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Full text of "Dictionary of arts, manufactures, and mines containing a clear exposition of their principles and practice"

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DICTIONARY 



OP 



ARTS, MANUFACTUEES, AM) UNES. 



VOL. III. 



LOSDOS : PBIXTED BY 

SrOmSWOODB AXD CO., NEW-STttEEX SQCABB 

A2!D PA!IUA:UEXT STUEET 






URE'S DICTIONARY 



OF 



ARTS, MANUFACTTJIiES, AND MINES 



CONTAINING 



A CLEAR EXPOSITION OF THEIR PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 



BY 

ROBERT HUNT, F.R.S. 

KEEPER OP MINING REC0UD8 

FORME RLT PROFESSOR OF PHYSICS, ROYAL SCHOOL OP SONES, KFC. 

AUTHOR OF 'RESEARCHES ON LIGHT' 'THE POETRY OP SCIENCE* ETC. 

assisted hij 

F. W. EUDLEE, F.G.S. 

and hy numerous Contribvlors eminent in Science and familiar Kith ilanvfaetures 



|Utistral«b faitlj iipfaarbs ai S^fatnlg-oiw fiunirwb' ^ugraWn^s a\x Maaii 



SEVENTH EDITION 

COMPLETELY REVISED AND GREATLY ENLARGED 

IN THREE VOLUMES 
VOL. III. 




LONDON 

LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO. 

1875 



AH riahts reserved 



VAfi; 







A DICTIONAEY 



OF 



ARTS, MANUFACTURES, AND MINES., 



Omissions. 

Page 240 insert METEORXe STONES. See Meteorites. 
„ 517 „ PAVEmEirT. See Bitumex. 
„ 628 „ PREHNITE. A hydrous silicate of alumina aud lime. See 

Bristow's ' Glossary of Mineralog}'.' 
.1 ,> „ PRESERVED MEATS. See Putbefaction : Curing of Pro- 

visions. 
„ 682 „ PYROMORPHXTE. A chlorophospliate of lead. See Lead. 



ui Lijtr- 



Bread-fruit order. This is the Indian jaca, a native of Southern Asia. Its fibres are 
employed for many purposes by the natives, and the wood is used for furniture. A 
yellow dye, derived from the inner bark is employed in India for dyeing the robes of 
the Buddhist priests. 

JACXSONXTE. A name applied by Whitney to a mineral from Keweenaw 
Point, Lake Superior. It appears to be nothing more than ordinary prehnite. See 
Peehnitb. 

JACQirARS-XiOOM. A peculiar and most ingenious mechanism, invented by M. 
Jacquart of Lyons, to be adapted to a silk and muslin loom for superseding the employ- 
ment of draw-boys, in weaving figured goods. Independently of the ordinary play of 
the warp threads for the formation of the ground of such a web, all those threads which 
should rise simidtacneously to produce the figure, have their appropriate healds, which 
a child formerly raised by means of cords, that grouped them together into a system, 
in the order, and at the time desired by the weaver. This plan evidently occasioned 
no little complication in the machine, when the design was richly figured ; but the 
apparatus of Jacquart, which subjects this manoeuvre to a regular mechanical operation, 
and derives its motion from a simple pedal put in motion by the weaver's feet, was 
generally adopted soon after its invention in 1800. Every common loom is susceptible 
of receiving this beautiful appendage. It costs in France 200 francs or 8Z. sterling, 
and a little more in this country. 

Fig. 1 287 is a front elevation of this mechanism, supposed to be let down. Fig. 1 288 
is a cross section, shown in its highest position. IHg. 1289, the same section as the 
preceding, but seen in its lower position. 

A is the fixed part of the frame, supposed to form a part of the ordinary loom ; 
there are two uprights of wood, with two cross-bars uniting them at their upper ends, 
and leaving an interval x y between them, to place and work the moveable frame s 

Vol. IIL B 



? 



8 JACQUAED-LOOM 

vibrating round two fixed points a a, placed laterally opposite each other, in the middle 
of the space xy,fig, 1287. 
c is a piece of iron with a peculiar curvature, seen in front, Jig, 1287, and in profile, 



1287 




Jigs. 1288 and 1289. It is fixed on one side upon the upper cross-bar of the frame b, 
and on the other, to the intermediate cross-bar b of the same frame, where it shows an 
inclined curvilinear space c, terminated below by a semicircle. 



JACQUARD-LOOK 



3 



D is a square -wooden axis, moveable upon itself round two iron pivots, fixed into its 
two ends ; -which axis occupies the bottom of the moveable frame b. The four faces of 
tliis square axis are pierced with three round, equal, truly-bored holes arranged in 
» quincunx. The teeth a, Jig. 1291, are stuck into each face, and correspond to 
holes a, fig. 1294, made in the cards which constitute the endless chain for the healds; 
so that in the successive application of the cards to each face of the square axis, the 
holes pierced in one card may always fall opposite to those pierced.in the other. 

The right-hand end of the square axis, of which a section is shown in double size, 
fig. 1290, carries two square plates of sheet iron d, kept parallel to each other and 
a little apart, by four spindles e, passed opposite to the corners. This is a kind of 
lantern, in whose spindles the hooks of the lever//', turning round fixed points 5'^' 
beyond the right-hand upright a, catch hold, either above or below at the pleasure of 
the weaver, according as he merely pulls or lets go the cord z, during the vibratory 
movement of the frame b. 

E is a piece of wood shaped like a T, the stem of which, prolonged upwards, passes 
freely through the cross-bar b, and through the upper cross-bar of the frame b, which 
serve as guides to it. The head of the T-piece being applied successively against 
the two spindles e, placed above in horizontal position, first by its weight, and then 
by the spiral spring h, acting from above downwards, keeps the square axis in its 
position, while it permits it to turn upon itself in the two directions. The name presa 
IS given to the assemblage of all the pieces which compose the moveable frame b b. 



1290 



1291 





F is a cross-bar made to move in a vertical direction by means of the lever a, in the 
notches or grooves i, formed within the fixed uprights A. 

H is a piece of bent iron, fixed by one of its ends with a nut and screw, upon the 
cross-bar f, out of the vertical plane of the piece c. Its other end carries a friction 
roller j, which, working in the curvilinear space c of the piece c, forces this, and 
consequently the frame b, to recede from the perpendicular, or to return to it ac- 
cording as the cross-bar f is in the top or bottom of its course, as shown in figs. 1288 
and 1289. 

I, cheeks of sheet iron attached on either side to the cross-bar f, which serve as a 
safe to a kind of claw k, composed here of eight small metallic bars, seen in section, 
figs. 1288 and 1289, and on a greater scale in fig. 1291. 

J, upright skewers of iron wire, whose tops bent down hookwise naturally place 
themselves over the little bars k. The bottom of these spindles likewise hooked in 
the same direction as the upper ones, embraces small wooden bars I, whose office is 
to keep them in their respective places, and to prevent them from twirling round, 
so that the uppermost hooks may be always directed towards the small metallic bars 
upon which they impend. To these hooks from below are attached strings, which 
after having crossed a fixed board m n, pierced with corresponding holes for this purpose, 
proceed next to be attached to the threads of the loops destined to lift the warp threads. 
K K, horizontal spindles or needles, arranged here in eight several rows, so that each 
spindle corresponds both horizontally and vertically to each of the holes pierced in the 
four faces of the square axis d. There are, therefore, as many of these spindles as there 
are holes in one of the faces of the square. 

Fig. 1292 represents one of these horizontal spindles, n is an eyelet through which 
the corresponding vertical skewer passes. 0, another elongated eyelet, through which 
a small fixed spindle passes to serve as a guide, but which does not hinder it from 

1292 



P o n 

moving lengthwise, within the limits of the length of the eyelet, p, small spiral 
springs placed in each hole of the case q q, fig. 1291. They serve the purpose of 
bringing back to its primitive position every corresponding needle as soon as it ceases 
to press upon it. 

b2 



4 JACQUARD-LOOM 

Fia. 1293 represents the plan of the upper row of horizontal needles. Fig. 1J94 is 
a fragment of the endless chain, formed with perforated cards, -which are made to 
circulate or travel by the rotation of the shaft d. In this movement, each of the 
perforated cards, whose position, form, and number are determined by the operation 



1293 




1294 



1*1 t) o^'o __" ^ ■? I '^ ^ °^ > **<* a o o^ oa o* 0.0 I 






I GOqO 



a- £> °8„, o°o°ooPo. cSo 

W o ooO '-O o o o o o O c 



S -O'C o ""o°o,o 2 CO 

. O-O n OOo„ 6 



of tying-up of the warp, comes to be applied in succession against the four faces of the 
square axis or drum, leaving open the corresponding holes, and covering those upon 
the face of the axis which have no corresponding holes upon the card. 

Now let us suppose that the press b is let down into the vertical position shown in 
Jig. 1289 ; then the card applied against the left face of the axis, leaves at rest or 
untouched the whole of the horizontal spindles (skewers), whose ends correspond to 
these holes, but pushes back those which are opposite to the unpierced part of the 
card ; thereby the corresponding upright skewers, 3, 5, 6, and 8, for example, pushed 
out of the perpendictilar, unhook themselves from above the bars of the claw, and 
remain in their place, when this claw comes to be raised by means of the lever g ; and 
the skewers 1, 2, 4, and 7, which have remained hooked on, are raised along with the 
warp threads attached to them. Then by the passage across of a shot of the colour, 
as well as a shot of the common weft, and a stroke of the lay after shedding the warp 
and lowering the press b, an element or point in the pattern is completed. 

The following card, brought round by a quarter revolution of the £ixis, finds all the 
needles in their first position, and as it is necessarily perforated differently from the 
preceding card, it will lift another series of warp threads ; and thus in succession for 
all the other cards, which compose a complete system of a figured pattern. 

This machine, complicated in appearance, and which requires some pains to be un- 
derstood, acts however in a very simple manner. Its whole play is dependent upon the 
movement of the lever g, which the weaver himself causes to rise and fall, by means 
of a peculiar pedal ; so that without the aid of any person, after the piece is properly 
read in and mounted, he can execute the most complex patterns as easily as he could 
weave plain goods ; only attending to the order of his weft yarns, when these happen 
to be of different colours. 

If some warp yarns should happen to break without the weaver observing them, or 
should he mistake his coloured shuttle yarns, which would so far disfigure the pattern, 
he must undo his work. For this purpose, he makes use of the lower hooked lever y, 
whose purpose is to make the chain of the card go backwards, while working the loom 
as usual, withdrawing at each stroke the shot both of the ground and of the figure. 
The weaver is the more subject to make mistakes, as the figured side of the web is 
downwards, and it is only with the aid of a bit of looking-glass that he takes a peep of 
his work from time to time. The upper surface exhibits merely loose threads in dif- 
ferent points, according as the pattern requires them to lie upon the one side or the 
other. 

Thus it must be evident, that such a number of pasteboards are to be provided and 
mounted as equal the number of throws of the shuttle between the beginning and end 
of any figure or design which is to be woven ; the piercing of each pasteboard indi- 
Aidually will depend upon the arrangement of the lifting rods, and their connection 
with the warp, which is according to the design and option of the workman ; great 
care must be taken that the holes come exactly opposite to the ends of the needles ; 
for this purpose two large holes are made at the ends of the pasteboards, which fall 
upon conical points, by which means they are made to register correctly. 

It will be hence seen, that, according to the length of the figure, so must be the 
number of pasteboards, which may be readily displaced so as to remount and produce 
the figure in a few minutes, or remove it, or replace it, or preserve the figure for future 
use. The machine, of course, will be understood to consist of many sets of the lifting 
rods and needles, shown in the diagram, as will be perceived by observing the dispo- 
sition of the holes in the pasteboard ; those holes, in order that they may be accu- 
rately distributed, are to be pierced from a gaxige, so that not the slightest variation 
shall take place, 



JACQUARD-LOOM 



1296 



To form these card-slips, an ingenious apparatus is employed, by which the proper 
steel punches required for the piercing of each distinct card are placed in their relative 
situations preparatory to the operation of piercing, and also by its means a card may 
be punched with any number of holes at one operation. This disposition of the punches 
is effected by means of rods connected to cords disposed in a frame, in the nature of 
a false simple, on which the pattern of the work to be performed is first read in. 

These improved pierced cards, slips, or pasteboards, apply to a weaving apparatus, 
which is so arranged that a figure to be wrought can be extended to any distance along 
the loom, and by that means the loom is rendered capable of producing broad-figured 
works ; having the long lever o placed in such a situation that it affords power to the 
foot of the weaver, and by this means enables him to draw the hea-yiest morintures 
and figured works, without the assistance of a draw-boy. 

The machinery for arranging the punches consists of a frame with four upright 
standards and cross-pieces, which contains a series of endless cords passing under a 
wooden roller at bottom, and over pulleys at the top. These pulleys are mounted on 
axles in two frames, placed obliquely over the top of the standard frame, which pulley- 
frames constitute the table commonly used by weavers. 

In order better to explain these endless cords, ;?^. 1295 represents a single endless 
cord, 1 1, which is here shown in operation, and part of another endless cord, 2 2, 
shown stationary. There must be as many endless cords in this frame as needles in 
the weaving-loom, a is the wooden cylinder, revolving upon its axis at the lower part 
of the standards ; b b, the two pulleys of the pulley-frames above, over which the 
individual endless cord passes ; c is a small transverse ring. To each of these rings a 
weight is suspended by a single thread, for the 
purpose of giving tension to the endless cord, d is 
a board resembling a common comber-bar, which 
is supported by the cross-bars of the standard 
frame, and is pierced with holes, in situation and 
number corresponding with the perpendicular 
threads that pass through them; which board 
keeps the threads distinct from each other. 

At e, the endless cord passes through the eyes 
of wires resembling needles, which are contained 
in a wooden box placed in front of the machine, 
and shown in this figure in section only. These 
wires are called the punch-projectors; they are 
guided and supported by horizontal rods and 
vertical pins, the latter of which pass through 
loops formed at the hinder part of the respective 
wires. At /are two horizontal rods extending the 
whole width of the machine, for the purpose of 
producing the cross in the cords ; g ia a, thick brass 
plate, extending along in front of the machine, and 
lying close to the box which holds the punch- 
projectors; this plate ff, shown also in section, 
IS called the punch-holder ; it contains the same 
number of apertures as there are punch-projectors, 
and disposed so as to correspond with each other. 
In each of these apertures, there is a punch for the 
purpose of piercing the cards, slips, or pasteboards 
with holes ; A is a thick steel plate of the same size as g, and shown likewise in section, 
corresponding also in its number of apertures, and their disposition, with the punch- 
projectors and the punch-holder. This plate h, is called the punch-receiver. 

The object of this machine is to transfer such of the punches as may be required for 
piercing any individual card from the punch-holder, g, into the punch-receiver, h; when 
they will be properly situated, and ready for piercing the individual card or slip with 
such holes as have been read in upon the machine, and are required for permitting the 
warp threads to be withdrawn in the loom, when this card is brought against the ends 
of the needles. The process of transferring the patterns to the punches will be effected 
in the following manner : — 

The pattern is to be read in, according to the ordinary mode, as in a false simple, 
upon the endless cords below the rods /, and passed under the revolving wooden 
cylinder a, to a sufficient height for a person in front of the machine to reach conve- 
niently. He there takes the upper threads of the pattern, called the beard, and draws 
them forward so as to introduce a stick behind the cords thus advanced, as shown by 
dots, for the purpose of keeping them separate from the cords which are not intended to 
be operated upon. All the punch-proj ectors which ate connected mth the cords brought 




jAt)^ 



forward will be thus made to pass through the corresponding apertures of the punch- 
holder g, and by this means will project the punches out of these apertures, into cor- 
responding apertures of the punch-receiver h. The punches will now be properly 
arranged for piercing the required holes on a card or slip, which is to be effect®! in 
the following manner : — 

Remove the punch-receivers from the front of the machine ; and having placed one 
of the slips of card or pasteboard between the two folding plates of metal, completely 
pierced with holes corresponding to the needles of the loom, lay the punch-receiver 
upon those perforated plates ; to which it must be made to fit by mortises and blocks, 
the cutting parts of the punches being downwards. Upon the back of the punch- 
receiver is then to be placed a plate or block, studded with perpendicular pins, corre- 
sponding to the above described holes, into which the pins will fall. The plates and 
the blocks thus laid together, are to be placed under a press, by which means the pins 
of the blocks will be made to pass through the apertures of the punch-receiver ; and 
wherever the punch has been deposited in the receiver by the above process, the said 
punches will be forced through the slip of pasteboard, and pierced with such holes as 
are required for producing the figured design in the loom. 

Each card being thus pierced, the punch-receiver is returned to its place in front of 
the machine, and all the punches forced back again into the apertures of the punch- 
holder as at first. The next sort of cords is now drawn forward by the next heard, 
as above described, which sends out the punch-frojectors as before, and disposes the 
punches in the punch-receiver, ready for the operation of piercing the next card. The 
process being thus repeated, the whole pattern is by a number of operations, transferred 
to the punches, and afterwards to the cards or slips, as above described. 

JACyHTB. See Jacinth — Hyacinth. 

TABE. Under the common name of Jade two or three distinct minerals, re- 
sembling one another in many of their physical characters, but differing in chemical 
composition, are popularly confounded. The true jade, or nephrite, is an anhycb^ous 
silicate of lime and magnesia, related to the non-aluminous varieties of hornblende. 
Jadeite is a mineral closely resembling true nephrite in external characters, but dis- 
tinguished as a separate species by Damour, whose analyses show that it is essentially 
a silicate of alumina and soda. A third mineral, originally described by H. B. de 
Saussure as a jade, was termed Saussurite by T. de Saussure : this was \h&jade tenace 
of Haiiy and the early French mineralogists. It is mainly a silicate of alumina and 
lime, and may be classed with the species termed zoisite. The differences in com- 
position between the several minerals comprehended under the general name of jade 
are shown in the following selected analyses : — 







I. 


11. 


: in. 


IV. 


Silica 


54-68 


57-10 


69-17 


43-69 


Lime 




16-06 


13-48 


2-68 


19-71 


Magnesia 

Soda 




26-01 


23-29 


115 
12-93 


2-98 
308 


Alumina 




... 


0-72 


22-58 


27-72 


Peroxide of iron 




... 


... 




2-61 


Protoxide of iron 




215 


3-39 


1-56 


... 


Protoxide of manganese . 

Water 




1-39 
0-68 


2-'60 


... 


0-35 


Total 


100-07 


100-48 


100-07 


10004 


I. Nephrite, from China, by Rammelsberg. 
II. Nephrite, from New Zealand, by Scheerer. 
ni. Jadeite, from China, by Damour. 
IV. Saussurite, from Lake of Geneva, by T. Stcrry Hunt. 



' It may be useful to give the means of discriminating these minerals by their 
bohaA-ibur before the blowpipe. JSephrite is difficult of fusion, does not colour the 
flame, but when moistened with solution of nitrate of cobalt assumes a rose colour, 
due to the presence of magnesia ; jadeite is readily fusible to a transparent glass, and 
gjves with cobalt a blue colour, due to the alumina ; Saussurite is more fusible than 
nephrite, but less so than jadeite, it colours the flame blue, and becomes blue with 
cobalt. 
None of the varieties of jade have been found crystallised, but they usually occur 



JARGOON 7 

in compact tough masses, breaking with a splintery fracture. The specific graTity 
varies Irom 2'9 to S'l, rising to 3'38 in Saussurite. All the jades are hard stones, being 
nearly as hard as quartz, but it is said that some varieties when first broken, are so 
soft as to be readily cut with a knife. The colours are various shades of green, 
occasionally passing into a greenish white tint. 

Like most green stones, jade has always been a favourite material for amulets. It 
formerly possessed special repute for curing diseases of the kidneys, whence the 
mineralogical name nephrite {vecpp6s, the kidneys), and the popular name kidney-stone 
{pierre nephritigiue, Fr. ; pietra di hijada, Sp. ; Nierenstein, Ger.). 

Jade is largely used in China as an ornamental stone under the name of yu. Mr. 
Purapelly has shown that the jade of the province of Yunnan, known as fetsui, Is 
really jadeite. The Chinese appear to have formerly obtained consideraible supplies 
of jade from Eastern Turkestan, where it is found in the chain of the Kuen-lun 
Mountains. The jade-quarries on the Kara-kash River have been visited and de- 
scribed by Dr. Cayley and by Hermann von Schlagintweit. According to the latter 
traveller, jade is always known in Khotan under the name of yashm. 

Jade is found extensively in New Zealand, and is employed by the natives for 
making tikis, or the grotesque ornaments worn on the breast, and for the peculiar 
instruments of war, called pattoo-pattoos or meres. The use of jade for these axe-like 
weapons has led to the popular name of axe-stone (Beilstein, Ger.). The New Zealand 
jade is known to the Maories as punamu or ' greenstone ; ' and, according to Von 
Hochstetter's map it is found along the west coast of the South Island ; indeed, this 
island is called, from the occurrence of jade, Te Wahi Punamu, or 'The place of the 
greenstone.* 

Jade also occurs in Siberia, and fine specimens have been brought by M. Alibert, 
with his graphite, from the Government of Irkutsk. 

In prehistoric times, jade and jadeite were used for amulets and ornaments, and 
specimens have been found among the relics of the old pile-buildings, or Pfahlbauten, 
of the Swiss lakes. It is curious to conjecture whence this material could have been 
derived ; for, with the exception of an erratic block found at Schwemsal in Germany, 
true jade is not known to occur in western Europe. The so-called jade pebbles of 
lona are nothing more than serpentinous marble. — F.W.B. 

JABBXTBi See Jade. 

JAGCERY. Palm-sugar, prepared from Saguerus saccharifer 

JAXiAP. The root of the Exogoniiim purga, Bth., a member of the Convolvvlaceee, 
or Bindweed order. It takes its name from Xalapa, a city of Mexico. Its uses as a 
common purgative are well known. 

JABXAXCA PSPBER. One of the names given to ArtspiCE. 

JAAIESOXriTE. A sulphide of lead and antimony, containing about 40 per 
cent, of lead and 34 of antimony. It occurs in several mines in the north-east of 
Cornwall, and in Devonshire, but has not hitherto been available as an ore of lead. 

JAITAPVIMt. Crotalaria juncea, a vegetable fibre used for ropes. See Fibres. 

JAPAZr EARTH • Terra Japonica. See Gambik. 

JAP AM* &ACQUER. A hard black varnish prepared from the Stagmaria 
verniciflua. 

J'APAir PEPPER. A condiment prepared in China and Japan by bruising the 
capsules of the XantJwxylon piperitum, D.C. From this plant, or from a closely-allied 
species, Stenhouse obtained two peculiar principles, which he called Xanthoxylene and 
Xanthoxylin. 

JAP Air SAGO. A starch obtained from the stem of the Cycas revoluta. 

JAPAN WAX. A vegetable wax obtained from the fruits of Ehus succedanea, 
L., and perhaps other species. It has been imported from Japan for use in candle- 
making. 

JAPAXrarxxTG is a kind of varnishing or lacquering, practised with excellence by 
the Japanese, whence the name. 

The only difference between Yarnishing and japanning is that after the application 
of every coat of colour or varnish, the object so varnished is placed in an oven or 
stove at as high a temperature as can safely be employed without injuring the articles 
or causing the varnish to blister or run. 

For black japanned works, the ground is first prepared with a coating of black, made 
by mixing dross ivory black to a proper consistence with dark coloured anime varnish, 
ns this gives a blacker surface than could be produced by japan alone. If the surface 
is required to be polished, five or six coats of japan are necessary to give sufiBcieot 
body to prevent the japan from being rubbed through in polishing. 

Coloured japans are made by mixing with some hard varnishes the required colour, 
and proceeding as described. See Varnish. 

JARGOOXr, the name given to a variety of Zircon from Ceylon, It in seldom 



8 JET 

p "foctly transparent, and is either colourless or grey, -with tinges of green, blue, red, 
and yellow of various shades, but generally smoky and ill-defined. It occurs in •worn 
angular pieces, or in small detached crystals, rarely exceeding 6 or 8 carats in weight, 
chiefly in the sand of a river in Ceylon. The surfaces of the crystals are smooth, and 
possess a lustre more nearly approaching that of the diamond than any other gem. 
At the present day, though out of fashion and in no request, it is still occasionally 
sold for inferior diamonds. 

Davy says that the light grey varieties of the zircon are sold by the inhabitants of 
Ceylon as imperfect diamonds, the natives being altogether ignorant of the true 
nature of the mineral. It is most abundant in the district of Matura, whence it has 
its common name in Ceylon of Matura diamond. The colourless zircon is also cut 
and sold as a false diamond in the bazaars of India, — H.W.B. 

JTASOSXTE. A hydrous sulphate of peroxide of iron, with an alkaline sulphate. 
It takes its name from Barranco Jaroso, in the Sierra Almagrera, in Spain. 

7ASPE& {Jaspe calcedoine, Fr. ; Jaspis, Ger.) is a sub-species of quartz, of which 
there are five varieties: — 1. The Egyptian red and brown, forming nodules with 
ring or tendril-shaped delineations. 2. Porcelain jasper, or clay altered by heat, 
and differing from true jasper by being fusible on the edges, before the blowpipe. 
3. Striped or riband jasper. 4. Common jasper. 5. Agate jasper. The prettiest 
specimens are cut for seals, and for the inferior kinds of jewellery ornaments. See 
Lapidaht. — H.W.B. 

TATROPHiV MCAWXROT. A plant belonging to the Euphorbiaceee, from which 
the Cassava meal is prepared, and from the expressed juice of which are obtained 
Cassava starch and 2'apioca. See Tapioca. 

The seeds of Jatropha purgans yield jatropha oil, and the nuts of this and some 
other species of Jatropha are known as ' Physic nuts.' 

JEAir. A twilled cotton, usually stripped. Satin-jeans are woven so as to present 
a smooth glossy appearance. It is used for stays, &c. 

JEK]b7, AXrZMAXi. See Gelatine ; Glue ; and Isinglass. 
TEXiZiT, VEGETABXiE. A great many vegetable productions yield upon Infusion 
or decoction gelatinous solutions. These vary very much in character. The jelly of 
ripe currants and other berries is a compound of mucilage and acid, which loses its 
power of gelatinising by prolonged ebullition. 
JEIMCMXES. A woollen cloth made in Scotland. 

TEXtXEX) BEEF. Beef dried in the sun : much of this has been introduced £rom 
the South American States, but it has not hitherto been much used, although sold at a 
very low price. 

JERVSAKEM ARTZCBOXE. The edible tubers of the Helianthus tuberosus. 
The epithet of ' Jerusalem ' is a corruption of the Italian girasoL 

JESSAMIXTE or JTASlMinrE. A well-known family of plants. The Jasmium 
fruticans, a native of the southern parts of France, J. odoratissimy,m, a native of India, 
and J. sicmbac, a native of India and Arabia, are used to obtain the essential oil or 
jasmine. See Peefujiekt. 

7BT. {Jaiet, ovjais, Fr.) Jet occurs in the upper lias shale in the neighbour- 
hood of Whitby, in Yorkshire, in which locality this beautiful substance has been 
worked for many himdred years. The jet-miner searches with great care the slaty 
rocks, and finding the jet spread out, often in extreme thinness between the lamina- 
tions of the rock, he follows it with great care, and firequently he is rewarded by its 
thickening out to two or three inches. 

The best jet is obtained from a lower bed of the upper lias formations. This bed 
has an average thickness of about 20 feet, and is known as jet rock. An inferior 
kind, known as joft jet, is obtained from the upper part of the upper lias, and from the 
sandstone and shale above it. The production of jet in this country appears to be 
limited to the coast of Yorkshire, from about nine mUes south of "Whitby to Boulby, and 
about the same distance to the north ; the estates of Lord Mulgrave being especially 
productive. There is a curious allusion to this in Drayton's ' Polyolbion ' : — 

The rocks by Moultgrave, too, my glories forth to set, 
Out of their crannied rocks can ^ve yon perfect jet. 

Dr. Young, in his • Geology of the Yorkshire Coast,' writes — ' Jet, which occurs here 
in considerable quantities in the aluminous bed, may be properly classed with fossil 
wood, as it appears to be wood in a high state of bitnmenisation. Pieces of wood im- 
pregnated with silex are often found completely crusted with a coat of jet about an 
inch thick. But the most common form in which the jet occurs is in compact masses 
of from half an inch to 2 inches thick, from 3 to 18 inches broad, and of 10 or 12 feet 
long. The outer surface is always marked with longitudinal striae, like the grain of 



JET 9 

wood, and the transverse fracture, which is conchoidal, and has a resinous lustre, displays 
the annular growth in compressed elliptical zones.' 

It does not appear to us that the ' ligneous origin ' of jet is by any means established • 
indeed, we think the amount of evidence is against it. There is no example, as far as we 
can learn, of any discovery of true jet having a strictly ligneous structure, or showing 
anything like the conversion of wood into this coal-like substance. There appears, 
however, to have been some confusion in the observation of those who have written 
on the subject. Mr. Simpson, the intelligent curator of the Whitby Museum, who 
has paid much attention to the subject, says, ' Jet is generally considered to have 
been wood, and in many cases it undoubtedly has been so ; for the woody structure 
often remains, and it is not unlikely that comminuted vegetable matter may have 
been changed into jet. But it is evident that vegetable matter is not an essential 
part of jet, for we frequently find that bone, and the scales of fishes also have been 
changed into jet. In the Whitby Museum there is a large mass of bone, which has 
the exterior converted into jet for about a quarter of an inch in thickness. The 
jetty matter appears to have first entered the pores of the bone, and there to have 
hardened; and during the mineralising process, the whole bony matter has been 
gradually displaced, and its place occupied by jet, so as to preserve its original form.' 
After an attentive examination of this specimen, we are not disposed to agree entirely 
with Mr. Simpson. 

Jet certainly incrusts a mass which has something the structure of a bone, but, 
without a chemical examination of its constituents, we should hesitate even to say it was 
bone. Wood without doubt has been found encrusted with jet, as fragments of animal 
matter may also have been. But it is quite inconsistent with our knowledge of physical 
and chemical changes, to suppose that both animal and vegetable matter woidd undergo 
this change. 3y process of sttbstitution, we know that silica will take the place occupied 
by carbon, or woody matter ; as, for example, in the fossil palms of Trinidad, and the 
silicified forests of Egypt ; but we have no example within the entire range of the 
coal-formations of the world of carbon taking the place of any of the earths. 

Jet is found in plates, which are sometimes penetrated by belemnites. Mr. Ripley, of 
Whitby, has several curious examples, — two plates of jet, in one case enclose water- 
worn quartz pebbles ; and in another jet partially invests an angular fragment of 
quartz rock. ' This is the more remarkable,' says Mr. Simpson, ' as quartz rock, or, 
indeed, any other sort of rocky fragment, is rarely found in the upper lias.' 

The very fact that we find jet surrounding belemnites, casing adventitious masses 
of stone, and investing wood, seems to show, that a liquid, or at all events, a plastic 
condition, must at one time have prevailed. We have existing evidence of this. Dr. 
Young, in the work already quoted, says : — ' In the cavities of nodules containing 
petrifactions, we sometimes meet with petroleum, or mineral oil. When first exposed, 
it is generally quite fluid and of a dark green colour ; but it soon becomes viscid and 
black, and at last hardens into a kind of pitch, which generally melts with heat, and 
when ignited burns with a crackling noise, and emits a strong bituminous smell.' 
One more sample of evidence in favour of the view that jet has been formed from 
wood. It is stated (Eeed's ' Illustrated Guide to Whitby') that in front of the clifiF- 
work of Hailburne Wyke existed a petrified stump of a tree, in an erect posture, 3 
feet high and 15 inches across, having the roots of coaly jet in a bed of shale; whilst 
the trunk in the sandstone was partly petrified, and partly of decayed sooty wood. 
Even in this example it would appear, that after all, a coating of jet was all that 
really existed upon this example of the equisetum, which probably stands where it 
grew. Mr. Simpson, in a valuable little publication, ' The Fossils of the Yorkshire 
Lias described from Natxire, with a short Outline of the Geology of the Yorkshire 
Coast,' says : — ' Erom all we know respecting this beautiful mineral, it appears ex- 
ceedingly probable that it has its origin in a certain bituminous matter, or petroleum, 
which abundantly impregnates the jet-rock, giving out a strong odour when it is 
exposed to the air. It is frequently found in a liquid state in the chambers of ammonites 
and belemnites and other cavities, and, whilst the unsuspicious operator is breaking a 
lias nodule, it flies out and stains his garment. This petroleum, or mineral oil, also 
occurs in nodules which contain no organic remains ; and I have been informed by 
an experienced jet-miner that such nodules are often associated with a good seam of 
jet, and are therefore regarded as an omen of success.' 

Jet is supposed to have been worked in this country long before the time of the 
Danes in England, for the Romans certainly used jet for ornamental purposes. Lionel 
Oharltan, in the ' History of Whitby,' says, that he found the ear-ring of a lady having 
the form of a heart, with a hole in the upper end for a suspension from the ear ; it was 
found in one of the Roman tumuli, lying close to the jaw-bone. There is no doubt 
that when the abbey of Whitby was the seat of learning and the resort of pilgrims, jet 
rosaries and crosses were then common. The manufacture waa carried on till the time of 



10 JUNIPER 

Elizabeth, when it seems to have ceased suddenly, and -was not resumed till the year 
1800, when Kobert Jefiferson, a painter, and John Carter made beads and crosses with 
files and knives : — a neck guard, made in this manner, fetched one guinea. A stranger 
coming to Whitby saw them working in this rude way, and advised them to try to turn 
it ; they followed his advice and found it answer ; several more then joined them, and 
the trade has been gradually increasing since. 

In 1860 the jet-trade of Whitby realised about 45,000Z. ; but since that time it has 
doubled itself. In 1870 the value amounted to 84,000^.; in 1871 to 86,000^.; in 
1872 to 88,000;._; and in 1873 it probably exceeded 9O,000Z. 

Two kinds of jet occur at Whitby — the hard and the soft. The hard jet, which alone 
is now worked, is found in layers of varying extent and thickness ; the largest known 
specimen having measured 6 feet 4 inches in length, about 5 inches in width, and 1 5 
inch in thickness ; it weighed 11^ lbs. Formerly, the hard jet was worked in the cliffs 
by a dangerous process called ' dessing ' ; but the cliff-workings are now almost entirely 
abandoned, and most of the jet is obtained from mines in the Cleveland hills, the 
most extensive workings being those of Bilsdale, near Broughton. About 20 mines 
are at present open, giving employment to about 200 miners. Eough hard jet varies 
in value from 4s. to 21s. per lb. ; but the soft jet realises only 6s. 6d. to 30s. per 
stone, and it is now rarely worked at Whitby, since Spanish jet can be imported at the 
same price. The Spanish does not stand wear so well as the Whitby jet, nor does it bear 
exposure to the weather. The two kinds may be distingunshed by scratching them 
with a knife, the Spanish giving a very irregular scratch, whilst the Whitby gives a 
fine groove. 

In working jet, the first operation is to remove the skin, or outer surface, which is 
chipped off with an iron chisel ; the denuded pieces are then sawn up into sizes 
adapted for the required articles, and are worked into form by carving and turning ; 
finally, the objects are polished with rouge on a board covered with hide, by which 
means a fine velvety lustre is obtained. There are at present upwards of 200 work- 
shops in Whitby, the largest being that of Mr. Charles Bryan, which gives employ- 
ment to about 120 hands. Most of the jet ornaments are sent to London ; the inferior 
ones are mostly purchased for the American market. A trade is also carried on with 
the Continent and with most of our colonies. 

The jet workers complain of the great scarcity of designs in jet. Several designs 
have been sent them ; bxit the artists not being acquainted with the peculiarities of 
the material, their designs are not generally applicable, and tlie manufacturer is much 
more successful in the imitation of natural objects than any artificial combination. 

For recent information on jet, we are indebted to a paper on Whitby Jet and its 
Manufacture, by Mr. J. A. Bower, F.C.S., ' Journal of the Society of Arts,' December 
19, 1873. 

nSTSAM. Goods cast into the sea from a ship in stress of weather ; flotsam being 
the portion of a ship and cargo which remains floating upon the waters ; and lagan, or 
ligan-goods, being merchandise which is cast overboard, and sunk with a buoy attached, 
so that they may be possibly discovered. 

TXS'WEXiXiER'S GOIi3>. Usually an alloy of about 25 per cent, of copper with 
76 of gold. See Aixov. 

TB'WBKXiES'S ROVGS. A carefuUy-prepared peroxide of iron, used for 
polishing. 

JElVEXtXiEair. See Bijoutby; Gem; and Lapidart. 

JE'W'S PITCH. A fine variety of asphalt from the Dead Sea, See Asphalt, 

SXCtOtXTXO, a mining term. Separating the ore with a griddle, or wire-bottomed 
sieve, the heavier substances passing through to the bottom or lower part of the sieve, 
the lighter substance remaining on the upper part. 

JZIO'TA vrmitm A substance somewhat resembling caoutchouc, imported from 
India. See CAotrTCHOuc, 

70HilK»rZTE. Uranium-vitriol, or hydrous sulphate of uranium and copper, 
found at Joachimstahl in Bohemia, and Johanngeorgenstadt in Satony. 

JTrJlTBE. The fruit of the lAzyfhus vulgaris and L. jujuba, about the size of, 
and nearly resembling, a small plum. The French confectioners prepare a lozenge 
from the juice of the fruit, but nearly all the jujubes sold by our druggists and con- 
fectioners are merely dried mucilage, flavoured and sweetened. 

TSTttlVEM, a mining term. A large borer, steeled at each end like chisel bits. It 
is worked by the hand. . 

JTUXriPEXt. A genus of plants belonging to the order Conifcra. About twenty 
species are known. This plant is cultivated mostly for its berries, which, when dis- 
tilled with water, yield a volatile essential oil. The berries are largely employed in 
the manufacture of Hollands and gin. The French name of the plant is Genievre, and 
licnce our English words ' gin ' and ' geneva.' 



JUTE 



11 



The Juniperus Bermudiana, the Bermuda red cedar, is a large tree with soft and 
fragrant w(X)d, and is what is used in making pencils, and by cabinet-makers. 

The J. Virginia, L., is also used as the so-called cedar for lead-pencils. 

JUTE consists of the fibres of two plants, called the chonch and isbund (Cor- 
chorus olitorus and Corchorus capsidaris), extensively cultivated in Bengal, and 
forming, in fact, the material of which gunny-bags and gunny-cloth are made. It 
/etches nearly, though not quite, so high a price as sunn. See Sunk. It comes into 
competition with flax, tow, and codilla, in the manufacture of stair and other carpets, 
bagging for cotton and other goods, and such like fabrics, being extensively used for 
these purposes in Dundee. But it is unsuitable for cordage or other articles into 
which hemp is manufactured, from its snapping when twisted, and rotting in water. — 
M'CuUoch. 

The importance of jute as an article of manufacture is shown by the following 
statement of the Exports from India from 1850, when it first began to attract attention 
in this coimtry, to 1863 : — ' 

1850 
1851 
1852 
1863 
1864 
1865 
1856 
1867 
1868 
1869 
1860 
1861 
1862 
1863 

The rapid progress of the jute manufacture in this country is thus shown. The 
following Tables show the increase since 1869, which is to be accounted for by the 
low cost of the material, and its possessing a considerable amount of spinning 
quality. . . 

Imports: nearly all from British India, 





Total Value 


Cwts. 


& 


391,098 


88,989 


584,461 


196,936 


535,027 


180,976 


340,797 


112,017 


509,507 


214,768 


699,566 


220,241 


882,715 


329,078 


673,416 


274,957 


788,820 


303,292 


317,890 


625,099 


761,201 


290,018 


1,092,668 


409,372 


1,232,279 


537,610 


1,266,884 


750,466 



Team 
1869 
1870 
1671 
1872 
1873 



Cwts. 
2,467,000 
2,376,000 
8,464,020 
4,041,018 
4,643,000 



The following quantities of 

1872:— 


yam and -waste of jute 'were imported 


in 1871 and 


Trom Russia . » . 
„ Holland . . j 
„ Belgium . » » 
„ France . 
„ Other countries . 

Total 


1871 


187 


2 


lbs. . 

29,000 

249,286 

178,787 

2,739,981 


& 

400 

4,914 

6,363 

. 60,913 


IbSi 

261,844 

28,182 

2j285,166 

56,929 


& 

4,"8'91 

1,347 

49,631 

. 1,644 


3,197,053 


62,690 


2,682,071 


57,513 



The iPresident of the Chamber of Commerce, Dundee, at a meeting (1873) stated 
that great prosperity had attended the Dundee trade during the past year, that the 
whole machinery had been in operation, and that fuU employment had been obtained 
by all. The importation of jute had never been greater than in this year, being some 
20,000 tons more than last. It was mentioned as another indication of the prosperity, 
that the deposits of the working classes engaged in the jute manufacture in the 
savings-bank diiring the present year had increased by 36,000/. or 37,000/. 

It is in Scotland especially where goods made from jute represent a large branch 



12 



JUTE 



of industry. This very cheap raw material is employed there, either pure or mixed, 
to make ordinary brown cloth, but more especially sacking, packing-cloth, and carpets. 
The jute yams used for carpets are of the richest and most varied colours, and are 
sometimes used in conjunction with cocoa-nut fibre. Even the Brussels and velvet-pile 
carpets are imitated with success in appearance, but not in durability. Dundee and 
its surrounding neighbourhood are the principal seats of this fast-increasing manufac- 
ture. The number of spindles acting on jute in Dundee is considerably above 50,000. 
A very beautiful cloth for binding books is made from jute. 

The bulk of the raw jute exported is sent to France. About 30,000 cwts. are 
annually returned in the shape of jute-yam. 

The amoimt of British-made jute-yam and manufactures exported was as fol- 
lows during the last five years :- 





Yarns 


Manufactures 




lbs. 


yds. 


1869 


. 8,041,000 


60,127,000 


1870 


. 12,669,000 


57,920,000 


1871 


. 13,710,000 


62,310,000 


1872 


. 12,716,000 


84,452,000 


1873 


. 12,275,000 


96,639,000 



This is exclusive of jute bags and sacks, which are not separately classified in the 
trade returns. 

The following Parliamentary return of the jute Exports in 1872 shows the countries 
to which our manufactures were sent : — 



Jute Yarn: 
To Germany 
„ Holland 
„ Belgium 
„ France 
„ Spain . 
„ Italy . 
„ United States : Atlantic 
„ „ „ Pacific 
„ Other countries . 

• Total 



Jute Manufactures: 
To Bussia ...... 

„ Denmark 

„ Germany 

„ Holland ' . 

„ Portugal and Madeira. 

„ Italy 

„ Austrian Territories .... 

„ Turkey Proper 

„ Egypt 

„ United States : Atlantic 

„ „ „ Pacific 

„ Foreign West Indies .... 

„ United States of Colombia (New Granada) 

„ Venezuela 

„ Peru 

„ Chili 

„ Brazil 

„ Uraguay 

„ Argentine Republic .... 
„ British Possessions in South A&ica 

„ Australia 

„ British North America . ... 
„ Other countries 

Total .... 



lbs. 
1,684,272 
2,866,952 

792,640 

253,900 
4,842,592 

444,680 

1,626,619 

14,429 

289,985 



12,716,969 



Yards 

771,276 

1,806,517 

22,552,478 

4,108,478 

920,369 
2,133,060 

605,162 
2,324,000 

822,410 

19,829,126 

4,292,098 

1,209,906 

646,500 

406,200 
2,027,400 

992,200 
9,061,024 
1,387,840 
3,263,760 

407,740 
1,342,580 

614,430 
2,939,370 

84,462,457 



£ 
33,521 
54,448 
19,640 

9,395 

96,222 

12,260 

28,189 

278 

7,296 



261,239 



£ 
15,343 
29,306 

399,494 
73,163 
20,319 
44,391 
10,942 
42,286 
18,757 

320,461 
76,860 
24,831 
11,415 
9,405 
35,415 
17,944 

134,638 
22,620 
52,095 
11,126 
33,278 
18,167 
61,238 

1,486,484 



KAMPTULICON 13 



K 

XASOOK. A name for a clay-ironstone in Ceylon. — Simmonds, 

X-aJCWITE. A hydrous sulphate of potash and magnesia, occurring in the great 
saline deposits overlying the rock-salt at Stassfurt, in Prussian Saxony, It has 
become an important commercial source of sulphate of potash. 

XAX. A mining term. ' Wild iron ; a coarse, false kind of iron.' — Borlase, In 
St. Just, in Cornwall, a callan lode is a lode containing much iron. 

KAI^EZSOPBOir. An instrument devised by Professor Wheatstone. An elastic 
thin bar is fixed by one of its extremities, and at its free end it carries a silvered or 
polished ball ; a ray of light is reflected from this baU, and -when the thin plate is put 
in vibration, the fine point of light describes various curves, corresponding with the 
musical notes produced by the vibrations. 

XA.3JSZSOSCOPE. A well-known instrument invented by Sir David Brewster. 
It has been much employed in arts of design. The leading conditions are that the 
angle at which the reflectors are placed is a submultiple of 360°, that the only posi- 
tions in which a body can be placed to form perfectly symmetrical images are between 
the ends of the mirrors, or in contact with the ends, and the eye must be as near as 
possible to the angular point. 

ILAJtt, The Arabs gave this name to an annual plant which grows near the 
sea-shore, now known under the name of Salsola soda, and from whose ashes they 
extracted a substance, which they called alkali, for making soap. The term Kali is 
used by German chemists to denote caustic potash, and Kalium, its metallic basis, 
instead of our potash and potassium. 

X AUXrZTE. Dana's name for native potash-alum. See Alum. 

XAHCAXiA, or XAMZIiA DVE. An Indian yellow dye for silks, obtained 
from the Bottler a tinctoria, Kxb. The red powder which covers the fruit is mixed 
■with alum or with carbonate of soda, and yields an orange dye. Kamala is also 
employed medicinally in the East. 

XAXMEPTVKICOXO'. This article was first made in the year 1843, but, like most 
new productions, it remained for some time unappreciated. At length it was used 
by Sir Charles Barry for the corridors of the Houses of Parliament. 

At first it was produced in its unstained colour, but subsequently it has been stained 
of many diflferent colours. It is also impressed with surface-colour designs of varied 
and appropriate subjects. It is an admirable recipient of colour, which penetrates 
throughout its substance, and remains permanent. Kamptulicon is composed of 
gutta-percha, India-rubber, and ground cork. 

Other materials have been tried, such as prepared oil and ground cork ; but this 
has not been very successful. In some, sawdust has been substituted for cork. 

One of the great advantages of kamptulicon is its property of deadening sound. 
The Kamptulicon Elastic Floor-Cloth Company, who have extensive works at Bow 
Common, furnish the following notice of this manufacture : — 

The first part of the manufacturing process is the purification of the native caout- 
chouc or India-rubber. It is first put to soak into large water tanks heated by steam, 
and when sufficiently softened, is placed before a circular knife of cast steel, revolving 
at the rate of 3,000 times a minute, and cut into small blocks ; and is then taken to a 
pair of powerful cast-steel rollers, which seize it, and grind it with immense force ; 
and, aided by a jet of water, all the clay and foreign ingredients are expelled and 
washed away ; it is passed several times through this machine, till it is perfectly free 
from all impurities, when it is taken to a formidable apparatus, called the masticator, 
which consists of a massive structure of iron, fitted with cylinders, of which every 
part, being subject to a violent straining, is rendered as strong as possible. The 
material having been of a loose though tough mass on entering this machine, is 
gradually crushed and worked down into a body of consistent substance, and has 
altered to a light brown colour. This process is attended with the evolution of much 
heat, caused by the immense friction in the working of the material, and any water 
yet remaining in the mass is actually converted into steam, a succession of explosions 
constantly being heard in the apparatus from the disengaged air or steam ; it is then 
removed and worked into the proper consistency, by being passed through deeply- 
indented rollers, which further grind and incorporate it with the different colours, 
&c., for spreading upon cloth and rolling into sheets for steam packing; this is the 
most tedious and expensive part of the manufacture, at it goes through several -pairs 
of similar rollers, which require great mechanical power. After being brought to 



14 KELP 

this state, which is varied according to the purpose for which it is required, it is 
taken to a still larger set of rollers, which consists of four cast-steel cylinders, each 
of 22 inches diameter, and 62 inches on the face ; these rollers are beautifully turned 
and polished, fitted with steam connections, as well as for hot and cold water, and are 
estimated to have cost upwards of 1,500^., there being great difficulty in obtaining 
rollers of so large a size. 

The material forms a sheet upon the first roller, and, as it passes over, is pressed 
into the cloth through the other rolls, and wound off in front of the machine on a 
roller connected -with it, the average speed of the machine being such as to produce 
1,600 to 2,000 yards per day. After leaving the machine, the fabric or rubber is 
subjected to the vulcanising process by being placed with sulphiir at tempera- 
tures of from 300° to 370° Fahr., which renders the India-rubber highly elastic, 
and gives it the properties of resisting the influence of grease or acids. The whole 
of the machinery is worked by a pair of horizontal double-cylinder engines of 66 
horse-power, and one engine of 30 horse-power. Space will not permit Us to describe 
the further machinery for making all the various articles in detail. 

KAWBITE. An arsenide of manganese, probably from Saxony ; named after Sir 
Eobert Kane, by whom it was first described. 

XAHTGAROO. a marsupial animal, native of Australia. Its tail makes excel- 
lent soup ; and its skin, when tanned, becomes a soft and durable leather. 

KAOXiZXr. A name derived from the Chinese, which is sometimes applied to 
porcelain clay. See Ciat, Poecelain. 

XARABE', a name of amber, of Arabic origin, in use upon the Continent. 

XASXr or CASXr. A Cornish miner's term, frequently, according to Borlase, 
used to signify the solid rock — more commonly a pile of rocks. 

XARST&WZTE. The name given by Hausmann to anhydrous sulphate of lime, 
in compliment to the German mineralogist Karsten. See Anhydbite. 

XAT, or 3CBAT. An Arabian drug, obtained from the Catha edulis and C. 
spinosa. It is said to be chewed by the Arabs for the sake of its exhilarating effects ; 
whilst a decoction prepared from it is used as tea. 

KATTZMinO'DOO or drTTEMUirsOO. A caoutchouc-like substance ob- 
tained from the Euphorbia antiquorum of Roxburgh. It was first exhibited in 
this country in the Great Exhibition of 1851, being sent by Mr. W. Elliott from 
Vizagapatam. 

It was of a dark brown colour, opaque except in thin pieces, hard and somewhat 
brittle at common temperatures, but easily softened by heat. Perfectly insoluble in 
boiling water, but becoming soft, viscid, and remarkably sticky and adhesive like 
bird-lime, reassuming, as it cools, its original character. 

It is said to be used for joining metal, fastening knife-handles, &c. 

XAURZE or XAVTBIE RESXIT. See Dammab. 

XAVA ROOT. The root of the Piper methysticum, Forst., used in the South 
Sea Islands for preparing a disgusting beverage. 

KESOS AirCHOR. A small anchor with an iron stock used for warping. 

KEEXi. A barge used on the Tyne to can-y coal. These barges are constructed 
to carry 21 tons. The keel ' is worked by means of one oar at the gunwale and a 
sweep at the stern. Of late years the build and rig of these vessels have been so 
greatly improved, that they can now work to windward in as good a style as a sloop.' 
Dunn, Winning and Working of Collieries. 

XEE&ER. A manager of coal barges and colliers in the Durham and Northum- 
berland district. 

XEEVE, a mining term. A large vat used in dressing ores : also a brewer's term 
for a mash tub. 

XEG. A cask containing five gallons. 

XEZR. A boiler used in bleaching establishments. See Bleaching. 

KEILP ( Varec, Fr. ; Wareck, Ger.) is the crude alkaline matter produced by 
incinerating various species of fuci, or sea-weed. They are cut with sickles from the 
rocks in the summer season, dried and then burned, with much stirring of the pasty 
ash. Dr. Ure analysed many specimens of kelp, and found the quantity of soluble 
matter in 100 parts of the best to be from 53 to 62, while the insoluble was from 47 
to 38. The soluble consisted of: 

Sulphite of soda 8'0 19-0 

Soda, as carbonate and sulphuret , . . 8'5 6'6 

Muriate of soda and potash .... 36*5 37'5 

53-0 62-0 



KERMES GRAINS 15 

The insoluble matter consisted of : 

Carbonate of lime 24*0 

Silica . . . . . . . .8-0 

Alumina, tinged with iron oxide . . . . 9*0 

Sulphate of lime O'O 

Sulphur and loss . . . . . . 6-0 

47-0 

The first of these specimens was from Heisker, the second from Eona, both in the 
Isle of Skye, upon the property of Lord Macdonald. From these, and many other 
analyses which were made by Dr. Ure, it appears that kelp is a substance of very 
variable composition, and hence it was very apt to produce anomalous results, when 
employed as the chief alkaline flux of crown glass, which it was for a very long period. 
The Fva:iis vesiculosus and F. nodosus are reckoned to afford the best kelp by in- 
cineration ; but all the species yield a better product when they are of two or three 
years' growth than when cut younger. The vareo made on the shores of Normandy 
contains almost no carbonate of soda, but much sulphate of soda and potash, some 
hyposulphite of potash, chloride of sodium, iodide of potassium, and chloride of potas- 
sium ; the average composition of the soluble salts being, according to Gay-Lussac, 
66 of chloride of sodium, 25 of chloride of potassium, and a little sulphate of potash. 
The very low price at which soda-ash, the dry crude carbonate from the decomposition 
of sea salt, is now sold, has superseded the use of kelp for this purpose. 

Mr. E. C. C. Stanford has introduced a process for preparing kelp by simply carbo- 
nising the weeds. The sea-weeds are collected during the winter, and, when dried and 
compressed, are difitilled in retorts at a comparatively low temperature. See kmss, ; 
Iodine ; Potash. 

XEIO'TZSB RAG. See Eao and Basstone. 

KSRATIxr. An animal principle obtained from hairs, nails, horn, feathers, and 
other integumentary tissues. 

KERIMCES CRAXirs, AXiKERIIKES, are the dried bodies of the female insects 
of- the species Coccus ilicis, which Lives upon the leaves of the Quercus ilex (prickly 
oak). Kirby and Spence, and also Stephens, state that the Coccus ilicis is found on 
the Quercus coccifera. The word Jcermes is Arabic, and signifies ' little worm.' In 
the middle ages, this dye-stuff was therefore called vermiculus in Latin, and vermeil 
and vermilion in French. It is curious to consider how the name vermilion has been 
since transferred to red sulphuret of mercury. 

Kermes has been known in the East since the days of Moses ; it has been employed 
from time immemorial in India to dye silk ; and was used also by the ancient Greek 
and Eoman dyers. Pliny speaks of it under the name of coecigranum, and says that 
there grew upon the oak in Africa, Sicily, &c., a small excrescence like a bud, called 
cuscidium ; that the Spaniards paid with these grains half of their tribute to the 
Eomans ; that those produced in Sicily were the worst ; that they served to dye 
purple ; and that those from the neighbourhood of Emerita in Lusitania (Portugal) 
were the best. 

In Germany, during the ninth, twelfth, thirteenth, and fourteenth centuries, the rmral 
serfs were bound to deliver aimually to the convents a certain quantity of kermes, 
the Coccus Folonicus, among the other products of husbandry. It was collected from the 
trees upon St. John's-day, between eleven o'clock and noon, with religious ceremonies, 
and was therefore called Johannisblut (St. John's blood), as also German cochineal. 
At the above period, a great deal of the German kermes was consumed in Venice, for 
dyeing the scarlet to which that city gives its name. After the discovery of America, 
cochineal having been introduced began to supersede kermes for all brilliant red dyes. 

The principal varieties of kermes are the Coccus quercus, the Coccus Polonicus, the 
Coccus fragaricB, and the Coccus uva ursi. 

The Coccus quercus insect lives in the south of Europe upon tlie kermes oak. The 
female has no wings, is of the size of of a small pea, of a brownish-red colour, and is 
covered -with a whitish dust. I'rom the middle of May to the middle of June the eggs 
are collected, and exposed to the vapour of vinegar, to prevent their incubation. A 
portion of eggs is left upon the tree for the maintenance of the brood. In the depart- 
ment of the Bouches-du-Ehone, one half of the kermes crop is dried. 

The kermes of Poland, or Coccus Polonicus, is found iipon the roots of the Scleranthus 
perennis and the Sisleranthm annuus, in sandy soils of that country and the Ukraine. 
This species has the same properties as the preceding ; one pound of it, according to 
"Wolfe, being capable of dyeing 10 pounds of wool; but Hermstaedt could not obtain 
a fine colour, although he employed 5 times as much of it as of cochineal. The Turks, 
Armenians, and Cossacks dye with kermes their morocco leather, cloth, silk, as well as 
•the manes and tails of their horses. 



16 KIESERITE 

The kermes called Cocous fragarus is found principally in Siberia, upon the root of 
the common strawberry. 

The Coccus uva ursi is twice the size of the Polish kermes, and dyes with alum a fine 
red. It occurs in Eussia. 

Kermes is found not only upon the Lycopodium complanatum in the Ukraine, but upon 
a great many other plants. 

Good kermes is plump, of a deep red colour, of an agreeable smell, and a rough and 
pungent taste. Its colouring matter is soluble in water and alcohol : it becomes yel- 
lowish or brownish with acids, and violet or crimson with alkalis. Sulphate of iron 
blackens it. With alum it dyes a blood-red ; with copperas, an agate-grey ; with 
sulphate of copper and tartar, an olive-green ; with tartar and salt of tin, a lively cin- 
namon-yellow ; with more alum and tartar, a lilac ; with sulphate of zinc and tartar, 
a violet. Scarlet and crimson dyed with kermes were called grain colours. The red 
caps for the Levant are dyed at Orleans with equal parts of kermes and madder, and 
occasionally with an addition of Brazil-wood. Kermes is but little used in England at 
present as a dyeing substance. 

KSRMSS, ASXIO'ERAXi. Pure mineral kermes is regarded by Berzelius, Fuchs, 
and Rose, as an amorphous tersulphuret of antimony. As the preparation has but 
little use in the arts except as an artist's colour, for its mode of preparation and its 
chemicivl constitution, we refer to Watts's ' Dictionary of Chemistry.' 

XSRMESZTE. Bed antimony ore, composed of oxygen, 5'29 ; antimony, 74*45 ; 
sulphur, 20'49. It occurs in the form of tufts of cherry-red hair-like crystals, at 
Braunsdorf, near Freiberg, in Saxony, and at a few other localities. 

XBS»rEIi ROASTIXO-C. See Coffeb. 

XXUftOSXirs. A name given to one of the mineral oils, obtained from the oil- 
wells and oil-shales of America, and other places. 

KERSE'S'. A coarse stuff woven from long wool, chiefly manufactured in the 
north of England. 

XCERSETMERE. Commonly spelt cassimere. A fine fabric woven plain from the 
finest wools ; a manufacture of the west of England principally. 

KETCBVP. A name derived from the Japanese kitjap. It is prepared from 
mushrooms, especially from the Agarictis campestris, by sprinkling them with salt, 
letting them drain, and boiling the juice with spices. Walnut-ketchup is made from 
green walnuts in a similar manner. 

XfiTOWES. A class of organic bodies derived from aldehydes by substitution of 
one atom of hydrogen for one atom of an alcohol-radical. For example, acetone is 
acetic ketone ; that is, it may be regarded as acetic aldehyde in which one atom of 
hydrogen is replaced by the radical methyl. See Watts's ' Dictionary of Chemistry.' 

KHATA. One of the largest and handsomest trees growing on the western 
coast of Africa. The wood is of fine quality, and of a reddish colour like mahogany. 

KXABOCCA 'WOOB, called also Amboyna wood. This wood is said to be tiie 
excrescence or burr of the Pterospermum indieum, or of the Pterocarpus draco, from 
the Moluccas, the Island of Borneo, Amboyna, &c. 

KZBBlbE, a mining term. A bucket usually made of iron, in which the ore is 
drawn to the surface from the depths of the mine. 

KIDBERMnrSTER-CARPET. A carpeting so called from the place of its 
early manufacture. This kind of carpet is now principally made in Scotland. 
Kidderminster is composed of two webs, each consisting of a separate warped woof. 
The two are interwoven at intervals to produce the figures. The two webs being passed 
at intervals through each other, each part being at one time above and the other 
below, it will be evident, when the webs are of different colours, that the figures will 
be the same on both sides, only the colours will be reversed. These carpets should 
be made entirely of wool. 

KXSSERXTE. A hydrous sulphate of magnesia, containing MgO.SO'-t-HO 
(l*f gSO* + H-O). It occurs in large quantities in the upper part of the great saline 
deposits overlying the rock-salt of Stassfurt, near Magdeberg, in Prussian Saxony. 
The kieserite is specially characteristic of a zone of the deposits, known as the 
kieserite region, which occurs below the carnallite, and above the polyhalite region. 
Kieserite forms about 17 per cent, of the salts in that portion of the deposit to 
which it gives its name. It is separated from the associated salts by solution and 
crystallisation. Large quantities of sulphate of magnesia prepared from kieserite 
are now sent into the market by the Stassfurt manufacturers. 

The first attempts to economise kieserite were made in 1864, when it was pro- 
posed to employ it in the preparation of sulphate of potash. Since that time the 
applications have greatly increased, and it has now become an important article of 
commerce. 

The largest quantity of the raw material is sent to this country, where it takes the 



KILN • 17 

place of the sulphate of magnesia, formerly manufactured from dolomite, or from Grecian 
magnesite, in cotton printing. Another portion of kieserite is converted into Glauber 
salts, -which, on account of its freedom from iron, are highly prized by gas manu- 
facturers. 

Manufacturers of ' blancfixe ' employ kieserite, instead of sulphuric acid, to precipi- 
tate the sulphate of baryta from chloride of barium, and in all similar cases -where 
it is proposed to prepare a difficultly-soluble sulphate, the kieserite can be advan- 
tageously used. Kieserite is recommended as a substitute for gypsum in agriculture, 
as a top-dressing for clover, and is largely employed in England for this purpose. 
It is proposed to use kieserite in the manufacture of alum. There is a mineral called 
bauxite, which chiefly consists of the hydrated oxide of aluminium ; this is easily 
dissolved in hydrochloric acid ; cheap pota,sh salts and the calculated quantity of 
kieserite are added ; alum crystallises out of the solution, and chloride of magnesium 
remains in the mother-liquid. 

The uses indicated above are -wholly inadequate to consume the enormous quantities 
no-w obtained from the Stassfurt mines, Millions of pounds of kieserite are annually 
brought to the surface, and it is becoming a serious question to know what to do with 
it. If it could be used as a substitute for gypsum in building materials and cements, 
its cheapness -would at once commend it to notice. Experiments looking to this appli- 
cation have been tried. 

T-wo equivalents of kieserite and one equivalent of caustic lime -were stirred to a 
paste in -water : the mass hardened, but remained granular and brittle. On calcining 
it, however, again pulverising and moistening -with water, it set to a solid marble-like 
mass, -which could be applied to many useful purposes. It is proposed to employ this 
material for ornamental decorations in the interior of houses, and in general for the 
manufacture of cements, and as a substitute for plaster-of-Paris. 

Kieserite appears likely to prove a valuable accession to our supply of useful 
minerals, to be ranked by the side of kainite, a potash mineral also found at Stass- 
furt, and now largely imported into the United States. 

KIKBRICKEirXTXi. A variety of Geocronite from Kilbricken, Clare county, 
Ireland. 

XCXIiKEXria'T COAIi. A variety of anthracite. 

KZIiIiAS. The name given by the Cornish miners to the cla^ slate of that 
district. It varies very much in colour and character, being sometimes clay- 
white, and at other times grey or blue. It is in one district soft ; in another compact 
and hard. 

XlliXr, (Four, Fr., Ofen, Ger.) is the name given to a certain variety of furnace in 
which substances can bo submitted to the influence of heat. In general, a kiln may be 
described to be a structure of some considerable size, in which limestones, iron-ores, or 
the like, can be calcined, bricks and cement stones burnt, pottery baked, or glass 
annealed. 

The ordinary brick-kiln has been already described in the article Beicks ; there 
are, however, a few modern arrangements which demand some more especial des- 
cription. 

Horizontal Close Kilns. — These are employed very extensively on the Continent. One 
is represented in fig. 1296. Although intended for bricks, it is often advantageously 
used as an ordinary potter's kiln, a is the firing kiln ; b is the fuel-grate; c the ash- 
pit, and D the chimney. The fire proceeds from the narrow end through the whole 
length of the kiln to the chimney. Below the flue is the door b, which is bricked up 
during every operation. The perforated wal 1 a a separates the fire-hearth from tlie 
burning chamber, and diffuses the flame uniformly over the whole front part of the 
chamber ; the position of the fire-grato is found in practice to be exceedingly good, and 
is recommended. The grate is inclined towards the kiln for the purpose of facili- 
tating the addition of fuel. The curve in the roof conducts the flames, without 
interruption, into the burning chamber. The fire-door, e, can be easily drawn up by 
means of the weight o, and the chains passing over the pulleys nn. The flue p, and 
a few others in the side of the kiln, tend to keep the brickwork dry, which is an 
important point in getting up the heat. The heat in all furnaces thus constructed is 
greatest in the neighbourhood of the wall a a ; and to prevent the -vitrification of the 
bricks, a certain quantity of lime is thrown into the front part of the kiln. In such a 
furnace as this, the firing chamber is 3h feet high and 10 feet long, and a full charge 
is 6,000 bricks. 

Newcastle Kilns are arched kilns or ovens. These have been improved by Mr. C. G. 
Johnson, who constructs a fine running along the back of a range of these kilns, and 
instead of placing the chimney at the end farthest from the fire, he places it near the 
fire. A communication is formed between the kilns of the flue running along the back 
of the range. Saitable dampers regulate the heat, which can be drawn through any kiln 

Vol. III. C 



18 



KILN 



from back to front by the chimney. Fig. 1 297 is a front elevation of a portion of a range 
of kilns thus constructed, a is the body of the kiln, -where the bricks are stacked 

1296 




1297 



1298 





on a plane floor ; h, a flue that connects any two or more kilns witli each other, the 
communication being regulated by means of dampers 6' b- ; c, chimney -vvilh dumper d j 



KILN 



19 



d, an archway for setting and drawing the kilns, made up with bricks daubed with 
clay, so as to be air-tight while the bricks are burning. The system of firing is the 
same as in the ordinary end firing ovens. The mode of working is simple : No. 1 kiln 
when fired, is put into communication with No. 2, this kiln having had the opening 
in front closed up, and the damper in the chimney opened. No. 2 kiln acts as a chimney 
to No. 1 during the time that the moisture is being driven off from the bricks in it. 
While this operation is going on, No. 3 kiln can be set, and as soon as the moistm-o 
is expelled from the bricks in the first kiln, communication can be closed with No, 2, 
and that with No. 3 opened. The waste heat will then pass into No. 3. This can be 
repeated as many times as there are kilns, and the firing up of the kiln with the dried 
bricks effected. 

In Hellmann's brick-kiln, at his works near Hanover, the firing-chamber is 8 feet 
from side to side, 12 feet 8 inches to the top of the arch, and 20 feet 4 inches in length. 
This space, which is much larger than that in the kiln just described, will contain 
24,000 bricks. The mean quantity of coal consumed in firing this kiln is 260 cwts. 
The kiln is heated from 4 grates, which join in the centre. 

The open Dutch kilns are much larger. Heren describes one 51 feet wide, 110 feet 
long, and 25 feet high, containing 56 layers of bricks, one above the other, consisting 
of more than 3,000,000 bricks, which are burnt in 36 days by the flames from 10 fires. 
The Bihl kiln {ficj. 1298) used in Waiblingen is of a similar character. This kiln 
is heated by two fires; between the fires and the chimney a there are two working 
chambers, a lower chamber c for burning, and an upper chamber b for drying the 
bricks. The working chambers and chimney are separated from each other by per- 
forated arches ; the lower arch a a above the fire being perforated with 25 apertures 
for the passage of the flames, while between the drying chamber and the chimney 
there are 13 similar passages. The fuel is placed below the chief chamber c and in 
front of it, in a prolongation of the fire channels a a, in which the grates are set. 
Several modifications of these kilns have been from time to time introduced, and they 
have been specially varied to meet the conditions for burning roofing tiles, pipes, &c., 
but in principle they are essentially the same. 

Hoffmann's Straight Kiln. — The following ^_^. (1299) represents in section a kiln on 
Hoffmann's system as arranged by Chamberlain and Wedekind. 

a a is the brick-work of the kiln ; b, the fire-place at one end, the opposite end 
opening with a chimney c, by a flue d; a number of openings e e, provided with 
closely-fitting covers are constructed .along the roof of the kilns for the introduction of 
small fuel. The entire ^^ngth of the kilns having been filled with bricks, in a fit state 
for burning, a fire is lighted in the fire-place b, and air is allowed to enter freely through 
the fire-door. When the heat at this end of the kiln is sufficiently high, fuel is intro- 

1299 




duced through the openings e e on the top. The hot air and products of combustion 
pass along the entire length of the kiln, between the goods stacked in it, gradually 
heats it, and finally passes off by the flue d to the chimney c. So soon as that portion 
of the stacked bricks, into and amongst which the fuel has been supplied, has become 
sufficiently burnt, the further supply of fuel is stopped, and the supply is then carried 
on through other openings e in advance, so as td mingle the fuel with the adjoining 
bricks, which by this time will bo sufficiently heated to ensure the conp^bustion 
of such fuel. Those bricks which have been thoroughly burnt are now allowed 
to cool gradually by the action of the cold air which passes amongst them and takes 
up the caloric, which is transferred to the succeeding bricks on its way to the chimney. 
In this manner the process of burning is continued until the extreme end of the 
kiln has been reached, some of the goods having, in the meantime, been drawn 
and replaced by fresh ones, so that the kiln will bo ready for relighting by the time 
tiie last of the goods is withdrawn. These kilns may be provided at intervals with 
sliding doors, which extend across the kiln, and subdivide it into a number of separata 
compartments, facility is thus afforded for making use of these compartments as drying 

c2 



20 



KILN 



chambers, whilst the other portion of the kiln 'is burning. The drying may be 
facilitated by bringing hot air from the cooling portions of the kiln into the drying 
chamber for the time being, by means of a moveable pipe or flue, which may be 
adjusted to any of the holes, e, in roof. When the bricks are sufiBcently dry, the doors 
and flue are removed so as to bring them within the direct range of the hot air and 
products of combustion from the burning bricks, preparatory to their being fired from 
above. In this arrangement flues provided with dampers should be employed, leading 
from each compartment to separate chimneys, or to one common flue leading to a single 
chimney, and eacli compartment should have near its upper part a flue for carrying off 
the steam and vapour, evolved during the process of drying. 

Pottery-kiJns are sometimes constructed upon this principle, in compartments ; the 
number varying considerably according to the conditions required : these are not 
usually continuous. The greatest possible heat is required for baking porcelain. The 
porcelain kiln consists of a round chamber, on the floor of which the porcelain vessels, 
enclosed in seggars, are arranged in columns. The flames fill the whole space, cir- 
culating between the columns, and escaping through different apertures in the top of 

the chamber ; from thence they 
1^"" enter a second chamber, and their 

heat is still sufficient for baking 
biscuit-ware. Fig. 1300 repre- 
sents the Sevres porcelain kiln. 
The kiln is surrounded by four 
separate fires A a, which first heat 
the space x,, which is intended for 
completely burning the porcelain ; 
the upper chamber l' being used 
for baking the biscuit; while the 
third space L"may be used for the 
same purpose, or for drying the 
seggars, the flame escaping througli 
the chimney c. The hearths of 
the porcelain kiln are peculiar ; 
tliey are constructed without any 
grate, and built in such a manner 
that the draught is forced to take 
a contrary direction to that which 
it usually takes in other kilns. 
The space c is filled with red-hot 
fuel, which is passed in througli 
the aperture b, and completely fill 
the space f. The draught in the 
first instance is downward, in the 
direction of the arrow, through //, 
and the spaces between the fuel in 
,/' and c ; this creates a long flame, 
which escapes through f into the 
chamber r. The round aperture o 
is usually closed with a clay 
stopper ; through this opening the 
fire is stirred ; b, at the foot of the 
hearth is used for removing the 
ashes when necessary, the draught being always regulated by the lid b'. The flue is divi- 
ded by three tongues into three channels p, in order that the flame may be dispersed ; d 
and E are the doors for the insertion of the goods. In the arched covering of the space 
L twenty-five apertures 1 1 are left to conduct the flame into the chamber iJ. Any 
single opening would draw all the flame together — the object is to spread it. Half the 
number of openings are made in the roof of l' If t', for a similar purpose. Small 
openings are made in the walls of the chamber l, through which the colour of the fire 
may be watched. The whole of the kiln is bound together with iron bands to prevent 
its falling to pieces. Such furnaces are usually 20 feet in diameter, they are con- 
structed internally with fire-stone, and surrounded on the outside with bricks. 

Hoffmann! 8 Continuous Kiln. — Fig. 1302 represents a vertical section, andjig. 1301 
a sectional plan of a continuous kiln, combined with a second or inner chamber, by 
which dry or warm air may be taken from any of the heated chambers of the kiln to 
any of the other chambers, for the purpose of drying green bricks or other articles 
from which it is desired to drive oft' tlie moisture, a, the brickwork of the kiln, a 
portion of the annular burning and drying space of which may be shut off or sepa- 




KILN 



21 



rated from the rest by two moreable diaphragms, b, h', to fonn a drying chamber. 
The entire kiln is capable of being subdivided into a number of compartments, 
numbered mfig. 1301 from 4 to 10 inclusive, although any other number maybe used. 
Each compartment is provided -with a door at c, through which the goods are intro- 
duced and removed. Prom the upper part of the several compartments extend a 
series of flues, d d, converging towards, and opening into, an annular smoke-chamber, 
e, Tvhich surrounds the chimney,/, and communicates therewith by the passages or 
openings, g. The inner ends of these flues inside the smoke chamber are closed or 
left open by means of conical plugs, k k, which, by being elevated, will regulate the 
jimount of opening of the flues. A closed man-hole, i, fig. 1302, is made in each of 
these flues for the facility of cleaning. Valves, k {fig. 1301), connect any one of these 
flues, when open, with the annular passage, I, for dry or warm air, the bottom of the 
passage conijmunicating, by means of valve m, with the flues, n, which lead from the 
lower portion of the compartments of the kiln to the smoke chamber, e, before referred 
to. These flues, n, are also provided with conical plugs or dampers, o, similar to 
those which are fitted on to the inner ends of the flues, d. 

In fig. 1301 the chambers 4 and 5 are represented as being shut off from the doors, 
b, b', and are supposed to contain green bricks ; the chamber 6 is being filled whilst 

1301 




the goods are being removed from chamber 7 ; the chambers 8, 9, and 10, all contain 
burnt goods in the act of cooling ; whilst the other chambers are being fired, the hot air 
therefrom passing through the goods in the chambers 1 and 2 (not shown), and being 
obstructed by the door, b, from entering the drying-chambers 4 and 5 direct, it passes 

1302 




by the bottom flue, n, of the series direct to the smoke-chamber, e, and thence to the 
chimney, the plug or damper, being more or less open for that purpose according to 
1 he draught required. The fresh air enters by the doors, c c, passes through the 
heated goods in the chambers 7, 8, and 9, thereby cooling the goods, and at the same 
time taking up the calorie. A portion of this air so heated passes onwards through 
the chambers 10, 11, 12, 1, 2, and thence by the flue, n, to the chimney, whilst 
another portion enters one of the flues, d, at the mouth thereof, and as the plug or 



22 



KIMERIDGE CLAY 



valve, h, on the inner end of this fine is closed, the heated air enters by the open 
. valve, Jc, in the annular chamber or passage, l. The warm air then traverses the 
cbamljer, e, passes through the only open valve, m, of the series into the flue, n, of 
the series, the end of which in the smoke chamber is closed by the valve, o, and 
thence to the drying-chamber, 4, and chamber, 3, and finally escaping at d by the 
flue and open plug or valve, h, into the smoke chamber, e, and chimney, /; the whole 
of the valves, h, o, k, and m, are kept closed, except those which are in connection 
with the flues for the time being ; and, so soon as the goods in the drying-chambers 3 
and 4 are sufficiently dry for burning, the doors, b, are removed, and replaced at b', 
exposing the bricks in the chamber 3 to the direct action of the heat from the kiln- 
fires, whilst the chamber 5, just filled with green bricks, forms, with the chamber 4, 
a drying-chamber. A fresh set of valves or dampers is now opened, and the opera- 
tions of burning and drying proceed in a continuous manner. 

Kilns for special purposes demand especial contrivances ; but, usually, they are in 
principle like one or other of those which have been described. For Malt-Kiln, see 
Maxt. 

XZMCIIRIBCE CSmATZ or SHAXiE. The sands which underlie the Portland 
stone of Dorsetshire and the south-west of England are based upon a considerable 
thickness of dark brownish- or bluish-grey clay, to which the term Kimeridge Clay 
has been given by geologists from the circumstance of its being largely developed and 
well displayed in the neighboiirhood of the village of that name. 

Throughout the Isle of Purbeck, but especially in the part of it in question, the clay 
assumes a very shaly and bituminous character, sometimes passing into more massive 
beds of brownish shaly coal, possessing a conchoidal fracture. 

The ^Romans, and also the Celts who inhabited the country previously to its inva- 
sion by the former nation, appear to have manufactured the harder portions of the 
shale into cups and other articles, but chiefly into beads, armlets, and bracelets, 
specimens of which last have been found in the neighbouring barrows, in some cases 
still encircling the wrists of skeletons. 

Circular discs of shale, about the size of & penny piece, have also been dug up in 
great numbers in this part of the Isle of Purbeck : as many as 600 were, upon one 
occasion, found closely packed together. 

Authorities have been much divided in opinion as to the origin and use of these 
circular pieces of shale. By some they are supposed to have passed current as money 
or tokens, whence the name of Kimeridge coal-money, by which they are commonly 
known, has been applied to them ; but the most probable supposition is, that they 
were the portions of the material fixed to the lathe, and left adhering to it after the 
armlets or other ornaments of a similar description had been turned from their outer 
circumferences, and that at some subsequent period these refuse pieces of the turner 
were worn as amulets or charms by the superstitious. 

The shale around Kimeridge abounds in animal and vegetable matter, the former 
consisting of the shells of oysters, ammonites, &c., together with the bones and teeth 
of large saurians and fish ; while the latter is in so finely divided a state as not to 
be distinguishable to the eye. Much carbonate of lime and pyrites are also present, 
especially in those portions in which animal remains iire most abundant. 

The variation in the external character of the shale is accompanied by a corre- 
sponding variation in the relative proportions of mineral and organic matter contained 
in it ; those portions which are the mose fissile and slaty containing a large proportion 
of mineral matter combined with a relatively small proportion of organic matter ; 
while, on the other hand, in the harder and more massive portions which break with 
a conchoidal fracture, the organic matter is greatly in excess of the mineral matter, as 
is shown by the following analyses : — 



Amount of volatile matter . 
„ „ mineral matter . 


Greyish-green delicately fissile 
shale 

A 


Brown shale 

with conchoidal 

fracture 

B 


19-61 
80-49 


62-8 
47-2 


73-3 
26-7 


10000 


1000 


1000 



When heated the shale gives off copious fumes of a disagreeable odour resembling 
that of petroleum ; and when ignited it burns of itself with a dull smoky flame, 
leaving, when freely exposed to the atmosphere, a reddish ash, which generally re- 
tains the form of the original fragment. 



KIMERIDGE CLAY 23 

The shale has long been tised for fuel by tho people of the district -where it occurs, 
and the ashes left after combustion have long been known to the farmers on the coast 
to exercise a beneficial influence upon their crops, especially turnips ; but the unplea- 
sant smell given out by it when burning has prevented it from being used, except by 
the poorer inhabitants. 

The composition of this gas, freed from carbonic acid and sulphuretted hydrogen 
by passing through an ordinaiy lime purifier, was as follows : — 

defiant gas and congeners 10*0 

Light ciirburetted hydrogen and hydrogen . . . 79-0 
Carbonic oxide ll-n 



The composition of the coke produced was : — 



100-0 



Carbon 73'4 .... 72'8 

Ash 34-3 . • . . . 30-3 

107*7 103-1 

The excess above 100 arises ftom the presence of sulphides in the coal, which 
during the process of incineration absorb oxygen, and are converted into sulphates. 

A ton of shale furnished 11,300 cubic feet of this purified gas, the- illuminating 
power of which, used in the argand burner, consuming 5 cubic feet per hour, equalled 
that of 20 sperm candles, while the percentage of coke remaining was 36'5. 

The liquid and solid products obtained by the distillation of the shale at a low tem- 
perature, are an offensively smelling, dark brown oil, suspended in an aqueous liquid, 
charged with sulphuretted hydrogen, carbonic acid, and ammonia. 

This oil, purified and distilled with water, furnished an oily liquid heavier than 
water ; a tar-like residue being left in the retort. 

The oily liquid which, when purified, gives out the odour of the finest varieties of 
coal-gas naphtha, is a mixture of several chemical substances. 

"When treated with concentrated nitric acid, this oily liquid is divided into two 
portions, one of which is dissolved by the acid, while the other insoluble portion 
floats on the surface of the solution in the form of a light colourless oily liquid, 
resembling in its general character the hydrocarbons of Boghead coal-tar, and of 
petroleum. The nitric solution which forms the larger proportion of the oily liquid, 
when mixed with water, furnishes a dense, heavy, yellowish oil, with the odour of 
nitro-benzol. 

Hence it appears that the oily liquid obtained by the distillation of tho shale con- 
sists chiefly of benzol and its homologues, mixed with small quantities of petroleum 
hydrocarbons. When sufficiently purified it is applicable for all the purposes for 
which benzol is employed, for dissolving India-rubber and gutta-percha, for re- 
moving stains from fabrics, for preparing varnishes, for making artificial oil of 
almonds, &c. 

On subjecting to distillation without water, and at a rather high temperature, 
the oily tar-like residue remaining in the retort after the crude volatile oil is ob- 
tained by heat from the shale, had been distilled with water, other volatile products 
are obtained. 

The first portion of the oil obtained during the distillation is of an amber colour 
when first distilled, and much less limpid than the oil produced by distillation with 
water. It also possesses an offensive sulphurous smell, which, however, is lost on 
exposure to the air, while the oil assumes a much darker colour. This oil is acted 
upon by sulphuric, nitric, and hydrochloric acids, by which, especially by the first, a 
portion of it is resinified. 

The remaining portion of tho oil, when washed with water and afterwards dis- 
tilled with steam, furnishes a perfectly colourless oil with the properties of paraffine. 
This last oil, which forms but a small portion of the original oil, behaves in all 
respects like the paraffine oil obtained from Boghead cannel coal, and is applicable 
to the lubrication of machinery, and all the other purposes to which that liquid is 
applied. 

The black, pitch-like, coky residue left in the retort resembles in general character 
tho coke produced from coal in tho manufacture of gas. 

The ash of tho incinerated coke contains nearly the same proportions of silica, 
alumina, and iron, as Portland cement. The following is an analysis of the ash left 
by the shale, which contains the larger apjount of mineral matter : — 



24 KIRSCHWASSER 

Ash of Dorsetshire sbale Portland cement 
Insoluble residue .... 29'01 



Peroxide of iron 
Silica . 
Alumina . 
Lime . 
Carbonic acid 



710 5-30 

21-75 22-23 

10-60 7-76 

20-62 64-11 

10-92 2-15 



100-00 91-64 



Some few years since works were established at Wareham, for the purpose of 
extracting naphtha, and other products, from the shale by distillation ; but the 
manufacture was abandoned in consequence of the impossibility of destroying the 
smell given out by the naphtha. We learn (1874) that the works are to be resumed. 

The treatment of the shale at Wareham, according to Mr. John C. Mansel, was 
conducted in the following manner : — 

The retorts were charged with about 5 cwts. of shale, preyously broken into pieces 
about 2 inches square, and the temperature was maintained as nearly uniform as pos- 
sible. In order to obtain the required uniform temperature the retorts were constructed 
so as to have backs of lead. The gas formed in the retorts was then condensed by 
means of a leaden worm, and the product was a crude oil ; a large quantity of gas was 
made during this operation, which was not condensed, but used for ordinary purposes. 
The crude oil was allowed to stand in long tanks for 48 hours, for the purpose of 
letting the ammoniacal water (of which there is a large quantity) subside. The oil 
was tien put into a still and rectified once or twice as the case might be. The first 
product was a light oil, making overproof 75° ; the next products were heavy oils, con- 
taining paraffine. 

The shale, on being taken out of the retorts, was placed in close vessels, and when 
cool was ground in a mill for manure. In its unmanufactured state the shale was 
not sufficiently rich in ammonia for this purpose ; but at this stage the artificial 
manure was said to be as valuable as Ichaboe guano, both having been recently 
analysed for the purpose of comparison. By keeping the temperature low in the 
retorts, neither the phosphates nor the organic matter were destroyed. 

KZIMCERZDGE COAX. See Xoiebidge Ciay or Shaxe. 

XIirG'S BIiUE. See Blxte: Fiqhekts. 

XXxrcSTON'S TUlETAJt. An alloy which is known as Kingston's metal is 
much used for the bearings and packings of machinery. James Pole Kingston 
patented in 1853 the use of an alloy which he specified as prepared in the following 
manner : — 

An alloy, consisting of copper 9 lbs. and tin 24 lbs., is first melted ; then 9 lbs. of 
mercury are added, and the whole combined. When cooled, it is ready to be used. 

SLZirG'S TEXiXiO'Vir. A mixture of arsenious acid and orpiment, used as a pig- 
ment. 

XZirCr-lxrOOD is imported &om the Brazils, and is sometimes called violet 
wood. This is one of the most beautiful of the hard woods, and is used in small 
cabinet work. 

Xixric ACZ3>. A peculiar acid extracted by Vauquelin from cinchona. 

XSNO is an extract obtained most probably from the Pterocarpus marsupium, 
which grows on the Malabar coast. In India kino is used for dyeing cotton a nankeen 
colour. It is of a reddish-brown colour, has a bitter styptic taste, and consists of 
tannin and extractive, 75 parts, and a red gum 25 parts. It is used only as an 
astringent in medicine. Kino is often called a gum, but most improperly so. 

XZP. A Malacca weight for tin, of 40 lbs. 1 1 oz. avoirdupois. — Simmonds. 

KIPS. The tanners call the skins of young animals kips. The skins of full- 
grown cattle of small breed are also so called. See Leathbb. 

XZRSCHVTASSBR is an alcoholic liquor obtained by fermenting and distilling 
bruised cherries, called Kirschen in German. The cherry usually employed in Switzer- 
land and Germany is a kind of morello, which on maturation becomes black, and has 
a kernel very large in proportion to its pulp. When ripe, the fruit, being made to 
fall by switching the trees, is gathered by children ; thrown promiscuously, unripe, ri pe, 
and rotten into tubs; and crushed either by hand, or with a wooden beater. The 
mashed materials are set to ferment ; and, whenever this process is complete, the 
whole is transferred to a still, and the spirit is run oflF, by placing the pot over the 
common fireplace. 

The fermented mash is usually mouldy before it is put into the alembic, the capital 
of which is luted on with a mixture of mud and dung. The liquor has accordingly, for 
t&e most part, a rank smell, and is most dangerous to health, not only from its own 



KRYOLITE 25 

crude essential oil, but from the prussic acid derived from the distillation of the cherry- 
stones. 

There is a superior kind of Kirschwasser made in the Black Forest, prepared with 
fewer kernels, from choice fruit, properly pressed, fermented, and distilled. 

KXR'Wii.XI'ZTZi. A mineral found in basalt on the nortJi-eastem coast of Ireland 
consisting of silica, lime, alumina, and protoxide of iron. 

XISH. A •workman's name for the crystalline scales of graphite, which separate 
from certain kinds of cast iron on cooling. 

XIl-XFE-CI.EAlffXN-G- MACHIXTES. Mr. Kent's machine for this purpose 
consists of a box or case, containing a couple of wooden discs, fixed near to each other 
upon a horizontal iron rod or spindle, which passes through the case, and is caused to 
rotate by means of a winch-handle. Each disc is, for about three-fourths of the area 
of its inner face, covered with alternate rows of bristles and strips of leather ; and the 
remaining fourth part is covered with bristles only. The knife-blades to be cleaned 
are introduced through the openings in the case, between the rubbing surfaces of the 
discs ; and rotatory motion being given to the discs by a winch-handle, the knives are 
rapidly cleaned and polished. 

Mr. Masters constructed knife-cleaning machines upon the same plan as the above ; 
but the rubbing-surface of each disc is formed of strips of buff leather, with only a 
narrow circle of bristles around the edge of each surface, to clean the shoulders of the 
knives ; small brushes are fixed beneath the holes in the case, through which the 
blades of the knives are inserted, to prevent the exit of dust from the apparatus. 

Mr. Price has also devised a machine for cleaning knives, and another for cleaning 
forks. The knife-cleaner consists of a horizontal drum, covered with pieces of leather 
or felt, and fixed within another drum or circular framing, lined with leather or felt. 
The knives are introduced through openings, in a moveable circular plate, at the front 
of the outer casing, and enter between the surfaces of the two drums. The plate is 
fixed upon a horizontal axis, which extends through the case, and is furnished at the 
back with a handle ; by turning which the disc is caused to rotate and carry round the 
knives between the surfaces of the drums. The fork -cleaner consists of a box, with a 
long rectangular opening in the side ; behind which two brushes are fixed, face to face. 
Between these brushes the prongs of the forks are introduced, and the handles are 
secured in a carrier, which is made to advance and recede alternately by means of 
a throw-crank, and thereby thrust the prongs into and draw them out of contact with 
the brushes. The carrier consists of two metal plates, the lower one carrying a cushion 
of vulcanised India-rubber for the fork handles to rest upon, and the upper being lined 
with leather ; they are hinged together at one end, and are connected at the other, 
when the handles have been placed between them, by a thumb-screw. 

KXroXiZiS. A mining term in Germany for lead ore separated from the smallep 
parts. 

XirOPPERSr are excrescences produced by the puncture of an insect upon the 
flower-cups of several species of oak. They are compressed or flat, irregularly-pointed, 
generally prickly and hard ; brown when ripe. They abound in Styria, Croatia, 
Sclavonia, and Natolia ; those from the latter country being the best. They contain 
a great deal of tannin, are much employed in Austria for tanning, and in Germany for 
dyeing fawn, grey, and black. See Galls. 

XOFFO-HEMP. The name in the Moluccas for the Manilla hemp, or rather for 
the fibres of the wild plantain of those islands, the Musa textUis. 

XOHX-RABBX. A variety of cabbage {Brassica oleracea), in which the stem 
enlarges into a fleshy excrescence, resembling a turnip. 

XOKA. XVITTS. The bitter seeds of certain species of Stercidia, highly esteemed 
for their medicinal properties by the tribes on the Niger, 

XOrntiXZSS is the name of a liquor which the Kalmucks make by fermenting 
mare's milk, and from which they distil a favourite intoxicating spirit, called rack or 
rocky. 

The milk is kept in bottles made of hide till it becomes sour, is shaken till it casts 
np its cream, and is then set aside in earthen vessels, in a warm place to ferment, no 
yeast being required, though sometimes a little old koumiss is added. 21 lbs. of milk 
put into the still afford 14 oz. of low vrines, from which 6 oz. of pretty strong alcohol, 
of an unpleasant flavour, are obtained by rectification. 

XOVSXE -WOOD. The wood of the New Zealand pine, Bammara Australis, one 
of the most magnificent of the coniferous woods. It is also called cowdie and kaurie 
wood. It is much used for the masts of ships. 

XRAMERXA. A shrub, which is a native of Peru, yielding the well-known 
rhatany root, often used as a dentifrice. 

K&EOSOTE. See Creosote. 

XRYOXiXTE. See Cbtolite. 



26 LAO 

KVKUZ OX£. An oil expressed from the seeds of the Aleurites triloba, or candle- 
nut tree. It is used as an artist's oil. 

KUSS-KUSS. This is the tough fibrous rhizome of an Indian grass. It is woven 
into a fabric called tatty in India ; it has an extensive use in the manufacture of 
awnings, blinds, and sunshades ; these are often sprinkled with water during the hot 
seasons, which, by evaporation, cools the air in the apartment, and at the same time 
imparts an agreeable odour. 

KVAiarXTX:. A stone, which is sometimes blue and transparent. It is then em- 
ployed as a gem; it resembles sapphire. Its chemical composition is, silica, 37"0 ; 
alumina, 63'0. 

XC'VAIl'ZZIII'G. A process for preserving wood, successfully carried out by the 
late Mr. Kyan of New York. A solution of corrosive sublimate is forced into the 
pores of the timber. This chloride of mercury combines with, and coagulates the 
vegetable albumen, and thus renders the wood impervious to air or moisture. 

KVAXrOIi. The old name of aniline. It was applied by Kungo to the base from 
coal-tiir. 

XYROSXTE. A sulphide of copper containing traces of arsenic, from Briccius, 
near Annaberg, in Saxony. 



SbABARBAQVE'S FX^VID. A solution of chloride of soda, occasionally used 
in bleaching. See Chiokide of Limb. 

liABSAXJ'UlVE. A resin found on the leaves of the Cistus Cretious, in Candia. 
It is used in perfumery and for pastiles. 

lABRilDORITZ:, or XiABIlABOR FEXiSPAB, is a beautiful mineral, with 
brilliant changing colours, blue, red, and green, &c. Spec. grav. 2-70 to 2-75. 
Scratches glass ; affords no water by calcination ; fusible at the blowpipe into a 
frothy bead; soluble in muriatic acid; solution affords a copious precipitate with 
oxalate of ammonia. Cleavages of 93^° and 865° ; one of wliich is brilliant and 
pearly. Its constituents are, silica, 5575; alumina, 26*5; lime, 11 ; soda, 4; oxide 
of iron, 1'25; water, 0'6. 

Labradorite receives a fine polish, and the beauty of its chatoyant reflections re- 
commends it as an article of ornament. — H.W.B. 

In addition to the play of iridescent colours exhibited on the brachydiagonal 
cleavage-plane of labradorite, the mineral usually presents an aventurine-like appear- 
ance due to the enclosure of microscopic scales and crystals {microliths). The minute 
structure of labradorite has recently been studied by Schrauf, of Vienna, and other 
microscopists. See Felspae. 

XiABBilDOR TEA. An infusion of the leaves of Ledum palustre and L. lati- 
folium, drunk in parts of North America. 

ZiABtTRITiVIVI. Cytisus Lahirnam. (Arbois commun, Fr. ; Goldregmi, Gcr.) 
The wood of the laburnam-tree is sometimes used in ornamental cabinet-work and 
in marquetry. ' In the laburnam there is this peculiarity, namely, that the me- 
dullary plates, which are large and very distinct, are white, whereas the fibres 
are a dark brown — a circumstance which gives an extraordinary appearance to this 
wood.' — AUcin. 

KABTSIII'TH, in Metallurgy, means a series of canals distributed from the lead 
of a stamping-mill ; through which canals a stream of water is transmitted for sus- 
pending, carrying off, and depositing, at different distances, the ground ores. See 
Dressing of Ores. 

1mA.C. {Laque, Fr. ; Lack, Lackfarben, Ger.) A resinous substance produced 
by the puncture of a peculiar female insect, called Coccus lacca or fens, upon tlie 
branches of several plants ; as the Fktis rdigiosa or the pepel tree, the F. Lidica, the 
EhamnusjuJ2iba, the Croton lacciferum or bihar tree, and the Buteafrnndosa, the Dhak, 
which grow in Siam, Assam, Pegu, Bengal, and Malabar. The twig becomes thereby 
incrusted with a reddish mammillated rosin, having a crystalline-looking fracture. 

The female lac-insect is of the size of a louse ; rod, round, flat, with 12 abdominal 
circles, a bifurcated tail, antennae, and 6 claws, half the length of tlie body. The male 
is twice the above size, and has 4 wings ; there is one of them to 5,000 females. In 
November or December the young V>rood makes its escape from the eggs, lying be- 
neath the dead body of the mother ; they crawl about a little way, and fasten them- 
selves to the bark of the shrubs. About this period tlie branches often swarm to 
such a degree with this vermin, that they seem covered with a rod dust ; in this case, 
they are apt to dry up, by being exhausted of their juices. Many of these insects. 



LAC 27 

however, become the prey of others, or are carried off by the feet of birds, to -which 
they attach themselves, and are transplanted to other trees. They soon produce 
small nipple-like incrustations upon the twigs, their bodies being apparently glued, 
by means of a transparent liquor, which goes on increasing to the end of March, so 
as to form a cellular texture. At this time the animal resembles a small oval bag, 
without life, of the size of cochineal. At the commencement, a beautiful red liquor 
only is perceived, afterwards eggs make their appearance ; and in October or Novem- 
ber, when the red liquor gets exhaiistcd, twenty or thirty young ones bore a hole 
through the back of their mother, and come forth. The empty colls remain upon the 
branches. These are composed of the milky juice of the plant, which serves as nourish- 
ment to the insects, and which is afterwards transformed or elaborated into the red 
colouring matter that is found mixed with the resin, but in greater quantity in the 
bodies of the insects, in their eggs, and still more copiously in the red liquor secreted 
for feeding the young. After the brood escapes, the cells contain much less colouring 
matter. On this account, the branches should be broken off before this happens, and 
dried in the sun. In the East Indies this operation is performed twice in the year ; 
the first time in March, the second in October. The twigs encrusted with the radiated 
cellular substance constitute the stick-lac of commerce. It is of a red colour more or 
less deep, nearly transparent, and hard, with a brilliant conchoidal fracture. The 
stick-lac of Siam is the best ; it often forms an incrustation fully one quarter of an 
inch thick all round the twig. The stick -lac of Assam ranks next ; and, last, that of 
Bengal, in which the resinous coat is scanty, thin, and irregular. There are three 
kinds of lac in commerce : stick-lac, which is ttie substance in its natural state, sced- 
lac, and shell-lac. According to the analysis of Dr. John, stick-lac consists of- 

An odorous common resin . 80"00 

A resin insoluble in ether 20"00 

Colouring matter analogous to that of cochineal . . . 4*50 

Bitter balsamic matter ....... 3"00 

Dun yellow extract . 0'60 

Acid of the stick-lac (laccic acid) . : . . . 0-75 

' Fatty matter, like wax . 3'00 

Skins of the insects, and colouring matter .... 2-50 

Salts 1-26 

Earths 075 

Loss 4*75 



120-00 



According to Franke, the constituents of stick-lac, are, resin, 65*7 ; substance of 
the lac, 28'3 ; colouring matter 06. 

Seed-lac. — "When the resinous concretion is taken off the twigs, coarsely pounded, 
and tritm:ated with water in a mortar, the greater part of the colouring matter is dis- 
solved, and the granular portion which remains being dried in the sun, constitutes 
secd-lao. It contains of course less colouring matter than the stick-lac, and is much 
less soluble. Mr. Hatchett's analysis of seed-lac was as follows : — 

Eesin . . 68 . 

Colouring matter 10 

Wax . . 7 

Gluten. . 5'5 

Foreign bodies 6*5 

Loss 4 

100 

John found in 100 parts of it, resin, 667 ; wax, 17 ; matter of the lac, 167 ; bitter 
balsamic matter, 2-5 ; colouring matter, 3-9 ; dun yellow extract, 0-4 ; envelopes of 
insects, 2-1 ; laccic acid, 0-0; salts of potash and lime, 1-0; earths, 6-6; loss, 4-2. 

Shell-lac. — In India the seed-lac is put into oblong bags of cotton cloth, which are 
held over a charcoal fire by a man at each end, as soon as it begins to melt, the 
bag is twisted so as to strain the liquefied resin through its substance, and, to make 
it drop upon smooth stems of the banyan-tree {Musa paradisa). In tliis way, the 
resin spreads into thin plates, and constitutes the substance known in commerce by 
the name of shell-lac. 

The Pegu stick-lac, being very dark coloured, ftirnishes a shell-lac of a correspond- 



28 LAC-DTE 

ing deep hue, and therefore of inferior value. The palest and finest shell -lac is brought 
from the northern drear. It contains very little colouring matter. A stick-lac of an 
intermediate kind comes from the Mysore country, which yields a brilliant lac-dyo 
and a good shell-lac. 

Shell-lac, by Mr. Hatchett's analysis, consists of resin, 90'5 ; colouring matter, 0*6 ; 
wax, 40; gluten, 2-8; loss, 1-8; in 100 parts. 

The resin may be obtained pure by treating shell-lac with cold alcohol, and filtering 
the solution in order to separate a yellow grey pulverulent matter. "When the alco- 
liol is again distilled off, a brown, translucent, hard, and brittle resin, of specific gravity 
1"139, remains. It melts into a viscid mass with heat, and diffuses an aromatic 
odour. Anhydrous alcohol dissolves it in all proportions. According to John, it con- 
sists of two resins, one of which dissolves readily in alcohol, ether, the volatile and 
fat oils ; while the other is little soluble in cold alcohol, and is insoluble in ether and 
the volatile oils. Unverdorben, however, has detected no less than four different 
resins, and some other substances in shell-lac. Shell-lac dissolves with ease in dilute 
muriatic and acetic acids, but not in concentrated sulphuric acid. The resin of shell- 
lac has a great tendency to combine with salifiable bases ; as with caustic potash, which 
it deprives of its alkaline taste. 

This solution, which is of a dark red colour, dries into a brilliant, transparent red- 
dish brown mass ; which may be re-dissolved in both water and alcohol. Bypassing 
chlorine in excess through the dark-coloured alkaline solution, the lac-resin is precipi- 
tated in a colourless state. When this precipitate is washed and dried, it forms, with 
alcohol, an excellent pale-yellow varnish, especially with the addition of a little tur- 
pentine and mastic. 

With the aid of heat, shell-lac dissolves readily in a solution of borax. 

The substances which Unverdorben found in shell-lac are the following :— 

1. A resin, soluble in alcohol and ether; 

2. A resin, soluble in alcohol, insoluble in ether ; 

3. A resinous body, little soluble in cold alcohol ; 

4. A crystallisable resin ; 

6. A resin, soluble in alcohol and ether, but insoluble in petrolemn, and uncrys- 
tallisable. 

6. The unsaponified fat of the coccus insect, as well as oleic and mai^nc acids. 

7. Wax. 

8. The laccine of Dr. John. 

9. An extractive colouring matter. 

Shell-lac is largely used in the manufacture of sealing-wax and varnishes, and for 
japanning. 

XiAC-DTE, Lac-Lake, or CaTce-lac, is the watery infusion of the ground stick -lac, 
evaporated to dryness, and formed into cakes about two inches square and half an 
inch thick. Dr. John found it to consist of colouring matter, 60 ; resin, 25 ; and 
solid matter, composed of alumina, plaster, chalk, and sand, 22. 

Dr. Macleod, of Madras, states that he prepared a very superior lac-dye from 
stick-lac, by digesting it in the cold in a slightly alkaline decoction of the dried leaves 
of the Menecylon tinctorium (perhaps the M. capitellatum, from which the natives of 
Malabar and Ceylon obtain a saffron-yellow dye). This solution being used along 
with a mordant consisting of a saturated solution of tin in muriatic acid, was found 
to dye woollen cloth of a very brilliant scarlet hue. 

The cakes ot lac-dye imported from India, stamped with peculiar marks to designate 
their different manufacturers {tlie best DT, the second JMcE, the third CE), are now 
employed in England for dyeing scarlet cloth, and are found to yield an equally bril- 
liant colour, and one less easily affected by perspiration than that produced by 
cochineal. When the lac-dye was first introduced, sulphuric acid was the solvent 
applied to the pulverised cakes, but as muriatic (hydrochloric) acid has been found 
to answer, it has to a great extent supplanted it. A good solvent (No. 1) for this 
dye-stuff may be prepared by dissolving .3 pounds of tin in 60 pounds of muriatic acid, 
of specific gravity ri9. The proper mordant for the cloth is made by mixing 27 
pounds of miiriatic acid of sp. gr. 1-17, with 1 J pound of nitric acid of 1-19 ; putting 
this mixture into a salt-glazed stone bottle, and adding to it, in small bits at a time, 
grain tin, till 4 pounds be dissolved. This solution (No. 2) may be used within 
twelve hours after it is made, provided it has become cold and clear. For dyeing ; 
three quarters of a pint of the solvent No. 1 is to be poured upon each pound of the 
pulverised lac-dye, and allowed to digest upon it for six hours. The cloth before 
being subjected to the dye-bath, must be scoured in the mill with fuller's earth. To 
dye 100 pounds of pelisse cloth, a tin boiler of 300 gallons capacity should be filled 
nearly brimful of water, and a fire kindled under it. Whenever the temperature 




LACE MANUFACTURE 29 

rises to 150° Fahr., a handful of bran, and half a pint of the solution of tin (No. 2) 
are to be introduced. The froth, which rises as it approaches ebullition, must be 
skimmed off; and when the liquor boils, 1 0^ pounds of lac-dye, previously mixed with 
7 pints of the solTent No. 1, and 3^ pounds of solution of tin No. 2, must be poured 
in. An instant afterwards, 10^ pounds of tartar, and 4 pounds of ground sumach, 
both tied up in a linen bag, are to be suspended in the boiling-bath for five minutes. 
The fire being now withdrawn, 20 gallons of cold water, with 1 OJ pints of solution of 
tin being poured into the bath, the cloth is to bo immersed in it, moved about rapidly 
during ten minutes ; the fire is to be then re-kindled, and the cloth winced more 
slowly through the bath, which must be made to boil as quickly as possible, and 
maintained at that pitch for an hour. The cloth is to be next washed in the river ; 
and lastly with water only, in the fulling-mill. The above proportions of the ingre- 
dients produce a brilliant scarlet tint, with a slightly purple cast. If a more orange 
hue be wanted, white Florence argal may be used, instead of tartar, and some more 
sumach. Lac-dye may be substituted for cochineal in the orange-scarlets. 

To determine the tinctorial power of lac-dye by comparison with proved samples, a 
dye-bath is prepared as follows : — 5 grains of argal, 20 grains of flannel or white cloth, 
6 grains of lac-dye, 5 grains of chloride of tin, 1 quart of water. Heat the water to 
the boiling point in a tin or china vessel ; add thereto the argal, and then the piece of 
cloth or flannel. Weigh off 5 grains of the lac-dye and pulverise it in a Wedgwood 
mortar, with the 5 grains by measure of chloride of tin, and pour the whole into the 
hot liquor containing the cloth, taking care to rinse the mortar with a little of the 
hot liquor ; keep the whole boiling for about half an hour, stirring the cloth or 
flannel about with a glass rod ; then withdraw the cloth, wash and dry it for com- 
parison. 

DbACCIC ACIB crystallises, has a wine-yellow colour, a sour taste, is soluble in 
water, alcohol, and ether. It was extracted from stick-lac by Dr. John. 

ItACCmrE is the portion of shell-lac which is insoluble in boiling alcohol. It is 
brown, brittle, translucid, consisting of agglomerated pellicles, more like a resin than 
anything else. It is insoluble in ether and oils. It has not been applied to any use. 

KACE BARK. The reticulated bark of the Lagetta lintearia. This splits into 
fibres, which resemble lace. Lagetta cloth has been imported into this country under 
the name oi guana. The fibres of the lagetta bark possess great strength, and have 
been used in the West Indies for making ropes, whips, &c. 

]bACE nXAKTTrFACTTrBE. The pillow-made, or bone-lace, which formerly gave 
occupation to multitudes of women in their own houses, has, in the progress of me- 
chanical invention, been nearly superseded by the bobbin-net lace, manufactured at 
first by hand-machines, but recently by the power of water or steam. Bobbin-net 
may be said to surpass every other branch of human industry in the complex ingenuity 
of its machinery ; one of Fisher's spotting frames being as much beyond the most 
curious chronometer in multiplicity of mechanical device, as that is beyond a common 
roasting-jack. — Ure. 

The threads in bobbin-net lace form, by their intertwisting and decussation, regular 
hexagonal holes or meshes, of which the two opposite sides, the upper and under, are 

1303 1304 




directed along the breadth of the piece, or at right angles to the salvage or border. 
Fig. 1303 shows how, by the crossing and twisting of the threads, the regular six-sided 



30 



LACE MANUFACTURE 



mesh is produced, and that the texture results from the union of three separate sets of 
threads, of which one set proceeds downwards in serpentine lines, a second set pro- 
ceeds from the left to tlie right, and a third from the right to the left, both in slanting 
directions. The oblique threads twist themselves round the vertical ones, and also 
cross each other betwixt them, in a peculiar manner. This may be readily understood 
by examining the representation. In comparing bobbin-net with common web, the 
perpendicular threads in the figure, wliich are parallel to the border, may be regarded 
as the warp, and the two sets of slanting threads as the weft. 

These warp threads are extended up and down, in the original mounting of the 
piece between a top and bottom horizontal roller or beam, of which one is called the 
warp beam, and the other the lace beam, because the warp and finished lace are wound 
upon them respectively. These straight warp threads receive their contortion from 
the tension of the weft threads twisted obliquely round them alternately to the right 
and the left hand. Were the warp threads so tightly drawn that they became in- 
flexible, like fiddle-strings, then the lace would assume the appearance shown in 
fig. 1304; and although this condition does not really exist, it may serve to illustrate 
the structure of the web. The warp threads stand in the positions a a, a' a', and 
a" a" ; the one half of the weft proceeds in the direction b b, b' b', and b" b" ; and the 
second crosses the first by running in the direction c c, or c' c', towards the opposite 
side of the fabric. If we pursue the path of a weft thread, we find it goes on till it 
reaches the outermost or last warp thread, which it twists about ; not once as with the 
others, but twice ; and then returning towards the other border, proceeds in a reverse 
direction. It is from this double twist, and by the return of the weft tlireads, that the 
selvage is made. 

The ordinary material of bobbin-net is two cotton yarns, of from No. 180 to No. 250, 
twisted into one thread ; but sometimes strongly twisted single yarn has been used. 
The beauty of the fabric depends upon the quality of the material, as well as the 
regularity and smallness of the meshes. The number of warp threads in a yard in 
breadth is from 600 to 900 ; which is equivalent to from 20 to 30 in an inch. The 
size of the holes cannot be exactly inferred from that circumstance, as it depends partly 
upon the oblique traction of the threads. The breadth of the pieces of bobbin-net 
varies from edgings of a quarter of an inch to webs 12 or even 20 quarters, that is, 
2 yards -wide. 

Bobbin-net lace is manufactured by means of very complicated and costly machines, 
Cdlleil frames. The limits of this Dictionary will admit of an explanation of no more 
than the general principles of the manufacture. The threads for crossing and twisting 
round the warp being previously gassed, that is, freed from loose fibres by singeing 
with gas, arc wound round small pulleys, called bobbins, which are, with this view, 
deeply grooved in their periphery. Fi</s. 1305, 1306, exhibit the bobbin alone, and 
witli its carriage. 

In the section of the bobbin a, fig. 1305, the deep groove is shown in which the 
thread is wound. The bobbin consists of two thin discs of brass, cut out in a stamp- 
press, in the middle of each of which there is a hollow space c. These discs are 
riveted together, leaving an interval between their edge all round, in which the thread 
is coiled. The round hole in the centre, with the little notch at top, serves for spitting 



1306 



1305 





them upon a feathered rod, in order to be filled with thread by the rotation of that 
rod in a species of reel, called the bobbin-filling machine. Each of these bobbins 
(about double the size of the figure) is inserted into the vacant space g of the car- 
riage, /^. 1306. This is a small iron frame (also double the size of the figure), which, 
at e e, embraces the grooved border of the bobbin, and by the pressure of the spring 
at/, prevents it from falling out. This spring serves likewise to apply sufficient 
friction to the bobbin, so as to prevent it from giving off its thread at g by its rotation, 




LACE MANUFACTURE 



SI 



unless a certain small force of traction be employed upon the thread. The curvilinear 
groove k h, sunk in each face or side of the carriage, has the depth shown in the 

section at k. The grooA'e corre- 

sponds to the inten^al between the 
teeth of tlie comb, or bars of the . 
bolt, in which each carriage is 
j)laced, and has its movement. A 
portion of that bolt or comb' is 
shown at a, Jiff. 1307 in plan, and 
one bar of a circular bolt machine 
at 0, in section. If we suppose two 
such combs or bolts placed with 
the ends of the teeth opposite each 
other, but a little apart, to let the 
warp threads be stretched, in one 
vertical plane, between their ends 
or tips, we shall have an idea of 
the skeleton of a bobbin-net ma- 
chine. One of these two combs, in 
the double bolt machine, has ail 
occasional lateral movement called 
shogging, equal to the interval of 
one tooth or bolt, by which, after it 
has received the bobbins, with their carriages, into its teeth, it can shift that inters^al 
to the one side, and thereby get into a position to return the bobbins, with their 
carriages, into the next series of interstices or gates in the other bolt. By this means 
the whole series of carriages receives successive side steps to the right in one bolt, and 
to the left in the other, so as to perform a species of counter- march, in the course of 
which they are made to cross and twist round about the vertical warp threads, and 
thus to form the meshes of the net. 

