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Harris Henry I. 








Harris Henry I. 




V. -V- 


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B. E. A. . . R. £. Ansbbson. 
W. A. J. A. W. A. J. Abchbold. 

O. F. B. B. G. F. RD88KLL Butxu. 

B. B Tbb Bst. Bohald Batnb. 

T. B. .... Thomas Bathh. 
O. T. B. . . Q. T. Bbttajct. 

A. C. B . . A. C. BiCKUT. 

B. H. B. . . Trb L4TB Bkv. B. H. Blacub. 
e. C. B. . . O. G. BoABB. 

O. S. B. . . O. S. Boclobb. 

E. T. B. . . M188 Bbaslbt. 
A. H. B. . . A. H. Buzxsh. 
£. C-K. . . . BowiN Caknak. 

H. M. C. . . H, UAmrBBS Cbicubvteb. 

A. H. C. . . MuB A. 2f. Clbbu. 

T. C Thohfson Coopbb, F.S.A. 

W. P. C. . . W. P. COCBTNBT. 


L. C LioHBL Gust. F^.A. 

A. D Acniif D0B8ON. 


C. H. F. . . C. H. FiBTH. 


W. H. F. . . Thb Hox. and Rbt. Camoh Fbb- 


F. J. F. . . Db. F. J. FUBNITALL. 

8. R. G. . . S. B. Oabdines, LL.!). 

B. G Richard Gabnbtt, LL.D. 

J. T. G. . . J. T. Gilbert, F.S.A. 

G. G GoRDOK GooDwnr. 

A. G Thb Ret. Aukundbb Gobdoh. 

R. £. G.. . . R. £. Gbatxs. 

J. M. G. . . J. M. Gray. 

W. A. G. . . W. A. Grbbnhill, H.D. 

J. A. H. . . J. A, Hakhook. 

W. J. H-T.. W. J. Hardt. 

R. H Robsbt Harrudit. 

A. H Albert Habtshorne. 

T. F. H. . . T. F. HENDEBflON. 

R. H-R. . . Thb Ret. Richabo Hooper. 
W, H. ... Thb Ret. Wiluaii Hokt. 

B. D. J. . . B. D. Jacuoh. 
T. £. J. . . T. Etan Jacob. 
T. B. J. . . T. B. JoHMaroHB. 

B. J. J. . . . The Ret. R. Jrmum Jombs. 

H. G. K. . . H. G. Kbene, C.I.E. 

G. L. K. . . 0. L. EiNosFORD. 

J. E Joseph Kmioht. 

J. K. L. . . PBonasoR J. K. Lauostoh. 

S. L. L. . . SiDNBT Lee. 

H. R. L. . . The Ret. H. R. Luabd, 

J. A. F. M. J. A. Fuller Haitland, 

E. H. M. . . £u E. Marshall. 

VI List of Writers. 

C. T. M. . . C. Thick Maktik, F.S.A. 

L. H. Bf . . . MlM MiDDLKTOK. 

A. H. M. . . A. fl. Millar. 


K. M NoitHAN MooRK, ALD. 

W. B. M.. . W. R. MoKFiLL. 

O. F. M-T.. O. P. MORIABTY. 

J. B. M. . . J. BAiis MuLLisaER. 

A. N AiABRT Nicholson. 

F. M. O'D. . V. M. ODOMOOHUK. 

8. P. 0. . . Capt. S. Pasfibld Olitbb. F.S.A. 

J. H. O. . . Thk Rrt. Canon Otkbton. 

J. F. P J. K I'ATN-K, M.D. 

N. D. F. P. N. D. V. Pearcb. 

O. a. P. . . Tu Rkt. Canon Ferbt. 

B. L. P. . . Bbciin-ald L. Foolr. 


W, Br-L. . . ThrKkv. William Kkynell.B.D, 
J. M. R. . . J. M. Rmo. 

C. J. B.. . . The Rkv. C. J. Robiksos. 

J. R 

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L. C. S. . . 
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W. W. . . . 

Frofibsob Jaxrs Bowlry. 
Thr Re V. Frofbswb Sahbat. D .D. 
L, C. Sanders. 
J. M. Scott. 

B. Fabqctharsok Soarp. 
Lmlir Stefhkn. 


James Tait. 

H. B. Tbddrr. 

The Bet. F. St. Jobn Tkacuebat. 

Thr Bet. Canon Trnables. 

CoLONBL Vetch, BE. 

Alsaoer Viak. 

The Bet. M. G. Wateiub. 

Francis Watt. 

Cha&lrs Welch. 

Charles Wklbh. 

Jambs Williams. 

Warwick Wroth. F.S.A. 







(IM25-1H73), actor ami miumger, was boni 
at Portici, Naples, ISJune 1825. IIis motliL'r 
was Mrs. Olossop, known on the opiratie 
w Madame Feron. Jlin father, Jo- 
i Gloeaop, built, tho Coburg Tlit;aMt% now 
Bown aa tne Victoria, and was at various 
aeii manager of La Scala, Milan, ant.1 iSun 
irlo in Naples. His first oppearancti on tbij 
> was made in America, at about tbo ago 
height, aa a fairy coachman in (he opera of 
ITintlerella.' He played with Itobson at the 
toWMr TbL'atn? in Stangale, and apppared as 
Dobbinerton Ditprez in a farce at t be Princesa's 
beatre, under tne management of J. M. Mad- 
ox. After the retirement of Charles Kean 
from the Princess's Harris became the mana- 
He opened, 'Ji Sept. 1853, with Oxen- 
•tl's adaniatiun ' Ivy Ilall.' He intnxluced 

rle6^UbertFechter[q.v.] to London. His 

Buuu;ement closed Iti Oct. lti(32. Harris ia 
principally 1nio^«~n a;* a mnnagrrof om^m and 
uuUet. He had au admirable eve fort.-olourimd 
great capacity for atage arrangement. AVith 
the stage and general management of Covent 
Gmrden be was connected, withonly one break, 
for twenty-seven years, and he undertook the 
stage direction of ujwra in St. Petersburg, 
Madrid, Paris, Berlin, and Barcelona. During 
the last four years of Itis life be gave Christ^ 
mas spectacles at Corent Garden. He died 
un ly April 1873, at 2 Bedford Place, W.C., 
waa buried on the 2&th at Brompton 
etery. Ho married, 17 Feb. 1846, ftlaria 
. Bone, who sur^'ivea him. Two daugh- 
», Ellen and Maria, and two sons, Augua- 
I and Charles, Iiave been connected with 
ihm Itage. Augustus Harris the younger has 
i known for •ome yean as the manager 


of Dmiy Lane Theatre-, the Royal Italian 
Opera, Cuvent Garden, and other places. 

[Km newf]iaper, 27 April 1873; privtite tn- 
formatioo.] J. JC. 

1874), bi«hop of (Jibraltar, lliird fi^tm of Jameff 
lildward Harris, second curl of Malmeaburyi 
who died 10 Sept. IhJl, by Harriet Susan, 
daughter of Francis Buteman Da^hwooil of 
Well Vale, Lincolnshire, was born at Christ- 
church, Hampshire, 4 Aup. 1813; his elder 
brother, James Howard,third earl of Malmus- 
bury, ia separately noticed. He matricu- 
lated from Oriel College, Oxford, 5 May 
18ai, graduated B.A. 1835, and M.A. 183/. 
He wa-s fellow of All Souls* College 1836-7. 
In 1834 be was entered as a student of the 
Inner Temple, but changing his mind was 
ordained deacon in 1836 and priest in 1837. 
He acte<3 as rector of Shaftesbury, Willahire, 
during 1839^0. In the latter v'^r he was 
appointed to the rectory of Wilton in the 
same county, which had attached to it th& 
rectory of Bulbridge and the vicarage of 
Ditchampton. On 10 Aug. 1841 be was no- 
minated prebendary of Chardfitock in Salis- 
burv Cathedral, and modeadomejitic chaplain 
to the bishop of the diocese. His health tailed 
in 1848, when he realgned his livings. After 
some years of rest he became in 1850 the 
perpetual curate of Kownbanu, Southamp- 
ton, where Lord Herbert, in conjunction with 
the widow of Major Colt, had built a new 
parish church. In 1863 he succeeded the 
Uev. Henry Drury [q. v.] as archdeacon of 
Wilts, when he was also made vicar of Brem- 
hiU-with-Highway, near Chippenham. Here 
he remained an active parish priest and a co- 



ttdjutor to his bishop until 1B69, when he wiu> 
buiuinM.ted to the bishopric of Gibraltar, and 
consecrAt«(l on 1 May. His kindly manner, 
1u8 gentle btinrinf;:, bin knowled^ of lan- 

aBS, and his long exp*Tii^nce 6tlt'J him 
is new duties. Ai Oibralliir he ontewd 
bwrnily iut't Via work, of which he more thnn 
oncti f!uve an account at thf mof-tinfrs of the 
Si»ciely fortho Propapalion oftheGospel. In 
I H7'J he was attook'^l by fever, and ret urning 
to England resig^ied his bishopric in October 
1S7.'J, and *ettlwl ot Torquay, where he died 
on HJ March 1874,andwa'* buried at Bremhill 
on HI March by the side of his wife. By his 
will hu left conttidernble sums to e])i!fLCo]>al 
societieit, be-^itles legacies to his rtdutives. 

Harris married, 2t) May 1KJ7, Kuthertne 
I.ucia, yniingest daufrhter of Sir Edward 
O'Brien, ban. She died at nrcmhiU vicftragu 
81 Jan. 1805. Bv her he had an only mn, 
Jamvs Edward llarris, who died in child- 
hood. Harris was the author of 'One Uiile 
and One Mind,' a sermun, IBtl. 

[SiiliobiirT itad 'V/inchwt<>r Journal, 21 March 
1S74. p. ft :" Ouarlian, 25 M-ircli 1874, p. 3.=)o; 
liluHtmcotl I.ondr.n Now*;, 4 April 1S74. p. 33! ; 
W. U. Jnnet'B F«sti Bcclosiae Sarisburiensis, 
lH79,pp. 177.372; Lurd MaliuaHbury'a Memoirs 
~An ex-Mtni8tor.] G. C. B. 

HARRIS, FR.\XOIS, M.D. (1839-1885), 
ibysieian, son of a hat manutacturer, woa 

irn on I Dec. I82fl at Winchester Row, 
Si^iithwark, and was baptised in .St. Saviour's, 
Southwnrk. Hewasnducat^'d at King:'sCol- 
lepc, Ijondon, and at Coins College. Ciira- 
bridgi". where he gradiinted B.A. in If^'i^jand, 
after tiludyiiiif medicine al St. Bartholonu'wV 
liospital, M.B. in lHr>4. (fe lived fora time 
in Umy'n Inn, and in November IKfitl l>ecame 
houf>e-<>\ir(reon to the Cliildren's Hospital in 
Great Ormond Street, London. In 1H57 he 
became a member of the Colh^ of Physi- 
cians, and soon after went to continue bis 
studies, first in Paris, and afterwards, under 
Virchow, in Berlin, Aiter a year abroad his 
forci^ studies concluded with a short visit 
to Prague and Vienna, and on bis return to 
London lia took to the practice of ntstetrics, 
because be could see no other opiHiriunity of 
practice; but in IHoH be was elected demon- 
strator of morbid anatomy at St. Bartholo- 
mew's Hospital, and in May 1850 assistant- 
phvsieian to the Children's Hospital in (Jivat 
Ormond Stroot. In that year he took hit* M.D. 
degree at Cambridge. U\a thesis, which was 
published, was * On the Noturo of the Sub- 
stance found in the .-Vmyloid Degeneration 
of Various Organs of the Human Body.' In 
this he described two coses of amyloid disease 
of the liver and two of the kidneys, which 
were the only cases ho had met with in sixty 



post-mortems made at St. Bartholomew's; 
these were the ^nt elaborate descriptions of 
the disease by an Englixh morbid anatomi&l. 
1 lf< attained some reputation from this work, 
and never published any other. In 1801 he 
aban<loued midwifcrv and was elected assist- 
aut-phy&icion to St. Uarlholomew'B Hospital, 
and in the same year lecturer on botany : and 
in August IHtU married Ids second cousin, 
Marianne Harris. In 186.5 he bought an 
estate at Lamborhurst, Kent, a district he had 
liked from boyhood, and here many guests and 
all hifl neighbours used to enjoy his kindlv 
hosi)itality and pithy conversation. He cul- 
tivated pineapples, oranges, and orchids. A 
dendrobmm and a calanthe, hybrids which 
he produced, are (tailed after him. He b«4came 
subject to bTOm:hitis, resigned his physiciancy 
in 1874, became more and more of a valetu- 
dinarian, catiffht cold while fishing in Hamp- 
jiiiinsuml died at his town house, i!4 Cavendish 
Stiunn/, of pneumonia of both lungs, on SScpt. 
188o. He was buried in the churchyard of 
Brenchley, Kent. His astutenetsa an a phy- 
sician was extraordinary, and his kindness 
to young«!r physicianf* imbounded. His hair 
Ix'gan lo grow grey when he was sixteen, and 
when he was labouring under his fatal illness, 
in the prime of life, he looked an old num. 

[Dr. Gpi>*!t Mi-moir of Harris; St. Bartholo- 
mnw's Hospital Beports, 1&86 ; porsonal know- 
ledge.] N. M. 

HARRIS, GEOnOE (1722-1796). cI-S 
vilian, Ixirn at Westminster in 1 722, was son H 
of.Iohn Harris, bishopof Llnndaff. He matri- 
culated fromOriel College, Oxford, on 2.^ Juno 
I "."IR, aged Ifi, and proceeded B.C.L. 1 7lo, and 
D.C.L. 17")0. At the same time he was ad- 
rail tvd a member of (be College of Advocnt<*«. 
He was chancellor of t he dioceses of 1 hirhnm, 
Hereford, and LUndatf, and commissary of 
Essex, Hertfordfihire, and Surrey. After 
many years' succe.ssfiil practice, ho died iu 
Doctors' Commons on 19 April 1790. Ue 
left a largo fortune, which he distributed 
among public charities, bequeathing 40,(KX)/. 
to St . George's Hospital, and 1 5,0(X)/. toWost- 
minster Lying-in Hospital. 

Harris published an admirable edition of 
Justinian's Institutes, entitled *D. Just imam 
Institutionum Libri quatuor, with an Lug- 
lij*h translation and notes/ London, 1756; 
•Jndedit., 17tJl ; Oxford, IHI I; London, 1&41 
(condensed), and 1844. The translation alone 
aiipeara in D. Na-^mi'th's * Outlines of Uoman 
llifltory,' 1890. l/arria was also author of 
* Ohsen-ationa upon the English Language,* 
I^ndon, 1752, 8vo (anonymou.«). 

[Fosltr'B Alumni Oxon. : Brit. Mns. Cat.; 
(Icat. ICag , 1796 pt. i. pp. 2d8, 437, 1 797 pt. ii. 
p. 715.] a L. L. 





KARRIS, GEORGE, first Lord IIahris 
of St-'rint^apatam ami Mvsoro (l"4(UlH2iO» 
general, one of several cuildreii of the Ilev. 
Oeiirge Ilarrifi, B.A. Csrobridge, curate of 
Brostcd, Kent, by Kin wife Snriili, duugbter 
of Genrpe Twent yraan of Bniintrtt", Cumber- 
lanJ, wivi Iwjm IB Miirch 17 Ifi. IK* wua wnt 
to Wf}*tminMHr Scbixil, and on 1 Jan. \7'>*J 
wa* entered as acadet at tbelloyal Military 
Academy, W'txilwich, t hmugh the ^od ortin* 
of Lord Gt-orgeSaclivillp. The elder llorrU 
U Mtid to have cnmed the toAting gratitude 
of Sadn-iUe by protecting him ngftinst a no- 
torious pugilistic miller at Cambridge wbfsn 
they were schuolfellows. Young Harris lost 
his father in 1759, and in 1760 pa-ssed out of , 
the academv at* a lieutenant -lire worker in 
thiTfjyal artilltTv, trilli which he served until ! 
17ti:i, wh*?n he wiw appointed to an ensigncy 
intheSih foot. 8(xinaf^er,at imniini>nt riski 
he saved a brotherofficer from di-owniugin the 
riverOuiie. lie became lieutenant in the regi- 
ment in 17<W>,andwas appointed adjutant in 
17117. Th'' "ithwfts then mIr>,4and.nndpopu- 
larlyknownaslhe'Shiners/frnmita ;imart dj>- 
pcarance and attention to parade dftaib<. In 
1768 Harris got leave to travel on the con- 
tinent, *to improve himself in French, riding, 
nnd fencing.' In 1771 he purchased hiscom- 
p.'iny. iind iu 1774 went with the regiment 
\'} AuU'rica. As* captain of llit* gri'rmdier 
company (Lord lUwdon, afterwards Earl of 
'loirn and Marquis of Hastings, being his 
uhaltcrn) he sen'ed under Lord Percy at 
i:xington and at the battle of Itunkorsnill, 
June 1775, whore the 5th suffered ver\- 
cavy lofcs, and Harritt r(,*ct;ived a wound in 
be head, which necessitated trepanning. He 
Kjoined his coriis in July 1770, and fpjm 
"bat time up to Novt-mber 1778 was prt^sent 
[I every engagi*ment,Germantown excepted. 
U Tron llill he wa4 ghot tlirough the h'g. 
ia major he accotnpnni(><l the force sent from 
few York 10 the Wt'st Indiia under f leueral 
James Grant of Boll indaUoeh,andcommandwl 
provlnional battalion of grenadiers at the 
pture of 8t. Lucia. December 1778. He 
Liocond in command under Mi\jor-gon','ral 
Ws>at La Vigie during tliu very gallant 
Ce oft hat post wh'jutheComtedeGras^e 
ptpd to relieve the island. On thJaoc- 

I theoth w<in thetli-^tinctionof weoring 

II whitp fi-athw* in their fusilier cop, 
is fitiU retaine<l. Ife embarkrd with 

ri'gim»-ni aHmarines in 177y,ond waspn?- 
ent in tht> na\al *-ngagi>mt'nt olf Greniula. 
letuming home later in thy vearln a neutral 
^▼e&sel, he was tjiken by a f'nmch privateer 
ad carried to St. Malo, but released onpa- 
olc by the Comte d'06sun,and permitted to 
' to Dover. He married, and in 1760 

became lientenant-coloiifl of the 5th foot. 
Ho was .ship wreck Mil wht'n on hia way to 
Ireland with hid wifu. He communded the 
r(^iment some years in Ireland, where it en- 
joved high repute and popularity (Cansok, 
liuf, Jiec. oth FmtitiWg, pp. 5:?— 1). 

"When the oth vfiis ordered again to Ame- 
rica, llarri-f prt'pured to sell out and settle 
ill (.'iiniidn, hut w&ti di5.><uaded by General 
Mfdowfi, who had ju?it been appointed to tbo 
IJom^Mxy command, and offered to lake Harris 
on his staff. M*?dow9 generously arranged 
nn insurance on llarris'slLfir fur 4,U30/. before 
leaving, far tlie ht.'npfit of his wife and family. 
Harris eflected nn exchange to the 76th foot, 
one of the four new regiments then just 
raised for servicuin India, and asaide-dtM:amp 
and secretary ser\"ed with Medows during 
his tenure uf command at Itumbay, and 
afterwards at Madras. Ho served iu the 
ounpaigns of 17110-1 against Tip{H>o Sahib ; 
commanded the second line in the biittle of 
15 Miiv 17yi, and wa^ engaged inLonlCorn- 
wallis A attack on Tippoo'scampand the island 
of Seringapatam, 6 Feb. 170:i, which ended 
that war (Koss, CormcallU Corrfup. vol. ii. j 
Mill, Hi«t. of India, vol. v.) llatris came 
home with Medows soon after. 1 1 is manage- 
ment OS private secretary of that oflicer's 
concerns was *«> ("uccessful that Meduws re- 
turned with a balance of 40,000/. saved out 
of his emoluments. Harris returned to India 
with his family in 17!)4, and was appointed 
commandant of Fort William. Th« same 
year he became a major-general. In 1790 
he was appointed to the t*tttff at Fort St. 
George, with a seat in council, and local rank 
of lieutenmit-generul. As senior military 
officer prt^sent he commanded the troops In 
the Madras presidency from i79titolKX),and 
administered the civil government as well 
from October 17tt7 to Kobruary 1798. 

In iJecfmber 17flH HnrriA was Aclectod by 
Lord Wellesley to fill the command of fifty 
thoufiaud men collecting to take tlie field iu 
anticipation of 'he h(»stilc designs of Tippoo 
Sahib. The operatii>n-t ended with the elorm 
of Scringapat^im and the death of Tippoo in 
thebreaclion4 May 17nf),andtheannfxattun 
of the My!*ore coiuilrj-. Harris recoi^'ctl the 
tluink* of the government of India in council 
ami of Iwth houses of parliament, and waa 
otit-n'd an Irish title, which h«t declined. He 
wa," aiipointedcnliinelofthe7.*lnlhiglilander« 
in February 1800,in which year he returned 
home.becamealieutenant-geuerulin 1601 ,and 
general in 1812. On 11 Aug. IHlfi he was 
raised to the peerage of the United Kingdom 
under the title of Baron Harris of St-ringapa- 
tam and Mysore, and of Belmont, Kent. He 
was made a O.C.B, Ln 1820, aud governor of 




H ft man 'A a3»5*«tjwi *!«•«««. tac-j tro:- 
•itvm «yi Hm?i* BAsa.r«, vui la. ^n-aalMr. 

pennr>>aii. H* U »ii v, sat* .*r: i^ ?rji4- 
moiMT to tb* M*l-M z-'^vrLxnazngA ^'.rr. 
of e*ih, at eryfwi<fcrfcft-> w<*-,«al j'a*: ti.- 
thft »cinnial*ti'^<« ';f •.=* btxur f xari 1-sr.z^ 
hu Ma/irM eommawi b^ d,^r.?*^.^ fc=.;c;r 
Tarwtts chari-i«». H* MrT*r:&*irt» *«k i^rtc 
eoiuia^rmbU •«'*»Jtb. LU prt.-«*:-T t.^ r-* 
d«mCh trin? »-ir/«Ti oiyiv 5<>/»V. 1= * 
painar' in 1^ ^"^'^ ^ aflcribHi L^t ' »« fr>c 
DOtbin^r to afl!o«i': f'vraifc ' ^> eo:a:=T 
' and willinjT ynvnti^io froai utii-baiiw'T&^t 
•11 thr/0(ffa a I'M? lifc-' 

HarrUinarriwJ/^ !>*. I77». Ann Cart*!*-:. 
ymiiur««t daii/htw an/1 b^Irv** 'jf Lliarlr^ 
W»>n of Bath, mi4 br L«t bad \* u^am 
Owfg*. 'Mwy^'i I"ni flarri* 'q. t. . an^ th?^ 
othttr afftu and f'/or daa<rbt*r«. He d;**! at 
Belmont, K«it, in May l^il*. 

[A Life of I/^rl H«it-4 ^Lw. I'/s. I W » . »■■•- 
portnid, w« c/oipiWl tr th* Ui« Ei?i.t Hoc. 
HUpb«n L'Mliin;?!/*. iwm«inie ^Ttrecr of 
XadfM, wh'* w*i llarna*» •OD-iD-UwaD-l pri«t* 
MemUrj a( M^-irw. It oontaiiu a refouuoa of 
•OfM «»at«m*mU ouwle in Thwd-ire Hook's life 
of 8ir iHrvl IJ«ir»L ParticuUn of HanTBs **r- 
TiOM are mlar^ to b« foai»<i in Canaoo'v Hist. B«?«. 
Ath KciniH*:Pt. r'P- 37-^4, and 73nl foot, and in 
Jliili wrtrt'n H/,y. Military Cal*md»r, 1820, i. 351 ; 
a)»o in H/iwi't O^rnwiUut Corrvtp. toL ii. ; M'U's 
Hint, India, roU. t, ti.; Marqaia Wellefclev'* 
I>«ij/. Tol. I. ; t^UTWinpin VrVll. l>Mip. Tol i. (ia- . 
Hv^ii/rtion; ; Oont, Muff. 1 829, pt. ii. 80, where are ' 
astrari* frrtn Jlarrit'tt will, A Mter from Harris 
appwirnin iiltuikw'^0l'n}Uff.lH27. HarriBScor- 
Tm\)wA*ffH'h with t he Mariui»iWelle»ley is among , 
tiia M'»rnin(fl/;n Vn\^m in th*- BritiKh Museum, 
Ai\i\\i. MMM,' ISflffH awl 13727-9. Some of hU ! 
Islt^rs on itin HtAt's of MyMire form Addit. MS. 

nmr,.\ h. m. c. 

HAKFUH, OKOIUiK (1794-1859), uni- 
Ufian ininiNt<;r, ^Kfrn at MaifUf >n« in Kent on 
Ifi Mny 1794, wafucm of Abraham KarriHtUni- 
tarian rniriifif'T at Hwan«i» for upwards of 
fttriy y*'Mn. i Uatrun wo* Atthi; agu of fourteen 
ptaf'^iil iti It M>inrh(fNt.f)r wanihouiM; in Cheap- 
Niilft, London, hiit,wiMhinf(to mib.T the unita- 
rian miniNlry,K'^V(ui»hiN placn at aconsider- 
«hl() iKKtuniary NacriticJ!. In hiH fsl^htfienth 
ynar Im) xntomd thu Fulinifton Academy, thnn 
iindnr tliM NUtN^riiit^mdi'ncn of John Kvann 
(17(17 lK'^7)l.|, v,| In Novnmbor 1812 he 
inatrinilfttwl m (l)a»i(C»w Univfimity, having 
obtaiitiMl a hurNiiry nn tlii' foundation of Dr. 
Witliainii'N t runt , and ntUindml rIaHWM in ( Has- 
f(()W <liirllil( I linm winltfr miNnionH. Hih fitudioB 
wnm munn intHrrupti'd l>y nunummfmnga^- 
mantnaMaproiiohttriiudltKilurur. ThoHcuttuh 

i Harris 

T T . r a rtKt Xs»:r^azltm. "wi* 5:c ji>id ^ Jolr 

■»« 5:e lirs? T»ar» ra wmrarr. He also 
<9»a: 2i;ti^ Tjut Ji *B:*.icaiii ^zaztarian 

tail a»iyri-t»:ii=3;r "-wtk. ia£ ia dirmiiif 

.«&.-£ -A STi-wDHf: :(f -.'ztt- PrlaajC-es of Uni- 
-4rlti CirA-iiiJiT fciir-«e- to tL; IdIuIh- 
•:*=.-* :c 'jTita^^ ia»i Pr: <>I*ar>w. and to 
^ii Frlfeaii :<rF:-e Iai^:rT •ir^.^i{i.?at Scot- 
laai- Vy a Taliarits," a tear acd concise 
=ar-i*; :f -sritArJa ^eaeiirx- Bv hi* exer- 
t::-ca a ■=3i:*r3i= ccaptl w»* trwt^ in Port 
riUiir;^- I: »^i.i -5!^- ^ ^^^ ^ January 
Ii±*: r-i-r «rr = »*irfi b*' pT«»ciied on the 
oecaK-:^ wa* pac-.i*i^i. A: TtU period he 
alao p*b"_**s.i - »elr« PSeci» for Kiaading and 

la April 1^17 Hirri* w:as inrited to be- 
cnmt gi:ni*:er of Rec>haw Screet Ciuipel 
LiT^r^wL ih-n raean: by th-? rvssi^ation of 
th* RfrT, R>f-rr: L^wia, H* was indacted 
in Jaly. and hi« »:r>nir ci>nTicttons soon en- 
Z*g^ him in nunirrt?.is c>."»ntTV»Ter*:e^. Manv 
even of his own b?»?thrvn censarvd his impru- 
dent and ne-edlrAjly s«verv^ attack? on eran- 
P^lical doctrine. Hi* pamphlet, * Vnitarian- 
ism, the only Religion which can become 
I'nirersa!/ and a course of Sunday evening- 
lectures, afterwards published withnotes ana 
an appendix in an octavo volume, under the 
title of * Unitarianism and Trinitarianism 
contrasted/ called forth trenchant replies. 
Dr. Jamed Barr of Oldham Street Presby- 
terian Church, Dr. John Stewart of Mount 
Pleasant Secession Church, and Mr. Jones 
of St. Andrew's Church were his most promi- 
nent opponents. In 1818 Harris planned a 
* Unitarian ChrUtian Association* for the 
dissemination of unitarian literature, and he 
travelled through Lancashire and (Cheshire 
to gain for it sympathy and support. 

In the summer of 1821 a division occurred 
in the Bank Street unitarian congregation, 
Bolton, and in 1822 Harris accepted an in- 
vitation to become minister of the seceders. 
They first met at the Cloth Hall, but in 1823 
the Sloor Lane Church was purchased from 
the Scottish presbyterians. Harris was known 
in Manchester as ' the intrepid champion of 
Socinianism.' In 1822 he published < The 
I^ancashire and Cheshire Unitarian Associa- 
tion, and the Christian Reflector vindicated;* 
in 1823 he published an account of the for- 
mation of the Moor Lane congregation, some 
statements in which provoked replies from 
other clergymen; and in 1824 appeared 
< Christianity defended.' In 1824 a speech 
by him in Manchester led to a long corre* 



spnaJcnoc, which waa ttftiTwawIf puhliahcd 

under thu title of * Tho Jliinchcaler Socinian 

|CoDtroversv,' und indirectly caused [he fa- 

Qotia Dame HewLey suit [see Uewley, 


In deptember 1825 IfaTris resifined his 
tlmrge in Uolton, nud roniove<l to Olosg'ow, 
liL9 wife's uative place, 1 le preferred the call 
< Qlaagow to one from London, ' becituse,' 
be said, ' he wishtnl to stand in tho front of 
the hattic/ The evanpelical revivnl Ifd by 
IChalinerr* was then at its heig^ht, bnt llnrris 
^^attracted immenw* audiences, and during the 
sixteen years of his (ilaB^ow ministry ob- 
tained for unitarian principles a position of 
prominence not hitherto reached in Scotland. 
In 1841 Karri* removed to Kdlnbiirgh to 
sint in reviving ihy unitarian conjrregslion. 
e laboured for four yearn, though [lot f»o 
fully as in Uluhfjow, and in IHI."* he 
ted an invitation to become the minis- 
ter of Hanover Sqiuiro Cha[>el, Newcastle- 
npon-Tyne. Ucrc he showed much of Itis 
youthful enthusiasm and enerpj* ; he was emi- 
nently successful, a handsome and eonirao- 
dions church being erected in 1851, and a 
Uuge congregation gathered. He died on 
24 Pec. I§.i9. 

Harris waa conBtantly Tvrifing, lecturing, 

or preHching,and advocaliiigHunday-Hchoolft, 

benevolent fu«d(«, tract and bitok Hocielie*, 

Liidinftlitutionsformutunl in;pr<>veiueiit. He 

lirew himself into many politii-nl und saui- 

iry, educulionnl.and moral movements. Ho 

was a kei.-n radical, active for the repeal of 

lie com laws, on bcJiaif of which he dn.-w up 

be first petition sent from Scotland. Tpon 

ItAthcomiac ' massncre ' in Ireland in the 

zure of tit he:^ (18 Dec. l^-W), he denounced 

liurch eslah1i>hineut8 with great N'igotir, and 

ok on active tthare in promrir iiig luauy ot her 

morements. Though dfcidedly ciunlHiiive,ho 

was natumlly genial and warm-heuried. He 

bid ft fine presence, a clear, fcircible si vie, and 

Buch natural orator}-. In Scotland he was 

felled 'the devil's chaplain/ to which it was 

pplied : ' The Prince of I tnrkne.'V must be a 

Bntlemmn if hii cliaphiins are like George 

liuris.' His chief publications, in addition 

I the works olreadv nanietl, were: 1. * The 

eat BmsincR? of Life,' 1H47. H. 'Christian 

Tnitarioniitm New Testament Chrictianitv,' 

"48. 3. 'The lloctrineof the Trinity,' iHiia 

'The Christian Cbaraeter.aj* illustrated in 

lie Life and Labours ofthe late Itev. William 

umw,' iHo!). Fortweoty-one years Harris 

sedtlorof the' Christian Pilot and Pioneer.' 

[Chrintian Ri-former and Christian Fffenian, 

|8C0; N'orth of Kngliind pajn-rH at ihi- lime of 

~r. Uarrib's deulh, Becurd of Uuiiiiri^m Wor- 

kiea, IB74.] T. B. J. 

BERT, third BARoy Haeri.s (1810-1872), 
?ovemor of Madras, grandson of Sir Georgw 
larris [q. v."', the first baron, was born at 
lU'lmont, Kent, 14 Au^. 1810. His father, 
William George Ilnrru [n. v.], the second 
baron, was a general in the arroy. Harris 
was educated successively ot Eton ; at & 
private tutor's (the Kev. John Shaw, nt Pot- 
ton, lied fortl.-h ire), when> he begun a lifelong 
friendship with Charles John Cunning, after- 
warda Earl Canning [q. v.] ; and at t).vfflrd, 
where hn matriculated at Merton College 
•2 Feb. lH2ft. He sofm migrule<l to Chrijst 
Church, where he nrooeeded B.A. in 1832, 
and was in later liio created D.C.L. (1863). 
At Christ Church Harris was contemporary 
with Ijonls Elgin, Dalhousie, and Canning. 
After taking his degn'e Harris fell into deli- 
cate health, and resided for some time at Pan, 
where he received a testimonial from tbe 
British residents for scr^'ices in connection 
with the work of tho church of Eu^land. 
Succeeding to the peerage in IS45, ho wa.s 
sent in the following year to Trinidad as 
giivemor. InlH^M he was appointed governor 
of Mndrae; during his rule there the police 
administration underwent 1 horongh reform, 
I^ter on the tiepny revolt and its con»^ 
quences di.<ftranI<Kl I'pper India, and, for a 
moment, threatened to involve the Deccan 
in political rebellion (Hespot^'h of Major 
0. I^avidson, dated '2 Aug.) In spite of tuis 
serious dangtr Harris forwarded imjKirtant 
reinforcements to his friend Canniner, and the 
Madntsfusiliers ployed a very ]iromini'nt part 
in the recovery of Cnwnwire and Lucknow-, 
Trotter describes Hnrris us 'an able and 
f»'arle>*s ruler in a time(^f n<*Hd' (/nrfi'rt under 
Viftoriti, ii. 119). In 1m51) he returned to 
England and was made a G.C.S.I. Harris, 
who hnd attracted the especial regard of thtj 
prince consort, was, by the particular re- 
quest of the dying prince, made chain Ixrlain 
to the Princess of Wales on her ranrriage. 
HurriH wasa whiij.but did not take an actfve 
]iart in ]Kditlrf<; he was for 8ome time deputy- 
chnimiiinof (he London, Chatham, and Dover 
milwny,and died at Uelmoni,thn scat of his 
family, on 23 Noi . |M72. He was a typical 
English gentleman, honourable, brave, and 
manly ; somewhat n servtul in manner, and 
faithful to all his duties. He niarrieil.lC April 
18'JO, Sarah, daughter of George Cummins, 
archdeacon of Trinidad; by her he had one 
daughter, and an only fon, George Robert 
Canning Harris, who succeeded him, and is 
now (IHUI ) governor {)f Bombay. 

( I'amily infortnatiun ; Fnut er'» PetTsgc ; Foster's 
Alnmui Oxpn. ; Kayo's Hist, of tho Sfipoy War.] 

IL G. K. 

Harris 6 Harris 

JIAIllUH, iri.MJVi/A I7'M:-j. rhi.-f.n- ih.M^mitblisltJ churct.and TWrix-d^zood 
(/r-i-M t', lie juint iiip'l ■■<-iiI-cmII*t, wd.-! »:ii- lirliiration. (^Mvim; to his fitter's d-^a*h, 
J//., v<r '.( tl,<: (imI,Ii«- wiii.. tlipjiii-'li'Mit till- 9 March irS*}. he had T'> fupi^n Limsi-lf by 
I' .[/ii *(( \\';lli:i»i l(l,iiii'l (or It t'li'irt time 0]K;iiiii^ a .'•ch''K>]. Ilif priit^j^ecTs mipro\iiig', 
iiti-'.' ' Ai.ji'' f \\ !'<'■■, fin-fit Sf a Ih uf Iv»;f!. hu hopi.-d, with the hvlp of a near ivlalive,trt 
I* \'-i'ti In 'III--, 'dlic*' hf hurci-«'ilc<i l'!ii-t (jiialify himself for oraiDati<c>ii. He is >aid 
( f,).', '.ifV' 'J I'll .liijii'^ I \ I, mid WHM liiiiist'lf toliiivc httn 'wild and inconsiderate, though 
M,**n'li'I l.v ./'.liii li'i',-1 t'ii/, TrrtiM. I'apf'rt, iiotwithout occasionalrwitchesofconsoience/ 
r/l I I'l. |i ."'•; Ill Mnn;li \i\t".i !«>hc wiit* | Ili-wasmuchimpressedbrasennoni SOMarch 
(ii((.',ifjii'li',il« liijflti r'lMii'c'.f ihii'f(frav(!rnf ' I7il-'»1 upon the duly of partaking wf the 
III* .iMiKii.' iiicl ii' ilii- i(iiiir':iiiiiiit '(I'hif'f ! Lord's Sup]»er, and resolvw to lead a ntw 
* 11/ m ui 1 }•! i(n unit I ) III I III- hliici- iif (ii-nr^- Iif«, Tlu' following Sundav.btinfT East er Pay, 
\\;',» I, lull ly *l««. (iM.I '.i.i- ItiiHCK.flnoidii:, h*,* wfiit to the Lord's taUe. He pot much 
f1 l*i'*l (*/« tfii'»''i M.'.i'I, |t. |f|M, under dull- hi*lpfr<im fiome books heread. ei?]p«:iallyfmin 
I'jfin.l J.'. MiimIi HJ'".t !iO, l[i hr\<i {Ainmh ' I Inly Kuli;a and Helps to DfTotion,* by Brian 
*// Ifn f'i,i,iif/i, I liM'lii'f • I liirn i'm iijmoiiit- I I)u]ii)H^(.vr He conducted domestic worship 
(III lit *t.-f njMiiM ( I 'I tit" limit 11 ■fiirlya'* lti>*0). j n'fjulnrly nt his mother's house, and on Sun- 
lliiii 11* 'li I Inn .! Ill III.- |it hii-iii Inr the |>liM'i' I dayrt lufiny neighbours Came to hear him and 
I'l i(n I>,m|* <,( ill. til iintv ( I'al. I n'li". Id join him in prayer. On :*5 Nov. 1735 he 
I'tifiim,] t ) I lull III liiiil III I M ' <i|iif>iili-d ill tiiiitrliMiliited at St. Mary Hall, O.^ford, but 
■ III Mil ' III -III I nil iii|i , lull M't riini'Mtrnii'ilnls rt'tiirnrd home ut the end of one term, and 

li/ li II I \*. 11, nil. I 111 ii|i|ii'iii'ii In liMvr III once Ix-giLn his evangelistic labours with 

i»iiii.-i<l II |iiiiiiiil i-ii[>iiMili'iiili'ni-i> 111 the I liii ^Teateiit ardour. lie was soon followed 
Ml I lit, II lid to limi' |i 1 1 I III- (iKiriii'iil piiri nf by MU'li cniwds that the houses were often 
I III fi.ili I., Ill' ii.-fi'diiifn Oil hi-i iippnitil- , tnii snuill to coutuin them. In 1737 he was 
iiM III till |{"iiiiiii< ni'iM i'iii[i|iiM'<l lit iii-l ^invited by a gentleman to come to speak 
iiimIi I liiMi ttit '*Mti\ IdiifliiA. Ii'i-'tti ItJ'.'t'. ' at liis houR' in lladnorshire. At this time 

I III III 1, III 1 1 .liiiiii ■ l|...>iiiri I . iiii'iitiitiifil li-* Iii> taught a srhool, but went out every even- 
iJ.K i»iiiiii I Iiri/ iill liiiili'iiili lliiniH ; jiig iiud Mil Sundays and holidays to advise 

ImmI iIh iiIiI' II.' I'Iiiim r i>r .IiiIim I 'I'ltlii-r I -'I'l' j iiii> people. \x t lie end of the year he was 
f 'ill III IK, .In II I.'. IDiii 1 1 1 1 I Oil '* I'l'li. ' deprtM'd of \un sehoid, which was connected 

ifi'-H) , iiiiiii'i' .il ilii> Mitii'i' nl' i'nin- ; with the estiililished church. Ho was thus 

t ■•ii)t|iMiiiii 1 1 III in<|iiiii-itiiM ilii<rliMiil<">liii<< ' oiiiiMinl to ]tri>ach three, four, and sometimes 

II' ml III iMiii dii .1 ImiM lilt' Tiiwi-r ii'p.iiti'il : lixfiiinesii day. He still went to church him- 

lliiil iliMii|ili lliiMi' («linin tlif\ liiiil I'Mi M'lr.niid urpnl liishearerstodothesaine. But 
nniiiili Mii'i'ilh' |iiiiiiii i.iliii'i. I Miii'lit In lii>i'nlliU'iiiisnilM'gan to give offence. "White- 
Inn i> llii>iM p.-. I mil .>l ill.' .Ill '. \<'\ llnei ji.-M «rt'ti' him an enctmraging letter in the 

I ii>i 11. mil I iii'it'i mIIi'i Iniit ti> I- iiitn tlii> |ir-.'. inning of .liinunr}' 173f^, and states in his 

Itiiii:i' uliiii' tlif |.ii-iiin.l iln'i\M'iv l.rpt ' ,|i,ir\ tor 17<'>t>t hilt Hnrrishndalreadvfounded 
(.1 II 111 ii\, ' \l. III. Ill 111 ilii> IIin'Mirr I.' Ill tliiiiv MuMi-tii-s in Snith Wales. !For somo 
.\(."iiiH.i/*. f '(I. ■■.■;. .'. , \,i| III 1 lliiiti'i itii'd \,nv'. hr dfIi\.Mvd only extemporary sermons 

bi'l I"' t >! I 1 .01 1 1 '.I.' /'i,.i« l\'r. '■*, 'u|>i'n Mh and the judgmenl tn eome. 

Ill'' . . p '-'^<, 1. lit « liit-li daii' ' I lie ciitxi'i'-. In ilie o.Mirse oV si\ or seven years Harris, 
pliii I' ' i-t '.poln'M M If. \a> [inl ttirxiii;!) ln-< \mi ti I lio aid of his ooa.ljuttirs. hud amused 
ili<i-i'ii-i< llii 11. -.I*.'!', .lohii I'l.dni, v\:i-' thi' wh.'li- piiiu-ipality. Ilis appearance is de- 
ii.'t iipi'i'iMii d I ill , \pMl I .I'.t. W ah*''!e ..,idii'.l a- ui«»>l »'i»nnnanding. his voice solemn 
nitl ■ linn ' ( 'npiain ' llniir. and ,t*nl'ii-i-. Iiiin .,nd sHoii;;. and liis ean'oslnoss ijuite irre- 
wilh .l.>-.-ph llnni". \/' liliil lit'.t^M .i \ , ..isiihle lie made mativ l«iiter enemies, nnd 
l)ii>ii.t.>i t I ;...;". V.> .■' /'.;i .,';.;•. id. \\,M' « -i^ ..jt ru in pri:l of his life. He extended his 
iiniii. Y o.iu ftl'oii'.. in l7.'''.Mo Norih Wales, and while at 

HM.ii.l-.r ..I I'l. iMiM l^'i'-r-, A.-. .-I-..! M.ulu:r.l,;h iV.en'..'bru>V.ed at himhowling, 
III-..*.- I N\ \\ . -ii-.n,;. >wi-arinc. rtnd thiv^wing stonrs. 

H.MUns, now n. j; I 1 i:V;i\amiu \iiaiio;ii.% :i:\d a. threatened him, 
» lonnd. 1 .«l W .■Mit':(l\iui>1i.n»e(ho.ii'«ni. and '.-.e \\a- '■V,*'! at 

llnid -on oi Uoft,-l :md Siianna Mavii'.oi' Uav. i>'< ijna; .^^a.■;•.•.:.'y in the toundaTion 
'l'io\.'i.-.i in llii- p:lll^hoI'»;:r. Ih in I^^-^-.-n of n'..!V,o.ii-»'.u w a> IV.v.'.i' K.^wlar.ds ol Llnn- 
>hn.-. ««0>oui iluM.- -Vi.laii l.l;l II Ue *;x'.; !:.\ r.i-.v.uar,>V.;r»- ; b;;T sn '.jr.fortnnate 
w.iN n \oiiiuri I'l.'ili.r of Jo-.-ph U;i',r.s m:si:nd;-:>»^tv.d;Vi:. w V.vV. *vrv:'.v.t-d f^r many 
^l (V liiiO .( > rtu- o.n.Mit^ .'wned iln' \ ia:>. r.r,*-.- a< < av'y as '.Tir, ar..: U\l to an 

liiun on win. It i It. \ li\iM. nn.l w ri-e (an'.\ .')v;» ; i;'[';e.:i' in ir.'*!. T!.e v.-.t :^''.:.>* K>.ly, 
w.M oti \.»»«^ liUma «** uilended lor , whu-h ws* now nmuerv^ii*. was lUvidod into 

two hostile partuti, cullud Harris's peoplt? and 
Rowlamls'a [wople. The misundL-rtitflmliiig 
baa never K^u utisfactoril^v cxpUlned. It 
bu bei'n atlrikiited to some ungUArded ex- 
preMiona of K&rns, which, however, are com- 
mon in hymns highly approved by Row- 
lands. Dr. Wees infer* from some exjire;*- 
aiona in Williams's ' Klppy on Ilarrin' llial 
^_the caiiso wn5 Harrit^'s u&Humplion of nome 
^■Authority in the connexion not allowable to 
^Bft laymnn. 

^B After this Ilurrtfi withdrew to his own 

^■boiise ut Trev^cca, where he preached two 

^^ror three times every day, ami tliere in April 

^^J7^^'J he laid th« foundation of a kindofpro- 

tcstaut monastery. lu ]7i>4 the inmates 

or *family/ its thry were called, consisted of 

100 persons, and in 1755 of \'Ji), b»'side« 

several families from North Wiilw, who had 

^w^ttled in the neighbourhood in order to 

^^^nefit by Harris's ministry. 

^^ Harris was eminently loyal, and in IToO 

he acceptfKl nn enr'ijfncy in the Breconehirc 

militia, imd many of the 'fiimily* joined him. 

He was alarmed by the priMtpcct of a French 

invasion and the eonRequent establishment 

of papacy. I>urinp hia sliort military career 

he preached in various parts of England. He 

would stand up to preach in his regimental 

dress in places where the mob would not have 

tolented other preachers. 

Towards the close of h ts life he was warmly 

Ieiijiported by the Countess of Huntingdon 
[[see MA&TraGB, SELiyA], who eatablij^licd her 
school formiiiiHters altjOwerTrcvecca. lie 
)C^irr»_'.«ponded with her, visited her ot Brighton 
in 1 '(Ai, ami afterwards preached in London 
at NVhitefield's Tabcmactu and l>efore ariato- 
rCrntic assemblies in private housea. The 
m4? of his wife in 1770 greatly afiecled 
'liim, and probably hastened his own end, 
which took place 5l July 1773. He left one 
^^danghter, wlio was provided for by an indtn 
^Htoenoent property fnim her mother. By his 
^^pvLU he bequealhed all bin pmperty to the 
^^pmintenance of hU * family' at Trevecca for 
^^prer. The institution has long been extinct. 
His published works are: 1. * Hyninau 
Dnwiol, in conjunction with two others, 
1742. i.'CennatlwriaThysiiolaethddiwedd- 
ftf Howcl Harris, Yswum,' 1774. 'i. 'The 
laat Message audTeslimnnyof Ilowel Harri;', 
Eaqr.,lnleofTreveckain\\ ales. Konmlamnng 
some of hi(! Papers.' 1774. 4. 'Ychydig I.y- 
thyrau ftc Ystyrisethau ar .\choHiim Y[*iiryuol 
^—^ynghyd a Hvmnou am Dduwdod a Marwol- 
^^tactn ein Tncbuwdwr,' 17Ht;. 5. * Hanes Ferr 
^H^ Fywyd Itowel Harris, Ysewier; a dynwyd 
^HbUan u'i y«^Tifeniadau ef ei hun. At b» un r 
^Fc^twan'tfwvd crvnodeb bvr o"i Ivthyrau o'r 
1^ lawyddyn 1738;hyd y Fl'. 1772/ l2mo, 1792. 

[Morgnn's Life and Times of Howel ITarris; 
Mcthodiht-iuetU Cyitira ; Vi'illiiins'H Ktuinent 
WeWmioa; r>r. Hobs'b ProteetantNoncuiirormity 
in Wftlw, 2iid cd. i Life and Time* of Selina, 
Countess of Hantingdon, i. 373, ii. 1 ^. ; Mnlkin'a 
Soath Wales.] R. J. J. 

HARRIS, JAMES (1700-1780), author 
of ' Hermes,' eldest son of James Harris of 
the Close of Salisbury, by his second wife, 
Lady Elizabeth Ashley Cooper^ thii*d dough' 
terof the second imd sister of the third Jjord 
Shaftesbury, was bom 20 July 1709. He 
was educated at the grammar school in the 
close, and entered Wadham College, Oxford, 
aa a gentleman-commoner. He matriculateu 
10 July 1720, and nfl:<T\var<l9 read law at 
Lincoln's Inn withr>u1 inU-nding to practise. 
On bis father's death he berame independent, 
and settled ju the familv house in Salisbury 
Close. He st udied the clnssica indust riously, 
often rising, ' especially during the wint^ir,' at 
four or five. lie became specially interested 
in Aristotle. He was an active nisgistrale 
for the county, living at Halidburv and hia 
house at Durnford in the neighbourhood. 
Tliough a student and an author, he was 
ftociftbh^, and esjiecially encouragi'd coneerta 
nnd the annual musical festival at Salis- 
bury. He adapted words to selections from 
Italian and German composers made in two 
Tolumes, by Joseph Corte [q.v.]. the Salis- 
bury organist. In 1701 he entered thw House 
of Commons (where, as John Townshend ro 
marked, he would find neither of liis favourite 
subjects, harmony f^r grammar) as member 
for Christchureh, which he continued to 
represent until his death. He was a fol- 
lower of fteoi^o Grcnville, On 1 .Ian. 1703 
he became a lord of the admiralty, and on 
Itt April 1703 a lord of the treasury. He 
rutinrd with Grenvillo in 17(W>. He waa 
made secretary and comptroller to the queeti 
in 1774, but held no other office. He died 
22 Dec. 1780, and was buried in the north 
aisle of Salisbury Cnthwlral. He mairied in 
1745 P'linabi^th, (laughter and heiress of Jolm 
f ]larke of Sundford, Bridgwater. Throe (of 
five) children sur\-ived him, two daughters 
and James (1740-1820) [q.v.]. afterwords 
first Karl of Malmcsbury. 

A conversation with Harris at the bouse 
of !^ir Joshua Reynolds is reported by Bos- 
well in 1778 (BoswKi.T., iii. 250-8, ed."Hill). 
Johnpon seems to have rt»»peeted hiw stiholar- 
ship, but called him lib. p. 245) ' a prig nnd 
n bad prig.' An engraving from a portrait 
by Highmore is prefixed to the first volume 
of bis works (18()1 ), and one from 'a model 
I)V Oosset* to the second. A portrait of 
Harris by Romney is now in the Natioruil 
Portrait Gallery. Harris's bxika w« dry 




and technical, but have a rertain interest 
from his adherence to thi- Aristotelian phi- 
losophy during the poriod of Locke's supre- 
macy. Uis works ore: 1. Three treatises 
(on 'Art/ 'Music, Paintinc, and Poetrv,' 
and ' Uapptnefts*), 1744; 6th edition, 1794. 
2. ' Hermes, or ft Philoiwphic/il Inquiry con- 
cerning Universal Grajumar,' ir<'>l ; trant^ 
Isted into FrwnchbyThurot in ITiMtby order 
of the French Directory. ;l. * Phil(»9ophical 
Arrangemente/ 177''>. 4. ' Philolofrical In- 
QoiriBa/ 1781 (appendix of various pieces). 
HiB works were collected, with ' Some Ac- 
count of the Author/ by his aon, Lord 
Mttlmesbury. in 1801. *dn Rise and Vto- 
Ljgreuof (.*riticism,lTom Paper8byJ.II.,'1762, 
'ind'Spring: a Piistonil/ represented at Drury 
Lane 'J'2 Sept. 17Hl', arp abo attributed to 
him. He aadtnl somo notes to Sarah Field- 
ing's tranitlulion of Xenophon. 

[,\ceount as above ; Malmeflbary's Dinrie*. 
1844, vol. i. pp. vi.vit; Nichols's Aiiocdotos, ill. 
S86 and nUevharc ; NidiiiLs'ti IUu.sLnitioils. r. 
846-5; Bilker's Biog. Dr«m.] L. S. 

HARRISjJ.VMES.tirst E\riofMalme»- 
Bi'nr (l74<i-lH:i?0), diplomntist, of a Wili- 
sliire familv long settled at Orchcstou St. 
George, eldest sou of James Harris [q. v.1. 
author of * nennes/ by his wife, Elizabeth 
I Clarke, was bom at his father's house in the 
[Close, Salisburi', 21 .\pril 1746. At four 
I yeare of age hi' wont tcj il dame'*, school, and 
■ after three vears to llie Siilisburv gramniur 
school. Tlieiice he went to Winchester 
College, whi're he remained until September 
176:i. After some time .spent in London with 
his father, then a lord of the tren-sury, he went 
in June 17ti.*i to Morton CV)ll«^g(>, Oxford, 
where he idled away two years an a tfentle- 
man-rommoner, Jn the company of L'harlfs 
JaraesFnxand William Eden. Attheendof 
the summer tennl70o he left Oxford and went 
in St-'ptember tn Ijeyden, where he spent a 
vear in serious study, an<l in niajttering the 
Dutch lanpuHge. Here he bej^iin the 'Diary,' 
whicli he kept very fully for the greiilyriiart 
A" his life. In 1766 he returned to E)ii;rhind 
TOr a few months, and in 1767 travelled in 
Holland, Prus£>iH, Pohmd, and France. Mti 
waa then, through the influence of Lord Shel- 
bumc, appointed .'»i'*retBrv' of emlwiMy at 
Madrid, with o salary nf 800/., and in the 
absence of the ftmlwiswidor, Sir James Grey, 
was leH in August 17K9 chnrgS d'ttflainw. 
In August 1770 he heard of the enpodition 
fitting out a) Bueuus Ayres Rgainst the 
Falkland Islands, and ventured, on his own 
TWponsibiUty. to take no high a tone with 
the Spanish minister, the Marquis Grimaldi, 
(hat the attempt was abandoned. la De- 

cember, however, war seemed so nearly in- 
evitable that he had actually been recalled, 
and had lefl Madrid, when at twenty leagues* 
diditanco he met a courier with the news that 
the Spanish government had yielded, and 
that he might n>tum. His conduct in this 
affair gnine<l him great credit. He was no- 
minated minister pleni]K>tentiar>- on 2'J Feb. 
1771, and, returning to Englaml in the sum- ■ 
mer, was appointed to Berlin, where he ar-j 
rived in February 177:2. In 177t} he gave up ' 
his mission, and, leaving Berlin ll^Sept^ re- 
turned to England. In 1777 he was ap- 
pointed ambaasador to the court of Cathe- 
rine II at St, Petersburg, where he was en- 
gaged in a const-ant struggle against the hos- 
tility of Prussia ami the duplicity of the 
empn-nn. In December 1778 he was made & 
knight of the Bath, and received his kni^it- 
hiKid from the on liO March li79. 
The climate broke down Iua health in 1783. 
Since 1770 he hud been M.P. for Ohnst' 
church. He wo-s a strong whig and a great 
admin-r of Fox, and was appointed by the 
Hockinfj(hnm ministry (in April i7&3) to the 
ministry at the Hague, a po.sition of mferior 
diplomatic rank, but invulving great respon- 
MbiliTy. Harris accepted, and left Russia 
in August. The diHrnisRal of the ministry ' 
Rus[>ended his appointment, and, in spite of] 
his support of Fo.x in the House of Conunona, j 
after his fall from December 1783 to Fe- 
I bruary 1784, Pitt renewed the offer, in recog^ I 
I nition of his prent diplomatic abilities, and I 
! in Dt-cember 17KI he proceeded to Holland, 
I with the rank of minister, but with the salary 
I and apiiointmentsof anamluiHsudor. At tlie 
I time of leaving Uujtsia he had ex]M'nded 
:iO,000/. out of liij> private fortune. At the 
I Hague he found the Bourbont} encouraging 
the Dutch democratic party, and holding out 
hopes of the creation of a Dutch republ ic. He 
used his influence on the side of the stadt- 
holder so 8ucc«Mfully that ' he may be said 
I to have created, fostered, and matured a 
rounter-revolution, which restored to the 
' studtholder his power.* * Ce rtts^ et auda- 
I cieux Harris,' as Mirafaeau calls him (C\mr ; 
! tff lirrfin, ii. IS), often resorted to extreme 
expedients to gnin information. On one oo- J 
casi<^n he bribed a royal valet to exclude a | 
ri\'al for twenty-four hours &om tbe king's I 
closet, and on another he arranged a fiertca ^ 
of disguises for a messenger whom ho sent 
from the Hague (September ]7h5» to deliver 
a mL-iswige to Comwallis in Berlin (Ojm- 
Vftlli* V'trrrjipondenrp, \. 103). tVom March 
to July 17% he wa-s in England on leave, and 
carried an overture from Pitt to the l*rinco 
of Wales in regard to the settlement of the 
prince's debts. He formed the design i 

mm aUi*nce uf England wtth HolUnd anil 
PraMia, and, having obtained t^omv 9U|i|>ort 
for ii in Berlin, and opened it to LordCnnuar-'U Mav IjH'^Wsitt-d England, and 
wm!> pn«eot at two cabinet mtw-ttUfp* toui^e 
it on the minijilry. He receiveHl :*0.000/. of 
secTVt ftervict* munev with which to promote 
it in Holland. LveutuallT hv aucci<eded, 
and harinjif been appointed ambaNuidor on 

14 March 1768, he signrd thi> trvntr on 

15 April. Oo 19 Sept. be waa created tiaron 
UafaneftbuTT, and alio recei\-»d lht> Pruaaian 
order of the BUrk Eagle. 

AAer a short visit to SwitxerUnd he re- 
turned to Eitfj^Und in the autumn of 17H8, 
and constantly voted agunsc Pitt in tbu 
diTiaiotts upon the reffencjrestTictioni. Lord 
Sidney {ih. i. 4U9) ^fegefl that he had pre- 
ynouuy mode a private offer of hia support 
to Pict, but the char|2;e aeenui groundtefw. 
Till 17i»f except for a »>hort viait to Italy in 
1791!, he remained in England in cliiae con- 
nection with Fox and hij« [lolilical friend.<i, 
and alM) in the intimacy of thi> IVincc of 
\Valeit,whom,at two inter^iewfi, 4 and 7 June 
1792t be succeeded in dia-^uuding from his 
Acheme of annoying hi» lather hv retiring to 
Ijltt continent.' In 179.'t hv, with tliu 'old 
^Kigs,' lef^ Fox, and on 30 Nov. of the Hanio 
^■kr Pitt ftent him to Berlin to impress on 
Ring Fn'derick William his treaty obliga- 
tions to England in the French war. Al- 
though he procured another ln>aty in 17l>4 
for Prussian aid in men to the allies in n^t urn 
for KngliHb payments uf money, hu failed to 
keep the PruR«iau king to his engagements, 
&nd was recalled on 24 Oct. lie wax then 
employed to solicit for the Prince of AV ales 
the huid of Princess Caroline uf Brunsiwick, 
ACttfd as the prince's proxy at the ceri'mony 
in Oennanv, and escorted the priiJC/'8» to 
England, i'he prince never forgave him eveti 
thuf official shar^ in bringing about the match, i 
At the end of (.»ctober I7§<5 ho waa sent to , 
Paris to negotiate terniK of peace, but being i 
ixuitructed to in»ist on ibe restoration of the 
Low Countries to the emperor, he was tin»uc- 

tisful. The attempt was, however, renewed ■ 
17U7, and on 3 July he was wnt to Lille, 
t the occurrenct'sof the 18ih Kructidor n»- 
moved all hopf.-s of peace, and on IH S(?pt. he 
lef- ' I ':iid. W ilhthisraiHsion.although 
P, liim another in ItlOO which never i 

(o4jK ixrii ••, liis piibtie tif*i closed. At ttmt | 
tttne be was luidouhtedly at the head of the ' 
diplomatic Service, but he considered himself 
tAcapBcitated hv his great andincrea»ingdeaf- | 
,On 29 iW. 1800 he was created Earl 
abtuy aod ViACoant Fitrharris. He 
in close intimacy with Canning 
«&d l^tt, aod was often engaged as a n^o- 

tiatorin the noliticaltimDMetionaofhia tiflM. 
, He waf^alDoiruquentlrconsultcdonqneeUou 
of fopaipi policy by them and by thi' Oulm 
of Portlsnd. lie warmly !*upT»o"rte<l and as- 
sisted Canning in \n<* plan for nviufisting 
Addiu^on in l(?Ol* to give way to l*itt, but 
on 21 Nov. Pitt came to him nt Bath and 
I put an end to iht> pn»j(vt. In .luly 1W)3 ho 
I WAS sounded abtiut entering the cabinet, but 
be refiistHl to join Addinglon. There was 
i aAerwards some prottpoct of bii* sucrofiding 
Lord Uarrowby at the foreign ortire. Hn la 
I said to have encouraged the kin^ in Iua »>■ 
.sifltanco to I^rd Howick's catholic imlicy, 
, but he now witlidn>w mur».« ami more into 
private life. In Julv 1807 lie refuM<d tho 
govemonthip of tho Isle of AV'ight, but ac- 
cepted the lieutenancy of Hampshire, and 
was sworn in 12 Aug. From this y<*ar until 
his death hepaSMs] histime U'tweeu I^mdnn 
and Park Place, Ilenlev. He died in Hill 
Stroel,Mnyfuir. iiri I'l r5uv. 1 H20, of old ago, 
and WBctbnriiiHlinSniisbury Cittlii><lral. when 
a monument by Chnntrev wan stibsoquiintly 
ert'ct«sl. Talleyrand Miiiiof him: *Je croiB 
miL'< L<iril Malmcsbury 6tait le plun habilo 
Minislre que voussviui de mm tcmiM; c'^lnit 
inutile de le duvancer ; il falluit If suivre de 
pn>*.* When young he was very linndsrtme, 
itnd his brilliant eyi>a and wliile hnir gniuMi 
him in old age iho name of 'The Lion.' 
Then* are porlrail* of him by Tteynolds in 
middle life, and by Ijiwivncoin 1815, botli 
engraved in the edition of his letters and 
diaries ^mhlished liy Ilia gnnidsnn in 1H44, 
which loruia one of the most valuable mo- 
moirK of his time. His h'ttent tu hiM family 
were publi^he<l in 1870. He himwlf piib- 
lishe«l an edition of his father's works, with 
a prefatory memoir in 1^01. Ho married, 
yH July 1777, Harriet Mnry, youngest daugh- 
ter of Sir (ieorge Amynnd, liurl.. by whom 
he had two Aons, JnmcH ICdwanl, (>ecund carl 
(lather of James Howanl llfirri»4[q, v.], third 
earl, and of Charles .\mynnd Hnrris [u. v.], 
bisbopof (JibmltarKandThiimaK Alfrmr,pro- 
bendary of York, and two daughters. 

[Lord Miilmeiihury'a Diariiu and Corrcspood- 
cDce and Lt'ttprs to his Family; Ilinries of 
Lord Aucklitiid mid Lord Colcbfilor; Stanhope's 
Lifi. of Pitt] J. A. 11. 

Eari. OP MALMbfliirRT tlH4)7-ld8ft),bomon 
'2^ Miireh 1H(I7, was th<f gmitilson of Jame4i 
Harris, first earl [(j. v.], and the eldest son of 
Jumes Edward TIiirriH,r>eennr| Hiirl,bvhiswifo- 
Harriet Susan, dau>{hli!rof I'VanciH llateman 
Dnsbwood of Well V«le, Litirolimhire. Ilia 
father, the fieeond earl, was in IKI? under- 
secretary for foreign affairs under Canning, 
and subsequently governor of the Ule of 

AVigbt; but liiachitf WitorePtB were ?port and ' 
literature. lie died lUS'.-pt. 18-11, bivTinglo«t 
liis wife in 1415. Ilarrij was educateu at a 
private Bchoul at Wimbome nnd iitKtOD,but 
■was never very studious. In 1825 he pro- 
ceeded to Oriel' College, Oxford, where Cople- 
rton was provosl, und Xewraan tutor. (His 
commpntji on NowTtinn's euiuluct ns tutor, 
puhlishtid in tin; ' Mifinuirs of an Ex-Minister,' i 
■were C'tntradided by lxir*l niachfoi-d and | 
the cardinal himself in the * Daily News ' of 
13 and 28 Oct. 1884.) After taking hid degree 
in 1827 Lord Filzhorris.os he was tlurn stjied, 
travelled abroad, and at Home made the ac- 
quaininnc(>, through the Countesa GuiccioU, 
of Queen Ilorteuse, ftud hereon, LnuisXainv 
leon. lie returned to Enj.'Iand in 18211. Coin- 
pB^ed, owiog to hie father's wishes, to dec! ine ! 
to stand forlhc Isle of Wight iit 1834, he.wiw [ 
an unsucceasful oandidnti'! for Portamoutb in ' 
1838, and wan retunied in the eouservotive 
interest for Wilton in June 1841, but his 
iktber's death In the following September 
raised him to the upper hnusi?. ^lalmesbury 
did not fttfirst take an active part in {xdit ics, 
though he pcweswd consideralde knowletlge 
of foreign affairs, gaineil partly through hi.-* 
wife's relatives, tlie De (Immonta, and partly 
through numeroiia visits to the continent, 
among which maybe mentioned atrip in 1845 
to the caatlo of flnm, wiiere Louis Napoleon 
was imprisoned (.Wwnoi'r*, i. 167-CO). I 

On the disruption of the conservatives in 
1846 Malmeshury played en important part 1 
in rallying the protect ionists, unci bwaime 
their whip in the House of*, where Lord 1 
Stanley (afterwards earl of linrbyi, whoae , 
friend*<hip he had formed in l834,wfls Bi>eedily 
e^tahliflht^ m leader of the party. In 1848 be 
published a letter on 'The Hevision of the 
Game Laws,' addressed to the home secretary, 
Sir (icorgB Ore^. In 1851, when Stanley 
attempted in vain tn form a g-ovemmeni, he 
offereaMalmewbury the colonial office. In the ' 
foUowingyear Malmeshury and Disraeli failed 
in their efforts to induce Lord Derby to mei.t 
the government measure by a counter Reffirm 
BilL The whign, however, were defeatwl on , 
the Militia Bill, the conseri-ativea came iuto j 
office, and Mulme.shiiry was appointed secre- 
t teiT of Btate for foreign nffairs 22 Feb. I8o2. 

He had gained some accidental education 
for his work through preparing for publica- | 
tion 'The Diplomatic Joumiu and Corre- | 
spondence of the fir^t Ijord Jlalmeshury,' 
which app<>ared in 1844. He also ackuow* 
lodged much good advice from thequeenond 
the prince consort, and from liis prefW-eanors, 
the IJiike of Wellington, Ix)rd l*almer»ton, 
and Ijonl Granville. Though comments were 
passed on the badueas of his grammar (Brir 

wim, Patmersttmy iL 2^ti) it was not long 
before OrevUle, the dlaristt lt>arnt that he 
was doing very well, and displaying gread 
firmness {JoumaUtf 2nd part, iii. 472-3)^ 
The Austrian aiubaasador, Count Buol, at- 
tempted in vain to play on hia inexperience 
{.Vrmoirg, i. 313, 320). Amongthe congrapj 
lultttions ho received was one from his fntrnd* 
the prince president of the French republic, 
and Alalmesbury, who stood almost alone ji|| 
believing bi the pacific intentions of Xapo 
leon, was the first to recognise officially thfl 
creation of the second empire after raising 
some ditliculties about the numeral adopted 
in the emperor's title. Another impnrtanlj 
event wos the signature of the treaty of Jjon 
don, guaranteeing the llauieh poeses^iona t 
Prince ChriatiBU of Glucksburg, but in Mgn^^ 
ing Malmeshury was only endorsing I'almeV 
stain's diplomacy, as the arrangement wa 
boHHl on the protocol of 18W) (Count A'na 
THi'M, St. Pvirrfbury nnd iMritlon, ii. 223 
English trans.) But, able though his mans 
raent of nffairs was, it was violeully attacke 
The Peelites were annoyed at his prompt 
cognition of the eroi»ire,and l^trd John Ii 
pell made jmrly capital out of the case of ft 
Mr. Mather, wlm stood in the wav of some 
Austrian soldiers in Florence, and was cut 
over the head by their officer. Both Lord. 
Derby and Dii^niidi amplr defended him, and 
the former paid a hamUome compliment to bifl 
diligence, ability, and good Juugment wh^ 
the ministry resigned (20 Dec. 1662). Is 
March 1863 Mabneabury was once more iil^ 
Paris, and had some interesting audienc 
with the emperor iMemoirs, i. 387-90) 
During the sesjuion ho mode a curioualy vio 
lent speech on the Succe»iion Duties BUIt' 
but appeared to greater advantage in Muoli 
1854, when he ably defended one of hia forme^^ 
f^ubonlinatcs, accused by Lord Aberdeen ol^| 
olficinl indiscretions. ^H 

MTien Lord Derby, on the resignation of 
Lord Aberdeen, attempted to form a govern- 
ment (Febniary 1855), be offered Malmecburafl 
the foreign office a second time, but Derbysfl 
negotiations broke down, nnd Disraeli rathflr 
iihsurdly attempted to fix the responsibility 
on Malmeshury, whom he accused of for- 
saking Derby ut the critical moment. In tlie 
same year ho declined to entertain siiggea-^ 
tions for making Disraeli or Lord Stuule; 
leader of the party. On 5 May he openec 
the debate on the treaty of Paris in the House 
of Lords, and during the next two years spoko 
fre<]ueutly on foreign and Indian topics. In 
I*'ehruary 1858 Palmerston was overthrown 
on the Conspiracy to Murder Bill, and the 
conser\-ativefl coming into power Malineiihunr 
was again appointed foreign secretary, *" ~ 





old frientUliip wirU the emperor, combined 
■with Lord Cowley's nble diplomacy at I'aris, 
epeedllv removed hU traces of ill-feeling' he- 
t-ween fenplnnd and France, and the rrcallof 
Persigny, who was violent and indiscreet, 
from the French embassy in I^ndon was a 
chang« for the 1>ftter. M&lme«hury wns con- 
viacedtliat both he and the Sardinian minister 
Axeglio acted in Palmerston's interest?, and 
rel*lion« with the latter became tctj "trained 
when, following the advice of lyird Shaftes- 
bury, Azeglio published in the 'Tiroes' the 
Enulish law-yers* opinion on the * t'apliari ' 
affair, a diiiiculty created by the illepd delen- 
lion at Naples nf a iSardinian *»hip (in board 
of which were two Knpllsh engineers. The 
foreign secretary roundly characterised the 
proceedti^ as' unfair*(8ee the correspiiudcnce 
between Cavour and Azt>^Uo published by X. 
de Bianchi in La Pt>litiquf du Comte C. A- 
Caiwr, p. '279 ei wq.). and both A7x^glio and 
Cavour were at iirst convinced ihiil Muhnes- 
buTT watt hostile to the Italian cause. 
Mauneeburc promptly exacted damngps and 
an apnlopv frnm the Neapolitnn government 
while foiling the Siirdininn attempt, to make 
the fiffair a casu^ M/i, and relations with 
Sjirclinia improved to such an extent that 
Cavour, wriiing to Azt^Uo on I Dec, ex- 
prcHfied a hope that the tones would stay in 
power. The war of Italian lihertition wns 
now inevitable, but as an interlude cJime rho 
* Charles et (leorgiea' affair, caused by the 
lugb-handed conduct of Napoleon III on the 
occasion of the seizure by the PortugTiese go- 
vernment of a French t-hip on tlie ground 
that she wa.* a slaver. The Englinh govern- 
ment helped (o comprise the dilute, and 
though Malmeshu^ waa attacked in the 
llouEe of Lords by Lord Wodehouse, the op- 
poatioo gained little by the proceeding, and 
Uie vote of censure was withdrawn. The 
foreign ercretary outwardly maintained what 
Count Vit»lhum cnlhKl a ' ])ti^.'i."inf( but asto- 
nisliing optimism' about Italinn iitlairfltAV. 
PeterMJUTff nvd Ijimhvi^ Tol. i. ch. xy.> ; but 
he recorde<l, as early as ll! Jan. I80O, his 

Srivate opinion tliat war could not be avoided. 
everthele-RS ho was unceasing in his at- 
tempts to avfTt it, taking hi.i stand on the 
ftrmngomentaof 1815(Oji^riVi/(V>rrfi'/«'-'H(/(w« 
cm tki Italian Qr/^^/tbn.publighed by Maimer 
buTT, with an introduction, in 1869). So far 
from acting, a* he wn« accused at the time, 
in the int«restAof AufttriB.hefuIl}- rerogniited 
the grievances of Cfntral Italv nnd Sardinia 
(de«Twteh to Sir J. Hudson of'l8 Jon. 1859). 
On 13 Feb. Lord CNiwIey waa eenl ona mis- 
cion to Vienna with the object of securing 
(1) the evacuation of the I^oman ftatca fay 1 
Austris and France ; (2) reforms in the ad- 1 

ministration of the some states; (3) a aecu- 
rity for better relations between AuFtria and 
Sartliula ; (4) the abrogation or modlBcAtion 
of the Austro-Italinn treaties of 1JS49. The 
Kuaeian government promptly atlopted ibeso 
bodeii of negotiation in its proposal that a 
congress should be convoked for the settle- 
ment of the questions Qt Issue, a propo&al ac- 
wpted by the powers. * A congress once aa- 
sembled,' said Malmesbury to Azeglio, * I 
become, what I have always been, a friend 
of Italy.' Napoleon, however, as Mulm«ys- 
bury knew, was only playing with the liuj*- 
siitn propTisnl in order to gain time for hi» 
militnrv preparation*, and with c'tnsiderablo 
skill foiled Slalmesburv's attempts to bring" 
about a disarmament. The foreign eecretury^ 
suggestion that Sardinia should ilisarm in re- 
turn for a guarantee by England and France 
against her invasion by Aufctria was rejected 
by the em|)cror without ceremony, and whea 
the British government proposed a simulta- 
neous disarmament the emperor accepted tho 
proposal for bis own part, but declined to 
make any representations to Sardinia, On 
19 A])ril Austria brought matters t<j a crisis 
by trending an ultimatum tn Turin, and the 
war began. Maliuej^bury did his best to lo- 
calise it by strongly urging the states of fler- 
many toremain trnnquil, hut gained no credit 
at the Tuileries by the dcspntcb, as it was 
siipprcsineil by the French fon*ign minister^ 
(Vunt Wnlewski i}fnniiirxj \\. 170). His 
policy UB formulated on 4 May to her majesty's 
ministers abroad whs one of strict neutrality, 
combined with a readiness to exercise good 
offices in the cause of poace- 

The government wiie beaten on the addrew 
on 10 June 18fi9. Mnlmesbur}* maintained 
that the defeat would have iK-en avoided if 
Disraeli hnd laid the Italian blue-book on 
the table. His statements on the point are, 
however, to he received with caution. Cob- 
den cannot, as he says, have been one of the 
dozen or more members who subsequently 
expressed their regret at having voted aKainsC 
him, asCobden had not returned from Ame- 
rica (jMohley, CoJ)dfn,\\. 226). And though 
Malmesbury a.«<«erts in bis 'Memoirs' that 
the reason of Disraeli's conduct was that he 
hod not read the book (p. 192), the real reason 
seetns to have been that it was not printed, 
and that, as ibev wer*» certain to be defeated 
sooner or later, ^^almesbury*s colleagiies did 
m>t care to wait for it (Kebbel, Tirrhy^ in 
the 'Statesman Series.' p. 210). "When the 
blue-book did appear CountVitrihum thought 
that Malmesbury was not quite equal to bis 
task \Hi. Pdcriflmrp nnd London, chap, ivi.) ; 
but it contained evidence of able and straight- 
forward, if somewhat fidgetty^ diplomacy. 




On bis rotirement from office Malmesbury | 
wnB crealeJ G.f'.B. 

In May 1(^00 Malmcsbury made an offer to 
lx>ni Palmerstoii in tbe names of Lord Derby 
and Disraeli of support agtiinst liis own col- 
leBgiie«. Lord Jubn UuK?sen and Mr. Glad- 
stone, if tliev rt'rtijfm'd on tbe jMwtjiorieraent 
of tbe Ilefnrm Dill, imd in iKil. during a 
Tisit to Paris, attempled to remove tbt; em- 
peror's prejudices ai^aiust iLe conaen'stive 
party. la I80r3 he made a creditable effort 
to induce the French sfovemment to hiii^ 
render the statues of Ilenry II, Klcbard I, 
and tbuir queentt, which are in the vaults of 
the abbey of Fontevruult, but without 9uc- 
p£eas, tbouffh the attempt wng rt-newed iu 
^ 1800. In the absence of Ixird Durby, Malmes- 
biiry moved, on 8 .Inly 18(54, tfie vole of 
censure on I>ird Palmerston's government 
for ilH management of the Panish question, 
and carried it by a majority of nine ; but the 
opiMsitioD was defeated by eighteen in the 
lower house, and the liberal* remnini.'d in 
power until 18<m. On the formal ion of Lord 
Derby's third miniatrv, iu June of that year, 
3ialme»bury declined the furtlgn olHce in 
[ CoaseQUeuce of iU-henlth, and aeceptwl the 
post of lord privy seal. Diirinp the Keform 
Jiill agitation he made a sjHt'^'h at t'bri&t- 
churcH in denial of Mr. nrighl'a stuteinent 
that the Houne of I^rds was hostile to re- 
form, and ill tbe following session attempt eil 
todissunJel^ril l>erl>y from introducing the 
* Six Minutes' ISill. lie conducted the Ke- 
fonn bill through the House of Lords, 
where an nmenchnenl was carried against 
bim by I-ord Cairn** raising the lodger frnn- 
chiae from 10/. to 15/. In I-'chruor)- ]8(ifci, on 
the resignarinn of I>^rd IX^rbv, he Ijecnme 
lender of tbe House of I-onls, and ^iroved 
aurcessful, in npite of his somewhat slipshod 
oratory ; but in December he retired in favour 
cf Lord Cainis. On '27 April and 8 July 
IbGi) he made important speeches on the Lil'e 
Peerages lUll, and succeeiled in getting it 
rejected by 106 votes to 77. He waa again 
lord privy seal in 1H74, under Disraeli, but 
xesigiied m lrt7tt owing to increasing dtuf- 
cew*. One of his last appearances was in 
18t*l , when he supported the proposrtl to plaw 
A statue of Lord Beacousfiela in \Vci<t minster 

Besides his grandfather's joumnlmentione<l 

Above, Malmesbury published iu 1870 a selec- 

tion entitled 'A Series of Letters of thn FirBt 

Earl of Malmeshurv, his l''amilv, and Friends, 

1 from 1745 to IHltV In 1884*hi« own * Me- 

Lanoirs of an Kx-Minister' api>eared in two 

Toliimes, and jirnmplly went intfi a fourth 

[edition. They comprise a preface dealing 

[>witb events Iwtweea 1807 and 1S34, and * a 

macMolne of memoranda, diary, and corre- 
spondence/ concluding with an account of 
an interriew with Napoleon III at Chisle- 
hiirst on '21 March 1871. Hia principal ob- 
ject was to sketch * the three administration] 
of the late Karl of I>erby, whose colleague I 
was, and also some incidents respecting one 
of ihe most remarltable men of tfiif* century, 
namely, the Emperor Louis Najuleon.* The 
book alao givos us a good idea of Disraeli's 
earlier career as a conservative leader, aadJ 
incidentally depicts Malmcebury himself as a] 
man of considerable abilities and statecraft^j 
of much urbanity and amiability in prirataJ 
life, and a devotwl B{>ort4man. The ooa*l 
]H)litical {tort ion of the bookcontainBBct*ouDt« ' 
of visilji lo the continent, court and society 
goasin, and Well-told, if sometimes ney, 
anecdotes (see lellera to the *Tirae«' or 
Ijord GranTille of 7 Oct., Sir \. BorihwicJc 
14 Oct.. Eari Grey 22 Oct., I»rd Malmrf- ] 
bury, embodying a correction from Mr. Ghul- 
stiine, ii DwT.) 

Malme»bury married, first, on 13 April 
18iJ0, Lady Emma Deuuet, only daughter of 
the filth Ear! of Timkerville; she died 17 Mav 
lH7ti. Her portrait, painted by EdwJn Lanu- 
scor in 18.*W, which was received by Malmes- 
hurv from Landseer's executors in IH77, now 
haiigfi at Heron's Court, Hum|»ihin»: w- 
coiidly,in \r*SO, Susan, the daughter of John 
Hnmdton of Kyne Court House, Somerset- ' 
shire, but leaving no issue waa succeeded 
on his death, on 17 May 186W, by hia nephew, 
( '-cilniud Edward .Ismes Harris, »<m of hjs se* 
cniid brolher, Edward (bee below). 

IH.S.**), admiral, second brolher of the alK»ve, 
wiis born '20 May IHOH, and educated willi, 
his brother till 1822, when hv went to the| 
Uoyal Naval College, Portsmouth, and next 
year entered the royal navy os raidsliipmnni 
III) bnurd the Isis : he became lieutenant iuj 
KebruHrv lrt2H,nnd tme through the varioufli 
rnnlt's till he was appointed admiral on the| 
rew^rved list in 1877. From 1H44 to lS52he 
represented Christchurch in iwirliament ; in 
1852 he was appointed consul-general in ]»en- 
nmrk, but was in the same year transferred 
to Lima as charg^ d'aOaii'es and consul-gene- 
ral: the latlerjjofit he exchanged fora similar 
nne in Chili in January iHiVt. In lf^.58 he 
wiisapjMiinted consul-general fortheAustrian 
cnmstsof the Adrin tic, and afterwards minister 
at I^Toe; in 1887 he was transferred lo the! 
Hagui'. He was made bK.C.K. in 1872, andj 
retired on a ])en»ion in November 1877. He 1 
died 17 .7uly IM88, Imving married (4 Ai^. ' 
1841) Emma Wyly. daughter of Captain 
Samuel Chambers, R.N., by whom he had, 
with other issue, Edward James, now fourth ! 

««.rl of Malmesbury (TVmor, 18 July 1888, 
p. 7). 

[Lord llftlmf*bur}''§ Memoirs of fto Ex-Minis- 
1«r, 3p! will.; Times. 18 iliijr 188d. For nn'iyww 
of iho Mem*» i> f>*tti tht* Sjttunlay Itcviow, *-yl. 58 ; 
MacmiUau'v M.igMiat\ toI. 51 ; Tlic Kdiiiburi^h 
Rctiaw, Tol, Itifl ; The Wwitminater Koriew, 
Tul. 133.] L.C.S. 

HARRIS, JOHN (lfi«8 ? -1C5S), warden 
of Wiacbeftter College, born at IlanlwicliG, 
Backingbamfftiire. about 15$d, was the son 
of Kicbard HnrriR, rector of IJardwicke. 
After being educated at Winchester College, 
wbtre be entered as a w?bnlar in 1 r»W>. lie whs 
fellow atK)6-t'-J) of New Cnllnge, Oxford, 
and ]^roceeded M.A. on ^3 Jan. lOll (Wood, 
J-'tutt OxMi, ed. Bliss, i. 342). lie became 
*so admimble a Grecian and so noted a 
preacher that BirHen. Savile iimhI frequently 
to Bay that he was second to St. Cbrysostomc ' 
(Wood, Athene^ Orvn. ed. Bliss, lii. 455). 
In 1017 be was elected one of the nnivereity 
procionif and in Ifllll, heinp then H.D., wa8 
appointed repuft profi**s<jr nf (.3iv«-k. He re- 
siffned hi* jin)ffa*ior8hip in June l&J'J^ nn ar- 
cepting the thirteenth preljeudal stuJl of 
Combe in the church of Wl-IIs, which lu; ex- 
cbangiMl for that of Whitchurch in February 
\&2ii-7 (Lk Neve. Ftufi, ed, Ilardv. i. :i03, 
210). On 19 May 10^8, being lben'D.D.,ho 
wa« mnde prelx-ndan' of the seventh stall in 
the church of Winchester (i7*. tii. 38), and 
obtained the rectory of Meon-Stoke, llouip- 
ihire. In September \G3Xi he was elected 
warden of Winchester CoUegi*, wlii-r*? he 
built • the sick house.' During the civil war 
he sided with the presbyterians, was cho^ien 
one of the assembly of divines, took the 
coTCTOint and other oaths, and so kept his 
Tvortleaship. He died at Winchester on 
11 Aug. 1BJ)8, agtxl 70, and was buried in 
ibe college chapel. IIh wrot*; ' A Short 
View of thp Life and Virtues of I>r. Arthur 
Lakft, Aometime Bishop of Hath mid Wf'Us,' 

Srefixed to the lattcrs * Sermons,' fol. Lon- 
on, 1639, and seveml letters to William 
^Twuset wliich, with Twiase's answers, were 
H&Ushed by Himry Jeuea, fol., Oxford, 

[AathoritioR AS alioTe; Kirby's Wiachs^ter 
Scbolan, pp. 2, 168.] U. O. 

HARRIS, JOHN. n.B. (Ia67f-i:i9), 
•ci^mtific wTiter, divine, and topographer, 
barn about 1667. probably in Shropshire, re- 
ceived his education at St. John's College, 
CainbridE"e. where be proceeded B.A. in 16B7, 
and comn)f>nced M.A. in 1691 (Cnntahr. 
Graduatit 1787, p. IW)). After taking orden 
b? was presente<i to the vicarage of Ickle»- 
haB, Sussex. On 7 S«pt. 1U90 be entered 

on the cure dF the adjacent pariah of Win- 
clielsea, hv the si>ecial order of the Bishop 
of rhichest»<r. and on U Keb. 1690-1 he 
was in<!ucteil into tiie rertory of St. Thomas, 
Winchelsea (CoopEit, Hint' of WijH'hflwn^ 
p. 14:i). lie was patronised by Sir William 
Cowper, lord keeper of the great seal {after- 
warcu Lord Cowiter and lord cliancellor), 
Cowperoppointednitn his chaplain; obtained 
for him u prebend in the cathedral of Itoehe»- 
ter, in which he was installed 6 Feb. 1707-8; 
ami prt'sent'Od him to the united parishes of 
St. .Mildn-^I. Bread Street, and St. Margaret 
Moses, London. I larri.*) also hold the perpetual 
curacy of Strood, Kent, to which he was ap- 
pointed^ in right of his prebendal stall, on 
Ift* Aug. 1711 ; and he was (iresented to the 
rectory of East Barmini;, Kent, in 1715. lU 
woaaevnely persecuted by the Uev. Cliarlfs 
Humphreys, lecturer at St. Mildred's in 1708,. 
who held him up to ridicule in q publication 
entitled 'The rictureof a High-flyingClergy- 
man* (London, 17161. 

.Vt an early uge hirt studies had token a 
scientitic turn, and tm 29 April 1690 he was 
elected a fellow of the Royal Society (Thoh- 
Bo.N, llUi. Ro\ja{ iS'tr. .\pp. p, xxix). Two 
years later he preached the Boyle lectures in 
St. Paul's Cathedrol. He toolc the degree of 
B.D. at Canibridgi> in 161*9, and obtained the 
Maff. ccxvi. OIW). About l(Ji)8, orsoon after- 
wards, he began 1o read free public lectures 
on mathematics at the Marino Collee llausi^ 
in Birehin Lane. Tlinse lectur«s had been 
iustituiod * fortbc public goi>d' by Mr. (after- 
wards Sir Charli-s) C^ix, M.P. " Harris was 
still engaged in delivering ihosn lectures in 
1702 and 170-1 : and in the formir year he 
also taught all kinds of mathematics at his 
bouse in Amen Comer, 'where anyni^rson 
might be eilhi*r boarded or taught by the 
month.' In 1 706, and perhaps earlier, he was 
a member of the council of the Royal Society, 
and cm 30 Nov. 1709 be was elected secre- 
tary, an office which he held for only one 
year. He is supposed also to have been for 
a short time a view-president of the society. 
Ho was employed bv the London booksellers 
to compile a * Collection of Voyage* and 
Travels, which was afterwards improved by 
Dr. John Campbell ; and he likewise, at their 
suggestion, proiwrt'd thf* first Knglish 'Dic- 
tionary of Arts and Sciences," from which 
more recent cyclopffidiaa take their origin. 
In 1712 he began to make collections for n 
' Iliatory of Kent,' of which one volume — of 
little value — was published shortly after hia 

Harris was culpably improvident, and waa 
generally in distress. He died on 7 Sept. 




1719 aa absolute pauper, at Norton Court, 
Keut, and whb buried in Norton Church at 
the expense of John Godfrey, esq., whu hml 
lonff been his friend and btrnHfactor. 

His worlts are: 1. 'KemurkH on somu late 
Pttpero relatinp; to the Universal Deluffe.aud 
to tlie Natural History of the Earth, tion- 
doH, Uj97, 8vo ; aa nbfo defRUCX' of the sye- 
tom of Dr. Woodward against the attacks of 
Dr. Mnrtin Liaterand others. 2. 'TheAlhtiiH- 
tioal Ohitvitions agninst the licing of tiod, 
anil his Attributoa, fairly conaideredand fully 
refuted,' Iwinjf the Boyle U-cturea for ItillH. 
3. 'Short but yet plain I'Jlenientsof (.ieoine- 
try and l'hineTri4!'onometTy,' 1701, from the 
French ui Igtiace (Jaston Pardies. 4. 'The 
descript ion and uses of the Ctilest lal and T'.t- 
reslrial Gloht*:*, and of ColUna's rochet l^un- 
drant,' London, 1703, 8vo. 6. ' Lexicon Toch- 
uiciuu ; or an Universal English Dictionary 
of Arts and Sciences, explaining not only the 
terms of Art, but the Arts themselveu,' 1 w\. 
London, 1701; 2nd «dit., 2 vol8. 170H-10, 
The first volume wan dedicated to Prince 
George of Denmark, and the second t«i Lord- 
chancellor Cowper. A Biipplt-mont to the 
work ' by a society of genllt'ini'u' appeart^d 
at Ijondon In I7-i4, fol. 0. * Xnvigantium 
atijue Itinerautium Bibliotheca: or a cora- 
pleat Odlf^et ion of Voyages and Travels, con- 
sifiting of above four hundred of the most 
autlientick writers,* '2 vols,, l^ndon, 170.'», 
fol. Another edition, rovi»ed, with large 
additions, by Dr. John Campbell, 2 vols., 
1741-8, fol.,* and again, 2 vols., 17t>4, fol. 
7, *The London Mercliftnt's Mirror, or the 
Tradesman'a Guide, being Tables for the 
ready casting up Bills of Exchange,' Lon- 
don,'l705, a small sheet composed and en- 
pTived by Harris. 8. 'The British Hero; 
or a disioourse shewing that it is the interest, 
as well as duty, of every BriUm to avow his 
loyalty to King George on the pres^'ut im- 

ffirlAnt crisis of nffnirn,' a sermon, London, 
rifi, 8vo. 9. ' TliH Wickedness of the pre- 
tence of Treason and Kebellion for God's 
sake,' a sermon, London, 1715, 8vo. 10. 'As- 
tronomical Dialogues between a Gentleman 
and a Lady: wherein tlie Ihxitriue of the 
Sphere, uses of the Globes, and the Elements 
of Astronomy and Geography are explained. 
\Vi(h ft description of the Orrery,' London, 
1719, 8vo, 2nd and 3rd e<litions, eom>cled 
bv J. Gordon, 1720 and 17(itS. U. 'The 
Sistory of Kent, in five parts,' vol. i. (all 
published), London, 1710, fol. This work 
IS extremely inaccurate. Thirty-aix of the 
plat*»8 of the seats and towns were after- 
wards published sepflrately. Some of the 
?Iatea were engraved by Harris himself. 
[arris's manuscript collections passed, after 

the death of his friund John Godfrey, int 
ihuhandsdf Edward Goddard, esq., of Clyfl 
IVpard, Wiltshire, who possessed them i^ 
17(11, but Hasted, the historian of Kent, wa 
not ableto recover them (NicuoLSjXj'^.^nf 

His portrait, engraved by G. White, from 
a painting by B. Wliite, is prefi.xed to the 
' Lexicon Technicum ; ' another, engraved by 
Vertue, from a pointing by A. Kussel, a|H 
pears in the ' History of Kent.' 

[Addit. ilS. 6871. f. 43 A- Evans's Cat. of 
Engraved Purtmits. No. 6012: Gent. Mag. 1814, 
pt. i. p. 19: Gouuli's British Topogniphy, i. 445, 
4fl2, 4S3, 788; Ibistod'a Kfot, i. pref. iv, 657. ii. 
29 II.; Lo Xovc's l-'asti ; Lovmdes's BiU. Man. 
(jiohn). p. 1002; Nichols's Lir. Anocd. ix. 76^: 
Keess Cjclopflcdia; Memoirs of Whislon.p. 135.1- 

T. C. ^ 

HARRIS, JOHN (,/!. 1(580-1740), en- 
graver, was mainlv employed on engraving 
for works on arcliitecture or topography. 
The earliest engraving bearing his name is 
one of* The Encampment of the Royal Army 
on Hounslow Heath in 1686.' In 1700 he 
engriived a map of the world after a drawing 
Iiy Ivlmund HaJley. He engraved some of 
the views of gentlemen's seats in * Britannia 
Illu8trata'(170i)-31) and some of the eleva- 
tions in the fourth volumeof'VitruriusBri* 
tannicus' (1739). Among other engrav 
by him are n view of C^adiz, some vioi 
of St. MarjMe-Strand, some plates for T,| 
Boston's * Ships of the Royal N'avy,' plat 
for the * Oxford Almanack,' &c. His wor 
was carefully executed. Vertue mention 
among the eiigravers living in London vxi 
1713 * Harris, jun.: etcher,' thus suggestl 
that thi're were two of the name. 

[Stniti's Diet, of Engra\-er«; Dodd's manti- 
scripl Hiwl, of Kngravcrs (Brit. Mu». Add. M9J 
33401); VcrtiicB MSS. (Briu Mu.-*. Add. M8j 
23070.)] L. C. 

HARRIS, JOHN' (d. 1834), water-colour" 
painter, was one of the earliest artists who 
produced tint-ed drawings. He exhibited afi 
the Unyal Academy from 1802 to 18lfl, and 
made some designs for illustrations. He ' 
probably iilentica.1 with John Harris, a ; 
mason, who executed some masonic plates in^ 
lithography in 182r>, and in 183S published 
a lithngrajili from a drawing taken on thft^ 
spoT, 7 July Ifi33, of the * Raising of th 
Block of <Tranito which forma the Pedimen 
of the Porch for New Bridewell lu Totliill! 
Eields.' Harris died in 1S34. 

IRedgravo's Diet, of Artists; Graves's Die 
of Artists, 1760-1880.] L. C. 



, JOHN (170&-1&46), puUUher, 
. bom in 1 7-56. At a yery earlv age he 
i apprenticed to Evans the bookseller, and 
in 1773 the affray between Oold- 
_ tilh and his emplover in respect of a libel 
io tho ' London Pacfeet,' of whidi the latter 
vus the ptiblmher. After beine ^ith Grana 
for about fotirtecn yearA.he nettled a» a book- 
teller at Rury St. Kdmundi. l^^turcin^ 
ahorrly aiterwarda to London^ he was aitc- 
ccsstrely assistant to Mr. John MumiT and 
Mr. F. Nowbery, the publisher, of St. i'aul's 
Churchyard, whow imprint the * Gentleman's 
JUagazinf? * then bopp. On the death of New- 
brry, in 1780, Hnrris nndertook the manage- 
ment of th« business for hiit widow. On her 
retirement thorefrora he succeeded to it, and 
in the course of several years amassed an 
ample fortun*?. Before hi.« death, which took 
place at AValworth on 'J Nov. 1K46, he took 
luB aon into partnership, and the business was 
aiVpTwards styled Hiirris & Son. As a pub- 
lisher he dispUyed much of the ingenuity 
and energy of his predecessor, John New- 
bery, who founde*! the biwinww in 1740, and 
dnrtng hi^t career he produced manv valuable 
workji for young pe«i{ile of an ec^ucation&l 
nature, as well &s others of a lighter kind, 
emplovtng sucli authors as yirs. Trimmer, 
Mrs. Itovechild, Mrs. Hofiand, Iroac and 
Jeffirers Taylor, and the Abb6 Gnultier. He 
■Iso rally maintained the chnmcter of the 
lioiu* OS the recognised source uf tJie supply 
at books for the nursery. 

[Nifhola's Lit. Anecd. viii. 619; Gent. Mag. 
ISiC. ii. 6d4, and originul sources.] C. W. 

HARRIS, JOHN. D.D. (1802-1850), 
pnncii>al nf New College, Ijondon. eldest son 
of a tailor and draper,was bom at Ugboroiigh , 
De\*onshire, 8 March 1802. He was of a stu- 
dious disposition, and acqnireil the name of 
'LittleParwn Harris.' About 18lobi»parenti) 
removed to Brii*tol, when, although employed 
during working hours in his fother'sahop,he 
gave much of bis nights to study and sclf- 
UDprovemenl. Soon he began to preach in 
Tillages around t he city in connect ion with the 
Bristol Itinerant Society. The little clupda 
wertj always cmwded to hear him. He was 
called the Mwy preacher,' and was highly 
popular with his auditors. After studying for 
a time under the Kev. AV alter ScottofRowell, 
be in 1823 entered the Independent College 
at Uoxton. Having completed his academic 
coarse he became minister of the oongrega- 
tional church at Epsom in I82o, and here 
established hia reputation ai) a preacher. Al* 
though neither & fluent nor a tbeatrical ora- 
tor, the excellence of his matter attracted 
rded audiences. Soon after the publica- 

tion of his first work, 'The Great Teadwr/ 
in 1835, he won a prize of a hundred guineas 
offered by Dr. John Trickey Conquest for the 
best essav on the sin of covet ousnes.*. His 
essay, pn&lished in IbUfi, was ent itled * Mam- 
mon, or Coretoosaess the Sin of the Christian 
Church,* and more than a humlred thousand 
coptea were sold. Its plain speaking offended 
some theologians, and t he Krv. James EUabv, 
the Rer. Algernon Sydney Thelwall. and 
others issued replies condemnatory of the 
principles of the book. A priae giwn by the 
British and Foreign Sailors' Society for the 
best essav on the claims of saamea to the 
regard of the Christian worid w«a von by 
Harris, and jrablished in 1837 under the title 
of* Britannia, or the JloralCIoimn of Seamen.* 
Afler publishing sermons and otiifraddressWf 
he received in 1835 from Pn*. Walsh, Ward- 
law, Bunting, and other divines the prize of 
two hundred guineas forbtseesayun Christian 
misaions, published under tiie title of ' ITio 
(Jreat Commission/ 1842. In 1837 he was 
appointed to the theological choirat Chesfaunt 
College. Next year he married Mary Anne 
Wraughnm, daughter of W. Wranghamanda 
niece of Archdeacon Francis Wrangham. In 
1 838 Harris received from Brown L niveniity, 
America, a diploma of doctor of divinity. 
(Ju the occasion of the amalgamation in 
iHoO of the Independent Colleges of Qigb- 
bury, Homerton, and Coward into Ncfw Col- 
lege, St. John's Wood, London, he became 
the princii>al of the institution and its pro- 
fessor of theology 1 Oct. 1851, He after- 
wards published works to show 'that there 
IS a theology in nature which is one with the 
tbeolo^ of theBible'(cCNoa.6and 7 below). 
As a tneologian be soitght to infuse a morv 
genial and humane spirit into the dry dogmas 
of theology, and to urge Christians to reduce 
their belief to practice. Some of his works 
display profound and patient thought in meta- 
physical tbeolog}'. llis circle of readers in 
Great Britain was limitei], but in America 
hifl writings obtained great popularity. In 
1852 he was chosen chairman of the (!x>ngre- 

Stional Union of England ond Wales. He 
>d of pyiemia at the college, St. John's 
Wood, London, 21 Dec. 18o41, and was burled 
in Abney Turk cemetery. 

His published works, besides sermons, ad- 
dreBses, and those easays alreadv mentioned, 
were: 1. 'The Great Tcichor: C&aracI eristics 
of Our Lord's Ministry,' 1835, his best book. 
2. 'The Divine Estahhshment,* 1836. 3. 'The 
Christian Citizen/ a sermon, with an appendix 
of notes, 1837. 4. ' Union, or the Divided 
Church Made One,* 1837. o. 'The Import- 
ance of an Educated Ministry,' a discourse, 
1843. 6. •ThePre-AdamiteEarth/contribu- 




twoa to tbeologioil Kieace. l&ia. 7. * Man 
PrintevK], or t£e Constitution and Primitive 
Condition of lb«HiunuiBemK.'l'^in. 8. 'The 
InepiralioD of the Scripliirv^,' introductory 
lectures at the openingof New College, lt*ol. 
0. 'The Altar of the Hoa»ehold/ services 
for domestic worship, by the Her. C. Wil- 
liams, edited by J. llarm and others, IHTx) ; 
other oditioni' in 1859. 1867. and 1873. 
10. 'Pofthumous Worksof ReT.JohnHarrie,* 
edited by Rev. Philip Smith (two volnmrs 
of sermons only), iMued in 1^57. He wa« 
one of the editors of the 'Kiblical Review,' 
and contributed lai^ly to the congragmt ional 
and evan^lical mngaxines. 

[Gent. 3f]i^. 18^7, pt. t. p. 240; Men of the 
Time, 18^. pp. 3(1.2-4; Allibooaj. 791 ; UnaiUo't 
Pint Gillery of Literary Ponmiu. 1845. p. 212; 
Eclectic Review, 4th wr. 1837-5U, iv. 303-19, 
xxi. 137-&4. xivi. 812-26; Goagregstional Year* 
Book. 1858, pp. 207-9.] G. C. B. 

HARRIS, JOHN ( 1 820-1 884 ). poet, eldest 
Bon of John l(nrri!i, miner and farmer, wlio 
died. 23 April 1848, by his wife Christiauna 
Smith, was bom at Six Chimneys Cotta^, 
Bolennowe Hill, Camborne, Com walUMOct. 
1820. The only education he received was 
at some small kical »chooU ; at nine years of 
age he worked on a farm with an nncle, and 
was next employed in tin streaming. When 
aged ten he was enga^^ at Dolcoatb mine, 
near Camborne, drcaainff eopp)>r ore. In hii; 
leisure time he managm to improve hia edii- j 
cation, and commenced making verses. At 
the age of twelve he went underground in 
Uolcoath mine with his father. A diiv«> by < 
him on the death of some men who were killccl 
in Cam lirra mine wa? printed and sung by a 
blind man in the streets of Camborne, llu^h 
Rogers, rector of Camborne, and others lent 
him books, by which he gnidiiany acquired a 
knowledge of English po«-'tic lilernture. In 
1844 he Wl become a'tribiitor' in Dtilcoath 
mine, and managed to save 200/., with a por- 
tion of which he built a house with his own 
hands in hijispart; time. In the following year 
be married Jane, daughter of James Rule of 
Troon, by whnm he had several children. By 
the interest of George Smith, LL.D. [q. v.],of 
Trevu, HarrtB'fl first volume of poems, ent it led 
* Lays from t he Mine, t h*; .Moor, and the .Mimn- 
tain.'wsfl printed bysubscnptionin 1853, and 
; reachcdasecondt-ditioninlSSG. Bythehtnd- 
ncss of Mr. Edward Bast in he was enabled to 
(rive up working as a miner, and received in 
Angnst 1857 a itmaJl appointment as scrip- 
tare reader in Falmouth. He had long been 
ft local preacher among the Wealeyans. From 
this time he issued a volume nearly every year. 
In 1864 he competed for the Shaliespeare ter- I 
centenary poem, and obtained the mrat prize, j 

I Ilia poetry, much of which is narratirv.] 
naturml and melodiously rhymed, and 
been popular in Cornwall. Fifty pouiL._ 
was granted him from the Roval Literary 
Fond in 1872 a td again in 1875, wl''- 
Lord Beaeonsfield In 1^77. and Mr. GL 

stone in 1881, each jiecured liLn 200/. frt 

the Royal Bounty Fun-L The only time he 
wa* ever oat of his native county was in 
1864, when he made a journey to .Stratfonl- 
on-Avon. lie was struck with paralysis 
14 April 1878. died at KiLligrew Terrace. 
Falmouth, 7 Jan. 1884, and was buried sl 
Treslotfaan on 10 Jan. His wife, who vm 
bom at Troon, Camborne, 24 Nov. 1821, ttiB 
sunivesv A son, John Alfred Harris, boHL 
at Plymouth 17 Feb. I8ti0, a wood engraTOM 
working in a recumbent position owuuf to 
a »pinal affection, illunrated many M^hls 
father's writings and other works, 

Boatdes the works named Harris wrote i 

*The Land's End and other Poems,* 18591 

I ' The Mountain Propbetf' 1860; * A Story at 

Cam Brea.'ld63; 'Shakspeire's Shrine,' 186«j 

I ' Luda. a Lay of the Druids," 1868; • Bulol 

i Reuben Ro5s,^&c., 1871 ; • Wayside PicturraB 

I 1874; 'Walks with the Wild Flowere,'187St 

•Tales and other Poems,' 1877; 'The Tw 

O iant*,' 1 878 ; ' Monro,' 1879 ; and ' My Aute 

biography,* 188d. He alw wrote twenty-fou 

tracts entitled * Peace Pages for the Peoo' 

contributed to ' Tlie Band of Hope/ '!«- 

, Family Friend.'and other periodicals, or for 

I the Leominster Tract Association and the 

I Religious Tract Society. 

[John Hftrris. the Coniikh Poet, by hts Boa. 
John Howard Harria, ISSi ; My Autobiugtaphj, 
by John HarriR, 188'J, with purtnut; Boaie and 
Courtney*8 Bibliotheca Comubiensis, pp. 20fi-9, 
1217-18; Boa8«'s CoUsctaooa ConiabieMia. p. 
a2»-I 0. C. B. 

Ddu oLANTiwT)(1802-1823),aut,hor, only- 
son of the RcT. Joseph Harris (Oomer)rq.r.M 
was bom at Swantvea 20 Oec. 1 802. Wheaf 
nine years old his delight was to be at tfai 
compositor's frame, and when thirteen hL, 
father, finding Mm more inclined to the-1 
frame than to study, took him to the print-J 
ing (illice, and for tte next four years he didf 
all the compositor's work, which includ«dl 
in IH18 and (KIM the printing of hJR father's! 
newspaper, the * Seren (lomer,' and other! 
works uf importance. After this he returned I 
to his books, and studied Latin, Greek, He-l 
brew, German, French, and Italian. The' 
progress, however, was effected at the expem._ 
of his health, which had never been strong. 
His first literary effort, made when he was 
between eleven and twelve, was 'Cyraorth i 
Chwertbin'('Aids to Laughter*), and it passed 

bmugh twoiKlitinus. Ilts coiitrtbiitloim tn 
, di.mer' fnno IRlK (ill 1833 whtp nu- 
I nnd jlrikinp. They appt^oKcl nnony- 
jr, fmbniC'*<l a ffrt'iii %arieiy'^raubjectf», 
WWII flrr.'«t<'«l crtHfiiderabie ottf^iition. 
IHUt Hr. \V. 0. Puf^lip $ont him, in oon- 
'" lim nf thoir merits, n copy of his'Coll 
I," fUe Welsh trani»latiiin ftf Milton's 
li*A I .fMt ,' lon^ ]iaiit3d^0!! of which Harris 
■inittMl to memory. ITiis probnbly in- 
Hiir*d him Iiit^r on to undertnke the tmna- 
Ution of thi«* l*iimdiw Itt'irnlntKl,' spwimen* 
of which Bpp<'nr«l intbe*L'nmbn>Itnlou'iitiJ 
met with jrr»?iit flj'iiroval, In l^"il he carried 
on a warm conlruvfrsy in the 'Cambrian' 
Cjntfniinc the ^\'l^lfth laiitfua^e, which he 
jtaAAinnAtcl T loved, and thi* bronpht him cor- 
rictpondoncc from many men of lotters. Hv 
jTTotc two of X\ie hymns in his father's hymn- 
ink, and oneof thiem continues popnliir. An 
licle of his apwared in the * Monthly Ma- 
in«' on the XVel^h eoundg *ch ' and * II.' 
lis lart published work was 'Grisinti Cordd 
t,'aij^iiidt»to therpftdingof mnsic. Two 
^•ditions wert* spe^-dilyaold. At the time 
pdealh he had a Welih and Knj^ljsh dic- 
' on a huge Kale in preparnrion, ami 
eomtt pmpress with Iiis 'Oeirlyfr 
ol,' a kind of rhyming dictionary. 
I of consumption 4 l>t*c. 1823, wbua 
ly twenty-one. 
Tbe memoir (,' Cofiant leuan Ddn') by hia 
Atber if one of the moet touching tilings in 
fbe Welsh language. 

[Jooaa'a OetrUdar FTwgraffydilol, i. ^ItiSA 

11 J. J. 

HARRIS. JOSEPH (P) (Ji. 1661-1681), 
tor, waa a member of the company of Sir 
tlLtam l>'Arenantat Lim-nln'R Inn FieUU. 
one uf four actorfi sworn in to fier\'e 
of York. Until late in ihefoUow- 
itury he is only mentioned as Mr. 
iiTri*. To a confusion with an inferior actor, 
JoMph Uarris {J. 1681-1609) [q. v.l is pro- 
habty dan the oacription to him of the name 
_of Joamh. 

Harna'a flnt tveorded part was A tphonso in 
k^'AwiaBta 'Siego of Rhoiles,' in which ho 
1 in lOtH. In I tie cotir«)^nf tlu'same 
B, 1 1 Au;r., he wa."i t he original Younger 
inn in the ' Wita," Tnininn Junior in 
i^oller of Culemftn Street,' Horatio in 
let/ and (be original Count Prosper© 
Itcnant'* * I-ovc and Honour.' Ilarria 
'till* thrr* actors to whom, on the 
I of ' I^ve and Honour,' the king, 
Tof York, and the Karl of Oxfonl 
■lifS Uiair coronation suits. On 1 March 
lOflV fca i^ared KomAO to the Juliet of Mrs. 
SsaaderMm and iba Metentio of Detterton ; 

and on 20 Oct. wr8 the original BL'Hupres In 
the* Villain ' of Thouina Porter. A lull list. 
of the characters in which he \& known to 
have played is given in Oenesl (i. IWB-O). 
From this he appears to have been an actor 
of singularly varied powers, and equally at 
home in tragedy and comedy. Among hia 
rfllea were Sir Andrew Agucchoek, Duko 
Ferdinand in the ' Duchess of Malfi,' Car- 
dinal WoMey. and MaediilF. A list of ori- 
ginDlchnrncters almost ns long and ne varied 
as thai of Hniterl on stands oiip*>si()' his name. 
It inclu(lf!M, Ht Liiieoln'Mlnn ^ields, Don An- 
tonio in the 'Adventures of Five Hours,' 
adapted by Sir Samuel Tukc from Calderon, 
Jonuary ftttfS; King Henry in Lord Orrerv's 
'Henry A",* 13 Aug. 1601; Sir Frederick 
Frolic in Ktherege's ' Love in a Tub;' ThecH 
cles in the 'Rivals,' D'Avenant's alteration 
of* Two Noble Kinsmen ; ' AVamer in Drv- 
den'e ' Sir Martin ^farr-oll;' Sir Joslin Jolly 
in Ktherege's *Slie would if she could,' 
It Feb. Um8; l>on John in D'Avenant's 
' Mail's the Master.' 2t! Slarch ltttI8. In this 
piece Harris and Sandford. as two ballad- 
iiingers, song the epilogue. In 1*571 the com- 
pany removed to I^orset Gordcn, of which 
Lady I)'.\vcnant (through her son Charles), 
Betterton, and Harris wen- managers. At 
this houiH' Harris was the original Ferdi- 
nand in Crowne*» * Charlea \'III, or llie In- 
vasion of Naples/ Thernmenes in Otway'a 
' Alcibindes,' 5Ie<lley in Ktherege's 'Man of 
the Mode/ Di>n John of Austria in Otway'a 
•Don Carlos Prince of Smin/ Valentine in 
Otway'fl 'Friendship in T'nshion* (licensed 
31 May 1678), &c. He appears for the last 
timein]681 asCardinul HeuufortinCrowne'a 
adai)iHtion of ' King Henrv VI.' In playing 
' Th'- Man'.^ the Master,' flarris, using a foil 
without a buliou, hit Cudeman near theeye, 
disabling him from acting ever after. 

Davie*, whose information i.s deriveil from 
Dov^'nea, eulogises his powers. He was in 
aome parts held the eqnal of Betterton. Pepya 
ane&ka, 22 July 1dB3, of Harris leaving 
D'Avenant in consequence of being refuseu 
'!20/. for himself extraordinary more than 
Betterton or anybody else, upon every new 
play, and 10/. upon every revive/ The king, 
at tlie interee^wirin of D',\veniint, forbade the 
engagement of Harris at the Theatre Hoyal, 
IVpy« savs that Harris had become very proud 
of late, having been generally preferred to 
Betterton as 'a more avery man, as he is In- 
deed/ On lU l*ec. llarrii* i« said to have 
come back to his duties. On 24 Jan. 1666-7 
Harris visited Pepys, who found him 'a very 
curious and understanding person in all pic- 
tures and other things, and a man of fine 
conversation/ Ftipya admitted him to coa- 




Btderable intimacy, askoU him to dmnrr, and 
to Ijriiifr with liim t>had\vel! the poet, and n^ 
|ireseii I ed li i in &v associated with young blades 
la ' hU tha roguish (? ) |htnf!« of the world/ 
30 May l*Mi«. A portmit nf Wiirris in his 
habit orilcnryV,' mighty like a player' but 
only 'proltv wt*U' in other rei>])ect*. waa exe- 
cut4?d by itnylB. and was seen by Pepys on 
fi Aug, HiiW. An engraving of Ilarns, exe- 
ciitrd by Harding from an original picture iu 
the colif cf ion of the Earl of Orford at Stniw- 
berry Hill, is given in Waldron'* *Shuke- 
8pf,>arean Miscellany/ 1802, with a biography 
of Uarriit compiled from Downea. 

IPcpys in hiH Dliry and Domos in tho Ro«- 
cia-i Anglieamis mipplytho information conoeru- 
injr fTairis which 15 embodied in anbawjuent com- 

E'LatioDB. Gcnest'tiAccuutitDf thoSiaire, Darim'a 
raaiatic Mi»i?elUnieA, and olhor wrka citoii 
nay bu cunsulted. A Mrriter in iho Dramatic 
EMainiKinw. 1829-30. ii. 3i>3-tf, misled by tho ro- 
'•Mnblnnco of nnmo, carries information concern- 
ing thia Harris to 171^0.] J. K. 

HARRIS, JOSEPH f./?. 1661 169D), 
actor and dramalii^t, joined tho king's com- 
pany of players at the Theatre Hoynl. He 
and three otht^rsare said by IJowues ( i?o*ci*ii« 
AnffliazntiA, n. 2) to have been bred up from 
lx>ys under tJio miwter aetnrs. Tho'Uiatory 
of tho Stage,* aiwribed to Retlertoii, says 
'Mr. Harris was bred a seal-cutler.' words 
which suggest anear relationshij» with Henry 
Harris (d. 1704 P) [q. v.]. chief engraver to 
the mint. So late as HiftO Harris plaved 
Colonel Downright in 'Widow Ranter/by 
Aln). Behn. He obtaininl little reputattoti 
in hia profession, and on I lie acce^ion of 
Queen Anno was appointed engraver to the 
mint. fJiles Jacob saya by the nasiatance 
of his frienda he arri\'ed at being an author 
(Lic^M and Chai'OfUr*, t. 1 2ft), and assigns 
him two plays: 1. *The Mistakes, or the 
Fal«el5oport,'atragi-coraedy,4to, 1691, acted 
at the Theatre Uoyal in 1690 by a com- 
pany including Mountfort and Mrs. Brace- 
girdle. This i-*i a poor piece as ru^Hrdji plot 
and Itttiguage, which according to Jacob wob 
compoaed by another person and cousigned 
to Harria, who spoiled it. 2. ' The City 
Bride, or the Meny Cuckold,' 4to, ItidG. 
This comedy, taken without acknowledgment 
from Wobator'a ' Cure for a Cuckold,' failed 
on the first representation. To these workfl 
the * Biographia Dramatica' adds (3) 'Love's 
aLotteryand aWomanthe Prize,'4to, 1699» 
to which is annexed (4) a masque, 'Love and 
Riches Reconcil'd,' both performed in 160i) 
at Lincoln's Inn FipUIj'. The plot of the 
former, according to (ienest (ii. I < H, is ' im- 
probable, but some parts of the dialogue are 

not 1)ad.' The masque ia uomentloned in] 

[Workw citwl ; Doraa'sAnnalaof tho Koglish ^ 
Stage, cd. Lowe.] J. K. 

HARRIS, JO.SEPH (1702- 1 764), assay] 
ma:»tor of the mint, eldeal Kon of Howel and I 
Susanna Harris of Treveccji iu the pariah nf* 
Tal^rth in Breconshire, wos born in 1702. 
He IS 6aid to have been originally a working 
blacksmith at his native place, but to have 
removed at an early age lo London, where he 
B'lon made his mark a» a writer on scientitio 
subjects. He wiw the autliur of several papers 
relating to a.<irron(>my and magnetic obeervo- 
lions in tfn- 'Philr>!M.i()lncal TranMCtions' be- 
tween 1728 and 1740. His other worka 
appear lo have bct-n iniblisthed anonymouslv, 
except that on ' f>ptics,' whieh appeared in 
1775 niter his death, and was intended to form 
part of an exhnustive treatise. Hia tyisay on 
monfv {\7i'A\) and coioa is still raluable. 
MacCuUoi'h calls it * one of the best works 
ever published on the subject.' In 'Murray's 
Mag-txine' for May lHtf7 it is describtid as'u 
careful and singularly advanced essay, which 
pr<»vcit him to have been a rigid niouometaUtst, 
as it contains the expression of an opiuton 
that only one metal can be money, a standard 
measure of property and commerce in any 
country.' This essay is also spt^cially re- 
ferred lo by Lnrd Liverpool in his celebrated 
letter to George III, dated 7 May lt?05, upoa 
the advantap,^s of gold as the single measure 
of value. Harris probably held some sub- 
ordinate post in the mint before his appoint- 
ment 08 assay master in 174>i. He died in 
tho Tower of London on 26 Sept. 1764, and 
was buried there. On his monument in Tal- 
garth Church it is said that 'he invented 
many mathematical instruments,' and that 
his political talents were well known to the 
ministers of the day, to whom he freely oom- 
municatwimany 'wise and learned ideas.* Ho 
married one of the daughters and heiresses 
of Thomaa Jones of Tredut^tan. Harris was 
niyi, as has been said, warden of the mint or 
fellow of the Koyal Society. 

Harris's works arc: 1. 'A Treatise on Na- 
vigation, containing the Theory of Navigation 
demonstrated, Naut ical Problems, Astrono- 
mical Problems, Practical Navigation^ To 
which is prefixed a treatise of Plane Trigono- 
metry,' London, 1730, 4to. 2. 'The Descrip- 
tion and Uses of the Celestial and Terrestrial 
Globe and llie Orrerv,' a revistvl edition of 
a work of John Harns's (1067-1710) [q. v.J, 
3rd ed, London, 17S4; 7tli, London, 1757 -e; 
9th, London, 17()3; lOth.Iiondou, 17(W,8vo. 
3. ' An l£ssaT on Money and Coins,' 2 pts., 
1756,8TO,1768,8ro. 4. 'A Treatiseof Optics/ 





DQtoining^ elemenu of tliu scienoe in two 
iitks, London^ 177a. 

Harris's second brother, Thomas Hakris 

(17<VJ-17l*2), settled lu London us a inilur, 

btaiiLei] cnutracts fur sujiidyinff the artny 

rtth clothini;, and nmA><.<etl n eoriAider- 

ble fortune, with which he retired tn hi« 

ftlivv country and purchased the estates of 

^-gunter, Trevecca, Ac. He wan sheriff' of 

eonshire in 176H, uud died 23 Sept. 1782. 

pe*l 77- Howel Harris [n. v.], the Welsh 

iTinistic divine, was another brother. 

[Williams's Kniincut Welshmiiit ; Tho Qtieen'ii 

|b»7 Maat«r in Marmj'fr >Uff. for ^(^ly 1887, 

Professor C. Rolwrts-Aastcn ; Jiinej.ii liiut. 

r Brpoonahire ; Poole'* Hbt. of Breconnhiiv ; lettur 

cm Itcotor of Talgarth.] R. J. J. 

HARRIS, JOSEPH (d. IHU), organist 

ad miiftical cipmpo-itT, whose parents rmided 

Binninf^ham, marriciilatorl at Magdalen 

[JoUegv, Oxford, 1« Mtinrh 1773. He waa 

»t of St. Martin's Church, Birining- 

ii787, ond died at Liveqjool in 1H14. 

compositiona include: (fp. I. 

, armnged for solo voice with ac- 

oents of n (Jtring- qiiart*;t and liorna; 

p. -. Six harpsirliord quarlt^t?* and a quLn- 

Op. ;i. TweivB KongB for solo voice, and 

!ir>'ing ucrompaniments of pianoforte and 

ring and wtud iiutruinentj. Handel's in- 

DCfl is very apparent in Harrui's compoai- 


[Diet, of Muaidiiiia, 1827. p. 832 ; Fostor'tf 
Uamai Ox*^v. ii. 613 ; Baoiv's Biittory of Old 
Bt.3fjutin'-, Btrminghani.p.fiO; Harriet Sonsa.] 

IftJS). author, bom at Llan-tv-ddewi, St. 
Dotfmell-*, Pf mbpikeshire, in 1 < 73, was tlie 
eldef^l snn'if Willinm Harriif, a fiuiall farmer, 
who could only nfford him an education at the 
ronunon ircho>)U of the district. He was an 
L.indiLntnoui istudcnt from the first. Like bis 
killer, who had left the establishment t^) 
t the bapti<-t church in the neighbourhood, 
►hwMu biiptiit, Hebecamechurchmem- 
P3it Llang^l'jtuLU to 1 71f3,and in 1705 wais in- 
itc«l to preach. In 1M(XI he was ordained at 
Buglotfan, itnd in the following year under- 
ok the pajioml oversight of the baptist 
"Ch at Swanst^a. In order to improve bia 
pledger of Kngltah he attended the Baptilt 
^,lth»tot, out after four months w«a 
to leave by want of funda. Br 
ereranee he at Uat bcGome an able 
ID Engliahf and he continut^d his 
_»t« at Swansea in the enjoyment of 
; popularity and reapect until Jiitt death, 
lO Aag. 183''>. He nerer recovered &om the 
ibodc of the death of bii onlv ion, John Ry- 
lad Hum [q. r.l, in 1823. ' 

Ilarrin waa azeoloua cultivator of WeUli 
literuture.aud in August iHlo wom preAenlml 
by the I<ondon 'Owyiioddi^fion'Socicly with 
a medal for his services in that diruction. 
ilia publications are: 1, 'Vchydigo bymiuu 
newyddion t»r atriryw fesiiruu. At !« rai y 
ehwunegwyd. Can, n Oyngor i leiiengclid,' 
CVrfvnldiu, 17Wt, l*,*mo ; a selerliiin of 
WeUh hymns ; thiH was I he l»aais of « Iwok 
which continued till rodcntly the ehirf hymn- 
book of t!ie denomination, pax-ting thrtniffh 
very nnraero\i8 edition*, i. ' Yr Aiigliyrt'i'lyh 
BroH'eswT yn nghanohldydd ei lJdy»gleirdi*li,' 
1H02, partly tranalulrd from the I^nglish. 
H. 'BwyeJl Crit^tyn NghoiMl Anghrint,' lW>4, 
bluing a rpidy to a work puhlishi'd the wrnio 
year by tiie \lfv. Jtwiah lit-ps (uTiitnrlnn), 
Gellioncn, chief promoter of 1 he curliest Wi'lhh 
magazine (1770). 4. A U'ork on Uptism 
(English), iwe. fi. 'Pechod Aiifnddeuol,* 
a sermon on tho unpardonnhle »iin, 1>}]2, 
0. Un Saturday. 1 Jan. IMU, nppcarc<l the 
first number of *Seron Corner, tho first 
newspaper published in the Welsh lan- 
guage. Harris was editor, and it coutinm-d. 
to be publiflhi-d wet-kly until 9 .Stipt. 1810, 
when eighty-live numbers had uppi.-ared. At 
first it received ext('n»ive patronage, which 
gruduolly dueling], and it was then discon- 
tinued (or want of autlicient support, tho 
prophctorB, six in number, auBtaioiug a Ion 
of 1,000/. 7. 'The Proper Deity of Our 
Lord JesiiA airist.'in Engtiah, 1B16. 8. The 
tame in Welah^ 1817. 'Hiis work met with 
great approbation from all the popular de- 
nominations, and irren from Biihop BnrgeH. 
9- In January 1H17 he started a new maga- 
zine, 'Grt-al y Bedyddwyr' (Baptist ), but 
the second numbt<r nm-er apjiearcd. lO. In 
January 181S * Sereu HomtT* ap|iean>d as 
a monthly magazine. This ha« continued 
to appear almo»t without intermission tn the 
present day. 11. ' CJofiont leuan I>du,' being 
a memoir of his son, \H'2'i. 12. An edition 
of the Bible in both WeUh and English, with 
brief mai^inal notes, und*-r the title ' Y Bihl ' 
dwyieithog . . , gyda darlleniadau a chyfei- 
riatlau yniylenol hMlaethc\*t!enwedig . . . no- 
diadau e^uirhnnl,* Swansea, 182^, SlC, 4to. 
13. His complete works ^' Oweithiau Aw- 
durrd *), with memoir by his son-in-law, the 
Kcv. D. Rhys Stejihen, 1839, 

[Steplusn's 3Icmoir ; Jooss'a Goiriador Bjv> 
graffydJol; Williams's Eminent Welshmi«n: Art, 
FeriudiciLl Literature of WaIos, in Cardiff £i»- 
tedilfod Traauctiook, 1»83.1 B. J. J. 

HARRIS, JOSEPH JOHN (17fl0-iefl9), ' 
musician, was bom in London in 1799. For 
fteven years be was in the choir of the CTha^l 
, IloTal,St.James'8,tinderJohnSt«fibrdSmith| 

' c2 




and in 1823 was apiwinted orcanist of St. 

^Ol&va'a Ckurcli, Sout liwark. 1 le Leld a similnr 
poeir.toaat Ulackbiini, Laiic^aaliiro, from Ifi'JS 
to 18^1, when he became sing^ing-mrutor and 
aaaiatant orcanl^t at the Manchc^ttT ('otk>- 
giate Church, now cathedral. In 1818 be 
Biioeeeded William Sudtow ns orq-anist and 
ohoimuuter of the cathedral, lie was for 
many years connected a.4 dtroctor with tbf^ 
QentlemenV QI»«e Club and other nocietien tii 
Manchester. Htf published : 1. 'A Selection 
ofPwilmaudnymnTnnes/Siuthwark, I8:i7. 
2. 'Thf CatlicdralDftily Service,' Manchester, 
1844, l*Jmo. 3. 'The Musiciil Expression; 
a Guide for Parents,' &c., 1846, 8vo. Ilcpuln 
Jisbed oUo two anthems and some other 00m- 

l^poaltions, and four of hia glees were printed 

* aft«r his death. Sis chants and three arraupe- 
meut« fur res|>an^T<es to the comtnAndmeiit'^ 
are included in JouIh*)* • C'dlertioii nf Chant.s.' 
He wrott' fiomii giKHl ' (.'athedmr KCrvifos 
vhich liav-Q not been published. He died of 

beongestion of the lungs at Mancheater on 

UO Feb. 1869. 

Joseph Tiioksb IIvrkis (1828-1869). liia 
Bon, bom at Row, hondnn, 1H2B, died at 
Brougbton, Manchpster, 18^^, waea musician 
of groat talent and accomplifiJimHnta. Me 
was a brilliant pianit<t and a prolific writ«r 
of musical coiupoaitions, a few of which haro 
been printed. 

[Manchostor Connor. 12 Fpb. 1869; Orovo'e 
Bicrt.of Miwic,i. 601 ; UrowTi's Dict.of Masioians, 
1886, p. 303 ; information sappliod liv Mr. B. St. 
J. B. Joule] "C. W. S. 

(1780-1860"), musician, born in London 
(Bbown) in 1789, was a chorister at West- 
minster Abbey, and afterwards studied under 
r^bert Cooke [q. v.] HftTri.-* juibli.'fUi'd a 
number of songs, some dueta and trios, glees, 
and pianofort^^ music; arranged Burgoyne's 
*C<ill«ction of Psalms' (2 vola. 4to, 1827) f 
taught music ; and conducted at minor con- 
certs. II© died in May l8fi(). 

[Brown'fi BioB. Diet, of Musiclims, p. 303 ; 
GroTo"» Dii:t. of Music, i. 592.] U M. M. 

HARRIS, MaSES (/. l-fi<i-178n). ento- 
mologist and engraver, is said to have been 
born in 1731. From his uncle, Moses Harris, 
a member of an old-twlabllshed Aurelian so- 
ciety, he derived bis first instruction in the 
science to which from childhood he was 
strongly attached. He afterwards became 
secretary to a new Aurelian society. His 
circumstancea appear to hare Vieen compara- 
tively easy, though be had n-ason to com- 
plain" of loMea occasioned by the 'unsteady 
and falhiciotis Behaviour of a Person too 
nearly connected in my Concems' {Introduc' 

/iV/i to the Aurelian). Though without rancl 
knowledge, he was an acute and industrious 
observer, and a good entomological artist. 
For twenty years be engaged as a labour of 
love in drawing, engTarintf, and colouring 
insi>rt.«, ohit'fly moths and butterflies, wblca 
he nublishod under the title of * The Aurelian, 
orNaturalHiston,'of English Insects, namely 
Moths and ButU'rfties, together with the 
Plants on which they feed,' fol. London, 1700, 
fortv-ftveplat»!8,with descriptive t^-xt. Four 
additional plates, with table of terms, index, 
and ilesignations of Linnteus. were after- 
wards puolished separately. The book waa 
reissued in 177H, 1704, and In 1$4U under 
the editorship of J. t_>. W^eslwood. The in- 
sects were all drawn by Harris from the life, 
the engraviiag was hu first attempt, and the 
colouring is very briUinut. The descriptions 
are both accurate and perspicuous. In the 
frontispiece the author gives a portrait of 
himself arrayed in full insei't-huntiug cos- 
tume, and reposing on a bank with a large 
chipboxof butterlues in his hand. Ilea1\cr- 
warda published: l.'An Essay precedeing 
[tic] a Supplement to the Aurelian, wherein 
are considered the Tendons and Membnines 
of tho Wings of Butterflies. . . - Illuslnited 
with copper-plates' (in Enelish and French), 
4to, London (1767). 2. *Tlie Kntflish Lopi- 
d(iptera,or the Auadian's Pocket Companion, 
containing a Catalogue of upward of four 
hundred Moths and Butterflies,'8vn, London, 
1 77o. .'i. * An Exposition of English Insects* 
(in English and French), 4to, London, 1776. 
Copies were issued with new title-paffos, 
dated 1781, 1782, 178a, and 178<I. 4. * Na- 
tural System of Colours' (edited by 1^iomn« 
Martyn), 4to, London^ 1811. Sir Joshua 
lleynoliis accepted the de<lir-alion of the edi- 
tion of this work, publitikeil apjiarently in the 
author's lifetime. Soma disooyeries acchbed 
to zoologistsof the present eenttuy were anti- 
cipated by Harris (cf. art. 'Aurelian' in Re- 
trogpeottpe Review, 2nd ser. 1. 230~4A ). Besii^ 
tho above works, the plates of which were 
all drawn, etched, and coloured by himself, 
he executed in like manner most of those in 
the three volume* of Uni Dniry's ' Uhmtra.- 
tionsof Xaturnl History* (exotic in»ects),4to, 
1770-82, a book which owes its chief value 
to tho excellence of its illustrations. He 
likewise contributed some trirting drawings 
to the ' Catalogue ' of Andrew Peter Dupont a 
collection of natural curiosities, now m tho 
British Museum (Addit. MSS. 18904-10). 
From a letter of Dm Drury to Harris, dated 
5 April 1770, it appears that the latter waa 
then T«siding some distance from London, 
^-ns married, and had a son (memoir of Drury 
in JiBDiKE's Naturalisfs IM/raryt 1813, 







. 47-9). Tlioma<t Xartyn, tn hjs prefiice to 
__lie new edition of Hairisa ' NBtiirul System 
of Coloim,' l^IIf spe&ka of him lui being 
*s«arljr ttiirtr veors deceased;* but accord- 
iag to Grave* s ' r>ict ionar*- of A r1 ist»,* p. 108, 
he had exhibited a fnuni.> of Hng-Usb inaecU 
, lh« Boja] Academy in ITt^. 
[Jai«I>»«*a 5attira]irt'« Library. 1843. L ^,5S. 
(Memoir of Dm Umry); RedgimTD'a Diet, of 
tifu. 1878, p. 199; Lovtulet's BibL Manaal 
bn), ii. 1003; Notes xod Qaertes. 3nl mt. 
T. 4SS ; BroBoIflj's Cat. of Engrared PortmitK, 
p. 3M.) G. O. 

HARRIS, PAUL ( I573-I&V*.' 1, catholic 
divine, although often aMumed to be an Irtah' 
maiif distinctly atatea that he was a natireof 
Esj^aad (*AfMcroftairTij, p. 119). Be hecame 
a aecolarprieft of the Roman catholic church, 
and liTea fbr many year? in Dublin, where he 
iraarectorof a feminairforboTff. Heennged 
inBeveral acrimonious disputt-s with iberrvn- 
cucanik It was&lleiired that Thomas Mfminj; 
[q. r.], archbidhop of DabUn, hime>^[f a Fran- 
r^fTT", had formed the design of dixplacing^ 
the secular pnesta in order to introduce Fnn- 
Oflcan friars into the parishes of his diocese. 
The seculars rehtfrnently oppoaedthe scheme, 
and Harris^ hein^ more actire than the rest, 
and a man of great spirit, incurred the ccn- 
Lireofexcommunication from the archbubop, 
lio i^vrntrmlty procured an order from Rome 
his bani&bment oat of the dioceae of 
[lUia. The date of hia death la unknown, 
^ _r he sars that h(> was sixty yeare old when 
e publij(iie<l hi* 'A^mi»uiaxi{ In lt>33. 
Hia works, all of which were probably 
in Dublin, are : 1. A hecA agaiut 
Uidier^s lennon praacfaed at 
ItiefoRJamesL 2. 'The Eieoamu- ; 
a iKihUshed by the L. AicUisfaop of j 
i Tbcmas Flemminfr, aliaa Biniiral, 
roc tho Order of S. Fnaoa, against the I 
ata of the Dtooeae of DabUn, for i 
the MaMea of Peter CaddeU, d. of 

r, and Paul Harria, Prieata,ia proved I 

; only unjuit. but of do Validity, and 000* 
vently binding to 00 obedisBOe. la which 
Treatise is diseoTered rhat tmpkms plot . . . 
cf the aJbrcMid Archbishop and hie Friars in 
atlng the Paston and Prierta of the 
f, therebr to briof^ all into the hands 
Friars,'' U;3'J, 4to, pp. 113; 2aA edit. 1 
3. ^*A^«rii;ui4rTt^,6iTeEdaieadas(rrsii- | 
ipropter uMirpatum Jodicaaa de Iribo- 
"^ tna, et prr»t*TlibeUiiai hmom$m in 1 
. Tocatoa,' \ts.&. 4to, pp. ISO. This 
is a reply to Fcmnds MatiheivSf a friar, who 
in 1631, under tbcpsendr»ay» of Frla— ijas 1 
I'rsulanos. pabUahed * Ffen JaiAaH I 
Ceiuurs Facnltatsi Thsinlngif Bsriisiniia, 
et qntdam Cmtaxia 

. quasdam nropoflitiones Rcgulnribus Regni 
UlbemiefalsoimposltaA.' '.^/icrrifuum^ means 
a scourge for the bear, and has rpfnrence to 
the pecudonym I'rsuUnas. 4. ' Fratrea 
sobrii estote,'l Pet. 5, 8. Or an Admonition 
to the Fryars of thia kingdomc of Ireland to 
abandon such hereticall doctrines as they 
daylie publish,* 1634. 4to. 5. * Exile eiilod. 
Occasioned bv a Mandat from Rome procured 
by Thomas ftemminc, alias Barnwdl. arch- 
bish^ of Dublin, and friar of the Order of 
St. Francis, from the congreeation of the 
cardinalls de propaipuidi fide, for the banish- 
ment of Paul Harris out of the dioceaae of 
Dublin,' 1635, 4to. 

[Bnraefi Lifa of Bp. Bedell, 1903. p. 71; 
KM. OreoriUiADa; ShirUy** CWt.orUieQbru7 
Ht ly^ugh 131; Cat. I^broram Impress. 
in Bil.L ColL Trio. DabL tr. 70; Ware's Writers 
oflrdaad (Harris), pp. 119, 33S] T.a 

HARRIS, RENATIS or ntSt, tbe 
t-Ider ( lfi4<i --1 715 :■■), organ-builder, accrwd- 
ing to iJuraey cam« from France with his 
father about I tVlO. Tfusmas Ilarns. his grand- 
fiither, howerer, was known in England as 
an organ-builder apparently at an earlier 
date, and built an organ fur Jiagdalen Col- 
lege Chapel, OxfimL A Tbona* Harris of 
New 8«ram. vosaibly the father of ttenatos, 
amed to build ao omo for Woteeater 0»- 
tbedrai, 5 Joly 1880. Oa tha death of Babh 
iHllam in A ofoat or September 1073 (seefiU 
will in tbe Kefisten of the Archdeaconry of 
London), R eo atm , whoae father died at about 
tbe saae time, fawid Us oolr imortani riral 
in'Father$miih'(Befiihai&Schmtdt>. The 
awnpetition between tlwae t woorgan-bnildera 
ctilininaled in the ftnoos eontest over the 
TesBpleCbmcfa organ in lOBAfcC Ru(BAin,r, 
Si0toryo/tkf Orytn,^A05: MkcaosT,Fem 
XoteM on the T^mpUOr^an ). After May 1684 
Scnith and IlarrLt both erected orgaoain tha 
Temple cfanrch.andeschibitadthrKoodpointa 
of their instruments. Blow and Puivenper* 
foftnay upon Smith's orpan, and I>nighiopaii 
UarrWs. The oooleat bated a yt^r. New 
reed slope were added at intcrrai^ and each 
botlder ehaUesged his rival to make fozther 
impsosem eta. In this way the m-r k^ 
mama, cnaant, and doable baasoon Mom 
wer* heard for the fiat lime by the pohtte; 
The AsMe waa al Inwtb decided m umn 
of Smith's oegaa, the outer, br IUm«. beio^ 
adjodeed 'diseemaldT low and weak ' for 1^ 
chaich. Harria saflemd no lorn of pr«s«ife 
bylUaddlnt. * Now began the setting op of 
erj^aa in the chieAivt parisfcca of the city of 
Lmdon,* wrote Todway (see Flawuw, ijc, 
amV'vhoi for the mam MA Oarrie had 
tbe adfaMaf* of F. Smith, Mfcmg, I b»- 



Harris ' 

lieve, two to h'la one.' HarrisV worknmnsUip 
ynus superior to Smith's, but it may be id- 
ferredfrom tht- decision at the Temple that the \ 
tone of hie orcans was le&s powerful or poorer 
inqunlity. ITarrigalstoftliftwd court patronage 
with hiBrival.andsnpplietitheprivate chapels 
of James 11 with orffans (Moneys received and 
paid/or Secret SeritceJi, t'aroden Soc., pp. 144, 
109,180,196). Certain advertii«enienl«in the 
'Post Boy/ 12 and 30 April 1698, point to 
the continu**d rivalrj' belwet^n th** two mas- 
ters. Hertf Harris announces the demoustra^ 
tion nt his hou.'»e, Wine Uffice Court. Fleet 
Street, of the 'division of half a note into 
fifty gTftJiml and distiijfjuijihable part.s, and' 
(tlusexperiment havingbt-vnsucce*sful)*into 
oni? hundri-d partJ, not mathematically, but 

Surely by theear.' Smith, with others who had 
cclartHl these feats to be impntcticable, wa« 
specially invited to atten<l the tir!»t dii»pliiy. 
'The 8ugge«tion that Harris should build an 
organ for St. Paul's Cttlhe<lnil {.Sitectafor, 
3 Dec. 1712J came to nothing];. In later life 
Harris retired to Bristol and followed his 
business there until his deoth about 1715. 
Rimbanlt {Uistory of the Oiyan, p. 127) 

fives a list of thirtv-nine organ,< built by 
larrifl, in four of which— thocteat Salisbury, 
Gloucester, and Worcester cathedrals, and 
St.Sepolchre's — heassistedhisfather. Harris 
PtippluKl organs to thechurchof St. Sepulchre, 
Snow Hill, HirO: Sr. Jtotolph. .AMgute; St. 
Dunatan, Stepni'v; Si. Nicholas, Xewcastle- 
upon-Tyne, 1(576; All TTallows Barking-, 
Oreftt tower Stre+'t ; Chichester Cathedral, 
1678; Lambeth Old Chureh, 1680; Win- 
chester Cathedral nnd Colle)i:c Cliapel, 1081 ; 
St. Michael, Comhill, 1 6^4 : Bristol CathMral, 
1686; Hereford Cathetlml and Kind's College 
Chapel, Ciimbrid||fe, U>80 ; St. l-awrpnc**, 
Jewry, I *J87 ; St . James's, Piccadilly (intended 
for \^iiitehaU Catholic Chapel, but piven by 
Queen Mary to the church), U187 ; St. Mary, 
Ipewich, and Christ church, Newgate Street, 
1090 (formerly in Whitehall, now at St. Mi- 
chael Boyal); All Hallows, Lombard Street, 
169.5; St. Andrew Undernhnft, 1690; St. Pa- 
tjicVs Cathttdrftl, Dublin, 1697; St. Andrew, 
Holbom (this wiis part of the rejected Temple 
or(ran),1699: St. JohnVChap^^'l.Rcdfonl Row, 
Kd.'?; St. (tiles, Crippb?i,mte,M 704; St. Cle- 
ment, Eastcheap, 1709; Saii.shurvCntbedr&l, 
1710; St. Bride,Flect Street; Kly f^nth.^Klnil; 
Jesu« College, Cambridge (now in A II Suints) ; 
"Wolverhampton Colletjittre Chun'Ii {part of 
Temple organ); Norwich {'athedral (aitri- 
buteu to Harris);' St. John's, Clerlcenwell ; 
Bi<!eford Church, Duvonshire ; Cork Cathe- 
dral (prohiibly finisbL'd by John Harris); St. 
Mary's, Dublin (tliesc nine without date); 
and lastly St, Mary's, AVhitechapel, 1715. 

For the organ in Bristol Cathedral Uarria 
was paid 550/., for that at Hereford 7t.K)/., 
and for that at St. Andrew Cnder^hnft 
1,400/. There is a rare print of the organ 
built for Salisburj* Cathedral in 1710. For 
full particulars of reiwirs, Ac, of the Magda- 
len College. Oxford, organ, see Bloxam's 
' Registers of Magdalen College, Oxford/ U. 
cxxvi et seq., 289, ,*547 et seq. 

Harris had two sons, Joti:( (Jl. 1737) and 
Reuatus (d. 1 727 i'),both orgnn-builders. The 
younger, Renatus. who died enrly, made the 
organ for St. Dionis Backchurch, 1724. John 
had the care of the Mngdalen College organ 
tmtil 17.37; inthcfollon'ingyeftrhe was living 
in Red Lion Street, Holbom, and had apartner 
named Byfield, who married his daughter. 
Harris and Byfield's organs were supplied to 
the churches nf St. Mary, Shrewsbury, 1729 
Grantham, Lincolnshire, 1736; St. Mary. Ha- 
verfordwest, 1737; St. AlUan, "NVood Street, 
17-18; St. Bartholomew Change and Donc-as- 
ter parish church. 1740. At Brislrd they built 
organs for St.Marv'Redclifle,St.ThomBa,and 
St. James; theorirannowiu the church of St. 
Thomas Southover, Lewes, Sussex, was said 
to have been made by them for the Duke of 
Cbandos, and rvmovtnl from Cannons in 1747 


[Bnmev's Hist, of Masic. iii. 437 : llawkins, 
iii. fi02; Hopkins and Hitnhnalt's Hist, of tba 
OrgHD. pp. ltO-38; Blntam's Reg. Magd. Coll. 
Oxford, ii. c.cxxTJ, clxiii. 204, 283, 386 at leg., 
269, 347 01 spq.] L. H. U. 

HARRIS, RICHARD, D.D. {Jl. 1613>, 
theologian, n native of Shropshire, was edu- 
cated at St. John's College, Cambridgp^ 
where bo took the degree of B.A. l/)7&-K», 
nnd acted the cliorocter of the * Nontius* in 
Dr. Legge'p Iragedy of ' Richardui Tertius,' 
which was performed inhiscollege. In loSO 
be was ndniitle<l a fellow of the cdlege. He 
commenced M.A. lit IftSS, proceeded B.D. 
in l-'iW, and was elected one of the college 
preachers. He was admitted a senior fellow 
1 1 Juno I5f>.'t,and was created D.D. in 159.1. 
He became rector of Glestingthorji, Ksaex, 
11 Dec. 1597. and rector of Bradwell-inxta- 
Marc in the same county, 16 Feb. 1612-13. 
Ile probably died coon aftem-ords. 

He wrote ' Concordia Anglicana de pri- 
matu Ecclesifo regio ntlversus Becanum de 
dissidio Auglicano,^ London, 161^,8vo, trans- 
lated under the title of ' The English Con- 
cord, in answer to Becane's English Jarre, 
with Ii reply to Becane's Exomen,' London, 
1614, 4to. * 

[Bilker's Hift. of St. John's Coll. (Msytir), i. 
290.ii,fi06; Cole's A IhenieCantabr; Antiqaarinn 
Communications (Ctimbr. Amiq. Soc.), i. 351 ; 
Newcourt'a Repertorium, ii. 86, 280.] T. C. 






HABBia KOBERT (1581-1658), Dresi- 

|<3ent of Trinity College, Oxford, was bom, 

'inadnrfc timi^and place,* at HroadCampden, 

Gloncwlcrehire, in IMl. The receivwl date 

of his birth, I>j7H, is incon-flrt. Harri* was 

' -whero hia relative Kobert Lyaon was iirin- 
cipaL His parents were poor, with a Urge 
iataily.aiid Uarrisiin order to obtain tiiiiitm 
in philofiophy, tftught (irvek and Hebrew. 
He graduated K.A. on 5 June AGOO, and 
thouG^b originally intended fnr the law de- 
cided to enter tlie churcU. ^Vhe^ in 1001 
.the univentitv wns disaolved on account of 
Kbe pla^e, Harris went home and preached 
r Ills first sermon at Chiiipinjf CampJen. Re- 
/ tuniinp to Oxfonl he studied tb.-tilnp'y forten 
f wars, and graduated B.D. on 5 Mav 1»H4 
\\Otf, rnii: n^/. (Oxf. Hist. S^w.l, U. 'li. ±^0, 
itii. ^20). Before his ordination he seems to 
I ha\-e helped the rector of Chi^ellianinton, near 
[t>xford- In IttU Sir Anthony Coke orTered, 
lliim the livinjf of llauwell, Oxfordshire. 
* Archbishop Bancroft bad other nommcc-s, 
«nd it was not till lUrrta had been examined 
in divinity by Barlow, bishop of Kochwtcr, 
■when *lhey Greekod it till they were both 
run ajrround for want of words, upon wliich 
.they burst into a fit of lnu|^hter,aiul so gave 
tttOTltr/tbat the appointment was confirmed, 
Jlanwell pantonufje now became a favonrile 
TcAort forOxfort! Htiident**. Horriswon fiune 
a« a preaeher at 8t. FnulV.Si. Saviours Soutb- 
warK.andothMrl^indon churches, as well as in 
his own neighUmrbood. He was a stannch 

Euritan and parliainentariau. On 2o April lt}4:i 
e wii*chii!>tn (ine of the puritan divines tit (o 
be consulted by parliament, and on tbt- ocra- 
*ian of a public fast |J5 May ) preached l»efure 
I the House of Commons. After Kdgehill the 
I royalial trtwpersrjuartered at 1 Unwell turned 
I out Hurria and his family, and he wa* 6nally 
' ejected from his living and obliged to flv to 
London (September HU:?). He was tdere 
made one of the asAembly nf divines, and 
nred the living of St. Butolph'i, Bishop^- 
^ In 1644i the committee of Hampshire 
enled him to Petersfield, but before he 
^tild take possesaoo he was ordered to Ox- 
ford (10 Sepc.) as one of the «xdivinej« com- 
miMioned to preach and invade anv pulpit 
tbr^ fjeoaed. Fix>m May MUT to \(i-'r2, and 
iiffBin from 1054 to ICoH, he was visitor to 
the university, and on 4 June ltU7 preached 
at St. Mar>'A his first visitation H-rmon, in 
irhich he defended himself from the charge 
of nluraliftni. On }'J AprU ltU8 the chan- 
cellor, Uird Pembroke, admitted Harris to 
the decree of D.D., and at the same time he 

was made president of Trinity in the placft 
of Ilanniliial Potter [q. v.], whom he had.1 
asaiflted to eject. The living of Oarsingtoii^l 
Oxfordshire, went with thehendahip. Though.! 
advanced in yean he seeme to have conacU] 
entinuifly fulfilhMlall bisduties,lecturingonc9| 
a week at All Souls* College, and preachinff < 
on Sundays at Garsingion. lie governed the 
college well for ten years, but e.Yaeted ex- 
orbitant fines for the renewal of leases. He 
die<i on 1 Dec. 1658, at the age of 77. 
Shortly before, he had written a letter of 
advice to his children, which is published in 
his bickgraphv. lie waj* buried in the college 
cbuiH'l. lUlph liathur»t, a Bucceasor in the 
presidency, is said to have struck two w{ 

* leternam o-debrandus,* out of Harris's* 
topb ( WluUToy, Life of liathurwt, ed. 176l, 
p. 14*1). He was Satirised and caricatured 
nv the royali>-tA as a notorious pluralist, but 
t^re is no proof that he enjoyed all hia liv- 
ings at the same time, and Grey, who calU 
him * a fanatical liero,' acquits him of the 
charge (Obet, Rraminatifm, ii. L*98). In 
V^XH Harris published two letters to vindi- 
cate himself fn>m the slanders of an unknown 
writer (author of a Letter /ram Oj-on.f 
17 April li>4d). lie was liberal to the pos- 
terity of the founder of Trinity (Wiinos, 
Life of /W, 1760, p. 446», was a good 
Hebrew M-hoIar, and was well rerseu in 
church history. Bi»hop Wilkins ( Tract on 
PreacASuff, pp. ^^3-3) deecribea him as one of 
the moHt eminent divines for preaching and 
pnui^tical theologv-. His wife suffered from 
religious mania, lie publisbeil a Ur^ ntim- 
lier of separate M.>rmr>ns (Jiee list in AVood, 
Athena^ ed. Bliss; Oitaio^itra Briti.ih Mu- 
seum and Bodleian). A 'Concio ad Clerum/ 
by him, was printed, with another br Dr. 
I-Vatly, at Utrecht in 16.57, under the title of 

* IVflum Pastorale *tc.' A collected edition 
of his work-t was first publlslutd in 1635, fol. ; 
2nd edit. London, l*Jo4-5, fol. 

