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Dictionary of the Bible : 







Professor in the Union Theological Seminary. New York. 


SEP 21 1887'/] 



1122 Chestnut Street. 


Copyright, 1880 and 1885, by the American Sunday-School Union. 


This edition has been carefully revised and brought up to the latest bib- 
lical scholarship. Since the first edition was issued, five years ago, much 
progress has been made. The Revision of the New Testament appeared in 
1881, and the Kevision of the Old Testament has been completed. The 
"Palestine Exploration Fund" has published the final results of its scientific 
survey of Western Palestine in seven magnificent volumes and twenty-six 
sheet maps (London, 1881-84). Important discoveries have also been made 
in Egypt, the Sinnitic Peninsula, and in the East-Jordanic territory. 

These and other recent works on biblical literature and criticism have 
been consulted. Several geographical and topographical articles have been 
rewritten, and others revised. The Committee of the Palestine Exploration 
Fund kindly gave official authority for the use of all its researches, illustra- 
tions, and photographs. Of the biblical places now known in Western Pales- 
tine, "two-fifths are the discoveries of this survey." New sites or modifi- 
cations of former sites for over one hundred biblical places have been noted 
in this edition. Any Bible Dictionary based on knowledge attained ten or 
fifteen years ago must be behind the times in completeness and accuracy. 

By permission of Dr. H. Clay Trumbull, a new map of Sinai, based upon 
that in his Kadesh JBarnea (New York, 1884), has been inserted, and the 
maps of Palestine have been made to conform to the recent surveys west 
and east of the Jordan. 

In thus perfecting this Dictionary I have been aided in the geographical 
articles and the revision of maps by the Rev. Edwin W. Pice, D. D., and 
(for the East-Jordanic localities) by Dr. Selah Merrill, U. S. Consul in 

The Editor takes this opportunity to express his grateful acknowledgment 
for the signal favor with which this Dictionary has been received in this 
country and in Europe. Several translations have appeared or are in prep- 
aration, for which permission has been cheerfully granted by the American 
Sunday-School Union. 


Union Theological Seminary, New York, January, 1885. 


In this edition we have incorporated results of more recent archaeological 
researches and valuable corrections and suggestions of Rev. Dr. Elias Riggs 
of Constantinople, Prof. George E. Post, M. D., of Beirut, and Rev. Dr. 
Nystrom of Stockholm. Several articles have been rewritten and brought 
up to date. 


February, 1887. 


This Dictionary aims to be a useful companion in the study of the 
Scriptures by furnishing, in convenient alphabetical order and in popular 
form, the condensed results of the most recent investigations in biblical 
Literature, history, biography, geography, topography, and archaeology. 

The American Sunday-School Union first published a Bible Dictionary in 
1831 under the editorship of the late venerable Dr. Archibald Alexander, of 
the Theological Seminary at Princeton, which was revised by F. A. Packard, 
LL.D., in 1837, and again by the same in 1855. It served a good purpose 
in its day, but biblical learning has since made such vast progress that an 
entirely new work, with new illustrations and maps, was needed. 

I have been effectually aided in the preparation of this volume by several 
competent scholars. The Rev. S. M. Jackson and Mr. Clemens Petersen 
have devoted nearly two years' uninterrupted labor on it in my library, 
and prepared under my direction most of the historical, biographical, and 
archaeological articles; the Rev. Edwin W. Rice wrote the geographical 
and topographical articles, and supervised the selection and preparation 
of the illustrations and maps, crediting them to their proper sources; the 
Rev. W. P. Alcott has had charge of the department of natural history. 
The editor has also had the co-operation of the Rev. David Schley Schaff, 
the late Rev. Isaac Riley, the Rev. Moseley H. Williams, and S. Austin 
Allibone, LL.D., in otherwise perfecting the work. 

The full-page colored maps at the end of the Dictionary were prepared 
and engraved specially for it by the Messrs. W. & A. K. Johnston, of Edin- 
burgh, Scotland, whose reputation as geographers is a sufficient guarantee of 
the accuracy and scholarship of these important aids to the student. 

The multiplication of Bibles and Bible helps in our age and country is 
truly astonishing, and furnishes the best evidence of the divine origin and 
power of the Book of books. 


Union Theological Seminary, New York, 
April, 1880. 


[these will be found at the end of the volume.] 

1. Distribution of the Descendants of Noah after the Deluge. 

2. Canaan in Patriarchal Times. 

3. Egypt, Ancient and Modern. 

4. Sinai and the Route of the Israelites to Canaan. 

5. Canaan as Divided among the Twelve Tribes. 

6. Kingdom of David and Solomon, and the two Kingdoms of Israel and 


7. Lands of the Jewish Captivities, including the four great Empires 

on the Euphrates. 

8. Palestine in the Time of Christ. 

9. Journeys of St. Paul. 

10. Modern Palestine, showing its Physical Features. 

11. Environs of Jerusalem. 

12. Modern Jerusalem, indicating also its Ancient Divisions. 



Sketch-map of Abana and Pharpar 11 

Plan of Alexandria 39 

Sketch-map of Arabia . 61 

Sketch-map of Assyria and Mesopotamia 81 

Plan of Babylon 91 

Sketch-map of Canaan before the Conquest 156 

Sketch-map of Cyprus 212 

Sketch-map of Decapolis 226 

Sketch-map of Egypt 254 

Sketch-map of Route of the Exodus 294 

Sketch-map of Sea of Galilee . 320 

Sketch-map of Greece 317 

Plans of Ancient Jerusalem 447 

sourcks of the jordan 477 

Course of the Jordan from the Sea of Galilee to the Dead Sea . 478 

Map of Macedonia 534 

Sketch-map of St. Paul's Bay 560 

Sketch-map of Nineveh 613 

The Holy Land during the Monarchy (based on Smith and Grove) 646, 647 

The Salt or Dead Sea . . 753 

Outline-map of Mount Sinai 807 

Plans of the Temple-area 854 

Plan of Herod's Temple 856 

[An Index of Illustrations will be found at the end of the book.] 


1. Dictionaries and Concordances to the Original Languages. 

Wilhelm Gesenius : Hebrdisches u. Chalddisches-Handwbrlerbuch iiber das Alte Testament, 
8th revised ed., by Miihlau u. Volck (Leipzig, 1878), also his Thesaurus. Hebrew Lex- 
icon, translated from the Latin and edited by Edward Robinson (1854; 2nth ed , Pos- 
ton, 1872). A thorough revision on the basis of the last German ed. of Gesenius is in 
course of preparation (1886). 

Julius Fuerst : A Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon, translated by Samuel Davidson (4th ed., 
Leipzig and London, 1871). 

Edward Robinson: A Greek and English Lexicon of the New Testament (New York, 

C. L. W. Grimm: Lexicon Grceco-Latinum in Lihros Novi Teslamenti (2d ed. Leipzig, 1879); 
translated, revised, and enlarged by J. H. Thayer, D.L\ (4to, New York, 1886). 

Herrmann Cremer, Biblisch-Theologisches Worterbuch der Neuleslamenllichen Grdcildt (3d 
revised ed., Gotha, 1882); Engl, transl. hy YV. Urwick; Biblico- Greek Lexicon (Edin- 
burgh and New York, 1878). 

C. H. Bruder : Concordantice N T. Grceci (Lips., 1853). 

G. V. Wigram: The Englishman's Hebrew and Chaldee Concordance of the Old Testament (3d 
ed , London, 1866; 4 parts, 2 vols.); The Hebraist's Vade Mecum. (London, 1867); The 
Englishman's Greek Concordance of the Neiv Testament (nth ed., London, 1868). 

C. F. Hudson: A Critical Greek and English Concordance of the New Testament, revised and 
completed by Ezra Abbot (7th ed., Boston, 1883). 

Robert Young: Analytical Concordance to the Bible (Edinburgh, 1879; New York, 1881). 

Abr. Trommius : Concordantice Grcecce Versionis LXX. Inlerprelum (Amstel, 1718 ; 2 vols, 

William Henderson: Dictionary and Concordance of Scriptural Names (Edinburgh, 1869). 

2. General and Special Introduction to the Old and New Testaments. 

K. F. Keil: Einleitung in das A. Test. (Frankfurt. 2d ed.. 1859) : English transl. with Sup- 
plementary Notes, by Principal G. C. M. Douglas (Edinburgh, 1869; in 2 vols.). 

F. Bleek: Einleitung in's A. T (4th ed., Berlin, 1878) ; translated into English by G. H. 
Venables London, 1869; 2 vols.). By the same: Einleitung in's N. T. (3d ed., Berlin, 
1875); translated by Rev. VV. Urwick Edinburgh, 1870; 2 vols.). 

Ed. Reuss : Gesch. d. heil. Sch. N T. (5th ed. Braunschweig, 1874) ; Gesch d. heil. Schr. A. T. 

W. M. L. De Wette : Hislorisch-krilische Einleitung in die Bibel (8th ed., Berlin, 1869). 

E. H. Plumptre : The Bible Educator (London and New York, 1876-78; 4 vols.). 

E. C. Bissell : The Historic Origin of the Bible (New York, 1873). 

T. H. Horne, Introduction to the Holy Scriptures (14th ed., London, 1877, 4 vols.). 

3. Bible History and Theology. 

The Works of Philo and Josephus. 

Philip Schaff : History of the Apostolic Church (New York, 1853 ; new ed., 1880). 

Heinrich Ewald : Geschichte des Volkes Israel (3d ed., Gottingen, 1864-1868 ; 8 vols.); Eng- 
lish translation, History of Israel (London, 1S71-1876; 5 vols.) ; Life of Jesus Christ (Cam- 
bridge, 1865) ; Antiquities of Israel (London, 1876). 

Rabbi Raphall : Post-Biblical History of the Jews (New York, 1866 , 2 vols.). 

Conybeare and Ho w.sox : Life and Epistles of St. Paul (London, 1853; often reprinted). 

William Brown: The Tabernacle: Its Priests and Services. With diagrams, etc. (Edin- 
burgh, 1872). 

George Rawmnson: The Five Great Monarchies of the Eastern World (2d. ed., London and 
New York, 1873; 3 vols.). 

. . 5 


Thomas Lewin: The Life and Epistles of St. Paul (revised ed. ; London, 1875; 2 vols.). 
A. P. Stanley : History of the Jewish Church (London and New York, 1876 ; revised ed.. 
1880, 3 vols.). 

A. Edersheim : Jewish Social Life in the Bays of Christ (London, 1876). 

F. W. Farrar: Life and Epistles of St. Paul (London and New York, 1879; 2 vols.). 
C. F. Schmid: Biblische Theologie des Neuen Testaments (Stuttgart, 1853). 

G. F. Oehler : Theologie des Alien Testament (Tiibingen, 1863 ; Engl, transl., Edinb., and 

as revised by Dr. Day, N. Y., 1884). 
H. Schultz: Theologie des Allen Testament (Frankfurt; 2d ed., rewritten, 1878). 
J. J. Van Oosterzee: Theology of the Neiv Testament (London, 1870). 
Paul Scholz: Gbtzendiensl u. Zauberwesen bei den alien Hebrdern (Regensburg, 1877). 

B. Weiss: Biblical Theology of the New Testament (Engl, transl. of the 3d ed., London, 

1882-83, 2 vols.). 

Jf,. Bible Lands, especially Palestine. 

Hadrian Reland (professor in Utrecht ; died 1718) : Palestina ex monumentis veieribus 

illustrata (Traj., 1714; 2 vols.). 
H. Maundrell : Aleppo to Jerusalem, and Cairo to Mount Sinai, by Rt. Rev. R. Clayton 

(Loudon, 1810). 
A. H. Layard : Nineveh and its Remains (London, 1849 ; 2 vols.). 
Edward Robinson (professor in Union Theological Seminary, New York; died 1863): 

Biblical Researches in Palestine and the adjacent Regions: A Journal of Travels in the 

Years 1838 and 1852, by E. Robinson and Eli Smith (new ed., Boston, 1856; 3 vols. 

Published sinniltaneouslv in America, England, and Germany); Physical Geography 

of the Holy Land (New York, 1865). 
W. M. Thomson (American missionary in Beirut): The Land and the Book (Edinburgh 

and New York, 1859; 2 vols. A new and enlarged edition in 3 vols., with superior 

illustrations, New York, 1880, sqq.). 

John Wilson : The Lands of the Bible (Edinburgh, 1845; 2 vols.). 

Carl Ritter (who made thorough and comprehensive studies of the subject, although 
he never visited the country): Vergleichende Erdkunde der Sinai-Halbinsel, von Pales/ina 
und Syrien (Berlin, 1848-55, 4 vols.)'. Parts 14-17 of the second edition of the author's 
great'work, Die Erdkunde. Abridged translation by W. L. Gage (New York and Lon- 
don, 1866; 4 vols.). 

W. F. Lynch : Exploration of the Jordan and the Dead Sea (U. S. Expedition). (Philadel- 
phia, 1849.) 

Carl von Raumer: Paldstina (Leipzig, 1835; 4th ed., 1860). 

Arthur P. Stanley: Sinai and Palestine (London, 1853; revised, 1883). 

Edouard Naville : The Store City of Pilhom and Route of the Exodus. 13 maps (Trubner 

& Co., London, 1885). 
H. B. Tristram (Canon of Durham) : The Land of Israel (with special reference to its 

physical features) (London, 1865; 3d ed., 1876) ; Bible Places: or, The Topography of 

the Holy Land (London, 1871 ; new ed. 1875) ; The Land of Moab (London, 1873). 
J. Macgregor : Rob Roy on the Jordan (London and New York, 1870). 
E. H. Palmer : The Desert of the Exodus (Cambridge, 1871, 2 vols. ; N. Y., 1872, 1 vol.). 
J. L. Porter: Giant Cities of Bashan (New York, 1873). 
George Smith: Assyrian Discoveries (New York, 1875). 
H. J. Van Lennep: Bible Lands : their Modern Customs and Manners illustrative of Scripture 

(New York, 1875). 

C. R. Conder: Tent-Work in Palestine (London and New York, 1878 ; 2 vols.). 

Philip Schaff : Through Bible Lands : Notes of Travel in Egypt, the Desert, and Palestine 
(New York and London, 1878; revised and enlarged, London ed., 1880). 

J. G. Wilkinson: Maimers and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians. New ed. ; revised by 
Samuel Birch. LL.D. ( London, 1878; 3 vols.). 

E. W. Lane : Manners and Customs of the Modern Egyptians (London, 1836 ; 5th ed., 1871). 

S. C. Bartlett: From Egypt to Palestine (New York, 1879). 

G. Schumacher: Across the Jordan (Bentley & Son, London, 1886). 


British Palestine Exploration Fund: Quarterly Statements (London, 1868, sqq.) ; Our 
Work in Palestine (London, 1875) ; Maps and Memoirs (1880-1884, 8 vols). 

American Palestine Exploration Society: Occasional Reports (New York, 1872, sqq.). 

Deutscher Palestina-Verein : ZeLschrift (Leipzig, 1878, sqq.). 

J. L. Porter: Handbook for Travellers in Syria and Palestine (London, Murray, 1875). 

K. Baedeker : Palestine, and Syria. Handbook for Travellers (Leipzig, 1876 ; 'id (iermau ed.> 
levised and enlarged, 1880). By the same: Egypt and Sinai (Leipzig, 1878). 

M. E. Brcgsch : La Trouvaille de Deir-El-Bahari Vingt Photographies ; Texle par G. Mas- 
pern, d' Antiquities Directeur General aes Musees d'Egypte, Le Caire, Irnprimerie Fran- 
caise, F. Monres et O, 1881. 

Georg Ebers : Durch Gosen sum Sinai (2d ed., Leipzig, 1881). 

Selah MERRILL : East of the Jordan, 1 1 vol., N. Y., 1881). 

H. C. Trumbull: Aadesli-barnea (New York, 1884; 1 vol). 

5. Topography of Jerusalem. 

George Williams : The Holy City (2d ed., London, 1849; 2 vols.). 

Dr. Titus Tobler (a Swiss physician and very accurate archaeologist ; died 1877): Topo- 
graphic von Jerusalem (Berliu, 1854; 2 vols.). 

J. T. Barclay, M. D. : The City of the Great King; or, Jerusalem as it Was, as it Is, and as 
it Is to Be (Philadelphia, 1858). 

E. Pierotti : Jerusalem Explored. Trans, by Bonney (London, 1864 ; 2 vols, quarto. The 
second vol. contains plates). 

The Recovery of Jerusalem (London and New York, 1871). Contains the reports and 
journals of Captains Wilson and Warren, etc., relating to the recent excavations of 
the Palestine Exploration Fund during the preceding three years; with an Introduc- 
tion by Dean Stanley. 

Walter Besant and E. H. Palmer : Jerusalem, the City of Herod and Saladin (London, 

Charles Warren (captain of Royal Engineers ; late in charge of the explorations in the 
Holy Land): Underground Jerusalem (London, 1876). 

Dr. Carl Zimmermann : Karten und Plane zur Topographie des Allen Jerusalems (Basel, 

Bernhard Neumann (a Jewish physician who resided in Jerusalem fifteen years) : Die 
heilige Stadt und deren Bewohner (Hamburg, 1877). Instructive for modern Jerusalem. 

6. Bible Maps. 

Samuel Clark : Biblical Atlas. Index of geographical names by George Grove (quarto : 
London, 1868). 

William Smith: Atlas of Ancient Geography, Biblical and Classical. Edited by William 
Suiith, D. C. L., LL.D., and George Grove (folio; London, 1874). 

Palestine Exp. Fund : Maps of Western Palestine (26 sheets, 1880) ; Map of Eastern Pal- 
estine (1887). 

7. Natural History and Mineralogy of the Bible. 
Petrus Forskal: Flora Mgypliaco-Arabica (Havnise [Copenhagen], 1775). 
C. W. King: Antique Gems and Rings (London , 1860). 
S. Tenney : Natural History of Animals (New York, 1865). 
H. B. Tristram : Natural History of the Bible (London and New York, 1867). 
J. D. Dana, LL.D. : A System of Mineralogy (New York, 1869). 
J. G. Wood : Bible Animals (London, 1869). 
E. Loomis, M. D. : A Treatise on Meteorology (New York, 1872). 
J. T. Moggridge: Harvesting- Ants (London, 1873). 
Edmond Boissier: Flora Orientalis (Basle: now issuing). 
J. G. Wood: Animal Kingdom (London and Boston, 1870). 

Bohn's Naturalises Library. Edited by Sir William Jardine, F. R. S. E., etc. (Edinburgh 
and London, 1858, sqq.; 40 vols.). 

CasselVs Natural History. Edited by Dr. P. M. Duncan, F. R. S. (London and New York, 



8. History of the English Bible. 

B. F. Westcott: History of the English Bible (London, 1868). 
John Eadie : History of the English Bible (London, 1876 ; 2 vols.). 

W. F. Moulton : History of the English Bible (London, Paris, and New York). 
John Stoughton : Our English Bible (London, 1878). 
H. Stevens : The Bibles in the Caxlon Exhibition (London, 1878). 
J. I. Mombert : Handbook of the English Versions (N. Y. and London, 1883). 
P. Schaff : Companion to the Greek Text and the English Version (N. Y. and London, 1883 ; 
revised ed., 1884). 

9, Commentaries. 
J. P. Lange: Commentary on Old and New Testaments (Anglo-American edition, New 

York and Edinburgh, 1864-80, 25 vols. ; new ed., 1884). 
The Bible (Speakers) Commentary (Loudon and New York, 1871-82; 10 vols.). Edited 

by Canon F. C. Cook. 
H. A. W. Meyer : Commentary on the Neiv Testament (Engl, transl., Edinburgh, 1873-82, 

20 vols. ; partly republ. with additions, N. Y., 1881, sqq.). 

C. J. Ellicott: New Testament Commentary for English Readers (London, 1878; 3 vols.). 

J. B. Lightfoot: Commentary on the Epistle to the Galatians (6th ed., London, 1880) ; Com- 
mentary on the Epistle to the Philippians (3d ed., Loudon, 1873); Commentary on the 
Ep>stle to the Co/ossians, Philemon (London. 1875). 

Philip Schaff: Popular Illustrated Commentary on the New Testament (New York and 
Edinb., 1879-83, 4 vols.). Also since 1882 in small vols, under title of International 
Revision Commentary. 

A number of other commentaries, German and English, on the Old and New Testa- 
ments, have been used more or less. Among these the German commentaries of 
Keil and DeUlzsch, translated in Clark's Library, and the Scotch of Jamieson, Fausset, 
and Brown, deserve mention. 

10. Biblical Cyclopaedias. 


William Smith: Dictionary of the Bible (London, 1863, 3 vols.). . Am. ed. complete, with 
a number of original contributions and bibliographical supplements by Prof. H. B. 
Hackett, D. D., and Ezra Abbot, LL.D. (New York, 1868-70 ; 4 vols.). 

J. Kitto : Cyclopaedia of Biblical Literature. 3d ed. by W. L. Alexander, P. D., of Edin- 
burgh (London and Philadelphia, 1866, 3 vols.). 

P. Fairbairn: The Imperial Bible Dictionary, Illustrated (Edinburgh. 1867 ; 2 vols.). 

M'Clintock and Strong : Cyclopaedia of Biblical Theology and Ecclesiastical Literature 
(New York, 1867-81; 10 vols. ; 3 vols, of supplements). 

J. Ayre : The Treasury of Bible Knowledge (new ed. London, 1870). 

Potter's Bible Encyclopaedia. Edited by W. Blackwood, D.D., LL.D. (Philadelphia, 1876 ; 
2 vols.). 

A. R. Fausset : The Englishman's Bible Cyclopaedia (London, 1878). 

Schaff-Herzog : Encyclopaedia of Religious Knowledge (N. Y., 1882-84 ; 3 vols.). 


G. B. Winer : Biblisches Realworterbuch (3d ed., Leipzig, 1849 ; 2 vols.). 

H. Zeller (with Fronmiiller, Hainlon, Klaiber, Leyrer, Merz, D. Volter, L. Volter, Wnn- 
derlich, etc.) : Biblisches Worterbuch fiir das chris'tliche Volk (2d ed., Gotha, 1866; 2 vols.X 

D. Schenkel (in connection with Brnch, Diestel, Dillmann, Fritzsche, Gass, Graf. Hans- 
rath, Hitzie, Holtzmann, Keim, Linsins, Mangold, Merx, Noeldeke, Reuss, Boskoft', 
Schrader, Schwarz, Schweizer): Bibel-Lexikon (Leipzig, 1869-75 : 5 vols.). 

Ed. G. Aug. Riehm (aided by G. Baur, BeyscMaa:, Delitzsch, Eners. Kamphansen, Kleinert, 
Schlottmann, Schrader, Schiirer) : Handworterbuch des Biblischen Altertums. With 
many illustrations (Bielefeld and Leipzig, 1875, sqq.). 

Herzog and Plitt: Real-Encyklopaediefiir Protest. Theologie vnd Kirche. (New ed., Leip- 
zig, 1876, sqq. To be completed in 15 vols. The first edition had 22 vols.). 


Dictionary of the Holy Bible. 

the first and the last letters of the Greek 
alphabet, are four times used by Christ, 
Rev. 1 : 8, 11 [omitted in oldest MSS.] ; 
21 : 6 ; 22: 13, just as the phrase " The 
first and .... the last" is used by Jeho- 
vah, Isa. 41 : 4 : 44 : 6, to express the idea 
of eternity, and also of divine causality. 
The Church very early adopted these 
two letters as a symbol of the eternal 
divinity of our Lord, and used it exten- I 
sively on monuments of every description, 
sometimes alone, but more frequently in 
connection with the cross and the mono- 
gram of Christ in its various forms, as 



AA'RON (mountaineer, or more prob- 
ably, from another root, enlightened), the 
first high priest of the Jews; eldest son 
of Amram, the grandson, and Jochebed, 
the daughter, of Levi ; brother of Mir- 
iam, who was several years older, and 
of Moses, who was three years vounger. 
Ex. 6 : 20: cf. 2:1, 4; 7": 7 ; Num. 26: 
59. The family of Aaron belonged to the 
Kohathite branch of the tribe of Levi, 
the most numerous and powerful. This 
gave them prominence, so that the lead- 
ership naturally fe.l to them. When first 
mentioned he is called, Ex. 4 : 14, the 
"Levite," which implies that he was a 
recognized leader in his tribe, and, as 
the first-born son, he would be the 
priest of the household. Aaron's wife 
was Elisheba, daughter of the prince of 
Judah, and he had four sons, Nadab, 
Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar. Ex. 6 : 
23. The greater portion of his life is 
passed over in silence by the Bible 
writers, and he was eighty-three years 
old before he is introduced to us. Moses 


had timidly declined to be the leader of 
his people out of captivity, and had as- 
signed as a reason that he was "slow of 
speech and of a slow tongue," Ex. 4:10; 
whereupon God tells him that Aaron, 
his brother, was coming toward him, 
evidently under divine direction, and 
that he would act as his mouthpiece, 
because he possessed in a high degree 
popular gifts of speech and argument. 

Thus brought together, and under- 
standing their respective functions, the 
brothers started for the court of Pha- 
raoh, and from that time on Aaron 
played a very prominent part in the 
drama of Israel's deliverance. Side by 
side Moses and Aaron stand before the 
Lord, before Pharaoh, before the en- 
raged elders of Israel. Furnished with 
words, Aaron utters them in these 
several presences, works miracles, and 
evinces courage. His work was by no 
means easy, but he carried it on suc- 

On the way to Sinai the battle with 
Amalek was fought, and Aaron joins 
Hur in holding up the weary arms of 
Moses. Ex. 17 : 9, 13. With his two 
sons. Nadab and Abihu, and seventy 
of the elders of Israel, he and Moses 
saw the Lord. Ex. 24. But when Moses 
was not with him, then he showed him- 
self weak, and it will always be told, to 
his discredit, that he made the golden 
calf — not, indeed, as a substitute for 
Jehovah, but rather as a concession. 
He proclaimed a feast to the Lord, but 
the people ran into great excesses, and 
as Moses was descending from the 
mount it was the noise of the dancing 
and music which so raised his anger. 
Ex. 32. Notwithstanding this griev- 
ous sin Aaron and his sons were con- 
secrated as the first priests of the Israel- 



ites. Ex. 40: 12-15: cf. Ex. 28 ; Lev. 8. 

See Priest. He was forbidden to mourn 
for his sons, Nadab and Abihu, who were 
destroyed for offering strange fire. Lev. 
10. Miriam, becoming jealous of Moses' 
wife, probably because her influence was 
weakened, induced Aaron to murmur 
against Moses on the ground that he 
assumed too much authority. Aaron 
deeply repented when rebuked, and 
joined with Moses in a prayer for Mir- 
iam's recovery. Num. 12. See Miriam. 
Twenty years later the Lord interposed 
to vindicate Aaron's authority against 
Korah and his company, and by a mir- 
acle, the budding rod, confirmed the orig- 
inal choice. Num. 16, 17. The plague 
which broke out was stopped by Aaron's 
atonement. He stood between the liv- 
ing and the dead. 

Aaron fell under the influence of 
whichever strong nature was nearest 
to his at the time. So he was carried 
away by Moses into sin at the waters 
of Meribah, and in punishment they 
were both kept out of the Promised 
Land. Aaron died first, upon Mount 
Hor, from whence he could obtain a 
distant view of Palestine, and there, 
in the presence of Moses, who stripped 
him of his priestly garments and put 
thern upon Aaron's son, Eleazar, the 
first high priest, who for nearly forty 
years had discharged his sacred office, 
in spite of his faults thus highly ex- 
alted, fell, at the age of one hundred 
and twenty-three, under the dominion 
of the universal conqueror, and was 
buried upon the mountain. Num. 20 : 
23-29. A Mohammedan mosque marks 
the supposed grave of Aaron, on one 
of the two tops of Mount Hor, which 
is near Petra, in the desert. See Hor, 

Aaron is called the "saint of the 
Lord " with reference to his official 
character, Ps. 106 : 16, but, as the most 
superficial study of his life shows, he 
was far from perfect. He was a better 
servant than master. He was weak in 
command, but faithful in duty. He 
yielded like wax to the impressions of 
the moment. Yet it may readily be 
believed that the people loved him, 
perhaps more than Moses, and that 
the mourning over his death, which 
lasted thirty days, Num. 20 : 28, was 
sincere. One of the fasts of later Ju- 

daism was one in his memory, held 
on the first day of the fifth month, 
Ab, our July or August. 

The Jewish priesthood began in the 
family of Aaron and remained its posses- 
sion, though not uninterruptedly, in the 
line of Eleazar; it passed into the family 
of Ithamar, the brother of Eleazar, in the 
person of Eli ; but, in consequence of the 
excesses of Eli's sons, God declared that 
it should be taken from his family, 1 Sam. 
2 : 30, and this prophecy was fulfilled in 
the time of Solomon, who took the priest- 
hood from Abiatbar and restored it to 
Zadok, of the line of Eleazar. 1 Kgs. 
o . 97 

AARONITES. 1 Chr. 12 : 27. 
Levites of the family of Aaron : the 
priests who served the sanctuary. Elea- 
zar, Aaron's son, was their chief. Num. 

AB. See Month. 

ABADDON {destruction), the He- 
brew name for the angel of the bottom- 
less pit, and answering to the Greek 
name Apollyon.fAe destroyer. Rev. 9 : 11. 

ABAG'THA (derivation doubtful; 
probably God-given), one of the seven 
chamberlains of the court of Ahasuerus. 
Esth. 1-10. 

AB'ANA {stony), a river of Da- 
mascus, 2 Kgs. 5 : 12, and supposed 
to be identical with the Amana of 
Song Sol. 4 : 8. Probably the mod- 
ern Barada, which the Greeks called 
the Chrysorrhoas [golden stream). It 
rises in the mountains of Anti-Libanus, 
about 23 miles N. W. of Damascus, runs 
through the city in several streams or 
canals, thence across the plain, and 18 
miles east of Damascus falls by several 
branches into the marshy Bahret-el- 
Kibliyeh, or so-called "Meadow Lakes." 
The river is a clear, limpid, copious, and 
perennial stream, and is the chief source 
of the fertility of the plain of Damascus, 
making it a garden in the desert. It 
falls 1149 feet, and waters 800 square 
miles of territory containing about 14. 

AB'ARIM {mountains beyond, or of 
the fords), a range of mountains east 
of the river Jordan, in the land of Moab, 
opposite Jericho. Num. 27:12; 33: 
47; Deut. 32 : 49. Nebo, Peor, and 
Pisgah belong to this range. In Jer. 
22 : 20 the word is translated " pas- 
sages." Ije-abarim in Num. 21 : 11 



Sketch-Map of the Abana and Pharpar Rivers. 

means heaps or ruins of Abarim, and 
was near the same range. 

ABBA, the Chaldee form of the 
Hebrew word ab, signifying father. Ap- 
plied to God in the New Testament by 
Christ, Mark 14 : 36, and by Paul, Rom. 
8 : 15; Gal. 4 : 6. The syllable ab, in 
the sense of "possessed of," "endowed 
with," frequently occurs in the compo- 
sition of Hebrew proper names; e. g. 
Abner, Absalom. 

AB'DA {servant, Chaldee form). 1. 
Father of Adoniram. 1 Kgs. 4 : 6. 

2. Son of Shammua, Xeh. 11 : 17 ; called 
Obadiah in 1 Chr. 9 : 16. 

ABDEEL {servant of God), father 
of Shelemiah. Jer. 36 : 26. 

AB'DI {my servant). 1. A Merarite 
Levite, and ancestor of Ethan the singer. 
1 Chr. 6 : 41. 

2. A Levite of the same family, father 
of Kish. 2 Chr. 29 : 12. 

3. One of the sons of Elam, who had 
taken a foreign wife. Ezr. 10 : 26. 

AB'DIEL {servant of God), a chief 
of Gad. 1 Chr. 5 : 15. 

AB'DON(»«n:i7e). 1. An Ephraim- 
ite who judged Israel, Jud. 12 : 13-15; 
perhaps the same with Bedan of 1 Sam. 
12: 11. 

2. A Benjamite, son of Shashak. 
1 Chr. 8 : 23. 

3. A Benjamite, son of Jehiel, of Gib- 
eon. 1 Chr. 8:30; 9 : 36. 

4. A son of Micah, one of Josiah's 
officers, 2 Chr. 34 : 20 ; called Achbor. 
2 Kgs. 22 : 12, 14. 

AB'DON {servile), a city in the 
territory of Asher, assigned to the Le- 
vites. Josh. 21 : 30 ; 1 Chr. 6 : 74. It 
may be located at the modern Abdeh, 
ruins 10 miles N. E. of Accho. 

ABED-NEGO {servant of Nego, 
perhaps the same as Nebo, the Chal- 
dean name of the planet Mercury, who 
was worshipped as the scribe and inter- 
preter of the gods), the Chaldee name 
given by an officer of the king of Baby- 
lon to Azariah, one of the four youths 
mentioned in the book of Daniel who were 
taken captive at Jerusalem, B. c. 604, and 
carried to Babylon, where they were 
trained for the royal service. Dan. 1 : 7. 
The names of the others were likewise 
changed. Daniel was called Belteshaz- 
zar ; Hananiah, Shadrach ; and Mishael, 
Meshach. Daniel, promoted in conse- 
quence of his interpretation of the king's 
dream, secured positions for his three 
companions. These three are immortal 
because on the occasion of the dedica- 
tion of a golden image by Nebuchad- 
nezzar they refused to bow down and 
worship it. Accordingly, they were cast 
into a burning fiery furnace, from which 
they were miraculously delivered un- 
scathed. Dan. 3. See Daniel. 

ABEL (Heb. Hebel—i. e. breath, 



vapor), the second son of Adam and 
Eve, so called perhaps from the fleeting 
character of his life, or because, since 
Cain was not the promised seed, as Eve 
expected at his birth, life itself seemed 
of little worth; it was but "a vapour, 
that appeareth for a little time, and 
then vanisheth away." Gen. 4 : 2. He 
was a keeper or feeder of sheep, and in 
process of time brought of the firstlings 
or first-fruits of his flock an offering 
unto the Lord. God accepted his offer- 
ing and gave him evidence of it. Heb. 
11 : 4. Not so with Cain. Either his 
sacrifice, or the manner of presenting 
it, offended God, and the offering was 
rejected. 1 John 3 : 12. Cain, exceed- 
ingly angry, and filled with envy, 
embraced an opportunity when they 
were in the field together to take his 
brother's life. Gen. 4. 

Our Saviour distinguishes Abel by 
the title "righteous." Matt. 23:35. 
He is also one of the faithful "elders" 
mentioned in the Epistle to the Hebrews, 
ch. 11, and is justly called the first 

A'BEL (meadow), a prefix in the 
names of several places, as below. 

A'BEL, of the vineyards, see mar- 
gin, Jud. 11 : 33, or "plain of the vine- 
yards," as the text reads, was a place 
east of the Jordan, perhaps the present 
Merj Elckeh. 


MA'ACHAH {meadow of the house 
of oppression), a town in the north of 
.Paiesdne^^ near Cesarea Philippi, the 
modern Abl, a village and ruin on a 
stream about 7 miles west of Banias. 
It was attacked by Joab, 2 Sam. 20 : 
14, 1 5 ; by Benhadacl, 1 Kgs. 15 : 20 ; and 
bv Tiglath-pileser. 2 Kgs. 15 : 29. 

ABEL-MAIM (meadow of wa- 
ters), another name for Abel-Beth- 
Maachah. 2 Chr. 16 : 4. 

A'BEL-MEHO'LAH (meadow 
of the dance), a place in the Jordan val- 
ley between the Sea of Galilee and the 
Dead Sea. 1 Kgs. 4 : 12. Gideon 

Pursued the Midianites near it, Jud. 
: 22 ; and it was the home of Elisha. 
1 Kgs. 19 : 16. Van de Velde locates 
it 1 6 miles south of Bethshean ; Conder, 
in Wad)/ Maleh, on the road from Bei- 
san to the Jordan, at Ain Hehoeh. 

A'BEL-MIZ'RAIM {meadow of 
Egypt), a name given by the Canaanites 

to the floor of Atad, where Joseph 
mourned for his father, Jacob. Gen. 
50 : 11. It was " beyond " — that is, west 
of-— the Jordan, as the writer was on the 
east side. Some place it at Beth-hog- 
lah, or near Jericho ; others think it 
was near Hebron. 

A'BEL- SHIT'TIM (meadow of 
the acacias), -the name of the last halt- 
ing-place of the Israelites before enter- 
ing Canaan, and in the plain of Moab 5 
near the Jordan. Num. 33 : 49. It is 
also called Shittim. Num. 25 : 1. 

A'BEL, STONE OF. 1 Sam. 
6 : 18. A place near Beth-shemesh, 
where the ark of the Lord was set 

A'BEZ (tin ? or lofty), a town of Is- 
sachar. Josh. 19 : 20. Some think it 
the same as Thebez, Jud. 9 : 50, near to 
En-gannim and Shunem ; others iden- 
tify it with Kuebiz, three miles S. W. 
of Ihsal. Conder suggests el-Beida. 

A'BI ( father = progenitor), the mo- 
ther of Hezekiah, 2 Kgs. 18 : 2 ; called 
more fully Abiiah. 2 Chr. 29 : 1. 

(whose father is Jehovah) are all the 
same name. 

ABI'A. 1. Abijah, king of Judah, 
so called in 1 Chr. 3 : 10; Matt. 1 : 7. 

2. The Greek form of Abijah, head of 
one of the courses of priests. Luke 
1 : 5. See Abijah. 

ABI'A, COURSE OF. Luke 1 : 
5. In 1 Chr. 24 we have an account of 
the divisions of the priests into twenty- 
four classes, courses, or orders, who 
ministered at the altar in rotation. The 
courses were distinguished by the name 
of the most prominent member of the 
family from which the course was taken. 
The eighth of these courses fell to the 
family of Abia or Abijah ; and to this 
course belonged Zacharias, the father of 
John the Baptist. 

ABI'AH. 1. Second son of Samuel. 
1 Sam. 8 : 2; 1 Chr. 6 : 28. 

2. The wife of Hezron. 1 Chr. 2 : 24. 

3. Son of Becher, Benjamin's son. 1 
! Chr. 7 : 8. 

A'BI-AL'BON (father of strength, 
i i. e. strong), one of David's warriors, 
• 2 Sam. 23 : 31 ; called Abiel. 1 Chr. 
| 11 : 32. 

ABI'ASAPH (father of gathering, 
i. e. gathered), a Levite, one of the 
sons of Korah, and head of one of the 



Korhitic families, Ex. 6 : 24 : called 
Ebiasaph in 1 Chr. 6 : 37 and 9:19. 

ABI'ATHAR {father of abun- 
dance, i. e. liberal), the tenth high priest 
of the Jews, and fourth in descent from 
Eli. 1 Sam. 22: 20. He was the son of 
Ahimelech, and the only one who escaped 
when Doeg at Saul's command slew the 
priests at Nob in revenge for Ahimelech's 
service to David in inquiring of the 
Lord for him, and in giving him the 
shew-bread to eat, and Goliath's sword. 

1 Sam. 22. Abiathar fled to David at 
Keilah, and told him what Saul had 
done. David received him, and he af- 
terward became high priest. Thus 
there were two high priests in Israel at 
the same time — Abiathar, in the party 
of David, and Zadok, in the party of 
Saul, 2 Sam. 8 : 17; but, in consequence 
of his supporting Adonijah in his pre- 
tensions to the thronp. of David, Solo- 
mon, upon becoming king, thrust Abi- 
athar out of the priesthood, 1 Kgs. 2 : 
27, and conferred the office exclusively 
upon Zadok. See Zadok. Thus was 
fulfilled the word of God to Eli, 1 Sam. 

2 : 31 ; for Abiathar was the last of the 
priests of the house of Ithamar, to which 
Eli belonged ; and Zadok. who succeed- 
ed him, was of the family of Eleazar; 
and so the priesthood passed into its 
former channel. Abiathar, mentioned 
in Mark 2 : 26, has been supposed by 
some to be the same with Ahimelech. 
The most probable solution of the dif- 
ficulty is, perhaps, that Abiathar and 
Ahimelech may have been hereditary 
names in the family, and therefore were 
both borne by the same person. Hence 
the name Abiathar, being that of David's 
friend, would be more commonly used j 
than Ahimelech. This theory also ac- | 
counts for the substitution of one name ! 
for another in 2 Sam 8:17; 1 Chr. 18 : 
16, and 1 Chr. 24 : 3, 6, 31. The facts ! 
to which the Gospel alludes in the pas- I 
sage cited are fully stated in 1 Sam. 21. 

A'BIB (month). See Month. 

ABIDA, ou ABIDAH (father of 
knowledge, i. e. wise), a son of Midian. 
Gen. 25: 4; 1 Chr. 1 : 33. 

AB'IDAiV {father of the judge), 
prince of Benjamin. Num. 1 : 11; 2 : 
22 ; 7 : 60, 65 ; 10 : 24. 

ABI'EL (father of strength, i. e. 
strong). 1. The father of Kish and 
Ner. 1 Sam. 9:1; 14 : 51. 

2. One of David's warriors. 1 Chr. 11: 
32. See Abi-albon. 

ABIE'ZER [the father of help, i.e. 
helpful), the eldest son of Gilead, Josh. 
17 : 2 ; Num. 26 : 30 ; or of a sister of 
Gilead, 1 Chr. 7:18; founded a family 
at Ophrah, from which sprang Gideon. 
Jud 8 : 32. 

ABIEZ'RITE {the father of help), 
a family descended from Abiezer. Jud. 
6 : 11, 24; 8 : 32. 

AB'IGAIL {father, i. e. source, of 
joy). 1. The wise and beautiful wife 
of the churlish and wicked Nabal, a 
wealthy man of Carmel. 1 Sam. 25 : 3. 
When her husband had exposed him- 
self to the anger of David by his rude 
and contemptuous treatment of his mes- 
sengers, Abigail hastened to meet him 
while he was on his way with four hun- 
dred men to revenge the insult. She 
managed the affair with so much pru- 
dence as to pacify David and obtain 
his blessing. About ten days after her 
return the Lord visited Nabal with 
sickness, and he died, and Abigail be- 
came David's wife. 

2. One of David's sisters, married to 
Jether, and mother of Amasa. 2 Sam. 
17:25: 1 Chr. 2:17. 

ABIHA'IL {father of strength, i. e. 
the strong one). 1. The father of Zuriel, 
" chief of the . . . house of the families of 
Marari." Num. 3 : 35. 

2. The wife of Abishur. 1 Chr. 2 : 29. 

3. The son of Huri, of the tribe of 
Gad. 1 Chr. 5:14. 

4. The wife of Rehoboam. 2 Chr. 
11 : 18. 

5. The father of Esther. Esth. 2 : 15 ; 

ABI'HU {whose father is He, i. e. 
God), the second son of Aaron, who 
with his elder brother, Nadab, his 
father, and 70 of the elders of Israel, 
went upon Mount Sinai with Moses. 
Ex. 6:23; 28:1. He was afterward 
set apart by God, with his brothers, 
Nadab, Eleazar, and Ithamar, to the 
priesthood. Soon after they entered on 
their sacred duties, Nadab and Abihu 
violated God's commands respecting the 
manner of offering incense, and were in- 
stantly consumed. Lev. 10 : 1, 2. This 
event happened in the wilderness of 
Sinai. The nature of their offence is 
very obvious : they used common fire 
instead of the fire which burnt contin- 



ually upon the altar of burnt-offering, 
and some suppose they were drawn into 
this presumptuous sin by the too free 
use of wine. Their father and brothers 
were forbidden to make public mourn- 
ing for them. 

ABI'HUD (rohose father is Judah, 
i. e. renoivu), the son of Bela and 
grandson of Benjamin. 1 Chr. 8 : 3. 

ABI'JAH (whose father is Jehovah). 
1. A son of Jeroboam I., king of Israel, 
who died under interesting circum- 
stances in early life. 1 Kgs. 14 : 1. 
See Jeroboam. 

2. Abijah or Abijam, 2 Chr. 13 : 1, 
the son of Eehoboam and Michaiah, 
succeeded his father as king of Ju- 
dah b. c. 959. He made war against 
Jeroboam, king of Israel, for the pur- 
pose of getting back the kingship of the 
ten tribes, and defeated him, with a loss 
of 500,000 men. These figures are prob- 
ably through a mistake made too large ; 
the loss, it is likely, was not greater than 
50,000. He began to reign in the 18th 
year of Jeroboam, and was succeeded by 
his son Asa in the 20th year of Jeroboam, 
so that he reigned only a part of three 
years. The apparent contradiction in 
respect to the parentage of this person, 
as it is given in 1 Kgs. 15 : 2 and 2 Chr. 
13 : 2. may be explained by supposing 
that his mother Maachah (or Michaiah) 
was the daughter of Uriel and the 
granddaughter of Absalom, who is called 
Abishalom. 1 Kgs. 15 : 2. The term 
"daughter " is given in the Bible to 
other relatives than one's own child: 
e. g. to a niece, granddaughter, or great- 

3. The head of one of the courses of 
priests. 1 Chr. 24 : 10 ; Neh. 12 : 17 ; 
termed Abia in Luke 1 : 5. 

4. The mother of Hezekiah, 2 Chr. 
29 : 1 : also called Abi in 2 Kgs. 18 : 2. 

5. One of the priests who " sealed the 
covenant :" i. e. appended their seals 
unto it to si<rnifv that they were parties 
to it. Neh. 10 : 7. 

6. A priest who returned with Zerub- 
babel from Babylon. Neh. 12:4, 17. 

ABI'JAM (father of the sea, i. e. a 
maritime person). 1 Kgs. 15 : 1, 7, 8. 
See Artj4h (?,). 

ABILE'NE (from Abila), a small 

district of Palestine on the eastern slopes 

of Anti-Libanus, of which Abila on the 

river Barada was the capital. It was 


governed by Lysanias in the time of 
John the Baptist. Luke 3 : 1. 

ABIM'AEL (father of Mad), a 
descendant of Joktan, and supposed 
progenitor of the Arabian tribe Mali. 
Gen. 10:28: 1 Chr. 1 : 22. 

ABIM ELECH (father of the king). 
1. A king of the Philistines at Gerar. 
Gen. 20 : 2. Being deceived by Abra- 
ham, he took Sarah, Abraham's wife, 
to be his wife. God warned him, how- 
ever, in a dream of Sarah's relation to 
Abraham, and thus withheld him from 
the commission of sin. because he did it 
in ignorance. Gen. 20 : 6. Abimelech, 
having rebuked Abraham, restored 
Sarah to him with many gifts, and of- 
fered him a dwelling-place in any part 
of the land. God afterward remitted 
the punishment of the family of Abim- 

2. At a subsequent period. Abimelech, 
a successor of the preceding, was de- 
ceived in like manner by Isaac, respect- 
ing his wife Rebekah, while they dwelt 
in Gerar during a time of famine in Ca- 
naan. Gen. 26. 

3. A son of Gideon, who, after the 
death of his father, persuaded the men 
of Shechem to make him king. Jud. 
8 : 31 ; 9 : 1 8. He afterward put to death 
seventy of his brothers who dwelt in his 
father's house at Ophrah, leaving only 
Jotham,the youngest, alive. On learn- 
ing of his exaltation to the kingship of 
the Shechemites, who had formed them- 
selves into an independent state. Jotham 

j told them the fable of the trees, Jud. 9 : 
7, etc., which is the oldest fable extant. 
The Shechemites in the third year of 
his reign rebelled against him during 
his absence, but he put the revolt down 
on his return. Shortly afterward, while 
storming the fortress of Thebez, he was 
mortally wounded by a piece of a mill- 
stone thrown upon his head by a woman 
from the top of a tower. That it might 
not be said a woman slew him, he called 
to his armor-bearer to stab him with his 
sword, and thus he died. Jud. 9 : 54-57. 

4. A son of Abiathar. 1 Chr. 18 : 

5. The name given to Achish in the 
title of Ps. 34. 

A BIN' AD AB (father of nobleness, 
i e. noble). 1. A Levite of Kirjath- 
jearim, with whom the ark of the Lord 
was deposited when it was brought 



back from the Philistines. 1 Sam. 
7 : 1 and 1 Chr. 13 : 7. 

2. The second of the eight sons of 
Jesse, and one of his three sons who 
followed Saul in battle. 1 Sam. 16 : 8. 

3. One of Saul's sons who was slain 
at the battle of Gilboa. 1 Sam. 31: 2. 

4. The father of one of the twelve 
officers appointed by Solomon to pro- 
vide alternately, month by month, food 
for the king and his household. 1 Kgs. 

AB'INER {father of light). 1 Sam. 
14 : 50, margin, same as Abner. 

ABIN'OAM {father of pleasant- 
ness), the father of Barak. Jud. 4 : 6, 
12; 5:1, 12. 

ABI 'RAM (father of height, i. e. 
renowned). 1. One of the sons of Eliab, 
the Reubenite, who were destroyed with 
Korah for a conspiracy against Moses. 
See Korah. Num. 16 : 1. 

2. The first-born of Hiel the Beth- 
elite. 1 Kgs. 16:34. His death at the i 
time his father began the rebuilding of | 
Jericho fulfilled the first part of Joshua's 
curse. Josh. 6 : 26. 

AB'ISHAG {father of error), a 
fair woman of Shunem, in the tribe of 
Issachar, who was selected by the ser- 
vants of David to minister to him in his 
old age and to cherish him. 1 Kgs. 
1: 1-4. After David's death and the as- 
cension of Solomon to the throne, Adon- 
ijah desired Abishag in marriage, but 
Solomon perceived his policy (see Adox- 
ijah), and caused him to be put to death. 

1 Kgs. 2 : 25. 

ABISH'AI {father of a gift), 
the eldest son of Zeruiah, David's 
sister, and among the chief of his 
mighty men. 2 Sam. 2 : 18. He ac- 
companied David to the camp of Saul, 
and counselled him to take Saul's life, 
which David refused to do, 1 Sam. 
26 : 5-12, and was probably with David 
during the latter's wandering life. He 
was associated with Joab in the assassi- i 
nation of Abner. 2 Sam. 3 : 30. The ! 
victory over the Edomites in the valley i 
of Salt, which is ascribed to David in 

2 Sam. 8 : 13, is ascribed to Abishai in 
1 Chr. 18 : 12. Probably Abishai actu- \ 
ally obtained the victory , but as he was 
an officer under David, it might also [ 
with propriety be spoken of as David's 
achievement. Abishai, with Joab his 
brother, attacked and defeated the Syr- I 

ians and the children of Ammon. 2 Sam. 
10. David appointed him, in conjunc- 
tion with Joab and Ittai, to the command 
of the people when they went forth to bat- 
tle against Israel in the wood of Eph- 
raim. 2 Sam. 18 : 2. He afterward res- 
cued David from the giant Philistine, 
Ishbi-benob, whom he smote and killed. 
2 Sam. 21:16, 17. 

ABISH'ALOM {father of peace), 
father of Maachah ; called Absalom in 
2 Chr. 11 : 20, 21, and undoubtedly the 
same person. 1 Kgs. 15 : 2, 10. 

ABISH'UA {father of deliverance). 
1. Son of Phineas the high priest. 1 Chr. 
6 : 4, 5, 50 : Ezr. 7 : 5. 

2. A descendant of Benjamin. 1 Chr. 

AB'ISHUR {father of the wall, i. e. 
stronghold), a descendant of Judah. 
1 Chr. 2 : 28, 29. 

AB'ITAL {whose father is the dew), 
one of David's wives. 2 Sam. 3:4; 
1 Chr. 3 : 3. 

AB'ITUB {father of goodness), a 
descendant of Benjamin. 1 Chr. 8 : 11. 

ABI'UD {whose father is Judah), 
a descendant of Zerubbabel, mentioned 
in our Lord's genealogy. Matt. 1 : 13. 

ABNER {father of light), the son 
of Ner, was a first cousin of Saul, and 
a faithful and distinguished general 
of his armies. 1 Sam. 14 : 50. We 
first hear of him, particularly, as the 
captain of the host, of whom Saul in- 
quired concerning the stripling, David, 
whose victory over Goliath had excited 
his astonishment ; and after a little time 
Abner introduced David to Saul, with 
the head of the giant Philistine in his 
hand. 1 Sam. 17 : 57. It was through 
the want of vigilance in Abner that 
Saul's life was placed in David's power 
in the wilderness of Ziph. 1 Sam. 
26. See David, Saul. After David 
was anointed king of Judah, Abner 
procured the appointment of Ish-bo- 
sheth, Saul's son, as king of Israel ; and 
in process of time the army of David, 
under Joab, and the army of Israel, 
under Abner, arrayed themselves on 
either side of the pool of Gibeon. While 
occupying this position twelve men of 
each army met and fought desperately. 
This contest was followed by a general 
battle, which resulted in Abner's defeat. 
He fled, but was pursued by Asahel, 
who " was light of foot as a wild roe." 



When in the heat of pursuit, Abner 
counselled him to desist, and threatened 
to turn upon him and slay him if he did 
not. but Asahel refused to- turn aside, 
and Abner, " with the hinder end of the 
spear," smote him so that he died. Joab 
and Abishai were also engaged in the 
pursuit, but at Abner's entreaty they 
desisted and returned. 2 Sam. 2. 

As David's strength increased, the 
house of Saul, though faithfully served 
by Abner, became gradually weaker, 
till at length Ish-bosheth charged Abner 
with an offence against Saul's family. 
2 Sam. 3:7. He had taken Eizpah, 
the concubine of Saul, into his harem, 
and this act was interpreted according 
to Oriental ideas as an attempt to seize 
the throne. He was exceedingly irri- 
tated by the charge, and immediately 
forsook the interests of Saul's house and 
espoused the cause of David. David re- 
ceived him cordially, and sent him away 
in peace to persuade Israel to submit to 
David's government. 

While he was gone on this errand, 
Joab returned ; and hearing what had 
been done, he went to the king and 
warned him against Abner as a spy and 
traitor. Soon after, and without Da- 
vid's knowledge, Joab sent for Abner; 
and when he arrived, took him aside 
privately, and murdered him in revenge 
of the death of his brother Asahel ; and 
they buried him in Hebron. The esti- 
mation in which he was held by the 
king and people appears from the sa- 
cred history. The king wept and re- 
fused his food, and all the people wept; 
"And the king said unto his servants, 
Know ye not that there is a prince and 
a great man fallen this day in Israel ?" 
2 Sam. 3 : 38. 

TION. 1. An abomination, or an 
abominable thing, is a thing hateful or 
detestable, as the employment or call- 
ing of shepherds was to the Egyptians. 
Gen. 46 : 34. 

2. Under the Mosaic law those ani- 
mals and acts are called abominable 
the use or doing of which was pro- 
hibited. Lev. 11 : 13 and Deut. 23 : 18. 

3. Idolatry of every kind is especially 
denoted by this term. Jer. 44 : 4 and 
2Kgs. 23:13. 

4. So of sins in general. Isa. 66 : 3. 
The Abomination of Desolation, Matt. 


24:15 and Dan. 9:27 and 12: 11, prob- 
ably refers to the ensigns or banners of 
the Roman army, with the idolatrous, 

Koman Standards. (After Fairbairn's "Impe- 
rial Dictionary.") 

and therefore abominable, images upon 
them, the approach of which would warn 
the city of its desolation. When the city 
should be besieged, and these idolatrous 
standards should be seen " in the holy 
place," or, more strictly, in the vicinity 
of the holy city, thus threatening a com- 
plete conquest and speedy destruction, 
it would be time for the men of Judea 
to flee to places of refuge to save them- 
selves from tribulation and death. The 
words are hard to interpret. To the ex- 
planation given it is objected that unless 
the standards were worshipped they 
would not properly be "abominations." 
Others say the words refer to the " inter- 
nal desecration of the temple by the 
Jewish zealots, under pretence of de- 
fending it." 

A'BRAM (father of elevation), 
ABRAHAM {father of a multitude), 
the greatest, purest, and most venerable 
of the patriarchs, held in equal rever- 
ence by Jews, Mohammedans, and Chris- 
tians. Gen. 11 : 27. The leading trait in 
his character is unbounded trust in God ; 
hence he is called "the friend of God" 
and " the father of the faithful." He was 
the son of Terah, born at Ur, a city of 
Chaldea, which has been identified with 
Mugheir. The family was probably idol- 
atrous, but all trace of monotheism may 



not have been lost. Abrain would seem 
always to have been the consistent ser- 
vant of the one God. While he was 
dwelling in his father's house at Ur, God 
directed him to leave his country and kin- 
dred and go to a land which should be 
shown him : promising, at the same time, 
to make of him a great nation, and to 
bless him, and to make his name great, 
and that in him all the families of the 
earth should be blessed. 

Obedient to the heavenly calling, 
Abrara took Sarai his wife, and, with 
Terah his father and other members of 
the family, left Ur to remove to Canaan, 
and stopped at Haran in Mesopotamia. 
There Terah died. Abram, who was 
then seventy-five years old, with his 
wife and Lot, his nephew, pursued his 
journey to Canaan ; and having reached 
Sichem, one of the oldest cities of Pales- 
tine (see Shechem), the Lord appeared 
to him, and repeated his promise to give 
him the land. Gen. 12 :-7. 

A grievous famine soon visited the 
country, and Abram was obliged to go 
into Egypt. Fearful that Sarai's beauty 
might attract the notice of the Egyp- 
tians, and that, if they supposed her to 
be his wife, they would kill him to se- 
cure her, he proposed that she should 
pass for his sister. It happened as he 
expected. The servants of Pharaoh, the 
king of Egypt, commended her beauty 
so much that he sent for her, and took 
her into his house, and loaded Abram 
with tokens of his favor; but the Lord 
punished him severely, so that he sent 
away Abram and his wife, and all 
that he had. His stay in Egypt was 
probably very brief. 

Having become very rich in cattle, 
silver, and gold, he returned from Egypt 
to Canaan, and encamped between Bethel 
and Ai, in Southern Palestine. Lot, his 
nephew, had been with him, and shared 
his prosperity ; and it happened that 
his servants fell into some strife with 
the servants of Abram. Their property 
being too great for them to dwell together, 
Abram generously proposed to his ne- 
phew to avoid controversy by an ami- 
cable separation. He offered Lot his 
choice of the territory, on the right or 
left, as it pleased him — a rare illustra- 
tion of meekness and condescension. 
Lot chose to remove to the eastward, 
and occupy that part of the fertile plain 

of Jordan where Sodom and Gomorrah 
stood, having, perhaps, a desire to quit 
the wandering life. 

Then the Lord appeared again to 
Abram, and renewed the promise of the 
land of Canaan as his inheritance in 
the most explicit manner. He thence 
removed his tent to the oak-groves of 
Mmnre in Hebron. In an invasion of 
the cities of the plain by several of the 
petty kings of the adjoining provinces, 
under the leadership of Chedorlaomer, 
king of Elam, Sodom was taken and 
Lot and his family carried captive. 
When Abram received intelligence of it 
he armed his trained servants, born in 
his house (three hundred and eighteen 
in number), defeated the kings, and 
brought Lot and his family back to 
Sodom ; restoring to liberty the cap- 
tives who had been taken, with all their 
property, of which he generously refused 
to take any part as the reward of his 
services or as the spoils of victory. On 
his return he was met by Melchisedck, 
king of Salem and priest of the most 
high God, to whom he gave a tenth of 
all that he had. Gen. 14. See Mel- 


While in Hebron the Lord appeared 
again to Abram in a vision, repeated to 
him the promises, and accompanied 
them with the gracious declaration of 
his favor. He appointed a certain sac- 
rifice for him to offer, and toward night 
caused a deep sleep to fall upon him, 
attended by a horror of great darkness, 
during which there were revealed to him 
some of the most important events in his 
future history and in that of his poster- 
ity, which were all accomplished in due 
time and with wonderful exactness. The 
revelation related — 1. To the captivity 
of Israel by the Egyptians and their se- 
vere and protracted bondage ; 2. To the 
judgments which Egypt should suffer 
because of their oppression of God's 
chosen people, and the circumstances 
under which they should leave Egypt; 

3. To Abram's death and burial; and, 

4, to the return of his posterity to the 
promised land. 

In the same day the covenant respect- 
ing the land of promise was renewed and 
confirmed with the strongest expressions 
of divine favor. Sarai, however, was 
childless, and she proposed to Abraham 
that Hagar, an Egyptian woman living 



with them, should be his concubine ; by 
whom he had a son, called Ishmael. 
He was then in his eighty-sixth year. 
Gen. 16. 

At ninety-nine years of age he was 
favored with another remarkable vision. 
The Almighty was revealed to him in 
such a manner that he was filled with 
awe and fell upon his face, and we are 
told that " God talked with him." The 
promise respecting the great increase of 
his posterity and the possession of Ca- 
naan was repeated in the most solemn and 
explicit terms ; his name was changed 
from Abram (a high father) to Abraham 
(father of a great multitude), and the 
circumcision of every male child at eight 
days old was established as a token of 
the covenant between him and God. 
See Circumcision. At the same time the 
name of Sarai (my princess) was changed 
to Sarah (the princess), and a promise 
was given to Abraham that Sarah should 
have a son and be the mother of nations 
and kings. 

It seemed so entirely out of the course 
of nature that they should become pa- 
rents at their advanced age that Abra- 
ham, filled with reverence and joyful 
gratitude, fell upon his face " and said 
in his heart, Shall a child be born unto 
him that is a hundred years old ? and 
shall Sarah, that is ninety years old, 
bear?" Nevertheless, against hope he 
believed in hope ; and being not weak 
in faith, he staggered not at the promise 
of God, but was fully persuaded that 
what he had promised he was able also 
to pei-form ; and his faith was imputed 
to him for righteousness. Rom. 4 : 

Abraham, finding that the blessings 
of the covenant were to be bestowed on 
his future offspring, immediately thought 
of Ishmael, in whom he had probably be- 
fore supposed the promises were to be 
fulfilled, and he uttered the solemn and 
affecting prayer, " that Ishmael might 
live before thee !" God heard him, and 
almost while he was yet speaking an- 
swered him by making known to him 
his great purposes respecting Ishmael. 
Gen. 17: 20 and 25: 16. 

As soon as the vision had closed, 
Abraham hastened to obey the divine 
command, and with Ishmael, his son, 
and all the men of his house, was cir- 
cumcised in the self-same day. He was 

not long without another divine commu- 
nication. As he sat in the door of his 
tent in the heat of the day three men 
approached him. He received them 
with all the courtesy and hospitality 
customary in the East, and after they 
had refreshed themselves they inquired 
of him respecting Sarah and repeated 
the promise respecting the birth of her 

It was on this occasion, or in connec- 
tion with these circumstances, that a 
divine testimony was given to the pa- 
triarchal character of Abraham. Gen. 
18 : 19. It was because of his faithful- 
ness that he was favored with a revela- 
tion of God's purposes respecting the 
devoted cities of the plain, and with 
an opportunity to plead for them ; and 
it was for Abraham's sake, and probably 
in answer to his prayers, that Lot and 
his family were rescued from the sudden 
destruction which came upon Sodom. 

After this, Abraham removed to Ge- 
rar, perhaps because the Amorites, with 
whom he was in alliance, had been 
driven from Hebron by the Hittites. 
Here he made a second attempt to have 
Sarah taken for his sister. See Abim- 
elech. Here, also, the prediction was 
fulfilled respecting the birth of a son. 
Sarah had a son, whom he called Isaac, 
and who was duly circumcised on the 
eighth day. 

• When Isaac was weaned, Abraham 
made a feast. Ishmael, being then a 
lad of thirteen years, mocked Isaac, 
quite possibly without malicious intent. 
This roused the jealousy of Sarah, who 
urged Abraham to drive out Hagar and 
her son. Abraham, although unwilling 
to do this injustice, at last obeyed at the 
command of God. Thus it came to pass 
that the prophecy of the wild life Ish- 
mael was to lead was realized. Gen. 
21 : 10-13. 

Abraham so obviously enjoyed the 
favor and blessing of God in all that he 
did that Abimelech, the king, proposed 
to make with him a covenant of perpet- 
ual friendship ; and a matter of wrong 
about a well, of which Abimelech's ser- 
vants had violently deprived Abraham, 
was thus happily adjusted. This trans- 
action was at a place which was there- 
after called Beer-sheba (the icell of the 
oath, or the well of swearing). Gen. 21 : 



The events of many years are now 
passed over in silence, but the scene 
next related shows how worthy Abra- 
ham was to be called the father of the 
faithful. He was commanded to take 
his son, his only son, Isaac, then a 
young man, and to offer him up for a 
burnt-offering upon a distant mountain.. 
Without an inquiry or murmuring word, 
and with a prompt submission, Abra- 
ham obeyed the command. A journey 
of three days was accomplished. Every 
preparation for the offering was made, 
and the knife was uplifted to slay his 
son, when his purpose was arrested by 
a voice from Hea- 
ven requiring him 
to spare the lad. 
A ram was pro- 
vided in the neigh- 
boring thicket, 
which he took and 
offered up ; and, 
after having been 
favored with spe- 
cial tokens of the 
divine approba- 
tion, he returned 
with his son to 
Beer-sheba. This 
grand trial and 
proof of the patri- 
arch's faith took 
place upon Mount 
Moriali (or, as 
others suppose, on 
Mount Geriziin). 
In commemoration 
of it he gave to the 
place the name Je- 
hovah-jireh {the 
Lord will provide), 
intimating a general truth respecting 
the divine faithfulness and care, and in 
prophetical allusion to the great sacri- 
fice which was to be offered for the sins 
of mankind. Gen. 22: 14. 

At the age of one hundred and twen- 
ty-seven years Sarah died, and Abraham 
purchased the cave of Maehpelah, in the 
field of Ephron at Hebron, for a family 
burial-place, and there buried his wife. 
Gen. 23: 19, 20. 

Isaac had now arrived at mature age, 
and Abraham called one of his servants, 
probably Eliezer. Gen. 15 : 2, and made 
him promise to obtain a wife for Isaac, 
not among the Canaanites, but in Abra- 

ham's native country and from among 
his own kindred. This enterprise ter- 
minated successfully, and every desire 
of the patriarch respecting Isaac's mar- 
riage was answered. Gen. 24. 

Abraham married a second time and 
had several sons, but he made Isaac his 
sole heir, having in his lifetime distrib- 
uted gifts among the other children, who 
were now dispersed. He died in peace 
at the age of one hundred and seventy- 
five years, and was buried by Isaac and 
Ishmael in the same sepulchre with Sarah, 
in the cave of Maehpelah. Gen. 25:8. It 
is now in the possession of the Moham- 

Abraham's Oak, near Hebron. Gen. 13 : 18. 

medans, and jealously guarded by them 
as a most sacred spot beneath the great 
mosque of Hebron. See Machpelah. 
On Abraham's Oak, see Hebron. 

Abraham's Bosom. See Bosom. 

AB'SALOM {father of peace) was 
the third son of David by Maacah, 
daughter of Talmai, king of Geshur. 
2 Sam. 3 : 3. He was remarkable for his 
beauty, and for his hair, which is said 
to have weighed 200 shekels when cut 
off every year. But if the royal shekel 
equal the sacred shekel, this would make 
6 pounds, which is incredible. The dif- 
ficulty is not removed by reducing the 
value of the shekel one-half or one-third. 



The simplest explanation is that by the 
error of a copyist the 200 was written 
for 20, the difference between the figures 
being very slight in Hebrew notation. 

Absalom's fair sister, called Tamar, 
having been violated by Amnon, his 
half-brother, he meditated revenge, 
since he was her natural avenger ; and 
after brooding over the outrage for two 
years, he at last took Amnon's life at a 
feast to which he had invited him, and 
then at once fled to Talmai, his mater- 
nal grandfather, at Geshur, where he 
stayed three years. 

Joab, in order to secure Absalom's 
return and restoration to his father's 
favor, employed a woman of Tekoa to 
appear before David and feign a case 
similar to the situation of Absalom, and 
having obtained his decision, to apply 
the principle to the real case. After a 
favorable decision was obtained in the 
feigned case, the woman began to plead 
for Absalom's return. The king sus- 
pected Joab's concern in the plot, and 
the woman confessed that it was wholly 
planned by him. David, however, di- 
rected Joab to go to Geshur and bring 
Absalom back to Jerusalem, but would 
not receive him into favor nor admit 
him to his presence, nor did he see his 
face for two years more. 

Wearied with his banishment, Absa- 
lom often attempted to obtain an inter- 
view with Joab, but for some cause Joab 
was not disposed to go to him. To 
compel him to come, Absalom resorted 
to a singular expedient : he directed his 
servants to set fire to Joab's fields. 
Joab immediately came to Absalom, was 
persuaded to plead with the king in his 
behalf, succeeded in his effort, and Ab- 
salom was received into full favor. 

Absalom then showed the object of 
his ambition was to obtain his father's 
throne. He was jealous of the favor 
his father gave to Solomon, Bath-sheba's 
son, for, since he was the oldest living 
son of David, he was by birth the right- 
ful heir to the kingdom. To this end 
he lived in great pomp, procured char- 
iots and horsemen and other appendages 
of royalty, and stood in the public places 
courting the favor of the people by the 
meanest arts, persuading them that their 
rights were not regarded by the govern- 
ment, and that it would be for their in- 
terest to elevate him to power, that equal 

justice might be administered to all. By 

I these and other means Absalom stole the 
hearts of the men of Israel. 

In pursuing his traitorous design, and 
with a pretended regard to filial duty, he 
asked his father's permission to go to 
Hebron and pay a vow which he said 

•he had made. The unsuspicious king 
consented, and Absalom immediately 
sent men throughout Israel, who were, 
at a given signal, to proclaim him king 
in Hebron. He also took two hundred 
men with him from Jerusalem, though 
they did not know his plan, and then 
sent for Ahithophel, who was David's 
counsellor, that he might have his ad- 
vice and assistance. Absalom's party 
increased rapidly, and intelligence of 
the conspiracy was communicated to 
the king, and so alarmed him that he 
fled from the city. 

At length David persuaded Hushai to 
go to Absalom, who had now come back 
to Jerusalem with his party, and become 

1 his servant, and when opportunity oc- 
curred to give such counsel as should 

1 defeat Ahithophel's plans and bring 
confusion and discomfiture upon Absa- 
lom. By a train of providential inter- 
positions Absalom's ruin was hastened. 
Before David's men went out to battle 
with the revolted party, he gave them 
special charge respecting Absalom, and 
commanded them to deal gently with 
him for his father's sake. The two par- 
ties met in the wood of Ephraim, and 
the battle was bloody. Absalom rode 
upon a mule, and in passing under the 
thick boughs of an oak he was caught 
by his head in the fork or angle of two 
branches, and the mule passed onward, 
leaving him suspended in the air. Joab, 
one of David's chief captains, being in- 
formed of it, took three darts and thrust 
them through the heart of Absalcm 
while he was yet alive in the midst of 
the oak ; and they took his body and 
cast it into a pit in the wood, and cov- 
ered it with stones. 

LAR, was in the "king's dale," or val- 
ley of the Eedron. 2 Sam. 18 : 18. 
"The Tomb of Absalom," now stand- 
ing east of Jerusalem, at the foot of 
Mount Olivet, is supposed by the Jews 
to be the one erected by Absalom dur- 
ing his lifetime, and is pelted by 
them with stones, as they pass by, in 



execration of his treason ; but the monu- 
ment betrays Grteco-Latin architecture 

Absalom's Tomb. (From original Photographs. 

(especially the Ionic columns), and is 
not mentioned before A. D. 333. 

AC'CAD (fortress), one of the four 
cities in the kingdom of Ximrod. Gen. 
10:10. It was in the land of Shinar, 
and George Smith locates it at Agadi, 
on the Euphrates, north of Babylon. 
Rawlinson places it at Aker-Kuf, 10 
miles west by north of Bagdad. Others 
had regarded it as identical with Ctesi- 

AC'CAROX, the same as Ekron. 

AC'CHO {healed sand), a seaport- 
town of Phoenicia, about 8 miles north 
of Mount Carmel, given to Asher. Jud. 
1: 31. In New Testament times it was 
called Ptolemais. Acts 21:7. It now 
has about 6000 inhabitants, and is call- 
ed Acre (Arabic, Akka). 

ACELDAMA (field of blood), the 
"potter's field - ' purchased with the 
money given to Judas for betraying 
Christ. Matt. 27 : 7 : Acts 1 : 18, 19. 
Tradition locates it on the southern 
slope of the valley of Hinnom, near the 
pool Siloain, and now Hal,-/,- ed Pimm, 

ACHA'IA {trouble), a Roman prov- 
ince in the New Testament times nearly 
co-extensive with the modern kingdom 
of Greece. Paul visited the churches in 
that region. Acts 18 : 12, 27 ; 19 : 21 j 
Rom. 15 : 26 ; 16 : 5 : 2 Cor. 1:1; 9:2; 
11 : 10 ; 1 Thess. 1 : 7, 8. For its towns 
see Corinth. Cexchrea. 

ACHA'ICUS (belonging to Achaia), 
a Christian mentioned in 1 Cor. 16 : 17. 

A'CHAN, or A'CHAR (trouble,-), 
son of Carmi, of the tribe of Judah, 
whose concealment of a part of the 
spoils of Jericho in violation of the di- 
vine command, Josh. 6:18, brought de- 
feat upon his countrymen at Ai. Josh. 
7 : 18 ; 1 Chr. 2:7. He was providen- 
tially convicted, and with his family was 
stoned to death, and his property, to- 
gether with their remains, was burnt. 
The valley in which this event occurred 
was called after him. See Achor. 

A'CHAZ, Matt. 1 : 9, the Greek form 
of Ahaz. 

ACH'BOR (mouse). 1. The father 
of Baal-hanan, king of the Edomites. 
Gen. 36: 38, 39; 1 Chr. 1 : 49. 

2. An officer of Josiah, 2 Kgs. 22 : 
12,14-; Jer. 26:22; 36:12; called Ab- 
don in 2 Chr. 34:20. 

A'CHIM (Hebrew form is Jachin, 
a contraction of Jehoiachin, the Lord 
will establish), an ancestor of Christ. 
Matt. 1:14. 

A'CHISH (serpent-charmer?), a 
king of Gath, called Abimelech in the 
title of Ps. 34, to whom David fled 
twice. The first time, being in danger, 
he feigned madness, whereupon he was 
dismissed. 1 Sam. 21 : 10. The sec- 
ond time Achish received him cordial- 
ly because of his supposed hostility to 
Saul, gave him Ziklag, and took him on 
his campaign against Saul, but finally 
dismissed him, with commendations of 
his fidelity, because of the mistrust of 
his princes. 1 Sam. 27, 29. 

The Achish to whom Shimei went 
seeking for his servants may have been 
this same king, but much more prob- 
ably his grandson, since David's first 
flight took place fifty years before. 1 
Kgs. 2:39. 40. 

ACH'METHA, a city of Media. 
Ezr. 6 : 2. See Ecbatana. 

A'CHOR (trouble), a valley near 
Jericho where Acban was stoned. Josh. 
7 ; 24. Probably the Wady Kelt. 




ACHSA (anklet), daughter of Ca- 
leb, the son of Hezron. 1 Chr. 2 : 49. 

ACH'SAH (anklet), the daughter 
of Caleb the son of Jephunneh, married \ 
to Othniel, her cousin or uncle (who took S 
Kirjath-sepher or Debir), in accordance 
with Caleb's promise to give her hand to 
whomsoever should first smite the city. 
Achsah after her marriage obtained the 
upper and lower springs, with the fields 
in which they were, in addition to her 
dowry. Josh. 15 : 15-19 j Jud. 1 : 11-15. 
See Othniel. 

