from the archives I tion. First he was placed at a school kept 
df the Dutch church by Crussius {Cremi by the abb6 Qu^^n^ at Parsons Green, near 
Animadv, ii. 131). It is not known to whom London, from wiiicli he was removed to a 
the letter was addressed. 7. * Ars munien- protestant school at Isleworth. Next he was 
donun oppidorum.' Acontius refers to this ^ sent to Westminster School, which he was 
in his ' £p. ad Wolfium ' as having been j soon obliged to quit on religious grounds, 
first written in Italian and afterwards trans- He subsequently resided with a protestant 
lated into Latin while in England. Mazzu- . clergyman in Kent, the Rev. Mr. Jones, as a 
chelli says, * Ital. et Lat. Genevae, 1585,' but ; private pupil. Aft^r this, in 1819, he pro- 
no such book can be traced. 8. A manu- ceeded to the university of Cambridge, and 
script on the use and study of history, became, under Dr. Neville, an inmate of Mag- 
written in Italian, and presented by Acontius dalen College, where he finished his secular 
to the Earl of Leicester in August 1564, is education in 1823. This was indeed, as Car- 
preserved at the Record Office. It is not dinal Wiseman observes, a strange prepara- 
spoken of by any of the authorities, although tion for the Roman purple. However, young 
made use of in the following interesting ' Acton, having a strong vocation to the eccle- 
little octavo volume, dedicated to the Earl siastical state, entered the college of the Ac- 
of Leicester : ' The true order and methode cademia Ecclesiastics in Rome, which he left 
of wryting and reading hysterics, accord- with the rank of prelate. Leo XII made him 
ing to the precepts of Francesco Patricio one of his chamberlains, and in 1828 appointed 
and Accontio Trioentino, by Thomas Blun- him secretary to Monsignor (afterwards Car- 
deyil,' Lond. W. Seres, 1574. The compiler dinal) Lambruschini, the nuncio at Paris. 
states that he * gathered his work partly out Shortly afterwards he was nominated vice- 
of a little written treatyse, which myne olde legate or governor of Bologna. He was re- 
friende of good memone, Accontio, did not moved, however, from this arduous situation 
many yeares since present to your Honour before the revolution which, soon after the 
in the Italian tongue.* 9. * Liber de Dia- death of Pius VIII, broke out there and in 
lectica.* An immiished work with this j the neighbouring provinces. On the acces- 
title is referred to in the * Epistola ad Wol- ' sion of Gregory X V I lie was made secretary 
fiuxn,' with the remark that the world was to the congregation entitled the Disciplina 
soon to enter upon a much more enlightened Begolare, the duties of which are to prevent 
era. and correct all violations or relaxations of 

rOflidM. Sneeimen Italia Reform • eiusd • discipline in religious communities. Next 
i!rSSL EflLlcno Tl«f . MiuKnchftlH. Seritl ^^ ^as nominated auditor of the apostolic 



Oiig. Ecdas. m Belgio Ref. ; Mazzachelli, Scrit- 
tori dTtalia; TirabcMchi, Storia della Lett. It. vii. 
375,474; BayleJMetioniiaire Critique; Chaofepi^, 
NouTcan Diet.; Gnidiazd, Hist, da Socinianisme ; 
HaDam^B lit. Hist. ; Stiype's Grindal; Cat. of 



chamber, or first judge of the Roman civil 
courts, and on 24 Jan. 1842 he was pro- 
claimed cardinal-priest of tlie title of Santa 
Maria della Pace. He was also protector of 



▼OL. I. 



« 



Acton 



66 



Acton 



the English college at Rome. Cardinal Acton 
was the interpreter and only witness of Ghre- 
gory XVI in the important interview which 
took place in 1845 between that pontiff and 
the emperor Nicholas I of Russia. Imme- ' 
diately after the conference the cardinal wrote 
down, at the pope's request, a minute account 
of it; but he never allowed it to be seen. 
Every affair of consequence relating to Eng- 
land and its dependencies was referred by the 
pope to Cardinal Acton, and to his zeal, pre- 
viously to his elevation to the sacred college, 
was mainly due the division of this country 
(in 1840) into eight catholic districts or vi- 
cariates apostolic. Previously there had been 
only four vicariates created by Innocent XI 
in 1688 ; and it may be mentioned that the 
increase in their number was the prelude to 
the restoration of the Roman catholic hier- 
archy by Pius IX in 1850. Cardinal Acton's 
health, never very strong, began to decline, 
and he sought refuge first at Palermo and 
then at Na^es, where he died in the Jesuits' 
convent 23 June 1847. 

[Catholic Directory (1843), 149 (with por- 
trait) ; Card. Wiseman's Recollectioiis of the last | 
four Popes (1858), 476-480 ; Ferdinando Ama- 
rante, Sonnetti dcdicati a Miledi Marianna Ac- 
ton, madre del Cardinale ; British Catholicity, 
its Position and Wants, addressed to Cardinal 
Acton (Edinb. 1844); Gent. Mag. N. S. xxviii. 
670; Foster's Peerage (1881), 9; Lodge's Ge- 
nealogy of the Peerage and Baronetage (1859), 
592.] T. C. 

ACTON, EDWARD (d. 1707), captain in 
the navy, presumably a grandson of Sir Ed- 
ward Acton, the first baronet, attained that 
rank in October 1694, and continued in active 
service through the war that was then 
raging. In 1702 he went out to the West 
Indies in command of the Bristol, and in 
the following spring was sent home with the 
three captains, Kirkby, Wade, and Constable, 
the two former of whom had been sentenced 
to death for their misconduct towards Vice- 
Admiral Benbow. Orders in anticipation 
had been sent down to the several ports that 
the sentence was to be carried into execution 
without delay; and the two culprits were 
accordingly shot on board the Bristol on 
18 April 1703, two days after her arrival 
in Plymouth Sound. In 1704 Acton com- 
manded the Kingston of sixty guns, and took 
part in the capture of Gibraltar and the battle 
of Malaga [see Rooke, Sib Gboboe]. On 
this last occasion, having expended the whole 
of his ammunition, he drew out of the line, 
for doing which he was afterwards tried but 
fully acquitted, and the following year com- 
manded the Grafton in the Mediterranean 
under Sir Cloudesley ShoveL Towards the 



end of 1706 he returned to Eiu^landy and his 
ship having been refitted he joined the squa- 
dron imder Captain Clements in the Hamp- 
ton Court, which sailed from the Downs on 
1 May 1707 with the Lisbon and West India 
trade in convoy. On the next day off Dunge- 
ness they fell in with a numencally supe- 
rior French squadron of frigates ana privar 
teers, commanded by the Coimt Forbin. Of 
the three English ships the Grafton and 
Hampton Court were boarded by several of 
the enemy, and carried hj force of numbers, 
Captain Acton being killed, and Captain 
Clements mortally woimded, shot through a 
port by Forbin himself. The Koyal Oak 
made ^^ood her escape in an almost sinking 
condition ; but several of the merchant ships 
were captured. 

[Official letters, &c., in the Public Becord Of- 
fice; M^moires du Comte de Forbin (17291 ii. 
231.] J. K. L 

ACTON. ELIZA (1799-1859), authoress, 
daughter or John Acton, brewer, of HastingB^ 
afterwards of Ipswich, Suffolk, was bom at 
Battle, Sussex, 17 April, 1799. She was of 
delicate health in her youth, and was taken 
abroad. Whilst in Paris, she became en- 
^iged to be married to an officer in the 
French army; but this marriage did not take 
place, and she returned to England, where 
she published, by subscription, a volume of 
poems, at Ipswich, in 182o. A second edition, 
again of 500 copies and by subscription, was 
published in 1827. In 1835 Miss Acton con- 
tributed a poem, * The Two Portraits,' anony- 
mously, to the ' Sudbury Pocket Book.' In 
1836, in the same annual, she published 
* Original Poetry by Miss Acton, author of 
the "Two Portraits."' In 1837 she was 
living at Bordyke House, Tunbridge; and 
on the arrival oi Queen Adelaide in that town 
shortly aft«r the death of William IV, Miss 
Acton presented the queen with some verses 
commemorating her devoted attendance on 
her husband during his last illness. In 1838 
she published the ' Chronicles of Castel-Fram- 
lingnam ' in * Fulcher's Sudbury JoumaL' In 
1 842 she published another poem, ' The Voice 
of the North,' a welcome to Queen Victoria 
on her first Scotch visit. In 1845, after 
further fugitive poems. Miss Acton had conn 
pleted the popular work, * Modem Cookery,' 
with which she is chiefly associated ; a second 
and a third edition of it were called for the 
same year ; a fourth and fifth in 1846 ; with 
numerous editions in successive years. In 
May 1857 she brought out her last work, 
< The English Bread-Book,' treating of the 
various ways of making bread, ana of the 
constituent parts of various bread-stufiB. 



Acton 67 Acton 

At this date Eliza Acton was living at these preferments. In 1348 he is found hold- 

Snowdon House, John Street, Hampstead, ing the prebend of Welton Ryval (Le Neye, 

and there, after much illness, she died in Fastiy ii. 233). In his books he is described 

February 1869. as canon of Lincoln. He died in 1350. 

[Clarke's History of Ipswich, p. 445 ; Gent. His name is variously spelt Achedune, De 

Bfag. 1859 ; Sufiblk Garland ; private corre- Athona, Athone, Aton, and Katon. 
spondenoe.] J. H. Acton's chief vsrork was a commentary on 

A f^rrw TTWKTDv n ion i q «q\ »»;4^<>*;«« ^^ ecclesiastical ' constitutions ' of Otho and 

ACTON, BffiNRY (1797-1843), unitw^^^ Ottobone, papal legates in England in the 

divine, was bom at Lewes, Sussex, 10 March ^x^-^^^A \»J«*„wJ^ Ti.^n^ < «««-*u„*;««« > 

1797 where his father wm nftrish rlerk at "iirteenth century. Tliese constitutions 

qI T T^r^S was pansh clerK at ^ ^^ ^ ^^ English canon 

St. John's. He was apprenticed in his six- j ^ Acton's^filll and leamef notes were 

teenthyeartoMr. J Baxter,aLewespnn^^^^^ beld by the lawyers of his own time to be 

and l«came a member of a literary society in i^^^iJ^^j^ j^ 4eir interpretation. Very 

""^^^T^^ t^ '>^P^" ^''^ "^"f" f n^any manuscript copies oi^ Acton's com- 

mired. The two unitarian congregations of ^^„r„^ „^ • ^.Jl «^ii^^ i:v.-««:^ «♦ r^•^ 3 

o *!. J Tk'-L I.T X* • u-«« mentary are in the college libraries at Oxlord. 

Southover and Ditchling agreed to give him ^^^ . i ., ^ n^^\.^A^ TT«:,r«— u^ i :u— ^ 

m, a year jointly (TgSit of 10/. being ^t '^ ^, ^^^ Cambridge University Libniry 

jj J /dr^ A TT "'•i. • '^ 17 jv r ' ^ and another among the Lansdowne MSS. at 

added fiom tie Unitanan Fund) for serving ^^^ ^^.^.^^ Museum. Acton's work w«« 
tl^ir chapels on dteniate Sundays with a .^^ ^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ j^ ^^^ ^ ^,^^^ 

f^owHipprentice, ^ Ulmm Browne ; and his \^ ^^^^^ .^ ^y;,,;^ Lyndewood-^s ' l4ov&,- 

indentuies with Mr. Baxter, the printer, ^j^j^ , gj, jj g^j^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^ 

being set aside W arrapgement, he placed Acton's commenta^' u/his ' Concilia.' Many 

5ril^ ^ « • w ' •'" ] \ "°1f ft of his notes are translated in Johnson's < Cof- 

Morell, the Brighton minister, then head of j j^ j. j^^i^i^tical Laws,' 1720, and are 

^^^^'t^ academy at Hove. Acton ^^^^^ j^ ' Otho's Ecclesiastical Laws,' 

Studied Qreek, Latin, and mathematics at ' 

Hove, and walked to one or other of his 

entitled 'Quicstiones et not; 

constitutiones * 



rtudied Greek, Latin, and mathematics at translated by J. W. mite in 1844. In the 
Hove, and wriked to one or other of his y^ ^^ ^^ g„^,, C^jj j^ ^ manuscript 
smaU coMpregations on Sundays, returning, ^^^itl^l 'Qua>stiones et notabilia Johannes 



'f-S^Vi''*' T* ^^i. k"" '>«^»« ""'"Ift?' Athonis (Actoni)8upra dictas c 
at Walthamstow in Febrwiry 1821, and in ^ ^^^^ OttoWi], whi. 
1823 co-pastor with the Rev. James Man- V. ._■» _, . -i >. 



he marned, became second master ot a pr^ C^^j^^j library at Cambridge. Pits gives 

pnetary daseiod schwil at Mount Radford ^^^ „^^ ^^ ^ \^^ ^^^^^ legafbooks ascSbed 

in the neighbourhood, and made himself ^^ ^ ^^^ ^„tj,i -^ »„^ ascertainable 

Srominent as an untiring worker till his ^ them 
eath, from apoplexy, on 16 Aug. 1843, in 
his forty-sixth year. He published many ser- [Tanner's Bibliotheca BriUnnico-Hibemica ; 
mons, pamphlets, lectures, and statements, Coxes Ut. MSS. ; prefaces to Lyndwood's Pro- 
of whidi a full list te given in James's ' Me- '«°«'"le] *>• ^ ^■ 
moir' (p. xcvii) They were delivered by ^croN, Sib JOHN FR.4.NCIS ED- 
him at vanoua mtervali. from 1833, some in ^ARD, sixth baronet (1736-1811), prime 
wntrovCTiiy withPhilteott»,Bi8^^^ ^^^^^^ ^ j^ 1^ ^^^^ Ferdiniii<f IV, 
Acton also e«t»blisheJ and edited" < The Gos- ^^ descended from an old family who from 
pd Advo«te,' of whjch four volumes a^ the beginning of the fourteenth century 



were 



neand. He wm an effective preacher, and ^^ „f Aldenham Hall, Shroiehire. 

l^ oveijome the disadvantages of his de- gj^ ^^^^ ^^e son of a goldsmith iiLon- 

^^rfucation. He left a widow and six j^„^ while accompanying the father of Ed- 

~~^°* -M- . JO /^ • • X. ward Gibbon the historian as physician, 

[James, Memoir and Sermons ; Christian Re- grayed a few days at Besan^on, where, find- 

former^ 604, 666. 766 ; Mmntee of the Uni- • ^ favourable opening for his profession, 

tanan Fund, 8 Aug. 1818.] J. H. he settled permanently and married a French 

ACTON, JOHN (A 1850), writer on the lady ; and there Sir John Acton was bom 

canon law, is stated oy Leland to have been in 1736, the date of his baptism being 

educated at Oxford, and to have taken there 3 June (Blakbwat, The Sheriffs of Shrop- 

the degree of LL.D. In 1329 he was ' pro- shire). Under the auspices of his unde he 

Tided 'hy the pope to a oanoniy and a prebend enteied the naval ser\*ice of Tuscany. While 

in Lincoln Ckthednl, bat some years appear captain of a frigate in the joint expedition of 

to hftve elapsed before he actnidly obtained Spain and Tuscany against Algiers in 1776, 

n 1 



Acton 



68 



Acton 



he performed some daring exploits in cover- 
ing the retreat ; and he haa risen to high 
command, when his merits became known 
to Prince Caramanico, a favourite of Queen 
Caroline of Naples. On the advice of Cara- 
manico she induced her brother, the Grand 
Duke Leopold of Tuscany, in 1779 to permit 
Acton to undertake the reorganisation of 
the Neapolitan navy. Acton thus became 
<issociatea with Neapolitan affairs at a very 
critical period of the country's history. The 
direction both of the internal administration 
and the foreign policy of the kingdom was 
soon entirely in his hands. It was abso- 
lutely necessary that he should seek to carry 
out the ambitious purposes of the queen, but 
apart from the question as to the wisdom of 
these purposes, his general administration of 
affairs was exceptionally able. By a succes- 
sion of rapid steps he reached in a few years 
the highest pinnacle of power. To rid him- 
self of the dangerous rivalry of Oaramanico, 
he sent him ambassador to London, then to 
Paris, and finally got him promoted viceroy 
of Sicily. The sudden death of Oaramanico 
in 1794 aroused suspicions both of foul play 
at the hands of the emissaries of Acton, and 
of suicide from mortification; but the suppo- 
sition that he died from other than natural 
causes was never substantiated. 

The aim of the Queen of Naples was to play 
a prominent part, in the politics of Europe — 
an aim which rendered the reorganisation of 
the navy and army a prime necessity. The 
skill of Acton as minister of marine led to 
his appointment as minister of war ; and 
he was also promoted generalistimo of the 
sea and land lorces. The fleet, which, when 
he entered the service of Naples, had prac- 
tically no existence, comprised in 1798 as 
many as 120 sail with 1,200 cannon, while 
the lund forces were increased from 16,000 
to 60,000. To devise methods for meeting 
the increased expenses of the kingdom, he 
was chosen minister of finance, and ulti- 
mately his paramount influence was formally 
recognised by appointing him prime minister. 
It was undoubtedly in a great measure due 
to him that the ascendency of Spain in Nea- 
politan affairs was overthrown, and an alli- 
ance was concluded in 1793 with Austria 
and England against France. In no degree, 
however, were the interests of Naples pro- 
moted by the vainglorious policy thus in- 
augurated, and it speedily resulted in disas- 
ter. Acton had set himself to extend the 
commerce of the country by increasing the 
facilities of internal communication and re- 
storing some of the principal ports, but the in- 
creased taxation required to support the army 
and navy more than counterbalanced these 



efforts, and caused acute distress and general 
discontent. The introduction of foreign 
officers into the services aroused also the re- 
sentment of the upper claases, which was 
further augmented when the fleet was placed 
under the orders of Nelson. After the suc- 
cess of the French arms in the north of 
Italv, Acton with the king and queen and 
the ]l5nglish ambassador escaped in December 
1798 on board the Encrlish fleet, and went to 
Palermo, whereupon tne citizens and nobles 
with the aid of the French established the 
Parthenojpeian republic. When, five months 
afterwards, the king was restored with the 
help of a Calabrian army under Cardinal 
Ruffo, Acton established a reign of terror, 
and," at the instance of an irresponsible 
authority called the Junta of State, many 
prominent citizens were thrown into prison 
or sent to the block. In 1804 Acton, on the 
demand of France, was removed from power, 
but in accordance with his advice Feromand, 
while agreeing to an alliance with Napo- 
leon, permitted Russian and English troops 
to land at Naples. Shortly afterwards the 
minister was recalled, but when the French 
entered Naples in 1806, he with the royal 
family took refuge in Sicily. He died at 
Palermo, 12 Aug. 1811. A Latin epitaph on 
his tomb commemorates his services. 

In 1791 Acton succeeded to the family 
estates and title on the death of his cousin 
in the third de^ee. Sir Richard Acton of Al- 
denham Hall. In 1800 he married, by papal 
dispensation, Mary Anne Acton, his niece, 
daughter of his brother Joseph who was also 
engaged in the Neapolitan service, and is often 
confounded with him. Joseph was bom in 
October 1737, the date frequently given for 
the birth of Sir John Acton, and died in 
1808. 

[Blftkeway's Sheriffe of Shropshire (18JU 
pp. 175-6 ; CoUetta's Storia del Beame di Napoli 
dal 1734 sino al 1825 (2 vols. 1834, several sub- 
8fH)uont editions and English translation, 1858); 
Memoirs of General Pepe (1846) ; Freiherr von 
Helfert's Konigin Karolina (1878) ; and the ▼»- 
rious Lives of Lord Nelson, especially his Bes- 
patchcs and Letters edited by Sir Harris Nicolas, 
7 vols. (1844-46).] T. F. H. 

ACTON, RALPH (14th cent.), an Eng- 
lish theologian and philosopher, is assigned 
by Leland and his followers to the firstWf 
of the fourteenth century. Of the details of his 
life nothing definite is known, for the sketch 
given by Bale and Pits is so vague as to sug- 
gest that it is chiefly made up of inferences. 
According to these writers Ralph received his 
early education in country schools, whence in 
due time he proceeded to Oxford. After taking 
his mast«r*s degree in philosophy and theology 



■ 

Acworth 



69 



Adair 



at this uniyeni^ he was appointed head of 
a famous church (' rector cujusdam insignis 
ecclesiie '), and henceforward devoted himself 
in the retirement of his parish to the study 
of the Scriptures and the care of his flock. 

His writings consist of ' HomilisB in quatuor 
Evangelia,' * Commentarii in Epistolas Pau- 
linas, 'Illustrationes in Petrum Langobar- 
dum,* and other works of a similar kind. Two 
manuscripts of this author are still preserved 
in the library of Lincoln College, Oxford — 
the one written in an early fifteenth-century 
hand ; the other the g^ft of Robert Flem- 
minff, a near kinsman of Richard Flemming, 
the founder of this college (1427). We thus 
get a date later than which our author can- 
not have flourished ; and Leland, Bale, and 
Pits conjecturally assiga him to the reign of 
Edward EI (1320). Other manuscripts of ! 
Acton*s works are said by Tanner to be m the 
Bodleian library and that of Peterhouse, 
Cambridge. 

[LeUnd's Comment. 367; Bale, 393 ; Pits, 412; 
Tanner's Bibl. Brit.; Coxe'sCat. MSS. (Lincoln, 
62, 63).] T. A. A. 

ACWORTH, GEORGE, LL.D. (d. 
1578?), civilian and divine, was educated at 
Peterhouse, Cambridge, where he took the 
dc^pree of B.A. in 1552-^. He was admitted 
a fellow of his college 26 Jan. 1553-4, and 
gradoated M.A. in 1555, subscribing the 
Roman catholic articles imposed in that 
year upon all graduates. During the reign 
of Queen Mary he resided abroad, studying 
the civil law in France and Italy. On the 
acceasion of Queen Elizabeth he returned to 
England, and was elected public orator of 
the university of Cambridge in 1559. At 
the close of that year he obtained a prebend 
in the church of Southwell, which he resigned 
in 1566. He was admitted an advocate in 
1662, and created LL.D. of Cambridge in the 
following year. Dr. Acworth was cluncellor 
and vicar-genend to Home, bishop of Win- 
chester. About 1570 he became a member 
of the household of Archbishop Parker. He 
was employed in a visitation of the church 
and diocese of Canterbury in 1573, and we 
find him holding the rectory of Wroughton, 
in Wiltshire, on 4 May 1575, when he had 
a faculty to hold another benefice at the 
Mme time. Though a man of consider- 
able talent, he was idle, addicted to drink- 
ing, and otherwise of dissolute habits. On 
this account he lost all his preferments in 
England, but on 18 March 1576-7 was con- 
itituted master of the fiiculties and judge of 
the pren^gative court in Ireland. The last 
notice we have found of him is dated 20 Dec. 
1678^ when letters-patent were issued to him 



and Robert Ghurvev to exercise ecclesiastical 
jurisdiction in Ireland. 

Dr. Acworth is the author of: 1. *Em- 
stola de Ratione Studiorum suorum,' 15o0. 
MS. in the library of Corpus Chnsti C^oUege, 
Cambridge. 2. 'Oratio encomiastica in resti- 
tutione Buceri et Fagii,' printed in Bucer's 
'Scripta Anglicana.' 3. 'De visibili Ro- 
manarchia, contra Nich. SanderiMonarchiam 
trpo\tyofi€voVf Libri duo,' Lond., 1573, 4to. 
4. Preface to the second book of Bucer's 
Works. Dr. Acworth also assisted Arch- 
bishop Parker in the compilation of his cele- 
brated work, 'De Antiquitate Britannicss 
Ecdesiffi.' 

[Tanner's Bibl. Bnt. ; Coote's Civilians, 46 ; 
Index to Strype's Works ; MS. Cotton. Titus B, 
xiii. 256 ; Cooper's Athense Cantab, i. 381, 566 ; 
Nasmith's Cat. C.C.C. MSS. 169.] T. C. 

ADAIR, JAMES (d. 1798), serjeant-at- 
law and recorder of London, was educated 
at Peterhouse, Cambridge, where he gradu- 
ated B.A. in 1764, and M.A. in 1767. He 
was subsequently called to the bar at Lin- 
coln's Inn. In the quarrel between Wilkes 
and Home Tooke in 1770, he intervened on 
the side of Wilkes, who publicly replied in 
Adair's behalf to the attacks made upon him 
by Tooke, and the notoriety that he thereby 
acquired was of material service to him in 
his professional career. In 1771 he took a 
prominent part, as one of the counsel for 
the defence, in certain legal proceedings that 
followed the great trial of the printers and 
publishers of Junius's letters. Eight years 
later, his support of the popular cause se- 
cured for him the office of recorder of London, 
and he continued in that position until 1789. 
His resignation of the post in that year was 
due partly to his many professional enga^ 
ments in the court of Common Pleas, which 
left him little time to attend to the aifairs of 
the city, and partly to his political A^ews. 
The members of the London corporation had 
transferred their political allegiance between 
1779 and 1789 from the whigs to the tories 
under the younger Pitt, and with the latter 
Adair had at the time nothing in common. 
From 1780 until his death, he sat in parliament 
as the whig representative first of Cocker- 
mouth and afterwards of Higham Ferrars. 
Ilis temporary connection withWilkes gained 
him for a time the reputation of being a 
Wilkite, but in truth he was a rather timid 
whig. He was for some years a member of 
the famous whig club ; but on the outbreak 
of the French revolution he parted company 
with Fox, with whom he had previously been 
connected. As kin^s Serjeant he was asso- 
ciated, in 1794, with the attorney-general 



Adair 



70 



Adair 



Sir John Scott, afterwards Lord Eldon, in 
the prosecution of Thomas Hardy and his 
old enemy Home Tooke ; in 1796 he, with 
the Hon. Thomas Erskine, afterwards lord 
chancellor, was assigned hy the court as 
counsel for the defence of William Stone, 
charged with high treason as a champion of 
the French revolution, and the prisoner's ac- 
quittal was doubtless in some measure due 
to Adair's energetic conduct of his case {State 
TriaUf xxv. 1820 et seq.). Adair's horror of 
the French revolution did not, however, di- 
minish with his years; at an advanced age he 
joined a force of London volunteers, raised 
m 1798, when England was menaced with 
invasion. The fati^nff discipline to which 
he thus subjected himself shortened his life. 
He died suddenly while returning from shoot- 
ing exercise on 21 July 1798, and was buried 
in the Bunhill Fields burying-ground, near 
his parents' graves. At the time of his death 
he was king% prime serjeant-at-law, M.P. for 
Higham Ferrars, and cnief justice of Chester. 
Adair is the reputed author of: 1. ^ Thoughts 
on the Dismission of Officers, civil and mili- 
tary, for their conduct in Parliament,' 1764, 
8vo. 2. * Observations on the Power of 
Alienation in the Crown before the first of 
Queen Anne, supported by precedents, and 
the opinions of many learned judges, together 
with some remarks on the conduct of Admi- 
nistration respecting the case of the Duke 
of Portland,' 1786, 8vo. 3. * Discussions of 
the Law of Libels,' 1786, 8vo. Almon in 
his 'Anecdotes' fullv summarises the first 
two of these pamphlets, and applauds ' the 
learned Serjeant's regard for the constitu- 
tion,' his ability as a lawyer, and his honesty 



as a man. 



[Gent. Mag. Ixviii. part ii. 720-1 ; Chalmers's 
Biog. Diet. ; Almon's Anecdotes ( 1 797), i. 82-92 ; 
Junius printed by Woodfall (1872), iii. 380 et 
seq.] J. M. R. 

ADAIR, JAMES MAKITTRICK(1728- 
1802), originally named James Makittriok, 
was a native of Inverness, and took the degree 
of M.D. at Edinburgh in 1766. He practised 
before and after that date at Antigua, and 
one of his works, with the title of * Un- 
answerable Arguments a^nst the Abolition 
of the Slave Trade,' was m vindication of the 
manners of its residents. His medical writings 
enjoyed a considerable reputation on the Con- 
tinent ; his degree thesis on the yellow fever 
of the West Indies was reprinted in Baldin- 
ger's collection of medical treatises (Got- 
tinoen, 1776), and his ' Natural History of 
Body and Mind ' was also translated abroad. 
After returning from Anti^a he followed his 
profession at Andover, Guildford, and Bath, 



and wrote, for the benefit of those resorting 
to the latter place, a volume of medical cau- 
tions for invalids. Wlierever he went he 
provoked animosity. At one time he was in 
Winchester gaol for sending a challenge to a 
duel ; at another period he was ensiled in 
controversy with Dr. Freeman and Philip 
Thicknesse. Thicknesse published an an^prr 
letter to him in 1787, ana Adair replied with 
an abusive dedication to a volume of essays 
on fashionable diseases. When Thicknesse 
wrote his ' Memoirs and Anecdotes,' his op- 

Sonent replied with a list of ' Facts and Aneo- 
otes' which he pretended that Thicknesse had 
omitted. He assumed the name of Adair 
about 1783; it was probably his mother's 
maiden name, but Thicknesse asserted that 
it was stolen from a physician at Spa. His 
death occurred at Harrogate, 24 April 1802. 

[Adair's works ; Gent. Mag. 1802, bccii. part i. 
476. 682.] W. P. C. 

ADAm, JOHN (d, 1722), an eminent 
Scottish surveyor and map maker, lived 
during the close of the seventeenth cen- 
tury and the first quarter of the eighteenth 
century. The earliest known mention of his 
name is by Sir Robert Sibbald, his patron^ 
from whom Adair received his first public 
employment. In * An Account of the Scot- 
tish Atlas,' a kind of prospectuspublished in 
Edinburgh, 1683, we read : * The Lords of 
His Majesties Privy Council in Scotland gave 
commission to John Adair, mathematician 
and skilfull mechanick, to survey the shires. 
And the said John Adair, by taking the dis- 
tances of the seuerall angles from the adjacent 
hills, had designed most exact maps, and hath 
lately made an hydrographical map of the 
river of Forth geometrically surueyed; where- 
in, after a new and exact way, are set down 
all the isles, blind-rocks, shelves and sandfly 
with an exact draught of the coasts, with all 
its bayes, headlands, ports, havens, towns, 
and other things remarkable, the de]^ths of 
the water through the whole Frith, with the 
courses from each point [of the compass], 
the prospect and view 01 the remarltable 
islands, headlands, and other considerable 
landmarks. And he is next to survey the 
shire of Perth, and to make two maps there- 
of, one of the south side, and another of the 
north. He will likewise be ready to design 
the maps of the other shires, that were not 
done before, providing he may have sufficient 
allowance thereof. And that those who are 
concerned maybe the better perswaded there- 
to, there is joyned with this account the map 
of Clackmannan Shire taken ofi* the copper 
plate done for it, where may be seen not only 
the towns, hills, rivers, and lakes, bat also 



Adair 



71 



Adair 



the different face of the grounds, which are Adair, late Geogprapher, having given upon 
arable, and which mooriah ; and by conve- | oath an Inventory of all Maps and Papers 
nientmarka you may know the houses of the 1 belonging to her late Husband, in pursuance 
nobility and ffentiy, the churches, mills, ! of the Lord Justices Sign Manual, dated 21st 
woods, and panes' (p. 4). '. June past, Ord^ that the same be lodged in 

For the better enabling Adair to carry on the Rem^" Office, and the Precept for payment 
the design an act of tunnage was passed by ; of her allowance of £40 p^ an. be delivered 

Sarliament 14 June, 1686, < In &vour of i to her/ 
ohn Adair, jroographer, for surveying the ' Some of Adair's surveys are preserved in 
kingdom of Scotland, and navigating the | the Advocates' Librar}*, Edinburgh ; others, 
coasts and isles thereof' (Ist Pan. Ja. VII, ; MS. maps, probably copies, are preserved in 
cap. 21). At this period it would appear | the King's Library, British Museum. Ao- 
that his connection with Sir R. Sibbala nad cording to Gough, other sketches remained 
ceased. While engaged on this work he in the hands of his daughter, Mrs. Doiurlas. 
was elected a fellow of the Royal Society, Oough also mentions that * Mr. Bryan 
30 Nov. 1688. In a report of the committee shewea the Society of Antiquaries, in 1724, 
of privy council, Aug. 1694, * The Commit- two drawings of the whole coast of Scotland, 



tee appointed to examine the progress made 
by John Adair in the maps of Scotland doe 



upon the Frith of Forth as high as Stirling, 
and of the Cluyd to Glasgow, and of the Sol- 



find that there are elleuen maps made by ' way Frith to Carlisle,' by the late John Adair 
him relating to the land, and nyne relate- ' {British Topography ^ vol. ii. p. 577). 
iiu^ to the sea.' The money raised in favour | One of the charts found in his * Description 
or Adair by the act of 1686 being found in- 1 of the Sea Coasts and Islands of Scotland ' is 
sa£Eicient to cover his expenses, a new act of of peculiar interest ; it bears the following 
tannage was passed 16 July 1695. In 1703 ; title : * A true and exact HydroCTaphical De- 
was published his ' Description of the Sea j scription of the Sea Coast and Isles of Scot- 
Coasts and Islands of Scotland, with Larse land Made in a \^oyage round the same by 
and Exact Maps for the use of Seamen. By , the great and mighty prince James the 5th. 
John Adair, Geographer for that Kingdom. Pubushed at Paris by Nicolay D'Aulplii- 
Edinburgh, fol.' Of this work the first part ' nois, & Cheif Cosmographer to the French 
only was printed; it is now rare. The Kiug, anno 1583; and at Edinburgh by 
Mcond part was never published. The com- '■ John Adair, Fellow of the Royal Society, 
mittee on public accounts, in their report anno 1688. James Moxon sculp. (Adair 
laid before parliament 21 July, 1704, state brought ' Moxon ane engraver ' over from 
'that four of our number did visit Mr. Holland in the previous year, 1687.) This 
Adair^s work, who told us it was far ad- ' chart is engraved on a half folio sheet, tlie 
vanced and deserved encouragement ' {Acta | same size as the original, which is extremely 
ParL vol. xi. App. p. 49). Another act of , rare, entitled * Vray ot exacte description Hy- 
tunnaffe was then passed in his favour, 8 Aug. drographique des cotes maritimes u'Escosse, 
1706, but the second part never appeared, & ues lies Orchades, Hebrides, avec partie 



and his papers are not Known to have been 
preserved. 
Adair probably died in London towards 



d'Angleterre et d'lrlande, servant h la navi- 
gation. Par N. de Nicolay D'Aulphinois 
Sieur d'Arfeville et de Belar, premier Cos- 



the end of 1722, tor we find that in 1723 his mographe du Roy, 1583.' This again occurs 



widow obtained from government some re- 
muneration for her husband's labours and 
losses, which last must have been consider- 
able, as Adair, as early as July 1694, stated 
in a memorial to the lords of the privy 
council that these losses were * three times 
more than ever was gotten from the collectors 
upon the accompt <S Tunnage.' Among the 
records of the court of Exchequer is an ' In- 
ventory of the Maps and Papers delivered by 
Jean Adair, Relict of Mr. John Adair, Geo- 
grapher, F.RS., to the Right Hon^*« the 
Banms of exchequer in persuance of a War- 
rent from the Loxds Justices, dated 2 Ist June, 
1733; ' as is also a minute of the Barons of 
Exchec^ner, Martis 19" Nov. 1723, to the 
foUowing efiect : ' Mrs. Adair, Relict of Jn" 



in a book equally rare, but known as * La 
Navigation du Roy d'Ecosse laques cinqui- 
esme du Nom . . . par Nicholay d'Arf\'eiile.' 
Paris, 1583, 4to. A copy of this book with 
the original chart is preserved in the Grenville 
Librar}', British Museum. 

The remaining documents of Adair that 
call for notice in the Inventory are as 
follows : 

' Principal Manuscripts not printed : — 

' A Journal of the Voyage made to the North 
and West Islands of Scotland by John Adair, 
Geographer, in the year 1698, consisting of 
fifteen full sheets, and seems to be the original 
by his own hand.' 

A list of nine maps relative to the said 
journal : — 1, Channel between Hoy and Po- 



Adair 



72 



Adair 



mona; 2, West Coast of Ross; S, Island 
and Port of Cana ; 4, Scalpa, with the Coast 
of Harris ; 5, East Coast of Uist ; 6 and 7, 
Views of the foresaid Islands ; 8, South Coast 
of Sky ; 9, South Islands of Orkney. 

[Sir R. Sibbald*8 Account of Scottish Atlas, 
1683, fol. ; Rich. Gough*8 British Topography, 
1780, Tol. ii., 4to ; G. Chalmers's Caledonia, toI. 
ii. 1810, 4to; Watt's Bibliotheca Britannica 
(Authors), vol. i. 1824, 4to ; Papers relating to 
John Adair, 1686-1723, printed in Bannat^e 
Miscellany, vol. ii. 1836, 4to; Biographical 
Dictionary, Soc. D.U.K. 1842, 8vo.] C. H. C. 

ADAIR, PATRICK (1625?-1694),pre8- 
byterian minister, was of the family of 
Adair of Galloway, ori^aUy Irish (Fit«- 
geralds of Adare). lie is usually treated as 
son of Rev. William Adair of Ayr (who ad- 
ministered the solenm league and covenant in 
Ulster 1644), but was prooably the third son 
of Rev. John Adair of Genoch, Galloway. He 
was eyewitness, * being a boy,' of the scene 
in Edinburgh High Church, 23 July 1637, 
when stools were flung at the dean and 
bishop on the introduction of the service-book. 
This places his birth about 1625. He entered 
divinity classes of Glasgow College in De- 
cember 1644, and was ordained at Caimcastle, 
CO. Antrim, 7 May 1646, bjr the * army presby- 
tery' constituted in Carrickfergus 10 June 
1642 by the chaplains of the Scottish regi- 
ments m Ulster. In 1648 Adair and his par 
tron, James Shaw of BallygaUy, were ap- 
pointed on a committee to treat with General 
>f onk and Sir Charles Coote, tjie parliamen- 
tary generals in Ulster, for the establishment 
of presbyterianism in those parts. But, on 
the beheading of Charles I, tne presbyterian 
ministers of Antrim and Down (Milton's 
* blockish presbyters of Clanneboye ') broke 
with the parliament and held a meeting in 
Belfast (February 1649\ at which they pro- 
tested against the king s death as an act of 
horror without precedent in history * divine 
or human,' and agreed to pray for Charles II, 
who, for his part, promised to establish pres- 
byterianism m Ulster, llie parliamentary 
generals replaced the .presbyterian by inde- 
pendent and baptist ministers, and Adair had 
to hide among tne rocks near Caimcastle. In 
March 1652 he took part in a public discus- 
sion An church government between presby- 
i'lihu and independent ministers at Antrim 
Castle. He was the mouthpiece of the minis- 
ters who declined (October and November 
1652) to take the engagement to be true to 
the commonwealth against any king, and was 
one of two ministers appointed to wait on 
General Fleetwood and the council in Dublin 
(Janoary 1653) to seek relief therefrom. 
Being told that papists might plead conscience 



aa well as they, Adair drew a famoua distinc- 
tion between the consciences of the parties, 
' for papist consciences could digest to kill 
protestant kings.' No relief was obtained, 
and commissioners were sent from Dublin in 
April to search the houses of such ministers 
as had not sought safety in flight. Adair's 
papers were seized, but restored to him through 
the daring act of a servant-maid at Lame. 
The commissioners devised a plan for trans- 
planting the Ulster presbytenans to Tijmd' 
rary^ but the scheme was abortive ; and in 
April and May 1654 we find Adair in Dublin 
pleading for the restoration of tithes to tiie 
presbyterian ministers, and obtaining instead 
a maintenance by annual salary mie first 
donum to Irish presbyterians). They got 
100/. a year apiece till the Restoration, but 
preserved their independence, not observing 
the commonwealth fasts and thanksgivings. 
Adair was one t)f eight ministers summoi^ 
to the general convention at Dublin, Febru- 
ary I60O, at a time when there were hopes of 
a presbyterian establishment, soon dispelled 
by the restoration of Charles II. Jeremy 
Taylor, consecrated bishop of Down and Con- 
nor 27 Jan. 1661, summoned the presbyterian 
ministers to his visitation, and on their not 
attending declared their churches vacant. 
Thus Adair was ejected from Caimcastle 
parish church. He went to Dublin to seek 
relief for his brethren from the Duke of Or- 
mond, lord lieutenant, but could obtain only 
permission for them to ' serve God in their 
own families.' In 1653 he was apprehended 
and sent to Dublin on a charge 01 complicity 
in Blood's plot, but dischaiged after three 
months with a temporary indulgence on con- 
dition of living peaceably. About 1668 a 
meeting-house was built for him at Caim- 
castle. Adair was one of the negotiators in 
1672 for the first regium donum granted to 
presbyterians by Chdrles H. On 13 Oct. 
1674 the Antrim meeting removed Adair to 
Belfast, in succession to Rev. William Keyes 
(an Englishman), not without opposition from 
the Donegal family, who favoured the Eng- 
lish rather than the Scottish type of presm^- 
terianism. After the defeat of the Scottish 
covenanters at Bothwell Brig (June 1679) 
fresh severities were inflicted on the Ulster 
presbyterians; their meeting-houses were 
closed and their presbytery meetings held 
secretly by night. James IPs declaration 
(1687) gave them renewed liberty, which was 
confirmed by the accession of William UI, 
though there was no Irish toleration act till 
17 19. Adair headed the deputation from the 
general committee of Ulster presbyterians^ 
who presented a congratulatory address to 
William IH in London 1689, and obtained 



Adair 



73 



Adalbert 



from the king a letter (9 Nov. 1689) recom- 
mendiiu; their case to Duke Schomberg. Wil- 
liam, when in Ulater in 1690, amK)int^ Adair 
and hia son William two of the trustees 
for distributing his rectum donum. * There 
has been no minister, at any period in the 
history of Irish presbyterians, engaged in such 
a continued series of important transactions 
as Patrick Adair' (Abmstrong). Late in 
life he drew up * A True Narrative of the Rise 
and ProffresB of the Presbyterian Government 
in the North of Ireland/ extending from 1623 
to 1670, which it is to be regretted that he 
did not finish. For the religious history of 
the period it is invaluable. Adair died in 
1694, probably at its dose, as his will was 
proved 6 July 1695. He married first his 
cousin Jean (died 1675}, second daughter of 
Sir Robert Adair of Ballymena; second, a 
widow, Elizabeth Anderson (nSe Martin). 
He left four sons, W^illiam (ordained at Bally- 
eaaton 1681, removed to Antrim 1690, and 
died 1698), Archibald, Alexander, and Par 
trick (minister at Carrickfergus, died June 
1717), and a daughter Helen. 

[Adair^B True Narrative, ed. Eillen, 1866 
(et, correspondence on errors of this edition in 
Northern Whig, October and November 1867) ; 
Beid's Hiat. of Presb. Ch. in Ireland, 2nd ed. 
1867 ; Witherow's Hist, and Lit Mem. of Presb. 
in Ireland, 4th ser. 1879 ; C. Porter's Cong. Mem. 
Caimcastle, in Christ. Unitarian, May and June 
1865, and Ulster Biog. Sketches, 1883; Arm- 
strong's Appendix to Ordination Service, James 
ICartineau, 1829, p. 91 ; Disciple (Belf.),.Febru- 
aiy 1888; Funeral Register (Presbyterian) at 
Belfast.] A G. 

ADAIR, Sib ROBERT (1763-1856), the 
last survivor of Charles James Fox's friends, 
was the son of Robert Adair, sergeant-surgeon 
to George UI, and Lady Caroline Keppel. He 
was bom on 24 May 1768, and was sent to 
Westminster school, and thence t o t he univer- 
sity of Gtittingen, where Canning, who styled 
him ' bawba-dara-adul-phoolah and many 
other names, satirised him as fallii^ in love 
with ' sweet Matilda Pottingen.* Before he 
was twenty he was ranked among Fox*s in- j 
timate friends, and, had the whig minister 
gained the seals of the foreign office in 1788, 
Adair wduld have been his under-secretary. 
When the French revolution broke out, he 
visited Berlin, Vienna, and St. Petersburg, 
to study its effects on foreign states, and to 
qualify himself for diplomatic office. Some 
of his political opponents believed that he had 
been despatchea by Fox to Russia to thwart 
the policy of Mr. Pitt, and the accusation 
was reproduced in 1821 in the Bishop of Win- 
chester's ' Memoir of Pitt/ which brought 
about an angry conespondence in print be- 



tween the bishop and Adair. lie sat in par- 
liament for the whig boroughs of Appleby 
and Camelford. During Fox's tenure of of- 
fice in 1806 he was despatched on a mission 
to Vienna to warn Austria of the dangers to 
which she was exposed from the power of 
FVance, and on his return from Vienna was 
sent by his old antagonist Canning to Con- 
stantinople to open up a negotiation for peace 
with the Porte. Memoirs of these missions 
were published by Sir Robert Adair in 1844- 
1845. From 1831 to 1835 he was enga^d 
on a special mission in the Low Countries, 
where nis exertions prevented a general war 
between the Flemish and the Dutch troops. 
For his services in the East he was created a 
K.C.B. in 1809, and at the time of his death 
he was the senior knight of the order. His 
successful mission in 1831 was rewarded by his 
appointment as member of the privy council, 
and the grant of the highest pension which 
could be awarded to him. Among his other 
writings are a reprint in 1802 and 1853 of 
Fox's * Letter to tlie Electors of Westminster 
in 1793, with an application of its principle to 
subsequent events, and a sketch of the cha- 
racter of the late Duke of Devonshire (1811). 
His wife was Mile. Ang61ique Gabrielle, 
daughter of the Marquis d Hazincourt. His 
stores of recollection of diplomatic and po- 
litical life made him a frequent guest at the 
chief whig houses of London, and his name 
is frequently mentioned in the diary of Tom 
Moore. Full of years and honours he died at 
Chesterfield Street, Mayfair, on 3 Oct. 1855. 

[Gent. Mag. 1856, N.S., xliv. p. 635; Lord Al- 
bemarle's Fifty Years of Life, i. 226 ; Lord John 
Russell's Memorials and Correspondence of C. J. 
Fox, vol. ii. appendix.] W. P. C. 

ADALBERT Levita. or Diaconus (>f. 
700), an earlv English saint, was the con- 
temporary' of "^St. Willibrord (658-738) and 
his fellow-worker in the conversion of the 
Frisians. He is said to have been the first 
archdeacon of Utrecht, and to have been des- 
patched by "Willibrord to preach the gospel 
in Kennemaria (702), where he built a cnurch 
at Emnont, near Alkmaar, in North Holland. 
The date of his death is given by Le Cointe 
as 25 June 705. This Adalbert was patron 
saint of Egmont, where his faithful wo^^hip- 
per, Theodoric I, count of Holland (c. wJi^, 
erected a shrine for his relics. At the bidding 
of Egbert, archbishop of Treves and grandson 
of Theodoric I, who oelieved himself to have 
been cured of a fever by this saint's interces- 
sion, certain * monachi Mediolacenses ' (Met- 
loch, near Saarbriick, in the diocese of Treves) 
drew up in the tenth century a life of Adal- 
bert. Tins life, together with another account 



Adalbert 



74 



Adalbert 



written by a monk at Egmont in tLajtwelfth 
century, is our chief authority on this sub- 
ject. According to the first of these writers 
a certain Englisn priest named Egbert, beinff 
divinely forbidden to undertake a personal 
mission amonff the heathen of North Gter- j 
many, despatcned Willibrord, Adalbert, and j 
ten others in his stead. ' 

According to all accounts Adalbert was of 
noble birth, and it is not improbable that he 
was the grandson of Oswala, kin^ of Deira, 
who died in 642. For MarcelEnus (who 
claims to have himself been one of the above- 
mentioned twelve), in his life of St. Swid- 
bert, calls Adalbert's father * Edelbaldus filius 
Oswaldi r^s,* and we know from Bede that 
Oswald did leave a son Edilwald, Adilwald, 
or Oidilwald, who, for a short time, reigned 
over Deira till he played the traitor to Oswy, 
and lost his kingdom with the overthrow of 
Penda (656). Adalbert, if a son of this 
Edilwald, might well enough have been a 
contemporary of St. Willibrord (658-738). 
Following the same authority we find Adal- 
bert's name occurringamonf a list of preachers 
despatched into various districts of West 
Germany by order of the council of Utrecht 
(702), with Egmont specially mentioned as 
the scene of his labours. But the whole 
Question is involved in doubt, as this * Vita 
Swiberti,* if not a complete forgery, is ex- 
tremely incorrect, and nas been subject to 
large interpolations. The BoUandist fathers 
refuse to give it any credit ; but Le Cointe 
(iv. 204) allows that it may contain a sub- 
stratum of truth, and follows it, though with 
some hesitation. 

The abbey of Egmont, dedicated to the 
memory of this saint, was long a most im- 
portant institution till it was utterly destroyed 
by the Spaniards at the siege of Alkmaar in 
1573 (Motley, Hise of Dutch HepuJblic, pt. iii. 
ch. 9). However, even so late as 1709, when 
the Bollandist fathers drew up their account 
of St. Adalbert, the villagers of Egmont and 
the neighbourhood still kept 25 June sacred 
to the memory of their patron saint. Other 
authorities (Mabillon, iii. 586) assign a some- 
what different date (c. 740) to the subject of 
this article, and this has led to his life ap- 
pea 
Chi 

tions certain 'lSplstol(e 
extant, and the * Epistola ad Herimannum ' 
[see AsAXBERT OF Spalding] has also been, 
without authority, assigned to this author. 

[Acta Sanct. 25 June, pp. 94-110; Mabillon's 
Acta Bened. iii. 586 ; Le Cointe's Annales Eocles. 
Franc iv. 216-7, 392-5, 444 ; MabiU. Annales 
Benedic. i. and ii. p. 116 ; John de Beka's Chro- 
nicon in Vita Wiltibrordi ; Johannis de Leydis 




Annales £^;mandani, c. i-x. ; Marcellini Vita 
Swiberti, c. vi. xiv.] T. A. A. 

ADALBERT of SPALDiwe {Jl. 1160 P) 
is said by Bale and Pits to have been a Glu- 
niac monk belong^g to the abbey of Spald- 
ing in Lincolnshire, and to have flounflhed 
about the year 1160. Our early biographers 
ffive him great praise for his knowledge of the 
Scriptures and the fathers. They also speajk 
in high terms of his elegance of style and his 
modesty in always following the opinions of 
these authorities rather than his own. His 
favourite author, they add, was GhnMpory the 
Great, from whose treatise upon Job (Jobralui) 
he compiled his own work entitled ' De Statu 
Homims,' or < Speculum Status Hominis.' 
An * Epistola ad Herimannum Presbytenun' 
and certain * Homiliss ' are also mentioned 
among his writings. 

But, whatever may be the case with the 
'Homilise,' it is very questionable whether 
the author of the * Speculum ' and the ' Em- 
stola ad Herimannum ' has any right to toe 
surname ' Spaldingensis,' or, indeed, to be 
considered as an Englishman at all. For 
Boston Buriensis (cir, 1410), the first English 
writer who mentions the * Speculum/ calls 
it the work of Adalbert the Deacon, and de- 
scribes it as a book divided into 155 chap- 
ters, and composed of extracts fipom Gregorys 
* Moralia.' More than one hundred years 
I later Leland {Collect, iii. 82) found at Spald- 
I ing a work entitled * Adelberti liber Diaconi 
I ad Herimannum Presbyterum.* Now there 
are many copies extant of a lettef addressed 
by Adalbert the Deacon to a priest Herman, 
ail acting as a kind of preface to a book of 
extracts from the *Moralia' of St. Gregory. 
Moreover, this letter speaks of the compila- 
tion that follows as a * Speculum,* the very 
title given by Boston and Pit5 to the similu* 
collection of their Adalbert, to whom the lat- 
ter assigns likewise an * Epistola ad Herman- 
num.* When we consider the extent to which 
Bale and Pits have availed themselves of 
the labours of Boston and Leland, we can 
hardly avoid the inference that aU four are 
alluding to one and the same work — a series 
of extracts from Gregorv's * Moralia ' prefaced 
bv a letter from Adalbert the Deacon to 
iterman the priest — but that the two first, 
learning from Leland that a copy of this book 
existed at Spalding, have imagined it to be 
the production of an Adalbertus Snaldingen- 
sis of their own creation. Again, tne greater 
number of the manuscripts of this work (cfl 
Mabtene, Anecdot. i. 84, and Tannek) are to 
be found abroad — a fact which tells strongly 
against its author's being an Englishman, 
though we need hardly go so far as Tanner, 
who suggests that he was a monk of St. 



Adam 75 Adam 

Martm*8 at Tours, and identifies Adalbert's I for himself at Paris by his skill as a disputant 
x>ire8pondent with Herman, the abbot of that and a teacher. Neither of our two i&iglish 
xtabliahment till 1186. The editor in Migne authorities knows anything respecting the 
allBtliia Adalbert 'ScolasticusMettensis/ and j age in which this writer lived, n we accept 
boldly assigns the year 879 as the date of his ! Quetif's theory, and then identify Adamus 
■Jc^tt. Scholasticus and Adamus Anglicus, as Pit« 

Thouffh the author of the 'Speculum' can has done, the writer will have to be con- 
lurdly nave been a native of Spalding, yet sidered a Franciscan, and to have flourished 
there may have been an * Adalbertus Spald- in the fourteenth century. Perhaps, on the 



ingenais who was the author of the ' Homi- 
\m ' mentioned by Bale and Fits ; and the 
testimony of these two writers may then be 
iccepted as regards his character and the age 



whole, it is safer to acknowledge that we 
know nothing more of him than what Ban- 
dellus tells us, \'iz. that a certain ' Magister 
Adamus Anglicus, doctor Parisiensis,' wrote 



in wkich he lived. a Commentary on the Sentences of Peter 

[Bale, Seriptorom Catabgus, i. 206 ; Pits, Rel Lombard. 
BkL de Beb. AneL 225; Tanner, Bibl Brit. ! [Bale, Scriptorum CaUlofi:u8, ii. 81 ; Pits, Bel. 
PnefiE^. zxvii, and under Adalbert; Leland*8 Hist.de Beb. Angl819; Wadding's Scriptores 
C>Qllect. iii. 32 ; Martene's Anecdota, i. 83, 84 ; . Ordinis Minoris, 1 ; Quetif 's Scriptores Ordinis 
SCabillon's Analecta, i. 132 ; Mignes Curs. Pa- Prsedicatomm, i. 739 ; Bandollns de Puritate 
rolog. cxzxTi. 1809, ccxriii. 402.] T. A. A. Conceptionis, 36.] T. A. A. 

ADAM AiTGLicns is identified by Tanner ! ADAM Anolioena (d, 1181 P), called 
with Adam Angligena [see Adam Angli- bv Tanner Adam Anglicus, and by him 
iEirAl. Quetif, on the other hand, contends ! identified with the author of the * Commen- 
that He is none other than Adam Goddam, and tariiin Magistrum Sententiarum' [see Adam 
in support of his position quotes the opening i Anglicus], was a theologian of some emi- 
MTordaof the so-called Adam Anglicus, 'Com- \ nence, and flourished in the twelfth century. 
mentarii in Magistri Sententias,' which are : His life has to be made out from the scat- 
ilmost exactly the same as the commencement tered pieces of information to be found among 
ifa similar treatise written by Adam Ooddam \ the writings of his contemporaries. Du 
18 given by Wadding [see Goddam, Adam]. ' Boulay tells us that he was sumamed Adam 
rhe very name of Adam Anglicus is un- de Parvo-Ponte, from the little bridge over 
known to Leland ; but in Bale this author the Seine near which he gave his lectures. 
ippean as * Adamus Scholasticus,' and is by I The same authority also states that he was 
liim assigned to the Dominican order on the i a pupil of Abelani, and identifies him with 
inthori^ of Peter Vincentinus (Bandellus), Adam, bishop of St. Asaph (to whom we 
irho describes him as maintaining that the shall refer below), and also with John of 
Virgin Mary was bom in original sin. But Salisbury's friend, ' ille Anglus Peripateticus 
Bale's argument is verv fallacious; for many Adam.' The grounds for this identification 
of the writers cited by Bandellus, though ' will appear in the course of this account. 
ftdhering to the doctrines which in later ' The year 1147 saw the commencement of one 
times were so strongly upheld by the Do- of the most famous ecclesiastical trials of the 



minicans, were most certainly not themselves 
members of that brotherhood. Indeed, it 
is part of Bandellus's argument to show 



twelfth century. Gilbert de la Por6e, the 
aged bishop of Poitiers, was accused by two 
of his archdeacons — Calo and Arnold Never- 



irhat was the orthodox and early creed of lau^h — of heresy. St. Bernard embraced 
the church on the above question ; and so | their cause, and the pope promised to con- 
Ear is his list of names from being one of Do- | sider the case when he reacned Gaul. After 
tninicans exclusively, that we have the name ■ a first hearing at Auxerre the question was 
of Maurice, bishop of Paris, quoted on the ' formally opened at Paris. Gilbert was sum- 



opposite page, and, only a few leaves before, 
that of Alcuin — both of whom flourished 
before the Dominican order was instituted ; 



moned to defend himself, while two ecclesi- 
astics were appointed to collect the evidence 
against him — Adam de Parvo-Ponte, * a 
while just above the name of Adam Anglicus ' subtle man,' who had recently been made 



comes that of the fierce enemj of both the great 
mendicantorders, RichardFitzralph, the arch- 
bishop of Armagh. Pits's account, which is 



canon of Paris, and Hugo de Campo-Florido, 
the king's chancellor. These two seem to 
have given great offence to unprejudiced 



plainly based upon that of Bale, adds to the list ' hearers by the system they adopted; for 
yf his works certain ' Quasstiones OrdinarisB ; ' without bringing for^'ard passages from the 
but in this assertion too he is merely foUow- writings of Bishop Gilbert, they proposed to 
ng Bale, who gives ns the additional infor- j swear that they had heard heretical opinions 
nation that Adam Anglicus won great fame | fall from his lips ; and people were astonished 



-^ 



Adam 



76 



Adam 



that men of position, so well exercised in 
the true methods of ararument (^viros magnos 
«t in ratione disserendi exercitatos ') should 
oflfer an oath for a proof. This Adam de Parvo- 
Ponte, then, was a canon of Paris in 1147, 
and considered an adept in the science of 
dialectics. In 1175, when Godfrey, hishop of 
St. Asaph, was driven from his see by the 
enmit;^ of the Welsh, we read in the English 
Chronicles of that age that his successor was 
one Master Adam, canon of Paris. This 
Adam is mentioned, a year and a half later, 
as being present at the great council, when 
Henry II decided between the claims of the 
kin^ of Castile and Navarre ; and, indeed, 
he signs the award as one of the witnesses. 
In the same year he attested the same king*s 
charter to Canterbury. Meanwhile, events 
had been occurring on the Continent which 
attracted Adam^s attention. His old master, 
Peter Lombard, had now been many years 
dead, and attempts were being made to con- 
vict his famous * Sentences ' of heterodoxy. 
At the Lateran council of 1179 the question 
was raised again, and Walter of St. Victor has 
left us a gpraphic account of the whole scene. 
WTien the subject was brought forward to- 
wards the close of the council, certain car- 
dinals and bishops objected to the introduc- 
tion of a fresh matter, saying that they had 
come to Rome to treat of gpreater affairs 
than a mere (question of dogma ; and on the 
pope's answering that first and chiefest they 
must treat of the christian faith and of 
heretics, they left the consistory in a body. 
As they were quitting the chamber one of 
them. Bishop Adam of Wales, flung a parting 
taunt at Alexander m — *Lord Pope, in 
time past I was provost (preepositus) of 
Peter's church and schools, and I will defend 
the " Sentences of the Master." ' From this, 
then, it appears that Bishop Adam had occu- 

J)ied a distinguished position as a teacher 
luring the time that Peter Lombard ruled in 
the schools of Paris (c. 1150). This would 
make his date agree remarkably well with 
that of Adam de Parvo-Ponte, who was, as 
we have just seen, likewise canon of Paris 
about the same time. Of the subsequent 
events of Adam*s career we hear nothing 
definite ; but the English Chronicles tell us 
that he died at Oseney, near Oxford, in 1181. 
In an interesting passage {Metalofficus, 
iii. 3) John of Salisbury makes mention of 
* ille Anglus Peripateiicus Adam,* with whom 
he had once lived in almost daily inter- 
change of ideas and books, though the two 
had never stood to each other in the relar 
tionship of pupil and master. According to 
John's testimony Adam was fond of laugh- 
ing at the word-splitters and phrase-mongers 



of his age, but, at the same time, would 
nuvely confess that he dared not practise 
what ne preached, for he would soon be left 
with few pupils or none at all were he once 
to handle dialectics with the simplicity thst 
was their due. A fi^racefiil tribute is then 
paid to the honour of a man from whom John 
had learnt not only to recognise the true 
but to discard the false. In another passage 
Adam is coupled with Abelard as one of the 
typical teachers of the a^ ; and later (iv. 3) 
is condemned for displaying in his ' Ars Dis- 
serendi ' an over-subtlety and verbiage whidi 
friends might perhaps attribute to Keennesi 
of intellect, but enemies would certainly 
ascribe to folly and vanity. Here Adam ap- 
pears as an expounder of Aristotle, who, 
though darkening his authority by * intricacy 
of words,' is yet worthy of much praise. 

Du Boulay considers this Adam to be iden- 
tical with Adam de Parvo-Ponte; and in 
this opinion he may well be correct. For 
the dates of the two writers coincide, the 
characteristic of ovei^ubtlety seems common 
to both, and lastly there may be an allusion 
to the * Ars Disserendi ' in the passage quoted 
above, where Otho of Frisingen opemy ex- 
presses his surprise that a man so well prac- 
tised in the true method of argument should 
adopt so strange a course at the trial of 
Gilbert de la Por6e. 

[Otho of Frisingen ap. Pertz, xz. 379 ; Baro- 
niu8*8 Annales, xix. 499 ; Labbe*8 Concilia, xxii. 
217; Du Boulay *8 Historia Univers. Parisien. ii 
149, 715; Godwin De Praesulibns Anglise, 634; 
Ralph de Diceto's Imagines (Rolls Ser.^, i. 402; 
Gervase of Canterbury's Opera Histonca (Bolls 
Ser.), i. 255, 262, and Actus Pontificum, ii. 399 ; 
Roger of Hoveden (Rolls Ser.), 78, 121, 131; 
Annales Waverl. sub anno 1181, and Annates 
Oseneii sub anno 1181, in Luard's Annal. Monas- 
tici (Rolls Ser.) ; John of Salisbury's Metalogicus, 
iii. prol. iii. 3, ix. 3 ; cf. Pits, Rel. Hist, de Beb. 
Angl., \mder Adamus Pontraius, 820 ; and Tanner, 
under Adamus Anglicus. For Walter of St. 
Victor's account of the Lateran council of 1179 
see Du Boulay, ii. 431.] T. A A. 

ADAM OF Bakking (^. 1217 ?), a Bene- 
dictine monk belonging to the abbey of Sher- 
borne in Dorset, is nraised by Leland for his 
great erudition, and his promise as a writer 
both in prose and verse. According to Bale 
and Pits, Adam was educated at Oxford, and 
was a model of all the christian virtues. 
As old age came on he devoted himself more 
and more to the study of the Scriptures and 
the work of public preaching. For the latter 
task he seems to have been peculiarly fitted, 
and his biographers make special mention 01 
his eloquence and zeal in lashing the vices 
of the people. Bale and Pits say that he 



Adam 77 Adam 

lourislied about the year 1217, and this date elected bishop of Caithness, and consecrated 

oaj be &irly correct, as one of his works on 11 May 12 14 by William Mai voisin, bishop 

iras dedicated to John, canon of Salisbury, of St. Andrews. In 1218 he went to Rome 

who IB doubtless to be identified with the to receive the pallium, with the bishops ot 

kr-famed John of Salisbury who died in Glasgow and Moray. The interest of his 

L180. Of Adam's writings, which embraced life belongs to its tragic close, which is cele- 

rreatisee on the Old Testament as well as brated in Saga as weU as recorded in church 

^he New, there were existing at Sherborne chronicle. It seems that the people of his 

in Lelaiid*8 time : ' De Nature divini et hu- diocese had reason to complain of the ezces- 

mani ' (verse), ' De Serie Sex ^tatum ' sive exaction of tithes. The old rule was 

[verse), ' Super Quatuor Evangelia ' (prose^. * every score of cows a spanin [12 lbs. Scots] 

/discording to Tanner a manuscript of this of butter ; * Adam extorted the spanin firom 

luthor is to be found in the library of Glare fifteen cows, from twelve, from ten. The 

[yollege, Cambridge. The names of other Northmen remonstrated and appealed in 

irorks of his are enumerated by Pits. vain ; at length an angry mob sought the 

[Leland's Comment. 232, Collect, iii. 160; bishop at the episcopal manor of Halkirk in 

B^e, 269 ; Pits, BeL Hist, de Beb. AngL 289 ; Thorsdale. He sent out Rafn the lawman 

i)adin De Script. Eodes. iii. 9.] T. A. A. to parley with them, but they began to use 




Bide adrSirh? JsrriS ri ^^ ^i---^- n. « r^ *» ^- --.^t' 

DBxe auuB buav uc ^^^ n*^i«,w***cv* IA7 xxa^ fearful vengeance on the murderers; the 

Aristotle for the explanation of both natural q„^^ „^„„ .r^ u««^„ ««j /u^* ^ Z.\. of 

J . 1 jr. rnt x'n '^ • "^^ff*^ says the hands and feet were hewn off 

ind supernatural anairs. There still exists m I?!!l*«. «.«« aj„», ^«« u • j 4. ai • 4. 

n 11* /^ii T 'v /TLToo 1* \ eighty men. Adam was buned at Skinnet, 

mw super Aristotelis Metaphysicam.' Coxe, rnu • j itr -i j t> _j i.T>- i. 

in his Cat. MSS., assigns tfie handwriting of [Chronica deMailros and Records^of Bishopric 

this n^uscript 'to r^^^^^ ?ia^S^^ntX;a^^^^^ 

ind,asthenameof Alghazil,whodiedmllll, ^tlandf, 1861, i. 306. 318.1 A. G. 

sccurs m it, we get two extreme dat«8 within -* 

irfaich Adam must have flourished. But, AJ>AM the Carthusian (A 1340) is de- 

rince Aristotle, till the thirteenth century, scribed as a Carthusian monk and a doctor 

was known to Western Europe only as a of theology. A list of his works is given in 

logician (Bam MuLLiNeEB, History of Cam- Tanner's * Bibliotheca,' p. 7 ; but he is con- 

fmdge Urdvenity), it is perhaps best to assign fused with Adam of Evnsham, the author 

this commentator to the century in which of the * Life of St. Hugn of Lincoln ; ' and 

his sole existing manuscript was written, another of the works mentioned, the * Scala 

Wadding reckons him as a rVanciscan, and CsDli,' is attributed to Guigo Carthusianus in 

profi««_to h*ve seen four other treatises the printed editions. 



imoii Aristotle writt-en by this Adam, be- 
sides the one above mentioned, which he had 



[0pp. S. Augustini, vi. App. 1462; S. Ber- 
nardi, ii. 647.] H. R. L. 



never come across. As regards the surname | j^^^ Dombbham (d, after 1291), 
Buckfield or Buccenfeldus, there still remains I ^„i ^^ m«=*^«iv„,„ ™« « *• i 

aamaUviDagebearingthenameofBucking. ?J^^,^^ ^1*«*,?^^^!T, w^ ? ?^|^^^ «^ 

fi^t foffrom MSrpeth in NorthumbTr- i f^Tfii^J^i^^r H^^^JlI^.^VTfn^ 

land ; and as surnames had not yet lost aU , *rv¥^^''^'^.,^5?^. ,^? T^'i^^* ^^^V 
. .?. . oiuujMMco ixc^uiu^ J of his house, entitled*Histonade Rebus jrest IS 

J^ISr.i;^ Wh^.^^ Gla8tonien^ibus,'whichexi8tsinamanufcript 

have been the birthplace of our author. . j^ ^^^ ^^ J ^^ ^ Cambrid^, 

PL^d Comment. 269 ; Bale, u. 45 ; Pits, poggibly the author's own copy. It has b^n 
m ; Waddm^s^Scnpt. Old. Mm. p. l^Bibboth. , ^]^^^^ ^y Thomas Heame ii two volumes. 

The first volume, however, does not contain 
any part of the work of Adam. The history 
forms a continuation of the treatise of Wil- 



1. 9.] T. A. A. 

ADAM OF CAiTHirBSB (d. 1222), Scot- 
tish bishop, was probably a native of the 
eoath of Scotland. The tradition is that he 
was a foundling exposed at the church door. 
He first appears in 1207, when we find that 
he, already prior of the Cistercians at Mel- 
lose, became abbot. On 5 Aug. 1213 he was 



liam of Malmesbury, * De Antiquitate Glas- 
tonisd.' It begins at 1126, when Henry of 
Blois, afterwards bishop of Winchester, be- 
came abbot, and ends with the death of Abbot 
John of Taunton in 1291. A large part of 



Adam 71 

tbe hiBtorj is taken up with papal bulla, | 
charters, and other documeats. I<rom gome I 
eKpreBaionH used bj Adam about the cha- | 
racter of Abbot Michael (1236-1252) it may 
be supposed that he entered the convent in 
his time. He was, therefore, a member of 
the flratemitv during part of that period of 
dilHcultyana discord which followed the an- 
nexation of the abbey to the see of Wells by 
Bishop Savaric, a proceeding which brought 
on OlaBtoobuxy heavy expense and loss of 
property, and which endangered its indepen- 
dence. Ha relates the nistory of these 
troubles at considerable length, and says in 
his preface that his object in writing his book 
was to incite his readers to protect or to in- 
crease the prosperity of his church, which 
once enjoyed priTileges above all others, but 
was then ber^ of her liberties and posses- 
sions. On the deposition of Abbot Roger 
Forde by WDliam Button, bishop of Bath, 
in 1255, Adam, with four other monks, was 
appointed by the convent to elect an abbot 
t^ ' compromise,' or on behalf of the whole 
fraternity. The choice of the electors fell on 
Robert of Petherton. Roger was, however, 
restored to his office by the pope. On his 
death Robert again became abbot. Adam 
was cellarer to the monastery, and the ent^ 
with which he opens the list of good deeds 
done by Abbot William Vigor, stating that 
(p. 476) inprimis he added to the strenf^h 
<M the beer, possibly shows that the writer 
entered with some rest into the details of his 
office. He afterwards became sacristan. On 
one important occasion he seems to have 
shown considerable firmness of character. 
ute had been carried on between 

jf Bath and Abbot Robert about 

the lordship of the abber. The bishops 
claimed to be the mesne lords, while the 
abbot declared that his house held immedi- 
ately of the crown. When Robert died in 
1274,the monks tried tokeep his death secret, 
avowedly because it happened at Eastertide, 
but doubtless firom the more cogent reason 
that they desired time to secure the recog- 
nition of their immediate dependence on the 
crown, The bishop's officers, however, found 
out how matters stood. They came to Glas- 
tonbury and caused all the servants of the 
abbey to swear fealty to their master, and 
put bailiilB in all the manors. The king's 
escheator appeared at the abbey gates and 
waa refused admission by the bishop's men. 
Adam, however, waa not daunted, and on 
behalf of the prior, who apparently waa absent 
at the time, and of all the convent, appealed 
in set terms aguust this usurpation. The 
next day he had the satisfaction of seeing 
the GOnatable of Bristol Castle arrive. The 



Adam 



.onbu^ in April 1278, 
g Arthur was opMied, 



king's escheator was enabled to take seisin 
of the monastery, and the bishop's men were 
forced to retreat in haste. Adun, who WH 

3sa of the proceed ' 
teresting a 

snd his queen to Olastonbur 
when the tomb of King A 
and his bonee and the bones of Ouiaevere 
were borne by the English king and hia qneen 
to a new resting-place before the high altar- 
Adam appears to have followed the example 
of his abbot, John of Taunton, in doing nil 
best to recover for tbe monasteiT some of 
the treasures which it had loet. His history 
is generally said to end at 1290, the date 
assigned by bim to the death of John of 
Taunton, with which he concludes his wo^ 
This date seems, however, to be incorrect, 
for he records the burial of EUeanor, quem of 
Edward I, as taking place 27 Dec 1^. He 
says that after that event Abbot John waa 
summoned by the long to the fimeral of his 
mother, Eleanor of Provence, which was pes- 
formed at Ambreabuiy on the featival of^the 
Sativity of the B. V. Mary, 8 Sept 1291. 
Abbot John was sick at the time, but did 
not like to fail in obedience to the king's 
command. Ilis death on the featival of St. 
Michael is the last event recorded by Adam 
of Domerham, who therefore bringe down 
his story to 1291. 

[Adam de DoDterham, Eistoria de Bebua g«atii 
Glafltoniansihua, ed. Hearae, Oifotd, 1727 ; Joha 
of QIasIon. Cbromeon, ed. Heame, 172S; Dog- 
dnlc, Monasticon, i. 6; Willis, ArchitMtnnl 
Hifltory of Glastonbury; Jaa. Parker in aomersBt 
Areheeol. 300101/8 volume for 1880.] W. R 

' AP A M OF Etbbhak {d. 1191), was a 

monk of Noire Dame delaCharit6-sur-Loiie, 
< Nievre, afterwards joined to Cluny, and be- 
came prior of Bermondaey in 1167, and for that 
monastery he obtained important privilege 
in 1160 from Henry 11. In 1161 he waa 
made abbot of Evesham, where he completed 
the cloister, finished St. Egwine's shrine, 
glazed many of the windows, and made an 
aqueduct. He obtained the right to use 
episcopal ornaments in 1163, Evesham being 
the tirnt abbey which obtained the use of the 
mttre for its abbot. In 1163 he waa one of 
the papal commissioners for deliverins the 
palltoArchbishopThomaa. HediedlSNov. 
1191. According to Leland he was tbe 
author of : 1. ' E:^ortatio ad Sacras Viiginee 
Oodestovensis CtEnobii.' 2. ' De miracolo 
Eucharistiffi ad Rainaldum.' 3. 'Epiatole.' 
[Anna]. Monast. i. 4S, iii. 440; Chion. Abb. 
deKve8ham(IU>lU8er.),100,17fi; Dioeto (Holla 
8er.), i. 307.] H. R L. 



ADAM OoDDAKire. [See Goddam.] 

ADAM DB ilxiBKo id. 12r>7 ?), <l 
Ir-arnnd Fmncigcan, in said to hnve Wn a 
luitive of Soinetstt. After having been edu- 
:iil«l *t Oxford, he held for thrw setre the 
li<riag of Wearmouth in Ihirham iChnm. 
ie jStneTTfitt, tab anno 1253). Adam was 
TaiDOita aa a acholar, and his entry into the 
Franciscan order at Worcealer [rir. 1237) 
rnrmed an important addiliiin to ila ranks. 
The atoty tuna that a companion of hia, one 
.\dain of Os&cd, had made a vow to grant 
rat requeat preferred to him in the name 
iry. In hie travels he went to visit the ! 
friars, and one of them eaid, ■ For the love ( 
if the mother of God enter our order and ; 
help our eimplieity,' Adam at anc« accepted I 
ihe intimation aa divine, and n vision warned ' 
Adam dr Mnrisco to follow hia friend's ei- | 
ample (BcCLISTOK, De Adnmtu Minonim, p. ' 
Itt). Adam de Mariacu waa the first teacher ; 
in the ac1ioi.ll which tlii-y aet up at (Jiford. ' 
Ilia influence was quickly felt not only ag a I 
teacher, hiil as the counsellor and friend of | 
all the beat men in England. His first friend 
was Robert Groeseteste, bishop of Lincoln, 
chancellor of the university of Oifonl ; ', 
whose reapect for Adam's judgment became 
ao great tbat he conaulted him on many uf 
the most important mattera relntinff to his 
a#«. Adwnwasconstantlysummoned tohelp 
the Archhiahop of Canterbury, B"niface of 
Savoy, whoae wisdom wan by no means eoual 
to the duties of hi» office. He was consulted 
by the queen, the Earl of Cornwall, and many 
importut persons. Hut his moat noticeable 
friend was Simon de Montfort, Earl of l.ei- 
cuater, who waa loi^ly guided by Adam'n 
counsels, 

Fmm bia connection with Grosae teste and 
Simon de Montfort, .\dam may be regardwl 
as Uie intellectual head of the reforming 
principles in church and state which ore- 
railed in his day. He was also engagvd in 
orgaiusing the teaching and diecipline of the 
luuTeraity of Oxford, and bis fume as a 
scholar spread ihrouehout Europe. In 1246 
h» accompanied Bishop Grossetesle to the 
council of Lyons, and on his return had (o 
stay at Mantes to nurst* a «ick comrade. 
Grosaete^tt! wrote at once to England for 
another friar la be sent out to take hie plan! 
■a nurse J he was afraid lest .4.dam should 
be tempted to join the uniTeraity of Paris 
and so deprive Oxford of his servicea (^. 
114). Adam's letters show us a life of varied 
iis«^Uness. He teems to have possessed a 
eingularly sound judgment, and to have 
impreMed all earnest minds. It is notice- 
abb that Adam exercised his influence to 



restrain the somewhat imperious and pas- 
sionate nature which was the chief d^ect 
in Earl Simon's choracter (.^. 1.3^-140, 161). 

The last years of Friar Adam were dio- 
turbed by an attempt to raiae him to the bi- 
ahooricof Ely. There was a dispiited election; 
the Icing nom'inated one candidate, the monks 
elected another. The matter was referred to 
the pope, and Archbishop Boniface privately 
urged him to appoint Adam. This stirred 
the anger of the monastic orders, who 
mocked at the ambition of a friar. Adam's 
health was declinina:, and he died before the 
matter was settled, but he seems to have felt 
the reports which were spread against, him 
(Ep. 34A). The exact time of his death can- 
not be settled, but it waa either late in 12^7, 
or early in 1238, 

Adam de Mariaco bore in his own time 
the title of Doctor IUu»tri». Roger Bacon 
repeatedly speaks of him and Grosseteate as 
' perfect in all wisdom," ' the greatest clerks 
in tbe world' {Op. Ttrt. c. 22, 23. 25). 
There are atlribute<i lo him four books of 
commentaries upon the Master of the Sen- 
tences ; a commentary upon the Song of 
Solomon ; a paraphrase upon Dionysius 
Areopagita; en elucidation of Sscred Scrip- 
ture ; theological questions ; and ' Lec- 
tiones Ordinarin.' They have not been 
printed. 

[Eceloaton, De Advenla Minorum ; Ada! du 
Harisco Epititohe, in Brewer's Monuinonta Fran- 
ciscana; Robeiti Qnissoleste KpialAlai. ed. Liiaj\li 
ChronicoD de Lanercoat, mibaan. 12fi3; Hattbew 
Pariis «ab ana. 1367 ; Wtidding. AntinloB Mtno- 
mm ; Wood, Aatiquitates Unir, Oxon. t. 72 ; 
Brewer'^i Preface to tba Hannmenta, lurii-ci.] 
M. C. 



ADAM OF Obltoh (d. 134IJ), succeeaively 
bishop of Hereford, Worcester, and Win- 
chester, was bom, according to Leland (//in. 
8, 38), at Hereford. He became doctor of 
laws and ' auditor' in the papal court. He 
waa nominated in 1317 to the see of Here- 
ford by Pope John XXII against the wish of 
Edward H, who, not content with writing to 
the pope and cardinals in favour of Thomas 
de Cherleton, enjoined Adam himself to re- 
fuse the see if ofiered tohim (Rtmbr, Fadera, 
ed. 1706, iii. 617). However, he was conse- 
crated at Avignon by Nicholas AJ be rtini, car- 
dinal bishop of Gstia, on 22 May 1317, and 
received the temporalities on 23 July. The 
next year he was sent to I'hilip Y to com- 
plain of the injuries done by his oflicera to 
the king's subjects in Aquitaine (26 Aug. 
1318), and to the pope on the king's private 



Adam 



80 



Adam 



matters and on Aquitaine affairs (6 Feb., 
1 March 1319). InMay 1819 he was one of 
the commissioners to perform the homagje 
due by Edwwrd 11 to Philip V for Aqui- 
taine and the other English possessions in 
France, and to apologise for its delay, and 
again in March lo20 to settle the interview 
between the two kings. There is also a 
credence for him dated 6 Oct. to inform 
Philip Y as to what was being done with 
ref^rd to a peace with Scotland. At the 
rising of the barons in 1321 under Badles- 
mere and Pembroke he took that side, and 
was one of the messengers to the king from 
the barons to demand the banishment of the 
Despensers, and to obtain indemnity for their 
own conduct. After the battle of Borough- 
bridge in 1322, and the execution of Badles- 
mere, he became practically the head of the 
party, and was brought before the parlia- 
ment and charged with treason as an adhe- 
rent of Mortimer, and one who had given 
counsel and aid to the king's enemies. He 
is said to be the first English bishop who 
had ever been brought before a lay tribunal. 
He refused to answer the charges, excepting 
with the leave of the archbishop and the 
other bishops. They asked the king's pardon 
for him, but, the king not being pacined, he 
was given into the charge of the archbishop. 
After a second summons he was taken under 
the protection of the Archbishops of Canter- 
burv, York, and Dublin, and ten of their 
suifragans, and anathemas were pronounced 
against any who should presume to lay 
violent hands on him. The king, however, 
went through the form of a trial, had him 
found gfuilty, and confiscated all his lands 
and revenues, allowing even his personal 
property to be seized. He remained under 
the archbishop's protection; but the treat- 
ment he received confirmed his opposition to 
the king, who wrote to the pope on 1 April 
1324 to complain of his treason, and on 
2^ May to depose him from his see on the 
ground of his having joined the rebels. An 
attempt he made to make his peace with the 
king while at Winchester through the Earl 
of Leicester only made the king accuse 
I^icester of treason. On the queen's landing 
in 1326 he joined her at once, assisted her 
with money, and preached before her at Ox- 
ford from the text * Caput meum doleo ' (4 
lleg. iv. 19), treating the king as the sick 
head which must be removed for the health 
of the kingdom. He was now the queen's 
chief adviser, had the army at Hereford 
under his command, and it was bv his advice 
that the king was committed to Itenilworth. 
The chancellor, Robert Baldock, was con- 
fined in his prison at Hereford, and thence 



conveyed to his London house, St. Mary 
Mounthaw (Old Fish Street Hill), idience lie 
was dragged by the mob and placed in New- 
gate, where he soon after died from the 
treatment he received. Bishop Orlton was 
sent to demand the great seal from the king^ 
who was then at Monmouth {Fcsdera, ii. 646), 
and brouj^ht it to the queen at Martley. After 
the parLament met ne was sent with the 
Bishop of Winchester to summon the king 
to the parliament, and on his refusal brought 
the answer before the clergy and people on 
12 Jan. 1327. The next day, acting as pr(>- 
locutor for the parliament, i.e stated that if 
the queen were to join the king, she would 
be murdered by nim, and then put the 
question whether they would have Edward 
or his son as king. He bade them go home 
and bring the answer the following day. Oit 
the answer being for the son, they broo^t 
the young prince into Westminster ffill, 
and Bishop Orlton, the archbishop, and the 
Bishop of Winchester made their sevml 
speeches to the assembly. The next step 
was to procure the king's abdication. Bishop 
Orlton was sent as one of a commiasiott 
chosen by the parliament to visit Edward at 
Kenilworth, and to induce him to consent to 
his son's election. He acted as spokesman, 
explained to the king the cause of their ar- 
rival, and put before him the alternative of 
resigning in favour of his son, or of their 
choosing whoever mi^t seem best for the 
protection of the kmgdom. He brought 
back the king's consenting answer to the 
parliament, says De la Moor, more fully ihan 
It was made. 

Under the new reign he became treasurer, 
I had the temporalities of his see restored, the 
proceedings against him in 1323 being an- 
nulled in Edward in*s first parliament, and 
was sent to the pope in March 1327 to ob- 
tain the dispensation for the ;foung king's 
marriage with his cousin Philippa of Hair 
nault. While he was at Avignon the see of 
Worcester became vacant, and to this he was 
nominated by a papal proviso, although the 
king wrote both to nim and to the prior and 
convent of Christ Church, Canterbury, for- 
bidding them to hinder the consecration of 
Wolstan de Bransford, the prior of Worcee- 
ter, who had been elected by the chapter, and 
had obtained the royal assent. He waa 
summoned before the parliament at York to 
answer for his attempts to procure his trans- 
lation, and for obtaining papal letters preju- 
dicial to the king. In spite of thb, the ton* 
poralities of Worcester were restored to him 
on 5 March 1328 ; nor did he lose the king's 
favour, as he was sent in the course of tne 
year to demand and receive for the king his 



Adam 



8i 



Adam 



rights fts heir to the crown of France. In 
iSSO he was one of the commission to treat 
with Philip Vly and to arrange for marriages 
between the kinff*8 sister Eleanor and John, 
the eldest son oi the French king, and be- 
tween Mary, daughter of the Frendi king, 
and John of Eltham, earl of Cornwall, as 
well as for the business of the homage at 
Amiens, and the completion of the negotia- 
tions for peace begun in the two preceding 
reigns. On his way we hear of him at 
Cant«rbuiT, where he was consulted about 
the troubles at St. Augustine's. He had 
fuller powers given him in January 1331, 
and there is a warrant for the payment of 
his expenses in AjNtil 1332. In 1333 he was 
one of a commission to treat with Ralph, 
count of Eu, for a marriage between the 
count's daughter, Joan, and John, earl of 
Cornwall. In September 1333 he was no- 
minated by the pope, at the request of 
Philip VI, to the see of Winchester against 
the wish of the kin^, who would not sur- 
render the temporahties till 23 Sept. 1334, 
when he did so at the reouest of the arch- 
bishop and other bishops. The formal appeal 
against his appointment charged him with 
maltreatment of the chancellor Baldock, 
with his being the cause of the king's im- 
prisonment, and with preventing the queen 
DTom joining her husband. His answers to 
these charges are preserved in the curious 
paper, ' Responsiones AdsB quondam Wi- 
romiensia episcopi,' &c., which is printed in 
Twysden's *Decem Scriptores' (coll. 2763- 
12768). 

As bishop of Winchester we find him one 
of the king^ deputies at the council in Lon- 
don in August 1335, one of a commission in 
1336 to treat with the King of France for a 
joint expedition to the Holy Land, to arrange 
in interview between the two kings for the 
consideration of certain processes pending in 
the French courts, and to treat with David 
Bruce. In May 1337 the king wrote to the 
pope not to allow the bishop to appeal to the 
Roman court for the decision of his cause 
against William Inge, archdeacon of Canter- 
bury. In the attack on Archbishop Stratford 
in 1341 he was one of his chief opponents, 
and the '&mosus libellus' (BntCHiNOTON, 
p. 23), which the king put forth against 
the archbishop, was attributed to his pen. 
Fhon^ he denied this, the archbishop evi- 
lently did not believe him, and was able to 
sonvict him of falsehood before the parlia- 
ment in at least one of his charj^es (Bibch- 
oroTOir, p. 40). The last entry in the ' Foe- 
lera ' concerning Bishop Orlton is in 1342 
[16 Nov.), when a loan of 200/. was de- 
manded of him. Warton (History of Eng- 

TOL.I. 



; lUk Poetry J ii. 97, ed. llazlitt) mentions his 

j visitation of the priory of Winchester in 
1338, when a minstrel named Herbert sang 

I the song of Colbrond and the tale of Queen 

I Emma. 