[The chief aulhority in a eulogistic life 'of 
that jodtcioosDi vino and accomplished Preach«r, 
liobert Uarrin, D.D., cuUfctrtl I'V u joynt enu- 
coii'se of Bom<* who knew bim w»U,' by a friend. 
WiUiiim Iturtmiii, Harris's kinsman, mini*)ter of 
Trediagton. 1660. f-.I. See also Woods Aihon», 
ed. Blins, iii. 45$- NmI's Puritans, tii. 304, iv. 
189; Brook's Lives of the Poritnos, iii. 30S ; 
Wnlkcrs Suflfrringa of the Clergy, pp. 3, 126-6 ; 
Itl>.^|^y*(l Bist. of BtinburT. pp. 79, 240, &c. ; 
Durromi's VisJtaiiou of Voiroisity of Oxford 
(Camd. Soo.), 654, &6d.] E. T. B. 

HARRIS. ROBERT (ISOO-lg^U^-), cap- 

I lain in the naw, son of James Harris of "Wit- 

I ler&hnui Hnll.kent.and,on the mother's side, 

jfiandsoii of Mr*. Trimmer [q. v.l, waa bom 

I on 9 Jidv 18*jy; Sir "VVilliam ComwolUa 


Harris [q. v.] was liis eldtr brother. Ilobert 
I lorriB entered the mm* iiiJantini'y iM'^fHiid. 
serving almost coiititmously in tlic Meiliter- 
rnnciin, watt a miilt>hipniun of tlic Eurralus 
frigate durinfif the little war with Algiers 
in IWi, and of Iht? Cumhrian at the battle 
of Nitvarino, 'JO <X.*t. 18-7, and wlien she 
was wrwcked at Canibusa on 31 Jon. IH'28. 
Aftvr his njlum to Kii^lnnd earlv in 1H2{> 
he WHS borne on tlie huohs of tin; Royal 
George yacht, durinjr which time he was 
rt-ally scning oo board the Onyx and Paiita- 
Ifxin, lenders, on the coa«t of South America, 
in the Wwt Iiidiej?, nn the coast of Spain 
and Purtiig'al, or in the Channel and on the 
coast of Ireland. Un ^1 May 18^3 he was 
promoted to the rnnlt of lieutenant, ond thi> 
foUowinf^ Deeeniher wav- a|i|H>inte<] to the 
Excellent, then recently eAtahlished as a 
achool of gunnery, at PortNuiouth, under the 
commandiifCaplainThomos Hasting?! 1790- 
1870) [q. v.] From her he was a[i[ioiiited in 
Januar}' 18^6 to be gunnery-lieutenant of the 
Melville with Cripinin Douglns. and, later 
on, with Hichnrd Saunders Dundns [i]. v.], 
undcrwhosecnmniaiidhewrved inChtna,an(l 
Rras Bpt'cially |iroinote*l to the rank of com- 
oanderonBJune 1841 for hiAServicex in the 
!7anton river,nnd particularly at the dipture 
oftlie Hogne fortson liC Feb. 1841. l)uring 
184J, while on lialf-pav, he studied at the 
ItnyalNavulOollfgeut Portsmouth; and from 
ScplemlHT 1S44 Ut May IS-US commanded tlio 
Flying Fiah on the west coast of Africa. In 
March IK48 he was api>ointe<l commander of 
the Ijlanges in the Cbuunel Heet with t'uptaiu 
llenrj* Suiilh, and frutu Iier was ]}romoied 
to the rank of r-Mplain nn H) (Kt. 1H4!). lu 
March IBol he was apiKiinted to iht; IViuoe 
Itegent, also in the t'httnnel fleet, as tliig- 
captain to Commodure William Fansliawe 
bJlartiu, but left her in Mny l^oi'on Martin's 
■being relieved by llear-ndmiml Corr\'. It is 
interesting to trace tlieM; details of his ser- 
vice under such olhcorfi as Hastings, Dunduf), 
and )tartin, as explaining and illustrrtting 
his peculiar (ilnessfor ilu' iippointment which 
lie received in January l(v»4 tci tlip Ilhistriou!', 
I lipn commicflioned as training ship for land«i- 
nien entered into the imvy, acconling ton 
plan of Sir James rjrfiliiim'.'*, nn<l wlio i"nni*e- 
quently iMKami' g'-nersllv known as 'Jemmy 
Graham's novlcet).' In his discharge of this 
new and exceptional dutv Harris displayed 
such ability and resource that when, in 18'"»7, it 
was determUied to give t-tlect to a long-moot e<l 
scheme for improving the elemenlar}' educa- 
tion and tniiniug of yuung ofli<t*rs, the exe- 
cution of ii wa^ entrusti^ to Harris, in the 
first int^tanee on bimrd tlie Illuslrioits, from 
which, on 1 Jun. IHTil), he and the cadets 

were moved to the Britannia, then in Ports- 
mouth harbour, but in November 1861 Best 
to Portlun<l. Harris continued to huld this 
ditlicult and important [tost till tJclober 1802, 
during which tune the system of education 
of naval cadets took form, and was punna- 
nently established on its present basis. He 
had no further employment, and died at 
Southsea, l(t Jan. iMVi'! Harris married in 
184.1 Priscilla Sophin, daughter of Captain 
Penrudd*K"ke of the Fu.»*ilieT guards, and left 
issue a son, llobert Hastings, now a captain 
in the navy, and two daughters. 

[D'liynio'* Nttv. Biog. Diet.; Tim-^s. 17 Jan. 
1R0.'>; Narv list*; informarlon fnmi ("aptArn 
n. II. n«rri*.l J. K. L. 

HARRIS, SAMFEL (I662-1733>, firrt 
professor of modem history at Cambridge, 
was bom on i> Dec. 1682, entered Merchant 
Taylors' School on 11 S5ept, lfi94, and pro- 
ceeded to Peterhnnse, Cambridge, where be 
graduaitwl H.A. 1703, M.A. 1*07, and was 
elected felh»w. He was Craven acholar of 
the university in 1701. In October 17^4 he 
waa admitted first regiiifi profewair of modem 
hi.stori-nt Cumbridge. The professor*hip was 
foundml by George I in the previous May. 
HarrisA inaugnral lecture (in Lnlin) waa 
primed. He died on 21 Dec, 1733 {f?ent. 
Mat}. 1733, p. ft.W). 

Harris was author of a very curioua and 
learni'd commentary on the *>3rd chapter oT 
lMLi:di, which his wi<Iow Mnry issiim nl^^r 
hiH death in 178o (]^)ndon, 4to), and dedi- 
cated to (jueen Caroline. 

I Hubinsoii'n Hcg. Merchant Taylort* SchooU 
i. il33; Cooper's Annals of Cambridgr, ir. 182, 
I8fi.J S. L. L. 

HARRIS, THOMAS {d. 1820). pro- , 

?riet«ir and manager of C-ovent fiartlan 
'heatre, came of a respectable family, and 
was brought up in trade. In tlte autumn of 
17((7,in coimeclion with George Colman th« 
elder[q.v.],Kutherford,and William Powell, 
be pnrchiiRed fmm John beard [o. v.] the- 1 
patent of Covent(5ardpn Thcatn.', wtiich that 
»et4ir had held since tlic d**Jtth of his father^ 
in-law, iJich. The theatre opMied HtSi-pt. 
17(J7, with the * Kehenr.*ul,' in whieli Powell 
spoke an occnsioniil prologue by AVhitehead, . 
conlaining the lines: 

Fur Hrentfonr^ Htats two kings contd oocft . 

In 'Junc behold four kings of Brentford riMt. 

Colmun underttHjk the management; _ 
violent ijuarrel between Harris and Colman 
anwu during the Krst. ju^awn in con.sequence 
of the pretenitions of Mrs. Ijos^ingham, an i 
actress with whom Harris lived. Colman, 






'With vliom Powell )(i(l<*d, barrieailed tbu 

Lheatn:, and Harris, sujijiorUKl by UutUor- 

lie it forcibly opeiL Lc^pil proceed- 

od ft painphlet varfrire [for which see 

Itiur, Gkoiioe] followed. Ud 23 July 

770 ft legal decision of the commiBsionersof 

greflt seal nnndtuted Colmnn a.4 acling 

[iBffer. atibjei't tu tbt* ndvice und ititipee- 

], l>i)t iii>l the cuiitml, (if hi» fvlluWii. 

Powell ni>M)ii^%bilt9 biitldie<l<i Jtilv 1769. On 

weijifimtion, '2*1 May 1774, by Colman of 

, llaniii undertook the duties of 

^manager, which he discharged until 

i death. He wojt accttsed of sacrificing to 

({kectacle the best iuterestsof the drama. Jle 

FbehAved liberally to actorx, howerer, and 

tmaintained a good reputation and Mime per- 

|#(inal populnrity. A daughter died in iHlfi, 

T.Sgf'd 15, and a son, (icorge, lived to l>e a ca^ 

ItAin In the royal nary. A tii^ter of Harri& 

||iinrrie<l into the family uf the Lontrinans. the 

vell-knuwn publitilier^, and in the present 

Mseasionof the Lon^uan family is a portrait 

' Harris by < ^ie, fallowing him a fresb-cnm- 

plexioiwd, cultivutcil'looking man. A large 

number of dt>cnmt-nrs — roortg&^res to hin bro- 

ii»>r-iu-Uw LonpTDun of Jlarris's share in 

fCovent (Jarden and the like — are al*o in the 

bands of the Ijonginane. and. while throwing 

little light on the life of Hnrri.*, are curious 

Lbs regards the history of ('oreiit (Janlen. 

"larrit liiM on 1 Oct. IHJO at his oittage 

ear Wimbledon, and wa^ buried in his fomily 

rault at If JUingdon, near I'xbridge. 

[Victor"! librtory of tlie Theatres of London; 
jeDPsl'tt A<Toantuf the EngliahStage; Tbespbta 
>ict. ; Thentriait iDqaipitor ; LoDiron 3l»p. f t 
); Gitrriclc Curre«pr'ndt'nc« ; Bucwcil's Lifeof 
Johnson, ltd. Birkbect HIIIJ J. K. 

HARRIS, AVALTKU, .M.n. (1647-1732 1, 

phvsieian, Ixirn in (tlouoi^er in ltU7, was 

i scbolar of Winchester (.'allege, ond tbrnce 

rent to Xew College, Oxford, of which «)ci>'ty 

\wtA elected a fellowiu 1006. IJe took In 3 

L degree on 10 Oct. ID70. Soon nft«-r he 

omed the church of Rome, resigned bia fel- 

uwship^ and went to Rtudy medicine in 

E^mnco. He graduated M.P. at BourgM nn 

> July 107o, and settled in L^Ddon in 16i76. 

[ireo yuara later, during the commotioa« 

Kl>niit a popish plot, be publi>be<l "A Fare- 

rell to ropery, l(i7t*, and *oon oft^r w«» i 

BeorjtTirate'l M.f>. at Cambridge. He was 

Jecte^l a fellow of the f'tAlf^'i of rhyr<ieians 

I It()S*'pf. ItiH:?. wa> llv(; tiroes renM*r, twice 

fltitrt' and 1707) ilar\ firator, and trea- 

lurer from 1714 to 1717 inclusire. From 

1710 to 173i be delirered the LunUeian Icc- 

^iires flt the College of riiysician-*. Hi* firit 

_ nedical book wa* publislied in 1**^3, ' Pbar- 

macologia Anti-KiBpirica,or a Rational Dis- 

course of Remedieg both Cbymicol and Qa- 
leuical.'anJ gives o popular ueeouni of rhosii 
^at remedies, mercury, antimony, vitriol, 
imn, bark (quinine), and opium, with ex- 
planntitms of the nature of acTcra! fiuiiersti- 
ttoiis remedies, puch a"* broth in which g<ild 
bad been boiled fur consumption, nmuletH.nnd 
chnrm#. A very empty ej»Ray on the cauxea 
of gout is intercalated, with no diftrovnrabltf 
reason but that the Duke of IJeatjfort, ti> 
whom the whole work i» dedicatcd,wfts t lireat- 
enedwitbattacksof that dijvjrder. lliirrifwua 
physician in ordinary to Charles II in lUtiCt^ 
and soon afterthe revolution he was aitpointea 
p1iy»ician to William III, and in io94 at- 
tended Oueen Mary in her laat illuesfi. Ho 
Iti^rajfii) the stagwi and ap]H-.urMncv« of the 
biemorrbagic eruption of ftmall-pux, of which 
ehe died, and meuiionrt that he Nit up with 
her throughout the night succeedini^tbeHixth 
day of her disease. She died two davi Later, 
an^ be was present ai the post-mortem ex* 
amination of her ImkIv. King William took 
bim with bim ro Holland on bis caznpatgii* 
there, and probably talked to him of garden-' 
ing, as on hii^ return Harris poblisbed 'A 
limcnplinn of the King'» Koya] Palace and 
fianlpH nt Lo<i,* London, I(ftW. While in 
< IfolUind he published at Amjiterdam (1008) 
I ' Do morbis acutiM Infantum,' a work which 
I acquired a repiitorion beyond itt nu'rilii, was 
' transUte*lintoK«glisb{ r74:i),l'V'nr:b( 1790). , 
and German (171-t)i and was not eupplantca ' 
by any other work in England till the pub- 
lication in I'l^-i of the much more valuable 
treatije«e of Michael L'nderwwid [q. v.] It 
)«i written in Inittutiun of Sydenham, whom 
I Harris knew and admired, but it lacki* thtj 
i^nund boats of I'lng clinical obeeiration whieli 
makes SydenlmmV wurk of p*_>rmunetil value. 
When Harris juk«->d .Sydi-nbam for lulvico a« 
to his medical itudiL*4.ttu* grr-at phynician la 
said to have told him to read ' Don (Quixote,' j 
, meaning (hat heihouhl learn from Cervant4^ I 
bow accurate a knowled^ uf man may b»I 
gained by obMTvation. ( r*r. Johnson tells ibe I 
same story of RicbanI Blackmoru [u, v.% 
who al*** applie<l to Sydenham for adviCtfi) 
Harris did mit ^km^^m suflicinnt ability t9 
pro6t by Sydenbam'n ciunsel. In 1707 b^| 
printe«i hii> HiLr%'eian umtion, and in 1720 
publixhe*! in l^mdnn ' He niorhia Alii|Uot 
gnivinr>l'"» * '''-'■'■viiti*rni'*,'of which tbifniost 
intere^' lioaccMintoftJiuwD Horr'*^ 

illnew . 'I)b Pwt« Diwrrtatio,' 

l»ndon, 1721. and ' DiMertatiooM Madiofl 
et rtiinivtr'.-n habits* in ampbtlbMtro ool* 
I' - 'I'-dicorum I»ndineii*ium/ 1725, 

nr {(ling medical work>. Th« dis- 

acftalu/iu am kit Lumlcka t«cturBS. attd con- 

tain much pntUe of Sydenham, but very little 
oripiniil observation. In 172" bo utibli«hi.>d 
& iiiiort theolof^rical treatise, *'fhe Works of 
Gftil.' He 'lied on 1 Aup. 1732 at his house 
in Red Linn ^^q^are, London. 

[^MunV»Coll.of PhyH.i.423 ; Worbj; Turners 
AniDiadTorsioos on Dr. llarriti, Londuu, 17^5; 
lidniL-rs LiH} orHvdctilmm.J N. M. 

HAKRIS, WALTEIl ( ]tW*i-17«I).Iriih 
hiiitorio^rapUer, bcirn in IHHl, whs m>u of 
Iloptou Harris of Mounlmtillick in Quet'ii's 
Countv, Ireland, who ften'od as a lieutenant 
of the Williamil^; militia in the Irish wars of 
16901. Walter Harris enttred Kilkenny 
l4whQol in 1701,WHtiudmittc*d ml 704 ti •Trinity 
College, Dublin, wheruhf obtained a scholar- 
flhip in 1707, but was soun after expelled f<ir 
having joined with other students in a dis- 
turbance; 17-'>.'J, heroeeivt'd tho 
honorarj- dogrmt of doctor of lawa. Ho wui* 
caliod to the bur in 171.'J, and In Xovember 
17in married Klizabeth, daughter of the Kev. 
'Thomas Wave of Killree, co. Kilkenny. She 
^'died in the followinji' month, and llarriit sub- 

quently married Klizaboth Ware, n greut- 
^grnndchild of Sir James Ware. From thif« con- 
nnction appears ro Iiuve originatcil (he desijrn, 
whic'hoccupiedbiniformanvyeiir(i,of [luhli^h- 
injfan Koglir^h edition of the Latin works of 
Sir .Tames Ware relalingto IreUn*!. In 17-18 
Karris received a pension of 100/, from the 
Thsh gOTernment to enable him to continue 
his historical rewarehes; in 17''J5 he pre- 
eented a petition to the IloiLte of Commons 
at. Dublin, praying for assistance to enable 
bim to publish a history of Ireliind. The parlia- 
mentary committee on the petition rejKjrled 
that the publieation of llarriVs coUetUion 
of materiale for the histor.' of Irt^land would 
be highly serviceable to the public, anJ that 
the cost of printing 750 copies would amount 
to a sum not exceeding 2.(M!0/. The scbeme 
■was not carried our, but Ilurris's tran5cripl3 
were subsennently purchased by parliament, 
And given mto the custody of the Dublin 
Society. Harris died at Dublin on t?U July 
1761. He was appointed vicur-gcnerul of the 
proteatant hisbop ofMeath in 17C^S. 

Before Harris lwg«n hiw labours on Ware's 
Latin works, nonie of them hud appeared Jn 
an innccnrate English transliition in London 
in 170'"». Harris issued, in 1739, a folio volume 
illustrated with engravings and entitled 'The 
whole works of Sir James Ware coneerning 
Ireland, revised and impmved. \"oliiuu' I., 
containing the history ot' the bishopi^ uf thiit 
kingdom, and such matters, ecclesiastical and 
civil, in whicb they were concerned, from the 
first pmpagntion of ('hriiitiiinil v theri'in to 
ihc present lime.' I [arris not only tninslaii><I 
IfVare's account of the biiihops, but enlarged 


it and continued tt in the protestant suc- 
ceesi'ju to 1734*. The first jart of tlie secoml 
volume of Harris's etlition of Ware 'a works 
appeared in 17JG. It containe<l a revised 
and enlarged version in English of Warv'a 
treatise,' J >c< Hibemia et autiquitatihus ejua.' 
The second pari of the second volume was 
publishtnl in 17411 with the title,* The write« 
of Ireland. In two books. I. Uf such writers 
who were born in Ireland. It. Of such 
writers who, though foreigners, enjoyed 
prefennents or offices in Ireland, or had their 
education in it.' Harris stated that he had 
made ' many material additions 1 o the original 
w.rrk,' continuing it Mown to the beginning 
of the present century.' Harris's contribu- 
tion is mainly com|jiled from printed booka. 
His treatmcntof writers tn the Irish language 
U throughout defective and inaccurate. LUts 
of religious treatises and sermons fill many 
pages. The latest writer mentioned is Jona- 
than Swift. The unsold copies of Harrii^'s 
edition of Ware's writings were reisttied aO 
Dublin with new title-pages in 1764. 

Harris's otiuT Wfirk». all published in Dub- 
lin, were: 1. ' Historiffgraphorum aliorumqua 
acriptoruai Hit}Hruia> ccimmeatarium.or a bii- 
tory of the Irish writers,' Dublin, 1736, 8vo. 
'J. 'Hibemicft, orsome ancient pieces relalinff 
to the hist on," of Ireland,' 1747, folio; with 
* An essay nn the defects in the histories of 
Ireland, and reme<lit;s proposi'd forthc amend- 
ment and reformation thereof,' addressed to h 
Daroti Newport, chancellor of Ireland. Iitfl 
this Harris ntenlions the materials existing, ™ 
m far as he knew, for a history of Ireland, 
and states thar he had transcrilied numerous 
document.s on the suhjecl. A second part 
of the' Ilibernica' appeared in 1700. Atiiinl 
pari waa prenored for the preas, but nevec S 
published. Ihe mnnu.script now belongs to ^ 
the writer of the present article. The two 

rubliahed parts were reprinted together in 
770, Dublin, 1 vol. 8vo. 3. A ' llirtory of 
William III,' printed anonymously, Dublin, 
1747, 4 vols. Harris complained that this h 
work had been issuwl, contrary to his wi8heS|.^| 
in a curtailed form by the bookseller, who ^^ 
had undertaken ilie eoM of its publication. 
Hnrria accordingly publishetl in 1749 hia 
unabridged history of the life and reign 
William III, fol., dedicated to the earl ofj 
Harrington, then lord-Ueutennnt of Ireland* 
and illustrated with engravings. 4. 'Fiction. 
unmasked, or an answer to a Dialogue lately. 
published by a Popish phyi^ician. ... In a. 
dialogue between a Protestant and a Papist *' 
\7o'Jf 8vo; a iwtemical tract intended to 
contriivert statements printed by Dr. John 
('urn' and other writers on the movcmeDla 
of the Irish in IU4!. 




he]pt>d the Phvsico-nis- 

of Ihiblin to produce * The 

wd pment state of the countj of 

Dowii,*9vD. Some imperfecl and inaccurate 

pspen left br Harris came into the po^se^ 

Am ci m IhibUn book-dealer, who, in 1 766, 

priated them with the title of the ' History 

aad AjiUquitiee of the City of Dublin ' (also 

LoadoiL, I 766k Much of this work was re- 

jriotod, without acknowledgment and with 

~ jdieional error?, in *A ilistory of the City 

r Dublin,* bv W'hitelaw and Walsh, London, 

[ICaanKripbi in relatjoo to W. Hurts in th« 

, 1— iiim of the 'VTit«r of this article ; Sfaou- 

•eripu of Kflkenny Co11*f«. Hna. Society of 

KiB^fa Ibm. Itablin.aod Boyal DaUin Society; 

Jooiiialaof HoBMof Coounons in Ireland, to!, t, : 

r'sDabUn JobruI, 1739-61 ; Renew of 

Wan in IreUnd, 17»6 ; Reporte of 

sard CommiaeioD, 1810; BibUothM» 

rSlovesMei 1618; Iliet. 3tSS. Comm. 8th 

1881 : UJcttdar of AodcDt Records of tbe 

ity of Dnblio, IRSV-l J. T. U. 

TTARRTfl, WILLUM (1546?-lC0-i>, 
catlkolic divine-, in LiDcoln$bir« about 
^^^^vu educated at Lint-oln College, Ox- [ 
^^^^fchen he waa admitted BA. :J6 Jan. ! 
^^^PBa. Sbofftlj afterwards he was elected , 
^^FUknr of hii college, and on 10 Jnly 1570 
^BS»0(WUBCoced31A. (BuasE, Heyufrum I'nir. 
' Onei. L S56 ). Uenouocing prot estant i«m he 
pi O CMd ad to LouTain. wbere be pursued his 
rtndiea, sad wb« ordained prie«l. In ]57o 
lie WW admitted into the Engliah College at 
and in the same year wa^ sent on the 
miasioo ( Douay VitirieA^ pp. 7. '24 ). 
tecsion by Robert Gray, pnect, pre- 
^ among the State P&pen (Dora. Eliz. 

ToL ocxlr. No. 138),hei« rrferred to a* beiofr 
at Cowdmy, the seat of VlMwnnt Muntafru. in 
1500. lie \a there described aa ' a tall man. 
Ht/-Vi«h hair of head, and beard.' Fuller 
that ' hi« writings were much eeteemed 
pl^nsts,' and ittat he wa« * a« obccuro 
proteetant e aA eminent with t he popish 
{CAmrdk Hut., ed. Brewer, ii. 419. t. 
). lie oompoaed a work, in ten books, 
entitled ' Thmtrnmf Ma Soeealam teoamruB 
ct antiqutaainuD Ecdedaa JJMiyB Britonnhn, 
quae ah A^oatoUcU Ttzu faooBta, et ab aliaa 
au^isMnufDoctoribtuageneFatiooe ing^i^ 
fmtioaein prapa^ta, in Dostram uaqne «Utem 
ytspetoA durmTit.* Dndd eot puw a m • doubt 
irbfftfaer this work was erer pt^liabed. Tlie 
aathor died in Knglaad in loOSL 

(Gillim's HbL Diet.; Flu. D» Anglic Srrip. 
n\iw, p. 801 i TiuiQcr'a BibL RHt. p. 379; 
ocd's AtfaMB OaoB. (BUM), L 7U ; Wood's 
Fatti, i, !««.] T. C. 

HARRIS, WILLIAM, D.D. (1675?- 
1740), pn-Bbyterian divine, wns born about 
167'5, probably in Southwiirk, where his 
mother lived aa a widow in 1692. Walter 
Wilson (following Jost&h Thompson) thinks 
he waa educated lu the academyof Timothy 
JoUio r<J-v.] at AttprcUffis near Sheffield 
(opened m 1689). The minutes of theprcftby- 
tehan board show that in 1692-6 he studied 
successively in the academies of John South- 
well at >ewbRrT, Berkfihire, and James 
Waters »t Uxbridgp, Middlesex. He began 
early to preach, and wn« »ume time assistant 
(unordained) ioHnnr^- Keadst (Jrarel Lane, 
Southwark. On Read'sdeath (1698) Harris 
waa called to succeed Timothy Cniso [q. v.] 
at Crutched Friars, in spite of some oppo- 
sition, and received prc«bytonan ordina- 
tion. The account* of his popularity are 
conflicting. There is no doubt that he was 
a leader of liberal dissent ; his delivery waa 
marred by hoarseness. For over thirty jrears 
(from 1708) he was one of the Friday even- 
ing lecturers at tlie Weighhouse, Eastcheap. 
He was oua of the original trustees (1716) 
of Dr. Daniel AYilliamji's fnundotions. At 
the Salter** Hall debate.^ [see Bradbitrt, 
Thoxab] in 1719, be Mded with the non- 
Bubaeriben. In 1723 he was one of the 
original distributors of the English n^lwn 
donum. On 12 .\pril 1727 he micceedad 
William Tong in the merchants' lecture at 
Salters* Hall. He received the dq^no of 
D.D. from Kdinburgh, 8 Nov. 1728, and a 
similar honour from Aberdeen. Nathaniel 
Lardner [q. v.] was his colleague in his pas- 
toral charpp from 1729; an earlier colleague 
was John Billingsley the younger (1667— 
1722) 'a. T." He die<], after a short illneM, 
on 25 May r740,aiid was buried (30 Ma^) in 
Dr. Daniel Williams's vault. Bunhill i-ietds. 
Funeral i^rmons were preached by his inti- 
mat(r friend, XV'njamin Orosrenor [q. v.] and 
by I^anlner. To Dr. Williams's library he left 
neariv two thousand volumes ; his portrait, 
now in the librarr, tiordon Square, LoiidoD, 
was presented in 1768 b^ Laidner'a executor; 
an engraving fr'im it is given in Wilson'a 
* Dissenting Churcliee.* 

Ilarrin published mnch, and, according to 
Wihion, ranked as * the greatest maater of 
the EagUah toogae among the dtiM«>nt«rs.' 
Aaioag his works are : 1 . * Ex]iosition of t b« 
Epistles to Fliilippiaas and Colosstans,* in 
the continoatioB 01 Jfatthew Honrr's * Ex- 
position,' 1710. fol. 2, 'Practical DtM-y>uTta« 
oa . . . Repreeenlations of the M«!*iitah, 
througbout the OU TesUment,* ftc, 1724, 
8to (intended aa a K^ 10 Aathonv Coiltna ). 
3. * MeoKina of , . . T^obiu Mant'/jn, U.lJ.; 
&c.,1725,&ra 4.<Foa«ral DiacoursM/i:^., 



1736, Bvo. 5. •Four Discourses upon . . . the 
Lard's Supper,' &c., 1737, 8vo. Besides other 
wriiin(f8, Wilson g^ivea a list of thirty-eipht 
BinglcscnDon8,thce&rIiest in 170'J, including 
eloTeu funeral and three ordination sermuuH. 

[Funeral scrmoiis bj Grosreoor, 1740, and 
FXardner, 1740; ProtestHnt Dissflnters' Magiizine. 
|179fr. P- "IGJ ; Wilson's IlinMnting Churches of 
Ltioodon, 1808 i. 66sq., ISU iv. 19.^; Calamy's 
fOTTQ Life, 183«, iL466; CaUof Ediiihurgli (^ni- 
t dudtcs, 1 858, p. 230 ; Jeremysl'rofcbyterian Fotid, 
18»6, pp. 113 sq.] A.G. 

HARRIS, "WTLLTAJf (1 7i>0-1770). bio- 
grapher, lK)m at iSalisbury, Wiltshire, in 1 72U, 
•was the son of a noncontbrmist tradceman of 
that city. He vra& educiitod for the ministry 
at GroTc and Amorj-'s ucndemy at Taunton, 
SomL-rset-. Ho fir^t ofBciat^d tu a congre- 
gation at Looe in Cornwall, and was nfter- 
jvaida invited to another at \N'elIe, Somer- 
eetabire, wheru he wub ordained on !'> April 
1741. Ht! now inarrit'd Mirs Elizahiithliovet 
of Honilon, i}t'von}ihire,and reiu{>vedtothat 
I town. His ministerial labours ftirthe rest of 
Lhis life were confined to a very small congrc- 
lvationatLuppittintbent:i^hhourhocHl. Ikying 
[oeairous of commemorating the fttruirgles 
of the nonconfonnista in the cause of reli- 
gious and civil liberty, ho wrote biographies 
of the Stuart family and of Cromwell. His 
preliminary uHempl, a ' Life of Hugh reters,' 
was published wltiiout his name in 1751. In 
this and his fub!»»^quent bio|rniphtes he pro- 
fessed to follow 'tut! manner of Mr. Bayle,' 
illustrating the text with copious notes. In 
1753 appeared hia * Life of James 1/ 2nd edit . 
1772; in 1768 that of Charles 1, 2nd edit. 
1772; in 17fl-J that of Crnmw.Al, 'Jnd t-dit. 
1772; and in l7Brtthat of Charles 11, in two 
8vo volumes. It was his design to hiive 
coranleteil the series with a life of James 11, 
but he was interrupted by an illneiJa whicli 
r ended fatally on 4 Feb. 1770 {(lent. May. 
^Xl. 95). His works were collected in five 
vols. 8vo, 1K14, to which hi« life is prefixed. 
Ho WToto in an unattractive style, and ianot 
impurlial ; hut his notes are full of infornm- 
tion from pourcus not easily accessible. The 
degree of D-D. was conferred on him by t he 
unlversityof Glasgow in 17iWi,at ihelnjiianfe 
of Thomas Hollis, who, along with Tliomiis 
BircfafBeeiated him in his histories. By will 
he gave his cx>llecli()n of historical documents 
to Dr. Williams's Library, then in liedcross 
Street. He left no children ; his wife surrired 

[Ufo referred to ; NichaU's Lit, Aoecd. tii. ; 
T. Amory's Nature of Soand Doctrine (Ordinatiun 
Charge). 1741 : Chalmers's Biog. Diet. xrii. 182- 
184 : will in P. C. C. 104. Jemior.] O. O. 

HARRIS, AVILLLXM (1770P-1830), in- 
dependent minister, born about 1776, waa 
pastor of the meeting-bouse in Downing 
:jtreet, Cambridgi*. fnim about ISO.**, until ho 
was ap|iointed divinity tuT^ir at the lloxton 
academy in 1H18. l(e became minister of 
the meeting-house in Churcli Street, St<>ke ^ 
Newiugton, at Michaelmas L'^20, and sulwe- fl 
quently theological tutor of Highbury Col- H 
lege. He died on 3 Jan. 1^30, aged dJi, and H 
was buried in BunhiU Kields (J. A. Jones, V 
Hunhiil MemoriaU, p. 78J. He waa LLJ). 
He publishtxl ' tlwunds of Hope for the 
f^alvation of all dying in infancy : an easay,* 
Ihi^l, and many other tracts and sernioOB. 
He is to he diBtingnished from William 
Harris {Jl. IfUO), minister of the congrega- 
tional chua*h at Walliugford in Berkshire, 
author of numerous pamphlets anddiscoursea. 

[Gent. Mug. vul. c. pi, i. p. 280; Williaia^ 
Robinson's Stuke Kewington, p. 218.] G. O. fl 

LIS (1807-18481. major H.K.l.C. Bombay 
engineers, and African traveller, son of Jamet 
Harris of Witlerslmm, Kent, was baptised Oil' 
2 April 1H07. Robert Harris (1809-1865) 
Uj. v/] was a younger brother. After prepara- 
tion at a militar}' college I! arris was appointed 
to the Jtombay establishment {engineers) In 
1H23. His commissions were dated, second 
lieutenant \f< Dec. 1H2.S, heutenaiit 1 May 
i H24, captain 8 Aug. 1 8S1 , and major 1 6 Aug, 
1643. He WHS appointed assistant -superin- 
tending engineer at IWrobay 9 St^pt. 1h25, 
executive engineer at I'aiideish in November 
lH2n,and al Deesa in Oetolk-r 1830. In 1830 
Harris was invalided to the Cape for two years 
by a medical board. South Africa at that 
time was attracting some notice, owing to 
, the recent exodus of the Dutch colonists, and 
their early conflicts with the Zulu honlea ofi 
Dingaan. On the voyage to the Cape, Harris^ 


who frrim a very early age had, bis frienda' 
said, 'been artlieted with sliDOting-madncBa* 
made the acquuintanco of Richard William- 
son, of the Bonibiiy civil establishment, a 
noted shiltary, iind \\\p two arranged an expe- 
dition into ine interior in quest of big game. 
Aftf^r conferring with l»r. Andrew Smith, the 
African naturalist, then just returned from np- 
ciiunlry, Harris and his friend started by ox- 
wagon from .'\lgoa Hay, by way of Somer- 
set and the Orange River, meeting with large 
game in districts lung since cleared, and 
travelled In a north-easterly direction until 
I they reached the kraals of t^e famous Mata-fl 
bolechiefMoselikati'.e. That potentate proved^ 
I friendly, and permitted the travellers to r&- 
, turn to the colony by a new and previoasly 
I closed route. Their absence &om India ez-; 

tcoM fion 3iareb 1835 to Deumber id37. 
Ob hsTctvTB to InidsB Hsciis wv ^ninCed 
execotiTD *— gi— *■• at Be%wtm mlftmmarj 
1688. aad 6aU fgi^aer to tk Sciade f»re« 
BbwcflkeaiaB^wr. laUeeenber 
!«■• nsde sopnatandur sigiiiMr 
■'Motlicm pniTZBSBii, Kun n oeyCcnber 
n iru Mnl in eku]^ of ■ miaiMi to o^en 
I rriatioas with tlw aadent ClinJtiu ku^ 
dam of She* (Shira) in thm highhwl* of 
Abyssicia. H<? muaied to ^gbad beariag^ 
aeon" - Aly widi tiMt atale, and vu 

knifl ^ w ti i tfc* (Ltmdtm Qmfttf^ 

Jun>- l-'W' 1 JATTu w exacotire tatgiaeer 
I>bannir Pion in I^t), aad at Poooa ia 
47, aDil on o Fek It^ «M ap- 
at«tuiing engiager, aortherm 
II« died of luwtnag fever al 
^OTfrar, near Poona, 9 OeL IdlfiL 

Hams aintean to luve ooanaaMaied aa 

aocoimt of au traveU is SodHi Africa totiie 

Binral Geographical Societr, Loa<fcin,iari tW 

OeogfBphieal Sxietr of Bombar. A fnrtber 

acconnt. entitled ' Narrative of an ExprditioD 

"^ South Africa, from the Cape of G-kxI Hope 

I ihtf Tropic of Capricorn tu the years Ic'^itV- 

|837,' trae pabliabed at Bombay in 183;t. 

Jnder tho title ' Wild Sports in South 

bein^ a XarrattTe, &c^ the same 

appean^d in London in 1841, and in 

aefit cKiitions. Ilarris. who was an 

at artist, ol^o published * Portraits of 

Kme Anitsals of ^atbern Africa, drawn 

|Xif« in their Natural Haunts,* repro- 

l oil »t<>rn* bv K. Kowani, l/>n<lon, 1H40^ 

^lio; and * Highland.* of Kthi>>pia, a Narra- 

: of a Mi&tion to ilie Kingdom of Shoo,' 

ondon, 1844, 8to, of which teTeral adtlioiia 

_aTe appeaxwL The following Wcn we 

entered under hie nune in the R^al Society's 

* Catalogue of Scientific Papen : * • Dfiacnp- 

tiou of a New Species of Antelope* (Aiy*- 

eenu ni^^r), Zoolcyical Societv'a 'Traiiaftc- 

Eions,* li<l'2, iu 21.-i-I6, and ''Proeeedings,' 

183H, ri. 1-3 ; ^Account of the Treee pro- 

iocing Mrrrh and Frmntdncvnae,* Linnean 

~ ' </» * ^roc^M.HlingJs' I .H49, L 1 8 1 -3, Froriep 

■ Notion, 18+4, voL ixi. col». 182-4. 

[Information supplied hy the India OlBet ; 

IXarria'a irorka ; Kor.Soc. Cat. ^'entific f^pm; 

Asiatic Journal, toI. xxriii. In tha annonnce- 

_ni«at of Harris's death ia the Timfs, 24 Nov. 

IS48, bis age ia wrongly stated aa thtrtj-atno.] 

U. M. C. 
OBP LIabkis ( 178:j-l84•'>^ lieutt;n&nt4en»- 
1, eldest son of (leorge, first lord Ilarrift 
[q. T.], was bom 19 Jan. 178^. After being 
a prirate military academy at Chelsea 
ndL>rCaptaiu ReTnDl'dit.narris was appointed 
"' — , in the 76ta foot in May 1796, and the 

Tgar aftg waa mumuIiiiI te ha fa iirsaem ia 
Ihe 74th kifUnalBSy wUck W joiaad at 
WaSlskaM^MjiAas.ialTK'. Witbthalnn- ' 
Bcal be eenred ia tJM amy iiiiaiaamli llj i 
hia blWr ihniwbaat tha eaapaigD ef 1?B9 
a^aiaBt ISffso Sahib, aad u thmta^tmnti 
" iiiiii g ipaTMaaaii i—i nf ihii i t iMwi i [ lai lj 
«pj eiaoi^g the faat to eeiter tta fiwliew, fcr 
Thick W was consMnded «■ the spot br 
Genoml Bahd. Uevas sent batae tachazga 
of tbe captured Mvwnaa aad Frmdi sta»- 
dsrda, whicb ba bad Ibe boooar af fnecnting 
toGaoffgeiiL Pmaotadtoaeomaay b the 
4ath fiiK (160ct. 1800), heknaea that rrp- 
tteat in Jasev,andafierra«u«mhazk«<d with 
it on board t&e fleet aader Sir Hyde IWber 
anid Admiral Xrlsoa. He was <m board the 
CtknoB at ibe battle of r\>|»iibegiin aad in 
the Bekie ctaiee (far peTtiralsn aee Xetttm 
Detfi^ ir. S90 et ee^) la IdOa be aeeom- 
paaied bia iMJiaaut te f^ iaa ii i , aad aw tb« 
iieifliliiani of Sir laaae Brock [q. t.], vbo 
was tbeacotoBwiof theregimeBt. Pnoeoted 
to a n^orily in tbe 7SnL. be was on his way 
to loin that reflimeot id India when the ex- 
pedition under bir Da rid Bairdwasdeepatdied 
in the autumn of It^) for the recapture of 
the Cape. Harris joined it as a Tolunteer, 
and was present at the landing and action 
with the Dutch army at Blue Berg. On his 
arrival in India he found his regiment had 
returned home, whither he followed it, after 
Tinting China. In \S0&, when about to 
embark with the regiment for New South 
Wales, he was counter-ordered and posted to 
the command oft he newly raised :!nd battalion 
athome. InSeptemher'l8l2Harrisetoodfor 
Coventry, but retired in farourof Joseph But- 
terwort^ [q. v.j In 1B13 he was embarked 
with his Mttalion on *a particular serrice-,* 
but was ordered to join the troofM under 
Uenerol Gibba sent to Slralsund in Swedish 
Pomerania. Harris was then detached with 
his battalion into the inttirior to get into 
oommanication with the army under Lieu- 
tenant-general Count Wolmod'en. Creeping 
with his email force between the huge army 
corps under I>aruu!>t and other French mar- 
shals then in Pomerania, Mecklenburg, and 
Hanorer, Harris succeeded in reaching \Val- 
raoden, and contributed to the victory at 
Otihrdein Hanover lOSept. 1813> when, after 
the German hussars ban been repulsed, he 
charged up a hill with his battalion, cap- 
turing a French battery in very gallant style, 
and causing a panic among the defenders. 
In November the battalion re-embarked at 
W^amemunda in the Gulf of Lubeck, and on 
arriving at Yarmouth was ordered tn join the 
armv before Antwerp under Sir Thomas 
Grabam [q. r.] During tbe succeeding opera- 




tioQS Harris distinpui.shed himself in the 
proaenco of tlie Diilce of Clnrenco (aftcrwnrd* 
William IV) hysTorwiinp- iind capturini^ the 
villn^} of M«?rxera. He remained wilu his 
tattftlionia the Low t'oimtries after the peace 
of 1814, and in .^lay 1815 joined the bake 
of Wellinpton's army. The 2nd battalion 
7'ird was brigaded with the 2nd battalions 
80th and Omli and the iHini fool, under Sir 
Colin Halkett [q. v.], and autFerfid heavily 
at Quati-e Uras and Waterloo. At Waterloo 
Harris waa shot through the rif^ht shoulder. 
He returned home witli the battalion, and 
retired soon after on half-pay of the Dourbun 
regiment. (»n his rctiremont the officers of 
thcTSrd presented himwith a splendid sword. 
Harris became a major-peneral in 18:21, and 
held a dtalf command in Ireland from May 
1823 to June IH^o. and commanded the 
northern district in England from 1825 to 
July lH:;Hj where he rendered good 8ervice 
in (juelliug the civil distnrlMinceiS in the 
manufacturing districts. lie became colonel 
of the 66th regiment in 1832; colonel of the 
VUrd foot in 1836, and Hentenont-general in 
1837. lie was a C.n.,K.C.n.. and a Imight 
of Wilhclm the Lion In the Netherlands. 

In his early years Harris was an expert 
athlete and swimmer. As a commanding 
officer he whs strict but kind, and appeared 
to have been liked by hie soldiers ae well as by 
his oIKcers. After siicceedinj? to tlm ptM^race 
a« siieond I^rd Harrip in 18251, he lived in 
K'tinnneut on his estate at Relmont, near 
Faveraham, Kent. He was twice married : 
first, 17 Oct. \^0^, to Kliza Selina Ann, 
daughter of William Dick, M.D., of Tiilly- 
met House, Pe,rthshire, and by her, who died 
2» Jon, ]B17,had twoson^and one daughter: 
secondly, 2H May 1H24, Isabella Hau<lcock, 
only daughter or HohtTt Mandcock Temple 
of AVaterstown, Westmeath, who survived 
him, and by whom he had three sons and 
one daughter. He died at Belmont, after 
a few days' illness, on 30 May 1845, and waa 
6MCceeded by his eldest son by his iirat wiftf 
[see Hakrih, Gkoroe Fkjlno!s Uodekt, third 
Lord Harius]. 

Lord Barria ; Fhilippart's Royu) Mil. Calendar, 
1812 pd. iii. 195, 182U ed. iv. 162: Caaoou's 
Hist. Becord 73rtl Foot; Sibome'a Waterloo; 
Ann. Rtg. 18^5, Ixxsvii. 280 ; Gunt. yi&g. now 
■wr. xxiv. 7G. PHpera r^'Latiofi; to tliu opora- 
lion« in Germany in 1813 will bo found iimone 
iha Foreign Office records in the Public Keeord 
Office, under 'ISIJlitar^ Auxiliary Expeditions;* 
Mid mooh intoreMiag mattur eonnoctpd with 
Harrii and the 73rd will bo found in tho M«- 
moira of a S«rgeant of the 73rd Rcginiont, Lon- 
doo, 1820.] H. M. C. 

1 &ti7 ), electrician, born at Plymouth on 
1 April 17PI, was the only son of ThomB«» 
Harris, solicitor, by Mary, daughter of Wil-^| 
liam F. Snow, of the same town. After at-™ 
tending Plymouth grammar school he v/t» 
»ent to tho university of Fdinbtirgh to study 
medicine. He commenced as a militia sui^ 
geon, and was afterwards a general prac- 
titioner in Plymoutli. On his marriage? lA^ 
1824 with Klizabeth Snow,eldest daiigliteroE 
Itichard Thome of Pilton, near Barnstaple^ 
Devonshire, he abandoned liis profession inM 
order to devote himself exchisively to electri- 
city. IIohadalrettdy,inl8:K),inventcdanew 
method of arranging tho lightning-oonduo* 
tors of ships, the peculiarity of which wa*] 
tlint the metal was permanently fixed in the- j 
masts and extended throughout the hull. H» 1 
waaaUotheinventorofan improved mariner's I 
compass, and to him is due the first idea of I 
a. disc electrometer. In December I8i*i h»i 
communicated to the Royal Society, at tha 
invitation of Sir II. Da^T, the president, ^\ 
valuable paper 'On the Relative Powers of 
various Metallic Substances as Conductors of 
Klectricity,* and in 1831 be was elected &H 
fellow. IlLBpaperscontrihuted to the dociety-H 
in 1834, 1838, and 1839, on the elementary 
laws of electricity, contain his best work. 
To the R<»yal Society of Edinburgh, of which 
he alM) became a follow, he communicated in 
1827, 1839, Oiid 1833, various interesting ae- ^ 
counts of his experimentvS and diacoveries ia ■ 
electricity and maguetifim. In IBS^j he wa» V 
awarded tho Copley medal by the Royal So- 
ciety, in recognition of the value of lua 
|in)H>rs on the laws of electricity of high 
tentiion. In 1839 he delivered the Balcerian 
lecture, lu^ subject being' lutjuiritM concern* ■ 
ing tho Elementary l^ws of Klectricity.'^ 
Meanwhile, in l83y, tho general uloptiou of ^ 
hie lightning-conductors in the royal navy 
he.d been strongly recommended by a mixeq! 
naval and scientific commission; and though] 
the naval authorities atiU continued to offer 
various object ions to bis invention, the govern- 
ment in 1841 conferred on him an annuity of 
300^.,' in consideration of services in theculti- 
vation of science.' Harris met objections to 
his system by pubUshtng a work on ' Thimder- 
storms' (1843), which failed, however, to 
attract attention. He also contributed a 
Hcries of papers on the defence of ships and 
buildings from lightning to tJie * Nautic^ 1 
Magazine ' for 1834 (puhlushod coUectivoly in J 
1836). He developed his cose in letters anil I 
pamphlets, which he circulated among per-] 
SODS of intluence. His system was employed 
in the Russian navy long befon< it was ad- ] 
mitted into our own, and in lb4^ the czar 







presented him with a harndsryBUf zisiz xad 
T«w. At length the cffioaierof^ his ivic^s 
was offidsllj RCOgnxsed. aad Harris r^cKTrd 
the hooonr of knight hood 1 1^47 >. a^ri f-iV 
seqnentl J a ^nnt of oIKvi. la 1 t^ iic; wx§ 
aapoint^ ioentific refisn^ of z^T-errmr^z.' is. 
all matten eoDBcct^d wirh *i.-»»r:r-Lcr:T. »=^ 
superintended the fittim; op of hii crjc<i-sa-:n 
at the Tcnral palaeea. the hr^QufA of jat.-a- 
ment, the powder magagaeg. il^ ^7^ =a:^- 
soleom at Frogmon, and ocher pKL^aie hfil^i- 
ingB. Hairis rcsamed his pes«af^^«». fccr: 
made no farther UBp»>rtan£ di»XT«7x£. Hi^ 
handbooks of 'JEkccrinrr' 1 i?4? . 'Mag- 
netism ' (1850-2>. tnd •■ tjalTani^c: " • Z S>> -. 
oontziboted to Weal*"* Badzsecrtarr Strie*. 
wen clearlT written, and pasttd Tkrmrt: 
sereral editioos. Harrii died at ■$ Wr^-^:? 
Villas, Fljinonth, on H Jan. l^rTT. H* wu 
an aooomplished musician. perf-j?=i=z <Q 
both harp and piano* and an ^ -y.^- 
Teraationalist. At the time of hi* -ytrnzh Le 
had in pceparatiQii a * Trestiie on Frictf-t-cAl 
£IectricitT,' which was piblisL^ii yjtzb-zs- 
onalj in the same jear 1 1^^ t whh a =k- 
moir o[ the author br Char{«:» ToalinsTKi. 
FJLa Hewasalsoantborof: 1. -rfbtrTra- 
tions on the Effeeu of Lishtoin; oa Fl'Atir; 
Bodies ; with an account of a new tc*<hrA 
of applTm^ fixed and continooos cyjod-ur^/n 
of dectricttr to the masta of shipf.' l?i!3. 
2. ' On the IrtilitT of fixing Lashtninz-Con- 
dncton in Slips,'' 189). 3l" * On th* PrA«c- 
of the Qneetion relating to t&e Pr^jtaction of 
the Br^ish Xstt &om Lizhtninz br the 
method ui Fixed Condocton c^ ElecnicitT, 
as piouused br Mr. Snow Harris,* priratelT 
printed, 1838' 5. 'Remarkable Instanoei 
of the Protection of certain Shi|H of her 
Hajestr's Xsrf firom the DestmniTe EffccTf 
of u^tniug. To which is added a lift of 
two handredand twoity cases of fthipt Etruck 
and damaged,' 1»17. 6l * National Defences.* 
1802. 7. * SapfOemental Xational Defences* 
1862, a reply to Sir 3Corton Peto's pamidd^t 
entitled ' ObsemtionB on the Report of the 
l>efence Commissioners.' 

[TonlinsoD's Vemoir; Gent. Mag. 4th ser. 
ni. 38^-6; Enerdop. Brit. 9th edit. riii. 61. 119, 
xL 492-4; Basse and Cooftnej'sBibLConiiib.] 

G. G. 
treasorer of Gnr*s Hontital, foorth eon of 
Benjamin Harrison (173l-1797>, also trea- 
sorer d Gut's Hospital (who was second 
■on of Sir thomas Harrison (1700-17G5>, 
chamberlain of the cit v of Lcmdon, see Getif. 
Mag. 1765, p. 4^), was bran at West Ham on 
S9 Jnlr 1771, lived fortwelre years with his 
fiUber'at Gny^s, sad soooeeded him in the 

. - ^. T ■ 

3 l.iC. Frr ifrr T»a=» "^ r>- 
'—z ■.z.-=.*r^lTr* »,':ftT*rlT >rJ:^ "'^*- H* 

-rlti S-r Ac::r-T CxTi^r *;. x.* br. ii IriS, 

fcr^an-* :^.c ■>•: "nkEa-i^.^i-i -^i^ri it ia.1 
ilwiT« ^*T»r!i tl—r-L il-irris*:- rT«*',T r?- 

K'ICkt?::: ;S>r.',i- tj 


U* -rxA F.K-S. lii F,S_V- i*z^-T-£-: t*:- : r >f 
•ir: H:ii*.7t*f Bltl::.; >:-"=.* f?^C:=:j*=i'j*. 
iii ^■^•— '*' :f :1t Ei.;zfr«i i^r L*:*e B:*r-L 

U-r Wl.= **ri*Cr< t' '.^.-r 'i tLc *irh^ tj T^isl 

cr.=i=J.*i«xt-=:T« f-.r tL-T citt cf L«:':^x! ':- :L» 
fr=c ^prtK'i-'.s '.f »s '.z/^f.-^iA tax- H* lir^el*rlT 4: I'jtzh^si 0:=.^:^ 1>^£e* c-t'^ely 
«:ca*er« with ti-r • <'.'Uj-Lk=i =.Hr.'acd ii*d 
ti*t?t '3t 1» SIat IS-V". fc;«rc SL FI*r riinrt^d 
fa iTSC MtTT. l»t:xe:-rT of IL H. U P^llr cf 
Cj<->n tri At^>-j, Eli*?-i. br wh:-=i hr hs-d 
thr**? «»?04 •.L^' *i'i*?:. B^*i=in 'i- t.*. be- 
cttthiz areL-i-=*.?r«i of M.k:i«::.::je-. an^ fix 
diuriterf, tbe *:Ide*s niArrlrii to W. Cripps, 
3LP. f:)r C'L-^^.e-t^r J>Al->'. M=-ti=i- a 
Icird of "h* iT^*.*'arT. 

PtTiizrw 'f tiiiilT '.-f IU.T.*o=. *!;:« ir W?.- 
fr*i J. Crrr-*. F <.A. f rlT^telr pr-tai'lSSI : 

wrk*"» f jniir.eiisj Bifz. His:, cf G-ts"H<*. 
pr.*l-j ' " G.'T. B. 

HARRTSOy. BEXJ.\3ITX, the vomiCTr 
(l^it^lSr-T t. archdeacon of Maidstone. lK>m 
on 25 Sept. 1 rfj^, was son of Benjamin Harri- 
son ^q. T.", tT»**ttj»rr of G ay's H«^i;aL Ue 
matncolated at Chri*: ChurrfuOxfonl. 17 May 
1 *2»5, and was elected a student in 1 S2^ 1 B.A. 
1^30, MA. IS33k HsrriKin had a di?tin- 
^uifbed career at Oxford, where he was con- 
temporary with Mr, Gladstone and other re- 
marKablemen. Ilewos placed in thefirst class 
for cla&^c^ and in the second class for mathe- 
matics HnXO : eained the EUerton theolc^ca! 
eway prize, the Kennicott and the Puiev and 
Ellerton Hebrew scholarships, in lS31-2.and 
the chancellor g Eng-Iish essay priie in 1S32. 
The subject of the last was* The study of diffe- 
rent languag^as it rvlates to the philosophy of 
thehumanmind'<printedOiford,1833). He 
took part in the Onord morement, and wrote 
N08. x-ri. xi-iL ixiv. and iHi. of the 'Tracts for 
the Times,* mostly on the scriptural authority 
for the episcopalian ores nisation of thechurch. 
^ But he was deterred from the Romew&rd 
movement both by his ecclesiastical connec- 
I tions and by his conserratire t«nperament. 



3Ie w(w select preacher to the imiversitv 
<] H;V>-r\ domest ic chnplaiii to Howlev, tirch- 
biiihop of Canterbury (1843-8), canon of Cnn- 
terbury nnd drchtlfncon of Mai(l*>tone(184/»- 
18W7). He had aconsidorablu knowlodgv of 
Hebrew, and was one of the Old Testament 
comiNinr of revisers who produced the version 
of the IJiht^ issued in IHJSo. 

At Cantprbur%' he was distingiiishwl by liis 
x<>al in hi.H archuliueonat wiirk, his intimate 
knnwled^of the clorgy, his repiUarity at the 
cathedral services, his activity mthe hueinosa 
of v&riouB churcli ni'icielies, and al^o by bU 
gtfiuaUty, wit, and tolerance, and bv hia 
mdiDCM to Initp part by sympnthy on(f bns- 
pitolity in pntbernifTs lik« those of the Can- 
terburt' crickel-wfelt or the meeiinjrw of the 
afrricultural unil arcbipolojrical »ocii*lit»s. He 
inherited from Archbi(*hn|i llowlcy n valunblo 
libnirv, and nflcr hi* dpnth bis widow iire- 
ik-nt^il it, with the addition of a collection of 
Flihli'J^ and lit 11 rpi cat worksmadcbr his father, 
and many other books acquired by himself, 
to ('antorbury Cathedral, where it forms the 
Jlowley-ilarrisnn Libmrv. He woa inti- 
mate with Uttan Stanley during lu.^ t4*nun>of 
h GonoDnr at Canterbury, and to him Stanley 
dddioatwi tlie * Uiiitorical Memorials of Oun- 

Harrison died on 25 March 1887, ai 7 Bed- 
ford Sqaare, London, a houso which he had 
inherited from 8ir Hobert Inglle, SI.P. for 
Oxford I'niveniitv, a cj)nnect inn by marriage. 
Ho married in 1^1 IisaU-IIti, d'auKhter of 
Henry Thornton, M.P.,of Batterwa Kiae.bul 
had DO isBUo. 

Harrison published, fwsidcs the 'Tracts for 
the Times * and many single i^ermons and 
cliarKCB, one of which (fives a lifa of Arch- 
bishop Howlev : 1. * Historical Imiuiry into 

counsel to the war office, the corns 
in-chief a office, and the barnick office (ITOtt 
and a&sistant secretary to thetreoHurv (180o 
In 1823 he waa made auditor for life of th_ 
duchy of Cornwall, and in 182<» auditor fdj 
life ofthe duchy of Lancaster. He was mad 
a knight of the grand cross of the Itoyal Iland 
verian and Gutdphic order 13 April 1831 
He died at Spring Garden* Terrace, Londo 
3 Feb. 1841. He was twice married, 
bad a son by his first w^ife. 

Harrison wrote: 1. ' OiwierVBtions in sup 
port of the Title of the King to nil I'^aebeati 
and Forfeitures arising within the Foes c 
Liberties of the Duchv of Lancaster,' &c 
1832. 2. 'Fragmenla of History,' Ifta 
3. ' Substance of a Report on the Laws i 
Jurisdiction of the Stannaries in Cornwall 
1830. 4. 'Memoir respecting the Hereditar 
UevenuRsof the Crown and the Kevenuea i 
the Duchiej< of Cornwall and Lancaster, an^ 
KemoDstrance and Petition widregwed to th©* 
Chancellor and Council of the Duchy of Lan- 
caster,' 1838. 

[Thd Kntghrage of Great Brltiiin and Irebin 
1811 ; Gent. Ma?. 1841, i. 338: Times, 6 Foil 
18H ; Addit. MSS. 20139 f. 104, 20201 f. 78 
22902 f. 147. 29472-4 (including some of officia 
correepondDDci-, 1812-1819), 52168, f. 61.] 

F. W-T. 
l84rt),water-colour painter, bom in LivcrpooLi 
in l*<i<t, was the second sou of Mary Hiuri- 
aon [q. v.], the flower-painter. Ho came to 
London lit the age of fourteen, and improved 
bis practice and pocket by working for the 
dealers. Subsequently he wnii engngod in 
maJfing onatomical and other medicaldraw- 
inf^ and illuiitrations, and in p^Uidving nnn- 
tomy at the Hunterian school in Windmill 
the true Interpret alion nf the Kubrics, Lon- I Street. He derived much benefit from the 
don, 1849. 2. 'Prophetic Outlines of the advice ond encouragement of John Constable, 
Christian Church, and the Anti-Chrixtian ll.A., who showed him great kindness, criti- 

Sjwer as traced in the Visions of Haniel and cising his sketches, and urging him coutiau- 
l. John ; in twelve lectures preached in the ally to study nature cloaely. In 1840 he 
Chapel of Lincoln's Inn on the foundation nf I first exhibited at the Royal Ac«demy, and 
Bishop Warhurton,' London, 1K4R 3. ' Privi- | in 1845 he was elected on awoi'-ittte of the 
leges.IlutieB.Bnd Perils in the EnglifihBraneU , Old M'ater-Colour Society in Pall Xfall. A.j 
of thi_' Church of Cbrist,' aix Bermona, Lou- j painful disease forced him to travel in saarchl 
don, 1>^(). He also edited: 1. Sermons of : of health. In I'aris, as he had done in Lon-I 
^Villiam Grant Broughton [q. v.], bishop of don and it.s neighbourhood, he formed claane*] 
Sydnny, with a prefatory memoir. 1867; and | for out-of-door sketching, and was very buc-| 
a. ' ChVistianitv in EgyiH. Lettersnnd iMipers cesaful. His works were chieflv landscapes I 

ndscapes I 
and domestic scenes, and the influence of] 
Watteau and Bouchet is discernible in somaj 
of biii paintings. Ho seldom worked in oxlA 
He mode drawings of the fancy ball scenes [ 
and other festivities at Buckingham Palac« 
tiey-genernl and advocate^neral of Jamaica, for the 'Illustrated London News.' But hisJ 
studied low, was appointed by Pitt registrar str+'ngth lay in landscape, with luxurious! 
far the redemption of the laud tax(i79@); foliage and figures well introduced. The! 

concerning the Coptic Church,' 1883. 
[Privato iaformatioo.] W. H. F. 

HARRISON, Sib GEORGE (J. 1841), 
legal writer, son of Thomas Harrison, attor- 




ketcbos of ' FontaJnt'bleau ' and ' St. Cloud,' 
vliicb he executed in the last year of h\& life, 
bow his mnsteTy of bis art. An oxumplH 
" his work may be seen in the South Keii- 
Bjrton Muaeura. According to Grnves by 
ibihitfd between ItilO and IMIO twenty- 
even pictures: fourteen at the Hoyal Aca- 
emy, two at tbe British lustitutiou, (sleveu 
i Suilblk Street, lie died of aueuriijm on 
f Oct. 1346. 

»*« Dirt, 1885; Ottloy's Diet. 1866: 
IDiat. 1874; Graves'* Diet, of Artists 
^bibiud.] K. n. 

HARRISON, JOITN (Jt. 1030), author 

nd envoy to Uorbory, accordJnfj to his own 

count ser\-ed in tbe wars in li-elaud under 

^^ eth» and on tlie accession of James I 

Pl^mado groom of the pri\'y-cbaaiber to 

^xx llenrv { Cat State Papers, Dom. 1003- 

IBIO p. lIO.'lOiM) 1 p. 50H; BiKCir, Li/e of 

wenry, Princfnf Wnhrs^ p. -JoJ). He retained 

kid position till the prince 'e) death, except that 

^ ItflO he was ^etit on a mission to Jlorocco. 

irards ho wa^ in the suite of the i*rin- 

BlixAbelb,and wHusat XleidelbTg in !tUU, 

inrbea the Elector Palatine started to receive 

the Bohemian crown. Harrison then returned 

England, and in lii'Ji? wos fihcrifi* of the 

Dmors Inlands or Bermudas (Cal. State 

'Pftpfra, (Vilonial, America and AVest Indies, 

1574-lOtJO, p.3L'); he himself states that he 

waaij^rernor. In l(i2-"i he went on amission 

lo ^rbarj; a lon^f letter, dated Tetuan, 

JO July lfii?5, report ini^ liiia negotiations, is 

v«! (Hart. MS. loMi, (f. y2(>-4). 

the autumn of lti:?6, when he is stylrKl 

ptain Ilarrison, be was sent to treat with 

ke kiflKS or governors of Barbara- and of the 

DWTi of .Sallee for the redemption of Eng- 

'i captives and for mercantile intercourse 

RBrfmijXviii. 7(t3,orig,«).; 8eeal8oiviii.807 

1 xix. 27,:>l Jan. I(i2!l; Cal.iftate Papers, 

►rim. I6i»'^«, up. 4-10, 4C8). Sir Henry 

tarlen objected to eending (»uch a mifwion 

trvat With pirates, and Ilarriflou wrote a 

Btler in defence of the proposal ( I'A. pp. 4^0, 

S?9>. lluriug the ue.vl four yt.*ars Harrison 

Dnstanl ly went backwanls and fonvards he- 

~M(*e and Kngland, and suc4.-e):ded in 

|«-i m release of 'JW British suhjnjts 

ii '; p. 219; preface to 7'A* Trat/icai 

U/f n tut Drat hf !ke.) Hurrtrion had an al- 

Bwance of 40*. por diem, but says that he 

Kpeaded 4,000^ of his own money on the 

g's service, for which he could jjet no re- 

om, and was eonsoquentlv iu great distress 

XCal. Statr Pafvrs.YUym. l«iL>7-8, p. 301 , m2t»- 

l«ai, p. '/>«). On -^ June IH^W he received 

|l>0/. in full of LHH)/. due lor bis allowance. 

le 'u> U-t mentioned in IQ3S, when he peti- 


tions for pavmenT of a deht of 3,(W8/. Ho 
married idiMbeth, daughter of .-Vmbrose 
AMieeler, ' gentleman usher, quarter- waiter' 
{tit. t038-i>, p. 254). 

Ilarrimu published: 1. 'The Messiah al- 
ready come. (.)r Profe.'* of Christ ianitie, both 
out of the Scriptures and auncient Rabbins, 
to convince the Jewea of their palpable and 
more than miserable hlindnease ( if more may 
be), for their long, vaino, and endlesse ex- 
pectation of their Mc8<iiah (as they dreame) 
yet for to come. A\'ritten iu liorbario in the 
year 1010, &c,' This work wna first published 
ju the IjOw CounlrieH shortly after the death 
of 'Prince Henry, my nicsler' (fireface to -nd 
edit.K 2nd edition, ^Vmsterdam, III! n,4to,with 
ati address to Maurice, prince of < )nuige, pre- 
fixt-d. A third edition appeared in Lonaon, 
1050, ll!mo, as * A Vindication of the Holy 
Scrijitures. Or the Manifcstntion of Jesus 
Chnst. The Trve Messiah Already Come. 
, . . Hy that Learned and late Eminent Hi> 
vine, John Harrir^un.' ('niia probably accounts 
for the mistaken description of Harrison as 
'the Reverend' intbe'hritisb Mugeum Cata- 
logue.*) 2. ' The Retisuns which compelled 
the States of Bohemia to reiect tbe Archiduke 
Ferdinand, &c., and inforced thorn to elect a 
new Kinc. Togeiither With the Proposition 
. . . made ^-ppon the first motion of tbe choice 
of tb' Elector Palatine to be King of Bohemia. 
Translated out of the french copies,' Port 
ntJ19J"],4to. 3. < A Short lielation Of tlie 
Departure of the high and uiigbtie Princw 
Frederick . . . from Heydelberg towards 
Prague. . . . MTiearuntois annexed the So- 
lempnitie or maner of the Coronation,' Dort, 
lOirt, 4to. 4. •Bohemica lura Defensa. Tho 
Bohemian Lawes and Uights Defended against 
the Informer; or an Answer to an Informa- 
tion fahily so called secretly printed and di- 
vulged against the Writings published by the 
States of Bohemia, Translated out of Latin 
by L H..' London, lOi'O, 4to. o. 'The Tra- 
gical Life and Death of Mvlev Abdala Melek, 
the late King of Barbaric: With a Proposi- 
tion or Petition to all Christian Princes an- 
nexe<l therevntu.'Dulft, 1033, 4to. This work 
is dedicated to Ciuirlea, prince elector palatini 
of the Rhine, and was presented to him as a 
new-year's gift. 

[Authorities quoted ; Cal. Stats Papers, Don. 
Sor. 1625 In IfiU8 (thern are many small Pffer- 
onecs to Harrison's mission to BarbaiY); Hiit. 
M.SS. CoDtm. 4th Rap. App. p. 411 ; Brit. Mu. 

HARRISON, JOHX (ir,79-lfir)(i), phi- 
lanthropist, onlv son of John Harrison, mer- 
chant, nf Leeds, by Gmce.dQughterofAVilUara 
Kitchingman, esq., wn* born at Pawdmire 
Uouae, ]<eeds, in lo79, and brought up in 



i«w«. Ibel 

ML, wntfayic^or Lac*. Vtt bMii «- 

JbOiMBr flort if wfaidh be appKHi to 
■wrhMn nf hnnt in T.idb. 
ul. with iomeAf the patttaafliaiVB : 
awrrt«I fuanittir be dS ant n ia J » *< 
efaaririM. a&i nrtm g lai^ fartuastf t^ 
fimfle ibr chiriiaMir f nr^mm The bu 

exiflia^ bnUiag; wbkfc ba 
* pleMMit fi^ ' of biB «wi 

■t bu ofaaaft- Tfi* !V««r 3bHC or ' 
KflrfcgM* WMb«ai bf bn^Md Ab - 
^fen ayyuJiHUtm l to ^iots mA cbvi 
M l B O — . That ftnec a ttiiMt i J by ~ 
JolM'a Cbneb, the i i'nw w p ft ■ nawwrnr «f 
bMbaHMfienn. Tie edSfce ww wipe* »- 
tiraWbfbimwtfataa i mwiimf cott; icvM 
^oAamd by lura wicb n tamaal immaarn of 
{lOt* itfT^ 'vas ea»piet«d ta lAM, wbea it 
tna'cooiemtedlrfArebbisbmXetU. lUz^ 
y^oB «ho enebed tad cpAwred > bu ^ l i t op tbe 

-» r, I ti iMJi^^A. WbitahK pp. 11. 1«.S7. 

'. >«. H. a. tM. 3«3. M.»; WUlakwt 

: ElMta.B.S4,M.Ana&z.p|Kt. 

Ptter t I a n M i tt of' 

■■^ f iiwAiii, was bora 

A-wlMrbMibri^gg. AJber 

L^ ooaiaotf' Wafaaa- 

l ■nrMihhi , he bv- 

" --I-vae in the 

I'Ul-e. when 

urns be waa mi 
< of the tiam. b^ , ■ 
i ttatj is doabobL ' Be' 

Kttve If lib I r II. of tbe 

ta Taneasbire,«> aa MMBcisie *ji 

Angter«6ee.aadHoIfia«vfA. IN 

alutflii'uwj sear tbo ebnseh far tba 
of forty Jec«j«Jho«wboy«. 
When tb« townof LaafawM 

br Cborle* I in 1^8. Htmna wm dactt* 
tfte fiwt cbirf iMgw«>»t*. with tba titla of 
gMetrnxa; uhI he wu agiin ehoaHi to fiO 
iImU office in 16»*. Ue was also ooe of the 
eirfht prindpol ««»• of the towii who 
Sy^«dU/tho »Dorof Lesds from 
{i^ciii.intbesM«_«ign- Inl647,stthe 


rf thn Tfsnfhrrti 
IftliS •»! lO0r>. 
la IMS bis name s^pcmrs as 
a si^nar of 'The HaraMaioas Ooosest of U» 
Hiaimiofihs. . . Puaaly mstine af Laa- 
rsm o r^ iriifc the Mmtrtsw of the Ptoriacc of 
l « ntwfaB ,hi tb s iFl s H! T ssli iai M iictothetmeth 
of i«HB€lhBSk»aad to oar Soten League 
and Omasai/ a iliiiawiial Juwt-laJ sgainit 
the tofetataoa of iadifaideDto Ukd other <see- 
tane&' He was imy ii aieJ at Lirerpool in 
;ber 1651 oa nmeioa of earenoad- 

-q«estofhisfrwiids,hepriated.atBennck^ Sept 

gT^ misoenaoaona pieees, mtacmf^ which mg ^ _._^ ___ „ „^.^ ^ .^,.„ ^^^ 

Thonsby mentions a tract entitled *Tbe impUcat^l in Love's plot (Xcwcoiu^ .<tell«- 

f}o«roTOentaftheT<ywnnfI>«de*beforeit dt^.i>.33\ 

wB« ffl*d« a Corporation ' and * A letter to In 1058 a controrer^y about pmbrterian 

lUmn Riffby ' BarrMon was a rtsonch epi- 1 church (roremnwnt anwe between the Rev. 

^eopaliao and loyaiist, and his estates were Isaac AUesi of Prestwwh and other epu>co- 

^SqusnUT sequestrated by the pariiamen- 
urfSmmJinimBn at the close of the otJ 
war. SichMWa srgniTated h« troubles, ind 
fnr more than twcntv months »*'"«*»»* 
d^sfh he wac Wlri<l<l.>n. Ho dieii on 29 Oct. 
IflWi, and wiw intfm-<l on 8 Xov. in hi« own 
(rt-chsnl, which ocnipied thp site of the pre- 
,, : ' ,r*. market: but his remnins were 
r ..moved to St. John™ C'hanh, and 

r ft mnniiment of black marble, 

ovrr whi^'h wiw jiUned hii> portmit at full 
U-tiiClli in hi* roiiniriiittl mb*^^. A fine en- 
Itravioir ft the i«»rtrftit. hv AV. Holt, from a 
drswinc by Thoma* IU>binson, i» in Whit- 
kw'i pfliii'in <»f Thnrr*hv'« ' Diicatus I^odi- 
nit,' ThiTit srn wivt^ral othvr engraved 
jiiirtraita «f Harruwn. 

palians and the Manchester Clasais, and Har- 
rison was deputed by that presbytery to writ* j 
inlhetrdeliBnce. TheTolumeofpape*riwritt«n 
on both sides «-&£ published in It^iP, entitled 
'The Censures of the Chnrcb It^viveJ,' &c., 
and Haxrison's part was done with consider- 
able leaming^ and skilt In St'ptcmb^r the 
same year he was ImprisoDtMl wit h other Lan- 
c&ehire miniatera for complicity in !>ir Georse dl 
Booth's rising for the restoration of the mon- 1 
archy, but he was leniently dealt with, and 
libvrateJ in January ltVW-60 Ob. p. \M), 
On the passing of tho Act of I'niform^ity in 
1662 he reAi^ed his living. The patron 
wi^lied to put Harriftou's son Miiuriw, « con- 
formist, in hi* place ; hut the father tlioufirht 
the young man xvas unfit, and recommended 





Humu KUuon, vhn wiu appoinUHl. Ilurri- l 
Mm rMidM ar Ashton until the Oxford Act ; 
wu pust'^, when for ft time be removed ' 
to Souiird, eventually returning to Afihton, I 
■wIit'Tv he died on SI liec. 1670, Mcd 57. In his I 
Utter dftj-'i he suffered severi'ly Irom rheiimo- ' 
tilling bv which be lo5t the use of hiH limbt. 
lie nfta beea a strong, henlthy man, ';et [jy 
hia exceistve Btudies, and aMiiiiiouA Inbount 
and watchiii)f8, and sitling mi clothe without 
firw in cold winter nlphts, nis sinews becAnie 
'eucontrnctedan>'^ his bodr so weak, thnt t^me 
yean befon* he died he couhl not stir hftnd 
Or fool ; yet he was hearty ami would often 
•av,**TfI wcrein the pulpit I should b«! well"' | 
(Ci. Hetwwid, Jf/iolf H'vrhi, t. ">37). He was [ 
buried in the cliancel of .Vahton-under-L\'ne 
Churrh,and his finii;nil !«ermon was preached ; 
by hi*Buccetw3r, Kllirton^whQ,asCalaniyi(ay6, ' 
'gave him n trreat character, but not beyond j 
lu«de«en.' IliByounger brother, Peterlfarri- i 
ton, T).D. (rf. 1*'>73), was rector of Cheadle, 
Cbeihire, and conformed nt the Jteatoration. 
Another brother, Jercminh, wba lieutenant- 
ealonel in the army of the Commonwealth. | 

- Account, 1713, ii. 390; Ciilaniy's 
( i,|17'i7i i. 583; Newcftme'!* Aiitob. 

(V ■ It- .n. soe.l, pp, 33. 111. 111.194,284; New- 
come's l»mrv f(/[ietbiiiii Sue.}, j'p. 68, 137. 155 ; 
rif« of A. .Vliirtindrtli! rClietham Sac.) ; O. Hoy- 
wo'xl's Diaries (J. II. Turoer). 1882. i. 63; Lan- 
owkhira Chtirch Sun'rya flUconl .Sic), p. 21 ; 
Ku-wakcT^f^ Eaat Choshira. 1.223; Hall«y*s Lan- 
caahiri). 1873. pp. 360 rt passim. Some of tiarri- 
^l^'a mastt^onpt sennoDa ars in the Cbetliani 
Hbraij.] C. W. 8. 

IRISON, JOHN (I093-177C), me- 

an, bfini at Foulby, in the parij>h of 

?f«gby, Yorkshire, and bi'ipt iped on 'M March 
lOUS, waa the t-ldeU mn of Hetirv IlnrriNon, 
by hia wife Elizabeth Barber of \V''ratfhy, Hia 
fiatber wtis carpenter and joiner to Sir Row- 
land Winn of Nostell Iriory, and also re- 
paired clocks. "When seven years oUl John 
nw taken by hin father to Biirrow-upon- 
|uml)**r, Lincolnshire, where Winn had an- 
^eetate. In ehildh<x>d he wan ottpecially 
by machinery on wheels. He re- 
Luecanly education, and waa never able 
hia ide>afl clearly in miting. A 
lent him a manuscript copy of 
Saunderwin's Wturea on natural 
phy, which he copied with nil thedia- 
In course of time he joined hU father 
ibe workshop, and occasionally made a 
Qnney by land-measurintjandsnrx'evinj.'. i 
"1 In irnprrivethecon(*truction of clocks > 
bet*. In 17iri be consinicted an ! 
' clock with wheeU maile entirely ' 
which is ttill in fioiiig order nt i 
MoaeuiD of Paleats, South Kensington. 

To prevent the effect-s of heAt and cold 
upon ttmekeeners, be devised in 17^ Ms 
* gridiron pendulum/ which consistfi in hav- 
ing the bob Buspcuded by a sertea of parallel 
rods, allcniatoly of stet;! and bniM, so ar- 
ranged that the downward expansion of the 
steel rods frorachangeoftemptjraturv is exactly 
ri'impen.4ated for by the upward e.tjNinsion of 
the bra^ rods. Tbis principle of compensa- 
tion is now [jenerally adopteii. Two of Harri- 
son's long eight-day clocks, one of them with 
tbegridiron pendulum attached, are preserved 
in the mu.*''Um of the Company of Clock- 
makers in the (Tuildball, London. Another 
of his ingenious improvements in clockinaking 
was his recoil escapement, which obviated the 
necessity of keeping the pullets wtdl oiled. 
Thitt escapement has l>een found Komewbat 
too delicate to be generally adopte<I. Harri- 
son waa also the first to employ the ' going 
ratchet,' or scoondair spring, an arrangement 
for keeping the timepiece going at ita usual 
rate while oeing wound tip. 

In 1713 an act was pa.ss4Hl (12 Anne, cap. 
16) offering rewards of 10,000/., 16,000/., and 
'J*),(MM.U. to any one wbo could discover a 
methixl of determining the longitude at sea 
within sixty, forty, and thirty geographical 
mile* respectively. Harrison came to Lon- 
don in l<2ts with drawings of an instrument 
for the purjwee. George Graham [q. v.], who 
examined bis invention, adWscd him to con- 
struct the instrument before applying to the 
board of longil ude. Ho finished one in L735, 
and having obtained certificates of its excel- 
lence from Hatlev, Graham, and others, he 
was eent in 1736 in a king's ebip to Lisbon 
and back to test it. In this voyage he cor- 
rected an error in the nhip's reckoning of one 
degree and a half. Si.\ days iiftiT hi* return, 
on 30 Juno 1737, the board ordered TiOO/. to 
he paid to him in two moieties, though 
Granan, who was consulted, urged that ho 
should have at least 1,000/. Harrison com- 

Iileted a second chronometer in 173il. It was 
c«s cumbrous than the first. For u third in- 
strument ofstill smaller make be was awarded 
the Copley medal of the I^^yal Society in 
174fl. A fourth timepiece in the form of a 
pocket watch, about five inches in diameter, 
was finished in 1759. Trial of its accuracy 
was made by his son William during a voyage 
from rort^mouth to Jamaica and back, loat- 
ingfrom IS Nov. 1761 to 1*6 March 1762, 
when it was found to have erred not more 
than one minute and fiHy-four and a half 
s'-'cond*. Tbis amnnnted to only eight<'»en 
geopniphicnl miles. The board of Inmgitnde, 
however, n-fuflcd tocerlify thai Harrison had 
won the priie. Harrison thereupon peti- 
tioned parliament, with the result tnat on net 


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Ilia two SOMA, wlio eoiitliiutH] the publication 
ac far an the Lwenty-Kcventli vohiinc in iKjO, 
whfn it wo* nlterwl to a w*?t'kly print as 
'Tht> (■Jordd'nAr's Weekly Miimusiiio,* fiiialty 
po.«*ing into thf liamls of C'jllingriJge, (he 
printer, and under a twvr oditor it ^eanit* 
ihe currtnl * Cianlener's M(i;razine.' Hnrri- 
Bon also editMl 'The Horticultural UegJutiT,' 
Tol. i. l^il, in conjunriion with J. Pnxton; 
' The (fardi?npr's and Forester's K*>copd,' 
](*:«; "The Carden Almonnck' for 1K43; 
and • Th'_' (inrJener's and Naturalist's Al- 
manack,' coiumenced iu I8''j3 and still in pro- 

fPief. Flor. Call.; raantxacript informatioo ; 
Bnt, Mui. CaU] B. D. J. 

HARRISON, MARY (178B-187ro, 
flower-pain t«r, bom in LivL-rpool in 17K8, 
wu the daughter of William I^issitf^r, » 
pnapennu bat manufacturer of tSiockport and 
LtTerpool. In 1SI4 she mnrrieti William 
Ilnrrisim and visited France after Mapoleon'a 
alKlieatiori. Her eldest sun waa bom at 
Ainiena, and »he had to return hmne iu hiuti* 
in !Hl*>. Setllioff apiinin IJvHqwnl licrhus- 
bandjoined partnership inn brewery, in which 
he lost all his capital. Mrs. Harrison then 
turned as a means of . support tor her family 
to the art she had loved for its own sake. 
She became a favourite teacher in Liverpool, 
Cht-ater, and thecountrj' round. In 1829 she 
to Ltiiidon, and on the foundation in 
thi^ New S<>ciely (now the linynl lu- 
of I*uinter3 in Wnter-Colourjt) she 
one of the original nieuibera. Ilnr 
ough of limited scope, wui* of a ver)* , 
delicate and refined aatun.'. Her fruit anil 
flower piocen, unfailingly exhibited year after 
ye«r at the galleir in Pall Mall, bore uomis- 
takable uarli& of taste, fueling, and close 
obtHTvation of nature. Her first works, exe- 
cute! in the second decade of the century", 
followed the prim fashion of the time in re- 
presenting detached si>i«eimen« of fruit or cut 
sprigs of ganli-n flowen, or a branch of bluok- 
berry blo9!*om Iving near a bird's nest. As 
progressed, t^e beauty of growing plants, 
iially of wild flowers, engaged her titten- 
ion. wlightful groups of violets, cowsliiw, 
urood anemones, and primra<u.*t« would vie with 
anowdnnks, cTi»cus«-'i), and the most beautiful 
HH^a in tier annual supply to the aocieiy's 
exhibition. She paintwl primroses in thret^ 
panels ' Infancy, ^iHturity, Decay.' Sp^ei- 
nifns of her work an* to be seen in the gallerT,' 
of the South Kensington Museum. OravfH 
(fivi'stbe number of the pictures she exhibited 
Bd over fifty. After a life of unenditig. but 
not unpleasant, labour she died at Hami>slend 
on Ifo 5iov. lf?75 in the eighty-eighth year of 
her agv, having previously ascertained that 




1 the picturea she had just been preparius for 
the winter exhibition of her society had been 
deajmtehed to their destination. Her two 
sons, (.ieorgp Henry and William Frederick, 
are separately noticed. 

[Athempum. Xo. 2510, ■* Dec 1875, p. 758 ; 

, Bryan's I>iet. 1886: ChmTea'i DicL of Artiste 
who have exhibited.] R. H. 

I HARRISON, RALril (I74i?-I810), 
' nonconformist divine and tutor, son of Wil- 
liam Karri J>on,presbyt«rian minister of Chin- 
ley, Perbyphirc, was l)om at Chinlej* on 
I idSi'pt. I74>>. lie was dcjicended from Cuth- 
bert Uorrisou (*/. October 1680), ejected from 
Lurgan, co. Armagh. In 1763 lie entered 
I the Warrington Academy, of which John 
I Aikin,ll.l).(1713^-I780) [V|. v.], wa* divinity 
I !iit<jr. In 17*59 he wo* apjwinted aasiatant 
ti> Joseph Fowne.'s (I715-I(H9) as minister of 
High .Street ('hawd. Shrewsbury. Ou29Dec. 
(elected 17 Nov.) 1771 he succeeded Joseph 
Motter»head (I(k<R-177l) at Cross Straet 
, Chapel, Mancheflttrr. HistheolouywaBAzian. 
From 1774 be kept a school, andgained great 
repute as a teacher, among his pupils being 
the aonsof the Marquis of Wateriord. From 
the institution of the Manchester Acwlomy 
(22 Feb. 178(1) till 17«1» Harriwrn was pro- 
fi'asor of classics and ttetlcj^/fftrrA there. He 
died, after longilIne^s,on lONov.1810. Soon 
after 8el t ling in Mimebe^lcr, lie married Ann, 
daughter of John Toiicbet. 1 1 is son William , 
id. .'iO Nov. Is'jil, aged 80) was minister at 
Blacklcy, I^ncashire ( lb03-54) ; another 
son, Jolm, ( 17'!'6-lN*;3), was a Manchester 
merchant and father of John Harrison, Ph.D. 
(fi. 1866), minister at Chowbeut, Laucashire 
< 1838-47 1, Brixton, Surrey (lW7-t)l ), and 
Ipswich (iWiUS). 

Harrison published: 1.* Institutes of Eng- 
lish liraromur.'&c-, Manchefiter, 1777, 12mo. 

2. 'Sacred Harmony,' &.c. ri786],4to,2vohi. 
(containit }Ktalm tunes of uis composition). 

3. 'A Sermon ... at Manchester ... on oc- 
casion of the Establishment of an Academy,* 
Ac. Warrington [I7H6], 8vo. 4. 'Account 
of the Author,' prefixed to John Seddon's 

fnpthumous 'Discourses,' Warrington, 17113, 
2mo. Po8th\imou» was 6. ' Sermons,' Ac, 
1813, 8vo (prvti.\e«l i» ' Biographical Memoir * 
by bis son W illiam ). Also some geographical 

[{'aliuny'iir«uiiouiit)on. 1727.1.672; Monthly 
nej>oiiitopy. 1810 p. 601.1814 p. 2«4 ; Harri- 
Kiiu'h UiographicBl Memoir, I8I3; .^stley'sHist. 
Prfttb.Mpeiing-House, Shrewsbury. 1847. p. 19; 
Koll of siodetiiB. M'lnrh'Htpr Acndumy. 1868 ; 
nnker'« Memorials of a DissontiogChapfl (Crosa 
■Street, Maachrslor), 1884. pp. 44 aq.. 109, 143 
sq. : mnnuacript liatof lAonutiire and Cheshire 
Pr*iU chjipala] A. G. 




HARRISON, 1I0IU:UT (//. 1585?), 
Uruwiiirtt , iimtripulttted a* a pensinner *if St. 
John's rulloge, Ciunbrid^, 4 Oct. 1504, re- 
moved to Corpiw Christ! College, and pro- 
oeedtHl B.A. 1667. M.A. 1572. In July 1573 
bo uppUfd for the post of majrter of the 
grainmiir school of Aylsliani, Norfolk, being 
reconittU'nc)t»d to Ilixhop Parkhurst by the 
mnyor and certain of the uldenuen of Nor- 
wich. The recominendati'in endeavoared to 
^ excuse liurUoa for having raised an objcc- 
fcion to the use of the prayer-book service at 
' ' I mitrriage. The buaop at first refused to 
appoint him, ftllfgiiigthat he was yoiinp, tlmt 
he hrtd rwiMitly suilVred • wiiha phr«?nsy/and 
thnt his olTenct* iu the matter of his marriage 
had bfen committed in spite of the warning 
.of thu vicar, 'Hu'iton, and the schoolmaster, 
fOret-nwixxl. The bisibHp finally gave way, in 
re5^ion.ti* t<i an npp<'iil fmra the chief inhabi- 
tantM of AyUliam, but within a month of his 
uppointmiMit Harrison n'(|ue.sted thnt change* 
might be madt< in the baptismal wrvice on 
the occaf*ion of his being godfather to an in- 
jferit, and hi* was in coti^iMjuenee n-moved by 
|Uie biBhup in January 1574. Uurrtson after- 
[•tranlfi wi-nt toC'mubridgi' with a view to tak- 
ing orders in lltL> KngUsli church. He was 
disauaded by liobert Browno [q.v.],'whom be 
bad known previouKly. Subsequently he be- 
came miutiTof a hosiiital in Norwich, pro- 
b«blv the liOAitital or 8t. Giles, or the Old 
Men » Hospital, which had pome connection 
•with Aylnhnm. Hmivne visited him at Nor- 
wich, and lodgT'd and boarded with tnui and 
hia wifn, In ' A True and Sliorl iV-claraii'in, 
[origin and growth of his friendship with 
Harrijinii, wnora lio puts lirst in the li.<t of his 
bnlprrx and disciples. Acc<*rding to Bro'wne'* 
narrative, llurrison eam« €Y)mplet«ly over to 
biH viewn, nndtht* I wo spent all their energies 
in preaching aiifl eulUyting a congrtvntion at 
Norwich. In April 1581 Biehon !• rcake of 
Norwich Aeut furntal articles or complaint 
iSgWDflt Drowne and llarrioon to Burghlev, 
Fftnd the whole congregation decided to mi- 
gmie tiVMiddelburg in Zindand in the autumn 
of iho (laine yi'ar (1581 ). lIarrii«on,icconling 
to hia own account, i*iitren?d impri^nment 
bufnre leaving Kiitflftiul(-i Littlr Trratw, 
nraf.) At Middelburg the refugtnw cnjoyc-i 
mHHiom of worthiji, antl wrv^tc tracts fxplmn 
ing their views, wliich were (ih)]tpe<l over t.* 
Kngland and tli>tribiitod in largo (|^kiantities. 
Two men wnn* bangM for dtsperHing them, 
■■i^d Hiyal proclamation if*?ued ngninHt them 
• l&KS. ] n » hr pn^Iamat ion Tliirrii»on 
Unetl Hichard. llarriiuui wmte two 
Cohibitetl Uiuks: I. * A LIttk'Tre«- 
Milhe firste verse of the I22nd Psalm. 


Stirring np unto cart-full dt-siringand dutiful 
labouring for true Church Gouvememect, 
U. H.,' 1583, 16mo,reprintedat Loydon, 1618, 
16mo. The preface statea that the book is a 
fragment of a more elnborate work on church 
government, which illne** and the cost of 
printinpprtjvented Harri.-«)n frfim completing. 
2. 'Three fonuca of I'att'chismej. conteyning 
the mofst principal p>intes of Rtligion/ 1583, 
Itimo. The coat of printing the Brownist • 
tracts was apparently borne largely by liar- 
riwn (S. Bkldmlli,, Itmtin^ <^ thi J-ounda- 
tionM<ff BroirnUme, p. xli). Grave disseor- ] 
»ions tMDon anise among the memberB of t-he- 1 
Middelburg congregation (G. Joh»bon. DU' 
covrte i>f»omf Tn>ubU*and Kvrommuiiicatwn* 
in thf banisfufd Knglink (.Tturch uf Amgfer- 
dam). Harrison and Bniwne quarrelled, and 
the latter sailed for Si'ot land with a few foU j 
lowers in November or December 1583, J 
Harrison was now the head of the coagrega-^ 
tion, and made an unsuccessful effort To join 
it to the Conforming Church of English mer- 
chantj$ presided over by Cartwright and 
Fenner. He apparently addresse<l a formal 
letter to Cartwright, who In his reply spoke in 
high tenns of Harri&on. Hnrri&on wn>te a.| 
second letter, and printed it along with Cart- ^ 
Wright's in 'An Answere to Master Cart-j 
Tvright his Letter for joyning with the Eng- J 
lish Churches : wliereunto the true copio otj 
his sayde Letter is annexed,* ftc, Loudon,' 
n.d. 4to. Harrison died about 1585. 

Bettdo§ the works mentioned above Hani- 
eon is credited with: 1. 'Of Ghostcs ond 
Spirites walking by night, and of strangel 
noirses, crackes, and sundry forvwamingwi, 
wliich commonly happen before the deatb of 
menne, great f>lau^hters and alterations of 
kvngdomeA. One Booke. Written bv Lewe* 
Lsvaterus of Tigurine^ and translated into 
Knglyshe by K. H./ London, 4to, 1572 and 
loOG. 2. 'A boke of the forme of common 
prayers, administration of the Sacramentcs, 
Ac, agreeable to Gods worde and the uee of 
the Keformed Churches,* 8to, 158li. 1567]^ 
and po&$iblv 3. ' Master K. H. His letter to^ 
the B. of Norwich,' 1570 (in A Partt of a 
Jif^jUtfr, pn. 365-70). 

' A Theitlogicall Discourse of the Lunb of 

< iixl and 1 1 is enemies,' London, 4to, 1590, often 

': ' I'-xl to Harrison, is by Richard Harrer 

I Mr.XTER, Otnyrf^rtionalism, p. to, 

n^|.. lo; ef. Sthtpb, ^muJ!*, n. ii. oi, moA 

Brook. Pnritm», i. 193). 

[U. M. Dexter, in bis CoognKationalism as 
sern ia it* Litoratore, has sketdbad Barriaon's 
life, <rorTecttng and adding to Coopu^s account in 
AthcDK Cantabr. ii .177. S» also Fuller's Chnrph 1 
Hbd- ed. Brewer. T. 67 ; Brooka'a Cartwright , [^, I 
30ft-fi ; and aatboritifla cited above.] R. B. 

of I 




HAJIRISON, UOBKUT (1715-1802), 

wtliLinatician, was B|)iK)inU»(l maat«^r of 

the Triaity House Scbool in Newcastle on i 
14 Jan. 1767. For several years previoiuily | 
]m hud become well known from tlic part li*i 
look in the courses of lecliiT*'?* estfthU«lied in 
the town in 17^9 by Ituiac Thom8on,printer. 
1 Urri^ton lectured on elementary physica, me- 
cluknicii, and dynamlra, and in conjunction 
with Thomson published ' A Short Account 
of a Course ot Natural and Kxpt'tiroentnl 
PbUoeophy. comprehen<iing MerbanicB, Uy- 
of Optic--* find Artmnoniy'(NBwciii<tIe, l7o7l. 
Amon^thti privale ])upils of Harrison wore 
John ocoU. and bis brother (afterwards Lord 
Eldon and Lord Sto well ). liesides his raathe- 
malical acquirements Unrrison iitliiined a 
at repiitatinn as n linf^iist, and according 
Uichanlson (Lot^l Iliitorian, iil. 21) was 
'^iiainled with almost every known Inn- 
lage.' Aller reaigninff his masterehip in 1 he 
nity House Sch'xvl, he retired to Durham, 
lEved there during the rest of his life. In 
h towns hi* wa»p!ent<rally known aji Philo- 
^ her Harrisiin. In November i(Hi'2 he died 
[Ricfa/inl eon's Local Uistorioa's Tnbjo Book, 
ii. 242, iii. 21.1 K- ^- ^• 

HARiUSON. SAMUEL (17(I0-|H12), 
vocalist, was bom nt Reljier, Derbyshiri', on 
S .Sept. 1760. Burton, a hasw singer, was his 
«&rlie«t instructor. Harrison was trained as 
soprano to aing* solos at the Aneit-nt Con- 
and ot the Society of Sncred Music in 
fi. Not until he was eighteen did his 
lice break (Ltsoss). Hecuitivated hjstenor 
ice with the utmrtst core, and bt>c»nie the 
Vnoat fioished singer of his age. (lt>orge III, 
beanng him at one of the queen's parties, 
had the artist engaged for ibe Hnndei Com- 
memoration, 17*^, 10 open the 'Messiah;' 
be thus sprang intn the notice of musicians 
ami fashionable pe«>ple. He hod mode his 
( apjiearance at the Threr Choirs meot- 
aa principal tenor in 1781, at Ghmoeft- 
T; from l7Wi until 18<)8 he wng at each 
of the Herefonl mwtingw, and from 1801 
till 1808 was a priiioii>ttl also at filoucesler 
4Uid Worcffller. The meeting of iHll was 
Buinag«d by Harrison with others. In I.^ndon 
! WH« a mt>mher of the Catch Club, and 
irfurmed at the Professional Concerts from 
:)nt 1788. ot Saloman's from 17H6, and the 
iety of Sacred Music from 17^*5 uniil 17IH1 
hen Kelly succeeded him). In conjunc- 
n with Ashley, Harrison conducted (mml 
g in) oratorio at Covent (inrden Thtmire 
during (he l^int of 1791; he «ang in the 
DruT^ Lano oratorios in 171M. and at the 

Harrison was principal tenor at the Ancient 
Concerts fmrn l~!^>'i until 1791, when he 
seceded.and, with Charles Knyvett the elder, 
established the ^'ocal Concerts. The first was 
givenonllFeb.l79d at Willis's Rooms, Hero 
excellent perfumiances of Kngliab chamber 
music were provided, but ceased to attract 
after a few seo^ions, Harrison and the chief 
promoters of the enterpriso returning to the 
Ancient Concerts. In 1801 tho Vocal Con- 
certs were rev ived on a much larger scale than 
heretofore, wiih anorchestra; they were very 
successful until newer musical attractions 
drew the public away. In 1821 Ilarrisonrc- 
peated Monie of his most popular performancca 
(see (irove) at his benetit concert on 8 Mny 
181:2. He died of internal inflamumtioo on 
the following 'J^> June at Percy Street. Ha 
was buried in Old St. Pancras gravevard. 
A n inscription on the stone gives Imes by the 
Kev. T. Beaumont (IU>ffe, Monumental In- 
scriptions, So. QiS). 

'Nature had bestowed upon Harrison but 
slender mat«haLs' (Uihuauli), but he had 
leikmt to exetcise complete control over bis 
delicate organ, which was two octaves in 
compass, although limited in power. ' Had 
his physical powers been equal to his taste/ 
wrote acoutemporary, ' Harrison would have 
been in all points uuriralled.* Tho ana can- 
tabiie showed his capacity to most advan- 
tage. His favourite songs were Pepuscb'a 
• Alexis,' Handers ' Lord, remember t>o>'id,' 
and ' Pleasure, my former ways reaigning;' 
Boyce's * Softly rise;' Zingarelli'a 'Umbra 
adorata ; ' Webbo's ' A Koae from her bosom 
had straved;* and in later days, AttwotKl's 
' Soldier's Dream ' and Horsley's ' Gentle 
Lyre ' {Dicttonan/ of Music, 183/ ). 

Harrison married, on 6 Dec. 1790, Misa 
Cantelo, a 'pleosinK and well-toned soprano 
singer, free from English brogue and vul- 
garity' ( BuKNKV ^, Before she married Har- 
rison her musical career run in parallel lines 
with his. She was a favourite at the Ancient 
Concerts and at the Three Choirs fesTivals, 
and earned some measure of praise for her 
performance at the Handel Commemoration 
of 1784. Her style of singbg, particularly 
in its negative virtues, seems to have re- 
sembled llarrlsou's. She died in 1831, 

[Lysons's Aunsl^i of the Thre* Choin, pp. fiO 
«0. &P.; Diet, of Mubic, 1827. p. 833; Grore'i 
I)lct.i. 6<»2,iv.ai8: OwiuMag. i. p. 669; 
Pijld'H Ua^'^hi in London, p. 34, &v.; Uumey'a 
Hnndel ComniemorHtioQ ; Banuonicou, 1B30, p. 
sal ; Quarterly Musical Kariow, i. SI.] 

L.M. M. 

HARRISON, STEPHEN { fl. 1603) 
joiner and architect, is perhaps the 'Stephen 
llarryson, son of Peter Harryson/ who waa 




haptistMl it St.lHonis HockcliuTch, I^ndnn, 
on 2o Mi»y lo"- (Jiryintfr). (ftherwise he U 
linowti only through a very rare volume en- 
titled 'The Archs of Triumph Erected in 
honor of the Tli^h and mighty princi>, Jame«. 
the tint of that name. King of England, and 
the silt of Scotland, at hisMaiestie* Entrance 
and pofisape through his Ilonnmble Citty k 
chamberof I»ndon,^-i)onthe l.'j** day of march 

1603. InvirntM and puhlL^htnl by Hit^pheu 
Harrison Jf>vuer and An-hilec-t: and praven 
hy Willium ^ip.' It is a ihia folio, and ends 
with the colophon: 'Imprinted at London 
by lohn Windet, Printer to tho Honourable 
ditin of I^ndon, and are to be sold at the 
Authors house in Limfr-strt' the ugneof 
thcSuayle. 160-1.' An eu^nvwl title-page is 
followe<i by seven full-psffe engmvingB of 
the triumphal archfs and nine leavea of 
descriptive text, contributed tin-tbably by 
Thoma« Dekker and John AWb}tI«T, whose 
nunei are attached to the odes with which 
the volume opens. Tlie archcawere seven in 
niunber, thouph only five were originally in- 
tended, and qU except thos*- ercctrd by the 
'merchant tsLrangerrt' were d^ignod byllar- 
rifionanderectcd under hi)* super^'ifaiun. Three 
hundred or more workint-n were i'ni]doyed on 
them &om t he beginning of April I o t he end 
ofAugustl603,wlien.on account of the plague 
which wiij; then raging in London, the slate 
entry of the king vtm postponed, end the 
prei»rutinu8 discontinued until Eehrunry 

1604. The arches at W'eat Clieap and Temple 
Bar were then added, and the whole com- 
pleted within six Wf'elc!*. narri!«an'» hook i« 
extremely rare, especially in the first state 
before tht* words 'Are to be sould at the white 
horse in Pope« head Alley,by John Sudbury, 
and Goorgp Humble,' were added nt the foot 
of the title-page. There art> oopies of the 
first iwuc in the Orenville Librar}-, Briti.ih 
Museum, and in the JIuth and Britwell Li- 

[NiehoU'ii Progresses of King JsrafS thu Fin«t, 
1828. i. 328-99; Coner's CoUcctiincn AokI'^ 
Foetieo, 1860~S3, iii. 134-9; Cat. of the Uath 
Library, 1880. ii. 666.} K. E. G. 

1764), religious poctee^, probably bom at 
Ipswich in 17o2. wns one of a large and poor 
family, and entered domestic sen'lce when 
sixteen years of age. Four years after she was 
prostrated bv illness, and ttonceforth became 
a coil finned invalid. Alt liough without regu- 
lar educiilinn, she taught herself lo writ*, 
nnd devfloiM^I mudi poHic liower. She be- 
came rerv pious, end (alludini; to Job xxxv. 
10) colled her verses * Songs In the Night.' 
Sbereluctantly consented to theirpublication. 

In the first edition^ 1780, they are stated to 
be * bv a young woman und«T deep afHtc- 
tion#,'aiid were edited by Dr. John Condw 
[<^.v.] Aaecond edition was iscuad in 17i?l, 
withelevenadditionalpftgi?s. Dr.Condersup^ 
plied st'veral pages nf ' Uecommeiidalioo,' 
and ^Susannah added an acrostic to «ibow bfr 
name. The fourth edition (Ipswich, IT^^) 
was augmented with twenry-two pages of 
wjsthumou--* vrTsen, nnd twelve more nccount- 
mg her reeiguatiuii and giving u<lmonition!t to 
her friends Iwfore she died. Shedletl A Aug. 
1784, and wofi buried in Tucket ;?(reei burial- 
ground, Ipnwich, with an inscription record- 
ing that *ahe wrote "Songs in tho Night."* 

SuBonnah Harriiion's }>oems rF>aehed a 
fifteenth edition in 18^3. All that she wrot« 
is strongly tinctured with religious enthu- 
siasm . Her versification is smooth , although 
Aometimea defaced bv grammatical blunders. 
Tlie influence of Ken is apparent in her 
earlier pieces, and tliat of Cmvper and New- 
ton afterwards. It is evidt-iil that she lud 
read Milton's ' Ode to the Nativity.' 

A portrait (a silhouette | of the authoress 
forms the frontispiece of the first edition. 
She also wrote 'A Call to Bntuin/ seem* 
ingly a broadside, of which many thousands 
were sold in a short time. 

[S. Harrison's Sou^, and the Becommeoda- 
tioD, FrelWce, Jke^ by Dr. Conder; Brit. Mi 
Cat.] M. O. W. 


on in" 

16!Jl ). biblical scholar, was born in London in 
irwudfnwpeclable parents, entered Merchant 
Taylors' ScImkiI in 1570, where he i? Btated 
to have been second in learning only ti 
Lancelot Andrewea, aft erward8hi*>bopof\Vin' 
Chester; he proceeded to St. John's foil 
Cambridge, and graduated B.A. in 1576. At' 
Cambridge hitJ scholarship at tractf^l the notice 
of Dr. Whitaker, who for the excellence of hia 
versea used to call him ' <!uum poetam.* lie 
apparently became a fellow and tutor of 
Tnnily College. Horrison was a puritan* and 
in l'V*9 is mentioned h.-* attending a synodal 
St. John's Cdllege, alnng with Cartwrighl 
and others <1Ukek, UtAtury of St. Jnktii 
Collfi/f, ii. (X)I). He was a noted hebraiei 
and among the revisers of the bible 
bled by jRmesI ; he belonged to the compon; 
of eight who met ut Cambridge, and wei 
allot le<l the * first of Chrnnioles, withthere 
of the storj" and the Hagiogrnpho.' For tin 
last twenty years of bis life he wo* vi 
prt'fect of Trinity College. He died in 1631 
and was buried with some pomp in the cha; 
of his college. A Latin volume in his honoii 
WU8 wrilt«n hy Caleb Ilnlet-hamp; it is 
titled 'narriaomu Honoratua : Id est Horn 

Bra il« Vitn,* kc. (ramliridge, lrt.S*J), Bud 
_ ntuiii«t a m>>Bi;n< otitliiiu of liin life in tlie 
form of a funeral ornlion, 'n-ith aotnc Latin 
obituary verse* to lits memory. 

(Rolfioson's Itegirter of MerchJint Tnvlor*' 
School, i. 15; FnUcr's Church Hist. 1815, 
T. 871-1 II. 13. 

HARRISON, THOMAS, U.U (./7. 1658), 
noucouformi&t divine, bom ai Kiii^stoD-upon- 
lliUl. Yorkshire, was takoD by his finrcnt* 
while a youth to New Ensliind, nnd there 
tmincd up to the ministry, lie beciuae chap- 
lain to the goremor of Virgiuia, an enemy 
of the |iuritan8. Tlie governor, with thecnn- 
nivunce of llHrrison, expelled from Vircinia 
certain miniflters who held extreme views, 
and their expuUion was followed bv a cliK- 
•Jitrous rising among the Indians. This was 
held by many, Harri*on included, to be a judg- 
ment of Providence against the persecutors 
of the expelled preachers. Harrison's change 
of views oL-eusioned liis diamisaal, upon which 
eaine to Ixindnn, and, obtaining f<ome 
De u a preacher, wa^ chosen about UI50 
mieceed Dr. Goodwin in his 'gatbere*! 
burch' at St. Ilunst«nVtn-the-Ea.'^t. Here 
remained for a few yftars. al>er which 
removed to Brombrough Hall, Wirrall, 
hcshire. In 1667 he accompanied Henry 
omwell, when he went to Ireland as lord- 
eat^nant. He lived in Cromwell's family, 
and preached at Chriet Church, Dublin. At 
the Restoration he left Irelnnd. nnd settled 
t Chester, preaching lu large congregations 
1 the cathedral, till he was silenced by the 
ketof UniformitT. From a list of graduates 
; Cambridge from 10 Oct. 1660 to 10 Oct. 
51, it appears! that Harrison took his D.D. 
•re; but according to Ciilamy {Account, 
607) he received it at Dublin. After 
the passing of the .\ct of L'nifonnity he re- 
amed to Dublin, and founded a flourishing 
dissenting churcli of congregational views, 
"^kis elo4{uenee and fluency both in prayer and 
f-oching brought him great notoriety, and 
Lhuny stales that * be was a complete gen- 
eman. much courted for his conversation.' 
hen he died there was a general mouniing 
Dublin. He left behind him n valuable 
bnuy, containing many manuscripts, among 
lem a 'System of Divinity' in a large folio 
written by himself. Hepublisfaed: 1. *Topica 
•SatTa: .S]'irituul I.,ogicK: some brit-f Hints 
and Helps to Fnitli, Meditation, and Prayer, 
"^smfnrt and Holiness. Conimunicjitetl at 
arist Churcli, Dublin, in Irelimd,' London, 
|o8, 12mo. Thi* waa dedicated to Henry 
awell. It b»^nme extremely popular 
ring the end of the seventeenth century, 
ciaUy among tlie poorer classes iu Scot- ' 

land. A second jpart was oddt-d in 1712 by 
John Hunter, minister of Ayr, This wob 
frequently reprinted. A revised and cor- 
rected edition of the first part, under the title 
of 'Spiritual I*leadinp nnd Kxpostulationa 
with Ciod in Pruver, was published bv the 
Uev. Peter Hull wi 1838 in IHran. 2. *'Uld 
Jacob's Account Cost up, &o.; a Fiuieral Sep- 
inon for Lady Su^nnoli Kevnolds, nreaclied 
ttt Lawrence Jewri*,' 13 i'*eb. 165-1; and 
a. 'Threni Hil)ernici, or Ireland sympathis- 
ing with Ltigltind and Scotland In u sad 
Lamentation for the Lo^sof their Josinh;* a 
Sermon preached at Christ (.'hurrh, Dublin, 
on the Death of Oliver Cromwell, London, 
UioQ, 4to; dinlietttedto Mhe most illustrious 
Richard, Lord Protector,* ttc. Harrison pre- 
fixed ' An Epistle to tJie Header' to ' I^em- 
mata Meditationum, kc. By Philo-Jesim 
Philo-Carolus,' Dublin, 1672, Hvo. 

[ralmsrs NoDConfuroiist's Memorial. 1602, 
i. 330, iii. 17<; WilwjnV Hial. of DissentinK 
Churchw. t. 221-3; Hist, of the Writers of Ire- 

isnd, writirn in I>ulin Ity Sir Jaroox Ware, , . . 
tnintJalpdbyWjilterlUrriji. Dublin. I63il.p. 343; 
Notes tiDfl Quorifs. 2ad ht. i. 94, 181.] R. B. 

HARRISON, THOMAS (1606-1660), 
regicide, was, according to the most prohablo 
accounts, the son of a butcher or grazier at 
Newcaalle -under- Lyme, Staffordshire (A 
Compfftr Cothction of the Zive^, SpfecAes,qcc. 
of fh'ifr Permng latelji ejTcuted, brj a Perion 
uf QtinlHy, 14(61, p. 1 ). It is states! that he 
was baptised I'JJuly 16C»6 (Life of Harrison, 
appended to the Trial of CAarleti I nnd nwrur 
of tht liegicides^ 18^1*, p. :W3), but the entry 
is not to be found in the register of New- 
cnstle-under-Lvnie. In an account of Harri- 
son given in Air. F. A. Indenft'ick's * Side- 
lights on the Stunrts,' be is described as of a 
good Durham family; but all contemporary 
evidence connects him with Statlbrdsbire, 
and agrees lluit his family was nf low rank. 
Harrison seems to have Ufn well educated^ 
and WHS then placed by his father 'with on 
attorney, one Mr. Hulk of Clidbrd's Inn* 
( Otmpl^'tr Collrctitm, p. 1 ). According to 
Ludlow Harrison waa one of the young 
men from the Inns of Court who enlltted in 
Essex's lifeguard in lt>42(jVem«>)t,ed. 1751^ 
p. 17). In HU4 be was 8i'r\ing in the Eorl 
of Manchester's army as major in Fleetwood's 
regiment of horse; took part in the battle of 
Marston Moor; and was sent ailer the battle 
to rt!port to the committee of both kingdoms, 
and, according to Raitlie, ' to trumpet all over 
the city' the praises of Cromwell and the in- 
dependnnts {Lfttrrt,^. Idling, ii.:i09; Man- 
ehr»tfr'» Quarrtl vitA Cntmtrftl^^.'i'l'). With 
IHeetwood Harrison entered the new model f 




_ ^ifeirnt at 'S»M:fiy And LftngtK- 
I 0ifi(tir*-« of Wrnch<«trT and I 
hi. f t»xfnfd (SrttirHii:, Aii^lut 

^ fc- -^i, pp. :«, MO, 151, :.'(«;. j 

•on l» the doorkutfpn- of BI*ck- 

Innri iMuihuaM, und ih*! marquis** mi^, ' 

with nn own baadi, a* tl)i>^ w«re setting 

ovt'f lhf> wiyrk** ( Mrmtntu C'irieiu,ft-lOOct. ^ 

^ 1<V4.' ; Hrur'KiK^ p, ir^l ). A siorj mSUmnrda | 

* drruUt«Kl nmonft tlio roraliaU tost Harriaon i 

1 ha'i 'hfit IM>inwn wito a pUtol when he 

' Jind laid <lfywn bU anna, M;nDg» * Cursed in 

he that d'wth the wurk uf the Lr)rd ne^li' \ 

^onl 1 y ' ( W ftiuiiT, UUtoria Iliatrionifn ; Cl ii- 

■ KK, AftoltM/y, tyil. l>twt>, i. xxlx). KicliarU 

B»xt<?r, with whom llarrifm bt^camc ac- ' 

qijuinlvd (luring hinfu-nice in tht>ni!WmrMl«;I, 

Wfit«'» of him : ' II" wouM not dinjmte with 

niit at all, but lu! woiitil III fj;o(>d diifCOUTK 

ix'ry fhiiMifly iMJiir out bimiHill' in the extall- 

iuK "f Vrvv Unco, which wmi very Bu*'oury 

io (how that liiid riKbl iirlnciphH, thoiitfh liu 

]iii<l Rnriio iniHiindi'rxtnn'Ittt^ of l''rt>u Uruct; 

I )iimi'<<ir. tl*< wnn II iiinii ofi^xccllrnl natural | 

I parLfl fur aH'ttclioii mid onitnry, hut nul. wt>ll | 

I #ii>n ill lliK priiiriiilt's of hi« ri'li^ion; of a 

Mtigitino I'oniidi'Xioii, nnttintlly of such n 

vivarily, hilnnty, and nUcriry, at iinolher 

Hum halh wht>ii lu- hnlh druiiktMi a cup too , 

niuch; hut tin) urally also su far from humble 

thou^htll of liimwtf (hut it was his niiD.* 

]|ii]it«>r WAN Mtaiulin^ hy Hnrrison nt l.nnf;- 

jMirt when Ihii n)yiilij«ts lH>f:un to run, and 

lionrd him 'witli a loud voici' hn>ak forth 

into thi> jinu«'« of (lod with fluunt cipn'H- 

liionM. a* if lu" had hw»n in » rniMuro' i./£*^ 

AyMfV Htirtpnunrr, Itt'.HI, pp, ,Vt, fiD. 

In HVItl lUrhnoit (•nti'nnl {>nrliAniitnt as 
int'iiiliitr for \\'i«mlovt'r (A'tiwirj* ^^ Knight*, 
iUtitntf, and /)«iycA.«M, i\v., ItU>(, 4tol. Hi* 
military ri>|tutiilion wait tht>n no high that 
l.ortl LtPih*, whon itpnoiut<Hl lord-Uoutfnant 
cif Irvhiiid. ndhiil fur llnrnitoii tn mtvo under 
him t^'JA Jnii, ltl-17). lit* n'turiKHl to Eu^ 
land III Mav, and was thankinl hy the com- 
iiiuna fitr fiifi svniit't ^fViMMoN/ JaumnU^ 
V. (U, \iMS^. In thiMiuiirri'l IhUwiyii thoarmy 
and tht> |mrtiamt'nt ilnrriiiiui »idrd with the 
former. «i)fniH! thoh-iirrof iheolBwrsto (bo 
rily iif to Junr ltU7. and was oiw of those 
ii|»|Ktiniist l>\ I'ttirfax to (r^-At with \\w par- 
Uaweniary c«uuuii!uitimoni ( KimnwiiKTM, vi. 
Aft&, <Mt), I'airfax tf«\«^ htm tho >Mminand 
I 4tf lb* rMTtmeikl of l^(Wi« whioh hid Uvn 
t C\^on«(| iMMnffiald'a. Xn Xowmbcr Harrison 
dtvUnrtl hia mcMvum pnlitieal Ti«w« br op- 

foaittfr further mv^^lUtious with thv \xnf, 
a a mm : - n ^m 1 1 Nor. ItUf, W 

aMk^km>.> ( ht> IrfisUU^'^ pow«« of 

tM M^mhh> of Loc^b^ aiU il —o m w ini (Swrina 

■Tis^lf aa a * naa of blor^* who sboald bii 

Ued to ao accouot ( Clarkr Papen). 

I>uring the second ciril war HaTrisODserrvd 
in tbi* northern army under lAm.beit, and 
diatragiliabed himsnlf by his daxing on 1 8 Julv 
1640| wheo Langdale i4nrprieed Lamberts 
qaarrcn at Applaby. With a few troopen 
he ched[«d tile enemy's advance, * and being 
moro funronl and bold than hiti men did 
seoood him ; having bold himself of one of 
the enemy's borao colours he reeeired thre« 
wounds' (KrsHwoRTH,Tii. 1^1), Amonth 
later his reffimuiit played a prominent part 
in the buttle of Preston, but it ia donbt^ 
whether Harrison himself wa^ present. Is 
NovcmluT IiL» was actirely negoUatlng with 
Lilhurnea n>conciliation between the army 
Uodcm and the levollere, and took part ui 
drawing up the agreement of the people (LlL> 
BUKXE^ Thr Jjtyalt Ftmdammtaf LAertief of 

Harrison was very xealoas in bringing Iks - 
king )o trial. Under special instnictions firom^ 
Cromwi-ll and Iivlon, he escorted the 
from Ilun-l Caatle to London. CharIee|Wl 
had been told that Harrison bad ofiered to ■s*' 
sasjiinato him, wim attracted by his soldierly 
bearing, and told Herburt *that having soma 
judgment in faces, if ho had otiser^-fd him «Q ^ 
well before, he should not have that ill opinion ^ 
ofhim'(IlEKBEBT, ,Vw«oi'r*,ed. ITIW.p. 140). 
1 larrisou iLisured the king that the report wsi 
not 1 nte ; what he had really said was * that 
the law was equally oblifiing to great and 
pmall.Bnd that justice had no respect of per-, 

1 le was present at n«\rly ever;' meeting of the 
high court of iustiw, and signed tht* death- 
warrant. To tlie last he always ju»li£ed I 
action, and wa.o cnnvinct^il that it met wi' 
divine approbation (TriaU of tA^ 
p. 50). 

llarri-ton did not accompany Cromwell ti 
Ireland, though in the nrayer-meet ing wluch 
took place previous to Cromwell's departore, 
he 'expounded some places of scripture ex- 
cellently well and perlini>nt to the occasion 
(WuiTKLOCKS, MmutriaU^ ^\. 1853, iii. 
ile was nominated to the council of stati 
-when tliat b«>dy wa« constituted in January 
lt>4l>, hut wa$ not actuallv elected to it till 
10 Keb. ItUl I Ommow' ^o«rM/». vi. 532). 
In June 1660 Harrison waa one of tbo«« en- 
trusted by the coiueil of state to paraoade 
Fairfax to accept the command of tbe expedi- 
tion to i>cotIand ^WHiTKLocKBfiii.907> i 
UUar which he addressed to Cromweu, a| 
bit iiBdvrtaking that pos'^ sbows ehm ' 
uacv wiib tbe future Protector ( Elus, 
^mmi letter*, IV iii. S&SV During 
weli'a absanica Uanixw wta appointed to lbs 



chief military cominiLnd in Kngtantl (Com' 
MOfU* Journals, '2\ June lOuO). On liH Oct. 
16G0 he reviewed the nt*wlr rniMKl milttja 
forces in Hyde l*ark {Merruritts Pttiift'cu^). 
In the following Mnrcb rumours of plot» in 
the north led the council of state to send him 
to the border. He had under him wmeiti/jOO 
newly miwd horso of doubtful quality i l^AJt- 
LTLE, CrvrntceU, Appendii, 20'; Cal. State 
iV^rt,l)om.lti51.T>p.92,102, 149). When 
Charles II marcheu into England Harri^oa 
reccired order* fnini Cromwell 'to attend the 
moUoos of thft enemy, and endeavour the 
keeping of them togellier, tut altKi to imp^^lo 
hia«dTAnc«'{('ABT,ii.2D4). On 1.) Au^.ltsni 
}Iftrrt$on joined l^mhert and the cavalry de- 
lAched from ( 'romwL>irft army At Pn'«ton, and 
mAdfl &n luuucccasful attempt to stop the 
roralifttt on lit Aug. at Knutsford. Af^er 
tau battle of AVorceflter, in which he took 
part. Harrison was charged with the pursuit 
4jf tlie dying' niyali^l!*. and followed up the 
victory so en^Tfjeiicallv and skilfully that 
very few escaped (IlarriiiouV Irtter!' rehitinp 
to thia campaign are printed in State lifter* 
addrefaed to Oliver Cromwrll, 1743, p. "1; 
Old I'nrliamentfirif Hilton/, \o\b. x'lx., xi. ; 
Cahy, Memorials o/ the CirU War, ii. 295, 
300,373). Like Cp>m\vcll, Harrison utilised 
lh.« Yictori- to recommend the mrliament to 
improve 'this mercy ineatttblishinpthe ways 
of hghteousnesa and justice, yet more re- 
lieving the oppressed, and opening a wider 
d(»or to thepublialiing the everlasting gospel' 
lCART,iL37r»). Ilixown Z4*al for justice had 
been shown in IG^jO by procuring the ejtjiul- 
»n of Edwonl Howard, lord Howard of Ea- 
ick [q. T.jfrom parliament for taking bribea 
TLrtoLow, ed. 1751. p. 129). He took pnn 
in Pecember IftTil in the conference concern- 
ing the settlement of the kingdom armnged 
by (.>omwell, and waa one of the prvmiot*ra 
oftheamiy petition of 12 Aug. I(Jo2(\Vhite- 
Lorci:, iii. -'(72). Contemporary evidence re- 
prNtenta Harrison as pressing urgently for 
the dlMuslution of the T.x>ng parliament. 
Cromwell complained that lie was too eager. 
' Harrison,' be said, * is an honest man, and 
asms at ^ood things, yet from the impatience 
■^biit .spirit will not wait the Lord's leisure, 
hurries me on to that which ho and nil 
iFst men will have cause to n>pent ' (Li'D- 
XAW, MtMoira, ed. 1751, p. 171 }. Harrison 
liimHlfsoine yean later explained to Ludlow 
that be had aa5ifite<l in the expulsion of the 
parliament, ' hGciLu.>(e he wan fully p^-rituadi-rl 
that they bad not a heart to do any more 
sood for the Lord and bis people* {ih. p. 2iri). 
Uewu in his place in the bouse on 2U April 
1663, and i^ke against the passing of the act 
forcallinganewrepresentative assembly. He I 


! stAte.*) that he was not previously acquainted 
with Cromwell's determination to resort to 
force, but he did not hei«itute at Cromwell's 
bidding to lay hands on the apenker, though 
be later denied using force to fetch him from 
the chair (Several J'rweedfnffa in Parlia' 
me'?it, 14-21, April 1 6-53 ; ( Ulectiim of Livea, 
Speeche*, &c. p. 9; Lt'Di-ow, p. 173 J. 

Authority was now vested for a time In 
the hands of a small council of thirteen pei^ 
ttona nominated hr the officers, and Hamson 
I was preeident of jt during the third week of 
its existence. Some wished the supreme 
power to continue In the hands of a council, 
but, Harrison urged that it should l>e in- 
trusted to nn assembly, to consist, like the 
Jewish 'sanhedrim,' nf some *tf?ventv selected 
nersons (Ludlow, p. 17«). This policy was in 
lact adopted in the summoning of the Bare- 
bones parliament, of which Harrison was 
n co-opted member. Over the majority of 
that body he esercif^ed great influence, and 
with it!< extinction his own political career 
ende«1. Roger Williams de^ribe» him ns 
head of the party of tifty-six who were for 
the abolition of priests and tithes, and * the 
second in the nation of late,' adding, * he is 
a very gallant, most deserving, heavenly man, 
but most high-Hown for (be kingdom of the 
Saints, and the Fifth Monarchy now riiiten, 
and their sun never to set ogain,' &c 
( ft'iUianui, 1834, p. 261). 

Harriixin had bcMt one of the council of state 
elected on 3 Nov. 1 IWV), but was left out of that 
appointed under the instrumimt of govern- 
ment in Deoember IG.'iS. Refusing to own the 
new government be w as na t urally deprived of 
his commission, 22 Dec. 1663 (Thubi.oe, L 
(J41). 1 le says himself : 'When I found those 
that were aa the npplo of mine eye to turn 
atiide,Idid loathe them and HuS'ered imprison- 
ment manv years. Kuther than to ttuntus many 
did that did put their haudii to this plough, 
I chofle rather to be separated from wife and 
family than to have compliance with them, 
though it was said, *'^it at mr right hand" 
and such kind of expressions ( TriaU of the 
lietjicidea, p. 50). On 3 Feb. ie&4 be was 
ordered to retire to his father's bouse in 
StBrt'ordsbire, and not to leave till further 
order (tV*/. Suitr Papent, Doni. 1653-4, p. 
387). In September 1054 the anabaptists 
projected presenting a petition to porliament, 
and Harrison, who wus susjx^ted of directing 
thi'ir Kiovementf, wos for a few days in cus- 
tody. Cromwell then sent for him, enter- 
tained bim richly, expostulated with him, 
and finally dismissed him with a simple ad- 
monition 'not to persevere in those evU ways 
whose end U destruction ' (TuritLoE, ii. OOtl; 
Cal. Oarmdon Papers, ii.^i^). Itwasof^cn 




Rportad tliBt Iliiiiw had 
* ■ tti a uinj t «ilk tJbB nTmHfltt 
(Turaum, t 7«r m- M5^ Ttrnk vm- 
iiuli attonff tke ■■■fcfrirti n wiii J aaew 

. «f ife cDvoiMia, nd <■ 

FUk. MM OwiflM «M SMtai aaa 

to f^iiah h CtaAfe (A in. 

■H Afi&wb IS-SS F«k I6S6 ; 

^^-^ — iH^JgtaiU iiiili m to fc» iiy i w uM - 
w zvootOBo t^ ■is Sdjuv-wflBRir 
I JqAb Bofcn (RosBM, Z^fr «W C^i ' i m i m y 

I la Manfc 16Se Uamiaa vm wJwrf nd 
^allovBd to Un it Higlieote wHIi \m ^amUtj 
i7%t fWfir ImiriHfrmrtr, 31 Mutfc mad 
7 Aiml l<tS«; Ronan, p. ?77>. la AivU 
. J^biVetm^t itmtfittiy vw d a eor m n i , bot 
I tto^^^tWeyidalceqf^wcoaiy^^■^OI»t^^e^»- 
t obItb* proreii tbat Huximb bod rrfiiiPil to 
toke port ia it, fe VM «gun fcr o cise UHder 
aatat Ctmvmxam, tL IfU. 185). However, 
|w F tfci o oi i 106B a more d*ogcffoaft plot 
lotoli^t, in which UajTuoD wuaud to 
I be dee^ unpltcoied, and be ww fin §etit 
I fte tbelW«r (Bmoy, Diary, Hi. 448, 494 ; 
Mercuriu* PfMticu*^ 4-U Febt 1657-8). Ib 
tbeaommerof ]650ti>ei«wenrii]noazsof mn 
■ntMided anabaptist ioMneetioD to be beaded 
br llarruoa. bat be oeema to baTe taken no 
part wtiatever in the political moTOBCBta of 
tbai troublouH vear ( Cbrm^on State Bmpen, 
iiLtf9r4BI). XiiiinactiTitfwaadoabUeeadue 
bfgtty to the iDJurr his health had ftutainrd 
bf voands and nnprisounenta. At his exe- 
, Cdioa bis bands and kneee woe seen to 
InnUe. ' It is by reaaon of mocb blood I 
Iwro lost in the wars,' said HanisoUf * and 
mUBif wounds I have n^ceived tn my bodr, 
[ 'Vbidi caused thin shaking and wea£nees in 
BV nenres. I bare had it this twdre vean * 
(VaUtetion^LitieMand SpeecAea^ Sic, p. IS). 
Milientbe Restoration approached^ Harrison 
nffuAed fitber to gire a Terfoal pledge not to 
disturb the (fovemment, or to «av« his U(W 
by Riffht.' * If I had b«#*n minded to run 
away, Mid he, *1 might h«Te had manr op- 
ponuniri*riL But beia^rsu clear in the thing, 
I durst not turn my back nor &1ep a four 
out of lbs way by reason I had been engaged 
ia tbe seiTioe of so ^bmoiu and peat a God ' 
iib. p. 10). Accordmgly, early in Slay 16U0 
be wa» arrested at his own boui>e in Stuflunl- 
shire by Colonel John Bowyer, and com- 
initttvl lo llie Towi?r(LiDLOw, ed. 1761, p. 
^5; O/tnmon/ JaumnlM, vUi. 2'J, 39). lit' 
was one of the seven wpmihs originaJly cx- 
Gopted from the Act of Indemnity (June ^i), 
Aiid was bixmghl to trial on 11 Oct. 1G6U. 
In hti dafintoe llarriiton justified the kind's 
execution, and pleaded that he had acted in 

tbe a^M ^tbe psiliaaral of Fwlawd and 
hr d«r utboei^. 'Maybe I m^bt be a 
little aiiirtki a, bat I aa it all acemtf ag to 
tbe best of mj laibiilMiiliii^; deairinc to 
■abe Or w wahsl viQ of Ood in bis holy 
s ui^ i uu a a a f^|^ ^ o^' (TVisIr of the 
Fi If if I a, ^ «0). He wu c nnd s m a e d to 
destb, sail was executed at Charing Gkwa 
oa 13 Oct. lan. Ob tbe «aftiU itaaK aa 
ibiiiiigbaalbiiliial.TIaniaia artflatedtncb 
niianai'—d ma^mamm^ *Wben is jovr 
gaodaUoMMMSTfaida ■ooOvintbe 
ervwd. Ilnina, vilb a saule, cU^ped In* 
band oa bb Wnat and said, * Hoe it is, 
■ad I am goiag to seal ii whb ibt blood 
{litem, Apnobes, Jtc, p. Ifi). Pem, wbo 
irilBiiMriil Uft daub, dweDsoa tbe dwerfiil- 
! aoM wkb wbidb he s al i atJ , wbile Nicholas 
, oaanbiaa of tbe bardaeaaaf bis heart (Z>ia/3r, 
IS Oct.; CkL aaie P^^tr*, Dam. 1600-1, 
DL 31:;>. >ianag tbe > iftb-^mmarchy men 
HairiMai was legarded as a martyr ; and a 
reaort spi i sil that he was eoon to riee again, 
jadge bu jndgee, and restore the kingdom of 
thesainta. ToUusprapbecyCoirleTnEffersin 
tbe ' Cimer of Cotesaan street.' iiL 12 (see 
alaoPBTTNlSOcLiaeO; Cat State Ptmpen, 
Dom. 1660-1. p. 660). 

[Lires of Barrisoo w eootaiasd ia A Coi^ 
tJete GoOectioa of tbe Line, Speeebes, and 
Pmyivs of tboae Panooa lately Exerated. by a 
PSnOBofQaality. 1661; Woods Futi. t&49, sd. 
B]ia«,pi.ii. p.130; yobU'sIiresof tbeRegieidss, 
179S, i. 300-36; Go>]vin'« C<^niminim<ikltb «f 
Ei^laad. ir. s;0; Tri^ of Charlw I sod arasoT 
tbe Begiadss, with liiagmphies of Brsddiaw, 
Irctoa, Hairisoo, nod oUicn. 181S. Morray's 
Family Library. roL ixxi. ; Mr. ladcnricVB ^Ud• fl 
Logfats 00 the '.Sttun^ p|*. 3S4-90. I\>rtraiu c/t^^ 
BurisoD &re to be found id Mr. Tnderwtek's book, 
p. 244. aD<I in the 1717 ediiioD of CUnadoo's 
RebsUioo. Other aiithahties as mbors-l 

HARRISON, THOM^VS (1693-1745)^1 
baptist minifiier and ycM;U bom in Il?93, wa"" 
the son of Thomas tlanieon, the miniate 
of a baptist coogr^ation meeting at L^rinersl 
llall, Lon<lun. He was first oiled to th 
ministn' by the congregation of baptists t 
which \ke belonged, meetinf; in Jniners* HikU.*L 
I From 1715 to 17:K> he was Ihf pastor of thai 
particular bapt i*t church in LittleWild Street.^ 
In 172t* be confnrmfd to the church of Enc 
land ; through the iufluence of relsXires ot 
tained orders, and was inducted into tba^l 
vicunigL' of KadcUffe-on-the-Wreke, l^ioea- 1 
lenthire. He preached and imbliched a me~ 
mon in justification nf his change of views, 
which was answered by the famous 'Orator* 
. Uenlev [st* H Ry LEY, JoHSj in a tract entitled 
{ *A fluid's Guide for the Rev. Thomas liar- 




son/ kc. Harrison dii?ii tiO March 17K», and 
aa buriod in St. Pete-r'n churchyard at St. 
Ibaiu. Ite was the author of ' Poems on 
ivine Subjet'ld, in two Part*/ 12mo, pp. S4, 
ondoQ. ITU). ?H!\vnil of thf hymni< in this 
rolume becaint' itopuliir, and %vHrr r»?printt'd 
tpeatedly iu collectiun.i. He also publishfd 
' IVlU'Tihazzar; or the Heroic Jew,' I2mo, 
Sereral of his sermons were printed 
epamtely darinf^ his lifctiiue. 
[J, Irimej-'B Hist, of tiie fiaptinO, lii. 5B8 ; 
ttker's Biog. Draniat. p. 312 ; WiWoii'a Di?- 
enting Charcbe«, ii. 008; Notes and Qiu'rie?. 
8nd 9«r. riii. 9(1, 139; Xichola's Leicestershiro, 
1 iiL pt. 1. p. 38'i 3 R. B. 

HARRISON, THOMAS (1744-1829), 
' arc}iit«<:t, bom in I744ut Richmond in York- 
shire, w&s of humblo origin, but early dis* 
dD^iAhed himself by hi» knuwledfrf^ of arith- 
metic, drawing, and mechanic.^. lie had the 
Cid fortune to attract the attention of Sir 
wrence Dundas, by whose liberality he was 
at in 1769, with Georpe Ciiit the eUnr 
Iq. v.], the landscai«-pamter, to study in 
Italy, and waa for several years a student in 
' Rome. In 1770- he made a deaipn for Popo 
Clement XIV for the decoration of the cor- 
tile of the Kelvt.'dere. Ho al(*o prepared other 
dengns for Ihtt pnilM^lliMhment 01 the piazza 
near the Porta del Popolo, for which the pope 
bprvscnted hlui with a gold and a silver medal, 
Iwad ordered his name to be added to the 
IvuBnbers of the academy of St. Luke, with a 
; in the council of that body. He returned 
to London in 177<5. and in 1777 exhibited hia 
modal drawinp*. Shortly HflerAvard.-* he was 
|;CaramiaBioned to build a brid>,'e over the Ltinc 
kit lABCUter : tbo fir^t stone was laid by 
I m in 1783, and the work completed 
lin 17^^. It has fire elliptical arches of sixty- 
Ibine feet span, and U paid to be the Urfit 
bridge with a level surface erected in Eng- 
[land. He also rebuilt Lancaster Castle in 
Ithi* liolhic style, and designed other impor- 
Itant buildings in that town. Hinplanttin 
lie Grecian Doric style for rebuilding the 
dtle at Chester were selected in competi- 
ItiOR ; tbey include a prison, coiuity assize 
Eeourts, armoury, exchequer, and gateway. 
|Tbe*e buildings wer»» erected between 1703 
Imud IB'JO, and an? wholly of stone, no iron 
loir timber being used iu any part of th» walls, 
|C«ilingN floors, or staircases. Thi^ was the 
Ifirst prison built on the panoptical arrange 
[tnenr in this country. In 1827 he erected 
[the celebrated Uroevenor Bndg« over the 
IHm At ObBBter, Irom designs he had prepared 
-•one yrara before. This consi^t^i ofa i-ingle 
arch of two hundred feet span, a then un- 
equalled dimension, and is of such singu- 
larly beautiful proportions as to convey little 

idea of site to a casual ohfter^er. This anJ 
the cattle which stands near aro Harrison's 
best -known works. He erected Ihu obelisk on 
Moel \'amm4u, Henblgh shire, to commorao- 
mte the jubilee of fieorge III, the column to 
Lord Hill near Shrow.-bury, and that toLonl 
Angleseaut Plas Newydd. In Lirerjiool he 
vraa the architect of the Athenteum, the Ly- 
ceum, the theatre, the St. Nicholas's Tower, 
and other well-knonii building^: in Manches- 
ter of the Portico, the Exchange Uuildinga 
( lSOO),undthoTheatreRoyal(burDtiu 1S4!1). 
He was also employed in erecting manvpublic 
buildings and mansions for the nobifity and 
Sentry, not only in Lancashire and Cheshire, 
but in various parts of England and .Scotland. 
He built Hroomball, Fi('e.^uire, fur Ixjrd IClgin 
( 179t.}). Harrison suggested to that noble- 
man, on his appointment to the embassy at 
Constoutinople. that he should obtain caste 
and drawings of the works of art at Athens 
and other places in Greece*. This reauUed 
in thai uiagnificonl collection, the Elgin mar- 
bles, which wore purchased by the nritish 
Museum in 1816. Harrison died at Chester, 
lit* March I829,aged H,'i, and wns buried in tho 
churchyard of St. Brido. .\ bu8t of Harrison 
wa.s presented by hi.<> nephew John 10 the Insti- 
tute of British .-Vrchitects in 183H,aud theru 
is an engraved portrait of him by A. R. Burt, 
dated Cheater, I May 1824; in the background 
Chester Castle is shown. He exhibited fivo 
works at the Royal Academy between 1773 
and 1814. 

MoHt of his designs were in the revived 
classic style that suited the tosie of his time, 
and such specimens as the Manchester Ex- 
change, the Lyceum in Liverpool, and Wood 
Bank Hall, StOL'kport, serve to show his suc- 
cessful adaptation of this styleto buildiDesin- 
tended for various purposes. They also liavo 
the merit of thoroughly convenient interior 
arrangement and excellent oonatruction. 

[Architectuml.Hociety'aDict. ; Redgrave's Diot. 
of Artists of the English School ; prirate infor- 
mation.] A. X. 

(1808-1888), civil engineer, liom in Sunder- 
land on 4 April IfiOfi, was son of "William 
Harrison, who was engaged there in the ship- 
ping buaineas. ^Vfter a short education at 
Kepier grammar school, he was apprenticed 
to Messrs. Clwpman, onginocre and surveyors, 
in Newcastle, and soon showed remarkable 
I efficiency. Hebec&meacquointedwithGeorge ', 
Stepb enson and his son, and assisted t he latter 
in some important engineering operations. 
Harrison surveyed part of the line for the I.<<m- 
don and Birmingham railway, and that of t he 
StauhopeandTyne railway. The latter under- 
taking included the WtiU-kao^-n Victoria 


Bridge, with ft heifrhl of 157 fnet mnd arvluv 
of 340 Uft ap&n, ihi* whole of which was 
huill on Uammm*» pUiu, naA&t hii tmine- 
limu iiii|H'>rint«nd«ttea. Cftlwr eitgaf«ii«nu 
which b« m ec nm t vMf Cfciriad <mt w rmilwaj 
•ngnxorwar* th« huitat of ths N«wcaitle 
am) Otrlwlt* niilwaT,thc York and lJoncaal«r, 
tlii' Hull and S«*liiy, thi* Twccdmouth and 
KvIiM.nnil viihdUM ntln-r lino*. He was also, 
otmjnmiiy vfiiU Uohi-rt Stephenson, rngioeer 
f()r tliv ronAtnirti'in uf tK*Tvrtil imporiant 
worlfn, tlii.1 muMt fumoim IxMrt^ the hi^h Ivv^'l 
bri<l){n U'twtun Ni'wcn*«tl»' and Uiitt>nhoaJ. 
Wlii-n iWirrt Ht<'plifni>'ifi rotin-d from work 
NM niilwnv cnginrtT, HorriAnn becAine en- 
ifinrrtr-in-chicf uf Uii- York, Npwciwtl**, and 
IW'rwipk lint', and tho suco's* ultimatuly 
AiBchml wu« largely duo to hin energ}' and 
pt}Wvnu( <tTgati\Mtvm. In 1858 he designed 
Hill] c*rrii'd iiur tin* .Inrrowdurkn, with »L>rc- 
r»I n>iii»rliitl>lt<it])]>]inii('«ii)rh)'dniiilic p<Jwer, 
hikI iifl orwiinlH il<wi)f nod 1 hn Hurl 1i<{k>oI dtickii. 
On l.'l Jun. 1871 bn d*divi!rM the inaugural 
adflri'M HI |irii«iidiint nfthc In8lir.ut« of Civil 
l'Jt^)n(>iini. llitrrison diivl at N«*n-ca«tle on 
'JO March IHW. 

ITl niM luid NnvnufUo lhu\y Clirun iclu, 2 1 March 
18. 1 K. ti. A. 

HAURTflON, WILMAM ^1534-1593), 
l«|iit|frn|ilu'r, clirKiiologrr, and limlnrian, wos 
hftrii in Cordwiiinrr Htnwl (or How Ijane), 
l^tinditn, on IH April \M\, * lioru II. mi- 
iiul. J, Mirunda M. Ho w»m odiimtod first 
■t Si. rnurx S^^IumiI nnd thHti (hi* oayH) at 
*W\«(inMiMiir Schmd, in wliirli I wfls somts 
tiinti nn vnpmlitahio ifrnmninrian nn(U>r tho 
ivnonmil^tiM'l Aluxandrr] Nowcll' 
[q.r.J, * nnw d- niu' o(" I'nutivi; ' llit-n at Ctim- 
liridp* in inrd, nnd iilX^TWnnU at Christ ' 
(.'linivli, (Ixt'ttnl, wlit'n> lif f^mdoHt^l R.\, I 
IftiVt nnd MA. I-VIO, lj»T»'r llarriiit^n was 
I'liiipUtn to Sir Wdliam Mr>.>iiko, lonl Cob- , 
Iwiin, who (r*vi» him tht» n»ctory of Itnd- ; 
wiiitnr in Kjwx, In which hi< wiui ituliicttHl ^ 
lUi lit Kob. lAtVt M. and uhivh \w huld till i 
hi* diHith. ihi 1*S Jan. hVO-l houblnined i 
alMilho vicnratf" uf Winitufdi in Kmax fr\'>m 
I-'niucia dv la \Vi>4x1, but roMi^ntxl it in tlu> 
autumn of I'lHl. Ily KiTl hi> had tnor- 
rit>l Maritm Uidirandt\ ' tUu^hlor to Willmm 
Ifti'bmndi' and Ann hiti wifo. tMimt'tymic of 
Andtmto. iiiM^n' vuto Ouiaufiii in Ptcarditt.* 
t>u V;l A^nl ir»stt Harrison wu appomt»d ( 
cNiuonof WiiiiUnvr.and 4n!it«lladUM><U^ftft«r. i 
At ^Vtnth^^r hi' diinl in IfiBflLMid hw vill 
datMi at Uadwinlcr. ^7 JuW ISOl— was 
nn.tin'*! by his hui Kdniund on £2 Not. IfiUS^ 
lU htft iil«-> Au MumarnM vUnirhtvr. Auw. 
Mt>l on*'!' !«^r morriM to Rohvct 

IWkrr. '■ • > hb wilk 

^Mw Klu*W(h'»t>n»t«r,Kaf«MliiW(4fe 


' [a. T.], pUttned 'an Tiuwraan CoMMcnnbir 

o( tba whol« world whh partietilarlui- 

tones of eoeiT known^ natioo.* and »-'-'--ir-' 
HorrtMrn's help in it. Aft>>r twenty :. 
yean* work at the schem* W'oUe di«d abou: 
157(1; hia suctsesaon narrowed his plan tb 
descriptions and histories of EngUnd, SooC- 
Und, and Ireland, and for this work narrison 
wrote his 'OescripCton of England 'and tunnd 
into English BeUendea'a Soottiah tzMwUcwB 

io>16-7), and his English version of Belleti- 
f\vn appeared in Holinnhed'i* * Chronicl«,'^ 
vol. ii. The latt«r took him * thrpe or fou 
duics.* Two unprinted work* bv Har 
apparently compiled as port of AVol&^ 
scheme, are in the diocesan Hbrarr at 
in Ireland : three big folios, vols. u. iil. it 
of Ids 'great Chronologie,' 'which he " 
gathered and compiled witti most exqu 
diligence* (C'Aro«. iii. A 4, ed. 1587), 
the Crest ion to February 1 502-3, t wo montlu 
before hia death; and his much-correct«<l 
maiin»rript on weights and measureSf He- 
brew, Grei'k, English, &c., dau-d ISd7. Tit 
pasted hiH correct ioux Over his mistakes; the 
PHAt« has periAhinl, imd the correction-aUps 
arc now all loose tn the mauu.script. 

Harrison unluckily began his ' l^escriptioii 
of England *bj turning into words 'maistiti 
Thomas Sackfords canlpa ' or ' Charts of th 
Heuerall prouinces of this n>a1me,* descrili 
ing the connies of river?, &c. ; but once cle 
of these in book i., he gave in book ii. a'' 
verv Tcduable account of the institutions 
nnd inhabitants of England, their to 
dft^sR, hnuse^, &c. In book iii. he de«cri1] 
tht! prrxlucts of the laud, its inus and fa 
His mcy accounts of our forefathers' i" 
— 'except it were u dog in a doublet, yofl 
shall not see onie ^ disguised as ore mj 
countriu men uf England;' of their fi> 
their houses in chap, xii., the 'amend: 
of lodging, since they liad a good round I 
vnder their heads instead of a bolster 
pillow : ' his description of the arliticer 
huabaouiauii — * so merie without malic 
plunewilfcont inward . ..crm^.that iti 
aoo a man good to be in componie 
lb«B *— bave aade Tlarrisoo one of the mc 
oftMi qaol«d and trusted authorities oo I 
coodilMo of KigiiBil in EUiabeth's r 
Sliake^ieaiv^s dars. Ui> ■Ok^noLi'^^e' 
hi* own tiuie, in rot it. of hia : 
* Chnwolociv.' ut aL(i of Taloe. 
an^ giwa from it ut Dr. FaniiT«U's 
of Uarri$oA*5 *Pe s c ri pcion d 
xhu4x\ ISTT. 



(Gcxipcrr'i Athene Citnlnhr. ; HnrriKon's Dd- 
■enpcion of Eualiiod, bits. ii. and iii., New 
BfaKspere 8oc., 1877, &e., uod authoritir* there 
eiuA] F. J. K. 

HARRISON, AVIU JAM, D.a (ir»r»3- 
1621 i, tliini nui] liutt. arcbprinst of Eii^lnnd, 
born in iJrrliv^hiro in 1553, becorne a »\ iidenl 
in the English I'oUeg-e at l)ouny in 1575, and 
a/icnvarda prooL'edfd to llie Knglieli (..'ollfg"i' ' 
at Ri^juie, where on L'3 April 157H, beinc tJicn 
& priftn, he took the miMion oath- U« re- 
lurned to England in I5S1 nnd Ulioured iw 
ft mi&"innpr till 15H7, when he went toPttris, 
itp]itied himwlf iherw totlie study of thi.'civtl 
and c»non lawfl, and beciimt> a licontiBtt! in 
thrt*e faculties. From 1590 to 1593 he was 
in rbar);t} of a amnll English school founded 
bv Fat her Robert Fureoim ut Eu in Normandy, 
llameon, wh-i hml Iwen made procurator of 
tbt^ English CoUoffo at Rbeim?, resumed Iuh 
studies there, continued them at l>ouflyaft»'r 
the return of the collep« to tluit city, was 
created !>.!). bv the university of Douay in 
1507. and lilltxl the chair of iheolojfy in the 
collegw till 1(W3. He then spent five years 
in Kume, and uf^er n visit to Douay, extend- 
ing from 29 Oct. Iti08 to IVI June 1600, hu 
came to Enijland, where the clergy, wiys 
iDoJd, • knowing him to he a person of sin- 
jiilar prudence, learning, ond experience, did 
anthiug without hii> advice and approbation.' 
On the death of the urehpriest, Qeorire 
f'Sirkhead _^q. v.] or Birket, Harrison was ap- 
IpoLuled lo succeed hini Iiy a conprejrnt ion of 
ThellolyOtlicehwIdon'jaFeb. IrtU 15. His 
brief WM dated 11 July Hi 15. On tho 23rd 
i»f that month, in a oongn-gation of tho Iloly 
Office held in the (^uirinul Palace, Paul V 
^Urninteil the u.sual faculties to the archpriest ; 
|«nd in addition to them was the following: 
|*Quo(l R.P.D. Nimtius Apostolicus pro tem- 
[•pore in GalUa, Pari.Mia degens.sit onlinarius 
Anglonim et Scotorum, cum omni potn^tatn 
qujun habent ordinarii in eorum dioeesibus ;' 
topHher with the power of ordinaries over 
Llhi'ir diooe«ee, * cum facullat^s ditpengandt ad 
Isacma ordinee, ob defectum natalium, cum 
[omnihu> dictomm rt;gnorum.' Tho brief and 
Ithf ' Kocu!l«tf8 pro archipreshytero Anglioe, 
I^Scotue. Hib-jrniiri, MoufP, &c., are printed in 
TifHioy's edition of Dodd {Church Ilui. vol. 
V. App, No. xivii.) 

