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,/c2^f rr^ ^-U^^-i 



DICTIONARY 



OP 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



Canute Chaloner 



DICTIONARY 



OF 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



EDITED BY 



LESLIE STEPHEN 



VOL. IX. 



Canute C haloner 



^i* '. 



MACMILLAN AND CO. 

LONDON : SMITH, ELDER, & CO. 

1887 




/9//^-^ 



X,h 



LIST. OF. WEITEES 



m THE NINTH VOLUME. 



\Jm A^ • • • 


. . Osmund Airt. - ■ . 


E. H.-A. 


. . Edwabd Hebon-Aixsk. • 


A. J. A. . 


. . Sib a. J. Abbuthnot, K.C.S.I. 


T. A. A. 


. . T. A. Abchbb. 


J. A. . . 


. . John Ashton. 


W. E. A. 


A. W. E. A. Axon. 


J. El. B. . 


. . J. E. Baiuet. 


G. F. R. 


B. G. F. Russell Babzeb. 


G. T. B. 


. . G. T. Bettant. 


A. C. B. 


. . A. C. BiCKLEY. 


W. G. B. 


. . ThbRev.Pbofe8sorBlaieie,D.D 


G. C. B. 


. . G. C. BOASK. 


H. B. . . 


. . Hbnbt Bradley. 


R. H. B. 


. . R. H. Bbodie. 


A. H. B. 


. . A. H. BULLEN. 


H. M. C. 


. . H. Manners Chichester. 


A. M. C. 


. . Miss A. M. Clerxe. 


i.. \j. > . 


. . Thompson Cooper, F.S.A. 


C. H. C. 


. . C. H. COOTE. 


W. P. C. 


. . W. P. Courtney. 


M. C. . . 


. . The Ret. Professor Crriohton. 


1j» c . . 


. . Lionel Cust. 


R. W. D. 


. . The Rev. Canon Dixon. 


F. £. . . 


. . Francis Rspinasse. 


C. H. F. 


. . C. H. Fibth. 


J. G. . . 


. . Jambs Gaibdner. 


S. E. G. . 


. . S. R. Gabdinxr, LL.D. 



B. G Richard Gabnett, LL.D. 

W. G. . .^. ..William Gbobgb. 

J. W.-G. ., . J. WSSTBT-GIBSON, I4L.D. 

G. G. . ..- . . Gk)BDON Goodwin. 

A. G The Ret. Alexandbb Gobdon. 

J. A. H. . . J. A. Hamilton. 

T. F. H. . . T. F. Hbndebson. 

G. J. H. . . . G. J. HOLTOAXB. 

J. H Miss Jennett Humphbets. 

R. H-T. . . . Robebt Hunt, F.R.S. 
W. H The Rev. William Hunt. 

B. D. J. • • B. D. Jackson. 

A. J The Rev. Augustus Jessopp, D.D. 

C. K. . . . . Chables Kent. 
J. K Joseph Xnight. 

J. K. L. . . Pbofbssor J. K. Lauohton. 

S. L. L. . . S. L. Lee. 

G. P. M. . . G. P. Macdonbll. 

JE. M. ... ^NEAS Macxay, LL.D. 

C. T. M. . . C. Trice Martin. F.S.A. 

A. M Arthur Miller. 

CM Cosmo Monkhoubb. 

N. M Norman Moore, M.D. 

J. B. M. . . . J. Bass Mullinoer. 

T. The Rev. Thomas Olden. 

J. John Ormsby. 

J. H. O. . . The Rev. Canon Ovbbton. 



vi List of Writers. 

J. F. p. . . J. F. Paths, MJ). H. M. & . . H. M. Stephens. 

G. G. P. . . . Th» Bit. Canon Pkrby. W. B. W. S. Thb Rbv. W. B. W. Stephens. 

B. L. P. . . B. L. Pools. C. W. S. . . C. W. Sutton. 

S. L.-P. . . . Stanur L4NB-P00LS. £• M. T. . . £. Maxtnds Thompson. 

£. B. . . . . £bnb8T Badpobd. H. B. T. . . H. B. Tbodbb. 

J. M. B. . . J. M. BiQo. J. H. T. . . J. H. Thorpe. 

C. J. B. . . Thb Bvr. C. J. BcumacHr. ; T. F. T. . . Pbofbsob T. F. Tout. 

E. 8. S. . . K S. Shugkbuboh. , £. Y Thb Bet. Canon Yenables. 

£. S £dwabd Smith. A. W. W.. . Pbofbssob A. W. Wabd, LL.b. 

G. B. S. . . G. Babnbtt Smrb. M. G. W. . . The Bet. M. G. Watkins. 

G. S Goiawin Smith. F. W-t. . . . Fbancis Watt. 

W. B. S. . . W. Babglat Squibb. W. W. . . . Wabwiol Wboth. 

L. S 



DICTIONARY 



OF 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



Canute 



• 
Canute 



CANUTE or CNUT (994 P-1036), caUed 
the Great, and by ScandinaTiian writers the 
Mighty and the Old, king of the' -English, 
Danes, and Norwegians, was the youn^r 
son of Swe^, kii^ of Denmark, by Signd, 
widow of Eric the Victorious, kiqg of Sweden 
(Adam Bsem. iL 87). In his charters his 
name is written Cnut, and sometimes Enu5, 
in Norsk it is Cnutr, and in Latin correctly 
Cnuto. The name is one peculiar to the 
Danish royal family. The form Ganutus is 
a corruption ; it is, however, as old as the 
canonisation of the later king of that name 
by Paschal 11 about 1100 (^lnoth, Vita 
8, Kanutiy ap. Langebek, Scrip, Her. Dan. 
iii. 340, 382 ; Fbeeman, Norman Conqtcestf 
i. 442). While, then, Canute is certaiidy an 
incorrect form, it has obtained such sanction 
as wide and long use can give. Sweyn had 
apostatised, but some time after the birth of 
dnut he again became a christian, and was 
rebaptised. As a boy, then, Cnut must have 
b^n a pagan, but he seems to have received 
baptism before 1013, and possibly before 
1000, the date of the battle of Swold, won 
by Sweyn, as it seems, after his conversion, 
and by his allies, the Swedes. At his baptism 
Gnut received the name of Lambert (comp. 
C^ron. JBricif Lastgebek, i. }58 ; Adam 
Bbek. ii. 87, 38, 49, and Schol. 38). He 
b said to have urged his father to invade 
England in 1013 (Enc. Emnue, i. 3) ; he 
sailed witk him, and must therefore have 
landed at Sandwich, uid thence gdne round 
to Gainsborough, whve Swejm received the 
submission of Earl Uhtred of Northumbria, 
and of all the Danish part of the kingdom. 
Grossing Watling Street into the purely Eng- 
lish districts, the host advanced to London, 
ravaging all the country. Being repulsed 
firom London, the Danes marched westwards, 
and all Wessez snbmitted to Sweyn, who 

TOL.IZ. 



was now acknowledged as ' fiill king ' (-4.-A 
Chron, 1013). London gave hostages to 
him, and ^thelred fled to Normandy. Thus 
Gnut's conquest only completed and confirmed 
the work of his father {^orman Conquest, i. 
399). According to one writer, Sweyn, be- 
lieving Ijis end to be near, talked much with 
his son concerning the art of government and 
the christian rebgion {Enc. EmmeBf i. 6). 
His death, however, was unexpected, and the 
gifts Cnut afterwards made to the monas- 
tery of Bury seem to show that he shared the 
general belief tnat it was due to the vengeance 
of St. Eadmund. Sweyn died on the road 
from Gainsborough to Bury on 3 Feb. 1014. 
His son Harold succeeded him in Denmark, 
and the Danish fleet chose Cnut to be kin^ of 
England. The * witan,* however, sent after 
^thelred, and declared every Danish king 
an outlaw. ^Ethelred returned to England 
during Lent. Meanwhile Cnut remained at 
Gainsborough until Easter (17 April), evi- 
dently gathering together as large a force as he 
could, in order to crush the newly awakened 
energy of the English. Following his father's 
example, he now made an agreement with the 
people of Lindesey that they should supply 
him with horses, an indispensable step to- 
wards inland conquest, and then join his army 
in ravaging the countiy. Before he could 
set out ^thelred marched into Lindesey at 
the head of a great host, and forced Cnut and 
his Danes to flee. They sailed to Sandwich, 
and there Cnut cut ofi^ the hands, ears, and 
noses of the hostages his father had taken, 
and put them ashore. He then returned to 
Denmark. 

Meanwhile the Norwegians shook off the 
Danish yoke. Olaf Haroldsson (the saint), 
a Norwegian sea-king, had carried iEthelred 
from Normandy to England in his ships. Fore- 
seeing that the English war would caU for all 

B 



m:^ 



Canute 



^ Canute 



Cnut's strength, and knowing that the bravest 
Danes were with him, and amon^ them Eric, 
the earl of Norway, he landed in that country, 
and by the spring of 1015 obtained the crown 
(Corpus Poeticum Boreale^u. 116, 127, 163). 
According to a strange story, Cnut, on land- 
ing in Denmark, asked his brother Harold to 
divide his kingdom with him. Harold re- 
fused, and Cnut let the matter drop for the 
time (Enc, Emnue, ii. 2). In another account 
the Danes are said to have deposed Harold 
on account of his slothful and unwarlike cha- 
racter, and to have chosen his brother king 
in his stead, but, subsequently becoming im- 
patient at Cnut's long absence, to have again 
chosen Harold, who reigned until his death 
(Chron, End, Lang. i. 168). It seems pro- 
bable that Cnut, on his return at the head of 
a powerful fleet devoted to his service, became 
at least virtual sovereign of the country; that 
some time later (during Cnut's second absence 
in England, 1015-19) Harold regained the 
authority he had lost while his abler brother 
was in the country, and that Harold died 
before Cnut returned to Denmark from his 
second visit to England. 

Having thus lost England, Cnut is said to 
have prepared himself for its reconquest by 
two successful campaigns against tne Slavs 
dwelling on the south coast of the Baltic in 
Sclavia and Sembia. The two brothers are 
also represented as acting together. They 
went to Poland and brou^t back with them 
their mother, who was the daughter of Mie- 
ceslas, the last duke, and on their return they 
received the body of their father Sweyn, which 
was sent over horn England by an English 
lady, and buried it with great pomp at Hoskild 
(Enc, Emma, ii. 3). 

Cnut eagerly set himself to raise a suffi- 
cient force for a fresh invasion of England, 
and with the help of his half-brother, Olaf of 
Sweden, he equipped a splendid fleet (Adam 
Brem. ii. 50). A promise from Earl Thurkill 
that he woidd join him with his ships, whether 
delivered in person or not, decided the date 
of his departure. He sailed from Denmark 
in 1016, perhaps accompanied by his brother 
Harold and by the earl (Thibtmab, vii. 28), 
though Harold's presence may at least be 
doubted {Enc, Emma, ii. 4) ; while the state- 
ment that Thurkill went with the fleet de- 
pends on his identity with a Thurgut spoken 
of by Thietmar. Cnut landed at Sandwich. 
Thence he sailed round the coast to the mouth 
of the Frome, and harried Dorset (the sack of 
the monastery of Ceme is specially recorded, 
M<m, ii. 626) and Wiltshire and Somerset. 
He met with no opposition, ^thelred lay sick 
at Corsham, and tne ffitheling Eadmund and 
Earl Eadric were at enmity with each other* 



Eadric joined Cnut, bringing forty ships with 
him, and hj Christmas Wessex submitted 
to the Danish king and supplied him with 
horses. Early in 1016 Cnut crossed the 
Thames at Cricklade and ravaged Warwick- 
shire; thence he passed over to Bedfordshire, 
and then led his host by Stamford and Not- 
tingham to York (A-5'. C%ron.l016; Othebe, 
Corp, Poet Bor. li. 176). There Uhtred and 
all Northumbria submitted to him. Never- 
theless he treacherously allowed Uhtred to 
be slain by his private enemies, and gave his 
earldom to Eric, who had married ms sister 
Estrith (Simeon, ap. Twtsdbn, col. 81). At 
York he stayed some time to gather his forces, 
^thelred was now dead, and on hearing of 
his death Cnut appears to have sailea to 
Southampton, and to have held a meeting 
of the witan there, at which he was chosen 
king, and the great men present at it re- 
nounced the sons of ^Ethelred, and swore to 
obey him (Flob. Wiq. i. 173 ; Norman Omr 
quest, i. 418). The silence of the chronicles, 
however, throws some doubt on this story. 
Meanwhile the Londoners made ^thelreas 
son, Eadmund, king in his stead. On 7 May 
Cnut laid siege to London. The invading fleet 
is said to have consisted of 340 ships, each con- 
taining eighty men (Thietmab), and as the 
river was defended by London Bridge, Cnut 
made a canal along the south side of it, and so 
drew his ships to t-he west of the bridge {A,^8. 
Chron, \ Flobencb, i. 173 ; Lithsmen's Song, 
Corp, Poet, Bor, ii. 108). Eadmund left the 
city to gather a force in Wessex, and it was 
perhaps now that Emma, ^thelred's widow, 
m order to give her stepson time to come to 
the relief oi the city, entered into negotia- 
tions with Cnut, and that he was thus for the 
first time brought into communication with 
her (Thibtmab). Cnut was forced to march 
westwards with part of his army to meet 
Eadmund, and after two engagements the 
Danes broke up the siege ; it was again formed 
and again broken up, and Cnut, foiled in 
his attempt to take London, seems to have 
made the Medway the headquarters of his 
fleet, and to have thence sent out expeditions 
to plunder. A vigorous attack was made on 
his army in Kent by the English under Ead- 
mund, who drove him and his men into She]^ 
pey with great loss. The total failure of his 
expedition now seemed certain, but the Eng- 
lish king was hindered from following up his 
success, and the Dane« were thus enabled to 
leave their place of refuge. , The^ruggle, the 
jdetails of which must be reserv^ for the life 
'of Eadmund, ended in the battle of Assandun, 
a spot which may be identified by the hill of 
Astdngton in Essex. There Cnut met an 
army gathered from every part of England. 



Aftirr s Btnliborn battle lasting throughout 
t)i» H«v.flti'l PTun by moonlight, tlie EngliaU 

""•' Mil. retreat soon bet«me a rout, 

' Knwer of the KosUBh race was 
. .(■ iA.-S. ChrmT) 
vt'd the EnKlish Idng into Glou- 
lirani as tie Tictory was, he 
km'v ill lit iHadmimd might once more gallier 
Ativngth, and ha therefore consuntMl to make 
t«mi8 niih him. The two IdngB met on the i 
i«le of Olney in the Severn, near Deerhuret. 
Henry of Huntingdon's etoiy of a combat 1 
between them, nnd that told by William of 
MoltaesbuTT of a challenge sent by Eadmund 
uid rettised by Cnut. may holli be set aside 
an nytliical. At Olney the land was divided. 
CbhI took the norl.bero part ; WessM re- 
mained to Eadmuod (H.} Thia e«ems all 
thtit enn Iv «jud with abeolute certainty about 

''■- — '^-nt. By sxipplyiug a defective 

i t.iri'ncefromRogecof Wendover, 
I Hadmund'fl share hIbo included 
rid Egwfxwith London, and that 
, .r'i^vnofthc kingdom, Cnut being 

an'(iider-WiTiff(I.'t,on.Wi9.i.l78;Roc.WeND. 
1.456). On the other hand, Henrv of Hunt- 
ingdati (7t>6), though be is probably wrong, 
assigns Londonand thelteadahipof theking- 
domloCnul. TheLondonera'Dought peace' 
of thf Ihineu, and the fleet took up winter 
quan«rathere(^.-&CAr[»«.;LitJumen'sSong, 
Corp. Pott. Bor. a. 108), Eadmund was slain 
30 riov. Tliere is no trustworthy evidence 
thkt Cnnt hod any hand in this opportune 
CTent. No English writer accuses him of it, 
and the sloir in the ' KoytUnga Saga' that 
tit? omployi^d Eadric to elay him ia unworthy 
of btrLef. Saxo (193) speaks of the beli^ 
llmt h(i wnM put tn deaili by Cnut's order, 
■vritbout accepting the story. UenrvofHunt- 
ingdon gives a detailed account of the mur- 
dci of the king Iiy Earl Kadric : he there makes 
Eadric boast of Ilia deed to Cnut, who there- 
upon ha» him slain, even as David didbv him 
whn declureil that he had put Saul to death. 
TlwrD seems no (wwon for doubting that the 
kinff net a violent death ; that he was slain 
by Eadric is certainly probable, and while 
thereia nothing U> prove that Cnut instigated 
■dor, it waa done in his interest by 
jK vbo believed that they had good cause 
~)«et diat he would reward ihem for 
n tho deoth of Eadmund, Cnut imme- 
ItcoUo^ the wit on to London, and, when 
rably had met, bade thoi<e who were 
t Bt the conference at Olney declare 
ji had been settled there about the suc- 
Tliey answered tltat Eadmund had 



false. Onnt was then formally 





; Canute 

chu^n king, and be received the oatlis of the 
witim; nnd when perhaps a fuller assembly 
had been gathered, tiis hingsliip was Renerally 
acknowledged. The great men and the people 
swore to obey him, and he made oath to tbem 
in return (i5. 180). 

Cnut was about twenty-two wlii-n he as- 
cended tlie throne in the tirst days of 1017. 
In spile of the formal election end oaths 
which accompanied his accession, he hod 
reuUy won the kingdom by the sword, and in 
order to render his position secure be indulged 
his naturally stern and revengeful temper by 
putting several of the most powerfiil English- 
men to death. Among these were Kadric^ 
by whose treasons against his natural lord he 
had often profited, and .^thelweard, the eon 
of ^thelmter, the patron offline the Gram- 
marian \t{. v.] An tetheling named Eadwig 
was banisheo and afterwaii^ slain by his or- 
ders, and with him, too, was hanishodanotlier 
Ead wig, called the 'ceorls'king.' It is gene- 
rally asserted on the authority of Florence of 
Worcester that the eons of Eaiynund were sent 
to Olaf of Sweden that he might slay them, 
but that they were saved from death.andsent' 
into Hungary. There is, however, good reason 
for believing that for ' ad regem Suuavorum ' 
should be read ' ad regem Sclavorum,' that 
Cnut sent the children to his brother-in-law 
Bolealas, and that Mieceelas, his nephew, ^ent 
them safely to Russia (Stbeitbtbitf, Nor- 
manwTTW, lii. 305). The two sons of /Ethel- 
red were with their mother at the court of 
Richard, duke of the Normans, who might 
have been disnosed to lake up hia sister's 
cause, r Cnut, however, avoided this danger 
by his marriuee with her.' Emma, or, as the 
English calleJher.vElfgifu, whom /Ethelred 
married ' before August ' in 1002, must have 
been about ten years older than her new hus- 
band. Nevertheless, the marriage need not 
have been one of merepolicy, for.ilie-Jffaa !& 
morkably beautiful. Cnut was already the 
lover of another >EIfEif\i, sometime, it is said, 
the mistress of Olaf of Norway fsee /Elfqifh 
of Northampton]. By her he had two sons, 
Harold and Sweyn. Emma, therefore, before 
she accepted hisofier, stipulated that, should 
she bear the king a son, no other woman's son 
should aucceetl to the kingdom, and to thia 
Cnut agreed {Enr. Emnue, ii.,16). 

In 1018 Cnut levied a heavv danegeld of 
"•2,000 pounds, besides lo,000"T^ch betook 
from London alone. With thid money he 

C'd offbisDaniah forces and sent them away, 
^ing only forty ships with theircrews, who 
formed the nucleus of his body of 'hua-carls.' 
And inthe seme year he held a gemot at Ox- 
fonl, wliere Danes and Engli^ joined to- 
gether in the observance of ' Eadgar's law.' 

B 'i 



Canute 4 Canute 



The phrase denotes a renewal of the good go- 
yemment under which men had lived in the 
reign of Eadgar, when both races dwelt to- 
gether on terms of perfect equality, each being 
judged by its own law, though indeed the 
difference between the systems was scarcely 
more than one of name. From this time 
Cnut appears in England as a wise and just 



fiEither had done the saint, turned out the 
secular clerks, and filled their places with s 
colony of monks brought from the monas- 
tery of Hubn in Norfolk (Will. Malm. Gesta 
Beg, ii. 181, Gesta Pontiff. 161 ; Monasticon, 
iii. 135, 137). The solemn translation of the 
body of Archbishop iElf heah from St. Paul's 
to the metropolitan church in 1023 doubt- 



ruler. He reigned as a native king, and | less had a political as well as a religious 
though he was lord of vast dominions he ever I significance. The English saw that the days 
treated Enjj^land as the chief of all. He con- | oi plimder by the heathen-men were over 
stantly visited his other kingdoms, but he \ for ever, and that the Danish king delighted 
made his home here, and while he ruled else- ! to honour the martyr whose death made him 
where by viceroys he made this country the | a national hero. Another of his acta of de- 
seat of his government, so that in his reign votion has been held to cast a suspicion 
England was, as it Tsere^ the head of a north- ' upon him, for in 1032 he visited Glaston- 
em empire (Adam Bbem. ii. 63). Yet even bury, and after praying before the tomb of 
here he adopted something of an imperial : his rival Eadmund offered on it a pall worked 
system of government ; for, following out the with the various hues of the peacock. He also 
policy alrwwly pursued by Eadgar, he divided gave a charter to the monastery (Will. M alx. 
the kingdom into fourearldoms, and entrusted . li. 184, 185). He appears as a benefactor at 
the administration of each part to a single | Canterbury, Winchester, Ely, Ramsey, and 
earl, Just as each of the four divisions of elsewhere. He held English churchmen in 
the dferman land and race was under its high esteem. He admitted Lyfing, abbot of 
own duke (Stubbs, Const Hist. i. 202, where i Tavistock, and aften^^-ards (1027) bishop of 
the feudal tendency of this arrangement is Crediton, to intimate friendship, and took 
marked). The highest offices in church and him with him on Ids journeys to Denmark 
state were open to Englishmen. yEthelnoth ' and Rome (Will. Malm. Gesta Pontiff. 200). 
was archbishop of Canterbury, Godwine earl | Archbishop /Ethclnoth evidently had con- 
of W^essex. iJuring his later years, indeed, siderable influence over him. He took many 
whenhe saw fit to banish certain Danish earls clergy from England to Denmark, and ap- 
from England, he filled their places with ' pointed some of them to bishoprics there. One 
Englishmen, and so ' Danish names gradually ' or more of these bishops were consecrated by 
disappear from the charters and are succeeded , the English metropolitan. This brought the 
by English names ' {Norman Conquest ^ i. 476) . king into communication with Unwan, arch- 
Having set in order his new kingdom, bishop of Hamburg. Unwan seized Ger- 
Cnut visited Denmark in 1019, usinf^ for : brand, who had been consecrated to the see 
his voyage the forty ships he had retained, i of Roskild by ^thelnoth in 1022, and made 
He took with him Englishmen as well as him profess obedience to him, and wrote to 
Danes, and Godwine is said to have gained Cnut to complain of this ii^ingement of 
his favour by doing him good service in a the rights of his see. Cnut was glad to 
war he made during this visit against the oblige the powerful metropolitan of the 
W^ends (Hen. Hu^n*. 757). On his return : north, and took care that all such matters 
to England in 1020 he was present at the ; should be arranged as he wished for the 
consecration of the church at A ssandun that future. Whatever headship England had 
he and Earl Thurkill had built to commemo- among the dominions of the Danish king, it 



rate the victory over Eadmund. The chro- 
nicler notes that the building was ' of stone 



was not to give the church of Canterbury 
metropolitan rights over them (Adam Bbev. 



and lime,' for in that well-wooded district i ii. 53). Cnut's munificence extended to foroim 
timber would have been the natural and less ! churches, and by the advice of yEthelnoth he 
costly material to use. Wulfstan, arch- ' greatly helped the building of the cathedral 
bishop of York (the lee of Canterbury was of Chart res. His devout liberality took men 
vacant), and many bishops were there, and . by surprise. Both he and his father Sweyn 
the ceremony was one of national impor-^ seem to have been looked on as heathens by 
tance. The foundation must have bceiy- Christendom at large until Cnut exhibited 
small, for the church was served b v a single*! himself as the most zealous of christian kings. 



secular priest. Cnut was a liberal ecclesi- 
astical benefactor, generally favouring the 
monks rather than the secular clergy. He 
rebuilt the church of St. Eadmund at Burv, 
evidently aa an atonement for the wrong Im 



The affairs of the north were little known, and 
Cnut, in spite of his baptism, gave men little 
cause to deem him a christian until after his 
accession. A contemporair writer, Ademar 
of Chabannes, states that he was converted 



•Aerhe c»Die tn the tlironn {BecueU, 1. 156), 
and Folbert, biahoji of OlianrSB, writ.Lag 
in 10S0 or 10-Jl to tiumk him for the giAs 
be bad iDkde to his diurcli, imiilies that up 
to tbot time he Lad behaved that he was a 
pipTin {ih. 4+!'lj. In a li^nd of St. Ead^h, 
•' ■' '■■■ ""■"■■>'n of MBlmesbury, Cnut 18 re- 
I '! hy hia heathen prejudices 
I Jiijheh saints. Ue especially 
-anctity of Eadgyth as the 
Lu.l^ar, whom he nnmounced a 
Jiuli'ul ijniiit. jKtbelnotU rehuJted him, and 
tile aunt heranlf rase up to convince him of 
hit taa (WltL Malm. Gata Pontiff. 190). 
TliD atotv if foolish enough, hot taken in cnn- 
nection wilh the aasertiona tliat Cnut acted 
by tlw advice of .'Ethelnoth in sending giftd 
to Chortres, and that the archbiebop accom- 
paoied him on hi« tisit to Glastonbury, it 
perhaps su^^ests that .iCtlielnoth was the 
BiMUiB of turning the king from a mere 
DDminal Christianity, such as he professed 
irbeii he luulilated the hosta^ in 1013, ^o 
tt mal for tiie faith and a life uot wholly 
unworthy of It. Tlie belief of Fulbert and 
Ademai its to the king's bi'ntbenigni wus of 
course eoimected with the fact that 'pugoni' 
«■« the n-cognised description of the Danes. 
Under the year 10l>2 it is said in the 
Anc'o^o^"" Chronicle that Cnut 'went out 
witli hi« ships to Wiht,' and the next year he 
ift descriliod as returning to England. These 
e&trioe havi^ been satietactorily explained as 
nXesmtig to on expedition to WihtUnd in 
EMhonia (Siebsbibup, Normannfme, iii. 
SSS). Earl Thurkiil was outlawed from 
Ei^land in 1U21. Nevertheless, beforeCuut 
left Denmark to return hither after this ex- 



xru nrobahly Swern, the son of iElfgifu of 
Karthunpton. Tie king brought Thuckill's 
•oa back with him aea hostage lor his father's 
pnw! I)e!iayi"iir. About this time he banished 
T-'..-i i.v.,. I.-,,,., England, and a few years 
' iir'phew Uakon, giving their 
'[■-!. to EnglJahmen. 
iian^e to Rom€, assigned in 
r„ liJsi, took place itil02a-7, 
ff>r lie n-'i-ti'd at the coronation of the em- 
peror Oonnid on 26 March 1037 (Wipo, c. 
16; Si9KVJ,T, Oirp. Fbet. Bor. ii. 136). On 
bi» way he gave rich gifts to the various mo- 
BU[«rieM to which be came. At St. Umer 
the wnt«r of the ' Encomium Emmie ' saw 
Iliin aod mnrvBltsd at his devotion and mu- 
iuflc«ni^. lie sent to England an account 
of his visit to Home in a lettv addressed to 
ibo archbishojM. biahops, and all the English 

Sntle and lunple. He tells bis people how 
I jpigamrtsv, vaved some time Wore, had 



been put ot( by press of business, and bow 

frhid be was that he bad at liLst. seen all the 
loly places at Home ; he describes how 
honourably be bod been^ceived by the pope 
and the emperor, and says that he bad ob- 
tained promises from the emperor and from 
Rudolf of Burgiindy that matibonts and pil- 
grims of England and Dkumark should not 
lie oppressed on tiheir way to Rome, and 
from tne pope that some abatement cbould 
be made in the large sums doraauded from 
his archbishops in return for the pall, and 
that be had made a vow to rei^ woU and 
amend whatever be had done amiss as a ruler 
(FwiH. Wis. i. 186; WiLt, Malb. ii. 18.^). 
The whole letter shows bis warm-bearled- 
ness and his confidence in tbe sympathy of 
his people. While, however, there is much 
that is uoble in it, there is something alsoof 
tbe simplicity of the backward civilisation 
of Scandinavia. By a treaty arranged by 
Archbishop Unwon, Cnut's daughter Qun- 
hlld was Tietrothed to the emperor's son 
Henry, and Conrad gave the Danish king 
the march of Sleswic and accepted the Eider 
as the boundary between Denmark and Ger- 
muiy (ArAK BuBM. ii. 64). 

•When Cnut was firmly established, on the 
EngUsh throne, he sent messengera to Olaf 
HaJvldsson, demanding that he should hold 
Norway as his earl and pay liim tribute, Oa 
Olaf 's refusal be set about creating a party 
for himself in Norway, and spent money 
freely in bribing the Norwe^ansto be thltb- 
lees to their kin^ (SiaHVii, 4). Olaf sought 
to strengthen hunself byfonning an alliance 
ithtbeliingofSweden. About 1026 it seems 



Eatritb, is said to have tried to make one of 
hissonskingof Denmark inbisplace. Besides 
the discontent that Cnut's absence from hia 
paternal kingdom would naturallv occasion, 
It ie probable that his active cnristianity 
was unacceptable to some part of bis Danish 
subjects {Ann. HiUlftheim. 1035). Hewent 
over to Denmark probably in 10-26, and Ulf 
is said to have submitted to him, He then 
sailed to meet tbe allied fleets of Norway 
and Sweden, which were ravaging Scania. 
After a fierce engagement in the Uelgariver 
the Bancs were worsted iA.-S. Chron. 1025 ; 
Saxo, 195 ; Ann. Itl. an. 1027 ; according to 
fithere'fl song they slopped tbe foray, Corp. 
Pnet. Jior. ii. 156). After the battle, in 
which many Englishmen are said to have 
fallen, Cnut, as tbe story goes, picked a, 
quarrel with Ulf and had bim assassinated 
in St. Lucius .Church at Itoskild (I.Allra, 
Hamikringla, ii. c. 163). That he caused 
Ulf to be put to death there is no reason to 



I -«i 



Canute 6 Canute 

doubt, and iv-hilo thort' is ni> eTi<lt*mv tliat not swm. to have been brought into any per- 

ho aoteii unjustly, the killiiij in the church sonal ctDnnection. From tlie contradictoiy 

i> |vrhni>$ almost ti>x> startling to W a mere notices of his reUtions with the Norman 

invention, ami it* it tvx^k place it would of duchy it seems that after he had put Ulf to 

course have btvn an out nice vMi the iVi-lln*:* of death he gave his sister Estrith, the earls 

the ago. Cnut ov^niinu«Nl to intrigue with widow, in marriage to Duke Robert, who 

I he Mibitvis of Olaf, and he did so wirh *uch hatrvl her and put her away ; that Kobert de- 
gi>*vl etfivt thaT. wlu n in li>*JS he again saile-i , manded that the sethelings should be allowed 

to Norway. iMuf was forct d to il«'. In kt>i.l 1 1 return, and that restoration should bemade 

iHaf made an attempt to rt^.n4in h:s throne, t 'thrm; and that on Cnut's refusal the duke 

but he was defeat ixl and slain by Cnu:'s tiiti-d out a fleet for the invasion of England, 

|^r:y at StikelsTt-ad. l»y his diath Cn;iT but that many of his ships were wrecked off 

gainixl sivure jw^scssion of Norway. IWsi :es .Tersi-y. and so the expedition was abandoned 

h:s th:\v king^:on:s of Kng'-and. lV:in::irk. t llriK-LF Giaber. iv. 6: Saxo, 193; Pet. 

and Noni\av, iu- rt^ign^sl o\ir certain S'ivic Oi-M.ap. Laxg. ii. fJi^o; Will. OF JuxikoBB, 

iwi^les on tV.e CvX-ts: of :he IVihio. w::v^^ v:. 10; Will. Malm. ii. 1??0. who says that 

lAuds art^ dos**T:K-.: .ss rv';iv:a sr. : Jvn-V:.^ s^me iv mains of the shattered fleet were to 

iSvxo, UV\ r,r:i\-l*J^. i>:i :V.e s.::'.-r.:vo: be s^-tn at Kouen in his dav: yorman Owi- 

Flort^nvv of W.^rvvsTtr V.e is sa*. : :o :.-iv.- A:^ c:.^-r. i. oi\^^». It was probably in order 

ik-riUv. h-.:v.sol: -n :V.e K.iv.ai: 1-, :::t r.>*k-.r*: : ^ strtiigibm himsrif against any possible 

cf iv^r: o:" the Swtv.os.* lU iVTTAir.'.y \v5.s a::acks fr.^m Normandv that Cnut made 

nt\i7 ;r. .v.:y Mr.se k:::g ct :V.? ^^^ -.■>,>. sr..: aV.:&r..v w::h William \ . duke of Aquitaine 

the iVi>>s^-:!- V.ss Uvii sa::*:^*:: r.'.x ■= xv'.;, :::-.'. ari cr^n: :•! Poiioa iAdexak. 149k ^ 

b> :h:^ >.igj:vs:i.*u :V.s: tV.-.n V..ss ivrr.A c-^n- Cr.:::"* ;aKe 'f laws, 'decreed with the ' 

f;;s.^ni U:^i-.:i "soi" *:v.i *s;." Ar. ; ::.;.: i: c.nf-.n: :f:hrwi:an* a: s<."»me uncertain date, 

rktVrs t.^ V.is Sl.s^ic s;;V;iv*:s .>7V:Ns'.sv?. o r.:ii::s r.> a>«>xu:<^'.y new principles or cos- 

JN, -^v;.?>»%.-'-x.'. :.■ ;\*_^r -:>['\ ILs vvr/..:. .r.* : n:-^ I: is uliviied into ecclesiastical and 

art" tvr.>:.*kr.:'.} s'jVn-. r. v*:" ,ss s.v. i ::::.>. ir..l o:vi". li^s, Tbr command with which it 

r.*"\\ ;;*. ;:v.;> 7..-i'. :,■*>:...''.; ;ii v-.- •.;■.::•.::: -.v. N rT»-^v ;>.-*. :::i: rurn • sh vjld ever love and wor- 

Vat'. H.\xoa. li^.r::-.:: jr..;:. :*:.•: >;r. .:' F,r.i:v.i. 
a'> ^ «,^> r.'.s^li 7.:'.v7 /:' '.\r.:v..^rk. 

n.:" .:::":.'.: .:" tV,; N .— I r v."/: r.v.'.s : v :>.;■ ,-v.r o :-.«:::..::. -^i:: ibis is further illustrated 

SiV.v .'.: r.-.iV.: -.v. .:: '.v ".S , v.'.y ^- r..>7r.s ::.• ry '/:.-: o.rLTiirLs.-^n brtwern breaches of the 

IV r>. v.;,' V..#:.:% o: iV.v.: .v. sS f.sr .ss- :: *i<: li*."^ .- a I'iurch ajid in the king's house. 

I.. -.v. :v. Af::7 >:-.'» Ts : .* '.Vr^v tV.v 5o: : t >>. V.r.^ :>.:r. Uyj 4:\ ;o h: strictly observed. The 

1." :-.,sv..-\*":-'j;v ';. > >..*.> T-. .'7 :y A':r. ..^:. •.tf.yr.t-r.: : :::bt* as i o: other ecclesiastical 

:..; >..Vv...x^. v. . : M^■. '.:v. a>.-.s .-: ::;t v.r;.-, :...:> .s ? r.: . r.-^-o. ar.i all men ar« bidden to 

%.'.^v.. »-. ;,r«,. .;- *.s ;/.:". .7 .v.> . ,\*.i>. * .■:•:■-■.- '..V- IT. ::.t>".:y. a c>r!:s:And which leads one 

r...v...r. . T^, ".«,: .■:■>■;. y ::...> :s:a: *.n:.:v. :.- s.:7":«.>!< :>.*: *b-. kr-ng had then separated 

>:^.-.l ;• ,-:,'"" :V.; <o ::.-..•'.:..-■.:• 1.^ rrr-W-ir.:- :: N:r:Sanp:on. The civil 

• ■■■-"-. ,. :.■..■..::-.;;■ ^:;.; ..>.^ Vv.^..>:. ".A-a-s t:^ :t tiif n.vt par: iv-enactments, 
'.:.v... ..■ ...: N,-. ;■..>';■. ,-7.^^" "n>.> ::.; >.,:■. v. v. r.; ^r .'. .r. s: ~ i .":**-* r.iTilcfmen's, of the legis^ 
.■: A r.:.v.-. ; V.:. ..> .V.^r..:^ r. : : -: .■"r.s-j^^,-::' .: *,i: •- .:" ;.*.rl>.r kin^s^ and especially of 
'. ;:-. '.■.■.-.■.*.-. . \ v\-...: >;'. " > : : fr. -. i.:: ./.'.% Yj. \r*.r. LnL r^ay rif i»kei on as the exi»la- 
4v.;r.'.. S,^ . r .■. ... -». '^.'.",v'." > <. ■;-.*- r.'T .r. ,: ::jr arrttiCTT:: :n "Eadgnr's law* 

* ■^•- -^- ■ .:>.*■.■.'> ,■ . . ^ V - ■ _ ■ ,■* . . 7. J :.. ":^ ;■; . -^..- :* -.xv -^,;^er« at iheOxford 

V* '\ .••■-■ ^^ ■ -^ ^ ' ^ '■■ ? . . ~ ■'.^.•- .'»*s: ~ ': An- c^ : :.-: = >si n j-i^worthy pro- 

»'.«....:-«: ■-. :■ :. .-. > ;■ ^ :- .:;■-> \ >'.T^i «.7v :*.- '..s: ri"'^f:i o: cases which the 

>. *;>..:...-. -.. . s, ". •• . - '. : < ;... > >. 7,;>.?cr»::'.i:.'T :..?:wr.VLr:.ihelateri)leas 

••"*■ "i *^;*'; ^ -i ^->'A V / - : : t^-i c^**T-. f^.i :i.'5 r-.-sr. virtually nominal, 

..•,.:.: ..•;•.. :. . :':;\ .■»:-■.%. > 'v-t -:..■; .". ^i-^T.-.^js :^o.>^::3ft;•i ^tt-wrrn Danish and 

V; " * ' ■■'" ■ K-' : v. "..^^ >.r ' • . . - 'ir-.^-. >'. ,-.is: ::tr.>^ ioci. t* *r.r tne paid bv the 

•'• ■■ •■''•'^.•■"t *• '^ " : ' ' V^..:" ^-r.TLLr. -r»itr li* same r-f'wite and 

^^. ?.- •» ;.i ..: !•.: ".- O *.: ".-<".■ r...-^ ; -. !.;V»j.7: .-r.vvT-.'ra: .-•f'lah-slite" i Thorpe, 

• ■ -. ■ 



St.. 5 :--.- O V. and : ve King Cnut with right 
:r.::"ri.:l-t***' tTvathrs the spirit of the king i 
r-T:n.=:t:;: and puts f.-rward the reli^oos 
?..::v :: l.vtiTv.still a somewhat new i^in 



« • 



*.."■:■ ..."*-. \o .Mi-i.'f* r.'-T'^ ".?i .. xhi- f-rest const itu- 

*^*' • *■ ■ '^ .'■* S''\ : . .7.> ■» :. J.-.! '>fxarC'r«:t'ssassr are^ai least aa 

*:• »*.':.sT.... .V. « * •..>;.-.-. • ". ' .. t ,;.■ . rv .^ :.f > . ,vi7i?i .^:wii 1 .-• US., a Utercompila- 



V.i. .:..* :■ t^sr.:- N k.-. iT :..T. ; ..t. \". :>.*; is ta:wt tec ceitain ab*:tut 
*> .lu.t lu^:. ^^ .;i; :iu ^^«-.s:. ^>r..: ,^a> 2. .s k>rfi^i.'tt .*& :iis siuser is contained in 



Canute 



Canute 



ws, cap. 81 : ' And I will that every 
le entitled to his hunting in wood and 
1 on his own possessions ; and let every 
>rego my hunting. Beware where I 
lave it untrespassed 04^. under penalty 
1 wite.' The payment of henots en- 
. by caps. 71, 72, and said to have 
ntroduced by Cnut, has been shown to 
t>een exacted before his time, and the 
sntment of Englishry/ attributed to 
y the so-called ' Laws of Eadward the 
Bsor/ belongs to the Norman period 
L Hist, i. 196, 200, 206). The crews of 
>rty Danish ships retained by Cnut 
le the origin of the permanent band of 
guards, named ' hus-carls,' which was 
up until the Conquest. This force is 
y Saxo (196) to have consisted of as 
as 6,000 men, but this is probably an 
eration. Cnut drew up regulations 
3 discipline, which are described by 
and are given in detail by Sweyn Ag- 

(Leges Castrensiumj YtLsQ, iii. 139; 
PE). The hus-carls have been fre- 
ly compared with the comitatiLs ; their 
ctly stipendiary character, however, 
1 to make the comparison invalid (caps. 

While some of the regulations have 
piciously modem tone Te.g. cap. 14), 
18 no reason to doubt that they sub- 
ally represent the king's work. The 
received many foreign recruits, and 
ff them the famous Wendish prince Go- 
Ic, who stayed with Cnut until the king's 
Godescalc is said to have married 
la, the daughter of Sweyn, the son of 
th, Cnut's sister (Saxo, 208, 230). She 
.ed Cnut's daughter by Helmold (Chron, 
c. 19, comp. also Chron, Slav, c. 13, 14, 
ANDENBROO, Rerum Germ, Scriptores), 
dmply the daughter of the king of the 
s by Adam of Bremen (iii. 18). Al- 
jrh Siritlia must have been a young 
for Godescalc if she was Cnut's great 
, Saxo is probably right. She certainly 
QOt the daughter eitner of Emma or of 
;ifu of Northampton. The assertion 
rnan Conquest y i. 649) that she is called 
omyn ' arises from a misreading of the 
onicon Slavorum'in Landenbrog s *Scrip- 
' quoted above. Cnut's reign gave Eng- 
eighteen years of peace ; it was a period 
w and oraer, during which national life 
bom again after it had been crushed by 
lisasters and jealousies of the reign of 
elred and by the terrible slaughter of 
ndun. The distinctly English character 
nut's reign isclosely connected with the 
of Godwme. After his good service in 
rVendish war, the king gave him to wife 
la, the sister of Ulf, his brother-iu'-law. 



During the whole reign he held the highest 
place in the king's favour, he was the foremost 
man in his court, and his appointment to the 
West-Saxon earldom made him second only 
to the king ( Vita Ead. 392-3). 

Cnut's character is represented in dark 
colours in the *• Northern Kings' Lives.' In 
one important case, his alleged unfair dealings 
with his Norwegian supporter. Calf Amason, 
the editors of the ' Corpus Poeticum Boreale ' 
have shown that the compiler of the lives has 
wronged him. That he was the enemy of 
St. Olaf is sufficient reason for the unfavour- 
able light in which he is represented by 
northern writers. From the more trustworthy 
songs of his contemporaries comes a picture 
of the king as a mighty ruler, wise, politic, 
and crafty^lover of minstrelsy and a patron 
of poets, uliey exhibit a man endowed with 
a remarkable power of judging the characters 
of others, ana of using them to forward his 
own interests.j His craftiness is abundantly 
proved by his intrigues in Norway, and the 
natural cruelty and violence of his temper 
surely need no special proofs. Only indeed 
as the natural bent of nis disposition is ap- 
prehended can the extraordinary restraint 
that he put on himself be duly appreciated. 
As a bountiful patron of the church his praises 
are loudly proclaimed by our chroniclers, and 
even if they had been silent his laws and the 
general character of his reign as an English 
king would tell the same story. Of the two 
most famous stories told of lum, the rebuke 
tliat he is said to have given to the flattery 
of his courtiers is preserved by Henry of 
Huntingdon (758), who adds that thence- 
forward he would never wear his crown, but 
hung it on the head of the crucified Lord. 
The other tale, which represents him goingj 
in his barge to keep the feast of the Purifica- 
tion with the monks of Ely, and bidding his 
men listen to chanting which as he came 
near was heard rising from the church, is 
from the Ely historian (Gale, iii. 441), who 
gives the words of the song Cnut is said to 
have made at the time : — 

Morio sungen t5e muncches binnen Ely, 
Da Cnut ching rou "Sor by ; 
RowetS cnichtes noer "5a land, 
And here we |>cs muneches sieng. 

The story is in strict accord with his love of • 
minstrelsy as well as with his ecclesiastical 
feelings. An incident recorded by the same 
monastic historian, who tells how Cnut largely 
rewarded a stout peasant who walked over the 
ice to find out whether it would bear the 
king's sledge, is in keeping with the gifts 
he gave to the bards wlio sang his praises 
(Corpus Poet, Bor ii. 158). ij[iother story 



Canute 

repreaentvbim &b tbe firet to break iik 
litary regnlntions by ulnylng one of tis hiis- 
carla in a flC of pasaioQ, and t^lla hovr he 
Bummoned tlio court of the company, ap- 
peared before it to take tia trial and demnnded 
Bent«nce, and how, when the members refused 
to condemn him, he sentenced himself to pr 
nine times the Bum appointed as the v)Ji 
of the man's life (Sam, 199). Cnut died . 
Shaftesbury on !3Noy. 1036, and they carried 
him thenee to Winchester and there buried 
him with great honour in the Old Minsti 
(A.-S. Chrm.; 1'lob. Wig,) Swejn and 
JIarold,lu8HonBbyjElfgifu of Northampton, 
and bis two children by Emma, Hanhacnut 
and Qunhild, and both Emma and vElfffifii 
themselves, aurvived him. Conscious Uii 
fais dominions could not remain united afti 
his death, he ordered that Ilarthacnut should 
reign in England, and as it seems in Denmark 
also, and that Norway should go to Sweyn; 
for Iforold no proTision seems to hnTe been 
msde, Gunhildorj^lhelthryth, betrothed by 
her father to Henry, the son/of the emperor 
Conrad, did not marry him unj^flOSO; she 
died before her husband wavmado emperor. 
[Anglo-Saxon Chron. ; FloroucBof WoK^tor, 
Eng. HJHt, Soe, ; Williumof Malmosbury. Gosta 
Begum, Eug. Hiit. Soc.nnd Geetu Pontiff. Rolls 
Set.; Henry of HontingJoa. Mod. Hist. Brit.; 
Symeon of Durham, De obsossione Dunolmi. ap. 
'Tvyaden, col. 79; Hisn^mtnai, Miraeula S. Ead- 
inuniii, cd. Liebcnnnnn ; Lives of Edward the 
Cunfessor. Bolls Ser. ; HistoHa EliensisacdHiat. 
KiimB., Qoltt.iii.; Kcmble^B Codei Ilipl. iv. 1-56, 
and Diplomalarium ; Thorpe's Ancient Laws 
and iBBtUutPs ; Kucomium EmmiE ; Adnmi Seats 
Usmmabuig. eool. pontiff.; "Wiponis Vila Chaon- 
radi Imp. ; Uelmoldi Chron. tilavurum (Lboiie 
four are published sepurately ' in DKum scliola- 
runi ex Mon. Germ. HiaC Portz) ; Aunalcs Hil- 
detiheim. p. lOD.andTbictmaH ChrOD. vii.p.e36, 
up. Scriptores rerum Germ, iii., Pertz; Sven 
AKtMSon's CSiroD. p. 64; Chron. Erici, p. 15B; 
Annales EErom. p. 236; Ann. Koakild. p. 37S 
(t)icaefanr are eoutainodin .Scriptores reniin Ua- 
niearum i., LingBbek) ; Petri Olai Eicerpla. 
p. 205 [ibid, ii.); Ann. Iiilandorum regii, p. 40, 
nndLt^csCnslroniriiun, p. 139,ibid.iii.; S^onis 
Grammatici HiaC. Donicii, ed. 1614; Vigfusson 
and Powell, CorpoB Poelicum Bocoale; laing'a 
Heimsluringiaor Sea Kings of Norway — the Wt 
■edilion ia Ongar'a 'Fris-bok;' Glabri Rodolphi 
Sist. p. I ; Ademori Cabao. Uisl. p. Hi; £pp. 
Pulberti Comot, Kp. 443 (tbese thcco are m 
liecueil den HiBtoriens i., Bouquet); William 
of Jumiigcs ap. Hist. Normann. Scripturas 
Xhichesno. Freeman's Nanuan Conquest, i. 399- 
£33, gives a full and critical account, with valn- 
nblc ri'ferenCGB to original autboritien, which has 
been i-qually nscfiil ss a history of Gnat's Eng- 
lish doings and aa a guide to (he sources of in- 
formation. Itthonldbo DOtcdthatDr.Fieeman'B 



Canynges 



work appeared befure ihe editors of the Corpus 
Poet. Bor. threw sonio new and luiuable liglit 
on Gnat's life, especially as regards its chrono- 
logy. Dr. Freemiin'e work on Cnut has been 



Bttributsd 

England, 418-77, gives a pictureaque account o( 
England under Cuut'srule. Bishop Stuljba's Cou- 
stitntional History, i. c. 7, contains some adnii- 
rable notices of points which bear on his subjecL 
For Cnut's rekiUons with the Scots see Skeao's 
Celtic Scotlanil, i., and Robertson's Scotland 
under her Early Kinga.] W. H. 



CANVANE, PETER (1720-1786). phy- 
sicifin, an Americsn by birth, entered as a 
medical student at Leyden on 4 March 1743. 
After graduating M.I), at Rheims he became 
a licentiate of the London College of PLyM- 
ciana in 1744. He practised for many yean 
at St. Kitts in the West Indies, and aftei- 
warda settled at Qalh, Later he retired to 



the 



1 178a 



t, dying nt H 
Canvane was u fellow of the Hoyal Society, 
and shares with Fraser, an army surgeon, tha 
creditof introducing castor oil into this coun- 
try, havitu; had large experience of its bene- 
ficial emmoyment in medicine in tbe ^Ve8t 
Indies. He published a pamphlet on tbA 
subject in 1766. 

[Monk's Coll, of Phjs. 1878, ii. IfiS.] 

G. T. B. 

CANTNOBS, WILLIAM {1399 P-1474), 

merchant of Bristol, third son of John Cft- 
nynges, burgess and raercliant of that city,ond 
Joan Wottonhia wife, com*.' of a family that 
stood high among the mtrchants of Bristol, 
for tbe elder AVilliam Canynges, his grand- 
father, a wcoltby cloth manufacturer, wu 
si.T times mayor, and thrice a representativo 
of the city in parliament. Besides making 
cloth be exported hi.4 merchandise in his own 
ships ; for, by b, writ of Richard II, Jolm 
Hesilden, Andrew Hrowntoft, and others ore 
summoned \o appear at Westminster on tlie 
complaint of William and John Canynges 
of Bristol, to answer for seizing and carrying 
into Hartlepool one of their ships sailing to 
Calais and Planders (Subtegs, J}urham, iii, 
101). William Canynges the younger waa 
probably bom in bis fnther's house in Touker 
Street, in the parish of St. Thomas, in 1S99 
or 1400, for he was but five years old when 
his father died in 1405. After her husband's 
death Joan married Thomas Young, merchant, 



IB puriah of St. JInry Redcliffe, Somiireel, 
" nnd u membi'r for tlin borougli, 
„_,_P_j appears to have been broiight 
IB EUptktbFr. Haviiigservedtheomc« 
■", lie waa elected sheriff Lu 14S8, and 
>riLe first ttmein 1441. Hissecond 
T was in 1449, and in that year 
!l wrote to the niHster-gtneral of the 
: knight«, ashing bis orotection for 
o fRctors of ' bia belovea and faithful 



n PniB8ta (Ryueb; Fadera, xi 226). 

'\a tenure of office certain ordinonces 

ide concemiuc t he watches kept by the 

nSt Joha'a lugbt aud St. Peter's, and 

wtributions of wine t« be made to them 

e mayor and eheriff. Although trade 

f Iceland, Halgaland, and Finmark for 

id other goods had been forbidden, yet 

lOChristian of Denmark having made an 

ji &TOur of Canynges in considera- 

la debts due to him &om hie subjects 

d and Finmark, license waa granted 

rada with tlieee hwda for two years 

ahips of any eiae (Fetdera, Jti. 

i HaCFHBBSOK, i, 166-7). Canyng^s 

eturned for Bristol to the parliament of 
: faia colleague in the representation of 
'" was bis half brother, Thomas Young, 
a oommittnd to the Tower for pro- 
g th>t the Duke of York should be de- 
JheirtothBthrone(WiLL. WoRO, 770; 
•btcb, ia3; StPBUB, iimtt. Hill. iii. 171). 
Both Cnnyngcs and i'oiing were returned 
~ ~ 'nt« tbeparliamentof 1465. Localhistn- 
tttiat Onoynges was n Lancastrian, 
« was forced to change bis nolitica 
CcesB of Edward IV. AU trust- 
ly eridence ebows that, like the greater 
'' e inerchants of Bristol, he was al- 
Igly attached to the Duke of York, 
ibly during his third mayoralty 
7 that he was able to do York signal 
J selling a large quantity of ammu- 
■t bad been consi^ed to a merchant 
Wa wbo was an Irishman and one of 
My of tbe YAt\ of Wiltshire (James 
ri of Ormonde), York was pleased 
nd wrote bidding the mayor and 
J) couadl take charge of the castle and 
irset out. This tbey did, and put 
in a sUte of defence. In 1460 
is said to have lost his wife Joanna. 
:t year, whtfn he wa« mayor for the 
in obedience to an order received 
i IV, he prepared an expedition 
% Bgoiiut the Lancastrians in Wales to 
- *T against the king's coming. When 
1 enortly oiterworda visited Bristol, 
' le was most royallj received ' (Stow, I 



416). Cnitynges is snid to have entertained 
biminliis'hniisc in ItiflclilTe Street; the hall 
and parlour of this house may s!ill lie seen, 
though the building, now occupied Vty Messrs. 
C. T. Jefferies & So bb, prin ters and booksellers, 
has been much damaged by fire. C'anynges 
and Young had lately sat on a cnramis^ion up- 

Sinted to try Sir Baldwin Fuiford and John 
eysant, who were pii( to death while the 
king was in Bristol. Before Edward left 
Canynges paid him 3,000 marks ' pro pace 
habendk' (Will. WoRc.); this must have 
been in discharge of what he owed for money 
received bv him as escbeator during tlie year 
of his mayoralty (Sbybr, ii. 191). In 1406 
Canynges whs mayor for the titth and last 
time. ^V^JUehewaa mayor on this occasion 
be and the council made certain rules for 
the government of the society of merchants 
(Petce, 135). 

Canynges' wealth was great. The list of 
his ships IS given by William Worcester; they 
were nine in number, a tenth having lately 
been lost on the coast of Iceland. Among 
them were the Mary and John of 900 tons, 
the Mary Radclyf of oOO tons, and the Mary 
Canyngya of 400 tons, in all 2.853 tons of 
shipping manned by eight hundred seamen. 
Even allowing for the difference between our 
mode of computing a ship's burden and that In 
use in the fifteeutli century, it is difficult \a 
believe that Canynges'e ships can have been 
of the size stated by Worcester. Besides his 
sMmen he paid day by day a hundred car- 
penters, masons, aod other workmen. These 



rebujldiiigof the old church had been hegua 
by William Canynges the elder, who carried 
the work ' from the cross aisles downwards' 
in ]il76; it was taken up by bis grandson, 
and the Call of the steeple in 1446 and the 
consequent destruction of much of the four- 
teenth-century work probably determined 
Canynges to rebuild nearly the whole of \ba 
church, which he did with the advice of Noi^ 
ton, bis master mason. In 1467 Canynges 
retired from the world, receiving acolvt«'s 
orderson 19 Sept. in thi^ chapel of the coile((e 
of West bury, on tlie title or the rectory of 
St. Allan's, Worcester. A atory told by 
Robert Ricaut in his ' Majror's Calendar oif 
Bristol ' that he took this course to avoid a 
marriage the king tried to force on him is 
probabiymereidlegosBip. Onl2Marehl48r- 
1468 he was admilled subdeacon; on 2 April 
1468 he was admitted deacon, and on the 
16th of thesame month priest, being collated 
tfl a ennonrrin thecollegeof Westburv. On 
3 Juno 1469 be was collated to the oilicii of 
dean of the college, and was Inductod nnd 



Cape 



Capel 



installed od the same day. He died 17 Nov. 
1474. Besides his great work in rebuilding 
St. Mary Kedclifie, ha was a benefactor to the 
colle^ of Weatbury, and is said to liave re- 
built it (DoeDALE, Monagficon,\i. 1439). At 
Westburybe BlsofaundedanahDebouse,and . 
by the payment of 44/. to the sheriff of Bristol I 
freed this house and the college from tolls 
oa provisiona coming from the city (Atxtkb, i 
Glotferthire, p. 80^). He was buried in 
Kedcliffechurchwitbhiswife Joanna. Their I 
tombs were discovered and identifiedinl862. ' 
Uuch debate has been held over certain 
effigies in the church sup[iosed to represent ! 
Canynges ; the question is carefully dis- \ 
cussed in Pryce's 'Memorials,' pp. 179-93. | 
Canynges's two sons died before nim. His 
elder aurviving brother, Thomas, lord mayor 
of London in 14S6, is the ancestor of the Can- 
nings of Koxcote, Warwickshire, and of the 
Cannings of Oarv^h in Ireland, a &mily from 
which have come George Canning, the states- 
manfq.v.l, and StratfordCanning, Lord Strat- 
ford de Redcliffe [q. v,] {Pbycb, 146-56). , 

[Pryce's Memorials of the Canynf;oB Family j 
The Great Bed Bonk, SIS. in tlie council-hoiuie, 
Bristol ; Wadley'a Notes oa Wills in the G reat 
OrphsD Book at Bristol ; Bicant'a AUyor's Ca- I 
lendar of Bristol, ed. L. T. Smith (Camden Soc.); I 
Dallaway's Antiquities of BriBtuw; Seyer's Uiii- | 
lory of Bristol, vol. ii.; Barrett's History and ■ 
AotiqaitieB of Bristol; Stow'a Annales, ed. 161S: ' 
Ilj-mer'a Ftedera, li. ed. 1710; William Wor- 
cester's Itinerary ; Uogdalo's Monasticon ; Sur- 
tees's Uurham; Alkyns's State of Gloatoishire; 
Macpherson's Annals of Commerce, i. 663-7.] 
W.H. 

CAPE, ^VILLIAM TIMOTHY (180&- 
1863), Australian colonist, bom at Walworth, 
Surrey, 25 Oct. 1806, was eldest son of Wil- 
liam Cape of Ireby, Cumberland. He was 
educated at Merchant Taylora' School under 
Dr. Bellamy, with a view to entering- tho 
church, and showed great proficiency m hia 
studies. The elder Cape was resident mana- 
ger of the bank of Brovrn, Cobb, & Co., 
Lombard Street, but on the breaking up of 
Brown'sbankhedecided t^emigrate. Having 
obtained letters from Lord Bathurst to Sir 
Thomas Brisbane, tli e goTern or, W illiam Cape, 
accompanied by his son, sailed for Van Die- 
men's Land in 1821, and after a nine months' 
voyage reached Hobart Town. In 1822 they 
removed to Sydney, where the father esta- 
blished a private school, the ' Sydney Aca- 
demy.' In course of time he became principal 
of the Sydney public school, with his son as 
assistant-master, and on tho resignation of the 
father, in 1829, the son became head-maet«r 
— Arc^deacoD Scott, a Mend of the famiW, 
being king's viutor. In 1830, however, be 



reopened the private school in Sydney, but 
when the high school called ' Sydney Col- 
lege' was founded in 1836, he truisfeiredhia 

private pupils to it, and was elected head- 
master. He held this office up to 1842, when 
he founded a new private school at Padding- 
ton, Sydney. In 1866 he decided to give np 
scholastic Hfe. In 1869 he became member 
for the constituency of Wollombi. His ex- 
perience advanced him to the poution of 
commissioner of national education, and abont 
the same time he became a magiatrate. He 
was also elected fellow of St. Baul'a Coll^ 
within the university of Sydney, and helped 
on the Sydney School of Arts. 

In 1866 he made a visit to England, and 
the next year returned to New South Wales. 
In 1860 ho again visited hia native country 
with the younger branches of hia family, in 
order to collect educational information, and 
died of smaU-poi at Warwick Street, Hmlico, 
14 June 1863. Hia funeralat Brompton was 
attended by almost all the coloniats then in 
London. His old pupils erected a taUet to hia 
memory in St. Andrew's Cathedral, Sydney. 

[Heaton'a Australian Dictionary, p. 33; Bar- 
ton's Lit. of New South Wales, p. SO ; Oaat. 
Mag. 1863, i. lU.] J. W.-G. 

CAPEL, ARTHUR, Lord Capel oi 
Hadh&m (1610 M649), royalist leader, was 
the onlv son of Sir Henry Capel of Raines 
Hall, Essei, by Theodosia, daughter of Sit 
Edward Montagu of Broughton, Northamp- 
tonshire, and sister of Hem?, first earl <A 
Manchester. He was bom about 1610, and 
appears to have lived the life of a countnr 
gentleman until called upon to take hu 
part in political life by being elected knight 
of the shire for the county of Hertforain 
the Short parliament, which met at Weat- 
minater on 13 April and was dissolved on 
5 May 1640. When the Long parliament 
was summoned, in the following November, 
Capel was againelected for Hertfordshire, and 
tooli his seat accordingly. In the debate on 
grievances, in which I^m made his celebrated 
speech, 'the first member that stood up . . . 
was Arthur Capel, esq., who presented a pe- 
tition in the name of the freeholders [of the 
county ofHertford] setting forth the burdens 
and oppressions oi the people during the 
long intermission of parliament in their con- 
sciences, liberties, and properties, and part icu- 
larly in the heavy tax of ship-money.' Ready 
as he was to join the popular party, if only 
real abuses could be got nd of, he was not the 
Tn wi to side with those who aimed at a d^ 
mocratic revolution, and he soon broke with 
I the party, whose views went far beyond any- 
thing that he bad contemplated at faia fint 



Btait. Shocked by the violence of language 
of the leaders, who had sel themselves in 
furious sntacoDi^m to the court pun^.C'apfl 
toon threw himself into the opposite camp, 
uid henceforth, durin^thelone struggle, the 
kiog hod oi) adherent more faithful and de- 
voted to the Ta;fftl cause, nor an; who made 
more splendid sacrifices, ending ut lost in hie 
de«lh upon the scaffold. On 6 Aug. 1611 
Oawl wan raised to the upper house hy the 
tit& of Lord Cspel of Hadham. Dnrinirthe 
Knuinder of that memorable jeor we lose 
Bight of bim, but when the kinf left London 
forYorkin Jaouarr 1042, Capel accompanied 
his majoat)-. and was one of the peers who 
signed the declaration and profession dift- 
kvowing ' all desiena of making war upon the 
parliament,' In the straits to which the kine 
w&a driven for want of money, Cspel showed 
great energr in making coutributions from 
•11 who could be prevailed on to subscribe. 
And in 1&I3 he waa sent to Shrewshur; 
with thtt commission of lieutenont-^neral 
of Shropshire, Cheshire, and North Wales. 
Here he found himself opposed by Sir Wil' 
tism Brerc too, whom he held in check so 
effectually that, for the time, Chester was 
celicred, and if he hod been left alone to 
ponue his own plans, he would in all proba- 
tiUty have rendered more important service 
durinD the war; but when Charles deter- 
Buoen thai a council should he appointed 'to 
be about ' the Prince of Wales, ' to meet fre- 
quently Bt the prince's lodgings to confer 
'witli lu3 highness,' Capel was appointed one 
of the conuniasi oners, and from tnat time he 
took small part in active hostilities. AAer 
the uipculiun of Archbishop Lnud, when the 
nt^tiatious for the treaty of Uxbridge were 
mngon (February 1645), Capel was one of 
the commissioners for the kin^, and when 
the negotiatiozis came to nothing, he was 
ordertil torni^e a regiment of foot and another 
of kori>e at hiii ami charge to attend upon 
the prince at Bristol. While Goring was 
besieging Taunton and Fairfax was making 
gnat exertions to raise the siege, Capel was 
MaulOg7Teh)scounsei. Whatever that coun- 
mI may liave been, it was tendered in vain. 
and when Oxford surrendered to Fairfax on 
^J April 1EEJ6, and the contest between the 
king and the parliament was virtually at an 
vaa, Capel accompanied the queen to Paris, 
where hu remained but a very short time. 
He was strongly opposed to the Prince of 
Wales escaping to France, and, refusing to 



aecompany uia hiehneBs on tie journey, 
tired to Jersey, where he remained till 



bwach between the army and the pnrli 

revived ui'w hopes in tin more sanguine of 
tim royalist party. Ue succeeded in obtain- 



ing a pass and permission to retire to his own 
house at lladham after compounding for lus 
estates. These estates had already (30 AprU 
1843) been bestowed, by a vote of the House 
of Commons, upon the Earl of Essex, and & 
considerable portion of tliem were actually 
in the earl's hands. W^hile the king was at 
Hampton Court, Capel was in frequent com- 
munication with his majesty, and was privy 
to the luckless flight to the Isle of Wight. 
For the disastrous renewal of the civil war 
Capel was in great measure responsible. Not 
a gleam of success cheered the king's portv, 
and in June 1648 Goring, Capel, and Sir 
Charles Lucas found themselves with the 
forces at their command abut up in Colches- 
ter by Fairfax, and were summoned to sur- 
render on the Idth of the month. The siege 
was prosecuted with vigour, but the town 
was defended with desperation. It was all 
in vain. On '27 Aug. the garrison surren- 
dered at discretion, and the second civil war 

The uc-xt two months were crowded with 
eventswhichhitrriedon the final catastrophe, 
and in Octolwr Capel, with his old coiupanioii 
in arms. Goring, earl of Norwich (Sir Charles 
Lucojii was shot in cold blood when Colchester 
surrendered), were impeached on a charge of 
high treason and rebellion. They pleaded 
that Fairfax had pledged his word to give 
fair quarter to all prisoners who surrendered 
themselves into his hands, and ' upon great 
debate," both houses called upon i airfax to 
explain his meaning. Fairfax was absent, 
and was in no hurry to take upon himself 
a re3[)onsibility which the parliament were 
anxious t<j relieve themselves of ; he returned 
no answer to the letter for months. When 
the answer came it was so ambigTious that 
in effect the explanation of his promise wns 
left, to the civil power. 

In January tJie king was beheaded, and 
the House of Lords was aboliabed in due 
course. Meanwhile Capel was committed to 
the Tower, having been brought thither from 
Windsor Castle, his first place of confinement. 
By some means, which were never eiplaiurd, 
he managed to provide himself with a cotd 
and other necessary appliances, and a plan 
of escape was arranged lor him by his friends 
outside. It succeeded, though attended by 
great difficulty, and Capel was kept in 
concealment in the Temple for some days. 
Then it was thought that he would be in 
greater safety if he were removed to. a pri- 
vate house in Lambeth, and taking a boat at 
the Temple stairs he wna rowed up the river 
attendee! by a single gentleman, who aeecns 
to have inadvertently addressed him as 'my 
lord.' The waterman thereupon followed the 



Capel 



12 



Capel 



two to their place of bidinsr, and betrayed 
them to the government. Tne man received 
a reward of 201, with a recommendation to 
the admiralty for employment, but he had 
to wait many months for his ' blood money/ 
which was not paid till the November after 
the execution. Capel was again arrested, 
and on Thursday, 8 March 1G4S-9, * in a thin 
house, hardly above sixty there,' the giiestion 
w^as put to the vot« whether the I)uke of 
Hamuton, the Pearls of Holland and Norwich 
(Goring), Capel, and Sir John Owen were to 
live or die. Owen was spared. Goring es- 
caped by the casting vote of Speaker Cent- 
hall, the other three were condemned, and all 
were beheaded next morning. To the last 
Capel behaved with that magnanimity and 
heroism which had marked his whole career. 
He received the last consolations of religion 
at tlie hands of Dr. George Morley, alter- 
wards bishop of Winchester, who wrote an 
account of his last hours in a letter which 
was published in 1654 ; but inasmuch as there 
was reason to fear that Dr. Morley 's well- 
known opinion might expose him to insult if 
he showed himselt before the people at the 
last, Capel would not allow him to be present 
on the scaiTold. There, says Bulstrode, * he 
behaved much after the manner of a stout 
K/)man. He had no minister with him, nor 
showed any sense of death approaching, but 
carried himself all the time . . . witli that 
boldness and resolution as was to be admired. 
He wore a sad-coloured suit, his hat cocked 
up, and his cloak thrown imder one arm ; he 
looked towards the people at his first coming 
up, and put off his hat m manner of a salute ; 
he had a little discourse with some gentle- 
men, and passed up and down in a careless 
posture.' Jolin, sou of Francis Quarles the 
poet, seems to have been present at the exe- 
cution, and wrote *An Elegy or Epitaph' 
upon the occasion, which was printed shortly 
afterwards. 

Capel was buried at Hadham, where may 
still be read the inscription on his monument: 
* Hereunder lieth interred the body of Arthur, 
Lord Capel, Baron of Hadham, who was mur^ 
dered for his loyalty to KingCliarles the First, 
March 9tli, 1648.' Capel married P]lizabeth, 
daughter and heiress of Sir Charles Morrison 
of Cashiobury, Hertfordshire, and by her had 
five sons and four daughters. At the Resto- 
ration Arthur [q. v.], his eldest son, was cre- 
ated Earl of Essex, a title which had become 
extinct by the death of llobert Devereux, the 
last earl, 14 Sept. 1646. By one of those 
strange instances of retributive justice which 
are not rare in history, the son of the mur- 
dered man succeeded to the honours of him 
who had benefited most by the spoliation of 



his father's lands, and from him the present 
Earl of Essex is lineally descended. 

[Clarendon's Hist. Rebellion ; Wood^s Athene 
Oxon. iii. 260, 698; Carlyle*s Cromwell; Bnl- 
strode's Memoirs ; Devereux's Lives and Letters 
of the Devereux, Earls of Essex, ii. 366, 462 ; 
Sanderson's Hist, of the Eeign of Charles I ; 
CoUins's Peerage of England, iii. 474; Rash- 
worth's Historical Collections, pt. iiL voL u 
p. 21, and vol. viii. p. 1272.] A J. 

CAPEL, ARTHUR, Eabl of E89Bi(ie31- 
1683), was bom in January 1631 (information 
kindly given by the present Lord Essex), and 
was the eldest son of Arthur, lord Capel 
[a. v.] of Hadham, who was executed in 
1649. His mother was Elizabeth Morrison. 
Of his early years nothing appears to be 
known, though from a letter of 13 June 1643 
(Hist, MSS, Comm, 5th Rep. 143) he appears 
to have then been at Shrewsbury fightmg for 
the king. It is stated by Burnet (i. 3d6) that 
his education was neglected by reason of the 
civil wars, but that when he reached man- 
hood he made himself master of the Latin 
tongue, and learned mathematics and all the 
other parts of learning. From a letter in 1681 
{Hist. MSS, Comm, 4th Rep. 451) he appears 
to have had some connection with &illiol 
College, for he then subscribed to the pur- 
chase of a large silver bowl for the conunon- 
room. His correspondence during his resi- 
dence in Ireland, preserved in tne 'Essex 
Papers' {Stow Collection, Brit. Mus.),i8that 
of a man of considerable literary cultivation. 
The language is simple but scholarly, and the 
style is singularly clear, dignified, and unaf- 
fected. His letters also display an intimate 
knowledge of law and of constitutional ques- 
tions. Chaimcey (Antiquities of Hertford' 
shire) describes him as handsome, courteous, 
and temperate, a strong opponent of arbitrary 
power, temperate in diet, and a lover of his 
library. Evelyn says that 'he is a sober, 
wise, judicious, and pondering person, not il- 
literate beyond the rate of most noblemen in 
this age, very well versed in English historie 
and afiaires, industrious, frugal, methodical, 
and every way accomplished' (18 April 1680). 
Essex was never a wealthy man ; nis estate 
had been sequestrated under the Common- 
wealth, and was compounded for at 4,706^ 
7s. lid. ^Collins, Peerage), While lord-lieu- 
tenant of Ireland he more than once mentions 
the pay of his ofiice as being of importance 
to his private interests (Essex Papers), And 
Evelyn tells us that while there he * consider- 
ably augmented his estate, without reproach' 
(18 April 1680). At the Restoration he was 
made Viscount Maiden and Earl of Essex 
(20 April 1661\ with remainder fiirst to his 
brother Henry [q. v.] and his male heirs, and 



Capel 



13 



Capel 



afterwards to his younger brother Edward. 
The writ was issued 29 April (Hist. MSS, 
Comm, 7th Rep. 142 a). Capel had previously 
(7 July 1660) oeen created custos rotulorum 
and lord-lieutenant of Hertfordshire, and 
^April 1668) was made lord-lieutenant of 
Wiltshire also. He married Elizabeth Percy, 
dauffhter of Algernon, earl of Northumber- 
land (d. 1717), mentioned as petitioning for the 
death of Col.Titchboume in 1660 (*6. v.l69), by 
whom he had six sons and two daughters ; but 
only one son and one daughter, Algernon and 
Anne, lived to maturity (Collins, Peerage), 
Scarcely any facts are forthcoming regarding 
Essex's life horn 1660 to 1669. On 7 Aug. 
1660 he named, according to the iniauitous 
vote of the House of Loras, Sir E. Wareing 
as an expiatory victim for his father's death 
(Hist. MSS. Qrnim. 5th Kep. 155). He was in 
London in September 1666 (t^. 7th Rep. 485 
b)y and in 1667 was in Paris, on his way home 
from the waters of Bourbon. He was at that 
time a member of the privy council. While in 
Paris he was consulted by the queen mother 
regarding the intentions of the Irish papists 
to put Ireland into the hands of the French 
when opportunity should arise, and he gave 
a most unflattering opinion of her political 
judgment (BinurET, i. 250). In 1669, when 
Charles was endeavouring by personal solici- 
tation to gsin the votes of tne members of 
the House of Lords, he, with Lord Hollis, 
had gained the reputation of being * stiff and 
sullen men * (i/j. i. 272), and Charles always 
treated him with respect. Burnet states 
(i. 396) that he appeared early against the 
court. His political opinions may be in part 
gathered from those of his brother Henry, 
member for Tewkesbury, with whom he 
lived in entire sympathy. Henrv Capel prided 
himself upon being descended from one who 
lost both life and fortune for the crown and 
nation; but, on the other hand, his speeches 
are invariably directed against every a Duse of 
the royal power, and against all tampering 
with popery. 

Essex s first public emplojrment was in 
1670, when Charles, desirous of making use 
of one whose opposition he wished to avoid 
(ib. i. 396), sent him as ambassador to the 
court of Christian V of Denmark. The go- 
vernor of Croonenburg had orders to make 
all the ships that passed strike to him. Essex 
replied that the kings of England made others 
strike to them, but their ships struck to none. 
He himself regarded this as a cheap defiance, 
saying that he was sure the governor would 
not endeavour to sink a ship which brought 
over an ambassador. His first business on 
Iftfitling was to justify this behaviour to the 
Danes, which he did by producing, from some 



books upon Danish affairs lent him* by Sir J. 
Cotton, evidence that by former treaties it 
had in past time been expressly stipulated 
that English ships of war should not strike 
in the Danish seas. Burnet adds to his ac- 
count of this matter that his conduct was so 
highly rated that he was informed from court 
that he might expecteverythinghe should pre- 
tend to on his return. In April 167 1 we read 
of him as * of the cabinet council, and seemeth 
to be in very good grace ' {Hist. MSS. Comm.) 
Actually he was, upon the removal of the 
Duke of Ormonde from the lord-lieutenancy 
of Ireland, appointed to the post, February 
1672, to his own great surprise, being sworn 
of the privy council of Ireland in that year. 
He left Holyhead on 28 June in the Norwich, 
but does not appear to have arrived in Dublin 
until 6 Aug. {issex Papers). He continued 
in this emplojrment until his recall in 1677, 
with but one short journey to London. Of 
his government Burnet speaks thus : *• He 
exceeded all that had gone before him, and is 
still considered as a pattern to all that come 
after him. He studied to understand exactly 
well the constitution and interest of the na- 
tion. He read over all their council books, 
and made large abstracts out of them to guide 
him, so as to advance everything that had 
been at any time set on foot for the good of 
the kingdom. He made several volumes of 
tables of the state, and persons that were in 
every county and town, and got true charac- 
ters of all that were capable to serve the pub- 
lic ; and he preferred men always upon merit 
without any application from themselves, and 
watched over all about him, that there should 
be no bribes going among his servants ' (i. 
396). This is but one among many illustra- 
tions of Burnetts most remarkable accuracy. 
The full, detailed, and continuous correspon- 
dence, both private and official, which can 
now be consulted in the * Essex Papers,' bears 
ample testimony to the truth of every word 
in this quotation, which is further established 
by the fact that Ormonde bore honourable tes- 
timony to the integrity and ability of his go- 
vernment (Carte, iv. 529). He set himself 
vigorously to work against misgovemment, 
withstanding the opposition and the preten- 
sions of Orrery, Ranelagh, and others. He 
managed very successfully to keep the Ulster 
presbj-terians from following the example of 
their Scotch brethren, and this without vio- 
lence. Indeed, he several times moderates 
the desires of the bishops for strong measures. 
And he appears to have protected the papists 
also, as far as English opinion woxild allow, 
though he is informed from London that he 
will be torn in pieces if he permits the secular 
priests to say mass openly. His rule over the 



Capel 14 Capel 

natives was firm and mild, though the light ' ahno.<«t equally strong. His official corre- 
in which the wilder portion of them were re- I spondence is chiefly directed to Arlington, the 
garded is vividly shown by the following ex- i secretarr (in whose behalf on his impeachment 
trtict from this letter, dated 16 Aug. 1673: j in 1674 Le moved all his relatives and firiends 
' And in cast* any should happen to be killed, in the house), and, on the retirement of this 
if it b«» made appan»nt that he is a tory, it : minister, to Henry Coventry, a personal 
would Ik» n^asonable to pardon/ He forcibly , friend, who succeeded him. Ilis private let- 
n'minds Arlington of the danger that may " ters are chiefly from his brother Henry, Fran- 
arist* from sutfering the common jHHiple to ; cis Godolphin, Lord Conway, Sir William 
know their own force. One of the main j Temple, Southwell, and William Harbord. 

Sointa with which he was conceme<l was, by i Thiring his administration, February 1674-6, 
rawing up new rules for the corporation, to ! he received a grant from the king of Essex 
check tlie turbulence of the city of Dublin, f House in the Strand, but preat delay took 
He sought to apply to Dublin the methoil of place before the grant actually took effect, if 
'quo warrant OS employed by Charles in Eng- mi 



land at the end of his reign. Througliout 
his administration he had to struggle against 



mdeed it did so at all. In 1674 it was inti- 
mated to him that he was to have the Garter, 
but this, too, apparently fell through. In 



the whole influence of l^nelagh, who had the July 1676 he made a visit to London, visited 
nH*t»ipt8 of the Irish revenue, on condition of ■. the king at Newmarket in April {Hist, M8S. 
paying the civil and military cliargi»s of the ^ Comm. 7th Rep. 493), and returned to Ire- 
crown, and who, fortifying hims^^lf by the land in May of the next year, reaching Dublhi 
friendship of Danby and the Duchess of Ports- on the 6th. During his stay in England his 
mouth, and by his promises to Charles to pro- I whole desire appears to be to get b»^k to his 
"\'ide him with monev out of Irisli funds, • post. His letters while in London show 
presentedaccounts which Essex resolutely ri^ him fully alive to the intrigues which were 
fustnl to pass. Of the intrigues ct>ntinually being carried on to oust so incorruptible 
carried on agfainst him in London he had full an otiicer from his place. The king himself 
and timely warning from friends at court. ; always held him in great respect. These in- 
He rt^fiu^ed, however, in dignifled language to trigues, based upon Charles's incessant need 
alter his course of action on this account, and : of money, which Ranelagh promised to sup- 
especially declined to put his depi»ndence upon i ply, proved successful during the course of 
* little people,' such as Chilfinch, Elliot, and | the next year, and on 28 April 1677 Essex 
the Duchess of Portsmouth, although we find , acknowledgers the king's letter of recall. His 
him expressing pleasure that his agent, Wil- 
liam Harbord, has, through the meiliation of 
the Duke of Hamilton, made the latter his 
friend. The only request he makes for him- 
self is that no complaints shall be permitted 
to be heard in England unless they have pre- 
viously been notified to himself, a request im- 
mediately granted by the king. He did his 
utmost to stop the reckless grants of forfeited 
estates by the king to his courtiers and mis- 
tresses, and refused to injure his successors 
interests by granting reversions. So careful 



last few months of oflice were embittered by a 
scandalous insult to his wife from a certain 
Captain Brabazon, who declared her guilty of 
an intrigue with him. The belief is several 
times expressed that this was an annoyance 
deliberately set on foot by Danby, Kanelagh, 
and the Duchess of Portsmouth". Essex, by 
his position, was precluded from seeking per- 
sonal satisfaction, but before he left was able 
to prove that the charge was a malicious 
falsehood. Upon his return to England Essex 
speedily identified himself with the country 
was he about the purity of the administration party, Danby s opponents, of which, along 
that he was able to sav, on handing over the with Russell, Halifax. Shaftesbury, Bucking- 



n 



ovemment to Ormoncle after five years, tliat ham, and Hollis, he became a leader in the 

is secretary, Allworth, was the only man, | lords, this * cabal ' being kept at Lord Hollis s 

not that hehad gratified, but that he requested J house. He probably, however, did not take 



might be gratified by his successor. His go- j an active part in the opposition at once, for 
vemment of Ireland was in striking contrast in a letter of 11 April 1678 the French am- 
to the general corruption of Charles's reign, j bassador omits his name from the list of the 
which is the more remarkable as his circum- chief members of the country party (Dalktm- 
stances were always straitened. The most plb. Memoirs, i. 189). The leading objects 
memorable example of his fearlessness was , of this party were the ruin of Danby, the ex- 
when he successfully opposed the grant of the ' elusion of jTames, the persecution of popexy, 
Phoenix Park to the Duchess of Cleveland, I and the dissolution of the pensionary parlia- 
about which he wrote to Arlington : * I do I ment. To what extent he believed m the 
desire there ma^ not be the least ^in of my pretended plot 'viiiich raised the popish terror 
concurrence in it/ and to Charles in language | it is not easy to ascertain; it is, howerer, 



Capel 



IS 



Capel 



e never cxprtesei bis dUbellef in ! 
it. Imt. on ilip conimiy, ncled in full nccord ; 
•Kith ltd iu'wl TJoU'nt tusaUeTB, whi?n he jcjined 
tbem in prvwinc tlie king to diemiBB Jumes 
(roBi the court (CoLUiie, Pferage). 

On the ffttl of Dttohy in lfi79 the treaemr 
vnt put in rommifiGion, and Enaei was placed 
«t il« hnul {ii.) Along witli Simderliind 
and Monmouth he now ur^ the liing to 
tiT lie eiperimpnt of an entire chance of 
policy by introducing the leaders of the 
country mrtj into the council. By thus 
acting inrtependently of hifl party he appears 
to hsTo inimrred their jealousy- Bis own 
«i^«iant to Itumet was that be hoped, by dc- 
«eptinf; ofllce, to work the change that was 
now nHV-cted. The dismissal of the old 
council and the creation of a new one eom- 
poBt^(] of the principal wbigs from both houses, 
uniler t.ha presidency of Shafteshurv, were, 
howeTer, undoubtetUy the results of Tempte'a 
advice. Eisex was sworn a member of that 
«wimcil on 31 April ; he declared that ita 
creation would conciUate the pari iamenl in 
ite relations with the king. The whig ]iart;p 
Ofiw was uplit up into two Beclions on the 
«xcli3i>ionqiifiBl.inn. Tliat led by Shaftesbury 
a.ffinni'd that (o save England from the danger 
of a popiah king the absolute exclusion of 
Junius was necessary; and it put forward 
Monmouth as iia candidate for the throne. 
EssHz, acting under the leademhip of Halifax 
and Sunderland, proposed the scheme of limi- 
tations, wherebvi when thecrown should faU 
(o him, .Tame4 snoiild bo disabled from doing 
harmeitherinchurch or state, and these three, 
who formed the triumvirate, regarded the 
I'rinoi' of (Jrange, rather than Monmouth, as 
the natural repreBentative of the protestant 
int^cvst. Essex appears to liave confined 
himself to treasury business, where ' his clear, 
lliongh Blow sense, made him very acceptable 
lo ibe king,' and to the endeavours to regu- 
late the eijicnae of the court (Bitbmbt, i.466, 
4&S). In tlie great, debate which arose on 
llii; occasion of Danby's prosecution, he spoke 
B{;*in8t the right of the bishops to vole in 
%ay pftrl of a trial for treason. Un the ques- 
tion of Ihe proposed dissolution of the pen- 
sionary parliament he joined Halifax in atjiu- 
~~g that since no agreement seemed possible 
1 tha king upon the questions of the 
tuioD and Danby's pardon, it would be 
Jl to try whether a new parliament might 
I ba dimmed to let those matters drop. 
V ^is a^Ticn, according to Burnet (i. 469), 
-- ,in incurred the anger of Shaftesbury 
:« party, which, however, 'as he was 
Mapt to be much heated,' he bore mildly. 
^Tra» evidently much trusted by Charles, 
r had in tlie previous year named bim 



nlong with Halifax to discuss th? gH«iv- 
oncea of the Scotch lords against Lauderdale 
(jA. 469). Upon the discovery of the Meal 
Tub plot, in which the forgers had repre- 
sented Essex and Halifax as being impli- 
cated, tbey u^;ed the king to summon 
C"ament at once. Upon his refiisal iib.) 
X, with his brother, left the treasury on 
19 Nov. 1679. In order, however, that this 
resignation might not strengthen Shaftes- 
bury's party, a gloss was put upon his action 
by tlie statement that he> had the king's leave ' 
to resisn (IUlfh, 489). It is, indeed, pro- 
bable that the grounds of his leaving were 
very different. In a letter from court of 
27 Nov. 1679 (Hist. MSS. Camm. 7th Rep, 
477 b) it is said, ' some eav the E. of Ewiex went 
out on this score. The king had given Cleve- 
land 25,000{., and slio sending to him for it 
he denied the payment, and told the king he 
(the king) had often promised them not to 
pay monev on those accounts while he was so 
much indebted to such as daily clamoared 
ot their table for money ; but if his Msj. 
would have it paid he wish't somebody el»e 
to do i(, for he would not, but willingly sur- 
render his place, at which the king replied, 
" I will take you at your word.'' ' Another 
account, equally honourable to Essex, is, 
that Charles beinganxious to gain a sut^idv 
fromliouis, 'thenicenessof touchingFrench 
money is the reason tluit makes my Lord 
Eksez s squeoiy stomach that it can no longer 
digest his employment of IsC commissioner 
of the treasury "^(li. 6th Rep. 741 6), He 
continued to sit in the council, but in spite 
of Charles's earnest request refused to return 
to the treasury (Bpbitbt, 476). His chief 
desire appears to have been to return to Ira- 

The candour and good sense with which 
Essex advised Charles are well shown in a 
letter to the king of 21 July 1679, in which 
he urges him to disband the guards he had 
just raised (Dalbtmpie. Memoirs, i. 314). 

In the debates in 1680 on the Exclusion 
Bill, Essex, whose views had undergone a 
great alteration, ascribed bv Lingard, though 
without authority, to his disappointment in 
gaining neither the lord-treasurerahip nor the 
government of Ireland, now appeared as a 
strong opponent of the court, and vehemently 
supported Shaftesbury's action. I'ossibly 
the cause is to be found in the fact that his 
urgent advice to James in October to retina 
to Scotland had been disregarded (tfi. i. 346). 
When the Exclusion Bill was thrown out, 
and Halifax again brought in the scheme 
of expedients, he made a motion, agreed to 
in B tliia house, that an association should 
be entered into to maintiunthos« expedients, 



Capel 



i6 



Capel 



and that some cautionary towns should be 
put into the hands of the associators during 
the king's life to make them good after his 
death. In March 1680-1 he is spoken of by 
•Ormonde as furthering, with Howard, the 
belief in a ' sham plot,' in order to throw 
odium upon the queen and the Roman catho- 
lics generally {Hist, MSS. Comm, 7th Rep. 
744 by On 25 Jan. 1680-1 he took the de- 
cided step of presenting a petition, in which 
he was joinea by fifteen other peers, praying 
that the choice of Oxford for the meeting of 
parliament might be given up. The language 
of the petition was unwarrantably violent, 
declaring, along with much that was true, 
that they were deprived of freedom of debate, 
and were exposed to the swords of papists in 
the king's guards. The petition, which was 
printed and published, was answered by Hali- 
fax in a * Seasonable Address ' (State Tracts, 
ii. 129}. 

In tne trial of StaflTord, Essex appears to 
have thrown aside Ids usual fairness of judg- 
ment, and to have voted for the condemna- 
tion. He spoke vehemently against the 
popish lords, saying they were worse than 
Hanby {Hist MSS, Comm. 6th Rep. 740). He 
is represented, too, as eager in the prosecution 
of Lady Powys, who found money for the im- 
prisoned catholics (North, JEi'amtfw, 269). On 
the other hand, he honourably distinguished 
himself in urging upon Charles the pardon of 
Plunket, the archbishop of Armagh, illegally 
condemned on account of the pretended Irish 
plot (which, however, he is represented as dili- 
gent in discovering, see Hist, MSS, Comm, | 
7th Rep. 739 6), declaring from his own 
knowledge that the charge could not be true. 
It was now that Essex received a just rebuke 
in the king's indignant reply, * Then, my lord, 
be his blood on your own conscience. You 
might have saved him, if you would. I can- 
not pardon him because I dare not.' On the 
occasion when, in defiance of court influence, 
the Middlesex grand jury refused to return 
a true bill against Shaftesbury, a book was 
published to justify their action, of which 
Essex was the reputed author. It probably, 
however, was by Somers. 

In 1682 Shaftesbury suggested to his 
friends the advisability of taking advantage 
of the ferment in the city on the occasion of 
the contest about the sherifis, and of making 
themselves masters of the Tower during the 
confusion. Against this wild scheme Russell 
and Essex protested, and Shaftesbury left 
the country. Essex now took his ^lacc as 
Monmouth's principal adviser, but insisted 
upon Russell and Algernon Sidney being 
joined with him. He appears to have fallen 
much under the influence of the latter, at 



whose suggestion it was that he consented 
to take Howard, who afterwards betrayed 
them, into their confidence in the meetings 
frequently held with Monmouth for consiu- 
tation as to the course to be pursued; he 
also almost forced Russell to admit Howard 
(Btjknet's Journal; App. to Lord Johv 
Russell's Life of Hussein, At these meet- 
ings much wild talk no aoubt took place as 
to a possible rising ; but in all such designs 
we have the authority of Burnet (i. 540) 
and all probability for saying that Essex 
took no part. He felt things were not yet 
ripe, and that an ill-managed rising would 
be ruin to the whig cause. 

Upon the discovery of the Rye House plot, 
Russell and others were immediately im- 

?risoned. It was not, however, until Lord 
[oward had been captured that upon his in- 
formation a party of horse was sent to Essex*s 
country house at Cashiobury to arrest him. 
Upon his arrest he appeared dejected, and said 
little, but that he did not imagine any one 
would swear falsely against him, and made 
no manner of profession of duty. Sir Philip 
Lloyd said * he was in some confusion at his 
own house, and changed his mind three or 
four times, one while saying he would go 
on horseback, and another while that he 
would go in his coach ' (North, Eramen, 
382). He appears also to have shown much 
mental distress when brought before the coun- 
cil. He sent from the Tower a very melan- 
choly message to his wife, and he wrot« also 
to the Earl of Bedford to express his regret 
at having helped to bring danger upon his 
son. Shortly after the beginning of Lord 
Russell's trial on 13 July 1683 it was 
whispered in court — and the news was made 
use of to injure Russell — that Essex had 
cut his throat in the Tower (Ralph, 769; 
North, JExameny 400). It is impossible here 
to enter into the controversy as to whether 
this tragedy was suicide or murder. It will be 
foimd exhaustively treated in Burnet (560), 
in the last edition of the ' Biographia Britan- 
nica,' in Ralph's * History ' (i, 769), and in 
North's * Examen.' The court was, of course, 
roundly accused of murder ; the charge, how- 
ever, is utterly without antecedent proba- 
bility, and is unsupported by trustworthy evi- 
dence. It was dimcult for those who knew 
Essex's 'sober and religious deportment' 
(Evelyn, 28 June 1683) to believe in the 
suicide theory. But the occasional melancholy 
of his disposition ; the sleeplessness with which 
he was troubled in the Tower ; the danger of 
his friends; the fact that he found himself in 
the yery rooms from which his father had 
been taken to execution ; the recollection of 
his last interview with that lather ; his com- 



Capel 



Capel 



m^ndation of ibe action of tlis Earl of Nocih- 
umberlanrl, who iirevfulcd nn uttaJnder by 
killing hiniEelf in tlia Towit, to s&ve bis 
honour iluJ Itunily Mtute« (^NoBm, MiraneTi, 
385): liisecudlngforarMor — these andotber 
oucb coUiiternl cnnsidnrationsBreto be borne 
in mind. Flippant nud cruel as Charles bad 
become, kia nmuirk, 'Mv lard Eesex might 
liBTS tried my mercy ; I owe a life toliia 
fiunily,' is, if genuine, a voLtiuble additional 
piecw of evidence that he at least was utterly 
without complicity in the crime imputed to 
him, Essex was buried at "Watford in Hert- 



his Rente [Cashiobury], ai 
|(oniIii, and ulher rural e 



tlui day. ' No man has been moru indus- 
*~' na than this noble loril in planting about 
"" ' ' ' }, adorned with walks, 
! esicellenciea ; while 
the library is laiye, and very nobly fumisiied, 
anci all the boolcB richly bound and gilded ; 
but there arc no manuscripts except the par- 
liament rolls and joumaU, the transcribing 
and Mndingofwhichcoatliim500f,'(lfl April 
1680). The reader should refer also to the 
description given by Evelvn of the house 
iteelt 

[The KiurCBB of infonnatioQ ara soflicieiitly io- 
dieMed in the teiU Tho Kn*a. I'apors ore acces- 
inUeia theBri tiab Huaeum. and aru novarrangod 
dmmologicAlly. The Jetcurs tn EIbbei are all 
oapnals; thoae finm hiai nro drafts of copies. 
appatwnlJy in his own hand. They fQrmar«K>rd 
1^ duly and incHsssat toil.] 0. A. 

CAPEL, StR HENRY, Lord Cafel op 
Tkwxbsbitst (d. 1690), lord-lieutenant of 
Iielaud, was the eecond son of Arthur, lord 
Capel of Hodbam [q.v.], by Elizabeth, daugh- 
I«r and heiresM of Sir Chulee Aforrison of 
Csahiobury, llertfordshire. He waa created 
a knight of the Bath at the coronation of 
Charim H, and appointed first commissioner 
of tie ndmimlty 25 April 1679, When the 
kinff resolved to pass the winter of 1680 
'without a purliomenl, Capel and three Other 
oonncillon desired to be excused &om fur- 
ther attendance iTemple, ile^noir*, ii. 69). 
In November following Capel waa oite of 
tbp stmngest sumiorterE in the commons of 
the Exclusion Bill (BuKsm, Oica Tijiiet, 
ed. 1886, P._319V Having after the acces- 
sion of William oeen appointed a lord of the 
tifaaMty, h» waa among the moat zealoua of 
those who endeavoored to compa^ the over- 
thfow of Hatifiu (Ci.4KBmw», Letters on 
tHe Affain of the Time, li. 200), He was 
left out of th» new treasury foUowing the 
nmeral idection in 1600, but succeeded Sir 
JnbnLowthurtn the treasury 27reb. 1891-2. 
On 1 March 1091-2 he was created Lord 
Capel orTewkMhuiy. When bis kinsman. 



/XJ 



the Earl of Clarendcm, was named in the 
privy council as suspwted of treason, he 
endeavoured to prevent bis arrest, but finally 
signed the warrant along with tbeotbur mem- 
bers of the couucU. On account of the pre- 
vailing disorders in Ireland in 1693, Lord 
Sydney, the lord deputy, who was supposed 
to favour the Irish too much, was recalled, 
and the government placed in the hands of 
three lords justices, of whom Cape! hud the 
chief influence with the government. As a 
strong enemy of Kiintan Catholicism it was 
not to he auppoaed that he would show much 
favour to the native Irish, while the other 
two lords justices were more disposed to a 
mild and compromising policy. The English 
thereupon maile representations that be should 
be installed lord deputy, be undertaking lo 
manage a parliament, so as t« obtain the 
passing of the measures the king desired. 
He was accordingly declared lord depii' 
in May 1695, and by the parliament wn' 
be then called the supplies asked for w 

Knted, the proceedings of the parliamen 
aes II were annulled, and the great ac' 
settlement was confirmed. At the ins 
of Capel a motion was made to impeach the 
lord chancellor, Port.er, for having aoused his 
position to thrust catholics into commissions 
of the peace, and to favour them in their 
suits with proteetauts, but the motion was 
lost by a majority of two to one. Capel 
died at DubUn U May 1696. By his wife, 
Dorothy, daughter of Sir Richard Benaet 
of Kew, Surrey, he left no issue. Capel, 
before he went to Ireland, resided in ■ an old 
timber house ' at Kew, where he was fre- 
quently visited by Evelyn, who states that 
m his garden house be had 'the choicest 
fruit of any plantation in England.' 

[CoUias's Peerage (ed. 1812), iii. ISO; Lnt- 
trell'B Diary, i. 266, filfl. fi28, ii. 22. 369, 373, 
iii. 26, 30, 87. 101, 119, 279, 319, 339, 467, 463, 
482. 48e, 461. 497. 503. iv. 57, 61, 63 ; Sir Wil- 
liam Temple's Memoim. ii. 38. 59, 93 ; Burnet's 
Own Times (ed. 1833), pp. 317, 319. 596. 618- 
619; Evelyn's Diatr; OldmiiDn's History of 
England; Ralph's History of Englandi Frundu's 
Eugliih io Ireland, i. 236-8, 263, 267 ; Macau- 
laj's History of England] T. F. H. 

CAPEL, RICHARD (168&- 1666), puri- 
tan divine, descended from an ancient Here- 
fordshire family, was bom at Gloucester in 
1586, being the son of Christopher Capel, 
alderman of that city, and his wife Grace, 
daughter of iUchurd Hands. His father 
was a good friend to those ministers who 
hod suffered for nonconformity. The son, 
who was first educated in his native city, be- 
came a commonerof St. Alhan HoU, Oxford, 
in 1601, was afterwards elected a demy of 



Capel I 

Magdalen College, and in 1.609 was made per- 

Ktual fellow of that house, being then M.A, 
iring' his residence at the university he wa.^ 
much consulted by noted members of tbt' 
Calviiiistic party, and he had many pupils 
entrueted to his care, including Accepted 
Frewen, auhsequently archhishop of York, 
and William Peoiber. In the reign of James I 
he attended at court on the Earl of Somer- 
set, and continued there till the death of hiij 
triend Sir Thomas Overbury. In 1613 he 
was instituted to the rectory of Eostington, 
in hie native county, 'where he became emi- 
nent amongthe puritanical par^. In 1633, 
when the 'Book of Sports' of James I was 
published the second time b^ royal autho- 
rity, he declined to read it in Me church, 
and voluntarily resigning his rectory ho ob- . 
tained a license to practise physic from the 
bishop of Gloucester. He now settled at 
Fitchcombe, near Stroud, where he had an 
estate. In 1641 ho eepouBod the cause of 
the parliament and renewed his ministerial 
functions at Pitchcombe. ' In the exerciser 
of the pulpit he was sometimes a Hoanerf^s, 
the son of thunder i but more commonly e I 
Barnabas, the son of consolation ' (Bbook, j 
Purita?u, iii. '260). He died at Pitchcombe 
on 21 Sept. 1666. 

He married Dorothy,daughterof William 
Plumstead of Plumstead, Norfolk (she died 
14 Sept. 1622, aged 28). His son, Daniel I 
Capel, MA., was successively minister of ' 
Morton, Alderley, and Shjpton Moigne in ,' 
Gloucestershire ; the latter living he parted i 
with In 1663 for nonconformitv, and he prac- ! 
tised medicine at Stroud until his death. 

UichardCapelwas theauthorof: 1. 'God'e 
Valuation of Man's Soul,' in two sermom 
on Mark viii. 36, London, 1632, 4to, 2. 'Ten- 
tations: theirNaturejDangiT, Cure, to which 
is added a Briefe Dispute, as touching Resti- 
tution in the Case of Usury,' I^indon, 1633, 
12mo ; second edition, London, 1635, 12mo ; 
third edition, London, ld3&-7,]2mo; sixth 
edition, consisting of five parts, 1658-55, Bvo. 
The fourth part was published at London, 
1655,8vo. Ae'BriefDispute'wasanBwered 
byT. P., London, 1679. 3. ' Apology in De- 
fence of Bome Eiceptions against some Par- 
ticulars in the Book of Tentations,' London, 
1659, 8vo. 4. 'Capel's llemains, being an 
useful Appendix to his excellent Treatise of 
Tentations, witli a preface prefixed, wherein 
is contained an Abridgment of tho author's 
life, by his friend, Valentine Marshall,' Lon- 
don, 1668, 8vo. 

He likewise edited eome of the theologi- 
cal treatises composed by his favourite pupil 
William Fember, who oied in bis house at 
Eastington in 1623. 



Capel 



[Life of Marshall ; Bigland's Q-Ioncoitatshin, 
1.539-42; Clarka's Livps of Ten Eminent Di- 
vines (1882), 248; Macfiu-lnoe's Ca^ Libronnn 
Impress, Bib). CoU. B. Matin Magd. Oion. Ap- 
pend. 18; Wood's Athens Oion. (BIisi), iii 
421 ; Fuller's Worthies (1B11). i. 3S6 ; Hetfao- 
ingtoa's Hist, of tho Westminster AsMm- 
!>ly of Diviaes, 109 ; Brook's Poritans, iii. IM; 
Palmer's Nonconformist's Memorial (1802), ii 
264; Calamy's Abridgmeat of Baxter (1711X 
ii. 317 ; Cat. of Printed Books in Brit. Mui.; 
Watt's Bibl. Brit. ; I^nsd, MS, B86, f. 114.1 
T. C. 

CAPEL, Sir THOMAS BLADEN 

(1776-1853), admiral, youngest son ofWil- 
liam, fourth earl of Essex, by hie second 
wife, Harriet, daughter of Colonel liomM 
. Bladen, was bom 25 Aug. 1776, and, accord- 
ing to the fiction then in vogue, entered tlia 
navy on board the Phaeton frigate OS captain^ 
servant on 22 March 17ti2. It was ten yean 
later before he joined in the fiesh, and afta 
serving on the Newfoimdland and homa 
stations and being present as midshipmanof 
the SansPareil in the action offL^Orient, 
I 23 July 1796, he was, on 5 April 1797, pro- 
! moted to a lieutenancy and appointed tt 
the Cambrian frigate, on the home station. 
In April 1798 he was appointed to the Via- 
guard, bearing the flag of Sir Horatio Nel- 
son, and, during the Mediterranean cniin 
which culminated in the battle of the Nils, 
acted as Sir Horatio's signal officer. On 
4 Aug. 1798 he was appointed b^ Nelson to 
the command of the Mutine brig, andunt 
home with duplicate despatches, which, in 
consequence of the capture of the Leander 
[see Ber£i, Sik Edward], brought the firrt 
news of the victory to England, 2 Oct. Hil 
comma nder's commission was at once con- 
Srmed, and on 27 Dec. he was advanced to 
post rank. On 5 Jan. 1799 he was appointed 
to the Arab frigate, for the West India sta- 
tion. In July 1800 he was transferred to 
the Meleager, which on 9 June 1801 wai 
wrecked in the Ouif of Mexico. In Augmt 
1802 he was appointed to the Phoebe cf 
36 guns, in which he served in the Medite^ 
ranean for thethree foUowinK years, and wu 
present at the battle of Trafalgar. ' The ex- 
traordinary exertion of Captain Capel,' wrote 
Collingwood on 4 Nov., ' saved the Pn'nch 
Swiftsure; and his ship, the Phmbe, together 
with tho Donegal, afterwards brought out 
the Bahama' (^ICOIAB, NeUon Detpatdiet, 



On Hisretum to England he sat as a mem- 
ber of the court-martial on Sir Robert 0^ 
der [q. t.], and on 27 Dec. was appointed to 
the Gndymion of 40 guns, in which he again 
proceeded to the Mediterranean, carrying 



Capel 



19 



Capell 



out as a passenger Mr. Arbuthnot, the Eng- 
lish ambassador, to Constantinople, where 
he continued while the negotiations were 
pending, and on their failure brought Mr. 
Arbuthnot back to Malta. The Endjmion 
was afterwards one of the fleet which, under 
Sir John Duckworth, forced the passage of 
the Dardanelles, 19 Feb., 3 March 1807, in 
which last engagement she was struck by 
two of the enormous stone shot, upwards 
of 2 feet in diameter, and weighing nearly 
800 lbs. ; fortunately without sustaining much 
damage. 

In December 1811 Capel was appointed to 
the Hogue, on the Norm American station, 
where he continued during the war with the 
United States. In June 18I6 he was nomi- 
nated a C.B., and in December 1821 was ap- 
pointed to the command of the Koyal Yacht, 
where he remained till advanced to be rear- 
admiral, 27 May 1825. On 20 May 1832 he 
was made a K.C.B., and from May 1834 to 
July 1837 was commander-in-chief in the 
EajBt Indies, with his flag in the Winchester 
of 50 guns. This was ms last service. He 
became a vice-admiral on 10 Jan. 1837; 
he was further advanced to be admiral on 
28 AprU 1847, and on 7 April 1852 to be 
G.C.B. He died on 4 March 1853. He 
married, in 1816, Harriet Catherine, only 
daughter of Mr. Francis George Smyth, but 
had no issue. 

[Marshall's Roy. Nav. Biog., iii. (vol. ii.) 195; 
O'Byrne's Nav. Biog. Diet.; Gent. Mag. (1853), 
vol. cxl. pt. i. p. 540.] J. K. L. 

CAPEL, WILLIAM, third Earl of 
Essex (1697-1743), eldest son of Algernon 
Capel, second earl of Essex, and Mary, eldest 
daughter of William Bentinck, first earl of 
Portland, was bom in 1697. In 1718 he was 
appointed gentleman of the bedchamber to 
George II when Prince of Wales, an office in 
which he was continued after the prince's ac- 
cession to the throne. In 1725 he was made 
a knight of St. Andrew, and in 1727 he was 
constituted lord-lieutenant of Hertfordshire. 
In 1731 he was appointed ambassador extra- 
ordinary and plenipotentiary to the king of 
Sardinia at Turin, an office which he dis- 
charged till 1736. He was afterwards ap- 
pointed keeper of St. James's and Hyde Parks, 
but resigned this position on 4 Dec. 1739 
on being appointed captain yeoman of the 
guard. On 12 Feb. 1734-5 he was sworn a 
member of the privy coimcil, and on 20 Feb. 
1737-8 he was made a knight companion of 
the Garter. He died on 8 Jan. 1742-3, and 
was buried at Watford. By his first wife, 
Jane, eldest surviving daughter of Henry 
Hyde, earl of Clarendon, he had four daugh- 



ters, and by his second wife, Elizabeth Rus- 
sell, youngest daughter of Wriothesley, se- 
cond duke of Bedford, he had four daughters 
and two sons. Of the sons the elder died 
young, and the second, William Anne (1732- 
1799), succeeded him in the peerage. 

[Collins's Peerage, ed. Brydges, iii. 484-5 ; 
Clutterbuck's History of Hertford, i. 242-4.1 

T. F. H. 

CAPELL, EDWARD (1713-1781), 
Shakespearean commentator, son of the Rev. 
Gamaliel Capell, rector of Stanton in Suffolk, 
was bom 11 June 1713 at Throston,near Bury 
St. Edmunds. He was educated at Bury 
grammar school and Catharine Hall, Cam- 
bridge. In 1737 he was appointed deputy-in- 
spector of plays by the Duke of Grafton, from 
whom, in 1746, he also received the post of 
groom of the privy chamber. In discharging 
the duties of deputy-inspector he occasionally 
acted with little discretion, as when he re- 
fused to license Madklin's * Man of the World ' 
under its original title, * The True-bom Scotch- 
man' {^Biogr. Dram., ed. Jones, iii. 16-16). 
His official position gave him leisure to devote 
himself to his favourite pursuit — the study 
of Shakespeare and of Elizabethan literature. 
He publisned in 1760 * Prolusions, or Select 
Pieces of Ancient Poetry.* In this collection 
appeared a reprint of the anonymous play, 
* Edward HI,' which Capell tentatively as- 
signed to Shakespeare. Eight years after- 
wards (1768) he published his edition of 
Shakespeare in ten volumes, with a dedi- 
cation to the Duke of Grafton, grandson 
of the patron who had appointed him de- 
puty-inspector. In the dedicatory epistle he 
states that he had devoted twenty years 
to the preparation of the edition. An in- 
troduction, chiefly bibliographical, was pre- 
fixed, but the commentary was reserved for 
separate publication. Capell aimed at sup- 
plying in the first instance an accurate text 
based on a careful collation of the old copies, 
and he did his work very thoroughly. The 
first part of the commentary — notes to nine 
plays, together with the glossary — appeared 
m 1774. As it met with little success, he 
recalled the impression and determined to 
publish the entire commentary, in three 
quarto volumes, by subscription. The print- 
ing of the first volume was finished in March 
1779, and the second volume was ready in 
the following February ; but subscribers' 
names were difficult to procure, and Capell 
did not live to see the publication of his 
labours. He died 24 Jan. 1781. In 1783 
the complete work was issued in three vo- 
lumes, imder the title of ' Notes and Various 
Readings to Shakespeare.' As a textual 
critic Capell was singularly acute, and his 



Capell 



20 



Capgrave 



commentary is a valuable contribution to 
scholarship. The third volume is entitled 
' The School of Shakespeare/ and consists of 
' authentic extracts from divers English books 
that were in print in that authors time/ to 
which is appended ' Notitia Dramatica ; or 
Tables of Ancient Plays (from their begin- 
ning to the licstoration of Charles the Se- 
cond)/ In the dedicatory epistle it is alleged 
by the editor, Jolm Collins, that St^evens ap- 
propriated Capell's notes while disclaiming 
all acquaintance with them. There was a 
report that when Capell's Shakespeare was 
bemg printed Steevens bribed the printer's 
8er\'ant to let him have the first sheets 
(Nichols, Literary Anecdotes, viii. 540). 
Cai)ell hud many enemies among contempo- 
rary commentators. Farmer, in his letter to 
Steevens, speaks of him contemptuously, and 
Dr. Johnson observed that his abilities * were 
just sufficient to select the black hairs from 
the white for the use of the periwig makers.' 
Capell was a friend of Garrick, but became 
estranged from him in later life. He used 
to say tliat Garrick ^ spoke many speeches 
in Shakespeare without understanding them.' 
During the last twenty years of his life lie 
spent the whole of each summer at Hastings, 
where he had built himself a house close to 
the sea. His rooms in London were at 
Brick Court, Temple, where in later life he 
lived in such seclusion that only the most 
urgent business could draw him out of doors. 
He died at Brick Court on 24 Feb. 1781, 
and was buried at Fomham All Saints, 
Suffolk. He had collected a very valuable 
library, the choicest portion of which he 
presented to Trinity College, Cambridge, 
bteevens printed privately a catalogue of 
this collection in 1779; it is reprinted in 
Hartshorne's *Book llarities in the Uni- 
versity of Cambridge.' Capell is described 
by Samuel Pe^ge as * a personable well-made 
man of the middle stature,' and it is added 
that he ' had much of the carriage, manners, 
and sentiments of a gentleman.* His in- 
dustry was astonishing ; and it is reported 
that he transcribed the whole of Shakespeare 
ten times. It is admitted that he was pos- 
sessed of no little vanity, and that he was 
somewhat unsociable; but his temper had 
been soured by neglect. In addition to the 
works already mentioned, Capell published, 
1. *Two Tables elucidating the Sounds of 
Letters/ 1749, fol. 2. < lieflections on Ori- 
ginality in Authors: being Remarks on a 
Letter to Mr. Mason on the Marks of Imita- 
tion/ 1706, 8vo. With the assistance of 
Garrick he published in 1758 an edition of 
' Antony ana Cleopatra,' ' fitted for the stage 
by abridging only. 



[Nichols's Literary Illustrations, i. 465-76, 
iii. 203, y. 421; Nichols's Literary Aneolotait 
viii. 540; Davy's Athens SnffohnenBes, Add. 
MS. 19166 ; Halliwell's Defence of Edwaid Ck- 
pell, 1861 ; a letter to George Hardinge, eiq., 
1777 ; Monthly Renew, liii. 394-403, Inz. 484. 
488, Ixx. 15-23; Biographia Dramatica, ed, 
Jones, i. 82, iii. 15-16.] A H. E 

CAPELL, KATHERINE (nie Stb- 
PHEXs), CoFsnEss OF EssEX (1796-188^). 
[See Stephens, Kathebine.] 

CAPELLANUS, JOHN O^. U\0}\ 
translated the ' De Consolatione Philoaophis' 
of Boethius into English verse. Copies of 
this translation are still preserved, according 
to Tanner, in the library of Lincoln Cathe- 
dral (i. 53) and in the British Museam 
(Harl, MS. xxxiy. A 5). Another copy, im- 
perfect towards the beginning, is to be ionai 
among the Sloane MSS. This writer, who 
seems to haye been unknown to Leland, Bale, 
and Pits, flourished, if we may trust the 
statement of Tanner, about 1410. 

[Tanner's Bibl. Brit.-Hib. p. 161.] T. A A 

CAPGRAVE, JOHN (1893-1464), Au- 
gustiniau friar, theologian, and historian, 
was bom, as he has himself noted in hii 
chronicle (p. 259), on 21 April 1393. He vu 
a native of Lynn in Norfolk — ^*iny cuntreii 
Northfolk, of the toun of Lynne (Prokgwt 
to the Life of St, Katharine) — ^where he 
passed nearly all his days. Bale and othen 
wrongly name Kent as hb county. Studiou 
in youth, and ' sticking to his books like a 
limpet to its rocks,' he was sent to one of the 
universities, but to which one is uncertain; 
Leland names Cambridge, but only on con- 
jecture. Tanner, however, adduces evidenoe 
for this university from Capgraye*8 own words 
in a manuscript now destroyed (Cotton. M8. 
Vitellius D. xv, Life of St. Gilbert), On the 
other hand. Bale and others state that he took 
the degree of doctor of divinity at Oxford ; and 
Pamphilus (f. 139) adds that he lectured there. 
It has been suggested (introd. to Caporate's 
ChromcUy p. x) tliat he may have received hii 
early education at Cambric^, that place being 
more conveniently near to Lynn, and a^er- 
wards mi^^ted to the sister university. He 
was ordamed priest in 1417 or 1418, four or 
live years, he tells us {De Ulustr. Henriat, 
p. 127\ before the birth of Henry VI. At 
an early age he had elected to enter the order 
of Augustine Friars ; but we do not know 
when he first became an inmate of the hoiu* 
of the friars at Lynn. It may not, however, 
be too much to infer that he was connected 
with it from youth, and that he may have 
received a port of his education within its 
walls. 



SonnafterUkiug bis doctor E degree he wa5 
nroitiioied to be jproTiacial of his order in 
En^buid. An olfii^ial docimieiit dated 1456 
IB quolpd by White Kennet (Pai-ockial An- 
H^tiet, IHIS, ii. S99) in which Capgrave, 
Wt provincial, recogniseesclaim to thepatroo- 

Xof theconveDt of AuatinFriaraat Oxlbrd, 
n existing near the Bite uf Wudbam 
CoUewe. 

A lew wore facts relating to hia life win 
be pitbered from his work ' De illustribus 
Honricis.' In 1406, when a boT, he sawthe 
VfaxMfJt Philippa, daughter of deniy IV, em- 
bark at Lynn, on her way to marry Eric XLU, 
kinf of Norway, Sweden, and Denmark 
fji, 1091. In 14^2 he was studying in Lon- 
doQ at tlie timi' of the birth of Henry \T 
(p. 127). In I446herBCeivedthBluDgwhen 
ho visited the Austin Friary at Lynn, and 
nre him nn account of its foundation (p. 1 37). 
It may bepresumed that be was then bead of 
the bouse. In the dedicatory epistle pre- 
fixed to his ' Commentary on the Acta of the 
ApMtlM ' he refers to a vieit. to Rome, where ' 
hw WB* taken ill ; but he doeg not specify the 
Aa\« [De iUvstr. HenricU, app. p. 221). i 

C^pgrave's biographerB eulogise his cha- I 
ncterin Uiehigbestterms. Tlie moat leamt^d 
<if English Augustinians whom the soil of 
Brittun ever produced, he was distinguished 
aaaphilnsopher and theologian, practically re- 
jecUDg in hie writings the dreams of sophists, 
which lead only to strife and useless dis- 
Cuwions. Fulfilling the mission of his order, 
* it was his wont to thunder against the 
wanton and arbitraiT- acts of prelates, who 
enlarge the bordersoftheirgnrments beyond 
measun?, catching at the favour of the igno- 
rant herd ; not shenherds.but hirelings, who 
learn the shem to the wolvea, caring only for 
the mil k and fleece ; robbers of theu- country 
and evil workers, to whom truth is a burden, 
ji««iceft thing of scorn, and cruelly a delight ' 
(Bale). 

Ilia chief patron wna Humphrey, duke of 
Olouceater, whose life he wrote, and to whom 
he. dnJicnted ct'rtain of hif< works. He died 
ftt Lyim on 12 Aug. 1464 (not 1484, as Pam- 



S.'AdPofiil.ianeaerroneas.' 7. 'Orotlonesad 
Clerum.' S.'SertnnnesperAnnum.' 9.'Leo- 
turss Scholssticie.' 10. ' Ordinnrim Disputa- 
liones.' 11. 'Epistolasoddiversos.' 12.'Nov« 
Legeada Angliffi,' 13. ' Vita S. Augustini.' 
14. ' De sequacibus S. Augustini,' and (the 
same work ora continuation) 15. 'Deillu»- 
tribiis viris Ordinls S. Augustini.' And the 
hiatorieal works: l.'DeilluatrihuisHenricis.' 
2. ' Vita Ilumfredi Ducts Gloccstrioi.' Hia 
works in English were: 1. 'The Life of St. 
Gilbert of Sempringbsm.' 2. A metrical 
' Life of St. Katharine,' 3. ' A Ohronicle of 
England from the Creation to A.D, I4I7.' 
' A Ouido to the Antiquities of Rome,' in 
English, a work which he is supposed to 
hsvemritten during hia detention there from 
illness, has also been ascribed to him (Ckro- 
niele, p. 355). 

The commentaries on Genesia and the 
Pauline Epistles (and probably some others 
of the bibUcal commentaries) were dedicated 
to Humphrey, duke of Gloucester; the com- 
mentary on tne books of Kings to John Lowe, 
bishop of St. Asaph (1433-44) ; and the c 



nd I^ts B 



1 hia seventy-first 



'"■■'■■■-■■ ■■ wns a most industrious writer; 
■■ -irks are given by Bale, Tanner, 
I n Latin he viTote : I. Commeu' 
■f vend books of the Pentateuch, 
iiuigea, and Ruth, the four books 
ilme.BjCclesiastes, Isainh, Daniel, 
\linor Prophets, Acts, Pauline 
111 Epistles, and the Apocalypse, 

^Doctriute Christianie.' 3, 'Da 

ridri Svinbolia.' 4. 'Super Sententias Petri 
Xombordi.' 6. 'DetenmnatioDesTbeDlogicic.' 



The' 

to Henry VU, the ' Ohronicle " to Edward IV. 

The 'Life of St. Gilbert' was dediMted to 

Nicholas liesby, muster of the order of Sem- 

pringhom. 

Very many of Oapgrave's works are lost. 
Tiiose which have appeared in print or are 
still extant in manuscript are as follows; — 
The autograph mamiscript of the ' Commen- 
tary on Genesis' (a work written in 1437-8), 
which W8S presented to Duke Humphrey, is 
preserved in Oriel College, Qxford, MS. No. 32. 
Itwasgivenby thednketo the university, aa 
one among 135 volumes, in February 1443-4; 
Other works of Capgrave, included in the some 
gift, being the commentaries on Exodus and 
on 1 and 3 Kings. Amanuscriptof the com- 
mentary on the Acts, also said to be autograph, 
was given by Bishop Orev, of Ely, to BaUiol 
Col]ege,andi8now marked No. 189, Another 
raanuacript in the same college, No. 190, 
conlaina Oapgrave's work on the Creeds, the 
autograph manuscript being that in the 
library of All Souls' College, No, 17. It is 
in this latter work that he latinises hisname 
as ' Johannes de Monumento Pileato.' The 
prologues to the commentaries on Genesis, 
the Acts, and the Creeds are printed in the 
Rolls edition of the ' De illustribus Henricis.' 
The ' Nova Legenda Anglite,' compiled from 
the work of John of Tynemouth, exists in a 
manuscript in the York Minster Library; 
another copy in the Cottonian Library (Ti- 
beiius E. i) has been greatly injured by fire ; 



Capon 22 Capon 

a third U in the Bodleian Lihraiy. Tunnor became B.D. in 1512, and D.D. in 1515. Ii 

MS. 15. An abridtr^ T^an^lation was pub- the 'Kind's Book of Payments* {Cal. (if 

lished by Pynsc^n in lold. and in the $amt? Ift-n, IT//, ii. 1441) he is named a» rece'iTinff 

year Wvnkyn d»' Worde print t-d the trntire AV. in February 1516 and again in MarcS 

work. iTif prt^l'.viit' is aLm print t-d in the 1517 for preaching at court. On 16 Feb. 

*Peillust. Ht-nrici?,' The 'LixV of St. Gil- 1516-17, being then prior of St. John's^ 

beri of Semprinirham ' exi>Ted in the Cotton. Colchester, he was made abbot of St. Benet'» 

MS. VittUius b XV. which, with thf trx- Hulme in Norfolk ( Pn^ i?*>//, 8 Hen. VIH, 




enjoved 

^ISS. iH:», UiS. :y:K\ In ili- British Muse.im: There is extant (Oil of Hen. VIJI, iv.App. 
and in the &Kllrian, l»awlin>on M.S. 116, 3*»t a letter from Capon to Wolsey, 10 Apnl 




B«^K£y ham's Lu-y* %>/ Stynfy*, Koxli.irjhe your ser\-ant.' to explain that the writer is 

Club, 1 S>> V Thi- prx.«l.'iriU" i ? prir.tt%i in * !:v ill and cannot come up as commanded. * Thii 

Roll? edit iou of Capj.TtiVt *s * Chr.'uiolv.' p. ■%>>. bringer " was afterwards lord privy seal and 

Fra*:rmfn!> of thf 'Guiilt- to the Ani:4u:T:vs earl of Essex. As part of a scheme forre- 

of Rome ' an? found in :hf dv-h-aves of the deeming first-fruits in Norwich diocese, St 




iribus Honricis * was written durin*: :!iv rtijn xer, yotitia Mona*t. p. 333). made directly 
of Henry VI, and its obifOt was iht- j raise subject to the bishops of Norwich who were 
and glory of : ha: kinc. It irivt >:hv livvs of to be t.r *--fficio abbi'>ts there : but Capon con- 
six empi^rors of Germany, six kin^:^ o: Kr.j- tinuevl ablK>t and was succeeded bv Kepps^ 
land, and iwilve illustrious mrii who hid afterwards bishop of Norwich. In ("ebruur 
lv>me the name of llenrv. Tlw auroji^ph l">iV-oO he was at Cambridge to assist in 
manuscript is in Corpus rKristiCollt-co. Cam- oV:.Mning a declaration from the university 






Uside Winchester « Pat Hoi/, i?rHen. \1ll, 
p. 1. m. l^t. In July following he signed, 
VrpusChristilolUiTi'.MS. hC. This's^h.r: as one of the spiritual lords, the letter to 
remembni-.ms of oKif s:oriis* Sivn:s :o L:ive the jv^pe praying him to consent to tbe 

divorct'. In August 1533 he was nominated 

to :hv bish."»pric of Bancor. but the pope 

wouM not grant the bull of consecration. 

change of dynasty, rlnd.iiu' Kd^^ jird IVs :;:lo Howrver. on 11 April 1534 he had the Poyil 

to Iv gvvd 'by li^'vidis ilispo>iTi.'n,* and r.!> as>tnt. and on the 19th was consecrated 

handsoiiit-'y r^t'.rcv.nj on tha: of his 'a:e bis-hop of B.sn»?'»r by Archbishop Cranmer— 

patron Ilt".'.r>- VI as d^rivt d 'by ir.:r-.:-;.ni.' 'hi' se^vnd bishv">p made in Ensrland after 

wth thtso l:is:orio;il w^-rks \veri» t\li:«\l bv Ilfnr%-Vlll assumed papal authority. Hecon- 

F. C. Hingis:. Ml t>r the U.^lls Striis in lSo>. tir.utV. ablvt of Hyde, noldinir the bishopric 

[lUii's So:-:;:, Br::. Ci:. : I^:.vd'. T ---o"- '*• '" •':";•■ ':^^'-?'- until the suppression, when, 

t.\rii d?' S».t: J :.'rii us Trii. ^ 1 ^■5i^ ; jvi>. IV.nr:;::: ^■' " ^''^ Ci'^nveni. he surrendered the abbey 

Chiv^u i ca Or. : i c • •« init n: v.i Kn :: ; . S . A -.-Iru!.: i :: i ^'^ ^ • '^^ ki nc in April 1 539 1 r' 3C» H enry Vlll ' 

iloSU; Ta=r;tr's V-W:. l^r::.: K. INiCli-T.^-s" :" -^"^ ' "'> /;*■.> -fW H^j^rt, viii. App. 'ii. 24). 

Caj^r.ive"> v':;r<^:.io:» .v::i L.\r: d. i.:.:>T. ilt:.- * ^Vha: wondt^r." exclaims Stevens (^Supph L 

rioiN ^^ISoSV] H M. T. -W^'. -that in a depraved ape »urrt»nders 

1 iiv •■ ^ sV.^'i'd b-,* s"» universal, when the bt-t ravers 

C A rON . J OH N . n.V.: f S\T lOi i f . 1 . v 7^. of t hvir trust, t he sacri Wious Judases, wen? 

bishop ot ^a^.^b;:ry, was a 1 Vn, d.i. : in- :v..-.;k mavio bish- w : * Latimer of Worcester and 

J-hon m USS he r:\H\xsled H.A. a: Ca::> >hax:onofSalisburvPLsii.Tied their bL?hoprics 

>V ^ *" ** *"''"^ ''* ^'- ''^'""'^ AlKv ill in the summer of "LV^^ in consequence of 

\ :'iv*'*l*.'^ ^^'''*'" onlaimsl di-aoMi on U? May the • Six Articles.' and Capon was translated 

liHV. ihs name pix^bably implus ihat he t.i the see of Salisburv on 31 July 1539 

was a nat ive ot Sakvt, m>ar Colchester. He {^I\mL Xoii, 31 Hen. VIll, p. 3^ m. 28)," which 



lie lijcld till his death. He reverted to the 
Roman faith uo th<> accession of Quvea Marj', 
at which time (SI Au^. 1658) he had License 
becauM of hia great age to be sbsent front 
1h« qoeen's comuation and from future par- 
Uamente (Hjlthbh, Burs/Ury Paptfii,'p.\il); 
b« was, however, at the trial of Bishop 
Hooper at Southwark in Jnnuarj 1665. Ho 
dit^ on 6 Oct, 1557, and was buried in 
Saliaburv Cathedral ou the south aide of the 
choir. CapoD was a preacher of some note 
and a nan of learning. Menry Vllt wrote 
to Benct, his umbnasudor at Home, on 10 July 
1581, to urgo the pope to refer judgment of 
tbu divorce ciwe to the Archbishop of Can- 
t«rbu(T, a;i9iBted by the abbot of Weatminster 
and * the abbot of Hyda, a great clerk '( Qi'. r/ 
Sm. nil. V. 827). Convocation iu 1542, 
directing certaiu bLshope U) revise a traosla- 
tinn of the New Testament, assigned the 
Eputlea to the Coriuthiana to Capon, and 
tM emmn convocation appointed Lim and the 
Btahop o( El]? esaminers of eliurch books. 
Prot«atant writers inveigh against him as a 
liioe-Berveraud a papist — ' a false dissembling 
bishop,' a* lie is called byFoxe(v. 464), who 
Creqaently names liim a« a 'persecutor' of 
martTra under Henry VllIandMarj. Fuller 
■nd StTTpe say Le des]H>iled his bishopric to 
aniidi kiinseU'. Hirt will, dated 16 July 
1G&7, directs that all his goods be divided 



Khi» 






. la his esecutora 're- 

nounceil.' the prerogative court of Canter- 
bury appointed an administrator on 29 Oct. 
1667. .\rma; ' S, a chevron between 3 
t perhaps 'A, on a chevron S 
& 3 trefcula of the second, 3 escallops 




•rls Alhenee Cantab, i. 171, fiSO; Aniinla 
)ridp>, i. aSS-B -. CaL of Henry Vlil ; 
'■Suppl.toDugdiile.i.GnS; Doihiwonb's 
aaliab. CiiUi- II. 51: Fullers Churvh Hist.; 
Feoe'i Aets aa J Atun. ; Dudd's Churc!) Hist. p. 
W9 1 Wnod'B Atbenie Oun. ed. Bliie, i. 247, 
it. 741. 7fl7, 779, SOB ; Strjpa ; Li/larJ's QiUect. 
ri. S20, 234; Lemon's Caleadar; Richardson's 
Godwin: Milnar'BWiDehwtec, ii. 223; LeNive's 
VumX: 8t>to Papers Henry TUI; Browne Willis's 
Sol, Furl. i. 128; Enmet'a Hist, of Botorrou- 
tiOB i Andorsoa's Annals of Engl. Bible, ii. loO; 
Haynw's Burifhley Papers, p. 177; Britton's 
Salubv Catb. 4 1 . 05 ; Orey Fnaie' Chronicle, p. S7 ; 
Wriothiwlfiv'" ChruniclB. i. 36, 103; Cliva'sXad- 

■ Va : Bedford's Bluion of Epiwopiwj. 14.] 
I Co! 



. ON, WILLIAM (rf.ir.50),inMter of 
) CoUegv, Cambridge, the brother of 
John CajH.'n, aiiim Sulcol [q. v.], was bnm nt 
Salcot, EHsex. He was educated at Cam- 



bndgB, wlierche pi 



1609. He was fellow of Catharine HaU, held 
the living of Qreat Shelford, Cambridgeshire, 
and on '2\ July 1516 became master w Jesus 
CoUe^, Cambridge. He acted as chaplain 
to Wolaey, and was nominated iu 1526 the 
first dean of Wolse/s short-lived coUe^ at 
Ipawich. A long letter from Capon to Wol- 
aey, touching the organisation of the coU^, 
is printed in Ellis's ' Original Letters ' (fat 
ser, i. 185, from ' MS. Cotton,' Titns B i, 
f. 176). In 1634 he resigned the vicarage of 
Barkway, Hertfordshire, which be had held 
for several years ; in 1537 became prebendary 
of Wells ; from 2(i Sept. 1537 was for a few 
weeks archdeacon of Anglesey ; in 1543 was 
institul^l rector of Duxford St. Peter, Cam- 
bridgeshire, and prebondary of Bangor. He 
reaigneil the majtership of Jesus College in 
November 164fj, and died in 1550. 

[Cooper's Athenie Cantab, i. 100; Wood's 
Fasti, ed. Bliss, i. 94 ». (whnro the data of Capon's 
rraigoation of Barkway ia miaprinled li>14)j 
Ellis's Letters, Ist ser. i. 185, 3rd sar. ii. 331 ; 
Le Neve's Fasti, ed. Hardy, l, llfi, 120, 204,1 
S. L. L. 
CAPON, WILLIAM {1757-1827), scene- 
painter, decorative artist, and architect, 
the son of an artist, was boru nt Norwich 
6 Oct. 1757. Under his father he com- 
miniced to paint portraits, but preferring 
architecture was placed under NoTOzielski, 
whom he assisted in the buildings and deco- 
rations of tlie Italian Opera House (reopened 
1791) and Ranelagh Gardens. Iu 1794 he 
erected a theatre for Lord Aldborough at 
Belon House, Kildare, and in the aame year 
was engaged by John Kemble as scene-pain t«r 
for the new Drury Lane Theatre. An en- 
thusiastic si udent of old English archirficiuie, 
he greatly assisted Eemfalc in his efforts to 
represent plays with hiatorical accuracy, and 
the scenes at Driiiy Lane (and at Oovent 
Garden alter 1602) in -which he endeavoured 
to reconstruct ancient buildings were greatly 
celebrated. Amoug these were a view of the 
palace of WeBlminster (fifteenth een- 
wings' representing English streets, 
wer of London ( for the play of ' Ri- 
chard III'), the council chamber at Crosby 
House (for 'Jane Shore'), a stale chamber 
temp. Edward Ill,u baronial hall fcwyj. Ed- 
ward IV, andaTudorhalKfflnp. Henry \TI. 
lection with Bru^ Lane (l>umt 
1609) resulted in a loss of 500^ He made 
dfuwings of the interiors of Druiy Lane and 
CoventliMden,wliich were exhibited in 1600 
and 1802. He was alsoemployed for the IloyaJ 
id the theatre at Bath (1805). In 
1804 he WBsapjioinledarchileclural draughls- 
m»n to the Duke of York. Hia leisure was 
employed iii ardiileclural ceeearch, and bis 



Cappe 



24 



Cappe 



plans of the old palace of Westminster and 
the substructure of the abbey are said to have 
occupied him thirty years. The former was 
in 1826 purchased by the Society of Anti- 
quaries for 120 guineas, and was engraved by 
Basire. Though his preference was for Gothic 
architecture, his last work of importance was 
a design for a church of the Doric order. He 
was a firequent exhibitor at the Royal Aca- 
demy, and also (between 1788 and 1827^ sent 
drawings to the Society of Artists (one;, the 
British Institution (five), and the Society of 
British Artists (five). His subjects were chiefly 
views of buildings and architectural remains, 
with some landscapes. He died at his house 
in Xorth Street, Westminster, 26 Sept. 1827. 
A portrait of Capon, en^aved by W. Bond, 
after a miniature by W. Bone, was published 
in the * Gentleman's Magazine,' xcviii. 106. 
Some of his original drawings are in the 
British Museum. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists, 1878 ; Gent. Mag. 
1827 and 1828 ; Boaden's Life of Kemble.] 