De la Moor speaks of him as a man of a 
very crafty intellect, prudent in worldly 
matters, bold and unscrupulous, and the one 
who revived the hatred against the Despen- 
sers after the king's victory at Borough- 
bridge. He accuses him of being guilty of 
the king's murder; but as the story he tells 
is of a much older date, and as the bishop 
was out of the coimtry at the time, it may 
be dismissed as certainlv false. It never 
was charged against him at the time, and in 
the defence of his conduct above mentioned 
there is no allusion to such an accusation. 
He became blind for some time before his 
death, which took place at Famham 18 July 
1345. He was one of the very few English 
prelates who had been twice translated — a 
lact which gave rise to the lines quoted by 
Wharton (A, S. i. 634) :— 
Trinus est Adam ; talem suspendero vadam. 
Thomam [Herofonl] despexit, Wlstanum [Wor- 
cester] non bene rexit ; 

Swithunum [Winchester] maluit. Cur? 
Quia plus valuit. 
[Trokelowe, 109, and Blanefoorde, 140-142 
(Rolls Ser.) ; Atlam of Murimouth, 25, 43, 47, 
48, 61, 58. 72 (Eng. Hist. Sec); Chron. de Lh- 
nercost, 257, 258 (Bunnatyne Club) ; Thomas de 
laMoor, 599-602 (Chron. Ed. I, Ed. U, Rolls Ser.) ; 
William de Dene (Ang. Sacr. i.), 367 ; Birching- 
ton (Ang. Sacr. i.), 39, 40; Thorn (Twysden), 
2057; Robert of Graystanes, 48, p. 119; Mon. 
Malmesb. 216, 234, 235 (Hearne) ; Annal. Paulin. 
320 (Chron. Ed. I, Ed. II, Rolls Ser.) ; Rymer'» 
Foedem, ii.] H. R. L. 

ADAM ScoTUs, or Anolicus (/. 1180), 
was a theological writer. The very little 
that can be ascertained as to his life is almost 
entirely dependent upon incidental allusions 
contained in his writings. The national affix, 
*Scotu8,' does not apparently occur in the 
earliest edition of this writer's works — that 
published by -^Egidius Gourmont at Paris in 
1518. This folio (which may be looked upon 
as containing all of this author's works, of 
whose genuineness there can be .absolutely 
no doubt at all) consisted, according to 
Panzer's account, of a series of ' xxiv. ser- 
mons and two treatises entitled respectively 
* Liber de tripartito Tabemaculo' and *Li- 
her de triplici genere Contemplationis ; ' and 
it is ascribed not to Adam Scotus, but to 
'Brother Adam of the Pnemonstratensian 
order.' It is almost certain that the xxiv. 
here must be a misprint for xiv., and that 
these sermons in reality represent the treatise 

G 



Adam 



82 



Adam 



entitled * De Ordlne ' of the next edition 
(6f. Panzer, Armal. Typoor, viii. 49 ; Btblio- 
tkeca Tellerianay 43 ; and PossEYiiars, Appon 
ratus Sacevy i. 6). In 1659 Peter Bellerus of 
Antweip published the works of Adam Scotus, 
to which was prefixed an elaborate, but un- 
satisfactory, life of the author by (Godfrey 
Ghiselbert, himself a Praemonstratensian. 
This new issue consisted of (a) forty-seven 
sermons, (b) a ' Liber de ordine, habitu, et 
professione Canoniconim ordinis Prsemon- 
strat^nsis,' divided into fourteen sermons (see 
above), and assigned in their title to Master 
Adam ; (c) a treatise ' De tripartito Tabema- 
culo ; * (a) another treatise * De triplici genere 
Contemplationis.' The last three wonts are 
by the same writer, and are all dedicated to 
the Pnemonstratensian brotherhood. The 
author of the * De Tripartito * claims the 
'Liber de ordine,' &c., and the author of 
the * De Triplici genere,' &c. claims the * De 
Tripartito.' One Adam, therefore, wrot« the 
three treatises. And the * De Tripartito ' is 
full of hints which enable us to fix the 
author's era with certainty, and his country 
with a fair amount of probability. In part ii. 
c. 6 we read that the sixth age of the world 
dates from the coming of Christ, * of which 
age 1180 years are now past.' The same 
date will suit the lists of popes and kings. Tlie 
time in which Adam flourished may then be 
safely set down as being aboutl 1 80 ; he appears 
to have been alive two years or more later CD^ 
Trip. Tab. Procem. I. c. iii.). As to the place 
of his birth we have no such certain indication. 
Ohisolbert assures us that the manuscripts of 
this writer call him sometimes * Scotus/ 
sometimes * Anglicus,' and sometimes 'Anglo- 
Scot us.' Everything in the treatises points to 
a locality which, about the year 1180, though 
within the limits of the kingdom of Scot- 
land, was yet strongly under English influ- 
ence, and already the seat of a Prsemonstra- 
tensian community. In the explanation of 
the elaborate * tabula,' or list of kings, in 
the * De Tripartito,' Adam recommends his 
copyists to insert the royal line of their own 
sovereigns, after the kings of Germany and 
France, in the place of his list of English 
and Scotch ones. The only kingly house 
whose ancestry he traces up to Adam is that 
of England ; but, on the other hand, he shows 
u minute knowledge of the character of Mal- 
colm Canmore's children, and declares that 
he is Avriting in the *land of the English 
(Anglorum) and the kingdom of the Scots.' 
Moreover, the book in question is formally 
dedicated to * John, abbot of Calchou.' There 
is only one abbot of Calchou, or Kelso, named 
John, known before the middle of the six- 
teenth century — namely, John, formerly can- 



tor of the abbey — ^who si^ed seTenl char- 
ters under William the Lion. He was abbot 
from lieO to USO(aee Liber SancUeMaruede 
Calchou and Liber de Melroe, i. S9, 4S, &c.). 
There seems to be only one part of Great 
Britain which answers to aU the requirementi 
of the case, viz., the principality oiGalloway, 
for which William the Lion did homage to 
Henry about the year 1175, a district ^ere 
there were already three Pnemonstratensiaii 
foundations by 1180. But it must be allowed 
that from many points of view Drybnrgh 
would suit equally well. Ghiselbert, however, 
has preserved a number of passages from 
manuscript notices of Adam Scotus that had 
&llen into his hands, which tend to show 
that about 1177 Christian, bishop of Cast 
Candida (Whithorn in Gkilloway), changed 
the canons of his cathedral church into Inne- 
monstratensian regulars. The name of Chris- 
tian's new abbot, according to Manritus i 
Prato, who here becomes Ghiselbert's autho- 
rity, was Adam, or Edan, irom the neigh- 
bouring foundation of Soulseat near Stran- 
raer, and is identified with our writer. In 
the Prscmonstratensian abbey of St. Michael 
at Antwerp Ghiselbert found another life of 
Adam which described him as being bom of 
noble parents in Anglo-Scotia, and a contem- 
porary of the ' first fathers of the Pnemon- 
stratensian order.' But the amount of tmtb 
that underlies these vag^e statements is very 
hard to appreciate at its exact value. Pt^sing 
on to more certain matters, we can gather 
that, within two years of 1180, our Adam 
had been at Pnemonstratum, the head abbey 
of the great order to which he belonged, and 
that the chief abbots of his order nad re- 
(juested him to forward them a copy of the 
* De Tripartito.' In 1177 Alexander m had 
confirmed the statutes of the order which 
bade all the Pnemonstratensian abbots be 
present at their annual general chapter. 
From the allusion made to this statut« it 
seems probable that the writer was abbot of 
his house at the time, and most certainly he 
was a man of such reputation with his bre- 
thren that, had he lived lonff, he must have 
been elected to that office (Prooem. I. c. 8 ; 
and cf. MiR^us ap. Kubn, vL 36). 

It now remains to say a few words re- 
specting the other works assigned to Adam. 
Ghiselbert has prefixed to his edition of this 
author forty-seven sermons which are in their 
heading ascribed to 'Master Adam, called 
Anglicus of the Pnemonstratensian order.' 
From the authors preface to this collection 
we learn that it is only part of a body of 
100 discourses, of whicli the first division 
consisted of forty-seven sermons covering 
the period from Advent to Lent. Among 



Adam 



83 



Adam 



the latt«T fifty-three seimons we read that 
there were fourteen ' qui specialiter ad viros 
Rpectant religiosoe.* Oudin tells us that, when 
a young theological student in the Prsemon- 
strateusian abbey of Coussi, near Laon, hH 
used often to have a certain codex containing 
about 114 sermons in his hands. The writing 
of this codex he assigns to the year 1200 or 
thereabouta, and though the first leaves hH<l 
been torn away he does not hesitate to iden- 
tify this volume with the complete work 
of which Ghiselbert's fortVHBeven sermons 
formed the first, division. .The account Ou- 
din gives of the scope of these discourses 
strengthens this belief, and we can hardly 
tul to surmise what the fourteen odd ser- 
mons are. Copies or originals of the re- 
maining sermons (in whole or in part) were, 
according to the same authority, to be found 
in the hands of Herman k Porta, abbot of St. 
Michael's at Antwerp, and in the library of 
the Ccelestins at Mantes (cod. 619), where 
they are ascribed to 'Brother Adam, the 
Pnemonstratensian.' Ghiselbert tells us that 
the Coelestins at Paris were still accustomed 
at mealtimes to read aloud our author*B ser- 
mons, of which, in another passage, he adds 
that they possessed an old manuscript entitled 
^Magistri Adami Anglici Pnemonstratensis 
Sermones.* From the above remarks it would 
appear that the Pnemonstratensian Adam of 
the sermons was very probably the Pnemon- 
stratensian Adam of the fourteen sermons 
entitled ' De Ordine,' &c., who in that case 
went by the name of Adam Anglicus the 
Pnemonstratensian. Again, both Herman k 
Porta and the Coelestins at Mantes (cod. 
618) possessed a ' Libellus Adam Ptiemon- 
stratenais, natione Anglici, De Instructione 
Animse,' which they assigned to the author 
of the sermons. Now this work was in 1721 
published bv Pez from altogether another 
source, and is by him headed as the work of 
''Adam the Prremonstratensian, abbot and 
bishop of Candida Casa in Scotland.' But 
Pes neglects to tell us whether he is here 
following the manuscript title of the work, 
or merely adopting Ghiselbert's theory al- 
luded to above. Tne treatise in question is, 
in its prologue, dedicated to Walter, prior 
of St. ^dreVs in Scotland, by brother Adam 
* servorum Dei servus,' a phrase which seems 
to implj that its author was an abbot or 
other nigh church dignitary. Now there ap- 
pears to have been only one Walter among 
all the known priors of St. Andrews, and 
he held office from 1162 to 1186, and from 
1188 to at least the year 1195 ?Qobdon'8 
Eedetiagtical Chromdef iiL 75). This agrees 
very well with the date alreaciy established 
for the so-called Adam Scotus ; but of course 



there ma^ have been many Adams fiourish- 
ing at this time in Scotland, though it would 
seem hardly likely that there should be two 
Scotch Pra^monstratensian canons of this 
name with a European reputation. The de- 
duction to be made from the above remarks 
is that all the before-mentioned works are 
probably by one author, who was certainly a 
Scotch Pnemonstratensian canon and pro- 
bably an abbot, but whether of Whithorn 
— in which case he mav have been bishop 
also — or not can hardly be considered as 
settled in one way or the other. Still more 
uncertain is Ghiselbert's identification of our 
Adam with the Pnemonstratensian English 
bishop, the contemporary of Ciesar Ileister- 
bachensis (Hcripsit c. 1:222), of whose death 
that author tells so pretty a story (Miracula, 
1. iii. c. 22). Ghiselbert makes mention of a 
lost work written by our Adam entitled * De 
dulcedine Dei,' and also of a volume of letters. 
Pez believed himself to have traced the for- 
mer work in a fifteenth-century catalogue of 
certain ' Codices Tcgemseenses,' and assigns 
a set of Latin verses entitled * Suinmida to 
the same author, but on very ^nsufiicient 
grounds. 

[Migno*H Pat rolopiw Cursus Coinplet its, cxcviii., 
which contains all Adam's writingn that have tu* 
yet been published under his name ; Mackenzie's 
Writers of the Scotxsh Nation, i. 141-5 ; Oudin 
Dc Scriptor. Eccles. ii. 1544-7 ; A. Mirsei Chroni- 
cs)n Ord. Pnemonstr, np. Kuen's Collect io Scrip- 
toniin. vi. 36, 38, and sub anno 1518; B. Pes' 
Thesaurus Anocdot. pt. ii. 335-72; Fabricius' 
Biblioth. Lat. i. 11 ; (Javc's Scriptores Ecclesie, 
ii. 234. For Christian, bishop of Candida Casa, 
and his suspension in 1177, see Koger Hoveden 
(Rolls Ser.), ii. 135, &c.] T. A. A. 

ADAM OP UsK (j^. 1400), lawyer and 
writer of a Jjatin chronicle of English history 
from 1377 to 1404, was bom at IJsk, in Mon- 
mouthshire, probably between 1 360 and 1365. 
Bvthe favour of Edmund Mortimer, tliird earl 
0/ March, who held the lordship of Usk, he 
was appointed to a law-studentship at Ox- 
ford, and took a doctor's degi'ee, being in 1387 
an * extraordinarius ' in canon law. He also 
entered the church. He pleaded in the 
Archbishop of Canterbury's court for seven 
years, from 1390 to 1397; and in the latter 
year he attended, jjerhaps in some official ca- 
pacity, the last parliament nf Richard II, of 
the procee<lings of which he has left a valu- 
able account. In the revolution of 1399 he 
joined Thomas Arundel, archbishop of Can- 
terbury — one of Bolin^broke's principal ad- 
herents — and accompanietl the invading army 
in its march northward from Bristol to 
Cliester. By his influence his native place 
escaped the punishment with which it was 

e2 



Adam 84 Adam 

threatened for the resistance of its inliabi- eon's Hospital. This for a boy of nineteen, who 

tunts. After Kichard*8 surrender Adam was had struggled through his univerBity career 

appointed one of the commissioners for the | on four guineas a year, was comparative 

deposition of the king : and he gives us an wealth. ^Viter about three years, howerer, 

interesting accoimt of n visit that he paid to he resigned the appointment, and became 

him in the Tower. The immediate reward private tutor in the family of Mr. Kincaid, 

of his ser\'ice8 was the living of Kemsing and aften^'ards lord provost of EdinbuigL 

Seal in Kent, togetlier with a prebend in Tlirough his influence Adam subsequentlr 

tlie collegiate church of Abergwili. He obtained in 1768 the rectorship of the W^ 

sr>on afterwards received anotlier prebend in School, after having been for three years as- 

the church of Bangor. As a further proof sistant to the retiring head master. Lord 

of the value set by tlie new king on his ; Cockbumsaysof him: ' He was bom to teach 

ability as a law\'er, a cas*' was submitted to Latin, some Greek, and all virtue. ... He 




France. them to be even softened. His private in- 

But soon afterwards Adam forfeited the dustry was appalling. If one moment late 
royal favour by the boldness with which he at school, he would hurry in and explain that 
remonstrated with Henry on tlie faults of he had bwn detained "verifj-ing a quota- 
Iiis ^vemment ; and in 1402 he was sent in '■ tion; " and many a one did he verifjr at fonr^ 
Ijamshment to Rome, where, liowever, he was , in the morning ' (Cockbubn', Memonalg of Mi^' 
well received, and api)ointed papal chaplain Time). He improved the school, and in the 
and auditor of the Kota. He was not allowed j year of his death had 167 pupils in his class, a 
to return to England for four years; and of - number equal to the whole attendance at the 
his life after that date we have no iiiforma- | school when he first joined it. His introduc- 
tion, as the latter part of his chronicle is lost, tion of the teacliing of Greek was opposed by 



While at Kome he states that he was 
nominated by the pope to the see of Here- 
ford, wliich fell vacant in 1404, but that the 
intrigues of his enemies in P]ngland prevailed 
to his exclusion; and again that, with no 



the university authorities as an infraction of 
the privileges of the professor of Greek. 
Much controversy was also excited by the 
publication, in 1772, of his ' Latin Rudimente 
and Grammar,' written in English instead of 



btittcr success, he was afterwards proposed I Latin, as in the old text-books. The t^wn 
for the see of St. David's. council in 1786 decided that the old gram* 

Among the diiferent crises in which he was ; mar (Kuddiman^s) was still to be used, and 
engaged as a lawyer, he mentions that he prohibited all others. But Adam's method 
drew up the petition of Sir Thomas Dymock . was generally adopted before his death. In 
for the championship at Henry's coronation, ' 1780 the degree of LL.D. was conferred on 
and that he was retained in the well-known t him by the university of Edinburgh, and in 
suit of Lord Grey of Ruthin against Lord ■ 1791 ho published his best known work on 
Edward Hastings. * Unman Antiquities,' for which he received 



[Chronicon Adfe do Usik, eil. K. M. Tliom|won 
(Koval Society of Literature). 1876.] 

K. M. T. 

ADAM, ALEXANDER, LL.D. (1741- 



(KX)/..and whicli has since gone through seve- 
ral editic)ns. A * Summary' of Geoffraphy and 
Histor^^ ' appeared in 1794, expanaea from a 
small text-book which he had printed for the 
use of his pupils ten years previously ; a fifth 



1809), writer on Roman antiquities, was bom I edition appean>d in 1816. His last work, 
on 24 June 1741, at a small farm near Forres, : published in 1805, was a * Latin Dictionary' 
in Morayshire, of which his father was tenant, lor the use of schools. 
He learned what Latin the parish school- ' On 13 Dec. 1809, Dr. Adam was seised 
master could teach him, and had read the i with u tit of apoplexy while teaching his 
whole of Livy before he was sixteen, chiefly class, and he (lied after an illness of five 
in the early morning by the light of splinters l days. His last words were : * But it grows 
of bogwood. In 1757 he competed unsuc- . dark, boys — you may go ; we must put off 
c«ssfully for a * bursary' at Aberdeen Uni- | the rest till to-morrow.' 
versity, and soon ofterwards, on the invita- ; Dr. Adam married first, in 1775, Mi» 
tion of a relation of his mother who was a j Munro, whose father was minister of Kin- 
clergyman in Edinburgh, he removed to that ' loss : and second, in 1780, Miss Cosser, t 
city, where he had free admission to the col- daughter of the controller of excise in 
leffe lectures, and in the course of a year and Edinburgh, 
a half he gained the head-mastership of Wat- i Dr. Adam's other works are : ' Geographical 



Adam 85 Adam 

Index/ Edinburgh, 1795; 'Classical Biogra- the 2nd or Coldstream guards. He accom- 
phy/ Edinburgh, 1800. panied liis regiment to Egypt, was promoted 

rLifebvA.Hender8on,Edinburgh. 1810; Notice ' ^^P^ '"i}^* lieutenant-colonel in 1804, 
mEncyelop«liaBritannica,byProfe»*orrillanH, and m 1805, when only twenty-four, pur- 
his Miccessop in the High School.] J. B. P. chased the command ot the 2l8t regiment. 

His regiment was ordered to Sicily, and he 

ADAM, Sib CHARLES (1780-1858), remained in the army of Sicily till 1813. lie 
idmiral, was the son of the Right Hon. Wil- was present at tlie battle of Maida, and the 
liam Adam, of Blair-Adam, Kinross, and of siege of »Scylltt in 1806, and on 10 Sept. of 
Eleanor, daughter of the tenth Lord Elphin- ; the same year fought a smart engagement 
itone, and sister of Cantain Elphinstone, with General Cavaignac, at Mili, in tem- 
afterwards Admiral Lora Keith. He was porary command of a brigade. In 1811 he 
bom on 6 Oct. 1780, and entered the uav-y was made aide-de-camp to the prince regent, 
tt a very early age, under the direct pa- and deputy-adjutant -general to the forces in 
rronaffe of his uncle, with whom he con- Sicily, m 1812 promoted to be colonel, and 
tinned to serve till, in 1795, he was sent in 1813 given the command of a bripde in 
to the Victorious, of 74 guns, as acting- the army which wan sent from Sicily in 
lieutenant. In June 1799 he was maae : April tooperate in the east of Spain, 
captain, and appointed to theSybille frigate, | lie was now destined on more than one 
in which ship, on 19 Aug. 1801, under cir- occasion to pay the pt'iialty for the military 
eumstances of great difficultv and intricate ' incapacity of his commanding generals, ana 
navigation, he captured the l^'rench fri^te, it may )x^ ass«?rted truthfully that he was 
Chinonne, which had taken up a position the only English general, except Donkin the 
ra Mah6 Roads, in the Seychelle Islands, quartermaster-general, who won fame, or 
He was afterwards, in May 1803, appointed even reputation, during the badly conducted 
to command the CliifTonne, and in her took operations on t]ie east coast, which filled 
part in the blockade of Boulogne and tlie XS'ellington with despair. His first com- 
Dorth coast of France through the summer mander-in-chief, Sir John Murray, began by 
of 1805. In 1811-13 he commanded the In- placing his brigade so far in advance of the 
vincible, of 74 guns, in active operations on main army that it cnuld not i»ossiblybe sup- 
the coast of Spain, and after the peace wos ported. »Suchet, who was un extremely able 
for many years captain of the royal yacht, general, saw the fault, and attacked Adam's 
tiU in May 1825 he was promoted to the rank brigade of 1 ,800 men at Biar, on 12 April, with 
of rear-admiral. He became vice-admiral in two divisions. Adnni maintained the uneoual 
1837, and admiral in 1848. In January- 1835 battle for two hoius, though badly wounaed, 
he was made K.C.B., and sat as M.P. for and at last, when he had given Murray an 
Clackmannan and Kinross from 1833 to 1841 . opportunity to come to his assistance or take 
Between Aiijgust 1841 and May 1845 he was up a good defensivt* position, after a five 
commander-in-cliief in the West Indies; he hours' defence he fell back on Castalla. 
waa one of the lords of the admiralty from Murray had not taken up a good position, 
April 1835 to August 1841, and again in and, while Iiis right was quite impregnable, 
1846-47, when he was appointed governor of had left his left exposed. Here Adam, and 
Greenwich Hospital, wnere he died on 16 Whittingham with his Spaniards, were 
Sept. 1853. A subscription bust, said to be |K)sted, and on 13 April the valour of the 
a good likeness, is in the Painted Hall. soldiers and the good conduct of their 

[OUvme's Naval Biographical Dictionary; officers made up for the faulty dispositions 
Gcmt. Mag. 1853, ii. 628.] J. K. L. of the general, and all t^uchet s attacks were 

j repulsed with a loss of 3,000 men. Some 
ATIAM^ Sib FREDERICK (1781-1853), ' months later, when the divisions from Sicily 
ffeneral, waa the fourth son of the Right Hon. had been again brought round to Catalonia, 
William Adam, of Blair Adam, M.P., lord I^ord William Bent inck treated Adam's bri- 
lieutenant of Kinross, and a most eminent gade much as Sir John Murray had done. It 
orator and Scotch Judgpe ; he was brother of , formed the advanced brigade of the army 
Admiral Sir Charles Adam, K.C.B., M.P., which had tidien TaiTugona, and was sta- 
and uncle of the Right Hon. W. P. Adam, tioned at the bridge of Ordall far from any 
M.P. He was appointed an ensign in 1795, support. Suchet determined to recapture 
and lieutenant in 1796 while a mere boy, , Tarragona, and on \'2 Sept. attacked Ordall 
and whil^ holding his commission was edu- ; with an overwhelming force, and affain Adam 
cated in the military academy at Woolwich. , was left unsupportt;d. This time buchet was 
He became captain in the 9th regiment in | successful, and took Odall after a desperate 
1799| and in the same year exclmnged into resistance, in which the brigadier-general was 



Adam 86 Adam 

twice severely wounded. Adam's dispoMtioiis , who was governor of Greenwich HospiUl. 




lie acknowledges his personal gallantry in have distinguished himself in higher com- 
the action. mands. 

On his return to Engknd owing to his [^p^p General AdamV serricefe nee Philipparts 
wounds, he had a flattering reception, and in Royal Military Calendar, 3rd edition, 1820, ti.L 
June 1814 was made major-general. Wlien iii. For the battle of Castalla and the combat uf 
an army was ordered to assemble in Inlanders Ordall see Napier's Peninsular War, book xz. 
tm the news of the return of Napoleon from chap. 4, and l»ook xxi. chap. 2. For AdamV 
Elba, General Adam was appointed to com- brigade at Waterloo, liesides Sibome, consult 
mand a briffade in Lord Hilrs division, con- particularly Leeke'ii The 52nd at Waterloo.] 
sisting of the 52nd, 7 1st, and 95th regiments. "• ^* ^• 

At the battle of Waterloo this brigade was AJ>AM, JAMES (rf. 1794), architect, wa* 
stationed at the extreme right of the Eng:lish the younger brother of Robert Adam, and so 
position to keep open the communications associated with him in all his works that it 
with the corps at Iial, and to act if Napoleon is difficult to assign anv particular building 
attempted to turn the English right. vMien to him. He is generally credited with the 
it was evident that the French attack was design of Portland Place. For some time 
upon the English front, Adam*s brigade was before the reform of the board of works by 
slowly advanced to be able to take in flank Burke's bill he held the appointment of ar- 
nny attack in column made on the English chitect to Geoi^ IIT, and was master mason 
right centre. Accordingly, when the Old of the board of ordnance in North Britain. 
Guard advanced in the finaf attack of the day, He was the author of * Practical Essays on 
Adam 8 brigade, and notably the 52nd regi- Agriculture,' and was engagvd on a history 
ment under CJolonel Colbome, suddeidy firied of architecture at the time of his death, 
upon its flank as it advanced, and charged it. Tliis took place in Albemarle Street on 
It has been asserted that bv this cliarge the : 20 Oct. 1794, and wa.s causetl by apoplexy. 
52nd regiment, that is Aclam's brigade, for '' [See Adax, Kobebt.j 

his regiments were all together, wjm the [r^ ., DJet. ; Gent. Mag. 1794; Annual 
Uttle of >>atprio<., and not the English R^^^j^ter, 1794; Scots Mag. 1794.] CM. 

guards, lint the probable solution of con- , 

nictingevidenceisthatthecolumnoftheOld I ADAM, JEAN (I710-17a5). a Scottish 
Guard got slightly disarranged, and that, at ' poetess, daiighter of a shipmaster, was bora 
the same time that the guards under General . in 1710 at Crawfordsdyke, ]>arish of Green- 
Cooke drove back the head of the column, ' ock, Renfrewshire. Early an orphan, sheen- 
Adam's brigade broke the formation of the tered the service of a minister, Mr. Turner, 
^iecond half. Whether Adam or Colbome of Greenock, as nursery- governess and house- 
won the battle or not, it is certain that their ' maid. Having the use of the manse library, 
Hank attack prevented the Old Guard from she gave herscSf a fair education, and wrote 
reforming, and confirmed the victory. For many poems, which were collected and puh- 
his ser\ices on this day Major-general Adam I lished for her in 17.^ by Mrs. I>nunmond,of 
was made a K.C.B., a knight of the order of Greenock, in a work entitled 'Miscellany 
Maria Theresa, and of St. Andrew of Russia. ' Poems, by Mrs. Jane Adams (her changed 
Tlie last thirty-eight years of his life were name), in Crawfordsdyke,' Glasgow, 1734. 
jieaceful. From I Si 7 to 1822 he commanded Mr. Archilmld Crawford wrote tne preface, 
the division at Malta, and in 1820 was nomi- and the authoress dedicated her poem^ to 
nated K.C.M.G. In 1824 he was made * Thomas Crawfonl, of Crawfordbum,' under 
G.C.M.G., and was lord high commissioner the varied signature of Jean Adams, giving 
of the loniiiu Isles from 1824 to 1831. In a list of ministers, merchants, and gentry, to 
Ij<30 he Ijecame lieutenant-general, in 1831 the number of 154 subscribers. The volume, 
was swoni of the privy council, «ud fn>m 1832 which is complete with index, is said in the 
t • > 18.37 wus gt )venior of Madras. In 1 8.V) he preface to be in two parts, one * all in meeter,' 
was made colonel •)f the 57th rejriment, the other in 'blank verse in imitation of 
which he I'xchanged for that of his old regi- . Milton ;' but there is no blank verse in the 
ment, the 21st, in 1843. In 1840 he was book. The poems, all religious, are written 
nominated G.C.B., and was promoted full in the Brady and Tate style, and are poor 
general in 184<J. (hi 17 Aug. 185:J he fell specimens indeed of what she called 'the 
dead suddenly in the Greenwich railway ' style of the best English poets that have 
station after leaving his brother Sir Charles, written within seventy years.' 



Adam 87 Adam 

Soon after the issue of this volume the | always comprised in this poem, the last two 
p<x>te88 set up a girls' school at the quay head i are Imown to have been added by Dr. Blair, 
of Cijawfopd-tndge, and here she varied the j [Cio^ek'« Select Scotish Songs, i. 189 ; Robert 
i^imple routme by gluing Shakespearean read- ' chambers » Songs of Sc<rtland prior to Bums ; 
logs to her pupils. According to tradition , Canningham'j* Songs of Scotland, i. 226 ; Good 




liichardson, and the story goes that she once 370 ; Chalmers's English Poets, xvii.] 
closed her school for six weeks and travelled J. W.-G. 

on foot the whole distance to London to visit 

the author. ADAM, JOHN (1779-1825), Anglo- 

Troubles came thick upon her ; her book Indian statesman, was the eldest son of 
was of little pecuniary advantage; the un- William Adam [see Adam, William, 1761- 
sold copies were shipped to Boston and never 1839]. He was bom on 4 May 1779 ; was 
heard oif again ; ana Jean Adam, being com- educated at the Cliarterlioiise ; received a 
pelled to give up her school, became a writership on the Bengal establishment in 
wanderer. Disappointed and soured, the 1794; and, after a year at Edinburgh Tni- 
poor woman got a precarious living as a versity, landed at Calcutta in 179§. The 
liawker for years, and the last record of her greater part of his career was spent in the 
life*8 story finds her toiling home again to secretariat. He was private as well as 
Greenock. An order of the bailies of that political secretary to the Marquis of Hast- 
town admitted her to the Glasgow poorhouse ings, whom he accompanied in the field 
as *a poor woman in distress; a stranger during the Pindari or third Mahratta war. 
who has been wandering about.* The next In 1817 he was nominated by the court of 
day (3 April 1766) she died, and was * buried directors member of council ; and as senior 
at the house expense.' ' member of council he became acting gover- 

Iler published poems were only fitted to nor-general of India on Ijord Hastings's de- 
win a uttle local popularity, and her only parture in January 182.*]. His rule lasted 
lu&ssport to fame is the claim so persistently for seven months, until the arrival of Ijord 
as'rjerted for her of the authorship of the * Song Amherst in August of the same year. It is 
of the Mariner's Wife,' or ' There's nae Luck memorable in history chiefly for one inci- 
aboot the House I ' a simple, humorous, and dent — the suppression of the free<lom of the 
touching lyric, one of the sweetest in any English press in India. James Silk Buck- 
language. This may have been an old and ingham, afterwards ^I.P. and founder of the 
iavourite song that she used to recite to her * Athenaeum,' had established the * Calcutta 
pupils ; but it is unlikely that such a strain Journal,' which published severe comments 
of home and married love could have been upon the government. Adam cancellKl 
written by this wayward and unwedded wo- Buckingham's license, without which no 
man. Her verses, although correct in phrase European could then reside in India, and 
and sentiment, are inflated and childish. ! passed regulations n^strictiug newspaper cri- 
This song was first heard in the streets, and ticism. Buckingham appealed to the court 
liawked for sale about 1772, and at length | of proprietors at home, to the House of Com- 
found a place in Herd's collection 1776, and | mons, and to the Privy Council ; but the 
in the 'Nightingale 'in 1778. After a time, | action of Adam was sustained by each of 
)>ecoming a g^reat favourite, it was claimed for these three bodies. Another unpopular act 
Jane Adams by some of her former pupils, ' of Adam's governor-generalship was to with- 
whu professed to have heard her recite it — if i draw official support frrun the banking firm 
M> it must have been forty years before. The ' of Palmer, who liad acquired a preponderant 
tradition is that it was written of Colin and I influence with the Nizam of the Deccan. 
Jean Campbell of Crawfordsdyke. A copy i Adam also desenes credit for being the first 
of it was found, in his own handwriting, ! Indian nder to appropriate a grant of public 
among the papers of Julius Mickle (the money for the encouragement of native edu- 
translator of Camoens's 'Lusiad'), who died cation. Adam's health had now broken 
in 1788. As this poet had a fertile imagina- I do'v^Ti. After in vain seeking relief by a 
tion and power of rich and varied versifica- voyage to Bombay, and by a visit to Almorah 
tion, and wrote very good songs and ballads, | in the lower Himalayas, he was ordered 
a counterclaim has been set up for him, al- j home to England. He died off Madagascar 
though, if correct, it is sin^ar that he never | on 4 June 1825. Tliough some of his public 
includedthesongamoDff his poems published acts involved him in unpopularity, his per- 
during his lifetime. Of the seven verses now , sonal character liad won him almost universal 



Adam 



88 



Adam 



g<oodwiU. His portfwt was painted by G, ^ 
ChJDDeiy for the Calcutta Town Hall. 

[A full account of John Aiam is giTen in die 
memmr in the Asiatia Journal for November 
I82S. There is sIho in the libnrf of tiie India 
Office, bound up in a. rolurae of tracte. A Short 
Notice of the Official Career and Private Cha- 
racter of the lal« J, Adam. Esq. (Calcutta: 
privately printed, 1826). Thia ie a pamphlet of 
16 pages, written b; G. Lnahington, evidently an 
iatlma(« friend ; but it ia aadly deficient in facta, 
the Bockingham iacident being not even referred 
to.] J. 8. C. 

ADAM, ROBERT (1728-17S 
tect, was the moat celebrated of 
brotheni Adam, John, Robert, James, and 
William, whoae relationship is commemo- 
rated in the name Adelphi, given to the i 
buildings erected b; them betiveen the 
Strand and the Thames on an estate known 
before as Durham Yard. Their father, 
William Adam of Meryburgh, who died | 
94 June 1748, was the architect of Ilope- 
toun House and the Royal Infirmary at 
Edinburgh, and held the appointment of 
king's mason at Edinburgh. Robert was 
the second son. He was bom at Kirk- 
caldy,and educated at Edinburgh University, | 
where he formed friendships with several | 
young men who afterwards became eminent. 
'Amongst these were David Hume, Dr. ! 
William Robertson <t!ie historian), Adam 
Smith, and Adam Ferguson. In 1754 he 
visited Italy in compnny with Clfriaseau, a 
French architect, and made a careful study 
of the ruins of the Kmperor Diocletians 
palace at Spalatro in Venetian Datmatia. 
Hisjoumal was printed in the 'Library of the 
Fine Arts,' and in 1764 he published a folio 
volume with numerous engravings by B»i^ 
toloui and others, after his drawings of the 
palace. In this important work he states 
that his object in selecting this ruin for 
special examination was its residential cha- 
racter, as the knowledge of classical architec- 
ture in England was derived exclusively 
from the ren)ains of public buildings. During 
his absence abroad he was elected F.R.S. 
and F.8.A.,Bnd on his retuni in 1762 he was 
im^iuted architect to the king and queen. 
Tina otBce he was obliged to resign in 1768, 
when he was returned to parliament as mem- 
ber for Kinross-shire. In 1769 the brothers 
commenced to build the Adelphi, a vast 
construction of arches on which roads were 
laid and houses built. Provision was made 
for wharfage and storage on the shores of 
the Thames, with access thereto from the 
Strand, completely separated from the fine 
streets and terrace above. To complete the 
project it was necessary to reclaim land from 



the Thames, and i 
e purpose, ii 



1771 ther obtained a 
bill for the purpose, in spite of the oppoution 
of the corporation of London, who claimed 
a right M the soil nnd bed of the river. This 
exteusivB speculation was not a (mmmerdal 
success, and in 1773 the brothers obtained 
another bill which aanctioned the dinMeal of 
the property by lottery. Robert and James 
had, however, now made a great reputatioa 
as classical architects, and for the remainder 
of their lives enjoyed more than any others 
of their profession the patronage of the aiie- 
tocracy. Amongst the most important of 
their works were Lord Mansfield's mansion 
at Caenwood, or Kenwood, near Hampfltead ; 
Luton House, in Bedfordshire; Oaterier 
House, near Brentford ; Eeddlestone, Derby- 
shire ; Compton Vemey, Warwickshire ; 
Shelbume (now Lanedowne) Houae in Ber- 
keley square i the screen fronting the high 
road, and extensive internal alterations of 
Sion or Syon House, Middlesex, the seat of 
the Duke of Northiimberliind ; the infirmary 
at Glasgow; the parish church at Mistley, 
Essex; the Register UIGce, Edinburgh; and 
the screen to the Admiralty Office, White- 
hall. The last named, which was built to 
hide the ugliness of Ripley's portico, ia one 
of the moat ele^nt and purely classical of 
their desians. The number and importance 
of their buildings in the metropolis ma- 
terially influenced and much improved the 
street architecture of London. They are 
I said to have originated the idea of eiving to 
' a number of unimportant private emficestbe 
'■ appearance of one imposing structure: and 
Portland, Stratford, and Hamilton Places, 
and the south and east sides of Fitirov 
Square, are instances of the manner in whic)i 
' they carried this principle into effect. An 
innovation of more doubtful service was 
their use of stucco in facing brick houaex. 
I Their right to theexclusive use of a composi- 
tion patented by Liardet, a Frenchman, was 
the subject of two lawsuits which they 
gained. 

Mr. James Fei^isson in his ' History of 
I Architecture'rates their knowledge of daeei- 
cal art below that of Sir William Chambers. 
He adds : ' Their grest merit — if merit it be 
— is that they stamped their works -with a 
certain amount of originality, which, had it 
been of a better quality, might have done 
something to emancipate art from its tram- 
mels. The principal characteristic of their 
style was the introduction of Tery large 
windows, generally without dressings. These 
they frequently attempted to group, thine or 
more together, by a great glsxed arch over 
them, so as to trv and make the whole side 
of a house look like one room.' Mr. Fer- 



Adam 



89 



Adam 



^usson thinks the college at Edinburgh the 
best of their works, ana says : ' We possess 
few public buildings presenting so truthful 
and well balanced a design as this/ 

Whatever were the architectural defects 
of their works, the brothers formed a style, 
which was marked, especially in their inte- 
riors, by a fine sense of proportion, and a 
very elegant taste in the selection and dis- 
position of niches, lunettes, reliefs, festoons, 
and other classical ornaments. It was their 
custom to design furniture in character 
with their apartments, and their works of 
this kind are still greatly prized. Amongst 
them may be specially mentioned their side- 
boards with elegant urn-shaped knife-boxes, 
but they also designed bookcases and com- 
modes, brackets and pedestals, clock-cases 
and candelabra, mirror frames and console 
tables, of singular and original merit, adapt- 
ing classical forms to modem uses with a 
success unrivalled by anyother designers of 
furniture in England. They designed also 
carriages and plate, and a sedan chair for 
Queen Charlotte. Of their decorative work 
generally it may be said that it was rich but 
neat, refined but not effeminate, chaste but 
not severe, and that it will probably have 
quite as lasting and beneficial efiect upon 
Knglish taste as their architectural struc- 
tures. 

In 1773 the brothers Hobert and James 
commenced the publication of their * Works 
in Architecture,^ in folio parts, which was 
continued at intervals till 1778 and reached 
the end of the second volume. In 1822 the 
work was completed by the posthumous 
publication of a third volume, but the three 
bound up together do not make a thick book. 

Robert Adam also obtained some reputa- 
tion as a landscane painter. As an architect 
he was extensively employed to the last. In 
the year preceding his death he designed no 
less than eight public works and twenty-five 
private buildings. He died at his house in 
Albemarle Street, from the bursting of a 
blood-vessel in his stomach, on 3 March 
1792. (>f the social position he attained, 
and the estimation in which he was held, no 
greater proof can be afforded than the record 
of his funeral in Westminster Abbey. His 
pall-bearers were the Duke of Buccleuch, the 
Earl of Coventry, the Earl of Lauderdale, 
Viscount Stormont, Lord Frederick Camp- 
bell, and Mr. Fulteney. 

[Ruins of Diocletian Palace by Bobert Adam ; 
the Worics in Architectnre of R. and J. Adam ; 
Encyclopedia Britannica; Gent. Mag. 1792; 
Bedgrave's Diet. ; FergusBon^s History of Archi- 
tecture; Annual Register, 1771, 1773, 1792.] 

CM. 



ADAM, THOMAS (1701-1784), divine, 
was bom at Leeds in the West Riding of 
Yorkshire on 26 Feb. 1701. His father was 
a solicitor and town-clerk of the corporation; 
his mother Elizabeth, daughter of Jasper 
Blythman— locally distinguished and aUied 
to an ancient ana noble house. They had 
six children, of whom Thomas was the third. 
He received his first education at the grammar 
school of his native town, then under an 
eminent master, Thomas Barnard ; later he 
was transferred to Wakefield, where Queen 
Elizabeth's school holds its own still. Then 
he proceeded to the university of Cambridge, 
entering Christ's College. He was speednv 
removed to Hart Half (now Hertford Col- 
lege), Oxford, by the influence of its founder, 
Dr. Newton. He took the degree of B.A., 
but took no further degree on account of 
certain scruples imbibed from his friend Dr. 
Newton's book on * Pluralities.' In 1724 
he was presented, through the interest of an 
uncle, to the living of VVintringham, Lin- 
colnshire. Being then under age ecclesi- 
astically, it was * held ' for a year for him. 
Here he remained over the long term of 
fifty-eight years, never wishing to change 
ana repeatedly resisting pressure put upou 
liim to look higher. His income rarely ex- 
ceeded 200/. per annum. He married Susan, 
daughter of tlie neighbouring vicar of Roxby. 
She died in 1760. They had one daujrhter 
orriy, who died young. He died on 31 March 
1784, in his 84th year. 

He is of the historical * Evangelical ' 
school, but his works are, with one exception, 
very common-place examples of the produc- 
tions of his school. He published * Practical 
Lectures on the Church Catechism ' — which 
ran to nine or ten editions — and * Evangelical 
Sermons ;' also ^Paraphrase and Annotations 
on the First Eleven Chapters of St. Paul's 
Epistle to the Romans.' His * Posthumous 
Works ' (3 vols. 8vo, 1786), and * Paraphrase 
and Annotations on the Four Gospels ' (2 vols., 
8vo, 1837), were printed and reprinted. The 
work by which his memory is preser\'ed is a 
selection from the * Posthumous Works,' en- 
titled ^ Private Thoughts on Religion.' These 
entries from his private diary, which were 
meant for no eyes but his own, bring before 
us a man of no common power of analytic and 
speculative thought, with an intrepidity 
and integrity of self-scrutiny perhaps unex- 
ampled, ne writes down problems started, 
and questionings raised, and conflicts gone 
through ; whilst his ordinarily flaccid style 
grows pungent and strong. Ever since their 
publication these * Private Thoughts' have 
exercised a strange fascination over intellects 
at opposite poles. Coleridge's copy 



Adam 90 Adam 

little volume (1795) — fortunately preserved j in a doffgerel poem, printed a few months 
in the British Museum (e 43 a 8) — remains later under the title of * Paradise Regained/ 
to attest, by its abounding markings, the { where Satan, disguised as Cerberus, is re- 
8|>ell it laid upon him, while such men as ! presented as tempting Adam to remove his 
Jiishop Heber, Dr. Thomas Chalmers, and enemy the Fox, who had begun to encroach 
John Stuart Mill, and others, have paid tri- i upon his domain. The poem concludes with 
bute to the searchingpower of the * thoughts.* i * the joy of the Israelites' at the survival of 
These * Private Thoughts * have never been al- , Fox : 

lowed to go out of print since their original ' The annii*tant fervent, 

publication. Thev are well known in the The broker not less joyfal ; nor was BnxdceSr 
I'nited States, andf have been translated into | Kenny, or Goostree less in thanksgiving. 
Welsh, Gaelic, and several European and 
Eastern languages. | In the course of the following year Adam 

[Life by J. StiUingfleet, prefixed to posthu- ' was appointed treasurer of the ordnance, and 
mous works, 1 785 ; Life by A. Westoby, prefixed j at the general election of 1780, transferring 
to ExpoHition of Gospels, 1837, with some ad- ' his candidature to the Wigton burghs, he 
(litional matter.] A. B. G. | was returned by that constituency as a sup- 

' porter of Lord North. After their duel Fox 

ADAM, WILLIAM (d. 1748), architect. | and Adam became intimate friends; and Earl 
rSee Adam, Robert.] ; Russell, referring to this fact in his 'Life and 

Times of C. J. Fox,' says : * Mr. Adam had that 

ADAM, WILLIAM (1761-1839), 

tician and lord chief commissioner 



), poli- I openness of temper and cordiality of diroosi- 
of the I tion which peculiarly suited Mr. Fox.* Other 



Scottish jury court, son of John Adam, archi- ' testimony exists as to the urbanity and probity 
tect, of Maryburgh, Kinross, who died in , of Adam's character. During Lord Shelbumes 
1792, and nephew of Robert and James Adam | administration(1782-3)hetooka leading part 
[seeADAM,jAMBS,rf.l794, and Adam, Robert, : in negotiating the coalition between Sorth 
1728-1792], was bom 2 Aug. 1751. He was i and S)x, and Shelbume, thoiigh he knew of 
called to the Scottish bar in 1773, and at the i this, came to him on one occasion as to a man 
general election in the following year, before * beloved by all parties.* In the * Rolliad * 
he had begun to practise, was returned to : Dundas writes in his hvpothetical journal : 
parliament for the now disfranchised borough * Our lawyers somehow aon*t answer — Adam 
of Gatton in Surrey. For some time he was and Anstruther worth them all — can't thev 
careful to mark his independence of both be bought? — &«fMm«i.'— damned strange if 
]M)litical parties ; but at the beginning of the 1 they can't. — Mem. to tell Rose t-o sound 
.session of 1779 he defiuitelv pledged his | them. Adam severe on me and the rest that 
allegiance to Lord North, declaring that I have betrayed Lord North.' The feet is that 
* although the ministers were not very com- Adam was almost alone in maintaining his 
petent, no persons more competent were to allegiance to North and Fox. When the 
be found among their opponents.' At the French revolution converted most of his 
))eginning of the November session in the friends into supporters of Pitt, and Fox was 
year just named, Fox, in the course of his | more and more isolated every year, Adam 
speecn on the address, said he could imagine was one of the staunchest followers of the 
the prime minister turning round on his | man to whom his bullet had been so nearly 
new defender and saying to him, ' Begone ! ' fatal. Meanwhile, he had been called to the 
l>egone, wretch ! who delightest in libelling , English bar in 1782, and family reasons soon 
mankind, confounding virtue with vice, ana ' compelled him to devote much of his time to 
insulting the man whom thou pretendest to the practice of his profession. He had a wife 
defend by saying to his face that he certainly and children ; his uncles, whose wealth and 
is infamous, but that there are others still i influence had assisted him at the outset of 
more infamous.' The result of this hx'per- his career, were now involved in misfortunes: 
liole was a duel in Hyde Park (29 Nov.), his father, owing to the same cause, could do 
when a good deal of courtesy and two pistol- 1 little or nothing for him. The treasurership 
shots were exchanged. Fox was slightly which had been conferred on him by North 
wounded, and his friends said that he might | was forfeited when North quitted office ; and, 
]>e thankful that Adam had only usetl go- though he regained it for a few months in 
vemment powder. It was insinuated out of 1783, the fall of the coalition again deprived 
doors that a deliberate attempt had been him of it. Under these circumstances Adam's 
made to get rid of the whig leader, who legal knowledge and acumen, aided by tact 
about this time was at the height of his and industry, stood him m good stead. He 
popularity. The idea was jocosely embodied figured henceforth chiefly as a legal member 



Adam 91 Adam 



if piurliament. In 1788 Thayin^ in the mean- 
ime been returned for tne Elgin burghs) he 
ms appointed one of the managers of the 
mpeachment of Warren Hastings, and on 



the reprimand of the speaker for his letter, as 
an amendment to the motion for committal ; 
and he was again in a minority on a motion 
that it should be ' a high, breach of the privi- 



15 April he opened the second charge — that | leges of the House of Commons ' to bring an 
relating to the Begums of Oude— in an ex- ' action against any of its officers for 'pro- 
tiaustive and ornate speech before the House i ceedings taken in obedience to the directions 
3f Lords. In the course of his peroration he i of the nouse/ This was his last transaction 



»aid : * My lords, I accuse Warren Hastings 
df nothing but what the law in every man's 
breast condenms, what the light of nature 
condemns, the light of common reason and 



of any importance in parliament. He was 
appointed a privy councillor in 1816, and 
lorn chief commissioner of the Scottish jury 
court in 1816; and he also held the appoint- 



the light of common society, those principles ments of lord lieutenant of Kinross-shire, 
that pervade the globe, those principles that counsellor of state to the prince re^nt in 
must influence the actions of all created Scotland, and counsel to the £ast India Com- 
beings, those principles that never can vary I pany. He was an intimate friend of Sir 
in any clime or in any latitude.' lu 1790 he : Walter Scott. He died at the age of 87, on 
found a fourth seat in parliament as member ' 17 Feb. 1839. 

for Ross-shire, and took a somewhat active Adam had married, in 1776, Eleanora, 
part in the opposition to Pitt. In 1794 he < daughter of the tenth Lord £lphinstone, by 
moved an address to the throne praying it whom he had four sons. The eldest, John 
to interpose the royal justice and clemency in Adam, became acting governor-general of 
behalf of Thomas Muir and Thomas Fyshe i India, and died in 1825, soon after the ex- 
Palmer, a barrister and a clergyman, who piration of his term of office. The second. Sir 
had been convicted of ^ leasing making,' and \ Charles Adam, was the admiral already no- 
sentenced to fourteen and seven years penal j ticed. The third, William Gteorge, succeeded 
servitude respectively. The Scottish law al- ! his father as auditor to the Duke of Bedford, 
lowed no appeal from the court of justiciary, | The fourth. Lieutenant-general the right hon. 
and Adam's mot ion was unsuccessful. Shortly Sir Frederick Adam, G.C.B., was lord hi^h 
after this he retired from parliament, having commissioner of the Ionian Isles. Chief 
been appointed auditor to the Duke of Bed- Commissioner Adam published, in addition 
ford ; and in 1796 he took silk. In 1803 he to the speeches and letters mentioned above, 
iras asked by the duke to obtain the with- * A Description and llepresentation of the 
irawal of certain unfounded charges made Mural Monument in Calcutta Cathedral to 
igainst the former duke in a pamphlet by the memory of John Adam, designed and 
lohn Bowles; and a correspondence 18 extant executed by Richard Westmacott, R.A.' 
between Adam and Bowles on this subject (1827); * Remarks on the Blair Adam Estate,' 
—the letters of the former being dated from 1834 ; * The lia^an's Rolls ' (edited, in con- 
Lincoln's Inn, and subsequently from Wobum junction with Sir Samuel Shepherd, for the 
Abbey. In the year 1806 Adam (who was Banna tyne Club, 1834) ; and a volume on 
now attorney-general to the Prince of Wales, the Scottish jury system, 
ind keeper of the ^reat seal for the duchy of [Earl Russell's Life and Times of C. J. Fox ; 
Cornwall) was a^ain returned to parliament Paradise Regain'd, or the Battle of Adam and 
IS member for Kmcardineshire ; and in 1807 | the Fox (1780) ; The Kolliad : Bond's Speeches 
for the county of Kinross. He was engaged of the Managers and Counsel in the Trial of 
to act as a trustee for the Duke of York in cer- Warren Hastings, vol. i.; Correspondence be- 
tain private matters; and in 1809 he made a ^"^^^'^ ^^r. Adam and Mr. Bowles, respecting the 
»peech in the house defending his conduct in ^^^^ o^ ^^e latter on the character of the late 

the course of an inquiry relative to the duke^s P"^® ^^-.^^^"^t^I?^?? '• ^'«"^- ?I^' ^^^y 
connection with Sirs. Ckrke. Two vears ,^^39; Life by G. L. Craik in the Dictionary of 

latPT hp snoke freouentlv during the deUt^a ^^® '^- ^- ^- ^' (^^^'^ ^° information 8i>ecially 
later nespoKeirequentiyaurmg tne debates , eommnnicated); Lockhart's Life of Scott, ch. 60; 
m Burdett s famous letter to Ins constitu- ^^j ^^^^^ ^^^y^^^ published by Adam in his 
?nts, which the house declared libellous and lifetime.! L. S-r. 

K^ndalous. When Burdett brought his ac- i 

ions against the speaker and the sergeant, ' ADAM, WILLIAM PATRICK (182:1- 
\dam was appointed in his absence on a 1881), of Bluir Adam, for some years * whip' 
select committee to consider the proceedings of the liberal party in the House of Commons, 
^hich should be taken, but he refused to and afterwards governor of Madras, was the 
ittend the meetings. He had previously been ; elder son of Admiral Sir Charles Adam of 
iefeated in moving that Burdett should be ' Blair Adam, N.B. [see Adah, Sir Charles! 
summoned to attend in his place and receive His motherwas Elizabeth, daughter of PatricK 



Adam 



92 



Adam nan 



Brydone, F.R.S. Bom in 1823, Adam waa 
educated at Rugby, and at Trinity College,* 
Cambridge, where he took Iiis degree of B.A. 
in 1846. Three years later he was called to 
the bar by the Inner Temple, and in 1850 he 
cont^ted unsuccessfully in the liberal interest 
the constituency of Clackmannan and Kinross, 
which his father had represented from 1833 to 
1841, and which had returned his grandfather 
and great-grand-uncle to parliament in 1807 
and 1768 respectively. From 1863 to 1858 
Adam was in India as private secretary to 
l-iord Elphinstone, governor of Bombay. In 
1 859, after his ret uni to England, he contested 
for a second time Clackmannan and Kinross, 
and on this occasion with success. For the 
succeeding twenty-one years he continued to 
represent this constituency. In 1 865 he be- 
came a lord of the treasury in Lord Palmers- 
ton's government, and was reappointed to 
that post when Mr. Gladstone tooK office in 
1868. In 1873 he was nominated first com- 
missioner of public works, and admitted to 
the privy council. But the dissolution of 

Earliament early in the following year drove 
im and his party from office. As the * whip * 
or organiser of the liberal minority, while the 
conservatives under Lord Beaconsfield were 
in power ( 1874-80), Adam rendered valuable 
services to his party. His advice was con- 
stantly sought, not only by his leaders, but 
by liberal supporters throughout the coimtry, 
and his energy greatly contributed to the 
success of the liberals in tlie election of 1880, 
u success that he confidently foretold amid 
many apparently discouraging omens. In 
Mr. Gladstone's ministry of 1880 Adam re- 
sumed his former post of first commissioner 
of works ; but before the end of the year he 
accepted the governorship of Madras, which 
the Duke of Buckingham and Chandos had 
vacated. On 27 Nov. 1880, after being enter- 
tained by his political friends at complimen- 
tary dinners in Edinburgh and London, Adam 
left for India ; but a few months after he had 
entered on his duties at Madras he was seized 
with an illness, from which he had suffered 
at earlier periods of his life, and died at Oo- 
tacamund 24 May 1881. There, two days 
later, he was buried. 

Adam married in 1856 Emily, daughter of 
General Sir William Wyllie, G.C.B. The 
oddest son, Charles Elphinstone Adam, was 
created a baronet in recognition of his father s 
public services, 20 May 1882. Adam owed 
the successes of his political life to his solid 
administrative capacity and his universally 
popular manner. He was no brilliant 
t<peaker, and, although often invited, rarely 
took part in public meetings, which would 
have made him familiar to the general pubbc. 



He was the author of a small pamphlet, 
entitled * Thoughts on the Policy of Retalia- 
tion and it« probable Effect on the Con- 
sumer, Producer, and Shipowner,' London, 
1852. 

[Times, 25 May and 30 May 1881 ; Foster*8 
Members of Parliament for Scotland, p. 6.1 

8. L.L. 

ADAMNAN, or ADOMNAN (62d?- 
704), is supposed to have been bom, about625, 
in the south-west of the part of Ulster now 
known as Donegal, with the principal septa 
of which his parents were aUieo. Few details 
w^hich can be accepted as authentic have been 

Preserved in relation to Adamnan's career, 
n 679 he was elected abbot of lona, being 
the ninth in succession to his eminent kins- 
man Columba, by whom the monastic insti- 
tution on that island had been founded. 
Through his personal application, in 686, to 
Aldfrid, king of Nortnumbria, Adamnan 
effected the liberation of some of the Irish 
who had been carried off by pirates and re- 
tained in captivity there. About this period 
he became an advocate for adopting the 
Roman regulations as to the tonsure, and in 
relation to the time for the celebration of 
Easter. The Latin life of St. Columba— 
* Vita ColumbflB ' — who died in 597, is sup- 
posed to have been compiled by Adamnan m 
the inter\'al between his visits to Ireland in 
692 and 697. He is stated to have taken 
part in conventions and synods in Ireland, 
enactments ascribed to which were styled 
' Adamnan^s Kule ' and ' Canones Adonmani.* 
The latter, consisting of eight sections, were 
published by Martene. Adamnan died at 
lona in 704, on 23 Sept., on which d^ he 
was commemorated as a saint in old Irish 
and Scottish calendars. To the high cha- 
racter and learning of Adamnan strong testi- 
mony is to be found in the statements of his 
contemporaries, Bede and Ceolfrid. Alcuin, 
in the eighth century, classed Adamnan with 
St. Columbanus and other 

Prsclari fratres, morum vitaeque magistri. 

The claim of Adamnan to the biogpraphy 
of Columba was questioned in former times, 
but the work is now generally ascribed to 
him. The author mentions that he had con- 
versed with persons acquainted with St. 
Columba, and in the third book he has in- 
corporated a narrative attributed to Cum- 
meneus or Cumine, abbot of lona from 657 
to 669. Pinkerton considered Adanman's life 
of Columba to be ' the most complete piece 
of such biography that all Europe can boast 
of, not only at so early a period, but through- 
out the whole middle ages.' The enicUte 



Adamnan 93 Adamnan 



Alexander P. Forbes, late bishop of Brechin, 
observed that this bio«^i>hy ' is the solitary 
record of a portion of the history of the church 



this is the production of Adamnan. It may^ 
however, hd justly regarded as * one of the 
strangest of those medifeval visions which 



of Scotland, and, with the exception of Bede begin with that of the Irish saint Fursa, and 
and the Pictish Chronicle, the chief trust- i culminate in that of the * Divina Commedia/ 
worthy monument till we come to the Mar- Adamnan's * Vision,' with an English version^ 
gkretan reformation/ The Count de Monta- was printed in 1870. A more diffuse Irish 
lembert characterised the 'Vita Columbie' version of the composition is extant in a 
as * un des monuments les plus vivants, les manuscript of the fourteenth century, styled 
plus attrayants et les ^us authentiques de ' Leabhar Breac,' also in the library of the 
rhistoire chr6tienne.' To Adamnan we are Royal Irish Academy. From this copy ex- 
indebted for a treatise entitled *De Locis tracts were given by J ohnO'Donovan,LL.D., 
Sanctis,' an account of Palestine and other I in his grammar of the Irish language, pub- 
countries. This, Adamnan states, was written lished in 1845. 

bv him from the dictation of Arculfiis, a An unsuccessful effort was made in Ire- 
Frankish bishop, who had visited Palestine, land, towards the commencement of the six- 
Arculfus had been shipwrecked on the British teenth century, by O'Donnell, lord of portion 
coast, and was hospitably received at lona of the Ulster district of which Adamnan 
by Adamnan, to whom he recounted his ad- was believed to have been a native, to pro- 
ventures. The book was brought by Adamnan cure copies of his *Vita Columbse.* The 
to Aldfirid, king of Northumbria, and by his object in view was the compilation of a 
liberality several transcripts were made of it. history of that saint, and some of the results 
Bede also noticed it in his 'History,' and gave were embodied in a finely written manu- 
an abridgment of it. The treatise ' De LK>cis script, now extant in the Bodleian Library. 
Sanctis ' was one of the earliest detailed ac- Reproductions of portions of this volume, m 
counts of the Holy Land produced in Europe, which Adamnan is specially referred to, will 
It is divided into three books, treating of tlie be found in the third part of the ' Facsimiles 
holyplaces. Tyre, Alexandria, Constantinople, of National Manuscripts of Ireland,' plates 
and Sicily. The narrative of Arculfus re- Ixvi., Ixvii. The first edition of the * Vita 
mained long in manuscript, and the publica- Columbse ' appeared in the ' Lectiones Anti- 
tion of it in its integrity was to some extent quie' of Canisius in 1601. It was again, 
the result of criticisms by Isaac Casaubon with other Lives of Saints, published by 
on the 'Annales Ecclesiastic!' of Cardinal Surius in 1617, by Thomas Messingham in 
Baronius. Casaubon severely animadverted 1624, by John Colgan in 1647, by the Bol- 
on the cardinal for havingimplicitly accepted landists in 1698, by Basnage in 1725, and by 
statements by Arculfus. The laborious Jesuit, Pinkerton in 1789. In 1845 an ancient copy 
Jacob Gbetser, however, imdertook to vindi- of the * Life of Columba ' was found at tne 
cate Baronius, and published the entire bottomofabook-chest in the library of Schaff- 
treatise of Arculfus firom an ancient codex hausen by Dr. Ferdinand Keller. From this 
at Ingolstadt in 1619, with the title ' Adam- codex, which is ascribed to the eighth century, 
naniAbbatisHiiensislibritresde locis Sanctis and from six other manuscripts, a valuable 
ex relatione Arculfi, Episcopi GkUi.' Gretser, edition of the work was proauced in 1857 
in his ' Prolegomena,' vigorously assailed by the Rev. William Reeves, D.D., through 
Casaubon for having, on insufiicient informa- the co-operation of the Bannatyne Club 
tion, impugned the authenticity of the state- and the Irish Archaeological Society. An- 
ments of Arculfus. Another edition was other edition was published at Edinburgh in 
published at Paris in 1672 by d'Achery and 1874. 

Mabillon from manuscripts m the Vatican [Monumenta Historica Britannica, London, 

and at Corbie. Gretser s edition was re- 1848; Acta Sanctomm Ordinis S. Benedicti, 

printed in the fourth volume of his works, Pans. 1672; Thesaurus Nevus studio Martene 

Lssued at Ratisbon in 1734. ®^ Durandi, Paris, 1717 ; I. Casauboni Exerdta- 

A composition in old Irish language, styled ^^^^^^'Z'^^JS^^ m ' ?^^ ^' Martyrology of Done- 

'Adamnan's Vision,' is extant ma manu- «*^1864; Flonlegium Insula Sanctorum. Pans, 



— ^ — , — • — f —- — ^— -— — ™, . — . > ->, 

Ti^ti- fm.' J X-" _x ^ •- Edinburgh, 1874; Vitae Antiqu» Sanctorum, 

Dublin. This production purports to give London, 1789 ; Enquiry into History of Scothind, 
an account of 'what was shown to Adanman London, 1789 ; Montalembert. Lea Moines d'Oc- 
<when his soul went forth from his body, cident, Paris, 1866, tom. iii; Fis Adamnain, 
and when he was taken to Paradise and to I Simla, 1870 ; Facsimiles of National MSS. of 
HelL' There is no distinct evidence that ! Ireland, London, 1879.] J. T. G. 



Adams 



94 



Adams 



ADAMS, ANDREW LEITH {d, 1882), 
zoologist, became an army surceoii in 1848, 
and surffeon-major in 1861. He reported on 
the Maltese cholera epidemic in 1865, and, 
having retired from the army in 1873, was 
appointed professor of zoology in the College 
of Science, Dublin, and in 1878 became pro- 
fessor of natural history in Queen's College, 
Cork. His principal works are: * Wander- 
ings of a Naturalist in India,' * The Western 
Himalayas and Cashmere ' (1867), * Notes of 
a Naturalist in the Nile Valley and Malta * 
(1870), * Field and Forest Rambles, with 
Notes and Observations on the Natural 
History of Eastern Canada' (1878), and his 
* Monograph on the British Fossil Elephants ' 
(1877). He was elected F.G.S. in 1870, and 
F.R.S. in 1872. 



[Nature, xxvi. 377.] 



O. T. B. 



ADAMS, CLEMENT (1519 P-1687), 
schoolmaster and author, was bom at Buck- 
ington, Warwickshire, about 1519. He was 
educated at Eton, whence he was elected to 
King's College, Cambridge, 17 Aug. 1636, of 
which he is supposed to have been elected 
fellow in 1539. He took the degree of B. A. 
in 1540-1, and of M.A. in 1544, and was ap- 
pointed schoolmaster to the king's henclimen 
at Greenwich 3 May 1652, at a salary of 10/. 
per annum. He died 9 Jan. 1586-7, and 
was buried at St. Alphege, Greenwich. 

The earliest mention of Adams in the 
printed literature of the sixteenth century is 
by his contemporary, Richard Eden, the father 
of English geography. From the pages of 
his little read and less known * Decades ' we 
learn that Clement Adams was a school- 
master and not a traveller. To Adams we 
owe the first written account of the earliest 
English intercourse with Russia. PMen 
writes : * Wheras I have before (p. 252) 
made mention howe Moscouia was in our 
tyme discoured by the direction and infor- 
mation of the sayde master Sebastian [Ca- 
bote] who longe before had this secreate in 
his minde, I shall not neede here to describe 
that viage, forasmuch as the same is largely 
and faithfully written in the I^tyn tonge by 
that lemed young man, ClemenJt Adams, 
scol mayster to the Queenes henshemen (i.e. 
pages of honour) as he received it at the 
mouth of the sayde Richard Chancelor.' 

The incidental allusion to the old pilot 
major Sebastian Cabot has some significance 
in connection with Adams. Cabot, it is well 
known, made a famous Mappe-monde, re- 
cording, among other things, tne discoveries 
of himself and his father, John Cabot, along 
the coast of 'Newfoundland' in 1497, the 
date of which discovery has been the subject 



of much debate among geographers and an- 
tiquaries. A contemporary copy of Cabot's 
map, discovered in Germany, is preserved 
in the Bibliothdque Nationale in Fans, the 
original of which is now lost, in a volume 
edited by Nathan Chytraeus, first published 
in 1594. It would appear that tnere was 
also a copy preserved at Oxford at the period 
named; be this as it may, we learn from 
Hakluyt, in 1584, that yet another copy was 
made and ' cut ' by Adams, which was evi- 
dently well known at the period, for we read 
in a MS. by Haklujrt on * Westeme Plant- 
ing' (discovered in 1864) of *the copye of 
[Gabote's] map sett out by Mr. Clements 
Adams, and is in many marchants houses in 
London.' Hakluyt, five years lat^r, amplifies 
this statement as to the map by Adams, 
in quoting a legend relating to the disco- 
veries of the Cabots to be found upon it, 
described by him as ' an extract taken out 
of the mapne of Sebastian Cabot, cut by 
Clement Aaams, concerning his [Cabot's] 
discovery of the West Indias which is to be 
seene in her Maiesties privie gallerie at 
Westminster, and in many other ancient 
merchants houses.' No copy of this map 
engraved by Adams is now known to exist. 
The only basis for the assumption that he 
was a traveller is the association of his name 
with that of Richard Chancellor. That he 
did not accompany Chancellor in his first 
voyage to Russia in 1653 is certain, for the 
name of every person above the remk of an 
ordinar\^ seaman that accompanied both Sir 
Hugh Willoughby and Chancellor in the 
voyage is preserved to us in the pages of 
Hakluyt (cf. edition of 1589, p. 266). The 
name of the only clerkly person among the 
two crews was that of John Stafford, * mi- 
nister ' on board the ' Edward Bonaventure,' 
commanded by Chancellor. 

The work referred to bv Eden was com- 
mitted to writing by Adams upon Chan- 
cellor's return irom his first voyage to 
Russia in 1554. The title runs thus : * rJova 
Anglorum ad Moscovitas navigatio Hu- 
gone Willowbeio equite classis pwefecto, 
et Richardo Cancelero nauarcho. Authore 
Clemente Adamo, Anglo.' It was first printed 
by Hakluyt in his Collections of 1589. This 
is followed by a translation headed thus i 
* The newe Nauigation and discouerie of the 
kingdome of Moscouia, by the North east, in 
the yeere 1553; Enterprised by Sir Huffh 
Willoughbie, knight, and perfourmed by 
Richard Chanceler, Pilot maior of the voyage. 
Translated out of the former Latine into 
English,' probably by Hakluyt himself. In 
the two subsequent editions of Hakluyt the 
Latin text by Adams is omitted. 



Adams 9S Adams 

[The Decades of the Newe Worlde, by Peter he had a large share in compiling the last 

Martyr Angleria, translated by Bicharde Eden, edition of that lexicon, especially the Eng- 

I^ndon. 1556, 4to, p. 266 ; History of Trauayle ligh-Greek portion. He also published * Arun- 

in the E. and W. Indies, by R. Eden, aug- dines Devw/ or poetical translations on a new 

mented by R. WiUes Load. 1577, 4top 268 ; principle, by a Scotch physician, 8vo, Edin- 

"*^^^ Werteme PUntmg 1684. MS^rst ^ ^ 1353 ^^ j^ ^^j ^^^ ^ translation 

pnntea m^ame. Hist, ftoc (^Uections,^ of 'Hero and Leander^from the Greek of 

Na^g^ioni.,' Lind!"i689 fol.. "l.' 270-292 ; Mimms with other poems (Abcrdeen,1820). 
ibid. 2nd edition. 1699-1600. k.. iii. 6; I . But Adams s most important labours were 
Mamius and Anbrius, Rerom Moscovitiearum ' ^^ ^'^^ subject of Greek medicine, a de- 
Auctores varii, Francofurti, 1600, fol. ; Major's partment of learning m which he effectetl 
Notes npon Rnmia. 1862, ii. 194 ; Cooper's more than had been done by any Britisli 
Athens Cantab, ii. 6, 641 ; PepysMS. 6821 (102) scholar for nearly a century and a half. His 
3Iagd. ColL Camb. ; aJso MSS. Cotton, Julius B. attention was first drawn to the subject by a 
ix. 46 ; Harl. 7033, 96], C. H. C. 1 Dr. Kerr, of Aberdeen, whose library, after 

' his death, Adams acquired, and made the 

ADAMS, FRANCIS (1796-1861), phy- foundation of his studies. In 1834 he pub- 
sicianandclaA8ical8cholar,waBbom 13 March lished the first volume of a translation of 
1796 at Lumphanan, Aberdeenshire, the son Paulus ^Egineta, but the publication was 
of James Adams, a small farmer, was edu- interrupted by the failure of the publisher, 
cated at a parish school, and afterwards at The scheme was afterwards taken up by the 
the grammar school, Aberdeen. On entering Sydenham Society of London, and tne com- 
the latter at the age of 15, he found himself ])let« translation published in three volimies 
backward in classical attainments, and with (^The Seven B<K)ks of Paulus JBgineta, 
extraordinary energy devoted, in his own translated from the Greek, with a Commen- 
words, 'seventeen hours a day to the study tary,' Lond. 1844-7, 8vo). The translation 
of Virgil and Horace,' reading each of these , is useful, as the only English one of the 
authors six or seven times in succession, writer, but the chief value of the work re- 
( >btaining a bursary at King's College, Old sides in the commentary, which shows wide 
Aberdeen, he graduated there M.A., and after- j and accurate learning, and gives a fuller 
wards studied medicine. Coming to I^ondon, ' account of Greek and Roman medicine (to 
he became a member of the College of Sur- some extent of Arabian also) than is else- 
geons, 1 Dec. 1815, but, returning to Scot- where accessible in English, or perhaps in 
land, settled as a medical practitioner in the any modem language. Clonsidering the iso- 
small village of Banchory Teman, where he lated position of the writer, remote from 
spent the remainder of his life. He received . great libraries and immersed in professional 
an honorary LL.D. from the university of work, it is a very remarkable performance. 
Glasgow 6 Nov. 1846, and the degree of M.D., Adams afterwards prepared for the Sy den- 
also honorary, from " 
8 Nov. 1856. He 
Adams married the 

Shaw, by whom he left a family. His second translated from the Greek,' Loncfon, 1849^ 
son was Andrew Leith Adams [q. v.]. 2 vols. 8vo). This is valuable as the only 

Dr. Francis Adams combined in a remark- complete English version, and the introduc- 
able manner the character of a busy country tion and notes are important. He further 
doctor and an indefatigable scholar. Through brought out, under the auspices of the same 
the whole of his life his fondness for classical society, an edition of Aretaeus, the revised 
and especially Greek literature amounted to Greek text with an English translation. Both 
a passion. Though unceasingly engaged in parts are valuable, and especially so consider- 
bis profession, he found time to read 'almost ing the paucity of such works published in 
every Greek work which has come down to England (* The Extant Works of Aretajus 
ufl from antiquity, except the ecclesiastical , the Cappadocian, edited and translated by 
writers,' and to produce some important i F. Adams,' London, 1856, 8vo). This wort, 
works. In pure scholarship his chief works j involving reference to important libraries, 
were ' Hermes Philologus,' on the difference brought Adams into communication with 
between the Greek and Latin syntax, &c. many English and foreign scholars, and pro- 
{8vo, London, 1826); papers on Greek prosody, cured for him his honorary degree mm 
&c. in the ' Classical Journal,' and an appen- Aberdeen. 

dix to Dunbar's ' Greek Lexicon,' containing Adams was regarded as a good practi- 
yaluable explanations of the Greek names of tioner and skilful operator. He showed his 
animals, plimt«, &c. It is understood that interest in his profession by frequent visits to 




Adams 96 Adams 

the surgical wards of the Aberdeen infirmary. ' of the 'sadness and discontent' which sat 
His medical writings consisted solely of i 'upon every brow' at his absence when, 
memoirs, of which the most important were in fulfilment of his duties as a lord of the 
' On the Human Placenta ' (' London Med. . bedchamber, he was called away to ' shine- 
Gazette/ 1848, &c. ; reprinted Aberdeen | as a star in its proper sphere near the person 
1858), *0n Uterine Hsemorrhage,' *0n a i of his majesty.* The context of these pas- 
Case of Dislocation of the E^iee^oint,' &c. | sa^es shows the author to have been an 
Tliese memoirs show, along with much I ardent protestant and a devoted partisan 
learning, a strong tendency to paradox^-e.g. of the Hanoverian succession. In addition 
Adams obstinately refused to believe that ' to his translation of Sophocles, Adams 
the sounds of the foetal heart could be heard j wrote what Mr. D. E. lAvy calls * The 
by auscultation. He was an excellent natural- ' Heathen Martvr' (ilfSl Additions to Chra-- 
ist, being well versed in the botany and omi- duati CantabrtgienseSy 1823), and what the 
thology of Scotland, especially of Deeside. ■ * Gentleman's Magazine ' for October 1746, 
After Adams's death a monument was ' p. 560, registers amongst the books and 
erected to his memory at Banchory by public pamphlets published during that month aa 
subscription. It is a granite obelisk, bearing | *The Life of Socrates: an Historical Tran 
a Latin inscription by Professor Geddes of gedy,' 8vo, London, 1746. It is not unlikely 
Aberdeen. His bust in marble, by Brodie, that Adams was the author of *An E2xpo- 
is in the university of Aberdeen, having been sition of some Articles of Religion, which 
presented by his son. Dr. Leith Adams. strike at the Tenets of the Arians and So- 

Adams's reputation in his own special j cinians. Likewise at the Infidels, Romanists, 
field of scholarship is very high. His trans- j Lutherans, and Oalvinists. In several Ser- 
lations are good and generally accurate, mons and Dissertations,' 8vo, London, 1752. 
though not brilliant and not always elegant. | In a Latin dedication to Dr. Thomas Sher- 
His notes are less valuable for critical in- | lock, bishop of London, the author of this 
sight than for their richness in accessory ; work describes himself as having exercised 
learning. The achievement of so much good his sacred office {sacro munere) in that dio- 
work, under such difficulties, cannot but be ; cese for a period of over twenty years. It is 
regarded as evidence of a very remarkable i equally possible further to ciiedit him with 
character. another volume, the identity of whose author- 

Besides the works mentioned above, Adams ship with that of the * Exposition ' is gene- 
wrote numerous papers and reviews in medi- raihr accepted, by * George Adams, M.A.,' 
cal journals. i entitled * A System of Divinity, Ecclesias- 

[Aberdeen Herald, 2 March 1861 ; Scotisman, tical History, and Morality. Collected from 
27 Feb. and 9 March 1861 (notice copied in Mod. the Writings of Authors of various Nations 
Times and Gazette, 1 86 1 , i . 292) ; MS. communi- and Languages, and from the noblest Doctors 
cations from family and other friends.] of the Christian Church,' 8vo, London, 1768. 

J. F. P. xiie likelihood of the identity of the author 




was sometime a fellow of St. John's College, question has so far remained unanswered. 
Cambridge (Coopbk, New Biographical Dio- Adams may have been the same with the 
fi<mary\ where he took his degrees of B.A. Rev. George Adams who was preferred to be 
and M.A. respectively in 1719 and 1735 | prebendary of Seaford on 24 Aug. 1736, and 
(Graduati CantabrigienseSy 1787). Between of Wittering on 28 Oct. following, both in 
these two datea he published the work by i the cathedral church of Chichester, and who 
which he is best known, entitled * The ' resigned the former in 1736-7, and vacated 
Tragedies of Sophocles, translated from the the latter in 1751-2 (Lb 1!^etb'b Fasti Ecde- 
Greek. With Notes Historical, Moral, and ffus Anglicans (ed. Hardy, London, 1854), ii. 
Critical,' 2 vols., 8vo, London, 1729. At this ' 274-5). Of course the ' System of Divinity ^ 
time he was either beneficed or otherwise i may have been of posthumous publication; 
established in the immediate neighbourhood but if the foregoing surmises be correct, 
of Kimbolton Castle, for, in the dedication I Adams nrobably died not before 1768, the 
of his * Sophocles ' to William, fifth earl and ' year of the issue of his latest work, when he- 
s*»cond duKe of Manchester, with whom he was about seventy years of age. 
was on terms of intimacy or acquaintance- , [Dedication of the Tragedies of Sophoclea, 
ship, he speaks of the joy diffiised by his 1729, and of An Exposition, &c., 1762; Gent 
grace's presence amongst those* who lived Mag. Oct. 1746 ; Watt's Bibliotheca Britannica.1 
near the place of his usual residence,' and A H. 0. 



ADASfS, GFAIKGE, tli^ elder (rf. 1773), 
nuitbpRUiticaluutriimi^DlitialiertoOeorg^III, 
olitMDed It world-wide reputatitin a« » maker 
of celestial and terrestrial dubni, aud bin 
' treatise dtwcribing and explaining tbe con- 
atniction and use of new celeeti^ nnd ter- 
rwl rial elobm ' pa^ed through thirty edit ioiia. 
Tlie b«nk first appi^red in 1T66, and its div 
dicati'in to the tiing has been altribuli'd 
In Dr. Johnson, The thirtieth edition wub 
i^ued in ISIO, with a preface and additions 
hj Adoms'G joung«?r son Dudley. Adama 
vTBB aJao the author of: I. ' Microgmphia 
lUiutmta, or the knowledg* of the micro- 
•^ope explained' (1746), which includod ' a 
Ir*nslation of Mr. Joblott's observations ou 
animalcidKi'and passed through four editions 
between ita date of publication and 1771. 
2. 'The Description and Use of a new Sea- 
nuadrant for taldng the altitude of the sun 
from the Tisihle horizon' (1748). 3. "Hie 
Description and Use of the UniTersal Trigo- 
nometrical Octant, invented and applied to 
Hadie^'a Quadrant' (1753). Adams died in 
1 773, according to the statement of his second 
*on, Dudley Adams, in his preface to the 
ibirtietb edition of his work on the globes, 
and not in 1786 as previous biographers have 
jtAt«d. 

[Dudlc; Adanu's oditton of the Treatise on the 
(H(>!*s (IBIO); A. de Morgan in S. D, U. K. 
Biop. Piol. i Brit. Mils, Cat.] 

ADAJIS, GEORGE, the younger (1750- 
I79."i), wn;* the son of George Adams [q. T.], 
the mulhematical instrument maker to 
Qefirge in, and succeeded his father in that 
'i0ic« and in the auperiutendence of his hiisi- 
oe«s. lie was the author of a large number of 
■-Ivmentaryscientilic works, which, according 
to a writM in the ' British Critic,' were so 
comprise a regular and sys- 
utic instruction in the moat important 
I of natural science with all it« 
H improvements.' Healaowrotelargoiy 
AU the use of mathematical instruments, and 
hi« books on that subject were highly valued. 
Id pnlitice he was a staunch tnry, and as 
■iich was received with favour at court by 
George III. In many of his published works 
hr combined a relisious with a scientific aim, 
and 'applied all Lis knowledge,' says the 
' Gentleman's Magazine,' ' to the best of 
piirpiMOs — to combat the growing errors of 
materialism, infidelity, and anarchy.' He 
dimJ 14 Aug. 1796, at Southampton, and was 
succeeded in hia business and in the post nf 
natbeniBlical instrument maker to the king 
is brother, Dudley Adams. His works 
■ ' ■ 1 Essay on Electricity, to which 
I Essay on Magnetism' (17841. 




"i. •E«sny»oniheMicn)Sei)pe'(l787). 3. 'An 
Kasay on Vision, briefly explaining the &bric 
of the eye' (1789). 4. ' Astronomioftl and 
Geograptucal Essays' (1790). 6. 'A Short 
Dissertation on the Barometer' (1790). 
6. ' Geometrical and Graphical Essays, con- 
taining a description of the mathematical 
instrunenta used in geometry, civil and 
military surTeyiag,IeveUinB and perspeclive' 
11790). 7. 'Leclures on Natural nnd Ex- 
perimental Philosophv,' in five volumes 
(1704). To many of Adams's books elaborate 
plates were pubfished separately, and almost 
all of them passed through more tbaji one 
edition. 



logist. entered the Society of Jesus a 
ten, and afterwards became professor of 
languages at the college of St. Omnr. lie 
left for Edinburgh mi the breaking out of 
the French revolution. After serving as a 
missionary for many years he died at Dublin, 
7 Dee. 1803. Heh'ad it iu contemplation 
to publish his ' Tour through the Hebrides,' 
being much disgiiatod with tho work of that 
' ungrateful depreciating cynic, Dr. Johnson.' 
His work on the ' Pronunciation of the Eng- 
lish Language' eonlaius, according to Park, 
' many iuKcnioiis remarks on languages and 
dialects, though the style of the writer is cha- 
racterised by much whimsical eccentricity.' 
He was the author of the following work^: 
1. ' Early Rules for taking a Likeness ' (fiom 
ttei'renchofBonamici),8vo, 1792. 2.'Oratio 
Academica, Anglice et liatine conacripta,' 
8to, 1793. 3. ' Euphonoiogia Lingua Angli- 
canie, Laline et Oallice scripla, 1794, 8vo. 
4. 'Ilie Pronunciation of the English Lan- 
guage vindicated from imputed Anomaly and 
Caprice, in two parts, with an Appendix on the 
Dialects of Human Speech in all Countries, 
and an Analytical Discussion and Vindica- 
tion of the Dialect of Scotland" (Edinb. 1790, 
8yo). 5. ' Rule Britannia, or the Flattery of 
Free Subjects paraphrased and expounded,' 
8vo, 1768. 6. 'A Sermon preached at the 
Catholic Chapel of St. Patrick, Sobo Souare, 
March 7, the day of public fast,' 8vo, 1798. 



ADAMS, JdHN (/. ISW), topomipher, 

waaaharrifllerof thelnnerTemple. Inl677 
he enjtraved on eopper a map of England . 
and Wales ' full aii feet square,' the special 
featureof which was that the distance of each 
town from its nearest neighbours was 'entred 



Adams 



98 



Adams 



in figtires in computed and measured miles ' 
(see Phil. Trans, xii. 886). But the work was 
declared by critical friends to be very roughly 
done, and Adams set to work to improve it. 
To supply temporarily the many omissions 
of villages, he laboriously drew up, in 1680, 
the ' Index Villaris, or an Alphabetical Table 
of all OitieSy Market-towns, Parishes, Villages, 
Private Seats in England and Wales,' and 
dedicated it to Charles 11. This ' Index ' he 
reprinted with elaborate additions in 1690, 
and again in 1700. Meanwhile, under the 
patronage of several members of the Royal 
Society, he undert.ook a survey of the whole 
country, in order to make ms map as full 
and correct as possible. He completed his 
journeys before 1686, and in that year pub- 
lished his newljr revised map under the title 
of ' AngliaB totius tabula.* A reissue, called 
* A New Map of England/ is ascribed in the 
British Museum Catalogue to 1693. Re- 
duced and coloured copies of the revised map, 
which was of the original size (i.e. six feet 
souare), were sold with the second and third 
eoitions of the * Index Villaris.' Adams has 
been identified, on inadequate grounds, with 
a * Joannes AdamusTransylvanus,' the author 
of a Latin poem describing the city of Lon- 
don, which was translated into English verse 
about 1675, and is reprinted in ' Harleian 
Miscellany,' x. 189-60. 

[Gough*8 British Topography, i. 50-1, 724; 
Preface to Adams's Index, 1680 ; Lowndes's 
Bibliognipher's Manual, ed. Bohn ; S. D. U. K. 
Biog. Diet. ; Brit. Mus. Cat. of Maps and of 
Printed Books.] S. L. L. 

ADAMS, JOHN (1662-1720), provost of 
King*8 College, Cambridge, was the son of a 
Lisbon merchant in the city of London. He 
was educated at Eton, went to King's Col- 
lege, Cambridge, in 1678, graduated B. A. in 
1682 and M.A. 1686. He afterwards tra- 
velled in France and Italy, and became an 
accomplished linguist. He was presented 
by Jeffreys to Hickam in Leicestersliire in 
1687. ite afterwards became rector of St. 
Alban^s, Wood Street, in the gift of Eton 
College, and was presented to the rectory of 
St. Bartholomew bv the lord chancellor 
Harcourt. He became prebendary of Can- 
terbury in 1702 and canon of Windsor in 
1708. He was chaplain to King William 
and to Queen Anne, with the last of whom 
he was a great favourite. Swift dined with 
him at Windsor, and says that he was * very 
obliging' (Journal to SUllOf 12 Aug., 16 and 
20 Sept. 1711). In 1712 he was elected 
provost of KiiL^s College, and resigned the 
lectureship of St. Clement Danes. He was 
Boyle lecturer in 1703, but his lectures were 



never printed. He died of apoplexy on 29 Jan. 
1720. He was considered to be an eloquent 
preacher, and fifteen of hia sermons are in 
print. 

[Chahners's Dictionary; Addit. MSS. 5802, 
135, 136 ; Harwood's Alumni Etonenses.] 

ADAMS, JOHN (1760 P-1814), a volu- 
minous compiler of books for young readers, 
was bom at Aberdeen about 1750. Hav- 
ing graduated at the university there, he 
obtained a preaching license, ana coming to 
London was appointed minister of the 
Scotch church in Hatton Garden. Subse- 
quently he opened a school or ' academy ' at 
Putney, which proved very successful. He 
died at Putney in 1814. Most of his nume^ 
rous works passed through many editions, 
and were largely used in schools. Among 
them may be mentioned: 1. *The Flowers 
of Ancient History,' 1788, reviewed in the 
* Gentleman's Magazine ' for April 1788 
(IviiL 389). 2. * Elegant Anecdotes and 
Bon Mots,^ 1790. 3. * A View of Universal 
History' (3 vols.), 1795, which includes a 
brief account of almost every country in the 
world down to the date of pubucation. 