Tlarrison TeaoWed to restore to the clergy 
that iiidfipondence which they had never eu- 
^Tod, eitiicr at Doiiny or on tht? miKHJon, 
I Canlinal Allen's death. With this oh- 
Bssifftfl Dr. Kpllinon, the new pre- 
, of Dntiny College, in obtaining the re- 
1 of the ie^uit confessor impo.«*rd on the 
[coUcgi] and the recall of the students from 
Ithc public dCbooU of the je«uita in Bouay, 

Tie nextpetitioncd the Holy See,and appealed 
to the nuncios at Parift and Bnissels to 
further the restoration of episcopal govem- 
raent in England aa'onling to the ancient 
diwiplineofthechurchevenin times of perse- 
cution. Rishop, Smith, Chamjmey, Kellifton, 
and Ca^ar (.'lement had wlrendy exerted them- 
wlveain the matter, and at length, on *20 Dec. 
Kill*, Ilarriiton with his twelve assistants 
signed a weighty petition setting foiih the 

envov, John liennett, to obtain a di<;pensa- 
liimforthe marringe and the appointment of 
a hiHhop for the Roman cntholtc church in 
England. Ou tho eve of tho envoy's depar- 
ture for Rome, Harrison died on II Mayl621. 
The result of the mission wax iho oppoiut- 
ment in Februar>- lH'J-J-^i of a bishop in ordi- 
nary for England, r>r. Willinm Rishon [q. v.], 
and' after Bishop's death ( Ui'2-l) a vicor ap&- 
frtolic was appointed. 

[UradyS Episcopal Sucecs»iuti,iii. 66;Bat]or'» 
Hist. Uetnoinn of the Eogliah Cattiolics, 1822. 
ii. 266; Conntablo's Specimen of Ampndmentd 
propoRcd to iho eompilBf of the fTiiirch Riat. of 
England, p. 181 ; Dudd's Church Ri-Jt.ii. 368.499 
8e<j.. iJbo Tieni«y's odit. v. fi2-G, ccsii eeq.; 
Dodd's Apology for the C'hnrch Hi«t, of Eng- 
Und, p. I<»8; Foley's Rfcordft, i.380. vi.72, 132, 
619; Oillow's Ribl. Diet. iii. l.iO; Patizani's 
Momoirs. pp. 87-01. UR; Kecordf: of theKngliah 
Catholics. I. 4'2fl; 8ergrunt'» Acconnt of the 
ChHVtereroclcii hyWilllam, l.iehop fil^Chalcedon, 
ed. Tunibiill. p, 25; Ullathome's RtwtonitioD of 
the Catholic Hicran^hy. p. 10 ; Wtttdoti's ChwQO- 
logieal Notes, p. 130.] T. 0. 

poet and, was admitted scliolar 
of Winchester College in 1698, coming from 
the neighbouring parish of St. Cross, and 
being aged 13. In 1704 he was elected to a 
dcholarshipatXewCoUege, Oxford, andafttT 
two years of probation succeeded to a fellow- 
ship in 1706, when he had 'arrived to a great 
perfection in all kinds of polite literature.* 
.'Vddisnn became hid fnend, and obtained 
for him tho post of governor to a son of the 
I)uke of Qupensberry at a salary of 40/. n 
year. With I bin and his fellowship, which 
be rctaineil for his life, Harrison plunged 
into London sociotv, and wo-h n-commended 
by Addison to Swift, who thereupon writes 
to Stella : * There is a young fellow here in 
town [October I710j wc aro all fond of. and 
about a year or two come from the univer- 
sity, one HarrL'ion, a pretty little fellow, 
with a great deal of wit. goml sen.«e, and good 
nature; has written *om»' might? prt^tty 
; things ; that in your 6th Miscellanea about 



Apr uwsjB uTitiaf him Co Uw teranu mad 
— *" bin p^ hk ctiib/ Swift took to him, 
Bad VM rMol*«d to ttir ap people to do 

tf;t. ' 'I wi|i|j,wl'i'1 ill if In It TiiTiii 

tufi I '>i|^ Ok Utt«rdoQbtMlit«siie- 

CPOM, M iw JmI fiat Appmi'e uf tliv *iditor'« 
'MAUlwr.* TIivflMt numb<.-rc&jDi; out 13J«n. 
1711t vh«fa th« uoitr irritic wrote: 'There u 
not MMcfa in ii, but 1 hope it will meod. I 
mm tdnid iha little to»a hu doe the tnie 
v4a Car H/ A tUj or two Uter Swift gftre 
litou lor Another number of the new pAper; 
ifl FrimMTj Coni^'V^. * blind m be is, * nve 
« pep*T (v h«4 writt'-n out for little Hus 
nvm ; ' to'l in Mnn'li KwiH dictated ft paper. 
It mu in ftll lo tiflr-tw') nurabtrn. twice a 
w*vU, tWwfn l.t .tun. and 10 Mht 1711. 
|t(T<w<-4'n tli«w*Ut<'» Swift iiitroducwdUarri- 
ntftt in [j«-r«7n t/^> r4t. John, who oblained for 
biin llw mwt of iwrnrlary to l/ird Italiy, the 
unir^^^Mor *-\tnyin\itiixry at the Hague to 
ttrrtttifr- iUt irMity witb France. 8 1. John 
' ' 'tr*-y tfMin*>aM for t\w *>xi>eiu«8 of 
y, mikI on '^1 April 1 71 1 lie set off 
jn li'iiiiiiiil. In tiui't, but alYnr sorau trouble 
wiib tlui jiri'vious boldrr of tbu oflicts he bd*- 
«'«wn i^in^nt'm MNrritlary to the timlNusy at 
f ir*M!lii, and In January 171U relumed to 
ICnf(Ufii| Willi tbf] barri«>r tn>atv. MlijpAy,* 
wrttM Mwift, ' !• ill all l/XK»/. a y»jar, and 
tlMTjr bava iiiivifrnttid bim u groat. II'^ must 
Iw ',¥»U. ttr im, in d'ibt at leant.' Next 
*Uy il lunHMt out tlint FlarriMm had not a 
farf hiftM in liu j^tcM, H'ftn Uv wnn attack»*<l 
iff r»'v**r Mti'l iiillnrfitnation on liii liin^t; 
wb' I'r |{ot thirty Kill nnAJi for htm 

frui' '•<<, Willi an ordtir on thfi tn^a> 

•vry I'jf \"'U , nnil nonovi'd bim rn Knighta- 

tfrw^*** ^^" " 1''"'' ''''*' ^w'Ct wmit to 
rail ofi hifii, aii'l, ilri>it*liri(; the worat, wiu 
afraid lo knitfik llarrxwin had died tax hour 
|j|J/>f- ' '^ ■ '— 1 nvorjfrMtvi'il Hwift oomucb.' 
l|tb' I of llNrriN'in'N itlni'U, Young, 

ANfii . , ^ ,1,1 own iii-4-oiint, * ni^flit to day 
in pNtnTut joitrni'yjoin'd 'to find liimApoech- 
l"<i« mill al ih<> point of il'>atb. Appttruntly 
IjarrU'in 'tii*'! in Vounfc'n pri'itt-ncs Lady 
MlridfoH wnl*'i : ' llin br«.ith**n' \t<)e\n burv'd 
bim, oa Mr. Adiliami, Mr. iMiilipo, and Dr. 

A Kopy of lUrriiion'ii cliiiif pioni in in tho 
IbHlli-iMM l.ihmry in Miouf^b, Oxford 103.' 
'J'bn tiHiv-piiyo run": ' Woodstock Park, a 

(fiH'iu, liy Nvitlinni llurim>ii f«^] of New 
*oll>«tfti, Otoii., 170'}.' It in nlfto printed in 
l»i*<]iibr'«'(;oll..'Clion/v.lHM u\)I. TbiMliird 
*Ai' of lloroci*, Linilated by him nt. ' Tu the I 

I VKklW^KhoVtwdlfelKlfeor 

I toHollMid, ITtC; ndbdad is UmBeoMbe' 
|*BonBe,'L lfl-18,«»El orTRmlaflnf poeUcat 
puces uviiiMncd IB Steele •' PoetacwJCiMcl- 
luiea,'in4,p|L«U-5a Hewmstfae 
of the liaea eatxtled * Tlie M edune, a 
priated m th« aeeoad Kumber of the 
'Taller,* aad tefristed, with noft of 1 
poems exeepUag ' WoodiCock Purit,* 
choUs -CoUecOoa,* ir. 1^-5, x\l 
Harriana waaageaenl £aToinixe:. Tidell, 
the eod of hia poea on the jrapecU of 
(1713), deaifitttaB him 'That laach 
TOBth ; ' aad Xomng, im the t pw ria to Lord 
Laudowiie^praiMalniB « poMMnaf ' friaaJi 
indeed, mod aatar» ta exMSK.' The ' Tfttler* 
which he edited in 1711 wu reprinted in 
dnodectBo in 1712 and sabwqnent 
Steele'* ' Tatler,' toL t. (Amnr, 
295, 300-2, 41ft. ii. 40*. 425). Son* 
crjways are rrprnted in XirboU'a wrfl-; 
edition of the * Tatlfr,' roL ri A Tcry 
letter written by narriaoa fiwm t'trecht to 
Swift on 1 6 Dec'l 7 12 is in the latter 6 wori^ 
1863 ed., xri. 14-18. 

[Johaaoa'a Poets (CuiuBfhnm).iii. 311-11; 
Jacob's Pucts. i. 7t>-l ; Kir)-y> Wt(K^«at«r 
SchoUr», p. 215; WeDtwwrth, Papera, pp. 188, 
11)1.319-2*; Forrters Swifts pp. 386-7, 38I-S. 
-I<3^.4d2; Cnifc*sdwift,202.212. 2dd; SwiA's 
Works (1S8S (rf). ii. 43-4. 144-7. lAO, 162-S, 
174, 199, 232,iti. 101-3. 109-13; Geot. Ma«. 
1777 pp. 261. 419. I7W p. 17«] W. P. C. 

HARRISON, ^MLLUM (1812-1800), 
commandLT of thi^ Great Eaatem. »oq of a 
master in the merchant service, was bom ai 
Manrport, Cumberland, in Octolbei l>fl2. H« 
waallwiind an apprentice to Mr. Porter,a shi; 
owner of Liverpool, and went to sea in Oc' 
her 182o. On the expiration of hisarticles 
obtained the commond of a veesel, and »f rv 
in the Eoat and NWst Indies, and on t 
coftdt of South America. In the course 
the niimerouft disagreements among the ri 
powers on tbo American coast, he was inor# 
than once in action, and acquitted 
with crwiit. In 1834 he transferred his se 
y'xcm lu Itarton, KrUm, & Higgonaon, and U 
th«m Uvik charge of Tfweison the Kurbad 
line. I'rom 1^2 to 31 Dec. 1855 be wu 
connected with the Cunard line of packet* 
trading between Liverpool and America {, 
during that period he crossed the AtUntir' 
npwarda of one hundred and eighty timi 
and was one of the most popular of tlie co: 
mandora on that route. In January 1856 __, 
was selected b^ the directors of the Easttim 
Steam Navigation Company out of two hun- 

dred competitors to lake the command 
the Orcat Leviathan, then building at Mill- 
wall in the Thames. In the following years 




wu appointod to siiperintenrl thr* ar- 
ient« for intemnl iiucumm<>itntion and 
UT^ation. The ship tiviii^rnt Uu^tompleted 
sfter great delav, and reiumeil the Great 
Eutem, wad aeut on a trio] (rip from IJcpt- 
ibni to Pontaod lioods. When off Hastings 
on 9 Sept. lB5t> a tcrn6c explosion of stoun 
kUlcxl ten of the Ercmcn, and seriously injured 
feereral otbjer pcrsoiu. Harrison showed 
prompt courage and resource, and hrougfat 
the vessel into Portland, although in a very 
damaged state. Tbu Great Eastern wa« then 
put into wint«r Quartetre near Hurst Castle. 
On 21 Jan. iSGO tier cnmmflnder, while sail- 
ing from Uythn to Southampton intheihip's 
boat, wai capsized durtuf^ a squall near the 
Southampton dock gates, and when taken 
from tlie wat«r was found to be dead. He 
was buried in St. James's cemetery. Lii'er- 
poolf 27 Jan.. when upwards of thirty thou- 
•aad people foUowt^l tii<< IhkIv tu th<> grave. 
Some time prevtuuslr he had become surety 
for a friend, by wliode sudden death all his 
eaviugs were lost. A sum of money was 
thenlorQ raii-ed for the bennCt of his aged 
asoUier, wife, and three children. 

[nioitralod I^adoQ JTowa, 6 Nut. 1 8.58, p. 4,15, 
with portrait. 28 Jan. 1660, p. tt3, and 4 Feb. 
18410, p. lis. with portrait; Annual Register, 
lft69. pp. iaS'40, and 1860, pp. 10-12; Dnw- 
ing-RoMD PoTlnut Gallrr^' of Emint^nt Pcraon- 
a^M. 3nl aw. 1S60, virh' portrait ; Timeg, 23- 
^^1 Jan. 1660, and 9 ^farch ; Pall Mall Gaeette, 
^■l Aug. 1888, pp. 5-6.] G. C. fi. 

^m HARRISON, WILLIAM (1^13-1868), 
^^■rociilifit nnd operatic manag^^r, the pon of a 
^^Cftal mprrhant, wa*bom at Mnrylebone, Lon- 
don, lo June 1813. He made bin first uppeur- 
aace as on amateur concert siiigpr in 183tj,and 
then became a pupil at the lioyal Academy 
oC Moaic During 1 8;i7 ho appeared as a pro- 
eaaional aing«r at the concerts of the Aca- 
dwy and the Sacred Harmonic Society. On 
1699 he appeared on the stage at Co- 
en in ' Henrique.'and afterwards at 
Lane asThaddeus in liatfe's ' Bohem ian 
*irl *(1H43^, Don C:csar de Bozan iu Wal- 
icc>'9 * Montana,' and in Benedict's 'Bride 
Venice ' { 1 H4.'l) and ' Crusaders ' (1846) on 
,eirfir>t production. He afterwards played 
the Princes.-)'" and theHnrmarbet, and in 
ugti5t 185-1 went to the United States with 
iss I.ouiM Pyne. <-hi their return they 
ined in a whc^ne for establishing an 
i-ra company. The first season commenced 
(heLyiviim Theatre on 21 Sept. iHoT.with 
Hnglifib veri^ion of Auber's * Lefl Dtatnant« 
la r<mronne.' In the following year 
CoTeot Garden Theatre wa^ engaged, and 
fbrmancee were given there CTcrr winter 
to 19 March le^i. At first the under- 


Takin}rm)>t withgnui saeeuM,bui il graduallv 
lan^iii.*lie<J. Tin- company, however, pm- 
ducud ihu following new operas : B&lfe'a 
* Rose of Cast i lie ' (Oct ober 1 1>57 ), * SatanoUa ' 
(December 18^8), * Bianca'( OtHiember ltS60), 
the 'Puritan's Daughter' (Novemlier it^Hl)^ 
' Blanche de Ncviira ' (NovemlMir 1862). and 
the ' Armourer of Nantes '(February IfttJS); 
Wallace's ' Kurline * (IbOO), ond ' Love'a Tri- 
umph' (1882): Benedict'* 'Lilr of Killar- 
ney ' (iHfiS) ; .Mellon'* ' Victori'nR ' (1859) ; 
and William Howard Glover's * Buy Bias' 
(OctobiT 1801^. On 8 Nov. 11^4 Harrison 
opened HerMajf^sty'sTheatre as sole manager 
witli an English vcrfiion of (iounod'u* Faust;* 
theseaaon terminated on Itl March 1866,when 
Harrison took his benefit ; the oitera was 
'Marilana.'nnd it was followed by stdections 
from the * School for Scandal,* in which Har- 
rison took the part of Charles Surface, this 
being his first app*.'nronce in non-lvrical 
drama. His last appearance was at Liver- 
pool, in May 1808, as Fritz in the 'Grand 
Duche«of Gemlstein.' He died at Kentiah 
Town, 9 Nov. IHtiti, and was buried at K«ual 
Oreon cemeterv. Ho married a daughter of 
Mra. Maria Clinord, the actress, and left two 
sons. Horriiion translated Maas^'a operetta, 
' Les Noces de Georgette,' and produced it 
at Covent Garden in 18<30 as 'Georgette's 
Wedding.' In addition to a tenor voice of 
remarkable purity and sweetness, he had the 
advantagu of being an exct^llent actor. 

[Grove 'sPict. of MQsieaiidMusiclHns.'Coopor's 
Biog. Diet. ; noticeo of pflrformances in llw l^mea 
for van'ou.'i dates; Era, l& Nov. 1868, p. 10; 
articles oo Balfk, Michael Wnxuu, and Bk.vh- 
nicT. Sir Jvuvt ] C. L. K. 

HARRISON, WILLTA5I (1802-1684), 
antiquary, son of Imloc Harrison, bat manu- 
facturer and merchant, was born at Salford, 
Lancashire, on 11 Dec. 1802. Early in life 
he sougtit his fortune at the Cape of Good 
Hope. Ret uming to England, be settled down 
about 1S46 on « nmall estate of his own in 
the Isle of Man, where be became a member 
of the House of Kwya, aud afterwards a jus- 
tice of peace. It was mainly through his ex- 
ertions that the Manx Society was established 
in I8.">H for the publication of documents re- 
lating to the history' of (h)* Isle of Man, and 
hi! contributed fourteen volumes to the works 
of thesociety.including ' TfaeBibliothecaMo- 
nen^is, a Bibliographical Accoimt of Works 
relating to the U\e of Man,' 1601. ^ud edit. 
187tt: 'Manx Proverbs and Sayinps, Bal- 
lads.' &c. lettfi; * Account of the Diocese of 
Sodor and Man/ 1879; and 'Manx Miscel- 
lanies,' 18^. He was an occasional writer 
on antiquarian matters in the 'Mancheeter 

OK 9ft Jau 1871. 

U F«b. 1S71. 1 

inixuac (A i6i9>, 

«« W • pnier iad IkkUo^ 
I jif wtfi'fa hiie, who 

of the &«e 

IUt»»lfllV (INI7 lN7n,iinti. 
< lull) til Niirfiilli mi 
'.{ ti( N»rw)rti III' 
'- 'M IMIi'IinmIiihim 
fvnii lit |tnii>- 
I (M>Ui' y«<nr« 
i >» li'li Ari<limi>- 
iiiiths |>ii|i<>r* 


K\ '» \^ u»_^* » '*\ I" ^*'<i\ i> 

same time na ft 
HiTTOcl com- 
oa lui own aocoant at SUm- 
ford, LiaeofaiAare, v^ot* he started a newa- 
psper, «Ut& W e£t«d sad printed without 
muA Mceew, and Wcitti* ui atd^iman. By 
IflOl he h*d namovtA to Han<£(^ld, Xotting-^ 
haauhire, and after liia Cithers death in I^oH 
c«nber 1806 ( Oemi, Mmff, toL Ixxv. pt. U. pV 
1179) be returned to hia nathre town of Mar- 
ket Ilhrbomu^h. There a second marriaga 
nrntiroiled him m difficulties which compelie^l 
him to relinmil»h his business. He diud i^| 
obncuriry at llirmiDGfham on 1 Jan. 1819. 

Ilarrod publishca histories of the three 
tow UN in which he sncceBsirely carried on 
hiN biiNinoss. The titles of these works are: 
I, ' Tho Antiquities of Stamford and St. 
hfjirfin's, compiled chiefly from the Annals 
nf i1h. Ucv. I'mncia PecK> with Notes; to 
whloli JH rnlih»d the Present State, including 
|liirKhU'T,'i.'vnl!..]L>mo,Stamfor(i,1786. Uar- 
rfNi Wrt*« tit>r<> enpably assisted by an eccentric 
Htnmt'ivH imolheeary named Lowe. 2. 'The 
lltBlury nf MnnsMd and its Enrirons. In 

W"» |t«rt* : 1, .\ntiquities, including a de- 

wTuvHon of two Itoman Villas diflOOTexed 

»iv \\. K.».>liv. J-^r., 1786. n. The Present 

•If W »th plai«ft,» 4to. Mansfield, 1801. 

' ' I1i« Uiki^^rv »vf MarVet-Harboraagh in 
i4thwii«T*htr«« a«4 iu Viciaitr/ Sto, iS08. 



la irftSHAiTodjproject€d an enUnr''*] eili- 

Kioa of Wrighi's ' liistory and Antiquities of 

Rut Undshlre/bnt the work w.'Ltdiscontinuccl, 

after the tppeuBOce of twu iiiinil>tir9,for want 

of oncounigenipnt. Tbe copiier-plaiei aad 

maniwcripta were afterwaitls purchosfd hj 

John NichoU ITjomas Barker ( 1722-1809) 

[q. T.l, one of Uarrod's patrons, contributed 

.« bialort' of Lyndon, which formed one of t)w 

arts p'uWished (Nichols, Lit. Anfoi. iii. 

13-Ui). In 1780 HaiTod publishe*! a snlu 

Otalopieofhisbooks^tA.iiL 079), and during 

^contasted election at Nottiiif^li&m in 1803 

nnpiled *Coke and Birch. Tho^ Taper- 

ITar carried on at thu Nottin^bam Election, 

03; containing the whole of tlie Addresses, 

mg«, Squibf, &c., cinmlftled by the cnn- 

aaing par(ie.4, including the Books of Ac- 

dont« and Chanccit.' 

[Gant. Mag. txuix. i. dB4-5; Brit. Mas. Cat.) 


HARROWBY, Eikls of. [See Rtdbr, 
DcDLET. 1702 1H47, tirst earl; and UtoeR, 
l»rni,p.v, 171)8^1882, second earl,] 

HARRY, BLIXD (Jt. 1470-149d>, Scot- 
I poet. [See Hhnby the Mtnstubl.] 

HARRY. (JEORGE OVTKl^ (Jt. 1604), 
"Welsh anlirjuflr\', son of WiUiani Owen, bo- 
ftme rector of X^Tiitchurch, or Eglwy&-Wen, 
the hundrtKl of Cemmaes, Pembmkeshire. 
lt« printed works are: 1. 'The Genealojry 
f the hig^h and mighty Monarch Jttmes . . . 
Ling of Great Bnttaynf, with his linenll 
nt &om Noah by divers direct U-uhh to 
Srutiu; . . . wilh a briefeCronologieuf the 
Bemorable AiM-s of iUh famous men touched 
this Qenealogie, with many other mstters 
rorthy of note,* London, lt)04, 4to. This 
_ nok, which was composed at the request of 
Robert ILoIland, is, when accompanied by 
all the plates, uncommonly rare, 2. 'The 
Well-spryng? of True Nobility.' 

Tie compiled in Ifi02 n manuscript volume 
^HriiQwing (lie state of Wales nt that period 
^^ndr mme extracts see fienf. Ma*/. i'-'T 1823). 
^^^ To Browni- AVillis's ' Survey of the Cathe- 
dral Church of St. David's,* 1717, are am- 
ended ' some memoirs relatinj? thereto, and 
lie county adjacent, from a MS. wrote about 
tie latter end of Queen P^lixabetbV reign.' 
The manuscript is Iielievwl Xu Imve bet-n 
ritten by George Owen Harry for the use 
of Camden, who acknowledges his assistance 
ixi tbe account of Pembrokeshire in the 'Bri- 
tannia.* Hicharil Kenton, in bis * Historical 
Tour through Pembrokeshire,* 1811, ba>i li- 
berally quoted from Harry's manuscripts. 
[Dimn's HenlJic Visitation of Wnli-s, intnxl. 
ii* i. 33 aod facsimile No. b; Fi^ntoa's Pum- 


brokashire. pp. &0d. &3S, 637. A63 ; QatiU Mag. 
U23. pu ii. pp. 16. lOS, 400. All. 697 ; Gooffh's 
llrit. Topog. ii. 495, 510 ; Lowodoa's Bibl. Mud. 
(Bohn),p. 1006; Moule'sBibl. lleraldica. p. 62 ; 
Watt's Bibl. Brit.] T. C. 

HARRY, NUN MORO.\N (1800-1842), 

congregattonalist, wa.«t bom in the parish of 
Lampeter Velfrey iu Pembrokeshire, 9 June 
1800. His father died in the prime of Uf?, 
when Harry was in his fourth year, lie 
and his three brothers with their mother 
wen^ taktMi charge of by their grandfutlier, 
David Harrv, who gave them a guofi educa- 
tion. At the age of fourteen Ilarrv begun 
to commit to paper on Sunday evcnimts the 
t«xtJt of the Mormons \\m tiad lieanl during 
the day, and afterwards mode as full notes 
t& he could. At tbe age of sevcntt^n he 
joined the congregationalchurchat Htmllan, 
and commenced his occasional labours as 
minister of the gospel there. It was partly 
through theinstrumentAlityof l>adyBarhani, 
who took a kindly iritert'»t in lum, that in 
1822 he entered the colbrge at Newport I'ag- 
ncU, Buckinghamshire. Having ruuiplet^ 
the usual tt-rm of study there, he was unani- 
mously chosen pastor of the independent 
church at Banbury, and was ordamed on 
25 April 1827. Ho remained here nearly 
seven years, On lo Aug. 18^2 he became 
pastor of the in<lependent church in New 
Broad Stret't, lj<niaon, and remained there 
till hi.s death on 22 Oct. 1842. He enthu- 
siastically adopted the principles of the Peace 
S<U'iety; in 1h37 he was elected one of it« 
honorary secretaries, and became editor of the 
'Ilcrfild of Pence.' lie generally dr«w up the 
annuii! reports, and wrote several valuubln 
tracts and circulare, published by the com- 
mittee. When asked to take part in any 
public meeting, he always stipulated that 
he should h*i allowed to say a word on 
•peace.* In his theology he was probably 
in advanci* <}f tht; majority of the ministors 
of his own denominni ion. .\ memorial ser- 
mon by his *boflom frit-nd,' the Rev. Caleb 
through several editions, lie published a 
wries of twelve lectures on (he subject, 
• What think y.* of Christ P * Banbury. 1832. 

In 1828 he nuirrind Elixo, tlie tdde^it daugh- 
ter of the Ilev. William Wnrlow of Milford, 
by whom he had five children. 

[Jones's Geiriadur Ily wgraSyddol ; Hcrnlil of 
Pt-acc f'>r Janimry 1843; Caleb Morris's Ma- 
inorial Dihcoune ; Lfiltera from Mr. K. John 
Harry.] R. J. J, 

I HARSNETT, ADAM fJ. liWfi). dirine, 

wa* the son of .\dam and Mercy Harsnott. 

I When making his will on 24 Oct. ItilS, bis 

' k2 

T. , 

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«■■ A» Baivi of • c&nt"] of our Knfi1i«li 
C fcf O Ba c l cMt pIpMcd and fiouH^hed over, unlj 
to ■how tbfr antlior's t>rettT wtt.' Ilarsnolt 
KSiUr Eoeoied it vitboot r««din|^ it. Th^ 
kaok'WaB I iBMtnifiri into rank tres»on bv the 
IcwTvn. cod bote a tii^^Ij eulo^stic Lntin 
^maaticm to tbe Earl of Kwex, then in tlU- 
pscCiVkidl w*» 'fotat«d in ' 'W'ithfttit lltire- 
^KS^« knmrled^. Harwanl wax fortbwilh 
Mikt lo tlie Tower, and Harsnett kioiitelf 
tl u fc X eoMwitliimprifiwinicat^if Doldefrrada- 
ttcHL (trroilT terrified be Bought to appcue 
Gok«. tlim aitomeT-geocnl, with Ictten 
vluch an? in ptt table contrast to the bold 
tone of hit putili«hed utterances (Val. Stale 
Pnpfn^ Dom. 150B-160I. pp. 40.5. 4.5J-.S). 
lie* cueeeeded in coDTindn)^ Cuke of his 
tnnotttiee. and was soon restored lo favour. 
<>a 17 Jan. 1602-3 he was collated to \.\w 
arriidaaaifirj of Ea»ex, and during 100.'! 
BoMiifaed, br order of the privr council, 
a vuureiu exposure of popUn deaifrns. en- 
titled * A DedaraLion of cgrepous Popish 
Ivpostarm, . . . vnder the pretencu of cuHt- 
iaff out deuils. IVactised bv KduivndA, uliu 
^^»ton.B Iesuit,and diners llomi^hPrifsts, 
Sua wicked associates' (with copies of i-on- 
leeakina and examinations of the parties), 
k^to, London, 1(W3; with a new litly-ptig-i', 
Ffiro, London, 1605. Frim the ' Dt'rlaniticn,' 
%» Th»-«>h*ld tirst pointed nut, ShakiLsiK-am 
l^v>k tlie name* of th*" siiirils ropnttoufKl by 
VYA^t in Kin|^ I^nr, ana mokitt besides one 
(or two othtT unmiMakaUd uUiuionB to it, 
I nb'hilo at lf&)*t nne pas&af?e in it must have 
rn in Milton's recollection when ho wrote 
' L'AIImto.' J. M. N^^orrann] in * Notes and 
aerifw, 2nd »er. vii. 14-l-.'j, biui cited the 
tllel pasMige« in full. Hursnert Kyrame 
■ofSbenfield in E^sex, H) April HW4, 
[on the prw^ntati'm of Sir Thoraas Liioan of 
('olche»t^T, and rpsignod thp rpotorr of St. 
arvt. Now Fish .Strt^et, Tendon, in the 
Bini( of that y««r. On 9 Nov. I<t0r) he 
( nWtM nianter of Pembroke Hall in sup- 
CCsnon to Ijincvlot Andn^we!«. Tht* follow- 
JBg Tear ho was choaen vice-chancellor, and 
\ reci'iTvdthe dejjree of H.U., his exemiee being 
excused by « «pc'C lal gTHci.'. As vice-chancUtir 
ovemVI with a hijjh hand' (Jlarl. ytS. 
ii i. r>OA). The ctatuti'fl framed by him 
iv bi' .<M'«'n in Addit. (Colo) MS. f^\o, f. 
\ h. He lind reaigue*] in I0()5 his victu^i;e 
hof Cliipwell, a place for which he always 
! cheriwlit^d an attachment, to bt^«ueon 1(1 .May 
JfXW vicar of Ifutton, in the ftame county of 
Ymkx, which he coded in 1609 in favour of 
f Ilia rrlattvc, Adam Harsnett ^q. v.] In IHOO 
aUo he resigne"] his prel>»nd of Mapesihury to 
riancmft. a nephew of the primate, 
eopoD be was presented on '2^ Sept. to 

, rector* 



the richly pndowe<i rectory of StisttHl in 
Kasex. On 13 Nor. ItlOO'be was elected 
bishop of Chichester, again in 8UC('e««ioD to 
Lancelot Andwwi's, translated to Ely, and 
was consecrated hyllaiicrofl on thn followin 
'^^ Dec., being olliiwi^l to hold his living o*. 
Stisted in cximmmilam with that see, liiit 
resigning the archdeacnnr*- of Essex. Ban- 
croft, when making his will on 2** Oct. UilO, 
named llarsuftt as an overseer, and as one 
of thoM whom he coiilrl wish ' uppon soma 
Sonday within n m>>neth after mv death to 
preacfae in I^mbith church, and to make 
such mention of me as may ti-ud to Godev 
glory' (registered in P.O. C'flrt. Wingfield). 
Harsnett still continued to ruK- over Pem- 
broke Hell, but hid high church practices, 
frequent absences, and financial mismanage- 
ment Ie<l to many unseemlv disputes with 
the fellows. Andrewes tells I'ndi^r-m-'cretary 
Sir Thomas I-ake, on 'It July 1612, that th» 
Bishop of Cliicliester is d'-sirous of Tvj>igning 
his mastership (Cat. Stnfe Vajifrt, Dam. 
1611-18, p. 1.19). In 16U Ilanq^ett was 
Ingrain elected vice-chancellor of his univer- 
aity. In March 1614-16 Jame-* I, accom- 

fianied by his son Prince Chiirlcf, paid his 
irst visit to Cambridge. John Clmmlwrlain 
tells Sir Dudley Carleton on 16 March lUU 
r-I'»]that Harsnett 'did his part everj- way' 
{Hanlvrirfte State Paper*, pp. 396-7). He 
siriivu to reprf>s.s the indiscriminate confer- 
ment of honoran,' degr«e«, more especially crfl 
those in divinity. In 1616 the fellows of] 
Pembroke exhibited to the king an accusal 
tion in fifty-seven articles against the meater. 
Harsnett WHS charged principally with favour- 
ing poiHTT. ah«;nce from college, and impm- 
per dealing with the accounts. The fellows 
olrin appealed to Andrewps, the I'jirl of Suf- 
fnlk, at that time rhancellnr of the univer- 
sity, Sir l-ieorge Viliicrs, aud others. Though 
Harsnett was compelled to rcsiigii, he con- 
tinue<l in high favour at cdurt. and thest 
dilTenuires did not prevent the ' niiserrimi 
Pembrochiani,' as the fellows styled them- 
sidves in their lengthy '(^uerela/'nnr indivd 
the university at large, from writing him 
complimentary letters on hiselevation lolho 
see of York, beside* a*king for bis goi.«d offices 
OS a privy councillor (cf. Addit. (Cole) MS. 
Wr3, ff. 37, 44). Ou the dnaih of I>r. John 
Overall, Horsnett was tr[ini^lBte<l to Norwich, 
17 June Uil9, and confirmed in the see on 
t'H .\ug., when he resigned the rectory of 
Stisteil. During his occupancy of the sen ha 
iR tiaid lo luivo expende<l 20U0^ on the repair 
of the episcopal palaces of Norwich and Lud- 
ham (Trt/. State Paprrt, Dom. 16S4 o.p. 102). 
I His strictness in enforcing the discipline of 
the church, added to his harsh and ovorfoear- 




iofp (leniouiour, made bini eminentlT tin[K>pu- 
lar with iho puritdti party in hia diocpHe. lu 
May lOl'-i l)ic citizi'iiA of Norwich charged 
bim b«>fc>rc the commnuH with various mU- 
duiiu'anors, chteBy, howorer, at tUo instiga- 
tion of Sir Kdwanl Coke. He was accused 
of ' M'ttLn^' u|> imager in thu churches,' and of 
' URinff extortions rnnny wnyti.' Haritnvii 
duftinded himself kefore thv lords against 
each of the six articles of the charge, and 
cImirmI himiwlf tu the Batisfactiun at leaitC 
of the moru influential ainong hifl aiidienco 
{Gnnmon/ Joumah, vol, i. ; LonU' Joumah, 
vol. iii.) In July 1GJ4 Ilarsneit wrute to 
the hailifl'i) of Yarmouth thanking them for 
their diligence in Buppressing conventicliw, 
on<l giving them instnictionn for further pr{>- 
ce*,'dingft(SwiHDF,X, //w/.o/ftrrff/lrtn/iou/A, 
pp. y27-3a). In WJ7 the inhabitants of Yor- 
ttiouth complained to the king that they had 
"btsen greatly harnHsed bv llnrsnett, and said 
that his complaints hjin heen frivolous, and 
dismiwed in thu several courts of law (id, pp. 

In 1028 Pr. George Montaigne, archbishop 
of York, died, and Ilarsnett was elected in kis 
place nn lirt Nov. of that year, and confirmed 
on 13 Jan. following. On 10 Nov. WJii he 
•waa also awom of the privy council. These 
dignities, soys FuMer, heowird to the friend- 
ship of Tliomas Howard, earl of Arundel, who 
hnu plartsl hiayoungersDn William with him 
(HVMiM, ed. 1002, 'Essex,' p. 320: (Jent. 
Maj/. vol. ciii. pt. ii. p. 11, ii. 2). During 
102^ Harsnett loundea a Latin school and 
an ]-jigli&h school at Chigwell as a thank* 
oflcring for liis elevation from the vicarage 
to nn nrch bishopric. He fmmed many wise 
and cnri-'ful onlinnnces for the government of 
bin wh(KiIj(. Til" ' Principle*' of the (.*hri»tian 
Keliginn, according lo the Order of ihe Rook 
of (Viniuiou rriiv*T,'t]ie infusion of t lie phnixe 
ond style of Tvilly and Terence, and of the 
Greek und 1-atiii poets generallv, and the 
avoidaiicc of all * novelties and conceited 
modem writers' are cJiameteristic features 
of the archbishop's educaliortul viewei ( TAe 
Deed and Ordinance* of the lotmdatiim 
School* at Chit/n-etl, privntely printed, -Ito, 
1852^. He also built a gallery in the north 
aialo of Chigwell Church for the use of the 
I frve Mdiolars, which whs Int^t used for worship 
Lon 2ft Mnndi 1886. After falling into com- 
iitive obscurity the Latin schocd, under a 
Isehemo ptiblished by the Endowed Schools 
Commiiii.Mon, 29 June 1871, is now (1800) in 
a highly tlouriKhing state ; the Englitth school 
has been handed over to the school board 
(The Chigwell Ka/endar and Ten Year Snok^ 
1887). In 102fl HfirKuett interposed in be- 
half of Gervase Markham [q. v.] when accused 

of' iiapiatnr ' ( <5i/. State Paper*, r>om. Iti'V- 
lOSl, pp. 51-2). On riwling th* church of 
All Saints, North Slre«i, Y'ort, he praised 
its beauty, and gave it a silver communion 
cup, with patcn-cover, aniDtereMing pi«>-of 
plate still in excellent preservation ( IVl- 
nkireArthtrt^.ftnd Topoyr. ./biuTwi/,viiL31t- 
< 315). UU health was toeanwhile breakinft. ' 
The steady protrre*s of the puritaxt party !"- 
wards power embittered his la*t days (cf l-i* 
letters in Cal. State Papem, Ik»m. 'l02»^l» 
pp. ra, 107). Ity Lent 1031 he had rallied 
' sutTiciently to impress upon John Davenanl 
[q. v.], bishop of Salisbury, the neceaaily of 
paying due deference to the autocratic power 
which then governed the church in a vehe- 
ment oration of ' well-nigh half an bonrlong' 
(FuLLEK. ChurrA Hi*t. ed. Brewer, vi. 76). 
AVriling from Bath on 2o April be «iy« 'ha 
is yet so much a priaoner, though he has vatA 
the hot baths, as he is not able to write his 
own name' {Cal. State l*aper*, Item. 1831- 
1683, p. 21). lie dicJ at Moreton-in-the- 
MaKh, Gloucestershire, on 25 May 1031, and 
waa burie<I ou 7 June, occording tu bis dir*c- 
tions, ' within the parish church of Chigwell, 
without pomp or solemnity, at the foot of 
Thomazine, Inte my h«?Iovea wife" (will cited — 
in Hiiii/raphiit Britannira (1757), iv. 254fi).fl 
His line bras.-^, which was executed ai\er hi* V| 
own dcfiign, has I>een twice removt-d from 
the tomb in the chancel floor to be lUfixedto 
the wall, where it now remains, llanziett 
married Tliomaiine, widow of William 
Kempe, and the elder of the two daughters 
of WiUiamWalgrave of llitcbamin Suffolk, 
by Elizabeth, daughter of Richard Poley of 
Boxtcd in the same county ( Visitation* of 
£we.r, Horl. ijoe.,pl,i. 121). ^hewas buried J 
at Chigwell 3 Feb. 1001. leaving an onlrfl 
diiughter.Tliomorine, wholwd been baptised™ 
there July lOlXJ ( parish' re(;ister), but appa- 
rently did not long survive. Harsnett'&bousft 
at Chigwell, wliere his kinswoman, Mrs.*" 
bara Fisher, died lU June 1808 at the ag< 
ninetv-five, was during the last ccnturv re- 
pairecl and modernised by William t*ark 
Fisher, a jeweller, of Tavistock Street, Covi 
Garden, London (LvsoKS, Ennirtm*, iv. 124; 
Supplement^ P- 340). It is now divided iBi 
two residences known hs 'The (irsnge-* 

Fuller commendfl Ilar^nett's 'great learn- 
ing, strong parts, and stout spirit ( H'orthies, 
ed! 1002, ' Essex/ p. S26), adding elaewhen 
that ' he wasa zealous asserlerof coremoiLie^ 
using to complain of ( the 6rst, I beUevc, vho 
used the expression) "conformflble puritan*,* 
who practised it out of policy, yet dirsented h 
from it in theirjudgmentw ' (Church IJi^t. ed»fl 
Brewer, vi. 88). On the other hand Pryon* " 
compares him to a ' furious Hitdebraxid, aod 



I DttO OFT two »omeiiv-liftt unintelli^ble 
^__ tin illttrtntionof the ftrc'hblshop's' do- 
nlne^nng outnijfe nnd drradfiil enrl' (/>« 
Antipatkif of the EnglinH Lordly Prfhcie, 
1611,pp.^i?l '2). In addition to his published 
works he left, occordinf^ to Wood, ' four or 
sow MSS. fit for the press, of which one 15 
"Da XeceMttate Baptismi," &c.' {Athenffi 
Omam. cd. BUm, ii. 874-5). A cop^* of hU 
iWaat. entitled (1) ' Nemo necessand dam- 
astar;' (l^V Certitude uniuBcujusquofialutiB 
aoa est cenitudo Mei/iain the Itriilsh Mu- 
aram, Harleiaii M8. 3142. ff.r>4-tjl ; another 
copy is at Colchester, lie also drew up thti 
(kmoua * Considerations for the better settling 
of church govemmenl/ presented by Laud to 
the kinff, and aent by his majestT in Decem- 
ber IG^ to Abbot, archbishop ofCanterbury, 
BS ' ttutmctioiu concerning certain articles 
to tw <4monred and put in execution br the 
MVttmlfaUhopa in his province/ now preM^rvnd 
in the Ijimheth Library (LAro, Works, Li- 
brurj of Anjrlo-Cath. Tlieologj-.T.aO?). Ilis 
library he bequeathed to the corporation of 
Colchester in trust for the clergy of the town 
and neigbbourhoiMl on condition of a suitable 
KKm being providi^d for its reception. The 
QoOaclion, which cmhists chiefly of theolo- 
gical Uleroture of the sixteenth century with 
a few incunabula, pas.>«ed throu{,^h many ri- 
oMttudca, Imt is now properly cared for 
in Col«h«Bter Castle. A catalo^c, with a 
hiogimpUoal and bfbliop^pbical IntrcMluc- 
tiOQa vat compiled by the present writer in 
^of which tbe corporation printed two 
»d and fifty copies for private circula- 

[BfCMrraphM Britanntca, 1767, toI. tr. ; Mo- 
nat'a Hiit. of Colchflstcr ; European Mag. xxxr. 
SS4; SUrm'a Annali, 8ro, vol. lii. pt. i. p. 637 ; 
Sire's I'lfe of Whitfiifl, 8ro, ii. 31G ; Cooper's 
Amwrr Cantatr. ii. 3S0-3 ; Huylvu'ti Lifu and 
SmIIi of Uod. 1671. pp. lea, 2U2; Monmb's 
IWl i 170; Collier's £oeL HiA. (Uthbury). 
,. IBS, 301 ; Xichols's PrctfressM of James I, 
8t n.; John Brav^ns's Hist, of Con(^g&- 
' im )D NorfoOt and Suffolk, pp. 73-8; 
ilo Itrook'ii ]^aritan■, toU. ii. lii. : Oa- 
Konroiif. M«moriiil, 1802-3, iii. 276-6; 
intley'» (i.«. W. Prynne's) A Breriats of 
tb* IVtfUtM itttollorabls luarpntions, 1637. pp. 
lfll-3; Uarkut'a A Mtniorial of Arehbiihop 
WUllanw. 1AV3, p. Vfi, CarlislsH Hndowud 
pEuanar 8chool«, 1. 4) 4-23; Thomas Wriieht's 
, ii. 39l-3i LyM>D«'s EsTirons, ir. 127-8; 
Tots* and Queri«% 3rd scr. ir. 3; Newraun's 
:ariBRi, i. 73; Grnt, Mae. toI. Ixxiii. pt. 
>fi. SOS'S. ti32 ; Addil. (Colo) MS. 6871. f. 
; OaliOrDs'i Kmcx, p. ;.'38; Cotton Mutliur'n 
Xed. IIi>i. of N-w Englaml. 1702, iii. -41; 
PryiiBft'i CantfrburiM Liixiraii, 1646. pp. 368, 
M«, AI2, 637; Cal. Slat* rapex*. Don. 16IU 

1618 p. 278, 1634-6 p. 102, 1636-6 p. 418. 
1B36-7 p. 410 ; Trans, of Essex Arch»ol. Soc., 
new sor. tuI. iii. pt. ii. pp. 1.52-3 ; Uarl. MS. 
703, art. tll.f. 160; Athonaiiiin. 28 July 1883.1 

O. G. 

HART, AAIION (1670-1756), chief 
rabbi, bom in 1670 at Breslau, studied at a 
rabbinical school in Poland, and probably 
came to England in 1692 to act &k mbbi of 
thefintt synagogue of the Hngli.Hli congrega- 
tion nf German and Polish Jt^wH, whitlh was 
opened in that year in Uroad Court. Mitre 
Square, London. lIoremoTed in 1721 to the 
(treat Synagogue in Duke's Place, AIdgat«, 
then juRt built at the expense of bis brother 
Moses (see below), and he remained tliera 
till bis death in 1756. lie married a daugh- 
ter of Kabbi Samuel ben Phoebus of Fiirth. 
His onni name appears in Hebrew ns Itabbi 
Phcebus (orL'ri)ben Unblii llirs Hamburger, 
and he issonielimef* referred to asRnbbi Uri 
Pheibush. Befon; 1707 be agreed to dissolve, 
recording to Jewish eccloeiaslical ordinances, 
the marriage of a member of his congrega- 
tion who was leaving England for the ^S'est 
Indies, and was severely attnclied on the 
ground that he hud acted irregularly, by 
another rabbi in England, Jocbauon Ileth- 
fihaw, or Johsnan ben Isaac, in a work called 
'Mflas6 lUb' (AroBterdam, 1707,4to). Hart 
repti(.>d to iho strictures in a book entitled 
'Lrim vo-Tbumim ' (I/mdon, 1707, 4tn)p 
which is the first Hebrew book printed in 
London. Very late in life he is doubtfully 
said to hare held dispiitationfl with one Ed- 
ward Goldney, who sought to convert the 
.Icwa in England to Christianity. Pandridge 
painted the rnbbi's portrait, which was en- 
gravwl by McArdell. 

Hart, Moses (1670?-1766), youn^r 
brother of the above, came from his native 
place, RrcRlan, in esrl v I ife, and bfcnnie a pros- 
perous mnrchnnt in I.,ondon. (lodotphin, while 
first lord of the treasurj- (1 702-10), employed 
him ill financial dealings. He built at his 
sole expense tbeGreal Svnoi;oguo in Aldgnte, 
which was opened in lY'21, and was rebuilt 
in 1790. It remains tbe chief London syna- 
gogue. His plac4i of bufiineAH was In St. Mary 
Axe, and he had a mansion at Isleworth. 
Me died 19 Nov. 1756, leaving, among other 
bequests. 1.000/. to the I./ondon liospital 
(dent. Mttff. 17S6, p. r>9o). His will waa 
(lieputed by bis grandehildron and other re- 
' latives among tht-mgi^-lve?, and the case was 
carried in 1760 to the House of Lords (cf. 
' Nophiati Frank* ^- others v. Jo»eph Martin 
' Sf othem, a printed statement of tne grounds 
of the appeal In the lords). A portrait of 
Hart bungs in the vestry-roimi of the Great 

. zzi ,_= 7-T-.ii.a 

3 :2ci»Tr« 
. If nrx. i> 

1 _. ■ - ■ _i 

— 1 i.- 



bcbeciinethoclafi^feUowand intimate friend 
rf Isiic Biitl [q. T.l. -with whom be Bhmys 
proerrrf a wiirm friendsliip altlnnijrli tliey 
wftiied in ixililics. Hart i^duatod B.A. 
1*13. proceeded M.A. 18^0, and J.L.U. and 
U„D. li^. £Ie waa elected a fellow* ou 
15 June J836, was co-opted senior fellow 
If}, Inly 1858, and was elected vice-provost 
it IS7tJ. He took an active interest iu the 
tAirs of the Irish church, and was for many 
[fern » member of the general synod and re- 
tentative church body. He obtained much 
piuation as a mathematician, and pul>- 
uaeful IrcAtiaes on hydrostAtioi and 
nica. Between l^Oa'nd lfi61 hecon- 
'tributeil valuable papers to the 'Camhridjre 
and Dublin Mathemnrical Journal,' to the 
' Prix-eddmgs of the Irish Academr/ and to 
tbe * Quarterly Journal of Mai hematics/ 
luefly on tlie subject of geodeeic lines and 
'% ciures. On 'Jfj Jan. 1666 he was kniffhted 
r Dublin Castle by tlielnrtl-lieutennnt, l^rd 
CSaraarvon, * iu recopnition of his academic 
rank and attainments.' He died suddenly 
at the house of his brxither-in-law, George 
Vaufihan Hart, of Kilderry, county I>one^l, 
onldAprillSSO. Hemnrriedin IsiOl-'ranco-s 
daughter of Henry Mac l)ouffall,Q.C, of Oub- 
^D ; she died in 1876. Uwo sons, George 
^fiughan, a barrister, and Hcnr}*, now of 
^lenalla, survived him. 
liarl was the author of: 1. 'An Ele- 
ratary Treatise on Mechanics/ 1844; 2nd 
lit. 1H47. 3. 'An Klomentary Treatise on 
kvdroatatica and Hydrodynamics,' 1 84t{ ; an- 
'W edit. 1850. 

[ [Frteman'A Jooraal, 26 Jan. 1B86, p. 6 ; Dub- 
|OaaBtte,39 Jan. 1886. p. 94 ; Times. Ifi April 
"(J-l G. C. H. 

HAKT, SiB ANTHONY (1754P-1831), 
chancellor of Ireland, wks bom about 
_ 54 in the island of St. Kitts, West Indies. 
He is said to have been educated at Tunbridge 
School, and to have been for a. Hlinrt time r uni- 
tarian preacher at Norwich. He wo^ admitted 
a student of the Middle Temple in 1770, nnd 
was called to the bar in 1781. Ho C(iiiiint-<1 
himself excluaively to equity work, and at'ti-r 
,cti.^ing twenty-fiix years behind the bar 
a in 1807 appomtod a king's counsel, snd 
the same year was elected n bencher nf his 
inn. In 1816 he was made 6<ilicitor-general 
Queen Charlotte. Having been appointed 
chancellor of England in tbe place of 
John Leach, ho wtu admitted ti> (he privy 
council and knighted on iHi April 1827. He 
took his seat in tbe vice-chancellor's court in 
thefoUowingmonth. Upon theresignution nf 
Lord Manaerv he wns promoted by Uo<lcricb 
to tbe post of lord chancellor of Ireland. On 

accepting thi^ nffice Hart e\pre.<«ly stipulated 
'that he yvus to have no politics, general, 
local, or religious; and that of Papists and 
Orangemen he was to know nothing.* Ho 
was sworn in at Dublin on 6 Nov. I8i7, and 
took his seat in tbe court of chancery on the 
following day, when he immt-diatelv becamo 
involved in a serious misunder^^ta tiding with 
the Irish master of the rolls iu reference to 
tbe riglit of tbe latter to appoints secretary 
(/ri/AZ-rtu- AcTOrrfw,i.5-6, «7-71, 81-7, 114- 
11a). Hart did his best lo shorten equity 
pleadings, which he considered were * too 

ftrolix in Ireland ' (ib. i. 500). AVhile he was 
ord chancellor a singular case atfectirg the 
rights of the Irish bar arose, a full accotmt 
of which will be found in O'Flanagan's 'Livea 
of tbe l^rd Cliancellors of Ireland' (il. S91- 
yO-H). I'pon the formation of I^rd fJrey's ad- 
ministration towanis tbe close of 1830, Lord 
Plunket was appointed in Hart's place. Hart 
sat OS lord chancellor for the last time on "J'J Dec 

1830, and was addressed in a farewell speech 
by Saurin on behalf of the bar (/rt>A Late He' 
corder^ iii. 67-8). Hart was an amiable man, 
a sound lawyer, and a patient and urbane 
judge. His judgment* were both able and 
impartial, Httti were delivered in a quiet lucid 
manner. It is stated 'as a fact without pre- 
cedent that not a single decision of his was 
ever varied or reversed' (Burke, Hi/itonj of 
t^e Lord ChanceUors of Ireiand, p. 210). Ue 
died in Cumberland Street, Portman Square, 
London, on 6 Dec. IHSI. Anp-ngravingtaken 
from a portrait of Hart, sketched by Cahill, 
forms the fronti^iece to the tirdt volume of 
the * Irish Law Recorder' 

in'Manjipun's Lir<i» nf the Lord Chanctllors 
reliuid, 1 870, ii. 37&-402 ; Burke'b Hist, ofthe 
Lord Chiincollors of Irutand. 1879. pp. 204-10; 
Foss's Judgw o{ nngliitiJ, 1864. ix. 23-4 ; Tor- 
rens's Memoirs of Viscounl MuH'Oumc, 1878, 
\-oI. i.; Tbo GMrgian Em, 1832, ii. fl.W; Qent. 
Mag, 1831, vol. ex. pt.ii. p. AOG: .Annual Register, 

1831, Ap[i loCliroD. pp. 259-60; lUiMin Morning 
Port, 23 Hm*. 1S30; Hujthea'H Re^'Htor of Tun- 
brid^e Scboul, 1886, p. U ; Hoiots and Queries, 
7th wr. rii. 7, 178-] O. K. R. B. 

HART, CHAULKS {d. KWO. actnr, was 
the eldest son of William Hart, the eldest 
son of Shakespeare's sister Joan. lie was 
ajtprenliced to Kicliarrl Robinson, a well- 
known actor, and in his early years played 
female parts, one of which was the iJuchees 
in Shirley's tragedy of the 'Cardinol.' This 
pliiy was first |>erforme<l at the private house 
m Blackfriars, and according to Sir Honry 
llerbert.'s manuscript was licensed 25 Nov. 
1641, If Hart was tbe original Duchess, this 
disposes of the assertion of Dr. Doran {An^ 
naU, i. 47, ed. Lowe), that ho was sevonteea 



^ymn€£^mHU7, Writ's ' Hulack Hit- 
Iriwim' mMMpiy auiM t^ Hut lad dm: 
VM»farad op boTs at tLe BladAvB sail act - 

' vonm'cfwta, ibai ll*rt -y lliiliiMiiii1>W 
— Jihtf thap«t<rftli»DnrfiffMialfce*Chr: 
U ' «u ' tiw <nt that n« Uh 07 fe( 
talion.' At the oatbnKk of the cml wvr 
Hart b—— a ligdaoant of hocae mderSir 
Tliiaaii Mttaf ia IViaee Rmert's ra^s- 1 
mmA. Aftarthaddeat oftbeku^hetook 
pait is periwaaeea at the Codi^pft, another { 
o^th* cocaUed prirate hooaet when * ther had 
•it* for thc^ratTT and acted br caadleught* I 
{Jlif/oria Sittrivm'ca). In the winter of 
1«M7 tbtr were playing tbe' Bloody Brother* ' 
(BoUOf duke of VurmaiKlv ) of Beaanxnt affd ' 
yialcber, ta wLicL Hart U beUered to hare 
baea CNto, whea the^ were siiTTri««d hy foot | 
acddiecaand carried tn thiitr atage dreaica to 
Iffiaon in lUttoo Uooae. After a tisM th«T 
were atrippwl of their clocbea aad diaaitiBfil . 
The; then acted priratelT at Holland Honae , 
and other midcDoea of noblemen three or 
foot nilee out of town, wberv the owQCTB and , 
▼iaitorv uaed to make a contribatioa, eadi 
giving ' a broad piece or the like/ At the ^ 
Reatoratioo Hart acted at the theatre in Yen 
Street, which opened 8 Nov. 1600 (Ciut^ 
MRM). TIere he was the original Doranti' 
in the ' Miataken Beanty, or the Lyar,' an 
adaptation of ' Le Menteur' of Comeille. 
I)ryden eays of this performance that the 
part of Dorante waa ' acted [to] so mach ad- 
vantage aa I am confident it never received 
in it* own country ' ( An E»»ay of Dramatic 
Poetry, ed. 1693, p. 26). With ihecomjjany 
of Killigrew, Hart went in 1663 to the 
Theatre Ro^-al, where he played Demetrius 
in tilt ' HumoroUH Lieutenant/ with which 
on 8 April tlie thestn* 0|K?ntrd, and Michael 
I'erei in •Rule a Wife and have a Wife.* 
He n'mained with this cirapany until the 
union of the two companies in \^'2. His 
onpitial partfl included Cortcz in Ih^'dcn's 
'Indian femperor/ l*(6-'i; Wildbhxxl in the 
• Motk Astrologer/ 22 Jan. 1668; Alraanjwjr 
in the two partsof the* Conquest of Granada,* 
1670; Itanger in Wychfrfey's 'Love in & 
"Wood;* HoniLT in (ht* 'Couutry Wife/ pre- 
auuiahly 1«73; and Manly in the ' rinin 
DnaliT,' l(t74. In Iti7/J htt played the hertH's 
of Ixmj'b * Nero'and Ih'vdeuti 'Aurpngaibe ;' 
and in 1677 Antony m I)r}'den'8 'All for 
Lovo.* He w«a the original of other heroes 
of Or^dnn and IjCn>; played Othello, Chasio, 
Drutus, Hotspur, and to<>k loading jmrts in 
plays of Ben Jonsonand Beaumont and Flet- 
cher, Hart ranked aa an excellent actor. 
Downea aayK of him : ' Mr. Hart in the part 
of Arbares in " King and no King/' Arointor 
in eho "Maid'a Tragedy," Othello, Hollo, 

.□der; to— 

. iffae acted 

-. fortnight 

' ( Hotdu* 

rourt w«» 

-mance of 

AjGJtiv:\er : ' ' ■ Tn-h any king 

ea aaitll fao^ -^If ' t.)^) His 

i <juMi a dj i ii «£ n >t inferior, his 

gnat fast* ' ' ti John in the 

'Cbuoea/ ai^ W «««^.™ ^ ihe * Mock A«- , 
tnOoeer.* 1 

I Steele biNa 138 arthe'Tatler'aars: 'II 
hare heard mj old fiiend Mr. Halt epeaJc it aa 
I aa o h a e rr a tioo amonc the players, ** that it ii 
' impMaihle to act wiUigracv exctfpt theactar 
haa Coigot that be ia Wfr>re an audience." 
I Halt ia laported to have been the first lofcr 
of Ndl Owvn [q. r.l whom he hrooght on 
the Mage, ^cfra cnen aentiotin him. On 
I 7 April 1066 ha bean ftnaMrLKnipp 'that 
, mr Lddy Caatlemaine is mightily 10 lova 
with Hut/ that he ia much with ber in pri- 
, rate, and thst 'she do Erive him many pr^ 
aents/ Bettertonprai!i>e»IIart'sperfornianceap 
and did not until after Hart a retirement 
take the character of Hotapor, in which Hart 
stood reiy hi|^ Hart and Mohun wero^ 
' the principal memben of KilligreVa 
nanr, holding poasesaion of the Theatre Roja^ 
DaTiea speaks of them as ' the manarara < 
the Idn^s theatre" {Dntwmtic MucHtmu^ 
tii. 154); but KiUifrrew'e name is always ai 
cepU-Kl aa that of the manager. At the unio 
of the two companies the memoraudum if 
signed 14 Oct. 1681 by * Charles Hart, gent./| 
I and * Edward Kynastan,gent/ By this Ilaz^l 
I and Kvnaaton were to receive five ahilling^f 
■ a day for life for every day with certain limita- 
I tiona on which the company should act. Be- 
I fnre this time lUrt seems, on account of in- 
firmitifs, to have practically retired. Ho 
died of «tone, and was buried, IN) Aug. I6t^, 
at Stanmora Magna, Middlesex, where ho 
bad a country house. He was enrolled a 
copyholder in 1679, but there is no memorial 
to him in the churchyard where he wns buried. 
[Most trostvorthy information concerning 
Hart in stored in the Uistoria HtstrioDit^, tha 
ItuAi-tTiH Aoglicanus, and Pepyn' I>tarT. vheooe it 
is tU tcredtb tough Daviie'bPniuiatic5ii£CollanieB, 
Genf>Lt, Dfimn, and Bubneqiitfnl irritant, Thome's 
HandUHjk to the Euriroos of London suppliea 
BOino pariii'iiUra.] J. K. 

HART, OHMtLES (1797-ie59),oixanist 
and mu»tcal com|M^er, was bom on 10 May. 
1707, and become a pupil of the Royal Acanl 
demy of Music, under \\'illiam Crotch fq. v.T 
He seems to have been succestiively organic 
of Esse-t Street Chapel, of St. Bunst-on'a 
Stepney (182»-33), of Trinity Church, Mf 







hul, ud or St. Qearge'B Chvrek, Becken- ; 
hta. He died ml 148 Bond Street, Lob- 
^D, aa '29 March 1859. H&rt puhluhed: 
1. Twenty-6ix llj-mns/ oMoqr -tto, for the 
ue of the congre^tion of Eteex Street 
QimI, 18i'0(f ) '2. ' AntboiiA,' dedicated to 
Ootch, 1830. 3. A ' Juba«te'bybim,witli 
I <Tc iJeum^* 1832, which gained the first of 
tlM j^uiy Gre^um prii«s (m gold medal) in 
Decaaha l^S\. 4. An oratorio, 'Omnipo- 
tcDoc* — first performed under his own direc- 
tion at the Hi.nover Square Roocu on '2 Anril 
18^, the cumpoeer conducting — puLlisUed 
in pianoforte ecore j Mendelsfohn was among 
the Babecrifaers. 6. ' Sacred Harmony/ a eol- 
Icetion of hTDUiB st-t to the mueic of varioua 
«nnpoaer»,inc]udinKK>nieof hi80wn,l^l(?) , 
6. ' Congregationaf Singing/ with chants, 


[Xiiucal World, xi. 188, 216; GeoL Ma|;. 
1S3S, pt. i. p. 645; GroTv'i> Diet, of Xosie, i. 
692 ; Uort s Mosic] L. 31. M. \ 

183i),coneral,bom in 1753, wa« fifth in de- 
scent from General Henrj' Hart, military 
governor of Londond<;rry and Oulmorc forts 
in the »e%'enteenth century, lie became in 
1775 an ensign in the 46th foot, and was 
engaged in the American wftr. In 1776 be 
joined tJie forces at Cape Fear, North Caro- 
lina, and served as aide-de-camp to Majors 
goneral Vaughan in the nnBUCcewful attack 
an Charlefto^-n. He wss engaged under Sir 
William Howe in the battles on Long Island, 
and at the attack and captuni of several of 
the adjacent forta. Hitt regiment passed the 
winter at Aroboy, and was employ ra in escort 
lerrice. In the next year he sailetl in Lord 
Howe's Meet to Chesapeake Bay, and was 
pnevnt at the battle)* of Brondywine Creek 
<I1 Sept. 1777) and Germantown (4 Get. 
1 777). He was promoted lieutenant in 1777, 
And durinL' the following winter while ata- 
tionL'd at I'hiUidelphia was employed in the 
fortification of the town. He was present 
at the buttle of Monmouth, and afterwards 
joiDe*! in the expedition under Genenil Grey 
wlii'h deatroyea the stores and fortifications 
uf New Haven, Connecticut. Between 1778 
and 1779 Hart was engaged in active &or\'ice 
in the Wcit Indies. Jn 1779 he wos made a 
captain. Thu n-st of his military life was d&- 
Tol«l to »or%ic(! in India,where he was jiresent 
at the taking of Bangalore, at the three HJpges 
<ifSfrinaapatftm,aswelI as many other minor 
ai!kir«, inclnding the battle liefore Seriiiga- 
patam on 15 Muy 17(11, when liin horse was 
tiled under hiui, and that of T^IuUiivelly in 
1798. On the acquisition of the province of 
Canara in 1799 he was appointed to com- 


Bandit. l%e jear belon h« liad beni 
m coioael, and after lus rettira bona ha ' 
placed oo the staff in Ireland^ and made' 
major-ceneral 1 Jan. 1805, and lienleaaat- 
genaal in 1811. He was alao commandflr 
of the oortbem district and gonrBor of 
Loodoodflrrr and Culmore. He rrpr ra cpted 
Donegal count V in parliament from "23 Oct. 
1812 till the diuolation of 1831. Hart died 
at liii Mat at KiideriT, Donagal, 14 Juno 
1833. He manied Charlotte, daughter of 
Jnbn Ellerker of Ellerker, in 17i*$, and by 
her had five sons and three daughters. 

[GcDt. Mag, lft33, ii. 180-1 ; Annual R(«ut«r» 
1832. p^ 308; CoIaoge'sGantteer of thelaitcd 
States ; Borke's Landed Gantry.] F. W.t. 

HAKT, llEXRY (/t. VA9), was author 
of 1. ' A Godly New »hort trvatvse instruct- 
yng every parson howe they Minlde trade 
theyr lyvea in the Imrtacyon of Vertu, and 
the shewing of vyce, and declaryng also 
whatbenefyte man Iiath receaved by cLriste, 
through tiue efl'usyon of hys most precyoua 
bloude ' (Robert St oughton), 1&48, l6mo, 
(Brit. Mu*.); flnd:i.* A Go<Uv exliortation to 
all such as profcsae the Gospell, wherein they 
are by the swete promises iherof provoked 
and styrred up to lollowe the same in livings 
and by the terrible threats feared from the 
contrarv/ London (John Day and William 
Sere6),l649, 8vo. 

[Ames's Typ. .Antiq. (Herbert), pp. Q23, 760 ; 
Brit. Mus. uud BodL Libr. Cat.] R. li. 

HABT, HENRY GEORGE (1808-1878), 

lieulenant-genernl, iiuthor, editor, and pro- 
prietor of 'Hart's .\rmy List/ belonged to 
iheold Dorsetshire family of Hftrl of Nether- 
bury. His father, Lieuienant-colont*! Wil- 
liam TTart (who served in the royal navy, 
Dorsetshire militia, 111th foot, &c.), went 
out to the Cape in 1819, and died there in 
1B48. Henry George, the third wn, bom on 
7 Sept. 1808, accompanied his father to tht¥ 
Ca^e, and was on 1 April 1820 appointed 
ensign in the 49th foot, then stationed in the 
colony. His regimental service was passed 
in the 40th. His suhiieauent commuisiona 
were : lieutenant, 19 July 1832 ; captain, 
1 Dec 1842; major,15 Dec. 1848; lieutennnt- 
colonul, 3U Mny 1856; colonel, 27 Dec. l&M); 
major-general, 6 March 1668, and tieutenont- 
gpnemi, 4 Dec. 1877. 

On joining the service Hart was remark- 
able for the apaiduily with which he applit-d 
himself tn his profession and his thirst for 
military* infonnalioii. At that period, except 
iuthevulumeffof PhilippurtV 'Koyal Military 
Calendar 'ofl8:K), then some time out ofprint, 
there was no collective account, otlicial or 
otherwise, of thcwar services of distinguished 





officeira. Hnrt Uboriouslr compiled for his 
•wn mformation a largo nunibf r of iheee acr- 
rices from military lii^torieeand otlier sourcf^. 
Very meagre infonuuliou was theu afl'orde<l 
by tlie omcial army li«U. Hart ^dunlly 
added to hU own interleaved copies until, 
while yet a subaUera, he hod accumulated $0 
laree a maaa of infonnatton as to eugge^t the 
publication of an army list of hu own. Aided 
greatly by his wife in his UleroTT labours, 
Hfirt, in Februorv lt*UO, huviiig obtuined the 
appro valofihe military authorities, published 
the first edition of his ' Quarterly Army List.' 
It was At once faTOurablv rect-ivcd tiy the 

2U(M;n (ind the Dulio of Weflington, and other 
igh niithorities. Hurt wiuj allowed access 
to the official records of oIlicerH* Ben'ices, and 
in 1840 published bin first ' Annual Army 
List,' containing ftupplenientary information ; 
of intt^rest, in ndditinn to tbe content* of the ' 
^Quarterly,' lie also projected a military 
bioprnpliical dictionary, specimen pages of, 
which he issued, but never found time to 
carry out ihe work. From the first appear- ' 
•nco of 'Hart's Army List' to the present | 
day the annual and quarterlv volumes have , 
regularly appeared. The onginal form bas 
never been altered, although tbe book bus 
gone through two hundred editions. 

Hurt never allowunl bi^ literary avocations 
to interfere with his profe.H»ionnl work, and 
was an admirable regimental ofiicer. He ren- 
dered valuable services as n poor law inspector 
in Ireland during the famine of 1845-C. In 
]86<i, when in temjiorary command of iho 
depf'ii battalion at Templemore, by his mas- 
terly movements he suppressed a diingenins 
mutiny of tbe North 'i'lpiwrary militia witb 
VPTT litlle bloodsbed, and saved the town of 
Neiiagh from pillage. 

Hurt married in 1833 Alicia, dnuphter of 
the Hew Holt Okea, D.D., by whom he left 
a family, including thrct^son-s all nnw serving 
in Ihe army: Colonel A. Fitrroy Hart, C.It., 
1st battalion East Surrey regiment (tbe pre- 
sent editor of * Hart's Army Liet '), Colonel 
Keginald Clare Hart, \'.C., royal engineers, 
and Major Horatio Holt Hart, royal engi- 
neers. Hart died at Biarrile on 34 March 

IRurkp's landed Gentry, 18S6 ed. ; Army 
Lwtn i Brii. Mu«. Cat. Prinwd Books : informa- 
fcion KuppUiid by Colonel Hart, CH , l!<i Kn^t 
Surrey RoginioDt.] H. M. C. 

HABT,JAMES(/?. 1033). physician, was 
bom probably l>et ween 1580 and lo&O, nnd, 
though hip pedigree cannot be traced, mot*t 
likely in Northamptonsbiro. In 1007 and 
1608, orperbaifs longer, he studied in Paris, 
and travelled in other p«rts of France. He 

afterwarda lived at Meissen in Saxony; 
IfllO was travelling in Bohemia, and went 
probably latcrtoBasle to complete ht««tudiea^ 
V-itber at Ba*le or elsewhere on the continpntl 
be tixik Ihe de^crree of M-D., and about lti]2| 
settleil as a physictau probably from the flrstl 
at Nnrtliampton, where he lived at least] 
tweniT or thirty years, aud apparently sue 
c*eded in practice. He never belonged b 
the College of Physicians (though that bodj 
licensed his chief work in flattering tenns^J 
nor to the Company of BurU'r-Surgeon'*. Hh 
was a strong puritan, an apjtellaiiun wbichha^ 
ad'ipta more than once in his writtnp"». 

liarl's principal work, * KAtvu:^, or tbe 
Diet of the Diseased* (Ixindon, 1033, foUo'l, 
though Httlo known, is of interest and value. 
This ' fruit of twenlr years' experience ' ij 
an attempt, quite in harmony with tbelUp- 
pocratic tnnfitions to prescribe the proper 
regimen and physical conditions in (liseatie 
08 well as in health, dealing with hea!th«^ 
air, exercise, and the like, though noteS 
with drugs. It had scarcely any ^n>run- 
ner in meHical literature since tlie da&sical 
times, and though the importance of sueUj 
matters iji» now generally recognised, it La 
had till quite ret^ently but few successor 
Its genenil character is that of a Icame 
compilation modified by common sen^r an^ 
experience. In copiousness of quotation i^ 
sometimes almost approaches Burton's *Ana--3 
tomy of Melancholy ; ' and tbe zeal displayed 
in refuting vulgar errors is worthy of "Sir 
Tlioraas Browne himself. In rationality and"" 
frcwlom from the tjTanny of therapentia 
nnitine it is far in advance of most medical 
works of the lime, and apart from its pro-l 
fe.H.sional interest presents iuRlructive picture 
of tbe manners and ciijitoms of the seven 
ternlh C" ntury. Hsrt's two other work 
(both dedicated to Charlps I when Prince o^ 
Wales) are entitled: 1. 'The Arraignment 
of Urines, by Peter Forrest, epitomised and 
1 ninghitod by JamccHart,' London, lt>23,4toj 
and 2. 'The Anatomic of Vrines, or the 1 
curid part of our Discourse on Urines,' London 
Itilifi, 4to. They expose the fullucies 
diagnosis by means of an examination 
urine at tbe hands of ignorant persons, anj 
attack thr(!e kinds of tresjtflitsars on tbe mfr _ 
dical domain, unlicensed quaclts, meddle- 
some old women, and above all, prescribing 
divines. Tbe British Mufieum copy of Ihe 
first of these works has bound up with it a 
manuBcript chapter, evidently in the hand- 
writing or the author, which it is said ' could 
by no means Ixs got to bu licensed;' it abo 
strongly denounces the ' intrusion of parsoiu 
. . . upon the profepsion of phisicke.' 

[Hart'a Works ; BriL Mas. Cat.] J. F. P. 





(16fl;l-[7i1>),miniKter of Tlis works are: I. 'The Opening of llnr 
i663, Atudif>dnt tbo uni- Unroasonablo Writinffof our IncIidhTouas: 

litVmbiirnh, liom in 1663, studied nt fbo uni- 
«.itVof Edinh^r^b,IlndgTacl^Qtod A.M. on 
I JuIt lrtS7. He becnmo luituBterof Kalhn, 
nr iStUnhiirpli, in July WJ^J, nnA ten rear* 
Verwards (19 Aug. 1702) was tninNlatt'd to 
Ireyfriar*' Church, Ediubuiyb, ax succesjtor 
iJilhert Kulf. During ibo <!arly y»«rs of 
I p[if(tiinite h« strougly ojjpnaedlbe I'nion. 
ilenoitnced Prinnipal \A illiam Carat area 
|. v.] fnim ihe pulpit as an enemy to his 
juntn,* and a traitor to the church. He was 
tJ-ilyreconeiled to the chnn(je in political 
iirs aft-pf the Unlnn woa effected, and in 
j#*l4wft* deputwlwith oth»'r»by the General 
Aawonbly to eoneratubite ( ieorjfe I on his ac- 
cession to the throne, td'orgo nominated 
him to the post nf king's almoner in 17:itt, 
and he died pa.«lnr of GrfyfriarM* Church on 
I Jane 1729. Wodrow describes him as *tt 
artby, good man, and one whose sep- 
aon* wer*^ much haunted. He was natu- 
rally a little warm and keen, but of consider- 
le pra>nty and pnwb'nct> with it.* When 
lecle visited ScoiJaud in 1718 be met H«rt 
liileeudeavourinK tobrinffabout aunioiibe- 
rixl t lie presl)yteriftn and eyiii4C0|ial churches, 
id WM much iinprefwcd by hi^*^in^uIa^and 
■iginol ebarai'ter. Thf cfintrost U'twi^i-n 
larlV iift'ability and benevuli'uet? in private 
ad Lia 6en>e dinlril)e8 in the pulpit a|:fuin.4l 
and the doom awaitinf^ tlie sinner at- 
noi«d Steele'^ notice, and be afterwards 
iferred to him a.** 'the hanffman of the (joB- 
Hort's published works wcm n f^rmon 
Btltled ' Tlie (^ualtficHtionK of Uult-n and 
Duty of Subjects deBcribwI,' Kdliibur^U, 
% and ' The .lounial of Mr. Jame.^ Harl. 
17U' (e^litt'd by Trineipal Lee, Edin- 
Drxbi I8.'W). He married, first, Margaret 
ivtngston, and secondly, Mary Campbell, 
whom he had thirteen children, nine of 
^hom survived him. 
[Haw Scott's Fasti, i. A% MO. 399; Aitken'* 
ir« of StoeU. ii. 154 ; WodroVi Aualtvta. iv. 
t; SterenmnV Hirtury; Cilib«r'» Lires of tlw 
eta. iv. 113; ChamlKTs's Domestic Annals of 
illaod.] A. n. M. 

HABT, JOHN (rf. 1574), orthogravbic 
ibrmerf entered the College of Arms at an 
rW a^ became Newbaren pursuivant ex- 
' iimtrv't *"^ w** created Chester- herald 
IWWI. Uq 6 Dec. 1.560,afti-r the aupprt-s- 
on of the northern reboUiou, be wasseutto 
oneasierby ly^nl Clinton with 2,000/., to be 
Blirered to 8ir Thomas (Jargrave. He al^o 
ok a further sura nf '-',00(1/, to Sir Kulpb 
Herat Xortbalb'rton. He died in London 
10 July 1(*74. On 8 Jnlj? ir>78 Mary, 
( widow, presented n petition to Lord 

Unreasonable Writingof our IngliabToung: 
wherein is shewid what nt-cesmrilt is to be 
left, and what folowed for the perfect writing 
thereof/ ITwL Uoyal MS. in British Mu- 
setim, 17 C. rii. pp." 230. The work, which 
i'oncista of thirteen chapters, is dedicated to 
I'idward \'I. 'J. ' .A.n Orrhograpbie, conteyn- 
ing ibe due order and reason, liowe to write 
Of paiuTt; tbimage of maunp.'t voice, moifite 
like to the life or nature. Compoaed by J.H., 
Clifstor Hcmlt,' London, l.ltiJ), 8vo. Re- 
printed, mostly in Pittn&n's syatem of p]io- 
ntftic shorlhand, lithograpbed by Faaac Pit- 
man, London, 18.j0, 16mo, In this remark- 
able treatise he expounds a plan for reforming 
the existing ortbogruphy ot the Kngliiih bm- 
guflge on n strictly phonetic basis. Other 
early attempt.-* in the same direction were 
made bv Sir John Clieke [a. v.1, SirTbomoa 
Smith, "and Willium nuUoknr [q. v.] 3. ' A 
Mctbode, or ComfortJihle Regmning for all 
L^nlearned, whereby they may be taugbt to 
read English in a very short lime with 
pleasure, London (H. Denham), 1570, 4to. 
[Amns's Tvpogr. Antiquities (Horbori), pp. 
701, &3I, 1288; Casley'a Cat. of MS3. p. 207; 
GibwonV Bit.l. of Shorthand, p. 89; liulitt's 
Bibl. CollectiuDH aad Notest. i. 202; HaaliU'a 

pt. i. ; Tht' Huth Lihniry, ii. 6Ad; Lowndea's 
Uibl. Man. (Ooba). p. 1000 ; Noble's CoUega of 
Arms, pp. 177. 187 ; Cab of State Papers. Dom. 
(1647-80), pp. 36-1. 694, Add.«niJa (l.i66-7fi). 
pp. 140. 152. 326-«. 461 : Tanner's KibL Brit ; 
WiiodV Atlunw Oxon. (Bliu). i. 636.] T. 0. 

HART, JOnN' (d. 1580), jeauit, wa«, ac- 
cording to Wood, educated at Uxfortl, though 
in what college or hall he oould not discover; 
bis name does not occur in theregister. Being 
dissatisfied with the established church ho 
withdrew to Douay, was reconciled to the 
Roman catbolie communion, and admitted 
into the English College there in 1570. Ho 
took the degree of R.l). iti the university 
of Douav in 1577, and was ordained prie4t 
on 29 March 1578. In June l/iHO he waa 
ordered to the KngUsb miiision, but was ar- 
rested as soon as be landed at Dover, and waa 
sent in custody to London to be examined 
by the privy council. He ww* committed to 
prison and confined in a filtby dungeon. On 
the day after (15 Nov. 1581) Father Cam- 
pinn'Hcondcmnation, he was tried with several 
other prie>;ts and condemned to death on ac- 
count of lii>i ^ttCfnlotnl character. Thi I Dec 
15^1 be was to hove been executod with 
Campion, Kberwin, and Briant, but when 
placed on the hurdle he promised to recant , 
and he was taken bock to prison, where he 
wrote to secretary Walsingbam the com- 




pl»'to act of iipo^tasy which h now preserved 
in Iho Public Rixtinl Office, ami liaa only 
Ifttolv bccomu kiuiwii (StnU Papfn, Dom. 
Elii.vol. cl. No. 80). W'hv he did not oc- 
cupy the place on the ImnlU* by Campion's 
■iao the catholic* of his day novcr Know. 
Within n sliort tirao Hart ivpenlcd of hia 
weakness, and at^in «tood firm in the catho- 
lic faith. Apcording to Cardinal Allen, Hart's 
inoihi*r visitrt! liim in the Tower, and she, 
'a ^utlewoman of a uobK' spirir, spoke to 
him in such toRv tonp« nf raartynlam, that 
if ahe found him Ijnt with the de«irit of it, she 
left him on fire' 

WaUingham gave iCart leave to goto Ox- 
ford ft>r thpi'o months upon condition that he 
ejinuld confer with John llainoldes or U('y- 
nold»i a ppoteatant divine, on matter* in con- 
troversy botwpon the Knfjliah and Homiui 
ohiirchea. Ilnrt acquittod himself with ho- 
nour, and Camden styles him * vir prae cittoria 
doctissimua.' The conference appears to have 
taken place in MtS^. DixIdMys it was held 
on very unequal tenn(4, as Hart was unpro- 
vi'led with books and waa labouring undwr 
gmaC infirmity cautned hy tht? rijrour of his 
confinement (Chirch HiMtury^ ii. 145). Ilart 
returned to WuUingham a« resolute in the 
catholic faith aa before, and wa» sent buck 
to the Tower. ("In the anniversary of the 
day when he should have died, his name 
rtiiltipears in ilJshton'e diary, ! Dec, lo8"i: 
• Jonn Hart, nricst, under sentence of death, 
was puninhea by twenty days in irons, for 
not yielding to one Kuynolds, a minister.' 
Six months later ho was put into the pit for 
the same offence for forty-four days. On 
18 March iri8:J, while in prison, he was ad- 
mitted into the Society of JesuB. Ua^lJan. 
1684-^» he atid twenty others, among whom 
"was Jasper Heywood [q. v.], were conveyed 
to Franco and banishetl the rwilm forever by 
virtue of a commission from the queen. They 
were landed on the coast of Nonniindy and 
were sent to Abbeville after sig^ning a cer- 
tificate to the effect that they had been well 
treated on the voyage (IIoLiNSHEDjC'Armnc//-*, 
lii. 1370, ISBO). Hart jnrocoeded to Verdun 
and thence to Home, His superiors ordered 
him to Poland, and ho died at Jarielau on 17 
or 19 July lo^G- The necroloffy of the ]jro- 
vince, howevi-pr, states that he died in l.lMri. 
'The Summe of the Conference bet wene 
John Rainoldes and John Hart, touching the 
Head and Faith of the Church. Penned by 
John Uainoldes, according to the notCJi set 
down in writing by t hem both ; peniacd by 
J. Tlart, &c.,' was published at London in 
1681, 4to. reprinted in 158H, IWH, nnd lti()9, 
and translated into Latin (Oxford, 1610, fol.) 
by Henry Parry, afterwiu^ bishop of Glou- 

cester. Dodd asserta that the particularR of 
the conference are very tmiairly given by 

[Addit. HS. £871. f. 58: CUy^s Litnrgiai 
temp. Kliz. p. G38 ; Foley's Becunlfi, vii. 338; 
FiillBr'.-* Church Bi«t. (Urowcr). r. 73 ; GilloV 
Bibl. Diet.; Lomboth US. 402; Mores Hi«„ 
Missioni!! AaKliennn Sue. Jrm, p. 138 ; Morris^ 
Trouhlra of onr (latholic Forefather!', ii. 28-3J 
69. 78. 2^4; Oliver's Jrtfuit CoUactious. p. 113 
Records of tlie Kogliah CathoIiei>, i. 426. iL 487 
Strype's Annals, it. 646, iv. 173, fol.; T.\nflrV3 
Bibl. Bnt. p. 382 ; TaQBcr's Soc. Jmu Am*t^ 
lorutu Imilatrix, p. 382 ; W'ood'a AlfaeBie bxoa^ 
(Bliss),!. 636, ii. 16.] T, C, 

HART, JOSEPH (1712?-1768\ inde- 
pendent di^*ine and h^-mn-writor, waa bom 
in I_/undon about 171t^, and was religiously 
brought up. After much /^iritual perturba- 
tion, extending over foui^«nd-twentT yeazv, 
he achieved his converaion, af^er hearinga sc^ 
mon on Itev. iii. 10 preachofl in the Morvviaoj 
Chap<?l in Fetter Lane, on Whit-Sunday, irr**" 
From the end of 176f) until his death 
24 May 1768 he preached regularly at Jev. „ 
Street Chapel, London, where he gathered ^ _ 
la^re congregation. He was buried in Bun- 
hill Fields. Twenty thousand people are said 
t<i liave listened to the funeral sermon. Ho^l 
left a widow and neveral children. ^| 

Hart published: 1. 'The Unreasonable- 
ness of lieUgiott ; b^ing Itemsrks and Anim- 
adversions on Mr. John \\'e8loy'a Sermon oa 
Rom. viiL 32,* London, 1741, lt?mo (aji ac 
parontly serious argument to prove that reli- 
gion not only receives no support from reason, 
but is diametrically opposed to it); and] 
'J. ' Hymns, &c., composed on various Sul 
jecls. With a Preface, containing a brief .-Vo* 
count of the Author's Fiperience,' Lottdon« 
1755). l;*mo. The hymns are of an ultra- 
Calvinistio tone. The preface haa been re- 
printed as * The Experience of Joseph Hart/ 
London, 1B62, 16mo. M 

[Wilson's Hist, nf Dissenting Churchos. }iE,H 
342-7 ; the Preface to the Hymns.] J. H. R, 

organist and compiler of dance music, bom in 
London in 1794, was chorister at St. Paul's < 
Cftthedral, under Sale, from 1801 to IKIO^J 
and during those years had lessons on thsj 
(^>rgun from 8. \>'e8ley and Matthew Cooll 
and 'III the pianoforte from J. B, Cramer. At 
the eariy age of eleven Hart often plaved as 
deputyiorAttwood,the organist of .St. haul's. 
In 1810 he was elected organist of Wali- 
hamstow Church, Essex, and joined the Earl 
of Uxbridgo's household as organist, forthree 
years. Hart was elected, afterseverccompeti- 
tion, organist of Tottenliam Churcli (Miadle- 




sex). On the intnxluction of the quarlrillc at 

I^Aimack's by I^adyJereoy after 1815 (Grove, 

■■L 5o), Ilu-t, wlio was described ai teacher 

^^Ed pianist At private batia, began hia long 

faeries of adaptation)) of national and operatic 

airs to the fashionable dance meastires. His 

mOEt notable achievement wait the compila- 

I lion in 1nI9 of the tunes of the- Original 

^^Laxicenn, wliirh are i«till popular {ib. ii. 80). 

^^feom 1818 to 1821 llart was chorus-m&^ter 

pVnd pianist at the Engliah opera (Lyceum). 

and wrote the son^ for 'Amateurs and 

Actore; 1818, 'The Bull's Head,' * A Walk 

1 for a Wager/ 1819, * The Vampyrc,' 1820, 

I and other musical farcea and melodramaa. 

From 1829 until his death Hart lived at 

Hastings, where he opened u musicseller's 

shop, conducted a jtmall band, and played the 

or^an at St. Mary's Cbaiwl. Ho died on 

10 Bee. 1844 at Hutings, aged 50. 

Some of Hart's most succeuful quadrille 
were based on the mufiic of * Don Giovanni,' 
1818, 'Les Lonciers; 1819, 'Lea Hussars,' 
Locke's ' Macbeth,' ' Pietro TEremita,* 1822, 
Engliih melodiyp, 'Donna del Lago,' 1823, 
^Der Freiachiilr,' 1821, Irish melodies, and 
otch melodies. He composed forty-eight 
in all. He was aUo the author of some 
itxes and royal gallopade^. 'An Easy 
of Teaching Thorough Bass and Com- 
position' is ascribod to him. 

[Diet, of Mo«ii*. 1827. p- 3^3; Grove's Diet, uf 
Music, i. 693. ii. 89, Ui. 65 ; Siuwz Advcnisvr, 
17 Dee. 1844.] L. H. M. 

HAKT, PHILIP (d. 1749). organist and 
laUBZcal compoAer, was son of James Hart 
(1647-1718), a gentleman of the Cbapcl 
Royal, and chorister of Westminster Abbey, 
xoauy of whose sooga appear in Plnyford's 
'CoUections'from lft70 u. l«92,and who was 
buried in Westminster .Abbey on 5 May 1718. 
le son Philip was for upwards of tii'ty years 
ranist of bt. Andrew UndHrshaft and of 
. Michael's, Cornliill. He resigned his ap- 
intmeut at St. Michacrs, and on 28 May 
[724 was elected the first organist of St. 
THonis BackchuTch. Ho died on 17 July 
1749, at an advanced age, and after a long 
lUness. By hia will (dated 13 Oct. 1747. 
which waa witneasftd by John Kyfieid, appa- 
rently the oi^n-builder), be Itequeathed nis 
property to his nephew William, son of his 
brother, George Hart (a memberof ibeCtiapel 
Royal, 1394). 

Hart is said by Hawlnns to have been a 
Bound musician, but to have 'entertained 
little relish' for innovations. Hawkina also 
deficribea Hart's frequent use of the 'shake' 
m playing, and records how he waa wont to 
disooume music at Britton's in the company 

of Haiubl, PeptLsch, Woollaston, and othors. 
As H composer, Jlart was no more than re- 
spectable. His setting of Hughea'a 'Ode 
in Praise of Mustek' was perfonned on St. 
Cecilia's day, 1703, and published in 4to. 
The manuscript score, entitled ' An Ode to 
Harmony,' is now iu the Britisli Mu!<eum. 
Hart edited about 1720 in 8vo, 'Melodies 
projwr to be sung to ... ye Paalma of David,* 
antIpubU.'(he<l music to * The Morning Hymn * 
(from 'Paradise Lost') in 1729, 4to. " Hia 
other compositions were : 1. * Fugue-s for the 
Organ and Uarpsichord,' an earlv work. 

2. Anthems: ' [will give thanks/ and 'Praise 
the Lord, \t> Servant^,' in vol. v. of the 
Tudway Collection (Harleian MS. 7341). 

3. Many songa, including a * Song upon the 
Safe' Return of His Majesty King William,' 
written about l"00,and' Sound the Trumpet/ 
which was written X» celebrate the nuptials 
of the Prince of Orange and the Pnneess 
Ro^'al, 1734, and others, like ' Ye curious 
Wmds/ in Ilandelian style. Some of Hart'a 
music is in n manuscript "collect ion of ' Suites 
for the Harpsichord, Addit. MS. 31465 
(British Museum). 

[HnwbtDH'fl Hist., of Mnsie, iii. 734, 791, 825; 
Husk's Cplebrations of .St. Cecilia's Day, p. 63; 
Beg. of Wills, P. C. C. Lisle, 218.] L. M. M. 

(1806-1881), painter, wo-^bom at Plymouth 
in April 1806. He was of the Jewish race 
and religion. His father was Samuel Hart 
of Plymouth, who began life as a worker 
in silver and gold at Bath; he is mentioned 
by Bromley {Catutogufi 0/ Ent/roped Brititih 
Portraitg, 1793) oa a mezzotint engraver, and 
atudicd painting under Xorthcole in London 
in 1780. 

Young Hart was educated under the Rev. 
Israel Worsley, a unitarian mimnter. Father 
and HOn went to London in 1820; the former 
taught Hebrew andthe latter prepared draw- 
ings to become a student at the Iloyal Aca- 
demy, where howas admittedinAugust 1823. 
Togainhi-slivingandhelptoeupport his father 
bo coloured theatrical prints and painted a 
few miniatures. He commended e.xhibiting at 
Somerset House with a miniature of his father 
in 182(J. His first oil painting, 'Instruction/ 
was shown two years later at the British 
Institution, and was sold at the private view. 
Next year ho was an exhibitor of five pic- 
tured, but did not sell one. In 1830 he ex- 
hibited at the Society of British Artiste in 
Suffolk Street a more ambitious work called 
' Interior of a Polish Synagogue/ afterwards 
knoft'n as ' The Elevation of the Law ' (en- 
graved in the Art Joumai, 1851). This was 
purchased by Robert Vernon and bequeathed 



bv him with his other pictures to the nation. 
It was so attractive that Hart received seven- 
teen commiiisians, of which ha wiu onlyahle 
to execute three, one btiingatioinnttriiaii |)ic- 
ture for Mr. Venion, * English Mobility re- 
ceiving the (..Vimmuniou of the Catholic 
Church.' ' The Quarrel Scene between AVol- 
aey and Buckingham ' was in the Royal Aca- 
demy exhibition of IK34, where also was 
»hown ' Uichard Cceur do Uon and Saladin ' 
(183o]. Hart wttH elected an OMOciateof the 
Academy in 183^. Thu folluwiiiK year he 

Sainted 'SirThomas More receiving the Bene- 
iction of his Father.' In I63U he exhibiteJ 
a large picture of* Lady Jane Gn-v at the 
PUce oflier Execution on Tower n ill,' which 
secured his election us royal academician in 
1840. The painting remaint^ rolled up in 
hid studio until 1870, when he presented it 
to Plymouth, his native town, wbere ir is 
placoJiD the hall ofthe new municipal build- 
ings, lie wasoccupieil with aportntit of the 
Dukeof Sussejt in theuutumn of IB 10. Tliis 
wna exhibited iu the following May. Tlie 
duke advised him to travel, and gave him 
letters of introduction, llnrt left ICngUnd 
1 Sept, 184 1 , and visilod I taly, where he made 
many areliit-*.H:iiiral ond other drawings, ori- 
ginally intendwl for publirationoflaReriea of 
engravings. They weru ultimately uai>d ix& 
studioft for his pictures of Italian history and , 
oconery, amonu which are : ' Interiors of the , 
Cathe<iralB at Modena andPisa,* ' .-Vn OHering 
to the Vii^in,*' A Iteniiniscenceof Itavenna,' 
and' The Interiorofl he Baptist ryofSt. Mark's 
At Venice oh in 184^,' exhibited at Burling- 
ton House in 18j30; * Simchoth Torah Ke^ti- 
val' (1846), 'Milton Visiting Galileo in 
Prison '(I H47),* The Introduction of Raphael 
to Pope Jnlius.' There may also Ik* mentioned 
•TheThreti Inventors of' Printing' (1852), 
and ' The ('onference between ManaBsoh ben I 
Israel and Oliver Cromwell ' { 1 8"H \. \ 

In 1864 Hart succeededl t'. U- I^ealie as ' 
professor of painting at the ,\ciidemy. He 
held the office until 1^63. From I8l>5 to his 
death he act'^d as librarian of t lie iustitution. 
In spite of advancing years and foiling powers 
he continue<l regularly to exhibit, and his 
reputation greatly suH'enKl. His earlier works 
phnw great technical skill ond vigour of ex- 
^ pression. He was very ^inst«king in the 
' nechnnicnl and antiquarian accuracy of bis 
Bubicct«. Between 1836 and 1880 he ifl stated 
by Mr. Oraves {Dictionary (ifArti^t-f, 1884, 
p. too) to have publicly exhibited IHO pic- 
tuieSt <?li^7 Bcnpturnl and historical. He 
painted eg^>raul port raitii of jM!r«onsof his own 
faith; the best perhaps wa.>4 that ofEphraim 
Alex (1870), founder and first president of 
the Jewish board of guardians, Deronshlre 

Square, oity of l>ondoa. He will be best; 
nienibered for his connection with the librsr 
of the Rfival Academy, which he may be i 
I to have created. He devotwl himsidf to th 
I discharge of this duty with much skill an 
I unceasingdiligence * A Catalogue of Books iij 
the Libmry' was prin •'■'din 1877. Hart was cu 
ralor of the Pninfed I lull at Greenwich, an 
w«8 eVctetl by the committee of the Atb 
n:eiimCtiibtnl>v4o. He was very learned in ti 
history of the tine arts; he IiimI astningveino 
humour, an intense love for bis profeetfion, at] 
I was a high-minded and honourable man. 
lived a believing and ob.';«Tvant Jew. 
* Keminiecences ' (tnlited by A. Brodie, 1883 
contain some interesting ftorie«of the numetfi 
Otis artistic celebrities he had known. 
diu<l unmarried at his residence. tHi Fitzrov 
Square, l/ondon, II June l<S8l,inhis beventjM 
i>ixth year. His broiher, !k[ark Mordeeaf 
Hart, was an engraver. 
[Personal kaowlrdge ; ReminiaomoM of S. A. 
' Hart. ed. A. Brodie. TxHidoo, privately printed 
1B82, BOX. 8vo, with photognpn ; Jeviith Chru- 
uido, 17 Jnae 1881 ; Athenicum, 18 June ISBl ; 
Men of the Time, IQih oiiit. 1879, pp. 492-3; 
Br^-an's Uictionory (K. K. GruvBii), 1886. i. 629 ; 
O. Rtfdford's Art Silled. 1 888, ii. 60.] H. R. T. 

1712), schoolmaster, a native of Harding^ 
near Henley-on-Thames (Wood), woa edti>^' 
cated on the foundation at r'ton, and In 1667^ 
while still nt school, matriculated at Oxfor 
as servitor at Magdalen College. He is d»->^ 
scribed in the universitv books as aged 16, 
and son of John HartcUffe of Windsor. He 
did not go into residence, but entered as a 
commoner a few monthfllattf at St. Edmund'i 
Hall, in the foRowiog year was elected to 
King's College, Cambridge, whence he gra- 
duated B. A. 1672,M.A. 1670. becomingfellow 
there, and in 1689 proceeding D.P. In 1681 
he became headmaster of Merchant Tuylora* 
School through, it is said, the interest of hia 
uncle, Dr. John Owen. In the five years of 
his ma«tership he liad under his can< NVilliam 
cocksjbishop of Rochester; PhuipStubbfl.thft J 
divine ; and KdmundCalamy.the nonconfor-^ 
mist historian. He resigned his post in 1680, 
and three years later endeavoured to pro- 
cure, through court interest, the provostshtp 
of King's. The college, however, succewfoJly 
resisted William IIPe attempt t« force upon 
them aprovost wb<Hn tliey themselves had not 
chosen. As some consolation HartclitTe waa^ 
made canon of Windsor in IHtO.and retainedfl 
that post until his death on B) Aug. 1712. V 
Between 1654 and 1(j95 IlartcUiTe published 
BcTenU sermons, among them being a * His- 
courae against Purgatory,' 1685 (attributed 




^^^. John Tillotson). Besides Ihut ht; trans- 
1 part of Plutarch's * Moruls ' (* How a 
I J^in tniiy receive Advantapf and Profit from 
; J"* Koeniitss,' 1691); but hU chiff work was 
I A Treatise of Mora! and Intellectual Vir- 
[biM,' London, 8vo, 1091 ; ilnd edition, 1722. 
(HarwDod's Alumni Eton. p. 268 ; Wood'it 
pttiimie 0x00. (Bliss), iv. 700; Wilniot's Life 
6rrTo(it;lt. p, oO; XiclioU'n Anccd, i. 63; Lyto'* 
tiftr. Kton ('oll«^e. 201-2 ; Rioiam's Magd. fcoll. 
1 Jsmiw 11 (Oif. lli»t. Soc. Publ.) 272.] 

C. J. R. 

1848), matbt*maiician, Ann of a.^olicitor, was 
in the county of Limerii'li, IrelantI, in 
fiM), He obtained a t^choLarsbip in ]H()9, 
A a fellowship ten years later at Trinity 
Bll«'|fe, Dublin. In IM\ Harte accepted 
college living of Cappajfh, of 
erry, co, Tyrone; and d'lvx] on Sunday, 
j April 1848, liaving preached on the same 
%y ID hLs chiirrh, where he was oUo buried. 
"irtewax iiulhnrofalrauslatlonofLuPlace's 
}yttteniedu Monde,' to which work he added 
Mathematical Proofs and Kxplantitory Utv 
rks/ Dublin, 18.30. He aUo {mbliHhfd a 
nalation of Poisson's 'Mfecauii|ue, with 
jFotes,* 2 vol?. London, 1842, Svo, and com- 
enced another of La Place's 'M^coniquc 

[Mfttricttlttt ion BcMik. Trie. Coll., DnbliniDtrry 
toe R«c. : informatioQ from Vcau Bymu, bu 
or at Cappiiglj. ] W. R-l. 

HAKTE, WALTER (1700-1774). mis- 
Ct-llnneous writer, was «on of Walter Harte, 
hn, & former fellow of Pembroke College, 
iitrd, was, at the time of the n?volution, 
Scar of St. Mary'i*, Tannton, prebendary of 
VelU. and canon of Jlri-Hol, hut u-ia nonjuror 
ftt all preferments, and died at Kinthnry in 
erkshirenn lOFeb. 1736. Tbcftin was bom 
1709, and vtoa educated at Marlborouph 
oar 8cho*jl and St. Mary Hall, Oxford, 
here he raatricuhiteil, aa 'son of Walter 
|»rt« of ChippinR Norton, Oxou., clerk,' on 
B July 1724, fl^d ITp. He pn^eeded B.A. 
in l72aandM.A.on2I Jan.l73l. He pub- 
ludied fay subscription 'Poems on several 
aions,' London, printed for n<-rnard 
inlot, 8ro, 1727. The volume ]» dedicated 
the Karl of Peterborough, and several 
ecea in it to different persona. Copies are 
ninnolly found with the date of l7J)i^, and 
' namn of Juhn Cecil inutead of Lintot on 
' title ; but this prohaldy was a remaind<*r 
Q^t at Untot'et wile (Lintot dit^din 17^7), 
Vrei-""-' ■'v'li iL new title-page. Ax p. t'l* 
Me line* to P(»pi_', which are 
■. > many e<litions of thepoet's 
workj^anij a quotation from them airongthe 

testimonJRB of authors before the ' Dunciad.' 
Whether or not Pope knew Harte bc-fore the 
publication of the poem? (from hi.s .^tub^crib- 
ingfor four copies it ta presumed he did), it is 
certain that they subeeijuently became great 
friends. In 1730 appeared Harte's ' Essay ou 
Satire, particularly the Dunciiid' (in verse), 
Svo. Pope, writ Ing of it to Caryll, l-Vb. 1 731 , 
says that it is 'writ by Mr. Hnrte of Oxford, 
a very vtiluahle young man. but it compli* 
ments me too mneh,' Mr. Khvin observes 
' the umise amounts to adulation.' 

Iul735HartepuhliRlied,wlthout his name, 
au ' Essny on l^ason/ in folio, Pojm writes 
to Caryll, 8 Feb. 17.35: 'There is anotherpiece 
which I mav venture to send you in a post 
or two, an l!.s«ay on Rea.'ion, of a serious kind, 
and the intention of which I think you will 
not disapprove.' KKvinsays: ' It is said Pope 
revisicd It. It is a close but lame imitation 
of the Essay on Sfan.' Harte in conversation 
said he luid often pressed Pope to write some- 
thing on the side of revelation, but he used 
to answer, ' No, no, you have alri<ady doiw it.' 
On 27 Feb. 17^7 he preached a sermon before 
the university of Oxford un 'The L'nion and 
Hiinnuny of Ui"a?ion, Murality.and Revealed 
Rtdigion,' which excittnl graat atteiitinn.And 
rapidly ran thniugh Ave editions. Objection 
was raised to tw<.f passages as savouring of 
Socinifini8m,and Harlo withdrew them. Ac- 
cording to I^lwin, Harte was at this time 
vicar of Gosfield in Essex. In December 1 737 
Pope writes to Holdsworth (author of the 
Latin poem 'Muscipuin') that Harte had 
ctmde»cended to stand for the poetry profea- 
sorship in Oxford, and bt-i^a Hnldsworth's in- 
tert'.'it in Harte'.s behidi. Wlicther Harte 
.'itood for the vacancy does not appear. At 
all events he was not elected. On Jan. 
1740 he again preached a sermon before the 
university on tue general fast upon the ap- 
proach of war. He wae» now appctinled vice- 
principal of St. Murj- Hall, and attained great 
reputation as a tutor. In 1740, upon there- 
commeudation of Mr. Rafter wards Lord)Lyt- 
telton, he wain appointe*! travelling tutor to 
Mr. Stanhope, the natural son of the Earl of 
Cheaterficdd, to whom that nobleman ad- 
dress<>d his well-known letters. Lord Chet- 
terfield constKntly writes in high tenna of 
Harte, Lord Mahon (afterwanls Karl Stan- 
hope) sara 'the clioice [of Harte as tutor] 
wfts not judiciouii^.or at leant not successful. 
' Mr. Hnrte*8 partiolity to (ireek and Latin, 
(}ennan law, and Gothic erudition ren- 
dered him rather remiss in other pointa. . . . 
Hart*', long uccuKtomed to college life, was 
too awlcw-ard both in his person and address 
to he able to familiarise tno graces with his 
young pupil ' (Maw, L^e tf Che$terjield}. 


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den {109a-I"Or»K lUinffwonh 0705-17), in 
Xh» pvi»b of littlifax, and of Annl«*,r, in the 
{Nirisb of L*«1j«, wliere he died in 1720. Hff 
BjarriedEwrel'lWatUworthon ISMaylTOi, 
br whom he had Eliza }>*>tli, bapluwd ou 22 Fi<ti. 
170!^,And[>uvid. Hisdrst wife was buried 
«o I-lScpt. 1 705. and he married Sarah Wil* 
Idnson on 25 Muy 1707, hy wboco be had at 
laurt four children. David is said fW^TBoy, 
HatifnT, p. 473) lo hare been brought up * bv 
OOP Mrs. BroaUfibanli/ Ue was sent to iJrad- 
fo<nl ^mmtnar.vchfxit, where he madea lifelonff 
friendithipwithaKrhooIfelloWiJohn Lister of 
Shibden Hall. afterwards first nuu^lerof Bury 
cnunmar school in Lancashire. (In 21 .\pril 
1723 he was odmilted ns an ' ordinary «iiar ' of 
Je»afiCollt*j:e. Cambridge. HefrniduatedlS.A. 
<m 14 Jan, 172tt, and wa^ admitted fellow on 
13 Nov. 1727. lie took his M.A. degree on 
17 Jan. 1729,And received college test imoniols 
<»n 8 Ocl, 1729. He was induced to pive up 
biatenUonof takingorderabT some»crupIe« 
'■Ugliing the articles, and became a phy- 
, although he never took n medical 
decree. On 21 Ft.-b. 1730 he n-ceived U-ave 
of absence from his college until the follow- 
ing^ Michaelmas; bat his fellowship was va- 
cated by marriage fay 8 June following, on 
jl^ich dav another election was made (infor* 
ion kindly given by the master of Jesus 
College!. Uariley practlwrd fip'l, it is said, 
at N*«wurk, and afterwanU at Bury St. Ed- 
munds. On 15 Nov. 17^) he tdU his friend 
Lister that h« has recently marri«.*d again, 
and settled in London at Princ^*'t4 Street, 
Leicester Fields. His M-cond wife hul a 
fbrttineof 6,500/., and every amiable quality. 
Bj his fint wife he had a son Dnvid [q. v.], 
•cren yeftrs old in September 1 7^8 ( Letter to 
Litt«r). During bis residence in London he 
was frvquently seen by John Byrom [q. v.] 
lie became an ardent supporter* of Hrrora's 
• which imme of his later U'IIkts 
mre written, and a friend of the inventor, 
although his want of sympathy with IWrom's 
r«l>(ri"'i^ my.*tici.'5m and political loryism pro- 
Imhly pMvente<l u cluwr intimacy. 

Hsrtb^y was a firm beli»'Ver in Mre. Ste- 
phens's medicine for the etont;, u difiense fmm 
which he was an early sufforor. lie wrnfe 
two pamphlets in her defence in 1738, ond 
Ipod to procure the grant nfri.fXKW. voted to 
■ by parliament in June 17:^9 for the pub- 
ition of her secret. In May 1742 he had 
come to Bath with his family for the benefit 
of his wife's health, and decided to setile 
then^ permanently at a ' ploaRant house in 
thic New Sfjuare' ([..etters to Lister, 26 May 
■nd 2ltrc. 1742). HarlleTremainedotBath. 
and diwl there on 2» Aug. 1757. 1I« K-ft 
i«tie by hi« cecond marriage. 

In ■ letter of 17 May 1747 be says that 
his wife has 1,300/. a year by her father'^ 
will, and that his son by her will inherit 
2,000/. a year,, now in lh« hand* of tniste*^. 
He is oblige<l to continue at tiiii prTtfe««ion 
ill order to proviile for th** son by his firel 
wife, who has just gone to Oxford. Hartley 
appears to have b«en a man of ^inguhir 
simplicity and amiability of chamcter. lli^ 
son tell* us that h^* visited poor and rieli 
with equal sympathy, and consoled their 
minds while he comforted their bodiw. He 
was of the middle site, well-proi»ortianed. 
■<K\X h regular features, an antmatetl expression^' 
ami * peculiarly neat* in |)erson. lie wi 
on early riser and methodical in all hi>t' 
habitA. He had a wide circle of acquaint- 
once among men of letters and science. 
Among his iriendswervBishope Butler, Law^ 
and Warburton, and Dr. Jortin. He was a 
fellow nf the Iloyal Society, ond known to 
Dr. Uulett, Smith, the master of Trinity C'd- 
leg«,and toHooke,the historian. He ^t udied 
mathematics at Cambrid^ under Sander'on, 
and was eoff^r in promotmg the fiule of San- 
demon's '^gvbra both before and after the 
death of the author. He was also much iti- 
tcre«ted in mu^iic, poetry, and liistory. 

Hartley had devoted his leisure to philo- 
sophical inquiry from on early periocl, S<H>n 
after 1730 he had heard that the Her. Mr. 
Gay, A fellow of Sidney Stimtex College, liad 
a«Mirled the ' possibility of deducing all our 
intellectual pleasures and pains from aJ«ocia- 
tiun.* Uav published h\n opinions in a pre- 
face to Law V translation of. \rchhiAhop King's 
' Origin nf Evil.' In 1735 Hartley toldListcr 
that ho had rid himself of every doubt as to 
the truth of religion. He aften\'Brds pur- 
sued his theological studies, examining espe- 
cially the chronology of the Bible, ond reading 
the early fiithers, though chiefly in transla- 
tion. His correApondenco shows a strong 
religiout* feeling, although hcwaaadecide.<dra- 
t ionalist in principle. He tells Lister ( 1 2 Df^c. 
1736) thot be hos finished 'two small tr-o- 
lises about year and u hal f ago,' colled ' Tli>> 
Prngretis L'» Happiness deduced fmm rejison/ 
find start ingfrom the principle of ii-<mocintion. 
In 1738 he had enlBrp'd hix plan, and con- 
templated an * Introductiou to the HLstviri- 
of Man' in four parts. He sent rough drafta^^J 
of thi> first two parts to Lifter in that Tear,^^H 
ond afterwards n?plied to Lifter's critici8ms«^^H 
dt'fendiuj: his nwn doctrines of detf:nnini^<m 
and universal happinf9««, and condemning 
Butler's d<>ctrine of rv.Hi'ntmejit. He kejit his 
papers by him, and uUiuifttelypublislied iIk-iu 
m theWginiiitigof 1743 as * Observation.^* on 
Man' in two parts. Hartley's chief aim, HUo 
that of most of bis coDtemporariea, was ethical, 

P 3 



And lie tWfCumet in a verr int«r»«liii(r way 
tbefrrafliiflldeTelopincni of pure benevolenc** 
from thn iiimplvr paxuuns. Il« coiaricitHl 
with tliB iniit*^rtftlUU ia BO (kr as be explalaiHl 
all mental phunnmena upon the hyp^tocAis of 

* vibrati uncles,' or minute nervouB vibrations, 
but energeticaUy denied ihat his optjuons 
reallvinvolrrd materiali'im.andiraaannoeTV 
andfcrnrent Christian. Prie»tl»?r,whocorre- 

I spoDded with biin jtist In-forv Ins death, wax 
anent]iti8ta4ti<.'8dmtrer,andpul)Iii>hw) in 1773 
an abrid^fui^it of hifl great work {'Jnd edit, 
in l7Wi, omitting the thoorr of vibrations 
iM involving obMuHty, though inclining to 
^ftcoept it ai truo. Hart lev '^ influence upon 
lalwr Kn^lish ethical writers of the empirical 
achool vtan verv great, and he anticipated 
mont of their nrgiim*n(* in n>garil to iLwocia- 
tion, a principle to which hn gave a width 
of iipplicAtinn previouslv unknown. Cole- 
ridge, in bin * ReligiouA Mutiing^,* calls 

Hirtlvy. of mortAl kind 
Wiiitit,, lie 6nft who marked the ideal tribes 
DovT) tbo fine filirea from' Lhe seaticot brain 
Hull vulitly surging. 

The name of Hnrtlwy Colpridge ri>jitifies to 
iho )Mime e-arly, though .Mnon abandoned, en- 
ibusiaam. Hartley*)* book refb<ct.t hit singu- 
larly amiabb) character. 

Ills work-H are : 1 . * Some Reasons why the 
l*rw!tice of Inocnlation ought to he intro- 
duced into thi/ Tiiwn of Burv' (st present 
Bury St. Kdmunda"), 1733. 2. 'Ten cfljwa 
of I^orsons who have taken Mrs. Stephens's 
Medicines. . .,'1738. 3. 'A View of the 
present Kvidene*) for and against Mrs. St«- 
phenft's AredieinuA* (mentions 1.5o casos, of 
which his own is the 153rd). 4. ' De Liiho- 
triptico a Jonnna Stephens nuper invento 
disserttttio epistolaris,' Leyden, 1741. Tothe 
second edition ( Hut h,174<i)ar»' added a Latin 
epistleloMeadipuhlisheilseimratelyin I7r>| ), 
and 'P()nj*H^tune (|iiH'dMui de seii»ii niotu el 
ideanim general ione/publisbed also in I*«it'» 

* MetaphyMical Tracts.' 1837. A second edi- 
tion of liie ' (Observations on Man' app*'ar»»d 
in 175'1, with a portrait of the author and life 
by his son David, who is separately noticed, 

(Corrospondonco with Lister, kindly communi- 
cated, wilii cstracta from pAri«h re^'istcm, by 
Mr. T-i«ter of SLibdeti ilull, Halifaa; Life by 
Son prefixed to 1791 edit, of* Obserrationa;' 
A\'atw)n'fl Hist, of Halifax (this is repeated in 
M'iDthly Review, ill. 106). In Monthly Review, 
liii. 380. liT. 4"'^, Iri. 82, nre conremporary cri- 
ticismi! of Priestley's edit.; Byroin's Diaries 
fChdhaoi Sf)e.), vol, ii.; Uul«'rwe({'HHiftt.of Phi- 
loHophy fKoghfth trarihlatioD). 1874. pp. 386-8; 
Unit's Life of PriMlley. i. 24. nod frequent re- 
fenucos ; Notes and Queries, 6ib ser. vii. 227.1 

L. S. 

HARTLEY. J»AVID. the vonng*r( 1732-1 
IKIS). fitatc_-iman and scientific inventor, soaf 
of Ihivid Hartley, the philosopher [q. v.]^l 
m.itriculutt'd ni (-orpus Chriftti College, Oi-J 
ford, tS April 1 747, aged 15; proetteded B,A, 
14 March 17A0, and was fellow of Mertoa 
College until bis death. He bi?came a studenb 
of Lincoln's Inn in 1739 ; and toon met Ben- 
jamin Franklin in London, who became hift 
tntimntf friend and correspondent. He n?- 
prH^itti.'d Hull ill parliament from 1774 to 
I7^,and fvtMo 17H2-4, and attained onsider- 
able Tvputation ns an up[><meut of war with. 
Amrrira. and of the African slave trade. It 
wiuj nroWhly owing to his fri^-ndship with 
l-'ranKlin. and to his eon.<tisteJit support of 
I^rd Itockingham, that he wan seleeted by 
the government to act as jdeuipoteniinrv la 
Paris, where on3i?ept. 1783 he and Franklia 
drviv up and signeilthe definitive treatv of 
peace between <irt*ut Hntain and the United- 
Stales of North AmeripA. He died at Bntli 
19 I>ec. IBia, in his eighty-fourth year. Uis 
portmit v.'Bn puinted bv Itoranev and ha4 
ne^n fngruvi-d by .1, W^nlker in niejuotiat. 
"Wraxail says that Hartley, • though dcwtl- 
tut« of any personal rt'rommendation of 
manner, poisessed Mme talent with unsullied 
probity, added to indefatigable perseveranca 
Hnd labour.' He adds that his speeches were 
intolerably lone and dull, and that 'hisriMng' 
always operated like a dinner-bell ' ( Mtmoin^ 
Lii. 490). 

Hartley's writings are mostly political^ and 
set forthtbeftrgmnentsoftbeextremeliberala 
of his time. In 1 7tt4 he wrote a vigorous at- 
tack on the Bute admiulstmtion, ' inscribed 
to the man who tbiukit himself a minister.' 
The tnost important are his ' Leiters on tb» 
AmerieaiiW(ir,'puhlished in London I778and 
I77i>,nnd iiddwsjied tohiscoiistituents. 'Th» 
road,' he writes, ' is still open to national 
reconciliation botwiwn Great Hriloin and 
America. The ministers have no national 
object in view . . . the olge<^t was to esla- 
blish an inttuential dominion of the crown 
by menns of nn indt»pendent American re- 
venue nncontmlled by]iarliiiment.* Uese«kit 
thn.)iigbaiit to vindicate the nnposition to the 
war. Ill 17ni lie printed at llatlin sympathetic 
'.Vrgnmeut on the Krencb Revolution,' ad- 
dreRsed to bis pnrlinmentary electors. la 
18f>0 a nuinbt-r of Hartley's papers wen* sold 
in London. Six volumes of letters and other 
documents relating to the peace went to 
America and passed into the collection of 
L. Z. Leiter of Washington; others are in 
the British .Museum {Addit. MSS. L>3206 f. 
77, 24321 f. 4). In his last years Hartley 
studied chnraiRtry and nioclianics. In 17HI> 
he published 'Account of aMethodof Secur- 








ing Buildings ind Ships affBinRt Fire,' br 
pUcin^ thin iron pUnk» under floors and ol- 
tarbinptUem to theceiliiigH.panly toprevent 
immpdintp ucctMw of the fire, partly I0 Hlop 
ihp frt* supply anil rurreiit of tiir. llebiiilt 
a boiisr onFalriey Heath to verify the etti- 
cacy of hu tnveation, and on the occasion of 
K 6re »t Richmond House, *J\ Dec, 1791, 
wroten pRinphU-t ureingtheinlueof liisfirt>- 

iiUles. Hartley edited Ub? father's woU- 
mown *Ob8<.'r%*ation3 on Man,' London, 
1791 and (with notes and additions) 1801. 

[KoQtcr*e<AlamniOzon.; Gent. Mng. It! 14. pt. i. 
fiio: Stanbope'4 ilist. Ti.207,vii. 89,20B; MarthA 
J. Limib's HiBtory of New York, ii. 26h )v\t]. ; 
l%r»n«j t'»t. of EngTuTed Porlraiu. vol. ii. ; ihc 
Private Corrvspoudi-nce of Ueojaiuiu Frankliu, 
•a. by W. T. Krmnklin, Lonil. 1817. Invol.ii.aro 
]lartl«y'i) letters relniing to iho pearp ; WiB«or'« 
Hist, of Atn*>rii-H, vii. 146, 162, 166, viij. 464 ; 
Higelow'A Lifr* of Fmnklin, paMnm.] R. R A. 

1W'J4), acttvss.'tlie (Iftuphtor of James and 
Kleanor AN'bite of Borrow, Soiui rset, waa 
lK>m ill 17<'i), and mmlti Imt apjieanincc! 
•t the niiVDiArkt't under Foote, aMurn- 
ftbly in 17ti9 ait Imolnda in ' Oroonoko.* 
After playiufT in the countn-, she made, as 
Monimia in tlie * Orphan, ' her first oppear- 
nnce in Kdinhurgrh, 4 Dec. 1771. Gnrrick, 
who had h^ard of her n-inarkable b«'auly, 
cunimii««ioued Moody, the ai-tor, la report 
upon her. Under date ^ti July 177:^, Moody 
write*: * .Mrs. Hortlev i"« a g<r>oi\ fig-ure, with 
a faandAome, ^tnall fnco, and very munh 
i^ecklrd ; her luiir red, and her neck and 
«lioulder!< well turned. There is not the lea.-it 
harmony in her voice, but when forced (Which 
ehe never faiU todooueveryoccasiion") is loud 
and slmng. but i<iicli an iiiartieulat4> gabble 
that you iuiu>t bt; well acquainted with her 
part to understand her. She i.s i^iorant atid 
etubborn. . . . She has a hu^l>nnd, a precious 
fool, that &lie heartily despises. She talks 
JuKioufily, and ha.* a elovenly good noture 
about hbr that renders her prodigiously vul- 
gar '( f»arnVA^ Corre^p. u 476). In spite of 
Kheev drawbacks Moody counsL-lled her en- 
gagement at Drury Lane. It xvas at Covent 
Owrlen, however, that she appeared, 5 Oct. 
1772, an. Jann Shore. In the 'Town and 
Count ry Maoazino ' for 1 772, p. .Mo, it is said 
eoncemtug her d6but, 'ahe la dt-M-rvinff of 
much jiraiHe, hor figure ii eleff&nt, her coun- 
l^nancc plea^in^ and expressive, her voice in 
cpneral melo*liou« (!(, ond her action just.' 
fchr remained at Covent fianlen playing 
jinncipally in tragedy, and was tlic original 
I^lfrida in MawjnV tra(H-'dy, 21 Nov. 1772; 
prvllonain .Murphy'*'' Alxuma,' 23 Feb. 1773; 
aond in llull^s ' IIcoi^- II,' 1 May 1773; , 

Cleoniceiu lloole'splayofthatnome,2 March 
1 77o ; Kvelina in Ma-ion's ' Caroctacus,' Dec. 
1776 ; Isabella in * Sir Thomns Overburv,' 
altered from Savage, I Feb. 1777 ; Miss >i'e- 
viHe in Mnrjihv's 'Know vour own Mind/ 
22 Feb. 1777;'Kena in ' /luthred,' 8 Der. 
177H ; ,lulia in the 'Fatal i'aWhood ' of 
Hannah 51rtre,(! May 1770; and Ladv Frances 
Touchwood in Mrs. Cowley's 'Belles Strata- 
gem,' 22 Feb. 178(). Among other characters 
she plaved were t^ueen Catherine, Lady Mac- 
beth, flermione, Man'ia in ' Cato,' Olivia, 
Cordelitt, Desdemona, Queen Margaret in Ki- 
chnrd IH, Cleopetro in 'All for Ix^ve,' and 
Leonora in Ihfl ' Uevenge.' At the clone of 
the season of 1 779-^ she left the stage. SIih 
died in King Street, Woolwich, 1 Feb. 1824, 
leaving a fair eatatc, and was buried, 6 Feb., 
under the name of White. 

tienest sny?: 'She waa a very beautiful 
woman, and a go<jd actress in parts that were 
not bi'vond her jK>werij; her forte wns tender- 
ness, not rage ; her personal appenrancc nmdo 
her pe<*uliarly well (jualiHed for such parts as 
I Elfrulannd iCosamoiid.' She was a favourite 
subject with Sir Jusliua Reynolds, and ap- 
^ pears as au example of female beauty in many 
of his pictures. Three paintings are profosseJl 
\ portraits of her as Jane 8hore, as Ca1irita,and 
asa Bacchante respectively. Her laiauty ap- 
pears to have btien remarkable ; (iarrick de- 
L-kred thai he never saw a finer creature; 
, Boaden says that Sir .losbua does noi do her 
I juHtiee, and add^: 'Thenuthor<v"inld not have 
wishfid a morH perfect face nnil form than this 
lady poswrSMKl upon the stage ' ( Lt/f ofSid- 
do}iJ>, 1. ItH). Xortbcole haa praised her e.'c- 
ceptioual beauty of figure and colouring. 
lA'slie and Taylor say that when Keynolds 
complimented her on her beauty she 84iid, 
* Naj'. my face may In* well enough for shape, 
l)ut sure 'tis as freckled ns a toad's bt-lly.' 
She was very reticent, and n^fused in Inter 
years lo gratify those who sought particulam 
concerning her early life. She is said in the 
'^[acaroni Magazine' lo have bi'i-n the ori- 
ginal of Conway's ' Venus Victrix.' A por- 
trait of her by Angelica Knuirnmnn and ono 
as Andromaciie in t he ' Dist rewed Mother ' by 
Sbenvin are in the Mathews colh'ction in the 
(iarrick Chib. Mewotint engravings of her 
by \V. Dickinson, after J.Nixon, as Klfrida ; 
by It, H(i!istMn.aft4'rII. D. Hamilton. 1774 : 
by ( i. Marchi, after Itcynolds, 177.'t, with her 
child; and by J. K. Sberwin as Andro- 
mache. ]7>*2, are mentioned by Bromley 
(Cainfwptf of J^nffrarrd BritUh Portrat'ftf 
p. 1^). An account of u quarrel coiicem- 
mtf her Wtween Sir Henry Bate Dudley, 
who married her sister Mary, and a Mr. 
Fitzgerald is given in Phillipa's * Public 




Characters,' viii. ^521. Bv her will, dated 
l>r> Jan. 1H24, and proved 25 F«b. 18J4. she 
left 100/. to the Covcnt Garden Theatrical 

[Works eitocl ; Genwit's Aecoant of tlio StAf;^ ; 
MrtrnItairH LivM of Actors ami Acln'jis4!ii ; Nisw 
Monthly Mnffiizine, 18i4; Noteg and Qu-ttcs. 
7th »f>r. rol, viii. pafsim ; Clark KussoM's Ri- 
|tmriiLstJrc Actorf.) J. K. 

HARTLEY, J A .M KS ( 1 74r,-l 799), Indian 
nflitwr, wna bnm in 174->, and entered the 
militBry service of the Bombay prusidenrv in 
17U4. In l7Wi he tix'k pnrt in exjiedittotis 
flcralriist the jiiratical 9irnnt:hi"ld.'«of Hairinnti 
Malwan on the ooaftt of ilnlabar. ity 17t;H 
he hod reached the rank of lieutenant, and in 
4_>clobi?r 1770 he woBUJade aide-de-camp to the 
jrmernor of Bombnr. I !e supt^rin tended the 
(li will burkiit ion of tbodctarliment iRhichtook 
Boroach in Nov<»mber 1772, and in July 1774 
he waa raised to the rank of captain, (uid re- 
CHived ihe commund of the fourth battalion 
of Rombay st'poys. 

The intenb*tin^ part nf Hnrlley's career 
Iwfjins with the first Mahmlta war. In 
Februarv" 177r) he won sent to coHijierarewitli 
Colonel Keoliriff in tiiizenit. Hut tlic rJenjfnl 
povcmment put an end t** the war in the 
-ViifTii!*! foll"winp, and Hartley, with thereat 
<»f the Englie^h forces, n-tiirned lu Uombtiy. 
Three years Inter hostililief were resumed. 
The IlfimbHy noveniinent now sent nn army 
to the Konkan, with orders to march acmM 
the (ihaiiU^ on TVinali. .\n advane»*d party 
of flix C(impniiie« of pn-nndier su-jioys nnder 
Captain Sti-wart first look posBewion of the 
TJhore Ghaut, where they were joined by the 
main army nnder Colonel Charle.s Kg;erton. 
Hartley had 'l>«'n oflered the jHist of qnarter- 
moRter peneml to tlie army, but he pr^ffpr^ed i 
to take bii^ yilac-e at the ht'a<! of his hattiition. 
On 4 Jan. 1770 Captain Stewart, a man of 
conf^pieiions (jallantrv, was killed in a skir- at Karli, and Iluriley wus appointed 
to succeed him in command of the tiixcnm- 
panioe of grenadiers. On Jan. the Enj^lish 
army continued their march, end reached 
Tullypaom, only eiph teen miles from I'oonah. 
Bill John (."nnmc [q. v.], the civil commis- 
nioner with the army, liecami' ahirmed at 
the increjisingnumlx-rs of the Alnhrnttn!*, end 
detenuiniKl on a retreat. Hartley strongly 
resieled this proposal, but was oremiled, and 
the rutrt'ot iK'g-an on 11 Jon, Hartley's re- 
aen'C was dirwted to form the rear ^ard. At 
daybreak on 12 Jan. ihc Muhrutta« asctailed 
the retreating onny in Btrong- force. The 
main energy of their attack was directed on 
the re»r. 'The eepoys were Ihoroiig'hly de- 
moralised, and it wa.<« only bymeanft of ajwr- 
ftoiutl address from Hartley that they wure 



hindered from whola^iale df^erttons. But, in 
opite of the condition of his own men and thtt 
superior nuinbcrB of the enemy, Hartley (iu8*i 
tamed the ronfiict with such skill that thf 
army was able to make rood its entry inti 
Wai^um. Hartley in X'ainproteated a^ains 
the convention of Wargaum, by which tluB^ 
J'lnglish. in return for the surrender of theifi 
ally, Jtug-hoba, were allowed to retire un- 
molested. On his arrival at Bombay in the 
sprlnjy of 1779, Hartley was universally re- 
garded as having saved the Knglisb army: 
^m nnnihitation. He was raised in thoi 
rank of lieutenant-colonel, and wa« appointed 
to tho command of the European infantry on 
the Bninbuy etttabli.Hhment. 

In December 1779 Hartley was sent wit 
a email tletachment to act under Colon< 
Thomas Uoddard [q. v.] in Oujterot. He I 
Ihe storming party which captured Abm' 
dnbod (in IH Feb. ensninff. On S May, how*! 
ever, he was recallml to Bond«iy, and ei 
trusted with the duty of securing the Korikai 
i.e. the district between the Ghauts and 1h«: 
8oa,froni which t he Bom bay frovernmeni dre 
their .tupplie..<i. On 24 May he defeated and 
di^jHTfied a party of Mnhrattas who hud be- 
pieged the fortified post of Kalli an to ihe north- 
east of Bombay. On 1 Oct. another attack 
of the enemv from the same direction wa» 
c-rn^hed at Afullungurh ; the BhoreUhaut, ft 
c*?ntral point of the monntain-chaiii, exactly 
opposite Bombay, wfl.< strongly guarded, ans 
the Konkan efFeetnally secured to the Eng«' 
lish. In November lioddard,in defen'oce Is; 
the wishes of the Jtomboy presidency, fonne^^ 
tho siege of Ifa^sein. Hartley, witb about 
two thoiwaud nten,wa*directe<I to maintain 
a position on the east, and »n prevent thu h 
Mahr&ttrix from nti^iug tliesii^ge. On 10 DfC^H 
a determined attack was made on Hartley'*^ 
entrenchments at Itortgtiur by twenty thou- 
sand Mohrnttos. After a severe conflict thft ^ 
BBsailftnta were repulsed and tho garrison n^l 
Bassein surrendored. ^M 

Hartley continued to net as military com- 
mandsnt in the Konkan when a despatch 
urriveil from London acknowledging his ser- 
vices but declaring his recent promotion as 
lieutenant-colonel informal. Hisfiirtberpro- 
motion and pay as a lieutenant-colintcl were 
to be suspended t ill those who werv liis senior* j 
shonld have been first promoted. Hartlen 
quitted the anoy deeply hurt, and in I){>cem-1 
bor 1761 started for Knplond to lay bis aui» j 
l)efore the court of directors. Tho latter re-J 
fueeil lo muke any concession, but ultimately \ 
recoramendtsl him to the king, who gavVj 
him the lieutenant-colonelcy of the 76t' 

In April 1788 Hartley retumttd to Indi%| 



r-vteUusTegixueotf and wuaj^oiDted quart er- 
* nuter^enenl of i\w Hombay army and a 
member of the military board. On tLe out- 
break of war with Ti]i])oo, sultan of My^re, 
in KSK), Hartl«y receivKd command of a de- 
jitacbmeut sent to the cx>a£t of Cochin to aid 
|4be company's ally, the Uajah of Trnron- 
icore. In May Hartley received orders to 
linTcst ralghatvheri, uu important fortresa 
Sominatiog the pass which lead^ through 
;weat«m Ghauts into Mysore, <->n arriv- 
• vilhin forty miles of th« place Jlartley 
heard that it had aln^dy siirn^ndi^r('<l. He, 
hou*»>T<:T, continued hi.H mandi, and occu- 
lliiud himself jHirtly in coUeetin^ suppliue for 
|.the main army at Trichiuupoly, and portly in 
ratchini^ any movement ot Tippoo's troops to 
tiho south-wost. On 10 Dec. be inilieted a 
cnuhinR^dcfpaton vastly superior forces under 
HtuseiaAUiTippoo'sgi^neral, at Calicut. The 
raonant of the heat en aniiy yvm pursued to 
Perokhif where it burreiKU're«l, and that fnrt- 
Kms was occupied by the Kngliah. 
In Jajiaary 17VH Hortley advanced tf> 
eringapatam, but the siegu was eventually 
tpoDed,and the Ik>mbay troopH retired to 
Junniinore. L>n the renewal of the Bie^ iu 
Cect-mber 1791 Hartley, who was acting 
ader the immediuto command of General 
obert Aborcr>.imby [q. v.], again started from 
[Jannanore to join the main array. Ue reached 
tic camp on 16 Feb. \7'J'J, and on '2'2 Feb, 
part in defeating a sortie specially di- 
l against Abercromby'a position on tiie 
side of the forln^M. Ponp^ was om- 
iloded on t?o Feb., end Hartley, in recogni- 
oa of his local knowledge, wa<i made com- 
• of the forces ta the south-west pro- 
i e«ied by Tippoo. 
On the outbreak of war with Franco in 
1793 flarlley held command nf the expedi- 
tion wliirb cnitturiHl the, F>encli s^ttlenient 
of Mnh6in Malabar. In March [704 hewa.s 
amoled toibe rank of colonel, and returned 
' a time to England. In May 1706 he waa 
de a major-general, and apjioinled to the 
kfi* in India. He retumea l<> ]3nmb&y iu 
797. lo addition to h'm military rank he 
; now made a 6uper\-i8or and ma^ri^trate 
'the province of Malabar. In I71H) war 
ain broke out with Tip]K>o, and it was de- 
termined to attack Sttringapatam in Htrnng 
lorro from east and west. The Bombay army 
lender General Sluart, with whom Ilartley 
PVaa aEaoci4tc}d ts second iu command, mua- 
^tend Bt Cannanore and set out across the 
moustuns nf Coorg on the nearest road for 
inppoo'a capital. On fi March the advanced 
rujd of three »epoy battalions under Colonel 
Hoatreesor at Se«da«>eer waa aiM^ailed by a 
diTiaion of tho Mysore army. Hartley bad 



gone forwanl early in the morning to recon- 
noitre. He was thus the firj*t to perceive tlie 
serious nature of the atlack, and, after send- 
ing a message to (leiienil Stuart, remained 
himself witii the beleaguered battalions. .\8 
the main bi>dy was at Seedapore, eight milea 
olT, the advanced line was compelled for six 
hours to maintain itaelf against oven%'hciniing 
numbers. At last Stuart came up with rein- 
forcements, and Tippoo's army retreated. 
ITiis victory rendeml possible (he invest- 
ment of Seringnpatam from the we*lern side. 
Hartley was pntsent at 1 he storming of 
Tippoo 9 capital on f> May 1799. He then 
relumed lo resume his civiidutieainMalabar, 
but died after a very short illness on 4 Oct. 
1799^ at Cannanoro. 

[QraoT-ImrsHist.of IheMahrjUtas; Wilka's 
llist. of Mysore; Dcxlwelt and 3lil««'« Alpha- 
bi'licAl Li!*! of llie Offieora of iho Ititliaa .\rmy ; 
Philipparl'ii I-jw>t I mlia Military t'alernlKr; Mill's 
Hist. i>f Britinh India.] Vi. P. M-V. 

HARTLEY, JKSSF. (I780-18(K)). civil 
engineer, was bom in 178<)in the North Hiding 
of Yorksliire, his father being' bridge-master 
of that district. After boiug apprenticed to 
a mason he succeeded his mther as bridge- 
master, and soon evinced a natural bent to- 
wards engineering. He was appoint(-d dock 
surveyor IB I.iverjiool in 1^24. As e^ngineor 
under the dock trust of that fifirt, Hrtrlley 
for the last ihirty-six years of his lif^^ altered 
orenilndy reconttrucled every dock in Livei^ 
pool. Hartley w.asfllsopnginccr for the Holton 
and Manchester rnilwavniid canal, nnd con- 
auUingengint-er fortliel)eebridge ui Chester, 
which Thomas Harrison (1 744-1 H2i>) [q. v.] 
designed, and which wa? completed iu 1833. 
In Liverpofil llurtlev was noted for his devo- 
tion to his work, ann fur the simplicity of his 
life and mnnnen". Ho died at Itout lemarsh, 
near I,.iver]RMjl, 24 ,\ug. 1800. 

[.Ann. Regi»t4"r, 1860; Lirorpool Dally Post, 
2rjAug. IS60; Lirorpoul Mercury, 2 J Au(j:. 1800; 
Tiroes, 26 Ang. I8«0.] R. K. A. 

HAHTLET. THOMAS (171)0 M7e4). 
translator of Swedcnborg, son of Robert 
Hartley, <» London boukseller, was born in 
l^ndon about 1700. He was educated at 
Kendal School, and at the age of sixteen was 
odmittcd as a t-ubsixnr at Si. John's College, 
Csnibridge, graduating B.A. in 172R, M.A. in 
174.'). In 1737 ho was curare at Chiswick, 
Middlesex; in 1744 he became rector of 
W'inwick, Northamptonshire, and held the 
living till his death, though apparently non- 
resident after 1770. His early connections 
were with the evangelical school rfprewntcd 
by Uervey (his neighbour in Northampton- 
sliire) and Whitetield, but bis admiration for 
mystical writers comes out in hts ' discourse 



on Ht«(akee cooccnung religion^ eotlia&ium, 
ice.,' crcvfixed to bU colUctcd wrmon^ 1754, 
awl iMdicaled to XaAj II untinsfdon. and ap- 
paara fturthcTderelnped in & millenarUn trm- 
ItM;, ' rnndiae Heatored ' (I't^h includ- 
ini; » ' dr^feDCQ of tbe mrctic whUfn against 
Warburton/ wliich W*eal«j prooouncra to 
}iH ' in(feniott# * but not ■atiawtory. With 
f-tiwfedculwiiy Itb acquaintance began about 
|17(^. Id that year Swedenborg wfote him 
I letter, decliaing an oSisr of pecimiary aid, 
~ mvplTing aatobiognphical jNUticulan. 
le riaited Swedenbonr at Cold Bath Fields, 
in company with AVilUam Cookworthj [q. v.] 
In 1770 be publijtLed *A Thcosopfaical Lucu- 
hratiuu on the Naiure of Influx,* &c.,b<fin^a 
Iraiinlation of jswwienb'irg'*' * l*e Commercio 
Aniuiievt (.'orporiji/ ]7tiU. It wa« in reqnnae 
formuUU'd hiv vii>w of tbe doctrine of tbe 
Trinity. In 17'!^o appeared bis * Qusstioncs 
>iovt<ai Av Trinitote ... ad E. Swedenborg 
Ipropoeitie . . . turn ilUus responsa,'&c., Bvo; 
TolloWL*d bv an KngLiab vtinsion,' Ninetiufriee," 
A:c., 1"K(, J^vo (appended to editioaeuf Swf- 
lit-'itlxirg's* l>oc(riuc' . . .nf»pectin([ the Lord'). 
IliirlUy pnid frequent visits to Swedenborg, 
but wben .Swedeiibor>.' wnt for him in hi* bwt 
illnpHs (-MarcK I"":*) be 'did not embrace the 
onpfirtuiiilv/ l/i bu great aubaequeni regret, 
llir ruviMMli and wrote a preface for Cook- 
wortby's trumtlatloD (1778)of .Swedenborg's 
* I>e Cltlo . . . et de Inferno,' &o., 17o8. A 
Iptter from bim to John Clowea [4- v.] if* in- 
•ert*-d in ibr prefwf to lli« tninKlaiiiiu (1 7^:11) 
nf Swi'tlenborg''* * \'era Cbrisliaiia Keligio,' 
&e., 1771. W itb fhe organised societv for 
prr)pftgnting the doctrint^ of SwedenlKirg, 
utorltHi in 1783 by Uobert Hindmursb [q. v.~, 
lit? bnd no cunnvctioD. i>urin(; some part of 
bm lift? Ik- rewidi'd in Hertford, but from the 
I'arly jMirt of 177:^ be lived at Kn^t Mailing, 
K«tt1,u}iere beilit'd on 10 Der. 17H4, ag»'«l "o 
(fir/if. Maij. 17h.*i, p. 70 ; iind Aurora, I KM), 
ii.:i''il; iHJtli ^ive tueage wroufjly ). He had 
(roHAiderable learning uud wrote wtll. 

In (idditionlotlu'worltsulreadv mentioned, 
li^publiitbL'd varioUHM>rmous,aDil' God'.sCori- 
truvuray with tlie Niitioni:>,* Jtc, I75(J, 8vo. 

fOrft.ltiati riinTitbr. 219;'» Diary, 180tt. 
Tnfi'riiMimitnlnn;{T<inL'rl(utidcii,1830. p[i. 177 !*4'' 
lH7<*i|.,2.'l(Ja<j.: Smil boon's nocanirnlacuim^ruing 
Hwi'drDfX)r(t, imi, I'p. 21 sq., 3o K). ; WnltoDs 
?(<»!«» for o Hiographv of Lnw. 18o4, p. 1-58; 
fi92.&c.: TyL'rnirti.s Wt«t.|.'y, 1870. ii. aiBuq.; 

(Tyermau'a l^xforJ MDthutiiata, 187^, pp- 260 k|.; 
«xtract from AcJoiifttifin K<Mik of .St. Jntin's <_'ol- 
IcKo, Ciuiibndg''. per It. K 8coit. h«j. ; inforina- 
tion from the Kev, W. H. DiBOfj. Winwick 

■JUictory, Itugby.] A. O. 


HAKTUBv SAM I EL (rf. 1670 r ), friend 
of MUtctt, va« bom toTmrd.'! the cln*e of the 
iixte«Dth eentarr, probably in Elbing. In 
a letter which he wrote in IGtiO to Dr. John 
Worth ington, the master of Je«us College, 
Cambridge, be nya that his father waa a 
Poliiib meTchantfOf a Camily originally tM^ttled 
in Latbuania, who waa a pnAeitant and fmi<- 
grated to Pnunia to escape the peT««:utioQ of 
the jesoita. The fiiK and aeoond h ive^ of his 
father were * Polooian gratlewomcn,' but the 
third, the mother of Samuel, appears to bare 
been tbe daughter of a wealthy English mer- 
chant of Daotitg. Hia own statonents show 
that he came to thii oountry aboat 1 6l'8, and 
became nominally a merchant, ' but in reality 
a man of various bobbies, and conducting a 
general new« agenoy.' Sucb was his life in 
1637, but even then he probably engaged in 
educational plan» aUo. He introduced tbe 
writings of Comemu«L, and lu^ charity to poor 
scholars wn^ so proftue that it brought him 
into actual want. In 1644 MJlton addressed 
to hiin his treatise on educ«tton; the pam- 
phlet i« full of praide of Hartlib. In the 
eame year he was aummoned as a witness on 
an unimportant point against Laud (Laud, 
Wurka, ix. 314). He published a great num- 
ber of pamphlet* at this time upon edtica- 
tion and industrial matters. In 1640 a pen- 
sion of loo/, a year was conferred upin him 
by the parliament for his valuable works upon 
husbandry. Evelyn describee a visit to bim 
in lOoJj {Diary, ed. Bray, t. 310), and sayv: 
'This gentleman was manler of innumerable 
curioaitiea and Teryoommuuicative.' A let' 
ter to Boyle (13 i^lay 16-V<) mentions his 
' very great straits, to .<aT nothing of the con- 
tinual (almost daily ) disbursement for others.' 
All the time he was carrying on an cxtcn- 
sivecorre^pondencewithliterary men, both at 
home and abroad. He was living at one time 
in Axe Ynrd, where, no doubt, he became 
ficquainli?d with Pepy*, who (Several timefi 
mentiottji him, hifiHon, and hi& daughter Nan. 
Hifi letters to Royle indicate that be was 
in bodily siiHerint;, ujid Worlhiugton's diary, 
where huiafrequeullv mentioued,8bowstbKt 
money was forwardi-'l tn him from his friends. 
The ]jarliument poid hU nimsion irregularly. 

In the first vearof the llestorutinn, llartUb 
wrote to Lord HerVrt, wm of the Jlartjuiaof 1 
Won*-e*ler, aliotit his'iiiust distressed and fo> 
KHken cfmdilion.' Ho jjetitioned the povem- 
nwM for (lid, but )iis relut ions with the repub* 
lican party pnibRbly nn>vented their reci^- 
nition. \i^ iip|>eani to PHVo resided at Oxfonl 
during tlie letter part of his life, and to have 
been lulimately acquainted with the small 
group out of whicli grew the Ibiyal St)cietT. 

In a letter to Wurthlngton dated 14 Feb. 



Er-E- a -i»- ^ri^!- un-r -a.'*; ai- ^7t_ -- ?~ -rr . t: :. 

<- ifLTi! r. :z 11.- .1^ 

t't-rjl^r-i --Tjrr 1.-- 

I'vT 1 3.--- 

J ■"•**•* « jLlb - 

1.— -a:n'-- 
K-i^j-- ■:' jL.u"L.-^u L.'^. 1'-=.". -' 

El.- .-—■j.-iia."- 3 -i»'-- 

fr :i"i:-r li-.i -' . lai-'i-j'ui'. l*.,^ •=' . * i. 

&-■ T" *.#;~rT . J,"ri:L.""IlX L ^ Tir^l •■ ■ Ul:^ — 

an'i>^t*r">;i;r-'.4- .. :- -A'' ri.:::ji-. - 

of Mr. J 'riL-An.^-': =i^.-« Si-1 . : Ijiir:t- 

stj'.Lnj :?jt ' »rjhAr.** Ctt . . .' JCc.. lti.>-'. 4::. 
1:/. 'CliiTU A{">c4lyj.:io*, or A l*r:'j'rit*:.^A- 
Kevby wLicL Th- jrrat MTsitries in :hr Ke- 
% elation of Si. J*>La and the Pr.^ r»aEitl 
are op^nwl,' A:c.. l''-",l. Svo. 13. • An InTen- 
tion of Knjrin»f5 i.f Motion latelr brought to 
l*erfi-cii">n/ i:c. i 4, * An Essay for Advanc*^- 
ment of lIiu>ban<lrT Learning, or Proposition* 
for tliK errecting a Colledge of Iliisbandrv,* 
16oI, 4to. 15. 'The Reformed Husband- 
Man, or a brief Treatise of the Errors, Defei'ts, 
and IncoDTenieneesof our English II»8b&ndr\' 
in Ploughing and eowing for Com/ &c., 16oi, 

1'^ Xf " >r' .. T-L- : ' -J — .: -* -:, :' V V.-. '■ .■■■.5.' 
liLr :c. t :.!.■;.'■; .■: Vr:.r.?- j.t.-. t7.":^ v.-: .-■■:" 

T - -:.r IvA Ar; r^S^ 

t: Trlr.lTT C V.:^. ^'a-.-V: _ 

be dec' :*^ ir*^ :V.t\^;u;^ tV.f»^;\v'.;Av\ iviv 
nior.vo:'adm;**:v^:'.;«^thodi^i;7xVx''t!V \ .su.lin 
acivr^iaiuvwiih s sj^s' jirs.'i^WNSisl uhsui- 
m^>u5lv by th,* !t*M\.t:o on '_>' J.-»u, lM^.», tho 
viftM^liam-oUor ailmiiitsi Itim to tho di'^ov 
wilhout eninUniufr tI»o I'orui of wonU \\\ 
yoking the Trinity, towhii-h llrtr|oj;obi.^'ied 
He won the !^^^^Mu! Smith * |tri»i» iniimMinlrly 
afterwanls, but the exiMcuoo of ii>hf:io)M 
tests nrevenli^l him fn>nt oltorni^ bnitKolf it<i 
a candidate for ibo fellow *\u\\ n( hin eoUtvo, 
which usually rt'warded (hi>M>nior wnm^b'r. 



Leaving Cambridge li»i held for ft ahort time 
a p<i'*t in th« tn'tisiin- ; and subseqiienrlT en- 
l*TtHl llie office of Mr. (now Lord) Thrinp, 
psrliaraeutary drauglit^man. In Irtfii* Sir 
John Duke (now I^ord^ {.'oU*rid^^f, aoliehor- 
geoLTol in Mr. Ciladatoiie'a firsl ministry, in- 
troduced a long-prom iiM'd hill fnr the aboli- 
tion of religious tffitA at the univi'rsitie^, and 
quoted ilarto^ACiue in support of his argu- 
ment. Many other reference* were made lo 
Hartog'Adi»ability in liie succeeding debates. 
The commons piuaed the bill in 1B61^ twd 
]B70, but the lords rejected it on both occa- 
sions. On a March 1871 Hunojjwa* exa- 
miniHl at length by & select ir«immiltee of tlu; 
llousu of Lonlx, appointed to consider the 
4|U«il ion of univumjty testa, and presided over 
liv I^ml Siiliobury. llis evidence made con- 
fiidvruble imtireiwiOD, The bill was po-wt-d by 
the House of Lords in Mar, and reci-ived the 
rovul oKiwnt 16 Junu 1871. L'uforliuiately 
Hnrlog divd from emallpox three duvn lat^^r 
(10 June) before be could benelil by l1iu new 

[Time*. '21 Juno and 22 June 1971 ; Jewinh 
lU'evnl, 8 I'Vli, 1809 (quotitiff Ciiinbridgo Chro- 
nicle and Manehp^ftiT (Iiuirdiau), and 23 June 
1871 ; Jewinh CiiruDicli\23 June 1871 : MnraiKM 
Einiiiriit lBme]ir.c9, Diilndolphin, 1880, pp. 
119«|.; Haawrd'n Pari, neliat*-?*. vol. 194, pp. 
1043. 10.>1, rol. 21)1. p. 1210; Rop-irt wi" the 
IxirJs' Si-li'cl Committee on Uuircrsity Tests, 
IB/l.pp. I3I-8. 337-1 S. L. L. 