C. M. 

CAPPE, NEWCOME (1733-1800), uni- 
tarian divine, eldest son of the Rev. Joseph 
Cappe, minister of the nonconformist con- 
gregation at Millhill Chapel, Leeds, who 
married the daughter and coheiress of Mr. 
Newcome of Waddington, Lincolnshire, was 
bom at Leeds 21 Feb. 1733. He was an ar- 
dent student when young, and was educated 
with great care for the dissenting ministrv. 
For a year (1748-9) he was with Dr. Aikm 
at Kibworth, Leicestershire ; the succeeding 
three years he studied with Doddridge at 
Northampton, and for another space of three 
years (1762-5) he lived at Glasgow, profiting 
bv the instruction of Dr. William Leechman. 
When he was sufficiently qualified by this 
lengthened course of tuition for his profession, 
he was chosen in November 1766 co-pastor 
with the Rev. John Hotham of the dissenting 
chapel at St. Saviourgate, York, and after re- 
maining in this position until Mr. Hotham's 
death in the following May became on that 
event sole pastor to the congregation, and so 
continued until his own decease in 1800. 
York was at this time the centre of much 
greater literary and political life than it is at 
present, and Cappe took a prominent place 
among its citizens. The large old mansion in 
which he lived is described by Mr. Robert 
Davies, in his 'Walks through York,* as situate 
in Upper Ousegate, and in it he gathered to- 
gether many students of letters. A literary 
club which he founded in 1771 existed witn 
unimpaired life for nearly twenty years. In 
October 1769 he married Sarah, the eldest 
daughter of William Turner, a merchant of 



Hull. She died of consumption in the spring 
of 1 773, leaving six children behind her. His 
second wife, an ardent promoter of education 
and of unitarian principles, was Catharine, 
daughter of the liev. Jeremiah Harrison, vicar 
of (^tterick, and thev were married at Bar- 
wick-in-Elmet on 19 Feb. 1788. Ca]|pewa8 
frequently ill, and in 1791 he was seized by 
a paralytic stroke. This was followed )fr 
several other attacks of the same kind untu 
his strength failed, and he died at York on 
24 Dec. 1800. His eldest son, Joseph C^pe, 
M.D., died in February 1791 ; his younsest 
son, Robert Cappe, M.D., died on 16 Nov. 
1802 while on a voyage to L^hom. 

The writings of Cappe which appeared 
during his lifetime were comparatively un- 
important. Among them were sermons 
preached on the days * of national humilia- 
tion ' in 1776, 1780, 1781, 1782, and 1784. 
An earlier sermon delivered 27 Nov. 1757, 
after the victory of Frederick the Great at 
Rossbach on 6 INov. 1767, was of a very rhe- 
torical character; it passed through numerous 
editions, a copy of the sixth impression being 
in the Britisn Museum. In 1770 he pub- 
lished a sermon in memory of the Rev. Ed- 
ward Sandercock, and in 1786 he edited that 
minister's sermons in two volumes. In 1783 

, he printed a panophlet of * Remarks in Vin- 
dication of Dr. Iriestlev ' in answer to the 
* Monthly Reviewers.* * A Selection of Psalms 
for Social Worship ' and * An Alphabetical 
Explication of some Terms and Phrases in 

I Scnpture,' the first an anonymous publication, 
and the second * by a warm well-wisher to 
the interests of genuine Christianity,' were 
printed at York in 1786, and are known to 
have been compiled by Cappe. The second 
of them, it may be added, was reissued at 
Boston, U.S., in 1818. A work of a more 
elaborate character, entitled * Discourses on 
the Providence and Government of God,' was 
published by him in 1796 ; a second edition 
appeared in 1811, and a third in 1818. After 
his death his widow, in her regard for his me- 
mory, collected and edited many volumes of 
his discourses, consisting of (1) * Critical Re- 
marks on many important Passages of Scrip- 
ture,' 1802, 2 vols. ; (2) * Discourses chiefly 
on Devotional Subjects,' 1806 ; (3) * Con- 
nected History of the Life and Divine Mission 
of Jesus Christ,' 1809; (4) 'Discourses chiefly 
on Practical Subjects,' 1816. To the first and 
second of these publications she prefixed me- 
moirs of his life by herself, ana the second 
contained an appendix of a sermon on his in- 
terment by the Rev. William Wood, and a 
memoir from the ' Monthly Review,' Febru- 
ary 1801, pp. 81-4, by the Rev. C. Wellbe- 
loved. His widow, whose biography of Gappe 



IB fill! of interest, died suddenly 27 July 1B31, 
o^*d78. Sho WM tlienutliorof eevernltracts 
an ch»rity Bcliools {Diet, of Living Authon, 
p. 64). 

[dent. Mng. III. pt. ii. 1299 (1800). Ixii. pt. 
L 181-2 (1801); Butt's Life of PriBstley: Tnj- 
Ittf'i BiDgmphinLoodoBsiB, pp.2ia-12; Duvim's 
Torit Press, pp. 288, 274, 2nfi-8, 303 ; BeUhnm'B 
Theopliilus LiDdecy, pp. 223-37.] W. P. C. 

CAPPER, FRANCIS (1736-1818), di- 
'Tine,bora24 Aiig. 1735,BonafFrauclaCApp^r, 
aLonilo>ib«rri9ter,WBSe<)ucatedat Westmin- 
ater School, anclproceeded thence to Chriet 
ClinrcU, Oxford (17G3). He graduated as 
H.A- in 1760, being then in holy ordera and 
rector of Monk Sofiam (Octobw 1759) and 
EarlSohum (December 1769), Suffolk, bene- 
fices whidi Le retained until liia death. He 
had a local n^putation aa a faithful minialer 
ud an upright maglBtrate. HiA only con- 
tribution to literature was a small tract, en- 
titled 'The Faith and B*lief of every Sincere 
Chrii^tion, proved by reJerencea to Tarioua 
Texts of Holv Scripture,' Ipswich, 13mo, 
C»pi)eT died at Earl Soharo 13 Nov. 1818. 

[Gent. Mag. vol. lxiiriii.pl. ii. p. 476; Wolch's 
Alumni WeBtmonaBt. 3S0 ; familj memomnria.] 
C. J. B. 



CAPPEB. JAMES (1743-1925), meteo- 
rologist, S:c., younger brother of Francis 
Capp«r fq, v,], wBB bom 15 Dec. 1743, and 
ediicnted at Harrow School. He entered 
the Don. Enat India Company's aervice at an 
e»xVr age, and attained tne rank of colonel, 
boldinfrfiir some time the post of comptroller- 
generu of llie army and fbrti&cation accounts 
on tlie coast of Coromsndel. After retiring 
from military service he settled for some 
years in South Wales, taking' much interest 
m meteoimlney and a^culture. Removing 
to Norfolk, he died at Ditchingham Lodge, 
near Bungay, 6 Sept. IS'26. 

James Copper wrote : 1. ' ObBervations on 
the Panage to India through Egypt ; also to 
Vi«iuta though Constanlijiople and Aleppo, 
•lid from thi^jice to Bagdad, and across tlie 
Oreat Dxnert to Bassora, with occasional Re- 
mark* on thn adjacent Countries, and also 
SkiitrJwa of the different Routes,' London, 
17M, 4to, and 1786. 8vo. 2. ' Memorial to 
the Hnn- Court of Directoreof ihe East India 
Company,' 17(*5 (privatelypriiited). 3. 'Ob- 
■ervBtiona on the Winds and Moneoons, illus- 
trated with a chart, and accompanied with 
Kolu, tJivigraphical nod Meteorological,' 
Londcn, 11)01.410. 4. • Observations on the 
Cultivation of ^Vitste Lands, addressed to 
(lie p^nttfimcu and fanners of Olomorgnn- 
^B^'IiOndon, 180C 6. 'Meteorolc^caland 



Miscelloneons Tracts opplieable to Naviga- 
tion, Gardening, and Farming, with Calendars 
of Flora for Greece, France, England, and 
Sweden,' London, 1609, 8vo. 

C*prBB, LoriBA. (1776-1840), was a 
daughter of Colonel Jflines Capper, by his 
wife, Mary Johnson, and was bom 15 Nov. 
1776. She pubUshed in 1811 an 'Abridg- 
ment of Locke's Essay concerning the Human 
Understanding,' and died unmarried 25 Slay 
1840. She was buried at Rickmanaworlh, 
Hertfordshire, 



CAPPEE, JOSEPH (1727-1804), an ec- 
centriceharacter,wa8bominl727inObe8hire 
of parents in humble circumstances. At an 
early age be came up to London, and, after 
serving his apprenticeship to a grocer, set 
up a shop on his own account in the neigh- 
bourhood of Whiteehapel. Owing to the 
recommendations of his old master, Capper 
sooL prospered in his trade, and, having been 
fortunate in various speculations, eventually 
retired from husinese. Having piven up 
work, he spent several days in walking about, 
the vicinity of London, searching for lodg- 
ings. Stopping at the Horns, Kennington, 
one day, he asked for aljed.and, being curtly 
refused, determined to stop in order to plague 
the landlord. Though for many years he 
talked about quitting the place the next day, 
he lived there until the day of hJB death, a 
period of twenty-five years. So methodical 
were hia habits, that he would not drink his 
tea out of any other than hie favourite cup. 
In the parlour of the Horns he had his 
favourite chair. Ho would uot permit any 
one to poke the fire without his permission. 
He called himself the chotnpiim of govern- 
ment, and nothing angered nim more than 
to hear anyone declaiming against the British 
constitution. His favourite amusement was 
killing flies with bis cane, before doing which 
he generally told a story about the rascality 
of all Frenchmen, ' whom,' he said, ' I hate 
and detest, and would knock down juat the 
seme OS these flies.' Capper died at the Horns 
on 6 Sept. 1804, at the age of seventy- 
seven, and was buried in the church of St. 
Botolph, Aldgate. In his will, which was 
made on the back of a sheet of banker'a 
cheques, and dated five years before his death, 
he left the bulk of his property, then up- 
wards of 30,000;., among his poor relations, 
whom he always had refused to see in his life- 
time. To his nephews, whom he appointed 
his executors, he hequealhed 8,000/. threu per 
cents, between them. There appears, how- 
ever, tohave been considerable douht wbethei 



Cappoch 



26 



Caractacus 



this will had been properly witnessed or not. 
A curious portrait of Capper will be found in 
the third volume of Granger. 

[St. James's Chronicle, 13 Sept. 1804; 
Granger's New, Original, and Complete Wonder- 
ful Museum and 3Iiigazino Extraonlinary (1805), 
iii. 1692-6.] G. F. R. B. 

CAPPOCH, THOMAS (1718-1746). 
[See CoppocH.l 

CARACCIOLI, CHARLES (/. 1766), 
topographer, was master of the grammar 
school at Arundel in 1766, and was probably 
an Italian. In 1 758 appeared a work, anony- 
mous, 2 vols. * Chiron, or the Mental Opti- 
cian ' {Monthly Review, 1758, xviii. 276), of 
which Gough says that Caraccioli was the 
author {Bnt. To'pog, ii. 2^, note); and about 
two years later a 6rf. pamphlet, entitled * An 
llistorical Account ot Sturbridge, Bury, and 
the most Famous Fairs,' &c.,also anonymous, 
was published at Cambridge for the author, 
which is attributed in the British Museum 
Library Catalogue to Caraccioli. This is 
doubtful, as CaraccioU's own evidence shows 
that about 1758 and 1760 he did not know 
English. In 1766 Caraccioli published * The 
Antiquities of Arundel ' by subscription, and 
dedicated it to the Duke of Norfolk and to 
the Hon. Edward Howard, the duke's heir- 
apparent. In 1775 a Charles Caraccioli, 
gent., published the first volume of *The Life 
of Robert, Lord Clive,' not dated {Monthly 
lieviewy 1775, liii. 80), foUowing this in 1777 
by vols. ii. iii. and iv. of the same work {ib, 
1777, Iv. 480) ; and Gough identifies this au- 
thor with the subject of this article (supra). 
The * Montlily Review ' says of * Chiron,' * It 
is a poor imitation of " Le Diable Boiteux " ' 
(xviu. 276) ; Gough says of parts of * Arundel,' 
* They are most awkwardly contrived from 
printed books ' {Brit, Topog. li. 288) ; Lowndes 
says of* Clive,' * It is a confused jumble' {^BibL 
Manual, i. 369) ; and the * Montldy Re\'iew' 
says of it, * It is ill-digested, worse connected, 
and similarly printed.' 

[Monthly Review, xviii. 276, liii. 80, Iv. 480 ; 
Gough's Brit. Topog. ii. 288 ; Lowndes's Bibl. 
Man. i. 369.] J. H. 

CARACTACUS {Jl, 50), king of the 
Britons, whose name is the latinised form of 
the English Caradoc and theWelsh Caradawg, 
was one of the sons of Cuuobelin, king of the 
Trinobantes, whoso capital was the fortified 
enclosure known as * Camulodunum ' (Col- 
chester). As chief of the Catuvellauni he 
maintained an energetic resistance to the Ro- 
mans for nearly nine years. Our only au- 
thority for the campaign of Aulus Plautius 



(A.D. 43-7) is a naasaffe of Dio Gaasiofi. 
The Romans landea in tnree divisions in the 
spring of A.D. 43. Plautius met and defeated 
in successive battles Caractacus and hit 
brother Togodumnos, received the submisuon 
of the Dobuni (Gloucestershire), and, having 
established a stronghold in their country, 
pushed up the valley of the Thames, and 
came opposite once more to the enemy, wli» 
were on the north bank of the river. The 
Britons, thinking themselves safe under thB 
protection of the broad stream, took no pre- 
cautions, and were surprised by the Celtic 
troops of Plautius swimming the river to atp 
tack them. This advantage was further ex- 
tended by the exploits of a body of men which 
crossed the river under Vespaaian, the future 
emperor. A desperate engagement was fought 
the next day, in which the Britons made a 
brave stand, but were completely defeated. 
The site of this decisive battle is uncertain. 
Dr. Guest seems to have good reason for 

Placing it at Wallingford, on the Thames. 
Saractacus was doubtless the chief com- 
mander on the British side. The Britons re- 
treated eastward, and put the Lea between 
themselves and the Romans, who, following 
them, crossed the Lea, partly by swimming 
and partly by a bridge, and succeeded in en- 
gaging and inflicting a great slaughter upon 
them once more. In attempting to follow up 
the flying Britons the Roman army became 
entangled in the Essex marshes and sufiered 
severe loss. Plautius recalled his troops, and, 
settling them in some spot on the banks of 
the Thames, sent for the emperor Claudiuii 
in accordance with orders which he had re- 
ceived when starting for Britain. Dr. Guest 
thinks that this spot was the site of London, 
and that the Roman works were the begin- 
ning of our metropolis. Dio, however, seems 
to imply that the Romans were on the south 
bank of the river. When Claudius arrived 
with reinforcements and a troop of elephants, 
the Romans advanced northward, fought a 
successful battle with the Britons, and cap- 
tured Camulodunum. Claudius only remained 
seventeen days in Britain, and then hurried 
home to celebrate liis triumph, leaving Plau- 
tius to complete the conquest of southern 
Britain. Caractacus meanwhile seems to have 
retired with his followers to the neighbour- 
hood of the Silures (South AVales), and from 
his western fastnesses to have made frequent 
sallies to stop the gradually ext-ending Roman 
dominion. For wnen in a.d. 47 Ostorius Sca- 

Eula succeeded Aulus Plautius as pro-pnetor, 
e found Britain in a disturbed and dange- 
rous state. He seems to have taken measures 
at once to fortify the line of the Severn and 
Avon, but to have been recalled eastwird by 



Caractacus 27 Caradoc 

rolt of the Iceiii (Norfolk and Suffolk). I Some have even supposed that the Claudia 
ing put down this revolt, and having for- | of Martial's * Ej^igrams ' (iv. 13, xi. 53) and 
y established a Roman colony at Camu- of St. Paul's Epistle (2 Tim. iv. 21) was his 
num, he advanced once more to the west , daughter. The identity of the person alluded 
, 50). Caractacus had led the British ! to in these passages, and her connection with 
firom the extreme south, and was now in i Caractacus, are, however, entirely conjectural, 
territory of the Ordovices (Shropshire), | "With much more probability she has been 
somewhere in that district the final battle i regarded as the daughter of Cogidumnus. 

place in the summer of a.d. 50. The : [The ancient authorities for the history are 
3f the battle, like most matters connected . Tacitus, Ann. xii. 31, 37, Hist. 3, 46 ; Die Cas- 
i British history, is a subject of consider- sius, 60, 19-22; Eutrop. viii. 8 ; Suetonius, Claud. 
doubt. Discussions on this point will | 17, Vesp.4; Zonaras s XpoviiccJy, p. 186. A full 



)und in the books referred to at the end 
lis article. That which best suits the ac- 



account of the campaign of b.c. 60 will be found 
in Meri vale's History of the Romans under the 

alid in Carte's 
1748. A full 



It given by Tacitus is the hill caUedCaer , gmpire, vi. 224-46, ed. 1866, a 

td<5;, described by Camden. It is near History of Engird i. 100-11, ed. 

meeting of the Clun and Teme, and in discussion of difficult points in topography and 

J , TP x-iV ^ • J X r T> •4.- u history will be found in Dr. Guests Origmes 

den's time still retamed traces of British ^eltici, ii. 342. 394-400 ; see also Gough's Cam- 



fication. Caractacus posted his army on 



den,iii. 3, 13 ; Horsley's Monumenta Britannica, 




the Roman camp ran a river of unknown with choric odes, was published in 1769 by W. 
h. Ostorius was dismayed at the spirit Mason. A frigid poem, Caractacus, a Metrical 
m by the Britons ; but the veterans Sketch, was published anonymously in 1 832. For 
y forded the river. They were received a discussion of the question of Claudia, see Wil- 
liowers of darts; but at length forming a liams's Claudia and Pudens, 1848 ; Guest's Grig. 
tdo. they scaled the hill, tore down the bar- Celt. ii. 1 2 1 ; Conybeare and Howson's Life and 
les of stones, and dislodged the Britons. f.PJ^^l^^^LS^-,^^?^' "• ^^*' ^- ifj?*^ k^*™^'^ 
wife, daughter, and brothers of Carac- ^'^^°^,^°^\?Jf ' ^*"^' "• 669; Quarterly 
8 feU into the hands of the Romans. ^«^«^' ^^^^ ^^^^l ^- S- S* 

y, however, escaped to the mountains, CARADOC, Sir JOHN FRANCIS, 
imong them Caractacus himself, who took Lord Howden (1762-1839), general, who 
je in the country of the Brigantes ; but exchanged the name Cradock for Caradoc in 
• queen, Cartismandua, delivered him 1820,wastheonlysonof Jolm Cradock [q. v.], 
he Romans. He and his family were archbishop of Dublin, and was born at Dublin, 
to Rome, and made to take part in a , when his father was bishop of Kilmore, on 
of triumphal parade, which defiled past I 12 Aug. 1762. His father's political interest 
dius and Aerippina. Crowds came Irom was very great, and he rose quickly in the army, 
•arts of Italy to see the captive chief, i which he entered as a comet in the 4th regi- 
capture was declared in the senate to be ment of horse in 1777. In 1779 he exchanged 
onous as that of Syphax by Scipio, and to an ensigncy in the 2nd or Coldstream 
es by Paulus. The undaunted bearing guards ; in 1781 he was promoted lieutenant 
iractacus roused great admiration. He and captain, and in 1786 to a majority in the 
allowed to address the emperor, whom 12th light dragoons. In 1786 he exchanged 
iminded that * the resistance he had made into the 13th regiment ; in 1789 was promoted 
a large element in his conqueror's glory ; lieutenant-colonel, and in 1790 commanded 
if he were now put to death he would i the regiment, when it was ordered to the 
:lv be forgotten, but that if spared he West Indies at the time of the Nootka Sound 
df be an imperishable monument of the I affair. In 1791 he returned to England on 
rial clemency.* Claudius granted life to ' being appointed acting quartermaster-gene- 
md his family ; and here all that we know ral in Ireland, but in 1793 accompanied Sir 
ractacus ends, except the reflection which Cliarles Grey to the West Indies as aide-de- 
ras records him to have made on seeing camp, and was appointed to command two 
e : * That he wondered the Romans who picked battalions selected for dangerous ser- 
ssed such palaces should envy the poor vices. At their head he served throughout 
of the Britons.' Tradition, reproduced the campaign in which Sir Charles Grey re- 
e untrustworthy Welsh * Triads,' asserts duced the French West Indian islands, and 
he lived some four years after his cap- was wounded at the capture of Martinique, 
and that his children, becoming chris- j and at its conclusion received the thanks of 
, brought the christian faith into Britain, i parliament and was promoted colonel of the 



Caradoc 



28 



Caradoc 



127 th regiment. On 1 Oct. 1795 he was ap- 
pointed assistant-quartermasteivgeneral, and 
in 1797 quartermaster-general in Ireland, and 
on 1 Jan. 1798 was promoted major-general. 
In 1 798 his local knowledge was invaluable 
to Lord Comwallis in the suppression of the 
Irish rebellion ; he was present at the battle 
of Vinegar Hill and the capture of Wexford ; 
he accompanied Lord Comwallis in his rapid 
march against the French general, Humbert, 
and was wounded in the affair at Ballyna- 
hinch. He sat in the Irish House of Commons 
as M.P. for Qogher from 1785 to 1790, for 
Castlebar from 1790 to 1797, for Middleton, 
CO. Cork, from 1798 to 1799, and for Thomas- 
town, CO. Kilkenny, from 1799 to 1800. In 
parliament he always voted as a strenuous 
supporter of the government, and on 17 Feb. 
1800 he acted as second to the Right Hon. 
Isaac Corry, chancellor of the Irish exchequer, 
in his famous duel with Grattan in Phoenix 
Park. At the same time he stren^hened 
his political connections by marrying, on 
17 Nov. 1798, Ladv Theodosia Meade, third 
daughter of John, first earl of Clanwilliam. 

On the completion of the union he lost 
his seat in parhament, but was appointed to 
a command on the staff of Sir RBilph Abeiv 
cromby in the Mediterranean. He joined 
the army at Minorca, and received the com- 
mand of the 2nd brigade. He was engaged 
in the battles of 8, 13, and 21 March in 
Egypt, and after the death of Abercromby 
he accompanied General Hutchinson in the 
advance on Cairo as second in command. 
He was present at the surrender of Cairo, 
but then fell ill of fever, and was imable to 
co-operate in the reduction of Alexandria. 
At the conclusion of the Egyptian campaign 
he was appointed to the command-in-chief of 
a corps 01 seven thousand men, and ordered 
to reduce the island of Corsica. The peace 
of Amiens put an end to the expedition, but 
he was made a knight of the Bath, gazetted 
colonel of the 71st li^ht infantry, and on 
21 Dec. 1803 was appointed commander-in- 
chief of the forces at Madras, and a local 
lieutenant-general. 

His command at Madras was signalised by 
the mutiny at Vellore. Shortly after his ar- 
rival he had determined to reduce the chaotic 
mass of regulations for the army under his 
command into something like a regular code. 
In 1805 the new code was issued imder the 
sanction of the governor. Lord William Ben- 
tinck, and as it was particularly minute on 
questions of uniform it greatly offended the 
sepoys. The family of Tippoo Sahib took ad- 
vantage of the discontent to set on foot a con- 
spiracy among the Mahomedans in the native 
army, and on 10 July 1806 a mutiny broke out 



at Vellore. When the mutiny was suppressed 
there were mutual recriminations among the 
authorities at Fort George as to its cause ; 
Cradock threw the responsibility upon his 
subalterns for advising the changes, and on 
the governor for sanctioning them ; the go- 
vernor declared it was all the commander-in- 
chief's fault, and in the end, in 1807, the 
court of directors recalled both Cradock and 
Lord William Bentinck. 

The ministers at once appointed Cradock to 
the command of a division in Ireland, but his 
mind was * soured by ill-treatment * ( WelUnff^ 
imCB Supplementary DeepatcheSy v. 261), and 
he speedily resigned his division and applied 
for active service. In December 1808 Cra- 
dock (lieutenant-general on 1 Jan. 1805) ar- 
rived at Lisbon to take command of the troops 
which Moore had left behind him in Portu^raL 
Cradock's position was a difficult one. lie 
had not more than ten thousand men under 
his command, including the sick and the 
stragglers, and could not put more than five 
thousand in the field. His position was soon 
complicated by Sir John Moore's retreat ; the 
Portuguese regency wished him to advance to 
Oporto, and me people became furious and 
insulted and even murdered English soldiers 
in the streets of Lisbon. . Cradock knew that 
it was impossible to protect Oporto against 
Soult's victorious army, and prepared instead 
to defend Lisbon, threatened both by Soult 
and Victor in the east. Instructions arrived 
for him to prepare to evacuate Portugal, but 
the English ministers suddenly resolved to 
defend Lisbon at all hazards, ana Cradock was 
ordered to advance from Lisbon and take np 
a central position. He moved most unwil- 
lingly from Passa d'Arcos to Leiria, and there 
formed his small army in order of battle to 
await the advance of Soult from Oporto. Cra- 
dock had time to reorganise his army, and, 
after receiving reinforcements, had begun an 
advance against Soult, when the news arrived 
that the government had decided to promote 
him to the governorship of Gibraltar, and to 
supersede him in Portugal by Wellesley. Sir 
Arthur Wellesley did all he could to soften 
Cradock's disappointment, but to the end of 
his life he felt that he had been badl v treated. 
In 1809 he was appointed colonel of the 43rd 
regiment, and in 1811 was promoted to the 
governorship of the Cape of Good Hopei 
which, however, he only retained till 1814. 
In 1812 he was promoted general, but he re- 
mained a disappointed man. The Duke of 
Wellington took his only son upon his per- 
sonal staff, and through the duke's influence 
Cradock was created Lord Howden in the 
peenure of Ireland on 19 Oct. 1819. He 
was nurther &youred by the duke, and on 



Caradoc a 

7 Sept. 1831 he was created a peer of the 
United Kingdom as Lord Howden of How- 
den and Grimaton, co. York, on the corona- 
tion of William IV. Ha died at Orimston 
on 6 Julj 1839, in his seventy-ninth year. 



1807, papers preseoUd lo nirUaiiiflnt 1S13, and 
Wilson's oontinnatiDa of Mill's History of BriCiah 
India, vol. i. chap. ii. ; for bis services in Porta- 
gal see Napier's Peninsular War, book vi., 
chapa i. ii. iii., and Appendices 1, 2, 3, i, 5. S, S, 
and 9, which are of special value, as Lord Hot- 



H.M. t 

CABADOC, Sib JOHN HOBART, 
second Lobs Howdes (1799-1873), diplo- 
matist, only child of General Sir J. F. Cara- 
doc, lord Howden [q. v.] and Lady Theodosia 
Meade, third daughter of the nrst earl of 
Clanwilliam, was bom in Dublin on 16 Oct. 
1799. He was gaietted an ensign in the 
Grenadier guards on 13 July 1815, and was 
soon afterwards appointad an ^de-de-camp 
to the Duke of Wellington at Paris, where 
be remained until the disperaion of the army 
of occupation in 1818. On 22 Oct. 1818 [ 
lie was promoted lieutenant and captain in i 
tlie Grenadier guards, and then proceeded to 
Lisbon, as aide-de-camp to Marshal Beree- 
ford [q. v.], and in 1820 he was appointed 
aide-de-camp to Sir Thoman Muitland, the 
governor of Malta. In 1823 he exchanged 
to the 29th regiment, but in 1824 he deter- 
mined to enter the diplomatic service, and 
WBdappointedanattachi at Berlin. In 1825 
be joined the embassy at Paris, and on 9 June 
18^5 was gazetted to an unattached mmority 
inthearmy. In ld27bewa8orderedtoEgypt 
in order to try to prevent ilehemet Ali from 
intervening in the struggle between Turkey 
and Greece. In this he failed, and he was 
then ordered to join Sir Edward Codrington, 
the admiral commanding the Mediterranean 
fleet, as militair commissioner, with instruc- 
tions to force Mehemet Ali to withdraw the 
army with which he had occupied the Mo- 
rcA. At Nararino Caradoc was wounded, 
and he had afterwards no difficulty in secur- 
ing the withdrawal of the Egyptian army. 
In 1830 he was elected M.P. for Dundalk, 
but he did not seek re-election in 1631, and 
in 1832waaappoint«d military commissioner 
with the French army under Marshal 06- 
rard, which was besieging Antwerp. Here 
be was again wouudiS, and was made, foi 
his services, a commander of the Legion of 
Honour, and of the order of Leopold of Bel- 
gium. In August 1834 he was appointed 
militarv commissioner with the Spanish army^ 
which taadait«i«dPortiigal,aiid waapieeent 



Caradoc 



of Evora Monte, and in 
the same year he was attached to the Chris- 
tinist army in the north of Spain. He was 
present at the victories obtained over the 
Carlists at OloEagutia and Gollana, and was 
rewarded for his services with the order of 
San Fernando. In 1339 he succeeded his 
father as second Lord Howden, and returned 
to England. In 1841 he was promoted to be 
colonel in the army, and made an equerry to 
the Duchess of Kent, a post which he held to 
the end of his life. On 25 Jan. 1847 he waa 
appointed miiuster at Rio de Janeiro witb a 
special mission to the Argentine Confedera- 
tion and the republic of Uruguay, He was 
ordered to act in conjunction with Count 
Walewski, the French minister plenipoten- 
tiary, and also not to allow the Britisli fleet 
to do more than blockade Buenoa Ayres 
and Monte Video. When Count Walewski 
showed himself favourably inclined towards 
General Rosas, governor of Buenos Ayres, 
and when Rosas nimself paid no atteution to 
the ultimatum of the two powers, Howden 
decided to leave the questions at issue un- 
settled, and raised the blockade of Buenos 
Ayrea on 2 July 1847, and returned to Riode 
Janeiro. He remained in Brazil till 1860, 
when he was appointed minister plenipoten- 
tiary at Madrid, and in 1851 he was promoted 
major-general, and on L'J! Feb. I8ri2 made a 
K.C.li. At Madrid he was both wfll known 
and popular, and had thus a great advantage 
overhifl predecessor. Sir Ilenr^ Bulwer. In 
March 1858 he retired from ill-health, but 
without a pension, and was made, on hia re- 
tirement, a G.C.B. and a knight grand cross 
of the order of Charles III of Spain. In 
18-59 he was promoted lieutenant-general, 
in 1861 he retired from the army, and after 
the death of the Duchess of Kent in that 
year he lived in retirement until his death 
at Bayonne on 8 Oct. 1873. He married in 
January 1830 Catherine, daughter of Paul, 
I count Skavronsky, and great-niece of Prince 
Potemkin, but had no children, and on bis 
death the English and Irish baronies of 
Howden became extinct. 

I [None of the obituary notices on Lord How- 
I den are very full, but the details of his long and 
varied diplomatic career ant to be found ia the 
Foreign Office List for 1872; for his conduct lo 
the Itivor Plate atfair, see The Anglo-Freacb 
Intarvenlion in the River Plate considorwl, espe- 
I dally with reference to the negotiations of 1B47 
! under tbo conduct of Lord Howilen, b; A. It, 
I Pfail, London, 1847, and Two Letters addressed 
I to the Sight Honourable Lord Howdeu, on the 
I withdrawal of the British iDt«Tveution from the 
River Plate question, MoaU Video, 1847,] 



Caradog 30 Caradori-Allan 

CABADOG (d, laSo), a South Welsh ' remarkable way about 1120. The entries, 

prince, was a son of Khydderch, who had which had since 1100 been vexy copious, 

seized the government of Deheubarth, and suddenly became meagre, and the English 

died in 1031 at the hands of Irish pirates. ' sympathies of the earlier writer are ex- 

Caradog did not, however, manage to succeed changed for a patriotism that warmly favours 

to Rhydderch's power, which fell to Ilowel the Welsh. Buch partiality as that of the 

and Maredudd, sons of Edwin, who are said earlier writer would naturally come from 

to have brought the Irish against Uhvdderch. Caradog, and the dat« of the change of style 

War ensued between the new rulers and the increases the probability of it. 

sons of Rhydderch, and in 1032 the latter Caradop is also said to have written *Com- 

w«»re defeated in an action at Hiraethw\\ mentarii in Merlinum,' * De situ orbis,' and 

IVfore long the death of Maredudd restored * Vita Grildse' (B/iLEf Script. Brit Caf.-p, 196). 

victory to Caradog and his brothers (103o). Of the two former nothing is known. The 

Before the year was out Caradog himself old life of Gildas, published bv Mr. Stevenson 

was slain by the English. The event is not for the English Historical Society, is pro- 

not iced in the English chronicles. i bablv the latter work. Mr. Stevenson denies 

[Annales Cambrife, Rolls Series; Brut v Ty- l^^^' Caradog wrote it, but Mr. T. Wriffht 

wvsc.ffion, Rolls Series; Gwentian Brut (Caiii- (/?' 0.7. ^n^ii^., Anglo-Saxon period, p. 119) 

brian Arehffiolojrical Association).] T. F. T. j^as shown reasons for believing him to be 

. its author. The work is not of very greaX 

CARADOG OF Llancarv.vn (d, 1147 P), value or authenticity. 

Welsh ecclesiastic and chronicler, was, as P»t« ^a.vs that Caradog was an elegant 

his name indicates, probably either bom at P^et, and an eloquent rhetoncian as well as a 

or a monk of t he famous abbey of Llancarvan considerable historian. He says he flourished 

in the vale of Glamorgan. He was apparently «^^"t 1160. Gutyn Owain, a Webh bard 

one ofthe brilliant band of men of letters that a«d herald of the fifteenth century, says that 

gathered round Earl Robert of Gloucester, Caradog died m 1156. As Geoffrey of Mon- 

the bastard son of Henry I. Caradog was a mouth speaks in the past t^nse in his re- 




* The princes who afterwards ruled in Wales ^ is very improbable that he is the same 
I committed to Caradog of Llancarvan, for ^s contemporary Caradog the hermit. 




logical Association); Wright's Biog. Brit. Lit. 
tions from the beginning of really historical Anglo-Saxon period, p. 119, Anglo-Norman 
times do^vn to his own d&j. In its original period, p. 166-7 ; Stevenson's Gildas (Eng. Hist 
form Caradog's chronicle is not now extant. Soc.), Preface, pp. xxvii-xxx.] T. F. T. 

There exist, however, several Welsh chroni- 
cles going dowTi to much lator times than CARADORI-ALLAN, MARIA CA- 
Caradog's which profess to be derived from TERINA ROSALBINA (1800-1865), voca- 
tluit author's work. Tlie English compila- list, was bom at the Casa Palatina, Milan, 
tion kno^vn asPowel's * History of Cambria,' in 1800. Her father. Baron de Munck, was 
first published in 1584, also claims in its an Alsatian, who held a post in the French 
earlier part to be based on Caradog. That army. Her mother, whose maiden name was 
Caradog wrote a chronicle is clearly proved, Caradori, was a native of St. Petersburg, 
and there is therefore every probability that Owing to her father's death she was forced to 
the later chroniclers used his as their basis, adopt music as a profession, though the only 
It is, however, more likely that Caradog training she received was from her mother. 
wrote his work in Latin than in Welsh. After a tour in France and part of G^rmanyi 
The relation of Caradog to the early part of by the exertions of Count St. Antonio she 
the * Bruts ' must, however, be determined was engaged for the King's Theatre, where 
purely on internal evidence ; and for such she made her first appearance as Cherubino 
minute investigations a better editing of , in the * Nozze di Figaro,' 12 Jan. 1822. Her 
them is needed than has been given by Mr. ' salary for this season was 300/. In 1828 she was 
Williams ab Ithel in the Rolls edition of re-en^^aged, at a salary of 400/., and appeared 
the * Brut y Tywysogion.' Mr. Aneurin I as Viteuia in Mozart's ' Clemenza ai Tito,' 
Owen has pointed out, however, that the and as Carlotta in Mercadante's * Elisa e Clau- 
* Brut ' changes its style and tone in a very \ dio.' In 1824 she was married to Mr. £. T. 



Carantacus 



3^ 



Carantacus 



an, the secretary of the King^s Theatre, 
ere she was affain engaged at a salary of 
I/., singing with Oatalani in Mayr's * Nuovo 
latico per la Musica/ and (for her own 
efit) as Zerlina in ' Don Giovanni/ In 
following year her chief parts were Car- 
:a in Generali's 'L'Adelina/ Fatima in 
$sini's * Pietro TEremita/ and Palmida in 
yerbeer's * Orociato ; ' in the latter opera 

was associated with the sopranist Vel- 
[. In 1826 her salary, whicn had been 
ered to 400/., was raised to 700/., and she 
g with Pasta in Zingarelli's 'Homeo e 
dietta,' and as Hosina in ' II Barbiere di 
'iglia.' In the following year her salary 
3 1,200/., but this was the last season of 
Lian opera for some time, and Mdme. Cara- 
i- Allan went abroad. She sang in Venice 
830, but in 1834 reappeared in Italian opera 
London, and after 1835 remained in Eng- 
d until her death. She sang the soprano solo 
sic at the first performance of Beethoven's 
th symphony in England, 21 March 1826, 
I in the same year took part in the York 
ival. In 1826 she was at Gloucester, and 
1827 at the Leicester and Worcester fes- 
ils. In 1834 she sang in the Handel fes- 
il in Westminster Abbey, in 1836 at the 
nchester festival with Malibran, and in 
t6 took part in Mendelssohn's ' Elijah ' at 
production at the Birmingham festival. In 

latter years of her career she abandoned 

stage for oratorio and concert singing, 
nrhich she achieved great success. She re- 
d about 1845, and died at Elm Lodge, 
'biton, on Sunday, 15 Oct. 1865. Mme. 
•adori- Allan all her life enjoyed great popu- 
ty ; personally she was very accomplished, 
[ at the same time most amiable and un- 
cted. Her singing was more remarkable 
finish than for force ; her voice was sweet, 

deficient in tone, and it was said of her 
t * she always delighted, but never sur- 
fed,' her audiences. As an actress she 
J charming. There are portraits of her as 
usa in * Medea,* by Hullmandel after Hay- 

and in Ebers's * Seven Years of the King's 
jatre.' 

drove's Diet, of Music, i. 307 ; Lord Mounts 
^umbe's Musical Rominiscences of an Old 
ateur (ed. 1827), p. 165 ; Ebers's Seven Yecirs 
ho King's Theatre, pp. 143, 154, &c. ; Somer- 
House, i. 380, ii. 88 ; Orchestra for 21 Oct. 
5; Qnarterly Musical Magazine, 1825, p. 347 ; 
les, 19 Oct. 1865.] W. B. S. 

JARANTACUS, in modem Welsh 
RANNOG, Saiiit i^ft. 450), was, ac- 
iing to the life contained in Cotton. MS. 
pasian A. xiv. (printed by the Bollandists 
by Rees, * Camhro-Brit. Saints,' pp. 97- 
), the son of Cereticus (Ceredig), Jang of 



the region which has received from him the 
name of Cardigan. A Welsh document 
printed by Rees under the title * Pedigrees 
of Welsh Saints ' makes him not the son but 
the grandson of Ceredig, his father's name 
being given as Corwn. It is impossible to 
place any confidence in either of these state- 
ments, smce, although the name of Ceredig 
is doubtless historical, the traditions relating 
to him are for the most part obviously fabu- 
lous. Eight of the most celebrated of the 
Welsh saints are stated to have been his 
sons or grandsons, while the genealogy of 
many others is traced up to his eight brothers. 
Equally worthless is the assertion quoted by 
Colgan from the * Opuscula ' of St. Oengus, 
lib. 4, c. 6, that Carantacus was one of the 
fifteen sons (all bishops !) of St. Patrick's 
sister Darerca. The life above referred to 
(which the Bollandists remark is suspected 
of being largely fabulous) savs that the king- 
dom of Ceredig being invaded by the Irish, 
and the king being advanced in years and 
infirm, the nobles counselled him to abdicate 
in favour of his eldest son, Carantacus. The 
young prince, 'loving the heavenly king 
more than an earthly Kingdom,' took flight 
in order to escape the honour that was to be 
thrust upon him, and lived for some time as 
a hermit in a place which was afterwards 
known as Guerit Carantauc (possibly Llan- 
grannog in Cardiganshire). According to 
another version of this part of his story, the 
place of his retirement was a cave called 
Edilu. Here he gave himself to prayer and 
to the study of the scriptures. He after- 
wards passed over into Ireland, and became 
associated with St. Patrick in the evange- 
lisation of that country, having changed nis 
name to Cemnch or Cemath. In Ireland he 
was regarded with great reverence, and there 
were * many churches and cities ' named 
after him in the province of Leinster. 

It appears from this that the author of 
the * Life ' regarded Carantacus as the same 
person with St. Caimech, a bishop who is 
mentioned by the Irish hagiologists as a 
companion of St. Patrick, and as having as- 
sisted him in the work of editing the Brehon 
laws. The correctness of this identification 
derives some support from the fact that the^ 
festival of Caimech is placed in the Irish 
calendars under 16 May ; there being reason 
to believe that this was the date assigned 
by the British church to Carantacus. At 
Llangrannog, the church of which is dedi- 
cated to this saint, there is an annual fair 
on 27 May (i.e. 16 May old style) ; and at 
Crantock in Cornwall, where there is the 
same dedication, the village feast is on the 
Sunday nearest to 16 May. The Irish writers 



Carausius 



32 



Carausius 



themselves speak of Caimech as a Briton, but 
they make him a native not of Wales but of 
Cornwall. It appears likely, however, that 
this is merely a conjecture, founded on an 
etymological interpretation of the name 
Caimech, which MacFirbis regarded as mean- 
ing ' Comishman/ There seems on the whole 
to be no reason for disputing the identity 
of Carantacus and Caimech, or the correct- 
ness of the statement that he was bom in 
Wales. 

The ' Life * goes on to sajr that Carantacus 
returned to Wales, and again occupied for a 
time the cave which had formerly been his 
hermitage. The account of his miracles, 
and of ms intercoiurse with King Arthur, it 
is not worth while to reproduce here ; but 
there may possibly be some historical founda- 
tion for the statement that he founded a church 
at a place called ' Carrum,' and at another 
called ' Carrou ' (Caerau, Glamorganshire), 
near the mouth of the 'Guellit.^ After- 
wards, the biographer says, he went back to 
Ireland, and was buried at a place called, 
after his own name, * the city of Cemach.' 
The Irish writers call him Caimech of Tuilen 
(Dulane in Meath), and say that he is buried 
at Inis-Baithen in Leinster. MacFirbis says 
that he was Hhe son of Luithech, son of 
Luighidh, son of Talum/ &c. This pedigree 
may possibly be authentic, as the story of 
the aescent of Carantacus from Ceredig is 
obviously mere legend. 

A trace of a dedication to St. Carantacus 
seems to exist in the name of Carhampton 

i Domesday * Carentone ') in Somersetshire, 
jeland states that he saw there a ruined 
chapel of this saint, which had formerly 
been the parish church. Although Anglo- 
Saxon place-names derived fix)m names of 
saints are extremely rare, a few instances of 
them seem to exist in the west, near the 
borders of the native British territory, and 
there seems to be no ground for questioning 
the correctness of Leliand's derivation of the 
name. 

Carantacus or Caimech must be distin- 
guished from another Caimech [a. v.], whose 
festival is 28 March, and who died about 639. 

[Act. Sanctt. May, iii. 648 ff. ; Colgan, Acta 
Sanctorum Hibemise, i. 263. 473, 717-18 ; Rees's 
Cambro-Brit. Saints, 97-101, 396-401 ; Todd's 
Irish Nennius, ex, cxi ; Senchus Mor, i. xix, 16, 
17, ii. v-viii ; Martyrology of Donegal, p. 133 ; 
Stokes on the Calendar of Oengus, p. Ixzxvii ; 
Diet. Christian Biography, i. 383.] H. B. 

CARAUSIUS (245 P-293), Roman em- 
peror in Britain in the time of Diocletian and 
Maximianus Herculius, was a man of very 
humble origin, and is described by Aurelius 



Victor {De CeesaribuSf c. 39) as ' Menapis 
civis,' an expression which indicates the 
district about the mouths of the Scheldt and 
the Meuse as his native country (cf. Bu5- 
BITKT, Hist of Anc. Geog, ii. 135 ; G. Lokg 
in Smith*s Diet of Anc. Geog, s.v. *Me- 
na{>ii *). The portrait of himself on his coins, 
which were probably first issued in a.d. 287, 
is apparently that of a man of about forty. 
In his youth Carausius earned his livelihood 
as a pilot. In 286 he is mentioned as greatly 
distinguishing himself in the campaign of the 
Emperor Maximian against the Bagaudte — 
the revolted peasants and banditti of GauL 
About this period Maximian found it neces- 
sary to take active measures for suppressing 
the Frank and Saxon pirates who preyed upon 
the coasts of Britain and Gaul. Carausius 
was entrusted with the formation and com- 
mand of a fleet which was stationed at Ges- 
soriacum (Boulc^rne). But * the integrity of 
the new admirar (as Gibbon says), ' corre- 
sponded not with his abilities.' He allowed 
the pirates to sail out and ravage as usual, 
but when they returned he fell upon them 
and seized the spoil, reserving a portion — ap- 
parently a very considerable portion — ^forhis 
own purposes. Maximian at last gave orders 
that iiis admiral should be put to death. But 
Carausius was strong in the possession of the 
fleet, and had ample resources for corruption, 
and on becoming aware of Maximian's mten- 
tion, he promptly crossed the Channel with 
his ships, took possession of Britain, and 

* assumed the purple * (* purpuram siunpsit,' 
EiTTKOPius), A.D. 287. It nas been sometmies 
said that Carausius was ' the first count (^ 
the Saxon shore' ('comes littoris Saxonici'), 
a title only first made known to us in the 

* Notitia,' i.e. about the end of the fourth 
century A.D. If we assume with Guest 
{On'ffines Celtica, ii. 154), Freeman (Abr- 
man Conquest , ed. 1867, i. 11), Stubbs 
{Constitutional Hist of Eng, Library ed. 
1880, i. 67 note), and other writers (see 
BocKiNG^s commentary on cap. xxv. of his 
edition of the Notitia), that the duties of the 
J Comes ' were to protect * the Saxon shore,' 
i.e. the shore on either side of the Chann^ 
from the ravages of the Saxon pirates, we 
may, at any rate, safely affirm that Carau- 
sius was practically the first who was ap- 
pointed to perform the duties of the (Domes, 
liappenberg {Hist of Eng. under the AngUh 
Saxon Kings, 1845, i. 44 fl".; cf. Kbmblb, 
Saxons in England^ i. 12), who thinks that 
the ' comes littoris Saxonici ' was the com- 
mander of the Saxon colonists settled along 
the coasts of Britain and Gaul before 460^ 
considers that Carausius was practically the 
first ' comes ' in this sensei remarkiiig that 



if Gonnsius, ' himwU' a Germnn by 
lion, ft Menapinn bv birth . . . did not 
auue liu- BetuinK oi Lti« Saxons ulon^ thu 
Sttxon short-, iu Gaul ns well aa in Bnlsin, 
be U letat promoted it by bis alliance with 
them.' A Bubstanliall^ Blmilar view &s to 
Uie nUtions of Cnrausius mid the Saiona is 
t&keo hy SchniiDUUtn {SSur Oaehichte der 
Ervbenoig Ensland"* durrtt germanisrhe 
Srinmr, OiHtingen,18ib\mT\a( Let Anglo- 
Saxntu et Imirs petitt dfniert ditt Seeattru, 
BniaaelH, 1870, pp, 15 ff.), and Howorth 
{Joum. of Antknipaliigieat IiulihiU, Febru- 

MT, 1878). 

Msximiiui, deprired of his fleet, was unable 
topunae Carausius inuaedintely, but during; 
pwt of 2S8 and 289 confinw! hiniBelf to 
m&kiug nlaliorBte naval preparations. Carau- 
■ins meanwhile was suppoBed to be trem- 
bling for his Mfety. ■ Qtud nunc animi habet 
Ule ptnto P ' asks the courtly panegyriat of 
ftlkxunian in nu oration delive^ at Trdves 
on 21 April 289 : ' jEdificatie sunt ornatie- 
qlie pulcQerrimffi classes cunctissimul amni- 
ons oceanntn petiturEB'(!iLAUBBTnri Paitey. 
Max. JSerr. diet. c. 12). The new fleet was 
bronehtinto action— probably shortly after 
this date — but its half-tramed seamen proved 
to b« no mnlch for the sailors of Carausius, 
who had built a number of additional ships 
after the Roman model. Caraitsiuawns,more- 
OTer, an experienced soldier (ECTKOP. ix.23). 
On landing in Britain in 287 he hod won 
over to hia aide (probably by bribery) the 
Bonun legion stationed in the island, and he 
proceeded to organise an army by adding to 
the l^on some companies of foreign mei^ 
cenalies and even mercliBnts from Oaul : the 
prospect of spoil made his service attractive, 
ttad 'barboriaris' alsojoined theranks. Part 
oFhis fieetheld possession of Boulogne, The 
eoDtest between the rivals seems lo have 
lasted eome time, the advantage being alwaya, 
a^arently, on the side of Carausius, and at 
lut in :K<I Msximian was ^ad to come 
to terms with the usurper. £utropiiis (iz. 
23) only records the bare fact that peace was 
brooght oboul ; but from certain cotus issued 
by ftiBuaius, evidently at this period, it 
would appear tlist hv was actually acknoW' 
Iedg«d by Maximian and Diocletian as a 
"r> Ihe empire. Carausius, probably 



pftrtnpnr 
nom thei 



tnit on the coins which he issued, and had 
atyted himself 'Imperator,' 'Cassur,' 'Au- 
gustus,' adding the usual imperial epith"ts 
of ' KuH " and ' Felix ; ' but he now Issued a 
r«m«rkablc cupper coin (a specimen is in the 
British Muspum), on the obverse of which 
lie placed the three heads of Diocletian, 



MuximisD, luid himself, accompanied by ths 
inscription oauatsus et fuvtrbs sti. Tho 
reTersi« bore the inscription P*3 avgco (Le. 
' trium Augustorum ') and a fcroala per- 
Boolfication of peace, holding olive-branch 
and sceptre. On a fowothercoins of Carau- 
sius, which must also belong to this period, 
the legends have reference to three AugustI, 
and not merely— as at first — lo a single Au- 
gustus (Carausius himself). But tho union 
of the imperial ' brethren ' was soon to be 
dissolved. In 292 Diocletian and Maxi- 
mian invited Oalerius and Constantius Clilo- 
rus to share in the growing cares of empire, 
as CfBsara. The defence of Gaul and Bri- 
tain was entrusted to Constantius ; and he 
proceeded to strike a blow at the power of 
Carausius by an attack on Boulogne. He 
besieged the town both by land and sea, 
obstructing tho mouth of the harbour by a 
mole. The garrison surrendered, and Con- 
stantius was making other preparations for 
the recovery of Britain, when he received 
the welcome news that Carausius had been 
assassinated by his chief minister, Altectus, 

293. [The exact date and sequence of 
the events in the life of Carausius are not 
absolutely certain ; the chronology that has 
here been adopt«d is that of Clinton {thstt 
Jfont.) According to other modem critics 
(see PjitJLY, Meat-Encydop.) the reign of 
Carausius lasted from 286 to 293, and the 
peace with Maximian and Diocletian wea 
made, not in 290 but in 292. The date, 

294, adopted by Gibbon (also in Manitm. 
Hilt. Bntan. and elsewhere) for the death 
of Carausius is erroneous (se« W. SMim'a 
note in the Decline and Fall, ii. 71).] 

The brief notices of Aurelius Victor and 
Eutropiu5,8Dd the necessarily unsatisfactoiy 
statements of the Panegyrists, throw little 
light upon tho charnclor and motives of Ca- 
rausius. He is contemptuously epoken of as 
the ' pirate ' or tho ' pirate chief (' archl- 
pirata ), and bis avarice and faithlessness are 
not unjustly stigmatised. All the ancient 
wrltera, however, recotmise his abib'ty in 
nautical and military a^rs. His motive in 
seizing Brit&in and his position as ' impera- 
tor ' have been discussed by several modem 
writers. ' Under his command," says Gib- 
bon, ' Britain, destined in a future age to 
obtain the empire of the sea, already aa- 
surnvd its natural and respectable station of 
a maritime power.' Carausius certainly re- 
lied upon bis fleet, and ho may possibly, in 
the first instance, have Hed to Britain merely 
R.S to aharbour of refuge, without havingany 
ultimate designs upon the empire, but, in 
any cose, it Is evident that he did not rest 
content with being a mere 'king' of Britain. 



Carausius 



34 



Carausius 



Mr. Freeman {Norman Conquest y 1867, i. '■ 
153 ; 1877, i. 139) well points out that Ca- ' 
rausiiis, Maximus, and the other so-called 
tyrants or provincial emperors, did not claim 
any independent existence for any part of ; 
the empire of which they might have gained 
possession. 'They were pretenders to the 
whole empire if thev could g^t it, and they 
not uncommonly di^ get it in the end.' * Ca- 
rausius, the first British emperor, according 
to this theory, held not only Britain but part 
of Gaul.' * Britain and part of Gaul were 
simply those parts of the empire of which 
Carausius, a candidate for the whole empire, 
had been able actually to possess himself. 
At last Carausius was accepted as a colleague 
by Diocletian and Maximian, and so became 
a lawful Caesar and Augustus.! * Allectus 
was less fortunate; he never got beyond 
Britain, and, instead of being acknowledged 
as a colleague, he was defeated and slain by 
Constantius.' 

Although Carausius ruled in Britain from 
287 to 293, no lapidary inscriptions or other 
monuments of his reign have at present 
been discovered, with the exception of the 
ffold, silver, and copper coins which he issued 
m large numbers. The testimony of these 
coins confirms, and in some points supple- 
ments, the scanty information derived from 
the literary sources. Gibbon, in a note in the 
' Decline and Fall,' observes that ' as a g^reat 
number of medals (i.e. coins) of Carausius are 
still preserved, he is become a very favourite 
object of antiquarian curiosity, and every cir- 
cumstance of his life and actions has been 
investigated with sagacious accuracy.' How- 
ever, until the latter part of the present 
century the coins of Carausius were always 
considered by numismatists as rarities, and 
Gibbon had only before him the learned but 
fanciful work of Dr. Stukeley — ^possibly also 
that of Genebrier — who made Carausius a 
Welshman and gave him for a wife a lady 
named Oriuna — a name which he arrived 
at by misreading the word Fortuna on one 
of the emperor's coins. Even now, no com- 

Slete list of the coins of Carausius brought 
own to the present date is in existence, 
though a very large number may be found 
engraved in the ' Monumenta Ilistorica Bri- 
tannica ' and in Roach Smith's ' Collectanea 
Antiqua.' Cohen, in his * M6dailles imp6ri- 
ales' (first edition), gives a description of six 
varieties in gold, forty-six in silver, and 242 
in copper; but since this list was compiled, 
about 1861, numerous additional specimens 
have been discovered, especially in copper. 
In particular, the very large hoard of coins 
unearthed by Lord Selbome in 1873 at 
Blackmoor in Hampshire contained 645 coins 



of Carausius, which included 117 varieties 
not described by Cohen. Among the nume- 
rous localities where coins of Carausius have 
been discovered may be mentioned London 
(some of the coins were found in the bed of 
the Thames) ; Richborough ; Rouen (where 
a hoard of late third-century coins, disco- 
vered in 1846, contained 210 of Carausius); 
St. Albans, Silchester, Strood, Wroxeter, 
and different parts of Gloucestershire. Car 
rausius struck his money at London, and at 
a mint indicated by the letter ' C,' probably 
Camulodunum (Colchester) ; a number oif 
his coins give no indication of their place 
of mintage. Rutupiie and Clausentum nave 
by some been suggested as mints ; but this 
is doubtful. De Salis {Num., Chron. n. 8. 
vii. 57) would assign to 287-90 P those coins 
of Carausius which are ' without mint-marics 
and mostly of inferior workmanship ; ' and to 
the years 290 ?-3 the j?old and copper coins 
with the mint-mark of London, and the cop- 
per with the mint-mark of Camulodunum : the 
' silver coins with the exergual mark BSS pro- 
bably belong to this period and to the mint of 
London.' It is not improbable that Caransiiii 
struck coins with his name and titles even 
before setting out from Boulogne for Britain. 
There are two sets of coins which some wri- 
ters have proposed to attribute to this period : 

(1) a series (from the Rouen find) bearing a 
portrait of Carausius differing from that on 
the coins undoubtedly struck in Britain, and 

(2) a number of specimens ('from the Bliek- 
moor and Silchester hoards) which are le- 
struck on money of previous emperors (Gal- 
lienus, Victorinus, Tetricus, &c.) Not having 
a supply of metal ' blanks ' reaay to hand at 
Boulogne, Carausius mav very well have 
adopted the expedient of using the oojiiper 
coins which he found already in circulation, 
stamping them over a^in from dies e&* 
graved with his own devices and inscriptioDB. 
The coins of Carausius as a whole are &iily 
well executed for the period, though some 
of the legends are blundered ; they hardly, 
however, warrant the assertion of GKblxni 
that their issuer ^ invited from the continent 
a mreat number of skilful artists.' The legend 
of the obverse is almost invariably imp. [or 
IMP. c] CARA.VSIV8. P. F. Avo. In rare instanoei 
I or TS — ^probably for ' Invictus ' — is added. 
' Carausius ' may, from the evidence of the 
coins, be considered as the true form of ths 
emperor's name ; the author of the Epitome 
of the ' De Cfesaribus ' of Victor calls him 
'Charausio,' and in mediseval and other 
writers he is given such curious names as 
' Carat ius,' ' Crausius,' &c. (see a list of thaw 
in Genebbibb, pp. 5, 6). Nearlyall modeni 
writers — StukeL^ ; Pauly, ^ RealHBnejrclop. ;' 



Smith, ' T>ict. CIiMs Biog-!' Miuldcn, 'Hand- 
book lif Koman Coiua ' — liavii stated that be 
OMUinefl the niunes of MorrMiB Aiuelius Va- 
lerius, nuntia alrtody borne br the Emperor 
KliuitniAn ; but. the only autoority for tliia 
appmrB (o be the inscription — very possibly 
BliuvB() — on a coin K&rrwl (o bj Eekhel 
{Doft-Nun. IW. viii. 47). Two specimens in 
thn Hiint*ir cnllection at Glasgow (Cohes, 
Mfd.m^. vol. v.,-Carausius,'No9. 192,199} 
■ire.bciweTer,tuti(l to retid H[arcu8j caravsits. 
The obversf types of the coina of Curausius 
conniBt of n j>ortrait of himself which does 
not apjtvar lo he much con vent ionuUaed j it 
is that of a sturdy Boldior with a slight touch 
of brnl«Lty. The head is in proflo and is 
wlJiernidiBt« or wreathed with laurel. Some 
■pecinienB with the lej^end vtstth CAitAVBi[i] 
dUplojr * nearly bttlf-lenpih figureof the em- 
peror in armour, helmeted and radiate, and 
witil a ahietd on the left ann, and in the right 
a javplin. A unique copper coin found at 
W toi..ter, and now in tie British Museum 
(It Smith, OilUcl. Antigua, ii. 153, 154, 
wilJi cHfrn ving), sbowa Ibe head of Corausius 
fnll-faw and bare 1 the wirkmanahip ismor 
carvful and the face bos a look of grvati 
bimLniity than in the profile represent ationa. 
ICiitoriCAl deductions from the reverse 
^yV«s of Camiisiusmiui be made with caution, 
lor the Ttuuxm thai many of tliese types are 
aion> or less commonplace, and are not pecu- 
liar In the British potentate. But a certain 
nnmbiiTof types were undoubtedly orig-inated 
Igr Caraiisiua himself, and others seem to be 
hiTforicnlly ftieniflcant. On one important 
— - ■■:,■ r,irausiiis represents himself as 

' 't for ' deliverer welcomed by 
■■ "tands holding a trident and 

, ,jiiL lo the new emperor; the 

..... -.awTATB ran.' On another 

iiccimtQ, null the type of tie Wolf and 

Twina, tlie ' Romnnorum Renovatio ' is pro- 

eUinicit: or, again, tJie 'SiocuU Felicitos' 

•nd \h» ' LibenilitBs Augusli.' Some of the 

typM and legimdB are of a warlike nature, 

«.g. Iliit ' Mars Ultor,' the ' Concordia MiU- 

huBi'tbc 'Fides Mililum,' and on varioua 

paces Ihn namua of Itoman legions are re- 

cardcd. Tyjies relating \/0 nautical matters 

w« fame what rart'; Neptune occurs on several 

ooina, wad one of tlie types is n galley with 

Itirfi'i*. .TiipiiiLT. and more eepecially the 

' I I'j be (he divinities usually 

:ri>u«ius. There are also a 

f or less hackneyed types, 

■rill,' ' rnx,' 'Moneta,' 'For- 

....... ' ,'. l.-aiia.' It has been supposed 

ibbi iLv (n^ueut OLrurrcnce of the 'Victoria' 
«»d eh* ' Pux ' (eipociBlly of the latter) is 
<luK la >ctaAl HTUiU in Iheiuign of Carftusiiu, 



such as a victory over or a peace concluded 
with liie Caledonians; but these conjectures 
seem somewhat haiardous. 

Of the early life of Allbctus {SSOF-SOe), 
the successor of Corausins, nothing what- 
ever is recorded, though the portmit on hts 
coins enables us to select 360 as the ap- 
proximate date of his birti. He is first in- 
troduo^ to us HI the light^hand roan of 
Caraiisius, but, bovine committed certain un- 
{Nirdonuble uRunces, tie assassinated Carau- 
siiis and seixed the government. His reign 
!fiflt*J for about three years only (399- 
296). liurbg its progress he isBued a good 
many coins, minting, hke his predecessor, at 
London and Coicbesler. According to Cohen 
(whose esliroate, however, does not take itc- 
count of coins discovered since IfiBl), there are 
ten varieties in gold and fifty-«ix in copper: 
the so-called silver coins appear \o be only 
copperwashedwithsilver. The obverses dis- 
play the head of Allectus in profile, laureate, 
AUectiiB takes the imperial style IMP. 0. 
ALLKOTVB. P. F. ATG. ITia reverse types are 
for the most part similar to those of lifB pr^ 
decessor ; it is noticeable, however, that the 
I type of the galley with rowers now becomes 
extremely common, as if Altectus wished to 
direct attention to his maritime resources. 
His enemies, however, were maturing tbeip 
plana, and by 396 Constantius had his fleet 
ready for action. To distract the attention 
of Allectiis, Constantius divided it into two 
squadrons, one under his own command, 
stationed at Boulogne, the other, at the 
mouth of the Seine, under tJie command of 
the prMlorion pmifect, Asclepiodotus. As- 
clepiodotus sailed out first, and under cover 
of a fog passed unobserved by the British 
fleet, ■n'hich lay off the Isle of Wight, and 
effected a landing. Allectus immediately 
hastened westwaid, Witi men wearied by 
forced marches he encountered Asclepiodotus, 
and was defeated and slain a.d. 396. I^nrd 
Selbome conjectures that the engagement 
took place in or near Woolmer Forest in 
Hampshire, and be supposes that it was just 
before the fight that. AUectue or some of his 
officers hurriedly buried for safety the enor- 
mous ' Blockmoor hoard,' consisting of more 
than 29,788 coins, among which were ninety 
of AUectus. 

Shortly Bft«r the battle Constantius him- 
self arrived, and Britain was restored lo the 
empire in the tenth year of the usurpation of 
Camusius and Allectus. 

[The ancient nulhoritiosaro: A nreliua Victor, 
De CKsarihuB, c. 39, and the Epitome «f tbe 
Do C'lEs, c. 40 : Eutropins. Hislor. lioni. Brov. 
lib, ii. capp. II. 23 1 the Paneg^i?U9 Maii- 
niiuioHen:. dietiu,BBpp. II, 12, and UiePaneg. 



Carbery 36 Cardale 

Genethliacos Maxim. Aug. diet, c 19, of the Brother-in-Law, a comedy/ Lee Priory Pri- 
M>-€alled Mamertinos ; Eumenius, Fianegyr. Con- yate Frees, 1817. 9. * A Dissertation on the 
Btantio Cesari, capp. 6, 7, 12 ; Paneg. Constan- Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, or the Re- 
tino, c. 6 ; Oroeius, Histor. lib. vii. c 26 « futation of the Hoadlyan Scheme of it,' 4th 
Beds Hist. Eccl. lib. i. ©ip. 6. Among mo- ^ igoi. iq. ' The Uses of the Athanasian 
dem writers see specially : Clinton. Fasti Ro- q^^^ expkined and vindicated, a sermon/ 
mani. i. 330-6; Gibbon, l)eclme .and 1^ all (ed. j^^^ ^ \f orcest^r, 1825. 11. ' A Letter to 
W. Smith) 11. 70-3 ; J. Roulc« in Bio^phie ^ ^^^ ^ Well ngton on the Reasonable- 
Nat, do Belgique ; Monumonta Hirtonca Bntiin- ^ r r«u --1. to^*'^ > IQQA lo «i 

nica (Chronologii^al Abstract and Excerpta do '^^ ^ ^. ^^^J H' 'V' l^il^.^n^t 
Britannia) ; Pauly. Roal-Encvclo|vadic.s.y. * Ca- Dissertation on the i^tiquities of the Pnory 
rausius ;* Ihiruy.Hist. des liomains, vi. 635-6, <>* ^«^at Malvern, 1834. 
640, 649, 660 ; the monograpb* of W. Stukeley \ [Gent. Mag. 1844, xxii. 661-2 ; Brit. Mm. 
(Medallic History of Caniusi us. London. 1767-9, ' Cat.] F. W-t. 

4to), andGenobnor (Uistoiro de Caransius, Paris, 

1740, 4to) are of verjr littlo value. For the coins, I CARDALE, JOHN BATE (1802-1877)* 
see: Monumenta Hist. Brit, plates v-xiv. (Ca- first apostle of the Catholic Apostolic church, 
rausius), xv-xvii. (Allectus) ; C. Ronch Smith, ,,^g ijom at 28 Lamb's Conduit Street, Lon- 
Collectiinoa Antiqua, ii. 163, iv. 125.216, v. 152. ^jj^^ ^^ 7 Nov. 1802. His father, William 
184. 241, yi. 130. vii. 223 ; Cohen. MMaillos Cardale, a solicitor, of 2 Bedford Row, Lon- 
impenales(1861).T. 601-39, and vu 360-2; don, possessed considerable property ; he was 
Akerman.Coin8ofthoR«mmiisrt»latinptoBntain i__.v:^ i- t«i«. T7-7 ^r.A A^ .4^ TTa«i*n. 
(1836). pp. 47-69. and his Doscriptivo Catal. of ^™ .^", iio-^v^^- ■^" ^' ^^^^f^, ^L v^ 
Rom, Colli (1834). ii. 163-76; Numismatic Chro- fj^^e m 1823 having mamed, in 1^, Ma^ 
niclo (old series), reff. in Index ii. in vol. xx. ; Anne Bennett. The son, who entered Rugby 
(now series) i. 86. 161. 163. ii. 41, v. 108. vii. J^hool on 9 ^ov. 1816, was articled to his 
67, xiv. 87, xvii. 139, xix. 44. and p. 18 (Pro- father in 1818, and admitted a sobcitor m 
ceedings) ; Journal of the Archaeol. Ass«>c. reff. Hilary term in 1824. For many years he 
in Index to vols, i-xxx. ; Archnol. Journal, i. was the head of the firm of Caraale, Ilifie, 
183, ix. 194; various reff. in Arohieologia of & Russell, of 2 Bedford Row, the solicitors 
Soc. of Antiq.; British Museum Collection. Most to Grays Inn and Rugby School; but in 
of the above sources also give infonmition al>out 1^;^ he retired with a competence to devote 
Allectus.] W. W. jiia energies to other purposes. In 1880 the 

minds oi many people were much exercised 

CARBERT, Earl of. [See Vaughax.] regarding a religious movement known is 

I ' speaking in the spirit in the unknown 

CARD, HENRY ^1779-1844), miscella- tongues,' which first manifested itself at Fer- 
neous writer, bom at I'^ham, Surrey, in 1779, nicarrv, Roseneath, Scotland. In September 
was educated at Westminster School and Cardale, with other persons, went to Soot- 
Pembroke Collegi*, Oxford, where he entered land to examine for himself into the truth of 
in 1797. lIeprocoode<lB.A.18(X),M.A.18a">, the ri»ports. He returned to London fiilly 
B. and D.l). 1823 {Cat.qf Oxford Graduates), ' convinced as to the reality of the 'spiritual 
In 1816 he was presented to the vicarage of ffifts,' and in October 1830 opened his own 
Great Malvern, Worcestershire, and in 1832 house for weekly prayer meetings for the* out- 
to that of Dormington, Herefordshire. He pouring of the spirit.^ At length, on 30 Anril 
was elected a fellow of the IU>yal Society I 1831, the first case occurred in London. Mrs. 
2 March 1820 (i?oya/&>«>/vXi>^*o/'0>MMct7, ' Cardale * spoke with great solemnity in a 
&c.), and was also fellow of the Society of , tongue and prophesied,'^and others soon after 
Antiquaries and of the Roval Historical ' not only spoke out also ' sang in the spirit.' 



Society. He died at Great Malvern 4 Aug. 
1844. 

He wrote: 1. 'The Historv of the Revo- 
lutions of Russia,' 2nd ed. 1804. 2. < His- 
torical Outlines of the Rise and Establish- 
ment of the Papal Power,' Margate, 18(U. 
3. ' Thoughts on Domestic or Private Edu- 
cation,' 1807. 4. * The Reign of Charle- 
magne, considered chiefly with reference to 



These events were notified to Baptist Koel, 
the minister of St. John's, Bedford Row, with 
a request for his sanction to the proceedings. 
This he not only refused to give, but aba 
preached publicly against the gifts. Cardale 
and his family soon after commenced attend- 
ing the ministration of Edward Irving [q. v.] 
in the Caledonian chapel ; special services wers 
held in this chapel, where soon after Edward 



Religion, Laws, Literature, and Manners,' i Oliver Taplin began 'speaking in the spirit in 
1807. 5. ' Literary Recreations,' Liverpool, I an unknown tongue.' Irving at first doubted 
2nd ed. 1811. 6. ' Beauford, or a Picture ' about permitting these utterances, but found 
of High Life, a novel,' 2 vols. 181 1. 7. ' An j it useless to offer any opposition. On Sunday, 
Essay on the Holy EuchariBt/ 1814. 8. 'The 16 Oct. 1831, at the morning service, in the 



ptewnce of upwards of fiAeen hundred people, 
Miss QrUJ ' spoke in an imknonn lonEue,' and 
CBiUii^d a violent exci ttmeut. Gardale defended 
Irvine befa»^ the London presbytpry of the 
Scotch church, and aAer the verdict against 
mm iirduiupd him in Newnjsn Street, 6 April 
18S.1, to be the ■ angel' or mini8t«r of that 
^kp^l. At Hrst the sect called themselves 
the Chiirch or the Catholic Church, but the 
nune was afterwards changed to tbe Catholic 
Apo«tolic Church ; the general public, how- 
ever, called it tbe Irrincite Ohurch, and in 
Bome books it is called the Millennium Church. 
Edward Irving neither had nor claimed to 
have anj band in its foundation. Cardale 
cnt«red on his office of apostle at Christmas 
1632, and for nearly a year was th^ sole rp- 
liresentattve of tbe twelve apostles. After 
Mr. H. Vmnunond'a appointment as an 
woelle, the seat of the central nmni^ement 
01 thechnrch was fixed at .\lbury in Surrey, 
where he built a cathedral with a chaptt't- 
house annexed. On 14 July 1835 the twelve 
■pnstlee, accompanied by seven prophets, re- 
tired tn AJbnry, and spent two years and a 
Iiair in conauliation. In 1^*38 the parts of 
the world over which the church proposed to 
itinemtu were divided into sections named 
ait«r tba tribes of Israel, England was 
calleid the tribe of Judah, the seat of apo- 
■tolic government, and was assigned to Car- 
dale, 'the pillar of the apostles.' Each of the 
UHMtles then entered on hia special jonmey, 
Cardole remaiuine in England to overlook 
his tribe, and to be a centre of communica- 
tion between the dispersed labourers. In 
8eptt>mber 1 843 a liturgy was adopted which 
wan in great part the work of Cardale, and 
WW compiled from ' the law of Moses,' 
■jtd from thti liturgies of tbe Greek, Latin, 
and AngUcon churches. Cardale continued 
Jbr many years vrorking hard for the benefit 
ef ibo rbnreb, and visiting the congrejirations 
thronghoutthe United Kingdom. On 14 July 
1877, on attending the forty-second comme- 
moration of the 'Separation of tbe Twelve ' 
in Onrdon Sq iiare, he was taken ill, and after 
tmji^ removed to his bouse, Cooke's Place, 
AJbnry, died on Wednesday, 13 July 18T7, 
and wa« biirimt in Albury churchyard. Tbe 
loss to bis cburcb can hardly be estimated. 
His etitngth of will, calmness and clearness 
•T Judgment, and kindness of heart and 
Banner, added to the prestige of his long rule, 
made hitn a tower of strength. He was in- 
de&tiffnhle in labour, of which be nccom- 
plishw R \iat amount ; besides Latin and 
tirmk. liP WHS a good French and German 
kchnUr, nod Ute in life learnt Danish. He 

Bi to have been quite sincere in his 
and confident in the fulfilment of his 



expectations. Besides being an apostle, be 
was, like Henry Dnimmnnd, also a prophet. 
He married on 9 Sept, 1824 Emma, second 
daughter of Thomas William Plummer of 
Clapham. She died at Albury 31 March 
]873. 

He was the author of the following works, 
all of which are BnonymouB,and tbe majority 
of which were printed for private circulation 
only; 1. 'A Manual or Summary of Special 
Objects of Faith and Hope,' 1843. 2. ' The 
Confeasion of the Church,' 1848. 3. ' Read- 
ingsonthe Liturgy ,'vol.i. 1849-61, and vol. ii. 
1863-78. 4. ' A Discourse dBliven«d in the 
Catholic Apostolic Church, Gordon Sqnsr^ 
on tbe occasion of consecratiiur tbe Altar and 
opening the Church for Public Worship,' 1 8S3. 
6. ' Letters on certain Statements contained 
in some late Articles in the "Old Church 
Porch," entitled Irvingism,' 186C ; reprinted, 
1867. 6. ' The Doctrine of the Eucharist aa 
revealed to St. Paul, 1856 ; ' second ed. 1878, 
7. ' Three Discourses on Miraoles and Miracu- 
lous Power,' 1866. a'ADiscouraeonTithes,' 
1S58. 9, 'TbeUnlawfulnessofMarriagewith 
aDeceasedWife'sSiBter,'la69. 10. '^finistry 
on AH Saints,' 1859. 11. ' Notes on Reve- 
lations,' 1860. 12. ' Two Discourses at AI- 
buiy on certain Errors,' 1860. 13. ' The Duty 
of a. Christian in tbe Disposal of his Income,' 
1863. U. 'The Certainty of Final Judg- 
;,' 1864; second ed.l8tf4. 15.'TheCha- 



jter of onr present Testimony and Work,' 
86. IS. ' Notes and Ministiy oi "'" 
Coadjutor,' 1865. 17. ' Remarks t 



1866. 



Office of 
the Re- 
publication of Articles from tbe " Old Church 
Porch," ' 1867. 18. 'ADiscourseon theReoI 
Presence,' 1867; seconded. 1868. 19, 'Re- 
macka on the Lambeth Conference,' 1868. 
20. 'TheChurchinthiBDispensation,anEleo- 
tion,'186a 21. 'ADiscourseon Holy Water, 
and on the Removal of the Sacrament on the 
Lord's Day,' 1868. 22. ' A Discourae on Pro- 
phesying,'^ 1868. 23. ' Christ's Disciples must 
suffer Tribulation,' 1869. 24. ' Tbe Fourfold 
Ministry,' 1871. 26. ' An Address to the 
Seven Churches,' 1873. 26. ' The Doctrine of 
tbe Incarnation,' 1673. 37. ' A Short Sermon 
on War,' 1876. 28. 'Four Discourses to 
Young Men.' According to tbe census of 
1861 the Catholic Apostiilic church bad 
thirty congregations in England, and about 
6,000 communicants. A calculation was 
made in 1877 that the membersoftliechupcb 
in all c^iuntries amounted to 10,600, but 
there are no means of checking tbe accuracy 
of this statement. Miss Emily Cardale, sister 
of Cardale, and a prophetess of the Catholic 
.Apostolic church, married Mr. James Here, 
and diod at Western Lodge, Albury, on 
IB April 1B79, aged 71. 



Cardale 31 

[Mrs. Olipbant's lifs of Irviug. Jth eJ. pp. 356, I 
396, 398 ; Mill«r'» IiriDgism (1878), i. SI &i;., 
ii. 418; Baiter's IrvingiBin, its HUe and Pro- 
grras (1836) ; The Old Church Porch (18d4), i. 
87, 209; The Morning Wm oh (1830), n. 869- 
873 1 Law Times (1877), biiii, 372. 397 ; Sntiir- 
dByRariew, 38 July 1877, pp. lM-5; Clement 
Boaae'i Caluloguri of Bookd rcLiting to Catholic 
Apostolic Church (1885), pp. 9-12 ; private in- 
forniatioD,] O. C. B. 

CARDALE, PAUL (1706-1776), dis- 
ienting iniiuBter,wa8 bom m 1705, Aspland 
conjiictures that he was thu son of Sunuel 
Gara&le of Dudky, appointed in liUl an 
original trustee of the presbyterian meeting- 
house. He was educated at the dissenting 
academy of Ebenezer Latham, M.D., held nt 
Findem, Derbyshire, from 1720. Very early 
in life lie hecamt> on aeeiaUint mtuister among 
the presbyterians at Kidderminster. Hia 
manuscripts eliow that he preached there aa 
earl; as 29 Mav 1726. At this time his 
Tiews, in accordance with his education, 
wore Calvinistic. He was invited in 1733 



who Lttd removed in 1730to Coventry. The 
congregation was email, but atVer Cardale's 
■ettlemeDt it became stroug enough to build 
& new meeting-house, of no great propor- 
tiona, in Oat Street (licensed 11 Oct. 1737). 
Cardale's first series of sermons after the 
Opening was circulated in manuscript, end 
lutimatelf published. It is clear that be had 
now got rid of his Calvinism. Cardale's name 
does not figure in the religious history of his 
time. Most of bis publications were anony' 
moua, and be was intimately known only to 
ft yen few literary divines. One of thef 
was JohnlUwliiifl,M.A.,an orthodojt divin 
of catholic sympatliies, us bis writiugs provi 
who among other preferments held the per- 
petual curacy of Bedsey, two miles from. 
Evesham. Hia closest friend, away from his 
own neigh bo urliood, was Caleb Fleming, 
D.D., who shared bis opinions, and fi^ijuently 
went down from London Ui visit him. Priest- 
ley, to whom Cardale sent two pieces for the 
' 'fbeologinal llepository,' did not know him. 
peraonafly. Yet the influence of Cardali' 
writings on the theology of the midland pre 
byterians was decisive. To bim, more than 
to any other, is due the early prevaleui 
Socinian as distinct from Arian views among 
the latitudinurian dissenters of that district. 
The manuscript of his moat important pub- 
lication, 'True Doctrine,' was revised by 
Lardner (see his Memoirg, 1769, p. 114). 
He was not a popular preacher, imd probably 
did not covet that distlnolion. His elocution 
was bad, aad Job Orton affirms that his 



Cardale 

' learned, critical, and dty discourses' reduced 
hia hearers at the last to about twenty people, 
and that he pursued Ilia studies to the neglect 
of pastoral duties. But even Orton praises his 
'good sense' and 'good temper,' whde Priest- 
ley writes to Lbdsev that ' he is, by all ac- 
counts, a most excellent man.' Latterly, btl 
sedentary babits impaired his health, but his 
mind was keen. On 28 Feb. 1775 he put the 
finishing touch to a work which he had been 
elaboratmg foracouple of years, and, retiring 
to rest, passed away in sleep before dawn on 
Wednesday, 1 March. He was buried in tha 
north aisle of All Saints', Evesham, where is 
a remarkable epiuph written by hia friend 
Rawlins, which describes him ' as a chris- 
tian, pious and sincere; as a minister of tbs 
gospel, learned and indefatigable;* and adds 
that the virtue of charity " gave a lustre of 

frace and goodness to all bis actions.' Car- 
ole married Sarah Suffield, a lady of soma 
property, three years hia senior, who died 
without issue about 1767. Aspland remai^ 
that it was not till after ber death that he 
began to publish his heresies. Portraits of 
Cardale and his wife were long preserved at 
Dudley by the Hughes family, and are now 
the property of the Evesham congregation- 
Judging by the portrait, Cardale had a good 
presence; his physiognomy expresses great 
tenacity of purpose. He published : L'!^ 
Gospel Sanctuary,' 1740, ifvo (eevensermons 
from Ex. xx. 24). 2. 'A New Office of De- 
votion,' &c., 1758, 8vo (anon.) 3. 'The 
Distinctive Character and Honour of the 
Righteous Man,'&c., 1761, 8vo (funeral sei^ 
mon from Matt. xiii. 43, for Rev. Francis 
Blackmore). 4. ' The True Doctrine of the 
New Testament concerning Jesus Christ,' &c., 
1767, 8vo, 2nd ed. 1771, 8vo (anon. ; has pre- 
fatory essay on j^ivate judgment, and appen- 
dix da Jo. i. The main argument ia in the 
form of a letter, and signed ' Pbileleuthenis 
Vigomieusia '). 5. ' A Comment upon . . , 
Christ's Prayer at the close of his Public 
Ministry,' 1772, 8vo (anon.) 6. 'A Trea- 
tise on the Application of certun Teimi 
... to Jesua Christ,' kc, 1774, 8vo (anon.) 
Posthumous was 7. 'An Enquiiv whether 
we have any Scripture-warrant for a direct 
Address ... to the Son or tn the Holy Ghost f 
&c., 1776, 8vo (edited by Fleming ; prefixed 
is a short notice of Cardale, and appended is 
aletter(1762) from Lardner to Fleming on the 

Eeraonality of the Holy Ghost). His contri- 
n I ions to the 'Theological Repository' ue 
' The Christian Creed ' in vol. i. 1769, p. 136, 
and ' A Critical Inquiry ' into Phil. ii. 6, 
in vol. ii. 1771, pp. 14], 219. Cardale be- 
queathed his manuscripts to Fleming. Ex- 
cept the ' Enquiry,' which whs ready for 



pnss, the; iVdce cUieflj (levotional. Flemiiie< 
who died ID 1779, agtd 80, finding that his 
nitiuH would pruvunl liim from makiug 
^«al«cUoa for tbe pvtu«, formed the inten- 
I of retiimiug the papers to Curdale's 
eutors, one of whom was the Rev. James 
ttle of Warwick, a nntira of ETeahom 
I Mbmt 1805). Priestley on V2 May 1789 
t to Toulnuii : ' I received tront Mr. 
,e time ago a small volume, 12rao, 
f Mr. Cardole'g devotional composiUoun,' 
AspUud treats this as a posthumous jiubli- 
t^tion, hut there is no other trace of it. It 
wnuid «eem that Toulmin was engaged on a 
numoir of Cardale, but it uerer appeurtid. 
, 1831 Timothy Davis, minister of Oat 
et ebapel, Evesham, had a diary and 
Kpapera of Cardale, all in shorthand. 
■ P?lwning'l Fetr Strictures, prefixed to the 
'Sqrfry, 1779; AapUnd's Briof Menmir of Car- 
'~i 1&S2. reprinted from the Christiaa He- 
ibt; Monthly BepoB. 18Zi, p. S27; Christiaa 
Kolerolur, 1827,211; Salt's Mem, of Priestley, 
1831, i. 133, ](l32,ii. 19, 23; 8ibre« and Coaton's 
IndopendeneyinWarwickshirp, 1865, 131; manu- 
•cript notp-s liy Sergi-nnt Haywood, in his copj of 
the Tme Doctrine (nftenfiuda in the possession 
of Biihop Tanon).] A. O. 

CARDER, PETER (/. 1677-lfi86), 
iHBriner, of St. Veriun in Cornwall, wm, nc- 
cirding to liis own story, a seaman of the 
Putican with Drake when she sailed from 
England on her vmage round the world in 
KovMnber 1677. In October 1578, the ship 
bving then in the Straits of Mu^an, Carder 
wns one of eight men in the pinnace who in 
a nle lint sight of the ship, and, not beinff 
«Ue to lind her again, made the mainland 
and followed alone the shore to St. Julian, 
' s on shell-liBh and such fish as they 
J cUcL From St. Julian tbey made 
to the rirer Plata, and crossing to 
L aide wandered into the woods, 
po men in the boat. They fell in 
natives, who otlacked them, eap- 
d four of tlie party, and chased the others 
16 bCMt, in whieh ihey managed to escape, 
li all badly woimded. Tbe^ got to a 
isluid some three leagues distant from 
I ahom, where two of the wounded men 
',, Onrder and another, William Pitcher 
i, being Itft the sole survivors. A 
le on und smashed their boat on the 
ind for some two months they sup- 
uurtvd lifp on sand wis, little crabs, and a 
rniit rewmbling an ornnge, but for want of 
water t!i<iy wen> mlur^ed to the mosi direful 
Hiniite. .\t length some driftwood came 
whom, rhey mannged to make a raft, and, 
ppovisioning il w thuy best coidd, put to 
>aai> It was thnM days aixd two nights be- 




fore they reached ibe land, when, coming 
to 'a little rivtr of very ewei't and plenannt 
water,' Pitcher drank to such excess that lie 
died within half an hour. Carder after this 
met with a tribe of savages who received him 
as a friend, lit- stayed wiih them for some 
lime, learned their language, taught them to 
make and use stdelds and clubs — for before 
they were armed only with bows and arrowa 
— and led them ttgninst a neighbouring tribe, 
which they completely defeated, and took 
many prisoners, most of whom they roastM 
and devoured. Afterwards he was permitted 
to leave this tribe, and made his way north- 
wards to fiahia and Pemambuco, whence 
after some delay he embarked for Europe ; 
and so, uf^r some further adrenturee, he 
arrived in England in November 1586. 

The whole story is related at length in 
' Purchas, his Pilgrimes,' as though in 
Carder's own words. The presumption is 
that it was written by Carder and supplied 
by him to Purchas. It is therefore necessary 
t« point out that the ven- remarkable narra- 
tive rests entirely on Carder's owo testi- 
mony, is not corroborated by any other, and 
is virtually contradicted by very high autho- 
rity on the one important point on which 
contradiction was possible. In the narrative 
of the Pelican's voyage {TAe World enmm- 
patnd by Sir Frartcii Drake, Hakluyt Soc.), 
while many trifling things are carefully re- 
corded, there is no mention of the loss of 
the pinnace with ei^bt men. It is barely 
possible that the omission is an oversight; 
it is much more probable that there was no 
such loss to recoid, and that, from beginning 
to end, the story is a Action. Of the narrator 
we have no other knowledge. The narrative 
speaks of him as still alive in 1618, and ap- 
parently in 1826, when the 'Pilgrimes' was 
published. 

[Purchas, his Pilgrimes. iv. 1187.] J. K. L, 

CARDIGAN, V.iHh op (1797-18(18). 
[See URtrBEMEL, Jambs Thomas.] 

CAEDMAKER (alias Tatlob), JOHN 
{d. 1.555), martyr, was originally an Obser- 
vant friar, who, after the dissolutJoD of his 
o rder under the persecu tion which H enry\ ill 
specially directed against it, la^ised into the 
world, and became a married minister. His 
name is found in the list of licensed preachers 
of Edward VI (Dijon, C7t. of Engl. n. 486), 
He was vicar of St. Bridget's in Fleet Street, 
and one of the readers or lecturers at St, 
Paul's, where he read three timea a week. 
Some of his sayings against Onrdiner and 
Bonner, and concerning the sacramenl, are 

S-eserved (Grm Friara' CAron. 50, 67, 63), 
n Somerset's first fall, when a religious n^ 



Cardon x^ Cardonnel 

actiou wup Tuinlv fx}»*'ci-ed. Lt «•.»£? -cr.mr-"^ "-.aiT-"-^. liiJL il jS'JT r«>t;ived the gold medil 

ill Li*' Itftiurr hp:iIi^-; liir vi£^.»n.iu> ii*rT.i.a. x. "n* > %:\yfrj :^ .\n* fcv his engimTing of 

ol' Warwick. • ('B-rdimik-r siud it JL;* i?*:- ;it- • IttrLit tf Ajex&ndzia,' after De Loo- 

turt thai. iL(»urli ii* liui l •?*'" b? ^TLf ii.r :ijsr:i.tiirr Er ikiso exxcraved the 'Battle 



undone, and liit: mt'C felij^iQf: n.»": iit^r. iLf_T i: \lu»iu. lTt^ "ibtr sust^ artist; plates of 




M.-Lo'jbnas-T-er. pr».'afiifd uni jt^ur-i :»r:-.r mi*! taji-ti. j. Aiuliirr/ after Rubens; *The 
and bliared ilit TrLmlu^-^ :"^ ili-: n-. v apTi:i.i.--i T.-jar i: X^^tt^-L. • Lca-xwit Captivation,* and 
dfhu, Tunur » Tttixi;. Edtr. I'J cvrf .Vc-j . ■ Tut St .en. ju: i: f^erlnrapaiani,' after Sinrie> 
i. '37 .J I. AVlien :b* ^K-^epuTi.tr "tir.iL: .''^: *:it.. lzjL "iijirrrL."' i-f (Tt*."*rge III, Mr. Rtt, 
undvr Man-, CardmLLtT uii L:* ':-:>i.»].. '^..- Mantzii: S-i-ntn-jtr. zhi- Ihichess of Beaufort, 
liam liarlow 'q. a." ol IVJi ani Wellr. tlzl: "i^ii: r:aT»f^:ir _Vi:iti:arr. Xapoleon, &c^ after 
to Lond(»n di-'ruisrd a*- mfrrLLr.:?i. hiii"^ i^t..t vlt- .u* i.Tr-;>:s Er rriH^ved in stipple and 
ati empted \ o t'?*tth}»r ^xer -^i. N ?"« rZL>..T 1 '•-''« Ui i f * uiuei r:»s<i.' Srrible reputat ion when 
< M A c H TK . Ijh ry. 7 *M . TLr T xr iT-. CLS". .z.' '. '.'iii br i ■ ?•£ ir : d. : T , jN-fcT '1 ■": J C4:i on on 1 7 Feb. 1818^ 
Fl-fT. where iLry Ilt Till jar-trr. irbr* -.Lt .:. 1. 'r;:"j.i Sttvt-:. J*.:zr:'y Squaiv. His eon, 
chant*l]or Gardinrr. ani ;:hrrf .:: ^^-.-r-^ i» i*"*..:.!! i^.iwi^t.y. "n-as educated as an en- 
won, liefinn t ■:■ harf iLr acc-^n-Jj-Tei ; r.-^cir rs ^^'^' r. £> -w :»:a .;: if .il:y in Indian work, and 
for rt-liirion. wh-.- anir'UiiTvi r: £*♦:•>•. rLi*.:T. i.-vi !.":• ■..■: 1^1T. 

Biyan'i 




Kunstle^ 

^..^ .-..-. --. -^-- _ 1816J 

a^ Jl'X'per and Cr 'TSt. "wa* -r.-iTrsT.'t.'i a.?*: C. 3L 

to hav- TvcaTiTei . M \rHT5 : St^y^. -> Ix > CAFJ^XXZL APA>I >e" {d. 1719), 
t-er to Ca]vin, 1*3 Ft >^ iH:. !#<...:-.... ^^-^^j^ -: -y. l»Ji:- :f Marlborough, wu 
ftnd wa? rvmiixii-i : « :bt i :■-::: rr .r. P>.vs.:. ^ ^.,. / x^^-^ ^, OaricTinrl. a Fivnchpro- 
Str^-*^^- """^*^^-^ J r.»?^»»r*:: :: ^jter-.T :.._\tT- ;.*:i^:. tt;.. iiA "• err. rewarded for his ser- 

x-.»:: r.yi.l:T >t -ht luorative patents of 
:.>". ■— rT i.z.r. i':\'.'.\':'T vif cusToms at the 
Ti r: .: > .itiasi-.* n i (*<7i". State Paperif 

Iv— . I'.-fi:^:. |. i:.^. i^^i-2, pp. oow). 





ai:rCT-« uid:J hKrSclS: . iZ^o^ru. the f^lo^ng October (F^ 



Cardonnel 



41 



Cardonnef 



rat* (hrretpondmrt of SaraA, Duckea of 
Marlborough, ItiKW, i. 4ttl, 407, ii, 126,169). 
Al ihe general election of NoTember 1701 
CHTdontiel hod bwn relumed member for 
Sontluunplon, and lio t^ontinued to represent 
Iltut borough nitljout intMTuption in four 
eucvesaife patliaajvnls (LuiU of Mem^rs of 
Pariiatnrnt, Official Hetuni). Wlien, how- 
ever, Mnrlborough's overtLrow w«s resolved 
on, as B preliiiiiiid)7 step a committee was 
apwiiuted to examine and report on ttie 
Bilblic Bccciiuits. Tlieir report was demanded 
u) SL-pt«mlKr ITIl, and appeared in the 
eiuuing month of Jsiiuhtt. Sir Solomon de 
HKlina, a (contractor for bread to the armv, 
m) in biaeridence that from 1707 to 1711 
in sealing each contract a grattiity of 
■Dffold ducBtfi to the duke's eecretary. On 
frfeb. 1712 the bouse met to consider this 

ne and to hear the ex-secretarj's defence, 

rliicli, however, no report now exist*. 

a a loiif; debate it was resolved that the 
ig of a eratuitv was ' imwnrrantable and 
ipt,' and on the question being put, Cor- 

lel was expelled the house by a majority 

of twenty-six ( Cvmmoju' Joumale, xvii. 97 ; 
CUBBBTT, Parliamfntaty Suton/, vi. 1049- 
■~"), 1094). After his fall Cardonnel did not 

tt klt«mpt to eeek office, but lived in re- 
al hifl hou»e in Westminster or at 
Ue died in St. Margaret's, Weft- 

, in22Feb.l719,and wasburieUon 

S Uatcb following at the parish cburcb of 
Chiawiek (Probate Act Book, 1719; Hift. 
Ji^, 1719, p. 10; hYBOsa, Envinmi,ii.2l-J). 
Hia will, as of St. Maigaret's, Weatminstfir, 
*lni«l 211 (Jet., with a codicil, 17 Nov. 1718. 
■w»f pnivt'd on 5 March 1719 (Reg. in P. C. C. 
4:?, ifr. wiling)- He married, after ApriliriO, 
Eliin>">tii, widow of Isaac Teale, iipotbe- 
cary. of St. Margaret's, "Westminster (Will 
fw. in P. C. C. 09, Srail h ), bnt by this ladv, 
wEo dicfd in 1714, he bad no issue (Letters 
of AdminiBtration in P, C, C. September 
1714). Ue married secondly Efaabeth, 
widow of Willisra, the second son of Sir 
Thoma« Fraakland, hart., and daueUler of 
B^nA Qawdowin, a. mercHant of London. 
The rJiiidrMJ of this marriage were Adam, 
who diwl ttl Cliiswicb on 22 Sept. 172fi 



October 1725), and 
Uuy, wbi) became in Februan 1734, at the 
^ of flftsen, the wife of William, first 
"Talbot, bringing him, it is said, a for- 
of 80,000i. (Gent. Mag. iv. 107; Coi,- 
Ptemge,\9Vi.\.2^7). Mrs. Cardonnel 

, a third alliancH with Frederick Frank- 

iHud, M.P.. lier first husband's younger bro- 
iber. aiul died on 27 Jan. 1737 (UBnUM, 
Jivron*Uige, ii. 1^-7). Cardonnel'a official 



eorrespondencB with Stepney, John Ellis, 
and others, is preserved in the 'Additional 
MS8.' at the British Museum, but contains 
few details of interest. 

Cardonnel's uncle, Phillf de Cabdonhel, 
was also an enthusiastic adherent to the royal 
(Muse, &nd upon iJie marriage of Charles II 
to Catherine of Bragansa gave expression 
to his feelings in a series of extraordinary 
poems, published with the title of 'Tociib, 
sire Epithalamium Caroli II Ma^ffi Bri- 
tanniee H^^^, et Cathoiinsa In&ntis Portu- 
gallim; (!allicoprimum carmine decantatum, 
deind^ Latino donatum. Autbore P, D, C 
Unit cum Poemate Fortunatanun TDSuIariun, 
antehk: Gallic^ pro Inauguratione Caroli II 
conscripto,' 8vo, London, 1663. From tJia 
description given W Lowndes (Bibl. Manual, 
Bohn,vol. i. art. 'Cardonnel' jit would seem 
that another and enlarged edition containing 
translations of pieces by Dryden and Waller 
appeared at London tne same year. Botk 
editions are of the rarest occurrence. The 
earlier issue is adorned with a frontispiece 
representing Catherine being drawn to shore 
by Neptune and attendant nymphs, while 
Charles, ankle deep, is rapturously siureying 
her charms with the aid of a telesL'ope. 
Philip de Cardonnel was dead before August 
1667, for on the 15th of that month his 
relict Catherine administered to the estate 
of hie brother, Peter de Cardonnel, of St. 
Margaret's, Westminster (Chebibb, Wm*- 
mimter Abbey RegUtfra, Harl. Soc, p. 167). 

[CbL Plate Papers, Dom. and Trena. ; Addit. 
M.S.'*. 22221, 22fi61, 28887, 28917-18, 29*50, 
295.^3-7.] G. G. 

CARDONNEL, afterwards CARDON- 
NEL-LAWSON, AUAM [MAK8FELDT] 
DB {d. 1820), antiquary, was a grandncphew 
of Adam de Cardonnel [q. v.], secretary t-o the 
Duke of Marlborough, and tlie sole surviving 
son of Monsfeldt de Cardonnel of Mussel- 
bu;gh,a commissioner of the customs andsalt 
duties in Scotland, bv hia wife Anne, the 
daughter and bctr of luomas Hilton of Low 
For3inthecountyofDurhai)i{StriiTBBa,J5ur- 
Aom,ii.27; Autobiography of Rev. A. Carlyle, 
pp. 218-19). Educat^ for the medical pro- 
fession be practised for a while as n surgeon, 
hut liis easy circumstances left him leisure to 
indulge his taste for the study of antiquities 
and numismatics, with which he was especi- 
ally conversant. Upon the institution of tho 
Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, under the 

{residency of the Earl of Bute, in December 
7S0, Cardonnel was elected a fellow ; he also 
served as curator from 1782 to 1784, and 
contributed to the second volume of the ' Ar- 
olut«logia Scotica,' 1. 159-67, a ■ Description of 



Cardonnel 42 Cardwell 



».-rHiii i^.>mjin U.iins ii«rov-rfil ir. fn'.vr*^jik.' CABDROSS. LiiBlW. \'5ee EflfiSIXE/ 

InniiKi. -vrii.-iif-n r.-*.i«if'l ir Kiliiiiinrilu iiii CARDWELL, EI* WARD. D.D. ilT^T- 

ill .!>• '.iMld '.I ttii*i:*t iim hr.'.TliHr Jinriijuary I'*^;! >. cluLrnli histiirian. .^m ■■>? Rii»hn p r| «"'-ir^- 

•.v.fh ni.»'-» :V im :>:h -xr.-n.-i-* '''il«t':*i'n.-. h»r- ;\>il ut Huii:kbiim. Lanraaiiiiv. wua b«)m in 

-hIk.- *<».■■. »nr>iinv!nj/ iuni mi vir.i.'in i:vi.:PO- IT*"?. [!»* -nrt^r*^! in LHHi .liS a ci)nmi«.iier 

Inir.rjti •v.iHfi.T.i.n.-«. i:*^-nri«.n.- :v!i:i*h 'irn-t* ar. rjf.is.-no.'it* C«jue-^e, Uxibni. wlier» htr ^n- 

jrarr-riii ■'i«'Kn«.'v!»-tli(.Mi n -;;.■ inr.-Miiii»T..,Ti .liuirfil B.A. in iHM H»? t.Mik liia M.A". in 

^^ .11-* ■ A.iJin iiTii-"H -.t' .'^i;f.fian<r < p. xx). l^lJ. Tliir .letsTPt* .jf B.D. was conierr^ on 

.^.r,m»' '.iiir .n -In* liiTiimn 'it' \7<i fJam.-* iui- him in I'* ID and rhat ot D.D. in ISU. For 

Hr"M'*»'M I ifffr-p ''J * h'j"**. rinci nor ht^imi ot-.r- '^♦-'.vrai v^rars he acred a^ ruror and LecCiir»rr, 

^inn .\ 'hr -iipt-iins .nl«:.-''j*M. hi* »TH".iii'*^ril rhw and from l?l-t to l'?:il woa one -jt the ani- 

li'ffr ln(l^■r■^■lV■•r '•» ' nr i'".nn»*l .ir P,<::ni>iiP:rli. vt-r-iry -xamint»rs. :ind'iiirinif pure iitrhe time 

\\ :i;».' .n 'i\t' :ii^r ..f rViliJiiiii- !: iip riie 'jujiin' hiwl J-jhn Keblr as a collea^fne. In ISl^ he 

r.|i{ ^i.n./ 't'- .SirJifin M.i.i-i.lm " mn riiriiiirh wjw apjioiii"t^l Whitehall prvac'h»?r br Bi»b:p 

h;-» .ii;n«:. in<: ru- .n?«i'r:i»*^«l wi'liin rhn '.vrripp»rr Hrjwli v. iuiii in l>L';i -ieiticr pr»?ai:iiier to "he 

h;- v--li-kn«.'vn Iniprimpt.i. • K-n ^'^ •t*i7\'.T university .if^xt'oni. He wa^ e Wtr^i Cam Jen 

r," t iiptain ftvr.Mt-r' . iii kn-". I'f^fira/ ll'oi'kji. prtiies.-Mjr of antiient history in I •?:*»•. and «ttc- 

K.isTiJimork •=!':.:.. Iiv U . >. I)«iiiL'ia.-!. i. ^A'A), ot-erlinl An.'hbi.-shop TVhately in lS3Ia^ prin- 

ii. i !-■.♦>. Sr,rin afT.-r Tiii.<t rnnionni-l ijuirrefi cipui '<f ^st. .\iban Hall. r»xiorii. Soon attrf 

HrMUml. hinino" by the failure of fourteen tlii." appfnnrment he resigned the living rf 

famil.eM. ''•n •.vhnni, it l* -aiii. the pro|jerTy Stokr-Bruem. Northamptijn^hin*. to which 

had h#f*en »-nrrtilei|. ^ur^needei! to tlie ej-r.-ir^s of he haii been presenct-d by Hrasenofse l.'oUetfv in 

hi.4 ^er.rinil coM-iin. Mr. Hilton r-aw-.jii, at l**!'-. He .^ubsetj^uently declintrd theofftrof 

f'hipti.nan-if'p.irnlington inN'»rrhumFi*'rIanl. the rectory uf W irhyham. and in l^vW re^ 

Hft '»»'rv»'fl a^ -heritf for the county in IT'-^i fa-e«l the d^-anery of Carlisle otferedti* him bv 

( O^f.. Mftff. Ixvi. i. UU >. anrl a-numed the nur- Sir Itulierr Peel. He wa* delegate of e»tate^, 

namft of fjiw^on in aildirion toandaffer tLit delejr;ire of the pre*!?, and curator of imi- 

of r'ardonnel. In l*?! 1 lie ^l♦■c■an topull down ver^-ity galleries. He was consider^i one 

f ."hirt/iTj Hoii^e, wiiere lie had hitherto n-^ided, of the b>->t men of busine^ in the xiniversirv, 

and w^>nt to live in a -tmall farmhouse at and for many years had a leading share in its 

rramlinjftrifi iM\f:KKy7AK, Xorthum/jeriand, covemment. The mana^ment of the bible 

'Jnd 't'iit. ii. 1! 1. 4.>h. Fli- latter days were department of the university press was left 

rhi»'flv sf»*rnt at Bath, fiyinff in June I'^iiO, mainly in his hands, and by his advice the 

fttfed t:J, h»; WH- hurieflat f.'ramlin^ononthe P|M*r mill «it Wolveroit was established. 

] Ith (Cramlincton Burial iteua-t^-r). By the This wa* ilone in «»rder that the authorities 

death of liiM »-lde<tt. "on of rh»' -ame names on mi^ht be certain as to the materials us«fd in 

ti\ .\ov. l-.J^ at Acton Hou.-e, Acklin^on, makimr the paper supplied to the university 

North II mJ;«rp]anfl, witlirmt i.-j-ue, the family press. Lonl Grenville, the Duke of Welling 

U'came extinct, in the male line ( Latihek, ton, and Lord LV.'rbv, as they successively be- 

/y^ai /*Worfhj p. UM)). came chancellors ot the university, appointed 

f.'arrlonnel wji.-* the author of : 1. * Numis- him to act as their private secretary. He 

mata Hrntiff; ; or a S^-ries of the Scottish was a |M-rsi.)nal friend of Sir Uobt^rt Peel and 

('ofnaj^'r, from the I l»'i^Ti of William th^ Lion Mr. CTlad7itr)ne, and was a member of the 

to tht: Cnion. By Adam de (.'anlonnel.' iS:c., Society uf Antiquaries and other learned 

with twenty plate-i drawn by the author, b^xlies. 

4to, Kdinbiir^di, 17'*<J. This work, although His literarj^ works were: 1. An edition 

tak*;n in a preat measure from .Snellinpr's of Aristotle's* Ethica/ Oxford, 18:?8-S0,6vo, 

' \'i*rw,' which harl l^een puhlishe«l in 1774, '2 vols. 'J. * A Sermon preache<l at Xorth- 

rontain.H somft curious historical matter, and ampton/ Oxfonl, lK32,8vo. 3. * Lectures on 

th^; appropriations ar^j generally cnm*ct. t he Coinage of the Greeks and ltomans,M 833, 

*2. * Pirttun-Mjiie Antiquities of .Scotland, Svo( delivered by him as Camden professor), 

♦■trlied by A Jam de Cardonnj-l,* four parts, 4. An * Knchiridion Thecdof^cum ^Vnti-Ko- 



a 



vo nnd 4to, I»nrion, 17>?H-1KJ, which forms manum,' in 3 vols., 8vo, being reprints of 

u-efiil Hupplement to Pennant's * Tour.' tracts <in points at issue between the churches 

[Not#rs and Queries. 2nd .cr. is. 24. 187.x. of England and Rome, lJS:J(i-7. 6. A use- 

2:'/.f,iofi, xi. 3:i5-r,, 37H; Gtnt. MaL^ Ixxii. ii. ^^ students edition of the * New Testa- 

6St. Ixxxiii. ii. 394, (1837) viii. 325. 41fi ; Biith ^ent in Greek and English,' with notes, 

hirfctoryfor 1812and 1819; Cochnn- Patrick's l^^'^"- <5. ' Josephus de Bello Judaico,' in 

Jtftpfinl« of the Coinage of Scotland, Introd. p. Greek and Latin, 1837, 8vo, 2 vola., a cor- 
viii.] G. G. I rected text with various readings and notes. 



Cardwell 



43 



Cardwell 



7. ' The suppoeed Visit of St. Paul to Eng- 
landy a LecUire delivered in the University 
of Oxford/ 1837. Cardwell subsequently 
turned his attention more especially to the 
annals of the English church, and formed 
the plan of a synodical history grounded 
upon Wilkins's ' Ck)ncilia Magnse Britan- 
nuB.' He carried out the project in part 
in the publication of several of tlie following 
works : 8. ' Documentary Annals of the Re- 
formed Church of England ; being a Collec- 
tion of Injunctions, Declarations, Orders, 
Articles of Inquiry, &c., from 1546 to 1716, 
with notes,' Oxford, 1839, 2 vols. 8vo. 
9. * A Relation of the Conference between 
William Laud and Fisher the Jesuit,' 1839, 
8vo, with preface. 10. * The Two Books of 
Common Prayer set forth in the Reign of 
Edward the Sixth compared with each other,' 
1839, 8vo. 11. * A History of the Confer- 
ences and other Proceedings connected with 
the Revision of the Book of Common Prayer 
from 1668 to 1690,' 1840, 8vo. 12. ' Syno- 
dalia : a Collection of Articles of Religion, 
Canons, and Proceedings of Convocation in 
the Province of Canterbury from 1547 to 
1717, with notes, &c.,' 1842, 8vo, 2 vols. 

13. 'Reformatio Legum Ecclesiasticarum, 
or the Reformation of the Ecclesiastical 
Laws for the Church of England as attempted 
in the reigns of King Henry VHI, King Ed- 
ward VI, and Queen Elizabeth,' 1850, Svo. 

14. An edition of Bishop Gibson's * Syno- 
dus Anglicana,' which he brought out in 
1864. 

Cardwell died at the principal's lodge, 
St. Alban Hall, Oxford, on 23 May 1861. 
He married in May 1829 Cecilia, youngest 
daughter of Henry Feilden of Witton Park, 
Blackburn, and leu several children. He was 
uncle to Edward, lord Cardwell [q. v.] 

[Ghent. Mag. August 1861, p. 208; Foster's 
Lancashire Pedigrees ; Cat. of Oxford Graduates 
(1851); Oxford Honours Register (1883); in- 
formation given by Mr. E. H. Cardwell.] 

C. W. S. 

CARDWELL, EDWARD, Viscount 
(1813-1886), statesman, bom 24 July 1813, 
was the son of John Cardwell, a Liverpool 
merchant. He was educated at Winchester 
and at Balliol College, Oxford, of which he be- 
came scholar and fellow. At Oxford he took 
a first class, both in classics and mathematics, 
in 1835, and was made an honorary D.C.L. in 
1863. Among his contemporaries, or those 
who were nearly his contemporaries, at the 
university were several members of the special 
group of statesmen to which he afterwards 
belonged — ^Mr. Gladstone, Mr. Robert Lowe, 
Mr. Sdney Herbert, Mr. Roundell Palmeri 



and the Duke of Newcastle. He was called 
to the bar at the Inner Temple in 1838 ; but he 
soon turned from the law to public life, and 
entered the House of Commons as member for 
Clitheroe in 1842, He attached himself, per- 
sonally as well as politically, to Sir Robert 
Peel, whom he somewhat resembled in cha- 
racter as well as in conscientious industry, 
in devotion to the public service, and in the 
mastery which he acquired of commercial and 
financial questions. By Peel he was treated 
with marked esteem and confidence. He was 
one of the trustees to whom Peel afterwards 
left his papers. In 1845 he was made secre- 
tary to tne treasury. In the next year came 
the repeal of the com laws and the rupture 
between Peel and the protectionists. Card- 
well remained true to his chief, and thence- 
forth formed one of the small party, or rather 
group, of Peelites, still conser\'ative in general 
politics, but liberal with regard to commercial 
questions. Of free trade he became a staimch 
and prominent champion ; but with most of 
his political friends he voted against the ballot 
in 1853. In 1847 he was elected for Liver- 
pool, but lost his seat in 1852, in consequence 
of his having voted for the repeal of the navi- 
gation laws, and was afterwards elected for 
the city of Oxford. The Peelites having 
gradually gravitated towards the whigs, in 
1852 the coalition government of Lord Aber- 
deen was formed, and Cardwell became pre- 
sident of the board of trade. K he did not 
become a member of the cabinet, it was only 
because the whig leaders objected to an 
undue proportion of Peelites. The chief 
fruit of his presidency of the board of trade 
was the Merchant Shipping Act, 1854, which, 
collecting all the laws relating to shipping, 
with important amendments and additions, 
has from that time formed, in essential re- 
spects, the code of the British mercantile 
marine. The act, consisting of 548 sections, 
passed through committee at a single sitting. 
* What great public interest have you been 
abandoning, Cardwell, that your bill passed 
so easily ? ' was Lord John Russell's sarcastic 
question. No interest had been abandoned, 
and those of the common seaman and tlie 
ballast-heaver had been as well provided 
for as those of the shipowner; but the bill 
had been prepared with the carefulness cha- 
racteristic of its framer's work. Further im- 
provements were made by Cardwell in the 
laws relating to the shipping interest, which 
owes to him, among other things, its relief 
from the impost of town dues. By his hand 
form was given to the department of the 
board of trade which deals with the mer- 
cantile marine, the foundation was laid of a 
meteorological department, and much was 



Cardwell 



44 



Cardwell 



flonff for tlie department of science and art. 
To railway le^iHlation also Card well's contri- 
bution was important. In the opinion of 
thr>«9 most cr)mpetent to iudjfe, the work of 
many years was accomplished in two. From 
the ministry of I-iord Aberdeen Cardwell 
wisftfjd, aft4'r the reconstniction, into that of 
Jyird Pftlmerston; and wh«'n the other lead- 
ing Pticlitcs resij^ned, he was pressed by the 
pHfmier to accept the chancellorship of the 
exr-lief|uer, but he chose not to separate him- 
nt-H (mm his friends. Two years later, with 
th#j dislike of violence and injustice which 
was stronjc in him, he vot^d against Lord 
pHlmerHt/)n*8 government on the question of 
thij (;hinese war, and, uwm the appeal to the 
oiintry which followed, lost his seat for Ox- 
ford, but sliortlv afterwards regained it on 
jxitition. In \HoH ho was the most active 
m«!mb<;r of a commission appointed to inquire 
into the manning of the navy, resnecting 
whicli great anxiety was th«!n felt. Here his 
knowlwlge of the mercantile marine stood 
him in good stead. The reiport- was adopted, 
and the system, principal features of which 
are the training of boys and tlu» maint^jnance 
of a strong navy reserve, remains in force, and 
cont inues to Ix? successful to this day. When, 
ui»on t h«j defeat of the 1 )orby ministry in 1 859, 
l*almerston again became minister, Cardwell 
become secretary for Ireland with a seat in 
the cabinet. Iii that office he showed his 
usual industry,«iuity,patience,andcourte8y; 

but the spheric was uncongt»nial, and in 1801 
he exchanged it for the chancellorship of 
the duchy of I^ncastor. An Irish land act, 
framed by him, and the object of which was 
to base the relation of landlord and tenant 
solely <m contract, lias had no practical effect. 
In 1804 he was transferred to the secretary- 
ship for the colonies. In that office he in- 
augurated the new policy of withdrawing 
from the colonies in time of peace all im- 
piTial troops for which the colonies would 
not undertake to pay, thereby promoting 
colonial st»lf-defence and self-go veniment, as 
well as economising the forces of the empire 
and relieving the British taxpayer of an ex- 
pense which in tht^ case of the wars with the 
Maori had amounted to a million a year. 
Canadian confederation was set on foot, and 
its outline was determined during his secre- 
taryship, though the act was the work of his 
successor. To him fell the difficult duty of 
dealing, amidst a storm of public excitement, 
with the case of the disturbances in Jamaica 
and of Governor Eyre, which he did by 
promptly sending out a commission of in- 
fluirv', and, when the legislative assembly of 
Jamaica had been abolished with its own con- 
sent, appointing Sir Peter Qnxit asgo\'emor 



to arbitrate between the conflicting neei. 
He also put an end to transportation. Under 
Mr. Gladstone, in 1868, Cardwell becune 
secretary for war, and in that capacity was 
called upon to undertake the reorganisation 
of the British army, to the necessity for which 
the nation had bmi awakened by the great 
European wars, at the same time redeeminj^ 
the pledge given for largely reduced esti- 
mates. For this, which was his most impor* 
tant and difficult work, the foundation nad 
been laid by the concentration of the trooM 
which as colonial secretarv he had effeoteo. 
The principal feature of Ids reorsanisation 
was t ne abolition of purchase, for wnich were 
substituted admission by tests of fitness and 
promotion by selection. This reform, to- 
gether with tne provision made for the retire- 
ment of officers, rendered the British array 
professional and scientific, relieved it of in- 
capacity and ingratitude, animated it with • 
hope of advancement by merit, and made it 
fit to cope with the highly trained armies of 
the continent. Other parts of the new sys- 
tem were the introduction of a short term of 
service, the formation of a veteran reserve, 
and the localisation of the regiments, which 
was adopted with a double purpose of taking 
advantage of local attachment in recruiting 
and of linking the militia and volunteers to 
the regular forces. The department of the 
commander-in-chief was brought under the 
more effective control of the war office. Pro- 
vision was also made for the improvement of - 
the military education of officers and soldiers. 
In carrying these changes into effect the secre- 
tary for war had to encounter the most obsti- 
nate resistance on the part of military men of 
the old school, and his coadjutors have home 
their testimony to the unfailing patience, 
command of temper, and courtesy, by which, 
combined with firmness, their resistance was 
overcome, as well as to the thoroughness 
with which a civilian mastered all tne de- 
tails of the department of war. The labour 
and anxiety, however, imdermined Cardwell*8 
health. On the resignation of the Gladstone 
ministry in 1874 he was called to the House 
of Lords as Viscount Cardwell of Ellerbeck. 
After this he continued for some time to take 
part in public affairs ; he presided ably over 
the commission on vivisection, and on one 
important occasion stood forth sis the friend 
of the slave ; but he never again became a 
minister of state. He died, after a yeiy 
lingering illness, at Villa Como, Torquay, cm 
15 Feb. 1880, and was buried in the cemetery 
of Highgate. He married, in 1888, Annie, 
youngest daughter of Charles Stuart Paricer 
of Fairlie, Ayrshire, but he left no children 
and his peerage became extinct, Ckzdwell 



w«S not D political leader or a director of 
popular movements, ihouKh in council he 
WAS firm and powerful. The measures of 
conalitutional change brought forward by 
tjie gDvemiDeiils of which he was a member 
in I&ter years did not originate with him ; 
nor was he a papular orator. He -was a clear, 
good, terse, and fluent speaker; to l)emorehe 
did not pretend or desire, and he never mado 
ha uiuiece«sai7' speech. But it waa as an ad- 
ministrator and public servant that, though 
leas noted than others by the crowd, he 
really stood high among the statesmen of 
tbe time. * Thoroughly patriotic and public- 
B^rited, utterly free from jobbery of any 
sort, laborious, discreet, courteous, Kind, and 
OOntiderate to subordinatee, conciliatory, yet 
tenacious of his opinion when he had satisfied 
bimselfthat he was right' — such he appeared 
to llie parlners of his work. They also teatify 
tohispoaeeaaionofa singularly quick and keen { 
inteUigancc, though in hia j^ublic ntterauces I 
hia mind seemed to move with excessive cir- 
mmspectioa. The country was served more 
brilliantly by other men of his generation, but I 
by none more faithfully, more tealousir, more 
■trenuonsly, or with more lasting frmt, 

[PenonAl knowledge; memorsuda from per- 
•on* who iteted with bim -, apeechei (some of 
lAich have been repriated) from Hansard ; 
Motehant Shinpioe Act ; Report of CommiBHian 
oa Hajininit tne }^vy ; Rayal Wiimuit abolish- 
tng potcbaiK- (1871). and ref^latioiu in pnrsaaDce 
til ibat meAsnrc. A short life is anderstood to 
be in praptinitioa.] O, 8. 

CABE, nENRY (1646-1888), poUticol 
writer and journalist, affected to be a royalist 
in 1670, when he published a book entitled 
'Fem&le Pre-eminence,' with a fulsome dedi- 
utjon to Queen Catherine. He is probably 
the Henry Care, 'student in phyaick and as- 
trology,' who brought out a translation of a 
BUdicSil work in 1679. Care edited a paper 
Cftlled the ' Weekly Racquet of Advice from 
Home,' when, according to Wood, ' he was 
deeply engaged bv the fanatical party, ai^r 
the popiah plot broke out in 167S, to write 
■gainst the Church of England and the mem- 
beea thereof, then by him and his party sup- 
posed to be deeply enclined towards popery, 
Ac.' U" was trUd at Ouildhall. 2 July 1680, 
on on information agoinel. him as the author 
of this Journal, and more particularly for a 
4^iuv against the lord chief justice, Bcrn^, 
who bimAetf sat as judge at the tria). The 
jni7 found him ^uilty,&nd Care wasprohibited 
(nnapriuttnghisjoumal. Buttheseproceed- 
fnga coDBlituI'^ one of the charges brought 
■gaum Scroggi., who was removed &om tbe 
^^encbfoaamtailhd later (LBnBSLL,£e^ Aon 



of Stat^ Affairt, i. 75), and Care continued 
to publish his journal. Core's last numlier 
ofthe' Weekly Pacquet,'whicheiteud8 to five 
volumes, isdatedlS July 1683,at which time 
he fell ill. In 168'2 a difference had taken 
place between Care and Langley Curtis, the 
original publisher, when Care, who resided at 
the time in the Great Old Bailey, continued 
the work on his own account till he was 
seized with illness. But at tbe commence- 
ment of the quarrel, Curtis, not willing to 
give up a profitable spectdation, employed 
William Salmon, a well-known and midti- 
feriouB writer, to publish a continuation of 
the ' Pacquets,' and he did so from 25 Aug. 
1683, on which day Care's fifth volume also 
began, till 4 May 1683. Langlev Curtis, 
probably having the stock-in-trade in his 
own hands, added the fifth volume, by Sal- 
mon, to all tbe remaining copies, and conse- 
quently Care's fifth volume is rarely met 
with. 

Wood thus sums up the little that is 
known of the eubsequcntcareerof Care: hia 
' breeding,' he contemptuously remarks, ' was 
in the nature of a petty fogger, a little des- 
picable wretch, and one that was afterwards 
much reflected upon for a poor snivelling 
fellow in the " Observators,* published b_y 
Roger I'Estrange, which Care, after all his 
scribbles against the papists and the men of 
the church of England, was, after King 
James 11 came to the crown, drawn over so 
far by the Roman catholic party, for bread 
and money sake and notliing else, to write 
on their behalf, and to vindicate their pro- 
ceedings against the men of the church of 
England ill his " Mercuries," which weekly 
came out, entitled "PubUo Occurrences truly 
stated." The first of which come out 21 Feb. 
1687-8, and were by him continued to the 
time of his death, which happening 8 Aug. 
1668, aged 43, he was buried in the yard 
belonging to the Bkcldryers church, in 
London, with this inscription nwled to his 
coffin, " Here lies the ingenious Mr. Henry 
Care, who died, 4c.'" 

Hia works are : 1. ' Female Pre-emi- 
nence,' translated from the Latin of Henry 
Cornelius Agrippa, London, 1670. 2. 'Spe- 
culum Oalbfe ; or, a New Survey of the 
French Court and Cump,' l^ndon, 1673, 8vo. 
3. ' The Jewish Calendar eiplained,' London, 
1674, 8vo. 4. 'Practical Physick,' by Dr. 
Daniel Sennert, professor at WittenbetiCi 
translated by ' H. Care, student in phyaick 
and astrology,' London, 1676, 8vo. 5. ' A 
Pacquet of Advice from Rome,' London, 
167&-9, 4to; continued as 'The Weekly 
Pacquet of Advice from Rome,' 1679-83. 
'An Abfltract, with improvemetits,' of the 



Careless 46 Carew 

* Weekly Pacquet of Adrice from Rome * first baronet of that house, by his first- wife, 

was published ' by several gentlemen/ said Bridget, daughter of John Chudleigh of 

to be dissenting teachers (Wood, AthentB Devon. He was bom on 30 Aug. 16(W, and 

Oxon., ed. Bliss, ii. 469 it.>, under the title baptised at Antony on 4 Sept. Lord Cla- 

of 'The History of Popery,' 2 vols.. London, rendon asserts that Carew had received a 

1735-6, 4to;'a German translation was good education, but it does not appear that 

fublished under the title of ' Unpartheiische he ever matriculated at an English univer- 

listorie des Papstthums, herausge^ben von sity. In the Long parliament he was returned 

F. E. liambach,* 1766. 6. * Histor>* of the as the colleague of Sir Bevil Grenville in 

Papists' Plots,' London, 1681 , 8vo. 7. * Utrum the representation of the county of Cornwall, 

horum ; or, the Articles of the Church of and threw in his lot with the opponents of 

England recited and compared with the the court. When the bill of attainder of 

doctrines of those called I*resbvterians and Lord Strafford was beingpushed through the 

the tenets of the Church of Rome.' London, House of Commons, Sir Bevil Gren\iUe be- 

1682, 8vo. 8. * The Darkness of Atheism sought his fellow-member to oppose it, but 
expelled by the Light of Nature/ London, Carew vehemently replied, * If 1 were sure 

1683, 8vo. 9. * A Modest Enquiry whether to be the next man that should suffer upon 
St. Peter were ever at Rome and Bishop of the same scaffold with the same axe, I woidd 
that Church/ Lond. 1687, 4to. 10. * Anim- give my consent to the passing of it.' On 
adversions on a late paper entituled, A the breaking out of civu war he was en- 
letter to a Dissenter, upon occasion of his trusted by the parliament with the command 
Majesties late Gracious Declaration of Indul- of the island ot St. Nicholas, at the entrance 
gence/ London, 1687, 4to. 11. 'The Tutor of Ph-mouth harbour, on which wus situate 
to true English. With an introduction to a fort of considerable strength, while the 
Arithmetic, London, 1687, 8vo. 12. • l>ra- mayor of Plvmouth ruled over the castle and 
conica : or, an Abstract of all the Penal Laws the town. ^Vhen the parliamentary forces 
touching matters of Religion and the several in the west of Englana met with serioos 
Oaths and Tests thereby enjoined, with brief reverses, Carew began to think that both his 
obser\*ations thereupon,' 3rd edit., London, person and his property were insecure, and 
1688, 4to. 13. *■ English Liberties ; or, the ; opened a correspondence, chiefly through the 
Freeborn Subject's inheritance, containing agency of his neighbour, Mr. Edgecumbe, 
Magna Charta, &c. Compiled first by Henry with Sir John Berkeley, then commanding 




Addit. MS. 5960, ff. 62-87. ■ although Berkeley gave an ample assurance 

He also edited *The King's Right of Indul- ! of safety, Carew would not proceed any fup- 
gence in Spiritual Matters with the Equity ; ther without a pardon under the great seal, 
thereof asserted by a Person of Honour and and that before this could be obtained his 
Eminent Minister of State, lately deceased ' design was discovered through the treacheiy 
(i.e. Arthur Aniiesley, earl of Anglesea), of a servant. He was suddenly seized while 
London, 1688, 4to. ' in the fort and carried prisoner into the town, 

[WooiVs Athena Oxen. (Bliss), ii. 469; Mac- I whence he was despatched by sea to London 
aulav's Hi^t. of England (1858). ii. 218 n., 221 ; and disabled from sittmg inparbament. Ob 
Luttrells Hist. Relation of State Aflkirs, i. 50, Tuesday, 19 Nov. 1644, he was condemned 
75, 453 ; Watt's Bibl. Brit. ; Jones's Popery ' to death for treacheiy by a council of war 

Tracts, 25, 68, 76, 90, 92. 265, 266 ; Lowndes's held at Guildhall. His ^e, Jane, daughter 
Bibl." '^^ ^ -' - ,^ . ^ ^ ,. , 




CARELESS, WTLLIAM(^. 1089). [See obtained a r^pite of the sentence for a month 
^^^^-j ' ^ ' *- m order that he mierht settle his worldly 

affairs and prepare Ibr death. About tot 



CARL08.1 

CARENCROSS, ALEXANDER. [See 
Cairxcross.] 

CAREW. [See also Caret and Cart.] 

CAREW, Sir ALEXANDER (1609- 
1644), governor of the island of St. Nicholas, 
Plymouth, was the only surviving son of 



o clock in the morning of 23 Dec. 1644 he 
was brought to the scaffold on Tower £011 
His speech contained a reference to the ' last 
words and writing ' of his father and grand- 
&ther, and the signal for the executioner to 
do his duty were ' the last words that ever 
my mother spoke when she died.' He wts 



Richard Carew of Antony in Cornwall, the buried on the same day in the ehuich of 



St. AuKUBtine, Hocknej. His widow died 
i?5 April 1179 in her sBventy-fouith year. A 

■" ■....■.> (.ihwrmeinorj, Willi su wlaborale 

I T'cnrdinghMTirtueB, WHS erected 

:\i!ig speech wns printed aepB- 

:<:U, nod la included m a collection 

o^iilid ■ Kiiglnnd's Bbick Tribuuftll set fortU 

in tiie Trial of King Cliailea 1/ Sc, 16(50, 

pp. 9U-IW. 

[ClorMldon's Hi(it4>i7(1849), iii. 240-7 ; BuRh- 
worlli'a Ilistoricol Oiltfcljon, pt. iii. bk. n. pp. 
~M~T; Umth's Brisf CliroDielti (1663), pp. 33, 
IID: Vlcon'a FaiiiBmentHry Chrooicle, pC. iii. 
(1846), p. 29, pt. It. p. 8fl ; W. Robinaoo's 
fisckniijr, ii. GS ; Boase and Ciiurtauv'H Bibl. 
OontaU i 6S, tii. 1109: Ponxhinl History of 
CorDw.ll. i. 17.] W. P. C. 

_CAKEW, BAitr^nJJE MOORE (1693- 
1 1 / ?). king of the glpeie«>, belonged to tlie 
Ueironchire bmily, und was born in July 
1003, at Bicbl«7, near Tiverton, of whicli 
hi« fMlivr wu rector for many years. At 
lti8 SAV of twelve he wm sent to Tiverton 
achooX wbere for some time be worked hard, 
but the schoolboys posseaged amon^ them a 
pack of lioiuids, ana one day be, with three 
companions, followed n deer so far, that the 
neignboiiring fanners came to complain of 
Uin domBgc done. To avoid punishment the 
youths ran away and joined some gipsies. 
AAer a yrNir and a half Caren returned for 
a lime, but soon rejoined the gipsies. His 
csreer Wfu a long series of swindling and 
'tDWwtiire, very ingeniously carried ' " 



drove him to embark for Newfoundland, 
tehen* he stopped but a short time, and on 
his retrim he pretended to be the mate of 
u Ttn>i.>l, Slid eloped with the daughter of 
n rv-jwctjible apothecary of Newcaatle-on- 
Ti o". whnm he afterwards married. 

il*i o/intiniied his course of vagabond 

mgiwry for soiae time, and when Clause 

l*Blch, a king, or chief of the gipsies, died, 

Ootew wan ulwt^ his succsssor. He wss 

ronviL'fi i| nF l«iiig an idle vagrant, and sen- 

■ !.'■ ii-annported to Maryland, On 

' ■■ i>tl.i?mpted to escape, was cap- 

iiiiide to wear a heavy iron collar, 

. iin, andfell into the hands of some 

ifi'iiillv Indian!?, who relieved him of his 

rolltr. He took an early opportunity of 

imving bin new friends, and got into Penn- 

xylvaniB. ll<'re he pretended to be a quaker, 

and ai noch made his way to Philadelphia, 

throTO to Nnw York, and afterwards to New 

Loailon, when: ha embarked for England. 






wnrb^' pricking his hands and fecn, and nib- 
bing tn liny iwlt and gunpowder, so as lo 
simulate small-po-Y. 

After hia landing he continued his im- 
postures, found out his wife and daughter, 
ond seems to have wandered into ScotUnd 
about 1745, and is said to have accompanit^ 
the Pretender to Carlisle and Derby, The 
record of his life &om this lime is but aesriea 
of frauds and deceptions, and but little is ab- 
solutely known of hia career, except Ihnt tt 
relative. Sir Thorn sa Carew of Hackem, olFered 
to provide for him if he would give up luB 
wandering life. This he refused lo do, but 
it is believed that he eventually did so after 
he had gained some prizes in the lottery. 
The date of hia death is uncertain. It 18 
generally pven, but on no authority, as 
being inl7(0,but'T. P.,' writing IVom'nver- 
ton, in ' Notes and Queries,' 2nd series, rol.iv. 
p. 623, aaya that he died in 1758. 

[The authority tor Carew is u book which boa 
appeared in man; furmB. The llrst is apparoctly 
Tbe Life and Adveatnres of B. U. C, the Noted 
UevDashire Stroller and Dog«tealrT, aa nat«d by 
himself daring his passagu To America .... 
EioD,: prinl«dby thaFarloysforJ. Dpbw, 1745. 
Lowndes mentjona another title, The Accom- 
plished Vngsbond or complent Mumper, oxem- 
plify'd in tht bold and artful enterprises and 
tnerry prttoka of Bum p^lda Carew, Omn (Exon.7), 
)74fl. An Apology for the Life of Bamfylde- 
Moors Cnrew. London, 1749, is dsscnbed aa 
printed for B. Ooadby ; a third edition (no data), 
with prefsea dat«d 10 Feb. I7S0, coatains addi- 
Iloual matter Btlaeking Fielding and Tom Jones. 
An edition of I7S8 pvea a large folding portrait 
of Carew. Other editions hare been published 
in variooB places. Oue of 176B is desuribed as 
by Thomas Price. Timperloy's Dictionary of 
Printers states that the life was writtea fay 
Robert Goadlij ; T. P. in Notes aud Queries (as 
above) gives a report that Mrs. Goudby wrote it 
from Carew's dictation. See Notes and Quariea 
(2Dd set.), iii. 4. IT. 330. 440, 622.] J. A. 

CAREW, Sir BENJAMIN HALLO- 
WELL (1760-1834), admiral, son of Beiya. 
minHnllowelljCommisaionerof the American 
board of customs, was bom in Canada in 1760, 
and entered the navy at an early oge. On 
31 Aug, 1781 hewaa appointed by" Sir Samuel 
Hood as acting lieutenant of the Alcide, and 
served in herin the action off the Cbe«apeake 
five days later. He was shortly afterwards 
moved into the Alfred, and was in her in 
the engagements at St. Christopher's and off 
Dominica [»ee Hatsb, William]. He was, 
however, not con firmed in his rank till 25 April 
1763, and after seven years of uneventful 
service he was made commander on 22 Nov. 
.tai)ioiuia.B)ia-i4- fl^SQ. Duiing the two Mlowing tbus he 



Carew 



48 



Carew 



commanded the Scorpion sloop on the coast 
of Africa, and in 1793 went to the Mediter- 
ranean in the Camel storeship, out of which 
he was posted on 30 Aug., and appointed to 
the temporary command of the Kobust of . 
74 guns. He afterwards for a short time ; 
commanded the Courageux during the ab- ; 
sence of Captain Waldeg^ve, sent home ^ 
with despatches; and on being superseded ' 
from her, ser\'ed as a volunteer, * wherever . 
he could be useful,* in the sieges of Bastia 
and Calvi. * Hallowell and myself^* wrote ; 
Nelson on 9 July 1794, 'each take twenty- 
four hours at the advanced battery ; ' and 
acknowledged Hallowell*s zeal in terms re- ; 
peated more formally on 8 Aug., and em- 
Dodied in Hood*s despatch of 5 Aug. Hal- j 
lowell was then appointed to the Lowestoft 
frigate, and a few months later to the Coura- 
geuXf which he commandfnl in the action off 
the HySres Islands on 13 July 1795. He con- 
tinued in her, attached to the fleet under Sir 
John Jer\'is, during the trying year 1796. On 
19 Dec., when the fleet was in Gibraltar Bay, 
the Courageux was blown from her anchors in 
a terrific gale of wind, was driven over to the 
African coast, and dashed to pieces at the foot 
of Apes' Hill. Out of her crew of six hundred 
about one hundred and twenty only escaped. 
At the time of the Courageux being driven to 
sea, Hallowell was absent at a court-martial, 
and though he was anxious to return at once 
to his ship, the president refused him permis- 
sion. It nas been said, but quite without 
proof, that the loss of the ship was entirely 
owing to his absence (BREyTON", Life of Lord 
St. Kincent, i. 302), While waiting on board 
the Victory for an opportunity to return to 
England, Hallowell was present in the battle 
off Cape St. Vincent on 14 Feb. 1797. He 
was afterwards sent home with the duplicate 
despatches and a strong recommendation 
from Jervis, which led to his being imme- 
diately appointed to the command of the 
Lively frigate, ordered back to the Mediter- 
ranean, lie was shortly afterwards trans- 
ferred to the Swiftsure of 74 guns, one of 
the inshore squadron off Cadiz under Captain 
Troubridge, which in May 1798 was detached 
to join Rear-admiral Sir Horatio Nelson. The 
Swiftsure was thus one of that small fleet 
which during July scoured the Mediter- 
ranean and crushed the French in Aboukir 
Bay on the night of 1-2 Aug. The Swift- 
sure, with the Alexander [see Ball, Sib 
Alexander John], had been detached on 
the evening of 31 July to look into Alexan- 
dria, and was thus somewhat later than ther 
other ships in getting into action. It was 
already dark, and as she was standing in 
under a press of sail she met a ship leaving 



the battle, and Hallowell was on the point 
of firing into her. He had happily given 
strict orders that not a shot was to be fired 
till the anchor was down and the sails clewed 
up ; this strange ship was the English Bel- 
lerophon, whicn had neen compelled to haul 
off for a time. The Swiftsure took her place, 
but with better judgment, and, tosether with 
the Alexander, devoted herself to tne destruc- 
tion of L'Orient, which blew up about two 
hours later. 