The number of movements required to form a row of meshes in the double tier 
machine, that is, in a frame with two combs or bars, and two rows of bobbins, is six; 
that is, the whole of the carriages (with their bobbins) pass from one bar or comb to 
the other six times, during which passages the different divisions of bobbing and warp 
threads change their relative positions twelve times. 

This interchange or traversing of the carriages with their bobbins, which is the 
most difficult thing to explain, but at the same time the most essential principle of the 
lace-machine, may be tolerably well understood by a careful study of /^. 1.308, in which 
the simple line 1 represents the bolts or teeth, the sign ^ the black line of carriages, and 




1308 
5 



(iHdiiSM M, 



fl!Ti 




UiUJ 



the sign (p the front line of carriages, h is the front comb or bolt bar, and i the back 
bolt bar. The former remains always fixed or stationary, to receive the carriages as 
they may be presented to it by the shogging of the latter. There must be always one 
odd carriage at the end ; the rest being in pairs. 

No. 1 represents the carriages in the front comb or bar, the odd carriage being at 
the left end. The black line of carriages is first moved on to the back bar i, the odd 
carriage as seen in No, 1, having been left behind, their being no carriage opposite to 
drive it over to the other comb or bar. The carriages then stand as in No, 2. The 
bar I now shifts to the left, as shown in No. 3 ; the front carriages then go over into 
the back bar or comb, as is represented by No. 4. The bar i now shifts to the right, 
and gives the position No. 5. The front carriages are then driven over to the front bar, 
and leave the odd carriage on the back bar at the riglit end, for the same reason as 
before described, and the carriages stand as shown in No. 6. The bar i next shifts to 
the left, and the carriages stand as in No. 7 (the odd carriage being thereby on the back 
bar to the left). The back carriages now come over to the front bar, and sfcmd as in 
No. 8. The back bar or comb i shifts to the right as seen in No. 9, which' com- 



82 LACQUER 

pletes the traverse. The whole carriages \rith their bobbins have now changed their 
position, as -will be seen by comparing No. 9 with No. 1, The odd carriage, No. 1, 
<p has advanced one step to the right, and has become one of the front tier ; one of 
the back tier or line <t> has advanced one step to the left, and has become the odd 
carriage ; and one of the front ones ^ has gone over to the back line. The bobbins 
and carriages throughout the whole width of the machine have thus crossed each other's 
course, and completed the mesh of net. 

The carriages with their bobbins are driven a certain way from the one comb to the 
other, by the pressure of two long bjirs (one for each) placed above the level of the 
comb, until they come into such a position that their projecting heels or catches t i. 
Jiff. 1306, are moved off by two other long flat bars below, called the locker plates, and 
thereby carried completely over the interval between the two combs. 

There are six different systems of bobbin-net machines : — 1. Heathcoate's patent 
machine. 2. Brown's traverse warp. 3. Morley's straight bolt. 4. Clarke's pusher 
principle, single tier. 6. Leaver's machine, single tier. 6. Morley's circular bolt. All 
the others are mere variations in the construction of some of their parts. It is a 
remarkable fact, highly honourable to the mechanical judgment of the late Mr. Morley 
of Derby, that no machines except those upon his circular-bolt principle have been 
found capable of working successfully by mechanical power. 

The circular-bolt machine (comb with curved teeth) was used by Mr. Morley for 
making narrow breadths or edgings of lace immediately after its first invention ; and 
it has been regularly used by the trade for that purpose ever since, in consequence of 
the inventor having declined to secure the monopoly of it to himself by patent. At 
that time the locker bars for driving across the carriages had only one plate or blade. 
A machine so mounted is now called ' the single-locker circular bolt.' In the year 
1824, Mr. Morley added another plate to each of the locker bars, which was a great 
improvement on the machine for making plain net, but an obstruction to the making 
of narrow breadths upon them. This machine is now distinguished from the former 
by the term ' double locker.' 

A rack of lace is a certain length of work counted perpendicularly, and contains 
242 meshes or holes. Well-made lace has the meshes a little elongated in the direc- 
tion of the selvage. 

Mr. Heathcoate's machine, invented in 1809, was the first successful lace-making 
machine. 

Mr. Morley patented his in 1811 ; and in the same year Messrs. Marl and Clarke 
invented the pusher machine, and Messrs. Leaver and Turton, of New Eadford, brought 
forward the lever machine. In 1817, Mr. Heathcoate applied the rotatory movement 
to the circular-bolt machine, and mounted a manufactory at Tiverton on this plan, 
where the lace manufacture is still carried on extensively. 

XiACQirER is a varnish, consisting chiefly of a solution of pale shell-lac in alcohol, 
tinged with saffron, annotto, or other colouring matters. ' That commonly employed 
is made by dissolving shell-lac in proof spirit, and colouring with the resinous substance 
called dragoris blood. The lacquer heightens the colour of brass, or renders it more 
golden in tint. Lacquer may be pale or deep in tint, when it is known as pale or 
bronze lacquer, or it may be variously coloured. A transparent colourless lacquer 
is a desideratum for German silver. A substance called bleached shell-lac is sold, 
and I believe used for very pale lacquer. The lacquer is warmed and brushed over 
the articles, which have been also previously warmed on stoves. If the temperature 
is too cold, a dulness of surface is produced, which is not removed by re-heating. 
The surface of brass is frequently coloured or bromed after ' dipping,' and before 
lacquering. A dark grey coating is produced by dipping the article in a solution of 
arsenious acid in hydrochloric acid, by applying a dilute aqueous solution of bi- 
chloride of platinum, by applying an aqueous solution of corrosive sublimate mixed 
with vinegar, or by rubbing plumbago over the surface. By the application of 
lacquer to the surface of brass, which has received a dark grey coating by any of 
these processes, a bronze-like tint is produced, due to the light reflected, through the 
coloured stratum of varnish produced by lacquering, from the bright surface under- 
neath. Precisely the same effect may be obtained by rubbing plumbago over a piece 
of writing-paper, and then lacquering the surface, as in the case of brass. For 
common work, the corrosive sublimate method is extensively used ; it is said to cause 
trouble when it comes in contact with softer solder, with which the reduced mercury 
amalgamates. The platinum process is used for instruments, such as theodolites, 
levels, &c. ; and in these the bronze is much blacker, as pale is employed instead of 
yellow lacquer. These methods I know are employed, and probably there may be 
many others. The beautiful colours of brass foils are communicated by variously- 
coloured lacquers. The coating of resinous matter adheres with remarkable tenacitj^, 
and is not detached by bend'jog the foil backwards and forwards repeatedly. The 



LACTOMETER 33 

manufacture of these foils is, I believe, quite an art, and formerly there was only one 
person in Birmingham who knew how to practise it successfully.' — Perci/s Metallurgy. 

IbACTIC ^CIS, C'^H'^O'^ (C«H»2o«). Syn. Nanceic acid. {Adde lactique, Fr. ; 
Milchsaure, Ger.) Discovered by Scheele in sour milk. Subsequently, M. Braconnot 
examined the sour liquid which floats above starch during its manufacture, also the 
acidified decoctions of various vegetables, including beet-root, carrots, peas, &c., and 
found an acid which he considered to be peculiar, and consequently named the nanceic. 
The acid formed under all these circumstances turns out to be the same ; it is, in fact, 
lactic acid, which modern researches show to be a constant product of the fermentation 
of sugar, starch, and bodies of that class. The acidity of sauerkraut is due to the 
presence of the same substance. Liebig extended and confirmed the experiments made 
many years ago by Berzelius, on the presence of lactic acid in the juice of flesh, but 
he denied its existence in urine, as asserted by MM. Cap and Henry, and others. 

Preparation. — Lactic acid can be prepared easily in any quantity by the fermenta- 
tion of sugar. Care must be taken, however, that the process does not go too far, 
because lactic acid undergoes with facility another decomposition, by which it becomes 
converted into butyric acid. The following process of M. Bensch for the preparation 
of lactate of lime can be recommended by the author of this article as yielding at a 
small trouble and expense a very large quantity of product. In fact, he has prepared 
with facility upwards of 3 pints of butyric acid from lactate of lime obtained in this 
manner. Dissolve 6 lbs. of lump-sugar, and ^ oz. of tartaric acid in 2J gallons of 
boiling water. Leave for a day or two, and then add 2 oz. of rotten cheese, and a 
gallon of skimmed milk stirred up with 3 lbs. of well-washed prepared chalk. The 
temperature should not fall below 86° F. nor rise above 95°. The water lost by 
evaporation must be made up by adding a little every few days. After a time, vary- 
ing from 10 days to a month, according to the temperature and other circumstances, 
the whole becomes a magma of acetate of lime. Two gallons of boiling water must 
then be added, and ^ oz. of quicklime, and the whole, after being boiled for half an 
hour, is to be filtered through a linen or flannel bag. The filtered liquid is to be 
evaporated until it begins to get somewhat syrupy, the fluid in this state being put 
aside to allow the salt to crystallise. The crystals, after being slightly washed with 
cold water, are to be recrystallised two or three times. To obtain lactic acid from the 
lactate of lime, it is necessary, in the first place, to convert the latter salt into that of 
zinc. For this purpose a crude lactic acid is first obtained thus : to every 2 lbs. 3 oz. 
of lactate of lime dissolved in twice its weight of boiling water, 7 oz. of oil of vitriol 
previously diluted with twice its volume of water are to be added. The boiling fluid 
is to be strained through a linen bag to remove the precipitate of gypsum, and the 
filtered liquid is to be boiled for 15 minutes with 85 oz. of carbonate of zinc. The 
boiling must not be continued longer, or a subsalt of sparing solubility would be pro- 
duced. The liquid, which is to be filtered boiling, will deposit on cooling the lactate 
of zinc in colourless crystals, which are to be washed with a little cold water, and after 
being drained are to be dried by exposure to the air on frames covered with filtering 
paper. The mother-liquid will yield a fresh quantity of lactate if it be boiled with 
the salt remaining on the filter and evaporated. 

From the lactate of zinc the acid is to be separated by passing sulphuretted 
hydrogen through the solution of the salt in eight times its weight of boiling water. 
The gas is to be expelled by heat, and the fluid on evaporation yields pure syrupy 
lactic acid. 

Lactic acid is a colourless syrupy liquid of a powerful pure acid taste. Its specific 
gravity is 1-215. It is bibasic. 

The most important salts of lactic acid are those of zinc and lime. The former salt 
is that generally formed in examining animal or vegetable fluids with a \-iew to the 
isolation of the acid. It is found with two different quantities of water according to 
the circumstances under which it is prepared, and it is worthy of remark that the 
amount of water of crystallisation remarkably affects the solubility of the salt in water 
and alcohol. 

All the butyric acid employed for the preparation of butyric ether, or pine-apple 
essence, is now prepared by the fermentation of lactate of lime. — C.G.W. 

IiACTOnXETER is the name of an instrument for estimating the quality of 
milk, called also a Galactometer. The most convenient form of apparatus would be 
a series of glass tubes each about 1 inch in diameter, and 12 inches long, graduated 
through a space of 10 inches, to tenths of an inch, having a stopcock at the bottom, 
and suspended upright in a frame. The average milk of the cow being poured in to tJie 
height of 10 inches, as soon as the cream has all separated at top, the thickness of its 
body may be measured by the scale ; and then the skim-milk may be run off" below 
into a hydrometer glass, in order to determine its density or relative richness in caseous 
matter, and dilution with water. 

Vol. IIL D 



U LAMING'S MIXTURE 

XACtrSTRZIO'E FOAMATZOW, a geologkal term. Belonging to a lake. 

ItAHATSMVl, A fragrant gxim-resin obtained from several species of Cistu?, as 
C. ladaniferus and C. Ledon. It is used in Turkey as a perfume. 

ItAXStAXt GOODS. See Jktsaji. 

XiASES. Under this general title are included all those pigment* which are pre- 
pared by combining vegetable or animal colouring matter with earths or metallic oxides. 
The general method of preparation is to make an infusion of the substance, and to add 
thereto a solution of common alum ; or sometimes, when it has been necessary to 
extract the colouring matter by the agency of an acid, a solution of alum saturated 
with potash. At first, a slight precipitate falls, consisting of alumina and the colouring 
matter; but if some alkali is added, the precipitate is increased. Some colour- 
ing matters are brightened by alkalis; then the decoction of the dye-stuff is made 
in an alkaline liquor, and being filtered, a solution of alum is poured into it. Where 
the affinity of the colouring matter for the subsulphate of alumina is great, alumina 
recently precipitated is agitated with the decoction of the colouring body. The manu- 
facture of lakes depends on the remarkable property possessed by alumina, of com- 
bining with, and separating the organic colouring matters from their solutions. 

Red Lakes. — The finest of these is Caemine, which, as carminated lakes, called 
lake of Florence, Paris, or Vienna, is usually prepared by taking the liquor de- 
canted from the carmine, and adding freshly-precipitated alumina to it. The mixture 
is warmed a little, briskly agitated, and allowed to settle. Sometimes alum is dissolved 
in the decoction of cochineal, and then the alumina ptecipitated by potash ; but the 
colour is not good when lakes are thus prepared, and to improve it the dyer's solution 
of tin is often added. A red lake may be prepared from kermes in a similar manner. 

Brazil -wood yields a red lake. The wood is boiled in a proper quantity of water 
for 15 minutes, and then alum and solution of tin being added, the liquor is to be 
filtered, and solution of potash poured in as long as it occasions a precipitate. This 
is separated by a filter, the powder well washed, and being mixed with a little gum- 
water, made into cakes. Sometimes the Brazil-wood is boiled with vinegar, instead of 
water. An excess of potash produces a lake of a violet colour, and cream of tartar 
gives it a brownish hue. 

Madder is much used in the preparation of lakes. 

The following process is recommended : — 

Difiuse 2 lbs. of ground madder in 4 quarts of water, and after a maceration of 10 
minutes strain and squeeze the grounds in a press. Repeat this maceration, &c., 
twice upon the same portion of madder. It will now have a fine rose colour. It 
must then be mixed with 5 or 6 lbs. of water and \ lb. of bruised alum, and he.ated 
upon a water-bath for 3 or 4 hours, with the addition of water, as it evaporates ; after 
which the whole must be thrown on a filter-cloth. The liquor wliich passes through 
is then to bo filtered through paper, and precipitated by carbonate of potash. If 
potash be added in three successive doses, three different lakes wiU be obtained of 
diminishing beauty. The precipitates must be washed until the water comes off 
colourless, then with gum-water made into cakes. 

Yellow Lakes are made with decoctions of Persian or French berries, to which some 
potash or soda is added ; into the mixture a solution of alum is to be poured so long 
as any precipitate falls. Quercitron will yield a yellow lake, provided the decoction 
is purified by either butter-milk or glue. Annotto lake is formed by dissolving this 
substance in a weak alkaline lye, and adding a solution of alum to the solution. 

Lakes of other colours can be prepared in a similar manner ; but true lakes of other 
coloiirs are not usu.ally manufactured. 

KAlKEIsrABIiS is said of a metal which may be extended by passing between 
steel or hardened (chilled) cast-iron rollers. 

In the manufacture of rail and bar iron, laminated iron is rolled together at a 
welding heat, until the required bar or rail is formei (see Rails). This is, even 
under the best possible circumstances, a defective manufacture. The union of the 
bars is never absolutely complete, and the result of the long-continued action of 
trains of carriages upon all rails is the development of the laminated plates, which 
frequently ^erf off, layer after layer, to the destruction of the rail, and to the great 
danger of the traveller. Railway iron should be rolled into form from perfectly 
homogeneous masses of metal. This lamination of iron rails has been laid hold of 
by those who advocate the hypothesis that the slate rocks owe their lamination to 
mechanical pressure, whereas it is evidently the result of an imperfect manxifacture. 
See Rolling Mills. 

XiAnxno'C'S MXXTXTRE. a mixture of porous hydrous peroxide of iron with 
sawdust, used for absorbing sulphuretted hydrogen in the purification of coal-gas. 
The sulphur accumulated in this mixture may be recovered by calcination, or by 
means of steam. 



LAMPS 86 

£ AMtXITM A.J,BXmt, or the dead nettle, is said by Leucus to afford &om its leaves 
a greenish-yello-w dye. The L, purpureum dyes a reddish-grey with salt of tin, and 
a greenish tint with iron-liquor. 

XAMP-BXrACa:. Every person knows that when the combustion of oil in a lamp 
is imperfect it pours forth a dense volume of black soot. According to the quantity 
of carbon contained in the material employed, so is the illuminating power of the 
flame produced by combustion. If, therefore, we have a very brilliant flame, and we 
subject it to any conditions which shall impede the progress of the combination of the 
carbon with the oxygen of the air, the result is at once the formation of solid carbon, 
or lamp-black. This is exhibited in a remarkable and often an annoying manner by 
the camphine lamp. If oil of turpentine, resin, pitch-oil, or fat-oil, be burnt in lamps 
under a hood, with either a rapid draught or an insufficient supply of air, the lamp- 
black collects on the hood, and is occasionally removed. Sometimes a metallic roller, 
generally of tin, is made to revolve in the flame, and rub against a brush. By the 
cooling influence of the metal, the heat of the flame is diminished, the combustion 
retarded, and the carbon deposited, and in the revolution of the cylinder swept off. 
Camphor burning forms a very beautiful black, which is sometimes used as a 
pigment. 

The common varieties of lamp-black are made from all sorts of refuse resinous 
matters, and from the rejected fragments of pine-trees, &c. In Germany, a long flue 
is constructed in connection with the furnace in which the resinous substances are 
burnt, and this flue communicates with a hood, composed of a loose woollen cloth, held 
up by a rope passing over a pulley. Upon this the soot collects, and is from time to 
time shaken down. In the best-conducted manufactories about 3 cwts. of lamp-black 
is collected in each hood in about twelve hours. In England, lamp-black is sometimes 
prepared from the refuse coking coal, or it is obtained in connection with coke-ovens. 
The lamp-black, however, obtained from the combustion of coal or woody matter is 
never pure. See Animal Black ; Bons Black ; Ivoey Black. 

I^AIVXP, BAVV. See Safety Lamp. 

XiAMPS. Under Illtjminatiok, will be found some notices of several kinds of 
lamps, with especial reference to the quantity of light produced by them. 

Lamps are very varied in form, and equally varied in the principles involved. A 
brief description, however, of a few of the modern varieties is necessary. 

The Moderator iamp.— The spiral spring has been introduced into the moderator 
lamps, for the purpose of forcing the oil up the wick of the lamp. This will be under- 
stood by the following description and drawings : — The distinguishing character of 
the moderator lamp is the direct transmission of the power, in the reservoir of oil, 
to the resistance offered by the weight of the column of oil, as it rises to the cotton ; — 
and secondly, the introduction of a rectangular regulator, which equilibrates constantly 
by the resistance of the oil and the force applied to raise it. In the reservoir (^^. 
iy09), is a spiral spring which presses on the disc or piston, ^^. 1310, which is fur- 
nished with a valve opening downwards. This spring is attached to a tooth-rack, 
worked by a pinion wheel, by means of which it is wound up. The mechanical 
force of the spring is equal to from 15 to 20 pounds ; and as this force is exerted upon 
the disc, floating on the oil, this is forced up through the tube, and it overflows to 
the argand burner, thoroughly saturating the cotton, and supplying a constant stream 
of oil. This oil falls back into the reservoir, and is, of course, above the disc. When 
the spring has run down, it is again wound up; and then the valve opening downward 
allows the oil to flow back beneath the disc, to be again forced up through the tube. 
As the pressure employed is so great, the oil would, but for the ' moderator,' flow over 
with too much rapidity. This moderator, or regulator, is a tapering rod of iron-wire, 
which is placed in the ascending tube ; and, as the pressure increases, it is forced more 
into it, and checks the flow of oil ; whereas as it diminishes it falls, and being tapering, 
allows more oil to rise. Several ingenious adjustments are introduced into these 
lamps, as manufactured by the Messrs. Tylor of Warwick Lane, with which we need 
not at present deal. The cylinders containing the oil are covered with cases in metal 
or sometimes of porcelain. Two drawings of these are shown (^. 1311 and/^. 1312). 
These lamps admit evidently of yet more elegant forms than have been given them. 
The urn-shaped, from the antique, in very pure taste, is the last introduction of the 
house above named. 

It would be tedious to enumerate the various modifications of form and action to 
which the oil lamp has been subject, previous to its arrival at what maybe deemed its 
perfect construction by Argand. The discovery of the mode of applying a new 
principle by this individual not only produced an entire revolution in the manufacture 
of the article, but threatened with ruin all those whom the patent excluded from 
participation in the new trade ; so much so indeed, that Argand, who had not been 
apprenticed to the business, was publicly persecuted by the tinners, locksmiths, and 

d2 



86 



LAMPS 



ironmongers, •who disputed his right by any improrements to infringe the profits of 
tVioir />Vin>hArfirl ■pn<»atinT>. • This invention,' to quote a description of the lamp pub- 



their chartered vocation 
1309 



1311 



1312 






lished some years ago, * embraces so many improvements upon the common lamp, and 
has become so general throughout Europe, that it may be justly ranked amongst the 
greatest discoveries of the age. As a substitute for the candle, it has the advantage 
of great economy and convenience, with much greater brilliancy; and for the purpose 
of producing heat, it is an important instrument in the hands of the chemist. We 
may, with some propriety,' continues this authority, ' compare the common lamp and 
the candle to fire made in the open air, without any forced method of supplying it 
with oxygen ; while the Argand lamp may be compared to a fire in a furnace, in 
which a rapid supply of oxygen is furnished by the velocity of the ascending current. 
This, however, is not the only advantage of this valuable invention. It is obvious 
that, if the combustible vapour occupies a considerable area, the oxygen of the atmo- 
sphere cannot combine with the vapour in the middle part of the ascending column. 
The outside, therefore, is the only part which enters into combustion ; the middle 
constituting smoke. This evil is obviated in the Argand lamp, by directing a current 
of atmospheric air through the flame, which, instead of being raised from a solid wick, 
is produced from a circular one, which surrounds the tube through which the air 
ascends. 

The mechanism of the Argand burner, in its improved state, will be clearly 
understood from the annexed figures and explanation, which apply equally to each 
description of the lamps hereafter described. 

A, fig. 1313, is a brass tube, about 3} inches in length, and \\ inch wide ; within 
this tube is placed another, b, which is soldered fiist inside by the flange at c : the 
space between these tubes contains the oil surrounding the wick, and which, being 
freely admitted from the reservoir by the side pipes d e, rises in the tubular space, 
either to a height corresponding with its level in the reservoir, or at least so as to 
maintain the wick in a state of constant saturation. The tube b is of considerable 
thickness, having a spiral groove cut about it from top to bottom ; f la a metallic 
ring made to slip over the tube b, it contains a short pin inside, which fits exactly 
into the spiral groove just mentioned ; g is the circular woven cotton wick, the lower 
end of which is drawn tight upon the neck of the ring ; h is a copper tube, with a slit 
nearly from top to bottom ; it admits the ring f, and being dropped over the inner 
tube B, exactly fits the inside of the wider tube a, by means of a narrow rim near the 



LAMPS 



37 



top at a, and another at the bottom b ; between the upper rim and the margin there 
is a small projecting pin c, which, when the whole apparatus is combined, fits into the 
cavity e of the collar i. To prepare the lamp for use, the tube h is placed between a 
and B, as just described ; the ring f, with its charge of cotton, is next inserted, the 
pin in the inside falling into the spiral groove, and that on the outside entering the slit 
in the tube h, which, on being turned about, moves the ring f down upon the screwed 
inner tube, until the wick only just rises above the superior edges of the tubes, in the 
interval between which it lies in the oil. In this stage the frame i is placed on the 
nick in the collar at e, falling upon the pin near the top of h ; the lower disc f g, 
passing over the tube a, at once presents a convenient support for the glass chimney, 
and a finger-hold for raising the wick. The central tube is open throughout, com- 
municating, at its lower end, with the brass receptacle k ; the latter is perforated at 
top, to admit the air which, by circulating through the above tube, and the hollow 
flame which surrounds it, causes the lamp to burn vrith that peculiar freedom and 
brilliancy which distinguish the Argand construction. This last-mentioned receptacle 
likewise catches any small quantity of oil which may pass over the inner tube during 
the combustion of the wick, l is the brass peg, which fits into the upper part of the 
pillar, in the table-lamp. 



1313 





1314 





In addition to the endless variety of small portable lamps, the peculiarities of 
which it would be tedious to particularise, and the merit of which, as compared witb 
those on the Argand principle, consists, for the most part, m their cheapness, tfie 
more important articles, and those generally in demand, may be distinguished as bxea 
or bracket lamps, supended or chandelier lamps, and table or French lamps— all these 
having burners on the principle above described. The former sort were, previous to 



38 LAMPS 

the introduction of gas, very common in shops. The globe a {fig. 1314), which is 
sometimes made plain and sometimes embossed, as in the cut, screws off, when the 
oil is poured in at an opening in the lower part, which is afterwards closed by means 
of a slide attached to the stem b, and the globe, thus replenished, is inverted and 
screwed into the part c. When the lamp is used, the stem b is raised a little, and the 
oil is suffered to flow through the intermediate tube into the cistern d, only at the rate 
at which it is consumed by the burning of the wick. The peculiar form of the glass 
chimney is admirably calculated to assist in the more complete combustion of the 
matter drawn up to the wick when impure oil is used, a desideratum originally in pjirt 
secured by placing over the central tube, and in the midst of the flame, a circular 
metal plate, by means of which the ascending column of air was turned out of its per- 
pendicular course, and thrown immediately into that part of the flame where the smoke 
is formed, and which by this ingenious contrivance is effectually consumed ; this appli- 
cation, however, is not necessary, nor the form of much moment, when purified sperm- 
oil is used. These lamps being usually made to move on a pivot at f, attached to the 
wall or other support, are very convenient in many situations, as being easily advanced 
over a desk or counter, and afterwards turned aside when not in use. 

The sinumbral lamp having passed out of use need not be described.' 

The use of spirit lamps followed, and we have the naphtha and camphine lamps of 
this order. The accompanying woodcut {fig. 1315) shows the peculiarity of the cam- 
phine lamp, where the reservoir of spirit (ttirpentine deprived of smell) is far below 
the burner, to which it ascends by capillary attraction, through the tubes of the 
cotton wick. Lamps to burn naphtha {Belmontine, &c.) are constructed on the same 
principle, as are all the paraffine and mineral-oil lamps. 

One of the best oil la&ps is that known as Carcel's lamp. 

In this lamp the oil is raised through tubes by clockwork, so as continually to 
overflow at the bottom of the burning wick ; thus keeping it thoroughly soaked, while 
the excess of the oil drops into the cistern below. Lamps of this description will 
burn most satisfactorily for many years ; but it can hardly be trusted in the hands 
of a servant, and when it gets at all deranged, it must be sent to its constructor, in 
Paris, to be repaired. The light of this lamp, when furnished with an appropriate 
tall glass chimney, is very brilliant, though not perfectly uniform ; since it fluctuates 
a little, but always perceptibly to a nice observer, with the alternating action of the 
pump-work ; becoming dimmer after every successive jet of oil, and brighter just 
before its return. The flame, moreover, always flickers more or less, owing to the 
powerful draught, and rectangular reverberatory shoidder of the chimney. The 
mechanical lamp is, however, remarkable for continuing to born, not only with un- 
abated but with increasing splendour for 7 or 8 hours ; the vivacity of the combustion 
increasing evidently' with the increased temperature and fluency of the oil, which, by 
its ceaseless circulation through the ignited wick, gets eventually pretty warm. In 
the comparative experiments made upon different lights by the Parisian philosophers, 
the mechanical lamp is commonly taken as the standard. It is not entitled to this 
pre-eminence, for it may be made to emit very different quantities of light, according 
to differences in the nature and supply of the oil, as well as variations in the form 
and position of the chimney. 

The following experiments by Dr. Ure are well worth preserving : — 

The great obstacle to the combustion of lamps lies in the viscidity, and conse- 
quent sluggish supply, of oil to the wicks ; an obstacle nearly insuperable with 
lamps of the common construction during the winter months. The relative viscidity 
or relative fluency of different liquids at the same temperature, and of the same 
liquid at different temperatures, has not, I believe, been hitlierto made the subject 
of accurate researches. I was, therefore, induced to make the following experiments 
with this view. 

Into a hemispherical cup of platinum, resting on the ring of a chemical stand, I in- 
troduced 2,000 water-grain measures of the liquid whose viscidity was to be measured, 
and ran it off through a glass siphon, i^th of an inch in the bore, having the outer leg 
Z\ inches, and the inner leg 3 inches long. The time of efflux became the measure of 
the viscidity ; and of two liquids, if the specific gravity and consequent pressure upon 
the siphon were the same, that time would indicate exactly the relative viscidity of 
the two liquids. Thus, oil of turpentine and sperm-oil have each very nearly the 
same density ; the former being, as sold in the shops, =0'876, and the latter from 
0"876 to 0'880, when pure and genuine. Now I found that 2,000 grain-measures of 
oil of turpentine ran off through the small siphon in 95 seconds, while that quantity 
of sperm-oil took 2,700 seconds, being in the ratio of 1 to 28 J ; so that the fluency of 
oil of turpentine is 282- times greater than that of sperm-oil. Pyroxilic spirit, com- 
monly called naphtha, and alcohol, each of specific gravity 8' 125, were found to run 
off respectively in 80 and 120 seconds; showing that the former was 60 per cent. 



LAPIDARY 39 

niore fluent than the latter. Sperm-oil, when heated to 265° Fahr., runs off in 300 
seconds, or gth of the time it took -when at the temperature of 64°. Southern whale 
oil, having a greater density than the sperm-oil, would flow off faster were it not 
more viscid. 2,000 grain-measures of water at 60° run off through the said siphon in 
75 seconds, but when heated to 180° they run off in 61 seconds. Concentrated sul- 
phuric acid, though possessing the great density of 1'840, yet flows off very slowly at 
64°, on account of its viscidity, whence its name of oil of vitriol. 2,000 grain-measures 
of it took 660 seconds to discharge. 

For a continuation of this subject, and a further description of lamps of various 
kinds, see also Silber Light ; Safety Lamp. 

IiAIMCPIC A,CXD. Syn. Aldehydic acid ; Acetylous acid. (Acide lampique, Fr.) 
If a little ether be placed a.t the bottom of a glass, and some spongy platinum attached 
to a wire of the same metal be ignited and suspended about an inch from the fluid, 
it will glow and continue to do so for a long time. On the other hand, if a spiral of 
platinum wire be placed over the wick of a spirit-lamp, and the latter be first ignited 
and then blown out, the wire will continue at a red heat until all the spirit is ex- 
hausted. Numerous sesquioxides, when placed warm on wire-gauze over capsules 
containing alcohol, will glow in the same manner. Under all these circumstances, a 
powerful odour resembling aldehyde is evolved, which strongly affects the eyes. K 
this experiment be made in such a manner that the volatile product may be condensed, 
it will be found to be strongly acid. It is powerfully reducing in its tendency, and 
if heated with the oxides of silver or gold, converts them into the metallic state, and 
the liquid is found to contain acetic acid and resin of aldehyde. If, however, the 
acid liquid be only very gently warmed with oxide of silver, a portion of the latter is 
dissolved ; but when baryta is added to precipitate the silver as oxide, and the fluid 
is warmed, the metal instead of the oxide comes down, and the fluid, when tested for 
the nature of the acid, is found to contain nothing but acetate of baryta. These 
phenomena are explained by some chemists by supposing the fluid to contain an acid 
which they, following the late Professor Daniell, call the lampic, and supposed to 
contain C*H*0' (C*H'0'). When lampic acid is treated first with oxide of silver, and 
then with baryta-water, and heated, they consider that the oxygen of the oxide of 
silver is transferred to the lampic acid, and converting it into acetic acid, which com- 
bines with the baryta, while the metallic silver is precipitated. The following equa- 
tion explains the reaction supposed to take place : — 

C<H<0»+ BaO + AgO = C^H50^BaO 4- Ag + HO. 

Lampic acid. Acetate of baryta. 

C*H«0» + BaO -f- Ag^o = (C=K'02)2Ba -t- Agr' + H'O. 

The conversion of the lampic acid into acetic acid is therefore attributed to the oxidis- 
ing tendency of the oxide of silver. Those who regard the decomposition from the 
above point of view, consider lampic acid to be acetylous acid, that is to say, to bear 
the same relation to acetylic acid (acetic acid) that sulphurous acid does to sulphuric 
acid. 

IiAIMtBSKIxrs. With the fleece on, these are extensively used for clothing, for 
door-mats, and the like. Prussian lambsJcins are used for linings, for coat collars and 
cuffs. Astracan lamb, which is a rich, glossy, black skin, with short fur, is used for 
many ornamental costumes. Hungarian lamb : this skin forms the national coat of 
Hungary. S-panish lamh : the short jacket of the Spaniard is made of this skin. 
It is said that upwards of a million lambskins are imported annually into this country 
for glove-making. 

IiAXrABZCITE. A sulphato-carbonate of lead occurring at Leadhills in Lanark- 
shire, whence the name. 

XiAirCB 'WOOD. Uvaria lanceolaia OT Guatteria virgata. This wood is imported 
from Jamaica and Cuba, in long poles from 3 to 6 inches diameter. Lance wood is 
paler in colour than box ; it is selected for elastic works, as gig-shafts, archery bows, 
springs, &c. These are bent into the required form by boiling or steaming. Sur- 
veyor's rods, ordinary rules, and billiard cues are made of lance wood. 

XiAZTDZiK. In mining, the man who attends at the mouth of the shaft to receive 
the ' kibble of ore' as it reaches the surface. 

IfAXrcXTx:. A basic sulphate of copper, from Cornwall, described a few years 
ago by Prof. Maskelyne. 

XiAlO'THAia'TTZMC. A metal discovered by Mofander in 1841. It occurs associated 
with didymium and cerium, in cerfciin rare Swedish minerals. 

XAPZDAR'S', Art of. The art of the lapidary, or that of cutting, polishing, and 
engraving gems, was known to the ancients, many of whom have left admirable spe- 



40 



LAPIDARY 



cimens of their skill. The Greeks were passionate lovers of rings and engraved 
stones ; and the most parsimonious among the higher classes of the Cyrenians are said 
to have worn rings of the value of ten minae (about 30^. of our money). By far the 
greater part of the antique gems that have reached modern times may be considered 
as so many models for forming the taste of the student of the fine arts, and for in- 
spiring his mind ■with correct ideas of what is truly beautiful. With the cutting of 
the diamond, however, the ancients were unacquainted, and hence they wore it in its 
natural state. Even in the middle ages, this art was still unknown ; for the four large 
diamonds which enrich the clasp of the imperial mantle of Charlemagne, as now pre- 
served in Paris, are uncut, octahedral crystals. But the art of working diamonds 
was probably known in Hindostan and China in very remote periods. After Louis de 
Berghen's discovery, in 1476, of polishing two diamonds by their mutual attrition, all 
the finest diamonds were sent to Holland to be cut and polished by the Dutch artists, 
who long retained a superiority, now no longer admitted by the lapidaries of London 
and Paris. See Diamond. 

The operation of gem-cutting is abridged by two methods: 1, by cleavage; 2, 
by cutting off slices with a fine wire, coated with diamond-powder, and fixed in 
the stock of a hand-saw. Diamond is the only precious stone which is cut and 
polished with diamond-powder, soaked with olive oil upon a mill plate of very soft 
steel. 

Oriental rubies, sapphires, and topazes, are cut with diamond-powder soaked with 
olive oil, on a copper wheel. The facets thus formed are afterwards polished on 
another copper wheel, with tripoli, tempered with water. 

Emeralds, hyacinths, amethysts, garnets, agates, and other softer stones, are cut at a 
lead wheel, with emery and water ; and are polished on a tin wheel with tripoli and 
water, or, still better, on a zinc wheel, with putty of tin and water. 

The more tender precious stones, and even the pastes, are cut on a mill-wheel of 
hard wood, with emery and water ; and are polished with tripoli and water on another 
wheel of hard wood. 

Since the lapidary employs always the same tools, whatever be the stone which he 
cuts or polishes, and since the wheel discs alone vary, as also the substance he uses 
with them, we shall describe, first of all, his apparatus, and then the manipulations for 
diamond-cutting, which are applicable to every species of stone. 

The lapidary's mill, or wheel, is shown in perspective in Jig. 1316. It consists of 
a strong frame made of oak carpentry, with tenon and mortised joints, bound together 
with strong bolts and screw nuts. Its form is a parallelopiped, of from 8 to 9 feet 
long, by from 6 to 7 feet high ; and about 2 feet broad. These dimensions are large 
enough to contain two cutting wheels alongside of each other, as represented in the 
figure. 

1317 1318 



1316 







.... 




X 


c 


X 




«q 




A=iXh, 


J^\ 




"F I'l 1 






f 




^-=1X1^* 


y 


X 


ft 


y 









^, 



Besides the two sole bars b b, we perceive in the breadth, 5 cross bars, c, d, e, f, o. 
The two extreme bars c and g, are a part of the frame-work, and serve to bind it. 
The two cross-bars d and f, carry each in the middle of their length, a piece of wood 
as thick as themselves, but only 4^ inches long (see Jig. 1316), joined solidly by 
mortises and tenons with that cross-bar as well as with the one placed opposite on tho 



LAPIDARY 



41 



other parallel face. These two pieces are called summers (lintels) ; the ona placed 
at D is the upper ; the one at f the lower. 

In fig. 1318 this face is shown inside, in order to explain how the mill wheel is 
placed and supported. The same letters point out the same objects, both in the pre- 
ceding and the following figures. 

In each of these summers a square hole is cut out, exactly opposite to the other in 
which are adjusted by friction a square piece of oak, a a, fig. 1318, whose extremities 
are perforated with a conical hole, which receives the two ends of the arbor h of the 
wheel I, and forms its socket. This square bar is adjusted at a convenient height by 
a double wooden wedge, b b. The cross-bar in the middle e, supports the table c c, a 
strong plank of oak. It is pierced with two large holes, whose centres coincide with 
the centres of the conical holes hollowed out at the end of the square pins. These 
holes of about 6 inches diameter each, are intended to let the arbor pass freely through, 
bearing its respective wheel. (See one of these holes at i, in fig. 1320 below). 

Each wheel is composed of an iron arbor ^,fig. 1318, of a grinding wheel i, which 
differs in substance according to circumstances, as already stated, and of the pulley j, 
furnished with several grooves (see fig. 1320), which has a square fit upon the arbor. 
The arbor carries a collet d, on which are four iron pegs or pins that enter into the 
wheel to fasten it. 

The wheel plate, of which the ground plan is shown at k, is hollowed out towards 
its centre to half its thickness ; when it is in its position on the arbor, as indicated in 
fig. 1320, a washer or ferrule of wrought iron is put over it, and secured in its place 
by a double wedge. In fig. 1320 the wheel-plate is represented in section, that the 
connection of the whole parts may be seen. 




A board g (see fig. 1316 and fig. 1324) about 7^ inches high, is fixed to the part of 
the frame opposite to the side at which the lapidary works, and it prevents the sub- 
stances made use of in the cutting and polishing from being thrown to a distance by the 
centrifugal force of the wheel-plate. 

Behind the apparatus is mounted for each grinding-plate, a large wheel i. (see 
fig. 1316), similar to a cutler's, but placed horizontally. The wheel is grooved round 
its circumference to receive an endless cord or band, which passes round one of the 
grooves of the pulley j, fixed below the wheel-plate. Hence, on turning the tly-wheel 
L, the plate revolves with a velocity relative to the velocity communicated to the wlicel 
r, and to the difference of diameter of the wheel l, and the pulley j. Each whee. l, 
is mounted on an iron arbor, with a crank (see M,fig. 1317)- 

The lower pivot of the arbor h is conical, and turns in a socket fixed in the floor. 
The great wheel l rests on the collet i, furnished with its 4 iron pins, for securing the 
connection. Above the wheel an iron washer is laid, and the whole is fixed by a double 
wedge, which enters into the mortise I, fig. 1317. 

Fig. 1321 exhibits a ground-plan view of all this assemblage of parts, to explain the 
structure of the machine. Everything that stands above the upper sumiiwr-bar has 
been suppressed in this representation. Here we see the table c c; the upper summer 
m ; the one-wheel plate I, the other having been removed to show that the endless cord 
does not cross ; the two large wheels l l, present in each machine, the crank bar ^-, 



42 



LAPIDARY 



seen separate \rijiff. 1322, -which serves for turning the wheel i. This bar is formed of 
three iron plates n, o; p,q; and q, r (fig. 1322). The first is bent round at the point 
'"n, to embrace the "stud s; the second^ q, is of the same breadth and thickness as the 
■first ; and the tliird, is adjusted to the hitter with a hinge joint, at the point q, where 
they are both turned into a circular form, to embrace the crank m. When all these 
pieces are connected, they are fixed at the proper lengths by the buckles or square rings 
1 1 1, which embrace these pieces, as is shown mfig. 1322. 

The stud s, seen mfig. 1322, is fixed to the point v, by a wedge-key upon the arm p, 
represented separately, and in perspective, in fig. 1323. The labourer seizes the two 
upright pegs or handles x x; hj the alternate forward and backward motion of his 
arm, he communicates the same motion to the crank-rod, which transmits it to the 
crank of the arbor m, and impresses on the arbor, and the wheel which it boars, a 
rotatory movement. 

1323 1324 





Fig. 1324 shows piece-meal and in perspective a part of the lapidary's wheel-mill. 
There we see the table c c, the grind plate i, whose axis is kept in a vertical position 
by the two square plugs a a, fixed into the two summers by the wedges b b. On the 
two sides of the wheel-plate, we perceive an important instrument called a dial, which 
serves to hold the stone during the cutting and polishing. The instnmient has received 
lately important ameliorations, to be described in fig. 1325. The lapidary holds this 
instrument in his hand, he rests upon the iron pins u u, fixed in the table lest he should 
be affected by the velocity of the revolving wheel-plate. He loads it sometimes with 
weights e e, to make it take better hold of the grinding-plate. 

Fig. 1325, shows an improvement made by one of the most expert lapidaries of 
Geneva, whereby he cuts and polishes the facet with extreme regularity, converting it 
into a true dial. Each of the two jaws bears a large conchoidal cavity, into which is 
fitted a brass ball, which carries on its upper part a tube e, to whose extremity is 

'fixed a dial-plate /y, engraved with several concentric circles, divided into equal parts, 
like the toothed-wheel cutting engine-plate, according to the number of facets 
to be placed in each cutting range. The tube receives with moderate friction 
the handle of the cement-rod, which is fixed at the proper point by a thumb-screw, not 

, shown in the figure, being concealed by the vertical limb d, about to be described. 

1325 1326 1327 





'■''A needle or index ^'.^ placed I'with a square fit on the tail of the cement-rod, marks by 
^ts points the divisions on the dial-plate /./. On the' side m n, of the jaw a, there 
is fixed by two screws, a limb d, forming a quadrant, whoso centre is supposed to be 
at the centre of the ball. The quadrant is divided as usual into 90 degrees, whose 
highest point is marked 0, and the lowest would mark about 70 ; for the remainder of 
the arc down to 90 is concealed by the jaw. The two graduated plates are used as 
follows: — 

When the cement-rod conceals zero or of the limb, it is then vertical, and Borves 
to cut the table of the brilliant; or the point opposite to it, and parallel to the table, 



LAPIDARY 



43 



On milking it slope a little; 5 degrees, for example, all the facets -will now lie in the 
same zone provided that the inclination be not allowed to vary. On turning round the 
cement-rod and the index g marks the divisions so that by operating on the circle witli 
16 divisions, stopping for some time at each, 16 facets will have been formed, of perfect 
equality, and at equal distances, as soon as the revolution is completed. 

In cutting the stones, they are mounted on the cement-rod b, jig. 1326, whose stem 
is set upright in a socket placed in a middle of a sole piece at A, which receives the 
stem of the cement-rod. The head of the rod fills the cup of a. A melted alloy of 
tin and lead is poured into the head of the cement-rod, in the middle of which the 
stone is immediately plunged ; and wherever the solder has become solid, a portion 
of it is pared oflf from the top of the diamond, to give the pyramidal form shown in the 
figure at b. 

There is an instrument employed by the steel polishers for pieces of clock-work, and 
by the manufacturers of watch-glasses for polishing their edges. It consists of a 
solid oaken table, jig. 1327. The top is perforated with two holes, one for passing 
through the pulley and the arbor of the wheel -plate b, made either of lead or of hard 
wood, according to circumstances ; and the other c for receiving the upper part of the 
arbor of the large pulley d. The upper pulley of the wheel-plate is supported by an 
iron prop b, fixed to the table by two wooden screws. The inferior pivots of the two 
pieces are supported by screw sockets, working in an iron screw-nut sunk into the 
summer-bar f. The legs of the table are mride longer or shorter, according as the 
workman chooses to stand or sit at his employment. Emery with oil is used for 
grinding down, and tin-putty or colcothar for polishing. The workman lays the piece 
on the flat of the wheel-plate with one hand, and presses it down with a lump of cork, 
while he turns round the handle with the other hand. 

A very convenient form of apparatus has been devised by Mr. James B. Jordan, 
and manufactured by Messrs. Cotton and Johnson, of Grafton Street, Soho, for the 
purpose of preparing thin sections of 

minerals, rocks, and other hard sub- lo^o 

stance for microscopical observation. 
This machine is represented in figs. 
1328, 1329. and 1330. It consists of 
a wooden frame-work, a a, support- 
ing a crank-axle and driving-wheel, 
two feet diameter ; the top part of 
this frame consists of two cross- 
pieces a', fixed about an inch apart, 
as in the bed of an ordinary turning- 
lathe ; into the slot between them is 
placed a casting b, carrying the 
bracket for the angle-pulleys c ; this 
casting is bored to receive the spindle 
D, which, by means of the treadle, 
is made to revolve at the rate of 400 
or 500 revolutions per minute. It 
is also bored to receive another 
spindle e, to the top of which is 
fixed a metal plate f, for carrying 
the small cup h, to which the speci- 
men is attached by means of pre- 
pared wax. This means of mecha- 
nically applying the work tg the 
slicer is far preferable to holding it ] 
in the hand in the ordinary way ; 
the requisite pressure against the 
cutting disc is regulated by the 
weight G, and the thickness of the 
slice by the thumb-screw k, on which 
the spindle rests. By this means it 
is possible to cut tolerably thin and 
parallel slices, of from j^th to ^th 
of an inch in thickness; the thin- 
ness of course varying according to 
the strength of the rock which is 
being operated upon. The slitting 
disc is made of soft iron, eight inches diameter, and about j^^th of an inch in thickness, 
and it is fixed on the spindle d, between two brass plates 4 inches diameter, charged 
with diamond-powder in the usual way. 




44 



LAPS 



The slices are Btill further reduced in thickness by grinding with fine emery and 
■water on a load ' lap,' which is made to revolve on the spindle d. The lap is 8 inches 
diameter, and about |ths of an inch thick in the centre, cast with rounded edges and 



1329 




1330 



slightly convex sides ; this form facilitates the grinding of a uniform thinness, there 
being always a tendency on a flat surface (which soon wears hollow) for the edges of 
the section to grind away before it is sufficiently thin. One side of the section can 
easily be ground and finished by holding in the hand ; and this being done, it must bo 
cemented with hard Canada balsam to a small square of plate glass, in order to grind 
the other side, which operation must be carefully carried on until the structure appears 
distinct and well defined. The finish requisite is best given by careful rubbing on the 
flat surface of a hone-stone until all traces of the lines of grinding and scratches are 
removed. . 

Thin sections for microscopic study are then usually re-mo\inted in Canada balsam 
under a glass cover in the ordinary way. 

XiAPXS liAZUXX. A silicate of soda, lime, and alumina, with the sulphide of 
iron and sodium in minute quantities. This beautiful mineral is found in crystalline 
limestone of a greyish colour, on the banks of the Indus, and in granite in Persia, 
China, and Siberia. 

The finest varieties are highly esteemed, being employed in the manufacture of 
costly vases. It was also the source from which the beautiful pigment ultramarine, 
was obtained, but this colour is now prepared artificially at a very cheap rate. See 
Ulte\maeine. 

XiAPZS OXi^ARZS, or Pot-stone. An impure form of steatite. 

XiAPS. Metal polishing-wheels. Metal wheels or laps made of nearly every metal 
and alloy in common use, have been more or less employed in the mechanical arts as 
vehicles for the application of several of the polishing-powders. But of all laps, not- 
withstanding their variety, those of lead, slightly alloyed, and supplied with powdered 
emery, rendered the most conspicuous service. Generally the plane, or flat surface of 
the lap, is employed ; at other times the cylindrical edge, as by cutlers ; but the portion 
actually used in either case is called the/ace of the lap. There are several kinds of laps. 
The lap is in some cases a thin disc of metal, fixed by means of a screwed nut against 
a shoulder on the spindle, but it is better with lead laps to employ an iron plat« cast 
full of holes to support the softer metal. The casting mould may in this case bo either 
an iron disc, with a central screw to fix the iron centre plate at the time of pouring, or 
the mould may be made of sand 3.nd in halves, after the usual manner of the foundry. 



LAUMONTITE 45 

In either case the iron plate should be made as hot as the fluid metal, -which, by 
entering the holes, becomes firmly united to the iron, especially if the holes are largest 
on the reverse side, or that away from the lead. — Holteapffel. 

Lap is also a roll or sliver of cotton for feeding the cards of a spinning machine. 

JaAXO. The fat of the pig. 

IiilRD OEL. Lard being subjected to a pressure, an oil, oleine, is expressed, stearine 
being left. This lard oil is much used for lubricating machinery, and it has been em- 
ployed for the adulteration of olive oil. 

I<AR3>EREIiIiXTX:. A borate of ammonia, from the boracic-acid lagoons of 
Tuscany. 

lASXS. All Indian cut stones are called lasks. They are in general ill-shaped 
or irregular in their form, their depth ill-proportioned, and the table, or face, seldom in 
the centre of the stone, sometimes too broad or too small, and none properly polished. 
The chief thing regarded is saving the size and weight of the stone. These stones are 
always new wrought when brought to Europe. 

KATHE-CORDS. Cords for turning lathes. These cords are made of intestines 
of horses, cleaned and prepared by the separation of the mucous membrane in the 
manner described under Gold Beatees' Skin. A wooden ball, armed in its lower 
part with four cutting blades, at equal distances from each other, is fixed by an 
upright piece of wood to a bench. The end of an intestine is then drawn over this ball, 
and as the gut is pulled downwards it is di"\Tded into four equal bands or strips. 

Four or eight of these strips, according to the thickness which it is intended to give 
to the cord, are tied with a peculiar knot to one end of a thick piece of cord. The end 
is passed around a peg introduced into a hole in a sdlid post, to the side of which a 
number of pegs are attached. At a distance of ten or eleven yards from tlie first 
one, another post is fixed, similarly provided with pegs, and over one of these latter 
the middle of the assemblage of strips is passed, the other end being broiight back, and 
attached to the first peg by means of another knotted cord. The tied end of the strisp 
is then attached to the wheel by a hook connected with the whirl, which is made to 
revolve until the strips are sufficiently twisted. The twisted end is then kept 
stretched by attaching it to the peg, and any projecting filaments are cut off. After 
being stretched for some time, the cords are then twisted again, and a third and 
a fourth time are twisted by hand, being each time rubbed with and drawn through a 
bunch of moistened horsehair after the twisting, and again stretched out between the 
two posts. If the cord is not smooth and even after the twisting is completed, it is 
made so by rubbing with a piece of dog-skin. It is then dried, and by some makers 
is exposed to the vapours of sulphur. At last the ends are cut ofl[) and the cord is 
roUed in a coil. 

In order to avoid the putrid emanations, from the intestines, which are generally 
in an incipient state of decomposition, Labarraqua recommends to clean them at 
once, tiirn the inside out, and put them to soak over night in a cask containing, for 
fifteen or twenty intestines, chloride of potash, at 13° or 18°, 1 lb. ; water, 4 gallons. 
The mucous membrane is ready to be detached the next day ; and after its removal, 
and a thorough washing, the intestines can at once be prepared, as has been already 
described. 

IiATK ^VOOD. The outside cuttings of fir-trees, used for being split into laths. 

XiilTTEXI' is a somewhat antiquated term, which was applied to several kinds of 
sheet metal. ' Mines of latfen, whatever may have been meant by the word, are men- 
tioned in the time of Henry VI., who made his chaplain, John Botteright, comp- 
troller of all his mines of gold, silver, copper, latten, lead, within the counties of 
Devon and Cornwall.' Is tin meant by the term? — Watson's Chemical Essays. 

In the reigns of Henry VIII. and Edward VI., several acts of parliament were 
passed, prohibiting the exportation of brass, copper, latten, bell-metal, gun-metal, 
schrof metal, &c. "Windows framed with lead are called lattice windows in the 
West of England. 

The term is now applied to sheet or plate brass. Black latten is rolled sheets ; 
shaven latten is in thinner sheets ; and roll latten is polished on both sides. 

AAVGKIII'G GAS. The popular name of nitrous oxide or nitrogen monoxide, 
NO (N^O). It is best prepared by heating solid nitrate of ammonia, this salt being 
resolved by heat into laughing gas and water. The gas, when inhaled, produces a 
peculiar intoxicating effect, usually without being followed by any ill consequences. 
Of late years laughing gas has been largely used by dentists as an anaesthetic. Care, 
however, is needed in administering it, as it may produce serious results on individuals 
suffering from certain affections of the heart. 

IiAVMOM'TZTE, or Efflorescinff'zeoliie. A hydrous silicate of alumina and lime, 
occurring in ca-\nties in amygdaloidal trap rocks and in metalliferous veins. It is 
common in some of the copper deposits of I^ake 6upeiior. • 



46 LAZULTTE 

lAXTirSEB. A miner's term for a wooden tube or gutter to convey water. A 
long sliallow trough, carrying off the ore frona the stamps. 

IiATTRElb OI£. This oil is known also under the name of ' oil of bays' and is 
obtiiined from either the fresh or dried berries of the bay tree {Laurus nobilis), which 
grows principally in the south of Europe ; and is also cultivated in our gardens, the 
leaves being used by the cook on account of their flavour. The berries were 
analysed by Bonastre in 1824, and amongst other things, were volatile oil, 0"8, laurin 
(camphor of the bay berry), I'O, and feed oil, 12"8, in 100 parts of the berries. 
Duhamol states that the fixed oil is obtained from the fresh and ripe berries by 
bruising them in a mortar, boiling them for three or four hours in water, and then 
pressing them in a sack. The expressed oil is mixed with the decoction, and on 
cooling is found floating on the surface of the water. When the dried berries are 
used, they are first subjected to the vapour of water until they are well soaked, and 
are then rapidly pressed between heated metallic plates. By the latter process they 
yield one-fifth of their weigiit of oil. It is imported in barrels from Trieste. It has 
a butyraceous consistence and a granular appearance. Its colour is greenish, and its 
odour like that of the berries. C!old alcohol extracts from it the essential oil and 
green colouring matter, leaving the lauro-siiearine, which composes the principal part 
of it. With alkalis it forms soaps. But its principal use is in medicine, and more 
particidarly in veterinary medicine. It has been used as a stimulating liniment in 
sprains and bruises, and in paralysis. 

Native Oil of Laurel {Hancock) ; Laurel Turpentine (Stenhotise). — Imported from 
Demerara ; obtained by incisions in the bark of a large tree, called by the Spaniards 
"■ Azeyte de sassafras' growing- in the vast forests between the Orinoco and the 
Parime. This oil is transparent, slightly yellow, and smells like turpentine, but 
more agreeable, and approaching to oil of lemons. Its specific gravity at 50° Fahr. 
is 0'8645. It consists of two or more oils isomeric with each other, and with oil of 
turpentine. Its colour is due to a little resin. It is an excellent solvent for caout- 
chouc. — Pereira. 

XiAtTRXC ACID. An acid obtained from the fat of the bay tree (Laurus nobilis), 
and from the oil of pichurim beans {Faba pichurim maj.) 

XiATTRITE. A sulphide of osmium and ruthenium, found in the platinum wash- 
ings in Borneo. 

XiAVXL. The ejected matter of volconoes. ' The stone which flows in a melted 
state from a volcano.' — Lyell. M. Abich obtained from the Etna lava of 1669, 48'83 
silica. He found the lava to consist of 54*80 labradorite, 34"16 augite, 7*98 olivine, 
and 3'08 magnetic iron. 

Bischoff gives the following two analyses of lava : — 



oiiica . . • 
Alumina 




Peroxide of iron . 




Lime . 




Magnesia 




Potash . 




Soda . 





Hecla 


Etna 


54-76 


49-63 


13-61 


22-47 


15-60 


10-80 


614 


9-05 


1-35 


2-68 


3-41 


3-07 


1-21 


0-98 



XiAVA-'UTARE. A peculiar stoneware, manufactured and coloured to assume 
the semi-vitreous appearance of lava. 

DLAVEZK. Porpkyra laciniata and Ulva latissima. See AjuQM. 

XiAVEITDER, OTSm OF. See Perfumebt. 

From the flowers of the Lavandula spicata the oil of spike is obtained, which is 
used by painters on porcelain, and by artists in the preparation of some varnishes. 

^tAAVSr. A fine linen fabric 

IiAZtriiXTE (Eng. and Fr. ; LasulitJi, Ger.), from an Arabic, word, azul, meaning 
heaven. It is a blue vitreous mineral, found massive and crystalline, traversing clay 
elate, and sometimes associated with spathic iron; spec. grav. 2-76 to 2-94; scratches 
glass ; affords a little water by calcination ; fusible into a white glass ; dissolves in 
acids with loss of colour ; the solution leaves an alkaline residuum, after being treated 
with carbonate of ammonia, filtered, evaporated, and calcined. By analysis it is found 
tx) consist of: — 





1 


2 


Phosphoric acid '. • ■ 


43-88 


46-79 


Alumina . . . • 


31-77 


2710 


Protoxide of iron . 


8-90 


7-10 


Magnesia .... 


. 9-89 


11-87 


Water . , , , . 


. 5-56 


7-12 



LEAD 47 

XBAs. (Ho7}ib, Ft. ; Blei, Ger.) This metal appears to have been known at 
a very early period. It is mentioned by Moses, as a metal in common use. Job 
describes mining for lead, and the metallurgic processes of refining and separating 
silver from lead are very clearly described by both Job and Jeremiah. Lead has a 
bluish-grey colour, and, when recently cut, it exhibits considerable lustre, which, 
however, it speedily loses. It is one of the softest of the ordinary metals, is easily 
cut with a knife, may be scratched with the nail, and marks paper with a grey stain. 
Lead is malleable, and may be beaten into thin leaves, but these are of very imperfect 
tenacity ; hence, it cannot be drawn into thin wire ; a wire of ^th of an inch in dia- 
meter will not support 20 lbs. 

If lead be prepared in a very finely divided state, it is pyrophoric. This is usually 
prepared from the tartrate of lead, by heating it in a glass tube as long as any fumes 
are evolved ; consequently, it is finely-divided lead, combined with some carbon. As 
soon as the fumes cease, the tube must be closed at the blowpipe-lamp. If at anytime 
the tube is broken, and the powder scattered in the air, it burns with a red flash. 

If lead is heated in closed vessels, it fuses at 635° F. (335° C), and at a red 
heat, it gives off vapours. If fused lead is allowed to cool slowly, it crystallises in 
a somewhat peculiar manner ; the crystals are referrible to the cubic system, but 
they group themselves in a very complicated and interesting way. By the electro- 
chemical action of zinc on a solution of the acetate of lead, crystals of that metal are 
obtained in an arborescent form. This experiment is usually spoken of as the forma- 
tion of Saturn's tree, Saturn being the alchemic name for this metal. 

When fused in the air, lead oxidises rapidly, and it becomes covered with an 
iridescent pellicle, often of great beauty. It then passes into a yellow powder 
(litharge), protoxide of lead. 

Pure lead is not affected by perfectly pure water free from air ; but if air be present, 
the metal is oxidised at its expense, and the oxide thus formed, combining with 
carbonic acid, is deposited on the lead in minute crystals aff^a 'basic carbonate of lead. 
The water will then be found to contain lead in solution, and such waters drawn 
from impure cisterns often produce very distressing consequences. If the water 
contains any sulphates, the lead is thrown down as a sulphate of lead, which is 
insoluble. 

The Ores of Lead. 

1. Native lead. — Mr. Greg appears to doubt the existence of native lead in this 
country. He says, however, ' Native lead has been recently discovered in undoubtedly 
genuine specimens in the province of Guanaxuato in Mexico.' Some equally genuine 
specimens of native lead have been found in the Grassington mines and examined by 
the Editor ; these are in the cabinets of the Duke of Devonshire, and of the late Stephen 
Eddy, and it is now we presume in the possession of his son. 

2. Minium. Native oxide of lead. — This rare ore has been found in Anglesea, at 
Alston Moor, the Snailbeach Mine in Shropshire, at Grassington, the Leadhills in 

.Scotland, and Wicklow in Ireland. Its composition is — lead, 90-66, oxygen, 9-34. 

3. Cerussite. Carbonate of lead. White Lead ore {Bleispath, Got.). — This ore occurs 
in crystals, in fibrous, compact, and earthy masses. It is found at several of the lead 
mines of Cornwall and Devonshire; remarkably fine specimens have been obtained 
from Frank Mills Mines in Devonshire, one of which is in the Museum of Practical 
Geology. In nearly all the mines producing the ores of lead, cerussite is formed, 
varying much in its character with the different conditions under which it has been 
formed. 

This ore, in its purest • state, is colourless and transparent like glass. It may be 
recognised by the following characters : Its specific gravity is from 6 to 6'7 ; it dis- 
solves with more' or less ease, and with effervescence, in nitric acid ; becomes im- 
mediately black by the action of sulphuretted hydrogen, and melts on charcoal before 
the blowpipe into a button of lead. According to Klaproth, the caxbonate of Leadhills 
contains 82 parts of oxide of lead, and ] 6 of carbonic acid, in 98 parts. This mineral 
is tender, scarcely scratches calcspar, and breaks easily with a waved conchoidal 
fracture. It possesses the double refracting property in a very high degree ; the 
double image being very visible on looking through the flat faces of the prismatic 
crystals. Its crystalline forms are very numerous, and are referrible to the rhombic 
system. It is also found in an earthy state. 

4. Anglesite. Sulphate of lead, or Vitreous lead (Bkivitriol, Ger.). — This mineral 
closely resembles carbonate of lead ; so that the external characters are inadequate to 
distinguish the two. But the following are sufficient. It does not effervesce with nitric 
acid ; it is but feebly blackened by sulphuretted hydrogen ; it first decrepitates and then 
melts before the blowpipe into a transparent glass, which becomes milky as it cools. By 
the combined action of heat and chapcoal, it passes first into a red pulverulent oxide, 



48 LEAD 

and then into metallic lead. It consists, according to Klaproth, of 71 oxide of lead, 
25 sulphiiric acid, 2 -water, and 1 iron. The prevailing form of crystallisation is the 
rectangular octahedron, whose angles and edges are variously modified. This mineral 
was first recognised in Anglesea, hence its name. It was found in the Channel Islands 
at Sark Mine, and is occasionally met with in the Leadhills and at Wanlockhead in 
Scotland, at Glemalure in Wicklow, and at Ballycorus Mine, Co. Dublin. 

5. Phosphate of lead. Pyromorphite.~Th.\a, like all the combinations of lead with 
an acid, exhibits no metallic lustre, but a variety of colours. Before the blowpipe, 
upon charcoal, it melts into a globule externally crystalline, which by a continuance 
of the heat, with the addition of iron and boracic acid, affords metallic lead. Its con- 
stituents are 80 oxide of lead, 18 phosphoric acid, and 1-6 hydrochloric acid, according 
to Klaproth's analysis of the mineral from Wanlockhead. The crystalline forms are 
derived from an obtuse rhombohedron. Phosphate of lead is a little harder than white 
lead ; it is easily scratched, and its powder is always grey. Its specific gravity is 6-9. 
It has a vitreous lustre, somewhat adamantine. Its lamellar texture is not very 
distinct ; its fracture is wavy, and it is easily frangible. The phosphoric and arsenic 
acids being, according to M. Mitscherlich, isomorphous bodies, may replace each other 
in chemical combinations in every proportion, so that the phosphate of lead may include 
any proportion, from the smallest fraction of arsenic acid to the smallest fraction of 
phosphoric acid, thus graduating indefinitely into arsenate of lead. The yellowish 
variety indicates, for the most part, the presence of arsenic acid. It is found in 
Cornwall, Devonshire, Yorkshire, Derbyshire, and Cumberland, very fine specimens 
being found in the Alston Moor mines. 

6. Arsenate of lead, Mimetesite. — The name is derived from /xjjutjt^s, imitator, the 
species so nearly resembling pyromorphite. The colour of this ore varies from straw- 
yellow and wax-yellow to brown, reddish-brown, orange, yellow, and red. Before the 
blowpipe, on charcoal, it emits arsenical fumes, and yields a bead of lead. The analysis 
by Dufrenoy gives the following as its composition : — 

Arsenate of lead 84"55 

Phosphate of lead ........ 4'50 

Chloride of lead 9-05 

At Drygill, in Cumberland, this ore has been met with in sufficient abundance to be 
worked to some extent as an ore of lead. The mimetesite from this mine was at one 
time used in the manufacture of flint-glass, to which it gave great brilliancy. The 
form of the arsenate of lead, when it is crystallised, is a prism with six faces, of 
nearly the same dimensions as that of phosphate of lead. When pure, it is reducible 
up«n charcoal, before the blowpipe, into metallic lead, with the copious exhalation of 
arsenical fumes ; but only in part, and lea\'ing a crystalline globule, when it contains 
any phosphate of lead. The arsenate of lead is tender, friable, sometimes even 
pulverulent, and of specific gravity 504. That from the Saxon mines of Johann- 
Georgenstadt, consists, according to Rose, of oxide of lead, 77'5 ; arsenic acid, 12'5; 
phosphoric acid, 7 '5 ; and chlorine, 1"5. 

7. Sulphide of lead. Galena {Bleiglanz, Get.). — This is the most abundant ore of 
lead ; it may be indeed regarded as the only commercial ore of value, if we except 
the carbonates, which are probably formed by the decomposition of galena. Its pre- 
vailing forms are the cube and a combination of the cube and octahedron ; lustre 
metallic, opaque, colour and streak lead grey. Fracture conchoidal, but difficult to 
obtain, owing to the readiness with which it cleaves. The localities of galena need 
not be named here, as the lead-producing districts, of which a list will be presently 
given, will include them, galena occurring in them all. Thomson's analysis of 
galena gives — 

Lead 86*13 

Sulphur 13-02 

Iron . . 0-50 

' It is a remarkable fact that silver should invariably be present in galena, some- 
times, indeed, in very minute proportion ; and the same generalisation may now be 
received as established with respect to the presence of gold. The silver, it is certain, 
usually exists in galena in the state of sulphide ; and so, probably, does the gold. 
The mode of existence of sulphide of silver in galena is not always the same, as may 
be inferred from the fact that by washing, nearly the whole of the silver is carried 
away from some kinds of galena ; while by the same treatment of other kinds of galena 
the loss of silver is inconsiderable. It is an error to suppose that largely-crystalline 
galena is generally poor in silver.' — Percy. 

8. Jamesonite is a combination of lead, antimony, and sulphur. It occurs in acicular 
crystals, or in parallel or diverging groups, and more frequently in fibrous masses. It 
is found in many places in Cornwall and Devon. Rose's analysis gives the following 
as its composition : — 



LEAD 49 

Lead 3871 

Antimony 34-90 

Iron 2-96 

Copper 0'21 

Zinc 0-74 

Sulphvir , . . 26*53 

103-0O 

Some Jamesonite found near Bampton in Devon contained 15 per cent, of silver. 

9. Bournonite is foiind near Liskeard in Cornwall, not far from Kingsbridgo, and 
close to Beer Alston in Devonshire. It occurs in many places on the Continent, and is 
found in both North and South America. Eammelsberg gives it the following com- 
position : — 

Lead 4254 

Antimony 24*71 

Copper 13*03 

Sulphur 19-72 

100-00 

This mineral may be regarded as a double sulphide of lead and antimony, analogous 
to the double sulphide of copper and iron. 

The following ores of lead are only of mineralogical interest : — 

10. (Tnloro-carbonate of lead, Cromfordite. Phosgenite. Horn-lead. — This ore has a 
pale yellow colour, is reducible to metallic lead by the agency of soda, and is not 
altered by the hydrosulphides. Before the blowpipe it melts first into a pale yellow 
transparent globule, with salt of phosphorus and oxide of copper, and manifests the 
presence of chlorine. It is fragile, tender, softer than carbonate of lead, and is some- 
times almost colourless, with an adamantine lustre. Spec. grav. 6*06, Its constituents, 
according to Berzelius, are, lead, 25-84 ; oxide of lead, 57-07 ; carbonate of lead, 6-25; 
chlorine, 8*84; silica, 1*46; water, 0*54, in 100 parts. 

11. Plattnerite. Super- ot binoxide of lead. A doubtful species. 

12. Linarife. Cupreous stdphate of lead. Found at Leadhills, and in Cumberland. 

13. Susannite. Svlphato-carbonate of lead. Occurs at Leadhills. 

14. Lanarkite. Sulphato-carbonate of lead. Ditto. 

15. LeadhiUite, Sidphato-tricarbonate of lead. Ditto. 

16. Caledonite, Cupreousstdphato-carbonaieof lead. Ditto. 

17. Vanadinate. Vanadate of lead. 

18. Wulfenite. Molybdate of lead. 

19. Geocronite. Sulphantimonide of lead, 

20. Mendipite. Oxychloride of lead. 

21. Matlockite, ditto. 

22. CrocoisUe. Red lead ore or Chromate of lead. 

23. Vauqiielinite. Chromate of lead and copper. 

A few other lead-bearing minerals might have been named, but from their having 
no commercial value, it has not been thought necessary to do so. 

The ores of lead, which may be represented by galena, or the sulphide of lead, that 
being the truly commercial variety, are found in rocks of different ages from the 
granite and clay-slates to the Triassic formations. In the Devonian slate rocks, in 
the neighbourhood of Liskeard in Cornwall are many most productive lead mines. 
To the north of Truro is the abandoned lead mine Huel Eose, which from its long 
celebrity gave its name to the district ; and again to the south of Helstone there have 
been some valuable workings for lead. These formations of lead ore have all been in 
the clay-slate, or ' killas ' rocks of Cornwall. In Devonshire many most vahiable lead 
mines have been worked in similar rocks. In these the celebrated mines of Beer 
Alston on the Tamar existed. "With a very few exceptions, but little lead has been 
discovered in the black slates, — the carboniferous series of Devonshire. Some lead 
ore has, however, been discovered in the New Eed Sandstone and in the slate rocks im- 
mediately adjoining them near Newton St. Gyres. To the north of the carboniferous 
rocks of Devonshire we have a renewal of clay-slate rocks, similar in all respects to 
those which are found near Liskeard in Cornwall ; in these rocks are the once famous 
argentiferous lead mines of Combe Martin, from which Edward the Black Prince 
derived an immense revenue. 

Thejead mines of the Mendip Hills, which were at one time very producJtive, are in 
the mountain-limestone formation. The lead which is now obtained fix)m the Mendips 
is smelted, from the refuse slimes and slags left by the old miners. Those of 

VoL.nL E 



60 LEAD 

Cardiganshire aro found iu clay-slates and gritstones, correspondent Tvitli or underlying 
the lowest beds described by Sir E. Murchison in his Silurian System. 

In Shropshire we hare lead ore occurring in the original Silurian rocks, the Llandeilo 
formation. ' In that lofty and rugged district of Shropshire which lies around the 
village of Shelve and the Corndon mountains, and which extends west of the Stiper 
Stones range into Montgomeryshire ' (Murchison), lead lodes are abundant. In 
Derbyshire, in Yorkshire, in Cumberland, Northumberland, and Durham, the lead 
mines prove the most productive in the mountain-limestone formations, although there 
are some instances in which good lead mines have been worked in the sandstones and 
shales. In addition to these, we have the mines in the Leadhills and at Wanlock- 
head, consisting chiefly of the Silurian slates, in Scotland ; Luganure, &c., in the 
granite districts of Wicklow, Newtonards in County Down, with a few others in 
Ireland, and the lead mines in the Silurian rocks of the Isle of Man, — these are the 
principal districts from which our large supplies of lead ore are obtained. 

The principal lead mines at present worked in other parts of the world are the 
following : — 1. Poullaouen and Huelgoefc, near Carhair in France, department of 
Finisterre, being veins of galena, which traverse a clay-slate resting on granite. They 
have been known for upwards of three centuries; the workings penetrate to a 
depth of upwards of 300 yards, and in 1816, furnished 500 tons of lead per annum, 
out of which 1,034 pounds avoirdupois of silver were extracted. 2. At Villefort and 
Viallay, department of Lozere, are galena mines said to prodxxce 100 tons of lead 
per annum, 400 kilogrammes of silver (880 lbs. avoird.). 3. At Pezey and Macot, to 
the east of Moutiers in Savoy, a galena mine exists in talc-schist, which has produced 
annually 200 tons of lead, and about 600 kilogrammes of silver (1,230 lbs. avoird.). 
4. The mine of Vedrin near Namur in the Low Countries, is opened upon a vein of 
galena, traversing compact limestone of a transition district ; it has furnished 200 
tons of lead, from which 385 pounds avoirdupois of silver were extracted. 5. In 
Saxony the galena mines are so rich in silver as to make the lead almost overlooked. 
They are enumerated under Silver Ores. 6. The lead mines of the Hartz have been 
likewise considered as silver ones. 7. Those of Bleyberg in the Eifel are in the 
same predicament. 8. The galena mines of Bleyberg and Villach in Carinthia are 
in compact limestone. 9. In Bohemia to the south-west of Prague. 10. Mines of 
Joachimsthal and Bleistadt on the southern slope of the Erzgebirge, produce argenti- 
ferous galena. 11. There are numerous lead mines in Spain, the most important 
being in the granite hUls of Linares, upon the southern slope of the Sierra Morena, 
and in the district of the small town of Caujagar. Sometimes enormous masses of 
galena are extracted from the mines of Linares. There are also mines of galena in 
Catalonia, Granada, Murcia, and Almeira, the ore of the last locality being generally 
poor in silver. 12. The lead mines of Sweden are very argentiferous, and worked 
chiefly with a view to the silver. 13. The lead mines of Daouria are numerous and 
rich, lying in a transition limestone, which rests on primitive rocks ; their lead is 
neglected on account of the silver. 

There have been a few lead mines in this country, which have been equally pro- 
ductive of silver. This was especially the case with the lead mine which was 
formerly worked near Combe Martin, and the mines formerly worked at Beer Alston 
in Devonshire. One of the most remarkable of recent examples, is a small mine known 
as Huel Florence, near Tavistock, from which some lead ore has been sold at upwards 
of 90/. a ton, on account of the large quantity of silver it contained. At the conclu- 
sion of this article some tables will be given, showing the argentiferous character of 
the different lead-producing districts of the United Kingdom. 

Before proceeding to the consideration of the metallurgy of lead, a few brief notices 
of the history of lead mining may not be out of place. 

As we have already stated, mining for lead must have been one of the earliest of 
man's subterranean labours, and at all periods of history we learn that lead mines 
have been worked. The Eomans, especially, worked lead mines in Spain, and, after 
the conquest of this country, in many of our lead-producing districts, especially in 
Cardiganshire, Shropshire, and Flintshire. 

Lead mining appears to have been carried on from a very early period in Alston 
Moor, and some other of the northern districts. But in the west of England, lead 
mining must be regarded as a somewhat recent industry. 

Borlase mentions, in 1768, that lead mines had anciently and lately been worked 
in Cornwall, and that those most noted formerly were Penrose, Penwerty, Trevascus, 
Eelestian, and Guamek (Garras). He states that Penrose mines (near Helstone) had 
been wrought for about 200 years — that is, from about the middle of the sixteenth 
century — and that they had jnelded tolerable profit within thirty years. The only 
lead mine worthy of note at work in his time, was at St. Issy, near Padstow. Pryce 
describes the lead ore of Garras, near Truro, to have been so argentiferous, that when 



LEAD 51 

wrought about 1720, it produced 100 oz. of silver in the ton of lead. Huel Pool 
near Helstoue, about 1790, yielded from 40 to 50 oz, of silver per ton of lead, and 
works were erected for extracting the silver. The load ore of Wheal Eose contained 
60 oz. of silver per ton. 

In Devonshire, the Combe Martin and Beer Alston mines have long been cele- 
brated for their argentiferous lead ores. It is stated that the produce of these mines 
was unusually great in the reigns of Edward I. and Edward II. In 1293, William 
de Wymundham accounted at the Treasury for 270 lbs. of silver raised in Devon. 
In 129-1, it amounted to 521^. 10s. weight ; and in 1294, to 704^. 3s. Id. weight. In 
1296, great profit is stated to have been derived from the Devon mines ; and 360 
miners were impressed out of Derbyshire and Wales to work in them. In 1360, a writ 
was issued, authorising certain persons to take up as many miners and workmen as 
should bo necessary to work in the king's mines in Devon, allowing tliem reasonable 
wages according to the custom of the country ; to arrest and imprison such as shoiUd 
resist, till they should give security to serve the king in the said mines, and to buy 
and provide timber at a competent price. 

Henry, bishop of Winchester and cardinal of England, as one of the executors of 
John, duke of Bedford, who had a grant from the king of the gold and silver mines 
of Devon and Cornwall, rendered 26 lbs. and 2 oz. weight of pure silver as the loth 
part of the pure silver raised in those counties from loth December, 21st, to 16th 
August, 23rd of the same king's reign. 

The Combe Martin mine was re-opened in the reign of Elizabeth. The working 
of this mine was strongly recommended to the Long Parliament in 1659; but 
Lysons observes that it does not appear to have been again worked until the close of 
that century, and then without success. In 1813 it was again opened and worked 
for four years, producing only 208 tons of ore in that time. In 1837 they were again 
worked, and it was evident that tlie previous mining operations had been very un- 
skilfully managed. The two lodes near Beer Alston have produced large quantities of 
argentiferous galena, often containing from 80 to 120 oz. of silver per ton of lead. 
According to Mr. Hitchings, the greatest quantity which occurred in that part of them 
named the South Ilooe mine was 140 oz. of silver per ton of lead. In 1784 and 1785 
the silver produce of these mines amounted to 6,600 oz. From Huel Betsy, near 
Tavistock, which was re-opened in 1806, from 300 to 400 tons of lead, and from 
4,000 to 5,000 oz. of silver, were annually obtained. Lead mines were worked at a 
very early period in the Isle of Man, but the recent workings only date from the 
commencement of the present century. The mines of Cardiganshire were evidently 
worked by the Romans. In the reigns of Henry VII. and of Elizabeth they attracted 
much attention, and German miners were invited to work them. 

The English lead-miners distinguish three different kinds of deposits of lead ore : 
■raJce-veins, pipe-vdns, and flat-veins. The English word ' vein ' corresponds to the 
French term jilon ; but miners make use of it indifferently in England and France, to 
indicate all the deposits of this ore, adding an epithet to distinguish the different forms ; 
thus, rake-veins are true veins in the geological acceptation of the word vein ; fife- 
veins are masses usually very narrow, and of oblong shape, most frequently parallel to 
the plane of the rocky strata ; and flat-veins are small beds of ores interposed in the 
middle of these strata. 

In the north of England, which, on account of its great preponderance in produce, 
we take as the basis of our description of lead mining, the ores are for the most part 
found in veins {lodes in Cornish) and flats. Although different names have been as- 
signed to occasional varieties, the usual occurrence of lead ore is in rake-veins, or 
direct running veins, usually named as veins, with some distinctive appellation pre- 
fixed, as, for example, Rampgill Vein, Hudgillburn Vein. Other veins, lying parallel, 
receive a similar prefix, with the addition of the words north, east, or south ; but for 
the last-named the word sun is often used ; as, for instance, Hudgillburn Sun Vein, 
and 2nd and 3rd Sun Vein if further discoveries are made of other parallel veins. 
Considerable quantities of ore are also raised from horizontal extensions of portions 
of the vein called fiats, and these are interposed between the strata adjacent to the 
vein. 

Rake-veins are the most common form in which lead ore occurs in Cumberland. 
They are in general narrower in the sandstone which covers the limestone than in the 
calcareous beds. A thickness of less than a foot in the former becomes suddenly 3 or 
4 feet in the latter ; in the rich vein of Hudgillburn, the thickness is 17 feet in the 
Great limestone, while it does not exceed 3 feet in the overlying Watersill or sandstone. 
This influence exercised on the veins by the nature of the enclosing rock, is instruc- 
tive ; it determines at the same time almost uniformly their richness in lead ore, an 
obsei'vation similar to what has been made in other countries, especially in the veins 
of Kongsberg in Norway. The Cumberland veins are constantly richer, the more 

E 2 



52 LEAD 

powerful they are, in the portions which traverse the calcareous rocks, than in the beds 
of sandstone, and more particularly the schistose rocks. It is rare in the rock called 
plate (a solid slaty clay) for the vein to include any ore ; it is commonly filled with a 
species of potter's earth. The upper calcareous beds are also in general more produc- 
tive than the lower ones. In most of these mines, the veins were not worked till 
lately below the fifth calcareous bed (the four-fathom limestone), which is 307 yards 
beneath the Millstone-Grit ; and as the first limestone stratum is 108 yards beneath 
it, it follows that the thickness of the part of the ground where the veins are rich in 
lead does not in general exceed 200 yanis. It appears, however, that veins have been 
mined in the neighbourhood of Alston Moor downwards to the eleventh calcareous 
stratum, or Tyne bottom limestone, which is 418 yards under the Millstone-Grit of the 
coal formation, immediately above the whinsill ; and that they have been followed 
above the first limestone stratum, as high as the grindstone sill, which is only 83 yards 
below the same stratum of Millstone-Grit ; so that in the total thickness of the plumbi- 
ferous formation is there more than 836 yards. It has been asserted that lead veins 
have been traced even further down, into the Memerby scar-limestone ; but they have 
not been mined. 

The greatest enrichment of a vein takes place commonly in the points where its 
two sides, being not far asunder, belong to the same rock ; and its impoverishment 
occurs when one side is calcareous and the other a schistose clay. The minerals which 
most frequently accompany the galena are carbonate of lime, fluoride of calcium, sul- 
phate of barjrta, quartz, and pyrites. 

The pipe-veins {amas in French) are seldom of great length; but some have a 
considerable width ; their composition being somewhat similar to that of the rake-veins. 
They meet commonly in the neighbourhood of the two systems, sometimes being in 
evident communication together ; they are occasionally barren ; but when a wide pipe- 
vein is metalliferous, it is said to be very productive. 

The flat-veins, or strata-veins, seem to be nothing else than expansions of the matter 
of the vein between the planes of the strata ; and contain the same ores as the veins 
in their vicinity. When they are metalliferous, they are worked along with the ad- 
jacent rake-vein, and are productive to only a certain distance from that vein, unless 
they get enriched by crossing a rake-vein. Some examples have been adduced of ad- 
vantageous workings in flat-veins in the great limestone of Cumberland, particularly in 
the mines of Coalcleugh and Nenthead. The rake-veins, however, furnish the greater 
part of the lead which Cumberland and the adjacent counties send every year into 
the market. 

The metalliferous limestone occupies, in Derbyshire, a length of about 25 miles from 
north-west to south-east, under a very variable breadth, which towards the south 
amounts to 25 miles. Castleton to the north, Suxton to the north-west, and Matlock 
to the south-east, lie nearly upon its limits. It is surrounded on almost all sides by 
the Millstone-Grit, which covers it, and which is, in its turn, covered by the coal strata. 
The nature of the rocks beneath the limestone is not known. In Cumberland the 
metalliferous limestone includes a bed of trap, designated under the name of whinsill. 
In Derbyshire the trap is much more abundant, and it is thrice interposed between the 
limestone. These two rocks constitute of themselves the whole mineral mass, through 
a thickness of about 550 yards, measuring from the Millstone-Grit ; only in the upper 
portion, that is near the Millstone-Grit, there is a pretty considerable thickness of 
argillo-calcareous schists. 

Four great bodies or beds of limestone are distinguishable, which alternate with 
three masses of trap, called toadstone. The lead veins exist in the calcareous strata, 
but disappear at the limits of the toadstone. It has, however, been ascertained that 
they recur in the limestone underneath. See Mines and Mining. 

Metaixuhgy of Lead. 

Although lead forms an essential element in a large number of minerals, the ores of 
this metal are, strictly speaking, far from numerous. Of these the most important is 
sulphide of lead, or galena. This mineral, which possesses a metallic brilliancy, and 
has a lighter colour than metallic lead, presents, in its cleavage, all the variations 
from large facettes and laminae indicating a cubic crystallisation to a most minutely 
granular structure. It is extremely brittle, and its powder presents a brilliant black- 
ish-grey appearance. 

The specific gravity of galena is 7'5 to 7'8, and its composition, when absolutely 
pure, is — 

Lead 86*55 

Sulphur 13-45 

100-00 



LEAD 5S 

The next most important ore of lead is the carbonate, which is a brittle mineral, of 
a white or greyish-white colour, having a specific gravity varying from 6*46 to 6'50i 
Its composition is — 

Carbonic acid 16"06 

Oxide of lead 83-66 

99-61 

Large quantities of this substance occur in the mines of the Mississippi Valley in 
the United States of America, where they were formerly thrown away as useless, but 
have since been collected and smelted. Vast deposits of this substance have also been 
found in the Bunter sandstone, near Diiren in Prussia, and at Freyung in Bavaria. 

The extraction and mechanical preparation of ores is the business of the miner, 
and not of the metallurgist who receives them from the former freed as perfectly as 
possible from foreign matters. 

The metallurgic processes, by the aid of which lead is obtained from galena, may 
be divided into two classes. The first of these is founded on the following reactions :— 
If one equivalent of sulphide of lead and two equivalents of the oxide of the same 
metal are fused together, the result is three equivalents of metallic lead and one 
eqtiivalent of sulphurous acid, which is evolved. 

This reaction is represented by the following equation : — 

PbS + 2PbO = 3Pb + SO^ 

When, on the other hand, one equivalent of sulphide of lead and one equivalent of 
sulphate of lead are similarly treated, two equivalents of lead are obtained, and two 
equivalents of sulphurous acid are evolved. Thus : — 

PbS + PbO.SO" = 2Pb + 2S02. 

The process, fbunded on the foregoing reactions, and which we will distinguish as 
the method by double decomposition, consists in roasting the galena in a reverberatory 
furnace until a certain amount of oxide and sulphate has been formed, and subse- 
quently, after having intimately mixed the charge, and closed the doors of the furnace 
causing the whole to enter into a state of fusion. 

During this second stage of the operation, the reaction between the sulphides, sul- 
phates, and oxides takes place, and metallic lead is eliminated. The roasting of the 
ore is, in some cases, conducted in the same furnace in which the fusion is effected, 
whilst in others two separate furnaces are employed. 

The process by double decomposition is best adapted for the richer varieties of ore, 
and such as are least contaminated by siliceous or earthy impiirities, and is con- 
sequently that which is almost universally employed for smelting the ores of this 
country. 

By the second method, which we will call the process by affinity, the ore is fused 
with a mixture of metallic iron, which by combining with the sulphur liberates the 
metallic lead. This reaction will be understood by reference to the following equa- 
tion : — 

PbS + Fe = Pb + FeS. 

In practice, however, metallic iron is not always employed for this purpose ; cast 
iron is also frequently used, and in some instances the ores of iron and hammer-slags 
are substituted, as are also tap-cinder and other secondary products containing a con- 
siderable percentage of this metal. None of these substances are, however, found to 
be so efficacious as metallic iron, since cast iron requires to be decarburised before it 
can readily decompose the sulphide of lead, and the ores of iron require the intro- 
duction of various fluxes, and the consequent expenditure of an additional amount of 
fuel. In all cases, however, it is judicious to subject the ore to a preliminary roasting, 
in order to eliminate a portion of the sulphur, and thereby reduce the expenditure of 
iron, as well as to agglutinate the ore and render it better adapted for its subsequent 
treatment in the blast-furnace. 

"We will not attempt to describe the different forms given to roasting furnaces em- 
ployed for the ores treated by this process, but would remark that they frequently 
resemble the kilns used for the preparation of lime, whilst in some instances the ores 
are roasted in heaps interstratified with wood or other fuel. 

The method of treating ore by affinity is particularly adapted to those varieties that 
contain a considerable amount of silica, since such minerals, if treated by double de- 
composition, would, by the formation of oxide of lead, give rise to silicates, from 
which it would be exceedingly difficult to extract the metal. 



U LEAD 

English Process. Treaimeni by double decomposition. — Galena, if placed in a 
close vessel which protects it jfrom the action of the air, and exposed to a gradually 
increasing temperature, becomes fused 'vritliout the elimination of any lead taking 
place, but ultimately a portion of the sulphur is driven off, and a subsulphide is 
formed, which at a very elevated temperature is volatilised without change. 

If, however, the vessel be uncovered, and the air allowed to act on its contents, 
oxygen combines with the sulphur, sulphurous acid is evolved, and the desulphuration 
of the mineral is slowly effected. 

When galena is spread on the hearth of a reverberatory ftimace, and is so placed 
as to present the largest possible amount of surface to oxidising influences, it will be 
found that the surface slowly becomes covered with a yellowish-white crust of sulphate 
of lead. The oxygen of the air, by combining with the two elementary bodies of 
which galena is composed, will evidently produce this effect. This is not, however, 
the only chemical change which takes place in the charge under these circumstances ; 
oxide of lead is produced at the same time as the sulphate, or rather the formation of 
the oxide is prior to that of the sulphate. 

In fact, during the first stage of the operation of roasting, sulphurous acid is 
evolved, the sulphur quits the lead, and a portion of that metal remains in a free 
state. This becomes oxidised by the air passing through the furnace, and subse- 
quently a part of it combines with sulphuric acid, formed by the oxidation of sulphu- 
rous acid, and sulphate of lead is the result. In this way, after the expiration of a 
certain period, both oxide and sulphate of lead are present in the furnace. 

During the early period of the roasting, when the temperature of the furnace is not 
very elevated, the proportion of sulphate is larger than that of the oxide formed, but 
in proportion as the heat of the apparatus increases, the production of oxide becomes 
more considerable, whilst that of the sulphate diminishes. 

The sulphate and oxide thus formed re-act in their turn on the undecomposed 
galenia, whilst a portion of the latter, by combining with the sulphide of lead, gives 
rise to the formation of oxysulphide. 

This last compound has no action on galena, except to dissolve it in certain pro- 
portions, but is readily decomposed by the aid of carbonaceous matter. 

It is therefore evident that the addition of carbon, at this stage of the operation, 
will have the effect of reducing the oxide and oxysulphide of lead. 

Every process then that has for its object the reduction of lead ores by double 
decomposition, comprises two principal operations : 1st. The reduction of galena, by 
the aid of heat and atmospheric air, to a mixture of sulphide, oxide, and sulphate, 
which mutually decompose each other, with the elimination of metallic lead ; 2nd. 
The reduction of the oxysulphide by the addition of carbonaceous matter. 

The Reverberaiory Furnace. — The reverberatory furnace employed for the treatment 
of galena is composed, like all other furnaces of this description, of three distinct 
parts, — the fire-place, the hearth, and the chimney. 

The hearth has to a certain extent the form of a funnel, of which the lowest point 
is on the front side of the furnace immediately below the middle door. The molten 
metal, descending from every side along the inclined bottom or sole, is collected in 
this receptacle, and is ultimately run off by means of a proper tap-hole. This tap- 
hole is, during the operation, closed by a pellet of clay. 

The inclination of the hearth is more rapid in the vicinity of the fire-bridge than 
towards the chimney, in order that the liquid metal may not be too long exposed to 
the oxidising and volatilising influences of a current of strongly-heated air. 

The dimensions given to these furnaces, as well as the weight of the charge operated 
on at one time, vary considerably in different localities, but in the north of England 
the following measurements are usually employed: — The fire-grate is 5 feet 9 
inches x 1 foot 10 inches, and the thickness of the fire-bridge 1 foot 6 inches; the 
length of the sole is 9 feet, and its average width 7 feet. The depth of the tivp is 
about 2 feet 6 inches below the top of the inclined sole. The height of the roof at 
the fire-end may be 1 foot 4 inches, and at the other extremity 11 inches. 

The introduction of the charge is in some cases effected by the doors of the furnace, 
whilst in other instances a hopper, placed over the centre of the arch, is made use of. 

On the two sides of the furnace are placed three doors, about 11 inches x 9 inches, 
which are distinguished as 1,2 and 3, counting from the fire-bridge end. The three 
doors on the one side are known as the front doors, whilst those on the other side are 
called the back doors. Immediately beneath the door on the front side of the furnace 
is situated the iron pan into which the molten lead is tapped off. 

The bottom of this arrangement is in most cases composed of fire-bricks, covered 
by a layer of vitrified slags, of greater or less thickness. In order to form this bottom, 
the slags are introduced into the furnace, the doors closed, and the damper raised. 
An elevated temperature is thus quickly obtained, and as soon as the scoriae have 



LEAD 55 

become sufficiently fused, tlicy are, by means of rakcs and paddles, made to assume 
the required form. The charge employed, as before stated, varies in almost every 
establishment. In the North, however, smaller charges are used than in most other 
localities. At Newcastle, and in the neighbourhood, the charge varies from 12 to 14 
cwts. ; in Wales, and near Bristol, 21-cwt. charges are treated ; whilst in Cornwall 
charges of 30 cwts. are not unfrequently worked. The' time required for smelting a 
charge varies with its weight and the nature of the ores, from 6 to 24 hours. 

In some cases the ore is introduced raw into the furnace, whilst in others it under- 
goes a preliminary roasting previous to its introduction. Eich ores are generally 
smelted without being first calcined ; but the poorer varieties, and particvdarly those 
which contain largo quantities of iron pyrites, are, in most instances, subjected to 
roasting in a separate furnace. 

In order to understand more clearly the operation of smelting in furnaces of this 
description, we will suppose that a charge has just been tapped off, and that, after 
thoroughly clearing the hearth, a fresh charge of raw ores has been introduced. 
During the first part of the operation of roasting, which usually occupies about two 
hours, the doors are taken off to admit free access of air, and also for the purpose of 
cooling the furnace, which has been strongly heated at the close of the preceding 
operation. No fuel is at this period charged upon the grate, since the heat of the 
furnace is of itself sufficient to effect the elimination of the first portions of sulphur. 
The ore is carefully stirred, for the purpose of constantly presenting a fresh surface 
to oxidising influences, and when white fumes are no longer observed to pass off in 
large quantities, a little coal may be thrown on the grate, and the temperature gradu- 
ally elevated until the charge becomes slightly clammy and adheres to the rake. 
When the roasting is considered as being sufficiently advanced, the smelter turns his 
attention to the state of the fire, taking care to remove the clinkers and get the grate 
into proper condition for the reception of a fresh supply of fuel. The furnace doors 
are now closed, and a strong heat is kept tip for about a quarter of an hour, when the 
smelter examines the condition of his charge by removing one of the doors. If the 
operation is progressing satisfactorily, and the lead flowing freely and passing without 
obstruction into the tap, the firing is continued a little longer ; but when the ores 
have been found to have taken fire, or are lying unevenly on the bottom of the fur- 
nace, the position of the charge is changed by the use of an iron paddle. During 
this operation the furnace becomes partially cooled, and the reduction of temperature 
thus obtained is frequently found to produce decompositions, which facilitate the re- 
duction of the charge. In the case of extremely refractory ores, this alternate heating 
and cooling of the furnace is sometimes almost indispensable, whilst, in other in- 
stances, their being once or twice raked over is all the manipulation that is required. 

We will suppose that four hours have now' elapsed since the charging of the fur- 
nace, and that the charge has run down the inclined sole towards the tap. The 
smelter now examines the condition of the scoriae, and adds a couple of shovelfuls of 
lime and three or four shovelfuls of small coals, the amount and relative proportions 
of these being regulated in accordance with the aspect of the slags. The charge is 
now, by means of proper tools, again raised to the breast of the furnace, and the firing 
continued until the charge has run down into the tap-hole. The foreman now takes 
his rake and feels if any lumps remain in an unfused condition, and if he finds all to 
be in a fluid state he calls his assistant from the other side, and by the addition of a 
small quantity of lime and flne coal, makes the slag assume a pasty or rather doughy 
consistency. By the aid of his paddle he now pushes this compound up to the oppo- 
site side of the furnace, where it is drawn by an assistant through the back door into 
a trough containing water. Whilst the assistant is doing tliis, the foreman is busily 
engaged in tapping off the metal into the iron pan in front of the furnace, from which, 
when sufficiently cooled, it is laded out into suitable moulds. 

The total duration of the operation may be about six hours. 

To build a furnace of the above description, 5,000 common bricks, 2,000 fire-brick?, 
and 2J tons of fireclay are required. In addition to this, must be reckoned the iron- 
work, the expense of which will be much influenced by the nature of the armatures 
employed and the locality in which the furnace is constnicted. 

The amount of fuel employed for the treatment of a ton of lead ore varies not only 
in relation to the richness of the mineral, but is also much influenced by the nature of 
the associated matrix and the calorific value of the fuel itself. The loss of metal ex- 
perienced during tho operation is mainly dependent on the richness of the ore treated 
and the skill and attention of the foreman. 

In the North about 12 cwts. of coal are consumed in tlie elaboration of 1 ton of 
ore, and the loss of metal on 60 per cent, ore may be estimated at about 12 per cent., 
of which about OJ- per cent, is subsequently recovered from tho slag and fumes. At a 
well-conducted smelting works, situated in the west of England, in which the average 



56 



LEAD 



assay of the ores smelted during the year was 75 J, the yield from the smelting fur- 
naces -wras 68i per cent., and the coal used per ton of ore was 13^ cwts. The lead 
recovered from the slag and fumes amounted to 2| per cent., making the total yield 
of metal 71 i per cent., and the loss on the assay produce 4r| per cent. 

In this establishment the men are paid from 7s. 6d. to 125. 6d. per ton of lead, in 
accordance with the nature of the ores operated on. 

In one establishment the process before described is somewhat varied. The charge 
employed is 21 cwts. This is run down and tapped off at the expiration of 6 hours, 
and about 9 pigs of l\ cwt. each usually obtained. A second charge of 21 cwts. is 
then dropped in, and. as soon as it is roasted, mixed with the slags of the former 
operation. The whole is then run down in the ordinary way, the slags dra^vn and the 
lead tapped off in 9 hours. The produce of the second or double charge is from 14 
to 15 pigs. 

If the ores are difficult to flow, 16 to 16^ hours are required for the two charges. 
A small quantity of black slag from the slag hearth is employed for drying up. 

FHgs. 1331, 1332, 1333, represent the reverberatory furnace at the Marquis of 
Westminster's lead-smelting works, two miles from Holywell. The hearth is hollowed 
out below the middle door of the furnace ; it slopes from the back and ends towards 
this basin. The distance from the lowest point of this concavity up to the eill of the 
door, is usually 24 inches, but it is sometimes a little less, according to the quality of the 

1331 




1332 



1 




ores to be smelted. This surface has no hole for running off the slag, above the level 
of the tap-hole for the lead, like the smelting furnace of Lea, near Matlock. A single 
chimney stack serves for all the establishment ; and receives all the flues of the various 
roasting and reducing furnaces. Fig. 1333 gives an idea of the distribution of these 
flues, a a a, &c., are the furnaces ; b, the flues, 18 inches square ; these lead from 
each furnace to the principal conduit c, which is 5 feet deep by 2^ wide ; din 6 feet 
deep by 3 wide ; c is a rovmd chamber, 15 feet in diameter ; /is a conduit, 7 feet high 
by 6 wide ; ff another, 6 feet high by 3 wide. The chimney at h has a diameter at 
bottom of 30 feet, at top of 12 feet, including the thickness of its sides, forming a trun- 
Cfited cone 100 feet high ; whose base stands upon a hill a little way from the furnaces, 
and 62 feet above their level. 

a, figs, 1331, 1332, is the grate ; h, the door of the fire-place ; c, the fire-bridge ; 
d, the arched roof; e, the hearth ; f f f, &c., the working doors; g g, flues running 
into one conduit, which leads to the subterranean condensing-chamber e, and thence to 
the general chimney ; h, a hopper-shaped opening in the top of the furnace, for sup- 
plying it with ores. 

This magnificent structure is not destined solely for the reduction of the ores, but 
also for dissipating all the vapo&rs which might prove noxious to the health of the 
work-people and to vegetation 



LEAD 57 

The ores smelted at HoljTrell are very refractory galenas, mixed -with blende, cala- 
mine, pyrites, carbonate of lime, &c., but without any fluoride of calcium. They serve 
mutually as fluxes to one another. The coal is of inferior quality. The sole of each 
furnace is formed of slags obtained in the smelting, and they are all of one kind. In 
constructing it, 7 or 8 tons of these slags are first thrown upon the brick area of the 
hearth ; are made to melt by a brisk fire, and in their stiffening state, as they cool, they 
permit the bottom to be sloped and hollowed into the desired shape. Four workmen, 
two at each side of the furnace perform this task. 

The ordinary charge of ore for one smelting operation is 20 cwts., and it is introduced 
through the hopper. An assistant placed at the back doors spreads it equally over the 
whole hearth with a rake ; the furnace being meanwhile heated only with the declining 
fire of a preceding operation. No regular fire is made during the first two hours, but 
a gentle heat merely is kept up by throwing one or two shovelfuls of small coal upon 
the grate from time to time. All the doors are closed, and the register-plate of the 
chimney lowered. 

The outer basin in front of the furnace is at this time filled with the lead derived 
from a former process, the metal being covered with slags. A rectangular slit above 
the tap-hole is left open, and remains so during the whole time of the operation, unless 
the lead should rise in the interior basin above the level of that orifice ; in which case 
a little mound must be raised before it. 

The two doors in front furthest from the fire being soon opened, the head-smelt<'r 
throws in through them, upon the sole of the furnace, the slags swimming upon the 
bath of lead, and a little while afterwards he opens the tap-hole, and runs off the me- 
tixUic lead reduced from these slags. At the same time his assistant turns over the ore 
with his paddle, through the back doors. These being again closed, while the above 
two front doors are open, the smelter throws a shovelful of small coal or coke cinder 
upon the lead-bath, and works the whole together, turning over the ore with the paddle 
or iron oar. About three quarters of an hour after the commencement of the operation, 
he throws back upon the sole of the hearth the fresh slags which then float upon the 
bath of the outer basin, and which are mixed with coaly matter. He next turns over 
these slags, as well as the ore vrith the paddle, and shuts all the doors. At this time 
the smelter lades off the lead into the pig-moulds. 

The assistant now turns over the ore once more through the back doors. A little 
more than an hour after the operation began, a quantity of lead proceeding from the 
slag last remelted is run off by the tap ; being usually in such quantity as to fill one 
half of the outer basin. Soth the workmen then turn,over the ore, with the paddles, 
at the several doors of the furnace. Its interior is at this time of a dull red heat ; the 
roasting being carried on rather by the combustion of the sulphurous ingredients, than 
by the action of the small quantity of coal in the grate. The smelter, after -shutting 
the front doors, with the exception of that next the fire-bridge, lifts off the fresh slags 
lying upon the surface of the outside bath, drains them, and throws them back into 
the furnace. 

An hour and a half after the commencement, the lead begins to ooze out in small 
quantities from the ore ; but little should be suffered to flow before two hours have 
expired. About this time the two workmen open all the doors, and turn over the ore, 
each at his own side of the furnace. An hour and three quarters after the beginning, 
there are few vapours in the furnace, its temperature being very moderate. No more 
lead is then seen to fiow upon the sloping hearth. A little coal being thrown into the 
grate to raise the heat slightly, the workmen turn over the ore, and then close all the 
doors. 

At the end of two hours, the first fire or roasting being completed, and the doors 
shut, the register is to be lifted a little, and coal thrown upon the grate to give the 
second fire, which lasts during 25 minutes. When the doors are now opened, the inside 
of the furnace is of a vivid red colour, and the lead flows down from every side towards 
the inner basin. The smelter with his rake or paddle pushes the slags upon that basin 
back towards the upper part of the sole, and his assistant spreads them uniformly over 
the surface through the back doors. The smelter next throws in by his middle door, a 
few shovelfuls of quicklime upon the lead-bath. The assistant meanwhile for a quarter 
of an hour works the ore and the slags together through the three back doors, and 
then spreads them out, while the smelter pushes the slags from the surface of the inner 
basin back to the upper part of the sole. The doors being now left open for a little, 
while the interior remains in repose, the metallic lead, which had been pushed back with 
the slags, flows down into the basin. This occasional cooling of tho furnace is thought 
to be necessary for the better separation of the products, especially of the slags from 
the red bath. 

In a short time the workmen resume their rakes, and turn over the slags along with 
the ore. Three hours after the commencement a little more fuel is put into the grate, 



5R 



LEAB 



merely to keep up a moderate heat of the furnace during the paddling. After three 
hours and ten minutes, the grate being charged ■with fuel for the third fire, the register 
is completely opened, the doors are all shut, and the furnace is left in this state for 
three quarters of an hour. In nearly four hours from the commencement, all the doors 
being opened, the assistant levels the surfaces "with his rake, in order to favour the 
descent of any drops of lead ; and then spreads the slags, which are pushed back towards 
him by the smelter. The latter now throws in a fresh quantity of lime, with the view 
not merely of covering the lead-bath and preventing its oxidation, but of rendering the 
slags less fluid. 

Ten minutes after the third fire is completed, the smelter puts a new charge of fuel 
on the grate, and shuts the doors of the furnace to give it the fourth fire. In four hours 
and forty minutes from the commencement, this fire being finished, the doors are 
opened, the smelter pierces the tap-hole to discharge the lead into the outer basin, and 
throws some quicklime upon the slags in the inner basin. He then pushes the slags 
thus dried up towards the upper part of the hearth, and his assistant rakes them oat by 
the back doors. 

The whole operation of a smelting shift takes about four hours and a half, or at most 
five hours, in which four periods may be distinguished : — 

1. The first fire for roasting the ores requires very moderate firing, and la«ts two 
hours. 

2. The second fire, or smelting, requires a higher heat, with shut doors ; at the end 
the slags are dried up with lime, and the furnace is also allowed to cool a little. 

3. 4. The last two periods, or the third anA fourth fires, are likewise twosmeltings or 
foundings, and differ from the first only in requiring a higher temperature. The heat 
is greatest in the last. The form and dimensions of the furnace are calculated to cause 
a uniform distribution of heat over the whole surface of the hearth. Sometimes billets 
of green wood are plunged into the metallic lead of the outer basin, causing an ebulli- 
tion which favours the separation of the slags, and consequently the production of a 
purer lead ; but no more metallic metal is obtained. 

Ten cwts. of coal are consumed at Holywell in smelting one ton of the lead-ore schlich 
or sludge ; but at Grassington, near Skipton in Yorkshire, with a similar furnace worked 
with a slower heat, the operation taking from seven hours to seven hours and a half, 

instead of five, only 7g cwts. of 
coal are consumed. But here the 
ores are less refractory, have the 
benefit of fluor-spar as a flux, and 
are more exhausted of their metal, 
being smelted upon a less sloping 
hearth. 

The ore-hearth. — This furnace, 
called by the French foumeau 
ecossais, is from 22 to 24 inches 
in height and 1 foot by 1^ in area 
inside ; but its horizontal section, 
always rectangular, varies much 
in its dimensions at different 
levels, as shown in fig. 1334. 



1334 




C, TuySre. M, Workstone. P, Lead-pot. 



Treatment of lead oreshy the Scotch furnace or ore-hearth. — This furnace is generally 
employed in the counties of Northumberland, Cumberland, and Durham for the 
smelting of lead ores, which were formerly carried to them without any preparation, 
but they are now often exposed to a preliminary calcination. The roasted ore yields 
in the Scotch furnace a more considerable product than the crude ore, because it forms 
in the furnace a more porous mass, and at the same time it works drier, to use the 
founder's expression ; that is, it allows the stream of air impelled by the blast to diflfuso 
itself more completely across the matters contained in the furnace. 

In proceeding to smelt by means of an ore-hearth, two workmen are required to be 
in attendance from the beginning to the end of each smelting shift, the duration of 
which is from 12 to 16 hours. The first step in commencing a smelting shift-is to fill 
up the hearth-bottom, and space below the workstone with peats, placing one already 
kindled before the nozzle of the bellows. The powerful blast very soon sets the 
whole in a blaze, and by the addition of small quantities of coal at intervals, a body of 
fire is obtained, filling the hearth. Eoastod ore is now put upon the surface of the 
fire, between the forestone and pipestone, which immediately becomes heated red hot 
and reduced ; the lead from it sinking down and collecting in the hearth bottom. 
Other portions of ore of 10 or 12 lbs. each are introduced from time to time, and the 
contents of the hearth are stirred and kept open, being occasionally dniwn out and 
examined upon the workstone, until the hearth bottom becomes full of lead. The 



LEAD 59 

hearth may now be considered in its regular working state, having a mass of heated 
fuel, mixed with partly-fused and semi-reduced ore, called Bronze, floating upon a 
stratum of melted lead. The smelting shift is then regularly proceeded with by the 
two workmen, as follows : — The fire being made up, a stratum of ore is spread upon 
the horizontal surface of the hrouzc, and the whole suffered to remain exposed to the 
blast for the space of about five minutes. At the end of that time, one man plunges 
a poker into the fluid lead, in the hearth bottom below the hrouze, and raises the 
whole up, at different places, so as to loosen and open the bronze, and in doing so, to 
pull a part of it forwards upon the workstone, allowing the recently-added ore to sink 
down into the body of the hearth. The poker is now exchanged for a shovel, 
with a head 6 inches square, with which the brouze is examined upon the workstone, 
and any lumps that may have been too much fused, broken to pieces ; those which are 
so far agglutinated by the heat, as to be quite hard, and further known by their bright- 
ness, being picked out, and thrown aside, to be afterwards smelted in the slag hearth. 
They are called ' grey slags.' A little slaked lime, in powder, is then spread upon 
the brouze, which has been drawn forward upon the workstone, if it exhibit a pasty 
appearance ; and a portion of coal is added to the hearth, if necessary, which the 
workman knows by experience. In the mean time, his fellow workman, or shoulder 
fellow, clears the opening, through which the blast passes into the hearth, with a 
shovel, and places a peat immediately above it, which he holds in its proper situation, 
until it is fixed, by the return of all the brouze, from the workstone into the hearth. 
The fixe is made up again into the shape before described, a stratum of fresh ore spread 
upon the part, and the operation of stirring, brealdng the lumps upon the workstone, 
and picking out the hard slags repeated, after the expiration of a few minutes, exactly 
in the same manner. At every stirring a fresh peat is put above the nozzle of the 
bellows, which divides the blast, and causes it to be distributed all over the hearth ; 
and as it burns away into light ashes, an opening is left for the blast to issue freely 
into the body of the bronze. The soft and porous nature of dried peat renders it very 
suitable for this purpose ; but, in some instances, where a deficiency of peats has 
occurred, blocks of wood of the same size have been used with little disadvantage. As 
the smelting proceeds, the reduced lead, filtering down through all parts of the brouze 
into the hearth bottom, flows through the channel, out of which it is laded into a 
proper mould, and formed into pigs. 

The principal particulars to be attended to in managing an ore-hearth properly 
during the smelting shift are these: First. — It is very important to employ a 
proper blast, which should be carefully regulated, so as to be neither too weak nor 
too powerful. Too weak a blast would not excite the requisite heat to reduce the ore, 
and one too powerful has the effect of fusing the contents of the hearth into slags. 
In this particular no certain rules can be given ; for the same blast is not suitable 
for every variety of ore. Soft free-grained galena, of great specific gravity, being 
very fusible, and easily reduced, requires a moderate blast ; while the harder and 
lighter varieties, many of which contain more or less iron, and are often found rich 
in silver, require a blast considerably stronger. In all cases, it is most essential, that 
the blast should be no more than sufficient to reduce the ore, after every other neces- 
sary precaution is taken in working the hearth. Second. — The blast should be as 
much divided as possible, and made to pass through every part of the brouze. Third. 
— The hearth should be vigorously stirred, at due intervals, and part of its contents 
exposed upon the workstone; when the partially -fused lumps shoidd be well broken to 
pieces, as well as those which are further vitrified, so as to form slags, carefully picked 
out. This breaking to pieces, and exposure of the hottest part of the brouze upon 
the workstone, has a most beneficial effect in promoting its reduction into lead ; for 
the atmospheric air immediately acts upon it, and, in that heated state, the sulphur 
is readily consumed, or converted into sulphurous acid, leaving the lead in its metallic 
state ; hence it is that the reduced lead always flows most abundantly out of the hearth 
immediately after the return of the brouze, which has been spread out and exposed to 
the atmosphere. Fourth. — The quantity of lime Aised should be no more than is just 
necessary to thicken the brouze sufiiciently ; as it does not in the least contribute to 
reduce the ore by any chemical effect : its use is merely to render the brouze less 
pasty, if, from the heat being too great, or from the nature of the ore, it has a dis- 
position to become very soft. Fifth. — Coal should also be supplied judiciously ; too 
much unnecessarily increasing the bulk of the brouze, and causing the hearth to get 
too full. 