4. * The Flowers of Modem History,' 1796. 

5. * Curious Thoughts on the History of 
Man,' 1799. 6. *The Flowers of Modem 
Travels' (4th edition), 1802. Adams also 
published by subscription a volume of ser- 
mons dedicated to Lord Grantham in 1805, 
and he was the author of a very popular 
Latin schoolbook, entitled 'Lectiones Se- 
lect re,' which reached an eleventh edition in 
1823. 

[Gorton's Biog. Diet. Appendix ; S. D. U. K. 
Biog. Diet.; Brit. Mus. Cat.] S. L. L. 

ADAMS, JOHN(1760?-1829),al8o known 
as Alexandbb Smith, seaman, mutineer, and 
settler, was serving under this latter name as 
an able seaman on board H.M.S. Bounty at the 
time of the mutiny and piratic«.l seizure of 
that ship 28 April 1789 [see Bligh, Wil- 
liam]. In this mutiny he took a prominent 
part, and stood sentry over the captain durimi^ 
the preparations for turning him adrift. Ai- 
tei^waras, when the ship returned to Tahiti, 
where several of the ship's company deter- 
mined to stay. Smith, with eight others, was 
of opinion that such a plan was too dange- 
rous. Tliese nine men accordingly put to sea 
in the Bounty, taking with them from the 
island the women they had married and half 
a dozen men as servants ; and notwithstand- 
ing the close search that was made for them 
[see Hetwood, Peter] nothing was heard 
of them for nearly twenty years. In 1808 a 
Mr. Folger, commanding an American mer- 



tbOB left the ODf t 



ItLpbI 



ams 

i-hant eliip, atcidentnllT lund«d at Pilcaim's 
Ifliind, and found thetv a mixi^ popukliou 
of tliirtj-live souls, sp«iJiiD)[ EoffbDli, imd 
govtiroHil b^ a cen&in Alexauder twiitk, who 
made no secret of being one of I lie mutinecre 
of the Bounty. Accomiug to hie slory tbpT 
had nude tliis island after If aring Tahiti, una, 
liaring rniulved to sMtle thi>re, ran the ehip 
on shnrt, look out of her all tliHt thej- coulif, 
und eel her on ftre ; but four years later 
the Tahilian men ni«e one night and mur- 
dered all the Englishmen, Smith alone es- 
cs[nitg, and be severely wouuded. In re- 
Tenw for this the women, h1«> in the dead 
-'njght, killed all the murderer*. Smith bf^inp 
■ ' ■' »n on the island, with 

'□men and several chil- 
e story was reported to the admi' 
nltj by tlie senior officers at ^'nlparaiso and 
Rio de Janeiro, but no steps were t^en lo 
Terify it: and it was either not known or 
forgotten wlien, on 17 Sejit. 1814, Sir Thomas 
Stajnea and Captain Pioon in the frigateij 
Briton and Tagus, on tneir way from tlie 
Marmiesas to Valparaiso, touched at the same 
island, not knowing eiacllv wliat it was, the 
latitude and longitude as laid down on the 
diart being extremely erroneous. To their 
«urprise they found lliat this unknown island 
waa inhabited by an English-speaking race, 
descended, as they were told, from the muti- 
aeera of the Bounty, and educated In the 
preoeptB of Christianity bv Smith, who now 
•mlled himself Adams. lie is described as 
being at this time (181 J) a man of venerable 
appearance, and about sixty years old. At 
first he naturally aupposed that the ships of 
war had come with tlie intention of seizing 
him and sending him to England, but was 
leoMured by his visitors, who seem to have 
_ .j^niMdered the lapse of time und the good 
" 'tmutent of the island as expiating the of- 
» of which he had been guilty. ' His ex- 
"iry conduct and fatherly care of tlie 
A of the little colony,' wrote Sir Thomas 
, ' could not but command admiration. 
jto pious manner in which all those born on 

it loUnd lutve been reared, the correct sense 

f qf nligion which ha« been instilled into their 
roung minds by this old man, has given 
him the pre-eminence over the whole of 

In 1625 the island was again visited bv 
lain Ueecbey in H.M.S. Blossom. Re 
eribea Adotns us an old man now in bis 
v~fiftb year, which is possibly understated, 
Bven years before Sir Thomas Staines bad 
a of him 08 sixtv, and ' venerable ' ' 



e he came to the island ; but com- 



99 



Adams 



paring it with whul hi' luid formerly told Sir 
Thoauis Staines Ihe conclusion is tliat little 
or no reliance is to be placed on it. A cer- 
tain part of the story of the settlement of 
Piteaim's Island is thus necessarily lost ; for 
Adams, as the only white survivor, was the 
only witness. No one seems to have thought 
that anything could be gained by examining 
the old women who cume to the island with 
him. It may be interesting to add to this 
account thai Be\ eral of the Fitcaim islanden, 
who had become too numerous for their old 
home, were in 1866 transported To Norfolk 
I-land. 

Adams dind in 1839. His later life is often 
referred to as an example of a sincere and 
practical rejientonce following on a career of 
crime. It appears easy lo overrate its value 
a* such. Of Adams's antecedents we know 
nothing; but be must have been, in many 
respecis, an exceptional man, for the average 
able seaman of 1789 was certainly not quali- 
fied to train young children in the principles 
of morality or religion, or to teach them to 
speak the correct English which lliese island- 
ers liad leumt. We may, tlierefore, almost 
ansume that he had bad an education very 
unusual in his rank in life. And for the rest 
there were many circiUnBlancea atleuding the 
celebrated mutmy of the Bounty which tend 
to distinguish it as a naval and a legal rather 
than a moral crime. 

[Sir John Barrow's Eventful Hislory of tlie 
Uutiny nod Pinitioil Seinire of H.M.S. Bounly, 
ISmo, 1831 ; MamhairB Koyal Naval Biography 
(Sir Tliomas Staines), snppl. part 1 (vol. v.), p. 
96 ; ShiltiliMir's Narrative of the Briton's Voy- 
aBe(1817>.pp. 81-97; F.W. Beecbey's Narrative 
rfa Voj-agetotbE Pacific, i. 49-100, with a good 
portrait at p. 61.] J. K. L, 

ADAMS, .lUSEPH, M.D. (1756-1818), 

was tlie son of an apothecary in Basinghall 
Street. After attending Hunter's lecture* 
at St. Bartholomew's, he began biisinesa as 
an apotbecory; but in 1796 obtained the 
M.D. degree from Aberdeen and settled at 
Madeira as a physician. In 1605, after a 
Huceessful career, he was elected physician 
to the Small-iMX Ilospilal. He was for some 
vears editor of the ' Medical and Physical 
Journal.' He was admitted a licentiate of 
the CoUege of Physicians in 1809 on the 
special recommendation of the presideut, Sir 
Lucas Ft^ys, without passing througli the 
ordinary formalilies, and died from a broken 
leg on 20 June 1818. He was a warm ad- 
mirer and defender of John Hunter, and 
Euhlished : 1. ' Observations on Morbid 
'oisons, Pbiigediena, and Cancer,' 1796, 
A second edition of this, his chief book, 
B.4 



Adams 



lOO 



Adams 



appeared in 1796. 2. ' Observations on the 
Cfancerous Breast/ 1801. 3. *A Ghiide to 
the Island of Madeira,' 1801. 4. * Answer 
to Directions against the Cow-pox.' 5. * A 
Popular View of Vaccine Inoculation/ 1807. 
6. 'An Inquiry into the Laws of different 
Epidemic Diseases/ 1809. 7. *A Philo- 
sophical Dissertation on Hereditary Pecu- 
liarities of the Human Constitution/ 1814. 
8. 'Memoirs of the Life and Doctrines of 
the late John Hunter, Esq./ 1816. Also a 
few pamphlets, and many contributions to 
the ' Liondon Medical and Physical Journal ' 
(cf. xii. 141, 193, 332, 552). 

[Monk's College of Physicians, iii. 76 ; London 
Medical and Physical Journal, xxii. 87* xl. 86.] 

ADAMS, RICHARD (1619-1661), col- 
lector of verse, the second son of Sir Tnomas 
Adams, alderman of London, was bom on 
6 Jan. 1619-20 ; admitted fellow-commoner 
of Catherine Hall, Cambridffe, 28 April 1635 ; 
died 13 June 1661. Among tneHarleianMSS. 
is a thin quarto (No. 3889) lettered on the 
outside * R. Adams. Poems.' One or two 
short pieces of inferior merit are signed * R. | 
Adams/ or * R. A.,' but most of the poems 
in the collection are accessible in print. 
Like so many of the manuscript collections 
of the seventeenth century, Harl. MS. 3889 
is no doubt a medley of verses by various 
hands. Adams certainly cannot be the au- 
thor of the delightful song, * Pan, leave 
piping, the gods have done feasting ' (some- 
times callea 'The Green Gown,' or *The 
Fetching Home of the May '), for the words 
of that sonff were composed, according to 
the best authority, not later than 1635 (vide 
Westminster Drollery, ed. Ebsworth, p. 54, 
Appendix). The capital verses on * Oliver 
Routing the Rump, 1653,' beginning * Will 
you heare a strange thing never heard of 
before ? ' were first printed in the * Merry ■■ 
Drollery,' 1661, p. 53; they reappeared in 
*Wit and DroUery/ 1661, n. 260; and in 
* Merry Drollery Compleat,' 1670, and again 
in * Loyal Songs/ 1731 ; oddlv enough, they 
are not in the *Rump Collection. This 
song is unsigned in Adams's commonplace 
book ; and judging from the signed verses it 
is far better than anything he could have 
written. 

[Information from Mr. Ebsworth ; Harl. MS. 
3889; Cooper's New Biographical Dictionary.] 

A. H. B. 

ADAMS, RICHARD (1626 ?- 1698), 
ejected minister, was the sixth in lineal suc- 
cession of a family of ministers ; his father 
was incumbent of Wirrall, Cheshire; his 
grandfSather was rector of Woodchurch, Che- 



shire. He studied first at Cambridge, where 
he graduated M.A. on 26 March 1644 ; en- 
tered at Brasenose, Oxford, on 24 March 
1646, aged about twenty, and graduated 
B.A. in 1648 and M.A. in 1651. He became 
fellow of Brasenose, but resigned in 1655, 
on being admitted to the rectory of St. Mil- 
dred's, Bread Street. From this he retired 
in 1662 as a nonconformist, and became 
pastor of a small congregation in South- 
wark. His ecclesiastical views were pres- 
byterian; he was a practical preacher, a 
devout and quiet man. He died on 7 Feb. 
1698, leaving a widow. He was the editor 
of the expositions of Philippians and Colos- 
sians in Matthew Poole's * Annotations upon 
the Holy Bible,' 1683-5, a work based on 
the same author's * Synopsis Criticorum/ 
1669-76. He published a * Funeral Sermon ' 
for Henry Hurst, 1690; other sermons of 
his are in the ' Morning Exercises at Cripple- 
gate/ 1660-90, reprinted 1844-6. 

[Funeral Sermon by Dr. John Howe, 1698 ; 
Coles' MS. Athense Cantab. Brit. Mus. ; Wood's 
Athense Oxon. ; Calamy's Account ; Walker'^ 
SuflTerings.] A. G. 

ADAMS, ROBERT (</. 1595^, archi- 
tect, was author of a large plan or Middle- 
burgh, dated 1588, and a pen-and-ink draw- 
ing intended to demonstrate the complete 
defensibility of London, called 'Thamesia 
Descriptio.' With the same object he * drew 
and engraved/ according to Walpole, ' repre- 
sentations of the several actions while the 
Spanish Armada was on the British coasts.' 
It seems, however, that Ryther engraved 
them. Adams was * surveyor of the queen's- 
buildings ' and a * man of abilities.' An in- 
scription to his memory is in the north aisle 
of Greenwich Church. 

[Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting ; Redgrave's 
Diet, of English Artists.] E. R. 

ADAMS, ROBERT (1791-1875), sur- 
geon, was bom about 1791 in Ireland, but 
of his early life nothing is known. He en- 
tered Trinity College, Dublin, and became 
B.A. in 1814, proceeded M.A. in 1832, but 
not M.D. till 1842. He began the study of 
medicine by apprenticeship to Dr. William 
Hartigan, became licentiate of the Royal Col- 
lege of Surgeons of Ireland in 1815, and was 
elected fellow in 1818. After spending some 
time on the Continent to perfect his medical 
and surgical knowledge, he returned to Dublin 
to practise, and was elected surgeon succea- 
sively to the Jervis Street Hospital and the 
Richmond Hospital. He took part in found- 
ing the Richmond (afterwards called the 
Carmichael) School of Medicine, and lectured 



Adams 



lOI 



Adams 



there on surgery for some years. He was 
three times elected president of the Koyal 
College of Siii^;eons of Ireland, and in 1861 
was appointed surgeon to the queen in Ire- 
land and regius professor of suigeiy in the 
university of Dublin. Adams had a high 
reputation as a surgeon and pathological ana- 
tomist. His flEunecniefly rests on his* Treatise 
on Rheumatic Gout, or Chronic Rheumatic 
^Vrthritis of aU the Joints (Svo, London, 1867, 
with an Atlas of niustrations in 4to; 2nd 
edition, 1873). This work, though describing 
a disease more or less known lor centuries, 
contains so much novel and important re- 
search as to have become the classical work 
on the subject. Dr. Adams also wrote an 
t^ivay on ' Disease of the Heart ' in the Dublin 
Hospital Reports, and contributed to Todd's 
'Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology' 
some articles on 'Abnormal Conditions of 
the Joints,' besides other papers in medical 
journals. He died on 13 Jan. 1875. 

[Medical Times and Gazette, 1875, i. 133.] 

J. F. P. 

ADAMS, SARAH FLOWER (1805- 
1848), poetess, wife of William Bridges 
Adams, and daughter of Benjamin and 
.sister of Eliza Flower [see Adams, Wil- 
liam Bridges, and Floweb, BenjaminJ, 
was bom at Great Harlow, Essex, 2'2 Feb. 
1806. After the death of her father in 1827 
fihe lived with the family of Mr. W. J. Fox, 
and became a contributor to the ' Monthly 
Repository,' then conducted by him. In 
18^ she married Mr. W. B. Adams, and 
died of decline in August 1848. Her prin- | 
cipal work, * Vivia Perpetua, a Dramatic 
Poem,' was published in 1841. She is like- ' 
wise authoress of numerous contributions to 
the * Monthly Repository,' chiefly in the | 
years 1834 and 1835, and of a long poem in 
ballad metre, entitled * The Royal Progress,' 
on the surrender of the sovereignty of the 
Isle of Wight to Edward I by Isabella, 
Countess of Albemarle, which appeared in 
the ' Illuminated Magazine ' for 1845. She 
also composed several hymns, set to music 
by her sister, and used in the services at 
linsbury Chapel; numerous unpublished 
poems on social and political subjects, princi- 
pally written for the Anti-Corn Law League, 
specimens of which will be found in the 
fourth volume of Fox's * Lectures to the 
Working Classes ; ' and a little religious 
catechism entitled ' The Flock at the !< oun- 
tain.' Although Mrs. Adams was endowed 
with so much dramatic talent as to have 
meditated adopting the stage as a profession, 
the bent of her literary genius was rather 
lyrical than dramatic. 'Vivia Perpetua,' 



but moderately interesting as a play, is 
couched throughout in a mie strain oi im- 
passioned emotion, symbolising, in the guise 
of Vivia's conversion to Christianity, the 
authoress's own devotion to the high ideals 
which inspired her life. This truth of feeling 
redeems Mrs. Adams's eloquence from the im- 
putation of rhetoric, and, notwithstanding the 
artlessne&s of the construction and the con- 
ventionality of the stage accessories, renders 
her work genuinely impressive. Vivia's mo- 
nologne on forswearing the altar of Jupiter is 
especially eloquent. The authoress, however, 
was more happily inspired in her hymns, 
which, as simple expressions of devotional 
feeling at once pure and passionate, can 
hardly be surpassed. * Nearer to Thee' — 
often erroneously attributed to Mrs. Beecher 
Stowe — is known wherever the English lan- 
guage is spoken; and the lines beginning 
* He sendeth sun, He sendeth shower,' are 
I even more exauisite in their blended spirit 
I of fervour and resignation. All who knew 
I Mrs. Adams personally speak of her with 
enthusiasm ; she is described as a woman of 
singular beauty and attractiveness, delicate 
and truly feminine, high-minded, and in her 
days of health playful and high-spirited. She 
len no descenaants. 

[W. J. Fox, Lectures addressed chiefly to the 
Working Classes, vol. iv. lect. 9 ; Westminster 
Review, vol. 1. pp. 540-42 ; private information 
from Mrs. Bridell Fox and Mr. W. J. Linton.] 

E. G. 

ADAMS, THOMAS (rf. 1620 ?), printer, 
son of Thomas Adams, yeoman, of Neen 
Savage, Shropshire, was first apprenticed to 
Oliver Wilkes, stationer, on 29 Sept. 1682, 
for seven years, and turned over to Gfeorge 
Bishop on 14 Oct. 1583, for the same period. 
He was admitted a freeman of the Station- 
ers' Company on 15 Oct. 1590, and came upon 
the livery 1 July 1598. He appears to have 
commenced business by having the books, 
ballads, &c., printed by Robert Walley, as- 
signed to him 12 Oct. 1591, and from that 
time to 1614 a considerable number of entries 
may be found to his name in the registers 
(Akbeb's Transcript^ vols. iii. and iv.). They 
include books in all classes ; some were issued 
jointly with John Oxenbridge, Peter Short, 
and John Newbury, &c. He also printed 
music books ; among others, pieces by John 
Dowland, the lutenist, and Tnomas llavens- 
croft. On 14 March 1611, he is described 
as younger warden, and as the purchaser of 
the entire stock of Bishop, his former mas- 
ter, including the remainders of sixty im- 
portant works (ib. iii. 453-^). He became 
warden in 1614, and died about 1620. In 



Adams 102 Adams 

the latter year he is recorded as a benefactor tary on the ' Second Epistle of St. Peter' 
to the company in the sum of 100/., to be 
defrayed for public charges at the discretion 
of the court. 



i folio), dedicated to Sir Henrie Marten, Knt. 
'n 1653, in a pathetic little epistle before 
* God's Anger and Man's Comfort' — two ser- 
mons first recovered by the present writer 
— he addresses Hhe most honourable and 
charitable benefiEUStors, whom Gk>d hath ho- 
noured for His almoners, and sanctified to 
be His dispensers of the fruits of charity and 
mercy, in this my necesntous and decrepit 
old agt^ Newcourt and Walker enter him 



[Ames's Typo^. Antiquities, ed. Herbert, iu 
1305; Nichols's Lit. AneodoteM, iii. 593.] 

H. R. T. 

ADAM& THOMAS (fi, 1612-ie63), 
a divine who was pronounced by Robert 
Southey to be * the prose Shakespeare of 

puritan theologians . . . scarcely inferior to j as * sequestered,' but neither adduces autho- 
Fuller in wit or to Taylor in fancy,' has left fity or proof, and there is little probability 
only the most meagre personal memorials | in the statement. Adams's vehement and 
behind him. His many title-pages and | courageous denunciation of popery ofiended 
epistles dedicatory seem to be almost the i Laud, and there is to be sought the secret of 
sole sources of information now available. ' his later neglect. He must have died before 
From these we ascertain that he was in the Restoration. 

1612 * a preacher of the Gospel at Willing- Thomas Adams stands in the forefront of 
ton ' in Bedfordshire, between Bedford and | our great English preachers. He is not so 
St. Neots. Here he is found in 1614, and sustained as Jeremy Taylor, nor so continu- 
from this sequestered rural parish issued his | ously sparkling as Thomas Fuller, but he is 
* Heaven and Earth Reconciled,' * The Devil's surpassinglyeloquent and brilliant, and much 
Banquet,' and other of his quaintly titled i more thought-laden than either. He lays 
sermons. On 21 Dec. 1614 he became vicar ' under contribution the spoils of an omni- 
of Wingrave, Bucks, which he is said to have vorous learning and recondite reading; nor 
held until 1636. From 1618 to 1623 he ! less noticeable is the vigour with which a 
held the preachership of St. Gregory's under * character' is dashed off, in the style of 
St. Paul^ Cathedral, and during the same 0\'erburv or Earle, and a * portrait ' taken 
period preached occasionallv at St. Paul's outmatching John Bunyan. It is impos- 
Cross and Whitehall. He was likewise ^obser- | sible to overstate his convincing fervour 
vant chaplain' to Sir Henrie Montague, lord \ and his resistless impressiveness of appeal, 
chief justice of England. To Montague he ! in spite of faults of sudden incongruity and 
dedicated, in 1618, *The Happiness of the lapses of taste. His works have been repub- 
Church; or a description of those Spiri- ' lished in Nichol's * Puritan Divines' (3 vols, 
tual Prerogatives wherewith Christ hath Hvo, 1862), edited by the Rev. Dr. Thomas 
endowed her considered in contemplations Smith, and with a life by Professor Angus, 
upon part of the twelfth chapter to the He- and his * Commentary on the Second Epistle 
brews ; being the sum of divers sermons of St. Peter ' by Sherman, 
preached in St. Gregorie's,lx)ndon, by Thomas [Worfc* as ubove; Lipscomb's Buckingham- 
Adams, preacher there.' Tliroughout these shire, iii. 536 ; Newcourt's Repertorium, i. 302; 
and later vears his epistles dedicatory audinci- ' Walker's Sufferings of the Clergy, part ii. p. 164 ; 
dental references show that ho lived on friend- Life by Dr. Angus, as aboTe-l A. B. G. 

liest and most intimate terms (* inward ' is 

his word) with the foremost men in state ADAMS, Sir THOMAS (1686-1667), 
and church : William, Earl of Pembroke, Sir ' lord mayor of London, was bom at Wem, in 
Thomas Egerton, Lord Ellesmere, and others Shropshire, in the year 1686, and, after being 
are addressed as personal friends rather than i educated at Cambridge, carried on business 
mere nobles or patrons. In 1629 he collected as a draper in Loudon. In 1639 he was 
into a massive folio his numerous occasional chosen sheriff of Loudon, and became master 
,sermons, which, in contrast with Henry of the Drapers' Company and alderman of 
Smith's small duodecimos, had been printed the ward ot Portsoken. In this capacity his 
in small quartos. John Bunyan was then name appears in May 1640 as making a re- 
only two years old, but it seems certain turn of such persons in that ward as were 
that the Bedfordshire preacher's quartos and capable of lending money to the king. He 
great folio came to be known and devoured always appears as a consistent royalist, and, 
by the * immortal dreamer.' His * Sermons ' though returned as a member, never sat 
as thus collected he dedicated to the ^parish- in parliament. In 1646 he was elected to 
loners of St. Bonnet's, near to Paul's Wharf, the office of lord mayor. During the year 
London/ and to Lords Pembroke and Man- ' of his mayoralty his house was searched in 
cheater. In 1638 appeared a vast Commen- hopes of finding the king, who it was sup- 



Adams 




103 



Adams 



y there concetiled. For his loyally 
i king he was kept for eomt! time a 
»r in the Tower, and van i^xcliiJed 
Ik kU public offic«e. At the RestomtioD 
hi- was one of the deputit^ &om the city of 
Loudon to ihcHoguv to attend on CharleH IT 
□n Ids return from Breda tn England, and 
with the rest of the deputies receiTed the 
honour of ItDJghlhood, and nfter tlie Ileato- 
Tftlioii was created a buronet June 13, 16B0. 
During hia lifetime he founded and endowed 
the &(« school of Wem, his native place, and 
praaeuted to it the house in wliicD be was 
bom. He also founded the Arabic Lecture 
si Cambridge, to which he gave 401. a. year for 
ever, and, al the iiistigiLtion of Mr.Wheelock, 
thr> hnt reader of Arabic, bore the expense 
of a translation of the Ooepels into the Per- 
sian language for circulntion in that country, 
with aviewto IheconTeraionof Mahometans. 
lie is described at havingbeen a devout mem- 
ber of the English church, and a regular 
ronuniuueant at the monrlJy celebrations of 
the sacrament. In his oM a^ he was afflicted 
with the stiMiei which earned him oS in his 
>^d year, Si Feb. 1667. Though four of 
his sons survived him, the Iiarunetcy became 
extinct before the end of the last century, 
having been held by live of his descendants. 
He was buried at Sjirowston in Norfolk 
iBlohefibld's Norfolk, x, 460), and his 
funeral sermon was preached in the church 
of St. Catharine Cree, by his friend and 
former tellow-coniniisBioner at the Ua^e, 
Dr. Nathaniel Hardy, 10 March following. 
This sermon, which contains a fulsome pone- 
mic written in the womt taste, was printed 
in 1668. Moat «f it was reiiroduced 111 Wil- 
ford's 'Memorials,' p. S7, which is the autho- 
rity for most of the facts of his life. It is said 
(hat thr stone taken &om htm after his death 
wdghed more than 36 ounces, and was pre- 
firrvBd at Cambridge. There is a long I^tin 
inscription on his monument at Sprowston, 
written in the style of the period, which may 
be w^n in Wilford's ' Memorials,' appendix, 
pp. 37, 28. 

[WUford'n Memorials of Eminent Persons ; 
?«*•« Dcaideratn Cnfioim; Fuller's Worthier; 
Kimbers BttronMnge: Domestic Statu Fspers; 
flehiaiie'ii AD){liie Metropolis.] N. P. 

ADAMS, THOMAS (1633 ?-l 670), one 
nf the ejected divines of 1662, was bom at 
Woodchureh. Cheshire, where his father and 
grandfather, the owners of Ihcadvowson, were 
both beneficed. Entering Brasenose College 
inJnlyl649,hebecBraeB.A.on8FBb. 1653, 
iind fellow the aame vear. He was M.A, on 
'2^ June 1655, and leeturuMJenn. Afl^r a 
diiitinguiahed career at college he was gect(>d 



from bis fellowship for nonconformity in 1662, 
and he spent the remainder of his life ascliap- 
luin in private families. He died on 11 Dec. 
1670. His learning, piety ^good-humouF, and 
diligencearecelebratedbyC^uny. Uewrote: 
' Prot«8tBnt Union, or Principled of Ksll^n 
wharein tlie Dissenters agree with the Church 
of England ; ' and ' The Main Principles of 
ChristiaD Religion,' In 107 articles, 1676 
and 1677, profaeed by his younger brother 
liichard (the ejected minister of St. Mil- 
dred's, Bread Street, London), and addressed 
to the inhabitants of Wirrall. 

[Wiwd's Athens' (Bliss), iv. 604; l'u»li, ii. 170, 
187; CftUmj"6 AL-eouDt (1713). p. 06; Harl. 
MS. 2163, 40,78; UiLHtrclIn Not. Ci»tr. (Chechain 
Soc.) i. 180-1 ; OrmerrHls Hist, CbetJiire, ii. 
6-U.] J.E. B. 

ADAMS,THOMAS(I730?-I761),bri^tt- 
dier--general, commenced his military service 
in 1 1 47 as a volunti'er with the army under 
the command of the Biike of Cumberiand in 
the Netherlands. Un 'J& June of the some 
year he obtained a commission a» ensign in 
the 37th foot, in which regiment he roec to 
the rank of captain nine years lat<>r. He 
was subsequently transferred to the 84th 
foot, and wae serving as a major in that 
regiment in India, when, in 1763, five years 
after the battle of Plassey, he was appointed 
to the conunand of the united forces of the 
crown and of the East India Company in 
Bengal. It was a very critical period in 
British Indian histon'. Notwithstanding 
the victory at Plassey, the Brit ish power was 
by no means so completely eetabbshed H6 to 
be free from the riak of overthrow. CUve 
WBK in England. Mir Ka^im, the astute 
minister and son-in-law of that MirJaffier 
whom Clive had placed upon the throne of 
Bengal in place of 8nrij-ud-dowlah, had in 
turn displactHl his moster and had been for- 
mally invested as nawab at Patna in the 
previous year. The vices of venality and 
corruption which Clive, himself by no means 
ovetHicrupuJous, Lad described as the chief 
dangen to British rule in India, were ram- 
pant in the Calcutta council chamber. By 
the unscrupulous action of the council and 
by the rapacity of the subordinate servants 
of the company trade was disorganised, the 
nairib was deprived of his revenues, and 
the British name was mpidly becoming 
synonymous with oppression iind fraud. Dis- 
putes on the subject of transit duties and an 
unjuntifiable attack made by Mr. Ellis, one 
of the membersof the council, upon the city 
of Patna, followed by the death of Mr. 
Amyatt. who had been sent as an envoy to 
the nawab, and who was killed by the troops 



Adams 



104 



Adams 



of the latter when relating an attempt to 
make him prisoner, brought on war between 
the company and the nawab. The forces of 
the latter numbered 40,000 men, including 
25,000 infantry trained and disciplined on 
the European system, and a regiment of 
excellent artillerymen well supplied with 
^uns. To oppose this force, Major Adams 
had under his command a small body of 
troops, variously estimated at from 2,800 to 
3,000, of whom only 860 were Europeans. 
His artillery also was inferior to that of the 
enemy. The campaign commenced on 2 July 
1763, and lasted for four months, in the 
course of which Adams fought four actions, 
took two considerable forts and nearly 500 
pieces of cannon, and totally defeated the 
most powerful native army that upto that 
time had confronted us in India. The two 
principal battles were those of Gheriah and 
Andwanala. The former lasted for four 
hours ; the issue was at one time doubtful, 
the naw&b's troops breaking through a por- 
tion of the Engbsh line and capturing two 
guns, but the gallantry of the Europeans 
and steadiness of the sepoys under Adamses 
excellent generalship saved the day, and the 
enemy were compelled to retreat with the 
loss of all their guns and stores. At the 
close of the campaign Major Adams was 
compelled by ill-health to resign his com- 
mand, and died at Calcutta in January 1764. 
As soon as the intelligence of the campaign 
reached England, Adams was advanced to 
the rank of brigadieivgeneral, but he had 
already been dead some months when his 
commission was issued. He is described by 
a recent military historian as a man who ' to 
calmness and coolness in the field of battle 
united great decision of character and clear- 
ness of vision not to be surpassed. He could 
plan a campaign and lead an army.' 

[Sir Mutakharin's TransactioDS in India ; Mill's 
History of British India ; Marshman's Historv 
of India ; Malleson's Decisive Battles of India.] 

ADAMS, WILLIAM {d. 1620), navi- 
gator, was bom, as he himself tells us, ' in a 
town called GiUingham, two English miles 
from Rochester, one mile from Chatham, 
where the king's ships do lie.' At the age of 
twelve he began his seafaring life, being ap- 

?renticed to Master Nicholas Di^gins of 
iimehouse, with whom he remained for 
twelve years. He afterwards entered the 
navy, acting as master and pilot, and for 
about eleven or twelve years served the com- 
pany of Barbary merchants, until the opening 
of tne Butch trade with India tempted him 
'to make a little experience of the small 



knowledge which God had ffiven him' in 
that * Inoish traffick.' Accordingly in 1598 
he joined, as pilot-major, a fleet of five ships 
fitted out by the Rotterdam merchants and 
commanded by Jacob Mahu. The vessels 
were small, ranging in size from 75 tons to 
250 tons, but were overcrowded with men. 
The Charity, the ship in which Adams sailed, 
was of 160 tons and carried 110 men. Sailing 
from the Texel on 24 June, the expedition 
be^n a voyage which was to prove one long 
series of disasters. Sickness broke out, and 
on reaching the Cape Yerd islands on 21 Aug. 
a rest of three weeks was found necessary. 
Then the commander Mahu died, and the 
fleet was driven to the coast of Guinea, and 
another landing to refresh the sick took place 
at Cape Gonsafves, south of the line. But 
here rever attacked the crews, so that their 
leaders determined at once to sail for Brazil, 
which they did, and coming on the island of 
Annabon in the Gulf of Guinea, they at- 
tacked the town and obtained sup{)lies. Thus 
were lost two months on the Airican coast, 
and from the middle of November to the be- 
diming of April 1599, the ships lay tossing 
m the South Atlantic. At length they en- 
tered the Straits of Magellan, but only to be 
caught by the winter and to remain there 
till 24 Sept. before they entered the South 
Sea. Haraly clear of the straits, the fleet 
was scatterea by a storm. Two of the ships 
were driven back into the straits, and even- 
tually returned to Holland. Of the others, 
one was captured by a Spanish cruiser, and 
the Charity and the admiral-ship Hope finally 
met again on the coast of Chili. But the 
commanders and a great part of the crews of 
both ships were killed in ambushes by the 
natives, and among them Thomas, the brother 
of William Adams. Thus reduced to extre- 
mity and fearing to be taken by the Spaniards, 
the survivors took council and finally deter- 
mined to stand away boldly for Japan, where 
they hoped to find a market for the woollen 
cloth which formed a large part of their 
cargo. Leaving the coast of Chili on 27 Nov., 
the two ships sailed on prosperously for some 
three or four montlis ; out then bad weather 
came on and they were separated. The Hope 
was never heard of again ; the Charity held 
on, and at last, with most of her crew sick 
or d3ring, and with only some half-dozen men 
able to stand on their feet, she sighted Japan, 
and on 19 April 1600 anchored off the coast of 
Bungo in the island of Kiushiu. The unfor- 
tunate mariners were received with kindness, 
and notice of their arrival was at once sent 
to the capital city Ozaka, from whence orders 
were soon after received for Adams to be 
despatched thither. 



In laae the fftinous soldier Tiiiko Snmn 
^or Hid£]ioetu), wko Imd Tuisi<il Itimgulf to 
the head of affkin, hail dir^, Ivaviiig un in- 
fant son. The chief guardian of ihti yming 
prince woa Ij^tbeu, an old fellow-eol^er (it 
Tniku Snina, nod the influence and power 
which he g^edily neqtiired roused the 
jealous)' uf bts rivals. A dvil war liruke 
out, and at the rcry moinenl when Adnms 
avt foot in Japan, th« two factions wt^re jjre- 
piuinff for action, which resulted a few 
months laiOT tOctober 1600) in s decisive 
victory for Ij&yesa. Thp coi>queror became 
the actual nder of the country, although 
he did not receive the title of Shogun tiU 
ItXUt. 

ItefitrelvfyMUjtbi'n,' the emperor,' Adams 
was brought and examined as to hia country 
and the cause of liis coming- He was ihen 
kept ui prison for nearly six weeks, and, 
nltbough kindly freBte<], lived in dread of 
death, expecting to Imi led out to undergo 
the native punislunent of crucifixion. In- 
deed the Portuguese of Nagasaki tried to 
■ nusde the Japanese that the Dutch were 

Ves and deserved to be executed; but 

Syasi), with the fairness which always dis- 
fuiabed hie dealings with foreigners, re~ 

einiah men who had done liim no 
e sat Adsms at liberty and re- 
im to his comrades, and ordered a 
Oy alloiVMice of rice niid a small annual 
ItiBitm to be given to them. Hut the ship 
t'niild nut be cleared ; and Ho.Bflersome waste 
of money in the cause, tliecrew divided what 
pwnaioed ' and everj' one took hia way where 
he thought beet .' 

Then negitn the intercourse between Iy§- 
vneu and Adams which led rapidly to the 
advancement of the lalt«r. 'Hie practical 
^^■gUshman hod found favour in the eyes 
Hf Ute lagaciouK ruler. In simple langiinge 
^■"■iniB [ells the story of hie auccesa. He 
t for the Shogun a small ship of SO tons, 
F which means I came in more favour 
wttfa hiin, an that I came often in his presence, 
who from time to time gave me presents and 
nt length a yearly stipeiul to live upon, much 
about seventy ducats W the year, with two 
pounds of nee a tlay, daily. Now being in 
such grace and favour, by reason I learned 
liim some points of geometry and under- : 
nlanding of the art of mathematice with , 
■ither ihtugv, I pleased him so that what I | 
said he would not contrary.' He also built . 
o fccond ship of 110 tons, which was 



' land, with eighty or ninety husbaDdmen that 
be Hs my slaves or servants.' This estate was 
at H6mi near Vokosukn, and has been 
scribed as having ' 100 farms or households 
upon it, besides others under them, oil which 
■ire his vossaU, and he hath power of Ufe and 
death over them, they being hia slaves, and 
he as absolute authority over them ea any 
tuuo(orking) in Japon hath over liisTaasals' 
lCi)CVi'sIHary,i. 181). But whatever favours 
lyfiyasu might grant, there was one which 
he steadily denied. After five yeora Adnius 
Bsked leave to return to England, where he 
had left a wife and two children, but was 
refused. Another application, when the in- 
spiriting news came that the Dutch were at 

I Achin and I'atani, fared no better. 

At length, in 1609, Dutch ships appeared 
in the port of Firando ■" ■•— --' — — ' 



E ngliahn 
^Wtbe«^ 

^■fc whi< 



"worthy eomish to conj home the Spanish 

tnior of Ihe PhiUppine Islands, who was 

•ked vn the coast of Japan. Finallv, to 

oite his services, ly^yosu bestowed on 

n estate 'like unto a lordship in Eng- 




the extreme west 
of the kingdom, and got leave to establish a 
factory. Two years after another vessel ar- 
rived, BJid two tommissionent were sent up 
to court, and by Adams's influence obtained 
ample trading privileges. And now for the 
tinit time the exile learned that Englishmen 
were trading in the East, and so indited his 
well-known letter ' to my unknown friends 
and countrymen,' telhug the ston^ of his 
misfortunes and calling ^r help. This letter 
WHS written inOctobi'r 1611, sad reached the 
English factory in Hnntani early in 1612. 
But Adams's story was already known in 
England through reports of the Dutch, and 
I K trading fleet of three ships hod sailed in 
April 1611 to open trade with Japan. On 
I 13 June 1613 the Clove, under command of 
! Captain John Saris, saileil into the harbour 
I »f Firando. Adams was siunmoned, and a 
I last, on 39 July, found himself again among 
his countrymen. Next followed a journey 
by Saris in company with Adams to Suruga, 
lyfiyasu's head-quarters, in order to obtain 
trading privileges; and by the end of Novem- 
ber an EngUsh factory was formally settled 
at Firando. Adams, in one of his letters, 
had advised the choice of n place in ' 
enstern parts of the kingdom, nearer 
great cities, instead of a port where the 
Dutch were already in possession of the mar- 
ket. However, the advice came too late ; 
Firando was chosen, and eight EngliBhmen 
were appointed momburs of the factory. The 
chief^ or cape-merchant as he was called, 
■was Richard Cocks, whose diary has sur- 
vived to give us the history of this early 
English settlement tu Japan. Next in ranli 
cojne Adams himself, wlio, postponing his 
long wished-for return to England, now 
entered the service of the companv, When 
he accompanied Saris to court, he had at. last 
got lyfyasu's leave to return to hia country. 



Adams 



io6 



Adams 



He did not choose to do so and take passage 
in the Clove, then on the point of sailing, 
according to his own account, because 
of ' some discourtesies ' received from Saris. 
The latter, indeed, was unduly suspicious of 
Adams, and tried to drive a hard bargain 
with him on the terms of his proposed 
service. But there were pressing reasons 
why he should remain, at least for a time, 
in Japan. He had a Japanese wife and 
two ctiildren, and he was ul provided with 
money. He was ambitious, too, to discover 
the north-west or north-east passage to Eng- 
land, and this may have influenced him. In 
the end he agreed to enter the company's 
service for 100/. a year, payable at tlie end 
of two years. His actual term of service 
extended from 24 Nov. 1613 to 24 Dec. 1616, 
and during that time he was chiefly employed 
in trading voyages and in accompanying the 
English to tne court of the Shogun when ! 
they carried up the customary presents or | 
on other occasions. In 1615, in a voyage | 
which was intended for Siam, but which j 
failed in its object, he put into the Loochoo ; 
Islands, which had been lately added to the 
Japanese dominion. The next year he made ; 
H successful voyage to Siam, and in 1617 and 
1618 he twice visited Cochin China. 

In 1616 Adams's patron Iy6yasu died and 
was succeeded by his son Hid^tada, who 
soon gave proof of hostility to foreigners; 
and although Cocks states that Adams was 
in favour with this Shogun also, his influ- 
ence was evidently of no great weight. The 
privileges of both English and Dutch were 
curtailed, and the persecution of Christians, 
which for some time had practically ceased, ; 
now broke out with renewed violence. The , 
English venture in Japan had also by this 
time proved a failure, and to make matters 
worse the Dutch declared war and took 
En^ish shipping and attacked our factory 
at Firando. Peace was scarcely restored 
when, on 16 May 1620, Adams died. A 
little more than three vears after, in Decern- 
ber 1623, the English factory was dissolved 
and our countrymen withdrew from Japan. 
There is no record of Adams's age at the 
time of his death, but it was probably more 
than sixty years, as he could hardly have 
been under forty when lie landed in Japan. 
He left about 500/., which he bequeathed in 
equal portions to his wife and daughter who 
survived him in England, and to his son and 
daughter in Japan. His will was preserved 
at one time in the archives of the East India 
Company ; but it has now disappeared. He 
lies buried on the summit of the hill above 
the village of H^mi-mura (the site of his 
estate) and overlooking the harbour of Yoko- 



suka. In 1872 Mr. James Walter discovered 
his tomb with that of his Japanese wife, who 
survived him thirteen years. Adams's me- 
mory lived in Japan. A street in Tedo, 
Anjin Cho fPilot Street), was named after 
him, Anjin oama having been his Japanese 
title ; and an annual celebration is still held 
in honour of the Englishman who was once 
* in such favour with two emperors of Japan 
as never was any christian in these parts of 
the world.' 

[Adams's Letters printed in Purchas his Pil- 
grimes, part i. ; Randall's Memorials of the 
Bmpire of Japon (Hakluyt Society), 1860 ; Hil- 
dreth 8 Japan, 1856 ; Gnifis, The Mikado's Em- 
pire, 1876, p. 262; Diary of Richard Cocks 
(Hakluyt Society), 1883 ; The Far East News- 
paper (Yokohama), vol. iii. No. 1.] E. M. T. 

ADAMS, WILLIAM (1706-1789),divine, 
was bom at Shrewsbury 17 Auff. 1706, and at 
the age of thirteen was entered at Pembroke 
College, Oxford. He took his M.A. degree in 
1727, Decame fellow of his college, and,in 1734, 
tutor in place of Mr. Jorden. Samuel John- 
son, bom in 1709, had been one of Jorden's 
pupils; and during his short university ca- 
reer, 1728-9, formed a friendship with Adams 
which lasted till Johnson's death. In 1730 
Adams was presented to the curacy of St. 
Chad's in Shrewsbury, and ceased to reside. 
In 1766 he became rector of Counde in Shrop- 
shire ; and, in 1766, took his B.D. and D.I). 
degrees in Oxford. He was elected to the 
mastership of Pembroke, to which was at« 
tached a prebend of Gloucester, in 1776, and 
resigned St. Chad's. He was afterwards made 
archdeacon of Llandaff. He retained these 
offices and the rectory of Counde till his death 
in the prebendal house at Gloucester, 13 Jan. 
1789. He married Miss Sarah Hunt, and 
left a daughter, married, in 1788, to B. Hyatt 
of Painswick in Gloucestershire. Adams's 
friendship with Johnson is commemorated 
by Boswell, to whom he gave some informa- 
tion about their common friend. Adams 
attended the first representation of * Irene ' in 
1749. He tried to reconcile Johnson to Ches- 
terfield's incivility in 1764, though at the 
same time taking a message from Warburton 
to Johnson approving oi his * manly beha- 
viour.' In June 1784 Johnson, accompanied 
by Boswell, paid a visit to Adams at Oxford. 
Johnson stayed at Pembroke lodge for a fort- 
night, and was greatly pleased by the atten- 
tions of Adams and his daughter. Adams 
published some occasional sermons, one of 
wliich * On True and False Doctrine,' preached 
at St. Chad's, 4 Sept. 1769, and directed 
against the methodist doctrines of W. Ro- 
mayiie, led to some controversy, in which 



neilfaer of the priDcipats took {lurt. Hiathii'f 
work is an ' Eeiay on Mr. Hume's Essay on 
Mimclm, hy WilLum Adams, &[. A., chaplain 
lo thu BUiinp of Llaudaff,' 175*2. It is said ' 
It) have been the first answer to Hume, whose ' 
cagny wua first publislued in 1748 ^Bcston'b ' 
Li/r of Hume, i. 286), and was a temperate 
statement of the argument that the ctivine I 
powrr supplies an lulei^uatf cAiue for the I 
production of the alleged effects, which 
are therefore credible upon sufficient e^■i- ' 

[l.if« in Chnlmfita'i Dictionarj 'from prirate 
mfomiatioQ ; ' Gent. Has. voLlix. ; RavlinEwii ' 
■""■'•'•■- Illustrationc, v. 277 : 
L. S. , 

ADAMS, WILLLiM {/. 1790), potter, , 
was a favourite pupil of Joaiah Wedgwood. 
■ While with him he executed some of his ' 
finest pi«!e» in the Jasper ware. He sub- ■ 
aoqueDtlj went into business on his own ' 
jucount, and produced much of this beautiful 
ware, niodeired with great care.' Leaving , 
Wedgwood hesettled at Tunatal I, and started i 
s business under the style of ' William ' 
Adams &. Co.' An exquisite vase, said to 
be Wedgwund's last work, was made by hjm 
ifliGaiguiiction with William Adams. Adams i 
-*■ iibetweenl«)4andl807(CHAPFBR8,672). , 

the excellence of his work he mi^ht claim 
Sldgli place amongst English eera; 
vui£, nowever, no fresh departt 
art, and produced little that wu 






1^' 



16; Shaw'ii ITiHCor; uf StafTon^ihirH Pul- 
_*; ChaSbn's Eeramic Gallerv, figs. 334, 
; ChaSors'i Harks and MonognuDs on Pot- 

- 'Putcslain, p. 871,] E. R. 



ADAMS, Sib WILLIAM. [9eeIUwfloi)f.] 

ADAMS, WILLL\M (1814-1848), au- 
thor of tile 'Sacred Allegories,' was a mem- 
ber of an old Warwickshire family, being 
thn aeooud son of Mr- Serieant Adams, by 
his marriage with Miss EtiiB Nation, daughter 
of a well-lmown Exeter banker. He was 
Kducflted at Eton and Oxford, and between 
llie time of his leaving school and entering 
the university was tlie pupil of Dr. Brnsse, 
author uf ■ Brasse's Greek Oradus,' by whom 
eat abilities were first appreciated, 
tained a post mastership at Merton,and 
6 took a double first-class, his elder 
r having gained a similar distinction 
en montlii' previously. In tS37 he 
e fellow and tutor of his college, and 
) vicar of St. PBter'i-in-the-Easl, a 
1 living gunumlly held by a resident 



fellow. AVitli his immediate prtMlecesBor at 
St. Peter's. Bishop Hamilton, and Ins imme- 
diate successor, Bisliop Hobhouae.Mr. Adams 
was very intimate. He always took a deep 
interest in the welfare of the parish, and has 
left UB an interesting memorial of his incum- 
bency in his well-known ' Warnings of the 
Uolr Week.' a set of lectttres preached at 
8t. i'eter's in Holy Week, 1W2. In the 
spring of this year he went to Eton as one 
of the examiners for the Newcastle scholar- 
ship, and, while bathing there, was all but 
drowned, and caught a violent cold which, 
flying to his lungs, ultimately proved fatal. 
It WHS hoped that a few months of residence 
in a. warm climate would restore his health, 
and he accordingly passed the winter of 1842 
in Madeira. But the disaase had gained too 
firm a bold to be checked, and he resigned 
bin living, settling at Bonchurch, Isle of 
"Wight. Here he passed the last few years 
of his life, busily engaged with his pen, and 
taking part in every effort to improve the 
spiritual condition of the neighbourhood. 
One of his last public acts was to lay the 
foundation-«tone of the new church at Bon- 
church : and a few montlis later his remains 
were laid in the churchyard of the old 
church, where, by a happy design, \m grave 
hns the ' shadow of the cross ^ever resting 

All Adams's allegories were published 
when he was virtually a dying man. 'The 
Shadow of the Cross,' wntttn at Arborne 
Cottage, near Chertsey. in the summer of 
1842, was followed by the 'Distant Uills' 
in 1814. The design of both was to show 
the privileges of the baptised Christian and 
the danger of forfeiting those privileges. 
His next work, the ' Fall of OriEsue,' was 
less siicceBsful ; not from any falling off in 
point of composition, for everything that 
A-domH wrote was written in the same pure 
and graceful style, but because the choice of 
subject was less happy. It is simply an 
English version of the story of Herodotus, 
with a christian colouring. But his next 
production, the ' Old Man's Home,' was the 
most successful of all bis works. Perhapa 
the fact that the scene of it was liud in the 
beautiful Undurcliff, which he knew and 
loved so well and described so vividly, may 
have been one cause of its success. But the 
story itself is a singularly impressive one, 
and additional interest will be attaclied to 
the ' old man,' who is represented a« hover- 
ing on the borderland between sanity and 
insanity, but full of true aspirations which 
to bis keepers were unintelligible, when it 
is known that the author's father had done 
much lo promote a more considerate treat- 



Adams io3 Adams 



j/;«rfit '/f x}^ iii.»jta*:, Tl> •? vrr Tk« « Tp^i'liI 27!:« of LLJl^ and in Xovember of the same 
U vo ■ J r: rA: wj t L • ?>: j^^: W -.. ri« t :^ L. Tir y -e^r ir- irfc» admined into the College of Ad- 
• K - fi/^i! M«r-»»»*rry *^r» -» *- -mri v.-r a 'i -^ n; : Lr "s .•arr-*. '>U *inin^ a high reputation for busi- 
\fry IhMt iri'^firL* 'A A'iAX£.-\ 2:f»>. I*.? •>'>- nrr^!^ c&{i*c:: rand mastery of legal details, he 
j<^rt in to illiiAtr*:^ ^:-r Un^rr of a wr-.fiz. ryrnirrAl valuable senice on seTeral im- 
iifj'l t h*: M«-*-*^ift'?*-* '/f a rlirt*' . u-^it of ZE.r-r.TY : j^. r-in: <>>mmi5«ion$. He served on the com- 
ftfid in ih«; MiTvArion of *L>: ':harurt^7» ::.r aii-^<on appoint^ in ISll to regulate the 
"AriU'T »^hoH> a drainatic pjw^r wLlch !:<« had yr^i^icv of the Tioe-admindty courts abroid| 
not \9iffhr*: 'li-pUv<:d. Hi^r*: i^ a v*:rT -ImiLir and •'•n that which was occupied from 1815 till 
'lory written in Ijntin >a' fiarlaan in the four- 1 S:!4 in inquiring into the duties, offices, and 
K-^rnth (reritury. fVr^irfe^ the work^ which salaries of the courts of justice and the ecde- 
U;ar William A'larn-'i- nam*r. ther»- ar-r two siastical courts of England. His chief claim 
'ith^r>% which ar»f to U* nr^ri^M^fl v* him. the to distinction is. however, the part he took 
•Ch*?jTySfon#-»', or Charlton Sch*^!*^*!/ a capital in thtr negotiations for a treaty with the 
*tory, 'l*rMrrv<j'lly i^jpiilar with b^»v-. for the Unii»fd States in 1^14 after the capture of 
romph:tion and e'iitinff of which th»; public Washington; hewasoneofthethreeoomiiii»- 
iK indebt';'! to hit broth«;r, fhe It«;v. II. C. sioners sent to represent England, and wu 
AdamH, a wf;Il-kriown author; and 'Silvio/ entrusted with the sole preparation of the 
an nIh;gorv writt'rn b«ffor»{ any of the otherif, despatches relating to maritime law, the 
and r*:v\ntif\ and piibli«h*;il with u mr^le-^t most delicate and important part of the ne- 
]frf'far'^; by anotlwrr brrnher in ]f<^'2. gotiation. In 1815 lie was also named one 

Thti iKipulnrity of AdamM^ allegories, of the three plenipotentiaries sent to conclude 
whirh, (fHHulnH pahHing thmugh many edi- a convention of commerce between Great 
tioHM in KngliHh, have Ij^-rm translated into Britain and the United States, which was 
iiion; than on<; mrxleni liiii^'uage, has been signed on 3 July. Excessive labour con- 
oiit of all proportion to their apparent slight- ' nected with the preparation of the case 
iii^HM, The cir(riiniHtaiin<*H of thffir composi- against Queen Caroline had serious effects 
tiori, no doubt, giv(; a tinge of romantic in- on his health, and in 1825 he was compelled 
U*n'.Hi til tlipui — un iiitfrcHt which exttmds on this account to resign his profession. He 
to till) briitf cariHT of tli(>ir ]>ious and gifted spent the last years of his liie in retirement 
iiiitlior. liut fij)iirt from tiiiH, thort^ is a , at Thorpe in Surrey, where he died 11 June 
piTiiliar fiiHrinution iilniut thiuii which car- 1851. 

ri.'K tli«i HMMJiir along, and which thoroughly ( [ae„t.Mag.(now8eries\xxxvi. 197-9; Annual 
n-lliTtM l.lu« |MTMOiml Hmracter at the man. , Regintor, xciii. 297.] T. F. H. 

Me IiimI a Hiiigiilar gift of attracting all 

KiridH of !HM,|,I.. to him, from the highly' ADAMS, WILLIAM BRIDGES (1797- 
niltivatrd Oxoiiinii down to the Honchurch ' I872),wa8an ingenious and prolific inventor 
IMMHniil, wlm uhimI to npi-ak of him after his ! in the early days of railroads. The invention 
tlrat li aM * t lie goiwl gi'nt h'lnan.' ; hy which he is best known is the fish-joint for 

, ., „ , , . , ... I the railsof railways. Before the date of thisin- 

IMn.MOM. P';'";f/;;J ';»/'•• iX'"" L*)oTT.* vention(1847)engineer8hadfailedinall their 
um.h„,vh. ^;— ^^'«»»^;;>. •'• W.. 1H»0; N.al«H , efforts to contrive a joint which should firmly 
Ivirtlilv itoHtiiiir rliu'dH of ilu* Just : intorniatioii 1 -^ ^i 1 /• "ii. -^ 1 -i n • ' 

ln..n Tho K.V 11. (\ A.h.inH, tho Kov. (N>kiT ' ^^'^^ H« ^'^u ""^ ^^^^ rails while allowing 
\.|.,i.,N. aiul ( '. VVairon A.I.i.iim. Ivs.,.. all l>n>ih..rH ' ^ff ^^^^^ \? be carried over them Bridges 
uf William A.laniH. an«l fn.ni iho Kov. K. W. -^^""»»«PPl»e<^ the well-known 'fish' or over- 
IW'Xuxo K n.ill.VM. his vrry iiit inuiti- tViiMul J liipi^ng plate to the ends of the rails, and set 

,1. If. 0. . the joint in the space between two of the sup- 
])orting * chairs,' instead of immediately over 

ADAMS, WILLIAM, LL.l). ^1772- a • chair/ so that the destructive effect of the 
IhM), a Irai'iu'd lawyer, was tho yonngi'st pr»'ssiin» between the wheels and the chair 
fioii \\\' Pati«MUM« 'riuMiias Adams, HlaziT of was avoided. This joint is still universally 
liioiMMirt of Kitig*M lUmrh, and was Ihtrn at ustnl on railways. Adams also originated 
:H^ llntion (ianltMi, !i<Mulon, Lt Jan. 177l\ manv valuable improvements in rolling stock, 
\\\ III'* latii«MVN Nulo ht« was ronutvtod with and ilid much to reduce the inordinate weight 
nil old Ivt^ox (aiuilx, ami his niothorwasa of the earlier locomotives. For a time he 
d««M'i«iulau( yA' WiUiani of \V\krhani. Ho man u fact iinnl railway plant at works at 
Will oduratod at Tunbriduv st'tund, and in Bow, but he was unsuccessful alike in his 
1 1 ss ruiiMcd IVinitx II a 11, i^a in bridge*, of oomnirriMal enterprises and in his inventions, 
xxliu'h ho Uvaiuo a tt'llow, .\t the agi' of His works failed, and he realised but small 
(\>ou(\ tUo ho Iv^an \k^ at loud tho tvurls at urv^tit fnmi any of his many patents; even that 
hort*»V'/ rouuuous. In IT^H* hoi\H*k tho dt>- for th»' ti>h-jomt brtnight him in very little, 



Adam son 



109 



Adam son 



kod soon paused mii of hh hands. He look 
onl no 1«S£ than lhiny-tw)])]ileTils. Hcnidi'it , 
patents connects) irilh railways he pntent^d , 
unprovements in earrUpM forcommonroads. ' 
in ship pmpuUinn, ffiins. wood-carving nnd ' 
other muilunpH. He wne the author of 
MTernl boolte — ■ EofflTsh PUaBuro Carringec,' 
1837; 'Railways and Permanent W»v,'l«51; 
' RowIb and Ra'il*.' 1 862— nnd of mpnloirs and 
articles ianumerahli'. He rpnd several papers 
to the Society of Art« and the Institution 
of Civil Engineers, and contributed largely 
M the journal of the first-nnmed aociety, as 
■well as to many of the scientific and lech- 
nicAl prriodieala. Besides his writings on 
technical subjects, be was the author of 
aererftl political pamphlets, published under 
the pseudonym of Junius Redivivud. Most 
of tbe-sr were issued about the time of the 
Vm Reform BilL He died at Broadstairs, 
uid was buried at St. Peter's. In 18^ be 
■suned Samh Flower [see Adams, Sasab 
Plowbk]. 

[A very foil biogmphieul notioe in Engineer- 
ing Dempaper. 26 July 1873 (liv. G3), nnd n 
ihinter (ketch in tho Jonma! of Iho .Society of 
Art*. 2 August 18T3(m. 763): Men of tho Time 
(dghtb edition).] H- T. W. 

ADAMSON, HEXnV (d. 163fl), poelieal 
«Titer,anativeofPartb, was the son of James 
AdiLm»on,who had been dean of guild in 16(X), 
aud provost in 1610 and 1611, He was the 
author of ' The Miisea Threnodie or Mirtb- 
fidl Hoiiming on the Death of Master Gall. 
Cimtuaiiig varietie of pleasant poeticall de- 
ecriptionSf morall instructions, bistj^rical nar- 
rations and dirine observations, with the 
mo«t reniarkahle antiquities of Scotland, 
especially at Perth' (Edinburgh, 1638, 41o). 
The multifarious contents of the book bear 
out the promise of the elaborate title. Pre- 
ceding l^e elegy is a whimsical description, 
in rhjmed octosyllabic verses, of the curio- 
sittea (which the owner used to fancifullv 
call hi* ' gabions ') in Mr. Geo, Kuthven's 
cloEet. Tbe elegy itself gives n long account 
of the antiquities of Perth and the neigh- 
bourhood ; Ruthven Dtid Oall are introduced 
ae speakers, and the ' gabions ' are made to 
bear a pari. It was chiefly owing to the 
encouragement and advice of William Drum- 
mond, of Hawtbomden, that this curious 
poem wa» published. In tbe year after its 
miMication the author died prematurely. 
He had been trained for the pulpit. A very 
etaboraio edition of the ' Miisea Tlirenodie ' 
waa issued (in two volumes) in 1774 by a 
Scotch sntiquaT7, James Cant. 

[Cant's pnfaM to thBUaaes Threnodie, 1774.] 



ADAMSON, JOHN id. 1658), was prin- 
cipal of tbi' university of Edinburgh and a 
bosom friend of Andrew Melville ; ha is de- 
serving of remembrance as the editor of 'Ta 
rSir Muufruv EirrdSui. The Miises \S'elcome 
to the High and Mighty Prinar lotnea by the 
grace of God Kingof Great Brit aine, France, 
' and Ireland, Defender of tbe Faith, &c. At 
his Majeslie's happie Returne to his oldeaud 
native Kiugdome of Scotland, after 14 yeeree 
absence, in Anno 161". Digested according 
^ to the order of his Majesties Progresse. By 
I. A. [John Adam son].' 

John Adamson was son of Henry Adatn- 
i son, jirovost of Perth, and grandson of Dr. 
Patrick Adamson, archbishop of St. An- 
I drew*!* [see Abamson, Patbick]. Educated 
in 'grammar' learning in his native city, 
Masler Adamson proceeded early to ibe 
university of St. Andrew's, where auhse- 
I queatly be held the profeiwoi^hip of philo- 
I Bophy. In 1569 he was appointed to one of 
. tbe professorial churs in the university of 
I Edinburgh, which office he held with great 
1 reputation until 1604. In 1604, having been 
I presented to the church of North Berwick, 
he resigned bis professorship. Later he was 
] Iranslaied to the parish of^ Libberton, near 
Edinbiircrh, In 1625, ou the death of Dr. 
! Robert Boyd of Trochrig, he was appointed 
, principal of the university of Kdinburgh, and 
Med the post till 1653, the year of his death; 
I whenhewassueceededbythe'hoIyLeighton.' 
It is believed that hecoUectedlbe Latin ^oems 
. of Andrew Melville, entitled ' Viri clanssimi 
A. Meh-ini Mvsie' (1620). His 'Dioptra 
Glorim Divinie' (1637) is a masteriy com- 
: meutary on Psalm XIX, and his ' Methodus 
I Religionis Christiante' (1637) bos much of 
I the terseness and suggestivene«<Eof Musculus. 
, His • Traveller's Jtiy, to which is added The 
Ark' (1623), has been undeservedly over- 
I looked by the historians of Scottish poetry. 
' The ' Muses Welcome ' preserved meecbes 
and * theses ' and poems by himself and nearly 
all his famous contemporaries — e.g. David 
j and Alexander Hume, Drummond of Haw- 
tbomden, David Wedderbum, Dr. Robert 
Boyd, David Primrose. The gem of the col- 
' lection is Dnimmond's ' Panegyricke to the 
' King,' which contains his enumeration of the 
rivers of Scotland, done withapioturesqueness 
I and felicity of characterisation not inferior 
I to Michael Drayton. Nichols's ' Progresses 
' of James I ' preserves the ' speeches." 

I [The Musm' Welcome, nt snpra; MelvillBS 
I Muse (ib.); Dr. M'Crie'a Andrew Melvillo, ii. 
I 4fi6. 611; Corser's Colleclaaen Anglo-Poetios, 
I i. 12-U; Work.' ennmorated ; MS.S. at North 
, Berwick, Libbarton, Edinburgh.] A. B. G. 



Adamson 



no 



Adamson 



ADAMSON, JOHN (1787-1855), anti- 
quary and Portuguese scholar, was the last 
surviving son of Lieutenant Outhbert Adam- 
son, R.N., by liis second wife Mary Huthwaite. 
He was bom on 13 Sept. 1787 at his father*s 
house in Gateshead, and, having been edu- 
cated at the Newcastle Grammar School, 
entered, in 1803, the counting-house of his 
elder brother Blythman, a merchant in 
Lisbon. The anticipation of the French in- 
vasion of 1807 caused him to leave the 
country, but he was already full of that 
devotion to Portgual which was to fashion 
his literary career. While at Lisbon he 
studied the language and collected a few 
books, among them being the tragedy of 
Dona Ignez de Castro, translated and printed 
by him in 1808 as his first attempt in author- 
ship. On his return to England he became 
articled to Thomas Davidson, a Newcastle 
solicitor and clerk of the peace for Northum- 
berland, to whom the ' Memoirs of Camoens ' 
were afterwards dedicated by him * as a 
token of respect and esteem.* In 1810 he 
printed a small collection of sonnets, chiefly 
translations from the minor works of Camoens. 
The year following he was appointed under- 
sheriff of Newcastle, and retained the oflice 
until the passing of the Municipal Corpora- 
tion Act m 1835. He became a member of 
the Literary and Philosophical Society of 
Newcastle about this time, and was from 
1825 to his death one of its secretaries. On 
3 Dec. 1812 he married his cousin, Elizabeth 
Huthwaite, who subsequently bore him four 
sons and three daughters. He was one of 
the founders of the Antiquarian Society of 
Newcastle in 1813, and was then appointed 
secretary with the Rev. J. Hodgson. That 
he held the oflice with useful effect is shown 
by the issue of a printed catalogue of the 
library three years after, followed by sup- 
plements. 

Newcastle during the early part of this 
century numbered many notable antiquaries 
and book collectors among its townsmen. 
Specially eminent were John Fenwick, J. 
Trotter ferockett, and the Rev. J. Hodgson, 
who with Adamson were the chief founders 
of the Typographical Society of Newcastle, 
which was to consist of only thirty members. 
The books brought out under the auspices 
of this body are well and uniformly pnnted 
in crown octavo, and are illustratea with 
vignettes of the arms and devices of the 
respective editors, cut in wood by Bewick 
ana his pupils. The edition was usually a 
limited one, and in most instances for private 
circulation only. The first in the series was 
* Cheviot,' edited in 1817 by Adamson, under 
whose care ten other trifles in verse were 



issued between 1817 and 1831. His more 
considerable productions, with the exception 
of the * Memoirs of Camoens,' published by 
Longman, also rank among the publications 
of the society. All of these possess his device 
by Bewick on the title-page, a ruined Gothic 
arch embowered in trees, in 1820 appeared 
the work by which his name is best remem- 
bered, and which still retains its value as 
a storehouse of well-arranged facts — * The 
Memoirs of Camoens.' It was well re- 
ceived, Robert Southey (Quar. Review, 1822, 
April) speaking warmly in its favour. The 
two volumes comprehend a life of the poet, 
notices concemingthe rimaaor smaller poems, 
a translation of an essay by Dom Joze Maria 
de Souza, an account of the translations and 
translators of the ' Lusiad,' a view of the 
editions of Camoens, and notices of his 
commentators and apologists. Portuguese 
literature was not, however, Adamson's sole 

Sursuit. He was attentive to his professional 
uties, and interested himself in local affairs. 
He was also a skilled numismatist, and de- 
voted much attention to conchology. His 
* Conchological Tables' (1823) is a useful 
guide for amateurs: his private cabinet com- 
prehended 3,000 different species. He also 
collected fossils and minerals; the former 
were presented by him to the museum at 
Newcastle, and tne latter to the university 
of Durham. In 1836 he printed a catalogue 
of his Portuguese library under the name 
of *Bibliotheca Lusitana.' Tlie books are 
carefully described, and the notes contain 
much bibliographic€Ll information. It was a 
remarkable collection, brought together by 
the labour of twenty-five years and the ex- 
penditure of much money. Unfortimately, 
with tlie exception of the volumes relating 
to Camoens and a few others, the library 
was destroyed by a fire on 16 April 1849. 
His love for the sonnet prompted him to 
bring out, in 1842, the first part of a collec- 
tion entitled ' Lusitania Dlustrata,' consisting 
of translations from Portuguese sonnetteers 
and biographical notices. This was followed, 
in 1846, by a second part devoted to ballads. 
As regards his merit as a translator, it is 
enough to observe that a somewhat austere 
rendering of the original is his chief cha- 
racteristic. In 1845 he printed another small 
volume of original and translated sonnets, 
and in 1853 appeared his last work, being 
an edition of the first five cantos of the 
*■ Lusiad,' translated by his deceased Mend, 
Quillanan, with preface, lists of editions and 
translations, and a few notes by the editor. 
As a reward for his services in connection 
with the literature of her country, the Queen 
of Portugal had conferred upon him the 



Adamson 



Adamson 



knighlbooils of Christ and of the Tower luid 
Sword- Ui? was a ffllow of the Soeiety of 
ADtiqiuuittft of London, and a mtmbt^r of 
tnuiy English and continental philoBophical 
■ud sDliquarian bodies. In spite of felling 
h^Jtli he continued bis ordin&rf occnpatinnit 
to within three dsTS of his death, which tnoli 

; lace on 27 Sept.'lS^. He liee buried at 
nunond CBtnelfry, near Newcaelle. 
Bis vrriling* are; 1. 'Dons Igneji de 
Cwlro, a tnifred; from the PurtugueBo of 
Niouls l.uic, with rem&rkB on the history of ' 
that unfortunate lady.' Newcastle, 1808, j 
I:tmo. pp. \'24. 2. ' Sonnets from the Portn- 

Kif<w of Luis de Camoens, &c. [translated 
f J. A.y [Newcastle, 1810;[. 3. 'Catalogue 
d the Library of the Antiquarian Society ' 
of Newcastle- upon-Tvne, by J. A., Beoretary.' I 
NiiwduilK 1816, 4toi and Supplement, 1823. i 
I. 'Cheriol, a Pwlieal Fragment, b\- R. 
ttTh»rton], [nd. by .1. A.].' Newcastle, "iHir , 
<^ewcllatllT Typogmphical Soc.), 5. 'Tlie 
Maitisgi^ of the Coi|uet and the Alwine [ed. 
hj J. A.].' Newcnstle, 1817 (N.Trp. Soc.). 
a • ! Jnae addresswl to Lady Byron [written 
by Mr». Cockle, ed. by J. A.].^ Newcastlf, 
1817 ; 20 copies priialely printed (N. Typ. 
Soc.). 7. 'Reply to Lord Byron's "Fare 
th«w well " fwntW'n bv Mm. dotkle, ed. by 
J. AJ.' NfiwCMtle, 'ISI? (N. Typ. Sw.). 
«. ' Eipgy m the Memory of H.R.II. the 
Princess Charlotte of Wafea, by Mrs. Cockle 
fed. bv J. A.].' Newcastle, S. Hodgson, 
|817 {N. Typ. Soc.). 9. 'Elegy on the 
TWth "f his 1b1« Maiesty George Til, by 
Mrs. Ciokle' [ed. by J. AJ. Newcastle, S. 
HodMon, ISlf.cr. 8vo,pp. fl (N.-fyp. Soc,). 
10. "MemoirB of the Life and Writings of 
Lnia do Ciunoens.' London, Longman, 1820, 
3T<^cr.l4v«,porIraitsBnd plates. 11. 'Con- 
chnlpeicnl Tables, compiled principally for the 
ttse of shell collectors [by J. A.].' Newcastle, 
1825 (N.iyp. Soc. ). 12. 'Verses written at 
ihehoowe of^Mr. Henderson, at Longleeford, 
ni»r Cheviot, during the wintt* nf 1817 [by 
Ilia son, ed. bv J. A.].' Nnwca^tle, 1823 (N. 
Tjp. Sfic.). 13. ' Lines to a Boy pursiiinga 
Ituii«rfly, bv a l^dv [Hrs. Septimus Hodgson, 
«L by J. A.].' fJewcastle, 1826 (N. Typ. 
Roc.). 14. ' Epistle to Prospro, bv Joae 
Maria ()<• Psndo, traniilated into English by 
Hrughl SfnlvinJ. [clioplain] of H.M.S. Cam- 
bndge Ui. bv J. A J, Newcjwile, 1838 (N. 
Tj-p. Sw.). 15. -The Tynemoulh Nun, a 
Poem, by Rnben White fed. by J. A.].' 
Newcastle, 182S fN. Typ. Soc.). 16. 'Im- 
perii caput. p( rerum pulclierriintt Itoina, Car- 
men latlniim apud scliulam Novocastrensem 
Bunro niunismate donatum, auotori^ E. H. 
.\dain>on.anii08xiv. nato[0d. J. A.].' Novia 
('*alti*, 1881 (N. Typ. Soc.), 17. 'An Ae- 



caunl of the niscovery nt Hexham, in North- 
ntaberlnncl, of a Units Vessel containing a 
numbiT of the Anglo-Saxon Coins caUed 
Stffatr,-wlt\i 3f> plates '(in Areh^oloffia, xxv. 
1834, pp, 279-310), 'Further Aocoimt .. . 
with I plates' (tA. xxvi.1836, pp, 346-6). 
18. ■ Bib Moth eca Lusitana, or Catalogue ot 
Books and Tracts rolating to the History, 
Literature, and PoetiT of Portugal, forming 
part of the library of J. A.' Newcoatle, 1836 
(N. Typ. Soc.). Ifl. 'Lnsituuia Lllustrata, 
Notices of the History, Antiquities, Litera- 
ture, &c. of Portugal : Literary Department, 
part i. Selection of Sonnets, with Biogrspllt- 
cal Sket«li>w of the vVuthors.' Newcastle, 
1842. 'The same: Literary Department, 

Krt ii. Minstrelsy-' Newcastle, 1846 (N. 
p. Soc.). 20. 'IleplvafCamoens.' New- 
castle. 1845. 21. 'linnets.' Newcastle, 
imfi. 22. ' The Lusittd of Luis de Co- 
raoens, books i. to v. ; translated by Edward 
tjuillauan, with miles by J. A.' London, 
ISTvl 

[Notea and Qneriee, Istseriw, i. 178, viii. 104. 
2S7; Miirtin'aCat.otBookaPriT. Printed, 183*, 
p. 419, &c. ; Dibdin's Northern Toor, 1838, i. 
332, Sec; Gent. Mag. IS£S (Dec.), 6S7.] 

H.R.T. 

ADAMSON, PATRICK (1537-1692), n 

distinguished ^otch prelate, was born at 
Perth on or ab.mt 16 March 1536-7. His 
enemies taunted him with being a baker's 
son — ' ane baxter's sone, ane beggar home ' 
(Sbmpil's Ijeffmd of fhe Ili-hoji of St. 
Andrew'» Life,\r>ii\): but in the biographical 
sketch by his son-in-law, Thomas Wilson, 
appended to the posthumous tract, ' De Sacro 
Pas(«ris Munere,' 1619, be is said to have 
been bom 'parentibus ingenuis et stirpe 
hcnesta.' He was educated first at the 
grammar school, Perth, and afterwards at 
the university of St. Andrews, where he took 
his mnater's degree in 1558 under the name 
of PatriciuBConstyne. Two years afterwards, 
as Mr. Patrick Cfonsteane, he was declared 
qualified by the general atisembly for mi- 
nistering and teaching, and in 1563 was ap- 
pointed minister of Ceres in Fife. In the 
general assembly at Edinburgh, in June 
1564, he begged to be allowed to travel into 
France and other countries in order to in- 
crease his knowledge, but was forbidden to 
leave his congregation without special license 
from the assembly. In the same year he 
wrote a copy of Latin hexameters (included 
in his ' Poemata Sacra,' 1619), in which he 
assailed the Romanists of Aberdeen. The 
title of the piece is ' De Papistarum Super- 
stitiosis Ineptiis.' Early in 1566 he threw 
up bis clurge, and went to France as tnUir 



Adamson 



112 



Adamson 



to the eldest son of Sir James MacgiU, of ' now, when my lord eetteth the benefice, and 



llankeillor, clerk-gener&L In the following 
June, while he was residing with his pupil at 
Paris, Adamson (called variously, at this date, 



the bishop serveth for a portion out of the 
benefice to make my lora's title sure; the 
Lord's bishop is the true minister of the 



Conston, Constant, Constean, or Constantine) GospelL"' Three years afterwards (1576) 
published a poem of thanksgiving on the ' he was one of the deputies named by the 
occasionofthebirth of the son of Mary Queen ' general assembly to oiscuss questions re- 
ef Scots. The mfant was described in the title &ting to the jurisdiction of the kirk with 
as ' serenissimus nrinceps ' of Scotland, Eng- commissioners appointed by the regent 
land, France, ana Ireland, an act of indis- : Moreton ; and witn two others he was chosen 
cretion which g^ave such offence that the ' in 1576 to report the proceedings to the 
author was imjirisoned for six months. On | regent. A^bout this time he appears to have 
his release, which he owed to the intercession ' finally adopted the name Adamson in pre- 
of his royal mistress, he moved into the | ference to Constant. His adyersaries did not 
province of Poitou, and afterwards to Padua ; ; fail to twit him on his change of name : — 
thence he proceeded to Geneva, where he 
made the acquaintance of Theodore Beza and 
studied Calvmistic theology. On the home- 
ward journey he revisited Paris with his 
pupil, but, finding it distracted by civil . 
war (1567-8), thought it prudent to retire 
to Bourges, where he lay concealed for seven 
months at an inn. Here Adamson beguiled 
the time by translating the Book of Joo into 



Twyae his suniaime bes mensuome ; 
To be called Costeine he the* schame, 
He tuke up Costantine to name. 

• • • • a 

Now Docto' Adamsone at last. 

On the death of Douglas, in October 1576,. 
Adamson, who had been serving as chaplain 
to the regent, was raised to the archbishopric 



Latin hexameters, and composing a Latin > of St. Andrews. Before his installation he- 



tragedy on the subject of H^rod. He also 
made a Latin translation of the Scottish 
Confession of Faith. The exact date of his 
return is unknown ; but in March 1571 the 
assembly, * seeing there were so few labourers 
in the Lord's vineyarde,' urged him strongly 
to return to the ministry, a request to which 
he agreed by letter at the meeting of the 
assembly in the following August. Some 
of his biographers state that he was in Paris 
at the time of the massacre of St. Bartholo- 
mew in 1572, but MacCrie (Notes to the 
Life of Andrew Melville) showed that this is 
a mistake arising from a misunderstanding 
of Adamson's words in the dedication of his 
Catechism, * Scripsi quidem in Gallia in ipso 
furore * — words which merely contain a refer- 
ence to the civil war of 1567-8. On rejoin- 
ing the ministry Adamson was presented to 
the living of Paisley. In 1672 he published 
at St. Andrews lus Catechism, under the 
title of ' Catechismus Latino sermone reddi- 
tus et in libros quattuor digestus,' which he 
had composed for the use oi the yoimg king ; 
and this was followed by his Latin translation 
of the Scottish Confession of Faith, * Confessio 
Fidei et Doctrinse per Ecclesiam Reformatam 
Scotifld recepta.' On 8 Feb. in this year he 
preached a sermon on the occasion of the 
elevation of John Douglas, rector of St. 
Andrews University, to the archbishopric of 
that diocese. ' In his sermon,' says Calder- 
wood, * he made three sorts of bishops, '^ My 
lord bishop," " my lord's bishop," and " the 
Lord's bishop." " My lord bishon," said he, 
<< was in time of papistrie ; my lora's bishop is 



had declared that he would resist any attempt 
on the part of the assembly to deprive him 
of his privileges ; and his life now became 
one constant struggle with the presbytenan 
party. In April 1577 he was ordered by 
the assembly to appear before certain com- 
missioners to answer the charge of havings 
entered upon the archbishopric without being 
duly consecrated. On this occasion he ap- 
pears to have made submission to the as- 
sembly; but in Julv 1579 other charges 
were brought against nim — that he had voted 
in parliament without the assembly's per- 
mission, that he had opposed from his place- 
in parliament the interests of the church, 
and that he had collated to benefices; for 
which offences he was again ordered to ap- 
pear before commissioners. To escape from 
his opponents he retired to the castle of St. 
Andrews, where he was prostrated by a great 
illness (*a great fedity* he c^ls it)y.m>i]i 
which his medical attendants could give hint 
no relief. In his extremity he sought the 
assistance of a wisewoman, Alison Pearson^ 
who treated him so successAilly that he com- 
pletely recovered. His enemies ascribed his 
cure to witchcraft, seized the unfortunato 
woman, and confined her in the castle of St. 
Andrews, whence, with the connivance of 
the archbishop, she contrived to escape. A 
few years afterwards (1588) she was again 
apprehended, and after a trial before the 
court of justiciary was committed to the 
fiames ; one of the charges brought against 
her being that she had concocted for the 
archbishop a beverage of ewe's milk, claret^ 



Adamson 



quhilk 



licrbs &c, makiuK ' une qiurt utt anis, ui 
lirdranh itit t^a <lrnrh|.ia, twB Hindrie ayitt 
lPlTr*iRRK'» Criminal Trials, i. 165). In 
June 1&S3 AdnmiKin delivertd some piiwer- 
ful iUfrtiiulU' brfort- thn king, ' mspired,' bhvs 
Llftlderwood. 'wilU uuother spirit thon fnilli- 
ful paetora are.' Ac tli(> end uf this yvnr \\e 
wNt ajt Jami-s's ambaMadur to tht court of 
(Jiuc^ Eliiabelb, pretending, as Us ^Dcmicx 
al)«gv»l, that he was RoinK In Spa for th<^ 
Kkke of his health. Of his proceedings in 
lymdon the mtiriet Scmpil ha.? K>VFin a coarse 
aomunl. which i^ followed with mucli satb- 
ractioQ bv Caldcrwood. If one may believ<! 
lhe«e authorities, thi^ archbishop coni-tantly 
d-'ftAuded bl« creditors, and was a rer; groiw 
liver. From the bifhopof London (il. was as- 
•erted I he bormweil a gown lo pi'each in, and 
nerprretunirsIitifrotntheFreneliambasiidor 
hr tiwd to borrow a hundred pounds, hut had 
to bu content with ten. lie had only one 
audience with the queen, and on that cwcnsion 
hia conduct in the precincts of the palace — 
ooder the verrwalfa — was su unseemly that | 
benariTiwlTeccapedacudgellingat thehandi^ i 
nf the fratcKecper. Ilis enemies accused bim 
of ttailig all possible misrepresentations dur- 
ing Ilis stay in England lo bring reproach 
aiion the |>re«bTterinn party : but none could 
deny that his eloquent^ attracted many 
lirarvni. and thai he was held in high respect 
hv Bngliah churchmen for learning and 
(Utility, In thn following Hay he returned 
!■> Sootlanit.and sat in the parliament which 
mot on the 22nd of that month. Strong 
metunrM were passed in this parliament 
agwnat the presbjterians, ,\daniiion ond 
Mcifitgomery being the leading counsellors. 
Itut i^iile ho stood high in the king's favour 
luid constantly preached before him, Adamson 
hnrsme daily an object of greater dislike to 
thu people, BO much so that on one occasion, 
wtim he WDii preaching at the High Church, 
Edinburgh, the majority of the congregation 
from iheir seats and abruptly left the 
„ In 15S5 he published a ' Declara- 
of the King's Majesty's Intention in the 
Acts nf Parliament,' a tract which gnve 
^ It oiTniice to the presbyterion party, espe- 
aallr when it was inserted two years afler- 
wari* in Thynne's continuation of Holins- 
liml. 'willi on odious preface of alledged 
Uwasonti prefixed unto it. liong afterwards, 
' 1046, at the lime of the civil wars, this 
I" reprinted — and by ibe 

|7The ciMe of 1S8.5 witnessed the return to 

Aland of Andrew Melville, with many of 

e noMamen who had fled to England after 

■ tnid of Kuihven : and now the prospects 

f the presbrterian porly bi'gnn to brigoten. 



^EaAct 
^^Bri«t oil 




When the synod of fife met at St. Andrews 
in the following April, a violent attack was 
made on Adamson In- .lames Melville, pm- 
fe««w>r of theology, the nephew of Andrew. 
The scene was animated. At Melville's side 
throughout the delivery- of the nddn-ss sot 
the archbishop. .A.ftcr making some obser- 
Tittions of a j^neral charBCter on the disci- 
pline of the kirk. Melville turned fiercely on 
Adamson, sketched shortly the history of his 
life, upbraiding him with his ojipoaition to 
Ibe kirk, and assured him that the 'Dragon 
bed so Btlnged him with the ppysoun and 
venome of avarice ond ambition, that swell- 
ing exorbitanllie out of measure, he threat- 
ned the wTacke and destnictioun of the 
whole bodie in case he were not tymouelie 
and with courage cut off" (C«i.t)BKWOon). 
S«eing there was no chance of gaining a fair 
hearing, Adamson mode no attempt at an 
elaborate defence. At a lalermeetmgof the 
synod he was charged to offer eumiisaion 
(1) for his transgression of the ordinances of 
the general assembly ; (2) for the injuries 
he had inflicted on the kirk : (3) for his con- 
tRm]Jtuoua bearing before the synod; (4) fur 
'opin avowing of antichristian poprie and 
bluephemouB herp.'sy.' In answer to these 
charges the archbishop, appearing in person, 
denied that the synod had any jurisdiction 
over him, and ap]>eBled to the king and par- 
liament, Then, taking the charges sevewlly. 
he contended (1) that his suspension by the 
assembly was illegal ,■ (2) that all he hod 
done was done openly from his seal, in parlia- 
ment: (3) that the complaint wtu too geneml. 
but that he was prepared to snswpr any par- 
ticular charge set down in writing; (4) that 
he had shown himself from his earliest years 
8 public opponent of popery. But these 
answers did not satisfy his opponents, and 
the synod passed sentence of excommunicn- 
lioa on the arehbisbop, who replied by ea- 
communicsting Andrew and James Melville 
with some olbprs. In thi- following month 
the general assembly remitted the sentencf 
of excommunication passed by the synod, as 
the illegality of the synod's proceedings was 
obvious; and the Melvilles, for the active' 

5 art they had taken, did not escape the king's 
ispleasure, Andrew being ordered to reside 
in his native plac* until further notice, and 
James being dismissed to bis profeasoriiil 
duties. As archbishop of S(. Andrews, 
Adamson was er officto chancellor of the 
university, and he was now reguimd by the 
king to give public lessons, which the whole 
university was to attend (.TiMiis Mulvillr's 
Diary). At the ne.it meeting of the as- 
sembly (June I58T) more trouble awaited 
him. He was clmrged with detaining the 



Adam son 



114 



Adamson 



Htipends of certain ministers within his dio- 
cese, and with allowing himself to be put to 
the horn for not setthng the chiims of his 
creditors. It was further alleged that he had 
failed to supply two gallons of wine for the 
celebration of communion. At the time 
when these charges were occupying the as- 
sembly's attention, the poet Du Bartas was 
in Scotland; and the king, for the amuse- 
ment and edification of nis distinguished 
guest, determined that a disputation should 
take place between the rival champions, 
. Vndrew Melville and Adamson. Worn was 
^^int to Melville that the king and Du Bartas 
would attend his lecture in the class-room. 
MelviUe replied that the lecture had been 
just delivered; but this excuse would not 
serve, and within an hour's space he had to 
lecture again. Adamson listened to the ad- 
dress, which dealt with the recent legislation 
against the kirk, and the next morning de- 
livered a discourse in defence of the episcopal 
system. Melville followed with a second 
address, in which he directed his argument 
not against Adamson, but against certain 
popish writers, whose opinions on church- 
government bore a marked resemblance to 
the views propounded by the archbishop. 
At the close of the lecture Adamson was 
too dismayed to make any reply, but the 
king came to his aid with a rambling pe- 
dantic dissertation. It should be added 
that this curioufl narrative rests solely on 
the authority of Adamson's opponent, James 
Mt'lville. 

In August 1588 Adamson was once more 
assailed by the assembly, thf, charges being 
that he had solemnised the marriage of the 
Earl of Huntley with the daughter of the 
Duke of Lennox, and that he had abstracted 
^ome entries and mutilated others in the 
assembly's registers. As he did not appear 
iu person to answer these charges, the 
matter was referred to the presbytery at 
Edinburgh, who excommunicated him — a 
sentence which was confirmed by the general 
assembly. His situation was now oue of 
some dimcultv. The king, whose help had 
been so useral in the past, now deserted 
him, and granted the revenue of the see to 
the Duke of Lennox. It was in vain that 
uVdamson tried to gain favour by dedicating 
to James Latin translations of the Lamen- 
tations of .Jeremiah and the Book of Reve- 
lation, both published in 1590. Weighed 
down by sickness and poverty, he appealed 
in his distress to his ola opponent, Andrew 
Melville, who, moved by pity, induced the 
presbytery of St. Andrews to remit the sen- 
tence of excommunication on condition that 
Adamson should make a free confession of 



his errors. On 8 April the archbishop's sig- 
nature was obtained for the Recantation, 
and on 12 May for an Answer to and Refu- 
tation of the book falsely called the ' Eang's 
Declaration;' a ratification of both being 
exacted from him on 10 June. The episcopid 
writers affirm that the Recantation and 
Answer are purely fictitious, and that the 
archbishop was induced to sign documents 
of which the contents were misrepresented. 
The earliest printed edition of the papers is 
dated 1598. They were afterwards turned 
into Latin, and printed at the end of Mel- 
vin's 'Poemata, 1620. If, as is probably 
the case, the Recantation is spurious, Adam- 
son was merely served as he had served his 
opponent Lawson, who, dying in the full 
conviction of the truth of presbyterian prin- 
ciples, was represented by the archbishon— 
who actually forged a testament to tnat 
effect — to have abiured presbyterianism and 
to have exhorted nis brethren on his death- 
bed to embrace the episcopal system (Calder- 
wood). Adamson aied on 19 Feb. 1592, a 
few months before the passing of the ' Rati- 
fication of the Liberty of the True Kirk,' a 
measure which secured the triumph of his 
adversaries. 