AVhen Nelson returned to Naples Bay, the 
Swiftsure was one of the ships left on the 
coast of Egypt under the command of Cap> 
tain Samuel Hood, and she remained there 
for the next eighteen months. She rejoined 
Nelson at Palermo on 20 March 1799, and a 
couple of months later Hallowell astonished 
the whole fleet by sending him a coffin, cer- 
tified to be entirely made of wood and iron 
from the wreck of L'Orient, together with 
the following note, 23 May 1799 : * My lord, 
herewith I send you a coffin made of part of 
L'Orient*s mainmast, that when you are tired 
of this life you may be buried in one of your 
own trophies; but may that period be far 
distant is the sincere wish of your obedient 
and much obliged servant, Ben. HallowelL* 
It is stated, on the authority of his brother- 
in-law, that, fearing the effect of all the 
flattery lavished on his chief, he determined 
to remind him that he was mortal {Neltm 
Despatches, iii. 88) ; but the grim humour 
of the gift seems also to remind us of HaUo- 
welFs American education. 

For the next three months the Swiftsnre 
remained on the coa^t of Italy, where Hallo- 
well was actively employed, under Trou- 
bridge, in the reduction of ^int Ellmo, Capua, 
and Civita Vecchia ; in acknowledgment of 
which services he received from the king of 
Naples the order of St. Ferdinand and ^ 
Merit, and a snuffbox bearing the royal 
cipher in diamonds. Towards the end ai 
the year the Swiftsure joined Reai^-adminl 
Duckworth at Minorca, and accompanied 
him to Lisbon, on which station and off 
Cadiz she remained. In May 1800 Rear- 
admiral Sir Richard Bickerton hoisted hit 
flag on board her, and in November went in 
her to the coast of Egypt. He then trans- 
ferred his flag to the Kent, and the Swift- 
sure was in the following June sent in charge 
of a convoy to Malta. On the way thither 
Hallowell, having learnt the proximity of a 
powerful French squadron, wnich had been 
endeavouring to land troops near Tripoli, 
resolved to make the best othis way to rein- 
force Sir John Borlase Warren, and accord- 
ingly left the convoy to shifb for itselt He 
was thus alone when, on 24 June 1801| he 



&U in with the French squadraD, waa sur- 
roand^, aud caplured after an obecinatis 
reaistAnce (JiMsa. 2iasal Hixfory, 1860, iiL 
77). Hallowell was very shortly afterwards 
reloAeed on parok, and on 18 Aiig. was tried 
at Port Mahun hy a court-martial, which 
approvi^ of his conduct in evety respect, 

Snmoonced that his leaving the convoy waa 
ictal«d br sound judKinent and zeal lor the 
e of nia king and country, that the de- 



li»well had displayed great judgment in his 
endearours to avoid so superior a force. He 
■waa thereforu honourably acquitted of alt 

In 1802 HaUowell commanded the Argo 
of 44 guns on ihe coa«t of Afnco, with a 
broad pennant, and toucLins Qt Barbadoes 
on hia return to Europe, and learning there 
tbat war bod again broken out, he placed his 
Brrricce at thn dieposal of Commodore Sir 
Samuel Hood, then commanding-in-chief on 
tii« Leeward Island station. He was thus 
«Dffaged in the reduction of St. Lucia and 
Tob^O in June 1603, and was warmly 
thanked by Uood in his despatches. On his 
Tetom to England he was sent out, still in 
tile Argo, on a special mission to Aboukir. 
Hi' was afterwacds appointed to the Tigre, 
in which he joineii the fleet 00" Toulon under 
Lord NcIbou, and under his command took 
part in t]i» chase of the French fleet to the 
Wect Indies in May and June 1805, In 
Sem«mber the Tigre was with the fleet off 
Oadii, but was one of the ships detached to 
Otbndt*r under Itear-odmiral Louis onSOct., 
and had thus no share in the battle of Tra- 
bi^x. Continuing in tlie Tigre, Hallowell 
had in 1807 the command of the naval part 
of the expedition to Alexondiia ; he after- 
wards was with the fleet off Toulon and on 
the coast of Spun till his advancement to 
flagnnkon 1 Aug. 1811. In January 1813 
be hoisted hi» flag on board the Malta of 
80 guns, again in the Mediterranean, where 
he remained till the peace. lu June 1615 he 
-WM made a KC.B. During 1816-18 be was 
ooDUDonder-in-chief on the coast of Ireland, 
and became vice-admiral on 12 Aug. 1819. 
From 1821 to 1834 he was commander-in- 
dued at the Nore, with hia flag id the Prince 
liegent. On the death of his coiiain, Mrs. 
Anne Pastun Oen (^8 March 1826), he suc- 
cwded to the estates of the Oarews of Bed- 
dloffton, and pursuant to her will aseumed 
tlus name and arms of Corew, to which family, 
bowvrer, he was not in any degree related. 
The estate's had come to Mrs. Oee by the 
will of her husband's brother, and now came 
to HallDw«ll very much in the nature of a 



windfall ; but to a friend who cougrntulated 
him on it he answered, 'Half as much twenty 
years ago had indeed been a blessing : hut I 
am now old and crank.' Un 22 July 1B30 
he attained the rank of admiral, and on 
6 June 1831 was made O.C.D. He died at 
Beddington Park on 2 Sept. 1834. 

Hallowell is traditionally described as 
having been a man of gigantic frunie and 
vast personal strength, and several stories 
are told of the summary manner in which ho, 
by arm aud fist, quelled some symptoms of 
mulinv which appeared on board the Swift- 
sure wiile off Osdii;, He married in February 
1600 a daughter of Captain John Nicholson 
Iiiglc&eld, for many years commissioner of 
the navy at Gibraltar, and left issue. 

pHoTHhall'B Boy. Nay. Bio*;, ii. (voL i, pt. ii.) 
4flS : Cretit. Mug. (1S34). voi; civ, pt, ii. p. 53T : 
United Service Journal, 1S34, pt. iii. 374, and 
!e35,pt.i.S6.] J.K.I- 

CAREW, Sib EDMUNl) (1464-1513), 
soldier, was the son of 8ir Nii^holas Carew, 
baron Carew, of Mohuns Ottery, Devonshire, 
who died on 16 Nov. 1470, and grandson of 
Sir John Csrew fq. v.] The inquisition on 
his father's death stales that Edmund was 
six ^ears old at the time. According to old 
pedigrees the family was descended from one 
Adam de Montgomurie, whose son Edmund 
married the daughter of Kees ap Tudor, princ« 
of South Wales. Her sister Nesta, after 
having a natural son by Henry I, married a 
Norman named Stephen, whose son, llobert 
FitzStephen, was one of the first English 
invaders of Ireland, and obtained a grant 
of half the kingdom of Cork from Henry II 
Adam's great-great-grandson, William, baron 
of Carew, married Elizabeth, daughter and 
heiress of Robert Fitz-Stuphen. It has, how- 
ever, been shown by Sir John Maclean that 
liobert Fitz-Stephen died without issue, end 
that William, baron of Corew or do Carrio, 
was descended from Gerald Fiti-Walt*r de 
Windsor, firet husband of Nesta. Tliis Ge- 
rald was grandson of one Otho de Windsor 
in the time of the Conqueror. 

The barony and castle of Carew or Caer 
Yw in Norberth, Porobrokeahire, came to 
the family bv this marriage with the Welsh 
princess, and remained m their possession 
until Sir Edmund mortgii«cd it to Sir Rhya 
ap Thomas. His eon, Griffith ap Rhys, being 
attainted of treason in the reign of Henry VIII, 
the barony came into the possession of the 
crown, and was leased to Sir John Ferrot and 
others. In the reign of Charles I the re- 
mainder of the lease was purchased by Sir 
John Carew, and the fee-simple was there- 
upoQ granted to liim by the king. The family 



Carew 50 Carew 

rif Carew was also allit^ hv marriaz^ to the unexpected accidents, he underwent extnr 

Counenaya, and Sir John Xiaclean narrate? ordinaiy perils, but God freed him firom them, 

(but grives no authontT > that Carew ot&cia'ed and he performed his duty in acceptable 

at the biinal of William Court enay. earl of manner/ On 21 Dec. 1599 he was appointed 

Devon, in 1511. ridiiur up the nave of Exeter a master in chancers and held that prefer- 

Cathedral in armour, and oiferinj the d'i'ad ment until his death m 1612. Astheyouncer 

earl's battle-axe to the bi«hop in the choir. son of an influential CoiYiish family and a 

Carew wa> an adherent of Henry VTI, leading courtier he had little difficulty in 
and was kni>:hTed at the battle of B^^s worth obtainmg a seat in parliament for one of the 
Field for his val'iur. In 1497 he marched numerous boroughs in Cornwall. He sat 
to the relief of Exeter whon that city was for St. Germans m 1584, for Sal tash in 1586, 
btsieped by the pretender Perkin AVarbeok, 15S>, 1593. and for St. Germans a?ain in 
and he lost his life in the service of Einf 1597 and 1601. The honour of kni^thood 
Henry's son and !iiioces?or, beine killed by a was conferred upon him at Whitehall 23 Jidy 
shot in Lord Ht-rbert's tent at the sieffe of 16Ct3. on the eve of the coronation of James I, 
Th^rouanne on 22 June 1513. The only other and in the followinfr year he was nominated 
public service in which he is known to have to a place in the commission to arrange the 
been engaged was going to meet the com- affair? of the union of the two countries of 
missioners from France who came to treat England and Scotland. At the close of 16(^ 
for peace in 1492. He married Katherine. Caivw was sent as ambassador to the court 
dnuehter of Sir William Uuddlestield of of France, where he remained until July 
Shillingford. solicit or-genoral and :iTtomey- 1609. when the French ministers, who re- 
general to Edward TV. Tl^Mr issue was four garded himasa friend to the Spanish interests, 
sons and four daughters. The former were : were not displeased at his return to England. 
William, father of Sir Peter Cart^w "o. v.~: After considerable competition from other 
Thomas, of Bickleigh; Geoige. dean of Exeter seekers after office he secured in June 1613 
and Windsor, father of George, earl of Totnes the high and lucrative place of master of the 
[q. Y." : and Gawen, ob. i5^3, s. p. The court of wards, which was vacant by the 
daughters wer*?: D^^rothy, married to John death of Lord Salisbury. The reason for 
Stowell; Kathmne, marrie<l to Sir Philip this creat promotion was assigned by some 
Champemoun : Isabel and Ann. to his wife's influence with the queen, by 

[Macleans Life of Sir P^ter Carew : Princes ^^^^^ ^^ ^^f ^^^^ ^^ ^ord Rochester, and 

Worthies of I^.-von. p. 204 : PolwheleV Devon- ^^ '^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ''^^ Currently reported to 

shiro, i. 2o4 : Cirli^le's Top. Dici. of W.iles: ^«^^ P«*«^^ d^" ^"^^ ^^^ place. Amonir the 

Lewis's Top. Diet, of W.ilos ; Tnckett*s Devon- Latin epigrams of John Owen is one (bk. vi 

shire Peiligrois. p. 123: Gairdners Henry VII. No. '20) to the effect that while the king 

ii.291 : HerV-ert's Hist, of Enirland.p. 15: Inqr.is. committed to Carew the care of the wards, 

post Mortem, 11 FAw. IV. No. 38. 2 Kic. III. he showed himself to have a care for Caiew's 

^'o- -**•] C. T. M. merits. In August 1612 he was a member 

CAREW, ELIZABETH, Lidt. ^See of the commission for raising money for our 
Carey, Elizabeth, Lady." ' soldiers m Benmark. and with that appomt- 
' ment his official bfe was over. On Iridav, 

CAREW, Sir GEORGE (d. 1012\ law- 13 Nov. 1612, he died, * in reasonable caw, 



his brother, * he gathered such fruit as the Casaubon. styled Carew * vir amplissimiu et 

university, the inns of court, and foreicm sapientia et eruditione, et pietate pnestan- 

travel could yield him.' After his return tissimus.' De Thou or Thuanus esteemed 

from abroad he was called to the Iwr. obtain- him highlv and made use in book cxxi. of the 

ing the post of secretary to Lord-chancellor history oi his own times of Cat^w^s nana* 

Ilatton, and on Hatton's decease lield the tive of events in Poland. Car^w's intimacy 

same office, * by ^pecial recommendation from with Casaubon is further shown in the ftot 

Queen Elizabeth/ under Sir John Pucker- that in November 1612 his wife was god- 

mg and Sir Thomas Efferton, keepers of mother to Casaubon's child. On Carew's 

the great seaL Through the same royal return from the French embassy in 1609 he 

favour Carew was made a prothonotary in drew up and addi^ssed to James I * a idi- 

chMicery, and in lo93 was despatched on an tion of the state of France/ which has bees 

embassy to Brunswick, Sweden, Poland, and much commended for its simple and ua- 

Danzig. While on this mission, 'through affected stvle. This tract zemained inmaAO- 



■B of Ilory Ope O'Mure iii ibe following 
I year, when LeigUlin Ca«Ue waa gerioualy 
1741). j menaced, was rewnrded with a small pi 



Ipctcd by t'art-w a volmnt" of 'IteportB 

Cb'io-'s in f^iancery,' whlcli was printed 

1.i,-.n n;iL.-,,„,i,UB20. Many of Ilia letters 

<< >l pilit.ici&ns of h>» time an- p 

i ■ public and nrirat* Vilraries of 

: trticularaof Uiem will be foiind 

.1 Poiirlney'a 'BibliothecaComu- 

Ijii-n-i.-;,' v'J. Lit Two of them are printed 

in Brewer's edition of Bishop Goodman' 

* Court of Kinjr James I,' ii. 97-103. Carew' 

jinr,>L'-;ipli ifrncludrd in J. G. Nichola's'Col- 

I . AutographB' (1829), sheet 8 D. 

1 1 QflUKilDgiat, Tii. 93, 575-S; 

ind Times of James I, i. 174-S, 

.\ L'lU; Viaitition of Cornwall (Harl. 

(>«. .. IP- -B, SI ; R.Carew's Survey of ComwiOl 

i«X. 1«11). p. 17*; Notes uDd Queries, 2DdMr., 

Ti. 438(1868).] W, P. C. 

CAKBW, nEORGE, Bibok CiBEw op 

Ctorros and Eajil of Totkbs (1G55-1639), 

BtMtcsman, liie son of Gborhb Casew, dean 

of Windsor, by hta wife Anne, daughter of 

Sir Nirh'ildB Harvey, wna horn on 29 May 

1.i."i \t, Mder brotlier waa named Peter. 

' ' 'III' IhirdsonofSirEdmundCarew 

■i:iiedB.A. at Broadgat^a Hall, 

I "■i'"2 ; was archdeacon of Totnes, 

J 1 hendary of Bath and Wells, 

!itorofEifiter.l649: preb«adary 

. 1 565 ; archdeacon of Exeter, 

■ ' ; dean of Bristol, 5 Nov. 1Q62, 
' .i^ejectt^ in 1653, Tesumine the 
M L'aasionof Eliabeth, and filing 

precentor of Salisbury, 1558; 

ritLTfa and WpIIs, 1560 and 1665; 

tchurch, Oxford, 1559-ei ; dean 

.1 Windsor, 1500-77; dean of 

' ITe died in Jane 1663, and wa« 

. hiurh of 8t. Giles-in-the-Fielda 

■'■■ OroTi, ed. Bliss; Lb Nhte, 

" I'—fii Wfthiumati, p. 7). 

' 1-^ educated, like the 

' IifII (afterwards Pem- 

, wlierfhestayedfroni 

-.■a'atedM.A.ata1ater 

. l.'bSii. From an ejirly ago he 

■ lI'lomilitafypurBiiita. In 1674 

■ ■' iiBTvioo of W Urat cousin. Sir 

). V. . ill Ireland. In 1675 he 

III I be army in Ireland 

' , ?md after lillinv the 

I rri»on in Leighmi for 

' in the absence of his 

■,vi,.a jippointnd lieulenant-go- 

,,■ caunty of Cariow and vice- 

l.-.>ii{UUn Coatle in 1ST6. His 

L-II1 ni 'i-iii.^ iimijfMiiltfMlatfcink twi tihantihnl 



("BsowELL, IritiA unAr thf Tutors, ii. 343), 
In 1578 he held a captaincy in the royal 
nnry, and made a Toyn^ in the ship of Sir 
Humphrey Gilbert. In 1579 and 1580 he 
was at the bead first of a regiment of Iriah 
infantry and afterwards of a regiment of 
cavalry in Ireland. He was made constable 
of Leighlin-brid^ Castle in 1580, on the 
death (in a skirmish, ^5 Aug., with the Irish) 
of hia brother Peter ^State Paper/, Ireland, 
lutv. 83). Shortly afterwards Carew killed 
with bis own hand several Irishmen suspected 
of slaying his brother, and was seven-ly cen- 
sured by the home government for hia impe- 
tuosity. The queen, however, showed much 
liking for him, and the Cecils were bis friends. 
He became gentlenian-pessioner to Queen 
Elieabeth in 1683; aberifl ofCarlowinl583; 
and was knighted bv hia firiend the lord deputy 
of Ireknd.Sir John Perrott, on 24 Feb. 1685- 
1686. In 1586 Carew was at the Englisli 
court trying to indicate to the queen's ad- 
visers the terrible dilEoulties alttinding; Eng- 
lish rule in Ireland. He returned in the 
following year to assume Che office of miLSteF 
of the ordnance in Ireland, to which he woa 
appointed (1 Feb. 1687-8) on bis declining 
the offer of the French embassy. On 25 Aug. 
1690 Oarewwas promoted to the post of Irah 
privy councillor, hut on 23 Aug. 1593 he 
resigned the mastership of the ordnance in 
Ireland, on becoming lieutenant-^neral of 
the ordnance in England. In this capacity 
he took part in Essex's expedition to Cadix in 
May 1598, and in that to the Azores in the 
following year, and went for a short time to 
France as ambassador in May 1698, when hia 
companion waa Sir Robert Cecil. At the bo- 
?innmg of 1599 his presence in Ireland was 
indispensable. Un 1 March 1 596-9 he was 
appointed treasurer at war on the death of 
Sir Henry Wallop, and on 27 Jan. 1699-1000 
he became president of Munater. At the 
time the whole of Ireland waa convulsed by 
the great rebellion of CNeU, earl of Tyrone. 
Essex's attempt to crush it failed miserably, 
and Oarew's relations with the Cecils did not 
make his advice congenial to Essex ; but on 
Essex's recall in September 1699 Carew, who 
had already been suggested as a competent 
lord-deputy, took hia iilac* m lord-justice, 
and held the post till the following January, 
when Lord Mountjoy was nominated Essex's 



lent Moun^oy [see Bloitnt, Ciubleb, 1663- 
-j (.[ijgjy enabled the latter to suppreae 
evolt. At Kinsale he did aapecialser- 

Ww, led tim Bueeeiaf 111 uida ha ibmIo tm 



Carew 



52 



Carew 



neighbouring castles effectuaUy prevented 
the SpaniardB from landing in the country 
after their ejection. Like all contemporary 
English officials in Ireland, he ruthlessly 
drove his victory home, and the Irish pea- 
santry of Munster were handled with the 
utmost rigour. As soon as Ireland was paci- 
fied, Carew sought to return to England. His 
health was failing, and the anxieties of his 
office were endless, but while Elizabeth lived 
his request was overlooked. On Lord Mount- 
joy's resignation of the lord-deputyship in 
May 1603, Carew was allowed to retire, and 
Sir Henry Brounckor was promoted to the 
presidency of ^lunster. James I on his ac- 
cession treated him with marked attention. 
Early in October 1603 he became Queen 
Anne's vice-chamberlain, and a few days later 
( 10 Oct.) the receiver-general of her revenues. 
He was M.P. for Hastings in the parliament 
w^hich met in 1604, and appointed councillor 
to the queen on 9 Aug. 1004. On 4 June of 
the year following he was created Baron 
Carew of Clopton House, near Stratford-on- 
Avon, the property of his wife Anne, daughter 
of William Clopton, whom he married in 1680. 
On 26 June 1608 he was nominated master 
of the ordnance, and held the post till 5 May 
1617. He was keeper of Nonsuch House 
and Park in 1609, of which he was reap- 
pointed keeper for life 22 May 1019, coun- 
cillor of the colony of Virginia (23 May 
1609), governor of Guernsey (February 
1609-10), commissioner to reform the army 
and revenue of Ireland (1611), a privy coun- 
cillor (19 Jul^ 1616), member of the im- 
portant council of war to consider the ques- 
tion of recovering the Palatinate (21 April 
1624), and treasurer-general to Queen Iien- 
rietta Maria (1626). Carew visited Ireland 
in 1610 to report on the condition of the 
country, with a view to a resettlement of 
Ulster, and described Ireland as improving 
rapidly and recovering from the disasters of 
the previous century. In 1618 he pleaded 
with James I in behalf of Sir Walter Kaleigh, 
with whom he had lived for more than thirty 
years on terms of ^:reat intimacy, and Lady 
Carew proved a kmd friend to Raleigh's fa- 
mily after the execution. In 1621 Carew 
received, jointly with Buckingham and Cran- 
field, a monopoly for the manufacture of gun- 
powder. At the funeral of James I in 1626 he 
was attacked with palsy, which nearly proved 
fatal. But he recovered sufficiently to re- 
ceive a few marks of favour from Charles I, 
to whose friend Buckingham he had attached 
himself. Carew was created earl of Totnes 
on 5 Feb. 1626-0. In the following month 
the House of Commons, resenting the action 
of the council of war in levying money for the 



support of Mansfeld's disastrous expedition, 
threatened to examine each of its members 
individually. Totnes expressed his readiness 
to undergo the indignity and even to suffer 
imprisonment in older to shelter the king, 
who was really aimed at by the commons, 
but Charles proudly rejected Totnes's offer 
and prohibited any of the council from ac- 
ceding to the commons' orders. The earl 
died on 27 March 1629 at his house in the 
Savoy, London, and was buried in the church 
of Stratford-on-Avon, near Clopton House. 
An elaborate monument was erected above his 
grave by his widow, with a long inscription 
detailing his military successes (Dugdale, 
I Warwickshire, 1730, li. 68^-7). He left no 
children. Anne Carew, whose second hus- 
band was Sir Allen Apsley, lieutenant of the 
Tower [q. v.], was daughter of his brother, 
Peter. Tne £arl of Totnes, whose name was 
often written Carey, must not be confounded 
with Sib Qeobge Cabey (or CABT)of Cock- 
ington, treasurer at war in Ireland in 1586^ 
lord justice on Mountjoy*8 departure in 1003, 
and lord deputy of Ireland from 30 May lOOS 
to 3 Feb. 1603-4, who died in February 1617. 

Carew had antiquarian tastes, and was the 
friend of Camden, Sir Robert Cotton, and 
Sir Thomas Bodley. Camden thanked Carew 
in his * Britannia ' for the aid he had given 
him in Irish matters (ed. Gibson, 1772, iL 
338). In Irish history Carew took a vivid 
interest. His papers inspired the detailed ac- 
count of the Irish revolt (169d-1602), which 
was published after his death, in 1633, under 
the title of ' Pacata Hibemia, or the History 
of the late Wars in Ireland.' The virtnu 
author of this book, which has often been 
ascribed to Carew himself^ is undoubtedlv 
Sir Thomas Stafford, reputed to be Cazews 
illegitimate son, who had served under Carew 
in Munster. Wood states that Carew also 
wrote the history of the reign of Heniy V 
which is incorporated in Spec's ' Chronick,' 
and in a volume entitled * Hibemica,' pub- 
lished by W^alter Harris in 1747, are two 
translations by Carew, one of a French vei^ 
sion of an old Irish poem of the fourteenth 
century, ' The History of Ireland by Manrioe 
Began, servant and interpreter to Dennod 
MacMurrough, king of Leinster,' and the 
other of a French contemporary account of 
Richard II's visit to Irelaoid in 1389. 

Carew carefully preserved and annotated 
all letters and papers relating to Ireland of 
his own day, and purchaser numbers of 
ancient documents. He spent much of hii 
leisure in constructing pedifrees of IriA 
families, many of which in nis own haad 
are still extant. He bequeathed his maun- 
scripts and books to Staffitrdy fiom idun 



thej parsed to -irrhbisliop Laud. Forty-two 
Tolumos of Carew's manuscripts relat ing to 
Iri«h nAkirs wen; placed b; Laud in the Lam- 
betb Iiibniy, and four ore in the Laudian 
eollL-ctian at the Bodleian ; aeveral of the 
volwnes are now lost. Others of Carew's 
^pere &ro among the Hajleian MSS. at the 
British Muwum, at the Slate Paper Office, 
and at nalfiuld. Calendars of the Lambetli 
documents, dating from 1 51 5, hare been issned 
ia the official series of Stat« Paper Calendars, 
under the editorship of J. S. Brewer and 
WiUiwn Boilen. A number of Sir Robert 
Cedl's letters to Carew, during the tirae that 
C&ww was president of MunsCer, have been 

K'nl«d fmra the originals at Lambeth by the 
mdpn Society (1864_, edited by John Mac- 
lean), The same aociety has also printed 
Cmcw's letters to Sir Thomas Hoe, 1615-17. 
These Toliuncs, although very valuable for 
general historical purposes, contribute little 
to CareVfl biojrraphy. A portrait of Carew 
is pTofixed to 'Pacata Uiberma.' 

ilkifle's Official Baronago, iii. 637-9 ; Burko^s 
Esunct Pwrnge; Grangerj Biog. Hiat. ii. 133; 
■Woods Ath«nae Oion. ed. Blisa, ii. 446-62; 
Arcluc'ilugin. liL 401 Bt>q.; Introduction to the 
Qir«wM88.Caleridan;Mndeaa'BUtteniofCaro» 
IaRm (IHeO. Camd. Soc.); Notes and QuerieB, 
Snd mr. ri. 436; Hendd aiui Oeijealogiiit , Tti. 
19^26, 67fi-fl: Cal.of State Papers, Dom. 1690- 
1830; Cal. of State Paper*, Irish, 16BD-1629; 
Gardioer'B Hiiit. of England ; Bi og. Bri t. ( K i ppis).] 

CAREW, Sib JOHN (A 1362), justiciar 
^ Irvlaad, appears to have been the grandson 
of Sir Nicholas Carew, lord of Mule^ord in 
Bcrkshife (Pari. Writ*, i. 103, 104), and son 
ofSirJobn Carew, who married, first, Eleanor, 
daughter of Sir William Mohun (d. 1296PI, 
in whom right her husband became lord of 
Uohims Ottt-ry, Stoke Flemiuit, and other 
manura in Dc^vouBhire ; secondlr, Johanna 
or Joan, Mcordiog to Prince the daughter of 
Gilbert, hjr.l Talbot (see also Cal. Geneal. ii. 
MS, &17; Cal. big. pott Wort. i. 1-%, 308 ; 
AUrw. Sot. Orv/. ii. 38, 140). The elder 
KrJchnCarew seems to have died in 1323-4 
(C /. P. At. i. 308), leaving a son bearing the 
aame namif.nnd probably the ofepring of his 
Aral in»rris,ei- iPrimce; but cf. the genealo- 
gim in PatLtJi^ and Macleaitb, which make 
the younger Sir J, Oarow son of Joan, and 
only heir to the Mohnn estates on the death 
af his elder brother Nicholas in 13241. His 
■widow, Joan, in later rears one of Queen Phi- 
l^pn'iludieNjWasstilllivinginJunelaSS. On 
hiafalher'adetilli the younger John Carew was 
Still a minor, us appears from the fine levied 
npoD him two years later (1326-7) ' 
■■ 'fof ill 




.ulesford 



Mjmor(.^Mref.2('o(,iL38,300). He perhaps 
comeor a4;e in 1332, when he was summoned 
to Ireland to defend his estAtee, and D[iven tlie 
custody of three ' villffi' in Devonshire (Lib. 
Man. Bib. iv. 82; Abbrev. Eat. Ong. ii. 64). 
The name of Sir Jwm Carow docs not, however, 
appear prominently till 13-1&-134H, when hu 
was appointed one of the three < custodes pacis' 
for the county of Carlfiw, and about the same 
time entrusted to negotiate with the Irish 
rebels. In ISlShewasking'seacbeator inlr»- 
land, and during the course of the same vear 
was chosen to succeed Walter de Binoingham 
as justiciar, an office which, however, he hi'ld 
barely a. year (Z, M. H. ii. 197; Gilbert, 
Ficeroj^«,205), aswefiud Sir Thomas Kokeby 
occupying the post in December, In 1352, 
L^S, and 1356 be reappears with the title of 
' Eaeheator Hibemite.^ Shortly after {1359) 
he WAS summoned to attend a great council 
at Wnterford (/mA Clote RalU, 11), and in 
1361 was called to Westminster to consult 
on the projected Irish expedition of Lionel, 
anerwards duke of Clarence, who bad mar- 
ried the heiress of the Earla of Ulster (Ki- 
KEB, vi. 319). He appears to have accom- 
panied the prince on this occasion, and to 
have died a year lat«r, in 1362 {Cat. Ing. 
post Mart. 247), or, according to Princes 
account, on 16 May 1363. He married, if 
we may trust the last authority, Margaret, 
daughter of John, lord Mohun of DunaCar, 
by whom he had two sons: John, who is vari- 
ously reported to have died before Calais 
(? 1347) and in 1363 (Macleans and Phil- 
lips), and Leonard, who perhaps died in 1370 
(C I. P. M. ii. 303), and was succeeded by 
his son, Thouas Cabew, a noted warrior in 
the early years of the ueit century. This 
Thomas, baron Carew, must have been a 
minor at the time of his fathers death (Irith 
Rollf, 866), and it h not till the rei^ of 
Henry IV and Henry V that ho begins to 
figure prominently as a statesman and a sol- 
dier. His mother is said to have been Alice, 
daughter of Sir Edmond Fitzalon (pMiitiPS 
and MACLEA9S). According to Prince he was 
present at the battle of .A.gincourt, but his name 
IB not tJi be found in the 'RoU'published by 
Sir Harris Nicolas. The same authority tells 

that he was made captain of Harfleur,Bnd 
appointed to defend a poseoge over the Seine 

enenryV, Heisprobably to be identified 
it h the Baron Carew who was commissioned 

guard the Channel at the lime of the Em- 
peror Sigismund's visit to England (Wil- 
-JAiia, Gata Henrid V, 93 n.), and with the 
Thomas Carew, Chevalier,' who is found 
It the head of a large number of men-at-arms 
in 1417, 1418, and 1423 {Privy CmincilAcU, 
ii. and iii.; Norman Polle). He married 



Carew S4 Carew 




left a son Nicholas, baron Carow, &thor of! followinj^ jear was summoned to the restored 
Sir Mmund Ciirew [q. v.], whose younger house of parliament, but on 30 Sept. I60& 
sons founded the families of Carew at llac- , he was subjected to a fine of 100/., presum- 
comb<?and Antony (Phi LLii»s). IWsides thoir , ably for non-attendance during its deliben- 
English estates, the Carews lield largo landed tions. At the l^t oration he left Cornwall 
possi^ssioiis ill In>laiid, esiK'cially the barony for London in obedience to the orderof pap- 
of Idrono in Carlow; but those apiH'ar to have liament that all the king's judges should 
boon lost for the most part in the course of surrender within fourteen days, ajnd was u- 
the fourteenth coiitur}-. j rested on his way, though the officer reiiued 

[Prince's Worthies of Devon, ed. 1701, 149, *^ detain him in consequence of an error in 
160; GillHjrtK Viccn>y8 of Ireland, 20.5, 217; the description. In his progress to London 
Liber Munerum Publ. HiberniiD (L. M. H.), ed. Carew was often insulted by the mob, some 
LoHcolleH, i-iv; Close and Patent Itolls of Ire- of whom cried out, 'This is the rogue wba 
land ; Caleudariuni Inquisitioiium post Mortem will have no king but Jesus,' and as he wu 
(C. I. P. M.), i-iv. ; Abbreviationea Kotulonim equally obnoxious to parliament on account 
Originalium, i. ii. ; Parliamentary AVrits, i. ii. ; ot the fer\-our with which he held the reli- 
Culondarium Genoalojricuni, al Itoberts, ii. 639, gious opinion of the fifth monarchists, he 
647; Proceedings and Orilinancos of the Privy ^^s, by eighty votes to seventy, excluded 
Counol. ed. Nicolas, 1. 11. 111. ; Collins si ei'mge. f^^ ^^^ Indemnity BilL While in London 
ed. Krydgcs 111. 3; Life of Sir Peter Om»w,e.l. ^^ ^.^^ ^^.^^^ ^ opportunities of €^ 
Madeano ; Nonnan Rolls ap. Ketx>nl Re^Hirts, , , rpfuRAd to nvail him«»lf of 

xli. 7.6. 717. 720; PUUlip»s IVUgn..] S. ^fo t aft^l^ 't^e S SJ 

• • * on 12 Oct. 1660. Wlien asked, * Are you 

CAREW, JOHN (d. 1600), n-gicide, was guilty or not guilty P ' he answered, « Saving 
the oldest son of Kichard (""arew of Antony . to our Lord Jesus Christ his right to the 
in Cornwall, by liis stH.H)nd wife, of tlie family ! government of these kingdoms.' He end«- 
of Kolle of Ileanton in Devonshins and was voured to prove that his acta were done under 
consequently the half-brother of Sir Alex- the authority of parliament, and asserted 
ander Carew [q. v.] Ho is said to have that he did his part * in the fear of the holy 
been educated at one of the universities, and and righteous Lord, the judge of the earth.' 
to have bi»en a student at the inns of court. The jury of course found nim guilty, and on 
When the loyalist members for the Cornish , 15 C)ct. he was drawn on a hurdle from New- 




plent iful est at e * i n t he et)unty , was eUnjIked fered deat h with great 
into one of the vacant seats, and he was one After he had been quartere<I and his bowels 
of the commissioners who receivini Charles I burnt, his head and quarters were drawn 
at lloldenby in 1G46. He was appointed naked and bare through the streets back to 
one of the king's jiulgt\s, sat every day in : Newgate. His quarters should have been 
the court, and signed the warrant for the exposed on the city gates, but they were *by 
execution of Charles. His name is found a great favour ' granted to his brother l«r 
amon^ the meml)ers of the third council of the king, and in * the same night obscurely 
state in December 1651; he was reapiwinted buried.* Carew was a republican without 
in the succeedinfj council, and was one of guile and reproach. 

the civilians serxing in the larger body in . [Cobbetts State Trials, v. 1004, 104M8. 
1653. In the parliament of Um he a^m 1237-57; Nobles Regicides, i. 124-35; 6» 
had a place, but as his opinions were agamst ifetes Lives of Actors of Murder of Charlef I: 
a temporal monarchy and he disapproved of Masson's Milton, vols. iv. v. vi. ; Ludlow's Me- 
CromwelVs seizing the throne, Carew was, moirs (1771), pp. 207, 238, 394, 402-6; Bone 
early in 1655, summoned lH.»fort» the council and Courtney's BibLComub. ii. 470-2, iii. 1110.] 
of state and imprisoned in St. Mawes Castle W. P. C. 

on the ground that he would not pledge him- CAREW, JOHN EDWARD (1785?- 
self to abstain from taking part against Crom- | 1S68), sculptor, was bom at Waterford about 
well and his government. After a short stay 1 1785. He received some instruction in art 
in confinement he was released, but he re- . at Dublin, and afterwards came to London, 
mained in retirement on his estates, and even . In 1809 he became an assistant to Sir Richtid 
his slanderers after the Restoration acknow- 1 Westmacott, the sculptor, remaining with 
ledged that he made no attempt at any period ■ him till 1823. During the lait ten or twelva 



b that he was with Westmucott be was 
IWeiTing from 800t to 1,000/. a year u 
aataiy, and hud also & studio of tus own. In 
1823 Carew was introduced to Lord Egre- 
moat, who invited bim to devote his talents 
ftlnuMt excluEiviily to his service. From that 
ytu until 1631 Corew, who continued to live 
m London, was employed on various works 
for his new patron. Itk 1831 he eEtabliehed 
hinself in Brighton, and waa freqnentlf at 
Lord Egremont'a house at Pelworth. In 
18S& ho went to live at Grove House, near 
Petwoith, a residrnce granted him bj Egre- 
mODt at ft nominal Knt.and there he remained 
until hifl pftlron's death in November 1837. 
Between lS-23 and 1837 Carew was occu- 
pied in producing varioua groups, statues, 
linst«, &c., in marble, many of which were 
nude espressly for Lord Egremont for Pet- 
woith. The most important of these works 
v«i« a statue of Huskisson, erected in Chi- 
cbMt«r Csl.bedral; an altajvpiece (the 'Bap- 
tum of our Saviour ') for the Homan catho- 
lic chapel at Brighton ; a statue called 
'Aretbum,' and another caUed 'The Fal- 
coner;' a statue of Adonis; a group of Vul- 
cut and Venus ; a group of Prometheus, and 
boeu of various private persons. He first 
appoartxl as an exhibitor at the Royal Aca- 
demy in ltl30, when he sent 'Model of a 
Gladiator,''Bear in the Arena,' and 'Theseus 
and Minotaur.' In each of the years 1832, 
1834, and 1835 ha also sect two busts to 



tlwt will, made a claim upon the estate of 
HOfiOOL, a sum due to him (according to his 
Oonl«ntion) for i-nrious works supplied to 
E^mont. Thisclaimwaa resisted by Egre- 
mont's executors, and Carew accordingly 
brought an action against them to recover 
his IK>,U0O/. The cause (Carew n. BurreU 
and uiotiit'r) was tried at the Sussex spring 
awiMS held at Lewes on 18 March 1840. 
Comwel for the pbinliif called Sir R. Weal- 
aacott and Sir Francis Chantrej. I»th of 
whom spoke of Carew's Petworth statues as 
worics of the highest talent ; and for these 
Statues, Carew's counsel alWed, no direct 
payments hnd ever been made, though the 
acnlptor hud abandoned a lucrative profes- 
rion in orderto work entirely for Lord Egre- 
mont, In reply to this the defendants as- 
anted tliat Egremont had during his lifetime 
paid-'iijrv si\-|i.iic./ which he ever owed to 
Cb^' ■ '' ' ' ■■; liipy had succeeded 

ill ' ''~2li, 7».M. paid by 

Ei.'' < (he receipt of these 

di'-ii'i 11 Intiquently forced to 

u^'ii'NiiiiMiD also contended that 
u oi' i,7iMi. had been paid; that 



of the works were not ordered by Egre- 
mont but by others; and tliat the plaintilTa 
business as a aculiitor had been ijisignificant, 
Plaintitr's counsel was compelled to agree to 
a nonsuit fur his client. After the trial 
Oarew was declared insolvent, and in De- 
cember 1841, and in Januarv, February, and 
May 1&12, his pecuniary u/tairs had to un- 
dei^ a further searching exatninatlon in the 
bankruptcy court. 

In 1S39 Carew exhibited at the Academy 
a marble bas-relief, 'The Good Samaritan ;* 
in 1842 an ' Angel ' from a monumental 
group; and in 1843, 1849, and 184S some 
busts. In addition to these works, he exe- 
cuted B statue of Kean, a well-known statue 
of ' Whjttingrton listening to the London 
Bells,' and designed 'The Death at Nelson at 
Trafalgar,' one of the four reliefs in bronia 
which decorate the pedestal of Nelson's 
column in Trafalgar Square. During his lat^ 
ter years Carew was living in London, but 
an increasing dimness of eyesight interfered 
with his work as a sculptor. He died on 
30 Nov. 1868. Carew waa married, andwas 
the father of several children. 

[Roport of the Trial of tho Ovoso Carew againat 
BurreU, London, 1840; Rcpiirt ot the Froceed- 
ing» in the Comt tor the llelief of InsolvBut 
Deblors in the matter of John Edward Cori^w, 
London, 1843 (both roporta privately printed 
from tho shorthaad writurs' noteit) ; Man of the 
Time, ISea, I86B, 1BS4; Redgrave's Diet, of 
Artists : Naglar's KiiiiBtler-Loxikoii, 1(135.] 

W.W. 

CAREW, 8iB MATTHEW (d. 1618), 



Wymond Carow of Antony, Cornwall, treo- 
surer of the first-fruits and tenths, by Martha 
Denny, sister of Sir Anthony Denny. He waa 
educated at Westminster School, undt>r Alex- 
ander Nowell, and proceeded to Trinity Col- 
lege, where he became a fellow and remained 
in residence for ten years. On determining lo 
adopt the law as hLs profession in life, Carew 
repaired to Louvaiu, and continued studying 
there and at other universities on the continent 
for twelveyears. Hi a next step was to ac- 
company I^nry, earl of Arundel, into Italy 
OS interpreter, and to return with the earl to 
England. CIsrew than entered upon practice 
in the court of arches, and ultimately be- 
came master in chancery, a position which 
he held so long as to be styled in 1602 one 
of the'ancienteBl' masters, and to justify his 
being knighted on 23 Jidy 160S, before the 
coronation of James I. His wife was Alice, 
eldest daughter of Sir John lUvers, knight, 
lord mayor of London, and widow of one 
Ingpenny ; hy her Carew had numerous 



Carew 



56 



Carew 



children. lie was buried at St. DunstanV 
in-the-AVost on '2 Au^. 1618, the main inci- 
dents in his career being described in a me- 
morial tablet in the church, and his name 
being kept in remembrance by a charitable 
bequest lor the poor of the ]mrish. At the 
close of his life Carew was involved in 
trouble. Tliere was a rumour in January 
1613 that he would be 'cozened' of eight or 
nine thousand ]H>unds thn^ugh the fraud of 
a ])erson in whom he nuwsed great confi- 
dence, and a little later his eldest son was 
engaged in a ouam»l with one Captain Os- 
borne, * and, wliether thro' him or another 
Car}', poor Osl>ome was slain.* 

[Court and Times of James I. i. 220, 330 ; 
Collect. Toix»g. et GoneiiL v. 20e>-8 ; Bibl. Topog. 
Britt. i. 30; Herald jiiul GeneaK^st, vii. 675; 
Visit, of Cornwall (Harl. Soc. 1874), \\ 33.] 

W. P. C. 

CAREW, Sir NICITOL-VS {d. 1539), 
master of the horse to llenr\' VIII, was the 
head of the younger branch of a very ancient 
family which tract^d its descent back to the 
Conquest, though the surname, derived from 
Carew in IVmbn^keshire, dates onlv from the 
days of King John. The vounger branch had 
been established at l^H.\dington in Surrey 
fri>m the time of Kdward III. Sir Richanl 
Carew, father of Sir Nicholas, was cri»ated 
by Henry VII a knight -bannen^t at the battle 
of lUackheath, and was sheriff of Surrev in 
15C)1. Nicholas was probably bom in the 
last decade of the fiftiM*nth century. In 1513 
he was asstxriated with his father in a grant 
fn^m the c^^w^l of tlie olHce of lieutenant 
of Calais Castle, which they wen* to hold in 
sur^-ivorship {Cal. ii^tate i^;)frj», Ilen. VIII, 
vol. i. No. 4570V In the same year he at- 
tended Henry VIII in his invasion of France, 
and rt^ceived a ' coat of rivet ' of the king's 
gilt at Th6n-»uanne {ih. No. 4(Ui*V In De- 
cemlxT 1514 he married Klizalxnh, daughter 
of ITiomas Rryan, victM.*hamberlain to Ca- 
therine of Arragon {^iK ii. No. 1S50. and 
p. 146(>V At this time he was st]uire of the 
king's Ixxly, and is also called one of the 
king's * cA-j^herers,' which a[ji>ears to mean 
cupbearers, in which capacity he had an 
annuity of ;K> marks given hm by patent 
on 6 Nov. 151 5 i ih. No. 1 1 16: siv also p. 874). 
At his marriage lands wen* settU»d up^-^n him 
and his wife in "Wallington, Carshalton, 
Beddington, Woodmansteme.AVoodcote, and 
Mitcham. in Surrey (^/A. Nivs. 1850. :2161). 
In 1517 his name is mentioneii as cupbearer 
at a great banquet given by the king at 
Greenwich on 7 Julv in honour of theam- 
bassadors of young Cliarles of Castile, after- 
wards the Emperor Charles A' (f A. No. S446>. 
This is the fi»t occasion on which we find 



him designated knight; and on 18 Dec. 
following, he being then knight of the roytl 
body, was appointed keeper of the manor 
of t'leasaunce in East Greenwich, and of 
the park there. That he was a favourite with 
Henry VIII both at this time and lonff afte^ 
wards there is no doubt whatever. We learn 
from Hall, the chronicler, that early in the 
eleventh year of the reign (whien means 
about May 1519) he and some other young 
men of the privy chamber who had been in 
France were oanished from court by an order 
of the council for being too familiar witk 
the king. Hall's ' Chronicle ' is so accurate 
throuirhout in respect of dates, that we may 
take It for granted he is right here also; 
and, indeed, what he says is in perfect keep- 
ing with our knowledge from other sources. 
But in that case it must be observed that 
this was not the first occasion on which the 
council had insisted on his removal from the 
king's presence, for on HT March 1518 the 
scholar Pace writes to Wolsev, * Mr. Carev 
and his wife be returned to the king's grace 
— too soon after mine opinion ' (16. No. 4034). 
The king was still voung and loved youoff 
companions, but he ^ew well how to guara 
himself against over-familiarity, and could 
fireelv allow any such cases to be corrected 
bv his council while enjoying to the full the 
pleasures of the moment. On 11 Aug. of 
the same year he and Sir Henry Gail(Sbrd 
' had each of them from the standing ward- 
robe six yards of blue cloth of gold towards 
a base and a trapper, and fifteen yards of white 
cloth of silver damask to perform another 
base and trapper for the king s justs appointed 
to be at Greenwich upon' the arrival of the 
Flinch ambassadors * (Axstis, Order af ilit 
Garter^ i. :?41V Frequent mention is made 
of him even l^efore this time in jousts and 
revels at the court (Cal. ii. 1500-1, 150S-^| 
1507-10; Hall, Cftn>/ifW^, 581). 

In 151t^l9 he was sheriff of Surrey and 
Sussex, his name being found on the com- 
mission of the peace for the former county 
fr^tm this time onward {^CaL ii. Nos. 44^, 
45(W). In Mav 1519, as we have alreadv 
indicated, occurred what must have been 
at least his second expulsion frx>m court, and 
though it was in some degree mitigated by 
his being given an honourable and lucnh 
tive post at Calais, we arv told that it was 
' sore to him displeasant.* It is commonly 
said that his disgrace was owing to his too 
gn^at love of the French court, whose fashions 
lie praist^d in pr^eference to those of England; 
but Hall's words, from which the statement 
is derived, may possibly applv only to the 
gentlemen of the privy cnamiier who were 
removed along with him. So &r as appears 



by th? ' Slate Papers ' of the period he had 
as yet had no opportunity ol making ac- 
qiuunl»nce-wilht.he French court. Howei'er, 
on 18 Uaj 1519 lui anniiitror 109/. ti«, 6d. 
was ^nted to him out oi the revenues of 
Callus, and two daja lat«r he was appointed 
lieutenant of the tower of RuyHbanKe, a fort 
which ^^uanled thci entrance uf Culai« har- 
bour (ii. iii. p. 93, and No. 247). TbJB offioo 
had just been resigned by Sir John Peachey, 
who hod b^en at the aame time appointed 
d«put}> of Calais, and Peachev's letters tell 
us liow Carew immediately after arrived at 
Calais and was sworn in as lieutenant of 
Bllysbanke the same day that he himself 
was sworn in as deputy (ib. Nos. ^59. 365). 
In Ifi^ he was present at tbe Field of the 
Cloth of Oold, and waa one of those who 
bold the lists against all comers (I'A. pp. 341, 
34S, 313). lie was also nt the meetmg of 
Htury Vm and Charles V, which occurred 
immediately afterwards (ifi. p. 326). On 
10 Oct. in that ^ear he surrendered the lieu- 
teusni^y of Calais Castle in favour of Maurice, 
lord Berkeley, but with reservation of a 
[wnsion of 100/. to himself {ib. No. 1037, 
»T. No, 400) ; and on 12 Nov. he surrendered 
his annuity as one of the king'a ' cypherera.' 
At theyery close of 1 520 he was sent with 
unpanant letters to Francis I (■£. iii. No. 
1126), and on bis return lOU/. was paid him 
Jvr bis costs (ill. p. 1544). In 1521 he was 
one of tbe grand jury of Surrey who found tbe 
iDdiclmeni intbatcountyagoinsttheDuheof 
Buchingham ('t'A. p. 493). On lajuneiathat 
year there were granted to bim, in reversion 
■fterSirTbomnaLovel, the offices of constable 
of Walli^ord Castle and steward of the 
haoourofWullingford and St, Walric,8ndthe 
four and a half hundreds of Chillem (I'A. No, 
1&1&), At Christmas following be is named 
as one of the king's carvers (No. 1896). 
On lA July 1522 he was appointed master 
of tiie horse, and also Btewaj^ of the manor I 
nf Bmcled in Eeot, which hod belonged to I 
Buckingham. On the same day be likewise 
mceivcd a grant to himself and bia wif(^, in 
toil nuile, of the manor of Bletohingley in ' 
Surrey (\i". L'396-7), to which grant were : 
s '.ar some other lands in the 
I (ib. p. 1285). In October 
■|.' Earf of Surrey wna in the 
I 1 [orepel a threatened invasion 

111" 1 li.' Iimnilrini by tbe Duke of Albany, the 
Uanjuis of Uoraet. Carew, and olliers were 
IMUit tt> bim to give bim counsel, and Surrey 
rr'frr^ ill llii'ir testimony as to tie extreme 
"f tbt) campsigu (Nos, 8421, 




1332'). Next year be was commisgioned to 
go with Lord Lisle, Dr. Taylor, Sir An- 
thony Brown, and Sir Thomas Wriotbesley, 
Garter Mn^ of arms, to carry the Garter to 
Francis I of France (i4. No. 3508). It was 
duly presented on 10 Nov. (No. 3566), and, 
to judge by the interest afterwards taken in 
him by Francis, his conversation and address 
must have produced a very favourable im- 
pression. He returned, however, with Lord 
Lisle very shortly after tbe presentation, 
leaving Taylor at Paris, who remained as 
resident ambassador (No. 3591). On 29 Jan. 
1628 be received the grant from the crown 
of an annuity of fifty marks (No. 38(i9). In 
tbe course of the following summer, while 
several of tbe court were taken ill of the 
sweating sickness, he appear 
little uneasy, complaining o 
we do not hear that he hod a more serious 
attack (No. 4429). One of those carried off 
by the epidemic was Sir Williom Coropton 
[q-T-l, who held theconstabieship of Warwick 
Castle and other important offices in that 
port of the country. Carew seems to have 
made interest to be appointed his successor, 
as we meet with a draft patent to that effect, 
but tbe grant does not appear to have been 
passed (No. 4683). In 1628-9 he was again 
sheriff for the counties of Surrey and Suasex 
(No. 4914), and at tbe eicpiration of his 

Kai'a service in this office ne was chosen 
ight of the shire for Surrey In the parlia- 
ment of 1529 (ib. iv. p. 2691). But he could 
scarcely have taken his seat in parhoment 
wfaen be was sent, with Dr. Sampson and Dr. 
Benet, to Bologna on embassv to the emperor. 
Their instructions bad already been prepared 
as early oa 21 Sept., and tbey seem to have 
left on or about 7 Oct, (Nos. 6949, 6996) ; 
but additional instructions were sent after 
them on 30 Nov. (No. 6069). Carew con- 
tinued at Bologna till 7 Feb, 1530, and in the 
opinion of goodjudges acquitted himself with 
great dexterity (tb. p. 27s3). 

In February 1631 the king paid him a 
visit at Beddington, and went to bunt in 
his grounds (ib. v. p. 50), In September 
following he and Thomas Cromwell received 
joint authority to swear in commissioners 
for sewers in Surrey (ib. No. 429), Next 
year (against bis will, as he privat*ly inti- 
mated to the imperial ambassador Chapuys) 
be was sent over to France in October lo 
prepare for a meeting between Henry VIII 
and Francis I, which took place at Calais in 
the end of tbe month, As the object of tbe 
interview no doubt was to promote the king's 
marriage to Anne Boloyn and to strengthen 
him against the empnror, it wns exceedingly 
I unpopular. Carew, for bis part, would rather 



Care^v 5 5 Carew 

LiTr i"- ■- ■ ...- :-.* 'LIZ. : --v-Ji.'- : 7 -T : ro- i ?.:. iiT^T^r. was in irs^-lf almost suffi- 

h^r. Lr :. : i.? -.-: ^l- . r-vA^ ■'-'i ' ■ -. '.-■_ ::^-- - crLzi Li= &a a traitor. But it had 

Ir. n:.:. "--r •»--: •-.-.- : i'"!---. -s-j:*- :»-r:i : ir.1. ••rsiir*. since Kxeier's attainder, 

A'--- r^..r-z. -i.i -r..._t.--i ..-^". --i" "riu.* 'I't^TB- i_-i r.-renpri\-y toa numberol'the 

TrA.-. Ji- - -j::---: J" ::-.• : r ^.l'. ^ ' ■^- ' "ru: r i* ii?.>: irsr^* ' of the marquis in 

p. L.'-.r Ir. *i.--r.i- '. T-... Jrui:-= -r:.*-:. li?* j-^irs. ini Li-i kept up a treasonable 

H-nn- '~rir :-. .— - -.- "■- z: ' .■ r-i-r .•• z. :• T?»r^Ti"r.iTi:r.>r "sri-h him. the letters on both 

Ci>:T:_- rir.- :--- -ir:-7.— _. l->.-.-. r.r ?lir:-i-iT:j:^:»rrnb'.imT by mutual apvement 

apT-i?-:::"!; 'rii_^-i :. 1 :~ ^ ~ r :_' _r^ •" i.T .i Li.;l:"5.:rrr. The treason, of course, 

oViii. - '■">' '. •%%;. r.r . "^iir'.T ir:-:- ■x-i* :: rlr ?anr cLaracter as that of the 

wiri.- 1- Ti.--: i jTTi- : .n rTVrr--::^ : '.'l- -zllt^^z:^ ^ Tvb'. :!:■* exprtrssion of a desire 

c:^:r: :: "It i-z^- ? '"-er ImrTr :.T'. :. ■;> . - : s-r^r i c'wz^. Carew was condemned ag 

NriT T-rir -.:.■; TTr-iJ. - -^ xji-i. "ST "t " i z:i"T7 .: C'liTSr. and on 3 March was 

Hri-'T :z. 'l\o7— r iiv ^ 'L-.' i '-ir:.-r - ^'i: CTlTii-ri in Tower Hill. Chi the scaffold, 

b*r •: .TJi-Tz^i - L-ii. iT. :. i:' : z.-rr^-z.'. "i- :: -x^r ^±j l-elieTe the puritanical testimony 

ch-sjiirll 7--..T : :_T .-It.-. Ht-tt r-T".!-! :: Hill * hr nade a ff«»dlv confession, botn 

to :lr rUT y i^..' zT-^z.'ri Tz- '--"VT r":..!: •:' li= :':'-'.y and superstitious faith, giving 

thrr i."-i.n>. 11 ■?-"...: : ''-■: irlr? Ill "•r-r- « t -I n.-"?": irArrv thanks that ever he came 

alr^,ii7 •. r.:-7r-l .t- - :lv i:.r.r : >::■?. ir. :1t prls-rn of the Tower, where he firet 

ba: :'lj.: Lr w J.i >-~-zi -r •." lTt— ::r i siT.>-i •r.-e life and sweetness of CtocI's most 

Gir-.rr r. "ir r.r-" Tijir:;.- :". v..:. :.''■. L It W.ri. meaning the Bible in English, 

Acci:ri:r._:>. n >:. 't-,- t-t'? uv. i:. Air.l wrich :!■£?=• he read bv the mean of one 

l.>oo. a cl.-.:'-T "'-izur "--1: i: Lir-.-irr-^v:.!!. Pr.:=:is I'hrlif-s. then keeper of that pris<5n.' 

vot-rs "ss-v^.- z^jLrT. '■: ±11 1 v^ .<- v .n L^ Hillills that Phelips himself had been a 

the kni^rh:?. ini :1-:- kin* •:- :lir ::ll:T»-ir.z j rls n^r there two years before, and had 

day drclirei :*:..-" :ir rlr«r:;~ Li : :'ill-z :: sjir-rrv^i f-^-rsr-ouiion for his opinions from 

Carew. Xcc.Ti.'z ::■ The Bl.ick B- • k ■:: :l:v Sir Pnomas More and Stokesley, bishop of 

orde-r hr wis-rl-;c::r-i"in7>rrirl :t':ir rr.v rriry I^r-nii'ii — :h&: is to say, he had been prose- 

of votts, til- -nilnrno^ ■:: hi- rXTTLrti r.. hi* cMt-r-i in the bi«hop*s court and under a royal 

own lime, an i ":.r mir.y ir. : r.:i'.-t iovl n* c-^mmission for heresy. 

he had p^r:' r=:-ri; wh::h injlr r»rli"i:r. was A family tradition, mentioned by Fuller, 

unanin: '^^ly i7:li.v.I-.'i >y ^h-r ksi^-L:? c.z:- ir.ves as the cause of his fall an indiscreet 

pani !!?.' Hr w.is ir.?! -111-1 a: S:. G.-tj-t'* answer that he gave to the king when the 

leas:. I'l Mriv : ll:w:-^ iA>"?t:?, CW^t •./ latter, between jest and earnest, at a game 

the G.irTr'. i. -j-t '. ii. :l^^ . a* U-^wls. used opprobrious lanfiruafife towards 




. ^ ^ ^ . top 

he. wi:;i :hr- r .Thr r> ■: hijh ?:an iir.^ a: the the b-Mioni of his displeasure.* It is possible, 

court. • in i-i^* i.? :ir.l : :^w.,l?. t ..y-i ehcirjv of and not altogether inconsistent with the Tu- 

the ion:, ar.i ktp: thr >dn:rr till thvy were dor character, that a game of bowls was the 

disoh:ir*:i-d thfrv-.-i bv the Ird stewarA or occasion made use of to let Carew know he 

treasurer of the kir./s iiv.ise in his abs^ucv* had fallen from favour; but that it was not 

(Stkitk. jKW. Mern-.-nniJi, ii. i. 4 i. But the cause of the kings displeasure we have 

little mori^ than a vrar afti-rwarvls a cloud pret tysutficient evidence. The tradition, how- 

Dassed over his I'ortun-. s. In November l.V^^ ever, may perhaps refer to the temporary dis- 

Lord MontatTv.e and the Manjuis of ExKer grace wliicn Carew, as we have seen, had in- 

were sent to Tin- Towt-r. and next month thev ciirred at an earlier period. It mav at least 




, , ,. , property ^^ 

oi tuo sivcial commission which received bv the crown, and, though his attainder 
^^},^ ^^'p}^;^n'^^'r*f ^^port of Dep, Keeper Was afterwards reversed (2 & 3 Edw. VI, 
qri^blic iZcconfe, App. ii. 256). To have | c 42), there ia stiU pzoaerved an interesting 



Carew 



59 



Carew 



inventory taken at Beddington in the reign 
of Edward VI, describing the tapestries, bed- 
steads, and other furniture which had been 
left there apparently by the unfortunate 
knight. Among other articles mention is 
expressly made of a press with drawers full 
of evidences, court rolls, and other writings 
concerning the lands both of Carew and of 
other persons. At the end is a list of books, 
among which are enumerated the chronicles 
of Monstrelet and Froissart, with other books, 
both written and printed, of divers histories. 
But the work which stands first on the list is 
Gower's 'Confessio Amantis' (the author's 
name is not given in the inventory), which is 
described as ' a great book of parchment lined 
with gold of graver's work.' 

A mie portrait of Carew, painted on board, 
was preserved at Beddington till about twenty 
years ago, when the house was sold and the 

E' ires were disposed of. It is engraved in 
ns's * Environs of London,' firom a copy 
1 for Lord Orford at a time when the 
original, we are told, was in a more perfect 
state than it was even when Lysons wrote. 

[A brief accotmt of Carew is given in Lysons's 
Environs, i. 49, and another in Anstis's Order 
of the QmxteT, i . 249. See also (besides authorities 
above cited) Fuller's Worthies (ed. 1811), ii. 
379 ; Hall's Chronicle (ed. 1809), pp. 581, 598, 
611, 630, 689, 722, 827 ; Harl. MS. 1419, f. 373.1 i 

J. G. 

CAREW, Sib PETER (1514-1575), 
soldier, was the second son of Sir WiUiam 
Carew of Ottery Mohun or Mohuns Ottery, 
Devonshire, who was the son of Sir Edmund 
Carew [q. v.] His brothers were George, who 
served in several military commands in the 
reign of Henry VTII, and Philip, of whom 
nouiing is known but that he was a knight of 
Malta. Sir Peter was bom at Ottery Mohun 
in 1514. He was sent to the grammar school 
at Exeter, but can hardly be said to have 
been educated there ; for a career of frequent 
truancy culminated in his climbing a turret 
on the city wall, and threatening to jump 
down if his master came after him. His 
father, being told of this escapade, had him led 
back to his house in a leash, like a dog, and 
for a punishment ' coupled him to one of his 
hounds, and so continued him for a time.' 
Soon after he was sent to St. Paulas School, 
but did no better there ; and his father, in 
despair of making him a scholar, accepted 
the proposal of a French friend, who wanted 
the young Carew as his page. He was un- 
lucl^ in this new position also, and was de- 
graded to the place of muleteer, from which 
&e was rescuea by a relation, who heard his 
companions call him by name. This rela- 
Oaif a Gftzew of Haocombe, was going with 



Francis I, king of France, to the siege of 
Pavia, but died on the way, and the young 
Carew was taken up by the Marquis of Saluzzo^ 
who was slain at the battle of Pavia in 
February 1526. Being again left masterless, 
he went over to the enemv's camp, and en- 
tered the service of Philibert de Ch&lons, 
prince of Orange, and, after his death at the 
siege of Florence in 1530, continued with his 
sister Claudia, wife of Henry of Nassau. 
He was now about sixteen years of age, and, 
being anxious to revisit his native country, 
was sent by the princess with letters to 
Henry VIII, who, struck by his proficiency 
in riding and other exercises, and by hia 
knowledge of the French language, took him 
into his service, first as a henchman, and 
then as a gentleman of the privy chamber. 
The next lew years of his lire were chiefly 
passed in England at the court, with the 
exception of journeys in the king's service, 
such as attending on his royal master to 
Calais in 1532 ; on Lord WiUiam Howard, 
when he took the Garter to James V in 1535 ; 
and on the lord admiral when he went to 
fetch Anne of Cleves in 1539. About the fol- 
lowing year (1540) he went abroad with his 
cousin, John Champemoun, and visited Con- 
stantinople, Venice, Milan, and Vienna, where 
Champemoun died of dysentery. While in 
the Turk's countries the travellers had dis- 
guised themselves as merchants in alum, 
boon after Carew's return war broke out be- 
tween England and France, and he served 
both by land and sea. In the campaign of 
1544 he joined the king's army with one 
hundred K)ot, apparelled m black at his own 
expense, his elder brother, George, being lieu- 
tenant of the horse till he was taken pri- 
soner at Landrecy. Sir George was not long 
in captivity, and in the following year was 
in command of the Mary Rose when she 
foundered going out of Portsmouth harbour 
to attack the French fleet. Carew crossed 
the Channel with the lord-admiral (Sir John 
Dudley), being one of the leaders of the as- 
sault of Tr6port, for which he was kniglited. 
In the last year of Henry VIII's reign 
Carew was sheriil* of Devonshire ; but marry- 
ing a Lincolnshire lady, Margaret, daugliter 
of Sir William Skipworth, widow of George, 
lord Tailboys de Kyme, he went to reside on 
his wife's estates, till he was recalled by the 
news of the insurrection of 1549, caused by 
the issuing of the reformed Book of Common 
Prayer. Ilis action in this matter was ener- 
getic and in fact severe, and he did not escape 
reprimand for having exceeded his commis- 
sion. On the death of Edward VI he opposed 
the attempt to place Lady Jane Grey on the 
throne, and proclaimed Mary as queen in 



Carew 60 Carew 

the west ; but as soon as her marriage with I self, and obtain leave to prosecute his daims 

Philip of Spain was proposed, he conspired in Munster. While in this country the queen 

with some of his neighbours against it. The waa anxious for him to resume the seat in 

plot was discovered, and he only escaped to parliament which he had held in the first 

the continent just in time to avoid arrest. At year of her reign, but he refused. His peti- 

Venice he was nearly murdered bv bravoes tion being at length granted, he returned to 

hired by Peter Vannes, the English ambas- Ireland (1574), and finding that Lord Gourcj, 

sador, and therefore travelled northward. Lord Barry Oge, the O'Mahons, and others 

Passing through Antwerp, Lord Paget had were willing to acknowledge his claims and 

him and his companion, Sir John Cheke, ar- become his tenants, he ordered a house to be 

rested bv the sheriff, and sent blindfolded to prepared at Cork, but was taken ill on his 

England in a fishing-boat. His destination way thither, and died at Ross in Waterford 

was the Tower, where he was confined till De- on 27 Nov. 1576. He was buj-ied on 15 Dec 

cembcr 1556, being released on the payment in the church at Waterford, on the south side 

of some old-standing debt of his srandfEkther to of the chancel, and his faithful servant and 

the crown. The accession of Elizabeth again biographer erected a monument to his memory 

brought him into favour. In the second in Exeter Cathedral There is an engraving 

year of her reign, when the Duke of Norfolk of this in Sir John Maclean's ' Life/ and also 

and Lord Grey de Wilton were commanding of the well-known portrait at Hampton 

an army against the French in Scotland, he Court. Neither he nor his brother left any 

was sent on the delicate mission of settling issue. His will, at Somerset House, is dated 

a difference between the two noblemen which 4 July 1574, and was proved 20 Feb. 1575. 

was detrimental to the public service ; and pYe have a detailed oontemporaiy acoonnt 

when the duke was tried and convict^ of of Carew's romantic life, written by Eichard 

treason, in 1572, Carew acted as constable Hooker, alias Yowell, the uncle of the author of 

of the Tower. But before this latter date the Ecclesiastical Polity, who was in Carew's 

(about 1565 or 1566) he showed a quantity of service for some years. There is an aocoont of 

old records to his biographer. Hooker, who this biography in Archaeologia, vol. xxviii., and it 

on examination was convinced that Carew ^^ }f en print«i by Sir John Maclean, and in 

was entitled to many lands in Ireland which ^^ Calendw of the Carew Papers. Sir John 

had belonged to hii ancestors; and going Macleans edition is illi^trated with copioni 

♦^ T««i««x rv« n««^«r»o i>«i,«i^ !,;« ^«i«;^« notes and appendices of documents and letters, 

to Ireland on Carew s behalf, his opinion g^ ^ ^^J^^ ^^ j^^^ p ^^^ ^^^^ 

was confirmed. Carew thereupon obtamed ^^^g i574_85; Cal. of Carew MSS. 161^74; 

leave frona the queen to prosecute ^^ }'}t* Stiype's Keel. Mem. iii. L 147, 616, m. ii. 7; 

and sailed from Ilfracombe in August 1508. strype's Annals, i. i. 468; Life of Cheke, 106-8; 

The remainder of his life, with short excep- Foxe, vi. 413-14, viii. 257-607 ; Fuller's Church 

tions, was spent in recovering what he believed Hist. iv. 228; Fuller's Worthies, Devon, 272; 

to be his property in Ireland, in which was Wood's Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss, i. 243, 327, il 

included a large portion of Munster, which 460; Polwhele's Devonshire, ii. 11, 19; Prince's 

had been granted by Henry II to Robert Worthies of Devon, 199, 204; Leland's Itin.iii. 

Fitz-Stephen, whose daughter married a Ca- 40; Tuckett s Devonshire Pedigrees.] 

rew. He began with the lordship of Maston C. T. M. 

in Meath, which was occupied by Sir Chris- CAREW, RICHARD (1565-1620), poet 
topher Chyvers. He then obtained a decree and antiquary, is the best-known memb^ of 
of the deputy and council adjudging to him one of the leading families of Cornwall. His 
the barony of Odrone in Carlow, which was father, Thomas Carew of Antony House, in 
held by the Kavanaghs, and was appointed the parish of East Antony, married Eliia- 
captain of Leighlin Castle, which is in the beth, daughter of Sir Ricnard Edgecumbe, 
centre of the barony (17 Feb. 1568-9). A and their eldest son, Richard, was bom at 
few miles north lay the castle of Cloghgrenan, A ntony House on 17 July 1555. When only 
which was held by Sir Edmund Butler, eleven years old he became a gentleman 
brother of the Earl of Ormonde, having been commoner of Christ Church, Oxford, but his 
taken from the Kavanaghs by their father, rooms were in Broadgates Hall, and he was 
Butler, it is said, expecting to be dispossessed, probably one of the two persons called Carew 
made several attempts to attack Carew, but appearing in a list of the undergraduates re- 
in vain ; and the rebellion known as the But- sident in that hall about 1570. Here, when 
ler's wars breaking out shortly after, Carew a scholar of three years' standing, he WM 
stormed and took the castle. For this he called upon, as he modestly Bays, 'upon a 
incurred some blame from the queen, as being wrong conceived opinion touchiiiff my suffi- 
partly the cause of the insurrection, and was ciency,' to dispute ' extempore (mpetr ooii- 
obliged to return to England to excuse him- grewiu AchUU) with the matchleas Sir Philip 



Siilnejr, in preseuce of the Earls Leicester, 
W»rvriclt, ajid tliviTs otlier greiit pereonnges.' 
Wliat the issue of the conleat wa^ Carew 
boB aim1I«d Id bIhU^, but lat«i historians 
hsTe &dded that the dispute resulted in a 
dr&wn battle. The fanuly estates passed to 
bim earlv iu life, and in the veraea on his 
anjeeatniBUidllis issue which he incorporated 
in his * Survey of Oomwall ' (jip. 246-7, ed. 
1811) it 13 recorded that he wse the fifth of 
tus IBC« to inherit the pstrimony. In 1677 
ht> Durried Juliana, the eldest ^ughter of 
John Anindel of Trerice, by his first wife, 
Catberint, daughter of John Coswarth, and 
through his marriage he inherited a part of 
tie Cos-icarth property. He devoted hiraself 
irith groit leal to the discliaj^ of his duties 
■sacounlryiienUeman, and solaced his leisure 
faoojB with inquiries into the history and an- 
tiquitiM of his native county, and n^tth the 
study of foroign languages, until he had he- 
Gome a nuutcr of &\e tongues— the epitaph 
which he wrote on himselt specifies the lan- 
guages of Oreoce, Italy, Germany, France, 
and Spain — by reading, ' without any other 
teaching.' In 1561 he was appointed a jus- 
tice of the peace, and in 16do ne was called 
upon to act na high sheriff of Cornwall. As 
be wae the owneroflarge estates near sereral 
Cornish boroughs, and his connections em- 
braced the principal gentn' of the county, he 
had Lttle ditSctilty in obtaining a «eat in 

Erliatw-'nt, In 1584 he was returned for 
Itsfh. and in 1597 he sat for Michell. He 
was oni- of the deputy-lieutenants of Corn- 
wall, and lie served under Sir Walter Raleigh, 
the lord-liuutenant of the county, in the posts 
of treasurer of the lieutenancy and colonel of 
the raiment, five hundred strong, which 
bad for its ciiarge the protection of Cawsund 
Bay. Of the Society of Antiquaries first e»- 
tatuiahiMl by Archbishop Parker, Carew bo- 
oamuanactivemember in I589,Bnd about the 
aame time began the task of compiling an his- 
torical Rurvoy of his native county. Among 
the gentry nf Cornwall he took the first plac 
ftad the antitiuari^ of London accepted him : 
tbeiroquaL Spelinan.who addressed to bim 
on ' Epistle onTithcs,' and Camden were bis 
intimate friauds, and in Ben Jonson's ' Exe- 
cration upon Vulcan' be is classed with 
Cotton and Selden. John Dunbar has 
Latin ppigmms to Carew {Centuri/s Sex epi- 

Cammaloii, lith Centur., 61 and 6*2), lauding 
I kiiowlpdge of history, poetry, and the 
law, and ^uimingonbia name; whileCharles 
FitzgiKiDry, in hu) ' Affanis,' book iii., praises 
tiis linguiiitic attatnmeuts. He died on 6 Nov. 
16^. ' aa be was at his private prayers in his 
study (his daily practice) at lower in the 
ftfieraoon,' and was buried in Antony Church. 



Against its north wall stands a plain tablet 
of btuck marble buoring a long inscription to 
his memory. Another epitaph was written 
for him by Camden, which dwella on the 
modesty of his manners, the generositv of 
liis disposition, his varied lesming, and his 
christian leal. Both epitaphs, togetherwith 
some verses written by the historian imme- 
diately before his death, are printed in the 
'Parochial llistorv of Cornwall,' i, 24, The 
earliest work of Carew is the translation of 
the first five cantoa of Taeso's ' Gbdfrey of 
Bvlloigne, or the recouerie of Hiervsalam,' a 
veiy rare volume which appeared in 1594, 
and according to some copies ' imprinted by 
lobtt Windet for Thomas Man,' and in others 
by lohn Windet for Christopher Hunt of 
Exceter,' who served his time to Man. The 
fourth book of the translation was repro- 
duced in S. W. Singer's reprint of Fairfei's 
translation, 1817, vol. i. sxxiii-lvii, and the 
whole work was issued by the Rev. Alex- 
ander B. Orosort in 1681 in an edition limited 
sixty-two copies. Carew was for some 
time unaware that his translation was being 
passed through the press, and when it came 
to his ears the first tve cantos only were is- 
sued because he commanded ' a stAie of the 
rest till the sommer,' a summer vhich never 
arrived. The accuracy of his translation has 
been much commended, but it has generally 
been allowed that its efiect is weakened by 
his endeavour to make the English veruon 
an exact copy, line by line, of the orj^nal. It 
contains several passages of much beauty, and 
great praise is given to many extracts from it 
in an elaborate article in the ' Retrospective 
Review,' iii. 32-50. In the same year (1594) 
there appeared a rendering of ' Eiamen de 
Ingenios. The examination of men's wits by- 
John Huarte. Translated out of the Spanish 
Tongue by M. Camillo CamilU. Englished 
out of his Itaban by R. C[arewl Esquire,' 
which was reprinted in 1596, 1604, and 1616. 
Huarte's work is a dull treatise of little 
value, on the corporeal and mental Qualities 
of men and women. Carew'a translation is 
dedicated to Sir Francis Qodolphin, who 
lent him Comilli's version, a loan recorded 
in the words, ' Good Sir, your booke retum- 
eth vnto you clad in a Comiah gabardine.' 
An anonymous poem, called ' A Herring's 
Tayle,' which was published in 1598, has 
been assigned to Carew on the strength of a 
statement in GuilUm's 'Heraldry' (1611), p. 
154, and as the assertion was made during 
the lifetime of Carew by one of like tastes 
with himself, its accuracy can be accepted. 
This poem, which contins some vigorous 
lines, IS not Iree as a whole from the charge 
of obscurity. The subject is 



Carew 



62 



Carew 



Tho strange adventures of the hardie Snayle 
Who durst (vnlikely match) the weathercock 
assajle. 

When Carew next appeared as an author it 
was in topofpraphical literature. ' The Svrvey 
of Cornwall. Written by Richard Carew of 
Antonie, Esquire/ had been lonff in hand, 
though it was not published until 1602, the 
subscription on the last leaf being *Deo 
gloria, mihi gratia, 1602, April 23.* He 
meditated in 1606 the issuing of a second 
edition, * not so much for the enlarging it as 
the correcting mine and the printer^s over- 
sights,' but it was not republished before 
1723, when there was prefixed to it a ' life 
of the author by II»*^* C'****,' a catch- 
penny device intended to delude the world 
with'tbe belief that it was the composition 
of a member of the family of Carew, but it 
was in reality a dull compilation by Pierre 
des Maizeaux. The 'Survey' and the life 
were reissued in 1769, and another edition of 
the * Survey,' with notes by Thomas Tonkin, 
was printed for Lord De Dunstanville in 
1811. Carew's history of Cornwall still re- 
mains one of the most entertaining works in 
the English language. In its pages may be 
discerned the character of an English gentle- 
man in the brightest age of our national 
history, interesting himself in the pursuits 
of all around him and skilled in the pastimes 
of every class. The industries of the county 
and its topographical peculiarities are de- 
picted with considerable detail, and if there 
IS little genealogical information in its pages 
the characters of its celebrities are described 
with quaintness and with kindliness. CareVs 
' pleasant and faithfull description ' of Corn- 
wall was the phrase of Fuller, and the words 
were well chosen. He was also the author 
of * An Epistle concerning the excellencies 
of the English tongue,' which appeared in 
the second edition of Camden's ' Kemains,' 
1 605, and was reprinted with the 1723 and 
1769 editions of the * Survey of Cornwall.' 
The merits assigned by him to the language 
are significancy, easiness to be learnt, copious- 
ness, and sweetness. This little essay possesses 
the charm which is inherent in all Carew's 
writings, but it would have passed out of 
recollection by this time but for its mention, 
in a comparison of English and foreigfn writers, 
of Shakespeare's name. A manuscnpt volume 
of his poems was formerly in the possession 
of the Kev. John Prince, the commemorator 
of the worthies of Devon. Mr. James Cross- 
ley suggested that Carew might be the R C. 
who translated Henry Stephens's ' World of 
Wonders,' 1607 {Notes and Queries j 6th ser., 
viii. 247, 1877). Several of his letters to 
damden are among the 'Cottonian MSS./ 



(Julius C. V.) A letter to Sir Robert Cotton 
is printed in *• Letters of Eminent Literary 
Men ' (Camden Soc., 1848, pp. 98-100). 

[Fuller's Worthies, 1811, i. 218; Wood's 
Athome Oxen. (Bliss), ii. 284-7 ; Corser's Col- 
lectADea, iii. 242; Boase and Courtney's BibL 
Comub. ; Life in Survey of Cornwall, 1723.1 

W. P. CI. 

CAREW, Sib RICHARD (d. 1643 P), 
writer on education, was the eldest son of 
Richard Carew, the poet and antiquary [q. v.] 
The chief facts in his life are set out m the 
opening sentences of his * True andreadieWay 
to leame the Jjatine Tongue.' He was put to 
school in his 'tender youth, and so contmued 
for nine or ten years.' Three years were spent 
at the university of Oxford — he was probably 
tho Richard Carew who matriculatea at Mer- 
ton College on 10 Oct. 1594 — and three more 
in studying law at the Middle Temple. After 
this course of instruction he was aespatched 
with his uncle on an embassy to the king of 
Poland, and as the king was at the time on 
a visit in Sweden Carew followed him thither. 
On his return he was sent by his father into 
France, with Sir Henry Nevill, ambassador 
to Henry IV, to ' learn the French toiunie,' 
and in the third book of Charles Fitxgeoffiy's 
' Afianise ' is an epigram addressed to him on 
his return from his French travels. In 1614 
he was one of the members for the county of 
Cornwall, and in 1620 he represented Michell, 
a Cornish borough in which the family con- 
nections possessed great influence. He was 
twice married, his first wife being Brid^ 
daughter of John Chudleigh of Devonshire, 
and the second wife being Miss Rolle of Hean- 
ton. He was created a baronet on 9 Auf. 
1642, and his death took place about 1648. 
On 3 Sept. 1640 there was licensed by the 
Company of Stationers * a booke called "The 
Warming Stone." ' This was by Carew, and it 
was a treatise written to prove tliat a ' warming 
stone ' was ' useful and comfortable for the 
colds of aged and sick people ' and for many 
other diseases. The author was himself said 
to have been * cured of several distempers by 
it,' and its virtues were attested by numerous 
cases around his family seat. Editions of 
this tract are known to have been published 
in 1662, 1660, and 1670. Carew was one of 
the persons who examined the attendants at 
Antony Church on the thunderstorm on Whit- 
sunday 1640, and an account of the stonny 
which was written by him, appeared in the 
* Western Antiquary,' i. 4^^. In 1664 
Samuel Hartlib published 'The tme and 
readie way to leame Latine tongue attested 
by three excellently learned and approved 
authours of three nations,* of which Ouew 
was the English author. Hartlib was spp*- 




rentlf niid«r the unpreaaion that it wm the 
compoaiticm of the poetical nntiqimry, but it 
'WBs in reajitj ihe work of bis fan. Cnrew 
vraa oppooed to much grammar (caching, his 
•with Doing for translation backwarda and 
forwards. 

[Bomb and Coiirtncj's Bibl. Comub. i. 0, fiS, 
"111; Arber's Stationers' liegistera, iv. £19.1 
W. P. C. 

GARY, ROBERT, aleo called 

[TlXCg (Jl. 1325), schoolman, is stated 

■h^ye been a doctor of divinity of Oxford, 

to have held an eminent position as a 

find philosopher. Hi a works named 

QiuestioQeit in libros Pasteriorum Aris- 

liV boeides the regular productions of a 

mlastic,— a commentary on the ' Sentences ' 

Pater Lombard, 'Qureationes ordinnrios,' 

eipoeitions ' super -varios socne Scrip- 

[Lolaod'i Comn. de Script. Brit, ccoriii. 

&319; Pits, DBADglisBSeript. p. 417; Tannor'a 
bL Brit. p. 164.] B. L. P. 

OAREW, Sir THOMAS (A 1431). [See 
und^ Cakew, Sir Johr (li 1362).] 

CAHEW, THOMAS (lfi98P-1639P).poet, 
■ younger ton of Sir Matthew Carew [q.T.], 
by Alice, daughter of Sir John Rivers, Jmt., 
-was bcm about 1598, and seems early to have 
fiiUen into dissipated habit«. He entered at 
"Toreas ChrisCi CoUere, Oxford, but left the 

■iTersit}' without takingadegree. Aaearly 

fe]6l3 lus father, who was in straitened eir- 

e time, writing to Sir Dudley 

), complains that one of his sons was 

ig nAcr hounds and hawks, and theother 

.amslBtudvingin the Middle Temple, but 

ig litOe at law.' Oarleton hereupon took 

» youtli into his service as secretary, and 
Chrew appears to have remained with him 
daring his embassy at Venice and Turin, and 
totuiTe returned with him to England about 
thecndof 1615. When Carleton became am- 
bajeadori.jtheStatasin thefoUowingspring, 
(.'ari'w ii^inin accompanied him, but some 
limr in tlip summer he suddenly threw up 
IiiK cmploi ment (in irritation at some oft'ront 
he had received at the hands of his patron) 
and r^tuniod to England. Sir Matthew made 
tafitf ihnu one efibrt to get his son another 

Kt. but in vain, and at the end of October 
mbps him as ' wandering idly about with- 
out itniployment," Lord Arundel and others 
liafing dwlined to take him into their ser- 
vicv in consequence of his misconduct, which 

Iliii4 Instill aggravaled by ' aspersions ' spoken 
. writlMi again.''t &r Dudley and Lady 
]at«a. In 1619 Carew went with his 
txl Lend Herbert of Ch^bury to the French 



court. He af^rwsrds obtained some post 
about the court, for at the creation of Henry, 
prince of Wales, in November, he is men- 
tioned as attending on Lord Beaucbamp aa 
his squire. Very nttle more is known of his 
lifeafterthis. Hebecamesewer inordinaiyto 
Charles I,andgentlemanofbisprivy chamber, 
and was, it is said, high in favour with that 
king, who bestowed upon him tbe royal domain 
of Sunningbill (part of the forest of Wind- 
sor), and had a high opinion of his wit and 
abilities. Carew was associated moreorleu 
closely with almost all the eminent tilemiy 
men of his time, and was cspeciallv intimate 
with Davenant and Sir John SucUing, In 
the collection of Suckling's poems there aro 
more than one among the poems and letters 
addresEwd to Carew by no means creditable 
to either. Carew's longest performance waa 
'Coilum Britannicum' (though Mr. lloltoa 
Comey doubted whether he were really tho 
Buthnr), a mii«qne performed at Whitehall 
on 18 Feb. 1633-4 ; his other poems are 
chiefly songs and ' society verses,' composed^ 
it is said, with great dii&eulty, but melodious 
and highly polished, though eharacterised hy 
the usual conceits and affectation of hia time. 
Fonr e<litions of Carew appeared between 
1640 and 1671, a fifth in 1772, and four have 
been printed during the present century, by 
farthomoiit complete and elaborate being that 
of Mr. W, C, Hoilitt, published in quarto 
in 1870, There is nn uncertainty about the 
time of Cnrew's death. It looks as if his 
life had been shortened I^ his irregular 
habits. When he waa stricken down by 
mortal sickness, he sent for Hales of Eton 
to administer to him the consolations of 
religion. Hales seems to have thought vei^ 
meanly of him, and made no secret of his 
low opinion. Carew has left some wretched 
attempts at versifying a few of the Psalms; 



itry of his burial has been 
found. Tbe illness that led him to a maud- 
lin kind of repentance seems to have come 
upon him when he was in the country. If 
he recovered enough &om it to return to 
London, he probably died at his house in 
King Street, St. James's. 

[Mr. Hazlitt has availed himself of all the 
known sourcex for the biography of Carew in the 
edition of his poems mentianed above, and haa 
given his authorities. The only aJditioDS to ba 
made are from Nichols's Progresspa of Ja,tnm I, 
iii. 22* ; Lord Herbert's Aatobiography (1886), 
iivili. 19U, 198; Coart and Times of James 1, 
i. 433, t3i : Col. of trltate Papers, Dom. 1638-9, 
p. SIS ; Notes and Queries, 4Ch Eeries, ii. 4SD.] 
A. J. 



Carew 64 Carey 

CAREW or CAWE, THOMAS (^loOO- Spencer of Althorpe, and wife of Sir CJeorge 

1672 ?). [See Cawe, Thomas.] Carer ^q. v.], eldest son and heir of Henry 

CAREY. [See alao Carew and Cabt.' Carey "q. v.j, first lord Hunsdon. EdmunS 

^ A •n-r.^T' T^ & TTTk /I -o-^ 1 o.-^ I \ • 1- * Spenser, the poet, was her kinsman, and she 

CAREY, DA\TD(1, 82-1824), journ»bst ,^t . deep W^ert in his litenuy labours. 

and poet, son of a manufacturer in Arbroath, g ,., . S[niopotmo8 ' is dedicated to her, 

waa bom in 1 / 82. After leaving school he ^ the poet ac&owledges in the epistle the 

was pUced in his lather's counting-hou*., .excellentfiiTOUH.'he hid received from her. 

but subsequently he removed to Edinburgh, j^^ j,,^^ -^ ^^ ^^ ^j ^^^ ^^ ^^^ 

where he was for a short time m the pub- g^^, co'mmemorates in an introductory 

Lshing house of Archibald Constable. Thence goWt to the ' Faery Queene.' Nash, thi 

he went to London, and, obtammg a situation satirist . likewise acknowledges her pa^Miage. 

on the periodical press, wrote with such j^ dedicating his ' ChristVTeaw Sver Je^- 

keenness in support of the whig govemmm ^^^. ^^-^^ ^ j-gg ^^ ^^. .j^^^^ 

as to attract tlie notice of )\ yndham, who ^eU^eser^-ing Poets have consecrated their 

oflFered hiiB a foreign amwmtment, which ^ndevours to your praise. Fame's eldest 

he declined After the disso ution of the f^^^^f ^^^^ Spencer, in all his writings 

'"^'^ °L1'}\ *^^ i 'A^l** ^^.rt! .' he Pri«^th you.' Ifohn Dowland, the sonl- 

aat^ entitled 'Ins and Outs; or, the State ^^ dedicating his ' first book of Songis 

of Parties, by Chrononhotonthologos, wluch ,„d a. • (jg^ t^ g;, GeorgeCarey,speat» 

met at once with an extensive sale. In 180/ ^^ ^^/, gingokr graces ' sho^ by < /ouivo^ 

he becwne editor of the Inverness Journal, ^^^^ ^ad? my honourable mistois.^ 
which he 1^ in 1812 to conduct the Boston ^ daughter of Ladv Carey, also named 

Gaiette ' In a few months, however, he EmzABEfH, was simiUrly a patroness of 

renewed his connection with the London j^^^ ^j -^ t^^ dedication toSe ' Terrors 

press, which for the remamder of his life ^f ,^^ y^^^^^, ^^^) ^^ ^f^^ ^^ ^j,^ ^^^^ 

occupied his principal attention. In 1822 in an address to the daughter in these terms: 

he spent some time m Pans, and on his .^ ^^^hv daughter aS. vou to so worthie 

return published Life in Pans, written : , ^^.^j^^, - "f^t^ ^j^^ jj^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ 

chiefly ma humorous vein, with apposite ^^ ^^ j^^^j^ j^j^j adopted, and purchast 

coloured illustrations. His visit to Tans ^j^^ Petrarch another monument in Eng- 

having faded to restore his shattered health, j^^ ^ver honoured may she be of tfie 

he returned to hu father 8 house at Arbroath, ^^^^ ^^^^ of wits, whose purse is so 

where he died of consumption after eighteen : ojintoherpoorebeedsmen-sdistrkses. Well 

months illness on 4 Oct. 1824. Bwides Ae ^ j g^^. if^ecause I have tride it, never 

works above mentioned, two noveb— 'The j-^.-j ^ ^^ magnificent Ladie of her degree 

Secrets of the Castle,' 1806, and 'Loclu^l; on this earthT^The reference to Pet^ 

or, the Field of Culloden, 1812--wid ' Pic- j^^^ j^;^ os that Lady Carey had 

turesque Scenes; or, a Guide to the High- translated some of his poems, but there Uno 

lands,^ 1811, Carey was the author of several t^ce of any of them hS^been published, 

volumes of verse displaying some taste and m^^^^ possible, howev^ that sSme of the 

fency, although the sentiment is for the renderingTrf Petrarch, which are commonly 

most part commonpkoe and hackneyed. He ^ttribut^ to Spenser' and printed in his 

edited the 'Poetical Maijaxme; or Temple collectedworks,i5thou^h they are far inferior 

of the Muses, 1804, counting chiefly rfiis j^, ^^^ jo his other prSiuctions, may be from 

own poems, and pubLshed separately 'Plea- Laj/ Careys pen. 

Bures of ^ature; or, the C^ of Rural fteonlypraTted literary work which bean 

Life, and other Poems,' 1803 ;'^e Reig^n ^^^ name o7' Elizabeth Carew or Carey is 

of Fancy, a Poem with NotM, 1803 ; ' Lync , j^^ Tragedie of Marian the fiure Queene 

?o^*' ^n' • ^l J?*™* ?^!«fly Am^or^, ^f iewry7written by that learned, vertuons, 

1807 ; Craig Phadng: \ision8 of Sensi- ^^ ^^^ ^^^^y^ Ladi^ E[li«abe^ CTare*^ 

bdity, with t^ndary -Tales, and occasional London, i613. This tedious poem, ii rhyii 

Piews and Historical Notes, 1810; Mid 'The ■ q^^trains, is prefixed in s^editioni by 

Lord of the Desert : Sketch^ of S^nery ; ^ ^^^^ grom the pen of an anonymous aJ- 

ForeignandDomesticOde8,andotherPoenis, „^, of the authoii^ 'To Diann4 EartUie 

^°^^' Deputesse, and my worthy sister, Mistris Eli- 

[Andorson's Scottish Nation ; Bnt. Mas. Oata- jabeth Carye.' It is difficult to determine pr»- 

logne] T. F. H. ojggjy jo which Elisabeth Carey, whether to 

OAREY or CAKEW, ELIZABETH, motherordaughter,theworki8tobeMcribed. 

Last, the elder (^ 1690), patroness of the The inscription above the sonnet wttmld imply 

noets, was the second daughter of Sir John that the 'Mistris Elisabeth Guts' mt nit- 



Carey 



Carey 



msrnod at the time of writingtheplay. The 
ir^Kht of probahilit J seoms t herefore in fit vour 
of the theoiT that the 'Tn^edie' was the 
vork of haJij Oarey'a daughter before she 
Iwcanie the wife of Sir TEomas Berkeley, 
eldest son oftheelerenlh Lord Berkeley. The 
date of the death of the elder Eliiabeth Carey 
u imeerlAin. The younger, who became the 
gnndmother of the first Earl of Berkeley, 
died in 1635, and was buried in Cranford 
Church, Middlesex. 

nnfonnation kiodly mpplisd by Mr. A. H. 
BiuleDi Not«a and Qoeries. Srd s«r. i-lii. 203; 
SoiUt's HiMorical Auecdolce of the Familiea of 
the Boleynm, CareyB, &c., p. 24 ; CoUins'a Peer- 
age, ed. BiydgM. i. 2ST ; Nash's Woiks, ed. 
Qnwit ; Works of Edninad SpcaEer.] 

CABEY, EUSTACE (1791-1855), mis- 
rionary to India, vaa Iho son of Thomas 
Carey, a non-commisaioned officer in the 
arm^, and the nephew of Dr. William Carey, 
Indiaii missionan' [q. v.] He waa bom □□ 
22 Uarch 1791 at Paulerspury, Northamplon- 
ahire. He beganhis preparatory studies for the 
UptUt ministry under the Rev.Mr.SuWUff at 
Ulney, and in 1812 went to Bristol College; as 



be set ont in the beginning of 1814 as a 
nusaionaxy to India, arriving at Serampore 
on 1 Aug. The qihere of labour to which 
he was designaled was in Calcutta, where 
in 1817 he founded a missionary family 
onion. On account of failing health he was i 
compelled to leave India, and, arriving in 
England in September 1825, he in the fol- 
lowing year began to advocate the claims of 
missions throiaghout the home counties, sub- 
eequently eit.?ndinu his visits to Scotland 
and Ireland. In iS2S be published ' Vindi- 
cation of the Calcutta Baptist Missionaries,' 
and in 1831 'Supplement lo the Vindica^ 
tion.' In the latter year he publiahed the 
' Memoir'of his relative William Carey, D.D. 
He took a prominent part in the agitation 
against slavery in Jamaica, and in 1840 was 
appointed a delegate to the churches there. 
He died on 19 July 1855. 



CARET, FELIX (;1786-1822), oriental- 
ist, eldest son of William Carey m]. t.1, mia- 
nonary to India, was bom in 17SC. He also 
became a missionary to India, and died at 
Serampur 10 Nor. 1822. He pubhahed a 
Boimese granmuT, 1814, and left behind him 
materials for a Bimneee dictionary, which 
vas published in 1826. He also translated 



CAKEY, GEORGE, second Lord Hcns- 

Dos (1547-1603), eldest son of Heniy, first 
lord Hunsdon [q. v.], by Anne, daushter of 
Sir Thomas Morgan, koigbt , was ma tnculated 
as a fellowcommoner of Trinity College,Cam- 
bridge, on 13 May 1560, being then of the 

yof thirteen. He accompanied the Earl 
Bedford on his embassy to Scotland at 
the baptism of the prince, afterwards King 
James Vl, in December 1566. In Septem- 
ber 1569 be was despatched to the £arl of 
Moray, regent of Scotland, lo confer on the 
subject of the contemplated marriage of the 
Diie of Norfolk with Slary ^ueen of Scots. 
He returned to England in October, and in 
December served under bis father in the 
expedition against the northern rebels. On 
their overthrow he was again sent to the 
Earl of Moray in Scotland, returning in a 
few days with the intelligence that the Earl 
of Northumberland and Thomas Jenny, two 
of the leading insurgents, were in the re- 
gent's custody. In May 1570 he serred 
under Sir William Drury in the expedition 
against. Scotland, and he was knighted on 
the 18th of that roontli by the Earl of Susse.t, 
the lord general of the queen's northern 
army, having greatly distinguished himself 
by his intrepidity in thi- tielil, and stiU more 
by a challenge to Lord Fleming, governor of 
liumbartou. On 12 Jan. liiT-]--! he obtained 
from her majesty a lease for f w-enty-one years 
of Herstwood in Great Saxham, Suffolk. 
On 27 Slay 1574 th.> queen granted to him 
and his heirs male (he olGce of steward, con- 
stable, and porter of iLt eustio and lordahip 
of Bamborough, with the fishery of the water 
of the Tweed. He was constituted steward of 
the royal manor of Great Saxham on 22 May 
1575. On 24 Dec. 1580 he was with others 
empowered to examine in the Tower, on in- 
terrogatories, Harte, Bosgrave, and I'ascall, 
arrest^^ within the realm coming from Rome 
and other places beyond the seos with intent 
to pervert and seduce the queen's subjects. 
lie commissioners were instructed lo put 
the prisoners to the torture if thej refused 
to answer plainly and directly. 

Inunediately after the raid of Uutbven, 
Carey, marshal of the queen's house, was sent 
into Scotland with Robert Howes. Carey bad 
an inteniew with James \"I at Stirling on 
12 Sept. 1682, and soon afterwards, having a 

C'nful disease, relumed to England, leaving 
wes in Scotland. 
On the deatli of Sir Edward Horsey, in 



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Tytlers Sootlaad (1864), iii. 315, iT. 60, 62: 

wh'. Jj;i'I ob-Mriatf ly refu«j».-d to confirm*. The Worelev's Me ox Wicht, 96-107. 152. Append. 

a/.-rroiirit*. of the phrish of Lambi^th for that >"o. xvi'ii.; Wright's Elizabeth, ii. 265.] T. C. 

v<:»ir rnak'r m«Tr:Mon of a vi.eit bv the queen to 

' ' CAREY, GEORGE JACKSON (1822- 

1872), major-general, was a son of lliomas 
Carey of Kozel, Guernsey, by his second 
wife' the daughter of Colonel George Jack- 
son, Mayo militia, and 3I.P. county Mayo. 
He was'bom on 5 Oct. 1822, and educated 
at Elizabeth College, Goenisey. In July 
1845 he obtained an cnsigncy in theoldOife 
Mounted Riflemen, with which he served m 
thcKaffirwais of 1846-7 and 1850-2 (medal), 



Car»rv- wfj'jv: njim*r''>ccursinthe commission 
for':aiJ-'rH w:cl»r-.i/i«tical within the diocese of 
W'iiir:h<:«-t<:r, i^-u«-d 7 June 1596 and 10 Oct. 
ir/^7. 

J J" huco^r'^d^'d to the p^v.-rapo as Lord Huns- 
don on thi-deaihofhii father (23 July 1596). 
JJ«! lik^'WJHi: j-uocfffiJed hira as captain of the 
band of pen?ionerH, }>eln^ sworn of the privy 
r;oijnr:il und in vest r^ with the order of the 
Oarter. 



g, lieutrainr in ApnJ 1617, captain 
n October 1S4S. major in January 1853, and 
Toceiring brT?et rank as lieut«nant-colonel 
in Uaj 1853 for serrica in tbo field. He 
bocune breTet-«oloDel in 1854, after I«sa 
than nine joatB' armv serrice. He served 
as militaiy eecrtUry to his uncle, Lieu- 
tenant-general Sir James Jackson, command- 
ing the lorecs at ibe Cape dnrinK the ^ntier 
troubles of 1866-7. Afterwards Lp exchanged 
aa miyor to the '2nd battalion 1 8th Boyal 
Irish, and proceeded with that corps to New 
^aland, where he served in the Maori war 
from Ausiut 1863 to August 1866 (medal), 
^^UMlODel on the stafi and brigadier-general, 
^^B3 OOBunanded the expedition on the east 
^HKit ta the Thames and to Taimnga. He 
^^^fc eeuomanded at the siege and capture of 
^^Jto enemjr's stronghold at Or&kau, which 
SbU mtter three days' continued operations. 
For thia, one of the few successes of the 



*»f, Carey was made C.B. On 27 Ma.v 
18S5 WUliain Thompson, the great Maori 
chiel'Bnd ' king-maker,' surrendered to Carey, 
larinir his ' tAcka' at that officer's feet in token 
o^eufamiseion to Queen Victoria. Carey was 
appcunt^d to command the troops in Aua- 
tnlia in August 1865, and acted as governor 
and administrator of Victoria &om 7 May to 
16 Aug. 1666. In December 1867 he was 
appointed to an infantry brigade at Alder- 
■bot; in 1S6S he became major^eneral ; and 
in October 1871 was transferred to the com- 
mand of the northern district, with head- 
Jnarters at Manchester. Carey married in 
861 the only daughter of W. Gordon Thomp- 
Bon of Clifton Gardens, Hyde Park, London, 
by whom h^ had four children. He died, 
during his t«Dtire <jf the northern command, 
OB 10 June 1872. at his residence, Whaley 
Gnuige, Manchester, and was buried at Hotel. 
[Bitrln'* landed Oentrj, vol. i. : Colonial 
Offlca Lists : Army Lists.] H. M. C. 

CARET, GEORGE SA^TLLE (1743- 
1 807 ), miscellaneons writer, a posth lunous son 
cifneni3rCiirey(rf.l743)[q.v.3, was bora sshort 
tiise afb-rliis father's death, and was brought 

iin r.iili. tnii!eofaprinter(.Sii^.i>ram. i.86). 

■ hi' resolved to go upon the stage. 

t'ibber, and others encouraged 

'i;rse(/nocu^tor, pre&ce, p. vii). 

' 'ovent Garden, where William 

.;< licsL for him, but he failed to 

.iiiJrctired. He then wrote 'The 

comedy, in three acts, and 'The 

1 1 'ipera i these plays weru not 

ro publialied with some poems 

l.-cription. Inl768Carey,under 

..in of Paul Tell-Tfutli, esq., 

{' <.':-i... . i.ib«n; chutuedi or Patriotism 



in Chains, 
and wrote 'The ^ 
lished in his ■ Analecls,' 1770). In 17^ ha 
published 'Shakespeare's Jubitee,B Masque:' 
in 1770 'The Old Women Weatherwiae, an 
Interlude,' presented at Brury Lane; 'The 
Magic Girdle, a Burletta,' acted at the 
Marylebone Gardens : ' The Noble Pedlar,' 
another burlelta: and a collection of trifles 
called 'Analects in Verse and Prose, chiefly 
Bramatical, Satirical, and Pastoral.' Coray 
arranged apparently about this time a serii^ of 

fnblic entertainments at CoTCJit Garden, tho 
layuiarket, Che Great Room in PantOD Street, 
and other places, giving imitations of Koat«, 
Weaton^Ann Caliey,and other popular aetots 
and vocalists: and in 1776 he published a 
'Lecture on Mimicry' with a portrait, fol- 
lowed in 1777 by ' A Rural Ramble, to which 
is annexed a Poetical Togg, or Brighthelm- 
stone Guide' (JfontUy i£«!»ruf,Iviii. 84). In 
1787 he published -Poetical Efforu' {ib. 
lixyiii. 344); and in 1792, ' Dupes of Fancy, 
or Every Man his Hobbv, a Farce, in Two 
Acts,' performed at Pilgrim's benefit. Mean- 
while lie continued his entertainments at 
Bath, Burton, and elsewhere. By 1797 it 
was rumoured that his father was the actual 
author of ' God save the King,' and that he 
himself had received a pension of 200/. a year 
on that ground (his Balnea, pp. 109-23). 
Corey announced that he had not received a 
pension, though his father had written the 
song ; and he applied fruitlessly for an inter- 
view with the king to urge his claims. In 
1799 came out his ' Balnea, or History of all 
the Popular Watering-places of England,' 
with another portnut, which reached a third 
edition in 1801. In 1800 be published 'One 
Thousand Eight Hundred, or I wish you a 
Happy New Year," a collectionof about sixty 
of his songs, some sung by Ineledon. In 1801 
he published ' The Myrtle and Vine, or Com- 
plete VocalLibrary,containlngseveralThDU- 
sonds of . . . Songs . . . with an Essay ou 
Singing and Song-writina' (advertisement on 
cover of ' Balnea,' 3rd ed. ) In the summer of 
1807 be was in London givina a seriesof en- 
tertainments, but he died suddenlv of para- 
lysis, aged 64, and was buried at the cost of 
niends (Gent, jtfay.vol. lxivii.pt. ii.pp. 781- 
782). An edition ofhis' Old Women Weather- 
wise,' in the form of a penny or halfpenny 
chap-book, was printed at lluU, without a 
date, but beliered to be as late as 1825. 

[Reed's Biog. Dram. i. 84. 86, 87. ii. ISU. 32G, 
iii. 6, 98 ; Gent. Mag. vol. lizrii. pt. ii. pp. 781-2, 
ladei, vol. iii. Preface, luiv ; MoDthly Review, 
xliy. 78, Iv. 76. IviiL 84, Ixxriii. 244 ; British 
Critic, xvi. 65. 56* ; Carsy's Balnoa (ed. 1801}, 
pp. lOD-23, 174, and cover; Corey's Annlects. 



Carey 



68 



Carey 



Tol. i. Preface, pp. iii-v; Carey's Inocolator, 
Preface, pp. v-viii.] J. H. 

CAREY, HENRY, first Lobd Hunsdon 
(1524? -1596), governor of Berwick and 
chamberlain of Queen Elizabeth's household, 
bom about 1524, was only son of William 
Carey, esquire of the body to Henry VHI, by 
his wife Alary, sister of Anne Boleyn and 
daughterof SirThomasBoleyn[q.v.] Through 
his mother he was first cousin to Queen Eliza- 
beth. His father died of the sweating sick- 
ness in 1528, and his mother remarried Sir 
William Stafford, who died 19 July 1543. 

Carey first comes into notice as member of 
parliament for Buckingham at the end of 
1547 ; he was re-elected for the same con- 
stituency to the parliaments of April and 
November 1554, and of October 1555. In 
1549 Edward VI granted him the manors 
of Little Brickhill and Burton in Bucking- 
hamshire. He was knighted by his relative 
Queen Elizabeth soon after her accession, and 
w^as created Baron Hunsdonon 13 Jan. 1558- 
1559, receiving on 20 March following a grant 
of the honour of Hunsdon and manor of East- 
wick in Hertfordshire, together with other 
lands in Kent. Hunsdon was prominent in 
all the court tournaments and jousts of 1559 
and 1560. With Leicester he held the lists 
against all comers in a tournament at Green- 
wich 3 Nov. 1559. On 18 May 1561 he was 
installed a knight of the Garter and was sworn 
of the privy council about the same time. He 
also became captain of the gentlemen-pen- 
sioners. On 28 May 1 564 he went to PVance 
to present the order of the Garter to the young 
French king Charles IX, and on 5 Aug., while 
in attendance on Elizabeth at Cambridge, he 
was created M. A The queen lost no oppor- 
tunity of testifying to her affection for her 
cousin. When on what she imagined to be 
her deathbed in 1562, she specially commended 
Hunsdon to the care of the council. 

In August 1568 Hunsdon became warden 
of the east marches towards Scotland, and 
governor of Berwick. In September 1 569 ho 
went to Scotland to discuss the possibility of 
sending Mary Stuart back to her own coun- 
try while excluding her from the throne. 
Lat^r in the same year the outbreak of the 
northern rebellion threw on him a heavy 
responsibility. He was entrusted with the 
duty of protecting not only Berwick but New- 
castle and the rest of Northumberland. He 
moved rapidly first to Doncaster (20 Nov.), 
thence to Hull (23 Nov.), and subsequently 
to York (24 Nov.), where he joined the Earl 
of Sussex, the commander-in-chief of the go- 
vernment forces. Hunsdon resisted an order 
(22 Jan. 1569-70) of the government to reduce 
the garrisona on the Scotch frontiers, which 



was issued while the rebellion in the more 
southerly counties was unsuppressed. On 
20 Feb. 1569-70, with an army of fifteen hun- 
dred men, he defeated, near Carlisle, a rebel 
army of twice the number of men under 
Leonard Dacres. He despatched a spirited ac- 
count of the en^^agement to Sir WUliam Cecil 
on the same night, and received a letter of 
thanks from the queen, part of which, written 
in her own hand, was couched in the most af- 
fectionate terms. Hunsdon was a member of 
the commission appointed to try the rebel 
leaders of the counties of York, Durham, and 
Cumberland, early in 1570. In the following 
year the queenjpaid him many attent ions. She 
visited him at Hunsdon House in September ; 
allowed him new and extensive privileges as 
lord of the manor of Sevenoaks, a portion of 
his property in Kent ; and granted hun further 
lands in Yorkshire and Derbyshire. 

Meanwhile, Scotch afiairs occupied him in 
the north, and he was directed to grant all 
assistance in his power to James against the 
supporters of his dethroned mother. In May 
1572 he prayed Lord Burghley to procure his 
recall from Berwick, on the ground that his 
salary was unpaid, and that his private re- 
sources could not endure the constant calls 
which his office made on them. In the fol- 
lowing month the Scots handed over to him 
Thomas Percv, earl of Northumberland, who 
had escaped from England while charges of 
treason were pending against him. Hunsdon 
was directed to bring the earl to York and 
there to have him executed, but he declined 
to convey him beyond Alnwick, the boundaiy 
of his jurisdiction. He wrote to Burghler 
urging the lord treasurer to' obtain the earls 
pardon, but he was compelled finaUy to sur- 
render the earl to Sir John Forster, who 
hanged him at York on 22 Aug. 1672. 
Hunsdon rigorously suppressed marauding 
on the borders, and according to popular re- 
port he took as much delight m hanging 
Scotch thieves as most men teke in hawking 
or hunting. On 24 May 1580 he was ap- 
pointed a commissioner for the redress of 
grievances on the border; six months later he 
became captain-general of the forces on the 
border, and was at Newcastle in January 
1580-1. He wrote to Walsingham at the 
time that he declined to interfere further in 
Scotch affairs, since his advice was systemi- 
tically neglected. He desired permission to 
visit the queen and to look after his private 
affiiirs. 

Hunsdon, still on good terms with Elin- 
beth, gave her every new year yery valnaUe 
presents. He favoured her projected marriage 
with the Due d'Anjou, and was present at 
the consultations respecting it hem in Octo- 



bet 1679, Ha escorted the diike to Ant- 
■wwpin February 1581-2. About June 1C83 
Elizabeth showed her respect for him by 
mftkuig him lord chamberlain of her houeo- 
hold in succeesion to the Earl of Sussex. 
But hiB neglect of his office in the north and 
froqaent oWnt^ from Berwick angered Eli* 
tabelh in the followinffyeitr. Hia son Robert 
reported to his father iTiat in n torrent of pa»- 
cion ehi- threatened ' to set him by his ^t ' 
and Mnd another in hia place. Hunsdon once 
agrain explained to Lord Burghley (6 June 
1584) that fais salary was in arrear, that his 
Boldiersandservantswcrein wont 01 food and 
clothing, nnd that he haddonehisdutyaa well 
a» taaa could under such disbeartenittg con- 
ditions. This storm tsoon blew over, and on 
14 Aug. ofthesame year Hunsdon received the 
Earl ot Anan at Berwick, with a view to re- 

'ing till: old lea|riie between England and 

"' ' A little later he resisted the order 
exiled Scottish noblemen — who 
recognise Jamea Vl'a authority — 

poMeiMion of the island of Lindisfame. 
flunsdoD argued that the disaffected noble- 
man would proTe dangerous neighbours for 
Entfland, and be likely to imperil Eliza- 
bt^tti'B amicable relations with James VI. 
TW Scottish king made similar repreaenta- 
tions : Walsingham finally acknowledged the 
Janice of Hunsdon'a arguments, and per- 
nilled him to evade the order. Hunsdon 
Utmded the meeting of the Star-chamber 
on S3 June 1586, when the treasons of Henry 
Percy, ear) of Northumberland, who had shot 
^unieu in the Toner, were farmally pub- 
In October 1686 he was at Fotbor- 
M one of the commissioners for the 

'of Mary Queen of Scote. 
_.» execution of Queen Mary nearly pre- 
Cipteted a breach with the king; of Scotland, 
OAil in April 1589 Hunsdon was deputed to 
|irovi!od to Scotland onthe delicate mission of 
placing the relations between James and Eli- 
mboth on a friendly footing. James tallied 
b««ly to the English ambassador of the 
Mnpting olTers made liim by Spain if he 
would declare against the English alliance, 
but be rrodily consented to reject them in 
Elixabeth's favour. Hunsdon was 



S4 Oct. 1587 that the king was quite capable 
of iW^iTiitg her, and that the company about 
him ntSTV ' maliciously bent against your 
iuglimaa.' Full powers were prea Hunsdon 
to maintain ' the good intelligence ' between 
til* two realms, and in December 1587 James 
Mnt Sir John Carmichael to Berwick to renew 

COB of friendship. Eliiabeth rewarded 
idon'a Bucceasfiil diplomacy with the 



office of lord warden -general of the mnrchea 
of England towards Scotland, and keeper of ' 
Tinsdale (31 Aug. 1689). A grant of a part 
of the temporalities of the see of Durham 
followed, and a rumour was abroad that 
Hunsdon was about to be created count pals- 

The need of preparing to resist the Spanish 
Armada brought Hunsdon to the south, and 
a force of 36,000, fomiedtoact as the queen's 
body-guard, was placed under bis command 
at Tilbury Fort. In 1690 he, with Lord 
Burgbley and Lord Howard of Effingham, 
was appointed commissioner for execntinK 
the office of earl marshal, and in 1591, with 
Lord Howard of Effingham and Lord Buck- 
hurst, negotiated an alliance with France. 
Many other duties were placed upon him 
during the last years of his life. He waa 
comnuseioner for the trials of W illiam Parry, 
D.D., 20 Feb. 1684-S ; of Philip, earl of 
Arundel, 14 April 1589 ; of Sir John Perrot 
(for treasonable correspondence with Spain), 
20 March 1591-2; and of Patrick O'Oullen 
(for the like offence), 21 Feb. 1593-4. He 
also held the office of chief justice of the 
forests south of the Trent, and master of the 
game of Hvde Park; he was elected recorder 
of Cambridge 26 April 1590, high steward 
of Ipswich 11 Sept. following, and high 
steward of Doncaster in October. 

Hunsdon died on23 JulTl596BtBomerHet 
House, the use of whlcli the queen had 
granted him. Fuller reports the story thai 
his death was caused by disappointment at 
not being created earl of Wiltsfure, the title 
borne by his maternal grandfather, Sir Tho- 
mas Boleyu [q. v.]. Itissaid that the queen 
visited him during bis last illness and pre- 
sented biro with the patent of the new liUa 
and the robes of an earl, but that Hunsdon 
declined both on the ground that honoursof 
which the queen deemed him unworthy in 
his lifetime were not worthy of his acceptance 
OD his deathbed. He was buried in West- 
minst«r Abbey on 12 Aug. at the queen's ex- 
pense. His wife and heir erected above his 
tomb an elaborate monument to his memory. 

Although Hunsdou's achievements are few, 
and his office in the north did not allow him 
to reside regularly at court, he contrived to 
be present at moat of the state eeremoniea of 
the time, and hispoaition as chamberlain and 
his intimacy with the queen gave him much 
influence when in attendance on his sovereign. 
Straightforward ondrongh in speech and con- 
duct, he held himself aloof from the factions 
which divided the noblemen and statesmen of 
tlie day; professional courtiers feared him, 
but soldiers respected and loved him. He 
lacked most of the literary culture of his clan, 



Carey 70 Carey 

hilt according to (.M-ranl li»; tfKik a <k*«]> inte- he wa.sone of twenty-six personages — undtlit* 
rest in Ijotuny. Tin; British Museum pos- only one of the number whose father wa.* nor 
H«'S.Hi.'S a copy of * Frf>isftart ' CPuris, lolS), a nobleman — who were made knights of the 
which coutuins a fuw nmnnscript notes in Bath in November of that year on the occa- 
('an*v'« handwrit ing tog»'th»'r with tjntries of sion of Charles being crottted*]»rince of AVales. 
the (lutes of most of his children's births. ' He showed no inclination for the lift' (*( a 



HunHdr)n niarritKl Anne, daughter of Sir 
Tlirimns Morgan, knight, of Arkestonr, Ilere- 
fonlshire, hv whom he had seven sons and 
three daughtt^rs. II is eldest son, George [q.v.], 
becamtt sifcond I^ortl Ilunsdon. His second 
son, .lolm [<i.v.], lH.'came third lonl. Of his 
younger sons, two nami'd Thomas, and a fifth, 
NVilliani, di«*d young. Edmund, the sixth 
son, was knight t'd by Leicester in the Xether- 
bmds in l."jS7. The youngest son, Jlobert 
Tq. v.], was created earl of Monmouth. Ilims- 
aon's eldi'St daughter, Catherine, married 
Charles Howard, earl of Nottingham; the 
sivonddaugliler beeame the wife of Thomas, 
lord Serope, and t he t hinl of Sir Edward Hoby . 

A miniatureiH>rtrait ofHunsdon by Nicho- 
las Hillianl was sold at the Strawberry Hill 
sale to the Duke ttf Buckingham. At Knole 
H«nist\ Sevt-noaks, is a painting of a proces- 



courtier, and his parents busied them.-selve-i 
during the next year or two in making fur 
their son some advantageous alliance. Aftnr 
feebly objecting to more than one of the pr-v 
posals, he was at last married in 161*0 to 
Martha, eldest dauc^hter of Sir Lionel Cran- 
field, who eventually became earl of Middle- 
sex and lord treasurer of England. From tluj 
time he seems to have lived in rt^tiremfnt 
amonj^ his books in the country. His fatliera 
death m 1639 and his consequent succession to 
the earldom made little change in his habits. 
Only once does he appear to have come f »r- 
ward to take part in the conflicts of the tur- 
bulent times, when he spoke in the House of 
Lords in Jime 1641 on the bill for depriv- 
ing the bishops of their seats in parliumrnr. 
AN hen Charles I issued the famoiis decliira- 
tion and profession in June KU:?, Mod- 



1 



sitm of the qutvn and her ciuirt going (^LVH)) mouth's name appears among the signatuni^, 
ti> Ilunsdon llou^e. Lord Ilunsdon and his j but from this time he retired from all pjliti- 
wit'e are pniminont figures in the picture, , eal life, and henceforth till his death he was 
which was engraved by Vertue in 17-4:?. ] busily engaged in translating various works 

Many of Ilunsdon s otHcial letters and . from the Italian and French, and letting the 
[Viivrs i\Tv at the Public Ui'oord (.Office, the world go by him as if he had no interest in 
[Witish Museum, and llattield. , its concerns. The truth is that he had in- 

ICvitf* Athoiue C;i:.Mb. ii. 213-19; Cal. ' ^^^'^^^ none of the immense physic4il vigour 
8:ato Tdivi^. umy, Klij. ; Vn^udts Hist, of En«- »"" energy of his father and grandfather, and 
br.d . N;iu:.:on sFr.vcmor.ta E« .-aliii : LloydsWor- if be had any ambition there is no evidence 
t^'M; Fuller* w'r.hio*: Rr.'h* Mt"mo:rs of to show that his abilities were at all more 
K1-. .Mix : h ; N .^v*.:a.'s L::o of Chrisr.^pher Ha: ton ; than respectable. Walpole's j udgment upjn 
l»urkc's K\: :::.♦: r.iva^''; l^io*:. l»r;:.: VTriiiger's him is probably correct : ' Though there art 
lv..\:. H-.s:. '.. !S.\ li'*4. -^-*\1 S. L. L. several lai^e volumes translated by him. we 

have scarce anything of his own composition^ 

C ARKY. IIKN U Y. S'AV'iid F.ari. of Mox- and ane as little acquainted with hischaracier 
Moi vu v^l-VVv hk'l'. :nii>U:. r. oldest son of as with his genius/ His earliest publisht^ 
K.>lvr: Catx y. !lr>i: eurl '.j. \.\ by KIi«aK^th. work was "Romulus and Tarquin, or del*rin- 
dA:ii;::ur . : S.r ll.:*:U T> v a::::;. ^n of Tri*:»: cipe et Trranno,' translated from the Italian 
M:r. 'T. C^~:i\vs**.. dv. : w-..i.^\v v^: Sir Henry ot the Marquis Valezzi (12mo, 1637). Hii 

s t ht 




t.:v.;- :> :.iv,--- vV. ■':■.. *:• -I-. :s ">tn Cvxsy. K:- lo June UXU. 

isvxr. '}.T<: V. vS". . > >t nx v ■. h . r .■.: s:vr tbr He had a family of ten children, two son* 

d;-.^:V. /:\i ■.-,"«:: V..r.\U:V. :.: '.•.-.•.: i:: :r.t *:- and elcht dauirhters. Of the sons, hionA, 

rv.,vV>.-:\' v^t*::.; wv..::. IL ::;-.-.r:«.l i..*i :V."..'w :he e'.ier. was slain at the battle of Ma:- 

vv:v.vj -v.;! a: ^-^^ *- ; V.' .".',:-:;.. \.^\:. r-l. .v.:rLz*: stc^n Moor in lt>44. and was unmarried: the 

I cv.: :;ru:. I:''."., a::. I : • V. :":.. 1* A .l:\;T*:r: i:i y>unp?r. Henry, fell a victim to the small- 

IVVruArv '.O*. V U: *:>::-.: :*:.-. r.: \- tItv^ y-.Ar* ^.\x in 1^49. leaviurone son behind him. vhi> 

: V. : T*^ : iV.r^ *u :>.?• cv r.: .r.- v.: ni .1 .- loi: vi.r.z^ cl:^ in Mav 1^5S. and who was the last heir 

: '.;*: k-.: ,*\* ' xv^" v : :."•■?:• l^n I Ar^-v:- * :' - "» >- a:1 :o :be earl^^m. His laxdship s only brot her. 

h:' Kv.v.v.;- dLf.t'r>»^kr.U k" ,v.*-.L=^ujCv,\i. Re- Tb>Bbafiftbaddiedwichoatm^eis6ue,9 April 



[Memoin of Ilo1»n Core;, Earl of Man- 
moatli, writUn by hiciBelf; Banks's Donnaat 
nod ExUekK. BnroDS^r. Ho, 1809. iii. 619 a<K{. ; 
Biich'* Ooart tuid Times of Junm I. ii. 149, 
Ifi6. &«. ; Wnlpole'B Rof al nnd Noble Anthon ; 
Wood'* AtheoK Oioo, (Bliw), (the last two 
wotfcc cotiUiii long libta of hia lordihip'i printed 
works) : Colonel Chestet'i WesCmiDBler Abbey 
Regisle™. 1 A. J. 

CARET. ItENRY (rf. 1743), poet and 
*ciaa, is said to linrc been an illegitimuts 
tt George Ssvile, tlie tamoua mftrquis of 
*tx, who died in Itldo. Corej, id the 
e to his first volume of poems, in 1713, 
s of himself as still very young. His 
notlwr probably was a scluKumiatreaG, as a 
' Putomliclc^e ' in lliot volume is deacribed 
BE 'performed at Mrs. Carey'sschoolby aevo- 
ral of her scbolaia,' He aftprwarda taught 
muaic in boarding bcIiooIb. Pope told Sponce 
thttt Carey Tras one of Addison's ' little se- 
nate ' aboitt this period. Car^y himself says 
that, 'the divine Addison' had been pleased 
more than onu to praise his best Known 
poem, ■ Sally in our Alley ' iPoemt, 1729). 
Carey tells us la the same place that the 
poem owed its origin to hla having ' dodged ' 
a 'piwntira treating his mistress to vanoua 
London amiisemenlB, Carey became known 
•stheauthorof many vivscioufl poems which 
were banded about in manuscript. He com- 
ploina (STfKre Tyranlt) that 'Sally in onr 
AUey'anil'Nambv-ramby,' composed in ridi- 
cule of Ambrose Philips, were thought too 
rood to be his, and says that Pope vindicated 
hisclaim to the latter. He was also the author 
nf success^ farces and of the songs in the 
'Provoked Husband' and elsewhere, lie 
ooeacionally composed the music himself. 
He deacribM himself as a disciple of Oemi- 
niani and Roseingrave, and says that he 
owed his first knowledge to the friendly in- 
Mtroctione of 0. W. Liunert. Mies Raft«r, 
afterwards Mra. Clive 
at hi» benefit in 1730, 
tats by him, and when, accordi 
twrnpomry account, a procession oi 
with all the instruments inventea since 
kl Cain^ marched from the Haymarket, 
were joined by authors and printers' 
It at Temple Bar, and by painters at 
mt Garden, whence the whole body 

ibid to Drury T jine. He produced other 

VMT saccessfiil burlesques, ridiculing the 
Italian opera, birthday odea burlesquing 
Cibber, and other occasional pieces. He was 
a livelv companion, and often, it 
difficultiris. It is anid that be received a 
wiuioD from the Savilo family until his 
'lealh. Iln died suddenly, Hnwkins says 
kf hia own liutd, on 4 Uct. 1743. Contem- 



porarv records only say tbnt he rose in 
good lieulth and 'wussoon after fonnddead.' 
A benefit performnncH for his widow and four 
small children was givett at Drury Lane on 
17 Nov. 1743. 

Mr. Cummings states (Nules and Queriet, 
6th series, ii. 160) that he possesses over two 
hundred works published by Carey. The fol- 
lowing is a list of his cluef publications: 
l.'PoemBonseveralOccaaiona,'1713, 3.8ame 
title, 1730. 3. Same, called ' third edition, 
much enlarged,' 1729. Each of these differs 
greatly irom its predecessors. The third 
editionincludes'Namby-Pamby ' and 'Sally 
in our Alley,' the last published separately 
about 1716. 4. 'The Contrivances,' 1715; 
actedatDruryLane,BAug.l7I5. 6. 'Hang- 
ing and Marriage,' a farce, 1722 (LincoliTs 
Inn Fields, 15 March 1722). 6. ' Poems oc- 
casioned by Gulliver's Travels,' 17^7. 7. Six 
cantatas, 1733. 8. 'Teraminta,' an opera, 
music by J. C. Smith, 1733 (Lincoln's Inn 
Fields, 20 Oct. 1732). 9. 'Amelia,' an opera, 
music by J. F. Lampe, 1732. 10. Songs in 
' Cephalus and Procris,' Drury Lane, 1733. 

11. ' Chrononhotonthologos," ' Ihe most tra- 
gical traffedy ever yet tragedised;' a veiy 
amusing burlesque, phrases of which are BtiU 
familiar, first performed at the Haymarket 
22 Feb. 1734. Fielding's ' Tom Thumb,' pro- 
duced in 1730, is in some degree its modeL 

12. 'The Wonder; or, an Honest Yorkshire- 
man,' a ballad opera, 1735, performed for 
one night (11 July 1735) at Lincoln's Inn 
Fields, and afterwards for many nights at 
the Haymarket and Goodman's Fields. Pub- 
lished in two editions in 1736. 13. ' Stage 
Tyrants,' an epistle to Lord Chesterfield, 
occasioned by the rejection of the 'Honest 
Yorkshireman'atDruiT Lane, 1736. 14.'ThB 
Dragon of Wantley, a burlesque opera, 
rousic by J. F. Lompe. This vras first pro- 
duced 26 Oct. 1737, suspended fora time by 
the death of Queen Caroline on 29 Nov., and 
had a run of sixty-eeven nights. 15. ' Mar- 
gery ; or, a "Worse Plague than the Dragon,' 
by the same authors, produced 9 Dec. 1(38, 
a sequel and failure. 16. 'Nancy; or, the 
Panlng Lovers,' 1739, an interlude, with 
music Dy Ihe author. Revived in 1755 aa 
'The Pressgang,' and afterwards as 'True 
Blue.' 17. 'AMuaicalCenturj; or, a Hun- 
dred English Ballads,' as a collection of 
separately printed pieces, 1737 ; new edit. 
1740; tliird, 1748, 18. 'Dramatic Works' 
(published by subscription), 1743, includes 
'Teraminta, 'Amelia,' 'Chrononhotontho- 
logos,' 'The Honest York *hi reman,' 'The 
Dragon,' 'The Drogoness' iMargery), iind 
' Nancy.' 

Carey has been credited with the author- 



Carey 



72 



Carey 



ship of 'God save the Queen.' The first 
known publication of this was in the * Har- 
monia Anglicana/ 1742, where it is anony- 
mous. Carey did not include it in his * Cen- 
tury.' It first became popular aft^r his 
death, during the rebellion of 1746. The 
actor Victor describes the performance in a 
contemporary letter to Gamck ( Victor's LeU 
ters, 17/6, i. 118), and says that it was an 
old anthem sung in the cliapel of James II 
when William III was expected. Ame ar-' 
ranged it for Dniry Lane, and Kumey for 
Covent Garden, liumey told Isaac D'Israeli 
that the authorship was unknown, and gives 
the same account of its origin as Victor (&en#. 
Mag, for 1814, pt. ii., p. 100). Fifty years 
later, Carey's son, (Jeorge Saville Carey [q. v.], 
claimed it for his father in order to justify 
a request for a pension. Ilis only authority 
was J. C. Smith, who told Dr. Harington 
of Bath, on 13 June 1705, that Henry Carey 
had brought it to him in order to correct the 
bass. Smith was the friend of Handel, 
and had [see above] been a collaborator 
with Carey (G. S. Carey, Balnea (1801), 
111-15, and Gent, Mag. for 1795, p. 544). 
A Mr. Townshend is said to have told John 
Ashley of Bath, who told W. L. Bowles in 
18:28, that he had heard Carey sing the an- 
them at a tavern on occasion of Vernon's 
capture of Portobello in 1740 (see also Gent, 
Mag. for 1796, pt. ii. 1075). Some internal 
evidence in favour of Carey is suggested in 
Ifewles's * Life of Ken,' but the improbability 
that Carev should have left the authorship 
unclaimed^, that his family should not have 
claimed it when it became so popular, and 
that Arne (to whom he must have been 
well known) and Burney should have been 
unable to discover the authorship at the time, 
siHnus to overbalance? the small probability of 
the much later statements, which, moreover, 
if accepted, do not t'stablisli Carey's author- 
ship. A full discussir)n of the authorship will 
be found in W. (!'ha])peirs ' Collection of Na- 
tional Airs,' pp. 83, 93 ; W. Chappell's ' Popu- 
lar Music of the Olden Time,'ii. 691 ; and in 
a series of articles by W. H. Cummings in the 
* Musical Times 'from March to August 1878. , 

Carey had a gt'nuino vein of playful fancy, 
whicli makes his burlesques stilf amusing, 
though the admirabh* * Sully in our Allev ' is , 
his l>est known p<»rformance. A portrait by 
"SVorsdale was engraved bv Faber (1729). ' 
He was great-grandfather, W his son G. S. 
Cartw, of P]dmund Kean. 

[Rees's CydopaKlia (art. * Carey,' by Bnmey); 
Hawkins s Hitt. of Music (1853), 827 (with por- 
trait by Worsdale); Gent Mag. for 1796, pt. ii. 
544, 907, 091; 1836, pt. i. 594, pt ii. 141, 369; j 
Notes and Queries, let scriei, vii. 95, xii. 103 ; 



2Dd series, ii. 413, vii. 64, ix. 126; 6th series, 
ix. 160. 180; Genest's History of the Stage, ii« 
558, 559, iii. 81, 355, 468, 471, 482, 647, 585, 
X. 258 ; Biog. Dramatica ; Clark's Words of Pieees 
... at the Glee Club (1814); Cox's Anecdotes 
of J. C. Smith; Bowles's Life of Ken, ii. 288; 
Grove's Diet of Music (arts. * Carey ' and ' Ood 
save the King ').] H S. 

CAREY, JAMES (1845-1888), Fenian 
and informer, was son of Francis Carey, a 
bricklayer, who came from C!elbridge, in 
Kildare, to Dublin, where his son was bom 
in James Street in 1845. He also was a 
bricklayer, and for eighteen years continued 
in the employment of Mr. Michael Meade, 
builder, Dublin, lie then commenced busi- 
ness on his own account as a builder at 
DenziUe Street, Dublin. In this venture 
he was successful ; he became the leading 
spokesman of his trade and obtained several 
lar^ building contracts. During all this 
period Carey was engaged in a national- 
ist conspiracy, but to outward appearance 
he was one of the rising men of Dublin. 
It is curious to learn that at the moment 
when Carey was a leading spirit in the con- 
spiracy for the emancipation of Ireland he 
was making money by subletting a large 
number of tenement houses, which he rented 
from his former employer and relet to the 
poor. Every one believed in his piety and 
public spirit; there was hardly a society 
of the popular or religfious kind of which he 
did not become a member, and at one time 
he was spoken of as a possible lord mayor. 
In 1882 he was elected a town councillor of 
Dublin, not on political grounds, but, as he 
himself said, * solely- for the good of the work- 
ing men of the city.' Al^ut 1861 he had 
ioined the Fenian conspiracy, and soon after 
became treasurer of the * Irish republican 
brotherhood.' This band held court-martiab 
and passed sentences, but up to 1879 in- 
formers only were attacked. In 1881 Uie 
conspirators, one of whose sections as- 
sumed the title of the Invincibles, estab- 
lished their headquarters in Dublin, and 
Carey took an oath as one of the leaders. 
The object of the Invincibles was 'to remove 
all t vrants from the country,' and several at- 
tempts, but without success, were made to as- 
sassinate Earl Cow]>er and Mr. W. E. Forster. 
'No. 1 ,' the secret head of the association, then 
gave orders to kill Mr. Thomas Henry Burke 
Lq. v.], the Under-Secretary to the lord-lien- 
tenant, and on 6 May 1882 nine of the cons^ 
rators proceeded to the Phcenix Park, where 
Carev, while sitting on a jaiintingHsar, pointed 
out Mr. Burke to the others, who at once 
attacked and killed him with knives, and at 
the same time also despatched Lord Frederick 



OaTendieh [q. v.], tbo newly appiint^d cliief 
secretsfy, wno hiipppned to be wallfiiig witli 
Mr. Burke. Fnr d long tima no clue could 
b* found to iheperjielratora of the set; but 
on 13 Jnn. 1883 Carpy was arrested in hia 
own bouse, and, ■with sixteen other persons, 
charged with a conspiracy to murder public 
ofEeuls. Whfn arrested hp was erecting a 
inuTtiuuy chapel in the Soath Dublin Union, 
■nd itiH worK WB3 then carried on bj his 

Other, Peter Carey. OniaFeb.CareytumBd 
Mi's e^dence, betrayed the complete de- 
ls of the Fenian organisation and of the 
in the Phffinii Park, and by his evi- 
___, . a the means of causing the public ei- 

ccntion of five of his late aeeociales. His life 
hang in (treat danger, ha was secretly, with 
IiiB wife and family, put on board the Ein- 
fkune Caxlle, bminj for the Cape, and sailed 
on « July under the name of Power. The 
Zatincibles, howi'ver, discovered the secret, 
and »ent on board the sume ship a person 
««lled Patrick O'Donnell, a bricklayer. He 
followed his Tictiui on board the Melrose in 
the ^■oynge (rom Cape Town to Natal, and 
when the ve*ael was twelve miles off Cape 
Vacca*, on 29 Jxdy 1883, shot Carey dead. 
O't^nnell was broucht to England and tried 
for an ordinarymunfprjwithout any reference 
to bb Fpnian connection, and being found 
piilty was executed at Newgate on I" Dec, 
without making any statement as to his as- 
' 1 theplanning-ofthemurder. Carey 
n 1861J Margaret M 'Kenny, who 
llMVerat children surrived him. 

(Fall Hall Gazette. 31 July 1S83. pp. 10-12 ; 
I^M, I arjii 3 Deer. 1883; Annual Bcgister, 
1883, pp. 182-8; Graphic, inrii. 200, 278, witli 
I-.rtniit«, iind ixTlii. 112. with portrait (1883); 
lUiiiirKi'-i! London Nuws, luiii. 103, withjpor- 
imii (18M3).l G, C. B. 

CABEY, JOHN, third Lord IltTNeiioB 

(■/. P«J7i. second son of Henry, first lord 

ii,._..i,,., r.| v.], was depiitv warden of the 

lif," under his fallier.and marshal 

'. Iieru he proclaimed James I king 

I NiiTHOie,jrVc^*iMM,i.60),when 

- 1 r Robert. Cawy [q. v.] rodo north- 

unnU <Mdj The news ilf Queen Elizabeth's 

death. Hew8SRiiJchi>»teemedbyJBinesI,and 

ftp|M*arB to liHve conduct^ some diplomatic 

liu'ini--- ti'twenn thinking and Queen Eliza- 

. His brother 



i.' Mn^itTOt 



ii-ikl memoirs, and always with 

\: lie h.1'1 UitlM to thank "him for 

'liriffi made ftir (he p»s- 

!i . On the deathof his 

■ liird Hunsdnn [q. v.], 

>< succeeded to the title 



of Leonard Hyde of ThrockingiHertford 
, and,dyiag in April 161", left bahindtwo sons, 

Henry find Charles, of whom the elduTiHenry, 
' succeeded to the title, and became sabse- 
I quently Yiscount Rochibrt and Earl uf Dover. 
I [Memoir* of Sir Robert Carey; Nichols^ 

ProBrsBsea of King JsmeB I; Banks's Dormant 

and lilxtinct finranage ; Calendar of State Papan, 
i Scotland. 1800-1603.] A. J. 