HARTOPP, Sir JOHN (1037P-1722). 
nonconformist, born ahtjut \6^7, wa« tiie only 
Hon of Sir Kdwaril 1 lartopp, hurt., of I'reeby, 
l^iceslcrshire, bv Mary.unutfhtvrof Sir John 
Coke, knt., of Midhounie, IJi-rbyshire. Uo 
fiuccotided as third banuiet in 1668. Jly his 
marriogv with Klizabetb, daughter of (^^'barles 
IHeetwood [q. v.], he inhcriti*d tliL* btltor's 
kouscnt Stoke Newintrton, Middlesex. When 
in London, of which lie bi^cnmt' tin alderman, 
he attended (he jndepi-ndcnt ra*niting-hou»e 
in Li-'adu-nhflll Street, over whiiHi Dr. John 
Owen presided, and C4mlinued a nu-mbftr 
under sueces»ive ministers until his df'ath. 
Ill e&rly life he usetl to tjike down in short- 
hand the di«cnurst*8 of f«mou*t preachers, that 
he might read ihein to his family. Thirteen 
sermons nf John ( iwnn, pnisorved in this way, 
were published by Ilurlopp'a grand-daughter. 
Mrs. Cooke, in ]7oO. ilartopp represented 
Leicestershire in the parliaments of Ui7rt-i>, 
1679, and 1680-1. lie ccnlouslv supiwrtid 
the bill of exclusion in U>*1. In the next 
reign he was heavily finnd for U'lnconformity. 
He di»*d on 1 April U:.'-*, npfcd b.i, and was 
buried on the 11 th in Stoke Newingloo 
Church bi'sidc his wife, who had died on 
9 Nov. 17U. Isaac Watts, who resided with 

the llartnpps for five years at Stoke Xe 
ington, prt'achrNi their funeral sermons. Bj 
will llartopp left 10.000/. for the instructi« 
of youthfor the dissentingministry; but " 
heirR, taking advantage of a defect in I 
conve'yanc<*,oppropriQledtht'biMjm'.-it tothfin^ 
selve*. Xeany one halt'of tht; Icjfucy, how-' 
ever, wa.s eventually restore*!, and applied to 
the use for which it was nrt(7inally designed. 
Tlortopp appears to have had a IJimily of four 
sons uud nine daughters. Ilis son and suc^ 
CQiaor, John (1C80 .^ 170:? ), in whom the titkfl 
became extinct, ostisted Lady Mary AhnejrS 
in erecting a moniiineat over Watty's r^ 
miiina in Bunhill Fields. ^ 

[BibliotbecJi Topo^rraphica TtritSTinicJi. No. i 
p.'IA; Willium Uulonwu's Stoke Nusriogtoi 
pp. 78-81, ICS-O; Walter Wilson* DioMnti 
Cliurchf«, i. '2Q^, SH. ii. 310; 13upa(^ and U«< 
Dftt'a Ilibt. uf Dimnitiirs, ii. 241, 382. 407-i)g' 
Watts'i Funeral S«rrmons: Profnco to J. 
Jones's nprioL of J. Owtn'e Uso of riiith, 1851 
Burke's Eitinct Baronetcies, 217.] G. O. 

(/*. Iti40), bagiogmpher, a native of Watei 
ford, wag educated at the Irit^h college 
Lisbon, «nd became a monk of the order 
Cit<*aux in the abbey of Palai-uel in Spai 
Hartry **ubHet[uently joined the Cistercian* 
in [relnnd in their missionary labours, and 
endeavoured to investigate the histoiT 
the Irish brivnch of the order. Some of tli 
materials thus obtained he transmitted t 
the Cistercian hist^iriogrupherB on the 
ttnent, and they refer to liiin under thd 
name of 'Arlry, natione HilK'rnua,' lie 
appears lo have ivmuined in Ireland till 
ltir»l , and lo have died soon after in FUnde 
Two unpublished Latin works compiled _^ 
Ilnrtry are extant in the archives of the sett' 
of Cosiiel. They are tu one volume, writtcft 
on vellum, with illuminated title-page and 
coloured drawings. The first is entitled 
('rucisrtiii'rionlinisCisterciensisin Hilwrniu/^ 
and is dated I'UO. It cnniprises an account 
of the et^tnblishnient of the Cistercian abbey 
of Holy Cn>!«! in Tipperury, with niiliccs of 
its relics and admiiunlnitorB (cf. trnnscri 
inDrit.Mus.Addit. MS. 31>579>. Tliosecon 
manuscript gives an account of CisterctAn' 
establishments in Irelnud, mainly copied fio: 
Sir James Ware (cf. Chnrhilarifs ^f 
Mfinj'f AMiey, Duhlhi, Itolls S«t.. I8S4). 
de.scriptinn nC llarlry's compilations, by t 
author ofthe present not ice, will beimblial 
by the l^yal Commission on Ilistorii 

[Archives of th^ s»e of Cushel; Mt-tiologium 
CiBtoroieiu«f, Antwerp, 1030; Hibliutheca ScrifH- 
t«nim Ordinis Ciiterciensii, Col.-AgTipp. 165d^ 



Vkics WriUrs of Inilnnd, 17-16; Procec^liaps 
of Boyat Iruh Aradi>nir. ISSft.) J. T. Cr. 


(lW2~lbOS), antiquftry, born at llrosclev, 

Sliroji»hire, 17 Mnrcli IBOJ, waa the only 

child ijf John Hartshonit;, innimti-'-tL'r, and 

»mp from a family I'mg ttL-ttl'-'J iit JJn*fley 

tnd Hf'ntliall, Hv was t-clufaied at Sbrewe- 

biirr Srb>x>l, and enten-'l as u pt-naioiKT ftt 

St. John's Cdlleg-eiCnmbritlgB, in 1821. He 

grmdualed B.A. in 182.'*, and lKl»H, 

•i»d U ISi^i wuH invit«d by Iiis friend the 

Etri of Uuilford, who bad beim aiipoiutiHl 

* »rch(in ' over the iinivtTsity uf Corlu,to ac- 

^wpanjr him lo that island. He travelled 

t*"*""!!:!! Ituly and made a tour in the L<^vant. 

It* WM be returned to England, nnd in the 

lollfiniiip year wiifl nrdninetl. Hftfl.ilionie 

^« cwmfB nt Bentball, Sbro]i(ibire, fn>m 

I^25tolsi)><, Hud (Vom 18J8 to 1 y^fi at Little 

"en!(-Ji-Ji in tbe sanie county. After pflMinpr 

'"■fi vcufH nt l^-nniinpt^n be took cbarffe of 

W'.' p»M«li of Cojrr'nboe, Xortbomptonsliire, 

from ItctM till \HM), when he was presented 

y rtio cmwn to the rectnry of Holclenby in 

J»' uuae county. He vms bonnniry chaplain 

loFfuneif and William Kuiwell, Keventli and 

•"^htb ditke<« of BedfonI renjwctively, fel- 

I w^'nf the Sfiriely nf Anliqimrie^^.and a inein- 

Ihrrof the liinburvbe Club, Hedied suddenlr 

»f JJoIdt-nby on 1 1 March i8Uu. In 18i*8 be 

tnarried I'Vance* MarjrunHta, younger daupb- 

rUr of the Uev. Thomu? Kerricb rq.v.l.|ir!nci- 

■■J librarian of the university of ('ambridgv. 

iIan*borue published: 1. 'A (ieyfteffor 

Newe Yere, or 8 ployne, ples^annte, nnd 

ratbewaie t<i the lUack i^'tlur 

Kniprinted over the grete (taiu- 

aiucte Jbonnen CollemV \H'2t*, e 

bliogmpUicuiypH if tijirit. of which only ten 

pies were printed. 'J. *The Book Rarities 

r the University of Carobridfre,'l82t>. 3. *An- 

lent Mt'tricul Talcs,' I82i;i, pniistnl by Sott, 

■who refers to it in the 'IntnHluction' to 

* Ivanhoe,' 4. ' Sepulchral Ueniains in 

1 iiD|itnn9hire,' 1840. o. 'SalojMa An- 

or an Knijuiry into the I'^arlv Uemainfi 

Mix and the Xortli Wclnh llipptlers,* 

I- '(iloRsary of the Pmvinoiid Dia- 

(L ......iishire.' IWI. O. 'Hislorical Me- 
orittl«i»r Nortbuniptou,' 18-18. 7. '.\Ieinoir8 
iMtrafiveof the History and Antiq«itie«of 
ortbtitnherland,' 1858, a valiiahlecnnlribu- 
m to the hifttory of the borders. He con- 
iributrd nn article upon *Tlie Ijiliii PlayH 
ncUfi iK-fure the ('nivcrsily of Canibridpo' 
lolbe' KeIro*peclive Review ;' and was a 
frefjiient writer in the ' Arcbeeolojrical Jnur- 
ttt\.' Mia nrcbmotogical papenc deal with 
the architectural hintort- of mrdiirvnl towns 
andcAStlca; Tonous inediicTat parliaments; 


the royal councils of Worcester; theobBequina 
of Catherine of Arranoii ; early runiHint* in 
the great isleof Arran; the itineraries of FA' 
wards I and If; nnd domestic nianner^i in the 
reijfu of Kdward I. lie was also author of 
papers on the drainage of the New Valley, 
and euhjects connected with social science. 
[Privjitc information] A. H-B. 

_HART3T0N0E, JOHN', D.D. n054- 
1717). bishop of Perry, third son of Sir Stan- 
dish llnrl.ttonge, biirt., one of the barons of 
the exchequer in Ireland, was bornnn 1 Dec 
10->l nt Catton, near Norwich. Having re- 
ceived his parly education in (^'barleviUe and 
K iUienny whooU, he pntertid Trinitv t'-ollujje, 
Dublin, on iiO May 1071', under tln/tntorKhip 
of the Rev.Thoma« Wallia (Entranf-)' Uoohiy 
T. C. D.), ami f^niduaied B.A. in IG77 and 
M.\.\n\i}Si)(Tovit, Cat. (if DitblinGi-aditafrA^ 
p. 258), I'Vora LKiblin lie removed to Oon- 
ville and f'aiua College, Cambridge, 19 .lune 
167C (Coilrt/r Aifmutgiun ii»mJi), and then* 
took the degree of M.A. in 1(180. He waj* 
alsoforayearatGlaagow Univeraity. On his 
return in ItJSl from travelling on the conti- 
nent he wa« elected n fellow of GonvUIe 
and Caiua College, and soon after, having 
meanwhile been ordained, he woa apnointeil 
chaplain to the first Duke of Ormonde. On 
the duke'fl de-ath in 1S88 be became chap- 
lain to thn Kecond duke, M-hora he atteiuled 
in hia first four cauipaiffnx in Flnndent, 
and to whose tufluencu bt.' was indebted for 
bis subsequent iirefermenis. On 'lA June 
1684 he was collated to the archdeac'jnry of 
Tjimerirk. and m archdeacon be was attainted 
by King Jamess IriHh parliament of ltJ89, 
unih-T the nunie of* llt-nrj' Harstnmg.' Ho 
wflji promoted to the bjxboijric of (_^sory by 
patent date<l 8 April lli'j;!, nnd at ihe mime 
time he received the degree of ]>.l>. by di- 
ploma from the university of (.)xfohi. From 
<>35ory he wa.*i tmufilnted to Derry, by pat«ut 
dated 3 March 1714. He died in Dublin on 
30 Jan. 1717, and was buried at St. Andrew's 
Church. Ilisletters to J.Ellis(imH-1704) 
are among Brit. Mus. Addii. 5ISS. 28877- 

[Sir James VTaro'i Works, wL Harna, i. 431 ; 
Cottons Fiwti Eccl. Hib. i. 407, ii. 282. iii. 322, 
v. 168: Bbhop Maat'^ Bi^t. of the Church of 
Ireland, ii. 46, 2(18; Archbisihnp King's State of 
Ihc ProtcstAHta of IrvUnd undor King Jnracer's 
Guvenmient, ed. 1 768, p. &*}■!; Oravmand Prim't* 
Hiflt. and Antiq. of the Caihcdrnl of 8t> Caaice, 
Kilkenny, p. 320; Cat. of Oxford Graduates, 
p. 30^ ; Onlriance Siirrey of tbe County of Lon- 
dooderrv. i. 64] B' B. B. 

ijl. lofJG), Latin poet, bom in 1642 or 1&48, 
was educated at Kton ; he was admitted 

[art well 


scholar at Kinj^s College, Cambridf^e, on 
2fi Aug. \'j6% and bticame u I'rllow on 
2« Aug. 1562; ho (jraduatwl B.A. in l*i63, lo<i7, and resipnod his feUowaUi|i in 
liA'}7. llartwell published: 1. * Utgina Li- 
tf>rtita sIvl' de E^erenisaimie Dominie Eliza- 
betbtb ... in Acudpmiam CantahrijriwnBfin 
udventu, &c. Anno lutU, Aug. o. Nnrralio 
Ahrahftmi llartvelli Cantuhnjnt'nsis,' Ijhi- 
don, 15(»(*, 8vn. Two loiij^ I^tin letl«;r8 to 
tho reaJfr and to ^Vullor Iluddun are pn?- 
fixed to the tKiem, which is in fletfiocs, con- 
tiiiniop over fifteen hundred lines; a few 
I^l iu opipnims on the subject of tin; queen's 
\tsit conclude the volume. One of these epi- 
grams nnd twd extrat'ti from the poem were 
Sriuted in G. Miirvev's 'Gralulationnm Val- 
iuensium Libriyualuor/ London, 1578, i. '2, 
ii. 5, iii. 3. 2. ' A Sight of the I'ortugnll 
IVarle, thai is The Aunswere of IJ. Iladduu 
MiiiAtHr of the reijuestM unto our soveraigne 
I^ady Klizabeth . . . agiiiust the epistle of 
llieronimuA L>aurLUfl a I'orLugall, entitled a 
Pearle lor a Prince. TninKlnted nut (if hittyn 
intoEnglishrbv .Xbraham Hart well, Student 
in the liynges euIKHlgi- in Cainbriilge,' \jOn- 
don, 8vo, U.J. Thw tract contains an epietlo 
* To Mavater Shackloik ' (translator of Oso- 
rius'a 'iVarl'), and a preface dated Cain- 
bridgw,-~ May l5<i6,he5ideo fome diitiichsof 
1-atio rerae. 3. Nearly a hundred lines of 
elegiac* in memory of Paul i'uifiua, published 
in the university collect inn of versus on the 
reslitulion of therenniinitof Itiicernnd FagiuH 
in I0&.) ; they are to W found aUo in ' Martini 
Buceri Script a AnglicHim,' Basle, 1677, p. Qo-i. 
4. A few eleginCH prefixed to' (T.Uaddoni . . . 
Lucuhraliones,' Loudon, 1567. 5. Nearly 
aixty lines, ' In Sanct. Martyrum TIi.itoriam,' 
prenxcd to the a-cond edition of J. I'uxo's 
' ActB and Monuinentn,* 1570. Some verse* 
found in Hubert Hucoujblene's ' Comnientarii 
in Ariatotelitt KtUica,' manuiw^ript in King's 
College Library, have lieen aricribed to llart- 
well. Cooper tliink» wrongly. Four Lo-tin 
line* by Thomas Newton l^iu'his ' lllustrium 
aliquot Anghirum Kiicomia,' 1589), addresaed 
to Ahnilmm Hartwell the younger [q. v.], 
speak of the elder as u dtstinguishecl pout 
lately dead. 

[ UdrtwffU'a Works ; Harwood'* Alamni Eton, 
p. 174 ; CfMipcrV AtlieriiB Canlnbr. ii, 383. whor« 
tlie iwu llurfwrllti tti-r confusciL] R. U. 

HARTWELL, MtUAIlAM, the younger 
(Jl. I6OOI, tninitltirnr and antii(uary, EpLUikd 
of himself in the * Kpi^'tle Dedicatorie ' of hia 
tranjilalionofSoranzo'rt' History ,' dated IJan. 
iiiiXi, lis in his'Quiniiuagennrinn yere of Jn- 
bile.' This would mAe 16.'>3 the Vear of his 
birth, and he is probably Identical with the 
Abraham Uartwell of Trinity College, Cam' 

bridge, who graduated D.A. iul57l and M.A. 
iu 1675, and was incorporated M.A. at Ox- 
ford in 15H6 (Wood, J-'a^ti, ed. Blia*, i. a4o>. , 
Previous biographerfi have confounded this j 
Abraham Hartwell with Abraham llartwell I 
{Jt. I{i65) "q. v.'',, author of 'Kevins Lite- 1 
rata'in l.^iGi. At TrinityColIegetheyonnger 1 
Hartwell apparently attracted the noliiv of] 
WhitgifV, who made him his ftecri'larj'. Vt'at 
first hear of him in this capacity in 15(44 ( 
(Stuypi;, irAiV^i//.i.3-ja). Three translationa 
by him fn»m the Ilalinn are dedicated to 
nhitgift. *at yourl^racea in Lambhith.* He ' 
published: I. 'The Hiitory of the Warre5 fl 
betweenc the Turkcs and the Persians. ^1 
Written in Italian by John lliomas Miua- 
doi,' Loudon, lotto, Mo. The volume con- 
tained 'a new Oetjgniphicull JIuppe.' Mina- 
doi's 'Epistle to the Keuiler' i« tnvn(.laTt'd 
by Htinweil with the title 'the AuihorV. 
and has given rise tn the groundless uottoal 
that Hartwell was a traveller. '2. *A Ki^-i 
port of the Kingdouio of Cougo, a Kegioa ! 
of Africa. And of the Countries that border] 
roundo about the same. . . . Drawen out^i 
of the writings and discourses of Odourdoj 
Lopcx, u Portingnll. by Philippo PignfeUaj'T 
L)mdnn,15!)7,-4to. The'EpifetlelotheUeader' J 
tell» that thift trantilntion was undertaken at] 
the re<]uest of U. Hakluyt ; the volumecon-J 
tains several cuts. It has been reprinted iftj 
* Purchas his Pilgrinies,' &c., pt. it. 1G26, ' 
ond in 'A Collection of Voyages and Travels,* 
vol. ii. 1745. :l. 'The Ottoman of LazftFJ 
Soranito. Wherein is delivered . . , a full 
nnd perfect report of the might and power of 
Mahomet the third, ... as aUo a true De- m 
Hcription of divers peoples, Countries, Cittiest^f 
and \'oyttge«, which are most uecossarie to 
bee kuowen, enjiecially at this time of tbe 
present Werre lu llungnric,' London, lOOS, 
4to. A chance question of the arvlibiHhop's 
about Turkish * lJit»»aes and \'isierB ' was the ^ 
occasion of this translation. 4. ' ATrue ]>is-fl 
course upon the matter of Martha ItnjMiier" 
of liomorautin, pretended to be pO{ises»ed 
by a l>ivell,' London, 1501), 4lo, Vnim the 
French. The dedicntion to Richard Ban- 
croft, bishop (jf London, explains that the 
cases of powesaion and witchcmft at Notf-j 
tingham which, in his capacity of ^.'crelaryi 
to the archbishop, llartwell had become ai 
quainted with Imd suggested this translatifi 
to him (A. ii. 341 ; Cooper, Athena Vantabf^ 
ii. 360). Hartwell was the In^t menilx'rad-i 
mitted into the old Society of Antiquiirie 
{Airhaolnyia, vol. i. Intpod.) Two shor 
jiapers which be wrote for the society ore^ 

Srmted in Hi'ame'«'CuriousDijieournes,'Lon- 
on, 1771 ; thev aro entitled ' Of Epitaphs* 
(ii. 375), and 'Of the Antiqiuty^ Vanety, 




and Reamn of Mottfl with Arnm of Nobk- 

mcn and Qenllemen of Kngland ' (i. 27»), 

ncl were both read before the sociPly in 

IflOO. Two Latin h-tt*TS to AVhitKil"! ore 

in thelUrWian MSJWoO.f.l. W(Hj<l(i^ffW/, 

td. Blia. i. :?4r>) nwribes to HnrlWL'U'A 

'' iit-d InqiiisitioQ nffainKt Paper Per- 

- by A. 11.,' found iit the end of A 

- "ir^i- fur Paper ren«-culi>ra/ by John 

HnM.^H, 102-1, 4tn. ITartwell wns roilftte<l 

by WLlrpft to tho wtory of Toddiripton 

in nedf.snUhire, where he founded a Hbrtiry. 

Th»- d*te of hi» death ifi not known. 


, HARTY,W1LLIAM.M.D.( 1781-18.^)4), 
■fli'iiriin, wBfl born in 1781, bpcnmu a scbolar 
m YriiiifT ColKn*. Dublin, in 1 7!«t, proceeded 
I B.A. iu I'.SOl , -AI.H. in I iHU, and M.D. in 1 i<JO 

Jthifliion the Dublin bills of mortality). In 
8(6 be publishiHl ' Dysentery und its Com- 
BiDieions,* ft work whirh show* thnroiighiiess 

quoted : Coopor's Athen* Can- 

--.leliolarship, and illustrHtcs phil'>sophic- 
«lir the doctrine of the correlation of tl vw-n- 
r^rV and typhn^ A new and recaht edition 
Tw i.«ued in l!<i7. In IKB he was randi- 
ditf fortherhttirt.f botany iu Trinity Collepre. 
llf was appointed phy*iciun to tlm prisons 
ofDublin.andwasconsuIte^Int Wf?t minster 
on the Prisons Bill of IKlTi. In 1820 he 
published ' An Huetonc Sk«toh of (he Con- 
r«ffious Fever Epidemic in IrtUnd in 1817- 
lHl&.' one of the be«t works OQ the causes 
and circumstances of Irish tyohuR, with tables I 
ud reports for manvparts oithe country, and | 
t comparison with the great typhus epidt-mic i 
of 1741. He becjirae a fellow of the KinRfl ! 
and Queen's College of Phvuicinns in 1H24, | 
cen&or in 182rt. but resi(ni''<I his fellowship 
in lt<27,tothen^(rT^t of tli»- college. In 1KM3 
he drew up a petition to the House of l^>rd8 [ 
on the Irish Church Bill, which he published 
in l^-'^7, on the advice of the Bishop of Exe- 
ter, with notes and an appendix ; his conten- 
tion was that the proiestant reformation had 
{^ed in Ireland tm arcount of the poverty 
the people and theinsufticient endowment 
tbe rhiirrh f*>tabliehnient. He died on 
, March 18M. 

(Calendar »f Tnriiy ColU-ge, Dnblin; infoi^ 
^matioo kindly Btipplied by Dr. J. W. Moons ; 
Harry** writing*.] *^- ^■ 

HARVARD,JOnN (t607-l**38).princi- 
pal founder of Harvard College. tlambrKlK^*- 
iIasiwiehu»», was bom in thv High Str^tM 
,{ Southworlt, close to London Bridge, and 
jhristenvd 29 Nor. 1*107 (AV. ltKyi|LK J. 
Hnr far 4, iAt<ii, p. 13). His father was Robert 
^larvard, butcher, of Southwarh. where there 
rod aevvral familini of that name (siwlled 

Hayward, llaner, IUrwof»d, Har^ye, Har- 
innkeepers.' The father died of the plapue, 
and wus buried 2*1 Aug. l(I2fi. The maiden 
name t>f Harvard's umther was Kathennn 
Uogers. She to'»k for her second husband 
John ICllison or Klletjion, who died in June 
^^^'2i^. She then married her first husband's 
friewl and neighbour, Bichard Veorwood or 
Yarwood (M.P. for Southwiirk), and made 
uwill in ItiaS in favour of hen wo sons, John 
and Thomas Harvard (rf. 1(>87). The signa- 
tures of the two are on a deed, 20 July 
163.J. belonging to St. Katherine's Hos|iital 
{AtAfuatum. 10 Dec. IHH7). Among other 

Froperty left to John was the Qut-en'i* Head 
nn, Southwark. The second husband wiis a 
MicUlle.nex maJi, which wa^ doubtless the 
reason why John Harvanl was entered at 
I EniumnnerCollegp, Cambridge, 10l>ec.lU27, 
esof 'Midlfseit.' Ho graduated in IKHl.and 
proceeded M.A. in ItWij; he was now a man 
' of nicans,a8 his mot her bad bwu left pn>perty 
' by each of her thn'*) Imsbands. In ltM7 he 
married .\nn, the daughter of John Sadler, a 
Sussex clergyman, and sailed for New Kng- 
land. He was admitted a townsraan of 
CherlcHtowu, Mflssachusettj*, (I Aug., 'with 
promise of such accommodations as wc best 
can.' His house was ou the site now makings 
the sfjutherly conitjr of Main Street and the 
alley leading up by I bo town balUJ- Wissok, 
Mrmorial Witt, of Iio>'tun,\. .'iD5, ii. xxii). Un 
2Xov. he tiX'k ' the freeman's oath.' llanard 
and his wife became church members t5 Nov., 
and for some time he occupied the pulpit a» 
assistant to the Kev. Z. Symmes, pBsl<ir of 
the First Church inChnrlestown. Tliere isna 
record of his ordination. He was a weaUhy 
! man compared witlimost of the colonists, and 
was of good repute, being made, 2tS April 
I 1*338, member oi a committee ' to consider of 
somi! things tending lowardj? a body of laws.' 
I He died of consumption, 14 Sept. 1638» 
I childletifl, leaving, by a nuncupative will, one 
I half of his estate, stated in the colh^ bmika 
I to have been 779/. 17jt. 2rf., togetherwiih his 
library of 320 volumes, to the proposed col- 
lege ^ordered to be at New Tow ne,' afterwards 
Cambridge, in November 1*537. On 8 Sept. 
1 1(38 the gimerul court of the settlement had 
voted 4(X*/. towards a school or college, and 
after Harvard's death the building was at 
once begun with tbe aid of his legacy. In 
March UUJ8-9'it is ordered that thecolledgo 
aajewl uponformerlytobe builtat Cambridge 
shall bee called Harvard Colledge.' It was 

highly spoken of as a place of i^ucation in 
l(>43 ; the object was (Iwlnre^l by the charter 
of 1850 to bo * the education of'the English 
and Indian youtli of this country in know- 




ledffe and godlynes.* A list of Harvard*8 
bo^, consisting chiefly of theological, gene- 
ral, and classical literature (J. Quinct, His- 
tory of Harvard Univerdty^ i. 10), is in the 
colli^ archives. One volume has been pre- 
aerved ; the others were burned in 1764. llis 
widow, Ann, married the Rev. Thomas Allen. 
The ' ever-memorable benefactor of learn- 
ing and religion in America/ as Edward 
■^Everett justly styles Harvard (Address at 
I the Erection of a Monument, Boston, 1828, 
Yp. 4), was, in the opinion of his contempo- 
raries, ' a godly gentleman and a lover of 
C earning' {New England's First Fniits, 1643, 
sprinted in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll. i. 242), as 
well aa ' a scholar, and pious in his life, and 
enlarged toward the country and the good of 
it in life and death ' {Autobiography of the 
Ret?. Thomas Shepard in A. Youxo , Chronicles 
<if the First I'lanters, Bost. 1846, p. 552). 
He preached and prayed with tears and evi- 
dences of strong aSection (.TouNsox, Won- 
der-working Providence^ in Mass, Hist. Soc. 
Coll. new ser. vii. 16). The autographs 
written on taking his degree are preserved 
at Cambridge (tracings in J. Winsor, Me- 
morial History of Boston, u. 318). No speci- 
men of his handwriting is known to be ex- 
tant in America. The alumni of Harvard 
erected a granite monument to his memory 
in Charlestown burial-ground, dedicated by 
E. Everett 26 Sept. 18ii8. A seated statue 
was presented by S. J. Bridge to the uni- 
versity, and unveiled by the Kcv. (i. E. 
Ellis (see Address^ Cambridge, Mass., 1884), 
15 Oct. 1884. 

[For Mr. W, Rcndlo's intercsling account of 
the birthplace, Sic, of llamird, bco his John 
Harvard, St. Saviour's, SouthTark. and Harvaril 
University, 1886. Svo; Inns of Oli Somh- 
wark, London, 188S, sm. 4to; Genealogist, 
January 1884, pp. 107-11; Athonieum, lIJulv, 
24 Oct 1885, and 16 Jan. 1886. The wills of 
Harvard'H mother and her three huHbands and 
other will)", the most important discovery con- 
nected with John Harvard, are reprinted by 
Mr. Waters in the Ni'w England Hist, and 
<icneal. Register, July 1885; see also October 
1886, &c. See also J. Winthrop's Hist of New 
Knf^lHud, Boston. 1863, ii. 106,419; Life and 
Letlersof John Winthr»>p, ib. 1864-7,2 vol«. ; 
W. \. Budmgton's Hist, of the First Church. 
Charlestown, Boston. 1845; J. F. Hunncwell's 
Ilccords of the First Church, Boston, 1 880, 4to.] 

H. R. T. 

(1762-1798), politician, son of Francis Har- 
vey of Bargay Castle, Wexford, was educated 
at Trinity College, Dublin, and called to the 
bar in 1782. lie acquired considerable re- 
putation as a banister, and promoted the 

public movementa for catholic emancip 
and parliamentary reform. On the del 
his father in 1792 Harvey inherited esta' 
Wexford and Waterfonl, with an u 
rental of 3,000/. He presided as chu: 
in 1793 at meetings of the Society of U 
Irishmen, Dublin. Although diminuti 
stature and of feeble constitution, he 
tinguished himself as a duellist. He 
nominated as a delegate by a public me 
in Wexford in March 1795 to preset 
address to Earl Fitzwilliam and a pe 
to the king. Before the commencem^ 
the Wexford insurrection in 1798, Harv 
duced his tenants to give up the arms 
which they had provided themselves. 
the government troops had evacuated 
ford on 30 May 1798, the leaders of the i 
gents unanimously agreed on 1 June, in 
camp,tliat Harvey should be appointed U. 
mand them inchief. Apprehensive forhi 
safety, and in the hope of checking exc 
Harvey unwillingly accepted the post, 
commander, he sent a despatch to G( 
Johnson at New Iloss on 5 June, dema 
the surrender of that town, with a vi 
avert rapine and bloodshed, but the mese 
who carried the paper was shot. On tl 
lowing day Harvey, as commander-in- 
signed a series of orders summoning n 
his camp and prohibiting, on pain of f 
plunder and excesses. He exerted a 
energies to restrain his followers, and 
licly reprobated the destruction of lif 
property. The insuigents, after the: 
pulse at Ross, deposed Harvey frot 
command. He subsequently sought i 
in flight, and took refuge in a cave 
rocky island outside Wexford Harbour 
was arrested there, brought to We: 
and arraigned before a court-martial 
Cornelius Grogan [q- v.] and John I 
Colclough [q. v.] After an elaborate d( 
Harvey was sentenced to death, lit 
hangod on 20 Juno at the bridge of 
ford, on which his head, with those of o' 
was impaled. Ilarvey left no childrei 
was attainted in July 1798, but his br 
was allowed to acquire his property. 

[Proceedings of Society of United Iris 
Dublin, 1794; Hay's Hibtory of Woxfoi 
snrrection, 1 803; Barringf on's Pprsonal Skc 
1827, and Rise and Fall of the Irish X 
1833; Cornwalh's Correspondonce, ]8r)9; 
den's United Irishmen, 1860-1 J. T 

1063), poet, son of the Rev. Christ 
Ilarvey of Bunbury in Cheshire, was b< 
1697. Ho was a batler of Brasenose 
lege, Oxford, in 1013, and graduated 


-.1)1. ..' movements f'lr c:iTh'>liceraaucipntion 
.: i '.Jirliumentary reform. On tliv doatliof 
- •-■IifT in 17''!* Ifiirvu'y in!i-ritt''t:it--sin 
'■.r'Til an'l WaT'TlViril. with un uiinufil 
■r A nf ;{.i«hi.'. Hi' ])ri.'>i;l-il as i-iiainmin 
'7'X\ lit inv-tir.ji. I'f rhe S.n':<'tv-i^f I iiit>\l 
• -'.nn-.'n, lUitilin. Alth-iu:;!! iliininiiri\i'in 
-. ::,ir.' iiii'l "l" iV-.ld-.' coii>rii'iri'>n. In* ilis- 
■:_iu-h<'il lii:ns-If ii.-* a "lii-.-Ui^T. lie \vii< 
:::itiiiT-'il a- a il'-tf_r.i1i^ bv a puldic in'->,-linir 
■- Wt'xt'ini in Maivh 171''i t-' iir..-<-i:: an 
; '. Iriss to ]:a:'l I'itz'ivilliani an-1 a].fliti.'n 
till' kiiiL'. lir'forc tlif ci'nnnt:ior-ni'-ni <if 
. W'cxl'iir.l iii:iiirrreti"n in 17!'", Ihirw-vin- 
:o--(i hi-; h ii;iiit> I'l Liivf n\\ \\ik- arms witk 
■ ':\ch llifv had jirnvi h-'.l thviil-'flw-;. At'l-.r 
■'.■■ Linvi-rniiifn! t''.ii>ii,> lia«l '.■vai-iiatcl \\'-'X- 
"'itl.May ]7HMh.■^■a<U■^s..t•th..iIl.M^- 
,■, lU-; uiianiininisly a:rri''<l on 1 Jiinr. in ih-ir 
; .;ii[i,t hat Ilarvt'y^h<>nhll)i'apiinlnt"d:in.'.ini- 
■■;:uulf hi'inini'hii'f, A]i])r!'h''ii>ivf Ibrhismvn 
-..t'l'ty. aii'l in tht' hnji.' of chcckinLf t.'.\c*'>»-s, 
llanvy iiiiuillinj^^ly acfi-pti'd th<* ]ti'-t. As 
.MnmiamhT. h-,' si'iii a di-spiili-h In (i"i!>ral 
.Ii'linsiin at Nt'W I!.is<im o.Tuiif, drniiuidiiiL' 
:h>' f=iiiTi'inUr nf that t(iv\-ji, -with a vii.-w in 
iivi-nraiiiii*' and lihindshi'tl. lint th.-iut'-MiiEriT 
wliii i-atri-'d tho pajnr wa.-i shot. On lh<' I'-d- 
".)\viiitr <hiy llarvrv. a:4 ff>inniandt.'r-in-i'Iii''i\ 
'i^nt'd a M-rii-i <if in-ih'r< f'nmnnininjr nnii !■» 
!;is fanip and jiniliihilin^'". nn puin of ihath, 
pliindi-r and cxci'.— ■•■s. IK- cxfTted all lii< 
, iiiTyrics to n.>train his folhiwers, and jjuI*- 
I\dy n-jirulmli-d ihc dolrnrtion uf lite and 
v:M[K>rl.y. Tht? insiirtjcnt.-*, after thriv ri^ 
vnlse at Unss, deposed Harvey from lh<' 
^•■'Tnn^'ind. l\t; siih^eqm'nlly son^dit ^aletv 
•1 lli^lit. and InoU r.-i'iiL'^i' in a tavi- '-n a 
V '.'Ivy i^huid iuit>ide ANexford llarhoiir. ile 
ua< nire-^tcd llit-!f, Ijrouirht to AVi'xfori!, 
;-iil arrait:in'il litd'uf.' o i-Miirt-inar1 1;d ^vlth 
i'.»rneHiis (Ii'n^an ii|.v.' and Joliii Ilenrv 
v'.dehni'jh ] '!■ ^-^ AfterauehdKtyate dr'fenee 
"livvi-v wa- ,-i-iiti'iieed to death. ]!'• wa-; 
•.•.^Li••l\ on ■_')'» .Inn-' at the liridu"e of Wex- 
"d. on whicli hi^ h^ad, with llii)>e oi' nth^T^, 
rt ;-; iinpah'il. JIav\('v lel'i no ehildr-'ri ; h-' 
>v * attainl'-il in July 17!>>. but liis hrotli<-i' 
« ;> alhiwi-d to anjiiire hi.- ]tropertv. 

S'-,ii.*CI>dir:L'< til' S.)(M>'tv uT UIlit^^l Il'isllIJU^R. 

' '.i". 17'Ji: Hav*.-: Hi>t')i-y of Wrxturd In- 

,>-;inn. \Siy,;- r.;irriii;Ou:i'> I'l-r^niia! .Skfti'!:e*, 
■*'".:-.!id Ki-i- and I-';!!! nf til,. ]ris!i 
>^'; Cii-i.wal'w ('".in-. -I'Miidi'iii'i'. IS.'iO; ^lad- 

- I'nitLd lrl-li'iu-:i. lyiiU.] J. T. (1. 

UAliVEY, ('Ill!TSTni>III-:jl H-V.C- 

-■:\ poi-t. t^iiu nl' \\i\- \tv\. (,*liristo]»her 

. ».\ of iJiinl>ury in t'he.-hire.\va> hoi'n in 

Ilf \\as a lialler of ]trasi'no>f' Ci>\- 

vKford, in \{)\:), and {^raduHled IJ.A. 




10 Hit UU, lioued M.A. 1 Feb. lGl»-2a 

I Is 1690 he WM nccor of WUtacr ia Hexv- 

«t mr JMilM t ISa fa faw Mie 

* o> Kiogtav nisnMirKBVol* Wt 
t to hure rrt ur neo to Whstae j oa «r 
I U» foUowiai^ 35 Mmick. irihcn • new 
BHier was sppoiatedL Pi<«t<!« 1630 
\ 1030 fin of but ehildrai w«n bapciaed 
tWUtn^. t)n 14 Not. 1638 he ww in- 
i to ihe ricsrage of Cliftoa on Ihnt*- 
WarvicfaUiirp. He ow«d this prefier- 
Dt to ki» patron Sir Robert WbitivT. &» 
> Ifora irom a dedicatorf e^tle to ^Vhtt- 
tf^v in hia edttion of Tbonaa Fle»an'» ' Ex- 
cfllfui Enoonragements against AiBictioius' 
liH7. ilu.n.i'j was buried at CUfton on 
* ApnJ lrt*W. 

Harvey waa the author of 'The Srn»- 

gc^gne,' a Mn«« of derot ional poenu ■ppend«d 

aaaermousk to the 1640 edition of (ieorxe I 

Herbert's 'Temple/ and reprinted with most 

of the later editions of the * Temple.* He 

vaa a man of sincere piety but little origi- ' 

aalit J ; and the * Smagoguu * is merely a tMn 

tnitation of Herbert. In 1647 he issued , 

8noDyTn"«*lr 'Schola Cordis, or the Heart 

of it St'Ife goni; away fmm God; brou^rht 

back af^aint- to him : and instructed by him. 

In 47 Emblem*,' 1-mo; 2nd eflition'l664; ' 

•Srd edition IGT/i. The volume has on the 

titlt^potre ' By the Anthor of the Smagogue.' 

Tlie emblems were adapted from Von Haef- 

t««i>*SchoIa Cordip.' and Lave l)e.>n rppnb- 

lished, with the * S\-nttgrtpiit'V in Dr. ftwv 

sart's * Fuller "Wortkiea Library.* Hftrrcy 

also published * 'A^t^riairr^c. The Riph't 

Rebel, A Treatise discovering the true L'se 

«f the Name by the Nature of Rebellion,' 

1*161. Bvo. and 'Faction Supplanted: or a 

threat iii;ain>it the ercJfM(iAjtti<"al itnd secu* 

lar Rehelfl,' 1063, which wiia chi-'flr written 

in 1612 and ^ni^bed on •) .\pril 1645. Wood 

supposed that ' Fsctioa Siipplftnted ' was the 

* aunc with the former ^"The Right Rebel "}, 

only a new title put to it to mak<? it rend 

the bett*?r.' but states tlmt be had not seen 

cither book. He also attributes to Uarrey 

ft book cMlb'd ' Condif ion.ei of Christianity.' 

Harvt'V wa« a friend of lEaak Walton, and 
prefixed com mandatory verses to the * ("om- 
ptoat Ani^ler,' ei^ Itilio. The fourth etlition 
of the ' Syimirogue' lias comraendiitorv verses 
by Walton, who also quoted on(! of the poems 
from ilip 'Synapjguc in the lOoo edition of 
the ' Anitler-* Some bibliographere boveer- 
rone'kUflty ascribed the'Synagogue'toThomoa 

fWo^'s Athmw. rd. Blisi, iii. 538-0 ; Orf. 
ITni*. Iti-fi. (Oxf. Iliat, Soc.), li. p. 331, 
"". iii. p. 3W : Hunt«r'» Chonii Tatum (Brit, 
, MS. AddlL 2U00, fol. 100} ; Orosart's in- 

tndwciaa ta Hantf'a potBS iaFsUw Wa 
Libotfjl A.H.BL1 

IWSX H^t^ciaB, eUesS SOB of JUtthew Bar- 
nard llamy of Wilhaa, Ensa. nerefaaat, 
br a dai^bitf of M^ot Jo^ M. Whittle 
j «} Feesnir Hooie, EelTedott, fwii, w«« 
boc^ at WithaB ta 17B6, aad serred hv 
uudm with Wiaboarae. CoUett, tt Cbw, 
attomera, 6S Chaaoccy Lane, Lowka. On 
coning of age he toohpowetioo of bis n*- 
tcnial estate. Feeling Hooae, nod iMnnmettoed 
pBictiee aa a awntiy solicitor in the netgb- 
booxhood. Froail80eiilll819hewa«amem- 
ber of the oo«naoq oonncil of the city uf Lon- 
don for the ward of ni«boMgate. ' He «-a.f 
admitted a Ftudeni of the Inner Templt? on 
7 Nor. 1810, and in ICefaaelmaj: term 1S18 
I beeaate a fellow of the society. Hv con- 
tinuedf bowerer, to practise as an sttorneT 
' at CoIdiMtcr till Trinity term 1819, wh.>n u 
' his own nooeat his nane was struck off the 
rolls. In TrinitT term 1S19 he appli<>d to 
, be called to the bar, but hu application was 
refused. He was heard in hia own defence 
before the masters of the bendi on 5, <». iind 
9 Nov. 1821, when it was stated (1) Thai 
he, being the plaLntifi^s attorney in a can 
Shelly P. Riidkin in Januarv Itr^O^, stole hxna 
the office of the attomev ior thr defejndont 
a certain document, i'^) That he sold an 
e*tate for John AVall Frost in October 1809 
and kept back fix>m him fiOO/., part of the 
purchasi' money. The benchers on 13 Not. 
stilt refus*Hlto admit him. He then K|)|>ealed 
to the judges as visitors of the inn, but 
they on 1 Feb. \t<-2'2 confirmed the decision 
of the benchers. At his request the case was 
reheard by the benchers, 19 Nov.-ia Dec. 
18.34, but with the same result. I^ter in 
1S34 a select committee of the Hanse of 
Conunun?. of which Daniel d'ConnfU was 
chninnsn, inquired into the accusations and 
entindy exonerftteJ Harvey. The heucherv 
asserte<l their independence of the House 
of Commons, and noihinp furthor was lu>ard 
of the matter (Trro H^portf qf Se/i!ct Cum- 
initUt! on thf htnji of Cpitrfo, 183^1). 

Uu 12 Oct. 1812 he unsuccessfidly con- 
teetofl Colchester, and at a bvi' lection, 
19 Feb. I8I8, was aRain beaten, Vut ul the 
(jeneriil election on 22 June in the mime teor 
he was elected by a larjje majority in a foup- 
toon days' contest, wh-tn his heavy expensen 
were paid by a rich ruUtive. I'wo venrs 
Inft-r, on 14 .Inly, he wna re-elected for Col - 
oln^Klcr, hu(. Win election was derlared void. 
He WI19 ofzaiu electe<i for Colclti_'?ter on 
1-1 July 1826, and continued to n'liroMcnt it 
till 2U Dec 1834. From 1835 to January 

Hftnt ; and after continuous wrvice, mostly 
in ihn North Sea and Mediterranfan, was 
promoted in Jnniiar)" 1808 lo (hi? ^^ommand 
of lh(i Cppbn.IuK jilnop in the* Mi-ditfrranean, 
wliRre, on 18 Auril 1811, be was posted to 
tJieTopaze. wliicii he brought linmc ond ptiid 
oil" in 181i». From IKiO to 18:U he com- 
ninndcd the l^ndannted on the Cnpo nf OofKl 
ir<rTnj iind Kast Indin slntions; in 183R the 
Mfllnhnr in the Wfst Indies: and from 1*^3U 
to 1842, the Implacahleinlhe MeditiTrtinenn, 
whore ho took part in the npenitinns on the 
coftgt of Syria, includinp the homhardmont 
of St. Jenn d'Acre in 1 840. Tie nttnined his 
fliig on 17 Dec. 1847; nnd from 1848 to 18o3 
was superintendent at Malta, Avilli hlsflafrin 
theCVylou. llobecaraovice-adniiral II .Sept. 
185'1; was commander-in-cliief at the Norn 
from 1857 to IHtiO; yva» promoted admiral 
S* Jnne 18(W); wujt nominated a K.t'.H. on 
28 June 18(11, and a G.(\a on L'8 March 
1 8(V>, a few week'* before bis deatli on 4 Mov 
l8(i5. llo mnrried Miss Cannon of Deal, 
and by her had issue ; aiuonff others, Ilenrj', 
ft cnpcain in the navv, who died in the West 
Indies in 18<1U, while in eommand of the 

[O'Byriit-'a Sar. IJioff. Diet. : Grat. Mag. ISG.'i. 
nctr M<r. xviii. 804; Nuvy Llats ; information 
from I he family.] J. K. L. 

HARVET, Sir KU.VD (1758-1830% 
admiral, second fwm of William Harvey of 
lEolU Park, near Chijrwell in ]'>st'X, for many 
ve«r5 M.P. i'or the county (</. I'O-")!, wasbom 
r» Dec. 17fi8. He wa^ pTeat-jrnindsun of Sir 
ICliflb Hiirvey, the brotiu-r of the jfreat Wil- 
liam Harvey (ir>tK)-l«i.'.7) [q. v.] In 1771 
ln' was nominally entered on board the 
William ond Marj' yattlit. He aftenvanls 
wrved In the Oqiheiii* fri^'Hte with Captain 
MaeBride, and in the Lynx in the West 
Indies. In 1770 he was sent out to isorth 
America in th^ Mermaid, fn>m which he 
was transt'erni'd to tlie Kaple, llien rJirryinjf 
Lord Howe'rt fliifj. He returned to England 
InOctoWr 1778, and on 2fi K^h. 177!* was 
jiromoted to b*? lientenant of the Uesoln- 
tion, which, however, he did not join. In 
May 1780 Hftr\-evwasTelnmed to parliament 
a* member for Maldon in Ewex. Hi!* elder 
brother Williora, M.P. for KMei. had died in 
the previous year, and Harvey had snCceeded 
To a very handsome property- He had just 
enme of age, and for the lime Ji]t|»ears to 
hare won somH diKtinction as a man about 
town and a rec klesa plunder. Acc-ordinp to 
Walpolp/ he luat 100,000/. one evening? at 
liaxard to a Mr. U'llyrne, who said. 'You can 
never pay me.' ' I can,' answered Harvey; 
' my estate will sell for the debt.' ' No/ said 

O'Byme, * I will win 10.000/. ; you -«h«l 
throw for the other 90/ They did, and Uap 
vey won ( \Vtiluolf*a Ij'ttrr*, ed. Cunninj^ 
ham, vii. ."Wfl). In Aupiat 1781 Harvey was! 
appointed to the Dolphin ; in the foUowingi 
I'ehruary he was moved into tberury fiIoop» 
and on Jl March ho was promoted to tU»l 
command of tlic Of t^r, in which be served ial 
the North Sen. till hi^ advancement to post] 
rank on 20 Jan. 1783. Shortly afterwordsl 
he married Lady Louisa Nuf^ent, youna 
daughter of I'lnrl Nnpent. He commanded 
tlie HiiMjir for a few weeks dnrnif:'' the 
Spanish armament in 1790. On thn outbreak 
of I he revoliitionnrv war in 17ft;l, he was ap- which 
10 eer\'ed under Sir John Jen'is [q- v.] al;j 
the rediicti(mof Martiniijue and Guadelottpai 
(Mart'h, April 1794). On her r»'tiim lo Enj! 
land in tlie summw, the Sta. Marpirita wiu 
ulTiirhed tu the Channel Bent, and on ^3 Auf^kl 
waft one of the ftpiailron under Sir Jolm| 
Borlflfi*! Warren [q, v.], which drove a Franc* 
fripate and two corvettes on shor<? on tfc 
COIL* t of Mretagne. Early in 170d Han'ey*| 
wa.-* moved into the VaUant of 74 fifuns, and" 
in her went to the Weiit Indies wirh tha 
wiviiidron under Sir \\\&<i Parker (1739-J 
1807) [q. V.J In I71i7 ilUhoallh obliged him ' 
to n.'turn lo Knglnnd, and in the spring 
of 1798 he wa* ajipoinled to the com* 
niand ()f tlie Sea Fencibles in the Kasex dis- 
trict. In 17P9 he was appointed fo the, 
Triumph of 74 pia^.nnd commanded her itn 
the Channel and oil Drent till the peace i 
Amiens. Ho represented Essex from H' 
till 18l:i; and in November 1803 ho coo 
missioned the 'Hj^hliug T6m6raire* of 
puna. .\fterei{rhteen raonlba'aerviee in tbttl 
hlnekride of Brf'.'tt and in the Bav of Biacayij 
thnTerafraire in the autumn of l80.*i forme ~ 
part of the fleet otF Cadiz. In the battle of* 
Trafalgar she waa the second ship of the 
weather line, closely followinpf theVictorr^i 
and her share in the action was particularly 
brilliant. 'Nothing could Xn* liner,' wrottfl 
C<dlins^vo(Kl : * 1 Iiave no wonls in which I| 
can suHieienlly express my admira(i<m of 
it .' On !> Nov. 1 805 1 larvey was included] 
in the general promotion consequent on i\\t 
creation of the new grade of 'admirals of Iha 
I red,* and becnme rear-admiral. In the fol- 
! lowing spring he hoisted his flag on board tha 
[ Tonnaiit , in the Chnnnt-l fleet under the cora- 
' mand of Lord St. Vincent, and afi*?r St. \"\t 
' cent'.s rn»tirflmeT:t under that of Ijord fiambisvj 
, [q. v.], with whom he was present in Haaqu 
Roodsin April 1809. Ileconceivedhiniatdfii^ 
' grim'ed by the appointment of Lord Cochrane^ 
toa spi^cial command, and exjiressed big anger 
on the quartor-deck of the flagship so pubUcljj 



■od riolently (^UrKDoKALD, AutijbitMjtaphy] bis 'Shephearda Calender 'undur the name of 
^ n Senmn/i^ u Jio7-i*), that Gambler was ^ Ilobbinol. > 

obliged to bring' Uim to a court-martial held' For college life, involving as it did fre- 

»l nirtsmoutli on J'J-y May. Uy this IIqv- (lucnt and close intercoiiifn? with men of 

TUf wu dismis-'ii'd ihu ser\icp ; and though diverse vitfws and t^'mpiT, Ilarvey wa« by 

b the foUowirig Vfor. ;!l March 1810, lie ' nature ill adapted. Ho wm a manofarroffiuit 

««* nin5tatud in \ni rank »nd seniority bv I and (.'cusorioua spirit, tar too confloious of his ' 

wtlcr in council, "in con§id<.'ration of hi's ' own ronatdurable abilities, while but little 

lengaiid meritorious service**,' ho was never j dinjioat'tl to recojfnise the merits and claims 

emplnytHi a;rain. On SI Jan, 1810 he ■wn» ' of olher*. Thomii^ Keville, oftBrwanlsi the 

wlrtnri'd to h« vice-admiml nf the blue. In [ eminent master of Trinily follege, who held 

Jiouary 1815 he wa?i nominated a K.C.B. ; ' a fellowship at I'embroke at the same time 

kreume admiral on 12 Auj;. 1819; in 1820 ' aa Harvey, declared of him that he 'could 

ind aifain in 1820 wa^ ret;lected M.P. for ' hardly find it In his heart to commend of any 

E«« ; and in Februury 1825 received the \ man.' \\'ith the majority of the ft-llows he 

pM'l crossof the Kath. Ife died on 20 Feb. i would appear to liuve been e«.>ntinually at 

]830,Ieairing issue »\\ daughters, (.'f bi^ two ' war, nud llie ill-feeling ran do high that wht.-n 

WNU, the elder, a captain la the army, was 1 the time came for Wnn to proceed M.A. they 

^4flfed at the siege of IJurgoa iu 181 2; the agreetl to refu^t- him the necessary * grace' 

yoonp^r died in 1823. from ihr rullegc. It was not until after a 

fMar^hairs Roy-I X^ral Bio,, t. 273; R-ilft-» 'J'ih^' f tliree months that he evenlually in 

Xanil Di(.g. ii. 432; omirml doeunienu in tho l-J'3 obtained lus de^free, and lilthough he 

hihlic I(«..ra OfTirP ; (li«-miniit,>8.,fihe court- was shortly after appointed college tutor 

martitil arc puWishoJ in llnltV* NhpiiI Chrou. ' bis relations with the society seem to have 

ii. Ul ; GenL Maij. 1830, c. 366.] J. K. L. ] become pernmncTilly embittered. 

I For a short lime Ilarvev reud rhetoric in 
HARVEY, (JABKIKI, (15^'i?-]6^J0),Jhe public acbo<ds of the university (/.W/rr 
poft, wiL« born at ShUVou AValdeii, theeldesl^^^w//,-, p. 104), and he was at one time a can- 
•on of a family of six cbihlren. His fiither didate for tbo readLTship in ihwi branch of 
was a master ropemnker by trade, and va- stiidv. It was probably with tln^ view of 
riou« circumstances indicate thar. he was n further r>^commending himself for the ap- 
pPQ^-rou4 man. He wai« able to .isend three pointment that he composed his 'Khetor' 
tons to I'amhridge [see Hakvey, John {'/. and ' (Ciceroni an us,' brtth jiublished in 1577. 
l.'S92>. and KictlAliu], and Gabriel himself Healso besought SirThomasSmith, to whom 
,ts of him as one that 'bore I hi' chieffst ' he appears to have been related ( Work^t \. 
in Wnhlen with go<jd credile ' ( l\'t,rtn, , |K4), to u*' Ins exertions in his behalf. He 

, Cirfwart, i. lliO), and also as one ' whosi' 
lioneiiiy no neighbour can mupeach ' (/A. 250). 

Gabriel was entered at (prist's College ;i^ himself {LrtUr Itouk^ u. 17W). On the 
he matriculated 28 June iotH), was admitted'^ other hand we learn from his preface to the 

B^^V. in loW>-70. and '.\ Nov. 1570 was (jlected 
bUow of IVmbrokc Hall. At Pembroke he 
a«Hl iheacnuaintance of Spenser, the poet, 
who was admitted as a sizar the yeur before 
Harrey obtained his fellowship, and their 
acquaintance ripened into an intimacy which 
waa ferminaleil imly by Spenm-r's death. 
Hars-rv, by virluo of his seniority, superior 

Rweks the office, he atlirms, not in order that 
he may teach rhetoric, hut thai hn may study 

Khetor' that his address<*s. delivered in 1577 
and 1578, were attended by overtlowiiig au- 
divnces. In the moTith of August 1578, when 
his feliowjihip at IVmbrokc was on the |>OLnt 
of lapsing, the Earl of Leicester ad'lressed an 
'earnest request' to the maaier and fellows 
that !ii» friend might be allowe<l to continue 
in it one ye«r longer. Tln« t-nrl's intervi-nl ion 

position, and real scholaraliip, exereiM^d over appears not to have been surcejtsful. and Har- 
vey was enuiptdlt^d to lonk abimt id-iewlicre. 
He would se»;m nt this time to have been 
hesitating as to his choice of a profession, and 
ho first of all sought election to a fellowship 
at Cbrists, with. a view to the ministry. 
DisBppuinted in this quarter he turned to 
Trinity Hall. Here he claimed relationship 
with the master, Henry Harvey [q. v.], who 

firobably iiuvoojited his claims, and* Harvey, 
laving declared his readini^s toembrace ibe 
profession of a civilian, was elected a fellow 
..f that society (.18 Dec. 1578). .Mthough 


Ilia friend's yoQtht'ul gi-uius an influeiiri- from 
which the latter with dilliculty shook himself 
ftve. Strongly attached to classical models, 
the pe»lantic college-fellow associated himself 
with A litcmrv movement which aimed at 
imposing on the native [wetiu literature a 
MTvile imitation of the Ijitia. Harvey hiiu- 
B*lf»«H?ros to have claimed to be the father 
of the Knglish hexameter, and Spenser f(»r 
ft time w-tis indui-e)! nlt^igi'ther 1o nhnndon 
rhvme. The latter Iriini hanl to admiri- his 
firicftdV senc^ ami has immortal isitl him in 





' tiidy of thcUw. he found 

i\ iwcriBH'ol' hiijp<>i?lical 

I--. ' t«f tiiid liitn iirciL-tin^ lii^ 

jiwT 1*1" p'jbli^hiiij( '*ivmi.' <tf lii:* at- 

Kh^ti^h vtTHt* ( wtircti liH deaignntin* 

AV*^''* * 4tti'*' C'lidr-iry to bis own 

■IMIiVrottti'nvNiy.TliuiunHNiushu [ti. v.^de- 

fUr*** thtti lUr^cyMi'tit thfiutoitrcssliimsell': 

' 1 iluri*! i>u my i^reJit,' he mvs, • undertnke 

NiH<iMi>r wiwmi wny priviiS to tiiecorumitting 

tin(ii'iitt<i]MiTit,' lluvruverthUmnyhttveliern, 

1 It tbrlr publicnthiTi "involved 

■ n» In-HiliU'. Hiitli Sir Jame^ 

V tiiiil 1 hi.' Kfti'l of (JxfurtI were raucb dis- 

t/tl ut Kutii'U'itl alluHionTi, which 5tM'nii>d 

jlii('«i III |K)rMin.-t hi^'h in ollic-r at court. 

I Ht>r«t lit «I1, Ilnrvi-y ws* ^uppow-'d hy 

■ l-ttvo uHiHtl at him in hi« lu- 

, 1 1. Ill of tlif ' Ituliaimteil Kng- 

ti.-I 111 iht! * Mirror of Tua- 

, , .1 Harvi'v 

ITti ^ji lunation, whlrh wmh np- 

iiiii mI i^iA. j». ls,'i>,und hi^ friiMule. 

M[ WiUm and !>irWflll»»r Mild- 

- *.-\l«'d in iivtTlinir any serioui* cim- 

It wi).tnut initili«^)me timu afler- 

»«! - fiifiiiy, Nftnliu, iiMorted timt 

Hu iiiilly bivn sent to (hi.- FU-et 

fyi . vvrses, Huncy itdinits that 

\i-* . . rviuoiidirated with by his 

lit- ; but this, bo assert 'i, was 

'Hi Ivver pot.' Tlmt hi:* satin? 

. Hiiiii>d at \}w Karl of Oxford 

lUmiiM, avorrin^ that Iu> had 

.^uiM'ioiin of hiA ' many boundea 

,j ■ to iiuu ttho luid Iwen hi« patron ever 

1' 11. iUv uniiit' tif Iui4 ((allanteat youth 

i|iomui« in Cbristes Col- 



i'ulip\<at ability »epm by 

11 i(i'ni'raUy rec<ynis*'d. 

Mil of (jiieim Klif-abolb's 

Smith at Amlh-y End, 

nitulati'iiU'K WaldciiSft*' 

I iinMiKiitml ()iHm to h'^r 

\\ I h*' Cambridge com- 

io< wa* ap))oii)tod om- of 

' -'liliy. In thofoUow- 

l .ic- for tbi* officf of 

. J ii-atitl by Winpiii'ld 

iig I't th»» I'vont bt» itayr*: 

I ji'-tilton. my frifnilc!) 

I1 i-haum'ullnrs [i.t'- 

i>d« and vvtraonlt- 

., wttnt all poltin^lv de- 

I'tisi- of thi- olde I'oxe ' 

III. p. 170). 

15,43 Owtin \ot<2 

1 ihu olUce of junior 

{' MUted in order to 

< i»,i»*fd by the retirement 

of LeouunKTiaraber3, who took his B.D. dti 
gree in May. Tht^re i? no ifracc for the a[i 
pointment, as Trinity Ilutl wa» allowed 
first claim on the *jct;urrenco of such racan- 
ciea, in enmpensution for its inferior position ■ 
in rt'larinn to the pn>clori»l cycle. On llie 
d'*alh of hii* rvlntive, the master of Trinity 
Hall, in 1">35, Harvey was oli^cted to sue 
bim. and it was ti* master of the .V}Ptety thafi 
on :? July IR^lo be i>oiu;bl to tje incorporate 
11.C.L. of Oxford, and wu« licensed to tl; 
dej^rec on the lath of the same month ( Oj^I 
fVr. Jfty., 0\f. Hi^r. "Sac., u. i. 34VO. Aol 
cording to his own account, his election 
the miL'^terHhip wu^s a^t a^ide by royul man*] 
date, altboii^b Pre-^^ton, who was appolnte ~ 
inbisphtce, •eonbl/hentfirmfi, 'nonaybavfl 
requested or pure(nL<ted one voice' ( tf'urkjt, edj 
GroMrt, lii. xxvi). In loJis, on Pn.'#ton*^' 
deaib, he was avruin a candidate (although uc 
longer a fellow), and in a letter to Sir Roher 
Cecil entreated his mediation in order tba| 
the roval influence might now be exerted in 
hi'* behalf, hut bis application w&d not sue 

An overweening estimate of hia own at 
tainments and aliilitics, conjoined wiili dia- 
appointe<l ambition, seems to have rKiidcrt'tl 
Harvey singnliirly.'ienftitivi' and qua rrelAome; 
and to his contemporariefl be wa* best known 
by the acurrilous iwiper warfare in whitb lie* 
Wcame involved with the \\TilersXH*he and| 
(■ireeiie, Gretme bad been exasperated bv 
conicmpi nous rMffrence-s maile to himself au<f 
his friendii in the writings of liubrier»i br 
iher Uichord [see Harvey, Riciiari)], and 
bo rctnliated in bis *Quippe for an ujKiliul 
Courtier,' by calling attention loiheHarveviii 
bumbleparentagetand by oflensive reference 
to their father'a trade as a roifcmaker. Thi 
most galling of these onimionei )« lost to its, fa 
it was expunged in all the extant e<lilioQ9 
Greene's poj^quinade (see Greene'* Work* 
ed. Gnisarl, xi. 1*06). Ilarrev wjw incensed, 
beyond meaxuiv, and in his 'rout* Letters* 
(lo93> assailed Greene, whose cbarncter wa 
siiffiriently open to attack, with imKparing 
acrimonyand vituperation. Harvey npi)«^nili' 
some Kiigli.*ihversea,includingSpenarrs noble 
. .vninet nddn'siwd to himself. Even after 
(3n>t'ne's Harly and ]»ttiable end in September 
\')i)'J, he did not de.»«ist from endenvouring to 
blacken his memorV'. and then it waa that 
Xttsheeutered tbf lietjjmifainst Harvev In de- 
fence of his hite friend, displaying a pt»wer of 
sarcofon and invective, in the pre JM^neeofwhicU 
the haughty itcholar found bimseIfcomp1et«lj ~ 
overmattbed. In hia* St range Xewft'(lo9Jil 
be addresses Harvey us ' n fillbv vain foole ;^ 
proclaims ' open warres' npon Loth him ontT 
his brother Richard ; ridicules fats claim to 1 



lb»fi;>it inventor .^f 'h<r EnrllsL "--t t~--- - --t>. ..: 1"..; = 2--- -^ - • ~ -- - s 

•ndJeclarvsthat h- siwLli -ir^r • ..--.-'i. -.:--*.-.- -, 1" . ';- i 1- -'- ."-^ -1--1 

linifc in a w^ill of rhrr FLrr":*'^!-- i- ^^l" -r _-l- ■ • l : -— I~i- — - - - ■- ^1^ " 

rovisitafrit-nd thore. llsr-.-y z^-. ..-:•. i. - • '.' • Ti- T- -zl - - - ~ ~ iJi. \ ..-, ■ 

tioisiQ? on rh- ■ Fi>ur*- L'T'TrrTs' ^r I' — . i-: - .t -. — — . - -' '-^'~'.- ~''.-/'' -T 

iindicatinj:him«i!?If tr-tm 'Lr li'T-rr'T .—t-. -.- - :_- ---.-. _- -— - - , "-.J^--:--7 

Xashe.wliiiat thiiSM-eajj-j.^ ■ li-^ ,r-- 1.- — -_ -■_ - ,'l- £ .' 1_ -^i -'- • - -' 

bwjmin^hrartily i-hiimr"! ir i ■x-^— ■-,.- .r.i-::.'*.. --- 

eontroTer>y, n-'-w ?- u^lit :■:' '.r^' .'. - :- -■ . „ ..'. - 

fndby matinjat-niial^ind ^ior:.; 1-. 1 .- -.■.'.' - '. -1" - -.' 'T.- ""'*.' ^~ 

in an'fpi#t'-i.r-tixT'i ::• his •<.'lr>T— T-z.- - '_.- --.-., /-..'*.'*- /v'-^' -' ". 

ovt-r Jerusul'-m " i lo-'-' ■. ic-i frtizk-T • ::_ -- - :" "[_' 1 ~: - -—J'. •-■" !^ .'V, '.-".' 

tinf llaney";; •ah-:-:E,.ii:i: ■vliTllir--.:. :■ .r- -. *..-..-.■ ,.. . _\,"-'"'"*. -'.",.."- 

f*^ju5 Well jjou'-mr': i.-hj,'i:: 'ir. a:, i, r.-.- -ri- j --._--- T.-- .-. ■ 2 :-- ~ - I..-- - 

{H'riensr jud;^vn:-ri"." Ev-n zl'.<. ':. ■x---t. r- ■ .. ; \^: '■'. ' i_ *. -: l.^--; V'»,> , 

iiiili-d to a]ip..'a.s*: Ki- in"aj r.:-r. a:. : il_r". -V >"---t:'-^ ■-■- -.. "-:.•...-." .'. E. y 

reiumwl to the a*- a. i '.z hi- ■ \--.t L---- - : 

XotttU^-CV-iiitrm.-.' T -iSXA-Ur-; r.-. 1 .- HAP.VZY. S:l -;?:■ ■.-:■-?: »._:^>' . 

a new »-pi.-srIe pr*Tfix»r: ■ i r.-:w -. i • . r. : T-Ji'Tr. t.. -. r. _■. "^-, \ :..!::*. v..rl.:-.j- 

* C'hristeii Teaiv*.' in wUcl ':.- tc!:' ..■:- -.-.- 1.- -...r- . :- Y -'■ : .irr l-^'.r'. ^i rlv -f-r h.a 

forni*rr apjlo^. and r'-:-:.r-: r. H.:r-.- v .:. ' "- L.- :'i:"i-r. ^ " i-:'.:;iiT7, -^':".- I :^ :hr- 

thi:- s<?\vr»-.*t temi#. In l-"-*'. j.-:i.-;-_- -'.i- " "^ :. :: ?** rl.::j. ..r.;. :,- r- : :.r ■• v w^- ij- 

Harrey wa? btiastinjof haT;r._- - . r.>. : l!:... :'--" -t : - - "•■.■. l-:—ll-rr. At :i:r :-.^r f 

ho publi!iht.d hi> fani'-u? satir-. - Hi-.-,- -x.-.. ■ ..h.-— r. ':..• f-r-. . :, ~ :. ir \r. .;_-'-: )l:zz '. » 

vou to SatFron WaM^^n.* whii.":. :.- '-■:■ m-- i Y. ! r": r_ ":.. ":.-rrr :.'*-• . i:-i : r _••■:- rw> 

byway of farcft." ■Itichard LieL:.-. ;.' :ir -_r 7"-^ --- '■' T: .-•—-* Ac^ iri^y, I:-. !■»>; 

of Trinity (.'ollrj^. (.V.mbriiij-:* -- i * ■ -i..; :.- ■r\:.- .•-,: ':..- r.r?: j : :.:t- - : ,« • \';Ilai:e 

Hanw'tnc*? m-'r" r»-:-i|n»rd in Li- 'T:. ::;:::::._■ ^.i- .'-':- ":.-•'. :rfc':i I::>-::i:: r.. nvA 

of Thrauas Na*h-* ( I'r.C i. Th- -: ^■. \:,\ L 1 1. >. :i.v -::=:^ ;■ -.-ir l.r U-v.^:-r zr ■: :Lr ori- 

however, ni.iw rt-aflR-d a climax, ar. : .:: 1 "».'.• ji:.i. :i-«>::i"-> ■:':;.■- >^.' ■"■-:; AcaivS'.v. t > 

it was "rilerr-f| by authv-riry ■ i!ij- ^.\\ >";:!-:.-.■> 'v;, — .- ~rT* ■ \l:t !*: n :n l"*!'? !:•■ L-'-.rril .::-l 

book«?s and Dr. llarvr-y*# l^r-.-kt- ''..f tuk* n — v-n ^v;ris. !!-■ !:■ w d-v v...! hin:>v'.: :.> 
wheresr«ver tht-y may W t"»'ir.d. n-..: 

During the laltt-r y*far« of bis lif-r lUrwy b*- iiarufi! • (.' ■v-r.i'.:teT-ri VreaL-hinj." L'^il'vV- 
apjtears to hav** lived in r'-tirt^invnt in r.:- I*"0; • \'-\';v.'?.r.x~T^' Haptiim,' 10.M^1 ; 
native town. Hakfr*ay«; •! liave *r-:i ^n * Th- f::r'rr>.* ISU— i; 'A .Schiil-' SkHilin'.' 
eb'jjTonhim,coni|»OT'rdby '\V.P..-ar- '!:. is:-! IMrt; &,r.d •(^■;i":r.j xhr MaiiM.' I>4r- >; 
A" lt>%, when-by it ap[»Hur< he dir'i 'hat wiirk-. oharao:rri?-d by homfly iruih and 
year. By that it ^hnuld set-ni h-r jcucti^rd t-xet-lU-nt in>;j:.r into Scottish chanu'ter. 
phTsic,ond wa.«a pn-tt-ndtT to a*tr- I'ln.and which havt- Ko-me widely popuhir ihnuitrh 
so wa* his brother, JI. H.* iset' Sa/.f-r MS\ encravinir*. His otlur inijiortant tipun'- 
ia Cumbr. Univ. Library, xxxvi. i'S- 107 t. pirtun-s iiirl'iiir' * Shakr'-jx-sire lii*t\>r»' Sir 
The following i^ a list of Ilnrvev's prin- riiomas Liu\v.' IS-'^V-r: * A i':istawav,* ISJV*; 
cipal Latin writings: 1. • Uhelor. Aw -. * First Iteadini: "f tin* ItibU' in thi' i'ry]it of 
Dieruni Oratio de S'atuni. Arte ft Exercita- iSi. Piiur*.' lsl!*-40; and ' l>a\vn r»'\i'alinjf 
tione Khetoricft.'lo"". -*. 'CiceroniauM5..*ive th'' New AVorld to Columbus.' IS'»l*. IIi» 
(.htitio pn?t reditiim habita Cantabri^na> ad prudufi'd a few |»ortraits, sm-h iis thosr o( 
8uod auditoreR',' I'*i77. 3. 'Sraithu:^, vt-i .Mu- Prorfssur John M ilson, ISoI. mid llu* \W\. 
f^aTUIn Lachr\'m:e pro Obitii honorati?s. Viri Dr. .Ii^hn Brown, lS."i(\ Thouj:h most widely 
. . . Thomte Smith, Ksq. aur., Mnjestiitisine known by Ids titnm^pii'Min's. ho ranks even 
ReffiseSecretarii,' 1o7h. 4. *Xai^* vtd Gratu- hi^dier as a hindscftiv-paintcr. In this dc- 
lationum Valdensium Libri quatuour 'j*ii\^ partment nf art hi.* extnition is sinjrularty 
l")7r^. His En^'lish works, as editi-d hv I>r. ' i^iiontHnt'Ous and unlaboured, and in the ex- 
Gro«irt in tlireevoIumeSfCoraprise the follow- iiression of the ver^- sjiiril of bonier land- 
ing: 1. 'TheStorj-of Mercvl£arvey.'1574- r>, si-app, of the quiet sublimity of (;n'«t siretehtfi 
2, ' Lettera to and from I'Mmund Sp^^nser,' "f nmnded prasjiy hillf, he proves hinmelf. 
l'>79-80. 3. *Foure Ijettcra and eertainc Mn works like ' The Knterkin, 184(1, without 
Sonnets/ 1&9:2. 4. * A Letter of Notable Con- a rival among ^^cottish painters. Ilia land- 

ing's anu ±/r. iiarirv s trrjtir'r :.f iitA*-n — '^~- -^.ris. iiv [;■ w «-\ ^-...i ;;::i:sv.: :..» 

eresr«ver they may W t"»'ir.d. n-.l *;.a- rlj.--- ji:*. .r--. ■.: which :br -s:ib-re"s w.-re 

le of the .same bookcsbt-yverpri:.:'-.! :.'.>■- li- rivr^l fr :r. :L-. Li-tory :\nd tL-:- daily life 

er' (C'MiPEK. ,^Mf«rt' Otnf. ii.;.. ■ :' -ho .Scor.i-h :.i-: >!i. Amonj th-.-e mav 




Bi'jvpes wi-re, for the most jiart, ibe work of 
lii» later life. Amontf the tinest of them are 
* Kerraiton,' 1857 ; * We Twa hoo puidlcH la 
the Itum,' 1H6H; ' Sheap-sh«nrinK.' l^oO ; 
'(lion Dhu, Arrftii,' IS'Jl : and ' Invt»rflniJin, 
!..x:h L-iniond/ 1870. In 1^29 llarvfv be- 
cune afull mem Vr of thp Scottish Anitiemy. 
he dovotwl hims^^-If uiiwciiriedly. In 18<i4 be 
fliiccet'Jed Sir Joliti Wnl^ui (iordon fii. v.' aa 

JirMsideiit.Hiul received the liounurot Imi^"lit- 
itxxl, and six years ]at<T Up publislu-d bis 
•Notes on the Early History of the Koynl 
Scottish Academy' (London, 1870, Hvo), 
pivinp^ciiriou!* parliculunt H-gnrdinfjits foiin- 
dattuiiand urct(fre88, u volume which altaitied 
a 8eeond edition in 187^. lii 18(17 he was 
elected a fellow of the Unyiil Sopielv of 
Kdinhiirj^b, In which li*'eonlrihnted,LM iK-e. 
186W,tt paper * On theCohmrof Ai-riul Blue.' 
He diod at Edinburgh on 'i'J Jiiu. 18;(t. Three 
of his worhfi are In the Nntioual (iiillery of 
Scotland ; his portrait hy K^btTt llerdman, 
U.S.A., and hi^ bust by Jcdin Mnicbif»f»n, 
K.S.A., an.' in the pn!s,*n,'i'sion of the ICnyul 
l<coI(it>li Academy. 

[ITarTfly'H Celplrt-at&l Piiinlingw, h Soleetion 
from the Work of .Sir Gcornr llttrvey. P.R.S.A.. 
irith descriplion'* by tlii' Ri-v, A. L. Simpwin, 
FJf.A. Seot.; RccolIwtioTiB nfSirOoorgo nar>'ey 
(priratply primed, 1888); Tnins. Horal Society 
of ?-dinlinrch, vol", vi. ix."] J. II. O. 

HARVEY, tJIUKOX (lfW0?-17fX)?), 

fliysieian, liorii in Holland probably between 
tl30 nntl !»i40, wa*; sou of John and Eliza- 
beth Iliiney, n« n])]»ear*i by bi« petition for 
denizalinn in KtlW ( Cut. Stiiff Pttfu'rn, iVmi. 
Series 1(MSI>-1). AccnrtlJnff tn bis own ac- 
count (in 'Casus Medico-Chirurpicu*'') ho 
learned Greek and Latin in the Low Coun- 
tries, and on 31 May Ifi55 mnlricnbited at 
Exeter CoUepv, O.xford, then nndt*r ibe rule 
of the energetie Or. (.'onaiit, where bestudit^d 
philosophy. On I Jun. ino7 he was entered 
nt Leyueu, where be stiidind medicine, ana- 
tomy, and bofnny.nttendinp aUoihe hospital 
practice of Pmfefisor van Linden. At the 
aame time, he jtayjt, be learnc^d phemistry 
from a (German, and received inMtnintJnu 
from A siirffoon and an flpotbecari,' in their 
ruajwetivearts. Apparently in thesaiuo vear 
ho paused to Paric, where he studied and at- 
toDUf^d the hoapitttls. He took his dep-efs of 
5I.R. and M.O. wbile making 'le jM-tit totir,' 
prolxibly at a .small French univernily. Ho 
yrn» probably very voiniff, but his Hubeequeiit 
boast that he toolf hi^ final de^^^ in his 
seventeenth year is an obvious exagfperation. 
After completing Iiis studies in Paris he re- 
ttimed to Holland, and was made a fellow 
of the College of Pbysicloiu at tho Hague. 

I Then* (lef'm^i to bi; no authority for WoodVl 
Atalement that he waa phvAicinn tn Charlea It 
I when in exile. Harvey wai* in I^mdon during 
j the inlerre^ium, and on <t July 1050 waa 
' nppoinled hvthc comroitteeof safety, on tltoJ 
motion of l>e»borow, to go an phv$ictan to*l 
Dimkirk (i6. HVoQ-Ull, p. M). Whether ho 
I actually went there ia not clear, but after 
< the lleMoration he appears a^ physician, or 
I doctor-peneral, to the king'a anny in Flan- 
der«.. \\'earyinji of this emploj-roent he re- 
fiigncd.truvelUtl through Oermanyand Italy, 
I and ufterwurds settled ax a physician in Lon- 
I dnn. He ne\er belonjied to the College of , 
I Physicians, but at Hr»t was on good terms 
I with that body, and tirokcof it in on anony- 
' moil!; pamphlet published in 1(!70 with great 
respect (*i* The Accomplixht Phtffirian^ &c.) 
\ About 107o he was made physician to 
I Charles II. In U'7h be was called, in con- 
' »idtatitm with olber physicians, to attend a 
' nobleman (Charle?, lorri Mohun, father of 
j the more not oriouaduelliiit), who bad received 
I a wound in a duel, of which he ultimati;ly 
diet! lAVoop). nar\-ey, pleading that he was 
commanded by the king to write an account 
of iho case, made it the occasion of virulent 
personal attnckfl, under feigned names, on the 
other physicians concenu-d {fagus Mfdir^ 
Chinirfji*vM\, Ho waa already in bod odour 
with the profession for some rnthcr discredit- 
able pulilieat ions on venereal disea^e^, and for 
a hooK iif |^.^puInr medicine (' The Family Phy- 
Kicinn,* .Sje.), which was displeasing to tho 
H(>otbecaries, Wcause it revealed wt'nMs of 
their trade. Five years later (16d;i) Harvey 
published a scurrilous attack on the College 
of Physicians, under the title of 'The Con- 
clave of PhysiciauR.' The scene is supposed 
to be laid in Paris, but fniiuent London phy- 
sician!* wen* abused under snircely veilwidid- 
piiiscs. ('barh-R 11, who had a strong leaning 
towards irregular dticiurs, ftennt!* to have in 
some w-Hvcouutenaneed, and perlmpsenjoyed, 
tbi.>t attack on thx in*:titiition of which he waa 
tho ofHcial patron ; hvit from a contemporary 
pamphlet ^' Gideon's Fleeco,' a poem, Ito, 
low, attributed to l>r. Thomas Guidott[q.v,]^ 
p. 9) it apfieors that he was believed to uavs 
interferer! in order to soften the aaperitv of 
an attack on the illustrious AVillia. The 
pamphlet called forth an anonymous reply 
(*A DiaIo|fue IwiwiteuPhilinterand Momns/ 
IfiWJ) besides the very* ])oor poem '(iideou'a 
Fleece.' Ilaney nevertlndesa prosjiered in 
practice, and, though he held no court op- 
puintmcnt under James II, was made in the 
first year of William and 5lary* their ma- 
jesties' physician of tlie Tower,' a lucrative 
ainecurPj which he enjoyed til! his death, 
probably about 1700-2, and in which he wu 


• co|iioiis wriier. bi* hi? -■■oMa ian a? sclfz^ 

Ufic Talnr. uid a?( d:*£rar^ ^ pfrscc:^!:- 

ti« u vcjl SA br sni'-j^iaed «ite=:T-':5 : > 

pin pt^mlArirr. I21 « li>:i:^ rn zh* Tcr-^r:^! 

4i«aee. for infsanc?. h? ikir|C£ t!i.t ilsTTvii:- 

*Me artifice of peorawarg « *«:??: c:z7e, ■""lici 

be don noc divalj*?-. siaprrii-r *? tb-rtsr- r=.-e5- 

titmed ia ih* bc>:>k. His oaly 9ctt1«- :■> 

budictne wa; xhax of ridjeolin^ c<=-r:Ai3 cli- 

*orld pr^p&ratiood.. sbeHica. s:ilr^i*:i::a. 

^. tnoiuoDAllT pres€rT(rti in the * Ivrnira 

IWnucopJtiA.' bu: onuiie.^ :a:he nex: orn- 

toiT. C»n the oih-H" h*nd l:-.- wis a Jeier^ 

Oined opponent of P^mria-i bark. C»=* of 

kisworfe, a coUcctk-n of r&ndosi cHt-ci»ms 

^ medical pranitv. with an injnical tUIe. 

'The Art o( C orinff I>i*;«ses by Expectation.' 

Quired some reputation on the eontioent. 

'h^ugh the patronage of a far zr^ater man, 

^>eoige Emes't Stahl, vho publisht>l a Latin 

^trsion with long notes of hi^ Mwn. imbued 

^th a kindnd scepticism, and in thi» form 

*l provoked some controversy. Late ia life 

tjarrev published a recanta't ion of *':»me of 

^is earlier doctrines, under the title of 'The 

A'anities of Philosophy and Phy^ick,' a prij- 

feasion of general scepticism mingled with 

new hypotlieses. 

Harvey's works have, however, the merit 
of a lively and witty style, though the hu- 
mour is often very rough. They ivftect light 
on medical customs and persons of the time, 
and thus have some hi::torical value. His 
portrait was engraved by Pierre Philippt' in 
1663 for his ' Archelogia,' and appears in a 
smaller form by A. Hertocks iu * Morbus An- 
glicus* and other works. He is repn*senti'd 
as a handsome young man with a look of 
much self-sufficiency. 

Harvey's writings, all issued in London, 
were: 1. * Archelogia Philosophica Xova, nr 
XewPrinciplesof Philosophy containing Phi- 
losophy in deneral, Metaphysicks,' &c., 4to, 
1(J03 (with portrait). 2. ' L>iscnurs(^ of the 
Plague,' 4to, 1005 ; 2nd e<lit.8vo, 1673, with 
the following: 3. 'Morbus AngUcus, or the 
Anatomy of Consumptions,' 8vo, l(i(it> ; 2nd 
edit. 1(37J. 4. 'The Accomi)lisht IMiysi- 
cian, the honest Apothecary, and the skilful 
Chynirgeon,' 4to, 1670 (anonymou?, but 
undoubtedly IIar\'ey's, though commonly 
ascribed to Christopher Merrett). o. * Ijittle 
Venus Unmasked, 12mo, 1671. 6. '(treat 
Venus Unmasked, or a more Exact Discovery 
of the Venereal Evil,* 8vo, 1672 (the two 
latter appeared in several editions with dif- 
ferent titles). 7. 'Be Febribus Tnictatus 
Tbeoreticus etPiacticus,' 8vo, 1672 ; English 

7 Harvey 

br J. T^ >T4. >- • TV P..smse -f LoQi-\=, 
-■- a i-fw r^jo'verr .Nf tie S?crT*v." Mv'*, 
:■:". i*. • T:ie Fazu'ly PiTs:.>:Aa*=.-lIoc-*f 

ap::JiTC*rT." >■=:, I'Ct*; isi e«i::, It-rs, 
I','. 'C-a*^ Mr*i_.->4rh>.ir*^Ir';iSs cc a m,>ii: 
MTC=>rail- Cije .-: a N.-VU-=ifc= devvdkMU/ 
•T?. IcC>, 11. ■ T^T Co-v-Uve ,-: PhyKclans, 
il*:- » pfoiliar r»:>*e of :lif J-rtiu::'* bars,' 
li^-CicIS?; i^^.i«^i::. :dr*i. ll\ * IV scour^o 
r: :i.^ Snii: Pi and Mal:*r:*=: Fevers, 
w::!: la rXAc": lXs.werv of the S«.vr\i'v.' 
l:hn.-. itSN\ IS. * Thv Art .-f Our.:^: Ra^-»--^ * 
by Eipec:a:;.^r..' l-*=:.\ I'.is.^; Ijtia. l*v.:don, 
l'v*4: also t-i.-.t-i by StahL * .Vrs Sanaiuii 
c=za Elxi>rc:atior.-.-.' ^>5"-r.l**,h, ir;V: Par.*, 
irS'.\ 14. "Trt-arii^of the ^^aiail Pox ar.d 
Mea^'.e-C li^sio. Ir^. lo. • Parioalar P:*- 
o*?ttrw on C>p:uai." io., Svo. ItWi. U\ 'Tiu* 
Vanities of Phi'-^.^phv and Phvsiok," i^v\^ 
UW: 3rd«i::. I7ifJ. ' 

IIvRVET. OiDR>x. the youn*:t^r v,U**»i^-'- 
1754 1. physician, son oi i he elder li idtvn Har- 
vey, bom apparently in LvMidon. i* mt-nt iono.l 
by bis father in bis • Art of Ciirin,: l>isea>'.^* 
by Expectation " vp.224> as a student at U-y- 
den. where he eniervd on the phih^^pliy liu:', 
PJMay U»SS llegniduattHl M.lKof ilwt uni- 
versity in ItilXl. with a dissertiUion • IV Febrv* 
Ardente." In 16V*S he wa.-* erenteil by rvwal 
letters doctor o( meilioine of Cambridj:x\ iw 
a member of Catharine Hall. He w:i.-* lul- 
mitted candidate of the College of Phvsieinn-* 
1702-3. and held otHoes iti the ci>lleg»'. 
About l70Lt -2 he was ni»|Miinied the kinj;'.'* 
physifiiin to the Tower, us it would seem in 
succession to his father. He dictl in l7olor 
the following year. U'lng tht-n the olde-*t 
fellow of the coUeg**. He iloes not apju'iir 
to have published anything. 

[Wooil's Atlunie Oxon. ii. Ii,'i7. ihI. 17-_'1 ; 
Peacock'^ Kii^[i>h-s(>i'rtkinu Stiiilciits at I,r_vd< 11 
tlnili'X StK'ii'tvl. ISM.J, p. 47; Hjirvcv's Work-< ; 
Muiiks Coll. l.f V\i\->. ii. lu ^ISrH).]' J. V. \'. 

LL.l). (c/. loS.")). masler of Trinity Hull, 
Cninhritlge, was snn of Itolierl llarv.'v of 
Stradbroke, Sull'olk.nnd Joun, hi-4 wifo. lUi 
was educated at Trinity Hall, Cunihrid^io, 
where he took the tli-jjrn'i' of in l.'i.'lN, 
nnd of LL.D. in lol2. On l7 Jan. LMU- 
loot) he was admit t I'd an advocate at Dttetors' 
Conimonr). lli> gained nineh rrpnlalioii nn 
an ec'desinsliciil lawyer, and was apjtoinleil 
vicar-general of his diocesi- by Kidley, l)inliop 
of JjfUidon, and subseciiu'nt ly vicar-geiu'ral 
of the province of ('anterbury. Ili.H |irin- 
ciples were ])lia)>le in matters of religion, and 
he found litth> dilHcultv in retaining Win pre- 
ferments by adapting himself tu each sue- 




- v-: :i \l-,v 
- -.v ~ u" ;':.'■ 

,t II... 


h. V. 

:i II r^. HARVEY. -;:: lirXK^' . 1::;:-1-I<.m. 

., , -.1 ,,r .■.!;., .,1. ... .-.,1 , ■ ;■ l;i.!.:il-.t Uuv\>-\ >'l' 

\>. \l M\ f i;;i-'i', i<i K'-i.;. :• I"-—'x.- <•( ii t'aniily 

'■ . I ../I Imm;.. •.■•\[,:\ [y, :l.:it I.. -I;l.MiTliM.iil.aii.lri.n- 

■ V iiii;' ii-«-l''I li\ i:iiiiT;;t;.'' wi;h Sir IViroy 

■ I li->ii •[. \. , \\:i- l.>rn 111 .liih' ir-'!7. iitiil luiviiii.' 

I >.!'!> I- ( ■ i\.'l lii.- •■iirl\ '■.linatiuii in rKcol.' U.iynlf 

'. Ii i1 ill- I.i \l:iriti-' III ("iiliii":, t-iiti.Tt'il llii- liaw ill 

■■ I i) M.iv I7-"'! wiili Cajiraiii Cn-liy mi lumni tin* 

. . ) '.III ail r. Ill l:ii-.alHl aft crwanls ITI tilt' Ni^'lit- 

' !■ Ill' all', till' L.'i''':i'»'i' ]i!irl I'l'Iii* jiiiiiMr tinif was 

■ 111. I Ml] llic Nortli Viut'riraii statimi. In 

■ ■' I. ■, In- wa-i pf.iiiu'i. il In 1)0 lii-iiti'uant of till- 
x\ - < I l.ini|i- lull', a 1-1 oil ilto Nun li Anirriran and 
\\ .■ I liiiliaii .^laliiHl-^; and l'v<mi her was 
iii,i\,.l (.'I III' llii--:ir. V Iii<-li \va>\vr('(:l\<'il olV 
( HI.- I''is :'.". Ma\ ITtii' m-c Cakkkit, 
i;.>r.ii;i . Iliiii^ ivli-av.'il on imrolt,' In- re- 
iiiiiii-,! i.> )'!ii:;lanil in tlir I'ragon, nn )>oaril 

hf B^e thr arqvaintanoe of the Ilaa. 
[CaaatuiiisM! Phippo, afterrftnU lord Mnl- 
pvt '<{. T.j, andft lord of the admiTtiltr. at 
Uul tsmt one of the Dnkgon's liti^iittmBni.t. 
la 1763 BtrrtT' w«s first lii^utenant of tht; 
*" " 1, •eain on the cojt*t nf Xorth Aine- 
;uidin l7d4-ocomiiiamled the Mi^Ialt-n 
idMuner, eiDpIn%-«l in the (ritlf of St. Ijtw- 
MoefforthepivventKinof illirit inide. From 
ITi^twITTlhecommandiHl thf ^^wift r^Ttmui' 
cLt'i-r in the t'hann*'! am! Xnrrh Stm : and 
tfi-»i iwrt Tears mi balf-pay b*- w a?, in Murvh 
1773, iin it.-«l hv t'a|itftin Phijiw to g*> with 
knniAfinii lieutenant of the lUcvhorw' on 
iiiturag^ of disooverr towards the North 
P'>li?. On the return nfiheexpedition he was 
promoted to be commander, l-j Ik-t, 1773. 
In Janaarr 1770 Hant>v waa appointed to 
the Martin cKvip, in wliirh be eerveil under 
laptam (nfternards Sir Charles) Douglas {rl. 
i^) \(i. v.] at the Tflief of (Quebec. He 
tli<n j<^iineil the squadron undf-r Admiral 
il«nlajru at Newfouodbind, and in Mav 1777 
*ij) iirsmoted t-i the command of the S<{iiir- 
ftl frigate, emplored for the next eighteen 
BKfiith? on convoy dntr. He was then aj»- 

rfifinte*) t'l the rVmvert of ii'2 puns; assisted 
pitier (.'nptain iljdeon at thf? n*lief of Jer- 
Mr m .Ma\ 1779; commande<l a &ma11 mjuu- 
dmn »?nt off the Isle of Man lo look for 
Pinl Jonc^ ; convoved tho trade to Quebec 
and home: and was, in December 1771', sent 
out to join the flag of Sir George Kodney 
in the 'Ve<t Indiea, where the Convert was 
chiefly employed in active crnising and scout- 
ing, but waa with the fleet in the action oft* 
Dominica on ItJ .\pril 178*i. In the folUnv- 
" • August she woj^ sent bome wilh convoy. 
Morrh 1786 Harvey watt ap[>otnted lo the 
fripite; hut wa* shortly aft4TWftrds 
^^rwl to take temporary command of the 
>ga»ii:^, fitting for yewfoundlund and the 
est Indies. At this time Princo William 
nry waa first lieutenant of the PegnsuB, 
id it VTM underatood that when she was 
idv for :$e>a he was to take the command. 
waa a delicate duty wblcli Harvey dis- 
,rged wilheonsidernhlelact. Heafterward^ 
ioiiiiMl rheUoAe,and inAuguittthetwoi^hipH 
lied trtgi'ther forXewfoundlonil. The lio»e 
umed to KngUnd in 1 788, and was paid oft' 
the following year. During the armament 
ta 1 790 Harvey for a few months commanded 
in cuccesaion the Alfred and the ('olo.'«>>iiirt: 
id in 1703 wa.'tappointefl to the RamillicH, 
tch joined the Channel fl>>ft tinder Lonl 
[owe, and took a dt.«tingui!the<l part in the 
ittle of 1 June 17^*4 [for ihe Itamillies' 
ief of the Brunswick', commanded by 
eyV bftther, (mk- Hakvet. Joiiy, 1740- 
].' On 4 July 1794 Uon-ey vcta pro- 

moted lo be pmr^dnural. oitd tns immedi- 
ately ordered lo take command of a sroal^ 
n] in the North Sea. In Januarv ITdo 
he hoUjed his flag on board ibe IVfncc of 
Wales. attache<l to the Channel tleet, and 
took port in the action off L'Orient nn 
'JH June, remaining through the winter lo 
corer the landing in t^uiberon Hay, under Sir 
John Itortaie Warren [q. v.] In.Vtiril 17IHJ 
he was apjK^inted commander-in-ohi<*f in tho 
Leeward Islands, and in the following Ftv 
bruary, jointly with Sir Ralpli Abercromby, 
took poesession of Trinidad, after desimying 
thn* of the enemr's f^hip^ of the line. An 
attempt on Porto ^ico in April failed, owing 
to the unex|iec!ed strength of the defences. 
In July 179(1 Harvey rvsigni-d (he command 
t" Ijord Hugh Seymour, and ivtiimed to 
Kngland iu the dmcnrde frigalt*. He had 
been alreadr nominat<il a K.ll., and wtis in- 
vested with the in.«ignia of the order in Ja- 
nuary ISOO. In the summer he hoisted his 
flag in the Royal Sovereign as second in com- 
mand of the Channel fle^'t, under I^rd St. 
Vincent, and in tbi(>>iMi)ct he remained tillthti 
peace of Amien-*, with which his active wr- 
Tire termiiiatetL Heattained the rank of ad- 
miral on tiS .\pril IKW: anddif*l«t Walmer 
28 Dec. 1810. He married Klijtiibeth, daugh- 
ter of Captain William Poys. for many ycnra 
lieutenaut-govemor of Greenwich Hivpital, 
and had issue, among others, Vice-odmiral 
Sir Thomas Huney, K.C.B. (177&-ltf41) 
[q. v.] 

[Knlfe'a Naral Biopmfhy. ii. 98; fJeatson'* 
Kav.and Mil. Memoin; Jama's Naval Uistory] 

J. K. 1.. 

HARVEY. JOHN fI563?-lfi92), astro- 
loger, bom at S4iflron Walden, Essex, was son 
of a miL^ter rn|H'nmkiT there, and younger 
Imither of liabrii'l Harvey j\. y.] and of 
Richard ^c^^ey [ij. v."^ He nialnculattsl as 
a pensioner of IJui-ens' Cnlleu'i', Caiiibridge, 
in June 157K, and graduated B.A. lotfO, and 
M.A. UVJ. In 1587 the university granted 
him a license to prncti.«e physic, and he hc- 
eame o prnclitioner at King's Lynn in Nor- 
folk. Robert Greene'* contemptuous refer- 
ence to Harvey and Huney's father and 
two brotliert* in his * (^niptie for an Upstart. 
Courtier' (1 55)1* ) led to Gabriel Harvev'a 
well-known defence of his family in hia 
' Foure Letters' (l-'iO^). Gabriel describes 
John as *a i>roper toward man,* 'a skilful 
physician,' and a Sf.D. of Cnmhridge, and 
TOpnfions that he died, oged *J'*. shortly 
after returning to Lynn from Norwich in 
July \'i^'2. lie .-(iipplies n Lntiii epitaph. 
*Jnhn Harvev'.i Welcome to Rtdwrl Ortrene' 
is the title of' a ftonnet included in Gabriel 
Ilarvev's ' Fourc Letters.' 




llarrejr poblJabed: 1. 'An utxolo^oaU 
addition or sv^leoient to be annexed to the 
Uto discourse <_br his brother Richard liar- 
Tey, q. T.l upon the Great Conjiinctinn of 
SstumAmrJupiter.toffetherwith the Learned 
Wnrke of Hermes Trismegistiis intituled 
latromuthematica, that \n hi^ Phyt>iml Ma- 
thfmati([Ut'8. . . . l^U-ly cnclisIitHl by Ifhu 
Harvey at the rt'iiui-st of M. Charles P.* 
Loiiilon, l'>^ (by Kiciuird AVatUns), 8vo. 
The last portion of ihe b«K)k, the ' learned 
Worke/ is alone in the British Mnscuni 
Librnry. 'J. * A Discoureivc Probleme con- 
ctTUtng Prophesiea, how far thev are to bo 
valued or t-redited,' Lotidun I J. Jackson for 
Richard WuikiasK 15H8, 4to (Brit. Mur.) 
a, ' An AlmanflCKe or anni.iall Calendar, 
with a ComptindioiiA Pro^oatication for . . . 
15H9,' London, 1568, hvo (Lambeth). 

[CooptT'n AtheoK Cioitahr. iL 126-7 ; Giibricl 
HnrroTit Work*, ed. Orowirt. i. 187-8. 249. 2.;S ; 
Brit. Mus. Cut. ; lliulitt's BiblingraphicU Col- 
IttCtiona] S. L. L. 

HAKVEY, JOHN (1740-1714), captain 
in the navy, third »on of Uicbard IlarvcT 
of Eostry in Kent, and younger brother of 
Admiral .Sirlltjurv Ilaney [((. v.], was bom 
on 9 July 17-40. Jn ITo') hejoined the Fal- 
mouth with Captain William Brett, and 
from her was promoted to be lieutenant on 
SO Jan. 17i>y. After the peaoe he c<immanded 
the Alarm cutter, mi the coimt of ScttTlond, 
from ITmi to 17(W, when In* wan promoted 
to tlie rank of commander and placed ou half- 
poy. In .Innuary 1770 he was appointed to 
the SiMjedwel! sloop ; and in September 1777 
woa (Kwted fntm her In the runt her of ftO 

Sins, 00 tinfi'-CHptuin tuKear-udminil Koberl 
ufl" [f|. v.] in the Mediterranean. Tlie Pan- 
ther was employed in the defence of (Gibral- 
tar durinff thf early part of th«f oiepe in 1771*- 
1780; hut in July lYttO she .-iailod for Kngland ; 
nnJ in November was sent out t-o the AV(«t 
Indies in the squadronunder Sir Samuel Hood 
[q. V.]; but heiup found barely seaworthy 
relumed to Knplund in thefoUowintJsuramer. 
J^arly in 17B"J Harvey was appointed to the 
tSamp-«on of (U giins, which formerl part of 
the CHuinnel fleet, and wa» present iil the 
relief of (iibraltar and the rencounter oft'Cajw 
Simrtel. In 1787 lie waarepiiiterinf; captain 
at Iteal; fmm 1788 to i/iW he commanded 
the Arrogant tnu^rdiihip at SheerneKA ; and 
in February 1 71KI was appointed I o t ho Bruns- 
wick of 74 puns, one of the Channel Ueet 
under Lord Howe. (.)n t Juno 1701 she was 
the Queen Charlotte's second a^teni, but was 
separated from her by the close order of the 
yranch line astern of the Jacobin [see Howk:, 
RiCHAKD, Eakl]. Uan-ey attempted toforce 

■a opening ahead of the Veng>pur, when th 
Brunswick's starboard anchor hooked in thfl 
Vengeur'a foreehoins and d^lpgt^d the \'en-^ 
peur alon^ with her. The ma-iter ]inji>o?e ' 
to cut her free. * No,' said Horrey, *s 
we've got her we'll keep her.' The Iwo shi| 
remained firmly CTappled through a groat par 
of the bailie. Towardti the clo!>e other Lng 
liah ships came to the Brunswick's help : and' 
the RamiUies poured two tremendous raking 
broadsides into the \"enjreur. The frrappling, 
had been cut awoy, bnt after o short time tha| 
^'engenr, di8nm»ledandw*ithihi> water mm 
Ln^ in through her 'mushed -tide, showed Kng 
liali colours in token of surrender. The BruB 
wick, not having « boat thai could swii 
was unable to take pooMAsion, and the Ve 
gcur dropping astern was endeavouring 
make on when she was brought to by tb 
Culloden and Alfred. Every eJlbrt was mad 
to remove her men, but she sank with mor 
than lialf her cnaw still on board. Tho^ 
Brunswick, severely damaged, had fallen far 
to leeward, and being unable to rejoin the 
fleet bore up, an<l reached Spit head ou the 
ll'th. She had lost 44 men killed and 114 
wounded. Early in the action Harvey's right 
hand was shattered by a mu.-sket-ball : after- 
wards he was stunned by a heavy spliutor 
striking him in (he s^mall of the back : and 
a roimd shot ail^envarda smashed his right 
elbow. He wa» landed at Portsmouth, where 
bediedon 30June. lie was buried at I*!aslryj| 
but a monument, jointly to his memory ancT 
that of t 'aptain Hutt ol the Ijtieen, wlio 1 
died of his wound.-t, was erected, at 
national expense, in Westmin.-iter Ahb«?y. 

Harvey married, in 1763. Judith, daughte 
of llenrj' Wise of Sandwich, by whom h»^ 
had n large family, including Vice-admirul 
8lrJohu Harvey [q. v.], Admiral SirKdwnnl 
Harvey [q. v.], and Sarah, who married her 
flrst cousin, \ icA-a<lmiral J?ir Thomas Har-^ 
vey [q. v.] Hi-s eldest son, Henry W'is«, 1 
only one that did not wrve in the navy, wa 
' afVerwanl.i represented in it bv two sonsi 
John, bom 1703, died, a retired captain, il' 
i 1883, and Henry Wise, died, a retired lieu 
tenant, in 1801. 

[Bulfu's Nov)d Biogmphy. ii. 113; Xava 
I Chruniele, lii. 241. Tlie extraordioary duel 1 
tvi^Lt) the Bruiuwick and Vengeur is def«riL 
b; Jiiiucs, NiltaI Uiittory (ed. 1860], i. 178. a 
by Chev;»liiT. Hinloire do la IHaririe frant^it 
SfUis hi prpiniftre Iti'-puhliquo, pp. 140, 159-61 
Comi>ur<:i also Carlylc'a Essay oo The fSinking c 
the vuiigfur.] J, K. L, 

HARVEY, Sm JOHN (1772-1837), ad-, 
miral, second son nf Captain John llarve 
la. v.], aftor sen'ing as midshiuraim of tfa 
Kose with hia uncle, Sir Henry Harvey [q>v.] 

v:.- ;■ Ti.— L"" AiV.. '. ."i>-'i. ■:i!>>i 

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.'. K. :.. I- -. r.: tMn:n-T-i:.1:i:'...!i M rMrl.^:.-;!-.;. " I'li.' 
HAETXT. MALGAKET ."irs-lSV.. l---^:';^^ ■«^''-- "'■•= 1»:.vx.a «:.>,.,..!,,:,;, 

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« •.-annouih, iturbnm, where -.he :;>m<1i*i1 in .- i i i ,■ . . i i i 

1 1 t- ' L 1 1 I I- 1 ] i> iM\rsi' ot 1 111' lifiinlt ol liivl mill iii^ isii-inti".. 

kt^T>iD?a liiilies school, and puhii^Iu'd * ll.w- ,., , > ,i i 

monddt' Percv, or the leminT ol till- lomli.a ... i . v i i ,i < ■ 

romantic melndrania (Bishop A\ i-anuiMith. ., r n i i ^ 

l^:i:il. In the preface she invoKi's th<- sptni , . ■ , n i i-,i i , . 

derland lu April 1^:*L'. bhu wrote some ollu-r ,, ■ i i.m - • i 

.j'l >■ 1 ■>• 1 11- I V*T>V, l\»\ 111;' di'liniiiiri'il ' Miirl lui' tti)> iiiiii 

ijV ici-.j,j-. J »r i-o ■■ >i>i. I iirtwniJlli isiiii>. hi< M'l'tnnl di -iii' -I'll li> inn' 

on 18 June 1B.>>< ((wntt.Mm/. 1^>N ii. I'Dii). . n ^ i . ,. i i • .i 

\w- x\ • ■ ^ f ■ . ii nti'Id >' liiii' hi'lwi'i'ii llii> lii.hi'p. riml lln-ir 

Mia* llar^'eva sister Jane was a paiiilfr , ,. , ' , 

« - . . ' • 4 1 \f . .1 ■ iipponi'iits.imil Iiir«'Hi'r\«'lir--oM'ri I liiiijniiiiHt 

of miniatures on ivory: Andrew Jlortun. thi' ..'',. . i . ■ i • i . i 

... . , , lunri 'i»ji-\ 1 »• I'H' 1 in ' lnH- H ilttd wnliM"« Mil') llild llllu'lt 

portruit-paintcr (l»0:i-lt*4o), was ii pniMl 111 . ■ ,i i . n i ii v i 

If i I""" '" 'liJ-I'iili'. Ill' I' (■nniv'''l I'V >ii-ln' 

-' , rt • „ , . „ , , I with ' Jui'-tiTinilllJ ' th<' pni«l'» ' iMiit-rlv nmlti' 

- f^«ll""Ilo ^,'iT*'»^! -vf- ^'' ^^ ' !■ "'■■■ 1 I>lni.-siinai,i«I..'.|.„ii..; |in-v.-vi.lMi.,r..l m 

IX. 469, z. 93. 260; Bnt Miis. Cat.; lire acti u { , ,, - . .i im . i . • ■ ,i 
■n I 1 D .1. M ' 1- .1 ' buldlv int'i 111'' Mnr tti biln riirih- »illi iiii 

luiroiond de Jrercy; the Atuseiint coliv (if t\w i • j . . i i . m n ■■ 

muBtnl-B Daughir contuiw two ...■u.n.s.rii.t ; """".v"'""- 1r..H .;Mt.l -I 1 hum. I mh-v.,!!, 
letter, of MiirgaretUarrey.l t\ W-t. fli.. lN.m'.'inHU..r..l I'.i.,.hii.d. «w....t v iti.l.wM 

I iiijf wilh lim bliinl iMTKiinuiMn*! In Utlfb ii|i n 

HABVEY, RICHAUD (//. iHlJa?), aK-j nroiKMliatioii iN'twnt Murl md I Mml- 

trologer,was bom at Saffron \Valdtfii, when- > iitlicr,' l-VM)?' |[iti> Im' V)-)'r">l (•• ihi' imrilrMi 
hufatherwmsaropemaker, and wasa brrjther I Hidi' of Mii< eoiitr'tvi'niyi '<iid iiiiittf #«|if(Hil)v 

Ilarvcy ■: ?{2r\-ey 

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lMnt!i-' .Mr. ;>. ;;. '■■ ;. '., -v...* -■■,;•.--. .:..'. i.n nvaiiiin:^ 

.. , ; II .n.\ ali. i-pil.- hi- t^i_ r: :.' J ::■■■. Ir. Ajri! l^:i:: li-- was 

. , 1. Im \ III •■ IN t.hi- ii^.i-1-.t K ' ' !!..?-■ .!:'.:■. \ :i'*-ii.i:ii;:;il>.iii li'.laii. 

..,'■ !i '. I'liiili'l »' l~^i7.-ii.i :•: M.irih IS-'Imik ai>it<>int<-il u\ 

■: ..'lull.' lor-'t. rh" I.' tr.iiiaii.i-ML-v-:.:'!' .:i rh- \\ i-.-r :v 

11 .■iiiiiiim pr'i- j,'.-T pr.v;..u-!;." '.;-M ty hi- tathor aiul hi-* 

.. 1.1 ' l,<in<liiii. c'lii-iii .I-i'.iii. ll-.j-'vl &' l>-ruuiila. 'hiriiii^ 

■. ■. ..1 ..I' 1;. .A. hi- i-nur- .-i* ..:V;e-. i"^ May 1^1. llarv.-y 

■ ! r.uH.-. iiikI iiiiir:i--.J, in M.-irch lMi."i. !iis i-(ni>in, 

■ I , ).\ I'lhti Sfirali. ■hni::h'>r I't* Captain .luhn llarvi-v 
.. 'ii I .III nl' ( I74M-I7'.M 1 n. v.'.andhy h.-rhiul thn-r.<ons, 

, I I. li. ■■.-.«•(! lit' whniii Th.iiiia^. LiirTi in ISIO, (Vv.-d a rojir- 

.; . !i. ii.ihh' ii.hiiinil in l"-'!*', ami Id-nry. hnni in \x\'J, 

ilicil anailmiral in 1^*^7: thi' third. Willianj, 

\\....r, wa^ in hnly iirth'r.<. 

't '■»■ * ■' [ .Miiis-hall ;! Iiiiy. Nav, IJio^. Ii. (\v\. i, pt. ii.) 

\ *. •■'•' n', 7!i7 ; O'livriif'- Nav. Vi'u'i:. Jiji-t. s. 11. 'Thom;\3 

^ .. > * l-'-.l. liarvc}- ;■' I'liirci Sinifi- -Man. 1841. i»t.iii. llll.| 

V . 1 . »;.....i I J. K. L. 

■■ ".iM. HARVEY, THOMAS (I8I1'- 18^4), 

■ M. u>\ ninilitT, wits Imrn iit Hiirn.«h'y in Yor]tshiri» 

L ■ ■».'. til IHI:;, hi** luiTLMit.s ttf'infj members of tlie 

.1, , ;i.n Siifii'ty ul' Friends. In liS22 ho wusst'nt to 




Fntad* acbool nt Ackwarth, York^liirv, 
9 br nmuiw^ for sbout Xhnv \car^ 
llj •fter I«»viiiif schiwl hv wus «ppn»n- 
tieed to W. *oil T. S<.i»thntl, ihemu-tn ami 
4nigffUt« of Binnini^liBtii, and iluriiis liU n{»- 
lUKiitionhip madf t ht- attjiiBintAtK*!- of Jost'jili 
Slv^[i|. T.] He .*ubi«NiUfmly eommeaced 
Hiu a eaa . a« a cU^mUt in L*^». From hU 
yovfa Uurer took great tnltrvst in philan- 
tknpie morement&, and in iKJtf hv accuni- 
luied Siurgv to the Vt'vst Indies |n mak^ 
laquiriM ititn tlie oindiiion uf tlu* utyrot^s 
■n the Kngliiih colnnic>s, viMtinf; Antij^ua, 
HoilKnmi, I>omiuica, St. Lucia. Itarbadocs, 
Jaaaiea. He rvtumed intlie followinf^ 
', and in IStH ptibli^lted, loffi^ibtT iR*ith 
StBfge, a U'ugtliy rvporl. He (fare muoh 
tide to promotintf mejwures for ibi' n-lief 
•f tbe n?c«*nily emancipated *lave*, tlien in ' 
* (l<>plonLblL> condition. In the autumn of i 
'"^""flUarTeTaccompMiiedSturpeto Kinland. | 
^Vliil^ the BritLBb uwt WBfi AtationtHl on tlm I 
fitltic.much damnpT hnd be»>nd(ini'totliepro- ' 
Pwtj of ihi* unarmed inhabitanti^, in cpiln uf 
tfH'disajipnivaloftlie nduiiral.-. Stur^'L-pub- 
lahrd n report of this Ti&it in tlie same year, 
ud with ilaney formed a committee, which 
ni^ed, chiefly from members of the Society 
(^ Friend.*, a sum of 0,000/. for the natives. 
Harvey and Sturge were thanked by the 
ctar. In ls*Mi Harvey again viditedJamaii-n, 
accoropaiiie<l by Thomas Ilrewin. to iiiqiiin? 
into the 'Gunhm ' riots of iNio, and to dis- 
tribtit/^ amon^ the fiufli'rers fundx .^iiitHenbed 
by the Rrilisli Friends. In IH>7 Haney 
published a narrative of h\& lour, and, ac- 
companied by Isaac Uob^on [d. 188>>), nuulo 
journey to thf colonies of Mennonitea in 
nhem Uus$iia, who suflferod for their re- 
|i|g;iou5 !H:rup1e^ against bearing arms. liar- 
y snperititende<l the removal of a great 
of the Mennonilea to Canada, where 
le Fri4*Tid<4 found meaiu for their settlement, 
n 1867 Harvey rvlire<l from Imsinena, and 
demoted him.<w-lf to phitantlinjplc utid chari- 
blework inLocnU nndobiewhere. For many 
ears he aeted as honorary secrolary of the 
utitution for blind and deaf mutes. In 
ay lt<i<i the London yearly meeting nf thr 
iKiety of Friends appointed Harvey with 
wo cfiUeaj|{'ue»4 ah a deputation to their ro- 
iigioni^ts in (Vnada, among whom there 
ist«d doctrinal diflVreueeA. The miaaion 
as auccewful, hut the labour injuretl his 
ftlreody feeble health. He ditnl on i!o Hce. 
At hia retidence at Ueadingley, near Ijeedti. 
e wu buried four dayti later in the Friends' 
rial-groumi at Adel, near Leeds. He lel^ 
widow and one »on. 

Har^'ey was a man of considerable srient ific 
Ad^uirvmmts, a good cUsbical and Hebrew 

Mholar, and a conxieatioiu student e\'fti ta 
hifr old nge. He was a$ remai^uble for seven* 
integrity in business as for his g«ntl«aewuid 
retioemeut in pnvatelife. He wu a monbar 
of the Leedft school board during its eftriiftr 
year^, and waA alwaya a lealous promoter of 
ediu*ation. A clear and simple apeftker and 
eftirient preacher, he was also a frequent 
contributor to the ot^ns of tiie sect to 
which he belonged. B«*Jiidb4 the works Imffire 
mentioned he wrote: 1. 'The Hebrew I»i»- 
Dentation a Light to the Gentle "World," in 
2 pts., n.<i 2. 'On the Hook of Job; ita 
Place in tho General Tlau of iioly Scrip- 
tur©/ u.d. 

[Richard's Memoirs of Joseph Siaiyn ; I^edtt 
Mercarr. 3ft Uce. and SO bwc. I8«4; Th« 
Friend, January IHS5 ; Uritish t-'ricnd, January 
I8fr5 ; fuitenil scrnti.ii t-v Ortuon J^cVuon at 
Lewis on 2& Doc. LS84 ; Smiths Cat. of Friends* 
Book*.] A. C. B. 

{(i. l."»i>7(, Cliireiiceu.\ king-of-Hnns, lirsi be- 
came a member of the Cotlegt- of Arms us 
HampneH pursuivanl-«>xtranrdinary,an<l was 
appointed Blueniantle pun-uivant-in-ordi- 
nary 18 June lo^VJ. In the latter capacity he 
ftccomjiflniwl Im jwtron.WUham (aftenvarda 
Lonl) I'ugel, on hi^eiuhaf<-7y to France. Sub- 
MM|uentIy he was created Somerset herald, 
and while liolding that olliee attended the 
funeral of Caiherine, the quotn-do wager of 
15 mentioned in the descriptions of the cere- 
mony. He was sent on oflicial business to the 
king of Heiimnrk, to the KmiR-ntr Charles V, 
and, with l>r.'NV<iitnn, totlielhikt'uf Saxony. 
By patent, dated 4 Feb. Io4i>-olt, Edward Vl 
created him Sorroy king-of-nrnis. In that 
capacity he paid si^veu olHcial vittits to Ger- 
many. Queen Mory deputed him to go to 
France to deelan; war (" Juno l.V>7),Gnrter 
and Xorroy kings-uf-anns pmclaiming the 
war in London. He wnscre-uredClanmccux 
king-of-arma 'JI Nov. I.*67. He injured his 
reputat i<m by a disgraceful quarrid at Tnrvey, 
Bedfordsliin', while at the funernl of Lord 
M»)nlaimL, and the earl marshal tempornrily 

Iifohibiled him from visiting his province. 
larvey died at Thame, Oxfordshin^, on 
27 I'Vb. l.Vli!-". Ills portrait has been en- 
graved by C. Hall. Thereare alaoungraved 
{K>rtraits of him, from illuminated grants of 
urms, in Dullaway's 'Science of Heraldry' 
(plate l'J|« an<l iik DanieLl's Supplement to 
Thane's * Hritish Autography,' 18^4. 

He collected notes on the churches in the 
diocese of Ntir^vieh. These came into tbfi 
luinds of Sir \\'illiflm Le Neve, who placed 
them at the disposal of W'ecver, aulnor of 




tkft'PynMnU Mnniim«>nti.' Of tbenamemui 
Vwlllill Tiril&ltoiu made bv IlftrvrV the foU 
feviiw W«v Wm printed : J. * E«c^x ' ( 15o8). 
U«trH*<^. \rA \iii.. L-indon (1^8), edit«! 
bv ^V Moimlfe, F.SuV. 2. •^5uffc^lk• 

ll.V Kv J.iseph Jackson Howard, 

'' - \ ,/voi9., I^we#toft,tS*«5,rtTO: 

> h\ Walter C. Metralfrt, Exeter, 
.. a. 'Norfolk' (l.VW). edited by 
0. II. I)n«liwood, F.S.A.. for the 
I ind Nor^vicU ArrUitolopical Socictr, 
"jlnr^HviV 4. *l>or»eUhire'(lo«5\ 
I W WtXtot C. M<?tcalfe from the Hm^ 
M^< HHrt and 1()(>*J, and printed at 
or (tiiio hundred copies onlv) in 1887. 
fl. UHfordihih*' (l'j6*J), llarl. Soc. vol. v., 
London, IKTI, Hvn, edited by W. JI. Turner. 
a ' H*Hlftml.iUin» ' (I.V«i), tsi'ited by Frederic 
Aug^uittuA Uluvden, Hurl. >m>c. rul. xix., L<oa- 
dMU, it«<i, Wvo. 

[AllivDuram, 4 Jtirw 18*7, p. 739; Bromlcy'a 
tW. uf iCo^nivwl I'ortrMils. \>. 29; I)Alla»ay'i 
ijyiwuv rif Ht-mlJrv. pUlo II; K%an»"8 Cut. of 
»f«l r<'rlnuu.' N-.. 17122 ; QoiigiiV Brin»h 
.. «[.bv, i. 147. 101. lfi^34«,ii. I. 40. 18R. 
/•17. 4W; Opsngflf'sBioff. Hrrt. of Knglantl. 
t)lh gdit. i. aO'i ; ll(>rnM and Oenealngtrt. i. 39, 
S(i.H2. lift. 117. 119, 122.n. 203. 283, 4!>0. 491. 
530; Noble* Oollfge of Arms. pp. 129, 143, 
HI. 153. 168; Itjmer"* I'tcdera (Unffao pdit.). 
Vol. w. pi. iii. pp. I7'i. 170. 181. pL ir. 39. 60; 
Cttl. of Hittio rnp4ir», Dora. 1547 M, pp. Ul. 
113, Jiit.J T. C. 

UARVEV^ AVrLUAAI, M.D. (1578- 

ii'ivHiomn mid discoverer of tho 

"I tt{ tho blood, waa J»om at 

t .UK. ^1. .11.1, Kent, I April |."H, in a house 

Mki(*U was IQ bitur tim(;s thi> posthuuse 

■■'' ''■■• '--v* M mid wliich still bt-lonps to 

t,'«iiibpid(.'w, (o which Har- 

i ll MtH father wua Thomne 

ikiniui, and in May UKK) 

Hit* mothnr, .Inane, 

!Iulko«if Hiulinirli-'ijrh, 

! wifo of Thomas Ilarvey, 

■ ,ii lU-t M*(!oiid child and eldest: 

Iv Tlit father difd 12 Jan. 

" . ltMl.'», and tliey hnd 

- William was sent 

', * iiitlrrbiiry. Thence 

, whnn'he vra«ii'imitted 

'' nnd Cniim rnlloi;e, 

s . U'llow. iH'ini his 

l><»>k, iniiniDicripl). 

, and, dMienitining 

I'd through Franco 

1 tlu) most faniaiis 

lim.'. Ili'fe, in 

' iL-d with 

-.he nl- 

anatomiftt Fabriciu* of Aquapend(;nt«, 

Girsoed the other medifol 9tudi«s of the pL, 
e gnduat«d M.D. 25 April 100:?, and tfa 
dtpbima expresses ib« vann satisfaction 
the univeraity of I*adua at ' ^ ' latio 
(original in the College of Pi ; 
dnu ). lie returned to En^iimu. ^r^iiu 
M.U. at Cambridjte 160^,and toon after tool 
a hoiue in tho parish of St. Martin-cxtr 
Lud^te in London. In Xoremtcr lilOl he 
mamed, at the church of the neighbouring 
parish of 8t. Sepulchre, Elixabeth. daughtc 
of Dr. Lancelot Bn.>w-ne U\. v.], fonaerljt 
phjaician to (jueen Elizabeth. Ua A Oct. 
in lh«sain« year HarT<:'y «ra«adfnitteda< 
didflte of the College of Phy^ciaiu and w« 
elected a f^-llow 5 June letli". On t^turdarJ 
28 Feb. IfJOI*, ut a conrt of the jrovemor* i 
St. Dartbolomew's Ilospi tal, Sir John Spencef 
[q. T.] in the chair, he applied for the revep 
sion of the office of physician, and brought 4| 
recommeodaticin from the kinp: and te-Mi^i 
inoniaU of pmfi-ssionnl coin|M't<*ru'*! from Jhl 
Atkins, president of tlie Ctdleffo of Phy- 
sicians, ond from several of I he ~*'n ior doclon 
of t hf culleffe. Harvey was elect o«l to th 
rcvnmion, a condition comparable to that of 
an aJtsifttant phyj*ioian at tho prG<«>nt day. 
Dr. Wilkinson, aUo n Painhndge man, gave 
his asfiifitunt the benefit of his professtooal 
experience and friendship. Wilkinson died in 
the summer, and his Oftsif^tant dischai^^ tbd 
duties of the phy<iicinncy till his formal elc 
liimasphTsicianatn meeting oft he president 
SirJohiiS|>encer,ond the pv>vemor*on Satur- 
day, 14 Oct. ltK)W, He waft then wlemnly 
charj^ed to attend at tho hospital ' one day 
in the woeke at the leaite thorough the yeare, 
or oftner, a.s iieede sbnll re.iiiyer;' to give 
the poor the full benefit of hi^ knowledge; 
to prescribe only such medicines as should *do6 
the poore good,* without regard to the peci»- 
niary interests of the apothecary; to taka 
no rewnnl from the pntiejita, and to reside 
account for any negligtmce on hiit part. Tba| 
ball of the ho.«piial in which he sat once i 
week to see patients was a spacious room,^ 
]m]Ie<l down about 1728, withagreat tireplaoc, 
to the firo of which Henrv III hnd gntntcd 
a supply of wood from the forest of WHndsorijH 
U» rvey sa t at a table and the pat ten t.s brough1^| 
to him sat upon a settle beniue it, the apotiie^^^ 
oury, tho steward, and the matron standing 
Iiy. The surgeons disclinrged their duties in 
th«.< wanls, and the ]div.siciun only went into 
them to see .such patients a.s could not walk-^ 
IliA prescriptions were written in (t booltH 
which was kept locked up. On28 July 1CI4,V 
at a eourt of governors under the presidency 
of Sir TliomoA I^we, it whs resoU-cd that 
Harvey should have an ollicial rcdidcnc 



fonned of Tiro Lciu***- Lui: l i-t-Jvi. :i. TV—: 

^»* to berin l: i:- -x^-L-l': ).■::. T:_*- i.i t ■: 

take pUw Tin jt;j*'.-n'-,-i HLr-.>v.LJ-rr .■ -•- 

»ide:»tKin.drc:3-ZTi ■::; uiTiTCTi^rTV*-- '.?:..•?. 

tnd (in 7 Jl:v }r."J' :.i?- <. :*-!.■ -w-Lf .:: .■■■r.- 

»«iartii^- 'i.uLT'.'L^^l ir:i3 !.''•.. : ■• ..'. '.'•'. *■ ', 

On 4 Aur. J*:-!* Lt "wu* •'.-i-.-.-il^^n.'-r.-z. 

lectnivr ar:L^r C II-.-- : Pi.TS-r-L:-- :. -'.t 

underiLe v^r !• IT :l :i- =.1i.u--t-;': Ar- 

ialesof;h^C-.::-::r /. I'-.Tt:.- Li:v::(.:-/i:L- r- 

bropdrrcif iLr j-r—i^-rT.:. -wL:- L_*i V.- i: vr— 

^-m in V'X'i •. trjd ::; -L- ■' 1 .v.:^ A:-- 1. r, 

theltiih, ir-L- Lr2 :*:L-U I^l.v^r-i':.: •:> 

coll»?eiiiKL:r':.:r;Vr >:>-:. r-^-rST-P:.^*'? 

fi^ST^mUic --ti-.K-znrz.: f !.> -_. ir':.-? .r. -;,r 
nrru]dn...n.:.fihri:v.l. TU-:;---t:r -r^wl.;.':; 

§Ml manus^rii.: ur. 1 binding it tL- rirl:>:. 

Jpncrii by Thr*.-ear..: tLr^- ■juarrrr* :n It- ■.;■;?:!•.. 
Md Hre cl'««rlr ■wri'.Trn 'T-r. :!:r u ■■r> }«-1:lj 
Jfnerally arrunr^r- iri & :u^j^::r :" 'nu. ll>.rf 
*nd ibrrv iLtry mv uTuJ'T'.i::^--! ^::h rt-i :::k. 
snd opp^isite tbr *'*at':a:' n: wl,i..-h iLr li.i:!; r 
thoiijlir e.'pet.iallT ];:« '-.wn nr-:- :hr i:5:::;i;> 
MV. H.* -nTiTT-i-n t:in:*-TvLa: MV.ijin-ly bu* in 
ri'eht lin*r5. This hibi: .-f initial ^■'.' 
iifO fKTCur-- in aciitiiv-r maiiu>;-rij-T <'f llarvoy 
f.Sl'jan-^ 4-^W and in bis- nn:es on ib*r c ipy <if 
Oulsi'jn"? • Oi<uicula Varia Cidlt-r.i' ( Dritish 
Mu.s>:>um Library!i;itL-Lpr'tb-ibly>!jneil 
liis pre^TiptJons. The noit * ol' t!n> lt-ctiir»:'> 
hav a carefully writ I '.-n tiib-pa;:'^: at thr Top 
is rUe line' Stat Jov*- prinfipiiini. Mu<:p. Jovis 
ooania plena,' an^l tbrn lh» wurOs • Prt-k-o 
tiones Anutoini:i? univLTAilia pt-r m-' Giilifl- 
mnm Harvt^iuni, me^licum LontlinL-n^rin 
Anat'tmie et Chiniriirie l*ritf':*«.;m Anno 
Ifomini ]fi\ii, anno jetatis 37prfl«et:c,Aprili 
10, 17, l^*/ and at foot is a qnoiatinn Irora 
ArisTotli-*s ' Ilistoria Animatiiim,' lib. i.e. I(f, 
in Liitin, which advisfs the study of com- 
parative anatomy for the elucidation ol" the 
difficulties of human anaiomv. Tlie notO!> 
cover ninety-six pages, pome ot them contain- 
ing more than forty lines of close writinp-. 
There an* divistnn:^ which indicate whore 
the lectures ended. The Ixwk does not com- 
pb'te the treatment of the subject. Some 
lurther note."* are contained in nnolher mnnu- 
wript (Sloane 480), altliough these do not 
<lirwtly continue the first collection of noti-a. 
The lectures are three in number, and bcjjin 
by a statement of the (general arranp-'nient of 
the subject, followed by eleven rules, which 
the lecturer lays downforhis own puidunee. 
They direct demonstration of what is before 
the audience, the illustration of human 

>v. ;: T—.T..'.''.' ."i 

z.:.-.:~. :.y \ ";.-,..:-. 1' w:rv. .s. ; ." r .':" :l.e 

L-: ::. -n v:;. u:;.- v .:;:• -v.".fl:;-.j F::i;..sV. ■« r.'.s 
r <: 7.- •.::.•■.■>. Th- ?■-.■.••",; I-.vr.-.r-.-.lti'.'S ^* ::li 

'.-■r'-^T'T :.:i : n'.r-.ii^v cr,y.:^-. :r.\ h'.s i'.:>»*i''Vi rv 
:■::.-. i-^;^\.rn ^V:^v K,vv! Ti.etirs: d^- 
>cr:V^ !hv >:r.:.-::5r,' v^f :h, l:>u-: and .^f :he 
jT-:.: V-— >■ ^,-, 1 x:-;ri;:-.> :he o v.;r;K't;'n .:' 
Th- i-'Vvriil c;iv;i;\-> -.:' iV,-' he:i7:. il-.e f.'rm 
ar.-l '.;>■.' ■':' i:> Tii';v; > ur.d »<:' :h-.' >.'4Kes 
in :l:e vt-in>. .tv! he c.'r.^-'.'.i.hs l'\ eleiirly 
>:.';: :r.i: thiit he h;is thus il^.ii.^v.stralM 
t].3T :he p-Tpt-t.'.al m-'-tuMi ■■f ihe bVvsl 
•n a eiri--- i> ]'r'.liKV.i by ili.- b-.-:i: of the 
li-nrr. Th-- tli-rd leetury^is on the head^ in- 
chivlin^ :he brain and nerxe*. ar.d rnds with 
the ri.'r.iark tlj.-iT (t;d-n w:i> r..^: tlie tirsi t.> 
wliom had ivourred the no:i.'n 'hat iier\i's 
wi-ni iVum the br:iin n^ ihe i'>rir;nis i^l' sense, 
s:;i."f t'ieer-^ h;id twii-e sujp'st-'d it, I' in 
till- Tn7-eiii;iii dispiiiation"! aiul oiwo in the 
■ Pe Natura Uennim." The bvinres >ho\\ 
their author to have luvn \\ idely re:(d. He 
had studied Aristotle and tJnb-n evidently 
in l^itinediti'^us.and had a prot'oniul venera- 
tion for Ari?!ti'tle :inil a pro!"e->!i>nal ri-:-peet 
without much ptTsonal adniiniii.>n t'-rliali-n. 
lie ijuotes .\risioile ofiener Than any other 
author, and alh-r .\risiotle (Jah-n. lie was 
familiar with all tht* anatomists tVt>m \e vi- 
llus to his own linii'-*, and had ( 'oUinditi". 
I■'all^piu^. Vernt'lius. Lanreutius. Nieholau* 
Massa, and liauhin at his fiu>:''r-«' end-*, tlf 
the Latin poets he eared nio>1 t'or \'irf;il.and 
knew Plaiitus and Moraee. and of the piM».e 
writers Ca-sar. Cieero. and \'itrn\ins, llf 
had read St. Aui;u>tine, ami wns well \erM'd 
in the lliiile. iledi»esnttt mention tln' works 
of Shakespeare nor anv of the liii'rainn> of 
his time, though he often ipioies vi-rbal re- 
ma rks of his eonti'niporaries.chielly.howfxer, 
of ]ihysieians. He liad alreiidy alinini'drnn- 
slderahh' jiraetiee, and must bmr lnhoimd 
incessantly, for he showeil llinl he had 
thoroutrhlydisseeleiimort'than i'i;;hty spi'cies 
of animals. The leeturrs hi>Nled more thnn 
an hour each day, as it was neeessary to 


-. :'.T.'.liii-ii>,iii ill---. -■ .'■ -■!.- 
■ ' ■.••\ \]^•• Mi-ii.'-- -■ 

. ■ .■ :■ ".■!-.. .n ill- 1-: ■ . ..■ :■■- 

''..:ir it umv.-.! 1, i . ;' . -- ■ 
■■■ III :!;'■ tMfiii-' nil ■-. ■* ■■■■.- 
■■■i :' ill -'.w Ml uri'.i'i '].■■ . 

:■■ .■:.::r lV..:i]-!i,t: „;. :. . ;,i 
■■ I.:ii..!!-Tn,-..!. II- i J ■.- . 

-- ■■:., hm li..- .r:i;.- .:-, - -..' 

■ ■* •-.'.^. ^\ .1 !i ;i .. I :.i' . •: ;V ■:. •: ■ 
■ ' ■■- 111 A. :ii- 11' -. i I" >: •■•.\ - ■ . .■ 

; J-r...;:,. ■\ \.':-.~ i". •!.-■ !■ y v- ^ ■ ,'■. 
\ i-.;v." l- i''.-.:-l'-\ :'■ >\ '■/■' ' ^ 
:■■■ ' i' . w. W- -!:■ w- ■ 'i,.-. ','■ ;, !.'..■ 

, ,•■,:■■' ;.iil :!;■■ K-.r.-i .- .■:■:;■•%-. m. ! 

. ■. •:■.:.: 1.!.. ■■! vnuT.. :■■■■■..■. •.[ . ;:. .,- > 

i i-: :i:i ;:;■■•■">■ ly ;. i;_,r.i-.. ^ • -I...- 

- ■■■■ ;,:;.! -:., t,;.,..,; h-v n'i "i^- i;.'-,;-'-. 

■ ".■ ;i -li iW- !: •x !'. 1,1.. : .-. :!;•■- i..:r\ : < 

-. r:. I,:h1 !-':■ ;■.. ■ ■■:; :■ -: .i,. Vi.y 

■ • Mil ;- I'.t'.rii'! ;- ■ :' X.',-;,;]- ;;.i- !.■■ . ■ i.: 

■ II-. '■\- \- n I ■ \':.'; . .\]. ';,■•. r : :i •;' ■ '.■ ';■ 
•i!:,. ll,..',_:v-!;. II- _ w^-::..:-.:i> 

■ '-A ■■:' li! '1 i ill ! ;.■■ \ ■ .■-- '.V. ■■.:i\ " -■ .-- 

1 ■"■■-■:'; ■■ ;■■■ i :" ','.• i:- :i'" i'l i.i- n 

■■ ^ ... .-. i ,^. 

'. .:■■'■ ■': ■' ■; ■ \<i\-- • !-,-ii--i :i. In 
v' '.'■■^'' ■ 1 !''■■-- .; III.-; 'l' I .■!;■!■ >:i, wl;' r.' 
■ \ \ ■ -.■; ;"■■;■ ■;'•■! :■.•■■;.-.■■ \ i y\- ;ii !;:> 





neeired all the honour i: d-j^-rrveiS. On. ihs 
COBtinent of Europe i: wts •^eo^:T■=•i wiih 
iw&vour.buT neither in EnzJiri n>rabr^fti 
^■nr one suzs^l ihit *hr- discoTerr ttis 
tfl be foand in other wriTers. The • Ei-TriTa- 
tiones et ammadrer^ione^ in llbran: G 3l>!mi 
Hurei de Motu Cord:* et Cirpula:i:me 
Suiniinis * of r>r. James rrzair>5e appeared 
in Irtao. and the ' Lar:* Lrdius dr MyVJ. 
Cordu et ^nguini*' ' 01 .EmTlius Parisanus 
»t Venice in 16S5 : both are mer? c-?n- 
troversial writings of no scientinc inteivst. 
Hofiman of Nurvmbergr and other? followed 
uopposition. in letters, lecture?, and trearises, 
bot before hi? death the ereat disc-^verr of 
Hirvey was accepted throughout the medical 
*orld. The modem cent rorersy t 1>e. * » eobo e 
^onysos. ffarvvian Oration. IS-JiJ: AViixis, 
^'iiliam Hnrery, a Jli^tory of the DitCf'Xrry 
ofthf Circulation of thf Blood. 1^7^ I as t> 
whether the discovery was takt^n frtm some 
pwrious author is sufficiently refuted by the 
opinion of the opponents of his view? in his 
***n time, who agreed in d'>nouncinz the 
"•Jctrine as new ; by the laborious method of 
^f^ual demonstration obvious in his lKK)k 
*nd lectures; and, lastly, by the complete 
•bsence of lucid demonstration of the action 
^f the heart and course of the blood in Cresal- 
pinus, Servetus, and all others who have been 
suggested as possible originals of the dis- 
covery. It remains to this day the greatest ' 
of the discoveries of physiology, and its 
whole honour belongs to Har^"ey. He was 
a regular attendant at the comitia of the 
College of Physicians, and took an active part 
in the procee<lingft. On 9 Dec. 1629, at the 
president's house, he examined Dr. James 
Primrose ''q. v.] for admission as a candidate, 
and passe<l him. On 2'2 Dec. 1630 he sub- 
ficribed '201. to the fund for purchasing a site, 
and on 2f» March 1632 drew up new rules for 
the college library. 

On 21 Jan. 1630 he applied to the gover- 
nors of St. Bartholomew's Hospital for leave 
of absence, in accordance with the king's 
command, to travel with the Duke of Lenox, : 
and in July he started on the journey. On 
23 Sept. he was in Paris (ATELiNG,*A/«"mo- 
rials of Jlartfy)^ but was in London 8 Oct. 
«nd 22 Dec. 1630. He afterwards visited 
Slois, Saumur, and Bordeaux. In February , 
1632 he was in Spain, and probably visited ' 
Venice before his return to England. In ! 
a letter to Lonl Dorchester, preserved in \ 
the Bodleian Library (Clarendon Papers, 1 
"SOTii), he asks that none be put into his , 
place of physician to the household during j 
his absence, and describes how the countries \ 
were so wretched * that by the way we could 1 
scarcely see a dogg, crow,'kite, raven, or any ! 


s::?-rralle jte.iple, '.hs reli^nes of thei 
The pltTjr. whriv ffcsire had made an 

b-i I'r fc2T:Hnr :> asaTomis-^. .'nly sum few 

war and 
Wt'.re I cisir-' In May HkB he obtained 
l^-ive t.'s: tie covera:>r? c«f St. lUrthoIo- 
mrw's . .V-S. yniiKtf £ ...i ■/ *Y. £tirtkoli>' 
mp*.-** II-y*:-i*a'* t> r> t"- Sootlind wiih the 
k:nr. ^^ Lile tLrTV in June he visiitJ The 
Bai^s K:'ck. and an aec-r-uni by him of its 
garnets is eiTan: iMit-MiOHiEU Bn'tiitk 
PKwf^ai}'. p. \-J\. \*n o t.Krt. 1633 he ap- 
plitrd to Sir RoWrt Ducie. then pivsident of 
St. Barrh'^lomew's Hospital, to summon a 
m-frrting \>i thr gsreraori. the surg¥«.ins, and 
the ap-iTheoary. so that he mi^ht lay before 
them '^-^me particulars concerning the px)d 
of the j»>;'re of ibis howse. and relormacon of 
S'.'me ordrrs onceaved 10 l»r in this hows*.* 
I.»n 15 Oct. the meeting to<«k place, and 
Dr. Andrewf* was app^tinied a full physician, 
50 as to give Harvfv more liljerty. !>iiteen 
regulations drawn up by Han'ey were then 
discussed, and were all agreed to except one 
reiquiring the surgtHms to declare their treat- 
ment whenever the- physician desired. Their 
general purport is that absolutely incurable 
cases are not to be admitted, and that the 
sui^reons. apothecary-, and matron are to dis- 
chai^ all their duties decently and in per- 
son. In 1634 four I^ncnshire women had 
been urcusod of witchcraft (Avelixg, J/e- 
morials ofllarrey), and were sent to London. 
Han-ey was desired by the Earl of Man- 
chester (29 June 16.'U) to arrange with Baker 
and William Clowes (15^2-164^) '11. v.], the 
king's surgeons, for their examination. On 
2 July he superintended their physical ex- 
amination by ten midwives ana seven sur- 
geons, and found that there was nothing 
imnatural in their bodies, and so they were 

Eardoned. On 4 July 1634 he gave a tanned 
uman skin to the College of Physicians * for 
a monument to be reserved in the college.' 
On the same day, by the president's direction, 
he made a speech to the apothecaries persuad- 
ing them to conformity to the college onlora 
(MS. Amtalet). In 103i>, on 17 Nov., an 
impudent barber-surgeon name<l William 
Tellett, on being called to account (Sii»'KY 
Yocsro, Hecortl9 of the Barher-Surtfeons) for 
not recording the death of a maidservant 
whom he was attending, declared that her 
death was due to Dr. Harvey's physic. On 
16 Nov., Queen Henrietta ^I»ria'a birthday, 
he examined post mortem t he body of Thomas 
Parr, a Shropshire labourer, stated to have 
lived 152 years and nine months. His re- 
port of tlie post-mortem was publishetl in 
16(i9 by Dr. liett (/)(• Ortu ft Saturn San- 
ffuinin). On 7 April l(i36 ho left England 
again, in attendance on Thomas Howard, earl 




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^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ anarlca af« catuadcir^H 

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^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^M* bMed upoa th«> notes oTfl 

^^H ha wtitiM 

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^BVB*4Dart0ni exMminatioQA li»fl 


^^^^^^^^^^^^^^E^fibnatRUui lG.'Ai Br. Oeoi^fl 

^1 III Hll 

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^■BMmj at hi^t bfi^tli^r's bou^e, fl 

^^^ flitrv^v 

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^■■■icnatjaD, tvhicli U rt-coTT^iK] B 


^^^^^^^^^^^■■A «VHy tbo muiu#criy)t a 

^^H firi-ir 

^^^^^^^^^^^ij ' Evr<rcilatioae« du Cie&era- 

^^^1 tiju h 

^^^^^^^^^■tmn, qvibu? ftcce<iunt cjjLUpdani 


^^^^^^bKnabmrtta hq Timioribiis Utijrri 


^^^^|H|MfilB«.' Tlii-i wti& fiublished in 

^^H pr< X 

nlMkflla in ^r. rauTs Clmircliy&rtl* 


- *^ »ir!>i of il]Q ben'^ epi^, ami 
>( tiio diit'k witbiu it. are fuJlv 


_^^„ A3ii &I1 the poliit-^ of .Errnwtb ami 


^I0ipa£ ttucus&ed in ri'lHtioiL to it. It 

^H ! 

.^fc -v^ Ubour Rnd carefLil nhservntion; 


•^■siVfTT iif tbe mifposropp wojt 

^^H irnn- 
^^H tioti. 

■uaUn™ flear rnudi of wbat Hiir- 

'v -•'>• in itart. Tliis was Jii» 


' '\'i['k, ejtcpjit a few letter* 



-.^1 7). nrU.fuVHiol lieoffeml 


: '-^i of Vhynlclunsi, 1 lirouifb ita 


I't. I'fujnan, to Imtbi a SiUrarr. 

^^B ftirtii 

m •^ J'^n'.' Hiionymoiiftly, but l>dcqm« 

^^H n 

^«^ Mid on :i^J lh>(!. ion J tiw cl.)1]l<^> 

^H 4if 

-r W tirpriioii f'f lltirvev'!^ statue. On 


.V4 tho libmrr wa* eotfliiTlt't"?, and 
•m^ hmiilifil It iivnr tn th*; collefTP. Chi 



* UVU he WMB pJtM'ii'i'J presicitjQt '"jf 

^H tho r> ' 

-^tv, but dccliin'J tbi.^ bniiour oli tbi» 


^^■1 Iif AjBT'. ilc- i^ervi-d on tbi.' coimeil: iti 

^H fim 1 

4iB ^J r)f>)li, anil iti ibe IaUk-t y>:&r t>l— 

^H n T<'li' 

^^Bii ^ Liinilt<iuii ]'H.-turt>5bi[K llti tb«Ti 


^ •4* itiUtff^ his estate at Bunvasb in 

^^1 Vi 

. kud took IcaV'' uf thr fclinws. Ht* 


— i many attacka of pmit, an<l iise<! tif 

^^1 rt<(ti« 

• hy puitin|f hi.^ f«;6t in cold wfttt^r. 


•.«rks bt'eaine loorc frequent, and ho 

^^^^H t<n->^^ 

J .1 Jiinp l<i.i7. Tbe feUows nf tb.* 

^^^^^B Ari'' 

■ 'f rbyficiflna fallowed bis bridy on 

^^^^V r'l ' 

. ••> iijil»*m|i>'ti'[i(l in I->«px, where itVfls 

^^^^H 1 

^■t*>i. wrappmt it) li-inl, ill n \-ault of thi* 

^^^^^^^^■^B*' ' 

— -•■. Ib-n-iit Ti^mniii.Kl tillSt^LuItrt'sdny 

^^^^^■^■l ' 

'. ■^Si.'l, wht^n it. wDs trarislateiS. in 


'' <tr tbf pj'fftidont (Sir Williani 

^^^^^^^Bti' ' 

1 seveml ft»llow:& of th*) enllc^jp^ 


_ _ ■ marble sarcophafliia provitled by 


,^^^#*i^r* ^" ^^*-' Harvcv chftpi'l erected in 


^l^^ppHMMui Cburob : with th^ leaden coffin. 

^^^^ftVn , 

^C^^t€ *^^ insert »lior), 'Docter William 
^ ^^m^ IW^-AfJ t n.' yot Juin? IH.i57. Aged 

^^^^^B "pftr' 

^^^^^M ' ' 

'biTi* w«im rln'piirtiilt:**! ill ibe Baro- 

^^^^1 1 

. - ■■■■>]'y of tbr !arjip uHlitinn of liar- 

^^^^H Vt li" 

irijQrt]ili'e<'nutititi2 tbuiucidents. 

^^^^H ll»^*>> ' 

':iiiuu. adiiplit'aterffwliiclibanjfa 

^^^^^^^^UBWll ' 

■^^^^^ A^ MiMsij of till" CoUcitv of Pbysiciruw, 




Jiamy'i viU u ia kit own huidwntuig. 

'f (n« hta bo^ks sad fntn to tfae ooUcse, 

1 to Sir Charies bnHiurgii [q. t.\ us 

to hi« brother Kliab, » bcsefaction 
«t's ilo^pitai, and raiuiT btfquie:§t« to , 
fniationA. He was cf short sUttuv, and 
ia Toath had black hair. His portrait^ by | 
Coroelhia Jans>en, han^ in the libcaiy of | 
(ha CoUe^ of Phytaeaia^ and there u a ' 
rhanictenstie bast, attribated to Sch«e- 
makers, in the Ilnrrer chapel at Hempstead 
'.r, P.^ex. Another portrait h\ an unkncnni 
r is in the Xational Portrait (Jallerv ; 
'cmpciriiry cnp^vinff of this picture* 
ii^its'.lv attributed to Hollar, is more pro- hv Llavwo^Jd. 

1 ii' ' . -r ciillectf^d otlitKjo of his works is 
iln-d by the 4.*.jII^^ of Physicians, 
by Dr. L^wreiie^f in ITCtt. A com- 
slatioD of his work* into KnelUli 
blished in London bv the Sydenham 
in lf<4r. An edition of the * De 
stione S^incruiDis* with the ottackR of 
sianns and IVimrose, was publi.=hed at 
0?dea in (jnarto in 1039, and n duodecimo 
^tion in IjondoD in 1&4^, the tirst published 
~ _" nd. Another was puhlisheil in I-rfin- 
f Danielf in 164i0.and editions nppeartMl 
iom in liUS, 1U14, 1001, and 1071. 
small quarto edition of his whok< work^t 
ptiblisbed at Lnydon in 1737. The first 
edition of the *De Circiilattone ' in English 
t w aa published at the White Lion in Duck 
^^^*ne, Ixindon, in 16o3, and a further i^ition 
^^6^1673, both by li. Lowndes. lu 16^)3 tho 
^^■te Generatione Animalium ' was pnbtished 
^^K English, with a prebce by SirOeoive Ent 
l^i&d a portrait of Harvey bv W. Faitliome. 
The colleffe contributed to the publirat ion of 

Ibis * Prelectiones Anatomise QeuHralis' in 
1686, and on St. Luke's day an oration in 
praise of him and of tho other benefactors of 
the college is ercry year delirercd. 

[Life by Dr. Liwnmce in Gulii-lroi Harveii 
s 17GC; Works and origin/vl tnannscripts ; 
Liber Annulinm. Col. JMcdicoram, L^nd. 
$17 ; St. RArlhoIi>me'w'8 Iltwpilal MS. 

I Books; PMcctiones Analomiae UntTW- 

«, ed. bj ft Commiitop of the Coll. of Phys. 

IMA (die intrudnction vas written by 

hor of (bis life) ; Aubrey's LiTos of £mi- 

oai, od. 1813; LivfM uf Bn'iifch Phy- 

, 1830 (this book, with ilie lile of ILirvey, 

vrittea* as far as tlie life of ItadcUffo, by 

MacMichael, whose interlfstved copy is iu 

the library of the Co)Ici;e of Physicinns. Tho 

PMtwas written by Dr. BiueiHavkitiH, Dr. Parry, 

r. Hoot hty. Dr. Monk, and Mr. CIsTke) ; "Willia's 

iTilUam Uiirrsy.aHisloryof thaDiscoferrof the 

"ation of tlie Blood ; Munk's Coll. of Phys. i. 

"unVsNotn? llnrvciftrap; St. Barthnlomow's 

al Boports, xjdii. U87 : Atook's Brief Ac- 

eonot of the cimnnstaaeDB Imdiag to aad al- 
tasdiag th» ReintombrBeDt of the R»auum of 
Dr.WUlt&ia HarreT, prirately priatad. Loodoa, 
18M L Sir James PuK's Aecwds of HuTPT. Loo- 
don. 1846, and Su Bartbolomnr's IIospiuL R«> 
portis 1884 ; Sir 0. E. Ph^ n UaptihLuhfd Lrt- 
tcr of Uarrey. Cambrid^, 184S, aitd Noliee of 
an CopuUisbBd llaBDseript cf Harrry, Loadoa;, 
18^; Dr. ?(ocinan Moon's Hamy'« Notes OQ 
Galeo, .\tboDvam.60ct. 1 888 : the Hartnan On* 
ttone. of vhirb more than a hundred haro hwn 
daliTertd, and meet of thMO pnnt«d (thm« t>r Sir 
G. E. Pa^t, Dr. J. W. 0;-te, Profnaor KotlMton, 
Dr. George Jofansoo, and Sir K. ^areking eoft- 
tain moKt in relation to bio^rnpfay).] K. H. 

har\t;y, ^vlLLL\M (i7«Msee>, 

wood enpravcr and designer, was bom at 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne on 13 Jnly 171HJ, his 
falhor beinj; keeper of the baths at theWeat- 
gate. At fourteen y*mrs of age he was ap- 
prcntieed to Thonuu Bewick [q. v.], with 
whom he bocame a great favourite. IIo 
worked with Temple, another pupil, upon 
Bewick's *Kablea of .Ksop.' 1818, tnui&fcr- 
ring to the block many uf the designs of a 
third pupil. Itnbert Johnson. He n-moved to 
London in September 1817, studying draw- 
ing under Haydon, and anatomy under Sir 
Charla<t Dell. Lance, Kastlake. and Land- 
seerwere his fellow-piipils with llnydi>n, for 
whom he engraved on wood, in imitation of 
copper-plftto, the largt" block of tlie ' Assasu- 
natton of Denlotus.' This, at the tirofi of its 
jiroduction, was probably the mast ambit ions 
block which had been cut in England. After 
the death in 1822 of John Thurston, the chief 
designer on wotwl in London, Haney aban- 
doned engTnvingfordtisign,becomingspeodily 
as ])opubir a.s he was tucUe, alt Itougn be grew 
with time unpleasantly mannered. One of 
his earliest works was bis illustrations to 
llendersDn's ' Uistoryof AncientaudModem 
Wines/ 1824. Among his other efforts may 
be mentioned * The Tower Monogftrie,' 1828 : 
'Zoological Gardens,' 1830-1 ; 'Cliildren in 
the Wood,' 1831 ; ' Blind Beggar of Bcthnal 
Greem,'I832; *Story without nn Knd,' 'Pic- 
torial Prayer Book,' ' Bible,' ' Pilgrim's Pro- 
gress,' * Snakespean%' and many other of tim 
innumerable issues of Clinrles Knight's un- 
tiring press. 'Tliehistoryofwoodengrnving,* 
says a writer in the 'Art Union' for 1880, 
' for some years past, is almost a record of the 
works of his ||IIar\'eyV] pencil,' His master- 
pieces ore his illustrations to ' Northcote's 
Fables/ 1BS8-S3, and to Lanu's ' Tliousand 
and One Nights,' 18^18-40, in the latter of 
which he worked underthe eye of the trans- 
lator himself (who assisted him with indica- 
tions of coatnme and aceesanries), and bis 
somewhat florid ttyle wu not unsuited to 



of Arundel, wlio wns >.-tiT .\- :■.:■ 
the emperor (MrsK, X-frp i/.n-'. .„ 
May he was inXupfnibtTG-. nnil din- 
Kn^lish Colh'^v. in llnnii' on ."ii trt. 
(itioTfic I-^nt \ V," ftlsn h'iiijii J". ■ 
Jtfrt,rdA uf fhf KiHjlhh l*i'un,u-^-,.f '■ 
ufJe.nw,\\.\.\\^). M'hil.' at N'ti-. 
vUittid hU oppoiifiil ll.j]im;iii. i,i,: 
convince hiiu. 