ACH' S~H\P~H.( enchantment), n city 
of Canaan, Josh. 11 : 1 ; 12 : 20, allotted to 
Asher. Josh. 19: 25. Some have located 
it at Khaifa, near Mount Carmel : Rob- 
inson at El-Kesaf, above the sources of 
the Jordan : the Palestine Fund " Me- 
moirs" give Kesaf, as Khurbet-Iksdf, 
and accept Robinson's suggestion. 

ACHZIB (false). 1. A town of 
Asher, Josh. 19 : 29, now ez-Zib, 9 
miles north of Acre, on the Mediterra- 

2. A city of Judah, Josh. 15 : 44 : Mic. 
1 : 14 ; perhaps identical with Chezib. 
Gen. 38 : 5. Conder locates it at the 
modern A in Kezbeh. 

ACRAB'BIM. Josh. 15:3, mar- 
gin. See Maalew-acrabbim. 

the fifth book in the New Testament. 
It is supposed to have been compiled 
by Luke the evangelist in Rome, during 
Paul's imprisonment or shortly after, a.d. 
63, and may be regarded as a continua- 
tion of his Gospel. It contains the history 
of the Christian Church from Jerusalem 
to Rome, or the establishment of Chris- 
tianity among the Jews by Peter, and 
among the Gentiles by Paul. It begins 
with the ascension of Christ and the out- 
pouring of the Holy Spirit, and concludes 
with the first imprisonment of Paul in 
Rome, 61 to 63. It is the first history 
of the Christian Church, and contains 
the only trustworthy account of the mis- 
sionary labors of the apostles. 

The' book of Acts has been subjected 
to very rigid and critical examination 
in connection with the apostolic Epistles, 
and the genuineness of both is proved 
by coincidences so minute and yet so 
undesigned, so obvious and yet so re- 
mote, that no unprejudiced mind can 
entertain a doubt of their truthful- 


The period of time embraced in this 
history is about thirty-three years, and 
includes the reigns of the Roman em- 
perors Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and 
Nero. See the Missionary Map at the 
close of the volume. 

AD'ADAH (boundary, or festival), 
a town in the south of Judah, Josh. 15 : 
22 ; probably either the modern el-Foka 
or Adadah. 

A'DAH (ornament). 1. One of the 
two wives of Lamech in the line of Cain. 
Gen. 4:19. 

2. One of Esau's wives, a Hittitess, 
daughter of Elon, Gen. 36 : 2, 4, etc. ; 
called Bashemath in Gen. 26 : 34. 

ADAI'AH (whom Jehovah adorns). 
1. The maternal grandfather of King 
Josiah. 2 Kgs. 22 : 1. 

2. A Levite. 1 Chr. 6 : 41. 

3. A Benjamite. 1 Chr. 8:21. 

4. A priest. 1 Chr. 9 : 12. 

5. A descendant of Bani who had taken 
a foreign wife. Ezr. 10 : 29. 

6. Another descendant guilty of the 
same offence. Ezr. 10 : 39. 

7. A man of Judah. Neh. 11 : 5. 

8. An ancestor of Maaseiah, a cap- 
tain who supported Jehoiada. 2 Chr. 

ADALFA (strong of heart ?), a son 
of Haman. Esth. 9 : 8. 

ADAM (red earth), a city in the 
Jordan valley near Zaretan. Josh. 3 : 

j 16. It has been located at ed-Dami- 
eh, but Drake suggests Khurbet-el- Ham- 
rath, or "the red ruin," 1 mile south of 

j Tell Sarem. 

ADAM (red, or earth-born). The word 

i is used in the Bible in two senses : 

j 1. Man generically, including woman 
(in the English Version translated man). 
Gen. 1 : 26, 27 ; 5:1; 6:1; Job 20 : 
29; 21:33; Ps. 68:18; 76:10. 

2. Man historically, or, as a proper 
name, Adam individually, the first man, 
who was at the same time the represent- 
ative man. Gen. 2:7; 3:8. Adam was 
not born, but created ; not in feeble, 
helpless infancy, but in the maturity of 
his physical and intellectual nature ; 
not a sinful, diseased, dying creature, 
but pure and free from sin, yet liable to 
temptation and in need of trial in order 
to be confirmed in his innocence. He 
was the crown of creation, made on the 
sixth day, after the vegetable and ani- 
mal world. Adam was the root of hu- 



manity, and all that affected him affect- 
ed his posterity. His sin tainted their 
blood and poisoned their nature ; while 
the Saviour promised to him was the 
Saviour of all who came after him. His 
mortality in consequence of sin has re- 
mained as a permanent fact in man ; his 
immortality in consequence of faith 
upon the promised Saviour will be 
snared in by all of like belief. In him 
God put humanity to the test. If Adam 
had kept his first estate, the world 
would never have been darkened by 
sin and guilt. 

Adam was also the beginning of a 
new order of beings. He was of the 
earth, earthy — the earth is called ada- 
mah in Hebrew in Gen. 2 : 7 — dust from 
dust, as to his physical organization, 
but into him God had breathed a living 
soul ; he was an immortal spirit, made in 
the very "image and likeness of God." 
This is the noblest conception of man. 
The "image of God" means man's per- 
sonality, his rational, moral, and im- 
mortal nature, which is destined for 
the glory and communion of God and 
for everlasting felicity. It also includes 
dominion over the creatures. 

God created Eve to be a help meet 
for Adam. He dreamt of woman, and 
awaked to find her at his side. The 
pair lived together in happiness and 
innocence, the keepers of a garden 
which yielded abundantly of fruit and 
flowers for their nourishment and pleas- 
ure. The fruit of one tree only, the 
tree of the knowledgcof good and evil, 
was forbidden to them. But the pro- 
hibition piqued their desire. Eve lis- 
tened to the specious arguments of Satan, 
who had come to her under the form of 
a serpent ; " she took of the fruit there- 
of, and did eat, and gave also unto her 
husband with her; and he did eat." Gen. 
3:6; comp. 2 Cor. 11 : 3 ; 1 Tim. 2:14; 
John 8 : 14. 

In this simple language does the 
Bible describe the most momentous 
event in history previous to the birth 
of Christ. For then happened the Fall ; 
sin was let loose to ravage the world ; a 
blight had fallen upon the race. The 
first proof of sin was shame. The 
wretched folly of all attempts to cover 
sin is symbolized by the fig-leaf aprons 
of our first parents: they were no cov- 
erings at all. The second proof of sin 

was their fear before God. They stood 
condemned, and owned his dreadful 
sentence just. They were banished 
from Paradise. The ground was cursed 
for their sake. In the hardship of toil 
and labor, in the care and suffering of 
childbirth and parentage, they began to 
feel at once the woes their transgression 
involved. All the burdens of life, the 
heavy cross, sickness, disaster, trouble, 
death, come from the action of that fa- 
tal day. They are the dread remind- 
ers of our fallen state. Our first pa- 
rents involved all their posterity in that 
ruin they first experienced. 

But in the narrative of the Fall there 
stands also the promise of a deliverer, 
the woman's seed (the son of Mary), 
who should crush the serpent's head — 
that is, destroy the power of sin and 
Satan. Gen. 3 : 15. This promise, 
which is called the " first gospel," was 
fulfilled in the Crucifixion. Christ is 
the second Adam, as Paul shows in Rom. 
5 : 12 ff. and 1 Cor. 15 : 45. He undid 
the work of the first. He abolished the 
power of sin and death for believers, and 
brought life and immortality to light 
through the gospel. 2 Tim. 1 : 10. The 
redemption by Christ is the glorious 
solution of the fall of Adam. Christ 
has given us much more than we lost 
by Adam. Paradise regained is better 
than Paradise lost, and can never be 
lost again. God in his infinite wisdom 
and mercy overruled the fall of man 
for the revelation of his redeeming love, 
which in turn calls out the deepest grat- 
itude and bliss of the redeemed. 

"In Christ the tribe of Adam boast 
More blessings tnan their father lost." 

ADAMAH (earth), a fortified city 
of Naphtali, Josh. 19 : 36 ; probably 
Ddmieh, west of the Sea of Galilee. 

ADAMANT. Eze. 3 : 9. This 
word means the unconquerable, and de- 
notes some very hard stone. The same 
substance in Jer. 17 : 1 is called dia- 
mond, which it cannot be, for the He- 
brew name there used is never men- 
tioned with precious stones. Probably 
it was the mineral emery, one of the 
hardest of rocks. 

AD'AMI (earth, or human), a place 
on the border of Naphtali, Josh. 19 : 33 ; 
probably the modern Khurbet Admah. 

A'DAR (height), a town on the 
southern boundary of Judah, Josh. 



15 : 3, and the same as Hazar-addar, 
Num. 34:4; possibly the modern Ain 

A'DAR. See Month. 

town in Judah, Josh. 15 : 37, near Beth- 
horon ; now 'Adaseh. 

ADBEEL (miracle of God), a son 
of Ishmael. Gen. 25 : 1 3 ; 1 Chr. 1 : 29. 

AD'DAN (stoy). Ezr. 2:59; called 
also Addon. Neh. 7 : 61. Its site is 

AD'DAR (chief), a son of Bela, 1 
Chr. 8:3; called Ard in Num. 26 : 40. 

ADDER. The word translated 
thus in various passages of the Bible 
does not always mean what the English 
word denotes. 1. In Gen. 49 : 17 it in- 
dicates a venomous serpent (perhaps the 
cerastes, or horned snake) which lurks in 
the path. The usual habit of the ceras- 

Horned Cerastes. {From specimen in British Museum.) 

tes is "to coil itself on the sand, where 
it basks in the impress of a camel's foot- 
mark, and thence suddenly to dart out 
on any passing animal. So great is the 
terror which its sight inspires in horses, 
that I have known mine, when I was rid- 
ing in the Sahara, to suddenly start and 
rear, trembling and perspiring in every 
limb, and no persuasions would in- 
duce him to proceed. I was quite un- 
able to account for his terror until I 
noticed a cerastes coiled up in a depres- 
sion two or three paces in front, with its 
basilisk eyes steadily fixed on us, and 
no doubt preparing for a spring as the 
horse passed." — Tristram. 

2. In Ps. 58 : 4 and 91 : 13 the Egyp- 
tian cobra is probably meant, for it is 
found in southern Palestine, dwells in 
holes, is used by snake-charmers, and is 
very dangerous. This is the animal 

seen on Egyptian monuments, symbol- 
izing immortality, and always connected 
with the winged globe. In the former 
passage above, there is reference to the 
fact that there are serpents of some 
kinds or particular individuals which 
will not yield to the charmer. Though 
capable of hearing, they w<7/nothear, and 
are properly termed "deaf." See Asp. 

3. Still other kinds of serpents are 
referred to under this name in Ps. 140 : 
3 ; Prov. 23 : 32 — species of viper, it is 

AD'DI (ornament), one of the pro- 
genitors of Christ. Luke 3 : 28. 

A'DER (flock), a Benjamite. 1 Chr. 

AD'IDA, a fortified town overlook- 
ing the low country of Judah and near 
Jerusalem, noticed in 1 Mace. 12 : 38, 
and used by Vespasian in his siege of 
Jerusalem ; probably the same as 
Hadid. Ezr. 2 : 33. Conder lo- 
cates it at the modern Haditheh. 

A'DIEL. (ornament of God). 
1. A Simeonite. 1 Chr. 4 : 36. 

2. A priest. 1 Chr. 9:12. 

3. The ancestor of David's 
treasurer, Azmaveth. 1 Chr. 27 : 

A'DIN (delicate) 
descendants returned 
babel. Ezr. 2:15; 8 
20; 10:16. 

ADTNA (slender), a Reuben- 
ite, one of David's warriors. 1 
Chr. 11 : 42. 
23 : 8. See Jashobeam. 

ADITHATM (double booty), a town 
of Judah, Josh. 15 : 36 ; afterward called 
HADin, which see. 

ADJURED 1. To bind under a 
curse. Josh. 6 : 26. 

2. Solemnly to require a declaration 
of the truth at the peril of God's dis- 
pleasure. Matt. 26 : 63. Such is the in- 
terpretation of the language of the high 
priest, "I adjure thee," etc., or, "I put 
thee to thy oath," addressed to our Sa- 
viour when he declined to answer the 
false accusations of his persecutors. 
Compare 1 Sam. 14 : 24 and 1 Kgs. 22 : 
16 with Josh. 6:26. 

AD'LAI (justice of Jehovah), the 
father of one of David's chief herdsmen. 
1 Chr. 27:29. 

AD'MAH (earth, or fortress), one of 

one whose 
vith Zerub- 
6; Neh. 7: 



the five cities in the vale of Siddim I 
taken by Chedorlaomer, Gen. 10 : 19 ; 
14 : 2, and destroyed with Sodom. Deut. 
29 : 23 : Hos. 11 : 8; now ed Ddmieh. 

AD'MATHA {earthy ?), one of | 
the seven Persian princes. Esth. 1 : 1-lt. j 

AD'NA {pleasure). 1. One who 
married a foreign woman. Ezr. 10 : 30. 

2. A priest. Neh. 12 : 15. 

AD'NAH (pleasure). 1. A Manassite 
captain of Saul who followed David. 
1 Chr. 12:20. 

2. A captain of Jehoshaphat. 2 Chr. 

ADOXI-BE'ZEK. Jud. 1 : 5. 
Lord or king of Bezek, a city of the 
Canaanites. See Bezek. His name 
was a title, not a proper name. He 
fled from the armies of Judah, but was 
caught and his thumbs and great "toes 
cut off, so that he could neither fight 
nor flee. He was then carried to Jeru- 
salem, where he died. He seems to 
have regarded the maiming he suffered 
as a just requital of his own cruelty, he 
having mutilated seventy kings or chief- 
tains in the same inhuman manner. 

ADONIJAH {my Lord is Jehovah). 
1. David's fourth son. 2 Sam. 3:4. He 
was born at Hebron, and after the death 
of his brothers, Amnon, Chileab, and Ab- 
salom, he made pretensions to the throne 
of his father, because he was then the 
oldest living son of David. He prepared 
himself with horses and chariots and 
other marks of royalty, and took counsel 
with Joab and Abiathar how he could 
best accomplish his purpose. Bath- 
sheba- Solomon's mother, fearing that 
her son's title to the throne might be dis- 
turbed, immediately informed the king 
of Adonijah's revolt: and Nathan the 
prophet having confirmed the statement 
of the matter, David gave Bath-sheba the 
strongest assurances that her son should 
rei^n after him : and he caused Solomon 
to be anointed and proclaimed king amid 
general rejoicings. 1 Kgs. 1 : 39. 

Adoni.jah was just ending a feast when 
he heard the noise of the shouting, and 
Jonathan came in and told him all that 
had taken place. His guests fled pre- 
cipitately, and Adonijah himself ran 
and caught hold of the horns of the 
altar, which from long-existent custom 
was regarded as a place of safety. But 
Solomon sent for him, and pardoned him 
on condition that he showed himself "a 

worthy man." 1 Kgs. 1 : 52. This was 
an act of rare Clemency. 

After David's death, Adonijah per- 
suaded Bath-sheba to ask Solomon, her 
son, who was now on the throne, to give 
him Abishag for his wife. This request 
was, according to Oriental court-eti- 
quette, equivalent to a fresh attempt on 
the throne. So Solomon caused him to 
be put to death by the hand of Benaiah, 
1 Kgs. 2 : 25. 

2. A Levite in Jehoshaphat's time. 2 
Chr. 17 : 8. 

3. One who sealed the covenant. Neh. 

ADON'IKAM (lord of the enemy), 
one whose descendants came back with 
Zerubbabel. Ezr. 2:13; 8:13; Neh. 

ADONFRAM. See Adoram. 

ADON'I - ZE'DEK {lord of jus- 
tice), the Amorite king of Jerusalem at 
the time the country was entered by the 
Israelites. Josh. 10: 1. The name was 
probably the official title of the Jebusite 
kings of Jerusalem. Hearing of Josh- 
ua's victories over Ai and Jericho, and 
finding that the inhabitants of Gibeon, 
one of the most important cities of the 
kingdom, had made a league with him, 
he called four other kings of the Am- 
monites to his aid and laid siege to 
Gibeon, with a view to destroy it as a 
punishment for their conduct. 

But Joshua came to the assistance of 
the Gibeonites ; hailstones fell upon the 
armies of the five kings, and after a 
hard battle they were overthrown. See 

Adoni-zedek, with his allies, fled to a 
cave at Makkedah, in which they were 
soon discovered and brought before 
Joshua, who caused them to be slain 
and hanged on separate trees until even- 
ing, and then their bodies were taken 
down and cast into the cave in which 
thev had concealed themselves. Josh. 
101 27. 

ADOP'TION is an act by which a 
stranger is received into a man's family 
as his own child, and becomes entitled 
to the peculiar privileges of that con- 
nection as fully and completely as a 
child by birth. So Moses was adopted 
by Pharaoh's daughter, Ex. 2: 10, and 
Esther by her cousin Mordecai. Esth. 

In the figurative use of the term by 



the sacred writers it indicates that in- 
timate relation of the believer to God 
which follows regeneration and conver- 
sion from sin to holiness, when we are 
received into the family of God and 
are made, by grace, his children or 
sons, and heirs of God and joint-heirs 
with Christ, Gal. 4 : 4, 5 : Rom. 8 : 14-17. 

ADORA'IM (double mound), a city 
of Judah fortified by Rehoboam, 2 Chr. 
11 : 9 ; supposed to be the modern Dura, 
about 6 miles west of Hebron. 

ADO'RAM, contr. from ADON- 
I'RAM (lord of height). 1. An officer of 
the customs under David. 2 Sam. 20 : 24. 

2. An officer of Rehoboam's treasury 
(perhaps the son of the former), who was 
stoned to death by the people of Israel 
who followed Jeroboam. 1 Kgs. 12 : 18. 
Some suppose him to have been the 
same with Adoniram, 1 Kgs. 5 : 14, who 
was over the customs in Solomon's reign, 
and that the people were so indignant at 
the oppression they had suffered through 
his agency that they took this method 
of revenge. 

ADORATION. The word means 
to pray to, and is properly applied to the 
worship of God. Among the Hebrews 
adoration by outward act was variously 
performed. We gather from different 
Scripture passages that it consisted in 
putting off the shoes, bowing the knee 
or the head, or in slowly prostrating the 
body by first falling on the knees and then 
bending the body until the head touched 
the ground. But these forms of adora- 
tion were not limited to the worship of 
Jehovah. The Eastern mode of saluta- 
tion is very obsequious, and so between 
an inferior and a superior the same cer- 
emonies would be performed, and also 
between equals. Similar was their con- 
duct in the worship of idols when seek- 
ing the good-will of one whom they had 
offended. Kissing the hand of an idol 
was a common mode of adoration. 
These acts were often repeated more 
than once. In the New Testament we 
read that our Lord was treated with 
these outward signs of respect and rev- 
erence. So, too. in the case of Peter, 
to whom Cornelius prostrated himself. 
See Worship. 

ADRAMMELECH (king of fire). 
1. An idol-god of Sepbarvaim, sup- 
posed to represent the sun, while an- 
other idol, called Anainmelech, repre- 

sented the moon. 2 Kgs. 17 : 31. Sac- 
rifices of living children were made to 
these idols, as to Moloch. 

Adrainmelech. (From Nlmrud. After Layard.) 

2. A son of Sennacherib, king of As- 
syria. Isa. 37 : 38. He and his brother, 
Sharezer, killed their father while he 
was in the act of idolatry. Their mo- 
tive for this parricidal deed is not 
known. They both fled to Armenia, 
and Esar-haddon succeeded to the crown. 
ADRAMYT TIUM, named from 
Adramys, brother of Croesus, a seaport- 
town of Mysia, Acts 27 : 2-5, on a bay 
of the iEgean Sea north of Smyrna. It 
i is now a poor village known as Adramyti. 
A'DRIA. Acts 27: 27. The northern 
| part of the Ionian Sea between Greece, 
Italy, and Sicilv. 
A'DRIEL." See Merab. 
ADUI/LAM (justice of the people, 
or hiding- or resting-place), a cave not 
far from Bethlehem in which David hid. 
1 Sam. 22 : 1 ; 2 Sam. 23 : 13 ; 1 Chron. 
■ 11 : 15. Tradition has located it in 
Wady Khnreitun, east of Bethlehem. 
! The cave is said to be well fitted for a 
! robbers' hold, being dry and airy and 
i full of intricate passages. The greatest 
| length of this cave is 550 feet. Lieut. 
I Conder, however, places the cave of 
| Adullam in the valley of Elah, not far 
from the city of Adullam, about 13 
miles west from Bethlehem. Near it 
are numerous caverns, each as large as 
an ordinary cottage, which would give 
room for David and his band. He 



states that the great caverns at Beit Jib- 
rin, which some have regarded as the 
cave of Adullain, are damp, cold, and 
full of bats and creeping things, and 
carefully avoided by the cave-dwelling 
peasants, while the smaller caves north 
and west of Adullam are almost constant- 
ly in use, and are from their position 
strong and defensible. A row of these 
caves has been found north and west of 
the city of Adullam capable of holding 
200 to 300 men. M. Ganneau first sug- 
gested this location in 1872, from the 
resemblance of the modern name Aid el- 
Ma, and it seems to answer the require- 
ments of the Scripture narrative. 

ADUL'LAM, a royal city of the 
Canaanites allotted to Judah, Gen. 38 : 
1 : Josh. 12 : 15 : 15 : 35 : fortified by 
Rehoboam, 2 Chr. 11 : 7 : repeopled 
by the Jews after the Captivity, Neh. 
11 : 30. See also Mic. 1 : 15. Ganneau 
and Conder locate it in Wady es-Sunt, 
about 2£ miles south of Socoh or Sho- 
coh, where they found heaps of stones 
and ruined walls, called Aid el- Ma. 

ADULTERY, the crime forbid- 
den in the seventh commandment. Ac- 
cording to Jewish law, it is the unlawful 
intercourse of a man, whether married 
or not, with a married or betrothed 
woman not his wife. The crime was 
punished in patriarchal times, if Tamar's 
be a specimen case, by burning, Gen. 
38 : 24, or at least capitally. Under the 
Mosaic law in the case of the free 
woman both offenders were stoned. 
But a bondwoman thus guilty was to 
be scourged, and the man must make a 
trespass-offering. Lev. 19 : 20, 22. The so- 
called " water of jealousy," by which the 
guilt of the accused woman was proven or 
refuted, was simply some " holy water," 
or that from the laver which stood near 
the altar in an earthen vessel, into which 
dust from the floor of the tabernacle 
was sprinkled. This mixture was given 
to the woman, who was solemnly charged 
by the priest with an oath of cursing. 
If she was guilty, then by divine inter- 
position — for it contained nothing in- 
jurious — this test proved her guilt. 
If innocent no effect was produced. 
The accuser in these cases was the hus- 
band. Num. 5 : 11-31. There is no case 
of the use of this test in Scripture. 
Adultery is the only ground of divorce 
recognized by our Lord. Matt. 5 : 32. 

Adultery is used in the Bible in a 
spiritual sense to denote the unfaithful- 
ness and apostasy of the Jews, because 
the union between God and his people 
was set forth as a marriage. In the 
! N. T. " an adulterous generation " 
! means a faithless and God-denying 

ADUMMIM (red ones), an ascent 
: or steep pass, Josh. 15 : 7, on the road 
from Jericho to Jerusalem, upon the 
south side of the Wady Kelt, " over 
against Geliloth " or Gilgal. Josh. 18 : 
17. Our Lord probably refers to this 
dangerous pass. Luke 10 : 30-36 ; now 
I Talat ed Da mm. 


I CLETE. 1 John 2 : 1. One who 

' pleads another's cause, a counsellor, 

an intercessor. It is the term used by 

Christ to describe the office of the Holy 

Spirit, John 14:16; 15:26: 16:7, but 

■ translated in A. V. " Comforter." It is 

i also applied to Christ as our intercessor. 

j 1 John 2 : 1. The forensic office of 

i advocate was unknown among the Jews 

| before their subjection to the Romans; 

then they were obliged to conduct their 

trials before the Roman magistrates 

I after the Roman manner. Their ignor- 

1 ance of their conquerors' law compelled 

them to employ advocates or lawyers 

j speaking Greek and Latin. Such an 

I advocate was Tertullus, whom the Jews 

hired to accuse Paul before Felix. Acts 

24:1. See Trial. 

^E'NEAS, or ENE'AS, the para- 
I lytic at Lydda healed by Peter. Acts 
9 : 33, 34. 

iE'NON. See Enon. 
AFFINITY. 1 Kgs. 3 : 1. Re- 
j lation by marriage, in contradistinction 
from consanguinity, which is relation 
I by birth. The degrees of affinity which 
\ should prevent marriage under the Mo- 
saic law may be found in Lev. 18 : 6-17. 
See Marriage. 
AG'ABUS (possibly locust), a 
i prophet who foretold in Antioch while 
j Paul and Barnabas were there, a. t>. 
43. Acts 11 : 28. A famine took place the 
following year. It was probably limit- 
ed to Judaea, where it was severe. The 
j poor Jews were relieved by Helena, the 
j queen of Adiabene, who bought corn 
for them out of Alexandria. Aid was 
j sent to the Christians in Jerusalem from 
I Antioch. Acts 11 : 29. Many years after, 



Agabus met Paul at Cesarea, and warned 
him of the sufferings he would endure 
if he went to Jerusalem. Acts 21 : 10. 

A'GAG {flame) was probably the 
title of the Amalekite kings, like Pha- 
raoh of the Egyptian rulers. Two kings 
of this name are mentioned in Scripture. 

1. In Num. 24 : 7, the way in which 
this Agag is referred to indicates that 
he was very powerful, above all other 
kings known to Balaam. 

2. An Agag who was captured by Saul, 
but was spared, contrary to the express 
prohibition of Jehovah. He was after- 
ward brought to Samuel, who hewed 
him in pieces. This act was not only 
the execution of the divine order, but 
it would seem an act of retributive jus- 
tice as well, since Agag is charged with 
infamous cruelty. 1 Sam. 15 : 8, 33- 

A'GAGITE. Haman is called an 
Agagite, perhaps because of his ancestry. 
Esth. 3:1. 

A'GAR. See Hagar. 

AGATE. Ex. 39 : 12. A precious 
stone, variegated chalcedony, translu- 
cent or opaque. It is often banded 
in delicate parallel lines, waving or 
zigzag in their course, and of white, 
tendon-like, wax-like, pale and dark 
brown, black or sometimes bluish colors. 
It is sometimes clouded, and at other 
times presents a group of figures dis- 
posed with so much regularity as to 
seem like a work of art, showing trees, 
plants, rivers, clouds, buildings, and 
human beings. The name is supposed 
by some to be derived from the river 
Achates, in Sicily, where the stone was 
formerly found in great abundance. 
The agate of Isa. 54: 12 and Eze. 27 : 
16 (a different Hebrew word) was doubt- 
less the ruby. The agate was the second 
stone in the third row of the high priest's 
breastplate. Ex. 28:19. 

AG'EE {fugitive), the father of one 
of David's mighty men. 2 Sam. 23 : 11. 

AG'RICULT URE. In its special 
sense, and as here employed, the term 
denotes the cultivation of grain and 
other field crops. In a broader mean- 
ing, the threefold business of many ag- 
riculturists includes, besides such culti- 
vation, the keeping of flocks and herds, 
and horticulture. 

Hixtofij. — To dress and keep the gar- 
den of Eden was the happy employment 
given to man at his creation. After 

I the Fall, Adam was driven forth to till the 
1 ground as the first farmer. This was 
also the employment of Cain, but Abel 
was a keeper of sheep. After the Flood, 
" Noah began to be an husbandman, and 
he planted a vineyard." The patriarchs 
and their descendants, till their settle- 
ment in Palestine, gave little attention 
to agriculture. Joseph's words compre- 
hensively describe their occupation : 
| "The men are shepherds, for their trade 
I hath been to feed cattle." With the pos- 
j session of the cultivated lands of the Ca- 
naanites, the Hebrews adopted a more 
strictly agricultural life, and, in general, 
| the methods of farming of those whom 
they conquered. Pastoral employments 
were, however, never wholly abandoned. 
The tribes east of the Jordan were 
possessed of " a very great multitude 
of cattle," and in Judaaa and all the 
more hilly districts shepherds always 

Soil. — Palestine is divided agricultu- 
rally, and as to all its physical condi- 
tions, into four districts: 1. The mari- 
time plains, including the rich coast- 
i lands of Gaza, Sharon, etc., with a mild 
I and equable climate, under which even 
the orange and banana flourish. 2. The 
valley of the Jordan, reaching from the 
waters of Merom to the southern end 
; of the Dead Sea, having a tropical tem- 
perature. 3. The hill-country between 
these divisions eastward of Carmel, bi- 
sected by the rich plain of Jezreel, and 
bosoming many fertile vales, such as 
those of Nazareth, Shechem, Samaria, 
Hebron, but often rising, especially 
southward, into bleak moors and high- 
lands, where snow sometimes falls in 
winter. 4. Peraea, the rolling and often 
mountainous plateau east of the Jordan 
valley, not very different in climate from 
' the last division, but in soil more fertile. 
In this last region Dr. Merrill reports 
the tillable area of the Hauran (ancient 
Bashan) to be 150 by 40 miles in extent, 
and one vast natural wheat-field. Here 
he has "seen a peasant plough a furrow 
as straight as a line, one and even two 
miles long." In Argob and Trachonitis 
he saw one of the largest lava-beds in the 
world, covering 400 or 500 square miles, 
and the source of inexhaustible fertility. 
Of Palestine west of the Jordan, which 
is less in extent than the State of Ver- 
mont, Captain Warren says: "The soil 



is so rich, the climate so varied, that 
within ordinary limits it may be said 
that the more people it contained the 
more it may. Its productiveness will 
increase in proportion to the labor be- 
stowed on the soil, until a population of 
fifteen millions may be accommodated 
there." By others we are told that the 
very sand of the shore is fertile if wa- 
tered. The soil of Palestine is enriched 
by the disintegration of the rocks, which 
are commonly limestone, often quite 

Sermons. — Of these there are practi- 
cally but two — the rainy and the dry — 
nearly divided from each other by the 
vernal and autumnal equinoxes. The 
showers begin to fall in November, at 
the latest, and the rains of the winter 
months, except it be February, are 
heavy. These are "the former rain" 
of Scripture, which rarely fails, while 
"the latter rain" of March and early 
April is more uncertain; and as the 
filling of the ears of grain depends upon 
it, this " latter rain " is eagerly expected. 
Job 29 : 23 ; Zech. 10 : 1. Storms in 
Palestine are ordinarily brought by the 
west or south-west wind. 1 Kgs. 18 : 
44; Luke 12: 54. 

Without question, this country was in 
Bible times better supplied with forests 
and orchards than now, and its climate 
was more humid and equable. The 
hills were generally terraced and pro- 
vided with reservoirs, as abundant ruins 
testify, and the sudden torrents, which 
now wash away what little soil they 
find, were, by these means and others, 
dispersed and absorbed by the ground. 
Man}' of the most rugged districts were 
covered with vineyards and olive-or- 
chards, so that Deut. 8 : 7-9 is but a lit- 
eral description of what the land once 
was, and, in particular localities, still 
remains. Unlimited extortion, in ad- 
dition to heavy taxes upon every crop 
and every tree, even to the oak upon the 
hills, the unrestrained pillage of the har- 
vests by Bedouins, with other causes, are 
fast abandoning this fertile land to de- 
nudation, drought, and the desert. 

Calendar of Labor. — There have been 
few changes in the art or instruments of 
agriculture in Western Asia since ancient 
times. The present tense may therefore 
ordinarily be used for the past. Plough- 
ing and sowing grain begin with the 

rainy season, and, as the ground does 
not freeze, continue, when the weather 
permits, till March. Then are sown the 
podded and garden plants, the melons, 
and all the crops which demand a warm- 
er soil. Barley-harvest quickly follows 
the cessation of the latter rain, and then 
wheat-harvest. The remaining crops 
having one after another been brought 
to perfection and gathered, the droughts 
of summer now end most agricultural 
operations till the ingathering of the 
fig, the olive, and the grape in August 
and September. Occasionally, during the 
busy season, the husbandman tents upon 
the land he cultivates. Ordinarily, his 
home is in some village or walled town, 
perhaps miles away from his farm. In 
the early morning he walks or rides to 
his labor, the patient ass or the camel 
bearing his light ploughs and other im- 
plements. Thus in the parable the 
" sower went forth to sow." So varied 
is the character of the soil and climate 
within short ranges as often greatly to 
prolong the season of planting and har- 
vesting. Grain frequently requires re- 
planting or replacing with other crops. 
Where there are permanent streams or 
opportunities for irrigation, sowing fol- 
lows harvest, crop succeeds crop through 
the entire year, and the promises of Lev. 
26 : 5 and Am. 9 : 13 are verified. 

Crops. — In this fertile soil, with an 
almost unparalleled variety of climate 
and exposure, between such points as 
Jericho, Hermon, and Gaza, there is op- 
portunity for the cultivation of nearly 
all plants either of the torrid or tempe- 
rate zones ; and we find in the Bible, for 
such a book, a very extended botanic 
list. The variety of cultivated species 
was, however, much less than now. 
Wheat, barley, millet, and spelt (not 
rye) were the only cereals. Beans and 
lentiles were staples, while flax, cucum- 
bers, fitches, cummin, and the onion fam- 
ily were often extensively cultivated. 
Jewish writers mention peas, lettuce, 
endives, and melons as ancient garden- 
plants. Fruit- and nut-bearing trees 
were cultivated for the most part within 

Methods and Instruments. — As popu- 
lation increased, irrigation, by conduct- 
ing water to the crops from brooks and 
reservoirs, became more common. The 
painful Egyptian labor of raising a sup- 



ply from a lower level was rarely neces- 
sary. Such passages as Jer. 9 : 22 show 
that the use of dung as manure was not 
uncommon. In Jer. 4 : 3 ; Hos. 10:12 
there is reference to the practice of leav- 
ing the land fallow for a time. The 
former passage, with many others, re- 
minds us of the great variety and abun- 
dance of thorny plants in Palestine, said 
to be one mark of a fertile soil. Rota- 
tion of crops seems to have been prac- 
tised to some extent. 

The instruments of agriculture are 
particularly described under their re- 
spective titles. Oriental ploughing does 
not turn a sod, but merely scratches the 
earth to the depth of three or four inches 
at most, which is all the primitive and 
light plough and the small cattle of the 
East can do. Often — always in the case 
of new ground — a second ploughing 
crosswise was practised; and this is re- 
ferred to by the word " break " in Isa. 
28:24. Steep hill-sides were prepared 
for planting with the mattock or hoe, an 
iron-pointed instrument of wood resem- 
bling in shape the modern "pick." Isa. 
7 : 25. Good farmers ploughed before the 

rains, that the moisture might be more 
abundantly absorbed. The seed, being 
scattered broadcast upon the soil, was 
ordinarily ploughed in, as is still the 
custom. Light harrowing, often with 
thorn-bushes, completed the process. 
In wet ground the seed was trampled in 
by cattle. Isa. 32 : 20. After its plant- 
ing there was commonly little further 
labor bestowed upon the crop till it was 
ready for the harvest. Weeds were re- 
moved by hand when it was safe to do 
so. Matt. 13 : 28, 29. Irrigation was 
sometimes necessary. As the ingather- 
ing drew near, the fields must be pro- 
tected by the watchman in his lodge 
from the wild boar and other beasts, and 
from human marauders. The newly- 
scattered seed and the ripening crop also 
required to be defended against great 
flocks of birds. Matt. 13 : 4. 

Grain when ripe was, in more ancient 
times, plucked up by the roots. Later, 
it was reaped by a sickle resembling our 
own, either the ears alone being cut off 
or the whole stalk. The sheaves were 
never made into shocks; but this word 
in Scripture use denotes merely a loose 

An Egyptian Threshin 

neap of them. Laborers, animals, or 
carts bore the harvest to the threshing- 
floor, where, as elsewhere described, the 
grain was separated from the ears and 
winnowed. More delicate seeds were 
beaten out with a stick. Isa. 28 : 27. 
Peculiarities. — Agriculture was recog- 

-Floor. (From Eiehm.) 

nized and regulated by the Mosaic law 
as the chief national occupation. Inalien- 
able ownership — under God — of the soil 
was a fundamental provision, and rent- 
ing the ground till the year of jubilee was 
alone possible. " The land shall not be 
sold for ever : for the land is mine ; for 



ye are strangers and sojourners with 
me." Lev. 25 : 8-16, 23-35. The en- 
couragement such a provision gave to 
agricultural improvements cannot be 

That the land must rest one year in 
seven was another remarkable and most 
beneficent requirement. Lev. 25 : 1-7. 
The Jews were forbidden to sow a field 
with divers seeds. Deut. 22 : 9. For 
example, wheat and lentiles must not 
be mixed, nor areas of them meet. The 
rabbis describe with minuteness how to 
vary the position of crops, yet avoid ac- 
tual contact between them, and prescribe 
at least three furrows' margin between 
such divers kinds. The yoking together 
of an ox and ass was prohibited, but is 
common enough among the present in- 
habitants. Horses were never used for 
farm -work. 

Vineyards are enclosed in walls, and 
gardens are usually protected in the 
same way, or by banks of mud taken 
from ditches. Otherwise, in agricultu- 
ral districts the absence of all fences or 
enclosures is, and always was, in striking 
contrast to our own practice. A brook 
or a cliff may serve as a boundary, but 
ordinarily large stones almost covered 
by the soil are the landmarks. Deut. 
19 : 14. Exceedingly beautiful to the 
eye are the vast fertile areas of Pales- 
tine, checkered only by cultivation. As 
cattle find pasture through most of the 
year, there are no proper barns to be 
seen. Grass is cut in watered places 
with a sickle for " soiling," and stock is 
fed. with this or with grain when the 
fields are dried up. More commonly, 
during periods of scarcity, the flocks 
and herds are driven to other feeding- 
grounds. Booths are sometimes pro- 
vided for inclement weather, and at 
night cattle are driven into caves or 

The permission to pluck and eat a 
neighbor's grapes or grain, but not to 
put the former in a vessel nor use a 
sickle on the latter, is not to be forgot- 
ten. Deut. 23 : 24, 25. There was also 
merciful provision that the poor might 
glean in the vineyard and harvest-field, 
and that something should be left for 
them. Lev. 19:9, 10; Deut. 24: 19. 

Altogether, the agricultural laws of the 
Pentateuch have been unapproached in 
their wisdom and beneficence by any 

similar legislation on record. See Gar- 
den, Mowing, Plough, Seasons, Thresh, 
Vines, etc. 
AGRIP'PA. See Herod (3, 4). 
A'GUR (an assembler, i. e. of wise 
men), a sage mentioned in Prov. 30: 1. 
Nothing is known of him. The rabbins 
identified him, but groundlessly, with 

A'HAB {father's brother). 1. Sev- 
enth king of Israel, B. c. 919-896. 1 
Kgs. 16 : 29. Son and successor of Omri. 
He reigned twenty-two years. His 
capital was Samaria. He married Jeze- 
bel, daughter of Ethbaal, king of Tyre, 
who had been priest of Astarte, but had 
seized the throne of his brother. Being 
a weak man, he was ruled by his am- 
bitious and daring wife. Idolatry was 
set up in Israel. Ahab built a temple 
to Baal in Samaria, and Jezebel main- 
tained at her own cost 400 prophets 
of Astarte. These were allowed to be- 
come the relentless persecutors of the 
servants of Jehovah, so that true relig- 
ion was almost extinct. In punishment 
God sent three years of drought. Eli- 
jah had prophesied this event, and at 
its termination appeared before the king, 
challenged the false prophets to a trial 
of power, demonstrated their feebleness, 
and caused them to be slain. Ahab was 
deeply impressed, and might have yield- 
ed, were it not for Jezebel, who threat- 
ened the life of Elijah, and by her en- 
ergy prevented a reaction in favor of 
'Jehovah. See Eltjah. Ahab had a taste 
! for splendid architecture : this he showed 
| by building an ivory palace and several 
j cities. But it was on the city of Jezreel he 
I seems to have spent the most attention. 
The desire to beautify it led to the af- 
fair of Naboth's vineyard. This he 
coveted, that he might add it to his 
pleasure-grounds in Jezreel. But Na- 
both refused to part with the land for 
money or in exchange, for he was for- 
bidden by the Levitical law. Lev. 25: 
] 23. Ahab took the refusal to heart. 
But the scheming Jezebel secured Na- 
both's murder under orders marked with 
Ahab's seal. And thus the land passed 
into his hands. See Naboth. The 
Lord by Elijah denounced Ahab and 
Jezebel, and foretold the extinction of 
their house. But Ahab's remorse and 
repentance secured the postponement 
I of the sentence. 1 Kgs. 21. 




Ahab fought three wars or campaigns 
with Ben-hadad II., king of Syria, in 
the first two of which, only a year apart, 
both defensive, he was victorious. The 
second victory put Ben-hadad into his 
hands, and he was able to exact very 
favorable terms of peace — viz. that 
all the Israelitish cities lost should be 
restored, and in Damascus Jewish of- 
ficials should be permanently settled in 
their own houses, in order that they 
might look after the interests of Ahab 
and his subjects. This is what is meant 
by making " streets " in Damascus. 
1 Kgs. 20 : 34. For letting Ben-hadad 
go he was strikingly rebuked by a 
prophet, and the failure of his hopes 
prophesied. It was indeed foolish, since 
no pledge had been given by Ben-hadad ; 
and ungrateful, because God, who had 
given the victory, was not consulted. 
For the next three years the kingdom 
had peace. But then Ahab in conjunc- 
tion with Jehoshaphat, king of Judah, his 
son-in-law, fought Ben-hadad the third 
time, in order to recover Kamoth-gilead, 
which Ahab claimed belonged to him. 
Lying prophets encouraged him in his 
enterprise, but at Jehoshaphat's request 
Micaiah, the prophet of Jehovah, was 
called, who foretold his death. Ahab 
in anger imprisoned Micaiah, but still 
was so impressed that he took the pre- 
caution to disguise himself; but a cer- 
tain man drew a bow at a venture and 
smote him, so that at eventide he died. 
His body was carried to Samaria ; the 
dogs licked up his blood as a servant 
washed it from the chariot. Thus the 
prophecy of Elijah was partially fulfilled, 
but more exactly in the case of his son. 
Ahab left three children by Jezebel, all 
of whom died violent deaths ; also, by 
other wives, seventy sons, who were 
slain by Jehu. 

2. Ahab, a false prophet, who de- 
ceived the captive Israelites in Bab- 
ylon, and was burnt by Nebuchad- 
nezzar, b. c. 594. Jer. 29 : 22. 

AHAR'AH (after the brother), the 
third son of Benjamin. 1 Chr. 8:1. 

AHAR'HEL (behind the breast- 
work), a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr. 

AHAS'AI (probably a contraction of 
Ahaziah, whom Jehovah holds), a priest, 
Neh. 11: 13 j called Jahzerah in 1 Chr. 


AHASBAI (/ will confide in Je- 
hovah), the father of one of David's 
warriors. 2 Sam. 23 : 34. 

AHASHVEROSH. Ezr. 4 : 6, 
margin : Hebrew form of Ahasuerus. 

AHASUE'RUS (probably lion- 
king), the Hebrew form of Xerxes, 
the name, or perhaps only the title, of 
one Median and two Persian kings men- 
tioned in the Old Testament. 

1. The father of Darius the Median, 
and the same with Astyages. Dan. 9 : 

2. Supposed to be the son and succes- 
sor of Cyrus, probably Cambyses, who 
reigned seven years and five months 
from b. c. 529. Ezr. 4 : 6. 

3. The husband of Esther, undoubted- 
ly the Xerxes of profane history. Esth. 
1:1. The story of his acts of caprice 
and cruelty recorded in the book of Es- 
ther agrees exactly with what we other- 
wise know of his character, for once he 
scourged the sea and beheaded the engi- 
neers because a storm carried away their 
bridge, and was guilty of many other 
crimes. In the third year of his reign 
he called a council of his nobles, very 
likely for the purpose of arranging the 
invasion of Greece. The meeting lasted 
six months, and was followed by a munif- 
icent feast, on the seventh day of which 
he commanded his queen, Vashti, to 
show herself unto his drunken nobles. 
This she properly refused to do, where- 
upon he deposed her. Four years after, 
he married Esther. The interval is ac- 
counted for by supposing the war with 
Greece intervened. See Esther. 

AHA'VA (water), a place or river 
where Ezra collected the returning ex- 
iles and proclaimed a fast. Ezr. 8: 15, 
21, 31. Rawlinson suggests that Aha- 
va was identical with Ava and Ivah, 
the modern Hit, on the Euphrates, east 
of Damascus. 

A'HAZ (possessor). 1. Eleventh king 
of Judah, son of Jotham, whom he suc- 
ceeded. 2 Kgs. 16: 2; 2 Chr. 28:1. He 
reigned sixteen years, B. c. 742-726. He 
was a gross idolater, and even sacrificed 
his children to the gods. He remodelled 
the temple to fit it for idolatrous rites. 
He kept chariot-horses dedicated to the 
sun. This course brought upon him 
and his kingdom severe judgments. 
God made them to flee before their ene- 
mies. Their allies often proved un- 



faithful, and involved them in great dis- 

Early in his reign, probably the sec- 
ond year, Pekah, king of Israel, and 
Rezin, king of Syria, who, just at the 
close of Jothain's reign, had confeder- 
ated for the destruction of Judah, in- 
vaded the kingdom with a powerful 
army and laid siege to Jerusalem. 

Isaiah foretold their overthrow and 
inspired the king. Isa. 7. But the 
allies, though defeated at Jerusalem, 
captured Elath, wasted Judah, and car- 
ried 200,000 into captivity ; the proph- 
et Oded caused these to be restored. 
Ahaz in his extremity made a league 
with Tilgath-pilneser, king of Assyria, 
who freed him from his enemies, but at 
the cost of the Judaic kingdom, which 
became tributar}', and Ahaz sent him 
all the treasures of the temple and his 
palace, and appeared before him in 
Damascus as a vassal. Neglecting the 
warnings of Isaiah, Hosea, and Micah, 
he ran to even greater excesses in idol- 
atry, and indeed so lowered himself in 
the popular esteem that when he died 
he was refused a burial with his royal 
ancestors. 2 Chr. 28:27. His only 
permanent service to his people was the 
introduction of the sun-dial, which was 
probably connected with the Assyrian 
astrology and necroman v. 

2. A son of Micah, the grandson of 
Jonathan. 1 Chr. 8 : 35, 36 ; 9 : 42. 

AHAZI'AH {whom Jehovah sus- 
tains). 1. The son and successor of 
Ahab, and eighth king of Israel, b. c. 
896-895. 1 Kgs. 22 : 40. He was an 
idolater, and for this reason, when he 
attempted to unite with Jehoshaphat 
in the gold-trade with Ophir, God 
caused the ships to be broken in port 
at Ezion-geber, not allowing this union 
between his friends and foes. See Je- 
hoshaphat. Under him Moab rebelled. 
A fall through a lattice, probably from 
the window of his chamber in his pal- 
ace in Samaria, occasioned his death. 
Characteristically, he sent to inquire at 
Ekron of Baal-zebub whether his injury 
would be fatal. Elijah met the messen- 
gers and told them that he would die. 
The king sent to take Elijah, and thus 
two companies of soldiers were destroy- 
ed. But with the third, Elijah went 
and told the king in person of his 
speedy death. 2 Kgs. 1. 

2. Called also Azariah, 2 Chr. 22:6, 
and Jehoahaz, 2 Chr. 21 : 17, was a son 
of Jehorain and Athaliah, and fifth king 
of Judah, and at the age of twenty-two 
suceeedel his father as king of Judah. 
' 2 Kgs. 8 : 25. lie continued the idol- 
atry of the house of Ahab, and was 
governed by the advice of his infamous 
mother. His reign lasted only one 
year, b. c. 884. He allied himself with 
i his uncle, Jehoram, king of Israel, and 
; attacked Hazael, king of Syria, who de- 
! feated them at Ramoth-gilead. Je- 
: borani was severely wounded and car- 
ried to his palace in Jezreel. There 
; Ahaziah visited him. Israel meanwhile 
' rebelled under Jehu. The two kings 
| went out to meet him, and Jehu killed 
i Jehoram. Ahaziah fled, and was pur- 
sued to the pass of Gur, where he was 
mortally wounded, but escaped, and died 
at Megiddo. In this way the slightly 
! differing accounts, 2 Kgs. 9 : 27 and 2 
i Chr. 22 : 9, can be reconciled. 

AH'BAJf {brother of the wise), a de- 
scendant of Judah. 1 Chr. 2 : 29. 

A'HER {after, following), a Benja- 
mite. 1 Chr. 7 : 12. 

A'HI {brother). 1. A Gadite. 1 Chr. 

2. An Asherite. 1 Chr. 7 : 34. 
AHI'AH {friend of Jehovah). I. 
Supposed by some to be the same with 
Ahiraelech, 1 Sam. 21 : 1, was the son of 
Ahitub, and his successor in the priest's 
office. 1 Sam. 14 : 3, 18. See Ahim- 
elech and Ahitub. 

2. The son of Shisha, one of Solomon's 
scribes or secretaries. 1 Kgs. 4 : 3. 

3. A descendant of Benjamin. 1 Chr. 

AHI'AM {father's brother), one of 
David's warriors. 2 Sam. 23 : 33 ; 1 
Chr. 11 : 35. 

AHI'AN {brotherly), a son of Shemi- 
dah. 1 Chr. 7:19. 

AHIE'ZER {brother of help). I. 
A prince of Dan. Num. 1 : 12 • 2:25; 
7 : 66 ; 10 : 25. 

2. A Benjamite chief who joined Da- 
; vid. 1 Chr. 12:3. 

AHI'HUD {brother, i. e. friend, of 
| Judah, i. e. renown), the prince of the 
1 tribe of Asher. Num. 34 : 27. 

AHI'HUD (different name in He- 
brew from the above, brother of union), a 
descendant of Benjamin. 1 Chr. 8:7. 
AHI'JAH {brother, i.e. friend, ofje- 



hovah). 1. A prominent prophet, called 
the Shilonite from his place of residence, 
who foretold to Jeroboam the disruption 
of the kingdom and the assignment of 
the ten tribes to him. 1 Kgs. 11 : 29-39. 
The prophecy is referred to 1 Kgs. 12 : 
15 ; 2 Chr. 10 : 15. To the wife of Jero- 
boam the same prophet subsequently 
announced not only the fate of the sick 
child, but that of the nation. 1 Kgs. 
14:1-18. A part of this latter proph- 
ecy Baasha realized. 1 Kgs. 15 : 29. He 
left annals of Solomon's reign. 2 Chr. 

2. The father of Baasha, the king. 1 
Kgs. 15 : 27, 33 ; 21 : 22 ; 2 Kgs. 9 : 9. 

3. A descendant of Judah. 1 Chr. 

4. One of David's " valiant men." 1 
Chr. 11 : 36. 

5. The Levite " over the treasures of 
the house of God and . . . the dedicated 
things." 1 Chr. 26 : 20. 

6. One who sealed the covenant. Neh. 

AIII'KAIM {brother of the enemy), 
a son of Shaphan, and the father of 
Gedaliah, was an officer at the court of 
Josiah and Jehoiakim, and one of those 
whom Josiah sent to Huldah the proph- 
etess to inquire of her concerning the 
book of the law which had been found 
in the temple. 2 Kgs. 22 : 12. He after- 
ward protected the prophet Jeremiah. 
Jer. 26 : 24. See Jeremiah. 

AHI'IjUD {brother of one born, sc. 
before him), the father of Jehoshaphat, 
the official recorder of the reigns of 
David and Solomon. 2 Sam. 8 : 16 ; 20 : 
24; 1 Kgs. 4:3; 1 Chr. 18:15. The 
father likewise, in all probability, of 
Baana, one of Solomon's twelve com- 
missariat officers. 1 Kgs. 4:12. 

AHIM'AAZ {brother of wrath). 1. 
The father of Saul's wife Ahinoam. 1 
Sam. 14 : 50. 

2. Son and successor of Zadok the 

During the revolt of Absalom, Za- 
dok and Abiathar, the high priests, stay- 
ed in Jerusalem with Hushai, David's 
friend; while Ahimaaz and Jonathan, 
the son of Abiathar, stationed them- 
selves at En-rogel, a short distance from 
the city, and the plot was that all that 
Hushai should hear respecting Absa- 
lom's plans he should communicate to 
Zadok and Abiathar, and they to their 

sons Ahimaaz and Jonathan, by whom 
the intelligence should be communicated 
to David. 2 Sam. 15 : 36. As soon as 
Absalom had rejected the counsel of 
Ahithophel, and adopted that of Hushai, 
Zadok and Abiathar were promptly in- 
formed of it, and directed their sons to 
go with all possible haste to David and 
tell him to cross Jordan at once. A 
woman bore the message. Seeing her 
speak to the men, and noticing that 
they ran off with haste, a lad informed 
Absalom of the suspicious event, and 
accordingly he ordered a pursuit. When 
they came to Bahurim, they concealed 
themselves in a well. The woman of the 
house covered the mouth of the well 
with a blanket, on which she spread corn 
to dry ; and when Absalom's messengers 
came up in the pursuit, and inquired 
where they were, she told them that 
the young men had passed on. Thus 
they escaped, and while their pursuers 
returned to Jerusalem they hastened 
to David with their message. 2 Sam. 
17 : 15-22. 

At his own urgent request, Ahimaaz 
was employed to carry the intelligence 
of Absalom's death to David, his father. 
He outran Cushi, who had been previ- 
ously despatched on the same errand. 
Before he had delivered his message, 
however, Cushi came up, and made 
known the sad event. 2 Sam. 18 : 19-33. 
See David. 

3. A son-in-law of Solomon, and one 
of his commissariat officers. 1 Kgs. 4 

AHI'MAN {brother of a gift). 1 
One of three Hebronitic Anakim, Num 
13 : 22, defeated and killed by' Caleb 
with the help of- Judah. Josh. 15:14; 
Jud. 1:10. 

2. A Levite porter. 1 Chr. 9 : 17. 

AHIM'ELECH {brother or friend 
of the king). 1. The son of Ahitub, and 
his successor in the priesthood at 
Nob. 1 Sam 21 : 1. He gave David 
some of the shew-bread and the sword 
of Goliath when he fled from Saul. 
For this offence he and all the priests at 
Nob were slain at the instigation of 
Doeg the Edomite. 1 Sam. 22 : 11. 
See Abiathar. 

2. A Hittite who was one of David's 
friends during his flight from Saul. 
1 Sam. 26:6. 

AHI'MOTH {brother of death), a 



Kohathite, 1 Chr. 6 : 25; called in v. 35, 

AHIX'ADAB (brother of the noble, 
i. e. noble brother), one of Solomon's 
commissariat officers. 1 Kgs. 4 : 14. 
See Abiatiiau. 

AHIN'OAM (brother of pleasant- 
ness, i. a. pleasant). 1. The daughter of 
Ahimaaz, and the wife of Saul. J Sam. 
14 : 50. 

2. A woman of Jezreel, and one of 
David's wives. 1 Sam. 25 : 43. She 
was taken captive by the Amalekites 
in the siege of Ziklag, and afterward 
rescued from captivity by David. 1 
Sam. 30 : 5, 18. She 'lived with him 
while he was king of Judah in Hebron, 
and was the mother of Amnon, his eld- 
est son. 2 Sam. 2:2; 3:2: 1 Chr. 3:1. 

AHI'O (brotherly). 1. A son of 
Abinadab, who, with his brother Uz- 
zah, was intrusted by David with the 
transportation of the ark from Kirjath- 
jearim to Jerusalem. 2 Sam. 6:3; 1 
Chr. 13 : 7. See Uzzah. 

2. A Benjamite. 1 Chr. 8 : 14. 

3. Another Benjamite. 1 Chr. 8:31; 
9 : 37. 

AHI'RA (brother of evil), the prince 
of the tribe of Naphtali. Num. 1 : 15 ; 
2:29: 7:78, 83: 10:27. 

AHI'RAM [brother of the high), a 
son of Benjamin, Num. 23:38; called 
Ehi in Gen. 48:21, and was possibly 
the same as Aher. 1 Chr. 7:12. His 
descendants were called Ahiramites. 
Num. 26:38. 

AHIS'AMACH (brother of sup- 
port), a Danite, the father of Aholiab, 
one of the architects of the tabernacle. 
Ex. 31: (3: 35:31: 38:23. 

AHISH'AHAR (brother of the 
dawn), a great-grandson of Benjamin. 
1 Chr. 7:10. 

AHI'SHAR (brother of the singer), 
the controller of Solomon's household. 
1 Kgs. 4 : (). 

AHITH'OPHEL (brother of fool- 
ishness), a native of Giloh, and the 
familiar frien 1, companion, and coun- 
sellor of David. Ps. 55 : 12-14; 2 Sam. 
15 : 12; 1 Chr. 27 : 33. He was the 
grandfather of Bath-sheba. Cf. 2 Sam. 
11 : 3 with 23 : 31. His wisdom seemed 
superhuman. 2 Sam. 16 : 23. Absalom 
persuaded him t > join in the conspiracy 
against his father, David ; but the cun- 
ning measures which Ahithophel pro- 

j posed for the accomplishment of Absa- 
lom's ambitious plans were all defeated 
■ by the counsel of Hushai. Ahithophel, 
I seeing that the probable issue would be 
the utter ruin of Absalom and his cause, 
which would almost necessarily involve 
his own destruction, returned at once 
to Giloh and hanged himself. 2 Sam. 
17 : 23. 

AHI'TUB (brother of goodness). 1. 
The son of Phinehas, and grandson 
of Eli. 1 Sam. 14 : 3. Some suppose 
that he succeeded Eli in the priesthood. 
See Ahimelech. 

2. The son of Amariah, and the father 
of Zadok. 1 Chr. 6 : 8. 

AH'LAB (fatness, fertility), a 

town iu Asher held by the Canaaaites, 

J Jud. 1:31; probably the place known 

: later as Gush Halab or Ghaleb, and 

' which Robinson locates at el-Jish, near 

Set fed, north-west of the Sea of Galilee. 

AH'IiAI (would God !), daughter of 
| Sheshan ; married to his slave Jarha : an- 
cestress of one of David's mighty men. 
1 Chr. 2:31, 34, 35; 11:41. 

AHO'AH (friendship of Jehovah?), 
a grandson of Benjamin. 1 Chr. 8:4. 

AHO'HITE, from Ahoah, a pa- 
tronymic of some of David's warriors. 

AHO'LAH (her tent), AND 
AHOL'IBAH (my tabernacle in 
her), the names of imaginary harlots; 
symbolically used for Samaria and Je- 
rusalem. Eze. 23 : 4, 5, 36, 44. 

AHO'LIAB (tent of his father), 
son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan, 
who, with Bezaleel, was divinely ap- 
pointed to construct the tabernacle and 
its furniture. Ex. 35 : 34. 

AHOLIB'AMAH (tent of the 
height). 1. A wife of Esau, and daugh- 
ter of Anah, Gen. 36 : 2, etc. She was 
the same with Judith, daughter of 
Beeri. 26 : 34. Judith was perhaps 
her original name. 

2. The name appears in the genea- 
logical list, Gen. 36 : 41 ; 1 Chr. 1 • 52, 
but it is the name of a district, and not 
of a person. 

AHU'MAI (brother of water, i. e. 
pusillanimous), a descendant of Judah. 
1 Chr. 4 : 2. 

AHU'ZAM (their possession), the 
son of Ash'ir. 1 Chr. 4:6. 

AHUZ'ZATH (possession), a par- 
ticular frien I of Abimelech, king of 
Gerar, who attended him when he met 



Isaac, and made a treaty with him at 
Beer-sheba. Gen. 26 : 26. 

A'l {heap of ruins). 1. A city of the 
Canaanites, Gen. 13 : 3 ; taken by Joshua, 
Josh. 7 : 2-5 ; 8 : 1-29 ; also called Aiath, 
Isa. 10 : 28, and Aija. Neh. 11 : 31. 
Abraham pitched his tent between Hai 
and Betbel. Gen. 12 : 8. The two cities 
were so far apart that Joshua could 
place an ambush west of Ai unseen by 
tbe men of Betbel, while he was in the 
valley north of Ai. The city of Ai was 
east of Bethel, and about 9 miles north 
of Jerusalem. It is named 38 times in 
the Bible. It is now Haiyan. 

2. A city of the Ammonites not far 
from Heshbon. Jer. 49 : 3. 

AI'AH (hawk). 1. The father of 
Rizpah, Saul's concubine. 2 Sam. 3 : 
7; 21:8,10,11. 

2. The son of Zibeon, 1 Chr. 1 : 40 ; 
called Ajah in Gen. 36 : 24. 

' AIATH. Isa. 10 : 28. Feminine 
form of Ai, and probably the same as 

AI'JA. Neh. 11 : 31. See Ai. 

AIJ'ALOIV. See Ajalox. 

of the dawn). These words occur in the 
title to Ps. 22, and probably "indicate, 
not the subject-matter of the poem, but 
rather a time for the guidance of the 
precentor." " There was some poem or 
lyrical composition extant which bore 
the name of Aijeleth Shahar — similar 
names have frequently been given to 
poems in the East — and according to the 
well-known measure of that the chief 
musician was to sing or chant the 
psalm." — Avrr: Treasury of Bible 

A'lN (eye. spring). 1. A place, or 
pi-obably a fountain, and one of the 
landmarks on the eastern boundary of 
Canaan. Num. 34: 11. It is now known 
as Ain el-Azy, a remarkable spring, one 
of the sources of the Orontes, and about 
10 miles west of Riblah. 

2. A city of southern Palestine, first 
given to Judah, Josh. 15 : 32. afterward 
assigned to Simeon, Josh. 19 : 7, and 
then to the Levites, Josh. 21 : 16 ; 1 
Chr. 4 : 32. The same place as Ashan, 1 
Chr. 6 : 59, and possibly as En-rimmon. 
Neh. 11 : 29. 

A' J AH. See Aiah. 

AJ'ALON (place of gazelles). 1. A 
Levitical city of Dan, Josh. 19 : 42 ; given 

to the Kohathites, Josh. 21 : 24 ; held by 
the Amorites, Jud. 1 : 35 : noticed in the 
wars with the Philistines, 1 Sam. 14 : 
31; 2 Chr. 28:18; fortified by Reho- 
boam, 2 Chr. 11 : 10 ; then in the terri- 
tory of Benjamin, as the Danites had 
extended their territory farther north. 
See Jud. 18 : 1. Being on the border of 
the two kingdoms, it is sometimes men- 
tioned as in Ephraim, 1 Chr. 6 : 66, 69, 
and sometimes as in Judah and Benja- 
min. 2 Chr. 11 : 10 ; 28 : 18. Its modern 
name is Yalo, a small village about 14 
miles west of Jerusalem, and north of 
the Jaffa road. 

2. A valley, Josh. 10 : 12, near the 
above city, now called Merj Ibn Omeir, 
which is broad and very beautiful. There 
Joshua fought a great battle. SeeGiBKON. 

3. A town in Zebulun. possibly named 
after Elon the judge, who was buried 
there. Jud. 12 : 12. Its site may be 
the modern Jalun. 

A 'KAN (sharp-sighted ?), a descend- 
ant of Esau, Gen. 36:27; calkd Jakan 
in 1 Chr. 1 : 42. 

AK'KUB (insidious). 1. A descend- 
ant of David. 1 Chr. 3 : 24. 

2. One of the porters at the east gate 
of the temple. 1 Chr. 9 : 17: Ezr. 2 : 

| 42; Neh. 7:45: 11:19; 12:25. 

3. One of the Nethinim whose fam- 
I ily returned with Zerubbabel. Ezr. 2 : 
: 45. 

4. A Levite who assisted Ezra in 
j explaining the law. Neh. 8 : 7. 

AKRAB'BIM (scorpions), a range 
i of hills on the southern boundary of 
Judah, Num. 34 : 4 ; Josh. 15 : 3, and on 
the border of the territory of the Amor- 
ites. Jud. 1 : 36. The "ascent of" 
and the "going up to" Akrabbiin is 
I the famous " Scorpion Pass," where the 
i route from Petra to Hebron passes out 
1 of the Ghor, or Wady, el-Fikreh. At 
; the upper end of this winding valley. 
I 10 miles from Maderah, is a wild ascent 
now called Nakb Kareb, which is regard- 
! ed as the ancient Akrabbim or " Scorpion 
Pass." Scorpions still abound in the 
region. It was also called Maaleh- 
acrabbim. Josh. 15 : 3. 

AI/ABASTER. Matt. 26 : 7. A 
white mineral, easily carved and sus- 
ceptible of a fine polish. It was of two 
distinct kinds. One was a pure variety 
of gypsum or sulphate of lime, the rock 
which is often ground into plaster of 



Paris ; the other kind was carbon- 
ate of lime, a mineral of the same 
chemical composition as most of the 
marbles. It was highly valued for its 
translucency and for its variety of red- 
dish or grayish streakings. The name 
"alabaster" is from Alabastron, in 
Egypt, where this material was found, 
and where vessels were manufactured 
from it for holding perfumes. Vases 
of the same mineral for containing 
ointments or cosmetics were found at 
Nineveh by Mr. Layard. The well- 
known sculptured slabs from that city 
are of alabaster of the gypsum kind. 
The druggists in Egypt at the present 

Alabaster Vases. (From the British Museum.) 
The inscription on the centre vessel denotes the quantity it holds, 

day use vessels of this substance for the 
purpose of keeping medicines and per- 
fumes. Theocritus, an ancient profane 
historian, speaks of gilded alabasters 
of Syrian ointment. The phrase " she 
brake the box," used Mark 14 : 3, is 
supposed to mean that she broke the 
slender neck of the sealed bottle or 
pitcher. Thus the offering was very 
costly and appropriate. Box was for- 
merly used in a more general sense than 
now. The word is said to come from 
the wood of the same name, and at first 
was used for any vessel formed from 
that material. 

AL'AMETH (covering), another 
form of Alemeth, which see. 1 Chr. 

ALAMMELECH [king's oak), a 

place in Asher. Josh. 19 : 26. The 
name seems to be preserved in the 
Wady Melik, which joins the Kishon 
not far from the sea and near Mt. 

ALEMETH (covering), a Benjam- 
ite. 1 Chr. 8:36; 9:42. 

METH, the same as Alameth (cover- 
ing), a Levitical city of Benjamin, 1 Chr. 
6 : 60; called also Almon, Josh. 21 : 18; 
probably the modern Almit, 4 miles 
north-east of Jerusalem, and about 1 
mile north-east of Anata, the ancient 

ALEXANDER (man-defender). 1. 
The son of Simon the Cyrenian. 
Mark 15: 21. 

2. A distinguished Jew who, 
with others, took part against 
Peter and John. Acts 4: 6. 

3. A Jew of Ephesus who took 
a conspicuous part in the contro- 
versy between Paul and the popu- 
lace of that city, and attempted, 
without success, to quell the com- 
motion. Acts 19 : 33. 

4. A coppersmith and apostate 
from Christianity, whom Paul 
mentions in terms of severe re- 
proach. 1 Tim. 1 : 19. 20 and 2 
Tim. 4 : 14. 

GREAT, the famous king of 
Macedonia and conqueror, died 
B.C. 323. He brought Europe and 
Asia into contact, made the Greek 
the ruling language of civiliza- 
tion, and thus unconsciously pre- 

pared the way for the spiritual conquest 
of the gospel. He is not mentioned by 
name in the canonical books, but in the 
Apocrypha, 1 Mace. 1 : 1-9 ; 6 : 2, and 

Head of Alexander the Great. (On a coin of 
Lysimachus, kinj of Thrace.) 

is meant in the prophecies of Daniel, 
where he is represented first as the 
belly of brass in Nebuchadnezzar's 



dream of the colossal statue, 2 : 39, and 
then in the vision of Daniel, under the 
figures of a leopard with four wings, 
and a one-horned he-goat, to indicate 
his great strength and the swiftness of 
his conquests, 7:6; 8:5-7; 11 : 3, 4. 
He succeeded his father, Philip, b. c. 
336, conquered Syria, Palestine, Egypt, 
destroyed the Persian empire and sub- 
stituted the Grecian, but died at the age 
of 32, from the effects of intemperance, 
in Babylon, and was buried in Alexan- 
dria, which he had founded, b. c. 332. 
His conquests were divided among his 
four generals. Josephus relates that 
after the siege of Tyre he visited Jeru- 
salem ; and being shown the prophecy 
of Daniel concerning himself, he grant- 
ed the Jews everywhere the most im- 
portant privileges. But the heathen 
historians ignore this event. 

ALEXANDRIA, the Grecian cap- 
ital of Egypt, founded by and named 
after Alexander the Great, B. c. 332. 

Situation. — It was a noted seaport of 
Lower Egypt, and was situated on a 
low, narrow tract of land which divides 
Lake Mareotis from the Mediterranean, 
and near the western mouth of the Nile, 
about 120 miles from the present city 
of Cairo. 

History. — Soon after its foundation by 
Alexander it became the capital of the 
Ptolemies and the Grecian kings reign- 
ing in Egypt, and one of the most pop- 
ulous and prosperous cities of the East. 
Its harbor could accommodate vast na- 
vies, fitting it to become the commercial 
metropolis of the entire Eastern world. 
In front of the city, on the island of 
Pharos, stood a famous light-house, 
named after the island and noted as one 
of the Seven Wonders of the world. 
Alexandria numbered, in the days of 
its ancient prosperity, 600,000 inhabit- 
ants (half of them slaves), and ranked 
next to Athens in literature. It had the 
greatest library of ancient times, which 
contained upward of 700,000 rolls or 
volumes. The portion in the museum, 
consisting of 400,000 volumes, was 
burnt in B. c. 47. The additional or 
" new library " in the Serapeum, after- 
ward increased to about 500,000 vol- 
umes, including the original 300,000 
volumes, was destroyed by the fanatical 
vandalism of the Saracens in A. D. 640. 
A* Alexandria the O. T. was translated 

into the Greek by seventy learned Jews 
(hence called the " Septuagint), in the 
third century before the Christian era. 
The Alexandrian Greek dialect, known 
as Hellenistic Greek, was the language 
used by the early Christian fathers, and 
is still the study of the biblical scholar 
in the pages of the N. T. Alexandria was 
the birthplace of Apollos, Acts 18 : 24, 
and in the apostle Paul's time, it carried 
on an extensive commerce with the coun- 
tries on the Mediterranean. Acts 6:9; 
27 : 6 ; 28 : 11. The city was the home 
of Philo, who there blended the Mosaic 
religion with the philosophy of Plato. 
Mark founded there a Christian church, 
which in later years became a patri- 
archal see, outranking Jerusalem and 
Antioch, being itself afterward out- 
ranked by Constantinople and Rome. In 
its catechetical school — the theological 
seminary of those days — Clement and 
Origen taught the Christian religion, in 
opposition to the false philosophy of 
the Gnostic sects. In Alexandria 
originated the Arian heresy denying 
that Jesus Christ was divine, and there 
Athanasius, the " father of orthodoxy," 
firmly opposed the false and defended 
the true doctrine of the deity of our 
Lord. From a. d. 300 to 600' the city 
was second only to Rome in size and 
importance, and was the chief seat of 
Christian theology. It was conquered 
by the Saracens under Caliph Omar 
about A. D. 640, when it began to decline. 
The rising importance of Constanti- 
nople, and the discovery of an ocean 
passage to India by way of Cape Good 
Hope, contributed to its further ruin, 
until it was reduced from a prosperous 
city of half a million to a poor village 
of only 5000 to 6000 inhabitants. The 
plan of Alexandria on the next page is 
taken from Fairbairn's Imperial Dic- 
tionary of the Bible. 

Present Condition. — It is now an im- 
portant city of 240,000 inhabitants (in- 
cluding 50,000 Franks), and is connected 
with Cairo by a railway, and also with 
Suez, on the Red Sea. The city has a 
new artificial harbor with a breakwater 
two miles long. Among the ancient 
monuments to be seen are the Cata- 
combs, the Column of Diocletian, 94 
feet high and named " Pompey's Pil- 
lar" — not from the famous Pompey, but 
from a Roman prefect who erected the 




column in honor of the emperor Diocle- 
tian — and one of the two obelisks or 
"Needles of Cleopatra," which, however, 
belong to the time of the Pharaohs and 
were brought from Heliopolis. One was 
transferred to London in 187S, and now 
adorns the embankment of the Thames; 
the other is to be removed to the city of 
New York (18S0). 

ALEXANDRIANS. Acts 6 : 9. 
Jews from Alexandria at Jerusalem, 
where they had a synagogue by them- 
selves, or perhaps the Libertines and 
Cyrenians worshipped with them. 

AL'GUM. See Almug. 

ALI'AH (wickedness). See Alvah. 

ALI'AN (tall). 1 Chr. 1 : 40. See 

A'LIEN. See Stranger. 

AL'LEGORY. Gal. 4:24. A fig- 
ure of speech, nearly resembling the 
parable or fable, common in the Scrip- 
tures and among all Oriental nations. 
It properly means a figurative speech 
which, under the literal sense of the 
words, conveys a deeper spiritual mean- 
ing. But the literal or historic sense 
is not necessarily denied. Paul gives 
two examples of allegorical interpreta- 

tion — the rock in the wilderness of 
which the Israelites did drink, and which 
spiritually or mystically means Christ, 
1 Cor. 10:4; and the story of Hagar 
and Sarah. Gal. 4 : 24, 25. In v. 25 the 
best critical authorities leave out "Agar," 
and thus rid the verse of much of its dif- 
ficulty, for it is not asserted that Agar 
is. but that Sinai is, a mountain in Ara- 
bia. See Parable. 

ALLELU'I A , Rev. 19 : 1 , or HAL- 
LELU'JAH, a Hebrew word signify- 
ing Praise ye the Lord. It was a com- 
mon exclamation of joy and praise in 
the Jewish worship, and begins and con- 
cludes several of the Psalms, as 106, 111, 
112, 113, 117, and 135. The Psalms 113 
to 118 constituted, according to Jewish 
enumeration, the Hallel, which was 
sung on the first of the month and at 
the Feasts of Dedication, Tabernacles, 
Weeks, and of the Passover. 

ALLI'ANCE. The Jews were in 
intention a peculiar people, designed to 
live apart from all other nations. But 
they frustrated this design, and leagued 
themselves in offensive and defensive 
treaties with the surrounding govern- 
ments. We know so little of the details 



of these affairs that we cannot always 
be sure just when they took place. But 
it is noticeable that the decay of the 
Jewish state in purity is synchronous 
with a desire to receive outside help. 
They left God for man. Before the state 
arose, alliances were indeed formed by 
the patriarchs, Gen. 21 : 27-32; 26 : 28, 
29 ; 31 : 44-54, but they were of very lim- 
ited extent. When the Israelites invad- 
ed Palestine they were forbidden to ally 
themselves with the inhabitants, but the 
Gibeonites fraudulently made a treaty 
with them, to which Israel abode faith- 
ful. Josh. 9. David and Solomon made 
an alliance with Tyre, 2 Sam. 5 : 11 ; 

1 Kgs. 5 : 1-12, but it was for pacific 
ends. When, however, the disruption 
took place, both Judah and Israel look- 
ed to neighboring states for assistance 
in their " intestine internecine wars." 
By means of these foreigners idolatry 
was introduced, the national purity 
eventually destroyed, and the anger of 
God thus excited. 