! CABEY, JOHN, LL.D. (1756-1828), 
classical schcdnr, brother of Matbew Carey, 
onlhor of the ' Vindicito Hihemicw,' [q. v.], 
and of William Paulet Carey [q.T,], was bom 
inlrelandinl766. At the age of twelve he was 
sent to finish his education in a French uni- 
versity. He spent some time in the United 
States aboutl 789, and afterwards passed many 
rears in London as a teacher of the classics, 
French, and shorthand. Hedied at Prospect 
naee, Lambeth, 8 Dec, 18-26. from calculus, 
the last years of his life baring t>MD em- 
bittered by distressing complaints. 

Carey was editor of the early numbers 
of the 'School Hagaiine,' published by 
Phillips, and a frequent contributor to the 
' Monthlr ' and ' Gentleman's ' magazines. 
In the form^ journal in 1803 he made a 
BUg^tion for enabling persons on ahore to 
f^ve assistance to distressed vessels by means 
of shooting a wooden ball from a mortar, an 
idea snbseqnently conceived and carried out 
independently^ by Captain G. M. Manby, for 
which invention Manby was reward«« by 
government. Careybrought outanewedition 
of Dryden's ' Virpl,' 1803, 3 vols. 8ro, and 
ecain in IBIS; two editions of Ainsworth's 
'Latin Dictionnry' in 4to, and five of the 
abridgment of the same; the 'Gradus ad 
Pamasaum' in 1824; the I^tin 'Common 
Prayer ' in Bagater's polyglot edition ; • Ru- 
perti Commentariua m Liviunt,' and a revi- 
sion of Schleusner's ' New Testament Lexi- 
con ' (1826). He likewise edited more than 
filly volumes of the ' Regent Latin Classics ' 
published by Baldwin. He was the com- 

5iler of the valuable ' General Index to the 
lontbly Review from 1790 to lfiia'(3volB. 
1818), and translated BitAubi^'a ' BatAvians,' 
Mndomn de Stall's ' Young Emigronls,' 
Lebmen'a 'Leiters on Switzerland,' and 
others. In 1810 he published a story for 
children called 'Learmng better tlinnIlou8« 
and Land,' which went through several edi- 
tions, His sdiool-books were popular in 
their day anil fi-enerally praised for accnrncy 
and sebolnrlv qualities. Among them are ; 
1. 'Latin rtosody made E*ey,* 1800,; naw 



Carey 



74 



Carey 



edition 1812. 2. * Practical English Prosody 
and Versification/ 1809. 8. * Alphabetic 
Key to the Propria qu8B maribus/ 1812. 
4. * Introduction to English Composition and 
Elocution/ 1817. 6. ^Clavis Metrico-Vir- 
firiliana/ 1818. 6. * Eton Latin Prosody 
illustrated/ 1818. 7. 'Greek Terminations/ 
1821. 8. * Latin Terminations/ 1821. He 
published also a small volume of poems, 
with a portrait prefixed. 

[Koso's Biog. Diet. ; Biog. Diet, of Living Au- 
thors (1816), p. 64; Webb's Compendium of Irish 
Biography (1878), p. 73; Watt's Bibl. Brit.; 
London Catal. of Books from 1814-46; Boase ' 
and C!ourtney'8 Bibl. Cornubiensis, i. 68 ; private ' 
information.] C. W. S. 

CAREY, MATIIEW (1760-1839), 
bookseller, was bom at Dublin 28 Jan. 17G0, 
the son of a prosperous baker. He was a 
dull boy, but became a voracious reader of 
novels and romances. At about fifteen years 
of age he was apprenticed to a bookseller ; at 
seventeen he produced his first essay, pub- 
lished in the ' Hibernian Journal,' on duel- 
ling. In 1779 he wrote a pamphlet urging 
the repeal of the penal code against catholics. 
A prosecution was threatened, and Carev 
was put on board the Holyhead packet with 
a litue money and a letter of introduction to 
Franklin. Carey remained with^Dr. Franklin 
in Paris for some months, and subsequently 
for a short period with the younger Didot. 
He returned to Dublin, and conducted for 
some time the 'Freeman's Journal.' In 1783 
his father gave him the means of establishing 
a paper of his own, * The Volunteer's Journal/ 
wnich soon acquired a very decided influence 
on public opimon, suiting the heated temper 
of the time. At length (April 1784) pro- 
ceedings were taken against the proprietor, 
who was thrown into prison. He was also 
charged with a libel on the Irish premier, 
John Foster. On being released from prison 
at the end of the parliamentary session, with 
an ex-officio information still hanging over 
his head, he disposed of his newspaper, and 
sailed for Philadelphia. 

From a fellow-passenger who had letters of 
introduction to Lafayette, the latter learned 
that *Carey the persecuted printer' had arrived 
by the same boiat. Lafayette now provided 
him with sufficient means to enable him to 
start in business. Forty years later, when La- 
fayette visited America, Care^' repaid the 400 
dollars. Carey immediately issued proposals 
for establishing the ' Pennsylvania Herald.' 
The first number was issued on 25 Jan. 1785. 
In August he undertook reportinffthe de- 
bates in the House of Assenibly. This was 
80 well done, that it gave an advantage for 



his paper over all competitors. Carey fought 
his only duel with another journalist^ and & 
wound laid him up for more than a year. 
In October 1786 he began, in partnership with 
others, the ' Columbia Magazine.' He soon 
withdrew, and in January 1787 issued the 
first number of the 'American Museum/ 
which became very popular, but did not pay, 
and was discontinued at the end of 1792. 
About this time Carey married Miss Flahavan« 
He now started a bookselling and printing 
business. In 1793 he sat on the committee 
of health appointed in consequence of an out- 
break of yellow fever. About the same time 
he started an association called the Hibernian 
Society for the Relief of Emigrants firom 
Ireland, of which he was secretary for many 
years. In 1796 he helped to form a Sunday 
school society,^ which he alleges to be the 
first started in America. About this time 
William Cobbett was actively employed in 
Philadelphia. He had a paper war with 
Carey, of which specimens wAl be found in 
Peter Porcupine's works ; in * A Plumb- 
Pudding for the Humane, Chaste, Valiant, 
Enlightened Peter Porcupine, by his obliged 
friend, Mathew Carey; ' and in * The Porcu- 

Einiad, a Hudibrastic Poem,' in which Carey 
as versified some of Cobbett's paragraphs 
with very little verbal alteration. In 1798 
Carej repudiated the charge of being a 
* United irishman.' 

Carey published American editions of 
Guthrie's * Geography' and Goldsmith's 'Ani- 
mated Nature/ and in 1801 a quarto Bible. 
From 1802 to 1805 Carey was a director of 
the Bank of Pennsylvania. Among his other 
enterprises was the attempt to establish an 
annual book fair on the plan of that at Leip- 
zig, to be held alternately at New York and 
Philadelphia. It was discontinued after a 
few years' trial. Carey's position now en- 
abled him to influence many public ques- 
tions. In 1814 he published ^The Olive 
Branch, or Faults on both sides, Federal and 
Democratic, &c.' Ten editions were struck 
ofl* in little more than three years. Carev 
had always the wrongs of Ireland on his 
mind. On reading G^win's 'Mandeville/ 
in which the alleged atrocities of 1641 aie 
largely illustrated, he at once sat down to 
prepare a work vindicating the Irish firom 
sucn charges. After much labour and ex- 
pense he published in 1819 * Vindicin Hiber- 
nicae, or Ireland vindicated. An attempt to 
develop and expose a few of the multifEuious 
errors and falsehoods respecting Ireland in the 
histories of May, Temple, Wliitelock, Borlase, 
Rushworth, Clarendon, Cox, Carte, Leland, 
Warner, [Catherine] Macamay, Humeu and 
others/ No sooner was this labcmr off his 



bands than Coivy beguu to appear m a politi 

c»l ecoDomi«t. lie advocated {jfotection for 

Ajnpriciui native Industiy, and produced 

nuin^ tracts in suppcrt of his theonee. U" 

usociBlpd with eome other Philadelphi 

citixens in the formation of a societj for the 

omotionof national industry, which helped 

.circuliit« his pamphlets gratuitousty . 

iOu«y retired from buaineHS in 1824. 

the latter portiiMi of his life he con- 

^o take active part in works of public 

charity nnd utility, in promoting education, 
and the construclion of roada, canals, and 
ot^er public works. In 183d he made the 
liberal offer of endowing a chair of political 
etnnomy in the iinirersity of Maryland, 
which was, however, not accepted. His 
death occurred in September 1839. Besides 
tlie •bove-meotioned, Carey publiahed a se- 
D of pieces in prose and veree, which had 
IjF appeared in the ' Columbia Magaiioe ; ' 
Short Account of the Maliirnant Fever 
lyprevalent in Philadelphia' (1793); 'Es- 
lon Political Economy'(18i2);'ThoughtH 
on Penitentiaries and Prison DiscipQne' 
{1S31) i ' Letters on the Colonization Society' 
(which reached a twelfth edition in 1838): 
' female Wages and Female Oppression ' 
i); and a host of tracts and otheiephe- 
writinKB, the mere titles of which 
fbnr aosely printed pages in Sabin's 
of Books relating to America' 
_. He was father of Henry C. 
r, well known as an American econo- 




Jffaw England Magazine, v. 403, 489, vi. GO 
^S7, aOO 400, vii. 61, 14S, 239, 330, 401 
(sDtubiognLphical) ; Hnnt's Mervhaal't 
-KS«, 1839, f. 429 : Duyckincrs Cyrlo. of 
J, Utstature, i. f. GG7 ; American Alma- 
;, 1B4I, f. 37fi; Niles's Rerrist«r. ix. 345, 
T. 837 : Porcupine's Works, it. 53, x. fi9, 60 ; 
JatiaOD'i The Stis^r in America (ISOT), 418, 
410; 'WLUiamCobbett.abiogTBpbj(lH7B); One 
Handled Yeaa of Fobliahing, ITSS-lSSfi.] 

E. S. 

CARET, PATRICK. [See Cabi.] 

CAKEY, ROBERT, first EiEL 09 MoK- 
HODXB ( l5bOP-1639), seventh and youngest 
ionofneiiryCarey,fir3tbrd-HunBdonrq.T.], 
e bom about 1560, forhe stal«s that he was 
sixty-three years of age ' when he fol- 
Prince Charles to Spain in 1623 {Me- 
t,-pATi7). At the opi of seventeen he ac- 
^imied SirThomai* Layton in hia embassy 
ja Netbtidands, and fo ury ears I ater formed 
Jt of tht^ suite stint by Etitabclh to att«nd 
ESuke of AlvD^on wnen he undertook the 
it of the LowOountrins. In 1586, 
a the pajliaments of 156S and 1593, 



awuy from court with the Earl of Ouroberlaud 
to take part in the att«ropt.H to relieve Sluys, • 
and spent a few mouths iu active military sei^ 
vice. In the next year he served against tha 
Spanish armada as a gentleman volunteer. 
It is stated by Park that Carey's portrait 
was among those of the English commanders 
in the tapestry of the House of Lords. In 
Essex's expedition to Normandy in 1591 
Carey commanded first a troop and then a 
regiment, and took part in the siegeof Rouen. 
But it was rather as a courtier than a soldier 
that be distinguished himself, although Lloyd 
speaks of his ' uncourtly t«;inper,' and asserts 
that hia shore of the family candour pre- 
vented his success (State Worthiet, p. 704). 
' I lived iu court,' says Carey, ' had small 
means of my friends, and yet God go blessed 
me that 1 was ever able to keep company 
with the best. In all triumphs I was one ; 
either at tilt, tourney, or barners, in masque 
or balls ; I kept men and horses far abovs 
my rank, and so continued a long time.' Iu 
short, as his cousin, the Earl of Suffolk, after- 
wards toid James I, ' there was none in the 
queen's court that lived in a better fashion 
tnan he did ' {^Memoin, p. 146). What most 
distinguished him, however, was that ' he 
exceeded in making choice of what he woro 
to be handsome and comely.' These charac- 
teristics recommended him to the notice and 
favour of James I when he attended Wal- 
singham into Scotland (1583). ' It pleased 
the king at that time to take such a liking 
of me,' as he wrote earnestly to the queen 
at our return to give me leave to coma back 
to him again, to attend him at his court, 
assuring her majesty I should not repent 
my attendance ' {ib. p. 7). For tbis reason 
Carey was chosen to explain to James Eliza- 
beth's innocence of Mary's execution, but he 
was not allowed even to cross the border. 
On two subsequent occasions, however, in 
1589 and 1593, he proved a more successful 
negotiator. Essex found Carey's skilful in- 
terce^ion effective with Elizabeth when nil 
his friends in court and all her council could 
not move her trom her resolution to recall 
him from Normandy <I691). For this ser- 
vice ho knighted Carey, and told him that 
' when he hod need of one to plead for him 
he would never use any other orator' (iS. 

E. 28-33). About 1593 Carey married Eliea- 
th, daughter of Sir Hugh Trevanniou ; she 
appears to have been the widow of soma 
member of the family of Widdrington. She 
brought him verv little luimey, and ' the 
queen was mightily olfended ' with him for 
marrying (ib.^. ■'il). He regained her favour 
only after ' a stormy and terrible encountw,' 



Carey 



76 



Carey 



l>j means of an ingenious excuse, a courtly 
device, and an important piece of service (A£<- 
moirs, pp. 51-6). For the last ten years of 
Eliiftbetn's reijjTi Carey was employed in the 
government of the border, of wticn he gives 
in his ' Memoirs ' a very graphic description. 
In the first place he was appointed by Lord 
Scrope deputy-warden of the west marches 
(1593), and after that by bis father. Lord 
Hunfldon, deputy-warden of the east marches 
and captain of Korham Castle (1595). On 
the death of Lord Hunsdon in the summer 
of 1596 he succeeded to his father's post, 
althoug-h it waa not formally granted him 
till -iO Nov. 1597 (tW. 8. 'P. Dom.) In 
""February 1598 he was superseded by Lord 
Willoughhy (Bbktib, Five Generations of a 
' Loyal Kiime, p. 3:J4), but, after a little delay, 
accepted the office of warden of the middle 
march, which he held until the occeaeion of ' 
James I. In the parliaments of 1597-8 and 
1601berepre8onted^rthumberland{29May 
1598, Apiil 1603, Dotle). In March 1603 , 
•Carey made a flying visit to the court, and ■ 
thnsbecame a spectator of Eliiaheth's last ill- I 
ness, which he carefully observed and de- . 
scribed. lie speedily became alarmed for bis ' 
own fortunes, remembering tiat most of his 
livelihood depended on her life. At the same 
time he called to mind the favour with which 
the King of Scots bad treated him, and de- 
termined to inform him at once of the queen's 
.state. ' I did assure myself it was neither ' 
unjust nor unhonest for me to do for myself, ^ 
if Uod at that time should call lier to his 
mercy' {Memtiin, p. 118). Accordingly, on 
19Marchl603amesBengepfrom Carey arrived 
at Edinburgh ' to give King James assurance 
that the queen could not outlive three days 
at most, and that he stayed only at court to 
brine them the first news of her death, and 1 
had horses placed all the way to make him 
speed in his post ' ( CoTTe^onS^wxof Jama VI 
with Sir Robert Cecil, Camden Society, p. 
49). Elizabeth died early on the morning ' 
of the 24th, and Carey, in spite of the pro- 1 
hibition of the council, started about nine, 
and by hard riding reached Holyrood late 
on the 26th. His conduct in thus hastening ' 
to make profit out of the death of his kins- 
woman and benefactress has been deservedly 
censured. 'It hath set so wide a mark of 
ingratitude on him,' writes Weldon, ' that it 
wul remain to posterity a greater blot than 
the honour he obtained afterwards will ever 
wipe out' {^Secret Hifiory of the Court of 
James I, i. 314). James rewarded Carey by 
appointing him one of the ^ntlemen of his | 
bedchamber, hut on the km^'s coming to 
England he was discharged trom that post 
and disappointed in the promises made to 



him. This wag probably canaed by the re- 
presentation addressed to the king by the 
council, in which Carey's conduct wm stig- 
matised as ' contrary to such commandmenta 
as we hod power to lay upon him, and to all 
decency, good manners, and respect ' (Lttter 
^ the Council, 24 March, quoted by Oirery). 
Fortunately, however, Lady Carey obtained 
a post in the queen's household, and soon 
after obtained the charge of Prince Charles. 
Carey succeeded in eefling the life g|OTem- 
ment of Norham for 6,000/., his wife ob- 
tained a suit worth ^,0001., his daughter 
became one of the maids of honour to tlie 
Princess Eliiabeti, and he himself governor 
of the household of Prince Charles (23 Feb. 
1605). \Vhen, in 1611, that prince obtained 
a larger establishment, Carey, after a stmgKla 
with Sir James FuUarton, succeeded in be- 
comin ghiamaeteroftherobes, remarking that, 
if he had skill in anything, he thought he could 
tellhowtoraakegoodclotheB. W^enCharlea 
wascreated Prince of Wales, Carey became his 
chamberlain (8 March 1617, S. P. Dom., xc 
105^, and at length, on 6 Feb. 1622,waBcre- 
ateo llaron of Leppington. In the following 
year he was appointed to follow Prince Charles 
to Spain, in charge of the servants sent after 
him by James. When Charles ascended the 
tbrone,Carey was consoled for the loss of his 
chamberlainship by the grant of fee fanna, 
rents in perpetuity to the value of 600/. a year, 
and by beingereated earl of Monmouth (7'Feb, 
1626). With his attainment of the height of 
a courtier's ambition Carey closes his ' Me- 
moirs.' Hisdeathtookplaceonl2Aprill639 
(certificate of John Byley, Bluemantle, OaL 
S. P. Dom.) Carey's ' Memoirs ' were first 

Suhlished in 1759 by the Earl of Cork and 
irrery. Walpole, in his ' Royal and Noble 
Authors,' had urged their printing, and Birch 
had published in 1749 the portion relating 
to the death of Queen Elizabeth (Hittorieal 
View of the Negotiations from 1592 to 1617). 
' A fourth edition, with notes by Sir Walter 
I Scott, was printed in 1808. 

I [Mamoica. ed. 1808; Walpolo's Koyal and 
I Noble Authors, ed. Park ; CalDadai of Donuslic 
StatePaperBiDoyle'sOflkialBaronagB. Theyst 
uncaloDdered portion of the Cecil Papers contain* 
several of Carey's letters ; there are others in the 
Border Papers in the Record Office. Lloyd pves 
a short notice of Carey in his State Worthies; 
Cnmpion has an epigmm on him ; and some d*- 
taile with respect to his Spaniah Journey may be 
gathered from Wynne's Brief Kelation of tha 
Jouniey of the Pnnce's Servants into Spain.l 
I C. H. F. 

CABET, VALENTINE (d: 1696). [Sm 
Cabt.] 



CARET, WTLLLVJtf, D.U. (1701-1834), 
orieutalist und mi«slotiarT,wiiBl>oni 17 Aug. 
1761a t P&ular^ury.NorthamptoiiBliire.wliere 
his &ther, Edmund Carey, kept a small free 
ftcbool, to the educational benefit of the boy. 
At fourteen be was apprenticed to a ehoe- 
loaher at Hacklelon , and becoming religiously 
affected joined the baptist connexion in ITaS. 
In 1786 be was chosen minister of the baptist 
emij^eation at MoiJton. He bad hiteiy 
mamed, on so slender an income that meat 
was a raritv at bistable. Ilewas now work- 
ing at GrMB, Latin, and Hebrew, chiefly with 
a view lo the interpretation of the ecrip- 
tUTva. After boldins a ministry at Leicester 
Iram 1780 he joined in the movement which 
ciilmiDAtcd in the formation of tUe Baptist 
Missionary Society, and was (with a Mr. 
Slionuui) diosen to be tte first baptist mis- 
tu India. Carey and his family and 
lU atrived in Bengal early in 1794, and 
my discoyered that Calcutta was not the 
jt for a needy missionary to live in. The 
nfundatheyhadbrougbtswiflly vanished, 
S kbBoIutely destitute they set out iu an 
n boat to seek for a refuge. They found 
IT tt forty miles' voyage in tbe house of 
_Ejb. Short, wbo afterwards married Mrs. 
Ckl^S sister. At first the missionary's in- 
tonUon waa to make his living by farming : 
bat on btang ofil^red t!ie aiipenntendence of 
Sir. Udneys indigo factory near Maldah he 
gladly accepl«d tne post. Els letters home 
at this period express his distress at the post' 
ponement of hia evougelisinff mission, owing 
to the diiTiculties pre&enled by tbe various 
languages and dialects spoken in Bengal. 
Cki«y*et himself with determination to over- 
ooiDD ibis obstacle. In 1795 be established 
■ churcb uear tbe factory, and there be 
preached in the vernacular. After five years' 
work at Maldah, varied by journeys to Bhu- 
tan and Dinajpiir, Carey removed to Seram- 
piir, a Danish colony, where tlie Danish go- 
vernor encouraged the misaionaries, as the 
East India Company, for political rea«ous, 
was unabla to do. The baptist miasionary 
taFlablislun(>ut ofSerompuT, afterwards famous 
Ibr ita activi' influence, consisted in 1799 of 
y and three young missionaries, together 
h thnir families. A school and printing- 
« tbe first requiait«s, and a bible in 
ivtiB at oncti put in hand and duly 
"appeari'il, logptber with other veraiona of the 
wTiptim-s. in Mabratta, Tamil ; in altogether 
tW'-niy-eis languages, beaidea numerous phi- 
l.i|i..-u-ril iT.irks. In ISO! Carey was appointed 
' Sanskrit, Bengili, and Mnhratta 
'■jtrndedcoilegeofFort William, 
c the iiursiiit of lingiiiatica and 
da MaJirat " 



fo r it* act 
HQmvand 
■githou 



jLj; theiiui 
ulJithen a 



1805. and opened a mission chapel iu Calcutta 
in the same year. There was, however, a 
strong feeling against over-neaJoua prosely- 
tising as a political danger, and Carey was 
cautioned to abstain from preaching or dia- 
tTibuting tracts for a while, ahbougb the go- 
vernment assured him that they were ' well 
satisfied with the character and deportment ' 
of his missionaries, against whom ' Uiere wer» 
no complaintfi.* In spite of such official curbs 
the mission grew steadily, and in 1814 had 
twenty stations in India. Dr. Carey— he had 
now received the diploma of D.D.— actively 
superintt^nded tbe work of the mission and 
its pre.^. Besides the Indian versions of tho 
scriptures, in which he took a vignroua part, 
be published griimmnrs of Mabratta ('1806), 
Sanskrit (ISOii), Punjabi (1812), Telmga. 
(1814), Bhotanla (182SP); dictionaries of 
Mabratta (1810), Bengali (I^!18,3 vols. : 2ud 
ed. 1826 i 3rd ed. 1827-30), BLoUnta (1826), 
and had prepared materials for one of all 
Sanskrit-tterived languages ; but theee were 
deatroyed in a fire wtiich occurred in 1812 at 
the press at Serampiir. He also edited tbe 
' Ramayana,' in 3 vols., 1809-10, and hia 
friend Dr. Roihurgb's ' Flora Medica,' for he 
was an excellent botanist, &c. After being 
weakened by many attadis of fever he waa 
sttQck with apopleiyJitly 1833, and lingared 
in a feeble state tUl 9 June 1834. He woe 
thrice married, and left three sons, one of 
whom was Feiix Carey [q, y.] 



1836.] S. L,-P. 

CABEY,WHJjIAM(1769-1846),biahop 
of Exeter and St. Asaph, was bom on 18 Nov. 
1769. Hia success in life was due to tha 
kindness of Dr. Vfaicent, through whose aid 
be was admitted into Westminster School, 
where he ultiroat«ly passed through every 
grade imtil ho became its head. In 1784 lie 
was elected a king's scholar, in 1788 he 
became the captain of the school, and in 
tbe following year he was elected to Chriat 
Church, Oxford, which was at that time 
presided over by Cyril Jackson. He took 
the degfoe of M.A. in 1796. and became a 
totor of his house, wh«re he also filled tha 
office of censor fh>m 1798 to 1802. Whila 
connected with Oxford life be held tbe in- 
ciimliency of tbe neighbouring church of 
Oowley, and near the close of hia academical 
career, in 1801. he was nominated one of the 
preachers at Whitehall Chapel. The pre- 
iwudal staU of Enaresborougb-cum-Bickliill 
in York Cathedral was conferred upon him 
in 1804, and his connection with thenorthem 



Carey 



78 



Carey 



province was strengthened by his being in- 
stituted to the vicarage of Sutton-in-the- 
Forest. Through the influential and zealous 
support of his old Oxford friend, Cyril Jack- 
son — a support whicli outweighed the oppo- 
sition of many who desired an older man — 
Carey was appointed to the head-mastership 
of Westminster School in January 1803, and 
discharged its duties with great efficiency 
until his retirement in December 1814. He 
proceeded to the degree of B.D. in 1804, and 
to that of D.D. in 1807. The honourable 
post of sub-almoner to the king was given to 
nim in 1808, and in March 1809 he received 
a piece of preferment equally honourable and 
more lucrative, a prebend at Westminster. 
On resigning his position at his old school 
he withdrew to his country living, residing 
there until 1820, when he was called to 
preside over the diocese of Exeter. His 
consecration took place on 12 Nov. 1820, 
and on the previous day he was installed a 
prebendary of his cathedral. The administra- 
tion of the diocese by the former occupant 
of the see had not been marked by an excess 
of zeal, and the energy with which Carey 
threw himself into his new labours was much 
praised. At Exeter he remained for ten 
years, when he was translated to the wealthier 
bishopric of St. Asaph, being elected to his 
new see on 12 March 1830 and confirmed on 
7 April. He died at his house in Portland 
Place, London, on 13 Sept. 1846, but his 
body was carried into Wales and buried in 
the churchyard of St, Asaph Cathedral on 
2 Oct. 1846. A monument to his memory 
was erected in his cathedral. 

Carey was the author of three sermons 
long since forgotten, but his name is preserved 
in his munificent benefaction of 20,000/. 
Consols for tlie better maintenance of such 
baclielor students of Christ Church, dulv 
elected from Westminster School, as, ' having 
tlieir own way to make in the world,* shall 
attend the divinity lectures and prepare 
themselves for holy orders. A second gift 
to his old school was of a different character. 
This was a new set of scenery for the West- 
minster play modelled on the lines of its 
predecessor, which had been designed by 
Athenian Stuart. Carev's scenery was in use 
for fifty years, from 1808 to 1858. 

[Welch'sWestmi nstor School (Phi 11 i more's ed. ), 
pp. 418, 428, 456, 636 ; Forshall's Westminster 
School, pp. 125, 301-3. 470; Olivers Bishops of 
Exeter, pp. 166-7 ; Career of Admiral John 
Markham, p. 14; Gent. Mag. 1846, pt. ii. pp. 
533-4, 661 ; Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. vii. 205 
(1865).] W. P. C. 

CABEY, WILLIAM PAULET (1759- 
1839), art critic, brother of John and Mathew 



Carey fcj. v.], was bom in Ireland in 1759. He 
began life as a painter and ufterwards became 
an engraver. He did the copperplates in 
Geoffrey Gambado's (H. Bunbury's) * Annals 
of Horsemanship,' Dublin, 1792, and seye- 
ral plates in a collection of ethical maTiTna 

Sublished by E. Grattan in Dublin. He 
iscontinued the practice of his profession 
owing to an accident to his eyes, but he re- 
tained a great love for the arts. For more 
than fifty years his pen was employed in 
advocating the claims of modem and national 
art, most of his writings bein^ distributed 
gratuitously. He was one of t ne first to re- 
cognise the genius of (}hantrey, the sculptor, 
in the < Sheffield Iris' in 1805. He was 
proud of having brought James Montgomery, 
the poet, into prominence, and in later years 
he wrote letters in the Cork and Dublin 
papers which had the effect of attracting at- 
tention to the work of Hogan, the sculptor. 
He is said to have been a United Irishman. 
In 1806 he wrote a pamphlet in defence of 
the Princess of Wales ; in 1820 he pub- 
lished two other pamphlets, 'The Conspi- 
racies of 1806 and 1813 against the Princess 
of Wales linked with the atrocious conspi- 
racies of 1820 against the Queen of Eng- 
land,' and ' The Present Plot showed by the 
Past,' &c. Gn the cover of the latter he 
advertised a work in two volumes on the 
same subject. He was a dealer in pictures, 
prints, and other works of art, and was one 
of the principal persons consulted by Sir 
J. F. Leicester, anerwards Lord De Tabley, 
in the formation of his gallery. For several 
years he had an establishment in Marvle- 
bone Street, London. In the exercise or his 
calling he visited many towns, and finally 
settled in Birmingham about 1834. In that 
year he contributed to the 'Analyst,' a 
quarterlv journal issued in that town. He 
died at Birmingham 21 May 1839, aged 80. 
The list of his separate writings on art is 
as follows : 1. ' Thoughts on the best mode 
of checking the Prejudices against British 
Works of Art,' York, 1801, 8vo. 2. 'A 
Critical Description of the Procession of 
Chaucer's PilgrmM to Canterbury,' painted 
by Stothard, Lond. 1808, 8vo ; second edi- 
tion 1818. 3. 'Letter to J. A. (Colonel 
Anderdon), a C]!onnoisseur in London,' Man- 
chester, 1809, 12mo. 4. 'Cursory Thoughts 
on the Present State of the Fine Arts,' 
Liverpool, 1810, 12mo. 5. ' Recommendar 
tion of the Stained Glass Window of the 
Transfiguration for St. James's Church, 
Westminster,' 1815. 6. ' Memoirs of Barto- 
lozzi,' in the 'European Magaiine,' vols. 
IxviL and IxviiL 1815. This ran thiongh 
six numbers, but was not finished. 7. 'Griti- 



r»l Description and AtittMlcal Kevieivs of 
De&lh upon tha falo Ilorw,' paiuled bj 
Benjamin Wost, 1817, 8to. An edition wna 

KbUstied Kt Philadelphia in 1836. 8. 'A 
scriptive Calaliurue of a Cnllection of 
FaintingB by Britisli Artists in the poBses- 
eiaa at Sir John Fleming Leiceeter,' 1819, 
8ro. 9. ' DMultor; Exposition of nn Anti- 
Britiih System of fncendiary Publication,' 
&C. 1819,Sto. 10. 'AddendnioH.neveley'8 
Kolicw illnstTBtive of ibe Musters,' 1820. 
11. 'Memoirs of B. Weat,R.A.,'in'Colburn'a 
New Monthly MagMire,* 1820. 12. 'Vsris: 
Historical uWrvstions on Anti-Britisliand 
Anti-Contemporanian Pr^udices,' &c, 182ii, 
8vo. 13. ' Patronage of &i«U Geniue,' Dub- 
lin, 1823, 8vo. 14, ' Critical Catalogue of 
the Venrille Collection,' 1823. 15. "The 
JKMional Obsmcle to the National Public 
Style considered,' 182ri, 8vo. 10. 'Some 
MeinMra of ilie Pulronsee and Progress of 
the Fine Arte in England , . . with Anec- 
dotes of Lord De Table;,' 1820. 8vo, pp. 361. 
17. ■ Syllabus of a C^ourse of Six Historical 
L(*tiirea on the Arts of Design,' Glasgow, 
1828. 18. ' Appeal to the Directors of the 
Koyal Irish Institution,' Dublin, 1828, 8ro. 
19. ' Oheervolicms on the Primary Object of 
tile British Inslilution for the Promotion of 
the Fine Arts.' Newcastle, 1829. 20. ' Brief 
Ri^iiurks on the Antt-Briliah Effect of In- 
oonsidente Criticism on Modem Art and 
theBihibitionsofthe Li vingBritieh Artiste,' 
London, 1831, 8to. 21. 'RidolS's Critical 
hetten,' Leeds, 1831. 29. ' Ridolfi'a Criti- 
cal Letters on the Style of William Etty.'&C, 
Nottingbam, 1838. 23. ' Lorenio's (>itieal 
Lvtters on the First Exhibition of the Wor- 
cester Institution,' second series. Worcester, 
1834, 4to. A third series was issued in the 
foUowmg year. 24. ' Syllabus of Tarioue 
Lectures on the Fine Arts.' An unfinished 
work of his was a, ' Life of Alderman John 
Boydell,' which was projected to fill two 
n^ quarto volumes. 

One of his dsughlers, Eliiabetb Sheridon 
Oarey. wrote a volume of poems called ' Ii-y 
Leaves,' privately printed in 1837. She 
joiued the Homao catholic church. 

(W, Bates iu Notes and Qnsries, 4th ser. v. 
IB! ; Oeiit. Mag. Febmorr 1S42, p. 130: Webb's 
Cniop. of Irish Bion. (ISiS). p. 73 ; Allibone's 
Diet, iit Anthnn; Hnilnod and Everett's Mem. 
of Judo Monl^merj, ii. 40, 73. 102. iii. 355; 
I. Holland's Mrmorinls of Chnntrey. p. 192; 
UaJMiMl Caial. of Books oa Art, 1S70, 1 229, 
Sappl. p. 125; private information.] 

C. w. a. 
CAEaiLL,ANN (1748P-1764). actress 
tmi TOCali«t, made as Miss Browji her first 
« in London at Corent Garden in I 



E 



1770, playing Sallv in Qeorpie Colmon'a 
comedy ' Man nnd t\'il'e.' During her stay 
at Covent Garden, which lasted until 1780, 
she was the original Cliirs in the * Duenna ' 
of Sheridan (21 Not, 1776), and toolt some 
primary rale/i in comic opera and burletta, and 
many secondary ruten in Cflmudy, On 2 Sept. 
1780 she played at the Haymarket, as Mrs. 
UargiU, late Miss Brown, the Goddess of 
Heith in the ' Genius of Nonsense ' of her 
manager, George Colman. Conspicuous suc- 
cess attended ner performance at the soma 
theatre, 8 Aug. 178l,of Mocheath, in a repre- 
sentation of the ' Beggar's Opera,' in which 
the male characters were sustained by women, 
and the female characters fay men. Mrs. Car- 
gill also performed Patie in Ramsay's 'Q^ntle 
Shepherd ' (29 Oct. 1781 ), Marinetta in Tiok- 
ell's' Carnival of Venice' (13 Dec. 1781), 
and Damon in 1783 in the ' Chaplet,' Mrs. 
Cargill, who was short and thick in figure, 
acted with singular spirit as Captain Mac- 
heath. It is chronicled that her tremors upon 
hearing the beli sound for execution moved 
the audience to tears. In 1782 she went to 
India, where she not only played her fa- 
vourite operatic characters, ^ut attempted 
tragedy with some success. A single benefit 
is Hai<I to have brought her the tben ' as- 
tonishing Slim of 12,000 rupees.' On her 
relum home in 1781 the Nancy packet in 
which she had taken her passage was lost. 
Her body wiis foimd 'on the rodts of Scilly 
floating in her shift,' with an infant in her 
arms. Numerous portraits of Mrs. Cargill 
were painted and engraved. Two engraving 
were issued in 1776 after a picture by W, 
Peters. Engraved portraits were aftarwards 
published of her in her chief characters, in- 
cluding Clara (1778), Miranda (1777), and 
Polly (1777 and 1782). 

[Genest'a Account oftheEngliah Stage ; Thes- 
pian Dictionary; Doran's Their Majesties' Ser- 
vants; Oibeny's Dranrntic Chronology ; YouD^B 
Memoirs of Mrs. Crouch; information kiadly 
snppliwl by Mr. W. Barclay Squire.] J. K, 

CARQILL, DONALD, or, according to 

some, DiNlEL (10I9?-1681). covenanting 
preacher, was bom at Itattray in Perthshire 
about 1619, studied at Aberdeen and St. 
Andrews, and was ordained in 1655. He 
became minister of the Barony parish in 
Glasgow in the same year. From the first 
he was a man of deep convictions and in- 
tense fidelity to them, but he did not become 
prominent till the time of the king's restora- 
tion, when, on 29 Muy 1660, instead of join- 
ing in public thanksgiving for the king's 
restoration, he pronounced the event a pro- 
found calamity, and denounced woe on the 



Cargill So Carier 

P^yalheadiorrneach^rry.ryraimT.ani Irchrry. Th-m w&a far inferior to that of his spoken 

Carzill wi* deprive*! o: hi* benrdc*? and bi- disc^urs^. 

^^ w£?^ u" J- ^^ 'H ^r"^ ""'^"^ '=^>-«'» Fasti Eccl. Scot ii. 39; Biogmphia 

U Oct. 1«>^1' L H- d:*T^r:i:ried rhe «-n:eaee. iv^gv vwriana. voL ii. ; Howie s Scots Woithi«» ; 

became a n^l i ^t^^Ut, and wa* e on^picM yi* w.>irVs Hist'DTy of the Suflbrings of the Church 

for the earnestness wi:hwh;ch he drn^unc-^l c: Sco:Und; M'Criea Sloiy of the Scottish 

the pre&bvterian m:ni?:ers wh> accep-f-i :he Charch.'i W. G. B. 

Mndiilr^nce' in Iri?-. r»n l^J^ilv In? 4 ar.d 

6 Axis. lr!:5 deor-e:s we:>ir pa^~-: a^-iir.*: him CARGILL, JA^klES (J. 1605), botanist, 

for hoMioz c«**nven:;cle* an i otbrr orfrnc^. was a medical man resident at Aberdeen, who 

In lt)79 htr tiX'k par: in :he barle of B-r-th- siuiied bi^tany and anatomy at Basle while 

well Bridge, and was wri.unie'l. bur msie C*5f»irBauhin was professor of those sciences. 

hi* escape ^xh then and tr:im oTber Jaarer* Bj'.iL:n. for whom a professorship was founded 

i»_i 1-1 a--i _• "i •I*'-.-. . _/">i -11 - 1 1 




drawin«r up a cel»:bra:ed j-aper ajain>: 'he spc-oivs oi fucus, together with his descrip- 
govemmenr, kniivm a* the Qiiren*ferry r> tion* of them, is piven in Bauhin's * Prodro- 
venant. He was also e»?norrRevl. al:n^ wi:h nius.' He aided Gesner in the same way, and 
Cameron, in issiiiuir the Sanqvdiar dr>?lara- al*-.^ L'>bel lor Lobt^lius), who, inhis * Adver- 
tion { '2'2 June lt>*0 1. and a reward was is*u-d saria " { IHOo ». refers to him as a philosopher, 
for his appreht-nsion d-id -^r alive. Afrer- well skilled in bot an v and anatomy. No other 
wards, in Sept*.*mbfr. at Torwo-.xl, brrwwn record is known of CargUl. 
Stirlinirand Falkirk.he pr^nounee^l. wi-h r.- r^;.^^, j^^^i^,-^ Pndromiis Theatri Botanici, 
conct-rt with any one. a s-V.^-mn senrer.c.- ot Fra:ifirt-:.n.Main.l62<).p. 154; Pultenevs His- 
excommunication airamsr the kiruz, :hv I»ak- tnrica. Sketobes uf the Progrt«a of Botany in 
of York, Duke of Monmouth. I>iike of Laii- Eaj'.ar. i. 1790, ii. 2.] G. T. B. 

derdale. Duke of Rothes. Sir Geor;re Mao- 

kenzie, and Sir Thrimai Dalzell. The T.»r- CARIER, BENJAMIN, D.D. (1560- 
wood excommunication was published in 1014». catholic controversialist, bom in Kent 
1741. A larfftT reward was thereuj»on is- in l-Viti. was son of Anthonv Carier, a learned 
sued for his capture, and after many hair- minister of the church of England. Ue was 
breadth escajirs he w:i.-i taken on 1:? S-;pr. by admitted of Corpus Christi College, Cam- 
James In ine of R-^nshaw at Covin jt on Mill, brid^re. :?S Feb. l.>>i\ proceeded B.A. in 1586, 
Brouirht before the hijrh c«>urr of jusrioiary was eU-cted a fellow of his college 8 March 
on 'J(i J u ly he was found iriiil: y of hiirh : reason 1 •>>?. and commenced M . A . in 1590. Soon 
and condemnor! to death. He suffered at the afterwanis he became tutor and studied di- 
cross of Kdinbunrh. '27 July ItiSl . expressinir vinity. especially the works of St. Augustine, 
himself in the most jubilant and triumphant This reading inclined him to the church of 
terms just Wfore his execution. He married Rome. However, he proceeded B.D. in 1597, 
Marjraret Browne, relict of Andrew Betham and was appointed one of the university 
of Blebo, in li555. but his wife dit:d 12 Aug. preachers, and incorporated at Oxford the 
16.*)<'». same year. Soon after this he was presented 

Though Cargill's very stringent views were bv the AVootton familv to the rectorv of Pad- 
not genenillv accepted by his countrymen, dies worth in Kent, which he resigned in 1599. 
both he and liis friend Cameron took a trreat He was presented to the vicarage of Thumham 
holdonthe|)oj)ularsymjiathyandrftrurd. Per- in the same county, with the church of Al- 
8^)nally, Cargdl was an amiable, kind-heart fd dintrton annexed, on 27 March ItXX), and he 
man, verj- self-denying, and thoroughly de- held that benefice till 1613. In 1602 he was 
voted to his duty. "\Vodrow ascril)es s«>me presented, bv Archbishop "\Miitgift,whosedo- 
of his extreme sentiments to the inlluence t)f mestic chaplain he then was, to the valuable 
others. Among the people he seems to have sinecure rectory of "West Tarring in Sussex, 
won admiration for the profoundness of his In the same year he was created D.D. at 
convictions and the fearlessness with which ; Cambridge, and his fellowship was declared 
he acte<l on them, when the n^sult to him- vacant. At this time Carier appears to have 

bet:n considerablv mortified bv his failure to 
obtain the mastership of his college. Soon 



self could not fail to be ruinous. Some ser- 
mon«, lectun.'S, and his last s|H.»ech and tes- 
timony have been printed : but Peter "Walker, afterwards he was appointed one of the chap- 
in the * Remarkable Passages ' in which he lains in ordinary to James I. On :?9 Apnl 
recorrls his life in * Biographia Presbvteriana,' 



indicates that thu impression produced by 



Apnl 

1(X)3 he was collated by the Archbishop of 
Canterbury to the living of Old Romney in 



Kent. ( )u L>9 June 1608 he obtained a pre- 
bentlal Mall at Canterbury; and he was 
nominnlEiJ oue of tLe Iir«t fellows of Chelsea 
CollBge, pmjectod by Pr. Matthew Sutcliffe 
aa a fctQinary for aUe defendera of the pro- 
t^tani reli^^on. 

Al. thi 9 periid ho beli e ved t bat a union might 
be effected between the church of Englaiid 
and the Ikiiiuuieburph,but when he perceived 
that tliis was impoaaible, he obtained the 
king'E leavi- to go to Spa for the benefit of 
BHi fcolth. reaUT intending to study the actual 
^ ' I ot CfttboUcism abroad (.1 Treatise 
'u Mr. JDactour Caritr, p. 13). He 
_ .. . . ofvod to join the Roman communion, 
and proceeded from Spa to Cologne, where 
he placed himself in the hands of Father 
Copperua, rector of the Jesuit 0>llege. King 
JameB ordered Isaac Catiaubon and others to 
write to him (August 1613), with a peremp- 
tory injunction to return toEngland. Cotier 
at tint gaye no positive answer, either lis to 
his returning or to the si^icions concemiiie 
hU religion ; but when his conversion could 
be kept n socret no loajcer. il was highly re- 
BHntcd by the king. In his printed * Missive,* 
addreeaed to the kin^ from Liige, 13 Dec. 
1613, he gays :■ ' I hauo sent you my soule in 
thiaTrealize, and if it may find entertainment, 
and passage, my bpdie shul most gladly follow 

He received several congmtulatory letters 
apon his conversion from Rome, Paris, and 
eeveml ntber places. Cardinal du Perron 
invited him to France, dosiring to have his 
iLasistance In some work wliich be wae pub- 
ll-Iiin^' ii.''iinst King James. Carier accepted 
ilii. liiiiiiiU'iii, and died in Paris before mid- 
-LimDji:r 1 1 U 4 ( .fie/iyujie WottoniaiuE,ed.lG85, 
II. -i-r-ii. tliiiiiL'h another accotml: states that 
Lis dostb ooc Ijrted at Liege {J^arl. MS. 7035, I 
p. 189). I 

His works are: 1. 'Ad Christianam Sa- 
n breris Intmductio,' a treatise writ- 
ir the use of Ftince Henry, and preserved , 
umsciipt in the library of Trmity Col- '' 
^JTunbndge. 3. 'A Treatise written by i 
or Carier, wherein he layetb downe , 
_j learned and pithy considerations, by 
fi ha wu moued, to forsake the Protestant 
ntion, and to betake hym selfe to 
uioUcke Apostollcke Roman church' 
S 1613), 4to 1 reprinted under the title 
pL Ourier to a King ; or, Doctour Carrier 
llayne to E. lames ofhappy memory), his 
"MOfronoucing the Protestant Religion, 
icin(fth«CalK. Roman' (Loud.-') 1633, 
-_ » ; again reprinted with the title of ' A 
Vwire lo His Majesly of Great Britain, King 

sitiL & lon^ 




preface by N. Strange, and a list of university 
men and ministers who were converts to Ca- 
tholicism. An elaborate answer by Dr. Geoi^ 
Hakewill to Oarier's 'Treatise ' was published 
at London in 1616. 3. ' A Letter of the 
miserable Ends of such as impugn the Ca- 
Iholick Faith,' 1615, 4to. 

[Addit. HB. SS6S, f. 37 ; Catboliii MiseeUauy 
(1S2G), r. 1 ; Dodd'a Chm^^ Hiit. ii. 424. SOB- 
SIS: Faolknec'a Chelsea. ii.22Si Foley's Records, 
i. 633; Gnillim's Dieplay of Heralrliy (IT24). 
224 : Husted's Evnt, 8vo edit. v. u32 ; Lniiad. 
MS. 983. r. 132; Masten'B Cotpus Christi Coll., 
with coDtiauation by Lamb, 16 1 ; La Nsve's Fssti 
(Hardy), i. 6* ; Pattiaon'B Life of CasHubon, 3 1 0, 
436 ; lif^stor and Magiuineof Blogispby, i. 19 ; 
Strype'i Whitgifl, 678, 581-3. Append. 240, fiiL ; 
Wbittaker'sLifeofSlrO. Baddifle, 119.1 

T. C. 

CABILKF, WILLIAM db. Sadtt {d. 

1096), bishop of Durham, be^an his ecclesi- 
aflticatcareerBd a secular priest in the church 
of Bayeux, but was moved by tbe example o f 
his father to become a monk m the monastery 
of St. Carilef, now St. Calais, In the county 
of Maine. He showed great diligence in 
dischai^Ing his monastic duties, ana rapidly 
rose to nold office in his monastery till he 
succeeded to the dignity of prior. His fame 
spread, and he was chosen abbot of the 
neighbouring monastery of St. Vincent. Hia 
practical capacity commended liim to the 
notice of William the Conqueror, who in 
1080 appointed him bishop of Durham, to 
wliich office William was consecrated on 
3 Jan. 1081. He succeeded to a troubled 
diocese, where his predecessor Walcher had 
been murdered by bis unruly people. He 
set to work at once to carry out a change 
which Walcher had contemplated, the sub- 
stitution in the church of Durham of TeEuhur 
for secular canons. Monasticism had re< 
vived in Northumberland through tbe influ- 
ence of Aldwin, prior of Winchcombe, who 
with two companions had travelled to the 
north that he might rekindle the fervour of 
monastic life which he read in the pages of 
Bede. Aldwin and his followers settled at 
Jarrow and Wearmonth, where they rebuilt 
the ruined buildings and formed monastic 
settlements. Bishop William wished to 
gather these monks round the church of 
Durham and commit to their care the guar- 
dianship of St. Cuthbert's relics. He con- 
sulted King William and Queen Matilda, 
who advised him to act cautiously and ob- 
tain the sanction of the pope. Gregory VII 
readily assented to a change which favoured 
the spread of monasticism. In 10S3 Bishop 



Carilef 82 Carilef 

revenues of the see wer>? not sufficient to the rebellion was put down, and William 11 

maintain three monasteries, the new founds- proceeded to call the treacherous bishop to 

tions of Jarrow and Wearmout h were merared account. 

in the monastery of the cathedral. Their Bishop William's conduct is condemned 
monks wer^ brought to Durham, and the ex- bv the southern chroniclers ; but the northern 
istinjET body of canons, who lived according historians regard him as in some way an ill- 
to the rule of Chrodesranir. wer»> offertHi the used man, who was himself the object of a 
choice of resigning or becoming monks. With conspiracy. Probably the monks of Durham 
one exception they all prefem^ to go ; the were easily won over by the plausible a©- 
dean was with difficulty persuaded by his counts of one who was a munificent patron 
son, who was himself a monk, to make the and a sagacious ruler (FBEEXAlKf WtUiam 
monastic profession. Aldwin, the reviver of -Rr//i#jr. Appendix C). At all events Bishop 
northern monasticism. was made the first William showed great dexterity in his at- 
prior of Durham. The monks received their tempts to remedy the evil consequences of 
lands as separate from those of the bishop: his political duplicity. William II summoned 
their prior was to have the dignity of an him before the gemot, and the bishop set to 
abbot : they were made perpetual guardians work to devise means of escape. He pleaded 
of St. Cutilbert's Church and St. Cuihbert's the privileges of his order ; he offered to puige 
relics. himself of the char;^ of treason by his per- 
Simeon, the Durham chronicler, describes sonal oath. The king refused all his oners 
Bishop William as learnt^ in secular and and demanded that he should appear and be 
theological literature, industrious in affiiirs, tried as a lavman. Then the bisnop negoti- 
sufficient in the discharge of his episcopal ated about tlie terms on which he should ap- 
duties, subtle in mind, a wise counsellor, and pear and about the possession of his castle 
eloquent in speech. To the monks of Dui^ during his absence. Finally he agreed thst 
hamhe was a kindly, prudent, and firm ruler, his castle should be held Iby three of his 
and they seem to have seen the best side of barons, and that if he were found guilty he 
his character. In public affairs his subtlety should be at liberty to go beyond the sea. 
led him into intrigue. During the reign of C)n 2 Xov. 1088 the gemot met at Salis- 
William I he was a valued counsellor of the bury, and Bishop William put forth aU his 
king, of whom all men stood in awe. Wil- acuteness in raising legal quibbles at every 
liam II at his accession made him his chief turn to prevent anv discussion of the real 
minister, probably justiciar, and committed issue. He was a skilful lawyer and a clever 
the administration of public affairs to his and copious speaker ('oris volubilit ate promp- 
hands(FLOR.WiG.subarinolOS8\ The favour tus,' says 'U ill. Miuc. Ge^ita I\mti/ieum, 
shown to him by the kine was one of the i??!?). He objected that his fellow-sufiragans 
causes of the discontent ofBishopOtloof Bay- were not allowed to give him their coimsel: 
eux, which led him to rebel against his nephew finally he denied the right of laymen to judge 
(Will. Malm. Gesta 7?^i/m,bk. iv. ch. 1). To a bishop : he would onrr answer to the arch- 
the surprise of all men Bishop William was bishop and bishops and would speak with the 
treacherous to his master and joined in the kincr. Lanfiranc was the chief speaker in op- 
revolt, 'doing as Judas did to ourLord*(.'4.-'S. posmg his claims, and it was decided that he 
(?%ro7i. sub anno 10S8). Ilis motive in this is must acknowle<]^ the jurisdiction of the 
difficult to understand; probably he wished to court, or the king was not bound to restore 
stand well with both parties. He took credit his lands. He persisted in declining to admit 
to himself for securing Hastings to the king^s this jurisdiction in the case of a bishop, and 
side: but when war seemed imminent he with- ' appealed to the apostolic see. Hugh of 
drew on pretence of gathering his troops and , Beaumont, on the king's part, accused him of 
sent the king no help. If he hoped to tempo- ' treason, and the bishop answered by again 
lise and hold the balance between the two ' appealing to Rome. The pleadings were still 
mrties, he was mistaken, for the king ordered [ gomg on when William II brought matters 
lis immediate arrest. Bishop William an- to an issue : 'I will have vour castle, as you 



swered from Durham that he would come to 
the king if he had a sufficient safe-conduct, 
but he added that not every man could judge a 
bishop. The sheriff of Yoriishire was loyal to 
the king, and ordered his men to lay waste the 
bishopric, so that Bishop William was almost 
blockaded in Durham. Still he contrived to 
do as much harm as he could to the king's 
cause in the northern parts. In two monuis 



will not follow the justice of my court.* 
Still the bishop raised new points about his 
safe-conduct, the delivery of the castle, the 
ships which were to take him abroad, and 
an allowance of money for his maintenance. 
The castle was taken by the king on 14 Nov., 
and after some delay Bishop William was 
allowed to sail to Normandy. 
There he was wannly weloomed by Dnke 



Robert, -who give him tLe chief [Mst in Il>e 
administnkiion of the dnchv- lie probnbty 
found h imself miim prafitably emplojed than 
In pnieecutin^ his nppeol to Roiae ; at all 
cppiits we hear BO tnnre about it. Ilelonged, 
however, to fvlum to England, (uid took an 
oppnntmitjr of rtguining the fayour of Wil- 
liam II by rescuinif a ^irison of his soldiers 
who wem betit^^ied iu a castle in NormendT. 
Piike Robert, becaiao reconciled to his brother, 
and on 8 S«pt. 1091 Biflhop William TCssn^ 
Htor^ tiO the pogseasiong of the bishopric. 
Bnring his absence he had not forgotten his 
ninnka, and sent them from Normandv a Int^ 
tcr of advice about their conduct, wliieh be 
orden^ them to read aloud once a week 
(SiVEo;! OF DCBKAM. Rolls 8er. i. 126). 
Ue bruuKht back with him Teeseht and vest- 
rT.cii!^ Tir his church, and, what was more 
'I plan for a new cathedral, of 
■iindntion-sWne wnalaidll Aug. 
■' presence of Stalcolm, king of 

lii^LKiji ^Villiam certainlj deserves the 
ciudit ul' being one of the greatest of the 
builders who hafe adorned England. In the 
»^iaiy of two jenrs and a half that remained 
r<i' IlIs • lii m till cat e he built ao much of the 
■ ■ I (■ nurham that he practically de- 
-ritigform. He flnished the choir, 
f the lantem,and began the nave. 
; \ i"l the purest and noblest speci- 
niPii if Itomnneeque architecture in Eng- 
land. Moreover, ho added to the castle whi^ 
William the Conqueror had huitt at Durham, 
and ii^ most striliing part is the chspel, in 
which Bishop William used the skill which 
was displayed on a greater scale in the 
cuthtHlral. 
l!i.Iifi]j William did not content himself 
' ■ ^vcirks and with the huainess of 
Unfortunately for his fame he 
■ . Euvour of William H and helped 
V- out his unworthj' plans. The 
. liaracter of the bishop showed 
! . Ki clearly in hie willingness to 
11 II to rid himself of Archbi^op 
I'jshop William felt no respect for 
imple and noble character. He 
laiii li'^al traps for him anil dL-vised means 
of annoyance which might give a ulaiisible 
rMwni for his deposition, led by the hope that 
if Aiii'^lni were gone he might succeed him 
■■. -Imp. The story of the persecution 
inednot be told again; hut in the 
' Ij" council at Rockingham (March 
!i'>p William was the man who 
'I'^rs maintained theroyaljurisdic- 
'■-liojis. The man who seven years 
It forward nt Salisbury the plea 



showed the same cleverness in arguing agunst 
such n plea. He promised the king that he 
would make Ani>elm renounce the pope or 
would uumpel him to resign his episcopal 
office, When Anselm wufi firm, and refused 
irwer save ' as he ought and wherti he 
ought,' Bishop WHliam was so far [consistent 
as to admit that reason was on the side of 
one who stood on the Word of God and the 
authority of St. Feter. But he had the 
meanness to propose recourse to violence ; 
let Anselm be deprived of his ring and statf 
and be eipelled the kingdom. "When this 
was rejected by the lay lords, William's 
technical ingenuity suggested to his brother 
bishops that they should withdraw their 
obedience from Anselm. William's conduct 
at Rockingham wb.9 in every way base and 
unworthy. He showed himself to be a man 
of great cleverness who pursued his end with 
desperate tenacity, and when once engaged 
in a war of wits forgot everything save the 
desire to win an immediate advantage. To 
promote his own interests he attacked at 
Rockingham the position which, to save 
himself, he had strenuously miuntained at 
Salisbury. He was a man without principles 
in public matters. His versatile mind and 
ready eloquence covered on indifference to 
the real issue and hopeless shallowness of 
thought ('homo linguie voliibUitate fiicetua 
quam sapientia prseditus,' Eadhab, ffitt, 
S-ov.hk.il _ _ 

Bishop William went away from Rock- 
ingham discredited in the eyes of all men. 
His counsel had led the king into diffi- 
culties, and he had again lost the royal 
&vonr. His restless mind chafed under his 
disgrace, and he was suspected of renewed 
treachery. Robert Mowbray, earl of Nortb- 
umbprland,rebelledagain8t the king, and the 
bishop of Durham's attitude was ambiguous. 
The king summoned him to his court, and 
the bishop pleaded Ulness as an excuse. The 
king ri?penled his command, and the bishop, 
who was really ailing, was forced to drag 
himself to Windsor. There his illness in- 
creased, and on Christmas day 1096 he took 
to his bc^d. It is pleasant to know that he 
was visited in his sickness by Archbishop 
Anselm. On Us deathbed it was proposed 
by some of his monks who were present that 
he should be buried in the stately church 
which he had founded; hut William refused 
to allow his corruptible remains to bo laid in 
the same building as the unoomipt body of 
St, Cuthbert. ' Bury me,' he said, ' in the 
chapter-house, where mv tomb will lie always 
before your eyes.' He'died on 2 Jan. lOSKi, 
His body was carried to Durham and wii§ 
baaDi in tlw chaftai^iotiM Kcordins to hia 



ite 



Carkeet 84 Carkett 

wiBhy amid the c«ar£ and lameniatioiis of the i after 1729 ), and died there on 17 June 1746. 

monks. His sermon was pnhlished with the title, 

The character of William de St. Carilef is 'Gospel Worthiness stated: in a Sermon 

pimling. It is hard to reconcile the clever, Tlatt. x. 11" p«ach*d in Exon^ &c., 1719, 

selfish, unscrupulous «tate^man with the wise ^vo. He published also ' An Essay on the 

administrator and sa^cious reformer of his Conversion of St. Paul, as implying a change 

diocese. Hewasprobably amanwh>>scclever- of his Moral Character,* 1741, 8to (against 

ness was supernciaL and did not tro beyond Henry Grove's view that the change was 

the capacity to do what seemed obvious for simply one of opinion), 

the moment. At Durham his duty was tol^ [MMuscript List of Ministers in Records of 

rably dear, and he did it with sacacuy and Exe:*r Assemblv : James's Presbyterian Chapels 

winning sympathy. He was beloved by his aad Chanties. 1867, p. 656 (where he is called 

monks. His architectural plans wenr marked Carkat) ; sermon cited abova.] A. 6. 
bv the finest feeling for the capacities of the 

art of his time. In public matters his path CARKESSE, JAMES 09. 1679), verse 
was not so clear. lie had no principles to writer, was educated at Westminster School, 
guide him, and his actions were swayed by whence in 1652 he was elected to a scholar- 
selfishness. ' ' ship at Christ Church, Oxford. It seems 

[The northern auihoritv t Simeon of Dup- probable that he joined the Roman catholic 
ham. Hist. Bunelm. Ecclk ed. Arnold, Rolls fhurch before 1679, m which year he pub- 
Series, i. 119, &c. ; aUo, with the Hi*:. Rccum. Wished a curious volume of doggerel rhpies, 
fti. Hindc. Snrtees Society; the aov>Jiist of the ent it led 'Lucidalntervalla: containing divers 
trial at Salisbury is a Durham document. 'De miscellaneous Poems writ ten at Finsbuiy and 
injusta venatione WiUelmi primi episcopi.' in Bethlem, bv the I>octor s Patient Extraordi- 
Ihigdaks Monasticon Anglicannm. i. 24-5. aec. ; nary/ London, Ito. The doctors name was 
thesonthem authorities are William of Malmcs- Thomas Allen. It is clear that the writer 
bury'sGestaRepum.bk.iv. eh. 1; and Gerta Ponii- -^i^ns a very fit subject for a lunatic asvlum. 
ficum,bk.i v.; Florence of Worcester's Chronicle, nn- , i .' ., • ^n' ^ ■■««> <vt ! * 
and AuRlo-Saion Chronicle, sub annis; Eadmar. ^ [^-^leh» Alumni W«rtEjon. 139 ; Notes and 

Hist Nov. bk. i. ; of modem writere see Hut- ?^t"f ' If^.'^'T: "'5iL^!?^^v^"^^* ^'^ 

chin8on'sDnrham.i.l33;StubbssConstitntional (?^^?)' 3*3; Cat. of Printed Books in Bnt 

Hist ch. xi. ; the public life of Bishop William -^°*'J ^- ^' 

has been fully examined by Freeman. WiUiam r* A-DiriiVivp T>rfcT>TrT>T /^ T-onx ^ 4. • 

Rufus, i. 119, &c., and the Authorities discussed . CAR™^, ROBERT (rf. 1/80), captain 

in Appendix C] M. C. ^? ^^^ ^y^^J^T^^ «^?^» ^^ ^^'^ ^^^^^^ 

the naw in li^ as able seaman on board 

CABKEET, SAMUEL (d. 1746). ores- the Exeter. In her, and afterwards in the 

byterian minister, was ordained 19 July Grampus and Aldemey sloops, he served in 

1710, the same day as James Strong, after- that capacity for upwards of four years, when 

wards of Uminster. He was settled in the he was appointed to the Plvmouth as mid- 

larjrer of two presbyterian congregations at shipman. In that ship, then belonging to 

Totnes. Accused of Arianism when the the Mediterranean fleet, he remained for 

Exeter controversy broke out, he preached nearly five years, and during the latter part 

a vigorous sermon at Exeter, 7 May 1719, of the time under the command of Captain 

at the young men's lecture, repudiating all G.RRodnev. He passed his examination on 

personal taint of Arianism, but maintaining 18 Julv 1743, sailed forthe East Indies in the 

that christian worth is independent of spocu- Deptford in May 1744, was made lieutenant in 

lative opinions. Few contributions to the the following Pebruarv, and returned to Eng- 

non-subscription side are more blimt and land in September 1746. During the rest of 

trenchant in their language. Arguing against , the war he served in the Surprise frigate, and 

any tmscriptural test, he says : * Either the in March 1755 was appointed to tne Mon- 

Holy Ghost spoke as plain as he could, or as j mouth, a small ship of 64 guns, which, after 

plain as God thought proper for a rule to the ! two years in the Channel, was, early in 1767, 

churches. If he spake as plain as he could, ' sent out to the Mediterranean under the com- 

thej are no plausible contenders for his ' mand of Captain Arthur Gardiner. In the 

Divinity (which, I believe, is gcnerallv ac- early part of 1758 the squadron under Vice- 

knowledg'd amon^ Christians) who fancy admiral Osbom was blockading Cartagena. 

they can speak plainer. If he spake onljr as On the evening of 28 Feb. the Monmouth 

plain as God thought proper, they certainly chased the French 80-gun ship Foudroyant 

mrade his prerogative who pretend to make out of sight of the squadron, and singie- 

the matter plainer, and urge it upon men's handed brought her to action. About nine 

consciences. Carkeet removed to Bodmin | o'clock Qaidiner fell mortally wounded, and 



^^^^ Carkett 

ihi- commaild devolved on Ca-rkett as firat- 
liputenaul, who continued the fight with 
equal spirit. liotb ehips wpre beaten aearl<r 
toastondstUI, whentlitf Swiftsureof TOguns 
came up about one o'clock in tlio morning, 
and th^ Foudroyant Eurrendered. Carkett 
was immedialelr promoted bj the admiral 
to command the prize, and a few dajs lalei 
»upoinI«d to the Revenge, which be look to 
£ne]and. His post rank wasdated 12 March; 
And be continued in command of the Re- 
venge, in the Downs, till the following 
FebruBiy. He vaa then appointed to the 
Pn^iinr uigate, and commanded her at home 
And in the West Indies till 23 Mjr ITS:?. 
■when she stnick on a reef off Cape Franf ais 
of Si- Domingo, and woa lost, her officers 
MtdmenbecomingpriBoneraof WOT. InJune 
C»r)irtt and the other officers were sent to 
£ngliind on narok, but he was not exchanged 
till tbe following December. In Aufust 
1703 he commissioned the Active, which he 
commanded in the Wt»t Indies, and most of 
the time at Peosacola, till 1767, in June of 
vhicb Tear she was paid off at Ohathnni. In 
Jnlv 1 1 60 he commissioned the Lowestoft, 
*iuf again spent the greater jart of the time 
At Pensocolo, where his duties scero to have 
tKcn promoting the wel&ie of the setilement 
«ud cultivating vegelablee. His gardening 
vae iaterrupted foe a short time in 1770 by 
the death of Commodore Forrest, in conse- 

3ueDC« of which he bad to undertake the 
uties of senior officer at Jamaica ; but on 
being superseded by Commodore Mackeniie 
he returned to Pensacola, and remained there 
for tJie next three yenra. The Lowestoft was 
pwduffin May 1773. 

In November 1778 Carkett was appointed to 

command the Stirling Castle of 64 guns, and 

in December sailed fot the West Indies in the 

squadion under Commodore Rowley. He 

tfiua in the following summer had his share of 

tbe citimsilj fought action off Greuada [see 

BTBOsf, JoHS. 1723-1780], and on 17 April 

17^ led the line in the action to leeward of 

M*rtiniqui- [see Roditbt, Gbokoh BRTDQtB, 

Iiubd]. f If Carkett's personal courage there 

ran in' Mil i]ipLilji,bnt his experience with a fleet 

\ -mall, and of naval tactics he 

!ii-yoDd tbe rule for the line of 

n in the fighting instructions. 

■ 11', Rodney, after directing the 

nitiick I'jiiociiiicentnited on the enemy's rear, 

made the sigiul to engage, Carkett in the 

Stirling d'astie HlTetch«l aioDg to engage the 

iii./iiij f viiu. Rodney wrote to the secretary 

^■■y on 20 April 1780 ihnt his 

i'ltal to the success of the aa- 

I -i» of Rodney's letter was not 

I'lir.r- ' iii^'Guottei'butCarkettleanied 



8s 



Carleill 



from England that something of the sort had 
been sent. He accordingly wrote to Rodney 
desiring to see that part of it which related 
to him. ' All the satisfaction I received,' he 
complained to the secretary of the admiralty 
on 23 July 1780, 'was his oeknowledgment 
that he bad informed their lordships that I 
had not properlv obeyed hia signals in attack- 
ing the enemy % rear ' (Beitsov, A'av. and 
mi. Mcmoirt, vi. 222). Rodney's letter did, 
in fact, contain a very severe reprimand, of 
which Carkett made no mention, but requested 
the aecretary of the admiralty to lay nis cx- 

Elanation before their lordships. Whether 
e ever received an answer is doubtful, for 
the Stirling Castle, which bad been sent to 
Jamaica, aud thence ordered home with tbe 
trade, was, in a violent hurricane on 5 Oct., 
totally lost on Silver Keys, eoaie small rocks 
, to the north of Cape Fran^ ajs. All on board 
I perished, with the exception of a midship- 

I [Official hettere and othsf documents in Iho 
Public RBCord Office; Chamock'fl Biog. JJavatis, 
vi. 300.] J. K. L. 

CARLEILL, CHRISTOPHER (1561 ?- 
1593), military and naval commander, bom 
about 1651, was son of Alexander Carleill, 
citizen and vintner of London, by his wife 
Anne, daughter of Sir George Bame, knight, 
lord mayor of London. He is stated, Dut 
without probability, to have been a native 
of Cornwall (HOLUNIi, Heroalogia AngUca, 
94). He was educated in the univeraty of 
Cambridge (Cooper, Athena Cantab, ii. 161). 
In 1572 he went to Flushing, and was present 
at tbe siege of Middelburgh. Boisot, the 
Dutch admiral, held him in such esteem that 
no orders of the senate or the council were 
carried into execution until he hud been con- 
sulted. Afterwards he repaired with one ship 
and a vessel of smaller sue to La Rochelle, 
to serve under the Prince of Cond6, who 
was about to furnish supplies to the town of 
BrouHge, then besieged by Mayeime. Cond6 
had intended to attack the royal fleet in 
person, but on tbe arrival of Carleill the com- 
mand wasgivento him. Having discharged 
this duty he went to serve at Steenwick in 
Overyssel, then beleaguered by the Spaniards. 
In consequence of bis conduct there be was 
placed at tbe head of the English troops at 
the fortressof ZworCe Sluis. When leadin? 
troops thence to the army be was surprised 
by a body of the enemv consisting of two 
tuouaand foot and six hundred horse. He 
vigorously repulsed them, and slew or took 
eight hundred. As inconvenience arose &om 
the great number of foreigners in the camp 
of the Prince of Orange the sole cutmnana 



Carleill S6 Carlell 

was irlvr!: to C±rlril- Arr-rr :1-t *■-*-= :: eT-r= -a-rll ni^he the moete part of fower 
Sr«j*nwii>k wi* rtjr'i L-r •■■■;■::•: * : Ar.-«-erT- Tf-iTr* tyzir. fts also that I hare spentt> my 
and he Wis :e. rL-r p:i=.- :: rrnr^Jjur :•: juTrlnr-r-? and all other meanes in the ser- 
En^iaii'i. wl-r=. 1- tts-t =^:l': ::r :- "ir :r-z.>r ■r:>r :: iry c:-un:reye. which hath not heen 
aci :h-r ciiririirriT^ **a*:t* irs-ii *: i.^^^^.r lr». ^ian fve Thousande pounds, whereof I 
thr 5.?>cc=.=:iz.i :::ir*A=ii --'il ^-T Jr'ui £:t rwe *t this present e the beste parte of 
Norris ?h;.ili arrirr :•: rhirv- *lr .'• *"i ?,»>.". Xler? U no man canne challenge me 
wirh him. AlTr-jr'lrr Ir "S^rr-ri 'z.r Pr_z.>r ■ : tii: I Lav^ spen:*- any pan of all this expense 
Ora::;rr f:r £vr TTiir« Tir'.-i::it r=i>: -rlr^ ^ht. in r::r:r, zajn-r, cr other excessiye, or inordi- 

He <?:■!: ve7<:^i :!■? E;uli*l =iTr:I"i-'? ir.": zll't zzjlzijl^t' 
Ru=£:3 in 15.^1'. -wh-rn :i:r k:-^ :f IVriiniri Cirl-rill died in London on 11 Xot. 1o93, 
was at war w::h :hi: e: -it-Tt. Ti-r I^inirh. -anL as i* 5upp:«ed. for erief of his firends 
fl-eet m-rt Thr=.. t-:. iburrrrri::^ Li* >;jAir:=. dra:h. He was quicke wit ted, and affable^ 
of eleven shij*?. 'iii c:: vezt-.;rr ut«::: a" e-- Tali at: ard fommate in warre, well read in 
gajremenr. The Piussian e-T-rr r:" i- C'*Ari :z.r miThema:ikefr,and of good experience in 
at the pjrt o: ."^r. N:cL:l«. az : wis .^ z.TrT..-i Livirii: -n. whereupp^n some have pecirtred 
to EniTlani. By thr iii:»r>-.*: :f i.i* li'Ler-Ln- him :?r a na victor, out the truth is hismos^t 
law, Sir Francis WalsIn^Lizi. Cirlrlll r*r- inclina:::::. and ppMession. was chiefely for 
ceived lj»j/. by 5.iWr:::::n a: Brif*::! zt laz-ie servioe. he utterly abhorred pyracy* 
an attempt todi?cC'Ver*:!:e o- i?" ■:•: AzLrrlc-^ tSivwr, AMTt^>^^ ed. Howes, p. 805). Sir 

ifierent opinion 
State Ptijtfr«, 
p. 5^>). He married Mary, 
he deemed su£cien: to srrrrle '>ne hmirvi da-j^bter of Sir Francis Walsin^ham, and 
men in their intended plantation. The pr> sisT-rr ■■f Sir Philip Sidney's wife, ilis iv'idow 
ject appears to hare been unsuoceaerul. but was alive in IfkV. 

Carleill wr:«te * a bri'-f and sammary dis- There is a line portrait of him in Holland's 
course' on its advantajes iHAiLrrrt. A • Her:>«I' via." ana there is also a small por- 
letterfirom the Earl of Shrewsbury to Thomas trai: of him en^rraved by Robert Boissard, 
Bawdewyn, :?»> May 15S3, alludes to Car- which Wlon^ to a curious set of English 
leill's schemrr \ Lodge. lUuttratiurit ofEriti*h admirals bv the same enirraver (Graxgeb, 
JETutory, fri. 1S3S. ii. HAl-^ ». ^1-7. HUU ^.f England, ei. 1S24, L 28S>. 

In i->54 Sir John Perrot, lord-lieutenant^ He is the author of: 1. 'A Brief Summary 
of Ireland. app:)inted Carleill commanvler of Pisoourw upon a Voyage intending to the 
the earris«jn of Coleraine and the district of uttermost pans of America.' Written in 





ou'i sail. Carleill wai^ captain of the Tiger, art. 14. 4. 'Account of advantacres to the 

In thL-j expedition the cities of St. I>Dmin^o. realm from a sudden seizure of booKs, letters, 

St. lago, Curthaifinia, and St. Aujiustine were papers. \c. of the L«:*w Count rv people resid- 

taken. The success of this campaign was in mi: and inhabiting under the oi>^ience of the 

great measure owing to the lieutenant -gene- king of Spain, with answers to objections/ 

ral's good c^mJuct' ( Carlisle. OMrctioru Lansd. M^. 113, art. 7. 
for a HtJftory of the Family of C<zr/iV/^. Carleill always \nt)te his name so. Others 

p. '2\ ; Camdex, Annale^f ed. lfeo-9, bDok iv. spell it Carlile, Carlisle, Carliell, and in other 

p. 92), ways. 

On26Julylo6Shewasappointedconstable [Authorities ciU^ alove ; also Boase and 

of Camckfergus, co. Antrim (Las^elles, Courtnevs Bibl. Comubiensis, i. 58, iii. 1112; 

Lifjer BibernicB, n. 120;. In l)t^ he was Bioij. Brit. 2465. note C ; Cal. State Papers, 

governor of Ulster. On 10 June lo90 he Domestic and Irish, and Carew. 1584-90: 

TiTOte to Lord Burghley, requesting a com- Tanners Bibl. Brit. 154 ; notes supplied by Prof, 
mission from the queen to seize for lawful ; J. K. Luughton.] T. C. 



prize any goods i*'hich mi^ht be found in 
England belonging to Spanish subjects. In 
urging his claims upon her majesty he says : 
' I have bene longe tyme a fruiteles suitor, 



CARLELL, LODO\^^CK Of. 1&>1>- 
1664), dramatist, held varioufl positions at 
court under Charles I and IL Aooording to 



Igbaine, ' bo wns uu ancitml courtier, 
frsenUemiiii o( ihe bowa to Klou: Charlea 
tint, groom of tlis liiog uia queen's 
privT chunMr, and served (stc) the queen 
DolDer muny ye»rs.' He u the re])uted 

' The Desen-ing 
^TOuril«,' 4tu, 1621>, 8to, 1659, a tra^- 
M0dy, played at Wbiieball liefoiv Charlw I 
d his queen, and subeequenUy at (he pri- 
'~ liiektre in Blacktriars. 3 and 3. ' Ar- 
utd Philicio,' a tmgi-comedy in twn 
. ISmo, 1639, acted at Bkckfrmrs, nnd 
n preface bv Dryden spoken by Hart, 
' ■ . IBTSty the kinjc's eompony nt 
Inn rielda. 4 and 6. 'The Pos- 
aiooaCe Lover,' a tragl-comedy in two ports, 
4lo, 16a5, nkyed at Somerset House, and 
[Uentlv nt Bluckff iors. 6. ' The Fool 
be Q Favourite, or the Discroiit Lover," 
.1657, 'oct«d with great iipplaU£e'(LA]4a- 
a). 7. 'Osmond, the Great Turk, or 
_ Noble Servant,' a tracedv, 8yo, printed 
&e Mune volume with the loregoing under 
Ike titJe 'Two Now Plaves.' S. ' Heraclius, 
Emperor of the Enst,' 4to, 1664, 9. 'The 
SpATtAD Ladies,' d I'Oiuedv entered on the 
booke of the Stationers' Company, 4 Sept. 
1046, BJid mentioned in HunipErey Moeeley'a 
catftlogue at the end of Middleton'B ' More 
Dissi^niblorE besides Women.' No copy of 



Sir □. Mildmay she 
so early as 1634, Of these plays, all except 
oae seem to have been put on tlie stage. 
Concerning 'Heraclius,' whicli is a tran^- 
lion from Pierre Corneille, Langbaine, fol- 
lowing the author's statement in the dedl- 
cation, sajfB it was never played, another 
vetuioD being prefonratl by the players whom 
Carlell supposed to have accepted his work. 
Ko cither play on the subject is preserved. 
pBpys, in his 'Diary.' 4 Feb. 1666-7, writes 
aa follows : ' Soon ae dined my wife and I 
out to the Duke'a Playhouse, and there saw 
*' Heraclius," an excellent play, to my eitra- 
ordinary content, and the more from the 
llOUMt being very full and great company.' 
The not«> to ttkis escribes the play in question 
to Carlell. The plot§ of most of Ihe remain* 
ing pieces are borrowed. Carlell has some 

of chamclOT {tainting. Ah regards 

•"— and langiuee, bis plays will 
eomparisnn witli those uf tlie minor 
^—tista of his day. Tliey are dedicated 
iS» feUow-cciiTiierB, and contain in oro- 
_jnee snd epilu^uee soma slight autobio- 
graphical indjcaiioits. In the prologue to 
tlu> *Hcand part of the 'Passionate Lover* 
" lieUsiys! 



^uld 



UcHt here know. 
This author hunts, and bawlji, and feeds his dBsr, 
moat fair days tUroughottt the 

' Heraclius " is in rhymed verse, which Car- 
lell manages indifferently well. One or two 
others are in prose, with rhymed tags to cer- 
tain speeches ; the remainder are in blank 
verse of indescribable infelicity. It is diffi- 
cult to resi!it the conviction that the plays 
were intended for prose, and were measured 
into uneoual lengths and supplied with capi- 
tals by the printers. 

[QeDest's Accouiilof IheEoglish I^Uge; Itng- 
baine'E Dramatio Poets ; Diary of Popja ; Halli. 
well's Dictionary of Old Plays; plays of Corlell 
riled,] ' "^ ' J.K. 

CARLETON, Sib DUDLEY, Vibcoumi 
DoscHESTEiR (1573-1632), diplomatist, was 
the son of Antony Carleton of Baldwin Bright- 
well, Oxfordshire, ty Jocosa, his second wife, 
daughter of John Goodwin of WinchingTOQ, 
Buckinshamahire, He was bom at his father's 
seat at Brightwell on 10 March 1573, and was 
early sent to Westminster School, where Dr, 
Edward Grant wus his master, and in the 
latter part of his time the teamed Camden. 
He entered at Christ Church, Oxford, in the 
usual course, and took his B.A. degree on 
2 July 1695. During the noit five years he 
spent his time in foreign travel and in ac- 
quiring a knowledge of the continental lan- 
guages. Li 1600 he returned to Eoglaad, 
and proceeded M.A. on 13 July of that year. 
Shortly after this he became secretary to Sir 
Thomas Parry, and accompanied him on his 
embassy to France in June 1602. Some dia- 

rements are said to have arisen between 
two, and in November 1803 Carleton 
wss bock A^ia in England, and next month 
we find bun at Winchester and an eye- 
witness of tlio ghastly butchery of Watson 
and other victims of the so-called 'Kaloigh 
plot.' In the following March he was elected 
member for St. Mawes in the first parlia- 
ment of King James, and be seems to have 
beeji from the first an active participator in 
the debates. He next became secretary to 
thri unfottunote Heury, earl of Norlhum\ier- 
knd; but when I,rt>rdNorris, in March 1605, 
determined to multe a tour in Spain, he pre- 
vailed upon Carleton to accompany him, who 
thereiipon resigned his secretaryship to the 
earl. While on their wav home Lord Korris 
fell donserously ill in I'aris, and Carh^ton 
remained at his siila till his recovery. Just 
at this time the Uunpowder plot was dis- 
covered, and it appeared in eridt^nof tluit 
Carleton, as Lord Northumberland's secro- 
tory, had actually negotiated for tbe transfer 



Carleton 



88 



Carleton 



of the vault under the parliament house in 
which the powder was laid. Carleton, in 
ignorance that his name had been mentioned 
in the affair, and never thinking that suspi- 
cion could light upon himself, still remained 
in Paris by his friend's side. His prolonged 
absence from England under the circum- 
stances led to rumours much to his prejudice, 
and he was at length peremptorily sum- 
moned home by an order of the lords of the 
council, and on his arrival in London was 
placed in confinement in the bailifl'*s house 
at Westminster. Eventually he succeeded 
in dealing himself of all co^sance of, or 
complicity in, the abominable conspiracy, 
and by the favour of Lord Salisbury he was 
Bet at liberty, but not till he had been under 
arrest for nearly a month. His unfortunate 
connection with the Earl of Northumber- 
land acted seriously to his prejudice for some 
years and interfered with his advancement, 
though he had already made powerful firiends 
and had succeeded in producing a general 
impression of being a man of promise and 
extraordinary ability. 

In November 1607 he married, in the 
Temple Church, Anne, daughter of Sir Henry 
Saville, the editor of Chrysostom's works 
and founder of the Savilliau professorship at 
Oxford. Carleton had already assisted his 
future father-in-law in collating manuscripts 
while he was in Paris in 1603, and he con- 
tinued ' plodding at his Greek letters,* as he 
calls it, while living in Sir Henry's house 
with his young wife during the first year of 
their married life. After this, and when a 
child was bom to him, he took a house at 
Westminster, and became a diligent debater 
in parliament when it assembled. Salisbury 
had an eye upon the young man, and when, 
in May 1610, Sir Thomas Edmundes was re- 
called from the embassy to the Archduke 
Albert, Carleton was appointed to go as am- 
bassador to Brussels. \\ hen all preparations 
were made for his departure, the king's in- 
tention changed, and he was ordered to pro- 
ceed to Venice as successor to Sir Henry 
"W'otton, who was recalled. He received the 
honour of knighthood in September, and, 
arriving at his destination about the middle 
of November, his career as a diplomatist 
began. From tliis time till the end of his 
life Carleton grew to be more and more 
esteemed as the most sagacious and success- 
ful diplomatist in Europe, and a history of 
the negotiations in which he was engaged 
would DC a history of the foreign affairs of 
England during more than half of the reigns 
of James I and his unhappy successor. He 
returned to England from his Venetian em- 
bassy in 1616, shortly after he had carried 



through the very delicate task of getting the 
treaty of Asti concluded, whereby the war 
between Spain and Savoy was brought to an 
end, and something like peace in Europe was 
established. He did not remain long at 
home. In March 1616 he was sent to suc- 
ceed Winwood at the Hague, and during the 
next ^\e years he continued ambassador 
there. His despatches during this period 
contain a masterly summary of Dutch history 
and politics, and a graphic account of the ex- 
treme difficulties of the writer's position, and 
of the imfailing versatility and self-command 
which he displayed in extricating himself 
from these difficulties as they emerged. 

Motley has given a caustic r6sum6 of Car- 
leton's speeches in the Assembly of Estates 
in 1617, which provoked much discussion at 
the time, and one of which at least was an- 
swered by Grotius in print. But when he 
attributes to him a bitter hatred of his hero 
Bameveld, Motley mistakes the man he was 
writing about. Carleton was of too cool and 

I calculating a nature to be capable of strong 
hatred. Life to him, and especiaUv political 

: life, was a game to be played without pas- 
sion ; the men upon the board were out 
pawns or counters ; and in playing with the 
States General at this time, when everybody in 

I Holland was more or less mad with a theologi- 
cal mania, it was idle to speak or act as if they 
were sane. When four vears later Frederic 
the Elector found himself an exile after the 
battle of Prague, and took refuge in Holland, 
he occupied for a time the ambassador's 
house, and brought in the Princess Elizabeth 
and her children with their retinue. Carle- 

I ton was put to ver}- great expense, but he 

, bore it with his usual sangfroid, though he 
did not forget to mention the fact when sub- 
sequently he was seeking for royal favour. 

' Sir HenW Saville died in February 1622. 
Lady Carleton was his only surviving child, 
and, possibly with a view to looking after 
her own interests, and certainly with the 
hope of getting some large sums of money 
which were due to the ambassador, in the 
spring of the following year her ladyship 
went over to England and was received with 

! much favour. Thomas Murray, the prince's 

I tutor, had succeeded Sir Henry as provost of 
Eton, but just as Lady Carleton arrived in 
England Murrajr too died. The provostfihip 
of Eton was again vacant, and Carleton was 
among the candidates for the vacant prefer- 
ment; it fell to Sir Henry Wotton, how- 
ever, and Carleton had to wait some vears 
longer for promotion. In 1625 Bucking- 
ham came over to the Hague to attend the 
congress which was going to do such ffreat 

thi^ and did so little ; and thespeechiniich 



Carleton 



89 



Carleton 



hc' delivered nt hie public audience was writ- 
ten far him by Carleton and delivered toti- 
dem. vrrbu. Wlien the duke returiK^d to 
EcKlBud, Carleton accompanied him, and was 
at unL'e rewarded for lus long services by 
beiiifj made Tice-cliamberlain of the house- 
hold and a member of the priry council ; 
but in a few weeks he was again despatched, 
in cnncert with tlie EnrI of Holland, on on 
cximorditiary embassy to France. The mis- 
nnnnmred abortive; Riclielieu hod a policy, 
Cburled bod none, nnd tlie two embasBadors 
returned in March 10-26. having effected little 
or QolliiniF, When Carleton landed in Eng- 
lan<l, lie laaaA the House of Commous oc- 
cupied with the impeachment of Bucking- 
hun. Ue had been elected in his absence 
member for the borough of Ho^tingB, and 
lost no time in taking his scat and speaking 
in defence of lus patron and friend. He 
qioks aa a diplomatist, and willi Bmall auc- 
OeM ; but it in not improbable that if he hud 
b«*n 1t-fV to follow his own plans he might 
hare been found a useful member in the 
houBG, and have exercised some influence 
in restraining the violence of the more fiery 
enirits on the one band, and in checking 
tno impnidence and rashness of the king and 
hia BUpport<.'rB on the other. By this time, 
bowever, the lords had shown a disposition 
to taka a line of Ihvir own, and Charles de- 
1 lo strengtlien Lis party in the 

■ house. Carleton was accordingly 
i to the peerage as Lord Carleton of 
Tcourt in May 1628. Shortly after- 
is b WM found expedient once more to 

d him on a niisaiou lo the Hagrue. Que 

■ ol^eclB of this foolish mission was to 
l1 upon the States to favour a levy of 

Gorman horse, who were intendea to 
wrve in England, and the other waa lo effect 
a union of the States against Spain. Carleton 
tnnst luiTe known before he started that he 
could only fait in such a project. He was 
kept in UciUand on this occasion for two 
years, and during hia absence Lady Carleton 
died (lU April 1(127). 8h<t was buried in 
Si. Paul'fl tliapol in Westminster Abbey. 
Tli>> (.'hOdn-n she had given birth to had all 
diiv.1 in inlMTicy, and Carleton found himself 
n rliildlr^B widower. He returned in April, 

i.n L',~) July 162S was created Viscount 



ii.i 



' Buckingham's miRerable in- 

(ir the nosilion wbich he now 

Iwen sliowing itself more glai- 

li\,",i-llii.-lniLl.-ii liTigth drifted 

i\n- siege of 

■ Hsapprove 

u ~ liad gone 

■ ■ ■.111. \«ton 



6 Aug. it seemed aa if there might still be a 
way out of the difficulties, and a peace with 
France be concluded. Overtures to this ettect 
were made by Contarini to Dorchesti^r, and it 
was actually while be waa walking to the 
conference which Dorchester had arranged on 
the morning of 23 Aug. 1628 for settling the 
terms of this peace that Buckingham received 
Lis death-wound. Dorchester was on eye- 
witness of the whole dreadful scene, and it 
was only through hia prompt interference 
that Felton was saved from being torn to 

S'eces by the bystanders. In the following 
ecember Dorchester became chief secretary 
of state, and from this time till hie death he 
was the responsible minister for foreign 
affairs, so far as anyminiaterofCharlesIcomd 
be ^l^spoIlsible for tlie mistitkes of a king 
who the less he knew the more he meddled. 
Dorchealer was now in his fifty-fifth year, 
and only a httle post liis prime ; he might 
still hope to leave a son behind him. Paul, 
first Lord Bayning, died in 1639, learii^ a 
young widow and five children all amply 
provided for. In 1630 this lady became 
Dorchester's second wife. Their union waa 
but of brief duration. Dorchester died on 
5 Feb. 1632, and was buried four days 
after in Westminster Abbey, his funeml 
being conducted with little porap or cere- 
mony. He left but a small estate behind 
him, not more than 7001. a year. It is clear 
that, like many other faithful servants of the 
Stuarts, he bad gained nothing but barren 
honour by his lifelong services. Lady Dor- 
chester gave birth to aposthumous daughter, 
Frances, in .Tune 1632, who lived little 
more than six months. Dorchester's titles 
became extinct, and a nephew of the same 
name, and who succeeded him in some of 
his diplomatic employments, was eventually 
liis heir. Dorchester's letters and despatches 
testify to the writer's extraordinary facility 
aa a correspondent. They are immensely 
voluminous. Cecil alone, among his contem~ 
poraries, has left behind him a larger mass 
of manuscript. His style is remarkably 
fluent and clear; few vrriters of English 
have surpassed him in the power of making 
his meanmgobvious without effort and with- 
out unnecessary verbiage. A collection of 
his letters during his embassy in Holland 
was iiubliahed by Lord Hardwicke in 1755, 
which attained a third edition in 1780, and 
his despatches during hia embassy nt the 
Hague m 1677 were priuted by Sir Thomas 
Philipps at Middle IliU in 1841. Some of 
his letters may be found in the 'Cabala' 
and other colleclionB, especially in Dr. 
Birch's ' Court and Times of James I and of 
Charles I;' but these are only a small portion 



Carleton 



90 



Carleton 



of the mass of correspondence which has 
never been printed, and which is to be found 
in the Record Office and other depositories. 1 
[Wood's Athonae Oxon. ii. 519 ; and Fasti 
Oxen. ; Cal. of State Papers, Dom. 1603-32 pas- , 
sim ; Birch's Court and Times of James I and 
Charles I ; Win wood's Memorials of State ; Birch's 
Negotiations between the Courts of England, ' 
France, and Brussels from 1592 to 1617 ; His- 
torical Preface to Carleton's Letters, by Lord 
Hardwicke (1780); Gardiner's Hist, of England 
in the Keigns of James I and Charles I ; Forster's 
Life of Eliot ; Motley's Life and Death of John 
•of Barneveld (1874); Chester's Westminster 
Abbey Registers ; Banks's Dormant and Extinct 
Baronage (1809), iii. 52. Clarendon's account of 
Carleton (Hist, of the Rebellion, bk. i.) is flimsy 
and inaccurate. He is included among Horace 
Walpole's Noble Authors. There is a good account , 
of him and the Carleton family in Manning and 
Bray's Hist, of Surrey (i. 456), though there 
and everywhere else his first wife is said to have , 
been Ann, daughter of George Gerard of Dor- I 
ney, Buckinghamshire. This curious mistake 
has been repeated again and figain, and has been i 
accepted even by so scrupulous and conscientious ' 
a genealogist as Colonel Chester. The origin 
of the blunder is inexplicable.] A. J. 

CARLETON, GEORGE (1659-1628), 
bishop of Chichester, son of Guy Carleton of 
Carleton Hall in Cumberland, was bom in 
1559 at Norham in Northumberland, where 
his father was warder of the castle there. His 
early education was superintended by Bernard 
Gilpin, the * Apostle of the North.' In 1576 
he was sent to St. Edmund Hall, Oxford ; in 
1 579 he took his M. A., and in 1580 was elected 
fellow of Merton. Here he won a high repu- 
tation as a ^ood poet and orator and a skilful 
disputant in theology, being well read in 
the fathers and schoolmen. In 1589 he be- 
came vicar of Mayfield, Sussex, which he 
held tiU 1605, and in 1618 he was made j 
bishop of Llandaff. In the same year he 
was selected by the king (James I), with 
three other divines, to represent the church 
of England at the synod of Dort. Here he 
distinguished liimself by a spirited protest 
against the adoption of the thirty-first article 
. of the Belgic Confession, which ailirmed * that 
the ministers of the Word of God, in what 
place soever settled, have the same advantage 
of character, the same jurisdiction and au- 
thority, in regard they are all equally minis- 
ters 01 Christ, the only universal Bishop and 
Head of the Church.* Carleton maintained 
the doctrine of apostolical succession in op- 
position to this levelling article. His pro- 
test was inefifectual, but his courage and 
ability won the admiration of his opponents. 
When the English deputies returned home 
in the spring ca 1619, the Dutch States, be- 



sides payinf^ the expenses of their voyage 
and presenting each with a gold medal, sent 
a letter to the king in whicn a special com- 
mendation is made of Carleton as t lie foremost 
man of the company and a model of learning 
and piety. He was translated to Chichester 
in the same year, probably in recognition 01 
the ability and spirit with which he had up- 
held the honour of the church of England 
in the synod. He died in May 1628. His 
son, Henry, represented Arundel in the 
parliament of 1640, and afterwards served 
m the parliamentary army. Camden, the 
antiquary, was much attached to Carleton, 
and speaks of him (Brit, in Northumb, 
p. 816) as one * whom I have loved in regard 
of his singular knowledge in divinity and in 
other more delightful literature, and am loved 
again of him.' Anthony k Wood {AthetuB 
Ox.) describes him as * a person of solid judg- 
ment and various reading, a bitter enemy to 
the papists, and a severe Cal vinist.' His views, 
however, upon the subject of election were 
not nearly so rigid as those of the majority 
in the synod of Dort, and his theolo^ does 
not seem to have afiected the amiability of 
his disposition. Fuller (WorthieSj p. 304) 
says that ' his good affections appear in his 
treatise entitled, "A Thankful Remembrance 
of God's Mercy," solid judgment in his " Con- 
futation of Judicial Astrology," and clear in- 
vention in other juvenile exercises.' The 
following is a list of his works : 1. * Heroici 
Characteres,' Oxon. 1603, 4to. 2. * Consensus 
Ecclesia) Catholic® contra Tridentinos . . .' 
1613, 8vo. 3. * Carmen panegyricum ad Elii. 
Angl. Reg.,' in vol. iii. of Nichols's 'Progresses 
of Queen Elizabeth,' p. 180. 4. < VitaBemardi 
Gilpini . . . apud Anglos Aquilonares cele- 
berrimi,' 1628, 4to. 5. * Life of Bernard Gil- 
pin,' with the Sermon preached before Ed- 
ward VI in 1562, London, 1636,8vo. 6. ' Eoi- 
stola ad Jacobum Sextum Brit. Ilegem/ in the 
* Miscellany of the Abbot«ford Qub ' (i. 1 13), 
Edinburgh, 1837. 7. * Tithes examined and 

S roved to be due to the Clergie by a Divine 
Light,' 1606, 4to, second edit. 1611. 8. * Ju- 
risdiction RegaU, Episcopall, papall,' 1610, 
4to. 9. * Directions to know the True Church,' 
1615, 8vo. 10. * An Oration made at the 
Hague before the Prince of Orange and the 
States Generall of the United Provinces,' 
1619, 4to. 11. * A Thankful! Remembrance 
of God's Mercy in an Historicall Collection 
of the . . . Deliverances of the Church and 
State of England . . . from the beginning of 
Q. Elizabeth,' London, 1624, 4to. Several 
editions. 12. * 'AorpoXoyo/ioi^ia, the Madnesse 
of Astrologes ; or, an Examination of Sir Chris- 
topher Hey don's Booke, intit uled, '' A Defence 
of Judidarie Astrologie," ' Londofl, 1624, 4t<>. 



Carleton 



91 



Carleton 



13 . * An Examination of those Thinffs where- 
in the Author of the Iste " Appeale^' holdeth 
the Doctrine of the Church of the Pelaffians 
and Arminians to be the Doctrines of the 
Church of England/ London, 1626, 4to. 

14. * His Testimony concerning the Presby- 
terian Discipline in the Low Countries and 
Episcopall Government here in England,' 
London, 1642, 8vo. 

[Wood's Athenae Oxen. (Bliss), ii. 422 ; Ful- 
le/s Worthies; Collier's Eccles. Hist. vii. 408-16, 
and Records in vol. ix. No. 307 ; Dallaway's 
Sussex ; Stephens s Memorials of South Saxon See, 
pp. 267-0.] W. R. W. S. 

CARLETON, GEORGE ( /?. 1728), cap- 
tain, was author of ' Military Memoirs, 1672- 
1713,' a work which has been repeatedly in- 
cluded in the list of Defoe*8 fictions, and by 
such authorities as J. G. Lockhart, Walter 
Wilson, William Hazlitt, Lowndes, R. Cham- 
bers, Dr. Carruthers, and Professor G. L. 
Craik. The only reason assigned for including 
it is that it appeared in Defoe's lifetime, ana 
in style and structure strongly resembles his 
fictitious narratives. The argument, in short, 
amounts to this, that the booK is so extremely 
like the thing it claims to be that it must 
be one of Defoe's masterly imitations of it. 
No evidence of any kind in support of the 
assertion has ever been produced. Lord Stan- 
hope ( War of the Succesition xji Spain, Ap- 
pendix, 1833) says that the * authenticity of 
the " Memoirs ^ was never questioned until 
the late General Carleton wished to claim the 
capt^n for his kinsman, and failing to dis- 
cover his relationship next proceeded to deny 
his existence ; ' but, however the question may 
have been first raised, it ought to have been 
set at rest by the production of Lord Stan- 
hope's evidence proving Carleton to have 
been a fiesh-and-blood hero, and not a mem- 
ber of the same family as Robinson Crusoe. 
According to the * Memoirs ' the author was 
a member of the garrison of Denia, which 
was compelled to surrender to the forces of 
Philip in 1708. But among the papers of his 
ancestor. Brigadier Stanhope, Lord Stanhope 
discovered a list of the English officers, some 
six or seven in number, made prisoners on 
that occasion, and in it appears * Captain Car- 
letone of the traine of artillery,' the branch 
of the service to which, we are given to un- 
derstand by the * Memoirs,' the author was 
attached from the time of the capture of ]3ar- 
celona. The internal evidence ought to have 
convinced any one who examined the book 
carefully that it ia what it claims to be, 
neither more nor less. Carleton's dedication 
to Lord W^ilmington la followed in the ori- 
ginal editions by on address to the reader, 



no doubt from the publisher, which, after a 
brief summary of Carleton's services in Flan- 
ders and Spain, savs : ' It may not be perhaps 
improper to mention that the author of these 
" Memoirs " was bom at Ewelme in Oxford- 
shire, descended from an ancient and honour- 
able family. The Lord Dudley Carleton who 
died secretary of state to King Charles I was 
his great uncle, and in the same reign his 
father was envoy at the court of Madrid, 
whilst his uncle. Sir Dudlev Carleton, was 
ambassador to the States of flolland.' There 
are one or two trifling inaccuracies here. 
There never was any such person, of course, 
as Lord Dudley Carleton. The statesman of 
Charles I's reign was Sir Dudley Carleton 
[q. v.], created Baron Carleton of Imbercourt 
m 1656, and Viscount Dorchester in 1628 ; and 
it is questionable whether his nephew and 
namesake, knighted shortly after the elder 
Dudley was raised to the peerage, was ever ac- 
tually ambassador in Holland, though he was 
certainly left in charge by his uncle on one or 
two occasions when the latter was summoned 
to England. But as far as the identification 
of the author goes there is no reason to doubt 
that the statement is substantially correct. 
It is incredible that the publisher would have 
gone out of his way to make a false declara- 
tion, the falsehood of which could have been 
so easily detected at the time, and on behalf 
of a book in which, in more than one instance, 
living persons were mentioned in such away 
as to lead inevitably to its l)eing branded as 
a lying production. It explains, too, how it 
was that the general, who, according to Lord 
Stanhope, first started the question, was un- 
able to prove consanguinity with the author, 
for it would have been a very difficult matter 
to trace the connection between the Irish 
Carletons, descendants of the old Northum- 
brian or Cumbrian family, and the Oxford- 
shire Carletons, the stock of which Sir Dudley 
and the captain came. The * Memoirs,' more- 
over, deal largely in incidents, of which a 
writer like Defoe could not possibly have had 
any knowledge without access to documents 
which were then absolutely inaccessible, and 
in incidents also known only to a few persons 
and of such a nature that any inaccuracy or 
untruthfulness in the narrator would have 
been most certainly denounced. For example, 
according to Carleton, just before the brilliant 
coup de main bv which the Monjuich, the 
citadel -of Barcelona, was taken, it was re- 
ported that a body of troops^ from the city 
was advancing. Peterborough hurried away 
to watch their movements. No sooner had 
he turned his back than something very like a 

C'c seized some of the officers, and they all 
succeeded in persuading Lord Charlemont, 



Carleton 



92 



Carleton 



the second in command, a brave but weak 
man, to retire before their retreat was cut off. 
Seeing this, Carleton slipped away and warned 
Peterborough of what was going on. * Good 
God ! is it possible P ' he exclaimed, and hur- 
rying back snatched the half-pike out of Lord 
Charlemont's hands, and with a few vigorous 
words brought his officers to their senses. 
This, it is almost needless to observe, would 
have been an over-audacious flight for a ro- 
mance writer to attempt. Lord Charlemont, 
it is true, was dead wnen the * Memoirs ' ap- 
peared ; but he had left sons behind him who 
surely would have contradicted the story if 
they could. Peterborough survived the pub- 
lication of the book seven years, and he was 
not the man to tolerate such a sta,tement 
from an impostor. This is only one of several 
incidents mentioned by which the genuine 
character of Carleton's narrative may be tested. 
It is, of course, not impossible, as Lord Stan- 
hope admits, that Carleton's manuscript may 
have been placed in Defoe's hands to be re- 
vised and put into shape; but it may be 
asked, what need is there for importing De- 
foe's name into the matter at all r It is not 
so much that Carleton writ^ like Defoe as 
that Defoe could write like Carleton. There 
is this difference, however, as Dr. John Hill 
Burton (Heiffn of Queen Anne) points out, 
that Carleton, as a rule, keeps his own per- 
sonality in the background, which Deioe's 
heroes certainly do not. As the title implies, 
Carleton's narrative embraces the period from 
the Dutch war to the peace of Utrecht. At 
the age of twenty he entered as a volunteer 
on board the London under Sir Edward 
Spragge, and w^as present at the battle of 
Southwold Bay. lie next joined the army 
of the Prince of Orange as a volunteer in the 
prince's own company of guards, in which he 
had for a comrade Graham of Claverhouse. 
After the revolution he served in Scotland, 
and by distinguished ser\'ice gained his com- 
pany. He was afterwards quartered for some 
time in Ireland, but having no mind for the 
West Indies, whither his regiment was or- 
dered in 1705, he effected an exchange, and 
with the recommendation of his old com- 
mander and friend. Lord Cutts, joined the 
army about to sail for Spain under Peter- 
borough. There he did good service at Mon- 
juich and Barcelona, but was unfortunate at 
Denia, and remained a prisoner of war until 
peace came in 1713. The latter part-, and by 
no means the least interesting, of his * Me- 
moirs ' is taken iip with his obser\'ations on 
Spain and the Spaniards made during his 
captivity. From one or two references, e.g. 
to the recent death of Colonel Hales, governor 
of Chelsea Hospital, it is clear that the book 



was written between 1726 and 1728, the year 
in which it was published with the title of 
'The Military Memoirs of Captain George 
Carleton from the Dutch War, 1672, in which 
he ser\'ed to the conclusion of the peace ot 
Utrecht, 1713. Illustrating some of tne most 
remarkable transactions both by sea and land 
during the reigns of King Charles and King 
James II, hitherto unobserved by all the 
writers of those times.' It was reprinted in 
1741 and again in 1743, with ad captandum 
variations of the title, England being then at 
war with Spain ; but after these no edition 
seems to have been published until that of 
1808-9, edited by Sir Walter Scott, and from 
that time to the present it has been included 
in every collective edition of Defoe's works. 
No better proof of its merits could be given 
than that it has been so often and so strenu- 
ously claimed as one of his fictions ; but what 
more particularly entitles its author to a place 
here is its importance as a piece of historical 
evidence bearing on a period for which trust- 
worthy evidence is scarce. Its value in this 
respect has been gratefully acknowledged by 
such competent authorities as Lord Stanhope 
and Dr. John Hill Burton, and this is what 
makes it all the more desirable that Carleton 
should be definitively removed from the cate- 
gory of fictitious cluuracters. 

[Lord Stanhope's History of the War of the 
Succession in Spain, London, 1832 ; Appendix to 
the History of the War of the Succession, Lon- 
don, 1833 ; Burton's History of the Beign of 
Queen Anne, Edinburgh and London, 1880; 
Lee's Daniel Defoe, his Life and recent dis- 
covered Writings, London, 1869 ; Notes and 
Queries, 2nd ser., ii. and iii. Lee, the latest 
biographer of Defoe, says that his investigations 
' admitted no other conclusion than that Captain 
George Carleton was a real personage, and nim- 
self wrote this true and historical account of his 
own adventures ; ' and he prints a letter from 
Mr. James Crossley of Manchester, who says: 
* There cannot be a question that Defoe had no- 
thing whatever to do with it. After carefully 
going into the point thirty vears ago I came to 
the conclusion that he could not possibly have 
written it, and that it is the genuine narrative of 
a real man, who is identified in the list of officers 
given by Lord Stanhope in the second edition of 
his " War of the Succession in Spain." I have 
never seen any reason since to alter my view.'] 

J. 0. 

CARLETON, GUY (1598P-1686), bishop 
of Chiche^tor, said by Anthony k Wood to 
have been a kinsman of G«orge Carleton 
(1669-1628) [q. v.], was a native of Brains- 
ton Foot, in Grilsland, Cumberland. He was 
educated at the free school in Carlisle, and 
was sent as a servitor to Queen's Gollege, 
Oxford, of which he afterwards became nl- 



Carleton 



Carleton 



low. In 1635 lie was niiule a proctor to 
ihe muTersiity. When tJie civil war lirolse 
nut lie Uin<w himaelf beartil,v into the klng'B 
canM. He was an excellent hocsemsu, and 
followeil the royal army, although he had 
been arduined and held two livings. In an 
engngeniBnt with the enemy he was taken 
priBoner and confined iu Lambeth Hoiiec. I 
He toftusffed, however, to escape by the help 
of his wife, who conveyed a cord to him, 
by which he was to let himself down from 
It window, and then make for a boat on 
the Thaioes in leadlneEfl to take him off. I 
Tlie rope was too short, and in dropping to j 
the ground he broke one of his bones, but i 
flUfWeded in getting to the boat, which took 
Jiim to a plaee of concealment, where he lay 
till he recovered, but in aoch a destitut* 
condition that his wife had to sell Bome of 
lier clothes and work for their daily food. 
At last ihey cotilrived to get out of the 
coontcy, and joined the exiled king in Hol- 
lond. Immediateiy after the restoration , 
Carleton was made dean of Carlisle. In 
1671 he WHS promoted to the bishopric of 
Bristol, and in 1678 translated to the see of 
Chichester, but ' he had not the name there,' 
lays Wood, ' for a scholar or liberal benefactor 
as his predecessor and kinsman, Dr. George 
Carleton, had.' In tlie year after his appoint- 
ment, the Dukeof Monmouth, being then at 
the height of hi» popularity, visited Chichester 
(7 Feb.) in the courae of a kind of royal pro- 
gress which he woa making through the coun- 
try (see MiCAITLiT, Bitt. u 251, &c.) The 
estravagnnt honourpaid to him, not only by 
soma of" the citizens but by the dignitariea 
of the cathedral, excited the indignation of 
the bishop, which he poured forth in a letter 
to tie Archbishop of Canterbury (Bancroft) 
■rved among the Tanner MSS. in the 
.i«a,384). *... The great men of our 
nil welcomed him with beUes, and 

made by wood had from their boasea 

flar* before hia lodgings, personal visits 
Bade to him, with all that was in their 
houses proffered to his service.' He describes 
the honour done the duke in the cathedral, 
ud the ' opociypbal anthems when the com- 
*" iwealtu saints appeared amongst us.' He 
relatM at some length how, because be 
'join in these bell and bonfire 
inilies,' or 'bow the knee to the people's 
the rabble surrounded his house at 
it demanding wood to make bon£res for 
duke, and, when it was refused, pelted 
palace with stones, and shot into it three 
-1, ebouling thnl be was an old popish 
(, and all the people in hia family were 
(sand thieves, a no they should moet with 
at long. ' Then they shott three times 




into my bouse and seconded their violence 
with a shower of stones so thick that our ser- 
vants thought they would have broke in nnd 
cutourthroiita. . . .' Theletterisdatedl7Feb. 
1679. The bishop was then about eighty- 
throe years of age, but lived six yeara longer. 
His death occurred on 6 July 16S5. 

[Wood's Athena, iv. 886, 867-1 W. H. W. S. 

CARLETON, GUY, first Loan Uohomes- 
TBB(1724-1808),govemorofQuebec,waathe 
third son of Christojiher Carleton of Newry, 
countyDown, and bis wife,Catherine, daugh- 
ter of Henry Ballof county DonegaL UewOS 
bom at Strabane Z Sept. 1724. The father 
died when Guy was about fourteen, and the 
mother afterwards married the Bev. Thomas 
Skelton of Newry. According to Samuel 
Burdy, the biographer of Philip Skelton, ' Sir 
Guy's emineucti in the world was owing in a 

Seat degree . . . tothecarewluoh hisstep- 
Lher, Thomas Skelton, took of his education ' 
{Complete Wor}aofIiev.P.SkelUm,\mi.y^. 
3&-31). On 21 ta«y 1743 hewas appointed 
enwcn in the Earl of Rothes's re^ment (after- 
wards the 26th foot ), and obtained his promo- 
tion as lieutenant in the some regiment on 
1 May 174i). Changing his regiment ha 
became lieutenant of the 1st foot guards on 
22 July 1751, and wHsappointedcaptain-lieU' 
tenant and lieutenant-colonel 18 June 1757. 
In June and July 1758 he took part in the siege 
of Louiaburg, under General Amherst, and 
on 24 Aug. was made lieutenant-colouel of 
the 7~2nd foot. On 30 Dec. in the same year 
he was appointed quartermaster-general and 
colonel in America. He was wounded at 
the capture of Quebec, 13 Sept. 1759, when 
in command of the corps of grenadiers. In 
1761 he acted as brigadier-general under 
General Hodgaon at the siege of Belleisle, 
and was wounded in the attack on Port 
Andro, 8 ApriL He was raised to the rank 
of colonel m the army 19 Feb. 176:2, and 
in the some year sen'cd under Lord Albe- 
marle in the siege of the Havannah, where 
he greatly distinguished himself^ and was 
wounded in a sortie on 32 July. Carleton 
was appointed lieutenant-governor of Quebec 
24 Sept. 1766, and in the following year the 
government of the colony devolved on him 
in consequence of General Murray having 
to proceed to England. In 1770, having 
obtained leave of absence, Carleton came to 
England. He was appointed colonel of the 
47th foot 2 April 11*72, and raised to the 
rank of m»jor-gBneraI on 25 May following. 
In Juno 1774 he was eiamined before the 
House of Commons regarding the Q.uebcc bill. 



Carleton 94 Carleton 

is said was suggested by Carleton himself, - Americans, and two naval engagements were 
established a legislative council, allowed the i fought on the lake on the 11th and ISth. 
Koman catholics the free exercise of their re- i The result of the first conflict was somewhat 
ligion, and re-established the authoritjr of the doubtful, but on the second occasion Carle- 
old French laws in civil cases, while it intro- ton gained a complete victory and took pos- 
duced the English law in criminal proceedings, session of Crown Point, where he remamed 
In the latter end of the year Carleton returned until 3 Nov., when, giving up the idea of 
to Canada, where he was warmly Welcomed besieging Ticonderoga, he returned to St. 
back by the catholic bishop and clergy of the John s and sent his army into winter quar- 
province, and on 10 Jan. 1776 was appointed ters. In reward for his brilliant services in 
governor of Quebec. On the recall of Gage the defence of Quebec he was nominated a 
the command of the army in America was knight of the Bath, 6 July 1776, and a spe- 
divided, and assigned in Canada to Carleton, cial warrant was issued allowing him to wear 
and in the old colonies to Howe. At an the ensigns without being invested in the 
early stage of the war the Congress, being usual manner. In 1777 an expedition from 
apprehensive of an attack by Carleton on Canada, intended to co-operate with the 
their north-west frontier, determined on the principal British force in America, was re- 
invasion of Canada, and on 10 Sept. 1775 solved on, and on 6 May Burgoyne arrived 
the American troops effected a landing at at Quebec to take the command. Carleton, 
St. John^s. Carleton, however, who had no who had for some time been unable to get 
army and had endeavoured in vain to raise on amicably with Lord George Germaine, at 
the peasantry, was defeated by Colonel War- once demanded Ids own recall on the ground 
ner m an attempt to relieve the garrison, and that he had been treated with injustice. On 
compelled to retire. On 3 Nov. St. John's 29 Aug. he was raised to the rank of lieut«- 
capitulated to General Montgomenr, who nant-general, and in the same year was ap- 
on the 12th entered Montreal. Carleton pointed governor of Charlemont in Ireland, 
narrowly escaped being captured. Disguised a post which he retained during the remain- 
as a fisherman he passed through the enemy's der of his life. In May 1778, without assicfn- 
craft in a whaleboat and arrived at Quebec ing any reason, he dismissed Peter Livius 
on the 19th. The fortifications of the town from his post of chief justice of Quebec, 
had been greatly neglected, and the garrison At the end of July he left Canada for Eng- 
did not consist of above eleven thousand men, land, and was succeeded by Lieutenant-gene- 
few of whom were regulars. In spite of these ' ral Haldimand as governor of Quebec. He 
obstacles and the lukewarmness of the Bri- declined to appear before the privy council 
tish settlers who were displeased with the in defence of his dismissal of Livius, who 
new constitution, Carleton, having ordered all was restored to his office by an order dated 
persons who would not join in resistance to 25 March 1779. On 19 May following he 



the enemy to leave, soon put the city into a 
state of defence. An attempt by Colonel 
Arnold to take it by surprise having failed, 
Montgomery joined forces with the latter, 



was installed K.B. at Westminster, and on 
23 Feb. 1782 was appointed to succeed Sir 
Henry Clinton as commander-in-chief in 
America. He arrived at New York with his 



and on 5 Dec. summoned Carleton to sur- commission on 5 May, and desired that all 
render. The governor refused to have any , hostilities should be stayed. By a consistent 



correspondence with the American comman- 
der. After laying siege to the city for nearly 
a month, the Americans attempted to take 



policy of clemencv he did much to conciliate 
the Americans. lie remained in New York 
for some time after the treaty of peace had 



it by storm on 31 Dec. 1775, but were re- ', been signed, and finally evacuated the city 



pulsed, Montgomery being killed and Arnold 
wounded. Tne siege was continued until 
the beginning of May 1776, when, upon the 



on 25 Nov. 1783 and returned to England. 
A pension of 1,000/. a year was grantcKl him 
by parliament for his bfe and the lives of his 



arrival of a British squadron, Carleton sal- wife and two elder sons, and on 11 April 
lied out and put the already retreating enemy . 1786 he was again appointed governor of 
to rout with the loss of their artillery and Quebec. As a reward for his long services 

he was also created Baron Dorchester on 
21 Aug. in the same year. He arrived at 



baggage. By the end of the month Carleton 
had gathered a force of thirteen thousand men, 
and accordingly assumed the offensive. The 
Americans gradually retired before him, and 
bv 18 June nad evacuated Canada and esta- 
blished themselves at Crown Point. After 
waiting until October for boats to cross liake 
•Champlidn, Carleton went in pursuit of the 



Quebec to take charge of the government on 
23 Oct., and was cordially welcomed by the 
inhabitants, with whom he was highly popu- 
lar. One of his first measures was to assemole 
the legislative council, whom he directed 
to make a thorough iiiTeatigation into the 



condition of tie proTinces. In 1791 an net 
of mrlitunent — which h&d been premred by 
William Qrenville, and reTised by DorcLea- 
tcr — w&s paMerl. By the proTisions of Ihia 
acl (31 Geo. TU, c. 31 ) C&noda was divided 
into two provinces, vU. Upper Canitda (now 
Ontario) (ind Lower Canada (now Quebec), 
■nd a ainiilar constitution was ffiven to eftcn. 
Dcirehesler was nbeent from Canada from 
17 Aug. 1791 to 24 Sept. 1793, during which 
time the gOTBrnmcnt of the proTinces de- 
vuIvmI ou MiyoT-;g«nenit Alured Clarke, the 
lieulpnftnt-p)TBrnor. Dorchester took hia 
final departure from Quebec on 9 July 1796, 
and wx* succeeded by Maior.generHl ftescott. 
The Active, in which he embarked with his 
fiunilT, was wrecked on AntieoBti. No Uvea 
werelovt.andonldSept. they reached PortB- 
moutliiu H.M.S. Dover without any further 
misliap, On 11 July 1790 hewaa appointed 
colonel of thelSlh ib-ogxiona, and on 13 Oct. 
1793 raised to the rank of a general in the 
vmy. On IS March 1801 he became colon J 
of tie 27th dragoons, from which regiment 
he was transferred on 14 Aug. 1802 t<> the 
command of the 4th dragoons. After his 
return from England he bved 
finrt at F 

aftt^rwardi „ , 

whnre he died suddenly on 10 Nov. 1W8. 
Dorchester, though a severe disciplinarian, 
waa a man of humane conduct ana of sound 
common sense. His kind treatment of the 
Canadian people, and of the American pri- 
•onera during the war, did him iotiniCe credit, 
as well OS hia attemple to check the excesses 
of iLu Indians employed by the government 
af^nst the colonists. 

He marri(J,on 23 May 1772,LadTML___, 
ihe third daughter of Tliomaa, second earl of 
Effingham, by whom he had nine sons and 
two daughters. His widow survived him 
for many years, and died on 11 March l83tS, 
•gei 8if. He was succeeded in the title by 
luB grandson, Arthur, the only son of Chris- 
topher, hie third aon. The present and fourth 
baron is also a grandson of the first i>eor, 
being the plrtest son of Richard , the youn^st 
of the nine sons. The Kuyal Institution 
pnueeena a large number of manuscripts 
which formerly belonged to Maurice Morgan, 
DordbestCT's secretary during the last years 
■ if the American war. These consist solely 
of American ofHcial documents. In the 
Britiab Muwnm, lunoi^ the Add. MSS., 
aomij of his e«rre«nondence wliile governor 
of QaebM will be found. 

[OolUn.'!! Pwmge of England (1812), viii 
118-111; rhalniBrs* Biog. I'ict. (ISIS), viii 




of Canada (18(18}; Bancroft's Histoiy of tha 
United Siatie (]876),ToU.iii-vi.; Holmes'sAn- 
niilsof Aoinriea (182Q),vol. ii. ; Mohoo'sBiKor; 
of lingland {iafi4),voli. vi. andvii. ; AnnunlHe- 
gistep. 1808, chroD, pp. 149-52; Sir H. CaTvn~ 
diah's DtlwI.es ul' tho Housb of Commons in the 
yrur 1771 (1839); London OazettcE; Army Lists; 
Add. MSa. ai678, 21697-TOO, 21707, 21T3<, 
31781, 21808-8.) O. F. R. B. 



CAELETON, HDOH. \ iscotnrr Caslb- 
TON (1 739-1 8--'6). lord chief justice of Ire- 
land, eldest BOn of yraneis Carleton of Cork, 
by Rebecca, daughter of John Lanton, woa 
bom 11 Sept. 1730. He was educated at 
Trinity College, Dublin, and being called 
to the Irish bar become solicitor-general 
in 1779, and lord chief iuatice of the com- 
mon pleas in 1787. In 1789 he was created 
Baron Carleton of Amer, and in 1797 Vis- 
count Carleton of Clare, Tipperarj-. lie be- 
came lord chief justice in 1800, and the same 
year was chosen one of tlie twenty-eight re- 
presentativepeersof Ireland. In 1803,having 
incensed the mob by the trial and condemna- 
tion of the two councillors Sheers, to whom 
he had been left guardian by their father, he 
only escaped their suminarv vengeance by Lord 
Kilwarden being killed in mistake for him. 
Curran, referring to the lugubrious manner 
of Carleton on the bench, said that he was 
plaintiff (plaintive) in every ease before him. 
He died in 1826. He mamed in 1766 Elita- 
beth, only daughter of Richard Mercer, and 
in 179C Mary Buckley, second daughter of 
Andrew Matthew ; but by neilier marriage 
had he any issue. 

[Georgian Era, ii. 640; Gent. Mbb. 1820. i. 
270,] T. F. H. 

CABLETON, MAKY (I642P-I67S), 'the 

German princess," was bom, by her own 
account, at Cologne, her father being Henry 
van Wolway, lord of Holmstein, It was 
also said that she was the only daughter of 
the Duke of Oundenia, bora 10 April 1639 
(Life of the Famous Madam Charlton, 
pp. 2-3), but she confessed jiist before her 
execution that she wna Mary Moders of Can- 
terbury, daughter of a chorister of the cathe- 
dral, and bom on 22 Jan. 1642. Various 
(iccnunts are given of her early life, but all 
agree thatshe came from Holland about 1661 
to London, where her imposture commenced. 
She was witty and handsome, 'Dutch-built 
. . a stout Fregat.' One King', a vintner, and 
Ilia wife were her first dupes, and to ihem 
alio represented her fortune as oiiproachlng 
m,<Xfil a y«)ar. In April 1603 she married 




Carleton 9^ Carleton 

John Carleton, Mrs. Eing*8 brother. A pre- of her Birth to her Execution . . . with her 
viouB marria^ to one Jc' 
living, was discovered, 
mitted on a charge 
house, where she was ' 

29 May 1663) and a great concourse of curious racter of Mrs. Mary Moders, alias, &c . . . with 
people. She was tried at the Old Bailey on theHavock and Spoilshe committed upon the 
4 June 1663, and defended herself with such Publick in the Reign of Charles the Second ; ' 
courage that she was 'acquitted by publique and it is said in Harley*8 ' Notes on Biogra- 
proclamation' {The Great Tryall, &c. title, phies* to have been republished because Al- 
and p|^. 1-^). Carleton now attacked her in derman Barber was reported to be her son 
his * Ultimum Vale . . . being a true De- {Notes and Queries, 5th series, L 291). 
script ion of the Passages of that Grand Im- 



The Great 
Hisstoricall 



i' <:■ Jr^^h '"""?" "^ """T r?" ''I Famous Madam Charlton, pp. 2-9 ; 

high m the defence of her wit and spirit, and j^^u^ pp^ ^^ . y^^ Carleton V «... .„ 

glad that she is cleared at the sessions. She XarratiTe, pp. 1-20; John Carleton's Ultimum 
answered the ' Lltimum N ale in * An His- . Vale. Hearnes CollectioBS, iL 410-11 ; Notes 
toricall Narrative of the German Princess and Queries, 6th ser. i. 228, 291.] J. H. 

. . written for the satisfaction of the World 
at the request of divers Persons of Honour.' ' CARLETON, RICHARD ( 1560 ?- 
Other publications on the subject were* The 1638?), musical composer, waa possibly a 
Great Ti^all and Arraignment of the late dis- member of the family of the same name who 
tressed Ladv, otherwise called the late Ger- lived at liVnn in Norfolk. He was bom in 
main Princess' (1663), &c.,* The Arraignment, the latter part of the sixteenth century, and 
Tryal, and Examination of Mary binders, educated at Clare College, Cambridge, where 
alias, &c., &c.,' and 'The Tn'all of Mary he proceeded A.B. in 15/7. He sub^uently 
Moders for having two husbands.' After this took the degree of Mus. Bac., and was or- 
Mary Carleton turned actress, and a play was dained. Soon afterwards he obtained an ap- 
comi)08ed expressly for her, with her oTNTi title • pointment at Norwich Cathedral. In 1601 
' The German Pnncess ; * it was performed he published a collection of twenty-one ma- 
at the Duke's House, Dorset Gardens, where drigals, on the title-page of whicli he styles 
Pepys saw her the next year, 15 April 1664, himself 'Priest.' These compositions, which 
and declared that 'never was anything so in the Latin preface he calls ' prima libamina 
well done in earnest worse performed in jest ' facultatis mesp,' are dedicated to Sir Thomas 
(ib. for that date). She became a common Farmer. Prefixed is a ' Preface to the Skill- 
thief next, and was transported to Jamaica in full Musician,' dated Norwich, 28 March 
February 1671; but she returned to London 1601. In the same year he contributed a 
and her evil courses ; in December 1672 she madrigal to the collection entitled ' TheTri-* 
was sentenced to death for various thefts, and umphs of Oriana.' On 11 Oct. 1612 Carleton 
hanged at Tyburn on 22 Jan. 1672-3 (Gran- was presented by Thomas Thursby to the rec- 
eEK, Biog, Hist, i v. 224-5). Her age was said tory of Bawsey and Gloethorp, near Lynn. The 
to be thirty-eight. , date of his death is unknown, but it probably 

Two broadsheets were published in 1673, ! took place in 1638, for though a locum tenens 
* An Elegie on the Famous and Renowned ] (Robert Powis) seems to have been appointed 
Lady for Eloquence and Wit, Madam Mary to the living in 1627, there was no other reo* 
Carlton, otherwise styled The German Prin- . tor until 22 Aug. 1638, when Richard Peynes 
cess,' &c. ; and ' Some Luck, Some Wit, I was presented. Carleton's name is also spelt 
being a Sonnet upon the merry Life and un- . Carlton or Charlton. The only extant com- 
timely Death of Mistriss Mary Carlton, com- | positions of his, besides those mentioned 



monly called The German Princess. To a new 
Tune, called The German Princess adieu.' 
There also appeared in 1673 ' Memories of the 
Life of the Famous Madam Charlton . . . with 
her Nativity astrolo^cally handled, to which 
isprefixed her portrait ; ' and J. G.'s ' Memoires 
of Mary Carleton . . . Being a Narrative of 
her Life and Death, interwoven with many 
strange and pleasant Passages, firom the time 



above, are some instrumental pavans in the 
British Museum (Add. 'MS. 568). 

[Registers of the University of Cambridge, 
communicated by Mr. J. W. Clark; Diocesan 
Registers of Norwich, Register of Bawsey parish, 
oommnnicated by the Rev. W. F. Oieen j and Dr. 
Mann ; information firom the Rev. the Master of 
Clare, Dr. Bensly, and Mr. Walter Rye.] 

W.fi.& 



CABLETON. THOMAS COMPTON. 

[See C<i>IPTv>s.] 

CAai^ETON, WILLIAM (d. 1309 P), 
iudf[e, ttppesre to liavebeena Yorkshireman. 
He is'designnTRd ' ei via EbomcenBis ' in a roll of | 
1391 (Bot. Oriff. Aitbree. i. 75). The earlieflt j 
mentionof him occun under date 1383, when ! 
lie w«B plftcod in jwssession of the vacant 
ahbe^ 01 Ramser iu Himtingdoiubiiv, tA 
hold during the liing's pleaanre. Between 
1286 and 1390 inclustvi; he acted as one of 
the jiuticee of the Jews, official* with funo- 
tions similar to those eKercieed by the barons 
of tbe uxchequer, but limited to Che transac- 
tion of busineiu in which the Jewish commu- 
nity waa concemwd. His salary appears to 
have been '201. per anuum. On the expiil- 
aion of the Jews, which took place in 1290, 
It is probable that be was imueaiatelycreated 
m bafon, as we tind him ranked next after 
Jofan de Cobham, the senior baron, in tbe 
list of ju9ti(!es summoned to parliament in 
12S5. He was despatched to Antwerp in 
1297 to ne^tiati;, on behalf of the kin^, a 
loui of 10,000/. with the merchants there, 
pTeeumably for the xmrpoaes of the expedi- 
tion to Flanders. By the death of John de 
Cobham, in 130U, he became senior haron. 
He was reappointwl on the acceasioa of Ed- 
ward U (Iw"), at whose coronation he was 
present, and the same year reoeived permis- 
uon, in consideration of his ' long and meri- 
toriouB and unremitting service,' to attend 
at the exchequer at his own convenience. 
llie following year be ia mentioned as one 
of the jndgea assigned to try cases of fore- 
stalling in the city of iicndon. Aaafterthis 
vear he ia not again summoned to parliament. 
It ta probable that he died before the next 
writ was issued (the 11th of the ensuing 
Jane). Ashisname does not occur in the' Tn- 
quisitiones post Mortem,' wc may infer that, 
like many other of the earlier barons of the 
exchequer, he was of humble origin ; and as 
be ia described as ' civi« Eboracensis,' it seems 
not altogether improbable that he was the 
teaoat of Carleton in Yorkshire, under 
Henry de Percy. 

[Bot.Orig. Abbrcv. i. 01.Tfi,lI3; Dagdale's 
Chron. Scr. 18, »3: Modox's Exch. i. 230, il. 62; 
Vtaa* LiTM uf the Jndges; Bat. Far), i. 16S, 
IM ; Pari. Writs, i, 29, ii. div. ii, pt. i. 18, 
pi. il 4, l».] J. M. H. 

CABLETON. WILLLiM (1794-1869), 
Irish novpliat, was bom at PriJlisk, co. Ty- 
rone, in 1704, and not, as some writers have 
Msliid, in 1 79B. His parents supported them- 
selves and fonrtw-n children, of whomWilliam 

t, tho youngest, on afami of only fourteen 



l^i 



Carleton used to say that his father's 
/ was a rich and perfect storehoaae of 
all that the social antiquary, man of letters, 
the poet, or the musician, would consider 
valuable. He spoke tbe Irish and English 
languages with nearly equal fluency, ana was 
acquainted with all kinds of folklore. His 
mother was famous for her musical talents. 
Carleton's earliest tutor was one Pat Frayne, 
the master of tbe hedge school, who appears 
as Mat Eavanagh in the ' Hedge School, and 
Carleton bears testimony to the savagery of 



Dr. Eeenan of Olasslougli, he made consider- 
able progress in his studies, especially in clas- 
sics. On the removal of Dr. Keenan to Dun- 
dalk, (vorleton was compelled to return home. 
Bjs parents had intended him for the church, 
and sent him as a poor scholar to Munster. 
He had travelled as far as Granard when he 
intaipreted an ominous dream as a command 
to return to Tyrone. The incident* of this 
journey gave rise to the tale of the ' Poor 
Scholar.' 

Lough-derg was a place famed for many 
legends, and Carleton visited the spot to per- 
form a station there. In tlie ' Lough-durg 
Pilgrim' he has given an exact Iransuript of 
what took place during these stations held 
in the summer months. Carielon's experi- 
ences at Lough-derg led hi'" to the resolution 
never to enter the church. About this time 
there fell into his hands a copy of ' Gil Bios.' 
He now longed far contact with the world, 
and entered the family of Piers Miirpliy, a 
farmer in county Louth, as a tutor. He next 
went to Dublin infiearch of fortune with two 
shillings and iiinepence in his pocket. Offer- 
ing himself as assistant to a bird-stuffer, he 
was asked what he proposed to stuiT birds 
with, and ingenuously replied, ' Potatoes and 
meal.' Hedetenninedtoenlist.andaddresaed 
, a letter in Latin to the colonel of a regiment, 
' who dissuaded him from his purpose, and 
I shortly afterwards Carleton obtained some 
' tutorships. While engaged in tuition he met 
tbe lady whom he afterwards married, 

For the ' Christian Examiner,' u Dublin 
periodical edited by the Rev. Ctesar Otway, 
a protestant clergyman, Carleton wrote a de- 
scription of hie pilgrimage to Lough-derg. 
Sketches soon followed each other in rapid 
succession, and in 1830 these were collected 
into a volume, and published under the title 
of Traits and Stories of the Irish Peoaanlry.' 
Several editions were called for in three years, 
and a second series appeared in 1833. His 
sketches of the peasantrF were followed l»y 
a collection of ' Tales of Irehind.' 1834. In 
some of the tales he evidently describes his 



Carleton 



9« 



Carliell 



own feeling* and **rly <rrprrl«i«r5- C^rirton 
pr-iducf^d in lN3J*h:? * F&rdorour^ :i:*rMi«r-r.' 
which hh,^ been d<»CT:l^i a* our of thr n;o?t 
powerful and morinj work- of nc^:>n ever 
"written- • Fardor^* urhs ' wi* dr&=iJiti5*d and 
produced at a Dublin thr&tr^.bu: the Terson 
annovrrd Carleton. and Ird t':i ^n unplrAsani 
c>'»rre*?pondrnce }>r!w-en himself and the 
adapt '•r. a lady named Msiirraih- }!•: state* 
'that there wa* cot a puMication of any im- 
p^.»rtanoe in hi* time to which h^ did not con- 
tribute.' The ZT^'f.*"T number of hi« sketches 
have >yifen republic h-rd in volume form. In 
1S41 there app»rarr'l a c^ill-rcti^n of tales by 
Carleton. patn*-tic and humorou*. c:>ntain- 
inj? the sketch entitled 'The Misfortunes of 
Barney Branasran." Tlii* volume was suc- 
ceeded in 1^545 bv a more elaborate work. 
entitled * Valentine M'Clutchy. the Irish 
Asrent, or Chronicles of the Castle Cumber 
Property.* This novel dealt with the land 
question. The work was extendrd in 1S46 
by the addition of *The Pious Aspirations 
of Solomon M'Slime.' The machinations of 
fiecret societies wore exposed in • Rody the 
Hover, or the Kibbonman.* A Dublin pub- 
lisher haviner pro Wted a series of books under 
the title of * The Librarv of Ireland.' Carleton 

• 

came forward to supply a cap caused by the 
death of Thomas Davis. He produced in the 
course of a few days his story of * Paddy Go- 
easy.' The Irish famine supplied Carleton 
■with the materials for his * Black Prophet/ 
published in 1847. It was succeeded by 
* The Emigrants of Ahadarra ' and * Art Ma- 
guire.' In 1849 appeared ' The Tithe Proc- 
tor/ and in 1852 *The Red Hall, or the 
Baronet's Daughter/ afterwards republished 
under the title of * The Black Baronet.* This 
was succeeded by * The Squanders of Castle 
Squander/ and at a brief interval by a volume 
of shorter collected tales. The last consider- 
able works from Carleton's pen were * Willy 
Reillv and his dear Colleen Bawn ' (1855) ; 
< The'Evil Eye, or the Black Spectre * (I860) ; 
and * Redmond, Count O'llanlon, the Irish 
Rapparee' (1862). But for many vears sub- 
sequently there appeared periodically volumes 
of this writer's collected sketches. 

Notwithstanding Carleton's indefatigable 
industry he fell into difficulties. A memorial 
was addressed to gfovemment on his behalf, 
signed by persons of all ranks and creeds, in- 
cluding JIaria Edgeworth, and on the recom- 
mendation of Lord John Russell he received 
a pension of 200/. per annum. Two of his 
sons went out to New Zealand. He died 
SO Jan. 1869. 