"When the ore is of a description to smelt readily, and the hearth is well managed in 
every imrticular, it works with but a small quantity of brouze, which feels dry when 
stirred, and is easily kept open and permeable to the blast. The reduction proceeds 
rapidly with a moderate degree of heat, and the slags produced are inconsiderable ; but, 
if in this state, the stirring of the brouze and exposure upon the workstone are die- 



60 LEAD 

continued, or practised at longer intervals, the hearth quickly gets too hot, and imme- 
diately begins to agglutinate together; rendering evident the necessity of these 
operations to the successful management of the process. It is not difficult to under- 
stiind why these effects take place, -when it is considered, that in smelting by means 
of the ore-hearth, it is the oxygen of the blast and of the atmosphere which principally 
accomplishes the reduction ; and the point to be chiefly attended to consists in exposing 
the ore to its action, at the proper temperature, and under the most favourable cir- 
cumstances. The importance of having the ores free from impurities is also evident ; 
for the stony or eartliy matter it contains impedes the smelting process, and increases 
the quantity of slags. A very slight difference of composition of perfectly-dressed ore 
may readily be understood to affect its reducibility ; and hence it is, that ore from 
ditibrent veins, or the same vein in different strata, as before obser\-ed, is frequently 
found to.jwork very differently when smelted singly in the hearth. It happens, there- 
fore, that with the best workmen, some varieties of ore require more coal and lime, and 
a greater degree of heat than others ; and it is for this reason that the forestone is made 
moveable, so as to answer for ore which works either with a large or a small quantity 
of broaze. 

It has been stated that the duration of a smelting shift is from 12 to 15 hours, at the 
end of which time, with every precaution, the hearth is apt to become too hot, and it 
is necessary to stop for some time, in order that it may cool. At miUs where the 
smelting shift is 12 hours, the hearths usually go on 12 hours, and are suspended 5 ; 
four and a half or five bings ' of ore (36 to 40 cwts.) are smelted during a shift, and the 
two men who manage the hearth work each four shifts per week ; terminating their 
week's work at 3 o'dock on Wednesday afternoon. They are succeeded by two other 
workmen, who also work four 12-hour shifts ; the last of which they finish at 4 o'clock 
on Saturday. In these eight shifts, from 36 to 40 bings of ore are smelted, which, 
when of good quality, produce from 9 to 10 fodders* of lead. At other mills where 
the shift is 14 or 15 hours, the furnace is kindled at 4 o'clock in the morning, and' 
worked until 6 or 7 in the evening each day, six days in the week ; during this shift 
6 or 6^ bings of ore are smelted, and two men at one hearth, in the early part of each 
week, work three such shifts, producing about 4 fodders of lead — two other men work 
each three shifts in the latter part of the week, making the total quantity smelted per 
week, in one hearth, from 30 to 33 bings. 

Hearth-ends and Smelter's fume. — In the operation of smelting, as already described, 
it happens that particles of unreduced and semi-reduced ore are continually expelled 
from the hearth, partly by the force of the blast, but principally by the decrepita- 
tion of the ore on the application of beat. This ore is mixed with a portion of 
the fuel and lime made use of in smelting, all of which are deposited upon the top 
of the smelting-hearth, and are called hearth-ends. It is customary to remove the 
hearth-ends from time to time, and deposit them in a convenient place until the end 
of the year, or some shorter period, when they are washed to get rid of the earthy 
matter they may contain, and the metallic portion is roasted at a strong heat, until 
it begins to soften and cohere into lumps, and afterwards smelted in the ore-hearth, 
exactly in the same way as ore undergoing that operation for the first time, as already 
described. 

It is difficult to state what quantity of h^rth-ends are produced by the smelting of 
a given quantity of ore, but in one instance the hearth-ends produced in smelting 9,751 
bings, on being roasted and reduced in the ore-hearth, yielded of common lead 315 
cwts., and the grey slags separated in this process gave, by treatment in the slag- 
hearth, 47 cwts. of slag-lead ; making the total quantity of lead 362 cwts., which is 
at the rate of 3 cwts. 2 qrs. 23 lbs. from the smelting of 100 bings of ore. 

Slag-hearth. — The various slags obtained from the different operations of lead 
smelting are di^dded into two classes. Those which do not contain a sufficient amount 
of metal to pay for further treatment are thrown away as useless, whilst those in 
which the percentage of lead is sufficiently large are treated by the slag-hearth. 

Figs. 1335, 1336, represent a slag-hearth, the fourneau a Tnanche (elbow furnace) 
of the French, and the Krummofen (crooked furnace) of the Germans ; such as is used 
at Alston Moor, in Cumberland, for the reduction of the lead-slag. It resembles the 
Scotch furnace. The shaft is a parallelopiped, whose base is 26 inches by 24 inches in 
area inside, and whose height is 3 feet ; the sole-plate a, of cast iron, slopes slightly 
down to the basin of reception, or the fore-hearth, b. Upon both of the long sides of 
the sole-plate there are cast-iron beams, called bearers, c, c, of great strength, which 
support the side walls built of a coarse-grained sandstone, as well as the cast-iron 
plate d (forestone), which forms the front of the shaft. This stands 7 inches off from- 
the eole-plate, leaving an empty space between them. The back side is made of cast 

' 1 bing=8 cwtB. " 1 fodcler=21 c^-ts. 



LEAD 



61 



iron, from the sole-plate to the horizontal tuyere in its middle ; but above this point 
it is made of sandstone. The tuyere is from 1^ to 2 inches in diameter. In front of 
the fore-hearth b, a cistern, e, is placed, through which -water continually flows, so 

1335 



1336 





that the slags •which spontaneously overflow the fore-hearth may become inflated and 
divided, whereby the lead disseminated through them may be readily separated by 
washing. The lead itself flows from the fore-hearth b, through an orifice into an iron 
pot, /, which is kept over a fire. The metal obtained from this slag-hearth is much 
less pure than that extracted directly from the ore. 

The whole bottom of the furnace is filled to a height of 17 inches, that is, to within 
2 or 3 inches of the tuyere, with the rubbish of coke reduced to coarse powder and 
beat strongly down. At each smelting shift, this bed must be made anew, and the 
interior of the furnace above the tuyere repaired, with the exception of the front, con- 
sisting of cast iron. In advance of the furnace there is a basin of reception, which is 
also filled with coke rubbish. Farther off is the pit, full of water, replenished by a 
cold stream, which incessantly runs in through a pipe. The scoriae, in flowing out of 
the furnace, pass over the coke bed in the basin of reception, and then fall into the 
water, whose coolness makes them fly into small pieces, after which they are easily 
washed, so as to separate the lead that may be entangled among them. 

These furnaces are urged sometimes by fans or by wooden bellows,/^. 1337. But 
at the smelting works of Lea, near Matlock, the blowing-machine consists of two 
casks, which move upon hori- 
zontal axes. Each of these 
casks is divided into two 
equal parts by a fixed plane 
that passes through it's axis, 
and is filled with water to a 
certain height. The water of 
one side communicates with 
that of the other by an open- 
ing in the lower part of the 
di vision. Each cask possesses 
11 movement of oscillation, 
produced by a rod attached 
to a crank of a bucket-wheel. 
At each demi-oscillation one of the compartments, being in communication with the 
external air, is filled ; whilst the other, on the contrary, communicates with the nozzle, 
and supplies wind to the furnace. 

Instead of being blown by a cold blast, these furnaces are sometimes supplied with 
heated air. When smelting with cold air, it is often found difficult to proportion the 
quantity of slag or other substance operated on, so as to preserve the nose or cone of 
slag which forms at the end of the tuyere from growing too long, to the prejudice of 
the operation. When the substance operated on is poor for metal, and very refractory, 
it frequently happens that the smelter is obliged to break the nose, or introduce some 
very fusible substance in order to melt it off. By the introduction of hot air this in- 
convenience is removed, since by increasing or lowering the temperature of the blast, 
the nose may be allowed to lengthen or shorten, according as the nature of the slags 
may require. The temperature found to answer best is from 250° to 300° Fahr. ; 
since when it is heated to from 500° to 600°, it is found impossible to form a nose of 
sufficient length to convey the blast to the front of the hearth, and therefore the back, 
which is expensive to rebuild, is quickly destroyed. 

The advantage to be derived from the use of the hot blast will bo evident, from the 
result of two experiments which were tried some years since : — 

Twenty-eight tons of slag smelted with cold blast consumed 392 cubic feet of air 
per minute. 

Labour cost , £3 7 8 

Coke, 7 tons, at 24s. 6d 8 116 




Total . £11 19 2 



C2 LEAD 

Thirty-five tons of similar slag smelted with hot blast consumed 300 cubic feet of 
air per minute. 

Labour cost £3 7 8 

Coke, 5 tons, 17cwts., at 24s. 6<?. . . .734 

Turf for beating air, 11 loads, Is. 8^. . . . 18 4 

Total . £11 9 4 

From wliich it will be seen that, -with one-quaiter part less air, a quarter part more 
slag was melted per week, and a saving of expense of nearly 10s. effected. 

The loss of lejid experienced in smelting by the slag-hearth is, however, very 
great, even under the most favourable circumstances ; and it has, consequently, of 
later years been gradually superseded by the Castilian furnace, which will be shortly 
described. Many large and well-conducted establishments still however continue to 
employ the slag-hearth, and when well constructed and skilfully managed, the loss 
arising from volatilisation may be considerably reduced. 

Castilian Furnace. — Within the bast few years a blast-furnace has been introduced 
into the lead-works of this country which possesses great advantages over every other 
description of apparatus which has been hitherto employed for the treatment of lead 
ores of low produce. This apparatus, although first employed in Spain, was invented 
by an Englishman (Mr. W. Goundry) who was employed in the reduction of rich 
slags in the neighbourhood of Cartliagena. 

This furnace is circular, usually about 2 feet 4 inches, or 2 feet 6 inches in diameter, 
and is constructed of the best fire-bricks, so moulded as to fit together, and allow all 
the joints to follow the radii of the circle described by the brick-work. Its usual 
height is 8 feet 6 inches, and the thickness of the masonry invariably 9 inches. In 
this arrangement the breast is formed by a semicircular plate of cast iron, furnished 
with a lip for running off the slag, and has a longitudinal slot, in which is placed the 
tapping-hole. 

On the top of this cylinder of brick-work a box-shaped covering of masonry is 
supported by a cast-iron framing, resting on four pillars, and in this is placed the 
door for feeding the furnace, and the outlet by which the various products of com- 
bustion escape to the flues. The lower part of this liood is fitted closely to the body 
of the furnace, whilst its top is closed by an arch of 4J-inch brick-work laid in 
fire-clay. The bottom is composed of a mixtui-e of coke-dust and fire-clay, slightly 
moistened, and well beaten to the height of the top of the breast-pan, which stands 
nearly 3 feet above the level of the fioor. Above the breast-pan is an arch so 
turned as to form a sort of niche, 18 inches in width, and rather more than 2 feet in 
height. 

When the bottom has been solidly beaten, up to the required height, it is hollowed 
out so as to form an internal cavity, communicating freely with the breast-pan, whicli 
is filled with the same material, and subsequently hollowed out to a depth slightly 
below the level of the internal cavity. The blast is supplied by three water tuyeres, 
3 inches in diameter at the smaller end, 6J inclies at the larger, and 10 inches in 
length. Into these the nozzles are introduced, by which a current of air is supplied 
by means of a fan or ventilator making about 800 revolutions per minute. The bla.st 
may be conveniently conducted to the nozzles through brick channels formed beneath 
the fioor of the smelting-house. 

The ores treated in this furnace ought never to contain more than 30 per cent, of 
metal, and when richer, must be reduced to about this tenure by the addition of slags 
and other fluxes. In charging this apparatus, the coke and ore are supplied stratum 
super stratum, and care must be taken so to dispose the coke as not to heat too 
violently the brickwork of the furnaces. In order to allow the slags which are pro- 
duced to escape freely into the breast-pan, a brick is left out of the front of the 
fiirnace at the height of the fore-liearth, which, for the purpose of preventing the 
cooling of the scoriae, is kept covered by a layer of coke-dust or cinders. From the 
breast-pan the slags flow constantly off over a spout into cast-iron waggons, where 
they consolidate into masses, having the form of truncated pyramids, of which the 
larger base is about 2 feet square. As soon as a sufficient amount of lead is accu- 
mulated in the bottom of the furnace, it is let off into a lateral lead-pot, by removing 
the clay-stopper of the tap-hole situated in the slot of the breast-pan, and, after 
being properly skimmed, it is laded into moulds. When, in addition to lead, the 
ore treated likewise contains a certain portion of copper, this metal will be found 
in the form of a matt floating on the surface of the leaden bath. This, when suffi- 
ciently solidified, is removed, and, after being roasted, is operated on for the copper it 
contains. 

The waggons in which the liquid slag runs off are frequently made to traverse 



LEAD 



63 



email railways, by •which, -vvhon one mass has been removed, its place may readily bo 
supplied by an empty waggon. When nearly cold, the casings of the waggons are 
turned over, and the blocts of slag easily made to drop out. In addition to the 
facility for transport obtained in this way, one of the great advantages obtained by 
this method of manipulation arises from the circumstance that should the furnaces at 
any time run lead or matt, without its being detected by tire smelter, the whole of it 
will be collected at the bottom of the block, from which, when cold, it may be readily 
detached. 

In working these furnaces care must be taken to prevent flamo from appearing at 
the tunnel-head, since, provided the slags are sufficiently liquid, the cooler the appa- 
ratus is kept the less will be the loss of metal through volatilisation. In addition 
to the greatest attention being paid to the working of the furnace, it is necessary, in 
order to obtain the best results, that all establishments in which this apparatus is 
employed should bo provided with long and capacious flues, in which the condensation 
of the fumes takes place, previous to arriving at the chimney-shaft. These flues 
should be built at least 3 feet in width, and 6 feet in height, so as readily to admit 
of being cleaned, and are often made of several thousand yards in length. The value 
of the fumes so condenged, amounts to many hundreds, and in some instances thousands 
per annum. 

In order to be advantageously worked in these furnaces, the ores should be first 
roasted, and subsequently agglomerated into masses, which, after being broken into 
fragments of about the size of the fist, and mixed with the various fluxes, are charged 
as before described. 

In an establishment in which the average assay produce of the roasted ore for lead 
is 42|ths, the furnace yield is SS^fths, and the weight of coke employed to effect the 
reduction 22 per cent, of the roasted ore operated on. The mixture charged into the 




furnace, in this instance, is composed of 100 parts of roasted ore, 42 parts of slags 
from a previous operation, 8 parts of scrap iron, and 7 parts of limestone. Each 



64 



LEAD 



furnace works off about seven tons of roasted ore in the course of 24 hours ; the 
weight of slags run off is about double that of the lead obtained, and tlie matt re- 
moved from the surface of the pan is nearly 6 per cent, of the lead produced. The 
ores treated in this establishment consist of galena, much mixed •w'ith spathose iron, 
and are therefore somewhat refractory. A furnace of this kind requires for its con- 
struction about 1,000 segmental fire-bricks, and the same number of ordinary fire- 
bricks of second quality. 

Figs. 1338, 1339, 1340,and 1341 represent respectively a vertical section, an elevation, 
a ground plan, and an horizontal section of a Castilian furnace. The section/^. 1341 



1340 



1341 





IS on the line x t, Jiff. 1339. a is the body of the furnace, b, the bottom, composed of 
a mixture of coke-dust and fire-clay ; c c c, the tuyeres ; d, the rectangular covering of 
masonry ; e e e e, cast-iron pillars ; f, the breast-pan ; g, slot for tapping hole ; h, lip 
of breast-pan ; i, feeding-door ; k, flue-hole ; v, a, ground line. 

1342 





Fias. 1342, 1343 are the slag-waggons, A being a moveable case without a bottom, 
and B a strong cast-iron plate running on four wheels. 

The desulphuration of the ores to be treated in these furnaces may be effected either 
by the aid of an ordinary reverberatory roasting furnace, or in heaps, or properly 
constructed kilns. 

The kilns best adapted for this purpose consist of rectangular chambers, having an 
arched roof, and pronded with proper fines for the escape of the evolved gases, as 
well as a wide door for charging and withdra^ving the ore to be operated on. 

Each of these chambers is capable of containing from 25 to 30 tons of ore'; and, 
in order to charge it, a layer of faggots and split wood is laid on the floor, and this, 
after having been covered by a layer of ore about two feet in thickness, is ignited, 
care being at the same time taken to close, by means of loose brick -work, the open- 
ing of the door to the same height. When this first layer has become sufficiently 
ignited, a fresh stratum of ore, mixed with a little coal or charcoal, is thrown upon it, 



LEAD 



6S 



and when this layer has in its turn become Bufl&ciently heated, more ore is thrown 
on. In this way ore is from time to time added, until the kiln has become full, whea 
the orifice of the doorway is closed by an iron plate, and the operation proceeds regu- 
larly and without further trouble until the greater portion has become eliminated. 

This usually happens at the expiration of about four weeks from the time of first 
ignition, and the brick-work front is then removed, and the ores broken out, and after 
being mixed with proper fluxes, passed through the blast-furnace. 

The proportion of wood necessary for the roasting of a ton of ore by this means 
must necessarily depend on the composition of the minerals operated on ; but with ores 
of the description above-mentioned, and in a neighbourhood where wood is moderately 
cheap, the desulphuration may be effected at a cost of about 5s, per ton. 

CalciniTiff.^-The lead obtained by the various processes above described generally 
contains a sufficient amount of silver to render its extraction of much importance ; 
but, in addition to this, it is not unfrequently associated with antimony, tin, copper, and 
various other impurities, which require to be removed before the separation of the 
silver can be effected. 

This operation consists in fusing the hard lead in a reverberatory furnace of peculiar 
construction, and allowing it to remain, when in a melted state, exposed to the oxi- 
dising influences of the gases passing through the apparatus. By this treatment the 
antimony, copper, and other impurities become oxidised, and on rising to the surface 
of the metallic bath are skimmed off, and removed with an iron rake. The hearth of 
the furnace in which this operation is conducted consists of a large cast-iron pan, 
which may be 10 feet in length, 5 feet 6 inches in width, and 10 inches in depth. The 
fire-place, which is 1 foot 8 inches in width, has a length equal to the width of the 
pan, and is separated from it by a fire-bridge 2 feet in width. The height of the arch 
at the bridge-end is 1 foot 4 inches above the edge of the pan, whilst at the outer 
extremity it is only about 8 inches. 

The lead to be introduced into the pan is first fused in a large iron pot fixed in 
brick -work at the side of the fiumace, and subsequently laded into it through an iron 
gutter adapted for that purpose. The length of time necessary for the purification of 
hard lead obviously depends on the nature and amount of the impurities which it 
contains ; and, consequently, some varieties will be sufficiently improved at the ex- 
piration of twelve hours, whilst in other instances it is necessary to continue the 
operation during three or four weeks. The charge of hard lead varies from eight to 
eleven tons. 

When the metal is thought to be in a fit state for tapping, a small portion taken out 
with a ladle, and poured into a mould used for this purpose, is found on cooling to 

1344 



Q 







B 



E 



assume at the surface a peculiar crystalline appearance, which when once seen is 
readily again recognised. As soon as this appearance presents itself, an iron plug is 



1345 




withdrawn from the bottom of the pan, and the lead run off into an iron pan, from 
which it is subsequently laded into moidds. 
Vol. in. F 



a^ 



LSAD 



The construction of a furnace of this description requires 5,000 common bricks, 
3,500 fire-bricks, and 2 tons of fire-clay. 



1347 



1348 




Figs. 1344 and 1345 represent an 
elevation and vertical section of the 
calcining furnace, a is the fire-place ; 
B, ash-pit ; c, fire-bridge ; d, cast-iron 
pan ; E, fine ; f f f, channels for allow- 
ing the escape of moisture ; g, one of 
the working doors ; h, spout for running 
oflf calcined metal. Fig. 1346 repre- 
sents the pan removed from the 
masonry, and shows a groove in the 

1346 



T^ 



lip for the introduction of a sheet-iron 
dam, tightened with moistened bone-ash 
for keeping in the fused metal. 

In the more modem furnaces of this 
description, the corners are usually 
rounded to prevent breakage from ex- 
pansion, whilst the tapping is eflfected 
by means of a hole through the bottom 
near one of the sides. This, when 
closed, is stopped by means of an iron 
plug kept in its place by a weighted 
lever. 

Concentration of the silver. — This 
process is founded on the circumstance, 
first noticed in the year 1829, by the 
late H. L. Pattinson, of Newcastle-on- 
Tyne, that when lead containing silver 
is melted in a suitable vessel, after- 
wards slowly allowed to cool, and at 
the same time kept constantly stirred, 
at a certain temperature near the 
melting point of lead, metallic crystals 
begin to form. These, as rapidly as 
they are produced, sink to the bottom, 
and on being removed are found to 
contain much less silver than the lead 
originally operated on. The still fluid 
portion, from which the crystals have 
been removed, will at the same time 
be proportionally enriched. 

This operation is conducted in a 
series of 8 or 10 cast-iron pots, set in 
a row, with fire-places beneath. These 
are each capable of containing about 
6 tons of calcined lead, and, on com- 
mencing an operation, that quantity of 
metal, containing, we will suppose, 
20 oz. of silTer per ton, is introduced into a pot (say f. Jig. 1347) about the centre 
of the series. This, when melted, is carefully skimmed with a perforated ladle, and 
the fire immediately withdrawn. The cooling of the metal is also frequently hastened 



LEAD 



Q7 



by throwing ■water upon its surface, and whilst cooling it is kept constantly a^tated 
by means of a long iron stirrer or slice. Crystals soon begin to make their appear- 
ance, and tliese as they accumulate and fall to the bottom are removed by means of a 
large perforated ladle, in which they are well shaken, and afterwards carried over 
to the next pot to the left of the workman. This operation goes on continually until 
about 4 tons of crystals have been taken out of the pot r, and have been placed in 
pot E, at which time the pot F may contain about 40 oz. of silver to the ton, whilst 
that in e -will only yield 10 oz. The rich lead in f is then laded into the next pot o, 
to the right of the workman, and the operation repeated in f, on a fresh quantity of 
calcined lead. 

In this way calcined lead is constantly introduced, and the resulting poor lead 
passes continually to the left of the workman, whilst the rich is passing towards his 
right. Each pot in succession, when filled with lead of its proper produce for silver, 
is in its turn crystallised, the poor lead passing to the left of the workman, and the 
enriched lead to his right. By this method of treatment it is evident that the crystals 
obtained from the pots to the left of the workman must gradually be deprived 
of their silver, whilst the rich lead passing to his right becomes continually 
richer. The final result is, that at one end of the series the poor lead contains 
very little silver, whilst at the other an exceedingly rich alloy of lead and silver is 
obtained. 

The poor lead obtained by this process should never contain more than 12 dwts. of 
silver per ton, whilst the rich lead is frequently concentrated to 600 oz. to the ton. 
This rich lead is subsequently cupelled in the refining furnace. 

The ladle employed for the removal of the crystals, when manual labour is made 
use of, is about 16 inches in diameter, and 5 inches in depth, but when cranes are 
used, much larger ladles are easily managed. A form of crane has been invented 
wliich effects considerable economy of labour in this operation. When, during the 
operation of crystallisation, the ladle becomes chilled, it is dipped into a small vessel 
containing lead of a higher temperature than that which is being worked, and known 
by the name of a temper-pot. The pot containing the rich lead is generally called 
the No. 1 pot ; in some establishments, however, the last pot in which the poor lead 
is crystallised obtains this appellation. 

Figs, 1347 and 1348 represent a plan and elevation of a set of Pattinson's pots, 
arranged in the most approved way. A. is the ' market pot,' from which the desil- 
verised lead is laded out. b, c, d, e, f, g, h, and i, are the working pots, whilst a', b', c', 
d', e', f', g', h', and i', are their respective fire-places. The ' temper pots,' aaaa, are 
employed for heating the ladles when they have become too much reduced in tem- 
perature. 

1349 




P 



The figs. 1349 and 1350 are sections showing the manner of setting and the arrange- 
ment of the pots and flues, a, pot ; b, main flue ; c, ash-pit. 

The erection of nine six-ton pots requires 15,000 common bricks, 10,000 fire-bricks, 
160 feet of quarles, 80 fire-clay blocks, and 5 tons of fire-clay. 

In some establishments ten-ton pots are employed, and where cranes are made use 
of they are found to be advantageous. 

Befining. — The extraction of the silver contained in the rich lead is conducted in a 
cupel forming the bottom of a reverberatory furnace called a refinery. 

In this operation the litharge produced, instead of being absorbed by the substance 
of the cupel, is run off in a fluid state, by means of a depression called a gate. 

r2 



68 



LEAD 



The size of the fire-place varies with the other, dimensions of the furnace, but is 
usually nearly square, and in an apparatus of ordinary size may be about 2 feet x 2 
feet 6 inches. This is separated from the body of the furnace by a fire-bridge 18 
inches in breadth, so that the flame and heated air pass directly oyer the surface of 

1350 




the cupel, and from thence escape by means of two separate apertures into the main 
flues of the establishment. The cupel or test consists of an oval iron ring, about 6 
inches in depth, its greatest diameter being 4 feet, and its lesser nearly 3 feet. This 
frame, in order to better support the bottom of the cupel, is provided with cross-bars 
about 4 J inches wide and i inch in thickness. In order to make a test, this frame 
is beaten full of finely-powdered bone-ash, slightly moistened with water, containing 
a small quantity of pearlash in solution, which has the property of giving consistency 
to the cupel when heated. 

The centre of the test, after the ring has been well-filled with this mixture, and 
solidly beaten down, is scooped out with a small trowel, until the sides are left 2 inches 
in thickness at top, and three inches at the bottom, whilst the thickness of the sole 
itself is about 1 inch. 

At the fore part or wide end of the test the thickness of the border is increased to 
6 inches, and a hole is then cut through the bottom, which communicates with the 
openings or gates by which the fluid litharge makes its escape. 

The test, when thus prepared, is placed in the refinery furnace, of which it forms 
the bottom, and is wedged to its proper height against an iron ring firmly built into 
the masonry. When this furnace is first lighted, it is necessary to apply the heat very 
gradually, since if the test were too strongly heated before it became perfectly dry, it 
would be liable to crack. As soon as the test has become thoroughly diy, it is 
heated to incipient redness, and is nearly filled with the rich lead to be operated on, 
which has been previously fused in an iron pot at the side of the furnace, and beneath 
which is a small grate where a fire is lighted. 

The melted lead, when first introduced into the furnace, becomes covered with a 
greyish dross, but on further increasing the heat, the surface of the bath uncovers, 
and ordinary litharge begins to make its appearance. 

The blast is now turned on, and forces ^e litharge from the back of the test up to 
the breast, where it passes over the gate, and falls through the aperture between 
the bone-ash and the ring into a small cast-iron pot running on wheels. The air, 
which is supplied by a small ventilator, not only sweeps the litharge from the sur- 
face of the lead towards the breast, but also supplies the oxygen necessary for its 
formation. 

In proportion as the surface of the lead becomes depressed by its constant oxidation, 
and the continual removal of the resulting litharge, more metal is added from the 
melting pot, so as to raise it to its former level, and in this manner the operation is 
continued until the lead in the bottom of the test has become so enriched as to render 
it necessary that it should be tapped. The contents of the test are now so far reduced 
in volume that the whole of the silver contained in the rich lead opei:ated on remains 
in combination with a few hundred-weights only of metal, and this is removed by 
carefully drilling a hole in the bone-ash forming the bottom of the test. The reason 
for the removal of the rich lead, is to prevent too large an amount of silver from 
being carried off in the litharge, which is found to be the case when lead containing 
a very large amount of that metal is operated on. 

When the rich lead has been thus removed, the tapping hole is again closed by a 
pellet of bone-ash, and another chaise immediately introduced. 

As soon as the whole of the rich lead has been subjected to cupellation, and has 
become thus further enriched, the argentiferous alloy is itself similarly treated, either 



LEAD 



69 



in a fresh test, or in that employed for the concentration of the rich lead. The 
brightening of pure silver at the moment of the separation of the last traces of lead, 
indicates the precise period at which the operation should be terminated, and the blast 
is then turned off, and the fire removed from the grate. The silver is now allowed 
to set, and as soon as it has become hardened, the wedges are removed from beneath 
the test, which is placed on the floor of the establishment. When cold, the silver 
plate is detached from the test, and any adhering particles of bone-ash removed by 
the aid of a wire-brush. 

A test furnace of ordinary dimensions requires for its construction about 2,000 
common bricks, 2,000 fire-bricks, and li ton of fire-clay. A furnace of this kind 
will work off 4 pigs of lead per hour, and consume i cwts. of coal per ton of rich 
lead operated on. 

1351 




Fiffs. 1351, 1352, and 1353, represent an elevation, plan, and section of a refining 
furnace; a, fire-place; b, ash-pit; c, fire-bridge; D, test-ring, shown in its proper 
position ; e, flues ; f, point where blast enters ; c, pig-holes.* 

1352 



^##^^^^;^^^;.^^^>i F/^^/#^^/^fer<A^i 




The cost of working a ton of rich lead in the neighbourhood of Newcastle, eon* 
taining on an average 400 oz. of silver per ton, is as follows : — 



Refiner's wages 4 

Coals, 4 cwts. . . . t . > . • 

Engine wages , . » 1 

CoSs, 5 cwts. ........ 

Pearlash . > « 

Bone-ash, l7'3 lbs. . 3 

Eepairs . 



d. 
21 
6-8 
7-0 
8-7 
3-5 
10 
6-0 



Total 



10 101 



» Pig-holes are used for introductag the lead in cases in which it Is not laded into the test to » 
fused state. 



70 



LEAD 



ParJces^ Pi-oeess of Desilverising Lead by Zine. — When lead and zinc are melted 
together and allowed to cool slowly, an almost complete separation occurs, the zinc, 
owing to its lower specific gravity and higher melting-point, cools first and may bo 

1353 




removed in a solid crust, wliile the lead is still liquid underneath. Mr. Alexander 
Parkes of Birmingham, found that argentiferous lead might be freed from its silver 
by melting with it zinc ; and in the process of cooling the zinc crystallises and takes 
out the silver ; the silver may afterwards be removed from the zinc by dissolving in 
hydrochloric or in dilute sulphuric acid, and the zinc may be used again and again for 
melting with the lead. Mr. Parkes first patented his process in 1860 ; he improved it 
in 1861 ; and in 1852, he was granted a third patent, entitled 'Improvements in sepa- 
rating Silver from other Metals.' The process is as follows : There are two vessels 
over separate fires, one a Pattinson pot of cast iron, which will hold 7 tons of molten 
metal — this is for the lead — and a smaller one for melting the charge of zinc. When 
the 7 tons of lead to be desilverised is melted, it is skimmed, the temperature is raised 
to that of molten zinc, and the charge of zinc (about 1 cwt. to every ton of lead, or 
1| lb. to every ounce of silver) which has been previously melted is laded into the 
lead, and the whole well stirred with a perforated rabble to insure perfect intermix- 
ture ; the mass is then left to gradually cool. When the surface has hardened, it is 
skimmed off with a perforated ladle, and the surface of the liquid lead is skimmed off 
as well. The lead thus treated contains about 10 dwts. of silver per ton. The 
solidified zinc is placed in a retort, which is oval on bore, and placed a little on the 
incline over a fire for the purpose of liquation ; it is heated above the melting point 
of lead, but decidedly below that of zinc, and so the lead that is taken up with the 
zinc drains off at the lower end of the retort into an iron pot placed convenient to it. 
The zinc, which has been thus drained of the lead, but still contains the silver, is dis- 
tilled in a Belgian retort with twice its bulk of lime and its own bulk of coal ; the 
zinc, being much more volatile than the silver, is distilled over, and the residue is very 
rich in silver. The partially-desilverised lead is submitted to a softening process for 
the separation of any remaining zinc. It is kept melted at a good red heat for a 
period of from 9 to 12 hours, during which time it is skimmed twice, first, after the 
first three hours, and again half an hour before tapping. The lead is tapped into a 
cast-iron receiver, and therein subjected to ' boiling ; ' that is, green wood is kept 
submerged in it, held down by a lever. Lead treated in this manner is said to contain 
a small quantity of silver, but no zinc. 

These processes were supposed to have been improved by Flach, who patented 
his processes in this country in 1866. Although Flach's process has been used, it is 
said, with success on the Continent, it has never been permanently adopted in this 
country. 

The difficulty with Parkes' process has been the separation of the zinc from tlie 
desilverised lead. A process for effecting this was patented by Cordurie of Toulouse 
in 1866. Lead to be desilverised was treated by him in the usual manner with zinc. 
After the removal of the crust of argentiferous zinc, superheated steam is passed into 
the desilverised lead, whereby the zinc retained by the lead is oxidised by the oxygen 
of the steam; this oxide rises to thesurface in the state of powder, and is skimmed 
off. According to Gruner, who wrote on his process in the Annalcs des Mines, the 
result at Eothschild's works at Havre was most satisfactory. The desilverised zinci- 



I 



LEAD 71 

ferous lead contained 0"75 per cent, of zinc; but after it had been subjected to the 
action of steam, it yielded only the most feeble traces of zinc. 

A process for the desilvensation of lead by zinc has been described by E. Koch in 
the Berg- und Huetten-maennisclie Zeitung. In order to make the process continuous 
the author liquates his lead from copper in a reverberatory furnace with an in- 
clined hearth. The liquated lead is received in a Pattinson kettle, which when it 
coutiiins a charge is emptied by a siphon-tap into a lower kettle. In the second 
kettle the antimony is oxidised by steam, and the lead then siphoned into the lower 
kettles, where it is desilverised by zinc, the latter being fastened in front of the lower 
mouth of the siphons, so as to bring it into intimate contact with the lead. The 
desilverised lead is then siphoned into a still lower kettle, where the zinc is removed 
by steam, and then siphoned into a still lower kettle, whence it is siphoned into iron 
moulds. The advantages claimed for this method of plant are, a more perfect utilisa- 
tion of heat, greater production of metals before the addition of zinc {i.e., copper and 
antimony), saving in the amount of zinc, less wear of kettles, and a more suitable 
shape of these last. , 

Decopperisation of Lead hy Zinc. — Mr. "W. Baker of Sheffield has successfully 
carried out this process. AVhen a certain portion of zinc is melted with lead contain- 
ing copper, a zinc alloy with a small portion of lead is formed, and most of the copper 
is withdrawn from the lead with it, which floats on the surface in a pasty mass, and 
may be skimmed oflF. 

In operating upon 100 tons of lead containing from 10 to 15 oz. of copper to the 
ton, the copper was reduced on the average to 1 oz. and 21 grs. per ton. 

Mr. Baker thus describes the operation : Five tons of lead are melted, skimmed, and 
kept sufficiently hot to prevent the metal setting at the sides of the pot. 28 lbs. of 
zinc are melted with about 2 cwts. of lead in a small pot adjacent. This pot already 
contains about 14 lbs. of zinc, together with some lead from a previous operation. 
When quite liquid more lead is added from the larger pot, in order to dilute the alloy 
before mixing with the entire charge. The contents of the small pot, which should 
be not enough to prevent any alloy separating, are then added to the charge and 
stirred well into the molted metal. The fire is now "nathdrawn, and the whole allowed 
to cool down. In a short time a pasty alloy rises to the surface and is removed by a 
perforated skimmer into the small pot. This operation is continued until the lead 
begins to set at the sides of the pan. The charge must then be re-heated, and the 
alloy in the small pot liquated by heating at a regulated temperature, which will 
permit of the zinc alloy being removed from a quantity of zinciferous lead, which will 
be left with only a trace of copper. 14 lbs. more zinc are now melted with this 
residue in the small pot, and the operation is repeated. More certain results are 
obtained by thus adding the zinc in two portions. Finally, all the zinc dross and 
alloy are liquated in the small pot. The quantity of alloy obtained is about 1 cwt. 
This will contain about 25 per cent, of zinc, or 28 lbs. of the zinc employed for one 
operation. It may be estimated that 14 lbs. will be left in the decopperised lead, and 
14 lbs. also in the liquated product remaining in the small pot ready for the next 
operation. The zinc remaining in the decopperised lead is oxidised in a reverberatory 
furnace with a slag bottom, or in a pan such as is used in the furnaces for softening 
hard lead. In a round pan containing from 8 to 10 tons, set in a furnace of the latter 
description, a charge was worked off in about 30 hours, including charging and tap- 
ping out. From 90 tons an average of 95 per cent, of softened lead was obtained. 
The dross was easily reduced, and yielded ordinary soft lead. 

The zinc alloy containing copper and also most of the silver is best economised 
by melting down in a small blast-furnace, when a rich argentiferous lead may bo 
obtained. 

Natro-Metallurgy. — The various processes of refining lead employed at the present 
day causes, in cases where the metal is impure, considerable waste, and necessitate the 
reduction of an enormous quantity of oxide, to which they are, besides, inadequate for 
the removal of certain foreign metals. A new plan, which has recently been devised 
by MM. Pagen and Eous of Marseilles, France, allows the complete refining of any 
argentiferous lead without the formation of oxides of lead, and has, according to the 
Chronique dc VIndustrk, the particular advantage of permitting the collection of all 
foreign metals, of which the value maybe worth considering. The process is founded 
on the property which a bath of caustic, hydrated, melted alkali possesses in dissolv- 
ing, or at least oxidising, successively, all the metals except three, by drawing them 
into a soluble scoria, in a state of igneous fusion. The three exceptions are lead, 
silver, and gold. The metals united with the lead are, one after the other, removed 
by melted soda, the action of the bath being maintained, first by a jet of steam, 
designed to restore constantly the water of the hydrate from which the metals gain 
oxygen, and urged according as the metals are in a less degree oxidisable, either by a 



72 LEAD 

blast of air, or finally, by carefully measured additions of nitrate of soda. The theory 
of the reaction is as fbllows : By simple solution in water, soda abandons all the 
oxides -which it holds in solution or suspension, and is evaporated and dried for use, 
in the operation, almost without loss. The metals oxidise in the melted alkaline bath 
in the order of their affinity for oxygen, an order modified, however — (1) by their 
particular affinity for soda ; (2) by the action of affinity exercised by the largest mass 
present. Thus, tin and the metals of platinum, although much less oxidisable than 
lead or copper, are attacked very rapidly ; and before the latter in the soda-bath, by 
reason of their propensity to act as electro-negative elements. Hence, also, in an 
alloy very rich in lead the copper oxidises first. Another phenomenon of not less 
importance is that the solutions of the oxides in the soda-bath act chemically in pre- 
sence of the re-agents exactly as do the metallic salts dissolved in water. It is thus 
in this igneous solution — all the metals are precipitated one after the other, in the 
inverse order of their solubility, and in the direct order they preserve each other from 
oxidation. In this respect even insoluble reducing agents, such as charcoal, may be 
employed in the bath. The principal applications in the process are its adaptation, 
not only to the refining of lead and the extraction of silver by the zinc process from 
lead and argentiferous scoriae, but the purification of argentiferous copper and old 
complex alloys; the treatment of ores of platinum, gold, silver, &c., of ores of 
chromium, &c. Since March last the inventors have constructed a plant, and have 
carried on the process at Marseilles ; and we learn that the hard leads of Greece 
(containing 2^ per cent, antimony, 1 per cent, arsenic, ^ per cent, copper, and 1 to 2 
per cent, iron and sulphur), hard Spanish lead, and other forms of the metal contain- 
ing large quantities of foreign substances, have been successfully treated. A company 
has been formed for the fusion of ores, separation of metals, and then refining by the 
process of natro-metallurgy. 

Seducing. — The reduction to the metallic state of the litharge from the refinery, 
the pot-dross, and the mixed metallic oxides from the calcining furnace, is effected m 
a reverberatory apparatus, somewhat resembling a smelting furnace, except that its 
dimensions are smaller, and the sole, instead of being lowest immediately below the 
middle door, gradually slopes from the fire-bridge to near the flue, where there is a 
depression in which is inserted an iron gutter, which constantly remains open, and from 
which the reduced metal flows continuously into an iron pot placed by the side of the 
furnace for its reception, whence it is subsequently laded into moulds. 

The litharge, or pot-dross, is intimately mixed with a quantity of small coal, and is 
charged on that part of the hearth immediately before the fire-bridge. To prevent 
the fused oxide from attacking the bottom of the furnace, and also to provide a sort 
of hollow filter for the liquid metal, the sole is covered by a layer of bituminous 
coal. 

The heat of the furnace quickly causes the ignition of this stratum, which is rapidly 
reduced to the state of a spongy cinder. The reducing gases present in the furnace, 
aided by the coal mixed with the charge itself, cause the reduction of the oxide, which, 
assuming the metallic form, flows through the interstices of the cinder, and ultimately 
finding its way into the depression at the extremity of the hearth, flows through the 
iron gutter into the external cast-iron pot. The surface of the charge is frequently, 
during the process of elaboration, turned over with an iron rake, for the double pur- 
pose of exposing new surfaces to the action of the fomace, and also to allow the 
reduced lead to flow off more readily. 

Fresh quantities of litharge, or pot-dross, with small coals, are from time to time 
thrown in, in proportion as that already charged disappears, and at the end of the 
shift, which usually extends over 12 hours, the floor of cinder is broken up, and after 
being mixed with the residual matters in the furnace is withdrawn. A new floor of 
cinders is then introduced, and the operation commenced as before. A furnace of 
this kind, having a sole 8 feet in length and 7 feet in width, will afford, from litharge, 
about 6 J tons of lead in 24 hours. 

The dross from the calcining pan, when treated in a furnace of this description, 
should be previously reduced to a state of fine division, and intimately mixed up with 
email coal and soda-ash. In many cases, however, the calcined dross is treated in 
the smelting furnace. The hard lead obtained from this substance is again taken to 
the calcining furnace, for the purpose of bein^ softened. 

In the establishment from which the foregoing data were obtained, the cost of slack, 
delivered at the works, was only 2s. lid. per ton, which is cheaper than fuel can be 
obtained in the majority of the lead-mills of this country. In North Wales the cost 
of small coal is generally about 45., and at Bristol 5s. 6a. per ton. 

Figs. 1354 and 1365 represent a vertical section and plan of a reducing-fumace. 
A, fire-place ; b, ash-pit ; c, fire-bridge ; D, hearth ; b, worbng-door ; t, iron spout for 



I 



LEAD 



73 



conducting the reduced metal into the lead-pot o, which is kept heated by means of 
a fire beneath. 

1354 




The total cost of elaborating one ton of hard lead, containing 30 oz, of silver pel* 
ton, in a locality in which fuel is obtained at the low price above quoted, is nearly as 
follows : — 

£ s. d. 
Calcining . ► » 2 4-4 



Crystallising 

Eefining 

Reducing pot dross and litharge . 

Calcined dross 

Slags 

Bone-ash, &c. . . , . . 

Transport, &c. 

Management, taxes, and interest of plant 



Total . 
One hundifed tons of hard ledd treated gave : — 



9 6-5 

9'2 

1 0-8 

8-0 

50 

7-0 

1 1-0 

5 10-0 

1 2 3-9 



Soft lead . 
Black dfoss 
Loss . . 



Tona. 

94-90 
372 
1-38 



Total . 



. 100-00 



74 LEAD 

On comparing the expense of each operation, as given, in the foregoing abstract, 
mth the amounts stated as the cost of each separate process, they "will be found to 
be widely different ; but it must be remembered that the whole of the substances 
elaborated are far from being subjected to the various treatments described. 

In order, therefore, to give an idea of the relative proportions which are passed 
through the several departments, it may be stated that in an establishment in which 
the ores are treated in the Castilian furnace the following were the results ob- 
tained : — 

One hundred parts of raw ore yielded :— 

Boasted ore 85 

Hard lead 42 

Soft „ 36 

Rich „ 9 

Dross and litharge re- treated 18 J 

It may be remarked that for the treatment of ores of good produce the reverbera- 
tory furnace and Scotch hearth are to be preferred, but for working minerals of a 
low percentage the blast-fumace may generally be substituted with advantage. 
The slag-hearth, from the amount of fuel consumed and loss experienced, is a somewhat 
expensive apparatus, and might in many cases be advantageously exchanged for the 
Castilian furnace. 

It is well known that the losses which take place in this branch of metallurgy are, 
from the volatility of the metal operated on, unusually large. In those establish- 
ments, however, in which due attention is paid to fluxes and a proper admixture of 
ores, as well as the condensation of the fumes, a great economy is effected. 

In some instances flues of above five miles in length have been constructed, and the 
most satisfactory results obtained. The attention of lead-smelters is being daily more 
directed to the prevention of the loss of metal by volatilisation, and those who have 
adopted the use of long flues have been, in all cases, quickly repaid for their outlay. 

As an example of the great extent to which sublimation may take place on the 
scale employed in large smelting works, we may mention the lead-works belonging 
to Mi". Beaumont in Northumberland. Formerly the fumes or smoke arising from 
various smelting operations escaped from ordinary chimneys or short galleries, and 
large quantities of lead were thus carried off in the state of vapour, and deposited 
on the surrounding land, where vegetation was destroyed, and the health of both 
men and animals seriously affected. This led to various extensions of the hori- 
zontal or slightly-inclined galleries now in use, and the quantity of lead extracted 
rapidly repaid the cost of construction. The latest addition of this kind was made 
at Allen Mill, by Mr. Sopwith, the manager, and completed a length of 8,789 yards 
(nearly five miles) of stone gallery from that mill alone. This gallery is 8 feet 
high and 6 wide, and is in two divisions, widely separated. There are also upwards 
of 4 miles of gallery for the same purpose connected with other mills belonging to Mr. 
Beaumont in the same district, and in Durham. The value of the lead thus saved from 
being totally dissipated and dispersed, and obtained from what in common parlance 
might be called chimney-sweepings, considerably exceeds 10,000/. sterling annually, 
and forms a striking illustration of the importance of economising our waste pro- 
ducts. 

In lieu of long and extensive flues, condensers of various descriptions have from 
time to time been introduced, but in most induces the former have been found to bo 
more efficient. 

When, however, water can be procured for the purpose of cooling the condensers, 
excellent results are generally obtained. — J. A. P. 

See LrrHAKGE ; Red Lead ; Soldeh ; Sugar or Acetate ov Lead j TtPB MEtAt ; 
and White Lead. 

Lead Assaying The ores submitted to assay are galena or sulphide of lead, 
cerussite or carbonate of lead, anglesito or sulphate of lead, and pyromoTphite or 
phosphate of lead. For assay purposes, the ores of lead itiay be divided into two 
classes '. — 

The first class comprehends all the ores of lead which contain neither sulphur nor 
arsenic, or in which they are present in small proportion only. 

The second class comprises galena, together with all lead ores containing sulphur 
or arsenic. 

A common wind or air furnace is best adapted for making lead assays. For this 
purpose the cavity for the reception of fuel should be 9 inches square, and the height 
of the flue-way from the fire-bars about 14 inches. For ordinary ores a furnace 8 
inches square and 12 inches deep will be found sufficient ; but as it is easy to regu- 



LEAi) 75 

late, by a damper, the heat of the larger apparatus, it is often found advantageous to 
be able to produce a high temperature. A furnace of this kind should be connected 
with a chimney of at least twenty feet in height, and be supplied with good coke, 
broken into pieces of the size of eggs. 

The air furnace (see Copper,/^. 533), is well adapted for the assaying of lead ores. 
The ores should be dried in shallow, flat metal vessels, powdered and sifted through 
a sieve of from 40 to 60 holes to the linear inch, preAaous to being submitted to 
assay. The balance employed should carry 1,000 grs., and turn with ith of a 
grain. 

The tongs (see Coppeb, fig. 536) may be used for the assay with earthen crucibles. 
For working with iron crucibles tongs of stronger and stouter make are desirable. 
The iron mould {fig. 534) is used for receiving the assay products, or one containing 
a deep conical cavity may be substituted for it. The fluxes should be employed in 
the dry state. 

Oees of the Fihst Class. — The assay of ores of this class is a simple operation, 
care being only required that a sufficient amount of carbonaceous matter be added to 
effect the rediiction of the metal, whilst such fluxes are supplied as will afford a 
readily-fusible slag. When the sample has been properly powdered, 400 or 500 
grains are weighed out, and well mixed with 600 or 600 grains of carbonate of soda, 
and from 40 to 60 grains of finely-powdered charcoal, according to the richness of the 
mineral operated on. This is introduced into an earthen crucible, of such a size as 
not to be more than one-half filled by the mixture, and on the top is placed a thin 
layer of the flux. The crucible is then placed in the furnace and gently heated, care 
being taken to so moderate the temperature, that the mixture of ore and flux, which 
soon begins to soften and enter into ebullition, may not swell up and flow over. If 
the action in the crucible becomes too strong, it must be checked by a due regulation 
of the heat by means of a damper. "When the action has subsided, the temperature 
is again raised for a few minutes, and the assay completed in about half an hour. 
During the process of reduction, the heat should not exceed dull redness ; but in order 
to complete the operation, and render the slag sufficiently liquid, the temperature 
should bo raised to bright redness. When the contents have been reduced to a state 
of tranquil fusion, the crucible must be removed from the fire, and the assay either 
rapidly poured, or, after being tapped against some hard body to collect the lead iu 
a single globule, be set to cool. When the operation has been successfully conducted, 
the cooled slag will present a smooth concave surface, with a more or less vitreous 
lustre. When cold, the crucible may be broken, and the button extracted. To remove 
from it the particles of adhering slag, it is hammered on an anvil, and afterwards 
rubbed with a hard brush. Instead of empleying carbonate of soda and powdered 
charcoal, the ore may be fused with 1^ times its weight of black flux, and the 
mixtxire covered by a thin layer of borax. Good results are also obtained by mixing 
together 400 grains of ore with an equal weight of carbonate of soda and half that 
quantity of crude tartar. These ingredients, after being well incorporated, are placed 
in a crucible, and slightly covered by a layer of borax. Each of the foregoing 
methods yields good results, and affords slags retaining but a small proportion of 
lead. 

Ores op the Second Class. — This class comprehends galena, which is the most 
common and abundant ore of lead, and also comprises sundry metallurgic products, as 
well as the sulphates and arsenates of lead. 

The assay of galena and other substances is variously conducted ; but one of the 
following methods is usually employed for commercial purposes : — 

Assay in an earthen crucible with metallic iron. — Mix 400 or 500 grs. of the ore 
with about an equal weight of carbonate of soda, and, after having placed it in the 
earthen crucible, of which it should occupy about one half the capacity, insert with 
tlieir heads downward three or four tenpenny nails, and press the mixture firmly 
around them. On the top place a thin layer of borax. The whole is now introduced 
into the furnace, and gradually heated to redness ; at the expiration of 1;en minutes 
the temperature is increased to bright redness, and the heat continued until the fused 
fluxes present a perfectly smooth surface. When this has taken place the pot is 
removed from the flre, and the nails are separately withdrawnby the use of a small 
pair of tongs, care being taken to well cleanse each in the fluid slag until free from 
adhering lead. When the nails have been thus removed, the pot is gently shaken, to 
collect the metal into one button, and laid aside to cool ; after which it may be broken, 
and the button removed. Instead of first allowing the slags to cool, and then breaking 
the crucible, the assay may, if preferred, after the withdrawal of the nails, be poured 
into a mould (see Coppeh, fig. 534). Hoop iron or iron rod may be used, instead of 
the iron nails. The assay should be completed in from 25 to 30 minutes. 

Assay in an iron ^ot with fluxes. — Instead of adding metallic iron to the mixture of 



76 LEAD 

ore and flux, it is generally better that the pot itself should be made of that metal. 
For this purpose a piece of ^-inch plate iron is turned up in the form of a cnicible, 
and carefully ■welded at the edges. The bottom is closed by a thick iron rivet, which 
is securely ■welded to the sides, and the ■whole then finished on a properly-formed 
mandril. To make an assay in a crucible of this kind, it is first heated to dull red- 
ness, and, ■when sufficiently hot, 400 or 500 grs. of the po^wdered ore, intimately mixed 
■with its own ■weight of carbonate of soda, half its weight of pearlash, and a small 
quantity of crude tartar, is introduced by means of a copper scoop (see Coppeb, Jig. 
635). On the top of the whole is placed a thin layer of borax, ■whilst the crucible, 
which, for the ready introduction of the mixture, has been removed from the fire, is 
at once replaced. The heat is now raised to redness, the contents gradually becoming 
liquid, and giving oflF large quantities of gas. At the expiration of from 8 to 10 
minutes the mixture ■will be in a state of complete fusion ; the contents of the pot are 
now stirred with a small iron rod. Any matter adhering to its sides is scraped to the 
bottom of the pot, and the temperature of the furnace is increased daring 3 or 4 
minutes to bright redness. 

The crucible is then seized by a strong pair of bent tongs, on that part of the edge 
which is opposite the lip, and its contents rapidly poured into a cast-iron mould (see 
Copper, /iff. 634), The sides of the pot are now carefully scraped do^wn with a chisel- 
edge bar of iron, and any adhering particles of metallic lead added to the portion first 
obtained. When sufficiently cooled the contents of the mould are easily removed, and 
the button of lead cleaned and weighed. By this process pure galena yields 84 per 
cent, of metallic lead, free from any injurious amount of iron, and perfectly ductile 
and malleable. This method of assaying, with various modifications, is that adopted 
in almost all lead-smelting establishments, and has the advantage of affijrding good 
results ■with all the ores belonging to the second class. 

Assay in the iron dish without fluxes. — In some of the mining districts of Wales the 
assay of lead ore is conducted in a manner somewhat difierent from that just described. 
Instead of fusing the ore in an iron crucible •with fluxes, the fusion is effected in a 
flat shallow iron dish, having a hemispherical ca^vity of about 4^ inches in diameter, 
and about 1 inch in depth in the centre. 10 oz. of the ore are operated on, and the 
assay is made by the aid of a blacksmith's forge-fire. The ore is placed in the iron 
dish, provided with a sheet-iron cover, and heated for about 5 minutes, and the re- 
duced metal poured out into a mould. The iron dish is then replaced on the fire, and 
the heat continued for about 5 minutes, until the regulus (slurry) is fused ; the con- 
tents are then poured out into a mould, the lead detached, and added to the first 
portion of lead obtained ; and the whole weighed. Galena wall yield as much as 82 
per cent, of lead by this method. In some works the assay is made in an iron crucible 
■without fiuxes, instead of the iron dish. 

Estimation of silver contained in lead ores. — All varieties of lead ore contain silver, 
and it is consequently necessary, in order to judge of their commercial value, to ascer- 
tain the exact amount of this metal which they afford. This is effected by the process 
of Cupdlation. See Silvek. 

In order, therefore, to separate the silver present in buttons resulting from ordinary 
lead assays, it is only necessary to expose them, on a cupel, to such a temperature as 
will rapidly oxidise the lead. The oxide of lead, or litharge, produced is absorbed by 
the porous body on which the assay is supported, and nothing but a small button of 
silver ultimately remains on the test. These supports or cupels are made of bone- 
ash, slightly moistened with a little water, and consolidated by being pressed into a 
mould. The furnace employed for this purpose is described in the article Sh-ver, as 
is also the muffle or D-shaped retort in which the cupels are heated. 

As soon as the muffle has become red hot, the cupels that have been drying in the 
mouth of the opening are introduced by means of proper tongs, on the bottom of the 
muffle, pre^nously covered with a thin layer of bone-ash, in order to prevent its being 
attacked in case of any portion of litharge coming in contact with it during the pro- 
gress of the subsequent operations. The open end of the muffle is now closed by 
means of a proper door, and the cupels are thus rapidly heated to the temperature of 
the muffle itself. When this has been effected the door is removed, and into each of 
the cupels is introduced, by the aid of slender steel tongs, a button of the lead to be 
assayed. The mouth of the muffle is again closed during a few minutes to facilitate 
the fusion of the alloy ; when the oxide begins to pass off the surface of the metallic 
product, the assay is said to be uncovered. The lead is now quickly converted into 
litharge, which is absorbed by the cupel as fast as it is produced, whilst at the same 
time there arises a white vapour, which is gradually carried off by the door and throiigh 
the openings in the sides and end. A circular stain is at the same time formed around 
the globule of melted metal, which gradually extends and penetrates into the sub- 
stance of the cupel. When nearly the whole of the lead has thus been removed, the 



I 



LEAD 



77 



remaining bead of silver appears to become agitated by a rapid motion, which seems 
to make it revolve ■with great rapidity. At this stage the motion will be observed 
suddenly to cease, and the button becomes immoveable. This is called the brightening 
of the assay, and a button of silver now remains on- the cupel. 
Jf the cupel were now abruptly removed from the muflle, the globule of silver 

Showing the Quantity/ of Lead Ore raised and smelted, average Metallic Yield of Ore 
per Cent,, and Batio of Lead 'produced in various Tarts of tho United Kingdom, 
during Ten Years ending 1857. 





England 


Wales 


Ireland 


Scotland 


Isle of Man 


Total 


Years 








































Lead 
Ore 


Lead 


Lead 
Ore 


Lead 


Lead 
Ore 


Lead 


Lead 
Ore 


Lead 


Lead 
Ore 


Lead 


Lead 
Ore 


Lead 




tons 


tons 


tons 


tons 


tons 


tons 


tons 


tons 


tons 


tons 


tons 


' tons 


1848 .. . 


54,638 


39,142 


16,305 


11,122 


1,912 


1,188 


2,688 


1,736 


2,521 


1,665 


77,864 


54,853 


1849 




60,124 


41,168 


19,711 


13,389 


2,739 


1,653 


1,421 


957 


2,826 


1,535 


86,821 


58,702 


1850 




63,565 


44,462 


21,093 


14,876 


2,895 


1,746 


3,117 


2,124 


2,175 


1,218 


92,845 


64,426 


1851 




64,102 


45,103 


19,314 


14,813 


3,222 


1,829 


3,113 


2,140 


2,560 


1,402 


92,311 


65,287 


1852 




62,411 


43,813 


18,379 


13,798 


4,493 


3,222 


3,499 


2,381 


2,415 


1,835 


91,197 


64,959 


1853 




69,342 


41,897 


17,131 


12,870 


3,309 


2,452 


2,799 


1,919 


2,460 


1,829 


85,041 


60,967 


1854 




64,796 


44,986 


18,130 


13,367 


3,069 


2,210 


1,753 


1,279 


2,800 


2,137 


90,548 


63,979 


1855 




66,270 


46,244 


18,206 


13,673 


2,405 


1,732 


1,587 


1,159 


3,573 


2,726 


92,041 


65,533 


1856 




74,489 


62,868 


19,873 


14,791 


2,484 


1,602 


1,931 


1,417 


8,218 


2,451 


101,997 


73,129 


1857 , 




68,520 


48,356 


21,455 


16,124 


2,299 


1,407 


1,891 


1,351 


2,666 


2,028 


96,821 


96,266 


Average metallic 


638,157 


448,039 


189,597 


138,733 


28,827 


19,041 


23,699il6,463 


27,204 


18,825 


907,486 644,101 














yield of ore 


70-2 


73-1 


66-0 


69-4 


69-1 


70-6 


Batio of lead pro- 














duced . 


69-9 


21-7 


3-0 


2-5 


2-1 


100 



Table of Lead Ores, Lead, and Silver produced from them in the United Kingdom from 
the gear 1848, showing the Quantity of Ore required to make 100 Tons of Lead, the 
Quantity of Lead in 100 Tons of Ore, and the Ounces of Silver in a Ton of Lead, 
for the same period. 











Ore to make 


Lead in 


Silver in 


Years 


Lead Ore 


Lead 


Silver 


100 Tons of 
Lead 


100 Tons of 
Ore 


a Ton of 
Lead 




tons 


tons 


ozs. 


tons 


tons 


ozs. 


1848 


78,944 


53,373 


••• 


147-909 


67-608 


... 


1849 


86,823 


68,715 


... 


147-871 


67-626 


• •• 


1850 


92,958 


64,429 


«.. 


144-279 


69-309 


.,, 


1851 


92,312 


65,289 


... 


141-389 


70-726 


... 


1852 


91,198 


64,961 




140-388 


71-230 




1853 


85,843 


60,969 


496,475 


139-485 


71-691 


8-143 


1854 


90,554 


64,005 


562,659 


141-479 


70-681 


8-798 


1855 


92,251 


65,691 


561,906 


140-430 


71-209 


8-553 


1856 


101,997 


73,129 


614,188 


139-476 


71-696 


8-798 


1857 


96,820 


69,266 


532,866 


139-780 


71-541 


7-693 


1858 


95,855 


68,303 


509,345 


140-377 


71-256 


8-336 


1859 


91,353 


62,382 


678,275 


146-441 


68-286 


9-270 


1860 


88,791 


63,225 


549,090 


140-436 


71-206 


8-684 


1861 


90,666 


65,644 


570.474 


138117 


72-402 


8-690 


1862 


95,312 


69,013 


686,123 


138-107 


72-407 


9-942 


1863 


91,283 


68,221 


634,004 


133-804 


74-735 


9-293 


1864 


94,463 


67,081 


641,088 


140-819 


71-013 


9-957 


1865 


90,452 


67,251 


724,856 


134-499 


74-349 


10-778 


1866 


91,051 


67,391 


636,688 


135-108 


74-014 


9-447 


1867 


93,432 


68,441 


805,394 


136-514 


73-252 


11-767 


1868 


95,236 


71,017 


841,328 


134-103 


74-568 


11-846 


1869 


96,866 


73,259 


831,891 


132-224 


75-629 


11-355 


1870 


98,176 


73,420 


784,562 


133-718 


74-783 


10-687 


1871 


93,965 


69,037 


761,490 


136-108 


73-470 


11-030 


1872 


81,564 


60,420 


628,920 


138-89 


72-000 


10-403 



78 



LEAD 





Summary of Lead Ore, Lead, and Silver Produce of 1872. 




No. of 
Mines 


Counties 


Lead Ore 


Lead 


Silver 






tons 


cwts. 


tons 


cwts. 


ozs. 




England: 












18 


Cornwall . 


5,463 


10 


4,098 


15 


207,710 


o 


Devonshire . 






746 


9 


522 


6 


10,392 


4 


Somersetshire 






1,322 


6 


•602 


18 


... 


194 


Derbyshire . 






6,612 





4,191 


2 


1,000 


2 


Staflfordshire 






280 


8 


210 


11 


... 


10 


Shropshire . 






7,386 


17 


6,602 


6 


2,960 


34 


Yorkshire . 






6,202 


6 


3,873 


3 


600 


30 


Cumberland 






3,721 


17 


3,813 


2 


30,159 


7 


Westmoreland 






1,679 


2 


1,259 


8 


17,620 


32 


Durham and Northumberlam 
Wat,f,s : 


i 19,106 


10 


14,399 


4 


. 72.175 


1 


Breconshire . 


8 





6 





• •• 


40 


Cardiganshire 




6,764 


3 


4,998 


13 


41,690 


1 


Caermarthenshire 




651 





475 


15 


2,382 


1 


Pembrokeshire . 




130 





97 


10 


490 


1 


Eadnorshire 




32 


13 


24 


15 


. .125 


11 


Montgomeryshire 




8,059 


14 


6,042 





65J12 


1 


Merionethshire . 




17 


6 


13 





>•• 


6 


Denbighshire 




3,677 


18 


2,758 


17 


14,479 


29 


Flintshire . 




3,208 


6 


2,435 


7 


18,650 


12 


Carnarvonshiro . 




397 


15 


297 


1 


500 


10 


Isle of Man . 




3,529 





2,639 


2 


'145,433 


2 


iBELi-ND . 




962 





726 


5 


1,040 


4 
455 


Scotland . 




3,605 


6 


2,331 


7 


5,900 


Total of the Unite 

■ 


dKi: 


igdon 


1 81,564 


2 


60,420 


11 


628,920 



would be liable to vegetate, by which a portion of the metal might be thrown off, and 
a certain amount of loss be thereby entailed. To prevent this, the cupel in which the 
assay has brightened should be immediately covered by another, kept red hot for that 
purpose. The two are now gradually withdrawn together, and, after having suffi- 
cently cooled, the upper cupel is removed, and the globule of silver detached and 
cleaned as follows : — 

The globule is now laid hold of by a pair of fine pliers and flattened on a small 
steel anvil, by which the oxide of lead which may have attached itself to it becomes 
pulverised, and is temoved by rubbing with a small hard brush. The flattened disc 
is then examined, in order to be sure that it is perfectly clean, and afterwards weighed 
in a balance capable of turning with ^i^th of a grain. 

The cupellations should be conducted at the lowest possible heat at which they can 
be effected. The temperature best fitted for this operation is obtained when the 
muffle is at a red heat, and the vapours which arise from the assays curl gradually 
away, and are finally removed by the draught. When the muffle is heated to white- 
ness, and the vapours rise to the top of the arch, the heat is too great : and when, on 
the contrary, the fumes lie over the bottom, and the sides of the openings in the 
muffle begin to darken, either a little more fuel must be added or tlie draught in- 
creased. If an assay has been properly conducted, tlie button of silver obtained is 
round, bright, and smooth on its upper surface, and beneath crystalline, and of a dead 
white colour ; easily removed from the cupel, and readily freed from litharge. 

When the ores of lead, in addition to silver, contain gold, the button remaining on 
the cupel is an alloy of these metals. For the method of estimating the gold, see 

G0LD.'% 

For commercial purposes the silver contained in any given ore is estimated in 
ounces, pennyweights, and grains troy upon the statute ton avoirdupois of 2,240 lbs. 
It is customary to return the silver obtained from lead ores upon the ton of lead as 
yielded by assay, and not upon the ton of ore. For a Table to facilitate calculation, 
see SiLVSB. 



I 

I 



LEAD-SHOT 79 

Lead imported into the United Kingdom in the Year 1872. 

Quantities 
Description of Lead tons 

Lead ore 14,560 

Lead, pig and eheet .... 69,841 
Lead manufactures . . . . 441 

British and Foreign Lead exported in the Year 1872. 

British Foreign 

Description of Lead tons tons 

Lead ore 1,004 1,404 

Pig lead 33,403 691 

Lead, rolled, sheet, piping, and tubing . 10,927 

Lead manufactured 4 

3bELA3>-SBOT. {Plomb de Chasse, Fr, ; Schrot, Flintenschrot, Ger.) The origin 
of most of the imperfections in the manufacture of lead-shot is the too rapid cooling 
of the spherules by their being dropped too hot into the water, whereby their surfaces 
form a solid crust, while their interior remains fluid, and, in its subsequent concretions, 
shrinks, so as to produce the irregularities of the shot. 

The patent shot-towers originally constructed in England obviate this evil by ex- 
posing the fused spherules after they pass through the cullender, to a large body of 
air during their descent into the water-tub placed on the ground. The highest erec- 
tion of this kind is probably at Villach in Carinthia, being 240 Vienna, or 249 English 
feet high. 

The quantity of arsenic added to the mass of melted lead varies according to the 
quality of this metal ; the harder and less ductile the lead is, the more arsenic must 
be added- About 3 pounds of either white arsenic or orpiment is enough for one 
thousand parts of soft lead, and about 8 for the coarser kinds. The latter are em- 
ployed preferably for shot, as they are cheaper, and answer suiiiciently well. The 
arsenical alloy is made either by introducing some of this substance at each melting ; 
or by making a quantity of the compound considerably stronger at once, and adding 
a certain portion of this to each charge of lead. If the particles of the shot appear 
lens-shaped, it is a proof that the proportion of arsenic has been too great ; but 
if they are flattened upon the side, if they are hollowed in their middle, called 
cupping by the workmen, or drag with a tail behind them, the proportion of arsenic is 
too small. 

The following is the process prescribed by the patentees, Ackerman and Martin. 
Melt a ton of soft lead, and sprinkle round its sides in the iron pot about two shovel- 
fuls of wood ashes, taking care to leave the centre clear; then put into the middle 
about 40 pounds of arsenic to form a rich alloy with the lead. Cover the pot with 
an iron lid, and lute the joints quickly with loam or mortar to confine the arsenical 
vapours, keeping up a moderate fire to maintain the mixture fluid for three or four 
hours ; after which skim carefully, and run the alloy into moulds to form ingots or pigs. 
The composition thus made is to be put in the proportion of one pig or ingot into 1,000 
pounds of melted oKlinary lead. "WTien the whole is well combined, take a perforated 
skimmer, and let a few drops of it fall from some height into a tub of water. If they 
do not appear globular, some more arsenical aUoy must be added. 

Lead which contains a good deal of pewter or tin must be rejected, because it tends 
to produce elongated drops or tails. 

From two to three tons are usually melted at once in the large establishments. The 
surface of the lead gets covered with a crust of oxide of a white spongy nature, some- 
times called cream by the workmen, which is of use to coat over the bottom of the cul- 
lender, because without such a bed the heavy melted lead would run too rapidly through 
the holes for the granulating process, and would form oblong spheroids. The mount- 
ing of this filter, or lining of the cullender, is reckoned to bo a nice operation by tlie 
workmen, and is regarded usually as a valuable secret. 

The cullenders are hollow hemispheres of sheet-iron, about 10 inches in diameter, 
perforated with holes, which should be perfectly round and free from burs. These 
must be of an uniform size in each cullender ; but of course a series of different cul- 
lenders with sorted holes for every different size of lead-shot must be prepared. The 
holes have nearly the following diameters for the annexed numbers of shot : — 

No. oV of an inch. 

1 5^5 " 

2 ^ „ 

4. ...... ^ II 



80 LEAD, SALTS OF 

From No. 5 to No, 9 the diameter decreases by regular gradations, the latter being 
only jggth of au inch. 

The operation is always carried on •with three cullenders at a time, which are sup- 
ported upon projecting grates of a kind of chafing-dish made of sheet-iron somewhat 
like a triangle. This chafing-dish should be placed immediately above the fall, while 
at its bottom there must be a tub half-filled with water for receiving the granulated lead. 
The cullenders are not in contact, but must be parted by burning charcoal in order to 
keep the lead constantly at the proper temperature, and to prevent its solidifying in the 
filter. The temperature of the lead-bath should vary with the size of the shot ; for the 
largest, it should be such that a bit of straw plunged into it will be scarcely browned, 
but for all it should be nicely regulated. The height from which the particles should 
be let fall varies likewise with the size of the shot ; as the congelation is the more 
rapid, the smaller they are. With a fall of 33 yards or 100 feet, from No. 4 to No. 9 
may be made : but for larger sizes, 150 feet of height will be required. 

Everything being arranged as above described, the workman puts the filter-stufiP 
into the cullender, pressing it well against the sides. He next pours lead into it with 
an iron ladle, but not in too great quantity at a time, lest it should run through too 
fast. The shot thereby formed and found in the tub are not all equal. 

The centre of the cidlender being less hot affords larger shot than the sides, which 
are constantly surrounded with burning charcoal. Occasionally, also, the three cul- 
lenders employed together may have holes of different sizes, in which case the tub 
may contain shot of very various magnitudes. These are separated from each other 
by square sieves of different fineness, 10 inches broad and 16 inches long, their bottoms 
being of sheet-iron pierced with holes of the same diameters as those of the cullenders. 
These sieves are suspended by means of two bands above boxes for receinng the 
shot ; one sieve being usually set above another in consecutive numbers, for instance, 
I and 2. The shot being put into the upper sieve, No. will remain in it ; No. 1 ■vs'ill 
remain in the lower sieve, and No. 2 will, with all the others, pass through it into the 
chest below. It is obvious that by substituting sieves of successive fineness, shot of 
any dimensions may be sorted. 

In the preceding process the shot has been sorted to size ; it must next be sorted to 
form, so as to separate all the spheroids which are not truly round, or are defective in 
any respect. For this purpose a board is made use of about 27 inches long and 16 
broad, furnished partially with upright ledges ; upon this tray a handful or two of the 
shot to be sorted being laid, it is inclined very slightly, and gently shaken in the hori- 
zontal direction, when the globular particles run down by one edge, into a chest set to 
receive them, while those of irregular forms remain on the sides of the tray, and are 
reserved to be re-melted. 

After being sorted in this way, the shot requires still to be smoothed and polished 
bright. This object is effected by putting it into a small octagonal cask, through a 
door in its side, turning upon a horizontal iron axis, with rests in plummer boxes at its 
ends, and is made to revolve by any mechanical power. A certain quantity of plumbago 
or black-lead is put into the cask along with the shot. 

XiEAS, SA3bTS OF. The following are the chief artificial salts : — 

Caebonatb of Lead. See WHrrE Lead. 

NiTBATE of Lead (Nitrate de plomb, Fr. ; Salpetersaures bleioxj/d, Ger.), is made 
by saturating somewhat dilute nitric acid with oxide of lead (litharge), evapo- 
rating the neutral solution till a pellicle appears, and then exposing it in a hot 
chamber till it be converted into crystals, which are sometimes transparent, but gene- 
rally opaque white octahedrons. Their spec. grav. is 4"068 ; they have a cooling, 
sweetish, pungent taste. They dissolve in 7 parts of cold, and in much less boiling 
water ; they fuse at a moderate elevation of temperature, emit oxygen gas, and pass 
into oxide of lead. Their constituents are 67*3 oxide and 327 acid. Nitrate of lead 
is much employed in the chrome-yellow style of Calico-Phintixg. 

There are three other compounds of nitric acid and lead oxide : viz. the bi-basic, 
the tri-basic, and the sex-basic ; which contain respectively 2, 3, and 6 atoms of base to 
1 of acid. 

OxTCOLOBiDB OF Lkat). — A white pigment patented by the late Mr. Hugh Lee 
Pattinson, of Newcastle, which he prepared by precipitating a solution of chloride of 
lead in hot water with pure lime-water, in equal measures ; the mixture being made 
with agitation. As the operation of mixing the lime-water and the solution of 
chloride of lead requires to be performed in an instantaneous manner, tlie patentee 
prefers to employ for this purpose two tumbling boxes of about 16 feet cubic capacity, 
which are charged with the two liquids, and simultaneously upset into a cistern in 
which oxychloride of lead is instantaneously formed, and from which the mixture fiows 
into other cisterns, where the oxychloride subsides. This white pigment consists of 
one atom of chloride of lead and one atom of oxide of lead, with or without an atom 
of water. 



I 



LEATHER 81 

The salts of lead, beyond those already named, which enter into any of our manu- 
factures, are few and unimportant. Watts'* Dictionary of Chemistry should bo con- 
suited for them. 

XiEAB, REB. See Bed Lead. 

XiEAB, VITBITS. See White Lead. 

KE ABHZXi&XTB. A sulphate-carbonate of lead found at Leadbills, in Lanarkshire, 
Scotland. 

1EA.TBEB (Ctcir, Fr. ; Leder, Ger. ; Leer, Dutch; Leeder, Danish; Lader, 
Swedish ; Ctcojo, Italian ; Cuero, Spanish ; Kusha, Eussian). This substance con- 
sists of the skins of animals, chemically changed by the process called tanning. 
Throughout the civilised world, and from the most ancient times this substance has 
been employed by man for a variety of purposes. Barbarous and savage tribes use 
the skins of beasts as skins ; civilised man renders the same substance unalterable by 
the external agents which tend to decompose it in its natural state, and by a variety 
of peculiar manipulations prepares it for almost innumerable applications. 

Although the preparation of this valuable substance in a rude manner has been 
known from the most ancient times, it was not until the end of the last, and the 
beginning of the present century (1800) that it began to be manufactured upon right 
principles, in consequence of the researches of Macbride, Deyeux, Seguin, and Davy. 

Skins may be converted into leather either with or without their hair ; generally, 
however, the hair is removed. 

The most important and costly kinds are comprised under sole leather and upper 
leather, to which may be added harness leather, belts used in machinery, leather 
hose, &c., but as far as the tanner is concerned, these are comprehended almost en- 
tirely in the kinds known as upper leather. 

The active principle by which the skins of animals are prevented from putrefying, 
and at the same time, under some modes of preparation, rendered comparatively im- 
pervious to water, is called tannin, or tannic acid, a property found in the bark of the 
various species of Quercus, but especially plentiful in the gall-nut. When obtained 
pure, as it may easily be from the gall-nut, by chemical means, tannic acid appears as 
a slightly yellowish, almost a colourless mass, readily soluble in water; it precipitates 
gelatin from solution, forming what has been called tannogelatin. Tannic acid also 
precipitates albumen and starch. There can be little difficulty, after knowing the 
chemical combination just alluded to, in understanding the peculiar and striking 
change produced on animal substance in the formation of leather. The hide or skin 
consists principally of gelatin, for which the vegetable astringent tannin has an 
affinity, and the chemical union of these substances in the process of tanning pro- 
duces the useful article of which we are treating. 

Before entering upon the various processes by which the changes are effected on 
the animal fibre, it noay not be uninteresting to speak of some of the principal as- 
tringents used for the purpose of producing these effects. 

Bark obtained from the oak-tree is the most valuable and the most extensively used 
ingredient in tanning, and for a long time no other substance was used in England 
for the purpose. In consequence of the demand having become very much greater 
than the supply, and the consequent increase in the price of the article, it became 
necessary to investigate its properties, in order, if possible, to furnish the required 
quantity of tanning matter from other sources. Among other substitutes which 
were tried with some success in other countries may be mentioned heath, myrtle 
leaves, vdld laurel leaves, birch-tree bark, and (according to the ' Penny Cyclopaedia ') 
in 1765 oak-sawdust was applied in England, and has since been used in Germany 
for this purpose. 

Investigation proved that the tanning power of oak-bark consisted in a peculiar 
astringent property, to which the name of tannin has been given, and this discovery 
suggested that other bodies possessing this property would be suitable substitutes. 

According to Sir H. Davy the following proportions of tannin in the different sub- 
stances mentioned will be found : — ' 8 J lbs. of oak-bark are equal to 2J lbs. of galls, 
to 3 lbs. of sumach, to 7^ lbs. of bark of Leicester willow, to 1 1 lbs. of the bark of the 
Spanish chestnut, to 18 lbs. of elm-bark, and to 21 lbs. of common willow-bark.' — 
Penny Cyclcypcedia. 

Oak-babk contains more tannin when cut in spring by four and a half times 
than when cut in winter ; it is also more plentiful in young trees than in old ones. 
About 40,000 tons of oak-bark are said to be imported into this country annually, 
from the Netherlands, Germany, and ports in the Mediterranean. The quantity of 
English oak-bark used we have no means of ascertaining. It is prepared for use by 
grinding it to a coarse powder between cast-iron cylinders, and laid into the tan-pits 
alternately with the skins to be tanned. Sometimes, however, as will be hereafter 
noticed, an infusion of the bark in water is employed with better effect. See Oak-Babk. 

Vol. III. 



82 



LEATHER 



Mimosa. — Tho bark and pods of several kinds of Prosopis, the astringent properties 
of which have rendered them valuable in tanning, are known in commerce by this 
name. The Mimosm are a division of the leguminous order of plants, which consists 
of a large number of species, the Acacia being the principal. Tho sensitive plants 
belong to this division. The Prosopis is found in India and South America ; the genus 
consists both of shrubs and trees. 

Valonia. — The oak which produces this acorn is the Quercus Mgilops, or great 
prickly-cupped oak {figs. 1356, 1357). These are exported from "the Morea and 
Levant; the husk contains an abundance of tannin. 



1356 



1357 





09 . 


. 97 


68 . 


. 73 


13 . 


. 16 


10 . 


. 14 



Catechu, or Terra Japonica, is the inspissated extract of the Acacia catechu. At 
the time the sap is most perfectly formed the bark of the plant is taken off, the tree is 
then felled, and the outer part removed ; the heart of the tree, which is brown, is cut 
into pieces and boiled in water ; when sufficiently boiled it is placed in the sun, and, 
subject to various manip\ilations, gradually dried. It is cut into square pieces, and 
much resembles a mass of earth in appearance ; indeed, it was once considered to be 
such, hence the name Terra Japonica, 

We give Sir H. Davy's analysis ; the first numbers represent Bombay, the second 
Bengal catechu : — 

Tannin 

Extractive 

Mucilage 

Impurities ..... 

This astringent is also obtained from the Uncaria Gambir. 

DiviDivi is a leguminous plant of the genus Casalpinia (C. coriaria). The legumes 
of this species are extremely astringent, and contain a very large quantity of tannic 
.-,_ and gallic acid; they grow in a 

very peculiar manner, and be- 
come curiously curled as they 
arrive to perfection (Jig. 1358). 
The plant is a native of America, 
between the tropics. 

Sumach is a plant belonging 
to the genus Ekus; several of 
the species have astringent pro- 
perties ; Shus cotinus and R. 
coriaria are much used in tan- 
ning ; the bark of the latter is 
said to be the only ingredient 
iised in Turkey for the purpose 
of converting gelatin into leather. 
That used in this country is ground to a fine powder, and is extensively applied to tho 
production of bright leather, both by tanners and curriers. 

Many other vegetable products have been from time to time proposed, and to some 
extent adopted for the same end, but they need not be enumerated. 

The process first attended to by the tanner is simply to soak the skin or hide in 
water ; those from the home market may be said to be washed merely, as they remain 
in water only a few hours ; while hides imported from foreign countries, and which 
have been preserved by salting or drying, and especially the latter, require soaking for 
a longer period, in order to render them supple, and beating or rubbing materially 
assists in bringing them to the required condition. 




LEATHER 



88 



After removing the horns, the softened or recent hides are laid in a heap for a short 
time, after which they are suspended on poles in a close room called a smoke-house, 
heated somewhat above the common temperature by a smouldering fire. In these 
circumstances, a slight putrefaction supervenes, which loosens the epidermis, and 
renders the hair easily detachable. This method for removing the hair is by no means 
general in this country. The plan adopted is to place the hides in a large vat or 
pit, containing milk of lime, in which they must be moved frequently, to allow the 
lime to act equally on every part. When the menstruum has taken proper effect, the 
hair is easily removed, and for this purpose the hide is spread out, and a blunt tool 
is worked over the surface. The hair being removed, the hide is washed in water to 
cleanse it from the lime, which must be most thoroughly effected. 

The heaviest hides are for the most part tanned for sole leather, and as the thinner 
parts are cut off previous to their being prepared for sale, they have received the 
name of butts or backs : the various processes through which these pass will be first 
described. 

After removing the hair and washing, the hides are placed on a convex beam {fig. 
1359), and worked with a concave tool with two handles {fig. 1360), in order to remove 
any flesh or fatty matter which 

may adhere to them ; this 1359 

being done, they are worked 
on the same beam, on the 
grain side, to drive out the 
grease and remove any re- 
maining hair. The fleshings 
are pressed into cakes, and 
sold for making glue, as are 
all such portions of the hide 
or skin as cannot be conve- 
niently worked. The hair is 
sold to plasterers, to be used 
in their mortar ; and the tails, 
also for the hair, to sofa- 
makers and others requiring 
such materials. 

Such hides as are designed 
for machinery purposes are 
next immersed in a pit con- 
taining water impregnated 
with sulphuric acid, the acid varying from ji^th to y^th of the mixture. This process 
is called raising, because it distends the pores, and makes the fibres swell, so as to 
become more susceptible of the action of tanning infusions. Forty-eight hours in 
general sufl&ce for this operation, but more time may be safely taken. From the 
term raising it will be concluded that the substance of the hide is increased, and 
this is the fact ; but as the gelatine is not increased, it is said that the shoemaker's 
hammer would condense the leather so much that it would lose any supposed ad- 
vantage arising out of this increase in thickness. There is, however, a method 
of augmenting the substance of sole leather called puffing, which, when once commu- 
nicated, appears to exist permanently ; the process is known to a small extent only, 
and the material is said to be considerably injured by this mode of preparation. 

When the hides are sufficientlj' raised, they are transferred to a pit supplied with a 
weak infusion of bark ; here they are handled, at first several times a day ; that is, they 
are drawn out of the pits, or moved up and down in the liquor, to prevent the grain 
from being drawn into wrinkles. As the ooze, or tanning infusion, takes effect, they 
are put into pits containing stronger liquors, and after a month or six weeks they are 
placed in a pit, in which they are stratified with oak-bark, ground by a proper mill 
into a coarse powder. The pit is then filled with an infusion of bark. In a month 
or five weeks the tanning and extractive matter of the bark will have intimately 
combined with the animal fibre ; the pit, exhausted of its virtue, must be renewed by 
taking out the spent bark, and repeating the dose as in the first instance. The hides, 
which were placed at the top of the pit at first, are now put into the bottom, to equa- 
lise the action. In about three months this also is spent, and the process being 
repeated two or tliree times more, the operation is complete. The hides are now re- 
moved from the pit, and hung up in a shed. In the progress of drying they are com- 
pressed with a steel tool, and afterwards they are subjected to the action of a brass 
roller. The steel tool is called a^i« ; it is of a triangular shape {fig. 1361), with the sides 
scooped out {fig. 1362), presenting three blunt edges. The butt is thrown across a pole, 
and the workman, taking the pin by the handles a,a{fig. 1361), presses it forcibly over 

e2 




84 



LEATHER 



the grain-side of the leather; after carefully compressing every part in this -way, the 
butt is laid upon a flat bed of solid wood-work, prepared for the purpose, and the brass 
roller is worked backward and forward until every portion is sufficiently compressed 

1361 




{fig. 1363). The roller a is a cylinder varying from 9 to 12 inches in length, and from 
7 to 10 inches in diameter; b is an open box over the roller, into which weights are 
placed to make the necessary pressure, ten or twelve cwts. being frequently used for 
the purpose ; c, c, forms a fulcrum for lifting the roller from the bed to the leather ; 
d is the handle by which the machine is worked. When the compression is com- 
pleted, the only thing remaining to be done is properly to dry the leather, and then it 
is fit for the market. 

Some manufacturers place on the bottom of the tan-pit five or six inches of spent 
bark, and two or three inches of fresh bark over it, then a hide, and so alternately 
bark and a hide, until the pit is nearly full, reserving a small space at the top for a 
thicker layer of bark, over which weighted boards are laid, to condense the whole 
down into the tanning infusion. 

The operation of tanning sole leather by the above method occupies a year or more, 
the time depending on the nature and stoutness of the hide. 

A perfect leather is recognised by its section, which should have a glistening 
marbled appearance, without any white streak in the middle. 

Crop hides are manufactured very much like butts, that is to say, they are placed 
in milk of lime until the hair is sufficiently loosened, equality of action being secured 
by occasionally moving them in the menstruum ; they are then cleared of the hair and 
other impurities by the fleshing knife, worked on the convex beam already described, 
they are then freed from lime by thorough washing. The next process is to plunge 
them into a weak ooze, from which they are transferred to other pits with stronger 
ooze ; all the while they are frequently handled, that is, moved up and down in the 
infusion. After a month or six weeks they are subjected to a mixture of ground oak- 
bark and stronger ooze in other pits, to a series of which they are progressively sub- 
jected during two or three months. 

The hides are next put into large vats called layers, in which they are smoothly 
stratified, with more bark and a stronger infusion. After about six weeks they are 
taken out of these vats, and subjected to a new charge of this material, and allowed 
to lay some two months ; this process is repeated once or twice more till the hides 
are tiioroughly tanned. They are then slowly dried in the shed, and folded for 
market. Although in general the stoutest and most compact hides are used as sole 
leather (notwithstanding that they have not been condensed by the tanner, as in the 
case of butts), yet many are appropriated to other purposes by the currier, and the 
lighter cow-hides are manufactured for the upper leather of stout shoes, water- 
boots, &c. 

The process of tanning shins (as calves, seals, &c.) next claims attention. These 
are placed in the lime-pits until the hair can be easily removed, a process which 
requires about ten or twelve days ; this being accomplished, they are next washed in 
water, so as completely to remove the lime, as far as washing can secure its removal, 
and then immersed in a lixivium of pigeon's dung, dog's dung, or matters of a like 
nature ; in this state they remain about ten or twelve days, the state of the atmo- 
ephere rendering the process quicker at one time than another ; here also they are 



I 



LEATHER 85 

frequently handled, and worked on both sides on the convex beam. The •working, 
joined to the action of the peculiar lixivium, serves to separate the remaining lime, 
oil, and glutinous matter, and at the same time to render the skin pliant, soft, and 
ready to imbibe the tanning principle. It is important that great attention should be 
paid to the process just described, as too short a period would produce a hard and 
crisp leather, -while a few hours more than is necessary makes the article coarse and 
spongy, both of -which conditions should be very carefully guarded against. 

The skins are next removed to a pit containing a -weak solution of bark, in -which 
they undergo nearly the same treatment as crop hides, but they are not commonly 
stratified in the layers. About three months is usually occupied in tanning calf-skins, 
but of course the stouter the skin the more -will be the time required. When dried 
they are disposed of to the currier, -who dresses them for the upper leathers of boots, 
shoes, and a variety of other purposes. It is not unusual for the lighter cow hides to 
be treated like calf-skins. 

Horse-hides are also treated like calf-skins ; but as the horse-hide, -with the exception 
of the part on and near the animal's rump, produces a thin leather, it is usual, before 
subjecting the hide to the action of the bark, to cut out -what is called the hutt, -which 
is tanned separately, and frequently used as an inferior sole leather. It is also to be 
remarked that horse-hides and kips (the hides of small foreign cattle) are frequently 
subjected to a process called bate shaving, in -which the stout parts are reduced by a 
currier's knife pre-vious to tanning, the object being to secure the complete infiltration 
of the animal fibre by the tannin in every part of the hide in the same time. 

Sheepskins are usually pressed after the -wool is removed, and before the tanning 
process is commenced, to get rid of the fatty matter contained in them, and -which is 
not readily removed by ordinary working. 

In all the above processes, as the animal fibres on the surface of the skin absorb 
most readily the tanning principles, and thereby obstruct, in a certain degree, their 
passage into the interior fibres, especially of thick hides, it becomes an object of im- 
portance to contrive some method of overcoming that obstacle, and promoting the 
penetration of the tan. The first manufacturer -who appears to have employed effica- 
cious mechanical means for favouring the chemical action -was Francis G. Spilsbury, 
-who, in April 1823, obtained a patent for the foUo-wing operation: — After the hides 
are freed from the hairs, &c., in the usual -way, they are minutely inspected as to their 
soundness, and if any holes be found, they are carefully se-wed up, so as to be -water- 
tight. Three frames of -wood are provided of equal dimensions, fitted to each other, 
-with the edges of the frames held together by screw bolts. A skin about to be tanned 
is now laid upon the frame, and stretched over its edges, then the second frame is to 
be placed upon it, so that the edges of the two frames may pinch the skin all round 
and hold it securely ; another such skin is then stretched over the upper surface of the 
second frame, in like manner, and a third frame being set upon this, confines the 
second skin. The three frames are then pinched tightly together by a series of screw 
bolts, passing through ears set round their outer edges, which fix the skin in a proper 
manner for being operated upon by the tanning liquor. 

A space has been thus formed between the two skins, into which, when the frames 
are set upright, the infusion is introduced by means of a pipe from the cistern above, 
while the air is permitted to escape by a stopcock below. This cock must of course 
be shut whenever the bag is filled, but the one above is left open to maintain a 
commiinication -with the liquor cistern, and to allow the hydrostatic pressure 
to force the liquor through the cutaneous pores by a slow infiltration, and thus 
to bring the tannin into contact -with all the fibres indiscriminately. The action 
of this pressure is evinced by a constant perspiration on the outer surfaces of the 
skins. 

When the tanning is completed, the upper stopcock is closed, and the under is 
opened to run off the liquor. The frames are now removed, the bolts are unscrewed, 
and the pinched edges of the skins pared off; after which they are to be dried and 
finished in the usual manner. 

A modification of this ingenious and effectual process was made the subject of a 
patent, by William Drake, of Bedminster, tanner, m October 1831. The hides, after 
the usual preparatory processes, are immersed in a weak tan liquor, and by frequent 
handling or turning over, receive an incipient tanning before being submitted to the 
infiltration plan. Two hides, as nearly of the same size and shape as possible, are 
placed grain to grain, when their corresponding edges are sewed firmly together aU 
round by shoemaker's waxed thread, so as to form a bag sufficiently tight to hold tan 
liquor. This bag must then bo suspended by means of loops sewed to its shoulder-end, 
upon pegs, in such a manner that it may hang -within a wooden-barred rack, and be 
confined laterally into a book form. About an inch of the bag is left unscwed at the 
upper end, for the purpose of introducing a funnel through which the cold tan liquor 



86 LEATHER 

is poured into the bag till it be full. After a certain interval, which varies -with the 
quality of the hides, the outer surface becomes moist, and drops begin to form at the 
bottom of the bag. These are received in a proper vessel, and •when they accumulate 
sufficiently may be poured back into the funnel ; the bag being thus, as -well as by a 
fresh supply from above, kept constantly distended. 

When the hides are observed to feel hard and firm, -while every part of them feels 
equally damp, the air of the tanning apartment, having been always well ventilated, is 
now to be heated by proper means to a temperature gradually increasing from 70° 
to 150° of Fahrenheit's scale. This heat is to be maintained till the hides become 
firmer and harder in all parts. When they begin to assume a black appearance in some 
parts, and when the tan liquor undergoes little diminution, the hides maybe considered 
to be tanned, and the bag may be emptied by cutting a few stitches at its bottom. 
The outer edges being pared off, the hides are to be finished in the usual way. During 
their suspension within the racks, the hides should be shifted a little sideways, to 
prevent the formation of furrows by the bars, and to facilitate the equable action of 
the liquor. 

By this process the patentee says, that a hide may be tanned as completely in ten 
days as it could be in ten months by the usual method. 

Messrs. Knowlys and Duesbury obtained a patent in August 1826 for accelerating 
the impregnation of skins with tannin, by suspending them in a close vessel, from which 
the air is to be extracted by an air-pump, and then the tanning infusion is to be ad- 
mitted. In this way, it is supposed to penetrate the hide so effectually as to tan it 
uniformly in a short time. 

Danish leather is made by tanning lamb and kid skins with willow bark, whence it 
derives an agreeable smell. It is chiefly worked up into gloves. 

Of the famng or dressing of skins for gloves, and white sheep leather. 

The operations of this art are : 1, washing the skins ; 2, properly treating them with 
lime ; 3, taking off the fleece ; 4, treatment in the leather steep. 

A shed erected upon the side of a stream, with a cistern of water for washing the 
skins ; wooden horses for cleaning them with the back of the fleshing knife ; pincers 
for removing the fibres of damaged wool ; a plunger for depressing the skins in the 
pits ; a lime pit ; a pole with a bag tied to the end of it ; a two-handled fleshing knife ; 
a rolling pin, from 15 to 18 inches long, thickened in the middle ; — such are somo of the 
utensils of a tawing establishment. There must be provided also a table for applying 
the oil to the skins ; a fulling mill, worked by a water-wheel or other power ; a dress- 
ing peg ; a press for squeezing out the fatty filth ; a stove ; planks mounted upon legs, 
for stretching the skins, &c. 

Fresh skins must be worked immediately after being washed, and then dried, other- 
wise they ferment, and contract either indelible spots, or get tender in certain points, 
so as to open up and tear under the tools. When received in the dry state they should 
be steeped in water for two days, and then treated as fresh skins. Thej' are next 
strongly rubbed on the convex horse-beam with a round-edged knife, in order to make 
them pliant. The rough parts are removed by the fleshing knife. One workman can 
in this way prepare 200 skins in a day. 

The flesh side of each being rubbed with a cold cream of lime, the skins are piled 
together with the woolly side of each pair outermost, and the flesh sides in contact. 
They are left in this state for a few days, till it is found that the wool may be easily 
removed by plucking. 

They are next washed in running water, to separate the greater part of the lime, 
stripped of the wool by small spring tweezers, and then fleeced smooth by means of the 
rolling pin, or sometimes by rubbing with a whetstone. Unless they be fleeced soon 
after the treatment with lime, they do not well admit of this operation subsequently, 
as they are apt to get hard. 

They are now steeped in the milk-of-lime pit, in order to swell, soften, and cleanse 
them ; afterwards in a weak pit of old lime-water, from which they are taken out and 
drained. This steeping and draining upon inclined tables, are repeated frequently 
during the space of three weeks. Only the skins of young animals, or those of inferior 
value are tawed. Sometimes the wool is left on, as for housings, &c. 

The skins, after having been well softened in the steeps, are rubbed on tlie outside 
with a whetstone set in a wooden case with two handles, in order to smoothe them 
completely by removing any remaining filaments of wool. Lamb-skins are rubbed 
wth the pin in the direction of their breadth, to give them suppleness ; but sheep-skins 
are fulled with water alone. They are now ready for the branning, which is done by 
mixing 40 lbs. of bran with 20 gallons of wator, and keeping them in this fermentable 
mixture for three weeks — with the addition, if possible, of some old bran- water. Here 



LEATHER * 87 

they must be frequently turned over, and carefully watched, as it is a delicate operation. 
In the course of two days in summer, and eight in winter, the skins are said to be 
raised, when they sink in the water. On coming out of the bran they are ready 
for the white stuff; which is a bath composed of alum and sea-salt. Twelve, fourteen, 
and sometimes eighteen pounds of alum for 100 skins, form the basis of the bath ; to 
which two and a half pounds of salt are added in winter, and three in summer. These 
ingredients are introduced into a copper with twelve gallons of water. The salt aids 
in the whitening action. When the solution is about to boil, three gallons of it are 
passed through the cullender into a basin ; in this 26 skins are worked one after 
another, and, after draining, they are put together into the bath, and left in it for ten 
minutes to imbibe the salts. They are now ready to receive the paste. For 100 skins, 
from 13 to 15 pounds of wheat-flour are used, along with the yolks of 60 eggs. After 
having warmed the alum-bath through which the skins have been passed, the flour is 
dusted into it, with careful stirring. The paste is well kneaded by the gradual addition 
of the solution, and passed through the cullender, whereby it becomes as clear as honey. 
To this the yolks being added, the whole is incorporated with much manual labour. 
The skins are worked one after another in this paste ; and afterwards the whole to- 
gether are left immersed in it for a day. They are now stretched and dried upon poles, 
in a proper apartment, during from 8 to 15 days, according to the season. 

The effects of the paste are to whiten the skins, to soften them, and to protect them 
from the»hardening influence of the atmosphere, which would naturally render them 
brittle. They would not bear working upon the softening iron, but for the emulsion 
which has been introduced into their substance. With this view they are dipped in a 
tub of clear water during five or six minutes, and then spread and worked upon the 
board. They are increased by this means in length, in the proportion of 5 to 3. No 
hard points must be left in them. The whiteness is also better brought out by this 
operation, which is performed upon the flesh side. The softening tool is an iron plate, 
about 1 foot broad, rounded over above, mounted upon an upright beam, 30 inches 
high, which is fixed to the end of a strong horizontal plank, 2^ feet long and 1 broad. 
This plank is heavily loaded, to make it immoveable upon the floor. Sometimes the 
skins are next spread over an undressed clean skin upon the horse, and worked well 
with the two-handled knife, for the purpose of removing the first and second epidermis, 
called the fleur and arriere-fleur by the French Tnegissiers. They are then dried while 
stretched by hooks and strings. When dry they are worked on the stretching-iron, or 
they are occasionally polished with pumice-stone. A delicate yellow tint is given by 
a composition made of two parts of whitening and one of ochre, applied in a moistened 
state, and well worked in upon the grain side. After being polished with pumice,_they 
are smoothed with a hot iron, as the laundresses do linen, whereby they acquire a 
degree of lustre, and are ready to be delivered to the glover. 

For housings, the best sheep-skins are selected, and such as are covered with the 
longest and most beautiful fleece. They are steeped in water, in order to be cleaned 
and softened ; after which they are thinned inside by the fleshing knife. They are 
now steeped in an old bran-pit for 3 or 4 days, when they are taken out and washed. 
They are next subjected to the white or alum-bath, the wool being carefully folded 
within ; about 18 lbs. of alum being used for 100 skins. The paste is made as for 
the fleeced skins, but it is merely spread upon their flesh side, and left upon them for 
18 hours, so as to stiffen. They are then hung up to dry. They are next moistened 
by sprinkling cold water upon them, folded up, piled in a heap, and covered with 
boards weighted with heavy stones ; in which state they remain for two days. They 
are next opened with a round iron upon the horse, and subjected to the stretching 
iron, being worked broadvrise. They are dried with the fleece outermost, in the sun 
if possible, and are finished upon the stretcher. 

Calf- and lamb-skins with their hair and wool are worked nearly in the same 
manner ; only the thicker the skin, the stronger the alum-bath ou^ht to be. One 
pound of alum and one of salt are required for a single calf-skin. It is left four days 
in this bath, after which it is worked upon the stretcher, and then fulled. When half 
dry, the skins are opened upon the horse. In eight days of ordinary weather, they may 
be completely dressed. Lamb-skins are sometimes steeped during eight days in a 
bath prepared with unbolted rye-flour and cold water, in which they are daily moved 
about two or three times. They are then dried, stretched upon the iron, and switched 
upon the fleecy side. 

Chamois, or Shamoy leather. — The skins are first washed, limed, fleeced, and branned 
as above described. They are next efflowered, that is, deprived of their epidermis by 
a concave knife, blunt in its middle part, upon the convex horse-beam. _ The cutting 
part serves to remove all excrescences, and to equalise the thickness, while the blunt 
part softens and smooths. The skins of goats, does, and chamois are always treated 
in this way. They are next subjected to the fermenting bran-steep for one or two 



88 LEATHER 

days, in ordinary weather ; but in hot weather for a much shorter time, sometimes 
only moving them in the sour bran-liquor for a few minutes. They are lastly wrung 
at the peg, and subjected to the fulling mill. 

"When the skins have been sufficiently swelled and suppled by the branning, they 
may receive the first oil as follows : a dozen skins being stretched upon the table, the 
fingers are dipped in the oil, and shaken over the skins in different places, so as to 
impart enough of it to imbue the whole surface slightly, by friction with the palms of 
the hands. It is to the outside or grain that the oil is applied. The skins are folded 
four together, so as to form balls of the size of a hog's bladder, and thrown into the 
trough of the fulling mill, to the number of twelve dozen at once. Here they remain 
exposed to the beater for two, three, or four hours, according to their nature and the 
state of the weather. They are taken out, aired, oiled, and again fulled. The airing 
and fulling are repeated several times, with more or less frequent oilings. Any cheap 
animal oil is employed. 

After these operations, the skins require to be subjected to a fermenting process, to 
dilate their pores, and to facilitate their combination with the oil. This is performed 
in a chamber only 6 feet high and 10 or 12 feet square. Poles are suspended hori- 
zontally a few inches from the ceiling, with hooks fixed in them to which the skins are 
attached. A somewhat elevated temperature is maintained, and by a stove if need be. 
This operation requires great skill and experience. 

The remainder of the epidermis is next removed by a blunt foncave knife and the 
horse ; whereby the surface is not cut, but rather forcibly scraped. 

The skins are now scoured to carry off the redundant oil ; which is effected by a 
potash-lye, at 2° Baum6, heated no hotter than the hand can bear. In this they are 
stirred briskly, steeped for an hour, and lastly wrung at the peg. The soapy liquor 
thus expelled is used for inferior purposes. The clean skins after being dried are 
finished first on the stretcher-iron, and then on the horse or stretching frame. 

Leather of Hungary. — This is manufactured by impregnating strong hides with alum, 
common salt, and suet ; by a rapid process which is usually completed in the space 
of two months. The workshop is divided into two parts : 1. A shed on the side of a 
stream, furnished with wooden horses, fleshing knives, and other small tools. In one 
corner is a furnace with a boiler for dissolving the alum, a vat for immersing the hides 
in the solution, and several subsidiary tubs. 2. A chamber, 6 feet high, by 15 feet 
square, capable of being made very tight, for preserving the heat. In one corner is a 
copper boiler, of sufficient size to contain 170 lbs. of tallow. In the middle of the 
stove is a square stone slab, upon which an iron grate is placed about a yard square. 
This is covered with charcoal. At each side of the stove are large tables, which occupy 
ita whole length, and on which the leather is spread to receive the grease. The upper 
part below the ceiling is filled with poles for hanging the leather upon to be heated. 
The door is made to shut perfectly close. 

The first operations are analogous to those of tanning and tawing ; the skins being 
washed, cut in halves, shaved, and steeped for 24 hours in the river. They are 
then cleaned with 6 or 6 lbs. of alum, and 3^ lbs. of salt, for a piece of hide 
which weighs from 70 to 80 lbs. The common salt softens the effect of the alum, 
attracts the moisture of the air, and preserves the suppleness of the skin. When the 
alum and salt are dissolved, hot water is poured upon the hides placed in a vat, and 
they are trampled upon by a workman walking repeatedly from one end of the vat to 
the other. They are then transferred into a similar vat containing some hot water, 
and similarly trampled upon. They are next steeped for eight days in alum-water. 
The same round of operations is repeated a second time. 

The skins are now dried either in the air, or in a stove-room ; but before being quite 
dry, they are doubled together, well stretched to take out the wrinkles, and piled up. 
When dry, they are again trampled to open the pores as well as to render the skin 
pliant, after which they are whitened by exposure to the sun. 

Tallow of inferior quality is employed for greasing the leather. With this view tlio 
hides are hung upon the poles in the close stove-room, then laid upon the table, and 
besmeared with the tallow melted till it begins to crackle. This piece is laid on 
another table, is there covered with a second, similarly greased, and so forth. Three 
pounds of fat are commonly employed for one piece of leather. 

When the thirty strips, or fifteen hides passed through the grease in one operation 
are completed, two workmen take the first piece in their hands, and stretch it over the 
burning charcoal on the grate for a minute, with the flesh-side to the fire. The rest 
are passed over the flame in like manner. After flaming, the pieces are successively 
laid on an inclined table exposed to the fire, where they are covered with a cloth. 
They are finally hung upon polos in the air to dry ; and if the weather be warm, they 
are suspended only during the night, so as to favour the hardening of the grease. 
Instead of the alum-batb,M, Curaadau has employed with advantage a steep of dilute 
ulphuric acid. 



LEATHER 89 

The Eussians have long been possessed of a method of making a pectiliar leather, 
called by them Jucten, dyed red with the aromatic saunders wood. This article 
has been much sought after, on account of not being subject to mould in damp 
situations, being proof against insects, and even repelling them from the vicinity 
by its odour. The skins are freed from the hair or fleece, by steeping in an ash-lye too 
weak to act upon the animal fibres. They are then rinsed, fulled for a longer or shorter 
time according to their nature, and fermented in a proper steep, after having been 
washed in hot water. They are taken out at the end of a week, but they may 
be steeped a second time if deemed necessary, to open their pores. They are now 
cleaned by working them at the horse on both the flesh and grain sides. 

A paste is next composed, for 200 skins, of 38 lbs. of rye-flour, which is set to 
ferment with leaven. This dough is worked up with a sufficient quantity of water to 
form a bath for the skins, in which they are soaked for 48 hours ; they are then trans- 
ferred into small tubs, where they remain during fifteen days, after which they are 
washed at the river. These operations serve to prepare the skins for absorbing the 
astringent juices with uniformity. A decoction of willow-bark {Salix cinerea and Salix 
caprea) being made, the skins are immersed in the boiler whenever the temperature of 
the liquor is sufficiently lowered not to injure the animal fibres, and handled and 
pressed for half an hour. This manipulation is repeated twice daily during the 
period of a week. The thinning infusion is then renewed, and applied to the same 
skins for another week ; after which, being exposed to the air to dry, they are ready 
for being dyed, and then curried with the empyreumatic oil of the bark of the birch 
tree. To this substance the Russia leather owes its peculiarities. Many modes have 
been prescribed for preparing it ; but the following is the one practised in Russia. 

The whitish membranous epidermis of the birch, stripped of all woody parts, is in- 
troduced into an iron boiler, which, when stuffed full, is covered tight with a vaulted 
iron lid, having a pipe rising from its centre. A second boiler into which this pipe 
passes without reaching its bottom, is set over the first, and is luted to it at the edges, 
after the two are bolted together. They are then inverted, so that the upper one con- 
tains the birch-bark. The under half of this apparatus is sunk in the earth, the surface 
of the upper boiler is coated over with a clay lute, then surrounded with a fire of wood, 
and exposed to a red heat, till the distillation be completed. This operation, though 
rude in appearance, and wasteful of wood, answers its purpose perfectly well. The iron 
cylinder apparatus used in Britain for distilling wood-vinegar would, however, be 
much more convenient and productive. When the above bodies are unluted, there is 
found in the upper one a very light powder of charcoal, and in the under one, which 
served as a receiver, there is an oily, brown, empyreumatic fluid, of a very strong 
smell, which is mixed with the tar, and which floats over a small quantity of crude 
vinegar. The former matter is the oil employed to impregnate the skins, by working 
it into the flesh side with the currier's tools. It is difficult to make this oil penetrate 
with uniformity ; and the Russians do not always succeed in this process, for they 
turn out many skins in a spotted state. This oil is at present obtained in France by 
distilling the birch-bark in copper stiUs, and condensing the products by means of a 
pipe plunged in cold water. About 60 per cent, of the weight of the bark is extracted. 

The skins imbibe this oil most equally before they are fully dry. Care must be 
taken not to apply too much of it, for fear of its passing through and staining the 
grain side of the leather. Chevreul has investigated the chemical nature of this odo- 
riferous substance, and finding it to be a peculiar compound, has called it betuline. 

In the Franklin Institute for February 1843, Mr. Gideon Lee has published some 
judicious observations on the process of tanning. He believes that much of the 
original gelatine of the hides is never combined with the tannin, but is wasted ; for 
he thinks that 100 lbs. of perfectly dry hide, when cleaned from extraneous matter, 
should, on chemical principles, afford at least 180 lbs. of leather. The usual 
preparation of the hide for tanning he believes to be a wasteful process. In the 
liming and bating, or the unhairing and the cleansing, the general plan is first to steep 
the hides in milk of lime for one, two, or three weeks, according to the weather and 
texture of the skin, until the hair and epidermis be so loosened as to be readily re- 
moved by rubbing down, by means of a knife, upon a beam or block. Another mode 
is to suspend the hides in a close chamber, heated slightly by a smouldering fire, till 
the epidermis gets loosened by incipient putrefaction. A third process, called sweat- 
ing, used in Germany, consists in laying the hides in a pack or pile, covered with tan, 
to promote fermentative heat, and to loosen the epidermis and hairs. These plans, 
especially the two latter, are apt to injure the quality of the hides. 

The bate consists in steeping the haired hides in a solution of pigeons' dung, con- 
taining, Mr. Lee says, muriate of ammonia, muriate of soda, &c. ; but most probably 
phosphates of ammonia and lime, with urate of ammonia, and very fermentable animal 
matter. The dry hides are often subjected first of all to the operation of the f\]lling- 



90 LEATHER, MOROCCO 

stocks, which opens the pores, but at the same time prepares them for the action of the 
liming and bate; as also for the introduction of the tanning matter. When the 
fulling is too violent, the leather is apt to be too limber and thin. Mr. Lee conceives 
that the liming is iiyurious, by carrying off more or less of the gelatine and albumen 
of the skin. High-hmed leather is loose, -weighs light, and wears out quickly. The 
subsequent fermentation in the bating aggravates that evil. Another process has 
therefore been adopted in New York, Maine, New Hampshire, and some parts of 
Philadelphia, called, but incorrectly, cool sweating, which consists in suspending the 
hides in a subterranean vault, at a temperature of 50° F., kept perfectly damp, by 
the trickling of cold spring- water from points in the roof. The hides being first 
soaked, are suspended in this vault from 6 to 12 days, when the hair is well loosened, 
by the mere softening effect of moisture, without fermentation. — H.M, 

IbBATHES, IICOKOCCO. {Maroquin, Fr. ; Saffian, Ger.) Morocco leather of 
the finer quality is made from goat-skins tanned with sumach; inferior morocco 
leather (roan) from sheep-skins. Tlie goat-skins as imported are covered with hair ; 
to remove which they are soaked in water for a certain time, and they are then sub- 
jected to the operation called breaking, which consists in scraping them clean and 
smooth on the flesh side, and they are next steeped in lime-pits (milk of lime) for 
several days, during which period they are drawn out, with a hook, from time to time, 
laid on the side of the pit to drain, and replunged alternately, adding occasionally a 
little lime, whereby they are eventually deprived of their hair. Wl^n this has be- 
come sufficiently loose, the skins are taken out one by one, laid on convex beams, the 
work-benches, which stand in an inclined position, resting on a stool at their upper 
end, at a height convenient for the workman's breast, who scrapes off the hair with a 
concave steel blade or knife, having a handle at each end. When unhaired, the skins 
are once more soaked in milk of lime for a few days, and then scraped on the flesh 
side to render it very even. For removing the lime which obstructs their pores, and 
would impede the tanning process, as well as to open these pores, the skins are steeped 
in a warm semi-putrid alkaline liquor, made with pigeons' and hens' dung diffused in 
water. Probably some very weak acid, such as fermented bran-water, would answer 
as well, and not be so offensive to the workmen. (In Germany the skins are first 
washed in a barrel by a revolving axle and discs.) They are again scraped, and then 
sewed into bags, the grain outermost, like bladders, leaving a small orifice, into which 
the neck of a funnel is inserted, and through which is poured a certain quantity of a 
strong infusion of the sumach ; and they are now rendered tight round the orifices, 
after being filled out with air, like a blown bladder. A parcel of these inflated skins 
are thrown into a very large tub, containing a weaker infusion of sumach, where 
they are rolled about in the midst of the liquor, to cause the infusion within to act 
upon their whole surface, as well as to expose their outsides uniformly to the tjin- 
ning action of the bath. After a while these bladder-skins are taken out of the bath, 
and piled over each other upon a wooden rack, whereby they undergo such pressure 
as to force the enclosed infusion to penetrate through their pores, and to bring the 
tannin of the sumach into intimate contact, and to form a chemical combination with 
the skin fibres. The tanning is completed by a repetition of the process of intro- 
ducing some infusion or decoction into them, blowing them up, and floating them 
with agitation in the bath. In this way goat-skins may be well tanned in the course 
of one day. 