Alliances were made by an oath be- 
tween the parties, who in solemn fashion 
passed between the parts of an equally- 
divided victim. Gen. 15:10; Jer. 34: 
18-20. A feast followed. Gen. 28 : 30 : 

2 Sam. 3 : 20. Salt, symbol of fidelity 
to this day in the East, was used ; hence 
the phrase "covenant of salt." Num. 
18 : 19 ; 2 Chr. 13 : 5. Once made, these 
alliances must not be broken, Josh. 9: 
18; the punishment for so doing was 
severe. 2 Sam. 21 : 1 ; Eze. 17 : 16. 

AI/JjON (an oak), a place on the 
boundary of Naphtali, Josh. 19 : 33 ; 
probably should be rendered the " oak- 
forest." See Zaanannim. 

AI/JjGN (an oak), the son of Je- 
daiah. 1 Chr. 4:37. 

weeping), an oak tree near Bethel, under 
which Deborah, Bebekah's nurse, was 
buried. Gen. 35: 8. 

ALMO'DAD (immeasurable), the 
Joktanite. Geo. 10:26; 1 Chr. 1: 20. 

ALMON. Josh. 21 : 18. See Ale- 


AI/MOND (Amygdnhi*) communis), 
a tree resembling the peach in size, leaf, 
flower, and fruit. The fruit is green, 
almost pulpless, and shrivels off in Sep- 
tember, leaving the nuts, for which the 
tree is chiefly valued, and which the sons 
of Jacob carried down to the governor 

of Egypt, a country where almonds seem 
to have been rare. Gen. 43: 11. "Hazel," 
in Gen. 30 : 37, probably denotes this 
tree. The bowls of the sacred candle- 
stick were made like unto almonds, Ex. 
25 : 33, by which name of " almonds " 
English workmen to this day call the 
pieces of glass used to ornament branch- 
candlesticks. Aaron's rod that budded 
yielded this fruit. Num. 17 : 8. 

In January, before flowers appear oe 
other trees, they adorn the naked twigs 
of the almond. Hence the allusion of 
the poet: 

" The hope, in dreams of a happier hour, 
That alights on Misery's brow, 
Springs out of the silvery almond-flower, 
That blooms on a leafless beugh." 

The Hebrew name for this tree, doubt- 
less suggested by its early blooming, 
means hasten, which explains Jer. 1:11, 
12 : •' The word of the Lord came unto 
me, saying, Jeremiah, what seest thou ? 
And I said, I see a rod of an almond 
[hasten'] tree. Then said the Lord unto 
me, Thou hast well seen : for I will 
hasten my word to perform it." The 
allusion in Eccl. 12 : 5 is by some 
thought to refer to the beautiful resem- 
blance of the almond tree when in blos- 
som to a hoary head. But as these 

Almond. (Frovi Wm. Smith. ) 

flowers, though white in contrast with 
peach-bloom, are still pinkish, the opin- 
ion now prevails that " as the almond 
ushers in the spring, so do the signs re- 
ferred to in the context indicate the 
hastening of old age and death." 




(hiding of the two Jig-cakes), one of the 

halting-places of the Israelites near 
the river Arnon ; probably the same as 
Beth-diblathaim. Num.* 33 : 46, 47; 
Jer 48 • 22. 

word is not found in the Authorized 
Version of the Old Testament, but is 
frequent in the New Testament. The 
duty was, however, enjoined very strict- 
ly upon the Jews, who by law were re- 
quired always to leave gleanings in the 
fields that the poor might be fed. Lev. 
19 : 9, 10 ; 23 : 22 : Deut. 15 : 11 ; 24 : 
19; 26:2-13; Ruth 2 : 2. Every third 
year the tithe of the produce of the 
farmers was to be shared with the • 
Levite, the fatherless, the stranger, and 
the widow. Deut. 14 : 23. Alms-giving 
is a subject of praise in the Old Testa- 
ment; e.g. Job 31:17; Ps. 41:1 and 
112 : 9. In the temple there was one box 
for the reception of alms to be dedicated 
to the education of the poor children of 
good family. Alms-giving was a part of 
Pharisaic practice. Our Lord did not 
rebuke them for it, but for their self- 
satisfaction in the performance. Matt. 
6:2. In Acts 10 : 31 ; Rom. 15 : 25-27 ; 
1 Cor. 16 : 1-4 the Christian mode of re- 
lieving the wants of others is set forth. 

AI/MUG TREES, 1 Kgs. 10:11, 
AL'GUM TREES, 2 Chr. 2:8; 9: 
10, 11. Two forms of the same word. 
A precious wood used for musical in- 
struments or cabinet-work. Being or- 
dered by Solomon, it was brought from 
Ophir to Tyre, and thence with cedar of 
Lebanon to Jerusalem. As to what 
almug-wood was there are many theo- 
ries, but some of the best authorities 
believe it to have been the red sandal- 
wood of India. 

AI/OES. Ps. 45:8; Song Sol. 4: 
14. We may infer that aloes was some 
fragrant and costly wood or gum entire- 
ly different from the medicine which we 
know by that name. It is believed to 
have been brought from India, and was 
used in embalming the dead. John 19 : 

Lign- aloes — that is, wood-aloes, Num. 
24: 6 — is a translation of the same He- 
brew word, but probably means a differ- 
ent plant. Balaam appears to refer to 
a well-known tree whose qualities might 
illustrate the condition of the Israelites 

— possibly, to some kind of odoriferous 

Aloes (Aquilaria agallocha. After Dr. Birdwood.) 

A'LOTH, a district in charge of 
Baanah, one of Solomon's officers ; per- 
haps it should be Bealoth. 1 Kgs. 4 : 
16; possibly, Alia, near Malta. 

ALTHA. See A and 0. 

ALPHEUS (exchange ?). 1. The 
father of the apostle James the Less, 
Matt. 10 : 3, and husband or father of 
Mary. John 19 : 25. Others make him 
the uncle of Jesus by identifying him 
with Cleophasand calling his wife a sister 
of the mother of Jesus; but it is more 
likely that "the sister of the mother of 
Jesus," mentioned John 19 : 25, was 
Salome, the mother of John, who was at 
the cross, according to the svnoptical 
Gospels. Matt. 27 : 36 ; Mark'l5 : 40. 

2. The father of Levi or Matthew. 
Mark 2 : 14. 

ALTAR. Gen. 8:20. A structure 
appropriated exclusively to the offering 
of sacrifices, under the Jewish law. 
See Sacrifices. Though sacrifices were 
offered before the Flood, the word altar 
does not occur until the time of Noah's 
departure from the ark. 

Altars were of various forms, and at 
first rude in their construction, being 
nothing more, probably, than a square 
heap of stones or mound of earth. 
The altar on which Jacob made an of- 
fering at Bethel was the single stone 
which had served him for a pillow dur- 
ing the night. Gen. 28 : 18. Primarily 
for sacrifice, they seem at times to have 
been built for a witness merely, to mark 
the spot of God's appearance or other 



memorable event. Gen. 12 : 7 ; Ex. 17 : 
15, 16; Josh. 22:10-29. The altar 
which Moses was commanded to build, 
Ex. 20 : 24, was to be made of earth. 
If made of stone, it was expi-essly re- 
quired to be rough, the use of a tool 
being regarded as polluting, Ex. 20 : 
25, but this refers only to the body of 
the altar and that part on which the 
victim was laid, as is evident from the 
directions given for making a casing of 
shittim-wood and overlaying it with 
brass for the altar of burnt-oflfering. 
It was also to be without steps. Ex. 
20 : 26. See also Deut. 27 : 2-6 and 
Josh. 8 : 31. The law of Moses forbade 
the erection of altars except in the 
tabernacle ; yet even pious Israelites 
disobeyed the letter of this law, for 
Gideon, Samuel, David, and Solomon 
are mentioned as setting up altars. The 
temple altar was an asylum ; e. g. 1 Kgs. 
1 : 50. Altars were used in idol-worship ; 
and because they were often erected on 
high p'aces they acquired the name of 
"high places." 

The structures are different, as well as 
the apparent ornaments and uses. On 
representations of them are projections 
upward at each cor-ner, which represent 
the true figure of the horns. Ex. 27 : 2 ; 
I Kgs. 2:28; Rev. 9:13. They were 
probably used to confine the victim. 
Ps. 118:27. 

The altars required in the Jewish 
worship were : 

1. "The altar of burnt -offering," 
or the " brazen altar," in the taber- 
nacle in the wilderness. This altar 
stood directly in front of the principal 
entrance. It was made of shittim-wood 
(acacia), seven feet and six inches 
square, and four feet and six inches 
high. It was hollow and overlaid with 
plates of brass. The horns — of which 
there was one on each corner — were of 
wood, and overlaid in the same way. 
A grate or net-work of brass was also 
attached to it, either to hold the fire or 
to support a hearth of earth. The fur- 
niture of the altar was all of brass, and 
consisted of, 1. a shovel to remove the 
ashes from the altar ; 2. a pan to re- 
ceive them ; 3. basins for receiving the 
blood of the victims and removing it ; 
4. hooks for turning the sacrifice ; 5. 
fire-pans, or perhaps censers, for carry- 
ing coals from the fire or for burning 

incense. At each corner was a brass 
ring, and there were also two staves or 
rods overlaid with brass, which passed 
through these rings, and served for car- 

Altar of Burnt-Offering in the Tabernacle. 

rying the altar from place to place. 
The altar is described in Ex. 27. The 
" compass " referred to, v. 5, was a ledge 
running all around the altar about mid- 
way from the ground — affording a con- 
venient place for the priest to stand 
while offering sacrifice — supported by a 
brass net-like grating. The fire used 
on this altar was kindled miraculously 
and was perpetually maintained. It 
was also a place of constant sacrifice. 

In the first temple, which in its gen- 
eral plan was constructed after the pat- 
tern of the tabernacle in the wilderness, 
the altar of burnt-offering stood in the 
same relative position as in the taber- 
nacle. It was much larger, however, 
being thirty feet square and fifteen feet 
high, its particular plan being appoint- 

Altar of Burnt-Offering in the Temple. 
{From Surenhusius's Mislina.) 

ed expressly by divine authority. It 
was made entirely of bronze plates, 
which covered a structure of earth or 
stone. 2 Chr. 4:1. In the second tem- 
ple it occupied the same position, though 
it was still larger and more beautiful than 
in the first. An inclined plane led in 
each case up to the altar, since express 
command forbade the Jews using steps. 
Ex. 20 : 26. 

2. The " altar of incense," or the 
"golden altar/' stood within the holy 



place and near to the inmost veil. Ex. 
30 : 1-6. It was made of the same 
wood with the brazen altar, and was 
eighteen inches square and three feet 
high. The top, as well as the sides and 
horns, was overlaid with pure gold, and 
it was finished around the upper surface 

Altar of Incense. 
with a crown or border of gold. Just 
below this border four golden rings were 
attached to each side of the altar, one 
near each corner. The staves or rods 
for bearing the altar passed through 
these rings, and were made of the same 
wood with the altar itself, and richly 
overlaid with the same precious metal. 
Upon this altar incense was burned 
every morning and every evening (see 
Incense), so that it was literally per- 
petual. Ex. 30 : 8. The " altar of in- 
cense " in Solomon's temple was made 
of cedar overlaid with gold. Neither 
burnt-sacrifice, nor meat-offering, nor 
drink-offering, was permitted upon this 
altar, nor was it ever stained with blood, 
except once annually, when the priest 
made atonement. Lev. 16 : 18, 19. 

KNOWN GOD, referred to by Paul. 
Acts 17 : 23. There were in Athens several 
altars with this inscription, which were 
erected during a plague, the Athenians 
believing they had unconsciously offend- 
ed some divinity, but not knowing whom. 

AL-TAS'CHITH [destroy not). 
These words are in the titles to Ps. 57, 
58. 59 and 75, and are probably "the 
beginning of some song or poem to the 
tune of which those psalms were to be 

A'LUSH (a crowd of men, or place 
of 'old beast 8), an encampment of the 

Israelites on their way to Sinai, and the 
last before Rephidim. Num. 33 : 13, 14. 
See Rephidim. 

AL'VAH (wickedness), a chief of 
Edom. Gen. 36 : 40. Called Aliah in 
1 Car. 1:51. 

AL/VAN (tall), a desctndant of 
Sier the Horite. Gen. 36 : 23. Called 
Allan in 1 Chr. 1:40. 

A'MAD ( people of duration), a town 
ofAsher. Josh. 19 : 26. Robinson sug- 
gested that it might be located at Shefa 
Amar, on a ridge of Haifa. Drake pro- 
poses to identify it with el-Amud. 

A'MAL {labor), an Asherite. 1 Chr. 

AM'ALEK (dweller in a valley), 
the son of Eliphaz, and grandson of 
Esau, chieftain or " duke " of Edom. 
Gen. 36 : 16. The Amalekites were not 
named from him, for they existed long 
before. Gen. 14 : 7. Arabian tradition 
makes him the son of Ham. 

AMALEKITES. 1 Sam. 15 : 6. 
A powerful people of uncertain origin, 
first mentioned in connection with the 
invasion of Chedorlaomer. Gen. 14 : 7. 
They are called, Num. 24: 20, the first 
of all the nations. They were signally 
defeated in a contest with the children 
I of Israel at Rephidim, and for oppos- 
{ ing the progress of Israel they became 
1 objects of God's judgments. They 'were 
afterward defeated and repulsed by Gid- 
eon, Jud. 7 : 22, and by Saul, 1 Sam. 15, 
j and by David, 1 Sam. 30, till at last 
J the word of the Lord was fulfilled to 
I the very letter, and their name was 
blotted from the earth. 1 Sam. 30 : 17 
and 1 Chr. 4 : 43. 

OF THE, a region lying between 
Canaan and Egypt, chiefly south of the 
mountains of Judah, and from Mount 
Sinai eastward to Mount Seir and the 
Salt Sea. Gen. 14 : 7 : Ex. 17: 8 j Num. 
13 : 29 ; 14 : 25. For the physical fea- 
tures and character of the region see 

THE. Jud. 12:15. A mountain or 
hilly district in Ephraim, probably so 
named from an early settlement of the 
Amalekites or a later invasion by 

A'MAM (gathering-place), a city in 
the south of Judah. Josh. 15 : 26. 
Wilton and others would join this word 



with Hazor in the preceding verse, and 
read " Hazor-Ainan," but ancient au- 
thorities do not support this view. Its 
precise location is unknown. 

AM'ANA, or AMA'NA (peren- 
nial). 1. Margin, same as Abana. 2 
Kgs. 5 : 12. See Abana. 

2. A ridge or peak of the Lebanon 
range, in which the river Amana or 
Abana has its source. Song. Sol. 4 : 8. 

AMARI'AH (said, i. e. ]iromised). 
1. Son of Meraioth, a descendant of 
Aaron in the line of Eleazar, and 
father of Ahitub, whose son, Zadok, was 
made high priest, bringing back the of- 
fice to his family. 1 Chr. 6 : 7, 52. 

2. A high priest later on. 1 Chr. 6:11. 

3. A Kohathite Levite. 1 Chr. 23 : 19 j 
24 : 23. 

4. The head of one of the twenty-four 
courses of priests. 2 Chr. 31 : 15 ; Neh. 

5. One in Ezra's time. Ezr. 10 : 42. 

6. An ancestor of Zephaniah the 
prophet. Zeph. 1:1. 

7. One of the family of Perez. Neh. 

AM'ASA (a burden). 1. A son of 
Jether (or Ithra) and Abigail, and 
nephew of David. He joined in Ab- 
salom's rebellion, and was appointed his 
commander-in-chief. 2 Sam. 17 : 25. 
Being defeated by Joab, and Absalom 
being killed, he submitted to David, and 
was made captain of the host in room 
of Joab, his cousin, whose part in the 
death of Absalom and general Jack of 
respect brought him into disfavor. 
When Sheba revolted David sent Amasa 
to assemble the people within three 
days, but his tardiness, owing, perhaps, 
to his unpopularity, obliged David to 
despatch his household troops under 
Abishai in pursuit of the rebel. Joab 
joined his brother, and meeting Amasa 
on the latter's return, under pretence of 
saluting him killed him and put him- 
self again in supreme command. "2 Sam. 
20 : 10. See Joab. 

2. A prince of Ephraim, son of Had- 
lai, in the reign of Ahaz. 2 Chr. 28 : 12. 

AMAS AI (burdensome). 1. A Le- 
vite, one of the sons of Elkanah. 1 Chr. 

2. The chief of a party that came to 
David at Ziklag. 1 Chr. 12 : 18. 

3. One of the priests who blew the 
trumpets before the ark. 1 Chr. 15 : 24. 


4. A Kohathite in the reign of Heze- 
kiah. 2 Chr. 29 : 12. 

AMASH'AI (burdensome), a priest 
of the time of Nehemiah, Neh. 11 : 13. 
Some suppose him to be the same as 
Maasiai. 1 Chr. 9 : 12. 

AMASI'AH (whom Jehovah bears), 
the son of Zichri, captain of 200,000 
men under Jehoshaphat. 2 Chr. 17 : 16. 

AMAZl'AH (whom Jehovah- 
strengthens). 1. The eighth king of Ju 
dah, the son and successor of Joash, 
commenced his reign in his twenty-fifth 
year, and reigned twenty-nine years, 
b. c. 839-809. 2 Kgs. 14 : 1-20. He 
served the Lord, but not perfectly. He 
first slew his father's murderers, but 
not their children, thus observing the 
Mosaic law. 2 Chr. 25 : 4. 

At the commencement of his reign, 
he showed an outward regard to the 
law of the Lord, but by power and 
ambition he fell into a snare, and was 
destroyed by violence. Amaziah re- 
solved to make war upon the Edomites, 
who had revolted from the kingdom of 
Judah several years before. 2 Kgs. 8 : 
20. He raised an army of 300,000 men 
from among his own subjects, and 
hired 100,000 men of Israel, for whose 
services he paid 100,000 talents of sil- 
ver — the first example in Jewish his- 
tory of a mercenary army. Before he 
commenced the expedition, however, 
he was directed by divine authority 
to dismiss his hired soldiers, or if he 
did not he should certainly fall before 
his enemies. After some hesitation he 
sent them home. Amaziah met the 
Edomites in a place called the Valley 
of Salt, and gained a signal victory 
over them, slaying 10,000 and taking 
10,000 prisoners. Elated by his suc- 
cess, and forgetful of God who had 
given him the victory, he set up the 
idols of his vanquished enemy as his 
own gods. The anger of the Almighty 
was kindled against him, and in a mes- 
sage God exposed and rebuked his sin. 
2 Chr. 25:15. The king was already 
hardened enough to question the au- 
thority of God's messenger, and even 
to threaten him with death. Thus 
given up to follow his own devices, he 
sought occasion of war with Jehoash, 
king of Israel. The answer of the 
king to the challenge was given in 
the form of a fable expressive of the 



utmost contempt, and contained at 
the same time a severe rebuke to the 
king of Judah for his pride and vain- 
glory. Undeterred, he met the army 
of Israel at Beth-shemesh, in Judaea, 
but his army was completely routed, 
and he was taken prisoner. Jehoash 
then proceeded to break down a sec- 
tion of the city wall six hundred feet 
in length, and marched through the 
breach, plundered the temple of its 
gold and silver vessels, seized the 
king's treasures, and taking such host- 
ages as he pleased returned in triumph 
to Samaria. 2 Kgs. 14. About fifteen 
years after this disgraceful defeat, Ania- 
ziah fled from Jerusalem to Lachish to 
escape a conspiracy ; but he was fol- 
lowed to the place to which he fled 
and put to death, and his body taken 
back to Jerusalem and buried with 
his fathers. His name is omitted in 
the genealogy of Christ. 

2. A Simeonite. 1 Chr. 4: 34. 

3. A Levite. 1 Chr. 6 : 45. 

4. A priest of the golden calf at Beth- 
el who complained against the prophet 
Amos to Jeroboam, king of Israel, and 
tried to effect his banishment. Amos 
7: 10-17. See Amos. 

AMBASSADOR, a person of the 
highest rank, appointed to represent his 
government in the transaction of busi- 
ness with a foreign power. The earliest 
mention in the Bible is in the case of the 
Edomites, Num. 20 : 14, to whom Moses 
sent "messengers," also in the case of 
Moab, the Amorites, the Gibeonites, and 
other tribes. See Num. 21 : 21 ; Josh. 
9:4: Jud. 11:17-19. In the days of 
the kingdoms they are more frequently 
mentioned. An injury upon them was 
an insult to their king. 2 Sam. 10:5. 
Their mission was often pacific or con- 
gratulatory, as in the latter incident. 
Paul calls gospel-preachers the ambas- 
sadors of Christ. 2 Cor. 5 : 20. 

AMBASSAGE. Luke 14: 32. A 
public message. The term may include 
the messenger or ambassador as well as 
his message. 

AMBER. Eze. 1 : 4, 27 ; 8 : 2 (bet- 
ter elect non, or bright gold gum). Fos- 
sil gum, a beautiful bituminous sub- 
stance, susceptible of a fine polish, 
varying in color, but chiefly yellow and 
orange. It is mined in Prussia, and 
also washed ashore by the waves of the 

Baltic Sea. The word here used prob- 
ably denotes electrum, a metal composed 
of gold and silver and held in high es- 
timation among the ancients. In the 
passages cited the allusion is to the 
brightness of the metal, and does not 
necessarily imply that it is indestruc- 
tible by fire. 

AMEN' (literally, tme, firm; met- 
aphorically, faithful), used to denote 
assent or entire acquiescence, impress- 
ing the stamp of absolute truthfulness 
upon the statement. Deut. 27 : 15. It 
was used as the solemn affirmative re- 
sponse to an oath. The word was often 
repeated. It is a matter of tradition 
that in the temple the "Amen" was 
not uttered by the people, but that in- 
stead, at the conclusion of the priest's 
prayers, they responded, " Blessed be 
the name of the glory of His kingdom 
for ever and ever." Of this a trace is 
supposed to remain in the concluding 
sentence of the Lord's Prayer. Comp. 
Rom. 11 : 36. But in the synagogue and 
private houses it was customary for the 
people or members of the family who 
were present to say " Amen " to the 
prayers which were offered by the min- 
ister or master of the house, and the 
custom remained in the early Christian 
Church. Matt. 6 : 13 ; 1 Cor. 14 : 16. 
Doxologies and private prayers were 
appropriately closed with "Amen." It 
is sometimes translated verily, and was 
frequently used by our Saviour when 
he was about to utter some distinct, im- 
portant, and solemn truth. Its repeti- 
tion, " Verily, verily, I say unto you " 
(in John) strengthens the assertion.. 

The promises of God are amen, be- 
cause they are made sure and certain in 
Christ. 2 Cor. 1 : 20. Amen is one of 
the titles of our blessed Saviour, Rev. 3 : 
14, as he is the faithful and true witness. 

AMETHYST. Ex. 39: 12; Rev. 
21 : 20. A precious stone consisting of 
crystallized quartz, of a purple or blu- 
ish-violet color. Oriental amethyst, a 
variety of sapphire, is probably included 
under this latter name. 

A'MI (a builder), one who returned 
with Zerubbabel. Ezr. 2 : 57. He is 
termed Amon in Neh. 7:59. 

DAB. Matt. 1:4; Luke 3:33. 

AMIT'TAl (true), the father of Jo- 
nah. 2 Kgs. 14 : 25 ; Jon. 1 : 1. 



AM'MAH {head, or loaterfall), a 
hill in front of Giah, near Gibeon, to 
which Joab pursued Abner. 2 Sam. 2 : 
24. See also Metheg-ammah. 

AM'MI, explained in the margin 
correctly, "my people." Hos. 2 : 1. 

AMMIEL {people of God). 1. The 
spy from Dan. Num. 13 : 12. 

2. The father of Machir, of Lo-debar. 
2 Sam. 9 : 4, 5 ; 17 : 27. 

3. The father of Bath-sheba, 1 Chr. 3 : 
5 : called Eliam in 2 Sam. 11 : 3. 

4. The sixth son of Obed-edom, and a 
temple-porter. 1 Chr. 28 : 5. 

AMMFHUD {people ofJudah). 1. 
An ancestor of Joshua through Elish- 
ama, the chief of Ephraim in the Wan- 
dering. Num. 1:10; 2:18; 7 : 48, 53 ; 
10:22; 1 Chr. 7 : 26. 

2. A Simeonite. Num. 34:20. 

3. A Naphtalite. Num. 34:28. 

4. Father of Talmai, king of Geshur. 
2 Sam. 13 : 37. 

5. A descendant of Pharez, son of Ju- 
dah. 1 Chr. 9 : 4. 

AMMINADAB {one of the people 
of the prince). 1. The son of Ram or 
Aram, who was the great-grandson of 
Judah, and father of Elisheba, the wife 
of Aaron. He was in the line of Christ's 
ancestors. Ex. 6 : 23 ; Num. 1:7; 2 : 
3; 7:12,17; 10:14; Ruth 4 : 19, 20 ; 
1 Chr. 2 : 10. 

2. A Kohathite, and chief of the 112 
sons of Uzziel. 1 Chr. 15 : 10-12. 

3. Put for Izhar, probably by copyist's 
error, in 1 Chr. 6 : 22. 

AMMISHAD'DAI {one of the peo- 
ple of the Almighty), the father of Ahi- 
ezer, prince of Dan. Num. 1 : 12 ; 2 : 
25; 7:66, 71; 10:25. 

AMMIZABAD {people of the 
Giver, i. e. Jehovah), an officer in Da- 
vid's army. 1 Chr. 27 : 6. 

LAND OF, etc., a mountainous coun- 
try on the east side of the Salt Sea, 
reaching from the river Arnon to the 
Jabbok. Num. 21 : 24 ; Deut. 2 : 19, 20. 
It lay to the north of the land of Moab; 
and "the land," "borders," or "cities" 
of the children of Ammon are noticed 
over 15 times in Old Testament history, 
and frequently with Moab. The precise 
extent of their country cannot be deter- 
mined, as they appear to have led a wan- 
dering, prelatory life similar to that of 
the wild Arab tribes now in that region. 

Gilead was the best portion of their 
land. Among the cities held by them, 
sometimes, apparently, in common with 
Moab, were Heshbon, Rabbah, and Min- 
nith. The land which the king of Am- 
mon claimed in the time of the Judges, 
Jud. 11:13, once belonged to a "king 
of Moab." Num. 21 : 26. 

DREN OF AMMON, Gen. 19 : 38, 

were the descendants of Ben-ammi, a 
| son of Lot. He was born in the neigh- 
j borhood of Zoar, but his posterity spread 
northwardly and occupied the mountain- 
I regions of Gilead, between the rivers 
Arnon and Jabbok. Originally their 
possessions were bounded north by the 
river Jabbok, west by Jordan, south by 
Arnon, and stretched eastwardly into 
Arabia. The Amorites, under Sihon, 
their king, expelled them from the rich- 
est part of their possessions, which lay 
between the two rivers ; but Moses re- 
covered it from the Amorites and di- 
vided it between Reuben and Gad. 
The western boundary of the Ammon- 
ites then became a branch of the river 
! Jabbok (on which their capital city, 
j Rabbah or Rabbath-Ammon, stood), 
and the mountains of Gilead bounded 
| them on the east, while the main stream 
I of the Jabbok continued to be their 
j northern boundary, and the land of 
j Moab the southern. This last is in- 
tended by the kingdom of Ammon as 
used in the sacred history. 

The children of Ammon were gross 
idolaters. Jud. 10: 6. Their chief idol 
was Molech, the same with Milcom, and 
their history is full of the judgments 
which their sins brought upon them, 
though they were spared, by God's ex- 
press command, when Israel passed by 
them from Egypt, because Lot was their 
progenitor. Deut. 2:19: 2 Chr. 20 : 10. 
Three hundred years afterward the king 
of the Ammonites made war upon the 
Israelites, under the pretence that they 
had taken their land, Jud. 11 : 13, and 
after a severe battle the Ammonites 
were routed with great slaughter. In 
the beginning of Saul's reign, 1 Sam. 
11 : 1, the Ammonites, under Nahash, 
their king, attacked Jabesh-gilead, but 
proposed to spare the inhabitants pro- 
vided they would all consent to lose the 
right eye. During the time allowed for 
their answer they collected a sufficient 



force to meet the Ammonites, and so 
completely routed them that two of 
them were not left together. Fifty or 
sixty years alter this one of the kings 
of the Ammonites died, and David, who 
seems to have been under some obliga- 
tion to him, sent a message of condo- 
lence to his son and successor. This 
friendly act was not received kindly, 
and the messengers of David were 
grossly abused and insulted. See Ha- 
nun. Expecting that David would at- 
tempt to revenge the insult, they ob- 
tained large supplies of men from the 
Syrians; and when David heard of 
their preparation for war, he sent Joab, } 
with a chosen troop from the army of 
Israel, to meet them. The result was 
fatal to the Ammonites. They and their 
allies were subdued, and fled. Rabbah, 
their capital, and all the rest of their 
cities were afterward destroyed by the 
Israelites, the king's crown was taken 
from his head and put on David's head, 
and the people were reduced to a state 
of abject servitude. 2 Sam. 12 : 26-31. 
In this condition they remained till the 
reign of Jehoshaphat, when they united 
with the Moabites and others and made 
war upon Judah, and were miraculous- 
ly cut off. 2 Chr. 20. Jotham fought 
and prevailed against them, and made 
them tributary for several years. Many 
Jews sought refuge among them in the 
time of the Captivity, but they do not 
seem to have decreased their hostile feel- 
ing. The most dreadful judgments were 
threatened against them and their chief 
city because they seized and occupied a 
part of the territory of Israel, Jer. 49 : 
1-6, and again because they insolently 
triumphed over the Israelites in the days 
of their captivity, Eze. 25 : 2-7, 10 ; and 
every threat was executed to the very 
uttermost in due time, as profane his- 
tory abundantly attests. "During the 
time of the Maccabees various battles 
were fought between the Ammonites 
and the Jews; and during the changes 
that ensued, first under the Grecian, then 
under the Roman supremacy, the Am- 
monites lost their independent posi- 
tion, and gradually became amalgama- 
ted with the general Arab population." 
They were a cruel, remorseless, nomadic 
people. To their god Molech they offered 
human sacrifices. See MOLECH. Where 
their capital once stood is now the vil- 

lage of Amman, 20 miles south-east of 
the modern town of es-Salt. 

AM'ltlON-NO. See No. 

AMNON {faithful). 1. The eldest 
son of David, who was guilty of vio- 
lating the chastity of his half-sister, 
Tamar. 2 Sam. 13 ; 1 Chr. 3 : 1. See 

2. A descendant of Judah. 1 Chr. 

A'MOK (deejy), a priest who re- 
turned with Zerubbabel. Neh. 12 : 7, 

A'MON, OR-A'MEN (the hidden), an 
Egyptian god, one of the eight of the 
first order, and the chief of the Thcban 
triad. Nah. 3 : 8, margin. He is repre- 

Amon. (After Wilkinson.) 

sented as a man clad in a linen tunic, 
gathered about the waist by a belt. In 
one hand he holds the symbol of life, in 
the other the staff of authority, and on 
his head is a cap with two high plumes. 

A'MON" (builder). 1. Governor of 
Samaria under Ahab. 1 Kgs. 22:26; 
2 Chr. 18:25. 

2. The fourteenth king of Judah, son 
and successor of Manasseh. He was 



twenty-two years old when he began 
to reign, and he reigned two years 
in Jerusalem. 2 Kgs. 21:19. Zepha- 
niah gives a vivid picture of the degra- 
dation of the kingdom under this wicked 
king. He was murdered by his servants 
and succeeded by his son Josiah. 

AM'ORITE (mountaineer), LAND 
OF THE. The mountainous districts 
between the Jordan and the Mediter- 
ranean were the portion of the Amorites 
before Canaan came into the possession 
of the Israelites ; the land of the Ca- 
naanites being the low plain-country. 
The Amorites also extended their terri- 
tory, so that it at one time reached to the 
foot of Hermon and embraced all Gilead 
and Bashan. Deut. 4 : 47-49 ; 3 : 8, 10. 
For the physical features of this land see 
Canaan, Bashan, and Gilead. 

AM ORITES, correctly EM'OR- 
ITES (mountaineers), a Syrian tribe 
descended from Canaan, and among 
the most formidable of the tribes with 
whom the Israelites contended. Gen. 
10 : 16. They were of gigantic stature 
and great courage. Am. 2 : 9. They 
first inhabited the hill-country south 
of Jerusalem, the barren and rocky 
land in which David took refuge ; but 
from there they went into better posses- 
sions, and at the time of the Conquest 
they inhabited one of the most fertile 
districts of the country, being bounded 
on three sides by the rivers Arnon, Jab- 
bok, and Jordan. See Ammonites. The 
Israelites asked permission of their king 
to travel through their territory, prom- 
ising to injure nothing, not even to 
draw water from their wells ; but it was 
refused. The Amorites collected and at- 
tempted to oppose their progress, but 
were defeated, and their territory taken 
and divided between the tribes of Reu- 
ben and Gad. Josh. 13 : 15, 21, 24, 27. 
Nothing more is heard of them in the 
Bible, except occasionally as moving in 
small bands. 

A'MOS (burden), one of the lesser 
prophets, herdsman of Tekoa, a small 
town in the tribe of Judah, about 12 
miles south of Jerusalem. Am. 1:1. He 
lived in the reign of Uzziah, king of 
Judah, and of Jeroboam II., king of 
Israel, about eight hundred years be- 
fore Christ. He was a contemporary 
of Hosea. While employed as a herds- 
man he was divinely appointed to 

prophesy against Israel. This kingdom 
then was in its heyday of prosperity, 
but by reason of its idolatry rife with 
the seeds of ruin. It was Amos's duty 
to speak plain words upon the evils of 
the state. Being driven from Bethel 
upon the false representation made to 
the king by the idolatrous priest Ama- 
ziah, Am. 7 : 10-17, he returned to Te- 
koa. The time and manner of his death 
are uncertain. 

Amos, Prophecy of, is the thirtieth in 
the order of the books of the Old Testa- 
ment, and is full of interest and instruc- 
tion. It may be considered as a sort of 
continuation of Joel's. It is a unit. It 
begins with the declaration of God's 
judgments against Israel's neighbors. 
But in this storm of fury Judah does 
not escape while Israel stands the brunt 
of it. 1-2 : 6. The sins of Israel are 
rebuked. 2: 6-6: 14. The rebukes are 
followed by a series of symbols, which 
are interpreted. 7 : 1-9 : 7. But the 
book closes with the promise of good. 
The " tabernacle of David " is to be re- 
stored. Thus the beauty and perpetuity 
of the Christian Church are foretold. 
It has been remarked as a peculiar fea- 
ture of this prophecy that it abounds 
with illustrations drawn from husband- 
ry and the scenes of rustic life; it cer- 
tainly contains some of the most per- 
fect specimens of sublime thought and 
beautiful expression that are to be found 
in any language. 

A'MOZ (strong), the father of Isaiah. 
2 Kgs. 19:2; Isa. 1:1. Jewish tradi- 
tion makes him the brother of Amaziah, 
king of Judah. 

AMPHIP'OLIS (around the city), 
a chief city of the southern portion of 
Macedonia under the Romans. The 
river Strymon flowed on both sides of 
the city, hence its name. It was 33 
miles south-west of Philippi, and 3 
miles from the sea. Paul and Silas 
passed through it. Acts 17:1. Neo- 
Khorio, or Newtown, a village of about 
100 houses, now occupies a portion of 
the site of Amphipolis. 

AM'PJLIAS, a Christian at Rome 
whom Paul salutes. Rom. 16 : 8. 

AM'RAM (red?), a descendant of 
Seir. 1 Chr. 1:41. 

AM'RAM (people of the exalted). 
1 . A Levite, father of Moses. Ex. 6 : 



2. One who married a foreign wife. 
Ezr. 10 : 34. 

AM'RAPHEL. Gen. 14:1. The 
Hamite king of Shinar, or Baby- 
lonia, who confederated with other 
kings and made war on Sodom and 
the other cities of the plain, plunder- 
ing them and making prisoners of 
their inhabitants. Among the cap- 
tives was Lot, Abraham's nephew. 
Gen. 14:9-16. See Lor. 

AM'ULET. The superstitious cha- 
racter of the Oriental nations has in all 
periods led them to fear the attacks of 
imaginary foes, and so, in order to pro- 
tect themselves, they wear charms of 
one sort and another. These amulets 
are indirectly and directly referred to 
in the Bible; e. g. when in the form of 

Egyptian Amulets. {In the British Muxeum.) 
1. Gold. 2. Rinsr with the word " health " inserted. 
3. Scnrabaeus. 4. Cornelian serpent's lieud. 5. Porce- 
lain eyes. 6. Gold pendant, iulaid. 

ear-rings. Gen. 35:4; Jud. 8:24; 
Hos. 2:13. But more commonly they 
were worn suspended from a necklace 
as a gem with an inscription or figure 
of a god upon it. Charms consisted 
likewise of words written upon papy- 
rus or parchment rolled up tightly 

and sewed in linen ; perhaps these 
are meant by the " tablets " of Isa. 3 : 
20. Phylacteries, some suppose, de- 
rived their sanction from the danger 
of idolatrous practices to which this 
custom gave rise. 

AM'ZI {strong). 1. A Levite. 
1 Chr. 6 : 4(>. 

2. A priest. Neh. 11 : 12. 

A'lVAB (place of grapes), a place or 
town of the Anakitn, Josh. 11 : 21 ; 15 : 
50 ; now Anab, 10 miles south-south-west 
of Hebron, though Lieutenant Conder 
places it much farther west. 

A'NAH (answering), the father of 
Aholibamah, one of Esau's wives. Gen. 
36 : 2, 14, 24. The discovery of some 
warm springs (although in the A. V. the 
word is translated mules) is attributed 
to him. 

ANAHA'RATH {gorge, or pass), a 
city of Issachar, Josh. 19 : 19, probably 
in the northern part of that territory. 
Meskavah, and also en-Naurah, just east 
of Little Heruion, have been suggested 
as the site of Anaharath. 

ANAI'AH (whom Jehovah answers). 
1. A priest. Neh. 8 : 4. 

2. One of the '* heads " of the peo- 
ple who sealed the covenant. Neh. 
10 : 22. 

AN'AKIM (Anak, sing., neck- 
chain ; Anakitn, plur., long-necked per- 
sons), a race of giants, the descend- 
ants of Arba, who gave the name of 
Kirjath-arba, city of Arba, to the city 
which the Jews called Hebron. The 
name Anak belongs to the race, not to 
an individual. The race was divided 
into three tribes, called in common 
the Anakitn, and remarkable for their 
fierceness and stature. In the time 
of the Conquest they occupied the 
territory between Hebron and Jeru- 
salem. Josh. 11:21, 22. Their gigan- 
tic size had terrified the spies Moses 
sent out, Num. 13:28, but they were 
defeated by the Israelites, who entered 
into their possessions, Hebron becom- 
ing the portion of Caleb. Josh. 14 : 
15. See Giants. 

ANAM'MELECH. See Adbam- 


A'NAN" (a cloud), one who sealed 
the covenant. Neh. 10 : 26. 

ANA'NI (whom Jehovah covers), a 
descendant of David. 1 Chr. 3: 24. 

ANANI'AH (whom Jehovah covers), 



an ancestor of one who helped to build 
the wall of Jerusalem. Neh. 3 : 23. 

ANANI'AH (whom Jehovah covers), 
one of the towns in which the Benja- 
mites dwelt after the Captivity. Neh. 
11 : 32. The modern village Beit Ha- 
nina, about 3 miles north of Jerusalem, 
corresponds well in name and situation 
to this ancient town. 

AN ANI'AS (the Greek form of Han- 
aniah, whom Jehovah has graciously 
given). 1. One of the professed con- 
verts to the Christian faith under the 
preaching of the apostles. Acts 5:1- 
10. When the disciples had thrown 
their property into a common stock, 
Ananias sold his estate and brought 
a part of the purchase-money, pre- 
tending it was the whole proceeds of 
the sale. Being charged by Peter 
with his sin, he fell down dead upon 
the spot. His wife Sapphira, who was j 
privy to the fraud of her husband, but | 
ignorant of his dreadful end, being j 
asked for how much their estate had ] 
been sold, confirmed the falsehood j 
which Ananias had told, and instant- 
ly met the same doom. 

2. A primitive devout disciple who 
lived at Damascus, and was commis- 
sioned to visit Paul soon after his con- 
version and restore him to sight. Acts 
9 : 10-18 ; 22 : 1 2-1 6. Tradition makes 
him subsequently the bishop of Damas- 
cus, and a martyr. 

3. The son of Nebedseus, appointed 
high priest by Herod, king of Chalcis, 
A. d. 48. Acts 23 : 2. In a. r>. 52 he 
was sent to Rome to answer a charge 
of oppression preferred against him 
by the Samaritans. He was, how- 
ever, acquitted, returned, and resumed 
his office. Paul was tried before biin, 
a. d. 55. He was likewise one of the 
apostle's accusers before Felix and be- 
fore Festus. Acts 24 : 1 ; 25 : 2. - See 
Paul. He was shortly after deposed, 
but retained much power until at the 
breaking out of the Jewish war, when 
the Sicarii set fire to his house and 
compelled him to flee, but followed and 
killed him, a. d. 67 (Josephus, Jewish 

Wars, ii. 17, 9). 

A'NATH (answer), father of Sham- 
gar, one of the Judges. Jud. 3 : 31 ; 5 : 6. 

ANATHEMA (set apart, devoted). 
In its usual acceptation it means the de- 
voting of an animal, person, or place to 

destruction. Lev. 27 : 28 ; Josh. 6 : 17-21. 
Paul uses it in the sense "cut off, ac- 
cursed." Rom. 9:3; Gal. 1 : 8, 9. Hence 
in ecclesiastic language it means " ex- 
communicated, cut off from the church." 

Anathema Maranatha is a Syriac 
exclamation signifying, Let him be ac- 
cursed, The Lord is at hand, a reminder 
that at the coming of the Lord rewards 
and punishments would be meted out. 
1 Cor. 16:22. 

AN'ATHOTH (answers). 1. A 
son of Becher the Benjamite. 1 Chr. 

2. One who sealed the covenant. 
Neh. 10:19. 

AN'ATHOTH (answers, or echoes), 
a Levitical city in Benjamin, Josh. 21: 
.18 ; 1 Chr. 6 : 60 ; the birthplace of Jer- 
emiah, Jer. 1:1; 11:21, 23; 32:7-9; 
on the route of the Assyrians, Isa. 10 : 
30 ; some of its people returned with 
Zerubbabel, Ezr. 2 : 23 ; Neh. 7 : 27 ; 
now a village of about 20 houses, 4 miles 
north-east of Jerusalem, and called Ana- 
ta. Tradition incorrectly locates Ana- 
thoth at Kuriet-el-Enab, near Abu Gosh, 
and between Bamleh and Jerusalem. 

ANCH'OIt. Acts 27 : 29. The an- 
chor was formerly cast from the stern 
of the ship. In the passage cited refer- 
ence may be had to an anchor with four 
flukes or arms, such as are sometimes 
used by boats in shallow water; or it 
may mean four distinct separate anchors. 


The above represents a common anchor 
with two flukes or arms. There is a 
strong shank c. at one end of which are 
two arms b b, terminating in flukes a a. 
At the other end of the shank is the 
stock d, supplied with a ring to which a 
cable can be attached. The stock is de- 
signed to give such a direction to the 
falling anchor that one of the flukes shall 
enter itself firmly at the bottom. See 

AN'DREW (manly), one of the 
twelve apostles, John 1 : 40, the son of 



Jonas and brother of Simon Peter, was a 
native of Bethsaida, in Galilee, by trade 
a fisherman, and originally a disciple 
of John the Baptist, whom he left to 
follow our Saviour. When he had found 
the Messiah, he forthwith sought his 
brother Simon and brought him to 
Jesus, and soon after they both attached 
themselves to the little band of his dis- 
ciples and followed him till the close of 
his ministry. The events with which 
Andrew was particularly connected are 
recorded in Matt. 4: 18-20 ; Mark 13 : 3 ; 
and John 1 : 35-40; 6 : 3-13; 12 : 22. 
Tradition says he preached the gospel in 
Scythia, Greece, and Asia Minor, and was 
crucified on a cross of a peculiar shape 
(hence St. Andrew's cross) in Achaia. 

ANDRONICUS (victorious man), 
a Roman Christian whom Paul salutes 
in Rom. 16:7. 

A'XEM [two fountains), a Levitical 
city of Issachar, 1 Chr. 6 : 73 ; probably 
the same as En-gannim of Josh. 19 : 
21 ; 21 : 29. It has been identified with 
the modern Jen in, on the border of the 
plain of Jezreel. See En-Gannim (2). 

A'NER [boy), one of the three Amor- 
ite chiefs who joined Abraham in the 
pursuit of the four invading kings. Gen. 

A'NER {boy), a Levitical city in 
Manasseh, west of the Jordan, 1 Chr. 
6 : 70 : supposed by some to be the same 
as Taanach, Jud. 1 : 27, and Tanach. 
Josh. 21 : 25. 

ANGEL. Gen. 24 : 7. This word, 
both in the Greek and Hebrew lan- 
guages, signifies a messenger, and in 
this sense is often applied to men. 2 
Sam. 2:5; Luke 7 : 24 and 9 : 52. When 
the term is used, as it generally is, to 
designate spiritual beings, it denotes 
the office they sustain as the agents by 
whom God makes known his will and 
executes his government. 

Our knowledge of such beings is de- 
rived wholly from revelation, and that 
rather incidentally. We know, from their 
residence and employment, that they 
must possess knowledge and purity far 
beyond our present conceptions, and 
the titles applied to them denote the 
exalted place they hold among created 
intelligences. Christ did not come to 
the rescue of angels, but of men. 
Comp. Heb. 2: 16. The angels are rep- 
resented as ministering spirits sent 

forth to do service to the heirs of sal- 
vation. Heb. 1:14. They appear at 
every important stage in the history 
of revelation, especially at the birth of 
Christ, Luke 2:9-13, in his agony in 
Gethsemane, Luke 22 ; 43, at his resur- 
rection, Matt. 28:2; Mark 16:5; Luke 

24 : 4, and at the final judgment. 
Matt. 13 : 41 . 

Of their appearance and employment 
we may form some idea from the follow- 
ing passages — viz. Gen. 16 : 7-11. Com- 
pare Gen. 18 : 2 ; 19 : 1 with Hob: 13 : 2 ; 
Jud. 13 : 6 ; Eze. 10 ; Dan. 3 : 28 and 
6 : 22 ; Matt. 4:11; 18 : 10 and 28 : 2-7 ; 
Luke 1 : 19 ; 16 : 22 and 22 : 43 ; Acts 
6 : 15 ; 12 : 7 ; Heb. 1 : 14 ; 2 :16 ; 2 Thess. 
1:7; Rev. 10: I, 2, 6. 

Of their number some idea may be 
inferred from 1 Kgs. 22 : 19 ; Ps. 68 : 
17 ; Dan. 7:10; Matt. 26 : 53 ; Luke 2 : 
9-14; 1 Cor. 4:9; Heb. 12 : 22. 

Of their strength we may judge from 
Ps. 103 : 20 : 2 Pet. 2 : 11; Rev. 5:2; 
18:21 ; 19:17. 

And we learn their inconceivable 
activity from Jud. 13 : 20 ; Isa. 6 : 2-6 ; 
Matt. 13 : 49 : 26 : 53 ; Acts 27 : 23 ; 
Rev. 8:13. 

There is also an order of evil spirits 
ministering to the will of the prince 
of darkness, and both active and pow- 
erful in their opposition to God. Matt. 

It would seem the proper inference 
from Matt. 18:10 that every believer 
had a guardian angel. The same idea 
is suggested in other passages, as Ps. 
91:11, 12; Luke 15: 10; Acts 12: 15. 

They are the companions of the saved. 
Heb. 1*2: 22, 23; Rev. 5: 11, 12. They are 
to sustain an important office in the 
future and final administration of God's 
government on earth. Matt. 13 : 39; 

25 : 31-33 ; 1 Thess. 4 : 16. But they 
are not proper objects of adoration. 
Col. 2:18; Rev. 19:10. 

Anget, of his Presence, Isa. 63 : 9, 
by some is supposed to denote the high- 
est angel in heaven, as Gabriel, who 
stands " in the presence of God," Luke 
1:19; but others believe it refers to the 
incarnate Word. 

Angel of the Lorp, Gen. 16: 7, is 
considered, by some, one of the com- 
mon titles of Christ in the Old Testa- 
ment. Ex. 23:20. Compare Acts 7: 
30-32 and 37, 38. 




Angel of the Church. Rev. 2 : 1. 
The only true interpretation of this 
phrase is the one which makes the an- 
gels the rulers and teachers of the con- 
gregation, so called because they were 
the ambassadors of God to the churches, 
and on them devolved the pastoral care 
and government. 

Angel of Light. See Devil. 

AN'GER, a strong emotion, which 
is sinful or otherwise according to its 
object and motive. When ascribed to 
holy beings it is used figuratively to 
denote high displeasure at sin. In 
this sense good men may be angry and 
sin not, Bph. 4:26; Neh. 5:6; cf. 2 Pet. 
2:7, 8 ; and even God is said to be 
"angry with the wicked every day." 
Ps. 7:11. Unjustified anger is reck- 
oned among chief sins, and as such is 
severely rebuked. Eph. 4:31; Col. 3 : 8, 
and numerous passages in Proverbs. 

A'NIAM (sighing of the people), a 
Manassite. 1 Chr. 7 : 19. 

A'NIM (fountains), a town in the 
mountains of Judah. Josh. 15 : 50. 
Khirbet el- J if has been suggested as 
the site of Anim, but it is more proba- 
bly at tbe modern village of el-Ghuwein, 
about 10 miles south-west of Hebron. 

AN'IMAL. The Hebrews distin- 
guished between clean and unclean 
animals, allowing the use of some in 
sacrifice for food, and forbidding it 
in the case of others. For the list 
see Lev. 11. 

AN'ISE. Matt. 23:23. Properly 
dill (Anethum graveolens), an annual 
herb bearing small aromatic seeds used 
in medicine and cookery. Ancient 
writers mention it as cultivated in 
Egypt; it grows in the Greek islands, 
and occurs at the present day in Pales- 
tine, both in gardens and wild, or at 
least uncultivated in fields. — Tristram. 
Another plant (Pimjiinella anisum) of 
the same family has been considered, 
with less probability, to be the anise of 
the Bible. 

The tithe of this herb was scrupu- 
lously paid by the Pharisees. A Jewish 
writer says that the seed, the leaves, and 
the stem of dill are subject to tithes. 
See Mint. 

ANKLET. Though this word does 
not occur in the A. V., anklets are re- 
ferred to in Isa. 3 : 16, 18, 20. They 
were worn upon each leg and were as | ^om^mneveh 


Anise. (After Tristram.) 

common as bracelets upon the arms, 
and were made of much the same ma- 

Egyptian Anklets. 5. Modern worn by 
dancing-girls. 6. 7. Assyrian, of iron and bronze. 
A T ow in British Museum.) 



terials. The musical tinkling and jing- 
ling which they made as the wearers 
walked were no doubt the reasons for 
their use. The ornamental step-chains 
worn by females, according to Gesenius, 
caused the short and mincing walk al- 
luded to by the prophet in verse 16. 
Lane speaks of these ornaments as 
now worn in the East. 

AN'NA {grace), a prophetess, 
daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of 
Asher. Luke 2 : 36. Her husband hav- 
ing died after she had been married 
seven years, she devoted herself to the 
Lord, and was very constant in her at- 
tendance on the services of the temple. 
She did not, however, live in the temple 
itself. At eighty-four years of age she 
listened to the prophetic blessing which 
Simeon uttered when he held the infant 
Redeemer in his arms, and joined in it 
with great fervor. 

AN'NAS, the son of Seth, and a 
high priest of the Jews. He was ap- 
pointed by Quirinus, governor of Syria, 
A. n. 7, and was removed by Valerius 
Gratius, procurator of Judgea, A. r>. 23. 
The office was originally held for life, 
but in Judaea's degenera'e and depend- 
ent position it was one of the spoils of 
office, to be given to the ruler's favorite, 
and to be taken away upon the loss of 
favor. After his deposition Annas con- 
tinued to hold the title ; and although 
Caiaphas, his son-in-law, was the actual 
high priest, he was the ruling power. 
This explains the reference in Luke 3 : 
2. This power he retained for nearly 
fifty years, having had five sons in suc- 
cession in the high priest's office. Our 
Lord was brought first before Annas on 
the night of his seizure. John 18 : 13- 
24. The guilt of Christ's crucifixion 
rests most upon Annas, since Pilate 
tried to shield him, and Caiaphas was 
but his tool. Annas is mentioned as 
the president of the Sanhedrin, before 
whom Peter and John were brought. 
Acts 4 : 6. 

ANOINT 7 . Gen. 31:13. The first 
biblical instance is in the passage 
cited, and it signifies in that connec- 
tion the pouring of oil upon the stone 
which Jacob had set up for a pillar. 
Gen. 28: IS. 

The anointing of persons, places, 
and things with oil or ointment of a 
particular composition was a mode 

| of consecration prescribed by divine 
authority, and extensively practised 
among the Hebrews. Ex. 28 : 41. The 
ingredients of the ointment, embra- 
i cing the most exquisite perfumes and 
i balsams, are minutely given, Ex. 30 : 
23-33, and the common use of it was 
expressly forbidden. Ex. 30 : 33. 

It was customary at festivals, and on 
other great and joyful occasions, to 
anoint the head with fragrant oils ; hence 
; it became a sign of joy or happiness; 
the omission of anointing was therefore 
a sign of grief. For instances see 
I Ruth 3:3:2 Sam. 14 : 2 ; Ps. 23 : 5 ; 92 : 
I 10; Eccl. 9:8: Matt. 6 : 17. Proph- 
ets, 1 Kgs. 19:16; 1 Chr. 16:22, 
I priests, and kings were solemnly anoint- 
ed, and thus set apart to their respect- 
: ive offices. Of the anointing of the lat- 
ter we have frequent accounts. 2 Sam. 
19:10 ; 1 Kgs. 1 : 39 ; 19 : 15, 16. The 
perfumed oil or ointment was usually 
| poured upon the head of the person. It 
' was sometimes done privately by a proph- 
' et, 1 Sam. 10 : 1 ; 16 : 1-1 3 ; 1* Kgs. 19 : 
| 16 ; 2 Kgs. 9 : 1-6, and was a symbolical 
intimation that the person so anointed 
would at some future day ascend the 
throne. After the monarchy was es- 
tablished the anointing was done by 
the priest, 1 Kgs. 1 : 39, probably in 
some public place, 1 Kgs. 1 : 32-34, 
and, at least on one occasion, in the 
temple, surrounded by the royal guards. 
! 2 Kgs. 11 : 12, 13. David was anointed 
1 three times — privately by Samuel be- 
fore Saul's death, to give him a claim 
to the throne, 1 Sam. 16: 1-13 ; again 
publicly as king over Judah in He- 
bron, 2 Sam. 2:4; and finally, over the 
whole nation. 2 Sam. 5:3. In re- 
i gard to the priest's anointing, at first 
! it was part of the induction into office 
of any priest, Ex. 40:15; Num. 3 : 3, 
but afterward it was a rite practised 
only in the case of the high priest. 
Lev. 8:12; Ps. 133:2. 

It was common to anoint the person, 

or some part of it, as the head, feet, 

hair, etc., for the sake of health or 

cleanliness, or as a token of respect, 

and also in connection with religious 

| observances. Mark 6 : 13; Luke 7 : 

46; John 12 : 3. When practised to 

i show respect, the most expensive ma- 

j terials were used, and the ceremony 

I was performed in such a manner as 




to denote the most humble and sub- 
missive reverence. 

The anointing of the sick with oil was 
also common. The healing properties 
of oil are well known ; and though the 
cures wrought by the disciples of our 
Lord were obviously miraculous, they 
still employed the ordinary means of 
cure. Mark 6 : 13. The apostolic di- 
rection, Jas. 5 : 14, respecting the anoint- 
ing of the sick shows us that, together 
with prayer, the appropriate means of 
healing should be employed in depend- 
ence upon or in the name of the Lord. 
The ceremony was not in its nature ob- 
ligatory, and surely no sufficient warrant 
for the rite of "extreme unction." 

The bodies of the dead were often 
wrapped in spices and ointments to 
preserve them from corruption. Mark 
14 : 8 ; 16 : 1, and Luke 23 : 56. 

The terms " anoint," " anointed," and 
"anointing" are employed also spirit- 
ually to illustrate the sanctifying influ- 
ences of divine grace upon the soul. 2 
Cor. 1:21; 1 John 2:20,27. 

To anoint the eyes with eye-salve, Rev. 
3 : 18, is a figurative expression for the 
gift of spiritual illumination. 

The Anointed, or Messiah, who is 
constituted our High Priest and Interces- 
sor, was anointed with the Holy Ghost, 
of which anointing that of the priests 
under the Jewish dispensation is sup- 
posed to be typical. Ps. 45 : 7 ; Isa. 
61:1; Dan. 9:24; Luke 4 : 18, 21 ; Acts 
4:27 and 10: 38. See Messiah. 

ANT. Prov. 6 : 6 and 30 : 25. A small 
insect remarkable for industry, econ- 
omy, and architectural skill. These 
creatures are called by an inspired 
Writer "exceeding wise," Prov. 30 : 24, 
and Cicero was so filled with wonder at 
their wisdom that he declared they must 
have mind, reason, and memory. 

The ants were described by the an- 
cients "as ascending the stalks of ce- 
reals and gnawing off the grains, while 
others below detached the seed from the 
chaff and carried it home ; as gnawing 
off the radicle to prevent germination, 
and spreading their stores in the sun 
to dry after wet weather." The pro- 
verb "As provident as an ant" was no 
less common among the people of the 
Mediterranean shores than " As busy as 
a bee" is with us. Hesiod spoke of the 
time — 


" When the provident one [the ant] harvests the 

Naturalists and commentators for a long 
time have been accustomed to deny the 
truth of such ideas. It is, however, now 
acknowledged that in such warm cli- 
mates as Palestine these insects are dor- 
mant but a short time during the cooler 
season, and that they do store up large 
quantities of grain and seed, and dry 
them after rain. The writer has often 
seen in Judasa a quart or two of chatt' 
and seeds upon ant-hills. This the ants 
were bringing out to dry in the morn- 
ing, and carrying into their nests as it 
grew damp toward night. 

J. T. Moggridge, P. L. S., advances 
proof to confirm the ancient view, in the 
case of two species common around the 
Mediterranean. He has discovered the 
granai'ies, sometimes excavated in solid 
rock, in which the seeds are stored. He 
has seen the ants in the act of collecting 
seeds, and traced seeds to the granaries; 
he has seen them bring out the grains to 
dry after a rain, and nibble off the rad- 
icle from those which were germinating, 
and feed on the seed so collected. From 
these granaries Mr. M. collected the seeds 
of fifty-four species of plants. In one 
instance the masses of seeds of clover 
and other small plants taken from a sin- 
gle nest weighed, by careful estimate, 
over a pound. That the amount of 
grain gathered by ants was not un- 
worthy of notice appears from the fact 
that the Mishna, or traditionary law 
of the Jews, adjudicates upon the own- 
ership of such stores when found by 
the people. 

Of the 104 species of European ants, 
only two are known to store seeds. But 
these two, called " harvesting-ants," are 
abundant in the Levant; hence the fa- 
miliarity of the ancients with them. 
The prudence of this insect, as well as 
its industry, may therefore properly in- 
struct us. That the ant is in every re- 
spect " exceeding wise " is evident from 
its history and habits, which have been 
investigated by modern naturalists. 
Their habitations are constructed with 
regular stories, sometimes to the num- 
ber of thirty or forty, and have large 
chambers, numerous vaulted ceilings 
covered with a single roof, long galler- 
ies and corridors, with pillars or columns 
of very perfect proportions. 



The materials of their buildings, such 
as earth, leaves, and the fragments of 
wood, are tempered with rain, and then 
dried in the sun. By this process the 
fabric becomes so linn and compact that 
a piece may be broken out without any 
injury to the surrounding parts; and it 
is so nearly impervious that the longest 
and most violent rains never penetrate 
more than a quarter of an inch. 

They are well sheltered in their cham- 
bers, the largest of which is placed nearly 
in the centre of the building. It is much 
higher than the rest, and all the galleries 
terminate in it. In this apartment they 
spend the night and the cold months, 
during which they are torpid, or nearly 
so, and require not the food which they 
lay up. 

To illustrate their industry and im- 
mense labor, it is said that their edifices 
are more than five hundred times the 
height of the builders, and that if the 
same proportion were preserved between 
human dwellings and those who build 
them, our houses would be four or five 
times higher than the pyramids of 
Egypt, the largest of which is four hun- 
dred and eighty feet in height, and re- 
quires a base of seven hundred feet 
square to support it. The largest of 
one species of ant (the South American) 
does not stand more than a quarter of an 
inch high, while their nests or houses are 
from twelve to twenty feet high, and 
large enough to hold a dozen men. 

AN TICHRIST. This word oc- 
curs only in the Epistles of John. Ety- 
mologically, it may mean either one who 
is opposed to Christ or one who sets 
himself up in the place of Christ. Comp. 
"anti-pope," "rival-king." A compar- 
ison of the four passages in which the 
word is found, 1 John 2 : 18, 22 ; 4:3; 
2 John 7, shows that John meant to 
designate various persons holding heret- 
ical opinions in regard to the incarnation 
of Christ. "Every spirit that confesseth 
not that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh 
is not of God : and this is that spirit of 
antichrist." 1 John 4 : 3. He directs 
his warnings against this spirit as an 
existent evil : " Even now are there many 
antichrists," 1 John 2:18; "Even now 
already is it in the world." 1 John 4 : 3. 
We know that in John's day there were 
in the Church false teachers who denied 
the union of the divine and human in 

Christ and resolved the history of Christ 
into a mere phantom or myth. Such 
were Cerinthus and the early Gnostics 
(who have their followers in the modern 
assailants of the gospel history). 

But this use of the word by the apos- 
tle does not exhaust its meaning. It 
can be also applied to all enemies of 
Christ, and to all those doctrines and in- 
fluences which tend to set up against the 
simplicity of gospel truth the traditions 
or speculations of men, thus weakening 
or destroying the force of the former. 

We should not confound the antichrist 
of John's Epistles with the beasts from 
the abyss, or the antagonistic world- 
powers described in Daniel and in Rev- 
elation. More nearly related to anti- 
christ, and yet distinct, is " the man of 
sin." 2 Thess. 2:3. 

AN'TIOCH (from Antiochus), the 
name of two cities in New Testament 

1. Antioch in Syria, founded by Se- 
leueus Nicator, about 300 b. c, and 
enlarged and newly walled by Anti- 
ochus Epiphanes. 

Coin of Antiochus Epiphanes. 

Situation. — This city was about 
300 miles north of Jerusalem, on the 
left bank of the river Orontes, 16£ miles 
from the Mediterranean, in a deep 
pass between the Lebanon and the 
Taurus ranges of mountains. It was 
sometimes called "the gate of the 
East," being on the highway from 
the countries on the Mediterranean to 
Mesopotamia and Arabia. 

Biblical History. — Next to Jeru- 
salem, no city is of greater interest or 
importance in apostolic history than 
Antioch in Syria. At this place the 
disciples were first called Christians, 
Acts 11 : 26 ; it was an important cen- 
tre for the spread of the gospel, Acts 
13 ; from it Paul started on his mis- 
sionary journeys, Acts 15 : 36 ; 18 : 23 ; 
important principles of Christian faith 
and practice were raised and settled 



through the church at Antioch, Acts 
14 : 26, 27 ; 15 : 2-30 ; Gal. 2 : 11-14. 
It was made a " free " city by Pom- 
pey, was beautified by the emperors 
with aqueducts, baths, and public 
buildings ; and in Paul's time it 
ranked third in population, wealth, 

and commercial activity among the 
cities of the Roman empire. Chris- 
tianity gained such strength there, 
that in the time of Chrysostom, who 
was born at Antioch, one-half of 
the 200,000 inhabitants of the city 
were Christians. 

Antioch in Syria. (After Cassas. From Lewin's "Life of St. raul.") 

Present Condition. — Antioch has been 
besieged and plundered 15 times, and 
7 times destroyed by earthquakes, yet 
the remains of its ancient walls as- 
tonish the traveller. They were 50 
feet high and 15 feet thick. The 
old town, which was 5 miles long, is 
now represented by a mean, shrunk- 
en-looking place of about 6000 popu- 
lation, called Antal-ieli. An earth- 
quake in 1872 overthrew nearly one- 
half of the houses; since then almost 
a new town has sprung up, and near 
by is a silk-factory, and on the river 
water-wheels for irrigating the gar- 
dens. Through the Lake of Antioch 
flows the Nahr el-Aswad, or " black 
b ook," the Melanes of classic history, 
which empties into the Orontes 3 or 4 
miles above Antioch. Though the 
modern city is on a beautiful and 
exceeding^ fertile plain between the 
mountains, and watered by the Oron- 
tes, the interior of the town appears 

to consist "of dreary heaps of ruins, 
and unsightly, patched, and dilapida- 
ted houses, interspersed with rubbish 
and garbage." (See Baedeker's Pales- 
tine and Syria, p. 578.) 

2. Antioch in or near Pisidia was 
also founded or rebuilt by Seleucus 
Nicator. It was situated on a ridge — 
Strabo calls it a "height" — near the 
foot of the mountain-range, and by 
the northern shore of Lake Eyerdir. 
Paul preached there, Acts 13 : 1 4 ; 14 : 21, 
and was persecuted by the people, 
2 Tim. 3: 11. It was formerly erro- 
neously located at Ak-sher, but has 
lately been identified with Talob.itch f 
directly east of Ephesus and north- 
west of ancient Tarsus. Ruins of 
walls, theatres, and churches still ex- 
ist there. 

AN'TIPAS (prob. contr. Antipa- 
ter, for, or like, the father), a martyr 
of the church in Pergamos. Rev. 2 : 
13. Tradition makes him its bishop. 



ANTIP'ATRIS (for his father), 

a city built by Herod tbe Great in 
honor of his father, Antipater. It 
was on the road from Jerusalem to 
Caesarea, Acts 23:31, about 26 miles 
south-east of the latter and 16 miles 
nonth-east of Joppa, according to 
ancient authority. Some have located 
it at Kefr Saba, on the plain, 40 miles 
north-west of Jerusalem ; Wilson and 
Conder place it at Kala'at lias el 'Ain, 
ruins between Lydda and Caesarea, 30 
miles south-east of the latter and 11 
miles north-east of Joppa. The old 
Roman road from Jerusalem runs to 
this place, and thence to Caesarea. 
" One of the finest springs in the 
country is near." It did not seem 
probable to Wilson and Conder that 
any large town like Antipatris had 
been at Kefr Saba. 

ANTO'NIA, a castle or fortress 
built by Herod, north-west of the tem- 
ple in Jerusalem, and named by him 
after his friend Antony. It may be 
the " castle " referred to in Acts 21 : 

ANTOTHI'JAH (answers of Je- 
hovah), a Benjamite. 1 Chr. 8 : 24. 

AN'TOTHITE, THE, a native 
of Anathoth. 1 Chr. 11 : 28 ; 12 : 3. 

A'NUB (confederate), a descend- 
ant of Judah. 1 Chr. 4:8. 

APEL'LES, greeted and com- 
mended by Paul. Rom. 16 : 10. Tra- 
dition makes him afterward bishop of 
Smvrna or Heraclea. 

APES. 1 Kgs. 10:22. Probably a 
generic term for a variety of animals 
of the monkey - tribe. The rude re- 
semblance of these creatures to the 
human race, both in figure and physi- 
cal capacity, is well known. Apes are 
not natives of Palestine or adjacent 
legions, but were among the articles 
of merchandise imported from Ophir 
in Solomon's ships. 

The ape was an object of worship 
among the Egyptians, and is still such 
in many parts of India. We have an 
account of a temple in India, dedi- 
cated to the worship of the ape, sup- 
ported by seven hundred columns not 
inferior to those of the Roman Pan- 
theon. An ape's tooth was found by 
the Portuguese when they pillaged the 
island of Ceylon many years since, 
and so desirons were they to redeem I 

it as an object of devout worship that 
the kings of the country offered near- 
ly seventy-five thousand dollars for it. 

CHITES, colonists from Assyria to 
Samaria. Ezra, 4 : 9 ; 5 : 6 ; 6:6. 

A'PHEK (strength), the name of 
several towns. 

1. A royal city of the Canaanites 
whose king was slain by Joshua. 
Josh. 12 : 18. It was near Hebron, 
and probably the same as Aphekah. 
Josh. 15 : 53. 

2. A city of Asher, Josh. 19 : 30, in 
the north of Palestine, near Sidon, Josh. 
13 : 4 ; supposed to be the same as Aphik, 
Jud. 1 : 31, and the classical Aphaca, 
noted in later history for its temple of 
Venus ; now Afka, near Lebanon. 

3. A place where the Philistines en- 
camped before the ark was taken, 1 Sam. 
4:1; north-west of Jerusalem and near 
Shocho, now Belled el-Foka. 

4. A place near Jezreel, in Issachar, 
where the Philistines were, before de- 
feating Saul, 1 Sam. 29 : 1, and cannot 
be identified with No. 3, as some have 

5. A walled city in the plains of Syria, 
on the road to Damascus. 1 Kgs. 20 : 
26, 30: 2 Kgs. 13 : 17. It was about 6 
miles east of the Sea of Galilee; now 
called File. 

APHEKAH (strong place), fem- 
inine form of Aphek. Josh. 15 : 53. See 
Aphek (1). 

APHI'AH (refreshed), one of Saul's 
progenitors. 1 Sam. 9: 1. 

A'PHIK. Jud. 1:31. See Aphek 

APH'RAH (fawn, or dust), a place 
in the low-country of Judah. Mic. 1: 
10. It has been identified by some with 
Ophrah, but there is evidence that it was 
west or south-west of, and not far from, 

APH'SES (the dispersion), the head 
of the eighteenth of the twenty-four 
courses of priests. 1 Chr. 24:15. 

APOCALYPSE, the Greek word 
for revelation, used of the Revelation 
of John. See Revelatiox. 

APOCRYPHA (hidden), the 
name applied most commonly to the 
uncanonical books that have been 
added to the Old Testament. 

1. Old Testament Apocrypha. — They are 



fourteen in number. I. 1 Esdras; II. 2 
Esdras; III. Tobit; IV. Judith; V. The 
rest of the chapters of the book of Esther, 
which are found neither in the Hebrew 
nor in the Chaldee; VI. The Wisdom 
of Solomon; VII. Ecclesiasticus, or the 
Wisdom of Jesus the Son of Sirach; 
VIII. Baruch; IX. The Song of the 
Three Holy Children; X. The History 
of Susanna; XI. The History of the 
Destruction of Bel and the Dragon; 
XII. The Prayer of Manasses, King 
of Judah: XIII. 1 Maccabees; XIV. 
2 Maccabees. They do not exist in He- 
brew, but were written in Greek, mostly 
in Alexandria. Though often quoted by 
the fathers, they were not esteemed as 
highly as the Scriptures. They are of 
great value as conveying historical 
information and containing many in- 
structive sayings and examples. They till 
up the gap between the Old and New 
Testaments. But they are without di- 
vine authority, and cannot be used in 
support of any doctrine or praeti3e. 
They are found in the Septuagint, the 
Vulgate, and all Roman Catholic Bibles, 
since all but the two books of Esdras 
and the Prayer of Manasses were pro- 
nounced by the Council of Trent a part 
of the canonical Scriptures. They were 
likewise printed in Protestant Bibles 
and by the British and Foreign Bible 
Society until 1826, when, after a long 
controvers}', it resolved to omit them 
from all future editions. The American 
Bible Society followed its example. 

2. New Testament Apocrypha. — These 
are various spurious gospels, histories, 
biographies, and epistles. They are never 
printed in Bibles. They are immensely 
inferior to the genuine books. Many of 
them are pious frauds, perpetrated with 
the design of enhancing the glory of 
Christ and his apostles, but by their 
nonsensical stories they not only ut- 
terly fail of their object, but rather 
bring their heroes into contempt. They 
confirm, however, the canonical Gospels, 
as counterfeits presuppose the genuine 
coins. See Canon. 

APOLLO'NIA {belonging to 

Apollo), the name of several places in 
Europe and Asia, of which Apollonia 
in Illyria was the most c -lebrated. 
But the Apollonia through which Paul 
passed, Acts 17 : 1, was a cit}' of Mace- 
donia, about 36 miles east of Thessa- 

lonica, and 30 miles south-west of 
Amphipolis. Lewin locates it at the 
modern Polina. 

APOLLOS {belonging to Apollo), 
born at Alexandria, in Egypt, of Jew- 
ish parents, and described as an elo- 
quent man and mighty in the Scrip- 
tures. Acts 18 : 24. As one of John's 
disciples he had been instructed in the 
elements of the Christian faith, but 
coming to Ephesus, A. D. 54, during the 
temporary absence of Paul, was more 
fully taught the doctrines of the gospel 
by Aquila and Priscilla, who had them- 
selves been favored with the company 
and instruction of Paul at Corinth and 
on a voyage from that city to Ephesus. 
He afterward preiched with abundant 
success in Achaia and at Corinth. Paul 
had already been instrumental in estab- 
lishing a church there, to the care of 
which Apollos succeeded. 1 Cor. 3 : 6. 
The members of it were divided into 
parties, some being particularly partial 
| to Paul, others to Apollos, and others 
j still to Cephas or Peter. The rebuke 
of the apostle, 1 Cor. 1: 12, is directed 
against these partialities, in all which 
the power and grace of God seemed to 
! be overlooked or disregarded. When 
J Paul wrote his Epistle it is likely 
j Apollos was either with him or near 
j him, probably at Ephesus, A. n. 57. 
j From 1 Cor. 16:12 we learn that in 
i consequence of these dissensions Apol- 
los absolutely declined to go to Corinth. 
It has been remarked as an exemplary 
trait of character of these two eminent 
apostles that the contentions of their 
respective friends and admirers had no 
effect on their love and respect for each 
other. Thej r both refrained from visit- 
ing the church while it was distracted 
with such prejudices and partialities, 
though a worldly ambition might- have 
selected it as the field and the season 
of self-aggrandizement. Apollos is last 
mentioned Tit. 3:13, and very affection- 
ately. He was probably a more brilliant 
man than Paul. Some scholars consider 
him to have been the author of the 
Epistle to the Hebrews. But this is 
a mere conjecture; no exact proof can 
be given. 
APOI/L.YON. See Abaddon. 
APOSTLE (one sent forth). 1. 
This term was given originally to the 
twelve chief disciples of our Lord. 



Matt. 10:2. Their names were Simon 
Peter, Andrew, James, and John (sons 
of Zebedee) ; Philip, Bartholomew, 
Thomas, Matthew, James, and Lebbeus, 
who is also called Judas or Jude (sons 
of Alpheus); Simon the Canaanaean (or 
Zealot) and Judas Iscariot. Christ's 
charge to them is recorded in Matt. 10 : 
5-42. All the known circumstances of 
their history will be found under their 
respective names. 