Carleton has been regarded as the truest, 
the most powerful, and the tenderest deli- 
neator of Irish life. Indignant at the con- 



stant misrepTEscrntations of the character of 
hi* CT'oatrymen, he resolved to give a faithful 
pict-ir^- vf the Insh people: and although he 
did n:>t spare- their vices he championed their 
virru«. which were too often neglected or dis- 

Eut'e-i. He was erratic in habit, and although 
e wrote much he was unsystematic and fittul 
in r2f."»rt. Most of Carleton's works were 
translate into French. German, and Italian. 
There is as vet no collected edition of them 
in Enzlish. the various novels and sketches 
havin; appeared in one form at intervals in 
Dublin, and in anot her form in London. Many 
are now entirely out of print. 

The following is a list of the works of Car- 
leton which have been published in volume 
form : 1. * Traits and :>tories of the Irish 
Peasantry.' two series. 1830 and 1833. 
2. • Tales of Ireland/ 1834. 3. * The Fawn 
of Springvale and other Tales,' 1841. 
4. * Traits and Stories of the Irish Peasantry,' 
new edition, with an autobiographical intro- 
duction, ejcplanatorv notes, and illustrations, 
1843-4. 5. * Valentine M'Clutchy,' 1845. 
6. 'Rody the Rover, or the Ribbonman,' 
1845. 7. ' Parra Sastha ; or the History of 
Paddv Go-easv and his wife Nancy,* 1845. 

8. • Ae Bbick' Prophet.' * The Emigrants of 
Ahadarra,' ' Fardorougha the Miser,' 'The 
Tithe Proctor' (Parlour Library series), 1847. 

9. 'Art Maguire. or the Broken Fledge,' 
1847. 10. * The Clarionet, the Dead Boxer, 
and Bamev Branagan,' 1850. 11. ' Red 
Hall, or the Baronet's Daughter,' 1852. 

12. * Jane Sinclair, Xeal Malone,' &c., 1852. 

13. < Willy ReUly and his dear Colleen Bawn,' 
1855. 14. *The Emigrants' (Railway Li- 
brary series), 1857. 15. * The Evil Eye, or 
the black Spectre,' 1860. 16. < The Double 
Prophecy, or Trials of the Heart,' 1862. 
17. 'Redmond, Count 0*Hanlon, the Irish 
Rapparee, an Historical Tale,' 1862. la 'The 
Silver Acre and other Tales,' 1862. 19. 'The 
Fair of Emyvale and the Master and Scholar ' 
(Parlour Library series), 1870. 20. 'The 
Squanders of Castle Squander' (librairof 
Favourite Authors), 18^3. Several of these 
works have passed through a considerable 
number of editions. 

[Carleton's Traits and Stories of the Iriih 
Peasantiy, with an AutobiogFaphical Introdne- 
tion, 1843; Read's Cabinet of Irish Literature, 
1880 ; Quarterly Review, September 1841 ; FVea- 
man's Journal, Dublin, 1 Feb. 1869 ; Chamhaii'i 
Cyclopaedia of English Literature, 1876.1 

a.B.a 

CAIUilELL, ROBERT (d. 1622 P), po^ 
is the author of a scarce vdlame entitled 
' Britaines Gloria ; or an AUegorioid Dname 
with the Exposition thereof: oontainiiig the 



m Infidelitie, the Turkes Blaspl 
• PopHS Uypocrisie, Amsterdams Vori^tie, 
« Charch of Englandg Veritie in Kelieion. 
And in our ClturcU of England, the Kings 
Excellenc;^. His rssueslntegtitie. The Nobles 
«nd Oentries CcinBt«iicie. The Counccis aod 
ludgisa Fidelitie. The Preacherg and the Bi- 
ehous ^ncttritie. Conceived and written by 
Robert Cwlietl, Gent., for the lore and honour 
of Ilia King imi Country,' London, 1619. 
Tlus allegoricnl pofm, in forty-two six-line 
^"KOm, is followwlby a prose eiposition, in 
Inch the glories of the cliurch of England 
b further described. A singular attack on 
'^•eoo figures in the early pages. In the 
itish Sluseiira Library ore three copies of 
the work, two dated 1630, and a third dated 
1622. Nulhing certain is known of the au- 
thor. The will of a citizen and leatherseller 
(Jjandoa of the same name, dated 9 Oct. 
I, was proved on 7 Nov, following. This 
rt Carliell had a son Ilobert, who accord- 
ii to tba will had treatjjd his father very 
tifuUy. 
kdi«le*aCollectionsfor aHistoryof theCar- 
■ Painilr, p. 3T3 ; Caraer's Collectanea Ang1< 
^" "l. 263-S; Brit. Mus. Cat,] 

e.LL. 
RLTLE- [Sep also Oakliell, Cab- 
UB, and CjiRLYi.E.] 
ItCARLILE or CARLISU; ANKE (d. 
ie80F),waa an artbt. In 1658 Sir Waiiam 
Suide.non, speaking in hjs 'Graphice 
punters 'now in England,'tiays(p. 20), 'and 
inO^'IColourawehaveavirtuoua example in 
llut wntrthyArtist.Mrs.Carlile.' Shepainted 
fcer own portrait ; Verttie saw it in the succeed- 
iDgcerilar>-,uboutl730. Shewaslorgely em- 
ployad in copying the jaintings of the Italian 
iiia8t«rs, and in reproducing these ii 
ture ; and Charles I was so warm an admirer 
of ber work, Graham says, that be presented 
Vandyke and the lady with ultramarine to 
the value of 5001. Atme Carlile died about 
1680 J and many of her pictures were after- 
wanla in the possession of Lady Cotterel. 

[Sir William Sandurooii's Gmphico. p. 20: 
VkbMile'H Atu<atl. of Pniming, mI. ]S49, ii. 'ASIA 
^ J. U. 

1, CTIRISTOPIIEH, D.D, (d. 
B?), divine,wiiaB member of Clare Hall, 
nkridge, of which sociu^ he was elected a 
iw. ilo commenced M.A. in 1541, and 
i woji chosen one of the proctors of 
jTriniverKiry. In 1662 he took the degree 
..Ti.D., ond he was siibseqiwntly created 
D.D. n<r waa residing at Monks' florton in 
Ktnfin inai. 'Hie fi»t dat«d edition (157ii) 
iit hia diBcooTBu or iIig controverted point 



whether St. Peter waa ever at Rome is dedi- 
cated to Lord Wentworth, ' by whom,' sayi 
the author, 'I liave bene liheriLlly sustained 
these xx'x, yearee.' On 22 Au^. 1671 ona 
Christopher Corlile, M.A., was instituted to 
the rectory of St. John's, Hackney, which 
was vacant by his death on '2 Aug. 1588, 
when William Sutton, M.A., was appoint^ 
bis succeasor. Aiiothc>r Christopher Carlile, 
who lited for some time at Barham in Kent, 
removed thence to the parish of St. Botolph, 
Dear Bishopsgate, London, where lie died in 
I tlie beginning of the year 1696. 

Carlile was an excellent Hebrew scholar. 
He wrote; 1. 'A Discourse wherein is 
plainlyproved by the orderof time and place 
that Peter was never at Rome. Further- 
more, that neither Peter nor the Pope is the 
head of Christes Church,' Lood. n.d. and 
157:?, 4to. Another edition bears this title, 
' A Diacourae of Peters Lyfe, Pere^inatiou, 
and Death," Lond. 1582, 4to. The first di»- 
course was reprinted, with two letters to a 
clergyman, by James Billet, Lond. 1845, Svo. 
2. ' A DiscouTBo, concerning two divine Posi- 
tions. The first effectually concluding, that 
the soules of the faithfull fathers deceased 
before Christ went immediately to Heaven. 
The second sufficientlye setting foorth unto 
us Chiistians, what we are to conceive, 
touching the descension of ourSaviourChriat 
into Hell,' Lond. 1582, 16mo. Dedicat«d to 
Henry, earl of Huntingdon. This book con- 
tains the substance of a public disputation 
held at Cambridge in 1552, and was written 
in confutation of a work by Dr. R. Smith of 
Oxford. Carlile'a book was interdicted by 
public authority soon after its appearance. 
3. The Psalms of David in English, with tat- 
notations, I673j manuscript in the Cambridge 
University Library, Ff. 6. 6. 

[Carlisle's Calleetions for a History of the 
Carlisla Family, 68; Tanner's Bibl. Brit, 154; 
Ames's Typogr. Antaq. (Herbert), 8fi3, 878.908, 
1008, 1071. 1101. 1319; Lysons'a Esvirons, ii. 
47S; Cooper's AnnalB of Cambridge, v. 243; 
Addit. MS. 8866, f. 49; Wood's AchenK Oxon. 
(Bliss).!. 336,418; Cooper's Athens C«utab. ii. 
34; Newcourt's Eopertorium, i. 619; Holiin- 
Bon's Hnckney, ii. 154, !6S.] T. C. 

OARLELE, CHRISTOPHER (1551- 
1593). [See C&Buull, Cukisxophbb.] 

CAKLILE, JAMES (d. 1691), actor and 
dramatist, was a native of Lancashire, and 
' led the company at Drury Lane some time 
previous to 16S2. After mentioning the fa- 
mous union of the two companies — the King's 
and the Duke's — under Betterton [q. v.] in 
1682, Downes (itoiciW Amlioanut) writes 

folhnra ; ' Note, now Mr, Monfbrt and Mr. 






Carlile 



ii4'.f-*,r». 7!i«* '.a. 7 •!»*<» .3, •r.miitj'.ru'.a "Vj*j. 
>^i:2Ui> .:•. 'Oh: • l-iir ".tf 'rij** '.if lr7i»*!L 

\i ''.*.••-. ^ :.;<AiC»TJU^ 1.* ui bnr ir'.d -ta*** 
r-rfv.?-:.*- fji Lt- u.n:-.?:.:ii* "... '>.j:«:n, Ciir-J- 



L jugii.r'ii.. ji -v'i.-i!a iie i<iTOi.*ated a plan 
■.a "nn ju:*ltti. ZL *«;cm* 5Rir?«« :f th«» 3Ioraviaa 
•n ."■ni'.na. la 1 Hilr ii* pr^Tiileii oa hi« Dublin 

"«: 1^1:^7 izn. tt; > srill '■^^^'Ain^g his re- 
.jriiiii -■: .iiL v un: i£ '..ifrbr :rifis;oaary to Par- 
*:mffi.:-vT. zi Ecr. iz.'i r':r la:-:^ tiian rwclTe 
T^nL** 2k .aJ:i:iE^iTr:':!i ::•: Irrzle «ai:ces& among 
'iiis^ j^:rn;i.n :«rt^:Ljs§. in-i ^jei co sat that the 
fCtrjTLAl ±riir3 it zl* Libiicir were at least 
T?; 1^ * : "liii;!*** :«: lis zi'acb. I:az»?r ministry in 
1*1 :L:s_ Hr -.:•;* a=. ictivr parx in the affairs 
:tf T2i* 5r»s.b7^«-.iLn ..-c:irch of Ireland, was 
Tm-jif. zL'-.tifznZ'ZS :i izi sc:pr»*me court, and on 
'.Titi :onL<J:c. zLbie & «p«ch. which wa£ emi- 
afcc'lr istzrzL xz \ cr.zical tarn of the church's 
r. H-r ii-iii a: I^^blin 31 March, 
IS'4. CvtLIt W15 a sun of high character 
iz.i *:i-:LtrlT i*:i;:Lir«=n'i-ii*s, and of consider- 
x'.'^r li":rnrr airiLTirr. His works an?: 1. 
• Ft^— -Ti:ijc •::' Arruments fir Roman 



J. 



ar L.r./':f..r/t fr.-i Fir. i* c: 'Ttt., Fxl* wrll 

ir./:ii: CV'.-.'r/ C*rl.l*. wi:h Ll>? rir'/il-er. i;-e<i 
*•. *\n W*.h o: -Vi'arlm on Iir Jnlr i»3Vl. 

'O^.'-***'* Ar-cr/"-:.- m' tit Enz'.ifj: St-vje: 
l/'/Tr.-i*^'* Krjvi\zM Ar^lisir.'x*; BiozrapLia LTa- 

^JiO'/^r'* Ky,.'ja^ hy Ii^llchazn'>srs ; Oxbrrrr':* 
Imtti^Xir, Cnr^fiol'./gy.l J. K. 

carlile; JAME.S, D.D. n7^1S:>4N 
x.\i*'.h\'//ii'j%\ ■A'rit'jr, l>>m in 1 784 at Paisley, was 
•AixntiU*i at CiluAgow L'uiversitv, from which 
h«; n:f'J:'l\'tA hi is tih^^thH hi D.D. In 1S13 he 
Ur'ram': miniit'.-r of the Scotfl church at Mary's 
A b^^^y, DuMin, and in 1 K*^) he wa.> appointed 
nrx.id'^nt r:/jmmLh>»ioner to the Irish board of 
*'A\iiv.\\\'iXi, In this hituation it fell to him 
Vt thk<; the leading part in preparing and 
iA'xUiv/. VifXii^A Ixx^ka, and in organising the 
Hch'xjl ityntem. His aim was to avoid all ■ 
that might bf; counted sectarian, and intro- . 
diice KM much wholesome religious matter as | 
poHHible. He was associated in the educa- 
tional board with Archbishop Wliately, who ' 
held him in high esteem, and also with Arch- j 
bishop Murray, whose liberal snirit made him I 
an agreeable iellow-worker. Tne educational 
fabric which was thus reared, however, dis- 
pleased Cardinal Cullen and his successors. 
1 laving nssigned the post of educational com- 
iniHsioner in 18«'i9, he devoted the remaining 
years of his life to an enterprise for the con- 
version of Roman catholics to the protestant 
faith. Ho luid felt the ordinary methods of 
dealing with lioman catholics to be unsatis- 



Ccksbrlic EriiCi:c*CT." Ihiblin. ISlo. 2. ' Sep- 
^:h ani Rf^pentance/ London, 
I'?ll. 3. -Ti* Old D>:trine of Faith as- 
s^rii'i.' L:t:-i:n, l^iS. 4. • The Apocryphal 
C:!:":r:v^r?y sommed up.' Glasgow, Y&ll. 
.">. •T'n Thr Con<:::uti:»n of the Primitive 
Ch-^ircL**/ Dublin. 1S31. 6. • Letters on the 
Divine •'►rlzin and Authority of Scripture,' 
^ v:l5., Edinburrh. Is37. 7'. • On the First 
and Second Advent?.' Edinburgh, 1848. 8. 
* Fruit gathered tyym. among Roman Catho- 
lics in Inrland,* L^jndon, 1848. 9. *The 
Papal Invasion: how to repel it,* I^ndon, 
IndO. 10. * Manual of the Anatomy and 
Physiology of the Human Mind,' London, 
ISol. 11. ^Station and Occupation of Saints 
in Final Glory,' London, 1854. 

[Xntrodoctory notice prefixed to the last- 
named work by his nephew, Rev. James E. Car* 
lile; Thirty-eight Years of 3Iission Life in Ja- 
maica, Sketch of Rev. Warrand Carlile ; Cata- 
logue of Xew College Libraiy and of Advocates' 
Library, Edinburgh ; Killen's History of the Irish 
Presbyterian Church.] W. G. B. 

CARLILE, RICHARD (1790-1843), 
fineethinker, was bom 8 Dec 1790 in Ash- 
burton, Devonshire. His father was a shoe- 
maker, who had some reputation as an arith- 
metician, and published a collection of mathe- 
matical and a^braic questions. He became 
an exciseman and fell into bad habits. His 
son Richard was four years of age at the time 
of his death. Carlile was educated in the 
village firee school, where William Gifford, 
afterwards editor of the ' Quarterly Review,* 
had been a scholar. He was taught writing, 
arithmetic, and sufficient Latin to read a 
physician's prescription. For a time he was 
in a chemist's shop in Exeter, but left on. 



being Mt to perfbrm some office incompBtible 
wiih the dignitT of one wbo could reikd & 
pKscnption. For n time he coloured pic- 
lures, which were aold in the shop kept by 
his mother. Her principal trade cuBtomers 
w>^reOiff<ird &Co., brothersof Robert, aftei^ 
w ard « allorne y-^eneral and lord Gjfford [q. v. ]. 
Carlile was eventually apprenticed to Mr. 
Cumming, a tinman, a hard master, who con- 
sideR'd (iTe or six hours for sleep all the re- 
ndition necessary for his apprentices. Cap- 
lile freq uen I ly rebelled against ibis injustice. 
He hod an ambition to earn bis living bj bis 
pen. In the meant ime be worbed aa a jour- 
neyman tinman in various parts of thecoun- 
tiT. Id 1813 he was employed at Benbam 
ft Sons', Blacldriara Road, London ; in 18!6 
mX the firm of Matthews &, Maaterman of 
L'aion Court, IIol bom. Tbere he saw for the 
first time one of the worksof Thomas Paine, 
whose e£g7 be bad helped to bum when a boy. 
Escil«d by- the viffoi"' of the ' Rights of Man ' 
and the diatre»s of the time, he n-rote letters 
lo newspapers, but only with the result of 
SMing' a notice in the ' Independent Whig,' a 
' half-emploTed mechanic is too Tiolent.' He 
wrote to Hunt and Cobbett without inte- 
resting them. In 18X7 the 'Black Dwarf,' a 
London weeklv publication, edited by Jona- 
than WoolcT, first appeared. This periodical 
was much more to Carlile's laste (ban Cob- 
brtt's'Hegisier,' and waacontinufd till 1819. 
Tbe Habeaa Corpus Act was then suapended, 
a^d the aale of obnoxious literature exposed 
to dangers which odIt stimidated Carlile. 
He borrowed 11. A«m his employer, bought 
with it a hundred 'Dwarfs,' and on 9 March 
JSir sallied forth from the manufactory 
with the pnpere in a handkerchief. He tra- 
Tcrecd London in every direction toget news- 
TKodoTB to sell the ' Dwarf.' He carried the 
'Dwarf" round seTeml weeks, walking thirty 
miles a day at a profit of fifteen pence and 
uffhteenpence. When Steill, the publisher 
of the 'Dwarf,' was arrested, Carlile offered 
t« t«k(t his place. ' I did Dot then see,' he 
uid later in life, 'what my experience has 
once taugLt me. that the greatest despotism 
nding the press is popular ignorance.' He 
printed and effected ibe fale of 25,000 eopii 
of ftiuthev's ' Wal Tyler' in 1817, in spit 



_. Tyli. ._ . . , 

of ihn ouiW'b objection. The ■ Parodies ' of 
Hone bfiMU itupumteed, Carlile reprinted 
tbem, and also published in 1817 a series of 
narodioc by himself, entitled 'The Political 
Litany, diligetitly revised, to be said or sung 
nntil tlf^ Aiijjijiiii.-d ClmuKe occurs;' 'The 
8i».,'.ir ■ . I... ItuUetTeDeum;' 

•A 1' ' The Order for the 

Adni ■ :ind Fishes,' These 

'Eighteen weeks' im- 



acquittal of William Hoae. In 1818 Carlile 
! pnblisbed the theological, political, imd mi»- 
I cellaneous works of Paine, together with a 
' memoir. He wasprosecuted,andhe published 
other works of a similar character. By the 
end of October 1819 he bad six indictments 
against him. InNovember he was sentenced 
to I,500i. fine and three years' imprisonment 
in Dorchester gaol. In the middle of the 
nigbt he was handcuffed and driven off be- 
tween two armed officers to Dorchesler. 
a distance of 1^ miles. His trial lasted 
three days, and attracted the notjce of the 
Emperor Alexander of Hussia, who thought, 
it necessary to issue a ukase to forbid any 
report of it being brought into his territory. 
During this imprisonment be was ordered to 
be taken out of his cell half an hour each day. 
He resented the exhibition by remaining two 
years and a half in bis room without going 
mto the open air. Carlile busied himself in 
gaol with the publication of a periodical 
called ' The Republican,' which be began in 
1819 and continued till 1826 (Uvols.) The 
first twtlve volumes are dated from Dor- 
chester gaol. Mrs. Carlile resuming the pub- 
lication of this and other of ber husband's 
works was sentenced in January 1821 to two 

fears' imprisonment, also in Dorchester gaol, 
tut Carlile still managed to publish his writ- 
ing and at once issu^ a report of bis wife's 
trial. The same year a constitutional asso- 
ciation was formed for prosecuting Carlile's 
assistants ; 6,000/. was raised, imd the Duke 
of Wellington put his name at the head of 
the list. The sheriff of the court of king's 
bench took possession of Carlile's bouse in 
Fleet Street, furniture, and stock in trade, 
but Carlile's publications still issued &om the 
prison. In 1822, in the week in which Peel 
took posaession ai the home office, a second 
eeiture was made of tbe bouse and stock at 
55 Fleet Street, under pretence of satisfying 
the fines, but neither from this nor ihe foi^ 
ire was a farthing allowed in the 
abatement of tbe fines, andCoriile was kept 
Dorchester gaol for six years, from 1819 to 
1835— three years' Imprisonment being taken 
lieu of the fines. His sister, Mary Anue, 
IS fined 500/., and sutiijected to twelve 
months' imprisonment from July 1821, for 
publishing Carlile's ' New Year's Address to 
tbeReformer8ofOreatBritain'(182l). Car- 
lile published a report of ber trial. The rate of 
liquidation of fines established by tbe crown 
was twelve months for every 600/. In 1836 
reported that the cabinet council had 
lo the conclusion that prosecutions 
should be discontinued. No more persona 



Carlile 



102 



Carlile 



were arrested from Carlile's shop, and yet 
none of his publications had been suppressed. 
The last nine of his shopmen arrested were 
detained to complete their sentences, varying 
from six months* to three years' imprison- 
ment. Sir Robert Peel refusing to rive up a 
single day. After his release Carlile pub- 
lished the earlier numbers of a new weekly 
Jolitical paper called * The Gorgon/ and from 
anuary 1828 to December 1829 edited a six- 
penny weekly serial called * The Lion ' — a 
record of the prosecution of Robert Taylor, 
author of the * DeviFs Pulpit/ Carlile sought 
to establish freedom of speech, and in 1830 en- 
gaged the Rotunda, Blacldriars Road. Most of 
the public men in London out of parliament at- 
tenaed the discussions, and a liberty of speech 
never before known in England was per- 
mitted. The French revolution of 1830 gave 
further impetus to free speaking on the plat- 
form. Later, Carlile*s house in Fleet Street 
was assessed for church rat«s. When his 
goods were seized he retaliated by taking out 
the two front windows to exhibit two efngies 
of a bishop and a distraining officer. After a 
time he added a devil, who was linked arm- 
in-arm with the bishop. Such crowds were 
attracted that public business was impeded. 
Carlile was again indicted, but the court 
was at least externally courteous. Carlile 
defended himself with good sense, but was 
sentenced to pay a fine of 40«. to the king 
and give sureties of 200/. — himself in 100/. 
and two others in 50/. — ^for his good behaviour 
for three years. As he refused to give sure- 
ties or ask others to become sureties, he 
entered with his accustomed spirit into three 
years' more imprisonment. Before sentence 
ne made a deposition in court stating the 
g^unds of his determination, and that,' though 
anxious to live in peace and amity with all 
men, there did exist many political and moral 
evils which he would through life labour to 
abate.' Thus, with a fiirther imprisonment 
in 1834-5 of ten weeks for resistance to the 
paynient of cliurch rates, he endured a total 
imprisonment of nine years and four months. 
He saw that the humiliation of the press 
could only be removed by resistance. In 
1819 Castlereagh had proposed a law which 
would have inflicted transportation on Car- 
lile for a second offence. Edwards, a clever 
spy, frequented his house for months, and 
made him a full-length model of Paine, with 
a view to win his confidence and involve him 
in the Cato Street conspiracy. WTien Thistle- 
wood was seized it was intended to arrest 
Mrs. Carlile, her husband being then in pri- 
son, to suggest his complicity with Thistle- 
wood. Ills shopmen were arrested so fre- 
gnently that he sold his books by clockworl^ 



so that the buyer was unable to identify the 
seller. On a dial was written the name of 
every publication for sale, the purchaser en- 
terea and turned the handle of the dial to 
the publication he wanted; on depositing 
the money the book dropped down before 
him. The peril of maintaining a free press 
in those days brought Carlile the admiration 
and sympathy of powerful friends unprepared 
themselves to incur such risks. Tne third 
and fourth years of his imprisonment pro- 
duced him subscriptions to the amount of 
600/. a year. For a long period his profits 
over the counter were oO/. a week. Once, 
when a trial was pending, Mrs. Carlile took 
500/. in the shop m one week. But Carlile 
had a passion for propagandism, and incurred 
liabilities which exhausted all his resources. 
So long as he vindicated the political freedom 
of the press Cobbett said, * You have done 
your duty bravely, Mr. Carlile ; if every one 
had done like you, it would be all very welL' 
But when he sought to establish the theo- 
logical and even the medical freedom of the 
press, Cartwright and others deprecated his 
proceedings as mischievous or immoral. 

Carlile married in 1813 one several years 
older than himself. Out of his slender wages 
of thirty shillings a week, even when he had 
several children, he continued to contribute 
to the support of his mother. This first led 
to domestic differences, which asperity of tem- 
per on his wife's part increased, and in 1819 
a separation was agreed upon as soon as he 
had means of providing for her, which did 
not occur until 1832, when he was able to 
settle upon her an annuity bequeathed to him 
by Mr. Morrison of Chelsea. Otherwise Mrs. 
Carlile was not without good qualities. She 
had business talent, which her nusband never 
acquired, and though having but little sym- 
pathy with his opinions, sne resented the 
oppression directed against him, and reso- 
lutely refused to compromise him or discon- 
tinue selling his publications, though it sub- 
jected her to two years' imprisonment. Carlile 
died on 10 Feb. 1843, in his fifty-third year, 
from an illness brought on by excitement in 
search of a child who had wandered from his 
door in Bouverie Street, London. Sir AVilliam 
Lawrence [q. v.]^, the author of the * Lectures on 
Man,' saw nim m his brief illness. He left 
his body for anatomical purposes to St. Tho- 
mas's Hospital. He followed the example of 
Bentham m desiring to remove by his own 
example the popular prejudice against dissec- 
tion. Carlile was abstemious, habitually dif- 
fident, but bold under a sense of duty. He 
practised free speaking, and, what was rarer, 
never objected to its being lued by others 
towards himself. Although he ordiiumly 



spolte with be«itation. be attained eloqi 
in visdiuting freedom. He had suffered 
ranch thnt he not luinatunUy became co 
Tinced th&t sufbriiif^ was the only qualifica^ 
tion for 8 pablic teacher, nnd doubted the 
integritj of thnse who had dared nothing. 
The ferocity with which he wae assailed drove 
him to extremes id gelf-dDfence, which, how- 
ever, were temperate when compared with 
the insolence of his powerful assailants; but 
in him it was deemed license, in them re- 
spectable indignation. Hismerit was, thathe 
uuMe the method of moral resistance and ac- 
comiilished by endurnnce what violence could 
not Mve effected. He lived to discern that 
sensation is not progress and denuudation is 
not instruction, and by his wont of conaide- 
ntion in speecli be created a dislike of the 
truth he vindicated. The faults of Carlile 
will be forgiven in consideration of his having 
done more tlian any other Englishmt 
day for the freedom of the press. 

BMidns the works mentioned above, Cor- 
lile edited two serials: 'The Prompter,' 
1830-li and "Tlie Gnuntlet.' 1833. He was 
also the author of ' The Moralist,' a series of 
moral essays, and of the following (among 
numerouB other) pnm|>li1etB : 1. ' A Letter 
to the Society for the Suppression of Vice,' 
1819. 3.-An£ffortloaetat rest somelittle 
dupntes and misunderstanduigs between the 
Befcmners of Leeds . . .' 1821. 8. ' To the 
B of Great Britain (Five Letters 
■ Dorchester Gaol),' 1821. 4. 'An Ad- 



.* 1821. 6, < Observations on Letters to 

id on . . . Christian Religion, by Olin- 
Gwgory . . ,' 1831. 6. ' Guide to Vir- 
and Morality through the Pages of 
■Bible," 1921. 7. 'Every Man's Book.or 
Is God P ' 1826. 8. 'The Gospel ae- 
jtoIlichnrdCBrlile,'1837. 9. 'ASer- 
n upon the subject of the Deity, preached 
. . . from the pulpit before the Congregation 
of the Chureh of Motint Itrintisway, near 
Stockport, formerlv.liHfijr" Ibiiir Ck^nversion, 
the Conaregftiion iif Hibic Clirlstinns,' 1827. 
la'ASewViewof Insn.iilv,'le31. 11. 'A 
Letter to C. Lnrliin, of the Newaistle Press,' 
1834. 12. 'Chun^h R<-rorm,' 1S36. 13. 'An 
Addreis to . . . R*formcn» on the Political 
Excitement of thu I'resent Time" (published 
by Thomue Painu Carlile, Manchester), 183D. 
Just before his death be bad be^un a weekly 
pwtodiual called the ' Christian Mirror.' 

[The BsuDtUt. I8i3: Th« JUpnbliean, vols. 

ii-zviii.i A 8rouig«: 'th« Cliristian Warrior; 

Holyoalu'a Life and Character of R. Carlile 

(181t); Lion, Tola. L and ii. ; OneU of ReascB, 

l|j|iA.i.(IMI)i>'ftar«n/sB*puUlcao; the Lancet, 



S (1S43); hilliographiQil notes Mildly 
anppU«l by Mr. C W. Sutton of Mandiostor.} 
G. J. H. 

OARLINaFORD, Eabl of (rf. 1677). 
[See TiATB, Thkobalu.] 

CAfiLINl, AGOSTINO (4. 1790), sculp- 
tor and paintt't, was a iintire of Genoa, who 
came to Enghmd early in life and becams 
the most celebraled sculptor of his day,' dis- 
tinguished particularly for his drapeiy. He 
wasoneof tne original memljers of the Koyal 
Academy (17691 and succeeded Moeer aa 
keeperinl783. His best-known work is a stai- 
tne of the notorious Doctor Ward (whose por- 
trait is introduced by Hogarth in plate v. of 
the ' Harlot's Progress'), which he executed 
for the Society of Arts. It is said that ' in 
order to make this statue talked of and seen at 
the sculptor's studio,' the doctor allowed him. 
200i. a vear ' to enable him to work at it oc- 
casionally till it was finished, and this sum 
the artist continued annually to receive till 
his death.' Ctther works of his were two 
statues for Somerset House and the masks on 
the keystones of the Strand front of that 
building representing the rivers Tyne, Deo, 
and Severn ; the model of an equestriau 
statue of Geor^ HI (exhibited 1769); a 






Loblen 



1 oil. He 



1 have 



been indebted to his friend Cipriani for some 
of his designs. There ure some original draw- 
ings by him in the British Museum. He 
died at his house in Carlisle Street, Soho, 
16 Aug. 1790. There is an engraving of 
Carlini with Cipriani and Bartoloizi, by J. K. 
Smith, after Rigaud. 

[BedgTBve's Diet- of Artists; Nollekeiui andhis 



CAKLISLE. [See also Cablkhx, Cab- 

LiGi.t, Cabiile, and Cabltlb.] 

CABLISLE, Snt ANTHONV (1768- 
1840), sui^^on, was born at Stdlington, Dur- 
ham, in 1708. He became the medical pupil 
of an uncle at York, after whose deulh he 
was placed under Mr. Green, (bunder of the 
Durham City Hospital. After attending tlie 
lectures of John Ilimter, Baillie, and Cruik- 
shank, and being the resident pupil of Mr. 
Henry Watson, surgeon to Weatmiiisler 
Hospital, he succeeded to the surgeoncy, oa 



Carlisle 



104 



Carlisle 



Watson's death, in 1793, and held the office 
till his own death in 1840. Carlisle became 
a fellow of the Royal Society in 1800, and in 
1804 delivered the Croonian lecture on * Mus- 
cular Motion,' following it by another on the 
' Muscles of Fishes ' in 1806. He contributed 
other papers on biological subjects to the Phi- 
losophical and Linnean 'Transactions,' the 
* Philosophical Magazine,' &c. Carlisle was 
long a member of the council of the College 
of Surgeons (from 1815) and an examiner 
(from April 1825), holding these appoint- 
ments till death. In 1820 and in 1826 he 
delivered the Hunterian oration at the col- 
lege, and on other occasions lectured on 
anatomy and surgery ; he also considerably 
added to the library and museum. He was 

f resident of the college in 1829 and 1839. 
le gained admission as a student to the 
Royal Academy while still young, and wrote 
an essay in the * Artist ' on the * Connection 
between Anatomy and the Fine Arts,' in 
which he expressed the opinion that minute 
knowledge of anatomy was not necessary 
to the historical painter and sculptor. In 
1808 the social connection which he had 
cultivate led to his obtaining the professor- 
ship of anatomy at the Academy, notwith- 
standing Charles Bell's candidature. This 
post he ncld for sixteen years. He was sur- 
geon-extraordinary to the prince recent, and 
was knighted on the prince's accession. He 
took great interest in Westminster Hospital, 
and was largely instrumental in raising funds 
for the new building. He died on 2 Nov. 1840, 
at his house in Langham Place, aged 72. 

Carlisle was neither a brilliant anatomist nor 
physiologist, but was a fairly good surgeon. 
His introduction of the thin-bladed, straight- 
edged amputating knife, in place of the old 
clumsy crooked one, ani his use of the 
simple cainpenter's saw make his name chiefly 
worthy of note. He was handsome and 
good-humoured, but very vain and crotchety, 
and in his later years somewhat slovenly and 
negligent of his duties. 

In 1800, in conjunction with W. Nichol- 
son, Carlisle engaged in important researches 
on voltaic electricity, and is credited by Ni- 
cholson with first observing the decomposi- 
tion of water by the electric current {Journal 
of Natural Philosophy, iv. July 1800, 179- 

87), and with several ingenious experiments 

and observations. 

Among Carlisle's miscellaneous publica- 
tions may be mentioned : * An Essay on the 
Disorders of Old Age, and on the Means of 
prolonging Human Life,' 1817, 2nd edit. 
1818 ; * Alleged Discovery of the Use of the 
Spleen/ 1829 ; ' Lecture on Cholera,' 1832 ; 
' Practical Observations on the Preservation 



of Health and the Prevention of Diseases,' 
1838; 'Physiological Observations upon Glan- 
dular Structures,' 1834. A list of nis scien- 
tific papers is given in the Royal Society's 
Catalogue of Scientific Papers, 1. 1867. 

[PettigreVs Medical Portrait Galleiy, 1840, 
vol. ii.; G«nt. Mag. December 1840, ii. 660; 
Geoigian Era, ii. 1833, p. 688; J. F. Clarke's 
AutobiogrHphical BecollectionB of the Medical 
Profeesion, 1874, 283-94.] a. T. B. 

CATlTiTSLE, Eabls and CoiTirrEsaBB of 
(1629-1684). [See Hat and Howakd.] 

CARLISLE, NICHOLAS (1771-1847), 
antiquary, was bom at York in January or 
February 1771, and was half-brother of Sir 
Anthony Carlisle [q. vj Having entered 
the naval service 01 the East India Company, 
he amassed considerable property as purser, 
with which he generously assisted his brother 
at the commencement of the latter's profes- 
sional career. He must have retired early, 
for in September 1806 he became a candidate 
for the office of secretary to the Society of 
Antiquaries, to which he was elected in the 
following January, his principal opponent 
being Dr. Dibdin. ' He never, says nis bio- 
grapher in the ' Gentleman's Ma^^azine,' ' did 
more for the Society of Antiquaries than was 
absolutely necessary,' but having installed 
himself in the society's apartments in Somer- 
set House, devoted his time to the execution 
of a series of laborious and in their day use- 
ful compilations. Between 1808 and 1813 
he produced topographical dictionaries of 
England, Ireland, Wales, and Scotland. In 
1818 he published *A Concise Description 
of the Endowed Grammar Schools of Eng- 
land and Wales,' a work of considerable 
value, the materials for which he had 
collected by issuing circulars. His- * Col- 
lections for a History of the Ancient 
Family of Carlisle' appeared in 1822, and 
a similar work on the family of Bland in 
1826. In 1828 he wrote <An Historical 
Accoimt of Charitable Commissions,' and in 
1837 printed privately a memoir of Wyon, 
the engraver to the mmt, with an appendix 
on the controversies between him and Pis- 
trucci. He indexed the first thirty volumes 
of the *■ ArchsBologia ' and the first fourteen 
reports of the charity commissioners, and 
was for a time a commissioner himself. ' His 
long-continued but unsuccessful attempts to 
estaolish professorships of the English lan- 
guage in various continental universities' 
procured him several foreign orders, and led 
him to compile Q^^) ' An Account of Fo- 
reign Orders of ^Jiignthood.' Haying bera 
appointed a gentleman of the priyy chamber, 
he wrote on the history of uuit body. In 



1813 he became as aasiitHiit Uhrnrian of the 
Royal library, and acpompmiied that cnllec- 
tion to the Britiali Miiseum, whure he only 
uttended two days in the week. He died at 
Margattf 27 Aug. 1B47, leaving the churocter 
of an amiable and -worthy man, whose ubili- 
_ ti«a werp by no means comroenBurate with 
Um industry. 

■ [Gent. aing. August I84S, pp. 205-0.] ^'I^' 
r CABL08, EDWARD JOHN (179&- 
1661 ),ftnl.iqiiary,wft«ade«oendant of William 
Cureless or Carloi [q. v.], who was chiefly in- 
etnunental in the preservation of the life of 
Cbarlte U dorine ihe flight after the battle 
i Worc«sl«r, and the only child of William 
^los and Grace Smith of Newington, Mid- 
' [, where he was bom on 12 Feb. 17B8. 
a educated at Hr. Colecraft's school, 
irington, and waa articled to Mr. B«ynell 
'le lofd mavor'B court office, with which he 
ted for more than thirty years. He 
k a grwit interest in architecture and in an- 
nt buildings. In 1832 he was one of the 
■Biuittee for the restoration of Crosby Hall, 
■ which in November of that year he contri- 
d an account to the ' Gentleman's Maga- 
i' under the title, ' Historical and Anti- 
"" s of Crosby Hall.' He was 
IB of the moHt active promoters of public 
n defence of the church of St. Mary 
,■, Soulhwflrk, and when old London 
Sridge wa« pulled down he contributed to 
the ' OentlemBu'e Maeaiine ' for March 1832 
' An Account of London Bridge, with Obser- 
vations on its Architecture during its demo- 
For the same periodical he wrote 
iring I8J4--S3 a series of descriptions of 
^ new churches in the metropolis, and the 
_B»iews of architectural books from 1822 to 
MNe. In 1843hepubliBhedasecondedition, 
wiih iidrlitions of Skelton's ' Oxonia Keslau. 
Tatu,' in which the plates illustrative of each 
c-ill-'K^ «'.Ti-brougIit together and thedescrip- 
forme>l into a continuous narrative. Ho 
on 20 Jan. 1851. 
(GuBt. Mng. 1851. pt- i. p. *42,] T. F. H. 

0ABL03, CABLES, or CAKELESS, 
**LLIAM (i 16fift), royalist, was a coloael 
cr mnjor in ibe royalist army during the civil 
wars. A family of the name of Carlosia de- 
acribwl an of Slratrord-on-Avon in the ' Visi- 
.fWorwickBhiris' in 1619 {HarUian 
28), A corresnondent of ' Notes and 
iM,' 1st ser. s. ^4, suggests that Ibe 
was the son of Anthony Careless, 
of the Clothiwre' C-orapany in Wor- 
Ewnr in lean, who died there 6 Jan. 1670. 
CUrcndon slatua that he residod in Staflbrd- 
•hire. CarloM took pnitin the battleof Won 



Kdied 



■(3Sopt.I6ol),nnd 
the last man killed there before leavil 
battle-fleld. As soon as the defeat 
royalists proved decisive he fled to the woods 
surrounding Boscobel House, and hid himself 
in the branches of an oak tree. About five 
o'clock on the morning of Saturday, 8 Sept., 
King Charles himself arrived at BoscoW 
while escaping from the Commonwealth sol- 
diers, who were in hot pursuit, and Carlos, 
who does not appear to have been personally 
acquainted with the king previously, iu|ged 
him to share his retreat in the oak tree. This 
the king agreed to do, and the two men re- 
mained concealed there for more than twenty- 
four hours, while their pursuers searched the 
wood below them. Carlos descended from 
time to lime to procure food. Un Sunday 
afternoon, however, Charles left for Moseley. 
Carlos separated from him because he was 
well known in the neighbourhood, andstood 
in even greater danger of capture than the 
king, who had managed to efiectually disguise 
himself. The oak tree, culled the royal oak, 
is still extant in Boscobel wood. Cin Uon- 
day, 8 Sept., Carlos succeeded, with the help 
of a friend at Wolverhampton, in dLsgnising 
himself, and under an aseumed name ha 
arrived in France. He communicated to 
the PrincMS of Orange at Paris the wel- 
come news of her brother's safety, and con- 
tinued in Charles's service till the Restora- 
tion. By a royal jiateni he was granted an 
elaborate coat of arms, in which an oak tree 
prominently figures (Nofa and Qumet, 2nd 
aer. lii. 2(52). Carlos returned to England 
with the king, and in January 1(160-1 he, 
with two others, was granted the proceeds 
of a tai on all strnw and hay brought into 
London and Westminster, together with the 
office of inspectof of liverv liorsekeepera (CaL 
StaU Papert, Bom., imo-l, p. 49B). In the 
account of James H's secret service fund for 
1687 appears the entry: 'To Coll' William 
Carlos, bounty 300;.' (^Secret Services qf 
Charh* II aii'ii Jamei II, Camd. Soc. 177). 
Carlos died early in 1(189. His wilt, dated in 
1CS8, was proved in the following year. His 
properly, of very trifling value.wasbequeathed 
to an ' adopted son, Edward Carlos,' fi«m 
whom was descended Edward John Carlos 
[a. v.] Carlos was married, and had a son 
William, bom in 1643, who died unmarried 
in 1668, and was buried in Fulham church- 
yard. Hi(i epitaph is printed in ' Noles and 
Queries,' Ist ser. «. 305. An • 



[Frei|iieDt n-f^rencra are mado to Carlos in 
lloant'i tnicl Bosmbel; in Clarendon's Hiatoiy, 
k. liii.; in P^pys's Narrativo printed by Lori 



Carlse 



1 06 



Carlyle 



Hailes. These ti&cts, together with several ; 
briefer acooonts of Charles lis adrentures after 
the battle of Worcester, have been carefully re- 
printed by J. Hughes in the Boscobel Tracts 
(1830, 2nd edit. 1857).] S. L. L. 

OAS.LSE, JAMES (1798-1856^, engraver, 
was bom in Shoreditch in 1798, and was 
apprenticed to Mr. Tyrrel, an architectural 
engraver. At the expiration of his term he 
practised landscape and figure en^aving 
without further instruction, so that he may 
almost be said to have been untaught. In 
1840 he commenced a work on Windsor 
Castle, which he discontinued from want of 
support. He engraved a good deal for the ; 
annuals and afterwards for the * Art Journal,' 
and some architectural plates for Mr. Weale's 
publications, Stuart's * Antiquities of Athens,' 
Chambers's * Civil Architecture,' &c. Among 
his other engravings are Beiyamin West's 
' First Essay in Art,' after E. M. Ward, and : 
'Oliver Cromwell in Conference with Milton,' 
after a drawing by himself. He died in 
August 1855. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists, 1878; Ottle^s 
Supplement to Bryan's Dictionary.] C. M. 

CARLYLE, ALEXANDER, D.D. g722- 
1805), Scotch divine, was bom on 26 Jan. 
1722 at Prestonpans, Midlothian, of which 
parish his father, William Carlyle, was mi- 
nister. The father lived on terms of intimacy 
with the gentry of the district, by whom much 
notice was taken of the son. Among their 
neighbours was the famous Colonel Gardiner. 
Canyle matriculated at the university of 
Edinburgh on 1 Nov. 1735, and in the follow- 
ing year he was an eye-witness of the escape 
of Robertson and the Porteous riots described 
in the * Heart of Midlothian.' In obedience to 
his father's wishes he studied for the church, 
and received his A.M. degree from the uni- 
versity of Edinburgh 14 April 1 743. A small 
bursary obtained for him by his father from 
the Duke of Hamilton aided in enabling him 
to spend two winters at the university of 
Glasgow and a third at that of Leyden, where 
he entered 17 Nov. 1746 {Leyden Students, 
Lidex Soc. p. 18). He was one of the volun- 
teers embodied in 1745 for the defence of 
Edinburgh from the rebel force under Prince 
Charles Edward, and he witnessed the flight 
of the king's force after the battle of Preston- 
pans. He was licensed for the ministry 8 July 
1746, but declined an offer of presentation 
to Cockbumspath in February 1747. On 
2 Aug. 1748 he was ordained minister of In- 
veresk, near Edinburgh, a charge which he 
retained until his death. He co-operated with 
his friends, John Home the autnor and Ro- 
bertson the historian, in supporting and lead- 



ing in the church of Scotland and its general 
assembly the moderate party, which opposed 
the abolition of patronage and favoured a 
somewhat latituoinarian theoloey. He was 
intimate with David Hume, Adam Smith, 
and the other Scottish literary celebrities of 
his time, including Smollett and Armstrong, 
who lived in London, and he has given in the 
' Autobiography ' accounts and anecdotes of 
most of them. He is said (Kay, Edirdnayh 
Portraits, ed. 1877, i. 67 n.) to have written 
the prologue to Charles Hart's ' Herminius 
and Aspasia,' acted in 1754, and he had made 
for John Home several transcripts of * Dou- 

flas ' before its performance in Edinburgh in 
756. He not only attended the rehearsals of 

* Douglas,' but, though with some reluctance, 
was present in the Edinburgh theatre on the 
third night of its performance (14 Dec. 1756), 
and attracted additional attention by expel- 
ling some young men from the boxes where 
he sat for rudeness to ladies whom he accom- 
panied. The public performance of a play 
written by a minister of the kirk raised an 
ecclesiastical storm in Scotland [see Home, 
John], and to the controversy thus provoked 
Carlyle contributed the anonymouspampldet, 

* An Argument to prove that the Trageciy of 
" Douglas " ought to be publicly burnt by the 
hands of the Hangman,' the irony of which 
was mistaken by some of its readers for a se- 
rious condemnation of the play. When the 
attendance of the upper classes began to flag, 
Carlyle brouj^ht a humbler class to the theatre 
by his broaoside, hawked about the streets, 
with the sensational heading, * A Full and True 
History of the bloody Tragedy of " Douglas " 
as it is now to be seen acting in the Theatre 
of the Canongate.' Carlyle was conspicuous 
among the minist-ers of the kirk who were 
summoned before theirrespective presbyteries 
to answer the charge of having entered a 
theatre to witness the performance of a stage- 
play. While professing regret for having un- 
wittingly ^ven offence, and promising not to 
offend again, Carlyle maintained beiore the 
presbytery of Dalkeith that the matter was 
one not for public but for private investiga- 
tion and admonition. The presbytery never- 
theless relegated him to be rebuked bv the 
synod of Lothian and Tweeddale. Carlyle's 
friends made a strong muster at the meeting 
of the sjmod, which oy a small majority ac- 
cepted his contention before the presbytery 
that the matter demanded * privy censure or 
brotherly conference,' while censuring him 
severely for his play-going and enioining him 
to abstain from it in future (11 May 1757). 
On appeal by the presbytery to the general 
assembly the decision of tne synod wasttmimed 
by a majority of 117 to 39 (24 May). This 



result wae always ivuituibprcd by Cariyle as 
« ugnni triumph over the fnnntical party in 
thp kirk (Autoliiuffmpk)/, chn|>. viii. ; Scoti 
Magazine for 1757 ; Mokreic, ArmaU of the 
Otnerai Amaiihls, 1838, li. 12-^-9). 

In ibe foHowiiiB year (1758) Cwlyle paid 
u visit to LiOudoD, where lie madt- the nc- 

SJuntancf of Oarrick and frequentAil tlie 
Mtrw, coDtrihutijig to his Mend Smollett's 
'Britiuli MBgaziiie' a eciticism on .lohn 
Ilome'a 'A^ia,' as then peifomied at Drurr 
I^ne. He oIm endeavoured, apparently will! 
little EinoeeM, to execute an informal com- 
iDLBBioii friini his Scotch miDiaterial brethren 
to ylead their cause witli those in authority, 
■^ — "M avert Iho threatened enforcement 
i them of the window-tax. After his 
home at the end of 1 758 the outcry 
in coneraiience of the disastrous close 
the St. Miilo expedition led Carlyle to 
■write the irnnirni pamplilBt, ' Plain KeuHons 
for removing u corlain Great Man from his 
M^ — ^-y'* preBenee and councils for ever. 
AddresBed to thi> people of England. By 
O. M. Haberdai^Iier.' This is byfar ihemost 
striking of Cariyie'8 productions. The 'great 
man ' if> the elder Pitt. Carlyle speaks of 
the pamphlet aa having had ' a great run,' 
but It 9eemi» to have dropped into unmerited 
oblivion. From on innccumcy in the tran- 
script of the title it does not op^ar to have 
been seen by the editor of hw 'Autobio- 
graphy ' (John Hill Burton), and in the new 
eataJogiie of the British Museum Library it 
is kltnbuted (o ' 0. M. Haberdasher,' without 
wiyreferencetoC'ariyle's authorship of it. In 
17cK)appeared at Edinburgh another pamphlet 
hj Carlyle, ' The (jueation relating to a Scots 
Hilitia considered in a l^etter to the Lords and 
Oendemen who have concerted the form of a 
fcr that eatobliahment,' in which he un- 



lafully sought to persuade the go' 
<t that the people of the country n 



ight 



d with perfect safely in spile of the 
A of the rebellion of '45. Carlyle boosts 
ttwt this pamphlet was renubiished both at 
Arr and in London, in the latt«r cose by the 
Ujirquia Townsliend, who preiixed a preface. 
In 1763 lie wBsappointfldaknoner to t he king. 
In 1701 he published a pamphlet, ' Faction 
detected,' on the claim of the Edinburgh town 
oouDcit lo pnxient to the churches m their 
city. Ill 17o9 be was appointed by thegenenil 
usembly their commisaiODer to endeavour to 
prociirn during the ensuing session of parlia- 
ment nn exemption on the part of the Scottish 
cleraylrom the window-tax. The clergy sub- 
— l^bMl about 400/. to defray Ids .expenses. On 
pjamral in London, anil doubtfess to pro- 
a of his mission, he wrote a 
d Kealor, ' in support of the Duke 




of Grafton, whose administration was then in 
a tottering slate.' Probably it was during 
this visit to London that, having to preaeut 
himself at St, James's, ' his portly figure, 
his fine expressive countenance, witli nn 
aquiline nose, his Howing silver locks, and 
the freshness of the colour of his fi>cc made 
oprodigiuuB impression upon the cuurtiera' 
(Chief Commissioner Abak, Oi/tqfa Grand- 
father, privately printed). Ilis mission was 
BO for successful that, Ihotigh the Scottish 
dergy continued to be charged with the 
wmdow-tax, the collectors were instructed 
not to enforce poymeiit (K*y, Edi-nimryh Por- 
traiti, i, «6). On 24 May 1770 he was elected 
moderator of the general assembly, and on 
•2 Dec. 17H9 mas named one of the deans of 
the Chapel Itoyal, when he resigned I he ot&ce 
of almoner. 

In 1766 Smollett had paid his last visit to 
Scotland, and in the description of Edin- 
burgh given in 'Humphry Clinker,' pub- 
lished in 1771, he makes a complimentary- 
reference to Carlyle. The account of tlie 
Select Society in the appendix to Dugald 
Stewart's memoir of Robertson the historian 
was furnished by Carlyle, who was a member 
of it. In 17K9 he was a candidate for the 
principal clerkship to the general assembly. 
A severe contest took place between the mo- 
derate and the old preeliyteriaa parties in the 
kirk, and the number of votes given was the 
largest ever known in the assembly. Carlyle 
was at first successful, but the result of a 
scrutiny asked for and gmnled threatened to 
be unfavourable, and he declined to &ce it. 
In 1771 he opposed the passing of a remon- 
strance by the general assembly against the 
necessity imposed on presbyterians of taking 
the communion in the Anglican font) before 
they could hold office in England, saying that 
he ' must be a very narrow-minded preshyte- 
rian who could not join in the religious wor- 
ship of the church' of England. In lifl.ihe 
gave a strenuous support to a scheme for the 
augmentation of the stipends of the Scottish 
clergy, and courageously protested against 
the want of sympathy with that bodv shown 
on the occasion by his friend Ileury ilunda^ 
then lord advocate, as the representative of 
the Pitt administration in the assembly. To 
the last he exerted himself to procure pre- 
fermiMit, both in the EoRlish and the Scotch 
church, for young men of merit and of liberal 
views in theologv, among them being the 
Rev. Archibald Alison, the fatlier of th« his- 
torian. Cftriyle died on ^6 Ang. ISOS, and 
was buried in the churchyard of Inveresk, 
his friend Adam Ferguson, the historian of 
the Roman reiiublic, writing the inscription 
on his tomb. He married, 14 Ocl. 1700, Muy 



Carlyle 



xo8 



Carlyle 



Boddan, who died 31 Jan. 1804, in her sixty- 
first year. His * Autobio^aphy ' gives a most 
agreeable impression of him as a genial, culti- 
vated, liberal-minded, and sagacious minister 
of the kirk, who united to the breadth of the 
man of the world a sincere devotion to what 
he considered to be the true interests of his 
order, and it is unrivalled as a picture of the 
Edinburgh and Scotch society of his time. 
Although its merit had long been appreciated 
in manuscript, it was not published until 1860, 
excellently edited, with notes and a supple- 
mentaiy chapter, by John Hill Burton. Its 
full title is * Autobiography of the Rev. Dr. 
Alexander Carlyle, Mmister of Inveresk, con- 
taining Memorials of the Men and Events of 
his Time.' 

Sir Walter Scott said (LociniAKT, Zt/c, 
p. 368) : * The grandest demi-god I ever saw 
was Dr. Carlyle . . . commonly called "Jupiter 
Carlyle " , , . and a shrewd old carle was he 
no doubt, but no more a poet than his pre- 
centor.' Carlyle's portrait prefixed to the 

* Autobiography ' somewhat resembles those 
of Goethe, and he retains a certain dignity 
even in the caricatures of him, of which there 
are several in Kay's * Edinburgh Portraits.' 
He was more poetical than Sir Walter Scott 
supposed. Wnether he was the author or 
not of the * songs ' and 'gay catches' which 
in an early letter to him Smollett seems to 
speak of as his (Supplementary chapter to 
Autobiography J p. 564), he certainly wrote 
the spirited and musical ' Verses on his Grace 
the Duke of Buccleuch's birthday ' published 
in the 'Scots Magazine' for 1767. With 
Henry Mackenzie he filled up some of the 
lacuna in an imperfect manuscript copy of 
Collins's *Ode on the Superstitions oi the 
Highlanders,' which he presented to the 
Royal Society of Edinbui^gh on its establish- 
ment, and which, with a letter from Carlyle, 
wa« published for the first time in its * Trans- 
actions ' (Edinburgh, 1788, i. 63-75). In old 
age he displayed an interest in Scott's * Lay 
of the Last Minstrel,' and in the early poetry 
of Wordsworth. 

Carlyle published a few sermons and con- 
tributed to Sir John Sinclair's * Statistical 
Account of Scotland ' (1791-9) an elaborate 

* Account of the Parisli of Inveresk,' topo- 
graphical, historical, and statistical, in which 
he describes his successful introduction into 
Scotland of ploughing with two horses and 
without a driver. In the Egertoii MSS. in 
the British Museum (Nos. 2185-6) there are 
several letters from Carlyle to Dr. Douglas, 
bishop of Salisbury, urging the claims of 
clerical proUgSs and gossiping about Hume, 
Robertson, and other Edinburgh literati. Car- 
lyle is the subject of one of Kay's caricatures. 



[Dr. Carlyle's Autobiography, Pamphlets, and 
Sermons; A Series of Original Portraits and 
Caricature Etchings by the late John Kay, 
miniature painter, Edinburgh, with BiographioLl 
Sketches and Illustrative Anecdotes (new edition), 
1877 ; Hew Scott's Fasti Ecd. Scot. i. 287, 896, 
399; authorities cited.] F. E. 

CARLYLE, JANE WELSH. [See 
under Carlyle, Thomas, 1795-1881.] 

CARLYLE, JOHN AITKEN, M.D. 
(1801-1879), younger brother of Thomas 
Carlyle (1795-1881) [q.v.], was bom at Eccle- 
fechan, Dumfriesshire, on 7 Juljr 1801. * A 
logic chopper from the cradle * is one of the 
descriptions griyen of him by his elder brother, 
whom at an early age he succeeded as a teacher 
at the Annan academy. Thomas Carlyle, 
when tutor to the BuUers, devoted a portion 
of his salary to enable John Carlyle to study 
medicine at the university of Edinburgh, 
where he took his degree of M.D. in or about 
1825. Two years later the same brother sent 
him to complete his medical education in Ger- 
many, and maintained him for several years 
in London, where he tried to obtain practice 
as a physician. Failing in this he attempted 
literature, and contributed a little to ' Erasers 
Magazine ' and other periodicals. He helped 
his brother in translating Legendre's Geo- 
metry. In 1831, on the recommendation of 
his brother's helpful friend, Francis Jefirey, 
he was appointed travelling physician to the 
Countess of Clare, with a salary of three 
hundred guineas a year and his expenses. In 
the following year he remitted money to his 
mother, and paid off his debt to his brother. 
Occasionally visiting England and Scotland, 
he spent some seven years in Italy with Lady 
Clare, in the intervals of his attendance prac- 
tising for some time on his own account as 
a physician in Rome, where, during an out'- 
break of cholera, he gave his medical services 
gratuitously among the poor. Returning to 
England in 1837, he became in 1838 tra- 
velling physician to the Duke of Buccleuch, 
with whom he revisited the continent. By 
1843 he had resigned this position, and, 

Possessed of a moderate competency, aban- 
oned almost entirely the practice oi his pro- 
fession, declining an invitation from Lady 
Holland, given at the suggestion of Lord 
Jeffrey, to become her physician in atten- 
dance. He lived for several years in lodgings 
near the Chelsea residence of his briMJier, 
to whom, medicallv and otherwise, he made 
himself very useful The first instalment of 
what he intended to be an EngUah prose 
translation of the whole of Dante's great poem 
appeared in 1849 as ' Dante's Diyine Comedr, 
the Inferno, with the text of the origuulcol- 



luted from tlie be«t editions, nnd BXplona- i [Carltlo's HomiHiwenuw) (18S1) ; FwudB's 
tory notes,' a volume which, under whatever Thonm* Corlylo. u History ot the First Forty 
ii$:pect it isviewed, leaves little to be desired. Years of his Life (1882}; Frondo'a Thomas 
The preliiPi- contains on estimate of Dante as Cnrlyla, s Hiilory of his Lift in London (1384) ; 
a man Mid & poet, in which the influence of Lattera and Memoriuls of Jana Wetah Carljlo 
Thumiu Csrlyle Ib very conspicuous. After ('883); Ths Correspondence of Thonms Csriyla 
the prefuce come two appendices, useful con- I ""'^ ^'"'P'' ^"''1'' Emerson (1883) ; Thomas 
trib£,ions to the criti J^ibliogAphy of the ' C-ljle's Print od Will (1880): Edinburgh Oni- 

and tiMsktors. A second edition, revised, ^"'j'*' ^^ ^- ^- "<■""" ('««^'J- ^- ^' 

Ameand in 1867, with a prefirtory notice, in CABLTLE, JOSEPH DACRE (1759- 

wEicb I>r. Carlyle spoke of issuing two vo- ' 1804), Arabic scholar, bom in 1769 at Cftr- 



liunes more, containing translations of the UbIs, where htsfstherpracttsedssaphysii 
' Purgnloriu ' and the 'Paradiso.' But the ' was educated at the Carlisle nramiu! 
hope was not fulfilled, though he had exe- { and was then entered at Ctrist's 



cui«dn considerable portion of the task. A | Cambridge, whence he presently removed to 
third edition of the'Infemo,' a reprint of jQueuns', proceeded B.A. in 1779, and was 
the aecood edition, was issned in 1882. elected a fellow of Queens', took hie M.A, 

In 1862 Dr. Carlyle married 4i rich widow | degree in 178;f. and B,D. in 1793. During his 
with several children, and she died in 1854. I residence at Cambridge ha profited by the 
After her death he resided for several years iuatmctions of a native of Bagdad, whose 
in Edinburgh, ultimately settlino' in Dum- I europeanised name was David Zamio, and 
fricMhire. He devoted much of nis time in ' became so proficient in oriental languagea 
later yenrs to the study of the Icelandic that lie was appointed professor of Arabic 
language and literature. On the death of his on the resignation of Dr. Craven in 1796, In 
nialer-in-lBW, Ure. Thomas Carlyle, he offered the meantime he had obtained some church 
tot»kcuphiiiabodewithlusbereaved brother, preferment at Carlisle, and liad auoceeded 
The offer was declined. Complaints of his I'aley in 1793 as chancellor of that city. 
brother John's ' careless helter-skelter ways ' In 1793 he published in 4to the ' llerum 
occur not iufrequently in Carlyle's annota- -Egypt.iaearum Annales,' translated from the 
tions to the letters of his wife, while ho hears Arabic of Ynsuf ibn Taghri Birdi, a meagre 
teatimony in them to Dr. Carlyle's ' good, af- work of slight historical value ; and in 1796, 
feotiona to, manly character and fine talents,' also 4to, 'Specimens of Arabian Poet^' 
and his many letters to him, published by Mr. (with some account of the authora selected)^ 
ypaude, arc uniformly aiTectLonate in tone. By translations in which a certain elegance of 
his friends, Dr. Carlyle was regarded ns s man diction is mora striking than the fidelity to 
of amiable and tranquil disposition, as well as the spirit and colour of the originals. In 
of ability and accomplishment. 1799 be wa^ appointed chaplain to Lord 

In 11*01 Dr. Carlyle edited his friend Dr. Elgin's mission to Constantinople, with the 
Irving's posthumous ' History of Scottish special duties of learned referee ; and he 
*^ 'ry,' adding a little fresh matter to the made a tour through Asia Minor, Palestine, 
and notes, and appending a brief gloa- i Greece, and Italy, collecting Greek and 
of Scotch words occurring in thevolume. ! Syriac manuscripts lor a proposed new ver- 

, 8T8hemadeoverto the acting committee , sion of the New Testament, which unfortu- 
_ ittie Association for the Better Endowment nately he did not live to accomplish. Eft- 
of tbe University of Edinburgh 1,600'., to i turning to England in September 1801, he 
found two medical bursaries of not less than was presented Co the living of Newcastle-on- 
35/. each, DOW worth 3!2f. each, known by the Tyne; but his health had been seriously 
foiukder's name, and tenable for one year. | impaired by the fatigues of travel, and he 

Thomas Csrlyle speaks of John in his will , also suffered from a special and painful 
aa having ' no need of money or help,' hut I malady, to which he succumbed on 13 April 
left him a life-interest in the lease of the 1801. His ' Poems suggested chiefly by 
house at Chelsea, with his books and the j Scenes in Asia Minor, Syria^ and Greece,' 
fragments of his history of James I, He | together with some translations from the 
mdde bim, too, his chief execulor, and asked , Arabic, were published after his death, 1805, 
him to superinteJid the execution of the in- 1 4to, with extracts from hla journal and a 
etructiaiiE in his will, saying, in respect to preface by his ^ter. He had also almost 
tluim, 'I wish bim to be regarded as my I completedanaccountof hia tourthrough the 
boeond s^tf, my surviving self. Dr. Carlvie Troad, wbicb was never published, and had 
did Dot, howaver, survive his brother. He ' advanced so far in hb Arabic Bible, revised 
. 4wd at Dumfries, 15 Dec. 1879. from Walton's tust, that it was issued at 



Carlyle no Carlyle 



Newcastle, edited by H. Ford, professor of j and other the<Kgfian8. Among his converts 

Arabic at Oxford, in 1811. ^ ■ were Ilerr Thiersch, the church historian, and 

[Gent. Mag. 1804, p. 390 ; Miss Carlyle's Pre- ^fc" Charles J. T. Biihm, autlior of various 

face to tlio Specimens of Arabic Poetrv.] ^Prks. ITie results of his acquaintance with 

is. L.-P. *^^<^ German language, lit4>rature, society, and 
religious thouglit were given in his work, 
CARLYLE, THOMAS (1803-18r,r,), an *The Moral Phenomena of Germany,' which 
apostle of the Catholic Apostolic church, was appeared in 1845, and of which more than one 
born at King's Grange, Kirkcudbrightshire, on edition was printed in German. This work 
17 July 1808. His father w^as AVilliam Car- liaving w^on him the acquaintance of Baron 
lyle, and his mother Margaret Heriot, widow Bunsen, he introduced him to King Frede- 
of AVilh'am McMurdo of Savannah, (leorgia. rick William of Prussia, who had been much 
He was first educat<.'d at Annan academy, interested in reading the * Moral Phenomena.' 
in company with Kdward Irving, and after- His work seriously impaired his health, and he 
wards at the Dumfries academy, studied at diedatHeathHouse, Albury.on28Jan. 185i>, 
the Edinburgh University, and was called and was buried in Albury parish church on 
to the Scottish bar in 1h24. By the death 3 Feb. He married on 7 Sept. 18:>6 Frances 
of John Carlyle of Torthorwald, in October AVallace, daughter of the He v. Archibald 
18:?4, the claim to the dormant title of Baron Jiauri«», D.D., minister of Loudoun, Ayrshire. 
Carlyle devolved on Thomas Carlyle (Cak- She died at Pan on 22 Feb. 1874. 
lisle's Collections for a History of the An- Carlyle*s other writings not already men- 
cient Family of Carlisle, London, 1822, 4to, tioned were: 1. *The Scottish Jurist. Con- 
pp. 140-1). In 1827 ho published ' An Kssay , ducted by T. Carlyle,' 1829. 2. ' The First 
to illustrate the Foundation, the Necessity, ' Besurrection and the Second Death,' 1830. 
the Nature, and the Evidence of Christianity, 3. * Letter to the Editor of the "Christian 
and to connect True Philosophy with the Instructor," ' 1830. 4. *A Letter to the King 
Bible. By a Layman,' and in'l829 'The ' of Prussia,' 1847. 5. *0n tk^acrament of 
Word made Flesh, or the True Humanity of Baptism,' 1850. 6. * llie One^Bliolic Supre- 
Ood in Christ demonstrated from the Scrip- macy,' 1851. 7. * A Shoit^^^kry of the 
tures ' In the well-known * Bow lieresy Apostolic Work,' 1851. 8. * T^^Iistory of 
■case,' when the Bev. John Mcl^eod Camp- the Christian Church. ByH.W. J. Thiers "^ 
ball, minister of Bow, Argyllshire, was tried j Vol. I. The Church in the Apostolic A 
and finally deposed by the courts of the I Translated by T. Carlyle,' 1852. 9. * 1 
■church of Scotland in 1831, Carlyle acted Jew our Law-giver,' 1853. 10. *Tlie Door of 
during the various stages of the trial as legal Hope for Britain,' 1853. 11. *The Door of 
counsel for Campbell {Memoir of the Rev. J. Ho|)e for Christendom,' 1853. 12. * Apostles 
McLcod Campbell, D.D,, 1877, i. 77, 103, given, lost, and restored,' 1853. 13. *On 
115). Having much in common with the the Office of the Paraclete in the Prayers of 
•opinions of Dr. Campbell, he also sympa- the Church,' 1853. 14. *On Symbols in 
wiised with many of the views of his friend ; Worship,' 1853. 15. 'Our present Position 
Edward Irving, and adopted and advocated in Spiritual Chronology,' 1853; another edi- 
those religious tenets taught by the Catholic tion, 1879. 16. * On the Epistles to the 
Apostolic church. This church having been Seven Churches,' 1854. 17. * Warning for 
found»»d on 19 Oct. 1832, the appointment of | the Unwary against Si^|^ual Evil,' 1854. 
the u])ostle proceeded, and in Edinburgh in 18. *■ Shall Turkey li^Hkr die ? ' 1854. 
April 1 835 Carlyle was named the ninth apos- ; 19. ' Pleadings with my jHner, the Church 
tie of the denomination, and in the same year in Scotland,' 1854. 20. nBiicke eines Eng^ 
gave up his practice at the bar, left Edinburgh, . landers in die kirchlichen und socialen Zu- 
and settled with his wife at Albun-, Surrey, stiinde Deutschlands von T. Carlyle. Uebep- 
He was one of the members of the assembly setzt von B. Frh. von Richtliofen/ 1870. 



ry of 




and supposed to represent 'quiet perseverance cences' (i. 312) of his famous namesake is 

in accomplishing what is aimed at,* were al- not to be trusted ; at any rate there is not 

lotted to Carlyle, who henceforth was known the least ground for supposing that the ad- 

as 'The Apostle for North Germany.' In that vocate Thomas Carlyle ever intentionally 



country he therefore very frequently resided, contributed to the mistakes of identity there 
and went about collecting and superintending described. The sjpry on which Carlyle's ac- 
• congregations of converts, and while there > count is founded is told in the ' Memorials' 
made the acquaintance of Eerlach, Neander, of Janet Welsh Carlyle (L 204). 



louM. Inl^ 



1 Irringiam, i. 14. S^U. *16 ; Atbo- 
I Msj 1S8I, p. BSl; Unrv'n Life of 
a BttnMD (3rd lA. 1882), ii. 76; inf.;^ 
1 TMeireil from the Kdv. il. G. Oruhu^| 
)W.] G. C. B ~ 

JILYLE, THOMAS (1795-1881), es- 
1 mid hifitoriiin, waa liurn 4 Dec. \7i<'i 
M:lefM;1iBJi in Atwandale. Uewasgrand- 
if a Thoinaa Carlyle, first a earpent*ir and 
wards a amail fiirmer al Browulniciwe, 
r Bumswork liill. FmnciB, « brother of 
IT Tbamae, wii» a rough suiloi of the 
HI type. The brotliere had been ee- 
! by tt long nuarrel, and among the 
it recollections of the yiiuiiger Thomas 
% tight of the ^anduncle, who woe beioK 
' ajjstnire to'be reconcile-d with the dy- 
lafnthor. Hoth brothera were tough., 
I men, aa inucb given to flgbtingaa 
orldng. Tliuraos married Anne Gil- 
, S by whom he baij four sons and two 
ighters. The second son, James, born in 
', inherited t lie palonial temper, and was 
Igbly brought up, and allowed (o ramble 
~r the county shooting harea. Hereceived 
'"" rdigious impreeaions from John. Orr, 
|] shoemalter, who was pious 
kften Bp«nt weeks at the pot- 
Rruee became apprenticed to a 
n Brown, married to Ma eldest 
^ker Fanny. He afterwards aet up in busi- 
Hm with n br'itlier, built a house for himself 
^n£M]ef«chau, and there made a home for 
' IT »nd brothers. In 1731 he married 
a, Janet Carlyle, who died after giving 

lo «on, Jofui. Two years sAer her 

' I) Jajnea Carlyle married Janet 

Beir ftrst child,' Thomaa, was fol- 

« Mns And five daughters. The 

(John Aitlren [q. v.] ; Alexander 

who emigrnted to Canada, and died 

id Junes (A. 1805), who took the farm 

■fbtig and survived liia brothers. The 

m wtre Ju«st, who died in infancy ; 

4 lb. 18^Bled unmarried in 1830; 

y (A. 1808 nn became Mrs. Austin; 

Jmm>, or 'craw Jifflr (A. 1810), who married 

b«r roiwiii. Jiunps .\ithen, in 1833; and 

Janet (6. Ifil.T), who boome Mrs. Hanning, 

d aettlod in Caoodo. James Carljle was 

a the lirat steady, nhstcmioue, and a 

i^h worlniian. His busing prospered, 

^hojaiucl •'!<- ' bitnrbfni," a Sert of rigor- 

■ -ir'frfchan. Ho 

!,i.d by habi- 

_ ti.Tii .S.-otch Cft)vLni«t, 

■ Carlyle Ifomt landing from his 
cr, and ariituiiutic (at Eve) &om his b- 




ther. He was then sent to tbe village school, 
Hia English -was reported to be ' complete * 
in hia sev^h year, and he was set. to uttin. 
IAs the schoolmaster was incompetent he wns 
tauifht by Johnstone, the burgher minister, 
and his aon, an Edinburgh student. At 
WliiCauntide 1805 ho was sent to Annan 
^mmar lichool, He had aln-ady shown> ^ 
violent temper, and his mother now mada 
him promise not to return a blow. He had, 
consequently, to pnt up with much cruelty, 
until he turned against a lormentor, and, 
though beaten, prored himself to be a dnn- 
geroua subject for bullying. The two first 
years, he says, vcere miserable. His school 
experience is reflected in 'Sartor liesartus' 
(hk. ii. eh. iii.; see also'Cruthor; and John- 
son 'in Frater^s .Vnjr. January 1631). He' 
learnt to read French and Latin and tlie 
Greek alphabet ; he learnt a little geometry 
and algebra ; and (JfillUUfid all the bookfl be 
could get. His father perceived the son'a 
ability, and decided to send him lo the uni- 
versity with a view lo the ministry. Oarlylo 
accordingly walked to Edinbuivh — ehundred 
miles diatAnt — in the November term 18W, 
and went through the usual course. He ac- 
quired some Greek and Latin ; was disgusted 
with the uncongenial rhetoric of Tnoniaa 
Brown upon the association philosophy; but 
madeeome real progress in mathematics under 
John Leslie, who earned his lastinggraCitudt) 
by sealous help. Ho became a leatfn^spint 
among a small circle of friends of his own 
class. Their letters abow remarkable intsrost 
in literarv mnttera. One of them addresses 
him as ' Dean ' and ' Jonathan,' implying that 
he is to be a second Swift, Another Bproka 
of his ' Shandeantumof expresaion.' ' Tri»- 
tram Shandy' was one of his favourita books. 
Carlyle contemplated an epic poem. He still 
studied mathematica. He advised hja friends 
sensibly, and was ready to help them &om 
his little savings. 

To fill up the interval which must elapse 
before his intended ordination, Carlyle ob- 
tained in 1814 the mathematical tutorship at 
Annun. He thus became independent, and 
was able to put bv something from his sa- 
lary of 60/. or rOi. a year. He was near his 
father, who had now settled in a farm at 
JMunhilft two miles from Ecclefechan. Here 
he pass^ his Jiolidays ; but hia life at Annan 
was solitary, and chiefly spent among hia 
books. Hisdivinitycourseinvolvedanaimual 
address at Edinburgh. He delivered in 1614 
'a weak, flowa^ sentimental' sermon in 
English, and JflBliin discourse (Chiistmoa 
1815), also *weak enough,' on the qne«tion, 
' Nnm detur religio not urolis 'i ' On the lut 
occasion he had a Utile passage of anna witJi 



Carly le 1 1 2 Carly le 

Kdward Irving, to whom he uow spoke for u hiiuutiiig of the furies. The * three most 
the lirst time at a friend's rooms. Irving miserable years* of his life followed. He 
was an old pupil of the Annan school, where obtained a pupil or two and was emplo\>'d 
Carlyle had once seen him on a visit. lie had by Brewster on the * Kncyclopwdias/ He 
become a schoolmaster at Kirkcaldy. Some managed just to pay his way ; but he a«ot>n 
of the parents were dis^contented with his gave up lus law studies — always uncongenial 
teaching, and resolved to import a second — and found no other opt*ning. The misery 
schoolmaster. Christieson (professor of Latin : of the lower classes at this time of universal 
at Edinburgh) and Leslie recommended (.-ar- depression made a profound impression, and 
lyle, who thus in the summer of 181(J became he sympathised with the general discontMUt. 
a rival of Irv'ing. Irving, however, welcomed He was also going through a religious crisis, 
him with a generosity which he warmly The collapsii of his old Ixdiefs set^med to leave 
acknowledged, and they at once formed a him no escape from gloomy and degrading 
close intimacy. Carlyle made use of Irving's materialism. After much mental agonv, he 
librarj', where he read Gibbon and much one day in June 1821, after * three weeks of 
French literature^ and they made little ex- total sleeplessness,' went through the crisis 
peditions togethe/, vividly described in the described * quite literally' in * Sartor U»'sar- 
* Kemiuiscences * (\6\. i. ) To Irving's literary tus ' (bk. ii. ch. vii., where the Hue St. Thomas 
example Carlyle thinks that he owed * some- de TEnfer st-ands for Leith Walk). Fn jin 
thing of his own poor affectations ' in stylo this hour ho dated his ' spiritual new birth,* 
{Reminiscences y i. 119). ! though for four years more he had many 

Carlyle's school dut ies were t horouglily dis- mental struggles. Carlyle had now taken \ o 
tasteful. His reserve, irritability, and power German study, and his great heliK'r in this 
of sarcasm were bad t'ciuipmeiits for a school- crisis appears to have been Goetht*. The st»- 
master*s work. He kept his pupils in awe ntnity of Goethe probably attracted him by 
without physical force, but his success was the contrast to his own vehemence. Goeth^, 
chiefly negative. He saw little society, but as he thought, showed that the highest cul- 
was attracted by a Miss Margaret Gordon, ture and most unreservtjd acceptance of the 
an ex-pupil of Irving's, probably the original results of modem inquiry might be combined 
of * Blumine * in * Sartor Uesart us.' An aimt . with a reverent and truly religious concept ion 
with whom Miss Gordon lived put a stop to of the universe. Carlyle continued to rrvt-re 
some talk of an enga;rem»*nt. Miss Gordrin Goethe, though the religious sentiments which 
took leave of him in a remarkal>le letter, in ho preserved, Scotch Calvinism minus the 
wliich, after a serious warning against the dogma, were very unlike those of his spiritual 
dangers of pride and excessive severity, she guide. ^ 

begs him to think of her as a sisti^r, though During this period of stniggle Carlyle was 
she will not see him again. She sooti married supported by the steady confidence' of his 
a meml>er of parliament who becam»* * gover- fatlier, the anxious alfection of his mother, 
nor of Nova Scotia (or so)' and was living and the cordial sympathy of his brothers and 
about 1840. sisters. He was eagerly welcomed on occa- 

* Schoolmastering ' had become intolerable, sional visits to Mainhill, and, though some- 
The ministry had also become out of the times alarming his family bv his complaints, 
question, as Carlyle's wider reading had led always returned tlieir affection and generally 
to his abandonmt'ut of the orthodox views, made the best of his prospects. To them he 
In September 1818 he told liis father that seldom said a harsh wonl. Another consola- 
he had saved about 90/., and with this and a tion was. the friendship of Ir\''ing, now (Octo- 
few mathematical pupils could support him- ber. 18T9) under Chalmers at Glasgow. He 
self in Edinburgh till he could qualiiy lim^^^isited Irving in 1820, and at Drumclog Moor, 
self for the bar. He accordingly wen^ro whither Irving had walked with him on the 
Edinburgh in December 1819 with Irving, I way to Eccleiechan, explained to his friend 
who had given up his own school with a the difference of faith which now divided 
view to entering upon his miuLstt^il func- them. The scene is vividly do^ribed in the 
tions. Carlyle had now Ix^gun to suffer from ' Keminiscences ' (i. 177). Carlyle walked 
the dyspepsia which tormented him through fifty-four miles the next day, the longest 
life : * A rat was gnawing at the pit of his walk he ever t-ook. Irving did his utmost 
stomach.' The consequentin'itability already i both to comfort Carlyle and to find him em- 
found vent in language of^K^squeexaggera- i ployment. Carlyle had applied in vain to Lon- 
tion where it is often di^^rt to distinguish don booksellers, proposing, for one thing, a 
betw(H;u the serious and the intentionally complete translation of Schiller. Captain Ba- 
humorous. The little annoyances incidental i sil Hall had offered to take Carlyle a« a kind 
to life in mean lodgings are transfigured into | of scientific secretary, on offer which Carlyle 



\ 
\ 



Carlyle 113 Carlyle 

declined. Mean while Irving, on preach- He stayed on in T^undon trying to find some 

ing experimentally in Hatton Garden, had occupation. Inthesummerot* 1824 he spent 

made acquaintance with two sisters, Mrs. two months at Birmingham with Mr. Badanis, 

Strachey and Mrs. Charles Buller. Mrs. a manufactjirer, of some literary knowledge 

Buller consulted Irving upon the education and scientific culture. Badams hoped to cure 

of her two eldest sons, Charles [q. v.] and Carlyle's dys|>ep8ia by a judicious regimen, 

iVrthur, afterwards Sir Arthur. Irving re- and though he miled to do much, Carlyle was 

commended Edinburgh University ^vith Car- touched by hi.** kindness. (For Badams, see 

lyle for a tutor, and in January \S'2'2 Carlyle Itemmi/tcenceSfU, 1(14 ; FR0L'DE,ii. 170.) From 

accepted the prop<)t»al. The two lads joined Birmingham Carlyle went to Dover, where 

him in the followiug spring. His salary was the Irvings were staying, and nflide a brief 




spending the day with his pupils. In the detail with singidar fidelitv, and his impres- 
spring of 1823 the BuUers took Kinnuird sions were of service in tlie history ot the 
Ilouse, near Dimkeld. Carlyle sjient the French revolution. On returning, ho took 
rest of the year there with them, and on the lodgings in Islinj^n, near Irving, and stayed 
whole happily, though oc-casionally grumbling there, occupied m publishing negotiations, 
at dyspepsia and the ways of fine ladies ana till his return to Scotland in ^larch 1825. 
gentlemen. At the end of January 1824 the His * Schiller,' reprinted from the * London 
BuUers finally n^tumed to London, Carlyle , Magazine,' was issued before his departure^rv 
Htaying at Maiuhill to finish a translation of i bringing him about 100/. ^ 

* \Vilhelm Meister.' At the beginning of Juno Carlyle received strong impressions from 
ha followed the BuUers to London ui a sail- his first view of London scwiety. He judged 
ing ship, and found them hesitating between it much as Knox judged the court of Mary, 
various schemes. After a week at Kew with or St. John the Baptist (see Fboide, ii. 334) 
Charles Buller, who was now intended for the court of Herod. He is typified by Tevi- 
Cambridge, he resolved to give up his place, felsdriickh, * a wild seer, shaggy, unkempt. 
He had Deen much attracted by his pupil like a baptist living on locusts and wild . 
Charles, but to his proud spirit a life of de- honey.' The rugged independence of the 
pendence upon grand people, with constantly , Scotch peasant, resenting even well-pieant 
unsettled plans and with no definite outlook patronage, colours his judgments of tlie fa- 
fur himselt, had naturally become intolerable, shionable world, while an additional severity 

His improved income had enabled him , is duti tt) his habitual dys])t'psia. The circle 
to help his family. Out of his 200/. a year | to whom Ir\-ing had introduc«'d him are de- 
he supported liis brother John as a medical i scribed in the ' Reminiscences' with a graphic 
student in Edinburgh, and stocked a farm for power in which a desire to acknowledge real 
his brother Alexander, besides stmding many i Kindness and merit struggles agtiinst a gtme- 
presents to his parents. He had been ao- I rally unfavourable opinion. Of ^Irs. Strachey, 
tively writing. He had translated Legendrc's indeed, he speaks with n»al warmth, and he 

* Geometry,' for which he received 50/., and admired for the ])resent * the no])le lady,' Mrs. 
wrote in one morning an introduction on the Basil Montagu, of whom there is a striking 



doctrine of Proportion, of which he s})eaks 



and generally favoui*able ])ortrait {^liemifu'ji- 



with complacency. Irving, who had finally cences, p. 227). But the social atmosphere 
Fettled in London, in the summer of 1822 was evidently luiccmgenial. He still admired 
had mentioned Carlyle to Taylor, proprietor . Irving, whom he always loved : but felt keenly 
of the 'London Magazine.' Taylor offered him that his friend was surrounded by a circle 



sixteen guineas a sheet for a series of * Por- 



whose flattt?ry was dangen.)us to his sim])li- 



traits of Men of Genius and Character.' The city, and which mistook a flush of excitement 
first was to be a life of Schiller, which ap- for deep religious feeling. Yet Carlyle still 




Carlyle i. 258). Carlyle formed a still more dispi 
was to receive 180/. for the first edition, 2oO/. raging estimate of the men of letters. Upon 
fftr a thousand copies of a second, and after- i these ' things for wTiting articles' he lavished 
vards to have the copyright. Carlyle, there- ! his most exaggerated expressions of sconi. 
fore, accustomed to the severe economy of his Coleridge was dawdling upon Highgat« Hill, 
father's house, was sufliciently prosperous, wasting his genius upon aimless talk ; Hazlitt 
On leaving the Bnllers he was thrown on his a mere Bohemian ; CampbelUs powers had 
own mources. i left him ; Charles Lamb (of whose pathetic 

YOL. IZ. I 



Carlyle 114A Carlyle 

fltory he was iprnorant, * something of real ' Virgil. On her tenth birthday she burnt her 
insanity I have understood/ BeminUcences^ doll on a funeral pjTe, after the mo<leI of 
ii. 160) hnd degenerated into a mere cockney ; Dido ; at fourteen she wrote a tragedy, and 
idol, niine<l by flattery. Southeyand Wordfr- : continued for many years to writ« poetry, 
worth had * retired far from the din of this Her father, the only person who had real in- 
monstrous city/ and Carlyle thought best to flucnce with herydiea of tvphus fever caucht 
follow their example. If his judgment was from a patient in September 1819, and her 
harsh, it put new force into his resolution to health sufl^ered from tlie blow for years. She 
deliver his own message to a backsliding gene- continue<l to live with her mother, to whom 
ration, and to refuse at whatever cost to pro- her father had left a sufficient income, and 
stitute his tiihnits for gain or flattery. i became known from her wit and beauty as 

The most gratifying incident of this period | * the flower of Haddington.' She was sought 
was a letter from Goctlit? acknowledging the by many lovers, and encouraged more than 
translation of * Meister,' and introducing * the one, but cherished a childish passion for her 
Lords Bentinck * (one of them Lord George), tutor Irving. He had removea to Kirkcaldy, 
whom Carlyle did not see. The translation and there, while MissWelsh was still a child, 
had been successful. Carlyle hnd arranged became engaged to Miss Martin. He conti- 
to translate other selections from German nued to visit Haddington, and came to a mu- 
writers, which ultimately api)eared in \S27, I tual understanding with MissWelsh. They 
He proceeded to carry out his scheme of re- ; hoped, it seems, that the Martins would con- 
tirement. His father took a farm called Hod- sent to release him j but when this hope was 
dam Hill, about two miles from Mainhill, at : disappointed, both agreed that he must keep 
a rent of 100/. a year. His brother Alex- I to his engagement. Ir^'inJ^ married in the 
ander managed the farm ; and Carlyle settled autumn of 1823. Meanwhile, in June 1821, 
down with his books, and after some idleness Irving had brought Carlyle from Edinburgh 
took up his translating. The quiet, the coun- '. to Haddington, and there introduced him to 
tr\' air, and long rides on his * wild Irish horse Miss Welsh. Carlyle obtained permission to 
"Larry,"' improved his health and spirits, and send her books, opened a correspondence, and 
just ified his choice ; but his life was now to be saw her on her occasional visits to Edinburgh. 



seriously changed. 

,Ta.ne Baillie Welsh was descended from 
two unrelated families, both named Welsh. 
They had long been settled at the manor- 
house of Craigenputtock. Her father, .John 
W'elsh, descended through a long line of John 



Ir\'ing wrote some final letters of farewell to 
Miss Welsh in the autumn of 1822. 

Carlyle, who was quite ignorant of this 
aflkir, was meanwhile becoming more inti- 
mate with Miss Welsh, who was beginning 
to recognise his remarkable qualities, and to 



Welshes from John Welsh, a famous minister regard nim with a much deeper feeling than 



of Avr, whose wife was daughter of John 
Knox. The last John Welsh (ft. 4 April 
1776) was a pupil of one of the Bells, and 
afterwards became a country doctor at Had- j 
dington. His father, John Welsh of Pen- 
fillan (so called after his farm), survived 



that which she had formerly entertained for 
Irving. In the summer of 1823, while he 
was at Kinnaird, she had told him emphati- 
cally that he had misunderstood a previous 
letter, and that she would never be nis wile. 
Soon afterwards she executed a deed trans- 



him, dying in 1823. Dr. Welsh, in 1801, ■ ferring the whole of her father*8 property, 
married Grace, or Grizzie, Welsh, daugh- some 200/. or 300/. a year (Fbottbe, iii. 237), 
ter of Walter W\jl8h, a stock-farmer, who which had been left to her, to her mother, in 
upon his daughter's marriage settled at order that her husband, if she ever married, 
Tcmpland, near Penfillan. Walter's wife, a ; might not be able to diminish her mothers 
Miss Baillie, claimed descent from William income. She also left the whole to Carlvle 



Wallace. A .John Welsh, often mentioned 



in case of her Gvra and her mother^a death. 



in the books uptm Carlyle, was son of Walter, For the next two years the intimacy gra- 
and therefore maternal uncle of Jane Baillie dually increased, with various occasional diffi- 
Welsli. Ho settled at Liverpool, became culties. In the spring of 1824 she had pro- 
bankrupt through the dishonesty of a part- . mised, apparently in a fit of repentance for a 
ner, ana afterwards retrieved his fortune and quarrel, that she would become his wxfisif he 
paid his creditors in full. Jane Baillie Welsh could achieve independence. Some remark- 
(h, 14 July 1801) was the only child of her ; able letters passed during his atAy in Eng- 
parents. rrom her infancy she was remark- land. Carlyle proposed b^ finvourite acheme 
ably bright and self-willed. She insist-ed on I for settling* with her as his wife upon a faim 
learning Latin, and was sent to Haddington ' — her farm of Craigenputtock, for example, 
school. Irving came there as a master, lived j then about to become vacant — and devotmg 
in her father's house, and introduced her to himself to his lofty aBpixationa. MiafWeUh 






'ered by pointing out the sBcrifice of 
'ort Bnd locial position to herself, and 
frnnkly that she did not iove hini well 
enough for k husband. Yet she showed some 
relenting, and wm unwilling to break en- 
tirely. The solution came by the strange in- 
terferenre of Mrs. Montagu, wbo, though a 
fnend to Irring and Carlyle, was unknown 
to Miss WeUh. Mtr. Montagu warned Mias 
Wclah Bgainft tlie dangers of EtiU cherish- 
ins her passion for Irvine. In answer Misa 
W eleh stated her intention of marrying Car- 
Itle. The lady protested, and exhorted Miss 
'(Vrlah mot to conceal the story trom her new 
.Itrver. Hereupon Miss Welsh sent the letter 
'"■"Cariyle.wbo now for the firat time became 
mreof her former feeling! for Irving. Hiiher- 
■ho had spoken of Irving so bitterly that 
riyle Iwl remonstrated. He woa startled 
unwonted humility, and begged her to 
eonsidt>r Uie risk of sacrificing berajlf to one 
of his 'strange dark humours.' For answer 
she came to see him in person (September 
il8S5), nnd was introduced as his promised 
"""' ' "o his family, who received her with 
courtesy, und always remained on 

Owlyle now fell to work on his transla- 
;, MotiT difficulties remained. A dis- 
trith the landlord led to the abandon- 
of Hoddam Uitl by his father. The 
'" lease also expired in 18^6, and the 
moved to Scotsbrig, a neighbouring 
Carlylc wis aniious to Ix^in his mar- 
, and had saved '2001. to start house- 
Some small schemes for regular 
employment fell ihrmiBh, hut Car- 
Uglit that he might find some quiet 
near Edinburgh where work would 
Various plans were discussed. 



«.Wi 

'• mat.i'Ji, 



flahheortilydisapprovedofherdau^h- 

ti*Ji, thinking Carlyle irreligious, ill* 

d, and socially inferior. MigsWeli" 

tbe beauty of a small country 

class superior to that of the Carl 

Igb superior neither in 

^.O tbp society to which Carl; 

" 1 while her first love, 

intimnie friond. Mrs, Welsli 
t kat to allow the pair to take up 
T nbode with her. Carlyle decliued 
i that he must be mast«r in 
k^and that the proposed arrange- 
Jl insritAbly tttail, ns wa« only too 
EdiNtgreemcnts. The mother and 
B|d mquont disputfis (FKot'DE, 
^'^ Jy to be the milder for Cnr- 
■ M MB U cc. The Carlyle family tli«m- 
,11 rtpclared thai it would b« impossible 
M Welali to »iibmit to the rough con< 
I al life at Scotsbrig. At last C»i^ 



lyle'e original plan, which seetos to have 
been the most reasonable, was adopted, and 
token at Comley Bank, Edin- 
burgh. Mrs. Welsh was to settle with her 
father at Tempknd. The marris«e expenses 
piudfor by the proceeds of the 'German 
Komanccia,' and the wedding took place at 
" Empland, 17 Oct. 1826. 

The mflfriage of two of tlie most remark- 
able pnople of their time had been preceded 
by some ominous symptoms. Carlyle's in- 
tense and enduring altection for his wife is 
ahowQ in letters of extreme tenderness and 
by many unequivocal symptoms. It was 
unfortunately too often masked by explosions 
-' — assive irritability, and by the constant 
increased by lus complete absoTption 
work. From the first, too. It seems to 
have been less the passion of a lover than ad- 
miration of an iutellectiial companion. Mrs. 
Carlyle'a brilliancy was associated with a 
scorn for all iUusions and a marked power of 
uttering impleasant truths. There can he no 
doubt thai Hlie sincerely loved Carlyle, though 
she is re|KDried totuivesaid that she had mar- 
ried > for ambition ' and was miserable. Her 
childlessness left her to constant solitude, and 
her m ind preyed upon itself. The result waa 
that a union, extemaUy irreproachable, and 
founded upon genuine affection, wag marred 
by painful discordswhichhave been laid bare 
witli unsparing frankness. Carlyle'a habit of 
excessive emphasis and eii^geration of speech 
has deepened the impression. ~~ — — ■ 

The marriage started happily. The Car- 
lyles lived in the simplest style, with one 
servant. Mrs. Carlyle was a charming hostess, 
and the literary people of Edinburgh come 
to see her and listen to her husband's as- 
tonishing monol(^!n^- 1*^^ money difficullv 
iooD became pressing. Carlyle Ined^novel, 
iwhicb had lo be burnt. 'He suggested a 
scheme for a literary Annual Kegister; but 
the publishers, disappointed in the sale of 
' MeiBt«r " and ' SchiUer,' turned a deaf ear, 
'.n spite o: 
fused a p 

Carlyle, however, b^an to think again of 
Craigenputtock, with fresh country air and 
exercise. His brother Alexander was willing 
to take the &rm, where the tenant was in 
arrears, and Mrs. Welsh, now at Templand, 
approved the change, which would bring her 
daughter within fifteen miles of her. It was 
agreed that Alenonder Carlyle should take 
the farm at Whitsuntide 1627, and that the 
Thomas Carlyles should occupy the hotise, 
which was separate from the farmhouse, ae 
soon as it could be prepared. Meanwhile 
Bomo gleams of proaiieriiy helped lo detain 
Carlyle at Edinburgn. His rGputation was 



Carlyle ii6 Carlyle 

rising. In Aujrust 1>27 Le received a Trzinu was fttiH g^ippnrtii^jjr I^iq bmtlipr John, -.vbj 
acknowledgment from Goethe of his 'Life returned toLondon about 1S3<J. ani c-yiW 
of Schiller? with a pre,<<MiT of K>ok.<, medals, pet no patients. In February 1S31 C-rly> 
a neckliuv for Mrs. #irlyle. and a pocket- hadonlyo/.,andexpecte<l no more turn: »!.:!:-. 
book for hiiusi'll*. lie conceaU'd his poverty from his br'-rhrr. 
Carlyle had formed a mow direoily useful and did his best to encourage him. Tb- d— 
aci|uaiutance with .leiVrt\v. An iiriiole sent mand for his articles had declined. O^nnan 
by Irving's adviee to the • Kdiubur*:!! Ke- literatun»,ofwhichhehadliegunabisT«.»ry.wa.s. 
view' had received no notice; but Carlyle, not a marketable topic. His brother Alrxan- 
Hupplied with a letter \^( in: rvxluet ion from der. to whom he had advanced :i40/.. had f a iltd 
PnH*ter( /u.v<//»>ii7itf <.ii.-n.re.<olvt\lar last at Craigenputtock ; and after leaving it at 
to call uixm JfllVey. JeiVrey was friendly, Whitsuntide 18iU (Froude, ii. 144) wa> for 
diseovertHi a relatioushin to Sirs. C'arlyle, to a time without employment. Jeffivy's tmns- 
whom III' Invaiue sjHviruly a::aeljed, and ac- feri'uce of the tnlitorship of the * Edinburgli 
ci'ptiHl articles lor the • Fdinl»urj;li.* Two, Ki'vi»'w ' to Macvey Xapier in the middle of 
U|H>n ,1i'an Paul and on Oorman Literature, 1S29 .sto])iMKl one source of income. In the 
appeared in June and lVtvd»ir l^^'-T. and the Ik'ginning t)f 18IU Carlyle cut up his history 
latt«'rbivui:ht ailatteriuj: lUijuiry iromCioothe of Gfrmaii literature into articles,and workvd 
lis to thr author>l»i^». The sliirl'.i inipn.>ve- desiH-rately at * Sartor llesart us.* John had 
iiii'iit in his tinaiiees imnitdiateU eneouragtHl lHt»n forced to borrow from Jeffrey ; and Car- 
Carlvli' to stMul his br\»thiT .lolm to study lyle n'Solve<l at last togo to l^ndonaud try 
nuHlu'ine in (ii'rmauy. JiMl'tvy iiir: her tried the publishers. lleliojH'd tofindenctuirjiire- 
by hi.s intere.Ni wiili Urvnijrlsam to obtain inent for settling there permanently, lie was 
Carlyle's nnpoiiituuMii to a pn^t'essorship in fi>rcedtolK)rrow 50/. from Jeffrey, and reached 
the newly toundod London I ni\e'.*>ity. He Ixnulon Aug. 18i^l. Neither Murray, nor 
support tnl Cavlyh* in a candidal uri* for the the Longmans, nor Frast.T would buy * Sartor 

Srotessorsliip of moral philosophy at St. An- Uesartus.' Carlyle found Irving plunged into 

r»'\\s, \aeaitHl by l>r. ChahueT"s. restinuv dauirentus illusions ; Itadams falling into dif- 

nials \\«»iv v^'wt^n not only by Irviuir. duller, liculties and drink; and his old friends, as he 

IJri'wster, Wilson. Lo^lie. and .lell'rey. but thought, coKl or faithless. A great relief, 

by diH'thi'. They tailed, however, in eonsi^ lunvever, canit* through Jeffrey, wlio obtaimxl 

nuenee ot' the op|Hvsiti»m of the priuei]vil, an ap]>ointment for ,Iohn as travelling phy- 

i)r. Nicol. iVaigeiiputtoek thus Invanio al- sician to the Countess of Clare, with a >iU};ry 

most a niHvs>iiy ; and the discovery that of .*KK) guineas a year. Freed from this strain, 

flu'jr landlord ai l\Mnb'\ Hank had accepted i'arlvle's income might suffice. Mrs. Carlylt* 

I 1*111 * It •*i*"1''l«^ i'\ ^ 




hiuisi'lf by ^^ riiiu;;s worthy o( himself. Hf Thev ^aw Charles BuUer, and now made ac- 
would n«)i turn out a pagi* of inferior work- quaint ance with J. S. Mill. Carlyle wrote 
luansliip or coudesemd to the sliu'htest com- his ' Characteristics,* which was acci'ptedby 



pronii.M- with liis priuciples. He stru^udrd Napier for the ' Edinburgh/ and his article 
on for six yi'ar>wnh Narying success. He upon Hoswell's* Johnson 'for Eraser. Bulwer, 
wroti' tlu' articli'< which t'onu the tirst tlinv . now editing the *New Monthly,* asked for 
yolumoof the * .Mi>cellaiui's,' I'lu'V apj»eared ' articles, ana Hayward got I^rdner,as editor 
chiellv in ihr • Kdinburgh Uevirw / and in of the * Cabinet Encyclopjedia/ to offer 300/. 
the ' l'\)reign Uevi^w ' and ' Frascr's Maira- for the * Ilistorv of German Literature.* The 
zino,' lx»th nt'w vt-ntuii'S. lie wrote nothing death of hisfatlier, '22 Jan. 1832, came upon 
which ^va'< not worth subsequent collection, Carlyle as a heavy blow. Though he had 
and .«4ome of the>e ^yritings are among his not obtained a ]>viblisher for * Sartor Resar- 
nio>t tinislu'd performances. Hown to the tns,* he had established relations with some 
enil t)f 1.6')iAJii"< work ^ except the article on editors for future work; and he retired again 
liurns) was chiefly upon (Terman literaturt\ for a time to the now vacant Craigeuputtock, 
e>p«'cially upon Goethe, with whom he coti- n^aching it about the middle of April IB^W. 
tinuetl to have a pleasant orn'siHMidence. His \ lie set to work upon * Diderot,' which he 
health was better than u>ual, the complaints HuishtHl in October, and then made an excuP' '^ 
of dyspepsia disappear from hi'j letters; but sion in AnnandaJe. In November Mrs. Car- P' 
the money question became urgent. His lyle was called to the deathbed of her grand- 
articles, always the slow prwluct of a kind father, Walter Welsh, at Templand. Tlie 
of mental agony, were his only tesource. He solitude, the absence of books, and the weak- 



V 



\ 




Carlyle 



Carlyle 



I of Mrs. Carlvle'a health were making 
wgcnputtockunMurabk; and in the winter 
J reeoWed to make ft Ifral of Edinburgh. 
rf wttled there in Jftnuarv 183:1; und 
ijle found books in tlje AdvuMtes' Li- 
; which bnd a great effect upon bin line 
i^Ctndy. He collected the materials for his 
articles upon ■ Cn^liostro' and the' Diamond 
Xocitlsce. Edinburgh society, however, 
proved uucoDgeniftl, and after four months 
be ngain went back to his' Whinstane Castle' 
at Craig«iiputlock. Editors wnre once more 
ibecomtn^ cold. ' Sartor Itesartus ' was ap- 
/pearing lit Xaet in ' Fraser's MagaiJne' (No- 
iTembttr 1833 to August 1834), ffaser having 
Eti|mtQti.-d to pay only twelve guineas a sheet 
in^ttnLl of twenty as before (the usual rat« 
Iwiiig fifi.-en). Fraaer now reported that it 
■ esciioci the most unqualified disapprobation' 
<l-RM-i.E. ii. lOl). Thedealeraii literature 
n-iTi'lurriiugtheir hacks uponhim; though his 
fim-'increax^in some directions. In August 
I ^'t.'l Emer»on came to bim with a letter mim 
Mill. The Corlyles thouglil bim 'one of the 
most loveable creatures ' they had ever setn j 
nnd nn unbroken Iriendsblp of nearly flftv 
venrs was brgnn. Carlvle corresponded wiili 
_^illj who apiiroaolied fiim as a uhilosopHiual 
^"— jher [ tmu their correBpondence turned 
hrle'e thotigkts towards th>< * French lie- 
UJoa.' A visit from his brother John, 
jtmArriages of his sister Jean to James Ait- 
Jl, a houa^painter of superior abilities, and 
Ellis youngest brother Jamca, now farming 
^tshrie, to whom Cariyia made over the 
A of §001. from Alexander, varied the mo- 
y «f Oraigenputtock. In the winter of 
IPS-l-i Carlyle took charge of a promising 
voung William Glen, who gave him Oreek 
Icawxis in return for lessons in mathematics. 
( 'arlyle, however, now at the lowest peconi- 
aiy ebb, bncame more and more discontented, 

IBrill at lost iVMlvcd to ' burn his ships ' and 
•Fttle in London. 

<>ther propoaals had fuled. Jefirey bad 1 
tried to be helpfiil. He had proposed Car- 
Irie a« his successor in the editorship of I 
tlie -Edinburgh.' When this ftiled, he had | 
ogfewd to Carlyle an annuity of lOW. The , 
I7WB« houourahly declined, with Carlyle's | 
' independence, though bis gratitude 



/ tii». 



for ony kind of 

J'ilTn>v. when lord advocate, had 

. f'.'v him some appoint- 

liiid also lent money 

iiii-i, which was repaid 

mil y .^JWtrey, howevsr, 

iiiiri;^ 1. niiik-'agenlus'hadspnken 

upttuiualy lit his liternrv eccen 

(For Jeflrey's opinion of Onrlyli 

N*r[HB'a Cerrttpondmcr, p. 12ti.) 



was entirely out of sympathy with Carlyle's 
opinions, condemned his defiance of dU con- 
ventions, and complained of him for being 
BO ' desperately in earucst.* A growing cool- 
Dees ensued, which came to a head when, in 
January 16S4, Carlyle proposed to apply for 
the post of astronomical professor and ob- 
server at Edinburgh. Carlyle had shown 
mathematical abiLty, and was confident of 
' his own powers. Jeffrey naturally replied 
I that the place would have to be given to 
some one of proved ability. He added that 
I a secretary of his own was qualified, and 
would probably get it on his merits, and 
proceeded to aiuninister a very sharp lecture 
' to Carlyle. He said that if lie had had the 
power he would have appointed Carlyle to a 
rhetoric cbair then vacant in some university. 
But the authorities had decided that the chair 
ought to be given to some man of great and 
estsblished reputation, like Macaulay, for ex- 
ample. Carlyle's eccentricities would prevent 
him from ever obtaining any. such position. 
The lecture stungCarlyle bayond bearing. 
, It left a resentment which lie cdt^d not con- 
coal, even wlien trying, long aft-erwarda, to 
do justice to the memory of a friend and 
benefactor. A coolness due to another cause 
hod probably made itself felt, though not 
openly expressed by Jertrey. He had con- 
demned Carlyle's eccentricity not only as a 
, wilfuL,thrQsring.away-of opportunities, hut 
as involvine cruelty to Sirs. Carlyle. Her 
I life during the Craigetiputtock years bad been 
bard and injurious t^ her health. Carlyle 
, speaks frequently in hia letters of her deli- 
cacy. Sheseems to havesiiffered evenraore I 
' at London and Edinburgh than at Craigen- I 
put-tock fFKouDE, iL 8621. But the life in 
a bleak situotion, with one ceiront and an 
occasional boy, with the necesaity of minute 
attention to every housekeeping detail, was 
excessively trying. Carlyle, accustomed to 
the rigid economy of his father's household, 
thought comparatively little of these trials, 
or rather {Seminigeeiictt, ii. 150) thought 
tliat the occupation was 'the saving cborm 
of her life.' Mre. Carlyle had undertaken the 
duty of keeping a poor man's household with 
her eyes onen ; and severe economy was es- 
sential to his power of discharging his self- 
imposed tusk. Unluckily, though a stoical 
senseof duty made her conceal her sufTerings 
from her husband, her love for him was not 
of the kind which could fither make them a 
pleasure or prevent ber from complaining to 
others. Jeflrey, who visited tlie Carlyles at I 
Craigenputtock, saw what was bidden from I 
Carlyle. The extreme solitude was unbear- 
able to ber wearii^ spirits. They were for 
Eaoulhs alone, without interruption fimn an 



Carl vie nS Carlyle 

outsider. Carlyir frfqu-nriv aLrn'.i-r.j. loni: looked forward, indeed, to a reconstruct ion 
rides and drive? wi;li hi? -wiw : he consulied of ]irinciple8 and institutions which was en- 
her upon ail bis liook* : h!.d he reniemlKred tirt-ly o]»postid to the views of the Mills and 
Craigenputt'X'k a? the s.ivr*e of fK-rhiips • \ heir their associates. Yet he held that the 'whip;* 
happiest days." But co:npi<i:ion meant for were amateurs, the radicals ^ild bn»threu' -^ 
him a soliiarj- afiTony. Hj> devMion to his iFBOi'DE, ii. 90). Though limited in their 
labours left her to eompl* Te > iii; ude for many philosv^phy, they were genuine as far as they 
hours and day?; and she retained a most pain- went. MilFs respect and sympathy had 
ful impression. possiiOy even exa^irerated in toucheil him, and he was prepared to form 
her later confe>!;i>ms. >;il h'.r trial •.hiriniT the somn temporary alliance witli the set of 
six years \ less two winTor? ar EdinVairjrh and 'pliilosophical radicals.' He saw something 
London). It is not easy, however, to see ol them, and calls Mill and one or two of 
how, under the conditions, a Wtter scheme his set the * reastmablest people we have:' 
could have been devised. I: enabled Carlyle, though disgusted by their views in regard to 
at least, to go thrvmgli his a]«prentioeship. and ' marriage and the like ' ( ib, 4/)9 ). Mrs. Car- 
he was now to emerge as a maSTer of his omft.* lyle was at first 'greatly taken with' Mrs. 
^ Carlyle reached l>>ndi«n .m li* May 1S54. Taylor, whose relations with Mill wer»» now 
settled in his old lodginc>. aiul K'tran house- beginning and causing some anxiety to his 
hunting. lie l\»und a small «^ld-fa?'hioned friends and family. J. S. Mill was com em- 
house at i) (^now numbered .4 ) Cheyne IJnw, plating the* London Review,' having become 
Chelsea, at a rent of liol. a vear. Mrs. Carlvle du^satisfitKl with the * Westminster.' Carlvle 
followed and continued his choice. They had been told (.Tanuarj- 1834) that W. J. Fox 
set tied in the houses which he ^>ccupit^l till his was to edit the new venture. He seems, 
death) on 10 .June iNU, and he U^iran work however, to have had some hopes of being 
in tolerable spirits ujv^u the • Krench llevoly- made editor himself, and was disappointed on 
tion.* Leigh Hunt was his neichhour, and linding that the other arrangement was to be 
Corlj-le forgave hi? civkney ism and queer 1V>- carried out. It appears from Mill's * Auto- 
hemian mode oflife fur his vivacity and kindli- biogniphy' ip. 199) that Molesworth, who 
ness (see Carltle's* Memoranda ' u]H>n l^-igh im»videil the funds, had stipulated that Mill 
Hunt in Macmiliafi'itMajfnzinrior,]\\\y \t^&2). himself should be the real, if not the asU-n- 
Ir^'ing jmid his hist visit to themalx^ut a sible, editor; and this probably put a stop to 
month before his death u* Dec. ISU). A final any thought of Carlyle. 
explanation had taken place Ivt ween him and Carlyle now set to work upon the ' French 
the Carlyles on their previou-j visit to l»n- Kevolution,' suggested by Mill's correspon- 
don, revealing hi^peless alienation u^nm sre- dence,and for which Mill sent him *lmrrow- 
ligious quest ii>n». Tln» old ]H'rsonal attach- fuls ' of Ixmks. His position was precarious, 
ment survived, and in a touchinir arTVle in and he notes (February 1835) that it is now 
* Fraser's Miigazine' (.lanuarv IKio) Carlyle • some twenty-three months since I have 
says that but for Ir\'ing he would never luive earned one ])enny by the craft of literature.' 
know^n'what the communitm of man with Emers<'>n had invite<l him to take up lecturing 
man meant,' and thought him on the whole in America, and for some time Carlyle occa- 
the best man he had ever found or Iio^hhI to sionally leaneil to this scheme. His brother 
find. IJoth Carl vies wen' nt»w almost com- ,Tohn entreated him to accept a share of his 
pletely separated from Mrs. Montagu, and earnings. Carlyle refused, though in the most 
rather resented a letter written by her to atlectionate terms, and at times reproaching 
Mrs. Carlyle upon Irviiig's death. Younger himselffordenving. John the pleasure. At last 
friends, however, were lx>ginning to gather he had finished his first volume, and lent the 
round Carlyle. Mrs. Carlyh* rei>orts t hat he onlv copy to Mill. On 6 March 1836 Mill came 
is becoming a *tnl«'rably social chiinicter,' and to Lis house with Mrs. Taylor to make the 
losing the Craipenputtock gloom. Charles confession that the manuscript had been acci- 
Buller visit t»d him and took him to radical dentally destroyed. Mill awkwardly staved 
meetings, where the popular wrath gave him for two hours. WTien he lefk, Carlyle's hrst 
a grim satisfaction. Carlyle was a thorjjughX words to his wife were tliat they must try to 
radical in so far as the word im])lies a pro- conceal from Mill the full extent of the injury, 
found dissatisfaction with tlm existing order. Five months' labour was wasted, and it was 
He shan'd, or represented, an extreme form equally serious that the enthusiasm to which 
of the discontent which accumulated during Carlyle always wrought himself up was ffone 
the first quarter of the centiirj- against the and could hardly be recovered. He felt as 
existing institutions. He welcomed the lie- if he had staked and lost his last throw. Mill 
form Bill agitation. as the first movement was anxious to make up at least the pecu- 
towards the destruction of the old order. He . niary loss, and Carlyle ultimately, accepted 



100/. Slowlyaiidwit.hKreotdiffii-HltyCarivlB 
ref^aia^ bla mood (ui<l repoirt'd liie loss. A 
vagae HUfWMtinn of »ome employment in 
naliontl location ciinie to noltiiiig; he de- 
clined the editorship of a Dewspa[>er at Lich' 
fi«ld ; uid declined also, with some indif^o- 
tiott at the ofFansive tone of patronage, an 
offer of a clerkahip of 200/. a year in Basil 
Uontofu'a olBco. He admired Montagu's 
&ith that ' a polar bear, reduced to a state . 
of dyspeptic digestion, might Bafely be t rusted 
tfoding rabbits.' A nsit of four weeks t« 
bia mother at the end of 133S, and a visit I 
from John Carlyk in the summer of 1830, 
relieved his toils. At last, in the evening of 
12 Jan. 1637, he finished his manuscript, and 
gKve it to his wife, stjing that be could tell 
the world, ' You have not had for a hundred 
y«U8 auy book that comes more direct and 
nuningly from the heart of d living man. 

, Do w&t you like with it, you .' 

Six months elapsed before itA publication.' 
A few articles, the ' Diamond Necklace' (re- 
vised bj the ' Foreign Quarterly ' when writ- 
ten at (^igenputtock, and published in ' Fm- 
M-r ' in the spring of 1837), ' Mirabeau,' and 
the ' Parliamentary History of tba French 
Revolution ' (in the ' Weatminsler," January 
ftod April 1 837), su)iplied some funds. Miss 
3Iartineau, whose acquuiulance be bad made 
io November 1830, now suggested that he 
it lecture in England as well asAmerica. 
ffuh some other friends she collected suh- 
'ptions, and he gave a course of six lec~ 
ssatWiUis'sRoomsupon'GermauLitera- i 



May 1837 (a report of these lecti 
published by Professor Dowden 



the 
•Nine'teenth Century' for May 1881). He 
interested his audience and made a net gain of 
136i In May 1838 be repeated the eiperi- 
mect, Riving a course of twelve lectures on 
' Tltt) wbole Spiritual Uistoryof Man from the 
■vtrliest tnuee until now,' and earning nearly 



„.j und in May 1S40, upon 'Hero-wor- 
^' Mcraving again about ^00/. The lust 
Ine alone was published. The lectures 
Mmu)ciieafDl,the bmod accent contributing 
"* e eSvCt of the original style and senti- 
j and the money results were important. 
» felt that uratorical success was un- 

e and the excitement trying, He 

iWTtT iip>)ke SAsin in public, eiu^pt in bis 
Iklinburgh address of 1860. 

The first course bad finally lifte<] Carlyle 
abovewant. The 'French Revolution'gitined 
n dmtided success. The sole wris slow at 
first, but good judges apiroved. Mill reviewed 
him v&tbiisiaiitiotdly in tlii> ' Westminster,' 
]A{AutoinojrrapAy, p. 217) that he 



conlribiited materially to the early 
the book. Carlyle, exhausted by hia work, 
spent two montls at Scolsbrig, resting and 
smoking pipes wil h his mother. He Mw the 

Cnd view of the Cumberland mountains as 
went, and eay^; ' Tartarus itself, and the 
pale kingdoms of Dis, could not have been 
more preternatural to mt — most stem, gloomy, 
sad, grand yet terrible, yet steeped in woe. 
He returned, however, refreshed by the rest 
and his mother's society, to find his position 
materially improved, and to be enabled at 
once to send on substantial proofs of the im- 
provement to his mother. Editors became 
attentive, and Fraser now proposed an edi- 
tionof 'Surtor Itesartns'and of the collected 
' Essavs.' America was also beginning to 
send him supplieB. Emerson secured the 
publication for the author's benefit of the 
' French Revolution ' and the ' Miscellanies,' 
and it seems from the ilifferent statements in 
their correspondence that Carlyle must have 
received about 500/. from this source in 1838- 
, 184i!. The later books were appropriated by 
American publishers without recompense to 
the author. Carlylehadmadesomevaiuable 
friendships during these years, and his grow- 
ing hune opened the houses of many well- 
known pec^e. His relations to Mill rra* 
dually cooled : Mill's friends repelled him ; 
though he still (1837) thought Mill 'infinitely 
too good ' for his associates, he loved him aa 
' a friend frosen in ice for me ' (Fboude, iii. 
108). The radical difference of opinions and 
Mill's own gradual withdrawal from society 
widened the gulf to complete separation. 
John Sterling bad accidentally met Carlyle 
■" Mill's company in February 1835 (appa* 
dat^ 1834 in Carlyle's' Life flfSter- 



'StXL, 




■ently di 



ling, but Carlj-le was tbenat CraigenputtocK). 

°*"-ling had just given uptbe clerical career 

became a disciple of Carlyle, though a 



Sterling had just given uptba clerical career. 
" ' came a disciple of Carlyle, thougl 
itb many dloerences, and gained 



the 



warmest affection of his a 
duction to Sterling's father, with an offer ot 
employment on the ' Times,' bononrablv re- 
jected by Carlyle, followed. The friendship 
IS commemorated in the most delightful of 
Carlyle's writings. Through Sterling, Car- 
lylecametoknowF. D. Maurice. Tbegenuine 
liking shared by all who bad personal inter- 
course with Maurice was tempered by a pro- 
found conviction of the futility of Maurice's 
philosophy. Another friend, Thomas Erskine 
of Iiinlathen, was acquired about this time, 
and was always loved by Carlyle in spilo of 
Mrs. Carlylu's occasional mockery.' He made 
some acquaintance, too, with persona of social 
position. Lord Monteagle sought him out 
in IS-ld. He thus come into connection with 
Mr. James O&rth Marshall, who inl639gttTe 



Carlyle 122 Carlyle 

Ll:r. ^ r.-ir-^ -.r. : -v^i i'.TTiT-i l>-.'i'':l- i- i rrevi: ^4 vfAr. ind liis orher books were sell- 
fr.-r.:l". •>;.-r:r.rL:- --> J. ''f S-» >:'•:':: tr:. :^ -ar-ll, Li IMl hr declino<l a proposul 
Cor.r.p Ti.r."... %r.i M r:Jr:!i Mil'-e*. :: ?T.iri::r& jrifesS'Drshipol'liistoTTat Ediii- 
fe:*-.-.vj.r;T L r: H.^---!. wLz: iz. 1?4'. t-rjii: : mi in 1S44 a similiir oiler from St. 
fcr. i "ir-ra-iri- :.-. -.■-.--'. i* Frvf:-. Ti-^ Ar.i.'>r'!v>. He w&5 no l-.ini:-rin needof sucb 
ir->* .mj' ri:.- rr'.-r. i^Lip -x-l--::! W:1Lj.=. s-zzz'-.r:. In If4if. while still preparing for 
h'.i.j':. in: Jiir.nj. .v^ — '- 17 ; • L ri A*':. 1 Mr : r. • Cr . n:-.vrll.' an i rrva: ly znov«l by the preva- 
'^. v.\ }ir.: 1- -.vl>. Liiv Hirr!-: Kirin.:. 'en: mis^rr ini discontent, he came across 
T:.v7 iti'-iT rr-' -: r.ar- m-* :n IS-'. Ci> :hr cir ni:lr •:: Jocelin 01 Brakelond, pub- 
Ivlr -'.-■:.« -i.-i- '.►•■; niinj V- .-nrn in *..«?:r*v t? IL^nt^i in !•*+.• bv the Camden Society, and 
w... > s.. i^-:.- .;• 'V y.-:n:: in .:.">- r«. IKn- siiir :r.r 5::ry of Abbot SampjK>n the nu- 
ll ■.-.•-•. ^rir- jr-.-iii-ri ini:r'--":r.. -.ni hii >- clr'is i a iisoourse upn his familiar topics. 
.~rr.* ::-•.-:.• ■:' tjT :.-i."*. :.:*.". v snir-.d >.t hi* I: w^ w7:::-n in the lirst seven weeks of 
w::-. rci :r r.im 1 ri*n-:T i^n^-v.- :« r".r*t. If4^i. asi published as 'Past and Present* 



H.s «:• r.v-rria"- n c ill f.— ::::*' :n:pr-:S*:v.-. inisi-r^iiiTrlv aller^'ards. The brilliant pic- 

Th..:.::i t.r wi- * .-• in*' I-.-rin* ■::* c n'rj.ii.> tiire :: .^ rrajment of mediieval life helped 

ti ■:.. H- •:■ ... i :: •• -r.-.v 'iiriL/iily. r rhe r&:hrr c-nfiised mii<< of cKioniy rhetoric. 

l-rir.\.r:T'A -I." yn:-n* ••vi'n r^m ^^. i^n : 'L- and 'hr c»>.>k laade m'-»re srir than most of 

5pi-::> f c.n-.j- ->::'n TVr^: f:l'. -.v-i 'ry rl*< hiiwri: in j*. and has pre>er\'ed a hiph position. 

or pr-.f -un-] i"! .-in ■.•.:.•• 'yij-j.^io n:i■^^r^^ Mv;inw'.:;rh*rwaslab<.niringat 'Cromwell.' 

ihecrncli;^:- n o: tLv*Frrr.i?h Kevo'.iirion' llv l.ad rlrs* Wjun >eriou5 work;Jn the aii- 

whs f.lIow..-d i V ;i prrii-d of rithvr 'ir^-.'.Ton- tumn '.i* 1S40 1 Krofpe, iii. 'J0\ ). He was 

work. Twi ftr.:«?:vs in th-? ' Wrs:n:ius:er* now making acquaintance with * Dryasdust ' 

(>C'-^t and Wmi.it jvn v-n En*- « wrr*.- the for thr rlrs: time. He h.id never been en- 

chi»;l]o»diic*':'f ISi**. InlS3v»i.isc>ll»-c:o.lr5- slavv-i to a bioirraphical dictionary ; and the 

vay« tir-yt app»>ar»-l : an-i in th»- winr^r he l-ejjin dr«ear}- work of invest iiratiniT dull records pro- 

toayitatvl'-r th''fjrn:a*ion ofthv L'"'iidinl-i- vokel loud lamentations and sometimes de- 

brary. now aim «* thf only in*rituT:on where spair. His thouehts lay round him 'all iii- 

anv but the newos* *":oks can )k- freelv Taken articul.tte. sour, fermentinc. Ix'ittomless, like 

out in the me* r-:]** /lis. The n^.-^d of such a a hide..'us en«>rmous 1»l^ of Allen.' He re- 

libran* had b^-ii sf^riTnirly impressed up-^n solved at l;i<t 'to force and tear and dip some 

him by his ]ir»-vioui labours, and it was suo- kind of main ditch throuph it.* In plain 

ces*fuilysritrf-din 1**4<'. Carlyl»-wasits]>ro5i- wonls, it st^-ms, he pave up hopes of writinp 

den* from l**?*.' till his death. J.S. Mill had re- a re^rular histori- : bunit much that he had 

siirii»-'l the <'diTor5liip of the ' Westminster' to written ; and resolved to Wpin by making a 

ayouna ?fcotchman nam»d lInV>ert.«on(Mii.L. collection of all Cromwrll's extant speeches 

Anfohioff. p. lior ). He had previously a>ke<l and letters with explanatory- comments. Hav- 

Carlvl*- to writ'.' up'«n < 'n.>mwell. Robertson inir fini^hetl this, he found to his surprise that 

inf'>niied Carlvle that lie meant to write tlie he had tinish^d his biHik {ib. pp. 'lilX^ 331 1. 

artif.-le himself. Carlyle was naturally an- He stayetl in London durinp 1844 and 184."i 

nov-d : but hi.- attention havinp lH?en drawn till the task was done. The book ap])eare<l 

t«) the subject, he l>'_'an 'some de-jultory stu- in the autumn of lS4o.and w.is received with 

die-, whiMi ultiraati-ly led to the composition peneral applause. Carlyle's position as a 

of his next L^reat IjO'ik. Some occasional writ- leader of literature was now established. His 

inL*^- intrrrvened. He had written what was income was still mode.-si.but sufKcient for hi< 

intended as an article for l^ickhart. It srx)n strictly economical mrnle of life. In 1848 he 

appear<*d, how»'ver, to be unsuitable for the had a lixed income from Craipenputtock of 

* C^uarterlv.' T^ockhart • dared not ' take it. lo(.)/.. In'sides a fluctuating income from his 

Mill would have accepted it for the * West- btwiks. ranpinp fn)m l(M)/. to 8CK)/. (lA. p. 420). 

minster,' which he was now handing over After tinishing the 'French Revolution ' he 

to Mr. Hirk-on (ih. p. JiiO). Mrs. Carlyle visited Scotland almost annually to spend 

and .Jrilm derlan-d that it was too pood for some wwks alone with his mother and family. 

such a fate, and it appeared as a separate In 1S40 his holiday was sacrificed to the pre- 

iKiok, under the name 'Chartism,' at the end paratiou for press of the lectures on *IIen>- 

of 1 ■%'{!♦. It nuiy \)*' taken as Carlyle's expli- worship,* when he took care to send to his 

eit avowal of the principles which distin- mother part of the sums saved from travelling 

^ui-hed him cjjually from wliips, tories, and exp»*nses. In 1JS44 he was kept at home by 

I he npclinarv radicals. A thousand copies 'Cromwell.* He paid a few other visits: to the 

were 8f)id at once, and a second edition a|)- Hares in Sussex in 1840, to Milnes at Fry.*- 

].eared in IKJO. In 1841 he published the ton in 1841, to an admirer namedL Redwood, 

lect ures on ' Hero-worship * delivered in the near Cardiff, whence he viBitedBialiop Thirl- 



Carlyle 121 Carlyle 

-wall in 1843 ; and in 1842 he took a five days' to remove tlio feeling. Each apparently mis- 
run across the Channel with Stephen Spring judged the other. Mrs. Carlyle was weakly 
Itice in an admiralty yacht. Iiis vivid de- and irritable, and a painful misunderstanding 
scription is partly*given in Froude (iii. 269- followed with Carlyle. 
273). Mrs. Carlyle sometimes went with him In Julv 1846 she left him to stay with her 
to Scotland and visited her relations, or stayed friends t)ie Paulets at Seaforth. She con- 
at home to superintend house-cleanings, pe- fided in Mazzini, wlio gave her wise and 
riods during which his absence was clearly honourable advice. Carlvle himself wrote 
desirable. In London his appearances in most tenderly, though without the desired 
society were fitful, and during his absorp- eftect. He saw that her feeling was un- 
tion in his chief works Mrs. Carlyle was left reasonable, but unfortunately inferred that 
to a very solitary life, though she read and it might be disregarded. He therefore per- 
criticised his performances as they were sisteu in keeping up his relations with the 
completed. She gradually formed a circle of ' Barings, while siie took refuse in reticence, 
friends of her own. Miss d-erald ine Jewsbury, and wrote to him in terms which persuaded 
attracted by Carlyle*s fang, mad^ their ac- him too easily that the difficulty was over, 
quaintance in 1841 {ih. p. 208\ and became She visited the Barings with and without 
ilrs. Carlyle's most intimate rriend. Refu- ' her husband, accepted the use of their house 
g^?es, including Mazzini and Cavaignac (bro- < at Addiscombe, and preser\'cd external good 
t her of the general), came to the house, l^ord relation*?, while recording her feelings in a 
Tennyson, much loved by both, and Arthiur most minful journal, published in the ' Me* 
Helps, who got on better with Mrs. Carlyle morials.' This suppressed alienation lasted 
than with her husband, were other friends, till tlie death of Lady Ash hurt on. - 
John Forster, Macready, Dickens, and Thac- The publication of 'Cromwell' had left 
keray are also occasionally mentioned. She Carlyle without occupation, except that the 
was less terrible than her husband to shy . discovery of new letters which had to be 
visitors, though on occasion she could aim embodied in the second edition gave him 
^nally efl\ictive blows. Death was thinning some work in 1846. He had read Preuss's 
the old circle. John Sterling died after a work upon Frederick in 1844, and was think- 
vathetic farewell, 18 Sept. 1844. Mrs. Welsh, ing of an expedition to Berlin after finishing 
Mrs. Carlyle's mother, died suddenly at the ' Cromweir (Froude, iii. 369). In February 
<*nd of February 1842. Mrs. Carlyle, already 1848 he notes thot he has been for above 
in delicate health, was prostrated by the blow, two years comjwsedly lying fallow. He men- 
and lav unable to be' moved at the house of tions schemes for future work. The 'exodus 
her uncle (Jolm Welsh) in Liveri)ool. Car- from Jloundsditch ' meant a discourse upon 
lyle went to Templand, where Mrs. Welsh the liberation of tlie spirit of religion from 
bad livt»d, and had to spend two months there * Hebrew Old Clothes.^ This ho felt to" be 
and at Scotsbrig arranging business. His let- an impossible task : the external shell could 
ters were most tender, though a reference to not as yet be attacked without injury to the 
a ])os8ibility of a new residence at Craigen- spirit, and he therufore remained silent to 
puttock ap|)ears to have shaken his wife's the last. A l)ook upon Ireland, one u|K)n the 
iien-es. On her next birthday (14 July) he * Scavenger Age,' and a life of Sterling also 
s»fnt her a ])re8ent, and never afterwards for- Oi'curred to him. In 1846 he paid a flying 
got to do so. She was deeply touched, and visit to Ireland in the first days of September, 
remarked that in great matters he had always and saw O'Connell in Conciliation Hall. The 
been kind and considerate, and was now be- outbreaks of 1848 aifected him deeply. He 
coming equally attentive on little matters, to symmthised with the destruction of * shams,* 
which liis education and temper had made him but felt that the only alternative was too pro- 
indillerent. She went for a rest to Tniston, bably anarchy. He again visited Irelana in 
a living belonging to Reginald Buller, son of 1849, spending. July therr, and ap^in meeting 
their old friends the Charles BuUers, where Gavan i)ufiy and others. His 'Journal' was 
Mrs. Charles Buller was now staying with published in 18H2 {ilt. iv. 3). He came home 
her son. Charles the younger died in 1848, convinced that he could say nothing to the 
when Carlyle wrote an elegy to his memory, puq)ose uiK)n the chaotic state of things, 
published in the 'Examiner.' Mrs. Buller where he could discover no elements of order. 
read it just before she too died of grief. His general views of the political and social 
In December 1845 the Carlyles visited the state found utterance, however, in an * Occa- 
Barings at Bay House, near Alverstoke. sional Discourse on the Nigger Question,* 
Mrs. Carlyle became jealous of Lady Harriet's ' first published in 'Fraser's Magazine' in 
influence over Carlyle ; and Lady Harriet, February 1849. It was a vehement denun- 
t hough courteous, was not sufficiently cordial ciation of the philanthropic sentimentalism 



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r^uv.-...-:*-. •.-.^ i: .■•-. --sjrriir-: i.'. 1 •."ji- >£' ?''-t «:»=r*. L '.TTniAZ. i-inir^r rta-icivnt in 

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S(t rr..:-: ."• ii :--«,--. >rr _-il i' "^-s >rr^Li7. zi-:ii ■B-irr.r^i cj i.:L?r« and bug's 

•:..r.* *->• :•'. ..-..-.4' "- •" ■'.•: *"■-- .^~. ...^'^n ii: l:: i_rjir — j.:Tr-tl* :.r Li* w.jrk. Tht» 

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"i.'...-: ..v-w.-'^". .-.. - .1..-: --- L-'i^-T'. ._r»r-"ri ." Zj.* I'.r ".LT" IT- 1 >V.. s^liT-T himself to 

..'. »..*:./>: ..• ' -t.'^ .^^t:- — rrri ij l-i rlr- 1_- -v.-i. -1^:1*1 triu'lrs of iiesh paint 

v>r^'.. T;.- *'i.v.^;..r*- .>- -: .-rr.-rTtl ,~^-.-r. iZ.i ■ i-rii.;- :;-s-l4" -ex: d>:»r. while Mr?. 