His character has been variously estimated. 
^A man he was of great learning,' says 
Spottiswood (vL 385), * and a most persua- 
sive preacher, but an ill administrator of the 
church patrimony.' Wilson, his son-in-law, 
styles him ' divinus theologus, linguae sacrse 
sui temporis coryphaeus, politioris omnis 
disciplinse et scientise thesaurus,' and so on. 
His ability was allowed even byhis enemies. 
James Melville's words are : ' This man had 
many great gifts, but especially excelled in the 
tongue and pen ; and yet for abusing of the 
same against Christ, all use of both the one 
and the other was taken from him, when be 
was in greatest misery and had most need of 
them.' 

By his wife Elizabeth, daughter of William 
Arthur, of Kemis, he had two sons, James 
and Patrick, and a daughter, who became 
the wife of Thomas WQson, advocate. In 
1619 his collected works were published by 
his son-in-law, under the title of * Reveren- 
dissimi in Christo Patris Patricii Adamsoni, 
Sancti-Andreje in Scotia Archiepiscopi dig- 
nissimi ac doctissimi, Poemata Sacra, cum aliis 
opuRCulis ; studio ac industria Tho. Voluseni, 
J. C, expolita et recognita,' Londini, 4to. 
With the exception of * Jobus,' a Latin ver- 
sion of the Book of Job, most of the pieces 
in this collection had been printed during 
the author's lifetime. * Jobus,' with the 
Latin versions of the Decalogue (from book ii. 
of the Catechism) and the Lamentations of 



Swfden brook e 



JrTenitah, ij included in vnL ii. of Lauder's 
' Poetarum Scoionim Muaie Siicrte,' Edinb. 
17% 3e|NUVtel; bum lixe coUeclian, WIIikiii 
also published Ivo treatisea of Adiimeon'E, 
oBo ontitled 'Db Sucro Puloris Mimere 
incUtUB.'Lund. IIIIO: the other, 'Rtfutatin 
tibelli (le Heffimiiit' Bci'lesiui Scolicunw,' 
lem In thn dedication of the ypreion of 
iCefelat iooa (1590) Adonuon tuentionii t.liul 
be bftd written a book against his oppo- 
iieQt« und» the title of - Peillus,' and in 
the dedication of the 'Catechism' (1572) 
he mentioDB that hn was pngsged on n, treii- 
tiae, ' D« Politia Moeaica.' \\ il^n, iit the 
Uogrft^ical sketch appended to the ' De . 
Sacro Pastoria Manere, gives the titles of 
terefsl works of Adamson's, ' qiutt fere om- | 
nia, tetoporis injuria et malevolonim ho- 
minnm ndiis ntque invidift hue illuc dig- , 
kcta, in rarias sunt manus diBcerpto,' p. 21. , 
They include Latin versions of EtclesiasteB, 
Ilaaiel, and the Minor Prophets ; Conmien- 
luiaa on St. Paul's Epistles ; and Annals of i 
EnpUndandScotland. TheeditorofMelvin'a 
'PaoiQata' rouDdly charges Wliaon with i 
drawing up a fictitious list, of the aichbishop'e 
writings. 

[Calderwood'B True History of the Church of , 
SontJaDil, Wodrow Somety. i~T; Book of the ' 
Datrvml KiikofScotliuul; SputtuivooirK His- ' 
•arj of ihc Church of Scollimd ; Life bj Wil«)D, 
afmiKd to I>e Sacra Fiutoriit Munere. 16)9: 
J«a)w Melvil'H Diary, BanruitynB C'lab; Ualyall's ' 
ilcottifh PoemiuftheSixtwulh Century. ISDl ; ' 
Mdtin'* Poemota. 1820; Cut. of .Sooii-h Swte 
pAfen. pp. 100. 239, 240, 312. be.; MacCrle'a 
Uiv of AndrBw MeWltp ; S. D. U, K. Biographi- 
cal Kctioniiry (art. by Cniik) ; Andetvon's Scot- 
tiah Hatiou; Sivtt'ti Fasti t^ocle^in Anslicsris^.1 
A. H. B. 

ADAMSON, THOMAS (J?. ifieOt, master 
guftner iu Kiiig CUurie? H's tmin of artillery, 

Eibliated, in IflPO, u ireaii«,> of Thomas 
iggee, entitled ' Kiiplnnd's I'-^feiice, n Trea- 
iW coiiceming Invai^iou,' TliomnH Digger 
(a ton of Leonard Digges the elder) had 
been DiiiMter-iuaster-general of Queen Eliza- 
bi-lhV forces in the Low Countries ; and his 
treatise had been exhibited in writing to 
the Earl of Ijeiceiter sliortlv before the 
Snaniah invasion in 1588. When the fear 
01 a French invasion was imminent, Adam- 
ton edited this tract with additions of his 
own, giving an account of 'such stores of 
war and other materials as are requisite for 
the defence of a fort, a train of artllleTf , and 
fill a magaxine belonging to a field army ; ' 
adiUiif ^o a list (f) of the ships of war, 
(2) oiihe governors of the garriscms of Eng- 
l»iidj (3) of the lord lieutenants and hiffh 
»henfc of the counties adjacent lo iLe 



coastB ; and coiicludiug hh Iract by a state- 
meat of The wages paid per month to the 
nIKccrs and seamen in the fleet. 



[Englnnd's Defence 



X M.] 



1. H. B. 



ADDA (d. 566), king of Bemicia, the 
eldeet son of Ida, founder tif the Anglian 
kingdom of Bemiciu, succeirfed his father 
in 5fi9, and, according to Nennius, reigned 
eight years. Simeon of Durham and the 
Chronologin, prefixed to Bishop More's MS. 
of Biedu, place the reieu of Olappa lastinff 
for line year between the reigns of Ida and 
Adda. The Oeneulogia in the Appendix to 
Florence of Worcester makes Adda reign 
for aeveu years after ihe death of his father, 
and putsClappa (Olaiipal after him. The 
early Northumbrian cnronology ia confused 
and uncertain (see Mon. Hint. Brit. p. 75 
note). The gradual conquest made by the 
Ilemicians, ia which at one time the invader* 
and al another the natives were victorious, 
must have made the reign of Adda full of 
fighting. He died in .Vtu. Tlie name Adda 
may probably be discemeii in conjunction 
with the patronymic syllnble in// iu Adding- 

[NVnniuB ; Simeou of Dnrhaiii ; App. to FIo- 
reiioa of WorcBoter ; Mon. Hist. Bril. 74, 76. 290, 

aai.j w. H. 

ADDENBROOKE, JIPlIN {1680-1719), 

founder of the liospitHl which beara his name 
at Cambridge, was bom in 1680 at Swinford 
Rceis in Staffordshire. He was educated at 
Calnurine Hall, Cambridge, graduated B.A. 
1701, M.A. 1705, and was elected a fellow 
of the college. In 1706 he was admitted an 
extra-licentiate of the College of Physiciana, 
and took a M.D. degree at Cambridge in 1712. 
Of his practice nothing is known. In 1714 
Dr. Addenbrooke publislirfil 'A Short Essav 
upon Freethinking.' He praises Bentlej^s 
repl^' to Collins, and gives as his reason for 
joining ia the controversy thai freethinkers 
are so set against clergymen that they may 
care more for what a hiyraan says. A man 
may think as &eely, he ^ayi, who believes n 
proposition as one who does not. Two things 
are essential to true freethinking— absence of 
prejudice and the full exertion of abilities of 
thought. The uudei'st ending may be distem- 

Kred, and is so more ')ften than the body. 
ence no man can det.'mrine the guilt of 
another in having erron"oua ouinions. These 
are the chief points of Addenbrooke's rather 
indefinite essay. He died in 1719, and be- 
queathed about 4,000/. 'to erect and maintun 
a small physical hospilal' at Cambridge, a 
foundation which has ■jince been of the 



Addington 



ii6 



Addington 



greatest service to the study of physic in 
that university. There is a tablet to his 
memory in the chapel of St. Catharine's. 

[Munk's College of Physicians, ii. 14.1 

N. M. 

ADDINGTON, ANTHONY, M.D.(1713- 
1790), physician, father of the first Viscount 
Sidmouth, was bom on 13 Dec. 1713. He was 
the youngest son of an Oxfordshire gentleman, 
the owner and occupier of a moderately sized 
estate at Twyford in that county, where the 
family had been settled for generations. He 
was sent as a commoner to Winchester 
School, and was elected thence to Trinity 
College, Oxford. He took his B.A. degree 
in 1739, that of M.A. in 1740, and having 
fixed on medicine as his profession, he gra- 
duated M.B. of Oxford in 1741, and M.D. in 
1744. About this last dat« he settled as a 

Shysician at Keadiug, marrying, in 1745, the 
aughter of the heaa-mast«r of the grammar 
school there. He obtained a good general 
practice, and a special reputation for the treat- 
ment of mental disease. He built a house 
contiguous to his own for the reception of 
his insane patients. In 1753 Addington pub- 
lished, witn a dedication to the loras of the 
admiralty, *An Essay on the Sea Scurvy, 
wherein is proposed an easy method of curing 
that distemper at sea, and of preserving 
water sweet for any cruise or voyage.' The 
essay displayed considerable reading, but was 
even then of little practical value. Tlie 
method proposed for preserving the fresh- 
ness of water at sea was the addition to it 
of muriatic acid, the hydrochloric acid of 
more recent chemistry. 

In 1754 Addington left Heading for Lon- 
don. In 1755 he was a candidate of the 
College of Physicians, in 1756 a Fellow, 
and, being Censor in 1757, delivered the Gul- 
stonian Lecture. For twenty years Adding- 
ton practised in I^ondon with eminent success. 
Among his patients was Lord Chatham, his 
professional connection with whom ripened 
into something like confidential friendship. 
In the * Chatham Correspondence ' there are 
several letters from the statesman indicating 
a warm personal interest in the physician ana 
his family. During his severe illness in 1767 
Chatham respectfullv declined (Jeorge IH's 
suggestion that another physician should be 
called in to Dr. Addington's assistance. The 
opposition saw in this confidence a proof that 
Chatham's disease could only be insanity. 
This gossip, with injurious reflections on 
Addington 8 professional character, is repro- 
duced m one of Horace Walpole's letters to 
Mann (April 5, 1767; Letters^ 1857, v. 45), 
in which Addington is referred to as ' orig^i- 



nally a mad doctor' and as 'a kind of em- 
piric ' (see also Walpole's Memoirs of the 
iteign of George III, ii. 450). Chatham, in 
a grateful letter to Addin^on, ascribed hi» 
recovery to his physician's * judicious sagacity 
and land care.' j'our years before, Adding- 
ton had restored to health Chatham's second 
son, William Pitt, by a course of treatment 
which included the seductive remedy of port, 
wine (Lord Stanhope's Life of Pitt, 2nd 
edition, i. 12). 

Chatham seems to have sometimes used 
Addington as his mouthpiece in society, and 
in communicating to him a striking memo- 
randum of his views on the future of the 
struggle with the American colonists in the 
July of 1776, Chatham strictly enjoine<l him, 
when repeating them in conversation" with 
others, to employ *the very words' of the 
written paper. Addington s excessive zeal 
was pernaps concerned in the misunder- 
standing between Chatham and Bute in the 
winter of 1778. Sir James Wright, a friend 
of Lord Bute, told Addington, who was 
his physician, that Bute desired to see 
Chatham recalled to office. Addington 
communicated this statement to Chatham, 
with the doubtful addition that Bute desired 
a coalition ministry, of which Chatham 
should be the head and he himself a member. 
Chatham was indignant with the project, 
which Bute disclaimed. But some months 
after Chatham's death in the same year a 
report was diffused, originated, according to 
Horace Walpole {Lcist Journals, ii. 275), by 
Bute, that the overtures had been made bv 
Chatham to Bute. To rebut this insinuation 
a statement was drawn up and issued, pro- 
bably by Lady Chatham and William Pitt, 
certainly not by Addington, to whom its 
authorship is generally ascribed, though both 
external and internal evidence proves tlie con- 
trary. It was entitled * An Authentic Ac- 
count of the Pnrt. taken by the lat« Earl of 
Cliatliam in a Transaction which passed in 
the Beginning of the Year 1778.' It con- 
sisted of letters from and to Addington, Sir 
James Wright, and Chatham, and of *■ Dr. 
Addington's narrative of the transaction.' 
The statement and the controversial corre- 
spondence to which it gavo rise were re- 
printed in the 'Annual Register' for 1778, 
and what is essential in them is to be found 
in the appendix to Thackeray's * Chatham.' 

In 1780 Addington retire<l with savings 
sufficient for the purchase of the valuable 
reversionary estate of Upottery, in Devon- 
shire. His last years were passed at Reading, 
where he attended the poor gratuitously. 
He was called in by the Prince of Wales to 
attend George III in 1788, and was examined 



Addington 



'7 



Addington 



befcrtf p&rliBmeTitaTy co^l^litt»^s in re^rtl 
to thp kind's coadition. He nlont^ fojvcolU 
ihi- surly rwcoTtry which HCtimlly took plnct, 
on th« noatul that he lied ii>M'er known 
B cas« of insanity, not precede by tnulun- 
cfafdr, which vaa not cored within twelve 
ntunths. 

During his last Ulnees he was ^ratified 
bv tlw news that his eldest bob, thi- new 
Speaker, had b^en voted a wilury of 0,000'. 
« year, in place of the umvious plan of 
nrnunttration hy fee« and sinecures. Bo 
rvmarkeil to a youug<er Mn: 'This is but 
the b^nnin^ of thai bnv's career.' lie 
waa buried in the churdi at p'ringford 
br the side of bis wife, whom ho lost in 

[Pulew's JAtt and Correnponilenor at thrflnit 
Viwdosl Sidmoulh (IS4T), *ul. i. ; Mnnk's l.'ul- 
tut of Phyaieinni. 2ild td. (1878), ii. 198; 
Cbtlhunnnrra«p«m)eRTO(l84a).vnLiv.; Pnrtiu' 
■MUry HlHtiiry, xivii. 092.] K. t:. 

ADDINGTON, HENRY, first Viscount 
SnwotrTR (1767-iH44), was the son of 
Or. ;Viilhonv AJdinifton [see Addisoton, . 
.indOKT}. 'WhenfivcyearBold hewassent 
MachonI at Cheam, where be remained about 
six years. He tlien entered Wiiithesfer iis 
a commoner, and in 1771 was iidniitlcd lo 
Lincoln's lun. A liieloiig friendship furmed 
at WinchcBterwithGeorjfeHunt.inirlordjthen 
■n aMititanl master, and afternnmH wnnien , 
lift fas col lep", a ndsLiocBSsively bishop of Glou- | 
o-SI^r and Hen>ford, is a proof of the high 
character which .addington bore at school, i 
.\fter a year's residence as a jirivate pupil | 
with l>r. noodenougb, afterwards hishop of 



r of firosenose. 
there appears to have been Kludioiis. He 
ijx>k tlip it'gree of B.A. in 177>4, and the 
nwit year obtained the chancellor's medal 
fijr an English essay, ^^liile at Oxford he 
■howvtd n lofte for writing English verses, 
in which he occasionally indulged in after 
lifethoiighwithnogreat success. On leaving 
theuniviTsity he turned to the stndv of law. 
In 1781 he married Ursula Mary, daughter 
uf lieonard Hammond of Clieam. He was 
tntimatt- with William Pitt froln childhood, 
and this intimacy led him to leave ilie 
law for H political cnre«r. He was elected 
.M.P. for Deviles in 1783. At the end of 
that year Pitt formed his Urst ndminiatrution, 
and Adilin^nn was one of his wonneat sup- 
{lorlpni. Till! minister endeavoured in vain 
to excite ihe ambition of his tri^nd, and 
(fauugh in 17h6 Addingl«n whs persuaded 
to wcond the addnws, he hardly nver spoke 
in porliameui. He devoted himself to com- 



mittees and to learning (he practice and 
procedure of the house. Addington's temper 
and character, however, won him universal 
esteem, and his friendship with Pitt enhanced 
his importance. In 1789 the influence of Pitt 
procured hie election as speaker. He was 
well fitted for this office, which he held with 
great credit for eleven years and in three 
parliaments. In the session after his elec- 
tion the salary of the speaker, which up to 
that time had been derived from fluctuating 
sources, was fixed at 6,000/. a year. A pro- 

!o(ial appears lo have been made to him in 
708 that he sliould enter the cabinet as se- 
cretary of stale, but he preferred to keep the 
gpeokeraliip. Until 1796 mucli of his time 
WHS 'taken up by the proceedings against 
Warren Hastings. In connection with this 
CHse the speaker concurred in the constitu- 
tional maxim, etilablixbed in 1790, that an 
impeaclimetit is not abated by a dissolution. 
During this period of his life Addington 
spent his vacations in domestic enjoyment 
aC Woodley, an estate which he bought in 
the neighbourhood of Reading. In aft.er 
vears Addington said ihat, as early as 17^, 
Pitt told hmi 'that he must make up bis 
mind to take the government.' The words 
were possibly spoken under the pressure of the 
difBcultiea of the time. They could scarcely 
have been said with serious inieutiou; yet 
they perhaps show that Pitt was led by tiis 
friendship to think highly of Addington'a 
political abilities, This friendship caused 
the s]ieaker on one occasion to forget his 
usual impartiality. In the dispute which 
took place in the house between Pitt and 
Tiemey in 17W, he certoinly allowed hi» 
friend to set at nought the authority of the 
chair. He took uii means to prevent the 
<|iiarre] being carried further, aii(], though he 
was informed that a duel was arranged, he 
did not interfere to stop it, and even went 
to Putney to be present at the meeting 
(May'b Parliantentary Prariicr, p. 3381. a£ 
dington took an active part in the patriotic 
efforts which were excited by the war, He 
suggested the voluntary sulwcription raised 
(1797-6) to augment the amount brought 
in bv the assesaed taxes, and gave 2,(mM. 
to the fund. He also devoted much time 
aad attention to the Woodley cavalry, a 
tmop of volunteers which was under his 

While Addington agreed with Pitt as to 
(he necessity of the union with Ireland, he 
did not approve of the policy of concession 
by which the minister hoped to make the 
union a healing measure. In a debate in 
e(nnmitte« on 12 Feh. 1799, he made a speech 
of considerable weight in support of the pro- 



Addington 



1X8 



Addington 



jecty but declared that ' if he had to choose 
between the re-enactment of the popery laws 
and catholic emancipation, coupled with par- 
liamentary reform, as the means of restoring 
tranquillity to Ireland, he should give the 
preference to the former.' In January 1801, 
the king openly expressed his abhorrence of 
the plan of catnolic relief, and wrote to the 
speaner, to whom he had already shown much 
favour, expressing his wish tlmt Addington 
* would from himself open Pitt's eyes on 
the danger * of agitating the question. Ad- 
dington did what he could, and believed 
that he had succeeded in his mission. But 
Pitt would not g^ve way. The Idng sent 
for Addington and desired him to take the 
government. ' Where,* he said, ' am I to turn 
for support if you do not stand by me ? ' 
Addington at once consulted Pitt, who en- 
treated him to accept the charge, declaring 
that he * saw nothing but ruin ' if he hesi- 
tated. He accordingly set about formincp an 
administration. As, however, the members 
of the cabinet who agreed with Pitt on the 
catholic question, and several others, among 
whom were Lords Comwallis and Castle- 
reagh and Canning, refused to take office 
under Addington, * he was forced to call up 
the rear ranks of the old ministry to form 
the front ranks of a new ministry' (Mao- 
AtTLAY, Biographies f p. 212). The illness 
of the king delayed the actual change in the 
administration. Addington had resigned the 
speakership, but Pitt still remained de facto 
minister. Pitt's friends took advantage of 
the delay. They affected to believe that 
Addington looked on himself as a mere locum 
tenens tor Pitt, whose position as regards the 
catholic question was changed by an assur- 
ance which he gave the king that he would 
not a^in enter on it during his majesty's 
life. Pitt did not conceal his readiness to re- 
turn to office if the opportunity were offered 
liim. Without his authority his friends 
urged Addington to retire in his favour. 
Addington naturally refused a request which 
implied his own inferiority. On 14 March the 
king was so far convalescent as to be able 
to transact business, and Addington entered 
office as first lord of the treasury and chan- 
cellor of the exchequer. The king was de- 
lighted with his new minister. Addington's 
very mediocrity suited his master, and this 
congeniality, and the fact that his assumption 
of office extricated the king from a difficulty 
and promised the success of his policy, were 
expressed in the phrase * my own chancellor 
of the exchequer.' Official duty made it 
necessary for Addington to reside near Lon- 
don, and the king assigned him the White 
I^ge in Richmond Park. Pitt gave him his 



warm support in parliament, and declared his 
readiness to help him whenever he needed 
his advice. On his accession to office the 
question of the eligibility of clergymen to 
sit in the House of Commons came before 
parliament in the case of Home Tooke. Ad- 
dington brought in and Carried a bill (41 
Oeo. Ill, c. 63) which at once declares and 
enacts their disqualification for member- 
ship. 

Negotiations for a peace with France at 
once engaged the attention of the minister, 
and he received much help from Pitt in the 
settlement of the preliminary articles. These 
negotiations arrayed against the government 
a party of tories led by Lord Grenville and 
Windham. This party was called the New 
Opposition to distinguish it from the old whig 
opposition, which approved the peace. The 
definitive treaty, the peace of Amiens, was 
signed in March 1802. Although the country 
did not gain all that it expected, the peace 
was highly popular. The Foxites rejoiced, 
and on a motion of censure the government 
policy was approved in the House of Com- 
mons by 276 to 20. Pitt upheld the peace, 
though he saw more clearly than Addington 
the necessity of preparing for war at the same 
time. Addington seems to have believed in 
the sincerity of Bonaparte. Some rest was 
needfiil for the country, and in after years 
even Windham acknowledged that, without 
the peace of Amiens, England could not have 
maintained the struggle. Addington was 
over-hasty in giving the country the relief 
it needed, and at once put the forces on a 
peace footing. On one occasion Addington 
seemed careless of Pitt's political reputation, 
and a slight estrangement arose between 
them. This passed away. But as the course 
pursued by tlie First Consul and the tone of 
the * Moniteur ' threatened war, and no ade- 
quate measures for defence were taken by 
the government, Pitt grew dissatisfied with 
the conduct of affairs, and absented himself 
from parliament. The encroachments of 
France caused the public to feel less satis- 
fied with the peace. In November, Canning 
formed a plan for inducing Addington to 
resign by presenting him with an address 
calling on him to give way to Pitt. The 

Sroject came to Pitt's knowledge, and was 
ropped by his wish. His friends were, 
however, successful in prevailing on him to 
give no further advice to the government. 
The tone of Addington's financial statement, 
which was considered boastful and invidious, 
exasperated the Pittites. In the country the 
ministry still continued popular and was 
upheld by the * Times.' This popularity de- 
pended on the peace, and, in March 1803, it 



Addington 119 Addington 

became evident that war was at hand. Ad- theincapacityofhiscoUeagut^. TheiHimpous 

dington proposed a lar]g;e angmentation of manner and sententious gravitv which he- 

the na\'7 and the emhodiment of the militia, came the sfteaker s chair weiv ill ^i^iiited for 

He found his position shaken, and hoped to dehate. \N ith the countr}- gentry* he was 

strengthen it dv the help of Pitt. He first popular. Self-satisfied and honourable, a 

prop(^ed that they should both hold office strong chuivhman, narrow in mind and 

unaer a first minister, whose position in the sympathies, he was trusted by them. They 

cabinet should be merely nominaL When understood him, for he was one of them- 

this proposal was refuscNl, he o^red with selves. He was £rank and jovial, and used 

great generosity that Pitt should be the first in old age to call himself the last of *the 

minister, and that he should hold office under port-wine faction.* His very mediocrity 

him. Pitt insisted on bringing Jjord Gren- suited them better than the lo^iness of Pitt, 

ville, Windham, and others with him into In his use of patronage he did not rise even 

the administration. Addington wished to to the highest standard of his time, for he 

strengthen the existing ^vemment by the conferred on his son at the age of sixteen the 

addition of Pitt. Pitt insisted on the virtual rich sinecure of the clerkship of the pells, 

dissolution of the cabinet and the introduc- On leaving office, however, he refused a peer- 

tion of men who had violently opposed the age and a pension. 

measures of the existing administration. The For a while Addington oppose<l the new 

negotiations &iled. Addington did not tell ministry of Pitt. Before the close of 1804, 

the king of his proposals until after their however, the two old friends were rectniciled. 

failure, although they implied a total chimge In January 1805, Addington was crt^ated Vis- 

in the character of the administration. The count Sidmouth, and enten>d the cabinet as 

friendship between Addington and Pitt was president of the council. Tlie reconciliation 

for a time wholly broken. The war was re- was short-lived. Lord Sidmouth pressed for 

newed in May 1803. The ministry gained places for his friends. \t the same time they 

considerable popularity by a bill for the voted against Pitt's wishes in the matter of 

armament of the nation. Before long the the impeachment of his friend I-iord Melville. 

unsatisfiEurtory character of Addin^ons ar- Pitt declared that Mheir conduct must be 

rangements became apparent. His regula- marked/ and in July Lord Sidmoutli left the 

tions with respect to the volunteers were ministry. The distrt»ssing illness of his eldest 

such as to discourage the movement and to son, who died in 1823, and his own weak 

curtail its efficiency. The naval adminis- health, kept him for some months u way from 

tration of Lord St. Vincent was extremely public life. In FebniarA* 1806, he was invited 

faulty. Canning in his bitter verse poured to join the coalition government of Lord 

scorn on Addington and his colleagues, on Grenville and Fox, for his compact i)arty of 
their commonplace abilities and measures. . some fifty adherents in the Commons and 
The 'Doctor' — the nickname given to Ad- j the confiilence wliich the king had in him 
dington — ^was made the object of coarse and . made him a usefid ally. He dittered from his 
violent satire by the wits. His friends retali- ! colleagues in their negotiations with the king 

ated by beginning a war of pamphlets. * A on the catholic question, but acttnl honour- 



Few Cyursory Remarks,' by a Mr. Bentley, 
published without Addington's consent, con- 
tained an attack on Pitt. The contempt 
felt for Addington was changed into hatred. 
Karly in 1804 the old and new oppositions 
combined against him. * You wiU get Pitt in 
again,' was Sheridan's warning to Fox. *• I 
can't bear fools, anything but fools,' was his 
rt'ply. Pitt at last openly opposed the go- 
vernment. The majority sank to 37, and Ad- 
dington on 30 Apnl declared his intention 
to resign. With a respectable majority in 
the house, with a body of firm personal ad- 
herents, and with considerable influence in 
the country, he left office because he could 
not stand with Pitt a^inst him, and dared 
not face the combination of talented men of 
all parties who Joined in exposing his inca- 
pacity. His inaustry and good intentions 
coula not make up tor his own dulness and 



ably in not separating himself from them. 
Some ofthe old Pittite party continued hostile 
to him, and to please them Perceval passed 
him over in 1809, while he tried to gain his 
friends. The attempt failed. Perceval after- 
wards offered him a place in the cabinet, but 
Lord Sidmouth would not act with Canning 
and refused the offer. Kcclesiast ical matters 
always had a charm for Lord Sidmouth, and 
his zealous churchmanship led him, in 1811, 
to bring in a bill requiring all dissenting 
ministers to be licensed, and n?st raining un- 
licensed preachers. The bill would nave 
pressed hardly on the various nonconformist 
bodies, and especially on the Wesley ans. A 
considerable outcry was made against it 
throughout the country, and on the second 
reading it was thrown out by the lords 
without a division. In the summer of this 
year Lady Sidmouth died. On the return 



Addington 



1 20 



Addington 



of Lord Sidmouth to public affairs in 1812, 
]ie accepted the presidency of the council in 
the cabinet of Perceval. When, on Perce- 
val's assassination about a month afterwards, 
Lord Liverpool reconstructed the adminis- 



ment as tx> the unconstitutional character of 
this circular, and it was rightly alleged that 
the secretary had usurped the functions of 
the legislature. In spite of the tremendous 
powers with which he was armed. Lord Sid- 



tration, Lord Sidmouth accepted the office ' mouth sustained a mortifyii^ defeat in the 



of secretary of the home department, which 
he held for ten years. 

In 1812 the labouring classes were suffer- 
ing severely from the depression in agricul- 
ture and trade. Work was scarce, prices 
were high, and were kept up by protective 



triple acquittal of William Hone, who was 
tried on ex officio informations for the pub- 
lication of certain parodies, alleged to be 
blasphemous and sediitious libels. The em- 
ployment of spies in state cases occasioned 
various accusations to be made in parlia- 



restraint«. Riots broke out, and the north I ment against the ministers, and a charge 
was disturbed by the outrages of the Ludd- 1 was brought against the secretary of state 
ites. Kindly as Lord Sidmouth was by : of having fomented by these agents the very 
nature, his administration was severe, ana, I disturbances which they were supppessing 



with so much severity. These charges were 
rejected, and, in 1818, a bill of indemnity was 
passed which was regarded as the triumphant 
acquittal of the minister. About the same 
time the notorious Thistlewood sent a chal- 



during ten years of lawlessness and misery, 
he ruled with unwavering sternness. He 
carried a temporary measure for the preser- 
vation of peace and for extending the power 
of the justices. Fourteen Luadites were 
hanged in one day at York. His severity 
was highly applauded, and the dean and 
chapter of Westminster made him lord high 1 known as the >fanchester massacre (16 Aug. 
steward of that city. It was hoped that the j 1819) was, to some extent, the result of the in- 
opening of the foreign ports in 1815 would ' opportune exhortations to a display of energy 
have relieved the distress of the poor. But ] given by the secretary of state. Lord Sid- 
in order to keep up prices, the government mouth hastened to express the thanks of 



lenge to Lord Sidmouth, for which he was 
indicted and imprisoned. The terrible event 



carried a com law fixing the protecting price 
of wheat at 80*. a quarter. Lord Sidmouth 



the government to the magistrates and to 
the troops. Strong indignation was felt 



considered that any reduction * would be im- ' throughout the country at the conduct of 
provident and hazardous.' During the de- 1 all concerned in the massacre. Upheld by 
bates on this subject there was some rioting , the prince regent, who fully approved the 
in London, and the home secretary showed i coercive policy of the minister, and by the 
much promptness in quelling the disorders. ' tory majority in parliament. Lord Sidmouth 
In 1816 the discontent of the working classes in a reply from the throne uncourteously re- 
took a more decidedly political direction. 1 pelled a petition from the common council 
Up to 1817 the government used the ordi- | of London pray incf for an inquiry, and caused 
nary legal means of repression. The more , the removal of Earl Fitzwilliam from his 
dangerous outbreaks of that year led to 1 lord-lieutenancy for taking part in a meeting 
coercive measures. After the attack on the 1 held on this occasion. In the next ses- 
prince regent, Lord Sidmouth moved for a | sion he introduced four of those repressive 
committee of secrecy, for the suspension of I measures which are known as the * Six Acts.* 
the Habeas CJorpus Act, and for tlie revival | In common with the other cabinet ministers, 
of the laws against seditious meetings. Other Lord Sidmouth escaped the dan^r of the Cato 

Street conspiracy; and he haa a full share 

in the shame and unpopularity which the 

I proceedings against Queen Caroline brought 



measures 



of the like character were also 
adopted. At the same time the state trials 
were disgracefully mismanaged, and the Spa 

Fields rioters escaped without punishment, i upon the government. 
Lord Sidmouth determined to strike at what ' Desire for rest caused Lord Sidmouth to 
he believed to be the root of the disorder of | retire from office in 1821, though he remained 
the time by a rigorous enforcement of the a member of the cabinet. In 1823 he married, 
laws restraining the liberty of the press. ' as his second wife, Mary Anne, daughter of 
He issued a circular to the lords lieutenant j Lord Stowell and widow of Mr. T. Townsend. 
of counties, setting forth the opinion of the i On the death of Lord Stowell in 1833, Lord 
law officers of the crown with respect to the Sidmouth received a considerable increase of 
power of justices over those charged with fortune and resigned a crown pension which 
the publication of blasphemous or seditious had been granted to him in 1817. He re- 
libels, and instructinjB^ them as to how they ' tired from the cabinet in 1824, because he 
should deal with unlicensed vendors of pam- > disapproved the recognition of the indepen* 
phlets. Opinions were expressed in parlia- dence of Buenos Ayres. After that date he 



Addington 



121 



Addison 



seldom attended parliament. Consistent to 
his old tory politics he opposed catholic 
emancipation in his last speech (April 18^), 
and voted against the Keform Bill (May 
18^32) in the last division in which he tooK 
part in person. His old age was happy and 
nonoured, saddened only by the deaths of his 
friends, and especially by the death of his 
wife, which took place in 1842. He loved 
to talk of old times and to remember that 
many of liis former political enemies had 
been reconciled to him. From a generous 
affection for the memory of Pitt, he destroyed 
all the papers which seemed to him to prove 
that his former friend had treated him 
badly. He died on 16 Feb. 1844, and was 
buried at Mortlake. He left one son and 
four daughters. 

[Pellew's Life of Sidmouth ; Stanhope's Life 
-of Pitt ; MemoriaLs of C. J. Fox, ed. Lord J. 
KiMseU ; Lord Malmewbury's Diaries, vol. iv. ; 
Lewis'i* Administrations of Great Britain, 1783- 
1830; Eden's Letters on the Peace, 1802; A 
Few Cursory Remarks, &c., by a Near Observer, 
1803 ; A Plain Answer, &c., 1803; A Brief An- 
swer, &c., 1803; Spirit of the Public Journals, 
vii. viii. ; Ann. Reg.; Eklin. Rev. xxviii. '516, 
xxxiii. 187 ; Walpole's History of England.] 

W.H. 

ADDINGTON, HENRY UNWIN 
(1790-1870), permanent under-secretary for 
foreign affairs, was the son of the Right Hon. 
John Addington, brother of the first Lord 
Sidmouth, and was bom 24 March 1790. He 
was educated at Winchester school, and 
entered the Foreign Office in January 1807. 
After serving on various diplomatic missions 
he in 1814 became secretary of legation to 
Switzerland, and was afterwards transferred 
successively to Copenhagen and Washington. 
Though he retired from active service on a 
pension in 1826, his experience was taken 
advantage of on several occasions as a pleni- 
potentiary : in 1826 during the negotiations 
with the United States in London, in 1828 
at the diet of Frankfort, and from 1829 to 
1833 at Madrid. From 1852 to 1854 he 
acted as permanent under-secretary of state 
for foreign affairs, and on his retirement from 
that office he was sworn a privy councillor. 
He died 6 March 1870. 



[Timetf, 8 March 1870.] 



T. F. H. 



ADDINGTON, STEPHEN, D.D. (1729- 
1796), independent minister, bom at North- 
ampton on 9 June 1729, was the son of 
Samuel Addington. He was educated under 
Doddridge, whose academy he entered in 
1746. He settled in the ministry at Spald- 
wickyHuntingdonBhire. In 1752 he married 



Miss Reymes, and removed to a congre^tion 
at Market Harborough. In 1758, on tne re- 
moval of Dr. John Aikin to Warrington, he 
began to take pupils to board. Hence he 
was led to produce a good many school- 
books ; an * Arithmetic,' a * Geographical 
Grammar,* a * Greek Grammar,' 1 / 61, and 
other similar works. In 1781 he removed 
to London, to a congregation in Miles Lane, 
Cannon Street. In 1783 he became also tutor 
in the Mile End Academy. In theology he 
belonged to the conservative section of dissent. 

I He was affiicted with pab^y, and died on 
6 Feb. 1796. A list of twenty of his publica- 

I tions is given in the 'Gentleman's Magazine,* 

' 1796, p. 348. Most worthy of note are: 1. * A 
Dissertation on the Religious Knowledge of 
the Antient Jews and Patriarchs, containing 

, an Enquiry into the Evidences of their Belief 

' and Expectation of a Future State,' 1757. 
2. * A Short Account of the Holy Land,' 
1767. 3. * The Christian Minister's Reasons 
for baptizing Infants,' 1 77 1 . 4. * An Enquiry 
into tne Reasons for and against inclosing 
Open Fields,' 1772. 5. ' The Life of PaiU 

, the Apostle, with critical and practical re- 
marks on his Discourses and Wntings,' 1784 

I (a poor performance). 

I [Prot. Diss. Mag. vol. iii. (portrait) ; Wilson's 
' Dissenting Churches.] A. G. 

ADDISON, CHARLES GREEN- 
STREET (d. 1866), le^al writer, was the 
son of W. Dering Addison, of Maidstone. 
In 1838 he published ^ Damascus and Pal- 
myra,' descriptive of an eastern journey. He 
afterwards wrote a * History of the linight 
Templars,' the first two editions of which 
appeared in 1842 and a third in 1852. In 
1843 he published another liistorical work 
on the Temple Chiurch. He was elected to 
the bar in 1842, joined the home circuit, and 
was a revising barrister for Kent. In 1848 
he married Frances Octavia, twelfth child of 
the Honourable James Wolfe Murray, Lord 
Cringletie, by whom he left seven cliildren. 
He is best known as the author of twolepil 
text-books of some reputation, a * Treatise 
on the Law of Contracts,' 1845, and 
* Wrongs and their Remedies, a Treatise on 
the Law of Torts,' 1860, which have gone 
through several editions in England and 
America. 

[Law Times, March 10, 1866.] 

ADDISON, JOHN, D.D. (Jl. 1538), 
divine, a native of the diocese of York, was 
admitted to a fellowsliip at Pembroke Hall, 
Cambridge, in 1505, and graduated B.D. in 
1519, and D.D. in 1523. He became chap- 



Addison 122 Addison 



lain to Fisher, bishop of Rochester, and in the wife, was bom 1 May 1672, at his father^a rec- 
twenty-fifth year of the reign of Henry VHI \ tory, Milaton,near Amesbury, Wilts, and bap- 
he was attainted by parliament of misprision tised the same day on account of his apparent 
of treason for concealment of the pretended W delicacy. Hisfather, on becoming dean of lidi- 
revelations of Elizabeth Barton, the * Holy l^eld (1683), sent the boy, who had already 
Maid of Kent,' and it was enacted that hef fleen at schools in Amesbury and Salisbury, to 
should lose his spiritual promotions from I a school at Lichfield ; and here, according to a 
20 March 1533-4. i story reported by Johnson, he was the leader 

Dr. Addison superintended the publication of a * barring-out.* He was soon transferred 
of Bishop Fishers * Assertionis Lutheranae to the Charterhouse, though not placed upon 
Confiitatio,* 1523, and had a grant from the ! the foundation, and there became the hero of 
king of the sole printing of it for tliree years. ' Steele, his junior by three years. Steele saw 
In or about 1538 he ^vrote a book in support I Addison in his home cirde, and long aft^r- 
of the pope's supremacy over all bishops, to ; wards (Toiler, No. 236) commemorated ita 
which a reply was made by Cuthbert Tun- i unique charm. The impartial tenderness of ^ 
stal, bishop of Durham, and John Stokesly, the father, he says, equally developed the mu- ' 
bishop of London. tual affection of his cnildren and their respect 

[Lewi8*8LifeofBiBhopFi8her,i.204,ii. 113, f^?^*^!^' Jn 1687, Addison was »Bnt to 
348, 361, 406 ; Cooper 8 Athenae Cnntab. i. 68 ; Ji? ^^^^^^^ college, Queens CoU^, Oxford. • 
Calendars of State Papers.] T. C. , His classical acquirements soon attracted 

notice, and Dr. Lancaster, then fellow and 

ADDISON, JOHN (1766?- 1844), com- | afterguards provost of Queen's, happening to 
poser and performer on the double bass, was ^ see some of his Latin verses, obtained for him 
the son of a village mechanic, and as a child i in 1689 one of the demyships at Magdalen^ 
showed considerable musical capability, | many of which were then vacant in conse- 
leaming to play on the flageolet, flute, bas- ; quence of the attack upon the privileges of 
soon, and violin. lie became member of the ' tlie college by James II. Addison took his 
lloyal Society of Musicians 7 Oct. 1753 M.A. degree in 1693, and gained a proba- 
( Records of Royal Soc. of Musicians). He ! tionary fellowship in 1697, and a fellowship 
married, about 1793, an orphan ward of his in 1698, which he held till 1711. He took 
parents. Miss Willems, who was a niece of ! pupils, and rapidly acquired reputation for 
the bass singer Reinhold, and after her mar- ^ elegant scholarship, especially for his know- 
riage sang herself with success at Vauxhall. | led^ of Latin poetry. His own Latin poems 
She soon afterwards obtained an engagement . are highly praised by Johnson, and Macaulay^ 
at Liverpool, where her husband adopted the prefers him to all his British rivals except 
musical profession, playing first violoncello i Milton and Buchanan. They include a poem 
and then double bass in the orchestra. The ' on the Peace of Ryswick, on an altar-piece 
Addisons then went to Dublin, and in 1796 ' of the Resurrection at Magdalen, a descrip- 
Mrs. Addison appeared at Covent Garden in ; tion of a bowling-green, a barometer, and a 
^Love in a Village.^ In 1797 they went to pupi)et-show, addresses to Dr. Hannes and 

~ Burnet of the Charterhouse, and a mock- 

heroic war between the cranes and pigmies. 



Bath, and then to Dublin and Manchester, 
where John Addison for a time abandoned 
music for mercantile speculations which 
resulted in the loss of a considerable sum. 
Resuming his original career, he made himself 
known by composing several now forgotten 



In the last Macaulay notes an anticipation 
of Swift's description of the king of Luliput, 
taller by the breadth of a nail than any of 
his courtiers. Addison's classical reputation 



operas for Covent Garden and the Lyceum, fioon extended to the literary circles of Lon« 
the most successful of w^hich were the lion. He wrote a poetical address, congratu- 
* Sleeping Beauty* (1805) and the * Russian llatin^ Drjden upon the translations from the 
Impostor* (1809). lie played the double I classical poets by which the veteran ruler of 
])a88 for many vears at the opera, and at the [ English hterature was eking out a scanty in- 
Ancient and otlier concerts, besides achieving "^ 
some success as a teacher of singing. He 
died at Camden Town 30 Jan. 1844. 



[Grove's Dictionary of Music, i. 30 ; Musical 
I'^miner for 10 Feb. 1844; The Georgian Em 
(1834), iii. 630; Gent. Mag. 1844.] W. B. S. 

ADDISON, JOSEPH (1672-1719), es- 



come. Dryden inserted this in the third part 
of the * Miscellany Poems * (1693) ; and to the 
fourth part, which appeared in 1694, Addison 
contributed a translation of parts of the fourth 
Georgic, and a didactic ^ account of the great • 
est English poets.' The last is dedicated tc 
H. S., said to be Henry Sacheverell, who wa^ 
Addison s contemporary at Ma^alen, and 



sayist, poet, and statesman, son of Lancelot destined afterwards to be conspicuous as a 
Addison [see Addison, Lancelot] by his first ' political opponent. (A correspondent of John- 



Addison 123 Addison 



son's, howeTer, ascribes it to a Manxman of poetn- by a penisal of Addison's Latin verses; 
the same name; see, too, l^iCKOUi'B Literarj/ and the iniluenee of Boileau may be traced 
Anecdotes, i. 113.) In 1697, Addison contn- in Addison's later writings. He left France 
liuted an anonymous essay upon the Georgics | in December 1700 (misdated 1699 in his 
to Dryden's transition of Virpl; and in a ' *Travels')for a tour through Italy. He sailed 
* postscript to the -^neis * Dryden repaid his ! from Marseilles ; was driven by a storm into 
services by a hi^h compliment to the ' inge- ' Savona ; thence crossed the mountains to 
nious Mr. Addison of Oxford.* Referring to j Genoa, and travelled through Milan to Venice, 



Addison's translation of the fourth Georgic, , where his fanc^ was struck bv a ^[Totesque 
he declares that * after his " Bees " my latter i play upon the death of Cato. He visited the 
swarm is scarce worth the hiving.' ] little repubhc of San Marino, passed liastily 

Addison was thus taking a place amongst ' through Rome, and spent the Holy Week at 
the professional authors. A correspondence Naples. He climbed Vesuvius, visited the 
withTonson (published by Miss Aikin) shows ! island of Capri, and returned by OstiatoRome. 
..that the bookseller had engaged him for a i where hespent the autumn. Thence he reached 
translation of Herodotus. His academical , Florence, and, crossing the Mont Cenis, reached 
position might suggest the intention of taking ' Geneva in November 1701. Throughout, if 
orders, expressed in the conclusion of the I we are to judge from liis narrative, he seems 
poem to H. S. (3 April 1694). Tickell says j to have considered the Hcenerj' a.<« designed to 



tliat Addison was deterred from this step by 
his modesty ; Steele attributes the change of 
intention to the favour of Charles Montague, 



illustrate his beloved })oets. He delights to 
take Horace as a ^de from Rome to Naples, 
and Virgilfora guide upon the return journey. 



afterwards Earl of Halifax. Halifax, Pope s At ever}- turn his memon' suggests fresh 



Bufo, had himself ^ined his first successes 
as a poet ; he aspired to be a patron of 
letters; and in those days political patron- 
age was beginning to descend upon the 
literary class. Halifax was already the pa- 
tron of Congreve, the rising poet to whom 
Dryden was just bequeathing iiis reputation 
and his literary sceptre. Congreve, according 
to Steele (who appeals to Congreve himself in 
cf>nfirmation), introduced Aadison to M(mt- 
ague, now chancellor of the excliequer. A 
poem * to the King,* in 1695, introduced bv a 
dedication to Lord Somers, testified to Addi- 
son's political orthodoxy and literary facility. 
It was followed (1697) by a Latin poem on 
the Peace of Ryswick, with a dedication 
to Montague. Montague obtained, through 
Somers, a pension of 800/. a year for the young i 



quotations from the whole range of Latin 
poetry. The works of ancient art preseri'ed 
at Rome delight him sjieciully by clearing up 
])assages in Juvenal, Ovid, Manilius, and 
Seneca. He turns from the christian an- 
tiquities with the brief remark tliat they are 
so * embroiled with fable and legend that 
there is little satLsfaotion in searcliing into 
tliem.' But Addison was no mere dilettanti*. 
His classical acquirements were but the ai)- 
propriate accomplishment ofamindthoroughlv 
imbued with the culture of his age, in which 
the classical spirit was regarded as the anti- 
thesis of Gothic obscurity. Though a sincere\ 
and even devout christian, he looked uponi 
catholic observances with a contempt akin | 
to that of the deistical Shaftesbury. He / 
turns from poetry to point a moral against 



poet ; and declared at the same time, in a I po]>ery and arbitrary power. The peasants 
letter to the head of Magdalen, that, thoughNf on the * savage mountain * of San Marino are 
represented as unfriendly to the church, ne 1 happy because free ; wliilst tyranny has con- 
'vrould never do it any other injury than byj verted the rich Campagna of Rome into a 
keeping Addison out of it. The pension win wilderness. These sentiments are expressed 
intended, it seems, to enable Addison to qua- with great vigour in the best written of his 
lify himself for diplomatic employments by | poems, the * Letter from Italy,' written as 
foreign travel. He left England in the au- i he was crossing the Alps, and addressed to 
tumn of 1699, and, after a short stay in Paris, ' Halifax, who had been driven from office 
laettled for nearly a year at Blois to acquire j soon after Addison's departure from England, 
the language. An abb^ of Blois told Spence He still had powerfid friends. Manchester, j 
(^AnecMes, p. 184) that Addison lived there ■ now secretary' of state, had been known to '• 
in great seclnsion, studying and seeing no : him in Paris ; and Addison waited for some 
one except the masters — of French, pre- , months at Geneva, expecting to receive an 
saimably — who used to sup with him. In i appouitment to act as British aj^ent in the 
1700 he returned to Paris, qualified to talk camp of Eugene. Instead of this, he soon 
'French and to converse with the famous heani of the death of William 111 and the 
authors Malebranche and Boileau. Boileau, expulsion from power of his political friends, 
as Tickell tells us, discovered for the first time He had received only one year's payment of 
that Englishmen were not incompetent for his pension, and had nothing but his fellow- 



Addison 124 Addison 

ship to depend upon. He continued his ! phin cared more for horse-racing than poet n*, 
travels, however, reaching Vienna in the sum- and was much less likely to reward the author 
mer of 1702, where he stayed whilst writing of a set of verses than to gratify an im- 
t)ie graceful dialogues upon medals, composed portant ix)litician hy advancing an adherent, 
chiefly of illustrations from Latin poetry, | In any case, the poem and the smiile achieved 
which he was too diffident to publish in his a great success. The poem, like all Addison's 
lifetime. He left Vienna in the winter, performances of the kind, shows facility and 
visited Hamburg, and in the summer reached poetic sensibility, stopping short of poetic 
Holland and heard of his father^s death, genius. It is better than a similar poem of 
He returned to England about September Halifax's on the battle of the Boyne, but 
1703. ; does not stand out at any great elevation 

Addison's finances are a mystery. Swift above the work of the time; and Macaulay^ 
in the * Libel on IJelany * says that he was remark that it is not absurdly mythological 
left in distress abroad and beoune * travelling ! is praise which might equally be applied to 
tutor to a squire.' Swift is pointing a sar- , Halifax and others. Macaulay notes that the 
casm, and liis statement is not corroborated, simile of the angel owed its great effect to its 
The bookseller Tonson, who met Addison in allusion to the famous storm of 1703 ; and 
Holland, was authorised by the * proud ' Duke Johnson Quotes the remark of Dr. Madden 
of Somerset to propose that he should become that if he nad proposed the same topic to ten 
tutor to the duke's son. The negotiation schoolbovs, he should not have been surprised 
failed, apparently because Addison offended ; if ei^ht liad brought him the angel. Warton 
the duke oy intimating that the payment of , unkindly calls the poem a * Gazette in rhyme ' 
expenses and a hundred guineas a year was j i^Esaay on Pope, i. 29). We may be content 
insufficient. At any rate, Addison returned I to say that it was on the higfher level of 
to England and remained for over a year \ official poetry, and helped Addison's rise in 
without employment. He retained his old H literature and politics. His political prefer- 
friendships, however, with the party leaders ; I ments prove the liigh esteem of his powerful 
and had made friends with distinguished j friends. In 1700 he received the under-secre- 
Englislimen abroad, especially with Edward | taryship in the office of Sir Charles Hedges. 
Wortlev Montagu, afterwams husband of I He retained it when Hedges, a tory, made 
Lady Mary, and with Stepney , English envoy \way (Dec. 1706) for Sunderland, one of the 
at Vienna and one of Halifax's friends. Addi- great whig junto. In 1707, Addison accom- 
• son became a member of the famous Kitcat | panied Halifax on a complimentary mission 
/Club, to which all the great whigs belonged, : to invest the Elector of Hanover with the 
/ and NVTote one of the toasts inscribed upon ; order of the Garter. In 1709 he became 
( tlieir glasses, in honour of the Duchess of | secretary to Wharton, the new lord-lieuten- 
Manchester. When the government began i ant of Ireland. An office, the keepership 
to incline towuixis tlie whigs, it was natural ■ of the records, was found for him, and the 
that Addison should come in for a reward, i salar}- raised to 400?. a year (see the fourth 
Godolphin, as Budgell tells us {Memoirs of Drapiers Letter). The official duties, what- 
t/ie BoyleSf 1732, p. 161), wished for a poet j ever they may have been, did not distract 
to celebrate the battle of Blenheim (13 Aug. his attention from literature. His * liemarks 
1704). He had a conversation with Halifax, | on several Parts of Italy,* published in 1705, 
reported with suspicious fulness by Budgell. ' became so popular that it rose to four and five 
Halifax said that he could mention a com- times the original price before a second edition 
pt»tent writer, if it were understood that he | was brought out in 1718. He wrote the 
should be well rewarded. Godolphin there- opera * Rosamond ' in conformity with a prin- 
upon sent Boyle, then chancellor of the ex- ^ ciple afterwards expounded in the eighteentli 
chequer, who found Addison in an indifferent i * Spectator.* It seemed monstrous to the 
lodging, and g^ve him by way of retaining i common sense of the time that music should 
fee a commissionership of appeals, vacated by I induce people to listen to unintelligible Italian 
I the death of Locke. Tlie success of his poejn, ' nonsense. Addison therefore composed an 
the * Campaign,' was rewarded by a further I English poem, showing some lyrical facility 
promotion to an under-8ecretar\-8hip of i and characteristic humour. It faded, however, 
state. Godolphin, according to Tickell, saw on the stage, though it afterwards succeeded 
the poem when finished * as far as the ap- | when set to new music by Ame. He helped 
plauaed simile of the angel,* and gave the com- , St^e about the same time in the * Tender 
missionership in consequence. The anecdote . Husband,' an obligation which Steele ac- 



lias been coloured by the desire to represent 
Addison as a poor author raised from a garret 
to fortune by discerning patronage, (iodol- 



knowledged with his usual warmth. He 
dedicated the play to Addison in affectionate 
terms; he declared afterwards (Spectator, 



Addison 125 Addison 



Xo. 566) that many of the 'most api)hLuded Addison was the Ixst c<)m|mny in the world ; 
strokes in it ' were Addison^s; and said that Dr. Youn^ speaks of liin * noble stream of 
the best comment upon his productions would thought and language ' when once he had 
lie an account of the time when Addison was overcome liis diffidence ; and even Pope 
at home or abroad. admitted the unequalled charm of his con- 

Addiaon's social qualities helped his risejJ versation (Spbwcb, Anecdotes, pp. 232, 336, 
Hl» high character, modesty, and sweetnes^ 360). The most characteristic touch is pre- 
of temper won for hun the esteem of his 8er\'ed in Swift's ' character of Mrs. .Tolinson,' 
patrons and of many literary- friends, of where he notices her admiration of Addison's 
whom he was the equal or the patron. He practice of agreeing with people who were 
early formed a close friendship with S^\'ifty * very warm in a wrong oi)inion.* The un- 
to whom he presented (1706) a copy of his favourable view of the practice is given in 
Italian travels (now in the Forster Library) Pojie's lines : 

ini<cribed * to the most agreeable companion, •, t^^„ -.u <•«:«* « • * •*! • -i i 

the truest friend, and the greatest genius of ^TJ^^ll^'l^l^J^^^^^ ""^'^ ^"^ ^^^' 

hL.ag^.' Steele was his most ardent ad^, ^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ «°eeniig teach tho rest to sneer. 

mirer. Less famous men, especially Tickell, i Addison's sensitive modesty disqualified him 
Ambrose Philips, Eustace Buagell (a cousin), for the rough give-an«i-take of mixed society, 
Davenant, Oolonel Brett, and Carey, formed but gave incomprable charm to his talk with 
a little circle united by a common vene- a single congenial friend, or to the ironical 
ration for their chief. ' Addison, according acquiescence under which he took refuge in 
to Pope's account, generally spent much . ^^jP^ gatherings. 

nf his time with these friends at coffee-" Tlje charm may be inferred from the 
houses ; and Pope found their prolonged . writings in which he revealed his true power, 
sittings too much for his health (Spbncb, pp. • Addison had taken his share of politicid war- /. . , 
199, 286). The statement, if accurate, refers ' fare. In November 1707 he had published ' 
chiefly to the period of the * Spectator ; ' and an anonymous pamphlet on the * Present 
these social meetings are placed at Button's, State of the War,' exhorting his country- 
which succeeded Will's as the resort of the ' men to seize the opportunity of finally se- 
wits ; Button being an old servant of Addi- parating France from Spain, and insisting 
son's or Lady Warwick's who set up his upon the poverty and misery of the French 
coffee-house under Addison's patronage about people to encourage the hope of finally over- 
1711. It is generally said that Addison whelming them. He came into parliament 
gave in too much to the ordinarv drinking | in Nov. 1708 for Lostwithiel ; and that 
habits of the time; and indications in his election being set aside 20 Dec. 1709, 
letters and elsewhere confirm this solitary he was elected for Malmesbury by the in- 
imputation upon his moral propriety. Tlie fluence of Wharton (Spencb, p. 360) or his 
annotator to tne * Tatler ' (vol. iv. p. 300, ed. colleague Sir J. llushout, to whose brother 
1797) gives a report that Addison shortened he had been tutor at 0.\ford (Aixm). He 



by giving him excuses for such indulgence, mind to be chosen king, he would hardlv 
Steele seems to suggest the truth in the be refused ' {^Journal to Stella, 8 Oct. 1710)': 
* Tatler ' (No. 262). Speaking obviously of but his modesty prevented him from ever 
Addison, he says that ' vou can seldom get speaking. In the autumn of 1710, when the 
him to the tavern; but w&en once he is arrived j whig mmistiy was falling, he defended them 
to his pint and begins to look about and like in the * Whig Examiner,' of which five 
his company, you admire a thousand things : papers only appeared (14, 21, 28 Sept., 
in him which before lay buried.' Addison)^' 6, 12 Oct.. 1710). They contain a spirited 
in fact, though not intemperate according to 
the standard of his time, sometimes resorted 
to stimulants ti» overcome bashfulness o^ 

depression of spirits. The charm of his con- | Addison, however, was to withdraw for a 
vemation when once the ice was broken is time from active political exertion and to 
attested by observers less partial than Steele, j achieve his greatest success. The fall of 
Swift, who never mentions him without i the whigs involved his loss of office. He 
praiMs declares that, often as they spent their / tells Wortley Montagu (21 Jidy 1711) 
evenings together, they never wisned for a({ that he has lost within twelve months 
third person (Dsiahy, Obtervationt, p. 32). , a place of 2,000/. a year, an estate in the 
Lady Mary Wortley Montagu declared that Inoies of 14,000/., and his mistress (AiKnr, 



, and, for Addison, u bitter attack upon the 

' * Examiner,' then the organ of Harley and 

St. John, but not yet committed to Swift. 



Addison 126 Addison 

ii. 44). Nothing is known of the last mis- four to Addison and Steele in conjunction. 
fortune. It is singular, however, that in the The paper hegan hy including articles of news, 
same year (1711) he bought the estate of mixed with dramatic criticism and short 
l^ilton in Warwickshire for 10,000/. (Ire- , essays and novels in the older sense of the 
LAin), BeautieB of the Avon^ p. 70). In 1735 woid. With Addison's co-operation the eBsay 
it was valued at about 600/. a year (Egerton became more important, and the article of 
MS, 1073, f. 107). It has been generally said news declined. Steele*s acknowledgment in 
that he was enabled to make this purchase by the last number seems to imply that the re- 
inheriting the fortime of his brother GuLston, ligious reflections in Addison s more serious 
who, through Addison's influence {Went- papers and allegorical visions were popular 
worth Papers, 75, 6), had been appointed to at the time. Some of the purely humorouK 
succeed ' Diamond ' Pitt as governor of Fort papers, such as the * Political Qmdnuncs * in 
St. George. A correspondence preserved in No. 155, the * Virtuoso's Will,' No. 216, and 
the British Museum {Egerton MS. 1972) the * Frozen Words,* No. 254, show the un- 
shows this to be a mistake. Gulston, who died rivalled vein of playful humour soon to be 
10 Oct. 1709, made Addison an executor more brilliantly manifested, 
und residuary legatee. The difficulty, how- T)ie last 'Tatler' appeared 2 Jan. 1711. 
ever, of realising an estate left in great con- The first * Spectator * appeared on the follow- 
fitsion and in so distant a country, was verv' ing March 1, and it was published daily till 
great. The trustees were neglectful, and No. 555, 6 Dec. 1712. The * Spectator' 
Addison declares that one of them deserved carefully abstained from politics in a time of 
the pillory, and that he longs to tell him so violent party spirit. It consisted entirely of 
*• by word of mouth.' It was not till 1716 essays on the model gradually reached in the 
that a final liquidation was reached ; and the * Tatler,* and it made an unprecedented 
sum due to Addison, after deducting bad success. The sale was lowered to a half by 
debts and legacies, was less than a tenth part a stamp duty imposed 1 Aug. 1712, an^ 
of the whole estate, originally valued at Steele says in the last number that the duty 
35,000 pagodas, or 14,000/. : the sum, doubt- paid weekly was over 20/. This would give 
less, to which Addison s letter refers. Addi- a daily sale of only 1,600. Addison says in 
son, however, was not poor. He had, besides No. 10 that the sale already amounted to 
his lodging, a ' retirement near Chelsea.' 3,000 ; and in the ' Biographia Britannica ' it is 
wh^re Swift dined with liim (Journal to said that of some numbers 20,000 were sold in 
Stella, 18 Sept. 1710), which had once be- a day. Steele teUs us that the first collected 
longed to Nell Gwyn, and whence he could edition was of 9,000 copies. From an agree- 
stroll through fields to Holland House, then ment preserved in the British Museum (Add, 
occupied by Lady Warwick. He abandoned MS. 21110), it seems that Addison and 
the large ]3rofits of 'Cato ' in 1713, and had Steele sold their half-share of the ' Spectator/ 
resigned his fellowship in 1711. when first collected In volumes, to a stationer 
Steele, more impecunious, started the * Tat- 'named Buckley for 575/. Whatever the pre- 
ler ' on 12 April 1709. Addison, wlio was ab- cise numbers, the * Spectator ' made a mark 
soi'bed in his oificial duties, and had just started i in English literature, and fixed a form which 
for Dublin, whicli he reached on 21 April : was adopted with servile fidelity by many 
(letter to Swift, 22 April 1709), was not con- , succeeding periodicals till the end of the 
cemed in tlie venture. He recognised Steele's centuiy. 

hand by a remark, borrowed from liimself, in Addison wrote 274 * Spectators,' distin- 
the number of 23 ApriL He contributed a ^uished by a signature of one of the letters 
paper or two soon afterguards ; but it was not m OLIO. General opinion has attributed to 
till the 81st number (15 Oct.) that his papers \ liim the greatest share of the triumph. John- 
became frequent and important. He wrote son observed (Boswell, 10 April 1776) that 
frequently during the following winter, which of the half not written by Aodison, not half 
lie spent in London, and again in the latter ; was go(xi. Macaulay says that Addison*s 
part of 1710, after an interruption caused by worst essay is as good as the best of any of 
a residence at Dublin during the spring ancl his coadjutors. The judgment has been called 
summer. Tlie efiect of Addison's papers was in question by Mr. Forster (see JSeaay o» 
vt;rv great. ' I fared,' said Steele in the Steele) , and difiers from that of Hazlitt 
preface to the final volume, * like a distressed (Rouiui Table, No. 6, and Lect. V. on Comic 
prince wlio calls in a powerful neighbour to Wiiter$), who thought Steele more svmpa- 
Iiis aid. I was undone by my auxiliary ; when thetic than the urbane and decorous Addiaon. 
I liad once called him in, I could not sul^sist As a plain matter of fact, however, there can 
without dependence on him.' Forty-one be no doubt that Addison's essays were those 
papers are attributed to Addison, and tlurty- wliich achieved the widest popularity, wbidi 



Addison 127 Addison 



are still remembovd wiMB ike iM * Sp«r:*- TAJrh- : ■ rjre -r-iriziiTed. be: : ' ii^v *•: t^k^ 

tor* is mentioiiML and ""iiicii w«»» iLr- adzci- SAnr* : :!- li*:i.rtC vr.:ir»I 4;;:ij.c-ri ;c :i>r 

Tat ion of all the csiiKfr <<£ ih^ tarttrtEti :ia&r- z^*-^. :>.- V ^ iad wi:*: Ta*T Vi- «-^lM 

century. Jefan^oa trttiT expnaMS !» :^cn>:ci :irr -rihd.x T^Tini^ .■« Mih.-ff-/* c>^Wv 

♦*xpr ccoc d with vari^'Od m^^diSfaiS.cis bv Tw:. pipe:^ t: CnrTT C>.*»» ;»n :^1 asii :\% 

Karnes, Blair. Hurd. Beattie. and jtber ; odr^ M *t 1 r II , srv r. j-Ticv^aK-- as *ii .-w-j-j: tk /of 4k«- 

of the period, when be |BVCK>aiKcs Addia:<D 5 cadedly a ^nuisr p>.:3oa3 A-rjicK*.::v, asii 

to be 'the model of tbr suddie «rrlr.* &x>d d en* > .njrfiiiiii: ^-^ oa*I jrea^ral a::vr.*:;.'« :,■» 

ends his Life by d«dazinr That • whc^rTrr i then dt^ii<<\i brair-v^h ^.^f l::er»:u?»'^ Six 

wishes to attain an &icii^ rtrk-- fairniar bat |«ipe» iip:'n ' Wi: ' in I he MLtce ax.^iTh, 



. . and a 

not coarse, and eleq^ant but n-x •-istcstan-r^u^ lore aaih::i.vj< seTi# ;f eleven pai^rs v«i :h<* 
must fnve his daTs and nights to the T-.tlnmfrs * Plras^u^^ of :Lt- Ircafinsiitin ' in June and 
of Addison.* llie strle c4 Addi»:4i, says July 1712. arv ihe f vjndai;/»n v^f AidiAMtV 
Landor (letter to Mrs. ^eHer. communicated clairc : ■ be an sesThrtir phil^'«^'»p^,^r. Tht* 
by Mr. Gamett ), • is admired : it is very lax phii- is -j^y. indt^^i. i* >i:jvrti*n*l ; V;i: The ox- 
and incorrect. But in his manner th«!Te is cellrnc^ <•{ the style itnd the i^^nuine tasTe 
the ahynees of the Loves : there is the inaor- iravr- :hem a hLrh, thoiurh iemivrsir>\ nnMita- 
ful ahvnesB of a beaatif 111 girl not quite crown T:'>n. In 1S64 Mr. IVketi^ OampMi pnnu^l 
up. I'eople feel the cool current of delight, i privately >, at OlsL-sir^w. • S^mie j^>rtions o:" 
and never look for it* source.' Addisnn's Kssavs cvintributed to the "Spe**utor** bv 
greatest achievement is univt*TsalIy admitted Mr. 'jo««eph Addison : Now first print«>l 
to be the character «(f Sir Koeer de Ojver- from his MS. nott»-K>^k,' The not^^Kv^k 
ley. Sir Roger is the incarnation .'f Ad- was bought at a sale by Mr. Campbell in 
dison's kindly tenderness, showing throu^rli iS58. Hie internal evidence ami the hand- 
a veil of delicate persiflage. Sir Kocvr ^-as writing prove that it contains thret* tvswys— 
briefly sketched by Steele in the second • Sptc- • Of the Imagination/ • Of Jealousy,* and'' Of 
tator.' He is portrayed most fully in a series Fame' — carefully written out in his own 
of fifteen * Spectators * by Addiscm. in July hand, and subsequently worked up into 
1711, which describe a visit to his countn*- 'Spectators 'on thesame'topi«,vii,Nos, 170, 
house. Six essays by Steele are intereperseiL 171 ion Jealousy >. 23^ iW, :?87 ^^Li^vo of 
but only two of them, in which Addison per- Fame), 411-14,' 41d-lS, 4lH), 4lU ^^on the 
mitted Steele to tell Sir Rogers love story. Pleasures of Imagination^. The whole is a 
are of any significance. Budgell described* a very interesting illustration of Addison's 
himtinj^-party in one number. Sir Itoger mode of composition. Of the giaver im]>i>rs 
then disappears till he comes to Ix>ndon to the most remarkable are a stTies which ap- 
see Prince Eugene in January 1712. Addison peared from Sat urdays bej?i nning Oct . iH), 1 7 1 1 . 
takes him to the Abbey in another paper, j Some }>eopleguess<Hi that they might have Ixvn 
18 March ; to Philips's ^ Distressed Mother ' originally intended for senuons, and thev may 
in a third, 25 Mareh ; and to Vauxhall in a illustrate the remark attrihuttyl to ManclevilJi^ 
fourth, 20 May. After this, Steele intro- (Hawkins, Hittory of J/turtV, v. 815, 316), 
duced him (to Addison's vexation, it is said) that Addison was a 'parson in a tyowig,' or 
to a woman of the town (20 June). On Tonsons saying that he *ever thought him a 
23 Oct. Addison describes his death. * I priest in his heart * (Spkxcs, p. 2tX)). Wo 
killedhim,'hetoldBudgeIl,' that nobody else may add that the 'divine jKHnus' published 
might muider him *(BnDGBLL'6.S#;e,i. 27). The in some of them during the autumn of 1712 
other papers contributed by Addison may be . (two of which have been erroneously attri- 
dassified as humorous, critical, and serious. To , buted to Marvell) are not only exivllont il- 
the humorous belotig a great variety of papers ' lustrations of the gentle piety which gives 
touching upon the various social follies of the . a charm to much of .\ddison*s nrose, but. 
day, often with exquisite felicity of gentle | represent also his highest piH'tieal achieve- 
rimcule ; and of these some of the most popular j ments. 

a^ypear to have been those in which Addison, Tlio 'Spectator* dropped in Dor. 1712, 
with an air of condescension hardly so plea- I Addison, now at the height of his reputation, 



Bant aa Steele's generous ^llantry, touched 
the various foibles and fashionable absurdities 



made a new exi)eriment. Toiison (SpKNCli, 
p. 40) and Gibber profess to have Hvvn the 
of women. The most important criticism is a hrst four acts of ' Gato ' upon Addison's re- 
series of seventeen papers on ' Paradise Lost ' i turn from his travels in 1703. Th(« ])lay may 
whidi appeared on Saturdays from 5 Jan. to ' have been suggested, as Macaulay oliserves, 
3 May 1/12. Though the critical doctrines are by the performance which he saw at Veiii(*e. 
obsolete and the jiKlgments oft;en worse than I Addison was now entreattd to bring it u]H)n 
obsolete, these papers may be said, not cer; ' the stage, and, after asking Ilughtu* to writo 



Addison 



128 



Addison 



a fifth act, decided to writ« it himself, and 
finished it, according to Steele {Pref€use to 
* Drummer * ) , in a week. Steele further under- 
took to pack a house, a device which Addison's 
immense popularity may have rendered super- 
duous. The play was accordingly acted at Drury 
Lane (Genest, iL 512) on 14 April 1713. 
Its dramatic weakness has never been denied. 
The love scenes are incon^uous. It consists in 
great part of declamation, which Addison*8 
taste restrained within limits, and polished into 
many still familiar quotations, but wliich re- 
mains commonplace. The success, however, 
at the time was unprecedented. Wliigs and 
tories not only united in admiring Addison, 
but were equally anxious to claim a right to his 
fine phrases about liberty. Addison himself 
disclaimed party intention. Pope, the friend 
of the tory circle, wrote an eloquent pro- 
logue. Swift himself attended a rehearsal 
after a long period of estrangement from the 
author. Boungbroke, as Pope told Oaryll 
(30 April 1713), sent for Booth, the actor 
of Oato, and ])resent«d him with fifty gui- 
neas for * defending the cause of liberty so 
well against a perpetual dictator,* innuendo 
Marlborougli ; and the whigs, says Pope, 
intend a similar present and are trying to 
invent as good a sentence. He afterwards 
(Ep. to Auffugtus, V. 215) sneered at Addi- 
son for appearingf to claim some political merit 
in a copy of verses sent with ' Cato * (Nov. 
1714) to the princess royal. No tories, 
however, could scruple at the political maxims 
of * Oato,' and men of all parties applauded 
it to the echo. It ran for twenty nights, the 
last performance being on May. A fourth 
edition appeared on 4 May, and eight were 
published m the year. The three managers 
gained each 1,350/. by the season ; to wliich 
subsequent iwrformances at Oxford enabled 
them to add 150/. more, a sum then unpre- 
cedented (OiBBER*s Apology, 377, 387). It 
was translated into French, Italian, and 
German ; the Jesuits translated it into Latin, 
that it might be played by the scholars at 
St. Omer ; and Voltaire praised it as the first 
reasonable English tragedy, and S]>eak8 of the 
sustained ele^nce and nobility of its language, 
tliough blaming its dramatic weakness, and 
olwerving that the barbarism and irregularity 
sanctioned by Shakespeare have leift some 
traces even in Addison {Letters to Boling- 
hroke and Falkener prefixed to Bniius and 
Zaire "^ Life of Louis XIV; and \Sf,h Let- 
ter on the English), 'Cato* marks in fact 
the nearest approach in the English theatre 
to an unreserved acceptance of the French 
canons, of which Philips s * Distressed Mother * 
— an adaptation of Kacine's * Andromaque * 
— had given an example in the previous year 



(1712). The influence, however, of Shake- 
speare, though edipeed, was not extinguished. 
Kowe was writing tragedies in imitation 01 
his style ; and Addison himself (thougli De 
Quincey strangely asserts the contrary in his 
' Life of Shakespeare *) frequently speaks of 
him with high praise (see Tatietf 41 ; SpeC' * 
tator, 25, 39, 40, 61, 160, 419, 592). 

John Dennis made a splenetic, though not 
pointless, attack upon the awkward dramatic 
construction of ' Cato,* due chiefly to Addison's 
attempt to preserve the unities, from which 
full quotations are given in Johnson's Life 
of Addison. Pope defended Addison (or re- 
venged grievances of his own) by a savage 
' Narrative of the Frenzy of John Dennis.' 
Addison thereupon conveyed to Dennis a 
disavowal of any complicity in this attack, 
and a disapproval of its manner. Such a 
disavowal, though no more than due to 
Dennis and to Addison s own character^ 
chagrined Pope. Pope was already involved 
in a bitter quarrel with Ambrose Philips, and 
became irritated against the whole clique who 
gathered round Addison at Button's. When 
he published the first four books of his 
Homer in 1715, a version of the first ' Iliad * 
by Tickell appeared simultaneously. Tickell 
indeed expressly disavowed any intention of 
rivaliy, declaring that he had abandoned a 
task now fallen into abler hands, and that 
he published his fragment only to bespeak 
public favour for an intended translation of 
the * Odyssey.* Pope, in a conversation re- 
ported by himself, admitted to Addison that 
tie had no monopoly in Homer, and accepted 
Addison's proposal to read Pope's version of 
the second book as he had reaa Tickell's ver- 
sion of the first. Pope came, however, to 
believe in, or assert, tne existence of a con- 
spiracy against his fame. Addison Lad 
prompted Tickell to write, or corrected 
Tickell's verses, or written them himself iii 
Tickell's name. Another proof of this plot, 
as he told Spence, was given to him by 
Warwick, soon to be Addison's stepson. 
Addison had encouraged Gildon to attack 
Pope in a pamphlet on Wycherley, and had 
afterwards paid the assailant ten guineas. 
Hereujwn Pope wrot« to Addison expressing 
his scorn for underhand dealings, and en- 
closing, as a proof of his own openness, a 
sketch of the famous lines finally incor- 

S orated in the * Epistle to Arbuthnot.' Ad- 
ison, he said, ever afterwards ' used liim 
very civilly.' A complimentary- reference to 
Pope's Homer in the * Freeholder ' is the only 
clear indication we have of Addison's later 
feeling. 

Tlie accusation has been fully discussed, 
and is the subject of a note by Blackstone in 



Addison !•? Addison 



the 'Bi-nnzcifc Brrizz:i^ ^'-jt'^t ^t tr.y .'riTj." fin."*- ^'u.: t-zn-r i'c:.:c*i -:*»: :•; i.>* 

has berti pK*ecT'iC_ lai rcT-* ":_* ir:*- rscip Ti- Ira:! ;:' vi';:^*;*-. A:.-.: i::>.i :>.: :-*.;.:sl?ci 

of the wrui&l&:i:c All "iIj." _"ai pijtstriT' :e ■(? "i: 'ri^^ >:>:;:*:>£ Aii-jsiv:- :.- •.x-i::acs^ 

?^d is liu: A5ii<»:c iji zi - zc^ttV^- IVkril He w-i* it;* .luTt-i a\':»:-jl-\ :; :>,^ w,*rc* 

*:jn» ne hid & -pszicz r^l: - r^itiiji- izii li-*.:>cLt:::, :- :.-> :li jcvt^-jl-^tCvv. i>s 

wh^r c^:■^lii in s; r**r str.- ^Ij I=.;ir»r P:c«?- Su:>it-r*jLrjr*>:".rs ::::;/*.: :- r- :>.> . Sjv Ar'^er 

The WATwiek «c.:st i» k u: f'^-istLr ^^iL-i :«: =:c::^' -Tr/ire, A:i-s..v. w^ls sy^xr.:^! 

Pi>pe (if iad-*«i irf-iii =::: izTfc: :: *l:c]fi :c:t* ;: :-t Iri* c^nvjiii^ r.:TH :'" :r»i^. 

have rvj«ted wi:a ki;7S- P.T«r'* ~*^'~ i-esrv D'-rlij Thr sir::-: :t- .>i >,t :.Ai v-.:K-.s\Txi ds^ 

in the wh- -le afair was ar^^reztlr t > ii-!^ t:tt • Freiei : l^ir r ' ?.:> \ -f.v ? •■»> :>< "r n: iS IVv. 

a repon that the j«tirtr i: Aiiii* c hii ■>=«: ITlo. :■:• i^ jMr.r iri«*-. a :>v,:i.'al ' >:xv:a:or * 

initten af:e? it* Tir:i='? 'iTa:!. "Hie^r i* i:^- in ie:rfi>>e ;: ."rthxi.x trhvc v.r.. lyl;>* ir.> 

•itpendcnt rTiirOLV, iai-e^. t ■ iiiyr-vr this, j^rlllfd bv thr rt belli, r. ir. S^v:\v.^i. kr-xi r..'w 

rhoufh there is alst: a very •tr::;^ p^es-'isip- reciarkahie chivdr :;t :ir :v.::;;S r< vi?»\»^«x! 

ti>n that it was n-evtr shiim : • Ai-iis»:n. to the ltt f' x-h '.::;:«?— a r. *.hv.;:^VZe |vt*" 

Pope's evideni>- in his :-wa ca?e L* that :-f a tr:i:t haJVsT Ivtirtv:: Sir K;o*t s'.s'Covrwy 



man who li-^i bj jc^rT^nor: it U irr^jMicsl- and S<iu:>:- \Vc:t:?rr.. 
aMe with 'iatrfSw aol it i* :hr niTv fsisrooi;-^ On o Au^:. \7lt.\ Adii^Si-'n wjt* r:i*rrit\l 
l^^'aiue w«r now ki»w that alr2>*t t":i-r"wl;;r t > the C -r.:*** ;:' Warwv's. Ho wr.snra ^>M 
c>irT>Bsp>ndria>r with Ad'lia.:-:: was d-eii^rratelr fan::!y frier. i; hi* rt.siviosw s: ;>;:<*'* had 
manmacturvd br P.^pe fr:.m thrr Lerrer* in made his: a r.fi,:hhr.ir .:' H/.1a::.1 Hx^ia*; 
Older to jive oljur to hi* aoc-vjnt cf their and he had uken an ;t;t« ?s^t ::\ tl:o t\i;K'a:ixMi 
rations. The TAtirv itself ni.;*t stazki upjn of her :i*.n. a hid v-f ?e\tr.:«v:i, th«';;j:h iht* 
its own >j*s^. It show* P.j^** feelinc t«v\ statement thathe h.id .-iv':v..tl;y*4yvr. V.:s :u:or 
wards Addison, and has that am r-unt ..ft rjth. I is inacourste. I ho ^vr.rtshi'j* h.ivl !,ij;:i\l tVr 
whatever it may be. whit-h i* implird in its' ^^^^me time, as ,ipp«»«rs frv>:« a i>^py .»f \ors»>s 
internal probability an*i c«?berentv. We may addressed by l^^we to iho or.:n!o>s on A^idi- 
See that a keen but h>s«ile observer c.'^uld son*s departure for I MandinT?;oi»T\»>i,*v.svi«r. 
plausibly attribute to Aildis.>n the faults oha- The marria4^» is *:x»nerally said to b.A\e ^nvn 
ract eristic of the head of a tr«terle — love of unc«>mfi»riable. Johns^M\ says :h.s: i: rost*m- 
flatteiT and jealousy of out-i'lets — and may bled the marriages in whioli a suhnn ci^«>ei his 
infer that he saw one, thoivirh a very un- dauifhter a man to K* liorsl.i\o: and thor\» 
favourable, aspect of the tnith. ' is a reiK>rt that Adilis^m usM to o.vaiv fr^nn 

After 'Cato/ Addison returned to essay hisuiKvmforiablesploniiourat HoUjiud Ut^iM* 
writing. He contnbute»i tiftvime papers to to a coffet^hous<» at Kousinct.m. Little \sihio 
the 'Guardian " (which Steele now edited in can bo attaohtxl to snoh ovssip. 'Hio m.^ttoh 
place of the 'Spectator') between 28 May prt^bably farilitatovi AJdisiMrs otVu*i:il olo\a- 
and 22 Sent. 1713, and twenty-four papers tion. Sunderland triuniphtxl o\ or Tow ushond 
to a revived * Spectator.' pri>bably conducted in the sprin^r ^^l' 1717. and bnnijrhi in A^IiIimmi 
by Bud^ll, between Id June and 29 Sept. as his fellow stvri^tary of state. AvKlis^Mi's 
1714. In the earlier part of the same year he political success niu>t Ih» iNMiMder«Hi chiolly 
jrave two papers to Steele's * Lover.' It is as a pnxif of his extn»nu* |H»rst»nal jHtnularity. 
enough to say that these generally display the He had neither the ixnvor dori\ txl t'rtMu ^rrt^at 
old qualities, but with fewer conspicuous SiX*ial position, nor that of n >iirv>nuisdol»»i tor. 
successes. His purely literary activity ends It has been al1dt^i ^Spknok. p. 177>> t!mt ho 
with the production of the * Drummer,' a was too fastidious in his stylo to In* ca)ttiblo 
prose comedy founded on the storv of the of "ivTiting n ixnnnion th\*|»j»to!i. Maoaulay 
dnunmer of Tedworth, told in (jlanvill's argues that this could only aj>i»ly to an i^»^ 
* Saddudsmus Triumphatus.* Addison gave norance of oftiouil fonns. No pn»of, inib*«Hi, 
it to Steele with an especial injunction of ' is required that ho could write easily, though 
wjcrecjr. It was represented without success , he could iK^lUh can»fully. Sttvlo s»iys that 
in 1715, and then published by Steele, who | when Addison had st'ttUnl his ])Ian, lu> iMuld 
thought that beauties too delicate for a : walk about and dictate — ami Sttvlo had ott on 
theatre might please in the closet. Tickell ; been his amanuensis — as tMisily and (Mmvtly 
slurred its authenticity by excluding ft from ; as his words could In* written ilown. Po|h» 
his edition of Addison*s works ; tBteele vehe- says that the * Spectators' wort* oft on written 
mently protested in a dedicatory, letter to quickly and sent to press at onco, ami that he 
Gongreve preBxed to a new edition ; nor has wrote best when ho had not ttni much time 

VOL. I. K 



\ 
^ 



Addison 



130 



Addison 



to correct. Warton had heard that Addison 
would stop the press, when almost the whole 
impression of a ' Spectator ' had been worked 
off; to insert a new preposition or conjunction 
{Essay on Pone, 1. 145). We can hardly 
say with confiaence how far his nicety may 
have sometimes interfered with his ofEdal 
despatch writing. 

Addison^s health was meanwhile breaking. 
He retired in March 1718, with a pension of 
1,60(M. a year, and undertook some literary 
work never completed. A traj^edy on the 



their common friend. Steele says to bis 
wife in 1717 that he asks nothing from <Mr. 
Secretary Addison.' 