Harvt-y renoaiiir-cl in]..ii '..' . 
bn-ak of tlif jrivjit ivinillidn. > ■ 
sijrmfd by him »hilM)i-i'. jc.:: ;, : 
of .Sir Tiioma.s Thvniii' ik in tin- S'-- 

OfficL' ( K\V.\A}i(',,SlrmwuUuf Jf'. . 

'Oaleni Opnsculn Viiria " nV V;-. 
(ionlston Tq. V.J wiw jnibli^In-.l 1- ' ' 
lOlO. lluhud b'i'i-n.Ll'riimlnf Him '. - 
copy in the British Jlu-irnni }\n~ -, 
^'inaI not«s in Harvey's hiind.niifl - ., 
with his initials. IIi' n-nd il;- ' 
not thftGret'ktcxl ( I Innvv s cniiy . t 
The album of Vhilip de Gbirfris S" ■ ' 
Mnatium CAddit. MS -'r'Uv-.v 
written for thi; owul 
ribu:i omniu vcndiint, 
left. London In iitl)-ni 
cared little for politic 

Sydenham Society's 

(ill), and while "tlit 

Hombling he visited hi> /.'..-ud 

luphby at Derby, an-i t<JV»l 

uterine diseases (Avi i , 

present at thi.' buttli 

cordinjf to Aubrey, a ; 

him are to be receiv' ' 

t'hnrfrc of tlie Prince lU ►', ,. .■ 

of York while the fijjht ttm k 

read u bo<»k he had in Ui -. 

t(i Oxford with the 

poratedM.I>. iin? Det 

hewntte a report ut >J 

Prince Mnurice, who - 

typhus fever, which 

1 he royul army. Jluri ■ , 

making dissections or, "xr., 

preface to Atmtomy), nnd ui 

ny royal mrindate war li , ' 

in the place madcvac^. 

SirXatiianielliront[q.v. I t*^ 

reived his payment as phy 

Iholomew's Hospital fiir i| 

I(i4(i, after the surrendrtr »„, 

turned to London and r.*!..*. 

of hifl brothers, who W) ; 

Tn J(iJ!) he published . 

press of Ilofjer Danie : 

tnmica de (.'irculatior." 

nem Jiiolanom fitium i ' 

lie discusses t]»» argin: 

trines u^t forth in a 

Anatomicum/Leyden, , 

- .-^ • * 

fcr J- - - i.----rate botanist* 

.~ iiarvey's penoral 

:-r was twvL'y-sii 

-— ■. -~t-'i."', whom Lv ifrer- 

— ■ _:■'. he was minutelv 

■ -m< of Cuwj^r ind of 

---hisi.s at T.>r.juay on 

- ■- .»:s-Led many *eutTered 
--■ - iii The follnwin J I>'x)k5: 

- - •: -Urican Plants* Cajie- 

Unual of BritiiU Alia?,* 

■ - :ra Itritanniea. u History 

— ..--.i*.*lS4(J-:>l. 4. -Xereiji 

«e of the ^^>urhvm Itcean,' 

■ *^iiside Bo.ik." l'*4i*. 0. "Xe- 

- ..neric^ina.* IS":;-?-. 7. • Phy- 
.-•nea.* 1S'>'^-»>.1. *. * Thosaurus 
. 'tni Cape-ri*." !>>'». A por- 
L-'i "0 his meni::r ":v cousin. 

■*'. H. irirr-Y. V :i »t"e.nioiis 

..•■■-. Jiud Corr:,-:.- l-r^,'. \>y a 

(•li;*; L*'ad!.e^:"rrf Air.aL,' of 

Ikrvin's Life ar.-i L-e*:er< of 

pefsoudliDfomii::;! rr-.m Mrs. 


oit Great E^tanmore.MiddU'- 
*i«con(l son of George Daniel 
>*I-Ia w, and a commissioner 
Me wnsedncati-dat Eton as 
•. nud in lt»:?8matriculatedat 
. i'lkaibridffe, ffraduatinp B.A. 
ll*3*^QnJB.D. lS5o. Hewa.-* 
,«rKm^'U831: wasTyrwhitt 
IKI^, and diviniiv lecturer 
fhjm \^\\ to '1844, and 
to 18(i.3. Harvfv was or- 
isas, and priest IsU.nnd was 
wcolleg'e rectory of Buckland 
in 1644. lleWasaKsoaJ.P. 
fccTPy cftme prominently into 
In Deceuiber IS"! he was ap- 
prime niinister.Mr.Gladstoiie, 
0^ Kwelme, near Oxford, to 
had the ripht of pre-^ienta- 
; had l)een joined previouslv 
'tV^soreUip of divinity at Ox- 
^f parliament bad been passed 
itm^tbe two offices. In this 
« special provision that future 
Vhttv were to be members of tlio 
_ of convocation. Ilan-oy was 
Kba> and to qualify himself for 
\t» WM [Qcorporated at Oriel 
', and Ti-as admitted M.A. 
.,10 Oct. 1871. "Whcnpar- 
Ir. (now Sir) J. R. Mow- 
*.>^fiird University, brought 
WIvrv th*? house. After some 

1^- j yiMrii. .-'l '-■ —J ~zr.-. 
Hirr-nr -r-i:? :i.~-_-.^i - t r i-- . " ^ 
fdSoiO.' i3!i' :^. I,- - — T— . -- :.- 

JiiT^-^ T^L.' 1 - -.1=—: ■-- ■ 
Itr-rriliLT-T ■: _.- r- : . - 

c:t*1 t ri;- i.-- I. ■ ■- 

Th---c^ c-Li^ T:-- -r--- 

. ^ . "". 'O^ , - -. . • 

- A.v- 

\\ > 

HAF.Wi.X"^P. > V 




'. ». 



! 1 ;. ■ w ■«. 

.'. - 

: N. 



■. . ■ . i 






f'f t'ljr^.'s CIJrfc'T- '"' t.'T ':''"''r- -h-:-!!!--* 

Jrc^ed-t-d M„V. -!i Mtv :"* >'../ ",. 
i>y. T-.I. iL j.t. L ]. :>>;. ••r: li--- "^ •: 
In l->77 be -w-fc* c:.t:lii- :: Nr-w C .'.t,:-. 

to ih*- r-cT'TT ;f Wtrrir^ =.. Ltr.: :.•:■.. rr. -x;.- '■. ::. -l -:■ 

which h- r-*irB'i--i t-t-rr-T- i-J , \t,^'.. ::c^>'..-. :. ..r 

when hi* *acces*-:'r TTi- ajo:!-:-.:. j^.-.i- <-.:rfc-- v.. i:-..; , , 

M^u^-nily. LsTinj -wbit W-,-.o o■i2'.^ -s r^u;- :::■:■.:. 1:-. \::?..a ].-. .^'v.v.^,. !:,l ;.■> 

blm? htad/he-wa^ • j-rvachirr" a; Cro'w"Lur>:. > ;:v.^:" t*;/.;i:ti v..'.:,;-.Oi .^v.r.s: .\i* v' ■• • "• 

Banfrtead. and TandricLr*- in Surrvy. :.r..i Iv.: !:is y..;,':h sv.:V. r.r.t: V.r :Y;i-.vr.«.i (.* ri;>, 

probablT at Bleichini'IrT in SarTfT ar. J Oai- "ak ■ iiv.vt tv.Tir-,'. ;i: t'l-.r^:*-. i". Iro. rnm 

ham in Hampshire. He was in?:i:-:^.:v;i\ir ir;.:^-. wLin^ \.v i:v:uh\A'.i\\ MU ;« 1 . >.\ 

of Banstead on ll»ec. 1604. A:on- ..rmw ar.a.M 1\ in i::H>. h:i\ .ik Iv, n.l.o!. -i I's \. 

of these places he kep: a school antlpniorii^d :n ITs^ niul KK S. in KS*. T.-v lii> M \\ 

medicine. He married, at Mancht-ster on dicri'v \w V'iul n iln-'-.s on x}w luuivl'uM.-n .•(" 

25 Sept. l.Jt2, Marr, daughter of KoWrt M.vil. in wliii-li ho p>^*' :>» jUN-.-imt .-t mi 

LangleTjWmetimeborouphreevoof Manchi>- nit'r*>u-s e\]>(T!nu'nis lie luul ninili' i»n tinn- 

ter. The date of his death i$ unknown. fusion tVoni >]\i^-\> t<» tU*!;* wlii»h \u\A l.v.i 

He wrote: 1. 'Two(iocH:e nnd Learn»^il a r.»nsiiU'rji\»li' «in:iniii\ of Moml In imio 

Sermons, preached at Manchester," \'>>'J. »*iiso » noinii-r \\iis Mi'J n«'inl\ (.> ilrath. nn.t 

12mo ; one of these sermons was* al.«o ]iuh- lil-unl itcini; thi-n tnin^fn^oii ('it>ni n ■■h»'< )«, 

li^hed separately (see Axox. iMncnffihr tlif ih^ir h'!i|>('il fr.»u> thoIaMi'. wnlU.-.l li.*«i.-, 

fwlfanwff0,x>.^\9). S.'TheSummumBonuni, ami cxin'rii-nci'd no >.nliw(|iii'n) inron\t'ni 

or Chief Hajipine^s of a Faithful Cliristinn, rncf. llii^ «\(tivinirnt wic ]« ilxtnn'il I'l'li-m 

a Sermon preached at Crowburst,' lol*-, .'ii'vo. lUTondt-il luc ilii^ iit thi'iiniittttnu'iil ii'luinlt 




lIlNt'JQptt&ic Garden at Cambridgti, and 
It iiU3 to VkTo boon oftou roixntt^ with 

I sucocAs at HarwotKl's lectures. Au account 
of ttief^ ex])^mnt>ui8 is ^ltcti iu n note in 
Hutton. Shaw, aud Pt'arson'a ' Abridffment 
of the !1iil'>?o])hic«l Transactions/ 1809, i. 

jl86, 18tJ. llarwwKlwaadisNitiHfied with the 

P->«aJKins for \ht> diiv-ontinunnce of tmaf^fuijion 
incases of lo&a of blood iu his time, llo in- 
tended to experiment a« tn the communica- 
tion of fliseo^cs and of mt-dic-inPA by trnns- 
fu8ion,butappeftrslo have published nothing 
on the fliibii-ct. In ]78r>, on the death of 
Chartes Cnllignon [q- v.], he was elected pn>- 
feaaorof anatomy at Cambridsre, In 580<J he 

Fwaa appointed l>owniiig protessn'ir of m^-di- 
cine, retaining his onatonucid chair. In iHUi 
lie WHS knighted. He die*! at Downiuft Col- 
lege on 10 Nov. 1^^14. Hn married in ITlW 
the only dau^'hter of the Uev. Sir John Tes- 
liall, bart.^ of llorsley, but left uo children. 

Uenry Gunning gives an unfavourable ac- 
csount of Ilarwood, who was a popular Ixm- 
▼ivont, witty, but very licentious m conver- 
sation. Curing his morning wallt he would 
in term lime always pick up eeveral giiesta 
for his two-o'clock dinner, at which il whs 
no unusual thing for him to rar\-L' thctiirbot 
his demonstrator bad dij?.«*clt^d for lecture 
the day before; bin guestJ* almost always 
went to hi^ lecture wilh him at four. lie 
had covered hit* walls with small water- 
colour portraits, j>ix or eight in o frame, done 
by one Harding, to whom he a^ked oil his 
luuvenuty acquaintances to eit. A quarrel 
arose Iwtwevu Ilarwood and W. L. Mangel 
£q. v.] about these portraits, which led Ilnr- 
rood to send a challenge to 8ir Iitaac Pen- 
nington, the regius professor of physic, which 
the latter rofuwxl to notice } Init ihit mt-ft- 
&t;iiger, an undtTgraduate, pulilished the 
aliiiir in the Loudon papers. Ilarwood pub- 
liabed the first volume of a ' System of Com- 

' parativo Anatomy and IMiysiolngy,' Cam- 
ridge, 1796, pp.72, 4to, with fiOccn ])lates, 
ad some synopses of his countes of lectures. 
[Gent. Mng. 18U. ii. p. 80.3; Oun- 
niiig's Ketuiuisctiuecfl, i. 50-0, ii. 95-9: Not<>i 
and QiioriM. 6Mi wr. iii. 116.] G. T. H. 

ItJ^W), colont;!, was bom at Ilagbome, Berk- 
shire, about 1660. According to Fuller, ' hi^ 
having killed a man in a quarrel put n period 
to ftllli 19 carnal mirth')' Worthif9, ' Lincoln- 
shire,' ed. 16fil>, pp. 162-3). He wa.<* one of 
the four standing colonels in the Low Coun- 
tries, and was !shot at the sit'ge of Mni'.'itricht 
in 1632. Tlis will, da1*-d U .TunH HW2. was 
proved at London on tbf fnUowiiig 11 Sept. 
(P. C. C.94, Awdley). In 1G4l> his brother 
orge, a merchant of London, published 

* The Advice of Sir E. Ilarwood, written 
King Charles his Command, upon occnsioal 
of the I''reuch King's preparation, and pr©- 1 
sentpd in bis Life time by his owne hand^ toj 
his Majestii': . . . b1»o a Rt^Iation of bis Ufef 
and death* [bv Hugh Pf*ter*l, Ac, 4t<i,Lan-J 
don (reprinted in ' Harleian Mi^ceUanj/ ed.f 
Park, iv. 268). I 

[ Authoritiee quoted ; GeDt.Xa^.xc i.397-8.| J 

G. G. ' 

HABWOOD. EDWARD. D.D. (1729-1 

1794), classical scholar and biblical critical 
was bom at Darwen, Loitcashlre, in 1729, 
A Oer attending a school at Darwen, he went ' 
in 1745 to the Hlackbum grammar school 
under Thomas Hunter, afterwards vicar of | 
Weaverharo, Cheshire, to whom he ascribe* ] 
the formation of his lil)eral tables {JntrwL 
to N. T., 1773, p. xi). Hunter wi.<(l)ed him to I 
cuter atQueen'a College, Oxford, with a riew 1 
to the church. But lua parents were dUscn-* I 
ter.i, and be waa trained forthe miniatry in tho I 
academy of David Jennings, D.D. [q. v.], &(< 
Wellclose Square, London. I^Aving the 1 
"academy in 1760, Har\vood engaged in teacli- 1 
ing, and was tutor m a. boarainp-^chool at 
Pcckhara. He preached occasionally for 
tiwirge Hi'nson [q. v.], and became iulimata 
with Lardner. In 1754 he removed to Con- 
pleton, Cheshire, where he superintended 
a grammar school, and preachen altpmotely 
at Wheelock in Cheshire and Leek in Staf- 
fordshire. At Conpleton ho aaw much of 
Joseph Priestley, then at Kantwich, who 
speaks of bim as ' o gt^id classical scholar and 
a very entertaining companion,' From 1757 
he asaocintcd also with John Taylor, D.D., 
who In that year became divinity tutor in 
the Warrifiptnn Academv; and in 1761 he 
preached Tavlor'a funeral sermon at Chow- 
bent, Lancashire. Antti)]iendix to the piinted 
sermon warmly takes Taylor's side in disputes 
about the academy, and shows that Hurwood 
wfls by this time at one with Taylor's 9emi- 
Arianthenlogy.although he says that he never 
adoptctl the tenets of Ariua, His letter of 
30Dec.l7S4toM'iIliam Christie [q. V.J shows 
that in luter life he inclined to Socinianisni 
(Monthly MejHUfiionj, It'll, p. 1,30). On 
l(i ttct. 17(i-> Harwoud was ordained to the 
Tucker Street prvsbyterian congregation, 
Itristol. Ho had married, and wasnowbur- 
deiD'd with a numerous family, and be de- 
scribes his congregation a* * very small and 
cont inually waiting; ' adding that' there never , 
was a dissenting minister who experieDced 
more re5p<.'Ct ana geuerositv from persons of] 
all di-nouiinations than I dl J for several years.* ■ 
Hi* indulged hi:^ bent for classical readings 
employing it iu New Testament exegeus. A 




Br?t volume ( 1"07> of ' latrodtiction to New 

r^-etanj-^m Studies' aitnicte"! the uotice of 

I^Vincipa.! Ilnbertaonof Kdiuburgli, on whose 

commL-nilntionhcwaftmAdt'U.D.oftUat iini- 

"ir B. free trftn.«lattoii of the Nuw l\;stain<-iit, 
. tract agBin!>t prtHlc^&tinatiuii, 176H, auJ the 
Ire publication of a treatise by William Wd- 
liauu on ' the supremacy of the Father' ( Gftit. 
[-1/0//. I7y3, p. iWM), made him locally un- 
ajiular; he wa» '^liutmed liylhf mullitude 
like an jnfwted rM-rs<ni,*iiiul forsomu mouths 
['could hanlly woIklheh(reet.-(»f Bristol with- 
[>m beiii^ in.sulted' (7«^rW. to .V. T., 1773, 
xviii). He piibli^hed \im tratmlation of 
[ibe Xt'w Testament in I'lif^, and another 
fvolume hywayofinlrodiiclionin 1771. Some 
leljarj^'WiL* brought iigninKt hi&charncter.and 
|3hel»'n BriMoliii 177:^. Coming to Loudon, he 
l settles] iniireal lUii-sellj^ireet.and employed 
[.bimself in literary work. i[e failed toohtain 
. rorant placp at the llritixh Museum, hut 
avB he (fi>t a I»*Iter pout ( (ienf. Matf. 1. c.) 
In I77(t, HO«>n aft>-r publishing a biblio- 
I^Ttiiiliy of editions of the cl«Mic*», Harwood 
|#nlu his cla^^ical bonks and took lod|;ings in 
tllvde Street, IJloLmisljury. Hia means were 
l^tmiteneii, and on \'> Mav i7b:^ he wa^i at- 
Ttaciedhv parolyfis. Thmigh lie derived some 
[K?n(?lit from the application of olectricitv by 
lohn Birch ( 17-i.'i.--l?il5) 'q. v.] fsee flar^ 
iw<wd'8 account in 'The l-aw,' &c. [17^4], 
iVvoi, he eutild neither walk nor sit, but whb 
Lftiill abit' to write and to teaeli. Herlaim.-i 
Lto have * WTitten more iKxiks than anyone 
[ person now livinjf except l>r. Priestlf}"' ( Gfiit, 
Ma*j. ut *upra'l. Without bi-iiig a follower 
|.*"f Priestley. hi- defended Iiim ( ]7k'i) ngninst 
~ muel Badcnck [q. v."', L«ter he complained 
coldnt?*.f of his dissenting friends, con- 
ling * the benevnlence and charity of the 
burch of England' with * the Huumesa and il- 
I liberality of |*^e*byte^iaIl9*{^r/i^ May. 1792, 
I p, filHl.' lledicd at tl Hyde Street on UJnn. 
I7i>4. Hiswife.ayoungerdaujrhterof Sanuiel 
I Chandb>r [jj. v.], died on I'l May 171*1, aged 

h^, Tlieir I'hk-st son, ICdwnrd ,'q. v.], wrote 

p. l>ti). 

Latin epitnph to their memory 

\. v.j, wrote 
-y ijh. 171)4, 

Harwood'* bihlical studies received little 
I «*ncouragement from dissenters. LardncrjuKt 
live«l htngenough tueommend histir^t volume, 
> niul give rtoine hint.4 for a ftecond, und other 
early friends were dead. Newti.m, biehop of 
Bristol.atidl^iw, while master of I'eterhoufic, 
gave him Hnc-ouragem<>nt ; l^wth hmt him 
Dook»; and the value of hi<t work was recog- 
niaed by continental sehnlars, hi*t first volume 
bmng tranaUieil into Herman (Halle, 1770, 
6ro)byJ.F. liehuUofOuttingen. Hia'libemr 
Riidunugof the New Testament, suggested by 

the Latin version of Cnstalin, wna an honest 
attempt to do in English what LuMerre hna 
doue lort hegttapelsin French, But Harwood's 
style was tup^id ; lience his tni«*lation ha» 
been visited witi» a contrmpt %vhich on the 
ground of scholarship Lt illde^rve?. His most I 
imjhirtant biblical ]abour,an>cun!4tmcledtext 
of the Greek Testament, I77t1, wan nt^lected 
by his contemporaries. He based hi^ text on 
I be i-'antabrigian and Ckromoutano codices, 
Mipplying their deficiencies from the Alex- 
andrine ; in a reninrkable number of instances 
\\\» readings ant iciimtcthejudgmenl of recenl 

His biblical works are: 1. 'A New IntrtK 
duction to the Study ... of the New Tea- 
tfiment.' Hic, vol. i. 17H7, 8vo, vol. ii. 1771» 
fSvo; :>ud edit. 1773, Kvo, i? vols, (b third 
volume was projected, but not publishtxl. 
Hanvood waited for the promised issue of 
a posthumous volume of Diblical notes bv 
Chandler, which never api)eared>. 2. *A 
Liberal Tninslation of the Now "ifestament 
. . . with Select Notes,' &c., I7(>y, t*vo, 
■ '2 vols, (appended ia Clemeiil's [Hrst] Kpi^tlb 
] to the Corinthians). 3. • H KAINH AlA- 
BUKH . . , colliited with tlie most approved 
MSS., with Select Notes in Knglish,* &c., 
177(J, li!mo. '2 vols, (has appended biblio- 
graphy of editions) ; hia interleaved copy in 
the British Museum is corrected to 1 Aov. 
1778. His contributions to closstcal studies 
arw: X. 'Caiulli, TibulH, Vropertii 0]HirR/ 
Scc.y 177-1, ]l'n») (with revised lextH). 5. 'A 
View of. . .edilionsof the (ireek and Roman 
Claaaica.'&c. 1775. Hvo; 2nd edit., 1778, ttvo; 
3rd edit., 17tf2,13mo: 4th edit., 1790. 8 vo, 
reprinted in .\dam Clarke'ft 'liibUographical 
Diet ionorv,' Liverpool, 1801, li'mo, vols.f 
translated into fJerman by Alter, Vienna, 
1778, 8vo; Ilalian.byl'incelli, Venice, 1780, 
&vo; and by Boni and Clamba, with large 
additions and impr«»vementj*, Venice, 17U3, 
12ino, '2 vols.; tlie •Introduction to . . . 
Editions,' *S;c., I80*i, 8vo, by Tlmmns Frog- 
nail Dibdiu [11. v.], is * a tabulated arrange- 
ment ' from Harwood's * View.* (J. ' Bio- 
g-n»phia Classica,' &c., "Jnd edit., 1778, l:2mo, 
'2 vols. Hurwond al.^o translated from tho 
French Aluiuzit'n • Mittcellanii's,* 1774, fevo, 
rind from lht« Hennan (a language which he 
leiirned after 1773) Wiehind's 'Memoirs of 
MisM Sophy Sternlieim,' 1776, 12mo, Jvola. 
HfHdilcd the eleventh edition of J. Ilolmes'a 
Lnlin (trammor, 1777, Kvo; the twenty- 
fourth edition of N. Bailey's Kngliitb Bic- 
tioujiry, 178:2, 8vo: and an e<]ition of the 
Common I'rayer Book in I^tin, ' Liturgia 
. . . Trecum Communinra,' Ac, I7S*!, I'Jmo, 
reprinted IMO, Ilimo. An edition of Horace 
bearing liia name was printed in 1805, 12mo^ 



in llic oltl llotnnic (mrden at Cambridge^ and 
■was paid ti» bave been oitcu repeatetl with 
fluccesB ut Llarwood's lectures. Ad account 
of these oxperiiiifntft is given in a note in 
Hutton, Shaw, and IVarBon's * Abridfrment 
of the Pliilosopbical Transact ione,' 1809, i. 
188,186. HarwoodwaadissatifScd with the 
TCftBons for the discoutinuunrc uf transfuition 
in casea of loss of bhxMl in bis time. He in- 
tended to experiment ae to the communica- 
tion of diiiea*es and of medicines by trnns- 
fusioii.but appearsto have published nothing 
on the Ruhicct. In 1785, on the death nf 
Charles Collignon [q. v.], ho was elected pri.»- 
fessor of anatomv at Cambridge, hi 1800 be 
VfBS appointed Uowuing itrofessor of medi- 
cine, retaining his aoalomical chair. In 1H06 
he was knigbted. llo died at Downing Col- 
lege tm lOA'ov. 1SI4. Ho married in 1798 
tlie only daughter of the Rev. Sir John I'es- 
ball, bn'rt., of llorsley, but left no children. 

Hcnrv Gunning gives an unfavourable ao- 
couni o? Har^vood, who was a popular bon- 
vivam, witty, but very licentious m convei^ 
Bution. riuring liis tnoming wnlU he would 
in term time always pick up several gueatw 
for bis lwo-o'ch>ck dinner, at which it was 
no uniLsiiat thing for him to carve the turbot 
his demonstTBtor had dissfictiMl for let^lure ] 
the tlay before ; hi* guests almost always i 
ircnt to bis lecture with him at four. lie I 
bad covered bis walls with small water- | 
colour portraits, six or eight in a frame, done 
by one Harding, to whom ho asked all his 
university acquatntnnces to sit. A quarrel 
aruso between Harvvood and W. L. Mauael 
[q. v.] abimt these portraits, which led Har- 
wood to send a challenge to Sir Iftaac Pen- 
nington, the regias profes-ior of phytic, which 
the latter refused to notice; but the mes- 
senger, an nndergrnduatc, publishcii tb^ 
affair in the London papers. Ilarwood puh- 
lished the first volume of n ' Sydtem of Com- 

Sarative Anatomy and Pbyeiology,' Cam- 
ridge, 1796, pp. 72, 4to, with fiftw'n plat* -. 
and some synopeesof his courses of lectiin'- 
[Qent. Ma^'. I8U, Ixxiiv. pt. ii. p. 80,1; (itm 
niiig'tf Itemiaiftceaees. i. AO-6, ii. 95-9; lCo(f'~ 
and Queries. 6th scr. iii. 118.] U. T. B. 

l(l.'t2^, coloDt'I, was bom at Ilagbornt.-, 
shire, about 15K(i. According to l-'rilh 
having liiUed a man in n quarrel put n , 
to all bis cartinl inirtb'( U'urthie^, ' Lk^ 
shire,* ed. lOiJ:?, pp. ItW-IJ). He wa.-* 
thtifour jtnnding colonels in the I ■ 
tries, and was shot at the siego m 1 

in l(J3i\ His will, dated It ' 

provwl at London on th«' I". 
[P.C.C.04. Awdley). In ] ;: 
George, a uwrcbant of London, pai: 

'The Advice of Sir E. Ilarw.^- 1 
King Charles his Commajid, 
of the Frencli King'a prep«r. 
Rented in bis life time by hi 
his Uajestie: . . . also a U 
and death' [bv Huch IVi^ 
don < reprinted in 'Ilarlciun 
Park, iv. 26&). 

[AuthoritiM quoted ; G<-r.i 


1794), classical sc'i 
was born at Uar';\ . 
Afterattending a -r 
in 1745 to the Ithir 
under Thomas linn' 
Weaverham, Chr^l.r 
the formation of l.t 
enter at QueiTi 
to the cl: ' ' 
ters.aiKl ' 
acndeuiv mi ■' 
Wellcliwe S((Mci 
ncadomy in IT"' 
ing, and wao < < 
IV'ckhatn. I ' 
fieorgt? r 

K. O. 


M^m |,u«7)J 
-1 ;-'.';', ttndl 
■In U'.'rV.iilUce» 
- -, however, bsl 
' istry, and nfterl 
r-ity, whereDr.J 
'he undesigned { 
initarianism, ht»| 
!i>: unilurian cou-^ 
U hile there he pub- 
;i.*tis, in one of wiiich 
t'^.- of ecclesia-stical e?- 
,-T\*. \ In iKIQho i 
,' •":. Mark's Cbafiel, 
- licijim as to the 
fi ..^ .ti an acrimonious 
■^ lUr. George Harris of 
.- «sabri« (^ bis denomi- 
w ivMOTtd from iJridport 
.^■■mnwin 1841 a»«igtuiit 
■ won Fox ^^. v.] at 
\iXvT a while be bo- 
tv leciunt on Sun* 
t iMtituitoii, Mile Knd, 
Mbt 31 l>fc^ 1^ when 


. . . -■- :iii- 

■Mi.ii. I..- 


■ -■-•■(iuliiiis 

. . ;:liijt nl" liis 

i' 'Il'O. He was 

- ■ i.oliiiciun, am] 

■■•!|i(iiliif9 to which 

M iti privuto than he 

Mieili'-nt in his jour- 

'-' ii uinst. niiiinblti man, 

r-i itiiiPTof thepresby- 

'■:■' <>lil school, With few 

■ -■> iiimrt from poUtics, 

■iVtTTi'iTia (intl his intense 

<•'. Notwithstanding his 

■ ■ "!i>;ipreacherandlecturer, 

■!ltlir>r ]iublicitT in his later 

■ i i\f To nierpp his own pereon- 

- ;:''ir^hip. His daughter, Isa- 

■'Iy noticed, llarwood'spriu- 

• . ).<-iit!f<; occasional sermons, are: 

:: !'-ni in l!e1igion ; or Keligious 

' Ihertlngical Formulas,' 1840. 

ii Kxtt'rision and Church Eitension- 

■.* !- ( t im-.s, 1 SiO. 3. * German Anti- 

.v.i!i''ni.' Six lectures on Strau^s'e 

M .Ir-ii." ]s41. 4. Six lectures on the 

^:l^^■ -Mondpolv and Free Trade,' 1843. 

Ili-toryof tWirish Rebellion of 1798,' 

ilf i- Wlieved to have been the trans- 

"1' If. L, J^uer's work on the'Tlieo- 

>1' chf i )ld Testament/ 1838. 

■iinlny Rcriew, 17 Dec. 1887; Inquirer, 

.-. \sh7 ; personal knowledge; Brit. Miit). 

R. O. 


'*?>, topographer and mist^llaneous writer^ 

-n on 18 May 1707 at Shepperton, 

f which parish his father and 

ii-4m both patrons and rec- 

•^'•n on 18 Nov. 1773>. 

1 Imlf old, and in. 


. iricuhited at Oxford 

■ iu r.-ity Collfge. In 

•'■ (i'-iic(tn. and afterwards 

, '."llt'iro, Cambridge. Ile- 

«'i" ih.! ^Tammar school at 

'rr-.Vr iritl till 1813, when 

-:'li' in a hduse of his own ia 

" ;.-":i-: appointed perpetual curate 
■ !•■■ iwich, ni-ar Lichfield. lie gra- 
il. I ». iit Cambridpe in 1811, and in 

'J ATI- presented, on his own nomination,. 
■■■ !ii! r«-i-t(irynfStawley, Somersetshire, but 
:iti.-;- i<'sidinp there two years, he resigned 
■ii-' Jiving in lHl9,and returned to Lichtield- 
I If was created D.D. of Cambridge in 18i'-% 
iiml for many years was a fellow of the 
iSucii'ty of Antiquaries. He was presented 
ill 18^8 to the chapelrv of liumtwood, which 
he B<?rved, t(yether with Hammerwich, until 
his death, lie died at Lichfield on 23 Dec. 
184:^. In politics he was on advanced whig, 
and strenuously supported Roman cathohc 
emancipation. lie married, in 1793, Maria, 
eldest uaughtor of Charles AVoodwurd, and 
had A family of ten children. 

His works are : 1. * The Death of Dion, a 
tragedy,' in five acts and in ver.'^e, London,. 
1787, 8vo. It was never acted. 'J, *The 
Noble Slave, a tragedy,' in five acts and in 
verse, Bury St. Fdniundfi, 1788, 8vo. It was 
performed at the Norwich theatre. 3. 'An- 
notations upon Gcnesisi, with Obfler\-ation«^ 
Doctrinal and Fractical,' London, 1789, 8vo. 
4. ' Sermons,' '2 vols. 1794, 8vo. 5. ' Alumni 
Etonenses ; or a Catalogue of the Frovosts 

and Fellows of Eton College andKinc'sCol- 
lege, Cambridge, from the Foundation in 
1443 to the year 1797, with an Account of 
their Lives and PrefL'rments; collected from 
original M.SS. and authentic biographical 
works,* London, 1797, 4to. Altbougli ex- 
cellent in design this volume was somewhat 
carelessly executed, and is without an index. 
The biographical particulars ore meagre. 
(}. 'Tlie Sacred History of the Life of Jesus 
Christ, illustrative of thf Harmony of th« 
Four Evangelists,' 1798, l:2mo. 7. M Grecian 
Antiquities ; or an Account of the Public and 
IMvateLifeof the Greeks,' London, lK>I,8vo. 

8. *A. Manual of (ieo^aphy/ 1804, li*mn. 

9. 'ThellistoryandAntiquitiesof the Church 
and City of Lichfield, containing its ancient; 




Auil pn.-^nt state, civil and cccleflia.«tical,' 

LouUuu, l^*Ot>, Itu. 10. An edition of •Sami>- 

totx lilrJ*»wicki''d • Survey of Staflbnlshire 

. . , coUnLt.'d witli manuscript copied and 

wiiti Additions and enrri-ctions/ ^^'e8^min- 

Attir, 1^*0, ■'^vo, and ag-aiii, l^ndon, 1^44, >^vu. 

II. ' AnuoUtionH, Ei-cli'^insticnl and lJevi>- 

tional: iiiltMidcd lo illiiHlnilo lliu Liturgy 

' •' \X.\IX Arlirli'i* of tha rnilo'd 

: Kl1^Uud and Irolund; with an 

.1.- ' '•'">Muction,' London, 1826, Svo. 

A ! ;-i)rtrnit iipiJ»-flrs in llurwood's 

<Jiti -. - - - -'-swicke's ■ biaJiorddliin.'.' 

[tSrit. Mu». AdUit. M8. I0ttl7. f. idd ; Biikor'H 

!;;,v-, l^.a!...uu-a. i. Sia. ii. IW; Uio^f. J>ict. of 

p. 14»; 0»i>L. Miv;. 1843, pt, i. 

1 8urv<»y of Siaffonlohiro. 1 844, 

t'AiUiilir. 187«, p. ISejLilcTiry 

' nig AuLliorrt, i. 'iiO; I>iwtutcVei 

Mm, (^M>l)it)> pp. 7^1, IM09, Nictiolv's 

r. of Ml. vi. 813-16.] T. C. 

\->:' '*KN. TIU>MAS 01. 1740>, 

Uiti . waA fur aniuti limi* fKJiuol- 

[iping Old i)liur», and aflur- 

.latvr uf tlio lUiviil Acntlemy 

111 i::;j lio |irilili£lic-d ■ l)c- 

... thut raoRt excoUent 

ouU'dMtTc'ntor'a Chart; 

!to IV'iicription of & new 

>iiice.<i niiiy be measured 

1 u I'liir of Compasses.* To 

v"l II XtftivT 10 I>r. Hallcy, 

I ''mUr Chart, which pro- 

liMi v»'ar by Wt-nry AVilstm 

iit Iho Clobiihir Chiirt,' 

Hi i,u. UuAt^ldun'alpnneiptd 

'u! re-f.t involid, and tho 

UitM^Idon soon after 

■>*'- Wilsrtjn'j* Answer to 

L * ■ Vindication of (he 

".■oond letter to Dr. 

^ O, At that time 

■ If'Tvttohwrof Ma- 

' \ (duntii-rs in the 

publUhod* Miithe- 

!i iho Malhe- 

' . , i-i'HijMMed by 


I u new 

1 lit,' said 


I'Ut from 

■ " *X"iety 

i fellow. 

t bv T. 

, vol. ii. ; 

; T- A. 

' > I, n 

■ [ lun,' 

t, fti the 

request of Richard de la Ware, abbot of 
A\ eatminstcr, in 1:^60 t^he 'Coru^uetudinarium 
Monachorum Westmonasteriensium/part of 
which in extant amonir the Cotton. MS8. 
(Otho G. xi.) On 3 .May }'2SS Hugh Bal-.J 
shorn (or Belosale), then bii^hop of KlyJ 
^^nted an indulgence of twenty days tol 
all persons visiting AVestminsler Abbey and] 
praying at Ilaseley's touib. ,\ copy of thiti 
indulgence is amonfir the ninnimeuts of West-I 
minfitur .Vbbcy {Hist. MUS. Cmn$n. 4th ReptJ 
p. 183). 

[TanooT's Bibl. Brit.] W. J. H-T. 


1887), miawllftnenuft writer, vtah the s<'cond 
<hmghtor uf ICdwnrd Williams Hasell fif Dale- 
main, near I'enrith. She was bom on 1 7 Jan. h 
18:K),and wascarefullyeducatcdat home. Atfl 
the Mime time she taught herself, with littlo^ 
or nn ojiststance, Latin, Greek, Spanish, and 
Portuguese. About ISoM ^h^.• l»egan to con- 
tribute to ' Blackwood's Magaztu<.*' and also 
to the 'Quarterly Review,' reviewing in the 
latter Ijonl Derby's trsnilntion of the ' Iliad.* 
At this lime her attention wa* largely con- 
centrated on Greek literature. Sub^etjuentl/^ 
&he devoted herself chietly to the literaturw^| 
of Southern Europe, of which she acquired a 
knowledge at once accurate and e.xtt;uaivB: 
and after writing sundry magouiie articles 
en Spanish and P<irtiigueso nutiiOTS, she coto- 
piled two of the most scholarly volumes 
the series of * Foreign Clusslt-a for Englis! 
Uesders," those on Calderon and Taetto, hot' 
publiidied in lW77. She also reviewed oo-3 
easionatly in the ' Athenfcum.* But besid< 
piirsiiin)^ her studies she g&ve alai^porti< 
of her time to promoting education and t 
general welfare of the district in which sh' 
lived, walking long distances acra^ the hill 
to ttiat^b in village schools or deliver extem- 
pore addn-iwoj*, in which she showed a quite 
uuusual facility. Her philanthropic exei 
tions probably hastened hur death, as in h 
desire, to do good to a scattered popuhilii 
she made light nf fatigue and expomurv 
rain and cold. A deeply religious womai 
she was well read in the>:dngy, and publi<.hed 
L 'The Uock : and uthcr »hort lecturtis < 
passages of llolv Scripture,' 1867. 2. ' Shoi 
Family Prayers',' l):*7i),18.SL 3. ' Bible P 
lags' 1883. A devotional work, ' Via Cm 
et Lucis,' was the Inst book she wrote. Shi 
died on 16 Xov. 18.>^7. 
I [Private iuJoniiatioD; Brit. Moi. Cat.1 

N. M. 

histnrian, WHS a canon regulnr at the mona»- 
j lery of Leeds in Kent, wht-re he was em- 
I ployed AS a schoolmaster. Bale, 011 the au- 




iliontr of WilUua Botooer or WUliua </ 

V^ (ipi>Mt>-r, us^ts that he Lirpd «kmt 13:iO, 

Imt We<*Ter in his ' Fonenll UaoaaieBU ' 

r}iii>t«& frrim Iiii»dwood • mUoct of Edwsrd 

ttw Dlack rmijc& llaaelwoads onlf work 

ii »id to bavff been & * Chroaicon Coapea- 

diwium UftDtuariense;' Wearer •»*«• that 

H was ill the Cottoai&n Lifanrr, bat givei 

Bft mofv **]i«ct referencft, and it Menu impo9- 

nhU* to dM>i<Ie for eert&in wbether it is atill 

pKHTri>d there; ifaoithubMaloststjditof. 

Tbe !ut worda of the extract giren br Weerer 

are ' inter regilea reguni memohas dignum 

he Edvardom principem' duximoa oooudgd- 

andum/ which looki* aa if Iljiselwood'a work 

WW s scries of short Uvm of Kngliwh king*. 

yerham a comptUtiou made for the iu« c<f 

Lis scholars. 

[Bale, T, 20 ; Wecrer'a Fimemll MonoiMinU, 
K'i96\ KuIItV Worthies, Kent^ p. 81; T»»ncr't 
I.U. lirli.-Hib. p. 3S3.] C. L. K. 

HASULM.JOHN" (I7ft4-1K44>, modicfll 
writer, wajf bom in l^in'lon in 17'i4 nnd pe- 
<eiv.1l 111- rn.ilical e<hicatinn at the United 
ISoro ilaund at Kdlnbtirgh, where 

) at 1 m^ical cIomcs in 1785 and 

"**6. After acting for many rears R#niM>tht*- 
arr to B«?thlchem Hospital, Londnn, thus ub- 
aininj^ n practical knowl'^ge of diaeaaes of 
he brain, he wiib created a doctor of niedi- 
by the iinivcrfitv of Aberdeen, 17 'Sept. 
1^16, and eatabltshetl hini^lf a^ a pbTf-ician 
l^mdnn. To comply with the rcgulationa 
ftheCuUejjeuf Phvfttcian* in IxJndon.heen- 
er^ himself at IVmbroke Collepv, L'um- 
ridRv, nnd kept aomo ternui there, bnt took 
' rne. TIo wax admitted a liceDtiate of 
nUege of Phy>ucian3, VJ April 1824. 
■m waa long distiDgulshe*! in private 
aetice bv his prudent treatment of the in- 
ane, wbife his scienlific publicatioiuandluA 
onlribtitiona on cenoral literufure to llie 
riodic:il>4 gitve bim a wide n'piitation. Uu 
id at 5t) I^mbV ('onduit Street, London, 
tJnh 1814, ogeU W). 
Hnalam wrote : 1. ^Otwtervations on In- 
oitT, with Pnictiful Uemnrk* on the Dia- 
' And on .'Vccount of the .Morbid AppeB.r- 
IDceson l>i-'«'.*ction,'17y8. The second edi- 
ontitlcd 'Ob^errntions on MadncKS 
leUncholy,' l^OP. 2. • llIiistnitioriAof 
!t, with a I>eM*ription of the Torture* 
cperieiiced bv Itomli-biiTstinij, Lol>ster- 
ackinf. and fien(ciheniii)f the Itrain/ It^lO. 
'ObMTvut idDH of the Physician [ J)r. Thomas 
lonroj nnd Apiitbecar>'uf Hethlem Un^pital 
Upon the E^idencc before the noitaeofCom- 
ona on Madhoiwc,' l."*16; Haslnra's obser- 
_ ioasftTBon pp. It7-jV». 4. 'Considerations 
itfae Uoml Manafrcment of Iiioane Person;^,' 
1817. 5. * Medical Juruprudeuce as it relates 

to Insanity.* 1**I7. ti. 'A LeftertolbeGoTer- 
nore of iMhJ-hetn Hiwpstal. containing aa. 
Aecouai ci th«ir Jlaaagement Car the last j 

CootribiitiooB to the Hiatonr aad FkywHiogy i 
of the naaaan Intaneet,' 1810. 8. ' A Letter J 
to the Lord ChaaeeUar on Unaoondneis nC] 
Mind and ImheeOitr ct Intellect/ ISULJ 
9. ' On the Naian of Tboagfat and iuCoft- 
nexion with a Perepicooiu Sentence/ 183o. 
Haslam md three papen— * On Restraint 
and Cirrcion/ iH^iS, * An Attempt to Insti- 
tute the Correct Dificrimination between 
Crime and Insanity; 1843, and 'On the In- 
crease of Insanity/ lt*43— before the Society 
fbr Improving the Condition of the Insane ; 
these were printed with others by J. C. 
Sommen in 16Q0. A portrait of ^^1^1^^ by 
G. I>awe was engrared in meuotint. 

pfnok's Coll cf Pbn. 1S78, iii. 3R3 ; Uterary 
GftMtte. 27 JgIt llJU, p. 48*; GroL M«^. 
Sfptembrr IB'14. p. 322; CiiTaln^a of Library* in 

:jm«M)n-0eQtnl8 Office at ^l^iogron. 18S4» 
r.STl.) G. C.B. 

HASLEM, JOrrX (Ie08-I8&41, china 
and enamel painter, born in 1808 at Carring- 
ton^ near Munch'-^tfr. left home n» a boy to , 
lireat Derby with bis uncle. Jame^Thomason, 
afterwards manager of the Derby china works. 
He studied under George Hancock, and first 
devoted himself to flower-painting, but sub- 
sequently took to figure-painting, in which 
he was verj- successful, lie pointed for the 
Duke of S>us8ex a head of Lord Byron, as a 
present for the king of Greece, and at the 
doke's instigation came to London and stu- 
died under E, T. Parris [q. v.] He copied 
many picturve iu miniature on enamel, and 
waa a frequpnt exhibitor at the Hoval Aca- 
demy from \t^i\ to 18<i5. In IfM'i he ob- 
tained B medal from the S«:iciety of Art* for 
a portrait ou china. Up jminted a i^inaU 
enamel portrait of the queen, nnd thence- 
forward obtain^ many comminiiinns from 
the royal family and the nobility, e5pec)allr 
for copies of aucestrnl portraits, lie was 
also frequently employed by jewellers and 
art dealers, and on one occo-sion wne em- 
ployed to paint a set of enamels in imitation 
of Pelitot, which were so succewiful llmt 
they appeared in the miniature exhibitions 
nt South Kensington, in \HH'J nnd IHttTi, as 
thoworkof Pptitot hims4^-lf. In 1K'j7 Hn»Iem 
returned to reside with his uncb' in Derby, 
where be continued till his denth in 1hs4. 
In lS7fi he published a history of 'Tho Old 
Derby China Knctorj-.' 

[HHslftn'a Old Derhy China Factory; infor- 
maiino fnim W. B^'tnroM of Derby; Omves's 
Diet, of A7li»ts, 1760-lti8Ui Boyal Academy 
Catalogau,] L. C. 


HASLERIG, SrK AKTHl'R (rf. 1661), 

6Utef*mail. [See l!t»ILRIGB.j 

trareller, hns related his travels in tlie verj" 
i*carce ' StranffL' aud wonderful tiling hap- 
pened to Kd. Hosleton, borne at Uraintree la 
lisBwt, in bis ten yean^s Iravoiles in many 
forraiue countries. Penned a« he delivert^d it 
from hifi owne mouth," l.Mta, 4to, priuteil by 
Adam Isliji for William JIarley. Another 
edition waa printed in 1(XX) by Thomas 
Pavier. The I-j&5 fdilinn has cuts, said to 
be taken from PoHphilo. » 

[Amofi's Typo^. Antiq. (Horbtrt), pp. 1277. 
12S5. 1363 ; Lowndu's BkU. Uuaunl (Buhn).] 

R. \i. 

HASLEWOOD, JnSF:PII (]7«li-im), 
anliyuHrT,*, was horn in L<inilou (at the Lyinjf- 
in-Ho&)iltal in llrownlow Street, Drury Lane) 
fi Not. I7Hi). At nn early age he entered the 
oiKee of his uncle, Mr. DewWrrr.a solicitor in 
Conduit Street, aften\"ards iMx-arao a partner, 
nnd ultimately itucceeded to the business. 
lie distiiig^iished himsell' by his zeal for sn- 
tiquarian studies ; his editorial labour* were 
coneiderable, and he collected a curioiij* li- 
brary. Among the worksiliat hepdited were 
*Tus«erVI*'ive Iliindrt-d l'oiiitfnU*tt<H>d llus- 
liandrv,' ]810: Juliana Berners or Barnes's 

• Boot of St. AlbaiiP,' 1810; Paiuter's * I'aliice 
of Pleasure/ 1B13; ' Antient Critical Essovs 
upon English Poet* and P<«.*.sy,' 2 vols. ItSll- 
1816; * Mirror fnrMa^strate8,'2 vols, l&lo; 
and ' Ilrunkeri Bitma^iv's Journal/ 1 vol. 
1817-18, -2 vols. lH:fO. 'The ISlK) edition of 

• HnmnbyV Joiirnul ' contains an elnharate 
notice of Ihe works of Kichanl nralhwuit, 
whose claim trt the authorship of the famous 
•Itinorari' Haslewood firmly e8ta.bli»hed. 

JIasIewood supplied Ilridces with occa- 
eional cnmraunicntions for ' Lensura Litera- 
rift/ 1^*07-9, and ■ The British Bihliug;rapher.' 
1810-1-1, lie was one of the founders of the 
Koxbur^die Club, luid conducted some of the 
cliiib books tUrouj;h the j)ress. In 1809 he 
published 'Green-Koom Uossip; or Gravity 
ttallinipt.'and in IHi?4 ' Some Account of the 
J^ife and Pnblicationtt of thelato Ji^ephltit- 
Ron, Esq.,* 8vo. Occasionally he contributed 
to the < Gentleman's Magazine.' 

lie died on 21 Sept. 1833 at Addison Road, 
Kensington. At the eale of lii^ library 
Thorpe, the bookseller, bought for 4(V. a col- 
lection of JIaslewood'.s manu5cripl rn»ies 
on the proceedings of thw Koxbur^hu Club. 
TIli.■^ ill-written and inhipid record of the 
club's achievements was entitled* l!oxburp-he 
Itevela ; or, An Account of the Annual l-)is- 
play, culinnry and festivouR, interspersed 
incidentallr with matters of Moment and 


Merriment. Also, Brief Notices of i he Pre 
PnK'ecdings by a few Lions of Literatur 
combined as the Koxburghe Club, founds 
17 June 1812.' Falling into uafnendl| 
hand?, the manificript nfforded material for a 
virulent attack on Ilaslewood's niemorv in 
the •Atlienreum/ Jenuarr 1884. In It 
James Muidmenl reprinted the * Athemeuml 
articles at Edinburgh, with a inemoir 
Uaslewood, under the title • Hoxboi^ll 
Kevol^, and other lielative Papers j includia 
Answers to the attack on the Memory of tl 
late Joseph llnslewood, Es<i., E.SA., wit 
Specimen* of his EiteraiT Productions/ 4t 
(ntly copieji. privately printp<i ; uniform wit^ 
the RoxburffheClub jiublications). A valu- 
able collect ii>n of ' Proclamations ' formed by 
llaslewood is uow in the library of the Dulie 
of Buccleuch at Dalkeith; nine volumes of. 
newspaper cuttings, print .% &c., illufitnilive < 
Rtage-hiatorv, are preser\'ed in the Britiai 
Museum, llaslewood wa.< a keen collecto 
of fugitive tracts. It was his fancy to bin 
several together in a volume, and affix Mm 
absurd title, os*(juaHing Quaver? (o Quii 
t^ueristen*,* 'Tramper's T wattle, or Treasuro"* 
uud Tinsel, from the Tewkesbury Tank,' ' Nut- 
megs for Nightingales/ &c. 

[Hoxbiirgho JUt<-!s, Edinborgh, 1837 : Gent 
Mfig. 1833. ii. 46:.] A. H.U. 

(^. 1007), royalist, bom about l<S2r, wa 
probably a member of an old family seated 
nt I]iil:^ll, near Ormbkirk, Lancashire. He 
fought in the defence of Lathom ilouse in 
1(>44, and was wounded. A diarv" which be 
kept of the sieg*", extending from 28 Feb. to 
27 May ltj44. U preserved among Woiwls 
manuscripts in the Ashmoleon Museum at 
Oxford. Another copy in the British MuseumM 
(Hiirleian MS. 20/4) has been printed iltfl 
a miKh-niiced form In Draper's 'House of 
Stanley.' The authorship of the diarv* has, 
however, been also ascribed to Iwlh Colonel 
Edwar<l Chisenbale [q. v.] and to Ralph 
Brideoake [o. v.], then one of I^nl Derby'e 
chaplains, ilasf^ll, whoattAinrd therankt ' 
miyor, was one of the four cavaliers who, * 
6 June 1650, assassinated Anthony Aschu 
[q. v.] at Madrid {Cat. Clarendon Stat 
Fapfrf, ii. fyS, 220, 3-13 ). He was imprisone 
there for four months, but in Oclooer wa 
releasejl, and went to England to act ns 
spy on the leaders of the commonwealth (ifc 
ii. 200). From a letter of his brother James^ 
to the king, dated 12 Feb. ItyVo, it wouM 
seem that be had planned to surjirise and 
secure Liverpool for Charlos(iY>. tii. 10). lie 
accompanied hia brother to Flanders in JunOj 
of that year, and in the following Novemt 





nUiged in a }>l>tt to kill C*n>mn'(?11 (iii. 4<t, . 
•^). On Hi JilIt U}tii\ he wa.« sppoinTed 
«inem- to Uie qiieeu ( t'al. f^tate Pa/ters, 
\hm. 'l««;i-t pp. 20-2, 613, 16«4-o pp. 339, 
^79 1. 

Hte brolher. JjlHea IIassall (_/f. 1607), 
il» 4ttli?d (I major, arrived ut Antwerp in 
t^hruary Itl-V), and (rare (innonde much in- 
lunniiinD aViut atlWirs in F*ii|{Iand {Oil. 
Ckrmdou State PitperHf iii. IS). In July 
Ulovuiff he received a letter from the king 
<)airiiijf liiixi to reiuru to England to collect j 
Wf sums of money that the geaorostty of 
frieiuli might supply {\b. iii. 44). At tbo , 
nd of the year he waa concerned in the plot 
to unuwinace Cromwell, but waa betrayed, ' 
•mKed on 16 Nov., and committed a close 
pnBoner to the Tower {ib. pp. 87. 134). I 
iVre he remuined until the Ki'Htomtion ' 
{GaL State Paperf, Dom, l(i.>VGO). Ac- , 
cording to bi$ f('llow-<.-(jD»pinilon(, the plot | 
ftilttd Mirough his delay ( Cat. Chrendon State , 
PajHTf, iii. 81). At his examination be re- 
fas«d 1odlM:loM?anythIng()'A.)ii.90\ Charles ' 
made him his cupbearer and captain of a 
company iVal. State Papert, Dom. 1060-1, 

Gi. :;44,' 453). and in October HWO gruuttsl ^ 
mapatent for 'eea wreck, mineraU, (fravel, 
aand, etc., usually taken up for ballast at 
low water-mark ' (/A. iKim. Iti60-1 pp. 244, 
3t36, 166;}-4 p. 401V). Dnrin^f l«(iA-7 he 
correaponded wirh .-Vphra Ileliii [(i. v.], then 
ftt Antwerp, but she often cumpluined of lua , 
flilenci and Jelay ( ib. Dom. 16w-7 ). Pepys, 
who often met him, describes him as 'a great 
creature of the Duke of Albemarle's' (XVary, 
34 June lt»0«(). On 27 Sept. UM17 he woii ' 
mwle captain of the foot company emplnyed i 
in Portsmouth pBrrison {Cat. State Papers, 
Dom. 16*17, p. 4S7j. The name occurs in 
tbt* atato papers oa llalae, lialdcy, Ilalsalti 
mnd lUlUall. 

[Dmper'f IXoom of Stanley, pp. 99, 111.] 

O. G. 

(1771-lSil), c(Mui>oaer and organist, JK)m at 
Sdrt*pta, Southern Ruasia, wojt educated at 
Karby, near lUlIe, and at Nie^'k'y in Silesia, 
under (tregor, a Moravian hiahop and com- 
poa«r nf hymns. After tilling the post of 
rlawical master at Barby, Niesky, and Hen- 
nersdorf. near Ilermhut, Ila^sC taught music 
And fon-igu Unguagea at Fulneck, the Mo- 
ravian settlement near I^eeds, and became 
organiet to the chapel, ilotis^ did much to 
improve musical tafte and knowledge in that 
part of York*hire, by inlrixlui-ing foreign 
ii>aal*erpiece« and organij*ing orchestral meet- 
ings. Ke died very fiuildenly on 1 May iH3l. 
B118&6 arroJigvil the music for ' Polybymuia. 

or Select Aip* by celebrated foreign Com- 
posers, adapted to wnnls by James Mont- 
gomery,* London, lH2i*. He also compiled 
'Sacred Muflic, partly original, partly se- 
lef^ted* (I^hkIh), which included hix chorus, 
' BU'jised are thev,' his recitjitive and air, 
* The Mountuins shall de])art,' and a Imiss solo 
and chorus by him, entitled 'Amen, praiae 
the LorJ.' The lost number has b*M.'n since 
rr-nrinted as No. 4 of Siyan & Pentland's 
'Part Music.' Has96 composed many hymns 
which have not been collected. 

[Leeds Int«Uigenc«r, 6 Hay 1831 ; Holland 
ana Ercrett's Memoirs of Jamu Motitganirt7, ii. 
302 ; Cudworth's Round ahouc Bra<lforcl. p. 606; 
prirate iaformatioo ] L. M. M. 

HASSELL, JOHN irf. 1825), water- 
colour painter,engniver, and drawing-master, 
first appears as an exhibitor at the lioyal 
Academy in 1789 with a ' View of Stone- 
henge on Salisbury Plain.' He drew many 
viewa nf local scenery, which he engraved 
himself in a(|ua(int, most of them coloured. 
They were published in various topographi- 
cal works. Ue had a lurKo practice as a 
draw ing-ma«T«r, and published some works 
on wnter-colour [>aintingaitd drawing. Has- 
sell was a friend of George Morlani] [a. v.], 
and wrote a life of him, published in 1800 ; 
be also engraved Morlana's drawing of 'Con- 
way Castle ' in aquatint. Ue died in 1825, 

He aleo published : 1. 'A Toiu- of the Isle 
of Wight/ 1790, 2 vols. 8to. 2. • A Pictu- 
reatjne Guide to Bath, Bristol Hul-WellSj 
the River Avon and the adjacent Country : 
illustrated with a set of ^'iews taken in the 
Summer of 1792 by Messrs. Ihbetson, La- 
porte, and J. Hassell, and engraved in aqua- 
tint,' 1793. 3, * Views of Noblemen'd and 
Gentlemen's Seats ... in the Counties ad- 
joining London/ 1804. 4. ' Beauties of An- 
tiquity/ 1806. 5. 'The Speculum or Art 
otlirawing in Water-colours/ lc09, which 
reached three editions. 6. ' Caleographia, 
or the Art of multiplying Drawing*,' iHll. 
7. •.\qua Pictura; illu.«*trate{l by a Series 
of tJriginal Specimens from the W'orks of 
McB^r:?. Payne, Munn, Praucia, and others,' 
1813. 8. 'Picturesque Rides ami Walks, with 
Excursions bv Water, thirty miles round tho 
British Metropolis,' 1818, 2"vols. 9. 'Tour of 
the Cirand Junction Canal/ 1819. 10. 'Rides 
and Walks roimd London/ 1820, 2 vols. 
11. *The Camera; or Art of l>rawing in 
Water-colours/ 1823. 12. * Excursions of 
Pleaiiturt! and S]>orts on the Thames/ 1823. 
13. 'Gniphic p4.>liniMition: a Pruclicul Treo- 
tiso on the Art of Etching/ 1830. All the 
works ar? illustrated with engravings in 
aquatint by Hussell himself. 





I LiAtELi,, Kpw^ed (U. 1Ho2», water-colour 
pnintiirr.Miii of tin? atmve.nos in Isll elected 
a member of the Srwiety of Brit ish Artists, at 
the rooma of which he Lad been a fR-quent 
exhibitor for some years. He sub^equeatlr 
filledtheofficeof secretary to theBOciety. I lis 
worka in water-colour ore much esteemed. 
There are five m IheNotioTial lialieri- of Ire- 
land ut Dublin, «nd one of Harrow, iJerwcnt- 
water, in (lie Sonth Kensington Museum. 
Hh iVhhI a\ Lancaster in IMoJ. lie occasiou- 
allv exhibiti-d at the Royal Academy and 
Briti^ lo^tiiution. 

(RedftraTe'B Diet, of Artists; Dotid's munu- 
script Ilikt. (if Kuglish Kugra\-ors (Ilrit. Mas. 
Addit. M.S. 33101); Brynn's Diet, of I'rtinti ra, 
ed. Graves ; UriC Mas, Cut. ; Cat. of Ikiok^ on 
Art] I* C. 

HASSELLS, WARNER (^. iasO-1710), 
portrflit-jMiinier, rei-ided in London, but was 
jiroliably a nat ive of Germany. He belonged 
to t.he school of Sir Godfrey Kneller, who 
pointed his portrait in 1701). Ila&sells is 
Known by a ft'w portraits, which have I)een 
eng^raved.inclndinp tho^ofC.Tj.Fel-*tl60t)) 
and J. Witt (ir07), a Frankfort merchant, 
both in mezzotint by J. Smith, and an anony- 
mous portrait in line by P. VauderbanU. lie 
■IflO painted minialitreannd in wnter-colonre>. 
He is wrongly described by Walpoleas AVil- 
Itfim IlaaseL "George Lambert [q. v.] isatated 
to have been hU pupil. 

[neJgrarea Vict, of Artists ; Walpole'g .Vnecd. 
of PftiBting. ed. Wornum ; Chidonor Smitli's 
British Mtziiotinto Fortrrtiti.] L^ C. 

HASTED, EDWARD (1732-18l2>,hii!- 
torian of Kent, born on 20 Dec. 17.3:?, w.-l-* 
only son of Kdward Halted, lord of the 
manor of Huntinpfield Court in the pftri!*h 
of Ea«ling. Kent, and a barrialer-at-Iaw of 
Lincoln's Inn, by .Vnne, daughter and oo- 
heire** of Jo*eph Tyler of London. He wnn 
educaleil at Kton and afterwards became a 
student ofLiucoln'a Inn. At one period Jte 
posaijsaed conaidGrablc landod property in 
KeBt, and for a short time was chairman of 
thenuartorsesaions at Canterbury. On 8 May 
17(w he was elected a fellow of the Uoyal 
Society; ho waa also a fellow of the .■So- 
ciety of Antiquftries. His elaborate history 
of the county of Kent ocr'upied him for uy- 
warde of forly vears. He abwtnicted with 
his own hand all the wills in the prer'*ga- 
tivc office at Cantorburi-, and made re8earcli''s 
in the public recordfl in Ltmdon, in the li- 
brariesat Lambeth and Canterbury catheilralf 
and in the fine collect ion at Surrenden, Kent. 
The mannscriptfl of many antiqaariw wore 
communicated to Kim : and he obtained in- 
formation from the nobility and gentry of the 

county, .Sir 8. Egvrton Brydge*, while cha- 
racterising him as a eood to[K)gTaphical anti- 
giiary, says* he wa.-* imprudent and eccentrii 
lie generally inhabiteti ohm of the prebendj 
houses at Canterbury, where he had 
to the prerogatire office and the cat! 
documents. A\Tien inTolved in pecuniar^ 
embarrassments he grew reckless, and thd 
lat ter part of lus history ^vas brought out in 
a slovenly manner. It was cfjmpleted in four 
foliovolumes, 177K-99, AltojretneritdispUivs, 
more research I han ta-ste either in style or i 
the armngf'ment of thi> mnterialft. It is ver 
defective in details of »oeial history and 
biographical or lilerarj- hisiorv. It prt^ftenta 
however, a faithful record of the pr 
of the county and of the genealogies of il5 
principal familioa. 

Hoflted's library was sold by auction in 
17{>o,and his pecuniary difficult ie(> eventual]) 
comi>elled liimtoquitKeut. llesub^equentli 
lived in olwcurity in the environs of London 
A few years before his death the Marl olj 
Radnor presented him to the mastership 
the hospital atCorsham.Wiltshin-, and aftc 
wards, by a decree in the court of chancerj-, hm 
recovered bis estates in Kent. He died in thd 
master's lodge at Corsham on 14 Jan. 181:2. 
.Sir Egerton Brvdgcs says ' he was a littli 
inean-iookiug man, with a long face and 
high nose ; quick in Kin movements and 
shar]i in his manner. He hiul no imagizi 
lion or sentiment, nor any estraordinarr ' 
quality of tlie mind, iinlesA memory,* Ho 
marrieilin 17''i'> Anne, thihl daughter of John 
Dorman of Sutton-at-IIone, and had iesvi^ 
five sons and two daughters. 

The title of hishtsiorv is *Tlie Hist^rv and 
Topographical Suney of IheCountv of Kent,'' 
4 vols., Canterbury, 1778, 1781', ^1790, and 
171:^', fol. In June 1868 the author's own 
i-'opy. with manuscript corrections and 3,621 
cnatu of arms illuminated by Dowse, wa^J 
.•lold for 94/, A large-paper copy in the Gren-J 
ville Library contain.stineen additional plates' 
which are veryficarce. A collection, made by 
J. W. Jones, of drawings and water-colour 
sketches, with prints and engravings to illuB- 
trate Hasted's work, and bound in twenty- 
three folio volumes, IS in the British ^luReuotH 
(,\ddit.MSS.3l'3.'i3-75y A second edit ion offl 
the* History of Kent,' ' imjiroved, corrected^ ™ 
and continued to the present time,'appeanH] 
in 12 vols, at Canterbury, 1797-1801, 8vo. 
The * History of Canterbury ' waa printed •©- 
paratcly in folio IVflO, and again in 2 vola. 
fcjvo, It^Ol. The first part of a new edition of 
Hasted's 'History of Kent,' corrected, en- 
larged, and continued to the present time, 
from the znanti»cript collection? of the lato 
liev. Thomas Streatfield and the late Rev^ 




nbert lUackwell Lnrlung, tliu public re- 

rd», and oth^r nonrdi-*, was pnl)li6lu'd at 

[>ndon in It^Hd, loI.,iin(lfr \he editorshiti of 

nry H. Draka. It cumprisi'S the liunured 

' BUcklicatli. 

Hn^te^i Dl«<>drfw iip 'A ()t'nea]i>jriMl niid 

lUtorioil Tublt? of llie ranitlifH tif Ilirnm of 

lewark, ice, verified lUroujjUoiit bv Kecords 

nd other aiilhrnlic I>ocument«.' printed for 

private dialrihiition in ]7!t7. There is h copy 

in tlie British MiidiMim, where many of hut 

»Uection3 rtUtinjj to Kent are Uki'wisc pre- 

red ftinorp the Additional 5I.SS. T\vf> por- 

lits of him, otio a p*>nfil drawing and the 

" i**r an wi^nTiviiiff from a jirivnte plate, are 

erted i[i Additional MS. iVS/.ri'.i, f. 1. 

[Addit. M3S. 5.336, ^$537, /i87'2 f. 88. !6f;Gl. 

" an ff. 43. 44 : Brj-dcfftt'i AutnbiopTrtpliy, i. 50, 

; ; Criti-al Ue7iew. 1778. p. 401 ; Eyprion Id^. 

974, ff. St>7. 30H, 313 : 0«Dt. Mag. 1812, pt. i. 

da. fl72. pt, W. !04. 205. 1813, pi. i. 3118; 

rmgVs Dritisb Top^tTHphy. i. 131, 41(1; Ilns- 

i'B Kent, I i. TjA.!. ".'i.'t , Lownilcji'M Hill Mun. 

kthii), pp. 1010. 1054; Nirholfi'fi lllnntr. of 

, litidex); 5ichoU'»t Lit. Anowl. ni. 522. 677, 

ir*. 687 ; Thornton's Itoyal Sex-lot)-, Append. 

, Hi ; Upcott's English Topographv. i. 3i58.1 

T. i\ 


the Itrit)i(h government in ■Mndn^ru.'yiar, 

I l)oni at Cork in 17811, hi,-* pari'titn bciiij,' 

embers of the Society of l-"riends. The ry- 

uioua reslnuni of the sect in which he wan 

ained pruved distasteful tobim,nad ho eti- 

•t*d in the oOlh foot, rniccedinp to India, 

served there during^ the Mabratta wiir. 

181'"> ilastie, now a aerpeant, was qiitir- 

; with his re;»iment at Port i>onie. Mau- 

tiuR. Rn<l attracte<l the notiw of (lovenior 

iWn^uhar by hit* conduct durin||: a Arc. He 

HA p>commeiidt'd fur a commission, and 

Qtime appointed preceptor to two Mala- 

■y princea, with whom he returned to 

car. There ho became a,tflislnntnpfnt 

to Mr. Pyc, the civil apent of the Britisli 

jTemment at Tamatave. llastit^ reached 

be? court nf King' Radama I, at the capital 

Im. riiia, (} .\uir. 181", and .Hiiccee<!pd in 

winning the friendstnp of the 

! :irch, with whom he waa enabled 

J negotiate an important tre-atv for the pre- 

cntion of the export idare tnide. For nine 

ears Ilafitie acted ait civil agent in Mada- 

( including two years per interim, at 

lauritius)« and he accompanied King Hu- 

amn thn)Ughout the campaigns in which 

irt i^ubjugation of the eajntern, northern, and 

rest-eni trib**-sof thepn'at island waflc-U'ected. 

"" journal?, now in the Public Recurd 

^Jffice, I,cmdou. afforded the only geographical 

■Informatiou uvuilablo reepecting the interior 

of Traerinn, Antoukay, imd Ibnina, during 
the fin»t portion of the nineteenth century, 
and his observations on the manners and 
clmructer of tho inland Malngnsy tribes are 
still moflt valuable. He died at Antanana- 
rivo on 18 Oct, 18i>(i, whem he -was buried 
in a vault expressly prt-pared for his bodvby 
the friendly king, who, mainly by llastie's 
exertions, had now become recognised aa the 
sole ruler of Madagascar. 

[Manuscript JoiirnalsofJamt'BlIastie, Colonial 
SijiU) Paper*. Uword Offiea ; EHib's Hirt. of M«- 
daga^icar; Oliver's MadngiuKar, vol. i. ; Henry 
d'K«amps*8 UistQiro et Geognipbie do Mada- 
gawar.] S. P, O. 

HASTINaS, Sir THAULKtS (1794- 
ISOti), founder of the BritiRb Medical Asso- 
ciation, sixth son of Jainv.'* Hestingj*, rector 
of Murtley, Worcefltershire, was bom at Lud- 
low on H Jan. 171U; studied under two 
surgeon* at Stoiirport, and at the age of 
eighteen, without a lecal qnnUfieatiou. and 
aft^r only a few months' study in I^ondou, 
was elected hoURe-surgeon to the Worcester 
county intlnnary. He made numerous ex- 
jierimPutB on the nervous system under tho 
direction of Dr. Wilson Philip, one of the 
phyMcinns to tho infirmary. In l.Sl.j be 
enten-d at KJinburgh X'niversity, and con- 
tinnud to work ut experimental physiology 
and microscopy, being the only student at' 
that lime who used the microscope in medi- 
cal rest»arch. He gmduat4.-d M.u. in 1818, 
and was at once appointed pbyitician to the 
Worcester infirmnry, and fur mnny years 
waa tho leading practitioner in W'orcestw- 
ehire. With the view of raising the tone 
of provincial medical practice, be founded in 
18:28 the 'Midland Medical and .Surgical 
Ueporter,' to which he conlribui4>d largely 
during it» four years' existence. In W>i2 it 
was abandnnpil in favour of a project for 
funning a provincial medical association for 
the advancHtnent nf raiMlical science and the 
medical prnf(?!wion. A meeting of medical 
men was held at tlie Worcester infirmary on 
11* July 18^:;, when the Provincial Medical 
and Surgical As-iooiation was forme<l, and 
Hastings delivered an inaugural addreas. For 
many years Hastings was the secretary and 
leading spirit of the association, skilfully 
gtiidlng it through stormy waters. In IWO 
the 'Provincial Medical and Surgical Jour- 
tinl ' was established, and In Ih4S it waa 
adopted as the organ of the as-sociation. In 
IHTifl the title * Rritish ' was subntituted for 
' Provincial,' owing to the growth of the as- 
sociation, and Hastings was appointed ptfi^ 
mancnt president of tlie council and trea- 
surer, lie was knighted iu IBW. He was 




"det'ply inieroftied in sanjiory questions, and 
\rAs {ir^fiident of the public health section 
■of ihe Social Science A»ociiition ai the Yurk 
meeting. ilewmteonthfgeolog^vBmlnfttunil 
iiistory of W(»rct'Mershin?, especially of the 
MnlvLTH Hill'*, and larK^lv developed the 
Worcester Musetim. lie ilied ou 30 July 

llostlngf married in \S2~i the eldest daugh- 
ter of GeoiTSffe Woodyatt, M.D., of Worcester, 
by whom he left an only son, I). AV. Hast* 
tinjfs, M.I', for Eaat Worcestershire ainc« 
1880, and two daujrhter^. U» Anjr. 1882 
A marble bu^t of Ha<iting^, by Brock, wan 
prt?Mmted to the fit y of Worcester, and placed 
in the public libniry. A Hoiitin^H medal and 
prize arti anniiully awarded iu honour of his 
memory by the BrltiBh Medical Association. 

Ilastlnf^ wTote: 1. 'A Treatise! on In- 
flammation of tho Mucous Membrane '>f the 
Lnn(f» ; to which is prefixi'd an Kxperimen- 
tol Inquiry respecting the t'oritractile Power 
of the BIixkI Vesj-el* and the Nature of In- 
iLimmation,* 1B20. *J. 'Ului^tmtinna of the 
Natural History of Worciwtorshire,' 18fi4, 
beaidea many memoirs iu medical jounmU 
find addrej>i»>» on various occaHiou9. 

fLnncut, 1851 il. 185-8 (with a pirtrait), 
1860 ii. 139; Itritiali MedlcalJoumn). 1866 ii. 
128. J882ii.3l!3.] O. T. B. 

1497), claiming to }>e Buron H&stiugSi'was 
second 9on of bir Hup;h Hnatings, Who waa 
ffranditon of Sir Hugh Haitinga (1307 ?- 
1347) [q. T.], and great -grsndrton of John, 
ftccond baron Hastings [q. v.], by his second 
■wife. His father aerved at Brest in 1378, 
nnd in the Scottish expedition of 13S-'i, In 
138fl he waa with .Tuhn of Gaunt in Spain. 
In all these wari he bore the anus 'or, a 
maunche gule*i' (BLou^nci.D, vi. 414) ; hin 
aonaaysthathediedat ' Vylellove inSpayiiH." 
He married Anne, daughter of Edwanl, lord 
Spencer; by her he hod two sons. Hugh, 
the elder, who died without issue at Calais 
in 1395, was, on the death of his cousin John, 
third carl of Hastings, in 1389, declari!cl 
lieir of the half blood, but Reginald, third 
lord Grey of Kuthin [q. v.], claimed priority 
aH heir of the whole blood in right of his 
grandmorher KlizalxMh, daughter of John, 
«eeond baron Hastings by his fir-itwifo. The 
dispute was nominally a^ to tbe right to 
bear the Ila^^tiug^arma, ' or, amauuch gules,' 
but it virtually included the right tn the 
family honours. It became one of the rntisM 
rflehrtn of the middle ages, and was still un- 
decided at the death of Hugh, and Kdward 
being then oidy fourteen yea« old, it was 
further delayed. 

In 1401 (trey petitioned tbe king to ap- 
point n curator for Sir Edward Hastings m 
order tluit hitt suit might Im dealt with ( Ro% 
Pari. iii. 480), but though there were son 
le;ial pniceedingii at ibi^ time [ Use, pp. rj<}-7 
&2) it was only on W May 1407 that a tioo 
mission was issued by John of I^ancaRtei; 
afterword* duke of Bedford, as consUble i 
Enj^land. The court of cbiralrr assemble 
at Westminster 4 Feb. 1408, and judgmea 
was given on 9 May 1410; llzistings wag con 
demned in costs, but at once appealed. At 
tbe coronation of Henry V Hs-stings claimed 
to carrj- the spurs Iwfore the king, whic' 
Orev had done undisputed in Kll'U. On :1'2 MaJ 
and'22 Nov. 1413, and again on 8 Feb. 14U 
commissions were isaoed to hear the appeaL 
but the trial was apparently prevented bj 
the Erencb war, in which Hastingr tookpor' 
in tbe r**tinu'' <if the Earl of Dorset. On' 
10 Feb. 1 117, before the trial came on, Grey 
obtained an order fortbeta\otionofthec«:istai 
of the first trial, and <hi -4 May they wer 
assessed at S*87/. 10*. lUrf. Ha*ting«, whc 
»won! that he had spent a (bou»and mark 
besidrt?, refustnl to pay lest it should be coo.-^ 
strued as an acknowledgment of Gre^s right 
Ue W118, therefore, imprisoned in "the Mar 
sbalsen, where ho peraainedtill January 1433, 
and perhaps later, being for much of that 
time, us he him.'Hdf says, ' lM)undyn in fetter 
of iron Hker a thief or traitore than like 
gentleman of birth.' He steadfastly n^fiLse^J 
to purchase bis release bv abandoning hio..^ 
claims, duipire ell his sutlcrtngA, which in- 
clud^d the death nf his wife and fvveral 
children ( Account of CoufrciYr/it/, &c,, p. ix),j. 
He, however, otfertKl to resign liis claims to "^ 
his eldest son John on condition that Grej 
would marry him to one of his own daugb-l 
ters. Hastings died in January 1437. lai 
addition to tbe title of Ha-^tingc. he assumed 
by a deed dated 4 Nov. 1400 that of Stuie>- 
ville, a» heir of his great-grand mother Mar- 
gery Foliot. He was twice married, tirat 
to Muriel {?), daughter of Sir John Dinham, 
by whom he had, with other issue, a eon 
John ; rtbe died before 1420 (i'&.') Hastings^A^ 
second wife was Margery, daughter of SirH 
Robei*t Clifton of Bokenham, who after hia 
death married Sir John Wyndbam, and 
dying in 14oti wns buried in the church of 
tlie Austin Friars at Norwich (WebvbR, 
Fttnfrall Monument it, p. H041. Sir John ^ 
Hastings never pmseeuted the family clainu^H 
and having married Anne, daughter of John. 9 
lonl Morlev, died in 1471, and was buried 
in Elsing Church (see inscription given in 
Blouepield. ix. <>m, and Goiuit. Srpuich. 
Mffnummtst'ii. pt . 3, p. 309 ). Ilis doscendanta 
la the male line became extinct in 1513, i 

tise bflroDv of Hasting* fell into abeiraace tilt 
l84l. wlien it was rerived in favour of Sir 
lacftb Astlev.grondfaibrrof tbepTVwnt Lord 
liai*iinjEr$. TU'' I'larlt* of Kent, as n*|>respnta- 
'A\vi of Lord Grey of Ruthin, clauned tbu 
itle of Hastings til) 1039. 

[Amboritias quoted; Acconnt of the Coiitro- 
rer^T Wtwecn Beginaki, Lonl Gny of Ruthiu, 
kud Sir Kiward Haatinga, ed. Sir I'. G. ^'oang, 
l^lbL IMt, priratelj printed (baeides tbe formiil 
' rvootd of proceedings and an iotroductioo, this 
vohuD* contains four |«thetic Ieu«n vrittcn b^ 
HMTJaga from prison) ; l^of^ate's BorooagB, i. 
£76-8: Blomefield's Ui«t. of Norfolk, v. 18S. vi. 
*I4,riii. 112, 201-3, ii.470»6I3-U, ftl9.i.52.] 

C. L. K. 


OY LoroHBOBoroH (tl. IfiTitV, third son of 

Oeor^ lla^tin^, thinl baron Uiistingit of 

r Hastings, and first carlof lluntinpdnn [q. v.], 

Ifcr Anne.dAaght<>r<)f Henry Stafford, duKe of 

suckingbiun, wa.<) knighted in 1546, and took 

; in tbe invasion of Scotland bv thft Pro- 

or Somerf*t in September 154^, In the 

f|>arliament$of 1547 and 1o5l' he sat as one of 

(the memburs for the county of Leicester. Ue 

L one of tb** king's gentlemen-pen«ioners, 

[,wben Mime disputes arose about tbe I'al&is 

sntier in 1.5.*iO, was sent to Calnift with hts 

brother FranL-is, eecond earl of Huntingdon 

fq. T.], who commanded a force there. He 

vofl a strong iloman catholic, aud while at 

BCahua had some disputes aboat religion with 

Underbill, the * hot gospeller/ a member of 

tbe SAxoe corpe, and for at^menta chiefly 

used * ffre&t oat lis,' swearing ' by tbe Lord s 

fool' tliBt the Koman doctrine was true. 

^I'nderhill considered that Hastings was the 

fcauco of his arreat in Mary's reign. In 

|]6rSl he Was »ihMrifr for Warwirkabire and 

lljeicestenihire. "When Edwnrrl VI wa? dying 

lin 1553, the Duke of NorthiimlierUnd gave 

'Hastings ordtTS to raise four tliou>niid fnot 

in Burkinghamahire to secure the 8uecei«jiinn 

of Lady Jane Grey. On the king's death he 

declared for Queen Mari-, wlio made him a 

Lprivy councillor, mnater of tbe horse, re- 

rceiver-general of the honour of Leicester and 

|©f the court of augmentations. During the 

[disturhanre at (iret-nwicb in September he 

I foiled fin atlf mpt made lo stwil the queen's 

|lior«ct), and on the ;tOlh led her bor^e from 

I the Tower througli the Rfreeta of London, as 

•he rode lo AVcstminster for her coronation. 

He wa* strongly opposetl to her marriage 

TTith Ilitlip, and threatened to leave her w-r- 

t-tice if she [Kfrsidited in the scheme, but aftcr- 

l^tranls withdrew his objections. In companv 

I'Vfith Sir Thomas Comwallis [q. v.] he waa 

f«i>nt on 2M Jan. 1554 to mi>vt Wyatt ot Dart- 

I ford, and hot words passed between them and 


the rebel leader. On 1 1 Feb. he and Lord 
"William Howard carried the queen's com- 
mands lo the Princess Eliiabel h at Ashxidge, 
and ah^T some delay, doe to Klieabeth's sick- 
ness, brought her up to Limdon. In No- 
vember he and Lotti Paget were sent to 
Brussels to escort Cardinal Pole To England, 
and wrote a letter to the queen de()<^nbing 
thuir interviews with tbe emjuTor and iha 
cardinal {Stattf i'apern, For. 1553-8, pp. 135, 
138). He sat in the parliaments of 1554 
and 155o as member for Middlesex. In the 
council he belonged to the section specially 
devoted to the qtieen,and among other marks 
of her favour received in 1 655 grants of the 
manors of Market Bosworth, L(<.icester»hiref 
andCreech St. Michael, SomereetHhire, and on 
25 May was installed knight of the Garter. 
The lJentf<lictine8 at Westminster wrote to 
him, requesting him to keep the queen in 
mind of her intention lo refound the abbey 
of Glastonbury. On the discover,- of Sir 
Henry Dudley's plot in 1556, be and others of 
• the queen's clique' (Froddi:) in the council 
investigated the conspiracy. In July lf>57 
he accompanied Lord Clinton [see CLiifTOK, 
EliwiHD EiEJTXKs de] OH hi9 expedition 
KgainM the French. At the end of the year 
he seems Co have resided his office of master 
of the horse for the higher post of lord cham- 
berlain. He was also warden of the stun- 
naries.Biidon 19Jan. 15>t* was created Baron 
Hosiings of Loughborough in the county of 
Leicester, and recL'ivr^d a grant of the manor 
of Loughborough. Mary made him one of 
her executors. As a member of the council 
he was concerned to some extent in the reli- 
gious persecutions of the reign. He wosono 
of the lords appointed on ^1 Nov. lo ewwrt 
' Queen ElizaU'th on her f'ntrance into London, 
j and was summoneiltocourton 20 Sept. 1659. 
. On 23 April 15(11 he was confined in Bay- 
nard Castle for hearing mass, was convicted 
I and sent to the Tower, where he wrote to 
I the council to sue for pardon ; he ' willingly 
' to<>k the oath'of supremacy, and wosreleased. 
[ After this he appears to hnve retired to his 
! estate at Stoke Poges in Buckingham shire, 
' where he had built a hospital and a chapel, 
I and there endeil hi8 days in devotion, dying 
' on 5 March 1573. He left no children ; bis 
wife Joan, whose family name is unknown, 
survived him. Nichols, quoting from AV'il- 
: liam Burton U'^7o~l((46) [q. v.j, eays that 
he wns a * gentleman of many worthy parts, i 
something given to melancholy,* &nd fond of 
, chcj^<(, and givrs a portrait of him from a 
' window in Stoke Poges Church. 
I [NicboU's Hist, and Antiq. of lioicestor, in. 
it. A77-9. containi ao aorounl of h'ls life ; Qaoon 
Jane and Queen Mary. pp. 27, 28, 63, 68 (Cam- 





■d'.-i'ply interesittftl in jsanitftrv qiwstions, and ; 
wtis |m'si(l*-nt of tile public health section j 
■of tlnj Social Scit-nce Ai-sociation at the York j 
iin*t?tinj(. 1 1 (.' wrote on t lit! jiifeolojfy and natural . 
lii--tory of Worcf^tt^riibirt'. espt.-cially of the 
.Miilvt;rn Hills, ami larirt4v developed th.e , 
Worcester Museum. lie died on 30 Julv I 


JlastinjTHmarrieiHn l>*i?."> the eldest daugh- I 
t'jr of ( iforjr*.' \ViK>ilyatt, M.l)., of Worcester, 
i^y whom he left an onlv son, < i. AV. Hast- ; 
tin;(s, M.l*. ft)r East 'Worcestershire since I 
IMHIJ, nnd two daiiffbters. On 9 Auff. 1H82 ' 
■a marble bu:it of Hastings, by Bmck, was 
presitntod to the city of Worcester, and placed 
in thf ]tubUc library. A HaHing^ medal and 
]iriz*' nnt annually awarded in honour of his { 
memory by the British Medical Association. 

Hastings wrote: 1. 'A Treatise on In- ■ 
1iummati«»n of the Mucous Membrane of the , 
Luiigi) ; to which is pn^fix^ an Kxuerimen- 
tal Inquiry respecting-tlie Contractile Power ! 
of llie IJlood Vesseli* and the Nature of In- i 
Jbimmiition; 18*20. 2. 'Illustrations of the i 
Natural History of "Worcestershipe,' 1834, i 
be.siiles many memoirs in medical journals 
anrl ad(lru:*wis on various occasions, | 

ITijnici't. 1851 ii. 18.^-8 (with a pf)rtrait\ , 
ISfiU ii. 139; ]{riti!<h ModicalJoumal. 1866 ii. : 
12R, 1882 ii. 323.] G. T. B. , 

HASTINGS, Sir EDWARD (1381- ! 
14:i7), claiming to be Baron Hastings, was ' 
:*econd son of Sir Hugh Hastings, wno was \ 
jfrainlson of Sir Hugh Hastings (1S07 S 
i.")l7) [<i. v.], and great-grandson of Joh'* 
sei'oud baron Hastings [q. v.], by hi.^ secoi 
wit'e. His father served at Brest m 1-ii 
nml in the Scottish expedition of h185. ' 
IIJHti he was with John of Gaunt In Sy-' 
In all these wars he bore the arms *"~ 
mauuche gules' (Blohefield, ^-i. 414) ; 
sousaviiithat he died at ' Vylellove inSp.**- "" 
He married Anne, daughter of Edwani. 
Spencer ; by her he had tvro sons, i » ~* ., 
the iilder, who died without issue at i ■ ^ 
in 139^, was,onthe deathof hiscoutiiiv- 
third earl of llastinf^s, in_13^, d" ^ 



i^.iljort Nf.lron, in 

i' i^uality.' .i^.jilied 

: I'l;.'!^.^* i;..vr ioim 

A,-i-lI.'-I (i\V 

-.i |juhli.-h--I :ii:- ye:ir 

• >:-as;i crucial iii.«:iim'e 

i;?_'lii>h chufL^h I Answer 

.-.vol. vi.l I'p'-'" hi-ap- 

; V ih-j!irt'd hvr hall-sisti.-r 

■iroriciil account of that 

:, lile, and virtue*. . , .that 

■-.nue.smijUt becommuni- 

beir of the half blood, but B^r"* 
lortl (irey of liuthin [q. v.], cltini' 
»A heir of the whole olood tn n 
grandmother Elizabeth, danght 
second baron Hastings byhU fin 
tlispute was nominally aa to 
bear the Hasting arms, 'or, a: 
liut it virtually included tb 
family honours. It becameo 
reli-hreif of the middle afleB,r' 
dt'eided at the death of Hi 
bein^ then only fourteen ^ 
further delaved. 



In 1401 (u-.,. 
point a curutu: 
order that hi.-. : 
Pflr/. iii. 4.Sn: 
legal procci-'ll. 
02) it was o;. 
ml-asion w:i.: 
afterwards . 
at Westui" 
demned i:. 
the cjni:.. ■■ L' 

to carry . ,.iv Elizabeth's landed estate 

Greyh: ■ :..-w Eranci:?. lord Hastin^.«, 

and 1*. ' '- ;,i. eounte;!? of Uuniinffd'm, 

comni: . ■ .-ltd large sum? of money for 

but tl '....' had always valued highly 

the r .'•.•x-z as a handmaid to reli^non/ 

in i! .- -i a large amount to ' the pr>- 

10 1' , j;irsiit' Queen's College, Oxlonl,' 

obiji _ ,i..ri iif'^Kwrscholars'from twelve 

of :' \-irk»hirc, Westmoreland, nnd 

nsp. ..i. Among her other charitabli* 

pw . wiv • 14/. for ever to provide bread 

b' ..e ..'r the monthly sacrament at th^* 

*' _ . in-h of Thorp Arch in the ainsty of 

H- I York,' money for several charity 

■■*= ... T ■ the bishop of the Isle of Man,' 

'■ ...txiiug a galleiT in Ledsham Clnircli 

■. o«f of the charity boys,' * for an altar- 

. cuvurlng for the communion-table, 

i.-«;iaik(h and cushion, all of crimMm 

a-J/ Aud Hir purchasing the great tithes in 

,.U, places wT the augmentation of pmr 

^s, !>he added 10/. prr annum tothi> 

T.awul of the hospital founded at I-«'tl- 

..^ "iv h»T grandfather, Sir John Lewis, 

. .tive aged ]K>or. 

i,*v Klizabeth died at Ledstone Hall 

• . .u. ' r."!ft>. at the ago of iifty-eight, and wa.« 
•:i..^u ;ii LetUbam. The figure u^ion Iier 

■ .,».»aw;ut is from a portrait, and justiti<.'s 
' V ,.».A;ouut of her early beauty. Statnr.^ of 
■■-4 .*M> Hurviving sisters, Lady Frances and 
' ,^\ Vune Hastings, on pedestals on eai-h 
^..•*.i iu-r. were afterwards added. 

ii'*ii'ru-iil (.'hanictcr relating to tho ho]y nnd 

.v»..:»^u> Lit*»> of tho Right Hon. tho L.-i'iy 

• ..<«.i;;a U-wtinps, &c., by Thomas Biinnir!, 
H*.v-* ■■■I iho Free Si-hool, Lewlf", 1742; Lii'o 
».,^ I'Uici* of Stflinii. Coiintet*s of Iluntiiiiziloii: 

'10 -.'i. ^V^;:i.lIll Law; Liiw's Works, vol. vi. ; 

• ;V : B'xU'p Wilstin, by Kcble, also Liv. r^ '.f 
v*;v»' N^'Inv'h I'v CruttwcU aad I>v Sti.n.U; 


■Ja-.IU ^IS^Hi ISoin. dauu'hter and elil'>r 

.'/.« .•1 b'inu'i< 11a wdtin Hast inpR.tir.-t nirir- 

-.. . .'i ILiMimrs '"q. v."", by Flora Mur.- 

■.'■^..-i-X ::. co'-mtos.-i of Loudoun, was horu oa 



■ T.r!]- rA^-ft-lh?^vp^tv^i- 
. : ^ ■ !i. tir-i earl •:: L. ;- 
"^uit L4-V. I.:ilyF:;ri"-v-T:T 

■■■■iiii i-.-,- ni Av-'tilM L'.i ;_r 

.MiHi ituly of iln» l>t--itLi:::il.- r " :i-.- 

■ f Kent, morh'^r 'if (JU'.--ti \';:: r.... 

i 'bi; j.'.'.**^ until her Uv&'h. rt-:l:r_: 

••'1 ii'-s? at Bu<rkinirh:i::: Pili. -. .':. 

' *■' ■' 'if cYuisuItod sir Jizn-.- '. '— ri: 

■J .ill .ii'D-^wsiti'tt. >l.:irVi:--.r^_ri- 

■.■■-;■' ilial lyidy Flr.'."« 11".::--t- — i- 

.•.i''i ■ TO tin all^'ircJ j'rir-.:- :z,rr.-.--. 

■ > ' •''!'• hiiiie- of thf l'?;:eLin:.-r -. n.- 

■ 1 rlir-ir .su«i/ii:i'".na !> i:.- : .■=^-. 

Ml'.'- til cr-.Iir tilt- r'.>-r:. &:. i iT-iirL 
■ '•■in-fultiitii.iii v.I:L r-ir Ji— -.* ■-'._7J;. 

■ 't-'Il.i Pt'pa 111 ih- li:::--r^T. I' — 1.^ IT 

■ iLTi-'i;!!. llOTTtVrr. t!l..* ."*> Jlin-T rl .'.1 

In th<i n'P'trT to Lidj Kir^. Ti:: 

'■■iTi;.. \V£iS at unce ir 1:^11'^.:.:"- lv-!-L :" 

■ t« -uiUfaction of tl:- r'i.?i-is z Kzz-. 

Ai't'Ltiirion, liowt-vvr. v,-:,i ajii- =.tZ-r r: 

Ilia llf^ -i-H-r u.* 

. t: !■= -i-is 

J.:.*- ii- TL? ::ll : 

ii-'il tLiir a rnvdicul •x^ir.i:::!'::".- ::' Ll.t ri-iL:- " rr.r..-. ~!:.t> tlr *:T™*"r ::r :'z^ 

I :■:•.! sliuuld )>.■ m::!-:*. Tl!* -y^~'~ • 

: 'k [ilnrv oa 17 Jr'tb.. &::i r-*_l'r-iiz. i "r-i.:- 
t ■:! i-crijiicate. ?! jnel by S;r.ri=:r5 •/.ir^s.- i 
■S..' ' "h.irle- Clarke. -n-h". Lsi "r^r. :L- li-Iy 
(.-'.*. -.:c-iin sine*? T-a-ly t1 i-ra's llr.l.vSjl.x'lj 
f ■.^■■inlictlii'^ the *Iand^r. 

Tlip ivlatives of La-iy n:ri i-~ir. --r;. 
w'r!iouT success, some public r^iarit; : r.. ilr:T 
•U'-f'a-i? was so amravair-i byrLr =,^7.: il f .:'- 
t'lTinj iliat she died at Backi-z--i.— V~'.%n 
f)n 5 July 1^39. Sh-r was 'f-rlrri ::: '.l~ 
I'ftiuily vault at Loa'Joun Cis'Ir. A f-'^T- 
m-'rt-.TQ examination c-"-nfirni^i *.he s.-rziorii 
reimrt. Charles 'JreT-IJe wrre in - Mirc'i: 
1 S- !9 (.Vifmwr*, 2nd ser. i. 1 Tl' » : ' I", is ':r.<>' '.- 
Cfivable how Melboam'if can Lav- prrcii::-ri 
tlii« disgraceful and miichi^T.-:^ ^an'ial. 
which cannot fail to lower th^e cLaracter c: 
th« Court in the eyes of the worli.* 

A ^ceful Tolum^f of T^jra-^tranilati-.-r.* 
and original poems by Lady Flora was pub- 
liirhed in 1^1 by her sister S'jphia, afterwards 
Marchioness of Bute. 

[Aonoal Register. 1839; Examiner, 21 Mnroh 
1839 : SIomiDg Pojit ; Casila and Mansior^s ci 
Ayrshire, 1885.] A. H. M. 

HASTINGS, FRAXCI.S. second Eir.i. 
OF HrxTiSGDOS (l.'>14;--lo01t. was eldest 
»on of (ieorge ilastin^, first earl "q, v.". bv 
his wife Anne, daughter of Henry Stafl'oni, 
duke of Buckingham, and widow of Sir 
Walter Herbert. On 3 >*ov. VrJ9 he was 
summoned to parliament as a baron of the 
realm under the title of l^ord Ila^tings, his 
father faaring been created Earl of Hunting- 

."-. N 

. 41"' 

: N 7:l..-r,**rr".iz.I ■. ',:a:::-.-.1 i.:".l p;wtr iu 
"..v./, jI i:.:::./ I nwi^niiiri privA-vVimcil- 

:..::. :_r. -?^:r: ;- tz'y r»?:di:>,r«. Jl«?t>\-E 
'..r: ::: -:.- r-.v*-,r'".:.r. :'.-:ordrrd :.■> :':i-.' >"j?;r: 

r«.T i-'".i.:.n.:w;L^ jrcsrn: a: S.t.:- r*^^:"*:r:Al 
:n r> .;-- '-vr. llr ac^oniiiari-l K.iw;iri VI 
.:= :.^ I - .-r5> in May i^o:?. in 1 in :!:.- ^•!- 
1 '.vir.j.T .;:;■.■, whiif he w:i> ftttt-::.!:::^ Ni^rth- 
■,;::: l-rlar. : cu hi? way i > :):•;■ n ^riij. Nortli- 
i:nA»-r;i:: 1 rtvonimendtvl :;:»• ti> Iv^tow 
■ ■a HiinTin^J-ntht'vas: i->:a:t'> i:i I.i'iivstt-r- 
>':.'•■■ i'.7:Vi:vd by JoIiti IVri union: jl- v.~, 
inajt'.r of 'i';*.- r-'lW. lluntinird-in aonuinsl 
iV.e pT.->i>vr.y. but rdvasisl t.> iV^iumont',* 
wi.low ti:-.* mannr oi lir;Kv l>ieu in l.V>;t. 
A> ii t-> sTft'Uirlhen the allianco Iviwot-n 
XorthuiubL-rlaiulaiul hini«ol!'. lu' marrirtl hi^ 
hrir. lK:^ry. to NorihumWrlaiidV daiii;htt'r 
K;iThinnt»."i'I 3Iay I-W!, on t\w wmif dj»y 
a* Ladv Jane tiri'v married Lord ttuildford 

IVfiiro Edward Vl's dcnlli Huntinpbm 

piirne.l tbt' fiipiirt'mcnt of tlie eouueil to 

mnini;Mn Lady Anno tirey's isiu-ci'ssitm to 

.the I'Tinvii. On the kin}; s di'ath ln» joined 

' 1-2 



■ jsmsj^ 

deu.Soc.)! Cal.of State Pupert.Dom. 1A47-SO, 
paaaim, ed, IjeraoD ; CaL of .State Pflptra, For. 
166a-S. pp. 13o, 138 ; Ciil. of Hist. M3S, Hut- 
field, i. 140, Lii. 2T5: Lodgo's JUustnititijiJii, i. 
ilSBi Keturu of M.P.'8, i. 371 aq. ; Foxe'e) Acts 
iirnl MoiiiinientB, TJ, 44o, 481, cd. Toirtisend ; 
Burnur.i Uist. of Efformution, ii. 384, 432, ©tl. 
rricfK'h; Strypu'siMeinariiilj, TT1. i. 93, 128, ii.S3; 
Annul", I. 1. iuO, ii. 391, avo edit.; Eank^'b 
I>iitiiiJiuT \md l-IxLinet Peerage, iiL 341 ; CollioB'fl 
P«i"r-iftD, v'i, 061, ed. Hiydf?»; Nlcolai's Ifisft- 
Pct-Mfju, f. 241, #'1. CiHtrthope; Frrmde'a HiBt> 
Of Kni^liiitd, V. 1D3. 312, 334.360, 438. t, 13, 
emwti 8tu edit] W. II. 


ftuvontli 4:Qrlof lInntingdoii,bj litfl tiraC wife, 
daughter of Sir John Lewis of Ledstono Ihdl 
in Yorkshire, was bom in 1(IS2. 
motlnjr flLe siiecepded to a very 
property. Her haU-sisteTs, tbe Ladies 
VrauccH^ Catherine, and Margaret 
generally lived with her. Herb^kuty,^ 
fulncsflriLnd coufteay in her youth are 
memoratud in the * Tatler,' where Hba 
the inappropriate name of Aspasifl. " 
euin^ij^:^ Itnr in No< 42, and is t 
Slctlo in Xo. 49, where the fiitmous 
Ofcuru, 'To loTB her is a libeml 
I'our yimrs before, on the death, of her 
own bTotherUoorgc^ th« dg^hth earl of H 
ingdoTi, oil 22 Feb. 1704-5, Bhehadftuccp 
tn tho family seat of Ledstone Parii 
Pont«fract, Yorkshire, and thers 
nently resided. She never mani 
vott'd' her whole life and fortune t« .. 
piety and charity. Her advisera wi 
equally conspicuous for piety and 
euch as Archbishop Sharp, Kob<*r 
Bishop Wilson of ^odor andMan 
and William I^aw. Th^ wei 
of stronff church Tiews, and 

Srovo that her own sym^tbi'' 
inaction. She was a muniflce 
the limdsraisedfor Berkeley' 
joct, and towards the expenii 
son*d lawsuit in the Isle of '. 

with InT 1 J 
to her f 1' ' 
virtuott-V , 

4 _«T - .-'rticn. Metell'xs Fpeakit 
!nAii» uitcalium spWudore et 
.. » ubus perquam insi^is.* 
--.lidutcions were not pub- 
- ...^wrsntly lo*t. William 
i-j translated U«i:>rio> * De 
■'• .made no mention of them. 
J inLiui£iion Peerage Ca«'(1820), 
_:.«^>sBiironace.i.o8S; Xichols's 
._ . liUwanl VI (Roxburghc Club); 
llcstt-l! v,,™^^. rroude'sHitt.T. andvi. ; Ni- 
atncuV: --«.u>liLn; Chron. of Queen Jane 
caff.'J :■. .^ "!..'_r*r vt'anid.Soe.) ; Miiohyn's Diary 
Tlti„--. j- ill Wriothealeys l>iary, ii. 91; 
winnt hfa - I- Prit.] S. L. L. 

tXv^ .' i^riS^ i>iB FRANCIS {d. 16101, 
bnL ^ xjfi author, was fifth son of Fran- 

after li>- 
of i^niiilli. " ' 
tn Pr. r .. 
inc tvl' !:■ . 
'tn dr,.- 

-^ 11^ -*. ,?Brl of Huntingdon [q. v.]. by 
meireifs ot 


contributor towards MaiT 
a ' protcstant nunnery.' H 
Mar^ret Ilustinga marrier 
[q.v.], one of the early me 
count<)8s of Htmtingaoi 
brother Theophilus, wa 
Htmtingdou's Connex: 
by the accounts of "V 
but did not live to se'' 
development. As ■ 
woman ^he lived or 
vicar of Lcdsham^a) 
espf^ciaWy who vali 
Ralph Thoreaby t 


Ide6t daughter and col 

.• 'att lord Montacute. He was under 

Jl' A.pril 1500, when his father made 

1 Hy that document, wherein he is 

'itor iburth son, he became entitled 

..•a attaining his majority, t o cer- 

of the clear yearly value of 41/. 

yean. He waa probably a member 

iuk tinity of Cambridge, as in loW he 

a rear on Emmanuel College there 

Atkeiue Cantabr. iii. 27). If is also 

oAi kt^ was educated in Magdalen Col- 

.»xiofii, under Dr. Laurence Humphrey, 

^H|(itkningof the reign of Elizabeth. 

'W WW returned for Leicestershire to tlie 
anii"""^ which met 2 April 1671. In thH 
tij;ir«uif( year he was sheriff of that countv, 
-rLvi -w served the office a second time m 
"V'i. IV* the parliament which ossemblcd 
.;- Nov. I.Vn» he was again returned forLoi- 
.-a*et*iur*. He was elected for Somerset to 
'j» (•*riidment of 4 Feb. 1588-0, and 
s^LUoiterwards knighted. In the parliament 
•xiMciiuiec IV* Nov, 1592 he sat for Somerset. 
' »ii J4 tHrt. 1597 ho was again returned for 
* .t'».'v*tershire.on 7 Oct. 1601 for Bridgewater, 
u^I .>u 19 March 1603-4 for Somerset. 

!la»(ings was a distinguished chamjjion of 
•.'-^ puritan party. He promoted a petition to 
■iu- Aiu^; trv>m Northamptonshire in favour 
.»■ 'h«.* ministers who refused subscription. 
Th»* vvtition was presented to the king on 
V» F*b. UKU -o, and gove him great offenc»\ 
*.iaii.iut{» wns cited before the privy council. 
%]m dtvlareil the petition to he factious ond 
<^Jiti\»Urt. and ordered him to retire to hir< 
cuuutry house, and to refrain from meddling 
in (lubiio altairs. He was at the same time 
■■^fM.n;.vI li\uu the ntficesof deputy lieutenant 
»uJ iiuiiiv of the peace. He became some- 
iklux euibarmssed in circumstances, and wrut e 
tMitt Uolwell, i»:l Nov. 1609, to Salisburv-, 
h)cdiivtuurer, thanking him for respiting his 




in the exchequer and 
, icid lit^gkog tliat he mighi 

^bucied tt Xorth Cadburr, Somer' 
t SS Sept. leiO. TfacTe u a mopu- 
I diuzui with the figure* ot faiio- 
I wife, and an epitapb far the latt'^r 1 
koT hi* eompositioDr which had W-^p 
i is KlcboLft'A "Leiceat^tflhire,' iiu •^^- ^ 
aad BeLl'i ' Uuntin^on Pe«Tajz^/ pp. 
Kc TheTQiflTtoinscriptitinincoiniiifiiiiOn' 1 

.iof hitD. Ilu-irife wa« Maedalen.ddugh- \ 

r of Sir Ralph Langford, and widow of ^^i^ 
jiVemoa. She died on 14 June l''i96, 
i worlra are ; 1. ' A Watch-word to all 
Relijrioiu and True-hearted Engli.'thmen/ 
I^ndon, 1598, 8to. Xidiolaa Dolemau (i.e. 
Pather Kobert Parsons, the Jesuit ) replied in 
his * Temperate Wardword,' printed in li>99, 
wherein ne terms Hasting ' the meanest 
tieagle of the house of Huntingdon.' ± * An 
Apologie or Defence of the Watch-word, 
Against the Tirvlent and seditiovs Ward- 
word published by an Engli-sh-Smniard, lurk- 
ing mder the title of X. D. DeviJed into 
«ight eeverall Resistances according to his 
fio manr Encounterst/ London, 1000, 4to. 
3. ' The"Wardwonl,' London, ItiOl, 8vo. An- 
swered by Farsons's ' AVamword.' 4. ' Medi- 
tation-s' said to liave been printed ^♦i'veral 
times in 16mo. 5. ' Remonstrance to hiA 
Majesty and Privy Council on the behalf of 
persecuted Protestants ; setting forth his Ma- 
jestys Interest lying safely in protecting 
them, and incouraging the preaching of the 
Gospel, and in being more watchful against 
the Papists,* manuscript. 6. 'A Discourse 
of Preaestination,' manuscript. 7. 'Collec- 
tions relative to Public Aflairs in his own 
time/ manuscript (see CooPEB, Athena Vati- 
tabr. ii. 201). 

[Addit. 313. 5752, f. 107; Ames's Typogr. 
Antiq. (Herbert); ItvU*;) Haotin^on PeeniL'e, 
pp. 56-61 ; BloXAm*s Magd. Coll. Kegi»ter, il. 
cvi, IT. 203 ; Brook's Life of Cartwright. p. V,\ ; 
Cole's M3. Ivi. 343 ; CoUinson's Somersetshire, 
ill. 67-9 ; KIIIs'k Letters, 2ml ser. iii. 216 ; Ful- 
lers Worthies (Leicestershire) ; Gardiner's Piir- 
liHmentary Dt'lMtt-s, p. 55 ; Uazliti's Jiibl. Cul- 
Wtions and Notes, i. 203 ; Lowndes'n Itibl.Man. 
{Bohn), p. 101 1 ; Xichols's Leioestcrsliire, i. 461, 
iii. 582, 588. 608, 775, iv. 624; Parliamentary 
History, 1762-3. iv. 416. 480, 495. 502, v. 100, 
142, 148; Cut. State Pnpors, Dom. James I; 
Strjpe'ii Anoals, ii. 382 ; Sti^'pe's Parker, p. 448 ; 
fitrvpe's Whitgift, p. 279; Watt's Bibl. Brit. ; 
Willis's Not. Pari. iii. (2) 82, 102, 123. 132, 140, 
151, 162; Winwood's Memorials, ii. 48. 49; 
Wood's Athens Oxon. (Bliss), ii. 82.] T. C. 

first Marquis ofIUstixgs and second Earl 
OF MoiBA (1754-1820), eldest son of John, 

baron Rawdon. afterward* first eurl of Moim, 
by hL5 second wife. Lady Elizabeth Ha<^tmj^, 
fjde^i daughter of Theophilus, timthearl of 
Hiintingdon,wa?bomi>a9Dec.l7>>4. llewas 
^lucated ar Harrow, and gazetted ui ensign 
in the I5rh foot on7 Aug. 177L He matricu- 
lated at University College. Oxford, on 53 Oct. 
[""l.butdidnottskeanydi'gTCe, and on being 
appointed,nn:?0 Oct, )773,toalieutenancy in 
the 5th fool, embarked for America. In 177li 
he di.-tiiiciii*hed himself by bis jjalUntry at 
Bunker HiU,where be h4d two bullets through 
his cxp, BJtd on 1^ Julv in that vear was ap- 
pointed to a company of the 63rd f-wT. }fe 
subsequently ?^pv*hj at \\\^ bactlt^* nf Brook- 
lyn and White Plains, and in the attacks 
on Forts Washin|?ton and Clinton, and on 
15 June 177S received the rank of lieutenant- 
colonel, and in the same year was nominated 
adjutant-freneral to the force.") in America. 
At Philadelphia lie rai^d a corps called the 
Volunteers of Ireland, which greatly distin- 
guished itself in the field. He took part in 
the retreat from Philadelphia to Xew York, 
in the action at Monmouth, and at the sio^ 
of Charlestown. He was next employed in 
South Carolina in keeping the Americans in 
check until the arriv^ of Lord Cornwallis, 
and on 10 Aug. 17iS) commanded the left 
division of the iiriti.'>h forces at the battle of 
Camden. On '2'y April 1781, with only eight 
or nine hundred men, he attacked and de- 
feated a larger body of Americans under the 
command of General Greene at Hobkirk'a 
Hill. After harassing Greene for some time 
he was compelled to withdraw his troops to 
Charlestown. His healthhavingbrokendown 
owing to the incessant fatigue of the cam- 
paign, he was obliged to leave America in 
the summer of 178L The vessel in which 
he sailed for England was captured by a 
French cruiser and taken to Brest, but upon 
an exchange of prisoners soon aftenivartls he 
was released, and immediately retumfd to 
England. ICawdon was a stem martinet, 
and was guilty of several acts of impolitic 
severity during the American war. He even 
went so far as to set a price on the head of 
every relwl. He showed, however, remark- 
able military ability, and Cornwallis de- 
.«cribed his victory at Hobkirk's Hill ' as by 
farthemostsplendidof this war \('jrrtH-aWi« 
1 Corrtrfpondence, i. 97). 

I During the recess of 17S0-1 Rawdon was 
I returned to the Irish House of Commons as 
mt-mber for l^ndalstown, co. Antrim. On 
4 Feb. 1 78:2 the Duke of Uichmond in the Eng- 
lish Hou.4e of Lords moved for informat ion re- 
latingto the execut ion of Colonellsaac Hayns 
at Charlestown. Though the motion was nega- 
tived, Uawdon considered that a scandalous 


imputntinn had Ixien thrown nuliishiimauity, ' 

ancl deninnded a iiubUe upolopy from the 

dukf, whicli after some wratigluijr was duly | 

iven(/'aW.J/iW.xxii.9«l(V70/i.) Oui}ONov. 

7b'2 Kiiwdnn ret-eived tlio rank of colonel, , 
and was at t\m gome time iippointed /ildtj-d*'- 

,mp to the kiiip. On 5 March 17K1 he was 

eated an l'jiglif*li p<'«*r by the style of Banm 
Hawdon of Itawdoii in the county of York 
{Joumnlx of the Jlotwi- of Lordu, xxjcvl. ti24), 
and in Deecmbi-r of the same \x'ar epoke in 
j>Ci|)pOBition to Fox's India BjlJ ( Pari. Jli'fi. 
-XXIV. 176-7). For the next few yearJi lie does 
not ojiiicnr to have tnkcn much port in the. de- 
bates, mi( after 178". when lieipmrrelled wil h 
Pitt and joined the o]ip(>tiition, be BpoUe more 
frequently. In Muy 1780 hy acted ae the 
DuKe of York's second iu his duel with Licu- 
tenaiit-colonol I^-nnox (afterwards fourth 
l>ulienf Uichmnnd) on Wimbledon Common 
{Omf. Matf. vol. lix. pr. i. pp. 403-4. 66o), 
and on ill) r>er. in the same year moved the 
amendment on the rpgvncv quest ion iu favour 
of the Prineeof Wales, whose intimate friend 
lie had beeome {Part. Hist, xxvii. ^tfl8-ll). 
On the death of lier bp^ther Francis, tenth 
earl of Uuntinp-don, in October 17H9, Lady 
Slotra succee<led to the hnrdny of IlastinffS, 
white the earldom of Hinitin^^on remained 
dormant until IHIO, when it wa» confirmed 
to IIiujs Francis IIu«tinir9 [u.v.l.n descendant 
of the second earl. On Idreb. 171X1 Itnwdon, 
in pursuance of his UDcleV will, took the sur- 
name of IlaRtiup':! iu addition to Mxa own 
eumamo of lUwdon, and on '2Q June 1793 
succeeded liia father as the Bccond Karl of 
Moira in the peerapi of Ireland. lie was 
promrited to tlie rank of innjur-Lfenoral on 
12 Oct. 17!)a. and wiw appointed, on Corn- 
■wallis's the command of 
an expedilionarv force, which in Decem- 
ber WI19 sent to aid the insum-ction of the 
royalist* in IlrirtanVt but returned with- 
out etTectintrimrthinp. In June 171'4 he was 
decpalcUed with seven thousand men to (he 
assistance of the Duke of York. lie lauded 
at Ustend on the very day on wldeh the 
Prince of t-'obur^ was defeated at Fleunis, 
und,aftera briiliant and rnpid march t limu;jli 
a country In |Kwse8sion of an enomy iiinllv 
sujK'rior in numbeni, etfHeli'd a junction with 
the Duke of York's army at Malinefi. 

In 17S)7 njiiihorlive scheme was set on foot 
by ceridin niembersi of parliament for the for- 
zant ion of a new ministry, at the bead of which 
Moiru was to be ])lQce<J, and from which nil 
'persiiiig who on eitluT sidu had made them- 
selves obnoxious to the piiblick' should be ex- 
cluded (Ofiit. Mittf, 171*8, vol. i.p. 
22t)). In March and a^min in November of | 
this venr Moira brought the state of Ireland 

before the Enjflinb House of Lonls, and de- 
clared Ills conviction that 'these discontents 
have arisen from too mistaken an application 
of severities,' and that he had ' seen in. Ire- 
laud the most absurd, as well os the most 
dift^IMftting, tyrunnv that any nation ever 
ffroaned under' {Pari. I£i«t.' xxxni. 10o9). 
On 1 Jan. 1708 he was appointed a lieuti^- 
nimt-gvneral, and on 19 Feb. made another 
violent attaek upon the Iriwh poremment 
iu the Irish Housii uf Lords. In March ho 
otfered in I ho English Houac of Lords lo 

firove by aflidavits the statemoDts wbicb he 
;nd previously made in both houses with 
regard to the Btatc of Ireland, but the cbal- 
leng^H was not accepted {ib, xxxin. 1353-4). 
During- the debate on the reetdulions rela- 
tive to a union with Ireland in March 1799 
Moira opposed the meftftun' in a speech of 
considerable power (I'A. xxxiv. tK)6-706). 
But though h« voted by proxy against th& 
union in tho Irish House of Lord.*, ho after- 
wards withdrew his opposition to it in the 
English house (('fr. xxxv. 170-1). In 1801 
Moira onjiosed tho Irish Martial Law and 
HabiMS Corjuis Suspension Indemnity Bills 
(ift. 12H7-8, IfJIiH). lie was appointed com- 
mandeMu-chief of the fnn-es ui Srotlnnd, 
where he became exceedingly jtopnlar, and 
on 25 titpt. 1803 was promoted to the nuik 
of general. In December 1803 he was ]iro- 
posed for tho oflice of lord-rector of the uni- 
versity of Glasgow, and was defeated by tbo 
Lord-ohief-baron Dundoa by only one vote- 
On 33 May 1804 he received the colonelcv 
of tho 27th foot. When the ministry of ' Ail 
the Talents ' was formed in 180B, M'oiru waa 
admitted to (he privy council (o Feb.), and 
ujtpuinted master of the ordnance (8 Feb.) 
nn<l constiibleof the Tower (12 Feb.) He 
took an active part on behalf of the Prince of 
Wales in the investigation into the conduct 
of tho princess. 

On tliG occe.«siou of ih^ Duke of Portland 
to power in March 1S07, Moira retired from 
the ordnance ofllce, iind was succeeded by 
John, second earl of Chatham. On thedeatb 
of lus mother nu 1"-* April lf08 Moira suc- 
ceedeil to the English baronies of Botreaux, 
Himgerford, Do NToleyns, imd Hastings. In 
tho se-fsion of 1810-11 hi' tonka prominent 
share inthedebalcs on the quest jonsarising out 
of the king's iIluc«,e^upportingthe interest* of 
the Prince of Wales ro the utmost of his power. 
In Jnnunry iSli* he both spoke and voted id 
favour of Tx>rd FitKwilliom's motion for tho 
cnneiderntion of the state of afl'airs in Ire- 
land {Pari. Ihbate^, xxi. 458-01), and in 
March, tind igain in .Vpril, of the same year 
expre^edUimseirstronglyiu favour of Uonian 
catholic emancipation (i&. xxii. 87-9, G63- 






66 1 >. ASter IVTceval's cUratb Lord Wellealey 
■was inatnictt'd br th** prince rogent to Ibrni 
n ministry, in ivhich Moira and others were 
to hare eeatit in the (^binet. On Lord 
Wvllfcsley'e {kilurtt in June 181:* Moira was 
. Huthorieeti lo consult with l/>rdA Groy am! 
Gn^uvillti on the formation of a ministry, but 
a* they in^istw^ thut the appoinlmeut of tho 
otficeri of tht* hoii.'tehold should be under t heir 
control the nefi:otiations were broken ofi'(ii&. 
; xxiii. S-2J-C, 3a^-50, 35G-t*l, C93-y, App. i, 
and xliv). I-ord JJverpooI was made prime 
miniiter. Un IiJJunu lbI2 I^Ioira wo» in- 
vttled with ilie order of the Garter, and on 
18 Nov. 181Jwiisnpi»ointe<i L'overnor-generiil 
of Bengal and coiuuiunder-in -chief of tlie 
. forc^ in India. In March iHUi he defended 
himself in the House of Lords against the 
■ charce of baWng itecn-tly a1ti*mp(e<l (o pro- 
cure evidtince against the Princess of Wales 
(^lA. ixv. 2-Jl -I ). 

Moira emboried at Portpmouth on 14 April 

1^1;], and hiiided at Calcutta on 4 Oct. On 

his arrival he found several qiiBNtious of the 

iinit imiK»rtance awaiting itettlenient. One 

of iheM* watt ntir relatione with the Otirkha 

Riute of Nepaiil. The UorkhuH had gradually 

\ifeu cneroachinp upon the couuir\' Iving to 

the «outh of their frontier, and had actually 

»eixed two districts in tho province of Oude. 

1 1 is pn'dceei-tor, l^rd Minto [acc Elliot, Slit 

ItilbEBT, 17oI-181 Ij, had failed to settle the 

question by netfoiialion, and hostilities be- 

L-nniing tmavnidiible, Muini, in a manifesto 

daffd 1 Nov. 1814, declnnM war against Ne- 

I |iaul. Ho directed simultaneous attacks to be 

[made upon foiirgi\en poinlis in thuenemy'g 

I territory. Tlie first cimipaign <»f Ihreo out of 

1 ebe four dirbion? of the llriliMh army tcrmi- 

I xioted disuatrously. The second, however, wa.s 

1 tnuch more successful, and Ochterlony having 


I itJ\rt the other, forci-d Ameer Singh to snr- 

mtdcr at Malaun iu May 181o. The Gorkha 

council now sued for peuce,aud agreed to cede 

cill the tHrritory demanded by the govenior- 

, ireneral, and to rweivo a permanent British 

l>'<iidt!nt. Though the treaty was signed hy 

' the Gorkha ogeuta at Segnwlee on 2 Dec. 

1K15, the Gorltha council rt^fuMnl to ratify 

it. The campaign was tlierafnre oneo more 

T^mewed by Ochterlony, who defeated I he 

' Oorkhas at Mukwnnpoor in February 18IC. 

, Further resistunce being hopele.''!i, the treaty 

iTO« finally executed by the (jorkha council on 

! 2 March IHIfi, since which tinio the Gorkhos 

I bavf faithfully kept the peace. On Kt Feb. 

IKIT Moira was createil Viscuunt Loudoun, 

Earl of Rawdon, and Marnuis of I:Ia*<tingfl, 

in the peerago of the United Kiugdoui, a 

vote of thotiks having been unanimously 

}>&s««d in both houses of parliament a few 
lay« previouflv 'for his judicious aminge- 
ments in the plan, and direction of the mili- 
tarv operutioufi against Nepaul ' (j'A. xxxv, 
'2ii-}-:i, l'38-43). Tliough Hastings, Uke 
Minto, had impreftwtd upon the court of 
directors the necessity of fupprt^ssing tho 
predatory proceeding* of the Pmdorees, they 
still continued to Insist upon the observance 
of a policy of non-inteneution. This policy 
had been misunderstood by the native powers, 
and the Peshwa, tog*fther with the othor 
Mahratla chieftains, had l»een engaged in 
ceiUielesM intrigues against the British, The 
chief objection of the directors to the extir- 
pation of the Pindoretts was the fear of irri* 
tating the Mahmtta?, while Ilastings, on the 
other band, was convinced that the only way 
to obtaiu permanent order was to annihilate 
the ereat military states of Central India. 
(In hearing of the raid into the Northern 
Sircars, Canning, then at the head of the 
board of control, in a despatch dated 26 Sept. 
I8IH,aulhori;:!ed Hiu^tings to procet^d against 
the Pindarees, and even the Calcutta coun- 
cil after the third irruption of the Pindareea 
resolved thai ^igo^ou8 measures should be 
taken for their suppression. While prepar- 
ing for war Hastings entered into several 
subsidiary treaties with a view of securing 
the assistance of tho more powerful chiefs in 
the extiriiiition of the Piudarees. Towurtls 
the close of 1817 the mililitPk' preparations 
were completed, and llaallngs took command 
of the central di^hsiun, which was stationed 
nt Cawn])ore. In November tho IVshwa, 
who hod L'uneluded a treaty with the British 
ill I he previous year, suddenly broke into 
war. lie was, howe\er, brilliantly defeated 
by (-'olonel Burr and Klphinstone with o small 
British force, Poouah was occupied by Gene- 
ral Smith, and the Peshwa had to fleo for 
his life. Appa Saheb, the rajah of Nagpoor, 
after hiss r\.-pulj5e at Seetabuldoe, surrendered 
hini<<elf, and his army, on refusing to deliver 
uTi tile guns, WQ8 defeated at the battle of 
Nagpoor. Holkar was routed by Sir Thomo-H 
llisUip lit 5Iehid]M»or, anrl on Jan. con- 
cludod a iH'ttce with the British iruMTUuient. 
The PmoaiTi'S, whuse strength had been 
dejicndent on the support of the native states. 
Were easily broken up. Tlie result of this 
brilliant campaign of four months whs to 
establish the suprcmacv of the British power 
tfaroughoiit India. 'The Pi'shwa was de- 
posed and his dominions annexed, while the 
territories of Sindin, Holkar, and tho rajah of 
Berar were nt tli« men-y of the governor- 

In embarking on a tlurd Mahratta war 
Ilaattngs undoubtedly exceeded his orderiif 




nnd, brilli&nl. ii^ llie reJtiiU i>( hU [lolicy had 
l>e«n, it di<l noi, escape wnsurHfmm the court 
of dinMJtors, by whom the extension of lerri- 
torv wafi denounced. In his nimwer to the 
ftddross of the inhahitantK n( (^nlcutto, pru- 
S6nt«d to him on his return to that city* 
^Hutings g-&ve an eUbonire expknation of 
lliu |tobcy, and declared that * in our original 
' plan there vraa not the expectation or the 
wish of addinff a rood to the dominions of 
the Honourable Company ' < Asiaiir Journni, 
1619, vii. 174-83). In 1818 hp wa« rand»« a 
G.CH. and a I^.C.R. A vote of tlianks for 
his n^rvtc+^ft was i)i\*j*^d hy Uie genpnil court 
of the Kaft India t'ompany on 'A l*"eli. IBli), 
and in the same year a ^ant of m),(K)0/. wom 
made by the company for the purcliaao of an 
estate to be held by trustees for the benetit of 
Haating8,hk wife and 'u»\x<i. A voto of thanks 
waa also passed to him in both houses of par- 
liament in March 1819 [Pari. Debater, xxsix. 
^7e(>-«, WijViU). During the last years of 
Ilia govemor-penemlghip Hastings devntwl 
himself to ttie civil nnd fluHiicinl diitiit:* nf 
the administration with great ability and 
induHtry, In spite of the hostility of the 
directors he supported many useful lueastirea 
for the education of the natives, and oncuu- 
Bged the freedom of the press. Ho did his 
est also to remove all oppressive laws, und 
to raise the tone uf the government oiKcials, ' 
In 1819 be secured the cession of Singapuor, 
Olid in 1H:^:J st>nt a mission to the king of 
Siiim in the hope of i.*slablisbing commerciul 
inttircourae with that country. Moreover, 
uotwitbstanding the oxponM;s of the two 
yirars in which he had been engaged, the finon- 
oial results of bis administration were more 
satbfactorT than had been the case with any 
of hi.1 prediMM'SMors. 

linftjflunately. by an order in ronneil, 
daled -'.'1 July 1810, the gdvemor-general 
had f-usp'^ndiwl t!i*!« jinivigioiis of tlin net 
(37 G*^. Ill 0. I4:i}, which prnlubitf'd loims 
to native prinCM by Ilritish subjocts, in favour 
of the banking house of William Palmer & 
Co., givtngthem power todo * all acts within 
the territories ot the niznm which are pro- 
hibited by the said act of parliament,* pro- 
vided that thev comDiunicated the nature 
and object of their Transact ions, whenever thev 
were required to do so. In 1 820, after murli 
dilTerencti of opinion in the council, penniit- 
sion was granteil To the same houite for the 
negotiation of a loan «)f sixty lakbsof rupees, 
which the niitam's mini-ater declared to be 
requin.'d for the legitimate purposes of dis- 
charging the arrean« diu* to ten* public e»tta- 
blisbment, paying olftliH incumbrancesdue to 
the native bankers, and for making advances 
to tho ryots. Soon after this permission had 

hetin given, onlers were received from ihaj 
court of dirertorH, ex]iresfling their strong] 
disapproval of the whole of these traiutac- I 
tiona, and directing the annulment of tha 
exemption which had Iwen granted to the 
firm. Metcalfe, who had been apjninted nv 
sideat ftt Ilyderabad in November \^'2Q, dU- 
corered that a large portion of the loan hud 
been misflpplied, and came to the conclu&inn 
that the existence of such a powerful trading- 1 
company was dnngerouR to the sdrainifitra- ] 
tiuii of goverament. Tbe loon was paid off] 
by the resident^ and all the dealings of tha J 
firm were declared illegal. 

Hastings had imprudently avow*ed an in- 
terest in the prospenty of t he house of I'alnier 
& Cu. in a letter to Sir William Kumbohl, 
who had married his ward, and wos one of 
tbe partners of the hrm. In consequence of 
t bis t he motives of Hastings were mistrusted , 
bv the director*, and, Justly indignant at 
t heir suspicions, he ^ent m his resignation in 
l82l. InMan-li 182^ Canning wasHiipulntMii 
his successor, and in the following May the 
court of directors passed a vote ofthanka to 
Hastin[p$ for liij> zeal and ahihty. Hufitiugtt h 
left India on I Jan. 1823. and was succeedeU H 
by Lord Amherst, Canning having aiven up ™ 
tiie pist in conse^^uence of Lord Ix>ndon- 
derry's denth. Owing to the embarrassment 
of]ii>« utliiirs, Hastingc^ accepted the post of 
governor and commander-in-chief «>f Malta» 
to which he was oppninted on 'I'l .March 1MJ4. fl 
In the samemiinthnoiiglH.'iKinnuirdbrfjiight ^ 
forward a proposal in the getu^ral cnirl of 
proprietors for taking into consideratinn Has- 
tings's ser\ice8 as govemor-genorol of India. 
.\n amendment, calling for all the papera 
t-onnecli'd with his administration, was, how- 
ever, curriwl, and t he ctfinpilution and printing 
of the d*>cumHitM occupied a twelvemonth. 
At length, after a long debate on the Hyder- 
abad papers in Kebruari* aud March 1825, 
Kinuaitvl's resolution, tbat the papers con- 
tained nothing whiclitendeil 'toafii-ct in the 
slightest degree the personol character or in- 
tegritT of the late governor-general,' was de- 
feated, and the chairman's amendment, that 
though tliero was 'do ground for imputing 
comipt motives to the late governor-general.' 
yet at. the same time the court felt 'called 
upon to reconl it.»t appntval of the p*ditical 
despatches to the Bengal government under 
dates 24 May 18'.>0, 28 Nov. 1821, April 
1823, 21 Jan. 1824,' was carried by a majo- 
rity of 209. The^*e despatches contained 
Several charges again.<t Hustings, and among 
others that of having lent tlie componv's 
creiiit to the transactions at Hyderabad, not 
fur the benefit of the nixam, but for the solo 
benefit of Palmer & Co., with having atu- 




y 0uppnr-£Sud important iufornutionrAnd 
BTr^uipting to eluJti all check and con- 
Uaetmgg returned to £agland for a 
tew montba in 182n.nnd took his seat in the 
Honae of Lords for the first time since his 
vlefvtion to the marquisaleou 3 June {Jour- 
muU of ih« SouM of Lords, Ivii. 975 j. In 
the same month he introduced a bill for regu- 
lating the interest of money in India, but 
though it procured the fa vntiroble opinion of 
the Juilgu and was rnid a second time in 
the Ilottse of iA>rd<t, it did not pAs» into law 
<" /Vir//«mrn^ffcyi5e6af«, new ser.xiii. 1207-9, 
iSHO-l). lleretumed to Malta in February 
ld2(V ilLTe faia health, already affected by 
the Indian climate, began to give way, anil 
lie fiustuined a considerable injur}' from a foil 
from his hor^e. He died on board U.M.S. 
Reven^ in llaia Hay, off" Naples, on 28 Nov. 
IfcKl. in the seven ty-fiecond year of his age. 
In a li'tter found animig his iuijhts lit> left 
direclions (bat upon ht4d4>ath uin right hand 
■should be cut otf and preserviMl until tliu 
Idealb of the marchionods, when it was to be 
IfilKced in her coffin. 

HiMtinp* was a toll, athletic man, with s 
l«tately figure and impressive manner. As a 
rpi)lttician he is cbietly rememliered mh the 
jirieDd and conlidant of the Prince "f Wales. 
|Hu capacity for rule was remarkable, and aa 
laldlful soldier and an able administrator he 
_• not likely to be forgotten. In his i-arliiT ' 
tdays Halting* had denounwd the British \ 
l^remment of India in t he ma<«t unmeasured 
Iterms, declaring ' it was founded in injustice, ' 
ind hsfi orifi^iniiliy Ijeen efltobliahed by forco' | 
linmentitnj Hint. %x\x. l4o); but con- 
acr was not one of hia political virtueit. 
fi labourtMi earnestly to ameliorate the 
Mate of insolvent debtors, and was an eutbu- 
•iutic freemoaon. actLng aa deouty fk^r tho 
rinco of M'alob during bis grana maf^tcrf h ip. 
foore dedicated his volume of ' Epistles, 
kdcft, and other Poems,' to Uasliiiga in 

Hastings married, on 12 July 1804, Lady 

lora Miin? t'nmphell, countesA of ]«oudoun 

her own rii{bt, the only child of Jamcii, 

fifth earl of Loudoun, by whom he had six 

children, vii. ( I i Flora Eliiabeth [tj. v.] ; 

(2) Franci* (.iet^rge Augustus, lord Machline, 

I who died an infaixt ; <y) Francis GeortteAu- 

[iwl uii,wbo,bom on 4 Feb. \f^)^, succeeded his 

Rther us itecund manjuift of Ilo^t ings, and bis 

I'rtber a« seventh earl of I./)udouii, and djtwl 

fru lU Jim. 1844 ; (4 1 Sophia Frederica Chris- 

lina, who, brirn on 1 Feb. l^iKW, married, on 

lO April 1H4.^>, John, second marqttiA of Bute, 

ind dit'd on 2S Dec. IftSP; <o) Selinu C'on- 

intiB, whi3. bom on IJi Aug. 1810, married, 

L 'lo June 1838, Charles Ilenry, captain of 

! the 56th reginwnt, and died on @ Not. 1867 ; 
(6) Adelaide AuffUStaLavinia, who married, 

' on 8 Julv 1854, Sir William Keith Murray 

■ of l)chtert.vre,bart., anddied on Ullec. 18*iO. 
Lady Hastings, who ^unived her husband 
many years, iu^ on 9 Jan. 1840, in her dix- 
tieth year, and was buried in the mausoleum 
at Loudoun Castle. On the death of the 
fourth Marquis of HuAtings (a grand^ton of 
the first marquis) in NovemlxT 18(>8themar* 
quisate and other English and Irt.di honours 

' created by patent became extinct, while the 
Iraronies by writ fell into abeyance among 
his sisters ; the earldom of Loudoun and the 
other Scottish honour* devolved upon his 
eldest eister( Fdith Maud, wife of ChorleaFa*- 
derick Abney-Hostings, afterwards created 
llaron Doniiigton), in whose favour the abey- 
ance of the baronies of Hotreaux. Hunger- 
ford, He Moli-yns. and Hastings* was* ternii- 
uattid on 21 April lH7l. 

Iuconse((uenceofhia habitual extravagance 
Hastings left his family badly off, and in 
Irt27 the East India Company voted t\ further 
sum of 20,0(W. for the benefit of bis son, tho < 
second mamuif, who wa? then under ago.1 
A series of letters from HastiiigH, 1706-7p] 
are in the possession of the Earl of Hosslyai 
at Uvsart Ilousei WM. J/&S*.(.'t/«iw».l*nd Kep. 

fi. IW). The Earl of Granard possesses several 
letters of Hastings containing interesting 
matter illustrating the early years of his 
career and bis services in the American war 
(t'A. 3rd Kep. xxti. 430-1 ). A number of bis 
letters ond despatches during the American 
war will Iw found among the collection of 
Comwailis MtSr^. presented by Lord Hray- 
brooke to the llecord OfHrn (t6. 8th Hep. 
pp. 277, 287-9). Among the muniments of 
Lord Klphinstone at Carbery Tower are & 
series of letters written by Hastings when 
governor-general to the Ilon.Williom Fuller- 
ton Elphiostone, a director of the East India 
Company, in which he communicated his 
policy and the opinion of his colleagues. 
Many of these letters, however, are described 
as being *tno confidential for publicity' l^iV^ 
9th R*'p. pt. ii. 182, IKI, iUVC). A 
number of jiapers ndating to the Muhratta 
war, &c., wliich belonged to the Hon. 
Mountstuart Klphinstone, arc also in the pos- 
session of Lord EIphinstone(i'A. pp. 207-14). 
The American papers forming part of tho 
manuscriptit belonging to Mrs. Stopford Sack- 
villo of Drayton House, Nurthamptonshire, 
contain freijuent refervnces to Hastings (I'A. 
9th Uep. pi. iii, 81-118). His collection of 
skelehi^s of the «cene« and events of the 
American war, painted in water colour by 
various artists, circa I77o-0, wasdispersedby 
sole. Some of them were in the possession 




cjf Dr. Thomas Addis Emmut of New York 
in 1H73 (ace Jlarper'a Xew MontA/y Mnf/a- 
ju'rif, xlvit. I5-26J. 

A portrait of Uastioge hy SirT. Lawrence 
vraa exhibited at the Loan CollcK^tion of 
National Portnute at South Kfrwingtoo in 
iHfiS (Calaloffue No. (15). Anothi-r jmrtrait 
by lIu^Oi HtuuiUoa is in the Iri^h National 
I*orlrait Gallery, as well as an on^^Taving hy 
John Jones of on corly portrait of Ilnsiingi* 
as LordRawdoo bySirJoshmi Reynolds. A 
I Tphole-length jrartniit, oaid to \k paintisl by 
Bir Joshua Keynoldi*, was piirchiwed for 
GiK>rffu IV' at the Huke of York's sale in 
Marcii 1827 {Otmt. Mug, xcviL, pt. i. 3.W). 
Another portrait in water colour iiainted on 
ivory by J. S. Har^-ic is in tho Scotch National 
I'orimit Gollcrv- An enproving after a 
portrait by Kir il. A. Shoe will be* found in 
the first volumL' of Jerdoii's • National I'or- 
trait Qaili>ry.* A statue of Hasting by 
Chantrey * erected bv tlie British inhabitants 
of Cnlfutta ' fjlands in the i-nlrntic** porch of 
thcUiilhotisie Institute intlmt city(>1t7fiRAT, 
llandiw/k to the Bewjal IWitidmnfi 1883, p. 

Hustings was the author of the following': 
1. * Substance of Observations on the state 
of the Public Finnnces of (_in?at llritnin, bv 
Lord Itawdon^ iu a spfifch onthf third ruad- 
ing of tin; Bank Loan Bill In the House of 
Lords onThuradayfOJunclTOIi'L^indon.lTyi, 
8vo. 2. ' Speech on the dreadful and ularm- 
ing SlatB of IreUinH,* ITVi?, 8vo. 3. 'Speech 
on the Prf*«'ntStutt' of Public Affairs/ 1H(W, 
8vo. 4. 'Summary of the AdmiiiiAtration 
of the Indiaa Government, by iLe Marfjuesa 
of Hastings, dnring the period that be tilled 
the office of Governor General,' London, 
1824, 8vo ; another edition, Mnltn, reprinted 
1824, 8vo; alao reprinted in vol. xxiv. of 
*Tho Pampbletet-r/ jiii. 2M7-334. 5. *The 
Private Journal oftbe M»niueM of Hastings, 
JLM. . . . edite<l hy his daughter, the Mar- 
chiones.s of Bute,' Ixindon, IB-V*, 8vo, 2 vols. 
This journal was kept by Hastings for the 
amusement and inHtruction of his children. 
It contains little of public inton^t, and ter- 
minates abruptly in December 1818. 

[The ComwiiUiM Corro^ponderc*', Mited by C. 
Bom, I8o0 ; BniicroftVllitit. ofihc I'd I tod States 
of America. 1B70, vi. 271-3, 402-7; Authentic 
Correspond CI) CO and I>ocumcDts oxplniuiog the 
Iirt>OL'fdiugit of the Mjirquess VVt^llutttey uid of 
tlic Knrl of Moirn in tbo reccTit ncgniiutiuns fur 
thcfortnationofanndministmtion, 5thcdit.l812; 
lord HtAiihoiie's Lif^ of William I'itt. 1862. iii. 
1 08- 1 2. iv. 13-^-4 1 ; Prinsep's Hist,Df UiePolitical 
mtd Military TransiictiooB in ludi.i during thond- 
miuihtniiiuu of the Miirv|ii<>^tj of Hi-tiiigQ.lSlS- 
1823. 1825, with portmit ; WilwiiH Hist, of 
Uritish India, ISdS, vol. ii. ; MonJimo&'aUiat.of 

India, I8fl7, ii. 282-378: Knye's Life of I^aril 
Motcalfo, 18ul, i. 87^498, ii. 1-94; Mtadovsl 
Taylur'K StudontV 3liiDual of lhf« Hist, of ludiuaj 
I87I, PF- 6;C-ti03 ; Waljiole's Hist, of EnglftDd,! 
l86C,v. 18G-207 ; Asiatic Journal, vols. vit. xri, j 
xvii. xviii. XIX. xxiii. xxiv ; MinnuiiN, JmtrnAt«p4 
aod Correnpondence of Thomas Moore, 18d3t.| 
Lord .'Vlbcmarle's Fifty Vears of my Life, 187ff 
ii. lAO-», 161 ; Philippart'i Royal Milil 
<.'))]endar, 181fi, 1. 67-70; Aooiuil Biography an 
Ol-ituriry. 182H, 142-68; Gent. Mag. 1827,1 
xcrii. pi. i. 85.90; Lodge's Peeraec of Ire- 
laud. 1760. iii. lOQ-lO; CoUins's Peerage of 
F.Dglaud. 1812. vi. 0S8-90; Doyle's Ofli<n«l 
Baronago, IS8(t, Ii. ldI-2 \ Burke's Pe«raf2r (s.a.| 
'Loudoun'), 1888. p. SS2: FuNtcr's Alunmi Oxon.l 
1888, iii. 1178 :BulU-r"sU.''ta of Harrow Sch«o\ 
184B, p. 8; >'otes and Uueries. Ist sar v. 77h 
133, 2o;i, 4th j>er. ii. 633, iii. 213. vii. 4u3 : BriC, 
Mus.Cut.] O.F. R.B. 

lH2y), naval coiuiiionder iu the f ireek war ( 
inde]M:udonce,waa younger sou of Lieutenant 
generul Sir L'harlc^ Uustings, bart.. mi ille<« 
giiimutc sou of Franc ta Hastings, earl of 1 1 imt-a 
ingdon. He entered the navy when ahnut 
eleven ycare old, and wae present at Trnfal-" 
gur on hoanl the Neptune. During hi.-* tifteenJ 
years nf servict? he vitited every quarter oi 
the globe, and was finally sent to the \V« 
Indies in command of thf Kangaroo for tha 
purpose of surveying. On coming into tli^l 
harbour of Port Itoval, Jamnira, he is r 
piirti*d to hove broug)it his ship to anchor : 
uu iiiiBeanianlike way. The nog-captain i 
the admiral's fthip insulted him so grossW in 
consiX|iience that Hastings sent him a coal- 
lenge. The admiral on the station n'porif " 
the circumstance to the home autluiritiesj 
iind Hastings was dismity««ul ilie service. 
(tpiriliHi letter to Ijonl Melville produced nfl 
enect, and Hastings resolved to take ser 
vice under some foreign power. lie reside 
for a time in France to acquire the languos 
and sailed from Marseilles on 12 March 1822|i 
with tlm^iow of joining the Greeks. He" 
reaeJied Hydra on S April, and was well n*- 
ccived by the brothers Jakoraoki and Manoli 
Tombaze;), then in commRnd of the CtreoJi 
fleet. On 3 May 1822 this flwt. wbic' 
was poorly monned, sailed from Hydra witb 
Hastings on board the ThL-miAtocles as voluiin 
leer. The value of his services wa« soon 
evident, and auutiig other things he built 
furnace on board hiti ghip for beating shot 
He first hecomo popular among the Grcch 
sailors by sa\'ing the corvette of Toml>ai« 
off Cape Baba, to the north of Mitylen« 
which had ncoidi'ntidly got within range < 
the Turkish fire. When the naval nimpaig 
was concluded, Hastings joined ihe 
engaged in the eie^ of Nauplia, and astUtfld 




the defence of the little port of BoitLd, 

rhich -WTW held br thi? <JTpek5. Th* town 

t\\ into their handA ou 12 Ike. 182^. About 

ihib tiiiiQ llasttags raiaed a companv of fiAy 

pieD, whom be ftmed and equipped at bin 

iown expt'nse. Duhiiff part of \>*'2ii lie wn'ed 

I in Crcrtc as communaer of the artillfry, but 

wan compelled to quit the inland in the 

.nutunin of that year in causequcnce of a 

riolent fever. 

In the Utter part of 1821 Hastiofts vent 

I England tr> purr base a cteamer^'nrbich was 

let be armed under biit direction. In Man-h 

|Ji>25 the Karteria ram^ to GreiMX' and was 

out under his command. Ttiia KleanitT, the 

Brst seen iu Greece, wnn anund with U8- 

Dunders, and could throw rt-d-hot eliellg 

ad shot, llt-r cryw consistetl uf Engliali- 

nen, Swedi-?>, and (IpH'ks. In I'Vbruury If^T 

(la^rinir^ c»>«rated with Thotnas Gordun 

l(17Ha-l8-il) [t].v.", and made an attemiit to 

pelieve Adieus, which was ht»*iej.'od by the 

tTurktsb commnnder Kesbid,by steaming into 

Ithe lMru>ns and fthidling the tmemy's camp. 

lliu attack was eucctisMful, but thu city wh* 

Iftfterwarda forced tu ciijittulati^ to tb** Turl(.<« 

DXiSJiuie. Ilastiuffd inttrrupled the Turkish 


[captured sevf-ml of ihcLTTesfielp. At Tricbcri 

I hv destroyed a Turkish man-of-war, but in this 

tencounter tb*^ Karteria .^nllerf^d ecverely, and 

^•vrns obhpt"d Iu go to Poros for repairs. On 

"HI Sept. lK*J7 Hasting?! destruyedlbeTurkiith 

Bet^t iu tiMf bay of >}aIoua. Itirahiin Fnshu, 

l»bo wji« al Navarino, resolved I o takwinsitont 

iTeiiijPHim' u])on bim, but the allied ndmirals 

kept hb) Heel cKiscly blockaded there. Uii 

' ) Oct- \>^'27 it waa anuUiilated at the great 

ftttle of Xavartno. 

On 21) I'oc. 1837 Ilastinfifs t^nk Vnsiladi, 
Ihe kry to the fortifications of Mcsolonphi. 
lie r«leH»eil the prisoners whom be captured 
Itc^elhrr with tbeTiirki:«b governor (Fislay, 
bi. 187). Capodialrias now arrived in (Jreece 
ipre«ident,an(l lla><tinp"3,di:*gxwled witUtbe 
f(Iigent condiict of the war, proposed tore- 
But in May IM2K be was induced to 
iiimo aelive opi-rations in command of a 
vnuill Ajuadron in western Greece. On the 
'^25th of that month he was wounded in an at- 
tack on Anattdikun, and amputation of tbo 
t arm became neces»Br>'. Jle failed for 
Bt« in search nf a competent surgeon, but 
etoniwaet in b^fcire the KHrterin could enter 
Ibeporl. On I June l'^:i8be expired on board 
ibf Tt'Fvt'l in lheb»r)K>ur of Zante, Ilififuiie- 
:: waa pronounced by Tricniipi,iUe 
■ -rian of the war. J*'inlay apeak« of 
1 :. !: *'-f foreipn officer who embarked 
111- ' I ' • L niiise, and declares that he was 
only lorcigner in whoac character and 

deeds thvne wk« the elements of trae great- 

[FiaUy's History of the Greek KtTolotion, 
1861 ; Triconpi** 'Iot^^q r^t 'CAAqrtriii 'Crtua* 
rrdrtttSf IS63; Blaekvood's Hocuaiuc. 0<4ul*r 
IS45.] W, R, M. 

HASTINGS, OEOnOE. flwt E\Ki. of] 
nryiisoDoN and third Bjlrok IIa!ttis-osopi 
Hastings (148S J'-I&45), son of 1-Mward, 
mcond baron Hastings ( 1 10(5- 10O7 1, by Mary, 
granddaughter of Thomas, third bnrvj'n Hun- 
^rford, was Ixim about 1488. AViltiamllaM- 
Jiigs, lonl Hastings [q. v.^, who 'was executed 
in 1483, was hit* crandfatber. He wnsmade 
a k-ni^dit of the Bath on 17 Nov. ir>01. and 
succeeded bis father m third lAttm Hast- 
ing!* on 8 Nov. I5(W, being summnnetl to 
]»arbument in the following year. Ho wa» 
constantly at court, and took' part in nil tbo 
great ceremonies of state. The kingappeai-s 
to have fref|Ueutly advanced bim raonev. 
M'hen nn entry was msdo into I'Vauce m 
Io]3, HaHiings wns a member of the van- 
guard retinue; be \^^»B present at the Field 
of the CInth of (iold; ho also was in alien- 
dance when Charles V vuiiud Kngland in 
lo2:2: and bis name appears as a witness to 
the treaty of Windsor of that year. Hejoinud 
Suffolk's expc'diiion into I'rance in 15:i3. 

Throughout hlfilife lie seems to have boca 
u favourite of the king, although cnrlv in 
the reign be had to apiiear before the Star- 
cbaniber for keejiing too many liveried ro- 
tainen*. The kind's fa^ourprucurwl him many 
proiituble ajiiiointnienls; hu waa steward of 
various innuors rind mnniu'terief. and a cap- 
tain of archers in the royal .s**rvice. In Ifi^D 
be was created earl of Huntingdon witli an 
annuity allowed bim of '201. a year; hu had 
long been a pri\'Y councillor ; and his namd 
was attached to the petit ion from I bo Kngtish 
nobles and lawyers to Clement Vll praying 
that the divorce might bo quiclflv settled. 
An account of Hastings's revenue iVom hind 
has been pi-eser^td fur 15t)li, and it ap|ieiirs 
to have U-en just under a thour>and piuinds. 
In Inim hu secured a lung lease of land fmrn 
Waltham Abbey, so that lie must bare been 
wealthy, in spile of his coiiiiuual indebted- 
ness to the King. He was present at ibn 
coronal inn of Anne Boleyn ; at her trial ; and 
at the trials of hortl Dncre and Kir Thomas 
Moore. Hostings was one of the leaders nf 
the king's forces against the rebels in the Pil- 
grimage of Grace, and gave earlv Informa- 
tion as to the outbreak, lie was t1ten living 
at Ashby-de-la-Zoucb. He died nt his («st 
at Stoke Poges in Buckinghamshire, nnd va* 
buried in the chancel of the church therp. 
He had married, about Heoemher 1 W/J { let- 
ters and J'aper$ t^f Urn. I'JJJ, ii. 1444), 

. in 



• ■-^iiani*. by his wiff iSarah. ilauchtrr of 

- [L-1 Thnmii:? Ilndifes, wfi^ b..'ni in Loii- 

11 m U Aiiu'. 177!'. l[c was t-lccaN-d at 

'.l.-pton ^I'rlmol 1 17^7-iK)). anil utt-'rwurJ- 

r .bthn Ht'ttt'-r worth's at-adi'iny ar (.'h''!s''a. 