Mr. Irr.A-. -a.- .t. -'■? 'ii.: *:;.-: : .:ctt i. ir>'.-r tb-^^: :•: jtit •w::h John Carlvle at 

••ry^p^ ':.r: -i.-j : .• -. \.z.j '^ .z.' l- i-i -ct-j- M.fi-. Sir "Wi* i: S.v:*r.rl;j during an 

T*Ar-,. A.-. '. .*..ri' i-rr.-rrt..T :. i.^ -1-r .ii.it.:^ ilir::::^^^ illr.-rS5 : 1> =:::Lrr. and the *vm- 

':'f*i*r. It.-. *r-*:. ri-::^r rrr^::.^ •: ':.•= iJLi:. p;2WT ijllrii :;r:i ':r;u*L: :Lr husband and 

;n >!^.V; '.: •l.-r.r T''."^ •" i::i -rl^ii-rr.-'r. :'-r Tirlr^lii::.: ;l:«ser r»rli:::^for the time. On 

jAff-p:..-:*.- :»•-::-: :i.i ;-•-.-. Cir'.T.r Lai :■;•:• 4 E»e«. Lr -arrirrr -o ij ni^TL-rr a most aflk-c- 

l.tt;*: <«:ip^r>.-'..T ',: v.^u-ilM-ir-rM :•: i-rLv-er *:>ej.:c ".-•-r-rr. i» Ii-r wa* leaving? for the 

•fslllr.;? .'..■.-*• is. "JL-r d*rLii..::v::i.-; vv-r- v.-j Grir^-r. Mrs. Cdrlj".r,'5rho aceiimpaniedhim, 

Irid.-yrr.rs.-r./i*.'^ "t t^. r.^lr..-. ir.! "-r :r.'.v 7^: ^j::^i :o CLrl^rji :•:• ciake an arrangement 

•AtiAfAf.'.on- r«::o.Tr. ^s ii'i*r.**.'-i. "Lr: a.ri; -liui t:r :-rnrjinrr.:lv .ijurl'.'.nj th-? ' demon fowls/ 




lie then heard of 
Scots- 
able 
to rec>^Tiisr him, bu" died quietlv on 25 Dec. 
In l%ol L': at la-.* ■?*,•? :o work upon a life age-i al»u: •rljhtv-four. Carlyfe had loved 
if Srerlin;?. th'.- linal impubje c./min«% a? Mr. no one bert^r. and had done all that a son 
Froiid*; r;Mij»:';*ur»r^ <iv. »Jl 1, from a conversa- couM do to make a mother happy. He re- 
tion at ly^rd -V-JjburtonV in which Carlvle tum-rd to shut himi>rlf up and trv to settle 
and IJiithop Thirlwail had an anirnat»;d thiro- to his work. The wre?tle with * Frederick* 
logical di-s'.-ij'iTion in pr*j-'.'nc*: of Dr. Trench wt-nt on through 1654, with scarcely a holi- 
Ctfi'; d<.an oi W *:^Uii\j\'<*:T », .Sir John rfimepn, day. A • sound-proof room, beeyn in 16o3, 
and oth»:r-. Tarlylo's immediate piiqjose was built at the top of the house and lighted onlv 
to v.rit*: an arrcount of .Sterling to supplant from abovt- tseeFBOUDE, iv. 136, l.)3; Uemi- 
tlie life by J'iliii-s Hare, where the theological fiiscencef, ii. 236), care him a retreat, where 
element had r».-ceiv<rd, as lie thought, undue he remained buried for hours, emergring only 
prominence. He agn;»jd with P^merson in at tea-time for a short talk with his wife, 
the 8umm<:r of HI'i (Fkoude, iii. 419) that whose health became gradually weaker. After 
Sterling niUMt nor !><.• made a Mheological ei^rhreen months* steady labour, hetookaholi- 
c'Krk.ihy.' Carlvle wi.sh»;d to exiiibit him as day with Edward Fitzgerald at Woodbridga 
raiNf.*d alxive tli»- turbid .sphere of contempo- (August 1855), and afterwards spent u little 
rary controversy. The result was a b<)ok so time at the Aushburtons* vacant house at Ad- 
calm, tender, and affectionate as to be in sin- discombe, where Mrs. Carlyle chose to leave 
gulur contract with his recent utterances, him alone. In 1856 the Carlyles went to 
and to \}*t jM'fl laps his most successful piece Scotland with the Ashburtons, when a mise- 
of literary work. - rable little incident about a railway journey 

He was now slowly settling to a life of caused fresh annoyance (Froude, iv. 181, 
r'nrderick. In iHol h«; tried the water-cure 182). Carlyle went to Scotsbrig and the Gill 
lit Malvern, and made friends wit h Dr. Gully, (his sister Mary Austin^s house near Annan), 
hill. conMidered tin: cure to Ih; a humbug. He taking his work with him. A short visit to 
vinited Sf:otHbrig, and, aftfr six^nding a iew the Ashburtons in the highlands, and a dis- 
davM at Paris with the Ashburtons, began pute about the return home, caused fresh bit- 
HiTiouHlv working at ' Frederick.' Six months temess. The winter found him again at his 
of sttiafly reading followed, during which he work, and the days went by monotonously, a 



long ride eviTT atttrnDon on liia hCfse Friti 
beinff his only 'ivUml inn. L«dj ABlil>unon's 
dpnth (4 Muy 185.) removed a cause of dis- 
cnrd,thuugh il deprived him ofasuloce. Lord 
AshlMirton's wcond marringe (1" Nov, IS-jS) 
to Mi»4 Stiinrt Mackenzie brnusht a new and 
ino*l valuable friimdEhip to both the Carlvles. 
In July 1 867 tbu first cfmiiterB of ' Frederick ' 
were M laat getting iuto print. >Lr8. Carljle 
took a holiday at Liverpool, and came back 
rather better. The old confidenca rettimi'd 
with the removal of the cause of irritation. 
Id the ninler, however, her health showed 
serious aymploms, and Carljle mada great 
efforta to restrain his comiilaint^. Mr, Larkin, 
a next-door neighbour, helped him in his work 
with maps,iiidicee,andBoforth. At lost the 
first init«lnient of hia book, on which he bnd 
bmn occupied for six or seven years, was 
finiBhed. At the end of June he went to 
Scotland, and then in August and September 
Tiait«d Germany again, returning to Chelsea 
on 22 Sept. 186S, having fixed in his mind 
^^^ aepeets of Frederick's battle-fields. The 
^^K|t two volumes appared won after his re- 
^^^^^ and four thousand copies were sold be- 
^^^^tbe end of the year. The fifth thousand 
^■m {ointud, and Carlyle had received 2,800/. 
C,-Tlie l»ter volumes of 'Fredtffick' appeared 
in 1862, 1804, and 1865. In 1869 he staved 
at AberdwD with Mm. Carlyle, and iu 18t(0 
hv visited Thurso. After that titne his la- 
bour* at ' Frederick ' allowed him no respite. 
In August. 1862 he speaks of the fifth volume 
fts alreidy in hand; but it swelled into two, 
Ukd the final emergenl^e was not'tillJanuary 
The eitrBordinarv merit s of the boot, 
ired aa a piece of historical research, 
nrccMfnimd both in England and Ger- 
. Mifjlary students in Gtrmaiiy, accord- 
;tb Mr. Fronde (iv. 227), eludy Frederick's 
ties in Carlyle's history, a proof both of 
earefiil atudy and of his wonderful power 
ition. EmersondecIaredthat'Frede- 
Ihe'witliestbook ever written.' The 
hiunourandlhegraphic power are undeniable, ! 
though it is perhaps wanting in proportion, 
and the principles implied are of course dis- 
puUble. ' 

The laf«r period of Carlylu's kbnnrs hiid 
been darkened by anxiety about his wife's 
health. Id 1860 he had insisted- upon the 
■ddition of another servant to the maid of all 
wark with whom she had hitherto been con- 
tcntMl. Ashe became conscious of hei'deli- 
CBOT be becnae thoughtful and generous. 
In I863 he sent her for a holiday to her in- 
tinialc friends. Dr. and Mrs. Russell of Thorn- 
hill. She was a little better during the fol- 
lowing winter, and, tliough weak, contrived 
)avoid<i(catuigCarl]rle'Bunxiety. InAugtist 



i 



18ti3 she was knocked down by a cob. Th» 
accident had serious consequences which gra- 
dually developed themselves, though Carlyle 
for a time imagined that she was improving. 
The suffering grew to be intense, ancl Carlyle 
became awake to tbe danger. In Alarcb 
1864 she was removed to the house of her 
family physician, Dr. Blakiston, at St. Leo- 
nard's. The death of Lord Asbburton on 
23 March 1864 (who left. Carlyle 2,000/.) 
«iiddened both. Carlvle remained for n time 
struggling with 'Frederick ' till her nbeence 
became intolerable, and in the beginning of 
Mhj be settled with her in a fumi^ed house 
at St. Leonard's, still working hard, but 
taking doily drives witli her. At last in 
desperation she determined, after twelve 
nights of sleeplessness, to go at all hniards 
to Scotland. She stayed there fiAit at the 
Gill and allerwards with the Itussella, alowly 
improving, and she finally returned in tbe 
beginning of October. Her apparent re- 
covery aS'ected some of her fi-ieails to tears. 
Carlyle bought her a brougham, having pre- 
viously only been able to persuade her to 
indulge iu an occasional hired carriage. She 
took great delight in it , and for the remainder 
of her life had bo complaints to make of any 
want of attention. Carlyle fell into his usual 
depression after the conclusion of ' Frede- 
rics ' (January 1866). He went with his 
wife to Devonshire for a time and afterwards 
to Scotland, returning in the ninter. Mrs. 
Carl vis was better, occasionally diningabroad. 
At the end of 1 865 Carlyje was elected almost 
unanimously to the rectorship of Edinburgh. 
He delivered the customary address, 2 April 
1866. Professor T^dall had taken charge 
of him during the journey, acting like tha 
'loyallestson.' The address, as Tyndall tele- 
graphed to Mrs. Carlyle, was ' a perfect tri- 
umph.' Tbe mildness of the tone secured 
for it a universal applause, which rather 
puTxled Carlyle and seems to have a little 
scandalised nia disciples. Carlyle went to 
Scotsbrig and was detained by a slight sprain. 
Mrs. Carlvle bad asked some friends to lea 
on Saturday, 21 April. She had gone out 
for a drive with a little dogj she let it 
out for a run, when a carriage knocked it 
down. She sprang out and lifted it into the 
carriage. The driver went on, and presently 
she was found sitting with folded nands in 
the carriage, dead. The news readied Car- 
lyle at Dumfries. Sirs. Carlyle bad pre- 
served two wax candles wliich her mother 

Iter's feelings 
stUAi, She 
had left directions, whitli were now carried 
:, that they should be lighted in the room 



Carlyle 124 Carlyle 

of dentil. She was buried at JIaddin|(ton, latory letter from Prince Bismarck, and a 
in her father's grave. A pathetic epitaph medal, with an address from many admirers 
by her husband was placed in the church led by Professor Masson. The gloom, how- 
(Jrfnnorialjij iii. 341 ). ever, deepened, and he would sometimes ex- 

HenceforvN'ard Carlyle's life was secluded, press a wish that the old fashion of suicide 
and work became impossible. His brother were still permissible. He specially felt the 
John tried staying with him for a time, but death of Erskine of Linlatnen (30 March 

*anada 

E whether 
dinburgh. 

mer. He was moved to incllgnation by the John died in December 1879. Carlyle still 
prosecution of (rovemor Eyre, which he con- took pleasure in the writings and companion- 
sidered ns punishing a man for throwing an ship of a few congenial mends, e8p<M:ially 
extra bucket of water into a shij) on fire. Mr. Uuskin, Mr. f roude, and Mr. Justice 
He joined the Eyre Defence Committee. In Stephen. The last two were his executors, 
the winter he "\nsited Lady Ashburton at His talk was still often brilliant, whether a 
Mentone, travelling again under theaft'ection- declamation of the old fashion or a pouring 
ate gunrdianship of Professor Tyndall, and forth of personal reminiscences. Ilowever 
returning to Cheyue Row in March. During harsh his judgments, he never condescended 





lute proiHTty, to found bursaries at Ediu- figure, much bent with age, was familiar' to 

burgh. He revised his collected works, which many London wayfarers. He gradually 

wore now gaining a wide circulation. He sank, and died on 4 Feb. 1881. A burial at 

put together and annotated Mrs. Carlyle's Westminster Abbey was oflered, but refused 

letters. In 18(IS he had to give up ridmg ; in accordance with his own wish, as he'dis- 

and about 1872 his right hand, which had approved of certain passages in the Anglican 

long shaken, became unable to write, /^even service. He was buried, as he desired, in the 

1^ 1*1 ^1 It ** 1- * 111*1 1 A Y^ li*l VI* 




•ontemporary politics. On 18 Nov. 1870 he portraits of any 

wrote a * Detouoe of the (Temiau Case in the writing, and seems to have been desirous to 

AVar with France/ which was warmly ac- obtain good portraits of himself. According 

knowlodged (by some unknown authority) to Mr. Froude no portrait was really success- 




words his positive knowledge that a plan ness of him *in the days of his strength' 
had been formed by Lord Beaconstield's ^o- (ih. 4oO). His portrait was also painted by 
vernm(»nt which would produce a war with Mr. Watts in 1869, by Mr. (now Sir J. E.) 
Russia. Wliat his authority may have been Millais in 1877, and by Mr. Whistler. A 
remains unknown, nor can it be said how statue by Boehm, belonging to Lord Hosebery, 
far the statement liad any important influ- a replica of which has been erected on the 
etice in averting the danger. Chelsea Embankment near his old house, is 

( 'arlyle during these years had become the a verj- strilckig likeness, 
acknowledged head of Englisli literature. Ever^- page of Carlyle's writings reveals a 
He had a large number of applications of all character of astonishing force and originality* 
kinds. He was generous even to excess in The antagonism rou^d by his vehement^ 
money matters. In February 1874 he re- ' iconr)clasm was quenched by respect during 
ceivei the Prussian Unler of Merit, for his his last years, only to break out afresh upon 
ser\ices as the historian of Frederick. In the appearance of the Mieminiscences.' His 
December 1874 Disraeli oll'ered him, in very style, whether learnt at home or partly ac- 
ilelicate and tlattering terms, the grand quired under the influence of Irving and 
cross of the Bath and a pension. Carlyle Kichter (^see Froube, i. 390), faithfully re- 
declined both offers in a dignified letter, fleets his idiosyncrasy. Though his language 
' ' ' ' * "^ ^^« -1 . , , ^ iften pure and BMObite 

eccentricities ofiended 

dangerous of 

his eightieth birthday he received a con|pitu- ^ models. They are pardonable aa the only 




^ 




fitting embodiment of liie gTa|ihlc power, his | 
■breird insight inin hiiman uatiire, and his | 
peculiar liumniir, which bleuds aympirtliy for | 
the iufR-ring witli siw>ru for foitU. His faults 
of slylp are tlie result of the perpetual ' 
stmiiiiag for (•mphuBiB uf wUicb lie was cou- 
itcioiuii, nnd which must be attributed to an i 
* exoiiMivi' ut'rvousirritnbilitf seeking relief in | 
fttronu; Imi^uage, as well as to a Bupersbiitt- 
dant int'iUecttial Titnlity. Conventionality ^ 
for him the deadly sin. Eveir aentence i 
t he alive to its finder's ends. As a ' 
le mdeee by intuition instead of cal- 
Iii history he tries toseetbeessen- 
A bets stripped of the glosses of pedants i 
Kipolilies to recognise the real forces masked 
fl'MiastitUtioniil mechanism; in philosophy 
3 tiiB Uvini Bpiril uutmmmelled 
« dead letter, ac thus cuBl aside con' 
,, lously what often appeared to ordi- 
f mindt to be of the essence. Though no 
rv hostile to materialism, he ap- 
d (U a sceptic in theology ; and thouib 
revolutionary in his aims than tlie ordi- 
Bsry mdicals, they often confounded his con- 
tempt for bnllot-hoses and parliamentary con^ 
trivances with a sympathy for arbitrary force. 
In truth, the prophet who reveals and the 
beni nlii) acta could be bis only guides. Their 
nutUoritr must be manifested by its own 
tigbl, and the purblind masses must be guided 
by loyally to beaven-sent leaders, ^io me- 
ouanical criterion can be provided, and 
tbn demand for such a criterion shows in- 
capacity even to gnap the problem. The 
common charge that he comcunded right 
with might woe indignantly repudiated by 
bid) Hs the exact inrersioQ of bis real creed. 
That I'TiU succeeds which is based on divine 
lriLl'i..itiil ]ii;rmanent success therefore ((rovaB 
■ ■ ' ■ 1 = the effect proves the cause. 
: lie confessed that the docti 
ii capacity for ' swallowing all 
I Ljf overriding even moral con- 

a confidence of genuine insight 

iaiu i-.-uliiitts. Theroan who can safcly break 

through (ordinary rules must be^|Mded by 

a specUi ingpiration, and by common ob- 

Mnurn th.' Cromwell must often bo con- 

foiiiid-'d with the Napoleon. Wbatvoimay 

hf thoiighi of Carlyle's teaching, tke ntfrits 

of A|rrTvicb«T must be estimati-d rather by 

Li.^^i.'imiilus to thoLicbt than by the soundness 

■!ii-ioiiB. Measured by auch'a lest, 

- iiuapproached in his day. He 

tiiofts of readsTB rather by an- 

'.:lii sympathy; but hiS"lntenBe 

iitions, his raspecl. for realities, 

■ rnttlive gnisp of historical focta 

■ vnlUH to Ilia writingB. Uis auto~ 
,„ .^.. .,.-...1 writings, with all their display 



of superficial infirmities, 
of human nature as to be unatirpassablr' for 
inlert^st even in the most fascinating de- 
partment of literature. \ ' 

The following writings of Curlyle have 
never been collected : — 

Articles in EdtTUmrgh Encycloveedia : Vol. 
xiv.: 'MontaisTie,' 'LadyM. 'W, Montagu,' 
' HonteBquieu, ' Monlfiiucon,' ' Moore, Dr. J.,' 
'Moore, Sir John.' Voi sv.t 'Naekec,' 
' Nelson,' ' Netherlands,' ' Newfoundland,' 
'Norfolk,' 'TforUiiunptonshire,' 'Northum- 
berland,' 'Introduction to Legendre's Qeome- 
try,' Vol. itL: 'Park, Muiigo,' 'Pitt, W., 
Lord Chatham,' and ' Pitt, W.,' 1820-3. 

New Edinlmrgk Sevleui: ' Joanna Baillie's 
Metrical Legends ' (October 1821 ); ' Goethe's 
Faust' (April 18i»2V 

Fnuer't Mai/asine: 'Cnithera and John- 
son ' (Januniy 1881) ; ' Peter Nimmo ' (Feb- 
ruary 1831); ' Prefaces to Emerson's EssavH,' 
1S41 and 1844. 

The following have beea collected in iha 
' Mjscellaniea : '— - 

JEdinhuiyh Itemeia .■ 'J. P. F. Riehter ' 
(June 1827); -State of German Literalnre" 
(October 1827) ; ' Life and "Writings of Wer- 
ner" (January 1828); 'Bums' (December 
1828); 'Sjgna of the Times' (June 1829) j 
'Taylor's Historic Survey of Germiin Poetry 
(March 1831) ; ' (^aracteristios ' tUecember 
1831) i ' Com Law Bb;Fmea ' (Jul^ 1832). 

Foreiffn Jteiiew ; ' Life and Vt ritings of 
Werner ' (January 1828) ; ' Goethe's Helena ' 
(AprU 1838) : ' Goetbt. ' (July 1828) : ' Life 
of Heyne ' (October 1828) ; ' German Pby- 
wrightB ' (January 1 829 ) ; ' Voltaire ' (April 
1829); 'Novalis' (July 1829); *J. P. F. 
Richt«r' again (January 1830). '"''^ 

Fbre^ Quarterly Review : ' Gnnnan Lite- 
rature of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Oen- 
ituries' (October 1831); 'Goethe's Works' 
(August 1832); 'Diderot' (April 1833); 
' Dr. Franoio ' (July 1843). 

Frana's Ma^iaine : ' Richter's Keview of 
Mme. de Stael's Allemt^e ' (February and 
May 1830) ; ' Four Fables, by Pilpay junior,' 
and 'Cui bono ?'(Septemberl830)!>'rhoughrs 
on History' (November 1830); 'The Beetle' 
(February 1831); 'Schiller' (.March 1831); 
'Sower's Sonfr' (April 1831); "Tragedy of 
the Night-moth' (August 1831); 'Schiller, 
Goethe, and Mme. de StaisI (trans,) and 
GoetJie'*Portrait'{ March 1832); 'Biography' 
(April 1832); 'Boswell'a Life of Johnson' 
(May 1832) ; ' The Tale from Goethe ' (Octo- 
ber 18S2); 'Novolle'(Novemberl932);'QuiD 



igitavit,' on histo^ again (May 1833); 
(.'ount Cagliostro ' f July and August 1883); 
' Death of Edward Irving' (PFehruwy 1835); 



' Diamond Necklace ' (r January, £ehruaij. 



Carlyle 126 Carlyle 

and March 1^*37 ); * On the Sinking of the Ven- * Fraser s Ma^razine : ' the iirst separate edition 

ffeur ' (July 1839 ) ; ' An F! lection to the Long appeared at Baston in 18^)5, the first English 

Parliament' (October 1844); * Thirty-five edition in 1838. 0. 'French Revolution/ 

L'npubliflhed Letters of Cromwell ' ( Dec^-m- 3 vols. 1837: 2nd edition, 1839. 7. •Chartism,* 




John Knox' (April 1875). The last two Pamphlets :M )*The Present Time' (1 Feb.); 

together and SHpamtely. ( '2) * Model Prisons ' (1 March) : (3) • Down- 

H'esf minster Jteciew : * Nibclungcn Lied ' ing Street ' (15 April ): (4) * The New l)own- 

(Jiily 1831). ing Street' (1 Mav): (6) 'Stump Orator' 

New .yfonth/t/^faf^azine:^ Death of Goethe' <1 Mav): (0) ' I^arliaments ' (1 June); 

(June 1832). ^7) ' HudsonV Statue' (1 July): (8) *Je- 

Ijondon and Wfi^tfmn^ter jR«?if>?r.* 'Mirn- suiti!*m'(l Aug.), 1850. 12. * Life of Sti'r- 

beau* (January 1^37); * Parliamentary Hi*- ling,' 1851. 13. 'Friedrich II' (vols. i. and 

tory of the French I devolution '(April 1837): ii. 1858, vol. iii. 1862, vol. iv. 1864, vols. 

*Sir Walter Scott' (January 1838) : ' Vam- v. and vi. 1865). 14. 'Inaugural Addrvss 

hajivn von Ense ' ClJecember 18.'i8): 'Baillie at Edinburgh,' 1806. 15. ' Keminiscences of 

the Covenanter ' (January 1842) ; ' The Prin- my Irish Journey in 1849 ' (with preface by 

zenraub' (January 1855 j. Mr. Froude), 1882. 16. 'Last Words of 

Rcaminer : 'Petition on Copvright Bill' Thomas Carlyle' (with preface by Jfane] 

(7 April 1839). ' C>rlyle; Altken]), 1882. The first coUec- 

Leigh Hunfs Journal : 'Two Hundred and tive edition (in 16 vols.) appeared in 1857-8. 

Fifty Years Ago, a Fragment about DupIs ' (For letters in newspapers and elsewhere see 

(Nos. 1, 3, 0, \^r:iO) ',' Keepsake for \^'l ' Bibliography of Thomas Carlyle ' by H. R. 

(Barry Cornwall's); 'The Opera;' Pn>- Shepherd.) 

feedings of S^yriety of Scotch ^l^^'J?™, ! ^^he main authorities for Carlyle-.s life are 

/i' "'V T.^^^""^ ^^^.^f!'^°*^ Exhibition h5g^ Keminiscences. published by Mr. Fronde in 

of h)Cotch Portnut^3 (18.>4).^^ ^^ 1881. Xhomas Carlyle. a history of the first 

vols. 1882 ; and Thomiis 
s life in London, 2 vols. 
Fronde (cited above as 
) ; Letters and Memorial 

(18:^9), printed in America, included all of Jane Welsh Carlyle, • prepared for publicait ion 

the above up to the date : those published by Thomas Carlyle, and edited by J. A. Froude,' 

later were added in subsequent editions, in 3 vols. 1883 ; see also Correspondence of Thomas 

a 2nd edition (5 vol-*.), 1840; 3rd edition, Carlyle and K. W. Emerson, 2 vols. 1883. edite^l 

1847; 4th edition, 1857. They are included ^7 Charles Eliot Norton, who has also (1886) 

in the ' Miscellanies ' in collected editions of .|^;^ pnblished a collection of Oirlyle's early 

1 letters. Carlyle s Reminiscences and the Mu- 

WOTKS. 1 _ «« r^ii«^« .1 < T :a> «f morials of Mrs. Carlyle were entrusted to Mr. 

Seimrate works are as foll^^^ 1. 'Life of p^oude for publication under cinmmstances d^ 

Schiller,' first, published m l^ndon Maga- ^^be.! in the prefaces to these works, and in 

zine for October 1 823, January, J uly, A ugust, ^he Life in London, ii. 408-1 5, 464-7. Mr. Fronde 

and September 1824 ; issued separately m defends himself against the charge of improper 

1825; second edition, 1845. 2. 'Wilhelm publication in the Life in London, i. 1-7. Car- 

Meister's Apprenticeship ' (3 vols. 1824). lyle first gave him the mamiscripts in 1871. and 

3. 'Legendres Elements of Geometry and the will of 1873 left the decision as to publicn- 

Trigonomctry * ( translated with introductory ; tion with him ; John Carlyle and John Forster, 

chapter on " " . ^ .«>. *.^ - -- .- ^ , , 




4. ' German 



doctrine of proportion), 1824. who were to be consulted, died before Carlyle. 

Komance,' 1827 (vol. i. ' Musa^is Shortly before Carlyle's death, in the autnmn of 

and La Motte Fouqu6 : ' vol. ii. ' Treck and 1880, Mr. Froude again had a consnltaUon with 

Hoffman;' vol. iii. 'J. V. F. Kichter ;' Carlyle, who had * almost forgot^ what he had 

yil iv. 'Wilhelm Meister,' including the!^"^^'^' but on having it wcaUed t» his ^^^^ 

' IVayds • now first published. The prefaces ^^^^ ?P~™ of the publication. Mr F^ade 
Araveis, "u« *" ^ i r decided to carry out the publication, chiefly on 

included ™i'i^.3^'''crflaneou8 Essays | the ground that thi.w.MOilyW.perri«ent^h 



are 

6. ' Sartor Resartus,' first published in 

'Eraser's Magazine' (bk. i. November and 

December 1833; bk. ii. February; March, 

April, June, 1834 ; bk. iii. July and August, 



and ' supremely honourable ' to him. It wa»an 
act of posthumous penance, and it was desirable 
that ' a frank and noble confession ' should give 
the whole truth as to Mrs. Carlylp's grievances. 



1834). Some copies were made up from ndiich would ' infallibly come to light ' in some 



Carlyon 



EWichwit diecnsBing the point, it is neces- 
«ay thot C«rljU. when wiiting, did not 
(jitUpiibticationwitlioiit cnreful revtsioD. 
At i^e end of the originnl mannficript he says, in 
a pnieage omilted bj Mr. Fioade. preBamabt; 
beCBUBe mpetwded in hia new by the Uler iii- 
■ImptioDB. 'I jolemnly forbid' my friendB to 
pnLlirii'tbiB bit of witting OS it Btands hece.nnd 
■mia liam lh»t -wilhoat fit ediling no pact of it 
dionld bapTinl«d (sot ki fHrHsIcan order sbsU 
«ver bo), nnd thnl. the " fit oditing " of perhaps , 
nine'teolhs of it will, nfter I am Rone. hare be- 
fomt inpoasible' (Morton, Nev Prianton He- , 
view for July ISSSJ. The fnllowing aro notiiwa 
by personal friendB : Hanry James, Literary 
Bemninh soma Pcraooal RotoUeciionB of Carlyle 
(fmn AtUntJaHantbly for May 1881); Masion, 
David. Ctolyle perBonallv and in hia writings, 
Land, lltflfi (Lectai«s before Phil. Institute of 
Ediolnugh] ; Sin. OHphnnl, MiimiillaD's Ha- 
gana« for April 1881- H. LaiMn in British 
^rterly for July 1881, 28-84; Rio, A. F., 
KpilOKWi i t'/lrt Qiritien (1870), ii. 332-10; 
8ir I&iirv Taylor, Autobioeraphy, i. 32d-32 ; 
Mill'* Antobii^phy (1873), 174-8 ; G.S.Van. 
kUn, in Fortnighlly Rariaw fur May 1888 and 
Nvreniber 1884 ; Wyllio's Tlionias Carljle, tha 
ISta and hit Boalia. 1831 : Conway's Thoman 
CariyU, 1881; Larldn'B The Open Secret of 
Cariyle'a Ufa. 1888. A list of man; articles 
Kferring to Caflyla is girra by Mr. Ireland 
in !JoteB and Queries. 6thaer.ir. HS. 201. 226.] 
L. S. 

CAitLTON, CLEMENT (1777-1804), 
liciui, was bom at Trtiro 14 April 1777, 
edncnted at the gmmmar school, where 
■ and Henrr Martyn were among his 
dfetlows. tlaving taken his degree at 
'Pembroke OolleKei Cambridge, be wn^ ap- 
pointed a travelling bachelor on the Worts 
faundation, and, proceeding to Oennan^r, 
£rtnaed the acquaintance with Coleridge fur 
■which, apart fi^m his merely local celebrity, 
lie is now principaHy Temembered. After 
cotnnleling his medical studies at Edinburgh 
and London, be settled in bia native town, 
where he spent a long life of active henefi- 
cencp. He waa five times mayor of Traro, 
and vnm chiefly icatmraontal in the eraction 
»( the handsome meraoriaJ to Richard Lan- 
der, which is so peat an ornament to the 
town. Tlie Butr>bio(fraphy, published under 
lh« title of • Early Yeara and Late Reflec- 
tiniu,' in i vols., h?twoen 1636 and 1858, is 
in porta exceclinglv tedious, but is valuable 
for the uiimerona Interesting particulars of 
Colcridfie, Davy, and other men of eminence 
known to thn writer. His ' Observations on 
the Rrdemic Tjrpbua Fever of Cornwall' 
(l^'27)are usteumed,aad effected much good 
in a lanitaiy point of vipw. He edited Coi^ 
naro uid Btirnurd Qilpin, tnd wrote several 



Carmelianus 



I died on ^H 



^ oia: 

^hmic 



[Cnrlyon's Early Years and Late Reflections; 
Gent. Mng. June 1864, pp. 797-8: Boiiae and 
Conrtney's Bibliothecn Cornabiensis.] R. 6. 

CARMELIANUS, PETER (d. 1527), 

Kct, was a native of Breccia, who must have 
im bom about the middle of the fifteenth 
century. He appears to have eomo to Eng- 
land in the days of Edward IV, and to have 
been habitually resident in this country from 
that time till his death. The earliest pro- 
duction of his pen that we have met with is a 
Soem on the life of St. Mary of Egypt written 
uring the reign of Richard III (Xat«^ MS, 
501 ; CoiE, Calal<u/ue), with an epistle dedi- 
catory to Sir Robert Brackenbnry, the con- 
stable of the Tower. In this dedicatory epistle 
Richard is praised as a model king, a pattern 
of religion, justice, and sagacity. But little 
more than a year after his death CarmelianuB 
gives us a very different characler of him in 
a poem written to celebrate the birth of 
Henry VII's son. Prince Arthur, in 1486, in 
which he charges the t^nt with the mur- 
der of Henry VI and his own nephevrs, and 
denounces him as a ferocious monater, prompt 
to commit every crime. The composition of 
two such works within the space of not more 
than three years ot theulmost reflectsalight 
upontheautiior'scharacterwhich makes com- 
ment qtiite unnecessary. From the first he 
shows himself to be a court poet and nothing 



him by the king on 27 Sept. llSfi, which 
pension, the words of the grant state, ' he 
that shall be next promoted to the bishopric 
of "Worcester is bound to yield to a clerk of 
ours at our nomination.' On 8 April 1488, 
in like manner, Heiuy Vlt granted hjm 
another pension which the elect abbot of 
Hyde was bound to pay to a clerk of the 
king's nomination. On the 2^rd of the same 
month ho obtained a patent of denization. 
He had also given bim by the king on 
15 Feb. just before a corrody in the priory of 
Christ«hurch, A year or two later he wrote, 
in ihe opinion of hisfellow-poetaoter Bernard 
Andrf, a most witty poem in answer to Ga- 
guin, the French historian and ambassador, 
who bad revenged himself in satirical verse 
for the failure of his embnssy lo England. 
He became Henry VITs Latin secretary, nnd 
one of his chaplains. In this latter capacity 
he attended the king to bis meeting with 
the Archduke Philip at Calais in 160O. In 
tbo former he was the keeper of the king's 



Carmelianus 128 Carmichael 



correspondence with Rome, a circumstance , in the provostship of Beverley in the East 
to which Sherboume, bishop of Chichester, | Riding. He also nad the prebend of Ample- 
called attention two years after his death, | forth m York given him as early as 1498, 
when Henry VIII was pushing inquiries and appears to have held it till his death, 
touching the validity of the dispensation for 1 Being thus largely beneficed, in 1522 he 
his marriage with Catherine of Arragon was^ assessed, for the loan for a new war 



(Calendar, Henry VIII, iv. 2406). But we 
ao not find that he held this office after the 
accession of Henry VIII, who, however, re- 
cognising his merits in a different capacity, 



in France, at no less a sum than 333/. 6«. 
We also find that in 1524 (and perhaps for 
several years before) he was a prebendary 
_ of St. Stephen's, Westminster, and that in 

made him his lute-player, and gave lum an ' that year he sold to Roger Pynchestre, citi- 
annuity of 40/. (ib, i. 427, ii. 308). i zen and grocer of London, certain lands 

It must have been about a year before ' called Hartcombe, in the parishes of Kings- 
Henry VIFs death that he wrote a couple of ton-upon-Thames and Ditton in Surrey, 
poems to celebrate the espousal (sponsalia) which he had bought of Stephen Coope two 
of Charles, prince of Castile (afterwards the years before. On 13 Oct. 1526 he obtained 
Emperor CharlesV), with the king's daughter a license to import 200 tuns of Gascon wine 
Mary. The marriage, though it never took and Toulouse woad. In January 1527 he re- 
effect, was arranged by treaty in 1607, and ! ceived a new-year's gift from the king ; but 
ambassadors came from the Emperor Maxi- ; he seems to have died towards the close of 
milian in 1508 to conclude the marriage con- ', that year, as his successor in the York pre- 
tract. An official account of their reception, ^ bend was collated on 13 Jan. 1528. In ad- 
and of the betrothal, was printed by Pynson , dition to the poems referred to in the course 
in two separate forms, Latin and English, of this notice we find an epigram written by 
each without date of year ; and the two Carmelianus on Dominic Mancini's poem 
poems of Carmelianus appeared as preface (written in 1516), ' De Quatuor Virtutibus,' 
and conclusion to the Latin version. The which Alexander Barclay translated into 
treatise itself, of which a uni^e copy in vel- English under the title of ' The Mirrour of 
lum exista in the Qrenvillo Library, is de- ) Good Maners.' Our author's epigram will be 
scribed in the catalogue as if it consisted ! found at the end of Barclay's work, which 
simply of a poem of Carmelianus ; but pro- was published along with his 'Ship of Fools' 
bably tlie titie-page is wanting. The text of in 1570. 

the narrative contained in it is precisely the | [Memorials of Honry VH ; Letters and Papers 
same as thatof the English version, of which . of the reigns of Richard III and Henry VII; 
a unique copy also exists in the British Mu- Carapbell's Memorials of Henry VII (all Uireo of 
seum, described by Sir Henry Ellis in the Rolls Ser.); Calendar of Henry VIII, vols, i-iv.; 
' Archceologia,' xviii. 33. Le Neve's Fasti (Hardy).] J. G. 

(a;;i%";KarSS7 a^^^^ 17?ifK^^ FREDERICK (170^ 

o|plimen^.paid hun by Carmeliaiu« wL l^S' C^c£^i m^^^SXl^ 

liad called mm 'doctorum doctissimus (Cz- . v :_ ttaq "'^'"o"" .^"""o"""* 

lendar,Hen.VIII,ii.im). Unfortunately, ^^ l»™ « 1708. He took his M.A. de- 
however, he could not 
ment ; and when Carmeli 

lished another poem on the death of the King "'^W^"^" "" '^"^ 4«»i" "' •^,i""" 

of Scots at Flo^en, Eiasmus and his corr^ JL ^- 7" »« <«"« «>e88fiil candidate for 

spondent Ammoniils, Henry VHTs Latin ^^^^'^/.uTm. ^^'^''^'^w "^ T* I" 

8^retary,could not help malSngmerry over a T^ X.\l^^^7<i^T^^ J^ • *^ 

false qukitity which the unlucSy autW had ^^"IJ^ of ScoUandon 27 Sept 1?83, ordamed 

^ 1 ^ . ' ^ •i./'jL-' tyrui at Monimail m March 1737, translated to 

yei7 nearly put into print (tb u 306 ; com- j^^^^^ j„ December 1747, aAd died ITOct 

pare preface, p. xvn, footnote) In that year ^^^^ ^ ^ author'of a ' Sermon^n 

Cai^ehanus as the W « tutor, went oyer Christian Zeal,' 1753, and' Sermons onseveS 

in the ' middle ward of the army with which T„^^._t o„i!j„^„ n ^r., „• 71 u ""ff'""" 

Henry Vni invaded Franco. Meanwhile, ^^Mitant Subjects, 1753, said to be of 'great 

he had been made archdeacon of (jloucester rrr ' « i t^ . -r^ , 

in 1511, and a few years later, probably on wl^Sf^^^^^F?^' ^^^- ^^ '* ??'i- ^^ ' 

the deprivation of Cardinal Adrian de Cas- ^*^'^« ^'^^' ^"^'^ T. F. H. 

telle [q. v.] in 1517, he was appointed pre- CARMICHAEL, Snt JAMES, Lobd 

bendary of Ealdland in St. Paul^. This stall Cabmichael (1578 P-1672), was the tiiild son 

he resijg^ed in 1 526, the year before his death, of Walter Carmichael of Hvndford, by Orizel, 

at which time we find that he held livings daughter of Sir John Canmohael of Mndow- 




Carmichael 



Carmichael 



flat. He was originally deei^altMi nt Hyiid- 
ford.but ouTiurchasinB; the lands of Westeraw 
took bin title from tnem, until, on BUcceed- 
ing iut oxMii), Sir John CanniehiLel of Carmi- 
chttel fq-v,], he adopted the deaignstion of the 
oldef bmnch of the family. Having in early 
life been introduced by the Earl of Dunbar 
At the court of Jamas v I, he waa appointed a 
cupboorer, afterwards carver, and tlien cham- 
berlain of the principality. He was created a 
baronet of Nova Scotia on 17 July 1627, and 
Ike following; year he aubecribed the eubmis- 
uon toCharfesI. Ue was appointed sheriff- 
prindpal of Lanarkshire on 6 Sept. 163S, 
and in 1634 lord jiiatice clerk, which office 
be rewgned in 1 (>38, on being made treasurer- 
depute. He was admitted! an ordinary lord 
of aaesion on 6 Manih 1639. His presence 
as treasurer-depute at the prorogation of 
parliament, by warrant of the king's com- 
missioners, led to the presentation of a re- 
monstrance against the some as illegal. On 
13 Nov. he was naraed one of the commis- 
siotiers for executing the office of lord high 
tre^urer, and was at the same time appointed 
treuurer-depute, privy councillor, and lord 
of seesion, to be held ad ntam aut aitpam. 
For hi£ servicee to Charles I during the civil 
war, eepedally in lending him various sums 
of money, he received a piitent on 27 Dec. 
1647 raising him t^ the peerage by the title 
of Lord Carmichael ; but the patent wad not 
made public until S Jan. 16GI, when it was 
rntifiea by Charles H. For his adharenco to 
the engagement, he made a humble submis- 
aion im 2S Dec. before the presbytery of 
Lanark, but was nevertheless deprived of hia 
ofiictss by the Act of Classes on 18 March 
1649. That of treasurer-depute was, how- 
aver, bestowed on his second son. Sir Daniel 
Carmichael. By Cromwell's act, in 1664, a 
fine was imposed on him of 2,000/, In 
Douglas's 'Peemge' it is stated erroneously 
that after the accession of Charles 11 he was 
ewom a privy councillor, and reappointed 
lord justice clerk, that office having been be- 
stowed on Sir John Campbell of Lundy 
[q. v.) Carmichael died on 29 Nov. 1672, 
in his ninety-fourth year. By his wife 
Agnes, sixth daughter of John Wilkie of 
Foulden, be had three sons and four daugh- 
ters. Hiseldest son. Sir William, after serv- 
ing as one of the gens d'armes of Louis Xftt, 
joined the committee of estates in Scotland, 
and commanded the Clydesdale regiment 

yinst the Marquis of Montrose at the battle 
PbOiphRUgh in 1646. He died before his 
father in 1657, leaving a son, John {a. v.], 
who became second Lord Carmichael and first 
Karlof Uyndfbrd. The first Lord Carmichael 
4wd two other iions and four daughturs. 



[Acts of Piiriiaraent of Scotlnnd. vol. v. pas- 
sim ; H^gandBmnlon'a Senators of the Col lege 
of JustiPB, 2BS-9 ; Douglas's Scotlisb Peeruge, li. 
754-6 ; Irving's Upper Wnrd of liinarkshiTB, 
ii. 17-21.] T. F. H. 

OABMICHAEL, JAMES {JL 1587), 
grammarian, was a Scotchman who published 
a Latin grammar at Cambridge in September 
1587. He dedicated it to James VI— 'Sco- 
torum regi christiunissimo gratiam et pocem 
S Domino.' Carmichael'* work, ' Gnimmatice 
Latine de Etymologia,' &c., was from the 
press of the university printer, Thomas 
Tliomas, M.A., a lexicographer himself, and 
Its full title is given hy Ames; it eonsistsof 
b'2 pp, , and has some commendatory poems 
prenxed, There is a copy of it in the Bodleian. 

[Cooper's Athence Cantab, ii. 23; Ames's 
ToiMgr. Anliq. (Herbert), iu. 14U, 1418.] 

J. H. 

CARMICHAEL, JAMES WILSON 
(1800-1868), marine painter, was bom at 
Newcaalie-upon-Tyne in 1800. At about the 
age of ten or eleven lie went to sea. He re- 
turned, and was apprenticed to a shipbuilder, 
who employed him in drawing and design- 
ing. His early works are in water colours, 
but about 1826 be began also to paint in 
oils. Between 1838 and 1862 lie was a fre- 
quent exhibitor at the Uoyal Academy, at 
the British Institute, and at the Suffolk 
Street Gallery. He made hia first public 
appearance in the formeryearwith a picture 
of ' Shipping in the Bay of Naples,' contri- 
buted to the exhibition of the Society of 
British Artists. In 1841 he sent to the 
Academy a drawing of the ' Conqueror tow- 
ing the Africa off the Shoals of Trafalgar,' 
and in 1843 two drawings, 'The Royal Yacht 
with the Queen on board off Edinburgh,' 
and the 'Arrival of the Royal Squadron.' 
In the Water-Colour Collection at South 
Kensington there is one example of this 
painter, ' The Houses of Parliament in course 
of Erection.' About 1845, according to Red- 
grare, he left Newcastle for London. Pro- 
bably about 1862 (at which date be ceased to 
eihibit in London) he went to Scarborough, 
and there died on 3 May 1666. In the north 
of England his work was highly thought of. 
There ts a large painting bvhim in the 'Irinity 
House, Newcastle, 'T^e'Heroic Exploit of 
Admiral ColLngwood at the Battle of Tra- 
falgar.' He appears as an author, having 
published ' The Art of Marine Painting in 
Water Colours,' 1869. and ' The Art of Ma- 
rine Painting in Oil Colours,' 1804. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of ArtisU ; Graves's Diet. 
of Artists; Cat. EugL CoU. South KeDsiagtOQ 
UuMom.] 






I 



l^^^fCiL 



• 



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-t" 1. ■•rt.- ".i •.'.- • •: : -.. • .: ^----ii T-ii'.^- ■- M- r-'iJ-T.. l-^th-:-* 3 " til:-"!': i: Ktn- 

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V •. '.f- .-■▼ ■' "•■•■■...:.■ .'f — ■: v'^n "-ir Z.j_- I. TL^^rjLi.irL ^.- r-'"i_:T»^£ rl* ric^ol 

v*.'' '. ' .'-''. '■ '•■ *- ■- .":••■ ".. v -- •'• '—••iz»^', i— r^-*"!::^ r rrL"- oc "'.■. "^^ I'MZL-rillir 'iinder 

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r'^' t *■ .-— V I -:.' •- ..*".:-; r--- i — t__ir-i _i ti! i.-r^ iir * i- ~r-L — c' t:_ i^^ lii c-:riiallv 

1 >!. ".• -.»- -../ '.. '*.i ••—.:-: .: ■ 1- n. : : _-. ■.-.:- •■i-.'ZKir -t-i -zi- u:" r'-T itLrr^.Tj: .* ir:.:- r3ect. 

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A ...'.■■ .V' ', i.— : ■. M- V •.- i--.'-.:-'i ':l;.- j.-i-r.i.- iTi-n-ZL- ti'I. "—vo: Lt'uri'i'er of the 

*A ■-i-'-..--T- ■.' ■ '..T ■ ■ -.- ■- -i'-' 1 . ■"— -.:_-■: l^ri "fuLiiir"" !■- "ij.i 3*r t-t- fi^r'ns and 

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Vi * • .-■.■'--- V -*■■ ••••■■■■—. '1 - "S" l> ' ^Lr- 

'/ *•■> t "-.»»_".>.': -' — -.- - r--_.ii.-i -■ z.-r- r A ?. VT -" ^ X TT. r ■ ITN. :i:ri Earl OP 

y-.' *'-. ••.•: ".\'^.ii''. •.►--■»■—• ."l.--!-- '"1 Lzi Htttj i:: I'll-l*:". L-rlmi"!?:. wn ot 

'>.-'--.'.>'' ^.•. -^ .?■-' -v.i.v-/. r.-. 1'<1:* J"L=.r"=. -^r.ci ^trl Lzi TLaJt Elizabeth 

"*•.-. -^'r-r*. *-*.•.'-: '. •. »-'. .-.-.:•.""»•■ :.:.:•.-': M.l*1l.- L .-^j iLi^*:rr :: J Lr.. nfth earl 

</.<.'. ;.. /.••'••..■'••. i. •-•.I" -.-•-'-> -i"-*- : L.Li£rrLLlr. ttl? :*:tz it Eiinburgh on 

*>."*■' •". i* '/li ' ■• •'■• ■■'" — 1 * '.- -'^Ln-H- ' " \r •■"'"- " - - • TTi _--,i-«iui "Vt» *Hird KV 

?>.v .-.■,-..'.v..\.''. r-':- iT...'..- .*. ..-. Iv>r. :.r — i- .\ii-Lz. Iz IT-V'. Kr 5-i>:'=^i-rd to his 

f.':'*-,."-^: ••. V'.-r '.::.'.^. V,':. ^: 1^ :.:.; -z-ij :. ii-l^r'i -.:Ir izi eri-iT-r- ':: 10 Au^. 1737, 

I yy:.rr.^^' A- r.. ^ '.':.'.: >^ ''':.r-l''T.'r ^:.r :- 7 '':.-. i-i ■=■»• .L'^z a rvpT-sju-iiTA'.ive peer on 

p .;, :..'.'.-:.'.•. '.f '..*r .'.'.-:- ':. .71 ;.'.:->■: n -i-: 14 Mini l^rs. s-i Iri-n in 1741. 1747, 

>/,.-:• .-'. .'.-■ ■'.%.- >,*r^j:.r:-/l '.'J J .:.-. >>'»V -v ir'-4. i- : ITrl. H^ wi* apT-r-ntrd one i^f 

91. fy/i: ',? '..•.'• A.T.V'T.r.i'- ir. i -'. * i-A ^itii :l.^ Iri? :: "■:l:.>r :r. Mir/:i 17-^^. ami con- 

h }.■'.". .\ i'.r ':.'.' rr. :H:r T;. .T-i^ .\TTn- 4::* i":r»i -i.-rr™-TrJ::c:pi! imi lord-lieutenant 

^•f',.'.;'. r.' :/•' v '/ Kirv. r.- Wlllir Vr Asx- :: Linirk -;> Ajrll 17:5l?. In 1739 and 1740 

i57if'i-.'/. ^^';Lf.fA^. y?. 1 •'/*;]. "Wi- rXr-?-*.-:'I Le iCT-i i* liri hirh Ci^mmissioner to the 

in *;.': fo!. '/■/.>:;' N^vrrri^/r. ftr.I Al-.-i'ir:i-r ^'-^r-rrsl a.si^=:bl_r -s' :he kirk of Scotland. 

Ar;r.-*.'"..'jy of i?/»v.?ir.h»jrT:*: in pT^riin- U»J. Whrn Frvirrlok II invadrd Silesia in 1741, 

lKt:",r\\uyi t/, '<\t Wjil'f-r :v:o**. triditi-.n the Earl >f II \T:dfor»i wa* sent to George 11 

wWxnu*. th" •//<•!! -known hfillst']. * A rnL^t rone's a.* f-nvoy extra-^rdinarr and plenipotent iarr, 

O'ivl N!/ht/ fo h»iv«T ^.■'•n ryjr.'-.por^rd by to mediate be:we^*n th-? king and Maria 

'ni'irn.'i-. Ann-*r>n:.f j>r':vioiii to his execu- There«a. Carlyle. in his 'Life of Frederick,' 

i-iofi. thus d'-lineatt'S his characteristics : * We can 

\i\rA'*.i',T'W SVorfi'-h JV'raL'e; Douffjas's discern a certain rough tenacity and horae- 

\*t^i,\y\A\ IVM-Jii."-, ii. Vyi\ ActH of the P;irlia- dealer finesse in thf* man; a broad-based, 

riiMit of J-'otJand, voIh, iii, ir. arid v.; Irvings shrewdly practical Scotch gentleman, wide 

\.\,\,t:T Wfir'l of J^iriHrk.Hhir*:, i. I:j-1G.] awake: and can conjecture that the diplo- 

T. F. H. matic function in that element might have 

CAKMrOJfAKL, JOHN, «'cond Lord been in worse hands. He is often laid meta- 

rAitMir:irAr;i. \\\A fir-t Kakl ok Hvxdford phorically nt the king's feet, king of Eng- 

rW;;iH iriOj, non of Willium, mfistt-rof Car- land's; and haunts personally the king of 

mirh»i«.|, find liwiy driz'l Dou^rlns, third Prussia's elbow at all times, watching e ver>- 

danprhii-rof Ihi' firj-i Tn»in|ui-» of I >ouglas, was glance of him like a British house-dog, that 

Ixirn on *JH I'Vb. \\u\H. ]I«; sucrcft'd^'d his will not be taken in with suspicious tra- 

Knmdfiilhirr hm Lfird ^'»rniiclini!l in 1072. In vellers if he can help it; and castixu^ per- 

IMH^J 1m' wft.H fiiiiM)int«^d by William on«» of petual horoscopes in his dull mind.[ It was 

Mil- rorniniMHioniiFH of thf» privy seal and a m a great deffxee owing to the patience and 

])rivy councillor. Tho following year he was , persistence of Hyndfom that the treaty of 




armichael 



131 



Carmichael 



was finally signed on 11 Jar 
mcluaion, IT^dfori] w 



1742. 



„ t of the Thistle, and was invested 

|j tliB insignia of tfint order at Charlot- 

1 29 Aug. 174a, by the king of 

[ virtue of a cooonigsion ftom 

■e H. From Frederick he also received 



Che proof of Lis eldust brother's title to this 
earldom; but tlie loss or destruetion of soma 
indispensable family records rendered hia 
eftbrts futile. 

After a two jenrs' apprenticeBhip to Peile, 

a well-Vnown Jhiblln eurpeon, and study at 

the Irish College of Surgeons, Carmjchnel 

Bf limner Service, and was ' passed the requiaile esaminalion. and wnit 

of the royal PruRsian arms, Inppointed assist ant-*ttrfteon (and 

now enrich the ellieM of the Car- ■ the We^tford militin in 1795, when 1 



asini) to 
only siK- 



tn 1744 Hyndford was sent on a | teen. This position he held, ewning 1, 

'•"" '" Russia, when bis ekilfiil sidernble notice by his early ^11 and atten- 



n^^tiatioas (rrestlT accelerated the peace of 



tion to his duties, till 1802, when the army 
eatablishnient was reduced after the peace of 
Ajniens. In 1800 be had become a member 
of the Irtsb College of Surgeons, and in 
1803 he commenced practice in Dublin. In 
the same year he was api>oi!ited surgeon to 
St. George's Hospital and Dispensary, and 
"■ 1810 surgeon to the Lock Hospital. In 



1749, and after hie return to England was, 
oti 29 March 1760, sworn a privv councillor, 
and was appointed one of the lords of the 
bedchamber. In 1752 he was sent as am- 
bassador to Vienna, where he remained till 

17(H. On his return he was appointed vice- ^ _. _„j. 

admiralof Scotland, when be pave up his office j 1816 he obl.nined the important appointment 
at the board of police. The remainder of his ' of surgeon to tbe Richmond, Whitworth, and 
life wHsspent at hisseatinLanarkshire, where ' Hardwicke Hospitals, an office which beheld 
be devoted his attention to the improvement I till 1836. Already in 1SI3, at the early ago 
and adornment of his estate. While occupied ! of thirty-four, he was cboaan president of the 
with bin diplomatic duties abroad, he con- 1 Dublin College of Surgeons, a position he dso 
tinned tti take a eonstant Interest in agri- I beld in 1826 and 1848, In 1835 he waa 
cultural affairs. To encourage his tenants in I elected a corresponding member of the Royal 
tbeiranrovementof their landB.hegTnnted to Academy of Medicine of France, being the 
them leases of fifty-seven years' duration, | first Irishman to receive that dininction. 
and alio Introduced clauseB in the new leases 1 In 1826 Carmichael, in conjunction with 
which have since met with the general ap- Drs. Adams and McDowell, founded the 
proval of agriculturists. Theflne plantations ' Richmond HospitalSchool of Medicine (after- 
ftn the states have been reared from seeds 1 wards known as the Carmichael School), and 
brought by him from Russia. He died on was for two years a principal, and afterwards 
19 .Tilly 1787. He was twice married; first, I an occasional lecturer. In addition to con- 
to I'Tliinbeth. eldest daughter of Admiral Sir j siderable donations in his lifetime, be be- 
Clowdislny Shovell, and widow of the firat queathed 8,000;. for its improvement, and 
Ivord Rfimney; and secondly, to.Iean, daugh- -lOOO'i tte interest to be given as prices to 
terof Tli'njamin Vigor of Futhnra, SliddlBsei. the best students of the school. During the 
By his first wife be had a son, who died in ' last ten years of hia life ( 1839-49) he took 
infiiwy. and by hia second he had no issne. d^ep interest in medical reform, strongly sup- 
Tlie earldom passed to his cousin, John Car- porting the Medical Association of Ireland, 
mifhael. The title became dormant orextinct of which he was president from its formation 
on the death of the sixth earl in 1817. His t'H iia death. Be aimed at securing for the 
correspoD deuce while ambassador abroad is medical student a good preliminary and a 
in the ' Slate Papers,' and there are rough high professional education, and uniform and 



;hing examinations by all 1 

and medical and surgical colleges. He aba 

advocated the separation of apothecary'a 

work from medicine and surgery as i^ as 

practicable. To promote its objects he placed 

oCOl. in the hands of the Medical Assoda- 

; but when it proved that the fund was 

needed, he directed its transfer to the 

I, nurijeoii. wao born in Dtiblin on B Feb. ■ Medical Benevolent Fund Society. To this 

IViurth son of Hugh Carmichael, society, one much cared for by him, he left 

i|M (vns nearly ^'Isfed to the 4,500/. at his death. A piece' of plate was 

!■. of the enrls of Hyndford. ! presented to him in 1841 by 410 of his pn>- 

iiiiwl fortune, Carmichael spent fessional brethren, witli an address eipress- 

iiirl mutwy in seeking to establish ing their sense of bis unwearied lenl for the 

1.1 



jonal MSS. 1 



[Dooglas* Swittiah PeeragP (Wood), ii. 7S6-7 ; 
Irrioe'» IJpp*r Ward of Liinnrk shire, i. 2*-5 - 
r«rlyVB Frvderiok; Add. MSS. 1 1 365-87, lfl870, 
16948.] T, F. H. 

CARMICHAEL, RICHARD (1770-1: 



Carmylyon 132 Camaby 

intorests of his profession and the advance- ! account-books of Heniy V Ill's xeign. but 



xnent of medical science. 
In addition to numerous pamplilets and 



in the next two reigns there was one, who i» 
styled * Mjsties Levyn Terlynck^ payntrix.* 



papers in the medical journals, Carmichael ; The use of this feminine form is a slight 
punlished: 1. 'An Essay on the Effects of | argument in favour of Carmylvon bein^ a 
Oarbonate of Iron upon Cancer, with an In- i man, and so is the fact that all the other 
(luiry into tho Nature of that Disease,' Lon- | ' myllyners ' attached to the court were of the 
(Ion, IH()({ ; 2nd edit. 1809. 2. 'An Essay same sex. On the other hand, Carmylyon s 
on the Nature of Scrofula,' London, 1810 (of , wages were 33^. 4d. a quarter, while those 
which a Ut^rman translation was published ofthe Homebauds and \mcentVolpe ranged 
at liitipzig in 1818). 3. * An Essay on the from 33«. 4€?. a month to 5/. a quarter. Tnis 
Vnritireul DiHOoses which have been con- 



foiindful with SyphiliH, and the Symptoms 
which ariHo excluriivdy from that Poison,* 
'1 1 o, 1 H 1 4. Tho latter he made in an especial 
niiinnor hiri own subject; and his practical 



might point to the lower scale of wages paid 
to a woman, were it not that what was known 
of Carmylyon's work shows that it watf by 
no means of a high class. It does not appear 
what foundation John Gough Xichols has for 
viiiwri (Mt al)li8h(Hl im])ortant improvements i his remark that ' she appears to have been 
ill (Jif^ tntatjufiit. of thost^ diseases, especially | a painter in miniature {Archatol, xxxix. 
in rugunl to the administration of mercury. 39), for all the notices discoverable refer to 



Iliri work w<»nt through many editions. It 
wan at llrnt seven*lv reviewed in tho * Kdin- 
burgh ModinilandhurgicalJouniar (xi..*i80). 



the banquetting-house at Greenwich, gilding 
vanes for the Tower, and working at * twoo 
arches, a portall, a fountayne, and an arbour.' 



tin* rnview htMng ably answennl by Car- j We may therefore conclude that decoration 
niichatil in tho same volume. I rather than miniature was her province. The 

( 'arinicliael was originally a member of the dates 1539 and 1541 given by Nichols as the 
itNtahlinhiHl chun'h; Imt in 1825 he joined a last payments to Carmylyon are mistakes 
unitarian rhureh. lie was a handsome man, for 1529 and 1531. 

w ith a Hti»rn rant t)f countenance; and was all I [Cal. State Papers, Hen. VIII, iv. 1395, v. 
that wan mlminihle in domestic life. He was i 306, 307, vi. 6 ; Ardueologia, xxxix. 39.] 
drowninl, on H June 18-19, while crossing a ^ " 

dtn^p arm t»t' the sea between Clontarf and 
Hutliuitui horsel>ai*k. Among liis bt»nofac- 



C. T. M. 

CARNABY, WILLIAM (1772-1839), 
musical composer, was bom in London in 



tituiri hv will lie letY 3,(KX)/. to the College of musical composer, was born m lx)nclon m 
HuriTfoiw. tilt* intt^rtvst to be applit^l as prizes \ 1' '^ and educated m the Chanel Royal as 
f.ir tliP lM»st esMHVs on subjwts siHH'iiied in » chorister under Dr. Nares and Dr. Ayrton. 



UlbuvtS S|HH" 

I ho will. .\ list of his writings is given in 
th«i * Duhliii (Quarterly Jounial of Medical 
H«*iiMu*»^* ix. -197 9. 



He was subsequently organist of Eye and of 
Huntingdon. In 1805 he took the degree of 
Mus. Bac. at Cambridge, where he entered 

, ,. . ,v. ^ 1 1 ,o«*v i« at Trinity Hall. In July 1808 he proceeded 

llhil.hn Modu.nMhH«. 4 July 1849, p. 13; ^^^^ D^^,^on which odcaaion his exercise, 

)«Mnj OuHrturly Jounml ot MfKhcal Science, described i(s ' a grand musical piece,' was perl 

U. 4\)a-A04.| u. 1. iJ. ^^^^ at Great St. Mary's on Sunday, the 

CARMYLYON, ALICE or ELLYS 7th. Previous to this he had left Himting- 

( //, lf)'J7 153h, iminter, a fortMgner settled don and settled in London, where he lived 

in Miigland, hiis btvn by some writ^-ra t«ken at various times at 18 Winchester Row and 
to Iw a woman, the christian name l)eing | 81 Red Lion Square. In 1823 he was ap- 



oeoasionallv spelt Alice, but thert^ is no con- i pointed organist ofthe newly onenedHanover 
elusive evidence tnt her way. The name occurs . Chapel, Regent Street, at a salary of 50/. per 




ami there may have been some relationship six songs dedicated to Lady Tem^etown, two 

b<^t ween the painter and Petrus Carmelianus books of songs dedicated to W. Knyvett, six 

of Hn^ia, the poet [q. v.] The artist is de- canzonets for two voices to words by Shen- 

Hcribed in* various entries in account-lKX)ks stone, and a collection of vocal music dedi- 

as * uayntor,' ' myllvner,* * guylder,* and cated to Viscountess Mahon are perhaps his 
'gtmnor.* This last 'is no doubt merely a . best compositions, but ^e also wrote manv 

copyist's mistake, the name next above in songs, vociad duets, and pianoforte pieces which 

the list being that of a gunner. There are are always respectable, if not remaxkably ori- 

no other female painters mentioned in the ginaL 



Carnac 

[Otovs's Diet, of Mnaie, i. SIS; Qsat. Uag. I which he was held bf fauGOllMgllBa. WUhi 
ISOS. 628 ; Mueiciil World, 14 Nov. 1S39 ; Timr^, chairman of the court, Otnuo vna n^alf 
Jl Not. 183S iLuftrd'sCanubrieiiinawGradimti, I iuatnimental in secaringfbr Lord W^mIs^ 
It. Mus. Mniiic Cat] W. B. S. the grant of 20,000/. wWch waa made to 

CASXAC, Sib JAMES RIVEIT (1785- I that eminent BtateBman in 1837, in addition 
""■ of Bombay, entered the Bust | to tbij pension previouoly awarded to hira. 

irapiiny's Berviw in 1801 as an officer [ With Lord Wellealey, as well as with the 
the Mudns tmtive infantry. His father, Duke of Wellington, Lord Melbourne, and 
RiveIt,who in ihe Bameyeorassumeil | Xxird Gleuelg, Camac carried on aa active 
of Camac, was at that time a mem- correspondence. During liis brief tenure of 
if council at Bombay, and by hia influ- | the government of Bonibav ha appears t 
ttie younger Camac was appointed in , have won the esteem of aU classes in that 
aide-de-camp to Mr. Duncan, then go- presidency. In recognition of hia efforts ti 
of Bombay, and a few months afler- | promote the education of the natires am 
was placed on the persomil ^taff of I their advancement in the public service, i 
tie officer commanding a field force employed ' scholarship, called the Camac scholarship. 



^Utth« 



Guiarat.' fhi 
ice was passed 
entirely in the Bombay presidejicy. After 
baiug present in several actions, which ended 
~ the defeat of the insuwent chief, he was 
'int«d in August 1903 first assistant to 
__ reddent at the court of the Gaikwar, 
And &om that time until 1819, when he was 
compelled by iU-health to leave India, he 
was constantly employed in a political capa- 
city, holding during the la^t two years of 
that period the important post of resident at 
Bitroaa. For his services as resident Oamac 
received the repeated thanks of the govern- 
ment of Bombay, of the supreme government, 
And of the court of directors. One of the 
objects to which he devoted much time and 
attention during this period of hia life was 
ibe suppression of the practice of infanticide, 
then and afterwards very prevalent in Ouxa- 
rit and in other niilive states. Like other 
Indian political ofUcers, Camac was fre- 
quently present at the military operations 
carried on in the earlier years of the century. 
Carnac retired from the Indian service as a 
major in 1832. In 1837 he was elected a 
director of the East India Company, and in 
1836 served a« deputy-chairman, and as I 
ehairmaoin ie36andal8oinl83~. In 1836 I 
created a baronet, and in 1838 



was founded in the ElphinBtone College al 
Bombay ; his baat by Chantry wa« placed ii 
the Town Hall, and a valuable service oi 
plate was presented to him. 

Camac died at Rockcliffe, near Lyming- 
ton, Hampshire, on 4 Jan. 1846, leaving a 
widow and several cliildren. 

[Philippart's Enat India Military Caloadar, 
IS24; Annual Register, 1846; Burkc'e Peerage 
and Coroiiela^i Boml>ay Qoiutte, 20 April 1841 ; 
privatfl papers.] A. J. A. 

CAKNAC, .TOnN (171*^1800), colonel, 
commenced his military service in the 39th 
foot (' Primus in India'), and, being in Indi 
when that regiment was ordered home i 
1758, was admitted into the East India 
Company's service with the rank of captain. 
In 1760 Oamac, then a major, succeeded 
Colonel John Caillaud [<]. v.] in command of 
"' ij- at Patna, andm the following year 

important victory over the troops of 
the Emperor of Delhi and a French contingent 
commanded by M. Law, who with flneen 
officers and filty of his men was taken pri- 
:. The courtesy with which the French 
general was treated by the English com- 
mander appears to have aslonished the na- 
tives, who at that time had but little acquain- 
ith European usages in war. The 



appointed (rovemor of Bombay, which office | author of the ' Sir Mutakbarin,' adverting 



he held rather less than two years, the st 
of his health compelling him to quit India 
•ttuUy on 27 April 1841. In 183/ he was 
" "ed member for Sandwich in the whig 
est, but resigned his seat on his appoint- 
mt to the Bombay government in the fol- 
ding year. 

K Ae a director of the East India Company 
atac fully justified the reputation for abi- 
r and seal in the discnarge of public 
fOM which he had brought with him from 
!■ election to the chaixmanship in 
m\ve years was an honour rarely 
i, and prored the high eotimatioa in 



this incident, remarks: 'Notbingcan 

modest and becoming than the behaviour of 
these strangers, whether in the heat of battle 
or in the pride of success.' Camac was &v- 

fointed a Drigadiec^neral in May 1T64. ill 
765hedrove the Manratt as across the Jumna. 
Ret umii^ to Eng'Itvnd in 1767, he wa« elected 
M.P. for Leominster. Four years later he was 
again in India, and rendered effective aid to 
Lord Clive in quelling a mutiny of the Eng- 
lish officers in Ben^l. In 1776 he was ap- 
pointed member of council at Bombay, and, 
still filling that office in 1TT8, he was ap- 
pointed one of the civil committee with too 



Carnarvon 



134 



Came 



annj who early in the following vear executed 
the unfortunate convention of Wargam. For 
his participation in this affair he was dismissed 
from the company's service. He appears to 
have remained in India until his death, which 
occurred at Mangalore in 1800 at the age of 
eighty-four. 

[Philippart's Ea^t India Military Calendar, 
vol. ii. ; Mill's History of India, vol. iii. ; Marsh- 
man's History of India, voL i.] A. J. A. 

CARNARVON, Eakl of (rf. Ift43). [See 

DORMEB, ROBEBT.] 

CARNARVON, Eabl of (1800-1849). 
[See Hebbebt, Hexbt Johx Geobge.] 

CARNE, Sib EDWARD (d. 1501), diplo- 
matist, was son of Howell Came of Cow- 
bridge in Glamorganshire, by his wife Cicely, 
daughter of William Kemys of Newport, 
and was lineally descended from Thomas Le 
Came, second son of Ithyn, king of Gwent. 
He was educated at Oxford, where he be- 
came principal of Greek Hall, in St. Edward's 
parisl^ and was created D.C.L. in 1524. He 
acted as one of the commissioners for the 
suppression of the monasteries, and purchased 
Ewenny Abbey, in his native county, at its 
dissolution. His residence was at Luidough 
Castle. Henry VIII employed him in seve- 
ral difficult diplomatic missions. In March 
1530-1 he was at Rome in the capacity 
of ' excusator ' of his majesty, who haa been 
cited to appear fjersonally or by proxy at 
the papal court in the matter 01 his di- 
vorce 60m Queen Catherine. Such a cita- 
tion, it was contended, was contrary to the 
customs of the church and the pri^1leges of 
christian princes (Letters and Papers, Foreign 
and Dom., Henry VUI, v. 33). Came re- 
mained in Rome for several years. In 1538 
he was one of the ambassadors sent to treat 
with the regent of the Low Countries ; and 
again in 1541 he and Stephen Vaughan were 
sent as ambassadors to the queen regent of 
Flanders to procure the repeal of the im- 
perial edict restrictive of English commerce. 
Subsequently he was resident ambassador in 
the Liw Countries, and he received the 
honour of knighthood from the Emperor 
Charles V. He was returned for the county 
of Glamorgan to the parliament which met 
at Westminster on 12 rsov. 1554, in the first 
year of the reign of Philip and Mary, and, 
according to Browne Willis, he was again 
elected to the parliament which assembled 
at Westminster on 21 Oct. 1555, though the 
official list states that the return is defaced. 

In 1555, when Philip and Mary had re- 
stored the ancient worship in England, they 
sent an embassy to Rome to give the cus- 



tomaiy obedience to the pope. The em- 
bassy was composed of the Bishop of Ely, 
Lord Montagu, and Came. When Montagu 
and the bishop returned to England, Came 
remained as resident ambassador to Pope 
Paul r\', and continued in this capacity for 
nearly four years. On Elizabeth^s accession 
to the throne he asked permission of the 
English government to leave Rome, as well 
on account of his old age as in order to see 
his wife and children again. On 9 Feb. 
1558-^ this permission was granted by the 
counciL Came thereupon asked the pope 
for leave to depart, but this leave was re- 
fused to him on account of the hostile atti- 
tude Elizabeth was assuming towards Rome 
(Game's original Letter from Rome, 1 April 
1559, in Cotton, MS. Nero B vi. f. 9). It 
was then a common practice among sove- 
reigns to retain an ambassador in the cha- 
racter of hostage. Little surprise therefore 
was caused by the detention of Came, who 
was commanded by the pope to relinquish 
his office of ambassador and to assume the 
'■ government of the English hospital at Rome. 
Elizabeth, indeed, tried to effect his release, 
but her efforts proved unavailing, and Came 
■ remained at Rome, an exile from his native 
; country, up to his death. This conduct to- 
I wards an old, a poor, and an innocent man 
i has naturally been considered harsh, though 
some persons, as W^ood observes, suspected 
that Hhe crafty old knight did voluntary 
chuse his banishment out of a burning zeal 
to the Roman catholic religion, and eagerly 
desired to continue * at Rome, ' rather than 
return to his own country, which was then 
ready to be overspread with heresy.' That 
this surmise was correct is shown by state 
papers which have been since brought to 
lignt. Philip, king of Spain, on being re- 
quested by Queen Elizabeth in 1560 to ob- 
tain her ambassador's release, ordered Fran- 
cisco de Vaigas, his representative at Rome, 
to inquire j ucuciously into the matter. Came* s 
account of his detention was that on Eliza- 
beth's accession he, being a good catholic, 
had decided to live and die in the faith. 
He had asked Paul IV to detain him in 
order that the queen might not confiscate his- 
property and persecute nis wife and children. 
The pope granted his request, and, after the 
death of Paul, Pius IV followed the same 
course. Came begged of Vargas that his stoiy 
might be kept profoundly secret. The Eng- 
lish ambassadors in Spain accordingly re- 
ceived an evasive reply, and Game remained 
unmolested at Rome till his death on 19 Jan. 
1560-1. He lies buried in the church of San 
Gregorio in Monte Celio, where his epitaph 
may stiU be read. 



' [An!b»oluMi<>Cmiibr«D<iiH(]Sig),iv.3ia;Aa- 
■-i^'eWUishitorJaolisuuj.^gai Burku's I«D<led 
■ati7 (1888). ir. 480: BanefK Hist, of the 
.HefoTniBtioD ; CaJviuIitn of Stalo Papers ; Cnm- 
dec's AnoalM of Elirabetb <1635~9). i. 18, 79 i 
Chrooiole. 6 April 1887. 38; Cliylneaa, Va- 
riorum ItiDBnim Delicin, 9 ; Cootv'a CiriliaiiB, 
20; Dodd's Church Hist. i. SSO, also Tieriie^'s 
edit. ii. 168 ft. ; Fuley's Records, vi. pp. xiinii, 
zxix; I''uller'a Worthies (KicboU),ii. MS; Gent. 
Mag. xciii. (i) 41*2, new series, ixiii. 516 ; 
Hajii(i)i'sSwuPa[H<n, 103,345; Liagard's Hist. 
of Enelaul, vii. 3S.S n. ; Addit. MSS. 26114. IT. 
3;)3-a, 3)4, 346. 28383, f. 183; Cok'a M9. 
xiii. 130 ; Cotlui. MSS. Cftlig- E iv. fl, E y. 80, 
Units B X. 89, 127. Xero B vi. 9 ; Laasd. MS. 
f. 116. »n. 2 ; Murdin's Stulc Papats, 752 ; Nicho- 
Ifu's QlumoriiBuahire, IflQ ; Liiit of Mpmbers of 
Plkrliainent (official return), i. 393 ; Thomns's 
Hist. Notes, 16, 360, 369; Williuns'B Emineat 
Welshinen; WUIig'ii Not. Pari. iii. (2) 48, 53; 
Wood's Faslj OioQ. (BlissJ, i. 66, 67.] T. C. 

CABNE, ELIZABETH CATHEHINE 
THOMAS ( 1 8i:-l»".3). author, fifth daugh- 
ter of Jow^ Came, F.R.S. [ij. v.^, was bom 
at Riviere House, in the parish ot Phillack, 
Coniwnll, on 16 Dec. 1817, and Imptisud in 
PhillAck church on 15 Mar 1820. On her 
fitther'e death in 1^58, having come into an 
imple fortune, shu spent considerable sums 
^&arit«ble purposes, ^ve the site for iLe 
■alwtb or bl. FbuI's schools nhicb were 
d at Fenzanca on 2 Feb. 1676, founded 
x)la at Wesley Hock, Carfury, and Bo- 
low^ three thinlj populated districts in 
- nei^bouibuod of Fensauce, and built a 
teum in which to exhibit to the public a 
« oollection of minerals which she had in- 
sited &om her parent. She was the head of 
B pBUiwice bank from 1858 to her decease. 
Kinheriled her father's lore of geology, and 
re(« four papere in the 'TransHCtions of the 
loyal Oeoloeical Society of Cornwall : ' < Cliff 
"wider* ana the Former Condition of the 
i and Seia in the Land's End district,' 
THDw Age of the Maritime Alps surrounding 
'Hetitone,' ' On the Transition and Metamor- 

?ho«is of itocka,' and ' On the Nature of the 
'orcee that have acted on the Formation 
of the Xiand'a End Oranile.' Many articles 
^MTere cuntribulod by her to the ' London 
'lurttirl; Keview,' and she was the author 
J aevcinil books. She died at Penzance on 
^^pt. 1873, and was buried at Fhillack on 
^S Sept. Her funeral sermon was preached 
m St. Mary's Church, Pennance, by the Kev. 
rrebandnry Hedgeland on 14 Sept. She 
WM tUo author oT; 1. 'Three Months' Kest 

It P«u in the Winter and Spring of 1859," 
nought out with the psoudanym of John 
tbnyd Wittitt*riy in 1860. '2. • Country , 
laWns %ad tbo place ttiey fill in Modem ; 



01 uiei^ 

^■iflept. 1 
^"18 Sept. 



;. 'England's Three 
book, 1871. 4. 'The 
Realm of Truth,'^ 1873. 

[Boawand Courtney's BiU.Comab. 60, 1113; 
Daily Nbwb, London, 10 Sept. 1873, p. 7 ; GeoL 
Mag, X. 480, 524 (1873).] G. C. B. 

j CABNE, JOHN (1789-1844), trareller 
and author, was born on 18 June 1789, pro- 
bably at Truro. His father, William Came, 
was a merchant and banker at Feniance, 
where he dieii on 4 July 1838; he mar- 
ried in 1780 Miss Anna Cock, who died on 
8 Nov. 1832. His eldest brother was Joseph 
Came[q. T.] Came was a member of Queens' 
College, Cambridge, at ditferent times both 
before and after bla journey to the East, 
but he never resided long enough for a. de~ 
gtev. He was admitted m 1826 to deacon's 
orders by Dr. Michael Henry ThomhUl Lus- 
combe, the chaplain of the British embassv 
st Paris, and a bishop of the episcopal church 
I ofScotland; but, except duringafew months' 
I residence at Vevey in Switzerland, he never 
oiBciated as a cleiv>iuan. His father, a strict 
man of business, desired that his son should 
follow in his footsteps, but after a short trial 
of business, during which his literary abilitias 
showed themselves, his father allowed him to 
I follow his own inclinations. His first lite- 
' rary production was brought out anony- 
mously lu 1820, and was called ' Poems 
containing the Indian and Lazarus.' Carae 
resolved to visit the holy places, and accord- 
ing;iy left England on 26 March 1821. He 
visited Constantinople, Greece, the Levant, 
Egypt, and Palestine. In the latter coun- 
try, while returning from the convent of St. 
Catharine, he was taken prisoner by Be- 
dooioB, but, after being detained for some 
days, was released in safety. On coming 
beck to England he commenced writing for 
the ' New Monthly Magazine ' an account of 
his travels, under the title of ' Letters from 
the East,' receiving from Henry Collnim 
twenty guineas for each article. "These ' Let- 
ters ' were then reproduced in a volume, 
dedicated to Sir Walter Scott, which went 
to a third edition. This book is noticeable 
for the fact that there is not a single date to 
be found In it, except that on the title-page. 
The publication of this work and his talents 
for society brought him into familiar inter- 
course with Scoll, Soulhey, Cumplell. Lock- 
hart, Jerdan, and other distinguished men 
of letters. He ne^t published ' Tales of the 
West,' 1828, 2 vols,, treating of his native 
county. AmoD)^ those who knew htm hia 
fame as a story-teller far exceeded his re- 
nown as a writer, and social company often 
gathered round him to be spellbound by 



Carne 



136 



Carne 



some exciting or pathetic narration. During 
the latter part of his life he resided chiefly 
in Penzance. Oppressed by the infirmities 
of a premature old age, he had ceased for 
some years before his death to engage in 
any literary pursuits. While preparing to 
set out for the shores of the Mediterranean 
he was attacked with a sudden illness and 
died at Penzance on 19 April 1844, when his 
remains were buried in Gulvfd churchyard. 
At the age of twenty-five, namely in 1824, 
he married Ellen, daughter of Mr. Lane, a 
drawing-master of Worcester. Her brother, 
Theodore Lane, an artist of much promise 
and an exhibitioner at the Royal Academy, 
met with an untimely fate by falling through 
a skylight at the horse bazaar in Gray's Inn 
Lane on 21 May 1828, when his daughter 
Emma was adopted by her uncle. Mrs. Came 
married, secondly, Mr. Henry Harrington 
Clay, and died at Penzance on 2 Feb. 1868, 
aged 67. 

Besides the works already mentioned, 
Came was the author of: 1. ' Stratton Hill, 
a Tale of the Civil War,' 1829, 3 vols. 
2. * llecollections of Travels in the East,' 

1830. 3. ' The Exiles of Palestine, a Tale,' 

1831, 3 vols. 4. * Lives of Eminent Mis- 
sionaries,' 1833, 3 vols. 6. * Letters from 
Switzerland and Italy,' 1834. 6. ' Lives of 
Eminent Missionaries,' 1844. 7. * Lives of 
Eminent Missionaries,' 1852, 3 vols. He 
was also a writer in the *New Monthly 
Magazine,' the ' Forget-me-not,' the ' Gem,' 
the * Keepsake,' and other works. 



Boase and 



[Gent. Mag. June 1844, p. 656; Bo 
Courtney's Bibl. Cornub. i. 60, iii. 1113.] 

G. C. B. 

CAHNE, JOSEPH (1782-1868), geolo- 
gist, bom at Truro, Cornwall, on 17 April 1782, 
was the eldest son of William Came, a banker, 
and was educated at the Wesleyan school, 
Keynsham, near Bristol. His younger brother 
was John Came [q. v.] He married on 
23 March 1808 Mary Thomas, the daughter of 
William Thomas of Kidwelly, M.D., physician 
at Haverfordwest. After his marriage he lived 
for a short time at Penzance, and in 1810 or 
1811 he removed to Riviere House, on being 
appointed manager of the Cornish Copper 
Company's smelt mg works at Hayle. His good 
business habits and (]^uickness at figures well 
fitted him for this situation. From a very 
early period Came showed a great love for 
mineralogy and geology. He was in the habit 
of walking round to the copper mines, and col- 
lecting specimens of the rarer ores, which the 
miners were glad to sell at low prices. He thus 
formed the nucleus of his unique mineralogical 
collection. Came was a remarkably close ob- 



server. He paid special attention to the gra- 
nitic veins of St. Michael's Mount, and the 
vein-like lines of porphyritic rocks provin- 
cially termed < elvans.' In 1816 and 1818 
Came communicated to the Royal G^logical 
Society of Cornwall his investigation 'On 
Elvan Courses,' in which he Batis£BU^orily 
establishes their general characters and fixes 
the probable dates of their intrusion into 
the granite masses and the clay-slates. ' The 
Granite of the Western part of Cornwall' 
and the ' G^logy of the Scilly Isles ' were 
additional communications made to the local 
geological society. After studying the foi^ 
mation of mineral veins he in 1§18 com- 
municated to the Geological Society of Corn- 
wall a paper 'On the relative Age of the 
. Veins of Cornwall.' The celebrated Wer- 
ner was drawn by it into ComwaU, and he 
visited the mines of the county in company 
with Came. This inquiry led, some years 
after, to the formation of a fund by subscrip- 
tion, which enabled Mr. William Jory Hen- 
wood to devote all his leisure, for many years, 
to personal observations in every mining field 
in ComwalL These inquiries led to Came's 
being elected a fellow of the Royal Society 
on 28 May 1818. In 1821 he published his 
paper ' On the Mineral Productions and the 
Geology of the Parish of St. Just.' This 
work led to the remarkable collection of 
the Cornish minerals which still exists in the 
possession of Mr. Charles Campbell Ross, for- 
merly M.P. for St. Ives. Came's paper * On 
the Pseudo-morphous Minerals of Ck)mwall ' 
is calculated to tnrow light on the mysterious 
changes which occur in minerals. In con- 
nection with this subject Came also ex- 
amined most of the varieties of tin ore which 
have been found in veins, and such as are 
peculiar to the diluvial deposits, which have 
been worked from the earnest historic times, 
in what are called * stream works.' In 1846 
a paper was read by Came ' On the Remains 
of^a Submarine Forest in the North-eastern 
part of the Mount's Bay,' and in 1851 * No- 
tice of a Raised Beach lately discovered in 
Zennor ' will be found in the pages of the 
'Transactions of the Cornwall Geological 
Society,' vol. vii. 

Came also wrote on the history of copper 
mining, and on the improvements made in 
its metallurgy — on the discovery of ancient 
coins^-on the formation of the blown sands 
of the north coasts of the county, and con- 
tributed to the Statistical Society of London 
a most useful paper, ' Statistics of the Tin 
Mines in Cornwall and of the Consumption 
of Tin in Great Britain.' 

Came was an honorary member of the Cam- 
bridge Philosophical Society. Iiil8d7hewas 



pricked &r sheriff of the county. lie wm for 
many yean the treasurer of the Cornwall 
Geological Society. From his accurate know- 
ledge of the laws of mines and mineraU, and 
bis intimate acquaintance with local ueagee, 
he was referred to in most cases of ditficiuty. 
All the Wesleyan chapels of West Com- 
~isll sought Came's assistance and advice. 
ktook charge of Sunday Heho()ls,andBlwaya 
bpt • Inive stock of books fcrr the teachers. 
b 1830 Came left Hayle, and went to Pen- 
IW to become a partner in hie father'a bonk 
ktt^lli Came, & Came). He olwayH took 
nsidenble interest in the affairs of that t 



jtKi>y>] Goological Society of Cornwall, 1818- 

tSei ; Do la Beehe's Report on the Geology of 
Ccimvall and Divun. 1839: Honwood's Metal- 
liferam pppoaits of Corainit! and Devnn. 1843 , 
Boyal Soddly'a Cutalogiie ; Gilbert's History of 
0«iniU : penonal knowledge.] B. H-T. 

CAHNE, ROBERT HARKNESS (1784- 

l&M), theological writer, son of John Came, 
-ot St. Austell, Cornwall, mercer, was bap- 
tised at St. Austell parish church on 10 Oct. 
17»*i, matriculated from Exeter CoUege, Oi- 
ford. on 16 Jan. 1803, and graduated ll.A. 
on 19 Nov. 1S06. He afterwards served as 
cumt« of Crediton, Drewsteignton, and Tor- 
bryan in Huccession, and, the bishop then re- 
fusing to renew his license, he removed to 
Berkshire, where during twelve months he 
ftctcd as a curate without holding any li- 
cense. In 1820 the corporation of Maraiion 
on Mount's Bay elected him to the lecture- 
ship of the chapel in that town, and the 
mayor wrote to Dr. Pelbom, bishop of Exeter, 
announcing the election. The bishop in 
reply said : ' Mr. Came knows that to hia 
moral conduct I have nothing to object, in- 
deed I have every reason to believe it exem- 
piory, but to my conception the doctrines 
tie tnoinlnina are not those of the church of 
England, nor are they, as I conceive, accord- 
ing tn its discipline. I therefore cannot 
coDsdentiously liceoae him, and without a 
licMiM no clergyman is authorised to preach.' 
Ctrnp then withdrew &om the established 
cfaorch, giving na his chief reasons for his ac- 
tion the violanoe done to eonscieoce and the 



n of the r^hta of private judgi 

Hn held high Calvinistic doctrines ' upon con- 

Ttvlion,' and had objections to some portions 

I the Atluinaaiaii Creed. After this Came 
■Ome time acted an minister of the High 
tn Chapal, Exeter, and then withdrew to 
My, where he spent the remainder of his 



days, and, dving of apoplexy on 12 July 1844, 
was buried "at St. Heliers on 18 July, in the 
siitietb year of his age. He was the author 
of the following works: 1. ' Substance of Di»- 
couraes delivered in the Churches of Credi- 
ton and Drewsteignton,' 1810, 2. 'A Series 
of Letters in Refutation of the Socinian 
Heresy,' 1815. 8. 'All the Elect People of 
God contemplated as Members of One Body,' 
1817. 4. ■'The Proper Deitv and Distinct 
Personality, Agency, and Worship of the 
Holy Spirit,' 1818. 5. 'Reason for with- 
drawing from the National Establishment, 
with a itrief Stateoient of Doctrinal Senti- 
ments," 1820. 6. • Sabellianiam Revived.' 
7. ' The Scripture Doctrine of Sanetifica- 
tion.' 8, ' The Two Covenants, or ]j,w and 
Gospel.' 1S-2S. S. 'Examination of Piedo- 
baptism for the Satisfaction of Pu'do-bap- 
tists,' 1830. 10. 'The Gospel Herald, a 
scries of Discourses on the Glad Tidings of 
the Kingdom of God,' He was also a writer 
in the 'Moming Watch' in opposition to 
Edword Irvin^s opiuiona on ' The True Hu- 
manity of Christ.' 



CARNEGIE, StK DAATD, of Kinnaird, 

Lord Carnbsib and Earl op SotrrHBsK 

(1576-1658), son of Sir David Camepe of 

Panbride and Colluthie, one of the commis- 

ouera of the treasury, by hia second wife, 

daughter of Sir David Wemyss of We- 

yss, was born in 1575, He succeeded bis 

father in the family estates of Kinnaird 

198. In 1601 he obtained license from 
the king to travel on the continent for a 
apace of two years. When James VI of 
Scotland succeeded to the English crown, 
Carnegie was appointed to escort the qneen 
into England, and received for his sarvices 
the honour of knighthood. In 1604 he was 
nominated a comroissioQer to arrange a 

1 between England and Scotland- In 
the general assembly of the kirk he waa 
an active eupporter of the ecclesiastical 
policy of the king, and on 25 May 1606 re- 
ceived a letter Irom him thanking him for 

.ervices. In 1009 he waa nominated a 

oissiooef for reforming the university of 
St. Andrews. In the parliament of 1612 he 
was one of the commissioners for the shire 
of Fife, and was appointed a commissioner 
for coneidcring the penal laws and in reference 
to taxation. On 14 April 1616 the king 
recognised his special services to Scotland 
by crMtting him Lord Carnegie of Kinnaird, 
and in July following be was appointed a 
lord of session, which office he retained till 
the death of James I in 1626. He was ono 



Carnegie 



138 



Carnegie 



of the roj;aI commissioners to the Perth I 
aasambly in August 1618, when the ob- 
noxious five articles were pasaed. In the 
parliament which met aoon after, he was ap- I 
pointed commissioner for the plantation of 1 
kirks, as well as for the abolition of here- 
ditary jurisdictions, and in August 1630 he 1 
was nominated one of the commissioners of 
laws, to which he was reappointed in June 1 
1633. At the coronation of Charlea I in the , 
abbey of Hotyrood on 22 June 1633 he was 
created Earl of Southesk. He was an active 
supporter of the ecclesiastical policy both of | 
James I and Charles I. In 1637 he endea- 
voured without success to bring about a 
conference between the bishops and Alexan- 
der Henderson and other ministers in re- 
ference to the Service Book (GIoedos, Scott 
Affairt, i. 17). When his son-in-law the 
Earl of Montrose, in February ia39, came to 
Forfar to hold a committee for the aubscrip- 
tion of the covenant abjuring episcopacy, the 
Earl of Southesk refused to sulncribe, as well 
as to raise a quota of men to aid the cove- 
nanters (8pALi>iifo,^rwnoriiji»o/(Ae Troubla, 
i. 186). In March 1040 he and other pro- 
minent anti-covenantera were apprehended 
in Edinburgh and lodged in private houses 
under a nightly guard (ib. 200). He sub- 
scribed the bond of Montrose against Argyll 
in 1640, but after the reconciliation of parties 
which succeeded the king's visit to Scotland 
in 1641 he was nominated a privy councillor. 
On the triumph of the covenanters he sub- 
mitted to their authority. By Cromwell's 
Act of Qrace he was fined 3,000i. He died 
on 22 Feb. 1658, at the age of eighty-three. 
[DoogWs Peerage (Wood), ii, fiH ; Fraser'a 
Hbtory of the Camegise, l^rls of Southee'ii 
(1867), i. 7&-1S4; Robert Baillie's Lettera and 
Journala; Gordon's Scots Affairs; Spalding's 
MeTnoriois of the Troubles ; Acts of the Psrlia- 
meut of Scotland.] T. F. H. 

CABNEGEE, Sir KOBERT (d. 1566), of 
Einnaird, judge and diplomatist, son of John 
Carnegie of Kinnaird, who fell at Flodden 
(9 Sept. 15la), bj- Jane Vans, was in 1547 
nominated an ordinary lord of session by the 
regent (the Earl of Arran), to whose party 
he had attached himself. The appointment 
seems to have been made in anticipation of 
the removal of Henry BalnavKS [q, v.], then 
under suspicion of compLcity in the murder 
of Cardinal Beaton. In the autumn of 1548 
Carnegie was despatched to England to ne- 
gotiate with the protector for the ransom of 
the Earl of Huntly, the chancellor of Scot- 
land, who had been taken prisoner at the 
battle of Pinkie Cleugh in the preceding 
year (10 Sept.) From London Carnegie 



of Ross and Gavin Hamilton (abbot o 

wvnning), be conducted the negotiations 
wnich resulted, in 1551, in the creation of 
the regent duke of Chatelherault, with the 
understanding that he should resign the re- 
gency into the hands of the queen-mother. 
In the summer of 1551 he returned to Scot- 
land, travelling through England under let- 
ters of safe-conduct granted by the protector, 
and was employed in negotiations relotive to 
the settlement of the borders. On the ac- 
cession to the regency of Mary of Quisiy 
(1553), he became clerk to the treasurer 
(thesaurar-clerk) at a salary of 2W. per 
annum. He was appointed (9 June of the 
same year) commissioner to enforce the ob- 
servance of the statutes relating to forestall- 
ing and regrating at the approaching fair at 
Brechin, and on 18 Sept. was deputed, with 
Sir Robert Bellenden, to represent Scotland 
in another negotiation for a settlement of 
the border, as the result of which a treaty, 
the terms of which will be found in the 
' Calendar of State Papers ' (Dom. Addenda, 
I5i7-65, p. 430), was concluded on 4 Dec 
In 1557 another negotiation with the same 
object was opened, Carnegie being again em- 
ployed. The commissioners met at Carlisle 
in the summer, but the negotiation was 
abruptly terminated by the queen regent. 
Carnegie was employed in 1553 in another 



settle the perennial border ques- 
precise date when he received the 
honour of knighthood is uncertain, but it wb» 
probably about 1652-3. The last meeting of 



. The 



lowing year. He is described by Knox 
of those ' quha for fajmting of the bretheris 
hairtis, and drawing many to the Queneis 
factioun against thair natyve countrey have 
declairit tbameselfis ennemies to Ood and 
traytouris to thair commune wealth ' (Rut. 
ife/brm.i. 400, Bannatyne Club). Bv his de- 
votion to the queen regent he profited largely, 
receiving from her several grants of lands in 
Forfarshire. Hie wife was Margaret Outhrie, 
of the Outhries of Lunan. He is supposed 
to be the author of a work on Scotch law, 
cited in Balfour's 'Practick8'(ed.l7&4), p. 6(V 
by the title of ' Lib. Cameg.' 

[Lesley's Hist. Scotl. pp. 19T.S!D, 268; Beff. 
Conac. Scotl. i. S3, 141. 146, IfiO; Keith's 
Hist. Scotl. App. 116 ; CaL State Papers (8cotl. 
lfiOH-l603>, pp. IDO, 106, 192 (Dam. Addewlii. 
\6il^6\ p. 430 ; Knox's 'Works (Bann. Clali). 
i. 400, iii. 410-11 ; Strypa'a Mom. iiL pt. ii. 



!QIE, WTLLL-VM, Earl cj- 

(ITofi-lgai), ttdminil, wns the 
of George, aUth Earl of Nortliesi, 
admits) of the vlute, who died in I79i. 
Ue entered the navy in 1771 on board the 
AlbioQ, with Captaio Barrineton, Berved 
afterwords with Captains Macbride in the 
Southanapton and Stjiir Douglae in the 
Squirrel, and on 7 Dec. 1777 waa made heii- 
tenant iuto the ApoUo. He wns aftiirwards 
with Sir John Lockliart Roa« in the Koyal ' 
Oeoirge, and in the Sandwich with Sir George 
Rodnev, hy whom be was made commiinder , 
alter the battle of 17 April 1780, thoiigli the 
GOmmiBiion was not confirmed till 10 Sept. i 
continued in the West Indies, commoud- 
m ftucceasion the Blast lire&Iiip and the 
Eustatius, hired ship, till on 7 April 
post rank, lit 






aids had cammand of the Entt 






frigate, which be brought homu and jiuid ul 
H the pence. By the death of hw elder 
brothers, in 17B8 he become Lord UoEehill, 
In 17tfO he commanded the Ileroinefora few 
months, in the Spaniah armament, and in 
1792 succeeded to the earldom on the death 
of his father. In 1793 he commanded the 
Baaulicn frigate, and afterwards the Andro- 
id bat only for a short time. In 17M 
« appointed to the Monmouth of 64 
a tbe North Sea fleet, one of the ahips 

_^ d in the following year in the mu- 

til^at, the Nore. Nortueeh was for some 
time detained on board, a prisoner in his 
calnii; be was afterwards brought before the 
committee of delegates on hoard the Sand- 
wich, and employed by them to lay their de- 
tnauds before ihe kins', receiring from their , 
president a commission in the following 
t«rros : ' You are hereby authorised and or- 
derad to wait upon the king, wherever he 
mav be, with the resolutions of the committee 
of ael^ntes, and are directed to return boclt 
with »n answer within fifty-four hours from 
_ the date hereof. 6 June, 3 P.K.' I 

' ITorthiiBk accordingly carried the propo- 
~ a of the mutineers to the admiralty, 
iS taken by Lord Spencer to the king. 
manda were rejected, and a message 
ptitat effect was sent down to the revolted 
iment but Northesk did not return, and 
■tlv after the mutiny had been quelled 
bTHigncd the command of the Monmouth. 
^'1600 be was appointed to the Prince of 






n the Channel fleet, and commanded 



V till the peace. On the renewal of the 
■ ' ;» appointed to the Hritannia of 

9 pan, in the fleet off Brest nndcr Admi- 
SComwallis, and continueil in her, on the 
Ml station, after his promotioD to flag rank, 
BApril ieOi. In August leal he was de- 



tached under f^ir Ilobert Colder to reinforce 
the tleet otI'Cadix, and on 21 Oct, commanded 
in the third post in the battle of IVa&lgar. 
The Britannia was the fourth ship in the 
weather-line led by Kflson, and was thua 
earlyintheaction,continuing' closely engaged 
till the end, and suslaining a loss of lilty- 
two killed and wounded. Northesk's sbp- 
Ticea on this occasion were acknowledged 
by his being nominated a knight of the Both, 
the investiture taking place on 5 June 1806. 
He became vice-odmirnl 2H April 1808, and 
admiral 4 June 1814, but had no further 
service during the war. In 1821 he was con- 
stituted reai-admiral of Great Britain ; from 
1827-1630 was commander-in-chief at Ply- 
mouth j and died, after a short, illness, on 
^8MaylB31. On 8 Junehewaaburiedinthe 
cryrit of St. Paul's Cathedral, where a plain 
slab marks his grave, in the immediato neigh- 
bourhood of Nelson 'sand Colhngwood's. lie 
aat in several parliaments as a repreeentative 
peer of Scotland. He married, 9 Dec. 178(1, 
Slaty, daughter of William Henry Ricketts, 
and niece of Lord St. Vincent, and had by 
her a very numerous family. The eldest son, 
then Lord Kosehill, was lost in the Blenheim 
with Sir Thomas Tioubridge in February 
1807. 

[NavH) Chronide, zv. 441, with a portrait; 
Ralfe'H Kav. Biog. ii. 400 ; Morahall's Roy. Nov. 
liio\f. i. IBS; Gent. Mag. (1831) vol. ci. pi. ii, 
p. 70] J. K. L. 



CABOLINE (1683-1737), queen of Great 
Britain and Ireloud, was Itorn 1 March 1683, 
and baptised by the names of Withelmina 
Caroline. Her father, John Frederick, mar- 
grave of Brandenburg- A nsbach, died when 
she was four years of age, and his margravate 
was for seven years afterwards under uie rule 
of minors. Thus, on the marriage in 1693 
of his widow, Eleonora Erdmuthe Louisa, 
daughter of John George, duke of Saxe-Eise- 
naco.totheeleclor JohnGeorgel^'of Saxony, 
Caroline accompanied her mother to Dresden. 
The extroordinary condition of manners and 
morals at the Saxon court had very nearly 



GuchiiAU von Sat^hten, 1870, ii. 265-70). 
After the death of the elector, in 1694, 
Caroline seems to have remained with lior 
mother at Dresden or at Pret»ch, on the 
Kibe above Wittenberg, the estate settled 
on the etectress in jointure, where slie waa 
visited hy her daughter's guardian, the 
Elector Frederick III of Braudnuburg (after- 
wards King Frederick I of Prusaia), and his 



Caroline 



140 



Caroline 



channin^ wife, Sophia Charlotte, daughter 
of the Electress Sophia of Hanover (\^JtN- 
HA6EN, * Sophia Charlotte/ in Biographische 
DenkmdUry 3rd edit. 1872, iv. 278\ In 1696 
Caroline was left an orphan by tne death of 
her mother, and after this event she seems to 
have spent some years under the care of her 
^ardian and his consort at Berlin, though 
doubtless paying occasional visits to Ansbach 
and other courts. It must have been near 
the time of her mother's death that, if there 
be any truth in the story retailed by Horace 
Walpole (Memoirs of the Last Ten Years of 
George II, 4to, 1822, 158-9), Caroline fell in 
love with Frederick II, duke of Saxe-Gotha, 
who married in 1696, and whose daughter 
was afterwards married to Caroline's eldest 



fion. 



Caroline's sojourn with her guardian's wife, 
the Electress Sophia Charlotte (queen of Prus- 
sia from 1701), largely helped to mould her 
mind and character. Sophia Charlotte was a 
woman of unusual intellectual gifts, which 
had been fostered by the training given to her 
by her mother, and more especialljr by the in- 
fluence of her mother's faithful friend, Leib- 
niz, who during these years was a constant 
visitor at Berlin and at Liitzenburg, the new 
chateau since famous under the name of Char- 
lottenburg (Varnhagbx and Klopp, Corre- 
spondancey vol. iii. passim. See ib, iii. 104-6 
Leibniz's tribute to Caroline's vocal powers). 
Sophia Charlotte entertained a warm affec- 
tion for the young Ansbach princess, without 
whom Berlin seemed to her * a desert ' (see 
Leibniz's letter to the queen, 17 Nov. 1703, 
in Kbmble, 322); and this affection was 
shared bv the old Electress Sophia, who made 
Carolines acquaintance at Jierlin (Corre- 
spondance, iii. 100). Already, in October 
1704, the old lady is found manifesting a 
wish that by marrying her grandson, the 
Electoral Prince of Hanover, Caroline might 
have been saved the trouble inflicted upon 
her in connection with a proposal of more 
brilliant promise. The scheme of marrying 
the Ansbach princess to the Archduke Charles, 
afterwards titular king of Spain and em- 
peror under the designation of Charles VI, 
appears to have been entertained as early as 
1698 (see Leibniz's letter to the Duchess 
Benedicta in Kemble, 322); but negotia- 
tions were not actually opened on the subject 
till about 1704, when the Elector Palatine, 
John "William, solicited Caroline's hand for 
the archduke. As her conversion to the 
church of Rome was an indispensable pre- 
liminary for such a marriage, the Jesuit 
father, Orbanus, a personage nijo^hly praised 
by Leibniz, was permitted to instruct her 
in the fedth^ and me Electress Sophia very 



graphically describes the intelligent girl's 
disputations with her tutor, and her tears 
when the arguing had unsettled her mind 
{Correspondancey iii. 108). The old electress 
and Leibniz were supposed to have encouraged 
Caroline in her resistance (ib, iiL Introd. Sd\ 
and Leibniz certainly dnuted for her the 
letter to the elector palatine, in which she 
declined further negotiations (ib, iii. 108-9). 
But ' Providence,' as Addison afterwards put 
it (see extract from the ' Freeholder,' No. 21, 
in Coxe's Memoirs of Sir Mobert Walpole, iL 
270), 'kept a reward in store for such an 
exalted virtue,' and her ' pious fimmeas,' as 
it was styled by Burnet {Oum Times, 1833 
edit. V. 322^, was not to go unrequited, 
' even in this life.' After a decent interval 
the Hanoverian family and their relations 
resumed the project of a match between 
Caroline and the electoral prince, and by the 
close of the year she consiaered the Spanish 
project at an end {Corresporuianoe, iii. 113; 
Kemble, 383), though it seems to have been 
transitonly resumed about March 1705 {Cor^ 
respondance, iii. 119). Late in 1704 she had 
returned to Ansbach, and it was here that 
she learnt with the deepest sorrow of the 
death of her kind friend and j^rotectiess, 
Queen Sophia Charlotte of Prussia (see her 
letter to Leibniz, in Ejbmblb, 435). Her stay 
at her native place was soon to come to an 
end ; but she seems always to have retained 
a warm interest in the family firom which 
she sprang (see the statement, probably true 
in substance, though certainly inaccurate, as 
to her kindness in her later years towsids 
the infant mai^rave of Ansbach, in the Me- 
moirsofthe Margravine of Ansbach, 1826, i. 
177-8). 

On 2 Sept. 1705 Caroline was married to 
Oeorge Augustus, electoral prince of ELan- 
over, who had visited Ansbach incognito a 
few weeks before, and had been captivated 
by the charms of her person and conversa- 
tion (CoxE, ii. 270, from the ' Marlborough 
Papers'). The ensuing nine years, which &e 
spent as electoral princess at Hanover and 
its neighbourhood, were probably among the 
happiest in her life. Soon after ner marriage 
she had an attack of the small-pox, from 
which she was in 1707 thought to have just 
escaped (Ejbmble, 448) ; but it neither alto- 
gether destroyed her personal charms (see 
Walfole's Ilemimscences, 304), nor put an 
end to their power over her husband. Their 
eldest son, Frederick, afterwards prince of 
Wales, was bom on 6 Jan. 1707, and their 
eldest daughter, Anne, afterwaxds princess 
of Orange, in 1709. Two other daughters 
were bom, in 1711 and in 1713 ; and after- 
wards in England, between 1721 and 1724, 



three more children, who survived to rantu- 
rity, tho eldest, of lliese, ftfterwarda known . 
Bsihe Duke ofCumberland, being- the favourite , 
of his parenU, The Duke of Gloucester, j 
whoee birth in 1717 'tnui8poi1«d' hU father ' 
vriib jov (Sujfilk Let ten, i. 17), and gave 
riae to the family quaml noticed below, died 
in infancy ; another boy, born in the previous 
year, did not aurvive his birth. 

Between the electoral princess and her 
grandmolher, the old Electress Sophia, to 
wiunn ahe moat largely have eupphed th? 
place of Sophia Charlotte, a warm esteem 
and affection continued to prevul, and her 
intimacy with Leibniz continued, though he i 
was at this time much away from Hanover. ■ 
Even in limm of political auiietv she took 
comfort, in the preface to his ' Deoajeos ' (*ic, 
KeublB. 501; for other examples of her 
spelling, phenomenal even in that age, see 
)it>r letl*<rs in the #auie collection, pasBlui). 
But she was not absorbed in moral philo- 
Kiphy or in other literature. The electoral 
pnare was fur more eager for the British suc- 
ceeBJon than his father, or probably even than 
his grandmother; and CwoUno had already 
leanied how to flatter her husband's foibles. 
wa«, moreover, her^lf of an ambitious 
le, and may be supposed to have been 
"'ous of her capacity for the royal sta- 
o which, in common with the prim*, 
le tspirod. Towards this end her conduct 
esas to have been consistently shaped. Her 

Cgrew in the English tongue was slow ; 
though asearly as 1706 she hod expressed 
R wish to study \t[Corrupimdance,iu. 220-1), 
and in 1713 actually engaged an English- 
woman born in Hanover to read English to 
her (ib. iii. 411), she never eeems to have 
learned to speak it with any degree of cor- 
reclneM. But to the politii^ situation and 
its need* the was wide awake. In September 
1712 she is found assuring Qneen Anne of 
her gratilude (Ellis's Original Lettn-g, 2nd 
eer. iv. 207-8); but in December 1713 she 
writee to Leibniz very gloomily concerning 
the pro«pecte of the succession. She may 
be concluded to have agreed with the step 
ttJaa on her husband's behalf in England in 
Y 1714, when his writ of summons to the 
_ twe of Lords was demanded and granted. 
^•11 events, she shared in the excitement 
Hied at Hanover by the queen's irate 
a to the Elnctresa Sophia auatheelectoral 
«, and declared that she had never ex- 
id so intolerable an annoyance (see her 
1 Kkhblb, 503-4, and in Carretpon- 

, i.4B2-3). tInSJune, inconsequence, 

twaa widely believed, of her agitation from 
e cause, the Electreaa Sophia died at 
liaiuen, ia Caroline's arms (see the 



, , iii. 457-62). 

The request of Leibtuz, that she would accept 
him 08 a poor legacy from his old niiatreas 
(ib. 462-6), was not overlooked ; she is found 
ccirrespouding with lum from England in 
1715, when she attempted to obtain for 
him from George I the payment of arrears 
of salary due to him (Keublb, 628 seq.) 
But her most confidential correspondent' after 
ihii death of the old eleotress seems to have 
been the favourite nieee of the latter, the 
vivacious and warm-hearted Elisabeth Char- 
lotte, duelees of Orleans, who declared 
Caroline to be posaeseod of a heart, ' a rare 
thing as times go ' (Vbuse, 251). 

After the death of the Electress Sophia, 
Caroline's active ijiterest in the British suc- 
cession did not abate (Memoin of Ker of 
Kei-sland, 3rd ed. 1727, i. 88 seq.); and 
her hopes had not loug to wait for ^fil- 
ment. Before the close of 1714 the Princess 
of Wales had followed her husband and 
George I to England ; already in November 
Addison rapturously commends his 'Cato' 
to her notice (see the lines in Anmsoir'a 
Miecellaneou* Workt, 1736, ii. 124-6 ; and 
about the same time her first household 
appointments are sharply censured by Lady 
Mary Wortley Montagu {Lettert and Work», 
2nd ed. 1837, i. 325). And likewise at a 
very early date in her English life her name 
was mixed up in a factious dispute concern- 
ing the religious beliefs of the new royal 
familv, in the course of which she was 
branded as a Calvinist and a presbyterian, 
and declared to have refused to receive the 
sacrament according to the rites of the 
church of England. These reports, thoush 
contradicted, may have contributed to the 
animosity with which she afterwards came 
to be regarded by the high church parly (see 
R. Pauli, Aufiatze air aiglitehen Oeschichte, 
neue(third)Folge(1833),883-91). Thefirst 
occasion, however, on which, after the acces- 
sion of the houseof Hanover in England, the 
Princess of Wales was called upon to take a 
side, was that of the open rupture between 
her husband and the king, his father, towards 
the close of 1717. George 1 did not love his 
daughter-in-law,whom to confidential earshe 
termed ' cetie diablesse madame la princesse ' 
{Seminuamive, 283 1, and she had shown her- 
self us irrec<incilable as had her husband, and 
carried her display of animosity against the 
king's party even into the neutral ground of a 
loasquerade (Lajjt M, W, Mostaou, i. 381), 
When the prince was banished from St. 
James's Palace, the princess, though in con- 
sideration of her condition leave was ^nled 
her to remain, oreferred to accomt«ny her 
husband | and tne night from 2-3 Dec. was 



Caroline 



142 



Caroline 



spent by both in the house of Lord Grantham, 
the princess's great chamberlain (see the ac- 
count, based upon a contemporary official nar- 
rative, in LoKD Hervet*8 MemoirSy iii. 279- 
282; also WALP0LE*8jRewmwccncc*, 290). Ten 
years afterwards, on the death of Georj^e I, it 
was Queen Caroline herself who, if Walpole 
is to be believed, discovered in the late king's 
cabinet Lord Berkeley's atrocious proposal 
to transport the Prince of Wales to America 
(^Remimscences, 289). 

After his quarrel with the king, the Prince 
of Wales in 1718 hired, and in 1719 bought, 
as a summer residence, Richmond Lodge in 
Richmond Gardens, on the riverside near 
Kew. The villa had formerly been the Duke 
of Ormonde's {Suffolk Letters^ i. 23 note; 
IIbrvey, iii. 118). Ultimately both Rich- 
mond Lodge and Gardens became Queen 
Caroline's separate property (Her^'EY, iii. 
312 note) ; and it was here that in 1735 she 
caused to be constructed, in the absurd fashion 
of the times, the famous * Merlin's Cave,' a 
grotto adorned with figures of Merlin and 
others, and supplied with a collection of 
books, of which Stephen Duck was librarian 
{ih. ii. 222 and note). As a town residence the 
prince and princess took Leicester Uouse in 
Leicester Fields (J?<'mtwt>c<»n«»«, 295 and note). 
But Richmond was associated with Caroline's 
court more than any other place — more even 
than Kensington (hardens, whence was de- 
rived the title of the poem in which Tickell 
paid a tribute to * England's daughter ' and 
* her virgin band.' Even after her accession 
to the throne her and her husband's life here 
was * so much in private that they saw nobody 
but their servants' (IIervey, i. 249) ; but 
this household and its immediate intimates 
included, besides a bevv of fair ladies, the 
most accomplished of tlie younger whig no- 
bility, and not a few of such great wits of 
the day as were within reach. Pope him- 
self, in 1717, celebrated the princess's 'maids' 
in his 'court ballad ' entitled *The Challenge ; ' 
but a more complete picture of * Bellenden, 
Lepell, and Griffin,' and of the lively ways 
of these and other ladies around the princess, 
will be found in their own contributions to 
the * Suffislk Jjetters ' (see also JRemifiisceywe^f 
300 seqq., for a general survey of this court). 
Among the ladies attached to the court were 
Mrs. Selwyn and Lady Walpole; but the 
most influential personage there after the 
princess was her bedchamber-woman, Mrs. 
iToward, afterwards Lady Suffijlk and mis- 
tress of the robes, and mistress en titre to 
George II both before and after his accession. 
With her the princess prudently established a 
modus vivendty and though a species of party 
inevitably formed round the mistress, the con- 



trolling influence oyer her husband remained 
with the wife. According to Lord Hervey 
(Memoirs, ii. 89-93), when in 1734 a rupture 
between the king and Lady Suffolk at last 
took place, Queen Caroline was ' both glad 
and sorry ; ' indeed, at one time she had been 
rather desirous to keep Lady Suffolk about 
the king than to leave a chance for a suc- 
cessor. Mrs. Clayton (afterwards Lady Sun- 
don), another of the bedchamber-women, 
acquired great influence over the queen in 
later days, and was thought in especial to 
be the agent who introduced low church or 
* heterodox' divines to her favour {Suffolk 
LetterSy i. 62-3 ; Reminiscences, 307). Among 
the male members of the young court im 
most prominent were Lord Stanhope, from 
1726 Lord Chesterfield, whose opposition to 
Walpole, coupled, it was said, with the dis- 
covery of his trust in !Mrs. Howard by the 
queen, entailed upon him her lasting resent- 
ment (t*. 297 ; Walpoliana, i. 83-4 ; Her- 
vey, i. 322-4 ; and see Croxek's refutation of 
CoxB in a note to Suffolk Letters) ; Lords 
Bat hurst and Scarborough; Colonel, after- 
wards General, Charles C&urchill ; Garr, lord 
Hervey, and above all his younger brother 
John, who succeeded to the title in 1723. 
Lord Hervey was the most devoted of Queen 
Caroline's ser\*ants and friends; he says 
(ii. 40) that she called him always 'her 
child, her pupil, and her charge ; ' he was of 
the utmost use to her in her dealings with 
the king and with Walpole; he reported the 
debates to her ; his society was the relief of 
her life ; and he was even allowed to laugh 
at her without offence being taken (see fis 
jeiu* (Tesprit, ii. 325-40). After her death 
he wrote her epitaph (ib. iii. 334 note). 
Among the neighbours or the court at Rich- 
mond Lodge who at different times came 
into contact with it were I^ady Mary Wortley 
Montagu and Pope; Bolingbroke too was 
from 1726 intriguing close at hand. Gay 
had the enfrSe, thou^ he thought it beneath 
him to accept the office of gentleman-usher 
to the Pnncess Louisa and Arbuthnot. 
Swift in his exile flattered himself with 
hopes founded on the interest shown in him 
and in Irish affairs by the princess on his 
visits to England in 1726 and 1727, but more 
especially on the supposed influence of Mrs. 
Howard {Suffolk Letters), Finally, it may 
be presumed that even in the earlier years of 
Caroline's English life the literary represen- 
tatives of those opinions on religious matters 
which chiefly found favour there were oc- 
casionally admitted to her society. 

The hopes of the * Howard party,' which 
had thought that the ascen&ncy of the 
mistress would be finnly ettablidied on 



^KOoearioD to the throne of George II, 
altogether disnppoiuted tvhea t1t»t 

WM liroueht Hliout by the suilden 

death of hia falBnr on 9 June 1727. Not 
only Wfts Lord Bathurst disnppointed of a 
coronet by the veto of Queen Oaroline (Ite- 
nii»i>v7i«M, !ilt6) : but another friend of Mrs. 
Howard, Sir Speuwr Compton, was, at the 
direct anggualion of the queen, deposed from 
tht> Lvi^nt of prime-minister-degij^ate. At 
Uitt reici^pt ion held by the kinj; and queen at 
Leicoster House on the day after the notice 
of their aceeaaion had reached them, the 
qneen cnrefullj distinguished Lady Wal- 
pote, and the imbecility of Sir Spencer mede 
il easy for her to give effect to her wish. 
B^yood H doubt she was strongly influenced 
by Walpole's offw, carried out by a pnrlis- 
mentSry vote on 9 Jidy following, to obtain 
for her Irom parliament n jointure of lOO.OOOt 
a year, in lieu of uO,OUO/. na proposed hy Sir 
Spencer Corapton. But there were other ren- 
B01U whioh hud long mitde her fnvouisble 
to Waltiole: she wna fully capable of recog- 
niting liis meritB. she was on good terms 
with his supuorter the Duke of Devonshire, 
and. while ulwayg respectfiJ to her, be hud 
nev«>r paid court to Mrs. Howard (CoiE, ii. 
384Hiqq.i cf. Walpiliana, i. 86-7). From 
this time onward the part played hy the 
qneeii in the political affairs of Great Britain 
may he said to have determined itself. Her 
support of Walpole was all but unfaltering. 
In 1730, US she observed the growing mis- 
unHi-'rstanding between Walpole and Towns- 
hend. she 8l«adily adhered to the former, 
and helpvd to secure his victory (COXB, ii, 
3(^2-4 ; cf. Jtemmi*r*nc^, 306). In 1733 she 
not only supported the minister in his excise 
sclwinn so courageously as on its withdrawal 
to have the honour of'^ being burnt in effigy 
with him by the London mob (Hervei, i. 
206), but she inspired the king with a stead- 
fast resolution not to drop the author of the 
scheme with the scbenu? itself (ib. 193-1^). 
In the South S«a Company inquiry which : 
maiii-^ i[i the lords, she eagerly strove, by 
private persuasions addresseo to several peers, 
to avert a ministerial defeat (ifi. 233). In 
the same and in the following year her action ' 
in the Polish succession ouestinn was affected 
by the arguments of Walpole and Rervey to 
such a 'li'RTeo that, though still in favour of 
war,ebe contrived tocouTince the king of the 
mpediimcy of peace (I'A. i. 362, 271-3, ii. 61 ; 
cf. CoiB, ii. 'iOi ), It would seem, however, 
that before the election of 1734 the ({ueen 
»har«d the king's temporary distrust in the 
proiipnrtj" of the ministry (Hervbt, i. 339). 
jiuttng hrr Inter (t^reueies the queen and 
Walpolf did everything by themselves {ib. ii. 



181), and in 1736 the queen aided the n 
ster in inducing the king to abandon his 
scheme of a northern league (Coib, iii. 260). 
Such was the political intimacy between'tie 
king's two oars,' as Lord Hervey called them 
(ii. 107), that Walpole was jealous even of 
the confidence she reposed in the faithful 
Lord Hervey (Hbkvbt, iii. 234), and such 
her trust in the mioister, that shortly before 
her death she recommended the king to hia 
care instead of o^ng for him the favourof the 
king (CoSB, iii. 386-7 ; SfminUamefi, 307). 
The general character of the relations between 
the kingandthequeen were morepanidoiical. 
It vras said that the alkali of her temper 
sweetened the acid of bis (HEavmr, iii, fi^). 
She governed him primarily by his admiration 
for her person (J7mtinMc«ncM. 304 ; Hebvet, 
i. 293-300), but ahnosi equallv by her com- 

Elaisance, which knew no bounds (see, to quote 
ut one instance, Lord Hervey's account, ii, 
168, of her treatment of his passion for Ma- 
dame de Walmoden, afterwards countess of . 
Yarmouth). Lastly, she governed him by 
means of the tact which enabled her to appear 
not to govern the vainest of men (Hbbtet, 
i. 334 ; BeminUefnca, 305). In return he 
treated her, on the whole, as well as his es- 
sentially selfish nature and his vainglorious- 
ness in matters of gallantry would allow. 
About 1736 a change for the worse was 
thought observable in his behaviour towards 
her fHERVBT, ii. 205), but she manifested 
much emotion when in December 1736 he 
was thought to have imperilled his life in 
a storm nt sea (ib. iii. 6 seqq.); and when 
be lost her in tbe following year, there woa 
no doubt as to the genuineness of his grief. 
In no sentiment was she more entirely at 
one with him than in her detestation of tneir 
eldest son, Frederick, prince of Wales. Even 
Croker cannot account for the early beginning 
or for the intensity of the queen's animosity 
Bgaimt the prince (IIbrtet, iii. 54 note ; see, 
liowever,i6. 276andii. 870) ; nor does she seem 
ever to have heartily entered into the notable 
scheme in favour of her second aon for sever- 
ing Hanover from Great Britain, though it 
might in the event of her husband's death 
have secured her a convenient retreat (ib, 
iii. 920 seqq.) At the time of her death the 
popular imagination was greatly occupied 
with the fact that she refused an interview 
to her hated first-born, and Pope was at 
pains to preserve her refusal from oblivion in 
a classic sneer; but though she must be held 
personally responsible for the detusion (ib. 
307-8), there is something little short of 
hypocrisy in treating it as inejccusable. Her 
second son was beloved by Ixith his parents; 
of the daughters, the Princess Caroline waa 



Caroline 



144 



Caroline 



devoted to the queen (ib. iii. 209). Towards 
the princess royal her affection appears to 
have been warm rather than deep (t^. 334). | 
As a rule, the political opinions of Queen 
Caroline were in complete accord with those 
of her husband. Though at times eloquent 
in her praise of English institutions^ she was 
a German princess at heart, * always partial 
to the emperor ' {ib. i. 273), jealous of the i 
prerogative, and as fond of troops as was the ; 
King nimself (tft. ii. 263). Walpole declared 
that she was in the habit of accusing him of 
* partiality to England ' (ib. ii. 63), and it is 
certain that ' the militant flame in her was 
blown ' by such counsellors as the Hanoverian 
minister Hattorf (ib. ii. 38-9). Though true 
to the whig leader in the main, she nad no 
love for the whigs as a party (ib. iii. 65), and 
had a strong dislike of tlie minister's brother . 
Horace, of Newcastle (iii. 134-6), and of 
Carteret (iii. 161). She was liberal in sen- 
timent towards Jacobites and Roman catho- 
lics, and promised Swift to use her best en- . 
deavours for Ireland (Suffolk Letters, i. 
700-1). Though she was at all times active ; 
in influencing appointments (CoxE, ii. 268), 
her interest in politics most fully exhibited 
itself when she acted as regent durii^ the 
king's absence in Hanover in 1729, 1732, 
17SS, and 1736-7. From first to last, much 
to the chagrin of the Prince of Wales, the 
king invanably appointed her to this office, ' 
and an act of parliament was passed for the . 
express purpose of exempting her from taking 
the oaths (io. ii. 296). More especially during | 
his last aosence she took an active part in 
the conduct of affairs, and showed great 
vigour in dealing with the troubles which 
arose during this period, and with the Edin- 
burgh Porteous riots, and their consequences 
in particular. At the same time she con- 
cibated the king's weakness by avoiding any 
display of state during his absence, and by 
residing out of town at Kensington, notwith- 
standing his pretended wishes to the con- 
trary (IlBRVEY, ii. 362). Towards the church 
Queen Caroline's position was peculiar. The 
bench of bishops as a whole she treated de 
haut en bets (see her rebuke of them for their 
opposition to the Quakers' Tithe Bill in 1736, 
Hebvst, ii. 276) ; but for several members 
of it, such as Sherlocke, Seeker, Butler, and 
Pearce, she entertained a strong regard. Her 
relations with Hoadly, whom Hervey main- 
tains she hated, but whom she helped to pro- 
mote to the see of Winchester, must have 
been of a more complex nature. She would 
ffladly have placed on the bench Dr. Clarke, 
for whose learning and character she had 
the deepest respect, but he repeatedly de- 
clined (see as to her relations with Clarke, 



and her * arbitration ' between him and 
Leibniz, CoxE, IL 273-4). It pleased the 
world and the wits who set it talking (see 
especially Croker's note to Hervet, iL 140) 
to impugn the orthodoxy of her creed. That 
she thought soberly on the highest subjects 
is shown by her letter to Leibniz concerning 
his 'Theodicee' (Eemble, 633-4); it was 
not her fault that she could not help, as he 
had hoped, to incline the church of England 
in the direction of a reunion of the protes- 
tant churches (ib. 641-6). 

The health of Queen Caroline was seriously 
affected in the autumn of 1734 (the report of 
her death in 1731 was a mere stoclgobber*s 
invention ; see Wenttoorth Papers^ 474) ; and 
in August 1737, after receiving a letter offen- 
sive in form from the Prince of Wales, she 
fell ill of a violent fit of the gout ^Hervet, 
iii. 227). But the fatal illness which began 
on 9 Nov. of the same year had its origin in 
a rupture which she had for years carefully 
kept concealed, and for which a painfiu 
operation was performed, it is said, only two 
days too late. She died on 20 Nov. quite 
peacefully. Not long before her death she 
made a simple and touching declaration of 
her endeavours on behalf of the king and 
nation. There was much gossip as to her 
having declined to receive the sacrament; 
her last words were a request for prayer. 
The king lamented her witn loud and half- 
selfish passionateness, but he scrupulously 
provid^ for her servants, declaring that he 
would have nobody feel her loss but himself 
He was afterwaros buried by her side in 
Henry VU's chapel in Westminster Abbey 
(CoxB, iii. 377-80, chiefly from Dr. Alubed 
Clabke's Essay towards the Character of 
Queen Caroline-, Hervey, iii. 294-348; Bemi- 
niscences). By her will she lefr all her pro- 
perty to the kin^, including the seat at 
Kichmond, on which she had spent so much 
money (his, according to Hemintscences, 305), 
but it seems to have been an idle invention 
that she died rich. ' Caroline the GKxkI ' was 
a genuinely able and, notwithstanding her 

Swer of dissembling, a true-hearted woman, 
er learning was not deep, but she was able 
to appreciate some of the best thought of her 
times, and she made some attempt to en- 
courage poets and other men of letters by her 
patronage. She was not ill-read in French 
history, and took some interest in English 
literature, though she never learnt to speak 
English correctly, and conversed with her 
family in French. Of eminent men of science, 
Newton and Halley had her active good- 
will ; and she was a benefactress of Queen's 
College, Oxford. Of couiseshawasJEbr Handel 
with the king, and against theprinoe. Hiough 



Caroline 



>45 



Caroline 



she was a stickler for etiquette, lier conversn- 
tion wfts OS unrelined ofl her spelling waa iu- 
cortwt, but for these defect* she need not 
b<> held responsible. She had a hraad wit of 
hpr own, which she eKereised freely on both 
friend anil foe. She was not averee to the 
ordinary amueemenls of her times, and it 
was tlie king's taste which condemned her 
to spend most of her evenings ' IfDotting'nnd 
listening: to his ol^urgBtory talk. But she 
learnt to study other characters besides her 
husband's, and beeame, as Sir Robert Wal- 
pole phrased it, ' main good at pumping.' 
She was a good hater, as Chesterfield and 
others found; she was a faithful friend, and 
full of active sympathy for the iinprotecleil. 
Her greatest error, as Horace Wnlpole truly 
obeerves, vras that she cherished too high an 
Opioiou of her own power of dealing with 
others, so that her desigiiB were more often 
teen through than she thought. Her greatest 
merit, and the source of the power which she 



nation, was her patience — the pat 

strong and not ungenerous mind. 

The National Portrait Gallery 

Krtrait of t'aroUne as Princess of Wales bv 
rras, and another of her as queen byKuoch 
Seeman. 

(Hcrtey's Memoirs of the Eeign of Qeorge II 
ttam his AcC««sion to Che Death of Queen Caro~ 
liae (ed. Croker). 3 vols. 1848, reprinted 18B4; 
Q^m'a Mcmoira of the life and Administrntiiin 
of Sit Kobert Walpole, new ed. 4 vols. 1810; 
lord SiiiBhope'i History ol' England from the 
Peace of UlrocbC 6th ed. ISfiS, vols. i. and ii. ; 
ROToinisofnceB, written in 1788, in the Worksof 
HomtJo Walpulc. earl of Orfonl, S vols. 1 798 ; 
Wentworlh Papers (1706-89), edited by J.J. 
CsTtwrigbt, 1883; toI. i. of Dr. Doran'i Livfsof 
tb* Qaecos of England of the Honse ot Honovar, 
4th ed. 2 vols, 1876; vol. xviii. of Tehse's 
t)eaehirht« der deutsvhru Hiife. &c., Hamburg, 
186S. For Iho earlier years of Queen Caroliufl 
tec also vol. lii. of tlie CorrMpoudiuice de Leib- 
d)c avee I'tlectriee Sophie de Brunswick- Lii ne- 
burg, S vols. Haoover, 1874;Hnd Kemble's .State 
Bspen and Corrtapondence, &o., from the Itevo- 
totion to the AccessioDof the House of Hanover, 
I8fi7.| A. W. W. 

CABOLINE MATTLDA (1751-1775), 
rjiiecn of Denmark and Norway, was the 
ninth and jroungest child of Frederick and 
Augusta, prince and princess of Wales. She 
wai bom at Leicester House in London, 
32 July li'il, a little more than four months I 
after bor father's death. Her childhood was , 
•pent in the comparative seclusion of her 
moliisr's court, where eho was well, thoush 
~ '■ tq* no meana rigorously, 



educated. Pleasant traditions attach them- 
selves to this period of her life, at Kew and 
elsewhere (Keith ; L. Wkixill). It came 
to a close with her engagement, announced 
to parliament 10 Jan. 1766, to Christian, 
prince royal of Denmark, son of Frederick V 
and his popular first wife Louisa, youngest 
daughter of George II of Great Britain. 
The match seems to have given satisfaction 
in England as ' adding security to the pro- 
testant religion ; ' but it possessed no special 
political significance. By the death of 
Frederick V, 14 Jan. 1766, Christian VH 
succeeded to the Danish throne, and 1 Oct. 
in the same year Caroline Matilda was mar- 
ried to him t)T proxy (her brother the Duke 
of York) at tlie Chapel Royal, St. James's. 
Two days afterwards abe embarked from 
Harwich for Rotterdam, whence she pro- 
ceeded to Altona and Roesldlde. From 
this place Christian \'7I conducted her to 
the palace of Frederiksberg, near Copenhagen, 
where her solemn entry and formal mar- 
riage followed 8 Nov, {Annual Seffiiter for 
1766; Malobtib, ii. 6^-9). Her English 
and Hanoverian suite having quitted her at 
Altona, Caroline Matilda was left alone in 
a strange land among doubtful surroundings. 
Her popular reception had been warm; but 
thekingwasindifferenttoher. Christian VII, 
a youth of feeble character and selfish dispo- 
sition, was by setf-indulgence beginning to 
reduce himself to a mental condition which 
in some measure justified Niebuhr's com- 
parison of him to Caligula. Next by birth 
to the throne stood his stepbrother Frederick, 
the son of his father's second wife Juliana 
Maria, a princess of Brans wick- WolfenbiitteL 
There is no reason whatever for supposing 
that Juliana Maria was either now or for 
some time afterwards animated by jealous 
or hostile feelings against the young qneen 
(this Buppoaition, of which the AaihenfiicAe 
Aafkliirv-ngni are a main source, is refuted 
bj Revbrhil, 327, and by the other evi- 
dence reviewed by WimPH, 185-8) ; on the 
contrary, they and the other queen dowager, 
Sophia Magdulena, widow of Christian VI, 
lived together 'dans une grande intimity et 
dans im ennui paisible' (KevEitDiL, 138). 
Queen Caroline Matilda took no interest in 
public affairs {ill. 162 j cf. WiTTICH, 26). 
Though she was from the first treated with 
coldness by her husband, her troublee be- 
gan when Count von Hoick, by taking ad- 
vantage of the peculiarities in the king's 
temper, eatablished himself as favourite ; on 
21Dec. 1767 hewas appointed marshal of the 
court. On tlie king's return from a joumev 
to Holstein in the previous summer, on which 
he was not accompanied by the queen, h» 



Caroline 



146 



Caroline 



was provided with a mistress ; nor was any 
change in the situation brought about by the 
birth of an heir to the crown (afterwards 
Frederick VI), 28 Jan. 1768. Hoick suc- 
ceeded in ousting from office Frau von Pies- 
sen, the queen's mistress of the robes, who 
had gained her confidence and whose old- 
fashioned severity might have kept her from 
the path of error (Reverdil, 73-4). From 
6 May 1768 to 14 Jan. 1769 the king was 
on his travels in England, Paris, and else- 
where, while the queen remained at Frede- 
riksberg, gaining tlie good-will of her neigh- 
bours by her kindliness and her attention 
to her maternal duties (Keith, i. 184). 
Christian VTFs suite on his journey included 
John Frederick Struensee, a physician of 
Altona, who had been appointed surgeon-in- 
ordinary to the king for the occasion, and 
who on the return to Copenhagen was ap- 
pointed to the post in permanency. From 
this point forward the ambitious adventurer's 
political rise began. His plan was at first 
Dv no means based upon any connivance 
with the queen ; on the contrary, he relied 
upon the aid of a new royal mistress, who 
however died in the following Aug^t (N. 
Wraxall's private journal ap. L. Wbax- 
ALL, i. 216 ; cf. Rbvbrdil, 147). Both this 
person and Struensee hud been odious to the 
queen ; and when about this time she con- 
sulted the latter on a supposed attack of the 
dropsy, it was the king wno had obliged her 
to do so {ib, 148). Struensee advised amuse- 
ment and exercise as the best cure, and these 
remedies answering, she naturally gained 
confidence in her physician. Struensee was 
beyond all doubt a man of unusual intelli- 
gence, and, as his confessions to Miinter 
suffice to prove {Conversion^ (J-c, 41-2), a 
convinced lady-killer. While the king en- 
couraged an intimacy which kept the queen 
amused, Struensee seems to have exerted 
himself to bring about a better understand- 
ing between the royal pair, and by his efforts 
to have gained the approval of both. In 
January 1770 he was assigned rooms in the 
Christiansberg palace (L. vVraxall, i. 221); 
and his successful inoculation of the crown 
prince early in the year raised him higher 
than ever in the royal favour {AutJienttsche 
Aufkldningeny 40; the process was of quite 
recent introduction). He was now named 
councillor of conference and reader to the 
king and queen ; and from this time the 
intimacy between the latter and Struensee 
must have rapidly reached its climax. In- 
deed, if certain evidence brought against the 
Queen after her catastrophe is to be believed, 
the familiarity between her and Struensee 
had attracted the suspicions of her attendants 



as early as the winter of 1709-70 (see Bang's 
indictment, ap. Jenssek-Tusch, 281 seq.) 
After this they had imposed restraint upon 
themselves, but only for a time ; soon their 
intimacy was paraded before the capital Tsee 
the anecdote of the queen passing in her 
riding-habit on Struensee's arm by the corpfle 
of the dowager Sophia Magdalena when it 
lay in state. May 1770, ap. Wittich, 51 
note), and revealed itself in the provinces, 
to which the court paid a visit in June (see 
the testimony of Irince Charles of Hesse 
ap. L. Wraxall, L 232). 

During this visit, perhaps while the court 
sojourned at Traven^hl, Struensee perfected 
his ambitious projects in company with Ene* 
void von Brandt, a former royal page who 
had returned to the court, and with Shack 
Charles, count von llantzau-Ascheberg, to 
whom Struensee owed his admission to the 
royal service and whose h^h official career 
had been arrested largely by Kussian influence. 
Their intrigues resmted by the end of July 
in the dismissal of Hoick and others, among 
whom were his sister Madame von der Liihe, 
the mistress of the robes, and other ladies 
attached to the person of the queen. Shortly 
before this Caroline Matilda's mother, the 
dowager Princess of Wales, paid a visit to 
the continent, where for many reasons she 
wished to meet her daughter. The proposed 
meeting at Brunswick was, however, post- 
poned ; nor was it till August that mother 
and daughter met — for the last time — at 
Liineburg. Struensee was in the queen's 
company, and the princess found no oppor- 
tunity of doing more than requesting Wood- 
ford, the British minister to the Lower 
Saxon Circle, to make representations to the 
queen concerning her conduct ; nor was the 
l)uke of Gloucester, who shortly afterwards 
paid a visit to Copenhagen on the same 
errand, more successful (Revebdil, 159-00). 
At Hirschholm, near Copenhagen, where the 
court spent the rest of tne summer, the fall 
of BcmstorfT, the chief minister of Den- 
mark, was brought about. This change of 
government may be briefly described as dis- 
agreeable to the Russian and therefore agree- 
able to the Swedish, agreeable to the French 
and therefore disagreeable to the British, 
interest at Copenhagen. Hereupon, in de- 
fiance alike of national traditions and public 
feeling, the reforms of Struensee in court, 
state, and social life ran their course; and 
though ' there might be something ''rotten** 
in the state of Denmark, there was nothing 
rusty' since the new brooms had been set 
to work rKEiTH, i. 229). He was appointed 
master 01 requests December 1770 ; in the 
same month the oouncil was sup p r e ss e d by 



a royal decree ; 18 July 1771 he was made 
Ckbinet miniaier, end his orders were de- 
clared to baTe the same validity as if aigned 
by tbe iifgi 22 July— the queen's birtliday 
—he and Brandt were created counts. His 
administrBtlon met with universal obloquy. 
Hie quet^D shared his unpopularity, partly 
because he eave every possible publicity lo 
her regard ior him, wluch y/ag (lie bMt se- 
curity of hia poaition, partly because her 
conduct deemed to fumiab a atmnge com- 
ment on tbe spirit of her favourite's reforms. 
There seems indeed lo have been little truth 
in the rumour as to the extraordinary license 
prevailing at her court. But the sovereigns 
were completely surrounded by Straensee's 
GTMtiireSiwho belonged as a rule to bis own 
elA»; the court, says lleverdil (271), who 
returned lo Denmark about midsummer, had 
tbn air of servnnla in a respectnbie house 
sitting down to table in the absence of their 
masti^TS. Straensee's attempta at retrench- 
ment in court expenditure were counter- 
biilancedby tbe extravafronceof Brandt; and 
on one occasion which became notorious the 
quf<en speina to have shared with them inagift 
from Iheroval treasury (Wiwet'a indictment 
an. JbSssb^-Tvbou, 278-9). Heverdil found 
Vu> king, whose condition was already near 
to imbecility, willing to allow the queen to 
conduct herself with the most openfamiliarity 
towards her favourite (260). Shrewd ot- 
•errera thought that the latter occasionally 
exhibited indifference towards the advances 
of the queen (ap. Wittich, 181) ; but he 
well knew that ner support was indispen- 
sable to him, Colonel(afterwardR Sir Robert) 
Murray Keith^ who arrived as British Tuinis- 
I«r Ht [he Daouh court in June 1771, clearly 
perceived the condition of affairs, but be- 
Bsred with great discretion, reserving his 
tnterrention for a 'dangerous extremity' 
(KslTH, i. 227-8), Eveii the nevra of the 
birtb, 7 July, at Hirscbbolm of a princess 
(LouiaaAupiBta.afterwards married to Duke 
Pwderick Christian II of Augu^tenburg) 
was coldly, if not suspLciously, received by 
die capital; the queen dowager was, how- 
ever, ready to be a godmother at Carolina Ma- 
tilda's request (AutAentUche Aafkldmnffm, 
lOS). The queen nursed the infant herself. 
Indeed the maternal instinct was always 
•ironE in her. and although she was re- 
proached for giving her son nn early train- 
ing, which by Struensee's advice wns based 
on thn principles of 'Etnile' (ItEVERDiL, 
2S1-5), It seems on the whole to have been 
«uc«e*sful. 