The bags are next undone by removing the sewing, the tanned skins are scraped as 
before on the curriers' bench, and hung up in the drying loft or shed ; they are said 
now to be ' in the crust.' They are again moistened and smoothed with a rubbing 
tool before being subjected to the dyeing operations, in which two skins are applied 
face to face to confine the dye to one of their surfaces only, for the sake of economising 
the dyeing materials, which may be of several different colours. The dyed skins are 
grained by being strongly rubbed with a ball of box wood, finely grooved on its 
surface. 

Preparatory to being dyed, each skin is sewed together edgewise, with the grain on 
the outside, and it is then mordanted either with a solution of tin, or with alum-water. 
The colour is given by cochineal, of which from 10 to 12 ounces are required for a dozen 
of skins. The cochineal being boiled in water along with a little tartar or alum for a 
few minutes, forms a red liquor, which is flltered through a linen cloth, and put into 
a clean cask. The skins are immersed in this bath, and agitated in it for about half 
an hour; they are taken out and beaten, and then subjected to a second immersion in 
the cochineal bath. After being thus dyed, they are rinsed and tanued with Sicilian 
sumach, at the rate of two pounds for a skin of moderate size. The process is per- 
formed in a large tub made of white wood, in the liquor of which the skins are floated 
like so many bladders, and moved about by manual labour during four hours. They 
are then taken out, drained, and again subjected to the tanning liquor ; tlie whole pro- 



LEATHER, MOROCCO dl 

cess requiring a space of twenty-four hours. The skins are now unstitched, rinsed, 
fiilled with beetles, drained, rubbed hard with a copper blade, and lastly hung up 
to dry. 

Some manufacturers brighten the colour by applying to the sur&ce of the skins, in 
a damp state, a solution of carmine in ammonia with a sponge ; others apply a decoc- 
tion of saffron to enliven the scarlet tint. At Paris, the morocco leather is tanned by 
agitation with a decoction of sumach in large casks made to revolve upon a horizontal 
axis, like a barrel churn. White galls are sometimes substituted for sumach ; a pound 
being used for a skin. The skins must be finally cleaned with the utmost care. 

The black dye is given by applying with the brush a solution of red acetate of iron to 
the grain side. Blue is communicated by the common cold indigo vat ; violet, with a 
light blue followed by cochineal red ; green, by Saxon blue followed by a yellow dye, 
usually made with the chopped roots of the barberry. This plant serves also for 
yellows. To dye olive, the skins are first passed through a weak solution of green 
vitriol, and then through the decoction of barberry root, containing a little Saxon 
blue. Puce colour is communicated by logwood with a little alum ; which may be 
modified by the addition of a little Brazil wood. In all these cases, whenever the 
skins are dyed, they should be rinsed, wrung, or rather drained, stretched upon a 
table, then besmeared on the grain side with a film of linseed oil applied by means of 
a sponge, in order to promote their glossiness when curried, and to prevent them 
becoming horny by too rapid drying. 

The last process in preparing morocco leather is the currying, which brings out the 
lustre, and restores the original suppleness. This operation is practised in diflferent 
manners, according to the purpose th^ skins are to serve. For pocket-books, port- 
folios, and case-making in general, they must be thinned as much as possible upon the 
flesh side, moistened slightly, then stretched upon the table, to smooth them ; dried 
again, moistened, and lastly passed two or three times through the cylinder press in 
different directions, to produce the crossing of the grain. The skins intended for the 
shoemaker, the saddler, the bookbinder, &c., require more pliancy, and must be dif- 
ferently curried. After being thinned, they are glazed with a polisher while still 
moist, and a grain is formed upon the flesh side with the roughened lead plate or 
grainer of the curriers, called in French pommelle ; they are glazed anew to remove 
the roughness produced by the pommel, and finally grained on the flesh side with a 
surface of cork applied under a pommel of white wood. 

Tawing of Skins. {Megisserie, Fr. ; Weissgerberei, Ger.) The kid-, sheep-, and 
lamb-skins, are cleaned as has been already described. In some factories they 
receive the tanning power of the submuriate of alumina (from a solution of alum arid 
common salt) in a large barrel-chum apparatus, in which they are subjected to violent 
agitation, and thereby take the aluming m the course of a few minutes. In other cases, 
where the yolks of eggs are added to the above solution, the mixture, with the skins, 
is put into a large tub, and the whole trampled strongly by the naked feet of the 
operator, till the emulsion of the egg be forced into the pores of the skin. The tawed 
skins, when dry, are ' staked,' that is stretched, scraped, and smoothed by friction 
against the blunt edge of a semi-circular knife, fixed to the top of a short beam of wood 
set upright. The workman holding the extremities of the skin with both hands, pulls 
it in all directions forcibly, but skilfully, against the smoothing ' stake.' 

In an entertaining article on tanning in the 11th vol. of the 'Penny Magazine,' at 
page 215, the following description is given of one of the great tawing establishments 
of London : — 

' In the production of " imitation " kid leather, the skin of lambs is employed ; and 
for this purpose lamb-skins are imported from the shores of the Mediterranean. 
They are imported with the wool yet on them ; and as this wool is valuable, the leather 
manufacturer removes this before the operations on the pelt commence. The wool is 
of a quality that would be greatly injured by the contact of lime, and therefore a kind 
of natural fermentation is brought about as a means of loosening the wool from the 
pelt.' The following is a description of one of the buildings : ' On the ground floor, 
a flight of stone steps leads down to a range of subterranean vaults or close rooms, 
into which the lamb-skins are introduced in a wet state, after having been steeped 
in water, * broken ' on the flesh side, and drained. The temperature of these rooms 
is nearly the same all the year round, a result obtained by having them excluded as 
much as possible from the variations of the external atmosphere ; and the result is, 
that the skins undergo a kind of putrefactive or fermenting process, by which the 
wool becomes loosened from the pelt. During tliis chemical change ammonia is 
evolved in great abundance ; the odour is strong and disagreeable ; a lighted candle, 
if introduced, would be instantly extinguished, and injurious effects would be per- 
ceived by a person remaining long in one of the rooms. Each room is about ten 
feet square, and is provided with nails and bars whereon to hang the lamb-skins. 



92 LEATHER, RUSSIAN 

The doors from all the rooms open into one common passage or vault, and are kept 
close, except -when the skins are inspected. It is a point of much nicety to determine 
•when the fermentation has proceeded to such an extent as to loosen the wool from the 
pelt ; for if it bo allowed to proceed beyond that stage, the pelt itself would become 
injured. 

When the fermentation is completed, generally in about five days, the skins are re- 
moved to a beam, and there ' slimed,' that is, scraped on the flesh side, to remove a 
slimy substance which exudes from the pores. The wool is then taken off, cleaned, 
and sold to the hatters, for making the bodies of common hats. The stripped pelts 
are steeped in lime-water for about a week, to kill the grease ; and are next ' fleshed 
on the beam.' After being placed in a ' drench,' or a solution of sour bran for some 
days to remove the lime and open the pores, the skins are alumed, and subjected to 
nearly the same processes as the true kid-skins. These Mediterranean lamb-skins do 
not in general measure more than about 20 inches by 12; and each one furnishes 
leather for two pairs of small gloves. These kinds of leather generally leave the 
leather-dresser in a -white state ; but imdergo a process of dyeing, softening, ' stroking,' 
&c., before being cut up into gloves. 

The tanning of one average-sized skin requires about 1^ lb. of good Sicilian 
sumach ; but for leather which is to receive a bright scarlet dye, from one half to 
three quarters of a pound of gall-nuts are employed in preference. Inferior goat-skins 
are tanned with a willow-bark infusion, in pits, in which they are turned repeatedly, 
and laid out to drain, as in tanning sole leather. The flnest skins for the brightest 
scarlet are cured with salt, to prevent their receiving damage in the transport, and 
are dyed before being tanned. This method is practised in Germany and France. 

Leather of deer- and sheep-skins is prepared with oil, for the purpose of making 
breeches, &c., and for wash-leather, used in cleaning plate. After they are completely 
washed, limed, and beamed, as above described, they have their ' grain ' surface re- 
moved, to give them greater softness and pliability. This removal of the grain is 
called ' frizing,* and it is done either with the round edge of a blunt knife, or with 
pumice-stone. After being freed from the lime by steeping in fermented bran-water, 
they are pressed as dry as may be, and are then impregnated with cod-oil, by beating 
with stocks in the trough of a kind of fulling mill. Previously to the application of 
the oil, they are usually beat for some time alone to open their substance. The oiled 
skins are stretched, hung up for some time in the air, then fulled with oil as before — a 
process which is 8 or 9 times repeated. The oil is slowly and evenly poured upon the 
skins in the trough during the action of the beaters. One hundred skins usually take 
up in this way from two to three gallons of oil. The fulled oil skins are thrown into 
large tubs, and left for some time to ferment, and thereby to combine more intimately 
with the oil. They are lastly subjected to a weak potash-lye-bath, to strip them of the 
loosely adliering oil. They are then hung up in the air to dry, and dressed for the 
market. — ^H.M. 

XiEATBER, KTrssZAMT, as tanned at Ka^an. The hides to be tanned may be 
either fresh from the animal or dry, no matter which ; they are first laid to soak for 
tliree days and nights in a solution of potash, to which some quicklime is added. The 
potash used is made of tjie tree called in Euss ilim (the common elm), which sort is 
said to be preferable to any other, if not essential ; it is not purified, so that it is of a 
brown colour and of an earthy appearance : about 12 poods of this (the pood is 36 lbs. 
English), and 2 poods of lime, serve for 100 skins. As they have no way of ascer- 
taining the degree of causticity of the alkali but by its effect upon the tongue, when 
they find it weak they let the skins lie longer in the solution. 

When the skins are taken out of this solution they are carried to the river, and left 
under water for a day and night. 

Next a vedro of dog's dung is boiled in as much water as is enough to soak 60 skins, 
(the vedro is equal to 2-696 English imperial gallons) but in the winter time, when 
the dung is frozen, twice that quantity is found necessary. The skins are put into this 
solution, not while it is boiling hot, but when at the heat which the hand can bear ; in 
this they lie one day and one night. 

The skins are then sewed up so as to leave no hole ; in short, so as to bo water-tiglit ; 
about one third of what the skin will contain is then filled up with the leaves and small 
twigs chopped together of the plant called in Euss Toloknanka (^Arbutus uva-ursi, 
sometimes called bearberry), which is brought from the environs of Solikamskaga, 
and the skin is then filled up with water. 

The skins thus filled are laid one on the other in a large trough, and heavy stones 
upon them, so as by their weight to press the infusion through the pores of the skin in 
about 4 hours ; yet, as it was said at the same time, that the skins aro filled up with 
the same water which had been pressed out 10 times successively, and that the whole 
operation takes but one day and one night, this leaves but 2\ hours for each time. 



LEATHER, CURRYING OF 93 

The skins are then taken to the river and washed, and are ready for the dyeing, 
Tho whitest skins are laid aside for the red and yellow leather. 

To soften the skins after dyeing, they are harassed by a knife, the point of which is 
cun-ed upwards. — H. M. 

LEATHER, CVRRTZNG OF. The currier's shop has no resemblance to the 
promises of the tanner, the tools and manipulations being quite different. 

Within the last twenty or thirty years, many tanners have added the currying 
business to their establishments, and many curriers have likewise commenced tanning ; 
but in each case, an extension of premises is necessary, and the two departments are 
still separate. The advantages derivable from this arrangement are two-fold : — first, 
a saving of time is effected, for as the tanned leather is sold by weight, it is required 
to be well dried before being disposed of to the currier, an operation which is not 
needed where the tanner carries on the currying also ; and secondly, by the currier's 
art, the skins can be reduced to a comparatively uniform thickness previous to their 
being tanned, thus saving time and bark (used for tanning), and insuring a more 
equal distribution of tannin through the substance of the skin. In the following 
description, the business of cxirrying will be considered as practised at the present 
time. 

The currier's shop or premises, to be convenient, should be spacious. A frequent, 
though not universal method, is to have the ground-floor appropriated to such ope- 
rations as require the use of a large quantity of water. The place or apartment thus 
used, is called the scounnq-house, and is commonly furnished with a nimiber of vaif 
or casks open at one end, in which the leather is placed for the purpose of soaking, 
and undergoing such treatment as will be hereafter described. In this apartment also 
is placed a large, flat, slate stone, called a scouring stone, or, more consistently, the 
stone on which the leather is scoured. This stone, which has its face perfectly flat 
and smooth, and which should measure 8 or 9 feet in length, by 4J- broad, forms 
a table, supported generally by masonry, but sometimes by a strong frame of wood, 
so constructed that tho water, which is freely used in scouring, may drain off on 
the opposite side from that on which the workman is engaged; an inclination of 
about 3 or 4 inches on the width of the table, is suificient for this purpose. Another 
piece of furniture very frequently found in, or on the same floor with the scour! ng- 
liouse, is a block of sandstone, in the form of a parallelopipedon, between 2 and 3 
feet long, and 9 or 10 inches broad, the upper face of which is kept as near as 
possible a perfect plane; this stone is fixed at a convenient height on a strong 
trussel, and is called the rub-stone, liocause here the workman rubs or sharpens his 
knives and other tools. In some large establishments where the premises and water 
are heated by steam, the scouring-houso will be found with a service of pipe leading 
to tho various vats, and the boiler for generating the steam may be conveniently 
placed in or near this part of the building. 

The floor above the scouring-house, in the arrangement here laid down, is what is 
specially designated the shop. The furniture in this department consists of a beam 
{fig. 1364), on which the leather is shaved. It 
consists of a heavy block of wood, on which the 
workman stands, and into one end of which a 
stiff piece of wood is firmly mortised, at an angle 
of about 85° ; this upright (so called) is about a 
foot wide, the height being greater cfr less, accord- 
ing to the height of the workman, each of whom 
has his beam adjusted to meet his convenience. 
On the front of the upright a piece of deal is 
firmly screwed, to which is glued a face or plate 
of lignum vita, worked to perfect smoothness to 
agree with the edge of the knife used in the 
operation of shaving. It is of the greatest im- 
portance to the workman, to keep his skin from 
injury, that this knife and beam should be kept 
in good order. A table or tables, generally of 

mahogany, large planks of which are used for the purpose to avoid joints, may be 
said to form a necessary part of the furniture of this department. These tables are 
firmly fixed, to resist the pressure of the workman when using various tools ; and 
as light is of the greatest consequence in the operations performed on them, they 
are usually placed so as to have windows in front of them. A high trussel is 
frequently used, across which the leather is thrown, after undergoing any of tho 
processes, while the currier subjects other pieces to the same operation. 

Another part of the premises is termed the drying-loft. In good buildings the 
drying-loft is surrounded with weather-boards, constructed to be opened or closed as 




94 



LEATHER, CURRYING OF 



may be required. The use of this part being the drying of the leather, the ceiling is 
furnished with a number of rails or long pieces of wood, with hooks or nails on 
which to hang the leather for drying ; and where steam is used for this purpose, the 
floor is traversed with pipes for heating the loft. Here also is a table, similar to that 
previously described ; it should not be less than 7 or 8 feet long by 4^ broad, if 
possible, without joint, and with a smooth face. 

There are other subordinate departments, each furnished with a table similar to 
those described. 

Of the tools used in currying, the knife stands first in importance {jig. 1365). Here 
a and h are two handles, a is held in the left hand, and forms a powerful lever when 
the edge c is applied to the leather. The blade of the cxirrier's knife is peculiarly 
tempered ; it is composed of a plate of fine steel, strongly riveted between two plates 
of iron. This instrument is taken to the rub-stone, and ground to a perfectly sharp 
edge by successively rubbing forward and backward ; care being taken to keep the 
edge true, that is, straight. When this has been satisfactorily accomplished, it is 
still further rubbed on a fine Scotch or Welsh stone, called a clearing-stone, until the 
scratches of the rub-stone disappear. 

In this operation a fine thread or wire forms on the edges, for the knife has two 
edges, c, c, which must be carefully got rid of; after which it is wiped dry, and the 
edges greased with tallow or oiL The workman then takes a strong steel, and placing 
himself on his knees, he fixes the knife with the straight handle b against any firm 
body, and the cross handle a between his knees ; then holding the steel in both hands, 
he carefully rubs it forward and backward the whole length of the edge. During this 
operation the knife is gradually raised by means of the handle a, until it is nearly 
perpendicular ; by this means the edge is turned completely over. If the knife is 
not well tempered, the edge thus obtained will be irregula" or broken ; in either of 
which cases, it is of no use whatever. 



1366 



1367 




To keep the instrument just described in proper order requires great skill on 
the part of the currier. The edge is so delicate and liable to injury that it can- 
not be used more than a minute or two without losing its keenness. To restore 
this a very carefully prepared small steel is used, fg. 1 366 ; the point of the steel 
is first run along the groove which is formed by turning the edge over, and the' steel is 
then made to pass outside the edge (fig. 1367). It is remarkable that a skilful hand 
can thus restore the efliciency of the knife, and keep it in work for hours without 
going for a new edge to the rub-stone. The other tools will be described as their uses 
are mentioned. 

The first thing done by the currier is the soaking of the leather received from the 
tanner in water ; the skin requires a thorough wetting, but not to saturation. In 



LEATHER, CURRYING OF 95 

some cases the thicker parts are partially soaked before the immersion of the whole 
and when, from the nature of the skin, this cannot be done, water is applied to the 
stout parts after the dipping ; it is requisite that the whole should be as nearly as 
possible equally wet. In some instances the wetted leather is beaten, and sometimes 
a coarse graining-board (hereafter to be described) is used, to make it more supple 
previous to shaving it. The skin is then laid over the beam {fig. 1368), and the 
rough fleshy portion is shaved oft". This operation is generally called skiving, ^n 
all the operations at the beam the leather is kept in its place by pressure of the knees 
or body of the workman from behind. In skiving the right-hand handle of the knife 
somewhat precedes the left, but in shaving, properly so called, the left-hand precedes 
the right, fig. 1369. In skiving the knife is driven obliquely a few inches at a time ; 
in shaving it is driven with great force, not unfrequently from the top to the bottom 
of the beam ; great skill is requisite in the performance of these operations, to guide 
the knife and to keep its edge. The carpenter's plane can be most completely regu- 
lated by the projection of the plane iron from the wood, but the currier's knife admits 
of no such arrangement, and the unskilful currier is constantly liable to injure the 
leather by cutting through it, as well as by failing to produce a regular substance. 
The kind of skin, and the use for which it is designed, will regulate the work at the 
beam. In some cases, as in the calf-skin, it is skived and then shaved, or, as it is 
called, flattened at right angles to the skiving — in other kinds, as the cow-hide pre- 
pared for the upper leather of heavy shoes, after skiving it is shaved across {i. e. 
nearly at right angles to the skiving), and flattened by being again shaved in the 
same direction as the skiving. In some manufactories there are certain kinds of 
leather which are subjected to the operation called by curriers stoning before flatten- 
ing : this is done by forcibly driving the stock-stone (fig. 1370) over the grain side of 
the leather, thereby stretching it, and rendering the grain smooth. The flattening 
process is considerably facilitated by this stoning ; and if the skin has been allowed 
slightly to harden by exposure to air, and the edge of the knife is fine, as it should 
be, the workman has but to strike the flat part of the knife over the leather after the 
shaving is performed, to produce a beautiful face to the flesh side of the skin. It 
will not be diffictdt to understand that a good hand is easily distinguished from an 
inferior one in this part of the business. With such nicety will a skilful workman 
set the edge of his knife, that although there seems nothing to guide him, he can 
take shaving after shaving from the hide extending from the top to the bottom of the 
beam, thus rendering the leather extremely even in its substance, 

1370 1371 




After the process of shaving is completed, the leather is placed in water, where 
it remains until it is convenient to carry on the operation next required. It is to 
be observed that in the condition in which leather is shaved, it cannot long be 
kept without becoming heated ; when, however, it is put into water, it is safe 
from injury, and may be kept a very long time, provided the water be occasionally 
changed for a fresh, sweet supply ; stale water is regarded as injurious for the skin 
to remain in. 

Scouring is next proceeded with ; the skin is taken out of the water, and laid on 
the scouring-stone. In respectable manufactories, it is usual first to scour on the 
flesh ; this is done by passing a slicker smartly over the flesh side, by which the grain 
of the leather is brought into close contact with the scouring-stone, and, being in a 
wet condition, the air is easily excluded, so that the leather sticks to the stone. A 
plentiful supply of water is now applied, and a large brut.:, with stiff hairs, is rubbed 
over the flesh, or upper side. Portions of the surface, in a pulpy condition, come off 
with the scrubbing, and the skin presents a soft, whitened and pulpy appearance ; the 
pores are rendered capable of containing more moisture, and, altogether, the leather is 
much benefited. The slicker is a plate of iron or steel, or for particular purposes, of 
brass or copper ; it is about five inches long, and like the stock-stone, is fixed in a 
stock, or handle {fig. 1371). It is sharpened at the rub-stone, by grinding the plate 
perpendicularly, and then on either side, thus producing two edges (or, rather, right 
angles). The edges thus produced are not of an order to cut the leather, but rather 
to scrape it. The slicker is not intended to remove irregularities in the leather; but 
its uses are various, and it may be considered a very important tool, as will hereafter 
appear. 

In the process of tanning, the grain side of tlie hide or skin becomes covered with 



96 LEATHER, CURRYING OF 

a whitish body, derived from the bark called bloi>7)i ; this is more or less difficult to 
remove according to the hardness or softness of the water used in tanning, and the 
peculiar treatment of the tanner. It is, however, the currier's business to remove it, 
which he effects thus : — In the case of leather whose grain is tender, as cordovan, 
which is manufactured from horse-hides, the grain being kept uppermost, the leather 
is spread on the scouring-stone, and being plentifully supplied with water, is stretched 
by using the slicker, or a fine pebble, ground to the shape of the stock-stone, the bloom 
is thus loosened, and at the same time, by making it adhere to the scouring-stone, the 
next operation is readily carried on, which consists in smartly brushing the grain with 
a ItiflF-haired brush, and at the same time keeping a quantity of water on the surface, 
the slicker is again used to remove the water and loosened bloom, and the scouring is 
complete. In the scouring of calf-skins, and cow- or ox-hides, the stock-stone is used 
to fix the leather, and a piece of pumice-stone, the face of which has been ground to 
smoothness, and afterwards cut in grooves, is then forcibly rubbed over the grain, in 
order to remove the bloom. In this, as in other operations on the scouring-stone, 
water is a necessary ingredient. The bloom being sufficiently loosened by the pumice- 
stone, the brush is used to scrub up the remaining dirt, which is then removed by the 
stock-stone or slicker. In harness leather, which is stout, and requires to be stretched 
as much as possible, the pumice-stone is seldom used, the stock-stone and scouring- 
brush being lustily applied until the bloom is sufficiently removed. Ordinary manu- 
facturers within the present (nineteenth) century have considered the operations of 
the seouring-house complete at this point. The modern currier takes a different view, 
and not unfrequently detains his scoured property for days, and sometimes for weeks, 
in the scouring-house. 

If the leather is imperfectly tanned, or it is required to be made of a bright colour, 
there are other processes to be passed through. In these cases sumach (an ever- 
green shrub of the natural order AnacardiacetB, genus Ehus, and from the bark of 
which all the leather made in Turkey is said to be tanned) is infused in boiling 
water, and when cooled to a tepid state the leather is placed in it. After staying 
a sufficient time it is taken to the scouring-stone ; if cordovan, it is slicked as dry as 
can be well accomplished on the flesh side ; other leather is for the most part slicked 
in a similar way on the grain side. Saddle leather, which is required to be of a 
bright colour, is still further placed in warm water slightly acidulated with sulphuric 
or oxalic acid, or both ; here for a time it is kept in motion, then taken to the 
scouring-stone, it is washed with peculiar chemical lotions, according to the taste or 
knowledge of the workman ; then again it is dipped in tepid sumach infusion, then 
slicked with a copper or brass slicker (iron is liable to stain leather thus prepared), 
and a thin coat of oil being applied to either side, it is removed to the drying-loft. 
Until within a very few years much time and trouble were taken to produce very 
bright leather for the sadcUer ; but of late brown-coloured leather has been adopted 
to a considerable extent, as it is less liable to become soiled. Nearly all leather is 
placed a short time in the loft before further manipulations are carried on, in order to 
harden it slightly by drying. 

In the drying-loft, or its immediate vicinity, the leather receives the dubbing {daub- 
ing, probably) or stuffing. The substance so called is composed of tallow, brought to 
a soft plastic condition by being melted and mixed with cod-liver oil ; occasionally sod 
(an oil made in preparing sheep-skins) is, in very small quantities, added to the mix- 
ture. This is laid upon the leather either with a soft-haired brush or a mop made 
generally of rags. 

The leather is prepared for stuffing by wetting slightly such parts as have become 
too dry. It is then taken to the table previously described, which, being slightly 
oiled, the process is carried on by placing the skin on the table in the manner most 
convenient for stretching it and making the surface smooth. In those kinds that 
have a rough wrinkled grain the flesh side is placed next the table, and the stock- 
stone is used very smartly to stretch and smooth the grain. A kind of clamp or hold- 
fast, composed of two cheeks fastened with a screw, is sometimes used to prevent the 
leather from moving during this operation, but in general these are not required ; 
the slicker is then applied to remove the marks left by the stock-stone, and a thin 
stuffing being spread over the grain it is turned over, slicked on the flesh lightly, a 
coat of stuffing is spread over it, and it is hung up to dry. In those kinds which 
have to be blacked (or stained) on the grain, a little cod-oil only is spread on the 
grain, and the slicker is applied on the flesh side most laboriously previous to stuffing. 
Much skill is required to give the requisite quantity of stuff {duhhing) to the leather 
without excess, excess being injurious, and the quantity required is further regulated 
by the freshness or otherwise of the leather, the tan-yard from which it comes, and 
the treatment it has received in the scouring-house. 

When dry, the skins or hides are folded together, to remain until required. It is 



LEATHER, CURBYING OF 97 

certain the leather improves by remaining some •weeks in this condition. It shonld 
be observed that, in drying, the leather absorbs a large quantity of the oleaginous 
matter with which it is charged, and the unabsorbed portion forms a thick coating of 
hardened greasy matter on the flesh side. 

Leather which has to be blackened on the flesh (wax-leat/ter), from this point, re- 
ceives different treatment from ^'raw-leather. Wf^ox-leather is taken to the shop-table 
and softened with a graining-board. The skin is laid on the table and doubled, grain 
to grain, the graining-board {fig. 1373), which is confined to the hand by a leather 
strap (a a), is driven forward and drawn back alternately until a grain is raised on the 

1372 1373 





leather, and it has attained the required suppleness. Observe, the graining-board is 
slightly rounded on the lower surface, and traversed by parallel grooves from side to 
side, whicli are coarser or finer, as occasion requires. The grease is next removed 
from the flesh by the slicker, and afterwards a sharp slicker is passed over the grain 
to remove grease or other accumulations from it. The next process is called 
whitening. The leather is laid over the beam, and a knife with an extremely fine 
edge is used to take a thin shaving from the flesh side ; this is a point at which a 
cu: rier's skill is tested. The knife used is one that has been very much worn, the 
quality of which has been tested to the utmost ; and so extremely true is the edge 
expected, that not the slightest mark (scratch) is allowed to appear on the surface of 
the leather. Only a good workman can satisfactorily accomplish this. The slightest^ 
gravel in the flesh of the skin may break the edge of the knife in pieces, and it is not 
easy to rectify so serious a misfortune; besides, a poor workman may turn up the edge 
by steeling, an operation which ought to mend the mischief instead of provoking it. 

A fine graining-board is next used to soften the leather ; the stiffer parts being 
boarded both on the grain and flesh sides, and the operation being carried on in two 
or three directions, to insure both softness and regularity of grain. Boarding is per- 
formed by doubling the leather and driving the double part forward and drawing it 
backward by the graining-board. 

The leather is now prepared for the waxer, and passes, consequently, into his 
hands. Waxing, in large establishments, is a branch considered separate from the 
general business, and is usually in the hands of a person who confines himself to this 
occupation alone. The skin is laid on the table, and the colour rubbed into the flesh side 
with a brush. It is necessary to give the brush a kind of circular motion to insure 
the required blackness in the leather. The colour is made by stirring a quantity of 
the best lampblack into cod-liver-oil ; sometimes a little dubbing is added, and in order 
to make it work smoothly so as not to clog the brush, some stale tan-water from the 
vats in the scouring-house is beaten up with the mixture until it combines therewith. 
The preparation of the colour is an important affair, and requires a considerable 
amount of time and labour to render it such as the waxer desires. 

A slick-stone, or glass, is next used ; this tool is about the size and shape of the 
slicker, but instead of being ground like it, the edges are very carefully removed, so 
that while, from end to end, it preserves nearly a right line, it is circular across the 
edge. The stone (a flne pebble) is little used now, plate-glass being substituted for it. 
The use pf the tool just described is to smooth the flesh after the operation by the 
colouring brush, thereby getting rid of any marks made on the surface. 

The next step in waxing is what is called sizing. Size is prepared by boiling glue 
in water ; the melted glue is diluted with water to the extent required, and in some 
cases it is softened by mixing cod-liver oil with it in cooling. When cold, it is beaten 
up with various ingredients, according to the taste or experience of the waxer ; the 
waxer then well rubs the size into the coloured side of the leather, and with a sponge, 
or, more generally, the fleshy part of his hand, smooths it off. When dry, the slick- 
stone, or glass, is again applied, thus producing a polish on the size ; and a very thin 
coat of oil completes the work. In different manufactories different methods are pur- 
sued, but the above is convenient and satisfactory in almost all circumstances. It is 
now ready for the shoemaker. 

Leather intended to be blacked on the grain is left folded up when dry after stuff- 
ing. Some years ago it was the custom to stain these kinds of leather while wet in the 
scouring-house, by spreading stale urine over it, and then applying a solution of oqpverns 

Vol. III. U 



98 



LEATHER, CURRYING OP 



(sulphate of iron). That method is now exploded. The dry skins or pieces of leather 
are laid on the shop-board : a brush is used to saturate the grain with urine, or, as is 
now more common, a solution of soda in water, and a peculiar preparation of iron in 
solution is afterwards laid over it, which blackens the surface. It may be observed 
that in wax-leather a body of black is laid on, and rubbed into the flesh ; in grain- 
leather the black is a stain. After the blackening, it is necessary to rub a small 
quantity of oil or dubbing over the blackened surface, then turning the oiled grain 
toward the table, a sharp slicker is used on the flesh side ; the leather sticks to the 
table by means of the oil, and the slicker is driven so smartly over it, that it is stretched 
on the table at the same time that the grease is removed. It is quite an important 
point to take all the stretch out of the leather in this operation, after which it is turned 
over ; the table is covered with a very thin coat of hard tallow, a roll of tallow being 
rubbed over the table, for the purpose of keeping the leather fastened to it. A dull 
slicker is used on the grain to remove remaining marks and wrinkles, or to smooth 
any coarse appearance on the grain ; a sharp slicker removes all the grease, and a 
thin coat of weak size, made of glue dissolved in water, is spread over it, and the pro- 
cess, usually called seasoning, is completed. The next object is carefully to dry the 
seasoned leather, and in this state it may be stored without injury. 

The next step is very similar to that described in the case of wax-leather, and called 
whitening : — it is then softened by means of a fine graining-board, or a board of the 
same shape and size covered with cork, the grain side is placed next the table, and 
the flesh doubled against the flesh, and thus driven forward and backward until the 
required degree of suppleness is obtained. The loose particles of flesh are brushed off", 
and a slicker carefully passed over the grain removes all marks of the last operation. 
If a sufSciency of stuff has not been applied in the drying-loft, the deficiency is remedied 
by a coat of tallow-dubbing now spread over the grain, and allowed to remain some hours. 
As the leather absorbs the oily matter, a hardened coat of grease has to be removed 
by the aid of the slicker. The leather is then sized, and a very thin coat of oil spread 
over the size, completes the operation. 

In the preparation of various kinds of leather, or of leather for particular purposes, 
the currier has particular appliances. Harness-leather is considerably diyer than 
other kinds before stuffing, and is subjected to immense labour by the stock-stone and 
slicker, to procure a smooth grain. It is blackened when dry like other ^^ratn-leather, 
but instead of the oiling and other processes described, the hardest tallow procurable 

is rubbed into it, stoned with 
1^'* a fine pebble, slicked, and 

tallow again rubbed into it 
by the hand. When dry after 
this operation, the grease is 
slicked from the flesh side, 
and a repetition of the tallow- 
ing, stoning, and rubbing 
finishes the work. 

Saddle - leather, which is 
cut into comparatively small 
pieces, after hardening in the 
drying-loft, is passed through 
a very different process from 
any described previously. The 
skin of the hog is much used 
for certain parts of hackney 
saddles, and the bristles, when 
removed by the tanner, leave 
indentations, or even holes in 
the tanned skin. Probably it 
was deemed desirable to ob- 
tain some imitation for tlie 
parts of .'the saddle where the 
hog-skin was not suitable. 
The skin of the dog-fish 
{Sct/llium, Cuv.), to some ox- 
tent supplied the imitation, 
having hard tubercles on its 
surface. At first the skin 
was laid on the leather, and 
lustily pressed into it by rub- 
bing it with a pebble or plate of glass ; at length a press was invented, and, more 




LEATHER, CURRYING OF 



99 



recently, various methods have been proposed to produce the best effect. We have 
here {fig. 1374) a representation of one of these presses, which may stand as a type 
of all others a a are the feet into which the uprights are inserted ; b b are the two 
upright sides tied at the top by c, a similar cross-piece ties them a little above the 
feet ; d is a, leaf festened with hinges, which closes upon e when the press is not in 
use ; ee are screws which press on the iron plate, in which the axes of the roller/ are 
inserted ; these plates imbedded in the uprights b b have considerable play, so as to 
allow the rollers fh more or less pressure as the case may require. The dotted line 
ii', represents an iron bar or cylinder, supplied with a small cog-wheel at i', and a 
crank handle j ; this is turned round by the hand, and the small cog-wheel acts on a 
larger one, k, which is attached to the axis of the roller/: /is a soUd roller of hard 
wood, such as lignum vitcB ; upon this cylinder is strongly glued the fish-skin, pre- 
viously alluded to ; A is a cylindrical solid piece of wood, covered with stout flannel ; 
I is a piece of leather on which the leather to be pressed is placed; when all is adjusted, 
the piece to be pressed is placed on I, the handle is moved slowly round, and the 
whole is carried between the rollers ; the leather thus receives the imprint of the fish- 
ski7i, and at the sama time becomes extremely solid. After drying, this is fit for the 
saddler. 

1375 






Of late years the currier has undertaken an office which was previously the business 
of the bootmaker ; namely, the blocking of boot fronts. This is performed by the instru- 
ment represented by^^. 1375. The leather is first dressed, as previously described, 
■up to the point of being ready for whitening. The fronts are then cut {fig. 1375 a), 

h2 



100 



LEATHER SPLITTING 



aud when folded [ot doubled appear as fy. 1375 J. 1' 1', 1 1, is a strong frame- 
work ; 2, represents a pair of cheeks, strongly fastened in the frame, and regulated as 
to distance by a screw ; these cheeks are lined with zinc ; 3 is a strong plate of metal, 
the angle at 3 corresponding exactly with the angle of the cheeks ; the ends of this 
plate are fixed in moveable plates passing down the columns 1' 1' ; 4 is a handle by 
which the instrument is worked, and which, by cog-wheels acting on the moveable 
plates, brings 3 downwards. The front, a, is laid, aiter a thorough soaking in water, 
over the cheeks 2, the handle being turned, 3 comes down upon the front, and 

1376 




forces it through the small opening between the cheeks, and when brought out below 
the cheeks, it has the appearance given in fff. 1375 c. The plate 3 haying carried 
J 0177 the front between the cheeks, is 

removed (below), and the weight 
6 assists in bringing the perpen- 
dicular moveable plates to their 
place, when 3 is again put in 
position ; and thus the opera- 
tion is rapidly carried on. After 
this, the fronts are regularly 
placed on a block, being forced 
into position by an instrument 
called the flounder {fig. 1376), 
and tacked to their place ; after 
this, they are slightly oiled aud 
dried. Some ingenious methods 
have been adopted for softening 
the fronts, so as not to disturb 
the blocking. They are whitened 
on a very sloping beam {fig. 1 377)» 
which enables the workman to 
hold them better than he could 
on the common beam. They are 
again blocked by the waxer, and 
when these processes are care- 
fully performed, much trouble 
is saved to the bootmaker. Of 
course, in a manufactory many 
appliances are found which are not here mentioned ; the general idea, however, may 
be easily gathered from this description. The work is dirty and very laborious, re- 
quiring great skill and experience, and consequently good workmen have generally 
commanded better wages than other mechanics. 

Hides intended for covering coaches are shaved as thin as shoe hides, and blacked on 
the grain. — H. M. 

ZiEATBSS SP&ZTTZXf O. This operation is employed sometimes upon certain 
«orts of leather for glovers, for bookbinders, sheath-makers, and always to give a 
uniform thickness to the leather destined for the cotton and wool card-makers. 
, Figs, 1378,1379, 1380, 1381 represent a well-contrived machine for that purpose ; of 




LEATHER SPLITTING 



101- 



which/5'. 1378 sho-ws the front view,fff. 1379 a view from the left side, fig. 1380 a 
vertical section across the machine, and fig. 1381 a ground plan, a is a strong table, 
furnished with four legs b, which to the right and left hand bears two horizontal pieces c[ 
Each of these pieces is cut out in front, so as to form in its substance a half-round fork, 
that receives a cylinder d, carrying on its end a toothed'spur-wheel e. Motion is com- 



1378 



d 



i' 



A' 



S X t» J o'l 



1379 





1381 




municated to the wheel by means of the handle/, upon whose axis the pinion i is fixed, 
working into the wheel d, made fast to the end of tlae cylinder round which the leather 
is rolled. The leather is fixed at one of its ends or edges to the cylinder, either with 
a wedge pressed into a groove, or by a moveable segment of the cylinder itself. 

The table, a, is cut out lengthwise with a slot, that is widened below, as shown io 
fiff, 1380. 



tOi LEATHER SPLITTING 

The knife h{figs. 1380 and 1381) is fixed flat upon the table -with screw bolts, whose 
heads are conntersiink into the table, and secured with taps beneath (fig. 1380), the edge 
of the knife being placed horizontally over the opening, and parallel with it. 

In^. 1380 the leather, k, is shown advancing against the knife, getting split, and 
has a portion coiled round the'cylinder, which is made to revolve in proportion as the 
leather is cleft. The upper portion of the leather is rolled upon the cylinder d, while 
the under half, I, falls through the oblong opening upon the ground. 

In regulating the thickness of the split leather, the two supports, m, act ; they are 
made fast to the table a (one on each side of the knife), and are mortised into the table 
by two tenons secured beneath. These supports are furnished near their tops with 
keyed slots, by means of which the horizontal iron rod o (figs. 1378, 1380) is secured, 
and outside of the uprights they press upon the springs p p, which tend to raise the 
rod, 0, in its two end slots ; but the adjusting screws q, which pass down through the 
tops of the supports into the mortise n {fig. 1380), and press upon the upper half of 
the divided tenon, counteract the springs, and accordingly keep the rod o exactly at 
any desired height or level. The iron rod o carries another iron bar, r, beneath it, 
parallel and also rectangular,^. 1380. This lower bar, which is rounded at its under 
face, lies upon and presses the leather by the action of two screws, which pass through 
two upright pieces s (figs. 1378 and 1380) made fast to the table ; thus the iron bar r 
may be made to press forwards the edge of the knife, and it may be adjusted in its 
degree of pressure, according to the desired thickness of the leaf of split leather that 
passes through under it. 

Fig. 1380 shows that the slant or obliquity of the knife is directed downwards, over 
one of the edges of the oblong opening g ; the other edge of this opening is provided 
with an iron plate t (figs. 1378, 1380), which serves to guide the blade in cutting the 
leather to the proper depth. Por this purpose the plate is made adjustible by means 
of the four springs u (fig. 1381) let into the table, which press it downwards. Four 
screws, v, pass down through the table, each belonging to its respective spring w, 
and by means of these screws the plate t may be raised in any desired degree. Each 
of the screws u has besides a small rectangular notch through which a screw bolt x 
passes, by which the spring is made fast to the table. Thus also the plate t may be 
made to approach to or recede from the knife. 

y, in figs. 1378 and 1380, is a flat board, laid upon the leather a little behind the 
edge of the plate t ; this board is pressed by the cylinder g, that lies upon it, and whose 
tenons rest in mortises cut out in the two supports a'. The cylinder z is held in its 
position by a wedge or pin, 5 (figs. 1378 and 1380), which passes through the supports. 
When the leather has been split, these pins are removed, and the cylinder rises then by 
means of two counter-weights, not shown in the figures. 

The operation of the machine is as follows : — The edge or end of the leather being 
eecured to the cylinder d, the leather itself having the direction upon the table shown 
in^. 1380, and the bar r its proper position over the knife, the edge begins to enter 
in this position into the leather, while the cylinder d is moved by the handle or winch, 
and the piece gets split betwixt the blade and the roUer d. When the other end of the 
leather, k, advances to the knife, there is, consequently, one half of the leather split ; 
the skin is to be then rolled off the cylinder d; it is turned ; the already split half, or 
the end of the leather, k, is made fast into the wood of the cylinder, and the other half 
is next split; while the knife now acts from below, in an opposite direction to what 
it did at first. 

That the unrolling of the leather from the cylinder, d, may not be obstructed by 
the pinion i, the stop-wedge e (figs. 1378, 1379) is removed from the teeth. In tlie 
process of splitting, the grain side of the leather is uppermost, and is therefore cut of 
an uniform thickness, but the under side varies in thickness with the inequality of 
the skin. 

Several other ingenious contrivances have been introduced for this purpose, illus- 
trated descriptions of which have been given by Hebert, who states that a splitting- 
machine, long used by the Messrs. Bevington, of Bermondsey, had been made to split 
sheep-skins into three equal parts, one of which, that on the grain side, might be used 
as leather ; the middle portion converted into parchment ; and the slice on the flesh 
side, being unequal in thickness, and therefore unfit for any better use, being used for 
glue-making. In this machine the skin is drawn between two revolving rollers, and 
presented, as it emerges from their grasp, to the edge of a long and very sharp knife, 
which is kept continually moving a little backwards and forwards with great velocity. 
As a skin of unequal thickness could not be grasped in the proper manner between two 
perfectly true and rigid rollers, the upper roller, instead of being soli4. is composed 
of a numbei" of circular discs or rings of metal, about half an inch thick, slipped on 
to an axis rather smaller than tJie holes in their centres, but con\pelled to revolve with 
it by means of what may bo termed a planetary axis, which is a rod passing loosely 



LEATHER, VEGETABLE 103 

through holes in the -whole series of discs between their centre and their circum- 
ference, and so connected with the axis by its ends as to be carried round with it. By 
this contrivance the upper roller is enabled to adapt its surface to that of the skin, 
which is everywhere pressed with an equal force, due to the weight of the discs of 
which the upper roller is composed. It is stated in the ' Penny Magazine' ' that this 
machine will split a sheep-skin of the ordinary size in about two minutes, during which 
time the knife makes from two to three thousand vibratory motions to and fro.' 
This machine is said to be the invention of Lieutenant Parr. Another contrivance 
is known as Duxbury's Patent Skin-Splitting Machine, in which the knife consists of 
a series of plates of steel, so attached to the periphery of a wheel or disc, seventeen 
feet in diameter, as to form a gigantic cutting instrument, resembling a crown or 
trepan saw, the compound blade projecting horizontally from the rim of the wheel 
parallel to its axis. The skin to be split passes round the circumference of a hori- 
zontal drum, the axis of which is at right angles with that of the great disc, and lies 
very nearly in the same plane with its face, and which instead of being perfectly 
cylindrical has its sides so hollowed as to present a concavity perfectly tallying with 
the curvature of the periphery of the disc. As therefore the drum revolves it brings 
the skin, which is confined closely to its concave surface by a contrivance somewhat 
resembling the upper roller in the machine above described, in contact with the edge 
of the revolving knife, which cuts by a continuous onward movement, instead of a 
sawing action backwards and forwards. The extreme nicety required to fix the con- 
cavity of the feeding roller to the edge of the circular knife, and to keep the knife or 
cutter itself perfectly true in shape, appear to be the chief objections to this ingenious 
contrivance. — Penny Cyclapmdia, SuppL, 'Leather.' 

Exports of leather of British produce and manufacture in 1872 : — 

Total value 
Tanned, unwrought .... 139,019 cwts. £1,220,981 

Wrought, boots and shoes . . . 679,130 dozen pairs 1,695,248 • 

Other articles unenumerated . . . 1,937,604 lbs. 376,441 

Imports of Leather in 1872. 

Leather, unwrought t hides not tanned, tawed, Total value 

curried, or in any way dressed . . . 808,930 cwts. £3,063,920 



Hides, wet 

„ tanned, not otherwise dressed J 
„ tanned, curried, but not enamelled 
„ varnished, japanned, or enamelled 



. 627,930 „ 1,915,342 

23,574,061 lbs. 1,179,716 

. 3,135,162 „ 479,680 

. 479,658 „ 123,098 



Imports of leather manufactured, &c., in 1872 : — 

Value 

Boots and shoes 46,139 dozen pairs £151,218 

Gloves 1,052,717 „ 1,403,622 

Unenumerated — „ 139,209 

UlATHSR-CKOTB. Under the name of Atnerican Leather-cloth, an enamelled 
oil-cloth has been introduced. Much of it possessed great elasticity, and resembled 
the vegetable leather described in the next article. The trade has, however, rapidly 
declined, as will be seen by the following table of imports of this material : — 

yards valU3 

1854 631,304 £38,210 

1855 . . . . . . 665,395 42,405 

1856 607,326 38,069 

1858 174,573 13,094 

I860 151,969 11,398 

1861 127,051 9,528 

The recent importations of leather-cloth are not obtainable. 

XiEATBES, VEGETABLE. Under this name a new material, composed^ of 
india-rubber spread upon linen, has been introduced. Of this the 'Mechanics' 
Magazine' writes: — 'Having seen some specimens of these leathers, as well as various 
articles of utility manufactured therewith, we have been induced to pay the extensive 
works of Messrs. Spill and Co., the eminent Government contractors, on Stepney Green, 
a visit, in order to cull sufficient to place upon record the present position of artificial 
as a substitute for real leather. The face and general character of the vegetable 
leather resembles the natural product so closely, that it is only by actual examination 
that the difference can be determined. This is more particularly the case in that des- 
cription which is made for bookbinding, the covering of library tables, and like purposes, 



104 LECYTHIDACE^ 

Amongst other advantages it possesses over leather proper, may be mentioned, that 
however thin the imitation is, it will not tear without considerable force is exercised ; 
that it resists all damp, and that moisture may be left upon it for any period without 
injury, consequently, it does not sodden or cockle, is always dry, and its polish is 
rather increased than diminished by friction. Add to these facts, that any attempt to 
scratch or raise its surface with the nail, or by contact with any ordinary substance, 
will not abrade it, and enough will have been said to justify its entering the list 
against an article of daily use, which has of late years been deemed far from sufficient 
for the demand, and has consequently risen in price to the manifest loss and injury of 
every class of the community. We believe that the largest entire piece of real leather 
that can be cut from a bullock's hide, is not more than 7 feet by 5 feet, and this 
includes the stomach and other inferior parts. Vegetable leather, on the contrary, is 
now produced 50 yards in length and 1 J yard wide, every portion being of equal and 
of any required thickness, and the smallest portion is convertible. We were agreeably 
disappointed, however, to find that instead of vegetable leather being a discovery re- 
quiring the aid of ourselves and contemporaries, it was, although so young, an active 
agent in the fabrication of numerous articles of daily requirement, and that it had 
already become the subject of large, indeed we may say enormous, contracts. 
Caoutchouc and naphtha are used in its manufacture ; but by a process known to the 
senior of the firm, who is himself an accomplished chemist, all odour is removed from 
the naphtha, and the smell of vegetable leather is rendered thereby less in strength, 
if anything, than that of leather. The principal objects to which it is at present 
applied, although it is obvious it will take a wider range of usefulness than leather 
itself, are carriage and horse aprons, antigropola, soldiers' belts, buckets which pack 
flat, harness of every description, bookbinding, &c. For, the latter, its toughness, 
washable quality and resistance to stains, render it remarkably fitted. Its thickness, 
which may be carried to any extent, is obtained by additional backings of linen, &c., 
cemented with the caoutchouc, and its strength is something marvellous, while in the 
all-important commercial view, it is but one-third the price of leather. Many of the 
articles we were shown possessed the appearance of much elegance and finish; but it 
was curious to observe, that although most of them could be made without a stitch, 
and within the factory itself, a deference to the feelings of the workmen in the several 
trades has been shown by the firm, and the material is given out as ordinary leather, 
to undergo the process of the needle, which it submits to with a greater facility than 
its original prototype.' 

XEAVEir. Under Bread, the employment of yeast is fully explained. A few 
particulars relative to the French leaven may not, however, be out of place. 

In Paris, where bread-making has been brought to a high degree of perfection, the 
fermentation is produced chiefly by the gluten of the dough, yeast being used merely 
to facilitate the action. A lump of dough remaining from the last batch of bread, 
and consisting of 8 lbs. flour and 4 lbs. of water, is left to itself for ten hours : in this 
state it is called /resA leaven {levain de chef). By kneading this with another quantity 
of 8 lbs. flour and 4 lbs. water, the once revived leaven (levain de premiere) is obtained. 
After another interval of eight hours, 16 lbs. of flour and 8 lbs. water are added, 
forming the twice revived leaven (levain de seconde) ; and after three hours more 
100 lbs. flour and 52 lbs. water, containing ^ to ^ lb. beer-yeast are added, forming 
the finished leaven (levain de tout point). The 200 lbs. leaven thus obtained are 
mixed after two hours with 132 lbs. flour and 68 lbs. water containing ^ lb. of yeast 
in suspension, and 2 lbs. common salt dissolved. This quantity of dough serves for 
five or six bakings. For the first baking half the dough (200 lbs.) is made into 
loaves of the required size and form, which are exposed for a while in shallow baskets 
to a temperature of 25° C. (77° F.), and then transferred to the oven. The bread thus 
obtained has a sourish taste and dark colour. The remaining half of the dough is 
again mixed with 132 lbs. of flour, 70 lbs. water, ^ lb. yeast, and the requisite quantity 
of salt, the half of this quantity of dough is then formed into loaves, left to ferment, 
and baked. The same operation is repeated three times, one-half of the dough being 
each time mixed with 130 lbs. flour and Ij lb. yeast, and the proper quantity of water 
and salt. The last stage yields the finest and whitest bread. See Watts's ' Dictionary 
of Chemistry.' 

ZiBCAKOAZC ACZB. An acid obtained from a South American variety of the 
Roccella tinctoria. 

3CiECTTHIDiLCZUE. The Brazil-nut order, remarkable for the edible seeds of 
many of its members. The Lecythis ollatia is found in the forests of Brazil and 
CumAna. The fruit is about the size of a child's head ; and it contains numerous 
edible seeds. The natives, who eat the seeds, and use the case for various purposes, 
call the fruit ' the monkey pots.' The L. Zapucajo is a native of Guiana : its fruit is 
about the size of the above ; it contains numerous seeds, larger than almonds, and of 




LENS 105 

an agreeable taste. These are the • sapuc^a ' nuts of tho fruiterers' shops. The 
Brazil-nuts are the produce of the juvia tree {BerthoUetia excelsa). See Brazil 
Nuts. 

KEDUM PAXiVSTRE. This plant is employed in Bussia to tan the skins of 
goats, calves, and sheep, into a reddish leather of an agreeable smell ; as also in 
the preparation of the oil of birch, for making what is commonly called Kussia 
leather. 

IiEER. An arched building, forming an annealing furnace, in which glass is 
tempered or annealed. 

l,EGTJiaiia"E. A name applied to vegetable casein, in allusion to its occurrence 
in the seeds of many of the LeguminoscB, or Pea and Bean family. 

XiBnsiO'ZAiar earth, a yellowish-grey earth, obtained from Lemnos by the 
Greeks. It is very similar to fuller's earth. 

XEMOirs. The fruit of the Citrus limonum. Both the juice and the peel of the 
fruit are employed medicinally, and in the preparation of lemonade. See Citric 
Acid, and Oils, Essential. 

XiEAXOSr CRASS. Tho Andropogon citratum (De Can.), This, and certain allied 
species, yield fragrant essential oils imported from India under the name of lemon 
grass and citronelle oils. 

XiEXrS. {LentUle, Fr. ; Linsenglas, Ger.) Lenses are transparent bodies, usually 
made of glass, which by their curvature either concentrate or disperse the rays of 
light. Lenses are of the following kinds : — Double convex : having the same or a 
different degree of convexity on either side. Plano-convex, having one plane and one 
convex surface. Concavo-convex, having one concave and one convex side, commonly 
called meniscus lenses. Plano-concave, having one plane surface and one concave one; 
and the double concave lens. 

The first three, which are thicker in the middle than at the edge, are converging 
lenses, because they occasion the rays of light to converge in passing through 
them. The others, which are thicker at the edges than in the middle, and there- 
fore cause the pencils of light refracted through them to diverge, are called diverging 
lenses. 

For the most complete examination of the laws regulating the construction of 
lenses, and the action of these on the rays of light, we must refer the reader to Sir 
John Herschel's admirable treatise on Light in the Encyclopcedia Metropolitana. In 
this work we have only to deal with the mode of manufacturing the ordinary varieties. 
The spherical surfaces are produced by grinding them in counterpart tools, or discs 
of metal, prepared to the same curvature as the lenses. For the formation of the 
grinding tools, a concave and a convex template are first made to the radius of the 
curvature of the required lens. The templates of large radius are sometimes cut 
out of crown glass. More usually the templates are made out of sheet brass, the 
templates of long radii are cut with a strong radius bar and cutter, and those of 
only a few inches radius are cut in the turning-lathe. The brass concave and 
convex gauges are cut at separate operations, as it is necessary to adjust the 
radius to compensate for the thickness of the cutter, and the brass templates 
are not usually corrected by grinding, as practically it is fotmd more convenient 
to fit the tools themselves together. The templates, having been made of the re- 
quired radius, are used for the preparation of the grinding and polishing tools, 
which for concave lenses consist of a concave rough grinding-tool of cast iron, called 
a shell. 

A pair of brass tools is, however, the most important part of the apparatus. One 
of these is concave and the other convex, made exactly to the curvature of the tem- 
plates, and to fit each other as accurately as possible. -„„2 
The concave tool is used as the grinder for correcting the 
curvature of the lenses after they have been rouglily 
figured in the concave shell, and the convex tool is em- 
ployed for producing and maintaining the true form of 
the concave grinding-tool itself, and also that of the 
polisher. These polishers are adjusted with great accu- 
racy. The concave tool is placed upon the convex, and 
they are first rubbed together dry, so that by the 
brightened parts the inequalities may be distinguished ; 
they are then ground true, first by means of emery and 
water, and then with dry emery. 

The annexed figure (1382) represents those tools, 
which are fitted with screws at the back, so that they can be fixed upon pillars ifl 
connection with the machinery for giving motion to them. 

By grinding with eundry niceties of motion, which are Required to produce the best 





106 LEPIDOLITE 

effect, such as the prodnction of motion which shall resemble as nearly as possible the 
kind of stroke which would be given by the hand, these tools are eventually brought 
to true spherical figures which fit each other exactly. 

The glasses for lenses, being selected of suitable quality, are brought to a cir- 
cular fdrm by means of flat pliers called shanks. The pressure of the pliers 
applied near the edges of the glass causes it to crumble away in small frag- 
ments, and this process, which is called shanking or nibbling, is continued until the 
glasses are made circular, and of a little larger diameter than the finished size of 
the lenses. 

A cement is made by mixing wood-ashes with melt«d pitch. Some nicety is re- 
quired in the adjustment of the proportion, since the cement must not be too adhesive, 
nor must it be too hard or too brittle ; generally about 4 lbs. of wood-ashes to 14 lbs. 
of pitch are employed. This when melted is poured on one side of the glasses to be 
ground, in small quantities at a time, imtil a sufficient quantity adheres to the back 
of the lens to form a handle. The glass is rough ground by rubbing it within the 
spherical shell. The glass is rubbed with large circular strokes, and the 5^^ is 
usually placed within a shallow tray to catch the loose emery or polishing powder 
which may be emjjloyed. When one side is rough ground in this wiy, the glass is 
warmed to detach it from the handle, which is transferred to the other side and the 
operation repeated. When both sides are thus rudely formed, the lenses are cemented 
upon a runner. The best object-glasses for telescopes are 
_ ground and polished singly, while as many as four dozen of 

common spectacle glasses are ground and polished together. 
When many are thus fixed on one runner, the number must 
be such as will admit of their being arranged symmetrically 
around a central lens, as 7, 13, or 21 ; or sometimes 4, form 
the nucleus, and then the numbers run 14, 30. Lenses of ordinary quality are usually 
ground true and polished 7 at a time. This runner with its lenses attached is shown 
in ^.1383. 

The cement at the back of the lenses is first flattened with a heated iron. The cast- 
iron runner is heated just sufficiently to melt the cement, and carefully placed upon 
the cemented backs of the lenses. As soon as the cement is sufficiently softened to 
adhere firmly to the runner, it is coated with a wet sponge, as the cement must only 
be so far fused as to fill up the spaces nearly, but not quite, level with the surface of 
the lenses. The block of lenses is now mounted upon a post, and ground with the 
concave brass tool, fig. 1382, motion being given to it either by the hand or by ma- 
chinery similar to the sweeping motion already named. As the grinding proceeds, 
the fineness of the emery-powder employed is increased, until in the last operation it 
is sufficiently fine to produce a finely-polished surface. This grinding being com- 
pleted successfully, the lenses have to be polished. The polisher is made by warming 
a cast-iron shell, and coating it uniformly about one quarter of an inch thick with 
melted cement A piece of thick woollen cloth is cut to the size of the polisher and 
secured to it, and pressed into form by working the brass tool within it. When 
this is properly adjusted it is covered with very finely-divided putty-powder, sprinkled 
with a little water, and the powder worked into the pores of the cloth with the brass 
convex tool. Eepeated supplies of putty-powder are put on the polisher until it is 
made quite level, and it is worked smooth with the tool. Many hours are expended 
in the proper preparation of a polisher. When completed it is fixed upon the block 
of lenses still fixed to the post, and worked with wide and narrow elliptical strokes. 
Where a very large ntunber of glasses are ground or polished at the same time, this 
peculiar motion is imitated by the excentric movement of a lever attached to the 
revolving shaft. In the processes of grinding and polishing, other materials beside 
emery and putty-powder are sometimes employed, such as radcUe, an earthy oxide of 
iron, the finer kinds of which are much employed in the large lens manidfactory at 
Sheffield. 

The best account of these processes and of the instruments used is by the late 
Andrew Ross, in the fifty-third volume of the Transactions of the Society of Arte. In 
HoltzapffeVs Mechanical Manipulation there is also some practical information. See 
Photoorapht. 

XiEKTZAS., The seeds of Ervum lens, a leguminous plant, from which the flotir 
called Ervalenta, or Bevalenta, is prepared. 

XSPZSnrz:. C"'H''N (C»H»M'). A volatile base, homologous with chinoline, 
found in coal-naphtha and in the fluid produced by distilling cinchonine with 
potash. 

XiBPXBOcaocZTB. A scaly or fibrous variety of Gothite, or hydrous peroxide 
of iron. See Iron. 

XiBPlBOXiZTSt or LUhia Mica. A beautiful purple mineral, which occurs in 



LIAS 107 

fine masses on Mount Hradisko, near Eosna, in Moravia. It is remarkable for the 
large quantity of lithia which it contains, and also for its containing the newly- 
discovered metal rubidium. See Spectbum Analysis. 

IbEFXDOnSEIiAXrE. An iron-potash mica, of black colour. 

UjXTSOIttlTB. A beautiful blue velvety mineral, from the Banat, first de- 
scribed by Dr. J. Percy. It is a hydrqus sulphate of copper, of rare occurrence. 

XETTXrCE. The Lactuca sativa, cultivated as a salad. 'Lettuce opium' ia 
prepared from this species, and from L. virosa, a more highly narcotic species, 

XETTCAXriXXXTE. If a solution of rosaniline is Ifeft in contact with metallic 
zinc, or treated with sulphide of ammonium, it is rapidly decomposed. The rosani- 
line disappears, and is transformed into a remarkable base, which has received the 
name of letccaniline, and which may be obtained in completely colourless needles 
scarcely soluble in water, very soluble in alcohol. Its formula is : — 

COH-'N' (COH^'W). 

The salts of leucaniline are also colourless, easily crystallisable, and very soluble 
in water, from which they may be precipitated by the addition of an excess of 
acid. 

There exists an extremely remarkable relation between the composition of leu- 
caniline and that of rosaniline : — 

Eosanlline C^oH'^K' (C»°H'8»r9). 

Leucaniline . . . . . C^oH^'N' (C'OH^'K'). 

Leucaniline differs therefore from rosaniline simply by containing two atoms more 
of hydrogen. 

The two bases bear to each other the relation which exists between blue and white 
indigo : — 

Blue indigo C'^H'^N^O" (cm'^Vt^O). 

White indigo .... C'»H"N''0'' (C'H'^W^O). 

Leucaniline, as might have been expected from this interesting relation, may be 
reconverted into the red colouring matter by oxidising agents. On gently heating 
the colourless solution of hydrochlorate of leucaniline with peroxide of barium, per- 
chlorides of iron or platinum or chromate of potassium, the liquid at once re-assumes 
the splendid colour of the rosaniline salts. {Hofmann.) 

KSVCITE. A mineral found in volcanic rocks, containing usually 66'10 of 
silica, 23'10 of alumina, and 2ri5 of potash. The finest and most beautiful crystals 
are found in the older lavas of Vesuvius and Rocca Monfina, and in the neighbour- 
hood of Rome. It is sometimes called the white garnet, from the similarity of its 
crystallisation to that of the common garnet. Kirwan calls it the white garnet of 
Vesuvius. It was always supposed that leucite crystallised iu the cubic system 
until Vom Rath showed, in 1872, that the crystals belonged to the tetragonal 
system. 

SLEircOIinirE. A synonym of Letkol. 

IbEircOPirRXTE. An arsenide of iron, resembling Lolingite. 

JsUVrJCOli. See Chinoline. 

XiEVEK (a mining term). An adit gallery or horizontal working in a mine. 

IiEVIGATXOXr is the mechanical process whereby hard substances are reduced 
to a very fine powder. 

IiEVTTXiOSE. A kind of sugar which turns the plane of polarisation of a ray of 
light towards the left hand. 

SbE'Vns is the name of one kind of shears used in cropping woollen cloth. 

XilAS. Under this term are comprehended the strata which intervene between the 
Trias, or New Red Series, and the Inferior Oolite. In the aggregate they are of 
considerable thickness, and occupy a large area' in this coimtry, stretching in a 
north-easterly direction from the sea west of Lyme Regis, in Dorsetshire, to Red- 
car, on the coast of Yorkshire. The strata which compose the Liassic series 
consist, in the lower part, of compact argillaceous limestone, alternating with or 
forming layers in clay, to a provincial pronunciation of which word the name 
lias probably owes its origin. This limestone forms the base of a thick deposit of 
blue clays and marls, which are overlaid by a series of sands and sandstone, called 
Marlstone; these in tLoir turn are separated from another mass of sands, which 
form the uppermost member of the group, by a etratiim of clay, known as the 
Upper Lias Clay. 



108 LICHEN 

By the term lias, however, is ordinarily only understood the calcareous and argil- 
laceous division, -which constitutes the lower section of the entire formation. 

In an economical point of view, it is of considerable value from its furnishing a 
useful and durable stone, both for building and paving ; for the latter purpose it is 
particularly suited, not only from the large dimensions of the flags it affords, but on 
account of its occurrence in thin layers, which, in many cases, when required for 
rough purposes only, are used in the state in which they are taken from the quarry, 
without undergoing subsequent dressing. The lime furnished by the blue lias limestone 
is also well known, and in great request, some of the beds possessing the valuable pro- 
perty of forming hydraulic mortars and cements, for manufacturing which it is col- 
lected from the shore and the sea-cHffs at Charmouth, and largely quarried at Lyme 
Regis and the neighbourhood. See Hydeaulic Cements. 

The clayey members of the lias furnish a poor and cold agricultural soil, which is 
chiefly devoted to pasture, but the land upon the marlstone is, on the contrary, of a 
very rich and fertile description, and constitutes a district, where it prevails, that is 
marked by the luxuriance of its crops and the excellence of the cider it produces. 
In the iipper part, it contains beds of ferruginous, brown, calcareous sandstone, which 
is used K>r building purposes in the neighbourhoods where it occurs. The sandstone 
is always more or less of a ferruginous character, but in some instances the ferruginous 
ingredient prevails to such a degree, as to constitute a valuable ore of iron, as in the 
neighbourhood of Blenheim, to which attention has been directed by Mr, Edward Hull, 
of the Geological Survey. 

Like the marlstone, the calcareous sands of the uppermost portion of the liassic 
series also furnish a rich agricultural soil. Until recently, these sands were consi- 
dered to form the base of the inferior oolite series, but the researches of Dr. Wright 
render it highly probable that they should, with more propriety, be classed with the 
underlying lias, ratlier than with the oolitic strata.' 

The stone found at Gotham and other places in the neighbourhood of Bristol, and 
which has in consequence received the name of Gotham Tnarhle, and has also been 
called ruin, or landscape Tnarble, from the curious delineations displayed upon polished 
sections of it, resembling trees, landscapes, &c., is a limestone from the lower part of 
the lias.— H. W. B. 

XiXSAVXTTS, Fuming Liqttok of, is the bichloride of tin, prepared by dissolving 
that metal with the aid of heat in aqua regia, or by passing chlorine gas through a 
solution of muriate of tin till no more gas be absorbed, evaporating the solution, and 
setting it aside to crystallise. The anhydrous bichloride is best prepared by mixing 
four parts of corrosive sublimate with one part of tin, previously amalgamated with 
just so much mercury as to render it pulverisable ; and by distilling this mixture 
with a gentle heat, a colourless fluid, the dry bichloride of tin, or the proper 
fuming liquor of Libavius, comes over. When it is mixed with one-third of its weight 
of water it becomes solid. The first bichloride of tin is used in calico-printing. See 
Caltco-Printing. 

XiXBSTHEia'ITS. A hydrous phosphate of copper, named from one of its localities 
— Libethen, near Neusohl, in Hungary. 

XiXCHEir. A certain set of plants, composed chiefly of cellular tissue devoid of 
spiral vessels, with the stems and leaves undistinguilhable, are termed Thallogens. 
These are of two kinds, the first admitting of two divisions : — 

1. Aquatic thallogens, or such as are nourished through their whole surface by 
water, are Alg.ze. Aerial thallogens nourished through their whole surface by air 
are Lichens. 

2. Thallogens nourished through their thalhis (spawn or mycelium) by juices de* 
rived from the matrix are Fungi. 

Lichens are numerous, as Ground liverwort, Cup moss, and Tree lungwort, vised in 
Siberia as a substitute for hops in brewing ; Gyrophora, employed by the hunters irl 
the arctic regions as an article of food, under the name of tripe dc roche ; Eeindcer 
moss, and Iceland moss, much used in this country as a remedy for coughs ; the 
Common yellow wall lichen, and some others. 

The Tinctorial lichens are also numerous. They furnish ^our principal colourSj 
brown, yellow, purple, and blue. 

Gyrophora pustuldta and Sticta pidmonaria yield brown colours. The latter, witH 
mordants of tin and creain of tartar, pfoducea on silk a dilrable carmelite coloui?. 
( Guibourt.) 

Parmelia parietina and Everma vidpina produce yellows ; the yellow principle of 
the former being called chrysophanio acid, that of the latter vtdpinic acid. 

' The evidence btonght forward by Dr. Wrigtit in f arotr of the Hassle origin of these safids is 
purely of a palseontological nature ; physically, the most natural arrangement is to ooiiueot tbenl 
rather with the inferior oolite than with the lias,— H, W. B. 



LIGHT 



109 



Bocodla, Lecanora, Variolaria, &c., yield purple and blue colours. In this country 
archil and cudbear, purple colours, are prepared from it. In Holland, a blue colour, 
litmus. 

Dr. Stenhouse, to whom we are much indebted for many important inquiries con- 
nected with the applications of chemistry, has given the following table of the 
lichens : — 



Lichens 




Colorific Principles Colouring Principles 


Authority 


Commercial Names 


Locality 


Names 


Formulae Names 


Formulas 


S. American or- 


Lima, &c. 


Alpha orsel- 


C^=H'^0'=+HO 


Orceine 


C"H'»NO 


Stenhouse 


chella weed 




lic acid 










Cape orchella weed 


C. of Good 
Hope 


Beta orsel- 
Uc acid 


C=*H''0"+HO 






Stenhouse 


Angola orchella 


Africa 


Erythric 


C=°H"'0»+HO 






Stenhouse 


weed 




acid 










Perelle moss {Le- 


Switzerland 


Lecanoric 


C"H'0' 






Shunck 


canora parella) 




acid 










Tartareous moss 


Norway 


Gyrophoric 


C3«H-'0" 






Stenhonse 


{Lecanora tar- 




acid 










tarea) 














Pustulatoua moss 


Norway 


„ 


>f 






Stenhouse 


(Gyrophora pus- 
tuJata) 
Bagged hoary li- 














Scotland 


Evemic acid 


C"H"0"+HO 






Stenhonse 


chen (Evemia 
prunasiri) 
Vsnea. {Florida, pU- 














Germany 


Usnic acid 


C'»H'0" 






Bochleder 


cata, and nirta) 












and Heldt 


Eeindeermoss {Cla- 


• • 


„ 


II 






„ 


donia rangife- 














rina) 














BamaUna {Fasti- 


.. 


„ 


„ 






i> 


giata calicarii) 















See Aechil; French Pueple; Litmus; Ohchella Weed. 

KZCKJirSIt'S B&VEi The silicate of cobalt and potash, 

KXEBZGZTB. A hydrous carbonate of uranium and lime, named after the late 
Baron Liebig. 

XIEVKZTE. A silicate of iron, known as Evaite and Jenite. 

XZCHT. {Lumiere, Fr. ; Licht, Ger.) The operation of light as an agent in 
the arts or manufactures has scarcely yet received attention. Sufficient evidence 
has, however, been collected to show that it is of the utmost importance in producing 
many of the remarkable changes in bodies which are desired in some cases as the 
result, but which in others are to be, if possible, avoided. 

There is a very general misconception as to the power or principle to which cer- 
tain phenomena, the result of exposiire to sunshine, are to be referred. In general 
liffht is regarded as the principle in action, whereas frequently it has nothing what- 
ever to do with the change. A few words therefore in explanation are necessary. 
The solar ray, commonly spoken of as light, contains, in addition to its luminous 
power, calorific power, chemical power, and, in all probability, electrical power. (See 
Actinism.) These phenomena can be separated one from the other, and individu- 
ally studied. All the photographic phenomena are dependent upon the chemical 
(actinic) power. Many of the peculiar changes which are effected in organic bodies 
are evidently due to light, and the phenomena which depend entirely on heat are well 
known, 

Herschel has directed attention to some of the most striking phenomena of light, 
especially its action upon vegetable colours. As these have direct reference to the 
permanence of dyes, they are deserving of great attention. The following quotation 
from Sir John Herschel's paper ' On the Chemical Action of the Eays of the Solar 
Spectrum, &c.,' will explain his views and give the character of the phenomena which 
he has studied. He writes : — 

' The evidence we have obtained by the foregoing experiments of the existence of 
chemical actions of very different and, to a certain extent, opposite characters at the 
opposite extremities (or rather, as we ought to express it, in the opposite regions) of 
the spectrum, will naturally give rise to many interesting speculations and conclu- 
sions, of which those I am about to state will probably not be regarded as among the 
least so. We all know that colours of vegetable origin are usually considered to be 
destroyed and whitened by the continual action of light. The process, however, is 
too slow to be made the subject of any satisfactory series of experiments, and, in 



110 LIGHT 

consequence, this subject, so interesting to the painter, the dyer, and the general 
artist, has been allowed to remain uninvestigated. As soon, however, as these evi- 
dences of a counterbalance of mutually opposing actions, in the elements of which the 
solar light consists, offered themselves to view, it occurred to me, as a reasonable 
subject of inquiry, whether this slow destruction of vegetable tints might not be due to 
the feeble amount of residual action outstanding after imperfect mutual compensation, 
in the ordinary way in which such colours are presented to light, i.e. to mixed rays. 
It appeared therefore to merit inquiry, whether such colours, subjected to the un- 
compensated action of the elementary rays of the spectrum, might not undergo 
changes differing both in kind and in degree which mixed light produces on them, 
and might not, moreover, by such changes indicate chemical properties in the rays 
themselves hitherto unknown. 

' One of the most intense and beautiful of the vegetable blues is that yielded by the 
blue petals of the dark velvety varieties of the common heartsease ( Viola tricolor). It 
is best extracted by alcohol. The alcoholic tincture so obtained, after a few days keep- 
ing in a stoppered phial, loses its fine blue colour, and changes to a pallid brownish 
red, like that of port wine discoloured by age. 

' When spread on paper it hardly tinges it at first, and might be supposed to have 
lost all colouring virtue, but that a few drops of very dilute sulphuric acid sprinkled 
over it, indicate by the beautiful and intense rose colour developed where they fall, 
the continued existence of the colouring principle. As the paper so moistened with 
the tincture dries, however, the original blue colour begins to appear, and when quite 
dry is full and rich. The tincture by long keeping loses this quality, and does not 
seem capable of being restored. But the paper preserves its colour well, and is even 
rather remarkable among vegetable colours for its permanence in the dark or in 
common daylight. 

' A paper so tinged of a very fine and full blue colour, was exposed to the solar 
spectrum concentrated, as usual (October 11, 1839), by a prism and lens; a water- 
prism, however, was used in the experiment, to command as large an area of sunbeam 
as possible. The sun was poor and desultory ; nevertheless, in half an hour there 
was an evident commencement of whitening from the fiducial yellow ray to the mean 
red. In two hours and a half, the sunsMne continuing very much interrupted by 
clouds, the effect was marked by a considerable white patch extending from the 
extreme red to the end of the violet ray, but not traceable beyond that limit. Its com- 
mencement and termination were, however, very feeble, graduating off insensibly ; 
but at the maximum, which occurred a little below the fiducial point (corresponding 
nearly with the orange rays of the luminous spectrum), the blue colour was completely 
discharged. Beyond the violet there was no indication of increase of coloiir, or of any 
other action. I do not find that this paper is discoloured by mere radiant heat 
unaccompanied with light.' 

The late Dr. George Wilson of Edinburgh made some exceedingly interesting experi- 
ments on the influence of sun light over the action of dry gases on organic colours. The 
results arrived at were communicated to the British Association, and an abstract of 
the communication is published in their Transactions. The experiments were on 
chlorine, sulphurous acid, sulphuretted hydrogen, carbonic acid, and a mixture of 
sulphurous and carbonic acid, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen on organic colouring 
matters. ' I had ascertained,' says Dr. George Wilson, • the action of the gases 
mentioned already on vegetable colouring matters, so arranged, that both colouring 
matter and gas should be as dry as possible, the aim of the inquiry being to elucidate 
the theory of bleaching, by accounting for the action of dry chlorine upon dry colours. 
In the coinrse of this inquiry, I ascertained that in darkness dry chlorine may be kept 
for three years in contact with colours without bleaching them, although when moist 
it destroys their tints in a few seconds (see Bleaching) ; and I thought it desirable 
to ascertain whether dry chlorine was equally powerless as a bleacher when assisted 
by sunlight. The general result of the inquiry was, that a few weeks sufficed for the 
bleaching of a body by chlorine in sunlight, where months, I may even say years, 
would not avail in darkness.' The form of the experiment was as follows : — Four 
tubes were connected together so as to form a continuous canal, through which a 
current of gas could be sent. Each tube contained a small glass rod, on which seven 
pieces of differently-coloured papers were spiked. It is not necessary here to state 
the colours employed, suffice it to say, that all the tubes thus contained seven different 
coloured papers, of different origins, and easily distinguishable by the eye. They 
were arranged in the same order in each tube, and were prepaored as nearly as 
possible of the same shade. These papers were carefully deprived of every trace of 
moistiu-e by a current of very dry air. The tubes were then filled with the gas, also 
dried, on which the experiment was to be made. One tube of each series was kept 



LIGHTHOUSE HI 

in darkness, two others were exposed in a western aspect behind glass, and the other 
was turned to the south in the open air. 

The results were as follow: — In the dark chlorine tube the colours were very 
little altered, and would probably have been altered less had not the tube been fre- 
quently exposed to light for the sake of examination. In the western tube, the 
original grey and green wallflower papers became of a bright crimson, the blue 
litmus bright red, and the brown rhubarb yellow. The whole of the chlorine had 
apparently entered into combination with the colouring matters, for the yellow tint 
of the gas had totally disappeared. In the southern tube the colour of the 
chlorine could still be seen, the reddening action was less decided, and the 
bleaching action was more powerfully evinced. The general result was that the 
action of sunlight is less uniform than might have been expected in increasing the 
bleaching power of chlorine, or while some tints rapidly disappeared under its action 
assisted by light, other colours remained, in apparently the very same circumstances, 
unaiFected. 

Sulphurous acid, if thoroughly dried, may be kept for months in contact with dry 
colours without altering them ; under the influence of sunlight it however recovers to 
some extent its bleaching power. 

Sulphuretted hydrogen acts as a weak acid, and readily as a bleacher when 
moist, and becomes inactive in both respects if made dry and kept in darkness. 
"With the assistance of sunlight it recovers in no inconsiderable degree its bleaching 
power. 

Oxygen is a well-known bleaching agent, but when dry its action upon colouring 
matter in the dark is extremely slow. In sunlight, however, it recovers its bleaching 
power. 

Carbonic add, when dry in darkness, loses aU power on colouring matter, but a 
faint bleaching action is exerted by it under exposure to sunlight. 

Hydrogen is without any action when dry upon colours, but it acquires a slight 
decolorising power when exposed to sunshine. 

'The general result,' concludes Dr. George Wilson, 'of this inquiry, so far as 
it has yet proceeded, is, that the bleaching gases, viz. chlorine, sulphurous acid, 
sulphuretted hydrogen, and oxygen, lose nearly all their bleaching power, if dry and 
in darkness, but all recover it, and chlorine in a most marked degree, by exposure to 
sunlight.' 

All these experiments appear to show that the action of the solar rays on vegetable 
colours is dependent upon the power possessed by one set of rays to aid in the 
oxidation or chemical changes of the organic compound constituting the colouring 
matter. The whole matter requires careful investigation. 

It is a proved fact, that colouring matters, either from the mineral or the vegetable 
kingdoms, are much brighter when they are precipitated from their solutions in 
bright sunshine, than if precipitated on a cloudy day or in the dark. It must 
not bo supposed that all the changes observed are due to chemical action ; there 
can be no doubt but many are purely physical phenomena, that is, the result of mole- 
cular change, without any chemical disturbance. 

IiXCKT CARBVRETTEX> HY3>BOGEl«r. Marsh-gas or flre-damp. 

XiXGHT, EKECTRIC. See Electeic Light. 

]bZGKTKOirSE. The importance of lights of great power and of a distinguish- 
able character around our coasts is admitted by all. One of the noblest eiForts of 
humanity is certainly the construction of those guides to the mariners upon rocks 
which exist in the tracks of ships, or upon dangerous shores and the mouths of har- 
bours. This is not the place to enter largely upon any special description of the 
lights which are adopted around our shores ; a brief account only will be given of some 
of the more remarkable principles which have been introduced of late years by the 
Trinity Board. 

The early lighthouses appear to have been illuminated by coal or wood fires con- 
tained in ' chauffers.' The Isle of Man light was of this kind until 1816. The_ first 
decided improvement was made by Argand, in 1784, who invented a lamp with a 
circular wick, the flame being supplied by an external and internal current of air. 
To make these lamps more effective for lighthouse illumination, and to prevent the 
ray of light escaping on all sides, a reflector was added in 1780 by M. Lenoir; this 
tlirew the light forward in parallel rays towards such points of the horizon as would 
be useful to the mariner. Good reflectors increase the luminous effect of a lamp 
about 400 times; tliis is the 'catoptric' system of lighting. When reflectors are 
used, there is a certain quantity of light lost, and the ' dioptric ' or refracting system, 
invented by the late M. Augustin Fresnel in 1822 is designed to obviate this effect to 
some extent : the ' catadioptric ' system is a still ftirther improvement, and acts both 
by refraction and reflection. Lights of the first order have an interior radius or focal 



112 LIGHTHOUSE 

distance of 36"22 inches, and are lighted by a lamp of four concentric ■wicks, con- 
suming 570 gallons of oil per annum. Eecently (1874) mineral oil has been used 
■with much advantage and economy in the lighthouses of America. 

The following notices may be of interest : — The Eddystone Lighthouse, 9^ miles 
from the Rame Head, on the coast of Cornwall, was erected of timber by Winstanley 
in 1696-98, and was washed away in 1703. It was rebuilt by Rudyard in 1706, 
and destroyed by fire in 1765. The present edifice -was erected by Smeaton 1767-59. 
Tallo'w candles were used in the first instance for the lights; but in 1807 argand 
lamps, ■with paraboloidal reflectors of silvered copper were substituted. 

The Skerryvore Eocks, about 12 miles south-west of Tj-ree on the coast of Axgyle- 
shire, lying in the track of the shipping of Liverpool and of the Clyde had long been 
regarded -with dread by the mariners frequenting these seas. The extreme difficulty 
of the position, exposed to the unbroken force of the Atlantic Ocean, had alone de- 
terred the Commissioners of Northern Lights from the attempt to place a light upon 
this dangerous spot; but in 1834 they caused the reef to be surveyed, and in 1838 
Mr. Alan Stevenson, their engineer, inheriting his father's energy and scientific skill, 
commenced his operations upon a site from which ' nothing could be seen for miles 
around but ■white foaming breakers, and nothing could be heard but the howling of 
the winds and the lashing of the waves.' His design was an adaptation of Smeaton's 
tower of the Eddystone to the peculiar situation, a circumstance with which he had 
to contend. He established a circular base 42 feet in diameter, rising in a solid 
mass of gneiss or granite, but diminishing in diameter to the height of 26 feet, and 
presenting an even concave surface all round to the action of the •waves. Imme- 
diately above this level the ■walls are 9 "58 feet thick, diminishing in thickness as the 
tower rises to its highest elevation, ■where the -walls are reduced to 2 feet in thickness, 
and the diameter to 16 feet. The tower is built of granite from the islands of 
Tyree and Mull, and its height from the base is 138 feet 8 inches. In the in- 
tervals left by the thickness of the walls are the stairs, a space for the necessary 
supply of stores, and a not uncomfortable habitation for three attendants. The 
rest of the establishment, stores, &c., are kept at the depot in the island of Tyree. 
The light of the Skerryvore is revolving, and is produced by the revolution of 
eight annular lenses around a central lamp, and belongs to the first order of dioptric 
lights in the system of Fresnel, and may be seen from a vessel's deck at a distance 
of 18 miles. 

Some of the lenticular arrangements must no^w claim attention. The appearance of 
light called short eclipses has hitherto been obtained by the following arrangement : — 
An apparatus for a fixed light being provided, composed of a central cylinder and two 
zones of catadioptric rings forming a cupola and lower part, a certain number of lenses 
are arranged at equal distances from each other, placed upon an exterior moveable 
frame making its revolution around the apparatus in a given period. These lenses, 
composed of vertical prisms, are of the same altitude as 5ie cylinder, and the radius 
of their curves is in opposite directions to those of the cylinder, in such a manner 
that at their passage they converge into a parallel pencil of light, all the divergent 
rays emitted horizontally from the cylinder producing a brilliant effect, like that 

obtained by the use of annular lenses at the 
1384 1385 revolving lighthouses. Large lenses, or any 

large masses of glass, are liable to striae, 
which by dispersing, occasion a loss of much 
light. 

' In order to improve a solid lens formed of 
one piece of glass whose section is A, m, p, b, 
F, B, D, c, A {fiff. 1384), Bufifon proposed to cut 
out all the glass left white in the figure, 
namely, the portions between m p and n o, and 
between « o and the left-hand surface of » e. 
A lens thus constructed would be incomparably 
superior to a solid one, but such a process we 
conceive to be impracticable on a large scale, from the extreme difficulty of polishing 
the surfaces x m, B p, c n, ¥ o, and the left-hand surface of d e ; and even if it were 
practical, the greatest imperfections of the glass might happen to occur in the parts 
which are left. In order to remove these imperfections and to construct lenses of 
any size,' says Sir David Brewster, »I proposed in 1811 to build them up of separate 
zones or rings, each of -which rings was again to be composed of separate segments, 
as shown in the front view of the lens in fig. 1386. T^is lens is composed of one 
central lens a b c d, corresponding with its section d b in fig. 1384 ; of a middle ring 
G E L I, corresponding to c d, e f, and consisting of 4 segments ; and another ring 
N p B t, corresponding to A c, f b, and consisting of 8 segments. The preceding 




LIGHTHOUSE 113 

destruction obviously puts it in our power to execute those lenses, to whicli I have 
given tho name of foly zonal lenses, of pure flint glass free from veins ; but it pos- 
sesses another great advantage, namely, that of enabling us to correct very nearly the 
spherical aberration by making the foci of each zone coincide.' 

This description will enable the reader to understand the system which has been 
adopted by Fresnel, and carried out by the French Government and by our own Com- 
missionei's of Lights. 

In the fixed dioptric light of Fresnel, the flama is placed in the centre of the ap- 
paratus, and within a cylindric reflector of glass, of a vertical refracting power, the 
breadth and height of a strip of light emitted by it being dependent upon the size of 
the flame and the height of the reflector itself ; above and below is placed a series of 
reflecting prismatic rings or zones for collecting the upper and lower divergent rayf^ 
which, falling upon the inner side of the zone are refracted, pass through the second 
side where they suffer total reflection, and, passing out on the outer side of the zone, 
are again refracted. The effect of these zones is to lengthen the vertical strip of 
light, the size of which is dependent upon the breadth of the flame and the height of 
the apparatus. 

In Fresnel's revolving lighthouse, a large flame is placed in the centre of a revolv- 
ing frame which carries a number of lenses on a large scale and of various curva- 
tures for the avoidance of spherical aberration. With the view of collecting tho 
divergent rays above the flame, an arrangement of lenses and silvered mirrors is 
placed immediately over it. By this compound arrangement the simply revolving 
character of the apparatus is destroyed, as, in addition to the revolving flash, a ver- 
tical and fixed light is at all times seen, added to which a great loss of light must be 
sustained by the loss of metallic reflectors. In 1851, Messrs. Wilkins and Letour- 
neau introduced a catadioptric apparatus of great utility, which was thus described 
by them : — 

The flrst improvement had special reference to tlie light, and produced a consider- 
able increase in its power, whilst the simplicity of the optical arrangements was also 
regarded. It consisted, flrst, in completely dispensing with the moveable central 
cylindrical lenses ; secondly, it replaced these by a single revolving cylinder composed 
of four annular lenses and four lenses of a fixed light introduced between them ; but 
the number of each varying according to the succession of flashes to be produced in 
the period of revolution. 

The second improvement consisted in a new method of arranging the revolving 
parts, experience having shown that the arrangements in use were very faulty. 
A short time is sufficient for the action of tlie friction-rollers, revolving on two 
parallel planes, to produce, by a succession of cuttings, a sufficiently deep groove 
to destroy the regularity of the rotatory movement. To obviate this great incon- 
A-enience the friction-rollers were so placed and fitted, on an iron axis with regulating 
screws and traversing between two bevelled surfaces, and when an indentation was 
made in one place they could be adjusted to another part of the plates which is not so 
worn. 

The third improvement produced the result of an increase of tho power of the flashes 
in rcA^olving lighthouse apparatus to double what had been obtained hitherto. By 
moans of lenses of vertical prisms placed in the prolongation of the central annular 
lenses, the divergent rays emerging from the catadioptric zone were brought into a 
straight lino, and a coincidence of the three lenses obtained. 

The wliole of the prisms, lenses, and zones are mounted with strength and sim- 
plicity, accurately ground and polished to the correct curves according to their re- 
spective positions, so as to properly develope this beautiful system of Fresnel. The 
glass of which they are composed should be of the clearest crystal colour, and free 
from that green hue which so materially reduces the power of the light, and is con- 
sidered objectionable for apparatus of this kind. The lamp by which the apparatus is 
to be lighted consists of a concentric burner with four circiUar wicks attachetl to a 
lamp of simple construction, the oil being forced up to the burner by atmospheric 
pressure only, so that there are no delicate pumps or machinery to become de- 
ranged. 

Stevemon's Bevolving Lighthouse. — This apparatus consists of two parts. The prin- 
cipal part is a right octagonal hollow prism composed of eight large lenses, which 
throw out a powerful beam of light whenever the axis of a single lens comes in the line 
between the observer and tho focus. This occurs once in a minute, as the frame which 
bears the lens revolves in eight minutes on the rollers placed beneath. The subsidiary 
parts consist of eight pyramidal lenses inclined at an angle of 30° to the horizon, and 
forming together a hollow truncited cone, which rests above the flame like a cap. 
Above thfse smaller lenses (which can only be seen by looking from below) are 

Vol. III. I 



114 LIGNITE 

placed eight plane mirrors, -whose surfaces being inclined to the horizon at 60° in the 
direction opposite to that of the pyramidal lenses, finally cause all the light made 
parallel by the refraction of these lenses to leave the mirror in a horizontal direction. 
The only object of this part is to turn to useful account, by prolonging the duration 
of the flash, that part of the light which would otherwise escape into the atmosphere 
above the main lenses. Tliis is effected by giving to the upper lenses a slight hori- 
, zontal divergence^ from the vertical plane of the principal lenses. Below are five 
tires of totally reflecting prisms, which intercept tlie light that passes below the great 
lenses, and by means of two reflections and an intermediate refraction project them in 
the shape of a fiat ring to the horizon. 

Stevenson's fixed dioptric apparatus of tlie first order (same as that at the Isle of 
May, with various improvements). The principal part consists of a cylindric belt of 
glass which surrounds the flame in the centre, and by its action refracts the light in 
a vertical direction iipward and downward, so as to be parallel with the focal plane of 
the s)'stem. In this way it throws out a fiat ring of light equally intense in every 
direction. To near observers, this action presents a narrow vertical band of light, 
depending for its breadtli on the extent of the horizontal angle embraced by the eye. 
This arrangement therefore fulfils all the conditions of a fixed light, and surpasses in 
effect any arrangement of parabolic refiectors. In order to save the light wliich would 
be lost in passing above and below the cylindrical belt, curved mirrors with their 
common focus in the lamp were formerly used ; but by the present engineer, the 
adaptation of catadiopiric zones to this part of the apparatus was, after much labour, 
successfully carried out. These zones are triangidar, and act by total refiection, the 
inner face refracting, the second totally reflecting, and the third or outer face, a second 
time refracting, so as to cause the light to emerge horizontally. The apparatus has 
received many smaller changes by the introduction of a new mode of grouping the 
various parts of the framework, by which the passage of the light is less obscured in 
every azimuth. 

Mechanical lamps of four wicks are used in these lighthouses ; in these the oil is 
kept continually overfiowing by means of pumps which raise it from tlie cistern below ; 
thus the rapid carbonisation of the wicks, which would be caused by the great heat, 
is avoided. The flames of the lamp reach their best effect in three hours after light- 
ing, i.e. after the whole of the oil in the cistern, by passing and repassing over the 
wicks repeatedly, has reached its maximum temperature. After this the lamp often 
burns fourteen hours without sensible diminution of the light, and then rapidly falls. 
The height varies from sixteen to twenty times that of the argand flame of an inch in 
diameter; and the quantity of oil consumed by it is greater nearly in the same 
proportion. 

In Stevenson's ordinary parabolic reflector, rendered Jwlophotal (where the entire 
light is parallelised) by a portion of a catadioptric annular lens, the back part of the 
parabolic conoid is cut off, and a portion of a spherical mirror substituted, so as to 
send the rays again through the flame ; while his holophotal catadioptric annular 
lens apparattcs is a combination of a hemispherical mirror and a lens having totally- 
reflecting zones ; the peculiarity of this arrangement is, that the catadioptric zones, 
instead of transmitting the light in parallel horizont^il plates, as in Fresnel's appa- 
ratus, produces, as it were, an extension of the lenticular or quaquaversal action of the 
central lens by assembling the light around its axis in the form of concentric hollow 
cylinders. 

Mr. Chance, of Birmingham, constructed a lighthouse which may be regarded as 
Fresnel's revolving light rendered holophotal. This arrangement was divided into 
three compartments, the upper and lower of which were composed respectively of 
thirteen and six catadioptric zones which produce the vertical strip of light extending 
the whole length of the apparatus, and is similar to Fresnel's dioptric light. The 
central or catoptric compartment consisted of eight lenses of three feet focal length, 
each of which was the centre of a series of eleven concentric prismatic rings, designed 
to produce the same refractive effect as a solid lens of equal size. These compound 
lenses were mounted upon a revolving frame and transmitted liorizontal flashes of 
light as they successively rotated. The motion was communicated to the frame by 
a clock movement, and performs one revolution in four minutes; consequently, as 
there are eight lenses, a fiash of light is transmitted every thirty seconds to the 
horizon. 

^XOW AXiOES. This wood is supposed to be the produce of Aqtiilaria Agallocha, 

one of the Lace-bark order. 

XiZGlVEOxrs MATTXOt is vegetable fibre. See Fibre, Vegetable. 

^WGWITE. Under Bhown Coal, and Coal, the characteristics of lignite have 

already received attention, therefore little further need bo said. The term lignite 

should be confined to fossil wood, or, still more correctly to wood which has under- 



n 



LIGNUM-VIT^ 



115 



gone one of the changes leading towards the production of coal. If •wood is 
buried in moist earth there is the production of carbonic acid from the elements of the 
wood, and the wood is changed into either lignite or brown coal. Lignite and coiil 
differ ciiomically from each other. Lignite yields by dry distillation acetic acid and 
acetate of ammonia, whereas coal produces only an ammoniacal liquor. (^Kremers.) 
"Woody fibre gives rise to acetic acid ; therefore, lignite must still contain undecomposed 
woody fibre. The following table gives the composition of several well-known 
lignites : — 



From Uttweiler . 
„ Hungary . 
„ theKlioue. 
„ Meissner . 
„ Bovey Heathfield 


Carbon 


Hydrogen 


Oxygen and 
Nitrogen 


Earthy 
matter 


Cbemist 


77-9 
67-3 
72-2 
68-6 
67-9 


2-6 
4-3 
4-9 
6-9 
3-8 


19-5 

20-1 
190 
24-8 


1-0 
0-8 
1-8 
2-3 


Karsten 

Nendtwich 

Regnault 

Grager 

Vaux 



The products of the destructive distillation of lignite, by B. Niederstadt is well 
deserving attention. — The lignites examined came from the Rhenish-Hessian basin. 
1. Lignite from Meissner, of a red-brown colour and woody texture ; specific gravity 
ri2. 2. Lignite from Eheinhardswalde, grey or black, containing abundance of 
resin; specific gravity 1"13. 3. Brilliant lignite of Meissner, black, fracture fibrous, 
lustre vitreous; specific gravity r32. 4. Lignite of Hirschberg, brownish-black, in 
tree-like masses ; specific gravity 1 '35. The following is their elementary composi- 
tion : — 



Carbon ..... 


1 


2 


3 


4 


61-238 


58-782 


60-995 


60-302 


Hydrogen 


4-169 


4-042 


3-192 


4-859 


Oxygen . . . 


32-326 


20-803 


17-591 


20-169 


Nitrogen 


0175 


0-150 


0123 


0-121 


Ash 


0-795 


5-940 


5-470 


3-167 


Moisture ..... 


10-297 


10-283 


3-629 


11-391 



On distillation these lignites yielded solid, liquid, and gaseous products ; at a dark-red 
heat, a brown tarry matter passing over along with combustible gases. To separate 
the watery portion from the tar, common salt was added to the mixture, heated to 40°. 
The quantity of tar, when freed from water, amounted to 4 to 5 percent., and the watery 
products 48 to 55 per cent., containing acetic acid and ammonia. The oily matters 
distilled over at 95° to 220°, leaving a black pitchy residue. The distillate, on agitation 
with concentrated soda-lye, yields phenol. On fractional distillation, the portions 
passing over up to 150° contain pyrrol and picoline, which boils at 135°, and is distin- 
guished from aniline by not giving a violet colouration with chloride of lime. The 
part passing over about 220° solidified on cooling, yielding a crystalline mass soluble 
in alcohol and ether. It melts at 49° to 51°, and is a paraffin formed of hydrocarbons 
C''H-". It amounts to 1 per cent, of the lignite employed. The gaseous mixture, 
from the Meissner lignite, consisted of: — Hydrogen, 14-26; carbonic oxide, 40'12; 
marsh-gas, 10*29 ; nitrogen, 4-09 ; carbonic acid, 2-10 ; ethylene and superior hydro- 
carbons, 2-13. There appears, consequently, little prospect of using the gases from 
lignite for lighting purposes. 

In Prussia, Austria, and many other parts of the Continent, lignite forms a very 
important product, being largely employed for domestic and for manufacturing 
purposes. In this country, with the single exception of the Bovey Heathfield formation, 
wliich is used in the adjoining pottery, lignite is not employed. See Coal. 

XiIG'19'TrMC-VXT.aB, or Giiaiacum (Guaiacum officinale and G. sanctum), a, very 
hard and heavy wood. The fibrous structure of tliis wood is very remarkable ; the 
fibres cross each other sometimes as obliquely as at an angle of 30° with the axis, 
as if one group of the annual layers wound to the right, the next to the left, and 
so on, with any exactitude. The wood can hardly bo split, it is therefore divided by 
the saw. Lignum-vitse is much used in machinery for rollers, presses, mills, &c., and 
for pestles and mortars, sheers for ship's blocks, skittle balls, and a great variety of 
othei- works requiring hardness and strengtli. 

The gum guaiacum of the apothecary is extracted from this wood. 

i2 



]1G LIME 

ZiXXi AC BVE. See Calico-Pbinting ; Dyeixg ; and Anilink. 

ItZTCCA "WOOB. See Brazil Wood. 

X.ZIVIE4 THE. The Citrus lAmetta, yielding the lime-juice bo much esteemed for 
flarouriug sherbet, punch, &c. 

IiIME. Qukmme, an Oxide of Calcium. This useful substance is prepared by 
burning calcareous stones in kilns or furnaces. 

Limestone used to be calcined in a very rude kiln, formed by inclosing a circular 
space of 10 or 15 feet diameter, by rude stone walls 4 or 5 feet high, and filling 
the cylindrical cavity with alternate layers of turf or coal and limestone broken 
into moderate pieces. A bed of brushwood was usually placed at the bottom, to 
facilitate the kindling of the kiln. Whenever the combustion was fairly commenced, 
the top, piled into a conical form, was covered in with sods, to render the calcina- 
tion slow and regular. This method being found relatively inconvenient and 
ineffectual, was succeeded by a permanent kiln biiilt of stones or brickwork, in the 
shape of a truncated cone with the narrow end undermost, and closed at bottom by 
an iron grate. Into this kiln, the fuel and limestone were introduced at the top in 
alternate layers, beginning of course with the former ; and the charge was either 
allowed to burn out, when the layer was altogether removed at a door near the bottom, 
or the kiln was successively fed with fresh materials, in alternate beds, as the former 
supply sunk down by the calcination, while the thoroughly-burnt lime at the bottom 
was successively raked out by a side door immediately above the grate. The interior 
of the lime kiln has been changed of late years from the conical to the elliptical form, 
and probably the best is that of an egg placed with .its narrow end undermost, and 
truncated both above and below ; the ground plot or bottom of the kiln being com- 
pressed so as to give an elliptical section, with an eye or draft-hole towards each end 
of that ellipse. A kiln thus arched in above gives a reverberatory heat to the upper 
materials, and also favours their falling freely down in proportion as the finished 
lime is raked out below ; adA'antages which the conical form does not afford. The 
size of the draft-holes for extracting the quicklime, should be proportionate to the size 
of the kiln, in order to admit a sufficient current of air to ascend with the smoke and 
flame, which is found to facilitate the extrication of the carbonic acid. The kilns are 
called perpetual, because the operation is carried on continuously as long as the build- 
ing lasts ; and draw-kilns, from the mode of discharging them by raking out the lime 
into carts placed against the draft-holes. Three bushels of calcined limestone, or 
lime-shells, are produced on an average for every bushel of coals consumed. Such 
kilns should bo built up against the face of a cliff, so that easy access may be 
gained to the mouth for charging, by making a sloping cart-road to the top of the 
bank. 

Figs. 1386, 1387, 1388, 1389, represent the lime-kiln of Eiidersdorf near Berlin, upon 
the continuous plan, excellently constructed for economising fuel. It is triple, and 
yields a threefold product. Fig. 1388 is a view of it as seen from above; fig. 1389, 
the elevation and general appearance of one side; fig. 1386, a vertical section, and 
fi<j. 1387, the ground plan in the line a b c d of fig. 1386. The inner shaft ./?gr. 1386, 
has the form of two truncated cones, with their larger circular ends applied to each 
other ; it has the greatest width at the level of the fire-door h, where it is 8 feet in 
diameter ; it is narrower below, at the discharge door, and at the top orifice, where it 
is about 6 feet in diameter. The interior wall d, of the upper shaft is built with hewn 
stones to the height of 38 feet, and below that for 25 feet, with fire-bricks d' d', laid 
stepwise. This inner wall is surrounded with a mantle e, of limestone, but between 
the two there is a small vacant space of a few inches filled with ashes, in order to 
allow of the expansion of the interior with heat taking place without shattering the 
mass of the building. 

The fire-grate, b, consists of fire-tiles, which at the middle, where the single pieces 
press together, lie upon an arched support /. The fire-door is also arched, and is secured 
by fire-tiles, g is the iron door in front of that orifice. The tiles which form the grate 
have 3 or 4 slits of an inch wide for admitting the air, which enters through the canal A. 
The under part of the shaft from the fire to the hearth is 7 feet, and the outer enclosing 
wall is constructed of limestone, the lining being of fire-bricks. Here are the ash- 
pit i, the discharge outlet a, and the canal k, in front of the outlet. Each ash-pit is 
shut with an iron door, which is opened only when the space i becomes filled witli 
ashes. These indeed are allowed to remain till they get cool enough to be removed 
without inconvenience. 

The discharge outlets are also furnished with iron doors, which are opened only for 
taking out the lime, and are carefully luted with loam during the burning. The outer 
walls I m n of the kiln, are not essentially necessary, but convenient, because they afford 
room for the lime to lie in the lower floor, and the fuel in the second. The several 
Btoriee are formed of groined arches 0, and platforms p, covered over with limestone 



LIME 



117 



slabs. In the third and fourth stories the ■workmen lodge at night. See fig. 1389. Some 
enter their apartments by the upper door q, others by the lower door s, r is one of 
the chimneys for the several fireplaces of the workmen ; t,u,v are stairs. 



1386 



1388 




As the limestone is introduced at top, the mouth of the kiln is surrounded with a 
strong iron balustrade to prevent the danger of the people tumbling in. The platform 
{fig. 1388) is laid with rails w, for the waggons of limestone, drawn by horses, to run 
upon. X is another railway, leading to another kiln. Such kilns are named after 
the number of their fire-doors, single, twofold, threefold, fourfold, &c. ; from three 
to five being the most usual. The outer form of the kiln also is determined by the 
number of the furnaces, being a truncated pyramid of equal sides, and in the middle 
of each alternate side there is a fireplace, and a discharge outlet. A cubic foot of 
limestone requires for burning, one and five-twelfths of a cubic foot of wood, and one 
and a half of turf. 

When the kiln is to be set in action, it is filled with rough limestone, to the height 
c D, or to the level of the firing ; a wood fire is kindled in a, and kept up till the lime 
is calcined. Upon this mass of quicklime a fresh quantity of limestone is introduced, 
not thrown in at the mouth, but let down in buckets, till the kiln is quite full ; while 
over the top a cone of limestones is piled up, about 4 feet high. A turf-fire is now 
kindled in the furnaces b. Whenever the upper stones are well calcined, the lime 
under the fire-level is ttiken out, the superior column falls in, a new cone is piled up, 
and the process goes on thus without interruption, and without the necessity of onco 
putting a fire into a ; for in the space c b, the lime must be always well calcined. The 
discharge of lime takes place every 12 hours, and it amounts at each time in a three- 
fold kiln, to from 20 to 24 Prussian tonnes of 6 imperial bushels each ; or to 130 bushels 
imperial upon the average. It is found by experience that fresh-broken limestone, 
which contains a little moisture, calcines more readily than what has been dried by 
exposure for some time to the air : in consequence of the vapour of water promoting 
the escape of the carbonic acid gas ; a fact well exemplified in distilling essential oils, 
as oil of turpentine and naphtha, which come over with the steam of water at upwards 
of 100° Fahr. below their natural term of ebullition. Six bushels of Elidersdorf 
quicklime weigh from 280 to 306 pounds. See Kilns. 



118 LIMESTONE 

Anhydrous lime, or, as it is commonly called, ' quicklime,* is an amorphous solid, 
varying much in coherence, ticcordiug to the kind of rock from which it is obtained ; 
its specific gravity varies from 2-3 to 3. Lime is one of the most infusible bodies 
which we possess ; it resists the highest heats of our furnaces. 

When exposed to air, quicklime rapidly absorbs water and crumbles into a powder, 
commonly known as slaked lime, which is a hydrate of liTtie. 

Hydrate of lime, when exposed to tho air, absorbs carbonic acid, and after long ex- 
posure it is converted into a mixture of carbonate of lime and hydrate of lime in single 
equivalents. Hydrate of lime is but slightly soluble in water, 729 to 733 parts of that 
fluid dissolving only 1 part of the lime at ordinary temperatures. 

Hydrate of lime is applied to numerous purposes in the arts and manufactures. It 
is chiefly employed in tho preparation of mortar for building purposes. See Mortar. 

The pure limes, prepared from the carbonates of lime, form an imperfect mortar 
suitable only for dry situations. In damp buildings or in wet situations they never 
set (as the process of hardening is technically termed), but always remain in a pulpy 
state. General Pasley says, ' The unfitness of pure lime for the purposes of hydraulic 
architecture has been proved by several striking circumstiiuces that have come under 
my personal observation, of which I shall only mention a few. First, a great portion 
of the boundary-wall of Rochester Castle having been completely undermined, nearly 
throughout its whole thickness, which was considerable, whilst the upper part of the 
same wall was left standing, I had always ascribed this remarkable breach to violence, 
considering it as having been the act of persons intending to destroy the wall for the 
sake of the stone ; but on examining it more accurately after I had begun to study 
the subject of limes and cements, I observed that the whole of the breached part was 
washed by the Medway at high water, and that all the mortar of a small portion of 
tlio back part of the foot of the wall still left standing was quite soft, but that towards 
the ordinary high water level it became a little harder, and above that level it was 
perfectly sound. I observed the same process at the outer wall of Cockham Wood 
Fort, on the left bank of the Medway, below Chatham, of which the upper part was 
standing, whilst the lower part of it had been gradually ruined by the action of the 
river at high water destroying the mortar.' Tho peculiar conditions necessary to 
insure a good and useful mortar for building purposes, and the peculiarities of the 
hydraulic mortars or cements are treated of under Hydraulic Cements and 
Mortar. 

UIMCESTOITE. (Calcaire, Fr. ; KalJcstein, Ger.) A great variety of rocks contain 
a sufficient quantity of carbonate of lime to be called limestones. 

Chalk is an eartliy massive opaque variety, usually soft and without lustre, and may 
be regarded as a tolerably pure carbonate of lime. Carbonate of lime dissolves in 1,000 
parts of water charged with carbonic acid. {Bischof.) Fresenius states that it dissolves 
in 8,834 parts of boiling water and in 10,601 parts of water at ordinary temperatures. 

Carbonate of lime is found in nature more or less pure ; it occurs crystallised, as 
in calcspar and aragonite ; and also occurs as granular limestone ; and in compact 
masses, as in common limestone, chalk, &c. 

Stalactitic carbonate of liTne, frequently called concretionary limestone, is formed by 
the infiltration of water through rocks containing lime, which is dissolved out, and as 
it slowly percolates the rocks into cavernous openings, the water parts with its carbo- 
nate of lime, which is deposited in zones more or less iindulated, which have a fibrous 
structure from the crystalline character of the concretionary lime. The long fibrous 
pieces called stalactites show those fibres very beautifully. The stratiform masses 
called stalagmites exhibit a similar structure, varied only by the conditions under 
which they are formed. A very remarkable stalagmitic limestone found in Egypt is 
known as oriental alabaster. 

True Alabaster is a sulphate of lime, but the stalagmitic carbenate is not unfre- 
quently called by this name. See Alabaster. 

Incrusting concretionary limestones differ but little from the above. They are deposits 
from calcareous springs which are common in some parts of Derbyshire, Yorkshire, 
and other places. It is a common practice to place vegetable substances in those 
springs ; they then become incrusted with carbonate of lime, and are sold aS petrifac- 
tions, which they are not. In volcanic districts many very remarkable springs of 
this character exist. One of the most remarkable is at the baths of San Filippo, 
in Tuscany, where the water flows in almost a boiling state ; carbonate of lime here 
appears to be hold in solution by sulphuretted hydrogen, which flies off when the 
water issues to-day. Dr. Vegny has taken advantage of this property of the spring 
to obtain basso-rilievo figures of great whiteness and solidity by occasioning the lime 
to deposit in sulphur moulds. 

Agaric mineral, Spongy limestone, Bock milk, is found at the bottom of and about 



LIMNITE 119 

lakes whoso waters are impregnated -with lime. The calcareous tufa of Derbyshire 
is of this character ; it may be studied in every stage of formation. 

Travertine, which served to construct most of the monuments in ancient Rome 
appears to have been formed by the deposits of the Anio and the Solfatara of Tivoli. 
The temples of Psestum, which are of extreme antiquity, have been built with a trover- 
tino, formed by the waters which still flow in this territory. 

Compact limestone has a compact texture, usually an even surface of fracture, and 
dull shades of colour. 

Granular limestone includes common statuary and architectural marble, and has a 
texture something like loaf-sugar. I/nder those two heads are grouped a great number 
of varieties. 

Oolite or roe-stone consists of spherical grains of various sizes, from a millet seed 
to a poa, or even an egg. 

Coarse-grained limesto7ie. Coarse lias has been referred to this head. 

Marly limestone. Lake- and fresh-water limestone formation ; texture fine-grained, 
more or less dense ; apt to crumble down in the air ; colour white or pale yello^ ; 
fracture rough-grained, somewhat conchoidal ; rather tenacious. Texture occa- 
sionally cavernous, with cylindrical winding cavities. This true limestone must 
not be confounded with lime marl, which is composed of calcareous matter and 
clay. 

Siliceous limestone. A combination of silica and carbonate of lime, varying 
very much in the proportions, and sometimes passing from cherty limestone into 
chert. It scratches steel, and leaves a siliceous residuum after the action of muriatic 
acid, 

Stinkstone or Swinestone. A carbonate of lime combined with sulphur and 
organic matter. It emits the smell of sulphuretted hydrogen by a blow or by 
friction. It occurs at Aseynt, ia Sutherlandshire, in Derbyshire, and some parts of 
Ireland. 

Bituminotis limestone. Limestone containing various hydrocarbon compounds, 
diffusing by the action of fire a bituminous odour, and becoming white when 
burnt. 

Limestones of whatsoever kind may be referred to deposition effected by chemical 
change. The immense lapse of time required to form the great limestone ranges of 
this country can scarcely be estimated. 