Steele published a paper called the 
' Plebeian ' (14 March 1719), att4icking the 
proposed measure for limiting the number of 
peers. Addison replied temperately in the 
*01d Whig' (10 March), ^4th a constitu- 
tional argument for a measure calculated, as 
he thought, to preserve the right balance of 
power, Steele replied in two more 'Ple- 
beians' (29 and 30 March), and in one of 



death of Socrates is mentioned ; and he left J them made an irrelevant and coarse allu- 
behind a fragmentary and very superficial [Seion, harshly described by Macaulav as an 
work on the evidences of the christian re- - < odious imputation ' upon the morals of 
ligion. He also meditat«l a paraphrase of the his opponents. Addison made a severe and 
Psabns. His last published work was destined contemptuous replv in a second ' Old Whig * 
to be of a different character, and brought (2 AprS), ending, however, with an expres- 
him into conflict with his old friend Stede. I gion of his belief that the * Plebeian' would 
Steele's boundless admiration for Addison f write well in a good cause. Macaulay first 
has been noticed. When supplanted by his^ pointed out that Addison did not, as Johnson 
ally, he rdoiced, as he says, to be excelled, gavs, call Steele 'little Dicky.' Steele had the 
and proudly declared that, whatever Mr. \^t ^oni in a ' Plebeian ' (6 April) written 
Steele owed to Mr. Addison, the world owed ^th some bitterness about Addison's whig* 
Addison to Steele. The harmony, however, 1 j^igm^ jj^t ending with a quotation from * Oato' 
was disturbed. We learn from Steele's ^ expressive of sound nature. Some regret 
correspondence that he borrowed money oc- for the breach of then- old alliance appears in 
casionally from his richer friend. Johnson • the concluding sentences, but there b no trace 
tells a story, upon apparently good autho- Qf |^ reconciliation. 

rity, that Addison once put an execution into ; Addison was fast breaking. On his deaths 
Steele's house for 100/., and that Steele was I ^ed he sent for Gay, and begged forgive- 
deeply hurt. The most authentic form of : ^ess for some injurv, presumamy an inter- 
the anecdote comes from the actor, B. Victor ! ference with Gay's preferment, oi which he 
(Original Letters, &c., vol. i. np. 328-9), who accused liimself. He sent also, as Young tells 
knew Steele and gave the facts m a letter 1 ^g (« Conjectures on Original ComposUion; 
to Gamck. The statement is that Steele | Works, p. 136), for his stepson Warwick, 
borrowed 1,000/. from Addison m order to ! and said to him : ' See in what peace a 
build a house at Hampton Court ; that Addi- , christian can die.' The incident is supposed 
son advanced the moiiev through hisla^'>'ers to be uUuded to in Tickell's fine address to 
with instructions to enforce the debt when War\^'ick ^vith Addison's words. He 
due ; and that upon Steele's failure to pav at ,, , ^ .. wt.. t-.i. 

the year's end, the house and fumitur^^ere i ^^ taught us how to live, and (oh! too hijh 
sold and the balance pid to Steele, with a i ^^^ P"'^ °^ knowledge) taught us how to die. 
letter briefly telling him that the st«p had I He left to Tickell the care of his works, 
been taken to aroust^ liim from his ' lethiargy.' i which he bequeathed to Oraggs in a touching 
Steele, it is added, took the reproof with letter; and died of asthma and dropsy, 17 June 
* phih)Sophical comjKwure,' and was after- 1719. Lady Warwick died 7 July 1731. 
wards on good terms with Addison. Upon He left a daughter, bom 30 Jan. 1719, ap- 
this showing, it was not a case of a friend pnrently of rather defective jntellect (OeniU- 
. suddenly converted by anger into a severe 
'creditor, but a delibt»rate plan from the first 
= to give a serious lesson. However well 
meant or well taken, such reproofs are severe 
tests of friendship. Steele, whase imprudent 
zeal made him the scapegoat of his party, 
was probably hurt when he received no office, 
and only a sliare in the patent of the play- 
house, upon the triumph of the whigs. He 
was hurt, too, at being superseded by Tickell 
in Addison's favour, and at the ap])ointment 
of the younger man as under-secret ary to 



niatis Magazine, March 1797 and May 1798; 
Lady Louisa Stewart's introduction to the 
Works of I^ady M. W. Montagu, p. 16 ; and 
letters in Egerton MS. 1974), who Hved many 
years at Hilton, dying unmarried in 1797. 
His librarv was sold in May 1799, bringing 
456/. 2s, 9d, 

There is a portrait of Addison in the Na- 
tional Portrait Gallery, two at Magdalen, 
and one (presented by nis daughter in 1760) 
at the Bodleian. A so-called portrait in 
Holland House seems to be really the portrait 



Addison 131 Addison 






i; of ]u8 friend Sir A. Fountaine (Notes and ' Guardian/ 1713. 10. ' Tlie late Trial nnd 
,• Qttaiesy 4th «er. 3di. 367, 6th ser. v. 488, vi. Conviction of Coiuit Tariff,^ 1713. 11. Pa- 
il 94; Joieph Addison and Sir A, Fountaine^ pers in eighth volume of ' Si)ectator,* 1714. 
.' fieHomance of a Portrait, LondoD, 1868). 12. * The Drummer ' (anon^-mous), 1716 
Addi8on*8 Latin poems appeared in the (acted 1716). 13. 'Tlie Freeholder/ 1716. 
'Examen Poeticum Duplex,' tK)iidon, 1698, 14. *The Old Whi^,* 1719. This (with the 
and the 'Musarum Anglicanarum Analecta,* 'Plebeian*) is included only in Greene*8 and 
vol. ii., Oxford, 1699. The latter collection Bolin's edition of liis works. Tlie * Dialo^rues 
includes two poems, on the Peace and to on Medals' and the* Evidences of the Ohrist- 
Dr. Hannes, not in the former. A poem on ian Relifrion ' were publishtHi posthumously 
SkatinfT attributed to P.-Frowde in the last in TickelFs edition of his works. 
was published as Addison 8 by Curll in 1720. Of collected editions we mav mention 
The third part of the ' Miscellany Poems * TickelFs, in 4 vols., 1721; the ^kskerville 
(1693) includes the poem *To Mr. Dr^-den;' edition, in 4 vols. 4t(>, Birmin^^ham, 1701 ; 
the fourth part (1694), the translation of the another collected edition, in 4 vols., London, 
fourth G^rgic, an ' Account of the Greatest 1766, often reprint I'd in 12mo; an edition 
English Poets,' the * Song for St. Cecilia's (with grammatical notes) by Bishop Ilurd, 
Day,' a translation of 0\*id*8 • Salmacis ; ' the in vo&. 8vo, in 181 1 ; a fuller edition, edited 
fifth part (1704) contains the letter from by G. W. Greene, N»»w York, 1866; tho 
Italy (already published), the Milton imi- most complete and convenient edition is that 
tat^Kl in a translation from the third ^neid, contained in Bohn*s ' British Classics,* 6 vols, 
and various translations from Ovid. Macaulay 1866. 
,, menUons (see note to article * Macaulay ' in [xickeirs Preface to Addison's Works ; Steek.'s 
/-LOWOTBSS Manuaf) that < Spectator Nos. PrefncetotheDrunniuT.inanKpistleDwlicatory 
603 and 623 should be given to Addison. to Mr. Congreve, ocrtLsiontHl l.v Mr. Tickell's Pre- 
A translation of an oration ' in defence of face; Spence'.s Aumlotes (1820) ; Egerton MSS. 
the new philosophy,' made in the schooLs at 1971-4: life in Biograidiia Britannicu; lifi> in 
Oxford (7 July 1603), attributed to Addison, Johnson's Lives of thu Poets; Addisonijma,alonst* 
M appended to a translation by W. Gardiiier collection of anec«lotc-s hy Sir R. Philliiis (1803), 
of I<^ontenelle*8 * Plurality of Worlds ' (Lon- which contains fac-siinilcs <»f httiTs to Wort loy 
don, 1728). k 'Discourse- on Ancient and Montagu,tbonfirstpubli.sliea; life l.;^- Lucy Aikin 
Modem Learning,' published by Osborne in (18*3); aijd tin- review of this, winch i« one of 

1730,froma ^' ' ' ^" ~ """"'' 

and afterwards 




aa a genmne, ^^ ^ ■ 

printed in Addison s works J A ' Dissertotio . j^gg. ^,y^.^^ j^ ynlueless ; Swifi'8 Work** ; Pope's 

ae insigrmonbus Romai^ y^fis mih- bom^ondence in Elwin's e<lition ; CarruthorMs 

lished m 1692, 1698, 1718, 1726, and 1760, lj^ of Pope.] L. «. 

and was regarded as valuable by Dr. Parr 

(JV7rf««€mrfQM«rt«*, 3rd series, ix. 312). An ADDISON, I^VNCELOT, D.l). (1632- 




' Political State ' in 1716. It was aften^-ards of Crosbv I^venswort h, A\'est niorelan J. 1L» 




1. * A Poem to His Majesty/ presented by : education at the grannnar school of Appleby 
the Lord Keeper (Somers) 1696. 2. * Letter he was sent to Queen's College, Oxford, Ix-- 
from Italy to the Right Hon. Charles Lord tween which and the counties of Cumber- 
Haii&x, in the year 1701.' Printed 1703. land and Westmoreland tlir-re liad long been 
3. 'Remarks on several Parts of Italy,' a close connection. According to the college 
1706. Second edition, 1718. 4. ' Fair RoiJa- bool«s he was admitted on 24 Jan. 1650-1 as 
mond/ an opera in three acts, and in verse 
< anonymous), 1707. 6. Papers in 'The 

Tatler/ 1709-10. 6. ' The Whig Examiner,' ' Joseph Williamson, a Cuml)erland man, who 
1710. 7. Papers in 'Spectator,' 1711-12. | rose to be a principal secretary- of state under 
(The papers on Milton, on the Imagination, the Restoration, who b«?friended liim in after 
and on Coverley have been published sepa- life, and from whom, it has been surmised, 
ntely.) 8. ' Cato,' 1713. 9. Papers in I Joseph Addison received his cliristian name. 



a'batteler.* Among his college contenipo- 
I raries (AVoOD, Fasti, ed. Bliss, ii. 175) was 



Addison 



132 



Addison 



He proceeded B.A. 25 Jan. 1654-5, and M.A. 
4 July 1657. In 1657 he was one of the 
Teme filii, and the speech which he delivered 
in that capacity was deemed by those in au- 
thority so offensive an attack on the puritan- 
ism then dominant in and out of the univer- 
sity, that he was forced to retract it in con- 
vocation on his knees. In disgust doubtless 
at this treatment, he withdrew from Oxford 
to the neighbourhood of Petworth in Sussex, 
and having meanwhile, apparently, taken or- 
ders, he ministered zealously to the royalist 
and episcopalian squires of tlie district. At 
the Restoration he received the appointment 
of English chaplain at Dunkirk. In 1662 
Dunkirk was purchased back by France, and 
its English governor, Andrew Lord Ru- 
therfora, created earl of Teviot, transferred 
Iiis services to Tangier, just acquired by 
Charles II. Addison accompanied Lord 
Teviot as the chaplain of the new depen- 
dency. His probably contemporaneous record 
of his earlier impressions of Tangier was not 
published until 1681, when Tangier was re- 
occupying public attention in England. It 
then appeared as ' The Moors Bamed, being 
a discourse concerning Tangier, especially 
when it was under the Earl of Teviot,' and 
gives a lively account of garrison life at Tan- 
gier and of the military and administrative 
achievements of Lord Teviot, who was killed 
in a skirmish with the Moors when he had 
been governor little more than a year. A 
second edition, with the author's name, was 
issued in 1 685 as * A Discourse of Tangier 
under the Government of the Earl of Teviot.' 
In 1670 Addison visited England, and mar- 
ried Jane, sister of the Right Rev. William 
Gulston, S.T.P., who was made bishop of Bri- 
stol in 1 679. According to Anthony a Wood, 
Addison was, against his own wi8h,superseded 
in liis chaplaincy at Tangier ; but his services 
there seem to have been so far recognised that, 
in the title-page of a work which he pub- 
lished in 1671, he is designated * Chaplain to 
his ^lajesty in Ordinary.' This was * West 
Barbary, or a Short Narrative of the Revolu- 
tions of the Kingdoms of Fez and Morocco, 
with an account of their present customs, 
sacred, civil, and domestic' It was * printed 
at the theatre in Oxford,' and dedicated to 
Williamson, who was one of the curators of 
the Sheldonian press. Macaulay calls it 
* an interesting volume.' In 1671, also, Ad- 
dison received from a friendly squire the 
living of Milston, near Amesbury, Wiltshire, 
worth 120/. a year, to which was afterwards 
added a prebendal stall in Salisbury Cathe- I 
dral. In 1675 he published 'The Present I 
State of the Jews (more particularly relating I 
to those of Barbary), wnerein is contained '< 



an exact account of their customs, secular 
and reli^ous. To which is annexed a sum- 
mary discourse of the Misna, Talmud, and 
G^mara.' This work, dedicated to 'Sir' 
Joseph Williamson, contains much carious 
information, and justice is done in it to the 
private virtues of the Jews of Barbaiy. A 
second edition appeared in 1676 ; a third in 
1682. In 1675 Addison took at Oxford his 
B.D. and D.D. dep^es. In 1678 ' The First 

I State of Muhametism, or an Account of the 
Author and Doctrine of that Imposture,' ap- 

' peared anonymously ; but Addison's author- 
ship of it was avowed in the second edition, 
nublished in 1679 as the ' Life and Death of 
Muhamed.' In 1683 he was appointed dean 
of Lichfield, and in 1684 coUatea to the arch- 
deaconry of Coventry, which he held with 
his deanery in commendam. As a member 
of the lower house of convocation, which 
met at Westminster on 4 Dec. 1689, Dean 
Addison was one of the opponents of the 
policy of comprehension nvoured by the 

I upper house, and on account of this and other 
displays of his high-church zeal, he lost, it 
has been said, his chance of becoming one of 
King William's bishops. He died on §0 April, 
1703, and was buried in the churchyard of 
Lichfield Cathedral, inside which, in 1719, a 
mural monument was erected to his memory. 
The inscription on it (written, it has been 
surmised, by Tickell) records that his son, 
Joseph, just before his own death, was super- 
intending its erection. 

Besides the works mentioned. Dean Addi- 
son wrote several theological and devotional, 
of which the titles are given in the * Biogra- 
phia Britannica.' Of more general interest 
18 his * Modest Plea for the Clergy,' a spirited 
defence of his order. The first edition of it 
appeared anonymously in 1677 ; but though 
its authorship was afterwards formallv 
avowed, Dr. Hickes, when reprinting it witt 
other treatises in 1 709, declared that after 
making due inquiry he had been unable to 
discover its autnor^s name, or even whether 
he was a clergyman. 

Dean Addison left besides Joseph, his eldest 
son, three children by his first wife — she died, 
it is supposed, about 1686 {Notes and QuerieSy^ 
5th series, vi. 350) — * each of whom,' Steele 
says (second preface to the Drumtner, Episto- 
lary Correspondence, 1809, pp. 611-2), ' for 
excellent talents and singular perfection was 
as much above the ordinary world as their 
brother Joseph was above them.' Gulston 
(1673-1709), the dean's second son, after 
having been long in the service of the East 
India Company at Fort St. George, was ap- 
pointed its governor in succession to Thomas 
riit (Chatham's grandfather), and died a few 



Addison 



133 



Addison 



weeks after this promotion. Lancelot (1680- 
1711), the third son, was first of Queen s Col- 
leffe, Oxford, and then a demj of Magdalen, of 
which he hecame a fellow m 1706. At the 
university he won a reputation for his clas- 
sical learning. Ahout the time of his brother 
Gulston's death he visited Fort St. George, 
and died there in 1711 (Ikfertim MS. 1972, 
fol. 50). Their sister Dorothy (1674-1750) 
married the Rev. James Sartre, originally a 
French pastor at 3Iontpelier, aften^i'ards a 
prebendary of Westminster. Swift (Journal 
to Sulla, io Oct. 1710^, after dining with her 
in the company of Aadison and Steele, says 
of her: * Addison's sister is a sort of a wit, 
veiy like him. I am not fond of her.* After 
her first husband's death in 1713 she married ' 
a Mr. Combe, and survived till 1750. Dean 
Addison's second wife, originally Dorothy 
Danvers, of a Leicestershire famil>', was a 
widow when he married her. She died, ; 
without issue, in 1719. ' 

[Dean Addison's Works; Memoir in Biogra- . 
phui Britannica (KippiH s), i. 43-44 ; Wooils 
Athens Oxonienses, ea. BHhs, iv. 517-19; infor- 
mation communicated by the Provost o£ Queen's 
College, Oxford.] F. E. 

ADDISON, LAURA {d, 1852), actress, ^ 
made her first appearance upon the stage in ^ 
November 1843, at the Worcester Theatre, as \ 
Xiady Townley in the * Provoked Husband.' 
Her family had opposed her desire to become 
An actress ; she had no introduction, teacher, 
or patron, but was altogether self-instructed. 
She was very favourably received by the 
public. She fulfilled an engagement at Glas- j 
gow, and, pla^nng Desdemona to the Othello 
of Macready, secured the good opinion and ' 
the firiendship of that tragedian. At liis in- 
stance, after she had played with success at j 
Dublin and Edinburgh, she was engaged by ; 
Mr. Phelps, and made her first appearance . 
«t Sadler s Wells, then under his manage- 
ment, in August 1846, as Lady Mabel in the 
^Patrician's Daughter' of W^estland Marston. 
She remained at Sadler's Wells three seasons, 
representing Juliet, Portia, Isabella in ' Mea- 
sure for Measure,' Imogen, Miranda, and Lady 
Macbeth ; she appeared as Panthea upon the 
revival of Beaumont and Fletcher's comedy 
of ' A Sang and no King ; ' and she was the 
first representative of Margaret liandolph 
And Lilian Saville in the poetic tragedies of 
' Feudal Times ' and ' John Saville of Ilay- 
sted,' by the Rev. James White. In 1849 
she was playing at the Uaymarket with Mr. 
and Mn. Charks Kean, and in 1850 she ac- 
cepted an engagement at Drury I^ane under 
Mr. Anderson's management, representing the 
characters of Mrs. Haller in the ' Stranger,' 



Mrs. Beverley in the * Gamester,' Bianca in 
* Fazio,' and Leonora in an English version 
of SchiUer's ' Fiesco,' &c. &c. In 1851 she 
left England for America, and died the fol- 
lowing year on a voyage from Albany to Xew 
York. 

[Talliss Drawing Room Tuble Book, 1861.] 

D. C. 

ADDISON, THOMAS (1793-1860), an 
eminent physician, was bom at Long Benton, 
near Newcastle, in April 1793. ifis father, 
Joseph Addison, belonged to a family of yeo- 
men which had long been settled at Laner- 
cost in Cumberland, and was in business as 
a grocer. Thomas, the younger son, was 
educated at Newcastle grammar school, and 
afterwards at the university of Edinburgh, 
where he graduated M.D. in 1815, writing 
an inaugural dissertation, *De Svphilide.' 
He afterwards came to London, where he 
was appointed house surgeon to the Lock 
Hospital, and studied discuses of the skin 
under the celebrated Batemnn. Although a 
doctor of medicine, Addison entered us a 
student at Guv's Hospital, was appointed 
assistant phvsician to the hospital in 1824, 
and lectured on materia medicu in 1827. In 
the latter position he attracted a large class 
of students, and was in 18;i7 promoted to 
the office of physician to the hospital and 
joint-lecturer on medicine with Dr. Bright. 
In his hospital practice he soon became dis- 
tinguisheci for iiis remarkable zeal in the 
investigation of disease both by observation 
of cases during life and by post-mortem 
examinations. He thus acquired a brilliant 
reputation as a clinical teacher, and con- 
tributed perhaps more than any of his col- 
leagues to the fame which Guy's Hospital 
attained as a school of medicine during his 
connection with it. Addison laboured as a 
teacher and investigator till the state of his 
health com])elled him to resign his hos])ital 
appointments, and he died not long after his 
retirement at Brigliton on 29 June 1860. 
He was buried in Lanercost Abbey, Cum- 
berland. 

Addison's contributions to the science of 
medicine were numerous and imi)ortant. His 
researches on pneumonia (published 1837 
and 1843) brought to light truths novel at 
the time, which are now generally accepted 
as indisputable. Tlie memoir on pulmonary 
phthisis was not less original, though its 
conclusions are more open to question. They 
have nevertheless had great influence on the 
progress of knowledge m this subject. After 
publisliing some important papers on diseases 
of the skin, Addison produced in 1855 the 
work by wliich he is, and will always be, 



Addison 



134 



Adela 



best known, though less valued by his own 
pupils and immeaiate successors than his 
earlier works. In this, the ' Essay on Disease 
of the Supra-renal Capsules/ he announced 
a discovery of remarkable originality, viz., 
that these organs, not pre\'iously known to 
be the seat of any definite disease, were in 
certain cases affected in such a way as to 
produce a fatal malady, with well-marked 
symptoms, including a remarkable discolora- 
tion of the skin, and now known as ' Addi- 
son's disease.' The novelty of Addison's 
views, as well as the rarity of the pheno- 
mena by which they could be connrmed, 
caused them to be received with much in- 
credulity, and two memoirs relating similar 
cases, not written but supported by Addison, 
were declined by a Ijondon medical society 
to which thev were presented for publication. 
But the reality of the facts and the correct- 
ness of Addison's explanation are now gene- 
rally admitted, both in this country and 
abroad. Although the disease, from its 
rarity, has fortunately no great practical im- 
portance, its discovery remains one of the 
most brilliant achievements of medicine in 
the nineteenth century. To the therapeu- 
tical side of medicine Addison devoted less 
attention, and in this he was less successful 
than in research. Partly from this cause, 
and partly, perhaps, from defects of manner 
whicn are attributed to him, he never ob- 
tained a large practice or accumulated gpreat 
wealth ; but, indeed, to both these objects of 
the ambition of many men, Addison seems 
to have been comparatively indifterent. His 
soul was in his hospital work ; the correct 
diagnosis of disease, the efficient instruction 
of his pupils, and the prosperity of the Guy's 
medical school were the objects for which he 
lived. 

Addison's independent publications were : 
1. * An Essav upon the Operation of Poison- 
ous Agents' (jointly with John Morgan), 
8vo, London, 1829. 2. * Observations on the 
Disorders of Females connected -with Uterine 
Irritation,' 8vo, London, 1830. 8. * Elements 
of Practice of Medicine ' (jointly with Richard 
Bright, M.D., but chiefly by Addison), vol. i. 
only published, 8vo, London, 1839. 4. * On 
Disease of the Supra-renal Capsules,'4to, Lon- 
don, 1855. 

His other memoirs were chiefly published 
in the Guy's Hospital reports for various 
years, and republished as *A Collection of 
the Published Writings,' &c. Edited by Dr. 
Wilks and Dr. Daldy. New Sydenham So- 
ciety, London, 1868. 

ptfunk'8 Roll of the Royal College of Physi- 
cians, 2nd edition, iii. 205, London, 1878 ; Bio- 
graphy prefixed to Syd. Soc. collection above 



cited ; G-reenhoVs Lectures on Addison^s Disease, 
London, 1875; Lonsdale's Worthies of Cum- 
berland, London, 1873.] J. F. P. 

ADD Y. WILLIAM {fi. 1686), a writing- 
master in London, was tne author of a system 
of shorthand published in 1686. The method, 
a modification of that of Jeremiah Rich, was 
so much practised that the Bible, the New 
Testament, and the Singing Psalms were 

Eublished, according to its system, two years 
kter. The 1695 edition of his work was en- 
titled ' Stenographia, or the Art of Short- 
Writing compleated in a far more compen- 
dious methode than any yet extant,' 12mo. It 
was engraved throughout. The Bible had a 
portrait of Addy, engraved by Sturt from a 
painting by Barker ; and the same engraver 
executed the rest of the work. In subsequent 
editions of the Bible the preUminajy leaves 
were changed, and the book dedicated to 
King William. All the title-pages are dated 
1687. 

[James H. Lewis's Hist, of Shorthand, p. 94.] 

J. £. B. 
ADEL- [See Ethel-] 

ADELA (1062 P-1137), mother of Ste- 
phen, king of England, and the fourth, and 
probably the youngest, daughter of William 
the Conqueror and Matilda of Flanders, was 
bom about 1062. Her beauty and valour in 
her early years are described by many con- 
temporary Norman chroniclers. WTiile she 
was still a child she was affianced to Simon 
Crispin, earl of Amiens, the son and heir of 
Ralph, earl of Valois and Mantes, who re- 
ceived his military training at the court of 
William the Conqueror. But soon after his 
father 8 death in 1074 Simon fell into a settled 
melancholy ; and on being summoned in 1077 
to marry Adela, he refused, and withdrew to 
a monastery. But already in 1076 Adela had 
been demanded in marriage by Stephen, earl 
of Meaux and Brie, son and heir of Theo- 
bald, earl of Blois and Chartres, a powerful 
neighbour of William the Conqueror in Nor- 
mandy ; and although Stephen^s suit had at 
first been unfavourably received, it was re- 
peated in 1080, and readily accepted hy 
William and his nobles. Adela was married 
in the same year at Breteuil, and the cere- 
mony was repeated with much splendour ai 
Chartres, the chief town in her father-in- 
law's dominion. Baldric of Anjou, abbot of 
Bourgeuil, and other courtly poets, speak of 
her at the time as being her father's equal in 
bravery, a Latin and Greek scholar, and a 
senerous patron of poetry, at which she was 
herself an adept {Ilistotre Littirmre de to 
France^ vii. 162, ix. It31). 

In 1090, on the death of Theobald, her 



Adela 



135 



Adela 



husband's fsthery Stephen succeeded to his 
rule, and Adela played an active part in 
public life. In most of the charters issued 
by Stephen her name was mentioned, and an 
inscription, until recently legible, on a gate 
at Blois testifies to a grant of privileges to 
the town from ' Stephen the Earl and Adela 
the Countess ' conjomtl^r. Disputes between 
monasteries, and ecclesiastical affairs gene- 
rally, she seems to have controlled b^ her 
own authority, with the aid of her intimate 
friend Ivo, bishop of Chartres. It was 
throoffh her energy and beneficence that the 
cathedral of Chfutres was rebuilt in stone, 
and freed from all taxation on condition that 
uuuversary services should be performed for 
ever in honour of her husband and herself. 
With Hildebert, bishop of Mans, she main- 
tuned throuj^hout her married life very 
friendly relations, and many of his letters to 
heron ecclesiastical subjects are still extant. 
In 1006 her husband, at her desire, left Blois 
to join the first crusade, and she was nomi- 
nated regent in his absence. At the moment 
the was much occupied with domestic duties. 
A krae family was growing up about her, 
tnd although she sent her two eldest sons, 
William and Theobald, to a monastic school 
It Orleans, the rest she zealously educated 
henel£ But she contrived to perform her 
public business with due thoroughness. ' In 
joo,' wrote Bishop Hildebert to her, * is all 
that is needed to smide the helm of the state.' 
She aided Louis Vl of France with a hundred 
soldiers, equipped under her supervision, to 
lepresfl a rebellion about 1096. In 1097 she 
entertained Anselm, while passing from Eng- 
land to Bome during his quarrel with her 
brother William 11, and became his pupil in 
order to benefit her children by the instruc- 
tion she obtained of him. In 1098 Adela 
was taken seriously ill, and she piously at- 
tributed her recovery to the intercession of 
St. Agiles, before whose shrine, in a chapel of 
Resbac in La Brie, she had her couch placed 
at a very critical moment of her sicKness. 
About 1099 her husband returned home; 
he bad behaved with doubtful courage in an 
attempt to raise the siege of Antioch, and 
Adela resented his disgrace. In 1101 she 
induced him to join William, earl of Poitou, 
in a second expedition to the Holy Land, 
where he was slain fighting at the siege of 
Ramula. 

After her husband's death, Adela con- 
tinued in the regency in behalf of her sons, 
idl of whom were still in their minority ; she 
frequently, however, associated their names, 
ana especially that of Theobald, the second 
son and deemed l^ her the most able of her 
children, with her own in official documents. 



Between 1103 and 1105 Ansebn was often 
her guest. He stayed witli her from the 
spring to the autumn of 1103, and when he, 
with Eadmer, came from Rome to Blois some 
months later, he stated to Adela his grounds 
of dispute about investitures with her brother, 
Henry I. She attempted to arbitrate between 
them ; she summoned Henry and Anselm to 
meet her at the castle of L*^Vigle in Nor- 
mandy, and there a temporary reconciliation 
was arranged. On 24 May 1105, Anselm, in 
a letter to the pope, praises highly Adela*s 
skill in the mediation. About the same 
time the countess granted an asylum at her 
court to Agnes of Poitou, the ill-used wife 
of the Norman baron, llobert of Belesme. 
In 1107 Adela was engaged in a quarrel with 
Ivo of Chartres, as to the qualincations for 
admission to the chief monastery of his dio- 
cese, and Pope Pascal, who had Wen visiting 
the king of 1^ ranee, came to Adela at Chartres 
to settle the dispute. Anselm had already 
addressed him in the countess s behalf, but 
Pascal decided the question in favour of Ivo. 
Nevertheless Adela gave him a sumptuous 
reception, and he celebrated Easter m her 
dominions. In 1 108 Adela received Boemund 
of Antioch, an enthusiastic crusader, and at 
her earnest request he celebrated his mar- 
riage with Constance, daughter of Philip I 
of S'rance, at Chartres. Later in 1108 Hugh 
of Puiset, a powerful neighbour, attacked 
Adela, and she, with her son Theobald, went 
to Paris to demand aid of Philip I. The re- 
quest was granted, and Hugh was defeated 
by the joint forces of France and Blois. In 
1109 Adela resigned the government to Theo- 
bald. She passed over her eldest son William 
as mentally and physically Theobald^s infe- 
rior. In accordance with a previous sugges- 
tion of Anselm, she spent the last years of 
her life in a convent. She took the veil at 
the Cluniac priory of Marcigny on the Loire, 
in the diocese of Autun. But tlie countess for 
some years aftenvards still exerted herself in 
public afiairs. She induced Count Theobald 
to ally himself with his uncle Henry I against 
France in 1117-8. She continued to bestow 
munificent g^ifts on monasteries and churches, 
especially on that of Ste. Foy at Colomiers, 
her favourite retreat ; and she settled many 
clerical disputes. She urged Hugh of Fleuiy 
to write his valuable chronicle of French 
history, which was dedicated to her niece, 
the Empress Matilda, after her death. She 
corresponded with Hildebert of Mans, and 
visitea Thurstan, archbishop of York, when 
he passed through France to appeal to 
Rome in his quarrel with the arcnbishop 
of Canterbury; in 1135 she received from 
Peter, abbot of Clugny, a full accoimt of the 



Adelaide 



136 



Adelaide 



death of her brother, Henry I. She died in 
1137 at the age of about seventy-fiye, and 
was buried at Caen beside her mother and 
her sister Cecilia in the abbey of the Holy 
Trinity. Her prave bore the inscription 
* Adela, filia re^s/ 

Of Adela's chddren,William, the eldest son, 
played a very unimportant part in history. 
Theobald, her successor, proyed a capable 
ruler; he named his only daughter Adela, 
and she became the wife of Louis VII of 
France, and mother of Philip Augustus. 
The coimtess in 1114 sent Stephen, her third 
son, to the court of Henry I, and she liyed 
long enough to see him crowned king of 
England. Her sons, Henry and Philip, she 
deyoted to the church, and the former became 
an eminent bishop of Winchester, while the 
latter held the see of Chalons. Another son, 
Humbert, died young, and of a seyenth, 
Eudo, mentioned in one of Adela's charters, 
nothing is known beyond the name. C)f 
Adela's daughters, Matilda married Ralph, 
earl of Chester, and, with her husband and 
her cousin Prince William, was drowned in 
the White ship in 1120. Adela married 
Milo de Brai, lord of Montlheri and viscount 
of Troyes, a marriage that Ivo of Chartres 
subsequently annulled on the ground of con- 
sanguinity. Some authorities mention two 
other daughters, Alice, who became the wife 
of Reynald HI, earl of Joigni, and Eleanora, 
the wife of Raoul, earl of \ ermandois {VArt 
de verifier, xi. 362-3). 

[Ordericiifl Vitalis, Historia Ecclesiastica, is 
the chief contemporary authority. The l>e8t ac- 
count of Adela's life will be found in Mrs. 
Green's Lives of the Princesses of England, i. 
34-72, where very full references to all the 
original authorities are given ; see also Free- 
man's Norman Conquest, iii. and iv., and his 
WiUiam Rufus.] S. L. L. 

ADELAIDE, Queen Dowager (1792- 
1849). Amellv Adelaide Louisa Theresa 
Caroline, eldest child of George, duke 
of Saxe-Coburg Meiningen, and of Louisa, 
daughter of Christian Albert, prince of 
IIohenlohe-Langenburg, was bom 13 Aug. 
1792. Brought up by a widowed mother 
(her father died 1803), her reputation for 
amiability determined Queen Charlotte to 
select her as a wife for William Henry, duke 
of Clarence, whose marriage, with that of 
his three brothers, took place when the death 
of the Princess Charlotte made it desirable 
to provide heirs for the crown. A tempo- 
rary difficulty, caused by the refusal of par- 
liament to raise the duke's allowance of 
18,000/. a year by more than 6,000/. instead 
of the 10,000/. demanded, was got over, and 



the princess and her mother arrived in Lon- 
don for the marriage, 4 July 1818. It took 
place at Kew, simultaneously with that of 
the Duke of Kent, on 18 July, and proved a 
happy one, despite the disparity in jrears (the 
bnde was in her twenty-sixth, the bridegroom 
in his fifty-third year) and the absence of any 
preliminary courtship. 

The Duke and Duchess of Clarence passed 
the first year of their marriage in Hanover, 
where, in 1819, a daughter was bom to them, 
to live only a few hours. Their second child, 
the Princess Elizabeth Georgina Adelaide, 
bom 10 Dec. 1820, died in the following 
year. Their principal English residence 
was Bushey Park, wnere they lived in com- 
parative retirement until the accession of 
William to the throne on the death of 
George IV, 26 June 1830. By a bill passed 
in the following November, the queen was 
nominated as regent, in case a child of hers 
should survive the king, and provision was 
made for her widowhood by a settlement of 
100,000/. a year, with Marlborough House 
and Bushey Park, of which she was imme- 
diately constituted perpetual ranger. The 
royal coronation took place on 8 Sept. 1831. 

Her supposed inter&rence in pohtics ren- 
dered the queen very unpopular during and 
after the reform agitation, and her carriage 
was once assailed in the streets by an angry 
mob, who were only beaten off by the canes 
of her footmen. On the fall of the whig 
(Lord Melbourne's) ministry in 1832, the 
words of the * Times,* * The queen has done 
it all,' were placarded over London. The 
dismissal of her chamberlain, I^ord Howe, 
for a vote adverse to the ministry, caused 
her much annoyance, and she refused to ac- 
; cept any one in his place, which he continued 
to fill unofficially. 

In the spring of 1837, Queen Adelaide was 
summoned to Germany to her mother's death- 
bed, and had not long returned, when the 
! commencement of the king's last illness en- 
tailed a long and arduous attendance. He 
died in her arms on 20 June, and was 
buried at Windsor on 8 July, the queen, 
contrary to precedent, assisting at the funeral 
service. Her health was shattered by the fa- 
tigues she had undergone, and her subsequent 
life was that of an invalid seeking relief by 
change of climate. She spent a winter in 
Malta (1838-39), where the church of Va- 
letta, erected by her at a cost of 10,000/., re- 
mains a permanent memorial of her stay, 
visited Madeira in 1847, and died from tl^e 
rupture of a blood-vessel in the chest at 
Bentlev Prior\-, near Stanmore, 2 Dec. 1849. 
Her written requests that she should be 
buried simply, and her remains borne to the 



Adelard 



137 



Adeliza 



^rave by sailors, were complied with at her 
interment at Windsor on 13 Dec. 

She had long lived down her impopularity, 
and won universal esteem by her blameless 
life and royal munificence in charity. She 
subscribed about 20,000/. yearly to public 
institutions, and her private donations were 
equally liberal. Her domestic life was over- 
shadowed by the loss of her children, a blow 
no less to ambition than to afiection. 

[Doran's Hemoir of Queen Adelaide, London, 
1861; Maley*8 Histori(»l Recollections of the 
Beign of William IV., London, 1860; Moles- 
iroTth's History of England from 1830 to 1874, 
London, 1874; Greville Memoirs, ed. by H. 
Reere, 4th ed., London, 1875.] £. M. C. 

ADELABDofB^th (12th cent.), a writer 
on philosophy, of English birth, flourished 
about the beginning of the twelfth century. 
His Enfflish name was ^thelhard. His 
native place is said to have been Bath ; but 
of the lacts of his life little is known beyond 
the few references to travels contained in his 
own writings, and an entry in the Pipe Roll, 
31 Henry 1(1180), granting him a small sum 
of money from the revenues of Wiltshire 
(/Vpe Boll, ed. HuirrEB, p. 22). He is said 
to have studied at Tours and Laon, and to 
have lectured in the latter school. He then 
travelled much more widely than was at the 
time common, and appears to have passed 
throuffh Spain, the north of Africa, Greece, 
and Asia Minor. He was one of those 
Englishmen who lived for a time in the 
Gorman kingdom of Sicily, and he is known 
to have visited Syracuse and Salerno. Later 
writers have ascribed to him profound know- 
ledge of the Greek and Antb science and 
philosophy, but in regard to this nothing can 
oe laid down with certainty. That Adelard 
knew Greek is almost certain ; but it has not 
yet been determined whether the translation 
of Euclid's ' Elements ' (undoubtedly executed 
by him, though often ascribed to Campanus 
01 Novara, with whose comments it was 
published in 1482 at Venice) was made from 
an Arab version or from the original. From 
the character of the translation, the former 
supposition seems the more satisfactory. On 
his return from travel, Adelard threw into 
systematic shape such of the Arab teachings 
as he had acquired, and the work — printed 
aome time after 1472, though without date, 
under the title ' Perdifficlles Quaestiones 
Naturales' — seems to have enjoyed some 
popularity. Other treatises, on the astro- 
labe, on the abacus, and a translation of 
the Kharismian Tables, exist in manuscript 
{see JoUBDAiN, Heckerches sur les Traduc- 
turns tPAristote, 2nd ed., 1843, pp. 97-8). 




manuscript (see JorKDAiN, as above, pp. 260- 
273). It is in the usual allegorical form, 
and unfolds the arg^iments by which the 
divinities, Philocosmia (Worldliness) and 
Philosophia, accompanied respectively by the 
five foolish satisfactions of lortune, power, 
dipiity, fame, and pleasure, and by the seven 
wise virgins, the Liberal Art«, endeavour to 
win the soul of man. Apart from quaintness 
of form, the work is remarkable as stating 
one of the many solutions offered by medisevid 
thinkers to the pressing difficulty of recon- 
ciling the real existence of the individual 
with the equallv real existence of the species 
or genus. Adelard, defining the individual 
as the only existent, at the same time finds 
in the said individual, when regarded in 
various fashions, the species and the genus. 
Species and ^enus are, therefore, indifferent 
to the peculiarities of the individual, iden- 
tical amid diversity ; and the view appears to 
its author to furnish a means of reconciling 
Platonic idealism with Aristotelian empiri- 
cism. 

[On Adelard see, in addition to Pits, whose 
literary notices are rarely of much value, Jour- 
dain, as above, pi>. 97-9, 258-77. 452-4 ; 
Haur^u, Phil. Soolastique, 2nd ed. 1872, i. 
346-61.] B. A 

ADELIZA (d. 1066?) was the dauffhter 
of William I. The continuator of William 
of Jumi^s (lib. viii. cap. 84) states that 
*Adelidis,' a daughter of William I, was 
betrothed to (King) Harold, and remained 
single after his death. Orderic (5f 3 c. ) states 
that she took the veil, but makes her sister 
Agatha the betrothed of Harold. William 
of Malmesbury mentions that one of William's 
daughters was betrothed to Harold, but makes 
him speak of her to William as dead in 1066 
(Gest. Keg. lib. iii. e. 288). Mr. Planch6 as- 
serts (but gives no authority) that she was 
bom in 1055, was betrothed to Harold in 
1062, and was dead by 1066. 

[Freeman's Norman Conquest, iii. 112, 660 
(Ist ed.), 112, 667-70 (2nd ed.) ; Planchi's Con- 
queror and his Companions (1874), i. 82.1 

J. H. B. 

ADELIZA OF Lou VAIN {d, 1151 ?), second 
queen of Henry I, was daughter of Godfrey 
(* Barbatus *) of Louvain, duke of Brabant 
or Lower Lotharingia, descended in the male 
line from Charles the Great. The date of her 
birth is not known, but she is described as 
'puella' in 1120. It was partly the report, 
of her singular beauty (on which all the 
chroniclers are agreed), and partly ' ob spem 



Adeliza 



138 



Adkins 



§ rolls adipiscendee ' (Gebtase, i. 92, Rolls 
€r.), that Henry, then in his fiftieth year (and 
a widower since MaylllS), sought her hand 
in the ahove year. The contract of marriage 
was signed 16 April 1120; but, owing to 
the delay in the bride's arrival, the marriage 
itself did not take place till 24 Jan. 1120-1, 
the royal pair being crowned by the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury six days later. It was 
on this occasion that Henry of Huntin^on 
(p. 248, Rolls Ser.) composed, in praise of her 
beauty, the elegiacs beginning : 

Anglorom regina, tuos, Adeliza, decores 
ipsa referre parans musa stupore riget. 

Of a gentle and retiring disposition she took 
no part in politics, but devoted herself to 
soothing and pacifying the disappointed and 
sullen King. She also interested herself 
greatly in the literary movement of the day, 
taking under her special patronage Geofiroi 
Gaimar, Philip du Than, the author of the 
* Voyage de bt. Brandan,' and David the 
Trouveur. On the death of Henry (1 Dec. 
1135) she disappears from view; out it is 
probable that she retired to the castle of 
Arundel which, with its honour, had been 
left to her in dower for life. We find her 
residing there in 1139, when the empress 
landed in the neighbourhood, and was re- 
ceived into the castle ' ab Adeliza quondam 
regis Henrici regina tunc autem amica (sic) 
vel uxore W. Comitis de Arundell' (Gervase, 
ed. Stubbs, i. 110). The date of her marriage 
to William de Albini [see Albini, William 
DE, d. 1176] is unknown; but as she left 
by him seven children, it cannot have been 
long after Henry's death. Her only recorded 
acts after 1139 are her foundation of the 
small priories of Pyneham and of the Cause- 
way (De Calceto), and her benefactions to that 
of Boxgrove, all in Sussex, with her gifts to 
Henry's abbey of Reading and to the cathe- 
dral church of Chichester. To the latter she 
presented the prebend of West Dean in the 
year 1150, after which date there are no fur- 
ther traces of her. It is stated by Sandford 
that * she was certainly buried at Reading ; ' 
but she has since been proved to have left ner 
husband and retired to the abbey of Aifli- 
gam near Alost, in Flanders, which had been 
founded by her father and uncle, and to 
which her brother Henry had withdrawn in 
1149. Here she died on 23 March (the year 
not being recorded), and was buried : * Affli- 
genam delata vivendi finem facit ix. kal. 
Aprilis et sepulta est e regione horologii 
nostri ' (Sakderus, Chorographia Sacra Bra- 
bantiee). While lady of Arundel she had sub- 
enfeoffed her brother Joceline (* the Castel- 
lan*) in the lordship of Petworth on the 



occasion of his marriage with the heiress of 
the Percies, by whom he was ancestor of the 
earls of Northumberland. 

[Strickland's Lives of the Queens of England 
(1840), vol. i. ; Lawrence's Biemoirs of the Queens 
of England (1838), voL i. ; Henry Howard's 
Howam Memori^ (1834), x. ; Bntkens' Tro- 
phies du Brabant, vol. 1. ; Sanderus' Chor^na- 
phia Sacra Brabantie.] J. H. B. 

ADKINS, ROBERT (1626-1685)— mis- 
spelled 'Atkins' in the 'Nonconformists' 
Memorial ' — was one of the most notable of 
the two thousand ejected ministers of 1662. 
He was bor^ at Chard, Somersetshire, in 
1626. His father intended to put him into 
business, but, discovering that his heart was 
set upon being a preacher of the gospel, he 
sent him to Oxford. He was entered of 
Wadham Oollege, of which he became ulti- 
mately a fellow. He had for tutor the 
afterwards famous Bishop Wilkina. When 
Adkins 'first appeared in the pulpit at St. 
Mary's [OxfordJ, being but yoimg and look- 
ing yoimger than he was, firom the smallness 
of his stature, the hearers despised him, ex- 
pecting nothing worth hearing from " such 
a boy, as they called him. But his dis- 
course soon turned their contempt into ad- 
miration ' (Noncanf, Mem, ii. 32). Cromwell 
appointed him one of his chaplains. But, 
like Richard Baxter, he found the place un- 
suitable 'by reason of the insolency of the 
sectaries.' 

He is found settled at Theydon ' as the 
successor of John Feriby and the predecessor 
of Francis Chandler.' His ministry here ex- 
tended from 1652-3 to 1657. Calamy states 
that ' he foimd the place overrun with sects, 
but his solid doctrine, joyned with a free and 
obliging conver8ation,so convinced and gained 
them that after a while he had not one dis- 
senter left in the parish.' His health having 
given way, he removed to Exeter, at the 
instance of Thomas Ford, then minister of 
the cathedral of Exeter. Here he first 
preached in the parish church of St. Sidwell, 
while the choir of the cathedral was being 
prepared for him. When the alterations 
were completed, the choir, commonly known 
as East Peter's Church, was capable of ac- 
commodating a vast con^egation. Adkins 
soon had it crowded. He was held the 
best preacher in the west of England. He 
was ejected from St. Peter's under the act 
of 1660, but was immediately chosen to St. 
John's in the same city, which was then 
vacant. From his plain speaking against 
vice he was * troubled ' by * a gentleman of 
great quality.' But Bishop (iauden stood 
his friend. "When the Act of Uniformity 



Adolph 139 Adolphus 

came, he was a second time ejected, i.e. from ADOLPHUS FREDERICK, Duke of 
St. John's. In his farewell sennon, preached I Cambridob (1774-1850), the tenth child 
17 Auc'. 1662, he spoke thus memorably : ' and seventh son of King George III and 
* Let him ncTer be accounted a sound Queen Charlotte, was bom at the Queen's 
christian that doth not fear Ood and honour Palace, St. James's Park (now Buckingham 
the king. I beg that you would not suffer , Palace) in the evening of 24 Feb. 1774. On 
our nonconformity, for which we patiently 2 June 1786 he was made a knight of the 
bear the loss of our places, to be an act of Garter, with tHeee of his elder brothers; and 
unpeaceableness and disloyalty. We will do on that occasion a new statute was read en- 
anything for his majesty but sin. We will 1 larging the number of the order, and ordain- 
hazard anything for him but our souls. We ing that it should * in future consist of the 
hope we could die for him, only we dare not sovereign and twenty-five knights, exclusive 
be damned for him. We make no question, of the sons of his majesty or his successors.' 
however we may be accounted of here, we ' Having received his earlier education at Kew 
shall be found loyal and obedient subjects under Dr. Hughes and Mr. Cookson, he was 
at our appearance before God's tribunal.' sent, with his brothers Ernest and Augustus 
Like Baxter, he could have gained a mitre — afterwards severally Dukes of Cumberland 
for conformity by the influence of his friend ' and Sussex — to Gottingen, at the university 
the Earl of Radnor ; but * he was faithful to 1 of which they were entered on 6 July 1786. 
his conscience to the last.' He remained in The three members of the ' little colony ' sent 




connived at him.' Dr. Lamplugh, bishop of , Bishop Hurd under date 30 July, ' Adolphus 
IbLeter, quashed all ' procedure ' gainst him, ' for the present seems the favourite of all, 
and * spoKe very honourably of Mr, Adkins < which, from his lively manners, is natural ; 
for his learning and moderation.' Notwith- but the good sense of Augustus will in the 
standing he was called on to endure a good : end prove conspicuous ' (Jesse's Memoirs of 
deal of sufferincr. He died 28 March 1685, the Life and Beign of George III, ii. 631). 
aged 69. His fimeral sermon was preached '• In 1793 Prince Adolphus Frederick, who 
by George Trosse. There were published of ; had visited the court of Prussia to perfect 
his *The Sin and Danger of Popeir, in six ' his knowledge of military tactics, was ap- 
sermons ' (Exon. 1712, 8vo) ana his * Fare- ' pointed colonel in the Hanoverian army, 
weU Sermon at St. John's ' (Exon. 1715, and, after serving for a short time as a volun- 
Svo). I teer with the British forces before Dunkirk, 

[Calamy's Account (1713), ii. 214 ; Calamy's 1 arrived in England in September of the same 
Continuation (1727), p. 238; Calamy and Palmer's year, towards the close of which he was ap- 
NoDConf. Mem. ii. 32-35, ed. 1802 ; David's An- 1 pointed colonel of the Hanoverian guards, 
nals of Evangelical Nonconf. in Esaex, 1863, pp. | He served in the campaipi of 1794-6 as 
524-26.] A. B. G. j colonel and major-general m General Wal- 

ADOLPH, ADOLF, or ADOLPHE, ! moden's corps, and on 24 Aug. 1798 was 
JOSEPH ANTONY (1729-1762), painter, I promoted to be lieutenant-general in the 
bom at Nikolsburg in Moravia, was the son ' Hanoverian serv^ice, from which he was trans- 
of Joseph Frank Adolph, painter to Prince C. ferred, 18 June 1803, with the same rank, to 
Max von Dietrichstein. He came to England the British army. On 17 November follow- 



in 1745 ; he painted an equestrian portrait 
of G«orge III when Prince of Wales, which 
was engraved by Baron. The engraving was 
published in 17o6. During his stay in Eng- 
land, which lasted for some years, Adolph is 



ing he was appointe<l to be colonel-in-chief 
of the king's German legion, a force in British 
pay, and destined for the relief of Hanover, 
then menaced, together with the rest of east- 
em and northern Europe, b}"- the French ar- 



said to have been engaged chiefly as a portrait : ^i^s. Disappointed, however, at the indif- 
painter ; but on his retum to Austria he was ! ference of the Hanoverians to the honour and 
employed in the decoration of interiors, | advantage of their connection with England, 
adorning walls with frescoes, and painting ' the prince presently returned to this country, 



the ceilings of large saloons. Three altar- 
pieces by him are in the collegiate church of 
Nikolsburg. He died at Vienna, 17 Jan. 
1762. 

[Nagler^s Knnstler-Lexikon (edit^ by Meyer, 
1872) ; Heineken's Diet, des Artistes dont nous 
avoDs des Estampes.] C. M. 



leaving the British forces under the command 
of Count "Walmoden, who soon afterwards 
surrendered. 

Peerages fell comparatively late to the 
younger sons of George III, and were con- 
ferred simultaneously on the Princes Augus- 
tus — ^whose principal creation was that of 



Adolphus 



140 



Adolphus 



Duke of Sussex — and Adolphus on 24 Nov. 
1801, when the latter was created Baron of 
Culloden, Earl of Tipperary, and Duke of 
Cambridge. On 3 February following, 1802, 
the Duke of Cambridge was sworn a member 
of the privy council, and took his place at the 
board on tne left hand of the king. 

In 1804 the Duke of Cambridge was nomi- 
nated to the military command of the home 
district, and on 6 Sept. 1805 received the 
colonelcy of the Coldstream guards, to which 
was added, 22 Jan. 1827, the colonelcy-in- 
chief of the 60th, or the King's Royal rifle 
corps. Several years previously, on 26 Nov. 
1813, he had been promoted, with his brother, 
the Duke of Cumberland, to be field-marshal 
in the British army. 

The Duke of Cambridge a^ain took the 
command in the electorate of Hanover on the 
recovery of its independence after its some- 
time annexation to the kingdom of West- 
phalia ; and after the treaty of Vienna, Oc- 
tober 1814, had elevated the electorate into 
a kingdom, the Duke of Cambridge was, in 
November 1816, appointed to the viceroy alty. 
He continued to discharge the important 
functions of the ofiice until the year 1837, 
when the death of King William IV opened 
the throne of Hanover to the Duke of Cum- 
berland. The administration of Hanoverian 
affairs by the Duke of Cambridge was charac- 
terised by wisdom, mildness, and discretion, 
and by the introduction of timely and con- 
ciliatory reforms. He successively weathered 
the storms, whether popular or academical, 
of the revolutionary period of 1831, and his 
j)rudent management of affairs is said to have 
gone * a great way to preserve the Hano- 
verian crown for his family.' 

In July 1811 the Duke of Cambridge had 
been elected chancellor of the university of St. 
Andrews in succession to Viscount Melville ; 
but held office only till April 1814, when he 
was succeeded by Lord Melville, the son of 
his predecessor, who accepted the distinction 
* vice the Duke of Cambridge resident in 
Germany' {Gent Mag, April 1814). After 
his return to tliis country the Duke of Cam- 
bridge acquired great popularity ; and he was 
recognisea as * emphatically the connecting 
link between the throne and the people' 
( United Service Qazette, 13 July 1850). He 
was an indefatigable supporter of public cha- 
rities. In committee meetings he was accus- 
tomed to act as a peacemaker and healer of 
divisions, or else as a thorough and fearless 
investigator, who was determined to * put the 
burden and disgrace of the dispute on the 
right shoulders' {Times, 9 July 1860). He 
was president of at least six hospitals, and 
the patron or vice-patron of more than a score 



of other beneficent corporations. ' He was 
also a supporter of almost every literary and 
scientific institution of importance in the em- 
pire' ( United Service Gazette, 13 July 1850) : 
and in the various manifestations of his de- 
votion to the fine arts, especially painting 
and music, achieved in his day a &ir reputa- 
tion in the latter among amateur performers. 

In politics the Duke of Cambridge was on 
the conservative side, having in early life with- 
stood, not without being sensibly affected by 
their influence, the attractive overtures of the 
leaders of the whigs, Fox, Sheridan, the Prince 
of Wales, the Duke of Sussex, and the Duchess 
of Devonshire. The duke's partisanship was 
modified, however, by a constant desire to sup- 
port, whenever he could do so conscientiously, 
the measures of any government which for 
the time represented the choice of the sove- 
reign. He was not an orator, either in the 
House of Lords or in any other place ; but 
his earnestness and sincerity won from his 
audiences the tribute of attention and respect. 
He died at Cambridge House, Piccadilly, on 
the evening of Monday, 8 July 1850, and 
was buried at Kew, amidst the scenes of his 
childhood, and near his favourite suburban 
retreat. 

The Duke of Cambridge married at Cassel 
on 7 May, and on 1 June 1818 in London, 
the Princess Augusta Wilhelmina Louisa, 
third daughter of Frederick, landgrave of 
Hesse-Cassel, by whom he left a son and two 
daughters — the present Duke of Cambridge, 
the Princess Augusta Caroline, married to 
Frederick William, reigning grand duke of 
Mecklenburg Strelitz, and the Princess Mary 
Adelaide, the wife of the Prince and Duke of 
Teck. 

The Duke of Cambridge was a prince of 
Brunswick-Luneberg ; G.C.B. 2 Jan. 1815; 
G.C.M.G., 1842; G.C.IL (grand cross of the 
royal Hanoverian Guelphic order) ; knight of 
the Prussian orders of the black and the re<l 
eagle ; a commissioner of the lloyal Militarj- 
College and the Roval Military Asylum ; 
ranger of Richmond Park 29 Aug. 1835; 
ranger of St. James's Park and Hyde Park 
31 May 1843; warden and keeper of the New 
Forest 22 Feb. 1845 ; and honorary LL.D. of 
Cambridge, 4 July 1842. 

[Jesse'8 Memoirs of the Life and Reign of 
George III; Gent. Mag. Aug. 1850, N.S. xxiv. 
204; Annual Register; Times, 9 July 1860; 
United Service Gazette, 13 July 1850.] 

A. H. G. 

ADOLPHUS, JOHN (1768-1845), bar- 
rister-at-law, historical and miscellaneous 
writer, bom 7 Aug. 1768, was of German 
extraction. His grandfather had been do- 
mestic physician to Frederick the Great, and 



Adolphus 141 Adolphus 

wrote a French romance, ' Histoire des Dia- . prime minister, who gave him (H£in>EB80N*s 
blea Modemes/ which is in Watt*s ' Biblio- Recollections^ p. 98) ' a handsome salary ' for 
theca Britannica ' wrongly ascribed to the political services which included energetic 

Cindson. His father lived for a time in electioneering and occasional pamphleteer- 
ndon on the liberality of a wealthy uncle, ing. In 1803 Adolphus published a ' History 
who provided the son with education, and ' of France 'from 1790 to the abortive peace of 
sent nim at the age of fifteen to be placed Amiens, and a pamphlet, ' Reflections on the 
in the. office of his agent for some estates \ Causes of the present Hupture with France,' 
in St. Kltts. Adolphus's chief occupation ' in vindication of the policy of the English 
was attendance at the sittings of tne one ! government. On the authority of his son is 
law court of the island, and m little more ' to be assigned to him ' A Letter to Robert ' 
than a year he returned to London. His | [Plumerl * Ward, Esq., M.P.,' occasioned by 
great-uncle was dead, having left him a sum nis pamphlet entitled * A View of the relative 
which would not support him while study- : Situations of Mr. Pitt and Mr. Addington,' 
ing for the law, but enabled him to be ar- ' issued in 1804, a defence of Addington when 
tided to an attorney. He was admitted Pitt had gone into opposition. Adolphus 
an attorney in 1790, but after a few years had meanwhile entered himself at the Inuer 
abandoned his profession for literature. In ' Temple, and in 1807 he was called to the 
1793 he married Miss Leycester, a lady ' of ' bar. He joined the home circuit, and de- 
good fiimily and little fortune.' He acquired voted himself specially to the criminal 
the friendsliip of Archdeacon Coxe by help- branch of the law. At the Old Bailey he 
inff him in the ' Memoirs of Sir ^Robert ! worked his way to the leadership, which he 
AValpole.' In 1799 appeared his first acknow- retained for many years. The first of his 
ledged work, ' Biographical Memoirs of the more notable forensic successes was his 
French Revolution,' strongly anti-Jacobin in , very able defence in 1820 of Thistlewood 
tone, and in this, as in other points, differing and the other Cato Street conspirators. 




erroneously ascribeci to Adolphus. He wrote he published, in four volumes, * The Political 
the memoirs in the 'British Cabinet '(1799), a State of the British Empire, containing a 
aeries ofportraitsofmore or less distinguished general view of the domestic and foreign 
Englishmen and Englishwomen, from Mar- ' possessions of the crown, the laws, com- 
garet of Richmond to the second Lord Hard- merce, revenue, offices, and other esta- 
wicke. In 1802 appeared his chief work, the ' bliahments, civil and military;' in 1824, 
* History of England from the Accession of ! * Observations on the Vagrant Act and some 




tne results of considerable industry; and I of the time; and in 1839 * Memoirs of John 
though avowedly written in what would now ' Banister,' the comedian, with whom he 
be called a conser\'ative spirit, Adolphus was had been personally intimate. Ilis history 



praised in No. 2 of the ' Edinburgh Review ' 



had gone through four editions when, in 



Lord Melcombe (Bubb Dodington) had been 
placed at Adolphus's disposal in the pre- 
paration of his history, and they enabled 
tiim to throw light on the conduct of Lord 
Bute, and on the political transactions of the 
earlier years of the reign of George III, who, 
in conversation, expressed his surprise at the 
accuracy with which some of the first mea- 
sures taiken after his accession had been de- 
Bcribed (Geobge Robe's Diaries and Corre- 
spondenee (1860), ii. 189). 

The success of the history and the friendly 
offices of Archdeacon Coxe brought Adolphus 
into close connection with Adaington, then 



*for perfect impartiality in narrating events his seventieth vear, Adolphus began the task 
and in collecting information.' Among its of continuing it to the cleath of George III. 
merits was the excellence of its summaries Vol. I. was re-issued in 1840, *printedforthe 
«f jKarliamentarydebates. The papers of j author,' and with a long list of subscribers 

_-___. . _ . from the queen and members of the royal 

family downwards. Vol. VII., closing with 
the fall of the Addington administration, ap- 
peared in 1845, and Adolphus was working at 
the eighth volume when, within a few weeks 
of entering his seventy-eighth year, he died 
on 16 July 1845. Besides the works already 
mentioned he wrote several chapters of 
Rivington's 'Annual Register' ana papers 
for the * British Critic' His latest contri- 
butions to periodical literature were bio- 
graphical sketches of Barons Garrow and 
Gumey for the * Law Magazine.' The anony- 
mous ' Memoirs of Queen Caroline ' (London, 



Adolphus 



142 



Adrain 



2 vols., 1824) have been ascribed to him 
{Notes and Queries, 5th series, iv. 283-4). 

[Recollections of the Public Career and Private 
Life of J. A., with extracts from his diaries, by 
his daughter, Emily Henderson (1871) ; The 
late John Adolphus, a letter from his son, John 
Leycester Adolphus, to the editor of Eraser's 
Jiagazine (July 1862) (beine a commentary on 
the Sketch of Adolphus in the number for May 
1862, by An Old Apprentice of the Law ; Editors 
and Newspaper and Periodical Writers of the 
Last Generation) ; Memoir in Gentleman's Ma- 
gazine for Sept. 1845 ; Law Magazine (1846), 
xzxiy. 54, &c., Mr. Adolphus and his Contempo- 
raries at the Old Bailey.] F. £. 

ADOLPHUS, JOHN LEYCESTER 
(1795-1862), barrister-at-law and author, 
was the son of John Adolphus [q. v.]. He 
received his first education at Merchant Tay- 
lors', and, as head monitor, was elected, in 
1811, a scholar of St. John's College, Oxford. 
In 1814 he rained the Newdeg^te English 
verse prize, 01 which the sulject was ' Niobe,' 
in 1816 took a second class m classics, and in 
1818 was awarded the chancellor's prize for 
an English essay. In 1821 appearea anony- 
mously the work which afterwards made his 
reputation, ' Letters to Hichard Heber, Esq., 
containing critical remarks on the series of 
novels beginning with " Waverley," and an 
attempt to ascertain their author.* The 
volume displayed great acumen and remark- 
able delicacy. The demonstration that Sir 
Walter Scott was the author of the Waverley 
Novels rested chiefly on the coincidences of 
style, treatment, and sentiment in Scott's 
acKUOwledged poetry and prose, and in his 
then unacknowledged fictions; but collate- 
ral evidences of various kinds, accumulated 
with industry and detailed with much in- 
ffenuity, were amplv adduced. Scott was 
highly pleased with the work. Writing 
to his friend Hichard Heber, then member 
for the university of Oxford, to whom Adol- 

})hu8 had addressed his * Letters,' he expressed 
lis belief that they were the handiwork of 
his correspondent's brother, Reginald, after- 
wards bishop of Calcutta, and^ he spoke most 
favourably of the volume in the Introduction 
to the ' Fortunes of Nigel.' On learning who 
was the author, Scott gave him an invitation 
to Abbotsford, and Adolphus paid him seve- 
ral visits there between 1823 and 1831, of 
which he contributed interesting accounts to 
Lockhart's * Life of Scott.' 

In 1822 Adolphus was called to the bar 
of the Inner Temple. He joined the Northern 
circuit, and received the local rank of attor- 
ney-general of the then county palatine of 
Durham. In conjunction successively with 
R. V. Bamewall and T. F. Ellis, he produced 



reports of the cases tried in the King's and 
Queen's Bench from 1834 to 1852, when he 
was made by Lord St. Leonards judge of 
the Marylebone Coimty Court. He was a 
bencher of the Inner Temple, and soon before 
his death, which occurred on 24 Dec. 18^, 
he had been appointed steward or legal ad- 
viser of his old Oxford coUe^, St. John's. 
Adolphus was for years an active member of 
the General Literature Committee of the 
Christian Knowledge Society. He was the 
author of ' Letters from Spain in 1856 and 
1857,' published in 1858, and of many me- 
trical^ctu: ^esprit One of these, ' The Cir- 
cuiteers, an Eclogue,' parodying the forensic 
style of two eccentric barristers on the 
northern circuit, Macaulay is said to have 
pronounced to be ^the best imitation he 
ever read ' (Notes and Queries, 8rd series, v. 6). 
Adolphus was engaged in completing his 
father's ' History of England under George 
UI ' at the time of his death. 

[The late Mr. John Adolphus, by D. C. L., 
Times 30 Dec. 1862; Memoir in Gentleman's 
Magazine for February 1863 ; Mrs. Henderson's 
BecoUections of John Adolphus.] F. E. 



^ADRAIN, ROBERT (1775-1843), mur 




but contrived, thoufi^h badly wounded, to 
escape to America, where he became a school 
teacher, first at Princeton, New Jersey, and 
afterwards at York and at Reading, Pennsyl- 
vania. In 1810 he was appointed professor 
of mathematics and natural philosophy in 
Rutgers College, New BrunswicK, New Jersey, 
passed thence, at the end of three years, to Co- 
lumbia College,New York, and was transferred 
in 1827 to the university of Pennsylvania, 
where he attained the dignity of vice-provost. 
He appears to have returned to New York in 
1834, and he certainly occupied his former 
post in Columbia College when he edited 
Ryan's ' Algebra,' in 1 839. He died at New 
Brunswick, 10 Aug. 1843. His mathemati- 
cal powers, and a creditable acquaintance 
with the work of French geometers, were 
displayed in two papers communicated to the 
American Philosophical Society in 1817 
(Transactions y 1818, vol. i. new series), en- 
titled respectively, * Investigation of the Fi- 
gure of tne Earth, and of the Gravity in 
difterent Latitudes,' nud ' Research concern- 
ing the mean Diameter of the Earth.' He 
started two journals for the discussion of 
mathematical subjects, the * Analyst,' pub- 
lished at Philadelpliia, 1808, &c., and the 
* Mathematical Diary,' of which eight num- 
bers appeared at New York, 1825-7. He 



Adrian 



U3 



Adrian 



a1«o edited Hutton's ' Mathematics/ and be- 
longed to seyeral learned societies, both in 
Europe and America. 

[Dictionary of American Biography, hj Fran- 
cis S. Drake, Boston, 1872.] A. M. C. 

ADRIAN IV (J. 1159), pope, is re- 
markable as being the only Englishman who 
«yer sat in the cmiir of St. Peter. His early 
history is obscure. His name is said to have 
been Nicholas Breakspear. His father was 
t poor man, who became a monk in the mo- 
nastery of St. Albans, and left his son with- 
out a protector. The lad made his way to 
France, maintaining himself by alms. 'He 
studied at Aries, and was at length received 
into the house of the canons n^zular of St. 
Rufiis near Valence. At first he was in a 
menial position, but his intelligence and apti- 
tude won him admission into the order. He 
gndually rose in esteem till he was elected 
wior and afterwards abbot of St. Ruf us. But 
tu8 discipline was too strict for the canons, 
tnd they began to murmur against the 
ibreigner whom the^ had raised to be their 
natter. They earned their complaints to 
Pope Eugenius HI. Once he made peace; 
the second time he saw that Abbot Nicholas 
dnerved a higher position. He made him 
eirdinal of Albano in 1146, and soon after- 
wards sent him on an emlMtssy to the Scan- 
dinavian kingdoms. There the Cardinal of 
Albano did much to strengthen the connex- 
ion of the northern church with Rome. He 
founded at Drontheim a new archiepiscopal 
we for Norway, and showed much skill in 
conciliating the clergy. When he returned 
to Rome, in 1154, he was hailed as the Apos- 
tle of the North, and, on the death of Pope 
'Watasius IV, was elected to be his suc- 
^tmr. He was enthroned on Christmas 
Bit, 1154, under the name of Adrian IV. 

Adrian IV is described as a man of mild 
>ad kindly bearing, esteemed for his high 
duuacter and leaniinjo^, famous as a preacher, 
«ad renowned for his fine voice ( Vita^ in 
Mr&iiTOBi, iii. pt. i. 441). He accepted the 
pontificate with a reluctance which was par- 
wniable in the difficulties which beset the 
ofiee and threatened its authority. Rome, 
^uider the influence of Arnold of Brescia, 
^la animated with a strong republican spirit. 
WiDiam, the Norman king of^Sicily, refused 
jo recognise the papal suzeraint^r over his 
kingdom. The Gneeks were striving to re- 
*wert their power in Italy, and threatened 
^ke spiritual authority of the pope. Adrian 
IV was not a man to abate anytning of the 
claims of his office. He was a staunch dis- 
ciple of the ideas of Hildebrand, and felt 
'Umaelf bound to assert them. At first he 
"Was helpless against his enemies in Italy. 



The only quarter w^here he could look for 
aid was the newly elected emperor, Frederick 
Barbarossa, who had already set forth the 
imperial claims over North Italy, and an- 
nounced his intention of coming to Rome to 
be crowned. 

Adrian IVs pontificate be^an with a dis- 
turbance. The Roman repubbcans fell upon a 
cardinal in the 8trt»et and grievously wounded 
him. The pope showed his resoluteness by 
a measure which none of his predecessors had 
ventured to use. He laid Rome under an 
interdict. Tlie citizens soon began to suffer 
from the cessation of pilgrims during Lent. 
As Easter drew near, thev could endure no 
longer, and made submission to the pope. 
Arnold of Brescia was driven from Rome, 
and the pope consented to leave the Leonine 
city and celebrate Easter Day at the Lateran. 
But this triumph was counterbalanced by the 
hostilities of the Sicilian king, whose armv 
in May wasted the Campagna. Adrian iV 
excommunicated William : but this was poor 
comfort. He looked with mingled hope and 
anxiety to the approach of Barbarossa, whom 
he besought to capture the exiled heretic, 
Arnold of lirescia. Arnold was made pri- 
soner, and Frederick advanced to Nepi, whi- 
ther the pope went to meet him on 7 June 
lloo. When Adrian IV came into Frede- 
rick's presence, Frederick did not come for- 
ward and take the bridle of the pope's horse, 
or assist him to dismount. On this Adrian 
refused him the kiss of peace. For some 
days there was a warm dispute whether or 
no custom recjiiired from the king this ob- 
servance. Adrian IVs pertinacity won the 
day, and Frederick, who had the loftiest 
views of the imperial prerogative, received 
the pope anew, and led his horse in the sight 
of the whole German armv. Then pope and 
king proceeded in friendsliip to Rome. The 
Roman envoys to the king, demanding that 
he should respect the rights of the city, 
were contemptuously dismissed. Rome con- 
seijuentlv adopted an attitude of sullen hoa- 
tihty. ]?redenck encamped on Monte Mario, 
and liis coronat'ou was performed in St. 
Peters, unknown totlip Roman people, early 
in the morning of 18 June. AVlien the Ro- 
mans heard of tliis, they rushed in anger to 
storm the l^eonine citv. Frederick with his 

• 

troops returned to help the pope, and there 
was a bloody conflict before the Romans 
could be driven to rocross the Tiber. Adrian 
IV used the opportunity of the emperor's 
wrath to urge tiie execution of Arnold of 
Brescia, who was tried before the papal 
officials and put to death. 

Frederick was crowned emperor : but he 
was forced to leave Rome, as he could get no 



Adrian 



144 



Adrian 



provisions for his troops. Adrian IV accom- 
panied him, as Rome was not safe for a pope. 
They went to Tivoli and the Alban Hills. 
Adrian IV urged Frederick to march against 
the excommunicated King of Sicily. But 
Frederick's troops were suffering from the 
heat of an Italian summer. He resolved to 
retire northwards, and left the pope bitterly 
disappointed. Adrian IV had crowned 
Frederick, but had got nothing in return. 
Neither Rome nor Sicily was reduced to 
obedience to the papacy. Adrian IV could 
not return to Rome, and stayed at Tivoli. 
There he received overtures from the barons 
of Apulia, who were preparing to revolt 
against the Sicilian king. The Byzantine 
emperor, Manuel I, sent an offer to the pope 
that he would make war against William of 
Sicily, if the pope would grant him three of 
the maritime cities of Apulia. Adrian IV 
went to Benevento to meet the Apulian ba- 
rons. William, afraid of the coming storm, 
made overtures for peace, which Adrian IV 
would have accepted: but the majority of 
the cardinals opposed a step which would be 
regarded as hostile to the interests of the 
emperor. William's offers were accordingly 
rejected, whereupon he prepared for war. lie 
succeeded in defeating the Oreeks and the 
Apulians, and his success enabled the pope 
to carry out his policy of alliance with Sicily. 
In June 1156, Adrian IV at Benevento re- 
ceived King William, and conferred on him 
the investiture of Sicily and Apulia. William 
took the oath of fealty to the pope, and agreed 
to pay a yearly tribute, and to defend the 
pope against all his foes. Strengthened by 
this alliance, Adrian IV aimed at returning 
to Rome. He moved northwards, through 
Nami to Orvieto, where he took up his abode. 
He was the first pope who had visited Orvieto, 
and while he was there he did much to im- 
prove the buildings of the city. Thence he 
passed on to Viterbo, where he negotiated 
with the Romans, who judged it prudent to 
make peace with the pope and welcome him 
back to Rome, whither he returned at the 
end of the year. 

Meanwhile the good understanding be- 
tween Adrian IV and the emperor had 
passed away. Frederick regarded the pope's 
alliance with Sicilv and with the Romans as 
a breach of his engagements towards the em- 
pire. Adrian IV looked with suspicion on 
Frederick's increasing power, and dreaded his 
infiuence in Italy. The pope had a specific 
ground of complaint. In 1156 Archbishop 
Eskil, of Lund in Sweden, who had aided 
Adrian when a cardinal in his disposal of the 
northern church, was taken prisoner in Ger- 
many on his return from a pilgrimage to 



Rome. He was imprisoned for a ransom, and, 
in spite of the pope's remonstrances, Frede- 
rick refused to interfere to procure his release. 
Adrian IV determined to ascertain clearlv 
the emperor's intentions. He sent his chief 
adviser. Cardinal Roland of Siena, to the diet 
of Besan^on, which Frederick held in Octo- 
ber, 1 157. Roland was a man imbued with the 
loftiest ecclesiastical pretensions. H^ gave 
Frederick the greeting of the pope and car- 
dinals : * The pope greets you as a father, the 
cardinals as brothers.' It was unheard before 
that cardinals should rank themselves as the 
equal of the emperor. Then Roland handed 
frederick a letter of the pope, which was 
read in the assembly. It complained of Eskil's 
treatment, and went on to say that the pope 
had conferred on the emperor many benefits: 
'^ualiter imperialis inside coronas liben- 
tissime conferens, benignissimo gremio suo 
tuoB sublimitatis apicem studuerit confovere. 
... Si majora henefida excellentia tua de 
manu nostra suscepisset . . . non immerito 
gauderemus' (Radeticus, in Muratori, vi. 
747). The language was studiously equivo- 
cal. The expressions to confer benefices were 
the current phrases of feudal law. They were 
interpreted oy the German nobles to mean 
that the pope claimed to be the feudal lord 
of the empire and confer it like a fief. There 
were angry cries from the assembly. Car- 
dinal Roland boldly exclaimed, ' From whom 
then does the emperor hold the empire if 
not from the pope ? ' The Pfalzgraf Otto of 
Wittelsbach laid his hand on his sword, and 
would have cut Roland down if he had not 
been prevented. The emperor with diffi- 
culty restored order. The legate's papers 
were seized, and it was found that they con- 
tained letters of complaint against the em- 
peror addressed to the German churches. 
The legates were bidden to make their way 
back to Rome at once, and leave Germany 
undisturbed. 

Frederick I replied to the pope's challenge 
by a letter which was circulated through his 
dominions. He asserted that the empire was 
held from God alone, and that whoever main- 
tained that it was held from the pope con- 
tradicted the institution of God and the 
teaching of St. Pet^r ; he would face death 
rather than permit the honour of the empire 
to be diminished. Soon afterwards he issued 
an edict limiting appeals to the pope and 
forbidding journeys to Rome witnout the 
permission of the ecclesiastical authorities 
(Radbvicus, 748). Adrian IV was indignant 
at the treatment of his legates, and issued a 
letter of complaint, addressed to the German 
bishops, in wnich he bade them admonish the 
emperor to return to the right path from 



Adrian i4S Adrian 

which he had strayed. But the Oerman ' ditions to he imposed on imperial envoys sent 
bishops sided with the emperor, and gave to Rome. These FredericK I rejected, and 
the pope an answer which showed the ^owth I many fruitless embassies passed between 
of a strong national spirit. They said that them. In May Adrian IV withdrew from 
they could not countenance the words of the , Rome to Anagni, where he was nearer Sicily, 
pope, which seemed by their ambiguity to j Frederick I received envoys from the citizens 
assert unheard-of claims. They besought of Rome, and agreed to receive their sub- 
the pope to explain his words, so as to give mission and confirm the rights of their senate, 
peace to the empire and to the church. j The imperial ambassadors appeared in Rome; 

Meanwhile Frederick I was preparing for the envoys of Milan and bicily were busy 
an expedition into North Italy. Adrian IV , at Anagni. Adrian IV was preparing to 
judged it prudent not to declare himself the put himself at the head of the enemies of 
enemy of one who was so powerful. On Frederick I, and issue an excommunication 
1 Feb. 1158, he sent from Rome legates who against him, when he died of an attack of 
met the emperor at Augsburg. They greeted quinsy at Anagni on 1 Sept. 1159. 
him with reverence and modesty, and handed Adrian IV's pontificate was a period of 
him a letter from the pope, in which Adrian constant struggles, mainly of his own seeking. 
rV explained that he haa used the term bene- His object was to maintain the claims of the 
fieium in its scriptural, not in its feudal signi- Roman Church as they had been defined by 
fication (' Ex beneficio Dei, non tanguam ex Gregory VII. In this he showed skill, reso- 
feudo, sed velut ex benedictione.* — Kadevi- luteness, and decision ; but he had for his 
era, 760). Frederick I was satisfied with this antagonist the mightiest of the emperors, 
explanation, and friendly relations between Ue bequeathed to his successor a hazardous 
him and the pope were restored. But Frede- conflict, in which the papacy succeeded in 
rick's success a^inst Milan, and his lofty holding its own. 

assertion of the imperial claims in the diet In English afiairs, Adrian IV is celebrated 
of Roncaglia (November 1158), filled the for his grant of Ireland to Henry II. The 
pope with alarm. He began to draw nearer | English king sent, to congratulate Adrian IV 
to William of Sicily, and to uphold the Italian on nis succession, an embassv of which John 
against the imperial party. He showed his of Salisbury- was a member. I'he envoys were 
iU-will towards the emperor by refusing to charged to lay before the pope the king^s 
confirm the election to the archbishopric of i desire to civilise the Irish people and bring 
Ravenna of a person who was in the favour them fully into the pale of the Roman Church. 
of Frederick I. Soon afterwards he sent a i Adrian I V granted Ireland to the king, on the 
letter to Frederick, forbidding him to inter- ; ground that all islands converted to Chris- 
iere in a dispute between Brescia and Bergamo tianity belonged to the Holy See (Rymer, 
concerning the possessions of their churches. Fwdera, i. 19). John of Salisbury says that 
This letter was brought by a poor messenger this claim rested on the donation of Con- 
who thrust it into the emperor^s hands and stantine {Metalog, lib. iv. c. 42). John of 
at once disappeared. Frederick I retorted Salisbury records that Adrian IV was deeply 
by ordering the imperial chancery to change impressed by the responsibilities of his office ; 



its style ot addressing the pope, and revert 
to more ancient usage. The emperor's name 



he said, in conversation, tlmt the pope's tiara 
was splendid because it burned with fire 



was to be set before that of the pope, and ; (Polycraf. lib. viii. c. 23). The bulls and 



the pope was to be addressed in the second 



letters of Adrian IV are to be found in Ba- 




pope, wrote a treatise, * l)e Conceptione Bea- 
tissimse Virginis,' a book, * De Legatione sua,' 



to revolt. An open breach with the emperor 

seemed imminent. 

But the counsels of Bishop Eberhard of and a catecliism for the people of Non^'ay 

Bamberg turned the pope once more to peace, and Sweden. 

In April 1159 he sent an embassy to Frede- n^r . - /n t. i- c? • * \ i, 

_:^i, f -«j «-^«««^i « w^^^^^oi ^/ ♦!.« *^^*,r [MuTaton (Rerum Itnlicarum Scnptores) has 

nek I,, and proposed a renewal of the treaty ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^l^i,^„ jy ^„^ 1 BernarduH 

made m llo3 between the emperor and his ^^.^^^^.^ ^^ 132o), ^ol. iii. pt. i. 440: a second 

predecessor. Frederick answered that he had | . Cardinal NicolaK of Ara^n^n (fl. 1360), ibid. 

been true to that treaty, but Adrian I\ had 441 &c.: athinlhvAmalricusr/?. 1360), vol. iii. 



broken it by his alliance with Sicily. He 
proposed that the differences between him 
and the pope should be submitted to arbi- 
trators. The pope replied by proposing con- 

YOL. I. 



441, &c. : a thinl by Amalricus (fl. 1360), vol. iii. 
pt. ii. 372. Otto, Bishop of Frising, De Gestis 
Frederici I, in Muraton, vi. 720, &c., and his 
friend Rmlevicus, ibid. 745, &c.. tell of Adrian 
IV's dealings with the emperor. John of Salis- 

L 



Adrian 146 Adrian 

hxiry (Polycraticiw, lib. ri. and viii.) gives some Henry despatched a commission to Rome to 

details of hin own intercourae with Adrian IV. certain persons to take his fealty and irive 

Of modern wri^".»«« Baronius, Annales Eo- him the temporalities of his see. On the 

cleeiastici, Bub annis 1164-9; Ciaconius Vita gOth of the same month he was enthroned 

der Stadt Rom; Milman, iatin Christianity; ^L^^^Sf^^t,?^^ r IS VV'^^'S ?'' 

Gioeebrecht, Ge^chichte der deutschen KaiseVl P«>^ybeinflr the accompbshea Mjholar, Poly- 

2eit,1 M. C. ^^^ Vergil, his sub-collector of Peter pence. 

Between the dates of these two Englisn pre- 
ADRIAN DB Castbllo (1460 P-1521 P), ferments he was created bjr Alexander VL 
called also db Ck)RNET0, from his birth- cardinal priest, with the title of St. Chn*- 
place, a small town in Tuscany, was dis- sogonus. This was on 31 May 1503. It 
tinguished both as a statesman and as a re- was rather more than two months later that 
viver of learning. His family was obscure, — if the received story may be trusted — ^Pope 
and the date of his birth is uncertain ; but Alexander was poisoned at an entertainment 
as he speaks of himself in the preface to his given by him, owing to the miscarriafle of a 
treatise *De Vera Philosophia* as havinjg plotof the pope's own son Caesar Borgia, who 
been still a young man on his second visit nad intendea Adrian to be the victim. There 
to England, when sent thither as collector is no doubt that the pope's mortal illness 
by Innocent VIII, we may assume that he was attributed at the time to a supper in 
is not likely to have been bom before the Cardinal Adrian's garden near the \ atican, 
year 1460. He was first sent by that pope from which other guests were also sufferers, 
as nuncio to Scotland in 1488, to compose including Caesar Borgia, and that Cardinal 
the dissensions between James III ana his ! Adrian himself fell into a violent fever. Pope 
nobles ; but as King James was killed before i Alexander survived the banquet more than 
his arrival, he was recalled. He had, how- I a week, and we do not hear of anv other 
ever, reached England, and was very well i death resulting from it. But (Jardinal 
received bv Henry VII, who, by the advice Adrian, according to his own account — for 
of Archbishop (afterwards Cardinal) Morton, the historian Paulus Jovius ( Fite Ilhut. 
employed him as his agent at Rome on his Viror. i. 260, ed. Basil, 1678) tells us he 
return. It was apparently next year that heard it directly from himself — was suddenly 
he came back to England as collector of the seized with a buminff sensation in the in- 
papal tribute called Peter pence. He had testines which brou^t on giddiness and 
also been appointed by Innocent one of the stupor, and was driven to seek relief in a 
seven papal prothonotaries. On 10 May cold bath; and though he in time recovered 
1492 he obtained from the king the prebend his health, it was not before his outer skin 
of Ealdland in St. PauFs Cathedral, and had peeled off from the whole surface of his 
seven days later, from Archbishop Morton, body. The strictly contemporary diary of 
the rectory of St. Dunstan-in-the-East. On Antonio Giustiniau states that Adrian's 
29 June following he received a grant of de- attack returned on at least three successive 
nisat ion by letters patent (GAiRDNER'sZ^f^^r* days, the first seizure having been, ap- 
of Ric. Ill and Ilenry VII y vol. ii. p. 373, parently, not on the very day of the ban- 
Rolls Ser.). Innocent VIII. died the same quet, but shortly after. Altogether there is 
year, and Adrian n»tumed to Rome, * thrown' nothing in the recorded symptoms which 
as he himself expresses it, ' into the mill goes very far to confirm the story of the 
of affairs by Pope Alexander VI.' He was poisoned fiagon. 

made clerk of tiie papal treasury, while at i After the death of Alexander \'l Adrian 

the same time he was Ilenry Vll's ambas- seems to have lost all his influence at the 

sador at Rome. In 1498 he was sent to papal court. Under Julius II, in 1509, he 

France with a message of condolence on the quitted Rome for fear of the pope's dis- 

death of Charles VIII, but did not go on pleasure, and fled to Venice, from which he 

to Phigland. In a contemporary letter it is afteni'ards proceeded to Trent, and seems to 

hinted that Ilenry A'll was not at this time ! have remained in that neighbourhood till he 

quite satisfied with the manner in which heard that Julius was dead (1511). He at 

he had disbursed some moneys in his behalf ' once repaired to Rome, and was admitted 

at Rome. If so, it was but a passing cloud ; | into the conclave, though it is said to have 



for though Adrian apparently never revisited 
England, he was promoted during his absence 
first (1502) to the bishopric of Hereford, and 
two years later to that of Bath and Wells. 
The bull for this second promotion was ob- 



been already closed before his arrival. But 
he did not remain on much better terms with 
the new pope, Leo X, than with his prede- 
cessor, and m 1517 he was implicated in the 
conspiracy of Cardinals Petrucci, De Sauli 



taincd on 2 Aug. 1504 ; and on 13 Oct. and Riario, who had suborned a surgeon to 



Adrian 



147 



Ady 



^pply poison to a fistula from which the 
pope was suffering. The plot was discovered, 
and on the trial of the three principal con- 
spirators, two other cardinals, of whom 
Adrian was one, were named as privy to it. 
On hearing the charge against himself it is 
stated in a contemporary letter that he 
ahrugffed his shoulders, and burst out laugh- 
ing. His complicity, according to the same 
writer, consisted merely in the fact that 
Cardinal Petrucci, being in company with 
\am when the sur^^n happened to pass by, 
had said to him significantly, ' That fellow 
will get the college out of trouble,' and he 
Kad neglected to give the pope warning. But 
the accusation did not take nim by surprise; 
and when the matter was investigated in 
consistory he and the other cardinal fell at 
the pope s feet, confessing their guilt with 
tetn in their eyes, and imploring his forgi ve- 
nm. The pope seems to have taken a lenient 
view of their offence, and reduced the fine by 
which it was visited by the consistory from 
^000 to 25,000 ducats. But Adrian appa- 
rently felt that he was no longer safe in 
Rome. He fled to Venice in the disguise 
of a fool, and was never again seen in the 
imiierial city. 

It is possible, indeed, that he might have 
retupned, for the Venetians were his friends 
and the pope inclined to be conciliatory ; 
hat he had also given great ofience to Henry 
^HI and Wolsey. Three years before 
HeniT had persuaded the pope to deprive 
him of his office of collector of Peter pence, 
^ give it to the king's Latin secretary, 
Andreas Ammonius (see brief of Leo X, 
81 Oct. 1514, in Rymbb, Fcedera, xiii. 467). 
*nw arrangement, however, does not seem to 
^ve been completed, and Polvdore Vergil, 
Adrian's sub-collector, urged liim strongly 
^^ get it set aside. A letter addressed to 
"itt h? Polydore on this subject was inter- 
J^teo, and the writer thrown into prison. 
The lub-coUectorship was then given to Am- ] 
. monius, Adrian being for the time allowed 
to retain the office of collector. But when ! 
tUfl new scandal arose the King of England ' 
^ particularly anxious that Adrian should 
^ go unpunished ; and he sent repeated 
^^eflttges to Home urging that he should be 
deprived not only of the collectorship, but 
•& of the cardinalate. The former request 
J'w easily conceded, and his rival, Silvester 
Je Gigli, bishop of Worcester, was made col- 
I *^or in his room. But deprivation of the 
^rdinalate could only take place after length- 
^^ judicial process, and tne court of Rome , 
* J'aa slow to move. Sentence of deprivation, ' 
™^ever, was at last pronounced on 5 July '. 
^^18. The bishopric of Bath was at the 



, same time taken from liim and given to 
' Cardinal Wolsey, who had previously farmed 
it of him. 

I It is characteristic of the times that his 
, complicitv in the plot against Leo should be 
accounted for by Paulus Jovius as due to a 
I foolish prophecy by a fortune-telling woman 
that Pope Leo was to meet with a prema- 
ture death, and be succeeded by an old man, 
named Adrian, whose place of birth was 
obscure, but whose great learning and abili- 
ties had gradually advanced nim to the 
highest honours. Of course it is shown that 
the prophecy was fulfilled by the election of 
I Adrian VI on Leo's death, though Adrian 
: de Castello not unnaturally applied it to 
: himself ( Vita III, Viror, ii. t7). From this 
time nothing more is known of Adrian's his- 
tory. By one account it is supposed that he 
I took refuge among the Turks in Asia. But 
I a more probable rumour is mentioned in 
Sanuto's diaries, that he remained in great 
secrecy at Venice till the death of Leo A in 
1621, on hearing of which he at once left 
for Home, but was believed to have been 
murdered on the way. The writings of 
Adrian de Castello are: 1. A poem en- 
titled * Venatio,' printed by Aldus in 1505. 
2. A treatise, *De Vera Philosophia,' Bo- 
logna, 1507. 3. Another, *De Sermone 
Latino et modo Latine loquendi,' Basil, 
1513. There is also preserved an elegant 
Latin inscription which he wrote on a young 
man, named Polydorus Casamicus, who was 
the pope's usher, and died at the early age 
of twenty-four. He was a man of high taste 
in art as well as in letters. He was known 
at Rome as ' the rich cardinal,' and built a 
fine palace there, in front of which he in- 
scribed the name of his patron, Henry VII, 
willing that it should go after his own de- 
cease to that king and uis successors. 