Speaking generally, the apostles were 
of the lower, but not the lowest, class of 
the people. They were all laymen. 
Their learning was rather of life than 
of books, and yet it is probable they 
possessed the rudiments of an educa- 
tion. Religious perceptions and piety 
they doubtless possessed. Yet they 
needed much instruction and a miracu- 
lous endowment before they were able 
to do the work of the gospel. The Acts 
of the Apostles tells us of their first in- 
dependent labors. Paul was called as 
an apostle, 7 years after the resurrec- 
tion of Christ, on the way to Damascus. 
He was not of the Twelve, but was of 
equal authority. Gal. 1: 1, 12, 16; 2:9. 

The office and commission of apostles 
were remarkable in the following par- 
ticulars : (1.) They were all required to 
have been eye- and ear- witnesses of what 
they testified, especially of the resurrec- 
tion of Christ. John 15 : 27 ; Acts 1 : 21, 
22 and 22 : 14, 15 ; 1 Cor. 9 : 1 and 15 : 
8; 1 John 1 : 3. (2.) They were all 
called or chosen by our Saviour himself. 
Luke 6:13; Gal. 1:1. Even Matthias 
is not an exception to this remark, as 
the determination of the lot was of God. 
Acts 1 : 24-26. (3.) They were inspired. 
John 16 : 13. (4.) They had the power 
of miracles. Mark 16 : 20 ; Acts 2 : 43 ; 
Heb. 2: 4, -Rom. 15: 18, 19; 2 Cor. 12: 12. 

The word "apostle" is also used in a 
wider sense of Christian heralds of the 
gospel. 2 Cor. 8 : 23 ; Phil. 2 : 25. (A. V. 
in both cases translates " messenger.") 

2. The term apostle is also applied to 
our Saviour, Heb. 3 : 1, and with singu- 
lar propriety, as in the character of 
Messiah he is emphatically the Sent 
of God. 

APOTHECARY. See Perfume. 

AP'PAOI (the nostrils), a descend- 
ant of Judah. 1 Chr. 2:30, 31. 

APPAREL. See Clothes. 

APPEAL'. The right of appeal 

was acknowledged in the Jewish law. 
Deut 17 : 8, 9. For matters of contro- 
versy might be referred for final adjudi- 
cation to ''the priests, the Levites, and 
unto the judge that shall be in those 
days," in the place chosen of God. But 
this is not, properly speaking, such an 
appeal as our law recognizes. Yet we 
find traces of the principle in the days 
of the Judges, Jud. 4 : 5, and of the 
kings. 2 Sam. 15:3. Jehoshaphat es- 
tablished a permanent court before which 
all cases might come. 2 Chr. 19 : 8. 
This court was re-established by Ezra. 
Ezr. 7 : 25. The Sanhedrin in later 
times was the court of final appeal. 
By the Roman law every accused citi- 
zen had a right to carry his cause be- 
fore the emperor at Rome, by appeal 
from the judgment of the magistrate. 
Acts 25:11. 

AP'PHIA, a Christian woman ad- 
dressed by Paul in Phile. 2. From the 
connection in which she stands, preced- 
ing a masculine name and linked so 
closely to Philemon, it has been reason- 
ably conjectured that she was Philemon's 

AP'PII FORUM (market-place 
of Appiu8), a place on the famous Ap- 
pian Way, 43 miles south-east of Rome, 
where the disciples met Paul. Acts 28 : 
15. It was at the end of a canal, and 
hence filled with taverns and boatmen. 
Its ruins are still seen near Treponti. 

(Hebrew, breathing forth). Song Sol. 
2:3-5; 7:8; 8:5; Joel 1 : 12. Spoken 
of in the Scriptures as excellent "among 
the trees of the wood," of pleasant 
shadow, with sweet, beautiful, and fra- 
grant fruit. The Hebrew word, by its 
meaning, is thought to emphasize the 
latter property. The apple proper is 
rare in Syria, and its fruit is inferior. 
Writers have urged the citron, orange, 
quince, and apricot as the trees meant. 
The fruit of the latter two alone is spe- 
cially aromatic, and of these the quince 
is not sweet in taste. 

The apricot is everywhere abundant 
in the Holy Land, and of it Tristram 
says: "Many times have we pitched 
' our tents in its shade and spread our 
carpets secure from the rays of the sun." 
"There can scarcely be a more deli- 
ciously-perfumed fruit than the apricot; 
and what fruit can better fit the epithet 



of Solomon, 'apples of gold in pictures 
of silver/ than this golden fruit as its 
branches bend under the weight in their 
setting of bright, yet pale, foliage ?" 
The expression of Solomon just referred 
to, Prov. 25 : 11, is also supposed to 
compare /nntf in silver baskets, or salvers 
curiously wrought like basket-work, and 
perhaps representing animals or land- 
scapes, to seasonable advice wisely and 
courteously administered. 

Apple op the Eye (Hebrew, little 
man, or pupil of the, eye). Prov. 7:2; 
Zech. 2 : 8. Apple here represents an 
entirely different word from the word of 
the preceding topic, meaning the front 
and most sensitive part of .the organ of 
vision. The same figure is used, Deut. 
32: 10 and Ps. 17 : 8, to denote the most 
complete protection and security. And 
in Lam. 2 : 18 the phrase " apple of thine 
eye" is figuratively used for tears. 

AQ'UIIiA. Acts 18 : 2. A Jew 
born at Pontus, in Asia Minor. Being 
driven from Rome by a decree of the 
government requiring all Jews to leave 
that city, he and his wife, Priscilla, 
came to Corinth, and were dwelling 
there at the time of Paul's first visit to 
that city. Acts 18 : 1. They were of 
like occupation (tent-makers), and Paul 
was received and hospitably entertained 
at Aquila's house; and they also accom- 
panied him from Corinth to Ephesus. 
On some occasion they rendered Paul 
very important service, and a very warm 
friendship existed between them. Rom. 
16 : 3-5. See Apollos. 

AR, and AR OF MO'AB. Num. 
21 : 28. The chief city of Moab, on the 
east of the Salt Sea; called also Aroer, 
Deut. 2 : 36; sometimes used for the 
whole land of Moab, Deut. 2 : 29 ; burn- 
ed by Sihon. Num. 21:26-30. It has 
been placed at Rabbah or Rabbath, but 
good authorities regard it as a different 
city, and fix Ar on the Arnon, 10 or 12 
miles north of Rabbah, at the Wady 
Lejum. See Rabba.h. 

A'RA (lion), head of a branch of the 
house of Asher. 1 Chr. 7 : 38. 

A'RAB (ambush), a town in the 
mountains of Judah, Josh. 15 : 52 ; per- 
haps the home of the Arbite. 2 Sam. 
23 : 35. East of Hebron, at er-Rabiyeh, 
is an ancient site marked by walls, cis- 
terns, and ruins, which Conder regards 
a< the Arab of biblical history. 

AR'ABAH (burnt up), a word of 
frequent use in the Hebrew, though 
found only once in the English, version. 
Josh. 18 : 18. It is the name applied to 
the deep sunken valley which extends 
from Mount Hermon to the Elanitic 
Gulf of the Red Sea. This remarkable 
depression is about 250 miles long, and 
includes the Sea of Galilee and the 
Salt, or Dead, Sea. In some passages 
in Deuteronomy, the plain or "the 
Arabah" refers to the southern portion 
of the valley, between the Salt Sea and 
the Red Sea, Deut. 1:1; 2:8; in other 
passages the word doubtless refers to 
the northern portion of that valley along 
the Jordan, which the Arabs now call 
el-Ghor. See Jordan. Arabah is now 
applied only to that portion of the val- 
ley which stretches from the chalk-cliffs 
below the Dead Sea southward to the 
Gulf of Akabah — Elanitic Gulf. It is 
about 100 miles long and from 4 to 16 
miles wide. The limestone walls on the 
west of the valley are from 1500 to 1800 
feet in height ; the mountain-wall on 
the east side of the valley rises from 
2000 to 2300 in height, and in Mount 
Hor to 5000 feet, and is chiefly composed 
of granitic and basaltic rock. The sur- 
face of the valley is covered with loose 
gravel, blocks of porphyry, and is fur- 
rowed with torrents, with scarcely a 
trace of vegetation. It is oppressively 
hot, is swept with burning winds, the 
Sirocco blowing at some seasons without 
intermission, a region dreary and deso- 
late. The theory that the Jordan once 
ran through this valley into the Red 
Sea is now held to be untenable. Ara- 
bah in Josh. 18 : 18 has also been mis- 
taken for the name of a city, and con- 
founded with Beth-arabah of Josh. 15 : 
61; 18:22; but in v. 18 the word has 
the article before it in the Hebrew, and 
hence refers to the plain, as elsewhere. 
See also Zin, Wilderness of, and Salt 

ARA'BIA (arid, sterile), a large 
peninsula in the south-western part of 
Asia, between the Red Sea, the Indian 
Ocean, and the Persian Gulf. Its ex- 
treme length from north to south is 
about 1300 miles, its greatest breadth 
about 1500 miles, though from the north- 
ern point of the Red Sea to the Persian 
Gulf is only about 900 miles. It has the 
sea on all sides except the north. Its 



area is estimated at 1,030,000 square 
miles; and of the three ancient divis- 
ions of the country, that known as Ara- 
bia Felix was by far the largest and most 
important, though it is less frequently 
mentioned by the sacred writers than 
either of the smaller and northern divis- 

Sketch-Map of Arabia. 

Physical Features — Its main features 
are a coast-range of low mountains or 
table-land, seldom rising over 2000 feet, 
broken on the eastern coast by sandy 
plains; this plateau is backed up by a 
second loftier range of mountains in the 
east and south. The mountains are 
generally barren on their sea side; their 
outlines are rugged and precipitous; 
behind the mountains encircling the 
sea-coast lies a ring of sterile desert, 
broadest in the east and south, where it 
is a waste of burning sand, narrower in 
the west and north, where it is rocky. 
"Within this belt of desert rise table- 
lands broken by fertile valleys. This 
central plateau includes about one-third 
of the Arabian peninsula, the desert an- 
other third, and the coast-ranges the re- 
maining portion. The Sinaitic penin- 
sula is a small triangular region in the 
north-western part, or corner, of Arabia. 
See Sixai. 

Divisions of Arabia. — The ancients 
divided it into Petraaa, Deserta, and 
Felix ; or the Stony, the Desert, and the 
Happy or Fertile. Modern geographers 
divide Arabia into a number of large 
districts, the chief of these being Yemen, 

which is the most fertile, and Hadra 
maut in the south, Oman in the east, 
Shomer and Sinai, or Negeb, in the 
north, Iledjaz, containing the holy 
cities of Mecca and Medina, in the west, 
and Nej'd in the central district. These 
districts are subdivided into upward of 
35 smaller provinces. Some are thickly 
peopled with an agricultural population 
or those living in villages, while others 
are held by tribes of wandering Bed- 
ouins, each governed by the sheik. 

Productions. — The principal animals 
are the horse, famed for its form, 
beauty, and endurance, camels, sheep, 
asses, dogs, the gazelle, tiger, lynx, and 
monkey, quails, peacocks, parrots, os- 
triches, vipers, scorpions, and locusts. 
Of fruits and grains, dates, wheat, millet, 
rice, beans, and pulse are common. It is 
also rich in minerals, especially in lead. 

Biblical History. — Arabia in early 
Israelitish history meant a small tract 
of country south and east of Palestine, 
probably the same as that called Kedem, 
or " the east." Gen. 10 : 30 ; 25 : 6 ; 29 : 
1. Arabia in New Testament times ap- 
pears to have been scarcely more exten- 
sive. Gal. 1:17; 4 : 25. The chief in- 
habitants were known as Ishmaelites, 
Arabians, Idumeans, Horites, and 
Edomites. The allusions in the Scrip- 
ture to the country and its people are 
very numerous. Job is supposed to 
have dwelt in Arabia. The forty years 
of wandering by the Israelites under 
Moses was in this land. See Sinai. 
Solomon received gold from it, 1 Kgs. 
10 : 15; 2 Chr. 9 : 14; Jehoshaphat, 
flocks, 2 Chr. 17 : 11 ; some of its people 
were at Jerusalem at the Pentecost, 
Acts 2:11; Paul visited it, Gal. 1:17; 
the prophecies of Isaiah and Jeremiah 
frequently refer to it. Isa. 21:11-13; 
42 : 11 : 60 : 7 ; Jer. 25 : 24; 49 : 28, 29. 
See Kedar. 

Secular History. — Arabia in earliest 
history was divided into several king- 
doms, of which Yemen was the chief. 
In the fifth centur}' the northern Arabs 
overran Yemen ; later, in A. d. 529, came 
the great Abyssinian invasion ; then the 
era of Mohammed, 622-632, followed by 
the conquests of his followers, who swept 
over Arabia, Palestine, Syria, and the 
whole of Western Asia, Northern Africa, 
and into Europe. In the next century 
their power in Arabia was broken and 



lost by dissensions. Arabia was disor- 
ganized, but rearranged in 929 ; fur- 
nished rulers for Egypt until 1171, in 
the time of Saladin ; in 1517 the Turkish 
sultan, Selim I., was invested with the 
Mohammedan caliphate, and Arabia be- 
came subject to, and has since continued 
under, the Ottoman rule. 

A'RAD {wild ass), a Benjamite. 
1 Chr. 8 : 15. 

A'RAD. Jud. 1 : 16. A city in the 
southern border of Judaea, whose king 
opposed the passage of the children of 
Israel, and even took some of them 
prisoners, for which the inhabitants 
were accursed and their city destroyed. 

A'RAD (place of fugitives), a Ca- 
naanitish city, Josh. 12 : 14, on a small 
hill now called Tell Arad, about 20 
miles south of Hebron. In Num. 21 : 1 ; 
33 : 40 the translation should be " the 
Canaanite king of Arad." 

A'RAH {wandering). 1. A chief of 
Asher. 1 Chr. 7 : 39. 

2. The man whose descendants re- 
turned from Babylon, and whose grand- 
daughter married Tobiah the Ammon- 
ite. Ezr. 2:5; Neh. 6:18; 7:10. 

A'RAM (high region). 1. A son of 
Shem. Gen. 10 : 22,' 23 ; 1 Chr. 1 : 17. 

2. A descendant of Nahor, Abraham's 
brother. Gen. 22:21. 

3. An Asherite. 1 Chr. 7 : 34. 

4. The son of Esrom, elsewhere called 
Ram. Matt. 1 : 3, 4 ; Luke 3 : 33. 

A'RAM (highlands), the elevated 
region north-east of Palestine, toward 
the Euphrates river. Num. 23 : 7 ; 
1 Chr. 1 : 17 ; 2 : 23. It was nearly 
identical with Syria. Aram-nahara- 
im of Gen. 24:10 is translated Meso- 
potamia in the English version, and re- 
fers to the region between the Euphra- 
tes and Tigris rivers. There were prob- 
ably several petty kingdoms included 
under Aram, as Aram-zobah, Aram 
Beth-rehob, Aram Damascus, Padan- 
aram ; all these were gradually ab- 
sorbed by that of Damascus, which be- 
came the capital of all "Aram," or Syria. 
See Syria, Mesopotamia, and Damas- 

A'RAM-NAHARA'IM (highlands 
of the two rivers). Ps. 60, title. See 

ARAM-ZOBAH. Ps. 60, title. 
See Aram. 

A'RAN (ivild goat), a descendant of 

Seir the Horite. Gen. 36 : 28 ; 1 Chr. 

AR'ARAT (holy land, or high land), 
a mountainous region of Asia which bor- 
ders on the plain of the Araxes, and is 
mentioned (1) as the resting-place of 
Noah's ark, Gen. 8 : 4 ; (2) as the ref- 
uge of the sons of Sennacherib, 2 Kgs. 
19 : 37, margin ; Isa. 37 : 38, margin ; 
(3) as a kingdom near to Minni and 
Ashchenaz, Jer. 51:27. 

Ararat was a name unknown to Greek 
and Roman geographers, as it is now to 
the Armenian, but it was known to 
others in b. c. 1750 as the ancient name 
for a portion of Armenia. In Scripture 
it refers to the lofty plateau or moun- 
tain-highlands which overlook the plain 
of the Araxes. Various views have 
prevailed as to the Ararat on which the 
ark rested. Tradition identifies it with 
the mountain known as Ararat to Eu- 
ropeans, called "Steep Mountain" by 
the Turks, and Knh-i-Nuh, or " Noah's 
Mountain," by the Persians. It has 
two peaks, about 7 miles apart; the 
highest is 17,750 feet, the other about 
4000 feet lower. The highest peak is 
covered with perpetual snow, and is a 
volcano, having had at least two violent 
eruptions Avithin a century. The vil- 
lage of Arguri, built on its slopes, is 
said to be on the spot where tradition . 
claims that Noah planted his vineyard. 
The mountains of Ararat, Gen. 8 : 4, more 
properly refer to the entire range of ele- 
vated table-land in that portion of Ar- 
menia, and upon some lower part of this 
range, rather than upon the high peaks 
before mentioned, the ark more probably 
rested. For (1) this plateau or range 
is about 6000 to 7000 feet high; (2) it 
is about equally distant from the Eux- 
ine and the Caspian Seas, and between 
the Persian Gulf and the Mediterranean, 
and hence a central point for the dis- 
persion of the race; (3) the region is 
volcanic in its origin; it does not rise 
into sharp crests, but has broad plains 
separated by subordinate ranges of 
mountains : (4) the climate is temper- 
ate, grass and grain are abundant, the 
harvests quick to mature. All these 
facts illustrate the biblical narrative. 
George Smith, however, places Ararat 
in the southern part of the mountains 
east of Assyria (Chaldean Account of 
Genesis, p. 2*89). 



View of Ararat. (After 

ARAU'NAH (ark ; a large ash or 
pine), or OR'NAN, was a Jebusite who 
lived at Jerusalem and owned a thresh- 
ing-place or floor, where the temple was 
afterward built. 2 Sam. 24:16. Da- 
vid bought it of him because the destroy- 
ing angel sent to desolate the nation, in 
consequence of David's sin of number- 
ing the people, stayed his hand at the 
command of God just as he had reached 
the floor. Araunah refused at first to 
receive anything for it, but offered it to 
him, together with oxen for sacrifices, 
and the timber of the threshing-instru- 
ments for fuel. David refused to receive 
them as a gift, as he would not offer to the 
Lord that which had cost him nothing. 
He therefore bought the oxen for fifty 
shekels of silver, 2 Sam. 24 : 24, and 
the whole place for six hundred shekels 
of gold, 1 Chr. 21 : 25, and offered his 
sacrifices, which were accepted and the 
plague stayed. 2 Sam. 24:23 maybe 
better translated : " The whole, king, 
does Araunah give unto the King." But 
taking the Authorized Version transla- 
tion as it stands, it favors the view of 
some that the expression "Araunah the 
king" implies that he was one of the 
kines of the Jebusites. 

AR'BA. See Hebron. 

AR'BAH. Gen. 35 : 27. See Kir- 
jath-arbah and Hr.BRONT. 

ARBATHITE, THE, ». e. na- 

Pairot. From 1'iehm.) 

five of the Arabah. 2 Sam. 23:31 ; I 
Chr. 11 : 32. 
AR'BEL. Hos. 10 : 14. See Beth- 


AR'BITE, THE, i. e. native of 
Arab. Paarai was so called. 2 Sam. 
23 • 35 

ARCHAN'GEL, the prince or 
chief of angels. The word only occurs 
twice in the Bible, 1 Thess. 4:16; 
Jude 9, and it is generally believed that 
a created, though highly-exalted, being 
is denoted bv the term. 

ARCHELA'US {prince of the 
people), a son of Herod the Great 
by a Samaritan woman. He with his 
brother, Antipas, was brought up in 
Rome. On the decease of his father, 
B. c. 4, the same year that Christ was 
born, he succeeded to the government 
of Idumea, Samaria, and Judaea, with 
the title of ethnarch. His character 
was cruel and revengeful. Joseph and 
Mary on their return from Egypt nat- 
urally, therefore, feared to live under 
his government. Matt. 2:22. In the 
tenth year of his reign he was deposed 
by the emperor for cruelty, on charges 
preferred against him by his brothers 
and subjects, and banished to Vienne, 
in Gaul, where he died. 

AR'CHI. Josh. 16 : 2. A place 
near Bethel, perhaps settled by a colony 
from Babylon, and named after Erech 



in Babylonia. Conder identifies it with 
the village of 'Ain ' Arek, which is in the 
required position. 

ARCHIP'PUS (master of the 
horse), a Christian ' teacher addressed 
by Paul, Phile. 2. Some think he was 
Philemon's son. 

AR'CHITE, THE, the designa- 
tion always coupled, in the Bible, with 
the name of Hushai, David's faithful 
friend, 2 Sam. 15 : 32 ; 16 : 16 ; 17 : 5-14; 
1 Chr. 27 : 33. It is not certain to what 
it refers— perhaps to " the districts of 
Ereeh whicli lay on the frontier of 
Ephraim, buc this is mere conjecture." 

ARCHITECTURE arises out of 
the necessities of human life, and before 
it becomes an art it administers to the 
primary demands of civilization. Cain 
built a small city, Gen. 4:17, and after 
the Flood other cities were built. Gen. 
10 : 10-12 ; 11 : 1-9. Damascus and He- 
bron existed in the days of Abraham. 

Kemains of Arch of Bridge between Zion and 
Moriali, and near the Jews' Wailing- place. 
(From Photograph.) 

The patriarchs, being nomads, lived in 
tents. During their sojourn in Egypt 
the Hebrews became acquainted with 
architecture as an art, and they were 
compelled by force to take part in the 
construction of huge monuments. Ex. 
1 : 11. Hence it was natural that their 
imagination should be deeply impressed 
by Egyptian architecture, and that they 
acquired some knowledge of the science 
on which it was based. But during 
their wanderings in the wilderness they 
had no opportunity to display it, except 
in the construction of the tabernacle ; 

and at the conquest of Canaan they 
found forts and cities prepared by other 
hands. Jud. 1 : 16-26. 

It was not till the "eigns of David 
and Solomon that Hebrew architecture 
suddenly started into existence. The 
influence from Egypt at once made it- 
self felt. David enlarged Jerusalem, 
improved its fortifications, and built a 
palace on Mount Zion, perhaps also the 
original walls of the great mosque at 
Hebron. Solomon built another palace, 
"the house of the forest of Lebanon," 
a palace for his wife, the daughter of 
Pharaoh, gigantic water-works south of 
Bethlehem, still known under the name 
of "Solomon's Pools," and finally the 
greatest, and we may say the only great, 
monument of Hebrew architecture, the 
temple. These buildings were, to a 
large extent, erected by Phoenician 
workmen, 2 Sam. 5 : 6-11, and we may 
easily believe that Phoenician taste has 
made itself felt in many details. But 
so far as it is possible to reconstruct the 
temple after the descriptions given of 
it in the Bible, it must as a whole have 
reminded the spectator of Egypti.n 
architecture. The remains of an arch 
of the bridge between Zion and Moriah, 
and the remnants of the old wall, called 
the " Wailing-place of the Jews," show 
the massiveness of the old Hebrew struc- 
tures ; and from the descriptions it is 
apparent that everywhere in these build- 
ings, the temple as well as the palaces, 
the straight line and the right angle 
were predominant. But massiveness of 
construction and straightness of form 
are two of the most prominent features 
of Egyptian architecture. 

The successors of David and Solomon 
continued to build, and several kings 
of both Israel and Judah are mentioned 
as having encouraged architecture. Nor 
did the nation as a whole forget the art. 
After the return from Babylon the Jews 
were able to fortify Jerusalem and re- 
build their temple themselves. Ezr. 3 : 
8-10: 6:14; Neh. 3 : 6:15. Herod 
the Great was a great builder, and in- 
troduced the Greek and Roman styles 
of architecture. The temple recon- 
structed by him before and during the 
life of our Lord was totally destroyed 
in a. n. 70. For further details see Tem- 
ple ; for details concerning the Jewish 
architecture, see Dwelling. 




38 : 32 ; a star in the con- 
stellation Bootes, but in 
Job it refers to the Ursa 
Major or Great Bear. 

ARD (fugitive t). 1. 
A Benjamite; called in 
Gen. 46 : 21 son, and in 
Num. 26 : 40 grandson, 
of Benjamin; name 
writ f en Addar in 1 Chr. 
8 : 3. His descendants 
are the Ardites. 

AK'DOX (fugitive), 
a son of Caleb, the son 
of Hezron, by his wife 
Azubah. 1 Chr. 2 : 18. 

ARE'LI (hemic), a 
son of Gad ; founder of 
the Arelites. Gen. 46 : 16; 
Num. 26:17. 

member of the council of 
the Areopagus. Acts 17 : 

(hill of Marx), a rocky- 
hill near the centre of 
the ancient city of Ath- 
ens, and west of the 
Acropolis, from which it 

View of "Mars' Hill," or Areopagus. (From Lewin's "Life of St. 

s divided by 
a valley. It had its name from the tra- 
dition that Mars (Ares), the god of war, 
was tried here by the other gods on the 
charge of murder. It was celebrated 
as the place where the great, court of 
justice, the most ancient and venerable 
of the Athenian courts, was held, and 
where Paul made his address to the 
Athenians. Acts 17 : 19-34. Near by 
were the temple of Mars, the Parthe- 
non, the colossal statue of Minerva, and 
beneath the hill were the caves of the 
Furies. There are 16 stone steps now to 
be seen, cut into the rock and leading to 
its summit, and above the steps there is 
a bench of stones excavated in the rock, 
forming three sides of a quadrangle and 
facing the south. Here the Areopagites 
sat as judges, in the open air, and from 
here Paul made known to the Athenians 
the " unknown God " and converted one 
of the judges, Dionysius, who is said 
to have been the first bishop of Athens 
and the writer of books on mystical 
Platonic theology and philosophy. 

AR'ETAS. 2 Cor. 11 : 32. The 
king of Arabia Petraea at the time 

the governor of Damascus attempted 
to apprehend Paul. Acts 9 : 24, 25. 
His daughter married Herod Antipas, 
but was afterward divorced to make 
room for Herodias. In consequence 
of this insult, Aretas made war upon 
Antipas and routed him. The emperor 
Tiberius then despatched the governor of 
Syria to the assistance of Antipas, with 
orders to bring the Arabian to Rome 
alive, or if dead to send his head. 
While on the march against him Vi- 
tellius learned that Tiberius was dead, 
A. D. 37. He then dismissed his troops. 
Antipas was soon after banished and 
his kingdom given to Agrippa. It is 
likely that Aretas was restored to the 
good graces of the Romans, and that 
Caligula granted him Damascus, which 
had already formed part of his pred- 
ecessor's kingdom. In this way we 
can account for the fact in Paul's life 
stated above. 

ARGOB (stony), a small dis- 
trict of Bashan, east of the Jordan; 
named only four times in the Bible. 
It is about 30 miles long by 20 miles 
wide, chiefly a field of basalt (black 



rock), elevated about 30 feet above 
tbe surrounding plain, and border- 
ed by a rocky rampart of broken 
cliffs. It once contained 60 strong and 
fortified cities, the ruins of many of 
them being still to be seen. It is now 
called the Lejah. 

History. — Jair took 60 of its cities. 
Deut. 3 : 4, 5, 14. Absalom fled thither. 
2 Sam. 13:38. Solomon placed an of- 
ficer over its 60 great cities with bra- 
zen walls. 1 Kgs. 4 : 13. Porter de- 
scribes this region as " literally crowded 
with towns and large villages ; and 
though a vast majority of them are 
deserted, they are not ruined. I have 
more than once entered a deserted 
city in the evening, taken possession 
of a comfortable house, and spent the 
night in peace. Many of the houses 
in the ancient cities of Bashan are 
perfect as if only finished yesterday. 
The walls are sound, the roofs unbro- 
ken, and even the window-shutters in 
their places. These ancient cities of 
Bashan probably contain the very old- 
est specimens of domestic architec- 
ture in the world." (See Giant Cities 
of Bashan.) But these ruins are now 
ascertained to belong to the Roman pe- 
riod, and after the Christian era. The 
American Palestine Exploration Society 
has explored that East Jordan region, 
and taken photographs of ruins of the- 
atres, palaces, and temples. 

ARID'AI {the strong), the ninth 
son of Hainan. Esth. 9 : 9. 

ARIDATHA (see above), the 
sixth son of Haman. Esth. 9 : 8. 

ARI'EH (lion), a friend of Peka- 
hiah ; killed with him by Pekah. 2 Kgs. 
15 : 25. 

ARIEL (lion of God), one of 
Ezra's chief men who directed the 
caravan which Ezra led from Babylon 
to Jerusalem. Ezr. 8:16. Jerusalem 
being the chief city of Judah, whose 
emblem was a lion, Gen. 49 : 9, the 
word Ariel is applied to that city. 
Isa. 29:1. 

ARIMATHE'A (heights), a town 
in Judaaa, and the home of Joseph, who 
begged the body of Jesus. Matt. 27 : 
57 ; Mark 15 : 43 : Luke 23 : 51 ; John 
19 : 38. An old tradition places it at the 
modern Ramleh, but this is generally 
discredited. Some identify it with 
Ramah ; others, with less probability, 

with Reuthieh, 10 miles east of Joppa. 
See Ramah. 

A'RIOCH (lion-lilce). 1. The king 
of Ellasar, confederate with Chedor- 
laomer. Gen. 14 : 1-9. 

2. The captain of Nebuchadnezzar's 
guard. Dan. 2 : 14, 15, 24, 25. 

ARIS'AI (lion-like), the eighth son 
of Haman. Esth. 9:9. 

ARISTARCHUS (best ruler), 
a Macedonian of Thessalonica wha 
accompanied Paul upon his third mis* 
sionary journey. Acts 20:4: 27:2. 
He was nearly killed in the tumult which 
Demetrius excited in Ephesus, Acts 19 : 
29, and it is said that he was finally be- 
headed in Rome. Paul alludes to him 
both as his fellow-laborer and fellow- 
prisoner. Col. 4:10; Phile. 24. 

ARK. The word indicates three 
structures. 1. Noah's ark, the vessel 
constructed at God's command for the 
preservation of himself and fami 1 ./ and 
a stock of the various animals, etc., 
during the Flood. Gen. 6 : 14. 2. Moses' 
ark of bulrushes. Ex. 2 : 3. 3. And 
usually, the ark of the covenant. 

1. Noah's Ark. — It was four hundred 
and fifty feet long, seventy-five feet in 
breadth, and forty-five in height, and 
was designed, not to sail, but only to 
float when borne up by the waters. 
It had lower, second, and third stories, 
besides what in common vessels is call- 
ed the hold. A door was placed in the 
side, and on the roof a series of win- 
dows or a window-course in which some 
translucent substance may have been 

The ark was constructed of gopher- 
wood, and covered with bitumen or 
pitch to exclude water. 

It is doubtful where the ark was 
built and as to how long time it took. 
The weight of opinion is that it was 
from one hundred to one hundred and 
twentv years. Compare Gen. 5 : 32 and 
7:6; Gen. 6 : 3 with 1 Pet. 3 : 20. 

The ark is supposed to have been 
a long, square-cornered boat with a flat 
bottom and a sloping roof; and the con- 
struction of it has been the subject of 
much curious, not to say useless, specu- 
lation. The proportions of the ark, as 
those recommended by the experience 
of centuries of ship-building, are of 
themselves a proof of Noah's inspira- 
tion. In regard to the capacity oi' the 



ark, it was large enough to accommodate 
the eight persons of Noah's family, and 
all the animals to be saved in it. Some 
scholars confine the number of animals 
to the species living in the parts of the 
world then inhabited by men, excepting, 
of course, such as live in the water 
or lie dormant. Traditions of the ark 
and of the Deluge are found among most 
ancient nations. See Flood. 

2. Moses's Ark was made of the bul- 
rush or papyrus, which grows in marshy 
places in Egypt. It was daubed with 
slime, which was probably the mud of 
which their bricks were made, and with 
pitch or bitumen. Ex. 2 : 3. 

3. Ark of the Covenant, Ex. 25 : 
10, a chest constructed by the express 
command of Jehovah, three feet nine 
inches in length, and two feet three 
inches in width and height, made of 
shittim-wood and covered with plates 
of gold within and without. A border 
or crown of gold encircled it near the 
top, and it was surmounted by the 

Supposed form of Ark of the Covenant. 

mercy-seat, which was of solid gold, 
and answered the purpose of a cover 
or lid to the ark. On each end of the 
mercy-seat was placed a golden image 
representing a cherub facing inward 
and bending down over the ark. Two 
rings of gold were attached to the body 
of the ark on each side, through which 
passed the staves or poles, made of the 
same wood and overlaid with gold, that 
were used in carrying it from place to 
place, and these were never taken out. 
This ark contained originally and in 

; design, 1. A golden pot in which the 
J three quarts of manna were preserved. 
j Ex. 16 : 33. 2. Aaron's rod, which at 
j different places miraculously budded 
and blossomed and yielded fruit all at 
! once, Num. 17:8; and, 3. The tables 
of the testimony, or the tables of the 
j ten commandments, written with the 
finger of God and constituting the tes- 
timony or evidence of the covenant be- 
tween God and the people. Deut. 31 : 26 ; 
Heb. 9 : 3, 4. Hence it is sometimes call- 
ed the ark of the testimony, and some- 
times the ark of the covenant. Ex. 25 : 
16 and 40 :21 ; " It is probable that the 
first two were hopelessly lost before the 
reign of Solomon. 1 Kgs. 8:9. On 
the mercy-seat which surmounted the 
ark rested the awful and mysterious 
symbol of the divine presence. Lev. 
16 : 2 ; Num. 7 : 89. When the Israelites 
were journeying through the wilderness, 
the ark was borne in advance of the 
people, and their route was providen- 
tially indicated by "the cloud of the 
Lord." When the ark set forward, 
Moses said, " Rise up, Lord, and let 
thine enemies be scattered : and let 
them that hate thee flee before thee." 
Num. 10 : 33-36. 

After the children of Israel had pass- 
ed the Jordan, whose waters divided at 
the approach of the ark, Josh. 3 : 14- 
17, the tabernacle was set up at Gilgal, 
and this sacred vessel remained in it for 
a season. It was then removed to Shi- 
loh, where it was stationary between 
three and four hundred years, Jer. 7 : 
12-15 ; and being then taken out and 
borne before the army, it fell into the 
hands of the Philistines at the defeat 
of the Israelites near Aphek. 1 Sam. 
4. The Philistines took it to Ashdod 
and placed it by the side of their idol- 
god Dagon, 1 Sam. 5 : but by severe judg- 
ments God avenged his insulted majesty, 
and they were compelled to return the 
ark to the people of Israel, by whom it 
was lodged at Kirjath-jearim. 1 Sara. 
6 and 7. When David had fixed his 
residence at Jerusalem, the ark was re- 
moved thither with sacred ceremonies, 
and kept until the temple was prepared 
to receive it, 2 Sam. 6 ; 1 Chr. 15 : 25-28, 
on which occasion it is supposed the one 
hundred and thirty-second Psalm was 
written. Solomon put it in the temple. 
2 Chr. 5 : 2-10. Manasseh placed a 



carved image in the house of God, 
probably removing the ark to make 
way for it. Josiah, however, restored 
it. See 2 Chr. 33 : 7 and 35 : 3. 

The second temple did not contain 
the ark : whether it was seized among 
the spoils when the city was sacked, or 
whether it was secreted and afterward 
destroyed, does not appear. The Jews 
think it will be restored when their Mes- 
siah appears. Wherever the Jews dwelt 
or wandered, they always worshipped 
toward the place where the ark of the 
covenant rested. Dan. 6: 10. 

ARK'ITE, THE, a Canaanitish 
family settled in Arka, "a Phoenician 
town at the north-western base of Leb- 
anon, where the worship of Astarfe was 
practised." Gen. 10 : 17 ; 1 Chr. 1 : 15. 

ARMAGEDDON (mount of Me- 
giddo), a name used figuratively in Rev. 
16: 16, and suggested by the great bat- 
tle-field noted in the Old Testament and 
now known as the Plain of Esdraelon. 

ARWL~E''81A( mountains of Minni ?), 
a name in the English version for a 
country called Ararat in the Hebrew. 
2 Kgs. 19 : 37 ; Isa. 37 : 38. Armenia 
is in western Asia, between the Caspian 
and the Black Seas, and the Caucasus 
and Taurus ranges of mountains. 

Physical Features. — It is chiefly an 
elevated plateau, about 7000 feet above 
the level of the sea, the highest peak 
being Ararat, the lower portions of the 
plateau being broken by valleys and 
glens, including the fertile valleys of 
the Euphrates and Tigris rivers. It is 
watered by four large streams, the Aras, 
the Kur, the Euphrates, and the Tigris, 
and also by numerous lakes, one of the 
largest, the salt Lake Van, being over 
5400 feet above the sea. Its three moun- 
tain-ranges abound in volcanic rocks, in 
lead, copper, iron, silver, rock-salt, and 
mineral springs. The climate is cold 
in the highlands, while the heat of sum- 
mer is intense in the valleys. 

History. — Three districts probably 
included in Armenia are mentioned in 
the Bible, Ararat, Minni and Ashchenaz, 
and Togarmah. (1) Ararat was a central 
region near the range of mountains of the 
same name. (2) Minni and Aschenaz, Jer. 
51 : 27, districts in the upper valley of a 
branch of the Euphrates. (3) Togarmah, 
Eze. 27 : 14 ; 38 : 6, was apparently the 
name by which the most, or perhaps the 

whole, of the lnnd was known to the 
Hebrews. Armenian tradition claims 
that Armenia was settled by Haih, a 
grandson of Japhet, about B.C. 2200. The 
land soon became tributary to Assyria, 
and so continued until the eighth cen- 
tury B. c. ; was again independent until 
B. c. 325 ; subject to Macedonia for 130 
years ; again free until b. c. 34 ; since 
then alternately overrun by Romans, 
Persians, Greeks, Kurds, and Turks, and 
divided between Russia, Turkey, and 
Persia. The people have long been nom- 
inally Christian. Religious persecution 
and war have driven great numbers of 
Armenians from their native land into 
Asia Minor and Europe. The present 
number of Armenians is estimated to 
be from 2,500,000 to 3,000 000, of whom 
about 1,000,000 live in Armenia. Its 
chief modern towns are Erzeroum, Eri- 
van, and Van. See Assyria. 

ARMOR. See also War. Weap- 
ons or instruments of defence. These 
were in general the shield or buckler, 
J the target, the coat of mail, the greaves, 
and the helmet. 

Egyptian Shields. {After Rosellini.) 
1. The shield or buckler was probably 
one of the earliest pieces of armor, for al- 
lusion is often made to it by the earliest 
writers. Gen. 15 : 1 ; Ps. 5 : 12 ; 18 : 2 : 
47 : 9. It was of various sizes, and usually 
made of light wood and covered with 
several folds or thicknesses of stout 
hide, which were preserved and polished 
by frequent applications of oil, Isa. 21 : 
5, and often painted with circles of 
various colors or figures. Nah. 2 : 3. 
Sometimes osiers, or reeds woven like 
basket-work, were used to stretch the 
hide upon, and sometimes the shield 
was made either entirely of brass or 
gold, or covered with thick plates of 



those metals. 1 Kgs. 14:26, 27. It was 
of various forms, but generally circular 
or oblong. The shield was held by the 

2. Assyrian Mail. (Ninereh Marbles.) 3. 
Part of Chain Mail. (From Kadyunjik.) 4. Greek 
Cuirass. (From Temple Collections.) 5. Persian 

left arm. The hand passed through 
under two straps or thongs placed 
thus, x, and grasped with the fingers 
another small strap near the edge of the 
shield, so that it was held with great 
firmness. A single handle of wood or 
leather in the centre was used in 
later times. The outer surface was 
made more or less rounding from 
the centre to the edge, and being 
polished smooth made the arrows or 
darts glance off" or rebound with in- 
creased force ; and the edges were armed 
with plates of iron, not only to strength- 
en them, but to preserve the perishable 
part from the dampness while lyinc 
upon the ground. In times of peace 
the shield was kept in a covering. In 
times of engagement the shields were 
either held above the head or they were 
placed together edge to edge, and thus 
formed a continuous barrier. 

2. The tin-get was a long shield, 
protecting the whole body, larger than 
the bucklers above described. 1 Kgs. 
10:16,17. It is usually mentioned in 
connection with heavy arms, while the 
shield is spoken of with the sword, dart, 
and other light arms. It probably re- 

sembled the great shield of the Romans, 
which in some cases was four feet high 
and two and a half feet broad, and so 
curved as to fit the body of the soldier. 

3. The coat of mail of Goliath, 1 Sam. 
17 : 5, covered the body upon and below 
the breast and back, and was probably 
like a shirt covered with rows of brass 
pieces overlapping one another; and 
this may have been the usual form. 
The habergeon of Neb. 4 : 16 is a differ- 
ent translation of the same word. The 
article so called formed part of the high 
priest's dress, and "is supposed to have 
been of linen, thickly woven or quilted, 
with a binding on the neck, and plated 
on the breast with mail." 

4. Greaves or boots, I Sam. 17 : 6, were 
for the protection of the legs, being made 
of brass and fastened by leather thongs 
over the shins. They are mentioned only 
as a part of the armor of Goliath, and 
probably were not in common use among 
the Hebrews, though they were almost 
universal among the Greeks and Romans. 

5. Helmet. This was a cap, the diverse 
shapes of which are seen in the figures of 
the archers, slinger, bearers of shields. 
In early times skins of the heads of 
animals were used, but afterward it was 
made of thick, tough hide, and some- 
times of plated brass, 1 Sam. 17 : 38, 
and usually crowned with a crest or 
plume as an ornament. 

Armor-bearer. Jud. 9 : 54. An of- 
ficer selected by kings and generals from 
the bravest of their favorites, whose ser- 

Egyptian Battle-axes. (From Eosellini and Chan* 

vice it was, not only to bear their armor, 
but to stand by them in danger and carry 
their orders, somewhat after the manner 



of adjutants in modern service. 
16 : 21 and 31 : 4. 



1. Egyptian Maces and Clubs. 


ARMS were weapons or instruments 
of offence. They were the sivord, the 
spear or javelin, dart or lance, the bow 

Assyrian Swords or Daggers. (From Nineveh 

and arroio, the sling, the quiver, and the 


1. The sword. Gen. 27:40. This was 
a short two-edged instrument resembling 
what we call a dagger. It was carried in 
a sheath or scabbard, Jer. 47 : 6 ; Eze. 
21 : 9, 30, and suspended to the girdle or 
belt. Jud. 3 : 16 : 2 Sam. 20 : 8. 

Assyrian Spears and Shields. (From Nineveh 

2. Of the spear there were at least three 
distinct varieties, which differed chiefly 
in length and size. (1.) The spear, par 

Assyrian Archers behind a large Shield. 
Nineveh Marbles.) 


excellence, was a long wooden staff with 
a stout metal point at one end. The 
Greek spears were sometimes twenty-five 
feet long, and the Arabs now use them 
fifteen feet long. They were required to 
be long enough to reach beyond the front 



rank when used by those who were in the 
second rank. Goliath's spear was said 
to have a staff "like a weaver's beam." 
1 Sam. 17 : 7. This largest sort of spear 
was used by Saul habitually. It must 
have had a metallic point at its butt 
end, because it was stuck into the 
ground, J Sam. 26 : 7, and Asahel was 
killed " with the hinder end " of Abner's 
spear. 2 Sam. 2:23. It was this kind 
of spear, and net a "javelin," which Saul 
threw at David and Jonathan. 1 Sam. 
18 : 1 1 ; 20 : 33. There was a somewhat 
lighter spear, which was carried on the 
back when not in use. 1 Sam. 17:6. 
(Authorized Version translates target.) 
(2.) The jucelin was a short spear, cast, 
as is supposed, with the hand. Num. 
25:7. (3.) The dart was still smaller 
than the javelin, and used in like man- 
ner. 2 Chron. 32:5. 

3. The arrow was a slender missile 
shot from a bow, as in modern days. 1 
Sam. 20:36. It was used in hunting, 
Gen. 27:3, as well as in combat. Gen. 
48 : 22. Those who used the bow were 
called "archers." Gen. 21:20. Arrows 
were originally made of reeds, and after- 
ward of any light wood. The bows were 
made of flexible wood or steel, Ps. 18 : 
34, and the bowstring of leather, horse- 
hair, or the tendons of animals. Bows 
were the chief dependence in both an 
attack and a defence. The point of the 
arrow was barbed like a fish-hook. Ps. 

kindled upon the combustible baggage 
or armament of the enemy. Ps. 91 : 5 ; 
120 : 4. It is said that the coals of the 

Egyptian Archer. (Rosdhni.) 

88 : 2. Job refers to the use of poisoned 
arrows. Job 6 : 4, and fire was often con- 
veyed by the use of juniper-wood, which 

Assyrian and Egyptian Quivers and Bows. 

juniper-wood retain their heat for a 
long time. The Phoenicians and, in 
later times, the Spaniards have used 
arrows for the like purpose. Arrows 
were used in divination. Eze 21 : 21. 

Arrows were kept in a case or box 
called a quiver, which was slung over 
the shoulder in such a position that the 
soldier could draw out the arrows when 
wanted. The position of the quiver and 
bow is seen in a preceding cut. The 
drawing of the bow was a test of 
strength, and is still so among the 
Arabians. Hence the allusion in Ps. 
18 : 34. 

4. The sling, 1 Sam. 17 : 40, was an 
early weapon of war, by which stones 
were thrown with great force and sur- 
prising accuracy of aim. This skill 
was shown in a remarkable degree by' 
the Benjamites, who could employ 
the left hand in its use with great 
adroitness. Jud. 20 : 16. The slingers 



ranked next to the archers in efficiency, 
and formed a regular arm of the service. 

Assyrian Slinger. 

5. The battle-axe, Jer. 51 : 20, was ob- 
viously a powerful weapon of war, but 
of its ancient form and manner of use 
we have now no knowledge. 

The term " armor," and the various 
offensive and defensive articles com- 
prised in it, are frequently used fig- 
uratively in the Bible, in Eph. 6 : 11-17, 
where the graces of the Christian cha- 
racter are represented as the armor of 
God, in which he clothes the believer, 
and by which he is enabled to fight the 
good fight of faith with a victorious 

ARMY. The armies of the Israel- 
ites embraced the whole male population 
of the country of twenty years and over, 
Num. 1 : 2, 3 ; 26 : 2, and when occasion 
required, the entire body was readily 
mustered. Jud. 20 : 1—11 ; 1 Sam. 11 : 
7, 8. This accounts for the prodigious 
numbers which were often assembled. 
2 Chron. 13:3: 14:9. See War. The 
system was minute. Each tribe consti- 
tuted a division with a separate banner 
and separate position on the march to 
the Holy Land, and as near as possible 
in battle. The army gathered from the 
tribes was divided into thousands and 
hundreds under their respective cap- 
tains. Num. 31 : 14. The kin<rs had 
body-guards. 1 Sam. 13:2: 25:13. 
In later times a standing army was 
maintained, and in war troops were 
sometimes hired. 2 Chr. 25 : 6. But 

ordinarily the soldiers received no 
wages, but were armed and supported. 
1 Kgs. 4 : 27 : 10 : 26. Hence their 
campaigns were short, and generally 
terminated by a single battle. Horses 
were not used, it is supposed, until 
Solomon's time. The manner of de- 
claring war, and the character and 
occupation of exempts, are minutely 
stated. Deut. 20 : 1-14 ; 24 : 5. 

AR'NON {noisy), a stream running 
into the Dead Sea from the east, and 
which divided Moab from the Amorites. 
Num. 21:13; Jud. 11:18. The Arnon 
is about 50 miles long ; 90 feet wide, and 
from 4 to 10 feet deep at its mouth ; full 
in winter, but nearly dry in summer; 
had several fords, Isa. 16 : 2, and " high 
places," Num. 21 : 28 ; Isa, 15 : 2 ; is re- 
ferred to 24 times in the Bible. Its 
modern name is el-Mojib. It runs 
through a deep ravine with precipitous 
limestone clifis on either side, in some 
places over 2000 feet high. Ruins of 
forts, bridges, and buildings abound on 
its banks, and fish in its waters; ole- 
anders and almond trees bloom in its 
valley, and griffons and buzzards may 
be seen hovering over its cliffs. 

A'ROD (a wild ass), a son of Gad, 
founder of the Arodites. Num. 26 : 17. 
He is called Arodi in Gen. 46: 16. 

AR'OER (ruins), the name of sev- 
eral places. 

1. A city on the north side of the 
river Arnon. given to Reuben. . Josh. 
13 : 9, 16. It belonged to Sihon of the 
Amorites, Deut. 2:36; 3:12; 4:48: 
Josh. 12 : 2 ; Jud. 11 : 26 ; taken by 
Syria, 2 Kgs. 10 : 33 ; possessed by 
Moab, Jer. 48 : 19. It is identified with 
ruins on the edge of a steep cliff, 13 
miles west of the Dead Sea, and called 
A ra'ir. 

2. A city before Rabbah, built by 
Gad, Num. 32 : 34; Josh. 13 : 25; it 
was probably not far west of the mod- 
ern town of Amman. 

3. Aroer, in Isa, 17 : 2, if a proper 
name, must refer to a region near 

4. A town in the south of Judah, 
1 Sam. 30:28; now Ar'arah, en the 
road from Gaza to Petra, and 11 miles 
south-west of Beer-sheba. Four wells 
are found there. 

AR'OERITE, THE. Horhan, 
the father of two of David's "mighty 



men," was a native of Aroer, but it is \ 
uncertain of which one. 1 Chr. 11:44. 
AR PAD, ou AR'PHAD {strong 

city), a town or region in Syria, near 
Hamath, 2 KgS. 18 : 34 : Isa. 10 : 9 ; 
dependent on Damascus. Jer. 49 : 23. j 
See Arvad. 

ARPHAXAD {stronghold of the 
Chaldees), a son of Shem, ancestor of | 
Eber, and also, according to Josephus, 
of the Chaldaeans. Gen. 10 : 22, 24 ; 11 : 
10-13; 1 Chr. 1: 17, 18, 24. 

ARTAXERX'ES {the great rear- I 
rior), the name of two kings of Persia : 
mentioned in the Bible. 1. Ezr. 4 : 7-24, 
the king who stopped the rebuilding of 
the temple because he listened to the 
malicious report of the enemies of the 
Jews. He is supposed to have been 
Smerdis the Magian, the pretended 
brother of Cambyses, who seized the 
throne b. c. 522, and was murdered af- j 
ter 8 months. 

2. Ezr. 7 : 7 and Neb. 2 : 1 both speak 
of a second Artaxerxes. who is generally 
regarded as the same with Artaxerxes 
Longimanus [i.e. the Long-handed), son 
of Xerxes, who reigned b. c. 464-425. In 
the seventh year of his reign he per- 
mitted Ezra to return into Judaea, with 
such of his countrymen as chose to fol- 
low him ; and fourteen years afterward 
he allowed Xehemiah to return and 
build up Jerusalem. 

AR'TEMAS (contraction of Arte- 
madoi us, the gift of Artemis, i. e. Diana), 
a companion of Paid. Tit. 3:12. 

ARTILLERY. 1 Sam. 20 : 40. 
Any missile weapons, as arrows, lances, 
etc. See Arms. 

ARTS. Acts 19 : 19. Pretended j 
skill in the practice of magic, astrology, 
etc. See Astroi ogy. 

AR'UJBOTH windows, or court), a 
district including Sochoh. 1 Kgs. 4 : 
10. See Sochoh. 

ARUMAH [height), a place near I 
Shechem, where Abimelech lived. Jud. | 
9 : 41. Perhaps el-Armah, 5 miles south- j 
east of Xnh'ouH. 

AR'VAD wandering), a small island i 
2 or 3 miles off the coast of Phoenicia, 
related closely to Tvre. Eze. 27:8, 11. ! 
See also Gen. 10 : 18 ; 1 Chr. 1:16. 
Ruins of a huge wall are still found. 
and Greek inscriptions graven on black 
basaltic columns. The stones are so 
immense as to puzzle the best engineers 

how to move them. The place is now 
called Itnad, and has about 3000 popu- 
lation. It appears to have been a city 
since the time of Arvad, son of Canaan, 
and is probably the same as Arpad and 

AR'ZA, the steward of King Elah's 
house. 1 Kgs. 16 : 9. 

A'SA ( physician ) was son and succes- 
sor of A bijam on the throne of Judah, B. c. 
955-914. 1 Kgs. 15 : 8. He reigned for- 
ty-one years. Though educated in the 
principles of a false religion, he showed 
from the first his decided opposition to 
idolatry, and even deposed his grand- 
mother, Maaehahj because she had made 
an idol in a grove. The first part of his 
reign was peaceful, and he improved the 
opportunity to purify his kingdom from 
idolatry and to build and fortify sev- 
eral cities ; and when Zerah, an Ethi- 
opian king, invaded his territories with 
an army of a million of men and three 
hundred chariots, Asa met him at 
Mareshah with 580,000 men, and de- 
feated him. This battle was one of 
the most important in Jewish history. 
2 Chr. 14. 

At the suggestion of the prophet 
Azariah, Asa set about the reformation 
of every abuse in his kingdom, and 
appointed a solemn festival of thanks- 
giving to God, at which all the peo- 
ple were assembled, and entered into 
a formal covenant with God. Baasha, 
king of Israel, finding his subjects too 
much disposed to go into Judah and 
dwell there, commenced fortifying Ra- 
in ah. a place near the frontiers of both 
kingdoms, with a view to cut off the 
passage of emigrants to Jerusalem 
and other parts of Judah. Asa, 
though he had so long enjoyed the 
favor and protection of God, was now 
tempted to forsake him. Instead of 
trusting him for deliverance, as he 
had done in years past, he sent to 
Ben-hadad, the king of Syria, and pre- 
vailed on him, even in violation of a 
treaty which existed between Ben-ha- 
dad and Baasha. to come to the help 
of Judah against Israel. The Syrian 
king, won by the presents which Asa 
had sent him, immediately attacked 
and destroyed several important cities 
of Israel. Baasha, finding his king- 
dom thus invaded, abandoned the for- 
tification of Ramah that he might 



protect the provinces of the interior 
from desolation. Asa seized the op- 
portunity to demolish Ramah and take 
away the stone and timber which were 
collected there and use them in the 
building of his own cities. In the 
mean time, Hanani the prophet was 
sent to rebuke him for forsaking Je- 
hovah, and to announce his punish- 
ment. But Asa was enraged by the 
faithful message, and caused the bearer 
of it to be imprisoned. 2 Chr. 16:10. 
In the latter part of his life Asa had 
a disease of the feet, perhaps the 
gout, but "he sought not to the Lord, 
but to the physicians." We may, how- 
ever, accept his sufferings as an ex- 
tenuating circumstance for his occa- 
sional acts of tyranny. He died b. c. 914, 
in the forty-first year of his reign, and 
was buried with great pomp. 2 Chr. 

2. A Levite who dwelt in one of the 
villages of the Netophathites after 
the Captivity. 1 Chr. 9:16. 

AS'AHEL (whom God made). 1. 
David's nephew, Joab's brother, noted 
for swiftness of foot ; one of David's 
thirty heroes : killed by Abner at the 
battle of Gideon. 2 Sam. 2 : 18 ff. ; 1 
Chr. 11 : 26 ; 27 : 7. 

2. A Levite. 2 Chr. 17 : 8. 

3. Another Levite. 2 Chr. 31 : 13. 

4. The father of one in Ezra's em- 
ploy. Ezr. 10:15. 

ASAHI'AH (ivhom Jehovah made), 
a servant of King Josiah. 2 Kgs. 22: 
12, 14. Called Asaiah, the same name, 
in 2 Chr. 34:20. 

ASAI'AH {whom Jehovah made). 1. 
A Simeonite chief in Hezekiah's time. 
1 Chr. 4:36, 41. 

2. A Levite of David's time, chief of 
the Merari, who assisted in bringing up 
the ark to Jerusalem. 1 Chr. 6 : 30, 31 ; 

3. According to 1 Chr. 9 : 5, the first- 
born of the Shilonite; called, in Neh. 11 : 
5, Maaseiah. 

4. 2 Chr. 34:20. See Asahiah. 
A'SAPH {collector). 1. A Levite 

who was a chief leader of the tem- 
ple choir and a poet. 1 Chr. 6 : 39. 
Twelve of the Psalms are attributed to 
him — namely, Ps. 50 and from Ps. 73 
to 83. He is also spoken of as a 
"seer" in connection with David. 2 
Chr. 29:30; Neh. 12:46. "The sons 

of Asaph " were probably a school of 

2. The father of Joah, recorder to 
Hezekiah. 2 Kgs. 18 : 18, 37 ; Isa. 36 : 

3. The keeper of the king's forest 
to Artaxerxes. Neh. 2 : 8. 

4. A Levite, an ancestor of Mattaniah. 
Neh. 11 : 17. Perhaps the same as 1. 

ASAR/EELi (xchom God has bound; 
i. e. by an oath), a descendant of Ju- 
dah. 1 Chr. 4:16. 

AS ARE 'L AH (upright toward 
God), a musician, 1 Chr. 25 : 2 ; called 
Jesharelah in v. 14. 

ASCEN'SION. See Christ. 

AS'ENATH {favorite of NeitJi or 
Isis-Neith) (Neith is the Minerva of 
Egypt), Joseph's wife, the daughter of 
Poti-pherah, priest of On or Heliopolis, 
the religious and literary capital of an- 
cient Egypt, a few miles north of Cairo. 
Gen. 41:45; 46:20. 

A'SER. Luke 2 : 36 ; Rev. 7 : 6. 
Greek form of Asher. 

ASH. Isa. 44:14. Mentioned 
only once. The true ash is not a 
native of Palestine. This tree, the 
wood of which was wrought into the 
images of idolatry, is believed to be 
a pine. 

A'SHAN (smoke), a city in the 
plain of Judah. Josh. 15 : 42 ; 1 Chr. 
6:59. The Ashan assigned to Simeon 
may be another place. Josh. 19 : 7 ; 
1 Chr. 4:32. Conder proposes to place 
one at 'Aseileh, near en-Rimmon, the 
other at Hesheth. 

ASH'BEA (I adjure), a name in the 
genealogical list in 1 Chr. 4 : 21. Prob- 
ably the name of a person ; but if a place, 
it should be Beth-ashbea. 

ASH'BEL (reproof of God), a son 
of Benjamin, ancestor of the Ashbelites. 
Gen. 46 : 21 : Num. 26 : 38 ; 1 Chr. 8 : 1. 

ASHCHENAZ. 1 Chr. 1:6: Jer. 
51:27. See Ashkenaz. 

ASH'DOD {stronghold, castle), one 
of the five confederate cities of the Phil- 
istines, allotted to Judah, Josh. 15 : 46, 
47; the chief seat of Dagon -worship. 1 
Sam. 5. It was 3 miles from the Medi- 
terranean, and midway between Gaza 
and Joppa. The place is called Azotus 
in the New Testament. Acts 8:40. It 
is now a mean village called Esdud ; 
near it are extensive ruins. 

History. — Built by the Anakim; not 



taken by Joshua, Josh. 11 : 22 : allotted 
to Judah, 15:47: taken by Uzziah, 2 
Chr. 26 : 6 : by Tartan or Sargon, Isa. 
20 : 1 ; besieged by Psammetichus and 
destroyed by the Maccabees ; given to 
Salome after Herod's death ; Philip 
preached there. Acts 8 : 40 ; bishops of 
Azotus or Ashdod are noticed in later 
history ; the city is now occupied by 

of Pisgah), a valley or place near Mount 
Pisgah. Deut. 3: 17; 4:49; Josh. 12: 
3. See Pisgah, Springs of. 

ASH'ER(Aap/>y). 1. The eighth son 
of Jacob. 2. One of the twelve tribes (see 
Tribes). 3. A territory extending from 
Carmel to Lebanon, about 60 miles long 
and 10 to 12 wide, having 22 cities with 
their villages. The Phoenicians held the 
plain by the sea, and Asher the moun- 
tains. Josh. 19 : 24-31 ; Jud. 1 : 31, 32. 

4. A place on the boundary between 
Ephraim and Manasseh. Josh. 17 : 7. 
Some locate it at Yaair, 12 miles north- 
east of Shechem. Drake suggests Asi- 
reh as the more probable location. 

ASH'ERAH {straight). See Ash- 


ASH'ES. Gen. 18 : 27. To cover 
the head with ashes, or to sit in ashes, 
betokens self-abhorrence, humiliation, 
extreme grief, or penitence. 2 Sam. 13 : 
19; Esth.4:3; Job 2:8; Jer. 6 : 26 ; 
Lam. 3:16; Jon. 3:6; Matt. 11 : 21. The 
ashes of the altar of burnt-offering on 
the days of the great festivals were suf- 
fered to accumulate, and then taken away 
the next day by a priest chosen by lot to 
this work. There was a sort of lye made 
of the ashes of the heifer sacrificed on 
the great day of expiation, which was 
used for ceremonial purification. Num. 
19:17,18. See Heifer. 

ASH'IMA. 2 Kgs. 17:30. The 
name of the god the Hamathite colonists 
introduced into Samaria; identified with 
the Pan of the Greeks. 

{migration), one of the five cities of the 
Philistines ; a seaport-town 10 miles 
north of Gaza; taken by Judah, Jud. 1 : 
18 ; visited by Samson, Jud. 14 : 19; and 
its destruction predicted in Jer. 47 : 5, 7 ; 
.Lm. 1:8; Zech. 9:5; Zeph. 2 : 7. 

History. — Ashkelon was the seat of 
worship of the Philistine goddess As- 
tarte, whose temple was plundered by 

the Scythians, b. c. 625 ; was the birth- 
place of Herod the Great; was taken by 
the Franks, A. D. 1099; partially de- 
stroyed by the Moslems ; rebuilt by 
Richard Coeur de Lion ; destroyed again 
in A. D. 1270. Ruins of walls, columns, 
marble pillars, and inscriptions on stone 
abound there now, though many of the 
good building-stones have been dug up 
and used in Jaffa and Gaza. Sycamores, 
vines, olives, and fruit trees are found 
there, and also 37 wells of sweet water. 
Near the ruins of the old city is J&rah, a 
village of about 300 population. 

ASH'KENAZ (strong, fortified), a 
district probably in Armenia, the home 
of a tribe of the same name. In 1 Chr. 
1:6; Jer. 51 : 27 it is called Ashchenaz. 
See Armenia. 

ASH'KENAZ. Gen. 10:3. Son 
of Gomer, of the family of Japhet, and 
the probable ancestor of those who in- 
habited the country of the same name, 
Jer. 51 : 27, lying along the eastern and 
south-eastern shore of the Black Sea. 
The precise district is unknown. See 

ASH'NAH, the name of two cities 
of Judah. 1. One about 16 miles north- 
west of Jerusalem, Josh. 15 : 33 ; 2, the 
other 16 miles south-west of it. Josh. 
15 : 43. Conder locates it at Idhnah, but 
Ganneau places it at Asalim, near Sai-a. 

ASH'PENAZ (horse-nose ?), the 
master of Nebuchadnezzar's eunuchs, 
who showed much kindness and for- 
bearance toward Daniel and his three 
companions, though at considerable per- 
sonal risk. Dan. 1 : 3. 

ASHRIEL {vow of God). See As- 


ROTH. 1. A city of Bashan, east of 
the Jordan, Deut. 1:4; Josh. 9 : 10 ; 13 : 
31 ; the same as Beesh-terah, Josh. 21: 
27 ; probably Tell-Ashterah, in Jaulan. 

2. {Ashtoreth, sing. ; Ashtaroth, plur. 
and more usual.) An idol, represented 
in the subjoined cut, Jud. 2 : 13; called 
the goddess of the Sidoni~xis. It was 
much worshipped in Syria and Phoeni- 
cia. Solomon introduced the worship 
of it. 1 Kgs. 11 : 33. The Greeks and 
Romans called it Astarte. The four 
hundred priests of Jezebel, mentioned 1 
Kgs. 18: 19, are supposed to have been 
employed in the service of this idol; 
and we are told that under this name 



Figure of Astarte. (Eawlinson's "Herodotus.") 

three hundred priests were constantly 
employed in its service at Hierapolis, in 
Syria, many centuries after Jezebel's 
time. The worship of Ashtoreth was 
suppressed by Josiah. It was simply 
licentiousness under the guise of relig- 
ion. The goddess was called the 
"queen of heaven," and the worship 
was said to be paid to the ''host of 
heaven." It is usually mentioned in 
connection with Baal. Baal and Ash- 
toreth are taken by many scholars as 
standing for the sun and the moon re- 
spectively ; by others as representing 
the male and female powers of repro- 
duction. Asherah, which is translated 
in the Authorized Version " grove," was 
an idol-symbol of the goddess, probably 
a wooden pillar. 

ASHTERATHITE, an inhabit- 
ant of Ashtaroth beyond Jordan. 1 

(Ashteroth of the two horns), a city of 
the giant Rephaim in Bashan, Gen. 
14 : 5 ; perhaps modern Sanamein, 30 
miles south of Damascus, though Porter 
thinks it possibly identical with Kenath 
and modern Kitnawao. Others with 
greater probability, suggest Tell-Ash- 
tdrd, 20 miles east of the Sea of Galilee. 

ASHTORETH, See Ashtaroth. 

ASH'UR (black), the father of 
Tekoa: t. e. the founder of the place. 
1 Chr. 2 : 24 ; 4 : 5. 

ASH'VATH (meaning uncertain), 
an Asherite. 1 Chr. 7:33. 

A'SIA, used only in the New Testa- 
ment. It refers, not to the continent of 
Asia, nor to "Asia Minor" entire, but 
to a small Roman province on the coast, 
in the west of Asia Minor, and included 
the lesser provinces of Mysia, Lydia, 
and Caria; its capital was Ephesus. 
Acts 6:9; 19:10; 27:2; 1 Cor. 16:19; 
1 Pet. 1:1; Rev. 1 : 4. All the " seven 
churches" were in Asia. See Map. 

A'SIEli (created of God), a Simeon- 
ite. 1 Chr. 4:35. 

AS'KELON. Jud.l:18. SeeAsH- 


AS'NAH (thorn-bush), one whose 
descendants returned with Zerubbabel. 
Ezr. 2 : 50. 

ASNAP'PER (swift?), one men- 
tioned in Ezr. 4:10 as "great and 
noble." Who he was is unknown. It 
is perhaps best to regard him as the of- 
ficial employed by Esar-haddon to settle 
the Cuthaaans in Samaria. 

ASP. Deut. 32:33; Rom. 3:13. 
A small but very poisonous serpent, 

Egyptian Cobra. (Naja hage. After Houghton.) 

probably the Egyptian cobra, which 
dwells in holes. The venom of this 
reptile is cruel, because it is so subtle 
and deadly, and requires an immediate 
excision of the wounded part. For an 
infant child to play up. ,t t the hob of 



such a venomous reptile would seem to 
be most presumptuous, and hence the 
force of the figure used by the prophet, 
Isa. 11 : 8, to represent the security and 
peace of the Messiah's reign. See 
Addrr (2). 

AS'PATHA (meaning uncertain), 
the third son of Hainan. Esth. 9 : 7. 

AS'RIEL [vow of God), the son of 
Gilead. founder of the Asrielites. 
Num. 26 :31 j Josh. 17:2; 1 Chr. 7 : 14. 

ASS. Gen. 22:3. This animal is 
among the most common mentioned in 
Scripture, and constituted a consider- 
able part of the wealth of ancient times. 
Gen. 12: 16 and 30 : 43 ; Job 1:3; 42 : 
12. Asses were sometimes so numerous 
as to require a 
special keeper. 
Gen. 36 : 24; 1 
Chr. 27 : 30. The 
ass and the ox were 
the principal ani- 
mals of burden and 
draught. Ex. 23 : 
12. The domestic- 
ass is indeed a 
most serviceable 
animal, and in 
some respects 
preferable to the 
horse. He subsists 
on very coarse food 
and submits to the 
meanest drudgery. 
His skin is remark- 
ably thick, and is 
used at this day for 
parchment, drum- 
heads, memoran- 
dum-books, etc. 
The usual color of 
asses is red or dark brown, but some- 
times they are of a silver white, and 
these last were usually appropriated to 
persons of dignity. Jud. 5 : 10. So in 
Gen. 49: 11 the allusion to the ass and 
the vine imports dignity and fruitful- 
ness, and the continuance and increase 
of both in the tribe of Judah. There 
was a breed of asses far superior to 
those that were used in labor, and which 
are supposed to be referred to in most 
of the passages above cited. 

The female, or she-ass, was particu- 
larly valuable for the saddle and for her 
milk, which was extensively used for 
food and for medicinal purposes. 

I The ass was used in agricultural labor, 
especially in earing (ploughing) the 

1 ground and tread. ng it to prepare it 
for the seed. Isa. 30:24 and 32:20. 
The prohibition, Deut. 22:10, might 
have been founded in part on the in- 
equality of strength between the ox 
and the ass, and the cruelty of putting 
upon thein the same burden, but was 
intended chiefly to mark the separation 
of the Jews from surrounding nations, 
among whom such a union of different 
beasts was not uncommon. So service- 
able, and indeed essential, to man was 
this animal in ancient times that to 
drive away the ass of the fatherless is 
reckoned among the most atrocious acts 

Tiie Eastern Ass 

. {After Wood. " Animal Kingdom.") 

of oppression and cruelty, Job 24 : 3, as 
depriving an orphan family of their only 
cow would be regarded at the present 
day. The attachment of this'animal to 
its owner is among its remarkable cha- 
racteristics. In this respect it closely 
resembles the dog. Hence the severity 
of the prophet's rebuke. Isa. 1 : 3. 

The fact stated in 2 Kgs. 6 : 25 shows 
that such was the extremity of the fam- 
ine that the people were willing to give 
an exorbitant price for the head of an 
'' unclean " animal. 

The ass, when dead, was thrown into 
an open field, and that part of his flesh 
which was not consumed by beasts and 



birds was suffered to putrefy and decay. 
Nothing could be more disgraceful than 
to expose a human body in the like 
manner. Jer. 22 : 19 ; 36 : 30. 

Our Saviour's entrance into Jerusalem 
riding upon an ass's colt fulfilled the 
prophecy in Zech. 9:9. It is not con- 
sidered in the East less honorable to 
ride this animal than a horse. But the 
latter is chiefly used for warlike pur- 
poses, as the ass is not. This peaceful 
animal was appropriated to the Prince 
of peace, who came not as other con- 

The Arabian ass has a light, quick 
step. In Persia, Syria, and Egypt 
ladies are accustomed to ride on asses, 
and they are particularly valuable in 
mountainous countries, being more sure- 
footed than horses. Their ordinary 
gait is four miles an hour. 

The ass in its wild or natural state is 
a beautiful animal. It is often alluded 
to in the sacred writings. Job 11 : 12 j 
24 : 5 and 39 : 5-8. Asses usually roam- 
ed in herds through barren and desolate 
districts. Isa. 32 : 14; Hos. 8 : 9. One 
was recently taken in a pitfall in Astra- 
chan, and added to the Surrey zoologi- 
cal collection in England. It is de- 
scribed as having a deer-like appear- 
ance, standing high on the legs, very 
active, of a silvery color, with a dark- 
brown streak along the back. 

AS'SHUR. Gen. 10 : 22. The sec- 
ond son of Shem. See Assyria. 

AS'SHUR, a Hebrew form for As- 
syria, and in the prophecies and his- 
torical books refers to that empire. 
See Assyria. 

ASSHU'RIM {steps), descendants 
of Dedan, the grandson of Abraham. 
Gen. 25 : 3. 

AS'SIR {captive). 1. A Levite, the 
son of Korah. Ex. 6 : 24; 1 Chr. 6 : 

2. A descendant of Korah, and an- 
cestor of Samuel. 1 Chr. 6 : 23, 37. 

3. A descendant of David. 1 Chr. 
3 :17. 

AS'SOS, a Greek city of Mysia in 
"Asia," 19 miles south-east of Troas, 
and on the Mediterranean Sea. Ex- 
tensive ruins of buildings, citadel, 
tombs, and a gateway still exist there. 
Paul visited it. Acts 20 : 13. 

AS'SUR. Ezr. 4:2; Ps. 83:8. 
See Assyria. 

ASSUR'ANCE. 1. Of the Un- 
derstanding, Col. 2 : 2, is a full know- 
ledge of divine things founded on the 
declaration of the Scriptures. 

2. An Assurance op Eaith, Heb. 10 : 
22, is a firm belief in Christ, as God has 
revealed him to us in the Scriptures, 
and an exclusive dependence on him 
for salvation. 

3. Assurance of Hope, Heb. 6 : 11, is 
a firm expectation that God will grant 
us the complete enjoyment of what he 
has promised. 

ASSYR'IA, a great empire of West- 
ern Asia, founded by Asshur, Gen. 10 : 
10, 11, who built Nineveh, Rehoboth (?), 
Calah, and Resen. Assyria proper ap- 
pears to have included about the same 
territory as modern Kurdistan. The 
empire covered at times a far larger 
extent of territory, and in its prosper- 
ity nearly all of western Asia and por- 
tions of Africa were subject to its power. 

Physical Features. — The chief rivers 
of Assyria were the Euphrates and 
Tigris. The country was well watered. 
On the east and north were ranges of 
mountains, the highest covered with 
snow. The central portions were along 
the fertile valleys of the two great rivers. 
There are immense level tracts of the 
country, now almost a wildei-ness, which 
bear marks of having been cultivated 
and thickly populated in early times. 
Among its products, besides the com- 
mon cereals, were dates, olives, cotton, 
mulberries, gum - arabic, madder, and 
castor-oil. Of animals, the bear, deer, 
wolf, lynx, hyena, antelope, lion, tiger, 
beaver, and camel were common. The 
fertility of the country is frequently 
noted by ancient writers. 

Biblical History. — Assyria is among 
the earliest countries mentioned in the 
Bible, Gen. 2 : 14, and is referred to 
about one hundred and twenty times 
in the Old Testament, though only four 
or five of its kings are noticed by name. 
Scripture, tradition, and the monuments 
of the country unite in testifying that 
Assyria was peopled from Babylon. 
Gen. 10 : 10, 11. From the time of 
Nimrod until two centuries after the 
division of the Israelitish kingdom the 
Scriptures make no mention of Assyria. 
During the rule of Menahem, Pul, the 
king of Assyria, invaded Israel and 
levied a heavy tribute upon it, 2 Kgs. 