Oolitic limestone includes Bath stone, Portland stone, and Caen stone. 

Pisolite is a variety of oolite, in which the concretions become as large as peas. 

Num.mulitic limestone, Clymenia, Crinoidal, or Encrinital limestones, &c., are so 
called from the fossils which the rock contains. 

Shell-limestone or Muschelkalk has its name in the same way from its composition. 

Cipolino is a granular limestone containing mica. 

Majolica, a white and compact limestone. 

Scaglia, a rod limestone in the Alps. 

See Alabastek ; Chalk : Hydhaulic Cement ; and Maeble. 

XiZniESTOirE, mtil-Cia-ESZAIir (Dolomie, Fr. ; Bitterkalk, Talkspat/i, Ger.), 
is a mineral which crystallises in the rhombohedral system. Spec. grav. 2-88 ; 
scratches calc-spar ; does not fall spontaneously into powder when calcined, as com- 
mon limestone does. It consists of 1 equivalent of carbonate of lime = 50, asso- 
ciated with 1 of carbonate of magnesia = 42. 

Massive magnesian limestone is yellowish-brown, cream-yellow, and yellowish-grey ; 
brittle. It dissolves slowly and with feeble effervescence in dilute muriatic acid ; 
whence it is called Calcaire lent dolomie, by the French mineralogists. Specific gravity, 
2-6 to 2-7. 

Near Sunderland it is found in flexible slabs. The principal range of hills com- 
posing this geological formation in England, extends from Sunderland on the north- 
east coast to Nottingham, and its beds are described as being about 300 feet thick on 
the east of the coal-field in Derbyshire, which is near its southern extremity. — H. W. B. 
See Dolomite, 

ZiZME TBEE {Tilia Europcea). The well-known linden tree, common to all 
Europe. The wood is very light-coloured, fine and close in the grain, and when 
properly seasoned, not liable to warp. It is much used in the manufacture of piano- 
fortes and harps. It is made into cutting boards for curriers, shoemakers, &c., as it 
does not turn the knife in any direction of the grain, nor injure the edge. 

Lime-tree wood is especially useful for carving, from its even texture and freedom 
from knots. The beautiful works of Gibbons at Hampton Court, at Windsor, and at 
Chatsworth, are executed in lime-tree wood, as are also the works of Rogers. 

XiXMISrSTE. A name applied to certain varieties of hydrous peroxide of iron, 
having tlie composition — Fe^O^.SHO (Pe-O^SH^O). Some kinds of bog iron-ore and 



120 LINEN 

etalactitic brown iron-ore may come under this denomination. The name is derived 
from Xifiirfi ijimne), a marsh. 

ZiXMOGES Z:xrAlMCEX.S. SceENAKELS. 

XiZMOWZTE. A hydrous peroxide of iron of the composition — 2Fe'0.'3HO 
(2Fe*0'.3H=0). It includes most of the bog iron-ores and the so-called brown haema- 
tites. The name is derived from Xei/ieDj/ {leimon), a meadow. See Iron. 

mSTASZTS. A hydrous sulphate of copper and lead, occurring in beautiful 
dark blue crystals at Leadhills in Lanarkshire, and at several localities in Cumber- 
land. It takes its name from Linares in Spain. 

XiZirBEXr T&ES. See Limb Tbee. 

XiZXrEXr. History does not state at what period of the world's existence the 
manufacture of cloth from flaxen material was first introduced; but from many 
evidences found in Egyptian mausoleums the process of weaving must have been known 
and practised even before the great shipbuilder laid the first planks of his famous Ark. 
Throughout the pages of Sacred Writ the allusions to ' fine linen,' ' broidered linen,' 
and the fancy styles of the fabric as they were brought out wefted with gold threads 
and coloured yarns, show that in those days the clothing of princes, priests, and 
people was largely composed of the diiFerent qualities of such material. In ancient 
Greece the embroidering of linen robes was delighted in as a popular pastime by the 
ladies of high degree, and the Romans of old were no less fond of the manufacture. 
But all their fancy goods were not furnished by the needle alone. Homer alludes to 
his famous heroine weaving pictures in the loom, and other productions similar in 
pattern to the damask of modern days were worked by the shuttle in ancient Greece. 

The use of linen was pretty general in the higher cii'cles of society in the British 
isles at a very remote period; but all the finer varieties of the fabric were imported 
from the continent of Europe. Woollen goods formed the principal material for inner 
as well as outside clothing of the people on both sides the Tweed in the fifth century ; 
but even then linen was considered an essential requisite for special purposes, and 
particularly for wrapping the bodies of the dead. Weaving was cultivated by the 
more skilful peasants for a long period afterwards ; but it does not appear that any 
high order of work had been produced until the reign of Henry III., when a number 
of Flemings brought over by that monarch settled in Sussex and introduced a very 
superior make of linen. Wo have only slight allusions in after history respecting the 
progress of the trade either in England, Scotland, or Ireland. The yarns, at least 
those of the upper counts used in Sussex and Lancashire were imported from 
Holland, Flanders and Ireland. A high authority — Leland — in alluding to the 
Liverpool trade says : ' Irysh merchantes doe cum muche heyre withe linnen yjime, 
the whiche Manchester men doe bye.' King William tried to give greater impulse to 
the trade in England, but somehow the pride of the people in manufacturing districts 
to uphold woollen, ' the noble and national fabric,' stood in the way ; and while royal 
patronage did immense good in Scotland and Ireland, it had little effect in England. 
Sam Homespun's calculations relative to the value of a single acre's produce of flax 
when spun and woven were made in 1742, and given at length in the leading magazine 
of that day ; but marvellous as they were, so far as referred to the profits which 
might be made in the linen manufacture, the subject was not taken up in the spirit 
intended by that writer. Shortly afterwards the discoveries of Hargreaves, Arkwright, 
and others, and the enterprise created thereby in the cotton trade opened iip new 
avenues in the manufacturing world of England ; farmers there gradually decreased 
the area of flax culture ; and, except in few localities, linen weaving no longer occu- 
pied any large space in the republic of labour. 

In the meantime very great progress had been maintained in the manufacture of 
linen in Scotland and Ireland. Bounties and other artificial stimulants were freely 
administered by the State ; a Board of Trustees for Scotland sat in Edinburgh, and 
local influence was largely used to give effect to the movement for improving the 
manufacture. The Bounty Act became law in 1742, and in the course of that year 
4,431,500 yards of linen were stamped by the inspectors appointed for that purpose. 
Twelve years afterwards, and when the bounty system was given up, the turn out of 
goods had increased to 8,914,400 yards ; in 1800, 24,236,630 yards were protluced and 
stamped by the inspectors; and in 1822 there was a total of 36,268,530 yards of linen 
made in Scotland. The introduction of flax spinning by mechanical power and of 
weaving linen on the steam-loom principle, made a remarkable change in the Scotch 
trade. Dundee had long been the great centre of the flaxen manufactures, and of 
late years it has taken the lead in the Jute trade. Twenty-five years ago the imports 
of Jute into Dundee were 12,500 cwts. ; in 1863, 46,900 cwts. were landed there ; and 
of the total import of 2,583,842 cwts. for t*he six months ending June 30, 1874, a large 
proportion went to Dundee. Tlio capital employed in that town and neighbourhood 
m the flax and Jute trades cannot at present bo under five and a half millions sterling. 



% 



LINEN 



121 



Ireland's linen trade was its great sheet anchor in times the records of Trhich have 
been lost in the mist of ages. Long before the reign of William the Conqueror Irish 
linen occupied a largo space among the wares exposed for sale at the great fairs of 
England. The looms used in the make of goods were, however, of very primitive con- 
struction ; and, until the semi-regal reign of Wentworth, Earl of Strafford, no effort 
had been made to improve those machines. In course of a tour through Ulster that 
viceroy saw that much was required to place the Irish trade on something like equality 
with their French and Dutch competitors. He had already, by importing superior 
flax seed and giving it at cost price to the farmers succeeded in creating, as it were, a 
higher class of fibre, and at considerable cost he brought over from Holland some 
hundreds of looms, all of which ho distributed among the more ambitious class of 
weavers. 

The trade at that time may be said to have been a local one, as the total annual 
value of linen exports did not exceed an average of 10,000^., and that aggregate 
had not increased in any great degree when the first batch of Huguenot exiles landed 
in Ireland. How much the Prince of Orange contributed towards the establishment 
of a new system of flaxen manufacture has still to be acknowledged by the people of 
that country. He was the warm friend of the Gallic fugitives, and his kindly feeling 
towards those victims of persecution led to the most important results in all depart- 
ments of the Irish trade. We have alluded to the value of exports in 1690. In 1706 
the quantity of linen sent from Ireland was 530,900 yards, valued at IQd. a yard. 
In 1726 there were 4,368,396 yards exported; and in 1766 the account had ran up to 
17,892,000 yards, while the average value had arisen to 15<?. a yard. Forty years 
afterwards, Ireland exported 43,534,000 yards of linen, and in 1836 the export was 
60,000,000 yards. 

Up to this time, and for a great many years afterwards, all the linen produced in 
Ireland had been woven by hand. Considerable impulse was given to the trade by 
the introduction, a few years before, of flax-spinning by steam-power. Still, although 
flaxen goods were largely produced in Kirkcaldy arid Dundee on the power-loom 
principle, no attempt had been made to bring out the new weaving-machine in Ireland. 
We here give two figures of the loom as constructed some years ago for the working 
of heavy linen. 

Flax Weaving Loom foh Heavy Fabrics. — AA\,fgs. 1390, 1391, frame of loom; 
B, beam on which the yarn for warp is wound ; c, cloth-receiving beam ; d, driving 
puUey-s and fly-wheel ; e, hand rail for supporting the reed ; f, swords of supports of 
going part ; g, picking sticks for driving the shuttle ; h, leather straps for connecting 
the picking sticks with their actuating levers i ; m, n, jaws of a clamp to cause the 
retaining friction on the 
collars of the beam b, by 
which friction the quantity 
of weft is regulated ; o, 
end of lever, bearing the 
weiglit by which the jaws 
are brought together ; p, 
lever, keyed at one end to 
the upright shaft q, and 
connected with the other to 
the fulcrum of the weighted 
lever o ; n, lever, one end 
of which is also keyed to 
the upright shaft q, and 
the other is provided with 
a wood sole, and is pressed 
by a strong spring against 
the yarn wound upon the 
beam b. It will be seen 
that, as the yarn is taken 
off the beam b, and its 
diameter consequently re- 
duced, the lever p moves 
the Hilcrum of the weighted 
lever o, and thus regulates 
the pressure upon the 
clamps M and n, causing 
an equal tension upon the 
yarn from the full to the 
empty beam ; a, treddles, actuated by the cams b, driven by the wheels <?, d, e, from the 



1390 




122 



LINEN 



picking shaft /; gg, shuttle-boxeg at each end of the going part ; h h, arrangement 
of levers to conduct equally each end of the geare i i. This loom has also, in addi- 

1391 




tion to the ordinary stopping arrangement connected with the shuttle, one also fop 
relaxing the reed in case the shuttle should be arrested in its course across the warp, 
whereby the danger, ordinarily incurred by that accident, of breaking many threads 
in the warp is avoided ; it will also be seen that the bands called picking bands are 
superseded by the ends of the picking levers striking the shuttle direct ; thus, by these 
improvements, drills are currently woven in this loom at the rate of 120 to 130 picks 
per minute. 

About a dozen years since extensive trials were made to adapt the power-loom to 
the weaving of light linen fabrics. Previously it had been found that while coarse 
and strong flax fabrics, such as those made at Dundee, Arbroath, &c., in Scotland, 
and the drills made at Barnsley, could be produced by power as well and more cheaply 
than by hand, yet that the lighter fabrics, such as shirtings, cambrics, lawns, &c., 
would not bear the strain of the power-loom, or, at all events, that to make them of as 
good appearance as by the hand-loom the manufacturer required to employ a dearer 
article of yarn, and so fotmd that he could not compete with his neighbours who had 
hand-loom weavers. 

Irish manufacturers were for a long time very hard to convince that, except for the 
production of sets, say from S*" to 1 2°°, the steam-driven loom was not likely to be 
worked successfully. But at length the. increasing demand for linen, and tlie difficulty 
of procuring hands to work on the ordinary loom, forced capitalists to adopt the new 
mode of production, and rapidly did tlie system extend when it was found not only to 
equal, but far exceed that which had been expected from it. Hand-loom weaving, in 
coarse, heavy linens, was a labour that required more than average strength, and yet, 
when it was maintained for fourteen hours a diiy, the operator did not earn as much 
as a factory worker can now realise by his ten hours' labour. Many linen weavers, 
as demand for hands increased in other sections of industry, forsook the loom, and the 
only alternative manufacturers had was the substitution of the iron macliino and the 
steam-engine for the old wooden loom and the hand-weaver. 

In 1857 there were only 30 power-looms at work on linen weaving in Ireland, in 
1860 there were 4,000, in 1866, 10,000, and in 1872, about 15,600 power-looms were 
engaged in the trade. Some of these machines work up to le'". lu one factory an 
1 8"" linen has been produced by the steam loom, but such liigh sets can hardly be 
made with profit. Damasks, diapers, and cambric handkerchiefs, are brought out in 
the best style, of course, up to certain sets on the same principle, but the upper class of 
work can only be rightly done by hand. In fact, the practical limit to steam produc- 



f 



LINEN 



123 



tion of linens has been found to be the weaving of a 16*''-web ; any fabric above that 
• set ' cannot well be brought out by ' power,' so as to compete with the hand-loom work. 
The improvements recently efibctod in the make of the steam loom have nearly all 
been favourable to the operatives. Stronger and better fitted-up machines are now 
seen in factories ; for instance, a loom which a dozen years ago, and constructed for a 
certain class of work, weighed 15 to 16 cwts., would, now be brought out so much 
heavier as to weigh 17 to 18 cwts. One effect of the improvement in gearing is to 
give the workpeople greater facility of production ; they get through their bibour with 
more ease, and the quality of cloth is decidedly better. In the last case, however, we 
must add that the superior class of yarns now thrown off the spindles has had much 
to do with the order of fabric made in 1874, compared with that brought out in 1863. 
And while thus alluding to the improvements in machinery, we must not forget to 
add that the better mode of ventilation in mills, the care taken as to sanitary regu- 
lations and the regailarity of labour, have been producing a very gratifying change on 
the physical aspect of the people oonriected with public works. Contrasted with the 
appearance of the hand-loom or factory weaver of half a century since, that of his 
successor in the present day shows a marvellous advance in social position as well as 
in bodily stamina. 

Exports of Linen, 1872. 



Linen Yam: 
To Norway . 
„ Denmark . 
,, Germany . 
„ Holland . 
„ Belgium . 
„ France 

„ Spain and Canaries 
„ Italy .• . 
„ Egypt . 
„ United States : Atlantic 
„ Other countries . 

Total 



Linen Piece Goods — Plain, Unbleached, or 
Bleached : 

To Sweden 

„ Germany 

„ Holland , 

„ France . . . . .... 

„ Portugal, Azores, and Madeira . 

„ Spain and Canaries .... 

„ Itixly 

„ Turkey Proper , 

,. Egypt , 

„ United States : Atlantic . 

„ „ „ Pacific . . . 

„ Foreign West Indies . . . . 

„ Mexico , ' 

„ United States of Colombia (New Gran,ada) 
,, Venezuela. . . . 
„ Peru . . . . 

„ Chili . . . 

„ Brazil 

„ Uruguay . . . 

„ Argentine Eepublic . 

„ British Possessions in South Africa 

„ Hong Kong . . . 

„ Australia 

„ British North America 

„ British West Indies and British Guiana 

„ Other countries . . 



Total 



lbs. 

266,260 

768,577 

6,327,028 

4,538,841 

986,078 

1,677;361 

11,882,108 

2,110,300 

300,630 

1,617,946 

711,922 



31,187,051 



yards 
1,214,426 
6,532,256 
.1,000,617 
4,429,502 
1,550,740 
2,397,794 
2,556,070 
1,470,290 
1,527,060 
115,462.840 
1,412,340 
37,410,503 
2,367,500 
6,268,739 
1,671,532 
1,833,490 
2,248,320 
9,977,789 
•1,260,500 
4,900,400 
1,627,027 

723,539 , 
,7,613,280 
5,443,111 
,4,098,804 
.6,830,829 



233,838,338 



£ 

25,655 

72,791 

624,499 

273,322 

97,465 

126,700 

650,053 

140,579 

20,069 

53,317 

47,621 

2,131,071 



£ 

36,471 
266,184 

42,779 
176.485 

48,341 
139,333 
126,215 

45,226 

49,437 
3,526,584 

29,942 
988.736 

79,406 
204,827 

43,899 

61,232 

70,604 
284,060 

36,089 
139,983 

61,486 

30,316 
255,656 
161,265 
100,988 
247,294 



7,241.338 



124 



LINEN 



Checked, Printed, or Dyed, and Damasks and 
Diapers : 

To France 

, United States : Atlantic . 

, „ „ Pacific 

, Foreign West Indies .... 

, Mexico 

, United States of Colombia (New Granada) 

, Brazil 

, Argentine Eepublic . . , . 

, Australia 

, British North America 

, British West Indies and British Guiana 

, Other countries .... 

Total 



Sail-cloth and Sails: 

To Norway 

„ Denmark 

„ Germany 

„ Turkey Proper .... 
„ United States : Atlantic . 
Pacific . 

„ Brazil 

„ Argentine Eepublic . 

„ Channel Islands 

„ British Possessions in South Africa 

., British India, Bengal, and Burmah 

„ Hong Kong .... 

„ Australia 

„ British North America 

„ British West Indies and British Guii 

„ Other countries . . . 



Total , 

Thread for Sewing: 
To Eussia .... 
„ Sweden .... 
„ Germany .... 
„ Holland .... 
„ Spain and Canaries . 
„ Italy ... 
„ Austrian Territories . 
„ Turkey Proper . 
„ United States : Atlantic . 
Pacific . 
„ Foreign West Indies . 
„ Brazil .... 
„ British North America '. 
., Other countries . 



Total 



Manufactures unenumerated. 

To Russia 

„ Germany ..... 

„ Holland 

„ Belgium 

„ France 

Carried forward . 



yarda 

324,680 

1,390,020 

2,500 

2,608,341 

450,400 

454,746 

158,900 

97,260 

619,100 

102,409 

820,180 

869,404 



7,397,940 



yards 
321,652 
247,788 
699,660 
13X),920 
323,646 

12,300 
121,306 

50,370 

68,350 
179,543 
110,600 
101,110 
191,550 
702,434 

66,490 
545,407 



3,783,126 



lbs. 

91,875 

75,182 

247,467 

85,765 

87,326 

28,054 

72,845 

76,089 

1,296,823 

1,020 

52,018 

48,200 

226,222 

252,846 



2,641,732 



£ 

12,839 

54,316 

61 

65,769 

12,351 

12,683 

7,258 

3,820 

20,316 

3,358 

8,838 

31,127 



233,736 



£ 

25,240 

14,886 

36,637 

7,637 

16,653 

587 

7,132 

2,505 

3,305 

9,909 

6,404 

6,919 

11,589 

41,713 

3,955 

30,291 



255,291 



£ 

11,488 

10,247 

31,057 

11.594 

8,392 

3,906 

9,647 

7,976 

162,189 

144 

3,991 

5,365 

24,214 

27,357 



817,666 



£ 

12,902 
40,193 
12,426 
16,514 
18,744 

100,779 



LINEN 



121 





yards 


£ 


Brought forward . 




100,779 


To Portugal and Madeira . . . ' . 




2,760 


„ Spain and Canaries 




6,620 


» Italy 




8,169 


„ United States : Atlantic .... 




13,081 


„ „ „ Pacific .... 




38 


„ Foreign West Indies .... 




14,111 


„ United States of Colombia (New Granada) 




4,632 


„ Brazil 




3,909 


„ Argentine Republic 




4,488 


„ Australia 




13,018 


„ British North America .... 




6,379 


„ Other countries 

Total .... 




33,828 




207,769 



XUffSTJEXTE. A sulphide of cobalt, named after the Swedish naturalist, Linn^ 

(Linnaeus). See Cobalt. 
XIJiTSEED. ( Graine de lin, Fr. ; Leinsame, Ger.) The seed of the flax, Linum 

usitatissimum, which is indigenous to our islands, and is cultivated extensively in this 
and other countries for its seed, and tor flax. Linseed contains in its dry state, 11*268 
of oil; 0"146 of wax; 2"'i808 of a soft resin ; OooO of a colouring resinous matter; 
0"926 of a yellowish substance analogous to tannin ; 6'154 of gum ; 15"12 of vegetable 
mucilage; 1*48 of starch ; 2-932 of gluten ; 2782 of albumine ; 10'884 of saccharine 
extractive ; 44"382 of envelopes, including some vegetable mucilage. It contains also 
free acetic acid ; some acetate, sulphate, and muriate of potash, phosphate and sulphate 
of lime ; phosphate of magnesia ; and silica. 

ZiXXJSEED OZXi is obtained from linseed by first bruising the seeds, grinding them, 
and subjecting them to violent pressure, either by means of wedges, or of the hydraulic 
or screw press. Cold drawn linseed oil is obtained cold, and is paler coloured, less 
odorous, and has less taste than that which is obtained when heat is applied. 

It is usual to employ a steam heat of about 200° Fahr. By cold expression the seeds 
yield about 20 per cent., while by the aid of heat nearly 27 per cent, of oil can be 
obtained. The ultimate composition of linseed oil is carbon 76'014, hydrogen 11-381, 
and oxj'gen 12-638; its proximate constituents being oleic and margaric acids, and 
glycerine. Linseed oil is much used as a vehicle for colours by the painter. If 
linseed oil is exposed in a thin coat to the air it absorbs oxygen and becomes tenacious, 
and in many respects like caoutchouc : upon this property mainly depends its use in 
the arts. To secure this more readily a drying process is adopted, which must be 
described. 

When linseed oil is carefully agitated with acetate of lead (tribasic acetate of lead), 
and the mixture allowed to clear by settling, a copious white cloudy precipitate forms, 
containing oxide of lead, -whilst the raw oil is converted into a drying oil of a pale 
straw colour, forming an excellent varnish, which, when applied in thin layers, dries 
perfectly in twenty-four hours. It contains from four to five per cent, of oxide of 
lead in solution. The following proportions appear to be the most advantageous for 
its preparation : — 

In a bottle containing 4J pints of rain water, 18 ounces of neutral acetate of lead are 
placed, and when the solution is complete, 18 ounces of litharge in a very fine powder 
are added ; the whole is then allowed to stand in a moderately warm place, frequently 
agitating it to assist the solution of the litharge. This solution may be considered as 
complete when no more small scales are apparent. The deposit of a shining white 
cc^our (sexbasic acetate of lead) may be separated by filtration. This conversion of 
the neiitral acetate of lead into vinegar of lead, by means of litharge and water, is 
effected in about a quarter of an hour, if the mixture be heated to ebullition. Vfhen 
heat is not applied, tlie process will usually take three or four days. The solution _ of 
vinegar of lead, or tribasic acetate of lead, thus formed, is sufficientifor the preparation 
of 22 lbs. of drying oil. For this piirpose, the solution is diluted witli an equal volume 
of rain-water, and to it is gradually added, with constant agitation, 22 lbs. of oil, with 
whicli 18 ounces of litharge have previously been mixed. 

When the points of contact between the lead solution and the oil have been fre- 
quently renewed by agitation of the mixture three or four times a day, and the mixture 
allowed to settle in a warm place, the limpid straw-coloured oil rises to the surface, 
leaving a copious whitish deposit. The watery solution rendered clear by filtration. 



126 



LINEN 



contains intact all the acetate of lead first employed, and may 1)6 used in the next 
operation, after the addition to it as before of 18. ounces of litharge. 

By filtration through paper or cotton the oil may be obtained as limpid as water, 
and by exposure to the light of the sun it may also be bleached. 

Should a drying oil be required absolutely free from lead, it may be obtained by 
the addition of dilute siUphuric acid to the above, when, on being allowed to stand, 
a deposit of sulphate of lead will take plac§, and the clear oil may be obtained free 
from all trace of lead. 

Linseed oil was at one time much used in the preparation of a liniment, which, as 
it is one of the very best possible applications to a burnt surface, cannot be too 
generally known. If equal parts of limewater and linseed oil are agitated together, 
they form a thick liniment, which may be applied to the burn with a brush or 
feather. It relieves at once from pain, and forming a pellicle, protects the abraded 
parts from the air. The Linimentum. calcis of the Pharmacopoeia is equal parts of 
limewater and olive oil ; this is a more elegant, but a less effective preparation. 
See Oil. 

XiZMTT for Surgery, was formerly prepared by scraping up linen by the hand ; the 
preparation of it, however, has been made the subject of a patent by Mr. Thomas Ross, 
which consists in the employment of peculiarly constructed scrapers for abrading the 
surface of the linen cloth, and producing a pile or nap upon it. The scrapers 
are worked by a rotary motion. 

Instead of rotary scrapers, a reciprocating pendulous movement is sometimes applied 
to a single scraper. Chisel-formed blades are claimed by the patentee as scrapers for 
raising the pile, by working with the bevel edges forwards, so as to scrape and noi to 
cut the fabric. He has in the rotary form a lodge or bed concentric with the axis of 
the scraper, which he also claims ; both of which seem to be serviceable. Several 
kinds of lint-making machines are now employed, but as they all partake more or less 
the above principles they do not require description. 

XZQir.a,TZOXr (Eng. and Fr. ; Saigcrung, Ger.) is the process of sweating out, 
by a regulated heat, from an alloy a more easily fusible metal from the interstices of a 
metal which is more difficult of fusion. Lead and antimony are the metals most com- 
monly subjected to liquation : lead for the purpose of removing by its superior affinity 
the silver present in any complex alloy ; antimony as an easy means of separating it 
from its combinations in the ores. 

Figs, 1392, 1393, 1394, represent the celebrated antimonial liquation furnaces of 
Malbosc, in the department of Ardfeche, in France. Fig. 1392 is a ground plan 
taken at the level of the draught holes g g, fig. 1393, and of the dotted line e f ; fig. 
1393 is a vertical section through the dotted line A b, of fig. 1392 ; and fig 1394 is a 
vertical section through the dotted line c d of fig. 1392. In the three figures, the 
same letters denote like objects, a, b, c, are three grates upon the same level above 
the floor of the works, 4^ feet long, by 10^ inches broad; between which are two 

rectangular galleries, d e, which pass trans- 
versely through the whole furnace, and lie at 
a level of 12 inches above the ground. They 
are separated by two walls from the three 
fire-places. The walls have three openings, 
/ g h, alternately placed for the flames to 
play through. The ends of these galleries are 
shut in -with iron doors i i, containing peep- 
holes. In each gallery are two conical cast- 
iron crucibles k k, into which the eliqiiativg 
sulphuret of antimony drops. Their height 
is from 12 to 14 inches; the width of the 
mouth is 10 inches, that of the bottom is 6, 
and the thickness four-tenths of an inch. 
They are coated over with fire-clay, to pre- 
vent the sulphuret from acting upon them ; and they stand upon cast-iron pedestals 
with projecting ears, to facilitate their removal from the gallery or platform. Both 
of these galleries are lined with tiles of fire-clay 1 1, which also serve as supports to 
the vertical liquation tubes m m, made of the same clay. The tiles are somewhat 
cun'ed towards the middle, for the purpose of receiving the lower ends of these 
tubes, and have a small hole at n, through which the liquid sulphuret flows down into 
the crucible. 

The liquation tubes are conical, the internal diameter at top being 10 inches, at bot- 
tom 8 ; the length fully 40 inches, and the thickness six-tenths of an incli. Tliey have 
at their lower ends notches or slits, o, fig. 1394, from 3 to 6 inches long, which look out- 
wards, to make them accessible from the front and back part of the furnaces through 



1392 




LIQUEURS, LIQUORISTE 



127 



small conical openings p p, in the walls. These are closed during the operation ■with 
clay stoppers, and are opened only when the gangue, rubbish, and cinders are to be raked 
out The liquation-tubes pass across the arch of the furnace, q q, the space of the arch 
being wider than the tubes ; they are shut in at top with fire-corers r r. e s. the 



1393 



1394 





middle part of the arch, immediately under the middle grate, is barrel-shaped, so that 
both arches are abutted togetlier. The flames, after playing round about the sides of 
the liquation-tubes, pass off through three openings and flues into the chimney i, about 
13 feet high; u, being the one opening, and v, the tM"o others, which are provided 
with register-plates. In front of the furnace is a smoke-flue, w, to carry off the sulphur- 
ous vapours exhaled during the clearing-out of the rubbish and slag; another, x, 
begins over y y, at the top of the tubes ; a wall, z, separates the smoke-flue into 
halves, so that the workmen upon the one side may not be incommoded by the fumes 
of the other. This wall connects at the same time the front flue, w, with the chimney 
t. a a' and b' U are iron and wooden bearer beams and rods for strengthening the 
smoke-flue, c' c' are arches upon both sides of the furnace, which become narrower 
from without inwards, and are closed with well-fitted plates cV d'. They serve in 
particular circumstances to allow the interior to be inspected, and to see if either of 
the liquation-furnaces bo out of order. Each tube is charged with 500 lbs. of anti- 
monial ore, previously warmed ; in a short time the sulphuret of antimony begins to 
flow off. When the liquation ceases, the cinders are raked out by the side openings, 
and the tubes are charged afresh. The luted iron crucibles are allowed to become 
three-fourths full, are then drawn out from the galleries, left to cool, and emptied, 
The ingot weighs about 85 lbs. The average duration of the tube is 3 weeks. This 
plan is proved to be an exceedingly economical one. 

. ILZQUEITRS, XiIQirORXSTE. Names given by the I'rench, and adopted into our 
language, to denote certain aromatic alcoholic cordials, and to the manufactm*er of them. 

Some liqueurs are prepared by infusing the woods, fruits, or flowers, in either water 
or alcohol, and adding thereto sugar and colouring matter. Others are distilled from 
the flavouring agents. 

Many of the liqueurs are of very compound character, as the following recipes will 
show : — 

Martinique Noycau. — Put into a stone jar, 

Preserved guavas and their syrup, or the jelly of that fruit 

Oil of sweet almonds .... 

Sweet almonds, beaten fine . . . 

Bitter „ „ . . . . 

Preserved ginger and its syrup 

Cinnamon and cloves (bruised) of eacli 

Nutmeg and Pimento ,, „ . . 

Jamaica ginger „ 

Candied lemon and citron, of each 

White sugar-candy (powdered) . 

Proof spirit of wine . . . . • 



ilb. 


1 OK. 


lib. 


1 


2 


4 


4 


i 


1 


14 


5 quarts. 



128 LITHIA 

Beat the oil with a little brandy, and mix it with the almonds, when beaten to a 
paste with orange-flower water. Stop up the jar securely, and let it remain in a warm 
room, or in the sun, shaking it often, for a fortnight. Keep it in the jar for twelve or 
fifteen months ; then strain it, and filter repeatedly until it is as clear as spring water. 
Einse phials or half-pint bottles, with any whit© wine, drain them and fill. Cork 
and seal well. In six months it will be fit for use, if required, but will improve 
greatly by age. — Robinson. 

Tears of the Widow of Malabar. — To ten pounds of spirit (pale brandy), add 4 
pounds of white sugar, and 4 pints of water, adding 4 drachms of powdered cinnamon, 
48 grains of cloves, and the same quantity of mace ; colour with caramel. 

Thi Sighs of Love. — Spirit, water, and sugar as above. Perfume with otto of rose.s, 
and slightly colour with cochineal. 

Absinthe. — Take of the tops of wormwood, 4 pounds, root of angelica, calamus 
aromaticus, aniseed, leaves of dittany, of each, 1 oz. ; alcohol, four gallons. 

Macerate these substances during eight days, add a little water, and distil by a 
gentle fire until two gallons are obtained. This is reduced to a proof spirit, and a 
few drops of the oil of aniseed added. See Absinthe. 

These forms exemplify the character of all kinds of liqueurs. They are coloured 
yeUow by the colouring matter of carthamus ; fawn is produced by caramel ; red, by 
cochineal ; violet, by litmus, or archil ; bliie, by the siilphate of indigo ; green, by 
mixing the blue and the yellow together. 

Ratafia is the generic name, in France, of liqwurs compounded with alcohol, 
sugar, and the odoriferous or flavouring principles of vegetables. Bruised cherries 
with their stones are infused in spirit of wine to make the ratafia of Grenoble de 
Teyssere. The liquor being boiled and filtered, is flavoured, when cold, with spirit 
of noyeau, made by distilling water off the bruised bitter kernels of apricots, and 
mixing it with alcohol. Syrup of bay laurel and galango are also added. 

SEiXQVXDAIKEBAR. A balsam obtained from the Liquidambar styracijlica, a 
native of North America. 

XiXQiriS STORAX. The produce of the Liquidambar orientate. 

XiXQUORXCE (Glycyrrhiza glabra; from y\vKvs, sweet, and plCa, a root. The 
root only is employed ; these roots are thick, long, and running deep in the ground. 

Besides the use of liquoric roots in medicine, they are also employed in brewing, 
and are pretty extensively grown for these purposes in some parts of England. Liquo- 
rice requires a rich, deep, dry, sandy soil, which, previous to forming a new planta- 
tion, should be trenched to the depth of about 3 feet and a liberal amount of manure 
regidarly mixed with the earth in trenching. The plants which are procured by 
slipping them from those in old plantations arc, either in February or March, dibbled 
in rows 3 feet apart, and from 18 inches to 2 feet in the row. They require three 
summers' growth before being fit for use, when the roots are obtained by retrenching 
the whole, and they are then stored in sand for their preservation imtil required. — 
Peter Lawson. 

Large quantities of extract of liquorice-root are imported into this country imdcr 
the name of Spanish or Italian juice, according as it comes from one peninsiUa or the 
other. Whilst the Spanish juice is yielded by G. glabra, it is said that the Italian 
liquorice is prepared from G. cchinata. Liquorice juice contains an uncrystallisable 
sugar called Glycyrrhisin or Liquorice Sugar. 

KXROCON'XTfi. A hj'drous arsenate of copper, occurring in sky-blue crystals. 
It was formerly found in some of the Cornish copper-mines. 

XiXTHARCX: (Eng. and Fr. ; Gldtte, Ger.) is the fused yellow protoxide of lead, 
which on cooling passes into a mass consisting of small six-sided plates, of a reddish 
yellow colour and semi-transparent. It generally contains more or less red lead, 
whence the variations of its colour, and carbonic acid, especially when it lias been 
exposed to the air for some time. For its mode of preparation, see Lead, and Silveh. 

XtXTHIA is a simple earthy or alkaline substance, discovered in the minerals 
called petalito and triphane. It is white, very caustic, reddens litmus and red cabbage, 
and saturates acid with great facility. When exposed to the air it attracts humidity 
and carbonic acid. It is more soluble in water than baryta, and has such a strong 
affinity for it as to be obtained only in the state of a hydrate. It forms neutral salts 
with all the acids. It is most remarkabla for its power of acting upon or corroding 
platinum. This earth is now used medicinally. 

The following interesting account of a new source of lithium is from the address of 
Sir Charles Lyell at the Bath meeting of the British Association. After stating that 
Professor Roscoe of Manchester liad detected the chloride of lithium in the Bath 
waters, Sir Charles Lyell proceeds : — 

' While I was pursuing my inquiries respecting the Bath waters, I learned casually 
that a hot spring had been discovered at a great depth in a copper mine, near Eedruth 



fli 



LITHIA 129 

in Cormrall, having about as high a temperature as that of the Batli waters, and of 
which, strange to say, no account has yet been published. It seems that, in the year 
1830, a level was driven from an old shaft, so as to intersect a riclx copper lode at a 
depth of 1,350 feet from the surface. This lode or metalliferous fissure occurred in 
•what was formerly called the United Mines, and which have since been named the 
Clifford Amalgamated Mines. Through the contents of the lode a powerful spring 
of hot water was obsen^ed to rise, which has continued to flow with undiminished 
strength ever since. At my request Mr. Horton Davey, of Eedruth, had the kindness 
to seiltl up to London many gallons of this water, which have been analysed by Pro- 
fessor AVilliam Allen Miller, F.E.S., who finds that the quantity of solid matter is so 
great as to exceed by more than four times the proportion of that yielded by the Bath 
waters. Its composition is also in many respects very different ; for it contains but 
little sulphate of lime, and is almost free from the salts of magnesium. It is rich in 
the chlorides of calcium and sodium, and it contains one of the new metals, CeBsium, 
never before detected in any mineral spring in England ; but its peculiar charac- 
teristic is the extraordinary abundance of lithium, of which a mere trace had been 
found by Professor Iloscoe in the Bath waters ; whereas, in this Cornish hot spring, 
this metal constitutes no less than a twenty-sixth part of the whole of the solid 
contents, which, as before stated, are so voluminous. When Professor Miller exposed 
some of these contents to the test of spectrum analysis, he gave me an opportunity of 
seeing the beautiful bright crimson lino which the lithium produces in the spectrum. 

'Lithium was first nfeide known in 1817 by Arfvedsen, who extracted it from 
petalite ; and it was believed to be extremely rare, until Bunsen and Kirchhoff in 
1860, by means of the spectrum analysis, showed that it was a most widely-difiused 
substance, existing in minute quantities in almost aU mineral waters and in the sea, 
as well as in milk, human blood, and the ashes of some plants. It has already been 
used in medicine, and we may therefore hope that now that it is obtainable in large 
quantities, and at a much cheaper rate than before the Huel Clifford hot spring was 
analysed, it may become of high value. According to a rough eScimate, which has 
been sent to me by Mr. Davey, the Huel Clifford spring yields no less thon 250 gallons 
per minute, which is almost equal to the discharge of the King's Bath, or chief spring 
of this city. As to the gases emitted, they are the same as those of the Bath water, 
namely, carbonic acid, oxygen, and nitrogen.' 

Mr. Warington Smyth, who had already -sasited the Huel Clifford lode in 1855, 
re-examined it shortly before this meeting, chiefly with the view of replying to several 
queries which Sir Charles Lyell put to him ; and, in spite of the stifling heat, ascer- 
tained the geological structure of the lode, and the exact temperature of the water. 
This last lie found to be 122° Falir. at the depth of 1,350 feet ; but he scarcely doubts 
that the thermometer would stand two or three degrees higher at a distance of 200 
feet to the eastward, where the water is known to gush iip more freely. The Huel 
Clifford lode is a fissure varying in width from 6 to 12 feet, one wall consisting of 
elvan or porphyritic granite, and the other of killas or clay-slate. Along the line of 
the rent, which runs east and west, there has been a slight throw or shift of the 
rocks. The vein-stuff is chiefly formed of cellular pyrites of copper and iron, the 
porous nature of which allows the hot water to percolate freely through it. It seems, 
however, that in the continuation upwards of the same fissure, little or no metal- 
liferous ore was deposited, but, in its place, quartz and other impermeable substances, 
which obstructed the course of the hot spring so as to prevent its flowing out on the 
surface of the country. 

Huel Clifford Amalgamated Mine, having ceased to pay the adventurers,^ was 
stopped working in 1872. It is now (1874) full of water, and in all probability it 
will never again be opened. 

A similar hot spring has been discovered in Huel Seton Mine near Camborne, 
Cornwall. The waters issue, at the rate of 50 gallons per minute, from the eastern 
fore-breast of the 160-fathom level, at a temperature of 92° Fahr._ This water has 
been analysed with the greatest care by Mr. John Arthur Phillips, and found to 
contain a larger quantity of lithium than the Huel Clifford spring. Mr. J. A. 
Phillips communicated the results of his examination to the Koyal Society; from 
which communication the following analysis is extracted : — 

Grains per gallon 
Calcium carbonate ...... 7"03 



Ferrous carbonate . 
Manganous carbonate 
Calcium sulphate . 
Oupric chloride 
Calciam chloride 



Carried forward 
Vol. m. K 



0-33 

trace 

2-11 

minute trace 

475-54 

485-08 



130 



LITHOGRAPHIC PRESS 











C 


i rains per gallon 


Brought forward 


48506 


Magnesium cUorido 






11-80 


Aluminum chloride . 








6309 


Potassium chloride 










6-30 


Sodium chloride 










. 407-47 


IMhium chloride 










33-74 


Potassium bromide 










trace 


Potassium silicate 










603 


Nitric acid 










trace 


Ammonia 










trace 



Total. 



1012-49 



XXTRrUM is the metallic basis of lithia ; the latter substance consists of 1 00 of 
metal and 123 of oxygen. Lithium is the lightest kno-wn solid, its specific gravity 
being 0-59. Its atomic -weight (7) is lower than that of any other element, excepting 
hydrogen. Lithium is not of any use in the arts. See Lithia, 
ZiXTHOFRiVCTZilTa. See Explosive Agents. 

XiZTHOCS&ii.PHIC PRESS. The lithographic press in common use has long 
been regarded as a very inadequate machine. The amount of manual power required 
to work it, and tlie slow speed at which, under the most favourable circumstances, 
copies can be produced, disables lithography in its competition with letter-press. A 
career of brilliant success has attended the efforts of scientific men towards speed and 

success in this latter branch of 
1395 the art; and the present printing- 

machines surpass the hand-press 
somewhat in the same ratio as 
does our express-speed the jog- 
trot of our forefathers. The 
engravings annexed, jigs. 1395, 
1396, will serve to illustrate 
Messrs. Napier and Sons' im- 
provements upon the lithographic 
press. The machine is arranged 
to be driven by steam-power ; has 
belts, 'crossed' and 'open,' sup- 
posed to be in connection with 
the engine, and to rank upon the 
pulleys. A, B, c. The crank- 
pulley, B, is fixed on the scrcw- 
spindle, D, and the other two work 
loose, or 'dead,' on tlie same 
spindle ; these bands, -with their striking-forks, a, are arranged so as to be brought 
alternately upon the fixed pulley, b, and thus a reversing-motion is given to the 





screw. The nut in which tlie screw works is fixed to a cross-piece, e, which braces 
the side-frames, f f, together at bottom, while the bar, g, performs the same oflice at 
top ; the scrapor-box, u, is sustained between these frames at bearings, i, and is so 
fitted as to work freely. To support the frames and scraper-box independent of the 
screw and maint-.in them in position, allowing freedom of action, tlie rollers, J J, 
are provided, which run in the planed recesses, k, along the top of the main stan- 
dards, 1. ■ 



LITHOGRAPHY 131 

The machine is shown -with its tympan down, ready for starting ; this is eflFected by 
pressing lightly upon the lever, b, which raises a catch, and allows the weight, h, to 
descend in the direction of its present inclination, and act upon the connections with 
the striking-forks, so as to bring one of the bands upon the fast pulley, b, and make 
the scraper and its frames move forward. The return is caused by the frame, f, 
coming in contact with a stop, c, which, yielding, acts upon the striking-forks by its 
bar, d, upon which it may be adjusted to give the travel required. On the return 
being accomplished, the machine stops itself by a striking action against stop e, the 
catch, b, falling in to prevent the weight descending to its full throw, and thus retain- 
ing the two bands upon the two dead pulleys, a, c, while the machine is prepared for 
another impression. 

The action of the scraper is peculiar and novel : it is balanced so that its tendency 
is to remain slightly raised, but in its forward movement, and at the point desired, it 
is made to descend by a stop fixed upon the top of the main standard, i, into a posi- 
tion vertical, or nearly so, in which position it is retained by its own onward progress 
against strong abirtmcnts prcgecting from the frames, f ; on the return it resumes its 
raised position, and passes back without impediment. The scraper may be adjxistfid 
to give the pressure desired, or the table on which the stone is placed regulated by 
screws. 

The advantages embodied in this machine will be at once recognised by those inte- 
rested. The pulling down of the scraper, and the labour and inconvenience attendant 
upon that operation, are entirely superseded by the simple and effectual valve-like 
movement just explained, which forms the groundwork of this combination, although 
it will alike apply to the press-work by hand, and is the most striking novelty in tho 
machine. 

IiITHOCRAPRir. Though this subject belongs rather to the arts of taste and 
design than to productive manufactures, its chemical principles fall within the pro- 
vince of this Dictionary. 

The term lithography is derived from xiQos, a stone, and ypa<p'fi, writing, and desig- 
nates tho art of throwing off impressions upon paper of figures and writing previously 
traced upon stone. The processes of this art are founded — 

1. Upon the adhesion to a grained or smoothly-polished limestone of an encaustic 
fat which forms the lines or traces. 

2. Upon tho power acquired by the parts penetrated by this encaustic of attract- 
ing to themselves, and becoming covered with, a printer's ink having linseed-oil for 
its basis. 

3. Upon the interposition of a film of water, which prevents the adhesion of the ink 
in all the parts of the surface of the stone not impregnated with the encaustic. 

4. Lastly, upon a pressure applied to the stone, such as to transfer to paper the 
greater part of the ink which covers the greasy tracings or drawings of the encaustic. 

The lithographic stones of the best quality are still procured from the quarry of 
Solenhofen, a village at no great distance from Munich, where this mode of printing 
had its birth. They resemble in their aspect the yellowish-white lias of Bath, but 
their geological place is much higher than the lias. Abundant quarries of these fine- 
grained limestones occur in the county of Pappenheim, along the banks of the Danube, 
presenting slabs of every required degree of thickness, parted by regular seams, and 
ready for removal with very little violence. The good quality of a lithographic stone 
is generally denoted by the following characters : its hue is of a yellowish-grey, and 
uniform throughout ; it is free from veins, fibres, and spots ; a steel point makes an 
impression on it with difficulty ; and the splinters broken off from it by the hammer 
display a conchoidai fracture. 

The Munich stones are retailed on tho spot in slabs or layers of equal thickness ; 
they are quarried with the aid of a saw, so as to sacrifice as little as possible of the 
irregular edges of the rectangular tables or plates. One of the broad faces is then 
dressed, and coarsely smoothed. The thickness of these stones is nearly proportional 
to their other dimensions ; and varies from 1§ inch to 3 inches. 

In each lithographic establishment the stones receive their finishing, dressing, and 
polishing ; which are performed like the grinding and polishing of mirror-plate. The 
work is done by hand, by rubbing circularly a moveable slab over another in a hori- 
zontal position, with fine-sifted sand and water interposed between the two. The 
style of wor/c tliat tlie stone is intended to produce determines the kind of polish 
that it should get. For crayon-drawing the stone should be merely grained more or 
less fi7ie according to the fancy of the- draughtsman. The higher the finish of the 
surface the softer are the drawings ; but the printing process becomes sooner pasty, 
and a smaller number of impressions can be taken. Works in ink require the stone 
to be more softened down, and finally polished with pumice and a little water. The 
stones thus prepared are packed for use with white paper interposed between their faces. 

x2 



L'^2 LITHOGRAPHY 

Zinc plates are sometimes used in lieu of stones ; they are prepared by graining the 
surface with fine sand, rubbed over by means of a small piece of the metal. Zinc 
takes a finer surface than stone, and yields more delicate impressions ; but great care 
is necessary in keeping it dry, so that it does not corrode ; this is almost the only 
objection to its more general use, for it is far more convenient to handle and move 
about than heavy stones. 

Lithographic Crayons. — Fine lithographic prints cannot be obtained unless the 
crayons possess every requisite quality. The ingredients composing them ought to be 
of such a nature as to adhere strongly to the stone, both after the drawing has imder- 
gone the preparation of the acid, and during the press-work. They should be hard 
enough to admit of a fine point, and trace delicate lines without risk of breaking. 
The following composition has been successfully employed for crayons by MM. Bernard 
and Delarue, at Paris : — 

Parts 
Pure wax (first quality) ...... 4 

Dry white tallow soap ...... 2 

White tallow 2 

Gum lac ......... 2 

Lamp-black, enough to give a dark tint . . .1 
Occasionally copal varish 1 

Tho wax should be melted over a gentle fire, and the lac, broken to bits, is then 
added by degrees, stirring all the while with a spatula : the soap is next introduced 
in fine shavings ; and when the mixture of these substances is very intimately accom- 
plished, the copal varnish, incorporated with the lamp-black, is poured in. The heat 
and agitation are continued until the paste has acquired a suitable consistence ; which 
may be recognised by taking out a little of it, letting it cool on a plate, and trying its 
quality with a penknife. This composition, on being cut, should aiFord brittle slices. 
The boiling may be quickened by setting the rising vapours on fire, which increases 
the temperature, and renders the exhalations less offensive. When ready it is to be 
poured into a brass mould, made of two semi-cylinders joined together by clasps or 
rings, forming between them a cylindric tube of the crayon size. The monld should 
bo previously rubbed with a greasy cloth. 

The soap and tallow are to be put into a small goblet and covered up. When the 
whole is thoroughly fused by heat, and no clots remain, the black is gradually 
sprinkled in with careful stirring. 
Lithographic ink is prepared nearly on the same principle : — 

Parts 

Wax 16 

Tallow 6 

Hard tallow soap 6 

Shell-lac 12 

Mastic in tears . 8 

Venice turpentine ,1 

Lamp-black ........ 4 

The mastic and lac, previously ground together, are to be carefully heated in the 
turpentine ; the wax and tallow must be added after they are taken off the fire, and 
when their solution is effected, the soap-shavings are to be thrown in. Lastly, the 
lamp-black is to be well intermixed. Whenever the union is accomplished by heat, 
the operation is finished ; the liquor is left to cool a little, then poured out on tables, 
and, when cold, cut into square rods. 

Lithographic ink of good quality ought to be susceptible of forming an emulsion so 
attenuated that it may appear to be dissolved when rubbed upon a hard body in dis- 
tilled or river water. It should flow in the pen, but not spread on the stone ; capable 
of forming delicate traces, and very black, to show its delineations. The most essen- 
tial quality of the ink is to sink well into the stone, so as to reproduce the most 
delicate outlines of the drawing, and to afford numerous impressions. It must, 
therefore, be able to resist the acid with which the stone is moistened in tho pre- 
paration, without letting any of its greasy matter escape. 

M. de Lasteyrie states that, after having tried a great many combinations, he gives 
the preference to tlie following : — 

Parts 

Tallow soap, dried 30 

Mastic in tears 80 

White soda of commerce ,30 

Shell-lac ISA 

Lamp-black 12 



LITHOGRAPHY I33 

The soap is first put into the goblet, and melted over the fire ; the lac being added, 
it fuses immediately ; the soda is then introduced, and next the mastic, stirring all 
the while with a spatula. A brisk fire is applied till all these materials are melted 
completely, when the whole is poured out into the mould. 

The inks now prescribed may be employed, either with the pen and the hair-pencil 
for writings, black-lead drawings, aqua tinta, mixed drawings, those which represent 
engraving on wood (woodcuts), &c. When the ink is to be used it is to be rubbed 
do^n with water, in the manner of China ink, till the shade be of the requisite depth. 
The temperature of the place ought to be from 84° to 90° Fahr., or the saucer in 
which the ink-stick is rubbed should bo set in a heated plate, Ko more ink should 
be dissolved than is to be used at the time, for it rarely keeps in the liquid state for 
24 hours ; and it should be covered or corked up. 

Autographic Paper. — Autography, or the operation by which a writing or a drawing 
is transferred from paper to stone, presents not merely a means of abridging labour, 
but also that of reverting the writings or drawings into the direction in which they 
were traced, whilst, if executed directly upon the stone, the impression given by it is 
jMverted. Hence, a writing upon stone must be inverted from right to left to obtain 
direct impressions. But the art of writing thus is tedious and difficult to acquire ; 
while, by means of the autographic paper and the transfer, proofs are obtained in the 
same direction with the writing and drawing. 

Autographic Ink. — It must bo fatter and softer than that applied directly to the 
stone, so that, though dry upon the paper, it may still preserve sufficient viscidity to 
adhere to the stone by mere pressure. 
To compose this ink we take — 

Parts 
White soap ....,,,. 100 
White wax, of the best quality . . . .100 
Mutton-suet ........ 30 

Shell-lac 50 

Mastic 50 

Lamp-black 30 or 35 

These materials are to be melted as above described for the lithographic ink. 

Lit/iographic Ink and Paper, — The following recipes have been much com- 
mended : — 

Virgin or white wax ..... 8 parts 

White soap . . . . . . 2 „ 

Shell-lac 2 „ 

Lamp-black .3 table-spoonfuls. 

Preparation. — The wax and soap are to be melted together, and before they become 
so hot as to take fire, the lamp-black is to be well stirred in with a spatula, and then 
the mixture should be allowed to burn for 30 seconds; the flame being extinguished, 
the lac is added by degrees, carefully stirring all the time ; the vessel is to be put 
upon the fire once more in order to complete the combination, and till the materials 
are either kindled or nearly so. After the flame is extinguished, the ink must be 
suffered to cool a little, and then put into the moulds. 

With the ink-crayons thus made, lines may be drawn as fine as with the point of 
the graver, and as full as can be desired, without risk of its spreading in the 
carriage. Its traces will remain unchanged on paper for years before being trans- 
ferred. 

Some may think it strange that there is no suet in the above composition, but it has 
been found that ink containing it is only good when used soon after it is made, and 
when immediately transferred to the stone, while traces drawn on paper with the suet 
ink become defective after 4 or 5 days. 

Lithographic Paper. — Lay on the paper 3 successive coats of sheep's-foot jelly, 1 
layer of white starch, 1 layer of gamboge. 

The first layer is applied with a sponge dipped in the solution of the hot jelly, 
very equally over the whole surface, but thin ; and if the leaf be stretched upon a 
cord, the gelatine will be more uniform. The next two coats are to be laid on until 
each is dry. The layer of starch is then to be applied with a sponge, and it will 
also be very thin and equal. The coat of gamboge is lastly to bo applied in the 
same way. When the paper is dry it must bo smoothed by passing it through the 
lithographic press ; and the more polished it is, the better does it take on the ink in 
fine lines. 

Transfer. — When the paper is moistened, the transfer of the ink from the gamboge 
is perfect and infallible. The starch separates from the gelatine, and if, after taking 



134 LITHOGRAPHY 

the paper off the stono, wo place it on a white slab of stone, and pour hot water over 
it, it will resume its primitive state. 

The coat of gamboge ought to be laid on the same day it is dissolved, as by keeping 
it becomes of an oily nature ; in this state it does not obstruct the transfer, but it 
gives a gloss to the paper which renders the drawing or tracing more difficult, espe- 
cially to persons little accustomed to lithography. 

The starch paste can be employed only when cold, the day after it is made, and 
after having the skin removed from its surface. 

A leaf of such lithographic paper may be made in two minutes. 

In transferring a writing, an ink drawing, or a lithographic crayon, even the im- 
pression of a copper-plate, to the stone, it is necessary, (1) that the impressions bo 
made upon a thin and slender body, like common paper ; (2) that they may bo de- 
tached and fixed totally on the stone by means of pressure ; but as the ink of a draw- 
ing sinks to a certain depth in paper, and adheres rather strongly, it would be 
difficult to detach all its parts, wei-e there not previously put between the paper and 
the traces a body capable of being separated from the paper, and of losing its ad- 
hesion to it by means of the water with which it is damped. In order to produce this 
effect, the paper gets a certain preparation, which consists in coating it over with a 
kind of paste ready to receive every delineation without suffering it to penetrate into 
the paper. There are different modes of communicating tliis property to paper. 

Besides the above, the following may be tried. Take an unsized paper, rather 
strong, and cover it with a varnish composed of — Starch, 120 parts ; gum arable, 
40 parts ; alum, 20 parts. 

A paste of moderate consistence must be made with the starch and some water, 
with the aid of heat, into which the gum and alum are to bo thrown, each previously 
dissolved in separate vessels. When the whole is well mixed, it is to bo applied, still 
hot, on the leaves of paper, with a flat smooth brush. A tint of yellow colour may 
bo given to tlio varnish with a decoction of the borries of Avignon, commonly called 
French berries by our dyers. The paper is to be dried, and smoothed by passing 
under the scraper of the lithographic press. 

Steel pens are employed for writing and drawing with ink on the lithographic 
stones ; in many establishments a sable brush is more frequently used. 

Engraving on stone, for maps, geometrical drawings of evory kind, patent inven- 
tions, machinery, &c., is performed with a diamond point as clearly and distinctly as 
if executed on copper or steel plates ; to print these engraved stones, the ink should 
be laid on with a dabber, not a roller. Another method is by preparing the surface 
of the stone with a thin covering, or etching ground, of gum and black, upon which 
the design is traced or engraved with an etching point;- it then appears in white lines 
upon a black surface. In this state the stone is taken to the printer, who applies ink 
to the engraved part, and washing off the gum, the drawing appears in black lines 
upon tho white surface of the stone, and after being submitted to the process of 
fixing, described below, is ready for printing. 

Litlwtint, a process of drawing upon stone was adopted, first, by Mr. J. D. Harding, 
a few years back, and since by one or two other artists ; several works were at 
the time executed by this method, which consists in painting the subject with a 
camel's-hair pencil, dipped in a preparation of liquid lithogi-aphic chalk, using tlie 
latter as if it were an ordinary colour, or Indian ink, sepia, &c. The results of this 
process were, however, so uncertain in printing, that it has been almost, if not en- 
tirely, abandoned. 

The process of printing a subject executed in lithography is as follows : — Tho 
drawing is first executed by the artist on tho stone in as perfect and finished a 
manner as if done on paper or cardboard : the stone is then washed over with nitric 
acid, diluted with gum, which neutralises the alkali, or soap, contained in the chalk, 
fixes the drawing, and cleanses tho stono at tho same time : this is technically called 
etching. The acid is then washed off with cold water, and any particles of tho 
crayon or other substances which may have adhered to the surface are removed by 
the application of a sponge dipped in spirits of turpentine : the stono is now ready 
for printing: it is slightly wetted, chained with printing-ink by means of a roller, 
the sheet of paper, which is to receive the impression, is laid on it in a damp state, 
and the whole is passed through the press. 

Chromolithography, or printing in colours from stones (xpa'juo, colour), is a com- 
paratively recent introduction ; but has been brought to such perfection, that works 
of art of the highest pictorial excellence are sometimes so closely imitated, as to 
deceive very competent judges. A portrait of Shakspearo, for example, executed 
in chromolithography by Mr. Vincent Erooks, of London, from an old oil painting, 
is so marvellous a copy of tho original as almost to dofy detection. Chromolitho- 
graphy, as a beautiful medium of illustration, is now in very general use : the process 



LLAMA 185 

may be thus described, A drawing of the subject, in outline, on transfer tracing- 
paper, is made in the ordinary way : when transferred to a stone, this drawing is 
called the kei/stone, and it serves as a guide to all the others, for it must be transferred 
to as many different stones as there are colours in the subject ; as many as thirty 
stones have been used in the production of one coloured print. The first etone 
required, generally for flat, local tints, is covered with lithographic ink where the 
parts should be of solid colour: the different gradations are produced by rub- 
bing the stone with rubbing-stuff, or tint-ink, made of soap, shell-lac, &c. &c., and 
with a painted lithographic chalk where necessary ; the stone is then washed over with 
nitric acid, and goes through the entire process described above. A roller charged 
with lithographic printing-ink is then passed over it to ascertain if the drawing 
comes as desired ; and the ink is immediately afterwards washed off with turpentine : 
if satisfactory, this stone is ready for printing, and is worked off in the requisite 
colour ; the next stone undergoes the same process for another colour, and so with 
the rest, till the work is complete : it will of course, be understood, that before any 
single impression is finished, it will have to pass through as many separate printings 
as there are drawings on stones. The colours used in printing are ground up with 
burnt linseed-oil, termed varnish. 

XiXTBOMARGX:. An iron ochre ; essentially a silicate of alumina, with 6 to 7 
per cent, of oxide of iron, in many respects resembling China clay or kaolin. It is 
found abundantly in co. Antrim. See Ihon. 

UTBSTTS (Tournesol, Fr. ; Lackmus, Ger.) is prepared in Holland from the spe- 
cies of lichen called Lecanora tartarea, and Eoccella tinctoria. The ground lichens are 
first treated with urine containing a little potash, and allowed to ferment for several 
weeks, whereby they produce a purple-red ; the coloured liquor, treated with quick- 
lime and some more urine, is set again to ferment during two or three weeks, then 
it is mixed with chalk or gypsum into a paste, which is formed into small cubical 
pieces by being pressed into brass moulds, and dried in the shade. Litmus has a 
violet-blue colour, is easy to pulverise, is partially soluble in water and dilute alcohol, 
leaving a residuum consisting of carbonate of lime, of clay, silica, gypsum, and oxide 
of iron combined with the dye. The colour of litmus is not altered by alkalis, but is 
reddened by acids ; and is therefore used in chemistry as a delicate test of acidity, 
either in the state of solution or of unsized paper stained with it. 

Litmus is used in Holland to give a peculiar tint to certain kinds of Dutch 



The preparation of litmus has been described by Ferber, Moreloz, and others. 

Litmus is imported from Holland, in tlie form of small, rectangular, light, and 
friable cakes of an indigo blue colour. Examined by the microscope, we find sporules 
and portions of the epidermis and mesothallus of some species of lichen, moss, leaves, 
sand, &c. The odour of the cakes is that of indigo and violets. The A'iolet odour 
is acquired while the mixture is undergoing fermentation, and is common to all the 
tinctorial lichens. It has led some writers into the error of supposing that the 
litmus-makers use Florentine orris in the manufacture of litmus. The indigo colour 
depends on the presence of indigo in the litmus cakes. See Lichex. 

XiITIVEUS-PAPEB. Paper coloured with an infusion of litmus, used as a testfor 
the presence of acids. 

Faraday, in his ' Chemical Manipulation,' recommended an infusion of one ounce of 
litmus, and half a pint of hot water. Bibulous paper is saturated with this. Prof. 
Graham preferred good letter-paper to the unsized paper. In order to obtain very 
delicate test-paper, the alkali in the litmus must be almost neutralised by a minute 
portion of acid. 

ZiITTORAXi, a geological term. Belonging to the sea-shore. 

ZiZVX-BIBI. Another name for Divi-divi. See Leatheb. 

XiZXIVIATIOIO' {Lessivage, Fr. ; Auslaugen, Ger.) signifies the abstraction by 
water of the soluble alkaline or saline matters present in any earthy admixture ; as 
from that of quicklime and potashes to make potash-lye, from that of effloresced alum 
schist to make aluminous liquors, &c. 

ItXiAZMCA. A genus of animals belonging to the class Mammalia, order Ungulata, 
family Bovida, and tribe Camelina. They are the camels of South America, to 
which country they are confined. In the wild state the llamas keep together in herds 
of from one to two hundred. There are two distinct species found wild in South 
America, inhabiting the Peruvian Alps, the Pampas, and the mountains of Chili. 
These animals are iised as beasts of burthen ; cords and sacks, as well as stuffs for 
ponchos, &c.,are fabricated from their wool ; and their bones are converted into instru- 
ments for weaving the same. The Alpaca, which is a variety of the llama, has 
given its name to a cloth manufactured from its hair ; and this has become so valuable, 
that attempts have been made to naturalise the animal in E\irope. The success, 



136 LLAMA 

however, -which has attended these attempts has not been great. The following note 
from the ' Penny Cycloptedia,' article ' Llama,' is important : — 

' In reference to the wool, we may here state that a herd of thirty-six, including the 
kinds called llamas, alpacas, and vicunas or vigonias, were sent from Lima (Peru) 
and Concepcion (Chili) to Buenos Ayres by journeys of two or throe leagues. To 
those who may be inclined to import these animals, it may be necessary to state that 
they were fed during the journey with potatoes, maize, and hay. As soon, however, 
as the potatoes were exhausted, constipation came on so obstinately, that medical 
relief was required. They were shipped as a present from Godoy, the Prince of 
Peace, to the Empress Josephine, but only eleven arrived at Cadiz in 1808, just as 
Godoy fell into disgrace. Here two died, and the rest were near being thrown into 
the sea by the infuriated rabble, in their detestation of the late minister and minion. 
The poor llamas were however saved from the tender mercies of the populace by the 
governor of Cadiz, and were consigned to Don Francisco de Theran of Andalusia, 
who had a fine menagerie at San Lucar de Earrameda. When the French occupied 
the province, Marshal Soult protected them; and M. Bury St. Vincent, who was 
with the army, studied their habits, and executed drawings of them, which were lost 
at the battle of Vittoria. M. Bury paid great attention to their wool, and some from 
each kind was sent to the Academy of Sciences at Paris. From the report of the 
French naturalist and the philosophical Spaniard, it woiild appear that the fleece of 
the alpa-vigonia (prodiiced by a cross between a \ngonia and an alpaca) has much 
greater length than any other variety, and is six times heavier.' 

The following is from James's ' History of the Worsted Manufacture in England,' 
p. 652 :— 

To commence with the earliest mention of the alpaca, we must recur to so early a 
period as the year 1525, when Pizarro and his ferocious companions invaded Peru. 
It is related by the Spanish historians, that they found there four varieties of sheep : 
two, the guanaco and the vicuna, in a wild state, ranging the mountainous tracts 
of South America ; and the others, the llama, and the pacos, or alpaca, domesti- 
cated. The former of these domestic animals, partaking somewhat of the nature and 
size of the Arabian camel, was in like manner employed as a beast of burthen. 
Though in many features similar to the llama, the alpacii had several clear marks 
of distinction, and among others was less, and the fleece much longer and softer in 
fibre. In the sixteenth century, and even from the remotest times, the Peruvians 
being comparatively (to the other tribes of the great continent of America) a civilised 
people, and well acquainted with the arts of spinning and weaving, fabricated from 
alpaca-wool textures of much delicacy and beauty, which were highly prized as 
articles of dress. And that the use of them had prevailed for centuries is demonstrated 
by the opening of several very ancient tombs of the Peruvians, in which the dead 
had been en^vrapped in stuffs made from the fleece of the alpaca. 

In general, the alpaca ranges about four feet in height, the size of a full-grown 
deer, and, like it, is of graceful appearance. Its fleece is superior to the sheep in 
length and softness, averaging six inches (the length of the staple of the alpaca 
fleece is on an average much less than formerly, probably from being shorn oftener), 
and sometimes it has been procured even of an extraordinary length ; a specimen 
shown at the Great Exhibition, by Messrs. Walter Milligan and Son, reaching to 
forty-two inches in length. The fleeces, when annually shorn, range from five to six 
pounds. Contrary to experience in other descriptions of wool, the fibre of the 
alpaca fleece acquires strength without coarseness; besides, each filament appears 
straiglit, well-formed, and free from crispness, and the quality is more uniform 
throughout the fleece. There is also a transparency, a glittering brightness upon 
the surface, giving it the glossiness of silk, which is enhanced on its passing through 
the dye-vat. It is also distinguished by softness and elasticity, essential properties 
in the manufacture of fine goods, being exempt from spiral, curly, and shaggy defects ; 
and it spins, when treated properly according to the present improved method, easily, 
and yields an even, strong, and true thread. With all these remarkable qualities, it 
was long before the value of alpaca wool was known or appreciated in this country. 

Becurring to the application of tlie alpaca fleece to manufacturing purposes in 
England, it was long delayed, though so early as the year 1807, the British troops 
returning from the attack of Buenos Ayres brought with them a few bags of this wool, 
which were submitted for inspection in London ; but, observes Walton, in his work 
on alpaca, ' owing to the difficulty of spinning it, or the prejudice of our manufac- 
turers, it did not then come into notice,' and for more than twenty years the attempt 
does not seem to have been renewed ; thus depriving, for that period, the country of 
the advantage derived from this notable manufacture. 

According to the best authorities, the first person in England who introduced a 
marketable fabric made from this material was Mr. Benjamin Oucram, a scientific 



LLAMA 137 

manufacturer of Greetland, near Halifax, who, about tho year 1830, Burmounted, 
•with much difficulty, tho obstacles encountered in spinning the wool, and eventually 
produced an article which sold at high prices for ladies' carriage-shawls and cloakings • 
but their value arose more from being rare and curious articles than from intrinsic 
worth. 

These were, it is well established, quite destitute of the peculiar gloss and beauty 
whicli distinguish the alpaca lustres and fabrics of later times, and after a short period 
the manufacture was abandoned. 

About the same time as Mr. Outram was weaving goods from alpaca, the wool 
attracted the notice of the Bradford spinners. Messrs. Wood and Walker spun it to 
some extent for camlet warps used in the Norwich trade. Owing to the cheapness of 
alpaca wool during tho first years of its consumption in England, it was occasionally 
employed instead of English hog wool for preparing lasting and camblet warps, being 
spun to about No. 48. 

The earliest manufacture of the alpaca-wool into goods at Bradford appears to 
have occurred under these circumstances. In the commencement of 1832 some 
gentlemen, connected with the trade to tho west coast of South America, were on a 
visit at the house of J. Garnett, Esq., of Clithero, and, on their alluding to the diffi- 
culty of meeting with suitable returns for goods forwarded to that part of the world, 
he suggested to them the transmission of alpaca -wool, and offered, if they would send 
him a few pounds weight to ascertivin its value for manufacturing purposes. In a few 
months he received some samples of alpaca-wool, wliich, on October 2, 1832, he for- 
warded to Messrs. Horsfall of Bradford, with a request that they would test its value. 
Accordingly, they fabricated from this wool a piece resembling hea\-y camblet, which 
they showed to the Leeds merchants ; but the piece, not developing any peculiar 
qualities of alpaca, did not please, so that Messrs. Horsfall were not encouraged to 
proceed further with experiments. However, in the same year Messrs. Hoyam, Hall, 
and Co., spirited merchants of Liverpool, perceiving the value of the alpaca-wool, 
directed their agents in Peru to purchase and ship over all the parcels of alpaca-wool 
they coiild meet with ; some of which, being sent to the Bradford district, was spun 
and manufactured by several parties there. The pieces chiefly fabricated from alpaca 
in the neighbourhood of Bradford were figures made with worsted warp and alpaca 
weft, the figxires being raised and lustrous, like union damasks. These goods were in 
vogue only for a limited time, for neither the figured nor plain ones seem to have suited 
the public taste. 

Until the introduction of cotton warps into the worsted trade it may safely be 
averred that the alpaca manufacture had not been developed, and would never have 
made much progress without being combined with cotton or silk warp. To Sir 
Titus Salt, of Bradford, must undoubtedly be awarded the high praise of finally 
overcoming the difficulties of preparing and spinning the alpaca-wool so as to produce 
an even and true thread ; and, by combining it with cotton warps, which had then 
(1836) been imported into the trade at Bradford, improved the manufacture so as to 
make it one of the staple industries of the kingdom. He has, by an admirable adap- 
tation of machinery, been enabled to work up the material with the ease of ordinary 
wool, and tlius present beautiful alpaca-stuffs at a reasonable rate. Every previous 
attempt had been made, as far as can bo ascertained, with worsted warps, with which 
the alpaca did not easily assort. 

About the year 1836 the alpaca trade had become established, and has since risen 
to much importance. After this period the manufacture rapidly extended. The great 
mercantile house of A. and S. Henry took very large quantities of alpaca-stuffs, wliich 
began to be made in an endless variety of goods suited both for male and female 
dress, including scarfs, handkerchiefs, and cravats, plain and figured goods, both with 
silk and cotton warp, for ladies' dresses, dyed alpaca checks of beautiful texture, and 
a variety of grograms, codringtons, silk-striped, checked, and figured alpacas and 
alpaca linings. The demand for these various alpaca fabrics during the period between 
1841 and 1846 remained uniform and steady. 

At the commencement of the manufacture of alpaca goods with cotton warps (silk 
was not used) the weft was spun from fine qualities of the wool into low numbers, 
and the pieces were made much richer and heavier than has been the case more 
recently, the demand having altered in favour of lighter and less costly cloth. 

Most of the alpaca-wool brought into the United Kingdom is unshipped at Liver- 
pool, but a small portion is also carried to London. At these two ports, it may be 
asserted, the whole imported into this country is landed. It arrives in small bales, 
called ballots, weighing about 70 lbs., and is generally in an impure state, ^vith diffe- 
rent qualities mixed. Like the fleece of the sheep, that of the alpaca is composed of 
different qualities, so that the portion growing on tho hind-quarters is of an inferior 
description. The wool is .sorted into about eight different qualities^ each fitted for a 



138 



LOAD 



particular class of goods. Owing to the dirty state of the fleeces, and the peculiar 
nature of the dusty particles arising during the progress of sorting, the operation is 
an unhealthy one, unless great care be tiken by ventilation to counteract this baneful 
ciFcct. After being sorted, it is at Saltaire washed and combed by machinerj'. Until 
of late years it was combed wholly by hand, and the combs used for this purpose 
were of a deeper pitch than those usually adopted for preparing sheep's wool, that 
is, those combs liad a larger number of teeth than ordinary. The next process is to 
draw the sliver, which is perfected by an improved gill-machino, especially adapted 
for this material. And here, in combing and preparing the alpaca-wool, so as to 
make a clean, even, and glossy thread, lay the grand difficulty in the way of applying 
the alpaca-fibre to the worsted manufactiire, and which was so successfully surmounted 
by Sir Titus Salt. 

The main articles now manufactured from alpaca-wool consists of alpaca lustres, 
which are dyed, and alpaca mixtures, which are undyed ; and both are made of cotton 
or silk warp. These phiin goods may, from their extensive and steady use, be termed 
stock-articles. Largo quantities of fancy alpacas are made, but they are rapidly vary- 
ing, and are distinguished by innumerable names. The material is at present much 
shorter in staple than formerly, owing to the alpaca being shorn oftener, so that it is 
now commonly from 5 to 8 inches in length. Nearly all the alpaca-wool consumed in 
England is worked up in the Bradford district. 

Dating from the year 1834, when the importation of alpaca-wool sprung up as a 
permanent branch of commerce, the demand in this country has, on the whole, been 
a growing one. Mr. Walton, in his work on the alpaca, exhibits the quantities im- 
ported until the year 1843, when, the tariff law having come into operation, the 
returns began to be more correctly framed, and the alpaca-wool was then classed by 
itself. 

Our imports were in 1843, 1,458,032 lbs. ; in 1853, 2,148,267 lbs. These large 
quantities wore yet increased in 1863, when we imported from Peru, 2,772,836 lbs. ; 
from New Granada, 622,889 lbs. ; and 6,857 lbs. from other parts ; and the Imports 
of llama, alpaca, and vicuna during the three years ending 1872 were as follows : — 



From Germany 
„ Peru . 
„ Chill . 
„ Other countries • 

Total . 


1870 


1871 


1872 1 


lbs. 

3,324,454 

563,782 

300 


Value 

£388,969 

66,996 

14 


lbs. 

3,n83",328 

665,855 

2,067 


Value 

£402,590 

80,861 

282 


lbs. 

184,144 

3,522,314 

124,219 

48,062 


Value 
£34,450 
460,532 

20,417 
6,433 


3,888,536 


454,979 


3,651,250 


483,733 


8,878,739 


521,839 



In the interval, the price had, with the demand, progressively increased : the price 
in 1834 only amounted to about %^d. per pound; next year it reached nearly \0d.; 
the year after. Is. ; in 1838, to upwards of Is. ^\d, ; and in 1839 to Is. 4id. 

During the last ten years the prices have fluctuated considerably. In 1844, Is. 8cf. 
per pound was quoted as the price of the white fleece, and 2s. for the black one. In 
the year 1856, according to the price-currents, the average rates were thus quoted : — 



Alpaca, best white 

„ brown and black 
Vicuna, best dark coloured 
Llama .... 



s. d. 

2 6 to 2 

2 6 „ 2 

3 „ 3 
lOi „ 1 



s. d. 



But these quotations are somewhat higher for alpaca-wool than the prices now 
realised, which of late years have ranged from 2s. to 2s. Id. per pound. 

.^paca Fat was shown in the Exhibition of 1862, and was stated to be remark- 
able in its power of resisting rancidity. It was thought this would make it valuable 
to the arts, especially in perfumery. 

XOAB. A burthen or freight. As the various quantities of material contained 
in a load cannot but be useful, the following Table is borrowed from Mr. P. L. Sim- 
monds's * Trade Products,' &c. : — 

Bricks . . 500. 

Tiles . . 1,000. 

Lead ore (in Derbyshire) 9 dishes or 

aearJy 3 cwts. 
Bulruslies , 63 bundles. 



Com . 


. 5 qrs. or 40 bushels. 


Straw . 


. 36 trusses, or 11 cwts. 




64 lbs. 


Old hay 


. 18 cwts. 


New hay 


. 19 cwts. 32 lbs. 



LOCKS 



189 



Mortar . 
CoSbo, in bags 
Eice . 
Timber : — 

1 inch plank 

U ,. 



27 feet. 





Timber : — 


. 12 cwts. 


2 inch plank 


. 10 „ 


2i „ 


square feet 


3 


. 600 


3^ .. 


. '400 


4 



square feet 
. 300 
. 240 
. 200 
. 170 
. ISO 



XiOADSTOITEi Magnetic Iron-stone, (Fer oxi/duU, Fr. ; Magneteiscnstein, 
Ger.) An iron ore, consisting of the protoxide and peroxide of iron in a state of 
combination. 

It was first discovered in Magnesia, and from that province has been derived the 
name Magxet applied to this ore of iron. The term loadstone, however, is given to 
those specimens which are powerfully magnetic only. See Ieon. 

KOAM. {Terre Umoneicse, Yv. ; Lekm, Ger.) A native clay, mixed with quartz- 
sand and iron-ochre, and occasionally with some carbonate of lime. 

' More commonly we find sand and clay, or clay and marl, intermixed in the same 
mass. When the sand and clay are each in considerable quantities, the mixture is 
called " loam." ' — Li/cU. 

IiOCKS. Although locks are distinctly a manufacture, yet they wore not embraced 
in the early editions of this work ; the chief cause of this being the desire on the part 
of Dr. Ure to limit the articles of the Dictionary to such manufactures as were not 
comprehended within his meaning of the term Handicraft. 

The lock manufacture is essentially one of handicraft ; and seeing that these 
volumes could not possibly enter into any detailed description of this and numerous 
other trades, as watch-making and the like, it has been determined that a brief notice 
of the several kinds of locks alone shall find a place in its pages. 

The lock manufacture of this country is confined almost exclusively to "Wolver- 
hampton and the neighbouring village of Willenhall. There are very few largo 
manufactories, almost all kinds of locks being made by small masters, employing 
from half-a-dozen to a dozen men. 

In nearly every kind of lock a bolt shoots out from the box or lock, usually of an 
oblong shape, and catches in some kind of staple or box fixed to receive it. In soma 
a staple enters the lock, and the bolt passes through the staple within the lock. The 
lock of a room-door is of the first character ; the lock of a writing-desk, or ordinary 
box, is of the second kind. The key is merely a bent piece of iron, which, on entering 
the lock, can move freely, and push forward the bolt. To the bolts of superior locks 
springs are attached, and the force required to turn the key in a lock is the force 
necessary to overcome the resistance of the springs. The following two figures, 1397, 
1398, represent the character of a lock with wards or wheels, which are introduced to 
give safety. Fig. 1397 is an ordinary back-spring lock, representing the bolt half- 
shot ; a' a" are notches on the under side of the bolt, connected by a curved portion ; 
b is the back-spring, which is of course compressed as the curved portion of the bolt 



1397 



1398 



[ 





b 

...... J 






/il 


((f^w 


a" 




passes through the aperture prepared for it in the rim of the lock ; when the bolt is 
withdrawn, the notch a' rests in the rim ; when the bolt is shot, the notch a" rests in 
the same manner. The action of the key and wards is shown in Jiff. 1398. The 
curved pieces of metal are the wards ; and there are two clefts in the bit of the key 
to enable it to move without interruption. 

The tumbler-lock is shown in its most simple form in Jiff. 1399. Hero the bolt has 
two slots, a a, in the upper part ; and behind the bolt is a kind of latch, b, which 
carries a projecting piece of metal ; c, this is the tumbler, which moves freely on 
a pivot at the other end. When the bolt is fully shot the projecting piece of metal 
falls into one notch, and when withdrawn it falls into the other. It will bo evident 



140 



LOCKS 



1399 




here that the action of the key is to raise the tumbler, so that the bolt has free 
motion : this action will be intelligible by tracing the action of Uiq key on the dotted 

lines. These tumbler-lqcks are greatly varied in 
character ; but in principle they aro as above 
described. 
Numerous well-known locks have been pa- 

□ I ^ - ,^1 tented, the most remarkable being Chubb's 
a~^ i.f^.... lock, which has been fully described by the 

l-Af^l: W ' inventors in a paper read before the Institu- 

tion of Civil Engineers ; and also in an excel- 
lent treatise on locks to be found in Mr. Weale's 
series of useful manuals. This lock is essen- 
tially a tumbler-lock, it being fitted up with 
no less than six tumblers ; and the key has to 
raise, by a series of steps, these before the bolt 
is free to move. It will be obvious, that unless 
the key is exactly fitted to move these, there is no chance of moving the bolt. In this 
paper already alluded to Mr. Chubb says : — 

' The number of changes which may be effected on the keys of a three-inch 
drawer-lock is 1 x 2 x 3 x 4 x 5 x 6 = 720, the number of different combinations 
which may bo made on the six steps of unequal lengths without altering the length of 
either step.' The height of the shortest step is however capable of being reduced, 20 
times ; and each time of being reduced, the 720 combinations may be repeated ; there- 
fore 720x20 = 14,400 changes.' By effecting changes of this character, therefore, 
almost any number of combinations can be produced. The Bramah lock has been long 
celebrated, and most deservedly so. Notwithstanding the fact that this lock was picked 
by Mr. Hobbs after having the lock in his possession for sixteen days, it appears to us 
that it most fully justifies the boast made by Mr. Bramah in his ' Dissertation on the 
Construction of Locks.' ' Being confident,' he says, ' that I have contrived a security 
which no instrument but its proper key can reach, and which may be so applied as 
not only to defy the art and ingenuity of the most skilful workman, but to render the 
utmost force ineffectual, and thereby to secure what is most valued as well from dis- 
honest servants as from the midnight ruffian, I think myself at liberty to declare (what 
nothing but the discovery of an infallible remedy would justify my disclosing) that all 
dependence on the inviolable security of locks, even of those which are constructed on 
the best principle of any in general use, is fallacious.' Ho then proceeds to demonstrate 
the imperfections of ordinary locks, and to describe his own. 

' The body of a Bramah lock may be considered as formed of two concentric brass 
barrels, the outer one fixed, and the inner rotating within it. The inner barrel has 
a projecting stud, which, while the barrel is rotating, comes in contact ^vith the bolt 
in such a way as to shoot or lock it ; and thus the stud sen'es the same purpose as 
the bit of an ordinary key, rendering tlie construction of a bit to the Bramah key 
unnecessary. If the barrel can bo made to rot^ito to the right or loft, the bolt can bo 
locked or unlocked, and the problem is, therefore, how to insure the rotation of the 
barrel. The key, which has a pipe or hollow shaft, is inserted in the keyliole upon 
the pin, and is then turned round; but there must be a nice adjustment of the me- 
chanism of the barrel before this turning round of the key and the barrel can be in- 
sured. The barrel has an external groove at right angles to the axis, penetrating to 
a certain depth ; and it has also several internal longitudinal grooves from end to 
end. In these internal grooves thin pieces of steel are able to slide, in a direction 
parallel with the axis of the barrel. A thin plate of steel, called the locking plate, is 
screwed in two portions to the outer barrel, concentric with the inner barrel ; and at 
the same time occupying the external circular groove of the inner barrel ; this plate 
has notches, fitted in number and size to receive the edges of the slides which work in 
the internal longitudinal grooves of the barrel. If this were all, the barrel could not 
revolve, because the slides are catching in the grooves of the locking plate ; but each 
slide has also a groove, corresponding in depth to the extent of this entanglement ; and 
if this groove be brought to the plane of the locking plate, the barrel can be turned, 
so far as respects the individual slide. All the slides must, however, be so adjusted, 
that their grooves shall come to the same plane ; but, as the notch is cut at different 
points in the lengths of the several slides, the slides have to be pushed in to different 
distances in the barrel, in order that this juxtaposition of notches may be insured. 
This is effected by the key, which has notches or clefts at the end of the pipe equal in 
number to the slides, and made to fit the ends of the slides when the key is in- 
serted ; the key presses each slide, and pushes it so far as the doptli of its cleft will 
permit ; and all these depths are' such that all the slides are pushed to the exact 
position where their notches all lie in the same plane ; this is the plane of the locking 



LOCKS 



141 



plate, and the barrel can bo then turned.' — Tomlinson on the Construction of Lock$. 
In this work the details of construction are given with great clearness. 

The American bank locks, especially that of Messrs. Day and Newall, hare ex- 
cited much attention. Their English patent describes it thus : — 

' The object of the present improvements is the constructing of locks in such 
manner that the interior arrangements, or the combination of the internal moveable 
parts, may bo changed at pleasure according to the form given to, or change made in, 
the key, without th« necessity of arranging the moveable parts of the lock by hand, 
or removing the lock or any part thereof from the door. In locks constructed on 
tliis plan the key may be altered at pleasure ; and the act of locking, or throwing out 
the bolt of the lock, produces the particular arrangements of the internal parts, 
which correspond to that of the key for the time being. While the same is locked, 
this form is retained until the lock is unlocked or the bolt witlidrawn, upon which 
the internal moveable parts return to their original position, with reference to each 
other ; but these parts cannot bo made to assume or bo brought back to their original 
position, except by a key of the precise form and dimensions as the key by which they 
were made to assume sucli arrangement in the act of locking. The key is change- 
able at pleasure, and the lock receives a special form in the act of locking according 
to the key employed, and retains that form until in the act of unlocking by the same 
key it resumes its original or unlocked state, Thp lock is again changeable at plea- 
sure, simply by altering the arrangement of the moveable bits of the key ; and the 
key may bo changed to any one of the forms within the number of permutations of 
which the parts are susceptible.' — April 16, 1851. 

Mr. Hobbs who has been carrying out the manufacture of American locks in this 
country has introduced an inexpensive- lock, which he calls a protector lock. The 
following description is borrowed from Mr. Charles Tomlinson's ' Treatise on the 
Construction of Locks ' : — 

'When the American locks became known in England, Mr. Hobbs undertook 
the superintendence of their manufacture, and their introduction into the commercial 
world. Such a lock as that just described must necessarily bo a complex piece of 
mechanism ; it is intended for use in the doors of receptacles containing property of 
great value ; and the aim has been to baffle all the methods at present known of 
picking locks, by a combination of mechanism necessarily elaborate. Such a lock 
must of necessity be costly ; but in order to supply the demand for a small lock at 
moderate price, Mr. Hobbs has introduced what he calls a protector lock. This is a 
modification of the ordinary six-tumbler lock. It bears an aflfinity to the lock of 
Messrs. Day and Newall, inasmuch as it is an attempt to introduce the same prin- 
ciple of security against picking, while avoiding the complexity of the changeable 
lock. The distinction which Mr. Hobbs has made between secure and insecure locks 
will be understood from the following proposition : viz. ' that whenever the parts of 
a lock which come in contact with the key are so aiFected by any pressure applied to 
the bolt, or to that portion of the lock by which the bolt is withdrawn, as to indicate 
the points of resistance to the withdrawal of the bolt, such a lock can be picked.' 
Fig. 1401 exhibits the internal mechanism of this new patent lock. It contains the 
usual contrivances of tumblers and springs, with a key cut into steps to suit the dif- 
ferent heights to which the tumblers must be raised. The key is shown separately 
in Jig, 1402. But there is a small additional piece of mechanism, in which the 



1402 



1401 



1400 




-1 

-1 




' 











tumbler stump shown at s in/^s. 1400 and 1401 is attached; which piece is intended 
to work under or behind the bolt of the lock. Id^;^. 1401, b is the bolt; tt is tho 



142 ^ LODE 

! 

front or foremost of the range of six tumblers, each of which has the usual slot and 
notches. In other tumbler-locks the stump or stud which moves along these slots is 
riveted to the bolt, in such manner that, if any pressure be applied in an attempt to 
"withdraw the bolt, the stump becomes pressed against the edges of the tumblers, and 
bites or binds against them. How far their biting facilitates the picking of a lock 
will bo shown further on ; but it will suffice here to say, that the moveable action given 
to the stump in the Hobbs lock transfers the pressure to another quarter. The stump 
5 is riveted to a peculiarly-shaped piece of metal hp {fig. 1400), the hole in the centre 
of which fits upon a centre or pin in a recess formed at the back of the bolt ; the 
piece moves easily on its centre, but is prevented from so doing spontaneously by a 
small binding spring. The mode in which this small moveable piece takes part in tho 
action of the lock is as follows : when the proper key is applied in the usual way, the 
tumblers are all raised to the proper heights for allowing the stump to pass hori- 
zontally through the grating ; but should there be an attempt made, either by a false 
key or by any other instrument, to withdraw the bolt before the tumblers are pro- 
perly raised, the stump becomes an obstacle. Meeting with an obstruction to its 
passage, the stump turns the piece to which it is attached on its centre, and moves the 
arm of tlie piece p so that it shall come into contact with a stud riveted into the case 
of the lock; and in this position there is a firm resistance against the withdrawal of 
the bolt. The tumblers are at the same moment released from the pressure of the 
stump. There is a dog or lever d, which catches into the top of the bolt, and 
tliereby serves as an additional security against its being forced back. At Jc is tho 
drill-pin on which the pipe of the key works ; and r is a metal piece on which the 
tumblers rest when the key is not operating upon them. - 

Another lock, patented by Mr. Hobbs in 1852, has for its object the absolute 
closing of the key- hole during the process of locking. The key does not work or 
turn on its own centre, but occupies a small cell or chamber in a revolving cylinder, 
which is turned by a fixed handie. The bit of the moveable key is entirely separable 
from the shaft or stem, into which it is screwed, and may be detached by turning 
round a small milled headed thumb-screw. The key is placed in the key-hole in 
the usual way, but it cannot turn ; its circular movement round the stem as an axis 
is prevented by the internal mechanism of the lock ; it is left in the key-hole, and 
the stem is detached from it by unscrewing. By turning tlie handle, the key-bit, 
which is left in the chamber of the cylinder, is brought into contact with the works 
of the lock, so as to shoot and withdraw the bolt. This revolution may take place 
whether the bit of the moveable key occupy its little cell in the plate or not ; only 
with this difference — that if the bit be not in the lock, tlie plate revolves without 
acting upon any of the tumblers ; but if the bit be in its place, it raises the tumblers 
in tlie proper way for shooting or withdrawing the bolt. It will bo understood that 
there is only one key-hole, namely, that through which the divisible key is in- 
serted ; the other handle or fixed key working through a hole in the cover of the 
lock only just large enough to receive it, and not being removable from the lock. 
As soon as the plate turns round so far as to enable the key-bit to act upon the 
tumblers, the key-hole becomes entirely closed by the plate itself, so that the actual 
locking is effected at the very time when all access to the interior through the key- 
hole is cut off. When the bolt has been shot, the plate comes round to its original 
position, it uncovers the key-hole, and exhibits the key-bit occupying tho little cell 
into which it had been dropped; the stem is then to be screwed into the bit, and the 
latter witlidrawn. It is one consequence of this arrangement, that the key has to be 
screwed and \inscrewed when used; but through this arrangement the key-hole 
becomes a sealed book to one who has not the right key. Nothing can be moved, 
provided the bit and stem of the key be both left in ; but by leaving in the lock the 
former without the latter, the plate can rotate, tlie tumblers can be lifted, and the 
bolt can be shot. 

XiOCVST TSE&i A North American tree, tho Bobinia pseudacacin. ' It grows 
most abundantly in the southern States ; but it is pretty generally diffused through 
the whole country. It sometimes exceeds four feet in diameter and seventy feet in 
height. The locust is one of tho very few trees planted by tho Americans.' This 
wood is much used for ships' tree-nails, and is employed for stakes and pales. 

The wood of tho Hymencea Courbaril is also known as locust wood. 

IbOBE (rt mining term). A mineral lode, or a mineral vein, is the name given to 
a fissure in the crust of tho earth which has been filled in with mctiilliferous matter. 
Tho miner gives the same name lode to a fissure filled with quartz, carbonate of lime, 
&c", but then ho says the lode is not ' mineralised,' confining the word ' mineral' to 
metalliferous matter. 

The term vein has frequently led to tho idea that it expresses tho condition of 
Eometbing analogous to the blood-vessels of the animal body, to which a lode has not 



LUBRICATING OIL 



143 



in the remotest degree any resemLlance. Duriug some primary convulsions, the 
crust of the earth has been cracked, these fissures having, of course, some special re- 
lation to the direction of tlie force which produced them. These cracks hare during 
ages of submergence been filled in, according to some law of polarity, with mineral 
matter, the character of the lode having generally some special relation to its direc- 
tion. See Mining. 

XiOCrWOOS {Bois do CampecJie, Bois bleu, Fr. ; Blauhoh, Ger.) is the wood of 
the HcBmatoxylon Campechiamuii, a native tree of Central America, grown in Jamaica 
since 1715. It was first introduced into England in the reign of Elizabeth, but as it 
aiforded to the unskilful dyers of her time a fugitive colour, it was not only prohibited 
from being used, under severe penalties, but was ordered to bo burned wherever found, 
by a law passed in the 23rd year of her reign. The same prejudice existed, and the 
same law was enacted against indigo. At length, after a century of absurd prohibition, 
these two most valuable tinctorial matters, by which all our hats, and the greater part 
of our woollen cloths, are dyed, were allowed to be used. The logwood tree grows 
from 40 to 50 feet high, the stems arc cut into logs of about 3 feet long, the bark and 
white sap (alburnum) of which are chipped off", the heart or red part only being sent 
to England. Chovreul gaA^e the constituents of logwood as volatile oil, hannatin, resin- 
ous iiiattcr, tannin, glutinous matter, acetic acid, sundry salts of lime, with alumina, 
silica, manganese, and iron. The decoction of logwood is of a deep dull red, which is 
rendered p;iler and of a brighter colour by acids. Alkalis give it a purplish or violet 
colour. Acetate of lead causes a blue, alum a violet precipitate ; the salts of iron 
make it a dark violet blue, gelatine forming a reddish precipitate with it. The 
colouring principle of logwood is a crystallisable substance known as Jimmatoxylin, 
which contains C'«H'0« (C-H^QS). 

Old wood, with black bark and with little of the white alburnum, is preferred. 
LogATOod is denser than water, specific gravity, 1'057, very hard, of a fine compact 
grain, and almost indestructible by the atmospheric elements ; it has a sweet and 
astringent taste, and a peculiar but inoffensive smell, and will take a fine polish. 

When chipped logwood is for some time exposed to the air, it loses a portion of its 
dyeing power. Its decoction absorbs the oxygen of the atmosphere, and then acquires 
the property of precipitating with gelatine, which it had not before. The dry extract 
of logwood, made from an old decoction, affords only a fugitive colour. 

For its applications in dyeing, see Black Dye ; Calico Printing ; Dteing ; Hat 
Dyeing, &c. 

Imports of Logwood. 



From France .... 


1871 


1872 


Tons 


£ 


Tons 


£ 


649 


4,885 


• • . 


.•• 


„ United States . 


705 


4,755 


616 


4,004 


„ Spanish West Indies . 


190 


2,090 




... 


,, Hayti and Domingo . 


2,832 


12,791 


4,319 


23,864 


„ Mexico .... 


1,009 


7,693 


2,099 


18,220 


., British West Indies . 


24,059 


115,957 


32,792 


157,346 


„ British Honduras 


9,174 


43,550 


5,660 


25,693 


„ Other countries . 
Total . 


728 


4,080 


535 


3,908 


39,346 


195,801 


46,021 


233,035 



XiblilZS'GXTE. An arsenide of iron, resembling mispickel._ It is occasionally 
auriferou?, and has been worked for gold at Keichenstein in Silesia. See Pyeites. 

XiOOXXUG- CXiA-SS. See Mibbobs. 
. IiOOIVZ {Metier a tisscr, Fr. ; WebcrstuM, Ger.) is the ancient and well-known 
machine for wea^-ing cloth by tlie decussation of a series of parallel threads, which 
run lengthwise, called the warp or chain, with other threads thrown transversely with. 
the shuttle, called the woof or weft. See Jacqtjard Loom and Weaving.^ 

XiOVAGE. The Levisticmn officinale, an umbelliferous plant, with aromatic 

fruit. /. J • 

XiirsitZCAia'TS. Oleaginous or fatty bodies employed for the purpose of reducing 

the friction between two parts of a machine or carriage. 

I.VSZlICATXI«rG OIXi. This name has recently been specially given to an oil 
or grease prepared from the mineral naphthas. It ought to have a specific graAnty 
varying from 0-920 to 0950, and to possess but a very slight odour. Although it 



144 



LUBRICATION 



contain parafGin, yet it ought not to deposit any wlien cooled to 2° Cent, See 
Naphtha. 

KVBRXCATZOW. The lubrication of the wheel and axle of railway carriiiges is 
effected by a kind of soap : a combination of cocoa-nut oil or palm oil, or ordinary fats, 
with soda being the ' grease ' with which the boxes are filled. The heat produced 
by the friction melts the grease, and it flows out upon the parts in motion through an 
opening in the bottom of the box. Heavy machinery, such as pumping-engines, 
require tenacious bodies as their lubricants, while the finer parts must be carefully 
oiled with oils as free as possible from any of the fatty acids. Spinning machinerj', 
for example, must be lubricated with the finest oils, or, as it is found to be still better, 
with those peculiar hydro-carbon compounds, as paraffin, glycerine, and the like. 
The following is a simple and efficacious plan of lubricating the joints and bearings 
of machinery by capillary attraction, the invention of Edward Woolsey, Esq. : — 

Fig. 1403 represents a tin cup, which has a small tin tube A, which passes through 
the bottom. It may have a tin cover to keep out the dust. 

Fig. 1404 is a plan of the same. 

Fig. 1405 is a section of the siime. Oil is poured into the cup, the one end of a 
worsted or cotton thread is dipped into the oil, and the other end passed through the tube. 

The capillary attraction causes the oil to ascend and pass over the orifice of the tube, 
whence it gradually descends, and drops slower or quicker according to the length of 
the thread or its thickness, until every particle of oil is drawn over by this capillary 
siphon. The tube is intended to be put into the bearings of shafts, &c., and is made 
of any size that may be wished. If oil, or other liquids, is desired to be dropped upon a 
grindstone or other surface, this cup can have a handle to it, or be hung from the ceiling. 

Fig. 1406. It is frequently required to stop the capillary action when the machinery 
is not going ; and this has been effected by means of a tightening screw, which passes 
through a screw boss in the cover of the cup, and presses against the internal orifice 
of the tube, preventing the oil from passing. 

Fig. 1407. As when these screw cups are used upou beams of engines and moving 
bearings, the screw is apt to be tightened by the motion; and also, as the action 
of the screw is uncertain, from the workman neglecting to screw it down sufficiently, 
it answers best to take out the capillary thread when the lubrication is not required ; 
and to effect this easily, a tin top is fixed to the cup, with a round pipe soldered to it ; 
this pipe has a slit in 

1^06 ,.-. .,„, ,.p,„ it, like a pencil-case, and 

, r ir^-^t, - l40o 1404 140,1 ' f ' 

|p=^=^ I 1 allows a bolt b to slide 

-. ^ ^ ^ s^ easily. In ^^r. 1408 the 

bolt is down ; in^. 1409 
the bolt, which is a piece 
of brass wire, is drawn 
up, and thus the flowing 
of the oil is checked. In 
fig. 1409 it will be ob- 
served, that the bolt is 
kept in its place by its 
head c, resting in a lateral 
slit in the pipe, and it 
cannot be drawn out on 
account of the pin e. 
One end of the thread is 
fastened to the eye-hole 
at the bottom of the bolt, 
and the other end is tied 
to a small wire which 
crosses the lower orifice 
of the tube at d, and 
which is shown in plan, 
1^.1410. 

Tho saving by this 
plan, instead of pouring 
oil into the bearings, is 
2 gallons out of 3, while 
the bearings are better 
oiled. 

Tho saving in labour 
is considerable where 
iheie are many joints to keep oiled three or four times a day ; and the workman does 




LUCIFER MATCHES ]45 

not, with this apparatus, run the risk of being caught by the machinery. To tie on 
the cotton or worsted thread, pass a long thread through the ej'e-hole, e, of the bolt, 
and then draw the two ends through the tube by a fine wire with a hook to it, one 
end on one side of the cross-wire d, and the other end on the other side. Then put 
the cover on, and the bolt in the position shown in fig. 1409 ; when, by drawing the 
two ends of the thread, and tying them across the wire d, you have the exact length 
required. AVhen you wish to see the quantity of oil remaining in the lubricator, the 
bolt must be dropped, as in fig. 1408, and you can then lift the cover a little way oS, 
without breaking the thread, and replenish with oil. The figures in the woodcut are 
one-third of the full size. 

XiircZFER MATCHES. The importance of this manufacture has been shown 
by Mr. Tomlinson in a communication made by that gentleman to the ' Journal of the 
Society of Arts.' * It has been estimated,' ho says, ' that the English and French 
manufacturers of phosphorus are now producing at the rate of 300,000 lbs. of common 
phosphorus per annum, nearly the whole of which is consumed in making lucifer 
matches. In compounding the emulsion for tipping the . matches, the German manu- 
facturers make three pounds of phosphorus suffice for five or six millions of matches. 
If we suppose only one-half of the French and English annual product of phosphorus 
to be employed in making matches, this will give us 250,000,000,000 of matches as 
the annual product consequent on the consumption of one-half of the French and 
English phosphorus. We need not suppose this to be an exaggerated statement when 
we consider the daily product of some of our match manufactories. I lately had occa- 
sion to describe the processes of a London factory, which produces 2,500,000 matches 
daily. For this purpose, fourteen 3-inch planks are cut up ; each plank produces 30 
blocks; each block, of the dimensions of 11 inches long, 4^- inches wide and 3 inches 
thick, produces 100 slices; each slice 31 splints; each splint 2 matches: thus we 
have — 14 x 30 x 100 x 31 x 2 = 2,604,000 matches as the day's work of a single factory 
in London. At Messrs. Dixon's factory, near Manchester, from 6,000,000 to 9,000,000 
of matches are produced daily.' 

The lucifer matches formerly employed for procuring a light were the wooden 
sulphur matches, coated with a paste containing phosphorus, which, when dry, would 
ignite by friction. To prepare the paste, phosphorus was melted with a certain 
quantity of water at 120°, the requisite proportion of nitrate, with a small proportion 
of chlorate of potash, was dissolved in this water, a small quantity of bmoxide of 
manganese or red lead added, and the liquid thickened with gum ; the whole was 
well triturated together in a mortar till the globules of phosphorus ceased to be 
visible to the eye, and the mass was coloured with Prussian blue or with minium. 
The points of the matches were dipped into this paste, and then cautiously dried in a 
stove. The use of the gum was to servo as a varnish to protect the phosphorus from 
oxidation by the air. 

For the rapid manufacture of the wooden splints for lucifer matches, a patent was 
obtained by Mr. Eeuben Partridge, in March 1842. He employed a perforated 
metallic plate, having a steel face, strengthened by a bell-metal back ; see figs. 1411, 
1412. The size of the perforations must depend on that of the desired splints; but 
they must be as close together as possible, that there may be a very small blank 
space between them, otherwise the plate would afford too great a resistance to the 
passage of the wood. By this construction, the whole area of the block of wood 
may be compressed laterally into the countersunk openings, and forced through the 
holes, which are slightly countersunk to favour the entrance and separation of the 
wooden fibres. Fig. 1411 represents the face of one of these plates ; and fi^. 1412 is 
a rectangular section through the plate. A convenient size of plate is 3 inches broad, 
6 inches long, and 1 inch thick. The mode of pressing is by fixing the back of the 
plate against a firm resisting block or bearing, having an aperture equal to the area 
of the perforations in the plate, and then placing the end of the piece or pieces of 
wood in the direction of the grain against the fiice of the plate within the area of the 
perforated portion. A plunger or lever, or other suitable mechanical agent, being 
then applied to tlie back or reverse end of the piece of wood, it may be forced through 
the perforations in the plate, being first split as it advances by the cutting edges of 
the holes, and afterwards compressed and driven through the perforations in the 
plate, coming out on the opposite side or back of the plate in the form of a multitude 
of distinct splints, agreeably to the shapes and dimensions of the perforations.^ 

The first stage in the manufacture of lucifers is the cutting the wood, which is done, 
according to the extent of the manufactory, either by hand or by machinery. This, 
as well as the subsequent process of coimting and placing tlie matches in frames, is in 
itself necessarily free from any inconvenience or evil consequences ; nor does it appear 
that the third stage, which consists of melting the sulphur and dipping the heads of 
the matches in it, produces any inconvenience. The fourth, fiftli, sixth, and seventh ' 

Vol. ni. L 



146 



LUCIFER MATCHES 



stages comprise the grinding, mullering, and mixing of the explosive compound ; the 
process of dipping the matches in it, the counting and boxing. The dipping, counting, 



1403 





1404 




and packing appear to be, according to Mr. Geist, the only departments in which the 
workpeople are in any way affected with peculiar complaints ; we would even limit 
the appearance of the jaw-disease to those engaged in dipping — at least, all that we 
have examined on the subject were unanimous as to the fact that dippers only were 
attacked. There is a certain degree of secrecy observed relative to the proportions of 
the composition ; and the mixture of the materials is generally performed by the pro- 
prietor of the manufactory, or by a confidential workman. Chlorate of potash is 
considered an essential ingredient in England ; but in the manufactories at Niirnberg 
it has not been emplojted for a number of years, as its explosive properties much en- 
dangered the safety of the buildings and the limbs of the workmen. 

The composition used in Niirnberg consists of one-third of phosphorus, of gum- 
arabic (which is eschewed by English manufacturers on accoimt of its hygrometric 
property), of water, and of colouring-matter, for which either minium or Prussian blue 
is employed. If ignition be required without a flame, the quantity of phosphorus is 
diminished, or nitrate of lead is added. The mixing is conducted in a water-bath ; and 
during this process, and as long as the plaosphorus is being ground or ' mullered,' 
copious fumes are evolved. The dipping is performed in the following manner : — The 
melted composition is spread upon a board covered with cloth or leather, and the 
workman dips the two ends of the matches alternately that are fixed in the frame ; 
and as this is done with great rapidity, the disengagement of fumes is very consider- 
able, and the more liable to be injurious, as they are evolved in a very concentrated 
form close to the face of the workman. This department is generally left to a single 
workman ; and the average number that he can dip in an hour, supposing each frame 
to hold 3,000 matches, would be 1,000,000. 

As the matches have been dipped, they require to be dried. This is generally 
done in the room in which the former process is carried on ; and as a temperature of 
from 80° to 90° Fahr. is necessary, the greatest quantity of fumes is evolved at this 
stage. When the matches are dried, the frames are removed from the drying-room, 
and the lucifers are now ready to be counted out into boxes. As this is done with 
great rapidity they frequently take fire, and, although instantly extinguished in the 
sawdust or the water which is at hand, the occurrence gives rise to an additional and 
frequent evolution of fumes. 

The composition of lucifer matches varies greatly, as it regards the proportions of 
the materials employed. In principle they are, however, as we have described them 
above ; everything depending on the ignition of the phosphorus, and the perfection of 
a lucifer match is in tipping the match witli a composition which will ignite quietly 
upon attrition against any rough surface, but which is not liable to ignition by such 



Parts 




Farts 


4 


Red ochre, or red lead . 


. 6 


10 


Smalt .... 


. 2 


6 1 







LUCIFER MATCHES 147 

pressure as it may bo subjected to under the ordinary condition of keeping in closed 
boxes. 

According to Dr. E. Bottger, in Annalen der Chemie und Tharmacie, vol. xlvii. 
p. 334, the best composition for lucifer matches is — 

Phosphorus . 

Nitre .... 

Fine glue 

Convert the glue, with a little water, by a gentle heat into a sm»oth jelly, put it into 
a slightly-warm porcelain mortar to liquefy ; rub the phosphorus down through this 
gelatine at a temperature of about 140° or 150° Fahr. ; add the nitre, then the red 
powder, and lastly the smalt, till the whole forms a uniform paste. To make writing- 
paper matches, which burn with a bright flame, and dififtise an agreeable odour, 
moisten each side of the paper with tincture of benzoin, dry it, cut it into slips, and 
smear one of their ends with a little of the above paste by means of a hair-pencil. 
On rubbing the said end, after it is dry, against a rough surface the paper will take 
fire, without the intervention of sulphur. 

To form lucifer wood-matches that act without sulphur, melt in a flat -bottomed tin 
pan as much wliite wax as will stand ith of an inch deep ; take a bundle of wooden 
matches free from resin, rub their ends against a red-hot iron plate till the wood ba 
slightly charred ; dip them now in the melted wax for a moment, shake them well 
on taking them out, and finally dip them separately in the above viscid paste. When 
dry, they will kindle readily by friction. 

The phosphorus may be introduced into the composition of lucifer matches in the 
form of a solution in bisulphide of carbon. It has been suggested by C. Puscher to 
employ a sulphide of phosphorus in the place of pure phosphorus. 

A ' Safety Lucifer Match' as it is called, has been manufactured at Jonkoping in 
Sweden and by Bottger in Germany. A patent was obtained in this country, by 
Messrs. Bryant and May, for this match. Its peculiarity consists in the division of 
the combustible ingredients of the lucifer between the match and the friction-paper. 
In the ordinary lucifer the phosphorus, sulphur, and chlorate of potash or nitre, are 
all together on the match, which ignites when rubbed against any rough substance. 
In the Swedish matches these materials are so divided that the phosphorus is placed 
on the sand-paper, whilst the sulphur and a minimum amount of chlorate or nitrate 
of potash is placed on the match. In virtue of this arrangement it is only when the 
phosphorised sand-paper and the sulphurised match come in contact with each other 
that the ignition occurs. Neither match nor sand-paper, singly takes fire by moderate 
friction against a rough surface. The phosphorus used in the sand-paper for these 
safety matches is the amorphous variety described below. 

The preparation of lucifer matches has been attended with much human suffering. 
Every person engaged in a factory of this kind is more or less exposed to the fumes 
of phosphorus, and this exposure produces a disease which lias thus been described by 
Mr. Harrison in the ' Quarterly Journal of Medical Science ' : — ' This disease,' he says, 
* is of so insidious a nature that it is at first supposed to be common toothache, and 
a most serious disease of the jaw is produced before the patient is fully aware of his 
condition. The disease gradually creeps on, until the sufferer becomes a miserable and 
loathsome object, spending the best period of his life in the wards of a public hospitaL 
Many patients have died of the disease ; many, unable to open their jaws, have 
lingered with carious and necrosed bones ; others have suffered dreadful mutilations 
from surgical operations, considering themselves happy to escape with the loss of the 
greater portion of the lower jaw.' 

By the introduction of an amorphous phosphorus discovered by M. Schrotter, 
which is in nearly all respects unlike the ordinary phosphorus, except in combustibility, 
but which answers exceedingly well for the manufacture of lucifer matches, this disease 
is prevented, the manufactory is rendered more healthy, and the boxes of matches 
themselves less dangerous. 

Lucifer matches are now manufactured without sulphur. Letchford employs 
paraffin or paraffin-oil for saturating the wood : these ignite rapidly, and burn 
regularly with little or no smell. Notice and approbation are due to the persever- 
ing efforts which have been made to produce friction matches, containing neither 
ordinary nor amorphous phosphorus. Wiederhold has proved that lucifer matches 
of good quality may be made with chlorate of potash and hyposulphite of lead : a 
result which may prove most valuable, should experience show it to be attainable on 
the industrial scale. Other matches free from phosphorus have been made with the 
following mixtures, which are given by Jettel : chlorate of potash 4 parts, sulphur 
1, and bichromate of potash, 0-4 ; or, chlorate of potash 7, sulphiu: 1, bichromate of 

l2 



148 LUTEOLINE 

potash 2, and nitrate of lead 2 ; or, chlorate of potash 8 parts, bichromate of potash 
05, and sulphide of antimony 8. Wiederhold's mixture, mentioned above, may be 
made of chlorate of potash 7"8 parts, hyposulphite of lead 2-6, and gum-arabic, 1. 

XmJJT/LACSHJiJmA, or Fire Marble. This is a dark-brown shelly marble, having 
brilliant ficiy or chatoyant reflections from within. See Mabble. 

ZiirsrAB CAtrSTlC. A name for nitrate of silver, when fused and run into 
cylindrical moulds. 

XiirpIsmrE is a substance of a gummy appearance, so. named by M. Cussola, 
because it was obtained from Lupines. 

XiVPirXtXN'E. The peculiar bitter aromatic principle of the hop, Humulus Lufu- 
lus. See Beer. 

XiVSTRZirG, sometimes spelled and pronounced Lutestring ; a peculiar shining 
silk. 

ZitTTE (from Lutum, clay ; Lut, Tr. ; Kitte, Beschldge, Ger.) is a pasty or loamy 
matter employed to close the joints of chemical apparatus, or to coat their surfaces, 
and protect them from the direct action of flame. Lut«s differ according to the nature 
of the vapours which they are destined to confine, and the degree of heat which they 
are to be exposed to. 