[Polyd. Vergil, Hist. Anglic. ; Aubiry, His- 
toire G^n^mle des Curdinaux (citcti in Biog. 
Brit.) ; Wharton's Anglia Sacni, i. 676 ; liymer s 
Fowlera ; Calendar of State Papers, Henry VIU, 
vols. i. and ii. ; Calendar of Venetian State 
Papers, vols, i.-iv. ; PaiiU Jovii Vit8e Illustrium 
Virorum ; Dispacci di Antonio Giustinian, ii. 
107-8 ; Gairdner's Letters of Kichard III. and 
Henry VII, Rolls Ser.] J. G. 

ADY, JOSEPH (1770-1852), a notorious 
impostor, was at one time a hatter in Lon- 
don, but failing in that business he hit upon 
the device of raising funds bv means of cir- 
cular letters, promising, on tlie receipt of a 
suitable fee, to inform those whom he ad- 
dressed of * something to their advantage.' 
This remarkable individual, who in nume- 
rous instances battled the magistrates and 
post-ofiice authorities, was, some months \}re- 



Adye 148 ^Elfgar 

vious to his death in 1852, removed from accused of treason, and was outlawed ' for 
prison to his brother's residence in Fenchurch | little or no fault at all/ according to all the 
Street, in consequence of a rapid decline of Chronicle writers, save one. The Uanterbun- 
health, a memorial to that effect having been ' writer, however, who was a strong partisan 
presented to the home secretary. ' of Harold, says that ^Ifgar owned his guilty 

[Grent. Mag. Oct. 1862, p. 437 ; Be Quince/s | though he did so unawares. He fled to Ireland 
Works, vi. 258, 327.] T. C. and engaged eighteen ships of the Northmen. 

He crossed to Wales and made alliance with 




brevi 

the 

cadet, m 175/, and was appointed a« second- ^^^ ^j, ^ . ^ ^ ^^^ ^j ^f t^^ 

lieutenant m the royal artOlery m 1< 62. He ^^^ '^^^ ^^^ P ^^j^^ ^'^^ ^^ ^^ 

served some time as bngade-majorof art.llerv i ^^^ ^f Frenchmen and Englisfi. He 

.n>orthAmenca, where hepreparedhiswell- ^UgUy compeUed his English fo^ to go to 

kno^'nbcK)koncmirt8-mart.al,ent.tled'Trea- ; ^^^^^^ 

tise on Courts-Martial, to which '« added an jj^ ^^^ ^^ Frenchmen fdd first, and the 

Ea^tyonMilitoryPumshmentsand Rewards. i^ttie^agi„gt. ^ifgar and his allies entered 

(,P"°f2^-f* '^tT V*^*^"^ rT""'^'" ^°"; Hereford. They sacled and burnt the min- 

u" ^' ®^^ Jl-" ^^ '*■''"' , "^ '^'"™ 8ter and the city, slaving some and taking 

subsequent editions, the second appearing m ; ^' ^ ,» ^^ j^^^ ^^ 

London m 1778, and modified at the han^ whole force of the kingdom was gathered 

of later editors^ 18 still a recognised work. ^^ g^^j jj^^j^ and War an§ his al- 

Maior Adye died in command of a company j;^^ ^^^ ^^^^ .^'^ g^^^^ ^.^j^^ j^ ^q^ 

of invalid artillerj', in Jersey, in 1.94. He ^j^ ^ ^ ^j^^ H^^y ^^ ,^„. 

w«^ the first of a name distinguished in the y J ^^ y^^^j ^^^^ t„ ^^ ^,y„„ 

Bntish artillery annals for more than a can- q^ ^^^ ^^^^ „^ ^eoj^i j^ jog. ^j,;!^^ ^ 

tury. Ofthreesonsm thereginient, the ceived his father's earldom of MerciaT The 

'^tr:.''^'^''J^tZ^':^.t'>%J^^. positionof hisnewearldom asr^rdsWale* 




--,.<L- 4.1. J nc • n 1 ward the Confessor made rebellion no serious 

manv iKlitions ; the second, Major-General It was probablv while the only force 

Sfphen Adye, ser^^d in the Penmsula and j,,^ ^j maintaining order in the kingdom 

at W aterloo, and died director of the royal J ^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ pilgrimage of nlrold, 

laboratones in ia38; the third, Major James ,^^^ ^.^j^ ^^ -^ ^'q^ outlawed for the 

A.^e, died in 1831 A sun^yingson of the ,^^ ^f^,^ uj, ^j^ ^^^-^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ 

vl'^o^n r Sir John Adye, helphim. Gruffvdd and a fleet of the North- 

U.A., G.U.IJ., now Governor of Gibraltar. ^ i • i. * „ .,, i.«,.^ "u««„ ««.,:o;«^ 

_,, , T. ^ /^«, -r» , » Ml men, whicli seems to have been cruising 

[Kanos Li8t of Officere Royal Artille^ a ])Out on the look-out for employment, en- 

revised e<lit. Woolwich, 1869); ^ote to Off. abled him to set his outlawr>' at defiance and 

Cat. Royal Artillery Museum.] H. M. C. ^^ ^^^^.^ ^.^ ^^^^^^^ ^,.^^ ^^ ^^^^^ l^^^ 

.^LFGAR, Earl (<7. 1062 ?), wasthe son In one good deed yElfgar and Harold acted 
of Leofric of Mercia and his wife Godgifu, the i together. On the surrender of the see of 
* Lady Godiva * of legend. Bitter jealousy Worcester by Archbishop Aldred in 1062, 
existed between the ancient Mercian house both the earls joined in recommending Wulf- 
and the new and successful family of God- ' stan for the bishopric (Will. Malm., Vita 
wine. WTien, in lOol, Godwine and his /S". H^M/^^flrm', lib. i. c. 11 ; ap. Wharton's ./4ii- 
sons gathered their forces against the king f/lia Sacra^ ii. 251). Soon afterwards, pro- 
and his foreign favourites, -^lillfgar and Leof- bablv in the same year, .Elfgar died. His 
ric were among the party which stocxl by ' wifes name was ^'Elfgifu. He left two sons, 
Ea<lward at Gloucester, and on the outlawry Eadwine and Morkere, who played a con- 
of Harold his earldom of East Anglia was spicuous part in English history. A charter 
given to -lElfgar. The new earl ruled well, of the abbey of St. Remigius at Kheims re- 
and the next year, on the restoration of ' cords that /Elfgar gave I^pley to that house 
Gorlwine's house, cheerfully surrendered the | for the good of the soul of a son of his named 
government to Harold. On the death of Burchard, who was buried there (DueDALE, 
Godwine in 1053, the West Saxon earldom | Manasticon, vi. 1042; Alien Priory of Lap- 
was given to Harold, and East Anglia was , pele). His daughter, Aldgyth, married her 
again committed to ^tafgar. In 1055, at the | father's ally Gruffydd, and, after the deatlis 
Witenagemot held in I^ndon, -.^^Ilfgar was ^ of -.'Elfgar and Gruffydd, married as her se* 



^Ifgifu 149 ^Ifgifu 

cond husband Harold, her father's old enemy story is assigned to her daughter. Osbem in 
£8ee Aldotth]. his ' Life of Dunstan,' written in the time of 




•L ' . 

" . H. king, that they hamstrung her and so slew 
-MLFGIFU [Lat. Elgiva] (fl, 956), wife her. The same writer, in his * Life of Oda,' 
of King Eadwig, has been made the subject says that the archbishop, finding it impos- 
<«f monastic legend, and it should be remem- si^le to keep the king apart from the woman 
bered that she was the enemy of Dunstan, ^^ loved, seized her, carried her from the 
-and that her fall marked the triumph of court, and, having had her branded in the 
the party which he upheld. Signatures to ^ace, sent her to Ireland. After a while 
a charter make it certain that she was the ' she came back with her scars healed, and 
wife of Eadwig, and that her mother's name i then the * men of the servant of God * seized 
was uEthelgifu. Her father's name is not her at Gloucester, and put her to death in 
known, fiiie * Chronicle ' says that Arch- ! the way described in the * Life of Dunstan.' 
biflhop Oda parted Eadwig and ^Ifgifu be- This is the latest form of the story. That the 
cause they were too near akin. A contem- ' young king, who was then probably not more 
porary ' I^e of Dunstan,' written some forty than fifteen years old, should have left the 
vears later by a foreigner from Liittich, who 1 coronation feast for the society of his wife 
describes himself as B., and attributed, thouffh and her mother is natural enough, and the 
without good reason, to Brihtferth, speais fact that their marriage was uncanonical 
of an unlawful connection between the king would give double bitterness to the words 
and ^^Ifgifu, and makes the monstrous as- withwhichDunstan executed his commission. 
«ertion that ^Ethelgifu encouraged this con- What the relationsliip between the king 
nection both with herself and her daughter and -.Elfgifu was cannot be made out with 
in the hope that Eadwig would marry one certainty. Mr. Robertson has suggested with 
or other of them. The writer says that considerable probability that -^thelffifu was 
on the day of his coronation, 956, Eadwig foster-mother of Eadwig. This spiritual re- 
left the feast, at which the bishops and lationship would render his marriage with 
nobles of his kingdom were sitting, for the her daughter unlawful. No weight need be 
company of these women. Indignant at this given to the vile accusations of immorality 
insult, Archbishop Oda proposed that he which the monastic writers make against the 
should be brought back, and Dunstan and boy-kin^ and his wife and her mother. If, 
Bishop Kinesige were sent to seek him. They as William of Malmesbury believed, Dun- 
found the kinff in the company of -'Ethelgifu stan urged Oda to force the king to repudiate 
jind her daugnter with his crown thrown -cElfgifu, her mother had good reason to hate 
carelessly on the floor. The abbot reproached him. Leaving, however, this late statement 
^£thelgifu, and led the king back to the feast out of the Question, the fact that the abbot 
by force, -^thelgifu did not forget the in- was chargied by the assembled nobles with 
suit. She prevailed on Eadwig to banish the insulting mission which he executed on 
Dunstan, and to give her leave to seize his 1 the day of Ladwig's coronation was enough 
gooNds. The biographer refers to a belief to insure her evil will ; and she was upheld 
which he evidently discredits, that she sent , in her designs against Dunstan by enemies 
messengers to tear out the eyes of the abbot, within the walls of his own abbey. If we 
but that he embarked before they could take ' may trust the * Life of St. Oswald,* the 
liim. A ' Life of St. Oswald,' written about banishment of JElfgifu was connected with 
the same time as the * Life of Dunstan ' by the revolt of the north in 958. For the per- 
B., and copied by Eadmer, says that Eadwig sonal cruelties inflicted on her there is not 
left his lawful wife for yElfgifu, that Oda one scrap of evidence, for they are not men- 
iised armed force against him, a statement 1 tioned until 150 years after they are said to 
w^hich refers to the insurrection of the North- , have been practised. Even if they had ever 
lunbrians and Mercians, and that the arch- been inflicted on ^Elfgifu or ^thelgifu — for 
bishop seized the lady and banished her to I the mother and daughter are confoimded 
Ireland. Florence of Worcester repeats both 1 together — Dunstan could have had nothing 
the statement of the * Chronicle and the to do with them ; for they would belong to 
account which adds adultery to Eadwig's of- I the period of the war which preceded tlie 
fence, and makes no decision between them, i election of Eadgar when the abbot was still 

The story of ^Elfgifu grew rapidly, -^thel- in exile. 
gifu figures more prominently in older ac- ! [S. Dunstani Vita, auetore B. ; Epistola 
counts; by later writers the firat place in the 1 Adelardi de Vita S. Dunstani ; Vita, auetore 



^Ifgifu 



ISO 



^Ifheah 



Onberno ; Vito, auctore Eadmero, all in Memo- 
rials of St. Dunstan, ed. Dr. Stubbs, Bolls Ser., see 
Introd. ; Osbemus de Vita Odonis ; A.S. Chron. 
sub ann. ; Florence of Worcester ; Inquiry into 
the Life of King Eadwig, by J. Allen, 1849; 
Robertson's Historical Essays, 1872.] W. H. 

^LPGIFU ifi. 1030), called *of North- 
ampton/ to distinguish her firom ^Ifgifu- 
Emma, wife of ^thelred and of Cnut, was the 
daughter of yElfmwr, the Northumbrian earl 
who was slain by Eadric Streona in 1006. Her 
mother was a noble lady named Wulfruna. 
yElfgifu is said by Saxo to have been the mis- 
tress of Olaf, king of Norway, * the Saint,' and 
to have been taken from him by Cnut. If Olaf 
really fought on the side of .^thelred against 
the Danes, as his saga alleges, he may have 
met ^Elfgifu while he was engaged in de- 
fending her country. But his connection 
with her and his presence in England are 
both doubtful. It is certain, however, that 
^£l%ifu became the mistress of Cnut, and 
that she bore him Harold and Swend. A 
scandalous tale was accepted in England 
that iElfgifu, being unable to bear children, 
pretended that these two were her sons, but 
that really Swend was the son of a priest 
and Harold was the son of a shoemaker. In 
order to exclude these sons of Cnut and 
^Ifgifu from the succession to the English 
throne, /Elfgifu-Emma made Cnut promise, 
when he sought to marry her, that the crown 
should descend onlv on such children as he 
might have of her. The position held by 
-^Ifgifu of Northampton was not regarded 
as necessarily dishonourable, save in the eyes 
of the church, and, like that of a wife mar- 
ried wiortf Danicoy depended on the way in 
which she was treated. Cnut made Swend 
ruler over his Wendish subjects dwelling 
about the Oder, and ^Elfgifu went with her 
son to Jomsburg and governed in his name. 
In accordance with Cnut's policy of esta- 
blishing his sons in subordinate kingdoms, he 
sent Swend and his mother -^Elfgifu, in 1030, 
to take charge of his newly acquired king- 
dom of Norway. Swend was a child both 
in years and in understanding, and was com- 

?letely under the influence of his mother, 
le soon made the Norwegians hate him. 
Many Danes came over with him, and the 
young king and his mother showed an un- 
due partiality for them. Heavy burdens 
were laid upon the people. The natives were 
treated as an inferior race, and the oath of a 
single Dane was held to be of equal value in 
judicial proceedings to the oaths of ten Nor- 
wegians. All these evils were held to be 
the work of ^Ifgifii. The Norwegians did 
not dare to revolt, because Cnut held many 
hostages for their obedience. The transla- 



tion of the bodjr of Olaf stren^hened the 
sentiment of nationality. JEl£gi£a and her 
son were present at the ceremony. She vainly 
tried to sneer down the alleged miracle of the 
incorruntibility of the saint's body. Bishop 
Grimkel and Einar Tambarskelver, two of 
the foremost men of the national party, chid 
her for her unbelief, which she mainti^ned 
in spite of miracles. In 1036, the year after 
the death of Cnut, the Norwegians recovered 
their freedom under Magnus, the son of Olaf, 
and Swend was forced to flee to Denmark. 
The date of the death of .^Elfgifu is not 
known. Her name is not mentioned in the 
record of her son's flight. 

[Anglo-Saxon Chron. sub an. 1036 ; Florence 
of Worcester, sub an. 1006, 1036 ; Snorre, Heims- 
kringla, Saga vii. c. 251, 252, 257 ; Anon. Roskild. 
in Lan^ebek, i. 376 ; Saxo Gramm. x. 192, 196 ; 
Encomium Emmse, ii. 16.] W. H, 

JELPHEAH (954-1012), Archbishop (St. 
Alphege), also called Oodwine, was bom 
of noble parents. Against the wishes of his 
widowed mother, he left her and his father's 
estate, and entered the monastery of Deer- 
hurst in Oloucestershire, and there made 
himself the ser>'ant of all. Aiter a while he 
longed for a stricter life. He left Deerhurst, 
and, building himself a hut at Bath, lived 
there as an anchorite. Many great people 
came to him for advice ; some of them be- 
came monks and lived under his rule, and 
others gave him the means of supporting the 
new brotherhood. Florence of Worcester says 
that he became abbot of Bath. If it is true 
that Eadgar in 970 refounded the church of 
Bath as a convent of regulars, the new so- 
ciety probably owed to -^If heah a consider- 
able increase in its numbers. In 984 .fflf heali 
was made bishop of Winchester. His pre- 
decessor ^'Ethelwold had violently driven out 
the canons from his church, and had put in 
monks in their stead. When ^ilthelwola died, 
the dispossessed clergy and the monks each 
tried to get a bishop appointed fix)m their 
own order. Considerable difficulty arose, 
which was solved by a dream of Archbishop 
Dunstan, and by his influence ^Ifheah was 
appointed to the bishopric. His sanctity and 
self-devotion as bishop are celebrated 6v his 
biographer Osbem. Dunstan seems to liave 
had a warm regard for him. 

Some of the efforts of -^If heah for the 
conversion of the heathen Northmen, re- 
corded by Osbem as made during his archi- 
episcopate, may be assigned to this period of 
his me. In 994, the Northmen, under Olaf 
Tryggwesson of Nor>vay and Swend of Den- 
mark, wintered at Southampton. AfNTiile they 
were there, King .^thelred sent yElf heah, the 



^Ifheah 



151 



^Ifheah 



bishop of the diocese, and the ealdorman 
^thelward as ambassadors to Olaf. The 
Norweffian kin^ had, it seems, already re- 
ceived baptism m his own land from English 
missionaries. He went with the ambassadors 
to meet the English king at Andover, and 
there he received the rite of confirmation 
from Bishop .^fheah. Another and less 
trustworthy account savs that Olaf first em- 
braced Christianity in England (for both ver- 
sions of the story see Adam of Bremen, lib. 
ii. cap. 34, 36; ap. Pbrtz, Mon, Germ. Script, 
vii.). ^£lf heah may at least be said to have 
C4iused this famous convert to make a decided 
choice, and it is certain that the result of the 
embassy was a promise, which the Norwegian 
kept, that he would never invade England 
again. Osbem is therefore j>robably right in 
speaking of the hatred which the preaching 
of ^If heah stirred up against him among the 
heathen Northmen, and this religious ani- 
mosity may have been to some extent the 
cause of his death. 

In 1006 he was made archbishop of Can- 
terbury, and at once journeyed to Kome and 
obtained the pall. The one act of his primacy 
of which we nave evidence, besides the cir- 
cumstances of his death, shows that he pro- 
bably had something of the statesmanlike 
spirit of Dunstan. The undated council of 
Lnham was, to some extent at least, his work. 
It was held at a time when the Danish in- 
vasion had brought the people very low. A 
desire of grappling with the spiritual and 
material evils of tne time is evident in the 
decrees of this council, which the two arch- 
bishops are said to have persuaded the king 
to hold. It« provisions against heathenism, 
lawlessness, and the sale of slaves, especially 
to heathen men, and the solemn pledge of 
loyalty with which the record ends, mark the 
ways ^n which the demoralisation of society 
was making itself felt. A kindred spirit to 
that of Dunstan appears in the ecclesiastical 
legislation of the council. Men were to live 
according to their profession; the stricter life 
was recommended, but not enforced. With 
these provisions are directions for the organi- 
sation and meeting of a fleet, and of the 
national land force, ^liile, however, Dun- 
stan had Ead^r to follow his counsels, 
i£lfheah had ^thelred for his king, and so 
the decrees of Enham were fruitless, and the 
state of the country grew ever worse. 

In 1011 the large sum of 48,000 pounds was 

Sromised to the Danes to buy them off. They 
id not cease their ravages while the money 
was being raised. On 8 Sept. they appeared 
before Canterbury, and on tne twentieth day 
of the siege the city was betrayed by an ec- 
clesiastiCy was taken, and burnt. The arch- 



bishop with many others was made captive, 
and was bound, half-starved, and otherwise 
ill-used. In the hope of gaining a large ran- 
som the Danes took ^Iflieah to their ships 
and kept him prisoner for seven months. 
Meanwhile the great men of the kingdom 
remained inactive in I^)nd()u, fearing, as it 
seems, to come forth until the promised bribe 
was collected and paid to the invaders. At 
first wiElf heah agreed to ransom himself; but 
he remembered the people who would have 
to suffer to raise the money. He repented 
and determined that no one should have to 
pay anything for his life. During his cap- 
tivity he evidently spoke often on religious 
matters to his captors, and his words had 
good effect. At length, on 19 April, 1012, the 
day had come on which the archbishop had 
promised to pay his ransom. The fleet lay 
off Greenwich. On that day the Danes held 
a ^at feast, drinking themselves drunk with 
wine which they had obtained from the South. 
They demanded the promised ransom. -^If- 
hean took back his word ; he was ready to 
die, and he would not make others pay for 
him. The Danes in wrath dragged him into 
their busting, and gathered round him ready 
to slay him. Thurkill, their famous leader, 
saw what was about to happen. He was 
probably one of those who nad heard the 
archbishop speak of the christian faith and 
who had heneved his words, for soon after 
this he became a christian and joined him- 
self to the English. He hastened to the spot, 
and offered to give gold and silver and all 
that he had, save his ship, if they would spare 
the life of the archbishop. Tliey would not 
hearken, and threw at -/Elf heah the skulls of 
oxen, the remnants of their savage feast, and 
stones and wood, until he sank dying. Then 
one Thrum, whom ^Elf heah had confirmed 
the day before, seeing that he still lived, to 
put him out of his agony struck him on the 
nead with his axe and slew him. The deed 
was done in drunken frenzy, and was pro- 
bably quickly regretted. l*or this reason, 
and because there were many in the host 
who were converts, the archbishop's body was 
allowed to be reverently taken to London, 
and was there buried in St. Paul's. Eleven 
years after his death, Cnut caused his body 
to be translated with great pomp to his 
church at Canterbury. This translation, in 
which the king tooK part in person, was a 
national act, and is of some interest as illus- 
trating the policy of Cnut towards his new 
subjects. Tiie circumstances of the death of 
^If heah invested him with sanctity, and the 
Anglo-Saxon Chronicler, writing before the 
translation, speaks of the mighty works done 
at his tomb. His name was associated in 



yElfhere 152 Alfred 



later years with a CTeat question affecting the j [see -^lfric, ^. 950-1016]. The name of 
national church. When Anselm visited £ng<- ' .^Elf here is subscribed to most of the charters 
land in 1078, Archbishop I^ianfranc consulted of the time. Latin writers have blackened 
him about those whom the English had set the character of this enemy of the monks, 
up for themselves as saints, and took ^tBlf- William of Malmesbury accuses him in one 
heah, who was looked upon by his country- ' passage of the murder of King Eadward. 
men as a saint and a martyr, as an example. \ The charge is of course untrue, as it implies 
Lanfranc denied the right of ^Ifheah to these ; an action wholly contrary to his policy. lie 
honours. Anselm, however, asserted that he also tells an idle tale of the repentance of 
was worthy of them, because he died in the ^Ifhere, and the loathsome death which 
cause of justice. Lanfranc was convinced, marked the divine vengeance for his misdeeds, 
and did devout honour to his predecessor. [Anglo-Saxon Chron. sub an. 976; Florence 
At his conmiand Osbern, a monk of Canter- of Worcester, sub an. 976 ; Henry of Huntings 
bury, wrote lives of ^Ifheah in prose and don, lib. v. ; William of Malmesbury. Qesta Re- 
in verse. These compositions were used in g^™. l»^- "• c. 162, 166; Chrtm. Monas^ de 
the 8er^'ice on the day of the martvrdom of Abingdon, Kolls Ser. i, pawim; IreemM. Nor- 
St. Alphege, the name bv which the arch- ™*° Conquest, i. c. o, ^ 1.] W. H. 

bishop appears in the Calendar. The prose JSLFRED {d, 1036), sethelin^, was the 
life remains. It is a piece of hagiology rather ; younger of the two sons of Kinf iEthel- 
than an historical biography. Osbern also red and Emma, daughter of Ricnard the 
wrote an account of the translation of the Fearless. On the conquest of England by 
saint, which was read on the anniversary of Swend in 1013, -'Elfred and his brother Ead- 
that event. A plain and trustworthy account ward were sent over to Normandy under the 
of the death of ^Elfheah is contained in the care of -/Elf hun, bishop of London. The 
contemporary chronicle of Thietmar, bishop sethelings were received at the court of 
of Merseburg, who states that he had his in- their uncle Richard the Good, whither their 
formation from an Englisman named Sewald. mother had fled not long before tliey came. 
Osbern and Florence of W'orcester give many A promise obtained by Emma from Cnut as 
particulars of the death with the evident a condition of her marriage to him, that the 
object of heightening the effect and pro\'ing succession to the English throne should be 
the voluntary character of the martyrdom, limited to such children as she might bear 
They apparently depended on some common him, shows that she was careless of the 
source. claims of her sons by her former marriage. 

[Anglo-Saxon Chron. ; Thietmari Ep. Merso- ■ The English R'thelings were, however, held 
burg. Chron. lib. vii., Portz, Scriptores, iii. 849, in honour at Roueii, and their cousin Duke 
or Migne, Patrologia, vol. cxxxix. p. 1384 ; Flo- Robert attempted to enforce their rights by 
ronce of Worcester ; Spehnan, i. 625 ; Osbern, do an invasion of England. His fleet was kept 
Vita S. Elphegi, and Historift de Translatione awav from our shores by a contrary wind, 
S. Elphegi ; up. Wharton's Anglia Sjicni,ii. 122- and^hc attempt failed. ' The story told bv 
147; P::admer,S.AnselmiVita, i.e. 5; Freeman, AVilliam of Jumieges that, in spite of this 
Norman Conquest, i. cliap. 5.] W. H. failure, Cnut, feeling his end near, offered 

iELFETERE {d. 983), ealdorman of the that half his kingdom should go tx) the SBthel- 
Mercians, was a kinsman of King Eadgar. ings, may }ye rejected as wholly improbable. 
He was the head of the anti-monastic party, i At the death of Cnut, in 1035, their rights 
which, on the death of Eadgar in 975, at- were disregarded by the English witan, for 
tempted to overthrow the ecclesiastical policy the remembrance of the ill conduct of their 
he had pursued. yElfhere and the great father set men against them. The kingdom 
men who held with him turned the monks v^s divided. Harold reigned at London 
out of the churches in which Eadgar and ' over the land north of the Thames, and 
IMshopfEthelwold had established them. In i Emma, at AVincliester, ruled Wessex in the 
recording the * unrighteous and unlawful , name of her son Ilarthacnut, whose caust> 
doings^of-cElfherein the Anglo-Saxon Chro- was upheld by Earl Godwine. The next 
nicle, the writer makes his lament in verse, year ^^Ifred, with tlie consent of his brother 
There were two sides to tlie question, and the i Eadward, and perhaps in concert with him, 
secular clergy and many of the land owners had ' made an attemj)t on England. He landed 
reason to complain of the aggressions of the I at Dover, with some force which muBt hav« 



monks. After the murder of Eadward, -'Elf- 
here joined with Bunstan in bringing the body 
of the king, with great pomp, from vVareham 
to Shaftesbury. He died in 983, and was suc- 
ceeded in his ealdormanship by his son ^Elfric 



been composed of Normans, and marchiHl 
westward, intending to have an inter\'iew 
with his mother at Winchester. Owing to 
the absence of Ilarthacnut, English feeling 
had begun even in Wessex to turn towards 



Alfred 153 Alfred 

a union of the kingdom under Harold. His national being ; he has become the model 
accession in Wessex would have entailed ^ English king, indeed the model Englishman, 
the downfall of Emma, and ^Elfred had As usual, popular belief has got hold of a 
reason to believe that his mother would half truth. It has picked out for remem- 
favour his enterprise. Earl Godwine met brance the man most worthy of remembrance, 
him at Quildford. Convinced of the weak- | and, as far as his personal character is con- 
ness of the party of Harthacnut, the earl cemed, its conception of him has not gone 
was now on the side of Harold. He set on ; far astray. But his historical position is 
the company of yElfred, some he slew out- strangely misconceived. As the one Old- 
right, some were sold as slaves, others were English name thot is remem])ered, -/Elfred 
blinded, scalped, or otherwise cruelly used, has drawn to himself the credit that belongs 
^Elfred was taken alive and sent to Ely. to many men both earlier and later, and often 
As he was in the ship which broiwrht liim ' to the nation itself. Tlie king of the AVest- 
to the island, he was blinded. lie dwelt Saxons grows into a king ot all England, 
awhile with the monks, and when he died and he is made the founder of all our institu- 
of the hurts which he liad received they tions. He invents trial by jury, the rude 
buried him in their church. Miracles were ' principle of which is as old as the Teutonic 
tfaid to have been wrought at his tomb. Of race itself, while the first glimmerings of its 
no fact in our history have so many different actual existing shape cannot be seen till 
accounts been given as of the death of ages after yElfred's (lay. So he divides Eng- 
-Elfred. It forms the subject of a poem in land into shires, hundreds, tithings, and in- 
the Abin^on and Worcester versions of ' stitutes the so-called law of frankpledge, 
* the Chronicle. This poem, with one or two In all this we see the natural gro\i'th of 
additions from other writers, which do not legend, always ready to find a ])er8onal 
contradict its statements, is the authoritv author for national customs which really 
for the story here given. Mr. Freeman, I grew of themselves. It is by a woi^se process, 
by an ingenious course of argument, comes by deliberate and interested falsehood, that 
to the conclusion that in this matter * the ' he has been represented as the foimder of 
CT^at earl is at least entitled to a verdict of , the university of (.)xford and of one of its 
Not Proven, if not of Not Guilty.* Setting ' colleges. 

aside all vague conjectures ana considera- [ Yet even the legendary re])utation of 
tions of possible motives, it is impossible ^Elfred is hardly too great for his real merits. 
to deny that the weight of written evidence ' No man recorded in history seems ever to 
is distmctly on the side of those who believe j have united so many gn^at and good qualities. 
tliat Earl Godwine took Alfred captive and At once captain, lawgiver, saint, and scholar, 
slew his companions in a fearfully cmel j he devoted himself with a single mind to 
manner, though it cannot be ascertained . the welfare of his people in every way. He 
whether he acted treacherously towards the | showed himself alike their deliverer, their 
sethelin^. The murder of ^Elfred was made i ruler, and their teacher. He came to the 
the subject of accusation against the earl in crown at a moment of extreme national 
the feigns of his brothers Harthacnut and | danger ; a great part of his reign was taken 
£adwara the Confessor, and was used as an . up with warfare with an enemy who tlireat- 



acciisstion against England and as a plea for 
the Norman conquest. 

[AS. Chron. Abingdon and Worcester; Flo- 



ent»d the national being ; yet he found means 
wrsonally to do mon? for the general en- 
lightenment of his people than any other 



rence of Worcester ; Will. Gemm. vi. 11, 12, \ni. | king in English historv. JOlfred is great, 
11 ; Will. Pict.ed. Giles, 78, 79; Encomium Emm. . not by the si>ecittl devefopment of some one 
iii.2-6; Vit.Ead.ed.Luard, 400; Will, of Malm. ' or two powers or virtues, but bv the eciual 



lib. ii. cap. 188 ; Henry of Hunt. Mon. Hist. Brit. 
758, 781 ; Freeman, Norman Conquest, i. 542~ 
569.] W. H. 

.SLFRED (849-901), king of the West- 
Saxons, is the one great character of our 



balance of all. Appearing in many characters, 
he avoids the special vices and temptations 
of each. In a reign of singular alternations 
of overthrow and success, he is never cast 
doA^Ti by ill luck or puft'ed un by good. In 



Saxons, IB tne one great ciiaracter oi our ao^^-n by ill luck or putted un oy good, in 
early history whose name still lives in popu- I any case of war or or peace, ^f good luck or 
lar memory, and round whose well-known of bad, he is readv to act with a single mind, 
historical career a vast mass of legend has ' as the needs of tlie moment most call upon 
gathered. The name of ^Hfred is familiar him to act. 

to many who perhaps do not know the name For the title of Great, often given to 
of any other king or other worthy Ix'fore the > Alfred in modem t imes, there is no ancient 
Korman Conquest. And popular belief has | authority. Its use seems to go back no later 
made him into a kind of embodiment of the than the seventeenth ceuturv* There is in 



Alfred IS4 Alfred 

truth no need for it. Alexander, Charles, | Charles the Bald, king of the West-Franks^ 
William^ needed it to mark them off from and afterwards emperor. And we are driven, 
many smaller bearers of their several names ; however unwillingly, to suppoee that Os- 
/Klfred practically has liis name to himself, burh, the mother of ^thelwulf 's children, 
It is a name which has always been in use I was put away to make room for her (see 
without ever being very common, but it has ' Wright, Biographia Britannica Literaria^ 
never been borne by any one who could Anglo-Saxon Period, jj^. 385), a step which, 
possibly be confounded with the West-Saxon | among the Franks at least, would oe in no 
king. In the West-Saxon kingly house it is ^ way wonderful. In no other way can we 
never found before him and only once after ' understand the well-known story told by 
him, nor has it been borne by any king of I Asser, how Alfred's i;nother showed him and 
the enlarged English kingdom. In his own '. his brothers a book of poems with a beautiful 
age the single male ySTZ-uame in the family ' initial letter, and promised to give it to the 
stands out in a marked way among the I one who shoidd first learn to read it. .^fred 
yEthels and Eads. Alfred is jElf-redj the j found a master, and was soon able to read, 
rede of the elves ; it can hardly be needful < This stonr is placed in Alfred's twelfth year, 
to point out the mistake of those who fancied about 861, wnen the mention of his brothers 
that its meaning was all-peace. Nor can it I is in any case a difficulty. But in no case 
be necessarj' to distinguish the name A^Hf-red j could we put the story before the return of 
from the utterly distinct name Ealh^rithy ^thelwulf in 866. It follows therefore that 
borne by a Northumbrian king who, owing ' Osburh must have outlived her husband's 
to a likeness in the corrupt I^tin forms of i second marriage. The notion that by .^f- / 
the two names, has been sometimes con- red's mother is meant, not his own mother, 
founded with the great West-Saxon, (see Sir , but the Frankish girl, younger than some of 
T. D. Hardy's note. Will. Malh. Gest. his brothers, whom their father had put in 
Reyg. ii. 123). The copiate names are ^if- herplace, is too wild to be discussed* 
icinej JElfthryth, Ailfgifti, and others of the i Whatever mav have been*^designed by 
same class. Unlike so many of the Old- ' ^^fred's childisn hallowing at Home, no 
English names which are purely insular, it ' attempt was made to set him up as the im- 



mediate successor of his father. And when 
^thelwulf tried to fix the succession be- 
forehand, by a will confirmed by the Witan, 
^Elfred was put in the line of succession 
after those ol his brothers who were put 



seems to have had, like Ecgberht and a few 
others, a slight currency on the continent 
(see Normun Conquest, i. 779), perhaps owing 
to some kindred Lombard form, as in the 
case of some other English names. 

-Elfred was the fifth and youngest son of . in the line of succession at all. We hear 
yEthelwulf, king of the West-Saxons, and I nothing of him directly during the reigns of 
of his wife Osburh, dau^ht^ir of his cup- I his brothers -:Ethelbald and ^thelberht; 
bt^arer Oslac, of the old kingly house of the , but on the accession of ^^thelred in 866 
Jutes of Wight (Assek). lie was bom at j he at once comes into prominence. During 
Wantage in Berkshire in 849. In 853 he /Ethelred's reign Asser pves .^£lfred the 
was sent to Home by his father, where the title of secundarius — possibly equivalent to 
pope, Leo IV, took him to his * bishopson ' | subregulus — but he seems rather to look on 
and hallowed him to king. It seems im- i him as a general helper to his brother than as 
possible to gainsay this last statement of the local under-kinp of any particular land* 
Asser and the Chronicles, strange as it is ; He also (871) implies that he had held that 
and it may help to explain some things that title during the time of his elder brothers, 
follow. If we literally follow the words of This is very puzzling, and might almost seem 
Asser, we must believe that the child was to suggest that something of special king^ 



brought back, and that he went again with 
his father two years later, when -cEthelwulf 
made his own pilgrimage to Rome in 855. 
But it is perhaps easier to suppose that he 
stayed at Rome for three years and came 
])ack with his father in 856. He was yEthel- 
wulf's best-beloved son, and his hallowiu 
at Rome, an act so contrary to all En 



wmc: 

(TlisE 



ship, beyond the common kingliness of the 
kin, was held to attach to ^In^ from the 
Roman hallowing. Anyhow, under -^thel- 
red, -'Elfred, young as he still was, was clearly 
the second man in the kingdom. In 868 he 
married Ealhswith, daughter of ^thelred 
sumamed the Mickle, ealdorman of the 
Gainas (a people whose name 8ur\uve^ in 



prect^dent and English law, no doubt\helped i Gainsborough), and his wife £adburh.f In 
with other causes to set the elder sons of 869 he shared the expedition of his brotlrer to 
^Ethelwulf against their father. On his way \ Nottingham for the relief of their brother- 



home -'Ethelwulf married and brought bacK 
with him Judith, the young daughter of 



in-law Burhred, king of the Mercians, against 
the Danes who haa settled in Northumber- 



Alfred iss .Alfred 

land. In 871 the Banes iirst invaded Wessex, I kingdom we hear nothing; in Devonshire 
and .-Klfred appears as the leading spirit of ' there was fighting, for a Danish leader was 
that great year of battles. He shared in the killed, and the banner, the famous llaven, 
great victory on -^£w<»*rfttw (not the place now was taken. Snm'erset seems to have been 
specially called A^hdotnt^ but the whole long overrun without a battle, and there is no sign 
lull with the battle-field on the ton) and in | of general resistance till about Easter, when 
the following battles of Basing and Meiton. the king, with a small company, raised a 
"VN'hen /Ethelred died soon after Easter in ' fort at Athelney (.lEthelinga ige) among the 
that year, -Alfred succeeded to the AVest- marshes. This acted as a centr*? for winning 
Saxon crown. lie succeeded, as Asser as- back what was lost. The king s force grew, 
sures us and as we certainly have no reason ' and seven weeks after Easter he marched to 
to doubt, with the general good will. But Brixton (Ecgbrihtes stan) on the ^Wiltshire 
it is to be noticed that neither Asser nor the border. There, at the head of the whole 
Chronicles contain any formal notice of his force of Somerset and Wiltshire and part 
election and coronation. Neither do they in of that of Hampshire, he defeated the Danes 
the case of his brothers or in tliat of many in the battle of Ethandiin (seemingly Eding- 
other kin^. But the fulness of the narra- i ton in Wiltshire), and took their stronghold, 
tive at this point makes the omission in' this The Danes and their king Guthrum now 
case more remarkable, and we are again ledi again agreed, with oaths and hostages, to 
to think what may have been the effect of .leave A\ essex, and further engaged that the 
the will of /Ethelwulf and the hallowing by king should receive baptism. Guthrum was 
Pope Leo. But that yElfred should succeed accordingly baptized at Aller in Somerset. 
his brother in preference to his brother's His * chnsom-loosing * at Wedmore followed, . 
yoiing sons was only according to the uni- and this last seems to have been the occasion ! 
versal custom of the nation then and down of the ])eace between ^Elfred and Guthrum, 

_to the election of John. ' which oecame the modt'l for several later 

' ^ yElfred*8 accession to the crown came in agreements of the same kind. 

the very thick of the fighting with the Danes. Such is the historical account, from the 
A month afterwards the new king fought , Chronicles and from the genuine text of 
with the Danes at Wilton, the ninth and Asser, of the momentary fall and recovery 
last battle of the year. It is one of those of the West-Saxon kingdom under -Alfred. 
fights in which we read that the English It is an affair of a few months of one year, 
drove the Danes to flight, and yet that the The shire in which the king seems to have 
Danes kept possession of the place of slaugh- been at the time is overrun by a sudden in- 
ter. In battles between irregular levies and road, and a short lime passes before any 
a smaller but better disciplined band of in- military operations can be set on foot in this 
vaders, this result is not so unlikely as it district. But fighting still goes on to the 

^ seems at first sight. But in any case the west. The only difficulty is that we hear 
W^est-Saxon kin^om was so weakened by nothing of anything that happened in any 
the warfare of this year that vElfred was part of the West-Saxon kingdom Ix^sides 

?^lad to make peace with the Danes, doubt- Somerset and Devonshire. But so striking 
ess on the usual terms of payment of money. ' an event has naturally been seized on as 
They then left Wessex, and the immediate material for legend. Thus one version, form- 
kingdom of yElfred had rest for a season. ' ing part of the legend of Saint Neot, and 
N The second invasion of Wessex by the devised for his exaltation (see John of 
Danes who remained in England is the event ' WALLiyoFOKi), G.vle, i. 5^35, et seqq. ; Asser, 
which has made yElfreds name famous. iVa;i.//i>f./ynV.481: andseeLiNOAKD,i. 189), 
Some smaller attacks went before the main tells us that ^IClfred in the early part of his 
blow. Thus in 876 the king met and drove reign rules harshly, and he is n'buKed by the 
away some pirate ships. In 876 tlie host | saint and punished by being forsaken by his 
* stole ' into \Ves8ex and attacked Wareham. people when the Danes invadtj the kingdom. 
The king now made peace with them, and j lie iiides in various lurking-places, and now 
they swore on the hoiy bracelet, their most com(*s in the famous story of the cakes. But 
solemn oath, that they would leave his do- there is no trace of all this in the genuine 
minions. The land-lorce, however, * stole * | work of Asser. Here is no forsaking and 
away to Exeter ; there, in 877, they renewed no hiding; .^Elfred is reduced to extreme 
their oaths, and left Wessjac for Cfloucester. ' distress, but he never lays down his arms. 
It was in the next year, 87^just after Christ- ' Another legend is preserved by William of 
mas, that the wnole Danish power burst Malmesbury (Ge^t. Bei;, lib. ii. cap. 1:21), f 
upon Wessex. They entered the land at which cannot be said to contradict the his- 
dnippenham; of the eastern part of the j torical account, except the strange statement 



Alfred 156 Alfred 

that Hampshire, Wiltshire, and Somerset , part of Mercia which ^Afred won back he 
were the only shires that remained faithful, put into the hands of ^lilthelied, a man of 
The king while in Athelney has a vision of the old kindly house of Mercia, and who 
8aint Cuthberht, and he afterwards goes into held under tlie West-Saxon king a position 
the Danish camp disguised as a harper. In more like that of an under-king than of an 
a story preserved in the so-called clironicle ordinary ealdorman. To him he gave in 
«>f Brompton (TwYSDEN, DfCffTTi iScr*/><. 811) marriage his daughter .EthelflaEnl, the re- 
we get the tale of his giving the loaf to the nownea Lady of the Mercians, ^thelred 
poor man who turned out to be Saint Cuth- and -.Ethelflajd proved the most loyal of 
berht. In a northern version (see Simeon of helpers both to iElfred and to his successor 
Durham, Hist. Eccl. Dun, lib. i. cup. 10, and Eadward. 

the History of Saint Cuthbert, Twysden^ Tlie question now suggests itself whether 
Decern Script. 7 1 ) the few weeks* sojourn at it is not in this extension of the West-Saxon 
Athelney grows into a three years' sojourn kingdom that we are to look for the oriffin 
at Glastonbury, a name doubtless better of the legend which makes -^Elfred the author 
known at Durham. It is i)ossible that some of the division of England into shires and 
small kernel of truth may be found in these hundreds. As far as regards the himdreds, 
tales, but, as accounts of the events of tlie this notion is as old as William of Malmes-j 
year 878, they are altogether fabulous. bury. It is not at all unlikely that iElfred 

By the treaty now made between .Elfred may have done in his new dominion what 
and Guthrum, a frontier, answering in the his son Eadward clearly did in the much 
main to the Watling Strt^t, was drawn be- larger territory which he recovered from the 
tween the immediate dominions of the two ' Danes. That territory Eadward clearly 
kings. That is to say, the West-Saxon king mapped out into new shires without regard 
kept the whole of his own kingdom and to the boundaries of the older settlements, 
added to it all south-western Mercia, esta- It may be that ^Elfre<l had already begun 
blishing also an overlordship, however no- | the work in his Mercian acquisitions, and 
minal, over the land wliich was yielded to that some of the shires in that quarter may 
the Danes. By this arrangement, yElfred, be of his formation. 

as compared with his predecessors before ; In 879 Guthrum and his Danes leA 
the Danish invasions, lost as an overlord, Wessex for Cirencester, where they were 
but gained as an immediate sovereign. | in the part, of Mercia ceded to JElired. 
Ecgberht and -.Ethelwidf had lH?eu kings ■ The next year they altogether left Alfred's 
only of the later Wessex and its eastern de- , dominions, and settled in East-Anglia. For 
]>endencie8, the land south of the Timings, a few years there was quiet, but in 884 w«' 
with such supremacy as they miglit bt? able ,' have the marked entrj- in the Chronicles 
to enforce over the other English kingdoms, that the hosts in East-Anglia broke the 
And this supremacy was undoubtedly more ' peace. Tliis was seemingly bv failing to re- 
real than any that ^Elfred could for some , new their hostages, and oy giving help to a 
while enforce anywhere beyond his own king- ' Scandinavian host which, after much ravag- 
dora. But his own kingdom was greatly en- , ing on the continent, landed in Kent and at- 
larged, and that to a considerable ext«»nt by tacked Rochester. -Elfred drove them back 
lands which had been lost by earlier West- to their ships, and then sent a fleet against 
Saxon kings. And this immediate enlargtv East Anglia which came in for both a victory 
ment of the West-Saxon kingdom was not and a deleat (see the ChronicUsy sub an. 884, 
all. W'essex and her king now stood forth 885, and ^Ethel ward as explained by Lappen- 
as the only English power in Britain, the I berg). In 886 yElfred took an important step 
one which had lived through the Danish in- for the defence of his kingdom by occupying 
roads and had come out stronger from them. ' and fortifving London, which he put into the 
From this time the recovery of the ]>art of | handsof.'Ethelred of Mercia (see the collation 
England held by the Danes, and the union of of the authorities in Ku<L£*s Parallel Chro- 
the whole into one kingdom, was only 9k\ nicies). This .seems to have been accompanied 
question of time. The English peoj)le every- by a general submission to ^-Elfivd of the 
wln-re now learned to look to the ^ est^Saxon Angles and Saxons throughout Britain, exce])t 
kinff as their champion and deliverer, j i so far as they were hindered by Danish masters. 

-Klfred did not however at once bring This is not very clear, as the only separate 
the recovered part of Mercia under his own 1 English state left was that of Bomicia or' 
immediate government. The Mercian king- . aBmburgh. Its prince Eadwulf is said in 
dom had come to an end by the flight of its another account (Twysden, Decern Script, 
king Burhred, ^Elfred's brother-in-law, and , 1073) to have been on friendly terms with 
the Danish occupation of the country. Tlie -Elfi«d, which most likely impbes somemea- 



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■-••. ...^ ".::}'-: .v.-r \ \ ■ ..r. .■.••..: ^x .> '• ■.*■■. ■■. ••. : ■ 
> v M. !>:•-. ..::• 7\x :.•.•. 'i \\\ \ \"'.«x. • 
»> .'/.v..- *:•. r. l»\ :; < \\-.:- I. v. .»\ ■.'•.. >x !• • 



.1.. 1 



I. • '•,•! \% ft. • 4« ftn» 
ft • •( I '^ fti \ •• ftt : I 



(^'hninich'*. Th»'Var>- r-markable lV»r Thf ji-t-;'.: 
extent of coimrrv \vhii*h th«-v covor. Th" 
war 1x'<:ins in :'Outh-»;a*t».Tn En&rland. hnt i: 
presently >]iivadsint'»th».Mli''i ant wt-if. Whilv 
tht kinjr p*>'< to d»'tVnd Kx't'T. attai.*k"d hy 



Tho ir'*nfr:il i^iviwavvl T>^"*-.;h \^t" tlii- !■> 'cn -v' 
.Klfri'd is thii^ pt rtivily phun. \N )n»n i\\r 
Si'anilina\ian in\a>iiMi> th!-»'aTiMU'd tlw uCi"" 
.•\ort!innv of Knirland. auil f"ipivi:ill\ ot' 
V'.nirlish l'hri>tianitv. hi' -aM'il his own Uin»; 



t^*a hv thf Danes from Northnnib*Thnnl an«l d-an fnmi th»» 4r»MiiTal w.«vK. and tnad.* u x\\" 
Ka>t-An^lia. Kaldominn -Ktlu'lred ha-^ to I'nl- i''iiti>' t\>r thi' d»'li\frani'f and union o( \\\- 
low th»> oth»*r army along- )>«th the Thanii"* whoh^ iMumtry. 'Hu' 0:ini>h in\a^j«MiN ihd 
and the .Severn. l)efeat*'d at lUittinjrton, ninrt* than any •»thi*r nm* i'aiiN.« \,\ hmii; 
they ^ back to ESftSex ; then, with new foree«» ahont ih«' unit\ ol' l''.ni:hnid : but th:»! !h«'\ 
from Northumberland and Kast-Anplia, tlu'v diil so wa^ i>nl\ bf»'aii«.i' .Khn-d w.m*. .Mbb' |.» 
cro?..s the island a^ain, and winter in th»» n««e tlietn to thai i-nd. The PaneN, b\ brenK 
Wirrall in Cheshire, within the for-^akeu in«r to pieces ib»; oHum- l\inudom> an\l le:n in»; 
wall.*i of the city which had l>»on Deva and nnr, piM* thatfimr an :iliOi,'i'ihei' n«'\\ p.»Hi. 
which was before long- to ht* Chester. The tion. KcjrUThi TMiMiybt all Mnulajid undiT 
two next years then? is fifrhtinp in nearly his snpreniacy as a I'oihpnTor; I-'MVimI mid 
ever\' pirt of Knjrland. The kinjf, the men his ^ne<•ess^^|■s wimi' siblr 10 win bm-K ibai 
of r^ndon, and the Sonth-SaX(»ns. sh«»w fupnMnacy as deliMMiM--. I'IIiVimI tlid nni 
themselves vijrorons in resi.«*tance, and thf fonn a slnirb* kinplmn uf l'!j»i:bind, bnl In- 
war prWftS on BftS far north as Yf>rk. TnlJ^O? took tlie lirst >ti*j»s tnwunK \\^ t'oiinalion b\ 
the invadei-s seem to have l)«'eu tiivd out. his son ami ^n-andMui*. Hi', rnxnl .stxli* 1^ 
Some withdrew to the continent, some to i-emarkabh>. Hesiiles ihe n1i\iiin» tub' nt' 
East-Anjflia and Northumberland. Warfaii' ' WeM-Saxonnin re\,' In* wry ol'tiMi eulU 
by land c«nie» to an end; and, by impnive- _ himsidf * Kex Saxonnni,' a litb' unknown 
raeiit8 in tliu build of his ships, .Kltifd is lM*for(>, and not coninnin al'lerwanUft Nn 



Alfred 158 Alfred 

Other style so exactly expressed the extent of I the king is the power that can best be truBted. 



.Alfred s dominion. It took in all, or nearly 
all; of the Saxon part of England, and not 
much besides. For the Mercian ealdorman- 
ship of ^ICthelred consisted to a great ex- 
ti^nt of lands which had been won by the 
West-Saxons in the first conquest, and which 
had afterwards passed under Mercian rule. 
Of the high-sounding titles which were 



Asser emphatically says that ^£lfred was the 
only man in his kingdom to whom the poor 
could look for help. The circumstances of 
^Elfred's reign dia much also to quicken a 
change which was then going on both in 
Enffland and in other parts of Europe. This 
is t^e change from the old immemorial no- 
bility of birth to the new nobility of per- 



taken by the kings who followed .Elfred we sonal seryice, that is in England the change 
see no sign in nis time. Asser howeyer i from eorlas to \>etpuis. Rank and power be- 
more than once speaks of him as ' Angul- come attached to ser\'ice due to the king as 
Saxonum rex/ the earliest use of a name a personal lord, a process which, in the be- 
which, as expressing the union of Angles ginning at least, does much to strengthen 
and Saxons under one king, became not un- i the authority of that personal lord. But it 
common in the next century. Asser, as a I does not appear that .Alfred was the author 
Welshman, naturally speaks of the tongue j of any formal legal or constitutional changes, 
of ^^Ifred as Saxon, and his land as Saxony. In his legislation liis tone is one of singmar 
But .Alfred himself, while with minute ac- ' modesty. * He did not dare to set down 
curacy he uses the Saxon name in his title, much of his own in writ, for he did not know 
always in his writings speaks of his people > how it woidd like them that came after.' He 
and their tongue as English. I speaks of himself as simply choosing the best 

As ^Elfred extended the bounds of his among the laws of earlier kings, and ast 
kingdom, there can be little doubt that his ' doing all that he did with the consent of 
reign greatly tended to the increase of the his witan. And the actual legislation of 
royal authority within his kingdom. This , -Elfred is of exactly the same character as 
was the natural result both of his position the legislation of the earlier kings. What 
and of his personal cliaracter. It is a mere strikes us most in his laws as compared with 
legend which charges him with oppressiye the laws of his own predecessor Ine is the 
or eyen harsh rule at any time of his life, absence of any reference to the distinction 
But when a king has won the position, both 1 of English ani Welsh. The Britons within 
legendary and historical, of /Elfred, eyen the the immediate; West-Saxon kingdom (that 
most suspicious witness against him becomes is, no doubt, mainly in Somerset and Deyon- 
of imi>ortance. Unless we assume sheer in- shire) had now practically become English, 
vention for contradiction's sake, it must be And the events of .Elfrei's own rei|p must 
an exaggeration or distortion of something, haye done much to >vipo out the distinction. I 
Something must liaye suggested the story. Fighting with the Danes had made Britons 
There seems no reason to charge yElfred, as and Englishmen one people within the West- 
a great scholar (Kehble, Sfuvons in Enrfland^ \ Saxon realm. 

ii. 208) has done, with * anti-national and AVhat is specially characteristic of ^Elf-. 
un-Teutonic feeling.* But we may believe ' red*s laws is their intensely religious cha- v 
that the king who had }j«;en marked out for racter. The body of them, like other Christian 
kingship by a papal liallowing in his child- , Teutonic codes, is simply the old Teutonic 
hood, and who had come to the kingshi]) of law, with such changes — more strictly per- 
his people by what might seem so marked a i ha])s such additions — as the introduction of 
course of destiny, may from the beginning Christianity made needful. What is peculiar 
have held the kingly authority somewhat 1 to ^l^]lfred*s code is the long scriptural intro- 
higher than the kings who huL gone before j duction, beginning with the Ten Command- 
him, somewhat higher tlugKieased all his ments. The Hebrew law is here treated very 
subjects. In fact, the stflH^iening of the . much as an earlier Teutonic code might have 
kingly ])owor would be th^thnost necessary been. The translation is far from being al- 
r»»sult of ^'Elfred's career. He made his ! ways literal ; the language is often adapted 
kingdom afresh, and he enlarged its Iwrders. to 'Feutonic institutions, while, on the other 
()f all that was done he liinisolf was prt»- 1 hand, some very inapplicable Hebrt»w phrases 
eminently the doer. We see th<.» same thing and usag».'S are kept, and the immemorial 
in France under Saint Lewis, a king in Teutonic (or rather Ar^-an) institution of the 
whom the warlike sidt* was less ])rominent wergUd is said to be a ni(»rcifid invention of 
than in --Elfred, and who never had to fight christion bishops. This last error is spe- 
for the being of his kingdom. Under kings | cially strange, as yElfrt?d commonly shows a 
like ^Elfrea and Lewis the kingly power ' thorough knowledge of the institutions and 
grows, simply because every man knows that ' traditi<ms of his own people 



id f red 159 .-Elf red 

TLrTv i* ?.«~iEr :*c;I:y £":•:•.!.- I.t:ij'iaj»' did all thi" a:.: :i: r- rv!«-. H- ir:-. ;- i". 

<«f A>*-r uV. //./;. 4.>7 •. wL-r. hr pmi**-? hi? t'urth-r r:>::.* -* • :-:!.•• -'i-'rivii' :r. 1 

.Klfr»-*i*> z-al f-:r ::.- ^•is.ir->tnit:'«n -t:' ju^ intvlWTv.:il T'a.'!.-r ::.:*|-- ;'.>-. Y r ::: i'.l 

Tic»' and h:? <>=-ri*:>-* -r. L"»:'rrii]«t -.r ino'-ni- hi* wririnj* .K'.:> I :* -:!.'. ':.i"- .d*.:y •'.:- 

]^!-nT jiidjfj. A" K-n-Mr I .V?.. .,-»;# iVi A/I*/- t»:ach'r. H- \vr!"« * ir- ::: i "':.•— 7 «-: *- ■ t' 

//i/i'/. :;. VJi sb'-A-?. :: > n-: v^n* -;fV !•.. *— - diity. •■• ic-ri: :.> ■ 'a:; : '.k. H- ■;:. :-r .1-;-* 

wh.i Th»r 'C'"!n::-i' &r. : ' |.nt-i-'*:Ti ' »>• : :L- L:::i:M- ••:!:..•• :" . Tr^^^"..." r. ::!i : • .r:* 

K»-ai)iI- *urj^r*t-i :ha". :hf r».-f-r»nc" may l-f- in*..- Li* nati^'- * :.;•.-■ -:.:. 'x^r.r.z^. >- 

!'■» Th»* kind's •"'"'vn f""i/'<;^-.v}<r-i •»''-;-•«*.>. his liji •;*. l.i^t-'r'.i- :'.■.:::-■.' :.*.r...-. .•.-!.-■ •".."r/a* 

«'wn t"!ir I T h:« ••■wn imn:-':: 1:- ! •ll-wir.j. w:!i t^-n.i r . •':.. ::>'r;. •:•■:. :' L.* :— :1-. 

ar.il :haT .Elfr^l u-ay ha^-l-ji:: •;.•• «y«-»-i:: A* r: :-ai"!.-r. h* •• - • v ■' '? .1. i :.!::>-!: " i 

<"'!* r-yal 7/11W. c"n:r ;I:nj t' -'a:*.- vx>r*: *»-r%il- r^ j r •:..••: ■!: :* !..- :i;*l. r. i« :::-!i 

rh^ jM.p-ilar c'-art*. whic:. wa.* :n ::iil tri-- •:• «*:II :!i wri* :::_'« ■:—.::- : * i- ly : -r - i.ri- 

in ti.v vl^-v-ntL c-zizxiry. and »*'.iT «:" wLi«."h cs'-i'-n. hv :\!>>-i uvA :-. 1 :•. .: " :.> r:.- r.:il. 

.*ifrHnzoiirTirv-?«t-n: ^uiiciriKv*!*-!::. I:i«l.'ir:lv whvn-v^r !iv :i. -j:.: •L:.* • v * ■ irj :.- 

n^-».-<lfiil to ^ay :hat :i.- -!'-ry ■ f hi* har.jin^ c -.il i >^tt»r i-r ^• hi- > .-. i-. r*. Hv > ■ m;- 

th" oomipt T.idj*-* is I'Urvlv !2\-!hical. ' n-ntlv a r.a'i •:: .! '.vrvr: w- r-.-: -ha:, ':k- 

Tile ii»-r*'»nal charsoT-r ••!* -Kl:r»-h as *••: Charl-* :h- lir* .'.h- '. •^- : •!.- 1: f-::- ■:.:-: 

furth hv h:sb:'2Ta|'hrrA'i«-r.c»r:a:iily C'l'in-* *-"«ri.-* ar.l !r.: i.'i :> r.z:\ :■■. .jh*. 'h-:'.:" hi- 

ji* iwar i«-" j-irnV-cri'T. a* rhat ■"■•* ar.v r»-i/:r:'d chilir-n. .::: : •'.• '.r • ::• .•• :. h::>- 1: ;« -r- :i 

man. H»- iriv-* u* ii't "^nly a j«i«.-!ir- '■! a >— r. i:i hi* -.vr.*::..-. H- J^^v i *-> ?=• '• 

man tlniniTijkly d-^-v-t-j t-' i.i* '.v. rk. :*.ii'h- -.v'.ich i-rhi;* ;• v. •.- . .^'-r* jr..*: ir. hi* :s;y 

fully discharjinj rhr avkn- -wl- L*- i d:'i-* :h\r. :• '.v ;« • !:.-v.h ;" '. .:-r. 'h ;" :u'. r. «■ .:. V»- ^ 

nf his otficv. but :!*•=• furrh-r j-ii' .r- • :' "r.- T^^lly .*:lrrr i :.:-. : * ■. :^\.'. l.'.'. :hr.-jh Th*. ir ^ 

whri, as a kinsr. th-^ r^th- r '>:' hi* ;*- j-Iv. wn • r..->-. I' - •*. i •.'•-■i'.y * -x].-.' )." " 

nought for «?\'rr>- <'>p|»^«rr';ni'y • f i :r.j j --1 j.> -i-r*. • 1, :■• 'vh .* h- hir: *■ '.:' 'vr •-. : ■ v ].\' 

to hi.* jHr-oplH in MV'-ry ";\-.':y. Many :' ::.■■ hi? -x •.::.] 1- •!: r..-- : "h' r* * •.vri*-.*:. .- 

dfr'tail.- hav»- b'-c-m** h-.i*-h"l i w r-i*. Hi- -x-- -■••.v- ■• ;r j-— • — . :. :" -. ri.:.-r • .r'.y ;:•'- 

carvfiil •:rcnn''»mv '..fTiii:.-. f-v which }.-:" -in i n'/ir- '.].-.r. .-.: v *:.. r :- • '.- :" AV-«-.-rn 

mean* to carry rin hi- s'iii-* with it ir.*-r- E ir "j-tr. a:.! '.':..' ':.- h i" .* :" wri*i::j in 

f»*rinp with th- car-- • :' u' 'V-miiivr.'. hi- Kr.jli-h r.-v-r :• i *. '•• r: wh-n :}i- 

tWp d*?votion, hi? c^^^-n-rant th-T.jh: I'-r hi- K:./.i-h ' i:.' >■ : : r - : ^v^.^ .-i^-i : -. 

ji*-o]d*f, the varinii* -xj-d;»nv ar.? inv^r.- >.-r a I-in> 1 a:.: • r*'y •: h ir. i"- •••vn 

tions of a Mmplf a^r-. al! ^rar. i •'•.1: in hi* lac i. 

lif»; a* rHCor«l»-d by th-^ a'in-irir.j -Tiiij-r. .Elr'r-i hi::.-':. .:i •:.• vr-:'i«^- •.'• 'h- 

And w»- must n-'-t f-rj:-! hi* phy-if^-al di:!:- IN-?- r! : *i--. :y. -•-: -h -.r.:: la:::-:-*- 

cultie.*. The tal^ of Th*- -i^kn-*- -.vhi«-h V-—: ::.-- *:-.•.: :•:• k : '.• rr. • j '' :. :. h- : :!.■• in 

him on th»- day of hi* niarriaj- h:i : a: • 'h-r :.;- ■'•'vi; k.:.jl -:. * ':.•■ * ::.- : hi- ■•.."••■■--i- n. 

timejK of his lif»* -••^ir.- t « hi'.- r— ■-:•.- i I* w;:« :.. :" •■.•• :■ . • • :.. - :' Kr.jli-h iri- 
le^»*ndary addition* : bu*^ ih- j-r.-r.i". .'lir.-'j •-'!•■.••: -h- *.i*--r.- •':/:■•■ ! N rh .::.- 
of the ^torv *»-em* to 1»- tr'i-'w rhv. H;J ^..r'-.'vi :. . i : -- : .'• "• : '].. . ::*ir- ■:- 

bountv wn* larjr*- and -v-t-ma":'". H- 1:- li'-r-.r'/ -::.":.•:.- :" ^^ \ ".v;.* • . "u-jin 

boupedhardtor»-*tore th-niOnsi-*.."]ir-whi'-h wi'h i.in.**!:. H - ' ' ". ' :. !" -•.■.]•:• 

had nri'tty wirll di'-d out in hi- k.n*'-: m. hy < K!" - i — s •.-.!• -.- i '. - ''..• - - • .II- i Ilr -..:- 

the foundation of hi* tw^« n:'''naeT-r—. *-':.'• : :: — i- i- r-*.y !..'•. .'. -; • • :.• i i -M *! .• 

for women at .Shhftesb'ir}'. the • 'L-r : r ::.-!i ).- ';••.'-: ! r '].- ':• •. •■• ::."Ij' •! !■ : : »• 

on the frpot which had *e*-n hi- rir-r r—i-'- hy : '-.::•::..• •:.• '■- -• - "■ ' hir- in •' • :. 7.;.:— 

ance totheDanf*on Alh»rln*-y. And >»►■•!:• • •••ri-- "vhif^:. "-..-. -• . - ' )•'■!•}.• -i::.-...':'! 

^iff* to the jKiTir and r»'li::i ii* f«;;i.:i"i r - ^." .'":..• - : > * *■ ■■. ; ..-li • « i- - -•.'.] 

at hom^*, he sent alms to H-m»*and -\--t- • j.>!-r:.'.- :.*. 'I' •' !••• ■ ••'■!*• : ■: '• ':. 

India \Chron. ""ub an. *"*.;•. In hi- r:. :r v- :> n. * .• - ; .r- : !'.• ' ' • i *- ::. ' '. i- 

sid»'d activitv. h»- lof.k-«i car-fi;llv a:*-r h- ^-' ' i • ..* H- - .:." \-.'' -• • I'i- j- 

builders and jfold-wr-rk-r-. hi- h-in:-::.* r. jit. i :;. .:. i ■ • JJi-'. " ^-'^ • "' " *' -" " M- •• • 
falcon^-rs, in a stat- ' f Th'.nr- "vh-r. h .:.'.'.:. j jh- '• r j' ■ ■'•'.:■ • i • i J '• *'. ' 1 -^ .\ r. 
wa^s no m-T*' *p<">rt bw! a — ri' .- * :-!!.• -_^. I :• : . 'h- • 'j * r "•. i- .:;•"■ i • • : 

Flut it i* aft»-r all *.h- -•H'-*:v ir.-- ii-'* .-•.'. •••]'•-••. •. A---.- i -^ '• * ■ ^ *. 

nde of .Klfr»-d** charir-».-r whi-h i- u.- *' .T :.r. >• * -!,■■.••.•' - * ::.- 

i*|H'ciHlly hi* own. Any •■-•h* r kr^gi^.': :•• .■;. »►*:. ' •.• i'l- ' • •"-••■. 

havr thoupht it »-noii:rl, T'. ii.-!.-:,^^^[? :i. I; .• ;• v. • ■-'.■:• ' .- 

with courajr**. to ml- th»-rn wiy^ff^i' . . ". •h:* h* h- :.•• - ■■ ■•'.■. -. *^*-:.r..'-- 

legi;<Iate for them with wi^^RT -Ki:r- : !> ::. ill ] ."- 1 * ■ hi? v..:. 



JEUred i6o Alfred 

and he gladly received all who brought with not that which would be most edifying, 
them any knowledge or any useful art, the Whether Boetius was personally a Christitn 
seafaring Othhere no less than Grimbold or or not is a difficult question ; the popularity 
Asser. And it should be noticed that his . of his name and writings was largely due to 
reception and encouragement of strangers, i the belief that he was a martyr for orthodoxy 
forming as it did a marked feature in TEU- at the hands of an heretical prince, and to 
red^s character, seems never to have been the existence of several theological treaties 
turned against him as a fault, as it was bearing his name. These were doubtless the 



against some other kings. 

But for us Alfred's greatest and most 
abiding work in his character of promoter of 



grounds which suggested the works of Boetius 
to ^^Ilfred or to Asser as a subject for study 
and translation. But, whatever its author 



knowledge is that he gave us our unique was, the 'Consolation' is certainly not a 
possession, a histor\' of our own folk in our christian book, though, like manj writings 
■ own tongue from tlie beginning. The most | of the last days of paganism, it is to some 
\ reasonable belief seems to be that it was at | extent tinged with ckristian thoughts and 
-Klfred*s bidding that the English Chroni- ' phrases. It is also a" learned book, fuU of 
cles grew into their present shape out of the allusions which would be quite unintelligible 
older local annals of the church of Win- to /Elf red's unlettered West-Saxons, many of 
Chester. W^o thus have, what no other nation which were not well understood by ^dfred 
of Western Europe has, a continuous national himself. It is also a book written partly in 
record from our first coming into our present prose and partly in verse. The book needed 
land. In it« earlier parts some mythical a thorough recasting to suit ^fflfred's purpose, 
names and reckonings may have foun<^ their He did thoroughly recast it ; the pagan book 
way into its text ; but the essential truth of became christian, the learned hock became 
the record becomes more and more strength- popular. Short allusions of Boetius to his- 
ened every time it is put to the t«8t. In the toncal or mythological points are expanded 
course of -^^ilfred's reign it grows into a de- into full narratives under the hand of J^!lfred. 
tailed contemporary narrative of the most In these expansions ^Ifredsometmies makes 
stirring years of his life. lustofical m i staire8"^tiiich He w ouI3 h ardlj^ 

Of /Elfred*s own* writings the chief are fiavelnade afterteiiTrdlmggtgre ^jEg^iStOT y 



his translations of Boetius's * Consolation of oT'Of osius, ahd' wljlc b. thus^ Eelp us to fixtge^ 

Philosophy,' of the Histories of Breda and So ^ius as theearli er wor k of t^tw^ On 

Orosius, and of the * Pastoral Care * of Ore- f'Ee'TJthef'liahd, he somelt&ies catcfiSB" his- 



fory the Great (* |»a boc l>e is genemned on torical analogies with the happy grasp of 

iieden Pastornlis and on Englisc Ilirdeboc '). fcnie genius. The * Consolation of Boetius ifi 

The order in which they were written is a interspersed with poems, which are specially 

matter of some interest which is discussed by crowded with allusions which for -^'Elfred's 

Dr. Bosworthin his preface to the Orosius. He readers needed a commentator. In ^^Ifred's 

is inclined to place them in this order, Boetius, hands therefore the Metres become prose, and 

Bicda, Orosius, Gregorj'. The first three he prose of a very diflerent kind from that of 

places in the time of peace, betwfM*n 887 and the original. ^'Elfred made it his business to 

893, and the fourtli in the last years of peace explain whatever would be puzzling. Thus 

after the war with Hasting, ])etween 897 in the Metre in iv. 3 of the * Consolation,' 

and ^'Elfred's death. And we may perhaps Boetius tells the story of Odysseus and 

safely infer that the Boetius is the earliest, Kirke>\'ithout mentioning the name of either, 

and that it was begun in the year 887. For Odysseus is merely pointed at as * Neritius 

it is in that year that Asser (M. H. Ji. 492) dux,' as in iv. 7 he is pointed at as * Ithacus.' 

places the beginningof.Elfred's work oftrans- .^fred explains at length who ^Aulixes' 

lation, and William of Mulmesbury ((7f*^a was. He was king of two kingdoms — *Itha- 

Ref/um, lib. ii. cap. \2'2) speaks of Asser as cige ' - /^A«rrt insula^ and 'Retie,* seemingly 

giving -ElfnMl help in the translation of Boe- a corruption of Neritos. These two king- 

tius. The G regor\- cannotJje earlier than 890^ doms King Aulixes held of the Emperor 

as J^lfed J^^s^f Regrnund as rfrchbishop, Agamemnon (* Aulixes . . . hrefde twa|noda 

wliichlie dianot1)ecf>ilif* fil l ttlB t year. " Aho^ under ])am kasere . . . and )>fe8 kaseres nama 

eveii without datesT^vS mTglit set"3own the , wses Agamemnon*). The over-king at Win- 

Bo«4ius as earlier than the Orosius. It is Chester understood the position of the over- 

perhaps the most interesting of all .FJfred's king at Mykene so mucn better than many 

works, and best shows the spirit of the man | much deeper scholars that we may forgive 

and the way in which he went to work. He him his little slipin the geography of W'estem 



wrote for the edification of his people, and 
a literal transhition of the Latin wnt(»r was 



Gre«»ce. 
Then come the two strictly historical 



yElfred 16 1 .Elf red 

works, Ba^da and Orosius. Tlu? choico of of .KsopV Kablfs liy uii Kn^lish kiujf. tin' 

liicda was obvioua. And Orosius, author of authorship of whieli stniiip'ly ihu'tiinii'N U»- 

II history of the world written from a , twoon.Klfredand Ilrnry ^son Wuniiir, /»Vi»- 

>iv«cially christian point of view, woa just (jraphia Britaniiiva Litvruriu^ An^flo-Saxon 

lilt.* kind of work that suited .Elfred's pur- Period, p. .*^iM5, and Krkkman, Sonnan («i/i- 

p«is*e. But he treated it in his usual way; 1 ywr/^/, iv. 7iM5). Tht* wond«»ris, iu>t that sonu« 

lu' added and left out at pleasure. In the t«puriou.s writings ^«hould ha\i'lHM'ii alt ributcd 

first bonk, where Orosius treat.** of the geo- . to .Klfred, but that tbt-n* an* nr)i many inori'. 
^raphy of Europe, he works in the long' But, among tht? writings of .Kll'n'd, \\v 

original narratives of Othhere and Wulfstan, ' must not forget liis will, <>1* which the I'ing- 

tk'scribing the northern lands which were | lish text is given by Ki'mbb', ('ml. Dipl. 

unknown to Orosius. The historian, in ii. ll:i, and a Latin version in (-iHl. Dipl. 

j^hort, no less than the philosopher, is not v. 127, where the preface, ri'ciling the will 

simply translated by ^-'Ijlfi-ed, but recast, of -Kthelwulf, is given at \\\\\v\\ jiii^altT 

But, as dealing with a more technical book, length. In its many s]HriaI biMjin-sts to his 

.Elfnil ket'ps to technical language in tlie ' children and to oIIkt p4'r.'4(ins, and in its 

Orosius in a way in which he did not in the legid and other allusions, psjMTially I hi' ae- 

B^etius. Then a Roman otuntvl was tununl count of t)ie minutt* arraiigf^iKMils madt; by 

into an English hereloyn: now he remains yEthelwulf for the disposal of his proji^rty, 

a Koman consul. it is <nii* of thi* most instructivi- dociinifritK 

Of these writings the Gn-gory is the only of the tini»\ 
on*.' that has b»H.'n edited bv anv scholar of 

thi» latest critical school. It upin-an-d fn)m [<»"»* """" «nth..ritics for tho n-itcn and lilrof 

the hand r>f Mr. Sweet among the publica- -K»f>-«'1 aro hi-^ lift- hy Ass.,r and ihr Ij.^lisji 

tions of the Earlv-English T^xt Societv, <'hn^nid.;s during In. rri;.M,. 'Ih.- pniim. h^hh 

1^71-72. The Ort'isius was .-.lited in l>r)l "?, AsM«rs work was call |d ... .,.m.m1..„. I.y Mr. 

bvllr. Bosworth, whoinhi> pMacedescntx's . » 1 1 .. 1 »» i 1 u i .1 1,1 . 

^f . ^ ' , ,.*,.. „,, f.*fiite<M»y ]'it«T M'li'di-ir-. It. lia.-^ no doiilit iii-in 

the manuscripts and earlier .-ditions. lli;- i^f.^polatrd. an in .v>n..-,f ih- ,.t>,.,.:fo, alH,„i. 

translation ol B:t;du is prints,! m .Smiths ^.^j,,, v..,.,^ ^^,„i ;„ ^,,, „,.,^^ vi,;.,,,..;..^ f.,r;M.rv 

gn-nt tnlition ot Bjeda. \rl'2. Him ]W'tins .^i,,,^^ <JriniI,ol.l af nxf.,nl. IJ.ii 'li-t ori;.onal 

was edited in If*^ by Mr. .Siimu»d l-i»x for tj.^ ..-m ],». r»-»-.i\. vt-A wi»h n-* t'i«at, fr-.Jil.Ii-. ii-ry 

Bnhn*8*Antiquarian Library.' .^tmnir-tn^ay. much \,y \\i*:\i*:\\t*A I'.'ormri 'A \V.,r"« •••it, wh'i 

in t his edition the ( )ld-English t-xt i- p.nntvd hu*. so Iirgidy copi'd A -it. 1 In vi»rk 'A ,\t!«-< r. 

in the so-called * Saxon ' ehurairt'-r;*. thouj/h ihu^ d;-tii;;»ui-i.« d. i.«:ar- *-,*Ty r..ark of inf.mu*— 

Dr. Bosworth had, thirt«-»-n ywir* l>'for»-. bad ii'-h-. It Ht-uih ',ii'- jr.-.j^^--: .«- t5..it any i-.ru'.r 

the sense to print in ordinarv tv]».'. A nni- '^''''''l h-iv-r ir.vM.t«:d '.u. -r/,.:., • ,■;.;..»» Al.i^.h !.« - 

form critical wlition of all Th-" jr-at kin;.'*- "i^'-J^ »•* ' "•'*' *■;•'.-' •■' ■•'•' .. • r-of..i kr.o»..r y.- 
writings would U? no small ::ain to Old- 
English learning. 

Of other writings or all*-.*-': wri'injr- 'd' 
-Elfred it appears that a rr.i:.-Iri*:'.n 'd' •!•.- 
' Snlilo(|ui»'S ' of Saint Au^;.-'. -■.:.- t-iuh."..' ij.- 

printe*l. Tli** s»?panit»* v«rr-; :. !••.•* .^I-•^•- •;\^ /. .." .- y,., \\ jj \', j;^ .. ■ .« 

of JV>eiiu.* — that :-, tL* -.-^. --.-<■••••••-. r. T ... .;...-..■.' : .K- • . ■ i77, ;.•■ 1 .. ;. " 

the metrical pa-*asr-* :n ';.*- ■•* .•;.-'•! ".•.•.:. ' — .. •;... -* 

which i? print*"*! in Mr. Fox'- -ii'l-r.. — .:;.- -*.■* -.. 

clearly not to l>=r -Kilr-i"-. 1:.- * K:.' :.•■..-.- •.-. : •. .. 

dion/ or 'Tlandlxir'k ' — t •• • !■; : -r."r.- - .: : . f. .•--.• 

jotting* of all kici-. ': •:.- >,r' :.:..:.:: -r : -■■'"■ *- -' "' ■■...'*, 

'which A™r I J/. //./>. 4.V / ..... : .. 1 



HTi'i •.".a*, f'.-tn -.■* h:.j -...•:,:;. .' a Ilr 'on. 'If.-. 

» ■«-!• "LI*'* •••i m-i' ''''»*•' .. ft * ^a • 






1 
/ • • • •. 



'■ -•- 



Cf)unt—"»*.— ma to ha v- r>—r, -."..'*.:.'•*• ..-.;.. -•-'•-. 

of Malme^buri*- -in:-, ar. i ;.' .. •— -' r. ''■ ...'' ' * ' ■ ' . ' ' .Vi' 

about Sail:: Y^V\i,r.zz. ir ::. - ^0-'' /'*. ..' ' •- . * - ' . • xi 

lib.ii.cap. l:i:;:^-^r/- • i '-N^- • -- ' /' " ' ' 

flu- P'.Al'ri W' 1 ■' ?■"'*•— •#.-•.'•■•• ' ". . ' . 

iini«h. TL-r '^-cal.-r: 5'.- ■-• . r ..•..••- , ^,, • *. . 
workof th- :L:r^:.' •.-.'■.*.-.' :..:. >•-•':,..•.• . ... 

witne-*ro ?hr v-r.-r.'-i:.'..". ..-. • '''■''■■:.•/•■ ^ •'■*.... * ■ '■ ^ 

waa- ^till hrH. TL-r«r -r*-— • c • " i - >--^ ..••-*'■ / :• / ♦: • 

«*.\tant in t Li sA=.-r c:»r*" -r;. i.'. i. ;-*■-•.•■ ■• •••: v <# .. >•• ' ;, ■••- '^^t 

vol.. r. * € 



^Ifric 



162 



^Ifric 



been referred to already. Of notices of JEHrtd 
in more general writers of English history, the 
most valuable narrative is certainly that of Lap- 
penberg in the first volume of his Qeschichte von 
Englai^, in the second volume of the English 
translation by Mr. Thorpe. Thecgjifititstional 
^ aspect of the reign is treated by'l^rTStubbe, Con- 
' stitutional History, i. 99, 127, 191-7X' 

y^ A. F. 

iELFBIO (d. 1005), archbishop of Canter- 
bury, was a monk of Abincrdon. He has 
been identified by Sir F. Madden, in his pre- 
face to the ^Historia Anglonim* of Matthew 
Paris, with the -^Ifric who appears in the 
* Vit» Abbatum ' as the eleventh abbot of St. 
Albans. The account given by Paris of the 
life of this abbot does not fit in with the life 
of the archbishop. Paris says that he was 
the uterine brother of Leofric, the son of an 
ealdorman of Kent, that Leofric was abbot 
of St. Albans, and was elected to Canter- 
bury, but that he declared that his brother 
.^Elfric was more worthy of the honour. 
Leofiic is, however, represented as becoming 
archbishop, and ^lAric as succeeding him 
in the abbey. This ^Ifric must have been 
past his youth when he took the monastic 
vows, for he is said to have been the * chan- 
cellor ' of -^thelred before he became a monk. 
He bought Kingsbury and some other lands 
for his abbey. He composed and set to music 
a life of St. Alban, which was widely used 
on the day of that saint. He lived over the 
year 1045, the time when England was ex- 
pecting invasion from Magnus, king of Nor- 
way and Denmark. In prospect of this 
danger the abbot walled up the bones of St. 
Alban. He pretended, however, to send 
these precious relics to the abbey of Ely for 
safe keeping in that almost inaccessible island. 
The biographer records a discreditable tale of 
deceit practised by both fraternities towards 
each otKer. Each claimed to have the genu- 
ine relics, and a bitter quarrel ensued. -.-Elfric 
died in the midst of tnis dispute, which was 
the consequence of his own double dealing. 
Such is the life given bv Matthew Paris. It is 
wholly incomprehensible. There never was 
an archbishop of Canterbury named Leofric, 
and, during tne lifetime of this abbot yElfric, 
an .^Elfric was archbishop of that see. The 
succession of the abbots as given by Paris 
from ^Ifric the seventh to -.Elfric the 
eleventh abbot is evidently untrustworthy. 
Sir F. Madden has pointed out that in this 
case the author seems to have found out that 
he was mistaken, for in the autograph copy 
of the * VitsB Abbatum ' (Nero, D. i. fo. 32) 
he has added a marginal note stating that, on 
the refusal of I-ieofric, his brother accepted 
the archbishopric. He therefore considers 



that there is little reason to doubt that .£lfric 
was the tenth abbot, and that on his elevation 
to the episcopate he was succeeded as abbot by 
his brotner Leofric. The archbishop's beque^ 
to St. Albans and his appointment of Leofric 
as his executor are certainly in favour of this 
view. It should, however, be remarked that, 
while he mentions his sisters and their child- 
ren in his will, he does not speak of the abbot 
Leofric as his brother. If Sir F. Madden*8 
view is correct, the life contained in the 
* VitSB Abbatum ' must be given up. It is 
possible that in the life of this abbot, and 
m that of the seventh abbot also called 
^Ifric, who may perhaps be the archbishop, 
the biompher has mixed up the .^fric who 
was archbishop, the -^Ifric who in 1060 was 
elected to that see but was rejected, and some 
third ^^illfric who died abbot of his house. A 
letter prefixed to the glossary of -/Elfric the 
grammarian might weU have been addressed 
to an abbot of St. Albans of the date as- 
signed by Paris to ^Ifric the tenth abbot. 

Accepting, however. Sir F. Madden's ex- 
planation, we find that ^Ifric was installed 
abbot by Oswald, bishop of Worcester and 
archbishop of York. He is said to have 
been made bishop of Hamsbury and Wilton 
in succession to Sigeric, who was translated 
to Canterbury in 990. -Elfric signs as bishop 
of Wilton in 994. He was elected arch- 
bishop in 995, and died in 1005. In close 
connection with his death the 'Chronicle' 
mentions the consecration of Brihtwold at 
Ramsburv. It is therefore probable that 
neither ^felfric nor Brihtwold succeeded to 
Ramsbury immediately on the translation 
of their predecessors, and that both Sigeric, 
for a while at least, and yElfric after him 
held that see along with the archbishopric. 
A letter (Hakpsfeld. Mist, EccL p. 198) 
which speaks of -fElfric as though he were not 
a bishop at all at the date of his election to 
Canterbury is probably spurious, yet it may, 
as Dr. Stubbs suggests, nave a substratum 
of truth as pointing to the fact that he was 
not consecrated to the see of Ramsbury 
until shortly before the death of Archbishop 
Sigeric and his own translation. It has, 
however, been held that he was, as bishop of 
Ramsbury, one of the leaders of the neet 
which, in 992, was gathered together at Lon- 
don. But the bishop who had this com- 
mand was more probablv ^Elfetan of London 
(961-995). An imperfect interpolation in 
the least trustworthv version of the * Chroni- 
cle' records that, when ^Ifric was made 
archbishop, he expelled the clerks frx)m his 
cathedral church and put monks in their 
place. As the account is not contemporary, 
and was evidently written for the purpose of 



-^Ifric 163 JEUric 

glorifying the monks, it deserves little credit. : -^Elfric were constantly guilty of tn»Hohory, 
Florence ascribes the expulsion of the clerks allowance must bo made for the utter want 
to Archbishop Sigeric. William of Malmes- of governance, the alternate violence and 
bury refers to the story in the 'Chronicle,' weakness of the kings, and the evident signs 
and throws doubt upon it. There seems no of factious influence wliich marked the hit or 
means of ascertaining the truth about this davs of the Encflish monarchy. It was ]in>- 
matter. Perhaps the whole story is a fable. , bably tliis -Klfric wlio was the fatht»r of 
^-Elfric is said to have been consecrated in -Elfi'ine,*ofmiglity kin amimg the Mercians/ 
996, the year after his election to Canter- , who, in 991, fought at Maldon in the folhiw- 
bury. As there is no reason to doubt that he ing of Brihtnoth, and who is eonimemorated 
was bishop of Kamsbury before he was made in the song of that battle. liefort* iHU yKlfric 
archbishop, this notice of his consecration was probably restort^d to favour, for an «»al- 
probably refers to the gift of the pall. The dorman -:Eifric joined Archbislio]) Sigeric 
author of the 'Life of Dunstan* who calls and the ealdorman -Kthelweard in buying 
himselfB., in dedicating hiswork to the arch- ' off the Danes from attacking their hinds, and 
bishop, 8]^ks of his remarkable ability. yElf- in persuading the king to make a general 
ric died m November 1005, and was buried peace with them and to pay them tribute, 
at Abingdon. In the reign of Cnut his body War soon followed this ix'aco. In 1M)2 a 
¥ra8 translated to Canterbury. His will is fleet was gathen»d at London. It was placed 
extant. By it he left his books, and land at under the command of two bishr>ps and two 
Kingsbury and other places, to St. Albans, , lav leaders. One of these was /Klfric, in 
and also g^ve land to Abingdon. He left to whom the king now put moni faith than in 
the king his best ship and armour of defence any other. For some unexplained reason 
for sixty men, and gave a ship to the people -klfric, the night U'fore the Heels should 
of Kent, and another to the people of Wilt- , have joined bat tle,ffave warning to the enemy 
shire, the shires of his two dioceses. He of the intended movements and fieri, leaving 
appointed Leofric, abbot of St. Albans, one his ship and his men to hi taken hy the DaneM. 
of his executors. The ships left to Kent and One account represents him as fleeing to the 
Wiltshire were intended to lighten the bur- enemy. He jirobably went in them under 
dens of the people by paying for them a coverof night, and, havin|/ thus escaiMHl from 
portion of the ship-tax widch each shire was his own count r\nien, fle<i away. The Kng- 
bound to furnish m kind. lish fleet, when it found itnelf Utt rayed, dis- 




Stnblw, Begistnun Sacram Anglic] W. H. ('nhappily . Klfrie ua- apiK.int*..! header. 'Hi*. 

iBLFRIC, abbot of St. -\lban.«. 'See armie^-came wellin ^ifrl.t of w^hoiher. 7Vi, 

uElfbic, archbishop of Canterburv." ' ' V""? ' * '™"'^ \'' r'' "''^ ^"'''^'- '"' Unftw-'l 

' ' him?elf ftit:H and Uya/i I0 n;t/'h, Hwi hh'iiI 

JBUFKIC (Ji, dSOMOlOr-i. ealdorman of that h*: wa- ;rrievori-Jy ill and could not fij^ht. 

the Mercians, was the son of the ealdorman When hir xh*:u -a**- th«: utrAlUiuiftf:*.*. of tifif 

.Elfhere [see -JilLFHERE], and wa« ther»-fo.»e lead*?.', th<:y w*:r»- '\\'i</ftirhigf'l. Tit*-. hnh% 

akin to the royal hou*e. He wa* call':'! wa^ »^At?*'.-«d. hrA *K<: \}hutr*. Y,*-ui 0/1 x-itlj 

* Child ' jElfric, and is *poken of a- a man Th«rjr ra;a;r«*. 'H-e umu*- of au hH\'\',nttHu 

of some consequence durin;? the lif*rtirr,e of ^VMrin app<:a.'- \u a t:hh,'^*,r of yK\h':ir*-f\ »o 

his father. He soooeeded to hi* {ik*hhT\ Ely in l'/>4: •}..'• r,«T»' *r*nif'hry w** yrr- 

ealdormanship in ft^S. At a m**:'f:rj? of 'Lt MAy rh'rr'-.f'.'*- •'•,.'. f'/,v;*»'-ri. 

witan held at Cinrnoe*t*^r in if¥7. K*r W4.i» In \h\^*. wK'-n V'ji/i::, is A hrA ^Iwm*. si^. jn 

banished for some cvi**: n^A *ra"rd hy ri.T ^AT*lfc f Ak'^trA .;.. «*.«:•«- *;; ••./: /.-"*•. foj/ 

chroniclers, but. from an app*r*r.rr»'fT.'*:r-/.i»r'o '/ Kr.^Uf,': ift-.r.'.}.*^*., k,:, t:\A'^rtt,fit. /hlfn/- 

him in a charter, he wool'l »¥:*:-m ro y^'^^^^^r* f-"* K:i,f,t.y! *:.*-, .•*-••. i.'jff.*.r./ or; 't,-. ^A*-. *A 

accused of tre«son again** tL^ kir.;?. l\rT:ry •_• rjktjv* /cJr.i^, A J-*>« t/J':.»«-»«^/j v-, V*/^ 

of Huntingdon, who of«j pr»jM:nr* >•.*» J .:..^ 'XV'.-o tr. *r4.'^.r.^^4^ >„*r;/, •Vj/.»'/i. 

feeling, speaks of the crwrlrj -f .E*h>lT^ .•. .-./ ;..a. f's? •*-./,.'.>' «- .v.* i-**%«^-* ^^,*;t»yr.ui(i ^o 

-connect ion with this \mm&htL^iLr., h- . : ' .-. j -ji^- hlx^"* -'..'. */ . .'-. A *. •>- ;. . 'jt :. */ * .• ->. y t^t ^ofhtt 

ing the actkma of men ctf xhl* 'hr^, «L'. JJJK M^rrcui; ^'c^tsuia.. If *'r^, yniinfA 'A 1014 



JEUric 



164 



^Ifric 



was a West Saxon, it may have been ad- 
dressed to him. The name .^Elfric was com- 
mon at this period, and it is impossible to be 
sure about the identity of those who bore it. I 
That the traitor in 992 and 1008 was the 
same man may, however, be taken as certain ! 
(on the identity of the ealdormen named 
yElfric see Freeman's Norman Conquest^ i. i 
a05, 806). ANTiether the son of /Elf here, the 
traitor in the fleet and in the field, and the 
ealdorman who fell at Assandun, were one 
person, cannot be said with certainty. It 
may have been so, for we know too little of 
the causes of the events of the time to decide 
such a question on the mere ground of the 
improbability of changes in men's conduct. 