15 : 19 ; a few years later, when Pekah 
was king of Israel, and Ahaz king of 
Judab, Tiglatb-pileser, another king of 
Assyria, aided Judah in a war against 
Israel and Syria. 2 Kgs. 16 : 7-9 : 15 : 
29 ; 2 Chr. 28 : 16. In the reign of 
Hoshea the Assyrians under Shalmaneser 
again invaded Israel, and alter besieg- 
ing its capital, Samaria, for three years. 
captured it, destroyed the kingdom, and 
carried the people into captivity, B.C. 
721, ani repeopled the land by colonies 
from Babylon, Cuthah, and Hamath. 2 
Kgs. 17: 1-6,24. Sargon, a usurper and 
great warrior, succeeded Shalmaneser 
as king of Assyria, and perhaps com- 
pleted the conquest of Samaria and of 
Israel undertaken by his predecessor. 
Sargon deposed Merodach Baladan, king 
of Babylon, made an expedition against 
Egypt, when he captured Ashdod, Isa. 
20 : 1—4, conquered Syria, and subdued 
a large portion of western Asia. Un- 
der Sargon. Nineveh, the capital of the 
empire, was repaired and adorned with 
a royal palace and many magnificent 
buildings. See illustration on p. 80. He 
was succeeded by his son, Sennacherib, 
about B. c. 704, who became the most 
celebrated of all the Assyrian kings. 
During his reign of 22 years he crushed 
the revolt of Berodach Baladan, and 
drove him from the country ; car- 
ried his conquests into Egypt, Phi- 
listia, Armenia. Media, and Edom. He 
invaded the kingdom of Judah in the 
reign of Hezekiah, and his army was 
miraculously destroyed, and he returned 
home in shame, and was slain by his 
two sons. 2 Chr. 32:1-21; 2*Kgs. 
19 : 35-37. He was succeeded by Esarhad- 
don. who reigned 13 years, and was suc- 
ceeded by Assur-banipal (Sardanapa- 
lus), a noted warrior and builder, who 
extended the limits of the empire and 
erected a grand palace at Konynnjik. 
After his reign the empire began gradu- 
ally to decline, until in b. c. 625 (some 
say 606) it was subdued by the Medes 
and Babylonians, and the larter became 
the dominant power during the great 
Captivity. 2 Kgs. 24 : 1 : 25 : 1-8 ; 
Dan. 1.1; 3:1: 5:1; Eze. 29 : 18. 
See Nineveh and Babylon. 

Art, Language, and Religion. — The 
artistic skill, genius, and magnificence 
displayed by the Assyrians in archi- 
tecture and in the arts, as shown bv 

I the exhumed remains of their great 
cities, are the admiration of scholars. 
The massive walls and towers which 
surrounded their towns ; the vastness 
and beauty of their ruined palaces at 

, Khorsabad and Konynnjik ; the elab- 

| orate finish and adornments of their 
temples and other edifices at Nimroud 
and Kileh Sherghat ; the sculptures in 
marble, stone, bronze, and clay ; the 
remarkable specimens of transparent 
glass vases : the tables, chairs, and ar- 
ticles of luxury for the home ; their 
chariots and implements of war, — are 
the wonder of explorers of our day. 
Canon Rawlinson declares the much- 
lauded Egyptians to be very decidedly 
the inferiors of the Assyrians, except- 
ing in the one point of the grandeur 
and durability of their architecture. 

; The language of Assyria was Semitic, 
and in style derived, according to Raw- 
linson, from the Chalda^an, but of a less 
archaic type. It was written without 
pictorial representations of objects, and 
in the arrow-headed or wedge-shaped 

I characters, of which over 300 different 

[ signs or characters are now known to 
have been used in the Assyrian alpha- 
bet. " Their language and alphabet are 
confessedly in advance of the Egyp- 
tian." — Rawlinson's Five Ancient Mon- 
archies, 1870, i. p. 247. Of their religion 
the same author says it is " more earn- 
est and less degrading than that of 
Egypt. Idols and idol-worship pre- 
vailed. Of eleven chief gods and an 
equal number of goddesses, the greatest 
was Asshur, one of whose symbols was 
a winged sphere with the figure of a 
man armed with a bow issuing from the 
centre. Among the other gods were 
Bel, Sin the moon-god, Shamas the 

j sun-god, Ishtar, and Xebo. Their idols 
were of stone and clay, and were wor- 
shipped with sacrifices, libations, and 

I offerings, and by fastings of man and 
beast. The tablets testify to the atten- 
tion given to religion by the learned, 
and the records and sculptures indicate 

| the general spirit of worship prevailing 
among the people, while it also shows 
their gross idolatry." 

Modern Discoveries and General His- 
tory. — Concerning the history of the 
Assyrian kingdom and empire, compar- 
atively little was known previous to 
recent discoveries. The researches of 



Botta, 1842-1850; Layard, 1851-1853 ; 
Sir H. Rawlinson, 1850-1867: Oppert, 
1857-1870 ; Lenormant, 1868-1873 ; 
George Smith, 1872-1877 ; and those of 
Rassam, 1878, — have rescued the an- 
nals of that country from obscurity, and 
furnished the materials for a trust- 
worthy history. These records, to- 
gether with the vast buildings, monu- 
ments, and grand palaces, were buried 
many feet beneath mounds of earth, 
and their existence for hundreds of 
years was wholly unknown to the world. 
By patient excavation the monuments, 

dug up from the mounds, written in 
cuneiform or wedge-shaped characters 
and in the Assyrian tongue. The in- 
scriptions were upon slabs of stone, 
which formed the panels of the palace- 
walls, on obelisks of stone, on clay tab- 
lets, and on cylinders or hexagonal 
prisms of terra cotta two or three feet 
long. These tablets and cylinders were 
undoubtedly a part of the royal library 
in the days of Tiglath-pileser and of 
other noted kings. 

" The Assyrian power was a single 
monarchy from the beginning, and 

gradually grew 
by conquering 
the smaller states 
around it ; and 
there is conse- 
quently a uni- 
formity in its 
records and tra- 
ditions which 
makes them 
easier to follow 
than those of the 
sister kingdom." 
— George Smith, 
Assyrian Discov- 
eries, 1875, p. 447. 
A list of 50 As- 
syrian kings who 
reigned from b. c. 
1850 to b. c. 607 
has been com- 
piled from the 
royal tablets by 
George Smith. 
Of these kings, 
reigned previous 
I., B. c. 1120 j fif- 
temples, palaces, and other evidences of I teen reigned from Tiglath-pileser I. 

Assyrian greatness have been brought 

to light within the past forty years ; I 

even large portions of the vast libraries | 

of her kings have been discovered, the | 

unknown characters in which they were eser IV., Sargon 

to Tiglath-pileser II. , b. c. 7-15; and 
after his time reigned the following 
seven, four of whom are certain'y men- 
tioned in Scripture history : Shalman- 

macherib, Es;ir- 

written have been deciphered, and the haddon, Assur-banipal, Bel-zakir-iskun, 
inscriptions and records translated into 
modern languages, not only giving a 
history of the exploits of this remark- 
able nation, but also throwing much 
light on its customs, religious life, and 
language, and upon the many Scripture 
references to Assyria. 

A vast mass of documents has been 

and Assur-ebil-ili. The first capital of 
Assyria was Asshur, on the Tigris, 
about 60 miles south of Nineveh : its 
second capital, founded or more prob- 
ably rebuilt and enlarged by Shalman- 
eser I., was Calah or Halah. As Assyr- 
ian conquests extended north and east, 
the capital was removed to Nineveh, 



which became a vast city, and accord- 
ing to Layard covered the present site 
of Kutiyunjik, Nimrdd, Khorsabad, and 
Karamles. This space would correspond 
to the measurements of the city given 
by Diodorus. — Layard : Nineveh, 1849, 
vol. ii. pp. 243-247. In his view, Nim- 
rud was the original site of Nineveh, 
whose founder built a new city at Kileh 
Sherghat. In later periods palaces were 
built at Khorsabad, Karamles, and the 
largest of all these structures at Kou- 
yuiijik. About 630 b. c. the Medes 
from the north and the Susianians from 
the south invaded Assyria; after a brief 
contest they conquered it, and the empire 
was divided between the conquerors. 
The kingdom of Assyria extended over 
a period of 1200 years, though the em- 
pire can only at the utmost be consid- 
ered to have lasted six and a half cen- 
turies, and its ascendency in western 
Asia not more than 500 years, b. c. 1125- 
625. Of the importance of the recent 
discoveries it is said, "Every spadeful 
of earth which was removed from those 
vast remains tended to confirm the 
truth of prophecy and to illustrate 
Scripture. But who could have be- 
lieved that records themselves should 
have been found which, as to their mi- 
nuteness of details and the wonderful 
accuracy of their statements, should 
confirm, almost word for word, the very 
text of Scripture ? And remember that 
these were no fabrications of a later 
date, on monuments centuries after the 
deeds which they professed to relate had 
taken place, but records engraved by 
those who had actually taken part in 
the events." — Layard : Address in Lon- 
don on being presented the freedom of the 
city, 1854. See Nineveh and Babylon. 

ASTAROTH. See Ashtaroth. 

ASTROLOGERS. Dan. 2 : 27. 
A class of men who pretended to foretell 
future events by observing the motions 
of the heavenly bodies, which, until a 
comparatively late period, were sup- 
posed actually to influence human life. 
Star-worship prevailed among Eastern 
nations, and its priests were astrologers, 

ASTRONOMY (the laics or science 
of the stars). The Bible gives evidence 
that its writers were students of the 
starry heavens, but the Hebrew religion 
sternly forbids their worship. Some 
of the constellations are mentioned — 

e. g. the Pleiades, Orion, the " Great 
Bear" (Arcturus). Job 9 : 9 ; 38 • 31. The 
Jews do not seem to have divided the 
stars into planets, fixed stars, and com- 
ets. During the Babylonish captivity 
they encountered the astronomy as well 
as the astrology of the far-famed Chal- 
daeans. Indeed, in Chaldaea was the 
birthplace of the science. In the ease 
of the magi, Matt. 2, God used their as- 
trology as a means of grace to lead them 
to Christ. See Star of Bethlehem. 

of gatherings). 1 Chr. 26 : 15, 17. It 
refers either to the chambers of the 
temple, perhaps where the elders sat, or 
to some one of the apartments of the 
temple where the stores were kept. 
The word is rendered " thresholds" in 
Neh. 12:25. 

ASYNCRITUS {incomparable), a 
Christian in Rome whom Paul saluted. 
Rom. 16 : 14. 

FLOOR OF. Gen. 50:10, 11. Its 
name was changed to Abel-mizraim, 
which see. 

AT'ARAH (a crown), one of the 
wives of Jerahineel. 1 Chr. 2 : 26. 

ATAROTH {crowns). 1. A town 
of Gad, east of the Jordan, Num. 32: 
3, 34, about 7 miles north-west of Dibon ; 
now the ruin Attarus. 

2. A town of Ephraim, Josh. 16:2; 
perhaps the same as Ataroth-adar and 
Ataroth-addar. Josh. 18 : 13. It may 
be the modern At&ra,fi miles north-west 
of Bethel, though Conder suggests that 
it is identical with ruins discovered at 

3. In 1 Chr. 2 : 54, Ataroth, the house 
of Joab, if a place, may refer to one in 
Judah, which Schwartz would identify 
with Latrum, between Jaffa and Jeru- 

of fame). See Ataroth, 2. 

A'TER (shut up). 1. One whose 
children kept the temple-gate. Ezr. 2 : 
42 ; Neh. 7 : 45. 

2. The ancestor of some who came 
back with Zerubbabel, and who signed 
the covenant. Ezr. 2 : 16 ; Neh. 7:21; 

A'THACH (lodging-place), a town 
in the south of Judah ; perhaps the same 
as E her. Josh. 19 : 7 ; 1 Sam. 30 : 30. 

ATHAI'AH (probably same as 



Asaiah, whom Jehovah made), a de- 
scendant of Judah. Neh. 11 : 4. 

ATHALIAH {afflicted by Jehovah), 
granddaughter of Oinri, daughter of 
Ahab and Jezebel, wife of Jehoram, 
king of Judah, and mother of Aha- 
ziab. 2 Kgs. 11 : 1 ff. She introduced 
Baal-worship into Judah. Her charac- 
ter was extremely bad. She advised 
her own son in his wickedness, and 
after Jehu had slain him (see Aha- 
ziah) she resolved to destroy the chil- 
dren of her husband by his former 
wives, and then take the throne of 
Judah. But Jehosheba, a half-sister 
of Ahaziah, secured Joash, one of the 
children and heir, and secreted him 
and his nurse for six years. In the 
seventh year, everything being pre- 
pared for the purpose, Joash, the 
young prince, was brought out and 
placed on the throne. Attracted by 
the crowd of people who had assem- 
bled to witness the ceremony, and un- 
suspicious of the cause, Athaliah has- 

tened to the temple. When the pop- 
ulace had assembled, and when she 
saw the young king on the throne, 
and heard the shouts of the people, 
and found that all her ambitious de- 
signs were likely to be defeated, she 
rent her clothes and cried out, " Trea- 
son ! Treason !" hoping probably to 
rally a party in favor of her interests. 
But she was too late. The priest com- 
manded her to be removed from the 
temple, and she was slain between the 
temple and the palace. 2 Kgs. 11 : 16. 
See Jehoiada and Joash. 

2. A Benjamite. 1 Chr. 8 : 26. 

3. One whose son, Jeshaiah, returned 
with Ezra in the second caravan from 
Babylon. Ezr. 8 : 7. 

ATH'ENS, the name of several 
places, but chiefly of the capital of 
Greece, the metropolis of ancient phi- 
losophy and art; named from the god- 
dess Minerva or Athene. For sketch- 
map see Greece. 

Situation. — It was situated about 5 

:um. Parthenon. Turkish Tower. 

Modern City. 

Temple of Theseus 

South-western part of Modern City. 

miles north-east of the Saronic Gulf, I west, the north-east, the south-east, and 
in the plain of Attica, the south-east- | south-west, were four noted mounts. 
ern portion of the Grecian peninsula. Within the city were four more noted 
between the little rivers Cephissus and hills — the Acropolis, Areopagus or Mars' 

Dissns. The port. Piraeus, is five miles 
off. and now connected with the city by 
arailroad. About the plain, on the north- 

Hill, the Pnyx, and the Museum. 
The Acropolis is about 150 feet high, 
with a flat top about 1100 feet long by 



450 feet wide, having a steep ascent on 
all sides. West of the Acropolis is 
Mars' Hill, of irregular form, and on 
which public assemblies and the chief 
courts were held. Upon this hill Paul 
preached. Acts 17 : 19, 22. Beneath it 
are the Caves of the Furies. 

History. — Athens was first settled by 
some chieftain, perhaps Cecrops, B. c. 
1556, who is said to have been succeeded 
by sixteen legendary kings and twelve 
archons. Draco made laws for it, B. c. 
624. Solon, its noted " lawgiver," 
founded a democracy, b. c. 594. The 
city was taken by Xerxes, B. c. 480; 
but soon after his defeat it reached its 
highest prosperity, with a population 
of from 120,000 to 180,000. Under the 
brilliant rule of Pericles, B. c. 444 to 429, 
some of the greatest masters in philos- 
ophy, poetry, and oratory flourished, 
and noted buildings and temples, as 
that of Zeus, the Odeum, the Parthe- 
non, the Propylasa, were projected or 
completed. His rule was followed by 
the Spartan, the Theban, and the 
Macedonian supremacy, the age of 
Demosthenes, Philip, and Alexander the 
Great. In b. c. 140, Athens with Achaia 
became a Roman province, and so con- 
tinued through apostolic times. Since 
then it has been subject to the Byzan- 
tines, Franks, Venetians, and Turks, as 
well as at times independent. Under 
the misrule of the Turks it sunk down 
to a miserable village, and in 1832 there 
was scarcely a house standing. But it 
arose with the new kingdom of Greece, 
and is now again a beautiful capital, 
adorned by new streets and buildings, 
prominent among which are the royal 
palace, the Greek cathedral, the Rus- 
sian chapel, the University, the Library, 
and the Museum. 

At the time of Paul's visit Athens 
was a " free city," under the Roman rule. 
It was given to idolatry, having 30,000 
idols. Petronius said, " It was easier 
to find a god in Athens than to find a 
man." Paul calls them "very religious," 
Acts 17 : 22, not "too superstitious," as 
our version inaccurately reads. But 
Athens never took a prominent place in 
church history. 

ATH'LAI (whom Jehovah afflicts), 
one who had married a foreign wife. 
Ezr. 10 : 28. 

ATONEMENT. Literally, at-one- 

ment, or reconciliation ; theologically, the 
satisfaction or propitiation brought about 
by the death of Christ as the ground of 
the accord or reconciliation between God 
and man. The word occurs often in 
the Old Testament, but only once in the 
New (Rom. 5 : 11, where the Greek means 
" reconciliation," which is the result of 
the atoning death of Christ). The sub- 
ject itself is presented in every variety 
of form both in the Gospels and in the 
Epistles. Rom. 3-8 and Heb. 7-10, in- 

The great atonement made for sin by 
the sacrifice of Christ constitutes the 
grand substantial foundation of the 
Christian faith. The efficacy of it is 
such that the sinner, though by nature 
the child of wrath, by faith in Christ is 
brought into favor with God, is deliv- 
ered from condemnation, and made an 
heir of eternal life and glory. The He- 
brew word rendered " atonement " signi- 
fies " covering," Ps. 32 : 1, and the Greek 
version of this Hebrew word is trans- 
lated "propitiation" in our Bible, and 
may denote either that our offences are 
covered or that we are protected from 
the curse, Christ being made a curse 
for us. Gal. 3:i3. Generally, wher- 
ever the term occurs, a state of contro- 
versy or estrangement is implied ; and 
in relation to the party offended, it im- 
ports something done to propitiate. 
Gen. 32:20; Eze. 16:63. The idea 
of making an atonement is expressed 
by a word which signifies " to make pro- 
pitiation :" and the apostles, in referring 
to the death of Christ, use those very 
terms which in the Septuagint version 
of the Old Testament are applied to 
legal sacrifices and their effect, thus rep- 
resenting the death of Christ not only 
as a real and proper sacrifice, but as the 
truth and substance of all the Levi deal 
types and shadows — the true, efficacious, 
and only atonement for sin, 1 John 2 : 
2 and 4 : 10 ; showing that Christ is not 
only the agent by whom the propitia- 
tion is made, but was himself the pi'o- 
pitiatory sacrifice. 

16 ; 23 : 27-32. The only Jewish fast- 
day ; the annual day of humiliation. It 
was kept five days before the Feast of 
Tabernacles, or on the tenth day of Tisri ; 
?. e. in the early part of October. The 
fast lasted from sunset to sunset. It 



•was kept as a solemn Sabbath. Once 
a year upon this day did the high priest 
alone enter the holy of holies. This 
was the preparation. It was ordained 
that he should bathe himself, and then 
dress in holy white linen. He was then 
to bring forward his sacrifices, which 
must be his purchases — a young bul- 
lock for a sin-offering and a ram for a 
burnt-offering. These he offered for 
himself and family. Besides these, he 
brought forward two goats for a sin-of- 
fering and a ram for a burnt-oft'ering. 
These, being for the benefit of the peo- 
ple, were paid for out of the public 
treasury. The two goats were then led 
up to the entrance of the tabernacle and 
lots cast upon them, one lot marked "For 
Jehovah." the other marked "ForAzazel." 
The latter is a phrase of unusual difficulty. 
But the best modern scholars agree that 
it does not designate the goat, but the 
personal being to whom the goat was 
sent. See Goat, Scape. The high priest 
offered the bullock, carried live coals in 
a censer from the altar, with a handful of 
incense, into the holy of holies. There he 
sprinkled the blood with his finger upon 
the mercy-seat, eastward, and before it 
seven times. He then killed the goat 
"for Jehovah" and sprinkled its blood 
in the same manner. Over the goat 
" for Azazel " the sins of the people 
were confessed bj- the high priest, and 
then it was sent away by " the hand of 
a fit man into the wilderness." The 
ceremony was now over. Accordingly, 
the high priest again bathed, put on his 
usual garments, and offered the two 

AT'ROTH (crowns), or "Atroth- 
Shophan," as it should probably be read 
without the comma, "Shophan" being 
added to distinguish it from the "Ata- 
roth " or "Atroth " in the former verse. 
It was a city of Gad, near Dibon. Num. 
32 : 35. 

AT'TAI (opportune). 1. A descend- 
ant of Judah. 1 Chr. 2 : 35, 36. 

2. A Gadite chief. 1 Chr. 12 : 11. 

3. A son of Kehoboam. 2 Chr. 11: 

ATTALI'A, a seaport-town of 
Pamphylia, Acts 14 : 25, named from its 
founder, Attalus ; later it was called 
Satalia, and now Adalia. 

AUGUS / TUS(reHe?-o6/e), Caius Ju- 
lius Ceesar Octavianus, b. c. 62-a, d, 14. 

The grand-nephew of Julius Caesar, and 
first emperor of Rome. It was he who 
gave the order for the enrolment which 
was the human occasion of the Bethle- 
hemic birth of 
Christ. Luke 
2:1. He was 
one of the 
°^7 )~^ $$?/ \ifi\ second so- 
called trium- 
virate, with 
Mark Antony 
and Lepidus. 
After the re- 
moval of the 
latter he 
fought a bat- 
tle with Antony at Actium, b. c. 31, 
defeating him. The senate saluted him 
as emperor, and in b. c. 27 conferred on 
him the title of " Augustus." He comes 
into the New Testament in connection 
with Herod, whom he had reinstated in 
his kingdom and greatly honored, al- 
though Herod had espoused the cause 
of Antony. At Herod's death Augus- 
tus divided his kingdom in accordance 

Coin of Augu*ius,Ln Berlin. 

Marble Statue of Augustus, found in 1863 at 
Prima Porta, near Rome. 

with his will, and even educated two 
of his sons, since their relations had 
been very intimate. He reigned for- 
ty-one years, and was succeeded by 



Tiberius Caesar. Luke 3 : 1. See Ce- I 


A'VA (ruin). Rawlinson would iden- 
tify it with Hit, on the Euphrates ; 
probably it is the same as Ahava and 
Ivah. 2 Kgs. 17 : 24. 

A'VEN (nothingness). 1. A plain, 
probably of Lebanon. Am. 1 : 5. 

2. Same as Beth-aven. Hos. 10 : 
5, 8. See Baalbec. 

3. The city of On or Heliopolis, in 
Egypt. Eze. 30:17. 

18:8; 1 Thess. 4:6. Vengeance is an 
act of justice; revenge is an act of pas- 
sion. Hence injuries are revenged, I 
crimes are avenged. God is avenged 
of his enemies when he vindicates his 
own law and government and character 
and punishes their transgressions. An 
avenger is the agent or instrument by 
whom the avengement is visited on the 
offending party* 

Aven t ger of Blood was a title given 
to one who pursued a murderer or man- j 
slayer, by virtue of the ancient Jewish j 
law, to avenge the blood of one who had 
been slain. He must be a near relative 
of the murdered man. Deut. 19 : 6. 

A'VOI (ruins), a city of Benjamin, 
Josh. 18 : 23 ; probably near Bethel. 

A'VITH {ruins), 'a city of Edom, 
Gen. 36 : 35 ; 1 Chr. 1 : 46 ; probably in 
the north-eastern part of Mount Seir. 

A'ZALi. Zeeh. 14: 5. As the pas- 
sage reads in the margin, Azal is not a 
proper name ; but if a place at all, it was 
on or near Mount Olivet. 

AZALiI'AH (whom Jehovah re- 
served), the father of Shaphan the 
scribe. 2 Kgs. 22 : 3 ; 2 Chr. 34 : 8. 

AZAXI'AH (ivhom Jehovah hears), 
the father oT Jeshua the Levite. Neh. 

AZAR'AEL (whom God helps), a 
Levite musician. Neh. 12 : 36. 

AZAREEL (whom God helps). 1. 
A Korhite who " came to David to Zik- 
lag." 1 Chr. 12 : 6. 

2. A Levite musician of David's time, 
1 Chr. 25 : 18 ; called Uzziel in v. 4. 

3. A prince of Dan. 1 Chr. 27 : 22. 

4. One who had married a foreign 
wife. Ezr. 10 : 41. 

5. A priest who lived in Jerusalem 
after the Return. Neh. 11 : 13. 

AZARI'A-H (whom Jehovah helps). 
1. The grandson of Zadok ; and the high 

priest during the reign of Solomon. 1 
Kgs. 4:2; 1 Chr. 6 : 9. 

2. A chief officer under Solomon. 1 
Kgs. 4:5. 

3. A king of Judah, 2 Kgs. 14 : 21 ; 
more generally called Uzziah, which see. 

4. A son of Ethan. 1 Chr. 2 : 8. 

5. The son of Jehu, son of Obed. 1 
Chr. 2 : 38, 39. 

6. The son of Johanan, and high 
priest under Abijah and Asa. 1 Chr. 
6:10, 11. 

7. In 1 Chr. 6 : 13 the name is prob- 
ably wrongly inserted. 

8. A Kohathite, and ancestor of Sam- 
uel. 1 Chr. 6 : 36. 

9. A prophet who stirred up Asa to 
abolish idolatry. 2 Chr. 15 : 1. 

10. 11. Sons of Jehoshaphat the king. 
2 Chr. 21 : 2. 

12. In 2 Chr. 22 : 6 by copyist's error 
for Ahaziah. 

13. A captain of Judah who helped 
Jehoiada. 2 Chr. 23 : 1. 

14. The high priest in the reign of 
Uzziah who resisted with eighty priests 
the king's attempt to perform priestly 
functions. 2 Kgs. 14 : 21; 2 Chr. 26 : 

15. An Ephraimite chief in the reign 
of Ahaz. 2 Chr. 28 : 12. 

16. 17. Two Levites in the reign of 
Hezekiah. 2 Chr. 29 : 12. 

18. The high priest in the days of 
Hezekiah. 2 Chr. 31 : 10, 13. 

19. One who helped to repair the wall 
of Jerusalem. Neh. 3 : 23, 24. 

20. A leader in the company of Ze- 
rubbabel. Neh. 7 : 7. 

21. A Levite who helped Ezra in the 
reading of the Law. Neh. 8 : 7. 

22. A priest who sealed the covenant, 
Neh. 10 : 2, and "probably the same 
with the Azariah who assisted in the 
dedication of the city wall." Neh. 12 : 

23. In Jer. 43 : 2 instead of Jezaniah. 

24. The Hebrew original name of 
Abed-nego. Dan. 1 : 6. etc. 

A'Z AZ (strong), a Reubenite. 1 Chr. 

AZAZI'AH (whom Jehovah strength- 
ens). 1. A Levite musician in the reign 
of David. 1 Chr. 15 : 21. 

2. An Ephraimite chief. 1 Chr. 27: 20. 

3. A Levite who had the oversight 
over the tithes and offerings in the reign 
of Hezekiah. 2 Chr, 31 ; 13. 



AZ'BUK (strong devastation), father 
of Neheiniah (not the governor). Neh. 

AZE'KAH. Josh. 10:10, 11; 15: 
35. A city of Judah near Shocoh. 
Schwarz proposed Tell Zakariya, in the 
valley of Elan ; Conder suggested Deir- 
el-Soshek, 8 miles north of Shocoh, also 
in the valley of Elah, as the site of Aze- 

A'ZEL (noble), a descendant of Saul. 
1 Chr. 8:37, 38; 9:43, 44. 

A'ZEM (bone), a city in the south of 
Judah, Josh. 15 : 29 ; afterward allotted 
to Simeon, 19 : 3 ; the same as Ezem in 
1 Chr. 4:29. 

AZ'GAD (strong in fortune). 1. One 
whose descendants returned with Zerub- 
babel. Ezr. 2:12: 8: 12; Neh. 7: 17. 

2. One who sealed the covenant. Neh. 

A'ZIELi (whom God consoles), a Le- 
vite porter; shortened form of Jaaziel. 
1 Chr. 15 : 20. 

AZI'ZA (strong), one who had taken 
a foreign wife. Ezr. 10 : 27. 

AZ'MAVETH, probably a place 
in Benjamin, Ezr. 2 : 24; Neh. 12 : 29 ; 
called also Beth-azmaveth, Neh. 7 : 28 ; 
probably modern Hizmeh, north of Ana- 

AZ'MAVETH (strong unto death). 
1. One of David's warriors, 2 Sam. 23 : 
31 ; 1 Chr. 11 : 33. 

2. A descendant of Mephibosheth. 
1 Chr. 8 : 36 ; 9 : 42. 

3. A Benjamite. 1 Chr. 12 : 3. 

4. David's treasurer. 1 Chr. 27 : 25. 
AZ'MON (strong), a place in the 

south-western part of Palestine. Josh. 
15 : 4 : Robinson and Trumbull describe 
" Kasaimeh " or " Qasaymeh," which is 
probably the site of Azmon. 

AZ'NOTH-TA'BOR (ear, or sum. 
mits, of Tabor), a place in Naphtali ; 
probably the eastern slope of Mount 
Tabor. Josh. 19:34. 

A'ZOR (a helper), one of our Lord's 
ancestors. Matt. 1 : 13, 14. 

AZO'TUS. Acts 8 : 40. Greek 
form of Ashdod. See Ashdod. 

AZ'RIEL (whom God helps). 1. A 
man of renown, head of a house of 
Manasseh beyond Jordan. 1 Chr. 5 : 

2. The father of a chief of Naphtali. 

1 Chr. 27:19. 

3. The father of Seraiah. Jer. 36 : 26. 
AZ'RIKAUl (help against the enemy). 

1. One of David's posterity. 1 Chr. 3 : 

2. One of Saul's posterity. 1 Chr. 8 : 
38 ; 9 : 44. 

3. A Levite. 1 Chr. 9 : 14; Neh. 11 : 

4. The prefect of the palace to King 
Ahaz, who was killed by Zichri. 2 Chr. 
28 • 7. 

AZU'BAH (forsaken). 1. The 
mother of Jehoshaphat. 1 Kgs. 22 : 42 ; 

2 Chr. 20 : 31. 

2. A wife of Caleb, son of Hezron. 1 
Chr. 2: 18. 19. 

AZUR (helper). 1. The father of 
Hananiah, the false prophet of Gibeon. 
Jer. 28:1. 

2. The father of one of the princes 
against whom Ezekiel prophesied. Eze. 
11 : 1. 

AZ'ZAH (the strong), same as Gaza. 
Deut. 2 : 23 j 1 Kgs. 4 : 24 ; Jer. 25 : 20. 
See Gaza. 

AZ'ZAN (very strong), a chief of 
Issachar. Num. 34 : 26. 

AZ'ZUR (helper), one who sealed 
the covenant. Neh. 10:17. 





BAAL, or BEL, ob BE'LUS 

{lord, or muster), different forms of the 
name of the supreme male divinity of the 
Phoenicians and Canaanites,as Ashtoreth 
was that of their supreme/ew^e divinity. 
1 Kgs. 18 : 21 ; Isa. 46 : 1 ; 1 Sam. 12 : 10 ; 
1 Kgs. 11 : 33. That the divinities were 
derived from astrological fancies there 
is little doubt, but it is a question with 
what pair of the heavenly bodies we are 
to identify them. The common opinion 
is that they represent the sun and moon 
respectively, while other scholars say 
they are Jupiter and Venus. The li- 
cense sanctioned — indeed, demanded — 
by their worship may have given it at- 
tractiveness. At all events, it spread 
among the Jews, being introduced into 
Israel by Jezebel and by her daughter 
into Judaea. Many and severe were the 
judgments required to eradicate it. 

Baal side of an Altar from a temple in Kuna- 
wat (Canatha), east of the Jordan. 

The frequent use of the word Baal in 
the plural form, Baalim, e.g. Jud. 2:11; 
10: 10 ; 1 Kgs. 18 : 18 ; Jer. 9:14; Hos. 
2:13, 17, proves probably that he was 
worshipped under his different modifi- 
cations. Hence several compounds exist. 

1. Ba'al-br'rith (covenant ford), the 
form of Baal worshipped by the Shechem- 
ites after Gideon's death. Jud. 8 : 33 ; 

2. Ba'al-pe'or (lord of the opening, 
an allusion to the character of the 
rites of worship), the form of Baal-wor- 
ship in Moab and Midian shared in by 

the Israelites. Num. 25 : 3, 5, 18 ; Deut. 
4:3; Josh. 22:17; Ps. 106 : 28 ; Hos. 

3. Ba'al-ze'bub (lord of the fly), the 
form of Baal worshipped at Ekron. 2 
Kgs. 1 : 2, 3, 6, 16. 

Human victims were offered to Baal. 
Jer. 19 : 5. Elevated places were se- 
lected for his worship, and his priests 
and prophets were very numerous. 
Sometimes the tops of the houses were 
devoted to this purpose. 2 Kgs. 23 : 
12 ; Jer. 32 : 29. See High Blacks. 

The worship of Baal by the ancient 
Druids was probably general throughout 
the British Islands. One of the Druidic 
yearly festivals and deemed of special 
importance took place in the beginning 
of May, which was the first month of 
their year, and called Be'el-tin, or " fire 
of God." A large fire was kindled on 
some elevated spot in honor of the sun, 
whose returning beneficence they thus 
welcomed after the gloom of winter. Of 
tliis custom a trace remains in " Beltin 
Day" (or Whitsunday) in many of the 
Gaelic-speaking parts of Scotland. In 
the Lowlands the same name was re- 
tained till a comparatively recent date. 

House of Ba'al. 1 Kgs. 16 : 32. Is 
the same with the temple (or place of 
worship) of Baal. See particularly 2 
Kgs. 10:21-28. 

BA'AL (lord). 1. A Reubenite. 
1 Chr. 5 • 5. 

2. A Benjamite, a relative of Saul. 
1 Chr. 8 : 30 ; 9 : 36. 

BA'AL (lord, or master), a city of 
Simeon, 1 Chr. 4:33; called also Bea- 
loth, Baalath-Beer. Knobel and "Wilton 
locate it at Kurnub ; Conder at Umm 
Baghleh. " Baal " is also used as a prefix 
to the names of several places, given 

BA'ALAH (mistress). 1. Another 
name for Kirjath-jearim, Josh. 15 : 9, 
10, and for Baale of Judah, 2 Sam. 6 : 2, 
and for Kirjath-Baal in Judah. Josh. 
15 : 60 ; 18 ; 14. See Kirjath-jearim. 

2. A place in Judah, Josh. 15 : 29, the 
same as Balah, 19 : 3, and Bilhah, 1 Chr, 
4 : 29 ; now Deir-el-Belah, near Gaza, 



3. Ba'alah, Mount. Josh. 15 : 11. 
Either the same as No. 1, or possibly 
a mui ntain in the north-western part 
of Judah. 

BA'ALATH, a town in Dan, Josh. 
19 :44 ; probably the same that was for- 
tified by Solomon. 1 Kgs. 9:18; 2 Chr. 
8 : 6. Cornier proposes to identify it 
with the ruin Bel'ahi, in Wady Deir 
Ballot ; Canon Cook suggests it may be 
near Mount Baalah. or modern Yebna. 

BAALATH-BEER (lord of the 
well). Josh. 19 : 8. See Bkaloth. 

(b'dl'bek), a magnificent city of Coele- 
Syria, and called by the Greeks Heli- 
opolis, or ''city of the Sun." It is 
situated in a plain near the foot of 
the Anti-Libanus range, about 42 miles 
north-west of Damascus and 3800 feet 
above the level of the sea. Its origin 
and early history are unknown. It is 
now famous for its colossal ruins, con- 

sisting chiefly of two magnificent tem- 
ples. The lesser of the two was 225 feet 
in length by 120 feet in breadth ; it 
was surrounded by rows of immense 
columns, 45 feet high, standing about 9 
feet from the temple walls, (he dis- 
tance between the columns being from 
8 to 12 feet. Robinson counted 19 of 
these columns still in place in 1852. 
One of the temples, — that of the Sun, 
was an immense structure, 324 feet long, 
and was surrounded by a peristyle of 
54 vast Corinthian columns, about? feet 
in diameter, and, including capital and 
pedestal, 89 feet high. Over these Cor- 
inthian capitals the temple was border- 
ed with a frieze. The temples were 
constructed of limestone or marble and 
granite. Some of the stones used in them 
are 64 feet long and 12 feet thick. The 
temple of the Sun was built by Antoni- 
nus Pius, about A. D. 150. 

Baalbec has been identified by some 

Columns of Great Temple. 

Ruins of Baalbec. 
with Baal-gad, Josh. 11 : 1 7 ; 12 : 7 ; 13 : 
5 ; by others with Baalath or Baal-ha- 
mon. but these identifications are uncer- 
tain, and the last is verv improbable. 

BA'ALE OF JUDAH, a name 
of Kiriath-iearim. See Baalah. 1. 

BAAL-GAD [troop of Baal), the 
northern limit of Joshua's conquests, 

Temple of the Sun. 
(From Photographs.) 
Josh. 11 : 17 : 12 : 7 ; 13 : 5 : probably the 
modern Banian (Csesarea-Philippi, Matt. 
16 : 13), though some suppose it to be the 
famous Baalbec. 

BA'AL-HA'MON {multitude of 

Baal). Cant. 8:11. The place can only 

be conjectured ; some identify it with 

Baalbec, others with Balamon, in the 




mountains of Ephraim, north of Sa- 

BA'AL-HA'ZOR (Baal's village), 
where Absalom killed Amnon. 2 Sam. 
13 • 23 

BA'AL-HERMON, Jud. 3:3:1 
Chr. 5 : 23 ; one of the three peaks of 
Mt. Hermon, or perhaps Subeibeh. 

BA'ALI (my lord) occurs in Hos. 
2 : 16. The verse retranslated reads: 
"Thou shalt call me My husband, and 
shalt no more call me My Baal." Baali 
is used in a twofold sense : first, My Baal, 
the name of the principal god of the Ca- 
naanites ; and second, My lord, a usual 
name for husband. The idea of the 
verse is that so wholly devoted to Je- 
hovah shall Israel be that she will not 
apply to him even a word which sug- 
the former idolatry. 

BA'AJLIM, the plural form of Baal, 
which see. 

BA'ALIS (son of exaltation), a 
king of the Ammonites. Jer. 40: 14. 

BAAL-ME'OiV, a town built by 
the Reubenites, Num. 32 : 38 ; 1 Chr. 
5:8; "a glory" of the Moabites, Eze. 
25 : 9 ; called also Beth-baal-meon, 
Josh. 13 : 17, Beth-meon, Jer. 48 : 23, 
and perhaps Beon, Num. 32 : 3 .- now 
called Ma'in, 9 miles south-west of Has- 
ban, where extensive ruins are still 

BAAL-PER'AZIM (lord of de- 
feats), a place in the valley of Rephaim, 
2 Sam. 5:20; 1 Chr. 14:11; same as 
Mount Perazim, near the valley of Gib- 
eon. Isa. 28:21. 

BA'AL-SHALISHA. 2 Kgs. 4: 
42. The English Survey proposed to 
identify it with Sirisia, 13 miles north 
of Lydda. Conder favors Kefr Thilth. 

BA'AL-TA'MAR (lord of palm 
trees), a place near Gibeah, Jud. 20 : 
33 ; possibly the same as the palm tree 
of Deborah, Jud. 4: 5, and known later 
as Beth-tamar. 

BA'AL-ZEPHGN. Ex. 14:2; 
Num. 33 : 7. A place near the head, or 
on the western shore, of the Gulf of Suez 
where the Israelites crossed the Red 
Sea. Dr. Ebers identifies it with Mount 
Atakah, near Suez ; Dr. Brugsch, with 
less probability, proposes Mount Casi- 
us, on the Mediterranean, as the site of 
Baal-zephon. It was south of Migdol 
and west of Suez. 

BA'ANA, or BA'ANAH (son of 

affliction). 1. One of the sons of Rim- 
mon, and an officer in the army of Ish- 
bosheth, Saul's son. In company with 
his brother Rechab, he entered the 
house of Ish-bosheth at noonday and 
stabbed him as he was lying upon the 
bed. Taking the head of their victim 
with them, they fled to David at He- 
bron, supposing that he would reward 
them liberally, but, so far from it, he, 
indignant at their cruel and coward- 
ly conduct, caused them to be slain, 
their hands and feet to be cut off, and 
their bodies to be publicly suspended 
over the pool at Hebron. 2 Sam. 4 : 
2, 5, 6, 9. 

2. The father of one of David's war- 
riors. 2 Sam. 23 : 29 ; 1 Chr. 11 : 30. 

3, 4. Two of Solomon's officers for 
provision. 1 Kgs. 4 : 12, 16. 

5. One of Zerubbabel's company on 
the Return. Ezr. 2:2; Neh. 7 : 7. 

6. The father of a repairer of the 
wall of Jerusalem. Neh. 3: 4. Proba- 
bly also mentioned in 10 : 27 as sealing 
the covenant. 

BAARA (brutish), a wife of Sha- 
haraiin. a Benjainite. 1 Chr. 8:8. 

BAASEIAH (work of Jehovah), 
a Gershonite Levite, and an ancestor 
of the psalmist Asaph. 1 Chr. 6 : 40. 

BA'ASHA (valor), son of Ahijah, 
of the tribe of Issachar, third king of 
Israel, and founder of a dynasty, was 
probably of common birth, 1 Kgs. 16 : 
2, but rose to the throne by his slaugh- 
ter of Nadab, king of Israel, and all 
his family while the king was besieg- 
ing Gibbethon, a city of the Philis- 
tines. 1 Kgs. 15 : 27. By this cruel 
act he undesignedly fulfilled the proph- 
ecy respecting Jeroboam's posterity. 
1 Kgs. 14 : 10. He followed in the 
wicked ways of Jeroboam, and was 
visited with the most fearful judgments 
of God. The warning he received of 
the consequences of his conduct, 1 Kgs. 
16 : 1-5, did not induce him to forsake 
his evil courses. He attempted to for- 
tify Ramah, but was stopped by the 
attack of Ben-hadad at Asa's prompting. 
1 Kgs. 15 : 16-21 ; 2 Chr. 16 : 1-6. He 
reigned twenty-four years, b. c. 953- 
930. His reign was filled with war 
and treachery, and his family and 
relatives were cut off according to 
the prediction. 1 Kgs. 16:3-11. SeeAsA. 

BABEL (confusion), a city found- 



ed by Nimrod as the beginning of his 
kingdom, Gen. 10:10; built on the 
plain of Shinar. See Babylon. 

only once in the Bible, and then as in- 
complete. Gen. 11 : 4, 5. It was built 
in the plain of Shinar, of burnt bricks, 
with "slime" (probably bitumen) for 

Bus Ximrfld Reconstructed. (After Layard.) 
mortar. Jewish traditions and early 
profane writers say that the tower 
was destroyed. The captive Jews at 
Babylon imagined they recognized it, 
however, in the famous temple of Be- 
lus, which some would identify with 
the temple of Xebo at Borsippa, the 
modern Birs Nimrud. Rawlinson 
thinks that Birs Nim- 
rud cannot be identi- 
cal with either the 
temple of Belus or 
the tower of Babel, 
but concedes that it 
may be used to show 
the probable form of 
the Babel tower. The 
Birs Nimr&d is one 
of the most striking 
ruins on the plain, 
and is 6 miles south- 
west of Hillah, on the 
Euphrates. This im- 
mense mound is about 
2H00 feet in circumfer- 
ence and 2o5 to 250 
feet high, and was 
built of burnt bricks, 
each brick being 12 
inches square and 4 
inches thick. Several 
of them bear an in- 
scription of Nebu- 
chadnezzar. The 
tower is represented 
as in the form of 
a pyramid, built in 
seven receding stories, 

26 feet high, each of the last four being 
15 feet high. On the seventh story 
was a temple or ark, perhaps with a 
statue of the god Belus. 

George Smith, the Assyriologist (and 
the Encyc/opvcdia Britannica, vol. iii. 
p. 155, ninth edition, adopts Smith's 
view), says, "The Birs Nimrftd is most 
probably the tower of Babel of the 
book of Genesis." Mr. Smith describes 
another ruin called Babil or Mvjelliba 
as the one which in his view covers 
the site of the temple of Belus, and 
the great tower of Babylon (not Babel). 
Bin Nimr&d seems to have been a tem- 
ple dedicated to the heavenly bodies, 
and the inscriptions on cylinders found 
there record that Nebuchadnezzar re- 
built the edifice after it had been left 
unfinished by others. Further excava- 
tions may solve these unsettled ques- 
tions. See Rawlinson's Herodotus, and 
George Smith's Assyrian Discoveries, 

BABYLON (Greek form of Babel), 
the noted capital of the Chalda?an and 

Plan of Babylon, 

showing the largest extent, as given by Herodotus, and the smaller, quoted by 

Ctesias, with the ruius according to Oppert. 

each placed j Babylonian empires, situated on both 
upon the south-western side of the one sides of the Euphrates river, about 200 
below, and each of the first three being I miles above its junction with the Tigris, 




300 miles from the Persian Gulf, and 
about 60 miles south-west from the 
modern city of Bagdad. The valley is 
broad, and the Euphrates is now about 
600 feet wide and 18 feet deep at this 

Extent of the City. — It was the lar- 
gest known ancient city in extent. 
According to Herodotus, the city was a 
vast square on both sides of the Euphra- 
tes, enclosed by a double line of walls, 
about 56 miles in circuit and including 
about 200 square miles. Ctesias and 
others make the circuit about 42 miles, 
enclosing about 106 square miles. The 
walls, according to Herodotus, were 
about 335 feet high and 75 feet broad. 
Ctesias, quoted by Diodorus, states that 
they were 200 feet high and built by 
2,000,000 men. Later writers, regard- 
ing these measurements as incredible, 
give the circuit of the walls at about 40 
miles, their height at 75 to 190 feet, and 
their width at 32 feet, or wide enough 
to allow two chariots to pass each other 
on the top. M. Oppert and Rawlin- 
son as explorers hold that the ruins 
warrant the statement of Herodotus as to 
the extent of Babylon. Its size — if 200 
square miles — largely exceeded that of 
any modern city. The area of London 
is 122 square miles: Paris, 30: Pekin, 
50; New York (1873), 42; and Phila- I 
delphia, 129 squai-e miles. The wall of 
Babylon was surmounted by 250 towers, 
and it had 100 gates of brass. Jer. 51 : 
58 ; Isa. 45 : 2. 

Streets and Buildings. — Babylon is de- 
scribed as cut into squares — some say 
676 — by straight streets crossing each 
other at right angles, those at the river 
being closed by brazen gates, as the 
banks of the river were fortified by high 
walls ; the river was crossed by draw- 
bridges and lined with quays; the two 
palaces on opposite sides of the river 
were connected by a bridge, and also by 
a tunnel under the river. Among the 
wonderful buildings were, (1.) Nebn- 
shadnezznr's Palace, an immense pile 
of buildings, believed to be nearly 6 
miles in circumference. (2.) The Hang- 
ing- Gardens, one of the Seven Wonders 
of the world, built by Nebuchadnezzar 
to please his queen, Amytis, who longed 
for her native mountains. These gar- 
dens were 75 feet high and covered 3£ 
acres, enclosed in an area of larger ex- 

tent, some say 1000 feet on each side. 
Upon this mountain was soil of depth to 
support the largest trees, and water was 
drawn up from the river by means of a 
screw. (3). The Temple of Belus, a vast 
pyramid or tower, 600 feet square, hav- 
ing eight stages, or stories, and accord- 
ing to Bawliuson 480 feet high, with a 
winding ascent passing around it, and a 
chapel of a god at the top. 

Scripture History. — Babylon is named 
over 250 times in the Bible. It was 
founded by Nimrod, Gen. 10:10; its 
builders dispersed, Gen. 11 : 9. Then, 
except some allusion to Shinar, Gen. 
14 : 1, the Chaldeeans, Job 1 : 17, and the 
Babylonish garment, Josh. 7 : 21, it drops 
out of Scripture history until the era of 
the Captivity. It was often subject to 
Assyria, 2 Chr. 33 : 11, and was the res- 
idence of at least one Assyrian king. 
After the fall of Nineveh, b. c. 625, it 
became an independent kingdom, and 
under Nebuchadnezzar was enlarged, 
beautified, and reached the height of its 
magnificence. See Isa. 13:19; 14:4; 
47 : 5; Jer. 51 : 41, where it is called 
"the glory of kingdoms," "the golden 
city," "the praise of the whole earth," 
etc. It was the home of the chief of the 
captive Jews, Dan. 1 : 1-4, and was taken 
by the army of Cyrus under Darius, Dan. 
5. Its desolation was frequently foretold. 
Isa. 13 : 4-22 ; Jer. 25 : 12 ; 50 : 2, 3 ; 51 ; 
Dan. 2 : 31-38; Hab. 1 : 5-10. It was 
taken by Alexander the Great, who died 
there. It gradually became a complete 
ruin, fulfilling the prophecy, Babylon 
" shall never be inhabited, . . . wild 
beasts of the deserts shall lie there." 

Bui ns. — Though for centuries Babylon 
has been the source of building-material 
for the towns of all the adjacent region, 
yet the ruins are very extensive, cover- 
ing, according to Oppert, 200 square 
miles. Among them are, (1.) The Ba- 
bil or Mujelliba, 600 feet square and 140 
feet high, probably the site of the an- 
cient temple of Belus. The mound is 
mainly built of sun-dried brick and 
faced with burnt brick, the latter bear- 
ing the name of Nebuchadnezzar. 
(2.) The Kasr, or Nebuchadnezzar's 
palace, south of Babil, about 2100 feet 
long by 1800 feet broad, and 70 feet 
high. It is composed of bricks, tiles, 
and fragments of stone. Some of the 
bricks are glazed; others resemble fire- 



Sculptured Lion over a Prostrate Man. (Dis- 
covered in the ruins of Babylon by Rich.) 

nious hanging - gardens, though more 
probably a palace of the earlier kings. 
See Rawlinson's Five Ancient Monar- 
chies, 1870, ii. 532. (4.) Bire Xinn-ud, 6 
miles south-west of Hillah, ax ancient 
Borsippa, and by many regarded as 
covering the tower of Babel. See 

Many corroborations of Scripture have 

brick, and bear the name of Nebuchad- the hanging-gardens a sculptured lion 
nezzar. (3.) The Amram, a large standing over a man with outstretched 
mound, possibly the ruins of the fa- arms may illustrate the mode of punish- 
ment to which Daniel was condemned. 
Dan. 6: 16. 

George Smith, after a careful explora- 
tion, quite decidedly dissents from his- 
torians and other explorers in ascribing 
so great an extent to Babylon. In his 
opin ion, -there is no ground in the in- 
scriptions or ruins for making Babylon 
over about 8 miles in circuit, or nearly 
the same size as its sister-city. Nineveh. 
He regards its shape as a square with 
one corner cut off. At the north was 
the temple of the mound Ba- 
it il ; about the centre of the city were 
the palace and hanging-gardens, both 
now represented, in his view, by the 
mound Knur, as he places the gardens 
between the palace and the river. 
George Smith concludes that the few 
pits and tunnels made in the ruins are 
acknowledged to be insufficient to de- 
cide any of the questions as to sites, 
which can only be done by satisfactory 
excavations, and hence that the " recov- 
ery of Babylon is yet to be accom- 
plished." Assyrian Discoveries, 
1875, pp. 55-59. — The modern town 
of Hillah now occupies a portion of 
the space covered by the ruins of an- 
cient Babylon, and a telegraph con- 
nects it with the city of Bagdad. See 
Chalt»ea. Assyria. 

BABYLON, in Rev. 14 : 8 ; 16 : 
19; 17:5: 18:2, 21, is a symbolical 
name for heathen Rome, which took 
the place of ancient Babylon as a 
persecuting power. This is also the 
sense given to Babylon in 1 Pet. 5: 
13 by the fathers and many commen- 
tators ; but others refer it to Babylon 
in Asia, since it is quite possible that 
Peter labored for a while in that city, 
where there was at that time a large 
Jewish colony : still others maintain 
that Babylon in Egypt, now called 
()hl Cairo, is meant. 

OR KINGDOM OF, the country 
of which Babvlon was the capital. 
Dan. 2:49: 3:1. 12, 30 ; 4 : 29. Its 
boundaries and history are involved 
„. in much obscurity. It was originally 

rud. (Alter Plumptre s ■■Biblical Educator. ) . ., ,. , J , . „. , & „ *; 

known as the • land or femnar and. 
been furnished by the Assyrian tablets I the '• land of Nimrod." Gen. 10 : 10 ; Mic. 
deciphered by Oriental scholars. Near | 5 : 6. It was chiefly between the Euphra- 




tes and Tigris Rivers. Asshur or Assyria 
and Mesopotamia were on the north,Elam 
and Media on the east, Chaldaea on the 
south. As Chaldaea gained in power 
its name was applied to the whole 
country, including Babylon. See Chal- 
daea. The early kingdom of Babylon 
is generally regarded as covering an 
extent of about 27,000 square miles, 
rich of soil and abundant in resources, 
the home of one of the earliest civilized 
nations. After the time of Nimrod, 
Babel or Babylon appears to be dis- 
placed in Scripture history by Chaldaea 
until the time of Joshua, Josh. 7 : 21 ; 
after this both again disappear until 
about the time of the Captivity. At 
the fall of Nineveh, b. c. 625, Babylonia 
speedily extended its sway over most 
of western Asia and Egypt, and under 
Nebuchadnezzar became a vast empire, 
lasting, however, less than a century, 
and fell before the Medians under 
Cyrus and Darius, b. c. 538, and soon 
after dropped out of history as a separate 

General History. — Berosus gives a list 
of ten mythical kings, including Xisi- 
thrus, who ruled Babylonia before the 
Flood ; while the inscriptions so far dis- 
covered on the tablets and monuments 
give three mythical kings before the 
Flood, and four after it. From the in- 
scriptions, long lists of kings during the 
historical period have also been deci- 
phered. The earliest list of twelve 
kings in this period begins with Izdu- 
bar, who is identified with Nimrod by 
George Smith. To this list he adds 
from the inscriptions the names of six 
viceroys, six kings of Ur, five kings of 
Karrak, six of Erecli and Larsa, five of 
Akkad, and four Elamite kings ; and 
among the latter is Chedorlaomer of 
Gen. 14 : 1-17. Five native kings were 
contemporary with these Elamite kings, 
and twenty other kings ruled successively 
until the accession of an Assyrian dy- 
nasty in B. c. 1271. The last list given 
by George Smith from the inscriptions 
covers the period from B. c. 1150 to 539, 
and includes Sargon, b. c. 710, Mero- 
dach-baladan III., restored B. c. 705, 
Esarhaddon, who rebuilt Babylon, B. c. 
681, Assurbanipal, B. c. 648, Nebuchad- 
nezzar III., the Nebuchadnezzar of 
Scripture, B. c. 605. Amil-maruduk, the 
Evil-merodach of the Bible, b. c. 562, 

and Bel-sar-uzar, the Belshazzar of the 
book of Daniel, and who reigned with 
his father until the fall of the Babylo- 
nian empire, B. c. 538. It is not certain 
how far back the records of Babylonia 
reach, but George Smith regards it as 
certain that they reach to the twenty- 
fourth century before Christ, and some 
scholars would stretch them nearly two 
thousand years beyond that early period. 
The civilization, literature, and govern- 
ment found in Babylonia two thousand 
years before the Christian era could not 
have sprung up in a day, but further 
explorations only can determine its age. 
Among the biblical cities named in the 
earliest inscriptions — those of Izdubar — 
are Babylon, Cuthah, and Erech, thus 
adding new light to the truth of Scrip- 
ture history. See George Smith's Assyr- 
ian Discoveries, 1875, chap. 23. 

The Babylonian Empire. — Upon the 
fall of Nineveh, b. c. 625, the Chaldaeans 
and Babylonians controlled all the 
southern and western portions of the 
former Assyrian empire. This Baby- 
lonian empire extended, therefore, over 
Susiana, Elam, Mesopotamia, Syria 
including Palestine and Phoenicia, Idu- 
maea, northern Arabia, and lower Egypt. 
Among the important cities of the em- 
pire were Babylon, Borsippa, Sippara 
or Sepharvaim, Isa. 36 : 19, Cuthah, 2 
Kgs. 17 : 24, Orchb'e or Erech, in Baby- 
lonia ; and in the provinces, Susa, Car- 
chemish, Harran, Hamath, Damascus, 
Jerusalem, Tyre, Sidon, Ashdod, Aske- 
lon, and Gaza. Of those in the prov- 
inces, Susa was of the first importance, 
and may be regarded as the second city 
of the empire. It had a royal palace, 
where the Babylonian kings spent a 
portion of their time, Dan. 8 : 2, doubt- 
less during the heat of summer. The 
dominant people in the Babylonian em- 
pire were, according to Rawlinson and 
others, a mixed race, mainly descendants 
of the earlier Chaldaeans (who were 
chiefly Cushites), mixed with those of 
the later Assyrians, who were of the 
Semitic type. The Babylonians were 
celebrated for their wisdom and learn- 
ing, Dan. 1:4; Jer. 50 : 35 ; Isa. 47 : 10, 
especially for their knowledge of astron- 
omy. They were also a commercial, 
avaricious, and luxurious people, Bab. 
2:9; Jer. 51 : 13 ; Isa. 47 : 8, though 
they were likewise valorous and war- 



like. Their princes were proud and I 
boastful. "Is not this great Babylon, 
that I have built ... by the might of 
my power, and for the honor of my 
majesty?" was the boastful speech of its 
greatest king, Nebuchadnezzar. Dan. 

In architecture, sculpture, science, 
philosophy, astronomical and mathe- 
matical knowledge, and in learning the 
Babylonians made original investiga- 
tions and discoveries not surpassed by 
any other ancient people. "To Baby- 
lonia," says G. Rawlinson, "far more 
than to Egypt, we owe the art and 
learning of the Greeks." — Five Ancient 
Monarchies, iii. 76. 

In religion the Babylonians differed 
little from the early Chaldseans. Their 
chief deities were Bel, Merodach, and 
Nebo. The names of these gods fre- 
quently appear in the names of noted 
princes, as Bel-shazzar, Nabo-polassar, 
Merodach - baladan, Evil - merodach, 
Abed-nebo or -nego. Their gods were 
worshipped with great pomp and mag- 
nificence. The temples erected in honor 
of the gods and devoted to their wor- 
ship were celebrated for their vastness, 
and for the massiveness and finish of their 
sculptures. Of the precise mode of their 
worship little is known. It was con- 
ducted by priests, through whom the 
worshippers made offerings, often of 
great value, and sacrifices of oxen and 
goats. Images of the gods were exhib- 
ited, probably on frames or sacred ve- 
hicles, and, as some suppose, were some- 
times set up in a public place, as on the 
plain of Dura, Dan. 3:1; but late in- 
vestigations indicate that the image 
there set up was a statue of Nebuchad- 
nezzar. See on this text Canon Cook's 
Bible Conimenfnri/, 1876. Some of the 
principal temples of their gods noted by 
Rawlinson were that of Bel at Babylon, 
another of the same god at Niffer, one 
of Beltis at Warka or Erech, one of the 
Sun-god at Sippara or Sepharvaim, and 
one of Nebo at Borsippa. 

The empire began with the accession 
of Nabo-polassar, b. c. 625: was in its 
greatest prosperity during the reign of 
Nebuchadnezzar, lasting forty -four! 
years, to b. c. 561. See Nrbtchadxf.z- 
zar. Under the less able rulers who : 
followed, the power of the empire de- 
clined, and it fell a comparatively easy I 

prey to the Medo-Persians under Cyrus, 
b. c. 538. See Chaldjea, Assyria, and 
Media. For sketch-map see Assyria, 
and also map at the end of this volume. 

BABYLONIANS. See Babylon. 

ITY. See Captivity. 

THE (literally, "garment of Shi- 
nar " ), which Achan stole at the destruc- 
tion of Jericho, JosL. 7 : 21, is described 
by Josephus as "a royal mantle all 
woven with gold." But no accurate 
description is possible. Babylon was 
famous for the products of the loom. 

BA'CA {weeping). The margin reads 
" mulberry trees." Ps. 84 : 6. It is gen- 
erally supposed to refer to a valley near 
Jerusalem, though some later writers, 
as Robinson and Hackett, are inclined 
to regard it as not a proper name, but 
a figurative " valley of weeping." 

BACHRITES, the family of 
Becher the Ephraimite. Num. 26 : 

BADGERS' SKINS. Ex. 25 : 5 ; 
Eze. 16:10. The true badger is rare, 
if known, in Arabia. It is believed 
that the skins meant were those of such 
marine animals as the dolphin, dugong, 
and seal. Dr. Robinson writes : "The 
superior" (of the convent of Mount 
Sinai) "procured for me a pair of the 
sandals usually worn by the Bedouin of 
the peninsula, made of the thick skin 
of a fish which is caught in the Red 
Sea. . . . The skin is clumsy and coarse, 
and might answer very well for the ex- 
ternal covering of the tabernacle which 
was constructed at Sinai, but would 
seem hardly a fitting material for the 
ornamental sandals belonging to the 
costly attire of high-born dames in 
Palestine described by the prophet 
Ezekiel." Tristram adds: "As the 
fachash (badger) probably included also 
the seal, the sandals of the Jewish 
women may have been of that material, 
and so also may have been the covering 
of the tabernacle." 

BAG, the English translation of 
several quite different words. When 
used in connection with money, it means 
the long cone-like receptacles in which 
coin was packed. 2 Kgs. 12 : 10. These 
were made of various sizes, each to con- 
tain a precise amount of money. We 
read that the workmen on the temple 



were paid in bags, which were probably 
delivered to them sealed. At this day 
in Eastern nations money passes in 
bags from hand to hand under the seal 
of a banker or other public officer, and 
without counting, as it is paid by one 

Egyptian Money-bags. (After Wilkinson.) 
to another. If the seal is genuine and 
unbroken, the exact value of each bag 
is known at sight. The shepherd's 
"bag" which David had was probably 
one in which the young lambs unable 
to walk were carried. The "bag" of 
Judas was probably a little box. John 
12:6: 13:29. 

BAHU'RI3f {warriors), a place 
not far from Jerusalem, 2 Sam. 3:16; 
16:5: 17:18; 1 Kgs. 2 : 8 ; probably 
east of Olivet, toward the Jordan. 

BA'JITH {home). In Isa. 15 : 2 
the Hebrew reads "the bajith" or "the 
temple ;" probably the temple of Che- 

BAKBAKKAR {destruction of the 
mountain), a Levite. 1 Chr. 9: 15. 

BARBUK {a bottle). Among the 
Nethinim who returned with Zerubabbel 
are mentioned the children of Bakbuk. 
Ezr. 2 : 51 : Neh. 7 : 53. 

BAKBUKI'AH {destruction from 
Jehovah), a Levite, Neh. 11 : 17 ; 12 : 9, 25. 

Arabian Bant -oven. (After JSiebuhr.) 
BAKE. The business of baking 
in early times was principally, if not 

exclusivel3 r , the work of women. Lev. 
26 : 26 ; 1 Sam. 8 : 13 ; 2 Sam. 13 : 8 ; 
Jer. 7 : 18. In Rome, as Pliny tells 
us, there was no such thing as a pub- 
lic baker for 580 years. It seems 
probable from Jer. 37 : 21 and Hos. 
7:4-7 that public bakers were known 
in their day, and inhabited a partic- 
ular section of the city of Jerusalem. 
See Bread, Oven. 

BA'LAAM {glutton) was the son 
of Beor or Bosor, and a native of Pe- 
thor, a village of Mesopotamia. Num. 
22 : 5. He had a great reputation as 
a prophet or soothsayer, and appears 
to have been a worshipper of the 
one God, coming from the country 
of Abraham, where it is in every way 
probable that remnants of the prim- 
itive monotheism existed to his day. 
His history is given in Num. 22, 
23, 24, and 31. So great was his 
fame that Balak, king of Moab, sent 
for him to curse Israel when they were 
encamped upon the plains of Moab ; 
but he consulted God during the night, 
and the next morning refused, declar- 
ing the Lord had not given him leave. 
But Balak sent again, and Balaam at 
length obtained the desired permission 
to go, and went. It was on this jour- 
ney that his ass spake. Num. 22 : 
28. Arriving, he ordered Balak to 
build seven altars, and to offer a bullock 
and a ram on each. Then, proclaiming 
his intention of speaking only what 
God showed unto him, he twice went 
aside to watch for an augury. God 
met him each time and told him what 
to say, and on his return he uttered a 
blessing instead of the expected curse. 
The third time the sacrifices were of- 
fered, but Balaam saw that it pleased 
the Lord to bless Israel; so, without 
seeking an augury, he uttered these 
magnificent prophecies, in which Is- 
rael's complete supremacy is announced: 

" How goodly are thy tents, O Jacob, 

Thy tabernacles. O Israel ! 

Aw'valleys are they spread forth, 

As gardens by the river side. 

As lign aloes which the Lord hath planted, 

As cedar trees beside the waters. 

He shall flow with water from his buckets, 

Ami his seed shall be in many waters, 

And his kin? shall he higher than Agag, 

And his kingdom shall tie exalted. 

Ood. he hrmsreth him forth out of Egypt ; 

He hath as it «vre the strength of a buffalo; 

He shall up the nations his adversaries, 

And shall break their bones in pieces, 



And smile them through with his arrows. 
He couched, he lay down as a lion. 
And us a lioness, who shall stir him up? 
Blessed is he that blesseth thee, 
And cursed is he that curseth thee." 

Num. 24:5-9. 
And again 

"There shall come forth a Star out of Jacob, 
And a Sceptre shall rise out of Isiael, 
And shall smite through the coiners of Moab, 
And break down all the sons of tumult." 

Num. 24: 17. 

The prophecies of Balaam are justly 
regarded as some of the most remark- 
able in Scripture. But having won the 
anger of Balak by his course, and feel- 
ing himself cast out from the people 
of God by reason of his sinfulness, he 
became desperate, and endeavored to do 
as much immediate harm to Israel as 
he could, since he could in no wise in- 
jure her future. He therefore suggest- 
ed that the Moabites destro} 7 the purity 
of Israel by seducing the people into 
fornication while taking part in the 
worship of Baal. Num. 31:16: cf. 
25:1-5. They did so; and the conse- 
quence was, a plague broke out among 
the Israelites and killed 24,000 of 
them. Num. 25 : 9. In a battle fought 
by Israel with the Midianites, Ba- 
laam was slain. Num. 31 : 8. The 
phrase "the doctrine of Balaam," used 
in Rev. 2 : 14, refers to the above-men- 
tioned sin. 

BAL'ADAN (the name is part of a 

sentence meaning " sent the son," 

the name of the god to be substituted), 
the father of Merodach-baladan, king 
ofBabvlon. 2 Kgs. 20:12; Isa, 39:1. 

BA'LAH. Josh. 19 : 3. A shorter 
form of Baal ah. 

BA'LAK [spoiler), the king of Moab 
who hired Balaam to curse Israel. Num. 
22-24: Josh. 24:9; Jud. 11:25 j Mic. 
6:5: Rev. 2:14. 

BALANCES. Lev. 19 : 36. In 
the early periods of the world gold and 
silver were paid by weight, so that per- 
sons employed in traffic of any kind car- 
ried with them a pair of scales or bal- 
ances and different weights (generally 
stones of different sizes) in a pouch or 
bag. Dishonest men would carry two 
sorts of weights, the lighter to sell with, 
and the other to buy with. This explains 
the allusions Mic. 6: II: Hos. 12 : 7. 

In pictures on monuments is repre- 
sented a balance in which the scales are 
simply a pair of weights. There are 

two bags of money which are to be 
equalized, one of which is a standard. 

Egyptian Balancer weighing Rings of Gold. 
(After Wilkinson.) 

The scribe stands by to register the re- 

BALD'NESS, when voluntary, was 
a token of mourning and great distress, 
Isa. 3 : 24; Eze. 7 : 18, or else showed 
the conclusion of a Nazarite's vow. 
Num. 6 : 9. Natural baldness seems to 
have been uncommon. "Bald head" 
was a cry of contempt, 2 Kgs. 2 : 23, be- 
cause it was generally caused by lep- 
rosy. Lev. 13 : 40-43. The people, and 
especially the priests, were forbidden to 
make themselves bald, since this was a 
heathen custom. Lev. 21 : 5 ; Deut. 14 : 
1; Eze. 44:20. 

BALM. Gen. 37 : 25. One of the 
articles of merchandise which the Ish- 
maelites (to whom Joseph was sold) 
were carrying from Gilead to Egypt. 
It is worthy of remark that the par- 
ticulars of this trading company or car- 
avan, their character, course of travel 
and freight, though referring to a peri- 
od 1700 years before the Christian era, 
correspond with wonderful accuracy to 
those of similar commercial expeditions 
across the desert at the present day. 

The balm is supposed to be the pro- 
duction of the balm-of-Gilead tree (Bnl- 
aamodendron Gileadevue), which grows 
about 12 or 14 feet high, with diverging 
branches. The resin which it produces 
is exceedingly odoriferous, and greatly 
esteemed in the East for its healing 

It was once an important article of 
merchandise among the Eastern nations. 
Eze. 27 : 17. Nothing can exceed the 
eloquence and tenderness of the lan- 
guage employed by the prophet Jere- 
miah to express his grief and disap- 



pointment that the chosen people of 
God (the daughter of Zion) should re- 
main spiritually wounded and diseased, 
when there was a healing Balm of un- 
failing virtue and a Physician of divine 
skill to administer it, and both within 

(Balsamodendron Gileadense. 
Br. Birdwood.) 


their reach. Jer. 8 : 22 ; 46 : 11 and 

BA'MAH (high place), the name ap- 
plied to idolatrous places of worship. 
Eze. 20:29. 

BA'MOTH (heights). See Bamoth- 


BA'MOTH-BA'AL (heights of 

Baal), a place in Moab given to Reu- 
ben, Josh. 13 : 17. Conder suggests el 
Masl&biyeh, 5 miles south of ^ebo, 

BAND. A band of Roman soldiers 
consisted of the tenth part of a legion, 
called a " cohort;" it varied, accord- 
ing to the size of the legion, from 400 
to 600 soldiers. Matt. 27:27; Acts 21: 
31, and elsewhere. 

BA'NI (6«i7*). 1. A 
Gadite, one of David's 
warriors. 2 Sam. 23 : 36. 

2. AJudite. lChr.9: 

3. The names of seven 
others, mostly Levites. 
IChr. 6:46; Ezr. 2:10; 
10: 29, 34, 38; Neh. 3 : 
17; 8:7; 9:4; 10:14; 
11 : 22. 

See Punishment. 

BANK. See Money- 

are translations of words 
used indiscriminately by 
the sacred writers. A 
standard pertained to 
each of the four grand 
divisions of the host of 
Israel, Num. 1 : 52, 
distinguished from the 
others by colors and by 
an emblematic device. 
Thus, according to the 
rabbins, the device of 
Judah was a lion ; that 
of Reuben was a man ; 
that of Ephraim, an ox; 
of Dan, an eagle. An- 
other standard for sub- 
divisions, denoted by an- 
other word, was probably 
nothing more than a 
common spear richly 
burnished or orna- 

(M S^SST" mented - The E syp tian 

princes used a standard 
like this, surmounted with a ball of gold. 
There was another standard in use among 
the Jews, which is called a beacon. Isa. 
30 : 17. It was stationary, erected on 
lofty mountains, and used as a rallying- 
token. Comp. Isa. 18 : 3 ; 62 : 10 : Jer. 
4 : 6. 21 : 6 : 1 ; 51 : 12, 27. None of 
these standards were flags. 

Some writers have supposed that the 
ancient Jewish ensign was a long pole, 
on the top of which was a grate not un- 




like a chaffing-dish, made of iron bars 
and supplied with fire, the size, height, 
and shape of which denoted the party or 
company to whom it belonged. This 
seems rather to describe the night- 
torches of Eastern encampments. The 
shape, etc., of the Roman standards are 
seen under the article Abomination. 

BANQUET. See Feast. 

BAP'TISM, an ordinance or re- 
ligious rite which was in use before 
Christ's ministry began, but which he 
recognized, and which was continued by 
his disciples as a Christian ordinance. 
Matt. 28 : 19. 20 ; Mark 16 : 16. On 
the due administration of this rite, the 
use of water in the name of the Holy 
Trinity becomes the sign or emblem of 
inward purification from sin and un- 
cleanness, while the subject of the rite 
is introduced into a peculiar relation 
to Christ and his Church. Baptism is 
in the N. T. what circumcision was in 
the Old — a sign and seal of the cove- 
nant of grace whereby God promises 
forgiveness of sin and salvation, and 
man vows obedience and devotion to 
his service. See Acts 2 : 41 : Roni. 6 : 3, 
4; Gal. 3 : 27: 1 Pet. 3 : 21. It was 
first administered on the day of Pente- 
cost. Christ himself did not baptize, 
John 4:2, and the apostles received 
instead the baptism of fire and the 
Holy Ghost, Acts 2. In the case of 
Cornelius regeneration preceded water- 
baptism, Acts 10 : 44-48; while, on the 
other hand, in the case of Simon Ma- 
gus, water-baptism was not accompa- 
nied or followed bv regeneration. Acts 
8 : 13, 21-23. Nevertheless, God is 
true though men should abuse his gifts 
ni'l turn his blessing a curse. 
The controversy between Baptists and 
Paedobaptists refers to the subjects and 
to the mode of baptism. The former 
hold that adult believers only are to 
be baptized, and that immersion is the 
only valid "mode of baptism; the lat- 
ter maintain that children of believing 
parents may and ought to be baptized, 
and that baptism may be administered 
by sprinkling and pouring as well as 
by immersion. 

Baptism with the Holy GnosT and 
with Fire. Matt. 3:11: Luke 3: 16.— 
The phrase is figurative, and refers to 
the outpouring of the Holy Spirit 
upon believers, as on the day of Pen- 

tecost especially, but often since in 
the history of the Church. 

Baptism of John the Baptist. — 
John was a preacher of righteousness : 
his baptism was significant of the in- 
ward cleansing which followed repent- 
ance, and was introductory to the high- 
er baptism instituted by Christ. John 
said to his disciples, " I indeed bap- 
tize you with water unto repentance: 

\ but he thatcometh after me is mightier 
than I, whose shoes I am not worthy 
to bear: he shall baptize you with the 
Holy Ghost, and with fire." Matt. 3 : 
11. He demanded faith in the Mes- 
siah, sorrow for sin, and trust in God, 
as prerequisites for the administration 
of the rite, which, however, differed 
from Christian baptism in that it im- 
plied no belief in the Trinity, nor was 
it followed by the gift of the Hoty 

j Ghost. Those who had received John's 
baptism were rebaptized. See Acts 19 : 
1-6 ;' cf. Matt. 3 ; Acts 18 : 25, 26. 

Baptism for the Dead. — There is 
only one allusion to this practice in the 
N. T., in 1 Cor. 15 : 29 : " What shall 

' they do which are baptized for the 
dead, if the dead rise not at all? 
why are they then baptized for the 
dead?" Paul evidently speaks of a 
well-known ceremony. Various inter- 
pretations "have been put upon the 
phrase. It is simplest to say with 
Meyer, Paul refers to the belief that 
a living Christian could be baptized 
for a dead Christian who was unbap- 
tized, and the latter would in conse- 
quence be accounted baptized and have 
part in the eternal joys. This custom, 
abandoned by the Church — a proof 
that it was condemned by the leaders — 
was kept up among heretics, such as 
the Cerinthians and Marcionites, and 
is practised at the present day by the 
Mormons in Utah. Chrysostom tells 
us that when an unbaptized catechu- 
men died, a living man was put under 
the bed on which the dead body lay. 
The priest then asked the dead man 
if he desired baptism. The living 
man answered in the affirmative, and 
was baptized in place of the dead. 
The practice, of course, was supersti- 
tious, and Paul merely uses it in ar- 
gument, but does not approve of it. 
Indeed, his use of the third person 
shows that the notion of the para- 



mount importance of baptism which, 
led to the custom was condemned by 

Other interpretations of the phrase 
have been given. Thus, " If the dead 
rise not, then baptism could have no 
authority and no use, because then 
Christ did not rise." Again, " Bap- 
tized when death is close at hand." 
" Over the graves of the martyrs." " If 
there be no resurrection, why art thou 
then baptized for the dead — i. e. for the 
dead bodies ? For in this faith thou 
art baptized, believing in the resur- 
rection of the dead." 