1. Litte of linseed-meal, made into a soft plastic dough -with water, and immediately 
applied pretty thick to junctions of glass, or stoneware, makes them perfectly tight, 
hardens speedily, resists acids and ammoniacal vapours, as also a moderate degree of 
heat. It becomes stronger when the meal is kneaded with milk, lime-water, or solu- 
tion of glue, and is the best lute for fluo-silicic acid. 

2. Lute of thick gum-water, kneaded with clay, and iron filings, serves well for 
permanent junctions, as it becomes extremely solid. 

3. By softening in water a piece of thick brown paper, kneading it first with rye- 
flour paste, and then with some potter's clay, till it acquire the proper consistence, a 
lute is formed which does not readily crack or scale off. 

4. Lute, consisting of a strong solution of glue kneaded into a dough with new 
slaked lime, is a powerful cement, and, with the addition of white-of-egg, forms 
the lute (fane — a composition adapted to mend broken vessels of porcelain and stone- 
Tvare. 

5. Skim-milk cheese, boiled for some time in water, and then triturated into paste 
with fresh-slaked lime, forms also a good lute. 

6. Calcined gypsum (plaster-of-Paris), diffused through milk, solution of glue, 
starch, or gum-water, is a valuable lute in many cases. 

7. A lute made with linseed, melted caoutchouc, and pipe-clay, incorporated into a 
smooth dough, may be kept long soft when covered in a cellar, aud serves admirably 
to confine acid-vapours. As it does not harden, it may therefore be applied and taken 
off as often as we please, 

8. Caoutchouc itself, after being melted in a spoon, may be advantageously used for 
securing joints against chlorine and acid vapours, in emergencies when nothing else 
would be effectual ; or we may use 1 part of caoutchouc dissolved in 2 parts of hot 
linseed-oil, and worked up with pipe-clay (3 parts) into a plastic mass. It bears the 
heat at which sulphuric acid boils. 

9. The best lute for joining crucibles inverted into each other is a dough made with 
a mixture of fresh fire-clay and ground fire-bricks, worked with water. That cement, 
if made with a solution of borax, answers still better upon some occasions, as it be- 
comes a compact vitreous mass in the fire. 

IiXTTEOtlWE is the colouring-principle of the weld (Reseda hcteola), a slender 
plant, growing to the height of about three feet, and cultivated for the use of dyers. 
When ripe it is cut and dried. 

Chevreul was the first to separate the luteoline. It is extracted from the weld by 
boiling-water, and when this solution is concentrated and allowed to cool, the luteo- 
line separates ; it is then collected, dried, and submitted to sublimation, when it is 
condensed in yellow needles. 

It is valued for its durability, and is used as a yellow dye, on cottons principall}', 
and also on silks, but is little used at present. It was formerly used by paper-hanging 
manufacturers, to form a yellow pigment, but has been entirely superseded for that 
purpose by miercitron bark and Persian berries. It unites with acids and alkalis, the 
former making the colour paler, and the latter heightening the colour. The compound 
which it forms with potash is of a golden colour, becoming greenish when exposed to 
the air, by absorption of oxygen, and at length becomes red. 

It forms yellow compounds with alum, protochloride of tin, and acetate of lead ; 
with the salts of iron it produces a blackish-grey precipitate ; and with sulphate of 
copper a greenish-brown precipitate. 

It is readily soluble in alcohol and etlier, but sparingly so in water. — H. K. B. 



MACHINES FOR CUTTING COAL IN MINES 149 

XXrriSZVrS, C'^H^N (C'H'W). a volatile nitryle base, diacoverod by Andersou 
in bone-oil. It has also been found in shale-naphtha, coal-naphtha, and in crude 
chinoline. 

XiYCOPODIinvI CXiAVATUnX. The spores of the lycopodium, or club-moss 
ripen in September. They are employed, on account of their great combustibility, in 
theatres, to imitate the sudden flash of lightning, by throwing a quantity of them 
from a powder-puff, or bellows, across the flame of a candle. They are sometimes 
known as ' vegetable sulphur.' 

ZiYSIAIiI' STOXarE, Touchstone, or Basanite. A flinty variety of jasper, used on 
account of its hardness, fine texture, and velvet-black colour, for trying the purity of 
the precious metals. The amount of alloy is indicated by the colour left on the stone 
after the metal has been rubbed across it. 

JLTEIiIiXTi:. A basic sulphate of copper, occurring as a blue incrustation on 
killas, from certain Cornish mines. It is named after Sir Charles Lyell. According 
to Tschermak, it is a mixture of langite and gypsum. 

TsSrtlX.. An animal producing a favourite fur of a greyish-white with dark spots. 
Most of the lynx-fur is imported from North America, and is obtained from the 
Canadian lynx {Felis Canadensis), 



M 

IWCACAROXri is a dough of fine wheat-flour, made into a tubular or pipe form, of 

the thickness of goose-quills, which was first prepared in Italy, and introduced into 
commerce under the name of Italian or Genoese paste. The wheat for this purpose 
must be ground into a coarse flour, called gruau semoule, by the French, by means 
of a pair of light mill-stones, placed at a somewhat greater distance than usual. This 
semoule is the substance employed for making the dough. See Vermicilxi. 

IVXACE is a somewhat thick, tough, unctuous membrane, reticulated, and of a yel- 
lowish-brown or orange colour. It forms the envelope of the shell of the fruit of the 
Myristica moscJiata, tlie nutmeg. It is dried in the sun, after being dipped in brine ; 
sometimes it is sprinkled over with a little brine, before packing, to prevent the risk 
of moulding. Jlace has a more agreeable flavour than nutmeg, with a warm and 
pungent taste. It contains two kinds of oil : the one of which is unctuous, bland, and 
of the consistence of butter ; the other is volatile, aromatic, and thinner. Mace is 
used as a condiment in cookery, and the aromatic oil occasionally in medicine. See 
Nutmeg. 

IVSACHXXTES FOK THS CUTTIDTG OF COAIi US IVCZlTZiS. The severe 
character of the labour of the coal-miner, and the dangers connected ■\vith bis employ- 
ment have led to several mechanical appliances, by which the task of ' hewing coal ' 
might be lessened, and the dangers attendant on the work diminished. No one has 
given more attention to tlie subject than Mr. William Firth of Leeds, to whom wo are 
indebted for one of the very first machines which have been successfully employed in 
the cutting of coal in mines. To this gentleman we owe the following notice of the 
progress made within the past century in this direction :— 

'In 1761 Michael Menzies of Newcastle obtained a patent for cutting coal in mines, 
and that is the earliest evidence whicli we have of any attempt having been made to 
produce a mechanical coal-cutter ; and his plans having regard to the time at which 
they were produced, were remarkable for their ingenuity. 

' Menzies' specification is also remarkable in other respects, as showing that it was 
his intention to make use of the 'fire-engine' as his motor; which engine had, about 
two years previously, through the improvements of Watt and of Smeaton, attained only 
to so much perfection as to become a doubtful rival to the ' water miln ' or ' wind 
miln,' and the ' horse gin.' 

' By the power of one or other of these agents, he proposed to give motion to a heavy 
iron pick, made to reciprocate by means of spears and chains, carried down the pit, 
and with wheels and hoi'izont;il spears, on rollers, extended to the working places, and 
there to " shear " the coal exactly as it is now performed. In the same patent, Menzies 
included a " saw " to cut the coal ; and although nothing came from his labours, he 
displayed so much mechanical knowledge, as to have deserved success ; and his failure 
was evidently due to the absence of an eligible power, and not to his deficiencies as a 
mechanic. 

'During the hundred years that followed these events more than a hundred 
other patents were applied for, and granted ; but amongst them all, there was 



150 MACHINES FOR CUTTING COAL IN MINES 

not one machine that approached nearer to success than the invention of Michael 
Menzies. 

' This fact is not referred to in disparagement of the patentees, for there were many 
curious devices, ingeniously arranged ; but the matter is referred to to show that the 
object excited much continuous interest, and that amongst so many miscarriages, our 
mechanics were still hopeful. 

'Amongst these devices may be enumerated the "saw," "catapult," "battering 
ram," "plough," "rotary wheel," "endless chain," "planing machine," and many 
others by which the coal was to Jbe either crushed, cut, or shared out. 

' There had been no suitable power made known for driving the machines ; and it 
was to that cause, without doubt, that so many failures and disappointments were 
attributable. The steam-engine, even when it attained to its most perfect form, is 
not in itself sufficient for the purpose, because steam cannot be produced near to the 
place where the work has to be done, nor can it be carried long distances in an effective 
condition, by reason of its rapid condensation. Moreover, an escape of exhaust-steam 
could not be permitted in the coal-mine, because of its tendency to soften and bring 
down the roof, the difficulty of maintaining which is already the most serious and 
troublesome part of coal-mining operations. 

'Hydraulic ppwer might, in certain cases, be, and has been recently, tried, but its 
unfavourable conditions exceed its advantages for the purpose of cutting coal in mines, 
.ind may be put aside from present considerations. 

' But in compressed air, in so far as the moving power is concerned, every require- 
ment is found ; and from the date of the experiments made at West Ardsley in York- 
shire, in 1862, the question was undoubtedly settled. 

' The elastic property of air under compression, is an old and well-known power ; 
but until these experiments had been completed, its value was but imperfectly under- 
stood, and its future beneficial influence on coal-mining was unappreciated. 

' The engine for compressing the air, by which a coal-cutting machine is worked, is 
generally placed on the surface, near to the top of the shaft ; a receiver is fixed in close 
proximity thereto, and the air is taken from the compressor to the receiver, which is 
30 feet in length and 4 feet in diameter. 

' The density is generally of about three atmospheres. 

' Iron pipes of sufficient area are laid on from the receiver to the bottom of the shaft, 
and there, being split into smaller sizes, is led in every needed direction through the 
roads and passages of the mine, exactly as the gas and water services are laid on in 
any town. 

' At the entrance into the working places, screw joints or stop-cocks are fixed to the 
iron air-pipe, at which point an india-rubber nose, 50 or 60 yards in length (as the 
length of the " benk " may require) is screwed on ; the other end of the nose is attached 
to the cutting machine, and when all is in readiness, the tap at the receiver is turned 
on, and the air rushes down, and throughout the whole service of pipes. 

' The air does not require to be forced from the receiver, for by its own elasticity it 
is carried forward at a velocity corresponding to its own density. 

' Apparently it loses, if the arrangements are good, but little of its power by 
distance, except the frictional retardation ; and machines are working underground, 
at nearly two miles distance from the air-engine, without any serious loss of 
force.* 

Firth's Coal-Cutting Machine. — A machine which maybe simply described as a pick 
placed horizontally, and worked by a crank motion, has for some five or six years 
(1874) been steadily at work in the West Ardsley collieries. The colliers, who at first 
objected to ' following the machine,' instead of working -with their old implements, 
have at length yielded to the evident advantages of the ' coal-cutter,' and in many of 
our largest collieries these machines are now fairly introduced. 

We must now turn to the consideration of this machine for cutting the coal, as 
invented by Mr. William Firth. Fig. 1413 shows its form and construction; the 
weight is about IS cwts. for an ordinary sized machine, its length 4 feet, its height 
2 feet 2 inches, and a gauge 1 foot 6 inches to 2 feet ; it is very portable, and easily 
transferred from one ' benk ' to another. 

The front and hind wheels of the machine are coupled together in a similar manner 
to the coupled locomotive engines. The 'pick 'or cutter is double-headed, whereby 
the penetrating power is considerably increased. 

The groove is now cut to a depth of 3 feet to 3 feet 6 inches at one course, whereas 
oy the old form of a single blade, the machine had to pass twice over the face of the 
coal to accomplish the same depth. The points are loose and cottered into the boss, 
so that when one is blunt or broken, it can be replaced in a few minutes. It dispenses 
with the necessity of sending the lieavy tools out of the pit to be sharpened, and is an 
immense improvement on the old pick. 



4 



MACHINES FOR CUTTING COAL IN MINES 151 

When all is in readiness for work, the air is admitted to the machine, and the 
reciprocating action commences. The piston works at a speed of sixty to ninety 
strokes per minute, varying according to the density of the compressed air, the hard- 
ness of the strata to be cut, or the expertness of the attendant. 

1413 




As to the quantity of work. In ' long-wall,' a machine can, under favourable cir- 
cumstances, cut 20 yards in an hour, to a depth of 3 feet; but we consider 10 yards 
per hour very good work, or say 60 yards in a shift. 

This is about equal to the day's work of twelve average men, and the persons em- 
ployed to work the machine are one man, one youth, and one boy, who remove and 
lay down the road and clear away the debris. 

The machines are built so strong that they rarely get out of working condition. 
Some of those now working at West Ardsley (and other places), have been in constant 
. use for three or four years. 

At that colliery there are about eight machines in use. One of the seams is so hard 
and. difficult to manage, that it could not be done ' by hand,' and the proprietors had 
to abandon it, but now, by the einployment of these machines, it is worked with per- 
fect ease. It is a thin cannel seam, with layers of iron-stone, and the machines now 
'hole' for about 1,200 tons per week. 

The groove made by the machine is only 2 or 3 inches wide at the face, and LJ- at 
the back, whereas by hand, it is 12 to 18 inches on the face, and 2 to 3 inches at tho 
back, thus : — 

In thick seams worked by hand, the holeing is often done to a depth of 4 feet 6 
inches to 5 feet, and the getter is quite within the hole he has made, and where the 
coal does not stick well up to the roof, or w here there is a natural parting, there is great 
difl&culty and danger from falls of coal. In cutting coal by the ordinary method, the 
angle is such that when the upper portion of coal falls off from the roof, that it must 
pitch forward into the ' road,' but by the machine cutting a perfectly horizontal groove. 
The coal, having lost its support, simply settles upon its own bed ; and has no tendnecy 
to fall forward. 

The following statement was made by the inventor at the meeting of the British 
Association at Bradford : — 

• The cost of applying coal-cutting machinery is an important part of the question, 
but it frequently happens that at old established collieries there may be surplus 
power, which can be utilised ; but supposing that everything has to be provided new, 
then the following may be taken as an approximate estimate of the necessary outlay ; — 

£ 

2 Boilers at 500Z. each 1,000 

1 Steam-engine 1,250 

10 Machines at 150^. each 1,500 

Pipes, Receivers, Fixings, and sundry other outgoings . . 1,250 

say 5,000 

' This outlay would provide all necessary power and plant for the regular working 
of eight machines, with two in reserve ; and estimating that each machine will cut 60 
yards per day, the product in a 4-foot seam would be 85 tons per day, or per week say 
600 tons per machine, and 8 by 500 is 4,000 tons. 

' Now at this rate of expenditure and work done, an allowance of 2c?. per ton would 
in three years liquidate the entire outlay. 



152 MACHINES FOR CUTTING COAL IN MINES 

' But there is no reason -why the macliines should be restricted to a single shift 
daily ; indeed, it is far more economical to work double shifts, there is no additional 
outlay of capital, and so far as depends upon the machinery, the output might be easily 
increased to 8,000 tons .per week. 

' Wo now come to the relative costs of cutting the coal, by hand and by machine, 
and the following figures may be taken as representing a somewhat favourable state 
of things for the latter, 

' The seam is the " Middleton Main " or " Silkstone Bed." The depth of the mine 
is 160 yards, and the coal four feet thick ; there are two bands of shale, with a thin 
layer of coal between them. 

' The bottom portion is not always wholly merchantable, but when it is so, it yields 
one ton and a third of a ton per running yard. For the purpose, however, of this 
comparison, I take 60 tons only per day (which would come out of 45 yards of machine 
working.' 

The Cost by Hand. 

30 Men cutting, filling, timbering, drilling, road-laying, blasting, 

and all other needful work ready in the corves for the " hurrier," * *• d. 
at is. 5ld. per ton , . . . . , . .13 8 9 

By Machine. 

1 Machine man at 8s. 6c? 8 6 

1 youth at 6s. &d. \ ^^„„, ,„ , ^„„ fO 5 6 

. i_ .. r, o 1 J" equal to 1 man , . . .•?««>/. 
1 boy at 3s. 6a. J ^ - \0 3 6 

3 men clearing and packing at 8s. 4c? 15 

6 men filling, 10 tons each man at i\d. per ton . .213 

3 men timbering at 6s. 10c? 10 6 

ith portion of cost of steam and air expenses . . . 1 14 ' 

Maintenance at Ic?. per ton 5 

Redemption of capital at 2c?. per ton . . . . 10 



8 13 9 
Difference in money in'favour of the machine : or Is. Td. 

per ton 4 15 



13 8 



It is necessary now to bring under notice some of the other coal-cutting machines 
which have been introduced of late j'ears. 

Baird's, or the Gartsherrie Machine. — One of the machines which has claimed the 
largest share of attention is the ' Gartsherrie coal-cutter ' of the Messrs. Baird. This 
appears to be a modified form of a machine which was patented many years since by 
Mr. Gleadhill. 

The cutting in these machines is done by an endless chain with cutters attached, 
driven round a jib or arm, which extends underneath the coal. The machine is actuated 
by air compressed on pit bank to 35 or 40 lbs. per square inch, and conveyed there- 
from in cast-iron pipes. The machine at work draws or "feeds " itself along the coal 
face, with the jib projecting underneath the coal 2 ft. 9 in. or 3 ft. as required. The 
present work done (1874) is 300 to 350 ft., cut 2 ft. 9 in. deep, in a shift of eight to 
ten hoiirs, and as the seam worked is 2 ft. 10 in. thick, this yields 75 to 90 tons. 
This rate includes all stoppages, and, of course, if it were possible to drive along 
without interruption, the figures would be very much higher. The speed also is 
capable of considerable increase by extra pressure of air, and when it is stated that 
even in the hard Gartsherrie coal the machine has frequently been timed at about 
6 ft. in four minutes, an idea may be formed of what it would do in soft English coal 
with a good pressure above. The machine at work is attended" by three men. The 
working parts of thb machine are carried upon a sttong cast-iron soleplate 6 ft. long 
by 2 ft. 6 in. broad, set upon four Wheels. On the soleplate is bolted the cylinder, 
8^ in. in diameter, with a 12-in. stroke. The crank shaft is fixed in bearings cast on 
soleplate. On' this ^haft is the fly-wheel and excentrie, which is reversible. On one 
end of the shaft, overhanging the soleplate, is attached a spur-wheel, which by means 
of another shaft and bevel-gearing, is connected to an upright shaft, on under end of 
which is the chain-wheel, communicating motion to the cutting chain. The whole of 
these wheels are of Bessemer steel, and, so far as proved, appear to give the greatest 
satisfaction in wear. The cutters, nine in number, and 2| in. broad on face, are 
secured to the chain by means of two bolts passing through cutter and link. The jib, 
which distends the chain, is bolted to side of soleplate, and consists of two parts, the 
stock and point, adjustable by means of a nut and screw working against a bridge in 



MACHINES FOR CUTTING COAL IN MINES 153 

stock. Tho chain is made of wrought steel, and the cutters of the best tool-steel. The 
machine draws or " feeds " itself by means of a drum and a /^ in. chain passed round 
a pulley fixed to a prop 100 ft. in advance. Tlio drum shaft is actuated through u 
toothed wheel worked by a racket motion from an excentric cast or bevel-wheel of 
upright shaft. The roadway on which the machine travels is of cast malleable iron. 
The rails arc keyed down to sleepers, and are kept in condition by means of snugs 
cast on sleepers, which fit into oblong holes in end of rails. Each machine is fitted 
with 21 ft. or seven pairs of such rails 3 ft. long. Tho machines are of two designs. 
No. 1, being 2 ft. 4 in. high, requires about 3 ft. of head room between pavement and 
roof. No. 2 is 1 ft. 8 in. high, including roadway, and so is capable of working tho 
thinnest seam. The gearing can be altered to speed required by the nature of the coal 
or other material cut. They have been adapted to undercut clay band iron-stone lying 

1414 




on hard sandy fire-clay. At work the machine is attended by three men, one driving, 
one lifting roadway behind machine, and the other laying roadway in front, &c. 



1415 




The cutters are sharpened at each shift, the cutting chain being brought to bank daily 
for this purpose, and the cutters removed, sharpened, and dressed to a gauge. 

This description will be rendered quite intelligible by reference to the drawings. 



154 



MACHINES FOR CUTTING COAL IN MINES 



Fig. 1414 shows the Gartsherrie m.achine in plan. Fig. 1415 gives an end elevation 
of the machine. In both cases the way in which the cutting work into the coal is 
effected is clearly shown. I'o^fig. 1416 a side elevation is given, from which it will be 

1416 




easy for anyone having but a slight acquaintance with machinery to see how motion is 
given to the cutters. 

GiUott aiid Copley's Machine, which is shown in the accompanying woodcuts, was 
patented in 1868. Fig. 1417 gives the machine in plan. 

The machine, with the exception of the cylinders and one spur-wheel, is made 
entirely of steel and wrought iron, thus combining the greatest strength in the 

1417 




i 



1418 

smallest space, and with the least weight. The top frame is of angle-iron, 4 feet 
9 inches long by 2 feet 4 inches wide, and on this are fixed two cylinders, 7 J inches 
in diameter, with a 9-inch stroke, working on to a crank-shaft, which, by'a very 
simple arrangement, drives the pinion which gears into the slots of tlie cutter-wheel. 
This wheel, which is of cast steel, is carried by a bracket projecting horizontally 
from the side of the machine. It makes about six revolutions per minute, and on its 
outer edge are fixed twenty steel picks or cutters, these giving 120 strokes per 



MACHmES FOR CUTTING COAL IN MINES 155 



minute ; it is 3 feet 10 inches in diameter, and makes a clean cut of 3 feet 4 inches 
deep by 3 inches thick, and from this space it entirely sweeps out the -whole of the 
coal as it revolves. The machine is propelled by a wire rope having one end secured 
at the extremity of the face, and passing round a drum driven by the air-cylinders, or 
by liand-gearing attached to the side of the machine. The whole is covered in with a 
moveable sheet-iron casing to protect it from anything falling from the roof. One 
man only is required to be in attendance on the machine, and another should follow 
to sprag the coal as it is cut. 

With a pressure of 27 lbs. of compressed air per square inch the machine has holed, 
in a hard tough fire-clay seating, 25^ yards in 40 minutes, and 24 yards' 1 foot of 
strong solid coal in 55 minutes, with only 20 lbs. pressure. A fair average rate of 
work with 27 lbs. pressure may be stated at thirty yards per hour, 3 feet 2 inches to 
3 feet 4 inches under and 3 inches thick, either in a seating or moderately hard coal. 
The average rate of holeing by manual labour in the seam where it is now working is 



1419 



r..^>'' •• " ^^ \"y 




about 7 yards for a day's work — equivalent to aboiit nine men working a whole day to 
do what the machine does better in two hours. The men have only to wedge or shoot 
the coal down and clear it away, while the machine is taken to another bank to do its 
work there. In figs. 1418 and 1419 the machine is shown in sectional elevations. 

Winstanley' s Machine, — The coal cutting machine of Messrs. Winstanley and 
Barker is not essentially different from the machines already described. It consists of 
a small frame running upon four wheels adapted to the colliery gauge, and carrying 
two oscillating cylinders driven by compressed air or steam. On the crank-shaft and 
imderneath the frame is a pinion which gears into a very coarse-pitched toothed 
wheel, the ends of the teeth being armed with cutters. This cutting wheel can be 
turned under the carriage when not required, and when placed in position is brought 
to bear against the coal by turning a handle into which it cuts, until the arm carrying 
the wheel is at right angles to the carriage. The machine is slowly dragged forward 
by means of a chain attached to a crab and worked by a boy. As the machine 
advances, the miner in attendance drives wooden wedges into the cut to support the 
coal, and when the machine is out of the way the wedges are withdrawn and the coal 
falls. The machine itself only weighs 15 cwts., and will cut at the rate of 30 yards 
per hour with a pressure of only 25 lbs. per square inch, making a ' holing' in the 
coal 3 feet deep and only 2^ inches high. The height of the machine is only 22 inches. 
It has the disadvantage of being only able to cut on one side of tlie carriage, but of 
course it can be constructed to cut on the right- or left-hand side as may be desired by 
the purchaser. 

Hurd and Simpsm's 39-ineh self-acting, right and left-hand, variable height 
coal-cutter was specially constructed for the Glass Houghton Coal Company to under- 
cut in the blue stone band lying between two portions of the coal-seam. This 
machine is worked on a somewhat similar principle to that of Winstanley and 
Barker ; that is to say, the coal is undercut by means of a circidar saw working at the 
end of a moveable lever, but with this important difference, that in Hurd and Simp- 
son's machine the cutter is placed in front, and can thus cut the coal right ahead of 
the machine or on either side of it. The cutting wheel is slightly excentric, and the 
machine hauls itself along by means of a chai"U anchored ahead of it ; for as the 
cutter revolves, being an excentric, the teeth on one portion of the periphery would 
revolve without touching the cail, but at this time the self-acting hauling gear comes 
into play, the machine advances, and the cutters get a fresh feed on the coal. This 
coal-cutter is 30 inches high over all, and cuts to a depth of 3 feet 3 inches. 



156 



MACHINES FOR CUTTING COAL IN MINES 



BrowTbS Mo7iitor Coal-Cutter has excited some attention in America. The machine 
consists of a five horse-power steam-engine driven by steam carried into the mine by 
a steam-pipe, terminating, however, in a few feet of rubber-hose, which permit of full 
freedom of motion to the machine. The intention of the proprietors is to employ 
compressed air in place of steam eventually. The cutting arrangement is an iron rim 
of four feet in diameter, which has on its periphery moveable steel teeth, placed at 
points about 12 inches apart. These teeth may bo taken out and ground whenever 
they become dull. This rim lies on small wheels which support it and allow a freo 
motion, and has cogs on its under surface which gear into cogs on a shaft turned by 
the engine. By this means the power is applied near the circumference of the wheel, 
instead of at the centre as in the ordinary circular saw. The principal reason for 
this arrangement is to get a deeper cut at the coal. The cutter can bo put to a depth 
of 3^ feet, or ^ths of its whole diameter, whereas the ordinary circular saw can hardly 
cut to one-half of its diameter. The machine runs on a moveable track, and is fed by 
means of a screw working in cogs. The track is put down along the side of the coal 
at the proper distance from it, and when a cut has been made the whole length, the 
machine is put on tracks and wheeled to the next ' room,' where the track is laid as 
before, and so on through the mine. The duty of the machine is calculated to be at 
about a yard in five minutes. 

The estimate of its economy given by the proprietors is that it saves about 35 cents 
per ton over the cost of putting out coal by hand labour, which in a mine turning out, 
say 200 tons a day, amounts to a saving of 70 dollars per day. The first cost of. the 
machine is very moderate, being only about 800 dollars,. 

Jones's Hand Coal-Cutter. — This machine is practically a combination of inclined 
circular-saws mounted upon a revolving rod, so that the groove cut by each saw runs 
into the groove cut by the next, thus thoroughly under-cutting a seam. The saws are 
set on the rod obliquely, and provision is made for retaining them at a proper distance 
from each other, and in the most suitable position on the rod, the end of which has a 
.„ screw-thread cut upon it, by means 

of which it is fastened into the 
spindle and bearings. Another 
form of cutting apparatus may be 
formed from a flat bar of steel, with 
saw teeth along both of its outer 
edges, and so twisted that the 
toothed edges are formed into spirals 
(fig. 1420). By this arrangement, 
which resembles that of Macdcr- 
mott's rock-perforator, the cutter 
readily clears itself from the slack 
which it cuts away. See Eock-Per- 
FOEATOE. A revohnng cutter of this 
kind may be worked in two ways. 
It may be caused to sweep in the arc 
of a circle into and out of the coal, 
so as to cut out a groove in it, the 
spindle of the cutter being for that 
purpose carried by a frame turning upon an axis, such axis being also traversed for- 
ward from time to time in a line parallel with the face of the coal operated upon. 
Alternatively the frame carrying the spindle of the cutter may simply bo caused to 
move forward continuously in a line parallel with the face of the coal, in which latter 
case a groove will be produced of a depth equal to the length of the cutter. But if 
the cutter is caused to sweep round in the arc of a circle, a groove of any desired 
depth can be cut, irrespective of the length of the cutter itself. 

Eevolving cutters, such as above described, can bo driven either by hand-power or 
by compressed air. In the former case, and when the machine is to be used only for 
holing or undercutting, the following is proposed as the preferable arrangement. The 
spindle of the cutter is mounted on bearings in a frame which can turn upon a stud 
on the bed-plate of the machine. On the under side of this bed-plate are sledge 
runners to run on rails laid upon the floor of the mine. On the frame which carries 
the cutter spindle is a toothed arc, into which gears a pinion carried in bearings from 
the bed-plate. The pinion can be turned by a hand wheel on its spindle, and thus the 
cutter can be caused to sweep round to and fro in the arc of a circle. Upon the cutter 
Bpindle is fixed a bevel pinion gearing into a horizontal bevel wheel, which is con- 
centric with the stud upon which the frame carrying the cutter is mounted. The 
horizontal bevel is mounted upon a vortical shaft, upon which is a fly-wheel, and at 
its upper end a pinion which gears with a bevel wheel, which latter can be driven by 




MACHINES FOR CUTTING COAL IN MINES 157 



1421 




a crank handle, and thus a quick revolving motion can be given to the cutter, whilst 
that, at the same time, may be freely swept round to and fro in the arc of a circle. 
Moans are provided for the exclusion of dirt from the machinery, and ior holding the 
apparatus securely while the cutter is in motion. An adjustment may bo made for 
cutting grooves, either vertically or* horizon- 
tally in the upper part of the seam, and in 
such case the spindle of the cutter is driven 
by a rotary engine set in motion by com- 
pressed air. 

The mode of action of Mr. Jones's appara- 
tus will be more clearly understood on refe- 
rence to the diagram {Fig. 1421). The fixed 
end of the cutter is supposed to be succes- 
sively at A, D, and c, the seam of coal lying 
between the lines d n and e e. First the 
cutter, starting from the position a a', traA'els 
round to the position a a", clearing the triangular space A a' a". Then the fixed end is 
transferred from a to b, when a quarter revolution changes its direction from bb' to 
B b", clearing the space b b' b", and on removal to the fixed point c, the similar 
space c c'c" is cleared. 

Bidders Machine for hreaking down Coal. — Mr. S. P. Bidder, jun., had, in conjunc- 
tion with Mr. John Jones, devised a machine which had been submitted to actual 
trial on a working scale at the Harecastle Colliery, where the results were so satisfac- 
tory as to induce the proprietors to make arrangements for its immediate adoption. 
The machine consisted of a small hydraulic press of 12 tons power, to whicli was 
attached a pair of tension-bars, bent in the form of a connecting rod or hinge-strap. 
These were placed one over the other in the bore-hole, and between them, at the 
extreme end, tliere were a clearance-box and two metal pressing-blocks, between which 
was forced, by the action of the hydraulic press, a split wedge 15 inches long, causing 
a lateral expansion of 3 inches. The ram was then withdrawn, and a second wedge 
was inserted between the two parts of the first wedge, and was forced up until suffi- 
cient expansion was obtained to break the coal. The operation could be repeated 
several times if found necessary. The whole apparatus would weigh about 50 lbs. 
The hydraulic press was in future to be made of steel, and the ram would be cored 
out. In practical working, each gang of colliers woiild be provided with the tension- 
bars and three wedges, while the presses would be under the charge of the men who 
at present occupied the position of firemen, so that no new class of labour would be 
introduced, while the risk of firing would be got rid of. Trials had been made both 
in tlio 7-feet and the 9-feet seams at Harecastle ; and in the latter, with three wedges, 
about 12 tons of coal had been brought down in only three or foiir pieces. It was 
found that the press could be applied, and the blocks brought down, in less time than 
was consumed by firing a hole and waiting for the smoke clearing. 

Explosions in mines were known to arise, very frequently, from the employment of 
gunpowder for blasting. In the interests of humanity alone, an efficient substitute 
had long been desired by practical men ; and this, it was believed, had been accom- 
plished by Bidder's machine, which had also the advantage of preventing the waste of 
coal incurred by the present system. 

The following remarks, made by Mr. W. Menelaus of Dowlais, on the use of coal- 
cutting machines in the collieries of South Wales, are so much to the point that they 
are extracted from the ' Journal of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers.' Tiiese 
remarks have reference more especially to the coal-cutting machine of Mr. Eobert 
Winstanley. 

Mr. Menelaus said that, having paid considerable attention to the subject of coal- 
cutting by machinery, and watched carefully the several plans that had been tried, he 
had not yet found any machine that could compete with colliers' labour under the 
exceptional circumstances attending the working of the thick veins of coal in South 
Wales. The holing of the coal constituted there only one-tenth of the entire labour 
in the collieries ; and the margin for saving upon this portion of the work was there- 
fore so small, that he had given up as hopeless the introduction of coal-cutting 
machines in that district. The colliers at present worked only one turn of about 8 
hours per day of 24 hours ; and the coal was all brought down by natural pressure 
during the interval while the men were all absent, the bulk of the coal being obtained 
with very little holing. If three turns were worked per day he was not sure that tie 
holing might not be advantageously done by a machine, even in the thick soft veins of 
the South Wales collieries; and in such a case, he should be very glad to adopt 
machines for the purpose. In thin veins of liard coal he considered the introduction 
of coal-cutting machines would be attended with very great advantages, and he hoped 



158 ■ MADDER 

they would bo generally adopted, and thought every possible endeavour should be 
made to establish their use. The machine now described appeared to him to be one 
of the best that had been brought forward for coal-cutting ; and he thought the prin- 
ciple of its construction and action was more likely to prove the right one than that 
of machines designed to work a pick in a similar manner to hand-labour. One of the 
earliest coal-cutting-machines that he remembered had been made on the same prin- 
ciple as a circular saw, but in that case the cutting-wheel had been literally a circular 
saw with fixed teeth, and had consequently proved a failure in actual working. The 
use of moveable teeth in the cutting-wheel of the present machine M'as an important 
practical improvement, and this machine appeared to him to have been worked out in 
a very ingenious way, and seemed one of the most likely to succeed that he had yet 
met with. Whether the air was worked expansively in the cylinders was a question 
that should not be overlooked in regard to the economy of any coal-cutting machine ; 
and if the expansion could be obtained without complicating the construction of the 
machine, it was by all means desirable to have the benefit of it. If, however, it 
involved the introduction of cams or excentrics and ordinary valve-gear, he thought it 
would be better to waste a portion of the power than to introduce these complications, 
as he considered the utmost simplicity of construction was an object of such essential 
importance for the success of a coal-cutting machine ; and in working with compressed 
air it must be borne in mind that the power was cheaply produced at the mouth ot 
the pit, and readily conveyed to the machine. The construction of the machine now 
described seemed to possess the advantage of simplicity, and he thought this machine 
was very likely to prove one of the best yet introduced ; it had also another advan- 
tage in being able to hole its own way into the coal at starting, without requiring any 
preliminary holing to be done by hand before it could be got to work. He agreed in 
considering that the discharge of exhaust-air from a coal-cutting machine was hardly 
capable of producing an appreciable effect upon the ventilation of a colliery, as the 
quantity of fresh air so discharged was insignificant in comparison with the total 
quantity passing through the mine. 

MAC&E is the name given to certain spots in minerals, of a deeper hue than the 
main substance, and differing from it. Clay-slate may be macled with Iron Pyrites ; 
— or it may be that the made spots are some peculiar form of the same mineral matter 
supposed to proceed from some disturbance of the particles in the act of crystallisation. 

Maclcs are twin crystals which are united, or which interpenetrate. 

XMCASDER ( Garance, Fr. ; Krapp, Fdrberrothe, Ger.), a substance very exten- 
sively used in dyeing, is the root of the Bubia tinctorum, Linn. It is employed for 
the production of a variety of colours, such as red, pink, purple, black, and chocolate. 

The Ert/throdaimm or Ereuthrodanum of the Greeks, of which Pliny says that it 
was named Bubia in Latin, and that its roots were used for dyeing wool and leather 
red, was probably identical with the Bubia tiiictorum, since the description of its 
appearance and uses given by ancient authors can hardly apply to any other plant. It 
was cultivated in Galilee, Caria, and near Kavenna in Italy, where it was planted 
either among the olive-trees or in fields destined for that purpose. Another species 
of Rubia, viz. the B. manjisia, grows in the mountainous regions of Hindostan, and 
the roots of this and an allied plant, the Oldenlandia timbcllata, called by the natives 
Chaya, have been in use in that country since the most remote period, for the purpose 
of producing the red and chocolate figures seen in the chintz calicoes of the E;ist 
Indies. (See Calico-Phinting.) The peculiar process by which the colour called 
Turkey red is imparted to cotton was probably invented originally in India, but the 
dyeing material generally employed in this process was not madder, but the chaya- 
root. From India the art of dyeing this colour seems to have been carried to Persia, 
Armenia, Syria, and Greece ; where it was practised for many centuries before it 
became known in the western part of Europe. In those countries, however, the root 
of the Bubia peregrina, called in the Levant Alizari, was the material to which dyers 
had recourse for this purpose, and large quantities of it are at the present day 
imported into Europe from Smyrna, under the name of Turkey roots. In the middle 
ages, according to Beckraann, madder went by the name of Varantia or Verantia, 
The cultivation of madder was introduced into the province of Zeeland, in Holland, 
in the reign of the Emperor Charles V., who encouraged it by particular privileges 
conferred on the inhabitants for the purpose. According to Macquer, however, it 
was to the Flemish refugees that the Dutch were first indebted for their knowledge 
of the method of preparing the plant. It is still grown very extensively in that part 
of Holland, and large quantities are annually exported thence into other countries. 
Until very recently indeed, the dyers of this country derived almost the whole 
of their supply of madder from Holland ; and it was the discovery that Dutch madder 
was incapable of producing some of the finer colours more recently introduced, tliat 
first led to its being to some extent supplanted by madder grown in other countries. 



MADDER 159 

In the district of Avignon, in France, tlie cultivation of the plant commenced abont 
the year 1666, under Colbert, but it was chiefly by the efforts of the Secretary of State 
Bertin, towards the close of the last century, that it became firmly established there. 
The French dyers and printers are supplied with madder from Avignon and Alsace, 
and large quantities are also exported from France into England and other countries. 
Madder is also grown for the use of dyers in Silesia, Naples, and Spain. It was 
formerly more extensively cultivated in England than it is now, when it can be 
imported at a less expense than it can be raised. The Buhia pcregrina grows wild in 
the south of England, but it is not applied to any useful purpose. 

The Rubia tinctorum is one of the least conspicuous and ornamental of our culti- 
vated plants. In external appearance it bears great resemblance to the ordinary 
bed-straws or Galiums, with which it is also botanically allied. Some species of 
galium seem also to contain a red colouring matter, and one of them, the G. verum, is 
used in the Hebrides for dyeing. The B. tinctorum belongs to the class Tetrandria, 
order Monogynia, of the Linnajan, and the order Rubiaceae, of the Natural system. It 
is a perennial plant, but has an herbaceous stem, which dies down every yeiir. The 
main part of the root, which extends perpendicularly downwards to a considerable depth, 
is cylindrical, fleshy, tolerably smooth, and of a pale carrot colour. On cutting it 
across transversely, it is found to consist externally of a thin cortical layer, or 
epidermis, to which succeeds a thick, spongy mass of cellular tissue, filled with a 
yellow juice, and in the centre runs a thin tough string of woody fibre, of a rather 
paler yellow colour than the enveloping cellular tissue, which may easily be peeled 
off. The root when freshly cut has a yellow colour, but speedily acquires a reddish 
tinge on exposure to the air. Many side roots issue from the upper part or head of 
the parent root, and they extend just beneath the surface of the ground to a con- 
siderable distance. It in consequence propagates itself very rapidly, for these 
numerous side roots send forth many shoots, which, if carefully separated in the 
spring, soon after tliey are above ground, become so many plants. From the roots 
spring forth numerous square-jointed stalks, which creep along the ground to the 
length of from 5 to 8 feet. Round each joint are placed in a whorl from 4 to 6 
lance-shaped leaves, about 3 inches in length, and almost an inch wide at the 
broadest part. The upper surface of the leaves is smooth, but their margin and keel, 
as well as the four angles of the stem, are armed with refiexed prickles, so as to cause 
tlie plant to adhere to any rough object with which it comes in contact. The flowers, 
which are yellow, are arranged in compound panicles, which rise in pairs opposite to 
each other from the axils of the leaves. The calyx is very small. The corolla is small, 
campanulate, and 5-cloft. The flower contains 4 stamens, and 1 style. The fruit or 
berry is at first red, but afterwards becomes black. It consists of two lobes, each of 
which contains a seed. 

The Ruhia tinctorum thrives best in a warm climate, and if grown in the north of 
Europe a warm sheltered situation should be chosen. A deep, dry soil, containing an 
abundance of humus, is best adapted for its cultivation. A rich loam, in which 
there is a large proportion of sand and but little clay, is preferable to the stifFer soils. 
As the plant requires to be left in the ground several years, it is not one which can 
he adapted to any system of rotation of crops, and its cultivation must be carried on 
independently. Land which has lain for a considerable time in grass is preferred to 
any otlier for the purpose. At all events, it is well not to allow it to follow on root crops. 
Tlie finest qualities of madder grow in calcareous soils. In the district called Palud, 
which produces the best quality of French madder, the soil contains about 90 per 
cent, of carbonate of lime, and is moreover capable of yielding several successive crops 
of the plant ; whereas the land which grows the second quality called rosee is richer, 
but less calcareous, and can only be made to grow madder alternately with other crops. 
The land must be well dug up with the spade about the beginning of autumn, and before 
winter. The manure used must be well rotten, and mixed with earth in a compost some 
time before it is used. Good stable-dung, which has heated to a certain degree and been 
turned over two or three times before it is mixed with earth, is the best. The dung 
should be put in layers with the earth, and if the whole can be well-watered with 
urine or the drainings of the yard, and then mixed up by the spade, the compost 
will be much superior to fresh dung alone. The manure having been dug or ploughed 
in, the land is left over winter, and in spring it is turned over again, in order to 
destroy all weeds, and make the soil uniform to the depth of 2 feet at least. After 
having been harrowed flat it is ready for planting. Madder is generally grown from 
suckers or shoots, rarely from seeds. The shoots are prepared by cutting in the 
previous autumn, from the secondary roots of old plants, pieces at least 5 inches 
long and of the thickness of a quill, each length containing several joints for the 
development of buds, and preserving them through the winter in a dry place by 
covering them over with litter or leaves. Before planting, the land is in some dis- 



160 MADDER 

tricts laid in beds, about 3 feet wide, -with deep intervals dug out ■with the spade, and 
the layers are set, by means of a dibble or narrow trowel, in rows, each bed contain- 
ing two rows about 16 inches apart, and the layers being at a distance of 4 to 6 
inches from each other. In other districts, furrows about 3 or 4 inches deep, and 
1^ or 2 feet apart, are made, and in these furrows the suckers are placed at a distance 
of 1 foot from one another, and the furrows are then filled up with soil by means of a 
rake. Should the weather be dry, tlio plants must be watered. A watering with 
diluted urine after sunset greatly assists their taking root. After 3 or 4 weeks they 
appear above the ground. When they have grown to the length of a finger they 
must be well weeded and earthed up with the hoe, and this process must be repeated 
4 or 6 weeks later, taking care that the roots be well covered with earth, which 
very much promotes their growth. The stems and leaves should not be cut off, but 
allowed to die down as winter approaches. Where the winter cold is very great, the 
roots should in the course of November be covered up with earth to the depth of 2 
or 3 inches, and an additional covering of litter is also advisable as a protection 
from the frost. Water must on no account be allowed to stand in the furrows 
between the rows during the winter. In spring the covering is removed, and the 
plant then sends up fresh stalks and leaves as in the first year. The same attention 
must be paid to weeding and earthing-up during the second as the first year. A 
second winter and a third summer must elapse before the root is sufficiently mature 
to be taken xip. The object of allowing the roots to remain for such a length of 
time in the ground seems to be to give time for the interior or woody part of the root 
to increase ; for this part, though it is no richer in colouring matter than the outer or 
fleshy part of the root, yields a product of finer quality. In France, however, it is 
usual to gather the crop in 18 months after planting, that is, in the autumn of the 
second year. 

In Germany the roots are sometimes even taken up at the end of the first year, 
and it is to the product thus obtained that the special name of Eotke is applied, the 
term Krapp being restricted to that which has been in the ground tlie usual length 
of time. The root is the only part of the plant generally used. The East Indian 
product called Munject seems, however, to consist entirely of the stalks of the madder 
plant. It is much inferior in quality to ordinary madder, and is comparatively poor 
in colouring-matter. 

The time usually selected for taking up the roots is October or November. In 
doing so care must be taken to break and injure them as little as possible. The 
quantity of fresh roots obtained in France from one arpent of ground (of 48,000 
square feet) varies from 4.000 to 6,000 lbs. In England an acre of ground will yield 
from 10 to 20 cwts., and in the south of Germany the produce of 1 morgen of land 
(equal to about 4,075 square yards) amounts to 50 cwts. of dry roots. In warm 
climates the roots, as soon, as they are taken out of the ground, are simply dried in 
the sun, and after having been separated from the earth, &c., are broken into pieces, 
and then brought to market. This kind of madder is called in the East Alizari, and 
in England Madder-roots. It consists of short twisted pieces, a little thicker than a 
quill, reddish-brown, and rather rough externally. A transverse section of one of 
these pieces exhibits in the centre several concentric layers of pale yellowish-red 
woody fibre, surrounded by a thin reddish-brown layer of cellular tissue, the original 
volume of which has been much reduced by drying. Madder is also imported in this 
state from France, Naples, and Bombay. 

In France and Holland the cultivator generally dries his roots, after shaking out 
the earth as much as possible, partially in stoves. He then takes them to the 
threshing-floor, and threshes them with the flail, partly for the purpose of separat- 
ing the small radicles and epidermis of the root, and partly in order to divide the 
latter into pieces about 7 or 8 centimetres in length. They are then sieved or win- 
nowed, in order to remove what has been detached by threshing. The particles 
which are separated in this process are ground by themselves, and constitute an in- 
ferior kind of madder called Mull. The remainder is then handed over to the madder 
manufacturer, who proceeds to dry it completely in stoves heated to about 100° Fahr. 
by means of furnaces so constructed as to allow an occasional current of fresh air to 
pass through. It is afterwards taken to a largo sieve with different compartments, 
moved by machinery. The compartment with the narrowest meshes serves to sepa- 
rate the portions of epidermis, earthy particles, and other refuse matter which had 
been left adhering to the roots after the threshing. The compartments with wider 
meshes are for the purpose of separating the smaller roots from the larger ones, the 
latter being considered the best. In Franco this operation is called robage. The 
roots are then subjected to the process of grinding, by means of vertical millstones, 
and afterwards passed through sieves of different sizes, until they are reduced to a 
Btate of fine powder. When the larger and better roots are ground by themselvesi 



MADDER 161 

the madder is called in France garancc robco fine, or garance surfine, and it is marked 
■with the letters s f. The smaller roots yield an inferior madder, which is called 
garance non rohee, or mifine, and is marked sr f. When the diflfl-rent kinds of Txtotn 
are not separated from one another, but all ground together, the product is called 
garance petite robee, moins rohee, or fine, and is marked f f. By far the greater por- 
tion of the madder consumed in France consists of this quality, since it is found to be 
perfectly well adapted for all the purposes to which madder is usually applied. The 
letter o is applied to the lowest quality of madder or mull, which is obtained by 
grinding the epidermis and other portions of the root which are detached after the 
first storing, and during the process called rohage. The qualities c f and c p o con- 
sist of mixtures of m f and o. There is also another quality, which receives the 
designation s f f, and which is obtained by grinding separately the internal ligneoxis 
part of the root, previously deprived of the outer or cortical portion. This quality is 
employed for dyeing fine colours on wool and silk, as well as for the preparation of 
madder-lakes. Other marks, such as s f f f, e x s f f f, &c., are also occasionally 
employed by French manufacturers and dealers, to distinguish particular qualities. 
In Holland the product obtained by grinding together the whole roots, after the sepa- 
ration of the mull, is called onber, whilst the term crop is applied to the internal part 
of the root ground separately. 

The Levant madder, usually called Turkey roots, is considered to be the finest 
quality imported into this country. It comes to us from Smyrna, and consists of the 
whole roots broken into small pieces, and packed in bales. It is ground as it is, 
without any attempt being made to separate the different portions of the root ; and 
has then the appearance of a coarse, dark reddish-brown powder. It is employed 
chiefly for the purpose of dyeing the finer purples on calico. Next to this comes the 
madder of Avignon, of which two varieties are distinguislied in commerce, viz. Faluds 
and rosee. The first, which is the finest, owes its name to the district in which it is 
grown, consisting of a small tract of reclaimed marsh land in the neighbourhood of 
Avignon. Avignon madder is considered to be the best adapted for dyeing pink. It 
has the appearance, as imported into this country, of a fine pale yellowish-brown or 
reddish-brown powder. The paler colour, as compared with that of ground roots, is 
owing to the partial separation of the external or cellular portion of the root during 
the process of grinding, as practised in France. The madders of Alsace, Holland, and 
Naples, are richer in colouring-matter than the two preceding kinds, but they yield 
less permanent dyes, and are therefore only employed for colours which require little 
treatment with soap and other purifying agents after dyeing. Of late years, indeed, 
the employment of garancine, a preparation of madder, in the place of these lower 
descriptions, has become very general. 

All kinds of madder have a peculiar, indescribable smell, and a taste between 
bitter and sweet. Their colour varies extremely, being sometimes yellow, sometimes 
orange, red, reddish-brown, or brown. They are all more or less hygroscopic, so 
that even when closely packed in casks in a state of powder, they slowly attract 
moisture, increase in weight, and at length lose their pulverulent condition, and form 
a firm, coherent mass. This change takes place to a greater extent with Alsace and 
Dutch madders than with those of Avignon. Madder which has undergone this 
change is called by the French garance grappee. It is probable that some process 
of fermentiition goes on at the same time, for madder that is kept in casks in a 
dry place, and as much out of contact with the air as possible, is found constantly 
to improve in quality for a certain length of time, after which it again deteriorates. 
Some kinds of madder, especially those of Alsace and Holland, when mixed with 
water and left to stand for a short time, give a thick coagulum or jelly, which does 
not take place to the same degree witli Avignon madder. The madder of A-\-ignon 
contains so much carbonate of lime as to effer\'esce \^^th acids. The herbaceous parts 
of the plant, when given as fodder to cattle, are found to communicate a red colour 
to their bones, a circumstance which was first observed about a hundred years ago, 
and has been employed by physiologists to determine the manner and rate of growth 
of bone. 

There exists no certain means of accurately ascertaining the intrinsic value of any 
sample of madder, except that of dyeing a certain quantity of mordanted calico with 
a weighed quantity of the sample, and comparing the depth and solidity of the 
colours with those produced by the same weight of another sample of known quality, 
and even this method may lead to uncertain results, if practised on too small a scale. 
The Paluds, which is the most esteemed of the Avignon madders, has a dark red hue, 
whereas the other kinds have naturally a yellow, reddish-yellow, or brownish-yellow 
colour. Nevertheless, means have been devised of communicating to the latter tho 
desired reddish tinge, which, therefore, no longer serves as a test. A method formerly 
employed to ascertain the comparative value of a number of samples of madder con- 

Voi. ni. M 



162 MADDER 

Bisted in placing a small quantity of each sample on a slate, pressing the heaps flat with 
some hard body, and then taking them to a cellar or other damp place. After 10 or 
1 2 hours they were examined, and that ■which had acquired the deepest colour, and 
increased the most in volume was considered the best. This method led, however, to so 
many frauds on the part of the dealer, for the purpose of producing the desired effect, 
that it is no longer resorted to. Madder is sometimes adulterated with sand, clay, 
brick-dust, ochre, sawdust, bran, oak-bark, logwood and other dye-woods, sumac and 
quercitron bark. Some of these additions are difficult to detect. Such as contain 
tannin maybe discovered by the iisual tests, since madder contains naturally no tannin. 
If the material used for adulteration be of mineral nature, its presence may be dis- 
covered by incinerating a weighed quantity of the sample. If the quantity of ash which 
is left exceeds 10 per cent, of the material employed, adulteration may be suspected. 
The ash obtained by incinerating pure madder consists of the carbonates, sulphates, 
and phosphates of potash and soda, chloride of potassium, carbonate and phosphate of 
lime, phosphate of magnesia, oxide of iron and silica. If a considerable amount of 
any other mineral constituents is found, it is certainly duo to adulteration. 

There is probably no subject connected with the art of dyeing which has given rise to 
so much discussion as the composition of madder, and the chemical nature of the 
colouring matters to which it owes its valuable properties. The subject has engaged 
the attention of a number of chemists, whose labours, extending over a lengthened 
period, have thrown considerable light on it. Nevertheless, the conclusions at 
which they have severally arrived do not perfectly agree with one another, nor with 
the views entertained by the most intelligent of those practically engaged in madder 
dyeing. The older investigators supposed that madder contained two colouring 
matters, one of which was tawny, and the other red. Kobiquet was the first chemist 
who asserted that it contained two distinct red colouring matters, both of which 
contributed to the production of the dyes for which madder is employed ; and his 
views, thougli they were at the time of their promulgation strongly objected to 
by some of the most eminent French dyers and calico-printers, still offer probably 
the best means of explaining some of the phenomena occurring during the process of 
madder dyeing. The two red colouring matters discovered by Robiquet were named 
by him Alizarine and Purpurine, and these names they still retain. Several crystal- 
lised yellow colouring matters have been discovered by other chemists ; but the only 
one which exists ready-formed in the madder of commerce is the Rubiacine of Schunck, 
and this substance may also be taken as the type of the whole class, the members of 
which possess very similar properties. Among the other organic substances obtained 
by different chemists from madder, two resinous colouring matters, sugar, a bitter 
principle, a peculiar extractive matter, pectin, a fermentative nitrogenoiis substance, 
and malic, citric, and oxalic acids, may be mentioned. 

When madder is extracted with boiling water, a dark brown muddy liquid, having 
a taste between bitter and sweet, is obtained. On adding a small quantity of an acid 
to this liquid, a dark brown precipitate is produced, while the supernatant liquid 
becomes clear, and now appears of a bright yellow colour. The precipitate consists 
of alizarine, purpurine, rubiacine, the two resinous colotu'ing matters, pectic acid, 
oxidised extractive matter, and a peculiar nitrogenous substance. The liquid filtered 
from this precipitate contains the bitter principle and the extractive matter of madder, 
as well as sugar and salts of potash, lime, and magnesia. No starch, gum, or tiinnin 
can be detected in the watery extract. After the madder has lieen completely ex- 
liausted with boiling water, it appears of a dull red colour. It still contains a quan- 
tity of colouring matter, which cannot, however, be extracted with hot water, or 
even alkalis, since it exists in a state of combination with lime and other bases, 
forming compounds which are insoluble in those menstrua. If, however, the residue 
be treated with boiling dilute muriatic acid, the latter dissolves a quantity of lime, 
magnesia, alumina, and peroxide of iron, as well as some phosphate and oxalate of 
lime, which may be discovered in the filtered liquid ; and if the remainder, after being 
well washed, be treated with caustic alkali, a dark red liquid is obtained, which gives 
with acids a dark reddish-brown precipitate consisting of alizarine, purpurine, rubia- 
cine, resin, and pectic acid. That portion of the madder left after treatment with hot 
water, acids, and alkalis, consists almost entirely of woody fibre. 

A short description of some of the substances just mentioned will not be out of 
place here, as it may assist in rendering the process of dyeing with madder more 
intelligible. 

The most important of these substances is alizarine, since it forms the basis of all 
the finer and more permanent dyes produced by madder. The onatiere colorante rouge 
of Persoz and the madder-red of Range also consist essential!}' of alizarine, mixed 
with some impurities. Robiquet first obtained it in the form of a crystalline sublimate, 
by extracting madder with cold water, allowing tlie liquid to gelatinise, treating tlia 



MADDER 163 

jelly with alcohol, evaporating the alcoholic liquid to dryness, and heating the residue ; 
and since the application of heat seemed to be an essential part of his process, it was 
for a long time doubted whether alizarine was contained as such in madder, and was 
not a product of decomposition of some other body. It was proved, however, by the 
experiments of Schunck that it does in reality pre-exist in the ordinary madder of 
commerce, though not in the fresh root when just taken out of the ground. It has 
the following properties : — It crystallises in long, transparent, lustrous, yellowish-red 
needles. These needles when heated to 212*' F, lose their water of crystallisation, 
and become opaque. At about 420° F. alizarine begins to sublime, and if carefully 
heated may be almost entirely volatilised, only a little charcoal being left behind. 
The sublimate obtained by collecting the, vapours consists of long, brilliant, trans- 
parent, orange-coloured crystals, which are pure anhydrous alizarine. If madder, or 
any preparation or extract of madder, be heated to the same temperature, a sub- 
limate of alizarine is also obtained, but the crystals are then generally contaminated 
with drops of empyreumatic oil, produced by the decomposition of other constituents 
of the root. This oily matter may, according to Robiquet, be removed by washing 
the crystals with a little cold alcohol. Alizarine is almost insoluble in cold water. 
It is only slightly soluble in boiling water, and is deposited, on the solution cooling, 
in yellow crystalline flocks. When the water contains largo quantities of acid or 
salts in solution, it dissolves very little alizarine, even on boiling. The colour of the 
solution is yellowish when it is quite free from alkalis or alkaline earths. Alizarine 
dissolves much more readily in alcohol and ether than in water ; the solutions have 
a deep yellow colour. Alizarine is decomposed by chlorine, and converted into a 
colourless product. It is also decomposed by boiling nitric acid, the product being 
a colourless, crystallised acid, phthalic acid, the same that is formed by the action of 
nitric acid on naphthaline. Alizarine dissolves in concentrated sulphuric acid, yield- 
ing a yellow solution, which may be heated to the boiling point without changing 
colour and without any decomposition of the alizarine, which is precipitated unchanged 
on the addition of water. Alizarine dissolves in caustic alkalis with a splendid 
purple or violet colour, which remains unchanged on exposure of the solutions to the 
air. The ammoniacal solution, however, loses its ammonia entirely on being left to 
stand in an open vessel, and deposits its alizarine in the form of shining prismatic 
crystals, or of a crystalline crust. The alkaline solutions give with solutions of limo 
and baryta salts precipitates of a beautiful purple colour, with alumina salts a red, 
with iron salts a purple precipitate, and with most of the salts of metallic oxides pre- 
cipitates of various shades of purple. The affinity of alizarine for alumina is so great, 
that if the compound of the two bodies be treated with boiling caustic potash-lye, it 
merely changes its colour from red to purple without being decomposed. Alizarine 
is not more soluble in boiling alum-liquor than in boiling water. The chemical 
formula of anhydrous alizarine is, according to the researches of Messrs. Graebe and 
Licbermann, C"H*0« (C"H'0*). 

If alizarine in a finely divided or, what is still better, in a freshly precipitated state, 
be suspended in distilled water, and a piece of calico printed with alumina and 
iron mordants of different strengths be plunged into it, the latter, on gradually 
heating the bath, become dyed. The process is necessarily a slow one, because 
alizarine is only slightly soluble in boiling water, and as the mordants can only 
combine with that portion actually in solution, a constant ebullition of the liquid 
must be kept up, in order to cause fresh portions of colouring matter to dissolve in 
the place of that portion taken up by the mordants. A very small proportional 
quantity of alizarine is required in order to dye very dark colours, but it is absolutely 
necessary that the bath should contain no trace of cither acid or base, since the former 
would combine with the mordants, and the latter with the alizarine. When the 
process is complete the alumina mordant will be found to have acquired various 
shades of red, while the iron mordant will appear either black or of different shades 
of purple, according to the strength of the mordant employed. These colours are 
as brilliant and as permanent as those obtained from madder by means of a long and 
complicated process. Nevertheless, the red is generally found to have more of a 
purplish hue, and the black to bo less intense than when madder or its preparations 
are employed. On the other hand, if one of the finer madder colours which aro 
produced on calico, such as pink or lilac, be examined, the colours are found to con- 
tain, in combination witli the mordants, almost pure alizarine. Hence it may be 
inferred, that alizarine alone is required for the production of these colours, and 
that the simple combination of this colouring matter with the mordants is the principal 
end which is to be attained by the dyer in producing them. 

Alizarine has been obtained artificially by Messrs. Graebe and Liebermann, as a 
derivative of anthracene or paranaphthaline, which is one of the products obtained in 
the distillation of coal-tar. Artificial alizarine is now extensively manufactured and 

m2 



164 MADDER 

used for a substitute for madder. By the action of bromine upon alizarine, Mr. Perktn 
has recently obtained a derivative called hromalizarine, -which may also be used in 
dyeing. For the manufacture of artificial alizarine, see Alizarine ; Anthracene. 

Purpurine, the other red colouring matter of madder, with ■which the matihre 
colorante rose of Gaultier de Claubry and Persoz, and the maddcr-pttrple of Runge, are 
substantially identical, can hardly be distinguished by its appearance from alizarine, 
which it also resembles in most of its properties. It crystallises in small orange- 
coloured or rod needles. When carefully heated it is almost entirely volatilised, 
yielding a sublimate of shining orange-coloured scales and needles. It is slightly 
soluble in boiling -water, gi^ving a pink solution. It is more soluble in alcohol than 
in -water, the solution ha-ving a deep yello-w colour. It dissolves in concentrated 
sulphuric acid, and is not decomposed on heating the solution, even to the boiling 
point. It is decomposed by boiling nitric acid, and yields, like alizarine, phthalic 
acid. It is distinguished from alizarine, by its solubility in alum- liquor. "When 
treated with a boiling solution of alum in water, it dissolves entirely, yielding a peculiar 
opalescent solution, which appears of a bright pink colour by transmitted light, and 
yellowish by reflected light. The solution deposits nothing on cooling, but on 
adding to it an excess of muriatic or sulphuric acid, it becomes colourless, and the 
purpurine falls down in yellow flocks. On this property depends the method of 
separating it from alizarine. The compounds of purpurine -with bases are mostly 
purple. It dissolves in alkalis with a bright purplish-red or cherry-red colour. 
If the solution in caustic potash or soda be exposed to the air, its colour changes 
gradually to reddish-yellow, and the purpurine contained in it is decomposed, a 
characteristic which also serves to distinguish purpurine from alizarine, the alkaline 
solutions of which are not changed by the action of oxygen. The composition of 
purpurine approaches very near to that of alizarine, but its chemical formula is 
unknown. It communicates to calico, which has been priTited -with various mordants, 
colours similar to those imparted by alizarine, but the red is more fiery, and the 
black more intense than when alizarine is employed. On the other hand, the purple 
dyed by means of purpurine has a disagreeable reddish tinge, and presents an 
unpleasant contrast -with the beautiful purple from alizarine. The name of this 
colouring matter is therefore very inappropriate, and is calculated to mislead. The 
colours dyed with purpurine are less stable than those dyed with aliziirine, they 
are less able to resist the action of soap and other agents than the latter. Hence, very 
little purpurine is found in combination -with the mordants, in such madder colours 
as have undergone a course of treatment -with alkalis and acids, after having been 
dyed ; indeed, the principal object of this treatment appears to be the removal of this 
and other substances, so as to leave compounds of alizarine only on the fabric. 
Purpurine seems to abound more in the lower, stronger qualities of madder than in 
the finer. To this cause, Eobiquet chiefly ascribed the superiority of the latter in 
dyeing fast colours, and no better way of accounting for it has hitherto been suggested. 
Purpurine forms the basis of the red pigment called madder-lake. 

Rubiacine is the name which has been applied to a yellow crystallised colouring 
matter contained in madder. It coincides in most of its properties witli the 
madder-orange of Eunge. It crystallises in greenish-yellow lustrous scales and 
needles. When heated it is entirely volatilised, yielding a crystalline sublimate. It 
is only slightly soluble in boiling water, but more soluble in boiling alcohol, from 
which it crystallises on cooling. It dissolves in concentrated sulphuric acid, and is 
not decomposed on boiling the solution. It also dissolves in boiling nitric acid witliout 
being decomposed. It dissolves in caustic alkalis with a purple colour. Its com- 
pounds with earths and metallic oxides are mostly red. When treated with a 
boiling solution of pernitrate or perchloride of iron it dissolves entirely, yielding a 
brownish-red solution, which deposits nothing on cooling, but gives, on the addition 
of an excess of muriatic acid, a yellow flocculent precipitate, consisting of a peculiar 
acid, called rubiacic acid. 

Two amorphous resinous colouring matters, forming brownish-red compounds 
with bases, have also been obt<iined from madder. Both are very little soluble in 
boiling water. One of them is a dark brown, brittle, resin-like substance, very easily 
soluble in alcohol, which melts at a temperature a little above 212° F. The other is 
a reddish-brown powder, less soluble in alcohol than the preceding. These two 
colouring matters, together with rubiacine, constitute probably the taww/ or dun 
colouring matter of the older chemists. TJiey do not contribute to the intensity of the 
colours dyed with madder, and exert a very prejudicial efl'ect on the beauty of the 
dyes. If printed calico be dyetl with a mixture of alizarine, and any one of these 
three colouring matters, the colours are found to be both weaker and less beautiful 
than when alizarine is employed alone. The red acquires an orange tinge, and tlio 
purple a reddish hue, whilst the black is less intense, and the parts of the calico 



MADDER 



165 



which should remain white are found to have a yellowish colour. Hence it is of im- 
portanco to the dyer that their effect should be counteracted as much as possible, by 
preventing them either from dissolving in the dye-bath or from attaching themseivM 

to the fabric. 

The other constituents of madder possess no interest in themselves, but may be- 
come of importance in consequence of the effects which they produce during the pro- 
cess of dyeing. The poctine, in the state in which it exists in the root, is probably 
an indifferent substance, but in consequence of the ease and rapidity with which it 
passes into pectic acid, it may in dyeing act very prejudicially by combining 
with the mordants and preventing them taking up colouring matter. The extrac- 
tive matter of madder, when in an unaltered state, produces no injurious effects 
directly ; but by Ihe action of oxygen, especially at an elevated temperature, it ac- 
quires a brown colour and then contributes, together with the rubiacine and the 
resinous colouring matter, in deteriorating the colours and sullying the white parts 
of the fabric. The extractive matter, when in a state of purity, has the appearance 
of a yellow syrup like honey, which is easily soluble in water and alcohol. When 
pure it is not precipitated from its watery solution by an earthy or metallic salt, 
but if the solution be evaporated in contact with the air, it gradually becomes brown, 
and then gives an abundant brown precipitate with sugar of lead. When its watery 
solution is mixed with muriatic or sulphuric acid and boiled, it becomes green and 
deposits a dark green powder. Hence this extractive matter has, for the sake of dis- 
tinction, been called Chlorogenine, and EubicMoric Acid. The bitter principle of madder 
will be referred to presently. The Xanthine of Kuhlmann, and the madder-yellow of 
Runge are mixtures of the extractive matter and the bitter principle. The sugar 
contained in madder is probably grape-sugar. It has not hitherto been obtained in a 
crystallised state, but it yields by fermentation alcohol and carbonic acid, like ordi- 
nary sugar. The woody fibre which is left after madder has been treated with 
various solvents until nothing more is extracted, always retain a slight reddish or 
brownish tinge from the presence of some colouring matter which cannot be com- 
pletely removed, and seems to adhere to it in the same way as it does to the cotton 
fibre of unmordanted calico. 

There is a question connected with the chemical history of madder which must not 
be passed over in silence, since it is one which possesses great interest, and may at 
some future time become of great importance, viz. the question as to the state in which 
the colouring matters originally exist in the root. It has long been known, that when 
ground madder is kept tightly packed in casks f6r some time, it constantly improves 
in quality for several years, after which it again deteriorates ; and it was always sup- 
posed that this effect was due to some process of slow fermentation going on in the 
interior of the mass, an opinion which seemed to be justified by the evident increase 
in weight and volume, and the agglomeration of the particles which took place at the 
same time. Nevertheless, the earlier chemical examinations of madder threw no light 
whatever on this part of the subject, since the red colouring matters were found to 
be very stable compounds, not easily decomposed except by the action of very potent 
agents, so that when once formed it seemed improbable that they would be at at all 
affected by any mere process of fermentation. Hence some chemists were led to the 
conclusion that the improvement which takes place in the quality of madder on keep- 
ing is caused by an actual formation of fresh colouring matter. A very simple ex- 
periment may indeed suffice to prove that the whole of the colouring matter does not 
exist ready formed, even in the article as used by the dyer. If ordinary madder be 
extracted with cold water, the extract after being filtered has generally an acid re- 
action, and cannot contain any of the colouring matters, since these are almost in- 
soluble in cold water, especially when there is any acid present. Nevertheless the 
extract when gradually heated is found capable of dyeing in the same way as madder 
itself. If the extract be made tolerably strong, it possesses a deep yellow colour and 
a very bitter taste ; but if it be allowed to stand in a warm place for a few hours, 
it gelatinises, and the insoluble jelly which is formed is found to possess the whole of 
the tinctorial power of the liquid, which has also lost its yellow colour and bitter 
taste. Hence, it may be inferred that the substance which imparts to the extract its 
bitter taste and yellow colour is capable also of giving rise to the formation of a certain 
quantity of colouring matter. 

In 1837 a memoir was published by Decaisne, containing the results of an ana- 
tomical and physiological examination of the madder plant, results which were con- 
sidered so important that a prize was awarded to the author by the Eoyal Academy 
of Sciences at Brussels. This investigation led the author to the conclusion, that the 
cells of the living plant contain no ready-formed red colouring matter, but are filled 
with a transparent yellow juice, which, on exposure to the atmosphere, becomes reddish 
and opaque in consequence of the formation of red colouring-matter. Hence ha 



166 MADDER 

itiferred that the insoluble red colouring-matter was simply a product of oxidation of 
the soluble yellow one, and that, consequently, the more complete the exposure of the 
triturated root to the atmosphere, the greater would be its tinctorial power ; and he 
eyen went so far as to assert that all tlie proximate principles obtained from the root 
were derived ultimately from one single substance contained in the whole plant. That 
the fresh roots, before being dried, do indeed contain no colouring-matter capable of 
imparting to mordants colours of the usual appearance and intensity, may be proved 
by the following experiment : — If the roots, as soon as they are taken out of the 
ground, are cut into small pieces as quickly as possible, and then extracted with 
boiling spirits of wine, a yellow extract is obtained, which, after being filtered and 
evaporated, leaves a brownish-yellow residue. Now this residue, on being redissolved 
in water, is found incapable of imparting to mordants any but the sli^test shades 
of colour ; and, on the other hand, the portion of the root left after extraction with 
spirits of wine, on being subjected to the same test as the extract, is found to possess 
as little tinctorial power as the latter. If, however, the roots, instead of being treated 
with spirits of wine, are macerated in water, the liquor, on being gradually heated, 
dyes the usual colour as well as ordinary madder. Hence it may be inferred that by 
means of alcohol the colour-producing body of the root may be separated from the 
agent which, under ordinary circumstances, is destined to efifect its transformation 
into colouring-matter, the one being soluble and the other insoluble in that menstruum. 
It was by this and other similar facts that Schunck was led to an examination of this 
part of the subject. He infers from his experiments that the colour-producing body 
of maddder is identical with its so-called bitter principle, to which he has given the 
name of Bubian. This body, when pure, has the following properties : — It is an 
amorphous, shining, brittle substance like gum, dark brown and opaque in mass, but 
yellow and transparent in thin layers. Its solutions are of a deep-yellow colour, and 
have an intensely-bitter taste. It is easily soluble in water and alcohoL The watery 
solution turns of a blood-red colour on the addition of caustic and carbonated alkalis, 
and gives dark-red precipitate with lime and baryta-water. The solution gives a 
copious light-red precipitate with basic acetate of load, but yields no precipitate with 
any other metallic salt. On trying to dye with rubian in the usual manner, the mor- 
dants assume only the faintest shades of colour. If, however, the watery solution be 
mixed with sulphuric or muriatic acid and boiled, it gradually deposits a quantity of 
insoluble yellow flocks, which, after being separated by filtration and well washed, 
are found to dye the same colour as those obtained by means of madder. In fact, 
these flocks contain alizarine, to which they owe their tinctorial power, but they also 
contain a crystallised yellow colouring-matter, similar to, but not identical with, 
rubiacine, as well as two resinous colouring-matters, which Schunck has named 
Verantine and Bubiretine, and which are probably identical with the resinous 
colouring-matters before referred to as being obtained from ordinary madder. The 
liquid filtered from the flocks contains an uncrystallisable sugar, similar to that which 
is obtained from the madder itself. Kubian is not decomposed by ordinary ferments, 
such as yeast and decomposing-casein ; but by extracting madder with cold water, 
and adding alcohol to the extract, a substance is precipitated in pale-red flocks, which 
possesses in an eminent degree the power of eiFecting the decomposition of rubian. If 
a watery solution of the latter be mixed with some of the flocculent precipitate 
(after having been collected on a filter, and washed with alcohol), and then left to 
stand in a warm place for some hours, the mixture is converted into a light-brown 
jelly, which is so thick that the vessel may be reversed without its falling out. This 
jelly, when agitated with cold water, communicates to the latter very little colour or 
taste, proving that the rubian has undergone complete decomposition by the action of 
the flocculent substance or ferment added to its solution. The cold water, however, 
extracts from the gelatinous mass a quantity of sugar, while the portion left undis- 
solved contains alizarine, verantine, rubiretine, and a crystalline yellow colouring- 
matter, besides a portion of undecomposed ferment. Eubian, therefore, by the action 
of strong mineral-acids and of the peculiar ferment of madder, is decomposed, yielding 
sugar and a variety of colouring-matters, the principal of which is alizarine. It appears, 
therefore, that these colouring-matters are not originally contained as such in the root, 
but are formed by the decomposition of one parent substance, which alone is produced 
by the vital energies of the plant. In addition to this substance, the plant also con- 
tains another, which possesses the property of rapidly effecting the decomposition of 
the first. The two are, however, during the living state of the plant, prevented from 
acting on one another, either in consequence of their being contained in different cells, 
or because the vital energies of the plant resist the process of decomposition. During 
the drying and grinding of the root the decomposition of the colour-producing body 
commences and continues slowly during the period that the powder is kept before 
being used. It is finally completed during the process of dyeing itself, and hence no 



MADDER 167 

trace of colour-producing substance can be detected, either in the liquor or the residual 
madder, after the operation of dyeing is concluded. The presence of oxygen does not 
seem to be essential during this process of decomposition, as Decaisne supposed. 
Nevertheless, according to Schunck, rubian does in reality suffer a partial oxida- 
tion when its watery solution, mixed with some alkali or alkaline earth, is exposed to 
the action of the atmosphere, giving rise to a peculiar acid, called by him rubianie 
acid. When rubiarn is heated dt a temperature considerably exceeding 212° Fahr., it 
is converted without much change of appearance into a substance which yields by 
decomposition resinous colouring-matters in the place of alizarine. The great excess 
of these colouring-matters contained in the madder of commerce arises, therefore, 
most probably from the high temperature employed in drying the root. 

Emplopneiit of Madder in Dyeing. — After the account which has just been given of 
the composition of madder, it may easily be conceived that the chemical and physical 
phenomena which occur during the various processes of madder-dyeing, are of a rather 
complicated nature, and that many of these phenomena have not yet received a per- 
fectly satisfactory explanation. Nevertheless, the present state of our knowledge on 
this subject may enable us to give a co.nsistent explanation of the facts presented to 
us by the experience of the dyer, and even to indicate what direction our labours must 
take if we wish to improve this branch of the arts. 

In order to produce perfectly-fast colours in madder-dyeing, it is necessary that the 
madder should contain a large proportion of carbonate of lime, and if the madder is 
naturally deficient in that salt, the deficiency may be supplied either by using cal- 
careous water in dyeing, or by adding a quantity of ground chalk. If madder be 
treated with dilute sulphuric or muriatic acid, so as to dissolve all the lime contained 
in it, and then washed with cold water until the excess of acid is removed, its tinc- 
torial power will be found to be very much diminished, but may be entirely restored, 
and even increased, by the addition of a proper quantity of lime-water or chalk. 
Hence, too, Avignon madder, which is grown in a highly-calcareous soil, and contains 
so much carbonate of lime as to effervesce with acids, affords the most permanent 
colours ; whilst Alsace madder requires the addition of carbonate of lime in order to 
produce the same effect. This fact was first pointed out by Hausmann, who, after 
having produced very fine reds at Kouen, encountered the greatest obstacles in dyeing 
the same reds at Logelbaoh, near Colmar, where he went to live. Numerous trials, 
undertaken with the view of obtaining the same success in his new establishment, 
proved that the cause of his favourable results at Rouen existed in the water, which 
contained carbonate of lime in solution, whilst the water of Logelbach was nearly 
pure. He then tried a factitious calcareous water by adding chalk to his dye-bath. 
Having obtained the most satisfactory results, he was not long in producing here as 
beautiful and as solid reds as he had done at Eouen. This simple fact led to the pro- 
duction of a series of lengthy Memoirs on the part of some of the French chemists and 
calico-printers, which fully confirmed the results of Hausmann, without, however, 
leading to a satisfactory explanation of them. The experiments of Eobiquet prove 
that in dyeing with pure alizarine the least addition of lime is rather injurious than 
otherwise, as it merely weakens the colours without adding to their durability. Hence 
the beneficial effect of lime can only be accounted for by some action whicli it exerts 
on other constituents of the root. Bartholdi imagined that this action consisted 
simply in the decomposition of the sulphate of magnesia, which he found to be con- 
tained in ordinary madder. It was asserted by others that the carbonate of lime 
served to neutralise some free acid, supposed by Kuhlmann to be malic acid, which 
was present in some madders, and which not only to a great degree prevented the 
colouring-matters from dissolving in the dye-bath, but also combined with the mor- 
dants to the exclusion of the latter. Though later researches have failed to detect 
the existence of malic acid in madder, still it is certain that all_ watery extracts of 
madder contain pectic acid, which probably exists in the root originally as pectine ; 
and that this acid, when in a free state, acts most injuriously in dyeing with alizarine, 
but ceases to do so as soon as it is combined with lime. Nevertheless, it seems that 
madder which is naturally deficient in lime, cannot be made to replace entirely such 
madder as has been grown in a calcareous soil, however groat an excess of chalk be 
used in dyeing. Hence Eobiquet was led to the conclusion that the inferior kinds of 
madder, which are also the most deficient in lime, contain more purpurine and less 
alizarine than the superior kinds, and that the carbonate of lime serves partly to 
combine with the purpurine, and prevent it from uniting with the mordants, and thus 
producing less permanent dyes. The experiments of Schunck have proved that not 
only pectic acid, but also rubiacine and the resinous colouring-matters of madder, act 
detrimentally in dyeing ^vith pure alizarine, by deteriorating the colours and sullying 
the white parts of the fabric, and that these effects are entirely neutralised by the 
addition of a little lime-water to the dye-bath. If in dyeing with madder the whole 



168 MABDEE 

of the colouring-matters were in a free state, the resinous and yellow colouring-matters 
would, according to Schunck, unite with the mordants, to the exclusion of the aliza- 
rine, yielding colours of little permanency and of a disagreeable hue ; but on adding 
lime, they combine with it, and the alizarine, being less electro-negative, then attaches 
itself to the mordants or weaker bases. A great excess of lime would of course 
have an injurious effect by combining also with the alizarine, and preventing it from 
exerting its tinctorial power. In practice a little less lime is added than is sufficient 
to take up the whole of the impurities with which the alizarine is associated, thus 
allowing a portion of the former to go to the mordants, to be subsequently removed 
by treatment with soap and other detergents. Lastly, it has been asserted by Kochlin 
and Persoz that when lime is used in dyeing with madder the colours produced are 
not simply compounds of colouring-matter with mordants, but contain also in chemical 
combination a certain quantity of lime, which adds very much to their stability. It is 
probable that all these causes contribute in producing the effect. The carbonates of 
magnesia and zinc, acetate and neutral phosphate of lime, and the protoxides of lead, 
zinc and nmnganese, act in a similar manner to carbonate of lime in madder-dyeing, 
but are less ef&cient. 

Dambourney and Beckman have asserted that it is more advantageous to employ 
the fresh root of madder than that which has been submitted to desiccation, especially 
by means of stoves. But in its state of freshness its volume becomes troublesome in 
the dye-bath, and uniform observation seems to prove that it ameliorates by age up 
to a certain point. Besides, it must be rendered susceptible of keeping and carrying 
easily. 

In dyeing printed calicoes with madder, the general- course of proceeding is as 
follows : — The madder having been mixed in the dye-vessel with the proper quantity 
of water, and, if necessary, with chalk, the liquid is heated slowly by means of fire or 
steam, and the fabric is introduced and kept constsmtly moving until the dyeing is 
finished. (See Calico-Pbinting.) The temperature should be kept low at first, and 
should be gradually raised, without allowing it to fall, until it reaches the boiling- 
point ; and the boiling may, if necessary, be continued for a short time. The chief 
object of the gradual heating seems to be to allow the ferment to exert its full power 
on the rubian or colour-producing body ; for this process, like all processes of fermen- 
tation, is most active at a temperature of about 100° Fahr., and is arrested at 212° 
Fahr. In dyeing quickly less permanent colours are also produced, in consequence, 
probably, of the colouring-matters combining with the more superficial portions of 
the mordants, and not penetrating sufficiently into the interior of the vegetable fibre. 
The fastest colours are produced by dyeing at a moderate temperature, and not allow- 
ing the liquid to boil. By boiling the madder becomes more thoroughly exhausted, 
and a greater deptli of colour is attained, but the latter resists less perfectly the 
action of soap and other agents, than the same shade dyed at a lower temperature. 
The time occupied in dyeing varies according to the nature and intensity of the 
colours to be produced ; but there is little advantage in allowing it in any case to 
exceed 3 hours, since the gain in colour acquired is more than counterbalanced by the 
loss of time and increased expenditure of fuel caused by a long-continued ebullition. 
In dyeing ordinary madder colours, such as red, black, chocolate, and common purple, 
which do not require much treatment after dyeing, in order to give them the desired 
tone and intensity, strong but inferior qualities of madder may be used with advan- 
tage ; and various other dye-stuffs, such as peach-wood, quercitron-bark, sumac, &c., 
are often added to the madder, in order to vary the shade and depth of colour. But 
for the finer colours, such as pink and fine purple, which after dyeing must be sub- 
jected to a long course of treatment with soap and acids before they assume the 
requisite beauty and delicacy of hue, it is necessary to employ the finest qualities of 
madder ; for if dyed with inferior qualities they would resist only imperfectly the 
requisite after-treatment, and great care must be observed in regulating the tempera- 
ture during dyeing. The addition of other dye-stuffs, in their case, would be not 
only useless, but positively injurious. The use of different kinds and qualities of 
madder in conjunction is often found to be attended with benefit, arising probably 
from the circumstance of one kind supplying some material or other, such as ferment 
or carbonate of lime, in which the other is deficient. 

The chemical processes which take place during the operation of dyeing may be 
shortly described as follow :— In the first place, the water of the dye-bath extracts 
the more soluble constituents of the madder, such as the sugar, extractive matter, and 
bitter principle. The latter substance is decomposed by the ferment, and the colotir- 
ing- matter thereby formed is added to that which already exists in the root. As tlie 
temperature rises tlie less soluble constituents, such as the alizarine, purpurine, rubia- 
cine, the resinous colouring-matters, the pectine and pectic acid, begin to dissolve, and 
as they dissolve they combine partly with the mordants of the fabric, partly with the 



MADDER 169 

lime and other bases contained in the root or added to the dye-bath, and thns permit 
the liquid to take up fresh quantities from the madder. If the quantity of madder 
was exactly proportioned to the quantity of fabric to be dyed, then it becomes, in this 
way, gradually exhausted of all available colouring-matter. The extractive matter at 
the same time acquires a brown colour by the combined action of the heat and oxygen, 
and covers the whole surface of the fabric with a uniform brown tinge. When the 
dyeing is concluded the liquor appears muddy and of a pale dirty-red colour. It still 
contains a quantity of colouring-matter in a state of combination with lime and other 
bases from the madder, or with portions of the mordant mechanically detached from 
the fabric. The residual matter at the bottom of the liquor also contains a quantity 
of colouring-matter in a similar state of combination. By mixing the residue and 
the liquor Avith sulphuric or muriatic acid, boiling, and then washing with water, the 
various bases are removed, and the colouring-matter is thus made available for dyeing. 
Occasionally, when a very great depth of colour is required, it is found advisable to 
let the goods pass through a second dyeing operation, instead of obtaining the requisite 
shade at once. 

After the calico has been removed from the dye-bath and washed in water, it 
presents a very unsightly appearance. The alumina-mordant has acquired a dirty 
brownish-red colour, and the iron-mordant a black- or brownish-purple, according to 
its strength, whilst the white portions are reddish-brown. In the case of ordinary 
colours the fabric is now passed through a mixture of boiling bran-and-water, or 
through a weak solution of chloride of lime, or it is exposed for some time on the grass 
to the action of air and light, or it is subjected to several of these processes in succes- 
sion, by which means the impurities adhering to the mordants or the fibre are, in a 
great measure, either removed or destroyed, the white portions recovering their purity, 
and the red, black, purple, and chocolate, appearing afterwards sufficiently bright for 
ordinary purposes. That the colours, however, even after being thus treated, still 
contain in combination with the mordants other substances in addition to the red 
colouring-matters, may be proved by a very simple experiment. If a few yards of 
some calico, which has been treated as just described, be immersed in dilute muriatic 
acid in the cold, the mordants are removed, and the colours are destroyed ; orange- 
coloured stains being left on the places where they were before fixed. After washing 
the calico with cold water, the orange-coloured matter may be dissolved in alkali, and 
tlie calico left entirely white. The solution, which is brownish-red, gives, with an 
excess of acid, a reddish-brown floeculent precipitate. This precipibite, after being 
collected on a filter and well washed with water, is found to be only partially soluble 
in boiling alcohol, a brown substance, consisting partly of pectic acid, being left un- 
dissolved. The yellow alcoholic solution leaves, on spontaneous evaporation, a brown 
crystalline residue, which is found on examination to contain alizarine, purpurine, a 
little rubiacine, or some similar compound, and a brown amorphous substance. The 
removal of these various impurities, associated with the alizarine, seems to be a prin- 
cipal object of the treatment to which madder-colours are subjected, when it is desired 
to give them the highest degree of brilliancy of which they are susceptible. This course 
of treatment, as applied to printed calicoes, may be shortly described as follows : — The 
goods, after being very fully dyed, generally with the addition of chalk, and then 
washed, are passed for some time through a solution of soap, which is heated to a 
moderate temperature. By this means a great deal of colour is removed, as may be 
seen by the red tinge of the soap-liquor, and the purity of the white portions is almost 
entirely restored. During this process the brown and yellow colouring-matters arc 
probably removed by double decomposition, the alkali of the soap combining vnth 
and dissolving them, while the fat acid takes their place on the fabric. After being 
washed the goods are passed through a weak solution of acid, mostly sulphuric or 
oxalic acid, or an acid tin-salt, which causes the colours to assume an orange tinge. 
The point at which the action of this acid-liquid is to be arrested can only be ascer- 
tained by practice. The next step in the process is, after washing the goods, to treat 
them again with soap-liquor, which is gradually raised to the boiling-point, and they 
are lastly subjected to the action of soap-liquor in a close vessel under pressure. By 
exposing the goods on the grass for some time after the first soaping, the use of acid 
may be obviated, but the process then becomes much more tedious. In this way are 
produced those beautiful pinks and lilacs which, for delicacy of hue, combined with 
great permanence, are not surpassed by any dyed colours known in the arts. Whether 
the fat acid of the soap employed forms an essential constituent of these colours is not 
certainly known, but it is probable that it contributes to their beauty and durability. 
It is certain, however, that they always contain fat acid. If a piece of calico which has 
gone through the processes just described be treated with muriatic acid, the colour is 
destroyed, and a yellow stain is left in its place. This yellow stain disappears on 
txeating the calico, after washing vidth water, with alkali, yielding a solution of a beau- 



17(5 MADDER 

tiful purple colour. This solution gives again with an excess of acid a yellow, floccu- 
lent precipitate, which, after filtration, dissolves almost entirely in boiling alcohol, 
and the solution on evaporation affords needle-shaped crystals of pure alizarine, mixed 
with white masses of fat acid. The latter, therefore, seems to occupy the place taken 
up by the impurities before the treatment with soap. This experiment serves also to 
prove that it is alizarine which forms the basis of the more permanent colours 
afforded by madder, though, on the other hand, as in dyeing the finer madder 
colours, it cannot be denied that the colouring-matters which are removed by the 
treatment with soap and acids contribute to the effect produced in dyeing ordinary 
madder colours. 

The same result is attained in dyeing Turkey red, but the process employed is 
somewhat different and much more complicated. See Tdkkey Red. 

The attempts which have been made at various times to obtain an extract of madder, 
capable of being applied in making so-called steam-colours for ciilico and other 
fabrics, have not been completely successful. A very beautiful pink has been pro- 
duced by Gastard and Girardin, in France, by printing on calico, previously prepared 
with some mordant, an ammoniacal solution of an extract of madder called colorine, 
but it is not much superior, either as regards its hue or its degree of permanency, to 
what can be obtained by easier processes from dye-woods and other materials. 

Madder is not so much employed in woollen dyeing, especially in this country, as in 
cotton dyeing and printing. Only ordinary woollen goods are dyed red with madder, 
since the colour is not so bright as that obtained from cochineal or lac, though it is 
more permanent and cheaper. A mixture of alum and tartar is employed as a mordant. 
The addition of a little muriate of tin in dyeing imparts to the colour a more scarlet 
tinge. The bath of madder, at the rate of from 8 or 16 ounces to the pound of cloth, is 
heated to such a degree as to be just bearable by the hand, and the goods are then 
dyed by the wince, without heating the bath more until the colouring matter is fixed. 
Vitalis prescribes as a mordant, :Jth of alum and ^th of tartar ; and for dyeing ^rd of 
madder, with the addition of Trjth of solution of tin, diluted with its weight of water. 
Ho raises the temperature in the space of one hour to 200°, and afterwards he boils 
for three or four minutes, a circumstance which is believed to contribute to the fixation 
of the colour. The bath, after dyeing, appears to contain much yellow colouring- 
matter. Sometimes a little archil is added to the madder, in order to give the dye a 
pink tinge ; but the effect is not lasting. By passing the goods after dyeing through 
weak alkali, the colour acquires a blueish tinge. By adding other dye-stuffs, sucli as 
fustic, peachwood, and logwood, to the madder in dyeing, various shades of brown, 
drab, &c., are obtained. Madder is also used in conjunction with woad and indigo in 
dyeing woollen goods blue, in order to impart to the colour a reddish tinge. See 
Indigo. 

Silk is seldom dyed with madder, because cochineal affords brighter tints. 

Preparations of Madder. — The numerous analjrtieal investigations of madder, 
undertaken chiefly in consequence of the Sociite Industrielle de Mulhouse having 
offered in the year 1826 a premium for a means of discovering the real quantity of 
colouring-matter in the root, and of determining the comparative value of different 
samples of madder, led to many attempts on the part of chemists to improve the 
quality of this dye-stuff by means of chemical agents, and thus render it more fit for 
the purposes to which it is applied. Eobiquet and Persoz were the first to point out 
the advantages which result from submitting madder, previous to its being used, to 
the action of strong acids. They showed that, by acting on madder with strong 
sulphuric acid, and then carefully Avashing out the acid with water, a product was 
obtained which not only possessed a greater tinctorial power than the original 
material, but also dyed much brighter colours. This important discovery, which was 
not, like so many others, arrived at by chance, but was purely the result of scientific 
investigation, did not at first receive, on the part of practical men, the appreciation 
which it deserved. The product obtained by the action of sulphuric acid on madder, 
which in the first instance was called charbon mlfurique, afterwards garancine, was 
first manufactured on a large scale by MM. Lagier and Thomas, of Avignon, but so 
great were the prejudices entertained by dyers and calico-printers against its use at 
the commencement, that years elapsed before they could be overcome ; indeed they 
were partly justified by the imperfect nature of the product itself. The persevering 
efforts to improve the method of manufacture, and adapt it to the wants of the con- 
sumer were at last attended with success, so that at the present day garancine has 
come to be used to as great an extent as madder, and large quantities of it are now 
manufactiured in France and other countries. 

It was supposed by Eobiquet, that by the action of sulphuric acid on madder the 
saccharine, mucilaginous, and extractive matters of the root were destroyed, and thus 
hindered from producing any injurious effects in dyeing, and that the woody fibre 



I 



MADDER 171 

was at the same time charred, so as to prevent it from attracting and binding any 
of the colouring-matter. This explanation is not entirely correct, since it is not 
necessary to carry the action so far as actually to carbonise any of the constituents 
of the root, and it is also doubtful whether the woody fibre ever attracts the useful 
colouring-matters in any considerable degree. The account above given of the 
chemical constitution of madder, may easily lead us to the conclusion, tliat, during 
the action of the acid, the following processes take place: — 1. The bitter principle or 
colour-producing body of the root is decomposed, yielding, among other products, a 
quantity of alizarine which did not previously exist. 2. The red colouring-matters 
are rendered by the acid insoluble in water, and thus it becomes possible to wash out 
the extractive matter, sugar, &c., without the madder losing any of its tinctorial power. 
3. The lime, magnesia, and other bases which are combined in the root with colouring 
matter, or would combine with it during the dyeing process, are removed by the acid, 
and thus prevented from exerting any injurious action. The subsequent addition of 
a suitable quantity of lime, soda, or other base, serves to neutralise the effect of the 
excessive amount of poetic acid and resinous colouring matters, which were set free by 
the action of the mineral acid. 

The metliod of manufacturing garaucine, as practised at the present day, may be 
shortly described as follows: — The ground madder is mixed with water, and the 
mixture is left to stand for some hours. During this time it is probable that the 
rubian is decomposed by the ferment of the root, otherwise a great loss would be 
experienced. More water is now added, in order to remove all the soluble matters, 
and is then run off. The liquid contains sugar, and is employed on the Continent for 
the preparation of a kind of spirit, which on account of its peculiar smell and flavour 
cannot be consumed as a beverage, but is used in the arts for the preparation of 
varnishes and other purposes. A sufficient quantity of alcoholic spirit is thus obtained 
to pay for the whole cost of the process. The residue left after washing the madder 
may be employed for dyeing without any further preparation, and is then called fleur 
de garance. In order to convert it into garancine, it is mixed with sulphuric acid, and 
the mixture is heated and left to itself for some time. Water is then added in suc- 
cessive portions until the excess of acid is removed. The pectic acid of the root 
always retains a portion of the sulphuric acid in chemical combination ; and the 
compoiind being but little soluble in water would require for its removal a very long 
washing. The addition of a small quantity of carbonate of soda, by neutralising this 
double acid, serves to abridge the time of washing very considerably. The residue is 
then filtered on strainers, pressed, dried, and lastly ground into a fine powder. This 
powder has a dark reddish-brown colour, and a peculiar odour, different from that of 
madder, but no taste. It communicates hardly any colour to cold water. Dyeing 
with garancine is attended with the following advantages: — 1. The whole tinctorial 
power of the madder is exerted at once, and garancine is therefore capable of dyeing 
more than the material from which it is made. 2. The colours produced by its 
means are much brighter than those dyed with madder, and the parts of the fabric 
destined to remain white attract hardly any colour, so that very little treatment is 
required after dyeing. 3. Much less attention is required in regard to the temperatiure 
of the dye-bath and its gradual elevation than with madder, and a continued ebullition 
produces no injurious effects, but only serves to exhaust the material of all its colour- 
ing-matter. On the other hand, garancine colours are not so fast as madder colours, 
they do not resist so well the action of soap and acids, and hence garancine cannot be 
employed for the production of the more permanent colours, sucli as pink and fine 
purple. By the use of a product which was patented by Pincoffs and Schunck several 
years ago, and which is obtained by exposing garancine to the action of steam of high 
pressure it is indeed possible to dye as beaiitiful and as permanent a purple as with 
madder, and its use is attended by a considerable saving of time as well as of dyeing 
material and soap, but it is not so well adapted for dyeing pink. As yet therefore wo 
have not succeeded in obtiiining a preparation which shall serve as a perfect substitute 
for madder, and the latter consequently continues to bo employed for some purposes. 

The residue left after dyeing with madder as well as the dyeing liquor still contain 
some colouring-matter in a state of combination, as mentioned above. By acting on 
it with sulphuric acid it affords a product similar to garancine. which is called 
garanceux. This product is, however, adapted only for dyeing red and black, as it 
does not afford a good purple. (See Calico-Pbinting.) Numerous other methods of 
treating madder for the use of the dyer have been invented and patented of late years, 
but they are not sufficiently important to merit description within the limifS of the 
present article. — ^E. S. 

The following notes of a journey to the madder-growing districts of France, (October 
1866), by James Higgin, who contributed the important article on CArico-PRiNTiNO, 
will be found to have considerable interest :— ' The part of the Comtat d'Avignon 



172 MADDER 

Inhere madder is gro\ni is a flat basin, bounded on tihe north and north-east by 
mountains of limestone, spurs of which, gradually declining in height, run east and 
west. This basin is plentifully watered : in the north by several streams which rise 
in the mountains towards the north-east, and run, in a south-westerly direction, into 
the Rlione ; along the south-west boundary runs the fine river Durance, which, like all 
the other streams, joins the Ilh6ne — in this case below the town of Avignon ; between 
the Durance and the mountains, and about the centre of the Comtat rises the celebrated 
fountain of Vaucluse, or the river Sorgue. This remarkable river rises as a spring, 
in an amphitheatre of perpendicular rocks, about eighteen miles north-east of Avignon. 
A prodigious volume of water issues from a deep pool at the foot of a high precipice, 
and in the course of two hundred or three hundred yards the stream is augmented by 
numerous lateral springs ; so that, at the distance of a quarter of a mile from tho 
source, the fountain has become a considerable river, running at the rate of seven or 
eight miles an hour. After running a mile or two the stream divides into two main 
branches, which, lower down, subdivide ; the one into four branches, the other into 
three, or seven streams in all, each of considerable volume. These seven streams 
permeate the central and southerly portions of the basin above described ; and it is to 
these waters that I unhesitatingly ascribe the wonderful fertility of the district of 
which Avignon is the capital. The Sorgue waters are again subdivided, artificially, 
in a great variety of ways. Small streams run along the roadside and across the 
fields in every conceivable manner ; the volume of water being so great and flowing so 
rapidly, that the agriculturist can divert it, dam it up, and irrigate his fields just as 
he wants, in the same manner as the people of the ' Garden of Valencia,' in Spain, 
apply the waters flowing through the old Moorish aqueducts, and produce thereby, 
with the aid of a southern sun, a fertility perhaps without parallel anywhere. 

* The result of this abundance of water is that the soil is kept naturally moist ; not, 
be it understood, wet, but to such a degree of moisture as naturally occurs when water 
is found anywhere from two to four yards below the surface. In some parts of the 
basin are patches of land, where formerly were small lakes, which have dried up. 
These patches -were occupied during the drying-up, and for years subsequently, by a 
dense growth of reeds ; and at the present time the ditches bordering these lands, and 
any portion of them still covered with water, grow plentifully, tall reeds. These 
ancient lakelets form the lands known as ' Paluds,' where the finest quality of madder 
grows. The soil here, when dry, is of a light drab colour, very pulverulent, and 
containing about half its weight of chalk, which has been washed down from the 
limestone hills. When freshly turned up, this soil is dark brown, showing the presence 
of considerable quantities of humus. 

' In the higher portions of the basin grows the quality of madder called Eosee. 
The soil here contains more clay and less chalk, and when dry it is much more tenacious 
and not so easily powdered in the fingers. It is, when moist, of not quite so dark a 
colour as the paluds land. The course of cultivation for the rosee lands is to plough 
up and clean the laud in autumn and winter. In spring, stable or cow manure is 
freely applied over the ground, and then ploughed in. Beds of about three feet wide 
are made by cutting trenches about one foot deep, and throwing the soil on the beds. 
Madder-seed is now sown in drills, running lengthwise down the beds, to the number 
of four or five to each bed. The quantity of manure given per acre varies with tho 
number of cattle kept by the farmers ; they give as much as they can muster, as they 
know very well that plenty of manure increases the yield of roots. In the trenches 
between the madder beds, or more generally only in every other trench, white-sugar 
beet is always sown ; probably as the beet, when growing is a very bulky, leafy 
plant, the beds would be too much shaded from the sun by sowing it in every drill. 
Clothing is done during the summer but weeding, and before winter comes on the young 
plant is covered entirely with earth taken from the trenches after the beet-crop (three 
to five tons per acre) is removed. Next spring and summer nothing but weeding is 
done, if we except plucking the seed and sowing beet-root in the trenches which were 
left vacant the former year. In the late autumn, or about October, the crop is 
generally dug up, or at eighteen months old. The farmers know perfectly well that 
to leave the madder in the ground another year, or in all thirty months, is a gain to 
them both in quantity and quality, but they are generally poor, the French laws of 
inheritance tending to constantly subdivide the lands into very small farms, and they 
are obliged to realise upon the crop as soon as they possibly can, which is as soon as 
the roots are of a saleable size. The paluds madder is always planted in the spring, 
not sown, the plants being obtained from the year-old crops. I could not ascertain 
why this difference is made, further than that it is found to suit paluds land better 
than rosee. 

' On the two great cardinal points I satisfied myself, viz. : that manure is always 
given, and that no artificial irrigation is practised, the natural freshness of the soil 



MADDER 173 

being sufficient. The farmers, however, always look for rain in the spring to facilitate 
the germination of the seed, and in autumn to facilitate the digging-up the roots ; for 
the rest of the year it is not of any importance to have rain. Rotation of crops is 
usually practised, though in some districts madder is grown year after year upon the 
same soil, by giving plenty of manure. This, however, is not considered a wise plan, 
and all the farmers I talked with condemned it. The usual rotation is one madder 
crop, then a crop of wheat, and lastly lucerne for one or two years, generally the 
latter, lucerne being a good paying crop. I saw in October lucerne being cut and 
made into hay for the fourth time that year, and even then a splendid crop. Where 
it is practicable, they irrigate the lucerne three or four times a year. In many places 
this is very easy, by damming across one of the numerous streamlets of the fountain 
of Vaucluse water, so as to cause the water to cover the adjacent land. Thus, once 
manuring, with irrigation, lasts six years. 

' The roots when pulled are spread out on sheets on the ground and dried in the 
sun, and sold in this state to the merchant or grinder. The farmers deliver them as 
damp as they dare ; as soon as a bundle of them, taken in the hand and twisted round, 
breaks easily, the roots are considered commercially dry. On being stove-dried for 
grinding, the dried roots lose for paluds, 20 per cent. ; for rosee, 18 per cent. 

* The digging up of madder is evidently the most expensive part of the business, 
but it is not surprising when you see the leisurely way in which they go about it: a 
man digs down a breadtli of a bed, and then puts down his louche (a sort of spade- 
hoe) and picks out the maclder roots, shakes them, and throws them into a basket. 
By hiring children to follow the digger, to pick up and clear the roots, a great saving 
could be effected. A madder-digger gets three francs a day ; the ordinary wages for 
other labourers is two and a half francs per day. It would seem easy to adapt horse 
machinery to digging up madder. I was told as one reason why the roots are often 
pulled up at eighteen months old, that if left in the ground longer they rotted ; this, 
however, is only said of low-lying lands, and is not the case near the mountains. I 
am inclined to think, however, that poverty is more frequently the cause. 

' I saw near Pernes, in the paluds coimtry, some splendid madder that had been 
forty-two months in the ground ; the farmer had been too busy in the autumn of 1865 
to pull it at the usual time, and knew, he said, that he should be rather a gainer than 
a loser by letting it stay in the ground another year. This madder had all the 
appearance of good Turkey madder ; and a French madder-grinder and garancine- 
maker, who was with me, told me that he had never seen any so good before. 

• The rent of good madder-land is high. About Avignon the land that grows rosee 
roots is let at 20 francs to 25 francs per eminee per annum ; an eminee being one- 
tenth of an hectare, or about a quarter acre English.' The rent of paluds land, near 
Orange and Pernes, is 30 francs to 35 francs per eminee ; so that an acre (English) of 
rosee lands lets at 64s. to SOs. per annum. An acre of paluds land lets at from 96s. 
to 112s. per acre. The yield per acre is two tons for paluds roots ; for rosee roots it 
is not so much.'^ The present price of ros6o roots, as delivered by the farmer, is 55 
francs per 100 kilos. ; of paluds, 65 francs per 100 kilos. These prices correspond to 
22^. per ton for ros^e, and 26^. per ton for paluds. These prices are exceptionally 
low; and a madder-grinder told me that 55 francs per 100 kilos, only about covered 
the cost of rent, manure, and laboui', and that 75 francs was a good paying price ; 75 
francs is at the rate of 30^. per ton. Colza-oil Gike is used as a manure for grain 
crops and lucerne, when not following madder, but it docs not suit madder — good farm- 
yard manure being what is reqiiired ; superphosphate of lime does not appear to have 
been tried. 

'Madder of very fine quality, almost paluds, is now grown in the alluvial lands of 
the Bouches du Rhone, near Aries, and even down nearly to Marseilles. This land is 
impregnated with salt, and I was told more than once that a little salt as a top dressing 
was useful to improve the yield of the lands in the Comtatof A\ngnon. _ It is a curious 
coincidence that in the district where madder is principally cultivated in Spain— that 
is, between Segovia and Valladolid— there are large salt lakes, though almost in the 
centre of Spain ; indeed, salt is made from some of them.' 

The following, extracted from 'A Practical Handbook on Dyeing and Calico- 

* The eminde varies in size in different pai-ts of the countiy ; at Entraignea (terrains paluds) it 
contains 7 ares 85 centiares, at Avignon 8 ares 54 centiares, and at Orange 5 ares 84 eentiares. 

= This quantity is somewhat above the average. According to Mr. Pernod, an eminent garancine 
manufacturer at Avignon, 5 ares 84 centiares (Avignon eminCe) yield 800 Icilogranimes of fresh 
madder roots, equal to 200 kilogrammes of dry roots ; one are or 100 square mfitrcs equals 0'0247 of 
an English acre; 5-84 x •0247 = 0-144248 acres, and 200 -r -144248= l;i8G-5 kilos, which x 2-2 = 
3,050 lbs., or 27 cwts. 0-26 dry rosee roots per acre. This is for 18 months old roots. The quantity 
produced of 30 months old roots is one-third more, or an increased weight of one-third by keeping the 
roots another year in the ground, giving on above data 36 cwts. 1 qr. 6 lbs. for 30 months rgote. 



174 MADDER 

Printing, by William Crookes, F.R.S., contains some instTactire matter connected 
■with the application of mordants in the use of madder: — 

' Aluminate of soda is largely made and used in France, since the discovery of the 
extensive deposits of bauxite in the southern parts of that country. It is obtained by 
roasting, in a reverberatory furnace, a mixture of soda-ash and bauxite, until a small 
sample taken from the fritted mass ceases to effervesce with acids. When the opera- 
tion is finished, the aluminate of soda is extracted by lixiviation with boiling water, 
and the solution evaporated to dryness. It is a coarse powder, exhibiting a slightly 
greenish colour, due to a trace of vanadium. It is infusible at the highest furnace- 
heat, and readily soluble in hot and cold water. Dilute solutions (sp. gr. 1"072 to 
l'089 = 14and 17°T\v.) remain limpid and clear for a long time, but stronger solutions 
(sp. gr. 1*3 to 1-37 = 62° to 71^° Tw.) deposit granular alumina, while the supernatant 
liquor contains a subaluminate and excess of caustic soda. This aluminate of soda 
agrees in its properties with the corresponding potassa-salt. See Axuminatb of 
Soda ; Bauxite. 

' Since bauxite is a very pure native hydrate of alumina, the aluminate of soda pre- 
pared with it is used for the production of acetate of alumina in the following 
manner: — The aluminate of soda is precipitated by the addition of a very slight excess 
of hydrochloric acid; the gelatinoiis alumina thus obtained is thoroughly washed with 
boiling water, and next dissolved in acetic acid. The percentage composition of the 
pure aluminate of soda is 47*21 soda and 52"79 alumina; the commercial product, as 
met with in the French market, is contaminated with about 9 per cent, of impurities, 
due to the presence of sulphate of soda, and chloride of sodium in the soda-ash. 

' As regards the methods of fixing alumina upon woven fabrics, it must be in a 
perfect state of solution, while it is also necessary that the hydrate of alumina should 
be precipitated, in the best possible physical condition, within the fibre of the fabrics. 
W. Crum found that the microscopic examination of fibres mordanted with acetate of 
alumina and dyed, presented differences : inasmuch as, in the first instance, the coloured 
lake, or combination of alumina and colouring-matter, was chiefly accumulated within 
the central cjinal of the fibre ; in the second case, however, the periphery of the fibre 
only was coloured. 

'Alumina can be obtained in solution: (1) in the state of a saline solution of that 
base; (2) as a basic salt; (3) as a soluble modification of the earth itself; (4) in 
combination with alkali. Some of the salts of alumina can be brought into contact 
with the cotton fibre without any decomposition whatsoever ensuing, so that a simple 
washing in cold water eliminates all the alumina taken up. This happens, e.g., ■with 
nitrate and sulphate of alumina and with alum. Whenever it may be desirable to 
apply such salts for the purpose of mordanting cloth it is necessary to pass the cloth, 
after it has been impregnated with the aluminous solution, through a bath containing 
substances capable of precipitating within the fibres either hydrate of alumina, or at 
least an insoluble basic salt of that base. Some of the salts of alumina are decom- 
posed by moist heat (steam), thereby giving up to the fibres of the cloth the whole or 
a portion of the alumina on becoming converted into a basic salt. The acid set free 
is volatilised, or leaves the tissue. The chloride, acetate, and hyposulphite of alumina 
are salts of this description. These salts become fixed by exposing the saturated 
tissues to a warm and moist atmosphere. This result is not simply a dissociation of 
the constituent elements of the salt, but the intervention of the water is absolutely 
required for the formation of the hydrate of alumina. The action is, therefore, to be 
considered as a saponification, in the more extended sense of this word, as understood 
by chemists. 

' It is here the proper place to give a few particiilars concerning the process just 
mentioned, and known as " ageing." The mordants generally used for madder styles 
are tlio pyrolignites, or acetates of iron and alumina, which, under the influence of 
ageing — which we are about to describe — are so decomposed as to leave on the cloth 
either an insoluble oxide or a subsalt, which becomes the intermediate agent for fixing 
on the fabric the colouring-matters of madder. The fixing of mordants by ageing 
was first practically carried out by Mr. W. Crum, an eminent and highly scientific 
calico-printer. " On the proper ageing of printed goods," says Dr. Schunck, " depends 
in a great measure the success of many styles. Should a room be too hot or too dry, 
imperfect fixation of the colour ensues, and meagre and uneven tints are obtained in 
the subsequent operations." To give some idea of the importance of this step in 
calico-printing, we may here state that " ageing rooms," as they are called, are in 
several print-works of enormous dimensions, and generally constitute a separate build- 
ing. Those of Messrs. Edmund Potter and Co., and Messrs. T Iloglc and Sons, all 
at or near Manchester, may be pjirticulariscd as forming quite a feature in their 
works. The process of ageing in calico -priuting is that by which a mordant, after 
being applied to a cotton fabric, is placed in circumstances favourable to its being 



II 



MADDER LAKE 175 

completely inoprporated with and fixed in the fibre. It has generally been found 
desirable that calico printed with a mordant should, before dyeing, bo exposed to the 
atmosphere for some time in the ageing room, in single folds, which generally speak- 
ing, requires several days, the object being to liberate the acetic acid from the acetates 
of iron or subacetates of alumina, and to oxidise the protoxide of iron. It was for 
many years believed that oxygen was the only necessary agent ; and although some 
printers had observed that moisture facilitated the process, this fact was not generally 
known until Mr. J, Thom of Manchester claimed the introduction of moisture as an 
important agent in the process of ageing, in a patent which he took out in 1849. Mr. 
W. Crum was, however, the first printer who applied this principle practically. He 
describes the process as adopted at Thornliebank (near Glasgow), in the following 
words : — A building is employed, 48 feet long inside and 40 feet high, with a mid- 
wall from bottom to top, running lengthwise, so as to form two apartments, each 11 
feet wide : in one of these apartments the goods first receive the moisture they require. 
Besides the ground floor, it has two open sparred floors, 26 feet apart, upon each of 
which is fixed a row of tin rollers, all long enough to contain two pieces of cloth in 
their breadth. The rollers being threaded, are set in motion by a small steam-engine, 
and the goods to be aged, which are at first placed in the ground floor, are drawn into 
the chamber above, where they are made to pass over and under each roller, issuing 
at last at the opposite end, where they are folded into bundles on one of the three 
stages which are placed there. These stages are partially separated from the rest of 
the chamber by woollen cloths. While the goods are traversing these rollers they are 
exposed to heat and moisture, furnished to them by steam, which is made to issue 
gently from three rows of trumpet-mouthed-shaped openings. The temperature is 
raised from 80° to 100° F. or more, a wet-bulb thermometer indicating at the same 
time 76° to 96° F., or always 4° less than the dry-bulb thermometer. In this arrange- 
ment 60 pieces of 25 yards each are exposed at one time ; and, as each piece is a 
quarter of an hour under the influence of steam, 200 pieces pass through in an hour. 
Although workpeople need scarcely ever enter the warmest part of this chamber, a 
ventilator in the roof is opened when there is any considerable evolution of acetic 
acid. The mordant does not, however, become fully aged by this process alone, 
although it is acted upon as much as if it had hung a whole day in cold air. It has 
received, however, the requisite quantity of moisture, about 7 per cent, of the weight 
of the piece, and is thus enabled, if the mordant be iron, to take oxygen from tljo air, 
and to become changed with time into the sesquiacetate and sesqiuhydrate of oxide of 
iron. In order to be sufiiciently aged, it must be left one, or two, or even three, days 
in an atmospliere still warm and moist. 