■ i^irlyin 17li;l hec'inuu**ni'i'(l \u< iia\alcan'r 

■ - .;i-l..T Sir .Ii.»hn Ui>rla.>t! AVarreii, Tlit-n i-ap- 
.. ■ -;iiti i.)f the Flora. Hf look piirt in rh-.' ai'tii'U 

■tt' runcaU; Bay in April 17!'4. nnil in lli" 
- ;'l''iwiiiir yo:ir war- witumlt'cl in tlic (^■lil"^- 
7 Ml t'Xpt'diti'in, After S'-vvinL^ ^i\ y- ars w;lh 
Warfi'ii, ht> was apiiuintt-d su-iin;: li-.iit-nur.t 
•; in th" Syljih briir. ami sub«i-ijni.,-nily r>- 
. . ^ i-fivi'il his ciimiuis-inn us st:roii>l li.'ut-.'Ti.i'.it 
-•t ibi- Kai'oan. lOarly in IMHI bf wns aj*- 
^ ^' jiitintcil lirst lit'iitfiianr of tlit- "rbisl."', in 
,.. ; whirh ffbip In- a(.H'iim]>:inirtl ili-.- txju'iliiU'n 
M J'^jrypT. lie was iifii.Twanls ajijiointt-.l 
, i >(*cnn<l lioutfiiiuit of rAi^ilo. and on tin' 
,. lirealiin^ out of tbi- war in IH'-'J wa-^ S'-m 
<, .._ to W'eyuioutb lloails to in;prr>- ^-'ain'Mi fiT 
. , _ thi' n:ivy. Whib' I'nu'a;^*''! on iliis dnty ibf 
■*;;>' piii'^y untb-r hi- coniman'l was iiiiiicki'd liy a 
^ „ , ' molijiind in tb-:' conllict. which ousut-J s<'\''ii- 
,..,'■ *t'fii of his men Wfro woiiiidril. ami thrt-f "f 
ihi.'ir assailants wtTf killfd. t'()i'n lanilin-r 
al ^Vt'ynioutb he wiis seized, nnil rnniniitt'il 
tiy thf muyor. on tln' {'bar^-^c ol' intinbr. ti» 
^ ■]■_ I'orcbt'sii.T gaol. After a C'liitin.-m'-nt >>( 
, |.L, six weeks. 111' was removed by hah'vH corpn> 
...... J to W'estniinster.wben be wasbailedoiii by hi- 

.,.i.,.j. relative, Lord Moira Uee IIastixi-s, riivsris 

.^^^^ IIawihix- . mid was ."^ubsecjnentlv aeqiiitled 

,"- ,.f ''^ ''"^ llorebe?.it'r siinnner nsf-ize-'. From 

^■,-.',,. I'Ai^le Hastings was removed to the l>la- 

■»<,':» "i<"i'U »"*l I''-' !)ft"vwards servi-il as M,>i-oiiii 

■ ^^. , lii'nleiiaiil on the Audaeion^. and a? Ibi:r-litii- 

:,^' t-'iiaiit on th-- Jlibernia. On hi* refusal to 

■ "d >i" '""^ '" '^'"' ^^ I'^f lndii'<. where two of 
^..^ ■.■^^ hi^ brotb<T> ba'l die>l. b-- w:t< appointed 

■: .^_ !ifl inj,' ordnaiu:" burraelaiia^ier in the I>1" of 

.. , WiLjbt, and in iM's \vji~ promot.'d lo the pnsf 

,." ofMrdnaiif'e>iorek'*e]i.'i- in 10nni-'>kint;n,\\iuiv 

>^ ,. be livi'd tor ni'ii-e tlian nine years. 

....,, When l-'raiu'is. irntli ejirl of Ilnniinu'"- 

^ ,! , , lion. die<l in *>i-iolier 17^!*, the earldom of 

. , • ..," Iluntin;idi>n l)e('ame di>rniaiit, wliile the jui- 

■ „, eient ban III ir^ I if 1 last iiiii>, i'>cc.,dev<dveil upon 
!_ .... hiselder>i-i(y. I,a<ly I'.iizabetli na-tiiig<.lb'- 

>^ ,.'. tliird wif'-of,|,.bn Jlawdf.n.tlrst earl of ^Inira. 

... ,|- 'rhiniL;Ii Theopbilu-i Henry llasjin^'s, tlii- ec- 

,,j I'liilrie reeuir of liri^i and \Ve?t L>'ake, N.ii- 

\ _. .-. linu:bain>bire,tlienneleof llaii'iFrnnei- Ha-1- 

iiij;s.a'isnirie(l th.-tillenf I-;;irl of Hunt iiiLT'b'n, 

_ \-i whieb be was entiib-rl )»y bi.^de.-Cf-nt from 

.' ' Franris. lln- ,-i-eond t-nrl i[. v. . be never lonk 

aiiv >Iep> to prove bi^ riiiht. r|)nn the d'-iith 

■ .;; of hi-; niiele in Ajivil If^ni. HasiitiL'S mad-- 
.■■)t some iitteni]it lo inv«-liL'"ate hi> idaim t^' lie- 

,, ■■;^, I' wa>>oon eonqtelled to abandon 
v'f it I'orwuni of nionev. In.Iulv 1>17 bisfrlt-nd 



Uary N'oj^ait Bell 'q. vS took tht oMe op, 
ud It w&s iDAinlj owing to Us cxvtMikB 
iht th« attorsey-ceBermlySir Saorad Shep- 
herd, nportcd an 20 Oct. 1818, that Hut- 
ma had 'sufficieotlj prored Us riclit to ibe 
tine of £iri of naadiigdon.* A vrit of 
iDUBOoi vu BCMudingly uened to him in 
JiotufT]81t).ui(i onib»14tbaf thfttmanth 
he took his eeat in the Hooae of Lords 
(JmnaU of the Sotue of Lot^m, liL 9), 
wliere he does not appe&r to have talcen uy 
put ill the debates. Thoagh •neooaful in 
nu claim to the earldom, be failed to recover 
tbe Leicestershire estate*, which had fomieriy 
June with the tiile. On 7 March IKJl he 
obtatnrd the rank of commander and the 
rommind of the Chanticleer. While cruii^ini? 
ID the Mediterranean he -was apmjinted 
porernnr of Dominica {VA I>ec. 1&'21>. ind 
on 28 March in the following year took the 
<Niths of ofBce (Limdon Gasett'c^ IB:^, pt. i. 
p. 633). In 1824, in ooiueqaence of a mi»- 
onderstandinff with the other Buthonliea in ^ 
the ifUnd, Hnntuigdon rasigned hi^ poet, 
an d returned home. Ha wu promoted to 1 
the r«nk of post-capiain on 39 Mat 1624, 
and on 14 Aug", following wa« anpointed to [ 
the command of the Valorous. Illness com- , 
pelled him to relinquish hi« command in the , 
West IndicB. Returning to EuRland in May 1 
1(428, he died at Green Park, Youglial, on 
9 Dec. 1828, ag»d 49. and was succeeded in , 
the earldom by his eldest son, Francia Theo- 
philu4 Henrv Hastings. He married first, 
on 12 Mar 1 KW. at St. Anne's, Soho, France?, 
third daiichter of the Rev. Uichard Chalonw 
Cobbe, r^-ctor of Grval Marlow, Buckingham- 
ahire, br whom he had ten childn^n, includ* 
mg (jeorjre Fowler Hastings [q. vj She ^ 
died on 31 March 1820, and on_28 Sept. 
following he married secondly KUn Hary, I 
eldest daughter of Ja«*Aph Bottesworth of 
Ryde in the Ule of Wight, and widow of 
Alexander Thisllethwayte of Hampshire, 
by whom he had no children. His widow 
surrived him, and married, for the third j 
time, on 2ii April \b^, Colonel Sir Thomas 
Noel Harris, K.H., and died at Boulogne on 
9 Nov. leHti. Engmrings by V. Warren 
after portrait? of Huntingdon, and of his first 1 
wife by S. AV. Lcthbridge, will be found in 
Bell's * llunlingdun Peerage.' 

[H. N. Bell's UaatioirdoD Peerage, 1620; 
0«Bt. Mag. 1829, pt. i. pp. 2a!)-72. 1817, pt. i. 
110; Dovle'f OflBcial Baroniige, I8H6. ii. 243; 
Bnrko's Peerage, 1889, pp. 743. 744 : Notes and 
QDeries. Mb ser. xii. 69, 234, 278. ilH. (Itb ser. | 
i. 60. >'av_v Lists.] G. F. B. B. I 

HASTINGS, HEN'RY, fir*t Raron ! 
HAsnsoflby writ (#/. 126^), baronial leader, 
waa son of' llenrj' Hastings((j. 1250), sixth ^ 


faaraa br teeure, amd Ads, third daagbt«r of 
DkTid, cKt) at Haatisgdoa, brath«v of Wil- 
liam the Lion, by Maud, d^iighm tod 00- 
beims of Hugh, c«rt of CbeMec Hlaffimnd- 
iaiher. William Hastings {d, liX\ to& part 
with the bantift against King John, and in 
1216 his lands wen fbifeited : he was taken 
pni^ooer at Lincoln in 1:217, and wa5 one of 
William of Anmale'a ^uppurterv at Bthara in 
1±?1. Hrnry Hastings the elder fought it» 
Poitou in 1242 and wa$ taken priiuner at 
Saintes, he aerred in Scotland in 1244 t /fe- 
Mf« em DifmUy of a iVer, iii 20>. In ]2.V> 
be was one of the nobles who took the cross, 
but died in July of the sante year. Matthew 
Paris calls him * a distinguished knight and 
wealthy baron '(ir. 213, T. 96, 174). 

Henry was under age at his father's death, 
and the king gvtatM the wardship of his 
estates to Gfmvj de Lusignan, who, how- 
ever, in the following year tnnsferrvd it to 
William de Cantelupe. In 1260 Hastings 
received a summons to be at Shrewsbury 
in arms on B Sept. in order to take part; 
in the Welsh war (Rtport im Diffnittt of a 
Peer, iii. 21). He was one of tbevonng noble* 
who at the parliament held in ^(ay ]2H2snp- 
ported Simon de Monlfort in his complaint 
of the non-obserranre of the provisions of 
Oxford ^W^Si^KS- i^- liJ3>. and siding with 
the barcms in the war of 1263 was one of 
those excommunicated by Archbishop Boni- 
face. Haetinga also joined on 13 Dec. 1263 
in signing the inittnimrnt which bound the 
barons to abide by the award of Louis IX. 
In April 12H4 he was in Kent with Gilbert 
de Clare, and took jmrt in the siege of Ro- 
chester (Geiiva<>r, ii. 2351. He marcbe<l with 
Karl Simon to l^wes, and was knighted bv 
him, either on ihu morning before the battle 
on 14 May 1264 (16. ii. 237), or at Jjsndou 
on 4 May (according to CAr. JJovfr in MS. 
Ottl. Julius, D. ii.) In the battle of Lewes 
Hastings commanded t he l^mdoners. and took 
port in their flight from Edward, .\ftenvanl8 
DQwas made bv Earl Simon constable of tho 
castles of Scartioroiigh and Winchester, and 
on 14 Dec. received the summons to parlia- 
ment from which the extant barony of Hast- 
ings dates {Jlrpori on Dignity of a Peer, iii. 
34 ^ He was one of tho barons who were* 
going to take part in Iho tournament at 
l)«n*iable in March 126.> (Cb/. Hot. }\tt. 
49 Hen. III). He was taken prisoner at 
Evet^ham on 4 Aug. li*65, but ai^erwartU 
obtaininir his release joined Robert Ferrers 
earl of l>erby [q. v.], at Chesterfield in the 
following May. and only escaped cnplure with 
him through l>t>ingout huntmg (Kobekt ov 
GLOt'tcsTKR, 11840-601. He then went l«> 
Keailworth, and, joining with John de la 


■-•'- Hastini^s 

-iii II Si-Mrliin'l, iind in Juii-' w:=* mrij-.- wank-n 

.;^ rhi- Forth ami'-::i-v -'V. Ih''. 

.1- >'.w.-/. iii. 4:i, 47l. I'arlv in 1;''.' h- wa.^^ 

■va:-'.l--n of JVrtli, nn-.l wn'* i:;-. :■■ enitriMv ct' 

|tii:nlt'f in May. InM:iy \i\l- :.-:--.vr.-;w;iri.len 

: _ i lt.'nviek-oii-T\v.-t'(l. ' Ili-l:i-* ■'■.;:n-^i^n".to 

,■ i):trlia!iii'iit. was tUirfil 7 J:;ly l.'Ur!. a:nl !■.*■■ 

■1 j'f' <Iit'<l not I'tn;: air- r, fvr'.aj- n>'\f 

:>. y.-ir at IJuniici-kbiini. II-.- i-.i-r-.r-::;!;.- l-'ir 

"^'. I Wykes I>n::sIaM.\ \V.;Vvr:-;.-. ■;:. : W..7.'- -tor 
■ 1 A'lHiils ill Aiinali". M-i'!:!--:;': : M i::'...'.v I\;7'^; 

■■'. t ■.intiniMlinn til" (ruirast- ft' Ci:.:-.:: ^ry: K','!"-r: 

■ r' 'Jl'iiiLVstiT (all tlii'i-f' an* in •:.- K ;'.- ^^■-^i'.•*l; 

-■ I l'ri:riin]i''s ItanniJip-p.i.i'iri— t; li-.r rt'-r. r':ri'ty 

■•t'.i IVir. vol. iii.; Ciiiirtlinjii."^ !i--t :■;.■ l\ ; rr._v, 

. , ;:■. 'IMK iHO ; IJi.iauw's IViro::^" "W.-ir. I'cr K i- 

■ ■, iMiinl llastiiiu^ si'i; also 'IMli'lliil ? Jl .".iry \i\':> 
., ,., il'.oLawaml I'nieiien in Si-'otli>h iVt-r .^'.-.ii.i'O't- 
, / 10 rJ; >"ii,'()l:ih's tfrnia of Caoilavi r-jk. p. "Jl'O ; 
". ' liain'it t' of iJocr.moais :v'.,i::i._- r.> S,'.a- 

■'" lami, \o\. iii.] (.'. I,. K. 

■V. HASTINGS, JIKNRY. thinl r.Ai:r. or 

■s. ITiNiiN(.]*('X ( 1 'lo'Virilto !,).(, i-n ill l.'»;;.\ w!!!^ 

tldi'j-j SI in of I'^raiicis lla^tin^is, m-i-^'Ii-I >'arl 

i|. v. . by ( 'iiilnTino, <laiit:hti.-r and <■ 'lu-ir-'S' 

of lii-iiry PoK', lord .Mcmiacnto, brorh'T f>t' 

Cardinal Vnh: Kdward VI, who.-',- i-i'iu- 

]»ani"ii lit.'\vasin ynutli.kni:;htfdliim'J''l"fl>. 

I-'>17— S. ()n :.'.'> May l."»-Vihe was mnrri>-d nt 

Itiirliani(aftt*rwardsNortliinnh)'rl,tTid i House 

in till' Si rand, iyfuulon, to (.'atln'rinr*, diuiijli- 

tiTof .Iiilin Itudlcy, dukf nf Xonlininbr-rlanil 

(J. V. I!t^ was summiiucd to parlianu'iir as 

Jtarnn ilastin^is •2:i .Ian. l.V)S-H. ][,> siic- 

i-of'did lr> tho ('(irldninof Hinirinpdon on tli*.' 

■ ■ _;ir dealli nfliisiaH!i.'r.:*OJmit>l."i01. TIiroiiLrh hi-* 
- ■.j,> dix-'-ntoii liisnintlier's>id(' Inun I'Mwanl H's 
,' -is lirotlitT (!fiir^.'.diiki:' of Clart'iict'. \w duiiiu-d 

■ ■ •M aftur l'.liz;ibitli liit-sucofj^-ion lo tlnMhr.iiu'.in 

■ -v. !< o[i])fislt iiMi 1o Lady ('alheriu'? * in.-y .-md Mary 
• ' ''t-,' IJiii-rii of Scnl-^, liis claims wore snji|iMr(td 

' :iHl by prolialily i In- majority of imili'stant iioblt'-s, 

""M. ami diirin;: tin; s-'Vin^ illm/.-s of J-^Iizabi-tli in 

■ "^N l,')(;j til*' i-iirr-'iit- of ojfiiiioii jminied towards 

• -'.-"u him a- liiT siicc''--or. His jnvti-n.^ioTistti ili'> 
"• IVo. i-ucri's^ion .'-ornrlimi-j oi-casioni'd I'"lizabi-tli 

• :-.;. iniirli irrilatloii. In a h'tti-r tii liisbrotlicr-iii- 
,'-v:* law Lr'ici--tcr in lot!!. Hunt inirdoii ivlaio:; 

• ■'■■' tlial when his wif.'caiiiitncnnrf' it ])h'a>tdhi'r 
- A > MjijfSiy to L:ivi' Inr n privy nijipo r'spi-ciiilly 
» :-[ oonn-rnin:: iny-dlb't J{t;i,i,.7/f'////*?y'Ay/; I\'f- 

. » -. ■ nf/,; L'lidt'd. ]i. tJl ). Iliiiuinirdoii had puritan 

- ■ 'i' li'aiiiiirr-j, an<t was a ?-trniiir ^ymiialhi^or with 

^lr. the nii;,nu-nM; slni^uh' in IViincv. Jn lo<ii> 

< :,y ht'ivtiiion-'d Klizaln^th forpi'nni^>ioutos.dl 

■■ ■!- hisrstntfs and i'lin till' flnirni.'iiot army with 

■ ■i ton thoii.sand iiM-n i Don (iiitTan to IMiilip of 

^ ■"!% Spain in M-S.s. .si)iit/nrft.<!, ipiDted in Frol'Im:. 

'.'*. I'liiflami, cab. t-rl. ix. (i<l). 

^ ,-.\s As was (inly natural, Ilnntin|r<lon was 

■X .!■ I' -t" 

■t : 1 t-:- 

,_•■■■< '\\ 



-;■-■ '. ail 

'■:■■ ■!.- 




itrao^y advene to the proposed muruire 
betimn Mary Queen of beots and XorfolJc. 
He Iield meetinga at his hoose 10 orsanis« 
nosttDCe to it^ and his energetic measure^ 
lud considerable influence in frostralin^ the 
Saigas of the northern conspirators in l.Jtff*. 
^1wa rumours arose of a possible northern 
Rbellion^ precautions were taken bv Eliza- 
beth to prevent the escape of the Queen of 
Scots. Recognising that Huntingdon had 
special reasons of liis own for oppo^ino- the 
scheioes of the conspirators, she. on 1-1 Sept.. 
gare instructions that Shrew^burr, then in 
charge of Marv, * shall, as he see cause, adver- 
tise the Earl of Huntingdon and Viscount 
Hereford, and require their a-«si=tancrr to 
withstand any attempt to carry her away by 
force, and that they be in readiness with .>uch 
company of horsemen as they think them- 
selves well assured of" ( Cai, itatJUld MSS. \. 
419; IIayses, Burghley State Papfrit.-p. 'i22 ». 
Huntingdon arrived at Wins^eldon the I'.hh, 
and assisted Shrewsburr in conveyine the 
Queen of Scots, for greater safety, to Tut bury, 
which he garrisoned with five hundred men. 
On 22 Sept, 1.j69 Elizabeth sent instructions 
to Huntingdon to supersede Shrew«bury, the 
ground of the *dircctionso sudden and strange ' 
being ascribed to 'the said Earls infirmities 
and request for help, and to the Queens fear 
of some escape ' (Cal. Hatfeld MSS. i. 422 ; 
Hatxes, p. 026). The order cau.sed much 
commotion in the household of the Queen of 
Scots, who, when she learned it, wrote to 
the French amba.ssador F^nelon to take note 
of the illegality of placing her in the hands 
of one who had rival claims with her to the 
throne of England (Labaxoff, Letters of 
Mary Stuarty iii. 182). Shrewsburv affected 
to ignore the order, on the ground that Eliza- 
beth was under an entire misunderstanding 
in regard to the state of his health, and 
Huntingdon, recognising that he had been 
placed in a false position, wrote on the 25th ' 
requesting'eitherhisdischargeor to be W»^, 
or to have some other match \Cal. Ilatjield 
MSS. i. 424 ; Hatxbp, p. 530). Orders had, 
however, been despatched on the same day 
making him and Shrewsburyjoint custodians. ' 
This arrangement continued till November, '•■ 
when, finding his position uncongenial, Hunt- 
ingdon on the 4th obtained liberty to depart, 
and on the 7th left Tutbury, ' well contented 
and friendly.' On the 20th, in view of the 
threatened rising in the north, Huntingdon 
was made a lord-lieutenant of Leicestershire > 
and Kutlandshire, to which was added after- J 
wards the office of lord-president of the north, ! 
1 Dec. 1572. On the 23rd orders were sent ' 
him to remove the Queen of Scots from Tut- j 
burv to Coventn'. This he and Shrewsbury 

did, but the place bein? found unsuitable, 
she was subsequently removed to Shrews- 
bury's castle at Sheffield, after which Shrews- 
burv returned to court. 

lluntinedm was one of the nobles specially 
snmmoned to meet the privy council on 1 4 Dec. 
1569 to consider the evidence that had been 
brought against the Queen of Scots by the 
regent Moray and the other Scottish commis- 
sioners. In 1573 he sat upon the trial of 
Norfolk for hijh treason, and the same year 
he was constituted lieutenant of the counties 
of Leice?ier and Kutlacd. as well as of those 
nf York. Northumberland. Cumberland, and 
Westmoreland, and the bishopric of Duiham. 
In thiis caicici;y he had a conference in 1575 
with tberezent Morton to settle the dispute 
arisingfromtheraidoflledswire. Onl5June 
1579 he was installed a knight of the Garter, 
and the following year was appointed one of 
a commission to inquire into the recusancy 
of certain of the gentry. After the appre- 
hen=-ion of Morton in loSl ^see l>orGLAS, 
Jame?!. d. ISSK. Huntingdon was directed 
by Elizabeth toraise in Yorkshire a force ' of 
persons well affected in religion.* and con- 
duct them to Berwick. Here Huntingdon 
speedily arrived with two thousand footmen 
and five hundred horse, but was kept in idle- 
ness on the borders, not withstandingrepeated 
warnings and remonstrances on his part that 
tho attempt to negotiate with Lennox was 
' madness.' and his scornful condemnation of 
the proposal of the attempt to save Morton's 
life by thea-rsassinat ion of Lennox. His words 
were unheeded until the sen-ices of the troops 
were rendered valueless; and Randolph at 
last saw 'that nothing now could save Mop- 
ton's life.' The troops were thereupon dis- 
missed to their homes. Huntingdon waa 
active in taking measures against the threat- 
enetl Spanish invasion of 1588. He died 
without issue, 14 Dec. 1595, and was interred 
at Ashby-de-la-Zouch. His countess sxir- 
vived him till 4 Aug. 1620. Huntingdon 
had compiled in 1583, under his own imme- 
diate inspection, a complete history of his 
family, of which there is a manuscript copy in 
the British Museum (MS. Harleian 4774"). 
He settled on Emmanuel College, Cambridge, 
t lie rectories of Loughborough and Thurcaston 
in Leicestershire, those of .\ller and North 
Cttdbury, Somersetshire, and the vicarage of 
Piddleton, Dorsetshire, but the last was lost 
to the college through some flaw in the deed. 
Camden says ' he was of a mild disposition, 
but being a zealous puritan, much wasted 
his estate by a lavish support of those hot- 
headed preachers.' By some his support of 
the puritans was attributed to policy and 
the desire to create in the countr\* a senti- 

'-. . • -- 1, A-i i:-v> 

j^ ■=-: :ir- il:i>-L ViAres- 
•irr a:». 

■ .^. ZZI7:.":" 1. iz L-*:-B- 


I', tf ('..jj.'J;. -.1 
!■ .l-.f. • '.( 1,1 

".fl'.-<l "ij. f.v A'I'I, ',N in?'. I,;- p'.nrii:;- <,l" 

:m If'.;', r -I- r.,v.rl.v ;in'i Wjll WiinM-. A 
.-ii,/ iiri-'.iiMt -.vii ■ v.ri(r<ii of (urn l»v Sir 

■'.r, ;.:: ■• 




■ :■ . ; V .T it: . 11- 

-:;-:-;--•- i _T^ a: A^'~-T-i~ld- 

.:.---. --L-.--. :. — ": Ti.-K- i p';-rn;;jr.'-n: 
: ■ - Lz.i r ' :-..y ' — ii:::a:;i Liii:.srli ar 
.i-i ■ T .-• . -*;.- rr. : :' "i.- wir. bnt :o airacir 
■ .- : :-.. .zi-m-.-:.' .- :-.': :h-.^ neiirlib-jurln^r 
:--.--. 1:.- r-i". -xi-i :V.rth'-r tirt*d hv tlif 
:'- : 1 "f-"~"--r. :,> <"'^"r, laniily ainl that i-l' 
I^ t: I rr-v. ■!.- ; .-.rliinienrdr^- cnnimaDilrr. 
• i..--.i..-..r. wh n: ■:.• o-untTTi-a.* divided pa— 
•! r::r- '.y ■-:-. -^.:^}i w::]. -.i: any othtT qxiarn-I. 
Ar.'i r. --v :'::■• * -n* f-iiirht tho j'uiilic qnarnl 
■\viT}i t]..-:r yria'ar.;* fpiri* and indipnatirm' 
('"A, I Ilifrin?* r»jmU''d a combined attack 
on A-liltv in Jiinniirv lt»43, took part in tlic 

.\ :\ Itli V f ■.,.,[,. r, (if I .-iirl of S.(ii(fi.--I.iirv, hjiftlt-i.f Ilopton ili/ntli in March, and in tli** 
•Jii'l ■■,..■ iii'Milii->l on II porfriiit oC Iiirri rit nrcJijitur*.- of Lichfield in April, eafelv c<ni- 

I I i li'ilii .Inn y'- ci-iit, Wiiil'Tli'iiinic St. dncti-d im iin]>f)rtflnt convoy of ammuni- 

iiiit'* Miiiiv nrhi-r iiiiiii' ii)(r ilfriiils (if his i tion t^> Oxl'ord in May, and n;licved Staffnrd 
d'liii' -III 1 1 •iiM>iij\ lllll^ lit- fiiitnd in Sliiirtt's- j Cust h' in .iiin*' ( MercuriuJt Au/icw, IrU-.J. pp. 
Ml- I Imiii.hi, »liir|i wiix (ir.i printr-i in I ."(.'{, 1 17, J*»l, •JWi). The situation of Ashby 



euiQC§ 5i»cw"*ei I., oiii n. *im "-is- 2- ~— -:^-^ -— -'- ^^- . t- r _--■- t^-'ts;-;^ ~ .:ij. - ^r, . 

otiTjjirpt-::* 7 ■■•*-T:..-n^- i,:3. j, ;i— 3;rrr-r z.r— -: :_- -ir r- . .'~- :- ' l'*--iisu r- a. 

(lien?ni*r;i SLrrr-^r* LiiiT-itii—L 1^-52. i ■::=-,r _r-:-^.:r_- ■ ■^\~:.t-. :- ; --r--.ii i: Ti.i.i. 

<»i !■*>:■. L -.'•*'.. -UtC 3-T=rT ^rrr. - ji " . ^<^:ir :; . «:;.— -r-i- -: zii- z.'--:t Zuju:^ 

In Mat Ir^T itr ^I'-nei iik iiir r 1.3L""" >i: r- -"-• '■^■^i i." — cii (Z- vz .zi-.i.^'i-u 3 . u: ultt 

risoa of ^V:r»?:Tr '.r 2*rji,rTi'^:_ :r~ " r: "- » _ij-^ rt.irr LNriLi 1*,~. vt.? r.i-;T >;c. :■:' 

Francr cr H:i;^i. tii .■:. 1~ Ilaj 1-.^-. br. ,":.iz- riet:-:iii iiLrci Kio.-_ii> *; ■» '. :t ":.^s 

fenctr of C: lcL**:« Pan. X^fK-i^-r-i fl't-i- ^li-i-'.uii :- i-' F;": ".■-ii ■»*?*. ;s=:.'C:>i 

o«T, td. 1779. p. -ir-i* . I'liiiT "ir j-r-r-r ^-s :: Titr.j=^'tz.':.rj,: >*.-^;Teir ',!.:-• T<.i=;=:^.rj^ 

£pecUl provinw T^ tl-r f-prrr^:;- :.f ^le i^ .-I'^i' -• Z-r-i & -tzl".!."! ir. I'laitrs, 

6ionstoihebea:«*<i- >£*"•;«■"■■ t_"Lrrr'^Lr=.lT Kyifv-^y ij. .S.— i; rr. 7>r-rw. t'^Sc". **r.»: '.n 

{iraUes his unwtarl-i %,r:.Tiry A T~Lt Rt- :i.T *ik=.t tt-at -wi* := Br/:ar.T. He *».v.>a;- 

latifinof the Erpitditijn<f Krst.I^z.e^ ju^uei ilfrrr. tAr' -: IVrfr i»A(r«-»r.s* 

OtUhtMUr, p. 154*. i'ni *?i::- 1 Ai'-er :b-i- s^ir- I*^* :f Ls^.^i^Ter-. :.^ Giso.T.y in kU,\ «•*.« 

render of Colche?:tr:b* H.-iK- of C"o=:=::::5 t,:'- ^iin « Brrjerw :n J-Iv, jir..i :n \\f 

TOted Haecines Qct of :Lr Sfrren ffr«=4X c^ r*i.: &: Aul«rr:cnr ia ik'toVr. In U'i-lii \\\^ 

linqtients to be bfcni«br-i f:r :h*-ir shi?e ;a :. r=:r«i one of ib-e rirris^.n at ;'::o *:.^):v of 

the second civUwari lOXov.lrii- i, Theini*- Ar::.lJ:'n \ FkoIss-aki. :::. 4>. t\ . U'4 -*»». Hi> 

pendents. however, revoked liiia t>:«-i 13 LKv. diT-i :n 1347 and wa* burled :r. K'.sinjOV.urvh, 

1(M8 1 as * destructive to the p^Ace and qui-t. wLich bt hai hu:!: : in the ejL*: w-mW thon* 

And derr^tory to the justice of the kinj- are p>nrai:5 ci l!a.*:i:i^:s and hi# wifo. with 

doni*(OWPar/iamen^a/y/fi>/'>ry. xviii. 14o, the arms 'or. a mauneho amnios.* ami in tho 

At Windsor, lie joined Charles II in Uol- men* of Ancient Sculpture, pp. 1.'*, 14, ;tS, 
land in March 1049 (IIeath, CXromW^ ed. j withpjates). «.>namarblt»!»Ubm thoihamvl 
1663, p. 41*0). In the winter of 1650-1 a , then? is the inik>ripiion, ' Yis chun'ho hatli 
royalist insuirection was projected, and Hast- | Ut»n -wmwt by Howo de lUsfynf; and Mm 
ing:a was destined to command the cavaliers ; earet hys wyf.' Mai^'n- Uastiui;:)! di^l i 

of the midland counties {Milton State Paperg, 
pp. 47, 50, 77). He was also engaged in the 
roralist conspiracy of 1654, but took no part 
in' the actual risoag of Afarch 1655 (Cat. 
Clarendon Paper*, ii. 392, 440). On tbe \ 


1;149; she left a son lln^h, wbo in perbnpA 
the Sir 1 liigh I la$t in^s who sen txl w ii li J,ibn 
of Gaunt in Spain in I3it7 ^FKitissAxrV Ww 
dieit at Kalkwt'U Hill. VorKshin\ in \\\\\\\ 
and was buriLHl in the Frinrs I'buri-h nl \U\\- 

VOL. XIT. ' K 



mt'nt in support of his claims to tho throne. 
Ho WH8 Hucce«(led by his brother Gi'ornf »■* 
foiirtli <?arl. A iwrtrait ( dated Vti^S, :i-tftti> 
mhh; ^>'J\ by an unknown punter is in thr 
jKWSt'Hsion of Lord liagot. 

[IJ(ir» Hunting^lon Peerage, 2nd cd. 1821, 
T'P. 62-84 ; CoUinu'i Peerage of England, fi:h ■ 
i<i., iii. 94-G; Ca\. Hatfield MS.S.: Cal. SUu- bn 
I'lipom, Dom. Ser., reign of Elizabeth; I!:i}ii. - - 
Stiitf Papers ; Nichuls's Leicestershire, esi.K<iitli;. *■. 
iii. 083-8 ; Camden'a Annals; l-'roudc's lliM, m „, 
Kiit'lmia; Hill Barton'a JliBt. of Scotland. ;.. 
Lcittlfr'nMiiry Queen of Scots in CaptiTity.lSRO.] ,,,i 

T. V. H. I 

HASTINGS, HENRY (1551-16r,0), «c- i ^ 
centric uportjanan.waa second eon of Oeor^'p. ' •" 
fdiirth earl of Huntingdon. He marritd 
Doroiliv, second daughter and t'oheiresf* ..f ^ 
Sir Francis Wiiloughby (the buildur of Wi.t- •■ "- 
laton, Nottinghamshire). Shediedoniril)«<-. ' 
hkW, and through her be acquired Murni- 1 
buid8l»ark,nearIlorton,Dowet8hire,to^Li li. 
with other remains of the old estate ot ili** 
KliolH, where he continuailj r^i ^ 
give bim a second wife, Mr*- J«w 
>nit hhe is not mentioned (n ^^ 
In 1(145 his estate at Wo 
liUl at ;tOO/. per annum, 
owing to his attachment I 
nftcrwardp compounded f < ^ 
rM)l. He died on 15 O 
centenarian, and with his 
Sir (ioorge Hastings, who 
biirifHl in the Hastmgs ais 
the old church of Horton 
I lastings wa8 the typicn 
the time. He was of Inw 
and well knit, * w«ll-natnr 
He always dresfod in pre< 
sorts of iiounds and bnw' 
daily to the vbase. His 
sporting trophies, while 
cats occupied every war _ 
Hifi table was cheaply but 
vidod from hU farms and H 
bo.«pitality was extreme, bi-' 
t>xci.'eili>d, or permitted oth 
pulpit of a neighbouring c 
lor purposes of devotion.' 
and therein, as the safe* 
t o be found a venison pi 
ft'iitures of his cham 
worked uj> by Addiw 
Sir lloper de CoTerle- 
i^ingulnr account wi 
A. Ashley Cooper, ' 
and was inscribed 
Lord Shaftesbury' 
I'iiles. Many otb 
domestic econom' 
bury's character, 

"■■riiam '!:'"-j: the 

''.'■ . !j Aui'.i.-r i':..'.m'>d 

' '* _ ir. In tk-r i.r: uu-i. of 

..- iw of the "riii.i vi'.''. ?t^ 

-lilterr de C_i.-- "l.-I of 

. - - . jyo> [q. V.'. .- -- i .-T»ute 

. ■i*'reforil(^'..f.i^---' l.To-"; 

- " '. In June 1->l 'l- com- 

,.uu. iind after a lr-=^b ai;>urn- 

rr decided that the kingilnm 

.I*, .iiid awarded the ?ucot--:sion 

■ j.jre fully under BALioL.Joiiy 

.:%'. In April ll»04 Hastings 


- . Mth him and other barons in 

.-.a it Dublin (Rot. Pari. i. l-lil. 

. :c jf was summoned to Portsmouth 

iie French war (.Rf/Jor^on Di;/nittf 

• . ,.'io). He receive<l his first sum- 

.-. .i.-iiiuuenton24Junel:J9o(y/>.iii.fto), 

w'.'r.'m this time summoniKl regularly 

- ..rdiii. He also ser\ed in the various 

..- . j^' ue.\t few years. InJulv li?lH)h» 

.^ , .. ro search the district of fiadenocli 

'-.>. -.\ou>", ii. '20), and on 2o Aug. was at 

_--^_^k when the bishops of Glasgow. Aber- 

-■, .. luJ Whithorn declared thoir loyalty 

••acil (ib. ii. 65) ; in 1297 he was sum- 

- ., »1 ^^^ ihe French war.and in 1298, 1299, 

. v." ^lUiurtheScottishwar. Hewnspresent 

.t :'amou0 siege of Caerlaverock in June 

■ H.*iw ind was entrusted by Antony Bek 

. '.bishop of Durham, with the command 

: Ste. o\mtingent, 'for he was the most in- 

■a..-.'. N**t beloved he hud there.' Hastings 

„v;e\l tlie parliament at Lincoln in L'iOl 

1 •*» .>ne of the barons who on 12 Feb. 

^,-.t.; -lie letter to the pope denying his 

*,.u:'» ;uliudicato on thedifipute with Seot- 

' ^..^ i^or :i description of the strange seal ho 

,4^; -11 "J.iis occasion see Arrhttohifiutf xxi. 

1^.'. l.iiter in the year Hastings was once 

u^;* mj'h'ved on the war, and in the fol- 

■»,:i)i ^car was sent as the king's lieute- 

,.t.u 'V' Vouitaine (Langtoft, ii. :U-'». llolls 

<•.,'' Me d»vs not iigain appear in l-ngland 

.*. ';^.V». when he wa.-* appointed one of rh»f 

. .•i:u.vtioiuTs to tri'ftt with the Scottish re- 

■■^t?<ii:.-*M\es concerning the government ot 

Sc.,-J:i:id. I'ut was prevontod from acting by 

.;uvs. On 22 May LKW he had a grant 

; ■i* '..irsd* I'f Alan, earl of Menteith. in- 

.■i<..;:i^ !'.'.■.' whol.,' .-arhlom of Menteith and 

.u ■'*I-'*. e\o.'Vling ih** lands gnmted ti» 

•;.4 *^v.'t'r IMmuiid Uastiuir* ( (V//. Ihni- 

»^ , .. ■. 1771 \ and tli*- earl was consigned 

,. 't X vii*:*Klv (^P\T.innvr. D—'innent* iUit.<- 

:.. . •■ ll:*f'y:; 1' >it^>tlotiff. i. 3">;i 4 : 

;.*,..•.;..■■.■•. wvii. 1<\ IIcsiiiuedthelt'tt.T 

U' V,:->-?is Tv^ :lie p-'|v on t» .\u^. 1'>'W> 

i^.^.: .X l\'.:.:: .:, i. ;>H2\ and in SeptembtT 





«u present at the council of LdnfTCQ«^ whrz, 
/hbm, atemd of Scotland, did hooure. I2 
laur ha was Benring in Scotland, ira^ fct Ayr 
la Joly, and in S^ember t&s ordrrei : : 
vaaA against Bruce (Cat. lMjntmfr,it *^ 
ttttrng to Seotlandf iii. lo; cf. /tr-tf-frg. ii. f. 
Record ed.) On 34 Oct. 1309 be w^s k;- 
pointed seneschal of Aquitaine (Faderi. LL 
iBl), bnt next year was once more #«en':rr 
m Scotland ; there ia a referpnc^ to HaF::nrs 
as seneschal of Perurord in a lert^-? c&l^rid&rei 
in the Hist. MSS. Comtn. 4th K<ep. 1 Ayj*. p. 
386), Hastings is commonlT s&id 1 > L&re 
been Bununon»i to parliament f -r *L«- la<r 
time on 22 May 1.313; most prC'baKj xhzx 
summons was to his Ron. for accord:n2^ :-< '-■sr 
Btatementhe died 28 Feb. 1313 tChmjr^t^ 
Peerage, ^., i. 13, ed. G. E. C 1. and Th* • in- 
quiaitio post mortem 'of hij e?^at^B\r^ >.']-i 
in the sixth year of Edward II. which «rnded 
7Julyl313fCSi/./ny.;».ni.i.i'>l-iM. H*:wa* 
buried in the Hastings chapel in the church 
of the Friars Minora at Covenrrr: lJujr<ial«' 
qnotes an inscription which ^taWs that he 
died 9 March 1312 (Antia. Wanr. i. If3i. 
On 7 Oct. 1314 tbeBishop of Durham ^nanf^ 
an indulgence of forty day* to pray for 
Hastings's soul {Seg, Palat! Durulm. i*. ij\*i. 
Bolls Ser.) 

Hastings was evidently much tniet*^! bv 
Edward I and is highly spoken of. Lan^oft 
calls him a * knight oif choice' (ii. 34.3 1: the 
writer of the song of Caerlarerock rays : *■ In 
deeds of arms he was daring and nrckles^. 
in the hostel mild and f^fiaciou?. nor was ever 
indge in eyre more willing to judge rightly.' 
lie had great wealth, and left land in ten 
coanties besides in the marches of Wales 
And in Ireland. He married firsts in 1275, 
Isabella^ daughter and in her offspring heire&s 
of William de Valence, earl of Pembroke : by 
her he had, with other ofiiipring, John, third 
baron Hastings (see below), and Elizabeth, 
who married Roger, lord Grev of Ruthin i 
[q. ▼.] ; his first wife died 3 Oct. 1305 {Dlg- 
DALBf Antiq. Warw, i. 1B3). Hastin^'s se- 
cond wife was Isabella, daughter of Hugh le 
Despenser (1262-1326) [q. v.], by whom he 
had two sons, Hugh [q. v.] ana Thomas ; : 
after Hastings's death she married Ralph de ' 
Monthermer (Fadera, iii. 789). I 

Hastxxos, Johk, third Babon HASTiyos ' 
(1287-1325), was twenty-six years of age ■ 
at his father's death. In 1306 he attended I 
Queen Margaret to Scotland and served in I 
the Scottish wars between 1311 and 1319 ; | 
in 1320 he at first sided with the rebel lords, 1 
but afterwards joined the king at Ciren- ; 
cester. In 1323 he was governor of Kenil- j 
worth Castle, and died in 1325. He mar- 
ried Juliana, granddaughter and heiress of 

Ti'-^i.*. 5* LsT-r.-rzi*. bv -Brbm te Lad .:ine 
t^'Z. Ll^it^:;^, "t*:-r»aris ir?: *iri cf Ttm- 
•«r-i' '-.. T." ; L.S trii-.-x- =.trr>i 2 > Thomas 
'.irB: li: %.ii S WU::i=: i* Ciz:on. <*rl 
ill^zi^i TL. a=:i i-r.-; La ISTO W4# bined 

trTT. Cai-^rr UTT "■ WjxvT£. FufitraU Monu- 
wf.'.f/.p. !:.>>■. 

hiz_-rs t^-i in Ami:** JUirA 
<r.':-.m jT.z.r.i'i ^1-":. :t :z '.'-t H:".'.* :«*• : Sir 
X. H. y:?:.if« > z:: ri C^t r jTtrxk. |-t. 66. SO, 
i'&5-*: ?fcImT.:'s I'-.-r::— frts ;"z*tr»::re of 
H:*.-. f Sriliri; Bs:::* Cilrtiir of Dw:i- 
riri:* r^li::::^ :o Ssoilirid- t:'.>. ii. ani ii-. ; 
.S:rT*3s:s*Dl<r::ir-:«i::=t-.Tit:ne tie Hist, cf 
>«.':il»&-i. 2 Tils, firjn. ind Mrm^-rials of Sco:- 
li-iLC. ; I>p:r: cc lit Lnpziiv i-f a Peer, iii. 53. 
Ifr*. 112. 117. 125. 32?. ISr! 175. ISl. 156.1M, 
203, 207, 213; R:::* of Pirliiafnt. vol. i. : Par- 
I:d3*i:ArT Wrl:«. v;l. i. ; pvnitr's Fipiem ; Dng- 
<Li>"i- Buo-^^. ;. 575 : Collin^ « Oa Baronies 
"'T W-;:, rj-, 1S3-5 "wttTi :: \f- iviri:<ni«i 
th\- tis VL.T l*r:=y was tha: of EergavtDny) ; 
N:chjl*"5 l<t:?>i**er>hire- ontiics mar.T small rc^ 
fr-tao^s to h;s *iCi:e» and a pedicre* in iv. 477 ; 
B:;rtoLs His:, cf Scotland. t-j\. i] C. L. K. 

HASnXGS. JfiHX, s^^ond EiEL of 
Pekbboee I I347-137->i. was only son of 
Laurence Hasting? 'q. v.". first earl, and 
Affnes. daughter of Roger Mortimer, earl of 
March. His father died in 131^, while he 
was little more than a year old. and during 
hi« minority his estates were managed brhis 
mother. In 1:369 he was admitted into the 
onlerof theGarter. in succession to the Earlof 
Warwick. In the same year he accompanied 
the Earl of Cambridge into France with an 
armed force destined to reinforce the Black 
Prince in Aquitaine. They landed at Saint- 
Malo and proceeded to the captun' of Bour- 
deille, and then to that of the Koche-sur^Yon, 
where he was knighted {i'handog IhraUi^ 
4CI2-ii6). He seems to have declined to 
aerre under Sir John Chandos ""q. v.1, but- 
being defeated by the French at Pumoii, near 
Poitiers, be was glad to send to Chandos for 
assistance. After having made a raid into 
the province of Anjou he rejoined the Black 
IMnce at Cognac, and proceeded with him 
to the siege and capture of Limoges. Having 
returned to England he was named, 20 April 
1372, lieutenant of the king's forces in Aqui- 
taine, and about that timeproc*H*ded to that 
destination with a fleet laden with forces ami 
supplier. In attempting ton^lieve the siege 
of La Kochelle he encountered a Spanish 
fleet before that to^Ti, composed of ships 
heavier than his own. After a fight which 
lasted two days he was entirely defeatwl and 
taken prisoner 23 June. He was removed to 




rn-t'T. Him «'>n. u flilrrl Hi!_ ; !;. 
fnlh'T 'if Sir Kilwnni Ii!i>t!ii_- i ... 

[Aii'horiti'"i '■]ll<l^-l ; rr.ii»':iri ■> '": 
t'i. I/iw ; IJI'>nn'li''l'rH N'lrfi-ll;, Vir. 
\7U, -II-'J, 'i\U ; ]lurk(;"> Kxliiiit P. . ..■. 

H\!*TiN»iH (ei^'litli by ri'ini''-t i! 

liCICiAVKNNY (ll*('c' 'i:ti:tl, HliiM.i 

throiHi of Scotliiml, wii:* son ••( !! 
in^-tf first banrn (|. v.'ljiy lii«wii!.i 
('aii1clii]p*\ He wii'itiiirii nil fi M.I'. 
lftnhiriinn.fli-nffihifiirum,\. V-VA: fi 
i. Mf7, wlnTi; lie is .si'nl to b" til'"- -■ i 
'qiiiridcrim'miiy be a mi^tnki' !'■■ -. 
Sir N. H. XicMliirt inttki'i biiii n ■ 
this timi', but }it'ViTiil tliiciim-'iirn . 
NinioiJ*, Tjrirrntrrithirf-f.i:. i\. 
Khowlbnt h*' WHS jiiill iitkIit . 
In 127tt,on ibi! di-atli tif liit iiiii !• 
( 'iiMti>1ii]>(>, III* iininirfil ibr- cii-T^ 
iif It*'rjriivi*nny (Cnf. (ivn. i. llC '. 
Tiitirrii-d Isiil)fnii, (l:iii;j}itrr "f * 
Viilrncc, Imll-hnithiT fil" lli'ii'-;' ^'•' 
ii. riH). HiLHtiii^'4 wns itln-mly ..- 
]w)w«rfuny t'onin'c1*'il,but liij* ii'-v 
thtiKiniurn incn-iist'd. His first ,t, 
ill public life wtiK in l:iMr».wlit'i ' 
in ail ('Xpwlition to Si-orlrtivl : 
bit<T l»j WTV(«1 iindcr K<linniid.< •■ 
■Willi, ill Wnlfs, iind iu \'lf^\^ :•■ 
(linTtiHltd nvsidonn Iii-* c^tiif- ■ 
bonliT iindili't'criit llii'in till l'< 
|)(. v.] WHS siilidll.-d \V'i-i ' 
l.>.Vi). Tn Miin-b li'-'.t h- ■ 
niiinncnptur.'i of William !> ■ 
SUN, i. N'j, ITi.'iK ]\i' (lit- r -i- 
ill May \'J'M) \vh'')i :in a ■! 
tilt* nmrriiipi <>(' ibi* liii.^' ■•■ 
il-fr/. i. I?-')), iiinl j'Miird 'II III'- 
pojx' apiinst bis ;i]iiir.i]'riii' 
nt York nml IjiiK'nlit {if>. < 
this yi*iir tin.' dt'ntli m\'M i . 
Norway, pWf nsi; tn tln> il;--!. 
to tlio cniwn nt'Scnlbiii'I. '< ' 
lM inbmt as rcjin'-;fntiiijr *• 
Adii.tliinl iljuiirlitiT of iUv ' '\ 
iiijrdon [sii> Hiid'T H\-ii:;-- 
b;ir"ti'; his cbiim was, .1' '■■■■ ■»■ 

^iriiii'litb's of iTdi-'i-itttiM'f'. '.uW' ^^ 
,Ii>hn Haliolnr l!'>b<rt I'm- '" ^ 
i»n t ho]»rinci]dr t h;it tin' Lii! . ■' 
in 1 be samt' w;iy !i< an op.ll ruf' 
wiih ilu'othiTtliiimiiiit-, 11 
t'* I'Mwiml's iliTi-tnii nil'! » 
rights in SiMthind iiniii ' 
vttlt'il. 'i'JH' dt'i-isi(iii i, ■ 
ward tn C'unmis.-»ion«'r."!. v 


-■ iliiH-.ur. . r 1 - lit. |ip. 
^ -innnmr.- '.' t .r;litn**nt 
V. l:i:»: :- \.\ • ho was 
- -it-ortiih wi,r : ? :L- dofoncp 
■. >i-'»/iV. i. •.' ". . LTA-X in tlw 
-.1 nthe fl-.-: it -i.- b:iul'-<>f 
.■K' iFiioi-i-x". :■.. :Ck He 
'.-' kini; ir. ':.'.- >* -"ish I'X- 
ii. and wa.i jr---:.: wlu-n Kd- 
- 'iiin'Ui'ii \W.' :: ::> C-mnifss 
■.. ii. 3li': Av.-' -* - t i>(>r7y 
".::ti-r). In lM4i' h-.- wa.5pri'«t'iit 
».a'nr at I>un>T:iM':' on 11 IVb., 
.- ! u'i*')nipani--J the expfdiri'in tr> 
. V i-r- he remain-- .1 tillthf f.iUow- 
' -1 July ^\^\'2 a warrant was is.<tieil 
* . in-tit "f wap»'» to him and to sixty 
.. •.■!»!? :ind a himdreil arch^-rs ^ f « '/^m, 
. V. p. ]:}:?). According to Muri- 
MT-ridix, p. '2•^-^ ho was one nf thi* 
> .' -h- Uound TabW in January 1 ;144; 
.. !i>«wt'VtT, includiHl in the rt'ffukr 
._.. ;i '[ the order of the Garter. IVm- 
. .1 :i pniminent part in the French 
A-^'is ■•f ilenri', enrl of Derby (after- 
, -i^ie of Lam-aster), wh'>m he ncconi- 
. •.• iJtL^cnny in .Uim* l.'Uo {FivJcr^, 
■t.'.p. 142). He was present at thu 
. 'Vr^enic in July, and marcliod with 
> .ViiIhtocIip; lie was then wnt to 
• ;utnitnd at. Hergerac, where he was 
^ .w Fr»'nch laid siepe to Auberoche. 
,. . u-irvhiMl to the relief of the town and 
.iviuti lVmbn)ke to join him, but Tein- 
.. . -.iiniuu: was delayed, and be did nf>r. 
\ .ivr.vlu' till -J-J Oof., the d;iy afrt-r 
,. ;■. He was much hurt that J>>Tby 
vwaited hij* C'lminjj-, and ]dainly ex- 
.^^.. 'is fe'dinps (Fboi^sakt, ii. *I7 s.[«i.) 
'.'f winter he was present at tlu- vsi]*- 
V^uillon, La lliHile, and otInTtnwn>, 
» ■■ n the Fri'nch threatened A^iiillnn in 
».■ : ' ^ti!. l*einbroke wasou'' of the jirin- 
.», .j'r;ii:i< sent, to defend it. The sii'^jt* 
.. 1. ''-■'!!i the end of Mareh till early in 
,..'.. il.tiT. iii. xxxiii): when on one 
1*. ■:! Sir WalterManny was hard pre.ssed 
.u * *;dly. l*einbroke b-d a. party to his 
^ . ■ Vi'-wbr-^kf returned with Laur.-istir 
■.i.l:»'id in l»eoember. when they wer-' in 
^ ,'. ri.;''i^fri^"» n n'vere storm ( Ksii:iiT<i\, 
lie then went to take part in thti 
;^ •»■ i':il:il-*. and in June l:M7 wa.-^ t\\t- 
^...'vl w.:h the Karl of Nnrtlinmptiin t-i 
....i,.»'(.'. a tb-et whieh wa* to pn-Vfiit ih-' 
■ V.'.v". ..'n >'f prinisions inlotlu' town ; on 
I ';i t'-.-\ w.Mi a complete victory, and 
^^.> xl :heI'r«Miehnearrrotoy(.Vv!:.smKY, 
. ■;>t ii^ !''■.;•* w:is IVml 'rokr's la>t e\- 
i .V '-.e «'.:■■'. -'i^ Ai:j. loi"^. leaving a 
,i" ;v'h'\ MW'V.d ,\:rl of IVmbroke jl \.] 




ir^T r-.m. j_i .- 

»-.ftaut..i - ■ "L-- l1 





zr^r r.^-rxzr 



rJ": jx I'l.iili:. 


:*:irii"'.«i X I- 


ir ? 

tt: - cs. I-^ r^ 


ZT.C an-i "—■■. - 


:1 Ji-=.7 ~ --Ir : 


-]^ . 

I'm n r" a ? iTj 


▼■ri ier r.irrr 


laT -at laiil-^ 


!**•• lI'isrineMiiiiihfcarlcf Hzz,!.!;- 

' ' ■ .:i-.J w'itb Lim k t>-"^.j- >. 

-■r!"'-n> l*ark,iu :hv pirUL :f CisLrt 

I.-.-icestersLiftr. In ri? *ir> 

■'■i-""J life sh^ was asfeSrlTJciiTi 

' ■ . ii ii!iiil'al of hrr owTi i^zMii-ar-r 

. 'ii'"'\ )inriWh>:'w&5 •«;-nT-er:<=!£' ij 

*• --ii-l'.w. ]jxdy yiMT^v>< llxszLz-^. 

I'Oj.iil:!'' phra!*ol'^2T. ih* ' r::r=Kii =ir- 

,* t • rtjM ffTeat dUm&v of i.-trfrrr^i--. 

i'lntiiifrilou ^•:C^<mzx^cIidtd a occttt**- 
vlii'*}i jirovid fruiil>>a$. »i:a B>l:j 
:. hi- ■■id luior at Oxf'^rd, t-: ii-.-rr- 
iii itinlii-r. I^dj Hai:tin«<i:& ii-r-- 
ii-Ta:\i t!if nmainderof lierl:=x — r 
'li-' I' -pk* called nKTliodZftK* ar.i L-rr 
m1 fr-,jMtntly attended with Iter G^i'irr-r 
fi'.llV prt-aching, tlMHicfa b* n^v^r l^ 
.n ni^tual conrerl. Ladj Huntii^'iin 
ainly instrumental in introduciiir :Lr 
srLrititoarutocntic circles, lEtowii-cb 
il)ly would never otbenrue have found 
, il'>r frequent risitsat Twickenham. 
ti'ioDCe of^ her aunt. Lady Frances 
•, brought her alio into conUci wiih 
'i he chitffliteraiT celebrities ofthe day. 
.' MimtingdonwaaTery intimaltr with 
•«> hrutheis Wealer, who frtqmntly 
her at Donington* Park, was a con- 
ittendant at their meetings in Fetter . 
ind was a member of the first metho- ■ 
cii-ty formed in that place in \73!}. 
u present when John Wesley with- 

~ z. I-J117 J£.trTrir-~ Hii-""_n^. "* " ii ^'tts i3i-2 

"tltx ' -'-- :':r :_iz t. it^xj^ .= ■:■* :■: 4 iik<<!:^ 
iT sir r"--A:;r.:. _:..: ::..:> ^r :-v:t\i uiar.y 

r>r*|v=,.;-:nc* w.*".. .1^:::;* U-: r\sv q. \, \ who 
T:^::.■,-i Lvr a: A> :a 17i"i*. In ir*Vi *hr 
miie :!.?• i^^^uiiiv.tAr.vV ot Hor.rv Venu, 
wL> becan:r vHt:' c:" !:ir fa\\-.:n;i' oliaplAius. 
She eual'.eJ *^ v- ml we'il-i.r.own i'\ant:vli\*al 
cl'.-rj}.r.;«^n. s;;i*U s> Mvvt* l'r\»wno /j. ^.] 
and Martin M;i.!;;n. to ol'ti-.n orxltiiation. 
In \7oi' she Kvaino al^lU:i:nIl^I with John 
William Hvii*ht*r of MrtiK-!ey _q. \.". who 
oiit-n pr»'>ach»\l for her. i^he wn» aUointi- 
unite with Auj:umus Toptiuly, who calUii 
her ' the mt\*t pluvious «aiii: of M\\\ he ever 
knew.' John iVrridire Jij.v. \ William iirim- 
shaw ^iri'S-irt'-iU ^q. v.\ and mivt( other 




tTangelicfll clergymen ofcroinfm^i* weremftre 
or lei« intimaU' with ber. Slic wtw a friend of 
Dotldridjfe ; Kowlaiiil Hill, whti, ihouffh he 
was in deacon's orders, can scart^ly be 
redjoned us a regular clerj,'}Tiian, was liL-r 
chajtlain ; ahe was a friend of Dr. AVaUts, tbo 
iiidep<-'ndei)t, and also of Abraham Boolh 
[q. v.], the partit^ulnr baptist, whose once fa- 
mous treat ino, *TbG Reignof Grace,' »hu dij^ 
1ril}uTed widely, and she ^vas at ont! time in 
the habit of attending Dr.Harker'sminiBtry at 
Suiters' Hall. She also kept up ber int^rt-st 
in thp -Moruviantf, and ventured to renion- 
Btrnte with Count Zinzendorf upon his otii- 
nions. The' connexion 'of which she was tne 
founder seems to have grown up by degrees. 
Her first rt^ular chapel was built at Brighton, 
and paid for by the sale of ber jeweU in 1701. 
Slie noon founded various chapids in Sussex. 
In order to attract the upper clagees, &he 
choice f^uch places as Bath, Tunbrldge, and 
London as her strongholds. When sbe huill 
the chapel in Spa Fields in 1779, Mr. Sellon, 
a clerg}-man, opposed the arrangement. She 
thought that as a pcen-ss sh(^ had a right 
to employ ber own cliaplains at any time and 
place in the mo«t public manner. A trial 
took place in the consistorlal court of IjOQ- 
don,and the result was that elic was obliged 
to take shelter under the Toleration Act; 
her minleti'rs took the oath of allegiance as 
dii*senting ministers, and her chnpeU were 
registered as dissenting phiecs of worship. 
The parochial ministerB wlio wfire her chap- 
lains, Honmine, A'enn, Berridge, and others, 
licreupon witbdn-w from Iht connexion, 
though tbev 9till continued to take a deep 
interest in fier work. 

In 1767 Treveoea House, in the pariah of 
Talgarth in North "Wales, was to he let on 
lease. Lady Huntingdon resolved, after con- 
sulting her triendi*, to open it a« a seminarir* 
for the training of her ministers. Trevecea 
was opened by WliiteReld on 'Ji Aug. 17<W^, 
Ijidy Iliintingdon's birthday. Fletcher was 
appoinlod president. He was to \isit it as 
of^cn M Itis duticjt at Madclcy would allow 
him. Joseph Benson [q. v.], transferred from 
Kingswood, U-came anor a short time the 
head-master on John Wealey's recommenda- 
tion. Lady Hmitiugdon henceforward spent 
much of her time at Trevecea, taking a deep 
interest in her students, and sending them 
about to 'supply' the congregations under 
her patronage. After three years' residence 
they ' might, if they desired, «nter the minia- 
trv either of the church of Knglund or any 
other protestant denomination. As far as 
she could Lady Hiuitingilon kept her hold 
on the church of England. Her plan was to 
have 'a rotation of clergy throughout the 

large chapels and congregations.' "Whitefield 
died in i/70, and left her by his will con- 
aidembleposseffsions in America. This ksl her 
to commence mission work in that countr}'. 
But soon after the arrival of her missionAriett 
in (redrgia, the orjdiun bouiie which Imd been 
founded there by Wliirefield was burnt down, 
and this entailed a los.s of lt),<XX)/. upon Lady 
Huntingdon. In 177l)al50 the famous minuter 
of Wesley's conference, which were w ob- 
noxious to the Calvinistic methodist?, ap- 
peared. Lady Huntingdon took an active 
part in the protest against these minutes, and 
one result of the disagreement was the with- 
drawal of Fletcher from the presideucv, and 
the dismissal of Benflou from the he&a-ma»- 
lersliip of IVevecca CoUoge. In spite of these 
checks the work grew largely. * Nolhinff,* 
she writes in 1774, 'ran (express the dira- 
cultiefi I feel for ht^lp<?rs, from the amazing 
increase of the work everywhere.' Hitherto 
she had exercised morally, though not le- 
gally, entire control over the whole * con- 
nexion/ and supported the college at Trevecea 
at herown e:tT>euse. Her death might cause 
n coltap-^e of the work. An as^iciatioa waa 
therefore formed in 1790, at her own request, 
to aid her during her life, and to perpetuate 
the connexion after bur death. X^pon this 
event in 171)1, Lady Anne Erskine took her 
place. Her chapels were bequeathed to four 
persons, and in i79l*, when the lease of Tre- 
vecea House expired, the college was removed 
to Chesbunt in Itpi-tfordsbire. 

Lady Huntingdon's interests were by no 
means conlined to her own ' connexion.' Slie 
used her social positi<m to further her reli- 
gious purtioseft. She visited her cousin, Lau- 
rence Shirley, fourth earl Ferrers, when 
under sentence of death, and Huudfl during 
his last illness in 1759. Her opposition to 
the ncitntion for a rtdaxation of subscription 
in i7i'2 was acknowledged in a letter frt»ni 
Burke. She remonstrated with thfl ArcJi- 
bishop of Canterbury (I>r. t'oniwallis) for 
holding * routs,' and when her remonstrance 
was fruitless made her way to the court, 
niul laid her case before Cieorge HI and 
(^ntH'ii Chariot I e, by both of whom she was 
cordially n?ceivLil. On 17 June 1791 she died 
in her boufce at Spa Fields, London, and was 
buried at Ashby-de-la-Xouch. Her family 
consisted of four sons and three daughters. 
There aresevernl port rait sof her; one painted 
by Bowyer was engraved by J. Fittler tn 
1790, anotht-r in mewotint by J. Itussel ap- 
peared in 1773. * Ijidy Huntingdon's Con- 
nexion* still hnlds its place among the reli- 
gious communities, 

ITho Life and Times of S«1ina, ConnteM of 
BtmtiDgdon, by a member of the Honats of 





fibiri«7 asd UfttAiog^. 2 toU.. loodoB. 1839-4V. 
ifxt (rf. a •ympathetic review of thim book writ- 
tui ru \BiO bj J. n. |.<''Ardiiia]} NewnuD, in 
lUmjt Critical And UijioHcal, i . 3S7 «)-) ; Lircs 
*f Whit«field, WeJej. Vrnn. Flrtcbcr. Kovland 
HiU. Romiuue, &c. |<as&iiii; Bromlor't C«t. of 
Bril.Portrmits.p. 423.] J, H. 0. 

HASTINGS, TnEOPIirtl'S, wventh 
£4KL OF UrMiNiirH'.v ( ItWrfJ-lTOl >, bnni at 
DooiogToa Park, Leicesterehire, on 10 Pec. 
lA^O, v»s the fourtb bur only ftunivin}! son 
of F«niinaodo, aixth rarl of Huntingdon, by 
LocT) lUu^httr «<f Sir John IMvie*, km. 
<Ioti»-10-'«) [q.v.]. of Engleli«'ld,llerk.>hirc. 
lie §ucceed(Ht liis r>iiLt>r in the earldriui on 
}S Feb. \tiW. and took his »eat In the House 
of LorrU bv hia proxy, thp Diiko of Vork, 
«n \'i Feb. Uu-i. In May 1672 he juineii the 
French army as a volunteer. On liis return 
lie IjecnmecastosrotulorumofWarwiukishire 
in ItiTo, an oi\it^ which he held until Fe- 
liniarT Iti-S}, nnd he acted as hi^rh steward of 
Leictiter from 21) Feb. 1()77 until 8 A[iril 
1689. At this time HuiuiDgdon acted with 
Anthony Ashley CoopfT, first carl of Sliofte*- 
Ijury ; in l)i«embi^r U!78 he was chairman of 
a conimitlefi on the Children of Popish Rfi- 
«usantK Bill [Jligt. MSS. Co7nm. 1 Ith Itep. ii. p. 7-1): and on 2 May 107U was 
one of the peers who signed the prou>at against 
M bill for the Iwtttir discnverv of ]iopi^h n?- 
cusants, on tin? |>7'uiin<l that it niit;Iit |>re.sji 
liardly on <llsisenter» {PmteKi* of the lA>rd*, 
i, lU ). In Febnmry ItJtlU hri wa.s left out of 
the I ist of inagist rates for I >erby and Leicester ; 
on7Jau. IGbi he was among those who pro- 
testod tfcainst the motion fornotconimittinff 
Chtuf-ju»<t ice Scrogge, and on 2^ March against non-rmpeachtuent of Edwurd Fitzharris 
<^»A. pp. 't-l,B5). At a lord mayor's dinner in 
December 1079 be insisted on prontminp the 
iiealtb of the diHgrneed Duke of Monmouth, 
and bad in corisiNjuence nn tmseemly alterca- 
tion with l-ord-chief-juAtice Scroggs ( J/rtf- 
ttm ('orrrKj*tfmt*-u*-'e, Camd. Soc, i, 20»-JU|. 
Charlejj U, inspect iog him of holding ireaaon- 
able corre&pondeucti with Monmouth, forbade 
bimthe court, but by Uciobt^r 1081 llunting- 
^oa was received into favour agnint LrrtBtLi., 
Jitiation uf Statr Affairny 1857, i. 138 1, wu» 
promoted to the captaincy of the bund of 
ffentlemen pensioners on 1 Feb. ItiKi {in 
wliich he continued uiilil '2'A Dec. HiKSband 
uo thu 23rd nf the same month wii« ndmilted 
Co the privy cxiuncil. At the death of 
C\aa\t»l\f Feb. 1685, Huntingdon was 
one of the peer* who signed the order at 
Wlulehall tor proclaiming James II. The 

re year, as the lineal descendant of the 
uclianipK, earJR of Warwick, bo preferreil 
doim to the honour of carr^'ing tlie third 

»wokI and of being pantler at the coronation 
(Bkll. Jfutttiuptii/tt iWra^, L'nd «lit., pp. 
13?*-4i(). He w«d continue*! in all his oflici'*, 
and became in addition oohmel of a repment 
of foot (30 June lOvi to -JS Nov. ItiNi), 
warden and chief Justice in cyra of tlie rojal 
forests south of Trent (16' Jon. 1686 to 
2S Dec. 18c<^). u ei:immissioaw for eccleaiat- 
licalcau5et{(]:^ Jan. 1687 Co 6 Oct. 1688), 
liinl-iieutennnt of Leicwtewhirv (4 Aug. 
1(W7 to :>3 Dec, 1688). lord-lieuienant of 
Derbyehin? (2 Dec. I6S7 to :*3 l»ec, 16M8), 
and recorder of l.«tce>ster (13 Sept. 168d). 
He wa.5 aUo made groom of the atole and 
gentleman of the iHxlchamber to George, 
prince of Denmark, tu rk'ceniber M»^7 ^Lux- 
TRKLL, i. 425). At the end of November 1088 
Huntingdon attempted, it is said, to poii>ou 
the l*4irl of Dath at PI vmout h and since ii{h>ii 
the citadrl for James tl. He was impri<ioiied 
for a time with all the otriccr« of uia fo- 
ment save Captain Viscount Hatton and ex- 
cepted from the Act of ludomiiitv in Jnlr 
1689 {ib. I 4^, 654 ; JIattau Co'rre^pond- 
emv, ii. 117). Huntingdon was one of the 
manaffcn* of the conference with the com- 
mons in Februarj- Hit<Q. From thi» lime he 
was consistently tory, and joined in protests 
against afiinninp the acta of the Conven- 
tion parliament on B April U(VM), and agaiut't 
the acL nf allaiiidor of ^>ir John Fenwick, 
S-i Dec. lt>9tJ. When the descent from Ka 
Hogue wa? expected in Mav I69t^, Ins bouse 
was feuarched. Ho had Imu time to burn his 
papers imd secrete his anna, but his stablen 
were found to be filleil with horses. This 
circumstonce was thought sullicient to jus- 
tify the privy council iu i-endinp him to tho 
Tower on 3 May (Lti-ruEi.L, ii. 4-il, 443; 
Hat ton CorrrnjKtndgncf, Ji. 176), and be did 
not obtain his liberty until the following 
17 Aug. (LiTTKi:!.!.. ii. 543, til!)), lie rt»- 
fitiu'd to sign the association in favour of 
AVilliam III in March Uim {i/>. iv. lU), and 
protested against the Act of Settlement 
[livusirv, Jlistori/ o/ hia mm Time, ii. 271). 
Huntingdon died iu Charles Street, St. 
Jame&'tf, Lenidon, on 30 May 170], 

He married first," ou 10 Feb. 1072, Eliia- 
l)eth, eldest daughter and cobeiresti of Sir 
John Lewis, hnt. and bart., of Ledstune, 
Yorkshire, and by her, who died in I'^D {ib. 
i. 494), ho had two sons and six daugblem; 
and secondly, on H May HUM), Irauces, 
daughter ond sole heircj^s of Frances Leveson 
Fowler, of Harnage 1i^onge,^!Il^oIl)!hirc•, and 
widow of Thomas Needham. sixth viscounV 
Kilmorey, by whom be had two sons and iivo 
dnughterf*. She died on:i6 Dec. 1 7l*3( having 
reniarrie^I Michael de J.igtmdcA of vVuvergnu 
in France, knight of Mallu, und cfdoiivl of 





lilione in the Freoch senice (Cukstbb, !(»• 

f-fuiers of We!ftmin*ter Abbftf, p. 30). 

Of lliintin^on there 19 a finu mouotint 
by li, Williarnp from a jxirtrait hy Sir God- 
frey Kiiuller, duled l(i»7. Hb waaflucceecled 
by hid sou Oeorge Hadtings (1670-17U5). 
[Anthorilioa quoted ; Rocers'a Prot^'.^ts of tbo 

[Xurd8,i.26.ei,64.65,07, 160. 108. I'iD; Doyle's 
Officidt BaruDug«t ii. '2i0\ CulUtut's Pi-wiHgrt 
<Brydgot). ri. 660-3.) G. G. 

HASTINGS, THOMAS (1740P-1801), 
pamphlet ot;r and itinemnt bookseller, was 
bom in the biBhupric of Durbum about 1740. 
J!e waa apprenticed to an uncle who helped 
to build Lord Lyttellon's mansion at liiiLMey, 
"\Vurce«terKhire,«ml after rambling over Kng- 
Intid worked for 11 while* itn a carprnter ti]ioii 
the new buildings lu Marj'leboiitr, London. 
lie HUT)porttid the popular cause in Fox'fi 

__We8lmmBter election of 1784, with 'I'he 
ok of tbo Wars of Westminster, from t he 

"fall of the Fox at the clow of 1783, to the 
20th day of the 3rd month of I7&4, an Ori- 
ental Prophecy by Archy Mncsarconica/ Lon- 
don, 1784. 4to, which was followed by other 
fiamphlets in the style nf oriental apol'^es, 
Buch as ' The Uegal liambter, or the Keren- 
trical Advenlurua of (he Devil in London, 
with the Manouuvres of his Ministers towanl» 
'the close of the 16rh eentury, Imn.slated 
from the Ryriac MS. of l^bhi Solomon,' 
London, 1703, 8vo. Thi-se productions were 
hawked by the writer nhont the town. For 
aome years ho publiabtd in the new»ipaper,^ 
on 12 Arig-. an 'ode' on the birthday of the 
Prince of Wales, for which he received a 
amall anniifl! pre.8erit from L'Hrlton House, 
lie was a rep^Iar attendant at the ]K<piilar 
Sunday lectures ; he dressed a» a e!nrg>'mon, 
and was known as ' Dr. Green.' He diM in 
New Court, Moor I^ado, Cripplegate, London, 
on 12 Aug. 1801, aged about 60. 

[Gent. Mug. SeplcmbuT I80I,p.859; Nichols** 
Lit.Anccd. iii. 720.] II. K. T. 

HASTINGS, THOMAS (ft. 181.1-18:11), 
amaU'ur Htdier, waa collector of custoniH at 
LiverpcKil, and is known as Captain Hast- 
ings. He did some goixl work as an etcher, 
and wnp an a.^wM-iat*' uf lli*^ Tjiverptiol Aca- 
demy. He published the following works, 
illustrated by himself; 1. * Vestiges of A n- 
tiquitv,ora Series of EtchingsofCanterhurj-,' 
1H13.* ± 'Etchings (.'(9) from the Works 
of Richard Wilson,' IS^.^. 3. 'Th.- Hriilph 
Archer, or Tracts on Archery,' Ninvport, 
1831. He also engraved the plates to A\ool- 
noth'a 'Canterbury Cathedral,' 1816. 

[Biyan'e Diet, of Puintors (firavcs), 1886, t. 
631 ; UaJTenwl Cat. of Books on Art ; Brit, Mu-i. 
Cat. : Redgrave's Diet, uf Artiata of the Knglixli 
booh] A. N. 

HASTINGS, SinTHOMAS(17EK>-1870),] 
admiral, eldest son of the Hev. Jumi-s Ha.<t-j 
ings, rector of Slartley in Worcestershire, 
and a distant cousin of Warren UastlngSi 
was born en 3 July 17iK). He entered the < 
navy in Septembi>r 1803, and having served 
in the Chaiint-I, Werit Indies, and home eta- 
t ions, commanded a gunboat in tlmWalcberen 
exiwdition, and was promoted, 17 Jaji. 1810^ 
to bo lieutenant of the Hadger in the North 
Sea. From 1811 to 1813 he served in th© 
Hyacinth, and from 1813 to 1815 in the 
17ndaunted^ on the Mediterranean coasts of 
Franco and Spain, where ho was fin>quentlir 
engaged in boat expeditions. He was lirrt- 
lieutenant of the Undnunt^l when she took 
Napoleon to Elba in 1814, and was for some 
time afterwards employed in keeping w»tclr 
over the island. After the peare HostinLi^ 
coulinuedin active service, pnncipolly in tbo- 
Mediterranean, till his promotion to com- 
mander's rank, 9 May IbJo. In November 
1828 he wa.f appointed to the Ferret sloop, 
again in the Mediterranean, and was posicu 
from her on 22 July 1830. In April 1832 ho 
was specially (*elpcted as captain of the Ex- 
cellent, then first institute*! as a flcbool of 
naval gunnery at Port.smoiith. He held thiir 
important post for thirteen years, during the 
lost ti'ix of which he was also suiwrinlfndent 
(if the Hoyal Naval College at Pnrtwuouth, 
Hia sflrviees were ofiiciallv recognised hy hix 
receiving the honour of Itnighthood, 5 July 
1830; and in August 184JJ, when he retiretJ 
from the Mxcelleni, he was appointed store- 
kt-epiT to the ordnance. On 23 Nov. 1860 ht? 
waa made a civil C.Il. ; on 27 Sept. 18>V>, on 
reaching his flag by seniority, Iil' was placed 
oil the retired list. Ho was miuie n civil 
K.C.13. 9 Mureh 1859, and became in due 
course vice-admiral 4 Oct. 1862, and admirnj 
2 April 18(HJ. He died in London on 3 Jan. 
1870. Hemnrrietl in 1827 Ix)uisa Elizabeth, 
daughter of Humphrey IjOwc of Broou^rovtr 
in AVorrestershire. 

(f.»"Uyme*s Nnv. Biog. Diet.; Timoi", 13 Jan. 
1870; Armv and Nary (ra»'tle. 6 Jan. 1870,- 
UniU-U Serv. Muff. 1870, pt. i. 20O.] .T. K. L. 

HASTINGS, WAHUEN (1732-1818), 
govemnr-geDcral of India, bom ot Churchill 
in Oxfordshire on ti Dec. 1732, wns son of 
Pynnston (or Pt-nyston) Hostings (b, 1708)^ 
by Hestfr Warren, Iiis wile. His grand- 
father, nlnoPenyston Hoatings, was rector nf 
Dityk'sford in Worcestershire; the manor- 
bouse and land had alwi belonged to hia 
family, but had l>i?en sfdd in 17ir» by re&aon 
of embarrossmenta arising onl of the civil war 
of the preceding century. HastingK paRsod 
his earlier years at Dayleiford in the rectorj-, 
and used al^erwards to relate that even at 





th&L enrlv age hfthad already bei^un (o drt'nm 
Sof repurcbasin^ the estate. In 1740 liis (mIu- 
cation was unaertaken by his fatluT'ft elder 
brother, Howard Hasting*, a. cli'tk in the 
Jjondon customs, who (<i'nt hiui to school, 
first at N<m'ingtnn Butts, and afterwards 
to WeKtmitister. Here he wou the favour 
of Dr. NicoU, the heud-miister, oiid bt'enme 
popular tmoughifi schoolfellows. In 17-17 lie 
WS8 admitted to the foundation as firal king's 
Lftcholorof his jear. Elijah ImiKV [<).v.] was 
|£>urth, sltbouiib Hostiiijr^'s senior in years. 
' On the death ot'his imclf Ho\vanl,the charge 
of the boy devolved on ti Rimrdinn who lind 
some interest at the India otliee, and n-solved 
on Mndtnghim out inlhe civil service of the 
-Conaiiany. NieoU protested in voin against 
the romovnl of so promif-ing a scholar, and 
"iastings was sent to a private tutor's to hn 
Biialified for his position. In October IToO 
ne landed at Calcutta, Hi>4 duties were at 
^first connected solfdy with mercantile buiii- 
Lneaa, which still chjefiy occupied the com- 
«nyV' In 17o3 he was sfnt up to Ka-eim 
laxar, tlien the cotnmcrcisl pubiirh of Mur- 
ihidAbad,the peat of tbft native povf?nimt*nt, 
^ whif:h lisd alreadv ditfieuUios with the Cal- 
cutta factory. AV^iihin two years Hastings 
became a member of the Kasim Bazar coun- 
r cil, but in 1750 the nawab marched against 
ICttlcuttn.wtnc^hetook [s»^Hoi.wkl[.,Joiix 
IZKPHA.MAHJ.and lin-^tinu" W)i« thrown into 
lpri*on at .Miin-hidabad. He dm-.s not appear 
|t»hnvelMt>nill-tri'atts],und wiui soon at^er set 
|«t l:l»Tty, the head of llie Dutch facton,- ut 
IChtnsuro being his security. Meanwhile his 
Calcutta colleagues had taken refuge in a fort 
ailes below Calcutta, on the Hughli river, 
_nd here ihev *>oon became atrn itened for pro- 
risiona, until Hastings joined them and euc- 
peeded by his influence with the natives in 
fumlthiiig them with F«upplifj<. Here, in the 
beginning of 1757, be raarriwl hia fir»t wife, 
the widow of a Captain Campbell, t^hc died 
L few years later, as did both the children that 
■be bore him. After the recouijuest of Cal- 
attafneCuTK, Roiikkt] Ha-Mings whs sent 
f Murshiddbad as resident at'^tlie court of the 
new nawab. He kept up a regular correspond- 
mce with Clive, now governor in Calcutta, 
md hip* earlier letters show inejqK^rience and 
tivdulity. Against which CHvo was obliged 
warn him. He also ranic into conflict 
K-ith Hiija Nand Kumar (the nawab's de- 
puty) as to Iheir re-ipvtive functions and 
luriKlirtion.but Clive with considerate firni- 
acss a<yuBted the difficulty. Early in 17*h» 
CliTe U'ft the country, ond hia sucressor, 
'^Ifolwell, determined to dep<ise the nawdb, 
Wir Jaffier, and to nrpUce him by Mir iCdsim, 

his rainisler and son-in-law. Hastings bore 
a subordinate part in this revolution, but had 
no share in the gifts that were distributed ou 
that occasion among the members of council. 
He continued fur st)me months at his pattof 
resident, but iuKKl wns summoned to council 
in Calcutta, wliere the government had l)fteii 
assumed by A'auaittart. The new nawab, Mir 
Kasim, showwl ffreat annoyance at the con- 
duct of the BritiSi officials, who were passing 
their own private onsignments free of transit 
duty, and lending their flog to pass consign- 
ments that belonged to others. The most 
active of thf.'Re olKciala wa.^ Ellis, head of the 
factory at. Tat mi, and thither Hastings pm- 
ceedeu, onihe n.'ijuesl of Vansiftart, in order 
to effect a reform in the tnin.s:t system anil 
an agreement butwi^n Klli»< and the nawab. 
He arrived at Patna in April 17lli?, but found 
him«;elf unable to conciliate Ellis. His des- 
patchtjs, however, attracted the attention of 
Vansittart to th»' abuses and oppre^^^ions 
under which the people were sufU'riug, and 
Hastings drew up a paper in which be aimed 
fttsucharcgidation oftlietraiBcaashould pro- 
tect thft nawab und his subjects without pre- 
judice to the company's rights. Tlie present 
Rtate of things, as ho truly observed, * bodet! 
no good, either to the nawdb's revenue or to 
the quiet of the country, or the honour of our 
nation.' Articles were accordiogly framed by 
the governor on the basis rocomnien<led by 
Hastioga, which the nawab readily adopted 
and immediately promulgated. The majority 
of the Calcutta council indignantly repu- 
diated the arrangement, and the nawdb at 
once declared the duties entinfly abrogated 
and the wholo trade free. 

Hastings, who had rejoined his post in Cal- 
cutta, was now in a trying position. A\TiiIe 
the nawab denounced him as a traitor, his 
colleagues in cotincil abused him for par- 
tiality to the nawdh; and one of them naminl 
Hatjton, in thf Iit'Ht of d»'bate, struck Hast- 
ings in opi'U council, an act for which, how- 
ever, he had to make an ample apologj*. 
Both the nawdb and the British now pre- 
pared forvrar, Patna was token and retaken, 
Ellis and all his followers were killed by the 
nawdb's orders; but the British force from 
Calcutta Sijon exacted a stem retribution. 
The nuwah wfi>t defeated and driven into 
exilp, and Mir Jaflier ^e^1o^.'d. 

In Beceml)er 17*U Haslings returned to 
England by the Modwoy, I'jist Indiaman. 
While his colleagues had been making their 
fortunes by corruption and private trade, he 
had continued honourably poijr. He was, 
however, able to buy an annuity of UOO/. for 
the widow of his uncle Howard, who waa 
lef^ in poverty, and to pass vomc years in Ixin- 


13^^^ Hastini 

duo, ket^piiiff liinuelf bHfun* the India tlou^se 
witli a vii'w 10 Bpt'fdy ro-oinplavmL-nt. In 
tboiDvuiitiiui-'bib aciive mind uad struck out 
tUt'projoct for r III' imiirovemtinl of the mincU 
and habits of Indian cirilian?, aftfrwardjt 
rciili.sffl liy tho Eiisl India t'ollftre iit Hailey- 
bury; iind bn (ulno without hiiinedlatt? huc- 
4:e»s) Hiid«ftvoiirt*J to briiiK about the founda- 
tion of a professorship of i'cman at the uni- 
Tersity of Dxfnrd. lli' occupied h\s loisure 
in study and Utttrary {society, and miido the 
AcquniutAnct; of Ur. JohnKon, with %%*hom 
he aftenviird^ occasionally corrttspondod. In 
aendinjf Johnsons letters to Bfwwell, Hast- 
ings speak* of bis ' veneration for your gT"**!- 
and good frimid ' { H u.t., liumcell, ii. tHt)- f'"* 
tirst ofthi^iie, daLcd iit) March 1774, is to in- 
troduce 'uiy ilt'ar Mr. Cliiuubers/lhen ^(nrxf^ 
loCnlcutluufiaiu^gjjy^udgeof ihenewlycou- 
tititul^d supremo court [«ou Cuaja m^im, Sib 
iCofiUiTJ. In 17UU IIiuitiag6 appeared as a 
witness Ijoforc a committoe nf (In; House of 
C< iminuns, and gave evidence on Indian 
ull'au>, which appears to have attriicted the 
favourable notic*; of the court of directors. 
£arly in 17tit> he wa« sent out to Aludrns 

I second in council, but ku low wore bis rv- 

Durces that he had to borrow t bo money ro- 
fjuirod for bi^ iiaasago oud outfit. 

Among bift fidlow-paasengers on board the 
lJukeof(JraP[on wore the Baron and Baroness 
von Imhoff. The baron.who had been an oiHeiT 
in the army of n minor I ierman etate, had ol>- 
tiiined the recommendation of Queen Char- 
lotte, and was procf.>ediug I0 Madras, ost«u- 
aibly to seek employment in the local army, 
but with Some i lew tu portralt-painlinjif. An 
intintHcyMpran^iip hMtwoon lla.stiiig'siindtlio 
bflrone--ta, fa\ouii*a by the husband's neglect, 
nnd also by a severe iUness, through which 
IIoitiugB wa^ nursed by the wife. Next year 
Imhotf went on to Calcutta, leavingthe lady 
at ]kladras. At tbeendofI771 I lastiugs was 
iippoint*'d governor of lien^al, in the ri:iom of 
Mr. Carf.ier, who wa-i retiring, and in Fe- 
bruary 1772 he arrived in Calcutta. Baroness 
Imlio'tr had preceiied him in t>ctober 1771 
^BtiVEKliinK, The Triahtf yamia Kumar). 

(■rear cbttiiges had taken place in Bengal. 
^I'land Kiimnr had been discovered in a trefi- 

onable corn'spondence, hod l>ccn de]>rived of 
bis post at Mursbithtbad, and sent in a kind 
of o^H-n arrest to Calcutta. Clive luid returned 
tothe government and command of the army: 
the unmanageable council hud been super- 
jjcded in pmcticjil cmccms by a committee of 
three; them hud come an end to the corrup- 
tion, spoliation, waste of public money, and 
Abuse of private trade. The relatious i>f the 
tidoncy with the cuipcrorand ibeNuwab 

iTaxir of Oudh bad been settled, the emperor 

luivingbeen provided for.tiud an alliance niad»1 
with the UBwah; no rt^-ttraint was impot^cLI 
on hie independence, and a defensive alliance^] 
was agreed on betweenbimnnd tbeKiistIiulia,| 
Compony, on thccondition that whenever bo ' 
should require the aidofthecompunj-'siroopa 
he should pay their e\{K!» while so em- 
ployed (//wk*** i^f G/mm»Jijf' Urd Kep. App. 
■W(i). Vested with the beneticiary collectiou 
of the revenues of the three provinces, the 
British rulers had found it necessary to make 
the collections themM'lvc* instead of merely 
accounting with the imwtib'3 officials, af- 
though they did not clearly perceive how 
this was to be done. Meanwhile the entire 
administrntion was in confusion. In 177Utbe 
couuTtv had been scourired hv famine. 

' at I-' 

rnor ihat the rouipunv al lur^I deter- 

mintjff to 'stand forth as diwan.' in oilier 
words to sweep away all native agency in the 
control of revenue and finance Qdminiatmtion. 
The deputy diwun^ of Bengal ond Bihar were 
to be dismissed and brougiit to trial for mal- 
versation, llaja Nand Kumar being employed 
in the nnwocution. The revenue appeared • 
incapable of incrcese, but the debt was grow-^ 
iug. The company was threatened with in- ■ 
w,>lvency, wbde the ministers of the crown 
were looking to it for loons and testing it« 
right to exist by its financial prosperity,- 
Such were some of the problems which were 
to occnpT Uoatings rmd troublethc remainder 
of bis lu'e. 

One of the first matters which the direc- 
tors commended to the attention of the new 
governor was the inquiry into the conduct 
of Slialab lEai and MLihaumd BoJLa Kluin the 
two depuly-f!ovcrniii"s. by wluifte ageney tho 
coUeetion^and liscal adiuinisirutionhad been 
formerlv carried out. Ilaja Nund Kumar wa^ 
engaged in the ]ireparaiion of the evidenca, 
against them, and jiossibly expected to be put 
into the place of one or Iwlh of them on their 
conviction. Thedireciors never con tern platc*d 
this. The court took care tu remind Hast- 
ings of Nand Kumar's cliaracter as a reason 
for excluding liim from iKiwer. Indeed from 
the facts given by Klphinstone, who refer* 
especially to the Uouse of Coramnns* 3rd 
Keport, it is abundantly clear that during 
Ha^'tings's absence the raja had been con- 
stantly cimdemned by Clive, by Vnnsittart, 
and by Colonel John Camac [q. v.] In the 
end the nija was unable to bring forward any 
good evidence; the deputies were acnuitted, 
and Nand Kumar got nothing. HjuttingM 
thus disappointed this unscrupulous nativtt 
8talei!man, and increased the feeling of hos- 
tilitv which the raja entertained for him, 
whiie be w&a unable ttudor lus orders from 




liomu to conciliate the otkera by restoring 
them lo llM>ir poMn. 

^ 'The three provinc-esnfBengal,On8sa,Bnd 
Dlhiir beiug now an intecuBl \HTt of the 
Cf^mpunTS territories to be odministeretl 
by tin,' conipiiny's aecDts, it became doubly 
tiKCtMiry I hut tbt> Europtian olEciala &bould 
obtnin u knonleJge of the estates which 
formed the main ataels of the gorenuoent. 
KxjK-n^'K weru at once reduced; but until 
I hiT»' wu<* a correct notion of the value of the 
n.'Vi'iiue-paviiitr propt'rtipi*, nu'ro ecnuuniy 
«-ould Im' o^ Utile avail. It wa.-* an eMeiitial 
jNirT <i{ tbo new system of 'standiiifc forth 
as diwiin ' that malvenation in collecting: 
the revenufl and concealment of liability 
til contribute t^hould he p«]ually suppirssed. 
Ila^lin^fS clearly perL-eiv-ed and fraveetft'ct lo 
this principle. I. iideterred by the seaeon h« 
*ont out acommijisionof survey in June 1771?, 
and accompanied it in person for a few 
morchc!? to tt* to »rnrt the work. At the 
SJUBB 1 ime be at rocked mouopolists and beg^an 
to make provision for judicial and admiuis- 
tiHtivt? reform. All these exertions, he ob- 
«'r%«d in a l»*ttcr written at the time, not 
only overburdened him with work and di*- 
compOiHRd hi« tenipur, but they tended to 
l^tmy all his other powers ' by arming my 
nd afloat ever>' man, and every man's, 
' coun>«f against me.' lie would nut. how- 
r, give way to his dinicultics. * My whole 
ae,' he ^Toie to another comnpondeDt, 
all my thoughts, I may add all my 
■iOMp ye devoted to the service of tbo 
nyjJ^opaaKd the year 1773, not with- 
it tokens of apprnvnl and assurance of 8ii|»- 
Drt fmm the India Iloniu? in J^ondon. Karly 
I the year Bart)n Imhotf went to (iennuny, 
krbifre be instituted a suit f(ir divorce from 
bin wife. In the following yt*flr a further 
jigB was found advi^ble in tin- mflchinery 
^tbe land revenue. The English collectors 
rem fuund inadei]ua(e and incxpurit^nced, 
rbile the people pulVered under their ' heavy 
They wert* therefore removed t<» make 
[>Qi far native revenue olHcer*,whL>se ability 
knowleilk'*.' could be gtiaranteed, atid 
I hose hone*ly wiisiobe watchvdhy theliest 
European agt'iicyat thoromuinnd of guvern- 
aent. Six divuinn** wen- creatwl by group- 
Dg the diatrictd, and put under {jrovinctal 
[>unciifi, for the formation of which com- 
Mt*ni Kuropeao officers were apnun/ntly 
' [Might more easily obtainable. TIu« idea 
pf nul ive agtmry under comw'tent Kuropean 
[intrul wa-H. likf moat of Hastings':) iib-aat 
fined to take d'.t^p root in Auglo-ludian 

^■gBrd to the administration of justice 
lUreB Tvi*re no leas faivaeeing. lie put 




the native courts in the interior entirely 
under the con t rol of t he head revenue officers, 
with a chief court for criminal apjteiiU at the 
seat of government under a native chief jus- 
tice. A court of civil appeal sat al^i in 
Calcutta, the whole being controlled in tho 
last resort by theg<i%-emor in council. Where 
b<itb parties wt-re European Itritish subjects, 
KngliKli law was admimstervd iuthd'mayors 
court,' and there waa also a. court of small 
cauM's for Caleulta. 

In all these reforms lurkotl elementa of 
provocation to class prejudices and even to 
vested interests. Muhatuad I{A7ji and Shatab 
Hai were indignant at having been tried, 
Nund Kumar was vexc<l at their acquittal, 
while the young civilians wer e aorc at tbo 
employment of natives and the valuation of 
the estates ; foremost in their ranks being 
John Shore, afterwards l>rirdTeigumouthiaua 
one of llaittings's successors and admirers, 

AVhilu the.<e cares were occupving Hast- 
inff3 he was suddenly involved in external 
allairs. The province of Katahr had been 
couquerwl some ttfly years before by a band 
of Afghan adventurers called Kohillas. from 
whom it had received the name of IJoltilkand. 
Lying bt-tween tlio eastern frontier of the 
Oudh dowinionft and the R[»eeial domain of 
the emperor, and constantly liable to Mah- 
rattu iuvaaioii IVom the southward, it was 
becoming a kind of chronic sore in the bosom 
of Hindustan. Though impotent agaiiuft the 
Mahrat loa, the RohilUu fought bitterly among 
themselves, while theoripnalpopulation was 
rack-rented and left without protection to life 
and property. So we are informed by a con- 
tempiiriineoiiR Kohilla writer iHajiiltok, 
Jiuton/ of thf JioiilltiM). In 177:i the nawab 
of Oudh, who was also hereditnrj- vaEir of 
tbo empire, made a treaty with the Kuhillax, 
by which he covenanted to cxjifl the Mah- 
rutlos from their country on cou-^ideration <if 
a payment of money, lie executed hi- part 
of the engagement, yxpt-lling the Mahrattas 
by the middle of the ensuingycar, Hethen 
called on the Kohilla sirdars to pay the dum 
promised ; though ninny of them were willing, 
the ' protector' of the state — a sort of regent, 
for the minor chieftain — refuM^d. 1'hen thu 
nawab, having obtained sanction from the 
emperor, prepared to foreclose, by occupying 
the province, end called upon "the Dntish 
govemmpnt of Calcutta to supply a brigade, 
as required by the trpaly of ulliauce of 1704 
(Mill, HUtonj, with Wilson's notes, bk. v. 
ch. t. ; al!w> IUmu.tos, y/w/wi-y of the Jio- 
Ailfai). Ilai^tings at unce complied, llie 
Hohillan were overthrown after a aliari) en- 
gagement ; some severities were uwd, and the 
fightingmenwcre deported acTOsathe Ganges. 


ilsstio^ inini*?<luilely wrote to tli« ririti*h 
resilient at the nawab's eajnp, urging htm to 
tise his Lofluence to mitigate all h&rihneisa, 
and to impTv«8 on the nawab that English- 
men disapproved ' with abhorrence of erery 
species of uihumanit}: and oppression.' Mill 
nghtly condemn the home AiithnhtieK. who 
found fault with the action of Hastings and 
ret mode no amends to the Uohi1Is.s. ' Tbev 
were so mufJi the leoA excusable thancLeVazir 
and Mr. Ilastingf that theae actors in the ficene 
denied its injustice' (Mill, bk. t. ch. i.) 

In 1773 llutin^ recorded on the minutes 
of council a paper on the principles of crimi- 
nal jtutice, OB applied to the offence of dacoity 
or gang robbery, then and long aft*?r prera- 
lent in Bengal. In 1771 the same sufcgect 
again attracted Hastings's att«ntion, and the 
employment of special nat ire magi»t rate's wa^ 
the plan which commended !t«elf to him. He 
maile the complaint, often repeated aincchis 
time, that one cause of the evil vras ' the 
regiilarity and precision which has been in- 
troduced in our courts of justice.' He de- 
sired to reTert to the old sammury process of 
nstire government*, who were wont to trace 
the landholders by whom the dacoits were 
maiutaiued. and to proceed against them. 
He WBjt thus for introducing the non-regulft- 
lion ^'8tem even before the regulations tncm- 

Btiforo Ihew matters had been finally dis- 
posed of, a great change UMik place iu Itengnl 
politics. Uptoiluit time the council in Cal- 
cutta had conf^istcd of a large number of offi- 
cials holding other po^ts. and the executive 
r^wtir had been abflorlxMl by a rommitte** nf 
hhree, of which the governor wa." iiresideut 
■-irith a casting vote. It was thus tliat (.'live 
liad been able tocorrvoiittlieutipalatahle re- 
, forms ofhis second ailminiflrntioii [see Cr.T\T3]. 
|£ut now, in virtue of the ' Itegulating Act/ 
r a new council of fi vi was created, three being 
sent out from home. Hustings was declared 
governor gen jral with a nrngiuficent salarv, 
but with only a single vote in the council. 
At the same time a supreme court of justice 
■was established with vague general powen*; 
■and the four judges sent out lo hnid that 
court., whose cnii'f wom T"Iiistin^,'s's old sphool- 
fellow Impey, were, like the new couurillors, 
entini strangers to India, The court, being 
composed nf prof(?e*ieil Inwycrfi, did its duty in 
a technical and jealcuiH H]»irit. The council- 
lor!?, bis^m-rl BgaiuNt Atifi^lo-Indians, acted as 
. if hounil by u mutual pleflge to oppose Hast- 
ings and Kichtrd Barwell fq. v.], hie old col- 
league and pr^^^nt supporter. Muhamad 
[Haxa and Nand Kumar and some of the civil 
I iervants were ready to supply inlormation. 
From secret hints the new councillors evolved 

an impated fabric of corruption. SpecUie 
charges of corruption were sent in by Nanc] 
Kumar tothecouQcilon 11 March, ifosttiigs 
and Barwell withdrew from the council, when; 
theirhonour was being di&cuss«^, and in April 
1776brotight a case of cont^pLracy against the 
nija and two Englishmen named Fowke ; 
I lasting» having al ready writ r^n home threat- 
ening to realign if not ^upjwrted by the direc* 
tore. But before the cuispiracy c«««* could 
ripen for decision Nand Kumar was suddenly 
arrested fti May 1775) on a charge of forgery 
instiMted by a native, with some appearancW 
of aoMstance from Ihirhom, tlie odvocate- 
generaL Whether Durham woA realty theinsti- 
gator.andfif so, was act ing under instruct ionfl 
from Hastings, or whether he was prompted 
to assist tlio complainant by a desire to ex- 
tort money out of a rich man whom he knewr 
to be in trouble, is among the unsearchable 
secrets of history. The quarrel bctin-Fen th« 
raja and the o»tea»ibIe complainant wa.4, iu 
any case, one of several vears' standing, and 
an action Iiad been twice part heard — iu 
which the all-ged forgen- had been used — 
Ijeforetheestablishmeut of the supreme court. 
Nand Kumar was committed by two jupt ices 
on the d«y of hit* arre&t ; the grand jury found 
a true bill', iind the trial commenced on 8 June 
and last nil more than a we(>k. Oti the morn- 
ing of It) June the raja was found guilty sjid 
sentenced to death, all the judges concurring. 
The sheriff fixed •"» Aug. for the execution, 
which took place accordingly. The conduct 
of the chief justice. Sir Klijah Tmpcv [q. v.]^ 
wns oft-envords impugned by the tiouso of 
(.'omm<m9,and he wiiJ^iltreatened with nn im- 
peachment for his share in iheMe prwewling*, 
but he defended himself with Rucce^s. In 
the subf^equent impeachment of Hastings the 
matter wn* revived hv Burlce, but was held 
irreleviint. and Burke Ijad to submit to a pub- 
lic reprimand from the hou-w, 4 Moy 1789 
( Uoxi>, A/wvAm, &c. ii. \1'2). ( M ill's account 
of these transactions i« coiTected in manv 
places by the notes in H. H. Wilson's tdi- 
tion of the ' Hi.*tor\' of India.' UMA) 

Mncaulay's famous account of those pro- 
ceeding:* is that of a reckless advocate, not 
of a judicial critic. There is no attempt at 
serious demonstration either that Hastings 
believed Nand Kumur innocent, or that be 
inspired the prosecution t'or forgerj-. An at- 
tentive examinttiion of the fucta will show 
that the chief justice was only one of a num- 
ber of perHona who wore satisfied that N&ndl 
Kumar deserved his fote. .\mong those jier- 
snns wrt^ the native historian of the time. 
There is no evidence that Hiistioga thought 
otherwise, or that he had any ground for in- 
terfering to prevent the law from taking its 







course, if indeed he bod the reqaisito power. | 
It is true that Ilii9ting8,affaiiist aitfOvmiuUg- ' 
ramt.and und«r protest, had lately employed 
Nund Kumar. H-? had also provided for the 
Bon. But. he had never conwaleii the di»- 
rru9t of Nnnd Kumar wliich he shartrd with 1 
most Anglo-Indian vtntevmen of the fjeriod. | 
lie had lately declared hi* enmity ujieuly, ! 
jind inittituted a chari^eof eonsjjiracy in which 
Nand Kumar vra» included. Immediately 
<ipon the openinf^ uf the new supreme court, 
and before the in»titution of the con«pimry 
charge, a solicitnr named Driver had rmewed 
an application, made in the mayor's court, 
pravinfT for the delivery of papers, amoii|^ 
whicli was an in-itrument on which hitt client 
pr*>pos<'^l to prosecute Nand Kumar. (The 
petition IS dated in January 1775, and refera 
Co a former petition of March 1774.) About 
the aame timo Hastings finally broke with 
Naud Kumar, and forbade bis appearaoco at 
Government House. On 1 1 Slarcb Nand 
Kumar jireferred to the rouncil his charges of 
corruption a^iinst Hii«tiii(^8, wlio was called 
upon to aiittwer to tlie chargex, and n>fiiscd 
to sjipear nt the bar of hia owii council. In 
April Nand Kumar and his Oj-sociates were 
' committed fur conspiracy, avowedly on the 
jttotion of the povernor-gt-neral. Meanwhile 
the proceedingfi of Driver's client had been 
institut(.>d, an«l Nand Kumor was, in May, 
cotnmitti'd on a charjife of forgery by two 
magistrates, who havi^ never been shown to 
have been creatures of Hasting I^Stbphes, 
fil/ftry Iff NftnTtimnr, ch. ix.) Thes«; facts are 
tyvrapalilile with the very simple suj)pusition 
that the prosecuiiun was underiaken on pri- 
vale pounds, thouf^h not without knowledge 
^ihat the state of public affairs was opportune. 
Meanwhile Hastings was busy with Indian 
law. The peculiar code of the Suunites or 
. orthodox Muslims hud already been made 
into adigest under the Emperor Aurungzeb. 
Bnt the Hindu law was only to be found 
acattere*lovera number of Sanscrittext-lMMiks 
of various date and uuthurily. Hastings 
therefore invited the U-8t known experts to 
Calcutta, and charged them with the com- 
jiijntinn of a volume of which he afterwards 
4-aiiSKl an Knglish translation to be made bv 
Naihnniel Dra:«6cyHalhed \i.v.1,i*endinK »u- 
ranced sheets to Lord Manst^'lu in England. 
In 1775 Hastings began a further attempt 
to moke gang-robbery the subject of 6[)ecial 
le};i»lation. Hut theopposition in btHCOiincil 
object ed to the punishment of t he harbourers, 
and the scheme collap^d. Xor did he ne- 
glect any fair opportunity of extending the 
jnfluenc** of his employers, or of adding to 
the knowledge of jieiglibouriiig nations — 
xneaj^euough — which Kogl ishn) en then pos* 

sessed. A small war with hill tribes on 
his northern frontier opened commitnications 
with the Teshu lama of Thibet, and a diplo- 
matic mistnon was sent into that remoiH 
and still mysterious region. It was heach'd 
by Georoe Bogle [q.v.J, and a detailed ac- 
count of the proceedings and reeults will bo 
found in Morkham's 'Xarrativea/ London, 

Meanwhile the revenue raised for the com- 
pany in Calcutta showed but little improve- 
ment. Hastings had stopn^d some of the 
drains on it; thetribiit^jio tacem|>erorceased 
when he threw aside Itntish protect ion, and 
the districts which had been assigned to him 
wore transferred, for a considerution, to the 
uawab of (liidh. iSome militjirv reductions 
were efleoted, not without friction, and th» 
allowance to the titular ruler of Bengal waa \ 
also diminished. An attempt wag made to 
swell the receipts by giving the company a 
benelifial interest in ihe sale of opium to the 
Chinese. The production and distribution 
of this dmg hati Iwun held as a peniuisite by 
the members of the Patiia council; it was 
now farmed for a term of years, and the pro- 
ceeds credited in the puhfic accounts. The ] 
conduct of Hastings in this matter becams 
the subject of one of the charges afterwards 
brought against him ; but it at once ajmeared 
that he had suppresst'd an abuse to the ad- 
vantage of the state. Moreover, the court 
of directors lisd covered his act by their 
exprufrS nppnihation. 

In spite of all eftorts the finances continued 
to ebb. The court made urgent demands for 
remittances: the exche<fuer in Calcutta was 
ao drained thot the governor-genera! could 
not cash his own salary hills, and had to 
borrow monev for his persona] expenses. The 
minor prettidcncioa were equally destitute. 
At Sural the Bombay government cnde(i«j 
voured to raise money by lending troop* to"^ 
Kagoba, a claimant to the office of (»eshwa. t 
The niaiority in the Calcutta council cnn- 
celle<l the arrangement, and although Ka- 
goba 's cause wiu-* espoused by the court of 
directors, Hastiuifs was unable to enforce tho 
policy of his employent. In .September 177tl, 
however, Monson,one of the hostile memberaj 
ofcouncU.diefl.andllasting^ibtained tempo*] 
rarj'po^r, of which bereaved Xa take ad- 
vantage. He began by removing the jobbing 
provincial councils, and putting the inleninl 
administration under agents who might Iw 
trusted to do their beet for the land revenue. 
Early in 1777 he proceeded to record his inten- 
tion to ' mako the liritish nation paramount t n 
India, and to accept of the aNegian^of stich 
of ''lur neighbours*as shall sue to be enlisted 
among the friends and allies of the king of 




(m-at llrituin* i I-tter to A. Elliott. \'2 Jan. 
1777. an. »iLEn;i. 

AmiJst tln>-!e acts of estate adt'spatch sud- 
d-nly ivacb'Hl him wh-^rvby ho learned that 
ha<l bfv-ii handi\l in hy hi* asynt^ in London, 
and aco-'pttnl there, t >n h'-arinirof thi^ (n'neral 
I'laverinc. tho c-mimander-in-chief. instantly 
avsllnIt^l the ortiiv of p>roraor-(renoral. and 
demanded the key? of F^rt William. Hast- 
iniT* r.'fu^ to yield, and a dead-lock ensued 
wbieh miirht hare led to civil war but for 
the iniblic spirit shoim on all sides. Both 
claimants airri'ed to abide 1>t the arbitration 
of the suprvrae court, and the judges decided 
in favour of llajstinir*. thereby — as Hastings 
afterwanlsacknowledired— savinffhishonour, 
safety, and rt^putatton. Olaverin!? wxm af- 
terwatsls dit'il of dysentery-, and Hasting? 
■was left for the lime with but one op|kinent 
in council, llut that opp«ment was Philip 
Fnincistl740 l^:!?*! "q.v." 

On 8 Auir. 1777 llastincrs married hia 
baron-^ss. a divon-e having- l»een at last ob- 
tained by Imhotl" in the ( ierman courts. The 
lady was by this time thirty years of ajfe, and 
is describeil by ladies of the time as elegant 
and prac^^ful, dressing^with taste rather than 
fashion, and wearing a profusion of beautiful 
Qubum curls. She had been living in pood 
r»^pute under the protection of her mother 
since her arrival in Calcutta, and the mar- 
riaire do.'< not seem to luive caused any 
sc-.indal. NothiniT can be mory» characteristic 
tU:in the quiet tenacity with which Hastings 
cnrrit'd on this stnin^re and pmtmcted love 
ntVair; indeed it onlv ceased with his Ion;; 

IWinff now in a position to n^ali^e his own 
plans. Hastings gave up all thoui;htsof retir- 
ing ; Francis found. Indeed. an ally in Wheler, 
the new councillor sent out fmrn home; but 
the cninmander-in-chief. Sir Kyn' l\xite, was 
usually amenable to reason, and Harwell con- 
tinued to vote with the govtTnor-general. 
In 177s Hastings was able to resume the 
support of Uagoba's cause, and also to o]»cnite 
against the French settlements in India. His 
niL-a-iin's were not at lirst successful. The 
IJonib:iv pf)vernmont was disunited and in- 
ertioient, and no aid could be obtained from 
^Madras. Colonel Le-^lie. who commanded 
the expeditionary fonv, died bef ire anything 
couM be done. His successor. Colonel Thomas 
( ioddard <{. v.~. however, so<in showed himself 
^vortlly oi'ihe occasion, defeating the armies 
of Sindhia an<l Holkar. and occupying tho 
capital of ftujral. I'Vancis in vain opposed 
the gDvernor-general's measures, and com- 
ilaints were raised at home against the war. 
iJut it was easily shown that Hastings had 


not been the aggressor, but was acting on th& 
defensive with nis usual far-sighted resolu- 
tion. From the evidence recorded by Grant 
J Duff (ffutt. of the MaAratftu), it is clear thflt 
I the confederacy between the Mahrattaa and 
Uaidar, which Hastings checked, had for its. 
! object the expulsion of British power from 
' the whole of AsiiL 

A French officer was with the enemy at 
' Poona ; a French contingent accompanied 
I Haidar in his simultaneous attack on the Car- 
natic. and took part in the defeat and capturv 
of Colonel Itaillie's force. The nizam's army 
■ was officered by Frenchmen, and Louis XVI 
' had been persuaded to league himself against 
England with the king of Spain and the re- 
! volted colonies in North America. In India 
' the strufiTfrle was almost desperate. Limited 
as were his resources, Hastings struck in all 
I directions, and stnick hard. Sindhia's for- 
tified capital, Gwalior, was taken by escalade 
I in August 1780, and the subsequent suc- 
- cesses of Colonel Camac dissolved the con- 
! federacy. Hastings took the daring step of 
' suspending the governor of Madras, by which 
' he strained the constitution, but saved the 
; presidency ; at the same time he reinforced 
it with money and with men under Coote. 
, The nizam was pacified, vacillation on the 
part of the Bhonsla of Berar was arrested, 
and that wavering chief converted into a 
I staunch friend. | Hastings laid down the 
maxim, never ti_be overlooked in Eastern 
, affairs, that 'acts which proclaim confidence 
and a determined spirit in the hour of ad- 
' versity are the surest means of retrieving it/ 
I By pushing in eveir direction what his op- 
I ponents called ' frantic military exploits ' (but 
in which really very little blood was spilt),. 
he kept his own provinces free from war, and 
in the remaining possessions of the company 
restored a falling cause. In spite of some 
misfortunes on land, and some trouble at sen 
arising from the ability of the BailH de- 
Suffren, the French admiral, Hastings drove 
Haidar out of the Camotic. In 1782 Haidar 
died ; and the treat vofSalbai, concluded early 
next year with his eon, Tippu Sultan, laid 
the foundation of British ."supremacy in India,, 
and detined the position of other states. 
Li The British governor-general was already 
taking the place of the effete Delhi empin*' 
in regard to all those states which depended 
up<»n British protection. Even the princes of 
the Ilajputs, the most ancient ruling houses 
in the world, had always paid tribute to that 
eiii])ire. The Mahrattas similarly held to 
ransom their own tributary and protected 
state*. It was in accordance with native 
practice and opinion that the British govern- 
ment in Calcutta should do likewise. The^ 




pKlKKHmt power protoct*^! the minor states, 
■wl ihe minor state* compensated for tlie 
protection bv contributions of monfy nnd 
^^. AmoTify I liM feti<latorie8 of Rt>n^nil none 
*>* more pmlert***!, (ir puid leas for his pn>- 
J**tion, than Itaja Clmit Singh, zemindttr of 
I j'^'hAKji. A denmnd was made upon him 
j ^* awtr-coniribiiiion of five lakhs of nipees. 
^ j^ ^ nja failt'd to comply, nor did hu f»end 
■■B*^ two th'tu^nml horet-mcn called for at a 
^^■^^rmoment at theinstanceof (.ieneralCoote. 
^^" AVhile matter* were iQ this condition about 
J ^ 'I*! middle of 1 780, a verr important change 
^*>oJ(pIwe. l^rwell.whooesupjKtrliti council 
"^'aa nec's^ar}- to JIn>itiiipB's ^iipremncy, btv 
^4me anxioufi to return to England. Francis 
>aa»cc"rdinKly lu-ked tonpree to * jmir' with 
him, and stfret-d not lo onpiiA:* the ((ovomor- 
peoeral in the conduct otihe Mahrattawar. 
rwell on this went home. After he wiw 
Hasting proposed to send a miR.tion to 
court of Ih-Ihifaml to check Maliratta 
pimderance by action in Ilindiu^taa. To 
is Krancia objecteii, allej^inj? that his a^eo- 
nl Iiad he«n misconstrued, and rfJaled 
ily to operations pending in the Dcccan 
wltcn the a^ijeement vraf^ made. irnsttn;i:s, 
tir^ of beinsr hampered, determined to risk 
his life in ri^moving the obstruction. He 
proToked Francis, bo as to make a duel ne- 
ceeMrr. They met at Alipore, a M>uthem 
suburb ofCalcuitA, at a.m. on 17 Aug. ITrtO. 
])elibeimtf>lr chi>f>sing a place full of tight, 
and making the .uecondu mea>>ure t lie Hhortest 
(li»tanct* they could be induced to adopt, 
Ilastinf^s received his adversary's fire, which 
lie instantly returned with such clFcct thnt 
Francis fyll dangen>u*ly wounded. Had 
Francis been killfd.Iingtmgs mui«t havebe«n 
formurdor. Had Hastingsfnllen, Krancia 
tuld, at lea^t till onother man could come 
it from home, or say f<ir eighteen months, 
Te had all the pfiwer;* and patnmdne of 
emor-general. A* it wan, the lmlH»il man 
1 to go back toKngland with a wounded 
|-^-&o*Jy, and a mind full of revenge. 
r %fyn U'ing left supreme iu council, Ilasttng? 
^^AlvsBed his donuind^ on the Kaja C^ha it 
^^■ngb, founding them on the c^sion nflhe 
H^Bvcrcignty of Benares to the ompiiny by 
the nawib of Uudh, to whom it had per- 
tnJqed. and on cogent militarr nfuwrns. In 
aly 17yi he proceeded to Benares lo eu- 
I his orders, but Iho raja resisted, some 
lftA!ing**gwpoys were cut up in the street, 
lie him-«elf had to make nis retreat to 
neighbouring fort of Chunar. Cbait 
ngh colled on the mother of the nawab 
Ihidh. with whom ho had an understand- 
Z. to .wnd men to hit nid, and brok»> into 
en revolt. But his revolt was soon quellwl. 

At one time indeed his forcoa were -within 
a few miles of Chunar ; but they effectisl 
nothing, and before the end of September 
thoy hftd been routed and their leader had 
fallen back on liij* la^t ><troiighoM. Hero he 
was captured on 10 Nor. ITHl, his treasun^ 
being distributed among the company's troops. 
Cbait Siugh was deposed, and hia xemindari 
bestowed upon his nephew (see Aflmflfuv, 
Hoorkee, \f<-->3). ^ 

The nownb-vaiir wns in debt to tho com- 
pany, and Hastings, whilt; yet at Chunar, 
pn:>i>o»ied an inter\'iew ou the subject. Th»? 
nawab came to see him there, antf doubt Ivss 
the cmversntion include*! some mention of 
the Hupport which the nawiib's mother hfld 
given to Chait Singh. The nawah declared 
that hi; could not meol his engagements tn 
the company; hta mother niid hi8 gnind- 
mother find appropriated a largo istate in 
land ; they had also converted to their own 
UHe a large ar<Mimu!ation of tn^asurc left by 
the late nawab. These acts of flpniiation hail 
been sanctioned by the majority of the Cal- 
cutta council. It was nnw proiKised, whether 
by thenawab or by Hantings naa never been 
determined, that partly to raise money anil 
partlyby way of punishment, the flofssnould 
be resumed, and tho treasure applied to the 
exigencies of the Oudh stnto ngreeubly ta 
the law of Islam. The dowagers replied 
with ^ihrill rnfusal, on which the nawab sur- 
rounded their luuse with a guard, put fome 
of their servants into light ircms, and, by a 
duress which ha.>i been much exaggerated, 
enforced his demand. Hastings Lad re- 
turned to Calcutta, but he intimated his dis- 
approval of all severity as soon as the ro- 
aident reported what had Iteen done. Thif? 
was the great case of tho * robbery of th& 
Ondh hegums,* which, indeed, waa'no rob- 
bery nt nil. But Hastingij is not altogether 
frw! of nisponsibilitv for anvihing that may 
liave been done amiss in thij* mritter. The 
land and money whirh were taken from tho 
dowagers hud been held l>v ihem fur some 
time, although perhaps without any legal 
right ; their possession, too. had been gua- 
ranteed by the British government, though 
BgaiuBt the opinion of tlie out-voled governor. 
From the comhtions of the case Hastings 
must have been aware that tho dowagers 
and their men would not disgoiye without 
reeistancf*. He wa«, however, ni-s*'rvpd by 
lhi> resident, an oHicinl who had been furreil 
npon him and in whom he never confidtNl 
(for im imnurtial account of these inins- 
actions sec Wilson, note to Mii.t., bk. v. e. 

During that year (1782) Hastings had been 
severelv taken to tosk bv the court of directors 




for the affair of t'hnit Sing^h, and he Uad 
replied in h tono of (lijtnififd rfiuionstmnct; 
*0 the effect thai hi>L>n*T than consent to the 
' raja's panlon be would g^Ive up his station. 
In motU'Kt, but wlf-reliant words, he addwl 
/hat hi? nJministrotion would pi-rhmw here- 
M'tcr be looked on as having conduced to the 
interests of Iho company and to the honour 
of the Britiah nam*'. Th'3 court of proprie- 
tors reversed the adverse vote of the direc- 
tors, and Henry Oiinda^ un^erivardfi Viscount 
Melvilje) declanx) the conduct of UastingB 
defnurving of every kind of approval and sup- 

In 1783 naAtingR, having ^ent liU wife 
to Knf^Iand, proceeded to Lucknow, where 
(under orders from home) he restored some 
of the downpors' landeil poiwesnions. Here 
aho ho met the Delhi crown prince, a fugi- 
tive from court, whomhe pen^uaded to re- 
Jura to his father, with an escort and a«- 
tances of cynipathy- In November 17H4 he 
returned to Calcuttn, and soon after laid 
down his office. Pn^viou^ly he held a general 
parudunfthelWngalarmy, just returned from 
the southern war. SworJs of honour were 
bestowwl on the chief ofticer*, and every boI- 
dier, UritisU or native, receiveil a medal and 
an increase of pay. Nor had llaatiugs been 
neglectful of tlie arts of peac*^. lie caused 
pTcat progrosB to lie made in the topoffniphi- 
cai (turvey (aee Majob ItEXNiiLi., ATtfTwir, 
tn]. 17.M, pp. til'lut passim). In the last yeer 
of his arlminifttration ho founded the Asiatic 
Society of Ilengal, Sir W. Jones [q. v,| being 
tho first president. l<'or the extension of 
Miialim culture, Hastings founded, jwrtly at 
his own charge, the Calcutta, «til] 
existing and carrying out its founder's de- 
aign. The last days of his residence in India 
were devoted toitchemes of financial rt^form, 
10 the receipt of farewell addresses, and the 
winding up of private concerns; letters of 
fiirewcll had also to be aent to tlie native 
chiefs. On 3 Fob. 1785 he dined at the Pow- 
der Works, ill company with a large number 
of hisfrieudd, andin the afternoon stepjted on 
boitr<l his barge in order to emburk on board 
the Harrington, which awaited him ntl' Har- 
den Ueiich. Haiitinga's ' Review of the State 
of Uengal,* L«mdou. 178C. written at sea in 
1780, duals primarily with finance, showing 
(hat the debt of 1772 had been cleared in 
twoyears.and explains the opium system and 
the nature of the resources of liengal. Jle 
givoa hifl views on land revenue, and ques- 
tions the proprietary rights of jtemindirs. 
He points out that he had been charged with 
too much responsibility, and protests against 
the injusticeof thoaccusationsimputed. His 
maximf as he declares, has been ' to do what 

he knew was requisite to the public safetr,! 
though he should doom hi« life to legal for-* 
feiture or his name to infamy.' 

Hastings landed in England on 13 JunsJ 
17J^j, and attended the next drawing-roon 
with his wife. His friends, privately anji 
publicly, were numerous and InfluentioL lal 
companv with Mrs. Hastings he visited some! 
of the English wateriuff- places, and looked! 
about for a country residence. He had saved ; 
S(),000/., no exorbitant fortune after a dis-J 
tinguishe^l service oft hirty-five yea rsinlndisfi 
and his first thought was to rea]i»e hm old! 
dream of investing some of his money in thfti 
purchase of the old family manor and hau.<ia| 
at Do^lesford. But the then possessor waal 
not dLsposed to sell. Hastings thercibrttl 
settled for the time at Windsor, with a town 
house in M impole Street. 

Meanwhile r'runcis, ever since his return, 
had been inHam'mg the vivtd imagination of 
Durkc, not at its most temperate stage just^ 
theji, and alwnys ready to take fire at fha^| 
thought of wrung done to ancient social^l 
fabrics. Burke was in no mood for impar- 
tiality. His conduct excited the oppoKition 
of Lord Teignmouth, who was not bv anjffl 
means a wholesal e supporter of Hastings. At | 
Macaulay remarket!, wtmtever Burke's 'saga- 
city descried was refracted and disooloured 
by his passions and his imagination ' (' LifsH 
of Pitt,' in Unqfcl. Brit) Nor waa BurkaH 
likely to forget the fate of the India Bill oT 
17H:t, which caused the fall of the coalition 
ministry. To crown all came the malignant 
promptingaof Fmuci.<t. It was ho]>eless 10 at- 
tempt to convince Burke that in India the 
gitcial fabric had been ruined by the most com- 
plete and sanguinary anarchy. India was 
coming within the range of jiartv iwlilics.* 
After the failure of the India BiU of Rurka-j 
and Fox in 17S3, Pitt in 1764 passed an act j 
which was in force for nearly three-quarter* of ] 
acentury. Buthewasobligedtoconciliatethe 
country by the profeMion of an anxious dcoir^ 
to restrain and punish offenccK committed ia i 
the admiutstrutiunof Indian aHutrs. ICugliah- f 
men were anxious to apply a remedy afler ] 
the dis4irder had ceaoea. The really abomi- 1 
uable time in India had been from about 17d7 ' 
to 1767, the close of Clivo's second adminiift- 
t ration, and the establishment of the new 
system bad made it most unlikely ever to 
return. But the court of directors and its 
servants were unpopular, and Burke's attacks 
on Hastings met with !<ympathy amLmg thaJ 
whigs, while they encountered but faint n»<r| 
sistauce from the tories. The fir^t attach on \ 
the ground of the Rohilla war, waa, indeed, 
defeated by the government. In regard to 
Chait Singh also, Pitt and Uundasheld thotTd 




lutiDgs woA justified in his fint demands. 
Itut the dftfcnce was inaincere, and was 
ftbondontfd on the frivolous pretence that 
Haslui^'s subsequent treatment of the raja 
.■bowed tuo much sei-eritv. Ixird Tburlow 
ulr anticipated thAJudgmt>nt of subscqiicut 
iucs in expreasing nis nurpriAe at tliia iii- 

The next two years were passed by Uast- 
tings at Wmdfior, whik' the debate ou his 
Kfljue draped ita way through rare evenings 
in the ^uso of Commons, lie made ex- 
periments in farming and gardening, and 
■worked on the mat«?nald fur his defence with 
bis friend David Anderson and other volnn- 
itaw aasiatante. At length, on 3 April 17H7, 
„ inipeachment was vottvl by a mujarity 
Tnwirfy three to one, in wliich were indiuled 
:'itt biiuM'lfaudmostof hissiipporttirs. Moc- 
auUy utiributes the surrender of Hastings 
■ Pitt to the young minister's fearof Uaat- 
a's rivalry. The trial before the House of 
i opened in Westminster Hi^ll on 131'Vb. 
I76S, foremost among the maiuigers for the 
ommons being Burke, Sheridan, and Gilbert 
liot {afterwards first Lord MitUo) [q. v.] 
'^cs. and Windlmm were al^ among the 
number. Francis, though not a manager, 
Icontiniieil to ssjitst the prosecution. Such 
f^fim rhe fervour ofBurte'sdonuuciaiions that 
F^Iastingii's staunchest admirers— nsy, even 
ffcimaelf— were carried away for the moment. 
But Hastings bore thr* storm bravely, and it 
ma in this very period that the purchase of 
Payleaford was at lust negotinled. For the 
old house and G*iO acres of land he paid 
I],i2-W. ; but ita restoration cot>t him far 

Hastings always had supporters. Fanny 
Bumey and Hannah Mure were on his tiid**. 
John NiohoUs* [q. v.], author of the ' Parlia- 
mentary Recollections/ said tlrnt he 'thought 
him with the highest veneration.' Lord 
Tetgnmouth, once an opponent, could only 
Lccount for what was g>»ing on by denying 
IjJnrke'fi Hunily. Tho trial occupied the court 
for tbirty-tivu days in 1788 ; it was resumed 
I April iifthf following year. laJunelTdO 
diss<)liiiioD took place, and was pleaded in 
»r of further proceedings, but the pica was 
BTcrruled. In 1791 the court investigated 
: cliarges of peRK>nal corruption, and then 
stiaga made his linal defence. The next 
fcwo years were given to the arguments nf 
ErouncU ; in 1794 the managers replied to the 
fd^fcnc-e. Xumherlc»'!> addrew4e»< and testi- 
[xnonials were laid licfurM the court from 
Ivariouft commnnities in India, both native 
Kiid European, at which Burke sneered, but 
which wtiro genuine, spontaneous, and highly 


The second Bonares address, of 1788, dt*- 
clared that Uastings, by appointing tho mo^t 
distinguished of the Brahmans aud Musal- 
mans to preside over their afiairs, had * ren- 
dered the inhabitants much happier tlun 
they were during the admini^lratiuii of Cluiit 
Singh.' From Kajmahal came an address 
which, after testifying to the consideration 
that he always showed to the heads of nativu 
society, added that * he was not covetous of 
other men's money, and was not optin to cor- 
ruption. No war arose in his time ' (they woru 
only thinking of their own province); 'no was 
nothaughty,orpruudofp<iiiipaiul luxury; ho 
did not seek his own ease.' .Similar luldreAsea 
came from Lueknow, Farukbubud. and other 
places nearer Calcutta. Th<fM> lu^linioiiinl!* 
wi^re given spontaneous! v. and long after their 
recipient had ceaj>eil to (mid either power or 
the prospect of power. In reference to ono 
passage in the Uajmnhal address mny be no- 
ticed a description of the private liabitit nf 
Hustings M governor-general, which uccunt 
in a note by tlie translator of the ' Siyar>ul- 
mutakharin,' who hadsen-ed under Hastings 
in his secretary's olHce. 'Governor llastingH,* 
he said, * always wore a plain coat of Fng- 
lish broadcloth ... his throne a plain chair 
of mnhoguny ... his table sometimes ne- 
glected, his diet sparing and abstemious; his 
address and deportment very distant from 
pride, and still more from familiarity.' 

The House of Ivonis proceeded to debate 
on their judgment in 1795. Of persoual cot' 
ruption I IajHtiitg.-<wiiA unanimously acquitted; 
hin manner of lif(\ undwhat Macaulny justly 
colls ' Iiis honourable poverty,' left his jud|{p8 
no alternative. As to the charges arising 
nut of thi-> Benares aOtiir, it was found by a 
largi> majority that he was not only justined 
by the circumstances in claiming aid from a 
feudatory, but that the puuishnient of that 
feudatorv's contumacy was neilher excessive 
nor vini^ictive. In the eaj*e of the (ludU 
dowagerB it was held that there was no evi- 
di'uce either of greed «r of malignity, and 
that the treatment of the ladies was partly 
due to their own conduct, and was excused 
by the exigencies of the time. Thurlow and 
Bishop Horslcy wore strongly in Hastings's 
favour. The chief uf the hostile judges was 
Lord Loughborough, the chancellor, who bad 
to pronounce the acquittal of the accused on 
I'ii April 1795. 

Tim trial, which occupied 145 days, ox- 
tendiiiE over seven years and three montlis, 
cost Hastings 70,tXk>/., and he was left, as 
he himself said, without the means of sub- 
sistence. But th^ cbipi»any came generously 
to his aid. He receive<l nddreasee of eon- 
grutulatiufi on \iU acquittal from various 



- ;-ii-' ln-'i-- : ;.-v.... ;: :■. ■ ;. ^..;[t 

^ -, - t.. !■:-;:■ :■■■'., ;:- ■ v , :..;:. .;i 

- .1.-1 V;i".-.U]i-' d-yv. ^^-.■ ::yi:- 
: -i -irsiilar innr'v ct' r ■.-;■ " ■• ..: '.\- 

■f t!i.- Ii; ■ 'I. Iiiirin- :'..■■ • .:. 
V rsiiv "t" n\r.,nl (-.[i!'. •■:■ i 

„-.■,■ Mf il.C.I,.. .111 Wllir-h .. ■ ;- 

■■■ 'i;i?i;i>ti<.-;ir:y cli''i n'4 Iiv ::. ■ 


. I 

M.'.y l-^l I h'- wa-j swiirn ■■:' •' ■ 

■■■■ ', ;iini in Jiiii" ]i:"i-i'ntt''l i" *'.-■ 

■ _'n> Mil th--ir ^ i,-ii to L.iu.! ■:■. ■■•. •!:- 

, ■■ liiiiis.-ll*. Un llJiily h- _;■:;.■■:"::: .1 

■■•:■' tin- l»iik'--'t' \VrllinL;i'"'ii.!:n ; r-..-. '.■■ 

- ■ ii, which \v;i< wi'll r.'i-i'i\-/il m-c r :!::_' 

■ ;i-'W.--|>:i])T rfi>:irl. At ;i s.,'i'."iri i Lr::," 
s-iiiit' ii.To a \'--\v flay^ lal- r lii-- !.■ ..." : 

■ 1 ,.-s;iii;^.'? Ava-; the tirst l.):i-:. ( »n ?!.- 

- !:■• aitriKl.'il a iVtc at C'.irU m II-:.—. 

, r \w wriit ihriMi;:h .^lu-h a si-rii'S <■:" f-*- 

■.".■■* at ill" Ml,''" •>!' oi^hty-tuii wi:!; ur 

• ■■: ,i.Iiiiif injury sjfnks w-'ll t'lr hi''Sii-":u:':. 

■ s'mwi-(1 ih'i]) sympathy Willi l!;-- ]";ili ->:' 
N ■■■■!<-nn. llcki-pt una L''irn-[ii'n.i.-nov uiili 

■ i llu>t iui^s in In<!ia. wlmm h-- ili.'.-i-ril.* 1 
.> • .i man nt" sup-.Tinr tah'nls, s!i.-aily ul' pur- 

■ •' ■ and iIi.'t'Trnin!iiion.' 

In July |s|i; Ha-.tiiiLTA l'<':.';in to ri.>rMr-,' 
■i:i\l- <r.inl (.'hurcli, which hail i'liU'-n int.< '!■ - 
.Mv. and til'- wnrk was onnplcti''! liotnrr- lUo 
■•■ '. lit* 111" Niivi-niht-r. AlnMir th-- sain- lim-.' 

- '.c::--T~ li.'Lian to ln-lniv a .--n^.' ..■!' I'.i'l;;;^ 
■■/a! ]>'>\vi-r, I Jilt h-' ^lill C'lntiii.i-tl '<> cm- 
■\ !.i- niiu'l wjili iinthiirjinj' aciMiv. In 

^! .-.■"i l"*!? h'- jiaiil his la-^l vi-'t ;•) I.^^nil -n. 
;-':i:n„- t.. l)a\ !i-l" inl mi "< .Mriy. In Aj-ril 

■ ■-!- h-- .-I'ul'l >l:l! writ-.' l-i a iVivn.'.l a w.-ll- 

■ - '::i-il l.-:t.r nn tlit- wi-itiuL' "t" lii.-tnry. 
.';; 1^1 ,Iul\ h-' cam-' linnir tVoni n carria^-' 
'■■ \ ■.' in a i-.iiiiiti.iM wliicli a]i])'-ar'-i to i';.- 

■:':T> .1 ■i-liii- ti. •■■'iiiiT- a hl'-'diiiL-- ll" 

- ■:;■'. iv'\-.r !■ I li-i\r r'Tm .-r.^il. On ill" "JI'lli 

. .li:;ry rl..~. s. >:v II. Ilall^^r.! wa^r t.-.w 

"A in.ari'l IIi-uiil'-'- n-'Mr— i iVi'-n-.i- i-Mii:-.' 

.■! i '."ill. I I'-w 1- n.'l m^'T nIjh';..>waK-'vv, 

■■. ■ ^::i"\.'." !■ M -! 'wlv -nsMi' 1. Un '■'> An_-. 

■ ,l.,::itt ■! at; 1 -:_:i>"l a l-'It-T f-i'oinni. ■?!>!- 

■„ l.^w.i'.'t .:;.■■ pr 't'-.-ii-m nfih" court .if 

. ■.-, :.'vs. :.i: ! ■ ■■. t li'- l'l'u'1 Ii-' ]M"'-il:iwav. lii.s 

'.-. ai' i' .'.'.- '. ' l:i\' a h.nuUvrihi'-t' fV< t 

. ■:..■.] -■ !':■ !.:-; V!.a-:j.- -!i uld .lislr- w 

■ \\ ".■.:■'; " '; • \\ ■■" > \\.:!c!ii";i: h> l»i!-i(l--, 
'.'i- « ^ i ;■■.■. 1 ;-.: ;" l!i-- .'^niv-h. arul th-' 
■ , '. :-^ -■.!■-';:;■ pi (•-<■: i" in l-'^u w:i^ i\- 

.: .1 --;.'■ > ■:;.-:i:-^ '':•' T-ml'. Mr-. 
". - .:- \\ .- ■• ::■. 1 :•! t'." - iTi:" ]>!:ic" in 
> ;. ,.:■..; ;. 1- V.J I- :;^:M;s;:-(.'!i:irl..slnihMji; 


yt>»rs later. Diij/le^ford is now ihe 
1y of Mr. U. \. Hyiiss. 

he chnrjjes of [>er«onal corruption brouc:lit 

ai nst Tlasl ing-s nrv abundantly refuted, not 

only by the wont ol'proof( after a most search- 

inrjuiry), but by t!if small amount of hU 
K^Tinps after a singularly prolonged Indian 
lif^. To ^ny thnt Jfa^tinpa was a scrupulous 
politician accordinu' to modem ideas would be 
to ftay too munh. No doubt he did irre|^l&r 
things; possibly bn helped the ruin of Nand 
Kumar, certainly he transgrewed th«* letter 
of the law in removing the unmanageable 
governor of Madras. Id instigating, or con- 
niving nt, the K|K>IiatiQn of the Oudh down- 
(rers he allowed a violation of the faith of trea- 
li«« and nf lUt) delicacies of private life. But 
be saved and established the empire, which 
ho would not have done had be listened to 
all possible objections or hold his hand before 
n hostile cnnfcdfTiioy. The insincerity of the 
outcr\- again.^ Ifajtings was pointe<i out by 
Kr*kine in elo<)uent t«rms («e f JtTR!fET, , 
^arthand Jtfport, pp. 47 90). Mill luw 
some pointed remarks showing how he was 
impre8S«l in spite of a strong prejudice: 

• riiL'^tinpi,' he says, * was ptactnl in diflicul- 
ties uud acted on by temptations such as few 
public men have been called on to overcome. 
... No man. probably, who ever had a great 
share in the government of the world* had hia 

£ahUc conduct 90 completely explored and 
tid open to view. ... If we had the same 
ftdrantage with respect to other men, . . . 
lew of them w6uld be found whose character 
woubl present a higher claim to indulgence 
than his* (Hht. iv. ;«I7-H|. 

riastingh's passions were alway;* well con- 
trolled. His wife adored him. He was ad- 
mired by such men as Thurlow and Johnson, 
l>T Ilalhed, and nltimatelv by Teignmouth. 
H»? is not known ever to have lost a friend. 

* His gencpjsity was unbounded in desire, 
and did not alway.^ calculate his means of 
indulgitti; it. His own private interest was 
!r>«t in his regard for the public welfare ' 
{^Gfnt. Mnt;. IvJiinriii. ^ J. Testimony abounds 
to hi«pf?ntlent^«-i under euflVring. and absence 
of viudii'tive lanifuagt' nlKiut IiIh enemies. 

Like other distinguished mon, Hastings 
owed much to the combination of apparently 
incompatible qualities. A bold dr>famtr he 
poMe««eH almost unequalled executive aliility 
and practical good sense. Though not always 
fastidious as lo the means by wliich he bene- 
fited his eraployeni, be never showwl any Tul- 
gar gr>?ed on his own account, and hia lavish , 
expenditure of money was accompanied by a 1 
total indifference to peritonei advantage or 
display. fJentle in temper ond constant in 
*Aection, ho could be combative, and even 

f47 Hastings 

truculent on occasion ; determined and reso- 
lute, he yet knew how to give up his own 
purpose when it was not to be had without 
paying too dear. Brought up in a bad school , 
exposed to most dougerous influences, he was 
guilty of nothing personally dishonouring, 
even when he compromised bis reputation. 
But in tlic contemporarv criticism of public 
men allowance is randy made for shades of 
charactor and peculiarities of circumstance. 
At theend of the eighteenth cent nrv- English- 
men were awakening to a aense of the duties 
of humanity, and felt that the position and 
the doings nf I'Inglish traders and officials ia 
the East were not always to 1m* defended. Tha 
outcry of 17^5 and the unanimous condem- 
nation of Hastiu^s by both sidnsof the House 
of Commons were the first outcome of this 
feeling. Although partly due to political 
motives, and further tainted by insincere rhe- 
toric and extravagant hyperbole, the im- 
peachment was something more than mere 
hyiiocrisy op hysterics. 

Tlieru are two portraits of HastingE in the 

National Portrait (lallery, one by Tilly Kettle, 

which was engraved by W, Angus for the 

Magazine ' in I7t*2, and the other 

' European MogaziL. 

bvSir Thomas Lawrence, painted in 1811. 
Inhere is also a bronze bust by T. Banks, It.A. 

[The main Koarees for HiiatingK'a biography 
aro tho original docnmonts recorded by Olujg 
in his Memoirs of ths Life of W. Hastiogit, 
3 vol*., Lonj3nH841 ; Captain Trotter's Warn*n 
HastiogB, LonHon, 1S7K, follows on tho sido 
of npolugy ; M^e also Bond's 8p<!ech«i of tha 
Maaa^rnnt and Cnunsel, 4 vols., London, 1859- 
I8el, ADd a largo collection of con tern t^o masons 

iuunphlcU at tha India Office. Mill's liintory Of - 
tritiah India, vols. iii-vi.,LoDiloD, 1848,18 coKIly 
hostile, counteracted geoumlly bv tho notes of 
his cuntioDntor, H. B. Wilson. ilaAtings'a Da- 
fence— An-MTcr nt tho Bar of the House of Lords 
28 Nov. 1787-*i)» able but tedious. The Win urea 
of Ei-iiloneu wePB puUi«h«l in II vols., Locdon, 
1788; TiioHislorj- of tho Trial, ibid. 1796; the 
Pehatcs of tha Uoiuo of X^ords (and finding on' 
eich cliargo), 1797. Kegnrdinjf ths crimes of 
Chait Sinfih and sympathy of the Oudh be^oma 
thcr<! is a narrative (Calcutta. 1782), vhich hua 
bs'^n r<>print(>d (Roorkss, 18d3); iho nffidavits 
taken by Impoy are given to the appendix. Tho 
ohorlhand report of the trial of Stockdale for 
print iDgLotmn's ptimphU'tindefoaceof Hu«tingi*, 
I»ndon. 1790, contains Krskinc's Speech in ht>- 
hiilf of thrdoffln(Uiit,t'ritic-isini; the trial of N'and 
Kumiir; Me also IlevcridRo's TrinI of Nanda 
Kumar, nNamitirvof Judicial Murder, Cnjcatta, 
1886, ond Mr. Justice .Stephon'M Story of Xun- 
conuir. 1885. t^ir A. C Lj-all's Warren Hastings, 
1889. in tho Knglihh Men of Action Series, is an 
impsrtial mf>nofrTOph, I*rofoMor Forrest's Selec- 
liuni>, Calcutta, 1890, throw much light on Uas- 
tings's career,] U. Q, K. 



- - ■ v- ■ -. I ;.-ir_''*, link" '>t' t'hirfTii'i'. an. I .M.'ir"', 

; 1 :_':*'r "f <.'Ii:irli.'> : an Un thi-i vt-ar h** w;!* 

■ I ■_-i.v. 'i:r>'i'ti-<l lit I'ltii.hirt n"_'»'Haii"ns wiiii 
'. ■: - ; ■!;■ I'mu'Ii kinf,' i/''. \i.-"»'ii.'-*' I. Ill Hi»7 Ii-.' 

:■:. -v I- ..III-'' iiion- lii'p'iiUatiMj f T tliv lliarriaj-- 
_ . ■, -'A ,'.■»! Cliarlt's ami Mirj'ir--! i i^t. \\. Tjiiih. 

■ : 'iil!'lwarirsf-ra|>.'l'ri>mNi.:.r.'!iani('ii>tI'- 

■ ' K'HiImii ill llfiH, nii:stii\::".ii-!<':l.;!nin rai-r- 
■:_■ v.'W lore- ~. lie wji^ at :!.> Tiiu>' rtMji- 

•■•■ :'.*.-ilclianil)'Tlaiii nf Ni-r:"; W:\.' -i. I'j'dTi 
W.irwii'Ii's iuva.-i.-n in 117'.' ll.>';r.:r- iti- 

■ ■•:::"1 tli- ]<\u^ I'l'lli.' danj-r. -.r.- 1 him •■- 
-..Mj'>'..'iivil ai-iMiiipanii'il liiin ■-:: :. :— ;■■ n.-k t > 

I w.n in N''i*iii!iv. \vli'.ni.'»' l\'lw;jTi -lil—l :■' 

- U -llanfl. l>uriiU'KT:w:ir>lV at— :: ■■ Hi-';n^-i 

- -A !•* artivf ill >!irrl:ii: npthi-z-a! .:"!.-V r!-.- 
. ^ ■- ■-:.-. A luniil i|>:->-^iTVfil in niLiMii:'- /; 'y-..j- 

f-;. , altlisnitili ilali'il tour years la:- r ■ ■a' ;- pru- 
' - i'ably lirst ciiii-ri'il into at lliisjnr.o'.-r-. Ir is 

■ ■■■; -!^n>'(l liy two liirds. nim* kni^'"lirs.a:'. 1 :' r*v- 

■ '^tit t'S(|iilrc,-:, wlio t'liijagt? tri jiil H.i-*.:i:_'-- 

;uain>1 nil jit'T^on^ witliin tlif'kin^'.!' m.^n 1: ■ 

"■'. rai-i-' as many men a-* thoy can. ;■• t-' it::;- I 

- i a: tlit'fvu.-usi'ot' ila^tintrs, l'j)i>n Klwar-i'*;^ 
. - r'-turn In Man-li 1171 IfastiuL's -wa- ":T>*7i- 

. •;. Til. -tit al in t)rin'jin^' <tvt'r ('tiin-no.* i-i !.:- -!':■. 

V- aii'l wa-i ]»rfst'nt at their first iittt-rvi'-w •).• r- - 

- N ■ ;i)i":i at rianl)nry. At tlic Ipatth- ol* Uar:-.' ' 

, -. ■! Ilasiin;:.-* (•(immamleil the thinl div.-;;.'i, 

•■' wliifli wa-i (ijipox'd 1(1 tliat of Monta;rii".;iii [ 

^ -i- i'u-Iui.ii'il ihrei" tlioiisand mtnintcil h'lr.-'ii'.'H. 

" 1 ■ III- is saitl lo liiivf taken part in tli<' ilia:Ii ■•!' 

'\ ^,- t'le Laneastriitn Prince ICJwanl nln-r th-- 

.. ! .: I'-ittle of T'-wkt'sljUPk-. In 147") na>'ii;_-^ 

• \\a<-''nt t>) l-'raiice with an invailinLM"':\--. 

\ f.aiy iif jii-ai'i' follow,'.,!. Th'- IV.-r..!. :.:: 1 

llit^li-h liiiiL'-- ni'-t at l*lei|iii::ny.n.arAi:.'.- 1:-. 

a*:il Ha~!iii:;> rfriMVfd frum L'«tii< ii\<::'.v 

'■'.!:iii;y iiftwii r Jii)U--aiiil crowns. l!"W:i 

.i"['ari lit ly lie- mily Mn^'lisli ii'iM.- jir. *■ :;■ . 

«;;■' uind'- .-uni.- ililiifiilty ahinit ri-iii!i_ 

'■- ■ ni.iiii'V, ami h'- I'.trnmllv refu'«t'il t'l Lran' 

i'lv reei'ijit i'nv it, allf'^-iii:; a< a r-'asni t!.:i;. 

. ■ '•..■ .lid noi wi^h il to In- ^aiil that ili.- ih;'.m- 

•■•rhiiii of IjiL'hm.l wa- a ju-n^ioniT "f tl..* 

■ "«:•;_' "f I'niiie.-. li'- wa- l-s-; -enijiiil.tii- w'.t'.i 

■' ■ I'lik'- "f Iitir_'iiiidy. iVi'in wh'*;)! Ii-r-- 

.■ A. la %■■:■. riy a:;n';:! v nfa thuu^and erowi.-, 

. I ■•■::•,.-. w!;. .■.a\ •* :!:a" he tir-t inrpuhi.-' I 

II 1-: ;■:..- * ■ i.'\\:-:'. - ini! af*-Twar.U t-t L..11;-. 
'.' \\ H.-".';j*w i'.. a:;-! J-M-ril"-* him a'- ;* 
• ■-■".. :- -.; .!:■■■» i~l ■!!! a;i.l virtn.-. ill LT-i:* 

.■': : ■ \ \\ .■ :; ! :-:;::i-:'r, wh 'm h'-liad- -.'■v- I 

. '.:".V\. (■ :!;l;:-- -•■;:.- i:.a; l..mis XI 

:. .\ • \\ .^' .'-.J.- . :; .::■ ■\'.as;iH 11 MTvii--- i>I 

. ;' '.■:■ \y..:-- • ;' :'.u ih"i,-a:i'l iiiark-. 

,. . L - ■ „* \v,.^ :. ■ ■;' :!'.■> ^'r.U■\\ll■l <w-if" 

' \ l\ ■ ^ f '.w.-r/!'- ■ hi'-T .-■II. lla-t:ri_-= 

\\ . ■;■.;■■■■■* \^ •'. :h-- ■!■:• ■■■n. \\\i • h:.d 




brothiT Earl Kivers. But be hud 
,mble to nmiulAiit a high Tio9itinn,on ac- 
it of hie well-known triecl tideliiy to the 
kin^. Tbekinff onhi»ctt-aihhe<lentrKated him 
tobe reconciled to the que*?n. When sheafter- 
wardttpropowdtothe council t hat htrson.ICd- 
vard V, should he escorted to I^ndnn with a 
strong army, nafltinga |)aasionotoly demanded 
•whether the army waa intended ' against the 
)ple of England or against the good Duke 
Gloucester.' lie threatened to retire to 
Calaia If Rivers approached with an army. 
When, howerer, Gfoucoster tried by means 
of "William Catc*hy ["q. v.] tohring Hiisting)* 
into bUdt^^igutt, Hastings seemed diflpo84Kl to 
join the queen's party. Ue altenued the 
council in the Tower ( 1 4 June 148^3) in spito 
of a warning from Stanlty. The scene which 
followed ift described by Sir Thomaj* ft[ore-, 
bo beard of it &om Cardinal Morton, then 
.hop of Ely, an eye-witness (Gaikhnku, 
\ichard III, p. 81 ). More'a account is dra- 
tnatised by Sliake-tpenre. Qloucester charged 
llojitingfi with trt'juon, and he wa^ inimtv 
tely taken out and beheaded on a LU)ck of 
iber at the Tower. J lis l>ody was buried 
in the north aiflle of the cbapcl of St. George's 
in Windsor Castle, near the tomb of Ed- 
■ward IV. Edward, his son and heir, who 
■waa seventeen years of age at this timp, was 
~ ,tber of George Hastings, first earl of Hunt- 
_ "on [q. v.] Hastings also left two younger 
ins, I{ifhsra and William, and a daughter 
iinf, married to George, enrl of ShrewsbuTy. 
,ere are many i^li^ht n-fi-runce^ to ]Ia«ting.s 
in the'Poston Letters,* including two letters 
by liaatings to John Poston (iii. 90, 107). 

[SiDw'ft Annals : Iloliushed ; Ducd^de's Uaroa- 
age, i. 680 ; Rymer'n Ftedem.onp. ed,; DeComines' 
M^moires; VatttonlA-Lten, od. Guirdner; I>oylu's 
Official Barvnage] J. ti. i-'. 