[A.S. Chronicle)*; Florence of Worcester; 
Henry of Hiintingtlon; Hi^ttoria Elicnsis, ii. 
c. 7 ; Thorpe's Diplomat, p. 282 ; Memorials of 
St. Diinstan, p. 396, Rolls Ser. ; Will, of Malme?*- 
bury, Gest. Keg. lib. ii. c. 151 ; Freeman's Nor- 
man Conquest, i. c. 6.] W. H. 

.£LFRIC (Jl, 1050), archbishop-elect of 
Canterbury, was a kinsman of Earl Godwine. 
From early youth he was brought up in the 
monastery of Christ Church, and was much 
beloved by his fellow monks. He was well 
skilled in worldly matters and took delight 
in them. On the death of Archbishop Ead- 
sige (October 1050) ^Elfric was elected to the j 
see of Canterbury by the monastic chapter of • 
his house. In this election the clergy of the i 
province seem to have concurred. Tlie monks 
sent to Godwine, in whose earldom they i 
were, and informed him of the canonical 
election of -i'jlfric and begged him to use his • 
influence in behalf of his kinsman. The 
earl promised to do all he could in the 
matter. King Eadward was, however, at " 
this time inclined to the faction which op- 
posed the earl, and refused his request m 
behalf of ^Elfric. In the mid-Lent meeting 
of the witan, in 1051, Kobert of Ijondon was 
appointed archbishop, much to the anger of 
English churchmen. 

[Lives of St. Edward the Confessor, ed. Liiard, 
Rolls Ser.] W. H. 

JELFRlCf called Bata (or the bat) . 
(fl. 1005), was a monk and a disciple of 
yElfric the abbot, called Grammaticus [q. v.], ! 
at Winchester, some time before 1005. From 
the Oxfortl MS. of yElfric's * Colloquium ' it 
appears that ^Elfric Rata added something 
to this work composed bv his master, and, 
as the Grammar and Glossary of Gram- 
maticus are combined in that manuscript 
with the Colloquy, it is not unlikely that 
^Ifric Bata copied and edited the whole 
collection. It has been supposed that some 



of the writings attributed to the master 
were the work of the disciple. As, however, 
the only ground on which this opinion rests 
is that it is either impossible or unlikely 
that they shoidd have been written by .^Elf- 
ric, archbishop of Canterbury, there is no 
reason for accepting it, for it is capable of 
ample proof that tne archbishop and the 
grammarian were not the same person. ./Elfiric 
Bata, no less than his master, was r^^arded 
as an opponent of transubstantiation. (%beni, 
who wrote with the evident intention of up- 
holding this doctrine, of which his patron, 
Archbishop Lanfranc, was the champion, in 
his * Miracles of St. Dunstan ' represents the 
saint appearing in a vision to a worshipper 
at his tomb and saying that he had been 
opposing iElfric Bata, who was * trying to 
dispossess the church of God.' 

[For .£lfric's Colloquium, see .£lfHc Oram- 
maticus, Miracula S. Dunstani, Osbem, in Me< 
morials of St. Dnnstan, ed. Stnbbs, p. 136 
(Rolls Series); Wright's Biog. Lit.] W. H. 

.£LFRIC, abbot, called Gramx atious (JL 
1006), was a celebrated author and translator. 
As no name seems to have been more common 
at the close of the tenth century than that 
of yElfric, and as it was borne by several ec- 
clesiastics of whom some record exista, there 
has been much controversy about the identity 
of this writer. By Mores (De JElfricOy &c., ed. 
Thorkelin, 1789), who is followed by Wright 
(Biog, Brit. Lit. \. 480), Dean Hook i^Abpt. 
of Cant. i. 489), and Mr. Freeman (Norman 
Conqtiestj i. c. 5), he has been identified with 
.^]lfric, archbishop of Canterbury [q. v. ]. This 
theory is impossible, for in the second preface 
to the * Homilies ' he speaks of the aays of 
3]thelred as already past; and though in the 
earlier preface he offers his work to Arch- 
bishop bigeric (d. 994), who approved it, yet 
the second preface was probably written at a 
later time, and after the death of -^thelred 
in 1016. Besides, we find him describing 
himself as abbot when writing the *Life of 
yEthelwold,* bishop of AVinchester, in 1005, 
the year in which -^Ifric, archbishop of 
Canterbury, died. Bv Wharton (Anglia \ 
Sacra, i. 125) he is heli to be one with JFA- 
fric, archbishop of York, and this opinion is 
adopted bv Thorpe in his preface to the * Ho- 
milies.' Although this is not impossible, yet, 
as Canon Stubbs (Mosheim's EccL Hist. ed. 
Stubbs, ii. 86, 71.) has pointed out, on this 
theory * the archbishop would have lived to 
nearly ninety years of age, a fact that would 
have most likelv been recorded if it were so.* 
All we knowof -/Elfric, archbishop of York, 
makes it highly improbable that ne was the 
author of abbot ^Ifric's works. i¥!lfric the 



-^Ifric 



165 



.•Elfric 



writer never spernks of hinuelf by anv higher 
title than that of abbot, and there ij^ no rea- 
i«on to doubt that Dr. Lingaid {Hitt. amd 
Antiq. iL 453) is right in deciding that he wa« 
never raised to the episcopate. The tradition 
that he was archbishop of Canterburv pro- 
bably arose from the use which has been made 
of his writings in theological controversy. It 
pleased those who insisted on his opinions 
being accepted as the doctrine of the church 
of Knglana in early days to entertain the be- 
lief that he was its chief pastor. All that can be 
certainly known about .xHfric must be gleaned 
from his writings. In his early days he was 
taught by a secular priest, who could scarcely 
understand Latin. .£lfric despised the igno- 
rance of the secular clergy. * There was no 
one,' he says, ' who could write or understand 
Latin letters until Dunstan and .Ethelwold 
revived learning.' .Elfric found a more capable 
teacher, for he became a pupil of .Ethelwold. 
It is therefore probable that he was a monk 
of Abingdon, where .Kthelwold was abbot. 
AMien .Ethelwold was made bishop of Win- 
chester (963), he expelled the secular clergy 
from the old minster, and sent to Abingdon 
for monks to fill their place (Vita S. .Ethel. 
1 2, in Ckron.de Abingdon, ed. Steven8on,R.S.). 
yElfric was most probably among those who 
came, for the next thing we know about him 
connects him with Winchester. £thelm(er, ' 
the ealdorman of Devonshire, the f^^eat pa- 
tron of monasticism in the west, fimshed the 
monasteiy he was building at Ceme. At his 
request -ifelf heah, who succeeded -Ethel wold ; 
at Winchester (984-1005), sent .Elfric to 
rule over the new foundation. -.Elfric was, 
he tells us, at that time * a monk and a mass- 
priest.' He afterwards became abbot of Ens- 
ham, which was also founded by -iEthelmaer, 
and was completed, it is said, in 1005 (Duo- 
dale, Jfono^.ed. 1817 &c.iii.l). Alettertoan 
^Ifric who was evidently a monk is attached 
to -Elfric's * Glossary.' It describes the person 
addressed as high in favour with Cnut, and 
begs him to use his influence with the king 
to obtain his assent to a request. It is pos- 
sible that this .^Elfric ma^ have been the ab- 
bot of Ensham ; but it is more likely that 
the person addressed was the abbot of St. 
Albans of the same name [q. t.]. ^Elfric 
remained on intimate terms with nis patron 
^Ethelmser and his son ^thelweard, and did 
much of his work in translating to please 
them. In the preface to his translation of 
Genesis he tells ^Ethelweard that he will not 
translate anything more, and says : ' I pray 
thee, dear efudorman, that thou bid it me no 
more, lest I be disobedient to you or a liar if 

do it; 

The name of iElfric has become famous 



from the vigour with which he oppi^e^xl iht* 
doctrine of transuhstantiation. and |vart5 of 
his writinss which tivat this subject have 
been repuUished from time to time whenever 
any special agitation has arisen on tht^sacra^ 
mental quest ion in England. llissch^HUK^^k^, 
and especially the preface to his Grammar, 
show that he' t*"H^k a warm interest in t^hi- 
cation* which \*-as fully iu aoixml with the 
spirit of the monastic rt'vival of his time, 
Tlie employment of his talents by ealdomieu 
and bishops is an evidence tliat his learn- 
ing was recognised by his c«>ntem|H)raries. 
He was for the mt^t |uirt engagvil in trans- 
lation and compilation. His -^Titin^ ari;« : 
1. Two books of * Homilies,' each (Hmtain- 
ing forty sermons. Tliest* he c*^mpiU\l and 
translated into English frt>m the stannous of 
various Latin writers which wen* usevl in the 
church. He says t liat he undert »M>k t his work 
because there was little giv^wl light for any 
except such as could rt^ad I^tin, save wliat 
was contained in the b(H)ks translattnl by King 
-Elfred. These homilies art* mostly nppn>- 

Sriated to the diffonmt Sundays and sunits 
avs throiurhout the vear. Thev art* short 
and vigi^rtius, and are usually tilled with nar- 
rative. One of them, the sermon *on the 
sacrifice,* for Easter Sunday, contains stnmg 
statements against the teachinuf of the Ui>- 
mish church on the subject of tlie euoharist. 
In this matter he pn)bably owtnl nnioh to 
llatramn of Corbie (rir. 8iK)), the o])]Hinent 
of Paschasius Riulln^rt. In a senuon for St. 
Peter's day he also puts forth d^wtrine which 
is not in acconl wit n the tenets of the ohun'h 
of Rome concerning that apostle. As the 
homilies wen* acct^ptwl by .Vrchbishi^p Si- 
fiperic, and -Elfric was emnUiyiHl by other 
bishopS) they mnv lx» helil to expn»ss the 
teaching of the cliurcli of England at that 
time, even thougli the writ<»r was nevor a 
bishop himself. For this reas(m the Paschal 
homily has been fn^iuently usiij in contnv- 
versy. It was published with other smaller 
translations in lo6(i .\n inten»sting intro- 
duction on the state of the Anglo-Saxim 
church, and a recommendation sigiunl by 
Matthew Parker, archbishop of (Canterbury, 
Thomas Young, an»hbishop of York, and 
thirteen other bishops, an* apiH»n(le<l to it. 
The title is *A Testimonie of Anti<niitie, 
shewing the auncient fayth in the C-hun'h 
of England touching the Sacrament of the 
body and blonde of the J^onl here puhlikely 
preached, and also concerning the Saxons 
time 8(X) years ago. Imprinted at Ijondon 
by John I)ay, dwelling ouer Aldersgate l)e- 
neath S. Martyns.' Extracts from /Elfric's 
writings concerning the sacrament wenj 
printed in Foxe's Martyrology, ed. 101 0. Tlie 



^Ifric 



1 66 



^Ifric 



* Testimonie ' has frequently been reprinted, 
e.g. by W. L'Isle in 1628. It was re-edited 
by Mr. Copinger, and published by Picker- 
ing, London, 1877. In l7l5 Elizabeth Elstob, 
niece of the great Anglo-Saxon scholar Hickes, 
made two attempts to publish the ' Homilies.' 
She did not accomplish more than a few pa^s 
in either case. The homily for the Nativity 
of St. George was j^ublished by her in 1709, 
and was reprinted m 1839. The two books 
of homilies, the second containing five ad- 
ditional discourses in the original Anglo- 
Saxon, with a modern English version, were 
edited by Thorpe and printed for the ^Ifric 
Society, London, 1844-46. The sermons for i 
saints days have been edited by Mr. Skeat for 
the Early English Text Society 1881. 2. ' A 
Treatise on tne Old and New Testaments * 
(ed. W. Lisle, 1623). This work has also af- 
forded food for controversy. Mr. H. Soames 
in his * Bampton Lectures ' (No. 96), and in 
his * Latin Church in the Anglo-Saxon Times,* 
declares that /Elfric followed Jerome in his 
opinions on the subject of canonicity ; while 
Dr. Lingard, in his *■ History and Antiquities,' 
maintains that he is in accord with the Tri- 
dentine dogma. 3. The * Heptateuchus,' an 
abridgment and translation of the first seven 
books of the Old Testament, with the Book 
of Job, &c., edited by E. Thwaites, Oxford, 
1699. 4. The Life of St. ^thelwold in 
' Chron. Monasterii de Abingdon,' ii. 255, ed. 
Stevenson, R.S., beginning *Alfricus Abbas, 
AVintoniensis alumnus.' 5. * Excerpts from 
St. zEthelwold's Rule of St. Benedict,' for the 
monks of Ensham. A proposal for publica- 
tion under the editorship of W. E. Buckley, 
of Brasenose College, Oxford, was put forth 
by the -/Elfric Society. 6. * Canons,' writ- 
ten for Wulfsy, bishop of Sherbom (991- 
1001). These canons relate to the duties 
of priests. They magnify the priestly office, 
saying that there is no difierence in order 
between a priest and a bishop, though the 
bishops have distinct duties and precedence. 
They refer to the universal habit of the mar- 
riage of the clergy and to their worldly lives. 
Canon 36 contams the same teaching con- 
cerning the 'Holy Housel' as the Paschal 
homily. 7. A * Pastoral Letter,' written for 
Wulfetan, archbishop of York (1003-1023), 
in which he makes the archbishop declare 
that he will not forcibly compel his clergy to 
chastity, but admonishes them to observe 
that rule. 8. A letter entitled *Quando 
dividis Chrisma,' on the use of the holy oil. 
These three, 6, 7, 8, are printed in Thorpe's 
* Ancient Laws and Institutes,' published 
under the direction of the Commissioners of 
Public Records, 1840. The Corpus Christ i Col- 
lege MS. of the * Canons ' ends with the 36th ; 



cetera demnt. From this Spelman printed 
in the ' Concilia,' vol. i., and Mi^fne in the 
' Patrologia,' vol. cxxxix. This is all that 
Migne publishes of .^Elfric's works, on ac- 
count, he says, of their anti-catholic ten- 
dency. 9. A * Latin Grammar and Glossary,' 
printed by W. Somner in the * Dictionarium 
Saxonico-Latino-Anglicum,' Oxford, 1660. 
This grammar gained iElfric the title of 
Grammaticus. It is founded on the gram- 
mars of Donatus and Priscian. It was writ^ 
ten for, and is dedicated to, the boys of Eng^ 
land. A twelfth-century fr^fment of tne 
grammar was found by Sir T. PhiUipps at 
Worcester, and published by him under the 
signature T. P., London, 1838. The grammar 
is included in the ^ Sammlung englischer 
Denkmftler,' Berlin, 1880. 10. The * Collo- 

?[uium,' a dialo^e written by JSlfric and en- 
arged by ^Ifric Bata, his disciple. This is 
an amusing reading-book, designed to help 
youn^ scholars to speak Latin correctly. It 
contains descriptions of the daily life of men 
of various occupations — e.g. of the plough- 
man, the kin^s huntsman, and the monastic 
scholar. It is published in Thorpe's ^ Ana- 
lecta Anglo-Saxonica,' 1834, and in ' Altsach- 
sische und angelsachsische Sprachproben,' 
Halle, 1838. 11 . A treatise ' De Temporibus 
Anni,' published by the Historical Society of 
Science in 'Popular Treatises on Science 
during the Middle Ages,* ed. T. Wright, 
1841 ; and one or two short letters. 

[Authorities quoted above, and notices in 
iElfric 8 own works. For fuller list of editions 
see Wright's Biog. Brit. Lit.] W. H. 

.£LFRIC {d. 1051), archbishop of York, 
called PuTTOC, or the kite, first appears as pro- 
vost of Winchester. He was consecrated to 
the see of York in 1023. Wharton {Anglia 
Sacra, i. 125) asserts his identity with the 
Abbot ^Ifric, called the Grammarian [q. v.]. 
A refutation of this theory was put forth by 
E. R. Mores (published by Thorkelin, 178®), 
who attempted to prove that the grammarian 
was -^Ifric, archbishop of Canterbury. The 
theory of Mores, which is adopted with some 
hesitation by Wright {Biog, Lit, vol. i.), 
seems impossible for chronological reasons. 
At the same time it is difficult to believe that 
the Archbishop of York could have been the 
grammarian, as he must in that case have 
Uved to a very great age, and some record 
woidd probably nave been given of this if 
such had been the fact. iElfric of York was 
a benefactor to the collegiate churches of 
Beverley and Southwell. At Beverley he 
instituted the offices of chancellor, sacrist^in, 
and precentor, and translated the body of St. 
John of Beverley with great magnificence. 



^Ifsige i6; -rElfthn-th 

In 1026 be went to Ro me, a nd obiaxBed tlie ookL H3f> ci'ai|iuuoiii^ iv^umMl b^^i&e sitif^. 

pall from Pope John XiX. WLen Cam Tlik is all tbat is cntainlv known aKvot 

wrote his letter from Rooke to his English him. As .£Usi«*^ wis ajmiaBteid to Omtex^ 

subjecta, he addrcsMed it to nfric as well bur dmuu: tW reipi of Eadwig, be probibhr 

as to .£thel]ioch of Canterinry. On the ac^ bidoag>?d to the party opwisied to the pi'^icr 

cession of Harthacniit, the king cent ^Elfric of Dunstan. This is sumcient to account 

with Earl Godwine to disint^^r and oatnge for tW dark pociure giv\en of him in later 

the body of his bzothrr fiaix>ld. Willijon kgends. His election is n-g^ruded as a |iO($<« 

of MalnM«barTy who takes the worst view of ponement of the just claims of IHinstan, and 

.Elfric*8 character, says ^Ge«fai\>ii/ij^. lib. iiLt is said to have been procuxvd by simonv* 

that this base deed was d«]aie by his adyice. ^Uliam of 3ialmesbunr adds a stonr of hu^ 

As neither Florence nor the Chionicle men- insulting the tomb and memory of \is |Mn^o 

tions this, the assertion must be regarded with deceesor Oda, and speaks as though his death 

suspicion. In 1010. ^El&ic, with others, ac^ was the consequence of his sin, 

cused Earl Godwine and ^^op Lyti^ of [Rorwice of Woit«ter; SinW^ Iwrod^e^ 

themupderofthe«tbeling.E16ed, the kings tioo to Mennmal* of Dunataiu Roll* S*r., and 

half brother. Harthacnut took away the hi- Vita S. I>anaaiii. anct. R. p, 87, Osb^^m, jv. 107* 

shopricof Worcester from Lyfin^ and gave it Evlmer. p. 198, and Williain of MalnHsbarT, 

to .^afric While .Elfric held Worcester, the p. 294 in Memorials.] W, H. ' 
men of the bishopric made an insurrection 

against Harthacnut. The king sent the great JELFTHRYTEL Lat. Eltrfdis (if, 

earls with his housecarls to lay waste the shire 929 i, was a younger daughter of King 

and slay all its men. This barbarous measure .£lfred. She was brought up in her fathers 

isalso attributed by William of Malmesbury court with her brother Eadwani. Asser 

to the advice of .Elfric, and he says that the dwells on the care with which the brother 

archbishop took this way of revenging him- and sister were educated. .Elfthrvth learnt 

self on the men of Worcester because they all that was held fitting for peinjle of high 

refused to receive him as their bishop. Tfaie birth to know. She studied the Psalms and 

next year the king gave back the bishopric English books, and, above all, the English 

to Lyfing. In 1043, -Elfric assisted at the sonffs which her father lovtxi so well, 

coronation of Eadward the Confessor. He JElnhryth married Baldwin H, count i^ 

died at Southwell^ 22 Jan. 1051, and was Flanders, a violent and greedy man. She 

buried at Peterborough. The dark character received Chippenham and two other estates 

given by William of Malmesbury to ^Elfric, in Wiltshire by her Others will. In 912 

which Mr. Freeman freely accepts {Xorman she gave Lewisham with its dependencies. 

Conquest, i. c 6), is probably to be referred, Greenwich and Woolwich, to the abbey of 

at least to some extent, to monkish prejudice St. Peter at Ghent. Her husband, Baldwin, 

against a patron of the secular clergy. Suf- died in 915, and was buried in the abbev of 

ficient proof of the untruth of Malmesbur^'s St. Bert in. Two years after his death .felf- 

statement as to the port taken by ^Elfric in thryth had his body moved to Ghent and 

the Worcester outrage seems to be contained buried in the church of St. Peter. She died 

in the silence of Florence of Worcester, who in 929, and was laid beside her husband. 

»imply says that it took place while -tElfric She had two sons and two daughters. Her 

held the bishopric, and in the words of the elder son, Amulf, succeeded nis father as 

Worcester writer of the Chronicle, who, in count of Flanders. Fifth in descent from 

recording the death of -lElfric, saj^s : * An ex- Amulf was Matilda, daughter of Baldwin V 
needing pious man was he and wise.* ' and wife of William the Conqueror. *Elf- 

[Anglc^Saxon Chronicle; Florence of Wor- ! ^^^ ^«>?"»' ^^5^|;°«^' ^^ j""^^ 
^er; WiUiam of Malmesbury, Gesta Regum, the genealogy of the royal family of Eng- 
Lib. ii., and Geste Pontificum. lib. iii.; T. Stubbs, l^"' , second son, Adelulf, was count 
Pontif. Ebor., ap. Twysden, Dec. Script. ; Simeon of Boulogne. 

>f Durham ; Fasti Eboracenses, Dixon, ed. Raine.] j [Asser, de Rebus gestis JElfredi ; JKtholweani, 

W. H. ' Chron. i. ; Sigebert, Chron. 918, in Rt^cueil i\v% 
Historians, &c. viii. 310 ; Frodoard, HiHt. iv. 10 ; 
L'Art de verifier, &c. xiii. 282 ; Dugilulo, Mo- 
nasticon, vi. 987.] W. H. 



.£LFSIO£ (d, 959) was made bishop of 
Winchester in 951. On the death of Oda, 
ivhich took place in 958, ^Ifeige was elected 
o the archbishopric of Canterbury. He set 
)ut on his journey to Rome to obtain the pall. 
He was OTertaken on the Alps by a heavy 
snowstorm, and died from the effects of the 



;rT.I<THRVTH, or in Latin ELFIUDA 
(945P-1000), was the daughter of Ordgar, 
the ealdorman of Devon. Her first husband 
was ^thelwald, the ealdorman of the East 



^Ifweard 168 ^Ifwig 

Anglians, who died about 962. Two years after I bein^ the work of .^Elfhere, the ealdorman of 
his death she married King Eadgar. On the | the Mercians. The powerful Qodwine of 
death of Eadgar and the accession of Eadward, ! Lindesej unlawfully seized and kept many of 
the stepson of iElfthryth, the ealdorman I its estates. By the king's help .^£lfweard 
^If here [q. v.] headed a reaction against the \ managed to oust Qodwine ana recover the 
revived monasticism of Dunstan. As ^Elf- j property of his house. He was also success^ 
thryth was by her first marriage sister-in-law , ful in resisting the claim of the biahon of 
of^thelwine,the head ofthe monastic party, ' Worcester over the abbey, and assertea its 
and was also probably opposed to the election | liberty by appointing the prior Avitius dean 
of her stepson Eadward, she no doubt upheld of the vale of Evesham. He added a guest- 
the cause of the monks. Eadward was slain house to the buildings of the abbey. Gnut, 
at Corfe, and ^thelred, the son of ^lfthr3rth, I who is said to have been a kinsman of ./Elf- 
was made king in his stead. Osbem, writing I weard, enriched Evesham with many gifts 
in the latter part of the eleventh century, was , for his sake. ^Ifweard also was liberal in 
the first who attributed the death of Eaaward his benefactions ; some of these were books, 
to his stepmother. His statement gains ad- and others relics of saints, of which he was 
ditional weight by the confirmation of Flo- , a great collector. He was made bishop of 
rence of Worcester. The fact that the con- , London in 1035, but retained his position 
temporary chronicler does not mention the ; as abbot. On the death of Harold in 1040 
names of the murderers of Eadward, and his ' iElfweard was sent on an embassy to Har- 
statement that his kinsmen would not avenge thacnut, who was then at Bruges, to invite 
his death, is consistent with the assertion of , him to take possession of the throne. Short 
the guilt of ^Ifthryth. And as ^Ifhere, the as the voyage was, it was long enough to ad- 
champion of the secular clergy, joined with mit the interruption of a storm, wnich was 
Dunstan in the translation of tne body of stilled by a miracle. At the dose of his life 
Eadward, the death of the king may probably ^Ifweard fell sick of leprosy, a judgment, it 
be set down to personal rather than political is said, inflicted on him oy the vengeance of 
motives. ^Ifthryth was alive in 999, out had a departed saint and virgin, whose resting 
died by 1002, as in that year her son ^thelred place the bishop disturbed and plundered m 
granted lands to the monastery of Wherwell his eager desire for the actjuisition of relics, 
for the ^ood of her soul. She is represented in In his misery he gave up, it appears, his of- 
a new bght — as a kindly grandmother to one fice of abbot, and applied as a favour for ad- 
of her son's children — in the will of ^thel- mission into the house over which he had 
Stan, a son of -^thelred, who left his bequests long and liberally presided. The monks, 
for ecclesiastical purposes *for the soul of however, refused to take him in. As a 
^Ifthryth, my grandmother who afed me.' punishment for their ingratitude he took 
This is all that is really known about her. away all the books and sacred vessels with 
She is the subject of a romance told by Wil- which he had enriched the abbey, together 
Ham of Malmesbury, and improved on by with some, it is said, which had been given 
later writers. The growth of this romance by other benefactors. Taking these treasures 
has been discussed in an essay by Mr. Free- with him, he had himself carried to Kamsey, 
man, who believes the story to contain germs where he found a welcome. There he died, 
of truth, and infers from it that Ethel wald 27 July 1044, and there he was buried, 
in some way met with a violent, death, and ' ^^.^^ ^ ^^^ XV Scriptores. 447-452 ; 
that there was some canom^l impediment ch'ron. Abb. de Evesham. R.S., 81-85; Simeon 
to the second marriage of ^Ifthryth with of Durham, Twj-Hden, Dec. Script. 182; Dugdale, 
Eadgar. I Monasticon, ed. 1817, seq. ii. 2; Freeman, Noi^ 

[AS. Chron.; Florence of Worcester; Osbern, man Conquest, i. 568, ii. 69.] W. H. 

Vita Dunstani, see In trod, by Dr. Stubbs in 



Memoriuls of Dunstan, Rolls Series ; Wharton's 
Anglia Sacra, ii. 113 ; William of Malmesbury, 
ii. 165; Gaimar, 3606; Bromton, ap. Twysden, 
Dec. Script., 866; Codex Dipl. iii. 314, 322, 364; 
Freeman's Historical Essays, i. 15.] W. H. 

^LFWIEARD (d, 1044), bishop of Lon- 
don, was a monk of Ramsey. He was made 
abbot of Evesham by King ^^thelred in 
1014. He found his monastery in a dis- 
tressed state. Twice the monks had been 
turned out of their house, their last expulsion 



MLFWIQ {d. 1066), abbot of New 
Minster, was the uncle of Harold, and 
was probably the brother of Earl Godwine. 
He was made abbot in 1063. When Harold 
marched to meet the Normans, -/Elfwig 
joined him with twelve of his monks, wear- 
ing coats of mail over their monastic ffarb, 
and with twentv armed men. He and his 
monks fell fighting at Senlac After the 
battle their bodies were recognised by the 
habit of their order, which was seen be- 
neath their armour. The Conqueror punished 



iElfwine 



169 



^lla 



Qvent severely for the part which it 
ken in resisting his invasion. 

3r de Hvda, ed. Edwards, R.S. ; Destructio 
.. de Hida, Dngdale, Monasticon, ii. 437 ; 
n, Norman Conquest, vols. ii. and iii J 

W. Hi 

FWUTE (A 1047), bishop of Win- 
r, one of the priests or chaplains of 
was made bisnop of Winchester in 
ind died in 1047. He is said to have 
monk and sacristan of the monastery 
Swithin's, the cathedral church of 
tester. He is made the lover of Emma, 
dow of ^thelred and Cnut, in the fa- 
egend of her ordeal. Emma fell under 
ipleasure of her son Eadward in 1043, 
ssed the rest of her life in retirement 
ichester, which was the natural place 
' abode. In order to make the rela- 
letween the bishop and the lady per- 
inteUigible, the legend-mongers repre- 
iUfwine as her kinsman, and allege that 
le over from Normandy with her ; that 
I then a layman, and that before he 
3 a monk he was earl of Hampshire, 
hole story is unhistorical. It is one 
most famous legends of our early his- 
nd was the subiect of a ballad said to 
)een sung at Winchester, in 1833, at 
thronement of Adam of Orlton. 

;lo-Saxon Chron. ; Ann. Winton. ap. An- 
[onast. ii. 21, ed. Liiard, K.S. ; Rudborne, 
tiaj. ap. Wharton's Anglia Sacra, i. 233 ; 
I, Polychronicon ; Warton, History of 
I Poetry, i. 87-] W. H. 

iLA (d. 514?), a Saxon ealdorman, 
. in Britain with his three sons in 477. 
ace of his landing, Kevnor, or Cymen's 
reserves the name of his eldest son. 
iefeated the Britons, and made them 
r shelter to the great forest of the 
dsweald. The invaders established 
ilves along the coast, and were called 
Saxons. They made slow progress in 
)rk of conquest. Many native princes 
led together against them, and, m 485, 
with ^i^lla and his sons *near the 
of Mearcrfledsbum.' The battle was 
' and indecisive, ^lla found his forces 
2h weakened that he sent for help to 
mtrymen across the sea. His invita- 
as answered by a large Saxon immi- 
1. With this reinforcement ^lla and 
I Cissa, in 491, laid siege to the strong 
f Anderida. The city was girt bv 
1 walls, of which large portions still 
L The defence was obstinate. Hennr 
itingdon records the traditional detaifs 
siege. The population was thick, for 
ida stood in the midst of a mining 



district. When the city fell, ^lla * slew all 
that dwelt therein, so that not one Briton 
was left there.* The overthrow of Anderida 
raised ^Ua to the kingship of the South 
Saxons. He is said to have helped the West 
Saxons in 508 in their struggle with Natan- 
leod. ^lla was looked on as the head of 
all the Teutonic settlers in Britain, and is 
reckoned as the first Bretwalda. He died 
about 514, and was succeeded by his third 
son, Cissa. 

[Anglo-Saxon Chron. ; Henry of Huntingdon, 
lib. ii. ; Bede, Hist. Eccles. lib. ii. cap. 6.1 

W.H. 

i^TJiA {d, 588), king of the Deirans, 
was the son of Iffa, ealdorman of the 
Deirans, an Anglian tribe settled in the 
country called in later times the East Riding 
of Yorkshire. On the death of Ida, the 
Deirans cast off the Bemician supremacy, 
and, in 559, ^'Ella was made the first Deiran 
king, while the descendants of Ida continued 
to reign in the northern kingdom. It may 
be that the rivalry of these two Anglian 
kingdoms was the determining cause 01 the 
introduction of I^tin Christianity into Eng- 
land, by sending into slavery those Anglian 
youths who excited the interest of Gregory 
m the market at Rome. Gregory, after play- 
ing on the name of their people, asked of 
wnat tribe thev were, and being told that 
they were of fieira, he declared that they 
must be delivered from wrath. Next he 
asked the name of their king. * ^'EUa,' was 
the answer. *Tlien,' said he, 'Alleluia 
should be sung in that land.' yEUa did not 
live to see this come to pass. On his death, 
in 588, the Bemician king^thelric subdued 
Deira. The two sons of TEWsl fled into exile. 
The younger of them, Eadwine, was destined 
to return and reign gloriously. A daughter 
of ^Ua named Aclia married ^thelmth,- 
the son and successor of ^-Ethelric, and had 
several sons by him. One of these was Os- 
wald, under whose rule both the Northum- 
brian kingdoms were united. 

[Anglo-»Saxon Chron. ; Florence of Worcester ; 
Bede, Hist. Ecc. ii. 1, iii. 6; Green, Making of 
England, c. 6 and 6.] W. H. 

JFUtltA {d. 867), though not of royal 
blood, was chosen king by the Northumbrians, 
when they deposed Osberht. While North- 
umbria was divided between the parties of 
the two kings, the Danish host, which had 
wintered in East Anglia, crossed the mouth 
of the Humber and took York. By the in- 
tervention of the chief men of the land 
peace was made between the rival kings. 
Theyjoined their forces, and drove the Danes 
into York. Part of their army succeeded in 



-^Inoth 



170 



JEsc 



entering the city. But the Danes rallied, and 
after a nerce battle the Northumbrians were 
defeated with great slaughter. Both ^lla 
and Osberht were slain. This victory esta- 
blished the Danish power in Northumbria. 
This is all that is really known of ^Ua. 
Different stories are told of him and of the 
cause of the Danish invasion. It is said 
that he caused the sea-king, Kagnar Lodbrog, 
to be bitten to death by serpents ; that the 
sons of the hero came to avenge their father's 
death ; that thev took ^lla alive, and slew 
him in the barbarous manner described as 
carving an eagle on him. Another story 
makes ^lla violate the wife of a rich mer- 
chant of York, who avenged the wrong by 
calling in the invaders. This story may be 
compared with many others which attribute 
successful invasions to vengeance taken for 
personal wrong, and especially with the 
famous story of Count Jmian. 

[Anfflo-Saxon Chron. ; Asser, de rebus gestis 
^Ifreai ; Simeon of Durham ; Henry of Hunt- 
ingdon, lib. v.; Saxo Gramm. ix. 176, 177; Peter 
Olafsson, in Langebek, Scriptores Rer. Dan. i. 1 1 1; 
Gaimar, 2698-2830; Men. Hist. Brit. pp. 796- 
798.] W. H. 

JELNOTH (J. 1085-1109), monk and 
biographer, was bom at Canterbury, spent 
his prime in Denmark, and was, perhaps, 
prior of the convent of St. Canute in Odense. 
His life of St. Canute the Martyr is dedi- 
cated to King Nicholas (1105-1134), but 
appears to have been written in the reign of 
Eric, his predecessor. Langebek agrees with 
Bartholinus in fixing 1109 as the date of the 
dedication. He there speaks of having lived 
twenty-four years in Denmark, which would 
make 1085 the year of his removal from 
England. This is about the date at which 
he places the removal to Denmark of relics 
of St. Alban, and the probability is that he 
accompanied them. His sole work is the 
• Historia Ortus, VitsB et Passionis S. Canuti.' 
It was first published at Copenhagen in 1602 ; 
was republished in 1631 ; form^ a supple- 
ment to Jo. Meursii * Hist. Danica/ Florence, 
1 746 ; and was first accurately edited in the 
Bollandist * Acta Sanctorum * (10 July), by 
J. B. Sollerius. 

[Bircherod in Westphalen's Monumenta In- 
edita Rer. Germ. prsBcip. Cimbric. et Megapel., 
Leipzig, 1739-45; Langebek and Suhm's Scrip- 
tores Rer. Danic. Med. -^v., Copenhagen, 1 772 ff.] 

A. G. 

.5SLSINUS (10th cent.), Anglo-Saxon 
miniaturist, was a monk of New Minster, or 
Hyde Abbey, Winchester. In a Miscellany 
among the Cotton MSS. in the British 



Museum (Titus, D. xzvii.) there is an ' Of- 
fice of the Holy Cross,' written by .^SUsinus 
for ^Ifwine, afterwards abbot of Hyde. It 
is ornamented with miniaturee of the Cruci- 
fixion and the Blessed Trinity. The minia- 
tures are in outline of a greenish tint, and 
the composition of both is very pleasing. 
Prefixed to the ' Office ' is a calendar com- 
mencing in 978, which is probably the date 
of the * Office.' 

[Paper by Gage in Archeologia, zxiv. 40.1 

C M. 

.£SC, or CISC [Ash] (d. 512 P), the son 
of Hengist, ealdorman of the Jutes, landed 
with his father at Ebbsfleet in 449. War 
broke out between the new settlers and the 
natives in 456. The Jutes met the Britons 
at Aylesford. Horsa, the brother of Hengist, 
fell in the fight, but the Jutes ffained the 
day. The consequence of this victory was 
that Hengist and ^sc were made kings of 
their people. In this change of title %om 
ealdorman to king is contained the first insti- 
tution of the English kingship. Hereditary 
succession was secured by the association of 
^sc with his father in the new dignity. 
^sc took part with Hengist in the baUle of 
Crayford in 457, and the two kings inflicted 
so decisive a defeat upon the Britons that they 
' forsook Kentland, and with much fear fled 
to London.' After this, however, the energy 
of Aurelius Ambrosianus infused new spirit 
into the natives, and the tide of Jutish con- 
quest received a sharp check. By 465 the 
fortune of the war had again changed, and 
Hengist and ^sc won a great &ttle at 
Wippedsfleet, where twelve of the Welsh 
leaders were slain. The conquest of Kent 
was secured by another victory of the Jutish 
kings in 473, and * the Welsh fled from the 
Angles like fire.' During the lifetime of his 
father, ^sc probably reigned as under-king 
over a division of the Kentish men, and his 
kingship may perhaps indicate the existence 
of a tribal division, which is said to be 
marked by the later kingdoms of the East 
and West Kentings of tne eighth century, 
and to be preserved in the ecclesiastical ar- 
rangement which fixed the two sees of Can- 
terbury and Rochester in the two divisions 
of the shire. In 488 Hengist died. JSsc 
succeeded to the kingdom, and reigned for 
twenty-four years. Henry of Huntingdon 
says that his reign was glorious, and the as- 
sertion is confirmed by the fact that .^Esc's 
successors, the kings of the Kentish men, took 
the patronymic of Oiscingas or ^Escingas. 

[Anglo-Saxon Chron. ; Bede, Hist. Eoc lib. ii. 
cap. 5; Guest, Early English Settlements; Green, 
Making of England, c. 1.] W. H. 



JEthd 



171 



Affleck 



.£THEL- [See Ethel-] 

ATHELSTAN.'''[See Athblstan.] 

APFLECK^SiB EDMUND(1 723 P-1788), 
admiral, fifth son of Mr. Gilbert Affleck, of 
Dalham Hall, Suffolk, was raised to the rank 
of lieutenant in July 1745, commander in 
May 1756, and captain 23 March 1757 ; but 
though he served throughout the seven years' 
war, first in the Mercury of twenty guns, and 
afterwards in the Launceston of forty, he had 
no opportunities for distinction. During the 
years of peace he continued still actively em- 
ployed, and in 1778 was appointed to the 
Bedford, seventy-four, and sailed with Vice- 
Admiral Byron lor North America. After re- 
fitting at New York Byron took the fleet to 
sea in October ; it was dispersed in a violent 
gale of wind, and the Bedford so shattered 
that she had to make the best of her waj 
home. She was thus in the Channel with Sir 
Charles Hardy in the ignominious campaign 
of 1779, and afterwards formed part of tne 
force with which Sir George Rodney was sent 
out to relieve Gibraltar. When they fell in 
with the Spanish squadron off Cape St. Vin- 
cent on 16 Jan. 1780, and when Rodney made 
the sreneral signal to chase, the Bedford was 
the nrst ship that got in amongst the retiring 
enemy, and the conduct of Affleck at once 
pointed him out as a man of remarkable 
energy and decision. After the relief of Gib- 
raltar the Bedford returned to England, and 
was again sent out to North America with 
Rear-Admiral Graves, to reinforce the squa- 
dron with Arbuthnot in Gardiner's Bay. In 
the following January, whilst out on a cruise 
looking for some expected French transports, 
the Bedford was dismasted in a violent gale, 
which at the same time drove the Culloden 
on shore. The Culloden's masts were, how- 
ever, fortunatelv saved, and when the bad 
weather which lasted through February had 
quieted, they were used to refit the Bedford, 
which, by a brilliant display of energy and 
seamanship, was got ready for sea and sailed 
with the squadron on 10 March 1781. In the 
action of the 16th [see Arbfthnot, Mab- 
biot] the Bedford was in the rear of the line, 
and, owing to the peculiar tactics devised by 
the admiral, had no effective share. Affleck 
was afterwards, and throughout the summer, 
employed as commissioner of the port of New 
York, with a broad pennant on board any 
opportune small craft; whilst the Bedford 
went to sea with the fleet in September. 
Afterwards, however, he resumed the com- 
mand of the Bedford, having now the esta- 
blished rank of commodore, and on 12 No- 
vember sailed with Sir Samuel Hood for the 
West Indies. He had a very important share 



in the repulse of the French at St. Christo- 

Eher^s on 26 Jan. 1782. ' The enemy,' wrote 
ir Samuel Hood, * gave a preference to Com- 
modore Affleck ; but he Kept up so noble a 
fire and was so well supported by nis seconds, 
Captain Comwallis and Lord Robert Man- 
ners, that the loss and damage sustained in 
those ships were very trifling, and they very 
much preserved the other ships in the rear.' 
On retreating firom St. Christopher's, Hood's 
squadron joined Sir George Rodney, and 
formed part of the fleet which fought to lee- 
ward of^Dominica on 9 and 12 April 1782. 
In these actions, and more especially in the 
decisive one of the 12th, Affleck particularly 
distinguished himself; and by his promptly 
taking on himself to pass through a gap in 
the enemy's line, at almost the same moment 
that Rodney, unseen in the smoke, passed 
through another, contributed in a very marked 
degree to the decisive character of the victory. 
For this important and distinguished service 
he was rewarded with a baronetcy. lie re- 
mained on the station till the peace, and on 
his return to England became, m 1784, rear- 
admiral of the blue. He, however, never 
hoisted his flag, and died 19 Nov. 1788. 

[Official Letters, &c. in the Pablic Record 
Office.] J. K. L. 

AFFLECK, PHILIP (1726-1799), ad- 
miral, younger brother of the last [see Af- 
fleck, EDMinrD], went to sea, in the first 
instance, in the service of the East India 
Company, and, having afterwards entered 
the navy, became a lieutenant in May 1755. 
At Louisbourg, in 1758, he attracted the 
notice of Boscawen, by whom he was made 
a commander, and whom, in command of 
the Grammont sloop, he accompanied to the 
Mediterranean in the foUowing year. After 
the defeat of De la Clue, on 18 Aug. 1759, he 
was again promoted by Boscawen, and was 
shortly afterwards appointed to the Panther, 
of 60 guns, and sent out to India, where, for 
the next two years, he served under the 
orders of Admirals Steevens and Cornish. He 
had no further service till he was, in 1779, 
appointed to the Triumph, 74, in the Chan- 
nel Fleet under Sir Charles Hardy. In the 
spring of 1780 he was sent out to the West 
Indies to reinforce Sir George Rodney, and 
was with him in the rencounters with Guichen 
on 15 and 19 May, in his visit to New York 
in September, at the capture of St. Eustatia 
in the following February, and returned 
with him to England in August 1781. He 
obtained his flag in 1787, and in 1790 went 
out to the West Indies as commander-in- 
chief. On his return in 1793 he was ap- 
pointed one of the lords of the admiralty 



Agard 



172 



Agard 



under the Earl of Chatham, and continued 
in that office till 1796, when he retired into 
private life. He had attained the rank of ad- 
miral of the white when he died on 21 Dec. 
1799. 

[Chamock's Bio^phia Nayalis, vi. 346; 
Naval Chronicle, xzi. 445.] J. K. L. 

AGARporAGAia)E,ARTHUll(1540- 

1615), a distinguished antiquary and deputy- 
chamberlain in the Exchequer, was descended 
from an ancient Derbyshire family (Camden, 
Britannia, ed. Gough, ii. 306), and was bom 
lit Foston in 1540. He was probably at one 
time a ' scholar of Cambridge,* but no details 
are known of his university career (Coles, 
MS, Athen, Cantab, i. 37). Educated for 
the law, he became at an early age clerk in 
the Exchequer; it has been repeatedly stated 
on Wood's authority that in 1570 he was 
promoted by Sir Nicholas Throckmorton, the 
chamberlain of the exchequer, to the office of 
deputy-chamberlain, and that for forty-five 
vears he continued to fill this position. But 
liis patent of appointment in the Pell office 
proves conclusively that he succeeded one 
Thomas Reve in the deputy-chamberlainship 
on 11 July 1603 (Paloravb, Antient Kalen- 
dars of the Ercheqtier, iii. 451). 

Agard's energies were chiefly devoted to 
preparing catalogues and other aids for suc- 
ceeding keepers of the rolls, and for students 
of the state papers at the Tower or at the 
Palace and Chapter House of Westminster. 
Three years he spent in making, with the as- 
sistance of Sir Walter Cope and Sir Robert 
Cotton, a catalogue of the records in the Four 
IVeasuries of the Exche(juer, as the chief mu- 
niment rooms were called, and in drawing 
up a complete list of all leagues and treaties 
of peace, of all * intercourses ' and marriages 
arranged between England and other coun- 
tries down to the end of the sixteenth century, j 
Both these compilations, of which the latter 
is still of use to the student, were published, 
shortly after his death, in Powell s * Reper- 
torie of Records,* in 1631, and were reprinted 
in 1772 by Sir Joseph Ayloffe in his * Calen- 
dars of Ancient Charters ;' Agard^s catalogue 
of the records was again reissued by the 
record commissioners in 1836. Many manu- 
script copies of these works are preser\'ed 
in tlie British Museum {Harleian MS. 94 ; 
Lansd. MSS. 137 and 799 ; Addit. MSS. 25, 
256). Agard also put together an * Abbre- 
viatio Placitorum in Banco Regis, 1272-1307 * 
{Addit. MSS. 25, 160), and translated the j 
statute as to weights and measures {Harl. 
MS. 251). Neither of these has been printed, 
and several transcripts of documents in 
Agard's liandwriting, and stated to have 



been ' revised, repaired, and sorted ' by him, 
are also extant in manuscript (Harl. MS& 
94 and 293). Five folio volumes, containing 
numerous and valuable extracts from ancient 
records, some in print and some in manuscript, 
with charters and deeds of various dates trim 
the Conquest onwards collected by Agard, are 
now among the Stowe MSS. recently pur- 
chased from the Earl of Ashbumham for the 
British Museum. A few of Agard's manu- 
scripts of like character are in the Ashmoletn 
collection at the Bodleian Library. To the 
elucidation of the Domesday Book Agard gave 
especial attention, and prepared a Latin trea- 
tise upon it, ' which,' an old writer says, ' if 
you peruse it, it will ready the searcher for 
the reading and for the better understanding 
thereof* (Powell's Repertorie of JRecord$, 
p. 133). It« object was to explain obsolete 
words in the Sur\'ey, the etvmology of its 
title, the mode of its compilation, and its 
general uses. It was printed by Roger Gale 
as an appendix to his ' Uenstrum Honoris de 
Richmond ' in 1722 (App. I. pp. 1-7). A cop}' 
is amonff the Cottonian MSo. ( Fitell. C. ix.). 
Agard was probably one of the earliest 
memoers, as he was subsequently one of 
the most active supporters, of a society of 
antiquaries founded oy Archbishop Parker 
in 1572 (ArcJuBologva, i. iii), and including 
among ix% members at a little later date 
Camden, Selden, Stow, Spelman, and Cotton. 
All of these, and especially the last, with 
whom he lived on terms of the utmost in- 
timacy, were friends of Agard and warm 
admirers of liis industry*. Camden called him 
antiquarius htsignis (qu. by Wood, Athen. 
Oxon. ii. ed. Bliss, 427), and Selden referred 
to him as ' a man known to be most painful, 
industrious, and sufficient ' in archaeological 
matters {Titles of Honour, 1614, Index, s.v. 
* Gervasius '). For the meetings of this society 
Agard prepared many elaborate papers on an- 
tiquarian topics. During Easter Term, 1591, 
he read papers there on the antiquity and 
privileges of the Houses or Inns of Court, 
and on the antiquity of sliires in this country. 
In 1599 he discussed the terms defining the 
dimensions of land in England. Five years 
later, just before the society dissolved, he 
explained the diversity of the names of this 
island, and, about tlie same time, the autho- 
rity, office, and privileges of English heralds. 
None of his writings were printed in his life- 
time, but these five essays were published by 
Thomas Ilearne in his * Collection of Curious 
Discourses written bv eminent Antiquaries ' 
(|)p. 29-33, 70-81, '100-107, 157-165) in 
1 / 20. Another paper, probably read before 
the same society, on the antiquity of parlia- 
ment, was printed by Doddridge, witn five 



Agard 



173 



Agas 



other antiquarian essays on the question, in a 
volume on the subject in 1658 ; and again in 
1775, in a later edition of Heame^s * Collec- 
tion ' (pp. 295-9). Other articles, prepared 
by Agara — on the antiquity of arms in Eng- 
land (2 Nov. 1598), on the antiquity of the 
christian religion in England, on stewards, 
on barons, on dukes, on castles, on funeral 
ceremonies, on epitaphs, on the offices of 
constable and marshal, on lawful combat, on 
seals, on sterling money, and on forests and 
forest laws — were printed for the first time 
in 1775 in the revised edition of Heame*s 
* Ck)llection,' and many of them are now 
among the Harleian MaS. (Harl. MS, 5177, 
fol. 131 et seq.). A Frendi treatise of ap- 
parently greater pretensions is also to be 
numbered among Agard's contributions to 
historical literature. It bears the title * Ad- 
uertissements pur vn Roy ou Prince,* and 
was dedicated 'a haut et puissant Seign' 
Henry, Prince de Galles,* the eldest son of 
James I. From the address to the prince 
we gather that the work was completed in 
1612. It is now preserved in manuscript in 
the library of Trinity College, Cambridge, to 
which it was probably presented by the son 
of Sir Adam Newton, Prince Henry's tutor; 
it has never been printed. 

All Agard*s original English writings are 
characterised by a pleasant fluency of style 
and a careful arrangement of recondite facts; 
but modem historical scholarship has falsified 
many of his conclusions, and he made some 
distinct errors (Arch€eoloffia, i. 345, xiv. 164). 
He must, however, be credited with consider- 
able critical acumen, and the first discovery 
of the true authorship of the well-known 
tract, 'Dialogus de Scaccario,* which had 
been erroneously assigned to Gervase of 
Tilbury, is ascribed to him by both Selden 
(Titles of Honour y 1614, Index, s.v. * Ger\'a- 
sius *) and Madox (Firma Burgi, 1726, Pref.). 

Agard died towards the end of August 
1615, at the age of seventy-five (CaL State 
Papers, 1611-18, p. 305). On the death of 
his wife in 1611 he caused a monument to 
be erected to her memory in the cloisters of 
Westminster Abbey, near the Chapter House, 
and there, where his life was mainly spent, 
he was buried. His tomb was inscribed 
with the words * Recordorum regiorum hie 
prope depositorum diligens scrutator ' (Stan- 
ley, memorials of Westminster Abbey, p. 
443). He beaueathed eleven of his manu- 
scripts to the Exchequer Office, and the rest 
to his friend. Sir Robert Cotton. The majority 
of them have since passed to the British Mu- 
seum. 

[Biog^nu>hia Britannica ; Rev. Joseph Hunter, 
in S. D. U» K. Biog. Diet. ; Archseologia, i. vii ; 



, Wood, Athen. Oxen. ed. Blitw, ii. 427-8 ; Rymer » 
' Foedera, xvi. 497 ; Lysons's Magna Britannia, 
Y. 253 ; Bolton Corney on Kose's Dictionary, 
pp. 21-3 ; Chester's Kegisters of Westminster 
Abbey (Harleian Soc.), pp. 110, 112, 161 ; in- 
formation from W. Aldis Wright, Esq., of Trinity 
College, Cambridge, and G. F. Warner, Esq., of 
i the British Museum.] S. L. L. 

I AGAS, RADULPH or RALPH (1540 P- 
1621), a land-surveyor, who rose to eminence 
: in the reign of Queen Elizabeth by making- 
maps of London and the two university towns. 
He was a native of Stoke-by-Nayland, in Suf- 
folk, and it is probable that his birth occurred 
; between the years 1540 and 1545. In 1566 he 
I began to practise as a land-surveyor. It an- 
I pears that he used to reside chiefly in Suffolk, 
' coming up to town in t«rm time to obtain 
! orders. In the Lansdowne and the Additional 
I MSS. there are several original documents 
written in a very neat hand by Agas himself. 
I The first is a letter, dated 22 j^b. 1592-3, 
and addressed to Lord Burghley, lord high 
I treasurer to Queen Elizabeth. It is entitled 
: * A Noate for the Perfection of Lande Mea- 
sure, and exact Plattinge of Cities, Castels, 
I Honors, Lordshippes, Maners, and Landes of 
all sortes.' In this quaint description of the 
I manner of surveying lands, the writer speaki^ 
, of the * profitable staff* and the * theodolite ' 
' of some 20 inches in diameter, with a pro- 
I tractor of one foot at least. He adds that 
I ' the measure attendinge uppon this instru- 
' ment is of Steele wier toe pole longe lincked 
foot« by foote, excepte the halfe foot at either 
ende.* The next document in point of date 
j is addressed to the same nobleman. It is 
dated in pencil 1597. In this he speaks of 
I his labours in the Fenlands, and states how 
he had plotted out the ground, gauged the 
quantity of the waters, the ebbs and flows, 
and the daily abuses of the landholders ; and, 
while thanlang his lordship for bounties al- 
ready bestowed, alludes to a considerable 
siun still owing to him for his services. There 
is also a document in the form of an adver- 
tisement printed on a half-sheet quarto, to be 
issued to his patrons. In this he describes 
himself as of Stoke-next-Nayland in Suffolk, 
and asserts that he had practised in sur\'ey for 
more than forty vears. He states that he had a 
perfect knowleqje of customary tenures and 
titles of all kinds, that he was a good pen- 
man and well acquainted with old records. 
In another manuscript, dated 1606, there is 
an opinion given by him to the commissioners 
appointed to inquire into the question of con- 
cealed lands belonging to the crown. On 
17 Nov. 1 606, we find him lodpng in London 
at the sign of the * Helmet ' m Hoi bom, at 
the end of Fetter Lane ; and if we desire to 



Agas 



174 



Agas 



learn wliat manner of man he was, his auali- 
ties, abilitiesi and pursuits^ he has lerk us 
ample means of domg so, in a very quaint 
document issued doubtless as an adTertis^ 
ment. From this it becomes evident that he 
entertained a very ffood opinion of himself. 
Besides his knowledge of surveying, he was 
able to read old records, and to restore any 
that were worn, ' obliterated, or dimmed,' as 
well as to make calendars to them. He 
could find the weight and measure of any 
solid body. He was clever at arithmetic, 
and was an adept ' in writing smaule, after 
the skantelinge & proportion of copijmge 
the Oulde & New Testamentes seven tymes 
in one skinne of partchmente, without anie 
woorde abreviate or contracted, which male 
also serve for drawinge discriptions of con- 
tries into volumes portable in verie little cases.' 
He had a receipt for the preservation of the 
eye; he could remove and replant without 
injury trees of a ton weight ; and had had forty 
vears* experience in his profession. It is clear, 
however, from some documents first published 
by Mr. Peter Cunningham, that the life of 
Agas was by no means free from troubles. He 
had married the widow of John Payne, of 
Stoke-by-Nayland. Family disputes arose 
as to the disposition of Payne*s property, and 
in one of these quarrels Agas s brother-in- 
law, Ives, was wounded in the back with a 
pitdifork. Eventually the matter came before 
the Court of Star Chamber. In the bill 
presented to the court Agas and his sons were 
described as the most pestilent fellows in the 
neighbourhood, and Agas himself as ' one that 
in former times hath used the office of magis- 
ter, and was sometymes parson of Dereham, 
in the county of Norfolk, being deprived of 
his benefice for his lewd Ufe and bad con- 
ditions, and beinjjf deformed in shape and 
body as in conditions.' The answer of the 
defendants in the suit asserted that many of 
the allegations in the bill were absurd, ridi- 
culous, and untrue, and further, *that the 
same Hadulph Agas was never a parson of 
Dereham in Norrolk, neyther had anything 
to do eyther with the church, personage, or 
minister there; neither was ever deprived 
from any church or benefice whatsoever, as 
is falsely and maliciously in the said bill 
suggested and intended. And touching the 
infirmity and bodily weakness of the same 
Radulph Agas, one of the defendants, he 
saith, tliat as he received the same by the 
providence of God in his mother's womte, so 
hath he always with humble thanks to his 
Creator willingly borne and sufiered that his 
infirmity.' The decision of the Star Chamber 
is not loiown, as the records of that tribunal 
are lost. 



Agas died at Stoke-by-Nayland, 26 Nov. 
1621. 

He published : ' A Preparative to Platting 
of Landes and Tenements for Sumeigh. Shew^ 
ing the diversitie of sundrie instruments ap- 
plyed thereunto. Patched vp as pjainfj 
together, as boldly ofiered to the carteoua 
view and regard of all worthie QentlemeD, 
loners of skill. And published instead of his 
flying papers, which cannot abide the pasting 
to poasts,' Lond. 1696, 4to. This was written 
at his ' lodging at the Flower de Luce, oner 
against the Sunne without Fleetbridge.' It 
is only an admonitoiy essay, and the author 
says he contemplated writing a full technical 
treatise on the subject. 

His chief claim to remembrance, however, 

rests on his celebrated maps, or rather birdV 

eye views, of London, Oxford, and Cambridge. 

The earliest was the plan of Oxford, dated 

1678, of which a copy is preserved in the 

Bodleian Library. A copy, probably miiqoe^ ' 

of the plan of Cambrioge, dated 1692, ii 

also preserved there. These extremelj 

curious and valuable maps were bequeathed 

, to the Bodleian Libraxr by Dr. Rawlinson. 

I Having become decayed and dilapidated by 

I exposure, they were some years ago carefully 

1 mounted on canvas, on a wooden frame, and 
covered with glass ; by which means they 
are effectually secured m)m further injury of 
the same kind. The plan of Oxford was 
re-engraved by Robert Whittlesey, at the 
charge of the imiversity, in 1728. This 
plate was destroyed in the fire at Mr. Nichols's 
m 1808. Of the celebrated plan of the cities 
of London and Westminster, the borough of 
Southwark, and parts adjacent, two copies 
have been preserved, one of which is to be 
foimd in the Pepysian collection at Magdalen 
College, Cambridge, and the other is the pro- 

Eerty of the (corporation of London. There 
as been much aispute as to the exact date 
of this admirable view of the metropolis of 
England as it existed in the time of Queen 
Elizabeth ; and Mr. W. H. Overall, F.S.A., 
after a careful examination of all the facts, 
comes to the conclusion that it could not 
have been prepared earlier than about the 
year 1691. The map is 6 J feet long and 

2 feet 4J inches wide, and is printed from 
wooden blocks. In 1737 George Vertue, the 
ei\graver and antiquary, published a pre- 
tended copy of Agas^s map of London, stat- 
ing that it was executed in 1660, and that it 
gave a true representation of the metropolis 
as it existed at the beginning of Queen Miza- 
beth's reign. Vertue crowned his pretended 
copy with the date 1660 in Roman numerals, 
made palpable alterations and omissions in 
order tnat he might retain the delusive date, 



Agasse 17s Aggas 

1 took other imwamntahle liberties with seems to have subsequently returned to 

! object of diseuising the fraud. The un- > Switzerland. The ' Tiibinger Morgenblatt ' 
ypy result of mis tinkering of the original | (1808, p. 876) says that ' Agasse, the cele- 
ig^ was that numerous subsequent anti- ' brated animal painter, now in England, owed 

iries were victims of the deception. Mr. his fortune to an accident. About eight years 

erall is of opinion that Vertue, having be- ago, he being then in Switzerland, a rich 

ae possessea of the parts of a copy of the Englishman asked him to paint his favourite 

p made by some unknown Dutch engraver dog which had died. The Englishman was 

the reign of William III, caused them to so pleased with his work that he took the 

* tinkered,' probably for the purpose of de- painter to England with him.' Xagler says 

ving his antiquarian friends. Of course the that he was one of the most celebrated animal 

merous copies of the spurious map issued painters at the end of the last and the 

Vertue are of little or no value ; but lovers beginning of this century. In MeuseFs 

antiquity may now consult a correct fao- * iSeue Miscellaneen ' ( viii. 1052 et seq. ). a 

lile of Agas*s original plan which has been comparison is instituted between Agasse 

blished with the following title : and Wouvermans, wholly in favour of the 

Givitas Londinum. Ralph Agas. A former. In that partial article much is said 

rrey of the Cities of Lonoon and West- of his extreme devotion to art, of his mar- 

nster, the Borough of Southwark, and parts vellous knowledge of anatomy, of his special 

iacent in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, fondness for the English racehorses, and his 

blished in fac-simile from the original in excellence in depicting them. He appears 

i Guildhall Library, with a biographical first in our Academy catalof^es in 1801 as 

x>unt of Ralph Agas and a critical and the exhibitor of the * Portrait of a Horse,' 

itorical examination of the work and of the and continued to exhibit more or less until 

reral 80-called reproductions of it by Vertue 1845— a fact inconsistent with Nagler*s 

d others. By William Henry Overall, statement that he died * about ' 1806. In 

3.A.y Librarian to the Corporation of the catalogues his name is given as J. L. 

indon. The fac-simUe by Edward J. Agasse or ^Vgass^. The number of times 
ands.' Loud. 1874, 4to. . Agassi chan^^ his address confirms Hed- 

Agas likewise executed a plan of Dun- grave's assertion that * he lived poor and died 

ch, in Suffolk, which was engraved for poor.' The writer of the panegyric already 

lomas Gardners history of that town quoted says, however, that it was not for 

744). The original afterwards came into bread or for gain that he laboured, but that 

enpoesession of Mr. David EUsha Davy, the he was urged forward by the resistless force 

irolk antiquary. Agas's ' Supervisio Manerii of natural genius. Altogether there is suffi- 

Oomerde Magna, alias Abbas Haule, co. cient e^-idence that he was in his day a 
iff.* is preserved in MS. Sloan. 3664. ] noteworthy painter, but no material for an 

[Overall's Biography of Agas ; Overairs paper unbroken record of his life, 

kd before Society of Antiquaries, Dec. 11, 1873 ; [Xagler, Allgemeines Kunstler-Lexicon, 1 872, 

5. Lansd. 73, f. 107; 84. f. 69; 165, t 91; gives an account in/fra/w of his engraved works; 

5. Addit. 12497, f- 842, 346; 19165, f. 127 ; Ffiwli, Xeue Zusatze zadem allgemeinen Kiinst- 

yg. Diet.. Soc. D. U. K.; Gent. Mag. NA xii. '■ ler-Lexicon ; Tiibingen 3Iorgenhlatt, 1808, p. 

J, 463. 592, xxxT. 468, 578; Bolton Comey, 876; Meusel, Xeue Miscellaneen, ^-iii. 1052; 

the Now [Rose's] Biog. Diet. (1839X 23. 31- Fiorillo. Geschichteder Mahlerey, v. 841, 6i>eHk8 

; Ooogh's British Topography ; 3lAcray s An- of Agasse and Charles Ansell as the most cele- 

Is of the Bodleian Library. 335 ; Dodd's Con- brat^ English animal painters ; Iie<lgnive*s 

isseui^s Repertory, ▼oLi.;Brayley'sLondiniana, Dictionary.] E. R. 

;i*-84» ; MS. Addit. 19165. f. 127 ; Notes and I ^ ^.^ ^r^^mx^ rc t:. 

eries, 3rd scries, xii. 504 ; Gardner's Historical ; AGELNOTH. [See Ethelxoth., 

rt. of Paintei^i aid EngraTen, ed! Stinley l«okseller and printer son of Robert Aggas 
iAik\ Ti A7Q1 T P of Stoke-near-^ aviand, m Suffolk, and most 



I likely a relative of Ralph Aggas [see Agas, 
►?), ; Ralph], who was a native of the same ph 



AGA8SE^AMESLAnKEXT(<^1846?), ; Ralph], who was a native of the same place, 
imal and landscape painter, was bom at He was apprenticed to Humphrey Toy, sta- 
neva, and receivea his first instruction in tioner ana citizen of London, for nine years, 
3 public art school of that city. Whilst ; from Easter 1564, and probably took his free- 
11 under twenty he went to Paris, in order , dom of the company about the period covered 
it there, in the veterinaiy school, he might by the break in the records. We find him 
ike himself fully acquainted with the taking apprentices himself in 1577 and 1580, 
atomy of the hone and other ftwiTw^l*- He and down to 1601 his name appears from 



Aggas 176 Aglionby 

time to time in the relators (Arbes*8 Tranr In 1840 he exhibited at the Bojral Academy 
script, vols. ii. and iiiA He brought out a picture of ' The Enthronisation of Queen 
many theological worKs and translations Victoria,' which, with two portraits ci the 
from the French ; to some of the latter the queen and others of his worm, haTe been en- 
letters E. A. are affixed, giving rise to the graved. In 1844 and 1847 he competed un- 
opinion that they were translated by Aggas successfully for the decoration of the Houses 
himself. Ames says that he was more of a of Parliament, sending on the first occasion 
bookseller than printer {Typogr, Antiq., ed. a large landscape with figures in fresco, and 
Herbert, p. 1167\ and dwelt at the sign of on the second a larffe oil picture of Hebecca. 
the I>ragon in the west end of St. Faul's He was an artist 01 much industry and Ter* 
Churchyard. His device was a wyvem satility, but of no great talent. His most 
rising out of a ducal coronet, being the arms extensive performance was a work called 
of the Cliffords, earls of Cumberland. His ' Antiquities of Mexico,' illustrated with a 
son, Elmore Aggas, was apprenticed to thousand lithographic plates firom ancient 
Gregory Seton for eight years, from 1 Nov. Mexican paintings and nieroglyphics in the 
1603 (Abber, ii. 274). royal libraries of Europe. 'Riis work was 

[For Aggas as a translator, see Collier's Ex- executed at the expense of Lord Kings- 
tracts from the Registers of the Stationers' borough. Nine volumes out of ten pri^ected 
Company (Shakespeare See.) it. 42 ; and CoUier^s were finished and issued in folio (1880-48). 
BibL Account of Rarest English Books, ii. 171.] A set at the British Museum contains sixty 

H. R. T. pages of the tenth volume. Aglio also pub- 

AGGAS, or ANGUS, ROBERT (A 1679), Hshed 'Twelve Pictures of barney, 'A 

landscapand scene painter, was considered S^^^Ji^^^t-^^'P/Vi^JJ?^, I^fT' ^T 

a good tndscape painter, both in oil and in ^°^ *^« Antique (1820), 'Sketches of the 

distemper, and skilful in introducing archi- J^««^^™^^^^« /g, ^^"7 ^^^' 1^^. 

tecture into his compositions. He?as em- ^^^l), and 'Studies of vmious Tre«i and 

ployed by Charles H as a scene-painter for ^^^^^^''I^t (^^,«^^^^™^" ^°^7' 1^1> 

the theatre in Dorset Garden. He was also ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^' 1^^' "^^ ^'^ ^^^ ^^ 

employed at the Bkckfriars and Phcenix ^^%^^^^ Cemetery. 

Tlieatres. A landscape by him is preserved [Bryan's Diet. ; Pilkington ; Brit. Mus. Cat. ; 

in Painter-Stainers' Hall. lie died in London Catalogues of Royal Academy and Society of 

in 1679 aired about 60. Brit ish Artists ;Nagler'sKiin8tlep-Lexikon(eaited 

[Wttlpole's Anecdotes of Painters, p. 1 83 note ; ^^ Meyer, 1 872).] C. M. 

Redgrave's Diet, of Artists of the English School.] AGLIONBY, EDWARD (1520-1687 ?), 

^' ^* recorder of Warwick, was bom at C^lisle 

AGLIO, AUGUSTINE (1777-1857), in 1520, and educated at Eton, from whence 

painter, decorator, and lithographer, was born he was elected in 1536 to a scholarship at 

at Cremona and educated at Milan. About King*8 College, Cambridge, of which society 

1801 William Wilkins, the architect, after- he appears to have become a fellow three 

wards R.A., made his acquaintance abroad, j years later. He graduated B.A. in 1540-1, 

and travelled with him in Italy and Greece, and M.A. in 1544. Subsequently he was ap- 

Aglio executed in aquatint the illustrations ' pointed a justice of the peace for Warwict- 

to Wilkins's * Magna Gnecia.* Ho returned j shire, where he possessed considerable pro- 

to Home in 1802, and afterwards came to ' perty. His residence was at Temple Balshall. 

England, where he settled and spent the re- l in December 1569 the treasure for the supply 



mainder of his life. He decorated tlie Op€'ra 
House in 1804, Drurj' I^ane Theatre in 1806, 
and the Pantheon in 1811. In 1819 he painted 
the ceiling and altar-piece of the Roman ca- 
tholic chapel in Moorfields, and he decorated 
the summer-house in the gardens of Buck- 
ingham Palace and the Olympic Tlieatre. 
From 1807 to 1846 he was a frequent exhi- 
bitor at the Royal Academy, and sent many 
works to the exhibitions of the Society of 
British Artists. His contributions to the 
Academy were principally landscapes, but to 
the society he sent many scriptural pieces. 
A portrait of George IV as a Knight of the 
Garter was lithographed by Aglio in 1823. 



of the army sent to suppress the northern 
rebt»llion was committea to his charge, and 
he conveyed it safely to Berwick. He was 
returned for Warwick to the parliament of 
April 1571, and spoke thrice on the bill for 
imposing penalt ies on those who did not attend 
the 8er\'ices of the Established Church. The 
measure, he urged, ought to be only tempo- 
rary in its operation. On 12 Aug. 1572 he 
was elected recorder of Warwick. Queen 
Elizabeth visited that town the same day on 
her way from Bishops Itchington to Kenil- 
worth, and the new recorder made an ora- 
tion to her majesty, which is printed in 
Nichols's * Progresses.' In November 1587 



Aglionby 



Agnew 



ht- resigned ihe reeonlerehip 'becnuse of his 
(fTitil (tgp, and impolenpv to travel, and fnil- 
inffofBi'fflit.' He married Catharine, daughter 
of Sir William Wigeton, his predecessor in 
the office of recorder of Warwick. 

Agflionbf is the translator of ' A notable 
Bad maruailoua epistle of the famous Doctor 
Hathewe Qrib&lde, professor of the law in the 
TDiueraitie of Padua : conceming' the terrible 
iudKentent of god vpon hym, that for feare ' 
of men denveth Ohrist, and the knoweii 
Terilie: with a Prefuce of Doctor Caluiae. j 
Translated out of Latin intoo English by ' 
E. A." Worcester (printed by John Oswen), I 
looO. It was republished at London, with- 
out date, bv Henrj Denham, for William 
Norton: 'Jiow newely imprinted, with a 
ffodlj and wholesome preseruative against i 
desperatton, at all tymes necessarie for the. ^ 
soule: chieftv lo be vseiJ when the deuill 
dooeth sBSBulle va moste fierc^y, and death 
approachelh nighest.' That Aglionby was | 
Ibe E. A. of the title-page is clear from the , 
acmstic contained in ' An Epi^m of the | 
t«rribls example of one Francis Spera an , 
Italian, of whom thia booke is compiled.' 

[Cooper'j AthBOB CanlabrigiansBa, ii. 21, 543 ; 
Ti<4iolaB PTOgnehva of Qumr Elizabelh (1S23), 
i. 30B. 310.] T. C. I 

AQLIONBY, JOHN, D.D. (d. 1611), a, 
native of Cumberland, was sent to Queen's 
CoUege, Oxford, iu 1583, where in due time , 
be became a fellow, andafter he was ordained ' 
became a distinguished preacher. Whilst | 
trareJline abroad, be made the acquaint- 
ane« of tbe celebrated Bellarmine. He took 
the degree of D.D. on 17 June 1600, and 
became rector of Islip, where he died on 
B Feb. 1610-11; be held the office of prin- 
cipal of St. Edmund Hall, which is still in 
tho gift of Queen's College, since 4 April 
1601 . He was chaplain in ordinary to Elua- 
betb aa well as to James I, and is said to 
have been n man of great learning, but has 
lefi no publication, though he is said by 
Aniliony h Wood to have had a considerable 
share in the authorised version of the New 
TaMament, which was published the year 
iadieatb. 



^■^^ia diestb. 
^^BDd'i Athe 



W, Sir ANDREW (1687-1771). 
|}e«teii«nt-(teneml, fifth baronet of Loch- 
naw, CO. W'igfon, N.B., and twelfth and 
last of the lit>redilary sheriffs of Galloway, 
was the eldest of the twenty-one children 
of f?&r James, ihe fourth baronet of l.och- 
naw, snd was bom is 1687. He joined 
UBTUjomughf army as a volunteer imme- 

__m.i. 



dimely after the battle of Blenheim, and on 
11 May 1705 was commissioned a» comet in 
Major Andrew Agnew's troop of Lord John 
Hay's ' Royal Scottish dragoons ' — now the 
Scots Greys— with which he fouffht bravely 
at Ramilhee, Oudenarde, and Malplaquet. 
At the peace of Utrecht he was reduced as 
captain on half-pay of the Scots Greys. Soon 
after he eloped with a kinswoman, the 
daughter of Captam Thomas Airnew of the 
some regiment. This lady, to wbon he was 
married in London, bore him eighteen child- 
ren. She survived her hiaband, and died 
at the age of eightv-seven. At the time 
of the rebellion of if 16-16 the young bird 
of Lochnow was on full-pay in Colonel Po- 
cock's regiment, which was disbanded in 
IreUnd in 1718, when he was removed to 
the 2lBt Royal Scots fiailiers, with which 
corps he served upwards of a quarter of a 
century, becoming lieutenant-colonel in 1740, 
and commanding it mth distinction at the 
battle of Dettingen. Ue held brigade com- 
mands under the Duke of Cumberland in 
Flanders, at Bruges, Ghent, and OsI.end, and 
at the head of his Scots fusiliers accom- 
panied the army sent to Scotland in 1746, 
when he was detached <o Blair Castle, and 
with miserable resources made a nillant 
standagainst the rebels there from 17 March 
until relieved at the end of the month. For 
this sen'ice he received the special thanks of 
the Duke of Cumberland. Au account of 
the transaction was published long after by 
the late General Melville, who was present 
as an ensign, under the title, 'Original and 
Genuine Narrative of the remarkable Block- 
ade and Attack of Blair Castle by the Forces 
of the Rebels in the Spring of 1746. By it 
Subultem Officer of H.M. Garrison' (Edin- 
bui^h, 1808). Aft*r I he battle of OullodBn, 
Agnew accompanied his Scots fusiliers to 
Glasigow, where he left them on promotion 
to the colonelcy of the 10th marines. There 
is preserved at Loclinaw a banner of rich 
crimson silk, worked with Ihe Aniew arms, 
which is said to have been carried, as n regi- 
mental colour, by the Scots tiisiliers at Det- 
tingen, Anotdpopulartune, 'Theboatieand 
the wee pickte row,' once the favourite regi- 
mental quick-step, is still called after bun 
' the Sheriff's march.* But despite his long 
and popular connection with the regiment, 
it is a curious fact that Sir Andrew .^new's 
name is never once mentioned in the ' His- 
torical Record, 2lHt Fusiliers,' compiled some 
years ago by the late Mr, Cannon, of the 
Adjutant-general's Office. Horse Guards. 
The colonelcy of the 10th marines appears 
to have been no sinecure, as Sir A. Agnew, 
M,F.,the eighth baronet, in his very curioua 



Agnew 



178 



Agnew 



and exhaustive family history alludes to a 
pile of correspondence still extant, dealing 
with the minutest details of the interior eco- 
nomy of that corps, which had its head- 
quarters at Southampton and was disbanded 
in 1748. Sir Andrew Asnew was not after- 
wards actively employed. About 1748 the 
heritable offices of constable and sheriff of 
the province of Galloway (the present coun- 
ties of Wi^on and KLrkcudbright), with 
which the lands of Lochnaw had been in- 
vested since the time of Kin^ David II, were 
abolished. Sir Andrew receiving 4,000/. as 
compensation. In 1750 he was appointed 
governor of Tynemouth Castle, Northumber- 
land, in succession to the Duke of Somerset, 
a post worth 300/. a year. He became a 
major-general in 1756, and lieutenant-general 
in 1769. He died at Lochnaw in 1771, in 
the eighty-fourth year of his age. As a 
military officer * the Sheriff,* as he was popu- 
larly known, his father having resigned the 
shrievalty in his favour as early as 1723, 
appears to have been skilful as well as 
brave, and as a magistrate shrewd, kindly, 
and true-hearted, despite his eccentricities. 
Sir Walter Scott describes him as * a soldier 
of the old school, stiff and formal in manner, 
brave to the last degree, and something of a 
humourist' (^Ilist. of Scotland) ; ana Dr. 
Chambers savs of him that he was * a skilful 
and accomplished officer, distinguished by 
deeds of personal daring, as well as by an 
eccentric personal manner that long made 
him a favourite in the fireside legends of the 
Scottish peasantry ' (Cif ambehs. Lives ofEim- 
nent Scotsmen). 

[Agnew's Hist. Hereditary Shcriffw of Gallo- 
way, London, 1864 ; Chambers's Lives of Emi- 
nent Scotsmen, vol. i.] H. M. C. 

AGNEW, Sir ANDREW (1793-1849), 
of Lochnaw, baronet, and promoter of Sab- 
batarian legislation, wos bom at Kinsale, 
Ireland, 21 March 1793. He was seventh 
baronet of Lochnaw, and head of an ancient 
and distinguished family in Wigtonshire. 
His mother was the eldest daughter of John, 
twenty-sixth Lord Kinsale, premier baron of 
Ireland. His education was received chieflv 
from private tutors, but partly at the uni- 
versity of Edinburgli; and he came in his 
youth under xory deep religious impressions. 
Succeeding his granafather wlien onlv six- 
teen, he spent his early years chiefly m the 
improvement of liis ancestral castle and estate, 
ana in 1 8i^ lie was unanimously elected mem- 
ber of parliament for his own county, Wig- 
tonshire, in t he character of * a moderate re- 
former.* It was after his third election, in 
1832; that the Sabbath movement began to 



attract public attention, mainly through the 
efforts of an Enj^liah aMOciation termed the 
< Lord's Day Society.' When it was rewdved 
to prosecute measures in parliament for the 
protection of the Lord's Day, Sir Andraw 
Agnew in 1832 took charge of the move- 
ment. 

The first step to be taken was the appoint- 
ment of a committee of the House of CJom- 
mons to procure information on the facts of 
the case, and the next the introduction of a 
bill to remedy the eviL Sir Andrew AgneVs 
bill prohibited all open labour on Sundiay, ex- 
cepting works of necessity and mercy. Sir An- 
drew Agnew encountered intense and vaned 
opposition on account of the thoroughgoing 
nature of his bill, but he finnly refused to 
modify it. The bill was introduced on four 
several occasions. On the first, the second 
reading was rejected by 79 votes to 73 ; on the 
second, by 161 to 126 ; on the third by 75 
to 43 ; while on the fourth (in 1837) it was 
carried by 110 to 66. Having thus at length 
passed into committee, the clauses were about 
to be discussed when the death of King Wil- 
liam IV caused a dissolution of parliament. 
To the new House of Commons Sir Andrew 
was not elected, and no further attempt was 
made to pursue the movement in parliament. 

In a private capacity Sir Andrew continued 
to advocate the cause in many ways, and not 
without success, and he threw his energies 
with much ardour into many of the other 
religious and philanthropic movements of the 
time. Of genial and kindly nature, he was 
much beloved and esteemed amon? those who 
knew him. An attack of scarlet fever termi- 
nated his life, at the age of 66, on Thursday, 
12 April 1849. 

[Life, l)y Thomas McCrio, jnn., D.D., LL.D., 
London, 1850 ; Hansard's Debates.] W. G. B. 

AGNEW, PATRICK ALEXANDER 
VANS (1822-1848), an Indian civil servant, 
whose murder at Multan by the retainers of 
Mulraj led to the second Sikh war and to 
the annexation of the Punjab as a British 
province, was the second son of Lieutenant- 
colonel Pat rick Vans A^ew, a Madras officer 
of considerable reputation, and afterwards a 
director of the East India Comnany. After 
a very successful career at Haileybury College, 
where he gave evidence of superior talent and 
of judgment and force of character in advance 
of his years, Apnew joined the Bengal civil 
service in March 1841, and in the following 
year commenced his official life as assistant to 
the commissioner of the Delhi division. In 
December 1845 he was appointed assistant 
to Major Broadfoot, the superintendent of 
the Cis-Sutlej states, and was present at the 



fc*tlli; of Sobmon early in ls46. He was 
i<ube«queiitt]' employed in settling the boun- 
dariea of the terrilotj of Msharaja Gholib 
Sing, the ni^w ruler of Cukmere, and in a 
mission to Gilgil, and in the upriag of 1848, 
being then aasistant lo the resident at La- 
hore, was B«ut to Multan vith inetnictiona 
to t*ke over thi< government of that province 
from Mulri^, the dtrffin or governor, who 
had appli^ to be relieved of it, and to make 
ii over to Khin Sing, another Sikh official, 
[ymaining himself in the capacity of political 
agent to introduce a new system ot ftnonce 
' On this mission he wae bc- 



Bombay armj, who had been his as- 
eutant on his mis£iion to Gilgit, and aleo by 
Shan Sing, the dewan desi^^Ditte, and an 
•setirt oC Sikh troops. The muiaion reached 
JUultin on 18 Aprd 1S4«. On the foUow- 
ing day Agnew and Anderson were visited 
by Mulrij, and some diseuBsion, not alto- 
gether harmonious, look place us to the terms 
upon which the province should be ^ven 
over,jVgnew demanding that Ihe accounts for 
Ihc MX previous vexrs should be produced. 
On the 30th the two English officers in- 
spected the fort and the various establish- 
meols, and on their return to their camp in 
company with Mubij were attacked and 
wounded (Anderson severely) hy the re- 
tainers of the retiring dew&n, who immedi- 
ately rode off at full speed to hia country 
reaidence. The two wounded Englishmen 
were placed hy their alti'ndantji in an idgsh, 
<ir fortilied temple, where, on the fallowing 
day, their Sikh escort having gone over to 
the enemy, they were brutally murdered by 
the adherents of Hulrij. 

This tragic incident, so important in its 
potiiical results, produced a profound sensa- 
tion ihronghout India. Both the murdered 
officMB, though young in years (Agnew 
would hove been twenty-sii had he lived 
<jDe day tutij^r), had already established a 
high rvuutation in the public service. An- 
derson had some time previously attracted 
the favourable notice of Sir Charles Napier 
in Siud, and the duties upon which Agnew 
had berii employed, including his last most 
responsible and, as the event proved, fatal 
missinn, sufficed to show the high estimation 
in which his aervices were held. Nor was 
it luity OS a rising public servant that Pa- 
trick Vans Agnews death was mourned. 
In Ttrivate life hia brave, modest, and un- 
setnsh nature had won the esteem and affec- 
tion of all who knew him. ' If,' wrote Sir 
Ilerbert Edwardes W one of his nearest re- 
lative*, 'few of our coimtrymen in this land 
of death and disease have met more untimely 



ends than your brother, it has seldom been 
, thelotof any to besohonouredand lamented.' 
[BcD^ Civil List; Edwardes'a Ysar in the 
Punjib ; KayaV Ilistory of the Sepoy War ; 
MarBbman's History of India.] A. J, A. 