'It had been ascertained long before, at Thornliebank, that exposure in single folds, 
after moistening, was not necessary. The experiments of the late Prof. T. Graham, 
on the diifusion of gases through small apertures, had served to suggest that, for the 
absorption of the small quantity of oxygen required, the goods might as well be 
WTapped up and laid in heaps. Accordingly, in the operation in question, the 
moistened goods are carried in bundles into the building on the opposite side of the 
mid-wall already mentioned, and laid upon the sparred floors, placed at heights cor- 
responding with the stages in the first apartment. Upon these floors, 7,000 or 8,000 
pieces may be laid at a time, and, since each piece is 25 yards long, 100 miles can be 
stored at once. It is necessary, of course, that an elevated temperature and a corre- 
sponding degree of moisture be preserved in the storing apartments, day and night, 
and 80° F. is sufficient with the wet-bulb thermometer at 76°. To effect this condition, 
a largo iron pipe is placed along the ground floor underneath, and moderately heated 
by steam, while a row of small jets in the same position are made to project steam 
directly into the air of tlie room. The whole building is protected from external cold, 
and consequently from condensation of steam, by a warmed entrance-room, and by 
double windows, thick walls and a double roof. Small steam-pipes are also placed at 
otlier points, where they seem to be required ; and the apartment which contains the 
rollers is specially heated when not in use by a couple of steam-pipes, which are placed 
under the ceiling of the ground floor.' 

All who are interested in the application of mordants, and who aro desirous of 
undersbmding the principles upon which the applications are made, are referred to 
the ' Handbook of Dyeing,' already quoted. 

nXABDER XiAKE. The red pigment usually called i)iadder lake, which is mtich 
used by painters, is made by treating madder, which has been previously washed with 
water, witli a boiling solution of alum, filtering the red liquid, and adding a small 
quantity of carbonate of soda, taking care to leave an excess of alumina in solution, 
washing tlie red jjrecipitate, wliich is a compound of colouring-matter and alumina, 
with water and drying. Persoz gives the following method for obtaining a madder 
lake of groat brilliancy :— One part of madder, which haa been previously anb- 



176 



MAGISTRAL 



mitted to fermentation op else washed -with a solution of sulphate of soda, is treated 
■with ten times its weight of a boiling solution of alum, containing one part of alum, 
for fifteen or twenty minutes. The filtered liquid is mixed, as soon as its tempera- 
ture has fallen to about 100° F., with a solution of carbonate of soda containing one- 
eighth or one-tenth of the weight of the alum employed. This quantity is insuf- 
ficient to cause any precipitate at that temperature, but on boiling the liquid, the lake 
falls down in the shape of a red powder. The madder must be treated several times 
with boiling alum-liquor, in order to extract the whole of the colouring-matter soluble 
in that menstruum. It is evident that these lakes contain chiefly puipurine and very 
little alizarine, the latter being hardly soluble in alum-liquor. See Lake. 

Imports of Madder. 



JSIadder . 
„ Boot 
„ Munjeet . 
„ Garancine 


1869 


1870 


1871 


1872 


Cwtk 


Computed 
real ralue 


Cwts. 


Computed 
real ralue 


Cwtf. 


Computed 
real ralue 


Cwt». 


Computed 
real value 


38,139 

105,626 

3,921 

30,610 


£ 

89,536 

321,732 

7,151 

202,372 


37,820 

135,498 

2,749 

42,195 


£ 

92,683 

339,333 

3,471 

275,177 


90,706 
150,525 

27,808 


£ 
245,070 
376,016 

220,58 


134,207 

109,352 

144 

43,313 


£ 

372,563 

271,931 

803 

285,926 



MAOBAXiA USD. A name applied to naphthaline red. 

MAGSITTA. A full description of this and analogous colours will be found under 
Aniline Ekd. We extract the following from Mr. Crookes's ' Handbook of Dyeing and 
Calico-Printing ' : — 

' The simplest method of testing a commercial sample of magenta both for intensity 
and for purity of tone, is to dissolve a known weight in boiling water and to dye with 
the strained decoction a known weight of fine white woollen yarn or cloth. By thus 
comparing different samples, their respective tinctorial power can be readily ascer- 
tained, and the presence of tarry matters, unconverted aniline, &c., may be detected 
by the flatness and brownish cast of the colour. Sugar is sometimes used as an adul- 
terant. This may be detected by treating the sample with concentrated alcohol. The 
magenta dissolves and is filtered off, whilst the sugar remains behind undissolved. 

' The following method is used to ascertain whether a magenta is a pure salt of 
rosaniline, or is contaminated with mauvaniline, violaniline, chrysotoluidine, &c. The 
colour is dissolved in as little alcohol as possible, the solution diluted with its own 
bulk of water or rather more, and a drop is taken up by means of a glass rod, and 
applied to a piece of white blotting-paper. If more than on© colouring-matter is 
present, the different shades will diffuse themselves in concentric circles, and may be 
distinctly seen. This method is still more applicable to the aniline violets and blues, 
which are frequently heterogeneous. 

'Aniline Crimson. — The cnide magenta-cake, without any purification, is sold under 
this name, and is used in dyeing certain maroons, browns, clarets, and other compound 
colours. 

• The colour well bruised or broken up into powder, is placed in a suitable stoneware 
vessel and well stirred up with its own weight of hydrochloric acid. During this 
process the fumes given off should be carefully avoided. After the colour has steeped 
for a short time in the acid, boiling water is added suflBcient to dissolve the whole. 
The solution thus obtained is carefully strained, and is then ready for use. To correct 
the acidity of the colour, a small quantity of ammonia is added to the dye-bath. This 
preparation will in many cases supersede peachwood, producing brighter shades, with 
less trouble, and at a lower price. They are, however, more fugitive. Upon wool 
and silk, aniline crimson, like magenta, is a substantive colour. Upon vegetable 
fibres it requires to be fixed with a mordant — generally a per-salt of tin — and an 
astringent.' 

m;agz&P. a vehicle used by artists, of a gelatinous character. Much secresy 
prevails as to the manufacture of magilp. It appears to be essentially licseed-oil 
which has been exposed for some time to the oxidising influences of the air, mixed 
with good mastic A'arnish. 

MAGZSTSIfr is an old chemical term to designate white pulverulent substances, 
spontaneously precipitated in making certain metallic solutions ; as magistery of 
bismuth. 

MAOZSTXtAK, in the language of the Spanish smelters of Mexico and South 
America, is the roasted and pulverised copper pyrites, which is added to the ground 
ores of silver in their torta, or amalgamation-magma in the patio process for the 



MAGNESIUM I77 

purpose of decomposing the horn-silver (chloride of silver) present. For an account 
of this process of reduction, see Sjlvee. 

IVXAGIIIA is the generic name of any crude mixture of mineral or organic matters 
iu a thin pasty state. 

MA.GirAlXXES is the name given in the southern departments of Franco to tho 
proprietor of a nursery in which silkworms are reared upon the great scale, or to the 
manager of the establisliment. The word is derived from magnans, which signifies 
silkworms in the language of the country people. See Silk. 

IMCACITESIA. {Magnesie, Fr. ; Bittcrerdc, Talkerde, Ger.) is one of the earths, 
first proved by Sir H. Davy to be the oxide of a metal, which he called niagnesium. 
It is a fine, light, white powder, without taste or smell, which requires 5,130 parts 
of cold water, and no less than 36,000 parts of boiling water, for its solution. Its 
specific gravity is 2-3. It is fusible only by the heat of the hydroxygen blowpipe. 
A natural hydrate exists which contains 30 per cent, of water. Magnesia changes 
the purple infusion of red cabbage to a bright green. It attracts carbonic acid from the 
air, but much more slowly than quicklime. It consists of 6 1 • 2 1 parts of metallic basis and 
38'79 of oxygen ; and has, therefore, 20 for its equivalent upon the hydrogefi scale. 
Its only employment in the arts is for the purification of fine oil, in the preparation of 
varnish. 

Magnesia, popularly known as Calcined Magnesia, may be obtained by precipitation 
with potash or soda from its sulphate, commonly called Epsom salt ; but it is usually 
procured by calcining the artificial or natural carbonate. There is a heavy calcined 
magnesia prepared by burning the dense carbonate. Mr. Lockyor has shown, however, 
that a very dense and pure magnesia could be obtained by calcining the ordinary 
pure carbonate in large masses, and at a very high temperature. 

IVXACH'ESIA, CA]lBOII'A.T& OF ; properly speaking, a subcarbonate, con- 
sisting of 44"69 magnesia, 35'86 carbonic acid, and 19'45 water. It is prepared by 
adding to the solution of, the sulphate, or the chloride (the bittern of sea-salt evapora- 
tion works), a solution of carbonate of soda, or of carbonate of ammonia distilled from 
bones in iron cylinders. Mr. Hugh Lee Pattinson introduced tho manufacture of car- 
bonate of magnesia from the dolomite rocks, availing himself of the difierent rates of 
solubility of the carbonates of lime and magnesia in water saturated with carbonic 
acid. (See Dolomite.) The subcarbonate, or magnesia alba of the apothecary, has 
been proposed by Mr. E. Davy to bo added by the baker to damaged flour, to counter- 
act Its acescency. 

MAGXESZil., NATIVE HYDRATE OX*, or Brucite. This mineral consists 
of magnesia, 6897, water, 31-03, according to analyses by Bruce. It accompanies 
other magnesian minerals in serpentine at Swinaness in Unst, one of the Shetland 
Isles, in the Ural Mountains, in France, and opposite to Now York. 

IMCAGITESXA, SZZiXCATES OX*. Compounds of this character are abundant 
in the mineral kingdom. Meerscliaum, French Chalk or Steatite, Talc, Serpentine, 
and many other minerals are silicates of magnesia. (See these articles.) 

IVXAGHrESXA, SUIiPHATE OP, {Epsom Salts,) is generally made by acting 
upon magnesian limestone with somewhat dilute sulphuric acid. The sulphate of lime 
precipitates, while the sulphate of magnesia remains in solution, and may be made to 
crystallise in quadrangular prisms, by suitable evaporation and slow cooling. "Where 
muriatic acid may be had in profusion for the trouble of collecting it, as in the soda- 
works in which sea-salt is decomposed by sulphuric acid, tho magnesian limestone 
sliould be first acted upon with as much of the former acid as will dissolve out the lime, 
and then, the residuum being treated with the latter acid, will afford a sulphate at the 
cheapest possible rate ; from wliich magnesia and all its other preparations may be 
readily made. Or, if the equivalent quantity of calcined magnesian limestone be boiled 
for some time in bittern, the lime of the former will displace the magnesia from the 
muriatic acid of the latter. This is the most economical process for manufacturing 
magnesia. See Dolomite. 

IMCAGHTESXAIT IiXMESTOlTE. See Dolomite ; Limestokb. 

nXAGIirESXTE. Carbonate of Magnesia; Rhomb Spar. This native carbonate of 
magnesia, consisting of magnesia 47'6, carbonic acid 52-4, is found with serpentine 
and other magnesian rocks. 

MAGU-ESXXnvi. The metal obtained from magnesia. It was first procured by 
Bussy, although previously shown to exist by Davy. It is now made by placing 
potassium or sodium in a platinum crucible, covering them with_ chloride of mag- 
nesium, fastening down the cover of the crucible, and exposing it to the heat of a 
spirit-lamp. It has been prepared by Bunsen by the action of tlie voltaic current ; 
and the late Dr. Matthiessen obtained it by tho electrolysis of fused chloride of mag- 
nesium. 

We are much indebted to M. Sonstadt for removing the obstacles in the wa^ of 
Vol. ni. N 



178 MAGNESIUM 

obtaining magnesium on the large scalo for commercial purposes. The process pur- 
sued by Sonstadt is that of Dcville and Caron, somewhat modified. Magnes^'um may, 
however, be obtained in much larger quantity, by heating a mixture of 600 grains 
of chloride of magnesium, 100 grains of fused chloride of sodium, and 100 grains of 
pulverised fluoride of calcium, -with 100 grains of sodium, to bright redness, in a 
covered earthen crucible. The magnesium is thereby obtained in globules, which 
are afterwards heated nearly to whiteness in a boat of compact charcoal placed within 
an inclined tube of the same material, through which a stream of dry hydrogen is 
passed. The magnesium then volatilises and condenses in the upper part of the tube. 
Lastly, it is re-melted with a flux composed of chloride of magnesium, chloride of 
sodium, and fluoride of calcium, and is thus obtained in large globules. It still, how- 
ever, usually retains portions of carbon, silicium, and nitrogen, from which it may bo 
purified by careful distillation in a current of hydrogen. 

Magnesium is an easily infiammable metal ; a wire of considerable thickness can be 
ignited in the flame of a candle, and the light evolved by the combustion is of great 
intensity. It has been ascertained that a wire of 0'297 millimeter diameter will 
give as mucli light as 74 stearine candles of five to the pound. The powerfully 
actinic character of the light has been demonstrated by Mr. Brothers, of Manchester, 
and Mr. Sydney Smith, both of whom have produced good pictures by its use. 

The metal is neither ductile nor very malleable. It cannot be drawn, but, by 
employing a method devised by Dr. Matthiessen, it can be forced in a softened state 
through a small opening in an iron cylinder, and thus strands of wire of consider- 
able length can be formed. The wire has been found to burn more steadily when 
three or four strands are twisted into a rope ; and a simple clockwork arrangement 
will deliver such a rope to a spirit- or oil-lamp, in the flame of which it may bo 
burned. 

Alloys of Magnesium. — Dr. T. L. Phipson has paid some attention to these. In 
a communication to the Chemical Society, he says : — 

' I have examined only a few alloys of magnesium. Unlike zinc, magnesium will 
not unite with mercury at the ordinary temperature of the air. "With tin 85 parts, 
and magnesium 15 parts, I formed a very curious alloy of a beautiful lavender colour, 
very hard and brittle, easiiy pulverised, and decomposing water with considerable 
rapidity at ordinary temperatures. If the air has access during the formation of this 
alloy the mixture takes fire ; and if the crucible be then suddenly withdrawn from 
the lamp the flame disappears, but a vivid phosphorescence ensues, and the unfused 
mass remains highly luminous for a considerable time. A white powdery mass, 
containing stannic acid and magnesia, is the result. (With platinum, according to 
M. Sonstadt, magnesium forms a fusible alloy ; so that platinum crucibles can be 
easily perforated by heating magnesium in them.) Sodium and potassium unite with 
magnesium and form very malleable alloys, which decompose water at the ordinary 
temperature. It is probable that an alloy of copper and magnesium, which I have 
not yet obtained, would differ from brass, not only in lightness, but by decomposing 
water at the usual temperature with more or less rapidity.' 

Photochemical Power of the Magnesium. Flaim. — To Professors Bunsen and Hoscoe 
we are especially indebted for an examination of this question. Their experiments 
showed that a burning-surface of magnesium-wire which, seen from a point at the 
sea's level, has an apparent magnitude equal to that of the sun, effects on that point 
the same chemical action as the sun would do when shining from a cloudless sky at 
a height of 9° 68' above the horizon. On comparing the chemical with the visible 
brightness of these two sources of light, it was found that the brightness of the sun's 
disc, as measured by the eye when the sun's zenith distance was 67° 22*, is 624-7 
times as great as that of the burning magnesium-wire ; whilst, at the same zenith 
distance, the chemical brightness of tlie sun is only 36-6 times as great. Hence the 
value of this light as a source of the chemically-active rays for photographic purposes 
becomes apparent. 

Professors Bunsen and Eoscoe say in their memoir : * The steady and equable light 
evolved by magnesium-wire burning in the air, and the immense chemicivl action 
thus produced, render this source of light valuable as a simpler means of obtaining a 
given amount of illumination expressed in our terms of measurement of light. 
The combustion of magnesium constitutes so definite and simple a source of light 
for the purpose of photochemical measurement that the wide distribution of this 
metal becomes desirable. The application of this metal as a source of light may 
even become of technical importance. A burning magnesiimi-wiro of the thickness 
of 0*297 millimeter evolves, according to a measurement we have made, as much 
light as seventy-four stearine candles, of which five go to a pound. If this light 
lasted one minute, 0'987 meter of wire, weighing 0'1204 grain, would l)o burnt. Ir 
order to produce a light equal to seventy-four candles burning for ten hours 



MAGNETISM 



179 



whoreLy about 20 lbs. of stearine is consumed, 72-2 grains of magnesium •would 
bo required. The magnesium-wire can be easily prepared by forcing out the metal 
from a heated steel press, having a fine opening at bottom ; this wire might bo 
rolled up in coils on a spindle, which would bo made to revolve by clockwork, and 
thus the end of the wire, guided by passing through a groove, or between rollers, 
could be continually pushed forward into a gas- or spirit-lamp flame, in which it 
would burn.' 

In the reports of Mr. Brothers' experiments upon the magnesium-light, he says, 
' The result of an experiment I have just tried is, that in fifty seconds, with the 
magnesium-light, I have obtiiined a good negative copy of an engraving, the copy 
being made in a darkened room. Another copy was made in the usual way by day- 
light, and in fifty seconds the result was about equal to the negative taken by tho 
artificial light. The sun was shining, but there was a good deal of fog in the atmo- 
sphere.' 

Magnesium-Lamps liave been invented and manufactured by E. W. Hart, London, 
for photochemical and other purposes. This invention includes the use of springs 
and wlieels for self-acting propulsion and revolving of the ignited magnesium at tho 
same time, thereby avoiding a drooping light, which for optical illumination is a 
great desideratum. These lamps are only made to order, as their mechanism is con- 
sidered unnecessary for ordinary purposes, the action of the simplified lamp being as 
follows : — 

Hand-Lamp, for ribbon or one or more wires — if more than one wire, they should 
be twisted firmly togetlier. Place the 

end in the clip on the inside of the ^^22 

flange of the reel A (Jig. 1422) ; ap- 
ply a slight pressure to the reel by 
turning the tension-screw t ; then 
wind tho magnesium on by turning 
the flange with the finger and 
thumb ; in the more highly-finished 
lamps the winch, b, screws on the 
spindle of a for winding on quantities 
very regular. The loose end is then 
passed through the guide and feed- 
ing-rollers at F, Sufficient tension 
having been applied by the screw- 
head, T, the wire remains witli- 
out uncoiling. For use, release the 
tension, and turn the winch, u, 
towards the reel, a. In the self- 
acting propelling-lamps above men- 
tioned, a governor requires personal 
adjustment to the rate of burning — 
in the simplified hand-lamps the 
winch, B, is moved at the desired 
rate, which saves a considerable ex- 
pense for common purposes. The wire should be ignited in the smokeless part of ft 
flame, and a spirit-lamp is recommended. See Watts's ' Dictionary of Chemistry,' 

MACrlfET. A bar of steel, which, being imbued with a peculiar condition of 
electrical force, is possessed of polarity. The magnet has a special employment in 
the mariner's compass, as from the undeviating way in which — unless strong dis- 
turbing causes are in operation — it points north and south. The magnet is used also 
in surveying-instruments. The use of iron in ship-building has led to a very careful 
examination of the influence of iron on the ship's compasses. The late Dr. Scoresby, 
Professor Airy, and some others, liave been peculiarly distinguished in this important 
inquiry, and to their memoirs on the subject the reader is referred. Magnetic 
machines have been constructed for developing electricity, and employed for the de- 
position of metals. See Electbo-Metalltjrgy, 

mCAGlO'ETXC PVKXTZSS. One of the native sulphides of iron, Its chemical 
composition is usually sulphur 40-15, iron 59-85, Its power of attracting the mag- 
netic needle is probably due to tho peculiar condition in which the iron exists. It 
is distinguished from the common pyrites {Mimdic) by its inferior hardness and its 
bronze colour. See Pyrites. 

IMCAGITETISItT. A peculiar condition of electrical force. Tlie phenomena of 
magnetism which are rendered in any way available in the arts are detailed in 
special articles ; as Electro-Telegraphy, &c. &c. All bodies must now bo re- 
garded as existing in one of two known conditions of magnetism. It is understood 

n2 




180 MAHOGANY 

Umt magnetism is manifested as a -pdar force, as in a bar of iron. Every one is 
familiar with the fact that a polarised bar, if free to move, places itself in a cer- 
tain direction, which we call north and south. Besides iron, nickel and two or three 
other metals possess this property. Bismuth, silver, glass, wood, and nearly all 
other substances exhibit magnetic force of a different order, which is manifested in 
all these bodies by their placing themselves at right-angles to a magnet, or to the 
line of magnetic force. This condition has received the name of Dia-Magnetism, 
which see. 

nCAGlTETZTE. Oxydulated iron, or magnetic iron ore. One of the richest and 
most important ores of iron. See Ieon. 

IWACirET, ir.a.TXVE. See Loadstone and Iron. 

MAH/LIiEB. The fruit of this shrub affords a violet dye, as well as a fermented 
liquor like Kirschwasser. It is a species of cherry, cultivated in our gardens. 

nXAHOG.A.XI'T. The wood of a tree (Swietenia Mahagoni), which is a native 
of the West Indies. This wood appears to have been first brought to England in 
1724. 

Spanish mahogany is imported from Cuba, St. Domingo, the Spanish Main, and 
several of the West India Islands, in logs about 26 inches square, and 10 feet long. 
Its general character is well known from its extensive use in cabinet-work. 

Honduras mahogany is generally lighter than the Spanish, and more open and 
irregular in its grain. This is imported in large logs, many of 4 feet square and 18 
feet in length. Planks are sometimes obtained of 7 feet in width. According to Mr. 
Chief-Justice Temple, ' the cutting commences in the month of August. In April or 
May, in which months the ground has become perfectly hard from the continued dry 
weather, the wood is carried upon trucks drawn by bullocks to the water side ; and 
about the middle of June, when the rivers are swollen by the floods, the logs are 
floated down about 1 miles from the mouths of the different rivers, where they are 
confined by a heavy boom drawn across the stream. Here the owners select their re- 
spective logs, form them into rafts, and so fioat them down to the sea. The mahogany 
is always trucked in the middle of the night, the cattle not being able to perform 
such laborious work during the heat of the day. It is a picturesque and striking 
scene — this midnight trucking. The lowing of the oxen, the creaking of the wheels, 
the shrill cries of the men, the resounding crack of their whips, and the red glare of 
their pine torches in the midst of the dense dark forest, produce an effect approaching 
to sublimity, 

' An impression has latterly existed that almost all the mahogany in British Hon- 
duras has been cut. This, however, is a misUike. There is sufficient wood in the 
country, both on granted and ungranted land, to supply the European as well as the 
American markets for many years to come. A considerable quantity of mahogany has 
been, within the last few years, cut in the state of Honduras and on the Mosquito 
shore ; but the mahogany-works in the former country have been almost entirely 
abandoned, partly on account of the wood, which is accessible, being nearly all cut, 
and partly on account of the extra freight and insurance which are required when 
vessels are loaded on that coast. Erom the Mosquito shore very few cargoes have 
been lately sent, for the wood which grows there, although it is very large, is of 
inferior quality. The mahogany-tree requires a rich dry soil. The best mahogany is 
found to tliB north of the river of Belize. In consequence of the nature of the soil in 
that district, in which there is a great quantity of limestone, the mahogany is longer 
coming to maturity, but, when fully grown, it is of a harder and firmer texture than 
that which is found in the southern portion of the settlement. There is no wood 
more durable than mahogany, and none that is so generally useful. It is stated in a 
little book called the " Mahogany-Tree " that furniture is being made, in the royal 
dockyards, out of the beautiful mahogany found in breaking up the old lino-of-battle 
ship the Gibraltar, which was built in Havana 100 years ago. The English and 
French Governments purchase yearly a large amount of mahogany for their dockyards. 
During the last year the British Government required 12,000 tons, paying lOl. 17s. 6d. 
per ton. The French government took 3,000 tons at the same price. The royal 
yacht is built principally of Honduras mahogany. Private ship-builders are, however, 
reluctant to make use of mahogany for their vessels, as Lloyd's Committee exclude all 
ships of 12 years' standing in which the floors, futtocks, top-timber, keelson, stem and 
stern-post, transoms, knightheads, hawse-timbers, apron, and dead wood, are made of 
mahogany. 

' Mahogany vessels of 10 years' standing they admit, but oven these, I am informed, 
it is their intention very shortly to exclude. The reason which they assign is, that 
mahogany differs very much in quality, and it is impossible to know when a ship is 
built of good or bad wood. But this difference in quality depends entirely upon the 
xiistrict in wliicli it has grown. If they restricted tho ship-builders to the northern 



MAJOLICA 



181 



wood, tlicy might admit vessels of 12 years' standing without any risk. In the year 
1846 the Honduras merchants presented a memorial to Lloyd's Committee, praying 
for a removal of the existing limitations to the general use of mahogany in the build- 
ing of vessels of the highest class. Attached to this memorial were numerous cer- 
tifeates from persons well qualified to give an opinion on the subject, speaking in the 
highest terms of mahogany for ship-building. Captain E. Chappel, E.N., Secretary of 
the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company, says he " has seen the Gibraltar, 80-gun ship, 
which was broken up at Pembroke. This ship is entirely of mahogany ; captured of 
the Spaniards in 1780 ; all her timbers sound as wlien put into her. Tables for the 
Navy made of the timbers of the Gnbraltar, The steamer Forth, built by Mr. Menzies 
of Leith, has as much mahogany put into lier as could be obtained. The use of ma- 
hogany ought to be the nde, and not the exception." The qualities of mahogany, 
which render it peculiarly fitted for ship-building, are its lightness and buoyancy, its 
freedom from dry-rot, and its non-liability to shrink or warp. The price of mahogany 
varies according to the size, figure, and quality of the wood. One tree from the 
northern districts, which was cut into three logs, sold for 1,800^., or 10s. per super- 
ficial foot of 1 inch ; southern wood of small size and inferior quality has been sold at 
Sid. per foot. The present prices in London for small-sized plain mahogany are from 
5d. to 6d. per foot ; for large-sized plain, from 7d. to lOd. ; and for large, of good 
quality and figured, from 9d. to Is. 6d. 

' The yearly average quantity of mahogany exported from Honduras during the 
last ten years is about 8,000,000 feet, equal to 20,000 tons, or 200,000 tons in tho 
whole ten years, requiring 160,000 trees.' 

African mahogany {Swietcnia senegalensis), from Gambia, has been used of late 
years for curriers' tables, mangles, &c., and may be used for turning. It is denied 
by some authors to be a Swieienia ; but, if not so, it is a very closely-alliod 
genus. 

There are two or three varieties of the Svnetenia in the East Indies which are 
ornamental woods, but not mahogany. 

The importance of this wood will be seen from the following statement of the 
Imports of mahogany in 1868-70, and 1872: — 



From Prance . . . . 
„ Cuba . . . . 

,, Curaijoa . . . . 
„ Hayti and St. Domingo . 
„ United States (near At- 
lantic ports) . 
„ Ports on the Pacific 
„ British West Indies 
„ Mexico . . . . 
„ Central America 
„ British Honduras . 
„ Other parts 

Total 


1868 


1869 


1870 


1872 


Tons 


Computed 
real value 


Tons 


Computed 
real value 


Ton« 


Computed 
real value 


Ton> 


Computed 
real value 


5",207 

271 

1,290 

177 
137 

20,"479 

5,705 

7,979 

680 


& 

46.598 

2,599 

16,163 

1,549 
1,165 

149,835 
43,002 
65,921 
5,900 


1*726 

753 

1,041 

24[038 
6,537 

11,177 
1,980 


£ 

16,967 

7,154 

12,466 

169,687 
45,759 
91,484 
16,231 


*980 

814 

2,267 

6,871 
3,542 
2,673 


£ 

9,912 

8,243 

26,185 

116,685 
61,533 
27,640 
21,260 


1,244 

i,m 

660 

"671 
15,090 
4,757 
7,705 
2,703 


£ 
19,193 

11,235 

7,920 

6,046 

182,318 

60,.548 

66,261 

32,269 


41,925 


332,732 


47,252 


359,748 


32,732 


261,358 


33,920 375,790 1 



MAIZE. A genus of monocotyledonous plants belonging to the natural order 
Gramine<B — the grasses. There are only two species known, and these both belong to 
America. The Zea- mays is the Indian corn or common maize ; and the Zca caragua, 
the Chilian maize or Valparaiso corn. Both these varieties are largely cultivated as 
articles of food. 

nXAJroiiIC A, known also as Faenza and Raffaelle ware. A term for soft enamelled 
pottery, first introduced into Italy from Majorca about the twelfth century, and which 
was the work of the Moors. 

The distinguishing points of the so-called majolica are coarseness of ware, and an 
opaque white enamel containing binoxide of tin, and decorated in colours. A large 
class ascribed, although possibly on insufficient grounds, to Valentia, is characterised 
by elaborate conformity of pattern, flushed with metallic lustre, on a greyish-white 
ground. 

Of tho positively Italian wares, though they were so greatly in request that most of 
the cities of the Eomagna instituted manufactories of them, but little can be ascer- 
tained prior to the sixteenth century. 

The towns most celebrated after a.d. 1500 for their artistic productions are Pesaro, 



182 MALIC ACID 

Gubio, Ascanio, Bologna, Cltacastellana, Ferrara, Forli, Fynlina, Pisa, Perugia, 
Eimini, Sienna, and Spello ; and the first is considered the earliest site of a manu- 
factory in Italy, notwitlistanding the attempts of the ingenious Eugene Piot in 
favour of Deruta. So early as 1509 Guidobolato della Eovere, duke of Urbino, 
granted a patent to Jacques Lanfranco of Pesaro, for ' the application of gold to 
the Italian faience,' by which is probably intended that lustre of a golden colour 
■which so brilliantly sheds its prismatic hue on the fictile performances of this period. 
The next in antiquity is Gubio, which boasted, in Giorgio Andriolio, of one of the 
most famous masters in his art. In 1511, and subsequently, he, improving on the 
invention of Lanfranco, gave to his wares a ruby splendour, restricted to his 
works alone ; for the artist and his secret died together. His works are usually 
inscribed at the back M°" G°- (Maestro Giorgio), which title he assumed on his 
ennoblement. At Gubio, also, Giorgio'a son Vincent is said to have laboured in the 
same department. 

It was, however, during a period extending from 1520 to 1560 that these wares 
attained perfection. The classical designs of Raflfaclle, of Giulio Eomano, and of 
Marc Antonio, were adopted and correctly developed ; the most graceful figure-com- 
positions, selected from the Grecian and Eoman mythologies, were surrounded by 
borders of imaginative arabesques. The colours, less brilliant than before, were now 
more harmoniously combined, while the glaze became more transparent, and more 
evenly applied then ever. Plates, dishes, vases, cisterns, fountains, now came into 
being in full magnificence, while goblets, salt-cellars, and other appendages to the table 
receive the same careful ornamentation with works of greater pretension but less 
utility. " 

At Pesaro, in 1542, flourished Geronimo, and in 1550, Mathieu, when large 
dishes were first made, having a profusion of ornaments executed in relief. With 
these artists successfully competed Terenzio, son of Mathieu ; Battista Franco, a 
skilful designer, entrusted with the direction of the works ; Taddeo Zuccaro and the 
two RafFaelles — one Ciarla, the other dell CoUe — both for a long time confounded with 
the immortal Sanzio. There, too, worked the brothers Flaminio, and Orazzio Fontana, 
of Urbino, on the dinner service which Guidobardo caused to be made for Charles V. 
and Philip II. Orazzio also worked at Castel Durante and Florence, as did the 
Chevalier Piccolpesso, a talented painter, and the author of a work on pottery. 
Eivallingalso the above in fame, were Guido Selvaggio ofFaenza, Francisco Xante de 
Eovigio, who was a support of the manufactory at Urbino, Frederico Brandini, and 
Guido Durantino. The works of Luca della Eobbia gave much celebrity to the ware, 
owing to the brilliancy of his colours, the modelled relief of his designs, and the 
hardness of his enamel. The Dukes of Urbino patronized the art for nearly 
two hundred years ; and the productions they issued are geiierally kno*n as Eaffiielle 
ware. 

For an historical account of majolica, see Mr. Drury Fortnum's elaborate ' Descrip- 
tive Catalogue of the Majolica in the South Kensington Museum,' 1873. 

MAIiilCRZTS, or oiiountain green, is native carbonate of copper of a beautiful 
green colour, with variegated radiations and zones ; spec. grav. 3'5 ; it scratches calc- 
spar, but not fluor-spar ; by calcination it aflfords water and turns black. Its solution 
in the acids deposits copper iipon a plate of iron plunged into it. Its consists of car- 
bonic acid, 18'5 ; protoxide of copper, 722 ; water, 9-3. 

It is found in great quantities and of a remarkably fine character, in the copper 
mines of the Ural mountains, and is in Eussia manufactured* into various kinds of 
furniture and highly ornamental articles. A very fine malachite has been obtained 
from the Burra-Burra mines in South Australia. It is found to exist in large quantities 
in Central Africa, See Copper. 

nSAlLATES are saline compounds of the bases with malic acid. 

MAXiE FERir. Lastrea (Aspidium) FUix-mas. This fern grows in all parts of 
Europe and most parts of America, between New York and Virginia. Its root (rhizome) 
has been used for tanning. The best root is about 6 inches long and an incii broad ; 
externally it is of a brown colour, internally yellowish or reddish white, with a pecu- 
liar but not very strong odour, and a sweetish bitter-astringent taste. Morrin states 
that the root contains volatile oil, fatty matter, gallic acid, acetic acid, tannin, uncrystal- 
lizable sugar, starch, ligneous matter, and gelatiniform matter. The root is collected 
in May and September. 

MCAIiXC ACZS. {Acide maligue, Fr. ; Aepfels'dare, Get.) This acid exists in the 
juices of many fruits and plants alone, or associated with the citric, tartaric, and 
oxalic acids : and occasionally combined with potash or lime. Unripe apples, sloes, 
barberries, the berries of the mountain-ash, • elder berries, currants, gooseberries, 
etrawberries, raspberries, bilberries, brambleberries, whortleberries, cherries, and 



MALTING 183 

ananas, afford malic acid; tlio house-lcek and purslane contain the malate of 
lime. 

The acid may be obtained most conveniently from the juice of the berries of the 
mountain-asli or barberries. This must be clarified, by mixing it with -white-of-egg, 
and heating the mixture to ebullition ; then filtering, digesting the clear liquor with 
carbonate of lead, till it becomes neutral ; and eA'aporating the saline solution, till 
crystals of malate of lead be obtained. These are to be washed with cold water, and 
purified by re-crystallization. On dissolving the white salt in water, and passing a 
stream of sulphuretted hydrogen through the solution, the lead will bo all separated in 
the form of a sulphide, and the liquor, after filtration and evaporation, will yield yellow 
granular crystiils, or cauliflower concretions, of malic acid, which may be blanched by 
re-dissolution and digestion with bone-black, and re-crystallization. 

Malic acid has no smell, but a very sour taste, deliquesces by absorption of moisture 
from the air, is soluble in alcohol, fuses at 150° Fahr., is decomposed at a heat of 
348°, and affords by distillation a peculiar acid, the pyromalic. It consists, in 100 
parts, of 41*47 carbon, of 3'ol hydrogen, and 55"02 oxygen ; liaving nearly the same 
composition as citric acid. A crude malic acid might be economically extracted from 
the fruit of the mountain-ash, applicable to many purposes ; but it has not hitherto 
been manufactured on the great scale. 

lOAXiXiEABZXiITV is the property belonging to certain metals of being extended 
under the hammer by beating, or under the roller. Gold is a remarkable example of 
a malleable metal. 

lVLA.XiXiBil.BXiB IRON. See Iron. 

MAIiIVX ROCS. A local name for the sandstones of Sussex and Surrey, called 
also fire-stone. It belongs to the Upper Greensand formation. This Malm forms the 
soil which produces the greater part of the hops for which these counties are cele- 
brated. See Sandstone. 

ItXAXiTHA. Biiume glutineux, or mineral pitch. It dissolves in alcohol, as also 
in naphtha, and oil of turpentine. It seems to be inspissated petroleum. 

nSAlbTING. The process by which barley or other grain is prepared by germina- 
tion under artificial conditions, for the purpose of brewing. The changes produced in 
its constituents, and the requisite properties of good malt, having been already given 
in the article Beer, we now proceed to describe the requisites of a malt-house, and 
the mode of operation. 

The necessary apparatus for the production of malt is extremely simple : that is to 
say, first, a cistern or vessel for steeping the grain ; secondly, a floor on which it may 
be thinly spread and allowed to germinate ; and, lastly, a kiln or stove in which the 
newly-formed malt may be dried. These need not be of any specific size, neither is 
any special position, or arrangement needed; but in this country, from the large 
amount of duty levied on this manufacture, fiscal regulations interfere with, and in- 
fluence the whole arrangement. 

The regulations as to the manuificture of malt are embodied in the acts 7 & 8 Geo. 4. 
c. 52, and 11 Geo. 4. c. 17. The former act is an admirable specimen of legislative 
injustice ; the latter was intended to ameliorate the provisions of its predecessor, and 
does, in a degree, effect that object. The first contains no less than 83 clauses ; and 
the regulations in it are enforced by 106 penalties, amounting in the aggregate to the 
incredible sum of 15,000/. How much of this is negatived by the subsequent act 
it is not very easy to determine, though, as far as it goes, the effect of No. 2 is to 
stultify the regulations of No. 1. The cistern or steeping vessel must be of a determinate 
form and construction ; it must have been approved of by a supervising officer ; its 
cubical contents must have been very accurately ascertained by actual admeasurement, 
and it must be placed in such a situation that the officer gauging it may have sufficient 
light, and a clear open space of 48 inches, at the least, above every part of such cistern, 
for the purpose of facilitating the process of gauging ; and, lastly, if such light be an 
impossibility, from local obstacles, the maltster must enter into an engagement to 
keep, at his own expense, lamps or candles burning, for the convenience of the 
officer. From what wc have now said, as well as from the notoriously uncertain 
character of grain, it might naturally be inferred that the process of steeping would 
be left entirely to the judgment of the maltster, who would determine according to his 
experience, and the nature of the resulting phenomena, when the grain had been 
steeped long enough in the water, and when it had not. Tlio law, however, allows 
him no such privilege ; whether the grain be old or dry, or new and moist, is all 
one,—' maltsters are required to keep their corn or grain covered with water for the 
full space of 40 hours, under the penalty of 100/.'^ Nor will any change occurring in 
the appearance of the grain, and seeming to require its immediate removal, justify or 
excuse the maltster in so doing, unless indeed he shall have anticipated the occurrence 



184 ]VIALTmG 

ty giving notice of his intention to do so in his original notice ' to wcf — ^whichmust 
date 24 hours previous to commencing that operation, — and to give the day and hour 
of the day for beginning the steep, — all under the usual penalty of 100/. Nor may he 
' begin to wet at any other time than between the hours of eight in the morning and 
two in the afternoon,' imder a penalty of 100/., nor may he take corn or grain from any 
cistern at any other time than between the hours of seven in the morning and four in 
the afternoon. To empty corn or grain out of any cistern, until the expiration of 
ninety-six hours from the time of the last preceding emptying of any cistern in the 
establishment, involves a penalty of 200/. ; and the same infliction occurs, * if the corn 
or grain be not emptied out of all such cisterns at one and the same time, or within 
three hours after the clearing of the first cistern w^s commenced.' 

Maltsters are not to mix, either on the floor or kiln, any corn or grain of one wetting 
"with corn or grain of another wetting, under a penalty of 100/. What is termed the 
couch, or place in which the grain, after being steeped, is laid together for the purpose 
of germination, is a supplementary apparatus of excise ingenuity, and no way neces- 
sary to the success of the malting process. Here the grain, after having been gauged 
in the steep, is again to be gauged with great care ; and if the maltster should tread or 
compress the couch, so as to diminish its bulk, a penalty of 100/. is imposed, though it 
is obvious that a power of loosening or compressing this couch according to its tempe- 
rature would greatly improve the formation of malt. However, ' all corn or graiK 
emptied into the couch-frame is to be laid flat and level by the maltster, and so kept 
24 hours at the least,' and similarly the floors are all to be placed level on pain of 
100/. fine, so that any experimental essay at imnrovement is very likely to end in the 
Court of Exchequer. Again, it frequently happens, or rather we should say, it 
generally happens, that too little water is absorbed by the grain during the operation 
of steeping ; the consequence of which is, that after being removed from the couch to 
the floor, the grain desiccates, and, ceasing to germinate, speedily evolves a sickly 
odour, and becomes mouldy, — the incipient radicles at the same time drying and 
shrinking up for want of moisture ; in fact, the grain withers and perishes from the 
eflFect of drought, This condition is very frequent about the third and fourth day from 
the couch, and is easily and eiFectually put a stop to by the application of a little 
water. But now comes a rather awkward dilemma for the maltster : if the grain con- 
tinue on the floor without being sprinkled, it is greatly damaged or altogether spoilt; 
if water be sprinkled upon it to restore vitality, tlie law says that ' corn or grain, 
making into malt, must not be wetted or sprinkled with water before the expiration 
of 12 days, or 288 hours, after the same shall have been taken from or out of the 
cistern, under a penalty of 200/.' "Wliere, however, the steep has lasted for the full 
period of 50 hours, and where, consequently, tlie want of water is less likely to be 
felt, the maltster may sprinkle at the end of six days, or 144 hours; but in no case less 
than this, — though, as we have stated, the great urgency for the sprinkling process 
occurs generally on the third day ; and it is an undeniable fact, that, in spite of the 
heavy risk incurred, maltsters do almost invariably sprinkle their floors at about this 
period, and are thus driven to the necessity of trusting in the good fiiith and dis- 
cretion of some workman, to the injury of both parties. But the discriminating power 
confided to excise officers in these matters is incredible. ' Whenever there shall be rea- 
son to suspect, from the appearance of the grain on the floor, that it has been illegally 
wetted or sprinkled, the officer must give immediate notice to the maltster, or his 
servant, of such suspicion, and make a memorandum thereof, upon the specimen- 
paper, and in the memorandum-book, mentioning whether anything, and what, was 
stated by such maltster or any person on his behalf," &c. Nay, the Anews of the officer 
are ordered to be put on record, as to an immense number of fortuitous circumstances, 
all of which, of course, received an unfavourable signification : for instance, ' how the 
kiln was loaded, and whether fed by a brisk or slow fire? — whether the house seemed 
in a state for running or wetting, or committing any other and what fraud ? — what the 
trader says, and what character he bears in his concerns with the revenue ? ' — and 
60 on, in the most arbitrary spirit. Indeed, the officer is specially instructed to make 
sudden and unexpected returns or visits, at unusual periods, so as to discover any 
suspicious indications. Again, of the three separate gauges of malt which he may 
take, whether in the cistern, in the couch, or on the floor, the officer must select the 
largest for charging duty upon. Thus, if in the cistern he finds 78^ bushels indicated, 
in the couch subsequently 81 J indicated, and on the floor 83 i, then the latter is 
preferred ; and so with regard to the highest wherever found, — the order being that 
' when the cistern or couch gauge is equal to or exceeds the floor gauge, then the best 
cistern or couch gauge will be the charge ; but if that be less than the floor gauge, then 
the floor gauge will be the charge.' Any accident or loss arising after the cistern gauge 
is therefore thrown wholly on the maltster, who, far from being able to employ his 
ingenuity in the improvement of his business processes, finds himself more than fully 



MALTING 185 

occupied in a perpetual efTort to protect his interests from fiscal regulations conceived 
in a most hostile spirit. The carelessness and ignorance of conunon workmen may 
at any moment subject the most honest maltster in the kingdom, not merely to 
charges of dishonesty, but even to penal inflictions ; which have ceased to carry 
moral degradation with them, only because of the popular belief of their injustice. 
It would be impossible, nor is it requisite, to follow out or recapitulate the in- 
numerable annoyances to which the manufacturer of malt is subjected at present: 
we have thus briefly noted down a few, in order that the admirers of Bavarian and 
other foreign beers may take into account the very different state of the malt manu- 
facture in this country, as compared with that brought about by an unrestricted 
liberty to use or apply any means which the nature of the grain, the condition of 
the atmosphere, or other accidental circumstances, may require during the process of 
germination. 

Having thus seen the restricticns imposed by the legislature, we need only indicate 
that the capacities of the cistern, the couch, and the kiln should be adapted to contai* 
respectively the whole quantity of barley or malt made at one steeping, and this 
should again have reference to the space allotted to the floor, which should allow of 
at least three steepings to be worked on it without interference in their different stages 
of growth and withering. 

The process of malting consists of three successive operations : the steeping ; the 
couching, sweating, flooring ; and the kiln-drying. 

It often happens from various reasons that the importance of extreme care in the 
selection of barley for malting is overlooked, but the injurious consequences re- 
sulting from such a laxity are so great that they cannot be too strongly impressed 
upon the attention of the party entrusted with this duty. All barleys that have 
been weathered in the field, or have got mow-burnt or musty in the stack, should be 
Tigidly rejected; they are so easily detected that there is no room for accidental 
oversight. Weathered barley has a dull and often a dirty appearance, quite dis- 
tinct from the bright shotty character of good samples, and frequently a sprouted 
corn or two may be seen amongst them, but the last is the least enl of the three, 
as the sprouted corns may to some extent be removed by carefully swimming the 
barley (at the time the cistern is charged) and floating off' the lighter grains. But 
with mow-burnt and musty barley the grain has suffered so much that a sound 
wort out of malt made from mow-burnt barley cannot be obtixined. This evil arises 
chiefly from the barley having been stacked in an insufficiently dry state; subse- 
quently it has become overheated and its germinating principle destroyed ; there -.•> 
no remedy, it cannot be reclaimed, it is spoilt for malting purposes, more or less 
according to the circumstances immediately attending it. It may be detected by 
a peculiarly faint, sickly smell, perhaps the word 'stink' more nearly describes it; 
in addition to that, it may be at once suspected if some of the grains have a dis- 
colouration varying from red to black at the radicle end ; such grains when thrown 
into the couch after steeping will often exhibit a brownish-red appearance from end to 
end ; if broken they will display a red-tinted kernel and show an unmistakeable rotten- 
ness ; on the floor they will impart that odour of rotten apples, so disheartening to 
the careful maltster, especially if he be brewer also ; and after being dried on the 
kiln, a minute examination of them will disclose a kernel of a yellowish and some- 
times a brownish tinge, which otherwise ought to be perfectly white and flowerj'. 
Beer brewed from such malt is liable to ferment with uncontrollable violence, and 
•will soon turn sourish, bad, or stinking, according to the degree of injury the barley 
has suffered. 

Musty barley of course can easily be detected ty the smell, and a slight appearance 
of mould may generally be detected upon the ends and belly of the grain ; if it is very 
slight indeed it need not condemn an otherwise good sample, but if it arises from being 
overheated in the hold of a vessel it should not be malted. Broken and bruised corns, 
and corns crushed by the feet or shovel upon the withering floor, have precisely the 
same effect and result as mow-burnt barley ; for this reason, therefore, the thrashing- 
machines now in such general use have need of great improvement, as they break the 
corns to a fearful extent, the more so when the season has been exceptionally dry, and 
the finest and boldest corns suffer most. 

Another unfavourable symptom is when the beard has not been entirely removed, 
some of the corns retaining portions of it attached ; this is an indication that the 
mellowing in the stack has been imperfect when the grain was thrashed, the beard 
has therefore remained tough, and the operation has been unable therefore to detach 
them : it is generally attendant on weathered grain. 

The Malting.— It is a good plan as a rule to have all barley Bhot into its Linn as 
soon as possible, and there allowed to remain till it is granted for malting; the 



186 MALTING 

mellowing is thereby some'wliat encouraged, especially so if the season has been a 
very dry one, for the barley is likely to Be intractable ; it is advisable then to let it 
remain in heap for some ■weeks with that purpose. 

But if on putting the hand into the sacks the feeling of sharpness and briskness is 
wanting, too much moisture may be suspected: it should then remain in dry sacks, 
or, if thought requisite, should be dried with a slow fire upon the kiln and turned 
frequently, after which it should be thoroughly cooled, and thrown into heap to 
mellow. 

Whenever practicable, samples differing from each other should never be mixed be- 
fore malting, but when unavoidable only such barleys should be mixed as are of the 
same weiglit per imperial bushel, the same in character and condition, and from 
similar districts, otherwise there will be a harassing irregularity iipon the floor. And 
now before commencing operations, perhaps a word or two about the amount of work 
a man should do would not be out of place. 

Previous to the operation of steepinp;, it will be found most profitable that the 
barley should be very thoroughly cleansed : all dirt, earth, stones, light grains, 
and small ones, should be CiirefuUy screened and swam out of it (for it is a 
waste to pay duty and wages for such things, and what is of more consequence, 
they tend to injure the quality of the malt while on the floors), and the steep com- 
mences. 

It is a good arrangement to have at the overflow-end of the cistern a sieve or wire 
trough placed a few inches below the overflow on the outside of the cistern, so that 
the surplus water shall easily float away the light grains from the surface as they 
rise ; there they will collect, and may eventually be taken away, dried on the kiln, and 
used for feeding purposes. The draining ability of the cistern should be as ample and 
expeditious as possible, and the water-supply should be equally good ; some maltsters 
with commendable prudence provide a sort of shower-bath arrangement over their 
cisterns in place of the water-tap. 

The steeping is performed in large cisterns made of wood or stone, which being 
filled with clear water up to a certain height, a quantity of barley is shot into them, 
and well stirred about with rakes. 

Tlie good grain is heavy and subsides ; the lighter grains, which float on the surface, 
are the damaged ones, and should be skimmed off, for tliey would injure the quality of 
tlie malt and the flavour of the beer made with it. They seldom amount to more than 
2 per cent. 

More barley is successively emptied into the steep-cistern, till the water stands only 
a few inches, about five, above its surface ; when this is levelled very carefully, and 
every light seed is removed. 

The steep lasts from 40 to 84 hours, according to thw circumstances of the season, 
condition, and weight per imperial bushel ; new barley lequiring a longer period than 
old, and big requiring much less time than barley. 

In England it is the common practice, in order to escape as much as possible the 
excise duty, to allow the barley as a rule only 50 hours, but this is not sufficient for 
heavy or strong barleys : 60, 72, or even 84 hours will bo found much more advan- 
tageous to the saccharific and friable qualities of the malt produced, and where tlie 
maltster is also the brewer it will well repay him the little extra excise duty he may 
pay on account of it, and the loss by solution in the steep-water will be found alto- 
gether inconsiderable. The Munich maltsters usually allow 96 hours, and take for 
their criterion that the pip shall have swollen almost to bursting, before the steeping 
is considered sufficient. 

During this steep, carbonic acid is evolved from the grnins, and combines with 
the water, which at the same time acquires a yellowish tinge and a strawy smell, 
from dissolving some of the extractive matter of the barley husks. The grain im- 
bibes al)Out one-half of its weight of water and increases in size by about one-fifth. 
By losing this extract the husk becomes about one-seventieth lighter in weight, and 
paler in colour. 

The duration of the steep depends in some measure upon the temperature and 
state of humidity of the atmosphere, and the temperature and constitution of the 
water, and is the shorter the warmer the season. 

The water most suitable for malting purposes is most certainly fresh spring-water 
from deep sources, at the temperature of about 52° Fahr. ; this is generally obtainable 
in England ; surface-water is not estimable, first, on account of its variable tempera- 
ture, secondly, because it contains a variable amount of organic matter, and thirdlj', 
because its solvent power is greater; whereas the salts of lime held in solution by 
nearly all spring-waters have a very beneficial effect upon the barley, as to some 
extent they neutralise the acid tendency, and must or mould. 

Steeping has for its object, to expand the farina of the barley with humidity, and 



MALTING 187 

thus prepare the seed for germination, in the same way as the moisture of the earth 
prepares for the growth of the radicle andplumulain the seed. Too long continuance 
in the steep is injurious ; because it prevents the germination at the proper time, and 
thereby exhausts a portion of the vegetative power: it causes also an abstrac- 
tion of saccharine matter by the water. The maceration or steep is known to be 
complete when the skin of tlie barley has lost all wrinkle or curl, can be easily 
transfixed with a needle, and is swollen to its fullest size. Tlie following is reckoned 
a good test: — If a barleycorn, when pressed between the thumb and fingers, continues 
entire in its husk, it is not sufficiently steeped ; but if it sheds its flour on the fingers, 
it is ready. 

Wlien the substance exudes in the form of a milky juice, the steep has been too 
long continued, and the barley is spoiled for germination. 

Unhealthy, damaged, and mutilated corns, frequently become pasty in the cistern, 
long before the sound portion of the charge lias been steeped enough, and this the 
sooner, in proportion to the amount of injury the grain has sufFered. All such 
grains are apt to become very damaging upon the withering floor, and to avoid this, 
and increase the profits as much as possible, it is a ride with some maltsters that the 
more indiiFerent a sample of barley is, the less steep must be given to it ; he must 
force the acrospire on, by thick and warm floors, that it may be put on the kiln as 
quickly as possible, after it is wetted ; by this means, the sample saves its appearance 
very considerably; but although the decomposing corns do not stink and mould 
quite so soon when thus worked, as they would if treated otherwise, thqir mischievous 
tendency is not at all diminished ; for, by the sliori; steep allowed, the sound corns 
are thrown on the floor in an intractable state, and by the thick flooring and conse- 
quent heat at which they are subsequently worked, tendencies to lactous fermentation 
and mould are greatly encouraged, first in the iinsound corns, and then by contact 
through the whole floor. 

In warm weather it sometimes happens that the water becomes acescent before the 
grain is thoroughly swelled. Tliis accident, which is manifest to the taste and smell, 
must be immediately ob\nated by drawing off the foul water through the tap at the 
bottom of the cistern, and replacing it with fresh cold water. It does no harm to 
renew it two or tliree times at one steep. 

The Couch. — The water being drawn off, and occasionally a fresh quantity passed 
through to wash away any slimy matter which may have been generated in warm 
weather, the barley is now laid on tlie coucli-floor of stone flags in square heaps, from 
12 to 16 inches high, and left in that position for twenty -four hours. 

At this period, the bulk of the grain being at the greatest, it is usually gauged by 
the revenue officers, and the quantity then found multiplied by the decimal '8 15 is 
that on which the dnty is generally charged. 

After a few hours, moisture leaves the surface of the barley so completely, that it 
imparts no dampness to the hands ; but, in from fifteen to thirty hours, sooner or 
later, according to the circumstances at the time of the season, quality of barley, 
and efficiency or otherwise of the steep, it becomes warm, the temperature rises 
from 7° to 10° above that of the atmosphere, while an agreeable, fruity smell is 
evolved; if the hand is thrust into the grain as it lies in the couch, it not only 
feels warm, but it is bedewed ■with moisture. At this sweating stage, the fibrils of 
the radicles make an appearance at the base of every grain, in the form of a white 
elevation. 

After remaining in the couch twenty-four hours, the time insisted upon by excise 
regulation, the couch is broken, that is, the planks composing the front of it arc re- 
moved, and Avith a maltster's Avood shovel, the grain is spread out to the depth of 
from 6 to 10 inches (according as required by the before-mentioned circumstances; 
and bo it remembered, that these must be carefully considered at every stage of the 
working, from first to last). Some few hours after the radicles have begun to divide, 
the plumula may be discerned at the same point, proceeding beneath the husk, to the 
other end of the seed, in the form of a yellow leaflet. 

Tlie Flooring. -With, this last operation, 'the flooring,' may be said to have com- 
menced, and the experience and judgment of the maltster are now called into requisi- 
tion, and will be taxed to their utmost to ensure a simultaneous start and equal degree 
of germination in every individual grain alike ; he must not forget it for a moment, 
but carefully watch its progress, and as soon as the grains immediately below the 
surface appear glossy wet from sweating, the floor must be turned with the shovel, 
and thinned out from 2 to 4 inches in thickness, as he sees it desirable. The manner 
of handling the shovel is a matter of great importance, and it is only from careful 
practice that the required proficiency is attained ; the upper stratum of the floor is 
skimmed off and rolled over, just in the immediate neighbourhood of the workman. 



188 MALTING 

step by step, shovelful by Bhovelful ; the under portion is then well deaned up, flung 
and spread "with an inward turn of the wrists, as the arms are thrown across the 
front; by this motion, the grains are disposed into a thin, wide-spreading shower, 
driven through the air and falling evenly on the floor, at a considerable distance from 
where they were taken up by the shovel, and by the operation are separated and 
cooled ; should any faint smell have been attained, it will afterwards be fbimd to have 
passed off in a very great measure. 

Thus the workman advances, proceeding across and recrossing the floor, taking 
alternately, first the upper stratum, and then the lower one at everj' step, throwing 
it out the further, the more cooling or ' check ' he purposes to give to it, and also 
regulating its area accordingly. Sometimes it requires turning over, and lightening 
up, without being subjected to the cooling consequent upon the use of the shovel ; and 
for this purpose the workman uses what is called the ' rake.' This is an iron blade, 
about 30 inches long and perhaps 2 inches broad, fixed at each end by holders, to a 
massive wood head, to which is attached a strong wood shaft, with a cross-head 
handle. This blade is dragged along the floor, passing under the barley, turning the 
bottom to the top and lightening it up considerably ; but when turning only is re- 
quired, he uses what is called the ' plough ; ' this is a long-handled tool, in shape 
very much resembling the scull of a boat, and in using it is made to pass through the 
grain, precisely as a scull is made to do in the water. The young floors will generally 
require some sort of tendance every three or four hours ; tliis must be judged now by 
the appearance of the radicle as a principal indicator ; when it is particularly white 
and vigorous, the floor requires a ' turn,' that is, the shovel preceded by the rake ; if 
it requires nursing, and it is thought that a tiurn would check it too much, the rak? 
alone is used ; but if it requires a gentle turn over and careful nursing, then the 
plough alone is used ; and thus these are employed, either alone, in turn or combined, 
in any way the workman may deem it desirable ; but always before leaving his house, 
for the night, he must thoroughly disentangle the corns, the one from the other, give 
the floors a good turning and spreading, thin them out, and lay them light. In the 
old floors it will most likely be necessary to use all three tools about them ; fijst the 
plough, and then the rake, till they are well disentangled and light, then with the 
shovel, thin out, turn, spread, and cool them. 

With the young floors, perhaps, only the plough and the rake may be required, 
as it sometimes happens that nursing is necessary, owing to the coldness of the 
weather. 

It will sometimes occur, most commoniy from an insufficient steep, that the radicles 
will show signs of withering prematurely ; and if the circumstance was to remain un- 
heeded, the floor would die long before the germination had wrought the desired 
change in the constitution of the barley ; the withering radicles would drop off even 
with the most careful handling, and then the grain would have to depend on those 
that remained to it for the support it needed to complete the change. To render the 
necessary help, at this time, recourse is had to 'sprinkling,' that is, water is ad- 
ministered to it from a 4-gallon watering-can, with a rose, in the proportion as a rule 
of about one can to the quarter (8 bushels) ; under some circumstances a floor will 
take nearly double that quantity, as in the case of the heavy Scotch barleys, with 
only 50 hours' steep, but with liglit free barleys, perhaps only half the quantity, the 
less the better in all cases, where quality is of more consequence than appearance ; for 
the object being to supply a stimulant to the ' fainting ' and perhaps wounded grain, 
the acrospire is forced up as it were, under the husk of the hide-bound grain ; no good, 
or at any rate very little good, is done by the process, to really benefit the constitution 
of the grain ; the application is too superficial, and where the quality of the saccharine 
constituent is the consideration, it cannot stand in competition with the properly 
administered steep. But for the sake of overmeasure or overweight, and it must bo 
admitted a saving in appearance, it is adopted by the malting-trade generally, as a 
matter of routine. It is administered as follows : — 

On the fourth or fifth day after the grain is thrown from the cistern, the radicles 
will have attained the length of nearly a quarter of an inch ; the floor has then given 
to it about half a can-full of water to the 8 bushels ; it is then well ploughed, rtiked 
and turned, so as to wet every grain possible, and tlien worked in tlie usual course. 
Next day, the remainder of the dose is given, or if much water is thought necessary, 
it is given two doses the second day, one in the morning and the other in the after- 
noon, and perhaps another dose next morning ; the operation, of course, necessitates 
plenty of room, so it is usual to arrange for the main sprinkling on the day tliat the 
old floors are loaded on the kilns. If floors are closely observed about this time, it 
will be seen, that mould mostly appears immediately after the sprinkling; then it is 
that the mischievous effects of rotting, mutilated, and broken corns are most apparent, 
and with each hour the disease spreads from corn to corn, till sometimes, before the 



MALTING 189 

floor can be got ready for the kiln, the whole of the floor is literally impregnated with 
it, a kind of blue bloom is to be perceived upon it, and it may oven affect the atmo* 
sphere above it, plainly showing that mould in the form of dust is present, ready to 
full on everj'thing; some of it may bo made to disappear, after drying and screen- 
ing the malt ; but the taste is permanently attached to the malt, and follows it through 
the remainder of its existence, even after it has changed its state; not that mould 
can be always detected in the beer made from such malt, for unless it is very bad 
indeed, it can bo overpowered by the hop ; but there is a perceptible deficiency in 
that fine, clean flavour, which is the perfection of a glass of good beer, its place 
being usurped by a flavour coarse and tangey, and tending to acidity, the more so 
in proportion as tlie disease has ravaged the malt ; for let it not be forgotten, that 
mould and acidity always go hand-in-hand. Therefore, where it is found necessary 
to malt an indifferent sample of barley, it is much the wiser plan to treat it with a 
sufScient steep, and work it as cool as possible upon the floors, giving it plenty of 
time ; for heats approaching 60°, and especially between 60° and 70° encourage disease 
in barley on the floors, just as it does also upon an unsound wort in the fermenting 
tin ; such malts should always bo set apart to be brewed by themselves for a quick 
consumption. ' 

If the heat on the floor should by any chance rise to temperatures between 70° and 
75°, it is almost a certainty that much of the saccharine constituent will have changed 
into the lactic state. It is sometimes asserted that sprinkled malt will yield more 
gravity per quarter than unsprinkled malt will do : the extra gravity is caused by an 
excess of the albuminous constituent present in the wort, and this is but an increase 
of trouble, disappointment, and loss to the brewer ; but the difference between sprinkled 
and unsprinkled barley is perceived at once by the taste, being in favour of the latter, 
from the superior sweetness in the mouth, and it far exceeds the former in the 
brightening and keeping ability of its product, and in the general excellence of the 
beer. The attentive reader will perhaps ere this have surmised from the mention of 
the old floor, the young floor, and the floor to be sprinkled, that there must generally 
be three steeps upon the floor at the same time, and under very exceptional circum- 
stances there may even be four floors, exclusive of those on the kiln, and in either the 
cistern or the couch. This of course necessitates plenty of area in the withering floor ; 
there should be {lUowed 28 square yards at least to the quarter of barley steeped. 
Therefore for one man-kiln, 15 quarters being steeped every four days nearly, the 
withering-floor area should be 15 x 28 yards =420 yards, including the couch-frame; 
about 30 feet in width is a nice arrangement for a kiln of this size, and is even a con-' 
venient width for any sized kiln, for where the floors are much wider, the sides and 
middle work vary unevenly, and cause an amount of labour that is likely to be the 
cause somewhat of neglect ; forty feet should be the extreme limit for a kiln of the 
largest size ; of course the wider the floor is the less throwing forward it requires, and 
this is a consideration ; the height of the place should be about six feet under the 
beams, which should be underdrawn ; the windows should be glazed with blue glass, 
vand the ventilation and temperature of the place should be under complete control. 
At times the grain on the floors will suffer mutilation and crushing by the feet; the 
excise officer must trample upon it, for the purpose of gauging, but it is quite unneces- 
sary that any one else should. Some, to relieve the floor from inj ury by the tread, have 
moveable gangways suspended from the beams above, or supported from the walls, so 
that the workmen can pass from floor to floor the whole length of the house without 
treading on the grain. 

The system of working upon the floors is of such extreme importance to brewers, 
that it is necessary that we should give very special attention to the considera- 
tion of the several points of guidance, which experience has established as incontro- 
vertible. 

The first and most essential of these, is the selection and cleansing of the barley, 
and this has already been treated in detail in an early part of the present article ; the 
next is the class and temperature of the water, and this has also been treated upon, 
and we must now consider the rule that must be adopted to producer malt that shall 
have the least amount of the albuminous constituent in its composition along with the 
-greatest amount of good sound saccharum as free as possible from acid tendency, and 
perfectly free from mould. 

In the first place, in order to make good sound malt from carefully-selected barley, 
the efiicient steep is of paramount importance ; then the cooler it is worked upon the 
floors, and the longer it can be made to take in growing the acrospire right up to the 
opposite end of the grain, the better will be the saccharific excellence of the malt. 
The heat of the floors should never bo allowed to attain 60° Fahr., and it should be 
kept on the floors from twelve to fifteen days, including couching. 

There is no danger of mould if the turning is properly attended to, and no more 



190 MALTING 

sprinkling allowed than is absolutely necessary to keep the germination alive ; in 
season-made malt, sprinkling is but very seldom required, but an exceptional warmth 
or dryness of the atmosphere may make it at times a necessity. 

If the rootlets or radicles appear languid, shrivelled, and of a dull yellowish tint, 
lay the floor a little thicker; it may be that the barley is more intractable than was 
supposed at first ; and if in the course of two or three hours its appearance is not 
materially improved, then administer the sprinkling, about a good third of a Civn-fuU 
to the quarter (i.e. 8 bushels), well plough, rake, turn, and thin out ; but let it carefully 
be borne in mind that whatever is done in the way of increasing or decreasing the 
vigour of the germination must be done most gradually, or the radicles will be liable 
to break off, therefore leaving the grain maimed, and less able to att^iiu the desired 
result, and as a consequence the quality of the malt will bn impaired, On the other 
hand, if the rootlets appear robust and vigorous, tlie floor must be well turned and 
thinned out, or the middle of the floor will become the warmer, and an uneven germi- 
nation will result ; when a floor has been allowed to remain too long unturned, it may 
easily bo perceived from the faint smell that attends it, and also it may bo observed 
that the main or centre radicle is of unusual length and strength in comparison with 
its mates ; great care must then be exercised, for to be checked too rapidly would 
certainly cause them to break off, and prove an injury ; this must particularly be 
attended to in the young floors. If all has gone on as it should have done, when the 
grain has spent the moisture absorbed in the steep, the acrospire will have attained 
about three-fourths the length of the grain, and the culm (rootlets) somewhere about 
half an inch in ordinary English barley, but more than that in the strong Yorkshire 
barleys, and more still in the heavy Scotch ; this excitation will occupy from perhaps 
nine to twelve days, according to the circumstances, of the kind of barley, and state 
of the atmosphere, and tlie culm will then begin to grow languid, fade, and wither, 
and of course will cease to develope any more ; the acrospire too will remain almost 
stationary, though not quite so, for germination is not extinct, but only retarded. 
The floor must now be laid thicker, very gradually, frequently disentangled and 
turned, but kept just warm enough to cause most of the remaining moisture to 
pass away from the grain till when taken up in the hand it feels light and drj', 
and when the kernel is forced out from the husk with the thumb-nail, it should rub 
abroad between the thumb and forefinger easily and smooth ; this process is called 
the ' mellowing,' and occupie.t from two and a half to four days ; it is then ready for 
the kiln. 

Tlie Kiln-Floor. — The mellowed floor is then loaded into baskets, craned up to the 
kiln-floor, upset in regular heaps over it, and when all the charge is in, it should 
immediately be griped over and levelled. In area the kiln-floor should allow at lesist 
three square yards to every quarter of barley steeped, thus for a 15-quarter cistern, 
the area for the kiln-floor should be at least 45 square yards, this will allow the barley 
to lie from 7 to 9 inches thick upon the kiln, and that thickness is a medium between 
extremes. In England coke is most commonly used for the kiln-fires, and there should 
be from 15 to 25 feet below the centre of the kiln-floor; the greater the height the 
better the draught. 

Immediately above the fire-place, and supported at the four corners, a disperser is 
placed from 6 to 9 feet above the fire-bars, according to the strength of the draught and 
character of malt it is intended should be made usually ; it is well to have all the 
draught»course, both above and below the malt, under perfect control, so as to at all 
times cause the stream of heated air passing from the fire to disperse itself to the 
extreme limits of the kiln-floor ; but with all the aid that art and experience can give, 
nothing can relieve the workman from that careful watchiug and regulating of the 
fires, that is the real secret of success in the finishing of malt. The ' old floor ' being 
now ' loaded' on the kiln and griped over, the fire is placed and regulated so that the 
heat shall accumulate in the space under the floor-tiles, and fill it to the remotest 
corner with a temperature of about 90°, which must be the same throughout the whole 
area of the floor, no one place being hotter than another, or the finishing will be 
freckled and uneven : the advantage of having a good height over the spreader will be 
now seen, by reason of its allowing a better opportunity for the thorough mixture and 
attemperating of the atmosphere and also decreasing the liability to a hot-air current 
through any particular portion of the floor. 

In a short time the heat may be increased three or four degrees, but the floor 
should not be molested till all apparent moisture or steam has been driven from 
it; this will take about 12 hours, when it may be griped over, again turning the top 
to the bottom ; fires damped up and left for the night ; next morning the floor must 
be griped again, and turned with the shovel, the fires may be broken up, and the 
heat increased 3 or 4 degrees more, and the floor must be turned 3 or 4 times with 
the shovel, and by the following morning it will most likely be dry ; the flnish 



MALT KILN 



191 



must then be given, that is, the particular colour and flavour xeqxiired must now b« 

attained. 

For pale malt, the heat should not exceed 120°. 

For the amber colours, heats ranging from 120° to 160°, according to the colour 
desired. 

For brown malt for porter-brewing, oak sticks are blazed on the fire, and the heat 
raised to 180° or above; the floor must not be laid more than an inch thick, and be 
kept constantly on the move by turning ; it is therefore a very hot and laborious 
process. In finishing for the pale and amber malts, it is bettor to subject the floors 
to a low and long-continued heat, rather than a high and sharp one, for the culm 
colours much sooner than the body of the grain, owing to its slightness in substance, 
and the workman is often deceived by this circumstance ; for pale malts, say 100° or 
a little above ; for amber, about 125° or so. 

When tlie malt has attained the colour required, it is immediately heaped in the 
middle of the kiln-floor, and the fires allowed to die down ; in about two or three hours 
after, the kiln is ' teemed,' that is, the malt is taken off and stored in its bin : it is 
decidedly the best plan to let this bo done while the malt is in a good hot state, for 
it will keep right all the longer, and the culm should go with it to aid in keeping 
out the atmosphere ; but although malt should be kept in the store-bin as dry as 
possible, it is not thought a good plan to use it for brewing purposes until it has got 
quite cold in the heap, or it will prove somewhat intractable in the mash-tun, and the 
beer from it will not work kindly in the fermenting-tun, and prove somewhat difficult 
to fire. 

During the kiln-drying, the roots and acrospire of the barley become brittle, and 
fall off; and are separated by a wire-sieve whose meshes are too small to allow the 
malt itself to pass through. 

A quantity of good barley which weighs 100 pounds, being judiciously malted, will 
weigh, after drying and sifting, 80 pounds. Since the raw grain, dried by itself at 
the same temperature as the malt, would lose 12 per cent, of its weight in wat«r, the 
malt process dissipates out of these remaining 88 pounds, only 8 pounds, or 8 percent, 
of the raw barley. This loss consists of — 

1 J per cent, dissolved out in the steep water, 
3 „ dissipated in the kiln, 
3 ,, by the removal of the fibrils, 
OJ „ of waste. 

The bulk of good malt exceeds that of the barley from ■which it was made by about 
8 or 9 per cent. 

MAIiT KIKir. {Darre, Ger.) The requisite conditions of a good malt kiln 
are, that the temperature should be under perfect control ; the malt not exposed too 
near the direct action of the flro ; and the vapour from the heated grain rapidly 
carried off. 

Figs. 1423, 1424, 1425, 1426 exhibit the construction of a well-contrived malt kiln. 
Fig. 1423 is the ground plan ; fig. 1424 is the vertical section ; and figs. 1425 and 1426, 
ft hoiizontal and vertical section in the line of the malt-plates. The same letters 

1424 
1423 





denote the same parts in each of the figures. A cast-iron cupola-shaped oven is sup- 
ported in the middle upon a wall of brick n'ork four feet high ; and beneath it are 
the grate and its ash-pit. The smoke pisses off through two equidistant pipes into 
the chimney. The oven is surrounded with four pillars, on whose top a stone lintd 



192 



MALT KILN 



is laid : a is the grate, 9 inches below the sole of the oven b; e c c c are the four nine- 
inch strong pillars of brickwork which bear the lintel m ; d d d d are strong nino- 
inch pillars, wliich support the girtler and joists upon which perforated plates repose ; 
c deootes a vaulted arch on each of the four sides of the oven ; / is the space between 
the kiln and the side arch, into which a workman may enter to inspect and clean the 
kiln ; ff g, the ■^alls on either side of tlie kiln, upon which the arches rest ; h, tlio space 
for the ashes to fall ; k, the fire-door of the kiln ; 1 1, junction-pieces to connect the 
pipes r r with the kiln ; the mode of attaching them is shown in fig. 1425. These 
smoke-pipes lie about three foot under the iron plates, and at the same distance from 
the side walls ; they are supported upon iron props, which are made fast to the arches. 
In fig. 1424, u shows their section; at s s,fig. 1425, they enter the chimney, which is 
provided with two register or damper plates, to regulate the draught through the 

1426 





pipes. These registers are represented by 1 1, fig. 1426, which shows a perpendicular 
section of the chimney, m, fig. 1424, is the lintel, which causes the heated air to spread 
laterally, instead of ascending in one mass in the middle, and prevents any com- 
bustible particles from falling upon the iron cupola, n n are the main girders of iron 
for the iron beams oo, upon which the perforated plates^ lie; q,fig. 1424, is the 
vapour-pipe in the middle of the roof, which allows the steam of the drying malt to 
escape. The kiln may be heated either with coal or wood. 

The size of this kiln is about 20 feet square ; but it may be made proportionally 
either smaller or greater. The perforated floor should be large enough to receive the 
contents of one steep or couch. 

The perforated plate might be conveniently heated by steam-pipes, laid zigzag, 
or in parallel lines under it; or a wire-gauze web might be stretched upon such 
pipes. The wooden joists of a common floor -would answer perfectly to support 
this steam-range, and the heat of the pipes would cause an abundant circulation 
of air. For drying the pale malt of the ale-brewer, this plan is particularly well 
adapted. 

1427 




The improved malt kiln of Pistorin is represented, fig. 1427, in a top view ; fig. 1428. 
in a longitudinal view and section ; and^. 1429, in transverse section. ■ a, a, are two 



MAMMEE 



193 



quadrangular smoke-flues, constructed of fire-tiles, or fire-stones, and covered with 
iron plates, over which a pont-house roof is laid ; the whole bound by the cross pieces 
b {figs. 1428, 1429). These flues are built above a grating cc, which commences at c'- 
in front of c' there is a bridge of bricks. Instead of such a brick flue covered with 
plates, iron pipes may be used, covered with semi-cylindrical tiles, to prevent the 
malt that may happen to fall from being burned, d d, are the breast walls of the kiln, 
3 feet high, furnished with two apertxu:e8 shut with iron doors, through which the 
malt that drops down may be removed from time to time, c is a beam of wood lying 
on the breast wall, against which the hurdles are laid down slantingly towards the 
back wall of the kiln ; // are two vef tical flues left in the substance of the walls, 
through which the hot air, discharged by open pipes laid in a subjacent furnace, rises 
into the space between the pent-house roof and the iron plates, and is thence allowed 
to issue through apertures in the sides, g is the discharge-flue in the back wall of the 
kiln for the air now saturated with moisture; A is a smoke-pipe, from which the 
smoke passes into the anterior flue a, provided with a side-plate for modifying the 
draught ; the smoke thence flows ofiF through a flue, fitted also with a damper-plate, 
into the chimney i. k is a smoke-pipe of a subsidiary fire, in case no smoke should 
pass through h. The iron pipes are 11 inches in diameter ; the air-flues/, 5 inches, 
and the smoke-pipe A, 10 inchfes square; the brick flues 10 inches wide, and the usual 
height of bricks. 

The following is an account of the total number of bushels of malt made in the 
United Kingdom from 1861 to 1870, distinguishing such as were charged with duty 
from such as were free of duty, exported on drawback or free of duty, and the quan- 
tities returned for home consumption : — 

The Quantities of Malt charged with duties of Excise in the United Kingdom, quantities 
exported on drawback, and returned for home consumption. 



Years 


Charged with 


Free of 


Exported on 
drawback or 


Retained 
for home 




duty 


duty' 


free of duty ° 


consumption 




Bushels 


Bushels 


Bushels 


Bushels 


1861 . 


44,141,422 


3,793,192 


1,284,514 


46,650,100 


1862 . 


41,118,172 


4,069,883 


1,499,447 


43,688,608 


1863 . 


46,269,842 


4,679,829 


1,876,856 


49,072,815 


1864 . 


48,544,125 


4,837,742 


1,584,889 


51,796,998 


1865 . 


45,190,374 


622,828 


1,641,685 


43,548,689 


1866 . 


45,982,397 


551,423 


1,687,344 


44,295,053 


1867 . 


43,608,571 


459.660 


1,385,577 


42,222,994 


1868 . 


44,387,259 


452,880 


1,330,664 


43,056,595 


1869 . 


45,351,518 


484,907 


1,537,147 


43,814,371 


1870 « . 


47,005,803 


402,465 


1,462,226 


46,603,677 



nsaZiVACEJE:. The petals of the plant known as Althcea rosea, belonging to the 
natural order Malvacece, contain a peculiar colouring-matter, soluble in water and 
alcohol, but insoluble in ether. ' The aqueous solutions of the petals, freed previously 
from the calyx and stamens, exhibit a violet-red colour, which is turned crimson by 
the addition of acids and green by alkalis. The alcoholic tincture of the leaves is 
purplish-red, and leaves on evaporation a deep red residue, free from nitrogenous 
matter. Cotton mordanted with iron is turned blue or bluish-black by an aqueous 
infusion of the petals. With an aluminous mordant a violet-blue, and with tm 
mordants a bluish-violet is produced. Woollen fabrics, previously mordanted with 
bichloride of tin, assume a deep A-iolet, and when mordanted with iron a bluish-black 
orgi-ey; if mordanted with antimonic-acid salts, a bluish-violet is obtained; silk 
mordanted with tin salts takes a violet. 

'For calico-printing purposes the alcoholic extract suits better than the aqueous 
infusion. The colours produced are faster than those yielded by logwood, but they do 
not stand clearing with soap. . 

' The colouring matter is yet, and was formerly far more so, m great request for 
the artificial colouration of wines. Latterly it has come into use^as a dye-ware, and 
is chiefly so applied in Germany and more particularly in Bavaria. 

jaAMMEE. A tree growing in Honduras. Its dried leaves are very powerfuUy 

' Including the estimated quantity used in beer exported. ,. ^.„ . j«._««,^_i_ 

' On the Uth of August 1855, malt wiis made free of duty for distillery purposes and for exporta- 
tion, and spirits were allowed to be distilled free of duty for exportation. 
' The Board of Trade has not published any later return. 
Vol. III. 



194 MAN-ENGINE 

narcotic ; tho bark is, however, stated to possess some tonic properties. The flowers 
of the tree are used in flavouring a liqueur made in some parts of the West Indies, 
called creme des Creoles. — Temple. 

MAXrCHSSTER TEIiXiO'W. A name by which naphthaline yellow is known 
in commerce. 

MAXrCHZXVESlb. A large tree of a very poisonous character, growing in South 
America, and in some parts of the West Indies. The wood is of a yellow-brown 
colour, beautifully clouded, and very close and hard. It is sometimes used instead 
of mahogany. This tree is the Hippomane Tnancinella, one of the Euphorbiacem 

BXAirnxoCA. Cassava starch. See Stabch. 

M.A.xr-SM'GXlI'S. {Machine d^ Ascension, Fr. ; Fahrkunst, Ger.) The name 
given to a machine by which the men working in deep metalliferous mines are 
enabled to descend or ascend without much fatigue. The labour of climbing from 
the bottom of the deep mines of the Hartz and of Cornwall has long been known to 
produce an injurious effect upon the men. It Has therefore long been deemed of the 
utmost importance to devise some means by which relief might be afforded. 

It was not till 1833 that the circumstance of two water-wheels having been thrown 
out of work by the opening of the deep George adit in the Hartz mines suggested 
the idea of employing the pump-rods for aiding the ascent of the miners, and in such 
manner that every man should , as on the simple ladder plan, depend on himself 
alone for his safety ; the ascent to be effected by means of the water-wheels' power. 
There was sufficient room in the shaft, which was perpendicular, and an experiment of 
100 fathoms was set in operation. The rods were entirely of wood, of a very simple 
and solid construction. The spars were cut 4 x 6, and .joggled into each other one 
inch, and bolted together, so that the whole was 7x6; at the joints iron plates 20 
inches long were put on and screwed together, so as to render the whole equally 
strong; tearing asunder, as long as the timber remains sound, being nearly impossible. 
The whole length was then divided into 22 stages, and from the top downwards, on 
alternate sides for each stage, the steps were fastened, at distances of 4 feet, by iron 
rests. In like manner, hand-holds were fastened at convenient distances. Between 
the two rods ordinary ladders were placed against one side of the shaft, for the sake 
of safety should anyone become confused, or should the machinery from any acci- 
dent stand still. On a given signal, the machine was set in motion by the man 
at the engine, who regulates the supply of water according to the number of men 
on at a time. This number was not allowed to exceed 20 men for this machine (ex- 
cept in cases of necessity) although of sufficient strength to support a much greater 
number. 

The perpendicular rods were supported at every stage by rollers, which were always 
placed where there is no step. They were of fir, 10 inches long, 12 inches in diameter, 
and a cast-iron flange of 1| inch fastened to them at each end, to prevent the rods 
slipping off; at five different points it was so arranged that the rods could not 
fall farther than to the next stage, or at the utmost 48 inches, thiit being the 
length of stroke. The ascent on the macliine requires no description ; the miners, 
after the second trial, felt familiar with it, nor was there any more danger than if 
they were on the ordinary ladder. This machine, or power-ladder, was calculated to 
ease the toil of ascent ; but it has also been used in descending, when of course it 
requires little or no water to set it in motion ; and in cases of want of water, tlie 
descending miners might bring up the men who had finished their shift, the water- 
wheel only regulating the motion and overcoming friction and other prejudicial 
resistances. This first machine surpassed expectation ; short as the length of ascent 
was, many invalids of the district found new sources of employment, and the descent 
by this was used by many, especially during winter, who could reach far-removed 
mines by underground communication. Gradually the most prejudiced were at- 
tracted to tho machine, and it is received as a blessing. Thoroughly convinced of 
the excellence of the contrivance, 200 fathoms of the 340 fathoms of Duke George 
William shaft, from grass downwards, were in 1838 provided with a power-ladder 
similar in construction to the above described, with this difference only, that this 
being on the vein which falls at an angle of 70°, only certain distances of 5, 8, 12 
fathoms are taken on the machine, and intermediate of 5 to 10 fathoms on the tisual 
ladders, which divides the strain on tho machine, provides against catching colds, 
and in some degree against the danger of falling. Thus one of the deepest shafts 
Was rendered easy of ascent, more than half the depth being furnished with power for 
raising the miners. 

In 1836 another machine was completed in the Schreibfeder Schacht. Here the 
machine-rods must also serve as pump-rods in time of flood, and therefore the notion 
ot making the rods of iron viire, thrown out by Albert, could not be brought to bear, 
but a combination of timber and iron wire was adopted. The rods were of the best 



i 



MAN-ENGINE I95 

spars joggled, as in the former cases ; but in the two grooves run in these there were let 
in two iron-wire ropes of 12 wires each. The two spars were screwed tight upon the 
ropes, which were steeped in prepared tar. Thus the ropes formed a core to the 
wooden rods, which in themselves were sufficiently strong for the strain, but the ropes 
were a protection, should the wood decay, against any misfortune, while the wood 
gave sufficient stifi'uess to the rope-rod. These rods were not above half the weight 
of the former per fiithom. 

It was very fiiirly objected to this construction, that it was uncertain what strain 
came on the wood, what on the iron, and that damage on the iron wire could not be 
observed. 124 fathoms of the 265 were provided with a power-ladder of this con- 
struction. The ascent on it is not continuous, but alternating, as in the Duke George 
"William shaft, so that of 143| fathoms, 124^ are by the machine, 19^ on the fixed 
ladders. 

These being accomplished, several experiments were begun in 1836 to endeavour 
to arrive at a construction of rod, at once lighter and mechanically more perfect. 
I"irst, a wire-rope ladder, as it were, laid along planks as a continuous bearing, and 
having here and there rollers, so attached as to keep the rope down on the planks, 
was tried. Steps and hand-holds were made fast to the rope, so that no injury 
resulted to the rope. The necessary stiffness was wanting, the small rollers were 
insufficient, and the planks were very rapidly worn. Second, a wire rod, as it were, 
of four ropes in a square, nine wires in a rope, with inch boards on one side running 
on fixed rollers. The four ropes made a parallelogram of 6 and 7 inches, between 
which hand-holds and steps were fastened. The boards were protected by iron 
friction-pieces, where they ran on the rollers ; ten fathoms weighed 42'9 lbs., and 
cost about one hundred thalers. The only objection to this was, that the ibur ropes 
could not bo depended upon as being equally strained. Third, Albert's proposal to 
have two ropes of the wii'o parallel to each other, 2-inch and 10-inch deals to be 
attached to the back of these, without any other connection : to let these run as 
usual on rollers, and fastening the steps and hand-holds to the ropes. It was tried 
in Duke George William's shaft, and found the most noiseless and easiest in go, and 
on the whole, most perfectly fulfilling the required conditions. This construction, with 
some modifications by M. Jordan, was finally determined upon, and has since been 
carried out in the Samson shaft, in Andreasberg, 345 fathoms deep, and now to be 
particularly described. 

In this case there was the advantage and disadvantage of having to provide 
everything for the express purpose of the ascending machine. A new wheel-room 
had to be executed, new watercourses to be driven, new wheels to be built ; — an 
advantage, so far as the whole was perfectly adapted to the end in view ; a disadvantage, 
inasmuch as the expense was very greatly increased. The fact, however, proves 
the importance attached to the means of facilitating the minor's operations. Any 
further mention of the arrangements for the necessary power, than that the mover is 
water and the machine an ordinary water-wheel, over-shot, 42 feet in diameter, 4 
feet on the breast, making from two to two and a half revolutions per minute, is un- 
necessary. The letting-on of the water is regulated from the top of the shaft, where 
there is a miniature machine moved by rods and gear, connected with the power- 
ladder, indicating exactly the relative position of everything below ground. A system 
of signals, too, has been adopted, by wliich most of the circumstances occurring in 
connection with the working of the ladder can be immediately made known above 
ground. The Spannschufze, a sluice or pen-trough of admirable construction, is ap- 
plied to this wheel, as its load is very variable. Tlie crank is 3 x 6 feet long, of cast 
iron, and is attached by a connecting rod with framed rods that work the crosses at the 
shaft head in the usual manner. 

The method of hanging the ladders deserves attention, as it is perfectly successful 
and very simple. In the history of the machines there have been several arrange- 
ments tried, but this is the last and considered the best. The power-ladders are 
hung on the cross-head of a knife-edge by two iron slings, 6x2 inches. They were in 
this ladder first hung by passing the ropes round a segmental frame, but the friction 
of the knife-edge induced a continual bending of the rope ; through a very small 
angle, it is true, but such, that under its effects the wires gave way at the end of three 
months. This led to an arrangement by which the ropes are bound between 
timbers bolted and screwed together, and thus the whole hung to the things above- 
mentioned. 

Perhaps the most efficient construction would be the passing the ropes^ round 
an arched head, as was the connection between the beam of the steam-engine and 
piston-rod of old, only passing the ropes over a greater segment than was or is 
customary. 

The ropes at the top consist of 36 wires, viz., three ropes of 12wires in each rope, and 

o2 



196 MAN-ENGINE 

these together cable laid. In the timbers, grooves are cut of such dimensions that 
the screw bolts may have the effect of so pressing the timbers together, that the 
ropes are held in place by the friction thus induced. The length of those timbers is 
4 J- fathoms ; this great length is a consequence of local circumstances. 

The rope diminishes gradually, viz., four wires less for each 50 fathoms descent. 
The estimate of the strength required was made thus : — 

lbs. 

1. The weight of the rope 5,600 

2. Weight of steps and handles, &c 2,200 

3. Weight of 60 men 7,500 

4. 185 fethoms of deal and 90 fathoms slide-bar . . 6,795 



22,095 



And assuming that the double rope of 36 wires would bear, at the utmost, 
2 X 36 X 1,100 lbs. = 79,200 lbs., the load of 22,096 lbs. would be 28 per cent of the 
ultimate strength. 

For safety in case of the accident of the power-ladder breaking, several good 
arrangements have been adopted, so that any serious accident is not likely to 
occur, should oven a side of the power-ladder give way. At several parts of the 
length, the two sides of the laddeir are connected together by a very strong chain ; 
this chain passes over a fixed pulley ; and it is evident that, if on either side the ladder 
were to break above this, its fall, if not entirely checked, would be very much 
broken by the counterbalancing weight of the other side, acting by means of the 
chain. 

Again, at various stages there are wedge-shaped blocks attached to the planks, in 
which are fixed the friction pieces, and these wedges would fall into wedge-shaped 
bearings, that are secured by timbering in the shaft, and so, having broken at any 
point above these, the fall is limited to 7 feet at the utmost. 

In conclusion, it may be mentioned that in order to ascertain the exact state of the 
wires, several pieces of the rope have been kept exposed in different parts of the shaft; 
these are from time to time examined, but since 1837, when the power-ladder of 
iron wire was erected in Andreasberg, the progress has been so very slow, that little 
is to be apprehended from the effects of rust, so long as care is taken to keep the 
ropes properly tarred. 

The total cost of one side was 607 Prussian thalers, and therefore tho total cost 
of power- ladder was 1,214 thalers = 1 82^. 10s. 

The mines in Cornwall being as deep as those in the Hartz, it became a question of 
moment to adopt some machine for tho relief of the miner in that county. Medical 
men had long expressed their conviction that much of the lung disease prevalent 
amongst the men working in the deep mines of the Gwennap district was due to the 
violent exertion of climbing on perpendicular ladders from a depth varying from 200 
to upwards of 300 fathoms. At length the subject was taken up by the Royal Corn- 
wall Polytechnic Society, and a man-engine was introduced, whicli in most respects 
resembled tho German power-ladders. 

The following is a short account of the principal phases of its introduction, due 
entirely to the ready and generous initiative taken by the Polytechnic Society : — 

At the first general meeting of the society in 1834 Mr. Charles Fox offered three 
prizes for the perfection of the means then in use for the descent and the ascen- 
sion of miners. The first project was that of Michael Loam the engineer, the same 
who afterwards constructed tho machine at Tresavean. Tho competition remained 
open for many years; several plans wore produced, and the prizes awarded. In 
1838 Mr. Fox offered 100^. to the first mine that would make a trial in tho desired 
way ; this example was followed by other individuals, and tho sum of 530Z. was 
put into tho hands of a committee, who were charged with sending circulars to 
the mines. The adventurers of Tresavean accepted the proposed conditions, and in 
January 1842, two rods moving alternately, conducted by an hydraulic wheel, were 
working to a depth of 26 fathoms. The steps were 1 2 feet distant from eacli other, 
and each rod moved 6 feet ; so that the men clianged tlieir position at each step. 
By the ad^Hce of Mr. Loam, it was decided to substitute a steam-engine for the hy- 
draulic wheel, so that the motive power could not fail, and at the same time it was 
judged advisable to increase the stroke of tho rods 12 feet; the number of the steps 
and the distance between them remaining the same, so that the men had only to 
change at every other one, and the same number of miners could ascend and descend 
at once. 

On October 25, 1842, the machine, thus modified, had attained to the depth of 140 



d 



MAN-ENGINE 



197 



fathoms, and on June 20, 1843, it was finished ; its length being 290 fathoms and 
the mine being at this time 31 1 fathoms deep below the adit. ' 

The second man-engine was constructed by Hocking and Loam, in 1845, at the 
Great United Mines in Gwennap. The temperature was 120° Fahr. at the bottom of 
the mine, and it was an urgent necessity to diminish the fatigue of the miners as 
much as possible. They contented themselves with copying the plan which had suc- 
ceeded so well at Trevesean, only making some slight differences in detail. 

In 1851 the late Captain Puckey and Mr. West, an engineer, adopted a new system 
for the Fowey Consols mine. 

A single rod, furnished with steps, worked in the shaft ; a series of platforms are 
fixed at different parts of the shaft ; these have, like the steps, spaces of 12 feet 



1430 



1431 




> 





bm 



between them, and they are placed on a level corresponding with the steps at the 
extremity of the stroke of the rod. The miner, quitting one step, waits on the plat- 
form until the next reaches him. This man-engine can also be used at the same 
time by miners ascending and by miners descending. The stoppage at the plat- 
form is of sufficient length for one man to pass on to the step which another has just 
abandoned. 

The machine with a single rod has been since applied by Mr. Hocking to Levant 
mine, and in 1854 to that of Dolcoath. It may thus be considered as being now the 
most used in Cornwall, and it possesses an incontestable superiority over machines 
with two rods. 

The man-engines in the Cornish mines are so much alike in their construction, that 
it is quite unnecessary to describe each of them. Their general . characters will be 
understood by examining the accompanying woodcuts, /^s. 1430 and 1431. 

At Fowey Consols the machine is worked by a water-wheel of about 50 horse-power, 



198 MANGANATES 

but all the other inan-engines are -worked by the ordinary Cornish steam-engine, that 
is, with a cylinder vertical and balanced ; and always double-acting. The outer end 
of the beam of the machine is attached by a sweep-rod to two small wheels which are 
situated on the shaft ; these drive two larger wheels, so that the engine makes several 
strokes to one revolution of the wheels. In some of the mines the engine, besides 
giving motion to the man-engine, is used for crushing the ores and performing 
other work, while in others it is merely employed for raising and lowering the 
miners. The rods are generally about 7 or 8 inches square, slightly decreasing in 
size as they descend. When there are two rods the steps are so placed that there 
is a distance of about 6 inches between them when the man passes from one to the 
other. The weight of the rod is counterbalanced sometimes by levers and sometimes 
by balance-bobs attached to it in diflFerent levels. The greatest object gained in the 
use of levers is a considerable saving in expense, both in the materials of which 
they are made, and in the size of the piece of ground that must be excavated to 
receive the balance-bobs. There are twelve feet of space between the step on the rod, 
and 4 feet above each step are round bars of iron fixed vertically into the rod, to serve 
as hand-holds, and maintain the miner in his position on the step with perfect safety. 
In case of accident happening to any part of the machinery, there are catches placed 
at every few fathoms, so that the fall cannot be great. 

The man-engine with a single rod is generally used in Cornwall, because it possesses 
60 many advantages over that with two : the expense of erection is much less, it 
enables the miner to mount and descend in as short a space of time, and the number 
who can do so per minute is doubled ; the work performed by the machine is also 
increased. There are signals connected with the man-engine, by which the miner can 
communicate with the surface from every platform. 

The usual speed of the engine is 15 strokes per minute, by which each rod makes 
3 strokes during that time. Therefore, the rate at which it travels is 12 fathoms 
per minuta ascending and descending : this speed enables a miner to travel in 24 
minutes a space that he would otherwise take 60 minutes to perform. In case of 
any accident happening to the man-engine, there are always ladders placed by the 
side of it ; sometimes they only go from platform to platform ; in other mines there 
are bars nailed on the rod, so that the miner can climb on them imtil he regains the 
principal ladders. 

The man-engine possesses almost innumerable advantages over the ladders ; the 
greatest is the immense saving of fatigue to the miner. "When there are only ladders 
in a mine, he sometimes takes an hour or more to reach the place where he is working, 
and then only with immense bodily exertion ; on a man-engine he can reach the same 
place in about a third of the time, and as free from fatigue and ready for hard work 
as when he started from the surface. Even those who have never been in a mine 
cannot but appreciate the great blessing this simple invention is to the miners, if 
they have only seen the exhausted state in which they reach the surface after having 
ascended by ladders from any great depth. At first it was feared the man-engine 
might be dangerous, that the speed at which it worked would not allow time for the 
men to step from one platform to another, but after one or two trials it wiis found that 
no fears need be entertained on that account, and it was pronounced by the miners as 
perfectly safe as ladders. 

In 1845 M. Warocque constructed similar machines in Belgium. These have been 
described in the Revue Scienfijique et Industriellc, under the several denominations 
of ' Fahrkunst,' ' Man-Engine,' * Warocqui^re,' ' Macliine d'Asccnsion,' and ' Echelles 
Mobiles.' The first application was made, as we have already said, by M. Warocqu6 
at the pit of St. Nicholas, belonging to the colliery of Mariemont, to a depth of 220 
metres — about 240 yards. A full account of these machines will be found in the 
Annates dex Travaux puHics, tome v., p. 79, by M. Delvaux de Fenflfe ; in the 
Traitt d^ Exploitation by M. Combes ; Notice sur les Appareils de Translation des 
Mineurs dans les Puits, by M. A. De Vaux ; also in tlie Annales des Travaux publics 
de Belgiquc ; and by M. Moissenet in tlio Annales des Mines. 

MANGAXTATES ; PSSIVXAXrCAXATES ; COITBT'S FZiiriD. Dr. 
Hofmann, in his report on the chemical products of the Exhibition of 1862, has the 
following excellent remarks on soluble saline oxidising disinfectants. Of this variety 
of oxidising disinfectants the alkaline manganates and permanganates are the best 
examples ; and in this cursory sketch, attention may bo confined to these as types of 
their class. 

Alkaline Manganates and Permanganates. — Chemists have long known and turned 
to account, in laboratory operations, the powerful oxidising action of tlie salts of 
permanganic acid. The rapidity and definitencss of their action, and the marked 
change of colour bj which their loss of oxygen is attended, renders these compounds 
invaluable as instruments of analytical researches. And the same properties, coupled 



MANGANATES 199 

■with their perfectly innocuous character, adapts them admirably for disinfecting pur- 
poses. Their action is certainly superior to that of chloride of lime and alkaline 
hypochlorites ; for although these are also oxidising disinfectants, they act indirectly 
by decomposing water, from which the chlorine takes hydrogen to form hydrochloric 
acid, thus liberating oxygen for the supply of the putrefying matter. The manga- 
nates and permanganates, on the contrary, are agents of direct oxidation, yielding 
up, as they do, part of their own oxygon to the combustible elements of putrescible 
compounds. The raanganates thus supply one-fourth, the permanganates no less than 
three-eighths, of the oxygen they respectively contain, peroxide of manganese being 
in both cases precipitated, and the alkaline base remaining in solution in the form of 
carbonate. 

Their Efficacy as Disinfectants. — Dr. Hofmann has had many opportimities of 
satisfjang himself of their efficacy as disinfectants. "Waters taken from stagnating 
ponds highly charged with organic matter in a state of most active putrefaction, and 
emitting the most repulsive odour, were instantaneously deodorised by a compara- 
tively small quantity of permanganate, or even nianganate of potassium or sodium. 
After the brown precipitate of peroxide of manganese had been allowed to subside, 
the waters examined by Dr. Hofmann had become perfectly clear and colourless, 
having permanently lost their offensive smell and taste. The taint of some of these 
waters had survived the action of even very considerable quantities of the usually- 
applied metallic salts. Their deodorisation by chloride of lime was likewise rapid 
and permanent ; but, though entirely deprived of their original putrid odour, the 
chlorine-treated waters retained a faint, peculiar smell, probably due to the chloride 
of nitrogen, generated by the action of free chlorine upon their ammoniacal consti- 
tuents. 

For freeing river or other waters from ammoniacal impregnations, the disappear- 
ance of the colours of the manganates and permanganates, in proportion as their 
oxidising action goes on, particularly adapts them. By the fading of the colour 
(emerald, if manganate is used ; purple, if permanganate) the operator can follow 
the process of oxidation, and graduate his additions with the utmost accuracy. By 
careful manipulation he may completely free the water from organic impurity, intro- 
ducing into it, in exchange, only a minute quantity of an alkaline carbonate. This 
is rarely an objectionable, frequently rather a serviceable, addition ; especially in the 
ease of hard waters, which are thus softened. 

Their minor applications. — The innocuous character of these substances has already 
been referred to ; and it is not the least valuable of their properties. It permits 
of their being used for a variety of purposes to which disinfectants have hitherto 
been almost entirely inapplicable. Among them are some of great value, such as 
disinfection of all parts of the living animal body (deodorisation of the breath, dis- 
infection of ulcers, wounds, &c.). Scarcely less important is the service they are 
capable of rendering to the vegetable organism when suffering from blight and 
similar pernicious influences. They may also be advantageously employed for the 
purification of tainted provisions, &e. It may be of some interest to the smokers of 
tobacco to know that by rinsing out the mouth with a dilute solution of permanganate 
of sodium every trace of the odour of tobacco is almost instantaneously got rid of. 
Among the numerous applications of minor importance which Mr. Condy suggests 
for the manganic disinfectants is their use by wine-tasters for refreshing their palates 
when engaged in the important duties of their profession. They are also said to 
subdue the irritation caused by the bites of gnats and other stiU more disagreeable 
insects. 

The manganic disinfectants are thus seen to possess a combination of properties 
which in many cases may render their application preferable to that of the hypo- 
chlorites. These latter, however, have the superiority as atmospheric disinfecttints, 
on account of their exhalation of chlorine gas, in a more or less dilute state, when 
acted on by acids, or acid salts, or even by the atmosphere itself _ This property of 
chloride of lime will always secure it a field of application, in which it is not likely 
to be superseded by non-volatile disinfectants of any kind. 

Their Manufacture. — It only now remains to say a few words concerning the manu- 
facture of the alkaline manganates and permanganates, which is accomplished by a 
very simple and easy process. 

For laboratory purposes the potassic permanganates are usually preferred tp the 
corresponding sodic compound, on account of the superior crystallising properties of 
the former salt, and the facilities thus afforded for its purification. For industrial 
purposes, on the other hand, where cheapness is far more import^int than perfect 
purity, the manganate and permanganate of sodium are always used. Mr. Condy 
manufactures manganates of sodium simply by mixing caustic soda with finely- 
divided peroxide of manganese, and exposing the mixture in shallow vessels, for 



200 MANGANESE, ORES OP 

48 hours, to a dull red heat. The proportions employed by Mr. Condy are IJ 
ton of 6oda-ash, caustified in tlie usual way, to 7 cwte. of peroxide of manga- 
nese. The product of the reaction is treated \nth a sufficient quantity of -water to 
convert (partly, at all events) the manganate into permanganate ; and the solution is 
evaporated to an appropriate state of concentration or to dryness. In some cases 
Mr. Condy transforms the manganate into the permanganate by the addition of 
sulphuric acid. On evaporating the solution thus formed, crystals of sulphate of 
sodium separate ; these are fished out, and the liquid is ultimately boiled down to 
dryness. See Disinfectants. 

JUtBLKGAXtsaii (£ng. and Fr. ; Mangan, Braunsteinmetall, 6er.) is a greyish- 
white metal, of a fine-grained fracture, very hard, very brittle, with considerable 
lustre, of specific gravity 8013, and requiring for fusion an extreme heat. It 
should be kept in closely-stoppered bottles, under naphtha, like potassium, because 
with contact of air it speedily gets oxidised, and ftills into powder. It decomposes 
water slowly at common temperatures, and rapidly at a red heat. Pure oxide of 
manganese can be reduced to the metallic state only in small quantities, by mixing 
it with lamp-black and oil into a dough, and exposing the mixture to the intense heat 
of a smith's forge, in a luted crucible ; which must be shaken occasionally to favour 
the agglomeration of the particles into a button. Thus procured, it contains, however, 
a little carbon. Some improvements in the reduction of manganese have recently 
been effected by Mr. Hugo Tamm. 

Manganese is supposed to perform an important part in the compound of iron, 
known as Spugdeisen, which is now so largely employed in the manufacture of the 
Bessemer Steel. See Spiegeleisen and Steel, 

MCAlO'GAXrESE, ORES OF. There are two principal ores of this metal, which 
occur in great masses ; the peroxide, and the hydrated oxide ; but aU the ores of 
manganese are described in the following paragraphs : — 

Pyrolusite, or grey manganese ore, has a metallic lustre, a steel-grey colour, and 
affords a black powder. Specific gravity 4'85. Scratches calc-spar. It effervesces 
briskly with borax at the blowpipe, in consequence of the disengagement of oxygen 
gas. This is the most common ore of manganese, and a very valuable one, being the 
substance mostly employed in the manufacture of chloride of lime and of fiint glass. 
It is the peroxide. It contains manganese. 63"3; oxygen, 36"7. Great quantities 
are found near Tavistock in Devonshire and Launceston in Cornwall. 

Braunite is a dark brown substance of glassy metallic lustre, affording a brown 
powder. Specific gravity 4'8. It scratches felspar, but is scratched by quartz. In- 
fusible at the blowpipe, and effervesces but slightly when fused with glass of borax. 
It is the sesquioxide, containing manganese,69'68 ; oxygen, 30"32. It gives out at a red 
heat only 3 per cent, of oxygen. Hausmannite is a rarer ore, consisting of the protoxide 
and sesquioxide of manganese. * 

Manganiie is brownish-black or iron-black, powder brown, with somewhat of a 
metallic lustre. Specific gravity 4'3. Scratches fiuor-spar. Affords water by cal- 
cination in a glass tube ; infusible at the blowpipe ; and effervesces slightly when 
fused with glass of borax. It consists of manganese, 6268 ; oxygen, 27'22 ; water, 
lO'lO ; and is therefore a hydrated sesquioxide. 

Manganese-blende, or sulphide of manganese, has a metallic aspect : is black or 
dark steel-grey. Specific gravity 3'95. Has no cleavage ; cannot be cut. Infusible, 
but affords, after being roasted, distinct evidence of manganese by giving a violet 
tinge to soda at the blowpipe. Soluble in nitric acid ; solution yields a white pre- 
cipitate, with the ferrocyanide of potassium. It consists of sulphur, 37'90 ; manga- 
nese, 62-10. 

Biallogite ; Carbonate of Manganese. Specific gravity 34. Affords a green frit by 
fusion with carbonate of soda ; is soluble, with some effervescence, in nitric acid ; 
solution, when freed from iron by succinate of ammonia, gives a white precipitate, 
with ferrocyanide of potassium. Carbonic acid, 38'20 ; protoxide of manganese, 61-80. 

Rhodonite, or HydrosUicate of Manganese, is a brownish-red-looking substance, 
which yields a yellowish-brown powder, and water by calcination ; is acted on by 
muriatic acid, but affords no chlorine. It consists of silica, 45 ; protoxide of manga- 
nese, 54*1. 

Wad, or Bog Manganese, is the old English name "of the hydrated peroxide of 
manganese. It occurs in various imitative shapes, in froth-like coatings upon other 
minerals, as also massive. Some varieties possess imperfect metallic lustre. Th« 
external colour is a dark brown of various shades, and similar in the streak, only 
shining. It is opaque, very sectile, soils and writes. Its specific gravity is about 3"7. 
Mixed with linseed-oil into a dough, black wad forms a mass that spontjineously in- 
flames. The localities of wad are particularly Cornwall and Devonshire, the Hartz, 
and Piedmoiit. Wad from Devonshire gave — oxide of manganese, 70*12 ; oxygen, 8*82 ; 
■water. 1006. 



MAl^GLE 



201 



The manufacturer of flint glass uses a small proportion of the black manganese ore, 
to correct the green tinge -which his glass is apt to derive from the iron present in the 
sand ho employs. To him it is of great consequence to get a native manganese con- 
taining as little iron oxide as possible ; since, in fact, the colour or limpidity of his 
product -vvill depend altogether upon that circumstance. See Glass. 

The peroxide of manganese is used also in the formation of glass-pastes, and in 
making the black enamel of pottery. 

The restoration of manganese to the state of peroxide, for the chemical arts in 
which it is so extensively consumed, has been long a desideratum in manufac- 
tures. 

The chief use of ' manganese ' (binoxido of manganese) is in the manufacture of 
chlorine for bleaching-powder. The spent manganese may now be regenerated by 
Mr. Walter Weldon's process. See Chlorine. 

Sulphate of manganese has of late years been introduced into calico-printing, to 
give a chocolate or bronze impression. It is easily formed by heating the black oxide, 
mixed with a little ground coal, with sulphuric acid. See Calico-Phintino. 

For some of the other uses of manganese in the arts, see Bleaching and Chloho* 

METRT. 

for a simple method of ascertaining the value of this substance in the protluc* 
tion of chlorine, and the manufacture of the chlorides and chlorates, see Chloro- 

METRT. 

Imports of manganese in 1869-72, and 1873 : — 



From Holland , 
„ Portugal 
,, Spain 
„ Greece . 
,, other parts . 

Total 


18G9 


1870 


1872 


1873 1 


Tons 


Computed 
real value 


Tons 


Computed 
real value 


Tons 


Computed 
real value 


Tom 


Computed 
real value 


8,793 
10,445 
27,667 

4,612 


£ 

30,776 
52,225 

138,335 

15,556 


6,753 

9,296 

13,329 

3,325 


£ 

28,702 
46,480 
66,045 

15',232 


5,400 
12,569 
19,502 

1,373 


£ 
24,693 
75,650 
114,215 

8',672 


913 

6,492 

16,025 

950 

1,397 


£ 

4,689 

.39,090 

92,047 

5,700 

9,457 


51,517 


236,892 


32,703 


154,059 1 38,934 


223,230 


25,777 


150,983 



taAXGAKSSS, OXZBES OP. Manganese is susceptible of five degrees of 
oxygenation : — 

1. The Protoxide may be obtained from a solution of the sulphate by precipitatioL 
with carbonate of potash, and expelling the carbonic acid from the washed and dried 
carbonate, by calcination in a close vessel filled with hydrogen gas, taking care that 
no air have access during the cooling. It is a pale-green powder, which slowly 
attracts oxygen from the air. and becomes brown ; on which account it slioiikl be 
kept in glass tubes containing hydrogen, and hermetically sealed. It consists of 
metal, 77 57 ; oxygen, 22-43. It forms, with 24 per cent, of water, a white hydrate ; 
and with acids, saline compounds, which are white, pink, or amethyst coloured. They 
have a bitter acerb taste, and afford with hydrogenatod sulphide of ammonia a flesh- 
red precipitate, but with caustic alkalis one which soon turns brown-red, and eventu- 
ally black. 

2. The Sesquioxide of Manganese exists native in the mineral called Braunite ; but 
it may be procured either by calcining at a red heat the proto-nitrate, or by sponta- 
neous" oxidisement of the protoxide in the air. It is black ; when finely pulverised, 
dark brown ; and is convertible, on being heated in acids, into protoxide, with disen- 
gagement of oxygen gas. It consists of metal, 69-7o ; oxygen, 30-25. It forms with 
10 per cent, of water, a liver-brown hydrate, which occurs native under the name of 
Manganiie. It dissolves readily in tartaric and citric acids, but in few others. This 
oxide constitutes a bronze ground in calico-printing, 

3. Peroxide of Manganese, or Pyrolusite, occurs abundantly in nature. It gives out 
oxygen freely when heated, and becomes an oxidulated deutoxide. It consists of 
metal, 63-36 ; oxygen, 36-64. 

4. Manganic Acid forms green-coloured salts, but has not hitherto been insulated 
from the bases. It consists of metal, 53-55 ; oxygen, 46-46. ^ 

5. Hypermanganic Acid consists of metal, 49-70; oxygen, 50-30. See Watts 3 
* Dictionary of Chemistry.' 

Mim-GXiE. {Calandre, Fr.; Mangel, Ger.) This is a well-known machine for 
smoothing linen and cotton furniture. As usually made, it consists of an oblong, 
rectangular wooden chest, filled with stones, which load it to a degree of pressure that 
it should exercise upon the two cylinders on which it rests, and which, by rolling 



202 MANURE 

backwards and forwards over the linen spread upon a polished table underneath, 
render it smooth and level. The moving wheel, being furnished with teeth upon both 
surfaces of its periphery, and having a notch cut out at one part, allows a pinion, 
uniformly driven in one direction, to act alternately upon its outside and inside, so 
as to cause the reciprocating motion of the chest. This elegant and much-admired 
English invention, called the mangle- wheel, has been introduced with great advantage 
into the machinery of the textile manufactures. 