Thn ovOTthrow of Struensee was the result 
flf a court intrigue, not of onypopularmove- 
DUtnt : but some Uine before it was brought 



about the wildest charges had been spread 
against the queen and him. It was said that 
they intended to abut up tbe king and pro- 
claim the queen as regent — a rumour, as 
Charles of Hesse in repeating it points out, 
absurd in i»elf, as the king was rather a pro* 
tection to them than un obstacle (WimcH, 
115 b.) Towards tbe end of 1771 they began 
to grow uneasy, and when early in September 
a malcontent body of Norwegian sailors mado 
a tumultuous visit to Ilirscbholm the queen 
I prepared everytbingforflight, Anotherpanio 
I followed in connection with a popular festival 
I held at Frederiksbra^ 28 Se^ ; if Reverdil 
is to be believed {'267), this was caused by a 
real plot, of which Juliana Maria was at the 
bottom. In October Struensee thought it 
necessary virtually to abolish the liberty of 
the press, which hod been one of bis most 
striking reforms. Then Brandt himself, Stru- 
ensee's confederate, engaged in a desperate 
scheme for the minister's removal; 'means 
would be found for consoling the queen' 
fKALCKBJtaitJoLii ap. Wittich, 132). This 
danger was averted by a grotesque affray 
between the king and Brandt, which after- 
wards proved fatal to the Utter; but Stru- 
ensee's anxiety continued. About this time 
(according to the .(4 u/ApniMcAe^w^MruTiyni, 
122-3) he threw himself at the feet of the 
queen, imploring her to allow him for both 
their sakee to quit the country, hut she in- 
duced him to remain. Onthe other band, he 
told Heverdil, to whom he was not otherwise 
contidential, that his devotion to the queen 
alone kept him at his post (288). The same 
writer relates a characteristic anecdote bow 
the queen, who had a pleasant voice, face- 
tiously declared that when in exile she would 
gwn herbreadasasinger(290). Struensee'a 
arbitrary system, however, continued ; when, 
30 Nov., the court migrated to Frederiksberg, 
military precautions were taken for its secu- 
rity, and Copenhagen itself was placed under 
effect ive control. Finally, an order for the 
disbandment of the guards as such led to their 
mutinous march to Frederiksberg on Christ- 
mas eve, and to scenes in the capital which 
left no doubt as to the sentiments of the popu- 
Ution, Icissaid(byL.WBUALt,ii.78)that 
about this time Keith offered Struensee a 
large sum of money if be would leave the 
country: but there is no notice of any such 
proposal in Keith's ' Memoirs,' and be was 
probably too discreet to have made it. The 
court returned to Copenhagen 8 Jan. 1772. 
By this time tbe mine had been laid. Rant- 
lan, discontented with his share of the spoils 
and with Struensee's unwillingness to adopt 
his political views, had determined lo over- 
throw tbe la vourite. He induced the dowager 



Caroline 



148 



Caroline 



queen Juliana Maria, who during the summer 
Had watched the progress of affairs from Fre- 
densborg, where she lived isolated with her 
son Frederick, to approve of the plot, by 
showing her forged evidence of a conspiracy 
between Struensee and the queen against the 
kinff (Revbkdil, 328). The details of Rant- 
zau s scheme were settled in Juliana Maria s 
palace 15 Jan. (t^. 329), and its execution 
was fixed for the night from 16-17 Jan., after 
the termination of a masked ball in the Chris- 
tiansborg palace. Though Rantzau himself 
h&sitated at the last moment, the palace revo- • 
lution was punctually and successfully carried 
out by himself and his confederates. Stru- 
ensee, Brandt, and their chief actual or sup- 
posed abettors were placed under arrest, and 
on the same night the queen was with cynical 
brutality taken prisoner by Kantzau, accom- 

ganied by a body of soldiery under Major 
'astenskjold. AVith her little daughter in 
her arms she was hurriedly driven to Blron- 
borg, a royal castle and prison on the Sound, 
near Elsinore, and there consigned to care- 
fully guarded apartments. It is said that in 
the evening she saw in the distance Copen- 
hagen illuminated in celebration of her dis- 
aster (ib. 336-8). 

In solitude, relieved only by the presence 
of her infant daughter, whom she nursed 
throu£^h an attack of the measles, and by 
occasional visits from the faithful Keith, 
Caroline Matilda awaited her fate. The 
genuineness of her letters to Keith and to her 
brother, George III, is open to serious doubt 
(they are given by L. Wbaxall, ii. 205-7). 
Her attendants were persons whom she dis- 
liked (ih. ii. 203), and she had to listen to 
pulpit addresses, which must have been hard 
to bear (the best account of her period of con- 
finement is stated by Wittich, 143 note, to 
be that of Schiekn in Hisf. Tidsskr. iv. vol. 
ii. 776 seqq. ; see also CoXB ap. Adolphus, 
i. 544-5). During the course of her im- 
prisonment she must have heard of the death 
of her mother, the dowager Princess of Wales, 
8 Feb. 1772. The interrogatory of Struensee 
began 20 Feb., but it was not till the third 
day of his examination that, under pressure, 
he confessed to criminal familiarity with the 
queen; aftenvards he sought to throw the 
blame as much as possible on her. Ques- 
tions affecting the legitimacy of the Princess 
Louisa Augusta were, however, satisfactorily 
answered. Brandt, in his interrogatory, de- 
clared that Struensee had confessed his crimi- 
nality to him (Rbverdil, 394-8). Hereupon 
a commission of four subjected the queen to 
an interrogatory at Kronborg; at toe first 
visit, acting it is said on Keith's advice, she 
refused to answer, declaring that she acknow- 



ledged no superior or judge besides the king. 
At the second, 9 March, Stmensee's confes- 
sion signed by him was shown to her, when 
she avowed herself guilty, and signed a writ- 
ten confession, generously taking the original 
blame upon herself (Revebdil, 400-1; ac- 
cording to Jenssen-Ttjsch, 401-2, she was 
induced to sign by the assurance that her 
confession would miti^te Struensee's (ate: 
while this, though possible, is improbable, the 
dramatic account of Falckenslgold, which is 
also that of the Authentische Nachrichteii, 
223-8, is almost certiiinly fictitious. Horace 
"Walpole s account, Journal of the Reign of 
Chorge HI, i. 77-i9, 90, is clearly untrust- 
worthy. On the whole subject of the queen s 
examination and confession, see Wittich, 
222-32). On 24 March an indictment was 
preferred against the queen before a tribunal 
of thirty-five notables (it is given at length 
in Jen8S£N-Tx78CH, 226-40) ; on 2 April her 
defence was delivered {ib. 241-53 ; Wittich 
notices that while her advocate Uldall here 
represents her as asserting her innocence the 
crime is admitted in his defence of Struensee. 
For the rest his pleas on behalf of the ^ueen 
are in essence hardly more than technical) ; 
sentence was given on 6 April and commu- 
nicated to the (]ueen on the 8th. It declared 
her marriage with the king to be dissolvt^l. 
Her name was hereupon removed from its 
place in the liturgy (the order of Matilda, 
which she had instituted on her birthday in 
January 1771,hadbeenaboli8hed immediately 
after the catastrophe). Capital sentences on 
Struensee and Brandt followed shortlv after- 
wards, and were carried out 28 April. It 
is said that in her prison the ^ueen intuitively 
knew the day of her favourite's doom. 

In England the news of Caroline Matilda's 
arrest had created a passing excitement (see 
Oibbon's fiippant letters to Holroyd in his 
Miscellaneous Works, ii. 72-6 ; cf. W alfole, 
i. 3, 42). At first Qeor^ IH's government 
took up a threatening attitude, but the public 
press made indicant comments on the sup- 
posed apathy of Lord North's administration 
(Walpole, 1. 89 ; cf. L. Wra^all, ii. 169). 
Soon, however, public feeling ac(^uie8ced in 
the manifest opmion of the initiated, that 
the affair had better be taken quietly. Keith's 
activity at Copenhagen had been acknow- 
ledged ^eTM^eTt to liU by admission to the order 
of the JBath (Keith, i. 121) ; but, as is now 
known, the diplomatic correspondence be- 
tween the two courts at this stage gave 
rise to no very serious differences. While 
George III was informed of the evidence 
against his sister and of the necessity of re- 
moving her from the court after the sentence 
pronounced against her, he waa aaaored that 



every poeeible cons idemt ion would be exten- 
ded to her, and thnt Hbt name would not be 
mentioned in the sontences of Stniensee and 
llip other delinquents (Schiers ap, WiT- 
TicH, 25ii-3J. The latter promise, at all 
events, was Bubstantiallj kept. When, how- 
ever, aiW the sentence of diToree, the Danish 
^vemment proposed to banish Cnmline Ma- 
tilda to Aalborg- in Jutland, the British mi- 
nistry resolved to make at least, a show of 
Active intervention. The protests of Keith 
(i. 102) seem to have been followed by a 
threat of the rupture of diplomatic relations, 
and a squadron was ordered to sail for Co- 
pi^nliatfen. But a few houn before the time 
fixed ror it« weighing anchor the news arrived 
tlitit the Daiiisii tfovemment had promised 
the liberation of the queen (cf. tlie account 
in Walpolb, 80-1, where the king is said to 
liaVE known his sister a story two years be- 
fore the catastrophe). Keith had further 
obtained the grant to her of an annual pen- 
sion of the value of fl.OOOi., and notwith- 
■landing the divorce she retained the title 
<if qiu«n (see l..ord Sufiblk's grandiloquent 
letters »p. Keitr, 1. ^86-9). Two frigates , 
And ■ doop were hereupon ordered to Elsl- 
noreby the British government, and on 3 May 
the quBon, over whom after her enlargement ' 
a ' dBpui;ation of noblemen' had been ap- 
pointiM to hold watch, quitted the Danish 
•hor«s under a royal salute. She had been 
obliged to part from her daughter, whom in 
the Lnea gnpposed to have been written by | 
ber at sea (Keith, i. 3i)9) she is absurdly 
mode to commend to the care of Keith, the 
companion of her VOTage. 

At Btode, where Caroline Matilda arrived j 
on 5 June, and where she parted with her , 
Dnitish suite, she was received with much 
ceremony by the Hanoverian authorities, and 
held a reception on the day after her arrival. 
Hence she proceeded lo the Giihrde, an elec- 
tonl hunting-seat near Liineburg, where she 
delayed for several months till tne cnstle at 
Celie should have been put in order for her. 
On 20 Oct. she held a formal entry into this 
her destined residence, where a court was 
organised for her in due fonn, and whence 
^« afterwards made occasional visite to 
Hanover of a ceremonial nature (cf. Ma- 
urnne, ii. 7a-88 for details). At Celle il- 
lelf her life seems to have been a quiet one, 
thoiieh she re«eived visitors, among them 
bor sister, the Heruditary Princes* Augusta 
of Brunewick-WoUanbUltel, who, according 
to Wraxoll, was set to watch h^ conduct 
hv Qoorge III (PotHtumuvn M«moir», 1. 373, 
Sjft). A small theatre (Mill in e^xlstence) 
tras M>aslru«led in the cattle for her amuse- 
Slie rud Gorman assiduoualy, and 



il l— M . i 



requested her brother, Georp; ITI, to send 
her some English books (Kbith, i. 304); 
bur the memory of her sojourn is above all 
associated with the charming jardin /ran- 
(ait in the immediale neighbourhood of the 
castle, where stands the monument, with her 
medallion in relief, erected bytheLiineburg- 
: Celle estates (cf. Annual Si^itter for 1775). 
Sir Robert Keith, who visited her in No- 
vember 1772, reported to Lord Suffolk that 
he had found her in a contented frame of 
mind and with no wish for any communi- 
cations with the Danish court br^vond what 
immediately concerned the welfare of her 
children (Kbith, 1. 301-41. Another Eng-- 
lish visitor who first saw her in September 
1774 was N. W. 'Wraxall, a youag out Iru- 
velled gentleman, iiigcnunusly in search of 
adventure and employment, He returned 
in October as the secret agent of a number 
of Danish noblemen, exiles in namburg,and 
others, who were conspiring for a counter- 
revolution at Copenhagen, which should re- 
store Caroline 3Iatllda to the throne. To Iiis 
written overtures she signified her assent 
through a. gentleman in her confidence, but 
she declined to take any steps until the 
approval of George UI should have been 
obtained. Wraxall returned to Celle on 
three subsequent occasions, when he had 
personal interviews with the queen, whom 
three emissaries from Copenhagen appear 
hkewise to hove reached. He failed, now- 
ever, in London to obtain an audience from 
George III, or to elicit more than that the 
king, while approving the project, could not 
undertake to support it with money or other- 
wise tlU it should have been Buccesefnlly 
executed. Wraxall was still waiting in Lon- 
don when the news reached him of Queen 
Caroline Matilda's death ; but he afterwards 
held that the scheme would have been car- 
ried out with or without George III (see 
N. WRAiiLL'fl PoetAumous Memoirt, u 372- 
414 ; and cf. L. WltiXil.L'a Nan-ative, i. 173- 
241, compiled from the above, his grand- 
father's private journal, and a manuscript 
entitled HUtoricat Narrative of the Attempt 
to rrttopf the Qtirm ; with Wittich'b com- 
ments, 257-0. The existence of a Danish 
party in sympathy with the plan is corrobo- 
rated by a letter of George III to Lord 
North ; see .Stashope, v. 309 note). 

The death of Queen Caroline Matilda, 
which took place 11 May 1775, was caused 
by a sudden attack of inflammation of the 
throat, She was of a plethoric habit of 
bodv, and had not been ill for more than a 
week (see N. Wriiall'b account of her last 
days, based on the information of her valet 
Muilel, in Mrmuirt of the Courla of Berlin 



r 
Die 



Verschwdnmg gegen die Konigin CSaroline Ma- 
thilda und die Grafen Struensee nnd Brandt 
(Leipzig, 1864); N. W. Wraxall, Memoin of 
the Coiirts of Berlin, Dresden, &c., yoL i. (Lon- 
don, 1799); id., Posthumons Memoirs, yoL i. 



Caroline 150 Caroline 

^c. (1799), i. 77-87. He mentions the story, , with a careful examination of special points, 

which also appears in Brown's Northern ; such as the queen^s reUtions to Scmensee, irill 

Courts, of her naving, just before she was ; ^ found in K. Wittich, Struensee (Leipzig, 

taken ill, inspected the corpse of a page who '■ 1879). Here are only added the titles of some 

had died eight days previously, and also refers ■ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^ve been used in the above 

to the suspicions of poison which were rife '■ arti^e-Authentische und hochstmerkwurd^ 

at Celle with regard to her own death). A Auf klaningen uber die G^hichte der Grafen 

J .,4-1.^^^ «i^«™v,o« /Voo*^* T ^i,-««\ «,i,^ Struensee und Brandt (' Germanien,' 1788); 

.f 5Tif T^ ^ L^u^ ^ ^^ Struensee et la Cour de Copenhague, 1760-72 
attended her afterwards published an edi- , ^^^^i^ ^^ j^^^^l^ publirVA. Roge 

fymgaccount of her last days. The letter to (PaHs, 1858); G. F. von Jenss^Tusch. Di. 
George III declaring her innocence, said to 
have been written by her on her deathbed, 
is almost certainly spurious; her assertion 
in the same sense to the French pastor, 
Roques, rests on a secondhand statement 

made five years after her death (Wittich, I (London, i836); C. E. von Malortie, Beitrage 
2Sl note). She was buried in the vault of , zurGheschichtedesBraunschweig^Lunebuigischen 
the town church at Celle, where her coflin Hauses und Hofes, 2 Heft (Hannover, 1860); 
with a Latin inscription, in which she is ^^""^ t2^*I?^^®' Journal of the Reign of 
entitled Queen of Denmark and Norway, is S^'^V^^^^lol^m^ ^? -^^^f' ^'^?i ^^ ^' 
still shown near those of the Celle dukes ?^«T,^°f??k^A^ V^ * ''ij-^^^'^^^f*!; 
^^\^-^oi ^er .^onun.t. grandniother J^'tL^A';^?,;^^^^^^^ 
Sophia Dorothea (for an account of her j^ 541,5 ^o^ St^nhopef Histiry of England 
funeral see Malobtib, 89-92). In England from the Peace of Utr^ht (6th iition, 1858), 
thenewsof her death met with little public v. 306-9; Havemann, Geschichte der Lande 
comment ; but the faithful N. Wraxall con- Braunschweig nnd Luneburg (Gottingen, 1867), 
tributed a * character ' of her to the * Annual iii. 679-82 ; C. F. AUen, Histoire de Danemark, 
Register' of the year. Though of late she trad, par £. Beauvois (Copenhagen, 1878), ii. 
had grown stout, she must have been very 192-216.] A. W. W. 
attractive in person ; she was fair to a de- 
gree which exasperated her husband (Wal- OAROLINE, AMELIA ELIZABETH, 
POLE, i. 91 : * elle est si blonde') ; her like- of Brunswick - Wolfenbuttel (1768-1821), 
ness to her brother, George lU, which at queenof George IV, second daughter of Duke 
once struck observers (ib. 174), is very per- (!/harlesWilliamFerdinand of Brunswick and 
ceptible in her portrait at Uerrenhausen. the Princess Augusta of England, sister of 
The queen's male costume on horseback has George m, was bom 17 May 1768. 
become famous (cf. JENSSEir-TuscH, 73 note. The few anecdotes told of her childhood 
as to her portraits at Copenhagen) ; the show that she was kind, good-hearted, and 
fashion was a common one. charitable. The court of Bmnswick-AVol- 

TT"!, •*• T? 0.1 -1,1.— I.- rn T fenbUttel was one of the gayest in Germany, 

[The ex.st.ng English b.ogra^h.es of Carol.ne ^ ■ ^ jj , f^ ^j^ etiquette 

Matilda are that incorporated in vol. 1. of the \\ t 7 ^^ " . ^.^ yVi- ^1- *" -T^ 
Memoirs and Correspondence of Sir Robert !^^^^ ^*» charactenstic of the other ^o^th 
Murray Keith, edited by Mre. Gillespie Smyth, ^®™*^ courts. She was extremely fond of 
2 vols., London, 1849, and Sir C. F. Lascelles children, and would ston in her waUa to notice 
Wraxall's Life and Times of Queen Caroline them. The Duke of York had, during the cam- 
Matilda, 3 vols., London, 1864. Both are im- paigQ) seen much of his uncle, the Duke of 
critical, though the latter is valuable where Brunswick, and he was so charmed with the 
based on the private papers of the author's grand- Princess Caroline, that he mentioned her to 
father. Sir Nathaniel W. Wraxall. The litera- his brother the king and the Prince of Wales 
ture on Struensee's rise and fall and on Queen as a suitable bride for the latter. There was 
Caroline Matilda's relations to him is extremely qq prospect of the Duke and Duchess of York 
large, and from the Memoirs of an Unfortunate having any famUy, and the king was natu- 
Queen (London, 1776) onwards must be used paUy most anxious that thrsuccession to 
with the greatest caution ; and sensational ver- the throne should be indubitably settled bv 
sions of the story like that in vol. 1. of John 1 •. • ^i. j* *. t tt Ii j ' 
Brown's Norther/ Courts (London. 1818) may hent;^ m the direct line. Hara pressed on 
be left aside. It should in particular be ni ^} ^'^^f ^^f pnnce consented, on condition 
ticed that every endeavour was made during the ^\}}^f bqiudation of his debts, and a large 
three-quarters of a century which ensued upon addition to his income, to mai^ his cousin, 
the catastrophe to make a complete review of then twenty-six years old. He stipulated 
the historical evidence on the subject impos- that his income was to be raised firom 
■ible. By far the best survey of it, together 60,000/. to 125,000^ per annoni, oi which 



•loflUOL per 

pav his detiU, wiiicti nt that time u 
to'eSOflOQL Besides this he -traa to 
37,000/, foe prepBTOtionB for the marriage, 
28,000/. for jewels and pUle, 26,000/. for tie 
compleliun of Csrlton House, and 50,000/. 
|N.T aimuiii as & jointure to her royal high- 
OHM, of which, uowever, she would only 
accept 36,000/. 

She left Brunswick on 30 Dec. 1794, hut 
on her way was met by a messenger from 
Lord St. Helen's, telling her that the squa- 
dron sent to escort her had been ohliffeu to 
return to England, For a few weeEs she 
Kta^ed at Uaaover until her embarkation, 
which took place at Cuxhaven on 28 March 
1T9S. Shenirivedat Greenwich about noon 
on 6 April, where she dressed, and then drove 
to St. JoiDca's, accompanied by Lady Jersey, 

LO bad been sent to meet her. Lady Jersey 
»lly became her most implacable enemy, 

id probably did more than any one else to 

'^Utge the prince from his consort. The 
nage took place at 8 p.m. on 8 April in 
the Chapel Royal, St. James's. The prince's 
relations with Mrs. Fitzherbert and Lady 
Jersey — esjieciEdly the latter— soon led to 
quairets, and an appeal was made to the kin^ 
to aot OB arbiter between them. Their matn* 
tnonial relations continued in this state until 
Ike birth of the Princess Charlotte Aug'usta 
fq. v.], on 7 Jan. 1796, when the prince de- 
liberately forsook his wife. A formal separa- 
tion between them was agreed on three months 
Inter, and it waa only through the kind offices 
of the king that the princess was to have 
o her child during the tirdt eight 

« left Carlton House and went to reside 
A privacy at an unpretentious residence, 

rebury House, near Shooter's Hill. In 
1801 she removed to Montague House, Black- 
healh, where she entertained her friends, 
among whom were Sir John and Ladv Dou- 

flaa, Sir Sidney Smith, Captain Manby, &c. 
litberto there bod been nothing against her 
moral ohamcter. But becoming very intimate 
iritb Lady Douglas, she fooIisOy talked some 
nonsense a» to her being about to gire birth to 
a child, which she intended to account for by 
Miying she had adopted it. She already hod 
several young protSgfs, and one named Wil- 
liam Austin was singled ont as being her 
This rumour was spread by Lady 
a>, and in 1806 the king granted a 
wion, consisting of Lords Erskine, 
~le, Spencer, ana EUenborough, to in- 
« the matter. This was cdled ' the 
a invnetigationf'and at the conclusion 
'r Wraun they unhesitatingly repu- 
'lO charge made against the ^irincess, 



Bithougit they censured her levity of manners 
on several occiisions. For this also the king 
gently rebuked her, but he allotted her 
apartments in Kensington Palace, and often 
passed a whole day at Blockheath with lier 
and his grandchild, the Princess Charlotte, a 
proceeding which certainly tended to widen 
the breach between him and the Prince of 
Wales. Still, although on friendly relations 
with the king, she never recovered her former 
footing at court, and when, after the death of 
thePrincessAmelia in 1810, the king's health 

Save way,the intercourse between her and her 
augbter was much restricted. Herposition 
Buffered still more when, in 1811, the Prince 
of Wales was proclaimed regent, an accession 
of rank which brought to her no corresponding 









Caroline felt deeply the separation 

from her child. On 4 Oct. 1812 she went to 
Windsor with the intention of paying her 
daughter a visit, hut wos not permitted to see 
her, whereon she demanded an audience of the 
queen, which was immediatelr granted, but 
no satisfaction could be obtained. Her in- 
dignation knew no bounds, and she wrote a 
long and most impassioned letter of remon- 
strance to the regent on 12 Jan. 1813. This 
letter was laid before the privy council, and 
in their report they * were of opinion that, 
under all the circumstances of the case, it 
is highly fit and proper, with a view t« the 
welfare of her royal highness the Princess 
Charlotte, in which ore equally involved the 
happiness of your royal highness in your 
parental and royal character, and the most 
important interests of the state, that the 
intercourse between her royal hiKhnesa the 
Princess of Wales and her royal highnesa 
the Princess Charlotte should continue to be 
subject to regulation and restraint.' Tlieprin- 
cesa then addressed a letter to the speaker of 
the House of Commons on the subject, wbieli 
was read to the house, andadebate was raised, 
but the sense of the house was that the regent 
was the sole judge of the conduct to be ob- 
served in the educationof htsdai^hter. On 
8 March the princess received an intim^ 
tion that her restricted visits to her daughter 
to be discontinued, but by accident the 
mother and child met when out driving, and 
hod some ten minutes' conversation ; and on 
the death of the Duchess of Brunswick (wlio 
living in England) on 23 March 1813, 
the regent permitted his daughter to visit 
her mother, and they passerl two hours to- 
gether. When, on 13 July, the Prince of 
Wales visited Iuk daughter, and informed 
hi'r that be was going to dismiss all her 
hoiiBebold, and that she must lake up her 
idence at Carlton IIouBe, she fled at once 



Caroline 



152 



Caroline 



to her mother at Connaught House, only to 
find that the princess had gone to Blackheath. 
A messenger was despatched after her, and 
she immediately returned to comfort her 
daughter, hut the counsels and advice of 
Brougham prevailed, and the princess oheyed 
her father's will. 

Indignant at heing excluded firom court, 
and debarred from the society of her daughter, 
the Princess of Wales resolved to travel 
abroad, and she sailed for the continent, with 
the regent's sanction, in the Jason frigate on 
9 Aug. She started with a suite mainly com- 
posea of English men and women, but from 
one cause or another they all shortly left her, 
and she did not fill their places worthily. 
After visiting her brother, Ihike Frederick 
William of Brunswick-Wolfenbiittel, she 
turned her steps to Italy, and at Milan she en- 
gaged one Bartolomeo Bergami as her courier. 
Some infatuation led her to lavish upon this 
man every kind of favour it was in her power 
to bestow. He had served in some capacity 
on the Stat rnajor of the force commanded by 
General Count Pino in the campaign of 1812- 
1814,andwasofFered the brevet rank of captain 
by Joachim, kin^ of Naples, but refused it in 
order to remain m the service of the princess. 
His looks were in his favour, for his portraits 
show him as a handsome man. She raised 
him to be her equerry, her chamberlain, her 
constant companion, even at dinner; pro- 
cured for him a barony in Sicily and the 
knighthood of Malta, besides several other 
orders, among which was one which she in- 
stituted, that of St. Caroline. She took his 
relatives into her service. Louis Bergami di- 
rected her household, Yallotti Bergami kept 
her purse, the Countess Oldi, Bergami's sister, 
was her lady of honour, and Ber^ami's child 
Victorine also travelled in her suite. 

After living some time at Como, she visited 
many places, among others Tunis, Malta, 
Athens, Constantinople, Ephesus, and Jeru- 
salem. Here she made her entry in some- 
what theatrical style, and behave<f with such 
levity that secret commissioners were sent 
from England to investigate her conduct. 
She was surrounded by spies, and, after her 
return to Italy, an attempt was made to seize 
her papers by surreptitious means. 

On 6 Nov. 1817 the Princess Charlotte 
died, and the following year the Princess of 
Wales much desired to return to England, 
but she remained abroad for the next year 
and a half, and wintered at Marseilles in 
1819. On hearing of the death of George IH, 
29 Jan. 1820, she proceeded to Rome, where, 
although queen consort, she was refused a 
guard of honour. She was never officially 
informed of the old king^s death, and her name 



was omitted in the prayers of the church of 
England. On her way to England early in 
1820 she received at St. Omer a letter on be- 
half of the king, in which it was proposed to 
allow her 50,000/. per annum, subject to such 
conditions as the King might impose, which 
were that she was not to take the title of 
queen of England, or any title attached to the 
royal family of England, and that she was to 
reside abroad, and never even to visit England. 
It was not likely that these terms could be 
accepted, and she at once set out for Calais, 
and embarked the same night for England. 
She set sail next morning, 6 June 1820, and 
landed at Dover the same day at 1 p.m., being 
received with a royal salute, no instructions 
to the contrary having been ^ven. She was 
welcomed most entnusiastically, and her 
journey to London was an ovation. On her 
arrival she went to live at the house of her 
friend Alderman Wood, in South Audley 
Street. Her imexpected arrival filled the king 
and his party with consternation, and next 
day he sent a message to the House of Lords, 
accompanied by the evidence collected by the 
Milan commission, re<juesting their lordships 
to give the matter their serious consideration. 
A committee was appointed, which reported, 
with regard to the cnarges made against the 
queen, that 'it is indispensable that they 
should become the subject of a solemn in- 
quiry,' and on 6 July the Earl of Liverpool 
proposed the introduction of * a bill entitled 
an Act to deprive her Majesty, Caroline 
Amelia Elizabeth, of the Title, Preroffatives, 
Rights, Privileges, and Exemptions of Queen 
Consort of this Realm, and to dissolve the 
Marriage between his Majesty and the said 
Caroline Amelia Elizabeth.' It was read a 
first time, and appointed to be read a second 
on 19 Aug. 1820, but this was only a pre- 
liminary sitting, the examination of the 
witnesses not taking place until 21 Aug. 
Broiigham defended the queen. On 6 Nov. 
the House of Lords divided on the second 
reading of the bill — contents 123, non-con- 
tents 95 ; majority in favour of second reading, 
28. On 8 Nov. the divorce clause was carriecl 
in committee by 67. On 10 Nov., the date of 
the third reading, the Earl of Liverpool sud- 
denly announced that he was prepared to move 
that it be read that day six montlis. If the 
witnesses were not all perjured, the queen^s 
relations with Bergami admitted only of the 
conclusion that she was g^lty, and even her 
own friends and apologists were fain to admit 
that her conduct was open to the charge of 
grave indiscretion. Her mends claimed it as a 
triumphant acquittal, and Brougham's de- 
fence of the queen raised him to the summit of 
his profession. There can be but little doubt 



^^ Caroline 

that had ttie queen been found f^Uly, and 
divorced, George I V'g poailion aa kins' would 
have been impnriUe<l. .Vs it was, the popular 
feeling in her fayour found a safety-valve in 
the preeentation of addreseea of eympalliy, 
^hicli poured iu &om all porta of the king- 

Hw majesty waa then living at Branden- 
buTgh Houae, near HainmerBmith, but on the 
abandonment of the bill she demanded a 
palacv and eBtablishmeDt suited to her rank ; 
the wply to which was that it was ' not 
IMMible for his majesty, under all the cir- 
ClunsIanceB, to assi^i any of the roval 
palaee« for the quet^n'e residence,' and ttnt 
until parliament met ' the allowance whioh 
has hitherto boen enjoyed by the queen will 
in- continued lo her.' When parliament met, 
Ibev vit«d her riO,000/. per ajmum. 

6n Wednesday, 30 Nov. 1820, she went 
in "tat*, although unaccompanied bv soldiers, 
to Si. Paul's In return public thanks for her 
noiiiiittBl. ■ The Queen's Guards are the 
ppopje' was inscribed on one banner. Ac- 
cording to the procedure prescribed for royal 
Tuits to the city, the jrales of Temple Bar 
wero closed, atid opened on her arrival by the 
'cine authorities, who accompanied the queen 
in procession to the cathedral. Addresws 
continued to {>ourin ou her, but two attempts 
in parliament torestoiehernBmeintheliturg;y 

The king was to be crowned with HTeat 
pomp and ceremony at Westtninster Abbey 
on al July 1821. The queen declared her 
intt^ntioD to be present, and demanded that 
a euitablti plac« should be provided for her, 
which was peremjitorily refused. She per- 
sisted in pri'senting herself for oduiission, 
l>iit was most Armly repulsed, and, not wish- 
ing tn force on entrance, which would most 
ag^BUrcdlv have led to a riot, she returned 
home. This was her death-blow. She was 
taken ill at Driiry Lane Theatre on the even- 
ing of 30 July, and died on the night of 
7 Aug. 

Yet not fiveu with her death came peace. 
She diwircd in her will that she should be 
Jiuriid bi^ide her father at nrunawick. The 
king ordiTed soldiers to escort, the body. Hie 
city desired to show thi'ir ri«pect to Ihe royal 
«cirpae. The king decidud that it Bhoiild 
not go through lihe cily; hut llirough the 
city the people determined it should go, and 
ihmugh th*- cily it ultimately went, not be- 
fnrn a Mnndy encounter with the Life Guards 
at Ilydi' Park Comer, where they fired on 
the mob with fatal effect. The roifin duly 
Amml St Harwich, and Queen Cnrolinewas 
laid to mtt in tlie royal vault at Brunswick 
OAag. Ili21. 



'53 



Carpenter 



o^UAii 



[Nightinpila'a Memoirs of Quoan Cnrolios, 
1820; Ad.ilphusV ilitto, 1821; Wilka'a ditto, 
18.22; Clerkn'H Life of Hor Majeaty Cnrolloe, 
&c.. 1S21 ; Hniah's Memoirs of George IV. 1B8U ; 
Duke of Bnctinglutin'B Memoirs of Lhe CoBCt 
of Oeorge IV, 1859; Works of Heary, Lord 
Brorigham, vols, ij.und I. 1873; Journal of an 
English Tratell«r from IBUlo 1S16, IBI7 ; The 
Book. 1813; The Trial at Largo of her M«jeety 
Caroline, tie., 1821; Bnosard'e Psrlinmentary 
Debates. eont«ni[ioniry newipnpera, and nume- 
rous jiolitical tmcts.] J. A. 

GABON, REDMOND (1605 «- 11106), Irish 
frinr and author, was born of a good family 
near Athlone, "Westtueath, about ItiOo, and 
embraced the order of St. Francis in the con- 
vent there when about siiteen years of age. 
He afterwards studied philoBOpny at Drog- 
heda in a monastery of his own order, and 
when the convents were seiied by the govern- 
ment went to the continent, completing his 
studies at SalxhuTV and Louvain. For some 
time he held a chair iu the latter university. 
Returning to Ireland as commissary-general 
of the recollects, he took the part of the loyal 
catholics against the supporterB of Dr. NeiU, 
and was in extreme danger of his life when 
he was saved by the interposition of the Earl 
of Castlehoven. He died at Dublin in May 
1666, and was buried in St. James's Church. 
He was the author of the following chiefly 
controversial works: 1. 'Roma triumphane 
septicolUs, qui nova hoctenua et inaolit&Me- 
thodo comp&rativa lot a FidesRomano-Cstho- 
lica clarissime demons tratur. atque Infide- 
lium omnium Argiitnenta diluuntur,' Ant- 
werp, 1636. '2. ' Apostolus Evangelicus Mis- 
sionariorum Hegularidm per universum Mun- 
dum expositus, Antwerp, 1653 ; Paris, 1659. 

3. ' Controversiw Generales Fidei contra In- 
fldelex omnes, Judicos, Mahometanos, Pognnos 
et euiuscunque Sectse Htcreticos,' Paris, 1660, 

4. ' Loyalty asserted and the late Ilemon- 
atrancB or Allegiance of the Irish Clergy and 
Laity confirmed and proved by the autliority 
of ScripturcB, Fathers. Eipoaitors, Popes, 
Canons, Sic.,' London, 1862; and some other 
tractates which were never printed. 

piViires Works (Harris), ii. IM-J.] 

T. F. H. 

OAEPENTER, ALEXANDER, latin- 
ised Bfl Fadricitts (/. 1429), is known only 
as the author of the ' Destruct.orium Viiio- 
rum," a treatise which en^joyed n considerable 
popularity in the fifteenth and sixteenth cen- 
turies, was six times printed bufore 1616, 
and woH finally reprinted (at Venicel as 
late as 16S2. Must of the editions bear 
simply the name of '.\lexander Anglus,' a 
dfaignation which Possevijiua {Apparatiu 



Carpenter 



154 



Carpenter 



Sacer, i. 31, Cologne, 1608) took to refer to 
the famous Alexander of Hales ; but the edi- 
tion printed by Koberger at Nuremberg in 
1496 states in the colophon that the 'Be- 
structorium ' was compiled * a cuiusdam fabri 
lignarii filio,' and begun in 1429. A similar 
note, giving the same date, appears at the end 
of a copy of the book written in 1479, and be- 
longing to the library of Balliol College, Ox- 
ford (cod. Ixxxi.) A more modem entry in 
this manuscript adds that the author was fel- 
low of Balliol College, an assertion which 
was also made by Gabriel Powel {Disputa- 
tiones Theohgicce et SchoUuticce de Anti" 
christOf prsef. p. 39, London, 1606), but was 
discredited by Anthony k Wood on the ground 
that no evidence was forthcoming in tne col- 
lege itself {Hist, et Antiqq, Untv, Oxon, ii. 
75 a, Oxford, 1674). Hecent researches in the 
jnuniments have not discovered any trace of 
Carpenter's connection with the college. 

Powel and after him Bale {Script, Brit, 
Cat, vii. 77, p. 566^ claim Carpenter as a 
follower of Wyclifie; they both refer to 
book vi. ch. xxx. of the ' Destructorium ' in 
proof of his theological position; but the 
language he uses in condemnation of sundry 
abuses m the church is not stronger than was 
frequently employed by the most correct 
churchmen of the middle ages, and does not 
permit us to describe him as a Wycliffite 
without more distinct evidence. Bale adds 
that Carpenter was the author of certain 
' Homilise eruditoe,' of which nothing further 
is known. 

[See also Tanner's Bibl. Brit. p. 155.] 

R. L. P. 

CARPENTER, GEORGE, Lokd Cak- 
PENTEB (1667-1732), general, descended from 
the ancient family of Carpenter of Holme 
in Herefordshire, was bom at Pitchers Ocul, 
Herefordshire, on 10 Feb. 1657. His father, 
a royalist soldier, was wounded at the battle 
of Naseby, and George, who was the yoimgest 
of seven children, commenced life as a page 
to the Earl of Montagu in his embassy to 
Paris in 1671. In the following year he 
rode as a private in the 3rd troop of guards, 
and shortly afterwards he was appointed 
quartermaster in Lord Peterborouf li s regi- 
ment of horse. In this regiment ne served 
for seventeen years, and eventually became 
lieutenant-colonel, and with it he saw ser* 
vice both in the Irish campaign of 1690 
and in Flanders. In 1693 he married the 
Honourable Alice Margetson, daughter of 
William, first viscount Charlemont, and 
widow of James Margetson, with a portion 
of whose dowry he purchased for 1,800 
guineas the colonelcy oi the King's dragoon 



guards. With this regiment he served in 
Flanders, and became famous for his con« 
spicuous gallantry. In 1705 Carpenter was 
appointed a brigadier-general under Peter^ 
borough, and seems to have performed the 
double function of quartermaster-general and 
general of the cavairy in Spain. As a quarter- 
master-general he was said to have no equal, 
and as a general of cavalry he saved the 
baggage oi the English army, and covered 
the retreat at the head of his dragoons after 
the defeat of Almanga. He was wounded at 
Almenara, and was severely wounded in the 
mouth and taken prisoner while desperately 
defending the breach at Brihue^ He was 

Eromoted lieutenant^neral in 1710, and on 
is return to England was one of the general 
officers who were resolved at all hazards to 
maintain the protestant succession. When 
George I had been proclaimed, Stanhope 
nominated Carpenter to go as ambassador to 
Vienna, but on the outbreak of the rebellion 
of 1715 he was entrusted instead with supreme 
command over all the forces in the north 
of England. He prevented the rebels from 
seizing Newcastle, and when he heard that 
they had advanced into Lancashire, rapidly 
followed them; found them at Preston, 
where General Wills was blockading them 
in a half-hearted way, and forced the whole 
rebel army to capitulate. On reaching Lon« 
don he was challenged by General W"ills in 
February 1716, and a duel was with difficulty 
prevented by the Dukes of Montagu and 
Marlborough. In return for his great ser- 
vices he was nominated governor ot Minorca 
and commander-in-chief of the forces in Scot- 
land. In 1714 he was returned to par* 
liament as M.P. for Whitchurch in Hamp* 
shire, and on 29 May 1719 he was created 
Lord Carpenter of Killaghy, co. Kilkenny, 
in the peerage of Ireland. In 1722 he was 
elected M.P. for Westminster, but did not 
seek re-election in 1729, and died at the age 
of seventy-five, on 10 Feb. 1732, and was 
buried at Ouselbury in Hampshire. His 
grandson was created Viscount Carlingford 
and Earl of TVrconnel in the peerage of 
Ireland on 1 May 1761, but the earldom, 
viscounty, and barony b€Mcame extinct on the 
death of the fourth earl, 26 Jan. 1853. 

[Life of the late Right Honourable George, 
Lord Carpenter, London. Printed for Edward 
Ourll, 1736, from which all other notices are 
borrowed ; Lord Mahon's War of the Spanish 
Succession in Spain, for his services in Spain.] 

H.M.S. 

CARPENTER, JAMES (17ea-lS45), 
admiral, entered the navy in 1776 on board 
the Foudroyant, then commanded bjr Cap- 
tain Jenris, afterwards Earl St. Vincent. 



I the FoudrojBut he ' 
.(finp year to North America 
mood frignto, and from her wat 
ferred to the Sullan, in which he -vat pm- 
sent in the action oS Grenndn, tt Jul; 1/Ta 
In 17S0 he vita for some time in the Sand- 
wich, bearing Sir Georgt- Rodnej's flag, and 
WAS appointed bom her to the Intrepid as ' 
BCttng Iteulenant, in wliich capacity he Aras ! 
present in the actionoff Martinique, 30 April 
1781, and in that olf the Capes of Vir^nia, I 
5 Sept. 1781, He was not confirmed in his i 
Toak till IS April 1783. In 1793 he was ' 
appointed to toe Boyne, flagship of Sir , 
John Jerris in the "West Indies, and was | 
promoted bv the admiral to the command of 
the Nautilus, 9 Jan. 1794. Ue was then | 
employed on shore at the reduction of Mar- , 
tinique, and on 2b March 1794 was posted to 
the command of the Bienvenu, prize-frigate, 
from which he was moved in rapid euccee- 
eioo to the Veteran of 01 guna and the 
Alarm of 32. He continued actively em- 
plc^ed in the Weel Indies till the following 

rt, when he returned to England. In 1799 
was appointed to the Leviathan of 74 
suns, bearing Sir John Duckworth's flag in 
the Hediterranean and afterwards in the 
■Weat Indies, whence he was compelled to 
invalid ; and, taking a paaaage home in a 
merchant ship, he was captured by a French 
man-of-war and carried to Spain as a pri- 
soner. Ue was, however, shortly aflerwuds 
exchanged through the exertions of Lord St. 
Vincent, and for a short time had com- 
mand of the San Jow^f. From 1803 lo 1810 
he had charge of the Deyonshlre Sea Fen- 
ablea, and in 1811 went out to Newfound- 
land in the Antelope, again aa flag-captain 
lo Sir J. T. Duckworth, It was only for a 
year, for on 12 Aug. 1812 he became a rear- 
mdmiial. He had no further eervice, but 
was advanced in course of seniority to be 
Tice-odmiml ou 12 Aug. 1819, and admiral 
1 10 Jan. 1837. He died on 16 March 



^^yma'a Nav. Biog. Diet. : 
R.Blog. iL (vol. i. pi, ii.) 
niB), Mwri. ii. 79.] 



MarsbaU's Royal 
BSB; Gent. Mng. 
J. K.L. 



RPENTEB, JOIIN (1370P-1441?), 
a clerk of Loudon, son of Richard Car- 
ter, a citiieu of London, and ChHatina, 
i wife, was probably bom about 1370, and 
educated for the profession of law. On20April 
1417 he waa chosen town clerk or common 
ark of the city, after having held an in- 
~''t post in the town clerk's office for some 
I previously. Carpenter was well ac- 
1 with John UBrchaiuit, Lis prede- 
i was one of the executors of aior- 




chaiini'fi will in 1431. As town clerk Car- 
penterfrequentlyaddressedletterstoHenry V 
on behalf of Ihe corjwration, and very soon 
after his appointineat began a compilation 
of the laws, customs, privileges, and usages 
of the city, ejttroeted from the archivee of 
the corpomtion. This important work, which 
wasentitludiiie 'Liber Albue,' was completed 
in November 1419, and waa printed from the 
Guildhall manuscript for tlie first time in 
the Rolls Series in 16o9. Carpenter was the 
intimate friend of the far-famed Sir Richard 
Whittington, who was lord mayor for the 
third timein 1419, and as one of the executors 
of Whitlington's will was busily employed in 
1423 and the following yeare in carrying out 
Whittington's charitable Iwqueata. On23Feb. 
1431 Carpenter and his wife, whose cliriatian 
name was Katharine, received from the cor- 



20 Nov. 1436 be was elected one of the re- 

fresentativea of the city in parliament ; on 
4 Dec, following he was granted a patent of 
exemption from all summonses to serve on 
jories or to perform other petty municipal 
duties. In 1438 Carpenter resigned the town 
clerkship ; during his twenty-one years of 
office he was sometimes styled 'secretarr,' a 
designation which no other town clerk is 
known to have home. On 26 Sept. 1439 Car- 

rter was re-elected member of parliament 
the city ; but he had now resolved lo 
retire from public life. On 3 Dec. following 
he obtained from Henry VI letters patent 
exempting him fiMm all military and civil 
duties. He was thus relieved of the neces- 
sity of attending parliament and of receiving 
the honour of knighthood. Un 10 June 1440 
the mayor and aldermen voted Caipenter a 
gratuity of twenty marltB, and in 1441 be 
defended the sheriffs in a lawsuit preferred 
against them by the dean of the coUegiaU 
church of St. Martin-Ie-Grand. In the same 
year Carpenter, conjointly with another John 
Carpenter [q. v.], afterwards bishop of Wot^ 
cester, and John Somerset, chronicler of the 
exchequer, received trom the crown a grant 
of the manor of Theobalds in Chesbunt, Hert- 
fordshire. He probably died in 1441. On 
8 March of that year Carpenter drew up 
a will disposing of his personal property, 
and a copy of this document is st'dl extant. 
From it we learn that Carpenter lived in the 

Earisb of St. Peter, ComhilU in whosechurch 
e desired to be buried. He left large suma 
of money, together with bis jewels and house- 
hold furniture, lo his wife, ond similar gifts 
to his lirotliers, Robert and John, and their 
children. To the religious foundations in and 
near London he also bequeathed gifts of 



Carpenter 156 Carpenter 

money, and the terms of his bequest indicate Guildhall Letterbook K), describing Henry VI s 

that Le was a lay brother of the convent of entry into the city of London after his return 

the Charterhouse, London, and of the frater- ft»n^ France.] 8. L. L. 

nity of the sixty priests of London. To his CARPENTER, JOHN (d, 1476), bishop 

foends. Reginald PecockA\illiam Clewe, ^^ ^Vorcester, b^ probably at W;rtburv. 

John Carpenter, bishop of T\ orcester [q v.] QloucestershiU, was*^educatid at Oriel Col' 

and other ecclesiastics, he left most of his i Oxford, and proceeded D D there 

WkjwhichincludedRichapddeBuiT'8'Phi- ^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^f g^ ^^J 

ob^lon and some of Aristotle sworfatraM- tony'sHoepital and School in the city of Lon- 

lated into Utrn Of his landed property no ^Jf ^ ^ 1^^^^ ^.^ ^^ ^^ 

accoimt IS extant, and no mention « made of i^^;,^ ^ ^^^ ^^j^^ ,^^^^1 K^ ,^ 

"i* V^^ """ ^^ r'' ""T;^ • ^'^l * T' "id in 1440 the benefice of St. Wt Rnk! 

doubtedlv oym«l laige estates in the city, He was appointed proyost of Oriel College in 

aiid made a careful disposition of hem Stow ^^ ^Q^ the office conjointly wi^ the 

states in his Suryey of London, p 110, tb^t ^t^y „f gt. Antony's iaospitil. About 

Carpenter 'gave tenements to the ctye for the 1436 ^^ ^ ^„ „f g^ Mary Magdalen in 

finding and bringing up of foure poor mens q,^ pj^ g ^o^^ J'j wfth great 

chddren with meat dnnk, apparefl, learning u^^^t i^ ^^^ aimshouses beW 

at the schooles m the unnersities, &c., ^tQ -^^ ^^ ^^^_ I„ comrideration of this 

they be professed, and then others in their r*„^„„ ««rr«— ,w«.«.^-»- ^^^^i^^^^^^v^ir^ 

, -^ -'^ , 'mt. 1 * .- J 1 irenerous act Larpenter s name ' was to be in- 

places for eyer. This benefaction was duly B.^,^ ^j, ^V^. ^ ^^^, jj^ ^.^ 

executed by the corporation with little change ch^„^i,„, „f Oxford Uniyersity in 1437. On 

♦"'• nearly four centuries. ■** *^'^ «oi.iioat .j.. 

int book of the citv accc 

- "^^ ^^. Carpenter's land . — _ jjourcnieril4iMr-14«J)|q. v.j,anawaa con- 

appointed for educational purnoses is given, ^^^^^ at Eton on 22 March 1443-4 Car- 

and the rental of the property tnen amounted .^^^.^^ „.„ ♦i.-^,,^!.^.,* i.:« i;4v. . w..i..':«^»«^ 

to 49/. 13,. 4.. andJ-hrchJig. upon it to E^SffLrt^Th'^S^^i'^f We^tr-fll^ 

no more than 20/. 13,. 4^. In the course of gi^^^^t^i ^^.^yt and richly endowed the 

the following century the di8crei«mcy be- „ „/ rf^j, ^^^^ ^„ the church 

tween the two sides of the account increased ^^ ^j|jj^ Canynges of Bristol [q.v.] 

rapidly In 1823 the chanty commissioners ^^^ ^ ^ ^ ^1^ -^ 1^ ci^„J 

pointed out that only a fraction of the pro- j^^ ^ fe^ weeks befor/his 

ceeds of the benefaction was appbed accord- ^ ^ "8^ j^ Xorthwick, and died 

ing to the testators wwhes; m 1827 the ^^^ ^ ^^^^ jj ^^^^ -^ j^ ^ 

court of common councd increased the sum ^ ^ ; -yvestbuiy Church. Much of his 

to be applied to the education «nd mainte- • j j^ t^t^Mig^ exhibitions at 

nance of four poor boys, and in 1833 ,t was ^jj^'c^Uege. He is said to haye built the 

resolyed to apply 900/ per annum from the ^^j^^^ ^ Hartlebuiy Castle, the official 

Carpenter bequest to the founda ion and en- »^yence of the bishopSf Worc^ter. Car- 

dowment of a new school and o the establish- ^j^ . . ^ 

ment of eight CanH^ntcr scholarships for the ^y ^^ ij^,^ ^f j^jj^ cirpenter, town 

assistanc^of pupils at the school and nniver- j g ^ ^o^ ^ . ^ b^ueathed to 

sities. This school, cidled the City of London y^ geveral books on hi^ death m lill 

School, was erected on the site of Honey Une "^ **^ "-"^ '^** °° "^ **'"' "^ ^** ^• 

Market, and opened in laS" ; it was removed [Godwin, De Prssul. (174S), p. 467 ; Le Neye's 
in 1883 to the Thames Embankment. Astatue ' ^>^^ ^ccl. Angl. iii. 61 ; Newcourt's Dioccee of 

of Carpenter as the virtual founder was placed K"**?? ' '• *!*' 299.471:Thoma.Breircr;sLifeof 

on the principal staircase in the old building, j!."'"' CfP«nt«. *^^ cleA of London. The John 

and has been removed to the new Orations Can*°ter who, according to Boase s Oxf. Lniv. 

ana nas wen remo^ ea to tne new. "«ti"n8 ^^^,1^, (j ^gj proceeded Bjl. 28 Jan. 1461-2, 

in Carpenter's honour are given by the boys ^^^ ^j^] ^ Dm 1465. cannot be identical with 

on the annual speechdays. tl,e bUhop.] S. L. L. 

[Thomas Brewer's Memoir of the IJfo and CARPENTER, JOHN (d. 1621), divine, 
Times of John Carpenter (London, 1856) gives ' ^-^•* *-^^ **-•*•, ,i .^^ ' Z\' *"''"^» 
very full particulars Oirpenters Liber Alius, , ^^ ^™ '"^ ComwaU, it is belief at 

editetl by H. T. Riley (1859). forms the first Launceston, and entered asabatlerat Exeter 

ToluniooftheMuniracntaGildhallKLondoniensis OoUege about 1670, but after a residence of 



in the Rolls Series. Translations of the Norman 
French passages are giren in the third Tolnme of 
the Munimenta, together with a lon^ letter by 



four years left without ti^dng a dmee and 
became rector of Northleig^, near Honiton, 
in Devonshire. Here he continued throturli- 



Carpenter (dated 20 Feb. 1432, and printed from i out hia life, and here he died in Bfareh 10290- 



1631, wben he was bitried in the cliuucel 
of hU chuich. He was father of Nathnnact 
Cnrpenwrfq.v.l He wrote : 1. ' A Sorrow- 
ful Song lor Smful SouU, composed upon 
the Strange nnd "Wonderful Shaking, 6 April 
1580,* London, 1580. 2. ' Remember Lot's 
Wifie," two BermonB, 1588, dedicated to Mary, 
wife of Bishop Wooltoo. 3. ' A Preparative 
to Oontentation,' 1697. 4. 'The Song of 
the BoloTed concerning Hia Vineyard,' 169B. 
5. 'Ctontemplationforthe Instruciion of Chil- 
Anm ill Ihe Christian Religion,' 6. "Schelo- 
monocham, or King Solomon, his solace,' 
160e. 7. 'ThePUineMan'flSpiritunlPiough," 
dedicated to Bishop Cotton. 

[Womi'B AtheM Oion. (Blias), ii. 287-8 ; 
BoaKiLDilCoiirtnsy'BBibl, Cornub.pp. 63, 1115; 
Arber'a Sutioni'n' Itcgistsrs. iii. IDS, 2S5.] 

W. P. C. 

OABPENTEB, LA>X LL-D. (1780- 
1S40), unitarian diriue, bom at Kidder- 
minster on 2 Sept. 1780, was the third sou 
of George Carpenter (rf. 13 Feb. 1839, aged 
ninety-one), carpet manufacmrer, by his 
wife, Mary Hooke (d. 21 Bfarch 183S, aged 
eighty-three). Ann I^ant was the maiden 
name of Oeorge Carpenter's mother. George 
Carpenter fuled in businesH, and removed 
from Kidderminster, but Lant was left be- 
hind with his mother's guardian, NioholsB 
Pearsall, who adopted him, with a view to hie 
beconung a minister. Pearsallwas a strong 
unitarian, of much practical benevolence. 
He sent him to school, first under Benjamin 
Carpenter at Stourbridge, and then under 
■Wifiiam Blake n730-1799) [q. v.] at the 
echool of Pearaall a own founding in Kidder- 
minster. In 1797 Carpenter entered the dia- 
ecntiugaca<lemy at Northampton under John 
Hotaey, and was ranked in the second year 
of the five years' course. The Northampton 
uariemy was the immediate successor of that 
at Daveotry, from which Belsham had re- 
tired on adopting unitarian views. Horsey 
was moderately orthodox, the classical tutor 
was a polemical Calvinist from Scotland. 
The arrangement did not work, the minds of 
tiir students became unsettled, and the Crus- 
tves in 1798 abruptly closed the academy. 
In October of that year Carpenter with two 
fellow-ttudenta entered Glasgow College as 
mhihitioners under Dr. Williams's trust. 
a studies there, interrupted at the outset 
ma attack of rheumatic fever, lasted till 
"1. He look the arts course (but did not 
iuate), adding chemistry and anatomy, 
__, he liad a scientific turn, and at one time 
thought fif combining the dutiea of a phy- 
■ician and a dissenting minister. Divinity 
lia slDidiGd for himself, especially during the 



exhih 
^^«rh. 



prevented his con- 
tinuing at Glasgow for tlie divinity course. 
Ue now thought of schoolkeening as an ad- 
junct to the ministry (he had alresdj entered 
the pulpit), and in September 1801 he be- 
came assistant in the school of his connec- 
tion Rev. John Corrie, at Birch's Green, near 
Binoingham. Next year he supplied for a 
time tlie pulpit of the New meeting, Bir- 
mingham, vacant by the resignation of John 
Edwards, but soon accepted the offer of a 
librarianship at the Liverpool Athenieum. 
This situation he held from the end of 18(^2 
till March 1805, conducting at the same 
time advanced classes for young ladies, and 
occasionally preaching. He declined over- 
tures irom congregations at Ijiswich, Bury 
St. Edmunds, Ormskirk,and Dudley, and an 
invitation (in 1803) to become literary tutor 
at Manchester College, York (this invitation 
was renewed in 1B07, and again declined). 
On 9 Jan. 1806 he accepted a co-pastorate 
at George's meeting, Exeter, as colleague 
with James JManning. in succession to Timo- 
thy Kenrick. Manning was an Arian ; Ken- 
rick had been a humanitarian, and this was 
now Carpenter's standpoint. In philosophy 
he was a determlnist, and an especial ad- 
mirer of Hartley. At Exeter (where he soon 
married) Carpenter undertook an extensive 
pastorate and the cares of a boarding school 
with an unfailing fervour, method, and suc- 
cess, which were marvellous, considering his 
far from robust health. He brought out in 
1806 a popular manual of New Testament 
geography. ApplyingtoGlaagowiu ISOUfor 
the degree of M.A. by special grace, he was 
at once made LL,D. In AususC 1807 the 
temporary lose of his voice lea him to send 
in his resignation; his congregation in reply 
gave him a year's ireedom &om pulpit work, 
and his colleague undertook the double duty. 
He employed his leisure in founding and 
managing a public library. His return to 
the pulpit in 1808 was followed by a contro- 
versy, in which his chief opponent was Daniel 
Veysie, B.D. In 1810 the congregation of 
the' Mint meeting otnalgamated with that of 
George's meeting; the Mint meeting tmstees 
in 1812 wanted to place an organ in George's 
meeting, and this was done, not without con- 
siderable opposition. In 1813 Carpenter de- 
clined a pressing invitation to become col- 
league with John Yates at Paradise Street 
Chapel, Liverpool (overtures from the same 
congregation weremade tohim in 1823). An- 
other doctrinal controversy in which he had a 
share in 1814 was summed up in an epigram 
by Caleb Colton ('Laoon.' 1S2'2, ii. 720). H.> 
remained at Exeter till 1817, taking an in- 
creasing part b public questions, especially 



Carpenter 



158 



Carpenter 



the agitation for the Roman catholic claims 
in 1813. In view of the approaching retire- 
ment of John Prior Estlin, LL.D., Carpenter 
was invited (28 Aug. 1816) to Lewin's Mead 
Chapel, Bristol, as colleague to John Rowe. 
The Exeter people made every effort to retain 
him, but in the summer of 1817 he removed 
to Bristol. The con^rregation was large and 
wealthy [for its earlier history see Buby, 
Samuel], but had lost cohesion. Carpenter 
drew its various elements together, developed 
its religious and philanthropic life, and gave 
it a hold upon the neglected classes of so- 
ciety. On the resignation of Rowe in 
1832, Carpenter obtained as colleague (after 
a short inter\'al) Robert Brook Aspland, 
M.A. [a. V.]; in 1837, the year following 
Asplana's removal, his place was filled by 
George Armstrong, B. A., a seceder from the 
church of Ireland. Carpenter did much to 
widen the spirit of his denomination. With 
one exception, the earlier unitarian tract and 
mission societies had been fortified with a 
preamble branding trinitarianism as * idola- 
trous ' and so limiting the unitarian name as 
to exclude Arians. As early as 1811, Car- 
penter endeavoured to expunge the preamble 
from the rules of the Western Unitarian So- 
ciety ; it took him twenty years to effect 
this change. But in 1825 three older metro- 
politan societies were amalgamated into the 
existing British and Foreign Unitarian As- 
sociation, and to Carpenter is mainly due 
the disappearance from its constitution of the 
restrictive preamble. His polemical publi- 
cations in reply to Magee and others were 
commended lor their mildness by orthodox 
critics ; for that very reason, perhaps, though 
able works, few of them were much read. 
Just before his arrival in Bristol, J. E. Stock, 
M.D., long a zealous convert to unitarianism 
(he had drafted the invitation to Carpenter), 
seceded to the Calvinistic baptists. Soon 
after this, Charles Abraham Elton, the well- 
known classical scholar, became a convert, 
and produced * Unitarian ism Unassailable,' 
and similar publications ; but in a few years 
he publishea his * Second Thoughts ' and re- 
joined the established church. In 1822 
Samuel Charles Fripp, B.A., a clergyman 
residing at Bristol, who had been a curate 
in Kent, announced his unitarianism from 
the Lewin's Mead pulpit, and remained 
steadfast to his new connections. Of Car- 
penter's own catechumens a considerable 
number, including some of his favourite 
pupils, ultimately joined the church of Eng- 
land. Many 01 the sterner unitarians re- 
garded his influence as too evangelical. Much 
independence characterised his views; the 
rite of baptism he rejected altogether as a 



superstition, substituting a form of infant 
deaication. In 1833 the Rajah Rammohun 
Roy, in whose monotheistic movement Car- 
penter was strongly interested, visited Bris- 
tol, but only to die. Carpenter preached 
his funeral sermon (afterwards published, 
with a memoir). He had given up his school 
in the spring of 1829. Of Carpenter as a 
schoolmaster there are two sketches by Jamea 
Martineau, his pupil, and for a time his locum 
tenens {Memoirs^ p. 342 ; Life of Mary Car^ 
penter, p. 9). No master was ever more 
adored by his scholars, or more effective in 
the discipline of character. Bowring says : 
' For many a year I deemed him the wisest and 
greatest of men, as he certainly was one of the 
best.' * Christopher North * (who had been his 
fellow-student at Glasgow), when appointed 
in 1820 to the moral philosophy cnair at 
Edinburgh, consulted him about tha plan of 
his lectures and the literature of the subject 
(see his reply, MemoirSy p. 255). Carpenter 
is caricatured in Harriet Martineau*s * Auto- 
biography,' 1877, vol. i. Till 1836 he took 
a leading part in all public work in Bristol, 
acting in politics as an independent liberal, 
and devotmg much time to the encourage- 
ment of physical science. He was one of the 
chief organisers of the Bristol Literary and 
Philosophical Institution in 1822. By 1839 
his constitution was completely exhausted 
under his unsparing labours. He left home 
on 22 July and was recommended by London 
physicians to travel. Accompanied by Free- 
man, a medical adviser, he went on the con- 
tinent, but his health did not revive. He 
was drowned on the night of 5 April 1840 
while going by steamer from Leghorn to 
Marseilles. He was not missed till morning, 
and it is supposed that he was washed over- 
board. His body was cast ashore near Porto 
d'Anzio, about two months afterwards, and 
was buried on the beach. He married on 
25 Dec. 1805 Anna (d. 19 Junel856), daughter 
of James Penn of Kidderminster, and had 
six children, of whom the eldest was Mary 
[q. v.l, the fourth William Benjamin [q. v.j, 
and the youngest Philip PearsaJfl fq. v. J His 
remaining son is Russell Lant,hi8 Diographer. 
Of Carpenter there is an excellent por- 
trait drawn by Branwhite, and engravea by 
Woodman, prefixed to his * Memoirs ; ' but 
perhaps the oest likeness of him is a small 
porcelain bust by Bentley, published in 1842. 
Among his publications, which numbered 
thirty-eight, besides four posthumous works 
and several contributed articles and works 
edited by him (see a fiill list in ' Memoirs,' 
appendix B), the most noteworthy are: 
1. ' Unitarianism the Doctrine of the Goe- 
pel,' 1809, 8yo, Srd edition 182S (ia the form 



(Iters to Veysie). 2, ' Systomatic Edu- 
jm,' 2 Tol8. 1815, Hyo, 3rd edition 182'2 
, conjiinction wilh William Shepherd, 
..J-Dt u)i1 Jeremiah Joyce ; Carpenter's 
part tncludcB the mental and moral philo- 
Mpbj). 3. ' An Eiaminntion of the ChaiTjres 
made ngtunEt Unitarians . . . bj the Ki^ht 
B«v. Dr. Magee,' &c. 1820, Svo. 4. ' Pnn- 
eiplec of Education,' 1820, 8vo (reprinted 
trom Kgmi'b ' Cydopaidia,' much commended 
by the EdgBWorths), 5. 'A Harmony, or 
STnnptieDl Arrangement of the Gospels, &c. 
Ifett, 8yo (tha second edition, 1WJ8, 8vo, is 
dedicated, by permisfiiou, to the queen). 
8. ' SetiBons on Practical Snhjecta,' 1 840, 8vo 
d by hU »on ; an nbridged edition was 
_ht out by Mary Carpenter in 1875). 
^■mnin. by Russall Lent Carpenter (bis 
.5). 18*S ; Memoiniof P. P. Cnrpentor, Ph.D. 
BSD (by the Kimc) ; family pedigrees are siten 
_n privately printed MBinoriale (1878) of Mary 
Oarpen Mr (sister of Lant CArpeottr); Mnnlhly 
Baires. 1817. p. *81 ; Murch'fl HiMory of Prwb. 
■ml Gtn. Bapt. Churches in West of Kngland, 
18S6, pp. 1 17 Bq.i 409. 664 : Chriatiiin Roforaier, 
1613, p. 371 : Headersoa's Memoir of Rev. G. 
ArrastroDg, 18S0 ; Autobio^mphicBl Recollac- 
tioMof S^r .1. Bowring, 187r.pp. *2-3; iirivate 
- - 1 A. C, 

I'OAEPENTER, MARGARET SARAH 
1783-1872), portrait-painter, daughter of 
_tol«in Alexander Geddea, bom at Salisbunf 
iiil793, first studied art from Lord Badiior's 
collection at Longford Castle, and obtained 
a gold medal from the Society of Artn for 
the study of s boy's head. She went up to 
London in 1814 and established herself as 
a portrait-painter of much reputalion. In 
1817 sbe. married 'William Hoohham Carpen- 
ter fq. v.], keeper of prints and drawings 
in the British Museum, upon whose death 
in 1806 her majeety granted her a pension of 
lOOAperimuum. She died in London 13Not. 
187:^. Between 1818 and 1866 she exhibited 
147 pictures at the Royal Academy, fifty at 
Britiab Institution, and nineteen at the 
iety of British Artjats. Her last work 
"' portraitof Dr. WhewelL .^.mongher 
irtreits were those of Lord Kilcouraie 
(18iaS. Mr. Baring ( 1815), Lord de Tabley 
(1829),aDd.\TchbishopSuniner(I852). Her 
portraits of Eraser Tyl.ter, John Gibson, and 
Boninffton are in the National Portrait Gal- 
lery. In the South Kensington Mnseum she 
IB represented by ' DerotJon — St. Francis ' 
(a lifoaiie study of tie bead of Anthony 
Stewart, thp miniature painter), 'The 8i»- 



liam Church ' {a sketch), and 'An Old Wo- 
man ^niiLiiiaj^,' and also by a water-colour 
tuidj tma nature. A tister of Mrs. Carpen- 



[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists, 1878; Bryan'a 
Diet, of Psintfirs (SraTea); Omvea'a Diet, of 
Artists; Catalogues of NationHl Portrait Oal- 
lory nod National Qallory at South Kensington 
Museum; Artists of Niaeteenth Century; Art 
Journal, 1873.] C. X.. 

CARPENTER, MARY (1807-1877), 
philanthropist, the eldest child of Lant Car- 
penter, LL.D. tq. v.], by his wife, AnnaPenn, 
was bom at Exeter on 3 April 1807. Her 
father's teacliinga and example inspired her 
whole career. From him she inherited her 
industiT. her warm benevolence, and simple 
piety ; her concentration of energy she drew 
from herself. At a very early age she was 
introduced to the wliole range of studies 
pursned in her father's school, gaining a 
Bound classical and scientific truning, and 
developing a taste for art. James Martineau 
sketches her as a schoolgirl (iV/V. 9). Ac- 
customed to assist in teaching, and even on 



1871'. 

m 



had completed her fifteenth year, she left 
home in (he spring of 1827 to act as a gover- 
ness, first in the Isle of Wight, then at 
Odsey, near Itoyston. In August 1829 she 
rejoined her mother, and began with her a 
girls' school at Bristol, shortly after tbeclose 
of Dr. Carpenter's school for hoys. To thjs 
she added in 1631 the superintendence of 
the nftemoon Sunday school. In 18.SS the 
presence of Rammohun Roy, who ended his 
days at Bristol, and the visit of Joseph 
Tuckerman, D.D., the Boston philanthropist, 
turned her sympathy towards India and the 
ragged urchinsof her own country. Shewas 
the means of founding in 183(i a 'working and 
visiting society,' of which she acted as secre- 
tary for over twenty years ; and to this was 
added in 1641 aministrytothe poor, to which 
she hadgiven the impulse in 1 838. Her father's 
death in 1840 gave her a new motive for phi- 
lanthropic work as hin representative. Aided 
by John Bishop Estlln and Matthew Daven- 
port Hill, she opened on 1 Aug. 1846 her 
ragged school in Lewin's Mead, one of tha 
worst parts of Bristol, removing it in De- 
cember to larger premiaes in 'a filthy lane 
called St. James's Back.' In August 1860 
she purchased the court in which the school 
was situated, improved the dwellings, and 
laid out a playground, ^liile thus engaged 
she was considering the nocMsity for echoola 
of a different cbaracter, in wbicli moral dis- 
cipline might be applied to the reformation 
nf young criminals. She corresponded on 
this subject with Matthew Davenport Hill 
and John Clay [q. v.], and published her 



Carpenter 



1 60 



Carpenter 



views in 1861. Iler book, and her inter- 
views in London and the north with ad- 
vocates of reformatory principles, prepared 
the way for a conference, w^hicn was held in 
Birmingham on 9 and 10 Dec. 1851. Mary 
Carpenter was the soul of the meeting, but 
did not speak in public; she was always 
somewhat slow to countenance any innova- 
tions on the recognised sphere of woman*8 
work. A committee was formed to carry 
out the resolutions of the conference ; but it 
soon appeared that there was a radical di- 
vergence of view on the question whether 
the disciplinary treatment of juvenile delin- 
quents snould be partly punitive or purely 
restorative in its aim. Mary Carpenter be- 
lieved that certain theological ideas fostered 
the demand for an element of retributive 
dealing, which she was anxious to exclude. 
She resolved to establish a reformatory school 
on her own principles. Meanwhile she gave 
evidence (in May 1852) before the parlia- 
mentary committee of inquiry on juvenile 
delinquency. On 11 Sept. her reformatory 
was opened at Kingswood. The house (built 
for school purposes by John Wesley) was 
purchased by llussell Scott of Bath, and fur- 
nished by Lady Byron. In December 1858 
a conference on a larger scale was held in the 
Birmingham town hall. At the beginning 
of 1854 the first report of her Kingswood 
school was issued. On 10 Aug. the Youthful 
Ofienders Act legalised the position of re- 
formatory schools under voluntary managers. 
On 10 Oct. a separate reformatory school for 
girls was opened by Mary Carpenter at the 
Ked Lodge in Park Row, Bristol, an Eliza- 
bethan mansion wliich had seen many vicis- 
situdes. It is no wonder that, with all these 
responsibilities accumulated upon her, her 
hedth suddenly failed. Just before Christ- 
mas 1854 she was seized with a rheumatic 
fever, which incapacitated her for six months. 
As she was recovering, she wrote a gently 
characteristic letter (3 June 1855) to Har- 
riet Martineau, expressive of her religious 
trust, and received a severely characteristic 
reply. The intercourse of the two friends re- 
mained unbroken. Mary Carpenter's religion 
was as little satisfactory to the Somersetshire 
magistrates as to Miss Martineau. The quarter 
sessions at Wells, moved by the diocesan board, 
refused (Marcb 1856) to take cognisance of 
the Red Lodge, though the government in- 
spector was fully satisfied with the religious 
teach ing. A year and a half after her mother^s 
death Mary Carpenter left the old home in 
Great George Street to occupy (December 
1867) a house in Park Row, bought by Lady 
Byron, who purchased also other property for 
the development of the Red Lodge plans. 



Meanwhile, Miss Carpenter was urging upon 
members of parliament the need of a measure 
such as the Industrial Schools Act, which be- 
came law in 1857, and the claims of existing 
ragged schools to participate in the educa- 
tional grant. Among her best friends in the 
. House of Commons were Lords Houghton 

Ssee MiLNES, Riohakd Monokton] anl Id- 
iesleigh. As if her hands were not yet full — 
she had resigned her Sunday school dutv in 
1856, but was still doing * the work of three 
people on thefood of halfa one' (Cobbe)— the 
dimculties in the working of the act induced 
her to undertake the establishment of a cer- 
tified industrial school, mainly in order to 
show in what way the government provisions 
needed amendment. This school she opened 
(April 1859) in premises in Park Row pur- 
chased by Fredenck Chappie, a Bristol boy 
who had made a fortune in Liverpool. Many 
of her proposals were adopted in the amended 
acts of 18i61 and 1866. A third conference 
on ragged schools at Birmingham on 23 Jan. 
1861 urged upon parliament their claims to 
further government aid. Although attacked 
by illness in the autumn of 1863, she planned 
and opened a workmen's hall in December of 
that year, and published a work on the con- 
vict system. 

In the autumn of 1860 her sympathy with 
India had been reldndled by the visit of 
Joguth Chunder Gangooly, a young convert 
of the unitarian mission at Calcutta. The sub- 
sequent visits of Rakhal Das Haldar (1862), 
and of Satyendra Nath Tagore and M. Ghose 
(1864) convinced her that the condition of 
Indian women could be improved by judicious 
education. On 1 Sept.l8o6 she left England 
for India, Ghose being among her travelling 
companions. Her pums and expectations 
were small, but no sooner had she arrived 
than her advice was sought by the Bombay 
government on the problems of education and 
prison discipline. At Madras and at Ofilcutta 
(where she interested herself in the mono- 
theistic movement of Keshub Chunder Sen) 
similar calls were made upon her judgment 
and experience. Here she became for the 
first time a public speaker. Her general im- 
pressions were summed up in a communica- 
tion (12 Dec. 1866) to the govemor-ffeneraly 
Sir John Lawrence, on the subjects of female 
education, reformatory schools, and the state 
of the gaols. She left India on 20 March 
1867. At home she took up again with zest 
all her old labours, but at once opened com- 
mimications with the India Omce, with a 
view to urge the home government to over- 
come 'the incubus of Indian led-tapeism.^ 
In March 1868 she had the honour of an 
interview with the queeiii and in October she 



agun etart(-d for India. Otrerin^ her gra- 
tiiiloUH wrvicea to the government as super- 
inlendeut oft fomtle nirmal school at Bom- 
bav, ski: wns eood in the midHi of a band of 
Udy miodJTitiirs, English and native. Her 
litultli mive way in Februivrj ISiiH, and in 
April bEu reliirniwi lo Englaad. Hlt third I 
viait to IndiH, id the winter of 1869-70, was ' 
somi'wiiiit dlMppoiutiu^. She made up her 
mind that more was to be done by tlie in- 
flaenee alic could vxen at headqiiart«rg in I 
thia cfluntry than by personal work in India I 
ttsel£ At Bristol, in September 1870, she I 

. iiuiigurated, in connection with a second I 
risit from Kushub Cbunder Sen, a 'National ' 
Indian ABsoctation,' of which tlie Princess ' 
Alice ultiinattily became president. Its ob- | 
joct was twiifold — to enaole Indian visitors ■ 
ta Mudv the institutions of England, and to ' 
ripen ^eliah opinlnn rciapecting the wants of , 
lodia. She was on the point of adding to her 
travels a vif it to Amerii^n to study the condi- 
tion of prisons tberp, when an invitation to 
Utend, ttB the gneet of the Princess Alice, a 
OODgreas (September 187:3) at Darmstadt on 
women's woA, opened the way for an exami- 
Rfttion of Eomeoi the reformatory systems of 
the continent. Her voyage to America was 
made in April 1873. She accepted an invi- 
tation to speak on priaon reform in the largest 
church Rt Hartford, all the other churches 
being closed for the occaaion. From the 
Uoitttd States she proceeded to Canada, point- 
ing; out the defects in prison arrangements, 
»IM interosting herself warmly in the condi- 
tion of the afaocivines. Returning borne in 
the autumn, she had a fresh subject for her 
■pplieations to government — the state of 
the Canadian prisons. Her luat journey to 
India was undertaken in Se]it«mber 1»76, 
and lasted tUl 27 March 1876. Her impres- 
aiona were now more hopeful. On all her 
great subjects she made careful reports to the 
autliorities in India and at home, and saw 
many of her suffgestions carried into law. In 
July 187U parliament at length authorised 
lior plan of^ allowing school boards to eata- 
bliahday-faedingindustriolschools. She died 
14 June 1877, and wna buriwl in tho Amo's 
Vale comeiury, Bristol, Among the mourufrs 
ir«re two TTindu boys whose education she 
wa«aap«TiDt«nding, A tablet to her memory, 
with an inscription by James Martineau, was 
placed in the north transept of Bristol Cathe- 
dral. An adrairabla likeness, engraved by 
C.H.Jeun!!, is prefixed to Iter 'I.i^.' Of her 
pnsoaal charBCtcriEticathereisabriefglimpse 
iXtft, p. ilS) by the Rev.W. 0. Gannett, who 
fpMhg of ' her great grey eyes, so slow and 
wiae, yet. bo hiDd aometimes j ' and a Toluable . 

, ilfiUilml account, doing justice to her quaint 



sense of humour and her capacity for art 
(TAf^Iegieal Jleiict. April 1880, p. -279), by 
Frances Power Cobbc, who was associaled 
with her for some time from November 1^58 
in herwork at Red Lodge. In Harriet Mar- 
tineau's autobiography there is a charming 
picture of Mary Carpenter acting as brides 
maidtooneofherRedLodceprot^g^es. Mary 
Carpenter was a familiar hgure at the Social 
Science congresses, and some of her ablest pa- 
pers were read at tbeaa meetings. Her 'Life' 
givea many evidences of a true poetic vein. 
In early life she had written poems in the 
anti-slavery cause, which were printed in 
America, but her most touching verses were 
called forth 1^ the loss of friends. Of her 
separate publications the following are the 
chief: 1. 'Meditations and Prayers,' 1845 
(1st ed. anon.; five subsequent editions). 

2. ' Memoir of Joseph Tuckerman,' 1848 (re- 
printed in ' American Unitarian Biogra- 
phy,' 1851, 8vo, ii. 29 sq., with corrections 
by Tuckerman's daughter, Mrs. Becker). 

3. ' Ragged Schools, their PHuciples and 
Modes of Operation, by a Worker,' 1849 (re- 
printed from the ' Iiiqnirer ' newspaper). 

4. ' Reformatory Schools for the Children of 
tlie Perishit^ and Dangerous Classes, and for 
Juvenile Olfenders,' 1851, 8to. 6. 'Juvenile 
Delinquents, their Condition and Treatment,' 
1853, 8vo (dedicated to 'my three helpers 
in Heaven, my dear Father, Dr. Tuckerman, 
and Mr. Fletcher,* i.e. Joseph Fletcher, 
U.M. inspector of schools). 6. ■ The Cl^ms 
of Ragged Schools to Pecuniary Educational 
Aid from the Annual Parliamentary Grant, 
&c.," 1859. 7. ' What shall we do with our 
Pauper ChildrenP'&c. 1861. 8. 'Our Con- 
victs, how they are made and should be 
treated,' 1864, 8vo, 2 vols, (this had the 

great honour ' of being placed on the Boman 
1 RiDUnrstoriiiB 1. 9. ' Tjlst Davn in 



'Index Espurgatorius ). 



' Last Days in 



8vo, 2 vols. She published also an abndg- 
ment of the ' Memoir ' of her father ; and a 
' Young Christian'sHymn Book,' withsupple- 



OARPENTER, NATHANAEL (15S9- 
1((28?), author and philosopher, son of John 
Cnrpenter (d. I5fil) [q. v.], rector of North- 
leigh, Devonshire, was bom there on 7 Feb. 
1588-9. He matriculated at St. Edmund 
IIoll,Oxford,on7June 1005; but was elected, 
on a re"jommendatory letter of James I, a De- 
vonshire fellow of Eiet«r College on 30 June 
1 607. A second Devonshire candidaterMicbael 



Carpenter 



162 



Carpenter 



Jermyn, obtained an equal number of votes, 
whereupon the vice-chancellor gave his de- 
cision m favour of Carpenter. The dates 
of Carpenter's degrees were B.A. 5 July 
1610, M. A. 1618, B.D. 11 May 1620, D.D. 
1626. During his residence at Oxford he is ' 
said to have become, * by a virtuous emula- ' 
tion and industry, a noted philosopher, poet, 
mathematician, and geographer.' One of 
his pupils at the university was Sir Wil- 
liam Morice, secretary of state 1660-8, a 
politician with religious views inclined to 
presbyterianism, which were probably in- 
spired by his tutor's Calvinism. Carpenter's 
attainments attracted the notice of the chief 
divines of the age. SutclifFe, dean of Exeter, 
nominated him a member of his new college 
at Chelsea, and Archbishop Ussher tempted 
him into Ireland, where he was appointed 
schoolmaster of the king's wards in Dublin, 
the wards being minors of property whose 

Sarents were Eoman catholics. Carpenter's 
eath is said to have occurred at Dublin in 
the beginning of 1628, and his funeral sermon 
was preached by Robert Ussher, a brother of 
the archbishop. On his deathbed he re- 
gretted that he had * so much courted the 
maid instead of the mistress,' meaning that 
he had spent his chief time in philosophy and 
mathematics and had neglected divinity. 

His writings were numerous. The earliest 
of them, * Philosophia libera triplici exerci- 
tationum decade proposita/ an attack on the 
Aristotelian system of philosophy, appeared 
at Frankfort in 1621, under the disguise of 
N. C. Cosmopolitanus. Later editions were 
issued under his name in 1622, 1636, and 1675. 
His treatise of * Geography delineated forth 
in two books,' published in 1625, and repub- 
lished in 1685, contains many eloquent pas- 
sages, especially a digression (p. 260 et seq.) 
in praise of the illustrious natives of 'our 
mountainous provinces of Devon and Corn- 
wall.' Embodied in it are some pages of 
poetry, in which his 'Mother Oxford' re- 
counts the advantages which he had derived 
from association with her, and reproaches 
him for his partiality to his native coimty. 
Three sermons entitled ' Achitophel, or the 
Picture of a Wicked Politician,' preached to 
the imiversity of Oxford and dedicated to 
Ussher, are stated to have appeared in 1627, 
1628, 1629, 16.38, 1638, and 1642. The first 
edition was called in, and the passages against 
Arminianism were expunged. Aft^er his death 
there appeared (1633 and 1640) a sermon, 
* Chorazin and Bethsaida's Woe,' which he 
had preached at St. Mary's, Oxford. The 
dedication by N. H. to Dean Winnifie asserts 
that but for ' a kinsman's (Jo. Ca.) friendly 
hand ' the manuscript might have ' perished 



on the Netherland shores,' as Oarpentei^s 
labours in optics did in the Irish Sea. A 
charisterium to Carpenter by Degorr Wheare 
appears in the appendix to the latter a ' Pietas 
erga benefactores,' 1628. A manuscript by 
Carpenter entitled ' Encomia Varia ' beiongB 
to Trinitv College, Dublin {Hist. MSS. 
Comm, 4th Rep. app. p. 590). 

[Wood's Athene Oxon. (Bliss),!!. 421-2, Fasti, 
i. 337, 393 ; Prince's Worthies (1810), 178-^, 
603 ; Boase's Beg. of Exeter Coll. pp. 55, 56, 

211.] w.p.a 

CARPENTER, PHILIP PEARSALL 

(1819-1877), conchologist, youngest child 
of Lant Carpenter [q. y.], was bom at 
Bristol in November 1819. His education 
began in his father's school, was continued 
at a proprietary institution called the Bristol 
College, and concluded at a presbyterian 
training college at York. He graduated B.A. 
in the university of London in 1841, and soon 
after became minister of a presbyterian con- 
gregation at Stand, whence he removed in 
1846 to a congregation at Warrington, and 
there remained for fifteen years. ISe did not 
confine his activity to preaching, but was 
concerned in endless philanthropic schemes, 
some wise and useful, others ill-considered 
and unfruitful. He established a printing 
press, and disseminated his opinions by fre- 
quent leaflets, letters, magazines, and other 
publications. He learnt to swim in the canal, 
and instituted a swimming academy ; he lec- 
tured on the necessity of proper drainage, and 
stood up for the preservation of ancient rights 
of way. He set a fine example of temperance 
in eating and of abstinence from wine, but he 
spoke of a public dinner to the officers of the 
militia as an expenditure for sensual opratifi- 
cation which could not be reconcilea with 
christian sobriety, and he refused to lend a 
copy of a song, ' Mynheer van Dunk,' to a 
Christmas glee party because he would not 
encourage the singing of bacchanalian verses. 
He had always thought it a sin to drink wine, 
and soon came to believe it foolish to eat 
meat. When his house was robbed he pub- 
lished a handbill describing the candlesticks, 
silver spoons, and other property stolen, and 
informing the thieves that he had forgiven 
them ; that if they liked to call he would 
converse with them, and that if they did not 
call they would have tb meet him on the day 
of j udgment . The current of his activity was 
at length turned into a definite channel. He 
had been instructed in natural science when 
a boy, had made a collection of shells, and 
had always had a taste for natural histoiy. 
One day, in 1855, while walldzig down a 
street in Liyeipooli Caipenter cauglit ta^l 



Carpenter 



of somii strange elieUa in b dealer's window. 
He went in, nnd found that tbe epecimena 
were [wirt of a vaat collection made by a Bel- 
gian nnturnlist named Reifcen at Maiatlan in 
California. The coUector had died, leaving 
hia shells unsorted and unnamed. Carpen- 
ttr bought them for 50/. There were foiir- 
'■'--- tons of ghella, each ton occupying forty 
! feet. The eiaminBlion, description, 
ninf, and class iS cation of these ehella wea 
• chief work of the rest of Carpenter's life. 
By the eompBriaon of hundreds of examples, 
104 previous species were shown to he mere 
Tarieties, while 222 new speeies were added 
to the caialogue of the mollusca. Thence- 
forward, though he sometimes prenched, 
made speeches, and wrote pamphlets, most 
of C«rpenttr*9 time was given to shells, and 
even when he received calls or paid visits 
he would wash and pack up shells during 
conversation. Their pecuniary value when 
named and arranged in serica was great, but 
he never tried to grow rich by them, and his 
- _yhoIe endeavour was to spread the know- 
n of them and to supply as manv public 
riUutions as possible witfccompiete collec- 
-IB of Hnxatlan mollusca. A full report on 
n oceupiea 209 pages of the 'British As- 
dstion Rpporls' f..r 1856, and further de- 
'i src to be found in the same reports for 
i, and in the 'Smithsonian Reports' for 
>. He visited America tu 1858, nnd in 
l880, after his return to England, married at 
Sfancheater Miss Minnie Meyer. At the con- 
clusion of the ceremony the wedded pair for- 
mally adopted a hoy whom Carpenter had 
found in n rafuge at Baltimore. In 1865 he 
laJled with wife and adopted sou for America, 
•etiled in Montreal, and there lived to the 
BBd of his days. He took pupils, ceased to 
be a pnwbyterian, and became reconciled to 
the doctrines of the Anglican church. Sheila 
occupied most of hia time, and he was work- 
ing at the Chitonidoe, of which he had formed 
■ gT»at collection, when he was »ei«ed with 
"■ II acute illness, and died on 24 May 1877. 
ter once spoke of himself as 'a born 
, a naturalist hy chance.' The de- 
lU should have been reversed. He had 
I fond of shells and of nnlural history 
from Barly hoy hood, and the chance was only 
in tb« incident which gave him the opiiortu- 
nity of following his natural bent. His teach- 
ing was spoiledljy his ignorance of what was 
ludicrous, und he used to imitate the move- 
mvnU of polyps with his arms and legs in a 
way which fixud his own frrotesque attitudes 
on the BWmoryof his pupils, hut which drove 
tb^ alUmtion nwny from poli-ps. He was 
« virtuous tuan end a laborious, but was 
fieitber judicioua nor profound. 



[Momoira (with portrait), edited by B. L. Car- 
poDter. 1S80; British Aeeociatian Reports. IS68, 
&C, ; personal kiiowledge.] N, M. 

CABPENTEB,RICHARD(15r5-ie27), 

divine, was born in Cornwall in 1875. He 
matriculated at Exeter Collie, Oxford, on 
28 May 1592, and took his degroas of B.A. 
on 19 Feb. 1595-6, B,D, 25 Juno 1611, and 
D,D. 10 Feb. 1616-17. He was elected to a 
Cornish fellowship at his college on 30 June 
1696, nnd retained it until 30 June 1606. 
during which time he devoted his attention, 
under the advice of Thomas Holiand, the 
rector of Exeter College, to the etudr of 
theology, and became noted for his preaching 
powers. In 1606 he was appointed by Sir 
Robert Chichester to the rectories of Sher- 
well and Loxhore, near Barnstaple, and it 
has been suggested that he was the Richard 
Carpenter wSio from 1601 to 1026 held the 
vicarage of Collumpton. While he was a 
tutor at Oxford, Chris tophcrTrevely an, a son 
of John Trevelyau of Settlecombe, Somer- 
set-shire, who married Urilh, daughter of Sir 
John Chichester of Devonshire, was among 
his pupils, and through this in^oduction to 
these families Carpenter married Susanna, 
his pupil's youngest sister, and obtained his 
benefice from Sir Robert Chichester. Ha 
died on 18 Dec. 1627, and was buried in the 
chancel of Loxhore Church, where a monu- 
ment was erected to his memory. 

Carpenter's literary productions were con- 
fined to theology. Hewastheauthorof: l.'A 
Sermon preached at the Funeral Solemnities 
of Sir Arthur Ackland,' 9 Jan. 1011-12. 
2. 'A Pastoral Charge at the Triennial Visi- 
tation of the Bishop of Exon. at Barnstaple,* 
1816. 3. 'Christ's Larum Bell of Love re- 
sounded,' 1616. 4. ' The Concionable Chris- 
tian,' three sermons preached before the 
judges of the circuit in 1620, London, 1623. 
His learning is hi; " • ■ - ~ - 

Fitigeoifry in his '. 
addressed to him by Dtgory Wheare in 1608 
and 1621 are in the ' Epislolie Eucharisttcffi ' 
subjoined to the Intlet'e 'Pietas erga Bnio- 
factores,' 1628, Some verses by Qirpenter 
are printed in the ' Funebre OIBcium in me- 
mcriam Eliiabethre AnglLiD regime ' of the 
universitv of Oxford, 1603, and in the collec- 
tion (' Pfetas erga Jacnbum Anglije regem ') 
with which that body in the same year wel- 
comed the new king. 

[Wood's Athon* 0x00. (Bliss), ii. 418; Boase's 
Reg. of Eietor Coll. pp. S2-3, 2ID ; Boose and 
Courtney's Bib]. Comnb. pp. 83, 1115; Troveljan 
Papera, pt, iii, {Camdeii 8oc 187^), pp. iivi, 77, 
84,1 10-13, 138-10;. irber'sStatianera'Regiitan, 
iii.498,fi9fl,iv, 81.] W.P.O. 



Carpenter r^4 Carpenter 



CABPENTEB. ribJUAlLb L l-J?':- r - i:-=«i izr=x :bir T*4r. W.»l. who wa* imi- 

".'zjic.'^'jcn^ S'.'iJ.'irhftn'f.' TTiLi -iii^!a."'=*i i: so^rlr *ci;iA£2t-,*Ji wi:h him. sajs *ihat he 

E.v,?^ i£ri I2. iKn rlrctrti *•:■ L «i!li'LLr^p \z iTis X iLc^AjC Lcil zxAZL 'hAC chftziged his mind 

Kirx? O^Ilr:?^- L*4zihr.i*--t. Ftoe. •.jic j*> -^iti his cl-rh*. and that for his juggles and 

VAiLZ, ^A him La :h/T ■Hi:cnp';Lii I>r»=:a- trj:k* i:i ^iazikT*- ^f religion he was esteemed 

:fca" :: U v> r>r izf-rrr^d :ii: bir I-r!!^ :b» a : hr* : L :ir-'::il niooniehar k . ' I>xid affirms that 

unlT'rT^i'rv wiTb-jii*: T;Lk:iijr ills ierr^r^r. la " 2fr W4a:*i Ei^i'her wit nor leanmur. which, 



Li^ w-.TE. • Erp»rrlr!i«>:. Hi*".:r>. tni EKvi- ii-:rw::bjrAn«iinj- lay oii'ier a firiizhtful ma- 
nirir.' h#r -aya than hr. • t^-Tiz tr^ x ?oL*Lkr ruj^nsea- :rir»:*ifch the ini'iaity rt?the times 



of Eav^n Oillie!?^ ani ifr-^rwari* 1 •T-iirrc: aai hi* own incinstanr tamper/ His chief 
in f'hsc}jrAx^. i-jz^j»-j'£ rir riEivi-r*:':y i=.i w:rk wsj: 1. • Experience. It*torie, and Di- 



imm.'^diatrlT rnTTiIed." In "tL^ -asi-r work vzni^L-e.'ic. 1»)4«>: republished with additions 

hr a&ms "La* Lr -ar*.* conrrrrir^i t:- R.3Ezi:in in 1*>4-'? as • Th(* D>wnfall of Antichrist/ a 

catLvlicL*m by an EarLib. mr-si in I-»'iid:n. qoeer m:it»ire •"<' aut'>bi'>eraphy and ivli- 

that h«i -TTidi-ini in Flan-i-er*. .Vrt-ri*. FrML-^r. zion. roll r-f clASeicai •^u^'^tations and absurd 

.Spiaiin. and Iraly. and tha' h-r wa.* ^-^^.^e- storlrs. _\iter the Resioration he wr^ne a 

fj'irnrlv ordain-:*! a prl-r*^ bv :be hini* of om-e^iv call-ed : '2. "The Prazmatical Jesuit/ 

thf: popr*"* i'ifctstLture in Rome. Havinz b»r»rn of which Lan^bftine speaks with some c«."»m- 

a Ben^i^icrinr monk at I>/'iay for «iOme time. meri-iicL-kn. Prvdied t.-» this play is his pir- 

h^ was ^nt a? a mis^si- nary ro En::L-in>i. rrai: in a Ioev; habit : a previous one, however, 

wher^, after ab-ut a y^ar. hrr r»r:umed to exhibit* him as a formal cleric with a sad 

the pr'A*r«ran* r*rlizi"'n. wa.* •i-riain-rd. and. and m«"»rtined c^^untenance. He also wr^rte : 

thp-j>u^h the int»;rven:i-»n ^>i thrr Archbish->p '^ ' The Anabaptist washt and washt, and 

of Canterbury 1 Ab]> -t i. was pre-sente^l t'^ the shrunk in the ^^ ashinff.' 165:1 4. * The tht- 

emall livin^r of F »linif, near .Vrin irl. in 1^3o feet Law >yi G»>1. bein^r a Sermi'tn and no >*>r- 

(Dallawat, Sa*jf^.i\ ii. ipt. L» *^)k I*urin^ mon. pp^ached and yet not preached/ \tyyl 

his incumbency he was much annr-ye^i by (published while he was an independent), 

the I^>man cath«»lics in Arundel. wh-» l>st •>. ' Astp:>l-vy proved harmless, useful, pittas* 

no op{^'>rt unity of slandering him or hoIdiUiT 1«>>3. 6. * The Last and Hi^rhest Appeul; 

him up to ridicule before his parishioners. «^r an Appeal t^ God against the new Keli- 

In his • Experience/ %Vc.. he ?i ves a hiirh- arion Makers. Dressers. Menders, and "N'endors 

flown account of his reus^ins f ''r bec«"»minir a amongst us/ &c. 7. * The Jesuit and the 

prrit»r5tant, but hi'» enemies affirmed that his Monk ; or the Serpent and the Drag«>n/ I606. 

chan^ of crfet<i was in • order to zain a wilV/ S. ' Kome and her Jesuits/ 1663. 
and tliat * he liad nin away with the wife of A RicUABO C.tRPENTEB is mentioned by 

the man with whom he lidged/ There is Elias Ashmole, who prints in his ' Theatrum 

no reaA'^tn to suppose that he was married at Chimicum Britannicum/ 1651, an English 

this time. At the outbreak of the civil war poem, detailing various alchemical prescrip- 

he threw up his living and became an it ine- tions. under the title of *The "W orke of 

rant preacher, hi* chief aim seeming to be to Richard Carpenter.* This is from the 'Sloane 

widen the br»*ach betwet/n the king and the MS.' :?S8, Xo. 8, where the piece is entitled 

parliament as much as p)ssible. Disappointed *The Proline of R. C. of tne Philosophers 

r>y hLs lack of .success, he quitted this way of Stone,' and described as the opening lines of 

life, and going over to Paris he again be- a lost work by Thomas Chamock (1524?- 

cam»; reconciled to the R<')mish church, and 1581) Tq. v.], doubtless Carpenter's contempo- 

made it his business to rail at protestantism, rary (TA>'2nBK, BibL Brit, ; Brit. Mu8, Cat,) 




according to the humour of the time, and 3rd edit.; Dodd*s Church History, 1737; Lang- 
iN^came a mere mountebank of religion. Ue baine's Account of the Dramatic Poets, 1691 ; 
sliortly afterwards married and settled at Baker's Biog. Dramatica, vol. i. pt. i. p. SS."! 
Avh-^sburj-, where he had relations, and used ^' ^* B. 

to* preach in a ver>- fantastical manner, to CA BPENTER, RICHARD CROM- 
the great mirth of his auditors.' Towards WELL (1812-1855), architect, was born 
tlie latter part of his life he became very , 21 Oct. 1812, educated at Charterhouse, and 
H(;rious, and, in company with his wife, em- articled to Mr. Blyth. He first exhibited ar 
braced Catholicism for a third time, which the Rojral Academy in 1830, sendinf a ' De- 
religion he is supposed to have professed at sign for a Cathedral Transept/ and between 
the time of his death. He is known to have tmit year and 1849 exhibited nine works, 
been alive in 1670, but is believed to have | Amonghis earliest baildingB were the churches 



t St. Stoplien and St. Andrew nt Birmiii^ 
.tan; among his later Si. PbuI. Brighton, and 
St. MuyMuj^alen, Muuater Square, Londoa. 
He &I9U mecuted rest-oratioiis ai Chichester 
Cathedral, Sherborne Abbey, and Si. John's 
College, Biirsrpieq>oint, SuMex. He died 
in I'pper Bediotd Place, Ruseell Square, 
27 Mutch 1S66. 

Diet, 

CAItPEKTER,\VILLIAM(1797-1674), 

miscellaDeriiis -n-rit^r, aon of n trndegmein in 
St. Jiunea'a, Westminster, wns bom in 1797. 
He received no gchtKi! educotion, but at an 
««rly oge enlert'd the service of 11 bookaeUer 
in Mnabuiy, first as an erraud'-boj, and then 
SB an a^ipn-ntict^. By ^rgeveting aelf-.study 
hi^ acquijvd Herenil Hnri<*r)t and modern Ian- 
^^uages, and devotwl himaelf with speeial 
eagerness to biblical aubjecta. ^MlUe at 
Finabury he made the iicauaintaiice of Wil- 
liam Greenfield, editor of Baaiatcr'a ' Poly- 
glot Bibles.' With him he edit^ for some 
titne Ihp 'Scripture Magaiine,' which was 
afterwarda ejipanded into the ' Critica Bi- 
blir«' (4 vols. l«;+-7). Devoting himaelf 
mtitiely to literary pursuits, he wrote a num- 
''~W of wotka on tiheologieal and general aub- 
^1, and was connected in auccession with 
.. roui periodicals. He waa editor of the 
-K&bippittf Gazette ' in 1836, of the ' Era ' in 
1S88, of the ' Railway Obaer\er ' in 1843, of 
•Lloj-d'a Weekly Newa' in 1844, of the 
'Court Journal' in 1848, of the ' Sunday 
Timua' and ■ Bedfordshire Independent' in 
1851. He alao edited a morning paper. Aa 
ft joiiraaliat he ieatied a publication entitled 
' Political LetterB'(1830-l'). Thiahemain- 
tained was not Uable to the stamp duty oil 
newB^pers, and he issued it pnrtly to try the 
question. A prosecution followed at the in- 
stauce of the authorities b the court ofex- 
eihwjuer. At the trial (14 May 18.SI) Carpen- 
ter defended himself, was convicted, and. was 
impriaoned for some time in the king's bench 
(Iteport. of Trial prefixed to Collected Poli- 
tical Lettert). From his prison he edited the 
'PnliticnlMnga«ine'{Septemberie31toJttly 
I'-.IJ, ri'iiublished as 'Carpenter's Monthlv 1 
I'.hih.a Mu(^ine,'1832). ' 1 

( ■iir].iiji..r thtflW himaelf with great leal ^ 
iiiio [III' i-iMiw uf political rvform. In con- 
nectiori witli this lie wrote ' An Address to 
the Working (lassiis on the lieform Bill,' 
1M1 ; 'Tlie People's Book, comprising their 
clutrtetcd righta and jiractieal wrongs, 1831 ,- 
' Thfi Elootors' Manual,' 18.S2 ; ' TIte Political 
Twt Book, comprising a view of the origin 
and objects of gortmment. and an examinit- 
Hoa ill tbu prineiiial social and political in- 



Mir« ' (4 
^_i«atitiely ti 
■&ofwo 
^Kta,Mid 

^R^dppinf 



of England," 1833 ; ' Peerage for 
the People," Ityl; 'The Corporaliim of Lon- 
don as it is, and as it should be,' 1847. Be- 
1851 and IS.'iS Carpenter was honorary 
iry to the Chancery Reform Asaocia- 
lion, for which he wrote a good deal. He 
also wrote a little treatise, 'The Israelites 
found in the Anglo-Saxons,' 1872. Carpenter 
was troubled with defective eyesight, and 
was, notwithstanding his remarkable activity, 
in somewhat poor circumstances foraome time 
before his death, which took place at his resi- 
dence in Colebrooke Row, Islington, 21 April 
1874. 
I Caroenter published: 1, 'Sancla liiblico' 
' (a collection of parallel passages), S vols. 
: 182.'), dedicated to OeorgB IV. 2. ' Calen- 
darium Palestine, exhibiting the Principal 
Events in Scripture History,' 1825, 3. 'A 
Popular Introduction to tfie Study of the 
Scriptures,' 182fl. 4. 'Old English and He- 
brew Proverbs explained and illustrated,' 
1826. 6. ' A Reply to the Acciisationa of 
Piracy and Plagiarism, in a letter to the Rev. 
. T. H. Home; 1827. 6. 'An Eiaminntion of 
-Scripture Difficulties,' 1828. 7. 'Scripture 
^Natural History" (1828, republished Boston, 
U.S., 18:13; Latin tmnalation, Paris^ 1841). 
8. 'PopiUarLecturesonBiblicalCriticiamand 
Interpretation,' 1829. 9. 'AGuidetotbePrac- 
iticalHeadingofthe Bible,' 1830. 10. 'Anec- 
dotes of the French Revolut ion of 1 830,' 1830. 
11. '.A.PopularHistorvof Priestcraftabridged 
from W. Howitfs Book,' 1834. 12. ' A Reply 
I to W. Howilt's Preface to Ihe Abridged His- 
tory of Priestcraft," 1834. 18. 'TheLifband 
I Times of John Milton,' 183fi. U. ' The Bi- 
blical Companion,' 1836. 15. 'Relief forthe 
' Unemployed J Emigration and Colonisation 
considered,' 1841. 16. ' Clark's Christian In- 
heritance ' (5th ed. 1813). 17, ' A Compre- 
hensive Diet ionary o f Englisli Synonyms '(8tli 
ed. 1865). 18. 'An Introduction to the Read- 
ing and Study of the English Bible ' (3 vols. 
1867-8). The following have also been in- 
cluded in a list of Carpenter's works; 'Mneio- 
phile, a Dictionary of Facte and Dates ; ' 
' Critical Dissertation on Eaekiel's Temple ; ' 
' Wesleyana ; ' 'Life of Cobbett' (whom he 
knew intimately) ; ' Small Debts, on Argu- 
ment for County Courts : ' ' Machinery and 
the Working Classes;' 'The Condition of 
Children in Mines and Factories.' He also 
edited and abridged Calmet'a ' History of the 
Bible.' His acrijiturol treatises have 
very popular in America. 

[Men of the Titno. 8th edit. IS72, pp. 1S3-3 ; 
SuDdny TirtiDS uewspnpeT, 3 May ISTi. p. S, col. 
t ; Brit. Mus. Col. ; PmfiiPO to Introdtictioo to 
the Reading aad Study of thi- Eagtiali Bibte.1 
F. W-T. 



Caq)enter i66 Carpenter 

CABPENTER, WILLIAM BEX J A- logy also. He found the anxieties of general 
MDi (1&13-1»$5 ). naturalist, iras the fourth meSiical ^rmctioe too great for his keoi sus- 
child and eldest «on of Dr. Lant Carpenter ceptihilities, and undertook further literary 
'q. T.~, and hrother of Mary and Philip Car- woiic, including a useful and comprehensiTe 
penter 'q. t." He was bom at Exeter on ' Popular Cyclopedia of Science,' 1843. In 
29 0ct.l813r His father removed to Bristol 1844 he remoTed to London, gaining the 
in 1817 ; young Carpenter reoeired his earlr poet of Fullerian professor of physiology at 
education there in his father s notable school, the Royal Institution, and being elected a 
and acquired both exact classical and scientific fellow of the Royal Society in the same year, 
knowledge. He was anxious to be a ciril He was appointed lecturer on physiology at 
engineer, but sacrificed his inclination when the London HospitaL and professor of forensic 
pressed to become the pupil of Mr. Estlin, medicine at UmTersity College. He was also 
the family doctor. He passed some time in for some years examiner in physiology and 
the West Indies as companion to Mr. Estlin, oomparatiye anatomy at the L^niversity of 
and his experience of social conditions pre- London, and Swiney lecturer on geoloffv at 
ceding the abolition of slayery led him to the British Museum. From 184 < to 1852 
be tlm>ughout life a cautious and moderate he edited the ' British and Foreign Medico- 
rat her than an ardent reformer. Chiruigical Reyiew.' and from 1851 to 1859 

After some preliminary work at the Bristol he was principal of University Hall, the 

Medical School,Carpenter entered University residence for students at University College. 

College. London, in 1833, as a medical stu- In 1856, on appointment as r^istrar of the 

dent, and it is significant of a mania for University of London, he resigned his lecture- 

lectures then encouraged that he often at- ships.and thenceforward was the chief worker 

tended thirty-five lectures a week, as his in the great development of that university 

note-books sLow. He also attended the Mid- till his resignation in 1879, when he received 

dlesex Hospital for some time. After obtain- the distinction of a CJ3. He was appointed 

ing the Surgeons* and Apothecarit^' diplomas a crown member of the senate on the next 

in 1835 he went to the Edinburgh Medical vacancy, and continued an active member 

School and commenced researches on physio- tiU his death, which occurred on 19 Nov. 

logy. He wrote papers which showed a 1885, from severe bums received by the 

marked tendency to seek larffe generalisations accidental upsetting of a makeshift spirit- 

and to bring all the natural sciences to the lamp while he was taking a vapour bath, 

elucidation of vital functions. His early Carpenter was one of the last examples 

papers, ' On the Voluntary and Instinctive of an almost universal naturalist. Some of 

Actions of Living Beings '('£dinbui|rhMedi- his most valuable and laborious work was 

cal and Surgical Journal/ xlviii. 1837, pp. done in zoology. In a series of papers and 

22-44), *On the Unity of Function m reports to the British Association, com- 

Organised Beings * (* Edinburgh Xew Philo- mencing in 1843, and to the Royal, Micro- 

sophical Journal.* xxiii. 1837, pp. 92-116), scopica^ and Qeological Societies, he ^ve 

' On the Difierences of the Laws repilating the results of his own and others' inquiries 

Vital and Physical Phenomena* {tb, xxiv. into the microscopic structure of shells. 

1838, pp. 327-o;3), which obtained the Stu- These were followed bv a set of four memoirs 

dents* IMze of 30/.. and ' The Physiological in the ' Philosophical I'ransactions,* 1856-60, 

Inferences to be deduced from the Structure on the foraminifera. In 1862 the Ray Society 

of the Nervous System of Invertebrated Ani- published his ' Introduction to the Study of 

mals ' (^duation thesis, 1839), the latter the Foraminifera,' in which he was largely 

of which obtained the notice of Johannes assisted by Professors W. K. Parker and 

Miiller, the first physiologist of the day, who T. Runert Jones ; it is a memoir of funda- 

inserted a translation of it in his ' Archives ' mental importance on the subject. As late 
for 1840, were the precursors of his great work, : as 1882 he contributed an important paper 

' The Principles of General and Comparative on Orbitolites to the ' I^ulosophical Irans- 

Physiologj, published in 1839. This was the actions.' Marine zoolo^ also largely inte- 

first Euj^lish book which contained adequate rested him, and out of his summer excursions 

conceptions of a science of biology. A second to Arran, when he studied the feather-stars, 

edition was called for in 1841, and it was grew a lai]ge scheme of deep-sea exploration, 

recognised that the author was a man of no In the spring of 1868 he studied the crinoids 
ordinary mental msp and range of study. { near Belfast with ProfessorWyyilleThomson, 

Before his graauation at Edinburgh Car- 1 and in the same year they explored the 

penter had become lecturer on medical ju- fauna and other phenomeaa of the 8ea4)Ottom 

risprudence at the Bristol Medical School, between the north of Ireland and the Faroe 

and he afterwards lectured there on physio- ialands in the Lightning. This wu followed 



16; 



Caqienter 



bv furtlivr explorstions ia tb« i'oruupi 
([669 and 1870), aad is the Shp&rw>il 
(1871), in -which he traversed the Mediter- 
mnean and the Atlantic bet-weun Great 
Britain and PortuKal, and hy the Challenger i 
leicpBdition under Wyrille Thomson, in the 
prejparBl.ioDe for nhicb Carpenter tiKik an 
active part. | 

Some of Carpenter's most importaDt eoo- i 
lozieaJ contributions related to the question ' 
ot the animal nature of Eozoiin canadaue, I 
OB found in maises in the Laurentian rocks 
of Canada. He contributed numerous papers 
on this subject to the Rojral Society, the 
'Canadian Naturalist' ^ii. 1865), the 'In- 
tellectual Obaerver" (vii. 1865), 'Philoao- 
^ieal Magac ine ' ( 1 ^6^ ),' Geological Society's 
Quarterly Journal,' &c. For some years 
before his death he had been collecting ma- 
terials for a monograph on Rnomi, which he 
did not complete. Another favourite sub- 
ject of hia research was llie structure, em- 
Itryology, and past history of tbe feathei^ 
^^rt«j» and crinoids, in which he demonstrated 
^^famortont facts of Btructure and physiology 
^^^^moh were long controverted. Ills chief 
^^PEa was 'On the Structure, Fhynology, 
^^pBM Development of Antedon rosaceus ' 
<'Philo8ophicalTrBnsactions,' 1866, pp 671- 
756). Among his eervicea to zoology, and 
ID a lesser deeree to botanjr.moj' be reckoned 
his work on 'The Slicroscope and its Reve- 
UtioDs,' 1866, which reached a sixth edition 
in 1861. His loologica! and botanical and 
other contribntione to the ' Cyclopu-'dia of 
Science' were afterwards published in sepa- 
rate volumes in Bohn's 'Scientific Library.' 
The 'Comparative Physiology' of hia early 
' PhysioloBy ' was pnbtished sepnrately as an 
rnluged [mirth e^tion in 1864. 

In addition to his principal book, Cor- 
penter'd contributions to phvsiology wore 
chietly to the mental and the pnysical aspects 
of the science. His early papers were followed 
hv others: 'On the Mntual Relations of the 
Vital and Physical Forces ' (' FhilnanpUical 
Tran8actions,'le50),and'OntbBAiniliciitL(in 
of the Principle of Conservation oi Force to 
Phvsiology' ('Quarterly Journal of Science,' 
i. 18<M). Hia great work on phvsiology 
atlflincd a fifth edition in 1866, and has sith- 
Sfajucntly been edited by Mr. itenry Power. 
\. amnller ' Manual of Physiology,' 1846, 
"ed a fourth edition in 1865. In 1874 
mter expanded the chapters of his pre- 

I work on "incntal physiology into a 

ttiae, 'The Principles of Mental ^hysi(^- 
JT ' (fourth edition, 1876). His views on 
the relation of mind and brain were acute 
and inodvanceof his time. While nnapuring 
>u Ilia cxpiwures of quackery in phrenology, 



Ltualism, ^| 
in sound 



meBUieriam, elect ro-biiilogy, and spiritualism, 
he did mucb to educate the public in sound 
views of mental processes, and especially to 
bring into ^prominence the importance of 
those ojterations of which * — 



Institution,' i. 147-63, he wrote 'On the I: 
fluence of Suggestion in Modifying and Di- 
recting MusciSar Movement, independently 
of Volition,' and in 1868 (i6. v. 838-46) 
On the UnconacioUB Activity of the Brain.' 



He made the subj 






i) a Bpeciality, further 
discussing it in a lecture at Glasgow in 1876, 
' Is Man on Automaton '( ' It is worth noting 
that while editor of the ' Medico-Chirurgical 
Review ' he published a criticism of Noble's 
' Physiology of the Brain," which had the 
effect of converting Dr. Noble. He was one 
of the editors of tue ' Natural History Re- 
view' (1861-6). 

Carpenter's deep-eea explorations led him 
into an extensive field of marine phvelcs. 
He developed in this country the doctrine of 
a general oceanic circulation, due largely to 
beat, cold, and evaporation, which had been 
previously little suspected. His more im- 
portant papers on this question are contained 
-- the 'Itoyal Society a Proceedings," xvii. 
,; 'Geographical Society's Proceedings^' 
. 1871 ; ' British Association Reports,' sli. 
xlii. xliii. His views were persistently as- 
sailed by Mr. James Croll and others, but 
have been sustained by many other writers. 
Carpenter's incessant industry enabled him 
I lake part in many public movements with 
effect. In 1849 he gained a prize for an 
essay 'On the Lise and Abuse of Alcoholic 
Liquors ' (I860), and he wrote further ' On 
the Physiology of Temperance and Total 
Abstinence' (1853). He was a wngularty 
lucid lecturer on scientific subjects, and orga- 
nised the Gilchrist scheme of popular science 
lectures, which has been of great value in 
spreading sound scientific knowledge and 
awokeninr interest in science among the 
working dosses. He was a zealous champion 
of vaccmntion and other scientific measures 
for checking disease, and wrote many maga- 
aine articles on such topics. Ho was a larj^ 
contributor to various eydoptedias. His 
labours received numerous marks of high 
distinction, including a royal medal of the 
Royal Societv (1861), the Lyell medal of 
the Oeolopcal Society (1883), the LL.D. 
of Edinburgh (1871), the presidency of the 
British Association (18(2), and the corre- 
sponding membership of the Institute of 
France (1873> 

In person Carpentor was above middle 
height, of quiet and somewhat formal man- 



Carpenter 



i68 



Carpenter 



ner, spare, keen-eyed, and tenacious-looking. 
He was an active member of the unitarian 
church at Hampstead, at which he played 
the organ and conducted the psalmody for 
some years. He regarded miracles not as 
violations of natural order, but as manifesta- 
tions of a higher order. His acceptance of 
Darwin's views of evolution was somewhat 
limited and reserved. He believed that 
natural selection leaves imtouched the evi- 
dence of design in creation. In philosophy 
he especially clung to the reality of an inde- 
pendent will beyond automatism. He was 
well versed in literature and philosoph;^, and 
this no doubt influenced his scientific writing, 
which was always lucid and often highly ra- 
tiocinative. Carpenter was married in 1840, 
and left five sons, including Mr. W. Lant 
Carpenter, B.Sc, and Dr. P. Herbert Car- 
penter, F.RS. 

[Obituary notices : Nature, 26 Nov. by Prof. 
Ray Lankester; Inquirer, 14 Nov., hysons of 
Dr. Carpenter; Times, Daily News, Standard, 
11 Nov. ; Pall Mall Gazette, 13 Nov., by Grant 
Allen, incorrect in several points; Athcnteum, 
Christian Life, Lancet, 14 Nov. 1885. English 
Cjclopsedia, Biography, ii. 91.] G. T. B. 

CARPENTER, WH.LIAM HOOK- 
HAM (1792-1806), keeper of prints in the 
British Museum, the only son of Mr. James 
Carpenter, a bookseller and publisher of some 
note established in Old Bond Street, was bom 
in Bruton Street, London, on 2 March 1792. 
He was apprenticed to his father's business, 
and was engaged in it until 1817, when he mar- 
ried Miss jlargaret Sarah Geddes [see Car- 
penter, Margaret Sarah] (second daughter 
of Captain Alexander Geddes of Alderbury, 
"Wiltsiiire), who obtained distinction aa a 
portrait-painter. He now set up in business 
tor himself in Lower Brook Street, and pub- 
lished, among other books, Spence's * Anec- 
dotes,' edited by Singer, and the first portion 
of Burnet's * Practical Hints on Painting ; ' but 
not succeeding, he again joined his father. Car- 
penter had considerable talent for drawing, 
and a taste for art, which was fostered bv his 
intimacy with Andrew Geddes, A.R,A., an 
accomplished etcher, and which had been 
first awakened by his own early associa- 
tions. His father had a large collection of 
paintings, and dealt largely in publications 
on art, while he also was acquainted with 
many artists and engravers, to whom he 
cave commissions for illustrating books. 
Frtnn the time when Carpenter gave up his 
own business till 1845 he seems to have had 
a good deal of spare time, much of which he 
spent in studying the prints and drawings of 
tue great masters in the British Museum. 



For a short time he held the post of secre- 
tary to the Artists' Benevolent Fund. Li 
1844 he published 'Pictorial Notices, con- 
sisting of a memoir of Sir A. Van Dyck, with 
a descriptive catalogue of the etchings exe- 
cuted by him, and a variety of interestinff 
particulars relating to other artists patronised 
by Charles I,' London, 1844, 4to (a French 
translation of this work by L. Hymans was 

Eublished at Antwerp, 1844, 4to). In 1845 
e was appointed keeper of the department of 
prints and drawing in the Britisn Museum. 
Carpenter held this post till his death, and 
dunng his twenty-one years' tenure of office 
very greatly increased the interest and value 
of the collections under his care. He got 
together a number of objects illustrating the 
history of engraving, especially the early 
niellated silver plates and sulphur casts. Cfif 
the latter he procured for the museum no less 
than sixteen : only twent^r-five are at present 
known to be anywhere existing. Besides fiU- 
ing many lacunae in the general collection of 
engravings and etchings, ne brought together 
a large series of etchings by modem painters, 
both English and foreign, and greatly in- 
creased tne series of engraved English por- 
traits. He made many important additions 
to the then existing collection of drawings, 
especially works by the great masters. He 
also formed an important collection of draw- 
ings bv deceased British artists. Among his 
acquisitions may be mentioned : The Coning- 
ham collection of early Italian engravings, 
obtained in 184o; selections of Rembrandt's 
etchings from the collections of Lord Aylesford 
and Baron Verstolk, and some valuable Dutch 
drawings procured from the latter collection 
in 1847; various fine drawings by the old 
masters, many of which had belonged to 
Sir Thomas Lawrence, procured at Messrs. 
Woodbum's sale ; some drawings of Michel- 
angelo, obtained from the Buonarroti family ; 
and a volume of drawings by Jacopo Bellini, 
purchased in 1855 at Venice. In 1864 Car- 
penter had been sent to Venice by the trus- 
tees of the British Museum to report upon 
the last-named volume. His attention to his 
duties was unremitting, and in the last month 
of his life he was watching with interest the 
progress of some public sales at which he had 
given commissions. He died at the British 
Museum on 12 July 1866, aged 74. 

Carpenter's knowledge of prints and draw- 
ings gained him a wide reputation in Europe. 
In 1847 he was elected a member of tne 
Academy of Fine Arts at Amsterdam, and in 
1852 a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, 
on the council of which he served in 1857-8. 
He was also a trustee of the National Por- 
trait Gallery from the time of its fonnation in 



s 






IMft In connection with tlio work of his 
deportnient, lie jiublislied 'A Guide to 
— and Prints eiliibiled to the Public 

ne's Library' [at the British ilu- 
.], of tSiich there were editions in 186(*, 
\, and 1863, 8vo. 
[0»nt. Mag. (4th ser, 1888). il 410, 41 1 ; Men 
ortheTinie(Sthnl.), tSSS; Froceeilinea of tho 
Soc. of Antiq. (2nd ser.), iii- 480 (Presidenfa 
Addnss, 30 April 1887); StMutm and Rules of 
tht British Museum, 1871 ; Cat. of Nat. Portrut 
Gnll.ry.] W. W. 

CAEPENTIERE or CHABPEN- 

TIERE, ((f, 1737 1, atatiiBry, was much 

emplojred bj the Duke of Chandos at Canoi 
He ivds till Bome years principal assieta 
to Van OhI, the modeller of tJie statue 
George I, once at Canons and afterwards 
Leiceiter Square. CorpentiSre afterwards set 
tip for himself, and towards the end of his 
life ke|)t a maitufuctoiy of leaden statues in 
PiecBdiUv. He was over sLxty when he 
diwi in 1>37. 



»ua Wura'm; 



ncoioti 



).J 

CARPENTIERS, CARPENTIER, or 
CHABPENTIEEB, ADKIEN (A. 1760- 
l?"-!), portrait painter, was one of thearlists 
who signed the deed of the Free Society of 
Artiste in 1763. He sent nicturas to the 
ezhjhitionsof that society and to those of the 
Society of Artists and llie Royal Academy 
(fourteen works id all) between 1700 and 
1774, both incluMve. He is said tn have been 
a native of France or Switzerland wlio set- 
tled in England about 1780. He died at 
IMmlicw about 1778 at an advanced age. 
Xo connection has been trara^l between Ihth 
and C'arpf'nlifire or Charpentiftre [q. v.] A 

tionrail ufRoubitiacbyhim isin the National 
'■jrtraii tiallety, which has been engraved 
br Chambers in line and by Martin in meizo- 
tmt. Uis own portrait is in Salters' Hall. 

IPyo'a Patronage of British An ; Cat. of the 
HatioDiiI Portmit Galli-ry ; Bryan's Diet, of 
Painton and EDgraven (Qravrs); BalgrarB's 
IHcl. of Artista, 1878: Pilkington's Diet, of 
FiinierH! Oravoi'a Did, of Artist*; Edwards's 
Aneedutei of PainicTB.] C. M. 

CAfiPUE, JOSEPH CONSTANTINE 
(l"ftl-184(f), sui^eon and anatotuisl, was 
bom in London on 4 May 1784. His father, 
mtleoan nf small fortune, lived at Brook 
1, and was dusounded fVoin a Spanish 
diofiunilr. Youi^; Carpue was intended 
le Tirii«tu<wd, and was educated at the 
Jdte'^OolU'p* at Douay. At the agp of 
piecn he eonimenced an pitended conti- 
1 tour. He saw much of Paris, both 
I and aiter thu revoluiion. Cnrpue 



was of a somewhat erratic disposition, and, 
Laving decided again^tl the church, thought 
firal of becoming a bookseUer, that he might 
succeed his uncle, Lewis, of Great Kusaell 
Street, Coveut Garden, the schoolfellow and 
friend of Pope. Later he felt strongly at- 
tracted in succession to the bar and the' stage, 
being an enthusiastic student of (Shakespeare. 
At last he fixed on surgery, and studied at 
St. George's Hospital. Onbecomingqualified 
be was appointed staff-surgeon to the Duke of 
York's Hospital, Chelsea, which appointment 
heheldfor twelve years, resigning on account 
of his objection lo foreign service. His a»- 
Bociation with Dr. Pearson at St. George's 
Hospital led to hia becoming an ardent vacci- 
nator. In order to promote vaccination he 
visited many Enfflish military depots; and 
finally, on lits resignation of iLe hospital, he 
was appointed surgeon, with Pearson, of the 
Natiouat Vaccine Institution, a post he held 
till hie death. 

Carpue was, however, moat distinguished 
as an anatomical teacher, although never on 
the stair of a medical ectiool. At the Duke 
of York's Hospital he spared no trouble in 
pertecting his anatomical knowledge ; and he 
commenced teaebing in 1800, owing to an 
accidental obseri-ation of a medical student. 
His fe* from the first was invariably twenty 
guineas. FormanyyearHhe had an overflowing 
class. He gave three courses of daily lectures 
on anatomy, and lectured twice ii week in the 
evenings on surgery. He made his pupils 
talie a personal shara in hia demonstrations, 
and bis readiness with chalk illustrations 
pnwured him the sobriquet of the ' chalk lec- 
turer.' Hetooka most affectionate interest in 
his pupils. Carpue lectured till 1*B2. Early 
in his career he carried out the wish of Ben- 
jamin West, P.R.A., Banks, and Coeway, to 
ascertain how a recently killed corpse would 
hang on a cross. A murderer just executed 
was treated in this manner, and when cool a 
St was made {Lancet, 1846, i. 167). 
In 1801 Oarpue published a ' Description 
of the Muscles of the Human Body,' and in 
1«I6 an 'Account of Two Successful (.)pera- 
tions for Restoring a Lost Nose from the In- 
tegument of the Forehead.' In 1819 he 
published a 'History of the High Operation 
Tor the Stone, hv Incision above the Pubis." 
He also studied, medical electridty, and in 
1803 brought out 'An Introduction to Elec- 
tricity and Galvanism, with Cases showing 
their Efl'ects in the Cure of Uiseaae. He 
kept a fine plalo (electrical) maeliine in his 
dining-room, and made many experimental 
researches on the subject, 

Carpue was introduced to and much appre- 
ciated by Qeoige IV, both before and after hii 



Carr 



170 



Carr 



accession to the throne. He was consulting 
surgeon to the St. Pancras Infirmary, but 
never received any recognition from the Col- 
lege of Surgeons, either by election to the 
council or to an examinership. He was a 
fellow of the Royal Society. He died on 
SO Jan. 1840, in his eightynsecond year, hav- 
ing been much shaken in an accident on 
the South- Western Eailway soon after its 
opening. 

Carpue was a warm and faithful friend, 
abstemious and re^^ular in habits, and a great 
admirer of simpbcity in manners and ap- 
pearance. He ordered his funeral to be of 
the simplest kind possible. 

J. F. South, many years surgeon to St. 
Thomas's Hospital, and twice president of the 
London College of Surgeons, gives the fol- 
lowing imcomplimentary account of Carpue. 
He speaks of a private school, * conducted by 
a clever but very eccentric person, Joseph 
Carpue, a very good anatomist, who had but 
few pupils, and carried on his teaching by the 
very imusual method of catechism — for in- 
stance, he described a bone, and then made 
each pupil severally describe it after him, he 
correcting the errors whilst the catechisation 
proceeded. . . . Poor Carpue*s school came to 
grief, and he then turned popular politician, 
but was not more successful in that character. 
I remember him, a tall, ungainly, good-tem- 
pered, grey-haired man, in an unfitted black 
dress, and his neck swathed in an enormous 
white kerchief, very nearly approximating to 
a jack-towel.* 

[Lancet, 1846, i. 166-8; Feltoe's Memorials 
of J. F. South, 1884, p. 102.] G. T. B. 

CARR, JOHN (1723-1807), architect, 
called Carr of York, was bom at Horbury, 
near Wakefield, in May 1723. He began life 
as a working man and settled in York, where 
he attained a considerable reputation as an 
architect of the * Anglo-Palladian ' school, 
and amassed a large fortune. Among the 
buildings he erected are the court-house and 
the castle and gaol at York ; the crescent at 
Buxton ; the town hall at Newark, Notting- 
hamshire; Harewood House, near Leeds; 
Thoresby Lodge, Nottinghamshire; Oakland 
House, Cheshire ; Lytham Hall, near Pres- 
ton; Constable Burton, Baseldon Park, and 
Farnley Hall in Yorkshire; the east front and 
west gallery of Wentworth Castle, near Be- 
verley; the mausoleum of the Marquis of 
Rockingham at Wentworth ; and the bridge 
over the Ure at Boroughbridge. He also 
built at his own expense the parish church 
of his native village, where he was buried. 
He was mayor of York in 1770 and 1785, 
and died at Askham Hall, near York, 22 Feb. 



1807, aged 84, leaving property to the amount 
of about 160,000/. 

[Redgrave's Diet of Artists, 1878 ; G^nt. Mag. 
1807 ; Fergosson's History of Modem Architec- 
ture.] 0. M. 

CARR» JOHN (1732-1807), translator 
of Lucian, was bom at Muggleswick, Dur- 
ham, in 1732. His father was a fifirmer 
and small landowner or statesman. He was 
educated at the village school, and then pri- 
vately by the curate of the parish, the l£ev. 
Daniel Watson. Subsequently he was sent 
to St. Paul's School. He became an usher 
in Hertford grammar school under Dr. Hurst, 
and succeeded him in the head-mastership, 
which he held until about 1792, with a good 
reputation. He is said to have been a can- 
didate for the head-mastership of St. Paul's, 
but to have failed from the lack of a univer- 
sitv degree. In 1773 he published the first 
volume of his translations from 'Lucian,' 
which reached a second edition in the follow- 
ing vear. He published a second volume in 
1779, followed Dy three more between that 
year and 1798. The reputation of this work, 
which on the whole is executed with accu- 
racy and spirit, obtained for him the degree 
of LL.D. from the Marischal College of 
Aberdeen, at the instance of Dr. B^ttie. 
He seems to have felt that his literary pur- 
suits had been too trifling, and he takes pains 
in the preface to the second volume of Lu- 
cian to assure the world that it was the 
work only of evening hours when graver 
duties were over; and that it was under- 
taken to put out of his thoughts the annoy- 
ances of the day, an excuse which school- 
masters will understand. Besides his Lucian 
he wrote : 1. * A Third Volume of Tris- 
tram Shandy,' in imitation of Sterne, 1760. 

2. 'Filial Piety,' a mock-heroic poem, 1763. 

3. ' Extract 01 a Private Letter to a Critic,' 
1764. 4. ' Epponina,' a dramatic essay ad- 
dressed to ladies, 1765, the plot of which is 
founded on the account of Epponina, wife of 
Julius Sabinus, given in Tacitus (H. 4, 67), 
and Dio Cassius (66, 3, and 16). He died 
6 June 1807, and was buried in St. John's 
Church, Hertford. His epitaph is given in 
the ' Qentleman's Magazine,' vol. Ixxxii. 

[Gent. Mag. Ixxzii. 602 ; Nichols's Anecdotes, 
iii. 168 ; Baker's Biog. Dram.] R S. S. 

CAER, Sm JOHN (1772-1882), writer 
of ' tours,' a native of Devonshire, was bom 
in 1772. He was called to the bar at the 
Middle Temple, but from reasons of health 
found it advisable to travel, and published 
accounts of his journeys in diffsrent Euro- 
pean countries, which, though without much 



^" nthi 



intriuaic merit, oblained a wide circulation 
on occi^unt of I heir Ugfat, gossipj style, 
and the fact that in this Epeciea of Lte- 
TAtuie there wna then comparutiTely little 
competition. In 1803 lie published 'The 
Stranger in Fmnci', a Tour from DevonBhire 

Paris,' which, meeting with immediate 
» followed in 1806 by ' A Northern 
Travelaround the Baltic, through 
•k, Sweden, Russia, port of Poland, 
and I'ruBaia, in 1804;' in 180(1 by 'The 
Strmnger id Ireknd, or a Tour in the South- 
era and Western parte of that country in 
1805,' soon after wfiicU ha was knightad by 
the Duke of Bedford, then Ticeroy of Ire- 
"" ' and in 1807 by 'A Tour through 
id, aloni: the right and left banks of 

Rhine, to the south of Qermany, in 1806.' 

1807 hia ' Tour in Ireland ' was mode the ' 
ntbiect of a clever jeu ifetprit by Edward 
SuDoia, entitled ' My Pocket Book, or Hints 
for B Kyghte Merrio and Conceited Tour in 
4to, to be called " The Stranger in Ireland 
Ib 18(^, by a Enight Errant," and dedicated 
to the paper-makers.' For this satire the 
' ' '■ ' Messrs. Veruor, Hood, & Sharpe, 
ited in 1809, but Carr was non- 
In 1808 therf appeared ' Caledouian 

itches, or a Tour through Scotland in 
which was msdo the subject of a witty 
T by Sir Walter Scott m the 'Quar- 
terly Reriew;' and in 1811 'Descriptive 
TraTels in the Southern and Eaatem parts 
of Spain and the Balearic Islea [Majorca and 
Minorca] in the year 1809.' Lord Byron — 
who had met Cart at Cadii, and had begped 
' not to be put down in black and white — 
refers to him in some auppressed slaujsaR of 
' Childe Harold ' as ' Green Erin's knight and 
Europe's wandering star.' Besides hia books 
of traTcls Carr was the author of ' The Fury 
of Discord, a poem,' 1803; 'The Seaside 
Htto, a dnuna in three acts,' 1804 (on the 
supposed repulse of an anticipated invasion, 
tli«i scene being laid on the coast of Sussex) ; 
and % Tolume of ' Poems,' 1800, to which his 
portrait was prefixed. He died in New Noi> 
folk Street, London, on 17 July 1832. 

[Gent. Mac. cii. pt. ii. 1B2-3 ; Annual Regis- 
ter. Iixiv. 311.] T.F.IL 



CARR, JOHNSON (1744-1705), Und- 
a pupil 01 Richard Wilson, 
mption in his twenty-second 



di2r< 



year on 10 Jan. 1766. He was of a respect- 

able family of the north, and obtained several 

premiuma given by the Society of Arts for 

^Hrjrawings bT youths under the age of nineteen, 

^HlMDBiving the first priie in 17l>:? and 1763. 

^^K'^dww^'s Ao«(dot«i; JtedgTsve's Uii^r. of 

^^KiM>, ma.] c. M. 



CABR, NIUHULAS, M.D. 1,1524-1668), 
classical scholar, descended from a good 
faintly, was bom at Newcastle in 1S24. At 
an early age he was sent to Christ's College, 
Cambridge, where he studied' under Cuth' 
bert Soot, afterwards bishop of Chester. He 
subsequently migrated to Pembroke Hall, 
where his tutor was Nicholas Ridley, and 
proceeded B.A. in 1540-1, being soon after- 
wards elected a fellow of Pembroke Hall, 
and commendna M.A. in 1544. On the 
foundation of Tritiity College in 1546 he 
was nominated one of the original fellows, 
and the following year he was appointed 
regiuH professor of Greek. His lectures on 
Demosthenes, Plato, Sophocles, and other 
writers gained for him a high reputation for 
scholarship. Although be bad formerly com- 
posed a panegyric on Martin Bucer, which 
was sent by him to John (afterwards Sir 
John) Cheke, he subscribed the catholic ar~ 
ticles in 1656, and two years later he was 
one of those who bore witness on oath against 
the heresies and doctrine of Bucer and Fagiua 
(FoxB,AcU and Monumealt, ed. Townsend, 
viii. 274). From this period he seems to 
have been attached to the ancient futh. He 
took the degree of M.D. in 1658, and began 
to practise at Cambridge as a physicuui, 
though for four years he continued to read 
the Greek lecture, at the end of which period 
he appointed Blithe of Trinity College to 
lecture for him. He was obliged to resort 
to the study of medicine in order to tnain- 
tain his wile and family, the stipend of the 
Greek professor being insulHcient for that 

Eurpose. He occupied the house in which 
^ucer died, and there Carr also died on 3 Nor. 
1606. HawashuriedinSt.Michael'aChurch, 
but as the congregation was very large, con- 
sisting of the whole university, the funeral 
sermon was preached at St. Mary's by Dr. 
Chaderton [q. v.], after which the congrega- 
tion returned 1^ St. Michael's. A handsotne 
mural monument of stone, with inscriptions 
in Latin and English, was erected to his me- 
mor? in St. Giles's Church. 