BARAB'BAS (son of Abba), a 
noted criminal at Jerusalem who was 
in confinement for sedition and mur- 
der when Christ was condemned. Matt. 
27: 16. It was the custom of the Ro- 
mans to release some one prisoner at 
the time of the Jewish Passover. The 
Jews were permitted to name any one 
whose release they desired ; and when 
the choice lay between Barabbas and 
Christ, they chose the robber. Matt. 
27 : 21 : Mark 15 : 6-1 1 ; Luke 23 : 18 ; 
John 18:40; Acts 3:14. Pilate was 
anxious to save Christ, but at last 
released Barabbas. 

The custom is said to have prevailed 
among the Venetians as lately as the 
close of the eighfeenth century to 
release a prisoner at the annual com- 
memoration of our Saviour's resurrec- 

BARACHEL (whom God hath 
blessed), the father of Elihu. Job 
32:2. 6. 

BARACHIAH (whom Jehovah 
hath blessed), in the N. T. form, Ba- 
rachaias. Zech. 1 : 7 ; Matt. 23 : 35. See 

BA'RAK (lightning) was the son 
of Abinoam, and was distinguished for 
his share in the conquest of Sisera and 
the deliverance of Israel from long and 
severe oppression. A history of the 
transaction and a copy of their sub- 
lime triumphal song are given in Jud. 
4 and 5. Barak's date cannot be de- 
termined, but probably he was a con- 
temporarv of Shamgar. See Dkborah. 

BARBARIAN. This term is used 
to denote any one who was not a Greek. 
In its scriptural use it does not import 
any rudeness or savageness of nature or 
manners. Acts 28 : 2, 4 and Rom. 1 : 14, 

BARHU'MITE. 2 Sam. 23 : 31. 

See Bahurim. 

BARIAH (fugitive), one of Da- 
vid's posterity. 1 Chr. 3 : 22. 

BAR-JE'SUS was a magician who 
resided with Sergius Paulus at Paphos, 
on the isle of Cyprus, when Paul and 
Barnabas were there. Acts 13 : 6. He 
is also known by his Arabic designa- 
tion Elymas the Sage. Sergius Pau- 
lus was an officer of high rank under 
the Roman government, and was anx- 
ious to receive religious instruction 
from the two missionaries. But Bar- 
jesus, seeing that his occupation and 
influence would cease wherever the 
light of the gospel should come, op- 
posed himself to Paul and Barnabas, 
and tried to dissuade Paulus from giv- 
ing heed to their preaching. Paul 
gave him a most severe reproof, im- 
mediately after which the wicked man 
was struck with temporary blindness 
as a rebuke from God. See Sergius 

BAR- JO'NA. Matt. 16 : 17. See 

BAR'KOS (painter), the father of 
some of the returning Nethinim. Ezr. 
2 : 53 : Neh. 7 : 55. 

BARLEY. Ex. 9:31. A well- 
known species of grain used for bread, 
Jud. 7:13; John 6:9-13, and also as 
food for horses and dromedaries. 1 
Kgs. 4 : 28. Barley-harvest, Ruth 1 : 22, 
usually comes in April — earlier at Jeri- 
cho, later on the hills. It precedes 
wheat-harvest about three weeks in 
Palestine and a month in Egypt. As 
human food barley was held in low 
estimation, which adds significance to 
the connection between Gideon and 
the barlev-eake in the dream which 
the man told " his fellow." Jud. 7:13. 
"If the Midianites were accustomed 
in their extemporaneous songs to call 
Gideon and his band 'eaters of barley 
bread,' as their successors, the haughty 
Bedouins, often do to ridicule their ene- 
mies, the application would be all the 
more natural." — Thomson. The same 
fact adds force to Eze. 13 : 19, and elu- 
cidates Hos. 3 • 2 and Num. 5:15. 

BAR'NABAS (son of consolation), 
a Levite of the island of Cyprus, and 
an early convert to the Christian faith. 
Acts 4 : 36. His original name was 
Joses, but he derived his usual title 



from his remarkable powers of exhort- 
ing the people and ministering conso- 
lation to the afflicted. Barnabas was 
one of those who gave up all their 
worldly substance and all their strength 
and influence to the support and spread 
of the gospel. He introduced Paul to 
the disciples on the latter' s visit to Je- 
rusalem, three years after his conver- 
sion. Acts 9 : 27. Afterward he brought 
Paul from Tarsus to Antioch, and they 
labored for two years together with 
great success. Acts 11 : 25, 26. They at- 
tended together the council of Jerusalem. 
Actsl5:22; Gal. 2:1. Afterward they 
separated, and Barnabas went on an in- 
dependent missionary-tour with Mark. 
Acts 15. Some ascribe to him the Epis- 
tle to the Hebrews. We have under his 
name an epistle, which, however, is of 
doubtful genuineness. 

BAR'SABAS (son of Saba), the 
name of two men. 

1. Joseph Barsabas, surnamed Jus- 
tus, was one of the two candidates for 
the vacancy in the apostleship occa- 
sioned by the apostasy of Judas. Acts 
1 : 23. Some identify him with Joses 
Barnabas, the companion of Paul. See 
preceding article. 

2. Judas Barsabas. Acts 15 : 22. He 
was appointed to accompany Paul and 
Barnabas from Jerusalem to Antioch on 
an important embassj T . He is called 
one of "the chief among the brethren," 
but is otherwise unknown. Some com- 
mentators infer from the surname that 
he was a brother of Joseph Barsabas. 

BARTHOLOMEW (son of Tol- 
mai) is supposed to be the same person 
who is elsewhere called Nathanael. This 
conjecture rests in part upon the fact 
that Philip and Nathanael are associ- 
ated together by John, and in the par- 
allel passages of the other evangelists 
Philip and Bartholomew are associated ; 
and further, that Bartholomew is not 
mentioned in John's list of the twelve, 
nor is Nathanael in the list of the other 
evangelists. It is therefore in even- 
way likely that he bore two names, as 
so many others did. We know nothing 
of his history save the fact of his con- 
version, John 1 : 45-51, and his presence 
on the Lake of Tiberias when the risen 
Lord appeared to him and other disci- 
ples. John 21 : 2. 

BARTIMEUS (son of Timeus), a 

son of Timeus, who was instantly cured 
of blindness by our Saviour in the vi- 
cinitv of Jericho. Mark 10:46. 

BA'RUCH (blessed). 1. The sec- 
retary of the prophet Jeremiah, was of 
! a distinguished Jewish family. Jer. 
j 32 : 12. His friendship for Jeremiah 
i was strong and constant. At his dic- 
j tation Baruch wrote his prophecies. 
| These he read before the princes, who 
J rehearsed them to Jehoiakim, the king, 
having previously deposited the writing 
in one of the offices of the temple. The 
king ordered the writing to be read in 
his presence, and he became so much 
exasperated that he destroyed the manu- 
scripts and gave orders to arrest both 
the prophet and his secretary, but they 
had concealed themselves. Jehovah, 
however, repeated the prophecies to 
Jeremiah, with some additions, and a 
second time did Baruch write them 
down. Baruch was falsely accused of 
influencing Jeremiah in favor of the 
Chaldaeans, and they wei'e both impris- 
oned until the capture of Jerusalem, 
B. c. 586. They were afterward forced 
to go down to Egypt. Jer. 43 : 6, 7. 

2. The name of three other persons, 
otherwise unknown. Neh. 3:20; 10 : 6 ; 
11 : 5. 

the Apocrypha of the 0. T., of uncertain 
date and authorship. See Jeremie, 
Epistle of. 

BARZIL/LAI (of Iron, i.e. strong) 
was a wealthy Gileadite. and a fast 
friend of David when he was in exile on 
account of Absalom's revolt. 2 Sam. 17 : 
27. After the rebellion had been sup- 
pressed, Barzillai, on account of age, and 
probably also from natural and proper 
pride, declined David's offer to be a resi- 
dent of the court, but proposed his son 
Chimham should go instead. 2 Sam. 19 : 
31-40. David, in his final charge to Solo- 
mon, enjoined it upon him to show kind- 
ness to Barzillai's family, and even to 
make them members of the royal house- 
hold. lKgs. 2:7. 

2. The Meholathite, father-in-law of 
Michal, Saul's daughter. 2 Sam. 21:8. 

3. The husband of a daughter of 
Barzillai the Gileadite, whose descend- 
ants returned from Babylon, but in 
vain Bought admittance to the priest- 
hood. Ezr. 2:61; Neh. 7 : 63, 64. 

BA'SHAN (light soil), a district 



reaching from Hermon to Gilead at the 
river Arnon, and from the Jordan val- 
ley eastward to Salcah. It is referred 
to about 60 times in the Bible. 

Physical Features. — There are two 
ranges of mountains, one along the 
Jordan valley, about 3000 feet high, 
another irregular range on the east side 
of Bashan ; between them are plains 
or undulating table-land watered by 
springs. The rock of basalt on the 
west is broken into deep chasms and 
jagged projections ; the hills are covered 
with oak-forests, as in former times. 
Isa. 2:13; Eze. 27 : 6 ; Zech. 11 : 2. 
The plain of the Jaulan (Golan of 
Scripture) is a vast field of powdered 
lava and basalt, a fertile pasture to this 
day. The north-eastern portion of 
Bashan, including the Argob of Scrip- 
ture, is a wild mass of basaltic rock, 22 
miles long by 14 wide, resembling a 
" cyclopean wall in ruins." Fissures 
and chasms cut it like a network and it 
abounds in caves, yet has much fertile 
land. The centre of Bashan was mostly 
a fertile plain, and was regarded as the 
richest in Syria. 

History. — Its early people were the 
giants Rephaim. Gen. 14 : 5. Og, its 
king, was defeated and slain by Israel, 
Num. 21 : 33 ; 32 : 33, and the country 
divided ; its pastures, cattle, sheep, oaks, 
and forests were famous. Deut. 32 : II ; 
Ps.22:12; Isa. 2: 13; Jer. 50 : 19; Eze. 
39 : 18. After the Captivity it was divi- 
ded into four provinces : (1) Gaulanitis, 
or modern Jaulan ; (2) Argob, or Trach- 
onitis, now Lejah ; (3) Auranitis, now 
Haurau ;. (4) Batansea. Ituraea was not 
strictly a part of Bashan, though taken 
by Israel. Under the Roman rule the 
division was but slightly changed. The 
country is now nominally under Turk- 
ish rule, but is really held by tribes of 
Arabs, dangerous, warlike, and unsub- 

Ruins. — Bashan is almost literally 
crowded with cities and villages, now 
deserted and in ruins, corroborating 
the account in Scripture. Josh. 13 : 30. 
There are four classes of dwellings : (1) 
the natural cavern fitted up for resi- 
dence. (2) Lon'j^ tunnels descending 
obliquely, sometimes 150 feet, at the bot- 
tom of which run out a number of pas- 
sages or underground streets, 16 to 23 
feet wide, lined on either side by sub- 

terranean dwellings furnished with air- 
holes in the ceilings, each generally 
having only one outlet, and that in a 
rocky, precipitous slope. (3) Dwellings 
cut in the rock and covered over with 
stone vaulting; not all of these, however, 
belong to early biblical times. Deut. 
3 : 4-13. (4) The villages in the Hau- 
ran consist chiefly of dwellings built 
of handsome well-hewn stone, closely 
jointed without cement. Wood was no- 
where used. The gates, doors, and 
! window-shutters are of stone, turning 
on stone hinges ; the roofs are also of 
stone, resting on supports and arches of 
the same material. Some of the gate- 
ways are ornamented with sculptured 
vines and bear numerous inscriptions 
yet undeciphered, while within are stone 
cupboards, benches, and candlesticks. 
Many of these dwellings belong to an 
age since the beginning of the Chris- 
tian era, but, though deserted for cen- 
turies, seem almost as if the occu- 
pants had gone out only for a few 
hours. Porter's views on their antiqui- 
ty are not accepted. Among its cities 
mentioned in Scripture are Golan, Ash- 


ioth, and Bozrah. See these titles, and 
Porter's Giant Cities (1865-6), Merrill's 
East of Jordan (1881), and Baedeker's 
Handbook of Syria and Palestine (1876). 

(Bashan of the villages of Jair), the 
country of Argob, in Bashan, Deut. 3 : 
14, containing 60 great cities, and called 
Havoth-iair. Num. 32: 41. 

BASHEMATH (pleasing), one 
of Esau's wives. Gen. 26 : 34 : 36 : 3, 
10, 13, 17. 

Assyrian Basins. (British Museum.) 

BA'SIN. It is impossible at this day 



to tell wherein the basins, bowls, and 
cups so often mentioned together ex- 
actly differed, but the basins were 
probably small. "The 'basin' from 
which Jesus washed his disciples' feet 
was probably larger and deeper than 
the hand-basin for sprinkling." John 
13 : 5. 

BASKET. The word is the uni- 
form term by which several pictur- 
esque Hebrew terms are translated. 
The context will generally enable us to 
decide not only on the probable size of 
the " basket," but also on its material. 
Thus, that mentioned in Jud. 6:19 must 
have been of metal, while that in which 
Paul was let down from the wall at 
Damascus was of rope. 2 Cor. 11 : 33. 
Wicker was, however, probably the 
usual material. They were of all shapes, 
sizes, and for all purposes. The fact is 
unfortunately concealed in our version 

Egyptian Baskets. {After WilJcinson.) 
that the word for " basket" in the ac- 
count of the miracle of feeding the five 
thousand, Matt. 14 : 20 ; 16 : 9 ; Mark 6 : 
43 : Luke 9:17: John 6 : 13, is entirely 
different from that similarly translated 
in the miracle of feeding the four thou- 
sand. Matt. 15:37; Mark 8 : 8— an in- 
direct but striking proof that there were 
turn miracles. It is not, however, possi- 
ble to tell wherein the difference con- 

BAS'MATH {pleasing), same name 
as Basheinath. A daughter of Solo- 
mon, and wife of Ahimaaz, one of his 
officers. 1 Kscs. 4: 15. 

BASTARD. Deut. 23 : 2 forbids 
for ever the entrance of a bastard into 
the congregation — ?". e. "from intermar- 
rying with pure Hebrews." But since 
concubinage was tolerated, the term 
evidently does not apply to one born 
out of wedlock. "The Rabhins. there- 
fore, are probably right when they in- 
terpret the word as denoting only those 
born of incest or adultery." See Co.\- 


BAT. Lev. 11 : 19. An unclean beast 
whose resting-places are caves, old ruins, 

and filthy and desolate places. Hence 
the allusion Isa. 2 : 20. It has no resem- 
blance to a bird except that it can fly, 
but the organs it uses for this purpose 
are altogether different from those of a 

BATH. See Measures. 

BATH, BATHING. In Eastern 
lands bathing is a necessity as well as a 
luxury. It is characteristic of the Mo- 
saic cultus that it enjoins such frequent 
washings ; e. g. Lev. 14 : 8 : 15 : 5 : 17 : 
15. The high priest on the day of 
atonement must pay particular atten- 
tion to this regulation. 16 : 4, 24. The 
Jews bathed in running water or in 
pools in courts. It was not until their 
subjection to Greece and Borne that 
public baths were known. Then came 
in also the luxurious bathing-customs 
of those peoples. 

BATH'-KOL (daughter, voice). 
See Prophecy. 

(daughter of many), a gate of 
Heshbon, near which were pools. 
Song Sol. 7:4. 

BATH-SHEBA (daugh- 
ter of the oath), the daughter of 
Eliam, 2 Sam. 11 : 3, otherwise 
called Ammiel, 1 Chr. 3 : 5, Ahithophel's 
son, 2 Sam. 23 : 34. She became the wife 
of Uriah, an officer in David's army. Her 
beauty proved a snare to David, for he 
not only committed adultery with her, 
but treacherously procured the death of 
her injured husband. 2 Sam. 11. The 
child of this intercourse died. When the 
days of mourning were accomplished, 
David married her, and she afterward 
bore him three sons besides Solomon. 
When Adonijah attempted to seize the 
throne, Bath-sheba told the king at the 
instigation of Nathan. IKgs. 1:15. 
It was to her as queen-mother that 
Adonijah went with the request for the 
hand of Abishag. 1 Kgs. 2 : 13-22. See 

BATH'-SHU'A (daughter of an 
oath), a variant of Bath-sheba ; used in 1 
Chr. 3:5. 

2 and 21 : 22. This was a long beam of 
strong wood, usually oak, sometimes 
connected with a carriage or framework 
of heavy timber. One end was shaped 
like a ram's head, which when driven re- 
peatedly and with great force against 



the wall of a city or fortification either 
pierced it or battered it down. In the 
tower of the structure in which the bat- 
tering-ram was hung were often posted 

Aiicient Battering-ram. 

archers and slingers, who fired at the 
defenders upon the walls while their 
comrades were pushing the ram along or 
working it against the walls. See War. 

BATTLE-AXE. See Armor. 

BATTLEMENr. Deut. 22 : 8. 
A wall, parapet, or other structure 
around the flat roofs of Eastern houses, 
designed as a partition from an adjoin- 
ing building or to prevent persons from 
falling off. The law required a battle- 
ment to be built upon every house. It 
is sometimes used in a more extensive 
sense to denote the fortifications of a 
city. Jer. 5:10. A traveller says that 
at Aleppo, where the houses join each 
other, the battlements are so low that 
he could walk over the tops of a dozen 
houses without interruption. See Dwell- 

BAV'AI, one who helped rebuild 
the wall. Neh. 3:18. 

BAY TREE. Pp. 37 : 35. "It 
may be questioned whether any partic- 
ular tree is intended by the Psalmist ; 
but if so, it must have been an evergreen, 
and may possibly be the sweet bay 
(Lawns nobilis), which is a native of 
Palestine. It is not very common, but 
may be found in most of the wooded 

dells of northern and western Pales- 
tine." — Tristram. The leaves of the bay 
are much like those of the American moun- 
tain-laurel, but are fragrant when crush- 
ed, and often come to our 
market packed with figs. 
L.UTH (a stripping), one 
whose descendants were 
among the Nethinirn who 
returned with ZerubbabeL 
Ezr. 2 : 52 : Neh. 7 : 54. 

2:12. After much discus- 
sion, it is still impossible 
to say whether bdellium is 
a mineral, an animal pro- 
duction (pearl), or a vege- 
table exudation. It is 
probably the latter. 
There is a gum produced 
in the East Indies which 
has the same name and is 
thought by many to be the 
same substance. It re- 
sembles myrrh in color, 
and is of a bitter taste. 
Num. 11 : 7. 
BEACON. Isa. 30: 17. A mark 
or signal erected in some conspicuous 
place for direction or for security against 
danger. See Banners. 

BEALI'AH {Jehovah is Baal i. e. 
lord), a Benjamite who joined David at 
Ziklag. 1 Chr. 12: 5. 

BE ALO TH {mistresses ; plur. fem- 
inine form of Baal), a town in the extreme 
south of Judah, Josh. 15:24; probably 
the same as Baalath-beer, 19 : 8, the 
modern Knrnnb. 

BEANS. Eze. 4:9. The Eastern 
plant ordinarily thus known ( Vicia 
faba ) is quite unlike the garden or field 
bean of the United States. It is of the 
same family, but is an erect annual icith 
a stout stem, is one of the coramonesi 
field-crops of Europe and the Orient, 
and bears in its pods large coarse seeds 
which are fed to animals and much eaten 
by the poorer classes. Kidney-beans 
are now sometimes cultivated in Pales- 

BEAR. Prov. 17:12. The Syrian 
bear seems but a variety of the brown 
bear of Europe and Asia, though it is 
much lighter in color. Its food is seeds, 
fruits, and roots, to which it occasionally 
adds a goat or sheep. " I never but 



once saw the Syrian bear south of Her- 
mon ; this was in winter, in a rugged 
ravine near the Lake of Gennesaret. 

Syrian Bear. (After Tristram.) 

When we visited Hermon, before the 
snow had melted from the top, we found 
the snow-ridges trodden in all directions 
by the tracks of bears, which were well 
known, but not much feared, by the 
shepherds : and we also saw their trace 
in the snow on Lebanon. They descend 
both sides of Hermon and do considerable 
damage to the crops, especially the len- 
tiles, of which they are very fond." — 
Tristram. The attachment of the fe- 
male bear to her young is very great, 
and nothing enrages her so much as 
to see her cubs hurt or taken from 
her. Hence the allusions 2 Sam. 17 : 8 : 
Hos. 13 : 8, and also the passage above 

BEARD. Among the Jews much 
attention was paid to the beard. To 
show any contempt toward it by 

Fro. 1. Egyptian Beards. (After Wilkinson.) 
Fig. 2. Beards of Assyrian, and other Nations. 
(After Rosellini and Layard.) 

plucking it or touching it, except 
from respect or courtesy, was esteemed 
a gross insult, while to kiss it respect- 
fully and affectionately was regarded as 

a signal mark of friendship. Tearing 
out the beard, cutting it entirely off, 
and neglecting to trim and dress it 
were all expressions of deep mourn- 
ing. Ezr. 9:3; Isa. 15 : 2 ; Jer. 41 : 5 
and 48 : 37. 

The Arabs and Orientals generally 
at this day cherish great respect for 
the beard. They solemnly swear by 
it; and their most significant and 
comprehensive phrase to express their 
good wishes for a friend is, " May God 
preserve your blessed beard !" We are 
told of an Arab who was wounded in 
the jaw, and chose to hazard his life 
rather than to have his beard cut off 
that the surgeon might examine the 
wound. Hence the keenness of the insult 
offered to David's ambassadors. 2 Sam. 
10 : 4, 5. The Egyptians were accustom- 
ed to shave except when mourning, the 
direct opposite to the Jewish custom, 
but they wore false beards, made of 
plaited hair and graduated according 
to rank. The prohibition, Lev. 19:27, 
against marring the "corners of the 
beard " refers probably to the Arabian 
custom of shaving off that portion of 
the beard upon the cheeks on a line 
with the ears. 

BEAST. Gen. 2:19. This word 
is generally used to distinguish all ani- 
mals from man, as in Ps. 36 : 6. Some- 
times quadrupeds only are denoted by 
it, as Lev. 11 : 2 ; and in Gen. 1 : 24, 25, 
it is supposed to refer to creatures that 
roam at large. Beasts were created on 
the sixth day, and were named by 
Adam. Paul describes some of his op- 
posers as wild beasts, so furious and 
brutal was their treatment of him. 1 
Cor. 15:32. A similar application will 
be found in Ps. 22 : 12-16 ; Eccl. 3:18; 
Isa. 11:6-8, and in 2 Pet. 2:12 and 
Jude 10, to denote a class of wicked 
men. "Wild beasts of the islands" 
Jer. 50 : 39, etc., seem to be jackals 
(literally, "the howlers," as in Ara- 
bic these animals are called " the sons 
of howling"). "Wild beasts of the 
desert" probably denote such crea- 
tures as the hyena. 

Under the ancient dispensation the 
beasts were sometimes made to partici- 
pate externally in the observance of 
religious ceremonies, Jon. 3 : 7, 8, and 
suffered, with men, the judgment of 
God. Ex. 9:6 and 13: 15; Ps. 135:8; 



Jer. 7 : 20 and 21 : 6 ; Eze. 32 : 13 ; 38 : 
20 • Hos. 4 : 3. See Clean and Un- 

BEATEN OIL. See Olive. 

BEA TEN WORK. Ex. 25 : 18. 
Not cast, but wrought. 

BEB'AI (paternal), the ancestor of 
some who came back with Zerubbabel. 
Ezr. 2:11; Neh. 7 : 16. Later on some 
more returned with Ezra. Ezr. 8:11. 
Four of these came up for censure as the 
husbands of foreign wives, 10 : 28 ; but 
the cognomen was attached to the cove- 
nant. Neh. 10 : 15. 

BE'CHER [youth). 1. One of Ben- 
jamin's sons. Gen. 46 : 21 ; 1 Chr. 7 : 6, 8. 

2. A descendant of Ephraim, Num. 
26 : 35 ; called Bered in 1 Chr. 7 : 20. 

BECHO'RATH {first bom), one 
of Saul's ancestors. 1 Sam. 9 : 1. 

BED. Gen. 47:31. The floors of 
the better sort of Eastern houses were 
of tile or plaster, and were covered with 
mats or carpets ; and as shoes were not 
worn on them and the feet were washed, 
their floors seldom required sweeping or 
scrubbing. Matt. 12 : 44= ; Luke 15 : 8. 
Thick, coarse mattresses were thrown 
down at night to sleep upon. The 
poorer people used skins for the same 
purpose. Such beds were easily moved. 
Matt. 9:6. On two or three sides of the 
room was a bench, generally a foot high 
and three feet broad, covered with a 
stuffed cushion. This bench, called the 




Asiatic Beds. (From Fellows's "Asia Minor.") 

divan, was used for both lying and sit- 
ting upon ; but at one end of the room 
it was more elevated, and this was the 
usual place of sleeping. 2 Kgs. 1:4; 
20 : 2 ; Ps. 132 : 3 ; Am. 3 : 12. But 
besides the divan, we find mention of 
bedsteads made of wood, ivory, Am. 

6:4, or other materials. Deut. 3:11. 
This knowledge of the construction of 
Eastern beds relieves of difficulty such 
passages as Ex. 8:3; 2 Sam. 4 : 5-7; 
Ps. 6 : 6 ; Mark 4 : 21. 

Some part of the day-clothing usually 
served for bedclothes. Ex. 22 : 26, 27 ; 
Deut. 24: 12, 13. The Orientals do not 
generally undress before lying down foi 
the night, but are content to take off the 
upper part of their clothing and un- 
loose their girdle. 

Bedsteads were used by the ancient 
Egyptians, as we know from the monu- 
ments. They also used wooden pil- 
lows of the same style as are now in 
use in Japan. 

The pillow of the Hebrews was proba- 
bly a goat-skin stuffed with some soft sub- 
stance, since one of this sort is common 
to-day in Palestine. The pillow meant 
in Mark 4 : 38 was a rower's cushion. It 
has been conjectured that Saul and Eli- 
jah may have used their skin water- 
bottles, " a cruse of water," for the pur- 
pose of a bolster. 1 Sam. 26 : 12 ; 1 Kgs. 
19 : 6, margin. 

BE 'DAD (part), the father of 
Hadad, king of Edom. Gen. 36 : 35 ; 1 
Chr. 1 : 46. 

BEDAN (servile). 1. In 1 Sam. 
12 : 11 the name of this judge stands 
between Jerubbael, or Gideon, and 
Jephthah, but probably it is a copyist's 
error for Barak, as several of the ver- 
sions give it. The difference in Hebrew 
is not great. 

2. A Manassite. 1 Chr. 7:17. 

BEDEFAH (servant of Jehovah), 
one who had married a foreign wife. 
Ezr. 10 : 35. 

BEE. Deut. 1 : 44. The honey- 
bee is probably the only species alluded 
to in the Bible. They must have been 
very numerous in Canaan, as honey was 
a common article of food, 1 Kgs. 14 : 3 ; 
Ps. 81:16; Song Sol. 5:1; Isa. 7 : 15, 
and commerce. Eze. 27 : 17. 

The disposition of bees to take ven- 
geance on any one who disturbs their 
hive is alluded to in Ps. 118 : 12. 

Isa. 7:18 doubtless finds its explana- 
tion "in the custom of the people in the 
East of attracting the attention of any 
one by a significant hiss, or rather hist." 
Zeeh. 10:8. 

We read. Jud. 14 : 8, that "after a 
time," probably many days, Samson re- 



turned to the carcass of the Hon he had 
slain, and saw bees and honey therein. 
" If any one here represents to himself 
a corrupt and putrid carcass, the occur- 
rence ceases to have any true similitude, 
for it is well known that in these coun- 
tries, at certain seasons of the year, the 
heat will in the course of twenty-four 
hours so completely dry up the moist- 
ure of dead camels, and that, without 
their undergoing decomposition, their 
bodies long remain like mummies, un- 
altered and entirely free from offensive 
odor." — (Ed in <i tut. 

Wild bees often deposited their honey 
in hollow trees or the clefts of rocks. Ps. 
81 : 16; 1 Sam. 14 : 25-27. See Honey. 

BEELIADA {Baal knows), a son 
of David, 1 Chr. 14 : 7 : called Eliada in 

2 Sam. 5: 16; 1 Chr. 3 

BUB. The name 
properly should be 
Beelaebitl in all the 
N. T. passages. 
Matt. 10 : 25; 12 : , 
24, 27 ; Mark 3 : 22 ; 
Luke 11:15, 18, 19. \ 
But this is, some say, 
merely because to the 
Greek tongue the lat- 
ter form was easier. 
This name was in 
common use among ^ 
the Jews in Christ's * 
day as a title of Sa- 
tan as the "prince 
of the demons." It 
means "lord of the 
house." Those who 
regard Beelzebul as a - 
corruption of Baal- 
zebub [lord of flies), 
the god of the Ekron- 


BE'ER-E'LIM (well of heroes). 
Isa. 15: 8. See Beer, 1. 

BEE'RI (the well-man). 1. The 
father of Judith, one of Esau's wives. 
Gen. 26:34. 

2. The father of Hosea the prophet. 
Hos. 1:1. 

BE'ER-L AHAF-ROI (< retfo/^e 
living), a fountain in the wilderness, 
south-west of Beer-sheba, Gen. 16 : 7, 
14 ; 24 : 62 ; 25 : 1 1 ; perhaps Mnweileh; 
not the same as that in Gen. 21 : 19. 

BEE'ROTH (wells), one of four 
Hivite cities, Josh. 9:17; now el-Bireh, 
10 miles north of Jerusalem. See Beer, 2. 

DREN OF JAAKAIV. Deut. 10 : 6. 
Same as Bene-jaakan, Num. 33:31; 
possibly el-Mayin, 60 miles west of 
Mount Hor. 

Well at Beer-sheba. (From Palmer's 

ites, 2 Kgs. 1 : 3, worshipped as the 
patron deity of medicine, interpret it 
"lord of dung" or "filth," and explain 
the change in the name by the contempt 
of the Jews. 

BE'ER (well). 1. Near the Arnon, 
Num. 21:16,18: probably Beer-elim. 

2. A town in Judah, Jud. 9:21; proba- 
bly el-Bireh, 10 miles north of Jerusalem. 

BEE'RA (a ice!/.), an Asherite. 1 
Chr. 7:37. 

BEE'RAH (a well), a Reubcnitish 
prince taken captive by Tiglath-pileser. 
1 Chr. 5:6. 


Desert of the Exodus.") 


SHEBA (irefl of seven, or of oath), a 
city on the southern border of Canaan, 
25 miles south-west of Hebron, on a line 
between the uplands and the desert. It 
is named 33 times in the Bible; only 
in the 0. T. 

Bistort/. — It was first named by Abra- 
ham, Gen. 21 : 31-33, who lived there, 
22 : 19; was re-named by Isaac, Gen. 26 : 
33, and was then a city; visited by Ja- 
cob. 28 : 10; 46 : 1; given to Judah, 
Josh. 15:28; afterward to Simeon, 19 : 
2; 1 Chr. 4:28; a place where judges 



held court, 1 Sam. 8:2; often noted as 
the southern limit of Canaan, as Dan 
was the northern — " Dan even to Beer- 
sheba," Jud. 20 : 1 ; 1 Sam. 3 : 20 ; 2 Sam. 
3:10; 17 : 11 ; 1 Kgs. 4 : 25 ; 1 Chr. 21 : 
2, etc. ; a place of idolatrous worship, 
Am. 5:5; 8 : 14 ; was peopled after 
the Captivity, Neh. 11 : 30 ; was a city in 
Jerome's time ; now in ruins, but retains 
its ancient name, Bir-es-seba. 

Wells and Ruins. — There are two large 
wells 300 feet apart, and five smaller 
ones some distance down the valley. 
The larger of the two chief wells is 
12£ feet in diameter and 38 to 45 feet 
deep to the water, 16 feet of the lower 
portion being dug into solid rock, and 
the portion above this rock walled up 
with square hewn stones, hard as mar- 
ble. The ropes of water-drawers for 
4000 years have worn over 140 furrows 
in the face of the stones, some of them 

4 inches deep. The second well is 
smaller, being only about 

5 feet in diameter and 42 
feet deep. Around the 
wells are 10 or 12 stone 
troughs, of oblong and ir- 
regular shape, for the use 
of cattle. All day long 
Arab herdsmen and wo- 
men are drawing water in 
skins to fill the troughs. 
as in the days of Abraham 
and Isaac. 

{house of Astarte), a citv 
of Bashan, Josh. 21 : 27: 
same as Ashtaroth, 1 Chr. 

BEETLE. Lev. 11. 
21, 22. Beetles have not 
"legs above their feet to 
leap withal upon the 
earth," neither are they 
ever eaten by man. From the connec- 
tion, the word probably indicates an in- 
sect of the Locust family, which see. 
The Egyptians worshipped the beetle 
(scarabseus) as a symbol of fertility and 

BEEVES. Lev. 22: 19. As.usedin 
the Bible, this word is synonymous with 
"cattle," in its modern use. As they di- 
vide the hoof, and also chew the cud, they 
were reckoned amon» clean animals. 

poor among the Hebrews were much fa- 

vored. They were allowed to glean in 
the fields, and to gather whatever the 
land produced in the year in which it 
was not tilled. Lev. 19 : 10; 25 : 5, 6; 
Deut. 24 : 19. They were also invited to 
feasts. Deut. 14 : 29 and 26 : 12. The Is- 
raelite could not be an absolute pauper. 
His land was inalienable, except for a 
certain term, when it reverted to him 
or his posterity. And if this resource 
were insufficient, he could pledge the 
services of himself and family for a 
valuable sum. Those who were indi- 
gent through bodily infirmities were 
usually taken care of by their kindred. 
A beggar was sometimes seen, however, 
and was regarded and abhorred as a 
vagabond. Ps. 109 : 10. In later 
times they were accustomed, it would 
seem, to have a fixed place at the 
corners of the streets, Mark 10 : 46, or 
at the gates of the temple, Acts 3 : 2, or 
of private houses. Luke 16 : 20. 

Hippopotamus. (After Wood. "Animal Kingdom.") 

BEHEMOTH. Job 40 : 15-24. 
The word elsewhere translated beasts — 
i. e. great beasts — is here given in its 
Hebrew form. Evidently this is right, 
for Job plainly refers to a beast pre- 
eminently great. The animal described 
as the behemoth in the passage above 
cited was of prodigious size and 
strength, and corresponds better with 
the river-horse of Africa (Hippopota- 
mus amph'bins), than with any other 
known animal. It is very probable 
that this creature, though not now 



found in Palestine, may once have in- 
habited the rivers of Western Asia. 

The average length of the male hip- 
popotamus (including a tail about 1 foot 
long) is 14 feet. His girth is nearly the 
same, and his height at the shoulder is 
5 or 6 feet. The huge, uncouth body of 
the animal is supported by short, stout 
limbs with four toes, each of which toes 
has a small hoof. The aperture of his 
mouth is 2 feet broad, and his tusks 
are more than a foot long. Cutting- 
teeth, which retain their sharpness by 
the same wonderful provision seen in 
the squirrel, enable him to mow as 
with a scythe the coarse, tough plants, 
aquatic roots, and grasses which are 
his food. A stomach capable of con- 
taining 5 or 6 bushels of vegetable mat- 
ter prepares him to devour enormous 
quantities of herbage along river-mar- 
gins and prove sadly destructive to 
neighboring crops. 

Though clumsy on the land, in the 
water the movements of the hippo- 
potamus are often graceful and rap- 
id. For the most part, he loves to 
lie "in the covert of the reeds and 
fens," or float in the water with only 
his nostrils visible. By way of exer- 
cise, he walks at the bottom of the 
river or climbs the neighboring hill- 
sides ("mountains" of the Bible). 

" The old commentators have made 
all sorts of conjectures on the behe- 
moth. Some have maintained it was 
the elephant, others the wild buffalo, 
others the mammoth or some extinct 
pachyderm, others that it is a poet- 
ical description of these large crea- 
tures generally. But it appears clear 
that the description suits the hippo- 
potamus exactly, and it alone: and 
this description has been adopted by 
Bochart and most modern critics. We 
know from the Egyptian monuments 
that this huge animal was hunted 
with spears : and noting its place 
in the description of the marvels of 
creation in Job, just be f ore the levia- 
than or crocodile, the sequence seems 
to be that, powerful and terrible as is 
the hippopotamus, yet it may some- 
times be taken with spears : 'But what 
canst thou do with the crfleodile? Will 
spears and barbs avail against him ?' " — 

BE'KAH. See Measures. 

BEL. See Baal. 

BE'LA (a swallowing up, or destruc- 
tion). 1. A king of Edom, eight gen- 
erations before Saul. Gen. 36 : 32, 33 ; 
1 Chr. 1 : 43, 44. 

2. Benjamin's eldest son. Num. 26 : 
38-40 ; 1 Chr. 7 : 6, 7 ; 8 : 1-3. In Gen. 
46:21 called Belah. 

3. A Reubenite. 1 Chr. 5 : 8. 

BE 'Li A (swallowing, or destruction). 
Gen. 14:2, 8. See Zoar. 

BE'LAITES. The descendants 
of Bela are so called in Num. 26 : 38. 

BE'LIAL (worthlessness). This 
word is applied by the sacred writers to 
such lewd, profligate, and vile persons 
as seem to regard neither God nor man. 
Deut. 13:13; Jud. 19:22, and 1 Sam. 
2:12. Hence the question of the apos- 
tle, 2 Cor. 6:15, to the citizens of Cor- 
inth, which was remarkable for its lewd- 
ness and profligacy, has great force : 
" What concord hath Christ with Be- 
lial," the prince of licentiousness and 
corruption ? 

BELIEVE'. See Faith. 

BELL. Bells were attached to the 
bottom of the high priest's robe, that 
he might be heard when he went into or 
came out of the holy place. Ex. 28 : 33, 
35. Many of the Eastern kings and 
nobles wear bells in the same manner at 
this day, not only for ornament, but to 
give notice of their approach. The 
Arabian ladies in the roj'al presence 
have little gold bells fastened to their 
legs, necks, and elbows, which make an 
agreeable sound when they dance. The 
"bells of the horses" mentioned in 
Zech. 14 : 20 were concave or flat pieces 
of brass, still used in the East as orna- 
ments upon animals. 

BELLOWS. The word occurs 
once only in the Authorized Version, 
Jer. 6 : 29, but the article must have 
been known before Moses's day, since 
without them smelting ores would be 
impossible. It is probable that the 
Jews had bellows of the same general 
appearance as the Egyptians', which 
are thus described by Wilkinson : " They 
consisted of a leather bag secured and 
fitted into a frame, from which a long 
pipe extended for carrying the wind to 
the fire. They were worked by the feet, 
the operator standing upon them, with 
one under each foot, and pressing them 
alternately while he pulled up each ex- 



hausted skin with a string he held in 
his hand." The modern Palestinian 
bellows are even simpler, being a mere 
skin bag having a pipe fastened at one 

Egyptian Bellows. (After Cailliard.) 

end : it is pressed between two boards, 
and thus the air expelled. 

BELSHAZZAR (Bel's prince, ox 
may Bel protect the king !) was the son or 
grandson of Nebuchadnezzar, and the 
last king of Babylon. Dan. 5: 1,18. Dur- 
ing the siege of the city of Babylon he 
gave a sumptuous entertainment to his 
courtiers, and impiously made use of 
the temple-furniture (of which Nebu- 
chadnezzar had plundered the temple at 
Jerusalem) as drinking-vessels. In the 
midst of the festivities, to the terror of 
the king, a hand miraculously appeared 
to be writing upon the wall : Mene, 
Mene, Tekel, Upharsin. Daniel was 
called in to explain the mystery, which, 
thus interpreted, proved to be a proph- 
ecy of the king's death and the king- 
dom's overthrow, which took place in 
the course of the succeeding night, when 
Darius the Median captured the city. 
Dan. 5:25-31. 

or Bel protect his life !), the name given 
to the prophet Daniel at the court of 
Nebuchadnezzar. Dan. 1 : 7. See Dan- 

BEN (son), a poi-ter, a Levite, in 
David's time. 1 Chr. 15: 18. 

BENA IAH {whom Jehovah hath 
built up). 1. Son of Jehoiada, the chief 
priest, and distinguished for his enter- 
prise and bravery on several occasions. 
2 Sam. 23 : 20-23. He was an adherent 
of Solomon against the pretensions of 
Adonijah, 1 Kgs. 1 : 36, and after put- 
ting Joab to death succeeded to the com- 
mand of the army. 1 Kgs. 2 : 29-35. 

2. One of David's warriors. 2 Sam. 
23 : 30 ; 1 Chr. 11 : 31 ; 27 : 14. 

3. A Simeonite chief. 1 Chr. 4: 36. 

4. A musical Levite in David's day. 
1 Chr. 15 : 18, 20 ; 16 : 5. 

5. A priest in David's reign. 1 Chr. 
15:24: 16:6. 

6. A Levite. 2 Chr. 20 : 14. 

7. A Levite in Hezekiah's day. 2 Chr. 

8. 9, 10, 11. Four persons who had 
foreign wives. Ezr. 10 : 25, 30, 35, 43. 

12. The father of Pelatiah. Eze. 11 : 
1, 13. 

BEN-AM'MI (son of my people), 
the son of Lot by his youngest daughter, 
and the progenitor of the Ammonites. 
Gen. 19 : 38. 

BEN'E-BE'RAK (son of light- 
ning), a city of Dan, Josh. 19 : 45, prob- 
ably lb n Ibrak, near el- Yehudizeh. 

BENEFACTORS was a title 
given to several rulers, particularly 
to two of the Egyptian Ptolemies, who 
are called accordingly in the Greek form 
Euergetes. Hence our Lord's remark, 
Luke 22 : 25. It is analogous to our 
title " Excellency." 

BENE-JAAKAN (children of 
Jaakan), a tribe probably descended 
from a grandson of Seir the Horite, and 
which gave a name to wells where Is- 
rael encamped, Num. 33:31,32; same 
as Beeroth, and as the wells at el- 
Mayin, 60 miles west of Mount Hor. 

BEN-HA'DAD (son, i. e. worship- 
per, of Hadad). 1. King of Damas- 
cus in the time of Asa, king of Judah, 
with whom he formed an alliance 
against Baasha, king of Israel. 1 Kgs. 
15 : 18. See Asa, Baasha. 

2. King of Damascus, and a son of 
the preceding. 1 Kgs. 20 : 1. He was 
engaged in numerous wars with Israel, 
and once was taken prisoner. 1 Kgs. 
20. See Ahab. Afterward he declared 
war against Jehoram, king of Israel, 
but the prophet Elisha disclosed his 
plans so accurately that Jehoram was 
able to defeat them. 2 Kgs. 6 : 8-33. 
It was Ben-hadad who sent Naaman to 
Elisha. 2 Kgs. 5. See Elisha. 

In the siege of Samaria, which sub- 
sequently took place, that city was 
reduced to "the greatest extremity. 
The Syrian army, under Ben-hadad, 
was lying around the walls, when in 
the course of the night they were led to 



conceive that they heard the noise of an 
immense army in motion. Supposing 
that the city had been succored by 
supplies of men and provisions from 
abroad, and terrified with the fancied 
tumult of their approach, the Syrians 
just at daybreak fled for their lives, 
leaving their camp, with all their horses, 
asses, provisions, utensils, etc., just as 
they were, and their garments and ves- 
sels scattered all along the road by 
which they had fled. The citizens of 
Samaria were thus unexpectedly relieved 
and supplied with an abundance of 

The next year, Ben-hadad, being sick, 
sent Hazael to inquire of the prophet 
Elisha whether he would recover ; and 
he received for answer that the king 
might certainly recover, and yet would 
surely die. Hazael also was informed 
by the prophet that he would be ele- 
vated to the throne of Syria, and would 
be guilty of enormous wickedness. The 
very next day Ben-hadad was murdered, 
and Hazael became king of Syria. 2 
Kgs. 8:15. See Hazael. 

Various successful campaigns against 
Ben-hadad II. are mentioned upon the 
tablets of the Assyrian king, Shalma- 
neser II., b. c. 858-823. Ben-hadad, who 
is called Ben-hadar, was in league with 
Ahab when the first campaign took 
place, as the Bible says. 1 Kgs. 20: 34. 

3. Another person of the same name, 
and son of Hazael. 2 Kgs. 13:3. He 
suffered several defeats from the hand 
of Jehoash, king of Israel, and was 
compelled to relinquish all the land of 
Israel which his father, Hazael, had 
obtained in conquest. 2 Kgs. 13 : 25. 

BEN'-HA'IL (son of the host, i. e. 
warrior), one of the "princes" whom 
Jehoshaphat sent to teach the people 
the law. 2 Chr. 17 : 7. 

BEN'-HANAN (son of one gra- 
cious), a Judite. 1 Chr. 4:20. 

BEN'INU (our son), a Levite who 
sealed the covenant. Neh. 10 : 13. 

BEN'- JAMIN (son of the right hand, 
i. e. of fortune). 1. The youngest son of 
Jacob and Rachel. His mother died im- 
mediately after his birth, which took 
place near Bethlehem when the family 
were on their journey from Padan-aram 
to Canaan. With her dying breath she 
called him Ben-oni (the son of my sor- 
row), but his father gave him the name 

he bore. Gen. 35 : 16-18. The relation 
between him and Jacoli was ever most 
tender, particularly after Joseph's sup- 
posed death. We know, however, noth- 
ing about him personally. The tribe 
J formed from his descendants exhibited 
I the traits of courage, cunning, and am- 
1 bition foretold by the dying Jacob. Gen. 
49 : 27. It had its portion of the 
Promised Land adjoining Judah ; and 
when ten of the tribes revolted, Benja- 
min continued steadfast in its attach- 
ment to Judah, and formed a part of 
that kingdom. 1 Kgs. 12 : 17, 23. Saul, 
the first king, and Paul were descendants 
of this tribe. 1 Sam. 10 : 21 ; Phil. 3 : 5. 

2. A Benjamite chief. 1 Chr. 7:10. 

3. One who had a foreign wife. Ezr. 
I 10 : 32. 

BEN' JAMIN (son of the rig ht hand), 
EAND OF, the portion of Canaan 
between Ephraim, the Jordan, Judah, 
and Pan, containing 26 cities, including 
Jerusalem and the famous passes of 
! Michmash and Beth-horon. See Josh. 
18 : 11-28. It was about 25 miles long 
by 12 wide. 

Physical Features. — This territory 
i was a hilly country, its general level be- 
ing about 2000 feet above the Mediter- 
ranean and 3000 feet above the Jordan 
valley. It includes mountains broken 
by deep ravines. For productions, etc., 
see Canaan, Palestine, and Judah. 

Some of the most important events 
in Scripture history took place in this 
territory, which will be noticed under 
the kings of Judah. 

BE'NO (his son), a Levite. 1 Chr. 
24:26, 27. 

BEN-O'NI. See Benjamin. 

BEN-ZO'HETH {son of Zoheth), 
a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr. 4:20. 

BE'ON. Num. 32 : 3. See Baal- 
• Meox. 

BE'OR (torch). 1. The father of 
Bela, king of Edom. Gen. 36 : 32 ; 1 
Chr. 1 : 43. 

2. The father of Balaam, Num. 22 : 
5, etc. ; called Bosor in 2 Pet. 2 : 15. 

BE'RA (son of evil ), king of 
Sodom. Gen. 14:2. 

BER'ACHAH (blessing), a Ben- 
jamite leader who joined David. 1 
Chr. 12 : 3. 

BER'ACHAH, (blessing), VAL- 
LEY OF, where Jehoshaphat cele- 
brated the victory over the Moabites, 



2 Chr. 20 : 26 ; now Wady Breiktit, 
west of Tekua (Tekoa), and about 8 
miles south-west of Bethlehem. 

BERACHI'AH {whom Jehovah 
hath blessed), the father of Asaph. 1 
Chr. 6 : 39. 

BERAl'AH (wJtom Jehovah cre- 
ated), a Benjamite chief. 1 Chr. 8 : 21. 

BERE'A, a city of Macedonia, 
Acts 17 : 10-13, on the eastern side of 
the Olympian Mountains ; now Verria, 
with a population of about 6000, though 
some incorrectly give 20,000. 

BERECHI'AH (whom Jehovah 
hath blessed). 1. One of David's pos- 
terity. 1 Chr. 3 : 20. 

2. A Levite. 1 Chr. 9 : 16. 

3. The father of Asaph, also called 
Berachiah. 1 Chr. 15 : 17. 

4. A doorkeeper for the ark. 1 Chr. 

15 : 23. 

5. An Ephraimite in the days of 
Ahaz. 2 Chr. 28:12. 

6. The father of a builder of the wall. 
Neh. 3:4, 30; 6:18. 

7. The father of Zechariah. Zech. 
1 : 1, 7. 

BE'RED (hail), a place in southern 
Palestine, near the well Lahai-roi. Gen. 

16 : 14. Grove suggests El-Khulasah, 
12 miles south of Beer-sheba; Conder 
proposes Bereid. 

BERENFCE. See Bernice. 

BE'RI (well), an Asherite chieftain. 
1 Chr. 7:36. 

BERI'AH (in evil, or a gift). 1. 
A son of Asher. Gen. 46 : 17 ; Num. 
26 : 44, 45 ; 1 Chr. 7 : 30, 31. 

2. A son of Ephraim. 1 Chr. 7 : 23. 

3. A Benjamite chief. 1 Chr. 8 : 13, 16. 

4. A Levite. 1 Chr. 23:10, 11. 
BERI'ITES, the descendants of 

Beriah, 1. Num. 26:44. 

BE RITES, THE (the people of 
the wells), a family mentioned in 2 Sam. 
20 : 14, but it is not known who they 

BE'RITH (a covenant). Jud. 9 : 46. 
See Baal-berith. 

(victorious), was the eldest daughter 
of Agrippa, surnamed the Great, and 
sister to the younger Agrippa, kings of 
the Jews. Acts 25 : 13, 23 ; 26 : 30. 
Her first husband was her uncle Her- 
od, the king of Chalcis. She appears 
in the Acts in connection with her 
brother, Agrippa II., with whom she 

lived in incestuous intercourse after 
Herod's death, a. d. 48. To put an 
end to the scandal she married Po- 
lemo, king of Cilicia, whom she per- 
suaded to be 
The bond was 
soon dis- 
solved, and 
she returned 
to her broth- 
er. Subse- 
quently, so 
remark able 
were her pow- 

lernice. (On a Coin of Po- 

lemo II.) 
Sernice married PolemoII., king 

ers of attrac- 
tion, and so 
well pre- 

of a part of Cilicia. The coin was served her 
struck in 52 a.d., about the time , , ,1 , 

when Paul was at Corinth with Deauty, tnat 
Aquila and Priscilla. sne became 

mistress to both Vespasian and his son 

2 Kgs. 20 : 12. See Merodach-bala- 



THAI (my wells), one in the north 
of Palestine, Eze. 47 : 16, the other in 
the same region, 2 Sam. 8:8. The two 
may be the same, and possibly modern 
Beirut, but more probably farther east, 
at Brithen or Bretdn, about 6 miles 
south-west of Baalbec. 

BERYL. Ex. 28 : 20. By the 
Hebrew word " tarshish " modern yel- 
low topaz is supposed to be meant. 
This designation seems to indicate 
the place from which it was brought. 
Beryl, in the N. T., Rev. 21 : 20, is 
probably a different stone, and very like- 
ly the mineral now so called, which is 
found in Palestine, but was less abun- 
dant and more precious in ancient 
times than in modern. It is usually 
of a light-green color and considerably 

BE'SAI (sword, or conqueror), an 
ancestor to some of the Nethinim. Ezr. 
2:49; Neh. 7:52. 

BESODE'IAH (in the secret of 
Jehovah), the father of a repairer of 
the wall. Neh. 3 : 6. 

BESOM. Isa. 14:23. A broom 
made of twigs. 

BE'SOR. 1 Sam. 30 : 9-21. A tor- 
rent-bed in the south of Judah ; proba- 
bly Wady Sheriah, south of Gaza. 



BE'TAH (confidence). 2 Sam. 8 : 
S. Called Tibhath. I Uhr. 18: 8: possi- 
bly Tibhuth, between Aleppo and Eu- 

BE'TEN. Josh. 19 : 25. A town of 
Asher, east of Ptoleinais ; now el Baneh. 

BETH -ABABA {house of the 
ford). 9 place beyond Jordan. John 1 : 
28. Some of the best manuscripts read j 
Bethany same as Beth-abara ; possi- 
bly at Beth-nimrah, or Nimrin; or, as 
Conder thinks, at 'Abarak: a leading 
ford of the Jordan on the road to Gil- 

BETH'-A'NATH (house of an- 
swer), a place in Naphtali, Josh. 19 : 38 ; 

Jnd. 1:33; possibly at Hariin, near 
Diblathaim; or at 'Ainatha. 
BETH-ANOTH (house of 

echo), a city of Judah, Josh. 15:59; 
perhaps Beit 'Ainun, 3 miles north- 
east of Hebron. 

BETH' ANY (house of dates, or 
of misery). 1. A village on the eastern 
slope of Mount Olivet, about 1£ to 2 
miles ("'15 furlongs") east of Jerusa- 
lem, John 11:18, toward Jericho; the 
home of Alary and Martha, whither 
Jesus often went. Matt. 21:17; Mark 
11:11. 12. It was the home of Simon, 
Mark 14 : 3 ; the place where Lazarus 
was raised from the dead. John 11:18- 

Bethany. (After Photographs.) 

44; and near it Jesus ascended to 
heaven. Luke 24 : 50 ; named only in 
the Gospels, and there elev-n times. 

Pretext Appearance. — Three paths 
lead from Jerusalem to Bethany — the 
first over Olivet, north of its summit: 
the third branches from the first, below 
Gethsemane, over the southern slope of 
Olivet: the second lies between these 
two. " The name, which signifies ' house 
of poverty.' was probably suggested by 
its solitary and remote situation, bor- 
dering on the desert, or by the fact that 
lepers, who are popularly called the 
'poor,' once sought an asylum here." 
Mark 14 : 3. — Baf.df.kf.k's Handbook. 

haml't of about 20 rude stone houses 
inhabited by Moslems. The water is 
good, and olive, fig. almond, and carob 
trees abound. The reputed sites of 
Simon's house and that of Mary, 
also "the tower" and the tomb of Laz- 
arus, are still pointed out. A church 
stands over the tomb. Bethany is now 
called el-Az<rii/eh, " place of Lazarus." 
See Schaff's Bible Lands, p. 276. 

2. Some manuscripts read Bethany 
for Bethabara in John 1 : 28. See Bimi- 

BETH-AR'ABAH (house of 

the plain), a city of Judah in the wil- 
derness. Josh. 15 : 6, 61 ; counted as a 

The town is now a poor mountain- | city of Benjamin, Josh. 18 : 22 : called 
8 113 



Arabah in Josh. 18 : 18, in the valley 
of the Jordan near the Dead Sea. 

BETH-ARAM {house of height), 
a town of Gad in the valley, Josh. 13 : 
27 ; perhaps same as Beth-haran. 
Num. 32 : 36; Merrill locates it at er- 
Eamn, on the Shittim plain. 

BETH-AR'BEL {house of God's 
court, or ambush), probably Arbela or 
Irbid, between Tiberias and Sepphoris. 
Hos. 10:14. 

BE fH-ATEN {house of naught, 
or idols), east of Bethel, Josh. 7:2; 

18 : 12 : 1 Sam. 13 : 5 ; 14 : 23 ; used as 
a name for Bethel, " house of God ;" 
changed to Beth-aven, " house of idols." 
Hos.4:15; 5:8; 10:5. 

BETH- AZ'MAVETH, a town 
in Benjamin : called Azmaveth, Neh. 7 : 
28 ; 12 : 29 ; Ezr. 2 : 21; perhaps Hiz- 
meh, south-east of Jeba. 

13 : 17. See Baal-meox. 

BETH - BA'RAH. Jud. 7 : 24. 
See Beth-abara. 

BETH'-BIR'EI (house of my cre- 
ation), a town of Simeon, 1 Chr. 4 : 31 ; 
probably same as Beth-lebaoth and Le- 
baoth, Josh. 19 : 6 ; 15 : 32, in the south 
of Palestine; probably Bireh. 

BETH'- CAR (house of lambs), a 
place west of Mizpeh. 1 Sam. 7 : 1. Con- 
der locates it at 'A in Kdrim. 

1. A town in Judah, near Philistia. 
Josh. 15:41. Perhaps at Beit Dejan. 

2. A place in Asher. Josh. 19 : 27. 
Ganneau locates it at Deijun, south- 
west of Ekron ; Conder, at Tell D'auk. 

of fig-cakes), a town of Moab ; same as 
Almon-diblathaim. Jer. 48 : 22 ; Num. 
33 : 16. 

BETHEL (house of God). 1. A 
town about 12 miles north of Jerusalem. 

History. — Visited by Abraham, Gen. 
12 : 8 ; 13 : 3 ; marked by Jacob after his 
vision of the ladder, Gen. 28 : 11-19; 
31 : 13 ; dwelling-place of Jacob, Gen. 
35 : 1-8 ; name applied to Luz, Jud. 1 : 
22, 23 ; before this the city and the altai - - 
site appear to have had different names, 
see Josh. 16 : 2 : Jud. 1 : 22, 23 : Gen. 28 : 

19 ; Samuel judged there, 1 Sam. 7:16; 
a place of calf-worship, 1 Kgs. 12 : 29; 
2 Kgs. 10 : 29 ; called Beth-aven— i. e. 
"house of idols," Hos. 10 : 5, 8 : taken 
by Judah, 2 Chr. 13 : 19 ; home of 


prophets, 2 Kgs. 2 : 2, 3 ; of priests, 2 
Kgs. 17:28; 23:15-17; was desolate, 
Am. 3 : 14; 5 : 5, 6 ; settled by Benja- 
mites after the Captivity, Neh. 11 : 31 ; 
named about seventy times in the 0. T. ; 
not noticed in the N. T. ; now called 
Beitin (9 miles south of Shiloh), a vil- 
lage of about 25 Moslem hovels, stand- 
ing amid ruins which cover about 4 
aci'es. Among the ruins is a Greek 
church, which appears to have been 
built out of the ruins of an older, and 
probably a Jewish, edifice. There are 
also the remains of a tower and a very 
large cistern. From the top of this 
ruined tower the Mount of Olives is 
distinctly visible, and Jewish tradition 
asserts, no doubt truthfully, that from 
the rival temple of Jeroboam idol- 
priests could look down upon the tem- 
ple of Solomon at Jerusalem. The spot 
is hallowed by Jacob's dream of a lad- 
der which reached from earth to hea- 
ven, and caused him to exclaim, " How 
dreadful is this place ! this is none other 
but the house of God, and this is the 
gate of heaven." Gen. 28 : 17. 

2. A town in the south of Judah ; 
same as Chesil, Bethul, and Bethuel. 
Josh. 12:16; 15 : 30 ; 19:4; 1 Chr. 4 : 
BO. Either Beit Aula, or El-Khulasah. 

3. Mount Bethel, Josh. 16 : 1 ; 1 Sam. 
13 : 2, a hilly district near Bethel. 

BETH-EMEK (house of the val- 
ley), a town of Asher, Josh. 19 : 27 : pos- 
sibly A mkah, 8 miles north-east of Akka. 

TAINS OF. Song Sol. 2 : 17. Prob- 
ablv near the Lebanon range. 

BE T HE S DA (house of mercy, or 
flowing water), a pool in Jerusalem near 
the sheep-gate or market, John 5: 2-9; 
tradition identifies it with the modern 
pool Birket-Israil, 360 feet long, 120 
feet wide, and 80 feet deep, half filled 
with rubbish. Capt. Warren found an 
aqueduct leading from it, probably into 
the Kedron. Robinson, with more prob- 
ability, regards Bethesda as identical 
with the intermittent Pool of the Vir- 
gin, outside of the city, above the Pool 
of Siloara. 

BETH-E'ZEL (home of firm root). 
Mic. 1:11. Speaker's Commentary iden- 
tifies it with Azal, near Jerusalem. 

BETH-GA'DER (house of the 
ioall), possibly a place in Judah. 1 Chr. 
11 : 51; now Jedur. See Geder. 



Traditional Pool of Bethesda. (Birket- Isruil. After a Photograph by Bonfils.) 

BETH-GA'JIUL. {house of camel). 
a town of Moab, Jer. 48 : 23: perhaps 
Um-el-Jemal, near Bozrah, an unwalled 
town, having some of the most remark- 
able ruins in that country, houses, streets, 
walls, and gates deserted, but in perfect 
preservation. See Jer. 48 : 21-25. 
Grove, however, thinks Jemul too far 
north-east to be Gamut. 

BETH-GILGAL. Neb. 12 : 29. 
Same as Gilgal. near Bethel. 

BETH-HAC'CEREM {house of 
th<- vine), a place near Tekoa, Jer. 6:1; 
Neh. 3 : 14: probably the Frank Moun- 
tain. 4 miles south-east of Bethlehem. 

BETH-HARAN. See Beth- 


LAH ( pnrtridge-houne), a town of Ben- 
jamin, Josh. 15 : 6j 18 : 19, 21 ; now 
'A >'» Hajla, between Jericho and the 

BETH-HO'RON {house of the 
ran-), the name of two places, the " Up- 
per" and "Nether" Betb-horon, Josh. 
16 : •">, 5, about 3 miles apart, on the 
opposite sides of a ravine or steep pass 
— the Thermopylae of Palestine — on the 
road from Jerusalem to the seacoast. 
The "Nether" or lower town was the 
most important: now Beit Ur et-Tahta. 
The Upper Beth-horon is now Beit Ur 


JESHIMOTH {house of wastes), a 
town of Moab. Num. 33 : 49 ; Josh. 12 : 
3 : 13 : 20 ; Eze. 25 : 9. Schwarz places 
it at Beth-Jisimuth, north-east of the Dead 
Sea; Merrill, at Ain Suweimeh ; Tris- 
tram, at er- Rama, 5 miles north-east from 
the mouth of the Jordan. 

BETH-LEB'AOTH {house of 
lionesses). See Beth-birei. 

BETHLEHEM {house of bread). 
1. A town in the " hill-country," about 6 
miles south of Jerusalem, situated on a 
narrow ridge running eastward, which 
breaks down in abrupt terraced slopes 
to the deep valleys below. The town is 
2527 feet above the sea. It is one of 
the oldest in Palestine. 

History. — It was Rachel's burial-place 
(still marked by a white mosque near the 
town), and called Ephrath. Gen. 35 : 19; 
the home of Naomi, Boaz, and Ruth, 
Ruth 1:19; birthplace of David, 1 Sam. 
17 : 12; burial-place of Joab's family, 2 
Sam. 2:32: taken by the Philistines, 
and had a noted well, 2 Sam. 23:14,15; 
fortified by Rehoboam, 2 Chr. 11:6; 
foretold as the birthplace of Christ, Mic. 
5 : 2 ; the birthplace of Jesus, Matt. 2:1; 
was visited by the shepherds, Luke 2: 
15-17, and by'the magi, Matt. 2. It is 
noticed over 40 times in the Bible. 

It has existed as a town for over 4000 
years. It was a small place until after 
the time of Christ; was improved and 



its walls rebuilt by Justinian ; had a 
famous church in A. D. 600 ; was de- 
stroyed by the Arabs, rebuilt by the 
Franks, again twice destroyed, A. d. 
1244 and in 1489 ; rebuilt within the 
last two centuries; now has about 5000 
inhabitants, nearly all nominally Chris- 
tians, mostly of the Greek Church. The 
women of Bethlehem, as also those of 
Nazareth (the two homes of Christ), 
are exceptionally beautiful, and demon- 
strate the superiority of Christian women 
over Moslem women. It is now called 

Beit-Lahm; is surrounded by nicely- 
kept terraces covered with vine, olive, 
and fig trees. The church of the Na- 
tivity, the oldest in Christendom, built 
in a. d. 330 by the empress Helena, 
stands over the grotto reputed to be 
the place of our Lord's birth, and is 
the joint property of the Greeks, Latins, 
and Armenians, who have separate con- 
vents adjoining it. The "plain of the 
Shepherds" is about a mile from the 
town. The so-called David's well is 
pointed out near the city. A massive col- 

Bethlehem. (From Original Photograph by Bonfils.) 

el, containing two small recesses. In the 
northernmost of these is a marble slab, on 
which a silver star marks the supposed 
spot of the Nativity. Hepworth Dixon 
( The Holy Land, 1865, ch. xiv.) not only 
accepts this cave as the birthplace of 
Jesus, but also tries to prove that it be- 
longed to Boaz and was the home of 
David. The tradition that Jesus was 
born in this cave is very old, and is 
first mentioned by Justin Martyr 
(about a. r>. 140), who was a native 
of Palestine. The precise place of 

umn stands upon the reputed spot where 
monkish legends say 20,000 martyred 
innocents were buried. The claim of 
these places as the true localities where 
the biblical events occurred rests wholly 
upon traditions covered with the accu- 
mulated rubbish of superstition, which 
render the identifications of small value. 
The chapel beneath the church, how- 
ever, was the study of St. Jerome, where 
he spent thirty years on his great work, 
the Latin version of the Bible, called 
the Vulgate, and which is still the stand- 
ard version in the Roman Church. The 

our Saviour's birth, as that of his 

"holy crypt," the reputed birthplace crucifixion, has been left in obscur 

of our Lord, is a cave in the solid rock, 
twenty feet beneath the great choir of 
the church. At the entrance of a long 
winding passage cut out of the lime- 
stone rock is an irregular-shaped chap- 

ty by a wise Providence. The greet- 
ing of Boaz to the reapers may still 
be heard in the fields of Bethlehem. 
The farmer now salutes his laborers 
with " The Lord be with you !" and 



they reply, as in the days of Ruth, " The 
Lord bless thee !" Ruth 2 : 4. 

2. A town in Zebulon, Josh. 19 : 15 ; 
now a poor village, Beit-Lahm, 6 miles 
west of Nazareth. 

20 : 14. 15. Same as Abel-beth-maa- 
chah, Abel-maim, and Abel; now Abel 
el-Kamh, a village north-west of Lake 
Merom. Grove supposes Maaehah 
was a petty Syrian kingdom north of 

of chariots), a town in the south of 
judah. Josh. 19 : 5: 1 Chr. 4 : 13. 
Rowland identifies it with el-Murtabeh, 
10 miles south-west of Beer-sheba. 

BETH- ME ON. See Baal- 


BETH-NIM'RAH (house of leop- 
ards), a fenced city east of the Jor- 
dan, Josh. 13 : 27 : Xuni. 32 : 3, 36 ; same 
as Nimrah, and the modern Nimrin, 
on the Jordan, above Jericho. Some 
would identify it also with Beth-abara. 

BETH-PA'LET {house of flight), 
a town in the south of Judah; same as 
Beth-phelet, Josh. 15 : 27 : Neh. 11 : 26 ; 
either modern el-Kuseifeh, near Mola- 
dah, or el -Horn. 

BETH-PAZ'ZEZ (house of dis- 
persion), in Issachar, Josh. 19: 21, west 
of the Sea of Galilee; possibly, but 
not probably, modern Beit-Jenu. 

BETH-PE'OR (temple of Peor), 
a place on Pisgah. Dent. 3 : 29 ; 4: 46 ; 
34 : fi : Josh. 13 : 20. See Pisgah. 

BETHPHAGE (hotise of green 
figs), a place near BeMianv. Matt. 21 : 
1 : Mark 11 : 1 : Luke 19 : 29, and possi- 
blv west of that place. 

pa 1. ft. 

BETH-RE'HOB (house of Re- 
hob), called Rehob. Num. 13 : 21 : 2 
Sam. 10 : 6, S; was near Laish, Jud. 18 : 
28; possibly Hunin, on the mountain 
west of the plain of Dan, and about 
1U00 feet above it. 

BETHSAIDA (house of fishing), 
a citv of Galilee, near Capernaum. 
John 12 : 21 ; Matt. 11 : 21. Many re- 
cent writers urge that there were two 
Bethsaidas. since the desert-place where 
the 5000 were fed belonged to " the city 
called Bethsaida." Luke 9:10. while 
after the miracle the disciples were 
to go before him unto the other side 

to Bethsaida, Mark 6 : 45, which it is 
said could not refer to the same 
I town. 

1. If there were two towns of this 
name, the first one, in Galilee, was on 
the west side of the lake. Robin- 
son, Grove, Porter, and others place 
it at Ain et-Tabighah, north of Khan 
Minyeh, others at Khan Minyeh. 

2. Bethsaida Julias, in Gaulanitis, on 
the eastern bank of the Jordan, near its 
entrance into the lake. 

But it seems quite unlikely that two 
cities in such close neighborhood should 
have borne the same name. Hence Dr. 
W. M. Thomson supposes that there was 
but one Bethsaida, which was built on 
both. sides of the Jordan, and places the 
site at A bu-Zany, where the Jordan emp- 
ties into the Lake of Galilee. The 
Sinaitic manuscript omits " belonging 
to a city called Bethsaida" in Luke 9 : 
10 ; hence, Wilson also holds that there 
; is no necessity for two Bethsaidas ; and 
this seems the more probable view. 
1 The eastern part was beautified by 
I Philip the tetrarch, and called Beth- 
i saida Julias (in honor of a daughter 
j of the emperor Augustus), to distin- 
i guish it from the western Bethsaida, in 
Galilee. — Schaff : Through Bible Lands, 
! p. 353. See Capernaum. 

BETH-SHEAN (house of quiet), 
a city 5 miles west of the Jordan, first 
in Issachar, but later in Manasseh. 
Josh. 17 : 11 : 1 Chr. 7 : 29. Saul's body 
was fastened to its walls, 1 Sam. 31 : 
10, 12; after the Captivity it was call- 
ed Scythopolis, and was a chief city 
of Decapolis; now Beisan, having 
ruins of temples, colonnades, hippo- 
drome, theatre, and citv walls. 

BETH-SHEMESH (house of 
the sun). 1. A city on the north of 
Judah belonging to the priests, Josh. 
15:10: 21:16; perhaps Ir-shemesh 
and Mount Heres, Josh. 19:41: Jud. 
1:35; noted as the place to which the 
ark was returned. 1 Sam. 6:9-20; now 
a heap of ruins near 'Ain Shews, about 
14 miles west of Jerusalem. 

2. A fenced city of Naphtali. Josh. 
19 : 38. Conder proposes 'Ain esh Shem- 

3. A city on the border of Issachar, 
Josh. 19 : 22 ; perhaps the same as 

: No. 2. 




4. A place in Egypt, Jer. 43 : 13 ; same 
as Heliopolis, or On. See On. 

BETH-SHITTAH (house of 

acacia), now perhaps the village of 
Shattah, east of Jezreel. Jud. 7 : 22. 

BETH-TAPTUAH (house of 
apples), a town of Judah near Hebron, 
Josh. 15 : 53 ; now Tuffuh, 5 miles west 
of Hebron, and noted for olive-groves 
and vineyards. Traces of the ancient 
terraces still remain. 

BETHU'EL (man of God), the 
son of Nahor, nephew of Abraham, 
and father of Laban and Rebekah. 
Gen. 22:22, 23; 24: 15, 24, 47 ; 28:2. 
His sun Laban plays the prominent 
part in the narrative. 

See Chesil and Bethel. 

BETHZUR (house of rock), in 
the mountains of Judah ; built by Re- 
hoboam : its ruler helped to repair Jeru- 
salem, 2 Chr. 11 : 7; Neh. 3 : 16; now 
Beit Sur, 4 miles north of Hebron. 

BET'ONIM, a town in Gad. Josh. 

BETROTH'. Deut. 28 : 30. A 
man and woman were betrothed or es- 
poused each to the other when they 
were engaged to be married. It is giv- 
ing one's troth — i. e. faith or promise — 
to marry at a future time. 

Among the Jews this relation was 
usually determined by the parents or 
brothers, without consulting the par- 
ties until they came to be betrothed. 
The engagement took place very early, 
though it was not consummated by ac- 
tual marriage until the spouse was at 
least twelve years of age. 

The betrothing was performed a 
twelvemonth or more before the mar- 
riage, either in writing or by a piece 
of silver given to the espoused before 
witnesses. During the interval, how- 
ever, from the time of espousals to the 
marriage, the woman was considered as 
the lawful wife of the man to whom she 
was betrothed ; nor could the engage- 
ment be ended by the man without a 
bill of divorce ; nor could she be un- 
faithful without being considered an 
adulteress. See Marriage. 

BEU'LAH (married), a word used 
by Isaiah, Isa. 62 : 4, to set forth the 
intimate relation of the Jewish Church 
to God. 

BE'ZAI (conqueror), father of some 

who returned. Ezr. 2:17; Neh. 7: 
23: 10:18. 

BEZAI/EEL (in the shadow of 
God). A famous artificer who received 
wisdom and instruction directly from 
God to qualify him for the work of 
building the tabernacle and preparing 

| its various furniture. Ex. 31 : 2. 

2. One who had married a foreign 

1 wife. Ezr. 10 : 30. 

BE'ZEK (lightning). 1. In the 
mountains of Judah, Jud. 1 : 3-5; prob-, 

{ ably Bezek, near Jerusalem. 

2. Possibly a district. 1 Sam. 11 : 8, 
9. Schwartz places it at Bezik or Ab- 
sik ; Conder at Ibzik, north of Tir- 

j zah. 

BE'ZER (ore), an Asherite. 1 
Chr. 7 : 37. 

NESS, a city of refuge east of the 

I Jordan, Deut. 4 : 43 ; Josh. 20 : 8 ; 21 : 

I 36; 1 Chr. 6:78; possibly Burazin, 12 
miles north-east of Heshbon. 

hill in Jerusalem north of Acra and Mo- 
riah. See Jerusalem. 

BIB LE. " The Holy Bible " is the 
name given to the collection of books 
which contains the revelation of God in 
the creation, redemption, and sanctifica- 
tion of the world ; a history of the past 
dealing of God with his people ; a proph- 
ecy of coming events till the final con- 
summation : and a living exhibition of 
saving truth in doctrine, precept, and 
example for all men and all time. The 
name is from the Greek (to. /3i0Ai'a, " the 
books "), and means the Book of books, 
the best of all books (so used since the 
fifth century in distinction from heret- 
ical and all uninspired writings). The 
collection is likewise spoken of as the 
" Scriptures," " the word of God." The 
Bible embraces the work of about forty 
authors from all classes of society, from 
the shepherd to the king, living during 
an interval of sixteen hundred years, 
but all of the Hebrew extraction, with 
the single exception of Luke, whose 
Gospel, however, came from Jewish 
sources, and whose fame from his as- 
sociation with Paul. All forms of 
literary composition unite to give the 
Bible its unique interest, aside from 
its religious importance. These books, 
though differing in age, contents, and 
style, represent one and the same sys- 



teni of truth as revealed by God in 
its various aspects and adaptations to 
the existing wants and progressive un- 
derstanding of his people. The Bible 
is not a book simply; it is an insti- 
tution. It never grows old ; it renews 
its youth with every age of humanity, 
and increases in interest and importance 
as history advances. It is to the Chris- 
tian the only infallible source and rule 
of his faith and conduct; it is his daily 
bread of life, his faithful guide in holy 
living and dying, his best friend and 
companion — far more precious than all 
other books combined. It is now more 
extensively studied than ever, and its 
readers will continue to multiply from 
day to day to all parts of the earth and 
to the end of time. Let us add some 
testimonies to its importance. 