Mr. Warcup, of Dartford, obtained a patent several years ago for a mangle 
in which the linen, being rolled round a cylinder revolving in stationary bearings, 
is pressed downwards by heavy weights hung upon its axes, against a curved 
bed, made to slide to and fro, or traverse from right to left, and left to right, 
alternately. 

Mr. Hubie, of York, patented in June 1832 another form of mangle, consisting 
of three rollers placed one above another in a vertical frame, the axle of the upper 
roller being pressed downwards by a powerful spring. The articles intended to 
be smoothed are introduced into the machine by passing them under the middle 
roller, which is made to revolve by means of a fly-wheel ; the pinion upon whose 
axis works in a large toothed wheel fixed in the shaft of the same roller. The 
linen, &c. is lapped, as usual, in protecting cloths. This machine is merely a small 
Cai.endkb. 

MCAXfGROVS. Several tropical trees yield woods to which this name has 
been applied. Colonel G. A. Lloyd informs us, that 'the timbers are very much 
valued for ship-building ; and a large quantity comes from Crab Island and Porto 
Eico.' Most of the mangroves belong to the Bhisophoracea. 

MAXrziiIiA. One of the hemps, derived from the Musa textilis. See Hemp. 

MAZfXOC is the Indian name of the nutritious matter of the shrub Jatropha 
Manihot, from which cassava and tapioca are made in the West Indies. See Cassava ; 
Tapioca. 

IMCAXinrA is the concrete saccharine juice of the Fraxinus ornus, a tree much 
cultivated in Sicily and Calabria. It is now little used, and that only in medi- 
cine. 

IMCAHarirHEZM GOIiS. A brass, containing 80 per cent, of copper and 20 per 
cent, of zinc. 

MAnrtmS. Under tlie auspices of the British Association, Profe'ssor Liebig, in the 
year 1840, first promulgated his views on agriculture, from which date we may trace a 
spirit of investigation into it, sucli as had not previously existed in this country. Among 
other labotirers in this field, we must state that Mr. J. B. Lawes, of Rothamstead in 
Hertfordshire, was occupied several years prior to the first edition of Professor Liebig's 
work, in investigating the action of different chemical combinations M'hen applied as 
manures to the more important crops of the farm ; and having ever since continued 
his experimental researches with all the lights of science with which he is familiar, 
aided by Dr. J. H. Gilbert, a skilful analytical chemist, he has been able to arrive at 
conclusions of greater value and precision than the merely theoretical determinations 
of the German Professor. In the course of this inquiry, the whole tenor of the 
results of Messrs. Lawes and Gilbert, and also of information derived from intelligent 
ngricultural friends, upon every vai-iety of laud in Great Britain, has forced upon 
them opinions dififerent from those of Professor Liebig, on some imporfcint points ; 
and more especially, in relation to his so-called ' mineral theory,' which is embodied 
in the following sentence, to be found at page 211 of the third edition of his work on 
Agricultural Chemistry, where he says ' the crops on a field diminish or increase 
in exact proportion to the diminution or increase of the mineral substances conveyed 
to it iu manure.' 

Of the vast importance, botli in a scientifij and practical point of view, of correct 
ideas on the subject here at issue, a judgment may be formed from tlie manner in 
which Liebig himself speaks of the mineral theory in this edition of his 'Letters on 
Chemistry.' Thus he says of the agriculturists of England, that 'pooner or latter 
they must see that in the so-csilled mineral tlieory, in its development and ultimate 
perfection, lies the whole future of agriculture.' Messrs, Lawes and Gilbert published 
the following paper in reply to Liebig. It is of so important a nature that, acting 
On the advice of the best authority in this country, it has been retained : — 

' Looking upon the subject in a cliemical point of view only, it would seem that an 
analysis of the soil upon which crops were to be experimentally grown, as well as 
a knowledge of the composition of the crop, should be the first points ascertained, with 
the view of deciding in what constituents tlie soil was deficient ; and, at the commence- 
ment of our more systematic course of field experiments, the importance of these points 
•was carefully considered. Wlien we reflect, however, that an acre of soil six inches 
deep may be computed to weigh about 1,344,000 lbs. (though the roots of plants take a 



MANURE 203 

much wider range than this), and taking the one constituent of ammonia or nitrogen na 
an illustration, that in adding to this quantity of soil a quantity of ammoniacal salt, con- 
taining 100 lbs. of ammonia, which -would be an unusually hea^-y and very effective 
dressing, we should only increase the percentage of ammonia in the soil by 00007. it 
is evident that our methods of analysis would be quite incompetent to appreciate the 
difference between the soil before and after the application, — that is to say, in it« state 
of exhaustion, and of highly productive condition, so far as that constituent is con- 
cerned ; and, from our knowledge of the effects of this substance on wheat, we may 
confidently assert that the quantity of it supposed above would have given a produce 
at least double that of the unmanured land. The same kind of argument might, indeed, 
be adopted in reference to the more important of those constituents of a soil which are 
found in the ashes of the plant grown upon it, and we determined, therefore, to seek 
our results in another manner. Indeed, the imperfection of our knowledge of the pro- 
ductive quality of a soil, as derived from its percentage composition, has been amply 
proved by the results of analysis which have been published during the last ten years ; 
and in corroboration, we need only refer to the opinions of Professor Magnus on this 
subject, who, in his capacity of chemist to the 'Landes-Oekonomie Kollegium'of 
Prussia, has published the result of many analyses of soils. The truth is, that little is 
as yet known of what a soil either is, or ought to be, in a chemical point of view ; but 
when we call to mind the investigations of Professor Mulder in relation to the organic 
acids found in soils, and of Mr. Way and others as to the chemical and physical pro- 
perties of soils in relation to the atmosphere and to saline substances exposed to 
their action in solution, we may at least anticipate for chemistry that she will ere 
long throw important light on this interesting but intricate subject. 

' In our field experiments, then, we have been satisfied with preserving specimens of 
the soils which were to be the subjects of them, and have sought to ascertain their de- 
ficiency, in regard to the production of different crops, by means which we conceive to 
be not only far more manageable, but in every way more conclusive and satisfiictory in 
their result. To illustrate : What is termed a rotation of crops is at least of such 
universality in the farming of Great Britain, that any investigation in relation to the 
agriculture of that country may safely be grounded on the supposition of its adoption. 
Let us, then, direct attention for a moment to some of the chief features of rotations. 
What is called a course of rotation is the period of years which includes the circle of 
all the different crops grown in that rotation or alternation. The crops which thus 
succeed each other, and constitute a rotation, may be two, three, four, or more, varying 
with the nature of the soil and the judgment of the farmer ; but whatever cotirse be 
adopted, no individual crop — wheat, for example — is grown immediately succeeding 
one of the same description, but it is sown again only after some other crops have 
been grown, and at such a period of the rotation, indeed, as by experience it is known 
that the soil will, by direct manure or other means, have recovered its capability of 
producing a profitable quantity of the crop in question. 

' On carefully considering these established and well-known facts of agriculture, 
it appeared to us that, by taking soils either at the end of the rotation, or at least at 
that period of it when in the ordinary course of fanning farmyard manure would be 
added before any further crop would be grown, we should then have the soils in what 
may be termed a normal, or, perhaps better still, a practically and agriculturally 
exhausted, state. 

' Now, if it is found, in the experience of the farmer, that land of any given qua- 
lity, with which he is well acquainted will not, when in this condition of practical 
exhaustion, yield the quantity he usually obtains from it of any particular crop, but 
that after applying farmyard manure it will do so, it is evident that if we supply to 
different plots of this exhausted land the constituents of farmyard maniure both indi- 
vidually and combined, and if by the side of these plots we also grow the crop both 
without manure of any kind and with farmyard manure, we shall, in the comparative 
results obtained, have a far more satisfactory solution of the question as to what con- 
stituents were, in this ordinary course of agriculture most in defect in respect to the 
proportion of the particular crop experimented upon, than any analysis of the soil 
could have given us. In other words, we should have before us very good ground 
for deciding to which of the constituents of the farmyard niannro the increased pro- 
duce was mainly due on the plot provided with it, in the case of the particular crops : 
not so, however, unless the soil had been so far exhausted by previous cropping as to 
be considered practically unfit for the growth of the crop without manure. We lay 
particular stress on this point, because we believe that the vast discrepancy in the 
results of comparative trials with different manures, by different experiments, arises 
more from irregidarity in what may be called the /ooi^in.'/ capital of the soil, tlianfrom 
irregularities in the original character of the soil itself, or from any other cause, 
unlesB we include the frequent faulty methods of application. 



204 MANURE 

• It is, then, by this »yn thetus rather than by the n n alytic method that we have sought 
cur results : and in the carrying out of our object we have taken wheat as the type of 
the cereal crops, turnips as the type of the root crops, and beans as the representative of 
the leffuviinous corn crop most frequently entering into rotation ; and having selected 
for each of these a field which, agriculturally considered, was exhausted, "we have grown 
the same description of crop upon the same land, year after year, with different chemical 
manures, and in each case with one plot or more continuously unmanured, and one 
supplied every year mth a fair quantity of farmyard manure. In this way 14 acres 
have been devoted to the continuous growth of wheat since 1843, 8 acres to continuous 
growth of turnips from the same date, and 6 to 6 acres to that of leguminous corn crops 
since 1 847. And of field experiments, beside these, which amount in each year to from 
80 to 40 on wheat, upwards of 90 on turnips, and 20 to 30 on beans, others have been 
made, viz. some on the growth of clover, and some in relation to the chemical circum- 
stances involved in an actual course of rotation, comprising turnips, barley, clover, and 
wheat, grown in the order in which they are here stated. 

' It may be stated, too, that in addition to these experiments on wheat, and the other 
crops usually grown upon the farm, as above referred to, we have for several years been 
much occupied also with the subject of the feeding of animals, viz. bullocks, sheep, and 
pigs ; as well as in investigating the functional actions of the growing plant in relation 
to the soil and atmosphere ; and in connection with each of these subjects much labo- 
ratory labour has constantly been in progress. 

* The scope and object of our investigation has been therefore to examine in the field, 
the feeding-shed, and the laboratory, into the chemical circumstances connected with 
the agriculture of Great Britain in its four main features ; namely — 

' First, the production of the cereal grain crops ; secondly, that of root crops ; thirdly, 
that of the leguminous corn and fodder crop ; and, fourthly and lastly, that of the con- 
sumption of food on the farm, for its double produce of meat and manure. 

' So much then for the rationale and general plan of the experiments themselves, 
and we now propose to call attention to some of the results which they have afforded us. 

' It is to field experiments on wheat that we shall chiefly confine our attention on 
this occasion ; for wheat, which constitutes the principal food of our population, is 
with the farmer the most important crop in his rotation, all others being considered 
more or loss subservient to it ; and it is, too, in reference to the production of this 
crop in agricultural quantity that the mineral theory of Baron Liebig is perhaps 
more prominently at fault than in that of any other. It is true, that in the case of 
vegetation in a native soil manured by art, the mineral constituents of the plants being 
furnished from the soil, the atmosphere is found to be a sufficient source of tho 
nitrogen and carbon ; and it is the supposition that those cirbumstances of natural 
vegetation apply equally to the various crops when grown tinder cidtivation that has 
led Baron Liebig to suggest that, if by artificial means we accumulate within the soil 
itself a sufiBiciently liberal supply of those constituents found in the ashes of the plant, 
essentially soil constituents, we shall by this means be able in all cases to increase 
thereby the assimilation of the vegetable or atmospheric constituents in a degree 
sufficient for agricultural purposes. But agriculture is itself an artificial process ; 
and it will be found that, as regards the production of wheat more especially, it is only 
by the accumulation within the soil itself of nitrogen naturally derived from the atmo- 
sphere, rather than of the peculiarly soil constituents, that our crops of it can be 
increased. Mineral substances will, indeed, materially develope the accumulation of 
vegetable or atmospheric constituents when applied to some of the crops of rotation ; 
and it is thus chiefly that these crops become subservient to the growth of the cereal 
grains ; but even in these cases it is not the constituents, as found collectively in the 
ashes of the plants to he grown, that are the most efficient in this respect ; nor can the 
demand which we find thus made for the production of crops in agricxdtural quantity 
be accounted for by the mere idea of supplying tho actual constituents of the crop. 
It would seem, therefore, that we can only an'ive at correct ideas in agriculture by a 
close examination of the actual circumstances of growth of each particular crop when 
grown under cultivation. We now turn to the consideration of our experiments upon 
this subject. It has been said that all the experimental fields were selected when they 
were in a state of agricultural exhaustion. Tlie wheat fields, however, after having 
been manured in the usual way for turnips at the commencement of the previous 
rotation, had then grown barley, peas, wheat, and oats, without any further manuring ; 
80 that when taken for experiment in 1844, it was, as a gi-ain-producer, considerably 
more exhausted than would ordinarily be tho case. It was, therefore, in a most favour- 
able condition for the purposes of our experiments. 

' In tho first experimental season, the field of 14 acres was divided into about 20 plots, 
and it was by the mineral theory that we wore mainly guided in the selection of 
manures : mineral manures were therefore employed in the majority of cases. Ammonia^ 



MANURE 



205 



on the other hand, being then considered of less importance, was used in a few 
instances only, and in these in very insignificant quantities. Eape-cako, as being a well- 
recognised manure, and calculated to supply, besides some mineraU and nitrogen a 
certain quantity of carbonaceous substance in which both corn and straw so much 
abound, was also added to one or two of the plots. 

Table I. — Harvest 1844. Summary. 



Description of the mannres 



Plot 3. Unmanured .... 
„ 2. 14 tons of farmyard manure 
„ 4. Tlie ashes of 14 tons of farm manure 
„ 8. Minimum produce of 9 plots, TVith ar- 
tificial mineral manures' ... 
Superphosphate of lime, 350 lbs. 
Phosphate of potass, 364 lbs. 
„ 15. Maximum produce of 9 plots with ar- 
tificial mineral manures . 

Superphosphate of lime, 350 lbs. 
Phosphate of magnesia, 1 ff8 lbs. 

„ potass, 150 lbs. 
Silicate of potass, 112 lbs. 
Mean of the 9 plots with artificial mineral ma- 
nures 

Mean of 3 plots with mineral manures, and 65 

lbs, each of sulphate of ammonia . . 
Mean of 2 plots with mineral manures, and 150 

lbs. and 130 lbs. of rape- cake respectively 
Plot 18. With complex mineral manure, 65 lbs. of 
sulphate of ammonia, and 150 lbs. of rape-cake 



Dressed com 
per acre, 
in bushels 
and pecks 



bush, pecks 
16 
22 
16 



17 H 

16 31 

21 

18 1| 

22 ^ 



Total 

com 

per acre, 

in lbs. 



;bs. 

023 

1276 



980 

1096 

1009 
1275 
1078 
1368 



Straw 

per acre, 

in lbs. 



lbs. 
1120 
1476 
1104 

1160 



1240 

1155 
1423 
1201 
1768 



' The indications of the table are seen to be most conclusive, as showing what was the 
character of the exhaustion which had been induced by the previous heavy cropping, 
and what therefore, sliould be the peculiar nature of the supply in a rational system of 
manuring. If the exhaustion had been connected v.-ith a deficiency of mineral con- 
stituents, we might reasonably have expected that by some one at least of the nine 
mineral conditions, — supposing in some cases an abundance of every mineral con- 
stituent which the plant could require, — this deficiency would have been made up ; but 
it was not so. 

' Thus, taking the column of bushels per acre as given in this summary as our guide, 
it will be seen that whilst we have without manure only 16 busliels of dressed corn, we 
have by farmyard manure 22 bushels. The ashes of farmyard manure give, however, 
no increase whatever over the unmanured plot. Again, out of the 9 plots supplied with 
artificial mineral manures, we have in no case an increase of two bushels by this means ; 
the produce of the average of the 9 being not quite 17 bushels. On the otlier hand, we 
see that the addition to some of these purely mineral manures of 65 lbs. of sulphate of 
ammonia — a very small dressing of that substance, and containing only about 14 lbs. of 
ammonia— has given us an average produce of 21 bushels. An insignificant addition of 
rape-cake too, to manures otherwise ineffective, has given us about 18 J bushels; and 
wlien, as in plot 18, we have added to the inefiicient mineral manures 65 lbs. of am- 
moniacal salts, and a little rape-cake also, we have a produce greater than by the 14 tons 
of farmyard manure. 

'The quantities of rape-cake used were small, and the increase attributable to it also 
small, but it nevertheless was much what we should expect when compared with that 
from the ammoniacal salts, if, as we believe is the case, the effect of rape-eako on ^rain- 
crops is due to the nitrogen it contains. 

'Indeed, the coincidence in the slight or non-effect throughout the mineral series on 
the one hand, and of tlie marked and nearly uniform result of the nitrogenous supply 
on the other, was most striking in the first year's experimental produce, and such as to 
lead us to give to nitrogenous manures in the second season even greater prominence 
than we had done to minerals in the previous one. This is, in some respects, perhaps, 
-to be regretted, as had we kept a series of plots for some years continuously under 



206 



MANUBE 



minerals alone, the evidence, though at present sufficiently conclusive, would have 
carried with it somewhat more of systematic proof. 

' In Table II. we have given a few results selected trom those obtained at the harvest 
of 1 845, the second of the experimental series. By the table it would seem that we have, 
at the harvest of 1845, a produce of rather more than 23 bushels without manure of any 
kind, instead of only 16 as in 1844 ; and in like manner the farmyard manure gives 
32 bushels in 1845, and only 22 in 1844. 

Table II. — Harvest 1845. Seleoted Bestdts. 



DoBorlption and quantities of the manorea per acre 



Section 1. 

Plot 3. No manure 

„ 2. 14 tons of farmyard manure . 

Section 2. 

„ 5a. No manure 

„ bb. Top-dressed with 252 lbs. of carbonate 
of ammonia (dissolved) at 3 times, 
during the spring .... 

Section 3. 

q r Sulphate of ammonia, 1 68 lbs. "1 top-dressed 
" ■ |_ Muriate of ammonia, 168 lbs. J at once 

^ ^ / Sulphate of ammonia, 1 68 lbs. 1 top-dressed 
" ■ \Muriate of ammonia, 168 lbs./ at 4 times 



Dressed com 
per acre, 
iu bushels 
and pecks 



bush, pecks 

23 oa 
32 0^ 



22 2\ 
26 3J 



33 
31 



1^ 
Si- 



Total 

corn 

per acre, 

in lbs. 



lbs. 
1441 
1967 



1431 
1732 

2131 
1980 



Straw 
per acre, 
in lbs. 



lbs. 
2712 
3915 



2684 
3599 

4058 
4266 



* We assume, then, 23 bushels or thereabouts to be the standard produce of the soil 
and season, without manure, during this second experimental year ; and as part of plot 
5 (previously manured with superphosphate of lime), and which is now also without 
manure, gives rather more than 22\ bushels of dressed corn, the correctness of the 
result of plot 3, the permanently unmanurod plot, is thereby fully confirmed. 

' This plot No. 5, previously two thirds of an acre, was, in this second year, divided 
into two equal portions : one of these (' plot 5a') being, as just said, unmanured, and 
the other (' plot 56') having supplied to it in solution, by top-dressings during the 
spring, the inedicinal carbonate cf ammonia, at the rate of 250 lbs. per acre ; and it is 
seen that we have, by this pure but highly volatile ammoniacal salt alone, tlie produce 
raised from 22^ bushels to very nearly 27 bushels ! 

' In the next section of the Table are given the results of plots 9 and 10, the former 
of which had in the previous year been manured by superphosphate of lime and a 
small quantity of sulphate of ammonia, and the latter by superphosphate of lime and 
silicate of potass. To each of these plots 1^ cwt. of sulphate and 1^ cwt. of muriate 
of ammonia were now supplied. Upon plot 9 the whole of the manure was top-dressed, 
at once, early in the spring ; but on plot 10 the salts were put on at four successive 
periods. The produce obtained by these salts of ammonia alone is 33 bushels and three- 
eighths, when sown all at once, and nearly 32 bushels when sown at four different times 
— quantities which amount to about 10 bushels per acre more than was obtivinod with- 
out manure. In the case of No. 9, indeed, the produce exceeds by 1 J- bushel that given 
by farmyard manure, and in that of No. 12 it is all but identical with it. And if we 
take the weights of total corn, instead of the measure of the dressed corn, to which latter 
wo chiefly refer, merely as a standard more conventionally understood. No. 10 by 
ammonia only, has given both more corn and more straw than the farmyard manure, 
with all its minerals and carbonaceous substance. 

' Let us see whether this almost specific effect of nitrogen, in restoring, for the 
reproduction of corn, a corn-exhausted soil, is borne out by the results of succeeding 
years. 

' We should have omitted all reference to the results obtained with the wheat manure 
of Professor Liebig, but that whilst fully admitting the failure of the manure — the 
composition of which, to use his own words when commenting upon it, ' could be 
no secret, since every plant showed by its ashes the due proportion of the consti- 
tuents essential to its growth ' — he implied that the failure was due to a yet imperfect 
knowledge of the mechanical form and chemical qualities required to be given to 
the necessary constituents in order to fit them for their reception and nutritive 



n 



MANURE 



207 



action on the plant, rather than to any fallacy in the theory -which would recommend 
to practical agriculture the supply by artiHcial means of the constituents of the ashes 
of plants as manures. 
' The following Table gives our selection of the results of the third season, 1846 :— 

Table Ill.—Harvest 1846. Selected Results. 



Descriptions and quantities of the manures per aero 



Section 1. 

Plot 3. No manure 

„ 2. 14 tons of farmyard manure . . 

Section 2. 

„ 105. No manure 

„ 10«. Sulphate of ammonia, 224 lbs. . 

Section 3. 

„ 5a'. Ash of 3 loads of wheat-straw . 

,, 5a^. Ash of 3 loads of wheat-straw, and 
top-dressed with 224 lbs. of sulphate 
of ammonia ..... 

Section 4. 

„ 6a. Liebig's wheat-manure, 448 lbs. . 

„ 5a. Liebig's wheat-manure, 448 lbs., with 
112 lbs. each of sulphate and muriate 
of ammonia 



Dressed com 
per acre, 
In bushels 
and pecks 



bnsh, pecks 
17 3| 



27 



17 2J 
27 U 



19 0| 

27 

20 n 

29 0§ 



Total 

com 

per acre. 

In lbs. 



lbs. 
1207 
1826 



1216 
1850 



1400 
1967 



Straw 

per acre, 

in lbs. 



lbs. 
1513 
2454 



1455 
2244 



1541 
2309 
1676 
2571 



' At this third experimental harvest we have on the continuously unmanured plot, 
namely, No. 3, not quite 18 bushels of dressed corn, as the normal produce of the 
season; and by its side we have on plot lOi — comprising one half of the plot 10 
of the previous years and so highly manured by ammoniacal salts in 1845, but 
now unmanured, — rather more than 17| bushels. The near approach, again, to 
identity of result from the two unmanured plots, at once gives confidence in the 
accuracy of the experiments, and shows us how effectually the preceding crop had, 
in a practical point of view, reduced the plots, previously so differently circumstanced 
both as to manure and produce, to something like an uniform standard as regards 
their grain-producing qualities. We take this opportunity of particularly calling atten- 
tion to these coincidences in the amount of produce in the two unmanured plots of the 
ditferent years, because it had been objected against our experiments, as already 
published, that confirmation was wanting as to the natural yield of soil and season. 

'Plot 2 has, as before, 14 tons of farmyard manure, and the produce is 27^ bushels, 
or between 9 and 10 bushels more than without manure of any kind. 

' On plot 10a, which in the previous year gave with ammoniacal salts alone a produce 
equal to that of the farmyard manure, we have again a similar resiUt : for 2 cwts. of 
sulphate of ammonia has now given 1850 lbs. of total corn, instead of 1826 lbs., which 
is the produce on plot 2. The straw of the latter is, however, slightly heavier than 
that by the ammoniacal salt. 

' Again, plot 5a, which was in the previous season ttnmanured, was now subdivided : 
on one half of it (namely, 5a') we have the ashes of wheat-straw alone, by which there 
is an increase of rather more than 1 bushel per acre of dressed corn ; on the other 
half {5a^) we have, besides the straw-ashes, 2 cwts. of sidphate of ammonia put on 
as a top-dressing ; 8 cwts. of sulphate of ammonia have, in this case, only increased 
the produce beyond that of 5a' by 7| bushels of corn and 768 lbs. of straw, instead of 
by 9f bushels of corn and 789 lbs. of straw, which was the increase obtained by the 
same amount of ammoniacal salt on 10a, as compared with 106. It will be observed, 
however, that in the former case the ammoniacal salts were top-dressed, but in the 
latter they were drilled at the time of sowing the seed ; and it will be remembered th;it 
in 1845 the result was bettor cs to corn on plot 9, where the salts were sown earlier 
than on plot 10, whore the top-dressing extended far into the spring. We have had 
several direct instances of this kind in our experience, and we would give it as a 
suggestion, in most cases applicable, that manures for wheat, and especially ammo- 
niacal ones, should be applied before or at the time the seed is sown ; for, although 



208 MANUEE 

the apparent luxuriance of the crop is greater, and the produce of straw really heavier, 
by spring rather than autumn sowings of Peruvian guano and other ammoniacal 
manures, yet we believe that that of the corn will not be increased in an equivalent 
degree. Indeed, the success of the crop undoubtedly depends very materially on the 
progress of the underground growth during the winter months; and this again, other 
things being equal, upon the quantity of available nitrogenous constituents within the 
soil, without a liberal provision of which, the range of the fibrous feeders of the plants 
will not be such as to take up the minerals which the soil is competent to supply, and 
in such quantity as will be required during the after-progress of the plant for its 
healthy and favourable growth. 

' The next result to be noticed is that obtained on plot 6, now also divided into two 
equal portions, designated respectively 6a and 66. Plot No. 6 had for the crop of 1844 
superphosphate of lime and the phosphate of magnesia manure, and for that of 1845 
superphosphate of lime, rape-cake, and atamoniacal' salts. Por this the third experi- 
mental season, it was devoted to the trial of the wheat-manure manufactured under 
the sanction of Professor Liebig, and patented in this country. 

' Upon plot 6a, 4 cwts. per acre of the patent wheat-manure were used, which gave 
20J bushels, or rather more than two busliels beyoiid thfi produce of the unmanured 
plot ; but as the manure contained, besides the minerals peculiar to it, some nitrogenous 
compounds, giving off a very perceptible odour of ammonia, some, at least, of the in- 
crease would be due to that substance. On plot 6b, however, the further addition of 
1 cwt. each of sulphate and muriate of ammonia to this so-called ' mineral manure' 
gives a produce of 29:|- bushels. In other words, the addition of ammoniacal salt to 
Liebig's mineral manure has increased the produce by very nearly 9 bushels per aero 
beyond that of- the mineral manure alone, while the increase obtained over the un- 
manured plot by 14 tons of farmyard manure was only 9^ bushels. 

' If, then, the " mechanical form and chemical qualities " of the so-called " mineral 
manure" were at fault, the sulphate of ammonia has, at least, compensated for the 
defect ; and even supposing a mineral manure, founded on a knowledge of the compo- 
sition of the ashes of the plant, be still the great desideratum, the farmer may rest 
contented, meanwhile, that he has in ammonia, supplied to him by Peruvian guano, 
by ammoniacal salts, and by other sources, so good a substitute. 

' It surely is needless to attempt further to justify, by the results of individual 
years, our assertion, that in practical agriculture nitrogenous manures are peculiarly 
adapted to the growth of wheat. We shall therefore conclude this part of our subject 
by directing attention to the history of a few of the plots throughout the entire series 
of years, as compared with that of the unmanured plot during the same period. 

' In support of the view that leguminous plants do possess a superior power of 
reliance upon the atmosphere for their nitrogen, and, indeed, that it is to this pro- 
perty that they materially owe their efficacy in rotation with grain, we may refer 
to the admirable investigations into the chemistry of agriculture of M. Boussingault. 
His experiments, however, have not received the attention which they merit from the 
agriculturists of this country ; probably on account of the small amounts of produce 
which he obtained. But it must be remembered that his investigation had for its object 
to explain the practices of agriculture as ho found them in liis own locality, before 
attempting to deviate from its established rules. M. Boussingault states the rotation 
usually adopted at Bechelbronn, and throtighout the greater part of Alsace, to be as 
follows: — 

"Potatoes or beet-root;" "Wheat;" "Clover;" "Wheat;" 

and that the average of wheat so obtained is, after potatoes 19 J bushels, after beet-root 
17 bushels, and after clover 24 bushels. Now we find by reference to his table that the 
first crop of wheat, grain, and straw removed 17 lbs. of phosphoric acid and 24 lbs. of 
potash and soda ; the following clover crop, 18 lbs. of phosphoric acid and 77 lbs. of 
potash and soda ; and after this removal of alkalis and phosphates by the clover, 
a larger crop of wheat is obtained. Surely it would seem impossible to reconcile this 
result with a theory which supposes the produce of wheat to rise and fall with the 
quantity of minerals available within the soil. If, however, we admit that the first 
crop of wheat could not take up the mineral matters existing in the soil for want of 
nitrogenous supply, and that the clover crop, not being so dependent upon supplied 
nitrogen, was able to take up the minerals required for its growth, and that it more- 
over left in the soil sufficient ammonia or its equivalent of nitrogen in some form, to 
g^ve the increased crop of wheat, we have a much more consistent and probable solu- 
tion of the results. There is little doubt that M. Boussingault could have increased 
his produce of wheat by means of ammoniacal salts : whether he could have done so 
economically is another question, depending of course upon the relative prices of grain 
and ammonia. 



MANURE 



209 



' The striking effect of phosphoric acid upon the gro^wth of the turnip, indeed, is a 
fact so well known to every intelligent agriculturist in Great Britain, tiiat it would 
eeem quite superfluous to attempt to illustrate it by any direct experiments of our 
own. However, as Professor Liebig has again, in the recent edition of his ' Letters,' 
expressed an opinion entirely inconsistent with such a result, we will refer to one or 
two of the results obtained in our experimental turnip-field, which bear on the opinion 
he has reiterated as follows : — thus, speaking of the exhaustion of phosphate of lime 
and alkaline phosphates by the sale of flour, cattle, &c., he says : — " It is cerbiin that 
this incessant removal of the phosphates must tend to exhaust the land and diminish 
its capability of producing grain. The fields of Great Britain are in a state of pro- 
gressive exhaustion from this cause, as is proved by the rapid extension of the cultiva- 
tion of turnips and mangc^ld-wurzel, plants which contain the least amount of the 
phosphates, axd therefore require the smallest quantity for theib develop- 
ment." Now we do not hesitate to Siiy that, however small the quantity of phosphates 
contained in the turnip, the successful cultivation of it is more dependent upon a large 
supply of phosphoric acid in the manure than that of any other ci'op. 

'In the following Table, then, is given the amount of bulb, from 1843 to 1850. 

First, the continuously unmanured plot : — 

Secondly, that with a large amount of the superphosphate of lime alone each year; and 
Thirdly, that with a very liberal supply of potash, with some soda and magnesia also 
in addition to superphosphate of lime. 



Years 


Plot continuously 
unmamirod 


Plot with 

Superphosphate of Lime 

alone every year 


Plot with 

superphosphate of lime 

and mixed alkalis 


1843 
1844 
1845 
1846 
1847 
1848 
1849 
1850 


tons 
4 
2 



cwts. qrs. lbs. 

3 3 2 

4 1 
13 2 24 


tons cwts. qrs. lbs. 
12 3 2 8 

7 14 3 
12 13 3 12 

1 18 

5 11 1 
10 n 8 

3 15 
U 9 


tons cwts. qrs. lbs. 

11 17 2 
5 13 2 

12 12 2 8 
3 10 1 20 
5 16 
9 14 2 
3 13 2 8 
9 7 1 12 


Totals . 




... 


65 16 1 1 


62 5 1 20 


Means . 




8 4 2 4 


7 15 2 20 



'It is seen, then, that in the third season, viz. 1845, the produceof the unmanured 
plot is reduced to a few hundredweights, and since that period the size of the bulbs had 
been such that they had not been considered worth weighing. On the other hand, on 
the plot with superphoKphate of lime alone for eight successive years, we have an aver- 
age produce of about 8^ tons of bulb ! varying however exceedingly year by year, ac- 
cording to the season. We see, too, that by the addition to superphosphate of lime of 
a large quantity of the alkalis, much greater than could be taken off in the crop, the 
average produce is not so great by nearly half a ton as by the superphosphate of lime 
alone. It must be admitted that this extraordinary effect of superphosphate ot lime 
cannot be accounted for by the idea of merely supplying in it the actual constituents 
of the crop, but that it is due to some special agency in developing the assimilative 
processes of the plant. The opinion is favoured by the fact that in the case where the 
superphosphate of Hme is at once neutralised by alkalis artificially supphed, the efficacy 
of the manure would seem to be thereby reduced. And, from this again, we would 
gather that the effect of the phosphoric acid, as such, cannot be due merely to the 
liberation within the soil of its alkalis, or we should suppose that the artificial sup- 
ply of these would at least have been attended with some increase of produce. But 
this is not the case, notwithstanding that by means of superphosphate of lime alone 
there has been taken from the land more of the alkalis in which the ash of the turnip 
so peculiarly abounds, than would have been lost to it in a century under the ordinary 
course of rotation and home manuring ! Collateral experiments also clearly prove the 
importance of a liberal supply of organic substance rich m mrion— which always con- 
tains a considerable quantity of nitrogen also-if we would m practical agriculture 
increase the yield much beyond the amount which can be obtained by mineral manures 
alone, and these conditions being fulfilled, the direct supply of nitrogen, on tlie other 
hand, is bv no means so generally essential. And it is where we have provided a liberal 

Vol. III. P 



210 ]\IANURE, ARTIFICUL 

supply of constituents for organic formations, in addition to the mineral manures, that 
we have found the use of alkalis not to be without effect. 

' But it is at any rate certain that phosphoric acid, though it forms so small a pro- 
portion of the ash of the turnip, has a very striking effect on its growth when applied 
as manure ; and it is equally certain that the extended cultivation of root crops in 
Great Britain cannot be due to the deficiency of this substance for the growth of 
com, and to the less dependence upon it of the root crops, as supposed by Baron Liobig. 

' These curious and interesting facts in relation to the growth of turnips, as well as 
those which have been given in reference to wheat and to the leguminous crops, are suffi- 
cient to prove how impossible it is to form correct opinions on agricultural chemistry 
without the guidance of direct experiment in the field. And we are convinced that if 
Baron Liebig had watched the experiments which we have had in progress during the 
last eight years, he would long ago have arrived at conclusions in the main agreeing 
with those to which we have been irresistibly led, 

' So much, then, for the results of experiments in the field, and for the considerations 
in relation to the functional actions of plants, as bearing upon the character of the 
manure required for their growth in a course of practical agriculture. Let us now 
consider for a few moments what really are the main and characteristic features of 
practical agriculture, as most generally followed in this country. 

' Let us suppose that the rotation adopted is that of Turnips, Barley, Clover, Wlieat : 
that the turnips and clover are consumed upon the farm by stock, and that the meat 
thus produced, 40 bushels of barley, and 30 bushels of wheat, are all the exports from 
the farm ; the manure from the consumed turnips and clover, and the straw, both of 
barley and of wheat, being retained on the .farm. Wo have in this case, by the sale of 
grain, a loss of minerals to each acre of the farm of only 20 to 24 lbs. of potass 
and soda, and 26 to 30 lbs. of phosphoric acid, in the centre of the rotation, or an 
average of 5 to 6 lbs. of potass and soda, and 65 to 7 2 lbs. of phosphoric acid per 
acre per annum. In the sale of the animals there would of course be an additional 
loss of phosphoric acid, though especially if no breeding-stoek were kept, this would be 
even much less considerable than in that of the grain ; and the amount of the alkalis 
thus sent off the farm would, according to direct experiments of our own upon calves, 
bullocks, lambs, sheep, and pigs, probably be only about one-fourth that of the phos- 
phoric acid. It has, however, long been decided in practical agriculture that phos- 
phoric acid maybe advantageously provided in the purchase of bones or other phospha- 
tic manures, though in practice these are not found applicable as a direct manure for 
the wheat crop ; and as we have already said, even when employed for the turnip, its 
efficacy is not to be accounted for merely as supplying a sufficiency of that substance to 
be stored up in the crop. 

' In conclusion, then : if the theory of' Baron Liebig simply implies that the grow- 
ing plant must have within its reach a sufficiency of the mineral constituents of which 
it is to be built up, we fully and entirely assent to so evident a truism ; but if, on the 
other hand, he would have it understood that it is of the mineral constituents, as 
would be collectively found in the ashes of the exported produce, that our soils are defi- 
cient relatively to other constituents, and that, in the present condition of agriculture 
in Great Britain, " we cannot increase the fertility of our fields by a supply of nitro- 
genised products, or by salts of ammonia alone, but rather that their produce increases 
or diminishes, in a direct ratio, with the supply of mineral elements capable of assimi- 
lation," we do not hesitate to say that every fact with which we are acquainted, in 
relation to this point, is unfavourable to such a view. We have before stated, how- 
ever, that, if a cheap source of ammonia were at command, the available mineral con- 
stituents might in their turn become exhausted by its excessive use.' 

MAXmHE, AXTZFZCXAXi. Agricultural writers tisually divide manures into 
two classes, natural and artificial. 

The first division includes farmyard manure, liquid manure, and the various com- 
posts that are occasionally made by formers from excrementitious matters, earth, 
lime, and all sorts of refuse matters found or produced on the farm. 

In the second division we find guano, bone-dust, nitrate of soda, sulphate of 
ammonia; also the waste of slaughter-houses, night-soil, the refuse of glue-makers, 
wool waste, and other refuse materials of certain factories; and likewise super- 
phosphate of lime, blood manure, and a great -variety of saline mixtures, whidi are 
now extensively manufactured in manure works, for the purpose of supplying 
farmers with special chemical fertilisers, such as wheat-, barley-, oat-, potato-, flax- 
manure, &c. The term artificial manure thus includes a great variety of different 
materials, and is frequently applied to products which, like guano, are in point of fact 
much more natural than farmyard manure, in the successful preparation of which a 
certain amount of skill is required on the part of the farmer. The evident anomaly 
pf considering guano, bonea, blood, and nitrate of aoda (Chili saltpetre) as artificial 



MANURE, ARTIFICIAL 211 

manures, has led some agricultural -writers to describe them under natural manures. 
Again, others apply the term artificial only to compound saline manuring mixtures 
such AS wheat- and grass-manures, or to manures the preparation of which necessitates 
a certain acquaintance with chemical principles and the use of chemical agents. All 
this confusion can be avoided entirely, if manures, instead of being divided into 
natural and artificial, were separated into home-made manures, that is, manures pro- 
duced from the natural resources of the farm, and into imported manures, that is, 
fertilisers which are introduced on the farm from foreign sources. 

The term ' artificial,' more appropriately, is given to all simple or compound 
fertilisers in the production of which human art has been instrumental. In this signi- 
fication we shall use the term ' artificial manure.' 

Not many years ago farmyard maniire was universally considered the only efficient 
fertiliser to restore the fertility of land, impaired by a succession of crops. Recent 
agricultiu-al experience, however, has shown that, in a great measure, artificial 
manures may be employed with advantage instead of yard manure, nay, that in several 
respects artificial manures are preferable to ordinary dung. Indeed, the present 
advanced state of British agriculture is intimately connected with the success with 
which artificial manures have been introduced into the ordinary routine on the farm. 

The variety oi artificials in present use amongst English farmers is very great. 
Some, like well prepared samples of superphosphate, are unquestionably manures 
distinguished for high fertilising properties ; others are less efficacious, or of a doubt- 
ful character ; and not a few hardly repay the cost of carriage beyond a distance of 10 
miles. The fact that in almost every market-town artificial manures are sold, which, 
if not altogether worthless, oiFer, to say the least, no profitable investment to the 
occupier of land, shows plainly that the principles which ought to regulate the manu- 
facture of artificial manures are not so generally understood as it is desirable they 
should be. In comparison with other branches of industrial art, the manufacture of 
manures is comparatively simple, and involves no very expensive machinery beyond 
steam-power for the pulverisation of the raw materials ; nor does it necessitate exten- 
sive practical experience, or the possession of a large stock of chemical knowledge, on 
the part of the manufacturer. The limits of this article preclude the detailed de- 
scription of all the artificial manures that find their way at present into the manure 
market ; nor does it appear to us necessary to mention in detail the various propor- 
tions in which the numerous refuse materials used by manure-makers may be blended 
together into efficacious fertilisers ; for a manufacturer who is thoroughly acquainted 
with the nature of artificial manures, and the legitimate uses to which they ought to 
be applied, will find little or no difficulty when working up into artificial manures the 
raw materials or refuse matters for the acquirement of which a particular locality 
may offer peculiar advantages. A right conception of the relative commercial and 
agricultural value of the diffbrent constituents that enter into the composition of 
manures is the chief desideratum for the manufacturer of artificial manure. "We 
therefore propose to refer, in the following pages, briefly to the more important prin- 
ciples which ouglit to be kept steadily in view in establishments erected for the supply 
of artificial fertilisers. 

The high esteem in which good farmyard manure is held by practical men, its uni- 
formly beneficial effect upon almost every kind of crop, and the economical advantages 
with which it is usually applied to the land, have induced many to regard farmyard 
manure as the model which tho manufacturer of artificial manure should endeavour 
to imitate. But this proposition is wrong in principle, as will be shown presently, 
and its adoption in manure-works has led to disappointment and ruin. It would be 
foreign to our object to give in this place a full account of the peculiar merits that 
belong to yard manure, and to compare them with those exhibited by artificial 
manures. Each has its peculiar merits and disadvantages, upon which we need not 
dwell in this article. It will help us, however, in properly comprehending what is 
really required in a good artificial manure, if we inquire briefly into the composition 
of good yard manure. We therefore subjoin an analysis, made some time ago by 
Dr. Voelcker, of well-rotted farmyard manure (see next page) : — 

Farmyard manure contains all the constituents which our cultivated crops require 
to come to perfection, and is suited for every description of agricultural produce. As 
far as the inorganic fertilising substances are concerned, we find in farmyard manure 
potash, soda, lime, magnesia, oxide of iron, phosphoric acid, sulphuric acid, hydro- 
chloric and carbonic acid ; in short, all the minerals that are found in the ashes of 
agricultural crops. 

Of organic fertilising substances, we find in farmyard manure some which are 

readily soluble in water, and containing a large portion of nitrogen; and others 

insoluble in water, and containing, comparatively speaking, a small proportion of 

nitrogen. The former readilv yield ammonia, the latter principally give rise to 

■ " p2 



212 MANURE, ARTIFICIAL 

the formation of humic acids, and similar organic compounds. These organic acids 
constitute the mixture of organic matters, which in practice pass under the name of 
humus. 

Composition of Farmyard Rotted Dung {Horses', Cows', and Figs'), in 100 parts. 

Water 7542 . 

Soluble organic matter ' 371 

Soluble inorganic matter (ash) : — 

Soluble silica ....... •254 

Thosphate of lime ...... '382 

Lime '117 

Magnesia '047 

Potash '446 

Soda -023 

Chloride of sodium '037 

Sulphuric acid '058 

Carbonic acid and loss -106 

1-47 

Insoluble organic matter - 1282 

Insoluble inorganic matter (asli) : — 

Soluble silica 1-424 

Insoluble silica 1010 

Oxides of iron and alumina, with phosphates . "947 
Containing phosphoric acid . . . ' . . ('274) 

Equal to bone-earth (•573) 

Lime 1-C67 

Magnesia '091 

Potash -045 

Soda . . '038 

Sulphuric acid . . . . . . . '063 

Carbonic acid and loss 1-295 

6-58 



10000 



Farmyard manure thus is a perfect manure, for experience and analysis alike 
show that it contains all the fertilising constituents required by plants, in states of 
combination which appear to be especially favourable to the luxuriant growth of our 
crops. 

On most farms the supply of common yard manure is inadequate to meet the de- 
mands of the modem system of high farming. Hence the endeavour of enterprising 
men to supply this deficiency by converting various refuse materials into substitutes 
for farmyard manure. Artificial maniutes likely to approach farmyard manure in 
their action should contain all the elements in the latter, and in a state of combina- 
tion, in which they are neither too soluble nor too insoluble ; for it is evident that a 
plant can grow luxuriantly, and come to perfect maturity only when all the elements 
necessary for its existence are presented to it in a state in which they can be assimi- 
lated by the plant. 

But the question arises, Is it desirable to produce by art perfect substitutes for 
common dung ? We think not, for the following reasons : — 

In the first place, well-rotted dung contains in round numbers two-thirds of its 
weight of water, and only one-third of its weight of dry matter. A large bulk thei-e- 
foro contains, comparatively speaking, but a small proportion of fertilising-matters. 
In every 3 tons of manure we have to pay carrkige for 2 tons of water ; and it may 
be safely asserted that no manure, however efficacious it may be in a dry condition, 
will be found an economic substitute for farmyard manure, if it cannot be produced in 
a much drier condition than common yard manure. 

Again, several of the constituents which greatly preponderate in farmyard manure 
are present in most soils in abimdant quantities ; ibey need not, therefore, be supplied 
to the land in the form of manure ; or, should they be wanting in the soil, they can 
be readily obtained almost everywhere at a cheap rate. If, therefore, these inexpen- 

' Containing nitroi^en . I '297 

Equal to ammonia . . '86 

* Containing nitrogen '309 

Equal to ammonia '376 

VHiole manure containing ammonia in free state . . . '046 

„ „ form of salts . . '057 



MANURE, ARTIFICIAL 213 

siTO and more widely distributed substances are dispensed with in compounding a 
manure, and those are selected which occur in soils only in minute quantities, a very 
valuable and efficacious fertiliser is obtained, which possesses the great advantage of 
containing in a small bulk all the essential fertilising substances of a large mass of 
home-made dung. 

That the effect which every description of manure is capable of producing depends 
on its composition is self-evident ; and as the different constituents which generally 
enter into the composition of manures produce different effects upon vegetation, it is 
of primary importance to the manufacturer of manure that he should be acquainted 
with the special mode of action of each fertilising constituent. 

Wo shall therefore make some observations on the practical effects, and the 
comparative value, of the various constituents that enter into the composition of 
manures. 

To guard against misapprehension, we would observe that, in one sense, all the 
fertilising-agents are alike valuable ; for they are all indispensable for the healthy 
condition of our cultivated crops, and consequently the absence of one is attended 
with serious consequences, though all others may be present in abundance. Thus 
the deficiency of lime in the land is attended with as much injury to the plant 
as tliat of phosphoric acid. In this sense lime is as valuable as phosphoric acid ; 
but inasmuch as lime is generally found in most soils in abundant quantities, or, 
if deficient, can be applied to the land economically in the form of slaked lime, 
marl, shell-sand, &c„ its presence in an artificial manure is by no means a recommen- 
dation to it. 

The principal constituents of manures are : — 

1. Nitrogen (in the shape of ammonia, nitric acid, and nitrogenised 

organic matters). 

2. Phosphoric acid (bone-earth and soluble phosphates). 

3. Potash (carbonate and silicate of potash). 

4. Soda (common salt). 

5. Lime and magnesia (carbonate and sulphate of lime and magnesia), 

6. Soluble silica. 

7. Humus-forming organic matters (vegetable remains of all kinds). 

8. Sulphuric acid (sulphate of lime). 

9. Chlorine (common salt). 

10. Oxide of iron, alumina, silica (clay, earth, and sand). 

We have here mentioned these constituents in the order which expresses their com- 
parative commercial value. 

1. Nitrogen. — This element may be incorporated with artificial manures in the 
shape of ammoniacal salts or nitrates, or nitrogenised organic matters. 

The cheapest ammoniacal salt is sulphate of ammonia ; the cheapest nitrate is Chili 
saltpetre, or nitrate of soda ; hence sulphate of ammonia and nitrate of soda are exclu- 
sively employed by manure manufacturers for the preparation of nitrogenised manures, 
wlien no organic refuse-matters containing nitrogen, such as horn-shavings, bone-dust, 
woollen rags, blood, glue-refuse, &c., are available. 

Nitrogen in any of these forms exercises a most powerful action in manure, espe- 
cially when applied to plants at an early stage of their growth ; at a later period of 
development the application of ammoniacal salts or nitrate of soda appears mucli 
less effective, and sometimes even useless. For this reason nitrogenised manures, 
such as guano, soot, specially-prepared wheat-manures, &e., ought to be applied 
either in autumn or in spring, immediately after the young blade has made its ap- 
pearance above ground. 

Ammoniacal salts, nitrate of soda, and decomposed nitrogenised organic matters, 
have a most marked effect upon the leaves of plants ; tliey induce a rapid and 
luxuriant development of leaves, and may tliereforo be called leaf-producing or 
forcing manures. Grass, wheat, oats, and other cereals, when grown upon soils 
containing abundance of available mineral elements, are strikingly benefited by a 
nitrogenised manure ; but, on account of their special action, they ought to be used 
with caution in the case of corn-crops, and always more sparingly on light tlinn 
on heavy land ; otherwise, fine straw, but little and an inferior sample of grain, 
will be obtained. 

As a general rule, ammoniacal salts or nitrate of soda should not be used by 
farmers in a concentrated state, and exceptionally only. However useful sulphate 
of ammonia or nitrate of soda may be in a particular case, it ought to be re- 
membered that generally such manures produce beneficial effects only in conjunc- 
tion with mineral matters. If, therefore, a proper amount of available mineral 
substances does not exist in the soil, it has to be supplied in the manure. Am- 



214 MANURE, ARTIFICIAL 

moniacal salts, nitrate of soda, animal matters, &c., are therefore almost always 
blended together with phosphates, common salt, gypsum, &c., by manufacturers of 
manures. 

Whilst we thus fuUy recognise the importance of the presence of ammonia, am- 
moniacal salts, nitrates, or animal matters furnishing ammonia on decomposition in 
manures, especially in manures for white crops, we cannot agree with those who 
estimate the entire value of manuring-substances by the proportion of nitrogen which 
they contain. 

In a purely commercial sense, nitrogen in the shape of ammonia or nitric acid, or 
animal nitrogenised matters, is the most valuable fertilising constituent, for it fetches 
a higher price in the market than any other manuring constituent. 

2. Phosphoric Acid. — Next in importance follows phosphoric acid. This acid exists 
largely in the grain of wheat, oats, barley, in leguminous seeds, likewise in turnips, 
mangolds, carrots, in clover, meadow-hay, and, in short, in every kind of agricultural 
produce. Whether we grow, therefore, a cereal crop or a fallow crop, there must be 
phosphoric acid in sufficient quantity in the soil, or if insufficient it must be added to 
the land in the shape of manure. 

The proportion of phosphoric acid in even good soils is very small, and as the agri- 
cultural produce in almost every case removes from the soil more of phosphoric acid 
than of any other soil-constituent, the want of available phosphoric acid makes itself 
known very soon. This is especially the case with quick-growing crops, such as 
turnips, mangolds, &c. The whole period of vegetation of these green crops extends 
only over 4 or 5 months, and the fibrous roots of these crops are unable to penetrate, 
like wheat, the soil to any considerable depth. For these reasons, phosphoric acid in 
some form or other has to be abundantly supplied to root-crops ; and experience 
has shown that no description of fertilising matter benefits roots so much as super- 
phosphate and similar manures, which contain phosphate of lime in a state in which 
it is readily assimilated by plants. 

In artificial manures phosphoric acid commonly occurs in the shape of bone-dust, 
boiled bones, bone-shavings (refuse of knife-handle makers, turners of ivory, button- 
makers, &c.), or in the state of biphosphato of lime, purposely manufactured from 
bone materials or from phosphatic minerals. 

The phosphate of lime which occurs in fresh bones, practically speaking, is insoluble 
in water. In water charged with carbonic acid, and still more so in water containing 
some ammonia, it is more soluble than in pure water. On fermenting bone-dust in 
heaps it becomes a much more effective manure. Such fermented bone-dust is added 
with much benefit to general artificial manures. 

All really good artificial manures should contain a fair proportion of phosphate — 
say from 25 to 40 per cent., according to the uses for which the manure is intended. 
Generally speaking, manures for turnips, and root-crops in general, should bo rich in 
phosphates especially soluble phosphates (biphosphate of lime) ; such manures need 
not contain more than 1 to 1-J per cent, of ammonia, and, when used on land in a 
tolerably good agricultural condition, ammonia can be altogether omitted in the 
manure without fear of deteriorating the efficacy of the manure. 

3. Potash. — Salts of potash unquestionably are valuable fertilising constituents, for 
potash enters largely into the composition of the ashes of all crops. Root-crops es- 
pecially require much potash ; hence these crops are much benefited by wood-ashes, 
burnt clay, liquid manure, and other fertilisers contiiining much potash. 

The commercial resources of potash arc limited, and salts of potash have generally 
been far too expensive to be employed largely in the manufacture of artificial manures. 
Fortunately potash exists abundantly in most soils containing a fair proportion of clay. 
Its want in artificial manures therefore is not perceived, at least not in the same 
degree in which tlie deficiency of phosphates in a manure would bo felt. Of late years 
however valuable deposits of potash-salts have been discovered at Stassfurt in Prussian 
Saxony, and have been extensively employed for various industrial purposes, including 
the preparation of manures. 

4. Soda. — Salts of soda are much less efficacious fertilising matters than salts of 
potash. There are few soils which do not contain naturally enough soda, in one 
form or the other, to satisfy the wants of the crops which are raised upon them. 
However, common salt is largely employed in the manufacture of artificial manures ; 
if it does no good, it certainly does no harm ; and in this country it is one of the 
cheapest diluents which can bo employed for reducing the expenses of concentrated 
fertilising mixtures to a price at which they can be sold to farmers. In continental 
districts common salt proves more efficacious as a manure than in England, where the 
neighbourhood of the sea provides the majority of soils with plenty of salt, which 
by the winds is carried landwarda with the spray of the sea to very considerable dis> 
;aQces. 



MANURE, ARTIFICIAL 215 

Salt, however, even in England, is usefully applied to mangolds, and enters 
largely into the composition of most artificial manures expressly prepared for this crop. 

5. Lime and Magnesia. — All plants require lime and magnesia in smaller or larger 
quantities. Many soils contain lime in superabundance ; in others it is deficient. To 
the latter soils it must be added. This can be done by lime-compost, by slaked lime, 
by marl, shell-sand, or gypsum. All these calcareous manures are cheap almost 
everywhere, for lime and magnesia are among the most widely distributed, and moat 
abundant mineral substances. 

The addition of chalk, marl, and even gypsum, to artificial manures, should there- 
fore be avoided as much as possible. 

At the best, carbonate and sulphate of lime in artificial manures must be regarded 
as diluents. 

6. Soluble Silica. — The artificial supply of soluble silica to the land, as far as our 
present experience goes, has done no good whatever to cereals, the straw of which 
soluble silica is supposed to strengthen. 

In the absence of reliable practical experiments with soluble silica, we cannot 
venture to recommend the use of silicate of soda or soluble silica to manure-manufac- 
turers. 

7. Organic substances; Humiis. — The importance of organic matters free from 
nitrogen, as fertilising agents, is very trifling. Formerly the value of a manure was 
estimHted by the amount of organic matter it contained, and little or no difference 
was made whether the organic matter contained nitrogen or not. Under good culti- 
vation, the organic matter in the soil regularly increases from year to year ; there 
exists therefore no necessity of supplying it in the shape of manure. 

In artificial manures we should certainly exclude all substances that merely add to 
the biilk, without enhancing the real fertilising value of the manure. Peat, saw-duSt, 
and similar organic matters, &c., are useful to the manure-maker only as diluents 
and absorbents of moisture. 

8. Sulphuric acid is another constituent of manure, which possesses little value. 
In artificial manures sulphuric acid chiefly occurs as gypsum. 

9. Chlorine. — Exists in manures principally as salt. 

10. Oxide of Iron, Alumina, Silica. — These constituents exist sometimes in manures 
in the shape of burnt-clay, earth, brick-dust, and sand. 

It is hardly necessary to remark that good artificial manures should contain as 
little as possible of these matters. 

It will appear from the preceding observations, that nitrogen in the shape of am- 
moniacal salts, nitric acid or decomposed animal matters, and phosphoric acid are the 
most vahiable fertilising constituents. 

The manufacturers of artificial manure should therefore endeavour : 

1. To produce manures containing as little water as possible. 

2. To incorporate as much of nitrogenised organic matters, or ammoniacal salts, or 
nitrates and phosphates, in general manuring mixtures, as is possible at the price at 
which artificial manures are usually sold. 

3. To avoid as much as possible gypsum, salt, peat-mould, chalk, and other sub- 
stances that chiefly add to the biilk, withoxit increasing the efficacy, of the manures. 

He should also endeavour to produce uniform finely-pulverised articles, that run 
readily through the manure drill. 

It likewise devolves on the manufacturer of manures to render more effective, 
that is to say, more rapid and energetic in their action, refuse materials which may 
remain inactive in the soil for years before they entei into decomposition, and to 
reduce by chemical means into a more convenient state for assimilation, raw materials, 
which like coprolites, apatite, &c., produce little or no beneficial effects upon vegeta- 
tion, even when added to the land in a finely-powdered condition. 

At the present time, two classes of artificial manures maybe distinguished: 1, 
general manures, i.e. manures which profess to suit equally well every kind of agri- 
cultural produce ; and 2, special manures, i.e. manures specially prepared for a par- 
ticular crop only. 

The requirements of different crops, or perhaps, more correctly speaking, the con- 
ditions that regulate the assimilation of food, vary so much, that we doubt the 
policy of manure-makers to prepare general artificial maniures. At the same time, wo 
doubt the necessity of preparing artificial manures for every description of crop. 
Special manures are extremely useful to farmers, if they are prepared by intelligent 
manufacturers, who possess siiSicient chemical knowledge to take advantage of 
every improvement that is made in manufacturing chemistry, and at fhe same time 
know sufficient of agriculture to understand what is really wanted in .a soil. In other 
words, except a manufacturer is a good practical chemist and a tolerably good farmer, 
ho will not be able properly to adapt the composition of special fertilisers to the 



216 MAPLE 

nature of the soil, and the peculiar mode of treatment which the land has received 
on the part of the farmer. 

However, nearly all special artificial mannres, generally speaking, may be arranged 
under two heads. They are either: 1. Nitrogenised Manures, or, 2. Phosphatic 
Manures. The first may be used with almost equal advantage for wheat, barley, oats, 
for Tje, and on good land likewise for grass. The second are cniefly used for root-crops. 

Nitrogenised artificial manures frequently are nothing more than guano, diluted with 
gypsum, salt, peat-mould, earth, &c. In fact, guano is the cheapest amraoniacal 
manure; for which reason it is so largely employed for compounding low-priced 
wheat-manures, grass-manures, &c. &c. 

Good manures for cereals may be made by blending together fine bone-dust, or 
bone-dust dissolved in sulphuric acid, sulphate of ammonia, salt, and gypsum. 
These maniu-es will be the better the more sidphate of ammonia they contain. In 
1873 we imported 70,055 tons of bones of animals and fish for this purpose. 

Turnip-manures, and artificial manures for root-crops in general, consist prin- 
cipally of dissolved bones, or dissolved coprolites and other mineral phosphates. 
They are, in fact, superphosphates of various degrees of concentration. The more 
soluble phosphate a root-manure contains, the better is it adapted to the purpose for 
which it is used. 

Most samples of superphosphate contain little or no ammonia, or nitrogenised 
organic matters. 

Blood-manure is a superphosphate, in the preparation of which some blood is used. 

In preparing superphosphate from bones, it is essential that they should be reduced 
to fine dust. This is moistened ^vith about ^ its weight of water, after which another 
third to one half of brown sulphuric acid is added. The pasty mass is allowed to 
cool, in the mixing vessel, or when large quantities are prepared, the semi-liquid 
mass in the mixer is run out still hot, fresh quantities of bone-dust, water, and acid 
are put in the mixer, and after 5 or 10 minutes the contents allowed to run out, and a 
fresh quantity prepared as before. The successive mixings .are all kept together in one 
heap for 1 or 2 months ; the heap is then turned over, and if necessary, the partially- 
dissolved bones are passed through a riddle. 

In a similar manner, coprolites, bone-ash, apatite and other phosphatic minerals are 
treated with acid. It ought to be observed, however, that the quantity of brown sul- 
phuric acid necessary for dissolving coprolites must be at least £ths of the weight of 
coprolite powder, for coprolites contain much carbonate of lime, which neutralises sul- 
phuric acid. Even 75 per cent, of brown acid are not always sufficient to dissolve com- 
pletely coprolite powder, and as the proportion of carbonate of lime in coprolites and 
phosphatic minerals varies considerably, it cannot be stated definitely what amount of 
oil of vitriol should be \xsed in every case. The safest plan, therefore, for the manu- 
facturer is, to ascertain from time to time whether the proportion of acid which he 
has used has converted nearly the whole of the insoluble phosphates in coprolites into 
soluble phosphates, and if necessary to add more acid. In the case of bone-dust, it 
does not matter if the whole of the bone-earth is not rendered soluble ; bones even par- 
tially acted upon by oil of vitriol, become sufficiently soluble in the soil to prove effi- 
cacious for the turnip crop. But the case is diiferent, if mineral phosphates, such as 
apatite or coprolite powder, are employed in the manufacture of superphosphate. In- 
soluble phosphates in the shape of coprolite powder are not worth anything in an arti- 
ficial manure, for they are too insoluble to be taken up by the turnip crop. It is 
therefore essential to employ a quantity of acid, which is amply sufficient to convert 
the whole of the insoluble phosphate of lime in coprolites into soluble, or biphosphate 
of lime. — A. V. See Apatite; Coprolites; Phosphates. 

We exported, in 1873, artificial manures to the value of 671,550/. 

DiXAPXii:, or Plane. {Erable, Fr. ; Ahorn, Ger.) Acer campestre, the English 
or field maple. The wood of this tree is compact and finely veined ; it is used in 
France and other parts of the Continent for furniture, and it makes excellent charcoal. 

Acer platanoides. The Norway maple. This wood is soft, but being finely grained 
is capable of receiving a good polish, and looks well. 

Acer pseudo-plafanus. Sycamore, groat maple, or false plane. The wood is of a 
compact grain, and does not warp or become worm-eaten. 

Acer saccharum. Sugar maple. This tree is extensively cultivated in America 
for the sugar which is extracted from it. The wood is frequently used for furniture, 
having a silky lustre when polished. < 

Acer striatum. Striped barked maple. This treo is grown in America, and as 
the wood is finely grained and white, it is much used as a substitute for holly by 
furniture-makers. 

The Russian maple is thought to be the wood of a birch-tree. It differs in many 
respects from the American maple, but is sometimes used as a substitute for it. 



MARBLE 217 

The bird's-eye maple is the American variety, the best being obtained from Prince 
Edward's Island. The mottled maple is a commoner variety. 

ACiLRBIiE. This title embraces such of the primary, transition, and purer com- 
pact limestones of the secondary formation, as may be quarried in solid blocks without 
fissures, and are susceptible of a fine polished surface. The finer the white, the more 
beautifully variegated the colours of the stone, the more valuable, ceteris paribus, is 
the marble. Its general characters are the following : — 

Marble effervesces with acids ; afibrds quicklime by calcination ; has a conchoidal 
scaly fracture ; is translucent only on the very edges ; is easily scratched by the knife ; 
has a spec. grav. of 2-7 ; admits of being sawn into slabs ; and receives a brilliant 
polish. These qualities occur united in only three principal varieties of limestone : 

1, in the saccharoid limestone, so called from its fine granular texture resembling that 
of loaf-sugar, and which constitutes modern statuary marble, like that of Carrara ; 

2, in the foliated limestone, consisting of a multitude of small facets formed of little 
crystalline plates applied to one another in every possible direction, constituting the 
antique statuary marble, like that of Paros ; 3, in many of the Devonian and Carboni- 
ferous, or encrinitic limestones, which occur below the coal formation. 

The saccharoid and lamellar, or statuary marbles, belong entirely to metamorphic 
districts. The greater part of the close-grained coloured marbles belong also to the 
same geological localities ; and become so rare in the more recent limestone forma- 
tions, that immense tracts of these occur without a single bed sufficiently entire 
and compact to constitute a workable marble. The limestone lying between the 
Great Oolite and the Combrash of the lower oolite, and which is called 'Forest 
marble ' in England, being susceptible of a tolerable polish, and variegated with im- 
bedded shells, has sometimes been worked into ornamental slabs in Oxfordshire, 
where it occurs in the neighbourhood of Wychwood forest; but this case can hardly 
be considered as an exception to the general rule. Even higher in the geological 
series, marbles may occasionally be worked ; thus the Purbeck and Wealden series 
yield shelly bands of freshwater limestone, which, under the names of Purbeck marble, 
.Sussex marble, &c., have been largely used for the clustered shafts in Gothic archi- 
tecture. 

To constitute a profitable marble-quarry, there must be a large extent of homogeneous 
limestone, and a facility of transporting the blocks after they are dug. On examining 
these natural advantages of the beds of Carrara marble, we may readily imderstand 
how the statuary marbles discovered in the Pyrenees, Savoy, Corsica, &c. have never 
been able to come into competition with it in the market. In fact, the two sides of 
the valley of Carrara may be regarded as mountiiins of statuary marble of the finest 
quality. 

The various tints of ornamental marbles generally proceed from oxides of iron ; but 
the blue and green tints are sometimes caused by minute particles of hornblende, as 
in the slate-blue variety called Turchino, and in some green marbles of Germany. 
The black marbles are coloured by carbon, mixed occasionally with sulphur and 
bitumen ; when they constitute ' stinkstone.' 

Brard divides marbles, according to their localities, into classes, each of which con- 
t^iius eight subdivisions : — 

1. Uni-coloured marbles ; including only the white and the black. 

2. Variegated marbles ; those with irregular spots or veins, 

3. Madreporic marbles, presenting animal remains in the shape of white or grey 
•spots, with regularly disposed dots and stars in the centre. 

4r. Shell marbles ; with only a few shells interspersed in the calcareous base. 

5. Lumachella marbles, entirely composed of shells. 

6. Cipolin marbles, containing veins of greenish talc. 

7. Breccia marbles, formed of a number of angular fragments of different marbles, 
united by a common cement. 

8. Padding-stone marbles ; a conglomerate of rsunded pieces. 

Antique marbles. — The most remarkable of these are the following: — Parian 
marble, called Lychnites by the ancients, because its quarries were worked by lamps; 
it has a yellowish-white colour, and a texture composed of fine crystalline facets, lying 
in all directions. The celebrated Arundelian marbles at Oxford consist of Parian 
marble, as does also the Medicean Venus. Pentelic marble, from Mount Penteles, near 
Athens, resembles the Pari^ui ; but is somewhat denser and finer grained, with occa- 
sional greenish zone.s produced by greenish talc, whence it is called by the Italians 
CipHino statuario. The Parthenon, Propyloeum, the Hippodrome, and other principal 
monumenis of Athens, were of Pentelic marble ; of which fine specimens may be seen 
amojag the Elgin collection, in the British Museum. Marmo Greco, or Greek white 
marble, is of a very lively snow-white colour, rather harder than the preceding, and 
susceptible of a very fine polish. Jt was obtained from several islands of the Archi' 



218 MARBLE 

pelago, as Scio, Samos, Lesbos, &c. Translucent white marble, Marmo statuario of the 
Italians, is very much like the Parian, only not so opaque. Columns and altars of 
this marble exist in Venice, and several towns of Lombardy ; but the quarries are 
quite unknown. Flexible white marble, of which five or six tables are preserved in 
the house of Prince Borghese, at Eome. The White tnarble of Luni, on the coast of 
Tuscany, was preferred by the Greek sculptors to both the Parian and Pentelic. 
White marble of Carrara, between Spezzia and Lucca, is of a fine white colour, but 
often traversed by grey veins, so that it is difficult to procure moderately large pieces 
free from them. It is not so apt to turn yellow as the Parian marble. This quarry 
was worked by the ancients, having been opened in the time of Julius Caesar. Many 
antique statues remain of this marble. Its two principal quarries at the present day 
are those of Pianello and Polvazzo. In the centre of its block very limpid rock 
crystals are sometimes found, which are called 'Carrara diamonds.' As the finest 
qualities are becoming exce.ssively rare, it has risen in price to about 3 guineas the 
cubic foot. The White marble of Mount Hymettus, in Greece, was not of a very pure 
white, but inclined a little to grey. The statue of Meleager, in the French Museum, 
is of this marble. 

Black antique marble, the Nero antico of the Italians. This is more intensely black 
than any of our modern marbles ; it is extremely scarce, occurring only in sculptured 
pieces. The red antique marble, Egyptum of the ancients, and Rosso antico of the 
Italians, is a beautiful marble of a deep blood-red colour, interspersed with white veins 
and with very minute white dots, as if strewed over with grains of sand. There is in 
the Grimani Palace at Venice a colossal statue of Marcus Agrippa in rosso antico, 
which was formerly preserved in the Pantheon at Rome. - Green antique marble, verde 
antico, is a kind of breccia, whoso paste is a mixture of talc and limestone, while the 
dark green fragments consist of serpentine. Very beautiful specimens of it are 
preserved at Parma. The best quality has a grass-green paste, with black spots of 
noble serpentine, but is never mingled with red spots. Bed spotted green antique 
marble has a dark green ground marked with small red and black spots, with frag- 
ments of entrochi changed into white marble. It is known only in small tablets. 
Leek marble ; a rare variety of that colour of which there is a table in the Mint at 
Paris. Marmo verde pagliocco is of a yellowish-green colour, and is found only in 
the ruins of ancient Eome. Cervelas marble, of a deep red, with numerous grey and 
white veins, is said to be found in Africa, and highly esteemed in commerce. Yellow 
antique marble, giallo antico of the Italians ; colour of the yolk of an egg, either uniform 
or marked with black or deep yellow rings. It is rare, but may be replaced by Sienna 
marble. Bed and white antique marbles, found only among the ruins of ancient Rome. 
Grand antique, a breccia marble, containing shells, consists of large fragments of a 
black marble, traversed by veins or lines of a shining white. There are four columns 
of it in the Museum at Paris. Antique Cipolino marble: Cipolin is a name given to 
all such marbles as have greenish zones produced by green talc ; their fracture is 
granular and shining, and displays here and there plates of talc. Purple antique 
breccia marble is very variable in the colour and size of its spots. Antiq^te African 
breccia has a black ground, variegated with large fragments of a greyish-white, deep 
red, or purplish wine colour ; and is one of the most beautiful marbles. Rose-coloured 
antique breccia marble is very scarce, occurring only in small tablets. There are 
various other kinds of ancient breccia, which it would be tedious to particularise. 

Modem Marbles. — 1. British. Black marble is found at Ashford, Matlock, 
and Bonsaldale in Derbyshire ; and in the south part of Devonshire. The variegated 
marbles of Devonshire are generally reddish, brownish, and greyish, variously veined 
with white and yellow, or the colours are often intimately blended ; the marbles from 
Torbay and Babbacombo display a great variety in the mixture of their colours ; the 
Plymouth marble is either ash-coloiirod with black veins, or blackish-grey and white 
shaded with black veins ; the cliffs near Marychurch exhibit marble quarries not only 
of great extent, but of superior beauty to any other in Devonshire, being either of a 
dove-coloured ground with reddish-purple and yellow veins, or of a black ground 
mottled with purplish globules. The green marble of Anglesea is not unlike the 
verde antico ; its colours being greenish-black, leek-groen, and sometimes dull purplish 
irregularly blended with white. The white part is limestone, the green shades proceed 
from serpentine and asbestos. There are several fine varieties of marble in Derby- 
shire ; the mottled-grey in the neighbourhood of Moneyash, the light-grey being 
rendered extremely beautiful by the number of purple veins which spread upon its 
polished surface in elegant irregular branches ; but its chief ornament is the multitude 
of entrochi with which this limestone marble abounds. Much of the transition and 
carboniferous limestone of Wales and Westmoreland is capable of being worked up 
into agreeable dark marbles. 

In Scotland a fine variety of white marble is found in beds at Assynt in Sutber- 



MARBLE 219 

landshire. A beautiful ash-grey marble, of a very uniform grain, and susceptible of 
a fihe polish, occurs on the north side of the ferry of Ballachulish in Invemessshirc. 
One of the most beautiful varieties is that from the hill of Belephetrich in Tiree, one 
of the Hebrides. Its colours are pale blood-red, light flesh-red, and reddish-white 
with dark-green particles of hornblende, or rather sahlite, diffused through the 
general base. The compact marble of lona is of a fine grain, a dull-white colour 
somewhat resembling pure compact felspar. It is said by Bournon to consist of an 
intimate mixture of tremolito and carbonate of lime, sometimes with yellowish or 
greenish-yellow spots. The carboniferous limestone of many of the coal-basins in 
the Lowlands of Scotland may be worked into a tolerably good marble for chimney- 
pieces. 

In Ireland the Kilkenny marble is the one best known, having a black ground more 
or less varied with white marks produced by fossils. The spar which occupies 
the place of the shells sometimes assumes a greenish-yellow colour. An exceedingly 
fine black marble has also been raised at Crayleath in the county of Down. At 
Louthlougher, in the county of Tipperary, a fine purple marble is found. The county 
of Kerry affords several variegated marbles not unlike the Kilkeuny ; and a fine red- 
dish marble is quarried in the county Cork. A serpentinous limestone in Connemara 
forms a prettily variegated green marble known as ' Irish green.' 

France possesses a great many marble quarries, which have been described by 
Brard, and of which a copious extract is given under the article Marble, Baes's 
Ci/dopcedia. 

The territory of Genoa furnishes several beautiful varieties of marble, the most 
remarkable of which is the pohevera di Genoa, called in French the vert ^Egypte 
and vert de mer. It is a mixture of granular limestone with a talcose and serpentine 
substance disposed in veins ; and it is sometimes mixed with a reddish body. This 
marble was formerly much employed in Italy, France, and England, for chimney- 
pieces, but its sombre appearance has put it out of fashion. Among the Genoese 
marbles we may notice the highly-esteemed variety called portor. on account of the 
brilliant yellow veins in a deep black ground. The most beautiful kind comes from 
Porto Venese ; and Louis XIV. caused a great deal of it to be worked up for the 
decoration of Versailles. It costs now 21, per cubic foot. 

Corsica possesses a good statuary marble, of a fine clcse grain, and pure milky- 
whiteness, quarried at Ornofrio ; it will bear comparison with that of Carrara : also a 
grey marble (bardigUo), a cipolin, and some other varieties. The island of Elba has 
immense quarries of a white marble with blackish-green veins. 

Among the innumerable varieties of Italian marbles, the following deserve especial 
notice : — 

The rovigio, a white marble found at Padua. The white marble of St. Julien, at 
Pisa, of which the cathedral and celebrated slanting tower are built. The Biancone 
marble, white with a tinge of grey, quarried at Magurega for altars and tombs. 
Near Mergozza a white marble with grey veins is found, with which the cathedral 
of Milan is built. The black marble of Bergamo is called faragone, from its black 
colour, like touchstone ; it has a pure, intense tint, and is susceptible of a fine polish. 
The pure black marble of Como is also much esteemed. The pclveroso of Pistoya is 
a black marble sprinkled with dots ; and the beautiful white marble with black spots, 
from the Lago Maggiore, has been employed for decorating the interior of many 
churches in the Milanese. The Margorre marble, found in several parts of the 
Milanese, is bluish veined with brown, and composes part of the dome of the cathe- 
dral of Milan. The green marble of Florence owes its colour to a copious admixture 
of serpentine. Another green marble, called verde di Prado, occurs in Tuscany, near 
the little town of Prado. It is marked with spots of a deeper green than the rest, 
passing even into blackish-blue. The beautiful Sienna marble, or brocatello di Siena, 
has a yellow colour like the yolk of an egg, which is disposed in large irregidar spote, 
surrounded"with veins of bluish-red, passing sometimes into purple. At Montarenti, 
two leagues from Sienna, another yellow marble is met with, which is traversed by 
black and purplish-black veins. The Brema marble is yellow, with white spots. 
The mandelatb of the Italians is a light-red marble with yellowish-white spots, found 
at Luggezzana, in the Veronese. The red marble of Verona is of a red rather in- 
clining to yellow or hyacinth ; a second variety, of a dark red, composes the vast 
amphitheatre of Verona. Auother marble is found near Verona, with largo white 
spots in a reddish and greenish paste : very fine columns have been made of it _ The 
occhio di pavone is an Italian shell-marble, in which the shells forms large orbicular 
spots, red, white, and bluish. A madreporic marble, known under the name of pietra 
stellaria, much employed in Italy, is entirely composed of star madrepores, converted 
into a grey-and-whito substance, and is susceptible of an excellent polish. The 
village of Bretonico, in the Veronese, furnishes a splendid breccia marble, composed 



220 MAELSTONE 

of yellow, steel-grey, and rose-coloured spots. That of Bergamo consists of black and 
grey fragments in a greenish cement. Florence marble, called also ruin and land- 
scape marble, is an indurated calcareous marl. 

Sicily abounds in marbles, the most valuable of which is that called by the English 
stone-cutters Sicilian jasper ; it is red, with large stripes like ribands, white, red, and 
sometimes green, which run zigzag with pretty acute angles. 

Of Cutting and Polishing Marble. — The marble-saw is a thin plate of soft iron, 
continually supplied during its sawing-motion with water and the sharpest sand. 
The sawing of moderate pieces is performed by band, but that of large slabs is most 
economically done by a proper mill. 

The first substance used in the polishing process is the sharpest sand, with which 
the marble must bo worked till the surface becomes perfectly flat. Then a second, 
and even a third sand of increasing fineness is to be applied. The next substance 
is emery of progressive degrees of fineness, after which tripoli is employed ; and the 
last polish is given with tin-putty. (See Puttt-Powdek.) The body with which 
the sand is rubbed into the marble is usually a plate of iron ; but for the subsequent 
process, a plate of lead is used with fine sand and emery. The polishing-rubbers are 
coarse linen cloths, or bagging, wedged tight into an iron planing-tool. In every step 
of the operation a constant trickling supply of water is required. 

MA.RCASXTE, or white iron pyrites, is of a pale bronze-yellow, or iron-grey 
colour, with a metallic lustre. It is a bisulphide of iron, composed of iron 46"7, sul- 
phur 63-3. Specific gravity 4-678 to 4-847. 

The mineral was formerly much used for various ornaments, as shoe- and knee- 
buckles, pins, bracelets, setting of watch-cases, &c. ; and, although the taste for it 
has considerably declined now, probably owing in some degree to its abundance, 
immense quantities are still cut and manufactured at Geneva and in the French Jura. 

The marcasite of commerce is generally small, rarely attaining the size of a stone 
of two carats. It takes a good polish, and is cut in facets like rose-diamonds. In 
this state it possesses all the bright blue of polished steel, without the tendency of 
the latter to become oxidised by exposure to the action of the atmosphere. It is prin- 
cipally procured from Germany and the Jura. — H. W. B. See Pteites. 

MARCASITB. Bismuth was formerly so called. See Bismtjth. 

nXARGiiRATZSS are saline compounds of margaric acid -with the bases. 

xaA&GARZC ACZn {Margarine) is one of the acid fats produced by saponify- 
ing tallow with alkaline matter, and decomposing the soap with dilute acid. The 
term margaric signifies pearly-looking. 

The physical properties of the margaric and stearic acids are very similar ; the chief 
difference is that the former is more fusible, melting at 140° Fahr. The readiest mode 
of obtaining pure margaric acid is to dissolve olive-oil soap in water, to pour into the 
solution a solution of neutral acetate of lead, to wash and dry the precipitate, and then 
to remove its oleato of lead by ether, which does not affect its margarate of lead. The 
residuum being decomposed by boiling-hct muriatic acid, affords margaric acid. When 
heated in a retort this acid boils. It is insoluble in water, very soluble in alcohol and 
ether ; it reddens litmus-paper, and decomposes, with the aid of heat, the carbonates 
of soda and potash. 

Margaric acid is obtained most easily by the distillation of stearic acid. The 
humidity at the beginning of the process must be expelled by a smart heat, otherwise 
explosive ebullitions are apt to occur. Whenever the ebullition becomes uniform, the 
fire is to be moderated. See Oir.s. 

IMCABXXTA. A name given to madder after it has undergone a peculiar treatment. 
See Crookes's ' Handbook of Dyeing.' 

IKCAazsrE ACZn. Hydrochloric acid was formerly so called because it could 
be obtained from sea-water. See HTDEOcmoHic Acid and Mtteiatic Acid. 

MARXXI'S METAZi. A name for AVetterstedt's alloy, which was introduced as 
a sheathing for ships. It consisted of lead 94*4, antimony 4-3, and mercury rs. It 
was said not to be attacked by sea-water, and to remain free from vegetable or animal 
growth. 

IKCAaZNE SAZiT. See Salt. 

MASJORAM. Tlio Origanum majorana, one of the Lahiata, is used as an 
aromatic lurb, and yields oil cj marjoram on distillation, 

XttAS& {Marnc, Fr. ; Mergel, Ger.) is a mixed earthy substance, consisting of 
carbonate of lime, clay, and siliceous sand, in very variable proportions ; it is 
sometimes compact, sometimes pulverulent. According to the predominance of 
one or other of these ingredients, marls are distributed into calcareous, clayey, and 
sandy. 

XMCA&^bSTOSars. One of the members of the Lias formation. The Clereland 
iron ore occurs in tlie marlstonc, or middle lias. Sec Lias, 



MAUVE 221 

MABMATXTEi A variety of blende, in irhich part of the dnc is replaced, 
sometimes by iron, and sometimes by cadmium. It is found at Marmato in Po^ 
payan. 

MABOOXr. A peculiar deep-red colour produced, according to Crookes (' Hand- 
book of Dyeing') in the following manner : — 

Boil 20 lbs. of cudbear, or 25 lbs. of orchil, and 4 ounces of magenta crystals, for 
ten minutes. Cool the dye to 175° Fahr. ; enter the wool; increase the temperature 
to 212° ; remove, riuse, and dry. 

JVXAROOIi. A vegetable fibre from the Sanseviera Zeylanica. See Fibres. 

XVXABQTrSTRir is a peculiar kind of cabinet-work, in -which the surfece of -wood 
is ornamented with inlaid pieces of various colours and forms. The marqueteur 
puts gold, silver, copper, tortoise-shell, mother-of-pearl, ivory, horn, &c., under con- 
tribuuon. These substances, being reduced to laminae of proper thinness, are cut 
out into the desired form by punches, which produce the full pattern or mould, and 
the empty one, which enclosed it ; and both serve their separate purposes. A 
mosaic wood-work was much practised in Italy in the fifteenth century which very 
much resembled marquetry. It was called Tarsia ( Tarsiatura, Ital.). The art was 
cultivated to the greatest extent in the Venetian territories, and was much employed 
in decorating the choirs of churches, the backs of seats, and the panels of doors. In 
Mrs. Merrifleld's ' Ancient- Practice of Painting' it is well described. See Tabsia; 

PAKQtTETBY. 

MARSH-GAS. Light carburetted hydrogen. This gas is the fire-damp of the 

coal-miner. See Fire-damp Indicator ; Ventilation. 

MARSH ROSEMARY. (Statica CaroliniancB.) This plant is found along the 
sea-coast in marshy situations from Maine to Florida. The root has been used for 
tanning. According to Professor Parrish, it contains 12 per cent, of tannin. 

MARTIAIi, Belonging to iron ; from Mars, the old name of this metal. 

MARTXU'S-YEKltO'W. A name sometimes applied to naphthaline yellow. 

MASSICOT. Yellow oxide of lead. The old name of litharge. See Litharge. 

MASTIC (Eng. and Fr. ; Matsix, Ger.) is a resin produced by making inci- 
sions in the Pistacla lentiscus, a tree cultivated in the Levant, and chiefly in the 
island of Chios. It comes to us in yello-w, brittle, transparent, rounded tears ; which 
soften between the teeth, with bitterish taste and aromatic smell, and a specific 
gravity of 07"1. Mastic consists of two resins; one soluble in dilute alcohol. Its 
solution in spirit of wine constitutes a good varnish. It dissolves also in turpentine. 
See Varnish. 

MASTIC CEMEITT. A mixture of lime, sand, litharge, and linseed-oil. 

MATCHES. See Lucifer Matches. 

MATRASS is a bottle -with a thin, egg-shaped bottom, much used for digestions 
in chemical researches. 

MATTE is a crude black copper, reduced, but not refined, from sulphur and other 
heterogeneous substances. A matte is simply a regulus, or fused sulphide. 

MAWE, or Ferkin's Violet. The earliest aniline colour introduced into com- 
merce has lost much of its importance. Kunge had previously called attention to 
the violet coloration produced on treating aniline with chromic acid or the hj-po- 
chlorites. In August 1856 Mr. Perkin patented his process for the production of a 
violet colouring-matter from aniline. See Aniline-Violet. 

Among the very large number of new methods proposed for the manufacture of 
tills dye, especially after the spring of the year 1859, we may notice the following : — 

Messrs. Depouilly and South's method, patented in June 1860, consisted in adding 
to a salt of aniline a solution of chloride of lime, which yielded a purple insoluble 
precipitate. This was repeatedly washed in slightly-acidulated water, dissolved in 
concentrated sulphuric acid, and re-precipitated by the addition of an excesssof water. 
It was then simply necessary to wash the precipitate thoroughly, in order to render it 
fit for use if dissolved in alcohol or methylated spirit. The chloride of lime process 
gives a more abundant yield than the bichromate method, but the" tone of the violets 
obtained is redder and less pure. We may here mention that Mr. W. H. Perkin lias 
lately succeeded in obtaining the product of Eunge's experiment in the solid condition. 
Ho finds that it dissolves in alcohol, forming a solution of a nearly pure blue colour, 
which is changed to a brownish-red by the action of caustic alkali ; it therefore differs 
essentially from the mauve ; an alcoholic solution of which, if treated with caustic 
alkali, passes from purple to violet. The blue product, which the author proposes to 
call ' Runge's blue,' undergoes a very remarkable change when subjected to the action 
of heat. It is rapidly converted into a purple colouring-matter, which is found to be 
the true mauve. Indeed, Runge's blue is so prone to change into the more stable 
mauve, that its composition cannot be satisfactorily determined. 

Mr. Kay, jn January 1860, took out a patent for producing purple-aniline— most 



822 IVIEATS, PRESERVED 

absurdly called ' hiirmaline ' — by adding to sulphate of aniline peroxide of manganese, 
and heating this mixture to lOO-* Fahr., when the 'harmaline' so produced remained 
in solution, and was separated from an insoluble deposit. The dissolved colour was 
precipitated by adding to the solution ammonia in sufficient quantity to neutralise the 
acid, after which the insoluble colour was washed, dried, and dissolved in methylated 
alcohol. 

In January 1860 Mr. Grenlle Williams patented the use of pennanganate of 
potassa as a means of oxidising aniline and producing purples and othet colours. 

At about the same time Dr. D. Price took out a patent for acting on sulphate of 
aniline by means of the peroxide of lead. 

In 1860 Dale and Caro patented the use of chloride of copper, in the proportion of 
six equivalents to one of a neutral salt of aniline. In place of chloride of copper, a 
mixture of sulphate of copper and common salt may be used in equivalent proportions. 
The quantity of water necessary to dissolve the mixture is added, and tlie whole is 
then boiled till a precipitate appears, which contains the colouring-matter. At the 
expiration of three or four hours the process is completed. The precipitate Is collected 
on a filter, and washed with a solution of soda or carbonate of soda so long as the 
washings contain chlorides. The residue is then extracted with boiling water, so 
long as anything dissolves. The solutions thus obtained are filtered, and precipitated 
with a small quantity of soda or carbonate of soda. The colour thus obtained is ready 
for use. The matter insoluble in boiling water still contains a violet, which may be 
extracted by treatment with boiling dilute alcohol in a displacement-apparatus. 

On January 12, 1861, another interesting process to. obtain aniline-purple was 
patented by M. A. Girard. Pure aniline-red (known as magenta) is mixed with an 
equal weight of aniline, and the mixture heated for several hours to 329° Fahr., when 
the mass is changed to a fine purple colour, requiring only to be mixed with water 
and hydrochloric acid to remove any aniline or red dye in excess, leanng the purple 
insoluble ; but, on being well washed with water, this becomes soluble in alcohol, 
acetic acid, wood-naphtha, and boiling water slightly acidulated with acetic acid. 

The French call this — Violet Imperial. See Aniline. 

MIAZ&AGE. The French name for a process identical with our Kefinery. 

MfiASOW-OSE is bog-iron ore. See Iron. 

mSASITRES, "WEIGHTS, and COXStS. See Weights and Measubes. 

MEATS, PRESERVED. The interest which has of late attached to the 
subject of such meats warrants us in bringing under examination the principles and 
practice on which this important branch of industry is based. The art itself is of 
modern invention, and differs in every respect from the old or common modes of pro- 
serving animal food. These, as is well known, depend upon the use of culinary salt, 
saltpetre, sugar, or similar substances. 

Our remarks will not apply solely to raw or uncooked meats ; but the practical 
bearing of meat-preserving really points to those which are, more or less, cooked or 
preserved. 

The first successful attempt at the preservation of unsalted meats is of French origin, 
and due to the inventive skill of M. Appert. This gentleman, so long ago as the year 
1810, received from the Board of Arts and Manufactures of Paris the sum of 12,000 
francs for his discovery of a mode of preserving animal and vegetable substances ; 
the results of which had been then amply attested by a prolonged experience in the 
French navy. Shortly after this period Appert induced a Mr. Durant to visit London, 
for the purpose of taking out a patent ; and this was accordingly done towards the 
end of the year 1811. In this patent, however, the claims were ridiculously wide ; so 
much so, that the patent-right was subsequently infringed with impunity. The claims 
included all kinds of fruit, moat, and vegetables, when subjected to the action of heat 
in closed vessels, more or less freed from air. As, however, the Society of Arts in 
London had presented in 1807 a premium to a Mr. J. Suddington, for 'a method of 
preserving fruit without sugar for house or sea stores ' — which method is exactly 
the same as that of M. Appert — the validity of Durant's patent was at once called 
in question. Nevertheless, so satisfactory were the results when applied to animal 
food, or- mixed provisions, that the patent was eventually purchased from Durant 
by Messrs. Donkin, Hall, and Gamble ; and the firm, thus established, became at once 
the sole manufacturers of preserved meats in this country. The process of Appert 
was. however, extremely defective in a manufacturing point of view. Nothing but 
glass bottles were to be used for containing the meats, and M. Appert remarks : ' I 
choose glass for this purpose, as being the most impenetrable to air, and have not 
ventured to make any experiment with a vessel made of any other substance.' Of 
course the fragility of this material, and the great difficulty of hermetically sealing 
the bottles with corks, threw impediments in the way of the process as a commercial 
undertaking. Nor was it until aft«r a long series of experiments that Messrs. Don- 



MEATS, PRESERVED 223 

kin, Hall, and Gamble 'were able to overcome the primary difiScnlties of this invention, 
and produce provisions successfully preserved in tin-plate vessels. 

The process of Appert certainly does not depend upon the exclusion of oxygen 
from the provisions he preserved, nor is this principle included in the improved process 
still practised by the firm of Gamble. Appert seems to have had a doubt as tx) the 
sufficiency of the oxygen theory, for he tells us that, ' fire has a peculiar property, not 
only of changing the combination of the constituent parts of vegetable and animal pro- 
ductions, but also of retarding, for many years at least, if not of destroying altogether, 
the natural tendency of these same products to decomposition.' And this opinion is con- 
firmed from many startling facts, which cannot be reconciled to the supposition that 
oxygen is the sole or even principal agent of decomposition. Thus milk, which has been 
merely scalded, will keep much longer from the effects of this process, even though freely 
exposed to, or purposely impregnated with, oxygen gas. Now the method of Appert, as 
improved by Gamble, is to render the albumen of the meat or the vegetable insoluble, 
and therefore scarcely if at all, susceptible of the action of atmosph«ric oxygen. By 
this means the total exclusion of air from the tin cases is rendered unnecessary, for 
even if a small quantity of air remain in the case, it will exert no more influence 
than happens to a piece of coagulated albumen, or hard boiled white-of-egg, which, 
as is well known, may be exposed to the air for years without sensible alteration, 
though in its uncoagulated state it immediately putrefies. It appears, therefore, 
that the essential characteristics of Gamble's process may be referred not to the 
exclusion of air, but to the thorough coagulation of the albumen. The heat employed 
also destroys all organic germs that may be present, and thus prevents their develop- 
ment. In this process, the meat, more or less cooked, is placed, with a quantity of 
gravy, in a tin vessel, capable of being hermetically sealed with solder ; it is then 
heated, for some time, in a bath of muriate of lime, and the aperture neatly soldered 
up. After this it is again exposed to the action of the heated bath for a period, which 
varies with the size and nature of the contents of the vessels ; and to prove that this 
latter operation is really the most important of the whole, it sometimes happens that 
cases which have begun to decompose are opened, resoldered, and again submitted to the 
muriate-of-lime batli, with the most perfect success, as regards the ultimate result. 

Although by no means free from occasional failures and certainly requiring im- 
provement, the system of Gamble has in practice worked well ; and provisions have 
been kept in this way, for a long period of years, without the slightest alteration 
in their particular qualities. 

Mr. Goldner, some few years ago, adopted the idea originally conceived by Sir 
Humphry Davy, of enclosing cooked provisions in a complete vacuum. For this 
purpose the provisions, slightly cooked on the surface, were enclosed in canisters, 
similar to those of Gamble, but stronger, and provided with a small opening in the 
cover. At this moment a slight condensation was effected by the application of a 
cold and damp rag or sponge, and simultaneously with this the small opening was 
soldered up. In theory, nothing could seem better adapted to insure success ; but, 
the practical working of the invention afforded anything but a satisfactory result. Nor 
is there much difficulty in conceiving how this may arise, as in the first place the ap- 
plication of a sudden heat to non-conducting materials, is almost certain to give rise 
to that peculiar condition by which the interior of the meat will be as thoroughly 
protected from the effect of heat as if no heat were applied. Hence, even though 
steam in abundance may issue from the small opening in the cover, this is no proof 
that the meat in the centre of the vessel is even warmed ; and still less does it 
warrent the supposition that the soluble albumen is thoroughly coagulated; and 
without which, as we have stated, preservation is scarcely possible. 

Bedwood's Process. — This process, invented by Professor Eedwood, consists in 
the immersion of fresh meat in melted paraffin, at a temperature of 240° Fahr. 
(115° Centigrade), for a sufficient time to -effect a concentration of the juices of the 
meat and the complete expulsion of air ; after which the meat, in its condensed state, 
is covered with an external coating of paraffin, by which air is excluded and de- 
composition prevented. 

The concentration of the juices may thus be carried to any required extent. If 
the meat is to be kept in hot climates its weight should be reduced by evaporation to 
about one-half, in which state it will contain all the nutriment of twice its weight of 
fresh meat, the portion driven off by evaporation consisting only of water. Thus 
prepared it will be fully cooked (by the heat applied in the process), and it may be 
eaten without further preparation, but it will also be applicable for the preparation 
of a variety of made-dishes, including stews, hashes, soiips. gra\nes, etc. For cold 
climates a less amount of heating Jind concentration will suffice, so that the meat 
may retain its original juic}' condition, and, when further cooked, present tho 
appearance, and possess all the characters, of fresh unpreserved meat. 







rittBAM 



■^1 







W^SES 




226 



MELTING POTS 



clay ; ^ burned-clay cement ; ^ coke-powder ; ^ pipe-clay. The pasty mass must be 
compressed in moulds. The Hessian crucibles from Great Almerode and Epterode 
are made from a fire-clay which contains a little iron, but no lime ; it is incorporated 
■with siliceous sand. The dough is compressed in a mould, dried and strongly kilned. 
They stand saline and leaden fluxes in assaying operations very well ; are rather 
porous on account of the coarseness of the sand, but are thereby less apt to crack 
from sudden heating or cooling. They molt under the fusing-point of bar-iron. 
Beaufay in Paris has lately succeeded in making a tolerable imitation of the Hessian 
crucibles with a fire-clay found near Namur in the Ardennes. 

Berthier has published the following elaborate analyses of several kinds of 
crucibles : — 









English 


St. Etienne 


Glass- 


Bohemian 


Gloss- 




Hessian 


Beaufay 


for cast 


for cast 


pots at 


glass- 


pots of 


Silica . 






steel 


steel 


Nemours 
67-4 


pots 


Creusot 


70-9 


64-6 


63-7 


65-2 


680 


680 


Alumina 


24-8 


33-4 


20-7 


25-0 


320 


290 


28-0 


Oxide of iron 


3-8 


1-0 


40 


7-2 


0-8 


2-2 


20 


Magnesia . 


trace 






trace 


trace 


0-6 


trace 


Water . 


... 


... 


10-3' 


... 


... 


... 


10 



Wurzur states the composition of the sand and clay in the Hessian crucibles 
as follows : — 

Clay; silica 10*1 ; alumina 65*4 ; oxides of iron and manganese 1-2 ; lime 0*3 ; water 23 
Sand; „ 95-6; „ 2-1; „ „ 1-5; „ 0-8 

The composition of some of the best varieties of fire-clay, as deduced from tho 
analyses of Berthier and Salvetat, is given in the following table : — 



Dried at 212° 


Great Almerode Hes- 
sian crucible-clay 


Beaufay's 
Department 
of Ardennes 


Brierley Hill, near 
Stourbridge 


Schierdorf, 

near 

Passau 


Berthier 


Salvetat 


Berthier 


Berthier 


Salvetat 


Salvetat 


Hygrometric water 
Combined water . 


15'2 


043 
14-00 


19-0 


10-3 


]7*34 


0-50 
16-50 


Silica . 


46-5 


47-50 


620 


63-7 


45-25 


45-79 


Alumina 


34-9 


34-37 


27-0 


20-7 


28-77 


2810 


Oxide of iron 


3-0 


1-24 


20 


4-0 


7-72 


6-55 


Lime . 


... 


0-50 


... 




0-47 


200 


Magnesia . 
Alkalis 


... 


1-00 
trace 


... 




... 


... 



Quoted from Knapp's ' Technology.' 

Mr. C. Cowper has analysed the clays used at Birmingham for glass-pots. His re- 
sults were as follow : — 



Silica .... 
Alumina 
Oxide of iron 
Carbonate of lime 

„ magnesia . 
Water. 

Total 


In the dry state 


In the ordinary state 


Best Stourbridge 
pot clay 


Clay from 
Monmouth 


Best Stonrbridge 
pot clay 


Clay from 
Monmouth 


70-6 

25-9 

20 

1-5 

trace 


80-1 

17-9 

1-0 

1-0 


63-3 

23-3 

1-8 

1-3 

trace 

100 


75-3 

16-8 

1-0 

0-9 

'6-0 


1000 


100-0 


1000 


100-0 



Black-lead crucibles are made of two parts of graphite and one of fire-clay, mixed 
■with water into a paste, pressed in moulds, and well dried, but not baked hard in the 

• This crnoible had been analysed before being baked in the kiln 




MERCURY 227 

kiln. They bear a higher heat than the Hessian crucibles, as well as sudden changes of 
temperature ; have a smooth surface, and are therefore preferred by themelters of gold 
and silver. This compound forms excellent small or portable furnaces. 

The crucibles from Passau or Ipser are made from one part plastic clay from 
Schildorf, and from two to three parts of an impure graphite, which, according to 
Berthier's analysis, consists of — 

Carbon . ........ 34 

Silica 41 

Alumina 15 

Oxide of iron 8 

Magnesia, water . 2 

100 

Berthier has examined the crucibles of different districts ; his results are as follow : — 



Crucibles from Gros Almerode 


SiUca 


Alumina 


Oxide of 
iron 


Magnesia 


70-9 


24-8 


3-8 




„ Paris .... 


64-6 


34-4 


1-0 




„ Saveignies (Beaufay's) 


72-3 


19-5 


3-9 




„ England (for steel) . 


710 


23-0 


40 




„ St. Etienne (for steel) 


65-2 


250 


7-2 




Glass pots from Nemours 


67-4 


320 


0-8 




„ Bohemia 


680 


290 


2-2 


0-5 



Mr. Anstey describes his patent process for making crucibles as follows : — Take 
two parts of fine-ground raw Stourbridge clay, and one part of the hardest gas-coke, 
previously pulverised, and sifted through a sieve of one-eighth of an inch mesh (if the 
coke is ground too fine, the pots are very apt to crack). Mix the ingredients together 
with the proper quantity of water, and tread the mass well. The pot is moulded by 
hand upon a wooden block, supported on a spindle which turns in a hole in the bench ; 
there is a gauge to regulate the thickness of the melting pot, and a cap of linen or cotton 
placed wet upon the core before the clay is applied, to prevent the clay from sticking 
partially to the core, in the taking-off ; the cap adheres to the pot only while wet, and 
may bo removed without trouble or hazard when dry. He employs a wooden bat to 
assist in moulding the pot; when moulded, it is carefully dried at a gentle heat. A 
pot dried as above, when wanted for use, is first warmed by the fire-side, and is then 
laid in the furnace with the mouth downwards (the red cokes being previously 
damped with cold ones in order to lessen the heat) ; more coke is then thrown in till 
the pot is covered, and it is now brought gradually to a red heat. The pot is next 
turned and fixed in a proper position in the surface, without being allowed to cool, 
and is then charged with cold iron, so that the metal, when melted, shall have its sur- 
face a little below the mouth of the pot. The iron is melted in about an hour and a 
half, and no flux or addition of any kind is made use of. A pot will last for fourteen 
or even eighteen successive meltings, provided it is not allowed to cool in the intervals ; 
but if it is cool, will probably crack. These pots, it is said, can bear a greater heat 
than others without softening, and will, consequently, deliver the metal in a more fluid 
state than the best Birmingham pots will. 

The Cornish crucible has been long known, and valued for all assaying purposes. 
They are prepared in large quantities for the ordinary assays made in the county, and 
are exported in considerable numbers. The base of these crucibles is the Poole and 
Stourbridge clay, which is mixed with a certain proportion of sand obtained itom 
St. Agnes, and ground pots. 

Dr. Percy has favoured us with his analysis of the Cornish crucible : — 

Silica 72-29 

Alumina ........ 25'32 

Peroxide of iron 1*07 

Lime 0"38 

Magnesia . . trace 

Potash 1-14 

MEXrACCAiriTE. An ore of titanium, found in the bed of a rivulet which flows 
into the valley of Menaccan in Cornwall. 

ZtSERCVRV, or Quicksilver. This metal is distinguished by its fluidity at com- 
mon temperatures ; its specific gravity=13'6; its silver-blue lustre; and its extreme 

o2 



228 MERCURY 

mobility. A cold of 39" below zero of Fahrenheit, or —40° Cent, is required for its 
congelation, in -which state its density is increased in the proportion of 10 to 9, or it 
becomes of specific gravity 150. At a temperature of d62° F. it boils and distils off in 
an elastic vapour of specific gravity 6*976, which, being condensed by cold, forms puri- 
rified mercury. 

Mercury combines with great readiness with gold, silver, zinc, tin, and bismuth, 
forming, in certain proportions, fluid solution of these metals. Such mercurial alloys 
are called amalgams. This property is extensively employed in many arts ; as in ex- 
tracting gold and silver from their ores ; in gilding, plating, making looking-glasses, 
&c. (See Amaixjam.) Humboldt estimates at 16,000 quintals, of 100 lbs. each, 
the quantity of mercury annually employed in the treatment of the ores of the mines 
of New Spain ; three-fourths of which came from European mines. 

The mercurial ores belong principally to the following four species : — 

1. Native quicksilver. — It occurs in most of the mines of the other mercurial ores, 
in the form of small drops attached to the rocks, or lodged in the crevices of other ores. 

2. Native silver amalgam. — It has a silver-white colour, and is more or less soft, 
according to the proportion which the mercury bears to the silver. Its density is 
sometimes so high as 14. A moderate heat dissipates the mercury, and leaves the 
silver. Klaproth states its constituents at silver 36, and mercury 64, in 100 ; but 
Cordier makes them to be, 27 i silver and 72 ^ mercury. It occurs crystallised in 
the cubic system. It has been found in the territory of Deux-Ponts ; at Rozenau and 
Niderstana, in Hungary, in a canton of Tyrol, at Sala in Sweden, at Kolyvan in 
Siberia, and at Allemont in Dauphiny ; in small quantity at Almaden in Spain, and at 
Idria in Carniola. In the rich silver mines of Arqueros, near Coquimbo, tiiis mineral 
occurs, having the composition, silver 8649, mercury 13"51. This is the arquerite of 
Domeyko. By the chemical union of the mercury with the silver, the amalgam, which 
should by calculation have a specific gravity of only 12"5, acquires that of 14"11. 
See Amalgam ; Aequerite. 

3. Sulphide of Mercury, commonly called Cinnabar, is a red mineral of various 
shades ; burning at the blowpipe with a blue flame, volatilising entirely ^^■ith the smell 
of burning sulphur, and giving a quicksilver coating to a plat« of copper held in the 
fumes. Even the powder of cinnabar rubbed on copper whitens it. Its density varies 
from 6"9 to 10-2. It becomes negatively electrical by fiiction. Analysed by Klaproth, 
it was found to consist of mercury 84"5, sulphur 14'7o. Its composition, viewed as a 
bisulphiu-et of mercury, is, mercury 86'2, sulphur 138. Its chief localities are Idria, 
in Carniola ; Almaden, in Spain ; and New Almaden, in California. It is found also 
at Wolfstein, in Ehenish Bavaria ; in Saxony, in the Hartz ; in Carinthia, Styria, 
Bohemia, Hungary, and Tuscany ; in the Ural and Altai ; in China, Japan, Queensland, 
Mexico, and Peru. See Cinnabae. 

A bituminous sulphide of mercury appears to be the base of the great exploration of 
Idria ; it is of a dark liver-red hue, and of a slaty texture, with straight or twisted 
plates. It exists in large masses in the bituminous schists of Idria. M. Berard 
mentions also the locality of Miinster-Appel, in the duchy of Deux-Ponts, where the 
ore includes impressions of fishes, curiously spotted with cinnabar. 

The compact variety of Idria ore seems very complex in composition, according 
to the following analysis of Klaproth : — Mercury, 81"8 ; sulphur, 13"75 ; carbon, 2"3 ; 
silica, 065 ; alumina, 0*55 ; oxide of iron, 0-20 ; copper, 002 ; water, 0'73 ; in 100 
parts. M. Berard mentions another variety from the Palatinate, which yields a large 
quantity of bitumen by distillation ; and it was present in all the specimens of these 
ores analysed by Dr. Ure for the German Mines Company. At Idiia and Almaden fl 
the sulphides are extremely rich in mercury. H 

4. Chloride of mercury, or Native Calomel, commonly called Horn-mercury. This 
mineral, which is very rare, occurs in very small crystals of a pearl-grey or greenish- 
grey colour, or in small nipples which stud, like crystals, the cavities, fissures, 
or geodes among the ferruginous gangues of the other ores of mercury. It is brittle, 
and entirely volatile at the blowpipe ; characters which distinguish it from horn 
silver. See Calomel. 

Ores of mercury are found in rocks of almost every geological age. At Almaden, 
in Spain, they occur in deposits at the contact of Silurian slates with a metamorphic 
rock locally called frayleaca. At Eipa, in Tuscany, the veins traverse mica-slate. 
The deposits at Deux»Ponts, or Zwcibrucken, in the Palatinate, are said to be in red 
sandstones of Permian age, and in the sechstcin, or magnesian limestone. At Idria, 
in Carniola, the ores are disseminated through shales and black compact limestones 
of the Jurassic period; and at New Almaden, in California, the rocks ccntaining the 
cinnabar belong to the Cretaceous period. Cinnabar is now in course of formation in 
some of the siliceous deposits thrown down from the hot springs of California and 
Nevada. 



I 




MERCURT 22ft 

Tho great mines of Idria in Frinli, in the county of Goritz, •were discovered in 
1497, aiid the principal ore mined there is the bituminous cinnabar. Tho workings 
of this mine have been pushed beyond the depth of 280 yards. The product in quick- 
silver might easily amount annually to 6,000 metrical quintals =600 tons British; but, 
in order to uphold the price of the metal, the Austrian Government has restricted the 
production to 160 tons. Tho memorable fire of 1803 was most disastrous to these 
mines. It was extinguished only by drowning all the underground workings. Tho 
sublimed mercury in this catastrophe occasioned diseases and nervous tremblings to 
more than 900 persons in the neighbourhood. 

The mines of Almaden according to Pliny supplied the Greek? with red cinnabar 700 
years before the Christian era ; and Eome, in his time, annually received 700,000 
pounds from the same mines. Since 1827, the Almaden mines have produced 22,000 
cwts. of mercui'y every year, with a corps of 700 miners and 200 smelters ; and, 
indeed, the veins are so extremely rich, that though they have been worked pretty 
constantly during so many centuries, the mines have hardly reached the depth of 
330 yards, or something less than 1,000 feet. The lode actually under exploration 
is from H to 16 yards thick, and it becomes thicker still at the crossing of the veins. 
The ores yield in their smelting works only 10 per cent, upon an average; but there 
is no doubt, that nearly one-half of the quicksilver is lost, and dispersed in the air, to 
the great injury of the workmen's health, in consequence of the barbarous apparatus 
of aludels employed in its sublimation ; an apparatus which has remained without 
any material change for the better since the days of the Moorish dominion in Spain. 
M. Lo Play, who published, in tho Anno.les dcs Mines, his Itinerairc to Almaden, says, 
that the mercurial contents of the ores are notahlement plus elevies than the product. 

These veins extend all the way from the town of Chillon to Almadenejos. Upon 
the borders of the streamlet Balde Alogues, a black slate is also mined which is abun- 
dantly impregnated with metallic mercury. 

These celebrated mines, near to which lie those of Las Cucbas and of Almadenejos, 
after having been the property of the religious knights of Ccdatrava, who had assisted 
in expelling the Moors, were farmed off to the celebrated Fugger merchants of 
Augsburg; and afterwards explored on account of tho government, from the date 
of 1645. Their produce was, till very lately, entirelj'^ appropriated to the treatment 
of the gold and silver ores of the New World. 

The mines of the Palatinate, situated on the left bank of the Ehine, though they 
do not approach in richness and importance to those of Idria and Almaden, merit, 
however, all the attention of the government that farms them out. They are nu- 
merous, and varied in geological position. Those of Drey-Konigszug, at Potzberg, 
near Kussel, deserve particular notice. The workings have reached a depth of more 
than 220 yards ; the oro being a sandstone strongly impregnated with sulphuret 
of mercury. The produce of these mines is estimated at about 30 tons per annum. 

There are also in Hungary, Bohemia, and several other parts of Germany, some 
inconsiderable mines of mercury, the total produce of which is valued at about 30 or 
40 tons on an average of several years. 

The mines of Huancavelica, in Peru, are tho more interesting, as their products are 
directly employed in treating the ores of gold and silver which abound in that portion 
of America. These quicksilver mines have been explored since 1570, the actual pro- 
duce of the explorations being, according to Helms, about the beginning of this 
century, from 170 to 180 tons per annum. 

In 1782 recourse was had by the South American miners to the mercury extracted 
in the province of Yun-nan, in China. 

The mercurial mines of California are thus described by Dr. Tobin : — 

' That part of California where I have been residing, and that which I have just 
visited, consists of three long ranges of trap mountains, with two wide valleys dividing 
them, the valley of the San Joaquin, and the valley of Santa Clara. Near this last 
place are the quicksilver mines of New Almaden, where I have been working. Tho 
matrix of the cinnabar ore is the same trap of which the mountain ranges are com 
posed, and as yet only one great deposit of this ore has been found, though traces 
of quicksilver ores have been discovered in other places. The ores are composed 
solely of sulphuret of mercury (averaging 36 per cent.), red oxido of iron, and sUica ; 
and, had the mine been properly worked from the commencement, almost any quan- 
tity of ore might be extracted ; it now, however, more resembles a gigantic rabbit- 
warren than a mine. Its greatest depth is about 160 feet, and the weekly extraction 
of ores varies from 100 to 150 tons. 16 cylinders are at work, producing 1,400 to 
1,600 lbs. daily. 

Mr. Kusscll Bartlott, the United States Commissioner on the Mexican and United 
States Boundary Question, who visited California in 1863, states that the quantity of 
quicksilver produced annually at New Almaden, exceeds 1,000,000 lbs. During the 



230 



MERCUEY 



year 1853 the total exports from San Francisco amounted to 1,350,000 lbs., valued at 
683,189 dollars. All this, together with the large amount used in California, was tho 
product of the New Almaden mine in the Santa Clara county, 12 miles from the town 
of San Jose,