I X-nt 

HATCH, EDWIX, D.D. (183&-I880), 
<lieologtan, was bom at Derby on \ Sejit. 
1835, of nonconformist parents. In l&44lnfl 
&mily moved to Btmungham, and he entered 
King Edward's School, at that time under 
Dr. (afterwarda Bishop) Prince Lee. Hatch 
fa^&D on the modem side, but his promise 
■WM discovered, and he was Ironsferred to 
tKe clast^ical department, where he rspidly 
>se until ho left with an exhibition for rem- 
ike College, Oxford, in IHTkH. Shortly 
'on? this be had joined the church of Eng- 
land, through tbo influence of Dr. J.C.Miller. 
At Oxford he moxcd in a stimulating society, 
of which Edward Bume-Jones, the artist, 
an old schoolfellow, William Morris, and 
Swinburne, the poets, were prominent mom- 
(lers. II atchwBsalreadycontribuling largely 
t3 magazines end reviews when he took his 

degree, with second class honours In lit. hum.^ 
at theend of 1857. Afterworkingwith zeal 
in an east-end parish in Ixindon, be waa ap- 

Jioiuted in IWiJ) pmfeswir of cla-ssie* at Trinity 
College, Toronto. This he held till lBti2, 
when ho aeecptod the rectorship of the high 
school of Quebec. Hera he mMried. Ilis 
work at Quebec loft a lasting impresaion ; 
bat in 1867 he returned to Oxford to bo- 
come rice-principal of St. Mary Hall, an 
ofiice which he resigned under pressure 
of oilier duties in 18HA. Along with his 
teaching iit St. Mary Hall he took privatti 
pupils, and actively aban>d in the practical 
work of the university. It was through him 
that the 'Official Gazette' waa started in 
1870, and he was its first editor. Not much 
later he brought out the first edition of the 
'Student's Handbook to the University,' and 
edited a translation of Aristotle's 'Ethics* 
in 1879, begun by his brother, the Itev.W. M. 
Hatch (rf. 1879). In 188-the wasoppointed 
Rceretiiry to the boards of faculties. Mean- 
wliili; he was colltM^ting materials for the 
work which he had planned iu theology. The 
first-fruits of these labours appeared in a 
series of important articles (* Ifoly Orders,' 
'Ordination,' ' Priest') in vol. ii. of the* Dic- 
tionary of Christian Antiquities* in 1880. In 
the wime year he delivered the Bamplou lec- 
tures on 'The Orgsnieatton of the Early 
Christian Churches,' published in the year 
following. The bold and Qriginat views put 
forwai*d in these lectures aroused considerable 
conlruversy, in which Hatch himself took 
little part. In Scotland and Germany there- 
cognition which the lectures received was 
even greater than in England, In 1883 the 
imiversitvof Edinburgh conferred on the au- 
l hor I ho distinction of an honorary D. D,,wbi1u 
the eminent theologian, Dr. Adolph Hamuck, 
him.setf tratudated the tec^turiis into ( jerman. 
In 1H87 Hatch brought out a little volume, 
' Tho Growth of Church Institutions,' in- 
tcndiHl to be tho pioneer of a larger work, 
continuing the Bomjiton lectures, and dealing 
oomprehennvcly with the whole subject. 

Erom 1882 to 1884 Hatch held the office 
of Grinfield lecturer on the Septuagint, 
onother branch of study to which he had de- 
vot ed himself. The substance of the lectures 
was published in * Essays in Biblical Greek,' 
188f>. As the basis for a renewed examina- 
tion of tho 'Biblical Vocabulary,' he had 
long been at work on an elaborote * Concord- 
ance to the LXX and Hexapla,* which will 
be published jMwthumously. Other New 
Testament studies of rather less importance 
are the articles 'Pastoral Epietles, ' Paul/ 
• Peter,' in the * Eiicyclopiedia Britaunica.' 
In 1883 Hatch waa appointed to the living 



uf Piirlui^h ia Ehm-.x.wiJ lal'^^he wu made 
univ»'n*ityf»'(i(1i'T in PCv-lfpia^tiCAl hUtonr. In 

th" ■ ■» Ijiw," antl tlie * Carlo- 

vin.' I --luition.* In li*>>S his phik»- 

AOi'tii. ( :■ ■. '-i>i);fmtmlt>X)tn's$ioa inaptjttr»e 
of 1 ! ■ i»v*, fntilltnl ' Greek Influence 

on ' \,' whtoli wen- puhlislitNl in 

iSiiti iMiur 1 .hv editorship nf Hr. Kairbftim. 
Hut the strain o( this multtfarioiis work wbs 
too giY«t, and UaUh died an 10 Nor. If^SQ. ' 
H«tt*b belougvd to no schiml, aud bore the ' 
stAiop of no one maftter. His mtnd xrna on- ' 

IS Sept. 1817, and edncatwi bT Iviug'g CmI- 
\ege, lAindon. lie matriculated {rotn llrafe- 
nose College, Oxford, os Thomutt Goodwvn 
llatchard on II April 1H37, graduated B.A. 
1*MI, M.A. 184.',, and 1U». 4 Feb. 1H«B. 
He was curate of WiiidlH«liani, Surrej^from 
184:* tolrt44,dnmeeilie chaplain to the Mar- 
quis of Conynpham from iNlo to ISlW; 
rector of llavont, llompfihire, from 1846 to 
IKkl, nnd of St. Nichola-*, Guildford, Surrey, 
from 18.">fi to 1NJ9. 11.' was consecrated 
biftlHip of Mauritiu-s in "\VePtinin»tcr .\bbe3r 
on 24 V'eb. lHt!9, He Udonpfd to the mod«- 

ffiUMtive. He prvferrvd to work things out mto evangelical school. An a parochial l 
for bimi^'lf by a stnctlv inductive method, clergyman he xtrnfi indrfutij^ablc in his dulie^ J 
While the morejnent wkich bccan with thfi | He died of fever in the i&land of Mauritiitft 
' I'mct* for the Times' wo* at full flood, he ' 1*8 Feb. 1870. He married, 19 Feb. lAAQ, 
laboured streuuoustr, and for the most part Fanny Vincent Steele^ second daughter of' 

the Kight Kev. Michael Solomon Alexauder^l 
bishop of Jerusalem. She died at Caimea, 
7 Hec. 1880. 

Ilntchard wrote: 1, ' The German Tn><». \^ 
Moml forthe Young,' IS-M. i'. 'Thtj FlowerefiH 

atones to place theology in (_^:^ford on n really 
Avsteiuatic and soieotilic iMsis, But it -wnm 
uot given to him to complete his w»irk. Of 
hiti iiuier life more i« re\ealed in a little col- 
K-cliim of yacri'd poema ('Towards Fit'lds of 

Liuht'l, and a memorial volume of sermon* Gathered. A brief >iemoir of Adelaide Char- 
publiabed after bis death. I lottellatcliard, bis daughter.' 1B58. •"•. 'Ser- 

["M,..,. -: .1. ,*• ij,^t,,i,^ cilitflfl hj his brr.thcr I mons,' 1847-U2 (four pamphlets). Hi^ wife 
(S.C '^•, I'jipositnrforFcLnjarylSOO; I published: 1 .* Eight Years Experience of Mo- 

na -I' ':■, lliinmck in TliwjI. Litenitur- i thers' Me*>lings/ 1871. -. * Prayers for Littla 

«.it«m{. 14 Juiid ISOO.eol. 2n7fl'. A memoir by | Children/ 1875. 3. 'Mothers' Meet iuffK, nnd 
hia widow is id prepumtion.] W. S. j how to nrganiM them/ lS7r>. 4. ' Mothers 

aATCHARD.JoHN (17niui84i».p«b- S"'I'*",T'*-5?; .;V'''''°"f''*^,"V''^*i?^** 
li.^r, was in 1 7tR». and Hnrved Iii/ap- .^\*\^ ]^' ^- **' ^ ">'*■■ ^^ *^"' ^"* ''«" ^^^ 

prt'Ul icoahip wit hMr.liingerol'CoUege Street, 
\\ v«tuiin«iti.<r. He altorwards became an as- 
«i»t4iat W Mr. Payne of the Mews Gale, and 
()umuieuci<d biisiuetts on hh ovm account ut 
l7Ji Viccatltlly, l..uidon. The publication 

mgs,' 187K. 

[IIIustrHlwl X^ndon Nrwa, 16 April 1870, pw^ 
411 : TimM. 31 March 1870, p. Q ; Gtinrdian, 
30 Marcli JS70, p. 3Q7. and 6 April, p. 300 ; in- 
fornijitioii fn)tn iho bufliop's !H»n, Alrxanderg 

* , 1 I ■ I i» f It ■' 1 • i-ii- ol iilflhHrH. liiitchanl the publishers.] G. C. B. 

of H pamphlet. ' Uef-rm or lluiu, m Ii9, , „.«,„„„„ t.vv,,v- ,1^-- ..... 1 

HATCHER, HKM:Y (1777-1840), an- 
tiquary, son of a smalt farmer of KembK\ 
near Oireucesler. was bom there on 14 May 
1777. Hit (Kirents moved to Salisbury" 
about 17W, when be was placed with a 
sclioolmaster named West, and made con- J 
aidenilile progress in cla«atc8 and mathe- 
matics. At tlie age of fourteen he tiecame- ' 
:iMi ('ommi>n.21 June !841l, J'"""'" assuitant in theschm.l.and during ihft , 
His eldeet son the "''** *!''**' vears filknl similar situations ill 
- * ' otlu-r establishments. About the t)^nning' 
of 1795 lie was engaged as auianuen.*i.<4 to 
theUev. AVilHom Coxe [q. v/', the hiiitorian, 
whom lie ajmisted in the compilation of his 
historical works. For some time after IfiOO 
Coxe turned aside to investiguto the Uoman 
road* and other antiquities of Wiltshire, and 
this tAsk goTo his comjMinion his taste for 
nntiquarianreseareh. Tliev gavegreat assist- 
ance to Sir Richord Colt-Hnare f cj. v.] in hi* 
e<lition of Mliraldus Camlm^nsis (I80fj1, a 
publication which induced Hatcher to under- 
takes translation of the treatise passing under 

VtHA tin* i-ouiiuoncement of n long and pro- 
Hd-roui pullidhing career. Hatclmrd was 
appointed lKK>ksell<>r toQuet'U Charlotte iind 

pifier members of theroval family; be issued 
the ]•'■' ' ■ ■■ -I- of t lie Nx'ioTy for Bettering 
llu! * ' the Poor, nnd published thu 

*Cliii I ver' from the first number in 

180- tii'U he retired frnni business. 


I i, was \'icar of St. An- 

L-'Wd, l'lymouih,and hia second son, Thomas, 

I ft>r aome timo bis partner, succeeded as head 

Iff lUe UotxM.' of ilatctuLrd & Son, book- 

pVtiftA and pubUahcr*. 187 Piccadilly. 

bU Mug. August 18tU,pp. 210-1 1 ;Nicliola*s 
iloitr. viii. .'i2a-4,J H. R. T. 


Fl'^riM. l.i>hun of Mauritius, son of 

I, tlie publisher (ft. 18 Nov. 

fonuf John Hatchard [q.v.Jf 

K>iU Hi U tiiloane Strtwt. Chelsea, on 


the DAZDe of EiciApd .if Ci-*Ts."»-*t-*T c v " 

but mntiinMd to help kas frxaJ C^^^u la W 
coinpiUtiaaa. sad in Xsy of Aat ves ke 
narned At Dumutos, aavAamkB , 
dmagfater of ffii&iii Am of thtt 
TfaSogh the iliitiriai ity af • dok wWi» W 
tnutea. Hatcher vaaeoaipeiM at 
1633 to lenga hb pbee art tW ni 
and to keef a jnrsSe sckaal *t Fad 
Aager, ntmt Sahahvj. Tn rcan kttr la 
mortd to Eadlew Smt, Sft&aln, aad ia 
hut new oqeuytina bhoincd vitk aaeetm 
for maa J j«an. Frei Aagart 18X to I&I3 

all hit s|anB time wh nea[t ia tht fiif ii 
tion of hkkkuiR of Ola aad Xcv Sana fiir 
BKMn*a*Wihah«;«ad Uilut jcaaaoc 
ibrthe penoMi fif iiiiii» ana 
itkw. HU wife died ca SB K«k. 
^ beome iO, ■eemed la bare »- 
._.d,biit died aaddealyst SalibfavTcn^ 
the IBOtaiafrof 14l>ec. li^ML FlBt^rr 
poawatiii! « apMnail aptitvie for l«*nuBff Ua- 
Tttsgc*. n« was nned ia latia aad (jxmJe, 
French. C*<fman, ItaJiaa, ^aa^, Bofta- 
Xaf*^f and Duteh. Amoep tbe la a auauiu ta 
rkicli he leA behiod bim were an Aoflo- 
kxon ^ln«aiT and grmmntar. a inatiaB on 
bo art of fortiticalion, and ■ d u n u tation oa 
litarr and phTskml fTe<ifrtapbT. Forlbeoie 
hU putiiU tie dr«w up uii poUiabed in 
|a35 * A SuppK'meAt co tbe OtuuBtr, eoo- 
Kbetohcal and Logical fiafiutioaa 
l&ult^/ Hatcher wt* mocb w apwrtrfi ind 
' moaament to bis memory, hy Okaood* a 
loeal aculptor, was placed hf poblic sid»- 
fcriptioD in Saliibuzj CatbedfaL 

Ilatclipr'aBaaiiitiiiC6,fapwia1ly in tbe labour 
Df tnui^latinfr 8paairii and Fortoffoe«e docn- 
pi^nl', v,-A9 acknowledged by Cttxe in his 
F History of tbe Bourbon Kings of Spain;* a 
iinilar te^timonr to ht« aid wa* pven in 
Mcinoint of the Dulce of Marlborough/ 
id when Coxe's po§tbiimou«Tolume on the 
^tilham administration appeared, the preiace 
ireas«d his indebtedness to hi? * faithful 
t able Becretary Mr. Hatcher,' Coxe left : 
I a lef^CT of 'Z201. Hatoher sujiplied the 
> of * An UiBturicul Account of the 
Ipiicopal StK* r.zid Cathedra) Chiin-h of Sa- | 
am or Sali^bur)*/ pubU^hpil in 1^14 under 
! name of William Iktdeworib the chief 
rer^er. and in iNil he wrotefur abookfieUer 
I An Ilittrifical and Desrriptirc ^Veeount of 
Old and Nt'W Sanim/ He heh»ed Hoaru in 
._ 'Tour in Sicilv'and his ' Itecollections 
ibrnad/andJobnlSritron in the third volume ' 
pf hia 'Ileamic^ of Wiltshire' (l82"i),ond in j 
that l>art of his * Pirturwqup Antiquitifi!< of | 
SngIiftbCit)v5'(]8fK))whichn-)Bt4%lo8alift- | 
boxy. Ue was the author of * The Descrip- 

fr«i the Vwii^, 
^ SabhaiT in 18U «t1 

the cart arf n— a 1tnm«^ tfa bifhap <C| 
fliniaij. AbM ISKBaaia nam _ 
rfov vbkh k Mid to Wiva hen ilnliinJ i»1 
fe bac^ at iRir, thM HaldWr ahoald 1 
pae ibc aBBons af Saliaharr M favm put • 
' The Hktoiy flC IfoAn HfihsUn.* a^ c 
thi masenals wkieh Hohot BiHea Uf^-ii 
the aanada- qf faliabui j ,hni fii ■ imiily coCi 
kctodlorthewfak. At thv t^ llat^tt ( 
laboaied aaviaoady aail tbe varfc had 
faeea frmtad at th« rxfaaae of Mr. Monk 
Uaan,the aathor aadeaecataraf th* en». 
piaal flaaacr of tbe aadotaki^. Hhmii 
who bad read tbe prooTeheeta, praooaad th_ 
baa aame thoaU aMar oa ibr titV naga M 
iu^otatsaibor. Hatchv decHaed tbepro- 
pomtiaa, bat Benaoa's iwiafwee with Hoar* 
seeand the apneenaee of tbe two pert a. w it b 
tbe tale of 'The ICstorr of MM«m AVili- 
ebixv by Efir Kiebaid Coft lloarv. Old and 
New Samm or Seli^borr. Br l&«bert Ben- 
aoa, M-A^ and Henry listener, 1843,' and 
with a pnefare by Benmn. llatclter netali- 
ated br printing the title and preface which 
he bad luawa np, aad explained his »Uai« in 
tbeaotbOT^ipL Banaon replied with * Facts 
and Obaerrationa tooehiog Air. llatrhcr and 
tbe History of Salisbtur,* and to this there 
appeared in *Simp»oaVl>evtze«(iazette' for 
I 14 IVc 1843 a rejoinder fr»m Hatcher. In 
the joamaUiAsueii at SaUebury and Deriies 
therw were fn*quent e»mmunicutions from 
Hatcher, and tbe'Jounml uf theltriti^h Ar> 
chcolo^icelAasoeiatioa,' i.tilJ.conUinsa note 
from bira on a teaselated pAv^ment at West 
Dean, near Salisbury. Britton intended 
to have included in bis autohiogrspby a 
notice of his friend, but owiu|r to its length 
it appeared srpanitely in 1^47 as ' Memoirs of 
the Life. Writings, and Character of Henry 
Hatcher* ' 

[BrittoB'a M«B)oir of Hat«her; (rrnl. Mag. 
1814 (<t. it. 3:^4-5, 1846 pt. i. 4|A. 1847 pi. i. 
437-40. pi. ii. fi.i6-7 : NicboU"» Illniitr. of Lit- xi. 
43»-f,449: Hriltoii'vAatobiofrr. i. IH-ltf, 444 Ji. 
9, 34-6, iind Apiwndia, p. 83 ] W. l\ C. 

HATCHER, THOMAS (,f. IfiRt). anti- 
quarv, was bnni at Cambridge, pn>bniily in 
St. Edward's parish, being wn and heir of 
John Hatcher, M.U., wjmi-lime fidlow of 8t. 
John's College them, and nfterwnrtlit n>gtuM 
pro&aaor of physic and vico^hancellor of 





. Ifca BBircnil;. He wm cdvcated «t Eton ' 
''IJoIletfBf wbcnce he wu elected m 1555 to ! 
KiBg^ College, Cambndge. He uoeeeded 
B.A. in I->79-60, mod comneneed ILA. in { 
1603. In loa5, being diasalisficd with the 
gDrenunent of Proroct Baker, he, with •ome | 
other memben of the college, wrote ft letter ' 
of eomplAint agaiiut him to Secretair Cecil, 
to whom in 1567 be dedicated Dr. Wslter 
Kftddon'A * LocubrBttone«.' At one period he 
studied tlie law in Grnr's Inn, where he whj | 
•dauCt«d in loA>'>, and AubeHjuentlv applied , 
himself to medicine. Ht^ doefl noC, ^owt- ver, 
ftppetr to have practised either prufeseion, ' 
hu meanA boini^ npparentlj ample. In the j 
latter part of hu life he n>«ided on hts father's 
Gole dcKribei'him as * a great antiquary, a ' 
religioua, learned, and boneu man.' He wu { 
on temu of intimacr with I>r. John Caius 
!(. T.l,who in 1570 inscribed to him his work 
1j)bri<i siiis ppopriin.' Jolin Stow was 
another friend and cnn-fspnndent. lie wrote 
to Stow fromCarebT, IH Jun. 15^0-1, asking 
him to publish Leland's 'Commentaries,' or 
whatever he hsd of Leland's whether I^tin 
or English ; recommends the publication of 
8tow*s manifold antiquities under the title of 
*.Stow'« Storehouse;* desin.'s Stow ton>eBk fo 
Camden about printing the history of Tobit 
in Latin verse; sjid states that he intended 
a discourse about the authors cited hy Stow 
in his 'Chronicle' (/far/^mn Jf A:. S74,f. U). 
Hatcher was buried at Caretnr on 14 Nov. 

He married Catharine, dauf^htcr and heiress 
of Thomas llcde, son of Uicbard Kede of 
'Wisbech, and hnd issue John, elected from 
Eton (0 King's College, Cambridge^ in 15H4, 
who succeeded to the estates of his grand- 
father, l)r. John Hatcher, and received the 
honour of knijflitlKKMl ; Henri", 5^)nietime of 
St. John's College, Cambridf^v ; "William ; 
Alice, wife of NicholsH (tunter, sometime 
mayor of iCeailtng ; and other daughters. 

Hatcher wrote: I. ' Catalogiia I'rwpnsi- 
toniro. Rociorum, ct Schnlnrium Collegii lie- 
galis ("antabrigiie. a tempore fundalionis nJ 
annum 1/J7-,' manuflcri]>t in Caius College 
Library, ! 73. fl 19 ; Harleian MS. (JU ; Ad- 
ditioiuil M.SS.5954, SWoo, Wood had a copy 
of tJiifi work, which he frequently quotes. 
Thitcatsloguc was continued to lOllOhyJolin 
ScotI, cornner of the college, from that year 
to Kiilihy OeorgeClnnd, and final! ve\tendfd 
to 1710 by William Cole f I7l4-17k») [<j. v.], 
•whoso* Historv of King's College, CambndgeV 
is now in thetiriltsli Miuimtm (Addit. MS8. 
6t*l4-17). *.''. ' Do viris ilhwtribus Acodemin; 
Cantab, reg id,' manuscript. This is said to bo 
in two books, in centuries, according to the ' 


BcthodofBale. 3. LfttnTenea^a) '<>nth«l 

netitBtM»ofBaoeraadFkgiDa,*lMO; (&)*Iiil 
eommendatioB of Bishop Alice's Poor Man% I 
Lifamy/ 1571 : (r) * In oonuneodation of] 
Carr and WtlBon's D«iil0«theou ; * (<f) ' Oa J 
the death of Nirbolas Carr;' (e^ *On FreTc'a) 
translation of Hippocratos ; ' {jT) * In Para- ! 
celsitas,' Ma C.C.C. Oxob. 25*?, f. 67 ; (^> ; 
On the death of Dr, Whitlington gored by a 
bull ; in Foie's 'Acts and Monuments.* 

Hatcher also edited Dr. Walter Haddon's ^ 
*Lucubratinnt's et Poemata,' l-'iOr, and Dr.fl 
Nicholaj-Carr'soratior.* 'Oe scriptorum Dri-™ 
tannicorum paucitate,' lo76. 

[Addit, MSS. 5515 p. 100. 2f4M p. S16;, 
Ames"sTrp.Antiq.(Herl»ert), p. 698;BakerM.'=(.j 
iii. 32S ; too[wr'« Athenaft Cantabr. L 483. 5G9;| 
Foster's Griys Inn Reg. p.fto; GoughVBritiRhl 
Topography,' i. 18o. 219. 221 ; Hart. MSS. 1 190 
f. AU h. l->50 fi*. I9t ft, 202 b ; Hsrwood's Alumni i 
Eton. pp. 171. 194; Hrywood and Wright's Ijiwa 
of Kiogs aad Kton Co'llcgM, p. Sl'i; Mostets'si 
life of Baker, p. 119 ; Smith'sCkt. of Cnios Col-l 
l«ge1ISS.p.86; Cal.of 8tate Papfra^Dom. Id47-1 
I MO, p. 282; Slrype's Works (general indvx); 
Tannor's BibL Brit. p. 581.] T. C. 

HATCHER, THO>LVS (1589?-1677)f 
captain in the parliamentary army, bom about 
I5H9, was son of Sir John Hatcher, k-nt., of 
Cnreby, Lincolnshire, by hLs first wifu Anne, 
daughter of James Crowes ( Blobe, Jlutiand, 
p. 1 "AX). Thnmns Hatcher, theantitjuary [q. v."', 
was his fpundfalher He was elected SLP. 
for Lincoln on 2 Feb. lfi2ti-4, for Limntham 
on L*9 Feb. 16i'7-8, and for SUmford on 
24 March 1639-40. He also reprmmted 
Stamford in the Lon^ parliament, and sat for ^ 
Linc-olnahire from 1654 to 1659(iVemAer«q/^fl 
PixrliameHi, Official lirtum, pt. i.) At the 
outbreak of the civil warllatclicr sided with 
the parliameot.nnd became captain of a bor^e 
regiment. On t*8 April H>I2 he was ordered 
to accompany the Karl uf Sltmiford and other 
commanders into Lincolnshire, and thence to 
Kingston-upon-llull (Ualtox, W'ray* of 
Gientworth, ii. 29). In June he was acting 
as one of the parliament iiry committee for 
Lincolnshire (»/». i. 22H), and in November 
be marched with others inlothe No-flh Riding 
nf Yorkshire to oppose the progress of the 
Knrl of Newcastle ( I'b. ii. 39), taking part in 
tile light nt Sherhurn and prohably other 
engngt>nient8 {th. ii. 41). He was included 
in the list of 'traitors' mentioned in New- 
cjistle'rt prnclaninlion of 17 Jan. 1613 {ib. i. 
24ti). In I he following. \ugii8t he was nomi* 
nated a commiiteioner from the jwrliament to 
the oatares and kingdom of Scotland {Cat, 
.State Pajyert, Dora. 1641-3, p. 476K Hcwofl 
present at the battle of Marston Moor, and' 
was with the leaguer before York in June i 




And JtJ»v IfiU iitK Horn. 1B4I, jip. 287, 303, 
iill). ParlianiPiit ^lispeiwo*! with bis Tvsi- 
dencc with th'j Scot* conimijwiontru iu (lie 
tiorlh in September {^i'ommoM ,TmirTiah^ iii, 
'J30). Jlatchcr wft!* biim-d nt Careby on 
1 1 Jul}' 1*>77. By hU wife Cntlierint-, daugh- 
ter of WiUiam Ayscoiighe of South Kelstey, 
I jncoltishire, ho had u eon John ond a 
cUughterKlutahHh. Mrs. Hoa-her was buried 
at Careby on la Dec Itlol. 

[Afllborilies in llio l«t.] G. G. 

HATCHETT, CI!ARLES(l76o?-lft4D, 

chemiht.boru about 1705, wnxthe^nnof Jolin 
Hatchett, coachbuiidcr, of Lone Acre, Ltin- 
<lon, by KlUabcth his wife, lit- woh ehn-ted 
F.K.S. on y March 171)7 (Thomson, JUmL 
Hojf. Hoc. Appond. iv. p. Isiv). On -'I Feb. 
1B09 he became a membtT <»f tbt- Liternry 
Clrtb, oripinally founded by Dr. JohnHon anil 
}<ir Joi>)lum Hcynold* in I'M, and on the death 
<if Dr. Itumi'y in Ik] 1 he was appointed trea- 
«»riT He furnislu-d Ji >hn \V ilwon Croker with 
An account of the clut) and a romplet e list of ltd 
members, printed in BoBwidl's * Iif(> of .lolni- 
bon.'ed. Croker, 1. AiiJ. 628. Hatchett died 
en 10 Feb. 18-17 at Bellevue House, Chelsea, 
■^ird S*J, and was buried near his parents and 
twife Elixabeth (rf. l.'^--J7) at Upton-^iura-Chal- 
ey, Huckin^htimshire (Lipscomb, Bucking- 
■fkire, ir. 570; Gntt.Mrrr/. new »er. x.xriii. 
14 1.5). He waaaulhorofatreatioe 'On the 
Bikumanl of the Ancient*,' 4to, I^indon, 
S36.and conlributed many papers to Nichol- 
Q*a •Journal' and to thw * rhilosophieal 
aaotions.* Tlie mon> imiKjrtant of the 
Itter were publiBhed »eparati-ly between 
rtlH and IHtKi.aud comprised: 'An Analysis 
f thu Mrti;ne(icnl Pyrites, with remarks on 
ome other 8ul phiin-l a of Imn/ London, 1^04, 
); ' On an Artifirtnl Substance which pos- 
llheprineipalcliaracterislirsof Tannin,' 
[», l80-% 4to. A lolenihly completo 
' of his ii'ritin^ti and «ome account ot bra 
lictured and cunositim, topt-llier with hia 
Drtrait engraved b\- F. C. I^ewis after the 
■intinjr by T. Phillips, will 1m found in 
iulkner's * History of Chelsea,' ed. 1820, i. 

[Aiithontir«uaboT«; Ilrit.Mtu. Cat.; Watt's 
ibL Brit.) Q. O. 

HATCLIFFE. VINPKNT (1001-1671). 
suit. [See Si-bnclu, Joiix.^ 

I HATFIELD, JOHN (17.»8?-lfi03),farger, 
Dm of parent.-) in humble circumfttAnces, 
Blotlmm in Ijonprt-ndale, Cheshire, before 
"oU, scema to have had a fair education. 
• became travellef to a linendni]M>r in the 
'lof England about 1772, and paid his 

nddrcgises to a natural daughter of I^rd 
Hobert Manners, who waft lo receive a dower 
of 1,(KX>/. if she married with her fatlier's 
approbation. Lord Itobert, deceived by Hat- 
field's demeanour, a»;ented tn his proposal of 
m&rringit. and presented him at his weddin^f 
with 1,500/. Hatfield shortly went up to 
London, described himself oa a near relation 
of the Hutiand family, and lived in luxury. 
When hii* money was spent he disappeanKi, 
abandoning his wife (who soon died broken- 
liearted) and thrue dniight«rs. 

After several years' iil>s«nce Hatfield re- 
tumeil to London in 1782. Uiscanserwascub 
sliort by his committal to the King's Bench 
prison for a debt of ICO/. Here by his arts of 
lyiiiL'Aiid boasting- he induced a clergyman to 
lay his case before the Duke of Rutland, who 
gem-rouftlv sent lum 200/. and secured his 
release. When the duke became lord-Iieu- 
tenant of Ireland in I7H4, HntHeld wtnl to 
Dublin, and by impudiinlly claiming^ rela- 
tionship with the viceroy lived for a time 
on credit. He was sfKin committt^d to thu 
Munthnlsea, when the duke again paid hta 
deblrt and sent him out of the country. He 
continued his career of imposture until 
arrested for an hotel bill at {^carborou^ on 
2'> April I7i>2. He remained in the bcar- 
borougli gaol for more than seven yearn, but 
evenlufllly managed lo excite the pity of 
Miss Nation, a DeTonsbire lady, who lived 
with her mother in a house oppositetho pri- 
son. She paid Lis debts, and, though she 
is said never to have spoken to him till he 
quitted the gaol, married him next morn- 
ing (^14 Sept. IWKJ). The pair went to Dul- 
vert(Ki in Somersetshire, where by fraudu- 
lent representations Hatfield obtained both 
money and credit. He lived in London once 
again in magnitlcent style, and even can- 
vassed (^ueenborough, hoping, no doubt, to 
get OS a member of parliament immunity 
from arresr, but, nrcswd by his creditors, 
he procured a few hundred pounds and dis- 
siipeared, leaving his second wife and her 
young child in Somersetahire entirely depen- 
dent on cliarity. In August 1801 he arrived 
at K««wJck in CumlH-rland, in a handsome 
carriiige, and assunnnl the nnme of the Hon. 
Alexander Augustus Hopf.M.P. for Linlith- 
gow, brother of the Karl of Hnjwloun. He 
spent his time in excursions, and on n visit 
to Grasmerc became acquainted with a Liver- 
pool gentleman named Crump, whose name 
and credit be emploved when in want of 
money. By boldly franking letters in his 
assumed name he silenced all suspictan in 
the neighbourhood. An intrigue with a lady 
of fortune came to nothing. But the re- 
putation of Mary Robtu»on, the 'Butter- 

Il;itr:::i V y.^z=^^L 

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., ,,. I 1 Ii'hiril li'-''|i*r (if til*! jirivy st-al in VM-j (CionwiN, 

\\_ I I, , (.,1 , Imcr hf Vf'i-*Mlihm^ ii. ".'Wth. Poiilson luKls (p. 

w. ..i,.i,in I, -ml-, I i;ij, Imt without pivinp hi.s nuthitriiy. tluit 

lir wJiM tiitrir tn the Prince ot'Walos. Ik'I'it-' 

lliK he liiul l)(.-ori jirt'Si-nted to the prt'ljenil of 

l.iihlitijrton in the churfii of ]'oln. 1312 

( I.i; Ni:vi;, Frntti ]jil. Antfliv. etl. lliinly, ii. 

I ,S), iitiil nn 17 Doc. l:W;i he was collated tiv 

I lint "f I'Vidaythorpc in the church of Y()rk 

\/.'i, lit. IS(H. A year later ho was pjven 

iin.'iliiT Lincnln iirfhcml, that of JiiickJen 

\t:- II. Illh. The Thomas do Ilalfu.-ld who 

'■ • '' " Will |'it'l»i'iid«ry of U.xpalo in St. Puul's Ca- 

^ ^ iltf.liiil \il'. ii. lLt)>l»<'lonfrs n^Miarenrly to aii 

■«. ,\\.' ,uli.i in'iu'nirum. On 14 April )34") Uiclmrcl 

.4 till .*! lliir\ . bisluip of iKirhaiu, died, and Ed- 

' ■ ,» i\ \\ tul ill vh'<*ir\^l to raise Hatfield to the see. 

\ III.' \ni'tdiii,i,M»' the Story handeil down at St. 

\ ,- " 

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Jbuu (Ckrwi. A»9l ed. E. M. Tl dj*: ::i. 
874, p. 20; 'WALSWOHiJi. J^-Wij-w-j »»- 
<rie, ed. H. T. RUev. I -?:«. p. i-4 ■. :"=rr ii=-r 
arased great scandal br wririnr :> :i* p-;«r 
ID fkTour of his secretArr. »*;d wh'e= s.:^^ vf 
the cardinals objected * dictum Th :■=!= :*~ nr 
lerem et laicum.* Clemeni W r^-jli-eii. ■ ^'rT>?. 
si rex pro af ino sapplicasser. ■■•Kir:il5*ir: x * 
vota ista rice.' Murimuth tp. IT! < ::=7>*.:-rs 
that the monk? of Durham bad th-^ nr-v tUbop 
forced upon them, but no men: ion is arivwh'-ri^ 
nude of their proposinj anoth-^r canii-ii'e. 
liatfield was elected on > May iChambee. 
p. 133, where the Tear is accidental!^ riv^n as 
1346; LEXETi:.m.290i. Tte ord^^r : r tb- 
restoration of the temporal;::** wa.* z:vea on 
the 24th (Rtmer, Fttdera. K«ord ed.. i::. pt. i. 
40), and thev were restored to him f-n 2 Juar 
(S*gutr. I^alat. Dunelm. ed. Sir T. IhilTas 
Hardr,iv.<}lM.l>7M.hisapp>inTmeDt having 
been confirmed a dav earLer iStcbb?. Et^i. 
Saer. Anglic, p. •>4>. He was coa<ecra:ed on 

10 Jaly (not 7 .\u(r., as Murimuth save. p. 
172),and enthroned on Christ mas day I Chax- 
BRE, p. 137). 

llatfield's relations with the court cau<e«I 
him to be of^en absent firom his diiKese. ( hi 
1 7 July 1345, before his consecration, the kir.^ 
when going to Flanders appointed him one of 
the councillors of his son Liontrl. who was 
left as regent (Rymer, iii. pt. i.oUt. In th«r 
autumn of the same year, when the pope wrote 
to Edward urgint; him against making war 
"with France, he directed Hatfield at the same 
time to use his advocacy with the king( Mi'Kl- 
MUTH, p. 176). Doubtless he counted upon 
the support of so recently favoured a nominee. 
But the pope's statement of the case was too 
plainly dictated in the French interest. and his 
arguments were of no avail (lA. pp. 177-8^^». 
liatfield accompanied Edward to Franc*', 

11 JuIt 1340 (i&. p. 199; fr. le Baker, p. 79). 
and after the battle of Cr^cy he performed 
the funeral serv'ice for the king of Bohemia, 
27 Ang. ((*. p. So"). He then attended Ed- 
vard on his march to Calais, where he was 
on 6 Sept. ( Rtmer, iii. pt. i. 90), and probably 
remained for some time longer. In July the 
prior of Durham sent him intelligence of the 
threatened Scottish invasion, and in October 
informed him of the battle between DuHiam 
and Bearpark (since known as that of Nevill's 
Cross) on 17 Oct. {Letterg fiwn Isorthfm 
JtegitUrtj ccxii. ccxLii. pp. 385-9, where the ' 
letters are printed). On 10 Dec. the bishop 
waa summoned with other northern lords to 
attend a council to take measures touching . 
the war with Scotland (Rtxer, i. 97), 
and between 1360 and 1367 he was placed at 
leaat six times upon commissions to treat for , 
peMa with that country and for the ransom ' 

■:f Divii Brwe. la 1-^55 AT#bu^T^p. 427 > 
cr«ec::s b".= wit b hrizLz instrunwatal in making 
a '.T10-. bit tbis n:::ee pr>b*bly wfew to the 
n*c-"tiat :•:!!* oi-E.vmlnr I^avid's ransom ia 
13.>4 . EniE2. iii. p. i.\V5-91. i?i»3). 

Mranwhil-T- Hi:ieli wi* rw^uenily in the 
sc-zr^ of KsjUzi. in iTTrsdance at parliament 
or a: the oc ir. i.»a 1^ Manrh liVJ-4 the ad- 
sai;al in the n rrrb^rs parts wasordered to prtv- 
viie three sbi j* to cattt t hr bishop's* vict uals * 
on hi* cosiirj t-> parliament i &. p. 275 ». l.>n 
22 K-rb. 13.>4-^". he ■ rwe; vr^l from : he h.^ly font ' 
the kind's s-:n TboEias at W(»ls:.,vk t -Vtes- 
BrKT. p. A'^li. and in the foU'-vwinir autumn 
he acc*:^mranie*i £dwa;d into France, himself 
attended by a hundred men-at-arms and other 
f :rc*s I ib. p. 4:?7 ». The surprise of Berwick 
in November called the kinj^ to the border, 
and on hi? Prtum early in IS-V. after his 
raid into ?^>:land, he left HattJeld with the 
lor»ls Perrv and Xevill in charce of the de- 
fence rtf tie north-east frontier \ib, p. 4oOV 
The bish-^p took part in the pmcee<iinjrs of 
1»» Auz- l-tVn Ktxcr. iiL pt. i. :it».V-ti>. which 
le^J to the final release of the Scots king, 
:i-o <Jct. \ib. pp. 37:?-''* t. Three years later, 
lK>Auc. 13(>0. and aeain Ho June 13()L>, Hat- 
field was empiwered with others to treat for 
aperpetual[>««cewith Scotland (I'A. pp. 508 f., 
pt. ii. t>59 >. AfttT David's death early in 1371 
there was a^n ariskof di-iturbancefrom the 
side of Scotland, and on l»6 Feb. 1372-3 Hat- 
field was commanded to stay at the border 
and to take military precautions (ih. pt. ii. 
936). Tlie same onler is repealed 20 July 
1377 {ib. \\. 11). 

Not long after the accession of Richard II 
IlatHt^ld's health showe<l signs of failing. In 
a letter of 15 Dec. 1379 or i;J^Ohe entreated 
the monks of Durham to pray for his re- 
covery (Hift. Ihtnrlm. Uript. /re*, -Vpp- 
cxxviii. pp. cxlv f), and as he grew weaker 
he became the more instant in almsgiving. 
He died at his manorhous*> of .\ldfonle. near 
liondon (probably Old Ford, then in tho 
parish of Stepney, Middlesex*), on 8 May 
l^iSl. after a pontificate of just six-and-thirtv 
years (Chambre, pp. 138 t". and.Vpp. cxxxii. 

Ccxlviii). His remains were bnuight to 
urham, and were burit^l in the tomb which 
he had prepared beneath his own thn^ne in 
the cathedral. But the funeral did not take 
place without an unpleasant dispute between 
the prior and the bishop's exwutorsas to the 
former's perquisites {ib. pp. 141 f. and App. 
cxxxii, cxxxiii). 

Hatfield is described by Cliambro as a 
magnificent man and venerable to look upon, 
given to hospitality and lai^ in his charit ies. 
To the monks of Durham ho showed himself 
kindly and generous, and he was as strcuuouA 




ti protector of llie liberties ami the posscs- 
sioiu of th(> monasterv (ef. JliAt. Duuetm. 
iicnpt. treft, App. cxv. p. cxxxv) as lie was nf 
(be privilegeR of hU ee« (('iiamdrr, p. 1^7). 
Tlie relations between the dioceses of Uurhoin 
Hiid York were frequently troubled in conse- 
uuence of t!ie uswrtion by lb« Archbinbop of 
York of prerogative* which hw sulfmjran was 
indisi>o»e<l to nllow in practice; nnd during 
liatfaL'ld'a jHiutiticatetbe biehop himself was 
credited with active bo«iilityQfi:aiiist htssupe- 
rior, AVhcn on Kl Feb. l.'i4H-9 two of nis 
clerks committed n disfftaccful outrage inYork 
minster. Archbishop /ouch stated that it was 
believed (if the reading of the text is rtvht) to 
be with tlie bishrii^-coneent and connivance 
(Lettrrn/fttm y'lrtnw-n lit^ifter^, pp. ;ji>7-1)) ; 
and in l-'i/JT-H llmfield hwd [nobtnin a formal 
ne<juiltai)ce( March 10| frr)in the king of any 
complicily in on attack which it was a88erte<l 
he hud made iu perMmwith u body of armed 
men upon Thomas f^alkcld, bishop of Cbrv- 
bopolis, who was acting as suflragan to the 
nrchbi^ht.>p (W<.' Srt'iMi*, lif^. Saci: Anyiic. 
143 f.) at Kexby, in the immedialu neigh- 
bourhtiod of York (Hyuer, iii. pt. i. 389). 
In 1H74 Aloxander Nevill, aremlencon of 
Durham, was made archbi^liop, and it iva.s 
llattield who deliven;d him the pall and con- 
secrated him iHfijiatr. Palat. Dunehn. iii. 
524-7); but in tpitcof the local and personal 
connection Nevill afl'routed the Bishop of 
Durban) by aCtemptiiuf to conduct visitationti 
within bis diocese, lie wan n'Mrained by a 
Kiyal ordtT of 17 July 1H76 (Ili^'t. Dunetvi. 
Hcrij't. trrx^ App. cxxvi. pp. cxliii f.), but the 
injunction had to \)c repeated on U7 Dec. 1U77 
(WluclKi*, Concilia, iii. \'2i). 

Uatflold'n muniticence has its record in his 
buildingB at Durhiitn, wlien^ ho (■^«^t'ted part 
of the south side of the choir of the cathedral, 
including the biahop's throne, and restored 
and added to the castle (Cii amuhk. pp. IS7f.). 
iho hall of which i* mainly hiji work ((Ikkkn- 
WELI-, pref. to liijt/ioji Jliifjlr/d'.i Surrrt/, p. 
vi). He a\t»t built a mannrhoufie and chapel 
in Loudon (^Umamdri:, p. l^H), and founded 
« Carmelite house ai Northallerton (Goijwiy, 
ii. y30). In Oxford ho was a benefactor of 
the college which had existed for the use of 
monks from Durliam since the last years of 
<he thirteenth centun*, and who»e building* 
stood on the ^i^e of tlie present Trinity Tol- 
lege. The wchemi' which Bishop Kichard of 
]{ury had drawn out for the foundation of a 
regularly established college was elaborated 
by his succoRsor, who provided for the mnin- 
tenance of eight monks and eight secular 
Atudents. The foundatirin, however, was not 
■completed until after Hatfield's death (ttee 
CuuiBBB, pp. las, 140, aud II. C. Maxwell 

Lite. Jlist. of the t'titc. of Ojford, iS-^.pp. 
105, 1511). A* other ei-idcnco of the bishop's 
wealth it may l>e nott-d that he lent Kin^ 
Edward two thouisand marks in or before 
1370 (Utmeh, iii. pt. ii. b03, M)l). and that 
according to his will he lent Alice Ferrers 
one thousand marks {^Tfntamenta S>oracni^ 
Kia, Surtees Society, 1^3ii, p. 121). In tliin 
will he al«Q made l>equci(ti«, among others 
to his godjton, Thomas of Wot>dstock, and 
to his nephew, Johu-ropham. But most 
of his gifts were made during hjs lifetime. 
There is an inventory of his gxwdt in the first 
volume of * WiiU and Inventories of the 
Northern Counties' (Surtees Society, 18351^ 
pp. 30-8 ; aud other particular? of his be- 
quests and endowments will be found in the 
Appendix cxxxii. to t be ' 1 list. Dunelm. Script. 
tn.'Sj'pp. cxlix ti". A sunvy of the poseeiBiions 
of the see of Durham, made by Hatfield's di« 
rection,and apparently completed about Kit'l^. 
is also published. The bishop's n-gister^wbicU 
is preserved at Durham, is said by Mr. Itaine 
to be of small general interest, consisting 
mainly of the ' formal record of the working 
of the diocese' {Letters from Kortkem iZe- 
tfieiertf Pref. p. x). 

[Life by Vp*i]liam dc ChambreiD HxsU Dunelm, 
Soriplonu Ires, cd. J. Kaine (Surtees Soe., 1839), 
with appendix of documents ; Hi-xturical Paper* 
and iJjtturB frum the- Northern Kegisters, ed. 
J. Kaiae(KijlUi^r.),1873: Bi-ohupUaLfield'sSoiv W. GrecnweU (aurlecaSoc.. 1857) ; Ad« 
M mrimuth Coot i a. L'hronioaruin ct Rob. de Ave;^ 
burv do Gertis Mirab. Kdw. lU, ed. E. MaunJs 
Thompson (KoIIb Ser.), 1889 ; Galfridi le Baker 
do awynbroka Chron. ed. K. M. Thomjison, 
Oxfoni. 1889: F. Godwin. Da Pi^csulibw, cd. 
Kichordiion, 1743; other sources cited above.] 

K. L. P. 



HATHAWAY, HICHAUD {fl. 1702), 
impiwror, wan a blaeksinithV appreutiee of 
Soulhwurk. In February 1700 be gave out 
llml he wa5 Itewitched by on old womAU 
named Sarali Morduek, the wife of a water- 
man, and that, as an ctlect of her sorcerji ^ 
he vomited naiU and pin!<, was unable l<ftS 
eat, speak, or open his eyes, aud was other- 
wise strangely affected. His oiilv remedy 
was to scratch Morduck until she bled, when 
be recovered for a time. He prepared a mir- 
rative of his case, but the printer to whom 
he took the copv refused t<i have anything 
tn do with it. Slordnck, the reputed witcli^ 
was brutally iU-UM'd. She left Southwark, 
but Ilftthaway^ occonipanied by » mob, fol- 
lowed her to her new lodging* in the city 
of London in the spring of 1701, and created 
an uproar. He was carried before an alder- 
man, who credited his story, committed Mor- 
duck to prison, and subjected her to grosw 


personal indi^lties. Slu- wn^irieil for witcli- 
cralt at (Tuildlxall at^sizes in July ntid ao 
quittcd, whereupon lUthaway waa ordered 
to ta^o his triftl as a cheJtt nnd a rioler. 
Popular sympathy was in hi« favour. Bilb 
•were put up lu several churches to pray for 
Lhim ftffainst bis trial, aad subscriptions were 
IBtortBu for his support. Ilewa^trittd before 
Chief-justice Holt on two indictments for 
impoHture, hot. and assmilt, found guilty on 
all cliargvs, and on 8 May 1702 was fined 
two hundred marlc?*, and iwnlenced to stand 
in the pillory at S^iutbwark, C'urnhiU, and 
Temple Bar on three differt^ut days (lirx- 
THtJLL, Uriff JRelatimi, v. 172), aftur which 
he waa to be well flogged and kept to hard 
labour for six months. Nothing further U 
known of him. 

fCobbcct and Howell's Stale Trials, xir. 639- 
69fl.} a. G. 

HATHERLEY. Lord (lK)l-18«l),lord 
cliauodlnr. .St-e Wood, William Paqe.] 

HATHERTON.I^RD(1791-18fl3). [Sec 
ItiTTLL-Tox, KnwAan John." 

liet.waj! pnjbiibly a nativo of Warwick- 
Several faniiliea of the name resided 
in thesixtecnthcenturyatStratford-on-Avon 
and it.« immediate nt-ighbr)urhood. Shake- 
apeare'a wife waa Anno 1 lath way nr Ilntha- 
way of Shottery, and her father's christian 
name was Richard. Kichard llathway, tht* 
dramnlist, was possibly n?lated to the Shot- 
tery family (cf. lLlLMWKI,L-!*HILLn'rH,0«/- 
/fUM of Lift of Shakfspeaiv, 7lh edit. ii. 
183 m.) 

Allhoug'h named by Francis Meres in IBOS 

^fta amoup the beat writers of comedy in his 

lay ( M'lYV Treasuty, New Shakspcre Soc, 

p. Irtl), llathway waa one of the Htrui^ling 

iramfttist:^ in the'payof Philip Ilen.dowe, the 

nanagor of the Rose Theatre, ami usually 

rrote in coiguDctioa with one, two, or three 

.nit«rs in the same unhappv condition. Only 

one of the plays In whicli no was concerned 

' I known to be extant, and that is in print. 

It is entitled * Tlie Pin»t Part of theTrue and 

llonorsble Iliatorie of ihe Life of Sir John 

)ld-ciistle, the good Lord Cobhom ; ' was 

flayed for the first time at the Uose between 

. and 8 Nov. 1599, and was. the joint work 

f Hathway, Drayton, Munday, and Robert 

Vilson,who,on the previous UJOct., received 

, lltfnslowe for t he first part and in ear- 

^lieftt of a second part 10/. The suci'''-'i5 seems 

to have been siifltcient to indiiei' Hen»luwe 

I make the four poets a pr<'.si>[it of half a 

own each (Duiiy, Shakespeare Soc, p. 1&8). 

sennnts m iiensiowes inearrc in i 
for which the manager paid the aii 
* in earnest' 11 April Ijff?. 2. ' ^ 
aud UrBon'(witU Munuay), acted 

The play, together with a second part, was 
licenced for publication by the Stationers* 
Com|iany to Thomas Pavier 11 Aug. ItiOO. 
Nothing is known of the second part bevond 
this entry in the Stationers' registers, which 
doe* not supply the authors' names. Two 
editions of the hrst part were isitued inquarto 
by Paviur in 1600 — one anonymously, and 
the other with the name of Shakespeare on 
the title-page, a very fraudulent device. 

In the wimptwition of the fnllowing plays, 
none of themextant, llathway is r>iuorted tt> 
have had a slmre; 1. 'The Life of Arthur, 
King of England,' acted by the lord admiral'i* 
sennnts in Henslowe's theatre in 1598, and 

uthor 20«. 

ted in 1598 
(an interlude with this title, ' played by her 
nnaiestys players,* was licensed lor publication 
23 May 159o,ftnd' a famous history,' with thi» 
title, ttlflo played by ' her majesty's players,' 
was similarly licensed 31 Mareh 1509-1000, 
but no printed copy is known). 3. 'Owen 
Tudor ' (wit hWilsoii.Mundoy, and Drayton), 
for which thev received on account 4/. in 
Junuory 15f>9 (VA. p. I6S). 4. ' Hannibal and 
Scipio' (with William Knnkinsj, in January 
ItiUO (iff. pp. 97, 174, 175). 5. An unnamed 
play(withRankia3)inJaiiiiarj' R>00, in whicli 
ocogan,or Scoggin, and Skelton (a Jester and 
jester^poet of the reign of Henry Vlll) were 
characters {id. p. 175>. 6. 'Tlie Fayre Con- 
stance of Rome' (with Munday, Drayton, and 
Dekkcr), which was completed on 14 June 
10(X) (i*&. p. 171). A week later the four poets 
were busy on a second part of the same drama 
(I'd. p. 172). 7. 'The Conquest of Spain by 
John of Oaunt,*a play belonging to the spring 
of D>0] {with Day and WUliam Ilaughton) 
(cf. Alleyn Papers, Shakefpeare Soc., p. 25). 
8. *The Sixe Clothyers of the West '< with. 
llathway, Wcntworth Smith, and Haugh- 
ton), in May or June 1601. A second part 
waa acted in the same year. 9. ' Too Glood 
to be True, or the Poor Northern .Man,' a piece 
founded upon the old ballad reprinted by the 
Percy S'K'iety in 1841 (with Henry Cbettle 
and Went worth Smith) in 1001 (Aliryn 
Ptiftrri; p. 25). 10. * As Merry as Moy be ' 
(with Wentwortli Smith and Day), acted in 
1602. 11.' The IJlack Doff of Newgnlo' (with 
Dav, Smith, and ' the other poet '), actc<i in 
D3(52. A second part was produced in the 
same year. 12. * The Boaat of Rillingsgate * 
(with'Day), acted in 1602. 13, 'The 
tunate General : a French History,' acted in 
1002. 14. 'The UnfortuiuitcOenerar (with 
Day, Smith, and * the other piX't '), acted 
enrlv in UiO;*i. Hathway has vertcs before- 
J. Bodonham's ' Belveddre,' 1600. 




[llnDter'liChonu Vatam, t. 5S» (Addit. MS. 
tl449l): Baker*! Biog. Dnm. 1812; HalUwells 
Diet, of OW Plftja; HewIowe'B DUiT (8hafc»- 
•pean Soc.) ; F. O. Flm/a AanaU of Uie Staga.] 

HATSBLI^ Sib HENKY a64l-1714), 
judfte, was son of Kenrj Hatflell of Sditeftm, 
in the parish of PI jmpton St. Mwy, Dbtot- 
chire, an active roundnetd, who was M.P. fiw 
JK-vonsUire in the parliaments of 16M and 
366ti, and for Plvmpton in that of 1668. 
IIenr>' Hatsell the yoanger was bom in 
March 1011, and educated at Exeter College, 
Oxfonl, where he graduated B.A. on 4 Febu 
16G8-9. He entered the Middle Temple in 
the following year, was called to the oar in 
16(37, and to the degree of seijeant-at-law in 
May 1089, and in Novemberl697 was created 
a baron of the exchequer, and knighted. 
lie tried Spencer Cowper [q. v.], afterwards 
justice of tne common pleas, on the charge oi 
murdering Sarah Stout in 1699. His patent 
was renewed on the accession of Anne, but 
shortly afterwards (9 June 1702) he was 
Kmoved. Ho died in April 1714. Hatsell 
married Judith, daughter of Josiah Bateman, 
merchant, of London,and relict of Sir Richard 
Shirley, bart., of Preston, Sussex. His eon, 
llenryld. 1703), wasabencher of the Middle 

[Gftnt. Mag. 1840. ii. 2; Hist. HSS. Comm. 
ard liep. 266 a. 7th Rep. 117 a. 691 A; BwL 
Hint. iii. 1429, H71». 1682; Wynnc'n Serjeant- 
nt-lAw ; Luttroll's Rol. n( Htato Affairs, it. 309, 
V. 181 ; Lonl Rnymond's Itop. p. 260; Berry's 
CoiinlyOeDfBiilugiua.Huwtpx, p. 172; Burke's Ex- 
tinct llnronetnf^, tit. * Sliirlev ; ' Catof Oxf. Gra- 
duiites ; Kom'h Lives of the Judges.] J. M. R. 

HATSELL, JOHN (174;J-18i.'0), clerk of 
the House of Commons, bom in 1743, was 
educated at Queens' CoUego, Cambridge, and 
afttirwards studied law in the Middle Temple, 
of which society he became senior bencher. 
Ho was clerk assistant in the House of Com- 
mons at the close of the reign of George II, 
and became chief clerk in 1708. Lord Col- 
chester knew him well, and acknowledged 
him 1 be the best authority on parliamentary 
procedure. Hatsell retired on 11 July 1707 
witii the thanks of the house. Ho died at 
Ttlarden Park, near Oodstone, Surrey, ou 
15 Oct. 1820, and was buried in the Temple 

Ho was the author of : 1. 'A Collection of 
Cases of Privilege of Parliament, from the 
earliest records to 1628,' London, 1776, 4to. 
In the British Museum there is a copy with 
copious manuscript notes by Francis Har- 
ffrave. 2. ' Precedents of Proceedings in the 
IIouso of Commons, under separate titles ; 
with observations,' 4 vols. London, 1781| 4to; 

•eeood dBLl78»-«6;tlM«lit.l79S; «miA 
Md ben «ait^ with mUtiam W QtA» 
Ahbot [q. T.;^ Lmd CaltfceilLr, 18ia 

{QmL ]Is» imB, ft. & STI; Km. Sfat rf 
Liriw A^faBB. fL 14t: I«mdsAfiU.KB. 
(Bola)^ti.l011 : CBlA iiitir'aPiasy,] IC. 

phynenn aad wurtij to £dw»dTy,«ii 
one of thooriginri ■rfcniaiii qf KMrtOilljjift 
OHnhridge.nniitedijHMrr'Vf « UKk 
1440 (Coom, ..i— ft qfChMiri^r. L 1»; 
et Mtt. RirL r. 87). a» g wd MteJ ss a 
doctor of mwdirinff, Mid w»<»a of ths|ty- 
aidans i^ipoiatad ost 6 Apdl 1464 to attsM 
the Idiw pfofaMioBdlT(RnBa, AAra^orii. 
ed. xL SO), •ad oa a Sor.wm iiilii Jin yr 
of the water of Foaae^ witk ML s dsj (dk il 
360). He wia fiiwn iul otl team tha «et cf n- 
■nmption paand m mM feUovuif^ tcv,wmi 
he is deHsibed m ' Doctor in Ifodi^DS nd 
Kuiucion sworn far tlie mnfte of oar penoB,' 
and is stated to ham 40L yenlj ( Asf. JM 
T. 314). On the ■waiim of^Edwvd IV 
he transferred hie Mrrieaa to that monndi, 
and in 1464 was exempted ttam an aetol 
resumption, bnnff then <uie of the roTil p^ 
aictans (A. t. 629); he eleo beoune oo» of 
the royal secretaries— et lee£, then is litds 
doubt that it wis the same William Hstts- 
clyffe — and on 1 Sept. 1404 was sent to tieat 
with Francis, duke of Brittany, fm a tmee 
(Fcederoj zi. 581) ; on 5 Jan. 1468 he wu 
engaged in the n^otiations far the marriage 
of the king's sister, Margaret, to Gharies the 
Bold {ib. xi. 699) ; and later in the year he is 
again mentioned as one of the royalinysicisns 
(^. xL 636). Bnrii^f the short restontioa 
of Henrjr VI in October 1470 Hatteclyffe was 
taken prisoner by the Lancastrians, and was 
in gome danger of being put to death {ParttM 
Letters, ii. 412). On Edward's return he 
was restored to his former position, and wss 
also made master of requests and a royal 
councillor; he was employed in the n^o- 
tiations for an alliance with James IH of 
Scotland in August 1471 {Fcederay zi. 717), 
for commercial intercourse w^ith Bufvundr 
in March 1472 (ib. xi. 738), and with the 
German Hanse in December 1472 (A. xl 
765). A paper of instructions, giren to him 
when going to Utrecht as amba^ador to the 
Haiue, is mentioned by Bernard in the * Cata- 
logus MSS. Anglife ' (mSS, Yelvereon, p. 105, 
Ko. 5407). In 1473 he once more received 
exemption from an act of resumption (Sot. 
Pari. vi. 92), and in March was again nego- 
tiating with Burgundy at Brussels (Bcuton 
Lettern, iii. 88). In December 1474 he went 
to treat with the Emperor Frederick for an 
alliance against Louis XI, and in July 1476 
was ambassador to Christiem of Denmark 

rA'rtT, xi. ft34. xii. 29>. Tie attended Ed- 
iriinl IV to Fnuice in 1475 (Nicolas. Pn»r. 
Vrivp Vouncii^y'i. Preface, p. cxi>. Jlftite- 
«hrf» retained bis officuof wcretarytill 1480, 
WMn a coadjutor was f^ivi^n him on account 
of his ag« ; he died later in thn same vcftr 
\ih. Ti. p. crii). Acconling to Tanner (tome 
tnedtc-iLl prescriptiona of his were preaerred 
at Wnrsloy. 
^^Iitttedvire WHS jmssibly a relative of 
^^ther WiLLi\M IUttix'LYFFB {Jl. 1500), 
who was appointed under-trejisurer of Ire- 
land on '-(1 April 14S)5, and wim in 14f>7-rt 
was on*> of the cnmmiiiHinners appointed to 
pardon Worbeck'a adherents in the western 
couittic'i^ (^Fa-iiera, xii. tl9li ; Lettm and Pa- 
pt-r* Uhi»iraHt^ of liftf/iui of Richard III and 
Henrif I'//, ii. 'UVi, 37r>). Ili<t occountii in 
the fomKT capacity have lw>en print^sl (ih. 
ti. ;iVt7-;ll8y lie married Isiibel, daughter 
of A^ea Paston, and had issue {PoMtou Ltt- 
ier»t iii. 471). A John liatteolyfte served 
under him in IreUad as clerk of the ord- 

[Uymer's FiBilera, ori^infil edit. ; Tunncr't 
Bibl. Brit. Qt Hib. p. d»4; I'lLoUin Leltent, ed. 
Gainla«r. .Some reference* to documents cm- 
cect«d vith Hnt t«clyfF**'H dipIomAtic missiuHA will 
bo found in PAlgrarA'e Aotient. Kalendara and 
Foblic Iijtentorios, iii. U, 17. 23; other uuthy- 
rities as quiLad.] C. L. K. 

HATTON". [See also FiycH-HAiros.] 

HATTON, .Sir (.'HIUST0PI[F,U (1540- 
\h\)\ ), b'rd rhonwllor, second son of William 
Hat Ton of 1 (oldenbv, Nort harapt onahire, who 
died in \7i\'^, by Alice, daughter of Lawrence 
•Saunders of 1 larrinf^ton in the same county, 
■wa* bom at Holdenby in 1540. The family 
va3 old, ond claimed, though on doubtful 
evidence, to be of Norman lineojrc. Ilatton 
wa« entered at St. Mary Hall, Oxford, pro- 
bably about 15£5, OS a gentleman-commoner. 
He took no degree, and in November 1559 
was admitted to the society of the Inner 
Temple, wh»!re,accoTdingtoFulIer( U'orthie^, 
'Northamptonshire'), ho ' mther took a iMiit 
than a meal' of le^l study. There is no 
rec-ord of his call to the bur, but the rejfister 
was not then exactly kept (B\k>:b, iVurM- 
mnptomhire^ i. I9tl ; Obhbbod, Vhe*hiri, ed. 
IldabT, iii. 230 ; Wood, FasH O.ron. i. 582). 
At thclnncr Temple rcralfl at Christmas 1501 , 
when a splendid masque was performed, in 
which Lord Kobert^em'anl& Earl of 
l,eiceffter, figured as ' Palaphilos, Prince of 
8ophie,High Constable Marshal of theKnights 
Templars,' (fatton playeii the part of master 
of the game ( Dugdale, Oriy. pp. 150 etse^.) 
Tall, liand.-«ome, and t hn>ughout his lifu a very 
f^raceful dancer, he attracttid the attention of 

the queen at a subsequent masque at court, 
and became one of her gentlemen iH^nttioners 
in June 15«U (Camdks, Ann. Eliz. ed. 1037, 
ii. J-'i; XArxTox, Fragnifnta lietjalia, '11 ^ 
FcLtEH, H or//ii>ji,*Norlhamptoushire;' Cai, 
.State Papers, Dora. 1547-80, p. 242V On 
Sunday, 11 Nov. ISG-ltOndihe two following 
days he displayed his prowess in a tourney 
held before the queen at Westminster, ia 
honour of the marriiige of Ambrose Dudler, 
earl of W'nrwick, with Lady Anne Russell, 
and he jnuntiH] again before the queen at the 
same place in Slay 1571 (Stetpe, Chekt^ p. 
ia;j; }i\cuQi^, Pn»ge.Eliz.\.-SiG). Elixabeth 
gave him in 15>Fj5the abbey and demesne lands 
ofSulbv,nnminally in exchange for his manor 
of Holdenby, which, however, wasat rhe^amo 
time leased tohimforfortyyears.and wostwo 
years later reconveyed to him in fee; she ap- 
pointed him(2yJuly 15fl8) keeperof her parka 
nt KIthnm in Kent and Home in Surrey; 
tihe grunted him the reversion of the otiictt 
of (pieeifs remembrancer in the exchu<|uer 
( 1571>,and estates in Yorkahire.Dorsetshire, 
Ilerofordahire, the reversion of thu monas- 
tery De Pratis in Leicestershire, the steward- 
ship of the manors of Weudlingborough in 
Northamptonshire, and the wardship of three 
minora (1571-2). She also made huu one of 
the gentlemen of her privy chamber, though 
at what date is uncertain, and captain of her 
bodygiiani (1572). It wha the custom for 
the courtiers to make the qut^-n new-year's 
]irt>sentfl, for which they rweived in return 
gifts of silver plate varying from fifty to two 
hundred ounces in weight. Ilatton, however, 
always received four hundred ounces' weighc 
of tfiis plate. 

Hutton's relations with the queen wera 
very intimate. When ho fidl serioosly iU 
in 157!^, she visited him daily, was pensiTO 
when he left for Spa to recover his health, 
and sent her own physician, Julio, with him 
( IIakkr, Aor/Anwi/>^onj»A/rf, i. 195; Stkypb, 
AnnAoX.<^.3;i7: Strype, Smith.y. 
140 ; LoDciE, Iltugtr. ii. 101 ; NirnoL.i, fnyr. 
Eliz. \. 295; Nicor^.i, pp. 5-8). His letters to 
her while on this journey are written in a veir 
citravagiint style ; c.g". * My spirit, I feel, 
ogrecth with my body and life that to ser\*o 
you is a heaven, but to lack you is more than 
hell's torment unto them. . . . Would God I 
were with you but for one hour. My wita 
are overwrought with thoughts. I find my- 
self amaxed. Bear with me, my most dear 
sweet lady. Passion ovcrcomet Ii me. I can 
write no more. Lovo me, for I love you.* 
He signs himself her ' mfwt happy bondman, 
Lyddes.* She also called him her ' mutton,' 
her ' bellwether,* her 'pecora campi.' Malig- 
nant gossip said that lie was her paramour, 



and the Qiipenof Scots, in a letter written to 
Klizubeth from Sln?fli'.*ld in November 1'jH4, 
ruundly tuxos her wiib the fact. Mnry'n iii- 
formatiou was, however, derived only from 
Lady Shrewsbury, snd there is no substan- 
tiol'gmund for supposing that it was accu- 
rate (SrBTPB, fol. Parker, it. 35tJ; NlCoi*A», 
pp. 13-30,^75 ; I^banokk, LettrM de Marie 
Stwjrf, vi. 5I» 5^ ; Fkoitdb, UUtvry of Eng- 
land, si. ti-S). Ilatton wafl probably in Lon- 
don in October 1573, when Hawkins, the wle- 
bnt«d seaman, was tniataken for him, and 
atabbod in the etreet byonfi Burchet.a puri- 
tan fanatic, who bad vowml to take Uatlon's 
life as an 'enemy ui the ffoapel' Eliubeth 
was banlly niatralned from issuing o cnrarais- 
sion to try Burchet by martini law. In \hlo 
Klizabelh settled on IlnttAjn an nniuitty of 
400/m and Rave him Corfe Ca^jtN- in Dor- 
fwlshire. The Bishop of Kly bad granted 
Ilatton a lease of Kly Place ior Iwenty-ono 
years. Hatton co\'oted th" feo-simjile, and 
persuaded Kliwibeth to write the bUhop a 
letter reqnirinff hira tii alienate it, and, ac- 
cording to the traditional but probably un- 
authentic version, threatening to 'unfrock* 
him if lie did not. The bishop expostulated 
in his best latinity, but a k'lter trom I-Kird 
North intimotiiip that the queuu meant 
exactly what t^he said bruui^ht htm to reasoa 
(20 Nov. 1570). lu lo77 the house was 
further secured toUatton byroyal grant. In 
July lo78 Hatton attended the queen on her 
progress to Audloy End, CL>li'bnitt>d by Cia- 
briel Harvoy in his ' \aipt, vel < imt ulat io Val- 
dtnenitis/ tlie fourth book of which is dedi- 
cated to the Earl of Oxford, Hatton, and Sir 
Philip Sidney. About the same time Hut ton 
obtained several fresh grants of land, and on 
11 Nov. be was appointed vice-K^hamberlain 
of the queen's household, with a seat in the 
privv council. On I Dec. he woa knighted 
at Windsor (SthtI'k, Parker, fol. ii. 449; 
BTBtPB, Ann. fol. ii. pt. i. 288, a38, ;tBO, 
365, pt. it. 658; Nrciious. Pr(}gr, Etiz. ii. 110, 
iti. 4l; Dr. Deb, /JtV/ry, Camd. Soc,, p. 4; 
NiooLi.9, pp. y<l, 3H). 

Hat ton repre*ente<l Iligham ForrtTS in par- 
liament in 1571, and Xortlmmptonmhiro in tho 
following year. At fir.^t be was a sileut mem- 
ber, but gradually took an important part in 
polities. Ilewasforward in the prosecution 
i»f .Stubbos, the author of a bwk against the 

Iirnjected marriage of the queen with the 
)uke of Anjou. In l/>80 he was appointed 
keeper of the manor of Pleasaunce in Kent, 
and one of the commissionBra for the increase 
and breed of horses, andhe was one of thecom- 
missioners appointed in April ir>8l to treat 
with the envoys from the kmg of France con- 
ooming the French match. Up Co this time 

he had seemetl to favour the pnsject, but < 
theappcaraneeof tbednkeboth he and WaJ 
inghnm 'fretted,' say.-! Camden, 'as if ihd" 

aut'en.the realm, and rfligion were now un- 
one : ' and when Elixabetb at On^n wich gart? 
th*« duke (±2 Nov.) a ring in the presence 
of Mauvissicrc, ilatton came to her and wii 
tears in his eyes besought her to reflect iXj 
COL4S, pp. 4*a ft seq., 139-4J, 167. 2\'2i 
Camden, Ann, Eli:., ed. 1616, i. 320-:^ ; Co. 
State Papers, horn. 1547-J^,p.6e5: Fuoitde^ 
//M^ o/Em/laiui, xi. ■M6-.54). Sir Walter 
tialeigh waji at Uiis time rifling into favour 
with the queen, and Hatton saw fit to fx-^ 
hibit jealousy uf him, sending her (l«82]l 
some foolish tokens and a reproachful tetter^ 
Afull oGCountofthts curious episode is givuB 
in Sir Nicholas Harris Nicolas's 'Life all 
Hatton,' Hatton was returned to parlia*! 
ment for Northnrnpton^hire in 1581, and r 
t-ainedtheseatat theelpction of K>*C. Havix 
lost t be queen'afavourhe withdrew from coiif 
early in ir>84, aud sulked at Holdenby urtiii 
Elizabeth condescended to writa him twg 
letters desiring his return. Hu had earl] 
become the recognised mouthpiece of th4 
queen in the House of Commons. In thifl 
capacity he communicated to the house 
\2 March 1575 l-^iizabeth's desire for the ro- 
Ittaae of Peter AVentwortb, who hud becn-^ 
committed to tlie Tow»*r for a Hjieech in d«*- 
fance of free speech, and on 24 Jan. loSl her 
disapproval nf an ' apparent contempt ' com- 
mitted by the houKH in appniiitinga public 
fast to be hold at the Temple Church with-j 
out taking her pleasure {Pari. Hist. i. 80^| 
81:2). Ou the passing of th*.> bill againsb 
Jesuits and seminary priests ('2\ Dec. 1584)2 
Hatton read a prayer for the preservation 
ber majesty's person fi-om theirmachinationa 
He also took a k-adiug part in the prosecu- 
tion of Parry, the only member who ventur 
to oppose this hill, who confessed having beeal 
long engaged in plots against the queen, andl 
was executed in Palace Yard on 2 March K>^ ^\ 
lo8o(Nicoi.AS,p.I08; Cobbett, State Trials, 
\. 1090-1111). Hu was a member of botli 
thu comniis&iuu^ which in September 1580 h 
tried Anthony Bnbington [q. v.] and othersH 
for their consjnracy in favour of MnryQutH'B^ 
of Scota, andahowed much animation during 
the proceedings. 'Is this,'hesaid toBulUrd, 
• tliv reliffio Caiholica ? nny, rather it is dia- 
bolicft' ((6. Il:i7-40V He was also one of 
the Fothmngoy commi.ssion which tried the 
Queen nf Scots in the foHowinj; Ocltiber, ojid 
it was ho who persuaded her m her own in- 
terest to submit to the juriwiiclion of the 
court (Cajidek, Ann, Eltz., ed. IU15, i. 420), ' 

Aft«r sentenco had been pronounced 
(5 Nov.) he hurried to London, and in tba 




fouae of Commonji rltliitt*(l on * the liomblt!) 
nnd wieke<! practices' of 'the Qiteeiidf Scots 
► cn!!ed,* concluding with thtrtiniuous words 
^Tie pereiit I.init-l, pt.'rpal Absalom.' Tbe 
U<iuiM< adjoiiniiMl, and next duy rotcd for a 
ttitioti To tlitquef-n fortheexpcution of tin* 
Biitenct;. -Vfier tbe pn'.st*ntiition of ttn* |»o- 
lition Ilattonacqimitited tbe liou5p( 14 Nov.) 
riththedosirvof ElizaWth that Mary miijbt 
»]wirL>d if it could Ihi done witb 8Bf.*ly, 
Hpun which the hoii8(« volerl in tliu nejialivH. 
""atfi'tber with Williiini l)A\ison ( I.>ll y- 
|l)08) [q. v.j hncomlitcK'd (.lununry l.jHtt-D 
li*; i*xtiniinntinn of Moody, a. itiipnoscd o^niit 
bf thti Fri'nch ambuaaador in u plot to a^^a- 
rinnte the qnt-en (Par/. Hist. i. 830, 843; 
^rpRDls. State PajMTii, pp. 578-83). Inn 
Bnj? flpLveb in the House of Commons on 
fci Ffb. 158'* 7 Ilnttim t.>x|>lBined tlie immi- 
nent p*'ril of Spauiiili iuvusioD, nnd PxtoUed 
' C'lurntre of tbequefn. It wiisto Hatton, 
: m«M.t iikfly fo know theqiuvn'H rual mind, 
lint Dnvi^'U tvniliibMl bin doubts aa to thu 
npricty of despatcliinp the wormnt for tlii< 
xecution ofllioQiii_-i<iiof S^'ol.*'. lltitliui hail 
I doubt on the mattiLT, and took Pnvisou to 
Hv c'loneil that bis scruples mig'bl he ns 
onve'l, and the warrant was despatched arr- 
nrdtuply. lie afterwards interrofrated Uavi- 
Dn in the Tower ( /Vr/. JlUf. i. ?i7-50; 
"Nicor.AS^ I>p. 00-7; Lrttrm, 2nd twr. 
iii. 111). The quef n jfranled to Hjittoii in 
itfTuitt lfW2 ibt? manor of Pnrva Weldon 
Northamptonshire, and estates in other 
iiiitit^, in 15Ho iho kiMMi*>rshij) of the fore.^t 
[fockin^liAm and tlip Ifile of rurbfpk, and 
16>r the dL»m("*ni>of N'uscby in Xort!iam]j- 
ifaire. He also obtained, appnrentlv about 
le aame time, a ^ant of part of somu (>slat'-.s 
hich had Kdoni^d to Irish rebeU iu tbe 
innty of Wuterford ( Nuxn.AH.p. 4oy ; JItMf. 
MSS. Cumm.Hrtl Kt-p. .\pp. 4H). (►tbtrpriint? 
tn Ilnlton from the crown included (be sitis 
of four liiMoIvt'd ranua'fteries. 

On 'Jtt April ir»S7 the queen appointed 

Hatton lord chancellor, delivering thi> f^a\ In 

him personally at tho archicpiiDcopal puloce 

,t Cmyd'tn, and on 3 Mnvhe took the oaths 

" office, ridinff fn>m Kly Hoii.*etoM't«<tmin- 

er for that purpose increal .^rato. He was 

led by forty of his retaitiera in bluo 

very wenrinp pohl cliQintt, pnrt of the corp-* 

"p'ntlenifn p4-n-'*ioner'JAnd ntlierpentlenun 

the C'»urt, and iillended by theoHlcersand 

ks of thp ch»nc*»rv. Burgbl'-y nide on 

»9 Tifirbt hand, and LeWitleruu \i\n leff (Nr- 

Fj*f», p. 463; (ioM».'*DOBnrfiii, Jtr/iort'i.M. 

|BP2. p. -Jfl; Smw, An>uiI->, ed. lOI.'i. p. 741 ). 

i* oppoinlmi'nt occn/iioned much tturpri»e ' 

,d fwjtne indi^ruation in the legal proffs-sion, 

bit knowledge of law was lupp^scd to be ^ 


' gligfit, aad fiome '[tullcn ^orjeaiitt' ev*n re>- 
fiijsetl to plead Iwfore liim. Hi* deer*** bare 
not been ppesened. Camden, however, 8a}-» 
that * quod e.\ juris ttoifuiia drfuit jcquitaio 
supnlen^ ftlnduit.' He "nnf much a.«i<i>te(] 

' liv hill frii'itd Sir UicbanI Swale, and had 

! four ma.4teni in cbnncerv to ^it with him as 
nftse-uiors (CAMnrx, Attn. ihI. 1M15, i. 47^'!; 
1'ci.LEH, irorM/M,'Xorth*niplon«hire;'J5{^.*r- 
ftjii Pa{tfrf, Camd. S<h'., p. l-*o*. A speerh 
delivered by Hatton on mieasioM of thy call 

I of a certain barrister named Clerke to thw 
deRTee of serjeant-at-lnw (1*V'*7) shows that 
if lie had not had much experinnce ns n pnu?- 
titioncr, he could give gooil advice to those 
who had (CAMi-HKiiL, C^urfthr^, ii. 164)1. 

' A specimenof bishnmouri--4R:iven in Bacuu'ti 
' .\pnpbthe^n)5,' 74 (.'il), • In clinncery one 
tinif', when tbe counsel of thepiiriieH set forth 
the boundarieH uf the land inqueftlittn by tho 

I dot, and the countiel of one pnrt said, "Wtt 
ie on ihiit »ide, my I>>ril:"aitd tho counsel 
of the other purt cnid," We lie on this side; " 
tlie Lord-chancellor Hatton stood tip nnd 
(laid : " If you lie on both sides, whom will 
vou have mo to believe i^*" Tbe only one of 
)lattou's judgments which is preserved ix 
that in tbeStiir-cbnmbercnse of Sir Uichard 
Kniffhtley.deputy-lientennnt for Northamp- 
tonshire, who wa.-* linetl ^,(K)0/. forjierraittinp 
tbe prinlinu of books (Conni-rrr, 
Staff TrhU, \. lL>fW-71). Oni'4April 1588 
Hatton was invepieU with tbe order of tlm 
iJarter; IiIj* in-itnllaiion fullowed on :i-l Muy. 
li. wiiA Iftrcrly through Hatton's ioHuenc** 
that I'!lizal>i-ihbadubftndon)nl herrajibsebeniu 
of nmkin(f Leicester lord-lieutoimnl of tho 
rualm in lo87. This, however, did not din- 
liirb hie relations with Leicester, with whom 
be bad lonff Iwen on terms of close friendship, 
tind who had made him ouo of tbe over* 
seerc of luM will. (In the death of I^eiceater 
(UO Si'iit. ir»»a} Hatton succeeded him as 
chancellor of the univerpily of OxfonI(.CA«- 
DKK. -<««. «>d. lOIo, i. 4W: Ni('oi,.\p. H'mt, 
of Knighthood, ii.Cliron. Li^t ; Sijdnry Pttprrn, 
vol.i. pt. i. p.74i WooUj/^fMli'O.cuM.ed. liliss, 
i. iMl). 

Ilntton openod the procpi*dinf];4 in parlia- 
ment in 158S-9 with nlong^ ;pei>cb, in which, 
after celebrntiriB' tbe tb^truetion of the .\r- 
mada, he asked for « liberal »iipply for tbe 
nnvy (Pnrl. Jfisf. i. 853). In tbf fnllowinjif 
.lune Hat ton's nephew, f*ir Wdhnm New- 
port, j<nn of bit* su-tter Dorothy, by her hu»- 
Imnd, John Newport, was miirrted at Htd- 
denby lo Elizabeth, dtu^fbler of Krancis 
ItHwdy [q. v.], justice of the kint^'ft Ik'uch. 
At the festivities which followetl Hatton 
frnily divested himstdf of his gown, nnd, 
placing it in his chair with 'Lie thou there, 



■It Wok- 

tjll T 

t)lhl ■! ,.. 

tr.u, il-iUttw' 

tflf i{rtt/n'i/ '/ 

fc47t'^ A* II 

MiniiiMrt. oDspM THb tW <Brt 

nm^tA tB tliv faMiw 
• 1 b>' («rav is luf 

"'hmpid to tbc lovd 


' I , JIf rM0crv <|^ 
'jO; NlCOLAA. 

f*^ fff •ecrrtlj 
>. >t u rari/Mu 

f/> rilM^rvf flint tuf eiirtofl hiniftfrlf on bi4t&lf 
of IJ)U1 [(!.%.], (Iitj poritiin m\nmXfT,r\\MrfTA 
with plrHtiti^utrninii tlc'tiuD'uVIifr In liJdl. 
In Iriifli lir BpfNtar* lo liavtifuvounKl neither 
ufltuit'ilrt'iui' purl ill. but i» luve licldtAact, 
in r«m'lrn** wuriU, ' in n-li(fi'jnU nsMi noo 
urvii'liiiu. HUM M-raiMliiiii.' ile tlie<l st £1^ 
IhyUAu I4M '^i Ni;v. I'V.i] uf • diklwlw, Dgjm^ 
vnli'tl, it ii «Hi<l, Ifv vt'Xfttion it ilieeMctJon 
}tj III*' 'jiii**-t( of iNiymmt of a lorfrc oum of 
inoitry, rf*prr**i'iil mff nrroara «if i^mthn and 
HMl-lVnitii f'lr wliirli |i« wm »ciN>untBUe 
(Hriiirj'K. IVAiff/i/t, ii. tCi Cammix, Ann. 
I'd. IOIfi,ii.4'I: Ki'm.kk, HVMiM.'NorthHini^- 
lonnliin**). He wii» lntriiKl nn HI Iltr, in St, 
Pfturi l'Btlu>dnil, lM'tw»«_*n III" Iwly chap**! 
and t|in«oijlli ai«tln, wtu*r«anoln^>ml<^nionu- 
iDimt wo* TilftCi;'*! by bi» n^'phew, Sir WilUnm 
llntron. Tim c<}t\>m> wan prcccrlfd to the 
fl[m\r by oil'? hiindrt'd poor ]»<'onb' in gownn 
iiml ru|i8pr<ividtfl fiirtlii'm bv tnt* iiXi*ciitont, 
and fol|(iW(>(l Itv fuur btintln-fl fMMillHinen nnd 
yei»muii, th*' binl* nf tbi> crtiineil, a»»d fipJiiy 
(fi-nrlonu-n pcimiont'W (Sn>w, Ann.cil. 1(115, 

it. 7(W; ht'UUAI.C, JlUt. of St. I^tuTM, Bd. 
•:ni«,pp..'i:i, WV). 

Hal ton bad brH.<n a frii^nd and to some ex- 
tent a pntmn of men of Ifttere, in particu- 
lar of Hiwnwr, wlin (fare biro a, cnpy of the 
' I''a«rv Cjuwii,' witb adtnlicnlury sonnol ((i«? 
SpKSi*i:u, I(VA*,e<!fiHun,i,7);ufTboiii»a 
( 'liurcbyarrl, who di^diouled to him hiM nc- 
romit of tl«« rccoplion of lliu qut'en by the 
mayor and corporation of liristol (14 Aiijf. 
1571), his 'CbipjM!*' and hit* 'Choiso' (Nl- 
(llftlJi, Pmf/r. Eiiz. i. JiOS); and of Cbriptopber 
Ocliland, who in bis ' V.l^itjvaft^M (158i') dt^ 
HcrtlH-H bira as ' Spli>ndidu!4 llatton,' and in 
bin ' Klienbetbeift* (1589) laiidii him for his 
part in tbt« deifHilinn of Babiiifrton's oonapi- 
rnry. Aftrr bis denlli appt-un'^i 'A f'om- 
nirmorfttiiiii nf ibt* Life and lU'ntb of Sir 
(tf Fncltind, with an E]>i8t1c dedicatory to 
Sir WiUiain Hatton,' by .T. riiilijw, London, 
IfiOl (n poom mor*! puloffistic than mmtori- 
nn«, ^'printed for tlie TSoxbiirirbp Club In 'A 
Lnmporl (Jiirlnnd.' lR8t); * Tht* Maiden's 
Dream npnn tin' hi-nthnf the HiffhtrTonoiir- 
able Sir Christopher llatton, Knigbtr late 




ftf r^KJMil.' bf ftobert 
^m, 191. 4to: * A L«snaUbt« 
tte BfeKfe^af tlv K%te ItoKHir- 
«Ub SgC1hii«i|lM llrftiw.' kx^ "UmAaa, 
\m\ M«*» md QwiMiu k« Mr. i. Itit. 

«f raw itTitiwI *3faii»fc!Hii%iBi I ,' nco- 
ikaed hf W«^ • Ithaa Oxn^' BUaa, L 
563. Tbc9«ttalMafc^f^Yitdbededag7or 
bim in 'PtinSBtofc; v tfe Sltsaet LaBvfitl 
and Cnlnrfii tajri^ c£ the FkmoI « Con- 
■wiahfc fiM< ^ frTTotowi anJ feottth 
C uui a aUu cirfttoAjo.' h? W.C. (WiUiuB 
Clrrit«t.CnbEi4E«.l»a. RcdMomar^ 
rWd, aad left ■» vilL Ha outca W had 
Mttlcd brdacdmtail aalrfalfiB UaMfheir, 
Sr WiHtaiB XcvporlfABd thea OB kii Goittiii, 
Sir Chrifliorkcr Btfuo. SrWtlluMlCc — 
port, who mmmbI tW ■■■• of HanoB, I 
crcded to tW wM«s, b«i £e4 vitkmt i 
ifme <m 13 Muck ia«S^. SrA^aUaall 
tuccnsor, Sir Chrirtnrihr r Itilton, w&s btber^ 
of C'hrt*toph«r,bara«xi&tloaof Kirfay rq.v.] 

jlatton wrote tbe foaztb actoftlwi 
of ' Tancn^ nnd Oierannd/peifuiiivd I 
tbpqiir>«>nat tbelnnrrTenMeia 13(18 (J 
Tox, /fiW. of Pnetry^ iii. 305). Hi» nam^ 
ajiwars on the tiile-p«^ of a little booV en- 
tittcd'ATreatisecDncemiiigStatutesorAc ™ 
of L^arliament, and the Expantion the 
London, 1677, l:;!mo, but there ij no evid^no 
external or int^rmal br which tbt* autbt* nticit; 
of the work, which is a very ali^i 
tion.can Iwdetennined. Uiseor 
iiortioiut of which had preTiou^ly b^n p 
in Miirdin'd 'Stale Papers' and Wright 
' QihH>n Klizabeth and her Timeit,' Loudoa 
IftiS, was puhliAht^ in its entinsty by 
Ntebohia llnrrifi Nicolas in his elabo 
' Memoirs of] latton.' London. 1847, to whta 
is prefixed a line eugru\ingof bia portrait 1 

[Nicolas '« Memoir : Foss's Livrs of tlit 
Juages ; autborities cit«d.] J. H. B. 

HATTON. CIIRlftTOPTlER. fit^t I^b 
IIattos ( 1 tK)6 ?- 1 070). Ijom arcortlinp toson 
authorities in December ltH>J, bur bapti.H 
nr Ikrkinp, Eswx, on 1 1 July 160.1 ( Lys<»sa 
Environn, ir. 101 ), woa the eldest 9uniriii(| 
son of Sir Christopher Hatton. K.B. (li 
IHIJI), sometime of Clav Uall. BarkinR. and 
afterwards of Kirby, NonhnnipMinj-bire, 
cousin (if yir Christopher Hatton fq. v.], lor 
cbanivllor. liiri mother wajt Alice, eldes|| 
daufihif r iif Thomoi* Fansbawe of Dronfii:'!^ 
Ili'rbyehlre, and of Ware P«rk, Herrfordshir 
(Ci,UTTKHnicK,Xffr//<;rrfMii'e, iii. 2041. Hi 
was educat«l nt Jesus CoUejre, Cambridg 
ondcTfitted K.n.nttheooronntionofCJImrlesl 
on 21\*b. 1620 (Mbicalfe, Bwk ^ KniifhU, ' 



Feima and of the maman at Wurington, 
IzcbestCT, RinMf , mad Wwwfa NortltMip- 
tombire. He vu ratwned 3LF. for Bifffiui 
Femra to the hsn^ ■wtieiewit to l&IO, hot 
WW itrpovled as Awnlwl lo nt Id October 
IWo. After the cnitbrwk rf ihe cjtU ww 
he joined tfap Idtr? at Oxford, aad wu there 
rre«i«d D.C.L. m N'orember 1643 (Wood. 
jFa*(i Otot». *a. Bli», ii. 41 k Cluvnd«i 
!ak» of bim at this ttsw as * a person ofgrcftt 
intation, which in a few rt^rt h<» fovad a 
iT ntt^rlT to !o*e' {Hitt.' lifM/^ ri. 386>. 
Dorinff UU.'i h^ was made keeper of Ohiey 
Park, ItuckingfaamBhtre, and cm 3^ Jalr of 
~ Llyeor wasrateed to the pwirae* with the 
le of Baron Ilatton of K irbr. brinir »wani 
pritrr council on :?li lii-r. followmff. 
tlonw^LS iKieoftho-^H who«ij:iieci ihepeer»' 
to tli(*cfitinril in Scotland in Noreraber 
(1*6. vii. 3(I9n. 6). He wa« comptroUer 
the kingV household from 'J9 Doc. 1543 
until 1<>4*(. and acted u joint commimoner 
Charlc« at the eonferencp nf t*xbndf(« 
28 Jan. until 2i' Feb. 1645. Bv Anjrust 
he had retired to France, ife p-ve* a 
iphic aeoount of his life abroad in hi? 
;ten to Sir Edward Nicholas and others 
'ieholar Fapenii, Camd. Koc.) He always 
nd comfortable quartern, and made him- 
r vprv bappy with his ' books'aml fiddle* ' 
Etelts, Diary, i. 2ol, 2.>;l, -257, 'JiV2). 
efforts to restore the monarchy wt-re 
aidered important enoufjh to iiistify the 
ncil of state requesting^ Sir Artluir lk*<il- 
e, on i'J March Io50, to have him watched 
at. Sfatf Papert, Dom. l«4!>-ot) pp. 1^4, 
1, Ut54.) p. 54 >. Findinft that bis intrifni^ 
erelikf^lv to lead to the sequestration of his 
kte in England, he diacontinund hin visits 
I the kinp in November 1631 (ih. KJ-'jl-^. 
3). \Vhi>n, hf^wcver, in Novemb-T Ifi-M, 
arietta Maria forbadf: t he Duke of (ilouce«- 
' her presence, Haiton hospitably received 
n into his house at Paris on 1 Dec., and 
Btertained bim some days (f/f/. C/arrntfon 
iff Pni^rf, ii. 434, 137 : Hi^, Itrbe/i. xiv. 
.1>). Tl«'ing much pre58e<l for money, he ob- 
jneti with 9ome aifiiculty leave to return 
Enjflond in Seplfmber K^Vi (C'al. State 
MT«, Dom. U^>i;-7, pp. ll«, .'JKi). Aftor 
Ri,'9l(iratJon ht' was spoken of for lord 
ry seal tii S.-pfmln^r I<HW (/Tm/. ^fSS. 
' i. filh Kt'p. App. p. ITill), anil was ap- 
pointed a privy couucilloron29 Jun. Ififi!?, i»nd 
imorof GuL-msry on the ensuinff 22 Mny. 
ording to Unger North, he afterwnrds 
ook his family to live in Scotland YanI, 
□don, and ' divert hini»oIf with the com- 
tiy and discourst* of player* and euch idle 
ople* (Ziivr, ed. Jeeeopp, iL 204). He died 

at Kiih^ oa 4 inly IGTd, and was b«n»id is 
WestaiBMer Abt«v. Ue mizned at Hark- 
neT, Middlesex, on 8 May leSO, KInafeeUi 
(d. I^2>. eldest davghtM- and t>4uiwi of 
Sir Chariei Montajnu knt., of Bo«rht(i«» 
XorthaniitOBshirv iLTMtn, iL 4(9), br 
whom he had two son» — ChnslofdMr [^ T.I 
and Charles, whoa North oalb * truly noU* 
and ' iacomparafale *— and three daaffhtasm. 

Hatson, who was a lover of antji|it]tirsv *•- 
sisted Dagdale dming the civil war. and em* 

a prayer suitable to each [psalm*^ fonni'd 
by him5elf: which book is called llattoo'a 
pnlm5' (Nonni, ii. 'ilU). 

[Auchontimqnolcd; Doyle*>>OfEeii%lBar<^Baga^ 
ii. 1^: 6. F. Warner's lntn>d. to Nicholas IVpoa 
(Camd. Soc.1 vol. i.] O.G. 

COi-yr Uattox (H532~lTfJ6>. bom in 1632, 
was elder son of Christopher, l<>nl Ilailon 
(ie05P-l670)[q.T.] lie became steward of 
Highara Ferrera and of several manors in 
Northamptooshire in 1(100: gentleman of 
the privy chamber to Charles II in 1662; 
and captain of foot (Guernsey) in 1664. On 
•2'J Oct. HS64 he made a rvjwrt to Colonel 
William Lefjfge on t he slateof|Oae^uev(//f#^ 
MSS. CiiTtttn. nth Rep. App. pt.v.p. I'l); and 
was governor of (Tuemseyduriiigtheabaence 
of his father in February 16(«. On 1^ June 
1067hewaa made captain in thc'LordCbam* 
Wrlain's ' regiment of foot : was nppoiuted 
deputy-lieutenant of Nnrthamptoimnin; in 
March 1(170, atid uri the fullowiiig4 Julv«iuc- 
ceeded his father as second BarOn ilatton 
and governor of Oiiprnsey. His 'unpa- 
ralleled prudence and npplirutinn Cat the 
time! repaired the shattered esiaie ' of his 
fiimiry, and his kindly care of his mother, 
brother, nnd sisters is highly commended by 
Ro)jer North (Liffs, ii. 203K Uo wasciistoa 
rotulunim orNorllinmpton8hin.'frMm 30 Nov. 
1681 until February lilsO, and wus rrented 
D.C.L. of OxTortl on 2li Mav ltW3(W(K)0, 
Fa-'ti Otuh. od. Bliss, ii. Hm). i)n It Dec. 
Bi^3 ho was advanced to be Viscount Ilatton 
of (irvttnn, Xorthampt'nishirp, nnd become 
cnptnin of grenadiers m the Etirl oflliiiiriDg- 
don'sregimentof fool on 28 July \V>HH{ ffiit/uH 
Correjiftondftif^, Camd. Soc.ii. 89). lit' was 
the only one of Ijord lltintinpdon's ofHo-rs 
who refused to jnin his commander in an at- 
tempt to secure Plymouth forJnme* II at the 
endof Novrraber MHSd'A. ii. 117). On 27 Any. 
\t^*H he writes to Lord Dartmouth thai ho u 
ill, and hopes be may Ik- excused from rennir- 
ingto his command (//m/. AfSS. O'mm. Ilth 
Hep. App. pt. T. p. 137). On 30 Sept. 16S9 U 

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l*'.'.i>;,;'.T.-j.;i.J>, :i4,:ik,;;-^ .>.<>. 

, Xaaw4f tkc Friar- 
IBm- li ■»"— '^— T p^ fig »w in 

-Bi^ .^ x-n»isc;, hi-n. K Hirfi^d. ii««r 
fcsKi* (K :i- Jk« j-;**^ ■»» •«dBm«d «t 
kf?%. -*«■ Ulr. ■&£ £jiir » Ci'ilj<c« SdiooL 
i»~ jr»r-«Htn-jKn^u;>c. tie il:^ 'School (^ 
^K:k-» ts^cz. ^awmniBL nf -v^jdi he 1»- 
flB» «r MMeacif ir ^t sr c£xw^eaxv. He 
jBi:^^ k TTutr aniHuzcsiuv vii^ fcaewe, e«- 
•nerail'- j^t'Kr •o*t ^atam aca T . ly pacticil 
v-=s zift* MMiBQiry ni.TWfidLd.aadlud 

>?*x. T^»n b^ -var iqiwiizc«£3UB«mi explorer 
T< -:sf ?m£a 3Cifr:i^'Biii.-i C^apaaT. He 
t^ ix^ritaL n Anr&fC l^Laad smTcd at 
l^MMBR n -ts^nvcaai .-k 29 Not. u Abaif 
*^-mi»- TT'rwniM. Ai^HT * two ncoitlu* expe- 
dni'V -*F tw >>>ctittd «3>d KKriaa rivers, be 
'imi 1' ?-erur luf imihka: SsBirafKK«. From 
Sarra Tr rem I?t^ W cxpknd the Labuk 
TT«r r.TOii V &niu^<E.b«t (nrnd few traces 
»c snmrTTj*. Fr:«, Jslr to Onober he ex- 
yujTpi til* Eama tijsrict. After uiother 
:«?« tci »:vv^*c« W started on 19 Dec for 
>*2»siiia- »a2 ^MinieTvd op and down the 
K=3i':»:ia£aa ini:il near the end of Febni- 
»rT. wbea b? rvarbed the Segunah river. 
On 1 3iaith l>'S^wlule letunung from pur- 




n^ nn eVphant, he was killed bv tlie ncci- 

ital di^lmrgn of bis rifle, which cAiight 

the thick jungle. His work, so far as it 

t (f<me. and his diarie.s g-ivc evidence of 

h |>rr>mi!<«« as a M^ielltt6c exploivr. lie had 

true I'jcplorcr's temperament, jiower of 

.mand, f«-rtilitv of reiJourw in presence of 

iger.crKilirounig*' and fwlf-contTol, and was 

bng^ht and enEra^iig companion. 

Il&ttoneotitriuutedtothe* Uiograph' about 

enty sketches of living men of science ; to 

iradstTwts' (an American journal) wreral 

,icl*»on lecUnical chemist n*; tut he' \Vhit<?- 

ftview ' an articln on * Ylitj Adventuren 

Dmp of ThauuM AValer;' and to the 

isactions'of thel'hemicnl Hociety (ISyi) 

two papers 'On the Action of Ilactcria on 

Various Gases,' and 'On the Influence of 

iDti-nnittciit Filtnitinn through Sand and 

~" unffT Iron on Animal and Vegetabh* Mat- 

s dissolved in Wutcr, and the lU-duction 

Nitrate!* by savage and other agents.' 

[Biographical Skttch, with letters autl diaries 
im North llonico, Lv Joi^cph Uattoii, 1886.1 

G. T. B. 

Issii). musical composer, bom in Concert 
Strwl, Liverpool, 12 Oct. 1&09, wos the pon 

I aorlfrmndison of professionnl violinists. AVith 
dtif except ion of (>ome musical tuition received 
K the ncademy of a Mr. Molytieux, lie wax 
nrtually Mdf-tauyht ; yet hv the time he was 
Bxteon year? old hn wns already org'anist at 
Bir«e chiirche.*, viz. at Wddton and Child- 
wall Churches. Lanciwhire, and nt the Uoiimn 
Kitholic church iu Liverpool, for the lost of 
bich he wrote a raas», still exist mg in mnnii- 
ripl. IjiftT on he was oi^anist at the Old 
v.hurcli(St. Nieholii(*l in Chapel StretJt, Liver- 
pool. It it* chnmclerislic of the irri^pressihlo 
animal ^jiirits which in afVer years made him 
universally popular that he should haveven- 
red to play 'All round my hat' (a slreet- 
ng of the time), of i^urso carefully dis- 
oised, when competing for one of thc«<! aj»- 
pointments. In his youth he also nofiuired 
some experience as an actor, playing with 
saocves the part of Dluesliin in Mack Shep- 
wird' at the Littlt; Liver 'I'heDtre in Church 
Street. It wa" as nn nrtor thnt he Hret ap- 
iiean^d in London. A playbill wnspn'served 
bv him, containing his name a^i pl>i£;ng 
Jlarco (tic) in ' Orhello'witU Macn-ady and 
"*Tjarle» Kean at iJruri' Lane, ;.'0 Dec. l8U:i. 
the following year he wrote some piano- 
rte piec*?«, among them six impromptus 
^ich attained considerable success. 

r>rury Ijine Theatre Hatton obtained 
I fiwt musical engagement of importance, 
ting the choruses in the season of Eng- 1 

Ush nperms given from I Oct. 1K42 to 3 April 
1^43. On '2o Feb. in the latter year hisoiva 
operetta, 'l^ueen of the Thames ' (words by 
K. Fitihall), was given aucceasfully six timef. 
It contains souio pretty nnmbers, and ibe 
madrigal, ''ITie merry bridal Ixdls,' is a gixxl 
deal b^^rttcr tluiu mott modern attempts t>> 
rcprtxluco the ancient form. This shows 
that Hatton must have studied mufiic in 
earnest, and that he thoroughly nppa'ciated 
the tinest English music. Among the com- 
pany engaged for the oj>eratic performances 
was Staudigl, who enroiiragva Hatton to 
write another opera. * Pascal IVuno/ to a 
libretto by W. Kitxball. This was tnuie- 
lated. mainly by Staudigl himself, into Ger- 
man, and was brought out at Vienna on 
'J March 1S4-4 for the benefit of .Staudigl, who 
sang the princijial part. The first act was 
very successful, but the other two were less 
favourably received, owing in great part to 
the failure of one of the singers, a Mile. Dichl. 
No part of tlm ojveru was publi.shed, with the 
single exct'ption of a song, ' He\eiige/ sung 
bv Staudigl, which became very popular in 
England. The manuscript score of the second 
act, the only other portion extant, shows 
much originality and dramaticpowcr, as well 
08 knowledge of sta^rc cft'ect. While staring 
in Vienna to supervise the production of the 
opera, I lattun was the guest uf Staudigl, who 
intritduced him to the Concordia Society. 
His pianofortt* nlnving, more especially of 
Bach 8 fugues, whicli he played from mf roory , 
attractwl much attention. Slennwhilo he 
took advantage of the opportunities for ad- 
vanced study of music, taking counterpoint 
lessons from Sochter, one of the most learned 
theorists of the time. On his return to Eng- 
land Hntton published severul vocal trios 
and a set of eighteen songs to wortls by T. 
Oliphant, They wore furnished with (lermau 
tran^slat ions, and publisheil under the jiaeu- 
donym of * Cr.apeli,' the genitive plural of a 
Hungarian wortl for 'hat.' These and some 
other songs publi^llel1 about the same lime 
havo been considered by some critics to be 
not unworthy of Schubert himself. The great 
Germflu models obviously inlluencfd their 
structure. Hatton |H»rhapH never attained a 
Rtjcond time the beauty and sincerity of ex- 
pri'ssion revealed in 'lo Antheo.' 

The popularity of his songs (their number 
is computed at nearly thret! hundred in all) 
was partly due to the fact that Hatton had 
acquired practical experience both a» a singer 
and a pianist. At the Hereford feiitival of 
\B46 he appeanMl as a vocalint, and played 
a concerto by Mozart. In the same vear he 
begun a series of tours with Sivori, Vieux- 
temps, and other celebrated performers. In 




Aiitftist lH4t< Ll- first Tisited America, re- 
miuiiinK ibero until tbe s;)ring of 1850, 
when bo roturned in orrler to accomtisny 
Sims Ilopvea on n tour; lie went again to 
Aiiti'rica in the follnwinp SejiU-raber. His 

filiiving and sinj^ing wvtv alike ftdiiiitfd.ajid 
10 introduct'd noni« "f Mt'iidflssnUu's music 
to thi" Boston publii*. At no time was lie 
troubled by nnietic MTn|ile«, and it w»« 
often uiiccrUinwiietber thrplnc«nlIotted to 
htm In the programme would bmccupittd by 
one of Bnctr* fiiffues or by a comic sung of 
his own compatition. It ia suid that bi^ 
ht!iircTS were deliphtt-fd with a nonp callwl 
*Tbo Sleigh Hide, in thocourno of which he 
produced * realistic' «;flVvt:« by moanv of bells 
lied 10 Uin leg. SDoniifterhisretumto En(,'- 
Innd at the end of 1850 he bewimccoiKbictor 
of the lilee and Madrigal Union, ii post which 
he n'taintnl for Romp years. JIo was fur five 
yuars (probably lSo3-l)) conductor and ar- 
ranger of the music under Chnrle;* Kcan's 
management at tbe rrincess's TheaMT, but 
it is diHirult to diaentflogle his own coro- 
prtHitioMH from the works of other composers 
armngtMl by him during this period for tlieii- 
trirnl purpoees. The music to' Ilourv VII I,' 
' Uichiird II,'*Sardanopalus' and *The Wiii- 
tor'g Talc" ia undoubtedly hy him; the lirst 
and third seta of compositions were pub- 
linhed, and contain snme vigomns and ell'ec- 
tivo numbers. It is iirnbuble that few of 
the "plays prodnce<l by K'-an were uUo^jether 
■without (iriginal work by Hatton. In many 
of the Shakespenrean performances he akif- 
fullv adapted old Kiigbsh airs. 

Meanwhile the concert tours continued, 
Tn the rnnrw! of one of the.'te jcinnieys Hnt- 
ton's popular smig, M*ood-hye, Hweetheart, 
gootJ-bye,' was enrnpowd fur Mnrio. On 
2<( Aug. iKVt his citiitiitfl, • Hood/ to 
words bv (•. I^inley, wur given nt tlic Itrad- 
ford muftical l'e»itiviil.withmor»'!iucfrw than 
attended most of hts hmger vviirhs. The lust 
of his operas, • Uow, ur LdveV Itnnsom.' set to 
words by H. Sutherland l-Mwards, wae pro- 
duced at Covent Garden by (he Knglish (.>]H.'i*a 
Association 213 Nov. ISO^i; the libretto was 
founded upon Italfvv's ' Vnl d'Andorre;' 
tlie music is not in Kattou's iiost vein. In 
iHfifl he contributed several Riuigs to Watts 
Pbilli]ii*'« play, * The Huguenot Soldier,' and 
in the wime year went again to America. 
The 'Itidind Concorta'at St. .Tampa's Hall, 
London, were bt^un in this year, and for 
the first nine seawins Hnttnn lield the po«t 
of accompanist and conductor. In October 
1875 he paid a first visit to Stuttgart, which 
he frequently rpvis.ited afterwards. There 
he wrote an oratorio entitled 'Hexelciah/ 
which, wh«n given at the Crystal Palace on 

15 Ilec. IH77, failed to pleat« critical muM-l 
cians. Though much of the choral writuijf ' 
was justly cenaurod on ac4*ount of its imita- 
tions uf Handel ond Mendelssohn, yet tracea 
could still be seen of his old tai^te for conn*-, 
terpnint and the severer forms of muaic, * 
Among his later compositions were a can- | 
tiita to wonis by Milton (manuscript"), a.| 
trio for pinno and st-rings. published in f-ier^J 
mnnyt and a chorurt, *The Karth is fair.' [ 
liia *Aldeburgh Te Deum' (]mblished)com-^i 
memontlt« his fondness for tlieSutTolk village 
in which Bome part of his later yeara vntA, 
spent. He edited for Messr?. Boosev Sc Co. | 
many * song albums,' collections of old Eng-I 
lish songs, ballad operas, and so forth ; theirj 
accomuanimenta are simpler than those in f 
vogue m the present time, but set the melodioa ^ 
in the nio!>t favourable light. HewasaFree- 
mawm ami n member of the Goldsmiths' Com- 
pony, and belonged also to the Koyal Yacht 
Club. Ilnttimdiedat Mnrgate, where he hH(fc> I 
chiefly li\ed .-ince 1877. on 20 Sept, \i^\A 
lie was buried at Kensal (ireen 'Ui Oie 2">th. 
That llntton'a enduring fume as an Eng- 
lish musician is based on eo flight a founda- 
tion in in>t due to any shortcomings in uatural 
^ifts, but to the irresistible inHucnce of hU 
animal hpirils and bis lack of artistic eamest- 
new. His part-songs, like ' When erening^a 
twilight,' remain among the most popular 
works of this kind; genuine humour is di»- 

rihijed in such songs as * Simon the Cel- 
aper; ' and oiu* at least, 'To Anihea,' has be- 
come a classic. Hatton wns jmpulnr wher- 
ever he went : he was a fmn ^■l'm«^ though 
no rumour of intemp»^rance was ever heartl 
ogainst him. Ho married h^mmo, tecoudL^ 
daughter of William Fn-elove March, ewj., of 
Sotillmmpton. and widow of U, K. Poup*ett, 
cnrwiil ut l^uenos Ayres, by whom he had 
two daughter?. A lithrt;n"i»]'lii''.l porlmit by 
KnieliulxT of Vienna reprtjw-'nts nim ut tho 
time of lhe]»n:>duclionof ' Puscal ]lruno,'and 
another, fnun u photograph, is in the 'Tunic 
Sol-Ftt Reporter '(T>ecem tier IHMU). 

[(jrovo's Diet, of Music, i. 69" (lb* erronootu 
rersiuo of the composer's serond name, 'Liphot,^^| 
(leenis (o hnre orieiiiated lienO ; Tonic S(t|-K*j| 
Rvpifrtor, 0ecenibu-1886:Tinius.22St^pt. 18B0; 
Miisieal Ttmps, October 1886 (ihi- statement 
that bu prcsidi'd over the orchrslrit for iho whole 
of Koun's lotinnpy nf iho Prln(^c«B*s requiree 
cotiHrmntion) ; informaliun from the compoaer'a 
note-books, nirniommbi, nrid Iptic^rs commnoi- 
catcd by his daughter, Mias M. M. ETntton.l 

J. A. F. M. 

NEY (1788-1849), orientalist, bom in 1788, ^ 
was the second son of John Haughton, a ' 
Dublin physician, by tLe daughter of Edward 



Archer of Mount John, co. VVieklow. Hu 
'Was eUucflTetl principAllv iu Kngland, ami, 
havinff obt«in«<l n military CftdtiUhip on the 
Bengu edalilu^binent of the Eiut India Com- 
pany in I80tf, proceeded to India. He gained 
bis first commiasioa od 13 Morcb 1810. At 
the cadet iiwtitution of Banuet^ near Cal- 
cntta, he so dislinpiuishwl liiine*elf by bia pn>- 
gresa in Hindtuilani as to win tbu bighe5t 
refwird of the institution, a sword and a 
handtfome pecmiiftry donation. Aftor *ter\'- 
inff »oiue time with bis regiment, liaiighton 
iBTttH among the first who availed tbem^telvtw 
of the ]>ermi!«sinn, granted in 1612 by the 
government of Bengal to young ollicers, to 
ctiidy oriental languages iu the college of 
Fort William at Calcutta, und be there re- 
ceived set'en medals, three ilejjrws of lioiuiiir, 
and variouB ^wcuniiin.' r»;wflntA for bis proii- 
cicncv ia Arabic, Persian, lliiiduslani, Sun»- 
kril/and IVngali. On 10 Dec. IHU he 
■wii* promoted to a lieutt-naney. Ill-health, 
ctiitsed by application tostu'h, obliged bini 
to return on fiir!nujrb tn l',nglnnd ul tht; 
«nd of 1815. In IHIT bo was appointwl as- 
«t«tant oriental pmfess^jr in the Ka8t India 
Ciillegv at Iloik^ybory ilioi/al Kafeiidnr, 
1H18, p. 293 >. I'pon the retirement of Ah;x- 
4indi>r Hamilton in IHIl) he succeeded to 
the professorship of SauRlirit and Bengali 
«r Ilaileybiirv, and held il until \B27 (if>. 
1820, p. 282), During thi.«i periixl bo pub- 
lished *nvaf! excelltfut class Ixtoks, among 
-which roar bo mentioned Miudiments of 
Itrngali tirammar/ 4to, 1821; ' Bensrnli Se- 
lections, with Tmnelations and a Vocabu- 
Iarv,'4to, 1822; ami 'AGlosnarv, Bengali and 
Knglisb, to explain the Tuta-ltihas, the IJu- 
t ris Singbasan, the Ilistorv of Ibija KriBhua 
Clmndru.tht' I'urusha-Parlkhyii, the Uitopu- 
tltbttt Itranslat'Hl by Mrityuni»ya>,' 4to, iHi'."! 
(a£«i8tod by John Panton ftuhbins, tbim u 
vtudfnt at the colb'gi*). IImhIso i.4i(iie<l an 
admirable edition of the Sanskrit text of the 
' Infelilutrs of Menu,' 2 vols. 4lo, 1825, with 
Sir William Jonea's translation and a few 
notM. Another edition, bv the Uev. P. Per- 
cival, waj) published nt ^fa'lrns, 8to, lH(j;j; 
third edition, by Stnndibh Urove (irady.ot 
Ion* f vo, 1 80i*. IM-heBlth prevented him 
adding a third tnlunie, which wu» to 
rliftvo contained either the whole or a selec- 
tion of the commentary of Cullu'c-a Bhtittn. 
Haughton resigned bia cs)mmiAsJon on 
12 Fob. 1819 (I>oiiWKr,r. and Milfj*, tndian 
Army Litty pp. I'W 1*), and was cn-atod 
lionornrvM.A. at Oxfonl on 2.1 Juneof tliai 
Tear, ifi* waa elected F.U.S. on \T» Nov. 
1821, a foreign memberoftb« Asiatic Society 
of Paris in 1822, a corresponding memltemf 
iJifl lioyal Society of Berlin in 1837, and a 


member of the Asiatic Society of CalculiA 
iu lii*^J8. Ho WM» also a member of the 
Koyai Irish Academy, and foreign member 
of the Inslilute of France. Ho took a waml 
intcn'st in the formation of the lioyal Asiatic 
Society in I*»)udiin, of which he was an ori- 
trinal member. He discharged the duties of 
Honorary seco'tary from Novt-uib'T 1831 to 
May 1832, when the labour fif bringing out 
his * Itictionary, Bengali nnd SMiiskrit, ex- 
plained in KngIish,'4to, l8.'t;f,compelted him 
to resign. Amimg his contributions to tbo 
society's 'Transactions ' was a brief note in 
vindication of Sir H. T. Cnlebrookn's vLowsi 
of the Vedania phtlosojihy agaiu'^t the re-' 
marks of Colonel A'ans Koiluedy. The latter 
n^plit^d angrily, and Haughton ably relort(*d 
iu the monthly 'Asiatic Journal ' lor Novom- 
ber 183'!. This communication, with some 
additions, was j>rinted separately in the i\A' 
lowing December. In 18.*V2 be printed for 
private circulation* A short Imjuiryintu the 
Suture of Language, with a view to ascer- 
tain the anginal meanings of Sanskrit pre- 
positions; elucidated by cornpjrisous with 
the tireek and Latin,' 4to ; anulher edition, 
4to, 1834. During tlie same year he was 
% candidate for the Boden profeftwrsliip of 
Sanskrit at Oxford, but withdrew in fiivoitr 
of his old fellow-student. Horacn lluynmn 
Wilson. On this occasion ho received a com- 
plimentary uddnuts from two hundred profes- 
sors, fellows, and graduHtes, including seven 
beadi' of bouses. On 18 July 1833 he vma 
made n knight of (he (iuelpbic order (Gent. 
Mar/, 18:i:{, pt. ii. p. 7ti). An ablcroeta- 
pbysical paper, published in the ' Asiatic 
Jijunial' for March 183tJ, on the Hindu and 
European notions of cause, and elVect, wus 
followed in 1831* by \un ' Prodromus; or an 
Iniiuirj' into the first Principles of Reason- 
ing; including an Analysis of the Human 
Mind,'Kvo, intended as a prelude to a larger 
work upon tlm necessary connection, rela- 
tion, and dejM'udenceofpiiysics.metflpbysic-s, 
and morals, eniilhnl 'The'Chain of Causes,' 
of wliich the first volumo <mly appeared, fol. 
1H42. He printeil a tabular view of his sys- 
tem on a single folio sheet in 18.'>3, exhibit- 
ing the ' development of minds and momls 
from their original divine source.' In l83.'i 
he publishe«l iin ' Inrpiiry into the Nature of 
Cbulera, and the Means of Curt*; ' in lH40 a 
' I.ettuT to the Right Hon. C. W. 'SVilliams 
Wynn on the danger to which the Consti- 
lutiun is ex[Hi8ed from the encroachments of 
the Courts of I^w ;' and in 1847 he printed 
in the 'Philosophical T^lagBEine' experiments 
to prove the common nature of magnetism « 
cohesion, atlhesion, and risco«ity. Haugh- 
ton spent much of his Uter life in Paris, lie 




died of cliolera at St. Clniid on 28 Aiip. 1849 
(ii. lS4t», l»t. ii. 420k lie foim.l Uis bt*»t 
friend-i ninonp Ins It-llow-atudrnl,-*. I'p'm 
tlicilfJithofSirr'harlrs Wilkin.Hin May iS'lti 
lie wf'itt,' (\ memoir in tlio ' Asiiitie .loiirniil.' 
He was inlitnatelvucuusililfrl williDr. I''. i\. 
Unsen, and lit)eniUy iiflpeil to niise un iip- 
projiriate nioimmont to Iii« nu-morv. 

[Annual Ituport of Iiorul Atfuitic Society for 
Jliiy 18-50. in vol. xiii. of Joiimil, pp. li-r; 
Wilson's* Dulilin Directory, I7flO. p- 121 ; Koslcr's 
Alanini Oxon. -1716-1888, ii. 623.] O. U. 

HAtJGHTON, JAMKS (]7^^, \B7S), 
|iliiliintliri.ipist,^onofSmnuol Pciirsonllaugh- 
tun (1748-182H), by Marv, daughter ufJiiiue-f 
Pirn uf Itusliin, (^iiC'L-iiii t'oimiy, In.-lun,d, 
WHS bom in Curlow *» ilay ll'-^o, and edu- 
oatetl at Btillitnr, cu. Kildmt', ffuu IbOT to 
iHlO, under Jiimc5 White, a qiiiikf r. After 
filliiif; Ho\-onil iiitURtiuiisto leiirn biK biituiiHRt 
hf, in iHl", Mtttlrd in Dublin, wht'n.* ho 
became a t-orn and flour fuctiir, in piirtner- 
Bliip with Ills brnthiT "William. He rL'tirtnl I 
ill I8")0. AlllniUfjIi (HliK-alt*{l as » Krit^nd, lie , 
joined the iiniturliiiiA in 1834, niid remained , 
throiiglioiit his life a strong believer in tlieir | 
teni'ts. He supported the anti-slavery move- i 
inent at an early iK^riod and took an aclivo 
part in it until i888, goin;; m tlint Vi-ar 
ii> Ixiudoii »in H dflfKftle to a convent ion. 
Sliorlly nftprKatln-rMiitlicw took thp pli?dp<', 

10 April I8;t8, llftuphton became tme of bis I 
most devoted difjcip]e«. For many yearjs he I 
^nve most of his time and enerpfips topromot ing , 
total abstinence and to advocotinplep'i».lalivo : 
rustrictions on the sale of intoxiciilingdrink*. ' 
In l)er4^mber IMI4 ho wa* the chief promoter 
nfu fund whirli wa5 raii*ed to pay 8onie of , 
the debts of I'allier JInthew and release him 
from prison. About 18.*t5 be commenced a | 
pericfi of letters in the public prt'ss which 
made bia name widely known. He wrote 
on tempcninoe, slavery, British India, peaet-, 
CApital puni^hmimt, sanitary ipform, and edu- 
cation. Ilia first letters were sipi\ed *The 
Son of a Water Drinker,' but he soon com- 
menced lining hid own name and continued 
to WTito till 1872. He tmika leading I'art in 

11 series of weekly meetinfTH which were behl 
in Dublin in 1840. when so numerous wer** 
the «<ooial questions discussed that a new»*- 
puper editor called the ^peakt'nt the auli- 
everytbingiirians. In atied^iciation with Daniel 
O'CouncU, of whose character he had a very 
high opinion, he advocatwl various plans for 
the amelioration of the condition of Inrlund 
and the repeal of the union, but waa always 
opjiosed to physical force. He bt^came a vege- 
t-ormn in 1840, both on moral and sanitary 
grouuda. For two or three years before his 

deivth he waa pre.«idf^nl of the Vepetjirioa 
Socii'tv of the United Kingdom. Ifo vram 
one ol the first members of ib*? 8tati»tiriil 
SiK-iety of Dithlin, 1847, a founder of th» 
Dublin Mechanics' In^titutp, IhMt, in the 
sinneyenrwas on the commit tise oftbe Dublin 
Peace Society, aided in abolishing Itonjiv- 
briiok fair I8.V1, Hud tuok a chief part in IWL 
in opuiing the Holaiiictiimlen^at illaxnenn 
on Sundays!. He died at lio Eccles Street^ 
Dublin, on 20 Feb. 187;i, and was buried in. 
Alount Jerome cemetery 24 Feb. In the |>re- 
sence of an immen^ crowd of j>oople. He 
wax the author of ' ?jlavery Immoral,' l><J7, 
* A Memoir of Thomaii C'lnrkson,' J847, and 

'A Plea forTeetuialism and theMaiue Lu^uof^| 
Law,' lBo5. H 

[Mi'inoir of .1. TNtighton. by his sun Ramuft 
JTniiyliioti. 1877. with portniit; Kreaman's Jnur- 
nnl. ai I'eb. ISjH. p. :j. nnd WFeli. p. 7: Wel.b* 
IrisliHiog. I878,p.21fi; AnivrieimAoauatCSvlop. 
f.>r 1873. xiii. 503-4, 1871.1 G. C.* B. 


, 1887), lieutenant-general, late Bengal gtaff 
coqM, ttonofUlchard ILandSufiannaliaiigh- 
I ton, belonged lo a family of that name (sp»'lt 
I moni correctly Hoghion). f<ettled in Lanca- 
shire ever since the Norman conquest, ot 
which a branch went to Indnnd. Hw father 
and hi.-* father's ehler hmtlier, Sir Graven- 
' Champney Haughton, K.H„ [q. v.l^ 
I were well-knnwn oricnlalisitfi. Iliet grund- 
I father. Dr. Haughton, was a niiblin phy- 
sicirtn. John Colpoys Haughton wns Ijom 
I in Dublin on 25 Nov. 1817. He wac t'du- 
' culed lit Shrewsbury, and on 30 March 183t> 
wa» entered on the books of ll.M.S. Mag- 
, n)nct'nt,rect:Iving8hip at Jnmaic-a, as a first- 
class volunteer. Hia relative, Admiral lul- 
I wunHiriffitbsColpoySjWiiathencximuianding' 
onlheWcst India, N onh American, aiulNew- 
' foundhmd slation. On It May 1832 he was 
appointed midshipman to tho'l-lv, 18 guns» 
commander McQuhae, and on 8 f)ec. iHiW to 
the Belvidern, 42 guns, Captain Stone, both 
on the above station, and on 12 Jan. 18<^ 
wns invalided from the royal nnvv. On 
lo I'Vh. I8-i7 heobiained a lW>ngal ca^etabJii* 
nod on 9 Pec. 18.37 wajs appoinletl ensign lu 
the late -list Bengal native infantry. Ho 
served in thcAfghan war of 18;JU-42,during 
which be wai« ap)>ointed adjutant of the 4th 
light or (Jhoorkii regiment, in thp aervico 
ot the Shah Sfw>)8, commanded by Captain 
Christopher C'ndringtun, 4i;*tli Bengal nativ» 
infantry. In April and May 1841 the 4(.b 
(ihoorkjifi wan sent to occupy' Char-ee-kar, a 
town of about thret^ thouiMtnd inhabitants, 
about forty miles north of Cabul. Major 
Eldred Fottiuger, who had t^hortly before- 




pome fflmous by his defence of Herat, was 
EttinaM at jjuphrnHnw, tlin** lu'ilt?** off, as 
Dlitical np'nt. ( 'Imr-ft?-kar wd* in the worst 
ndilioii fortleft'ni'H, and the uuthnrities dis- 
>un»(^.'dfXi>endiTurt' foritsimprovenu;nt. On 
I Nov. 1841, tht- dav on wliic-h Sir Altf.\iitul<*r 
Jurnes 'ij. v.] was killed ut uttuck 
by insiirfjenta was made on Luglmmtu-e. 
iftera pilliinl defi-iwx' I'oll'mger (st-e IOyhk, 
Varrfttitr) had to take refutrc in Cliar-w-kar. 
bar-ee-kar wns l>esieg'ed hy the iii?iur^i'nts, 
nd mo8l gttllanlty dffcndwl from ihu oth to 
i4eL Nov. under dilHiniltu's- of every kiud. 
lie in.4ur(rt;nis, tbou(;h little bt'tter than a 
^ Bob, iininuiitfd for i*ome days to over twenty 
"ihouaund uruied uii-n (llAHonTOsr, p. 14), 
and httd control of tlie water sujiply. Pot- 
tinger» lo whom the credit of thu defenw 
has been erroneously aarribtxl, wiw j»rejtent 
in a politicnl capncity, nnd cnntincd to his 
bed by n wound. Oodriii(;toii was killt'd 
iOn Nov., and ibf coniiuond llion devolved 
linn^hton (r'A. p. 15). \Vh<'n the num- 
of the (.'nrriwn, urigindlly w*on hini- 
d to eight hiindn'd men, had been re- 
Dccd tu ont^ hnlf, and the men had been 
Sine days without water, it was decided to 
tti*mpt lo reacli Ciibul. Hefnn; this was 
one A mutiny occnm-*! among pome of the 
Shah's giinntTfn, in which Ilnughtou wqb cut 
Sown ttn<l grievnusly wounded in tho neck, 
limdder.and arm. The aumt' night, J4Nov., 
tie Ohoorktt? evacuated the place, leaving 
heir sick and wounded behind. Most of 
Jvein wcff disiK^rsed and cut oil' hy the way. 
Pottinger and Haughton. with his right hund 
'^vshly amputated, with his head hanging; on 
bisbreaM trom the severiufrof the muaele-iof 
^ibe neck, oiid held in bis Had<lle by a liiilhl'ul 
ihoorka orderly, pot Kepiirated from their 
allowing, and, after incnnlibb- fatifiue.'*, suc- 
3e<l in reachinff Cabul on 16 Nov., where 
bey * were rereived a-s men risen from the 
a'd* (Eyre, yarratiiv). AVhen Klphin- 
lono withdrew from Cabid ut ihe end of 
emb*!r Itm, Hau(fhton wiis unable lo 
Bove, and .-(luyed with a friendly chief until 
>er the aecond advance of the unrler 
General Pollock. 1 le wna relenwd from cap- 
ivity on 21 Sept. lH4:i, when ho roUecled 
\e ri'inuinii of hts late n^^iment, and re- 
amed with PoUoek to Indm. The Indian 
avemmitnt recorded that Uaughton's con- 
|uct at t'bar-ee-kai * was vcrj' creditable nnd 
Bftrked by preat ^Ilantry ' (information sup- 
lied bytlie India Office), but he TvcelviKlno 
thcr reward. On 15 Dtn;. 184:? he was np- 
nnted lieiilenanr in the late Mth llt-nRal 
Btive infantry, hi> army rank datiiig from 
Jttly previuus. He becAme captain in 
"^the rv^uneut in 1852, and major m 1861. 

Haughton waAKppoinled (>ecnnd in comrannd 
(if the llundflkund (M^lii-e battalion on H Jan. 
1844, was made aMi*tanl to the 
povemor-gcnera!*s npont fin the south-west 
frontier on '2'-i Feb. 1m47, nnd princijial aft- 
*i(*tant on ^4 Bee. ISfjl. He was oppuinicd 
magistrate at Moulm^^in and euperiuten- 
deut of gaols 5 tiopt. l8o3; Buperintcndent 
at Fort itlair and thu Andtiman X^lunda on 
l9July lHr»v»; deputy commi(«ioner first clnsa 
Sihsagnr, 17 March, and while noting com- 
miaflioner uccnmpuniitd tho expedition lo lhe> 
Cossyab and Jvntiuh hilU in l»t}2-.H,and ihtj 
Bhoofnn exjiedition of iHlU-n. He wniteora- 
luip-^ioner at Cooch Uehiirfrom IIj May iHtiTi 
until 1^73, and al^o nutuaged the large es- 
tates of the infant mnhnraiah, who had been 
made bin ward. During this period beftccom- 
punied ih).' ex])edition against the Garrows 
in 1872-3. On Haughtun's superannuation 
in 187'J, the lieutenant-governor of Bengal 
recotrled (he liighest opinion of the Aervicetf 
which he hiid rendered, egp»'ciftlly in BPCuring 
friendly relations with the hill tribes. 

Haughton became lieuteuant-colontd in the 
Bengal «tajf corps in IHti3, and colonel in 
1M(». In 180H he was made C.S.I.. the only 
public recognition of hie! long and valued ser- 
vices. He attaiiiwl the retired rank of major- 
general in \t<H), and lieutennnl-general in 
\H»2. In ISfiT Hftughlou published hia ac- 
count of (_'liflr-ee-kar, u second edition of 
whiclk was brought out, for reasons &tart>d 
in the preface, I^ndon, 1H71>, 8vo. Haughton 
died at Uamsgate on 17 Sept. \trH7. 

In person Huughton was over six feet in 
height, with a spare wiry frame capable of 
great jthysicBl endurance, aqutline leature^, 
and a kindly, resolute face. He married, 
first, at Calcutta, lltJunBlH4o,Je8si«I0leanor, 
daughter of Colonel Pre.-'grove, H.K.I.C.S., 
by whom he bad four children, of whom two 
sons and a thiiigliter survive; stTondly, in 
Januarv' 1874, Barbara Erama, daughter of 
the Uev. Canon Pleydell IJouverie, by whom 
he had do isisue. 

[Infomiatlonfroni the Admindlv. India Offiee, 
ana fumity Mnin'on ; Ku^t Jiiditi JtegisterH and 
Aritiy List*. 1837-fiO: lluughlon's Olinr-ut^knr 
(2nd odii. Lomlon. 1870); Sir Vincent Eyro* 
Kabul Insurrection of 1841-3 (nsviied by Mal- 
letKia, 18(9). Fur ludiiin prcM aoticefi, eeo 
Friend of India. 10 Jnly IfiO.'V; Indian Stntes- 
mnn, 1873; Overland Mail and Ilomvfrard Mail, 
21 Sort. I (>et. 1887.] H. M. O. 

HAUGHTON, MOSES, the elder (1734- 
1804 ),painter of still-life and enamel-iiainter, 
was bom at W'edne&bun.-, Slafrordfeliire, iu 
17^. Brought uji as an enaraid-pa inter, he 
was employed in Mr. Holden's manufactory 
at Wedueshurj'. Subsequently he removed to 




BtrmtQg^huD, where ho was cmploTcd on ornn- | 
menial work. At the same limR he exctrlled ; 
in other brunches uf the art, and vraa especl- , 
ally noted oh n painter of siiU-Life. }le ocea- ' 
eionaliy exhibited works ut the Koyal Aca- I 
demy from 1 7t^ to 1 8(M. i Iniighton was of a ' 
quiet and retiring dispogition, nnd was not 
much known out ofKirminghntn. Hi> rei-ided 
lor umuv yenra nt Adhte<l, near BinuiD^iluun, 
and die<l on 21 Dec. KhJ-I, ngwi 70. Uo waa 
buried at Wedncsbury, and a monument waa 
erected to his memory in St. Philip's Church 
Jit Birminghnm. He hitd a 6on, Matthew 
ilaug^hton, who practised as an engraver. 

[R«lgnnrc-'» i)ipt. of Artists; Bryan's Diet, of 
PtuntiTB, vd. 4>r«ves; GeDL,Ma£:. 1804 new 8**r. 
p. I'iaO, ISIO p. 4lfi; Qravee'a DicU of ArtUts, 
l7C0-ja»U.) L. C. 

HAUGHTON, M().SES, the younger 
(1772?-lS4>*P>, miniature-painter and en- 
graver, nepliew of MoseR Htni|rht()n the elder 
ftj.v.], wn» liom nt Wednesbury iilwut 177ii. 
lie carae to l^iuidon to practise nn an artist, 
became a pupil of (leor^'e Stubbs, U.A., and 
ft student of the Royal AcndemT. lie prac- 
tised as II portrait-iminter, painting chiefly in 
miniature. Kiirly in life he became a friend 
of Henry Kuseli, U.A. fq. v.], for whom he 
entertained a sincere admiration, and even- 
tually resided with Kuseli in tlie kL-eper's 
apariineuts at Somerset House. He liimed 
ln.s attention to engraving, and under Fuseli's 
own HupL>rint<!ndene(! execnlwl several large 
engmvings from I'uaeli's most important pic- 
ttires, notably, 'Sin pursued bv Death,' 
* rgtdino,' * llie Dreim of Eve,' ' The Nur- 
sery of Shakespeare,' *T)m T^zurhoust-,' Sic. 
He thua helped to per^)etuate his moster's 
rt(i<»tingpnpuliirily. I lepriintfd 11 well-known 
miniature of FuscH, which Una been often 
engTuved, and another of Mrs. Fuseli, wlio 
aft^er her husband's death berame for some 
veara an inmate of Haugliton's household, 
llttughton was a frequent exhibitor fit the 
lloynl Academy from 180S to 184S, after 
which he is lost sipbt of. Two miniature 
jiaintinps by him, 'The Love Dream' nnd 
'The Captive,' were engrovLnJ by U. W. 
Sievier, niid other portraits by him were 
abo engraved. He wna married, and left a 

(nodgraTe's Diet, of A^ti^t8 ; Knowlc's lifi' 
of Faicit ; FiUith's i^rkn in the print room of 
thaBrili«hMlis<!Uin; ftoya) AcnilmnjpCataluftUnii; 
privato information.")-^ L. C. 

HAUGHTON. W^T-IJAM (Jl. -[rm^ 
dramatist, is identified in Cooper's * Athenie 
r'nnlal>rigienBes' (il. 399) with a William 
llaughiou, M.A., of Dxfoni, who was incor- 
{uratcd in thot degree at Cambridge in 1 601 , 

but ihc tdentiflcation in dnublfuL Tlie ear*] 
liest monliun of him in Jltin»Iawo*(t * I>iarr* 
(p. 104) is under date u Nov. 1597, when \m ' 
is describe<l oa ' yonpe Horton.' Only 009 J 
play of which he was sole author is ex-j 
tant, * En);lish-M»'n for mv Money : Or, A 1 
Woman will have her WUl," ltiI(5,4to, re- 
printed in 16:^ and 1631; included in tU ' 
'Old Englioh Drama.' 1830. and in Hazlitl'i.) 
edition uf Dftd-loy's collection. From Uena*[ 
lowe'a ' Diary' (pn. lU*. 122 1 it appears ihaft] 
this merry rollicking coaie<ly wat* ■nrilttfiij 
early in 159H. In Augitsl 151*9 Haughtoaj 
was at work upon a hwt play. ' The l*oof 1 
Man's Paradise (i&. p. IW); and later in thaj 
y«ar he joined John Day in WTtting the 
* Tragedy of Merry 'and *Cox of Ctdlumf^l 
ton' (both lostl ; had a sluirc with Dckkeci 
and Chettle in * Patient Gridul' (printed in.} 
11W3>, and with Chettle alone in ' The Arca^ 
dian ^'irgln* (not prinltMl). In the follow- 
ing February he was engog^ with Day auL 
Deldter on 'Th« Spanish AIoiw's Tragedy'! 
(,not printed), which has been ha.«tily iden- 
tified ivith * Liifit'fi Dominion : ' and in Man ' 
tho eamo authors, joined by Chettle. were ; 
work on *The Seven "NVis** Ma^^ters' moi 
printed). During part of Sfnrch IlaugUtoal 
was imprisoned in the CUnk (doubtle5« fori 
debt), and Heuslowe advanced ten shilUngg 
to procure Im discharge. On 18 March he 
waa employed on ' Ferrex and Pom-x,' pro- 
bably an altenition of Sackville and Norton'*' 
tragedy, and in .\pril he wnn pn!|taring tl 
' English Fugitives' (not printed). In Maj 
he received five shillings from UeitslowH ' 
earnest of a Boocke which he wold calle the' 
" Devell and his Dnme '" (16. p. I6fl). which 
has been rashly identified with 'Grim, tb9H 
Collier of Croydon,' Jirst printed in lOtiJ^^ 
in the same monlh ho wrote 'Strange Ni*w»™ 
out of I'oland' (not printed) with a 'Mr. 
IVtt.'nnd began single-handed a play called.^ 
< Index' or Mudiis ' (not printtil). Iln wa^fl 
writing • Uobcn hoode's penerthes' (* ItobinV 
Hood's Pennyworths') in December UK.)*) and 
January 1001; later iu IGOl he joined Day 
in 'The Second and Third Part*' (not 
printed) of 'The Blind Beggar of Bethnal 
tlreen,' * The Six Yeomen of the West ' (nc 
printed), *1'lie Proud AVoman nf Antwe 
and Friar Kuxh * <not printed), and *Th4 
Second Purl of Tom Dough' (not printed)^ 
'The (\>n<iuest of the West Indies' (nofi 
printed) was written with Day and \N"Rntr?j 
worth Smith, nnd the two parts of ' Tho Sij 
Clothiers' (not printwl) with Ilathway and 
Smith. Wh do not hear of Haughton nft<r^ 
September 1H0*J, when he waa engaged on * » 
ploye called " Cartwrighi.'" 

In ' AnnaU of the Careers of W, HougV 



too [«Kr\ AVuderon, and I*ctt,*ii paper |innteJ 
in ToL ill. of * Sh&liespeariana/ 1 b^, M r. I* lea y 
cnnjectiiivs that sonieof theBlmve-meiitioneu 
pluvR wtTM printtxi with cb&nged titles. 

[Uonslowe'a Diiiry, piiwim; Allvvti Piippr."*, 
pp. xrrii, 23, 2fi ; CtKjpers Aihonic t-Htibibr. ii. 
3U0-400.1 A. H. B. 

HAUKSBEE, FRANCIS, tbo elder (A 
1733J'), elpctrician, was admitted fellow of 
the Koyal Society nn 30 Nov. ITOo, Imvinp; 
aliTfldv acquired n rHpiitation ns exiK^ri- 
nipn(ali»t. Some of iliy fncts olwened, nnd 
in ibftt yfnr ri>cordHd by liim, burl timre Hip- 
nificaitce tban ■V'an tlit'n under$t(H>fl,i>.K. ibnl 
(1 > mercury shaken in u i^Usa vei>At!l produces 
iQght, and tbe li^ht is vorv viWd wben the I 
air ii* ran;lied ornvhalf; (J) tbe lipht h due , 
to friction; and(3) tlie fuUowin^ bodies pro- 
duce liffht by friction iu vacuo : amber and 
glu^s, g\fk»8 and f^^lai^-t, wouUeu iind woulK^n. 
and many others mentioned. Next year ho 
coiilrivcfltho first electrical machine, employ- . 
ingr. hi! »ays, * B pn.-tty larj»e jrlasa cylinder, I 
med by a winch nnd rutibed liy ilie lumd.' i 
ftuksbeonot only attributed lheph<>nomeua 
a new force, electricity, but compared tbe , 
suiting Ught, with respect fo itH crack- 
Qg, tlashing^, nnd colour, to lightning. IJo ) 
rroed tbe electric light 'mercurial pbos- 
us,' becouse, iis be dcBcribed it, when 
through mercury in an exhauBted re- 
\ * it api»e»red like a body of lire con- 
ing of abuiidanco of glowing gIubuIe^.' 
170!' appeared bis ' PhysJco-.Mircbanionl 
periraentA on various subject^', contnining 
account of wjveral rturjirisinfj; phenomena 
touching Lifbt and KhK-tricily, prwlucible 
on the attrition of Bodies.' Thn book is 
cated to Lonl Somere.andwas soon at'ter- 
nls lran»hted into French nnd Itnlion. In 
is prfface Haukabee recommend.* the em- 
yment in the otudy of natural pliilit-^'iptiy 
dcmonsi rati' 111 and rondui^iouti foundinl 
H exjM^riniedta judiciouflly and accurately 
,' and pointA out tbai the • nature aiiil 
of eleotriral attnictioni* Imvo not yot 
much con&iden'd by any.' 
In his eorly experiments on electric llpfbt 
Hauksbec discovered the * lateral communi- 
tion of motion in air/ and thus suggested 
important improvement in air-pumps. One 
m of that instrument still l>par» hi^ name, 
.bout till' same time he determined (Iwfore 
Royal S«jciety) water to lie *<Hr» times 
vier tlian air, » result which is tolerably 
act. Many pupcr« by Ilauk^bee ap]>«'aTod 
the' l*hilo9opbicalTranwction§;'the latest 
ithumously in 171-l(8ee Watt, ////*/. lirit.) 
ime letters by Newton referring to Hauks- 
^Li' are printed in NicboU's ' Literary IIlu&- 
tnition« {}V, G09). 


lUuKsoi^K, FnANcis, tbe yonnper (1087- 
17b>'i), was perhaps u son of Francis llntika- 
bee the elder, ije was elected clerk and 
housekeeper to th-; Itoyul 8ocieiy on D May 
172^, when he ia described in the minute 
book as * a person known to divers members 
of the society.' He died on 1 1 Jan. 1703, 
aped 75 {G*^if.Mag. 17<>3, p. -Ill, where he Ia 
wrongly ppuken of as F.K.h. ) Accordinjf to 
an ndvertisi'mL'nt he made and sold air- 
pumps, hydrristaiic balances, nud reflecting 
telescopes iu f'raiie Court, Fleet Street. In 
17^1 appeared an * Kssay for intnxliicirig a 
I'ortable Laboratory by means wben-nf all th« 
{'hemical operations are commodiouj*Iy per- 
fonned by I*. Shaw and F. Hauksbec' ' It is 
dedicated to Sir Ilaiut I^loiuie, bjirt. (then 
presideut of the Iloval Society), and contains 
eigbr well-enpraved copperfdates. In I73I 
lluuk.^bce printed 'Experiments with a view 
to Practical riiilnsophy. Arts, Trades, and 
Business,* a summary of ordinary chemical 
o|>erationit, with iUustralious of distilhition, 
mineralogy, metallurgy, and dyeing. ThJa 
publication, like • Experimental Course of As- 
trourmiy priipdwd by Mr, Whiston and Mr. 
Hauk»>U*»',' Huited for twenty-livt; lectures, 
was a sylliihus of a course of e.X|icrimental 
led urea. Ds Morgan conjectureti that, 
llauksbeewas tbe first to give lectures witit 
experimt-nts iu London, and began them 
about 1714 (/}iit/r/ft of Parndoxn, p. 93), 
In his ' lVojM>8als for mrdting a lar|^ Ke- 
ilecting- Telescope ' we hav«! evidence of his 
skill as an instrument-maker and hia ac- 
quaintance with John Iladley [q. v.], inven- 
tor of Ibi* sextant. Iu n 'Course of M*>chnni- 
cal, Opiicid, and I'neiimatical Experiments, 
to be performed by Fnincis Hauksb^^e, and 
the Explanatory Lectures read by \Vm. 
AVhiston, M..\.,' we 6nd under ' Pneumatics,' 
besides experimonta on the 'qualities of air,' 
others 'concerning the vitreous ]>li(>spbori,' 
and * relating to the electricity of bodies.* 
t?|iecial pointt illustrated are an ' eh'ctrical 
machine to revolve a sphere of gloss with the 
air exhnuBted,' nnd tbe * eH'ect of electricity 
on strings of yam.' It is jKilnted out that 
the electrie light liiu a puqile tint. 

(Phil. Trans, xiir. 2129. 2165. xxr. 2277: 
TluimKin'ft Hist, Hoy. Soc. ; NJchdls's I|tll^tr. of 
Lit. i. 810. W. 60. 606 ; WaU's Bill. Brit.l 

R. E. A. 

HAtJSTEB, PETER (rf. ItUn), drama- 
tist and divine, bom atOundle in Northam])- 
tniKshire, was educated at Queenrs' College, 
Cambridge : became curate of ('jipinirhum in 
Rutland : was afterwards rector of lladham 
in Hertfordshire, and vicar of Gretton in 
Nortbamptonsbire. At the nutbreak of tho 
civil wara he was made chaplain to the Earl 




1 1^1 t : wi ] Sot. \Qii be- wm 

li.IX of DkUitd. H- di'^l in thf 
Ifa^tU'si \iuii\>ur\ •luring ^'■ 

mooeM. Is VH j whl M h wd «t 
fjmAm ia lifit2, 4ta, ^"""^ on tfae thle- 
i;« tii*^ uuoaaoemeatt, ^CrycA duvn ir 
yiM! l''>\>'lion. KuriH. btk] nwifiiifiit I|n>o- 

ikSovs and vm 

^ ■ uAUte.* A cagry m 

^ tiuy HniuJi MuK^^uiu iuL6 iLe tctore' nBinec 

■writtiT! iTi a <-fir;*'-Ti*|irTnirv hnn'!. In ft *Bti- 

JH-*I I ■ ■ ■ ■ ■■ '.n 

|iu ' ■ '5 

' Jvu T 

•r^K- ■ ■ ■' ":-. i -=>; 

Am iiMtll'rieiicL*' 

I- ■ ' ; , ,. - i., .^ i'ltulioil Mifr- 

< ilauMtod alw wrot« • Lfttin 

I. i»rf(>nued at Queen** C-ol- 
i-tf« , ' '.iIh Hdium/Ciitnliridge, 

)fl.'l;l ; ! King (MiltonV 'Ly- 

Vi4«*'; Kii'i ollwrv |tnrfi&c<I commeatUtanr 
I.11II11 rrr-*-* llio utl»*r works arv: 'Ten 
pitfrii ii"i| v|»on 8»rv*eTiIl Svnd«je* 

Niul .,'Hi;W,4fo; *Ad Pupulum. 

H \^-i\n\' Lj rh'* IV'ojilt?, with « Satyr aealost 
h"|»unili»i«/ l»U'(, 4to, reprinted in 1675; 
' llyiunii* 'I'tilitti'i ; n J^x^m in Honour of 
T*lMirn. |li<ri>i<-ttlly C'OmixiM^ hv liapbur] 
Tluiriuit; mrid.i Iviijfliali/ HViO, Vv«. The 
' Hiiiyr' ortttiiiully a{>[M-&rcd in ltI4:i wiih tbe 
iiiiliula 'A. i'.,' ( Al^raham (Viwley) ftttacbed. 
lluiialtd wrott: lliu iu£criptioa for Thomas 
](aiiilulpli't) inoriutiiunl. Au elegy by Ilau- 
•Ibd till lli(< (Jt'Jilbuf i'olonel Uobert Arden u 
|irutiurvt'il III AaIhiioIm MSH. 'M-7^ fol. 125. 

(Wu.j(l'i Aihonic. ed. BIim, i. fi07. ii. S79; 
Vf'otHVn lMM>li»*d. HliM, ii. iM ; LinjEluiDe'B Ens- 
tint) l)ntiii'tti'!k I'ooUi M«aM&'8 Life of Hilton. 
i. 211. 'ilK-ie.J A. U. B. 

HAUTEVILLE, JOHN db r^. 1164), 
i < I Ldtin iH>e(, hii« constantly been 
'td au Kii^liftUuiau by birt'b, but 
1.^ to liiii tmn «tutem«nt in the pro- 
t to ibo ' ArL'.lLitruiiiiiH'bi? WHKn N'orman, 
p|t"tii. i- K-'iYtttx an lluntwill, and it 
'III bui'amurmm Aavitlc, 
•i r-! i('//. xiv. 6<J0), but the 

DOS of tbu m&aiucripla pDUits to tJie 

Aesp. B. I- 

"- V 

Tir beka^ BanteTtUe 

- ^oifaiap in knovn 
-KM allttnaBa poias ftoU» 
I'ncla&d. Iltt iifwiiiiitf 

at Ox&ffd and ra 

- A1I«9« McmMbe 

Lima Hmerj H, 

oiaa't* Walter 

r' Time '11 faof inadatioB 

. 11JI9I in Il«i. 

'"---<VB wori is • Img • 
ia.'vluA » a satii* 

- -"^ hss a,^ It u a 

nient.aiid afa- 
ij I^liaportiT. 

. .^-iiiiini: 'prince 

■ ■ ■ r- icm 


r zaruL. and the 

r*-' Tliemjuia- 


e Britidi 

■, " V. 44 



I*arij», l-M", small 4to. ., 
tremr-lTrarr^aadisthe 'i..... 
of ibe'Twelftk CoBtmr.' v 
1K7J). AcQordiitf to Vits ; 
Lugat, a mxmk of St. Albany wr<^te abtnil 
14011 a eomiBeatarT oa tbe ' ArchttreniiM.* 
This may W identical with tbe mutilated 
commentAry prwsen-ed in Higbr MS. tJ4, 
Bale and Pit§ at^Tihe to Haati>riili> a poem, 
'I>e Kebuc Occulti^.'tnp'tbcr with eptgrania 
and epif^tec, but notluDfr t>^ kuown about 
tbfm. There is no authority for fuppo&ing^ 
that bevastheaulhorofthe metrical treatise, 
' l>e Epist (ilanim CompoatioDe,' which is con- 
tained in Pigby MS. (>4. 