The eloquent F. W. Robertson says: 
"This collection of books has been to 
the world what no other book has ever 
been to a nation. States have been 
founded on its principles; kings rule by 
a compact based on it; men hold it in 
their hands when they give solemn evi- 
dence affecting death or property ; the 
sick man is almost afraid to die unless 
the Book be within reach of his hands ; 
the battle-ship goes into action with one 
on board whose office is to expound it; 
its prayers, its psalms, are the language 
we use when we speak to God ; eighteen 
centuries have found no holier, no di- 
viner language. The very translation 
of it has fixed language and settled the 
idioms of speech. It has made the most 
illiterate peasant more familiar with the 
history, customs, and geography of an- 
cient Palestine than with the localities 
of his own country. . . . The orator 
holds a thousand men for half an hour 
breathless, a thousand men as one listen- 
ing to his single word. But this word 
of God has held a thousand nations for 
thrice a thousand years spell-bound — 
held them by an abiding power, even 
the universality of its truth ; and we feel 
it to be no more a collection of books, 
but the Book." The translators of the 
A. V., in their Address unto the Reader 
(reprinted in the Cambridge Paragraph 
Bible), say of the Bible: "And what 
marvel ? — the original thereof being from 
heaven, not from earth ; the author be- 
ing God, not man : the inditer, the Holy 
Spirit, not the wit of the apostles or 

prophets ; the penmen, such as were 
sanctified from the womb and endued 
with a principal portion of God's Spirit; 
the matter, verity, piety, purity, upright- 
ness ; the form, God's word, God's tes- 
timony, God's oracles, the word of truth, 
the word of salvation, etc. ; the effects, 
light of understanding, stableness of 
persuasion, repentance from dead works, 
newness of life, holiness, peace, joy in the 
Holy Ghost; lastly, the end and reward 
of the study thereof, fellowship with the 
saints, participation of the heavenly na- 
ture, fruition of an inheritance immortal, 
undefiled. and that shall never fadeaway. 
Happy is the man that delighteth in the 
Scripture, and thrice happy that nredi- 
tateth in it day and night I" 

The Bible is ordinarily divided into 
two parts, called the Old and New Testa- 
ments. But it would be more accurate 
to say " the Old and New Covenants," in- 
asmuch as " testament" implies the idea 
of a will and the death of the testator. 

In the present article the general ques- 
tions in regard to the Bible will be dis- 
cussed. The matters relating to the 
formation of the collection will be 
found under Canon, and the particulars 
of the different books under their re- 
spective names. 

I. The Original Languages op the 
1. The 0. T. is written in Hebrew, a 
Shemitic tongue, differing in most re- 
spects very widely from the Japhetic or 
Aryan languages, to which family ours 
belongs. The difference is not simply 
in vocabulary, but in grammatical struc- 
ture, and also in the manner of writing, 
which is from right to left, giving rise 
to the common saying that Hebrew books 
begin at the last page. It is triliteral — 

\ i. e. its words are built up according to 
certain rules from roots formed of three 

I consonants. The verb has only two 
tenses, the perfect and the imperfect. 

j There is no proper declension of nouns, 
and only two genders, masculine and 
feminine. There are three numbers, 
singular, dual, and plural. There are 
no compounds, in our sense of the 
term; the article, conjunction, and 
preposition, expressed each by a single 

i consonant, are attached directly to the 
word. Pronouns undergo a similar 

I treatment, " whether they are the sub- 



ject or object of verbs or dependent 
upon other forms of speech. Thus the 
Hebrew ' and from his land' is written 
as one word, though it embraces a con- 
junction, preposition, noun, and pro- 
noun; but this is a mere aggregate, in 
which each element retains its separate 
force unchanged, not a compound, in 
which the several constituents combine 
in the expression of one idea." — Prof. W. 
H. Green. Hebrew is highly figurative — 
pre-eminently fitted for devotion, but 
by lack of precision singularly unfitted 
for philosophy. It was therefore just 
the requisite medium for an introduc- 
tory revelation. The 0. T. does not 
argue against or analyze or defend any 
religion in set phrase, but it fills the 
mind with the knowledge of the true 
God and inspires the heart in his ser- 

2. The N. T. was written in Greek, 
which had, since the Macedonian con- 
quest of Alexander the Great, supplanted 
Hebrew in common use among the Jews 
who dwelt in the Roman provinces, and 
was the medium of communication be- 
tween all parts of the civilized world. 
The ancient Greek literature is a peren- 
nial source of inspiration and know- 
ledge. The language is at once vigorous 
and flexible, profound and clear, remark- 
ably well suited to express every variety 
of thought. It is equally adapted to the 
concise, the critical, and the common- 
place. In short, every order of mind 
can use it appropriately. It was in that 
day a better channel than the Hebrew 
for a divine revelation, and that of the 
highest kind. Hebrew no longer met 
the wants of culture. By nature it was 
hampered. It was the language of mon- 
otheism, but not of developed trinita- 

The N. T. Greek is the Macedonian, 
and more particularly the Hellenis- 
tic, dialect, more or less mixed with 
Hebraisms, arising from the fact that 
the writers were Jews. In some books 
this tinge is very strong, especially in 
Matthew, Mark, and Revelation. On 
the contrary, the Greek of James and 
Luke, particularly in the preface of 
Luke's Gospel and in the latter part of 
the Acts, is good and forcible. Paul has 
a style of his own ; broken and involved, 
interminable at times, as his sentences 
are, they are bold, pregnant, and lively. 

But whether with classical finish or 
unadorned simplicity, in this language 
the apostles addressed their own coun- 
trymen and the Gentiles upon the mo- 
mentous truths and facts of the ever- 
lasting gospel. 

II. The Text op the Bible. 

The Bible, like the Saviour whom it 
presents, is divine-human in its cha- 
racter. The written word became flesh, 
as well as the personal Word. The eter- 
nal truth of God passed through the men- 
tal faculties of the prophets and apostles, 
and uttered itself in human speech. Its 
contents were first in the mind, and then 
written out, either directly by the in- 
spired man or at his dictation. The 
autographs have perished. We possess 
at best but copies of other copies. These, 
although made with reverent care, are 
not free from the imperfections of hu- 
man writings. Errors would be per- 
petuated and new ones constantly made. 
This was pre-eminently the case with 
the N. T. The number of textual vari- 
ations in the Greek N. T. or " different 
readings," as they are called, amounts 
to 150,000. And yet we may claim that 
a special Providence has watched over 
the purity and integrity of the text of 
Holy Scripture, since only about 400 of 
these are of any consequence, the rest 
being trifles of spelling, etc., and none 
of these 400 affect a doctrine or precept. 

1. The Hebrew Bible of to-day is a 
reprint of the so-called Masoretic text 
— i. e. the text punctuated and vocalized 
by a body of Jewish scholars who lived 
at Tiberias, and at Sora in the Euphrates 
valley, from the sixth to the twelfth 
century, and who committed to writing 
the mass of traditional notes of all 
kinds called the Masora — i. e. tradi- 
tion. Up to the beginning of that 
period the Hebrew text was written 
without " points," as the vowel-points 
are called. These were added, and thus 
the pronunciation was fixed. By means 
of other marks punctuation and the 
tone-syllables were indicated. The sep- 
aration of the text into verses by means 
of two dots arranged like a colon and 
the assortment of the books in a fixed 
order had been previously effected. It 
is stated that after the Masoretes had 
finished their labors all the manuscripts 
which had not this text were con- 



demned as " profane and illegitimate," 
which caused most of these rejected 
copies to perish. Thus the facts that 
there are very few old Hebrew manu- 
scripts — the oldest dating from the 
tenth century — and that the same text 
is found in each, are accounted for. But 
happily for the scholars of Hebrew, the 
Masoretes marked their corrections 
upon the margin instead of inserting 
them in the text, and therefore they 
are at liberty to reject or use them. 

The Hebrew character has changed 
from an irregular to a square form. The 
Rabbins, however, in their books em- 
ployed still another form, which is more 
cramped. The manuscripts whose use 
is obligatory in the synagogues to-day 
are written without punctuation-marks 
upon rolls, and are very carefully writ- 
ten and preserved. 

The whole Hebrew Bible was first 
printed in 14S8 ; a second edition ap- 
peared in 1494. This was the one used 
by Luther. All subsequent Hebrew 
Bibles have been little more than re- 
productions of these two editions. 

2. The Greek New Testament. — It is 
quite in keeping with the character of 
Christianity, which is free, active, bold, 
and progressive, that the little book 
upon which it rests for its initial his- 
tory, its theology, and, to a certain ex- 
tent, for its polity, should exhibit such 
diverse elements at work upon it, and 
likewise that the book itself should ex- 
ist in so many more or less variant 
texts. Superstition, which secured the 
Jew a verbatim copy, as far as possible, 
of his sacred Scriptures, did not oper- 
ate to anything like the same extent in 
the case of the Christians. They es- 
teemed it a great privilege to have the 
Gospels and Epistles, but as copies 
multiply in the Church we find the 
thoughts of the inspired writer are 
better preserved than his exact words. 
At all events, the " various readings" 
increased. A very fruitful source of 
variation was the habit of writing at 
dictation, for a word incorrectly heard 
would be of course incorrectly written. 
Then, too, the use of " ligatures," or 
combinations of letters, to save time, 
the arbitrary signs employed, and the 
marks of correction or doubt gradually 
worked into the text from the margin, 
each and all' contributed to destroy the 

correctness of the copy. Superfluous 
words, filling out one sentence by piec- 
i ing to it a part of another (e. y. Kom. 
8:1 compared with 8:4 shows conclu- 
sively that the latter clause of ver. 1 is 
repeated by inadvertence from ver. 4), 
marginal glosses which at last crept 
into the text, — these are some of the 
unintentional faults of all copies. But 
these variations evince the lively inter- 
est which all classes took in the book, 
and therefore are an indirect proof of 
its divinity. They multiply the means 
for ascertaining the original reading 
and supersede the necessity of conjec- 
ture, to which we must often resort in 
the case of the ancient classics. So 
far from being alarmed at this state 
of things, we see in it the hand of God, 
who does not want his Church to be 
bound to the letter, but to be free in the 
Spirit, and to exercise all its powers of 
research upon his holy word. 

In the case of the N. T. the number 
of manuscripts is very large, consider- 
ing the labor and expense of transcrib- 
ing. They are divided into two classes : 
The uncials, which are written through- 
out in capitals, and with no division of 
words or of sentences, and with very few 
and simple marks of punctuation. The 
writing is in columns of uniform width, 
from one to four on a page, the letters 
filling out the page irrespective of the 
completion of a word. The material 
was parchment in book-form. The 
uncials go down to the tenth century. 
The most important uncial manuscripts 
are the Sinaitic of the fourth cen- 
tury (discovered by Prof. Tischendorf 
in the convent of St. Catherine, on 
Mount Sinai, 1859, and published in 
fac-siinile, 1862), the Vatican of the 
same age (in the Vatican Library at 
Rome), and the somewhat later Alex- 
andrian (in the British Museum, Lon- 
don). The second kind of manuscripts, 
the cursives, are so called because written 
in rwtniug-hand. The uncial form was, 
however, retained for some time after 
this in church copies. From about the 
eleventh century paper made from cot- 
ton or linen superseded parchment. 
The style of penmanship and other 
peculiarities in writing enable " diplo- 
matists,'' as such experts are called, to 
tell the century to which any given man- 
uscript belongs. The later manuscripts 



are of little or no critical account since 
the discovery of the older or uncial man- 

The N. T. in Greek was first printed 
as part of the Complutensian Polyglot, 
which Cardinal Ximenes patronized, at 
Alcala, the modern name for the Spanish 
town Complutum, in 1514, but the Poly- 
glot was not published till 1522. The 
editors, probably in their ignorance, pre- 
tended to have relied for the text upon 
very ancient manuscripts received from 
Rome ; but as a matter of fact, the 
manuscripts were comparatively recent 
and very inaccurate. The first Greek 
Testament published was that of Eras- 
mus, which appeared in 1516. The so- 
called " Textus Receptus," or received 
text, is derived from the second edition 
of Elzevir, published at Leyden, 1633. 
It is in the main a copy of Beza's (1565- 
1589). The typographical beauty of 
the Elzevir edition and its handy shape, 
and not its critical merit, determined 
its acceptance. In England the text 
of Stephens (1550), which is substan- 
tially the same with the text of Elzevir, 
has often been reprinted and taken as 
the basis of critical editions from Mills 
down to Tregelles, although Bentley 
suggested a new basis from the oldest 
sources. The text of the N. T. has 
been brought into its present satisfac- 
tory condition after long-continued and 
patient study, and every Bible student 
should thank God for the scholars he 
has raised up to do this work. • All 
honor to the immortal names of Gries- 
bach (1754-1812), Lachmann (1793— 
1851), Tischendorf (1815-1874), Tre- 
gelles (1813-1875), Westcott, and Hort, 
for to them are we indebted for the 
oldest and purest text of the Greek 
Testament which can be attained at 
the present day, and which makes a 
revision of our English version at once 
desirable and safe. 

III. The Order of the Books and the 
Names op their Divisions. 
1. Tie Old Testament. — The Jew- 
ish arrangement differs widely from 
ours. The N. T. recognizes a division 
of the 0. into " the Law and the 
Prophets," Matt. 11:13; 22:40; Acts 
13 : 15, etc., which phrase was doubtless 
a popular way of speaking of the whole 
book. We also find a longer phrase, 

"the Law, the Prophets, and the 
Psalms," Luke 24 : 44. The Jews 
divided their sacred Scriptures into 
(a) the Law — i. e. the five books of 
Moses, commonly known as the Pen- 
tateuch, the five-fold book; (b) the 
Prophets, divided into the earlier, in- 
cluding Joshua, Judges, First and Second 
Samuel, First and Second Kings, and 
later, which are subdivided into the 
greater — Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Eze- 
kiel — and the twelve so-called minor 
prophets; (c) The Holy Writings, or 
Hagiographa, as they are usually denom- 
inated, comprising the Psalms, Prov- 
erbs, Job, Canticles, Ruth, Lamentations, 
Ecclesiastes, Esther, Daniel, Ezra, 
Nehemiah, First and Second Chronicles. 
In this probably chronological order 
the books are arranged in the Hebrew 

The Christian division into historical, 
poetical, and prophetical books is topi- 
cal and more appropriate. It is not 
necessary to enumerate the books, as 
a full list is appended to almost every 
copy of the Bible. 

2. The New Testament is divided into 
the Gospels, Acts of the Apostles, the 
Epistles, both Pauline and Catholic (the 
latter — those of James, Peter, John, and 
Jude — so called because not addressed 
to particular churches or individuals, 
but of universal import), and the Reve- 
lation ; or more briefly into the histori- 
cal, the doctrinal, and the prophetical 
books. The oldest manuscripts vary 
in their arrangement. Many put the 
Catholic Epistles immediately after the 
Acts, while the Sinaitic puts the Pauline 
Epistles before the Acts. 

IV. The Division op the Text into 
Chapters and Verses. 

The ancient mode of writing was con- 
tinuous; no stops of any kind were 
made, nor were words separated. See 
article Book. As soon as any break is 
made we get the germs of a system of 
division, for these breaks will indicate 
punctuation, and thus serve the second- 
ary purpose of facilitating reference 
and remembrance. We find that the 
division of the sacred text into sections 
was early made as a matter of neces- 
sity, but that chapters and verses were 
of much later origin. 

1. The Old Testament.— The Rabbinic 

Specimens of existing MSS. of the Scriptures. 

toth ceycesei^c 

4th Cent. Codex Sinaiticus.— 1 Tun iii. 16. 
to T7)<; evo-e/3eias | /xvcrrrjpioi' [0e late COrr.J OS e. 

Mor€M h c&c'ivf 

4th Cent. Codex Sinaiticus.— John i. 18. 
voyevr]<; 0[eo]<; [o uv Corr.J cis tov. 

s CTA.qjtcfc^idYASNloy 
T ^€NGinoN&<poaoYN 


4th Cent. Codex Vaticanus. — Mark xvi. 8. 
<rrao~i; icai ovSevi ov | Sev einov e<}>ofiovv | to yap: 

^ v_J N a fx* 11 h n dxqroCKAioAo racM 
\ -n poCTO m eNUA i e c hno\o ro c « 

5th Cent. Codex Alexandrinus.— John i. 1. 
Ev apxi T\v o Ao-yo? *cat o Aoyos tjv \ npoq top Q\j.o\v *cai 6[eo] s tjv o Aoyo* 

10th Cent. Codex Basiliensis, known to Erasmus, but little used by him. 
-Luke i. 1-2 nearly, as in all Greek Testaments. 



division is very elaborate. It origina- 
ted in the liturgical use in worship ; and 
so, the more the books were used, the 
more complete was the notation. The 
N. T. quotations from the 0. T. for the 
most part are cited with no more specific 
reference than to the book from which 
they come, but sometimes in other ways : 
thus, " the bush " quoted from in Mark 
12:26 and Luke 20: 37 was a familiar 
section of our present Exodus, and 
was only one of similar terms for other 
parts. In like manner, the existence 
of a cycle of lessons is indicated by 
Luke 4 : 17 : Acts 13 : 15 ; 15 : 21 : 2 Cor. 
3:14, and this, whether identical or not 
with the later Rabbinic cycle, must 
have involved an analogous arrange- 
ment to that subsequently adopted. 
Prof. Plumptre, in Smith's Dictionary 
of the Bible says : " The Law was 
divided first, much later the Prophets ; 
the former into fifty-four sections, to 
correspond with the number of Sab- 
baths in the Jewish intercalary year. 
But these sections were subdivided to 
fit them for reading by different persons 
in the synagogue service. The Prophets 
were not so uniformly nor so impera- 
tively divided. Yet in intention these 
sections corresponded to the sections of 
the Law, so that they together consti- 
tute a 'table of lessons' for Sabbath 
public use. Some time in the ninth 
century A. D. the sections were divided 
into verses." 

2. The New Testament. — The Gospels 
were divided first about the middle of 
the third century (a. d. 220), by Am- 
monius of Alexandria, into short chap- 
ters, " constructed to facilitate the com- 
parison of corresponding passages of 
the several Gospels." Later on the 
Acts, the Pauline and the Catholic 
Epistles, and finally, about a.d. 500, the 
Revelation, were thrown into chapters. 

Our present division of or/? the books 
in the Bible into chapters is much later, 
dating from Cardinal Hugo de St. Cher 
(died 1263), whose Concordance to the 
Vulgate popularized the use of verses 
likewise. This division was introduced 
into the Latin Bible, and afterward into 
the Greek 0. T. 

The present system of verses was pre- 
pared and introduced by Robert Ste- 
phens in his Greek Testament. 1551. 

While both' these divisions are on the 

I whole well made, there are numerous 
' places where correction is loudly de- 
manded : chapters begin in wrong 
1 places, and verses end in the midst 
I of a sentence. These divisions are at 
best necessary evils. The reading of 
the Bible is interrupted by them, ow- 
ing to the practice of ending with a 
j chapter. Paragraph Bibles are to be 
commended, because in them the sec- 
tions are arranged according to the 
writer's thought, irrespective of the 
chapters, and the verses are merely 
indicated by numbers on the margin. 
No verses are marked in Tyndale, Cov- 
erdale, or the Great Bible. 

V. The Translations of the Bible. 
1. Ancient Translations. 
(or) Into Chaldee. — Since the Jews, 
during the Captivity, had lost command 
I over Hebrew, it became necessary to 
j translate the sacred books into their ver- 
nacular, the Chaldee. We find a refer- 
ence to this state of things in Neh. 8 : 8. 
These Chaldee translations and para- 
phrases are called Targums (the word 
means interpretation), but there is no 
! one which comprises the whole O. T. 

{b) Into Greek. — The best known is 
! called the Septuagint, and is commonly 
| represented in scholarly books by the 
j Roman numerals LXX. It was made 
! direct from the Hebrew by a company 
of learned Alexandrian Jews in that 
city under the patronage of Ptolemy 
Philadelphus, and begun B. c. 285. It 
' is not of equal fidelity throughout. 
I The name Septuagint — i. e. seventy, 
a round number for the more exact 
I seventy-two — arose from a tradition 
j that the work was executed in sev- 
| enty-two days by seventy -two Jew- 
' ish scholars. The version was made 
from Egyptian Hebrew manuscripts, 
I and probably at different times, 
which may account for the inequal- 
ity. As it now stands, it includes 
| the Apocrypha, but did not at the 
beginning. Those books were gradually 
added. The LXX. has exerted great 
influence, was claimed by the Jews to 
be inspired, was in universal use 
among them in Christ's day, is con- 
tinually quoted by the N. T. writers 
and by the Greek Fathers, was trans- 
lated instead of the Hebrew into 
Latin, and is the authority in the 



Greek Church to-day. When the 
Christians in debate quoted it against 
their Jewish adversaries, the latter 
awoke to the fact that their own re- 
gard for it was excessive, and there- 
fore abandoned it and returned to the 
study and use of the original Hebrew. 
Though not literal, and perhaps inten- 
tionally so, it is very valuable in ex- 
plaining tin Hebrew text. Other Greek 
translations were made by Aquila, 
Theodotion, and Symmachus, but they 
exist only in fragments. 

(c) Into Syriac. — A translation into 
this language, made by Christians, di- I 
rectfrom the Hebrew, called the Peshito j 
(simple, because it was literal, and not 
paraphrastic), was in common use in the 
fourth century, but probably dates from 
the latter part of the second. It is the j 
earliest of these direct versions. 

(d) Into Latin. — The one called the ; 
Itala, made from the Septuagint, existed 
very early in the Latin Church. But the 
one which is now the " authorized ver- 
sion " in the Church of Rome was made 
by Jerome, the most learned Christian I 
of his day. directly from the Hebrew, | 
A. n. 3S5-405. It is called the Vulgate, j 
and was declared by the Council of Trent 
(156:5) to be of equal authority with the 
original Bible. All Roman Catholic ver- 
sions must be conformed to it. 

It was very natural that the first 
book printed was the Bible. Gutenberg, 
the inventor of the art of printing, turned 
his skill unto the service of God( 1450-55). 
Before discussing other versions, we quote 
a few lines upon pre-Reformation Bibles : 
"The earliest printed Bibles in the mod- 
ern European languages were the first 
and second German Bibles by Mentelin 
and Eggesteyn of Strasburg, of rather 
uncertain date, but certainly not later 
than 1466. In 1471 appeared at Venice 
two translations into Italian — the one by 
Malermi, printed by Vindelin de Spira, 
and the other by Nicolas Jenson. In 1477 
was printed the first N. T. in French, by 
Buyer, at Lyons, and the same year ap- 
peared the first edition of the 0. T. in 
Dutch, printed at Delft by Jacob Jacobs 
zoen and Mauritius Yemants zoen. In 
14S0 was published the splendid Bible 
in the Saxon or Low German language, 
from the press of Heinrich Quental, of 
Cologne, followed by a second edition in 
1491, and a third in 1494. The Psalms, 

in Dutch, first came out in 1480, in small 
octavo, and in Greek and Latin in 1481, 
while the first Hebrew Pentateuch ap- 
peared in L482. The entire Bible, done 
into French paraphrase, was published 
by Guyard de Moulins in 1487. A full 
translation appeared in the Bohemian 
language, printed at Prague in 1488. 
The same year appeared the entire 0. 
T. in Hebrew from the press of Abra- 
ham ben Chayim de' Tintori, at Son- 
cino. This chronological arrangement 
shows us also many noteworthy points, 
such as that nearly all the earliest Bi- 
bles were huge folios ; that the first 
Bibles printed at Rome and Venice ap- 
peared in 1471, and that the sixth Ger- 
man Bible, by G. Zainer, in 1475, at 
Augsburg, was the first with the leaves 
folioed or numbered; that the first quarto 
Bible appeared in 1475, priuted by John 
Peter de Ferratis at Placentia, which also 
was the first book printed at Placentia; 
that the first of Coburger's celebrated 
Bibles appeared in Nuremberg in 1475, 
and that by the end of the century no 
less than thirteen large folio Bibles had 
come from this house alone; that the four 
splendid Bibles printed in 1476 all bear 
the printers' signatures, though it is dif- 
ficult to say with certainty which was the 
first; that the first Bible with a. distinct 
title-page was printed at Venice, by 
George de Ravabenis, in 1487, in smail 
quarto, and that the first Bible in small 
octavo — or the poor man's Bible — was 
the earliest, or among the earliest books, 
from the press of Johann Froben, of Basle, 
in 1491. 

" Prior to the discovery of America 
no less than twelve grand patriarchal 
editions of the entire Bible, being of 
several different translations, appeared 
from time to time in the German lan- 
guage ; to which add the two editions 
by the Otmars of Augsburg of 1507 and 
1518, and we have the total number of 
no less than fourteen distinct large fo- 
lio pre-Reformation or ante-Lutheran 
Bibles. No other language except the 
Latin can boast of anything like this 
number." — Henry Stevens: Bibles in 
the Caxton Exhibition, pp. 27, 28. 

Thus, prior to the Reformation, there 
were translations of the entire Bible in- 
to the principal languages. Still, their 
unwieldy size and great cost kept them 
from popular use, although, more than 



is commonly supposed, they carried a 
knowledge of the Word unto the com- 
mon people, and thus prepared the way 
for better things. These several transla- 
tions were from the Vulgate; those now 
to be very briefly mentioned were made 
after the Reformation, and from the 
original tongues. 

2. Modem Translations. 

(a) Into German. — We have already 
seen that there were fourteen editions of 
the entire Bible printed and circulated 
in Germany before Luther (1483-1546) 
nailed his theses upon the church-door 
at AVittenberg, Oct. 31, 1517. But to 
the great Reformer is due the credit of 
translating the entire Bible, together 
with the Apocrypha, out of the original 
tongues. He conceived the idea, and 
carried it out by translating the N. T. 
while in friendly captivity in the Wart- 
burg during 1521. He published the 
work in the fall of 1522. Then he be- 
gan at the 0. T., and published the 
translation in sections as he advanced. 
The first edition of the entire Bible ap- 
peared in 1534. Ten editions of the 
original version were printed. In 1541 
he issued an edition in which the first 
had been faithfully revised by his col- 
leagues and himself. This translation 
is that used in Germany to-day. It has 
often been remarked that it fixed the 
German language and at the same time 
established Protestantism. 

(b) Into French. — A French version 
by Le Fevre was published at Antwerp 
in 1530. But there is no national 
French version ; that which comes near- 
est to it is Olivetan's, which, however, is 
sadly defective, though improved by 
Calvin, his cousin. This version ap- 
peared in 1535 in the village of Serri- 
eres, near Neufchatel, at the expense of 
the Walrlenses. Of existing versions, 
Segond's (1880) is by far the best. 

(c) Into Dutch. — The States-general's 
translation, ordered by the Synod of 
Dort (1619), is reputed the most accu- 
rate of all present modern versions. 

(d) Into Ent/h'.sh.—The story of the 
English Bible begins before the Ref- 

(1.) John dk Wvcliffe (about 1324- 

84), aided by Hereford, was the first to 

translate the entire Bible into English. 

The greater part of the translation of 


the N. T. was made by him; this ap- 
peared in 1381. The 0. T. was princi- 
pally the work of Nicholas de Hereford, 
but Wycliffe finished it. Manuscript cop- 
ies were multiplied. Many poor priests 
went through the country preaching 
from this version. The first true text 
was not brought out in print before 1 850, 
in the edition of Forshall and Madden, 
in 4 vols. (The earliest printed editions 
of the N. T. by Baber and in Bagster's 
English Herapla are not the version of 
Wycliffe, but of one of his followers). 

Wycliffe simply translated from the 
Vulgate, and hence there was need of a 
new and independent version. Besides, 
the change in the language required it. 
The invention of printing rendered it 
possible to give the Bible in the vernac- 
ular to the masses, but the Roman 
Church has never been favorable to 
this, knowing full well that Bible study 
means independent research and protest 
against unscriptural traditions. It was 
not until the gathering storm of the 
Reformation burst upon the deformed 
and diseased Roman communion that 
the English people received a transla- 
tion from the original languages of the 
entire Bible. 

(2.) For doing this the credit belongs 
to William Tvnbale (born 1484), who 
was burnt at the stake, a martyr to the 
cause of religious liberty, Oct. 6, 1536; 
but not before he had by his work won 
an imperishable fame. Filled with the 
one wish, which he lived to realize — to 
give every one who could read English 
the opportunity of reading for himself 
God's holy word — he endured the con- 
tradiction of sinners against himself. 
Understanding, as he says, " that there 
was no place to translate the N. T. in 
all England," he went to Europe in 
1524, and carried on his work amid 
every sort of difficulty and danger. The 
N. T. appeared at Worms in the latter 
part of 1525. and arrived in England the 
early part of 1526, where it was exten- 
sively circulated. Tyndale revised it, 
and published in this enforced and 
stealthy way several editions under his 
personal supervision. He also issued at 
intervals various books of the O. T., and 
the manuscript translation of other parts 
was just before his death transmitted to 
Thomas Poynitz of Antwerp, who finally 
delivered them to John Rogers {alias 



Thomas Matthew), who subsequently 
edited them. 

(3.) Miles Coverdale (1488-1569) is 
the next name upon the list. He differed 
greatly from his predecessor, Tyndale, 
lacking his independence and devotion 
and his knowledge of the original lan- 
guages, yet on the whole he deserves 
well of posterity. His translation of 
the entire Bible appeared Oct. 4, 1535, 
prefaced by a fulsome dedication to the 
king, Henry VIII. In order to render 
the volume more attractive, it was illus- 
trated with several wood-cuts. It was 
avowedly not made from the original 
tongues, but from three Latin and two 
German translations (viz. the Vulgate, 
Erasmus, Pagninus, Luther, and Leo 
Jud'a). The 0. T. was based chiefly on 
the Swiss-German (Ziirich) Bible, and 
the N. T. on Tyndale, although with 
many variations. It was printed in 
Antwerp at the expense of Jacob van 
Meteren,* but published in London. 
This translation had but little influence 
upon the so-called A. V. 

(4.) The "Thomas Matthew" Bible 
was a compilation, although not a me- 
chanical one, under this assumed name, 
made by John Rogers (1505-55), Tyn- 
dale's friend, who is famous as the first 
Marian martyr, burnt at Smithfield, Feb. 
4, 1555, from the above-mentioned trans- 
lations of Tyndale and Coverdale. It 
was published in London, 1537, but 
probably printed by Jacob van Meteren 
in Antwerp. f The publishers, Messrs. 
Grafton & Whitechurch, in some way 
interested Archbishop Cranmer in this 
edition, who through Crumwell pro- 
cured a royal license for it, and this 
Bible became the first authorized ver- 
sion. And so it came about that this 
edition of the Bible, which was two- 
thirds Tyndale's translation, "that had 
been again and again publicly stigma- 
tized and condemned by authority of 
this same king, Henry VIII., and even 
actually prohibited seven years before, 
was now 'set forth with the king's most 
gracious license,' this authorization being 
printed in red ink in each separate vol- 
ume." Appended to the chapters are 
notes; upon this part the editor laid 
out his strength. 

(5.) Richard Taverner (1505-1575) 

*Vide Hfsrt Steve>"3 : Bibles in Carton Exhibi- 
tion, pp. 38, seq. t Stevens, p. 75. 

I issued a revised edition of the Matthew 

j Bible in 1539, but it never was widely 

j used. Its sale may have been stopped 

by the publication of the so-called Great 


(6.) The "Great Bible," sometimes 
called Whitechurch's, after one of the 
printers' names, or oftener " Cranmer's 
Bible," from the mistaken idea that he 
was the editor of it s was published in 
London, 1539. Its name came from its 
size ; its pages are fully 15 inches in 
length and over 9 in breadth. Its text is 
Matthew's, revised by Coverdale, who 
in his singular humility thus revised 
his own work. To Crumwell's Protes- 
tant zeal and triumphant energy do we 
owe the volume. It was devoid of 
i notes. It was the first edition which 
printed in a different type the words not 
found in the original. It also derives 
interest from the fact that the Scripture 
sentences in the English Prayer-book 
in the Communion Service, in the Hom- 
ilies, and the entire Psalter are taken 
from it. In 1540 appeared the Cran- 
mer Bible, so called from the arch- 
bishop's prologue, but in fact only a 
new revised edition of the Great Bible 
of the previous year. 

(7.) The Geneva Version (1560), 
made by the refugees from the Marian 
persecution, principally by William 
Whittingham (1524-89), whose wife was 
j Calvin's sister. But the Genevan Bible 
' must not be confounded with the New 
Testament which appeared there in June, 
1557, the fruit of the editorial labors 
of Whittingham. The Genevan Bible 
! was begun the January following. The 
| N. T. had for the first time the division 
of verses (following the Greek of 
Stephens, 1551), with the numbers pre- 
fixed. It had also characteristic mar- 
ginal notes, and marks by italics the 
words supplied. The Genevan Bible, 
having been begun, was carried reso- 
lutely through. It is not known how 
many were engaged upon it, but a large 
share of the work fell upon Whitting- 
ham, who tarried in Geneva along with 
Gilby and Sampson a year and a half 
after Queen Elizabeth's accession in 
order to complete the work begun dur- 
ing the dark days of " Bloody Mary." 
The Bible finally appeared April, 1560, 
with a dedication to the queen. The 
translation is careful and scholarly 
127 • 



work, based chiefly upon Tyndale and 
Craniner, with many proofs of the 
influence of Beza. It is really the 
first complete direct English trans- 
lation from the original Hebrew and 
Greek Scriptures. It at once became 
widely popular. " It was printed in 
Roman characters, with division into 
chapters and verses. It was not a 
heavy, unhandy folio like the editions 
of Coverdale, Rogers, or the Great 
Bible, but a moderate and manageable 
quarto. Its marginal notes were a 
kind of running comment, vigorous and 
lucid, dogmatic and practical. ... It 
became at once the people's book in 
England and Scotland, and it held its 
place not only during the time of the 
Bishops' Bible, but even against the 
present A. V. for at least thirty years. 
It was the first Bible ever printed in 
Scotland (1576-79), and it was the 
cherished volume in all Covenanting 
and Puritan households." — Eadie : The 
English Bible, vol. ii. p. 15. 

(8.) The Bishops' Bible. — In the early 
part of Queen Elizabeth's reign the 
Great Bible was allowed to be read in 
the churches as the authorized version, 
but the Genevan edition was a formi- 
dable rival, greatly excelling it in popu- 
larity and, besides, in accuracy. Thus 
it came about that a revision was de- 
manded, and this Archbishop Parker 
(1504-75) was anxious to make. He 
began it about 1563-64, having dis- 
tributed the work to 15 scholars, 8 
of whom were bishops, and therefore 
the Bible was called " The Bishops' 
Bible," and the book was published in 
1568. It contained no word of flattery, 
nor even a dedication, but was ornament- 
ed with 143 copper-plate engravings of 
maps, portraits, coats of arms, etc.; it also 
had notes, brief but valuable, generally on 
matters of interpretation, but occasion- 
ally dogmatic. It was a revision of 
the Great Bible, which in turn was 
based on " Matthew's " recension of 
Tyndale. An effort was made to secure 
for the Bishops' Bible the royal sanc- 
tion, but ineffectually. Convocation, 
however, passed a decree in 1571 "that 
every archbishop and bishop should 
have at his house a copy of the Holy 
Bible of the largest volume as lately 
printed in London, and that it should 
be placed in "the hall or large dining- 

room, that it might be useful to their 
servants or to strangers." The order 
applied to each cathedral, and, " so far 
as could be conveniently done, to all 
the churches." The Bishops' Bible 
supplanted the Great Bible, but could 
not the Genevan, because that was 
wide-spread among the people. The 
most important fact in its history is 
that it was made the basis for the 
recension which resulted in our pres- 
ent A. V. 

(9.) Roman Catholic Translations. — 
The Roman Church has never been 
friendly to vernacular translations of 
the Scriptures. Hence we should not 
expect it would spontaneously make 
one ; but when the Genevan version 
became so popular in England, it 
seemed desirable that, since English 
Roman Catholics were sure to fall in 
with it, they should be given a correc- 
tive in the shape of a translation by 
some of the faithful. The N. T. ap- 
peared at Rheims, in France, in 1582, 
and the 0. T. at Douai (1609-10), al- 
though it had been prepared before the 
appearance of the N. T., but delayed for 
lack of means. The first complete edi- 
tion of the entire Bible according to this 
recension was published at Rouen (1633- 
35). Its translators were good scholars, 
but were obliged to take the Latin Vul- 
gate as the basis, and to adhere very 
closely to it. They accompanied the 
translation with polemical notes. On 
the whole, the work is inferior to our 
version, and disfigured by unintelligi- 
ble Latinisms. No effort was made to 
give this translation any circulation. 
It was issued in an expensive form, 
and none of the Church dignitaries 
concerned themselves with it. Cardi- 
nal Wiseman {Essays, vol. i. pp. 73-75) 
says : " To call the Roman Catholic ver- 
sion now in use the version of Rheims 
and Douai is an abuse of terms. It has 
been altered and modified till scarcely 
any verse remains as it was originally 
published; and so far as simplicity 
and energy of style are concerned, the 
changes are in general for the worse." 
The revision was chiefly made by Dr. 
Challoner (1750) and by Dr. Troy (1791). 
The Catholic version has retained from 
the Vulgate some of the oldest and best 
readings and a large number of Latin- 
isms, some good (as advent, victim, alle- 



gory, prevarication, altercation, fallacy), 
others which have never gone into pub- 
lic use (as azymen, corbaua, jjarasceve, 
consubstantial, coinquination, scenope- 
f/ia). It has contributed some improve- 
ments to King James's revisers. See ex- 
amples in Moulton's History of tin Eng- 
lish Bible, p. 187 (London, 1878). " Noth- 
ing is easier," says Dr. Moulton, " than 
to accumulate instances of the eccentri- 
city of this revision, of its obscure and in- 
flated renderings ; but only minute study 
can do justice to its faithfulness and to 
the care with which the translators exe- 
cuted their work." 

(10.) The King James's Version 
(1611). — The final outcome of this series 
of original translations and revisions of 
translations of the Scriptures was the so- 
called A. V., which for 250 years has been 
the channel whereby God's truth has 
flowed into Anglo-Saxon minds. But 
it has been even an instructor in other 
things than those of religion, for from 
it the language has drawn its stability. 
Its style is regarded with admiration 
by natives and foreigners alike. It is 
the first of English classics. Even se- 
ceders to Rome admit this, as the sweet 
and fervent hymnist, Dr. F. William 
Faber, whose remarkable judgment (of- 
ten falsely attributed to Dr. John Henry 
Newman) is well worth quoting in full: 
11 Who will say that the uncommon beau- 
ty and marvellous English of the Protest- 
ant Bible is not one of the great strong- 
holds of heresy in this country ? It lives 
on the ear like a music that can never be 
forgotten, like the sound of church-bells, 
which the convert hardly knows how he 
can forego. Its felicities often seem to 
be almost things rather than mere words. 
It is part of the national mind and the 
anchor of national seriousness. Nay, it 
is worshipped with a positive idolatry, 
in extenuation of whose grotesque fa- 
naticism its intrinsic beauty pleads 
availingly with the man of letters 
and the scholar. The memory of the 
dead passes into it. The potent tradi- 
tions of childhood are stereotyped in 
its verses. The power of all the griefs 
and trials of a man is hidden beneath 
its words. It is the representative of 
his best moments: and all that there 
has been about him of soft, and gentle, 
and pure, and penitent, and good speaks 
to him for ever out of his English Bi- 

I ble. It is his sacred thing, which 
I doubt has never dimmed, and contro- 
j versy never soiled. It has been to 
him all along as the silent — but oh 
how intelligible ! — voice of his guar- 
dian angel, and in the length and 
breadth of the land there is not a 
Protestant, with one spark of religious- 
i ness about him, whose spiritual biogra- 
phy is not in his Saxon Bible. And all 
1 this is an unhallowed power !" 

The A. V. is a monument to the 
memory of King James I. of England, 
i but he had no more to do with it 
[ than to appoint the commission, and 
did not contribute a penny for its exe- 
cution. It was abruptly proposed in 
the Hampton Court Conference (Jan., 
! 1604) by a learned Puritan divine, 
I the Rev. Dr. Reynolds (1549-1607), 
president of Corpus Christi College, 
; Oxford, who suggested to His Majesty 
I " that there might be a new transla- 
tion of the Bible, because those which 
I were allowed in the reign of King 
: Henry VIII. and Edward VI. were 
j corrupt and not answerable to the 
| truth of the original." Bishop Ban- 
I croft opposed the motion as imperti- 
' nent, but the vain king, who thought 
I himself as wise as Solomon, unexpect- 
edly and at once agreed to it, and dis- 
i played his biblical erudition by criti- 
i cising the previous translations, espe- 
i cially that of Geneva, which he hated on 
' account of its marginal notes. He in- 
vited a number of distinguished schol- 
ars to do the work (June 30, 1604), but 
without any expense to himself. Pro- 
fessing his own poverty, he held out 
before the revisers the hope of Church 
preferment, giving orders to the bish- 
ops to that effect, and for their immedi- 
ate expenses he called upon the bishops 
and chapters to contribute toward the 
requisite amount. 

Revision had no attractions for the 
clergy nor for the people. The Bish- 
ops' and Geneva Bibles already in their 
hands seemed to answer every purpose. 
Accordingly, as far as can be deter- 
mined, no one responded to the king's 
call for money ; yet since the whole 
amount was only about £700, the pro- 
portion from each diocese was really 
small. " King James's version never 
cost King James a farthing." At the 
chancellor's suggestion, the revisers met 



at the universities, where they received 
board and lodging free of cost ; and 
" at the final revision the 6 or 12 re- 
visers received each, according to one 
statement, 30 shillings a week from the 
Company of Stationers." The work 
of revision thus arranged in the sum- 
mer of 1604 was not really begun in 
earnest till the spring of 1607, and then 
occupied about 2 years and 9 months. 
Dr. Reynolds, who had proposed the 
work, and who was well qualified to 
carry it on, died in that year, just as 
his wish was to be gratified. The origi- 
nal number of revisers appointed by 
the king at the suggestion of some one 
unknown, but probably Richard Ban- 
croft (1544-1610), then the bishop of 
London, soon afterward the archbishop 
of Canterbury, was 54, but owing to 
death, declinature, and other causes 
there were only 47 actually engaged. 
These 47 formed themselves into 6 com- 
panies, two meeting at Westminster, 
Cambridge, and Oxford respectively. 

The following are the rules which 
were composed to govern them in their 
labors : 

"(1.) The ordinary Bible read in the 
Church, commonly called 'The Bishops' 
Bible,' to be followed, and as little altered 
as the truth of the original will permit. 

"(2.) The names of the prophets and the 
holy writers, with the other names of the 
text, to be retained as nigh as may be, ac- 
cordingly as they were vulgarly used. 

"(3.) The old ecclesiastical words to be 
kept ; viz. : the word church not to be trans- 
lated congregation, etc. 

" (4.) When a word hath divers significa- 
tions, that to be kept which hath been most 
commonly used by the most ancient fathers, 
being agreeable to the propriety of the 
place and the analogy of the faith. 

" (5.) The division of the chapters to be 
altered either not at all or as little as may 
je, if necessity so require. 

" (6.) No marginal notes at all to be affix- 
ed, but only for the explanation of the He- 
brew or Greek words which cannot, with- 
out some circumlocution, so briefly and 
fitly be preserved-in the text. 

"(7.) Such quotations of places to be or- 
iginally set down as shall serve for the fit 
reference of one Scripture to another. 

"(8.) Every particular man of each com- 
pany to take the same chapter or chapters; 
and having translated or amended them 
severally by himself where he thinketh 
good, all to meet together, confer what they 
have done, and agree for their parts what 
shall stand. 

"(9.) As any one company hath des- 
patched any one book in this manner, they 

shall send to the rest to be considered of 
seriously and judiciously; for His Majesty 
is very careful in this point. 

"(10.) If any company, upon the review 
of the book so sent, doubt or differ upon 
any place, to send them word thereof, note 
the place, and withal send the reasons ; to 
which if they consent not, the difference 
to be compounded at the general meeting, 
which is to be of the chief persons of 
each company at the end of the work. 

"(11.) When any place of special obscur- 
ity is doubted of, letters to be directed by 
authority to send to any learned man in 
the land for his judgment of such a place. 

"(12.) Letters to be sent from every 
bishop to the rest of his clergy, admonish- 
ing them of this translation in hand, and 
to move and charge as many as being skil- 
ful in the tongues, and having taken pains 
in that kind, to send his particular obser- 
vations to the company either at West- 
minster, Cambridge, or Oxford. 

"(13.) The directors in each company to 
be the deans of Westminster and Chester 
for that place, and the king's professors 
of Hebrew and Greek in either univer- 

"(14) These translations to be used 
when they agree better with the text than 
the Bishops' Bible: Tindale's, Matthew's 
[Rogers'], Coverdale's, Whitchurch's [Cran- 
mer's], Geneva. 

"(15.) Besides the said directors before 
mentioned, three or four of the most an- 
cient and grave divines in either of the 
universities, not employed in translating, 
to be assigned by the vice-chancellor, upon 
conference with the rest of the heads, to 
be overseers of the translations, as well 
Hebrew as Greek, for the better observa- 
tion of the fourth rule above specified." 

How closely these rules were followed 
it is impossible to say. The secrets of 
their sessions have been inviolably kept; 
for although the translators were en- 
gaged for 3 years, of the incidents of 
their labor little can be gathered from 
contemporaneous history, and little was 
probably known beyond the circle of 
the translators. A passing remark of 
Selden furnishes nearly all that can 
now be known of what may be termed 
the private history of our English Bible : 
" The translation in King James's time 
took an excellent way. That part of the 
Bible was given to him who was most 
excellent in such a tongue, and then 
they met together, and one read the 
translation, the rest holding in their 
hands some Bible, either of the learned 
tongues, or French, Spanish, Italian, 
etc. If they found any fault, they 
spoke ; if not, he read on." — Table Talk. 
When the revision was completed, 



three copies of the whole Bible were 
sent [to London] — one from Cambridge, 
a second from Oxford, and a third from 
Westminster — where they were commit- 
ted to six persons, two from each com- 
pany, who reviewed the whole. This 
final revision lasted 9 months. The 
work was at last given up to the printer, 
Robert Barker ; the proofs were read 
by Dr. Thomas Bilson, bishop of Win- 
chester, and Dr. Myles Smith (appoint- 
ed bishop of Gloucester in 1612). 

The first edition of the A. V., includ- 
ing the Apocrypha, appeared, bearing 
date 1611, in handsome folio, in black 
letter, with a beautiful frontispiece en- 
graved by C. Boel of Richmont. Be- 
sides the translation, there were given 
a Calendar, a Table of Lessons, and 
elaborate Tables of Genealogies. The 
dedication was fulsome in its praise 
of James. The preface, entitled " The 
Translators to the Reader," written by 
Dr. Myles Smith, is pedantic, according 
to our notions, but written in excellent 
English,. and important as a clear state- 
ment of the principles upon which the 
revision was made. The title-page con- 
tained the words " Appointed to be read 
in the churches " — i. e. of England. 
But there is no evidence that this ap- 
pointment was ever made by convoca- 
tion or Parliament, privy council or the 
king. The version "gained currency 
partly by the weight of the king's name, 
partly by the personal authority of the 
prelates and scholars who had been en- 
gaged upon it, but still more by its own 
intrinsic superiority over its rivals." — 
Westcott. The printing of the so-called 
A. V. at once stopped the printing of 
the Bishops' Bible, though it did not 
that of the Genevan Bible, which con- 
tinued to be used, especially in New 
England, until about the middle of the 
seventeenth century, when King James's 
version was on all hands accepted as the 
English Bible. 

'' When all critical helps and sources 
of influence have been taken into ac- 
count, the student whose analysis [of the 
A. V.] has been most complete will find 
most to admire in the work that the 
translation or revision of 1607-11 has 
given us. The praise he will award to 
the revisers will not be indiscriminate 
eulogy. He will discover that very 
much that they have transmitted to us 

was inherited by them from others ; the 
execution of different parts of the work 
will prove to be unequal, the Epistles, 
for example, standing far below the 
Pentateuch in accuracy and felicity of 
rendering ; many flaws and inconsisten- 
cies will reveal themselves ; occasionally 
it will be found that better renderings 
have been deliberately laid aside, and 
worse preferred ; but, notwithstanding, 
almost every paragraph will bear testi- 
mony to the tact, care, diligence, and 
faithfulness of the men to whom, in 
God's providence, we owe the version of 
the Scriptures which has come down to 
us consecrated by the associations of 250 
years." — Moulton : History of the Eng- 
lish Bible, pp. 207-8. 

The modern edition of the English 
Bible is a great improvement upon that 
of 1611. In that year there were two 
issues, both incorrectly printed, and 
both containing errors which were not 
typographical. Much care has been 
taken since that date to make the ver- 
j sion, in grammatical and typographical 
correctness, as nearly perfect as possible. 
Three editions of the A. V. deserve par- 
ticular mention: (1.) Bishop Lloyd's 
(London, 1701), containing, for the first 
time, marginal dates, derived princi- 
pally from Archbishop Ussher ; (2.) the 
Cambridge Bible of 1762, edited by Dr. 
Paris; (3.) the Oxford edition of 1769, 
edited by Dr. Blayney. " These editors 
sought to apply with greater consistency 
the principle' of denoting additions to 
the original text by italic type, substi- 
tuted ordinary forms of words for such as 
had, in their opinion, become obsolete, 
and made very large additions to the 
number of marginal references, which 
in our present Bible are said to be seven 
times as numerous as in the edition of 

1611 [But] as late as 1830, Bibles 

were often printed with serious want of 
accuracy. The last forty years have 
witnessed a considerable improvement, 
and recent editions have left little to be 
desired. The Cambridge Paragraph 
Bible, edited by Dr. Scrivener, is the 
j classic edition of the A. V., and is a 
! monument of minute accuracy and un- 
sparing labor." — Moultox : History of 
the English Bible, pp. 209-11. 

In the Jubilee Memorial of the Amer- 
ican Bible Society, prepared by Rev. 
Isaac Ferris, D. D., LL.D. (New" York, 



1867), it is stated (p. 25) that the Amer- 
ican Bible Society's Version Committee 
in 1847 undertook a "most careful re- 
vision of our English text in order to 
secure its conformity to the British, so 
as to make what should be a standard 
edition." Their final report was made 
in 1851. But inasmuch as their changes 
were many and important, there was a 
constitutional objection to the Society's 
adopting this revision, and then, more- 
over, there was a deep prejudice or re- 
luctance to any alteration ; and there- 
fore the revision was rejected in 1852. 
A new committee was appointed, and the 
Bible, as it came from their hands, with 
some fruits of the labors of the previous 
committee, is now (since 1860) the stand- 
ard of the American Bible Society. 

VI. The Anglo-American Revision op 
the Authorized Version. 
The reasons for desiring a revision 
may be thus stated : (1.) During the 268 
years since our version was finished the 
English language has undergone some 
changes ; some words have become ob- 
solete, and others have changed their 
signification. In this way sentences 
which conveyed a clear and correct 
meaning to our ancestors mislead or 
mystify us. It will be sufficient to in- 
stance such examples as : to ear for to 
plough; to prevent for to go before, to pre- 
cede ; to let for to hinder; carriage for 
baggage. (2.) Immense strides have 
been made in all biblical studies. The 
geography and archaeology of the Holy 
Land, the Hebrew and Greek languages, 
both in grammar and dictionary, are far 
better known now than they could be in 
King James's time. The A. V. is very 
careless and inconsistent in the use of the 
article, the tenses and modes of verbs. 
(3.) The text of the Bible is now in a very 
satisfactory state — much nearer the ipsis- 
sima verba of the inspired writers than 
that known in 1611. " The number of 
the various readings," says Prof. Ezra 
Abbot, " which have been collected from 
more than 500 manuscripts, more than 
a dozen ancient versions, and from the 
quotations in the writings of more than 
a hundred Christian fathers, only attests 
the exuberance of our critical resources, 
which enable us now to settle the true 
text of the N. T. with a confidence and 
precision which are wholly unattainable 

in the case of any Greek or Latin clas- 
sical author : [but] in the time of our 
translators of 1611 only a small fraction 
of our present critical helps was avail- 
able." We are able to appreciate this 
remark when we remember that the best 
texts rely on manuscripts of the fourth 
and fifth centuries, while of our Greek 
and Latin classics many (e. g. iEschylus 
and Sophocles) are transcriptions from 
only one ancient manuscript, and that 
not earlier than the tenth century. 

The Anglo-American Bible revision 
movement originated in the Convoca- 
tion of Canterbury, May 6, 1870, by 
the appointment of a committee of 
eminent biblical scholars and dignita- 
ries of the Church of England to under- 
take the revision in association with 
scholars from other denominations. 
The English committee was divided into 
two companies, one for each Testa- 
ment, who held monthly meetings in 
the Jerusalem Chamber and the Chap- 
ter Library at the deanery of West- 
minster, London. The American com- 
mittee was organized in 1871, on invi- 
tation of the British committee, to 
co-operate with it. It was similarly 
composed of representative scholars of 
different denominations, and met for 
several days of each month in the Bible 
House, New York. The two commit- 
tees embraced about 80 active members 
(exclusive of about 20 more who died 
or resigned after the work began), and 
were in constant correspondence. They 
submitted to each other portions of 
their work as it advanced, and issued one 
and the same revision. The variations of 
the American committee were embodied 
in an appendix. Some American editions 
embody these variations in the text. 

The object set before them was to bring 
King James's version up to the present 
state of the English language without 
changing the idiom and vocabulary, 
and to the present standard of biblical 
j scholarship. It was not the intention to 
i furnish a new version, but merely a con- 
i servative revision of the received version, 
' so deservedly esteemed in all churches. 
And so slight a- e most of the changes 
that the mass of readers and hearers will 
scarcely mark them, while a careful com- 
parison will reveal improvements in 
every chapter and almost every verse. 
The object was to remove acknowledged 



errors, obscurities, and inconsistencies, I 
to make a good and faithful version bet- 
ter and more faithful, and thus to bring 
the old Bible nearer the understanding 
and make it dearer to the heart of Eng- 
lish-speaking Christendom. 

The general principles followed by 
both committees are as follows : 

" (1.) To introduce as few alterations as 
possible in the text of the A. V. consistent- 
ly with faithfulness. 

To limit, as far as possible, the ex- 
pression of such alterations to the language 
of the Authorized and earlier English ver- 

"(3.) Each company to go twice over the 
portion to be revised — once provisionally, 
the second time finally, and on principles 
of voting as hereinafter is provided. 

" (4.) That the text to be adopted be that 
for which t lie evidence is decidedly pre- 
ponderating; and that when the text so 
adopted differs from that from which the 
A. V. was made, the alteration be indicated 
in the margin. 

" (5.) To make or retain no change in 
the text on the second final revision by 
each company except two-thirds of those 
present approve of the same, but on the 
first revision to decide by simple majori- 

"(6.) In every ease of proposed altera- 
tion that may have given rise to discus- 
sion, to deter the voting thereupon till the 
next meeting whensoever the same shall 
be required by one-third of those present 
at the meeting, such intended vote to be 
announced in the notice for the next 

" (7.) To revise the headings of chapters, 
pages, paragraphs, italics, and punctuation. 

"(8.) To refer, on the part of each com- 
pany, when considered desirable, to di- 
vines, scholars, and literary men, whether 
at home or abroad, for their opinions." 

The revised New Testament appeared 
in England May 17, and in America 
May 20, 1881. Several million copies 
were sold in a few months. In the 
United States there were, almost at once, 
upwards of twenty reprints. The New 
Testament for the first time in history 
supplanted the newspaper in popular 
interest. It was sold upon news-stands, 
hawked through the streets, and read on 
all public conveyances. It was the liter- 
ary event of the century. The revised 
Old Testament was completed in 1884, 
and published by the University presses 
in May, 1885. It will now be for 
the churches to decide, through their 
ecclesiastical authorities, whether the 
Anglo-American revision shall supersede 

King James's Version. If the verdict 
be favorable, the British and Foreign 
and the American Bible Societies can 
amend their constitutions so as to allow 
them to publish the revised version. 

VII. Other Versions, and the Dis- 
tribution of the Bible. 
The Bible is now printed in 226 dif- 
ferent languages or dialects. More than 
four-fifths of these versions are the 
product of missionary scholarship and 
zeal. In many cases the very language 
needed to be reduced to a written form 
and permeated with Christian thought 
before a translation could be made. 
The chief agencies in giving the Scrip- 
tures this world-wide distribution are: 

(1.) The British (uul Foreign Bible 
Society, founded March 7, 1801. Its 
predecessors, the most prominent of 
which were the " Society for Promoting 
Christian Knowledge," 1698, and the 
" Society for Propagating the Gospel 
in Foreign Parts," 1 701, had cultivated 
a much narrower field. The honor of 
suggesting a society to send Bibles all 
through the world has been assigned to 
Rev. Joseph Hughes, a Baptist and 
one of the secretaries of the London 
Religious Tract Society. Lord Teign- 
mouth was the first president. Up to 
1878 this society had issued 82,407,062 
copies of the Scriptures. 

(2.) The American Bible Society, 
founded May 8, 1816. The need of a 
national society had been felt for some 
time, but the obstacles in the way pre- 
vented its formation. Hon. Elias Bou- 
dinot, LL.D., was the first president. 
The society had, up to Jan. 1, 1879, is- 
sued .'55,621,262 copies of the Scriptures. 
Twice as many copies of the Bible 
have been circulated in the present cen- 
tury in heathen lands as were issued 
between the first printed Bible (1450- 
] 15.") — no date) and the era of Bible so- 
cieties, in 1804. One hundred and forty- 
nine million copies of Bibles, Testaments, 
and portions have been distributed by 
! the various Bible societies in this and 
j other countries since 1804. And thou- 
sands of copies have been privately 
printed. " The demand for the printed 
Bible has always been great. It is sup- 
posed that within three years after the 
publication of the Great Bible in 1539, 
no less than 21,000 copies were printed. 



Between 1524 and 1611, 278 editions of 
Bibles and Testaments in English were 
printed. In 1611, 1612, 1613, five edi- 
tions of King James's Version were pub- 
lished, besides separate editions of the 
New Testament." — Manual of the Amer- 
ican Bible Society, 1876, p. 34. 

The enormous demand for the Bible 
still continues, and it is a most healthy 
sign. The entrance of God's Word 
giveth light. It is a veritable miracle 
how rapidly its use dissipates moral 
and spiritual darkness. As Chancellor 
Kent once said : " The general distri- 
bution of the Bible is the most effectual 
way to civilize and humanize mankind ; 
to purify and exalt the general system 
of public morals ; to give efficacy to the 
just precepts of international and mu- 
nicipal law ; to enforce the observance 
of prudence, temperance, justice, and 
fortitude, and to improve all the rela- 
tions of social and domestic life." 

BICH'RI {youthful), a progenitor 
of Sheba. 2 Sam. 20 : 1. 

BID'KAR (son of stabbing, i.e. stab- 
ber), a " captain " of Jehu who had rid- 
den in the chariot with Ahab as an up- 
per officer. 2 Kgs. 9 : 25. 

BIER. Luke 7 : 14. The bed or 
frame on which the dead body is con- 
veyed to the grave. Probably it was 
made (as coffins are in modern times) 
more or less expensive in shape and or- 
nament according to the circumstances 
and rank of the deceased. 2 Chr. 16 : 
14. See Burial. 

BIGTHA (gift of God), one of the 
" chamberlains " or eunuchs in the ha- 
rem of King Ahasuerus. Esth. 1:10. 

(gift of God), a chamberlain or eunuch 
who, with Teresh, a fellow-eunuch, 
sought to lay hand on King Ahasuerus. 
Esth. 2:21; 6:2. 

BIG'VAI (happy?). 1. "Children 
of Bigvai" returned with Zerubbabel, 
Ezr. 2:14; Neh. 7:19, and others with 
Ezra. Ezr. 8 : 14. 

2. One of this name was prominent 
under Zerubbabel, and afterward sign- 
ed the covenant. Ezr. 2:2; Neh. 7 : 
7: 10:16. 

BIL'DAD (.son of strife), one of 
Job's three friends who visited him in 
his affliction, and whose arguments in 
justification of God's dealings occupy 
shaps. 8, 18, and 25 of the book of Job. 

Job 2:11. See Job. The name Shu- 
hite is probably derived from the coun- 
try in which he lived, or from Shuah, 
son of Abraham and Keturah, whose 
descendant he may have been. 

BII/EAM (foreigners), a place in 
Manasseh, 1 Chr. 6:70; same as Ibleam 
and Gath-rimmon. Josh. 17 : 17 ; 21: 
25. Porter would locate it near Megiddo, 
on the plain of Esdraelon ; Drake, be- 
hind Jenin, on the same plain, and at 
the ruin Belameh. 

BIL'GAH (cheerfulness). 1. The 
head, in the time of David, of the fif- 
teenth course of the priests. 1 Chr. 
24 : 14. 

2. A priest who returned under Zerub- 
babel. Neh. 12 : 5, 18. 

BII/GAI (cheerfulness), probably 
the same with Bilgah, 2. A priest who 
sealed the covenant. Neh. 10 : 8. 

BII/HAH (timid, modest), the 
handmaid of Rachel, and, by Jacob, 
the mother of Dan and Naphtali. Gen. 
29:29; 35:25. 

BII/HAH. See Balah. 

BII/HAN (modest). 1. A Horite 
chief. Gen. 36 : 27 ; 1 Chr. 1 : 42. 

2. A Benjamite chief. 1 Chr. 7:10. 

BII/SHAN (son of the tongue, i. e. 
eloquent), a companion of Zerubbabel 
on the Return. Ezr. 2:2; Neh. 7 : 7. 

BIM'HAL (son of circumcision, i. e. 
circumcised), an Asherite. 1 Chr. 7 : 

BIN'EA ( fountain), a descendant 
of Saul. IChr. 8:37; 9:43. 

BINNU'I (a building). 1. A Levite. 
Ezr. 8:23. 

2. 3. Two who had foreign wives. 
Ezr. 10 : 30, 38. 

4. A Levite, a builder of the wall. 
Neh. 3 : 24. 

5. The father of some who returned 
with Zerubbabel, Neh. 7 : 15 ; called 
Bani in Ezr. 2:10. 

BIRDS are mentioned as articles of 
food in Deut. 14 : 11, and lists of birds 
not to be eaten are given. Lev. 11 : 13- 
19; Deut. 14 : 12-19. In general, the 
ravenous kinds feeding on flesh are for- 
bidden. From Job 6:6: Luke 11 : 12 
we learn that the eggs of birds were also 
eaten. In the cleansing of the leper 
birds were used in a peculiar way. Lev. 
14 : 4-7. 

There was a humane law in the Jew- 
I ish code which forbade the taking a 



mother-bird, though her young might 
be taken. The common mode of tak- 
ing birds was with a snare. Ps. 124 : 7 ; 
Prov. 7 : 23 ; Am. 3 : 5. A speckled bird, 
Jer. 12 : 9, probably means a vulture 
(in Hebrew), which, as is well known, 
other birds are accustomed to pursue and 
attack. Some authors find etymological 
reasons for reading " hyena" instead of 
" speckled birds " in Jer. 12 : 9. Many 
of the birds of Palestine are similar to 
our own, but, strictly speaking, there is 
but one species common to both coun- 
tries. The house-sparrow (Passer do- 
mesticus), which we have received from 
England, is found in the towns along 
the coast. Of 322 kinds obtained by 
Mr. Tristram in the Holy Land, 172 are 
also found in England, 260 in Europe, 
and 26 are peculiar to Palestine. 

BIR'SHA (son of godlessness), a 
king of Gomorrah. Gen. 14 : 2. 

BIRTH. See Children. 

BIRTHDAYS. The custom of 
making a feast in anniversary of a birth 
is very ancient. We find reference to 
it in Gen. 40 : 20. In regard to the cus- 
tom in Egypt, Wilkinson tells us : " The 
birthdays of the kings were celebra- 
ted with great pomp. They were look- 
ed upon as holy, no business was done 
upon them, and all classes indulged in 
the festivities suitable to the occasion. 
Every Egyptian attached much import- 
ance to the day, even to the hour, of 
his birth." But the Jews, probably on 
this very account, ''regarded their ob- 
servance as an idolatrous custom." 
" The day of our king," spoken of in 
Hos. 7:5, was probably his birthday. 
It was upon Herod's birthday that John 
Baptist was beheaded. Matt. 14 : 6-10. 
The fact that the Herodian family 
observed birthdays would be an addi- 
tional grievance on the part of the 

BIRTHRIGHT. Gen. 25 : 31. 
The first-born son among the Jews 
enjoyed special privileges above his 
brethren, and these privileges were hence 
•ailed his birthright, or his right by 
birth. Among these privileges were, 
•onsecration to the Lord, Ex. 22 : 29 
■•lu consequence of this fact — that God 
bad taken the Levites from among the 
children of Israel, instead of all the 
first-born, to serve him as priests — 
the first-born of the other tribes were 

to be redeemed at a valuation made 
! by the priest, not exceeding five she- 
1 kels, from serving God in that capa- 
| city. Num. 18 : 15, 16; comp. Luke 2 : 
i 22 ff." — Home's Introduction); great 
dignity, Gen. 49 : 3 ; a double por- 
tion of his father's estate, Deut. 21: 17; 
[ and (in the royal families) succession to 
the kingdom. 2 Chr. 21 : 3. Though this 
was not invariably the case. Solomon 
| was a younger son ; so was Jehoahaz, 
| 2 Kgs. 23:31, 36; and so was Abijah. 
2 Chr. 11 : 18-22. The eldest son seems 
to have been regarded, in the father's 
absence, as in some respects his rep- 

The paternal blessing was also in a 
I peculiar sense the right of the first-born, 
though the right itself and all the bless- 
ings of it might be forfeited or trans- 
ferred, as in the case of Jacob and 
Esau, Gen. 25 : 33, Reuben and Jo- 
seph. 1 Chr. 5:1. But whoever enjoy- 
ed it was regarded as invested with 
great dignity and superiority. The 
Jews attached a sacred import to the 
! title " first born." 

Hence the peculiar force and appro- 
priateness of the titles " first born," 
" first begotten," given to the divine 
Redeemer. Rom. 8 : 29 ; Col. 1 : 18 ; 
Heb. 1 : 2, 4, 6. 

BIRZAVITH (olive-source), an 
Asherite. 1 Chr. 7 : 31. 

BISH'LAM (son of pence), a Per- 
sian officer in Palestine at the time of 
the Return who wrote a letter against 
j Jerusalem to Artaxerxes. Ezr. 4 : 7. 

BISHOP. 1 Tim. 3 : 2. The 
: original Greek word means " overseer," 
as Joseph was in Potiphar's house, Gen. 
39 : 4, or as the three thousand six hun- 
i dred men were in Solomon's temple, 2 
; Chr. 2:18, or as Uzzi was of the Le- 
vites. Neh. 11 : 22. In the N. T. the 
I term is synonymous with presbyter or 
: elder, with this difference — that bishop is 
! borrowed from the Greek and signifies 
; the function, presbyter is derived from 
| an office in the synagogue and signifies 
the dignity of the same office. Comp. 
j Acts 20:17, 28; Phil. 1:1: 1 Tim. 3 : 
| Iff".; Tit. 1 : off. These presbyters or 
bishops of the apostolic period were 
the regular teachers and pastors, preach- 
ers and leaders, of the congregations. We 
may imagine, however, that among them- 
selves there would be a division made 



according to individual fitness. See 

BISH'OPRIC. Acts 1: 20 ; 1 Tim. 
3 : 1. The jurisdiction, charge, or office 
of a bishop. 

BITHI / AH (daughter, i. e. wor- 
shipper, of Jehovah), a daughter of 
Pharaoh and wife of Mered. 1 Chr. 

BITH'RON {ravine), a defile or 
tract of country east of the Jordan, 
toward Mahanaim. 2 Sam. 2 : 29. 

BITHYN'IA, a rich Roman prov- 
ince of Asia Minor, on the Black Sea ; 
named only twice in Scripture. Acts 
16:7; 1 Pet. 1:1. 

BITS. See Harness. 

BIT'TER HERBS. Ex. 12:8. 
The Jews were commanded to eat the 
Passover with a salad of bitter herbs ; 
and the Rabbins tell us that such plants 
as wild lettuce, endives, and chicory 
were employed for that purpose, as they 
still are by the Arabs in those regions. 
The use of them on that occasion was 
intended to call to their remembrance 
the severe and cruel bondage from which 
God delivered them when they were 
brought out of Egypt. 

BIT'TERN. Isa. 34:11. Doubt- 
less a correct translation. The bitterns 
belong to the heron tribe, and the Ori- 
ental species differ but slightly from the 
American. A solitary bird, its strange 
booming note is often heard during 
the stillness of the night in fens and 
marshes. The language of prophecy, 
Isa. 14 : 23 and 34 : 11 ; Zeph. 2 : 14, 
imports the utmost solitude and deso- 

BITU'MEN. See Slime. 

BIZJOTH'JAH {contempt of Je- 
hovah), in the south of Judah, Josh. 15 : 
28 ; perhaps same as Baalah and mod- 
ern Deir-el-Beldh. 

BIZ'THA {eunuch), one of the 
seven "chamberlains" or eunuchs of 
Ahasuerus. Esth. 1:10. 

BLAINS. Ex. 9 : 9. Burning pus- 
tules or ulcers, which broke out upon 
the Egyptians and all their beasts, and 
constituted the sixth plague. " It seems 
to have been the black leprosy, a fear- 
ful kind of elephantiasis." — Smith. 
Perhaps reference is made to this plague 
in Deut. 28 : 27. 

BLASPHEMY. Col. 3 : 8. The 
word, in its original use, denotes all 

manner of detraction or calumny, such 
as is expressed by the terms rail, revile, 
speak evil, etc. ; but in the restricted 
sense of the Scriptures and of common 
use, it denotes reproachful, irreverent, 
or insulting language concerning God 
or any of his names or attributes. Lev. 
24: 10-16. Whoever thinks of the cha- 
racter of God as infinitely holy, just, and 
good will not be surprised that this of- 
fence was regarded as very heinous, and 
was punished by stoning. There is no 
reason to suppose that the sin of pro- 
fane swearing, so common at this day, 
is less odious and offensive to God than 
it was in the time of Moses. 

Blasphemy against the Holy Ghost, 
Matt. 12 : 32, such as the Pharisees were 
guilty of, or were in danger of commit- 
ting, when they ascribed the miracle of 
curing the blind and dumb man (who 
was also possessed with a demon) to the 
agency of Beelzebub or Satan, is de- 
clared to be unpardonable. 

It is far worse than " grieving the 
Spirit." Some persons are apprehen- 
sive that they have committed this sin 
and give themselves up to despair, but 
such fears prove that they are still open 
to recovery and pardon. The sin against 
the Holy Ghost implies a state of final 
and hopeless impenitence, and is com- 
mitted by those who have again and 
again wilfully resisted the influences 
and warnings of the Holy Ghost, and 
have made themselves incapable of 
repentance, and consequently of par- 

BLAS'TUS {sprout), the chamber- 
lain of Herod Agrippa I. Acts 12 : 20. 

BLEM'ISH. For a list of cere- 
monial blemishes see Lev. 21 : 18-20 ; 
22 : 20-24. 

ING. Gen. 12:2: 22:17, 18. These 
words are of frequent occurrence in the 
sacred writings, and their particular 
force may generally be determined by 
the connection. Men are said to bless 
God when they ascribe to him the praise 
and glory which are due to him. Ps. 134. 
God blesses men in bestowing upon them 
continually mercies, spiritual and tempo- 
ral. Job 42: 12; Ps. 45: 2. And men 
are said to bless their fellow-creatures 
when, as in ancient times, in the spirit 
of prophecy they predicted blessings to 
come upon them. This was the kind 



of blessing which the patriarchs pro- 
nounced. Gen. 49. So Moses blessed 
Israel. Deut. 33. The form of bless- 
ing prescribed by the Jewish ritual, 
Num. 6 : 23-27, is admirably simple and 
sublime. It was pronounced standing. 
with a loud voice, and with the hands 
raised toward heaven. Luke 24 : 50. 
National blessings and cursings were 
sometimes pronounced. Deut. 27 and 
28 ; Isa. 19 : 25. 

The Cup of Blessing, 1 Cor. 10:16, 
and Cup of Salvation, Ps. 116 : 13, are 
"expressions derived from a custom prev- 
alent among the Jews at their feasts. 
The master of the feast took a cup of 
wine in his hand, and solemnly blessed 
God for it and for all the mercies which 
were then acknowledged. It was then 
passed to all the guests, each of whom 
drank of it in his turn. The aptness 
and force of the figures employed in the 
above passages are thus made obvious. 

See Berachah, Valley of. 

BLIND'NESS is extremely com- 
mon in the East, as all travellers in 
those lands observe. In Egypt espe- 
cially ophthalmia prevails extensively 
among children and adults. The in- 
fliction of blindness was in old times 
a common as well as barbarous punish- 
ment or penalty of resistance to a vic- 
torious enemy. Jud. 16 : 21 ; 1 Sam. 
11 : 2 ; 2 Kgs/25 : 7. There are several 
recorded occasions, when, as translated 
in A. V., God miraculously sent blind- 
ness. Gen. 19 : 11 ; 2 Kgs. 6 : 18 ; Acts 
9:8; 13: 11. In these incidents there was 
not so much an actual, though tran- 
sient, loss of vision as a confusion of 
sight — perhaps really a mental confu- 
sion, which gave all the uncertainty 
of actual blindness, as in Luke 24:16. 
The word " blindness " is likewise em- 
ployed in a spiritual sen<e as meaning 
the sinner's inability to recognize di- 
vine truth : e. g. Horn] 11 : 25 ; Eph. 4:18. 

BLOOD is the fluid of life in the 
animal body. Ex. 29 : 12. Its use was 
expressly prohibited to Noah when 
everything else was freely given him. 
(ion. 9:4. By the Jewish law also it 
was expressly and solemnly forbidden. 
Lev. 17 : 10, etc. The reason of this in- 
terdiction is probably because blood was 
sacredly appropriated. Lev. 17: 11. The 
Jewish ritual abounds with the use of 

blood, Heb. 9 : 22 ; and the manner of 
employing it is stated with minuteness 
in Heb. 9 and 10, where also its use 
and effects are shown in striking con- 
trast with the blood shed upon the cross. 
See also Acts 20 : 28 ; Rom. 5:9; Eph. 
1:7; Col. 1:14; Heb. 7 : 27 ; 1 John 1 : 7. 

The prohibition of eating blood or 
animals that are strangled has been al- 
ways rigidly observed by the Jews. In 
the Christian Church the custom of re- 
fraining from things strangled and from 
blood continued for a long time. In the 
council of the apostles held at Jerusalem, 
Acts 15, it was declared that converts from 
paganism should not be subject to the le- 
gal ceremonies, but that they should re- 
frain from idolatry, from fornication, 
from eating blood, and from such ani- 
mals as were strangled and their blood 
thereby retained in their bodies: which 
precept was observed for many ages by 
the Church. Acts 15 : 20-29. 

The notion that the blood of the vic- 
tims was peculiarly sacred to the gods 
is impressed on all ancient pagan myth- 
ology. See Christ. 

Blood, Avenger of. See Avenge, 
Cities of Refuge. 

BLUE. See Colors. 