AGUILAB, GRACE (181&-1847), no- 
velist and writer on Jewish history and re- 
ligion, was bom of Jewish parents, of Spanish 
descent, at Hacliney, in June 1816. Of delicate 
health from infancv, she was chiefly educated 
at home, and rupidly developed great intereat 
in historv, especially in that of the Jews, 
besides showing much aptitude for miiaic. 
In her youth she tra va 11 etf through the chief 
towns of England, and resided for a long 
time in Devonshire, whither her family re- 
moved in W2S. At an early age she first at- 
tempted literary composition. Before reach- 
ing her twelfth year she produced a drama on 
'Gustavus Vasa,' and in her fourteenth year 
she began a series of poems, of no particular 
merit, which were published in a collected 
form in 1836, under the title of the ' Magic 
Wreath.' She never completely recovered 
from a severe illness by which she was at' 
tacked in the eame year, and when the death 
of her father soon afterwards forced her lo de- 
pend on her writings for a portion of her 
livelihood, her health graduaUy declined 
until her death, twelve years later. At first 
she devoted herself to Jewish subjects. The 
'Spirit of Judaism,' her chief work on the 
Jewish religion, after being printed for pri- 
vate circulation in England, was publisued 
in America in 1842, with notes by an 
American rabbi wlio dissented from her 
views, and it met there with a warm wel- 
come. In the treatise she baldly attacked 
the formalism and traditionalism of modem 
Judaism, and insisted on the importance of 
its purely spiritual and high moral aspect, 
as indicated in much of the Old Testament. 
Four years later she produced a work with a 
similaraimforgeneral reading in thiscountry, 
entitled ' The Jewish Faith, its Spiritual 
Consolation, Moral Guidance, and Immorial 
Hope.' And about the same time (1845) she 
published a series of essays on biblical his- 
tory, called 'The Women of Israel." Her oc- 
casional contributions to periodical litem- 
ture on religious questions were collected 
after her death, under the title of ' Sahbnth 
Tlioughts and Sacred Communings,' 1851. 
But Grace Aguilar is betterknown as a volu- 
minous writer of novels, most of which were, 
however, published posthumously imder the 
editorship of her mother. ' Home Influence, 
a Tale for Mothers and Daughters,' alone B[V- 
peared In her lifetime (1847). It met at 
ODce with a good reception, and, after having 



Agus 



1 80 



Agntter 



passed through nearly thirty editions, is still 
popular. * A Mother's Recompense/ a sequel 
to * Home Influence/ and * Woman's Friend- 
ship/ novels of similar character, were pub- 
lished in 1860 and 1851 respectively. Two 
historical romances, the ' Days of Bruce, a 
Story from Scottish History' (1862), and the 

* Vale of Cedars ' (1860), a stonr of the Jews 
in Spain under Ferdinand and Isabella, to- 
gether with a collection of short stories, en- 
titled 'Home Scenes and Heart Studies' 
(1863), exhaust the list of (Jrace Affuilar's 
works. All her novels are of a higmy sen- 
timental character, and mainly deal with the 
ordinary incidents of domestic life. Like the 
rest of her writings, they evince an intensely 
religious temperament, but one free from sec- 
tarian prejuoice. 

In June 1847 Grace Aguilar's health, owing 
mainlj to her literary exertions, was clearly 
breaking down, and she determined to leave 
England on a visit to a brother who was 
studying music at Frankfort. Before her 
departure the Jewish ladies of London pre- 
sented her with a testimonial and an address, 

* as the flrst woman who had stood forth as 
the public advocate of the faith of Israel.* 
Soon after her arrival in Frankfort, Grace 
Aguilar was taken seriously ill, and, dying on 
16 Sept. 1847, she was buried in the Jewish 
cemetery of the town. Her friend, Mrs. S. C. , 
Hall, describes her as a woman of singularly 
lovable character, and relates many charitable | 
acts done by her to fellow authoresses. Two 
of her works, the * Mother's Recompense ' and 
the * Vale of Cedars,' have been translated 
into German. 

[Memoir by Sarah Aguilar (prefixed to Home 
Influence, 1849) ; Art IJnion Journal, ix. 347 ; 
Pilgrimages to English Shrines, by Mrs. S. C. 
Hall (second series), pp. 154-169 ; Eclectic Re- 
view (new series), iii. pp. 134-155 (Feb. 1858) ; 
Marie Enriquez Morales von Grace Aguilar, frei 
bearbeitet und mit einem Vorwort versehen 
von J. Piza (Institut zur Forderung der israeli- 
tischen Literatur), Magdeburg, I860.] 

S. L. L. 

AGUS, BENJAMIN (Jl. 1662), divine, 
was one of the most distinguished of the 
earlier vindicators of the nonconformists, 
and as such second only to Hichard Baxter, 
and hardly second to Vincent Alsop. His 

* Vindication of Nonconformity ' and * An- 
tidote to Dr. Stillingfleet's " Unreasonable- 
ness of Separation ; " being a defence of the 
former,' have been allowed to slip out of 
sight ; but they hold in them all that needs 
to be said in behalf of nonconformity. From 
the former, these words of historic importance 
may be quoted : ' A little before the Black Bai> 
tholomew [Act of Uniformity and ejection of 



the two thousand in 1662] a noble lord en- 
quired whether I would conform or not? I 
answered : '^ Such things were enjoined as I 
could not swallow, and therefore should be 
necessitated to sound a retreat.** His lord- 
ship seemed much concerned for me, and 
used many arguments to reconcile me to a 
compliance, but perceiving me unmoved, at 
last said with a sigh : '^ I wish it had been 
otherwise ; but they were resolved either to 
reproach you or undo you." ' Another ffreat 
lord, when speaking to him about the nard 
terms of conformity, said : ' I confess I should 
scarcely do so much for the Bible as they 
require for the Common Prayer ' — meaning 
doubtless, explains Palmer, ' subscribing as- 
sent and consent to all and every thing in our 
present translation, or copy of the original 
What wise man would do it ? ' He has been 
identified with Benjamin Agas, native of 
Wymondham, Norfolk, who entered Corpus 
College, Cambridge, in 1639, pro<^eded M.A 
in 1657, and was described in his will, dated 
21 May 1683, as * of London, clerk.' Amis 
was ejected from Chenies, Buckinghamshire. 

[Calamy and Palmer's None. Memorial, i. 
297-8; Works, ut supra; Masters' Hist, of 
Corpus Coll. (ed. Lamb), p. 196.] A. B. G. 

AGUTTER, WILLIAM (1768-1835), 
the son of Guy Aguttar (sic) of All Souls', 
Northampton, matriculated at Lincoln Col- 
lege, Oxford, 18 March 1777, at the ace of 
18. In 1780 he obtained a demyship at Mag- 
dalen College, and retained it until 1793. 
He graduated as B.A. in 1781, and took the 
degree of M.A. in 1784. On 29 May 1793 
he was married to Anne Broughton, of Ca- 
nonbury Place, Islington, a daughter of the 
Rev. Thomas Broughton. A^tter does not 
seem to have held anj preferment in the 
English church, but m 1797 he was ap- 
pointed to the post of chaplain and secretary 
to the Asylum for Female Orphans in London. 
He enjoyed a high reputation as a preacher, 
and many of his sermons were * pnnted by 
request.' The best known of them was 
preached at St. Mary's, Oxford, before the 
university 23 July 1786, and consisted of 
an orthodox description of * the difference 
between the death of the righteous and the 
wicked, illustrated in the instance of Dr. 
Samuel Johnson and David Hume, Esq.' He 
was much attached to that eccentric prodigy 
of learning, John Henderson, and wnen his 
friend died at Oxford in 1788, he accom- 
panied the corpse to Klngswood near Bristol 
and preached tlie funeral sermon on the loss 
whicn learning had sustained by his death. 
It was publisiied in the same year, and is 
still of interest as a narrative of manrellou* 



Iteming accompanied 'wll.li exlreme whim- 
sicality of character. Mr. A^tter woe the 
nuthor uf BBveral other «enaoii8 on hucU 



[Bloum'n R^auler of MiigdaleQ CoU. Oxford, 
vot IT. (vol. Tii. in MfieB) pp. 56-67; Gont. 
Mag. 1793, lan i. p. 479, 183S, p. 98.] 

W. P. c. 

AICKIN, or AIKEJ, FR.\NCIS {d. 
l^OG), actor, waa hom in Dublin and brought 
up to the trade of his father, a weaver in 
that city ; but, following th« example of Lis 
youii«Br brother, Jamea [q- v.], he liecame a 
^IraUui^ plBver. Having appeared as George 
Barnwell and augtalned other characters in 
various country towns, be joined the nmnnger 
ofthe Smock Xlley Theatre, Dublin. Henmde 
hie first appearance at Ilrurv Lane as Dick in 
the ' Confederacy ' on IT May, 1765. He 
4xmtinued a member of the Drury Lane com- 
pany until the close of the season of 1773—1. 
In the f!)llowing year he carried hia services 
to Covcnt Garden, and appeared there every 
Ttrnt until the close of the neaaon of 1791-2. 
lie had commenced business as ii hosier in 
York Street, Covent Garden, and obtained the 
patronage uf certain members of the Royal 
uunily. He closed his shop in 1787 on ihe 
dsath of his first wife, an Irish lady of family 
and some fortune, and entered upon the 
tnanagienient of the Ldverpoo! Theatre. His 
success WDS not great, but lie prospered bv a 
second murriage with awidow dowered with 
£100/. a year. He was, afterwards, with Mr. 
John Jackmn concerned in the mana^ment 
of the liliubiirgh Theatre. He was of pleasing 
person, good judgment, his voice was sonorous 
and lUstinct, and (rnni his Bucceaa in the im- 
pasaioned declamatory parte of tra^dy he 
AbtAined the nickname of ■ Tyrant Aickin ' — 
' a character in private life no man was more 
the reverse of, either in temper or the duties 
of friendship.' Nor did all his merit lie in 
tnw«dy; in the serious parts ol comedy, such 
AS Sir John Flowerdole in the ' School for 
Fathers,' the pleasing harmony of Uts tones, 
m.nd bis precision of expression were of great 
jwrrice to the performnnce. Genest gives a 
list of upwards of eighty cJiaracters which 
FVancis Aickin was accustomed to assume. 
Francis Aickin and his brother were members 
of the ' School of Garrick,' a club coinposed of 
actors who were contemporaries of Garrick. 

[Secret Hislory of the Green Rxims, 17B0: 
Thtapiaa Dictionary. 1805 ; Oanost'B Hintory of 
ihaSlAge, 1932; Hilchcock't HiMory of the Irish 
eUtOh I79*-l D. C. 



AICKIN, or AIKIN, JAMES (rf. 1«)3), 
actor, a native of Ireland, was the younfwr 
brother of Francis Aickin [q. v.], and like 

. him brought up to be a weaver. After join- 
ingaconpany strolling through Ireland, and 
gaining some exjierience of the stage, he em- 

I barked for Scotland, nnd presently accepted 
an engagement to app^ujr at the Edinbiii^li 
Theatre. He was vtrj- favourably receiveil, 
and gradually, tiom his merit as an actor and 
his sensible deportment in private life, became 
the head of the Csnongate company, playinK 
most of the leading parts in tragedy and 
comedy. But in January 1787 a riot took 

iliac B in the theatre because of the dischai^ 
IV the mansgeraent of one Stanley, an actor 
at small merit, in whom, however, a section 
of tlie public took extraordinary interest. The 
inside of the building was demoUshed, the 
fumilure ransacked, and the fixtures de- 
stroyed. It was not until troops &om tbo 
cas lie had come tolherelief of the city guard 
that the riot«rs were dispersed, and the thea- 
tre saved from furtherinjury. James Aickin, 
who had part Jcularly offended the rioters, left 
Ediiihiir^, and, accepting an engagement at 
Dmrv I^ne, maile his first appearance there 
in December 1(67 as Colonel CSimulv in Ken- 
rick's comedy of the ' Widowed "Wife.'' He con^ 
tinned amember of the Drury Lane company, 
with, occasional appearances at Ihe Ilaymor- 
ket Theatre during thesummer months, until 
his retirement in 1800. He was for some 
vearB one of the deputy managers of Drnry 
Lane, and was reputed to be a useful and 
pleasing actor, easy, graceful, and natural of 
manner. ' His foHe lay in the representa- 
tion of an honest steward or an affectionate 
parent.' Boaden states that while the (ones 
of hia voice were among 'the sweetest that 
ever met the ear,' he was not happy in his 
temper. In 1792 be took offence at some of 
John Kemble's managerial arrangements, was 
personally rude to him, and challenged him 
to a duel. The actors met in ' some field in 
Marj'lebone,' n third actor, Charles Bannister, 
undertaking the duties of second to both 
combatants. Aickin dischai^ed his pistol, 
but fortunately missed his mana^, who de- 
clined to fire in return; a reconciliation was 
then accomplished. Eembte afterwards ex- 

Iilaiiied that 'he saw from his adversary's 
Bvelling at him that he was in no danger." 

[Jaeksou's Hisloryof the Scottish Stags, 1793; 
Secret Uiiiory of theOreeaBoonis, 1790; Oenest'H 
Historj of the Stage, 1832; Boaden's Life of 
John Philip Kemble. 1826.] D. C. 

AIDAN (rf. R06), king of the Scottiah 
kingdom of DBlraida, was the son of Gabron, 
a former king of Scottish Dalraida, which was 



Aidan 



182 



Aidan 



originaUy formed of a portion of the west 
coast of Scotland by Fergus Mor, son of Ere, 
who came at the end of the fifth century 
from Irish Dalraida. According to the law 
of tamstry which governed the succession, 
Oabran was immediately succeeded by a 
relative named Conall, and it was only mer 
Conall's death that the throne was accessible 
to Aidan. It was St. Columba who chose 
him to be king in preference to his brother 
Eaganan. and solemnly crowned him in the 
island of lona. Aidan pursued a vigorous 
policy. The Dalraid Scots were, before his 
time, regarded as an Irish colony and subject 
to the mother tribe in Ireland. In 576 
Aidan attended a great council at Dnmiceat, 
and announced to the Irish his intention to 
govern Scottish Dalraida as an independent 
kingdom. In 603 he led a large force of 
Britons and Scots against Ethelfrith, the 
Anglian king of Bemicia, and was defeated 
at a spot called bv Bede ' D^astan/ which 
is prooably in Liddesdale. Sede notes that 
so signal was the defeat inflicted on Aidan, 
that no like attempt had since been made up 
to his own time (731) in northern England. 
Aidan died in 606, and St. Columba named 
his son Eocha Buidhe, or ' the yellow-haired,' 
his successor. 

[Skene's Celtic Scotland, i. 143, 162-3, 229, 
239, 247, 249 ; Bede's Hist. Ecclesiast. lib. i. c. 
xxxiy. ; Beeves's Adamnan, pp. 81, 264; Biog. 
Brit., where a long account is given of the my- 
thical history of Aidan as related by Hector 
Boece and later writers ; Pinkerton's Enquiry into 
Scottish History, ii. 114.] 

AIDAN, Saint {d. 661), was the first 
bishop of Lindisfarne. Oswald, who became 
king of North umbria in 635, had been con- 
verted to Christianity during his exile at the 
monastery of Ilii or lona. His first dutyas 
king was to repulse the heathen Welsh. His 
success enabled him to persuade his people 
to accept the christian faith. He summoned 
missionaries from the monastery of Hii, which 
had been founded by the Irish monk Columba. 
The monks of Hii sent a bishop of austere 
temper, who was soon dispirited by the obsti- 
nacy of the Northumbrian people. He re- 
turned to Hii and reported his ill success. 
The monks sat in silence, which was broken 
by one of the brethren, Aidan. * Were you 
not too severe,' he said, * to unlearned hearers ? 
Did you not feed them with meat instead of 
milk P ' AH agreed that Aidan should be 
sent to Northumbria as bishop. He set out 
at the end of 635. 

Aidan was the founder of the Northum- 
brian church. He was the fast friend of 
King Oswald, who acted as his interpreter 
when he began to preach at the court, and 



the the^:ns heard him gladly. Faithful to 
the traditions of his youth, Aidan chose a» 
the seat of his churcn the island of Lindis- 
farne, which in some measure reproduced 
the features of lona. It lies off the North- 
umbrian coast, to which it is joined at 
low tide by an expanse of two miles of wet 
sands; at high tide it becomes an island. 
As it was close to the royal viU of Bam- 
borough, Aidan could vary a monastic life 
with missionary journeys to the mainland, 
and frequent ^intercourse with the king. 
Monks from lona flocked to Lindisfarne, and 
thence carried monastic civilisation along 
the Tweed, where Boisil founded the monas- 
tery of Old Melrose. The zeal of Oswald 
and the piety of Aidan went hand in hand. 
Churches were built, and the Northumbrian 
folk flocked^ to hear the new teachers. The 
personal characters of Oswald and Aidan were 
the chief means of commending Christianity 
to the people. Aidan taught no otherwise 
than he lived, and impressed his own standard 
u{>on his followers. The g[ifts which he re- 
ceived from the king and his thegns were at 
once distributed amongst the poor. He had 
no care for worldly pleasures, but spent his 
time in study and in preaching. His life was 
simple : he traversed the country on foot, and 

5 reached to every one whom he met (Bede, 
Iist,Eccle8. lib. iii. cap.5). His friendship with 
King Oswald continued unbroken. One Easter 
day Aidan sat at dinner with Oswald, when 
the royal almoner came in to say that he had 
not enough to satisfy all the needy. Oswald 
ordered the food to be taken from his own 
table, and his silver dish to be broken in 
pieces and distributed. Aidan seized the 
outstretched hand of the king and blessed 
him, saying, * Mav this hand never perish ! ' 
When Oswald fell in battle against the hea- 
then Penda in 642, his right nand and arm 
were found severed from nis body, and men 
said that through Aidants blessing they re- 
mained uncorrupted, and were a relic of the 
church of York. • 

Oswald's defeat by the heathen king of 
Mercia threatened to sweep away Northum- 
brian Cliristianity. Deira, under Oswini, 
submitted to Penda; but Bemicia under 
Oswiu, Oswald's brother, still made resist- 
ance. Penda ravaged the land and laid siege 
to the rocky fortress of Bamborough. Find- 
ing it impregnable by assault, he gathered all 
the wood and straw of the neighbourhood 
to the foot of the rock, and, waiting for a 
favourable wind, fired it. The sparks would 
easily have set on fire the wattled houses of 
the little town. Aidan, from his retirement 
in a hermitage on the isle of Fame, just op- 
posite Bamborough, saw the cloud ctt smoKe 



Aidan 



183 



Aikenhead 



arise. ' See, Lord/ he cried in an agonyof 
prayer, 'what evil Penda is doing.' His 
prayer was heard. The wind changed, and 
the smoke and flames were hlown hack on 
the hesiegers. Their plan failed, and Bam- 
horough was saved. 

In these years of trouhle in Bemicia, 
Aidan found more scope for his missionary 
activity in the Beiran kin^om, where he 
exercised over King Oswini the same spell 
as had charmed Oswald. Oswini gave Aidan 
a valuable horse to aid him in his journeys. 
Soon afterwards Aidan met a poor man who 
asked for alms ; having nothing else to give 
him, he gave him the horse. Oswini, when next 
they met, ffently chid him for his unthinking 
charity. 'Is the foal of a mare,' said Aidan, 
' more valuable in your eyes than the Son of 
God?' Oswini stood by the fire and re- 
flected ; presently he fell at Aidants feet and 
asked pwrdon for his thoughtless speechi 
Aidan raised him, but sat in deep sorrow. 
AMien asked the cause, he answered, ' I 
l^rieve because I know that so humble a king 
IS too good to live long.' Aidan's prediction 
was soon verified. Oswiu had regained the 
Bemician kingdom, and longed to imite again 
under himself the dominions of Oswald. He 
marched against Oswini, who was murdered 
by a treacherous thegn. Aidan's heart was 
broken when he heard of his friend's death« 
He only survived him twelve days, and died 
on SI Aug. 661. When he felt that death 
was approaching, he had a hut built against 
the west wall of the church of Bamborou^h. 
There he died, leaning against a post which 
had been erected to buttress the wooden wall. 
On the niffht on which he died, a shepherd 
lad, Cuthbert, as he watched his sheep on 
the Lammermoor hills, saw stars falling 
from the sky. When he heard the news of 
Aidan's death, he recognised them as angels 
bearing heavenward Aidan's soul. Moved by 
the marvel, he entered Boisil's monastery of 
Melrose. 

The body of Aidan was buried at Liudis- 
fame, and was afterwards translated to the 
right side of the high altar. When, after 
the synod of Whitby in 664, the Columban 
Church was defeated by the Church of 
ICome, Bishop Colman departed to lona. 
He carried with him part of the bones of 
Aidan, and left only a portion for the un- 
grateful land which had forsaken Aidan's 
ritual (Bede, H, E, iii. c. 26). 

:-{The authority for Aidan is Bede, Historia 
Kcclesiastica, book iii. chape. 6-17 ; but see also 
Vita Cuthberti, iv. Subseouent writers have 
merely amplified Bede. Of modem writers 
see Bri^t, Early English Church Histog ; and 
Green, The Making of England.] M. C. 



AIKENHEAD, MARY (1787-1868), 
foundress of the Irish sisters of charity, was 
bom on 19 Jan. 1787. She was the eldest 
daughter of Dr. David Aikenhead, of Cork, 
and was brought up a protestant, like her 
father ; but on his oeathDed he was received 
into the church of Home, to which his wife 
belonged, and soon afterwards Mary, when in 
her sixteenth year, became a cathobc. After 
the death of her mother some years later, 
Archbishop Murray proposed that she should 
join him in founding a congregation of sisters 
of charity, the first of the kind in Ireland. 
Having consented, she went, with one other 
lady, by Dr. ' Murray's desire, to a convent 
at York, where they spent three years as 
novices. Returning to Dublin, they made 
their profession, ana opened the first convent 
of sisters of charity in r^orth William Street, 
Dublin, Mary Aikenhead being appointed 
superior-general of the new foundation. 
The congregation was * canonically erected ' 
in 1816. 

Miss Aikenhead, who was a woman of re- 
markable energy and generosity of character, 
although for many years almost entirely con- 
fined to her couch, lived to superintend the 
foundation of ten houses belonging to her 
order, viz. eight convents, an asylum for 
penitents, and the hospital of St. Vincent, 
m Dublin, the first hospital in Ireland served 
by nuns. She died 22 July 1858. 

[Mary Aikenhead, her Life, her Work, and 
her Friends ; giving a history of the Foundation 
of the Congregation of the Irish Sisters of Cha- 
rity. ByS. A Dublin: M. H. GiU and Sons. 
1882.] C. E. S. 

AIKENHEAD, THOMAS (1678 P- 
1696-7), executed for blasphemy, was the son 
of an apothecary at Edinburgh. He is de- 
scribed as * not vicious and extremely stu- 
dious.' His religious opinions became un- 
settled by the perusal of * some atheistical 
writers,' put into his hands, as he asserted, 
by a feUow student who afterwards informed 

r'nst him. He was accused of ridiculing 
Scriptures, and of declaring that Ezra 
had invented the Old Testament, that Moses 
and Christ were impostors, that the doctrine 
of the Trinity was self-con tradictoiy, and all 
theology a * rhapsody of ill-contnved non- 
sense.' Persistent assertion of such opinions 
was punishable under one statute with death 
upon a third conviction. Aikenhead made 
a full recantation before his trial, in which no 
counsel was assigned to him. Ilis case was 
brought, by a strained interpretation, under 
another statute, which maae the * cursing 
Gk)d or any persons of the Blessed Trinity 
a capital offence. He was accordingly sen- 



Aikin 184 Aikin 



tenced to death, and hanged 8 Jan. 1696-7, 



ceptance of the christian faith. Whilst he 



the more important post of secretary to the 



declaring, in his d3Hin^ speech, his full ac- Society of .Aits, a post which he retained for 



twenty-three years. In 1818 Aikin was 



was in prison, one of the witnesses. Mango elected a fellow of the Ldnnean Society, hut 
Craig, published a ^ Satyr against Atheistical i his only contribution to its 'Transactions 'was 



Deism ... to which is prefixed an account 
of Mr. Aikenhead's notions, &c.' A letter 
published in the ' State Trials ' from the Kinjg 
MSS. shows that Locke was shocked by this 
perversion of justice. 



* A List of Indian Woods collected by Dr. 
Wallich,' which appeared in 1817. On ms re- 
sifi^tion of the secretaryship) of the Society 
of Arts in 1840 he was appointed chaimum 
of its committee of chemistry, and he was 



[State Trials, xiii. 917-939 ; Macaulay*8 His- ' nominated the first treasurer of the Chemical 

tory, iv. 781 ; Amot's Celebrated Scotch Trials, Society, founded in 1841 {Gent. Mag, (new 

p. 326.] L. S. series), xv. 526). In his later years he was 

AIKIN, ANNA LETITL^ [See Bab- ^^^'^ * member of the Academy of Dijon 

1 "* recogmtion of his bfelong application to 

'-' chemistry and mineralogy. He died un- 

AIKIN. ARTHUR (1773-1864), chemist married at his brother's house in Bloomsbury 
and scientific writer, was the eldest son of Square, London, on 16 April 1854. 
John Aikin, M.D., and was thus the brother His works, besides those already enume- 
of Lucy Aikin and nephew of Mrs. Barbauld. rated, were: 1. *A Translation of Denon's 
He was bom at Warnngton on 19 May 1773, Travels in Egypt ' (1801). 2. * Dictionary of 
and went at an early age to the free school Chemistry and Mineralogy ' (1807-14), pre- 
there, and afterwards to Mr. Barbauld's P^d in conjunction with his brother, C. R 
school at Palgrave in Suffolk. His father Aikin. 3. * Manual of Mineralogy ' (1814). 
took an active part in his education, and 4. 'Account of the most recent Discoveries 
prepared for his special use several of his in Chemistry and Mineralogy' (1814). Aikin 
books for youthful readers, including among ^^ edited from 1803 till 1808 a literary 
others his 'Letters from a Father to his periodical entitled the 'Annual Review,' to 
Son.' Aikin was trained for the unitarian which his sister Lucv, his aunt Mrs. Bar- 
ministry, and in 1786, on the removal of his bauld, his father Dr. Aikin, Robert Southey, 
family to London, he attended the unitarian ^^^ William Tajrlor all occasionally contri- 
coUege at Hackney ; but on conscientious huted. The periodical ceased a few years 
ffTounds he soon changed his plans, and «^er Aikin resigned the editorship, 
devoted himself exclusively to scientific [Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society 
pursuits. An early acquaintance with Dr. (1865), p. xli; Animal Register, 1854; Lucy 
Priestley, his father's friend, had already Aikin's Memoir of John Aikin, M.D. ; P. H. le 
given him a predilection for chemistry, and Breton's Memoir of Lucy Aikin ; Index to 
under Priestley's guidance he made the study Monthly Review, 1 790-1816.] 
of that science ana of mineralogy and botany 

the chief occupation of his life. In 1797 he AIKIN, CHARLES ROCHEMONT 

published, * with Observations in Mineralogy (1775-1847), doctor and chemist, was the 

and other branches of Natural History,' an second son of John Aikin, M.D., and was 

account of a tour that he took with his bom at Warrington in 1776. He was 

brother, Charles Rochemont Aikin [q.v.l and adopted, as a child, by his aunt, Mrs. Bar- 

another friend in North Wales and SLrop- bauld, and educated by her husband at his 

shire. In the next year appeared his * Na- school at Palgrave in Suffolk. He is the 

tural History of the Year,* and in 1799 he ' little Charles ' of Mrs. Barbauld's * Early 

delivered a series of lectures in London on Lessons.* From an early age he devoted him- 

chemistry and chemical manufactures, the self to science, and aided his eldest brother, 

syllabus of which he published separately. Arthur [see Aikin, Arthur], in his first 

In 1807 Aikin, who nad ac(juirea the repu- published works and public lectures. Sub- 

tation of an enthusiastic scientific worker, sequently he applied himself to medicine, 

took a foremost part in founding the Geo- became a member ofthe Royal College of Sur- 

logical Society. To its early * Transactions ' geons, and was chosen secretary of the London 

he contributed several papers, embodying Medical and Chirurgical Society. He married 



observations made by him in the west of 
England, and dealing almost entirely with 
mineralogy, and about 1811 he became its 
secretary. He retired from that office, al- 
though he remained for many years a member 
of the council, on his acceptance in 1817 of 



Anne, daughter of the Rev. Gilbert Wake- 
field, and died at his house in Bloomsbury 
Square on 20 March 1847. His works 
were : 1. * Concise View of all the most im- 
portant Facts that have hitherto appeared 
respecting the Cow Pox,' 1800. 2. *Dic- 



tionary of Chi^miBtry and Minernlogy,' 1607- 
1814, wliith he wrote in conjunction with 
kia eldt«t brother. 

[Rendrick'it Profile* of Warrington Worthies 
(1854), p. t; Chrimiau ReformBr for 1S47, Ji. 
313; Biog, Diet, of LiriugAathon, ISIS.] 

ATKTW , EDMUND (1780-18201, urchi- 
t««t. the youngest son of John Aikiu, M.D., 
WM bom Ht Warrington on 2 Oct. Ha waa 
assistant to OenenLl Sir S&muel Benthom, 
th« architect of the Millbank Penilentiary, 
and published some designs in concert with 
liim. About 1814 his business took him to 
Livetpool. He settled there,and furnished de- 
signs for various buildinEH in that city. He 
wrote articles upon architecture in Rees's 
* Encyclopjedia,' an account of St. Piiul's ' 
Cathedral, and other treatises. Between 
1604 and 1814 he exhibited some designs at ; 
the Rojal Academy. He died at Stoke 
Newington on 11 March 1820, whilst on a ' 
visit to his father. 



literary tuBte of the county of Lancashire. It 
waa originally projected in 1753, in coose- 
(juenceof the decayof several of ibe training 
schools belonging to the English Preabyte- 
riaii body, but was not fonn^y constituted 
till June 1757, when, thanks Ui the exer- 
tions of Mr. John Seddon of Warrington, 
the subscription list amounied to 4tF9^. 5«., 
and the benefactions to 148/.lla. Thebuild- 
ing, which consisted of a large and staid red 
bnck house, is s^d to have possessed ' a ru- 

Sectoble collegiate appearance;' while the 
crsey, according to .\ikin's daughter, Mrs. 
Borbauld, 



Bafl«ctd the E 



nilh 






ATTtTT J, JOHN (1713-1780), scholar and 
iheologieal tutor, waa born in 1713, in Lon- 
don, wliere his father, a native of Scotland, 
had been for eome years settled in business. 
He was placod for a short time as French 
clerk in a mercantile house, but, an ardent 
love of study rendering comniercialpursuits 
distasteful to him, he entered the Eibworth 
Academv, a school of which the celebrated 
Dr. Doddridge bad become the head, but so re- 
cently that young Aikin was his first pupil. 
Hence he proceeded to Aberdeen University, 
where the anti-Calvinistopinioasof the tutors 
in divinity gradually led liim to that system 
af Low Arianism, as it was then called, which 
afterwards became the distinguishing feature 
of the Warrington Academy. That the uni- 
reraity was proud of itsa/umntu is shown by 
the fil£t that it siibeeqliently conferred upon 
Mm, without soliritatiou and without notice, 
the degree of D.D.. an honour which was ac- 
tually distressing to Ills retiring disposition. 
Betuming from .\ber<)een, he was ordained, 
and alter a short. iH-riod of work as Dod- 
drid^'s assistftnl, he accepted the cure of 
a dissenting corigregation at Market Har- 
botough. An aflection of the chest, how- 
«Ter, mode him a valetudinarian for life, and 
left him no resource but tuition. It is miiinly 
as n tutorof Warrington Academy that John 
Aikis is noticeable. This institution, widch 
may be regarded as the cradle of Uuitarian- 
ism, was hut short-lived, and yet fomieil 
during the twenty-nine years nf its existence 
the centre of the liberal politics and the 



Three tutors at 100/. a year each were at 
' first chosen. Dr. Taylor, of Norwich, taught 
divinity; Mr. Holt, of Kirkdale, natural 

C' Uosophy ; and Aikin was classical tutor, 
rd WiUoiighby, of Parham, was the first 
I president of the ncademv. Early in the his- 
! torj- of the academy a fourth tutor was ap- 

fainted. On the death, of Dr. Taylor, in 
761, Aikin became tutor in divinitj', which 
post he held almost to the year of his death, 
and was succeeded in his old duties by Dr. 
Prieatlev. Priestley says of the tutors: 'Wi- 
were all Ariana, and the only subject ol' 
much consequence on which we differed re- 
spected the doctrine of Atonement, concern- 
ing which Dr. Aikin held some obscure no- 
tions.' Among the other tutflrs who from 
time to time joined the staff of the academv, 
were Mr. Beiiihohl Forster, Mr. Enfield, tfle 
Bev. G. Walker, Dr. Nicholas Clayton, and 
Gilbert Wakefield. When the academy wa« 
dissolved in 1786,393 pupils,many of whom 
won distinction in the legal and medical pro- 
fessions, had been from first to last on the 
books. Aikin's health began to fail in 1 778 ; 
soon afterwards be resigned his tutorship, 
and died in 1780. He was, says Wakefield, 
' a zentlemsn whose endowments as n man 
antfas a scholar it i 
rate by panegrric. 
literature had been ■ 



were John, physi 
Letitia, better known 



i not easy to esaroe- 
Every path of poBle 
raversed by him, and 
s.' His two children 
and author, and Anna 
Mrs. Barbauld. 



^Unpublished Letlora and Momoirs ; An His- 
torical Hkatch of Wun-inglon Academy, by Henry 
A. Bright, B.A.] A. A. B. 

AIK.LN", JOHN (1747-1833), physician 
and author, son of the preceding, was bom 
at Kibworth in 1747, and removed thence 
with his father to Warrington, where he re- 
ceived the earlier part of his education. He 
studied medicine at Edinburgh, iind surgecv' 
in London, and, in the course of a flying 



Aikin 



iS6 



Aikin 



visit to Holland, received the deflree of M.D. 
at the university of Leyden. Arter residing 
for a few years at Chester and at Warring- 
ton, he settled in medical practice at Gh*eat 
Yarmouth in the year 1784. The society of 
Yarmouth wad at this time exceedingly hos- 
tile to dissenters, and the agitation in 1790 
for the repeal of the Corporation and Tests 
Acts emhittered differences that would other- 
wise have been unimportant. On this subject, 
Aikin, whose political and religious opinions 
were those oi the dissenters, published two 
warmly written pamphlets, and thereby lost 
the support of most of his more orthodox 
friends and patients. The pamphlets were 
published anonymously, but Aikin was soon 
known to be their author, and his profes- 
sional prospects in Y^armouth were virtually 
ruined. In a letter to a Mend he says that 
he has no idea of becoming ' the hero of a 
cause,' but ' at his age it would be trifling 
not to have a character, and cowardly not to 
avow and stick to it.' His position at Yar- 
mouth becoming more and more intolerable, 
in 1792 he moved to Broad Street Buildings 
in London, and found within easy reach of 
Hackney, then the stronghold of the dis- 
senters, a more agreeable neld for his medi- 
cal and literary work. Lucy Aikin, his 
daughter, describes this migration as ^ a 
blessed change from Y'armouth.* In London 
the warm welcome of his friends, and his 
own high character, brought him a fair mea- 
sure of success. He practised as a physician 
only, and devoted his whole leisure to litera- 
ture. His career, however, as a physician 
was cut short a few years later by a stroke 
of paralysis, in consequence of which he gave 
up his house and practice to his son, and re- 
tired to Stoke Newington. There he spent 
the last twenty-four years of his life in his 
favourite studies and occupations. He died 
in 1822, and left several children. iUkin is 
better known as a man of letters than as a 
physician. His elegant scholarship gave a 
natural polish to all that he wrote, and his 
varied attainments, as well as his moral up- 
rightness, earned him many friends, among 
whom were Dr. Priestley ; rennant, the na- 
turalist ; Dr. Darwin : j^ames Montgomery ; 
John Howard, the philanthropist ; and, for a 
time, the poet, Soutney. lie was John How- 
ard's literary executor, and was often em- 
ployed by him to write reports on prisons, and 
other documents. His life of Howard has been 
adopted without acknowledgment by a mo- 
dem writer. Hardly a year of his life passed 
without some contribution to literature, but 
his best known works are * Essays on Song 
Writing ; ' * Translation of the Germania and 
the Agricola of Tacitus ; ' ^ Biographical Me- 



moirs of Medicine in Great Britain ; ' ' Eng- 
land delineated ; ' ^ General Biography ' (10 
vols. 4to; the articles marked 'A' are 
more than half of the work) ; ' The Arts of 
Life ; ' ' The Woodland Companion ; ' ' Lives 
of John Selden and Archbishop Usher;' cri- 
tical and biographical prefaces to an edition 
of the British Poets; and 'Evenings at 
Home,' which last work was written in con- 
junction with his sister, Mrs. Barbauld, but 
Aikin contributed far the greater number of 
the pieces. He also began a translation 
of Pliny's * Natural Histoir,* but was so * dis- 
gusted by his errors and old women's fables' 
tliat he abandoned the project. It maybe 
added that Aikin was greatly interested in 
chemistry and natural philosophy, branches 
of science in which, however, his sons, Arthur 
and Charles Rochemont, were subsequently 
more distinguished than himself. 

[Unpublished Letters and Memoirs; Lucy 
Aikin's Memoir of John Aikin.] A. A B. 

AIKIN, LUCY (1781-1864), daughter of 
the preceding, was bom at W^arrington in 
the year 1781. She resided with her parents 
at Yarmouth and Stoke Newington tiU the 
death of her father in 1822, 'v^en she re- 
moved to Hampstead, where, with the ex- 
ception of a short interval at Wimbledon, 
she spent the remainder of her life. She 
died in 1864. Miss Aikin was in early life 
a diligent student of French, Italian, and 
Latin, and at the youthful age of seventeen 
began to contribute articles to magazines 
and reviews. In 1810 appeared her first 
considerable work, * Epistles on W'omen,' a 
poem in spirited but conventional heroics; 
and in 1814 she wrote her only work of 
fiction, entitled *Lorimer, a Tale.' These 
were her earlier efforts, but her reputation 
was gained entirely by her historical works 
pubbshed between the years 1818 and 1843; 
namely, * Memoirs of the Court of Queen 
Elizabeth ' (1818) ; * Memoirs of the Court 
of James I.' (1822) ; ' Memoirs of the Court 
of Charles I.' (1833) ; and the ' Life of Addi- 
son ' (1843). The last of these books, which 
contains many letters of Addison never be- 
fore published, is the subject of an essay by 
Macaulay, who, while praising Miss Ailcin s 
other works, and especially her * Memoirs of 
the Court of James I,' observes that she was 
^ far more at home among the ruffs and peaked 
beards of Theobalds than among the steen- 
kirks and flowing periwigs which surrounded 
Queen Anne's tea table at Hampton.' Of her 
other memoirs she herself writes, on the com- 
pletion of her * Charles I ; ' * I am resolved 
against proceeding farther with English so- 
vereigns. Charles II is no theme for me ; it 



wQiilil moke me contemn m^ speci 
also wTotealifeofhtr father, and of her sunt, 
Mrs. Barbauld, and manj minor pieces. Mii>s 
Aikin's conversational powers were remark- 
able, and «he was a graceful and graphii: 
letter writer. Her letters ta her relatives 
and intimate friends show her relish for so- 
ciety, and are full of mother wit and lively 
anecdotes of distinguished liteniy persons. 
She maintained for almost tuxteen years 
(1826 to 18*2) a graver correnmndence with 
the Rev. Dr. Ohannin^, of Boston, on reli- 
ffjon, philosophy, pohtlcs, and literature. 
Strong opinions f^ly B'H"^^^'^ characterise 
these shrewd and vigorous letters. In reli~ 
gion. Miss Ailiin was, like tlie other mem- 
nere of her family, a unitarian— a circum- 
siftnce which, added to a keen recollection of 
hardships, one might almost say persecutions, 
endured by herself as a child, and by her 
father, at Yarmouth, gave her a liberal, but 
by no meansa tolerant .political creed. Writ- 
ing to Dr. Channing on the progress of trac- 
tarianiem in Eiwland, she pronounces 'our 
Church Establishment the most Bvsteniati- 
cally s(«vile in Christondoiik\,iQW8CUS8ing 
the first Reform Bill, she Heflves radicalism 
as ' the supremacy of the rude and selfish and 
ignorant many.' Miss Atkin was, in fact, a 
whig, with a generoua love of liberty wlie:^ 
ever she found it under any conditions, but 
with cilltivatwl tastes that precluded sym- 
pathy with democracy. In her letters to Dr. 
Ohanning she warmly praises the whig 
aristocracy, and defends with a certain de- 
gree of conservatism English manners and 
cuftoma from the criticistn of her corre- 
spondent, These letters, which were not pub- 
lished till after Miss Aikin's death, are not 
omone her best known writings j but they 
record in an interesting manner Doth her own 
opinions and those of the unitarian body of 
her time. 

[l>iEy Aikin, Mfrmoirs. Uisoellanies, and Let- 
Itn, editod by P. H. Le Breton; unpublished 
Letters und Beminiscmices.] A. A. B. 

AIRMAN, WILLLYM (1682-1731), 
a portrait painter, who attained celebrity in 
his day, was bom at Caemey, Forfarshire, 
Ml £4 Oct. 1632. He was the onl^ son of 
William Aikman, advocate, sheiifl of l-'or- 
foretiire, and a man of eminence at the Scot- 
tiah bar. Designed by his father for the law, 
Aikman preferred art and studied for three 

fears under Sir John Medina at E^nburgh. 
a 17W7 he went to Rome, after selling his 
paternal estate near Arbroath. Here he re- 
mained three vears, end then visited Con- 
stantinople and Smyrna. Retnmingby Rome 
aodflorcnce, he reached Scotland in 1713. 



I He practised in Edinburgh with much suc- 
cess till 1723, when he was persuaded by 
John, Duke of Argj'Il, to come to Loudon, 
where he resided till hia death, well em- 

§ loved and the friend of many of the most 
iBllnguished men of his time. He was fond 
of poetry and poets. At college he formed 
the acquaintance of Allan Ibimsay, who 
wrote an eclogue to his mejnorj. lie inte- 
rested himself much in favour of Thomson, 
introducing that poet t,a Sir Richard Wal- 

?r>le, Arbuthnot, Swift, Pope, and Gray. 
homson wrote verses bewailing his lose, 
Sonaen-ile addressed to UJm an ejiistle in 
rhyme, David Mallet wrote the epitaph on 
him and his son, Smollett also praised htm 
in verse, and Samuel Boyse composed some 
lines eulogising his art. He painted a por- 
trait of Allan Ramsay, engraved by G. 
Wliite ; one of Thomson as a young man, 
now St Hagley, engraved for Andrew Mil- 
lar's edition of Thomson ; one of Gay, en- 
graved by T. Kyte ; and one of Somervile. 
Amongst others whose portraits he is known 
to have painted were John, Duke of Argyll, 
tbeCountess of Burlington, and IjodyGrisBell 
Baillie. A number of full-length portraits 
by Aikman were painted for the Earl of 
Buckinghamshire, of Blickling Hall, Norfolk. 
He jiaintcd some portraits of himself, one of 
which is in the L'tfiaii at Florence, and two 
others belonged in 1793 to his daughter, 
Mrs. Forbes of Edinburgh, one of whieu was 
engraved by R. Scott for James Anderson's 
' Bee.' In the National Portrait Gallery Is 
a portrait of Duncan Forbes ascribed to Aik- 
man, and the Duke of Devonshire possesses 
a large unfinished picture by him of the 
royal family in three compartments. He 
was acquainted with Sir Godfrey Kneller, 
whose manner be imitated. Two portrait 
etchings bj* his hand are known, and there 
is an etching by him in the print room of 
the British Museum of several slightly exe- 
cuted heads, one of them after ^ an Dyck. 
Hia death took place at hie house in Leicester 
Fields on 7 June 1731, and is said to have 
been caused by grief at the death of bis only 
son at the age of 17. Both were buried in 
one grave in the Grey Friars Church, Edin- 
burgh. Two daughters survived him. 

[Stark's Biographia Scoticn ; Lempricre's Uni- 
versdl Biography ; Walpole's AnecdnlBS of 
Paiatersi Aiiderson's Bee. vol. iviii.: KoCes and 
Queries (2nd serifs). li. 41d ; Huinekun's Diet. 
dmArtietea dont nous avona des EiitamiHB; Cat. 
of Nutional Portrait GalUry; Rwlgrave s Dirt, of 
Artists; Nogler'e Kiinttler-Leiikon (edited by 
Meyer, 1872).] CM. 

AILESBURY, EiSLs of. [See Bkccb.] 



Ailmer 



1 88 



Ainslie 



AILMEIt. [See Etheulsb.] 

AILB.ED OF RiBVAULX. [See Ethelbed.] 

AINGER, THOMAS (1799-1863), clergy- 
man, was bom on 1 Aug. 1799 at Whittlesea 
and educated at the Norwich grammar school 
and St. John's College, Cambridge. He gra^ 
duated in 1821, became curate at St. Giles's, 
Reading, in 1822, and afterwards assistant 
minister at St. Mary's, Greenwich. He mar- 
ried Frances Barnard in 1828, and left a 
family. In 1841 he was presented by Sir 
Thomas Maryon Wilson to the perpetual 
curacy of Hampstead, which he held till his 
death on 15 Nov. 1863. In 1861 he be- 
came honorary prebendary of St. Paul's. Mr, 
Ainger was energetic as a parish clergyman 
and poor-law guardian; he enlarged his 
churcn, and he^d to found schook and a 
dispensary and to provide new churches in 
the rapidly developing district round Hamp- 
stead. His performance of the divine services 
is said to nave been very impressive. His 
publications consisted of a few sermons. 

[Last Sermons of Rev. T. Ainger, with Me- 
moir, 1864.] 

AINSLIE, GEORGE ROBERT (1776- 
1839), general, was the eldest son of Sir Philip 
Ainslie, knt., and was bom near Edinburgh 
in 1776. He entered the army as ensign in 
the 19th regiment in 1793, and having 

Solitical influence through his mother, a 
aughter of Lord Grey, was in the same 
year promoted lieutenant, and in the next 
captain in the 85th regiment. With his 
regiment he saw serv'ice m Flanders, and in 
1799, when he was promoted major, was 
engaged in the short and disgraceful expe- 
dition to the Helder. He seems to have 
shown no particular capacity as a soldier or 
much ardour for a mifitary life, and so was 
in 1800 promoted to a lieutenant-colonelcy 
in a fencible regiment. In 1802 he married 
a Miss Nevile, but did not again try for em- 
ployment in his profession. He was, how- 
ever, made lieutenant-colonel of the 26th 
regiment in 1807, and promoted colonel by 
brevet in 1810. His influential relatives now 
obtained him a colonial governorship, that of 
the island of Eustatius in 1812, from which 
he was removed to Dominica in 1813. He 
does not appear to have distinguished him- 
self more as a colonial ffovemor than as a 
soldier, and fell into the hands of a clique at 
whose bidding he subdued the maroons on 
the island with such thoroughness that it 
was called cruelty, and on an outcry being 
raised in parliament he was recalled from the 
West Indies in 1814. Major-general Ains- 
lie, for he had been promoted previous to 



his recall, was now free from any active em- 
ployment. Nature had designed him for a 
savant, not a soldier. His nobby was col- 
lecting coins. The taste for coin-collecting 
had much decreased in England since the 
days of Addison, and he found a clear field 
for his labours. He made a specialty of 
Anglo-Norman coins, and travelled all over 
England, and, what was then a more un- 
common thing, all over the rural districts of 
Normandy and Brittany, in search of coins. 
He publisned in 1830 the result of his labours 
in a magnificent quarto entitled ^Anglo- 
French Coinage,' adorned with many illus- 
trations. By his industry he had g^t to- 
gether almost a unique collection of nure 
coins, and, absorbed in the pursuit, died 
peacefully in 1839. 

[For General Ainslie's services see the Royal 
Military Calendar, vol. iii. drd edition, 1820; 
Gent. Mag. for Sept. 1839.] H. M. & 

AINSLIE, HENRY (1760-1834), senior 
wrangler and physician, was son of Dr. James 
Ainslie, a physician of KendaL He entered 
at PembroKe Hall, Cambridge, was senior 
wrangler and second Smith s prizeman in 
1781, and became a fellow of his college. 
In 1787 he obtained the university license 
to practise phvsic, and was elected physician 
to AddenbrooKe's Hospital. In 1793 he took 
his M.D. degree, and then left Cambridge 
for London, where he was elected a fellow 
of the College of Physicians in 1796, and in 
the same year physician to St. Thomas's 
Hospital. He delivered the Harveian oration 
in 1802, but it is not in print. He resigned 
his post at his hospital in 1800, and, while 
taking some part in the business of the Col- 
lege of Physicians, attained to no great fame 
or practice as a physician (Halford, Harv, 
Or. 1835). He died on 26 Oct. 1834 at 
Grizedale, Northumberland. His portrait by 
F. Stewardson was engraved by W. Ward, 
R.A., and he is commemorated on a tablet 
in the church of Over Kellet, Lancashire. 

[Munk's College of Physicians, ii. 377.] 

N. M. 

AINSLIE, HEW (1792^-1878), Scottish 
poet, was bom in the parish of Dailly, in 
Ayrshire, 5 April 1792. After a fair educa- 
tion, he became in turn a clerk in Glasgow, 
a landscape gardener in his native district, 
and a clerk in the Register House, Edin- 
burgh. For a short time he was amanuensis 
to fiugald Stewart. In 1822, being then ten 
years married to his cousin, Ainslie emigrated 
to America, where he continued to live with 
varied fortune for the rest of his days^aying 
a short visit to Scotland in 1864, He was 



■ttracted, on going to the New World, by 
Robert Owen'a social system at New liar- , 
mony, iDdisna; but after a short trial he , 
connect^ binuelf with, a firm of brewers, 
and his name is aasodated with the eatabligh- i 
ment of various breweriea, mille, and factories ' 
in the Western States. He died at Louis- | 
Tille, 11 March 1878. Ainslie'e best known ! 
book ori^oated, by its title, what is now an ' 
aeceoted descriptive name for the part of i 
ScotlHnd associated with Bitms. It is ' A 
Klfirimage to the l,ond of Bums' (1820), ' 
and consists of n narrative interspersed with 
nnightly lyrics. A collection of the poet's | 
Scottish songs and ballads (of which the ' 
most popular is ' The Rover of Loch Ryan ') 
sp[>eBi«a ia New York in 1853. Alnalie is i 
one of rhe px)up of minor Scottish singers 
represented in ' Whistle Binkie ' (Glasgow, 



T<d. ii. ; Irving'a Eminent 

AINSLIE, Sra ROBERT (ir30?-180i), 
baronet, ambassador and numismatist, wa^ 
the third and youngest son of Geoi^ Ainslie, 
Esq., the representative of the ancient 
Scottish family of Alnslie of Dolphington, 
chief of the name, who married Jane, 
daughter of Sir Philip Anstruther, baronet, 
and died in 1733. The issue of the marriage 
of George Ainslie was n family of seven 
children, and included four daughters, three 
of whom were married and estublished in 
France. Sir Robert, who was bora eitherin 
1729, or most probably in 1730, is described 
as having ' resided in the earlier part of liis 
life at Bordeaux,' where his father had been 



1727, and to have purchased the estate of , 
Klton, in the county of Midlothian (D&- 
BKETt'b Samnetoffe of England, 1808). The 
elder brothers of Sir Robert were Sir Philip 
Ainslie, knight, who was bom in 1728, and 
died on 19 June 1802 ; and Georffe Ainslie, 
a general in the army, colonel or the I3tb 
regimen! of foot, and fieutenant^vemor of 
the SciUy islands, who died on 7 July 1804. I 

Robert Ainslie is first noticed in the 
'London Oaielte,' 20 Sept. 1776: 'The king' 
has been pleased to appoint Robert Ainslie, 
Esq., to Iw his majesty s ambassador to the 
Ottoman Porte, in the room of John Murray, 
Esq., deceaand ; and his majesty was pleased 
this day to confer upon him the honour of 
knighluood, upon which occasion he had the 
hononr to kiss his majesty's linnd.' 

^ Robert .^Vinslie left England in May, 
I776| for Constantinople, where he arrived 



in November following, and remained till 
1792. Sir Robert Ainslie had the repu- 
tation while in Turkey of being a great 
favourite and boon companion of the Sultan 
Abdu-1 Ahmed (Ahmed IV,) {Biog. Diet. 
Soc. D. V. K.). 

On 8 Sejit. 1796, a few years aft-er his re- 
turn to England, Sir Robert Ainslie received 
a grant of a pension of 1,000/. on the civil 
list, to be held < during the joint Iivi's of liis 
majesty and hlmselt' (Annual Jtfffufer. 
1798) ; and was elected a member of the 
parliament wliich met on the 27lh of the 
same month, with Lord Paget as his col- 
league, for the close borough of Mil borne Port, 
Somerset. At the general election of 1802, 
his seat in parliament was Irnnsferred to 
Mr. n. LeycBSter. Sir Robert on 13 Oct. 
1804 {London Gaxttie) was created a baronet, 
with remainder, in default of issue male, to 
his nephew, Robert Shaip Ainslie, son of 
General Ainslie. The ' Gentleman's Magazine ' 
for December 1796 records the death of hia 
son:— 'December 30. 1796, Mr. AinaUe, 
eldest son of Sir Robert AlnsUe. This young 
sentleman wae to have been married to Mies 
Baldwin, daughter of Mr. Baldwin, M.P, for 
Malton, on Thursday, but in consequence of 
a violent fever was carried off two days pre- 
ceding.' 

air Robert Ainslie died ' after a long ill- 
nesfl, in the 83rd year of his age' {Conritr, 
36 July 1812) at Bath, on 21 July 1812. 

Sir Robert Ainslie took advantage of his 
position at Constantinople to amass a collec- 
tion of ancient coins from Eastern Enrope, 
Asia Minor, and the north of Africa. The 
most characteristic were described by l' Abate 
Dotnenico Sestlni, who dedicated to Sir 
Robert a work which has gone through 
several editions, entitled ' Lettere e Disser- 
tazioni Niunismatiche sopra alcune Medaglie 
rare della Collezlone Ainslieana,' 4 vols. Ito, 
Leghorn, 1789-90, a fifth volume of which, 
with the enlarged title < e di altri Musei,' 
appeared at Roue in 1794, and four others, 
referring tJ3 particular collections, were pub- 
lished at Berlin in 180t-6. Sestini continued 
hia exposition of the Ainslie collection in a 
smnller work, and more special in its scope, 
I entitled ' Dissert azione sopra alcune Monete 
Annene del Principi Rupinensi della Col- 
lezione Ainslieana,' 4to, Leghorn, 1790. This 
work is at present iKiund up with a copy of 
the first four volumes of the ' Lettere e Dis- 
sertarioni,' which, according to nn inaerip- 
tion, probably autographic, on the fly-leaf, 
woB ' presented from S' Rob' Ainslie, 
June 6, 1796,' to the British Museum. An- 
other volume of Sestini's is entitled 'Dt^ 
script io Numonim Vetenun ex Museis 



Ainslie 



190 



Ainslie 



Ainslie, Bellini, Bondacca^ Borsia,' &c., 
Leipfiic, 1796. Sir Robert had been the 
'Mfficenas' of Sestini's dedication of the 
^Lettere e Biaaertazioni ' of 1789; seven 
years later, in the preface to the ' Descriptio/ 
ne was a malignant speculator and trader in 
antiquities. 

Sir Robert Ainslie's researches embraced 
antiquities of various kinds, objects of na^ 
tural history, and illustrations of the East 
and its current life. Three volumes of draw- 
ings were published, in the words of the 
d^cation, * under his auspices.' The first 
of these is entitled ' Views in E^iypt, from 
the original drawings in possession of Sir 
Robert Ainslie, taken dunn^ his Embassy 
to Constantinople by Luigi Mayer; en- 
graved by and under tne direction ofThomas 
Milton ; with historical Observations and in- 
cidental Illustrations of the Manners and 
Customs of the Natives of that Country,' 
t^leph. fol. London, 1801. This was followed 
by two bilin^^al volumes, English and 
Prench, entitled * Views in the Ottoman 
Empire, chiefly in Caramania,' &c., 1803; 
and < Views in Palestine,' &c, 1804. The 
coloured plates in these volumes are ninety- 
six in number ; and fifty-four were afterwards 
given in the first emtion, and seventy-one 
m the second edition, of * Views in Turkey 
in Europe and Turkey in Asia,' &c., London, 
1810. A selection from all these appeared 
in 1838 as a group of enp'avings, uncoloured 
and of smaller size, with the title of *A 
Series of Twenty-four Views illustrative of 
the Holy Scriptures,' &c. 

[Debrett's Baronetage of England, 1808; 
Lodge's Genealogy of the Peerage and Baronet- 
age, 1859 ; theIx)ndon Gazette, 1776, 1804, &c.; 
Gentleman's Magazine, Aug. 1812, &c. ; Annual 
Register, 1798, &c. ; Biog. Diet. Soc. D. U. K. ; 
Lowndes's Bibliographer's Manual, 1864/1 

A. H.G. 

AINSLIE, ROBERT (1766-1838), cor- 
respondent of Robert Bums, the poet, was 
bom 13 Jan. 1766, at Berrywell, near Dunse, 
where his father was factor to Lord Douglas. 
While apprenticed to a writer to the signet 
in Edinburgh, young Ainslie in 1787 formed 
the acquaintance of Sums, and in May of the 
same year he made an excursion with the 
poet in Teviotdale and Berwickshire. Bums 
stayed some days at Berrywell. A sister of 
Ainslie, whom Burns met on this occasion, 
was the subject of the impromptu beginning 
with * Fair maid.' Ainslie passed writer to 
the signet in 1789. He became an elder in 
the Church of Scotland, and was the author 
of two small religious works, *A Father's 
Gift to his Children,' and * Reasons for the 



Hope that is in us.' He also contributed to 
the ' Edinburgh Magazine ' and other perio- 
dicals. His intimacy with Bums, and his 
genial manners, secured him a cordial wel- 
come in the literaiy circles of Edinbur^L 
Hogg[, who speaks of him as ' honest Ainsbe,* 
mentions, as his one failing, constitutional 
sleepiness, the irresistibility of which Hosg, 
with characteristic egotism, iUustrates vy 
stating that he has * seen him fall fast asleep 
in the blue parlour at Ambrose's, with Nortn 
in the chair and myself croupier.' Fourteen 
letters of Bums to Ainslie are included in 
the poet's correspondence. According to 
W. S. Douglas ( Works o/Bunu, ii. 188), the 
ballad, ' Robin shure in Hairst,' refers to a 
juvenile amour of Ainslie. Ainslie presented 
Sir Walter Scott with a manuscript copy of 
' Tam o' Shanter,' which he had received from 
Bums at Ellisland. He died 11 April, 1888. 

[Works of Bums, especiaUy the editions of 
Cunningham, Chambers, P. 1±, Waddel, and W. 
S. Douglas.] T. F. H. 

AINSLIE, WHITELAW (JL 1788- 
1835), surgeon and writer on materia medica, 
was nominated assistant surgeon in the East 
India Company's service on 17 June 1788, and 
on his arrival in India was appointed garrison 
surgeon of Chingleput. On 17 Oct. 17d4 
he was promoted to the ^prade of surgeon, 
having been two years previously transferred 
to Ganjam. In 1810 ne was appointed su- 
perintending surgeon, the court of directors 
having approved his motives in drawing up 
a scheme to improve the health of the troops 
in India, whilst rejecting the plan proposed. 
He was named superintending surgeon of 
the southern division of the army (Madras) 
in 1814, and two years later the sum of six 
hundred guineas was awarded to him as a 
mark of tne estimation in which his services 
were held by the court of directors. In 1816 
he resigned, having served twenty-seven 
years apparently without any furlough, and 
returned to England in the autumn of that 
year. During his residence in India he seems 
to have published the joint report mentioned 
below, a * Treatise upon Edible Vegetables,' 
and the * Materia Medica of Hindostan.' 
After liis return he occupied himself by 
launching out into different branches of 
literature, as shown bv the appended list of 
works. In 1835 he refers to himself as being 
in the * vale of years,' the book being dedi- 
cated to his wife. 

He published the following works: 1. * Ma- 
teria Medica of Hindostan,' Madras, 1813, 
4to. 2. * Materia Indica ; or Some Account 
of those Articles which are employed by the 
Hindoos and other Eastern Nations in their 



Ainsworth 



Hedictne, Aitg, and Agriciillure,' by White- 
law Ainalif, M.D., M.R.A.S., London. 1826, 
3 vols. 8vo. (Tbu h an omendt-d edition of 
tbeforvguing.) S. ■ Clt^mraco, or the Tuaean 
l.>rpltaD 1 & traetc drama in five acts. Bath, 
Ifea. Sto ; 2ud edition, 1823. 4. ' Obaena- 
rions nn the Cbolera Morbus of India.' Lon- 
don, 1H25, Bvo. (A rejoinder to this tract 
waa published by James Moiiaon, tiie hygeist, 
in the some year.) 5. ' Medieul Ob«erva- 
tiona,' forming pp. 3KJ-3e7 of Tol. iii. of 
Mmrav's'Hisroncal and Descriptive Account 
..f British India." 1832. 8vo (vols. Ti.-viii. 
Edinburgh Cnbinet Library); new edition 
in lAU. 6, -An Historical Sketch of the 
Introduclior of Chrietiamty into India,' 
Edinburgh, 183fi, 8vo. 7. (In conjunction 
with A. Smith and M. Christy) ' Report on 
the Ckusps of the Epidemical Fever which 

C vailed in the Pruviacesof Ooimbatore, Ma- 
rs- Dinignl, and Tinivelly, in 1809-10-11,' 
London, 1816, 8vo. 

[MS. Records, Indis 01Hce."| B. D. J. 

AINSWORTH, HENRY (1571-1622 or 
1623), leader of the separatist congregation 
•.t AinBterdam, and controversialist, wa«, ac- 
carding to the Lanciishire historians, one of 
an uld family in thai county, and is usually 
■tat«d t<i have been bom at Fleasington 
about 1560, The real ilatt- of hifi birth is 
1571, and nothing very certain is known as 
to his birthplace and parentage. Accord- 
ing In Baines and Abram, his father, Law- 
renoo Ainsworth, who married Dorothy, 
f)viglit«r of Thomas Orimshaw, of Clayton, 
wna one of the original povemori! of Black- 
bum grammar school, which was founded in 
IS07. IlBre, it is conJMtured, Henry re- 
eeired the earlier part of his education. He 
waa left nn orphan at the age of thirteen. 
He is said lo have proceeded lo the university 
of Ounbridge ; but his name is not to lie 
found in the 'Athente Cantabrigienses.' 
Ih!Xt4)r hu pointed out a passage in Roger 
Williams wliieb militates against the suppo- 
sition that he was a graduate : ' That mo«t 
despised (whilu living) and now giuch htf^ 
nuured Mr. Ainsworth had scarw his peere 
aroomgvt a thousand academicians, and ret 
hf> iMtrce set foot within a colledfl;e walls. 

Ainsworth was a flue type of the Eliza- 
bethan puritan — learned, Bincere,eamest , and 
nncorapromising. He attached himself to 
tboao who wi-re styled ' Brownist«,' who, 
nnderthenameof ' Indejiendents,' afterwords 
pUvcnl so important u part in English history, 
ana wlio were the ancestors of t he ' Congro- 
gataOflalists ' and other free churches of the 
preMnt tima. Their eM«ntial distinction -wnn 
thu 4]laiiB that each church or congrtigation 



should be a religious republic, regulating lis 
own allairs in entire independence of sinle 
control, whether episcopal or presbyterian. 
A vigorous persecution was directed agninst 
tliMe sectaries, and their founder is said even- 
tually to have reverted to the church of Eng- 
land ;but some of his followers went intoexile 
rather than recognise the right of the secular 
power to dictate in such a matter. Ains- 
worth, about 1693, entered into the service 
of a bookseller at Amsterdam as a porter. 
Of this period it is said by Roger WQlinms 
that ' he lived upon nlnepence a week and 
some boiled roots.' In 1596 he became 
' t«acbor ' of the church of which Frnwcis 
Johnson was minister. According to one 
account Ainsworth came from Ireland to the 
Netherlands (Dbstek, p. 269). Here his 

Kwers as a Hebraist were discovered and 
aught into play. There were other exiles 
in tEe city, and Ainsworth, together with 
Francis Johnson, founded an independent 
church, and in 1G96 was the author, wholly 
or in part, of the ' Confession of Faith of 
the People called Brownista.' The task of 
orgouising the new church was not an easy 
one. Amsterdoai whs a city of refugo for 
the persecuted and the destitute, and the 
three hundred members of the church included 
some who did not reflect much credit upon it. 
Thev were not regarded with favour either 
by t^e divines or magistrates of the Nether- 
laude, and even their application to Francis 
Junius, then professor ol divinity at Leyden, 
had but a lukewarm answer. Objects of 
persecution at home and of suspicion in exile, 
thev added 10 the difficulties of the situation 
bv internal dissension. Johnson had mar- 
ried a rich widow, whose fashionable sriire 
gave offence to some of the conajegation, 
and amongst others lo the pastors father and 
brother. Dexter has given a full account of 
this odd controversy, in which Ainsworth 



appears to have acted in a very conciliatory 
flpiri t. One of the oloections to the lady was 
that in her dress she nad 'bodies tied to the 
■petticote with pointsas mon do their doublets 
and their hose, contrary to 1 Thess. v. 32, con- 
ferre-i with Deut. wii. 5 and 1 John ii. 16 't 
John Robinson, the past or of the American pil- 
grim fat here, retired to Levden to escape from 
the contentions of the faltliful in Amstfrdum, 
where a further secession was headed by 
John Smvth, a former minister of a separatist 
church in Lincolnshire, wbo)« Arminian 
views led to an animated controversy. The 
third separation in the Amsterdam society 
was the result of a controversy between 
Johnson the pastor and Ainsworth the 
leaeherof thechurch. The chief point india- 
pule was OS to the exercise of the power of the 



Ains worth 



193 



Ains worth 



church and the true meaning of Matt, zyiii. 17. 
Ain8Worth*8 view was that the power of ex- 
communication belonged to the congreffation 
as a whole, and was not to be us^ by the 
elders or officers alone. After many efforts 
at reconciliation on the part of Ainsworth, 
he and his friends finally withdrew in De- 
cember 1610, and the scoffers were soon able 
to point to the two congregations, whom they 
styled respectively Franciscan Brownists and 
Ainsworthian Brownists. Subsequently 
there was a lawsuit for the possession of the 
original building. This was brought, not by 
Ainsworth or by his companv collectively, 
but by some individuals. Tne decision is 
unknown; but it appears to have gone 
against Johnson, who with his friends re- 
moved to Emden. 

Ainsworth was now minister for twelve 
years. This was a busy time ; for, in addi- 
tion to the work of the pastoral office, he 
wrote a lengthy series of controversial and 
exegetical works. Many of these are now 
rare, and in the following list those to be 
found in the British Museum are indicated 
by the addition of B. M. : 1. * A True Con- 
fession of the Faith and humble acknow- 
ledgment of the Alegeance which her Ma- 
jestie's subjects, falsely called Brownists, do 
hould,' &c., 1596, 1602. 2. * Apology or De- 
fence of such Christians as are commonly 
but unjustly called Brownists,' Amst. 1604. 
This is a joint work with F. Johnson. There 
were Dutch translations in 1612 and 1670. 
3. * Certayne questions concerning (i.) silk or 
wool in the High Priest's Ephod ; (ii.]) Idol 
Temples, commonly called Churches ; (iii.) the 
forme of prayer commonly called the Lord's 
Prayer ; (iv.) Excommimication, &c., handled 
between H. Broughton and Henry Ains- 
worth,' London, 1605. (B.M.) 4. * Answer 
to Mr. Stone's Sermon,' 1605. This has dis- 
appeared, but is mentioned in Lawne's 
^Brownisme turned the Inside Outward,' 
London, 1613. (B.M.) 6. The * Communion 
of Sainct^ ; a treatise of the Fellowship that 
the Faithful have with God and his Angels, 
and one with another, in the present life. 
Gathered out of the Holy Scriptures by 
H. A.' Reprinted in the year 1615 (B.M.), 
1628; Nova Belgia, 1640 (B.M.), 1641 ; Aber- 
deen, 1844. Dexter thinks this was first issued 
in 1607. 6. *An Arrow against Idolatrie 
by H. A.,' 1611 (B.M.), 1617, 1624, 1640 
(B.M.) 7. * Count-er-poyson : Considera- 
tions touching the points in difference be- 
tween the godly ministers of the Church of 
England, and the seduced Brethren of the 
Separation; Arguments that the best As- 
semblies of the present Church of England 
are true Visible Cnurches ; that the Preachers 



in the best Assemblies of England are true 
Ministers of Christ ; Mr. Bernard's book, en- 
titled the " Separatists' Schism " ; Mr. Craw- 
Shaw's questions propounded in his Sennons 
preached at the Cross. Ebuunined and an- 
swered by H. A.,' 1606 rB.M.), 1612, 1642 
g.M.) 8. 'An Epistle sent unto two 
ughters of Warwick from H. N. fjtoiy 
Nicholas], the oldest &ther of the f amilie 
of Love. With A Refutation of the Errors 
that are therein by H. A.,' Amsterdam, 1606. 
(B.M.) 9. * A Defence of the Holy Scrips 
tures, Worship, and Ministry used in toe 
Christian Churches seperated from Anti- 
christ, against the challenges, cavils, and 
contradictions of M. Smyth, in hia book en- 
titled ** The Differences of the Churches of 
the Separation." Hereunto are annexed a 
few ammadversions upon some of M. Smyth's 
censures, in his answer made to M. Bernard^ 
by Henry Ainsworth, teacher of the English 
exiled Church at Amsterdam. ImprintM at 
Amsterdam by Giles Thorp,' 1609. rB.M.) 
10. ' The Booke of Psalmes, englishea both 
in Prose and Metre ; with Annotations open- 
ing the words and sentences by conference 
with other Scriptures, by Henry Ainsworth, 
Ept. V. 18, 19. Amsterdam, printed,' &c 
1612 rB.M.), 1617 (B.M.), 1626, 1639, 1644 
(B.M.) 11. ^An Animadversion to Mr. 
Kichard Clifton's Advertisement, who, under 
pretence of answering Chr. Laune's book, 
nath published another man's private Letter, 
with Mr. Francis Johnson's Ajaswer thereto. 
Which letter is here justified, the answer 
thereto refuted, and the true causes of the 
lamentable breach that hath lately fallen 
out in the English exiled Church at Am- 
sterdam manifested. Imprinted at Amster- 
dam by Giles Thorp,' 1613. (B.M.) 12. 'An- 
notations upon the first book of Moses called 
Genesis,' 1616, 1621. 13. < Annotations 
upon the second book of Moses called Exodus,' 
1617, 1626. 14. 'Annotations upon the 
third book of Moses called Leviticus,' 1618, 
1626. 15. * Annotations upon the fourth 
book of Moses called Numbers,* 1619. (B.M) 

16. ' Annotations upon the fifth book of 
Moses called Deuteronomie,' 1619. (B.M.) 

17. * Annotations ui)on the five books of 
Moses,' 1619, 1621, 1626, 1627 (B.M.), 1639 
(B.M.) 18. * Annotations upon tne five 
books of Moses, the Psalms, and the Song 
of Songs,' London, 1627, 1639. A Dutch 
translation 1690, German translation 1692. 
19. * The Trying out of the Truth, b^ruii 
and prosequutea in certain letters and pas* 
sages between John Aynsworth and Henry 
Aynsworth : the one pleading for, the other 
against, the present religion of the Church 
of Rome. The chief things here handled 



Ainsworth 193 Ainsworth 



are: (i.) of God's Word and Scriptures, 
whether they be sufficient rule of our fayth ; 



Text, and the allegations of the Rabbins in 
his Annotations/ 1639. This, although be- 



(ii.) of the Scriptures expounded by the . lieved to have been printed separately, is in- 
Uhurch, and of unwriten tradition ; (lii.) of ' eluded in the Annotations on the Pentateuch, 
the Church of Home, whether it be the It arose out of an attack by John Paget, 
trewe Catholic Church, and her sentence to minister of the English Reformed Church at 
be received as the certayne truth. Published ! Amsterdam, who took offence at the admis- 



for the good of others by E. P. in the year 
1615.' (B.M.) This is an interesting memo- 
rial of the reli^ous controversy of the Eliza- 
bethan age. John Ainsworth^ who had ab- 



sion of a woman as member of AinRWorth*s 
congregation who had previously belonged 
to Faffet[s church. 26. * The Old Orthodox 
Foundation of Religion. Long since collected 



jured Anglicanism, and was imprisoned in by that judicious and eloquent man, Mr 
London as a recusant, put forth a challenge Iienry Ainsworth, for the benefit of hiis pri- 
to a written debate, and invited Henry vate company, and now divulged for the 
Ainsworth to notice this cartel. In the ' publicke of aU that desire to know that cor- 
reply to this the Brownist minister, writing ner-stone, Jesus Christ. By S. W.* London, 
from Amsterdam, refers to his opponent as' in 1641 (B.M.), 1653 ('B.M.). The name of the 
nation and in name, and I know not whether , editor, Samuel Wliite, appears at the end 
also for nearer alliance, being meet.' Four of the preface. Whilst not agreeing with 
letters by the disj^utants were addressed to Ainsworth's * preposterous zeale in the point 
each other, and in the published volume ; and practise of Separation,' yet as an eye- 
HeniT Ainsworth ends with a short reply. ' witness of his life in Amsterdam he praises 
The discussion extended from 1609 to 1613. his ' humility, sobriety, and discretion,' and 
It has been said that John and Henr^ were declares that ' hee lived and died unblameable 
brothers, but of this there is no evidence. . to the world,' except in one point, which to 
The letters on the whole are remarkable for many is a strong testimony of Ainsworth's 
the earnestness and yet friendly spirit of the love of the truth. 26. *Two Treatises. 
disputants in an age when religious contro- The first. Of the Communion of Saints ; 
versy was apt to be bitterly personal. The the second entitled An Arrow against 
answers of John Ainsworth and twenty-one Idolatry, &c. To this edition is prefixed 
other priests in Newgate, 20 March 1614, as some account of the life and writings of the 
to the doctrine of allegiance, will be found j author [by Dr. Stuart].' Edinb. 1789. (B.M.) 
in Tiemey's edition of Dodd's * Church His- ! 27. * Annotations upon the Pentateuch, 
tory of England,' iv. p. cciv. 20. * A Reply ' Psalms, and Song of Solomon, with a Memoir 
to the pretended Christian Plea for the Anti- of the Author,' 2 vols., Glasgow, 1843. (B.M.) 
christian Church of Rome, published by , W. Bartlett, writing in 1647, speaks of a 
Francis Johnson, a.d. 1617. Wherein the Marge treatise 'by Ainsworth entitled* Guide 
weakness of the said Plea is manifested, and to Zion.' This is not otherwise known, and 
arguments alleged for the Church of Rome, I may perhaps be a mistaken reference to 
and Baptisme therein, are refuted, anno 1618. I * Svon s Prerogative Royal,' which appeared 
Printed in the year 1620.* (B.M.) 21 . * Solo- in 1641 , and, though without name, is regardeil 
mon's Song of Songs in English metre,' 1623, as the work of Ainsworth's successor, John 
1626. 22. 'A Seasonable Discourse; or, a Canne. It is, however, not what even now 
Censure upon a Dialogue of the Anabaptists, j we should call a large treatise, and is but a 
entitled " A Description of what Goa hath lilliputianspecimenof the powers of the theo- 
predestinated concerning man,"' 1623, 1642 i logians of the seventeenth century. Tlie 
(B.M.), 1643 (B.M.), 1645, 1651. 23. * Cer- i foregoing list will show that Henry Ains- 
tain Notes of Mr. Henry Aynsworth, his last ■ worth was a busy and voluminous writer, 
Sermon. Taken by pen in the publique de- ! both as controversialist and as commentator. 
livery by one of his flock a little before his ' He did not even disdain the muses ; but 
death, anno 1622. Published now at last by his versification is of the baldest. The 
the saidwriter as a love token of remembrance curious in hymnolog}- who consult his * An- 
to hia brethren, to inkindle their affections to I notations ' upon Exo<lus xv. will find the 



prayer, that scandalls (of manie years continu- 
ance) may be removed, that are barrs to keep 
back manie godly wise and judicious from us, 
whereby, we might grow to further perfection 
again. Imprint^ l&O.' The preface is si^ed 
&bine Staresmore. The text is 1 Peter li. 4. 
24. ' Adyertisement touching some Objec- 
tions against the Sincerity of the Hebrew 
VOL. I. 



music to which his *Song of Moses' was 
sung by the little church at Amsterdam. 
Of the Canticles he executed a metrical ver- 
sion. He had not the faintest breath of 
poetical inspiration. It is perhaps worth 
noting that William Ainsworth, described as 
lecturer at St. Peter s, Chester, wrote * Me- 
dulla Bibliorum : the Marrow of the Bible . . . 



Ainsworth 



194 



Ainsworth 



toother with so many English poems con- 
taining the contents of every chapter/ which 
appeared in 1662. 

Henry Ainsworth left behind him a large 
quantity of manuscripts, which appear to have 
been dispersed. This is known from a passa^ 
in one of Dr. John Worthington's letters, m 
which he bears an emphatic testimony both 
to the character and attainments of Henry 
Ainsworth. * There is another author, whose 
remains are most worthy to be retrieved — I 
mean Mr. Ainsworth, whose excellent anno- 
tations upon the Pentateuch, &c. sufficiently 
discover his great learning and his most exact 
observation of the proper idioms of the holy 
text, with every iota and tittle of which he 
seems to be as much acquainted as any of the 
Masoreths of Tiberias/ Dr. Worthington 
goes on to mention works on Hosea, Matthew, 
and the Epistles to the Hebrews, which 
Ainsworth nad left, but which, owing to 
some difficulty as to price or copyright be- 
tween Ainsworth's son and his successor, 
John Canne, had not been printed. The 
value of Ainsworth's exegetical writings has 
been attested by Cotton, Doddridge, Calmet, 
Poole, and Clarke. Time has not entirely 
destroyed the value of his annotations ; for 
they have been found helpful to the company 
of Old Testament revisers (Dexter, p. 342). 
His character was that of a modest, amiable, 
and conciliatory man, acting with modera- 
tion under difficult circumstances, unwilling 
to enter upon controversy, and yet not shrink- 
ing from it when duty called. Perhaps his 
greatest service to English nonconformity 
was the establishment of a tradition of learn- 
ing and culture. Even those of the world 
who despised the sectary admired the scholar 
whose acquirements in rabbinical and ori- 
ental literature — as it was then understood — 
were equalled by few in Europe. This com- 
bination led Moreri and others to suppose 
that Henry Ainsworth the annotator and 
Henry Ainsworth the Brownist were distinct 
individuals. 

Dexter has shown that Henry Ainsworth, 
who is described as a minister, thirty-six years 
of age and from Swanton, married Margery 
Halie, from Ipswich, widow of Richard 
Appelbey, 29 March 1607. He also quotes 
a passage from Paget — certainly an unscru- 
pulous and biassed witness — who declares 
that Ainsworth was originally a member of 
the church of England — as, indeed, he must 
have been — separated from her, then in Lon- 
don rejoined her communion, but left her, 
and once more, when in Ireland, ^and in 
some danger for your scandall,' at least 
nominally resumed his allegiance. Even 
if there were any wavering in Ainsworth's 



youth, which is by no means certain, yet 
during all the period of his public life from 
1696 to his death we find him constant to 
the despised and unpopular form of Christi- 
anity which he had adopted. 

Before his death Ainsworth for a time left 
Amsterdam and revisited Ireland, but re- 
turned to his city of exile, where he died late 
in 1622 or early in 1623. Neal has g^iven a 
strange narration of his death, which, if too 
absurd for credence, is too circumstantial to 
be omitted. ' His death,' he says, ' was 
sudden, and not without suspicion of vio- 
lence ; for it is reported that, having found a 
diamond of very great value in the streets of 
Amsterdam, he advertised it in print, and 
when the owner, who was a Jew, came to de- 
mand it, he offered him any acknowledgment 
he would desire; but Ainsworth, though poor, 
would accept of nothing but a conference 
with some of his rabbies upon the prophedes 
of the Old Testament relatmg to the Messiah, 
which the other promised, but not having 
interest enough to obtain it, 'tis thought that 
he was poisoned.' Brook's version is that 
the conference took place, and the champion 
of Christianity was poisoned by his defeated 
antagonists. 

[Works of John Bobinson, Pastor of the Pil- 
grim Fathers, London, 1861 ; Two Treatises by 
Henry Ainsworth (with some account of the life 
and writings of the author), Edinburgh, 1789; 
Neal's History of the Puritans, ii. 43 ; Brook's 
Lives of the Puritans, ii. 299 ; Abram's History 
of Blackburn, Blackburn, 1877 ; Baxter's Con- 
gregationalism of the Last Three Hundred Years, 
1880 (containing, at p. 296, a facsimile of Henry 
Ainsworth's signature) ; Bainos's Lancashire ; 
Hiilley's Jjancashire Puritanism ; British Mu- 
seum General Catjilogue.] W. E. A. A. 

AINSWORTH, ROBERT (1660-1743), 
lexicographer, was bom at Woodyale, in the 
parish of Eccles, four miles from Manchester, 
in September 1660. He received his educa- 
tion at Bolton, in Lancashire, and afterwards 
kept a school in that town. In or before 
1698 he removed to London, and for a time 
he was master of * a considerable boarding- 
school ' at Bethnal Green. During his resi- 
dence there he published, probably as a kind 
of advertisement, a very suggestive pamphlet 
on *The most Natural and Easie Way of 
Institution,' containing various useful pro- 
posals in the direction of educational reform. 
He afterwards removed his school to Hackney, 
and carried it on successively at other villages 
in the neighbourhood of the metropolis. 

Having acquired a moderate fortune, Ains- 
worth gave up his school, and spent the re- 
mainder of his life in a private manner. He 
was elected a fellow of the Society of Anti- 



Ainsworth 



19s 



Ainsworth 



quaries in 1724, and honourable mention is 
made of him in the history of the society 
prefixed to the first volume of the * Archaeo- 
logia.' After retiring from his school he 
devoted a good deal 01 his time to ransacking 
the shops of obscure brokers in every quarter 
of London, by which means he often procured 
old coins and other valuable curiosities at a 
small cost. He disposed of his collection of 
antiquities and rarities in single articles a 
short time before his death. Heame in his 
jottings (30 Aug. 1734J says : * Mr. Ayns- 
worth formerly kept a Doarding school^ and 
had a veiT flourishing^ school. His wife is 
dead, but he had no cnildren. He is not in 
orders. He was bom in Lancashire, in which 
coimty he is about making a settlement, being 
down there at present, for the poor for ever, 
having no relations but at a great distance. 
He hath been said to be a nonjuror. I think 
be is rather a Calvinist. . . . He hath a very 
great collection of coins. A maid servant 
lobb'd him of many gold and silver ones. 
Dr. Middleton Massey is well acquainted with 
Imn.. He Lb well spoken of in Westminster 
«chooL' Thomas Jackson, in his 'Life of 
Charles Wesley,* states that 'among those 
who visited Charles at this time (May 1738) 
was the learned Mr. Ainsworth, author of 
the Latin Dictionary which bears his name. 
He was now venerable through age, and at- 
tended the methodist meetings for prayer 
and spiritual converse, in the spirit of a little 
child. Charles Wesley himself in his journal 
(12 May 1738), remarks : ' I was much moved 
at the sight of Mr. Ainsworth, a man of 
great learning, above seventv, who, like old 
Simeon, was waiting to see tne Lord's salva- 
tion, that he might depart in peace. His 
tears, and vehemence, and childlike simplicity 
showed him upon the entrance of the king- 
dom of heaven.* Again Charles Wesley 
writes (24 May 1738) : * I was much pleased 
to-day at the sight of Mr. Ainsworth; a 
little child, fuU of grief, and fears, and love. 
At our repeating the line of the hymn — 
Now descend and shake the earth, 

he fell down as in an agony.' 

Ainsworth died in London, 4 April 1743, 
in the eighty-third year of his age, and was 
buried at Poplar, where is the foUowing 
monumental inscription for him and his 
wife, written by himself: — 

Rob. Ainsworth et Uxor ejus, admodnm senes, 
Dormitori, vestem detritam hie exnerunt, 
Novam, primo mane snrgentes, indntnri. 
Dnm fiiB, mortalis, sapias, et respioe finem, 
Hoc miadent manes, hoc canit Amramides. 
To thy Reflection, mortal Friend, 
Th' Advice of Moses I commend : 
Be wise and meditate thy End. 



His works are : — 1. The tract already al- 
luded to, entitled * The most Natural and 
Easie Way of Institution : containing Pro- 
posals for making a Domestic Education less 
chargeable to Parents, and more Easie and 
Beneficial to Children. By which Method, 
Youth may not only make a very consider- 
able Progress in Languages, but also in 
Arts and Sciences, in Two Years,^ London, 
1698, 4 to. This sensible treatise shows that 
Ainsworth was in advance of his age, and 
that he had arrived at much more correct 
views of education than were then, and in- 
! deed are still, commonly entertained, more 
especially on the mode of teaching foreign 
i langua^s. He perceived the absurdity" of 
! imparting, at the outset, the abstract rules 
of grammar, and proposed that languages 
should be taught after the mode by which 
, every child learns its mother tongue. His 
' ingenious and rational scheme for imparting 
! a knowledge of Latin is thus described: ^1 
I believe the Latin Tongue may be leam*d so 
I far forth as to understand very weU a Roman 
i Author, to write Latin correctly, and speak 
I it fluently, and a considerable Knowledge 
j attained in Arts and Sciences, by little Chil- 
dren, by the Proposals following, in two 
years* time at most, and that with ease and 
pleasure, both to Master and Scholar. Propo- 
sition d) That a convenient House be taken, 
a small distance from London, with a large 
Garden, and other Conveniencies. (2) That 
there be two Masters, whereof one to be ca- 
pable of teaching Latin, Greek, and Hebrew : 
The other, at least, to understand Latin, and 
speak it fluently ; to be well skill'd in Logic, 
Rhetoric, Geography, and History ; and that 
he write a good Hand. (3) That Latin be 
made a Living Language in the Family ; i.e. 
That no other Language be us*d in presence 
of the Boys. (4) That one or both the Mas- 
ters continually be present with the Pupils, 
whether Readmg, Writing, Translating, or 
Plaving, from 7 in the Morning till 8 at 
Night. (5) That there be no Rods, or any 
kind of Punishment, but that a generous 
Emulation be carry 'd on by Rewards; to 
which use the Parents shall allow per 

Annum, of which they to have an Account 
Monthly in a Latin Epistle, by which they 
may be informed both of their Proficiency and 
Dibgence from time to time. (6) That the 
nium)er of Pupils exceed not Twelve. (7 ) That 
they read English weU ; and that their Mas- 
ter take care to Imprf)ve it. (8) That they be 
not younger than Six, nor older than Eleven 
Years of Age. (9) That their Authors, and 
Masters, be their Grammar, Dictionary, and 
Phrase-Book. (10) That nothing be imposed 
on them as a Task.' Ainsworth did not 



Ainsworth 



196 



Ainsworth 



place his name on the title-page of the first 
edition of this pamphlet, but he affixed it 
to ' the dedication addressed to Sir William 
I lustier, M.P./ one of the members for North- 
allerton, with whom he appears to have 
been previously well acquainted. At the end 
is the following advertisement : — * Such as 
desire to discourse the Author upon these 
Proposals may hear of him at the Book- 
sellers, or at the Marine CJofiee-IIouse in 
Birchin Lane, after 'Change, who can inform 
them of Undertakers.' A s