[ Bale. iii. 49 . Pita, pp. 267. M8; Taaiwi'B Bibl. 
Brii.-Ilib. 377 8. T. •Haawill;' Falwia*. BibL 
IaI. M«L Mt IT. 8J, fid. 1764; KiiUer'a 
Worthies-, 'Oxford.' 336; Leyscrs Hist. Poet. 
Med. 3Cr. pp. 760-1 ; Hibtoire Liiteniirv de la 
Ynmef, xir. 6S9-79 ; Wrighfi Hi'Mr. BriL LiU. 
An^lo N'lnnan, pp. 8AO-6, and preface to Latin 
Satiriciil Poold.vol. i. ; OrseaMsTrifnr dcLi*rei 
Bart«et Prnrienx, i. IS'i] C. L. K. ■ 

HAVARD, WTLLL\M (iriOP-1776%^ 
actor and drama! ij)t, son of a Dublin ^-int- 
ner, was apprenticed to a Burfreon. Ilia 
tir&t rvcorded appearance as an actor t»ok. ■ 
place at (joodmon's Fields on 10 Ih-c 1730 ■ 
aa Fenton in tbe *3Ierrj' Wives of AVind- ■ 
sor.* Here be remained until the pasaing, in 
17({7, nf (be Licensing? Act, when he went 
to Drury l..ane, plnyiii^ tbe Klder Worthy 
in ' Lovb'b Liwt Cibift,' on 21 Nov. 1737: 
Lancaster in * Second Part of Kingllenry IV^ 




18 J«B. 1T3S, ud U«atw n 'lUmlei' 
3S Ju. \72i^ 4^ 36 Jwm, 17« W iru the 
original n*rdT 'm SdOers ' Cotfee Uooae^' 
lie mini III d at Ihmxjlaam umtil (be w « wi . 
of 1745-0^ pkHaf, uaaog oih« puts. Ikft 
Dokft m ' Rate m Wife aad btv^ • Wife; 
Bodci^h Lb tlw * Uahspfr Favonnie.* V'uA 
w t^ * CoaMccacr/ AlfaauiT in * Km^ L^ar/ 
Lomtso in tbe ' Mnrhajit oi Venice.' Vultore 
m ' VoIpon<^V Macduff. Ed^r. Ridunood, Va* 
lcotin« in * Love for Lortr.* Baaaanio. Caaaio, 
&c, togetlitT witli original diaractrns in a 
frw plats bv Mallet and otlu-r wriifW. On 
6 Oct. l7t« he plarwi "Worthy in the *Ke- ; 
cri»itiiij: Officer' at t'ovent (rardtn,ajid was, 
12 Feb. 1 747, t fa« oriffinal Bellamy in 1 1 (ladlr** 
'Suspicious UuabamI/ On 15 S«-pt. 1747, as 
Itanwinin, b« nappeand at Drury Lane, at 
whicbhocuebeauDMqaeiitly n^maintNl. After 
h» KtBnt h« acted in a revival ol Ford'4 
< Lorer's Melancholv/ and was the oritrinBl 
Coland Raymond In Hoore's * Foundling.' 
PolyphontM in * Merope ' bv .\arnn Hill, Ab- 
dslu in Dr. Johnson's ' Malhomct and Irftif.' 
Arnold in William Shirley's •l-^lwjini the 
Black Prince,' Othman in Hrowii's *Barha- j 
rOBsa/ Polixrne» in anBlteralidn of the* ^^ in- 
ters Talf/ Anlt!ii in ' Ard?n of FcveRham ' 

i\wm its revival on 11» July IToV*, Mejristus in 
>liiri)hy'8 * Zenobia,' and .ICson in Li lover's 
* Medea.' AgrealTarietr of characters, chiefly 
MOoadtTy, were taken b J him. Now and then 
"e wai allowed to a.<3unit: a part of priroarj* 
Biportance, BUfh as Ford in tli** ' Mtrrn- 
Vives of Windsor.' On S Mny ITti'Jhe took 
hi» benefir, and recited an epilo^rue composed 
^y himself, ft waii then announced that ill- 
«altheompKllecl him to retire from the stage. 
le dieil iuTavitlock Strfet^Covent (jarden, 
n 20 Feb. 1778, and was buried in th'? adja- 
ent chuTchynrd of St. Paul's. An ejiitnph 
y Gsrrick) mon* eulogistic of the private 
irtues of Ilarard than of his hii^trionie 
^power, was placed ofer his grave. The last 
I foot lines are as follows : — 
^^^JKowe'er d^fcciire in the mimic nrt, 
^^K}n real life he justly playt^ h\% y»\H. 
^^■TThe noblut charactor he nctpil veil, 
^^m And IleaTen appUuded — when th(^ carUin ffU. 
^^" In the 'Cov«nt Garden Journal,' No. 28, 
llavard \b deeliinHl the succeswron the Htagt' 
the first Mills and said to be, like his 
decessor, a fiober, worthy, hr>ne!<t man. 
leisnltto Mid to Imve excelled in characters 
ucli SH Horatio, and the Friur in ' Houieo 
I Juliet,' in which the araioblu qimlities of 
kitman nature are to be dixpbiyed, and to 
live hod in tragedy no superior at Drury 
anu except fmrrick. Davies «qienks of Ins 
ting in the * First Part of Henr>- IV ' n« de- 
nt but without spirit I. Drtiffi. Sfi*c. i, '2&2\ 

bat ends Ub Ib Bd^r vitk a Twy i 
ii^ waimirr dsiind fraa the atm^ « m- 
rias|SKtacs(A.u.333K In tba'AMtzwd 
Reriew ' tx 1787 lus Edgar is highhr pruscd, 
as is hu S&r (Varies Euy. luvmul is 
said to luiva hem too siiikiao^iie enr Co 
mak* « freat fifura in hia pwiftiisioa. Ho 
had a good appearance and pnnHUC, % dcw 
Toire^Kiida^Md delivery, but Uf^fd puskm, 
and wa« apt to be moaotonoua. ChurckJU, 
in the * Rosciad,' asserts that he is always 
the same when hi; * lote«. bates, ai>d n^as, 
triumphs, and complains.' 

Uavardwiutc: l.'Scanderl" ' ' dy, 

Bto, 1733, produced at Ooodu: -^ on 

15Marchl«S3and M:te<ltwice. Jfl^v^apoor 
piece, founded on t he some &tor>' as t be po^t hu- 
mou8 trage<]y of Whincopof the same name^ 
and I he 'Chn>tian H<>ro' of Lilto. llavardfls- 
cap«'d with some dilGculiy fn>m the chsroaof 
having stolen his plot ft\>tu Whiurop, whoM 
play was in chebaud&ofOitfurd.tbe msasgvir 
of MoTKlman's Fields. 2. * King Charle* 1/ 
hiMorical tragedv. Svo. \7^, Lincoln's Inn 
Fields, 1 March 1 < HT. Tins Havard's master- 
piece, i5 a touching and fairly capable work, 
the performance of which in York is said by 
iti^listhos to have brought about tht> death of 
a female spectator, Clicsterfield is suppt^ised 
to have referred to Havard's play when lie *aid 
in the lloujcc of l^rds ' a moat tragical itury 
was brought u{Mm the stage, a catAstrophu 
too recent, too melancholy, and of too solemn 
a nature to be beard of anywhere but from 

the pulnit' (,'/A^ £ uf 'V—/—d'« .S>wA 

in the notue uf LitrtU atjairtjif thf liiil /or 
Licfuint/ alt Itntuuttir I'rr/unnanrrji, 1749, 
p. 6). In ' King ('barl»i 1,' which was rx- 
iravagantly praised, Uavard played Biahup 
Juxon. 3. * Utigulus,' Hvo, 1744, Drurv Lane, 
'21 Feb. 1744. This is a stlUod and decla- 
roatory tragedy, which the acting of Our- 
rick as Uegulus galvanised into life. It rati 
eleven nights. liivard was Decius. 4. 'The 
Elopement,' a farce never printed, but acted 
by Havanl for bia bene&t, Drurj* Lane, on 
6 April 17(i:i. 

[Boobi eit»l ; Oeoeat's Account af the Stage ; 
Biogmphia Dramaticn.J J. K. 

HAVELL, I;()HF:KT t./f. 1S00-1W0>. 
painter, engrnver, and publisher, wa* son of 
]>nniel Havel 1, who ft(i|>t>ars to havo bwn a 
brother of Luk^ IlrtV«li, the fatbur of W' il- 
liam Havell I'q.v.|,lhewaliTH?olour pointer. 
Hanicl llavcll published in \'>'2ti ' Iliatori- 
cal and D*4criptive AccoiintH of the Theatreni 
of London,' with views dniwn a ml engraved 
by himsell'. UoUti HhvoII, who worked 
jointly with his father for sonio time, set 
up for himsidf nii establishment in l.)xforil 




Stnwt, opposite the ranthcon, called the 
Zoologicfu Gullory, whore, lK«ide8 the publi- 
cation of works of art, an agvncy was formed 
for the sale of Bpecimeii(», and other objt'cta 
connected with natural hiatorr. In 1812 
l)aniel and llobort Havt'Il pubhahod a series 
of * I'ictiirpsi^iir Viewson Ibc Riv^TThnraes,' 
enpTiivt'd by ihiMn in aqimrint from drawings 
by W- Havfll. Thoso wore the first of a series 
nV aquatint encravinps published by the Ua- 
TcUswhichflttained a well-enmtd reputation. 
They kept a birgv staff of good iinist-s working 
on thpm. Amony the mon* im[K)rlant pub- 
lications were Audubon's * Birds of America,' 
Daniell'e* Views in India/ OiidsweU's' Views 
in Greece,' J. Baillie I-'raser's ' Views in the 
Iltmala MdiintJiins,' and Sall'fl * Vi^ws in 
Africa.* In 1828 the p&rtnersliip of Ilavell 
ftnd htsBun Robert (stsc below) was dissolved 
and their ptock diB]jersed. 

IIavbm., Uobbrt, the younger (^, 1820- 
1850), painter, engraver, and publisher, was 
a fnir landsnnpe-paiiitcr, and, after the disso- 
liitlnn i)f liiH parln'Tsbip with liiH fatliur, he 
wi-nt withhift wife and daughter to America, 
where lui eottled, and continued to pursue 
bis career as a landscape-painter with some 

[Boflgnirft's Ulct. of .Artists; xalo fatnloTuc, 
27 Hay 182S ; pabttcatious by UarcU ik Son ; 
private ioformation.] L. C. 

HAVELL, WI LLT AM (1 7P2-1 ftr.7), 
landscape-liai titer, was the son of a drawing- 
tna*ler at Heading, who kept n small shop to 
eke out his narrow means. AVilliam, born 
on 9 Feb. 1782,wii» one of fourteen children. 
In early life hi spent some time sketching 
in Wales, but it was somewhat ogninst his 
fatherV will that be ndoptfMl art. as a profes- 
sion. In 1H04 he si>nt his first contributions 
to the Koval Academy — a view of Carnarvon 
Cast.lo and another of the valley of Nant 
Francon in the name county. In the aarne 
Tear he lH>came one of the foundation mcin- 
Vtw of the {now Koyal) Society of Painters 
in Water-colours. In 1807 he was in West- 
moreland, where he stayed about two years, 
at iidying mountain ?cenory. In 1813 he se- 
ceded from the Water-colour Society, but 
under a then existing rule continued to con- 
trihuto to their exhibitions, as well tw to the 
Iloyol Academy, where bo exhibited in 1812 
and 1811. In IBUi he was engagwl nn a 
work called * I'icrnresque Views ond Charac- 
t'Tistie Scenery of Hriiish Villas,' Ac, when 
ho went with Lord Amliersl's embassy to 
China. In consequence of a quarrel the en- 
gagement was soon broken off, and he retired 
to India in 1817, where he stayed till 1825, 
pursuing his profession with protit. On his 

return he reioined the Water-colour 8ociety|i 
but he fonnil that bis place in public favourJ 
was filled by younger men, and afler a wbila] 
be ceased to contribute to their exhibition* ' 
and took to painting in oiU, He visited 
Florence, Rome, and Naples in 1827, and 
became a conslant contributor to thu Roval ■ 
Academy, bis subjects being chiefly Italian, I 
but sometimes from Wnles, Westmoreland, ™ 
and China. lie also exhibited at the BritUh 
Institution and Suffolk Street. Although 
his works were of great merit nnd distin- 
guished by pure and delicate colour, ibey ^ 
failed to attract the public, oud. bavins- lost H 
his savings by the failure of an Indian bank, 1 
he became a piin«ionpr on tlie Turner Fund. 
He died, after some years of rleelining health, 
at Kensington on Iti Dec. 1857. Ilavcll wo» , 
one of the best of the earlier paintcnt in ■ 
water-colour, and did much to advance tho-i 
art : and his pictures in oil, though neglected. I 
during his liti',have recently risen greatly in 
estimution. There isatinedrswing of Windsor 
by him in the South Kens«ingt')n Museum, 
besides a few good examjili^ uf his earlier 
drawings in ^Valos and Westmoreland. 

Thrtnr of Ila veil's brothers obtained a Cttr-1 
tain success in the profession of art. Geoi^ J 
Ilavcll(^. 1839?) was an animal painter, and | 
attempted engraving and sculpture. Edmund | 
Ilavetl was an occasional exhibitor at tbei 
Hoyal Aiademy, and he succeeded his father^ 
as drawing-ma-eter at Reading: bia son, Kd- 
muud lift veil theyoungerlA. 18 Ifl), IK a well- 
known artist. FrHderick .TaniHsHavell ( 1801- , 
1840). the third brother, prartised line-cn-j 
graving and mezzotint , and made experiments j 
in pbolography. 

(R«igriiTD'8 Diet, of Ar(i«(t«: GravM's Diet. ; 
Annnlsof iho I-'inoArtJc Monkhousc's Earlier 
English WnCer-cttlocir Paintt-rH.] C. 51. 

1857). major-general, second son of Williani 
Havelock (I7o7-1837), shipbuilder, of Sun- I 
derland, was bom at Ford Hall, Hi!*bop-Wenr- ' 
mouth, on 5 April 1795. To hia mnthor, Jane, 
daughter of John Carter, solicitor, of Stock- 
ton-on-Tees, heowod acan>ful n*ligious train- 
ing. The family rcmovwl to Ingrew Pork, 
Hartford, Kent, when he was still a cbihl, and 
here his mother died in 1811. Before hewa« 
ten years old he was placed with hia elder 
brother in the boarding-house of Dr. Rainc, ■ 
hend-master of the Charterhouse, Amonj* ■ 
hi& contemporaries at the Charterhouse were ■ 
Connop Thirlwall, Ceorge Grote, William 
Hole, JuliuB Hare. n.nd William Xorris, the 
last twobeinghisspi^ciallfriendft. Shortly ftf>er 
leaving the Charterhouse his father lost his 
fortuuu by unsucceesful speculation, sold In-> 

lUteDd'q.T.j 0«iac«oM 
wi^ fais ^Umt « mi Ikn 

Jwi'tWhw**|iil nil DritefMd 
ofcei of Us bvtfatf V^^^ «W tei 4e- 
tianUbed Uaalf ia ik« l^aiaMdaaai ta 

wmSoo, te iiiiiii I M ao ^ 1«U • 

yagi»^— Jw—iiirtKlf tfcet ■■■■! rf 

CqMaoi (aAsmx^ Sb-I 

csteonngwd Un to Mad 

mad tbe ui «< v«r, aaiA ffiiilii- 

r^aii *lt tlteiuad«rd wcls«« 

lie wMpnwMCffd &MttaBMt«< 

Dttriiy thefeM.€ig|g y g « »af hMMtSmy 

Oxcat BricuB sad firlaail Saaaf aa fto- 
Bpott ci aeiiTe feniee. k* reaolvcd to go to 
Ijidu« and at ibe cad of IfiZS i 
into the ]3th leyuiwu t, ihea wMwIed 
br Major (ftfkvrwKT^ Sir) Robert Sale, sad 
in tbe G«iM-ral Kvd ia Janaarr 
ladia. Before emlarkaxiaa be 
Penuo uid UsadoBUuii wiib eqc- 
uader John Bodhwack Gilcbnsc [<). t.] 
the vovihR a btotbe r officer, Lieate- 
nant Jam»4 (iardner, was tb« mean* of 
awakening In him rdifrtous convictioiu which 
:1 sltimWred ROM his mnther* s death, bat 
(pni-i'lorih became the guiding principle of 
*B lift?. 
iUvelock am'redtn Calmtta in M«v 1823, 
and while stationed iht-n* made tbe ao- 
ituuntBDcc of nisltop Heber, Arcbdeacon 
wie. and thp Hev. T. HioiDSSon. He 
ited thf miAsionaries at Serampore, and 
►k (frwit interest in their work. Before, 
however, be hod been n year in India, war 
wtt» declared aeainet Burmah, and llave- 
lockwfu)a|;p(MnttHi dt^puty aswietant adjutiint- 
^c^neral to the armv under the command of 
^^Kr Ar<:hiliald Camphell. Aft^ the nccti- 
^^Bation of lUn^cut^n Ilavplock wa»i in the habit 
^^■ir B6^e^lblinK any relipiouKly disposwl m>I- 
^^pien, |»art iciUarly tbow; of hU own rpfriinent, 
' for sor\ ire* in one of the cloisters of the pa- 
goda nf<!aiidam». On the occasion of a uicht 
lark on an out prwt t hi'se men were rolled for 
the penfral to take theplneoof tr\>n¥»ren- 
' unfit for dut3* by drink. bii^au»e*rlave- 
k's SaJnta,' as he calle<I t lium, were always 
d to be dependf<l oei in an Pttiorg*»nry. 
e stockade tifihtinp llavflork was 
ed with illness, and wos invalided to 
dU. At the c-nd of a year. »]M>nt chiefly 
ith hisbrother William nf the 4th drogooiM 
Fooaab, be was sufhcieutly recovered to 




kiar Mid lor fme^ Ban-tkoA 
•• fv 1« Ava M M«HV» iW Tati* 
af Ab m an. Tb* uan l at aia w l 
to i>fia ia Fal>«BfT ItM^ aai'Bav^ack 
lyiaad tea t\ \m m at ftia M wa , Wmw^ 
netnv ef tfca mmmmm ^ninaa vaa fal^ 
bslksi ax StaBMffaaa ia laSL 

U Maidb l6y Hawfcdk ^ia» aayoiatad 
if ^ *ifte tf k^V oaiVi, ifaM 
HtaUUadai GftaMatali. imr Sc- 
tfaa Wailfaartas «f tW bafftist 
ke «a* a cfnOaait riciKir al $»- 
aad Mar t im tba loeaety of Br, 
id Ik. MardiB i aB , irkiiia ibiM>|itiie 
ha MBed oi 9 FUl leSB, kariaf 
la iBi a iw ed iato Uw huCitt 
la 1831 tbe dc^^ al Oua- 
aank «ai abntriwrt. and llarelrtck wwc Mn rf 
bis ugiiw Bi l at D iaaiiu fg, moriae vita il at 
Uw cad of tha yaar to Aura, la 14^ be 
was appointed tsterpnter to tbe lAth rfgt- 
meat at Cawnpore, and tbe fullcn-ing ynar 
adjutant to bts own repment (ISth), a ixm- 
tioD be beld ibr tbrve rears axrd a half. 
Towards Ibeendof lS96tb« regiment mo\-cd 
to Kumaul, and llax^elock tenX hi$ wife and 
chitdiFn to the hill station, I^ndniir, when> 
their bungalow was burnt down, and MrK. 
Havelock nearly Inst her life, 1 lav^lock wa» 
promoted captain on a June 1K) tltea^^* 
of forty-three, after twenly-ihrt»o ycar^' ser* 
riop as a subaltern. 

On tbe outbreak of tbe 6r8t Affthan war 
in the same yeor Ilavi^lock waft appointed 
commandinir the IJi^ngal division. After 
n toilsome march of four and a iinlf niontiM 
the force reached Kandahar, and twoniontha 
later wn« joined by tho fJombnv division, 
under Sir Jolm Keane, who Ai»>umt'd tho 
chief command. An advance was then 
made on Ohazni, ant) HavnhH'k waa pn^ 
&ent at the blowjnjf in of the ('ahul (fate and 
the capture of the forlrewi hy aK^auIt. ( Vhul 
was occupied in Jidy iHUll, tiiid nu army of 
occupation, under the coniinmiil of Sir \ViU 
lou)7liby Cotton, wa« \t\h to AiipjHirt (hepni>- 
pet Shah Sujnh ou tlio Afulmn tlinmo. nir 
Willouuhhy ('otion prewixl lInvi>liN'k lr> n*- 
main wit II him as »iM(*-di^cam)i,o(fiTiii^ luni 
in aildilion the apitoitilincnt of Pnniiiin itt- 
terjin-ter, but Hnvelook, having kepi rumriil 
not<^ of the rampiii^, \«ii« i<ii^-<r to piitiliah 
before thi) int4>n*fti klioiiM aUii't. ll<> lhon»- 
forndecliiiiKl theo(ri*r,an<l ha-tencd toSerant- 
pore, wbunt hu wrato bin work. It woa pub* 



1 Iavpi::'-<"k 

rt.r'-!*. '•.;.rr.»>': "h* J'»nTh*<^n, rall^ ih* r«-tuni lie tvinin>^l r> > i- tvk wi* -jc- ■: the 

Zv.l'.y.'-'ii '>nl!«-rv, wli»!r«;. lyr^i'lefl the pibli- but hf» found ilmt nm- - ■■■••iv.-u bv L.:r: ^_.;^n- 

r.n^i'iTt ',f -A'.rki '»f art, an hs*rnfry wmm formed mu filled by yoiin^' ui'"'! rii- biiZLi- : :lie 

f'.r f'u'- i-^i!.- of ■j.'-'-irr.<:n*, and o»her objects he ceased to cmtr*' -' .uiwleaCB . -r n. roil 

r.'.riri<-''''l "Ai*!! luitural biVorv. In 1^12 ftnd twjk to p.: •• • I ^- '. a..-. 1 r-j^^.T^-J 

|i:ii)!'-l ;i/.'l i^olf'T* Haf<:ll published a series Florence, Itoni-' ' " 

f^f -I*,':''ir- j'l*; Vi»'waonth<i Kir^r Thames/ became a cim-rii 

«-ri;'r:;v'-'l \>y ihi-m \n arjuarint from dravinfrs Acadumy, Iiim <"• 

bv W. M-'iV'II. Th'-*'- w'-r«i tlwfipitofaaeries but ftuniutiim-;-' 

((j'h'i'iii'ir:* 'n^'riiviriy- fiiibli<)hr^l bytbella- and China. Mm 

v'-]U'-v|)j(:]i!itiain<-'l a wfll-^'am*rdreputatian. Institution n" 

'lli'-yk-qr n l:ir;."-iitafr of (Tory] arti.^ts working his works* wmi 

'in tli'-iii. Ain'm;: rbr; mor<* important pub- giiifihcd bv i- 

lK'iiti'>rM wiTt;Anrliilion%']{tnlAor America,' fiiiledtuaii. 

Ihiit'fW'-i* \'i''WHin Inrlia/It'idjtweirs' Views his snviu^r : ' 

in iirt-i:i:f* .1, Itnilli'' l-'rawr's * Views in the j he becawL 

lliriiiilii MririnlaitiH/ and Saltn 'Views in | Hcdiud, n, 

Atrir-d.' Ill \H-JH tin- partnership of Ilavell j ot Kon.-^iii;. 

nil') bi.Hfion ItoU'rtrwf*) b<>Iowj wasdissolved 

iiii'l ihiir Ktrifk di<4[H.'rst;d. 

om> of 11 
II \vi:f,r,, UoiiKiiT, the yountrer (Jl. 1820- art : luic 
InriO), paintiT, fnjrrnver, and publisher, was { durlii): ■. 
a Ifiir liLn(l-4fii|ifr-jinint«>r. and, after the dtsso* ' estini.u. 
jiiiinn of lii'* iiiirtni-rHhip with his father, he by liiiu , 
w<'nf wirh bJK wiff and dauf^hterto Ameiica, 
\v1ii!ri* be Nf'ttlnd, and continued to pursue 
})i<4 ntn-cr ana lundAcapr>-painter with some 

[ Iidl;;rinv"« Ilii't.of Artists; wilo cataloituRt 
27 Miy IK'iS; piiltliciitioua by llarell & Son; 
jM'tviilo iiirorriuitioii.] L. C. 

HAVELL, AVILLTAM (1782-1867), 

liiii()si'iipivpaiiit4>r, was the son of a drawing- 
iiiiisIiT fit Hi'tidinfT, wlio kept n small shop to 
cki' nut liis iiiirrow int>an». William, born ' 
nil !> IVl). 17?^:*, was one of fourteen obildrcii. ' 
In fiirly lift' Iii> spi'ut some timesketchin 
in Wiilcs, Itut it WHS nomewliat against h' ■ 
fnthfr's will tliiit liP adnpteil art as a prttf*."-- 
sidii. In 1H() I he s*»nt Ins first contributinr 
flit ho Hoviil Arndemy — a viewof Camarr* 
('a>;tlo Hiul iiimthtT of the valley of K» 
I'nmooii in tlii> snnu* county. In the s* 
vtvir hi' U'camo ont' of thi* foundation n 
Ihts i>f iho (wn\- lloynl) Society of 1V» 
in Wiitor-colours. In 1807 he was in 
nmrt'land, whon* be stayed about two 
sriidyinir moiintnin scenery. In 181 '*'* 

c<''l'*.l from tilt' AVnter-colour Sor 
un-l.T n thi'n oxistinfr rule continv 
tril'iit-' to tln'ir exhibitions, as w"^ 
U.'viil AfadtMny, where he exhif* 
!i:i.l ISU. In IttHi he was ei 
WMT-k r;ilK'd ' IM^'tiin^sque Viewr ^ 

t -tW.'w Si'.-n.-ry of Rritish Vil, 
I,.- w-n^^ with Lord Ambers 
I'.i'.t: .. In C'^nsequoncR of a 
c .;■■ ;;>:it was soon broken of 
t • Iv. :!:» in 1S17, where he 
p.iriuing his profession w' 

- .>u»t ?^r\"io»r-. : ." :.:* ap- 

..1 -lid. an-l L- ^-Tiirnwl 

. 1 rumpany : :'.r l^kli 

. - wife, who JLi. 1 ^ -n'.' t'l 

■ uildren b*^:" rr -L- c.'abul 

i:ieJ him. a::Z '- y S|H'iit 

ii'.bs toeeih^r i: S.iala. 

, >4ii Havelock :>:iiinfj a 

.:iy without J irjha*f. and 

. r^si of friend* w^- .-ip{ioiiitc<l 

■•• u-r to the nr-w c-'2i:uandt'r- 

: Lih iTOUjrh, H;kv-1 ickjiiint'd 

.--\up<ire on 23 t.tor.. in liuii' to 

.:- LiwalLorcampiii:::!!. Hewaft 

.- yjitlti of Mahapajpnrc, fi»r 

-t:..tf4lu mednlan<l brt-wt-Uentc- 

-.^•■. When thf affair* of iiwalior 

.^ :c dCCumpaniedGou^h on a tour 

• .idcjiendent sttites of tUvnorth- 

besit-i- .. . '*)' u '*''* ^imlu. About thi$ tiino 

dniw!..., ...•■.■■ '>i' insubordination maniffstcd 

Till.. .J .:* •:ie iwpoys <if tlie natiw army. 

tnin •• -.-wui. jidtiueers were found friiiUy, biit 

Ilif , ^. -I'^cv i*\ecuted. Ilavelnck, always 

att' f ^,^'1. .iLiit; disciplinarian, bad ur^ed tlit.' 

U, ^•;*^.' . .. :''»ilowin(r the course pursued in 

11' "iftw <>*«u ^^ ^- l^K^t decimated tbe47tU 

Hf .„y^.. . uaiury at Barrackpore, and he was 

Uf - iL — '• *' '^^ timidity of the g^ovt-rn- 

■^' .tf ISi.'j the fifiit Sikh wnr 

. livfl'vk took part in tin- bat- 

\ ,iiid I'Vrozshuh. At Mudki 

i.'pit's shot under him, and at. 

._-- ... 1 '- '>i two of liis most intimat-' 

..^ "»..■ .;.'Art Sail' and .^I«jo^Rr^>adtVn.t. 

_o .%. : .-*'*-Tir ai thebattli* of Sdbraon, 

^!. -.ui * ''..Tse shnt uiidtT him. At 

^ . .-. .Ainpaij:!! IlavL'loek attended 

"^ , . .^ -'^* Moml aiidconimandt'r-in-i-liii.*f 

..■ .*., v.-%i w.ruossi'd tin- instalment of 

. .-■»■. rMn:>-'nt of the Punjab in full 

^. H.*.»'i 1^1'». Ill BcknowU'dirnient. 

*^ ,. ...•.*.o '1 ■'>' SiiTli'i campaisrn he re- 

■** _ .» u-.K-S. u.'h Iwi* t'hi-^ps, and wa-< 

.„ \ ir IV-.ViT'ot Wt-Hinirton ib-puty 

_,. ^« ..• ril .'f .•(U'.'-.JiV trooji:*. Kmnbav. 

* ^ ... ■ > *-T.*s'i at ll.milviy in .luiy 

■* .^ J. ... ."■ '■. >.r W:::.Miihl)y t'ottnn, 

J..-.V ■•.'.■ »':v.:v.;v.-.J. .^f The llimi- 

' ^.. ... , *ii\.'. A r^ ;ri:i:r.-.) with hini 

v.Tiv.v Uir jitnie 

-■v.- i.-!*.r.- 
, : ^;n.■t; i.x- 




part in tbe 

I obriiiiied l«Arp 

' 1 tbjoin h\^ rpgi- 
"'" Mainb, how- 
' between TndoTC 
bjr t«lej^am ti 
V. Cotton wi« 
L to IcATe wiibout 
At the battlr of 
Sikh war, hi' 
Hftrelock ''^. V.', 
lof hii irf^^'p-r?. 
up 11 meffimr 'il h:= 
r which W8? publitihi^ in It. 
of the Year/ In the autumn 
th HEK^sfitAt'f'] a ^isir 
bithfir hia fuhilrhatl prec^it^ 
^ in Londna ia Xrjvemln^r, 
yeiira' continuous i^er- 
TVflidetl durin;! hi*- fur- 
■jtt Fljmouth nnd on the conrin'-nT, 
~ " " I intenraurse Trith SirW. V ■^^rii 
1 little. At the end nf K,l 
i bin fBTnlly At Tlonn, and rrtume-l ro 
Intd po»>t at Bombay. In \h5i L/pH Elar* 
■ppninted him qaanermaj^tf-T-^'-ntrrii.] 
I queen'? tronps in India. Oa i^t Jun*- 
I M,me Tear hti obtained hU r^pmLut:!! 
liputenant-colnnelcy and brevet -coIon'-l?v, 
and when the appointment of adjiitant-^'i-n^f- 
rul of quecn'fl troops in India becam*; va:-ant 
a few months later he was transftfired to 
that post. 

l>ii 1 Xov. 1856 war with Persia was de- 
cUired, and eariv in 1857 Harclfxrk was ai>- 
pointed to command a division of the fnro-f 
under Sir James Outram,orden'd toth*- Per- 
nian Gulf. He joined Outram at Itu^-bin- r,n 
15 Feb., and was at once dippcted to prepan.- 
for an attack on Mohumra, a strfin^lv forti- 
fied town on the Euphrates. The tnM-ip^ w*.Te 
forwarded gradually, in vessels which an- 
chored some miles below Mohumra, and 
were joined by Havelock in the IJer**nic*^ 
on 16 March. Havelock drew up a com- 
plete plan of operations, which hf sent to 
Outram, who was detained at Bu^hir^ bv 
the death of General Stalk^^r. The plan vrti" 
approved by Outram, who himsi-lf rvar-ln.*<l 
the rendezvous on 2i* March. The attack 
took pUce on the 26th, Havelock with the 
highlandera and sappers leading the way in 
the Berenice. Tbe attack was compl<;*t*>ly 
successful, but on 5 April came newn of a 
treaty of peace, stigned at Paris on 4 Mnrcb, 
and the expedition was at an end. Ilav*.- 
Inck's son, the present Sir H'-nry, acted as 
bis aidfr-de-canu> throughout tho campai^m. 
Havelock K-n Mohumra on lo May, and 

on tbe 29th reached Bfttnibsy. where h? Warned 
that th- oativ- T*j:aient? ar M-^^TTit.Fepoie^ 

pore,and l>>;ihi hid muTinitr^, and ihat Delhi 
wa^ in ih»r faand^ r.f th^ nrb^I^. Tbi^ up' 
<T«uDtrT nur^f. Ky whirh h^r d^ired to join inu 
comaandirr-in-f-hi'-f. GT-neral An^-m, iheo 
march:nj<:.Q r»^lhi. wjisnn l.iEi:-:-rnpen, *oh»* 
embarkni rn 11' Jniii^ in the 3ieam>bip Erin 
for Galk. Th" tirin wb.^ nT^k-:-!! ttn ih# 
^iEr^l-r*/ CM**" rrar reliam. but nn Uvea 
■w-iTs 1>^T. 1U\ -'.x-k ha^t^n-^ t--- Gall*^. and 
^mbarkr-l in TJir Hr-- IJu'^rn. which had )i»en 
sect fr-im (.'aL'i'lii. and r'/ach'.'d Madras 
■ n 13 Jtin^. ll^rv h^ !*^mwl tlj,ai G'-neral 
G'T^.r^ An^ in q. v,~ had died i '27 May t, and 
i^irPirHv-k'Tfant, c-iwim5nd-r-in-chief..f the 
Madras pr-;'iJ*-ncy, bad if^n siimrn'med bv 
tbe £rnv-^rrnr-jr'-n»'nd to tak*f *:upreme com- 
msnd f'-r lb- tim-^. Havi-L-ck accompanied 
Grant to Culeiit!fl. nrrivinir Tii^-P-:- rm 17 June, 
jii«" fire WH^-k-i iifl«-r th*- rMiTl,r>i-uk'if M*^riit. 
HewjisaT nnc- ^Incted tnc^immatid affOumn 
tr. tfi. firrnM ar Allaliabfid; l»;ft falfiitia, 
scrompiiTii^l hr hi* ^^n Henry nf th'.- 10th 
r-ZTm-nt h* a:'!'.-rl*-rBmp. f-n ii~i June: and 
rrii<.'b»rd Aibiliibad un tb'-'i"!b. His inptrur- 
tion" w-T" f" (jii*:!! all di^ttjrbano':* at .\lla- 
habftd. TO I'l-*^ ni liniH in furji'ininsSirllupb 
\Vh«-*-I'.r at fawnfKirf. and T^W llenrr Law- 
T^ucff ai I.uL-kn'iw. unA lo tak»- pnpmjrf mpft- 
«nre« to di^jK;r»<,- nnd dt-«tr»y all mutineers. 
Tidin?5 .,f th'* c.'ipiTulati'in and ina$«acre of 
tb<- garrJ-on at '"awnTfire reached Havelock 
on -'i.Tiily. *in !be7rh.U'iivingColon*-l Nt-ill 
to lak'f ca^- of Albthabad. he marched out to 
reraptviry Cawnpor** with a force consisting 
of ab>jiit a thousand bayontT.*. made up of the 
♦Uth r*-2im^*nt. tbe 7^\l\ hiirhlanders. the 
Mth r-irim'^nt. and tbe Isjt Madras fusiliers, 
a dozen rrikhs. a hrtndful of yoluntf^rcavalri', 
and ^ix giin.f. By forced marches at the 
hottest *'^a>on of tb*^y»-ar, h** reached Futteh- 
p'tr*' '••n the \'Jth. and signally defeated the 
rvbels. Gn the loth Havelr»ck again came 
up with the fn**my at .\nnc and again de- 
feated ih'-m, >Mit the al)!!*-nce of cavalry pre- 
vented him frftm following up his victories. 
H« pushed on to the Pand(><>-nuddee river 
to P-ach the bridffe before it should be de- 
stroyed I>y th*» ent'iny. He arrived as they 
Were attemptinir to blow it up. The attempt 
WRS un-uccessful. but tbe enemv liMd the 
bridge in force, and heavy guns raked it from 
tbeotberside. Tbe Madras fuj*iliers stormed 
the bridge, and Hosed with tbe enemy's 
gunners on the other side. Tbe briddre was 
saved, and the enemy inretr»*at. Gn the 10th 
tidings ri-acherl the force thiit over two hun- 
dred Kurr>pean and cliildren were still 
alive in Cawnpore.ftnd in th»- hope of saving 
th^m Havel'xk pn-js-.-d f^nvard. Already, 





^ an is cdU Um< XaM g^a BMsd o« wilfa 
ife thoMod MM M &MM ^ndMU ad- 1 

iMim By « will ill flifc Mwt — 
Ika manim^altke IflKk Hcvdoek «»■- i 

, a«l4ri tk* nMs nd tytiw ili iiTiiiw— i , 
femf«flT ci kb tiooM diwipBK ri^t «p to Ae ' 
WMM j ■W w g ri M^We«pt«wdtlwirg w M, i« i ' 
■ftcr • Imd d«7'* M« pal tlie i^ebtofi^ 
}lafdadi faboMcied two Miles fron tks 
rmtttammnA, mad mtcred ChwHpore the aext 
jBonaw(17tbi. IaiiiaedB3r«helMdaucked! 

. Ut9 IWM uotier ui Indisa «■» in JsIt, bmA [ 

Tm <n<uenoe «x«ened bf Bardock orer ' 
lu« tnopc, tnil thjf adminUe di«cipline lk« 
nainlaiiMriy u« strikinglj shown hy tite fa^ 
tuviour of tlie men on tntaiag Cawnporr. 
Tlw pitif oIabm at the teeae praMBted br t^ 
BVDttiiu of tbdr murcltred fellov-eoaaCR'- ] 
mm exjup»!nte<l tht^m to mAtl^ttf, but tu | 
flrm hand of their comiiisDdtr held thtfin tn ' 
rhcv'k, and eTen HMnading^ vu pat down 
with A vtroiitr arm. 

('hnl«>ni and drienter}' had attacked the ' 
forcv, niid Ilavelock raovi'd it out of the town 
to a ran-fiilly «elpct«i) Bite, which he pro- 
o«od*Ml lo entrt'Dch. llcra he left a small 
ffnrrijon un'ler Nvill, who hnd joined him 
frnm AllnhAbad, and prvparnd to advance to ' 
tho fplicf of Lucknow. On2.'> July he crossed I 
lhi>flnng<>i,and on the 29th encountered the | 
••ni'tiiy, {Kwled in a very strong position at 
Onair, ntid defeated thfni nfier a snarp tight. 
Hix niil«li fartiier th't utron^ly occupied vil- 
laffa of BuMeertiti^tintie wa^ sttirmed and 
takrn :— twofltrht* in one day, and nineteen 
ffuna captur<^d. IJut the ent-iny. f^atherinj? 
Ill fnreo in liift rear, compel led liim tn fall 
bnrk "n Mnntfulwnr. On 4 Aup., having ro- 
cc'ivihI eoiDL' nniuU rt'inforcL'mentB, and being 
much prpMed from Lucknow to push on to 
it-s nOiuf, he iiffain moved forword, and again 
fought A NurceiiJjtfut ungngement at Bussee- 
rut^uniri>t thntiffh with some loss and con- 
sidMrahli* rxTxiiiiiir.uro of ammiinitirm. Three 
utrung iMwitiorm Mtill remained Vo be furced 
iMifiknt no could ri'ncli Lnrknnw; iiramuni- 
tinn wn» iiimiMirii'nl, chdlcra wiw n-ducinp 
hill Nniall lorcr, tlti! Hick und woinidttl hnd (o 
Imi cnrri*>d, and hi^ ccnnniiitiiriition could not 
U* lii'pt "ipt.n. He d(>ei<li>d that he could not 
i*t'lit'Vt> I. Ill-know wilhout consiilorable rein- 
fnmuiVfiiU find mipiilii-s, and iletonnined lo 
n^iurn tn (?ii\vn|K>n'. The moral courafre he 
dia^ilnyod in lx>l>lly riirryinif otit thix painful 
deniiim in wiirlliy ol" the hiffhent. cnmmendn- 
lion. llavin^ fnIlen»boc.k on Mungiilwar, 
wUilo ho Ift^ thoro to tvst hia men before 

th» imr to ClmipiMi ialc 
hM that thr likdt vm agiBD coW^ 
mtamtt 1 naiiia1|.iing,i to haiaaa 
mammal be th a w fo w. afcaia ad- 
vaaeBd, aad {^i JL^.> a tfaani tine defieated 
tbevi at tbat riDa^ H« e aptor ecl tvo gvas. 
aUa to afcct tbv paaag* tt tbe Gangaa 
wilhovt BMhataliaa. 

Om 16 Ang^ ka oa g ootT a hundred men 
mdir Xeill at CbwnpOR^ b? marched oa, 
Bitkaor, when Somr tboosaod rebels ha 
aaaoMd a tlovateaiw attitude. After 
■evBM Mk* he tiffaitpn tbem. captured ti 
incaa, aM wtmu ed to C*vt]i» .r:-. ilere 
(oand awailiair bxm t^ ' annuund 

in|r ikeapponttn^nt o: -Outram' 

he Htirf eoanoisaiotifr ot Uudit. and to i 
nilitary eammand of the country in whic 
Itarriodt was operatisg. To remove liio 
fitaa bis «""*— -^ bMaoaa he had not t ake 
LuekBoar e mumjd wueaBMHUe. He did no 
hoverer, Csr ona moment saSer hi§ bitte 
disappointment at his snpersp?fnon to affV^ 
the enerjretic discharge nf hi» duty, and whe 
Sir James Ontrara anived at Cawnpore 
I'l Sept. with laq^ reinfbtveiaents, he fout 
Uavelock had made erenr preparation to i 
able him to advance at once on Lucknov 
Then occurred one of the most memorab 
act« of self-«bneg>tion recorded in militnr 
hintori,-. Sir James Outram waived hia milS 
tary rank in order to allow Ha\'elock to reap 
the reward of his noble exertions, and ac- 
companied the forco in his civil capacity, 
ofiering' hi« military fc*rvice tn I lavflock bs a 
volunteer, proposing tn resume chief militar 
command when Havelock had effected tl 
relief of Lucknow. 

On 19 Sept. the bridi;e over tlie Gang 
was completed, and Havelock marched ou 
of Cawnjmre with three thousiind men of all 
arms, and crossed the river under the enemy*a 
fire. On arrival at Mungulwar onthe^latT 
found the enemy muttaed there in sirengtl 
ond literally drove them nut of it and beyond 
l-biao. At BusaeerutgiinjTO he rested for the 
n ight, and piuihing i>n n>--xt dny t^Mzetl Bunneftfl 
sixteen niileii from Lucknow, U-fun* the enemyl 
hnd time to destmy the bridipe or an 
ufftwtiml reViitancc. At Bunnoe he again 
re-tted for the night, and on the morning Ol 
llie 2.*Jrd be appeared before the Altumlmghi 
und made h\» disposition for attack. Afl 
severe lighting he carried tho .\llum 
on'l Imltvd for twenty-four hours within sigh' 
of Lucknow to complete the prepiimtion for 
Ihedtflicult tu^k tieture }iini. (hi llie :?5th 
advance was made amid a storm of nmnd am 
grape nhot antl of muiikelry. The enemy wei 
driven out of the Charbagli enclosure, and tfai 


Cbnrba^l) bridfi^ was coiried by a most ^al- 
laut cborgu of tbe Madras fusiUvrH, Havu- 
lock'4 son diBtinguisbin^ bimself by perHonnl 
Tidour. Forcing its wny tbruu^li nnrrow 
treets and lanes alive with th« ent'iiiy's lire, 
Ihe column reacbed a bridge under (he lee of 
' the Kaiserbaf^h and t^xposed to it« lire. With 
the loss of many men the brid^u wax liur- 
moimted, and The forco, rQuntted, halted 
under cover near t he r'hattariManzil. Uutram 
strongly Hdviiied that, os dnrknes» was com- 
ing on, the ChattarMunxil should bcnccupied 
until the rear guanl could join Lhuin. Itiit 
Hav^ock was df^terinined topuali on, and to 
tb« cn^at joy of the beainffed he nained the 
reatdenry dint uiffht. On the 20th a strong 
parly tcoi A(>itt out to bring in the rear guard, 
the sick and the wounded. This was aocom- 
plisbed with eonajderahle loafl, ond then the 
command was assumed by I Outntni. It was 
»i>on evident that the relieving force hud 
arrived only to reinforce the Rurrison, for, 
owing to lack of transport to carry away the 
flick and wounded and the women and chil- 
dren, no moVBment could bt* made, and tluty 
rervr themselves bt'sieged. During tbesDven 
reeks which elapsed before Sir Colin Camp- 
ell ([. v.] camo to the second relief, the larger 
am'son was able to cope more otjually witli 
be enemy, and gradually to drive them out 
of many buildings and enclosures in tbe 
^Deighbfturbood of the residency. 
"" Sir Colin I'ampbell attacked on 16 Nov., 
nd Haveloek was directed to co-operate 
jtively with thu rulievlng army, a duty 
rluch he carried out with cnmplefe supcejw. 
[le meeting of Out ram and llavelock with 
6lr Colin Campbell was most cordial, and 
'isTelock learned that for his early successeji 
I had been mado n K.C.B. 
Hia last aetive duty had, however, beon 
srformed. On the rooming of ^0 Nov., 
rben the withdrawal fr«jm Lucknow com- 
Tnenced, he was attacked by dJurrhoja, and 
ird on the ^4lh, He was burt>.*<l at thu 
^lumbagh, bis son nnd the leaders with 
kliom he had been aj«.siioiatpd, Colin Cum|v* 
II. Uutram. InglJn, nnd •ilherK, following 
body to the grave. On tbe day of bis 
nth he remarked, * I die happy and con- 
siiefl;' and to bis son be saia, 'See bovr i 
IChri^ition can die.' 

, The report of Ilnvi'Iock's earlier victories 
%.i\ betjn rt'ceivi'd with a burst of entliusiasra ' 
Kngland as the tir»t gleam of light after , 
> durknei>s of revolt nnd massacre, aiuI bis 
iherto alni'tst unknown name wa-* on every j 
ague. As mieccBs follow^'d sucecps he Im"- 
oe tbe popular hero, ait<l thw knowledge 
bis eoroest religious character deej^ened 
the effect upon the public On 30 July be 1 

was promoted major-general, on 2f\ Sflpt. ho 
was made a K.C.U,, and on 'Jii Nov., when 
bis death was not known at Jiorae, he was 
created a baronet,, while a pension of 1,00(V. 
a ycjir was gnuitcd by parliament. It w&h 
not until 7 Jan. 1858 that tidings of bisdetatb 
reached England and plnnginl the nation into 
moimilng, riiemnkofa barouel'swidowwaa 
bestowed upon Lady Haveloek, a baronetcy 
on the eldest t-nn. who had so distingmsbed 
himself as his father's aide-de-camp, and an 
annuity of 1,000/. a year was unnnJmoiisly 
votetl t)y parliament to both widow and son. 
The common cuunril of Lundtiu dirt^cted 11 
bust of the general to be placed in l he tiuild- 
hall, and a statue was er«^cted by public sub- 
scription in Trafalgar Square. 

(lifted with military abilities of a high 
order, Haveloek had been employed for tLo 
fiTeater port of bis career in subortlinaie posi- 
tions, to which his want of means, and pro- 
bably also a certain sternness of disposition, 
combined with an earnest but somewhfil nar- 
row religious profession, had contribiitwl to 
confine him. A xoldier of The old puritan 
type, bis highest aim was to do bl» duty as 
senico rondenKl to Hod rather than to bia 
superiors, while the constant submission of 
himselftoOod 'swill enabled him to bearwilli 
cheerfulneM his many disapputnt meuts and 
the long waiting for that recognition of bis 
powers wliich he coveted, and mado him re- 
solute and devoted in tbe discharge of duties 
no matter how small. When tbe opportunity 
came to him he was ready. He proved him- 
self t4> be a great military leader, and won the 
gratitude oi bis country. 

[DMpatclics; Mnrsbmnii's Hemotrs of Sir H. 
Unvelock; JCiiyc's Sepoy War; Mallown'i Indiim 
Mutiny] " K. H. V. 

HAVELOCK, AVn.LlAM {1793-1H4R\ 
lieuteMftnt-colouel, was eldest son of Wil- 
liam Haveloek of Ingress Park, Kent, and 
brother of Sir ITenr^■ Haveloek ['l-v.] ond of 
Colonel Charles lUvelock, late ItJth lancers, 
wbo commanded a brigade of Turkish irro- 
gubirs in I be Crimean war. I le was bom on 
'2l\ Jan. 171*3, educated at the Oluirterbousa 
School and under a private tutor, and on 
\2 July IMOwiu* appuiiiled ensign -llird light 
infantry, in which he became lieutenant in 
1HI2. He carried one of ibe colours of tho 
43rd at the passage of the Coa in iHlU, and 
was present in all tho sulisenuent octiuns in 
which the Peniusula light division was en- 
gaged to the end of the war, the letter part 
of the time as aide-de-cump to Major-gene- 
ral Charle«, banm Alien [see Altex von, 
CiiABi.t!*,Cou.vT]. commanding the division. 
At tbe combat of Yura iu October 1B13 a 





BpoaUU foTco was held in check by a formid- 
able ubnttis defended by two French regi- 
ments. Ilavflock.wholind been sent tonwer- 
tain thoir progrea^, 'culled on th^> Spnuinrda 
to follow him/and, putting 8;)urs to hiahon**', 
cleitred the iibnttisi nt a bound, nnd won! 
licndlonp' Among the Piiemy. Then lh*» Spa- 
niards, elieoririg for "el ehico bianco" (the 
fair Iwy), for ho was vtry ynnnjf, and had 
very light hair, with one shock hmke thmii3:h 
the French, and this just Jts their centre was 
flying under the tire of Kenijit's skinnishrrs' 
{ItUt. Peninjfttlar Wnr, bk. xxii. chiin, iv.) 
llavelockwasAlten'saide^e-eninpat Waier- 
loo and at the occupation of Paris. In 181H 
he obtained his company in thi* SL'nd f<"Mit, 
and pervwl with thnt corps in Corfn, after- 
wards exchanging to the 4th drajroons, then 
lately made light, with which he went 1o 
India. He w-as some time aide-de-camp to 
Sir Charles Colville [q. v.] when commantler- 
lo Lord Elpliinstonewhil^ governor of Mad m«. 
He becflmennijor itli light dropoons in IKIO, 
nnd exchanging intn tlie I llh light dmpiKins, 
liernnie lieuteiuinl-colonel of that, regiment 
in ItMl. lie r»)nimande<l it in the field under 
Sir riiarlea Nupier, and with the liombny 
tro'ips sent to reinforce Lord (imigh's aroiy 
during the second Sikh "wnr. He fell mor- 
tally wounded at. the bead of his regiment 
in a desperate but successful charge on the 
Sikhs at Ramnuggur, on the bank?* of the 
river Chennb, <m '2'2 Nov. I84H. His sword 
arm disabled, hi« left arm and leg nejiHy cut 
off, after eleven of hiK troopfi-H hnd he<'n 
killed beside lilmjip was left for dead on the 
Held. Hflvcltwk married in If^^l ('arnline 
E., daughter of Acton Chaplin of Aylesbury', 
by whom he left a family. 

[FokIit's Hiiro netJi^re, nndcr ' nai,*olock-Alten ;' 
Kapior's Ili«t. ]*pnin.tular War; Xarrntires uf 
llie iSocond isikh Wnr; Gent. M:ig. nuwKtr. IStf), 
jtxxi. 3 1 ft. This notico Iins lnwon rurispd l>y 
Colonel A. 0. HAVcloc-k, Madras Staff Corps, soil 
oftlisabore.] H. M. C. 


(IH3(I IH71)>, [Mjet nnd hymn-writer, the 
voungest, child of William Henry Havergnl 
\q. v.], by his first wifo Jane, was born 14 Dec. 
1 83fi ut her fat Iicr'a rectory* at Aj(tlcy,Worcea- 
tershire. From early years she showed ex- 
ceptional intellectual power, but owing to 
berdelicnte health systemntic study wasdis- 
coiiraged. In 1852 she accompanied her 
father and his fecund wife tn Germsny; 
Hliidi*«] for mon'lhan a yi*arin the Louisen- 
wduile at: Piiiiifldorf ami in the family of a 
(rerraftn paj*tor at t)bercassel ; and returned 
to England in December 1853. She wrote 

verses fpim the ngc of seven with remarJc- 
nble fluency, and h'T p()om8 were won til- 
milted into 'Good M'ords' and the best re- 
ligtDUH ixriodieiils. In 1865-6 ahe revi- 
sited (lermany, and took the opinion of the 
mn^^icinn Hi Her on her musical talent*. 
Hill'T )!>iiw tali-nt in her melodies, and highly 
praised lier bnrmonie^. Her father dind 
suddenly in 1870. and she pn^pnrt^d f^r the 
press a new edition of his * I'salmody.* On 
her mothers deotli in IS7B, she remo\*cd 
from Lramington to South Wales, near the 
Mumblejt, where she dierl 3 June 1879. 
Throughout her life she energetically eu- 
gaget.! in religioue and phllnnthntpic work. 
Mii<>s Ilnvergnl published collections > 
her poiunA and liymnA in many Acparnte vi 
lumes ; the earliest is duted 1V70. Amo _ 
iliem were * The Ministry of Song/ ouIh 
lished probably in 1870. ^rth edition, 1(»74; 
•Under the Surfnce.' IH74; ' Loval Re- 
Rnfinses.' 1K7H; • Life Chords.' \m); 'Life™ 
Kchoes; I88;i; 'Coming to the King,' 1886^ 
These were finally rei.^sued by her sjaler, 
M. V. (i. Havergal, tu two volumea of 
•Poetical Works,* 1884. Ml^s Havergnl 
also wrote many small devotional tracts am 
narratives in prose, all markod by the eami 
earnest and practical piety. H»*r religioi 
poetry became exceedingly popular in evfto— ' 
gelical circles, nnd her hymns are to be 
found in all collect iona. In her poetical work 
there is a lack of concentration, and a teo-^ 
deticy to meHuinglexs n*|)elitinn of pUrose^^l 
hilt some of her hymns are excellent, and 
will permanently preserve her name. Her 
autobiogrnphy was published in * Memorials m 
of Frances liidlcv HnvergBl, bv her Sisier.B 
M. V. G. Jlavergnl.' '2m\ edition, 1880. The^ 
influence of this bo^di has been as remark- 
able as that 'tf Mi-^ HiMergalV poems. It 
presents a tftri king picture of an iinueuolly 
eager, if somewhat narrow, spiritual life. 

[fjottcrs of Fraufcs Ridley ITaTcrgal. ediiod 
by MarMi Veruuii GrKtiam UnTerpal ; Fraocnr 
Ridley HavOTgal'ii IjMt Week, by Maria Tomoa 
Crahitni Uarcrgal.] R. B. 


1875), musician, eldest sou of William Henry 
Havergal (171)3-1870) [q. v.], was born at 
Coaley, Gloucepterehire, 2:!JuIy 18:iO. Fronj 
1828 to 18;J4 he served a.s a chnriator in 
New College, Oxford, and wa."* bible-clerk 
there from 1839. He matriculated fron*. 
Magdalen Hall on 18 Mav 1831*, graduat- 
ing RA. 184,*i and M.A." 184fi, In 1843 
he btviirae t'liiipbiin of Christ Church, and 
served in n bkecHpacilvut Xew College fmra 
1&44 to 1847. From 1847 till his d.-nth h. 
was vicar of Cople, Bedfordshire. For hi 


jTai^hAn. A stTmon.' 1&47. 2. • Dvith ■ 

fcr tfmder, tbe l>r«trme of the Holy Scrip- 
tures/ 1d49. 3. ' Sermon?. chieflT on His- 
torical 8ubit?cta, from theOUand NrwTwta- 
Bwnt.' 18o>'t. ^ ToU. 4. 'A Iii«tonr of Ihe 
Old Ilumlredlh IValm Tune,' -with speci- 
meiu, 1^*04 : in which work he attempted 
to proTe that Wtlliam Franc was the cum- 
p»«er. 5. *A Wis* and llolv Child. An , 
account of EL Edwanl*.' iSVi. 6. * Th« 
Faithful Servant. Two»ennon$nn tht.'d(!«th 
of the Rt'r. J. East,' 18.i(l. 7. ' Six I>iecture«i on 
the Ark of the Covenant,* 1h«7. I*. • Pyr- 
mont, an eligible place for Knjrli»h patients 
who rtH|uire chalybeate or ttaline waters,* 
e«lited by Mrs. C. A. Haverpal. IMTI. !!»» 
also wrote, eelected, harmonjfted, and ur- 
mnged. upwards of thirty works and pteoi-s 
of music. 

He married (U, 1> Mar lSlt% Jane, fifth 
daodbter of WilliaDi Head of Ka?t Orin- 
Btead-sho died 5 July 1(^>*; and (2), on ' 
^> July 1851, Caroline Ann. dan((hter of 
John Cooke of (Jloucester — she died '^6 May '< 
1878. lUa children, Henry Iia*t llaverjjnl ^ 
and Frances Kidley Ilarpn.Til, iir»* fiepanilely i 
noticed. Anotlier dauphrer, Mnnji \'enmn ] 
(ifaham llaverpfti, who dietl 'J'J June I8«7, 
wnt(e W!verul Ijook*. and on niitobioRraphy , 
which wa.« editud by her Bister, Jane Mirium j 
Harerpil, who married. ).>ctol»i'r 184i?. Henry 
Crane. Mrs. Crane also published records 
of her father's life. 

The younuest ao«, Faucets Tebbs Hater- 
OAI. (f8:;it-|H!>0>, aulbor and editor, bom 
27 Aug-. 18*ift, waH a bible-clerk of New Col- 
lege, Oxford (RA. ltCiL',M.A.l8.V); Iwfime 
viear-cUoml in Hereford Cathedral, l8,Vt- 
1S74 : vicar of Pipe with Lyde. 1801 74, aud 
of I'pton HlBbop. IH71-9(); and prebendary 
of Herefnnl, Id77-1>0. He dUni at I'pton oii 
•J7JnlvlHW0. Hewnite: I. ' The Visitor's 
Handituide lolTert-ford C«tlie<lml.' imW; 
tttb ed. 1S*^2. 'J. * Kaed llHrefordenses/ 
ly09. 3, 'Monumental InjKTiptionp in Here- 
ford Cathedral,' 1881. 4. ' Ueronls of lit- 
ton bishop,' l8A't. o. ' Horefoitliiihiro Words 
and Phrojsefi/ 18><7. 6. * Memorials of the 
Itev. Sir Frederick Arthur Gore Ouaelcv, 
Baronel," 1W9. 

[Rt-cordsof tlio Rev. William llonry Hoverga', 
by Iii" dftUfrlitor, J«n»' Miriam Cr^ne. 1882, wirh 
t wo p*irtr;iit.i . Bu Uotk's The Crown of the Road, 
IflHt. pp. 243-302. with two portraits; Jo«iHh 
^fillers Ringers ami Sno^ of the Church, 1669. 
pp. 429-30 , Keconl. 25 April 1870. p. 3 ; Otuir- 
dian.27April 1870, p. 483, G Aug. 189D. p. 1233 
(for I'mnciH Tobbs Hrtrergnl) : Rev. C. Hullock'fi 
Tlie Ffwtor RcmriiibtTed. witli a biographical 
•ketch by A. J. Ljrniiiigtoo. 1870, pp. 43-64.] 

O, C. B. 

HAVEBS, ALICK, painter. 
ax3, yita. Alice, d. 1890.] 

HAVERSy CLOPTOX (d. 1702). pty- 
itcian and anatomist, »on of a clDr;f7yinaiig^~ 
Ilenrv Haver«, was bom probably between 
in.i«l«ndl6tX). HeMttdiedatCatharineHalll^ 
Cambndjze, but left the univenrity without 
taking any depree. Ho was Bdmitte<i extr 
licentiate of the College of I'bj-sician* 
I>jndon on 2>* July I'W^, took the dejfree 
M.lJ. at Utrwht A July lli86. and was afi 
mitted licentinteof the College of Physician 
on i?2 Dec. 16^7, after which he practised in 
London. appanntly m the city. Besidc:> hifl 
medical practice, Hnvers occupied lumsclC 
with anatomy, and wta admitted fellow o£ 
(Im! l(oyal iSKriety on lo l»ec. ItWii. He wii ' 
cut oif in middle life by a maltfmant feve 
in April 1702, and was buritnl at ^^'illtMpifa 
Hoe, Eft.4«x, lejtving a widow mid chibiren. > 

Harers'g chief anatomical work^ • l»»(c 
logiaNova^ or some new Ob«er\'ation9of tL 
Bones and the parts Itelonpiniif tothem,' waS' 
communicated to the l{o%"nl Si Kjiety in meveral 
disooaraes, and printed in octavo, l^ndon 
1691. It wan a work of considerable in 
|)ortance in il5 day.and f^avetbeHrdt minutd 
iiccount of the structure of bone. The cele 
bmted lla^livi mnde use of it in Ins coroiK 
t it ive lecture fort he profeworsliip of anutomj 
at 1(ome, and generotL«ly attribute*! his ^^uc 
0CS8 to the help which it iillorded him. The 
book was well received on the continent, 
and VTM men* than once publislied in Latii ~ 
versions (FmnkfurT. l*Jll2, and Amsterdas 
1731, Itoth Hvo). The aulbor'g name iscom^^ 
memorated in the term ' Haverxian cnna)«, 
Rtill used for the minute channeU of bone in' 
which the blood- vess>el$ run. 

Hiii disKertation for the deforce of )f,I>^ 
(* Do Rcspirationc,' L'trccht, 1(J85, 4to) con ^ 
tnitu at least onccurlousobservat ion. Ilavi- 
afterwards edited, or rather corrected, iln 
Fng'lish version of a curious anatouiiL'ai 
work, lEemraelini'a 'Catoptrinra Microco 
mi.nim,' with the title *A l^iurvey of the 
Microcosme ; or the .Anatomy of the Bo<lie3 
of Man and ^\'(lman,' folio, London, HiM.> 
and 1702. It \a a collection of di«arct«> 
anatomical plat^v. formed by superim])o» 
slips, 80 na to show the relations of the |>art< 
of the body, with descriptions. He al** 
published in the ' PhilosophiciJ Transac 
lions* 'An Account of an Fxtiaon.linar _ 
Mleedinff from tlieLachrymul Gland' — a cas'o^ 
of fihi'ddinp: tesrfl of bloml {.\br. lii. OlH, 
ItiW), and a ' Discourse of Ihe Concoct ion oC ^ 
the Food * (ib. iv. 418, lODD). M 

[MnnVs Coll. of Pliy«. 2ud edit. 1878. i.4T7;" 
A Sermon preached at the Funeral of Clopluit 



Hjirvn. 3LD„ 29 April 170-2. by Lilly BuUer, 
I»D., London, 1702, ito; Wall's itibl. Brit. ; 
I H»Tera9 Works.] J. F. P. 

' HAVERSHAM, Lord {J. 1710). [See 

Thompson, !Sir Joiix.] 

l&tU), painter, boni in Galway in \7*Ji, ob- 
taineid some repute as a pointor of portraits 
in Dublin, and waa elected u member of the 
Roval Hibernian Acadi^my. Among \i'\s best 
pt.irtrait8 are two of O'C'onnull, one the pro- 
p'ttv of the Keform Club, and the olbt-r of 
the Limerick corporation. He lived for eiume 
time in LimerlcK. In 1835 he sonl to tho 
Ro}al Academy in I^indon a p<)rtniit of tho 
liight Il*?v. Dr. Doyle, bishop of Kildare, and 
in 1W4 a picture of ' Father Jluthew receiv- 
ing a Repentant Pledge-breaker.' From 18-16 
to 18oT lie was a frequent exhibitor of por- 
traits in l^ndon. Ho occasionnlly painted 
^^jubject-pictunts, and a «et of thrw — 'liaj)- 
^^■bbqI)' ' Confeuuiou/ and 'Continuation' — 
^^■rrre lent to ibK Irish I'bchibition in I^iudon, 
^^nSd. Martin IIaverty[q. v.] was bis brother. 
^^Be died in Dublin in 18&1. 
' [OniTrtis Dict.ofArtials, 1760-1830; WebVa 

Camp, of Irifh Biog. p. oS-1 ; Roj-al Acad. Cnto- 
logat-N.] L. C. 

HAVERTY, MAUTIN(1800-1887),bis- 

irian* boru in eo. 3fayn on 1 Dec. lHlt9, re- 

tivcd the chief part of hia education in the 

isU College at Parts, and come to Dublin 

in 1836, In the following year he joined the 

AtaH'of ibo * Freeman's Jonniol/ with which 

bo was clow'Iy connected until ISoO. In 

1851 he made nn extenditl tour through 

Enrofw, which he df*cribed in a lung wriew 

newi«pfti>fr contributions. On hi* reliini 

Ilubliii llaverly was made sub-librarian at 

ihe King's lonf, where he remained for nearly 

n quarttir of a century, devoting himsi'lf 

principally to the preparation of a geni'ral 

indojc to the books in I ho library. He die<l 

in. Dublin on 18 Jan. 18S7, and was buried 

the Glasnevin cemetery. Joseph Patjick 

verty [<j. v.j was his brother. 

Haverty wrote : 1. * Wanderings in Spain 

in 1843/ I^omlon,:i vols., 1844, li'mo. L>. ' Hih 

iatory of Ireland, Ancient and Modern. 

ived from utir native luiiiaU . . . with 

Copious Topographical and general Notes,' 

Dublin, 1860, Bvo. Thc> miiteriaU for this 

hiatoTT were largely gathered abroad. A 

second and enlarged edition appeared in 

1885. 3. * The liiAtoPk- of Ireland, Ancient 

and Modem, for the use of Schools and Cul- 

lefTK,' kc, Dublin, I86D, 12mo. 

[Irisii Ijiw Times. '22 Jan. 1887; TrMman's 
Jouraal, 10 Jan. 1887 ; Wobb'ii Coaip. of Irish 
Biog. p. 584.] W. A. J. A. 



I i n ] 

, inl8 

HAVILANI), JOHN (1785-1861), prt>- 
fesaor of medicine at Cambridge, son of a 
Bridgewnter surgeon, descended from a 
Guernsey family, wo* bom at Bridgtwater 
on 2 Feb. 178fi. He was educated at Win- 
chester College, and in 1803 matriculated at 
St. John's, Cambridge, where he graduated 
B.A. as twelfth wrangler in 1807, subse- 
quently becoming a fellow of hifj college. He 
proceeded .M.A.iu 1810, M.L. 1HI2. and M.I). 
1817. Uc afterwards t^tudied medicine ut 
liklinburgh for two sessions, and for three 
yeant at St. Bartholomew's, London, lie 
became an inceptor of the Royal Collwe 
of Physicians in 1814 and a fellow in 1818, 
and delivered the Harveiau oration in 1837. 
Having settled ut Cambridge, Daviland wu 
elected profe«M)r of anatomy in 1814 on the 
death of Sir Busick Harwood [q. v.],and on 
Sir I.iaac Peiiningtuii's death in 1817 wus 
appointed regius profe^i^or of phyiiic and phy- 
sician to Addenbrooke's Ho^pitiiJ, resigning 
the anatomical chair. He gave up his n(*ai 
as hospital physician in 18;J^>, but nMained 
the regius prufeH.M>r^hip till his death on 
8 Jan. .I8r>] . He had a large practice in Cam- 
bridge till 18it8, when be retired; and heoxer- 
cised a good iittiliienee in keeping the medical 
school at Cambridge alive when it was threat- 
ened with ejttinct ion. He was the firvt pro- 
fessor who gave regular courses on pathology 
and the practice ot medicine; he estublished 
a formal curriculum and satisfactory exami- 
nations in place of merely nominal procced- 
ingt). His character was high, and his judg- 
ment gowl. He wrote nothing but a synopsis 
of lect iires on uuutomv, Hnd * Some Observa- 
tions eipiicerning the Fever which prevailed 
in Cambridge during I Ik- t>pring of IblO^AVr- 
di'cal TraMMction/', 181o). Ho married in 
1819 I^ouisn, youngest daughter of tho Rev, 
O. Pollen, and lett five sons. 

{Oent. Mni;. (tor. zxxT. 200 ; Munk'a 
I. of Phy». iii. 1S3. 18*.l G. T. II. 

HAVILAND, WILLIAM 0718-1784), 
general, cfdond 45th foot, son of Captain 
Peter Haviland, was born in 1718 in Ireland^ 
where his father was serving in a marching 
regiments On 26 Dec. 1730 he was ap- 
pointed ensign in Sixittiswooile's, otherwise 
Gooch'a regiment, a corps of American pro- 
vincials ranking as the old 43rd foot, and 
broken up in 1712, with which he ajipears to 
have served at CartluLgena oiul Poilo Bello. 
Sub»ei|ueutly he obtained a company in tho 
27lh Inniakilling foot, commanded by Colonel 
William (afterwards Lord) Blakeney [<^.v.], 
which alsohad been at PnrtoBellu. llavitand 
acted as aid&-dt>-canip to Blakeney at tho 
defience of Stirling Caalle and elsewhere lu 

I74r>-^t, and nrnsBfterwtrdtttiouif vear&tnire- ' 
Iftiul with tliB ifTlli, iu which hf Wi-uiue major , 
in I7r»0, und U'fUifuikiit-folouel in 1752. In i 
1767 he tuok tho regiment out to America. | 
Ilt< coniiiiftnO<-(3 at Kurt Etlwan) during the 
winter of 17')7->* { Pa uku an, ii.clmp. i,),unil 
wii.^with .\bt*rcminl)y iit Tir4)n<l<'n»^tt in 175^, 
and in vnrioiifs n[M'nili{m.t nnder .\iidit!r»1 in 
]7'i**-tjO. In the lalter jear hf cninmandtMi 
tt f<.>n-t« of ;i,4()0 men, inoludinfj provincial 
ami Indians dt-s]>atc!icd trom L'rown Point 
to farce a way by Ualit* Clininplain, whiclt 
va* defended by a strong Fn-nch post at 
Lilu uux Noix, and to eflK't a Junction with 
the armies under Murruy and Amherst con- 
VL'rging" on Mnntrenl, « wrvice siiccfiwfully 
iccomplished ((/>.pp.;i*fl-K*J|. llttitUnd ptw- 
eeSMd coiL-iidt^nihlt- mechanicn) gt-niun, and 
vas the inventor of a ;7]ii;cM('-t nf ]>oiitoi)n for 
psMinf? rapidi^. llitt fLTlility uf n^souree ib 
said to havt' hir^ely coulrihnled to thu suc- 
cess of the diHicult operations in which he 
was employed. After (liu fall nt )[>intre&l 
\w went to till! AVi-ftt iDdiec^. und woh Kccond 
in command at the r«duotion of Martinique, 
And commanded a bri|?nde at the rich con- 
quest of Havana in 17ti:2. lie iHMMime a 
major-ffeneml, and in 1707 wns appointed 
colonel 4r>ih foot. He became lieutenant' 
irenerrtl in I77:f, and peneral in 17H;i. Durinft 
the American war of ind*'peiidence he held 
comninnd iil Whitehaven forn^hort time, and 
in 1 771), durinif the alarms of aKn-nch invasion, 
he was appointiHl to command the w-wtern 
dislrict. with head(|uar(ers n( I'lymoutli. 

Havilund mtirried, first, Cnroline, daugh- 
ter of (.'(ilonel Fnitici:s and I-.!idv Khzubelh 
Ix*e, and uTanddiiiiuditiT nf the first Karl of 
Licbfiehl ; j^he died in Ireliind in I7ol,havinjf 
hud no i.<iAiie; si^cundly, Snlnshnry, dnnffhti-r 
of ThoniQs Atiton of lUmu lien, county Louth, 
bv whom 111* had a son, Colnnel Thomas 
llaviluiid t>f Penn, who ditni in 1793, and a 
dau({hter. ilaviltind, who-ie ^ent was Peun, 
in lUtnihum parish. Buckinghamshire, waif a 
near Deigliba\ir antl intimate personal friend 
of Burke, with whoso family be was ton- 
hected through his Beeond nuirriago. As 
general commanding the western district he 
was remarkedfor his openhunde<J hnspituUty 
to officers of b<.)lh ttervicea, and he died cr«n- 
tMratively poor al Penn on !♦> .Sejit. 1784. 
There is a munil tablet to hi;* memory at 
Bumham jmriuh church. 

[A eenwilogy will t* Tniind un'Ior ' Dnrke of Bpa* 
fonxfield' (Unrilnnil-Iturke) in Hurkf's Landed 
Gentry, 1868 ed,, hut not in Ulcr edilionn. I-br 
ether dctwils see HniH» (>fli[-« Mil. Kntry Hook, 
r»>I. xvt. ; Printcil Lists of Anny in IrvUnd. en- 
titled Quarleniof tht) Arniym Ireland. 1742-52. 
in Brit Museum; F. Parknian's Montcalm aud 

Wtiire. ii. chnp. i. and 3fil-82, and mnr^nal rt» 
A-renceggiveQinthat wurk.Oeot. Mag. 1 ii, 
71B-19; Litnivmtfe'b Buckiaghaln&hire, lii. 292, < 
and (Mrs. Ili^vihnd} I'JU'.'-l H. M. C 

) 177">-180<J I, lieuicnont-oolonel, eldest son of 1 
Sir Peter de UavilUnd (d. 1821). knight, of 
HaTillund Hnll. Guernsey, by his wife Carla- j 
rt'tln,daughternnd heiress of the Uev. Thomas ' 
Kiotl, wiKi burn at IlaviUhnd in April I77*i. I 
In 170.1 he obtained a Ma<Ira8cadet«hip,snd I 
on 3 May 17W1 was appointed en.sign m the J 
^ladrasengineers (pioneers). Hissubse*]uent I 
commissions were : lieuteuont I79G, coptaio.] 
iHOti, major 1815, licuteuaut-ciilonel 1^24. 
He served at the siege of I'ondicherry in 
17itU, and at the reduction of C»ylon in 
171*5-0; he marched with Colonel lirown*»'s 
force (four thon.-yind men) from Trichinnpoly 
to a#ifiist in thu npcraiiomi aguinf>t Tippuo 
Hjihihin 1 7!HKand accompanied BairdVtn>o^ 
up the Bed Sea to Kgypi in 1801. Un bu 
return he wa^ captun'd bv a French eruiMff 
but was speedily ndea*etf. Uc served witli 
his corps until I8li', when he returned homaj 
on furlough, and was commiBsioned to build] 
the .Teyh'iurg barmcks, Guemcej'. In 181-i] 
he was appointed civil engineer and arrhitecft 
for the Siadrax pre/ideney, an nppaintmentj 
he held until his retirement fnnn tlie M-nicft' 
I lifter liiK fathnrV dejith), '20 Aiiril \i^Jft. 

He WHS an olficer of much z*^al. ability, and 
originality. When stationed at Seringana- 
lara, whciro he urected some important niili- 
tarv works.he proposed to bridge the Caurety 
with five brick urehes of UO feet spsn nnil 
' only eleven feet rise, a very bold couct*ptioa 
for that day. The Qiithoritie& sotuted the 
idea, and to prove il.'^ feasibility De Ha\ illand 
erectfd u similar arch in hi.-* gnrilt-n, which 
I isstillKlaitding. Hi'niletnpted todeterminu 
' the inenn sea level at MadniH from daily ab- 
fuirvalions extending over six motithf, and & 
datum line, known as 'l)e Haviltand'sl>eiieh- 
mark,' nniy vet be Keen on a stone let into 
the waU oif tort St. George. Ileconstructed 
the Mount road, ond built the bulwark or old 
sea wall <if Miidnis. In 182-J he wrote a re- 
port on Indian limestones, and recommended 
that collectors should lie instructed to for- ■ 
wiinl e(|H>cinien(i of limestones from their seve-H 
nd districts for analysis and comparison of ^ 
the strurturBl value.x. He built the cathe- 
dral und St. Andn'wV rreshjierian Church, 
Madrn.s, the latter considered one of tha 
bnnd»^mest ]Curnp4^-an structures in India. 
lie recommended the survey of the Panjam 
passage for the improvement of the port, a 
work carried out bv one of bis subaltums, 
the present Oeneral Sir Arthur Cotton. 

Alter hie retirement Da Ilavilland devoted 




elf to the afikira of Guernsey, of which 
[llti wu a j»fti(^e and member of tlie leginU- 
lure. lleaurritMlinlSOS K1ixabeth.<lau({li- 
er of Tbomaii Saum&rez. bj wliutu hu bad 
ftuvo Mnfi: Thomas, a cajitaia in the 'V^h foot 
rj(<f. 1843 >, uid CUuiics UoM do )]avilland, 11 
e1er|e:ymuD, who also diL'd bcforts his folher. 
And two daughters, lie died ot Doauvoir, 
Gaernwy, on 'Jti Feb. I860, aged 90. 

[Viljttrt'a Hixt. MAdreg Sappers and Miners. 

ZjODdito. 1882. ii. 1 tit msj.. whoro is Do Havil- 

llnod's report on the origin of ihn corpH ; Bnrkc'g 

IIadJcJ UentrA- (IMflS) ; Inelinn Army Lists; Bal- 

'^oursIadMii Orel.; Gvut.Mag. 1B6S, pt. 1603.1 

II. M. C. 
HAWABD, Fn.\NCISn7.iO-1797).cD- 
rrovcr, bom on 1!) April 175P, became in 
1776 a student of thv lUiyal Academy, and 
lin the same year mgravcd in nii^zzotint a 
■{Kirrtrsit of James Ffrausnn the astninomur. 
l»ner J. Norlhcoto. Iiis orher ejifrravtngs in 
rmezzotint are 'Master Bunbury,' after Sir 
I Jiwhua Iteynoldn (1781), a joslly admired 

friiil, and ' Euphrasia,' aft«r W. liamilton. 
fawardfiub«tHiiiently adopted the fashionable 
stipple msnuer.iir nitber the mixed style, of 
L JJartolozKi, in which he attainffd genuine ex- 
Icelh^nce. II is principal enp'avitiffsin this me- 
l^od are * Mrs. Siddons as the Trajfic Mu?e,' 
I And * (.'ymon and Iphigenia,'afrer Sir Joshua 
jlleynolds. The formerwas exhibited at the 
jlCoyul Academy in 1787, and the latter in 
11797. lie aW exhibited in I7Kt ' A Cupid,' 
|m 1788 'Portrait of Madam d'Eon in her 
I year, fmm a picture by Angelica Kautf- 
m/ in 17liL*an nnKniRbed enj^raving, and 
1703 a finii^hed prrMif of 'Tlie Prince of 
"Wales,' after Sir Joshua Reynolds. Hawanl 
Tnia elected an associate enfpuver in 1783, 
And wng eventually appointed 'engraver to 
JI.U.ll. the Prince o^ Wales.' He resided 
for many years in Marsh Street, Lambeth, 
frand ia i^tnted to have died there in 1797. Ilis 
|Ja»t pnpra^-inp, however, the * Cvmon and 
llphigvnla.' bear? the address ot 3 Little 
Geor^ Street, Wet^tminster. Amonp hi* 
other eng^mvings are 'The Infant Academy,' 
after lleynnhl!*, port rails of Chnrli';*, maniuis 
Comwallis, and of Captain AVilHani f'orn- 
■WBllis,bolboflerI).r»ardner,and others after 
} C. llowlba, W. Ifomilton, and A. Znechi. 
Ilia widow received a pension fromlhe Uoyal 
Academy for forty-two yeans. 

[ Dotld'^manuscript Hist.of En^llflh Engravers 
L(IIrlt. Mas. .AddiC MS. 33401 > ; Kodanive'o Diet. 
lof Artista; SMmlhy'sHwt.of the Royal Aca(!<?Tny; 
p Hamilton's EograTed Works af Sir Joshaa Key- 
rnolda.] L. C. 

HAWARD, NICHOLAS (/. 15091. 
author, apparently a native of NorfoUi, de- 
ibea himself aa a student of Thavies Ion. 

Ilepublished: 1.' A brinfp Chronicle, where in 
are described abortive the Orifnnail, and the 
successive estate of the I^^mainH WL-alo puln 
ligue. . .from the first foundntvnn of tiio 
Gityof Rome, vnto the M.C.and XlX, yehm 
there of. , .collected and fathered first by 
Eutropius, and Knglifhed bv N. llavvnn!,' 
Kvo, London, loiU. •J. 'Tlie' Line uf Libe- 
ralitie dulie directinge the wel bestowing of 
BenelitHS and reprehendiujj the comonly vsied 
vice of Ingratitude,* Hvo, London, 1569. 

[Brydjica aD«l Haiileirood's Brit, Bibhograpber, 
ii. 155, lirit. Mas, Cai.] U. IJ. 

HA WARD, SIMON {Jl. 1572-1614), 
di>-iac. [tine IUkwaiid.] 

HAWARDEN, KDWATll) (l(H12-173r>), 
Roman eaihidie divine, eulogist'd by 
MiUu'r as ' one of the mo^l profound theolo- 
gians and able eontrnversiali6ts of his age,* 
the son of Thnmaa Hawarden of Croxteth, 
l^ncaBhire,\vas bornnn 9 April ltltt'_',and woa 
educated at the Gnglixh Collefifu at Hounv. 
He waa ordained wriest on 7 June 10H6, He 
had Iwen nrevioualy engaged a« classical tutor 
in his college, and now was ap]K)inted pro- 
fessor of philosophy. Ho took bis degree of 
H.l>. at the umverwly of Houny, and was 
immediately afterwards placed at the head of 
a colony of priests sent in September and 
October 1688 from Douhv to Oxford. When 
James II had detennimHl to make .Mairxlaleu 
College a seat of catholic education, Hawar- 
den wa.-i intend«l for the tutorship of divinity 
atMagdalen. Tbeexi»:*rtetl revolution fim'tsl 
him to leave Oxford on lU Nov. and n*turii to 
Douay, where he was installed as pntfessor 
of divinity, and held the olliee for seveuteea 
years. Ho took the degroD of D.D. soon after 
liis return, and was appointed vico-preudent ' 
of the college. In 170:;hewa.'( an unsuccessful 
candiiUleforoneul the royal chairs of divinity 
in llouay Iniversity. A little later he was 
groundlesaly accused of Jansenism, He loft 
Douay in Septemlx-r 1707, anrl fora fnw yeiira 
conducted a mi9«ton at Gilligute, Durham, 
On the death of his frifud Ri-thnp Smith in 
1711 he exchnuged that mission for one at 
AldclifTe Hall, near Lancaster, which be pro- 
bably lefl in 17iri. on the seiicuru of the Iiall 
by the comniissionera for forfeited eslalw*. 
liefore 171i) he wa^ settled in Ixmdon, liad 
been appointed * catholic controversy writer,* 
and had published an ini|iortont work. On 
the publication of the second e<Jition of Dr. 
Samuel Clarke's 'Scripture Doctrine of tho 
Trinity," which cameoutin 1719,aconferQnctt 
was arranged by the deiiire of Qu«<-*n Caro- 
line between Hawarden and Clarke for tho 
express purpose of diacusaing the Trinitariaa 



J doctrine. The meeting took place in the' 
'|ireMncc of the auevn, and Ilantmlen wa« 
thought to have tlie Iwst of the tiispulc. He 
returned to the auViject bouk^ vi'ars later in 
his * AuswiT to Dr. ("larke uiid Mr. AVhislon.' 
]Iu difi) on 23 April 173^ iu London. A 
meuotini portnut of llawarden by Tumor 
[iru published about IHU. 
t . Hu wrote : 1 . ' Tho True Church of f TiriM , 
Iftiired by concurrent Ttstiinonii^s of Sfrip- 
tim and Primitive Tradition, iu andwer to 
. . . [Lwlie'sj The Cat* .Suted,' Jcc., 1714- 
1716, 2 vol*. 8vo ; ind edit, 17»8. 'J. ' Oia- 
I Mimes of l^'ItKion, between a Mini5ti'r of the 
' Ohurcli of England and a Cniiutrv UetLtle* 
roan,' 1710, llimn. 3. 'The Uule'of Faith 
trulv 8tat<Ml in a new and easy Method,' ice, 
172i. i. 'Postscript, or a lleview of th« 
U rounds already laid,* 1720. G. * Some II**- 
inarks on the tV'cree of King Augustua II, 
&c. By H.E.,'172il. (t. 'Charlry and Truth; 
or, CaiholicltA not uncharitable \n Bjiviuglhut 
none are nnveJ out uf the Catholick Commu- 
nion, becauee the Itulti is not Cnivfrsal,' 
HruMcls, 172H,8vri; areply toChillingworth's 
* Ileligion of Pn^leAtants.' 7. ' Catholick 
Qrouudit, or a Summary and Rationiil .'Vc- 
count of the LTnchangeauIo Orthodoxy of the 
CatholickChurcli,'1729,8vo. 8. 'An.\ni%ver 
to Dr. Clarke and .Mr. Whiston concerning 
the Divinity of tho Son and of the Holy 
Siiirit.' 172it. On tho puliliciilion of thia 
work Hawunlen nxviveu t)ie ih-anks of the 
university of OxfonI for his ditfenrc of the 
Trinity. 9. 'Wit against Ileason, or the 
Protestant Champion, the great, tho iiirom- 
parablc: Chilling^vorth not invulnerable,' kc, 
BrufW«:ls, 17t'W, 8vo, A collected edition uf 
his works whs published at Dublin in IMOM. 
Several of his uiipublishud manuscripti* arc 
mentioned by Mr. liillow. 

[Gill'jw'BBibli(i«. Pirt.. of Kneli^-h CalholiM, 
iii. 167-82 ; Dodds Church Hist. 174i, iii. -187: 
Butlpt'd Memutniof ilieCatlioticfl, 18:'2. iii. 420 ; 
C. Butlcr'e C-onfessiions of Faith, 181(1. p. 6.1; 
Dijuay Diarica (Knox). 1678; Tyldeslcy Diary 
(Oillow and Hewitv-n), 1873; l-^VBiifc'* Cnf. of 
KnnniVL'd Portmits, ii. 19-1, J C. W. S. 

1820), divine, horn at Uwlruth, Cornwall, 
on 1 Jan. 1733 4. was baptii^id on 20 Feb. 
His father, Thomas Hawi-is of Chincoose 
in Kenwyu parish, was a eolicitor, who gra- 
dually mortgnged all his projiertv, and died 
at Itedruth in October 17.'):j. Tlis mother 
WR» Bridgman, only dfiughtor of John Wil- 
Ivams of ("anianton in Muwgiin in Pyder, by 
firidgmon, daughter of Colonel Uumpliry 
No}-. Thomas was educated at the 'Truro 
grammar school, where he waa famnuH for 
bla oratorical powers and his knowledge of 

Greek, and at the concluivion of Lu •chooli 
dnys waa bound an apprentice to a siirigeon- " 
apolhwary in that town. On 1 Dec. 17o6he 
matriculated tVom Chrij^t Church, fJiford, and 
was afterwards a memlKr of Mngdalen Hall^ < 
but he never took any degree in ihi* univer- j 
eity. In 17o7he wasordameiland appointed! 
cheplain to the Karl of Pttorbo rough, audi 
became curnto at St. Mary Magdalen, Ox-j 
ford. On being removed from St. Marv'b hyl 
Dishop Hume on account of his mct^odi.'vtij 
syuiputhiea, he became assistant to the Uer.i 
Martin Miidan [q. v.] at the Lock Chapel, i 
London, lie was from 25i''eb. 17G4 till his 
death rertor of Aldwinkle, Northampton- 
shire. In 1707 Haweis was called onhytho^ 
patrons to resign }U\^ living, on the ground 
tlmt he had takuu it under letter* of nwignn-J 
tion. This he positively denied, but a livelj 
discussion folKi%ved, and at least ten worka ' 
were printed on the subject. Chief Baron 
Sir Sidney Stiilford Smytlie in a letter toi 
Uaweitt Miyg: * In theaffiiiruf .Vhlwinkle Tou] 
acted with perfect uprightne*8, and I shall baj 
alwavft refldy to declare to it/ In 17G8 h«f 
became chaplain to Srlina Hasl ing!>, countesflil 
of Huntingdon, and maniii;er of the colle 
which she Imd just cfitablidhed at Troverc__ 
in Wales. t\>n Lady Huntingdon's death i^ 
171)1 fihe left him her trustee and executorj 
and from that time ho liud the chief manago-l 
ment of her numerous cbRpeKt. In 1772 hoi 
received the degnie or LL.U. at Cambridge.! 
becoming a member of Chriat's CoMegc, and! 
from one of the univer»itiee iu Scotland " 
obtained an 31. D. degree alioul Ihip period. 

He took a great interest iu foreign mia-i 
sions, especially in thoss to Africa and thoj 
South SetLS, and wns ohp of the first pT(^ 
moters of the Lond<m Missionan- Society in 
17il4, for the benefit of which he preached 
many sennons. He wiis a very voluminous 
writer; upwai-da of forty works liear his 
name, and some nf llie*e went through nu- 
merLUii* e<litions. Their titles are fully given 
in the* DibtiothecA Coniubinnhis.' Amons^ 
them tiTii ' The Cummuuiciuita' SpirituA^ 
Companion,' 17(UJ,whiL*h enjoyed much popu- 
larity, ond ran to twenty oditions ; ' Car- 
minn ChriFti, or Hymns to the Saviour,'j 
171)2, u verv favourite hymn-book, whiclii 
went through nine edit ions ; ' .\ Translation ofl 
the New Teiitnment fmm the nriginul ()ret'k,,f 
\79ri'. 'Thf I,ifeof\ViIHfvmllomaine,'i797; 
'.■\n Impartial and Succinct llistorv of the 
liise,D<>clenKion,andKi'vivnl of the Church of 
Chrii*T,' 1800.3 vols. Dr. I^aac Milner, dean 
of Carlisle, made a printed n-ply to this 
work. Hawois was a great friend of lhoi| 
ll*n-. John Newton of Dlney, whose *Au« 
thcDtic Narrative ' he edited in 1704, and i 

timatc acquaintance of the Uw. Martin 
fttian, to whose 'Tlielj-phthnrft' bethought 
it seoeuaiy to moke a reply in 1781. lie 
took a mat interest in xhv improvement of 
the Condi tiou of tht? poor.ond ivoi* an mh-ocat*' 
of the clnims of the HiimAnt! SrMMrtv. Ilia 
viewft, strictly evangi'lical, <'XpoB»'d uim to 
ftv<iuenl Httack. As a preucUt-r he was very 
Bucces&ful; he had large conj^^re^aiiona, ancl 
in^frcat request as a pnachcr of charity 
■ermoDK. lie died at Beaufort Duilding^, 
Satb. on 1 1 Feb. 1820, and 'wqb buried in 
the abbey church, where his monument by 
error tftntestbat bid aire wna 77. He was 
married three times. Tie had an only gon, 
John Oliver AV illyams llaweis, forroerly rec- 
tor (if Slau^liam. Sussex, now prebiMidary of 
Chicba'*t».T, iind fntlierof the Ilev. Hugh Re- 

S'naldllaweiBrpcrpelual curate of . 'St. Jsmca's, 

[Life of Ojuntcss of Huntingdon, i. 223, &<?.. ii. 
3U,&f.: KTmif^'flLciilMflfr. 1617 XXV. 341-B, 1821) 
p. 607-10, M»Kh 1820 i. 277, ^yo ; Palwhelu's 
iiogmphinl Sketches, i. 80-8. iit. 171-2; Public 
Charactere for 179»-9. pp- 312-10; Morisan'ii 
FathoK of rbo Loudon Miasiuaary t^ocivty. 1940, 
ii. 170, 207; Now's Tho Coronet and The (.'««», 
18^7. p. UR, &c ; TuDStall's lUmblos nboul 
Bath. 1H4H, pp. 3A-S; BuHsa and Courtney's 
Bibl. Comuh. pp. 2lft-19. 1231; Botra's Collec- 
tanea ComubicoaiQ, p. 336.] O. C. B. 

HAWES,Sin niCNJAJUN (! 797-1 &6i>\ 

ander-secretary for war, woa born in London 

ID 1797. His fntlier, Ik'uioraiu Howes of 

the New Rarpe Houm', I^amWth, so(ii>-boiler, 

I Tjraa elected F.S.A., nnd dit-d in IliiMell 

iCquare, Loudon, in ]tMi]. His niolhnr'A 

cmuideii iiiune wiw I'VItbnni. lU-njamin wn« 

[educated at I>r. Canualt's school at INit- 

CJjev, and when of fljie entered into purtncr- 

Lshfp with his fnthfTiind uncle. He Hrst held 

tortice a« a mafiri.-strotc and deputy-lieutenant 

I for Surrey, llo took an active part in the 

Lqoarter sessious, and after the Iteform Hill 

rt>as$ed was elocteH for the newly created 

'tomu^h of Ijinib«*tb. This w'at he lielil from 

12 Oec. IB;W to the. ^uenil elwlion of 1847. 

lie represented Kinsale from H March IB4S 

until his retirement in li<ryj. In his earlier 

career he meddled with many affikini whicli 

he did not understand, and cxpoiied himself 

to ridicule, but with i-xperience (^fuinttl the 

r«(q>ectrul nttentiou of tho Houbo of Com- 

^snona. Hia oratorical powers were above 

|»iediocrity. Thoiipb not a member of the 

league, hn was a fitrenuous odTocala of the 

t repeal of the com taws. He worked hard in 

llieimlf of the p'uny pfintajje system. It wast 

ring to a motion of biti in 1841 that the 

I Art« commiasion was appointed, and to 

him it is due that the liriti»h Museum waa 
opened to the public on holidays. He waA » 
supporttT of the Thamea tunnel scheme, and 
intere.Mod himself iu the battle of the fiaugca. 
He was an early advocate of the electric tele- 
graph, and made the first arrnngement for the 
uarlnerHhip between Sir AVilliam rothergill 
Cmikf and Sir C. AVheaLttone in iHii". ll« 
had theories u]»on veuiilatiou, and ptitnmi^ed 
ItuWmge's eulculatinp machine. When tho 
whi(:s came intootlice.hewasappoiQtcd under- 
secretary of stale for tho coUmics on July 
184(i. He was transferred to tho war depart- 
ment, and became the deputy-secretary on 
31 Oct. 1851. In the foUowinfj year he gtva 
up his Beat in purliument and turned his full 
attention to the duties of hi«otIice, in which 
lie eamod a reputation for nhiliiy mid xenl. 
(leneral.Ionatlmn I'eel atatedlhfit the adop- 
tion of the Armstrong gun wn« largely due 
to Huwes. AVhen the experii'nce of the Cri- 
meim war led to the remodelling of the war 
ofKce.he to*»k in 1s"j7 the jwst of |M_'rmanent 
under-secretory. Forhiswrviciw d\iring tho 
war he was creatctl a K.C.B. on o Feb. lS5tf. 
He Ueldollice till his death, which took placu 
at 9 Queen Stjuaro (now 20 Queen Anoe'ft 
L4ate), Weatramster, on 15 May 1H«L'. 

In 1820 ho married Sophiii Mncuimiara, 
daughter of Sir Marc Isambard Druuel. She 
died on 17 Jan. lH7d. 

Haweawas iheautborof: 1. 'ANarralive 
of an Ascent of Mont Blanc during the Sum- 
mer of 1827 bv Mr. W. Hawcs and Mr. C. 
Fellows,' 1828.' 2. * The Abolition of Anret 
and Imprisonment for l>ebt considered in Six 
Letters,' if<fk(, 3. 'Speech of B. Hawes.iun,, 
in oti]JOfiition to the t^econd readiug of thu 
Bfink of England Charter Kill,' 1H44. lie also 
wmlo a paper in the * Transactions of the 
Central Society of Kducation,' 18.'J8. 

[Timi-a, 10 May 18G2 p. 0. 21 May p. 5; 
Frnncii's Orators of tho Af^, 1847. pp. 345-fiO; 
Gent. JiUg. 1802. pt. ii. pp. 101-3.] O. C. B. 

HAWES, EDWAKI) (./?. HKW), \yoeU 
was author of 'Traylerous Percyef* ond 
Cuteiibyes Fro^opopeia. Writ ten by Edward 
Hawes, Scliollor at Westminster, a Voutli of 
aixleene yeers old,' London, 4to, pp. 24, IttOlJ. 
A dedicatory epistle in Latin is addressed to 
Tobias Matthew, bishop of Durlmni, and 
there are a few lines (o the M?ad»;r in I^liu 
and in English, to which the signatuns 
* Yours, Edward Hawes/ is appended. 

[Lowndes's Ilibl. Alunual (Bohn), ii. 1013; 
Hiblioth<-ca Aiiglo-i'ooticu. p. 88fl.} R. It. 

HAWES, KK:HARD(IG03.»-I06K ),puri- 
tan divine, was bom tn Norfolk in llK)3 or 
HH)4. He wae educated at Ipswich school, 
and at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, 



wluTt* bf pudHattMl B.A. in ItJi'M and M.A. 
in iii'Si i f'liiifrniti/ Mitli'iculntiim lir^iftff). 
Iliri Btt'pfiil licr inli-niltMl to liavo iirfSfnteil 
liiiii In K tiviiiff wliloh lu' as,*i'rti'a wa« hi*. 
Itiit wliich Ldril-kt'i-juT (.'ovt-ntry clauned on 
iM'hnlf of lliv crown. I'or I he suki- of peace 
llnwoH nccfitlrd tliu Inrrl keeper's promise 
tu npiMiinl liim to thu noxt vacant living in 
Ills Kift, nnd flicreby olii-ndwl Ihh xlt^pfuilier. 
111. woa eventually I'n-fcrn'd by C'ov<-Ulry to 
the ri'ctnrk- of JIiuuIht, HerefurdBbire, from 
which \w wuH H'Hin tnln^ft•^rL>d to ihat of 
K'-nlchiin-b in tbc mdi« county. I>uriDg 
th(* civil u'&r he ^ym(^>athiju>d with tbc par- 
Jimm-ni ; wiw nuKp^cted by tbi? rovUists of 
plotting itgniiiat tbi'iu; wuit taken tollurcfonl, 
Hud triod for bis liftt by il royidist council 
of war. Thu proBwution having been dis- 
covered to Im whi>lJy muIiciou}(, lit* wu» di»- 
iniwwd. lie was, however, subjected to mucli 
annoyance by the iMiId'ery, oinl luid his houiuf 
fre<|uyn!lv pfundercd (John Wr.un.CivUtOir 
in IlrfffunMiirr, ii. 2«-l. 4:*5). About 1660 
be obtftiuiil from Sir Edward Hnrley ibe 
vicnraKc of Lvintwnrdiue, Ilen-fordabire, but 
wrw cjerled in h^'2 on iiccouiit of his uon- 
i'onforrnity. Shortly iifier the UestoratJon 
lio wan chiirped witli complicity in some ant i- 
nionHrchiciil denigiiA nnd threatened with ill- 
ii.«n((i' by Sir Iltnrv Lingen, who, however, 
died before he could carry out bi^ thr«fll*i. 
llawes durin;f his lofll vears lived with his 
dttuj^liter, who bad married one ItillingKley ; 
(ir-'l ul \\'eobley, llerefordahir.'. ibon at 
Aber^i veil ny, and Utterly at A wrc^Glouces- 
iiTftbtre. On account of bid moderate opininnn 
he was (M'cosioniilly allowtsl to prencb m pub- 
lic without Hubscribing'. He died in Decem- 
ber It-Wjy, iu kin si.xty-fiflh year. 

[Authorities citui : I'almur's Noorooformist'd 
Memoriiil, ii. 29iJ-3.J U. G. 

HAWES, liOBKUT (1065-1731). author 
uf the ' Hiftorv- of Frumlingbani,' wils the 
eldest .son of Henn,' Ilawcsof Bnmdeslon, 
HufFolU, by Mnry, diUigbti-r and coheirewi of 
John Smith of l'y«bullx in the parish of l>en- 
itingtnn in the same ct>uuty. lie became on 
attorney ut Framliiighnm, end had an ex- 
tensive practice. Iu t~lJ he wus appointed 
i*teword of the lordfihip or manor of Kram- 
liuKbum, nnd be was also steward of Snxled 
and of other monorfl in tlio neighbourhood. 
He woa thus able to collect copious materials 
for the history of those manors. He died on 
Ufl Aug. ir.'il. and -woft buried in the church 
of Fnimlinghfun. Mp married Surah, the 
youngest daughter uf Charle*' .Sterling, esq., 
of Cbarstield. She ditxl on II Oct. 1731, 
Aged 63, 

He (>ompiled: 1. A numuscrlpt of upwards 

of seven hundred pa^, owiclr written and 
illQjtrntetl with drawings, entitled *Th« His- 
tory or Memoir^ of Frmmlingham and Loo^ 
Hundred in Suffolk, ontaining an account 
of the Litnln and Ljidy» ther«iif, with the 
most remarkjible occurrfuce* in Church and 
State wherein they wetw t-onfvmeil.' It is 
dedicated to the master and ff^Iows of Pem* 
bnike Itall, Ciimbridgef who are the loitU of 
tlie manor, and a «>py prc<«'nted to them, by 
the author is prwter\ed m the ctdlegc library; 
Other eopie.<4 are in thenianuiicrijK?. of Ilcnnr 
Jermyn and David EltshaUary in iheBritisb 
Museum. A separate copv in the Additional 
MS. 33247 eonaisu of :j'70 If. in folio. A 
portion ouir of the work haA been printed 
under the title of 'The History of Kramling- 
ham in the county of SutTolk. including brief 
notices of the Masters and Fellows of Pem- 
broke Hnl) in (^'ambridgi% from the foundation 
of tliu College to the prejient time. Begun 
by . . . l^JlM!rt llawes. . . , NVith considerable 
additions and nolcf by Robert l^jdnr.* Wood- 
bridge, 1 7it8, 4to. 2. ' Memoir* of the Manors 
and I'hurchesof Ilrande^touaud Cretingham/ 
1726, manuscript. 

(Addit. M.^. iwnsft f. 17, 19166 f. 72 : HawM 
anil lotb-r's Fraudiiighum, pp. 3o7. 396; Sicholi'a 
lUubtr. ofLii. vi. 33S-i I; Lowndes's BibL Man. 
(Bubii), p. I0I3.J T. C. 

HAWES, STEPHEN (rf. I.i23?), poet, 
was probably « native of Suffolk, in which 
county several familiesof the name of Hawes 
(variously spelled) nro met with; tu uedi- 
grees of one or two of the branches of^tUis 
iamilr, given by l>a\*v in his 'Suffolk Col- 
lectiu'n»* {lirit. Mwf'. Addit. MS. 19134 >. 
' Stephen ' appeard as a common christian 
name, The |>oet was educAti.*<l at < )a:ford, and 
afterwards travelled in Europe; lie studied 
English poetrv and literature, and the know- 
ledge flcr[uired by study nnd travel weenie to 
have pnicure*! him an entry into Henry VII'b 
household, whore he became groom of the 
chamber. In this capacity he obtained in 
151)2 (on the occasion of the funeral of 
Henry VH's queen) an allowance of four 
yards of black cloth for mourning. This is 
the earliest con tern ponirii' mention of him 
known. While groom of the chamber in 
1506, he wrote and dedicated anilogeticftlly 
to the king' The Passetyme of Pleasure.' On 
10 .Tan. r.jO*i the king's private accounts 
show a payment to llawes of 10*. ' for a bal- 
lett that he ^ve to the hinge's grace.' How 
long he retained the post of groom of thu 
chamber is not known, but his name does 
nut occur among those officers who received 
mourning on the occasion of Henry VXTa 
funeral (ltX)9). Henry VIIFs coronation 




ttxik place in 1509, biiiI the nvenl wns com- 
rat^momtt-'il by lEawes in ' A Joyful! Medyta- 

lleury Vin'» liowseboltl ticcoiinta rfinw, 
nnder dal e of Jan. t 'y2 1 , u payment to * Mr. 
IJawse for his piny' of 0/. 13*. 4J. lie died 
before 1630, when Thomas FeyUle, in his 

* Conversation Wtwefn a Lover and ft Joy/ 
refers to liim as ' Yonj^ Sffven llawtK*, 
iirfaose Aiulf' Goil pnrdon,* hihI n.^ <ini> wlin 

* ireativl of lovo fio olnrkly qiiJ so widl.* In 
the nrebdeoconri* court orSuflblli, nnder date 
10 Jon. 15if.% is proved the will (made two 
years Ijefore) of one Stephen Ilawes, whope 
property, all in Aldlwmuph, i* left to his 
wiffl Katharint*. It i^ piwiblo thai thu tw- 
tfttor wa.* the poet. Bale Rayn tIihI. hJa whole 
lifri wart * virl litis cxemplnni.' 

Ilawfo'fi parliebt nnd most ini|Ktrtant work, 
' Tht' l^af^^tyitu! of I'lfofitire, or the History 
of IJmi'nile Amonre nnd lii Hel Pun-l, coii- 
teininj the Knowledgi^of thfSifVPn Sciences 
and tho ('onr.*C' of Miin's Life in thisWorlde/ 
waa first printed by AVynkyn <i<i Wnrde in 
loOO. A copy of this edition Is at Ham 
JIouK, Surrey, in the library of the Earl nf 
Ifywirt. Another edition hy the »nme prin- 
ter, with wmidcnt« (a copy iw at Britwell), 
is dftt>Hl 3 Drc. I5I7; J. Wnylmid prinleil 
s third in 1W4 (without wmidiuita), with 
the title altered to 'The llistorieof praunde 
Amoure and la bell Piicci. colled thti Pastime 
of plccsure, contcining the knowlo^c of the 
seven sciences and the course of man's life 
in this worlde,' This is the earliest edition in 
the Briti-'^h Museum. Hiibsei^uent editions, 
■with woodcuts, foHowpd by Kichnrd Tottell 
m L'mo, and bv John \V}iU>y in the same year 
(cf. Cenrura Ia/. i. So). The fir*t mtKlern re- 

Society in 1H4*'». Another reprint is promised 
bv Professor Arbcr. The poem ia an elaborate 
allegory in forty-aix chapters^ each con^istiog 
of a varying number of seven-line stanzas 
rhyming thus ahnbhcc. In caps. xxix. and 
xxxii. tliefpeechejaof a dwarf. tiodfreyGobil- 
Tue, art in coupletK. The whole conniets nf 
itbout fiix tlinn»»nd Itnea. Thi> hi>rn, (rrande 
Aninure, tir!*t vinitu the Tower of DtMilrine, 
whose ftev^n daughters, (Mirsonifving the seven 
•cienceiof theQuadrivium and Vrivium, give 
him inftmction. After sojourns at the Castle 
of Chivalry, Tower of Chiistitv, nnd the like, 
and encfmnter? with agiiint with three heads, 
named n-npectively Falsehood, Imagination, 
and IVriurj', (iraiide Ainounj rtiached the 
palace *\^ • I-a Bel Piicell,' marries her, is 
threatened by Old Age, Policv, and .\voricc, 
and dies attended by Contrition and Con- 

science. Towards the end of tho poem are the 
well-known lines (cap. xlii. et. 10, lines ti, 7): 

For though the day be nerer (k> long. 
At liiKi the belles riujreih to evciwuug. 

The words, although Ilnwos gove them gene- 
ral currency, may possibly enib'xly an older 
proverbial expression. A simUttr iidnge ap- 
pear* in John Ileywotid's ' Proverbes,' lo4tf 
(ed. J. Sharnmn, p. 141 1. 

In the dedication, and in cap. xir., Hflwes 
acknowleilges much indebtedness to hia 
master, I.ydgatc, ' the ohefe orvgynnl of my 
learning,' and with (Jower an^ Chancer ho 
wiisalso obviously well ncfjiiainted (cap.xiv.^ 
He imitates two trench fablliiuT in cap.xxix., 
and di.ftplayt* elsewhere ImowU-dge and ap- 
preciation of Provencal jxietry. The pas- 
sages ndating to the (jundriviiim nnd Tri- 
viuni prove that he was widtdy rent! in the 
philo.sophy and science of bis time. The pni- 
lixity of the poem mokes it, iw n whole, un- 
readable. The allegorical detail is excessive 
and often obscure ; the rhythm is nearly al- 
ways irregular, nnd often very harsh. Never- 
thelewi there are many descriptive stanzas 
which chann by their sininlicity ond cheer- 
ful view of life. From an mstorical (Kiint of 
view, Hawes marks a distinct advance on Lyd^l 
gate. The ' Pft^^etyme ' is indeed a link be-' 
tween 'TheCanterburyToles' and 'TheFaery 
Queen.' Mrs. Browning justly regarded 
Ilawt'8 ay one of the inspln-rs of Spenser, and 
claims for him true • jjoetic faculty' (ftrreA^ 
Chrigtian iV/* and EnfflUh Poet", 18ikS, 
pp. 1LJ2 Xi), HallamfoundaparolleltoIIaweft'ft 
general management of his allegory in Bun- 
yan's ' Pilgrim's Progress/ but llswes's dif-1 
fusencita hardly admits the parallel to b9i 
pressed. The resemblance between him and 
Spenser is, however, ot times undoubted. 

Mawe*'H other works are chiefly remark- 
able as bibliogrnphieul rarities. They are : 
1. 'The Conversyon of Swert^rs,' AVvnkyn 
de Worde, 1509 (Cambridge Univ. Library 
and imperfect copy at Britwell). Another 
edition of this was printed in I^ndon bv 
MVillyam Copland for UobertToye' in IBGl"; 
a copy of tt third edition, without dale (per- 
hop*i ICoOl, printed in I^ndon by John Rut^ 
ler, is in the Huth Library. :?.' A Jovfull 
Medytacvon to All Knglrtn(le*(iri(Xtl,\Vyn- 
kyn de^V'onle, 4to. n.d. /Cambridge I'liiver. 
Librory), a single i*heet with woodcut nf the 
coronation of ifonn.- VIII and Cfllherino of 
Aragon, These two last-named works wcro 
reprinted by the Ahbot*ford Club under the 
editorship of Mr. David Laing in 18*15. 3. 'A 
compendyoiLs storv . . . culled the Kxempltr 
of \ertu in the wliiche yc shall tinde many 
goodly l!Jtorys and natural] liysputaoyoQu 





bytween four ladyes nanic>d HB.rdyiiai, 8ar- 
wenoe, Fortune, uid Nflturo, compyled by 
Steplii-n TIftw>!s, one of the trromea of the 
most hnnmirabU' chnmbre of oiire sovernyne 
lonlt^ Kvngc Ilonry VU,' printed alKnit I'Aii, 
njjpnnm'tlyby Wyiityn tU \Vordf(cf. im()er- 
fect co])V in the P^pyftian Librnry at Mttpda- 
lene Collvj^, Cambridiio). Another edition 
by Wynkyn dft Word.!, dated 2U April l-^i.HO, 
18 at Britwell (tuiolIioroo])v belonKi?rt fo Cor- 
•cr). 4. ' 'fho Comfort ol Lovers * (Wynkyn 
<Ie Wordt- 1, n. d. : a copy is at Hain Housf . 
•The Ttmplc of Olossw,' a work in imitation 
<if Chaucer's 'Temple of Fame,' which has 
been ascribed to Hawes, is, as nawL-s him- 
«elf says in his ' PnMeiyme ' (civ^i. xlv.), by 
LydfTBte. Of this rare work editions were 
prijiU'd rcfpentively by Coxton about 1479 
(CQmbridjreUnivor^ityLibrary); by Itirhard 
Pvnpon iil«)iit I5<10 (Bodleian Li bniry); by 
^'■ynkvn dp Worde (a copy l>el(Jii|^ to the 
Dukeof ]>evonshire); l»ndbvKe^th^•U•t(Bl>d- 
^einn Library). Tbo last edition is dcscriUxl 
n» in many pluces ' amended,' and was possibly 
edilo<l bv Hawes. Bale and Uii. successors 
rIko attributed to lUwe« works entitled *Th« 
PeliKbt of the Soul,' ' Of the IVinoe'a Mar- 
riaffi-; and 'The Alphabet of Birds.' But 
nothini? further aeema known of them. 

[Nottii from doeomente at the Public Rwird 
Offiee nii'l cUcwhtro. snppliwl by Mr. W. J. 
Ifrtrdy; PrefitCG to tlir reprint of thr Ctmver-ynu 
of S«fr«r», &c., by the AbboLsford Club, odrted 
liy D^\■'^A IninK; Mi". J. Churton C">Uin« in 
Wnrd'a EnRliiih Poets, i. 175 mj.; EUisV I'^rly 
Knplifth Poets. I. id'i w). ; Curser's CoUoctftnca ; 
Wurton's Bint, of Kc^lish Popiry, eil. Baclitt, 
1871 ; Wood's Aili*T:»Oxon,«d.Bli«s, i.9;BjiWij 
Script. Bryt. C«nr. 1567, p. 032 ; Southoya Eng- 
lish Poetd (1831). pp. 70 s(^. : Hallanra Lit. Bi»t. 
1.317-18; W, C. BrtzUti'dBibliu^riiphioiilHind- 
b.wjkand Ojllacliuns; CoHif-r'^ BiUiogr. C/it. i. 
366 sq.; HcbcrB Cat. of IJarly Englisb Poetry, 
ed. Collifr.] 

1808), founder of the Boyal Humane So- 
ciety, waa born at lalinfrton, L^^iidon, on 
28 Nnr. IT^ifi. and wo* educatef^ at fir-it 
by John Shield, and aftenrards at St. Poiil'd 
Sclifwil. After pawing- some time with Mr. 
Cnninn, a medical practitioner, of Vaux- 
bnll, he became asaihtimt to a Mr. I ticks in 
the Strand, and evenlually ftiicct.'ede<l him in 
liirt practice. vVbout 177."t he bwnme well 
linnwn in consequence of tlin en*»rj;y with 
which he roiiintftim-d the possihilify of r*'- 
siiscitating persons appan^ntly dead fmm 
druwninff or other ottUWB of ni<phyxiii. Pur- 
ine a whole year he gavo out of liis own 
pocket a rewiird to any nne who broug-ht to 
iiixD or to some of hia supporters ibc body of a 

personwlio had iMcn taken out of tbe Thames 
insensible, within a n^aaonable time after im- 
mersion. The reward was paid whether the at- 
tempt to reisuscitate proved sncoeasful or not. 
Ur. Thoma« Cofjan (1730-1818) [q-T.], wb» 
translated in 1773 an account of an Am&ttir- 
dam society for the reauscit^tion of the apjia- 
rent 1y drowned, objected to hie bearing »1 1 1 h» 
expense of the reward*, and it wa.<i arranjred 
in 1774 that he and Cogan should each bring 
fifteen frientbt to this Chapter coH'ee-house t*> 
consider further oiierations. This was done, 
and at the meetiuj; the Humane Society wa^ 
formed. Hawea became its recistmr. He 
was also physician tothe London J)isp(.'n«arTr. 
From 1791 he lived in Spital Square, and In 
178ii made great effort.i to alleviate thy dit*- 
treM which then prevailed among the Spilal- 
fields weav.rrs. lie died 5 Dec. It^OH. 

lie wrote the following works: 1. * An 
Account of Br. (loldsmith's tUness,* 1774. 
*2. * An Examination of the Rev. John Wea- 
!py> Primitive Physic,' 1776; 3rd ed. 178a 
3. * An Addrwson Premature Heat hand Pre- 
auturc Interment,' 1777. 4. ' An Addnuui 
to the Public on the llangerouo Custom of 
laying out persona as aoon aa He«piration 
ceases, with a Reply by W. Renwick, and 
OlMM.Tvntioiia on that Ueply,' 1776. 5. * An 
Address to the I rfgislat ur« on the importanco 
of a Humane Society,' 1781. 6. *Aa Ad- 
dress la the King and I'arlinmcnt of Great 
Britain on the important subject of preserv- 
ing the Livifs of its Inbabitanta,' 178:J, Srd 
wl., to which are now added Observations on 
the GenemUlillsofMorlalitv; 1783. 7. *The 
Transactions of the Bnyal Humane Society 
from 1774 to 17&Lwith an.Vppendix of Mi»- 
ceUaneous Observations on Suspended Ani- 
mation to the year 17U4.' 

[Uont. Hag. ISOSUxvtii. 1121-4.1811 Ixxxi. 
pi. i. p. 305; Euronean Mhr. 1802. pp. 427-31 ; 
Nichols's Lit.Anecd. vi. 627; Watt's Bibl. Brit.; 
Brit. Mqs. Cat.of PritUwl Booki.] K.C-h. 

HAWES. Wl LLT A ^I ( 1 785-1 846), singer 
and composer, bom in Ltuidon in 17So, was a 
chorister of the Chapel Hoyal from 17vt3 to 
1801 , and a ppnlli'raan*)f the same chajwl fr^>m 
1805. In the interval he plnyd the violin 
at CovenI Hanlen Threat r*-, and in 1803 acted 
aa deputy lay vicar of WestrainstLT. He sang 
at(iloncestershortlyaftertbefo«tix-Blof 181 1. 
He wan one of the original afisociatf-s of the 
Philharmonic Society on its foundation in 
l8l-3, and in 1814 became almoner, vicar- 
chornl, and mosterof t hechildren at St. Paul's. 
On the death of Saiiiu*;! Webbe in 1816, ha 
competed nnsuccessftdly for the prize offered 
for the best setting of a mcmDrial ode by W. 
Linley. On 1 July 1817 he was appointed 
master of the children uid luteniat of tbo 





rChspel Royal, and in the ennie vt*rir 1>*K*-ftme 
lay vicnr of We>.tnuii3ter, n post whirli he 
retained until iHl'O. In 181M be edited in 
score the prt-at collection of Kng^livh mndri- 
fraU, called ' Thy Triumplis of l>riana,' first 
published in 1001, jirelixing an intrcidnction 
of somt' atiti(|iiariau valut-, t^»(rft her with bio- 
graphioil notic^aof the compostTs. Hisesli- 
mateof the merit ofthe music was very hiffh, 
and was cou.sitlerahly more Jiiiot than (hat of 
Bumey orof thn mujorily of musicianH at llie 
datenf rupuhlieatton {wu Quartfr/i/ Miuticat 
Jierinp, 1 .h1 H. p. TiOO ). lie became connected 
-with the Royal Harmonic Institution in the 
Argyll Ilooms, Hcgent Street, n kind of pub- 
lishiiigeomptinT which ultimarely faile-d, and 
IlawM and one Welsh were left as the only 
representatives of the original prDinoters of 
the Bcheme. Hawes freed himself from the 
coneem l>y the coni)ni<^i'iun of an act of bank- 
ruptcy, and afterwards set up as a publisher 
on hia own account in the Strand. In 1H22 
lie tried to establish exclusive rights in one 
of twelve Scotch songit which ho had editetl 
and published; but theauit he brought a^aiuat 
the proprietors of the * Oazette of Fashion' 
with thift object was dismiwe<l by the lord 
chancelhir. IJurinicf Arnold's roan age iiient of 
the Kngli(«h Opera House nt the I^yceum 
Theatre, Hawes, who was Arnold's iuliinate 
friend, gave him much assistance. It is eaid 
that the production of 'Her Vreischtitz' in 
July 1^24 was mainlT due to Hawes. Ho 
certainly wroto several aongs which were, ac- 
cording to the barbarous fashion of the day, 
interpolated in Weber's score. It has been 
fit-atea (Ubovb, Dictmwry) that he was 
xnoflical director for several years ; but neither 
the contemiKjrBrv accounts of the perform- 
BXtcea nor the a<)verti:iement5 mention him 
except a« odnpting foreign workf to the Eng- 
lish stage. The operas arranged by him were 
Salieri's ' Tarare,' 1825; Weber's ' Natur 
undLiebe.' 18^*5; Winter's ' Unterbrochene 
Opfcrfest,' 182<1; Pacr's *FtiOTUsciti,' 1^27; 
MoearlB ' Coai fun Tutle/ 1828 ; Hies's ' Itau- 
lierbraut' and Marschner's * Vampyr,' iStiO. 
In IhJ.j be directed » series of Lenten ora- 
torios at Covent Marden, and in IKJO en- 
vd in similaf underrakinpt at Imth the 
ent. theatres. In 1H2K he inanngt^l a 
tival at Brighton, 29-31 Oct . I ie was for 
many years conductor of the Madrigal !So- 
rietv, and organist of the Lutheran church 
in tlie Savoy. Hawen died at his house in 
AdelpliiTerraeeon lSFeb.lJ=l40. Illsdaugh- 
ter, Maria Billtngtun llawe-s attained dis- 
tinction as a 8iD((tr. B«»ide^ his enngs tntro- 
ilnced into play^ his works compri'*; ' A Col- 
lection of 1-ivf (ih>e6 and one Madrigal/* Sir 
Glees,' a monody on the death of I'rioceae 

rhurlotte.Ifil7,«nd a recjuiem for four voices. 
His glei^, 'The Bee, the Eolden Paiighter of 
the Spring,* gained the prize at ihe (ilee Club 
in \^\Q. lie edited a collection of madri- 
gals of the fifteenth and sixtet^nth centuries, 
the glees of SpoHbrth, and Chants, &c., in 
^'veu numbers or parts. 

[Qnive's Diet. i. 82. 698, iv. 387; Qiuiilcrly 
Mu«. Hot. tv. 102. vii. 19,5. n. 169; H. Phillip«s 
Musical and Pcrsoniil l{ceollcctiQns{lfl6l), i.8l ; 
Ly»>ng's Ongin and Progrciis of the Mcoriug of 
tbV Three Choirs (1865), p. 93 ; Aihcnteitm, No. 
056, p. 20&.] J. A- V. M. 

H AWTOBD, ED WARD, D.D. (>/. 1582), 
master of Christ's College, Cambridgi*, per- 
haps bom atClipslone iuNorthoniptnnsliire, 
was son of Thomas Hawford and his wif« 
Margaret Wade. He was a student of Jesus 
College, (.'ambridge, graduated B.A. in ir>4't, 
waa elected fellow of Christ's College, and 
commenced M.A. in l'»4i». He was pn^ctor 
in 1552. On 12, June l.'io4 he was instituted 
rector of two-thirds of the rectory of L'lip- 
ston, and subscribed the Roman catholic ar- 
ticles in 1555. He wa* elected master of 
Christ's College in ir)59,and on 14 Feb. Io(U 
was collated to a prebend in Chester Cathe- 
dral, beingalsn, it 18 believed, reetorofGlems- 
f(trd in Suffolk (Coopkb). In 16th} ho waa 
made vice-chancellor of the university, and, 
havingtaken the degree of D.D. in 15o4, wa» 
still in oifice when d^uccn Eliralw-'th visited 
Cfinihridge onft Aug. Hawford did hisshure 
in receiving her, and took part in the divinity 
act held in her presence. The dean and 
chapter of Norwich seat him UK>/. in I5fiy 
as an acknowledgment of the help which ho 
had given them in the mailer of I heir charter, 
and he bestowed the money on his college. 
He al:40 made an addition to the college 
garden. He was one of the heads chiefly 
responsible for the new university staliitea 
drawn up in 1570. The statutes were dis- 
pleasing to the puritan party at Cambridge, 
and Uawfonl and his eolleagin-s were de- 
scribed as 'either enemies to the gospel or 
faint professors,' Hawford being specially oc- 
cuaed of having shown great unwillingness 
tn caAt out ]M'>piHh Iwioks and vestments from 
his colliige, and of having finally convoved 
nil the best and richest awav secretly {IJfe 
ufArchhinhop Parker, iii. 221 -2). On 1 1 l>ec. 
lie was oue of the nsH'saors of the vice-chan- 
cellor in t he proceedings against Thomas Cart- 
wright ( l.Vto-ltKW tUi. v.l He waa appointed 
one of the visitors of St. John's College, and 
helpeil to revise the statutes in lo75-ti. Tbo 
majority of the ft-llows of Christ's College 
were discontented at his ejection of the puri- 
tan Hugh Broughton [q. v.] from his fellow- 




• •hip in 1^7' ''•tn ttie ehamyllor tad ' 

\,to Sir \^''t -iv a^'ast ht« actinn. ' 

ttwtotd nfiuetl ut pire war, but hiit ilnri- ' 
liftoawMimvMed in ITiHl. H>!filuMlnn I-(Fi*b. 
llA83^ M is tiaeed oo th<* bnuHplaciHt to hU 
laiemoryiiidwraQetechapfL He liift inoaev i 
to tba ooAIe0» bj hii viil (Coonw)* 

rOrMDOT'a Athnw Goitaifar. I, 44A. aantnins ■ 

^__ii .. ...f ti._*.-._i ('._, '. % i_ „f 

32'i, Ufe of Wattgift III. It), Lite of OnodAl 
p. 297. A<m ediL ; GriDtUl's Itcnutiu. p. iS9 
(PftrVef Hoc.); Wbitpft* Worki. iii. flW ; Ls 
H«Ye« Fasti, iii. 26y. dO«. fiI8. And. nU lUrdj: 
KicUoU'-i Prof^renmi of Klix. Iii. IOA-3. l&i; 
3tri'1(f«Ji'4 lliit. of VonhampOiQihiftt. ii. 20; 
Itlom<ifieUl'» Uut. of Xur&ilk. i v. M9 ; Wlilin nod 
CUrk'i Architect. Ui«t. of CuBbrldge, ii. 101.1 


HAWKE, EDWAnn. Lord Hawkb 
(ITO-Vir^l I, •"Imirml «f the tl«rt, horn in 
JjOTi'lon in 1705, wa» only *on of Eciw»nl 
HAwk*-, Imrriftter, of Lincoln'* Inn. Ilia 
fiitli-'r'fl fnmily wn* iw'tileJ for mnnv frernra- 
tions at Tft-rivt'n in Cornwall. ](i.<i rootlier 
VM KItzabplli, ilnagUtfTfi ^inthan't A 'Ridden 
of M''ni*wrtrth in Y'lrlwhirt', )rran'l-<l»ught(-r 
of Sir William Fairfnx of Steelon U\. y.i, and 
•iitifr of Colonel Martin Bladen fq. v. In 
171^ Ititi father rlied, and I [awke, left t Np ward 
of hie uncle, Martin niadt'n.i'nlerwl the na^'Y 
on 20 Feb. 1718-20 ax a vr.lnnteer nn board 
tb<*Sfab'»pw,rH>njman(ledbyCantain Tlioma« 
]>nrrll,and wrred in herontheSorthAmeri- 
c/inand \V'e«t Indian stationtill 17:!S,wKen, 
on her cntninff home, be paAseU hix cxamina- 
lion on "2 June. The same day be entered, 
with the rating of able Heaman, nn board the 
Kinaale, with Captain Richard Girlington, ' 
and *t5rve<I in her on the wtail. roaxl of Africa ' 
and in the Went Indifx, including a month 
wilU the fiqtifldnm off Porto Bello under Ho- 
sier, tillfihe paid off at Woolwich on 11 July 
17"i". He may have afterwords been in the 
fleW off Cadiz and nt Oibraltnr, 1727-8 (cf. 
HrRRows, n. 11.1), hut this cannot be verified. 
On 1 1 April 1729 he wB«promoti»dtnhethird 
lieutenant of the Portland, commanded by 
Captiiin Itowzier. in the Channel, i h\ 25 Nov. 
hi* woA iiiovtKl into the Ij'npnnl with Captain 
(nfterwards Sir IVter) Warren ; and on lier 
payiiin off a month Inter (22 Dec.) ht» waa 
plociMl on hnlf-piiy, till, on 19 May 17S1, he 
waa appointed fourth lieutennnt (iiihe Edin- 
\inTf[\i with Sir Clinlnner t)Rle [q. v.], one of 
tlielleet «eut In the Me<literrBiieHii under Sir 
(*harleA Wnfier [q. v.] (*n her eorninfr lioinu 
he wan dil«eiln^^f^'d, 2/ Dee., and after a fort- 
niirhl on hiilf-pnv wa* appoiuted (\^ Jan. 
1781-2) to tho Scarborough with hid old 

esptain, DvfelL mad again ^ Nifih i 

American station, (a 10 > _ >«|; i 

then at Batfflit, ha wms liiflchirg^l to tW 
Flambomngfa for a pammt^ to Um Kiagftoa, 
carrying^ clw faroad panaant of Sb- Oi^oofr 
fyleascaBiitanda<-tB-«hitff at Jaataara. Oa 
'H Dec. he joiiMci the Ksgiton aa ftnt IwO' 
tenant; on ISApcil 1733 be w ma i h om<iii 1 
by (>gte to be com ma ndg r ni the wetf thaf, 
ondooajn, nn 20Man:h 173^-1, to be ca^Uot 
of the Flamix>roa^. In her ht! cootnsed 
tilt r» S*q>t. 1735. wh»Ti. on her arriTal ia 
England, »bft was paid off, an>! Hi-^n- ptaced 
on half-pav. The aernoe du "*>. 

not only m thp I^lanbaro< _ i i the 

Wolf, the Scarbomuph, and »iill ^rij-lier ia 
the Seahorse, seemjj tn hare bet-n uneventful, 
the tun* beintt* mostly spent in moootoniio* 
cruises or uninten^inff p&saafz^s, raried only 
by occasiooallr careening or refittinj^. No 
trnining^ couhl have b<*tfn more eeren^ or 
better calculated to turn out a ihorofigk 

For nearly fourjearp Hawke continued on 
half-pay, and during thts time, probablr in 
tho (*our»e of 1737, he marri»'d Catherine, 
daughter and wle heir**' of Wiilt*T Brodior 
Burton Hall in Yortwhirc, inherit iuff 
throujth her mother, the properties of Si;art 
ingwell.Towton, and Saxton. The Brool:^ 
were alrffady connected with the Bladena. 
and the marriage, though it proved one of 
affection, woAprobably BUfrgvated by Colonel 
Rlad>:ni ; for JIawke wait at this time thirty- 
two.and tho bride but seventt^n. Two daufib-^ 
ters, bom in the early years of their murrifdli: 
died in infancy, and wen? buried at Ilarkl 
in E*»ei on 13 Sept. \7^ and 3 .\pril 1 
On the first threateninfrR of the war 
Spain, Hawke commiftjiioned the Portia; 
t^JO July 1739 J for service in the West Indi. 
She sailed early in October, and for neai 
four yt-ars wag employed in the tedious du' 
of watching over njirbsdiie*«and the adjace: 
ihUnds, pmtectintr the trade anil convoyi 
it to the cnaiiit of North America, with oci 
Kional visits to Boston in the hurricane 
It wiLs a time of war ; but no S; 


ships came in her way, and tho French 
tempt to sujiport Spanish intereati rcmlt< 
in coAtly failure. The Portland was ol^ 
rotten, and barely seaworthy. Tn a n]« 
windoutftidc Boetonon 15 Nov, 1741 she 
her masts, and the «ihip hen>clf was in 
great danger. She managed, however, to 
to liarliadoes, where Hawke reported that' 
lukint; out the slumps of the old luast-^t thi 
wer»' found to be »o rotten that ihey onimbl 
to powder, and that a stick wa.s driven a fu| 
vnm into the foremast. In the course of 1 7 
Mrs. Hawke joined her htuband at 




does, Rnd returned to Enaland with him in 
the Inllowing JiLnuiiry- The Portland was 
paid ufi'on 17 March, and w(M soon oftenvordB 
brvikcn up. 

In June 1743 Hawke was npiuinted to 

thtt Bfrwick, a nt*w ship of 70 pun)*. Tht; 

wnr with Spain, the immineiict; of war with 

Kranct', and ihe largt flfet* already on fnol 

in th«> Wmi Indies, the Mtditeiraneau, and 

the Channel, rendered seamen scarce, and 

iacrcascd the difiicuUT of manning a newly 

ooaunianoned sliip. tt was more than two 

monthtf before the Berwick was able to drop 

down the river, hd<I then with a crewlarffely 

c«imp«i8e4l, a^ Hawke wrote to the admiralty 

on :i3 Aug., of 'very little, weakly, puny 

fellow^^lhat have never been at sea, and can 

be of little or no service.* The vasga^ out 

to the Mediterranean lrie<l sucti a chip's 

company severely. On 27 Oct., shortly afler 

leaving Gibraltar, Uawke rt-ported that I'JS 

of hi« working^ men wore eick with fever or 

scurfy, and falling down by tens and twenties 

every day. ' A great number of them,' he 

wrule, ' ore lately come from the East Indies, 

and others are raw men picked up by the 

pn'i^-gnngR in I^ondnn,' Towards the middle 

of NoTt'mber the fU'rwiek arrived at I'ort 

[Afahoii almoHt disabled; but a few wt't-kn' 

jean; and rest did wonders, and shu finally 

■joined the fleet in the roadntc'ad uf nyerea 

f on 11 Jan. 174,'5— I. It was the first time 

that Iliiwkehad »een n fleet since he had been 

with Ogle in the Edinburgh; nor, though 

the war had been going on for upwanU of 

foar years, had he yet seen a hhot Hrcil 

kin anger. <^n H Feb-, when the allied Meet 

Iput to sea from T<>uIon, tlie English flent 

»l«o getting under way to fallow them, the 

[jWrwick was in the squadron under thecom- 

Inand of it4».r-admiral Tiowley, which led 

Ion the port tack, formed the van of the 

rfleet in (be action of the 11th Tsee Lestoik. 

RiciiARt>: M4TUEW9,Thoma8; llowtizr.SiH 

Wiu-Iam], and in an intermittent mauuer, 

though in fairly good onler, encaged the 

frencU division of the allies, with which 

I TTere two or three of the leading Spanish 

Iflhips. The othora astern were much t<cat- 

fter^i but the English centre, opposed to 

[tbem, was also in didorder. and there waf no 

Vdireetiag bead. The Berwick beat her im- 

I ziietlinte ontagonist , the S|>aniBh Neptuno, out 

I of the line, and was left without an opponent. 

[ Astrm the Poder, by herself, was keeping nt 

I bay u numbf>r of the Knglif^h ships, which 

I* were a-barking ' at her (Narrative of the 

[jVorpprfinp* of Hin .V*yM^v*« Ft^t in tht 

I Mediterntnmn. by a Sea-< Ul'icer, 1 744, p. fiO), 

|f»<ebly eodeavoiiring to oVjey Mathews's con- 

j tradictory signals. Ilawke, on Lis own re- 


spnnwbility, wore out of the line, ran down 
to the Poder, and engaged her within pistol- 
shot. His Hrst broadside is said to have 
killed twenty-seven men, and to have dis- 
mounted Beveral of her lowtT-deckguns. In 
twenty minutifs she wa.«i di)imaAte<T; after a 
brave but unavailing defence she Ktrnek her 
colours, and was taken possession of by a party 
from the Berwick under Mr. Lloyd, her first 
lieutenant. They were scarcely well on board 
her when it was seen that the French bad 
tacked and were standing towttrds them ; the 
English fleet had alM> tacked, and was re! iriiig 
to the northward. The Berwick and her prize 
were left alone, and Hawke. hailing IJoyd 
to return to his ship, was*, without waiting 
for him to do f>o, obliginl tn make sail af^er 
the fleet. Lloyd, after an extraordinary and 
adventumuK cruise in a boat full of SfuiniRh 
prisonerB, succeedetl in getting on board the 
Koyal (-tak, while the Poder, with the prixe 
crew on board, was retaken by the French, 
The next morning Lloyd rejoined liis ship, 
and in the afternoon was sent, to give Howley 
anaccouut of bis proceeding)^, and to tiequaint 
him that seventeen men bad been left on hoanl 
the Poder. Kowlev prfmiised to 'endeavour 
to save the prize and give Captain Ilawkc the 
honour of carrying her to M inurca,* and apoke 
in high terms of TIawke'a conduct. He di- 
rected the Berwick and Diamond to go down 
tn the Poder, then some distance osteni of 
the allied fleet, in company with a French 
ship, which, on the approach of tho English, 
left licr to her fate. Tne Essex, however, by 
Mathew/s order, had anticipated Rowley's 
Hhip5, and net tlie Poder on fire, iniicli to 
HawkfVannovance. He wrote to Mathewa 
complaining tbat another ehould have bettn 
ordered to bum the prixe whirh ho took, and 
asking him to onier 1 'nptain Norris and his 
oflicers to rest ort' the colours and things which 
they had tukrn out of her. Norris, however, 
kept the trophies; and a few months later fled 
into Spain to escape a probable sentence of 
death for cowardice. 

For the next eighteen months Hawke con- 
tinued attached tn the Mediterranean fleet, 
though oAen on detached command at (li- 
braliar, ofl" Tadii, or on the coast of Qonoa. 
The iH^rvice is now chiefly noticeable becanae ' 
the severe drill accuittomed him to the rou- 
tine of Bquadrons. On 3 Aug. 1745 he was 
moved by Rowley, then commander-in-chief, 
into theS ept une, wit h orders* to return to Eng- 
land in charge of the home wanl t rade. He ar- 
rive<l in the iM>und on I'O Sept., and for the 
next year was on shore, amiarently not in very 
good health. In June 1746 he waa summoned 
aa a witness on the trials of Lestocb and 
Mathews, but did not attend. On 30 March 





1747 bo was apiMinted to the M&rs, but before 
she was ready for Eea be wafi advanced to flag 
rank ou 15 July. The very l«rg»> pronuilion 
thon made was specially extended inonlt-r to 
include Boscaweii [5eo Axson,(teoroe, Louu 
Aasosl, and for this pumitit' t*evt'ral most re- 
spectable oflifiers were retiH'd. llawke'sname 
■waa sTill little kticnTi tothoincrompetent ad- 
nimiRtratiou then at the admiraltr, and after 
ilie defltli of his uncle Bladen, in 1^16, he had 
no political interest. It waa determined to 
poM him over. The king, however, who bad 
taken a elronfl interest in the diecussions con- 
cerning the battle of Toulon, is said to have 
declared that * be would not have Kawki* 
" yellowed ; " ' be waa aw^ordlngly promoted 
to be rear-admiral of the white. A week 
later be boisted bis flag on board the Glou- 
, outer, and on 3 Aug. was appointed second 
in command of the fleet in the Channel under 
Vice-admiral Sir Peter Warren. 

Warren wa^ in inditferent health, and pro- 
posed that the 84[uadron bhould go out under 
the command of Ilawke, hojiin^' that by the 
time it retume<l bis hcallli would he re- 
established. Anson full verv uneasy ahtJut 
sending the fleet to sea ' under so youn^j an 
ofticer, and with grf*at reluctance yielded to 
the proposal. During the next fortnight 
Warrens heaUh got worse, end on 6 Sept. 
he was obliged tu resign the command. <Jn 
the 8th ordon* were aent to Hawke to take 
the inde{>endent command and cruise be- 
tween llshaut and Caj* Finisterre. These 
orders he rlid not receive for nearly a mouth ; 
but bis original instructions had taught him 
that the first object of his cruise wa« to inttT- 
eept a French convoy expected to aail from 
Rochelle. Spanish caleons too were spoken of 
as liknly to he on the way to Cadiz* and the 
temptation to send part of bis force lo look 
for ihem must Iiave been greftt. Ho decided, 
however, that treoaure-huntiug might wait, 
that to cnuh the enemy In arm>^ was his first 
duty, and he kept bis ships together. On ' 
12 Oct. he was broad ofl* Uochetle, nearly j 
midway between Uahant and Finisterre, in 
a • situation/ he wrote, * very well calculated i 
for intercepting both the outward and home- 
ward bound trade of the enemy.' Two days ; 
later bis cSbrtfi were rewarded by his outlv- | 
ing vessels signalling the Fnmeh fleet in 
Kight. He had then with him fourteen ships 
of the lin*', mostly of 60 guns, but two were 
of 70 and two of only fiO. His own tiagsbip, 
the Devonshire, was of 66 guns, though theiie 
were heavier than usiml. bhe had been built 
I an i^)-gun ship, but had proved so crank 
that she had been cut down 1o n two-decker. 
The euemy when aigbted was reported to ' 
have IweWe large shipa; three of tliem were, J 

however, merchantmen ; there were re«ll| 
only nine ships of war. Of these one was of 
no guns, and anothf^r of tiO; the rest 
Ifirg'^r, including three of 74 guns and oaei 
80. The difl'erence of force was thuB nothmg ^ 
like what ia shown bv the mere numlwrs of 
the ships ; still the f'reuch admiral, &1. de 
r£tenduere, conceived that the odds againrt 
him were too great, and Uawke, seeing thot 
be was int^'Dt only on favouring the escape 
of the convoy, 'made the signal for thewholti 
squadron to chase.' The result was decisive; 
as the English ships came up with the rear 
of the enemy they engaged ; and so, succe*- 
i^ively cn-eping on towards the van, took tins 
whole line exoi^pt the two leading aliips, the 
one of 80 and the other of 74 guufi, which, 
owing chieflv, it wai thoug:hc. to a blunder 
of Captain jt^ox of the Kent, made good 
their escape. The Content, the 60-gun ship, 
was with the convoy, which also got away, 
though Hawke, by promptly sending out the 
news to the West Indies, insured the cap- 
ture of the greater part of it. The action, 
by far the most imiK)rlnnt and most brilliant 
or the war, liad ine misfortune of coming 
after Anson's of 3 May; and the acknow- 
ledgments of the admiralty, of which An^^n 
was a member, were almost tmgracious. For 
a victory over an enemy of barely one-third 
of hi-i strength Anson had been made a peer. 
Huwke, for a vict<try na divisive over a nearly 
i*f]ual force, was merelv made a knighl of the 
Hath, the reward which had been given to Sir 
IVter Worren, Anson's second in command. 
On the return of the fleol with the priiea 
to Portsmouth, Warren resumed the con»- 
mond, and during the rest of the war TTawke 
continued with him, for the most part cruis- 
ing in the Bay of Biscay. On 12 May 174S 
he waa advanced to be vic^-admiraL of the 
blue. Hh had alreadv, in Dwember 1747, 
been elected member of parliament for Ports- 
month by the interest of llie Duke of Bedford, 
then iirstlord of the admiralty. Furnearly 
thirty years Hawke continued to represent 
Portsmouth, but ho rarely spoke in the house. 
ITiere is not even any record of bis having 
taken part in the debates of 174B on the new 
arficlc* of war and the reform of naval disci- 
pline. On 26 July 1748 he succeeded Warren 
in command of the home tleet, a charge which 
he held continuously during the next four 
years, for the mn-it part at Portsmouth, but 
during !7rjO in the Thames and Medway. 
Of this service the notices are scanty. Pro- 
bably Hawke's chief work was in a>isisting 
or in advising Anson in the important changes 
which be introduced. As commander-in- 
chief at Portsmouth he was president of the 
remarkable courta-martiol on Rcar-admind. J 


I to 1 

Knowlus and bis captain? in Dt^eniliPr and 
Kubrnary 1 74O-0O l^see H^^LME*, Charlks, «nd 
KjroWLC*.SlltCHARI.E.*jtnndort(int on \'ict>- 
iwJmirnl GrilKn in IVi-embcr 1750 w^e GttlF- 
ns, Thomas]. In November 17-i2 he !-triipk 
Ilia flag, but in Febraarj- 1755 vus ajfain 
ordered to hoist it on board tbo St. Geoi^ 
at I'ortsmoulb. On 10 July be was appointed 
to tbn command of tile western fqnadrou,vrilb 
urd'^r* fnim tbe lords justices CiJ July) to po 
to f«t?a with sixteen .«Ail of tbe line, and crniiM^ 
between t'shant anil Cap*' Kinihierre in order 
to intercept a Fn-ncli snuadron whicli, und'T 
the command of M. l>u-(luay, bad bet-u cruis- 
ing in the neiffbbotirboml of Cnbrullar oud bad 
put into Cadut. He was instTwctcd in precise 
words ' not to go to tbe southward 01 f'apc 
Kinii-t^rTe' unlciW positive intollipenct- abonid 
show it to be neci^flsun-: and ac*?ordiiiply, 
hile Ilflwktj was cruisiui^ in the Bay of 
iw^ay, Dii-tiuav, by making' a long stretch 
to the westward, Bucceeded in ffelting safely 
into Bre-^t. On -9S4*pt. Hawke returned to 
Spithead. It waji f|iiite time, fur tbt* weather 
had been bml, nnd t he whips' companieM were 
very rickly. During the winter he was em- 
plovedaacommandcr-in-cliiefut Portsmouth, 
nnti in tbe spring' was again in the Buv of 
Bif»cay, keeping watch on tbt* enemy's ^hip3 
Ilociiefort. Ho returned to Spitbeud on 
May 17">a. 

Earlv in June, on the news of Byn^ hav- 
ing withdrawn to GibraUar[wL'BYNo,. Ions], 
Hftwke was femt out to take the command in 
iC Mediterranean, and with bim Saunders 
replace Ut^ar-admiral AVe.'it. and Ijonl 
rawley to sui>ers*;de General Kowke as 
femor of Gibraltar. The Antelope, with 
"9 ' carcro of courage,* as it wnfi cnlled, 
■ived at (iibriiltar on 4 Jiilv. Bynp,We:*t, 
,d all the coramis.«ioned ol^cera of the Ku- 
ies and Bucking-ham, were ordered on 
ird the Antelope for a pa»aage to tlng- 
d. and Hawke hoisted his flag on board 
' RamiUiei*. (.>n 10 July he put to aea 
th ia^trucl ions to do everything poRNibte 
■ tbe relief of Minorca, but if he found the 
i^my already in possession of it, then 'to 
rleavour bv all means to destroy the French 
i*t iu the Mediterranean.' to prevent tJietr 
.ding troop* or supplies on the island, and 
inoy and distress them there as much 
itbfe.* It was too Iatt«. OnlfiJiilyhe 
!«in intelligence that Fort St- Philip 
nderiMljthat the French were in full 
a of the ii^lnnd, nnd that the Hi-et bad 
.nni«d toTnulon. His h()[>e that it might 
tin put to Hfta was not rea1iM><I, nnd hi^ 
rk waA limited to re-eatablif^hing the pn>fl- 
of the English flag and putting a check 
oa tiw insnlU of such potty states as Tuscany 


and Mall a ( BrRROws. pp. 272—1 ; Lit^OHrost, 
StudirA in Xat'nl Ui*t'-ry. p. 290\ 

On tbe approach of winter the greater part 
of the fleet was recalled fn»in thi* Moditrr- 
ranean, a small f..rce only remaining under 
Saunder*. Hawke arrtTe<l in F.ngland on 
14 Jan. 1757. On 24 FeK he wa* pnnuoli'd 
to be admiral of the blue. His health was 
much sliaken. both by the worry of hii* ctim- 
mand and also by the lo*s of his wife, to 
whom be ap[»ean( to have lieen *incerely at- 
1ache<),nDd who had ilied during his absence 
on :JS Oct. \7h^^. Ctintem^Kirury gxisjtip said 
that a coolness opnroaching to a nuarrel 
sprang un between liim nnd Pitt. Hawke, 
it was fuud, publielv contradictiMl I^itt's stat^ 
inents in favour of Byng, and ri'fused to ac- 
cept Pitt's disapproval of some incidenta of 
Ilia late command (BrBROwa, pp. 271, 376). 
The details are untrustworthy, but the rela- 
tions bet ween the two men seem toliave been 
fur fnim conlial. When the new government 
was formed in Juno, with Pitt as its Wrtual 
head. An.wn was reappointed fir»t lor<l of tbe 
admiralty, but was unabU', notwithstanding 
liis wish, to give Hawke a seat at the hoard 
(i(^. p. 277). In August, however, when Pitt 
was devisinc the expedition apiinst KikIic- 
fort, it wft> Hawke who was selucted for tbe 
command. The credit of the appoint mcnl baa 
been generally attributed to Pitt. It would 
seem to be more probably due to Anson. 

Pitt had leame-d that on the land side 
Rttebefort was practically undefended, and 
that tbe arsenal and dockyan) might bo de> 
stToyed hy a comparatively small force. Some 
SL'ven thousand troops un^er the command of 
Sir John ^tordauut [q. v.] were told oil' for 
this seraice, and Hawke was to command 
the covering fleet. On 6 Aug. the two com- 
manders-in-chief reccive<l tlieir instructions, 
Hawke's Wing 'to net in conjunction nnd 
to civnporale with Sir John Mordaunt inthn 
execution of the services pn;»cribed to him,' 
wliile Mordaunt was directed Mo attempt, 
IL4 far us sliall be found practic^ible, a ae- 
scent on the French coast at or near Kocbe- 
fort ; to attack, if practicable, . . . tliat plac«,* 
and to destroy its docks, shipping, mogajtinos, 
and arsenals. 

Within a week from the date of these in- 
structions tbe fleet and army were ready, but 
the navy boanl had not provided a suiricimt 
number of transports; and in rumedviug tlu? 
mittcalculntion nearly a month sl!]iiK>d away. 
Tbt' trfxipe did not embark till Sept., and 
on the afternoon of llie Stb the e-xpeditton 
sailed from St. Helen's. Twelve days Utor it 
wa^ fog-liound in theentninco to the Basque 
Roods, and it did not yuM into the roadatoad 
till tbe 23rd. A lulf-finiahcd fort on thi* 





tManfl of Aix was at once reduced by the 
Ma^n&ntmeand Barfleur, but it was found tbat 
the reneeadec, who bad be^n shipped as pilots, 
were quit« ignorant of tbo place. A sound- 
ing party, under the immediate command of 
R^r-admiral Brodrick, wms sent to make in- 
dependent ohniervalion. It returned late on 
the evening of the 24th, and on tlie 25th a 
council of war wan held. From Krodrick's 
report it appeared that the troope might be 
landed on a hard sandy beach in Cbatelailloa 
Bay, tbat the transports might anchor about 
a mile and a half from the ^borc, the ships of 
war not within two miles. The general did 
not consider this encouraging; the ships, he 
B&id, at this distance could not cover the 
landing, nor a retreat if the army should 
Kustain any reverse ; ond such a reverse was 
extremely probable. The enemy, he argued, 
vu well prepannl ; and matt likely had a 
lAwearmy waiting for them beliind thes&nd- 
hilTs of Chatflaillon Bay. llawke confined 
himself to laying before the council the possi- 
bility of putting the men on shore; this, he 
said, he wa* rvady to do ; as to the further 
operations, it was for the soldiers to decide. 
But the soldieni, after much hesitation, de- 
termined to do nothing. Un the 29th llawke 
sent tbem a formal message that if they had 
no military oporations to propose be would 
take the Hett home. The general assented. 
The fleet left, the anchorage on 1 (Jet., and 
arrived at Spitbead on the 0th. 

A very angry public feeling was excited 
bv the news of the failure. It was Oiwertod 
that there were secret political reasonw for it ; 
thai Uochefort hml been sparnd a» an equi- 
valent for the sparing of Hanover, and iis 
the price of more favourable lernia in the 
convention of Kloster-Seven (Potter to Pitt, 
1 1 Oct. 1767 : Correspondence of the Erirl of 
VhatJiam, i. 277 ; Chesterpieli). Lettern to 
Aw AVm. 10, 2ttOct.. 4, 1*0 Nov. ; Horace Wal- 
pole to Conway, 13 Oct.) It was, however, 
on Monlaunt, not on Hawke, thot indigna- 
tion or suspicion fell (RiTRROWS,p. 331), and 
on 22 Oct. Huwke again put to sen to look 
for the homeward-btmnd fleet of Du Boi« du 
la Mothe. He fortunately missed it, so that 
it carried into Brest the terrible pestilence 
which raged there instead of at Portsmouth 
during the winter { P^'iwoNSiBit-DBapjER- 
xukBSSi Trait i fur lef Mniadies deM Gent de 
Mer, p. 07,2nd edit. 1780). He returaw! to 
Spitbead on 15 1>pc. On 12 March 1756 he 
again sailed, on informotion that the I'rench 
were preparing a large convoy for .\mericn. 
In the beginning of April bo learned that it 
was putting to .'tea; on the 3rd he chased it. 
into!&t. Martin's in the Isle of H^; on the 4th 
he looked Into Basque Iloade. Inside the Isle 

of Aix were five ships of the line, whic 
threw overboard their guns and stores, ao 
escaped on to the mud flats ; the next dayj 
with the assistance of boats from Rocbefort^ 
they got into the river, llawke had all alon 
vainly urged on the admiralty his want 
bomb-vessels and tireships ; without the** ' 
he could do nothing more than cut adrift tbr 
buoyt* with which the flying enemy