His works are ; 1. ' Epistola de morte 
Buceri ad Johannem Checum,' London, 1561, 
1681, 4tOi reprinted in Bucer's 'ScriptaAn- 
glicuna,' Basle, 1677, fol. p. 867, and in Con- 
rad Hubert's'Historia -vera devitnM. Buceri,' 
Strnaburg,1562,8To. 2. 'DuieepiBtolK Latins 
doctori Cbaderlono,' 1566. MS. CaL ColL 
Cantab. 197, art. 63. 3. ' Eusebii PampUili 
de vita Constontini,' Louvain, 1570, 8vo ; 
Cologne, 157U, fol.; es recensione Suffridi 
Petri, Cologne, 1681,foi.i exrecenaione Binii, 
Cologne, 'I6ia, fol. The fourth book only 
was translated by Carr : the others were 
translated by John Cbristopherson, bishop of 



Carr 



172 



Carr 



Chichester. 4. • Demosthenis Gneconim Ora- 
torum Principis Olynthiacse orationes tres, 
et PhilippicDB anatuor, e Greco in Latinum 
convers8B. Adaita est etiam epistola de vita 
et obitu eiusdem Nicolai Carri, et carmina, 
cum Giteca, turn Latina in eundem scripta,' 
London, 1571| 4to. Carr*s autograph manu- 
script of this translation is in the Cambridge 
University Library, Dd. 4, 56. 5. * De scrip- 
torum Britannicorum paucitate, et studiorum 
impedimentis oratio; nunc primum tedita. 
Eiusdem ferd argument i aliorum centones 
aojiciuntur/ London, 1676, 12mo ; edited by 
Thomas Hatcher. Carr left some other works 
in manuscript. 

[Life, by Bartholomew Dodington, prefixed 
to the translation of Demosthenes, and tne brief 
memoir, by Thomas Preston, at p. 68 of the 
same work; Addit. MSS. 5803, f. 49, 5865. f. 
63 b ; Foxe*8 Acts and Monuments (Townsend), 
viii. 262, 271, 274, 288; Blomofield's Collect. 
Cantab. 64 ; Cooper's Athense Cantab, i. 262, 
555 ; Str>'pe'8 Memorials (foL), ii. 244, 282, 302, 
316 ; Strypo's Smith (8vo), 14 ; Strype's Cheke 
(fol.), 63, 74, 112; Smith's Cat. of Cains Coll. 
MSS. 114; Tanner's Bibl. Brit. 165.] T. C. 

CARR, R. (/. 1668), engraver, imitated 
the style of Hollar with no great success. 
There is a map of England dated 1668 etched 
by him. 

[Strutt's Diet, of Engravers.] C. M. 

CARR, RICHARD, M.D. (1651-1706), 
phvsician, was son of Griffith Carr of Louth 
in "Lincolnshire. He was bom in 1651, and 
went from the grammar school of Louth to 
Magdalene College, Cambridge, where he en- 
tered as a sizar 31 May 1667, graduated B.A. 
1670, and M.A. 1674. He became master 
of the grammar school of Saffron "Walden in 
1676, but in 1683 went to Levden to studv 
physic, and in 1686 proceeded M.D. at Cam- 
bridge. He was created a fellow of the Col- 
lege of Physicians by James IFs charter, 
and was admitted in 1(587. He died in Sep- 
tember 1706, and was buried in St. Faith's 
Church, under 8t. PnuFs Cathedral. He is 
known as the author of ^Epistohe medici- 
nales variis occasionibus conscriptie/ which 
was published in 1691. The book is dedi- 
cated to the ('ollege of Physicians, and re- 
ceived the imprimatur of the president and 
censors. The epistles, eighteen in number, do 
not contain much medical information, but are 
written in a readable, popular style, as if ad- 
dressed to patient-s rather than to ])hysicians. 
The first is on the use of sneezing powders, 
the second on smoking tobacco, the third, 
fourth, seventh, fifteenth, and seventeenth on 
various points of dietetics, including a grave 
refutation of the doctrine that it is well to 



get drunk once a month. The eighth Tecom- 
mends a visit to Montpellier for a case of 
phthisis, while the fifth and sixth discuss the 
remedial virtues of the Tonbridge and Bath 
waters, and seven others are on trivial medi- 
cal subjects. The fourteenth is on the stroma, 
and in it Carr mentions that Charles II 
touched 92,107 persons between 1660 and 
1682, and respectfully doubts whether they 
all got well. The most interesting of the 
episUes is the third, which is on the drinks 
used in coffee-houses, namely, ' coff*ee, thee, 
twist (a mixture of coffee and tea), salvia, 
and chocolata.' Carr shows some acquain- 
tance with the medical writings of his time, 
and speaks with admiration of the 'Re- 
ligio Medici.' The impression left after read- 
ing his epistles is that he was a doctor of 
pleasant conversation, not a profound phy- 
sician, but one whose daily visit cheered 
the valetudinarian, and whose elaborate dis- 
cussion of symptoms satisfied the hypochon- 
driac 

[Trunk's Coll. of Phys. (1878). i. 470; C3krrs 
Epistolse; Magdalene Coll. Admission Book.] 

N. M. 

CARR» ROBERT, Earl of Somebset 
(d, 1645), or Kbr, according to the Scottish 
spelling, was a younger son of Sir Tliomas 
Ker of Ferniehurst, by his second wife, 
Janet, sister of Sir Walter Scott of Buc- 
cleugh. In Douglas's ' Peerage,' ii. 1S4, it is 
stated that he ' ser^'ed King James in the 
quality of a page, and, attendinjof his majesty 
into England, was invested with the order 
of the Bath at his coronation.' This last 
statement, though usually adopted, is erro- 
neous. A list of the knights made at the 
coronation in Howes's continuation of Stow's 
* Clironicle,' p. 827, gives the name of Sir 
Robert Carr of Newboth. If, as can hardly 
be doubted, Newboth is an English corrup- 
tion of Newbottle, the person knighted was 
(as stated in Nichols's * Progresses/ i. 222, 
note o) the Robert Ker who subsequently 
became the second earl of Lothian. 

Robert Carr accompanied James to Eng- 
land as a page, but, being discliarged soon 
after his arrival, went into France, where he 
remained for some time. Soon after his re- 
turn, being in attendance upon Lord Hay or 
Lord Dingwall at a tilting match, he was 
thrown from his horse and oroke his arm in 
the king's presence. James recognised his 
former page, and, being pleased with the 
youth's appearance, took him into favour 
(Wilson, m Kekvbt, ii. 686) and knighted 
him on 23 Dec. 1607. 

James was anxious to jprovide an estate 
for his new favourite. Somewhere about 



Carr 



173 



Carr 



this time Salisbury suggested to the king a 
mode of benefiting Carr without injury to 
himself (The King to Salisbury, undated, 
Hatfield MS. 134, folio 149). Though Ra- 
leigh had conveyed the manor of Sherborne 
to trustees to save it from forfeiture, a flaw 
had been discovered in the conveyance. The 
land was therefore legally forfeited in conse- 
quence of Raleigh's attainder (Memoranda 
of the King's Hemembrancer, Public Record 
Office, Mich. Term, 7 James I, 253), and on 
9 Jan. 1609 it was granted to Carr, the king 
making a compensation, the adequacy of 
which is a subject of dispute, to the former 
owner (Gabdineb, History of England^ ii. 47^. 

In the winter session of 1610, Carr, im- 
tated by the feeling displayed in the com- 
mons against Scottish favourites, incited his 
master against the house, and did his best 
to procure the dissolution which speedily 
followed {Correspondence in the Hatfield 
MS, 134). On 25 March 1611 he was 
created Yiscoimt Rochester {Patent JRollSy 
9 James I, Part 41,'l^on4), being the first | 
Scotchman promoted by James to a seat in ' 
the English House of Lords, as the right of 
sitting m parliament had been expressly re- 
served in the case of Hay. 

In 1612, upon Salisbury's death, Rochester, 
who had recently been made a privy coun- 
cillor, was employed by James to conduct 
his correspondence, without the title of a 
secretary (Chamberlain to Carleton, 11 and 
17 June, 2 July, Court and Times of James I, 
171, 173, 179). James seems to have thought 
that a young man with no special political 
principles would not only be a cheernil com- 
panion, but a useful instrument as well, and 
would gradually learn to model himself upon 
his master's ideas of statesmanship. He for- 
got that conduct is often determined by other 
motives than political principles. The new 
favourite was already in love with the Coun- 
tess of Essex, a daughter of the influential 
£}arl of SuflbUr, and a great-niece of the still 
more influential Earl of Northampton, the 
leader of the political catholics. 

In the beginning of 1613 Lady Essex was 
thinking of procuring a sentence of nullity 
of marriage, which would set her free from 
a husband whom she detested, and enable 
her to marry Rochester. Her relatives, the 
cliiefs of the Howard family, who had 
hitherto found Rochester opposed to their 
interests, grasped at the suggestion, and on 
16 May a commission was appointed to try 
the case.^ James threw himself on the side 
of his favourite, and on 25 Sept. the commis- 
sioners pronounced, by a majority of seven 
to five, m favoiir of the nullity {State Trials, 
ii. 785). I 



When Rochester began his courtship of 
Lady Essex, he had given his confidence to 
Sir Thomas Overbury, a man of intelligence 
and refinement. At first Overbury assisted 
Rochester in * the composition of his love- 
letters ' ( WiirwooD, Memorials, iii. 478), but 
afterwards, perhaps when he had discovered 
that his patron contemplated marriage in- 
stead of an intrigue with a lady whose rela- 
tions were the leaders of the Spanish party 
in England, Overbury threw all his influence 
into the opposite scale, and exposed himself 
to the fatal anger of Lady Essex. 

The king, too, was jealous of Overbury *s 
influence over his favourite, and suggested 
to him a diplomatic appointment. Overbury, 
on refusing to accept it, was committed to 
the Tower (Chamberlain to Carleton, 29 April 
1613, State Papersy Dom., Ixxii. 120). Tliere 
seems to be little doubt that both Rochester 
and Northampton were consenting parties 
to the imprisonment. Their object is a matter 
of dispute. On the whole, tlie most probable 
explanation is that they merely wanted to get 
him out of the way for a time till the divorce 
proceedings were at an end (see Gabdineb, 
History of England, ii. 178-80). 

Lady Essex's wrath was much more dan- 
gerous. She made up her mind that Over- 
bury must be murdered to revenge his per- 
sonal attack upon her character. She obtained 
the admission of a certain Weston as the 
keeper of Overbury in the Tower, and "VN'eston 
was instructed to poison his prisoner. Wes- 
ton, it seems, did not actually administer the 
poison, and Lady Essex is usually supposed 
— for the whole evidence at this stage is 
contradictory — to have mixed poison with 
some tarts and jellies which were sent by 
Rochester to Overbury as a means of convey- 
ing letters to him, the object of which was 
to assure him that Rochester and Northamp- 
ton were doing everything in their power to 
hasten his delivery. Rochester, too, occa- 
sionally sent powders to Overbury, the object 
of which was said to be to give him the ap- 
pearance of ill-health sothatliis friends might 
urge the king to release him. The evidence 
on the point whether the tarts were eaten by 
Overbury is again conflicting, but the fact 
that he did not die at the time seems to show 
that they remained untasted. Later on poi- 
son was administered in another way, and of 
this Overbury died. Whether Rochester was 
acquainted with the lady's proceedings can 
never be ascertained with certainty, tnough 
the evidence on the whole points to a favour- 
able conclusion (Gabdineb, History of Eng^ 
land, ii. 183-6). 

At the time, at all events, no one guessed 
at the existence of this tragedy, Rochester 



Carr 



174 



Carr 



was created Earl of Somerset on 3 Nov. 1613 
(Patent Bolls, James I, Part 5, No. 20, mis- 
dated in Nicolas, Hist Peerage), and on 
23 Dec. he received a commission as treasurer 
of Scotland (Paper Register of the Chreat Seal, 
Book I, No. 214, communicated by T. Dick- 
son, esqi^ chief of the historical department 
of the Kegister House, Edinburgh), and on 
26 Dec. he was married in state to the mur- 
deress. Courtiers vied in making costly pre- 
sents to the pair. 

Somerset was now trusted with political 
secrets above all others. His head was turned 
by his rapid elevation, and he threw himself 
without reserve into the hands of Northamp- 
ton and the Spanish party. At first he ad- 
vocated a plan for marrying Prince Charles 
to a Savoyard princess, but as soon as Sar- 
miento, the Spanish ambassador, whose later 
title was Count of Gondomar, arrived in 
England, he made overtures to the new envoy 
to secure an alliance with Spain. 

In the parliament of 1614 Somerset's vote 
was given, as might have been expected, 
against any compromise with the commons 
in the dispute on the impositions, and a few 
weeks after the dissolution he was made lord 
chamberlain, a post wliich brought him into 
immediate connection with the King. 

Somerset's importance mij^ht seem the 
greater as Northampton had just died. He 
was acting lord keeper of the privy seal in 
Northampton's place on 30 June 1614. His 
arrogance, combined with his open adoption 
of tlie principles of the Spanish party, set 
against him the statesmen, such as Ellesmere 
and otiiers, who wished to maintain a close 
connection with the continental protestants. 
By these men a new candidate for the post of 
favourite, George Villiers, who first saw the 
king in August 1614, was brought to court. 
Though James in November 1614showed that 
he Iiad no intention of abandoning Somerset, 
the fact that he made Villiers a cupbearer so 
irritated the favourite that he grew morose 
and ill-tempered even to James nimself. 

James was much hurt. Early in 1615 he 
pleaded with Somerset, entreating him to 
continue to return his friendship (James to 
Somerset, Halliwell, Letters of the Kings, 
ii. 126), and in April he consented to place in , 
Somerset's hands the negotiation which was 
going on with Spain on the subject of the 
prince's proposed marriage with the Infanta 
Maria, taking it from the ambassador at Mar 
drid, Sir John Digby, to whom it had been | 
originally entrusted. 

Though it was not likely that Somerset's : 
adversaries were aware of this secret trust, ! 
they must have perceived signs of James's 
continued favour towards him, and obtaining 



the support of the (^ueen, who was personally 
jealous of the favourite, they persuaoied James, 
i on April 13, to make Villiers a gentleman 
• of the bedchamber. Whatever may have been 
the exact reason of James's conduct, he had 
j no intention of abandoning Somerset, and 
I possibly only meant to warn him against 
persistence in his harsh and unreasonable 
temper. Somerset, exposed as he was to hos- 
tility both as a Scotchman and as a favourite, 
was made by his sense of insecurity more 

? querulous than before. In July James re- 
used to make an appointment at Somerset's 
entreaty (Chamberlam to Carleton, July 16, 
Court and Times of James I, i. 364), and 
about the same time sent him a letter in 
which his dissatisfaction was expressed. ' I 
have been needlessly troubled tnis day,' he 
wrote, * with your desperate letters ; you 
may take the right way, if vou list, and 
neither grieve me nor yourself. No man s 
nor woman's credit is able to cross you at 
my hands if you pay me a part of that you 
owe me. But how you can give over that 
inward affection, and yet be a dutiful ser- 
vant, I cannot understand that distinction. 
Heaven and earth shall bear me witness that, 
if you do but the half your duty unto me, 
you may be with me in the old manner, only 
by expressing that love to my person and re- 
spect to your master that God and man crave 
of you, with a hearty and feeling penitence 
of your by-past errors ' (James to Somerset, 
Halliwell, Letters of the Kings, 133). 

The knowledge of the existence of bad feel- 
ing between the favourite and his master 
made Somerset's enemies more hopeful of 
effecting his overthrow. Somerset accord- 
ingly directed Sir Robert Cotton to draw out 
a pardon sufficiently large to place him in 
satety. Upon the refusal of Yelverton, the 
solicitor-general, to certify its fitness for 
passing the great seal (Cotton's Examina- 
tions, Cotton MSS. Tit. B vii. 489), Somerset 
ordered a still larger pardon to be drawn up, 
which Ellesmere, the lord chancellor, refused 
to seal. On 20 Julv 1615 the matter was 
fully discussed at the privy coimcil in the 

Presence of the king, and at the end of the 
ebate James insisted upon Ellesmere's seal- 
ing the pardon. After the king had left 
the council, however, private influence was 
brought to bear on hun, and the pardon was 
left unsealed (Sarmiento to Lerma, 29 July- 
8 Aug. Madrid Palace Library MSS. 20- 
30 Oct. Simancas MSS,) 

Not many weeks after this scene informa- 
tion that Overbury had been murdered was 
brought to Winwood, the secretary of state, 
who was one of Somerset's opponents. Hel- 
wys, the lieutenant of the Tower, hearing that 



■something was Iniown, told his etory 
■wood, luid on 10 Sejil. repeated it lu 
to the ting, wlm directed Coke to i 
the affair, Ladv Somereet's name woe Boon 
implicated in I lie charge of poieoning, and 
that of ber huebond was BubBequently in- 
volved in it. On 13 Oct. a eommiBBion was 
issued to the chancellor and other persons of 
high rank to inquire. 

Af soon Bd Somerset knew himself to be etu- 
pect(^,he left James at Koyetonandcameup 
to London to jufittty himself. Ue wrote to 
James finding fault with the composition of 
ihe couitofiDq(iij;,nnd threatening him with 
the loas of the support of the Howard family 
if he persisted in the course which he was 
taking, James answeredthat the investiga- 
tion muet continue, and on 17 Oct. the com- 
misMoners wrote to the earl and countess 
directing them to remain in their respective 
apartments. On that evening Somerset 
burnt a number of his own letters to North- 
ampton, written at the time of the murder, 
uw directed Cotton to affix false dat es to the 
rs which he had received at the same time 
D Northampt-on and Overbury. Though 
» ordcrB were subsequently withdrawn, 

, « bet that they had been given was very 

damaging to Somerset ; but his conduct ia 
not absolutely inconsistent witli the suppo- 
eiliou that, being a man of littla judgment, 
he was frightened at the prospect of eeeing 
letters relating to tricks purposed to be put 
on Overbury interpreted in the light of sub- 
sequent discoveiiee. On the next day Somer- 
set was committed to the Dean of West- 
minsler's house. 

The inferior instruments, the warders, 
were tried and executed, and in the ordinary 
course of things the trial of Somereet and 
bis wife would have followed soon. It was, 
" r, postponed, apparently iu order that 

mtigation might be made into Somerset's 
Uions with the Spanish ambassador, and 
> perhaps because Lady Somerset gave 
•b at tlus time to a daughter, who altera 
e the mother m Lord Russell. 
^ ^le priHoneJB were to be tried in the high 
rt, A few days before the 
appointed, Somerset, who had been 
ul'gnd by the king to declare liimself guilty, 
tbreatened to bring some charge against 
Junes himself, James met the attack by 
refusing to hear ftirther from the prisoner in 

SrivBle till after the trial, and Somerset then 
pdarud that be would not come to the trial 
at all, on the pk<a, it would seem, of illness. 
^_ On M May the countess pleaded guilty, 
^^^Utd received sentence of death. On the 25th 
^^^pnneiwt, though he at first pretended to be 
^^■naUo to leave the Tower, to which he had 




Carr 



been removed some weeks previously, was 
brought to Westminster Hall. That Somer- 
set was accessory to Overhury's murder before 
the fact, and consequently guilty of murder, 
was strongly urged by Bacon, who, as attor- 
ney-general, conducted the prosecution, and 
Bacon was backed by Montague and Crew. 
Bacon had no difficulty in showing that So* 
merset had taken part in a highly suspi- 
cious plot, and he argued that there was no 
motive leadiug Somerset to imprison Over- 
bury unless he had meant to murder him, as, 
if Overbury had been nilowed to ' go beyond 
sea' as an ambussador, he would nave "been 
disabled by distance from throwing hin- 
drances in the way of the marriage. The 
argument throwe L'cht on Brian's habit of 
omitting to notice difficulties in the way of 
a theory which he has once accepted, but it 
is certainly not conclusive against Somerset. 
If Overbutj had wished to give evidence of 
the conduct of Lady Essex, which might 
have influenced the conuntssionerg wlio sat 
to decide on the nidlity of her marriage, lie 
might easily have done so by letter from the 
most distant embassy, while it would have 
been impossible for bim to communicate his 
kuow ledge from the Tower, where both Hel- 
wys, the lientenant, and Weston, his own 
immediate keeper, were Somerset's creatures. 
JU^ntague hnd charge of the most serious 
part of the case. lie proved that Somerset 
had sent powders to Overbury, and he tried 
to show, though not very successfully, that 
Somerset had poisoned the tarts which, had 

In a case of circumstantial evidence the 
business of the counsel of the defence is not 
only to show that the facta proveii do not 
fit the theory of the prosecution, but to show 
that they do fit another theory which iscora- 

¥itihle with the innocence of the accused, 
he main weakness of the argument of the 
counsel for the crown was that Ihey proved 
too much. Somerset, according to their 
showing, was constantly trying to poison 
Orerhurr. and yet all his efforts signally 
failed. Powder after powder, poison^ tart 
after poisoned tart, were sent, and yet Over- 
bury would not die, At last an injection 
was administered by an apothecary^s boy, 
and Overbury succumbed at once. Yet no 
tittle of evidence was advanced to connect 
this last act with Somerset, 

On the other hand, the proceedings become 
explicable if we suppose tliat Somerset, with 
Northnmptnn ne his adviser, merely wanted 
to silence Overbury wliile the nullity suit 
was proceeding, and to impress liim with 
the belief that he and Northampton were 
advocating liis cause with the king, in order 



Carr 176 Carr 



that wh»-n he w^ r*ri-Awrd Lv mizht not statemtrnT. often madt. ;La: J&=it« \h urL: 

brin^ w;:h him an anzrr felinz. Thi» would of takin^r him arain inT' favour wbrrn Le 

•rxplain ihK conr.an: Irtt-rr* and me&saar-r*, was displeased with BucklnrLaai'* c^i-niuc: 

and evrrn tLr ai^ndin^ of meiicin's to pr'.duce in l<5i'4. i* absolutrly wiil ou: f oundaii -:.. 
iiln«ir§e- which mizh: work uj^^n th- kinz's In 16:30 Somrr^t onc^ more c&m« br: re- 

fr^linz*. ^ j)ufclic noiic*r. as bein^ pr^«secui«*i in iLt? 

La/{y Elafirx w:ili n&tiirallr rErgar-l the .Star-chamU-r. toj^rihrr with oih-er ni->Tv irr- 

a3airfr-jniano:Lrri<:n: vf view, t.hrirrbury's portant ptrr^ona^^s. for hiTinz. in ih* i.r— 

attack up-on L-r ch&r4.:t-r was an insult to (wdin^ vrar. pass^ on :o the tarl >>{ «_ lirv 

\^ av-rn^ed. and ^hr mav v-rv w^-Il have a paprr written loajr beforv bv Sir R-.?.-— 



whether siie wa* ii.-iriy :■» pr«r«-rrve •iJrnce sequence of the b:nh '■•: ti:- cnrs s-r-a. wL» 
with h-r husband ev-n after Ler desizn was was afterwards CLarle* 11. the ~pr»x>:*r.i:nr* 
carrie-i on: or not. and :: :*. of course, auit^ would be dropped iSfat^ Tn'aU, i:i. a*ii. 




ever. Under these cirL.ims?aiiceV :h-re is CARR, ISOBERT JAMES 1 1774-1^41 1. 

no w:^nder.even if Ssm-rr^i-:: was not zuiltv, bish-ip ct( Worcester, the j-i'n '•*{ thr R»-v. r.-l- 

that his ir fence «h uld Lave br>ken iown in ston L'arr, a scbxdma^'rr at Twickenham, 

S'^me p."»:n:s. The only i^^uesrion wiJ^-h can who wa:* afterwards vicar of Ealing, was 

be raised is whether Lis Xikilure to STistain his bom in 1774 at Twickenham. nrceivVd his 

arsniment wis owin^ :o :h- rv-ality of his primary* -^^Jucation in his father's sch'>»l. and 

sniilt. or whe:Ler it was only what mizht afterwards went t-i Wnrcfs:er Collejr. r»x- 

Fairlv be expecte^i fr>n: a man calle^l on to f^rd. In 1797 he married Xanc%% daujhtrr 




favourer. *t. >PE:>:'i>'vi. Lr*t'?r>t and Ltff of present ^rd to tli»- vicaraje r*\ Bri^'ht.>n. In 

A'<i.> '«. v. oi?*'. IVi-.rvnoe* :'^ the original iN^Jhe ffraduate'l M.A. While ht? wa< vicar 

author-.: i-es are iriv'tii in b-ith the*^ w..rks. of Brighton his eloquence com mend»-d him !■» 

and mosT of them will b»> found in Ajcms. the prince regent, and a friendship was cnni- 

^r«!.* (^yeT ■./ i^t>.-'«'/<y. a IfXjk of no criti- menced which only terminated with the 

cal valii^>. The court. Wsid^-*, wa« hostile, death of Geor^ IV. In 1S20 he was np 

and tl:o vonlict i>i guilty, which was ulii- p-'int^rd dean iif Heivfi^rd, and in the same 

matoly civ en. was prulwibly inevi talkie. year he t«>:tk the degrees of B.D. and D.l». 

Jhuios had no intention of allowing either F«^ur years later he was consecrated bishop 




lol'uM'd to do this, and strongly reasserted , was the prelate who attended George I\' 
bti imuHvnce. Perhaps in consequence of . during his last illne&s. He devoted himself 
I hit tirmuess, l>oth he and his wife were kept almost entirely to his episcopal duties, and, 
lu tho Tower till .lanuar^* \&2'2, when they although constant in his attendance at the 

.» . ..II 1a. ...^1 .^..^v *1«^Zh AM«..*r..rx_. ^^^. XT^^v*... ^^^ T ^^JI^ A^^l. 1-AA.1 ^ ?^^ .. * 1* 



\^%>vx\ allowed to exchange their captivity for 

r««iiidoiico at ivrtain tixtni places. At last 

reoeivod a formal pardon. The 



Houde of Lords, took little interest in poli- 
tics. He was one of the bishops who voted 
against the Roman Catholic Rebef Bill, and, if 



be did not speak tu^nst the measure, nl lowed 
hifl opinions to be seen by the numbi^r nf 
petitions SKoinst it which he presunted. Al- 
though etiict in the enforcement of ri^ligious 
obBcrvances,he had a decided leaningtowards 
the emngelical school of thouffht. lie died 
io lft41, aged 67, at Hurtleburj- Palace, near 
Worcester, from p&ralyeiB, and was buried 
in the churchyard of the parish. His nnly 
published worhe were sermons preached for 
charitable objecls. 

[Annunl Beg)«tcr, 1841: Timesi Ituconl; 
WoKMUnhire pHpers.] A. C, B. 

CABR, ROGER (J. I(il2). divine, sup- 
paced to have been the son of a London 
printer of the same names, was matricuhited 
as B eizar of Pembroke JIoll, CambridEe, on 
23 Nov. 1566. and went out B.A. 1569-70. 
On 23 Jan. ) 573-3 he was instituted to tlie 
reictory of Little Kaine in Es^ei, on the 

frestmtation of Ilenrr Capel, esq. About 
&83hew»s suspended by Aylmer,biBhopof 
Liondon, for not wearing the surplice. Ho 
aubsequently conformed to the orders of the , 
chnrch, and held the before-mentioned bene- 
fice till his death, which occurred shortly ' 
before 20 Jan. 1611-12. 

It is believed that he was tlie author of: 
]. 'The Defence of the Soul against Che 
Strangest Assaults of Satan, by R. C.,' Lon- 
don, IB78, 8to. 2, ' A Sermon on Joh. xii., 
by R C.,' London (T. Lawe and T. Nelson), 
n. d., 8vo. 3. ' A godlie Form of House- 
holds Goiiemment : for the ordering of pri- 
vmte Families, whereunto is ndjoyned the 
senenll duties of the husband towards bis 
irife: and the wiues duty toward her hus- 
band, ftc. Gathered by R. C.,' London, 1698, 
1600. Sto. Dedicated to Robert Buigaine of 
EoJttU [RoxM-ell ?]. 

[Atn«s's Typogr. Antiq. (Herbert), 707, 88B, 
ia04i Cooper* Atbenic L'acUb. iii. fi3; Daridti's 
Fill KulK.'Onformisty. Ill; Lowndca's Bibl. 
Han. (Bohn), 342 ; Mullliind'H Indsi of Early 
PrinUd Book* at I^inbeth, IS ; Newcourt's Be- 
pertorium, ii. 490.] T. C. 

OARB. THOMAS, alias Miles Pikknby 
(1."«9-I67il. [See CiRRE, Thokas.] 

CARR, WILLrAM HOLWELL (1758- 
1830), art connoisseur, was the eon of Ed- 
ward Hoi well, apothecary of Exeter, who 
died at Exmoiith on 28 March 1793, aged 66, 
by his wife, IsalwUii Newte. He was bom 
at Exeter in 1758, and baptised at St. Mar- 
tin'* CTiiirch in that city on 4 April 1759, 
tMeiving the christian narae of William 
^ter hi* uncle, the Rev. William Uolwell, 
vic«rof Thomhury, Olouoesterahire, and pre- 
bendary of Exeter. He matrioulated at Ex^ 



ter College on 2 March 1776, and was elected 
to a Petreian fellowship on 30 June 1778. 
His degrees were : B.A. 1783. M.A. 1784. 
B.D. 1790. While holding his fellowship 
he obtained leave to travel abroad (30 April 
1781 1, and it was during this foreign tour 
that he began to form his collection of pic- 
tures. The rich benefice of Menheniot in 
Cornwall became vacant la November 1791, 
and Holwellwas instituted on 13 Jan, 171)2, 
but he never resided at his living, and was 
said to have taken orders with the o^ect oi 
accepting this preferment. A year after his 
institution (14 Jon. 1793) he resigned his 
fellowship. On 18 May lf97 he married in 
London Lady Charlotte Hav, eldest daughter 
of James, earl of Errol, by Iflahelia, daughter 
of Sir WiUiam Carr of Etal, Northumbei^ 
land, and in I79S the estate of Etal became 
lier property. Shetbereupoo (20Nov. I79S) 
obtained royal authority for herself, her hus- 
band, and her male issue, to take the name 
and arms of Carr, but she died in London on 
9 Feb. 1801, three days after the birth of her 
only childjWilliam Carr. A protracted law- 
suit took place over the estate of EtiJ, but a 
settlement, mainly in favour of the rights of 
her husband and their child, was ultimately 
effected, and lasted until the death of the 
child at Rams^te on 16 Sept. 1806. Hol- 
well Carr died m Devoushire Place, London, 
on 24 Dec. 1830, and was buried at Withy- 
combe Raleigh, near Exmouth. Throughout 
his life he was a patron and connoisseur of 
the arts. From 1797 to 1820 he exhibited 
at the Royal Academy, as an honorary ex- 
hibitor, landscape views of his own painting. 
His collection of pictures, principally of the 
Itidian school, he left tjj the nation with the 
stipulation that a proper gallery should be 
provided for them. To Exeter College he 
gave in 1766 a pcture, painted by himself, 
of Sir William Petre, and to the college 
library he presented the editio princcps of 
Homer, printed at Florence in 1488. He 
left 500i. to Meiiheniot parish for the ednc&< 
tion of twelve boys and girls as a memorial 
ofhiswife. Io the church of that pariah are 
' for himself and his wiie. 






SOGDt.MBe.p. 3TO.IS31^Buase'sReg.ofExater 
L pp. liT, 111-12, 200, 216; Parochial His- 
tory of CoruwaU (1870), iii. 313-14; Kadgrave's 
Diet, of Artists. 1878, p. 71;MiBcell. GeneaLBt 
Herald, ii, 416-17.] W, P. C, 

aABBE,TnOMA8(1599-1674j. c atholic 
divine, whose real name was Miles PiNltNllV, 
belonged to on ancient family at Broomhill 
in the bishopric of Durham, lie was eent 
when very young to the English college of 
Douay, waa admitted among the clergy per 



Carre i 

tomiiram 13 June 5620, and was ordftined 
priest by Bpecinl dispensation 15 .Tuna 1025, 
AfterwarM he was appointed procurator of 
the college, and he held tliut office till 1634, 
-whea he undertook the project of founding s 
monastery of canonesses of St. Augustin at 
Paris, where he resided aa their conteasor till 
his death. The foundation of this monastery 
cost him much time and labour. > TJs re- 
corded that he crossed the aeaa sixty times 
between England and France to bring it to 
perfection, and bestowed all hia time, money, 
interest, learning, and piety for forty years 
t<]gether to the same purpose.' Being seised 
with a palsy he became almost unserviceable 
for nearly twelve years before his death, which 
occurred in the monosterj-, then situate in the 
Bue desFossfis Saint Victor, Paris, on 31 Oct. 
1674. 

Carre was for many years a canon of the 
English chapter, and the clergy never failed 
to i;on£ult him in matters of consequence. 
Jle was a great friend of Richard Crashaw 
the poet, Arras College in Paris was in 16Q7 
much augmented by him, though it 'n'as not 
completed till many years later, when Dr. John 
Bet nam [q. v,] was appointed t^ preside over 
it. Carre was greatly respected by the court 
of France, especially by Cardinal Richelieu, 
■who was a munificent lienefactor to the Eng- 
lish catholics abroad through his mediation. 

Hia works are: 1. 'A Treatise of the Love 
of God,' 2 Tola., Paris, 1 630, 8to, translated 
from the French of St. Francis of Sales. 
2. 'The Spiritual Conflict,' 1632, translated 
from the French of Biflbop Camus. 3. 'The 
Draught of Eternity,' 8vo, 1 (139, a translation 
from the Frenchof Bishop Camufl. 4. 'The 
Priucipall Points of the Faith of the Catho- 
like Cnvrch. Defended aRainst a writing 
Bent to the liing by the 4 Ministers of Cba- 
lenton. By the most eminent Arraand Ihon 
de Plessia, Cardinal Dvke de Riebelie v. Eng- 



Following of Christ,' written in Latin by 
ThomajiilKempis.Paris,1636,8ro. 6. 'Oeea- 
siona! Diflcourses,' Paris, 1646, 8to. 7. 'Tho- 
jnas of Kempis, Canon Ilegvlar of S, Avgvs- 
tine's Order, hia Sermons of the Incarnation 
and Passion of Christ. Translated out of 
Latine,' Paris, IftoS, 13mo. 8. 'Thomas of 
Kempis, his Soliloquies translated ovt of La- 
tine,' Paris, 1653, 12mo. fl. 'A Christian In- 
Btrvction composed longc agoe,hy that most 
eminent Cardinall iVrmand lohn de Plessis, 
Cardinall of Richeiiev,' newly translated, 3rd 
«d., Paris, 1662 (misprint for 1662), 10. 'Me- 
ditations and Prayers on the Life, Paasion, 
Reavrrection, and Ascension of our Saviovr 
lesus-Clmst. Written in Latine by Thomas 



8 Carrick 

ofKempi8,'Pari8,1664,12mo. U. 'Sweets 
Thought«s of Jesvs and Marie, or Meditations 
for ail the Sundays and Feasts of our B. 
Saviour and B. Virgin Mary ; for the use of 
the daught^^rs of Sion,' 2 parts, 8vo, 16(ki, 
12, 'Pietas ParisiensiSiOrashortdescription 
of the Ketie and Charitie comonly exer- 
cised in Paris. Which represents in short 
the pious practises of the whole Oatholike 
ChiTch,* Paris, 1666, 12mo. An abridgment 
of this work was published by Abraham 
Woodhead in 'Pietas Roniana et Pariaienf is,' 
Oxford, 1 687, 4to, which work elicited ' Some 
Reflections,' with a ' Vindication of Protec- 
tant Charity ' by James Harrington, Oxford, 
1688,4to. 13. 'TheFunerall&rmonof the 
Queen of Great Britanie,' Paris, 1670, 8ro. 

[Dodd's Church Hist. iii. 293; Addit. MS. 
24491, f. 261 b; Palatine Not«-biH>l[. iii. Itl!. 
17*; Jones's Popiry Tracts, 434; Huseabeth'a 
Colleges and Conveats on the Conttni^t, 18; 
Bibl. Heberiann, ii. 1016, 1017.] T. C. 

CARRE, WALTER RIDDELL (1807- 
1674), topographer, was descended from the 
old family of Riddell of Riddell, in the county 
of Roxburgh, immortalised by Scott in the 
' Lay of the Last Minstrel ' a« ' ancient Rid- 
dell s fair domains.' He was the second son of 
Thomas Riddell of Camieston, and was bom 
at Edinburgbon4AuK. 1807. After complet- 
ing bis education at the high school of Edin- 
burgh, he entered a mercantile house in Lon- 
don, where he remained till 1848, when he 
took up his residence in Hertfordshire. Some 
Years afterwards be succeeded by the will of 
his uncle. Admiral Robert Riddell Carre, to 
the eatat* of Cavers Carre in Roxburgh shire, 
when he assuiited the additional surname 
and arms of Carre, From this time he de- 
voted much of his attention to researches 
into family and county records, and the 
biography of ' worthies connected with the 
Homers, giving the result of his studies oc- 
casionally in popular lectures, and in contri- 
btitions to the newapapera and to ' Notes and 
Queries.' He also look an active interest in 
various Border societies. He was a justice 
of the peace and a commissioner of supply 
for the county of Roxburgh. He died in 
December 1874. He was the author of 
' Border Memories ; or, Sketches of Prominent 
Men and Women of the Border,' published 
posthumounly in 1876, with a biographical 
sketch by James Tait. 

[Tail's Memoir, aa above.] T. F. H. 



CABRICK, Eabl a: 

BBT DB VIL] 



[See Bbuch, Ro- 



CARRICK, JOHN DONALD (1787- 
1837), song writer and jounialist, wu bom 



^^^^^ Carrick i 

at Glaaeow in April 178" : liis fulher waa 



Carrick 



cotton-mill owner of tlinl dtv, l)y Ills wife, 
Mary Anderson. lie was educated dt the 
Carlisle grammHr ethool, and by his uucle, 
the Rev. John Topping. As an artist Car- 
rick was entirely self-taiight : hU fliill in 
portraiture was evidenced at on eitrnardi- 
narilj- early age. Having quarrelled witli 
one of tlia laemlwrs of his Ikmily, he sud- 
denly (juitted his home, and was taken into 
the emnlojment of a chemist in Carlisle 
named Brimet, who soon be^nn to take great 
■"* • ■" his advancement. Carrick e' 



gntphictJ Sketch' Ca CkSRicx.'t''Laird o/Zo- 
l/fff P' ix). Carrick ws« early put into tho 
office fif N icholsnn , a ( ! laagow architect, whi ch 
office hs left about 1806 for a clerkship in a 
coiintine-hriiise (i£. x). In 1807 he ran away, 
and walked to Iwondon, where a Scotch t rades- 
man gave him a trial as shopboj'. In J 809 he 
obtained employment with Spodes & Co., 
potters in Stafiordshire, who had extensive 
wurebouses in London ; and wilh them be , 

acquired sufficient knowledge of china to tuallybecnmehimself a chemist in his native 
return to Glasgow, 1811, and set up business ! city. Ilia heart was so entirely given over 
in Hutcheson Street. There he also took to I to painting, however, that he much neglected 
Tmting, producing several humorous Scotch I hia business. Hehndbeenpaintingmimaturea 
«inpi,Bndhi8'LifeofWallace'forthevoungi for several years before lie had ever seen a 
hut in 1825 a prolonged litigation W to his miniature from any hand but his own. The 
uuoltency. As agent to manufactaretB he first that then came under hia notice was one 
sulMMuently visited the highlands, and ac- from the easel of Sir Willium Charles Ross. 
quirvJ the Onelic language. On returning to , Carrick had already painted the likenesses 
Glangowiii tttgHhewasengagedassuh-editor I of many «'ell-known persons in the north 
of the "Sot* Times;' contributed articles to ! country; amonglhe«ewaaCharlesKean when 
the'Day.'aOlasgowdailypaper, which lasted ' lis ^^B just bi^nuing to win popularity as 
only six months; and produced, 1830, hJs ex- , a provincial actor. Carrick in 1829 married 
tended ' IJfe of Sir M lUiam Wallace of El- i S^ary Mulcaster, by whom he had five chil- 
derali*,' 2 vols., this forming vols, liii. and liv. i dren. Being by that time in thoroughly good 

ofConstahVs'Miscelianv.' InlSaaheedited - '^'-i-i ^-■- -- ■: . 

«nd partly wrol« ' Whistle-Hinkie, or the 
Piper elf the Party,' a collection of humorous 



toOKs. In 183Sheaccepted thefiilleditorship 
of tii«> Perth Advertiser,' but quarrelled with 
tb^ managing committee in a year, and in 
FebniarylSW started the ' Kilmarnock Jour- 
nal.' Carrick again fell out with the propri 
tors, and was attacked by paralveis of tl 
mouth ; in 1H.35 he returned to Glasgow, h 
Eieolth completely shattered. He edited ar 
contributed to the ' Laird of Logan,' a collec- 
tion of Scotch tslei and witticism, which , 
peered in 1 83t), From Rothesay he contributed 
•ome papers to the 'Scottish Monthly Mnga- 
■ioe,' and announced a new work. 'Tatoa of 
the HannockMen;' but he died 17 Aug. 1837, 
aged ■%. A comedy was left by him in manu- 
Miipt, wilh the title ' Logan House, or the 
LiuTdat Home.' A neweditionof the'ljaird 
of Logan,' Dccnropanied by an anonymous 

* l^ographical Sketch," came out in 1841 ; and 

• Whistle-Din kie' has appeared in numerous 
issues in 18U8. 1839, 1843, 18J5, 1816, 1853, 
Uld as late as 16T8, much enlarged. 

[Biographical Sketch <o the Toird of Logan, 
ed. im. pp, 9-12. H. 20-23. 2B. 87; Pn:f«w 
ta Oamck'* Life of Sir William Wallnca of E>- 
dardle, ed. 1 830. p. v>.] J. H. 

CARRICK, THOSI.^^ (lSft?-lfl75), 

miniaturr painter, was bom on 4 -Inly 180i 

St I'ppcrley, near Carlisle in Cumberland. 

j&t was the second child of John Carrick, 



repute at Carhsle as a miniature painter, he 
soon afterwards rave up his business, and in 
183fl moved to Newcastle-upon-Tyne. In 
November 1839 he removed with his family 
to London. Two years afterwards he began 
to exhibit at the Royal Academy. Among 
his most remarkable sitters were Sir Itobert 
Peel and Lord John Russell, the poets R^ra 
and Wordsworth, Caroline Norton andEb'ia 
Cook, Farren and Macready, Lablache and 
Longfellow. He was painting at the same 
time (in the early part of 18iJ) Daniel 
(.rConnell, Blomfield the bishop of London, 
and ISobert Owen the socialist. His vivacity 
as a conversational i.ft, and his store of anec- 
dotes, enabled him to awoken the interest of 
hia sitters and seize the characteristic expres- 
sion. His miniature of Thomas CarlvlewBfl 
notable ns one of his most brilliant successes ; 
yet while it was in progress Mrs. Carlyle 
more than once ciclaimed that she was sure it 
would never be like her buebnnd, seeing that 
she had never heard him laugh so much or 
heartily as when he was sitting to Mr. 
Carrick. Carrick was simple-minded and 
unambitious. Though more than once offered 
Bociateship in the Royal Academy, he 
iftbly declined it. From 1811 tol866he 
annually exhibited the full number, eight, of 
his miniatures. Photography having virtually 
annihilated the art of miniature painting, 
Carriek in 1868 abandoned his profession, 
withdrew to Newcastle. There, seven 
yearalater, hedied onSl Julyl675. Thirty 
s2 



Carrier 



i8o 



Carrington 



yean preTiouslj the prince consort had pre- 
Bented him with a medal in reward for his 
invention of painting miniatures on marble. 
Immediately oefore tne close of his career in 
the metropolis the Royal Academy awarded 
him the Turner annuity, which just then 
happened to be vacant. 

[Personal knowledge ; memoranda by Carrick's 
daughter, Isabel Allom ; Boyal Academy Cata- 
logoes, 1841-66.] C. K. 

CARRfRR, BENJAMIN. [SeeCABiSB.] 

OARBINGTON, Sib CODRINGTON 
EDMUND a7ed-l&49}, chief justice of 
Ceylon, was descended m>m an old Norman 
family, one of whom, Sir Michel de Carring- 
ton, was standard-bearer to Richard Coeur-de- 
Lion. The family at an early period settled 
at Carrington in Cheshire, but a branch 
afterwards emigrated to Barbadoes. Cod- 
rington was the son of Codrington Carrington, 
of the Blackmoor estate in that island, and 
the eldest daughter of the Rev. Edmund 
Morris, rector of Nutshalling, the friend of 
Lady Hervey, and was bom at Longwood, 
Hampshire, on 22 Oct. 1760. He was edu- 
cated at Winchester school and called to the 
bar at the Middle Temple on 10 Feb. 1792. 
In the same year he went to India, where, 
being admitted an advocate of the supreme 
court of judicature, he for some time acted 
at Calcutta as junior counsel to the East 
India Company, and made the acquaintance 
of Sir William Jones. He returned on ac- 
count of his health in 1709, and in 1800, 
while in England, he was called upon to 
prepare the code of laws for the island of 
Ceylon, and shortly afterwards was appointed 
the first chief justice of the supreme court 
of judicature thereby created, the honour of 
knighthood having been conferred on him 
before he embarked on his outward voyage. 
In 1806 he was compelled from ill-health to 
resign his office, and for the same reason had 
to decline other important colonial appoint- 
ments. Having purchased an estate in 
Buckinghamshire, he became a magistrate 
and deputy-lieutenant of that county, where 
he acted for many years as chairman of the 
quarter sessions. He was created D.C.L. 
and elected F.R.S., F.S.A., and honorary 
member of the Soci6t6 Fran^aise Statistique 
Universelle. On the occasion of the Man- 
chester riots he published in 1819 an * In- 
quiry into the L.aw relative to Public 
Assemblies of the People,' and he was also 
the author of a 'Letter to the Marq^uis of 
Buckingham on the Condition of Prisons,' 
1819, and other smaller pamphlets. In June 
1826 he was returned to parliament for St. 



Mawes, which he continued to represent till 
1831. During his last years ne resided 
chiefly at St. Helier'a, Jersey. He died at 
Exmonth on 28 Nov. 1849. 

[Annual Register for 1860 (zc), vd, 196-7 ; 
information from the family; G«nt. Mag. 1850, 
ii. 92-3 ; Brit. Mns. Catalogne.] T. F. H. 

OAKRINGTON, FREDERICK GEORGE 
(1816-1864), journalist, was the third son 
of Noel Thomas Carrington [q. v.], and was 
about fourteen years of age at the time of 
his father's death. He was placed under the 
protection of his eldest brother, Mr. Henry E. 
Carrington, the proprietor of the ' Bath Chro- 
nicle,' and devoted the literary talent of 
which he showed early promise to journal- 
istic literature. He was principally engaged 
in contributions to the West of Englsnd 
journals, such as the 'Bath Chronicle/ 'Felix 
Farley's Bristol Journal,' the * Cornwall 
Gajsette,' the 'West of England Conserva- 
tive,' the 'Bristol Mirror,' the 'Gloucester 
Journal,' and the ' Gloucestershire Chronicle.' 
He was for several years both editor and 
proprietor of the last-named paper. He also 
contributed to various magazines, and wrote 
treatises on 'Architecture' and 'Painting' 
for the Society for the Diffusion of Useful 
Knowled^. To the eighth edition of the ' En- 
cyclopffidia Britannica ' he supplied the to- 
pographical descriptions of Gloucestershire 
and other counties. He died at Gloucester 
on 1 Feb. 1864, aged forty-seven, and was 
buried in the cemetery at that place. He 
left a wife and six children. 

[Gent. Mag. 1864, zvi. (3rd ser.) 535 ; Glou- 
cestershire Chronicle, 6 Feb. 1864. J L. 0. 

CARRINGTON, Lobd (1617-1679). 
[See Prdcsosb, Sib Abchibald.] 

CARRINGTON, Lobd (d. 1838). [See 
Smith, Robbbt.] 

CARRINGTON, NOEL THOMAS 
(1777-1830), Devonshire poet, was the son 
of a retail grocer at Plymouth, where he was 
bom in 1777. Shortly after his birth his 
parents removed to Plvmouth Dock, and for 
some time he was employed as a derk in the 
Plymouth dockyard, but he found the occu- 
pation so irksome that he entered as a seaman 
on board a man-of-war. In this capacity he 
was present at the defeat of the Spanish fleet 
off C&pe St. Vincent by Sir John Jervis 14 July 
1797. After his term of service expired he 
settled at Maidstone, Kent, where for five 
years he taught a public school In 1800, at 
the solicitation ox several Mendsy he esta- 
blished a private academy at Flymoath Dock, 



■ Carrington 



i8i 



'which he comlucted with< 
UDtU ax months before his death, 2 Sept. 
1 830. At an early period of his life Carring - 
ton began to contribute occasional pieces in 
T(tis« to the London and proTincial papers. 
lIiB ppems are chie6y deacriptive of the 
ec«nery and traditions of his native county, 
and are characteriaed by no eamll literary 
grace, although without striking individu- 
nlity in matter or manner. In 1830 he pub- 
lished sepnrateiy ' The Banks of the Tamar,' 
tuid in 1636 'Dartmoor.' His colJecI«d poems, 
■with a abort memoir prefixed, appeared po»- 
thumoualy in two volumes in 1831. 

rMemoir prefixed to his Collected Poems; 
Oen(. Slag. ci. pt, i. 276-9 ; Brit. Mas. Cat.] 
T. F. H. 

CAKEINGTON, RICHAllD ClffilS- 
TOPHER (1836-]S7fi), astronomer, second 
BOTt of liicbard Carrington, the proprietor of 
alarge brewery at Brentford, WDS l>omat Chel' 
•«fton28M«y"l826. He entered Trinity Col- 
lege, Coinbriilge, in 1B14 ; but, though deetined 
for the church, rather by his father's than by hi s 
ovm desire, his scientihc tendencies gradually 
prevailed, and received afinaiimpidse towards 
practical astronomy from Professor ChaUis's 
lectures on the subject. This change in the 
purpose of bis life was unopposed, and he had 
the prospect of ample means ; so that it was 
purely with the object of gaining experience 
that be applied, shortly after tahing his degree 
Bs thirty-slsth wrangler in 1848, for the post 
of observer in the university of Uurhikm. 
He entered upon his duties there in October 
]84U, but noon became dissatisfied with their 
tiarrow scope. The observatory was ill sup- 
plied with mstruments, and the leisure left 
mm for study served only to widen his aims. 
Bessel's and Argelonder's star-iones, above 
sU, struck him as a model for imitation, and 
he resolved to complete by extending them 
to the Pole. Desirous of advancing so far 
beyond his predecessors as to include in his 
eurr«y stars of the tenth magnitude. 



Twnly applied for a suitable instrumec 
at last, hopelea 






compliahing any p 
of his design at Durham, or of benefiting 

a any furtiier stay, be resigned his position 
ire m March 18^2. He had not, however, 
beenidlo. Somrof hisoliBervtttions.espBcially 
tt minor planets and comets, mode with a 
inhofer wniatoreal of Oj inches aperture, 
1 been published, in a provisional state, 
' B ' Monthly Not ices ' and ' Astronomische 
iricbteD,'and the whole wore definitively 
1 & volume entitled ' Results of 
jnnomical Observations made at the Ob- 
ntorv of ibe University, Durham, from 
~ ir'l&lH to April 1862' (Durham, ISTjG). 



His admission as a member of the Royal 
Astronomical Society, 14 March 1JS51, con- 
veyed aprompt recognition of his exceptional 
merits as on observer. 

In June 1852 he fixed upon a site for on 
observatory and dwelling-house at Red Hill, 
near Keigate, Surrey. In July 1663 a Iransit- 
circle of SJ feet focus, reduced in scale from 
the Greenwich model, and on equatoreal of 
4} inches aperture, both by Simma, were lu 
their places, and work was begun. Already, 
9 Dec, 18u3, Carrington presented to the 
Astronomical Society, as the result of a pre- 
liminary survey, printed copies of nine dnft 
maps, containmg all stars down to the 
eleventh magnitude within 9° of the Pole 
{Monthli/ Notice), xiv. 401. Three yeara" 
steady pursuance of the adopted pluu pro- 
duced, in 1867, "A Catalogue 013,735 Oircum- 
Eolar Stars obsen-ed at Redhill in the years 
854, 1855, and 1856, and reduced xa Mean 
Positions for 1855,' The work was printed 
at public expense, the decision to that ell'ect 
of the lords of the admiralty rendering un- 
necessary the acceptance of I^everrier's Mnd- 
some offer to include it in the next forthcom- 
ing volume of the '.\nnales' of the Paris 
otraervatory. It was rewarded with the gold 
medal of the Royal Astronomical Society, 
in presenting which, 11 Feb. 1859, Mr. Mam 
dwelt upon the eminent utility of the design, 
as well as the ' standard excellence ' of its 
execution {fit. tW 162). It included a la- 
borious comparison of Schwerd's places for 
680 stars with those obtained at Redhill, and 
an elaborate dissertation on the whole theory 
of corrections as applied to stars near the 
pole. Ten correepouding maps, copper-en- 
graved, accompanied the catalogue. 

Meanwhile Carrington had adopted, and 
was cultivating with his usual felicity of 
treatment, a 'second sul^ect' at that junc- 
ture of peculiar interest and importance. 
While his new observatory was in course of 
construction, he devoted some of his spare 
time to examining the drawings and records 
of sun-spots in possession of the Astrono- 
mical Society, and was much struck with the 
need and scarcity of systematic solar observa- 
tions. Sabine's and '^oif s discovery of the 
coincidence between the magnetic and sun- 
spot periods had just then been announced, 
a]id he believed he should be able to lake 
advantage of the pre-occupntion or inability 
of other obeervers to appropriate to himseU, 
by ' close and methodical research,' the next 
ensuing eleven-year cycle. He accordingly 
resolved to devote his daylight energies to 
the sun, while reaen-ing (lis nights lOr the 
stars. Solar physics as a whole, however, 
he prudently excluded from his field of view. 



Carrington 



182 



Carrington 



He limited his task to fixing the true period 
of the sun's rotation (of which curiously 
discrepant values had been obtained), to 
tracing the laws of distribution of maculfle, 
and investigating the existence of permanent 
surface-currents. Adequately to compass 
these ends, new devices of observation, reduc- 
tion, and comparison were required. Leaving 
photography to his successors as too unde- 
veloped lor immediate use, he chose a method 
founded on the idea of making the solar disc 
its own circular micrometer. An image of 
the sun was thrown upon a screen placed at 
such a distance from the eyepiece of the 
44-inch equatoreal as to give to the disc a 
diameter of 12 to 14 inches. In the focus 
of the telescope, which was firmly clamped, 
two bars of flattened gold wire were fastened 
at right angles to each other, and inclined 
about 45° on either side of the meridian. 
Then, as the inverted image traversed the 
screen, the instants of contact with the wires 
of the sun's limbs and of the spot-nucleus 
to be measured were severally noted, when 
an easy calculation gave its heliocentric posi- 
tion (tb, xiv. 163). 

In this manner, during seven and a half 
years, 6,290 observations were made of 954 
separate groups, many of which were besides ; 
accurately depicted in drawings. By the 
sudden death of his father, however, in July 
1858, and the consequent devolution upon 
Carrington of the management of the brewery, 
the complete execution of his project of re- 
search was frustrated. He continued for \ 
some time to supervise the solar work he I 
had previously carried on in person ; but in ! 
March 1861, seeing no prospect of release 
firom commercial engagements, he thought 
it advisable to close the series. The results 
appeared in a 4to volume, the publication 
of which was aided by a grant from the 
Royal Society. Its title ran as follows: 

* Observations of the Spota on the Sun from 
November 9, 1863, to March 24, 1861, made 
at Redhill' (London, 1863). Never were 
data more opportunely furnished. Perhaps 
more effectually than the pronouncements of 
spectrum analysis, they served to revolu- 
tionise ideas on solar physics. 

Efforts to ascertain the true rate of solar 
rotation had been continually baffled by what 
were called the * proper motions ' of the spots 
serving as indexes to it. Carrington showed 
that these were in reality due to a great 

* bodily drift ' of the photosphere, diminishing 
apparently from the equator to the poles 
(tb. xix. 81). There was, then, no single 
period ascertainable through observations of 
the solar surface. By equatorial spots the 
circuit was found to be performed in about 



two and a half days less than by spots at the 
(ordinarily) extreme north and south limits 
of 46°. The assumed ' mean period ' of 25*38 
solar days applied, in fact, only to two zones 
14° from the equator ; nearer to it the time 
of rotation was snorter, further from it longer, 
than the average. Carrington succeeded in 
representing the daily movement of a spot 
in any heliographical latitude /, by the em* 
pirical expression 865' + 165 . sin ^ (/— 1°). 
But he attempted no explanation of the 
phenomenon. It formed, however, the basis 
of Faye's theory (1866) of the sun as a 
gaseous body ploughed through by vertical 
currents, which flYially supers^ed Herschel'a 
idea of a flame-enveloped, but cool, dark, 
and even habitable globe. 

Carrington's determinations of the ele- 
ments 01 the sun's rotation are still of 
standard authority. The inclination of the 
solar equator to the plane of the ecliptic he 
fixed at 7° 16' ; the longitude of the ascend* 
ing node at 73° 40' (both for 1 850) . A curious 
peculiarity in the distribution of sun-spots 
cietected by him about the time of the mini* 
mum of 1856, afforded, as he said, ' an in* 
structive instance of the regular irregularity 
and the irregular regularity ' characterising 
solar phenomena (ib. xix. 1). As the minimum 
approached, the belts of disturbance gradually 
contracted towards and died out near the 
equator ; shortly after which two fresh series 
broke put, as if oy a completely new impulse, 
in comparatively high latitudes, and spread 
equatorially. No satisfactory rationale of 
this curious procedure has yet been arrived 
at. It is, nevertheless, intimately related to 
the course of sun-spot development, since 
"Wolf found e\'idence of a similar behaviour 
in Bohm's observations of 1833-6, and it was 
perceived by Sporer and Secchi to recur in 
1867. 

While still in his apprenticeship at Durham, 
Carrington repaired to Sweden on the occa- 
sion of the total solar eclipse of 28 July 
1851, and made at Lilla Edet, on the Gota 
river, observations printed in the Royal As- 
tronomical Society s * Memoirs ' (xxi. 58). 
The experience thus gained was turned to 
public account in the compilation of * In- 
formation and Suggestions addressed to Per- 
sons who may be able to pl^ce themselves 
within the Shadow of the Total Eclipse of 
the Sun on September 7, 1858,* a brochure 
printed and circulated by the lords of the 
admiralty in May 1858. The eclipse to which 
it referred was visible in South America. 
Besides his friend, Mr. Hodffson, he was the 
sole witness of the extraordinary solar out- 
burst of 1 Sept. 1859. His account of an 
observation memorable in the histozy of solar 



^ 



Carrington 



183 



Carruthers 



lytact isconUinedinthe'MouthJT Nciticea' 
November 1860 {xx. 13). A Tialc to tbo 
continent in 1866 gave bim the opportunity 
of drawing up a vulunble report on the con- 
dition of n number of Germiin obeervutories 
KMonlkhf NotUxe, xviL 43), (Lud of visiting 
Sahwab« at Dessau, to whose merits he drew 
explicit attention, and to whom, in the fol- 
lowing ;ear, be had the pleneure of trans- 
mitting the Attrononiical Society's gold 
medal. Ue fulfilled with great diligence the 
duties of Becrelsry to that body, 18.'i7-*32, 
and Vina elected a /ellow of the Royul Sucletj- 1 
00 7 June 1860. 

But the lease bj which be held liis powers 
of useful wofh waa unhappily running out. | 
A severe attack of illness in 1606 left bis 
health pennanentlj impaired, and, having 
disposod of the brewery, be retired to Churt, 
Surrey, where, on the top of an isolaled 
conical hill, 60 feet high, locally known as 
Middle Devil's Jiunp, in a lonely and 
iresque spot, be built a new observatory 
XXX. 48). lU chief instrument was a 
fi altaiimntb on Steinheil's principle, 
therci ar« no records of observations made 
with it. He no longer atU'ndod the meetings 
of the Astronomical Society, and his last 
communication to it, 10 Jan. 1873, was on 
thesubjcct of a 'double altazimuth' of great 
atxe wbich be had thoughts of erecting {ih. 
"i.118). A deplorable tragedy, however, 

n her 
it seemed, through an overdose of 
The event, combined perhaps nitb 
t censure on a supposed aeficiency of 
iT nuraing precautions conveyed by the 
;t of the coroner's jury, told heavily on 
her husband's spirits. He left his bouse on 
ibo day of the inquest, and returned to it 
after a week's absence, only to find it deserted 
by his servants. Hb was seen to enter it, 
2i Nov., but was ne\er again seen alive. 
Aft«r a time some neighbour gave the alarm, 
ihc doors were broken open, and his dead 
boily woa found extended on a mattress 
lof^ked into a remote apartment. A poultice 
of tea-leaves was tied ovw the left ear, aa 
if for the relief of pain, and a postr-mortem 
examination sbowed death to have resulted 
ffiTD an effusion of blond on the brain. A 
verdict of ' sudden death from natural causes ' 
waa relumed. Thua closed a life which bad 
not yetlaKted fifty yeare^and held the promise 
of even more than it liad already performed. 
Carringt.on's mnnuscript books of snn-epot 
obaerrationi and reductions, with a folio 
voluDiD of drewinffs, were purchased after 
hia death by Lord Lindsay (now Earl of 
Crawford), nud presented to the Royal Aa- 



trooomical Society \ib. xxxvi, :M9). To the 
eame body Carrington bequeathed a sum of 
^,000/. Among bia numerous contributions 
to scientific collectious may be mentioned a 
paper ' On the Distribution of the Perihelia of 
the Parabolic and Hyperbolic Comets in re- 
I ktion to the Motion 01 the Solar System in 
Space,' rend before the Astronomical Society, 
14 Dec 1860 {^Mem. H. A. Soc. jodx. 356). 
I The result, like that of Mohn's contempo- 
I raneoua investigation, proved negative, and 
I was thought to be, through unconiroUed con- 
ditions, nugatory; yet it perhaps conveyed 
an important truth as to the original counec- 
tion of comets with our system, 

[Monlbly Naticee, liv. 13, xriii. 23, 109, xix. 
UO, )61, iDuivi. 137; Mam. R. A. Soc. ixvii. 
139; Times, 22 Nov. and 7 Dee. 187fi; E. 3o«. 
Cut. Se. Papers, vols. 1. and viJ, ; InlrwiacIioDS 
to Works.] A. M. C. 

OARBOLL, ANTHONY (1722-1794), 
Jesuit, bom in Ireland on 16 Sept. 1722, en- 
tered the Society of Jesus at Watten, near 
St. Omer, in 1744, and was professed of the 
four vows in 176^. He had been sent to the 
Enghah mission about 1764, and for some 
time he was stationed at Lincoln. After the 
suppression of the order in 1773 he accom- 
panied his cousin, Father John Carrol] (after- 
wards the first archbishop of Baltimore), to 
Maryland, Itetuming to England in 177&, he 
served the missions of Liverpool, Shepton 
Mallet, Exeter, and Worcester. On 5 Sept. 
1794 he was knocked down and robbed in 
Red Lion Court, Fleet Street, London, and 
carried speecbleea to St. Bartholomew's Iloa- 
pital, where be died at one o'clock the fol- 
lowing uiocning. He translated some of 
Bourdaloue's sermons under the title of 
Practical Divinity,' 4 vols., London, 1778, 
8vo, 

[Foley's Records, vii. 117: Ocnt. Mug. Isiv. 
(ii.) IDSS; Oliver's Jemit CoUeetinns. 239; 
Oliver's Catholic p«ligioa in Cornwall, S59 ; 
Backer's Bibl. des Earivaias de la Compagnie do 
"sn«(l86B), llie,^.] T. C. 

CAKRTJTHER3, ANDREW (1770- 
1852), Scotch catholic prelate, was bom at 
Glenmillan, near New Abbey in the stewartry 
of Kirkcudbright, on 7 Feb. 1 770. He studied 
for six years in the Scotch college atDouay, 
whence he returned to Scotland on the out- 

eak of the French revolution. After a 
abort time spent in supcriutcnding the studies 
-" '"la seminorv of Scalnn, he was sent to 
ileta his theology at Aberdeen under 
the direction of the Rev. John Farquharsnn, 
late principal of the Scotch college at Doua^, 
and hu was advanced to the priesthood in 
"e was stationed first at Balloch. 



Carruthers 184 

near Dnunmond Castle, in Perthshire, then ' 
nt Traquur in FeebleB^ire, and ftft«rwiui}a 
at Munchea and at Dalbeattie in hie native 
county. In 1832 he was made vicar-apo- 
etolicof the eastern district of Scotland, and 
consecrated at Edinbui^h aa bishop of Cera- 
mU, mparUbut tn/idelmm, on 13 Jan. IS33. 
He died at Dundee on 24 Maj 1852. 

[Gordon's Qitholic Church in Scotland, 474, 
with portrait; Catholic Diroctory (1886), 61; 
Dick's BeaaODs foi embradng Che Catholic Faith 
(1848).] T.C. 

CAHRUTHERS, JAMES (1759-1832), 
hiatorian, brother of Bishop Andrew Car- 
ruthers [q. V,], was a native of New Abbey 
in the stewartry of Kirkcudbright. He was 
educated in the Scotch college at Douaj, 
and on his return to Scotland was ordained 
priest and appointed to the eitensive charge 
of Glenlivet. Afterwards he was stationed 
successively at Buchan in Aberdeenshire, at 
Presholme in the Enzie, at Dumfries, and at 
New Abbey, where he died on 14 Feb. 1832. 
He wrote : 1. ' The History of Scotland 
from the earliest period of the Scottish Mo- 
narchy to the Accession of the Stewart 
Family, interspersed with Synoptical Re- 
views of Politics, Literature, and Religion 
throughout the World,' 2 vols., Edinburgh, 
1828, 8vo. 2. 'The Histon- of Scotland 
during the reign of Queen Mary until the 
accession of her son James to the crown of 
England,' F^inburgh, 1831, 8vo. 

[Catholic Magazine and Review (Birmingham, 
1832), ii. 379; Edioburgh Catholie Murine 
(1832-3), i. 24; Gordon's Catholic Church in 
Scotlaud, 633.] T. C. 

CARRUTHERS, ROBERT(17M-1878), 
mi.icellaneous writer, bom at Dumfries 5 Nov. 
17%. was the son of a small farmer in the 
parish of Mousewald. He received only 



Carruthers 

highlands, but to their antiquities and social 
history. In ISSl he became the proprietor 
of the ' Courier,' which he conduct«d on mo- 
derate liberal principles. In 1S43 he pub- 
lished selections from his contributions to it, 
■ The Highland Not«-book, or Sketches and 
Anecdotes.' In its columns appeared the 
' Iietters on the Fisheries,' the work which 
first made Hugh Miller Imown, and Ouru- 
thers otherwise befriended Miller. In 1861 



the Hebrides,' with useful notee upon the 
places and persons mentioned. In the ' Na- 
tional Illustrated Library' also appeared in 
1853 Carruthers's edition of ' The Poetical 
Works of Alexander Pope,' in four volnmee, 
the first of which contained a memoir of Pope, 

< with extracts from his correspondence. The 
memoir, much enlarged and partlv rewritten, 

I was published in 1857, in Bohn's ' Illnstrated 
Library,'as 'The Life of Alexander Pope, with 
Extracts from his Correspondence,' and in 

, the same library appeared in 1858 a revised 
edition of the ' Poems.* Carruthars is beet 



however, a ta8t« for literature, which pro- 
cured him the regard of McDiarmid, the 
well-known editor of the ' Dumfries Courier.' 
His apprenticeehip over, he removed to Hun- 
tingdon as master of the national school, 
and there he wrote and published what re- 
mains the only 'History of Huntingdon' 
(1824), for which the corporation of the 
borough placed its records at his disposal. 
In 1B27 appeared anonymously his selections 
from Milton's prose works, ' The Poetry of 
Milton's Prose. In 1828, on the recom- 
mendation of McDiarmid, he was appointed 
editor of the ' Inverness Courier,' which he 
made the most popular journal in the north 
of Scotland by the att«ntion which he mvo 
in it, not only to theiuat«rial interests ol the 



' Poems ' he added manv of his own, with some 

of Geoi^ Steevena and Wilkes notprevionaly 
printed. Even the first edition of the ' Life ' 
was fuller than any previous one, and wu 
enriched by interesting extracts from Pope 8 
correspondence with Teresa and Harthk 
Blount preserved at Mapledurham, which 
Carruthers had been permitted to examine,a 
privilege enjoyed by no other person then 
living. A second examination of this cor- 
respondence andthepublicationinthei nterval 
ofaomeofthe results ofMr. Dilke's researches 
into Pope's biography enabled hi'T to correct 
in the edition of 1857 grave errors of his own 
and of others. 

In 1843-4 was issued the Messrs. Cham- 
bers's ' Cyclopaedia of English Literature,' in 
which most of the originafmatter was wTitt«n 
by Carruthers, co-operating with Robert 
Chambers ; the third edition, 1876, was ' ori- 
ginally edited by Robert Chambers, reviaed by 
Robert Carruthers.' For the same publishers 
he edited, nominally in coniunetion with Wil- 
liamChamhers, their Bowdlerised 'Household 
Edition'ofShakeBpeare,18ei-3. Tothethiid 
edition of Robert Chambers's ' Life of Sir 
Walter Scott,' 1871,C8rnithera furnished an 
appendix of interesting ' Abbotsfopd Notanda, 
or Sir Walter Scott and his Factor,' contain- 
ing letters and reminiscencesof Scott from the 
correspondence and papers of William Laid- 
Uw, Scott's factor and amanuensis at Ab- 
botaford, reprinted from 'Chambers's Journal* 
and the ' Gentleman's MagitMinft,* Oairathen 



■wits also ■ contributor to the ' North British 
ReTiew,' and wrote for the eighth edition of 
the ' Encycloptedia Britaonica' a number of 
biographies, among them those of Queen 
Elilcaheth, William Penn, Lord Jeffiey, and 
the Ettrick Sliepherd. He wrote the memoir 
of Fftlconerprefiied (o the ' Shipwreck' (1868 
and 1868), and of James Montgomerrn 880) 
and GraT (187«) prefixed to ecRtions of their 
poeina. He delivered Neveral series of lectures 
before the Edinburgh Philosopliical Institu- 
tion. In April ISzl he received the degree 
of LL.D. from the university of Edinbu^li, 
and in the November of the same year he 
was eDtertained at a public bouquet, when 
hewaa preiseuted with a portrait and bust of 
himael£ 

CoiTuthers wBBthoftiendor correspondent 
of several of his eminent contemporariea. 
B furnished him with some material 
IB edition of Pope, and Mni^aulay asked 
T and received from him on highiuud mat- 
■ informalion which was duly ockno^- 
a the ' History.' \V'hen Thackeray 
vUtted Inverness to lecture on the Four 
Georges, the acquaintance which he made 
■with Carmthers, who is said to have resem- 
bled him in face, ripened into considerable 
intimacy, CarrutherB died at Inverness on 
26 May 1878, busy to the last with thenews- 
ptiper wliich he had edited for more than half 
a centuiy. His fellow-townsmen honoured 
him with a public funeral. 

[Cirmthera's writingii ; nbitnsry noticas in iho 
InveniesE Courisr of 30 May and in the Scots- 
man of 2S May 1878.] F. E. 

[■ CAUSE, ALEXiVNDER (J. 1812-1820), 
^Bter, was a native of Edinburgh, where 
t «njoy»d a good reputation as a painter. 
"^«lit 1813 he came to London, and in the 
juing yMrs exhibited several pictures at 
B Ri^ol Academy and at the British In- 
" lion. His pictures chiefly represented 
a from Scottish domestic life, often of 
a humorous character. His colouring and 
diswinc met with very favourable criticism. 
Hti re«ded for some years in Grenville Street, 
Somers Town, but seems about 1820 to have 
returned to Bditibiirgh, whore lie continued 
to paint for some years. He is sometimes 
described aa'OldCarBo.'whicb seems to point 
tn bis being the father of William Curse 
[a. v.] The dale of his death has not been 
ajHUfrtaiued. A. picture by him lias recently 
lieun presented to the Scottish National 

I Tares'* Diet, uf Arlisls ; Cstalogoes of the 
ilAcadgmyitndlhe British Institution; Aa- 
of thH Fine Art*, i. 428, ii. 14 ; iaformntinn 
Mp. J. M. Oray.] L. C. 



CAUSE, WTLLLA.M ( tf. 1818-184r>), 

painter, was a native of Edinburgh, and 
seems to have been the son of Alexander 
Carse[c[.v.] In 1818 he was a student at 
the British Institution, and resided with 
Alexander Carse at Orenville Street, Somers 
Town. His first pictures were cattle pieces 
in the style of Paul Potter, but later he de- 
voted himself to subject pictures, chiefly 
scenes from lowlyScottisb life. In theveara 
1820-9 he exhibited pictures at the Royal 
Acadeniy, the British Institution, and the 
Suffolk Street Exhibition. During the latter 
part of his residence in London he resided 
m Southampton Crescent, Euston Square. 
About 1830 he returned to Edinburgh, and 
exhibited pictures in the Roval Scottish Aca- 
demy up to 1845, after which date he cannot 
be traced. 

[GravBB's Diet, of Artiste; Catalogues of tho 
Itoynl Academy and the British Institnlion ; 
Annals of the Fino Arts, iil, 668 ; iDformotion 
from Mr, J, M, Gray.] L. C. 

CAB8EWELL, JOHN (/. 1560-1572), 

bishop of the isles, was in his earlier years 
chaplain to the Earl of Argyll and rector of 
Kilmartin. When the assembly of the kirk, 
on -20 July 1500, appointed superintendents 
of the various districts of Scotland, Carse- 
well was appointed superintendent of Argyll 
and the Isles (Kitos, H'orij, ii. 87 ; Caldeb- 
wooD, History, ii. 11). He was also dean of 
the Ohapel Koyal of Stirling (Keith, Hit- 
tory, Appendix, p. 128). In his capacity of 
superintendent of Argyll he was appointed 
by the assembly, in 1507, to 'take satiafac- 
tion ' from Argyll for separation from lus 
wife, and for 'other heinous o&encea' (ClL- 
DEBWOOD. ii, 397). In July 16(19 lie waa re- 
buked by the assembly for accepting the 
bishopric of the Isles, and for attending a 
parliament ' holden by the queen after the 
murther of the king' (i4. ii, 491). He died 
Bome time before '20 Sept. 1572. 

[KBith'aScattifihBi9hops,307-8;Calder«ncid'B 
HiBtory of tho Cboruh of Sootknd, vols, ii, and 
iii.] T. F. H. 

CARSON, AOLIONBY ROSS (1780- 

1860), clossii^scholar and rector of the high 
school of Edinburgh, was born at Holywood, 
Dumfriesshire, in 1780. He was educated at 
Wallucp Hall endowed school, in the parish 
of Closebum, and at the university of Edin- 
burgh, which be entered in 1797. In 1601 
be was elected rector of the grammar school 
of Diimfrie«, and in 1806 a classical master 
of the high school of Edinburgh, of which he 
became rector in 1820, In 1828 he recwved 
the degree of LL.D. from the universi^of 



Carson 



1 86 



Carson 



St. Andrews. On account of failing health 
he resigned the rectorship of the high school 
9 Oct. 1845y and he died at Edinburgh 4 Nov. 
1850. He was the author of a work on ' The 
Helative, Qui, Quib, Quod/ and published | 
editions of * MaiPs Introduction/ * Turner's 
Grammatical Exercises/ ' Phsedrus/ and * Ta- | 
citus.' He was also a contributor to the | 
* Classical Journal/ the * Scottish Review/ 
and the ' Encyclopaedia Britannica.' His por- 
trait by Sir John Watson Gordon is in the 
hall of the high school. 

[Steven's History of the High School ; Ander- 
son's Scottish Nation.] T. F. H. 

CARSON, ALEXANDER (1776-1844), 
baptist minister, was bom near Stewarts- 
town, CO. Tyrone, in 1776. His parents 
were Scottish Calvinistic presbyterians, 
settled in Ireland, who consecrated their 
son to the ministry at an early a^e. He was 
sent to a classical school, and afterwards to 
the university of Glasgow, where he made 
himself a good Greek scholar — 'the first 
scholar of his time,' says Robert Haldane. 
He proceeded B.A and M.A. At twenty- 
two ne was ordained pastor of the presbyterian 
congregation at Tobermoro, near Coleraine. 
His rig^d Calvinism caused a disagreement 
with his hearers, who inclined to Arianism. 
After a time Carson resigned the pastorate, 
shook off the shackles of presbyterianism, and 
published his 'Reasons for Separating' in 1804. 
tart of his congregation followed him. For 
some years he preached in bams and in the 
open air. In 1814 they built a small meeting- 
house, in which he devotedly laboured for 
thirty years. In the intervals of his ministry 
he employed his pen in vindicating the prin- 
ciples of his belief, and published books on 
biblical interpretation, Transubstantiation, 
the Trinity, &c. In 1827 he had a sharp 
controversy with Samuel Lee, professor of 
Hebrew at Cambridge, and published a book 
entitled 'The Incompetency of Prof. Lee for 
translating the Holy Scriptures,' followed by 
a reply to Lee's answer. In attem^tin^ to 
refute Haldane's 'New Views of Baptism he 
converted himself, and aftersvards published 
(1831) a book on ' Baptism, its Mode and Sub- 
jects.' Of this he printed an enlarged edition in 
1844 ; it was subscribed for by &ur hundred 
baptist ministers. The whole impression was 
rapidly disposed of, and a new edition of ten 
thousand copies called for. By his writings 
and the publication of his books Carson be- 
came widely known ; and so much were they 
esteemed in America that two universities 
simultaneously bestowed upon him the hono- 
rary degree ot LL.D. He also became well 
known nearer home by travelling through 



most of the English counties, preaching as- 
he went on behfuf of baptist missions. Re- 
turning from his last tour in 1844, while^ 
waiting at Liverpool for the steamer to Bel- 
fast, he fell over the edge of the quay, dis- 
located his shoulder, and was nearly drowned. 
He was rescued and taken to the steamer ; 
but on his arrival at Belfast he was unable 
to proceed further, and after eight days he 
died, on 24 Aug. 1844, in the sixty-eighth 
year of his affe. His remains were removed 
to ' Solitude, his residence near Tobermore, 
and buried near the chapel where he had 
preached, and where six months before ha 
had buried his wife. A collection of Carsons 
works has since been printed in six stout 
volumes. At the end of the sixth volume is 
a copious collection of extracts from sixteen 
different notices of Carson and his writings, 
in which he is said to be a second Jonatluin 
Edwards, and the first biblical critic of the 
nineteenth century. 

[Coleraine Chronicle, 24 and 31 Aug. 1844 ; 
Baptist Magazine, 1844, pp. 185-91, 525 ; G. C. 
Moore's Life of Alexander Carson, 1851 ; Dou- 
glas's Biographical Sketch of Alexander Can-on, 
1884.] J. H. T. 

CARSON, JAMES, M.D. (1772-1843),. 
physician, a Scotchman, was originally edu- 
cated for the ministry, but his inclination 
leading him to the study of physic, he at- 
tended medical classes at Eoinburgh, and 
graduated doctor of medicine there in the 
autumn of 1799 (inaugural essay, ' De Viribus 
quibus Sanguis circumvehitur '). He then 
removed to Liverpool, where he remained for 
the greater part of his professional career. 
In 1808 his name came prominently before 
the public in connection with the case of 
Charles An^rus, a Liverpool merchant, who 
was charged with the murder of Miss Marga- 
ret Bums under what appeared to be circum- 
stances of peculiar atrocity. At the trial held 
at Lancaster assizes on 2 Sept. of that vear 
Carson in Angus's behalf stoutly maintaine<l 
his opinion as to the cause of death against 
that of the four medical witnesses called for 
the crown, among whom was Dr. John Bos- 
tock the younger [q. v.] In the result a verdict 
of ' not guilty ' was returned. Some angry 
pamphleteering ensued, and Carson defended 
himself in 'lUtmarks on a late Publication 
entitled "A Vindication of the Opinions de- 
livered in Evidence by the Medical Witnesses 
for the Crown on a late Trial at Lancaster/ * 
8vo, Liverpool, 1808. He continued at Liver- 
pool, and subseouentl^ held several appoint- 
ments there. He died at Sutton, Surrev, 
12 Aug. 1843 {Annual Begister, 1843, p. 28d). 
He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society 



on 1 June 1837, liaviug manj yeiLta {irevioiialy 
conununicaled a paper ' On the ElaHticity of 
theLiing«H-PAiV./'™»i«.M.29-44). Carson's 
other "RTitings (tre : 1. ' Reawns for oolouls- 
ing the Island of Newfaimdlnnd,' 8va, 1313. 
2. ' A Letter to the Members of Parliament 
on the Address of the Inhnbit^iits of New- i 
foundlaad to the Prince Itegent,' Bvo, tSlS. ! 
S. 'Ad Euquiry into the Oauseeoitbe Motion 
of the Blood,' 8to, Liverpool, 1815 (second 
and enlargpd edition under the title of ' An 
Inquiry Into the Causes of Respiration,' &c., I 
8vo, London. 1833). 4. ' A New Method of 
BUuchi«rine Animals for Human Foodj'Syo, 
JUndon, 1839. I 



»JPi«. of 

^Ki. Cat.] 
^^BbottiBh 8t- 



IAR8TABE8. WILLIAM (1649-1715), 
lah stjitp.sman and divine, was the eldest 
children of John CareCnrea, minister 
of Oftthcart, new Glasgow, where William 
w»s born ou 1 1 Feb, 1649, Btid Janet Mure of 
OUinderston, a branch of the Mures of Cald- 
well. His fntber, who had been at the battle 
of Dunbar, where he was taken prisoner by 
Cromwell, was exchanged soon after for a 
prisoner in the hands of General LesUe, and 
became conspicuoua for his zealous preaching 
in Glasgow 'against the times,' whicn, in spite 
of the preabyterian clergy, had declared them- 
teWes in Scotland, as in Enj^lond, for Crom- 
well. ' Let the Lord own him for His ' is the 
dntt not iceof William Carstarea'sexiateneeis 
m letter from his father to his sisier-in-law, 
Katherine Wood, a few days after the birth 
of hia fir?t-bom. He was sent when young 
to board with Sinclair, the minister of Or- 
miston in Kaat Lothian, a scholar of repute, 
in whose family Latin was spoken. In 1663 
he entered the college of Edinburgh, wh^re 
he studied with credit luider 'V^'illiom Pater- 
son, then regent, and afterwards clerk of the 
privy eouncu, nnd grnduoted in 1667. Ilis 
uther — an ardent Itemonslmnt, as the JMirty 
was called which insisted on the acceptance 
of the covenant and extirpation of prelacy as 
well OS popery by Cbarles II against the 
resolutioners, who were content with the re- 
cognition of the presbylerian polity — took 
part in the rising at Rullion Green forwhich 
he was forfeited. He had to protect himself 
hy keeping out of the way, hiding probably 
Hte ^ tigEliULds, perhaps in nolland, but tbe 
^KlMe oThia life are obscure. To Ilollnnd, 
^^^wl events, the s&foat refuge from the per- 
^^MBtlini wluch Soutlund suffered, he sent 
^Thkhl '"William Carstares, Scoto-Britiin- 
nu».' appears in lb" 'Students' Album' at 
L'trwhl in 1669, nv<\ he was still there in 
JifwebUj^^ UMWdiedilsbtvwuBdwl^ua* , 



den, and divinity under Witsius, and was pro- 
bably ordained in the Dutch church, though 
the record of his ordination has not been pre- 
served. Id Holland he was introduced by 
the pensionary Faa^l to William of Orange, 
already on the look-outfor the ablest Instru- 
ments to further his designs in Britain, In 
1673 he went to London, and two vears later, 



tobe so eipensive to his parents byhiestudy 
there, expresses the hope that ' it may be 
at least in proridence I may have some door 
opened whereby I may be in a capacity to do 
some little service in my generation, aJid not 
always be inaignificant in my station; but, 
alas, wliat service can I do, in what will God 
accept from me who have lived for bo many 
years in the world and yet for no end.' Ills 
ambition was cut short bv his arrest and 
examination before Lauderdale on no despe- 
roie charge, probabiy on the suspicion that 
he had a share in distributing a pamphlet 
entitled ' An Aecompt of Scotland's Grie- 
vances by reason of the D. of Lauderdale's 
Ministrie,' and his connection with the exiles 
in Holland. Though nothitig was proved, hia 
answers were deemed unsatislactory, and he 
WHS sent to .Scotland, where he was h^pt 
prisoner in Edinburgh Castle without trial 
tor five yeaie, There is a pretty anecdote 
that a boy of twelve, aon of the governor, 
whose good-will be gained by telling him 
stories, supplied him with paper, pens, and 
ink, and carried his letters. He la aaid to 
have solaced his captivity by reading the 
' History of De Thou.' At last, in August 
1679, when Monmouth and James were tir- 
ing to conciliate the Scotch by clemency, be 
was released. During the next few years 
he seems to have lived chiefly in England, 
but made a visit to Ireland in 1680. Gn 
6 June 1683 he married Elizabeth, daughter 
of Peter Kekewich of Trehawk in Corn- 
wail. In 1682 and, after a visit to England, 
again in 1683 he returned to Utrecht, leav- 
ing his wife in England. Hismovementsat 
this time are difficult to trace with accitracy, 
as was natural, for he was actively engaged 
in the plots then rife, of which Holland waa 
the centre. He went by the name of ' Mr. 
Red' in the cipher correspondence of the 
plotters, but though cognisant of the Rye 
House plot it did not meet his approval. 
It was the buldi.'r scheme for a general rising 
in England and Scotland, of which Sbaftes- 
bury, Rnssell, and Argyll were the leaders, 
in wliich he acted as agent. At this time 
be appears to have visited Scotland, where 
his brother-in-law, Dunlop, was preparing 
to ewapa btai IJig OeuUea «f tlie tines b/ 



Carstares 



1 88 



Carstares 



emigrating to Carolina, and thence to have 
gone to London, where, along with Baillie 
of Jerviswood, Fletcher of Saltoun, and James 
Stewart of Coltness, he endeayoured to raise 
money for Argyll's contemplated expedition 
to Scotland. The necessary money, which 
Argyll had fixed at 30,000/., was not to be 
got, and it was thought expedient that Car- 
stares should return to Utrecht. He there 
had many meetings with both the English 
and Scotch exiles; but there was a want 
of unanimity in their counsels, and Car- 
stares advised delay. The discoyery of the 
Hye House plot, wnich led to the execution 
of Lord Kussell on 21 July, was followed 
in a few days by the capture of Carstares, 
who had again crossed the Channel, and was 
seized at Tenterden in Kent, where he was 
in hiding under his mother's name of Mure. 
On his refusal to take the corporation oath 
and abjure the covenant he was sent to prison, 
and after a fortnight's imprisonment removed 
to London, where he was twice examined 
before a committee of the council He was 
thence transmitted to Scotland, as he him- 
self thought, and the event proved, 'because 
it was judged that violent tortures which 
the law of England, at least the custom, 
does not admit of, would force to anything.' 
On 14 Nov. he was committed to the Tol- 
booth of Edinburgh. After lying there some 
time in the hope of a voluntary confession, 
Spence, one of nis associates, was, under tor- 
ture, forced to name Carstares as participant 
in Argyll's plot, and the same instrument, 
the thumbkms, with the threat of the boot, 
joined with Lord Melfort's assurance that his 
depositions should not be used against any 
person, induced him to make a deposition as 
to his knowledpre of the plot. (Contrary to 
the promise embodied in a minute somewhat 
modified in form, declaring only that Car- 
stares was not to be brought ' as a witness,' 
the privy council published an abstract, and 
used it at the trial of Baillie of Jerviswood, 
who was found guilty and executed. Car- 
stares expostulated, but without any effect, 
against the breach of faith in using his de- 
positions, and, declining payment of his ex- 
penses during imprisonment, returned by way 
of England to Holland. After a tour in the 
Low Countries and the Rhine, he settled for 
a short time at Cleve, and in the winter of 
1686-7 at Ley den, where he was appointed 
second minister of the Scottish congregation 
and chaplain of William of Orange. He ac- 
companied William in his voyage to Torbay, 
and conducted the thanksgiving service on 
the beach where the troops landed. From 
this time Carstares was seldom long absent 
from William. He had apartments at court. 



and accompanied the king as chaplain in his 
campaigns. When the jealousy of others 
attacked him, 'Honest William Caistaies' 
was the only answer the king deigned to 
make to these detractors. He was nick- 
named by the Jacobites ' the cardinal,' and, 
especially in Scotch affiiirs, his advice was 
constantly taken. He had the courage to 
offer it jBven when not asked if he deemed it 
useful to his country's interest. The revolu- 
tion settlement, by which the Scottish pres- 
byterian church was established, was pre-emi- 
nently the result of his counsels. William 
himself was disposed to favour the episcopal 
form of church government, or at least some 
compromise between it and presbyterianism, 
but Carstares satisfied him that this was 
impossible. His ' Hints to the Bang ' were 
founded on the argument that 'the episcopal 
party were geneially disaffected to the re- 
volution . . . whereas the presbyterians had 
almost to a man declared for it, and were. 
moreover, the great body of the nation. 
Carstares was sent to consult with Lord 
Melville, the commissioner in Edinburgh, 
and, having rejoined the king after the 
victory of the Boyne at the siege of lime- 
rick, returned with him to London. When 
there the draft of the proposed Scottish Act 
of Settlement of the church was forwarded 
by Melville and considered clause by clause 
by the king and Carstares, who suggested 
modifications embodied in remarks, which 
William dictated to him and which were 
adopted. One of them is a sufficient example 
of tneir tendency : * Whereas it is said their 
majesties do ratify the presbyterian church 
government to be " the only government of 
Christ's church in this kingdom," his majesty 
deems it may be expressea otherwise, tnus : 
''To be the government of the chujrch in 
the kingdom esta,blished by law." ' 

On the knotty point of patronage Car- 
stares advised against its abolition, but Mel- 
ville took the opposite view, and William 
^ve a reluctant assent to the act for repeal- 
mg patronage. 

In 1691 Carstares accompanied William 
to Flanders. It was at this time that the 
measures which led to the massacre of Glen- 
coe were determined on, but the only refe- 
rence to them in Carstares's correspondence 
is an apj^roval of Lord Breadalbane s scheme 
to distribute money among the chiefs, so 
that he appears to be free firom the stain 
which rests on the memory of the Master of 
Stair and W^illiam. The next two years he 
was apdn with the king in the Flanders 
campaigns, and received m>m him a gift of 
the ward of Lord Kilmarnock. * I am apt 
to think it will have much to do/ he writes 



to his broliier-in-iaw Uunlop, the priacipal 
of Glasgow, ' W da&ny two campftigna, But 
I twve a Terv good muster.' In the spring 
of IS94, having been Bb«ent from London 
when William had agroed to instructions 
bein^ sent to Si^olland for exacting the oaths 
of alle^anct) and assurant^e &om all ministeiB 
before admitting tbem to the church coufts, 
■nd to depose those who refused, Caratares 
amv«d bfSbre the messenger was despatched, 
and is said to have hod the courage ta counter- 
mand him. He immediately went, though 
it was midnight, to Uio king's bedchamber 
at Kensington, asked pardon for what he had 
dont*. and allcir explaining his reasons, founded 
on the abhorrence of the Scottish clergy to 
any civil oath, not only obtwned it, but was 
allowed to issue in the king's name an order 
dispensing with the oaths. Such is the stale* 
ment of his first bio^apher and relative, 
M'Cormick, who derived bis information 
from Mr. Charles McKie, afterwards pro- • 
teeuor of history in Edinburgh, who lived in i 
Carstares's house during his stadent years, 
and though possibly somewhat coloured it 
ia conaUleiil with the characters of both 
Carstares and William. Carstareswaa again 
with William on the continent in 1695-0, 
and continued to be consulted by him, as his 
-roluminous correspondence shows, on all 
Scotch biisine£s, including the appointment 
of the officers of state and judges down to 
his death. He was especially lealous in the 
interests of the ministers, but all he could 
procnre was a pittance of 1,2001. a year, taken 
from the Ihirdsof the benefices of the church, 
to be divided among the poor ministers, 
which it required renewed exertion in the 
next reign to get paid. He tried to per- 
suade his master, but without effect, to visit 
Scotland ; but he dissuaded him more suc- 
ceesfiilly from the appointment of a perma- 
nent council for Scotland in London. Car- 
stares was himself undoubtedly the best 
coiincilloi a foreign king could have, for he 
was inrimateiy acquainted with all classes 
of his countrymen, and gave his advice with- 
out fear, favour, or self-interest, regarding 
onlv the interests of William and of Scot- 

K, ' As for Mr. Carstares,' William said 
long before his death, ' I have known 
loDff, and I know liim thoroughly, and I 
r him I« be a truly honest man. 
vVith the accession of .'Lune the direct 
political influence of Carstares ceased, but he 
was appointed minoipal of the university of 
Kdinburgh in 1703, and showed his sterling 
tcter by devoting himself with equal 
Lo the duties of the smaller as of the 
T sphere. The large-minded spirit in 
' ' ' -■---■ured the uaiyeraity waa 



proved by bis exertions to obtain a chair for 
Oalamy, his sclieme for the education of 
Kngtiah noncouformists under the car^ of a 
warden in the university of Edinburgh, and 
his suggestion that Ola^w should get pro- 
fessors of theology and philosophy from Hol- 
land, ' for good men are to be found there.' 
He revised the statutes of the universitT, 
and by his courteous manner proved equally 
acceptable lo the students, professors, and 
town council, which was then the patron, 
and regulated the government of the col- 
lege. It appointed him minister of the Grey 
Friars' Church, and as the principal's otHce 
required him to give lectures on divinity 
once iL week during session, his life must 
have been a busy one. Hut though he was 
respected as a professor and preacher, his 
talents were those of an administrator and 
statesman, nod he led; no works to vindicate 
his fame as a man of learning. Aa might 
be expected, he used bis great influence to 
procure the passage of the Treaty of Union, 
which had been a favourite project of Wil- 
liam. It was chieSy due to turn that the 
opposition of the preahyterian clergy was 
overcome. An anonymous letter, supposed 
to be from a member of the cabinet, declared 
that 'the union could never have had the 
consent of the Scotch parliament if you had 
not acted the worthy part you did.' 

Aa a member of the assembly of 1704 he 
took part in the committee for preparing the 
forms of process which still, with some modi- 
fications, regulate the procedure in the courts 
of the church. Next year he was elected 
moderator, and for the first lime made a pre- 
pared speech on taking the chair, a practice 
which baa been eince followed. ' Lord Port- 
land,' writes Ijord Seafield to him, 'asked 
kindly about you. I told him you governed 
the church, the ministry, and all your old 
friends here. He said it was a satisiaction to 
him to know that you and I, in whom KinK 
William reposed so great a trust, were stiu 
in such consideration in the present reign.' 

In the Bimimerafter the Act of Union was 
passed Carstares went to London, where he 
had an audience with the queen, who thanked 
him for his services and presented him with 
oneof the silver medals cast in commemora- 
tion of it. 

Next year (1708) he was again chosen 
tDoderatoT of the assembly, and in Ids open- 
ing address prudently avoided reference to 
the union, still dietssteitil to many of his 
brethren, hut directed their attention to the 
danger of a French Invasion in support of 
' the pretences of St, Oermain.' Calamy, in 
bis 'Autobiography,' gives some interesting 
porticulara cu CaiataieB 4uxiog his Tiai£ m. 



Carstares 



190 



Carstares 



1709 to Edinburgh to receive the degree of 
B.I)., mentioning the respect with which he 
was listened to in the assembly, where he 
was usually ' one of the last to speak and for 
the most part drew the rest unto nis opinion/ 
his courtesy to opponents, and the * harmony 
between the prmcipal and masters of the 
college, they expressing a veneration for him 
as a common father, and he a tenderness for 
them as if they had all been children/ A 
trifling anecdote indicates his kindly and con- 
siderate charity. A poor ejected curate of 
the episcopal church was persuaded to accept 
a suit of new clothes Carstares had made for 
himself, under the pious subterfuge that the 
tailor had mistaken his measure. But Car- 
stares was a stout presbyterian, and could not 
show the same charity to the episcopal church, 
of whose Jacobite leanings he was no doubt 
honestly afraid. In the affair of Ghreen- 
shields, the Irish curate who ventured to 
read the liturgy in Edinburgh in public, for 
which he was imprisoned by the magistrates, 
whose decision was affirmed by the Scotch 
court, though reversed on appeal to the House 
of Lords, he drafted the address from the 
assembly to the queen, which though more 
moderate than some of his brethren desired, 
asserted the exclusive rights of the presby- 
terian establishment. In 1711 he was for 
the third time moderator, an honour without 
parallel, and in his address answered the 
charge of persecution of the episcopalians by 
the quotation, * Quis tulerit Graccnos de se- 
ditione querentes ? ' This assembly, alarmed 
by the conduct and character of the tory 
ministry and the queen's supposed favour for 
the Stuarts, passed an act recommending 
prayers 'for the Princess Sophia and the 
protcstant house * along with those for the 
queen. It also passed another requiring a 
stricter formula of subscription from the 
clergy. The question of the restoration of 
patronage having been mooted, Carstares was 
sent on a deputation to London to protest 
against it ; but in spite of their remon- 
strances an act for that purpose and another 
for the toleration of Scots episcopal minis- 
ters and the use of the liturgy in Scotland, 
to which they were equally hostile, were 
carried in the parliament of 1712. On his 
return home he counselled moderation to his 
Ijrethren, whose feelings, heated by these 
acts, had been brought to a climax by the 
requirement of the abjuration oath. This 
•oath, under cover of an engagement to sup- 
-port the line of heirs in the English Act of 
Settlement, by which the monarch must be a 
member of the English church, was deemed 
inconsistent with the presbyterian establish- 
iment. Carstares set tne example of taking 



the oath, with a declaration that * nothing 
was intended by it inconsistent with the 
doctrine, worship, discipline, or government 
of the church established by law/ and he 
induced the assembly in 1713 -to pass an 
act charging ministers and people to abstain 
< from aU diverse courses upon occasion of 
different sentiments and practices about the 
said oath.' The government appreciated so 
much his conduct at this dangerous juncture 
that they consulted him as to who should be 
named commissioner, and by his advice ap- 
pointed the Duke of Atholl. On the deaUi 
of Queen Anne, Carstares was sent on a de- 
putation from the assembly to congratulate 
George I on his accession, when Carstares 
made the usual complimentary speech* ' Some 
allege,' Wodrow writes, when the printed 
speech had come to Scotland, ' there is too 
much of compliment and the courtier, and 
too little of the minister in that to the king.' 
Since the days of Knox the ideal of the pres- 
byterian minister's address to the sovereign 
was exhortation and rebuke, not courtesy 
or ceremony. On his return Carstares was 
for the last time elected moderator in the 
assembly of 1715, and during its sittings 
distinguished himself as usual by conduct 
worthy of the title of his office. An attack 
of apoplexy in August ended in his death, 
which he awaited 'with great peace and 
serenity,' on 28 Bee. 1715. He was buried 
in the Grey Friars' churchyard, next to his 
father's grave, and beside that of Alexander 
Henderson. His wife was buried in the 
same place in 1724. They had no children, 
but Carstares usually had some young rela- 
tion or friend in his house who was studying 
at the university. He had a Scotchmian's 
attachment to his kindred, and his letters, 
especially to his sister, show an affectionate 
heart not injured by worldly prosperity. A 
benevolent scheme of his for the support of 
the deprived nonjurors was ruined tnrough 
the lukewarmness of the government, who 
would not grant the necessary funds. In 
the crowd at his funeral two ejected curates 
were observed lamenting the loss of their 
benefactor, who had supported their families 
out of his own purse. More a statesman 
than a divine, there has seldom been an eccle- 
siastic of any church who has taken part in 
politics with greater honour to himself and 
advantage to his country than Carstares. A 
portrait of Carstares bv Ackman has often 
been engraved. Another portrait is in the 
university of Edinburgh. 

[Carstares' State Papers, to which M'Cormick's 
Memoir is prefixed; Rev. B. H. Story's Life of 
Oarstares ; Sir A Grant's Story of the Univenity 
of Edinbmgh.] JR. K. 



MAASWELL, Sre ROBERT 1 1793- 

^»7),phTpieiannndpatholoBi9t, wasboni at 
'■ fcy.ScotUnd,on8Feb.l793. Heatudied 
IcjM at the univiTaityofOlusgow. While ; 
Eltudpnt he waa diatii^^shed for Uin skill : 
B^bnwing, and woe employed by Dr. John j 
[fc ompgnp of Edinburgh to make a collection I 
of dmiriiigs illustTflting morbid anatomy. In 
puriuuicv of this scheme Carswelt irent to 
the contineiil, nnd sptint two years (1822-3) 
working at the hoapitale of Paris and Lyons. 
He rotnmed to Scotland, and took his de- 
gn^of M.D. at the Marischal College, Aboi^ 
Se«n, in 1826. Afler Ibia he went again 
M Paris, and resumed hia studies in mor- 
bid anatomy under the celebrated Louis. 
About 18:J8 he waa nominat«d by the coun- 
cil of University College, London, professor 
vf pathological anatomy, but before entering 
on liis teaching duties waa commisBioned to 
prfpam a collection of )Hithological draw- 
ings. He accordingly remained at Paris after 
receiving this commiasion till 1831, when 
be hod completed a series of two thousand 
water-colour drawing of diseased structures. 
This collection is still preserved at Univer- 
Eily Collegv. Carswell then came to Loik- 
doa and undertook the duties of his profes- 
•orahip. lie wob in addition appointed at 
thw aame time, or soon afterwards, physician 
to the University College Hospital. He did 
not, however.at once engage in practice, but 
occupied liimaelf with the preparation of a 
great book on pathological anatomy, the 
plates for which were fumislied from his 
large storv of pathological drawings, and put 
tipon the stone by himself, This, the work 

published in 1837 as 'mustrations of the 
Elementorr Forms of Disease,' a fine folio, 
with remarhablv well executed coloured 

Slates, which still holds its place as a stan- 
ird work. The illustrations have, for ar- 
tistic merit and for fidelity, never been aur- 
passed , w b i le the matter representathehighest 
B<»nt which the science of morbid iinattimy 
lad reached before the introduction of the 
microscope. About 1836 Carswell entered 
on private practice, but did not meet with 
much succcsa, and oa, in additioD^ his beiUtb 
was not elroug, he was in 1840 induced to 
Tceign his profrasorsliip, and to accept the 
>nl of physician to the king of the 
The rest of his life was ajwnt 
I, near Brussels, and wna occupii'd 
|i-Offieial duties and clinritable medical at- 
j the poor, but interrupted by 
i jouroeys tu the south in search of 
Jtb. Carswell made no further coniribu- 
. ii to mMical science. He was knigbte<l 
iiQueea Victoria in acknowledgment of lus 




si^rvices to Louift-Philippe when un enile in 
this country, ile married Mile. Marguerite 
Ohardenot, wlio survived him, but left no 
issue. He died on 15 June 1867, after a lin- 
gering illness caused bv chronic lung disease. 
Carswell was highly distinguished as a mor- 
bid anatomist, andperhamnosuchanatiomist 
was ever a better artist. Hisworkhosperma- 
nent value, and be had considerable influence 
as a teacher, though the abrupt termination 
of his scientific career prevented him from 
taking a leading place in the profession. He 
wrol«, besides his great work : 1. ' On Me- 
lanosis ' (with W. Cullen), ' Trans. Med.-Chir. 



Stomach after Death,' ' Edinb. Med. and 
Surg. Journal,' u^^iv. 282, 1830, previously 
communicated in French to the Acud6mie do 
M^decins, Paris. 3. In Forbes's' Cyclopedia 
of Practical Medicine ' the articles : Indura- 
tion, Melanosis, Mortification, Perforation, 
Scirrhns, Softening, Tubercle. 

[Dictionnaire Encfclnpjdiqiiv des Sciences SU- 
dicales (Decbambre), lii. 701 {from commnniea- 
tionu by the widow, Lndy CarewBll); ProceiJingi 
Royal M«l.-Cliir. Soc. ii. 62. 1858.] J. F. P. 

CARTE, SAMITEL (1653-1740J, divine 
and antiquary, bom at Coventry m 1653, 
was educated at the grammar school of that 
town and at Magdalen College, Oxford. He 
was vicar of Clifton-upon-Dunamoor in War- 
wickshire, and afterwards of St. Martin's, 
Leicester, and rector of Eastwell, Lincoln- 
shire, and prebendary of Lichfield. He lived 
to a great age (87), 'dying on 16 April 17-ia 
He waa well known an an antiquary, and a 
manuscript description by him of t he antiqui- 
ties of Leicester ia preserved in the Bodleian, 
which, however, is said to be but a slight com- 
pnattion. He corresponded with the leading 
antiquaries of the day, and his assistance ia 
acknowle^ed by Browne Willis in the pre- 
face to his 'Mitred Abbots,' and by J. Throsby 
in bis ' History and Anliciuitiea of Leices- 
ter.' He published (1) two sermons in 1694 
and 1705. (i) ' Tabula Chronologica Atchi- 
episcopatuum et Epiacopatuum in Anglia el 
Wallia, ortuB, diviaiones, tranalationes, &c., 
brevitereihibens, una cum indice alpbabetica 
nominum quibus apud autborea iusigniuntur,' 
fol., without date. 

INicliols'flllluatnitions, ii. 471 , 726 ; Lowades's 
Bibl. Man.) E. S. S. 

CARTE, THOM.\S (1688-1754), histo- 
rian, son of Samuel Carte [q. v.], was 
bor^ at Clifton-ujwn-Dunsmoof, Warwick- 
fbire, where he was baptised bv immersion 
:>3Aprill686. He was admitted at Univer- 



Carte 



192 



Carte 



sity College, Oxford, 8 July 1698, and took 
his degree of B.A. in 1702. Afterwards he 
was incorporated at Cambridge, and took 
his M.A. degree from Kind's College in 1706. 
Shortly afterwards he took holy orders, and 
was appointed reader at the abbey church, 
Bath, in 1707. In 1712 he is said to have 
made the tour of Europe, as tutor to a noble- 
man. He was a strong Jacobite, and his 
opinions involved him in more than one con- 
troversy, and on several occasions got him 
into trouble with the government. The first 
of these controversies arose from a sermon 
preached by him at the abbey church, Bath 
(when he was reader\ on 30 Jan. 1713-14 ; he 
then defended Charles I frx^m the common 
charge of having secretly instigated the Irish 
rebeUion and massacre of 1641. For this 
he was attacked by Henry Chandler (or 
Chaundler), fieither 01 Samuel Chandler [q*v.], 
who was a dissenting minister at Bath. 
Carte's reply was published in May 1714, 
with the title : ' The Irish Massacre set in a 
Clear Light ; ' it is reprinted in the * Somers 
Tracts,' iii. 369. Carte, refusing to take the 
oaths to Qeorge I, adopted a lay habit. At 
the Jacobite rising of 1716 he appears to have 
been suspected by the government. He con- 
cealed himself in the house of a Mr. Badger, 
curate of Coleshill, and does not seem to have 
been molested there, for he acted occasionally 
at Coleshill as a cler^^man. His continued 
connection with the Jacobite party is shown 
by his intimacy with Atterbury, to whom he 
is said to have acted as secretary. In his de- 
fence before the House of Lords Atterbury 
denied having seen him, * except very rarely, 
for two or three years past.' But the bishop 
had crossed out this passage in the draft of his 
speech, and he acknowledges that he obtained 
a living for his brother, John Carte, from 
the chapter of Westminster (Nichols, Corre- 
spondence of Atterbury y ii. 140). Atterbury 
was committed to the Tower 24 Aug. 1722, 
and in the gazette of the 15th of the same 
month a proclamation appeared, offering a re- 
ward of 1,000/. for Carte's apprehension, in 
which he was described as * about thirty-two 
years of age, of a middle stature, a raw-ooned 
man, goes a little stooping, a sallow com- 
plexion, with a full grey or blue eye, his eye- 
lids fair, inclining to red, and commonly wears 
a light^oloured peruke.' The description, 
however, was declared by Dr. Hawlinson,who 
knew him, to be quite opposite to the truth. 
Meanwhile, Carte had escaped to France, 
where he lived under the name of Phillips, 
and gaining access to the best libraries, ne 
devoted himself to collecting materials for 
illustrating a translation of tne ' History of 
Thuanus ' (de Thou). These materials were 



purchased in 1724 at a considerable price by 
Dr. Mead for the edition of ' Thuaniu ' pub- 
lished at his expense in London, in seven 
folio volumes, in 1733, under the editorship 
of S. Buckley, and with a Latin address to 
Mead signed hj Carte, who appears also to 
have mi^e the index for the book. In 1728 
Carte was allowed to return to England on 
the intercession of Queen Caroline. He now 
devoted himself to an expansion of his early 
pamphlet, in vindication of Charles I, in 
regard to the Irish rebellion. This he did 
in his 'Life of James, Duke of Ormonde,' 
in 2 vols, fol., 1736, preceded by a third 
volume in the previous year, containing a 
collection of original letters of Wentworth, 
Ormonde, and others connected with Ireland. 
He labours to prove that the pretended com- 
mission given by Charles at Oxford (12 Jan. 
1644-6) to Lord Qlamorpm (Lord Herbert) 
for treating with the Irish catholics, was a 
forgery of Glamorgan's. The book is still of 
value from the mass of materials which his 
diligence collected. Yet Dr. Johnson's critic 
cism must be allowed to have some justifica- 
tion : ' The matter is diffused in too many 
words; there is no animation, no compres- 
sion, no vigour. Two good volumes in duo- 
decimo mi^t be made out of two in folio ' 
(Cbokeb, ^ostoell, v. 24, ed. 1859). In a 
letter to Swift, dated 11 Aug. 1736, on send- 
ing him his ' Ormonde,* Carte sketches his 
plan for his other voluminous work, * The 
History of England.' He complains that 
Kapin had had no knowledge of the docu- 
mentary sources of English nistory beyond 
those published in Rymer's * Fcedera ; * that 
the Cottonian MSS., the rolls of parliament, 
and the contents of the Paper Office had been 
quite neglected by him, and that therefore 
tnere was room for a history foimded on the 
study of these. In the midst of his work 
at tlus history he had to take action against 
some Dublin booksellers who were pirating 
his ' Life of Ormonde.' He found that the 
only way he had of defeating them was to 
serve upon them an order of the House of 
Lords, which had been passed in 1721 in re- 
gard to Curll's printing the * Life and Works 
of the Duke of Buckingham,' declaring it a 
breach of the privileges of the house for any 
one to print an account of the life, the let- 
ters, or other works of a deceased peer with- 
out the consent of his heirs or executors. 
This served Carte's immediate purpose, but 
he exerted himself to obtain a new act of 
parliament securing an author a property in 
his works, and in 1737 published ' Further 
Beasons addressed to Paniiament for render- 
ing more effectual an Act of Queen Anne 
remting to Vesting in Authors the Rights 



of CwpipB, for the Kncoumgement of Learn- 
ing. By It. H,' The encoiin^ement that 
CWie received in preparing £ja History 
WM extraunlinar}-. In Octol>er 1738 he 
aaye, ia a letter to Dr. Zachary Grey, that 
lie oLrcacly hfui bOO/. n year promised for 
seven years; that he hoped Slteen Oxford 



that then he ahaU try Cambridge. He had, 
in April of that year (1738), published ' A 
General Account of the Necewary Material 
for a History of England, the Society and 
Subscriptions propi^ed for the Expenses 
thereof, and the Metliod wherein Mr. Carte 
intends to proceed in carrying on the said 
Work,' 4to. Later in the sanie year he went 
to Cambridge to seek for mat^alsand help. 
Cambridge is not mentioned in liia dedication, 
and therefore he probably got nothing there 
of material aid. He was the gueat of Sir 
John Hynde C!otton at Madingley, whose 
great collection of pamphlets of the period 
of the great rebellion he reduced to order, 
■nd IiM bound in volumes. The next aix 
jean (1738-H) were almost incessantly em- 
BlOTcd ill pushing on his work.much of which 
be oaniea on in Paris, where be diligently 
anBohed the royal archives, then under the 
can of the Abbe ^ullier. This work was 
■varied aa usual with controversy. In 1741-2 
lie mote a tbick pamphlet of :!l4 pages, 8vo, 
in anawer to 'A Letter of a Itystander to a 
Member of Parliament,' which he called ' A 
Full Anawer to a Letter of a Bystander, 
'Wheiein hts Folae (.'aleulations and Misrepre- 
sentstiona of Facts in the Time of Charles IT ' 
areraRiIed. ByR.A.,Eaq,' Tliis was answered 
ngoin by a ' Oentleman of Cambridge ' in a 
* Letter to Mr. Thomas Carte,' London, 1744, 
in which the writer says : ' You were so rash 
ae to appear yourself publicly in the support 
of it at an eminent coffee-boaae ; you there 
declared you were Blr. Carte, the author of 
the " Full Answer to the Bystander," and 
that you came there on purpose to vindic-ate 
it bmn any observations. You know what 
followed. You were driven Ihence with a 
birchen rod. and abandoned the place with 
aliADie and confusion.' The ' birchen rod ' re- 
fers to &rgiunenl£ of I)r. Thomas Birch, who, 
among tui many books, bad written on 
Cberle« I and IrelaniJ in opposition toCartf- 
A Full and Clear Vin- 
.o a Letter from a 



o Carte. In March be bad 
a lawsuit with his brother Samuel and eiater 
Sarah about a clause in bis father's will 
which removed bim from bis executorship and 
mheritence in caae be were troubled by the 

TOE. IX. 



government. He, however, won 
(Atkyss, RfporU. iii. 174). Shortly nfler- 
wards, upon an alarm of a French invasion to 
support a Jacobil« risiuKi the Habeas Corpus 
Act was suspended, and Carte was arrested. 
, He was not long retained in custody, being 
1 released on 9 May, ' confined,' he aaid, ' for 
' he knew not what, and released he knew not 
j why.' His fiubeeriptiona, however, went on, 
I la July the common council of London 
,. voted liim oOi. for seven years, for which, ao- 
! cording lo UoraceWalpole, who ridicules the 
' proceeding, four aldermen and six common- 
. councilmen were to inspect his materials and 
the progress of his work {Letters to Sir S. 
^fann, I. 381). In October the Goldsmiths', 
Grocers', and Vintners' Companies gave 261. 
each for seven years. In August (1744) he 
printed ' A Oollectioa of the several Papers 

Bibliabed by Thomas Carte, in relation to his 
iatory of England,' 8vo. In 1746 be issucul 
proposaJa for printing his History; and the 
lirsC volume appeared in December 1747. It 
was not prepossessing in point of style ; but it 
was BO great an advance on previous histories, 
in the extent of the original material used 
and quoted, that it would have commanded 
succeaa but for an unlucky note, inserted at 
p. 291, on a passage concerning the unction 
of our kings at their coronation. In this 
note (which his friends vainly pleaded was 
not by his hand), he asserted his belief in the 
cure of the king's evil in the case of a man 
named Cliristopher Lovel of lirialol, by the 
touch of the Pretender, or, as he called him, 
'the eldest lineal descendant of a race of 
kiugs who had, indeed, for a long succession 
of ages cured that disease by the royal touch.' 
The cure was said to have been effected at 
Avignon in November 1716. This raised a 
storm among the ani i-Jacohite party. Carte 
was attacked in several pamphlet.s, and a 
writer in the 'Gentleman's Magazine' (1748, 
p. 13) professed to have investigated the 
case and found it, of course, entirely false. 
The man hod been temporarily cured by the 
change of air and regimen, but had suffered 
a relapse on his return and died when on & 
second voyaee. The practical result to Carte 
was the withdrawal of the grant from the 
commou council of London by a unanimous 
vote on 7 April 1748 (Gent. Mag. 1748, p. 
IBfi), and an munediate neglect of his work. 
In spite of such discouragement he persisted 
in his enterprise, and the next two volumes 
appeared in 1750 and 175i, and a fourth in 
1/56, after his death. Carte died of diabetes 
on '2 April 1754, at Caldecott House, near 
Abingdon, and was buried in the church of 
Yattendon, near Newbury, on 11 April. He 
was a man of mean appearance, but of cheer- 



Carter 



194 



Carter 



ful and social disposition. He worked with 
indefatigable industry from early morning 
until eveninjf . His historical collections were 
left to his wife, a daughter of Colonel Arthur 
Brett, who, in turn, left them to her second 
husband, Nicholas Jemegan, for his life, and 
afterwards to the Bodleian. Jemegan, after 
receiving large sums for the use of them, 
among others as much as 200/. from Lord 
Hardwick, and 300/. from Macpherson, who 
used them for his * History * and * State Papers ' 
(1775), finally disposed of them to the feod- 
leian for a good price, during his lifetime, at 
some period subsequent to 1776. Besides the 
works mentioned above. Carte published : 
1 . * Preface to a Translation , by Mrs. Thomson, 
of the II istory of the Calamities of Margaret of 
Anjou, Queen of England,* by Michael Bau- 
dier, 1 736. 2. 'Advice of a Mother to her Son 
and Daughter.* Translated from the French 
of the Marchioness de Lambert. 3. *The His- 
tory of the Revolutions of Portugal from the 
foundation of that kingdom to the year 1567 ; 
with letters of Sir Robert Southwell during 
his embassy there to the Duke of Ormonde,* 
1740. 4. * Preface to Catalogue des RoUes 
Gascons, Normands et Francois, conserves 
dans les Archives de la Tour de Londres,' fol. 
1743. This preface, according to Lowndes, 
was afterwards cancelled by order of the 
French government. A new edition of his 
History was published at Oxford in 1851, 
6 vols. 8vo. 

[Nichols's Lit. Anecd. ii. 471-618, and else- 
where; Nichols's Illustrations of Lit. Hist. v. 
152-66; Gent. Manr. 1748; Biographia Britan- 
nica, ed. Kippis ; Hearne's Remains, ii. 154, ed. 
1869.] E. S. S. 

CARTER, EDMUND {fi, 1753), topo- 
grapher, was a poor disabled writing-master, 
who, while keeping school by St. IJotolph's 
(^hurch in Cambridge, conceived the design of 
compiling a historv of the university and 
county, an undertaking for which he was by 
no means qualified. Among others whom 
he applied to for aid was William Cole, who 
treated his humble labours with contempt; 
but afterwards he was greatly assisted by the 
Rev. Robert Smyth, rector of Woodstonel^near 
Peterborough, and occasionally by Dr. New- 
come, master of St. John's College, (?ambridge, 
who communicated some of Baker's manu- 
scripts, and by the Rev. Robt^rt Masters, to 
whom Carter us(»d to send the whole budget 
of his correspondence. Carter, * having a 
small family and a bad wife,' was forced to 
desert his school at Cambridge, and settled 
for some time during the compilation of his 
histories at AVare in Hertfordshire, whence 
he removed to Chelsea, where he taught a 



school as he had done at Ware. The date 
and place of his death are not known ; his 
widow died in Enfield workhouse on 15 Sept. 
1788 i^Qent, Mag. Iviii. ii. 841). 

Carter was the author of: 1. * The History 
of the County of Cambridge from the Earlieict 
Account to the Present Time/ 8vo, Cam- 
bridge, 1753 (reprinted and brought down to 
date by William Upcott, 8vo, London, 1819). 
Although badly arranged and full of errors, the 
book is not altogether destitute of interest. 
Under each parish are the particulars of the 
ravages committed in the churches by the 
wretched fanatic William Dowsing and his 
rabble soldiery, appointed, under a warrant 
from the Earl of Manchester in 1643, to de- 
stroy and abolish all the remains of popish 
superstition in them, a task which they pei^ 
formed very eifectuallv. 2. * The Historv of 
the University of Cambridge from its Original 
to the year 1753,* 8vo, London, 1753. In the 
British Museum is a copy filled with additions 
and corre etions as for a second edition in the 
author^s beautiful handwriting. 

[Manuscript notes by Craven Ord and Br. R. 
Farmer in copies of Carter's Hist. Univ. Camb. in 
Brit. Mus. ; Rough's British Topography, i. 193, 
218 ; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. ii. 694, v. 47, 48. Ti« 
112,201.] G.G. 

CARTER, ELIZABETH (1717-1806), 

S>et and miscellaneous writer, was bom at 
eal in Kent on 16 Dec. 1717. She was 
the eldest daughter of the Rev. Nicholas 
Carter, D.D., perpetual curate of Deal Chapel, 
and one of the six preachers at Canterbury 
Cathedral, by his first wife, Margaret, only 
daughter ana heiress of Richard Swavne of 
Bere Regis, Dorsetshire. Her mother lost 
her fortune, which had been invested in the 
South Sea stocks, and died of a decline when 
Elizabeth was about ten years old. Her edu- 
cation was undertaken by her father, who ww 
a good Latin, Greek, and Hebrew scholar. 
So slow at first was she in learning the 
dead languages that, weary of teaching her, 
he frequently entreated her to give up the 
attempt. By incessant application, however, 
she overcame her natural incapacity for learn- 
ing. She read both late at night and early 
in the morning, taking snuff, chewing green 
tea, and using other means to keep herself 
awake. By this vigorous course of study 
she injured her health, and as a conseouence 
suffered from frequent and severe heaaaches 
for the rest of her life. Beginning with 
Latin and Qreek, she afterwaids learnt He- 
brew, French, Italian, Spanish, and Qerman; 
later in life she taught herself Portuguese 
and Arabic. She took a great interest in 
astronomy, ancient and modem history, and 
ancient geography, played both the spinnet 



anil Gemun fluti*, and woTked wllh her I 
nenlle ta the last, (Ibts of her life. That she ' 
wiui agtxvl hotuevrife we hare the authority 
of I>r. Johnsoii. It is related in Boswell 
(v. 22U) thttt the Doctor, on hearing a lady 
comuieiidtsl for her learalnf^, eaid, ' A man is 
in (j^net&l b«tt«r pteased when he has a good 
dinuer on hit) table than when his wife talks 
Giwli,' ' My old friend, Mre. Cnrler,' he 
•dded, 'conld moke a pudding as well as 
tnuisUteEmctetiiB from the Greek, and work 
« bandkerctiief at well as compose a poem,' 
Bcforn ahu was ieventeen ahe commenced 
irritiug veraas. and the riddle which appeared 
in the'Qentleman'sMaKBzine'for November 
1731 (p. 623) U probably her Erst published 
{liece. She continued to contribute to the 

* Gentleman's Magazine ' for some yearf, her 
cMUributiotiB ^nerally appearing under the 
name of 'Elua.' In ii38 'Poems upon 
particular Occasions ' (London, 4to), a small 
paraphkt of twenty-four pa;^ containing a 
«ollectiotiof eightofheriKMinis.waspHbliflhed 
b» Cave, the originalor of the ' Gentleman's 
ttsgaxine,' and a friend of her father's. Tliis 
iwmnhlet, which is now rare, bears the name 
neither nf author norpublisher, but contains 

• cut of St. John's Gate on the title-page. 
It was thrnngh Cave that Mrs. Carter was 
introdufed lo Dr. Johnson, who, being of 
opinion thai ' she ought to be cclebrBt«d in 
«• many diiTerent languages as Lewis le 
Grand ' '(JivaWELL. \. 93), wrote a Greek epi- 
gram (o Eliza, which appeared in the 'Gentle- 
duw'b Magazine ' for April 1736 (p. 210). 
The finendshiptfaus commenced last^ nearly 
fifty years, until Johnson's death in 17fti. 
Sbecontributedtwoariicleslo the 'Rambler,' 
Ku. 44 l>t>ing on ' Religion and Supersti- 
tion,' and No. 100 on 'Modish Pleasures.' 
In 1739 »he published her anonymous trans- 
lation of ' l^amen de Teaaav de Monsieur 
Pop«" BUT I'homme.'by Jean tierre de Crou- 
nji. This Imnelaliun, which had for its 
titk 'An E»ftminalioli of Mr. Pope's Essay 
on Man. translated from the French of M. 
Crousaz' (A. Dodd, lyindon, ISmo), was er- 
rouMUisly attributed to Dr. Johneon (Bos- 
TTBLLii. 1()7). In the same year appeared her 
anonymous translation of Francesco Alga- 
Kittia ' Newtonianismo per le dame,' under 
The title of ' Sir Isaac Newton's Philosophy 
Explain'd for tJu.- ost- of tUo Ladies. In Six 
DiaJogiip.t on Light and Colour. From the 
Italian of Sig. Algarotti ' ('2 vols. London, 
Cave, lifaii)). Doth llieM translations have 
becuuie viry scarce ; and though Mrs. Carter 
never willingly referred fti them in after 
life, they were undnnblodly useful ta her in 
tnalung her known to her contemjiororiea. 

jn I74I she becAmo acquainted with Miss 



Catherine Talbot, granddaughter of Dr. Wil- 
liam Talbot, bishop of Durham, whici led to 
an introduction to Dr. Seeker, then bishop of 
Oxford, and afterwards arcjibishop of Canter- 
bury, with wlioa Miss Talbot resided. It 
was at the request of these friends that Mrs. 
Carter undertook the translation of Epicte- 
tus. This was commenced in the summer of 
1749, but was not finished until December 
1762. The translation was not originally 
intended forpublication.andwaa sent i n sheets 
as it was written to Miss Talbot. At the 
suggestion of the bishop, Mrs. Carter added 
an introduction and notes to the manuscript, 
and in April 1768, at the request of her friends, 
it wospubllshedby guineasubscrtption. The 
subscription was BO successful that 101 8 copies 
were struck off at once, and 250 more were 
printed afterwards, the result of the publi- 
cation being a gain to Mrs. Carter of nearly 
l,OO0i. The title of the first edition was 
' All the Works of Epictetiis which are now 
extant, kc' (London 4to), The fourth edi- 
tion, whici was published after her death, 
contains the lost idteratiansof the translator 
taken from her manuscript notes, and has a 
itlightly altered title. In 17t<2 she published 
her ' Poems on several Occasions ' (London, 
8vo), which ahe dedicated to WiUinm Pul- 
teney, earl of Bath, and prefaced with soma 
highly paneiryrioal veraesby I^ord Lyttelton. 
In this collection only two of the poems 
which appeared in the former volume, vi». 
' In Diem Natolem ' and the ' Ode of Ana- 
crenn,' are to be found. A second edition 
was published in 1766, and a third in 1776, 
the latter edition containing seven additional 

Gioms. A fourth edition was published in 
ublin in 1777. and in London in 1789. In 
the secniid volume of Pennington's ' Me- 
moirs ' the two collections of noems are 
printed, together with eight otner pieces 
which hadnotbeenpublishedbefore. During 
'' " months of 1763 Mrs. Carter, ao- 



I^ro , ,, 

Holland, an interesting account of the trip 
being given in her letters to Miss Talbot. 
In the following year she lost her friend 
l>ord Bath, in 1768 her old patron Arci- 
bishop Seeker, and in 1770 her correspondent 
Misa Talbot. On 23 Oct. 1774 her father 
died. Mrs. Carter had passed the greater 
part of her life with liim, and for the last 
twelve years of his life had lived with him 
in a house at Deal, which she had purchased. 
In October 1782, at the request of Sir Wil- 
liam Pulteney, who, out of regard for Lord 
Bath's old fnend, hod settled an annuity of 



Pulteney t 



Paris. This was her last visit 



Carter 



196 



Carter 



to the continent, she heing then sixty-five 
years of age, and no longer very active. For 
several years afterwards, however, she tra- 
velled through various parts of England with 
her friend Imss Sharpe. In 1791 Mrs. Carter 
was introduced to Queen Charlotte at Lord 
Cremome's house at Chelsea. In 1796 a 
certain Count de Bed6e, a stranger to Mrs. 
Carter, published * Twelve Poems translated 
into French ; Six in Prose and Six in Verse, 
selected from the works of Miss Eliza Carter, 
intitled Poems on several Occasions' (London, 
8vo). About nine years before her death 
she was attacked by an illness from which 
she never entirely recovered. In the summer 
of 1805, though her mental faculties remained 
unimpaired, her bodily weakness increased 
very much. In accordance with her annual 
custom, she went up to London for the winter, 
and on 19 Feb. 1806 died in her lodgings in 
Clarges Street, Piccadilly, in the eighty-eighth 
year of her age. She was buried in the burial- 
groimd belonging to Grosvenor Chapel ; and 
a monument was erected to her memory in 
Deal Chapel She was never married. In 
1807 her nephew and executor, Montagu Pen- 
nington, published her memoirs, in which 
were included the new edition of her poems 
before alluded to, some miscellaneous essavs 
in prose, together with her * Notes on the 
Bible,' and * Answers to Objections concern- 
ing the Christian Religion.' In 1809 *A 
Series of Letters between Mrs. Elizabeth 
Carter and Miss Catharine Talbot from the 
year 1741 to 1770, to which are added Letters 
from Mrs. Elizabeth Carter to Mrs. Vesey 
between the years 1763 and 1787 ' (London, 
8vo, 4 vols.), appeared, and in 1817 * Letters 
from Mrs. Elizabeth Carter to Mrs. Montagu, 
between the years 1765 and 1800, chiefly 
upon Literary and Moral Subjects ' (London, 
8vo, 3 vols.) 

Mrs. Carter was more celebrated for the 
solidity of her learning than for any brilliant 
intellectual Qualities ; and it is as a Greek 
scholar and tnc translator of Epictetus that 
she is now best remembered. She used to 
relate with pleasure that Dr. Johnson had 
said, speaking of some celebrated scholar, 
that 'he understood Greek better than any 
one he had ever known, except Elizabeth 
Carter.' Her poems have ceased to be read 
and are not of very high order, the ' Dia^ 
logue between the Body and the Mind ' being 
perhaps the most successful. Her letters 
display considerable vigour of thoucrht, and 
now and then a transient flash of humour. 
Though by no means a woman of the world, 
she possessed a large amount of good sense, 
and, though more learned than her fellows, 
was a thoroughlysociableandamiable woman. 



Her acquaintance with Mrs. Montagu com- 
menced at a very early period of their lives, 
and on the death of ner husband in 1775 
Mrs. Montagu settled an annuity of IQOL 
upon her friend. Among Mrs. Carter's other 
friends and correspondents were Burke, Rey- 
nolds, Richardson (who introduced her 'Ode 
to Wisdom' into his 'Clarissa'), Savage, 
Horace Walpole, Bishops Butler and Por- 
teus, Dr. Beattie, Hannah More, and most 
of the other literary characters of the time. 
Several portraits were taken of her by dif- 
ferent artists ; an engraving from a cameo by 
Joachim Smith will be found in the first 
volume of the ' Memoirs ' (L 601 note), and 
the National Portrait GhiUery possesses a 
pleasing crayon drawing of her by Sir Thomas 



Lawrence. 



[Pennington's Memoirs of the Life of Mrs. 
Elizabeth Carter (2nd ed. 1 808) ; Sir £. Biydges s 
Censura Literaria (1815), vii. 176-201, viil 
190-200 ; z. 277-95 ; Nichols's Literary Anec- 
dotes of the Eighteenth Centuiy, vols. v. and 
viii. ; BoBwell's Life of Johnson (Croker, 1831); 
Chalmers's Biog. Diet (1818), viii. 301-5 ; Oent 

SMag. 1806, vol. Izxvi.pt.i. pp. 190-1 ; Encrjrelo- 
BDCua Britannica (9th ed.), v. 141 ; Brit. Mus. 
at.] a. F. R. B. 

CARTER, ELLEN (1762-1815), artist 
and book illustrator, was the daughter of 
Walter Vavasour of Weston in Yorkshire, 
and Ellen his wife, daughter of Edward 
Elmsall of ThomhiU in the same county. 
She was bom in 1762, and baptised at St. 
Olave's Church, York, on 16 May of that 
year. At an early age, though a protestant, 
she was placed in a convent at Rouen, with 
which her family had been connected for 
some generations. Though strongly affected 
by the surroimding influence of the Roman 
catholic religion, she never actually forsook 
her own religion, and after her return to her 
native country became well known for her 
piety and devotion to her church. Li Novem- 
ber 1787 she was married at Thomhill to the 
Rev. John Carter, then curate of that place^ 
afterwards head-master of Lincoln grammar 
school, and incumbent of St. Swithin's in 
the same city. Mrs. Carter was devoted 
to artistic pursuits, and particularly excelled 
in drawing the human figure. She drew 
illustrations for the ' Archssologia,' the ' Gen- 
tleman's Magazine,' and other similar works. 
A ^rint was published firom a design by her^ 
entitled ' The Ghirdener's GirL' intendled as 
a companion to Thomas Barker's 'Wood- 
boy.' Her drawings are frequently met with 
in private collections. Her derotion to her 
art told on a constitution that was never 
strong, and the untimely death of her eldest 
son in the Peninaula gaye her a shock from. 



■which dhe never recovered. She died on 
fi2 S«pt. ISlo, and was buried in the church- 
j-srd of St. Peler'B in the East Gate, Lincoln. 
[Gsnt. Moff. ISlfi, Ixxxv. 374; Red^avo'i 
Diet, ot Engliah Artists ; Fosler"8 Torkabire 
PedigT«u ; information from Kev. A. B. Mad- 
<)eK>D.] L. C. 

CARTER, FRANCIS (rf. 1:83), traveUer, 
Biude a journey thtoiitth Moorish Spain in 
1772. lnl777hepubhBhed,intwovolume8, 
* A Journey from Uibraltar to Malnfra, with 
a view of thnt Gnrriion and its Environs, a. 
pnriicalar nceonat of the Towns in the Hoya 
of Malaga, the antient and natural History 
of these Cities, of the Coast between them, 
and of the Mountaina of Bondu. Illus- 
trat«d vdth medals uf each municipal town 
and a chart; perspective and drawings taken 
in the vear 1772. Richard Goueh, writing 
under <Iate'B March 1776/ aaya that 'Arabia 
Jones ' (i.e. Sir "William Jone«) corrected the 
proof-eheeta of the book. The plates were 
aold in a separate volume ; but the work was 
tvissaed in 1778 in two volumes, with the 
plates inserted. Carter was well known as a 
collector of Spanish coins and Spanish books. 
Miiny of the former he purchased from the 
ooUecIion of Flores, the well-known medal- 
list. He wns elected a fellow of the Society 
of Antiquaries on 1 May 1777, and soon 
afterwards began an elaborate ' hiEtorical and 
critical account of early printed Spanish 
boolo.' His plan embraced a full history of 
Spanish lit«rature, nearly the whole of which 
WM represented in hia own library. He com- 
pleted the work in manuscript, and printed 
the Bnt sheet, but died immediately after- 
warda at Woodbridce, Suffolk, on 1 Aug. 
1783. A friend, 'Eiigenio," contributed to 
the ■ Gentleman's Magazine ' for October of 
the same year (pp. 843-6) a specimen of this 
undertaking, with the promise of a continua- 
tion, which was not frilhlled. A letter from 
Carter, ^ving anecdotes of Dr. "William 

Baltie f ' ' ' " " 

dot«s,' i 

[Gent. Mag. 1783, pi. ii. 716, 843 ; Niphols's 
lii. Aneixlotfs, iii. 237-8. iv, 607. viii. BIS.] 
S. L, L 

CARTER, GEORGE (1737 - 1794), 
|Mi^It^r, wsa bom at Colchester, and baptised 
on 10 April 1737 at St. James's Church in 
that town. He is described in the register 
U son of George and EliKabeth Carter. He 
received his early education at the local free 
•choalgund first came tti London as a servant. 
Ub then bwame shopman to a mercer of the 
name of KJiif;, and subsequently entered into 
partaersliip la the «anie trade in Chandos 



Street, Co vent Garden. This businesa proving 
a failure, he devoted himself to painting, 
and sent several pictures to the exhibitions. 
Having sained the interest and assiatance of 
other artists, he started on a course of foreign 
travel, eventually settling down at Rome to 
study and form his style. In 1778 lie re- 
' turned to London and set up as an 'historical 
I portrait painter.' He eihibited numerous 
', pictureson various subjectKBt the exhibitions 
I up to a few years before bis death. The^ do 
I not seem to have found purchasers or suited 
the taste of the public, for in 1786 Carter 
opened an exhibition in Fall Mall of a col- 
I lection of hia own pictures, t