BOANERGES [sow of thunder), 
the name Christ gave to James and 
John, probably because of their fiery 
zeal; for proof of which, see Luke 9 : 
54 ; Mark 9:38; comp. Matt. 20 : 20. 

BOAR. Ps.80:13. This is the origi- 
nal stock of the common hog, and when 
hard pressed is a very furious and for- 
midable animal. The wild boar is found 
throughout Europe and the neighboring 

Wild Boar. {After Tristram.) 
parts of Africa and Asia. Travellers tell 
us that it is found in great numbers on 
the banks of the Jordan, among the reeds 



of the Sea of Tiberias, and generally 
among the thickets of the Holy Land. 
In some districts wild boars are so de- 
structive to the vineyards and crops that 
it is necessary at times to keep nightly 
watch against them. — Hartley : Re- 
searches in Greece, p. 234. 

BO'AZ, OR BO'OZ {lovely), was 
a descendant of Judah, Ruth 2 : 1, and 
through him is traced the regular suc- 
cession of Jewish kings. Matt. 1 : 5. 
Boaz was a man of wealth and of great 
respectability. He married Ruth and 
begat Obed, the father of Jesse, the 
father of David. See Ruth. 

BO'AZ (lively), one of the brazen 
pillars erected by Solomon before the 
portico of the temple. Its companion 
was Jachin. They were named for 
their givers or makers, or else had a 
symbolical meaning. 1 Kgs. 7 : 21 ; 2 
Chr. 3 : 17; Jer. 52 : 21. 

BOCH'ERU (youth), the son of 
Azel. 1 Chr. 8 : 38;' 9 : 44. 

BO'CHIM (weepers), so named 
from the weeping of Israel. Jud. 2 : 
1-5. It was west of the Jordan, above 

BO 'HAN (thumb), a Reubenite. 
Josh. 15 : 6 : 18 : 17. 

BOHAN (thumb), STONE OF, 
in the valley of Achor, between Judah 
and Benjamin. Josh. 15 : 6 ; 18 : 17. The 
"stone of the finger," in Wady Daber, 
may be on its site. 

BOIL. See Medicine. 

BOILED. Ex. 9 : 31. The ex- 
pression flax teas boiled means that it 
was podded or nearly in a state to be 
gathered, and of course the loss of it was 
much more severe than it would have 
been at an earlier stage of its growth. 

BOLSTER. See Bed. 

MAID. See Servant. 

BONNETS. See Clothes, Mitre. 

BOOK. What we call books were 
unknown to the ancient Jews, at least 
in their present convenient form. Let- 
ters were engraved on stone, brick, met- 
al (as lead and copper), or wood, and 
written on cloth and skins, and at a 








later period on parchment. Ex. 17:14; 
2 Tim. 4 : 13. Tablets of lead and brass 
or copper of great antiquity have been 
discovered in modern times. 

The earliest mode of preserving in- 
scriptions was by engraving on a rock. 
Comp. Job 19 : 24. The Sinaitic penin- 
sula, especially the Wady Mukatteb (the 
"Sculptured Valley"), and the neigh- 
borhood of Mount Serbal and Mount 
Sinai, are full of rock-inscriptions (call- 
ed the Sinaitic Inscriptions). 

The writing-table mentioned Luke 1 : 
63 was probably a tablet covered with 
wax or otherwise prepared to be written 
upon. Deut. 27 : 2, 3. Such tablets 
were used in England as late as the year 

Leaves and the bark of trees were also 
used, and were often prepared with much 
skill. The people of Ceylon write with 
a bodkin on broad and thick leaves cut 
into narrow slips ; and these leaves, be- 
ing fastened together, make books which 
they call ollas. The missionaries often 
prepared tracts in this form before paper 
and printing were introduced upon the 
island. In Sumatra and among the 
Indians of North America bark is still 
used for making letters and pictures. 

Leather and linen or cotton cloth were 
also used. These were prepared in the 
form of long rolls, 12 or 14 inches wide, 
and fastened at each end to sticks (like 
the rollers to which maps are attached), 
and which were rolled together till they 
met midway. Sometimes these leaves 
were connected in the form of modern 
books, and opened in the same way. In 
this case the sheets were fastened to rods, 
and these rods passed through rings, and 
thus formed the back of the book. 

The writing was generally in capital 
letters and without punctuation or di- 
vision of words ; and when used, the 
reader unrolled the manuscript as far as 
the place which he wished to find, and 
kept before him just so much as he would 

The pages resembled the following in 
their general appearance, though they 
were of course wider and longer than 
these, and were read from right to left : 








John 1:1-5. 



These columns could be divided from 
one another and used separately, as we 
may cut the columns of a newspaper 
which is printed on one side only, and 
arrange the extracts as we like. Some- 
times the reading was what is called 
furrow-wise. The first line was from 
right to left, and the second from left 
to right, and so on alternately, like 
ploughing a field. The roll or book 
of curses which Ezekiel saw was 30 
feet long and 20 wide. The writing 
was usually on one side, but not al- 
ways. Eze. 2 : 10. 

When the roll was done with, it was 
carefully deposited in a case. The cut 
on the next page shows the book of the 
Law rolled upon two cylinders, with the 
seal at one side. 

There were other forms of the scroll, 
and also collections of sheets in the shape 
of a modern book, secured with rings and 

A very good idea may be formed of 
an ancient roll by supposing a common 
newspaper to have rods or rollers at the 
right and left sides. The reader takes 
hold of the rods and unrolls the sheet 
until he comes to the desired column. 
Thus, in Luke 4:17 the phrase " opened 
the book " would properly read " unrolled 
the scroll," and in v. 20 for " closed the 
book " read " rolled up the volume " or 
"scroll." This shows the force of the 
figure, Isa. 34 : 4, where the heavens are 
represented as rolled together as sud- 
denly as the opposite ends of an un- 
rolled scroll fly to meet each other when 
the hand of the reader is withdrawn 
from it. 

A kind of paper was made from the 
stalk of an Egyptian vegetable called 
papyrus, or paper-reed, which is still 
found in various parts of India. See 
Bulrush. The stalk was. slit with a 
needle into plates or layers as broad and 
thin as possible. Some of them were 10 
or 15 inches broad. These strips were 
laid side by side upon a flat horizontal 
surface, and then immersed in the water 
of the Nile, which not only served as a 
kind of sizing, but also caused the edges 
of the strips to adhere together as if 
glued. The sheets thus formed were 
dried in the sun and then covered with 
a fine wash, which made them smooth 
and flexible. They were finally beaten 
with hammers and polished. Twenty 

or more of these sheets were sometimes 
connected in one roll. 

The pen or style*" was made of some 
hard substance, perhaps not unlike the 
instruments used by glaziers to cut 
glass. Jer. 17 : 1. Upon tablets of wax 
an instrument was used, one end of 
which was pointed, to mark the letters, 
and the other broad and flat, to make 
erasures. Pens or styles of copper are 
now used by the Ceylonese. On a soft 
substance like linen or papyrus, the 
marks were painted with a fine hair- 
pencil, as is practised among the Chi- 
nese to this day. 

Most of the Eastern nations now use 
the reed-pen, which is split with an in- 
strument used as we use the penknife. 
Jer. 36 : 23. The pith is removed, and 
the bark or rind, being split like a quill, 
retains and properly sheds the ink. It 
is not hard or stiff enough to be used 
long without mending. See Pen. 

Ink was prepared from a variety of 
substances (see Ink), and those who 
were skilful in writing wore an ink- 
horn fastened to the girdle, Eze. 9 : 
2, which is the present mode among 
the Persians and the Moors of Bar- 
bary. See Inkhorn. 

As tables were unknown, the paper or 
other substance written upon was laid 
upon the knees or held firmly with the 
left hand. 

A sealed book was a roll fastened 
together by a band or string, and a seal 
affixed to the knot, Isa. 29 : 11, as seen 
in the cut. 

Book of the Generation, Gen. 5:1; 
Matt. 1 : 1, signifies the genealogical his- 
tory or records of a family or nation. 

Book op the Living, Ps. 69 : 28, and 
the kindred phrase, Book of Life, Rev. 
21 : 27, are supposed to allude to the 
genealogical lists or registers kept by 
the Jews, from which the names of the 
dead were erased. Isa. 4 : 3. The apt- 
ness and force of the figurative use 
of the terms are sufficiently obvious. 

Books of Judgment. Dan. 7:10. The 
allusion here is probably either to the 
practice of opening books of account 
to settle with servants or laborers, or 
to the custom of the Persian kings to 
have a book in which a daily record is 
made of special services performed by 

* Hence the word style, sienirying one's man- 
ner ot writing— easy style, elegant style, etc. 



any of their subjects, and of the re- 
wards which were given to the indi- 
viduals. Esth. 6 : 1-3. 

Book of the Wars of the Lord, Num. 
21 : 14, Book of Jasher, or the Right- 

Book of the Law closed. 
eous, Josh. 10 : 13 and 2 Sam. 1 : 18, 
and Book of the Chronicles (or an- 
nals) of the kings of Judah and Is- 
rael, 1 Kgs. 14 : 19, 29, are the names 
of ancient writings known to the Jews, 
but not preserved in the sacred canon. 

BOOTH. See Feast of Taber- 

BOOTY. Moses laid down the 
law upon this subject in Num. 31 : 26- 
30. In regard to the army, David 
made the additional rule that those 
who " tarried by the stuff" — the bag- 

gage-guard — should share equally with 
those who fought. 1 Sam. 30 : 24. No 
booty could be taken from the Canaan- 
ites, as they were all, with all they had, 
devoted to destruction. But in wars 
outside of Palestine the practice was 
allowable. Metallic articles were kept 
for holy use. Josh. 6 : 17-19 ; cf. Deut. 

BOOZ, for BOAZ. Matt.l:5; 
Luke 3 : 32. 

BORDER. See Clothes. 

BORROW. See Loan. 

BOSCATH. 2 Kgs. 22 : 1. See 

BOSOM. The dress of the Jews 
was such as allowed them to carry with- 
in a fold in the bosom of the robe what 
could not be carried in the hand. Isa. 
40 : 11 ; Luke 6 : 38. It was also used 
to denote a place of rest and security. 
Hence the term Abraham's bosom is fig- 
uratively spoken of as the abode of Laz- 
arus, and means the same as paradise. 
Luke 16 : 23 ; coinp. 23 : 43. To lean 
on the bosom implied great intimacy. 
John 13 : 23. The position of John, 
leaning on the bosom of the Saviour, 
was easy and natural, since the com- 
pany were reclining at table upon 
couches, and the back of his head came 
near the bosom of Jesus, who was on his 
left. The use of this term, John 1 : 18, 
imports the perfect unity of the Father 
and Son. 

BO'SOR, in 2 Pet. 2 : 15, Greek 
form of Beor. 

BOS'SES, the prominent or pro- 
jecting parts of the buckler, and of 
coui'se the thickest and strongest. Job 

BOTCH, probably the black lep- 
rosy, or elephantiasis. Deut. 28 : 27, 35. 
See Leprosy. 

BOT'TLE. Gen. 21 : 14. Ancient 
bottles were made of the skins of ani- 
mals, which were properly dressed for 
the purpose. The openings of the skin 
were closed except at the neck, through 
which the liquor was to be received and 
discharged, and which was fastened by 
a string, like a bag. They were, of 
course, of different sizes and shapes, as 
the skins of kids, goats, or oxen might 
be used. Bruce describes particularly a 
bottle which he saw in Arabia, made in 
this manner, of an ox-skin, which would 
hold 60 gallons. 



Christian missionaries in Eastern 
countries frequently speak of the goat- 
skins and leathern bottles in which 
they carry water in their journeys. 

Skin-Bottles. (Ayre.) 

"Where the travelling is rough and the 
vessels likely to strike against each i 
other, they are made of the strongest 
material that can be found. The skins 
or bottles used for new wine were of 
the freshest and most flexible kind, 
in order that they might the better 
endure the process of fermentation. 
Matt. 9:17. 

The effect of smoke on a skin-bottle 
would be to blacken and shrivel it. 
Ps. 119 : 83. Water or wine put into 
such a bottle would all run out. Nearly 

Arab W.iter-Cnrrier. 

all the drinking-water now used in Egypt 
is brought from the river Nile in skin- 
bottles, by Arab water-carriers, as shown 
in the picture. 

BOW. See Armor. 

BOW, a posture. Gen. 37: 10. To 
bow down one's self is expres-dve of 
great reverence and humility. Gen. 24 : 

26, 48 ; 1 Kgs. 1 : 53 and 2:19. It was 
a common mode of salutation in the 
East to kneel upon one knee and bow 
the head until it touched the ground. 

It is still the custom in many Eastern 
nations for subjects to kneel before the 
throne of the king and bow their heads 
slowly till they touch the earth. 

BOWELS. As we use the terms 
heart, breast, bosom, so this term is used 
by the sacred writers, evidently in a figu- 
rative sense, for affections or emotions of 
the heart. Col. 3:12; 1 John 3 : 17. 

BOX TREE. Isa. 41 : 19. A 
small evergreen tree, either the same 
with or closely resembling the shrubby 
box of our gardens. One species ( Buxus 
longifolia) is found on Lebanon, and 
may once have been common in Pales- 
tine. It is believed that the Phoenicians 
imported the wood of other species from 
Chittim, and used it with ivory for in- 
laid work. The perfect proportions of 
this tree, its perennial beauty of foliage, 
and its utility illustrate the prosperity 
and grace which God will bestow on 
Zion. Isa, 60:13. 

B()'ZEZ,one of two sharp rocks be- 
tween Geba and Michmash. 1 Sam. 14: 
4. 5. Robinson traced them out in Wady 
Suweineit, but Stanley could not make 
them out. Conder suggests El Hosn. 

(stony heir/ht), a place on the plains of 
Judah. Josh. 15 : 39 ; 2 Kgs. 22 : 1. 
Warren proposes Beshit as its site. 

BOZ'RAH {fortress), two cities. 
1. Bozrah in Edom. Isa. 34 : 6 ; 63:1, 
which was to become a perpetual waste, 
Jer.49:13: Am. 1:12; Mic. 2:12; mod- 
ern Bitseireh, in the mountains of Petra, 
20 miles south-east of the Dead Sea. 

2. Bozrah in Moab. Jer. 48 : 24. 
Judgment has surely fallen upon it. 
Porter thinks it the same as modern 
BuzraJi, where are the ruins of a mag- 
nificent city nearly 5 miles in circuit, 
once having 1 00,000 inhabitants, but 
now only 20 families. It is near the 
Hauran, 60 miles south of Damascus. 
Portions of its massive walls and towers, 
theatre, temples, stone doors and roofs, 
some of the ruins of the work of the early 
inhabitants, perhaps the giants Rephaim, 
and more of the work of later Roman 
builders, are still to be seen in good state 
of preservation. Bozrah at one time had 
17 bishops under its archbishop. 



BRACE LET. An ornament 
(chain or clasp) worn on the arm by 

Bracelets. (British Museum. Frovi Ayre.) 

1. Gold Egyptian Bracelets. 2. Silver Bracelet. 

3. Bronze, with Bell attached, taken from Mummy of 

a Girl. 4. Iron, with Coruelian Setting. 5. Bracelet 

of Cowries. 

both sexes. Gen. 24:30. Among East- 
ern princesses it is a badge of royalty, 
and was probably regarded as such in 
the time of David. 2 Sam. 1:10. The 
royal bracelet was of much richer ma- 
terials, and was worn above the elbow; 


Assyrian Bracelets. (From Nineveh Marbles. 

the common bracelet was worn on the 
wrist. Eze. 16:11. 

BRAMBLE. See Thorns. 

BRANCH. This word is often fig- 
uratively used by the sacred writers. 
Ps. 80:15; John 15: 5, 6. It is also 
one of the titles of the Messiah. Isa. 
11 : 1 comp. with Isa. 53 : 2 ; Zech. 
3 : 8 and 6 : 12. The family of Jesse is 
represented under the figure of the stock 
of a tree firmly rooted, and the coming 
of Christ from the seed of David is 
represented as the shooting forth of a 
branch, which is here called, by way 

of distinction and eminence, " THE 
BKANCH;" for Christ, even in his 
common nature, far surpassed all the 
house of David in the dignity, power, 
and glory of both his person and office. 
BRASS. This compound metal was 
probably unknown in ancient times, but 
bronze, a mixture of tin and copper, 
may sometimes be referred to under 
this name. That which is called brass 
in most passages of the sacred writ- 
ings was doubtless what we call cop- 
per. Gen. 4 : 22 ; Deut. 8 : 9. It was 
used for a variety of purposes about the 
temple, and also for fetters, Jud. 16 : 21 ; 
2 Kgs. 25 : 7 ; armor, 1 Sam. 17 : 5, 6 ; 
and musical instruments. 1 Chr. 15 : 19 ; 
1 Cor. 13 : 1. The words brass, brazen, 
etc., occurring under the words Armor, 
Altar, Book, etc., are used in conform- 
ity with the common English translation 
of the Bible, and not with technical ac- 

BRAZEN SEA. See Laver. 

BREAD. The bread of the Jews 
was generally made of wheat. Barley 
and other grains were sometimes used. 
Jud. 7:13. 

The materials were prepared as in 
modern days. See Mill, Sieve. The 
kneading of the dough was performed 
in kneading-troughs, Gen. 18 : 6 ; Ex. 12 : 
34 ; Jer. 7:18, or wooden bowls such as 
the Arabians use at this day for a like 
| purpose, although some suppose that the 
kneading was done upon a circular piece 
of leather such as is now used in Per- 
1 sia, and which would be more proper- 
\ ly called a kneading-bag, as it draws 
I up like a knapsack. Either of the 
j utensils would be easily transported. 
j Very simple leaven was used in the 
j dough. The loaves were shaped like 
; a plate, and when leavened were ordi- 
; narily of the thickness of one's little 
finger. See Table. These cakes were 
generally baked in either public or pri- 
vate ovens. The fuel was wood or 
dried flower-stalks or grass. Other 
modes of baking were, however, used ; 
as by spreading the dough upon heated 
stones or throwing it into the embers 
of the fire. A pan likewise seems to 
have been used at other times. 2 Sam. 
13 : 9. The unleavened bread was very 
thin, and was broken, not cut. Lam. 4 : 



BRICK, Gen. 11 : 3, was a building- 
material among the Jews, but the size of 
their bricks was much 
larger than that of 
ours. Bricks found 
among the ruins of 
Babylon are a foot 
square, and resemble 
tile rather than brick. 
They were usually 
hardened by the heat 
of the sun, although 
kilns were not un- 
known. 2 Sam. 12 : 
Egyptian Brick qi . y 40 . q . tu^v. 
stamped with the **■ > «Jei. 4<S . y , JNah. 
oval of Thothmes 3 : 14. In lower 
[. (British Mu- Egypt many pictures 
on the walls represent 


the Jews making bricks under the lash 
of the Egyptian taskmasters, in confir- 

4 ; Matt. 26 : 26 ; Mark 14 : 22 ; Luke 
22 : 19. The term bread is often used 
for food or provisions in general. 

Bread-corn, Isa. 28:28, is used for 
wheat, barley, or any other grain from 
which bread was made. 

The figurative expressions bread of 
sorrows, Ps. 127 : 2, and bread of tears, 
Ps. 80 : 5, may denote that the suffering 
of sorrow and the shedding of tears 
had become as much a part of the por- 
tion of every day as one's daily bread. 
So the bread of wickedness, Prov. 4: 17, 
and bread of deceit, Prov. 20:17, de- 
note not only a living or estate obtained 
by fraud and sin, but that to do wick- 
edly is as much the portion of a wicked 
man's life as to eat his daily bread. 

BREAKFAST. See Meals. 

BREASTPLATE. 1. A part of 
the official dress of the Jewish high priest. 
Ex. 28 : 15. It was a piece of embroi- 
dered work, about 10 inches square and 
made double, with a front and lining, 
so as to answer for a pouch or bag. It 
was adorned with twelve precious stones. 
See High Priest. 

The two upper corners were fastened 
to the ephod, from which it was not to 
be loosed, Ex. 28 : 28, and the two lower 
corners to the girdle. The rings, chains, 
and other fastenings were of gold or rich 
lace. It was called the memorial, Ex. 
28 : 12, 29, inasmuch as it reminded the 
priest of his representative character in 
relation to the twelve tribes ; and it is 
also called the breastplate of 
judgment, Ex. 28 :15, per- 
haps because it was worn by 
him who was instrumentally 
the fountain of justice and 
judgment to the Jewish 
Church. Others think it is 
because the Urim and Thum- 
mim were annexed to it. See 
Urim and Thimmim. 

2. The breastplate was also 
that article of ancient armor 
which protected the breast. 
Eph.6:14. See Armor. Its 
figurative use in the passage 
above cited, and also in Isa. 
59 : 17. is sufficiently obvious. 

BREECHES, a kind Jewa and Ca P tlve8 makin i Bricks in Egypt. 

of drawers, reaching from the loins to the I BRIDE, BRIDE' GROOM, 
thighs, worn by the priests. Ex. 28 : 42. BRIDE-CHAMBER. See Mar- 

LORD. See Brother. BRI'DLE. See Harness. 


Assyrian Brick from Nimroud, inscribed with 
Shalmaneser's Name and Title. {Ayre.) 

mation of the account in the book of 
Exodus, 1:11; 5 : 7-14. 



BRIERS. See Thistle. 

BRIG'ANDINE. Supposed to be 
the same with the habergeon and coat 
of mail. Jer. 46 : 4. See Armor. 

BRIMSTONE. Ps. 11 : 6. Sul- 
phur, a well-known mineral substance, 
exceedingly inflammable, and which 
when burning emits a suffocating smell. 
We are told that the cities of the plain 
were destroyed by a rain of fire and 
brimstone. There is nothing incredi- 
ble in this, even if we suppose only 
natural agencies were employed. Like 
many other travellers, the writer has 
pieces of pure sulphur and of asphalt 
or mineral pitch, both found in that 
vicinity in abundance and highly in- 
flammable. Volcanic action might 
easily have filled the air with inflam- 
mable substances, falling down in 
streams of liquid fire upon those de- 
voted cities. 

This word is often figuratively em- 
ployed. Job 18 : 15 ; Isa. 34 : 9 ; Rev. 21 : 
8. Whether the word is used literally or 
not in the passages which describe the 
future sufferings of the wicked, we may 
be sure that it expresses terrible pun- 

a term Avhich properly denotes the near- 
est consanguinity — that is, male children 
of the same parents, as in Gen. 4 : 2 and 
42:13, but sometimes persons of more 
remote kindred or of the same nation, 
Gen. 13 : 8 : Esth. 10 : 3 ; Acts 7 : 25, 37 
and 13 : 26, or even those who are close- 
ly united in affection. 2 Sam. 1 : 26. In 
the N. T. the term is more frequently 
applied to the spiritual relationship 
which the true followers of Christ sus- 
tain to him and to each other. Matt. 12 : 
50 ; Rom. 14 : 1 ; 2 Thess. 2 : 13. 

" The Brethren op the Lord." — 
The N. T. repeatedly speaks of brethren 
(and also of sisters) of Jesus, and names 
four of them — James, Joseph, Simon, and 
Judas. There are three theories about the 
degree of this relationship. 1. The sim- 
plest explanation is that they were the 
full brothers of Jesus, or younger children 
of Joseph and Mary. This is the natural 
deduction from the context, Matt. 1:25; 
13 : 55. But the feeling of reverence 
for the virgin mother, the value placed 
upon celibacy in the early Church, 
the instinctive shrinking from regard- 
ing Mary as an ordinary woman, bear- 

ing children in sorrow, and that, too, 
after the Holy Ghost had overshadowed 
her and she had given birth to the Mes- 
siah, — have suggested to the Roman and 
Greek Churches and to many Protestants 
two other theories. 2. That they were 
the children of Joseph by a former 
marriage. So taught Epiphanius and 
the ancient Greek Church. 3. That 
they were the children of Mary, the 
wife of Alpheus, the supposed sister of 
the Virgin Mary, and hence that they 
were Christ's cousins, and among the 
apostles. So St. Jerome and the Ro- 
man Church. Lange has modified this 
view by supposing that Alpheus was 
the brother of Joseph, and that be- 
cause he died early they were adopt- 
ed by Joseph into his family, which 
is extremely improbable. The strong- 
est objection to 1 is that Jesus com- 
mended his mother to John. John 19 : 
| 26. 2 is not open to any grave objec- 
j tion. 3 is beset with difficulties: (1.) 
: It does violence to the natural and 
! usual meaning of the word " brother," 
while the N. T. has a special term for 
"cousins." Col. 4:10; Lukel:36. (2.) 
It assumes that two sisters had the same 
name, Mary. (3.) It fails to explain 
! how these brethren could also be apos- 
I ties, while we are told that they did not 
believe in Jesus before the resurrection 
and treated him rather disrespectfully. 
John 7 : 5. (4.) It is probable that 
Salome, and not Mary, was the sister of 
our Lord's mother. John 19 : 25. The 
natural view furnishes an argument in 
favor of the historical character of the 
BUCK'LER. See Armor. 
BUILDINGS. See Dwellings. 
BUK'Kl (wasting). 1. The Danite 
chief chosen of the Lord to represent 
his tribe in the division of the Land 
of Promise. Num. 34 : 22. 

2. One of the high-priestly line. 1 Chr. 
6 : 5, 51 ; Ezr. 7 : 4. Probably he was 
never the high priest. 

BUKKIAH (wasting from Jeho- 
vah), the chief of the sixth division of 
singers. 1 Chr. 25:4, 13. 
BUL. See Month. 
BULLS. Cattle, being often left to 
roam for years at pleasure, became half 
wild. In the rich pastures of Bashan 
the bulls were strong and ferocious. Ps. 
22 : 12. In Deut. 14 : 5 and Isa. 51 : 20 



there is a Hebrew word translated " wild 
bull" which is believed to mean the oryx 
( Oryx leucoryx), a large and powerful an- 
telope still found on the borders of Pal- 
estine. Its chief means of defence are 
its sharp horns, often more than 3 feet 
in length, which gracefully curve over 
its back, but which in conflict, by bend- 
ing the neck, are thrown forward. When 
entangled "in a net" these horns would 
be a great disadvantage. 

BULRUSH, RUSH, a large 
sedge (Cyperua papyruv) still found upon 
Lake Merom and the northern shores of 
the Sea of Galilee. It was formerly abun- 
dant in Egypt, but has now disappeared. 
Upon the upper Nile it is still found, and 
it is used by the modern Abyssinians 
for constructing boats. Ex. 2:3-5; Isa. 

The bulrush grows in shallow water 
or mire. Job 8:11. It has an unbranch- 
ing straight, trian- 
gular culm, termi- 
nating in a large 
head (umbel) of 
small and somewhat 
drooping stems, as 
shown in the cut, 
bearing the chaffy 
fruit on their ex- 
tremities. The 
stalk is usually 
about 10 feet high 
and 2 or 3 inches in 
diameter at the 
base. An area of 
papyrus sur- 
mounted by its 
beautiful tufted 
plumes is a fine 

From this plant 
paper was first 
made and derived 
its name. See 

See War. 

BU'NAH {dis- 
cretion), one of Ju- 
dah's descendants. 
1 Chr. 2:25. 

BUN'NI (6ui70 

2. One who sealed the covenant. Neh 

3. A Levite. Neh. 11 : 15. 


1. A Levite. Xeh. 

Bunni is said to have been the Jewish 
name of Nicodemus. — Ewuld. 

BURDEN. This word, when it is 
used in connection with some city or 
nation (as the burden of Moab, the 
burden of Nineveh, etc.), expresses the 
disastrous and calamitous import of 
the prophecy. The burden of the des- 
ert of the sea (Babylon), the burden of 
the valley of vision (Jerusalem), and 
similar expressions, are explained by 
their subject or connection. The phrase 
is frequently used by Isaiah. Isa. 13 : 1 ; 
15:1, etc. 

BURIAL, BURY. Gen. 23:4; 
Matt. 26 : 12. It was customary among 
the Jews, and ancients generally, for 
the children or near kindred to close 
the eyes of the dying. Gen. 46 : 4. 
A loud and general wailing followed 
the decease, John 11 : 19, 31, 33, and 
continued many days after burial. The 
body of the deceased was washed and 
laid out. Acts 9 : 37. It was wrapped 
in folds of linen cloth, and the head 
bound around with a napkin. It is 
said that Lazarus was bound " hand 
and foot with grave clothes," John 
11 : 44, and it is supposed by many 
that each limb had its separate wrap- 
per, as it was customary in Egypt to 
wrap even each finger in a separate 
cloth or band, so that hundreds of 
yards of cloth are often unwound from 
one of their mummies. When thus 
bound around, it was placed on a bier, 
in readiness to be borne to the grave. 
See Bier, Embalm. 

The climate, and the uncleanness 
which was contracted, under the law, 
from contact with a dead body, or even 
by coming into the same apartment 
with it, would naturally lead to the cus- 
tom of early interments. In Persia, we 
are told, it is not customary to keep the 
dead over two or three hours, and the 
European Jews universally bury their 
dead early. There were many excep- 
tions in this respect, however. The 
practice of embalming was not general 
among the Jews, though spices, etc., 
were used in their burials. 2 Chr. 16 : 
14; John 19:40. Jacob and Joseph, 
whose bodies were embalmed, both died 
in Egypt, where the art of embalming 
was very skilfully practised. In Jacob's 
case we are told that Joseph commanded 
his servants the physicians to embalm 



his father, and then he was placed in a 
coffin in Egypt, and thence his body was 
carried to Machpelah, in Canaan, and 
buried. Gen. 50 : 2, 7, 13. Coffins were 
used in Egypt and Babylon, but are un- 
known in the East even at the present 
day, except when a body is to be con- 
veyed to a distant place. See Embalm. 

All civilized nations have agreed in at- 
tending with some solemnity to the bur- 
ial of their dead. Among the Jews the 
bier was followed to the grave by the near- 
est relations and other friends. 2 Sam. 3 : 
31 ; Luke 7 : 12. Other persons attend- 
ed, and sometimes mourners (or rather 
wallers by profession) were employed to 
attend the body. Jer. 9 : 17 ; Eze. 24 : 
17; Am. 5:16; Matt. 9:23. This is 
the custom now in many Eastern na- 

Certain places were appropriated by 
the Jews to the purpose of burying the 
dead, and they were both public and 
private. Gen. 23 : 4 : 50 : 13 ; Jud. 8 : 32 ; 
16 : 31 ; 2 Sam. 2 : 32 : 21 : 14 ; 2 Kgs. 
23 : 6 ; Jer. 26 : 23. They were usually 
selected in gardens, 2 Kgs. 21 : 18, 26 ; 
John 19 : 41 ; or fields, Gen. 23 : 11 ; or 
caves in the sides of the mountains, 
2 Kgs. 23 : 16, 17 ; or in rocks, Isa. 22 : 

16 ; and to be unburied was regarded as 
exceedingly disgraceful. 1 Sam. 17 : 44— 
46 ; 2 Kgs. 9:10; Ps. 141 : 7 ; Jer. 8 : 2 
and 22 : 19. The grave was called the 
house or home of the dead. Job 
30 : 23 ; Eccl. 12 : 5. The burial- 
places were usually in retired 
situations, and hence were the 
resort of demoniacs, Matt. 8 : 28, 
and were usually without the city 
walls. Kings and prophets alone, 
it would seem, were buried with- 
in the walls. Josh. 24 : 30, 33 : 1 
Sam.25:l; 28:3: 2 Kgs. 21:18 ; 
2 Chr. 16 : 14; 24: 16; 33:20; 
Neh. 3 : 16. Though solitary, 
they were selected with reference 
to shade, prospect, etc. Gen. 23 : 

17 ; 35 : 8 : 1 Sam. 31 : 13. 
The desire to be buried with 

one's kindred was very strong, 2 
Sam. 19 : 37; and it is remark- 
able that the Jews, as a people, 
in all their dispersions and suf- 
ferings, retain an ardent desire to be 
buried in their own land, especially 
around Jerusalem. 

It was not unusual for a single family 

to haA r e near their dwelling-house a 
small building without door or window, 
built of stone or other durable mate- 
rial, which was called the sepulchral 
house or family mansion for the dead. 

The following description of the tombs 
of the Judges is taken from Baedeker's 
Palestine and Syria, p. 238 : On the 
western side of the rock there is a small 
fore-court, leading to a vestibule, from 
which is entered the tomb-chamber. 
The portal was once capable of being 
closed from within. On the left side 
of the chamber are 7 shaft-tombs, 
above which, at irregular distances, 
are 3 vaulted niche-tombs, and at the 
back of these again there are several 
shaft-tombs. In the western wall is a 
niche. Adjoining this first chamber 
on the east and south are 2 others, 
on about the same level, and 2 on a 
lower level. They have tombs on three 
sides. A passage with 3 tombs de- 
scends from the first to the north-east- 
ern chamber, which contains 13 tombs. 
The other side-chamber contains no 

The sepulchres of the Jews were 
sometimes expensively built and adorn- 
ed or garnished, and were whitened at 
short intervals, so as to make them 
conspicuous, that they might be avoid- 
ed, as contact with them occasioned 
ceremonial uncleanness. Hence the 

Plan of Tombs of the Jud 

force of our Lord's reproof. Matt. 23 : 
27. Sometimes titles or inscriptions 
were placed on them. 2 Kgs. 23 : 17. 
To build a sepulchre for a man was an 



expression of respect and honor. Matt. 
23 : 29 ; Luke 11 : 48. 

The most famous sepulchres in Pales- 
tine are the Machpelah, the burial-place 
of the patriarchs, under the great 
mosque of Hebron, to which, however, 
no stranger is admitted ; the sepulchre 
of Joseph, near Jacob's well, in Sa- 

Tomb of the Judges. (From Photograph by Good.) 

maria ; the tombs of the kings and the 
tombs of the Judges, near Jerusalem : 
and the supposed sepulchre of Christ, in 
the church of the Holy Sepulchre, in 

and >niTTiM-\voon. 


BUSH. Mark 12: 26; Luke 20: 37. 
In these passages reference is made to 
that section of Scripture in which the 
account of the burning bush is to be 
found, and not to the bush itself. 

BUSHEL. See Measures. 

BUT'LER, an honorable officer 
of the king's household, called "cup- 
bearer "' Nen. 1 : 11, it being his duty to 
fill and bear the cup or drinking-vessel 
to the king. The chief butler had the 
charge and oversight of the rest. Gen. 
40 : 1-13. 

BUTTER. As this word is used 
in the Scriptures, it probably means 
sour or coagulated milk, which, when 
mingled with water, is still regarded 
as a very agreeable and refreshing 
beverage by Eastern nations. Gen. 
18 : 8. Their butter, such as it was. 
might have been sometimes clarified 

and preserved in jars, as at the present 
day in Asia, and when poured out re- 
sembles rich oil. 

The figurative expression in Job 29 : 
6, " I washed my steps with butter," 
denotes primarily the abundance with 
which the patriarch was blessed; but 
it is also supposed by some to refer to 
the great quantities of cream which 
his herds produced, and which were 
trodden into butter. This fanciful in- 
terpretation aside, the passage seems 
to be self-explanatory, the figurative 
allusion to butter having the same 
force and effect as that to oil. 

The place of butter as a general ar- 
ticle of food in the East was supplied 
in some measure by the vegetable oil 
which was so abundant. 

Butter was made by pouring the milk 
into a goat-skin, and then shaking or 
treading it to and fro in a uniform di- 
rection until the separation of the but- 
ter took place. The butter mentioned 
in Jud. 5 : 25 was probably cream, or a 
preparation of which cream was a com- 
ponent part. It is not improbable that 
the bottle of milk in the passage cited 
was no other than a skin which had 
been used as a churn, and that the re- 
freshment was butter-milk, presented 
in the richest vessel that was at hand. 
Butter-milk is still esteemed a most re- 
freshing beverage by the Arabs. 

Butter and honey were used together, 
and were esteemed among the choicest 
productions of the land. And travel- 
lers tell us that the Arabs now use 
cream or new butter mixed with honey 
as a principal delicacy. 

BUZ {contempt), a territory: per- 
haps named from Buz, and probably 
in northern Arabia. Jer. 25 : 23 ; Gen. 

BUZ (contempt). 1. A son of Abra- 
ham's brother Nahor. Gen. 22 : 21. 

2. A Gadite. 1 Chr. 5 : 14. 

BU'ZI (contempt), the father of Eze- 
kiel the prophet. Eze. 1 : 3. 

BUZ'ITE, THE. Elihu is so 
called, Job 32:2,6; probably because 
he was the descendant of Buz. Gen. 

BYTHINIA. See Bithvma. 




CAB. See Measures. 

CAB'BOIV, a place in Judah. Josh. 
15 : 40. Three places have been suggest- 
ed as its site — el-Kufeir, 10 miles south- 
east of Ashkelon : el-Kubeibeh, near Beit 
Jibrin ; and Abu Knbiis. 

CABINS, Jer. 37 : 16, or CELLS, 
were probably niches or apartments 
•within the dungeon, for the separate 
confinement of prisoners. The idea 
conveyed is, that the prophet suffered 
the most severe and loathsome impris- 

CA'BULt 1. A place in Asher, Josh. 
19:27; now Kabul, 10 miles south-east 
of Accho. 

2. A name of the land containing 20 
cities given by Solomon to Hiram, 1 Kgs. 
9 : 10-13, in a region of Galilee east of 
Accho. The word has no special mean- 
ing in Hebrew. 

CESAR, the official title of the 
Roman emperors. It is borrowed from 
the famous Julius Caasar. It occurs 
about 30 times in the N. T., and is ap- 
plied to Augustus, Luke 2:1; Tiberius, 
Luke 3:1; Claudius, Acts 11 : 2S ; and 
Nero, Acts 25 : 8. Such Jews as were 
Roman citizens had the right of appeal 
to Caesar, Acts 25 : 11. who was their 
ruler. See separate names. 



CESARE'A, the chief Roman city 
of Palestine in Xew Testament times. ' 
It was on the Mediterranean, about 41 
miles south of Acre, and 47 miles in a j 
direct line north-west of Jerusalem, j 
It had a harbor protected by an arti- 
ficial wall or breakwater. 

History. — Originally it was called 
"Strato's Tower." Herod the Great 
built a city there, B. c. 10, and named 
it in honor of Augustus Caesar. Herod 
Agrippa I. died there. Acts 12: 19-23. 
Philip the evangelist lived there, 8 :40 ; 
21 : 8, 16, and Cornelius, 10 : 1-24. Paul 
frequently visited it, 9 : 30 : 18 : 22 : 21 : 
8 ; 23 : 33 ; was in bonds there two years. 
24:27; it was the official residence of 

Festus and of Felix. Vespasian was 
declared emperor there. It had a learn- 
ed school and an episcopal see; was the 
birthplace of Procopius ; the residence 
for a time of Origen ; of Eusebius, the 
historian, who was bishop of Cassarea ; 
was a noted city in the time of the 
Crusades ; was twice rebuilt by the 
Christians ; fell into decay i and is 
now in ruins. It is called Kaisari- 
eh. Large quantities of the building- 
stones have been carried to other towns 
and used for building. Stanley calls it 
the most desolate site in Palestine, with 
no signs of human life, and the nearest 
road passes at a distance from the ex- 
tensive ruins. 

Greek Paneas, now called Banias by 
the Arabs, is a town at the base of Mount 
Hermon, about 20 miles north of the Sea 
of Galilee and 45 miles south-west of Da- 
mascus. It was the northern limit of our 
Lord's journeys, Matt. 16 : 13 ; Mark 
8 : 27, and was probably Baal-gad of 
Old Testament history. It was here 
that Peter, in the name of all the other 
apostles, made that fundamental con- 
fession of faith in Christ as the Son of 
God and the Saviour, and that Christ 
uttered the prophecy concerning the 
indestructible character of his Church. 
Matt. 16 : 16 ff. The gushing waters of 
the sources of the Jordan and the im- 
movable rocks of Mount Hermon were 
in full view when our Lord spoke those 
words, and served to illustrate their 
meaning. The landscape is one of the 
most beautiful in Palestine, and has 
been called the Syrian Tivoli. 

History. — The town is remarkable for 
its physical and historical associations. 
It was near two important sources of 
the Jordan ; its ancient classical name 
was Paneion, in commemoration of the 
sanctuary of the god Pan : it was en- 
larged by Philip the Tetrarch, and 
named Csesarea-Philippi to distinguish 
it from the other Caesarea, on the Med- 
iterranean ; later on it was called Nero- 
nias by Herod Agrippa II.; it became 
the seat of a bishopric; it was repeatedly 

Csesarea-Philippi, or Banias. {After Photographs of Frith and Good.) 

Sources of the Jordan near Banias. (After Photographs of Frith and Good.) 



taken during the Crusades. It is now 
called Banias, and has about 50 houses, 
many ruins of columns, towers, temples, 
a bridge, and of a remarkable castle. 
The place is now noted for one of 
the chief sources of the Jordan, which 
rushes in clear crystal springs from be- 
neath the rocks of Mount Hermon, and 
flows rapidly towards Dan, uniting with 
another source below that town. 

Phil. 4 : 22, was Paul's phrase for the ser- 
vants and dependents in the palace of the 
Roman emperor, some of whom were con- 
verts. It is unlikely that any members 
of the imperial family are meant, al- 
though the expression (as Lightfoot re- 
marks) " might include equally the high- 
est functionaries and the lowest menials." 

CA'IAPHAS {depression) was the 
high priest of the Jews, A. n. 27-36, and 
therefore at the time of our Saviour's trial. 
John 11 : 49, 51. The office was formerly 
held for life, but at this time it was filled 
and vacated at the pleasure of the Roman 
government. The raising of Lazarus 
roused the Sanhedrin to action, and 
Caiaphas turned their thoughts toward 
the execution of the hated and feared 
Prophet by deliberately advising his 
death on the score of expediency. His 
language was unconsciously prophetic. 
John ll : 49-52. 

After Christ's arrest he was arraigned 
before Caiaphas. A vain effort having 
been made to secure false testimony 
sufficient for his condemnation, Cai- 
aphas at last adjured him to declare 
whether he was indeed the Christ, the 
Son of God. On Jesus's answering af- 
firmatively, Caiaphas pretended to be 
so shocked at his supposed blasphemy 
that he declared all further witness was 
unnecessary to convict him, and the 
council unanimously condemned him to 
death. Matt. 26 : 65-68. 

As Caiaphas had no power to inflict 
the punishment of death, Christ was 
taken from him to Pilate, the Roman 
governor, John 18 : 28, that his execu- 
tion might be duly ordered. See An- 
nas. Before Caiaphas, Peter and John 
were brought for trial. Acts 4 : 6. 

CAIN {possession), the first-born of 
Adam and Eve. Gen. 4:1. Welcomed 
as the promised deliverer, he disap- 
pointed his parents' dearest hopes and 
proved to be of a bad heart, for out of 

envy because his brother's sacrifice had 
been accepted and his own rejected, he 
slew his brother. See Abel. 

For this crime he was banished from 
his home. But God, remembering mer- 
cy in the midst of wrath, gave him 
some sign or mark whereby he would 
have protection from attacks likely to 
be made upon him as the accursed of 
God. He then went to the land of Nod, 
to the east of Eden : after the birth of 
his son Enoch (and perhaps other chil- 
dren), he began to build a city — t. e. a 
village of rude huts, as distinguished 
from the movable tents of the nomads. 
Gen. 4:16, 17. See Nod. 

CAIN (lance), in the mountains of 
Judah, Josh. 15 : 57 ; perhaps modern 
Yakin, south-east of Hebron. 

CAI'NAN (possession, or a smith). 
1. The son of Enos. Gen. 5 : 9-14 ; Luke 
3 : 37. He is called Kenan, which is the 
correct form, in 1 Chr. 1 : 2. He lived 
910 years. 

2. A son of Arphaxad, Luke 3 : 36 ; 
but as the name is not found in the He- 
brew, it is probably an unwarranted 
interpolation into the Septuagint, and 
thence copied b} r Luke into his Gospel. 

CAKE. See Bread. 

CA'LAH (old age), one of the old- 
est of Assyrian towns : founded by 
Nimrod, Gen. 10 : 11, and probably for 
a time the capital of the Assyrian king- 
dom. Layard, Porter, and Kalisch lo- 
cate it at Kileh-Sherghat, on the Tigris, 
40 miles below Nimroud, where there is 
a vast ruin 3 miles in circuit. The 
Rawlinsons, Geo. Smith, and others, 
place it at Nimroud, where are ruins cov- 
ering about 1000 acres. They indicate 
a town in the form of an irregular quad- 
rangle, surrounded by a wall, flanked 
with towers, and pierced with gates. 
The remains of palaces, temples, and a 
famous tower or pyramid form a mound 
of ruins, 600 yards long, with a cone 
140 feet high. See Assyria and Ar- 

CALAMUS, Song Sol. 4: U : Eze. 
27 : 19, or SWEET CALAMUS, 
Ex. 30: 23, or SWEET CANE, Isa. 
43 : 24 : Jer. 6 : 20. All probably names 
for the same plant. It seems to have been 
an aromatic reed brought "from a far 
country." Lemon-grass (Andropogon) 
is "a plant of remarkable fragrance 
and a native of Central India, where it 



{Schuff's "Popu- 
lar Commentary.") 

is used to mix with ointments, on ac- 
count of the delicacy of its odor." Cal- 
amus may have 
been a species of 

(tHwtenance), a Ju- 
dite. 1 Chr. 2:6; 
probably same 
with Chalcol. 1 
Kgs. 4 : 31. He 
was one of the 
four sages whom 
Solomon excelled 
in wisdom. 

a vessel for boiling 
flesh for any use. 
ceremonial or do- 
mestic. 1 Sam. 2: 
14; 2 Chr. 35:13; 
Job 41:20; M ; - Eeeds - 

CALEB (capable). 1. The son of 
Hezron, of the tribe of Judah, and 
father of Hur. 1 Chr. 2:9 (where he is 
called Chelubai), 18, 19, 42, 46, 48. 

2. One of the twelve spies sent by 
Moses into Canaan. Num. 13 : 6. He 
and Joshua were the only adults born 
in Egypt who entered the land as con- 
querors, because they brought a truth- 
ful report, while the other ten were 
frightened, told exaggerated stories of 
the native population, and spread dis- 
content and despair. Caleb and Joshua 
assured the people that they might eas- 
ily gain possession of Canaan. In return 
for these assurances, the people proposed 
to stone them. A plague from the Lord 
broke out. and the lyin^ spies were all 
killed. Num. 13 and 14. Forty-five 
years afterward, when the conquest 
was completed and the land apportion- 
ed among the tribes, Caleb, being then 
eighty-five years of age. applied to 
Joshua for his share, reminding him of 
the promise of God. by which he and 
Joshua were excepted from the general 
curse of the people, and proposed to 
take, as his share of the land. Kirjath- 
arba, the stronghold of the giants and 
the centre of their fortifications. His 
request was granted, and he accordingly 
attacked and subdued Kirjath-arba. and 
thence proceeded to Kirjath-sepher, 
another stronghold, afterward called 
Debir. Here he proposed to give his 

i daughter Achsah in marriage to the 
man who should capture the city. His 
nephew, Othniel, undertook the enter- 
prise and succeeded, and received the 
promised reward. Caleb's possessions 
were called bv his name. Josh. 14 and 
15 : 1 Sam. 30 : 14. 

3. A Caleb, the son of Hur, is men- 
tioned in 1 Chr. 2 : 50. He may be 
identical with the spy. 

CALEB (a dog), the district in 
Judah, between Hebron and Carmel. 
assigned to Caleb. 1 Sam. 30:14. 

CALF. Gen. 18 : 7. A fatted calf 
was regarded by the Jews as the choicest 
animal food. l*Sam. 28 : 24 : Am. 6:4; 
Luke 15 : 23. The allusion in Jer. 34 : 
IS is to an ancient custom of ratifying 
a contract or covenant in the observance 
of which an animal was slain and divi- 
ded, and the parties passed between the 
parts, signifying their willingness to be 
so divided themselves if the}- failed to 
perform their covenant. Gen. 15 : 9, 
10, 17. 

Calf, Molten, Ex. 32 : 4, was an idol- 
god prepared by Aaron in compliance 
with the request of the children of Is- 
rael, who had become impatient at the 
absence of Moses and desired some visi- 
ble image or representation of the Deity. 
See Aarox. It was probably made of 
wood and thickly overlaid with gold. 

The golden calves of Jeroboam, 1 Kgs. 
12 : 28, were objects of worship set up by 
that king in the land of Israel to prevent 
the ten tribes from resorting to Jerusa- 
lem to worship, and so more effectually 

Bronze Figure of Apis. {Wilkinson.) 
to separate them from the house of Da- 
vid. One of the idols was in Dan and 



the other in Bethel, the two extremes 
of his kingdom. It is supposed this 
wicked king had become acquainted 
with the forms and objects of idola- 
trous worship while he dwelt in Egypt. 
1 Kgs. 11 :40. His sin is almost always 
mentioned whenever his name is used. 
See Jeroboam. 

Calves op our Lips, Hos. 14 : 2, is 
a figurative expression signifying the 
fruits of our lips, or our offerings of 
praise to God. Calves were used in 
sacrifices, and we are to render praises 
and thanksgivings to God as the offer- 
ing of our lips. Heb. 13 : 15. 

CAL'JVEH {fortified place?), a city 
of Chaldsea founded by Nimrod. Gen. 
10 : 10 ; Am. 6:2; probably the same 
as Calno, Isa. 10 : 9, and Canneh, Eze. 
27 : 23. Some have proposed to locate 
Calneh at Ctesiphon, or Kileh-Sherghat, 
on the Tigris, 40 miles below Nimroud. 
Rawlinson and others, however, place 
ancient Asshur at Kileh-Sherghat, and 
identify Calneh with Niffer. The ruins 
at Niffer are 60 miles north-west of War- 
ha, and on the east side of the Eu- 
phrates, but 30 miles from the present 
course of the river. They are conceded 
to be of very great antiquity, and are 
divided into nearly equal groups by a 
deep ravine or channel, 120 feet wide, 
apparently the dry bed of a river which 
once ran through the town. Inscriptions 
found in the mounds indicate that the 
ancient name of the city was Nipur, 
probably the Nopher of the Talmud, 
and hence the Calneh of Genesis. 

CALVARY {skull), the place 
where our Lord was crucified, so call- 
ed from its conical shape. There is 
no Scripture warrant for the popu- 
lar phrase "Mount Calvary." It was 
simply an elevation. Tradition places 
the site at the modern church of the 
Holy Sepulchre, within the present 
walls of Jerusalem. This view is stout- 
ly maintained by George Williams, Rit- 
ter, Krafft, Raumer, Rosen, De Saul- 
cy, Sepp, Tischendorf, and several of 
the members of the British Palestine 
Survey. It is as stoutly disputed by 
Robinson, Tobler, John Wilson, Bar- 
clay, Thomson, Bonar, Meyer, Ewald, 
S. J. Andrews, and others. 

The arguments turn chiefly on the 
course of the second wall of Josephus 
— whether it ran so as to include or 

to exclude the present church of the Holy 
Sepulchre. The evangelists place Calva- 
rv distinctly outside of the citv in Matt. 
28 : 32 : Heb. 13 : 12 ; John 19 : 20, 41. 
The church of the Holy Sepulchre is 
inside the present city, which is much 
smaller now than in the time of Christ. 
If it was the site of Calvary, it was 
outside the second wall, which recent 
discoveries render improbable. Mr. 
Schick and Bishop Gobat of Jerusalem 
locate Calvary near the Grotto of Jere- 
miah, north-west of the Damascus gate ; 
Fisher Howe and Conder, on the Grotto 
of Jeremiah ; Barclay suggests a place 
near Gethsemane. As in the case of 
Moses, so in that of Jesus, it may be best 
that the exact place of his crucifixion and 
burial remain unknown and out of the 
reach of profanation and idolatry. 

CAM'EL, a well-known and highly 
useful animal in Eastern countries, and 
justly called "the ship of the desert." 
It is by the law of Moses unclean. Lev. 
11 : 4. The camel is usually about 6 feet 
in height to the saddle. Though he 
makes loud complaints when caused to 
kneel or receive a load, he is still docile, 
and marches on as under a painful sense 
of duty. He varies in color from white to 
black, but is ordinarily tawny. In the 
Bible lands the Arabian or one-hump- 
ed camel ( Camelus dromedarius) is found. 
Two-humped camels (C. Bactrianus) are 
rarely used except in Central Asia. 

The feet of this animal are provided 
with a tough, elastic sole, which prevents 
them from sinking in the sand. His 
hump serves as a cushion for loads, Isa. 
30 : 6, and a store-house of food against 
times of scarcity. There is a large cal- 
lus on his breast and three pairs of cal- 
luses on his legs, which protect him 
from laceration when kneeling upon 
sharp stones. His nostrils are adapted 
for breathing with safety in a sand- 
storm. A horny mouth with divided 
upper lip is fitted for the harsh and 
thorny shrubs of the desert, which he 
seems to prefer to more tender herbage. 
The second stomach of the camel, which 
is a ruminant animal, is divided into 
hexagonal cells, and receives and re- 
tains for gradual use the water which is 
drunk. On a full supply he can live 
even 20 or 30 days. As the camel never 
sensibly perspires, there is no loss in this 
direction. These qualities all combine to 



adapt the animal to the countries he in- 
habits and to the services required of him. 
He is, perhaps, more sure-footed than t lie 
ass, more easily supported, and capable 
of an incomparably greater burden. He 
can carry a load of 600 or 800 pounds 

at the rate of 30 miles a day, and, on 
short journeys, 1000 to 1200 pounds. 
His usual speed is two and a half miles 
an hour, but the breed of fast camels 
called distinctively dromedaries, Jer. 2 : 
23. will travel 100 miles a day. 

Like a docile colt, this animal is driven 
or led by a rude halter. Crescent-shaped 
ornaments of cloth and cowrie-shells, or 
even of silver, are often hung to the cam- 
el's neck Jud. 8 : 21, 26. The flesh and 
milk are used for food (except bj T Jews) ; 
the skin and hair are employed for gar- 
ments ; the bones are cut into various 
articles ; and sometimes the dung is 
needed for fuel. 

The ordinary life of the camel is from 
30 to 50 years. Camels were formerly, 
and are still, in the East, among the 
chief possessions of the wealthy. Gen. 
12 : 16 ; 30 : 43 : 37 : 25 ; Jud. 6 : 5 and 
7:12; 1 Sam. 30:17; 1 Kgs. 10:2: 1 
Chr. 5 : 21 : 2 Chr. 14 : 15 ; Job 1 : 3 and 
42: 12; Isa. 30:6. 153 

The expression in Matt. 19 : 24 is usu- 
ally considered figurative, denoting some- 
thing beyond human power. The same 
form of expression is used among the 
Arabs and by the Rabbins in respect to 
the elephant. Some believe that the 
expression refers to the small door 
within the large and heavy door of 
the Oriental gate, for this is called in 
Arabic "the needle's eye." Rolla Flovd 
(a well-known Syrian dragoman) told 
the writer that till recently it was the 
custom to close the gates of Jerusalem 
from 12 till 2 on Fridays during Moham- 
medan worship, but this small door 

might then be used. On one such oc- 
casion, Mr. F. was waiting outside the 
Jafl'a gate for some travellers, when a 
train of camels arrived. He saw them 
enter the city by unloading each ani- 
mal and taking it separately through 
"the needle's eye." 

Another figurative expression occurs 
Matt. 23 :24, in which the inconsistency 
of the scribes and Pharisees (who at- 
tended to the most unimportant cere- 
monies of their religion, while they 
were unjust, unmerciful, and faithless) 
is compared to one who should very 
carefully strain out (not at) a gnat or 
other small insect from the liquor he 
was about to drink, and yet swallow 
an animal as large as a camel. See 

Travellers sometimes throw over the 
camel, upon the top of his burden, a pair 
of panniers, in which they ride, one on 
either side. Two boxes like small car- 
riage-bodies are often hung upon the 
animal in the same manner, and in these 
females may ride and be sheltered from 
the heat. Gen. 24:64. It is easy to see 
how Rachel might have concealed her 
father's idols. Gen. 31 : 34. The camel 
is said to choose ruinous and desolate 
places for his habitations, and hence the 
force of the prophetic language respect- 
ing Rabbah, Eze. 25 : 5 : though the 
prophecy would be abundantly verified 
if the place should merely become a 
stopping-place for caravans. 

Camel's Hair, Matt. 3 : 4, was made 
into cloth. 2 Kgs. 1:8; Zech. 13 : 4. 
Sometimes the fabric was wrought of 
the finest and softest part of the hair, 
and was then a very rich and luxurious 
article of dress. A coarser kind was 
used for the covering of tents and for 
the upper garments of shepherds and 
camel-drivers. Travellers tell us that 
modern dervishes wear cloth of this 
kind, and also leathern girdles. The 
raiment of John the Baptist, Matt. 11 : 8, 
was probably of this kind, for it is put 
in opposition to soft raiment; but some 
think it was of prepared camel's hide. 

CAME'LEON. See Chameleon. 

CAMON (stalks, or grain?), where 
Jair was buried, Jud. 10 : 5 ; east of Jor- 
dan, in Gilead. 

CAMP. This term is frequently 
used in reference to the movements of 
the children of Israel, and many pas- 



sages of the Levitical law relate to 
things that are to be done within or 
without the camp. 

The form of encamping, Ex. 16 : 13, 
is particularly prescribed in Num. 2. 
The tabernacle occupied the centre, and 
nearest to this were the tents of the Le- 
vites, who were intrusted with the prin- 
cipal care of it. Num. 3. The whole 
body of the people, embracing upward 

of 600,000 fighting-men, besides women 
and children, were formed in four di- 
visions, three tribes constituting a di- 
vision, so that the tabernacle was en' 
closed in a hollow square. Each of 
these divisions had a standard, as well 
as each tribe and each of the large fam- 
ily associations of which the tribes were 
composed. Each tribe had its captain or 
commander assigned by God's direction. 





41,500. 53,400. 


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< o Q 

a o ■< 





S o 


K 5S 

a m 


02 <M 





s 5 

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59,300. 45,650. 


The view of such a mass of people, 
maintaining the most perfect order and 
subordination, might well excite the 
admiration of the beholder. Num. 24 : 
2-5. It is not difficult to imagine the 
emotions which such a view would 
awaken in one who, from the summit 
of Mount Peor, looked down upon the 
vast congregation of the Lord's people 
gathered around the sacred symbols of 
his presence. 

" How beautiful are thy tents, O Jacob ! 
And thy tabernacles, O Israel ! 
As the valleys are they spread forth ; 
As gardens by the river's side ; 
As lisn-aloes which Jehovah hath planted, 
As cedars beside the waters." 

Num. 24:5,6. 

" Outside of the camp " must all de- 
filement and all defiled persons be put. 
Consequently, lepers, those defiled by 
contact with the dead, captives taken 
in war, were kept out for a greater or 
less period, and the ashes of the sacri- 
fice and all that was not burnt on the 
altar were carried out. The dead were 
there buried, and there executions and 
the burning of the young bullock for 
the sin-offering took place. See refer- 
ences in order : Lev. 13 : 46 ; 14 : 3 ; 
Num. 12 : 14, 15 ; 31 : 19 : Josh. 6 : 23 ; 
Deut. 23:10,12; Lev. 6 : 11 ; 8:17: 
10 : 4, 5 ; 24 : 14 ; 4 : 12. We are not to 
picture an enormous camp lying four- 
square, containing regular streets, like 



a modern military camp, because in 
that case these regulations evidently 
could not be carried out without a great 
expenditure of time. But the Israelites 
traversed a country broken up into in- 
Dtimerable little valleys, and oftentimes 
the host must have stretched aloug for 
miles, but so closely hemmed in between 
mountain-sides that to go without the 
camp would be but a few steps. 

In later times, when Israel was set- 
tled in the Promised Land, we find 
scattered references to camps. They 
appear to have been generally pitched 
upon high ground. Jud. 7 : 1, 8 ; 1 Sam. 
17 : 4 ; 28 : 4. They were sometimes 
intrenched; at other times a barrier 
was formed of the baggage-wagons. 
Jehoshaphat established permanent 
camps. 2 Chr. 17 : 2. 

CAMPHIRE. Song Sol. 4: 13. A 
shrub, sometimes 10 feet high, growing 
in Egypt and other Eastern countries, 
and called henna (Laweonia alba). 

The white-and-yellow flowers grow 
in clusters, like the lilac, and are very 
fragrant. From the leaves, when dried 

Camphire. (Lawsonia alba.) 

and pulverized, is made an orange or 
reddish dye, with which females stain 
their hands and feet. Sonnini says that 
Eastern women "are fond of decorating 
themselves with the flowers of the hen- 
na-plant : that they take them in their 

| hands and perfume their bosoms with 
[ them." What we call camphor is an 
entirely different substance. It is re- 
markable that camphire is still found 
growing only at one place in Palestine, 
and thatEn-gedi. Song Sol. 1:14. 

CANAAN {low, humbled), the fourth 
; son of Ham, Gen. 10:6; 1 Chr. 1:8, 
and the progenitor of those peoples who 
inhabited the country on the west of the 
Jordan. Noah, his grandfather, cursed 
| him on awaking from his drunken sleep 
| because of the conduct of Ham, his 
I father. Gen. 9 : 20-25. The difficulty is 
i easiest solved if we trust a Jewish tra- 
dition that Canaan was the one who first 
saw his grandfather's shame, and that, 
instead of decorously concealing it, he 
told his father. His descendants bore 
the curse. The Israelites carried on a 
war of extermination against them, and 
they became, in great measure, servants 
or slaves. 

12 : 5. The country inhabited by the 
posterity of Canaan, who were hence 
called Canaanites, and which was <:iven 
by God to the children of Israel, the 
posterity of Abraham, as their posses- 
sion. Ex. 6:4: Lev. 25 : 38. 

The original boundaries were Mount 
Lebanon on the north, the wilderness 
of Arabia on the south, and the Arabian 
desert on the east. On the west their 
possessions extended at some points to 
the margin of the Mediterranean. Their 
i boundaries on this side were partially 
restricted by the Philistines, who held 
the low lands and strong cities along 
J the shore. Gen. 10 : 19. Besides the 
possessions of the Israelites, the land 
of Canaan embraced Phoenicia on the 
north and Philistia on the south-west. 
Zeph. 2 : 5. The land of Canaan was 
called the land of Israel, 1 Sam. 13 : 19, 
because it was occupied by the descend- 
ants of Jacob or Israel ; the holy loud, 
Zech. 2 : 12 ; the land of promise, Heb. 
11 : 9, because it was promised to Abra- 
ham and his posterity as their posses- 
sion ; the land of Judah, Jer. 39 : 10, 
because Judah was the leading tribe; 
the hoid of the Hebrews, Gen. 40 : 15, or 
the descendants of Eber, an ancestor of 
Abraham. The modern name of Pal- 
; estine, or the land of the Philistines, 
was originally applied to the region ly- 
ing along the coast of the Mediter- 



ranean, south-west of the Land of Prom- 
ise, but in its present usage denotes the 
whole country bounded by the Jordan 
on the east, the Mediterranean on the 
west, Arabia on the south, and Lebanon 
on the north. For physical features, 
see Palestine. 

ZonyiliuU East 

Sketch-Map of Canaan before the Conquest. 

History. — Previous to its conquest by 
Joshua, Canaan was peopled by several 
tribes, as Hittites, Jebusites, Amorites, 
Girgasites, Hivites, Perizzites, and four 
others, all early known as Canaanites. 
Gen. 10 : 15-19. Later, "Canaanites" 
appears to designate a separate tribe, and 

the land was inhabited by them and six 
other tribes. Canaan was the country for 
which Terah started, Gen. 11 : 31 ; A brain 
dwelt in it ; it was promised to him for 
a possession, Gen. 12 : 5, 8, etc. ; Isaac, 
Jacob, and the patriarchs made their 
home there. Gen. 26-35. It was left 
by Jacob because of the 
famine ; searched by the 
twelve spies, Num. 13 : 2 ; 
viewed by Moses, Deut. 
32:49; conquered by 
Joshua, Josh. 11:23; di- 
vided by lot among the 
twelve tribes, Josh. 13 : 7 ; 
a king of the country was 
slain by Deborah and Ba- 
rak. Jud. 4:24. See Map. 
In the temple at Kar- 
nak, in Egypt, a triple list 
of 118 or 119 towns of Ca- 
naan has lately been dis- 
covered, which is believed 
to be a record of an Egyp- 
tian conquest of the land 
by Thothmes III. previous 
to that by Joshua. Seethe 
list of these towns in Con- 
der's Tent- Work in Pales- 
tine, vol. ii. 344-346. It 
is the oldest known record 
of Canaanite cities before 
the time of Joshua. For 
later history see Judah, 
Kingdomof; Israel, King- 
dom op ; and Palestine. 

THE. See preceding 

LiEE, a town noted as 
the scene of Christ's first 
miracle, John 2 : 1-11, and 
of another miracle, 4 : 46, 
and as the home of Na- 
thanael. 21:2. Tradition 
places it at Kefr-Kenna, 
about four English miles 
north-east of Nazareth, 
and the traveller is now 
shown an earthen jar, 
which is claimed to be one of the 
water-jars used at the wedding. Rob- 
inson and others, with less probabil- 
ity, identify Cana with Kana-el-Jelil, 
about 9 miles north of Nazareth. It 
has a fine situation, and the ruins indi- 
cate the existence in former times of a. 



considerable village. Conder suggests 
a new location, and proposes to place 
Cana at Reineh, north-east of Nazareth, 
and only one and a half miles distant. — 
Condek : Tent-Work in Palestine, 1878, 
i. p. 154. This lacks confirmation. 

CAN'DACE (sovereign of slaves f). 
The name is a title of Ethiopian queens. 
Acts 8 : 27. Her chamberlain or treas- 
urer, a eunuch, was met by Philip the 
evangelist on the road between Jerusa- 
lem and Gaza, and converted. See 

CANDLE. Job 18 : 6. Often used 
figuratively to denote light generally. 
See Lamp. 

EN — a misnomer, as* it held only 
lamps — Ex. 25 : 31. It was a splendid 
article of the tabernacle furniture, made 
of fine gold, not moulded, but " of beat- 
en work," and computed by some to 
have been worth, at the modern value 
of gold, $30,000. It consisted of a 
shaft or stem, supposed to have been 5 
feet high, with six branches. The 

Golden Candlestick. (From the Arch of Titus.) 

branches came out from the shaft at 
three points, two at each point, as in 
the accompanying cut. and the width 
of the whole candlestick across the top 
was about three feet and a half. It was 
richly adorned with raised work repre- 
senting flowers, and also knops or knobs, 
and little bowls resembling half an 
almond-shell. At the extremity of 

each branch there was a socket for 
the lamp, and also at the top of the 
main shaft, making seven in all. Tongs 
to remove the snuff and dishes to receive 
it, as well as oil-vessels, were articles 
of furniture belonging to the can- 
dlestick, and were all made of gold. 
The lights were trimmed and supplied 
daily with the purest olive-oil. They 
were lighted at night and extinguished 
in the morning, though some suppose 
that a part of them at least were kept 
burning through the day. The candle- 
stick was so situated as to throw the 
light on the altar of incense and on the 
table of shew-bread, occupying the 
same apartment, and from which the 
natural light was excluded. 

In Solomon's temple there were 10 
golden candlesticks. 1 Kgs. 7:49; 2 
Chr. 4 : 7. They were taken to Baby- 
lon. Jer. 52 : 19. In Zerubbabel's tem- 
ple there was only one candlestick. 
This was removed from Herod's temple 
by Titus, and carried immediately before 
him in his triumphal entry into Rome. 
It is sculptured upon the Arch of Titus, 
in Rome. Its after-history is curious. 
Titus deposited it in the Temple of 
Peace : it was carried to Carthage by 
Genseric, A. D. 455; recovered by Beli- 
sarius ; brought to Constantinople, and 
then " respectfully deposited in the 
Christian church of Jerusalem," a. d. 
533. Nothing further is known of it. 

CANE. See Calamus. 

CANKER-WORM. Joel 1:4; 
Nah. 3 : 15, 16. This was one of the 
army of destroying insects by which 
the land of Judsea was laid waste. It 
is thought that the original word means 
rather the locust in its larva or cater- 
pillar state, when it is even more de- 
structive than after it acquires wings 
and is about to fly away. Of this Na- 
hum's words are very expressive : it 
"spoileth and fleeth away." 

CANNEH. See Calneh. 

CAN'ON (literally, a cane, then a 
rod of measurement) means the collec- 
tion of books of the 0. and N. T. which 
form the original and authoritative 
written rule of faith and practice in the 
Christian Church. 

I. The O. T. Canon.— Our Bible is a 

growth of many generations. Moses put 

the " book of the law " in the side of the 

ark. Deut. 31 : 26. This book, which 




contained not alone direct precepts, Ex. 
24 : 7, but also general exhortations, 
Deut. 28 : 61, and historical narratives, 
Ex. 17 : 14, was further increased by the 
records of Joshua, Josh. 24 : 26, and 
probably by other writings. 1 Sam. 10 : 
25. At a subsequent time collections of 
psalms and proverbs were made. The 
later prophets, especially Jeremiah, were 
familiar with the writings of their pred- 
ecessors. But although book was added 
to book, there probably was no collec- 
tion made containing them all until the 
Captivity. According to Jewish tradi- 
tion, the formation of the canon of the 
0. T. in its present form was due to Ezra 
and the men of the " great synagogue." 
The division of the 0. T. into three 
parts — the Law, the Prophets, and the 
Hagiographa — i. e. the remaining sa- 
cred writings — (see Bible) was not ar- 
bitrary or accidental, but was a reflec- 
tion of the true historical order of their 
composition. The Law is the founda- 
tion of the Jewish state; the Prophets 
relate the story of the struggles of the 
Jews against internal and external dan- 
gers, and likewise the revelation of the 
divine Mind toward them and their 
neighbors ; the Hagiographa contain 
additional information, and, above all, 
the outpourings of the nation's heart 
and the expression of their wisdom. 
According to Josephus, there were only 
22 books in the sacred canon, corre- 
sponding to the number of letters in the 
Hebrew alphabet. But this short list 
was made by combining several books 
which we properly separate. Thus, the 
two books of Samuel, of Kings, of 
Chronicles, formed but one book respect- 
ively ; Judges and Ruth, Ezra and Ne- 
herniah, Jeremiah and Lamentations, 
were similarly combined; and finally, 
the twelve minor prophets were reck- 
oned as one book. And although other 
lists, slightly different, are given, still 
the main fact is testified to that the Jews 
had a certain fixed and uniform amount 
of writing to which they gave a divine 
character and paid peculiar regard. 
This list does not include the Apocry- 
pha of the Septuagint, which, accord- 
ingly, has been excluded from the 
Protestant 0. T., though often printed 
between the Testaments. The Roman 
Catholic Church, however, receives them 
as authentic. The British and Foreign 

Bible Society ceased to print them after 
1826. The American Bible Society like- 
wise omits them. 

We may therefore say that the 0. T., 
as we have it to-day, existed shortly 
after the Captivity, and that the present 
number and arrangement of the books 
do not affect its age, since nothing has 
been added or omitted which had any 
right to be in the canon or the individ- 
ual books. 

The canon as we have it existed in our 
Lord's day, as is evident from the quo- 
tations in the N. T. by him and his dis- 
ciples. There are in all 275 quotations 
from different books, but, with the ex- 
ception of the words of Enoch in Jude, 
no book out of the canon is used for this 
purpose. We may therefore feel cer- 
tain that we have a canon endorsed by 
the highest conceivable authority. It 
should, however, be borne in mind that 
the Septuagint version is generally 
quoted, even when it differs from the 
Hebrew. The apostles were no slaves 
of the letter, but used the Scriptures in 
the freedom of the Spirit. 

II. The N. T. Canon.— The history 
of the collection and authoritative de- 
termination of the N. T. canon may be 
divided into three periods. 

1. Down to A. D. 170. — Paul claimed 
for his Epistles " a public use and an 
authoritative power." 1 Thess. 5:27; 2 
Thess. 3:6; Col. 4 : 16; 1 Tim. 4 : 6. 
John solemnly warns against any addi- 
tions to or deductions from the book of 
Revelation. Rev. 22: 18, 19. Peter sig- 
nificantly puts Paul's Epistles side by 
side with " the other Scriptures." 2 Pet. 
3 : 16. Nothing is more striking than the 
great difference in contents and expres- 
sion between the N. T. and the Chris- 
tian writings of the following centuries. 
This difference is a subsidiary but con- 
vincing proof of the inspiration of the 
former. We see in the Apostolic Fath- 
ers (a. r>. 70-120) evidence of acquaint- 
ance with at least the majority of our 
present N. T. 

The period from A. D. 120-170 has 
been termed the age of the apologists. 
These efforts to defend the Christian 
faith led to a new use of the facts of 
Christ's life, and it then became mani- 
fest how greatly superior the four Gos- 
pels were to all other accounts ; and 
accordingly, they were separated and 



assigned to a place of honor and abso- 
lute authority. At the close of the pe- 
riod was composed the Muratorian 
canon in the West, while about the 
same time appeared the Syriac transla- 
tion of the N. T. called the Peshito, and 
the first Latin versions called Itala. 

2. From A. D. 170 to A. D. 80S.— As 
the result of the investigations in the 
patristic writings of this period, West- 
cott declares that the four Gospels, the 
Acts, 1 Peter, 1 John, 13 Epistles of 
Paul, and the Apocalypse (the Revela- 
tion) were accepted by the Church, and, 
with the exception of the Apocalypse, 
have never been questioned since until 
modern times. Speaking generally, we 
may say that of the so-called "dis- 
puted " books of the N. T. the Apoca- 
lypse was universally received by all 
the Christian writers, while the Epistle 
to the Hebrews found acceptance in the 
Oriental, but not in the Occidental, 
Church. Judging from the writings, 
" the Epistles of James and Jude and the 
second and third of John were little 
used, and the second of Peter was bare- 
ly known." 

3. From A. D. SOS to A. D. S97.— At 
the close of this period the third Coun- 
cil of Carthage, A. D. 397, took place, 
memorable as that by which the present 
canon of the N. T., with its 27 books, 
was ratified. Since that time it has 
remained unchanged. Luther revived 
doubts concerning some of the 7 books 
which Eusebius calls "disputed," es- 
pecially the Epistle of James (which he 
could not harmonize with Paul's doc- 
trine of justification by faith); but 
these were private opinions, and were 
not adopted by the Lutheran Church. 
All the Protestant Churches agree with 
the Greek and the Roman Churches as 
regards the extent of the canon of the 
N. T. And this little book contains the 
chief wisdom of the world, and will con- 
tinue to guide mankind in the way of 
salvation to the end of time. 

CANTICLES. See Song of Sol- 

CAPERNAUM {town ofNahum), a 
city of great interest as the home of Jesus 
after he left Nazareth. Though it fills a 
large place in the gospel narrative, it is 
not once mentioned in 0. T. history, nor in 
any portion of the Bible except the four 
Gospels. It is called Christ's " own city," 

Matt. 9:1, and it was the scene of some of 
his most remarkable miracles, labors, and 
discourses. Matt. 8 : 5-U ; 9 : 2 ; 17 : 24 ; 

■ John 6 : 17-^ ; 4 : 46, etc. Much explo- 
ration, study, and discussion have been 
given to determine its true site, but the 
question is still unsettled. 

The gospel narrative throws some 
general, though not very definite, light 
upon the location of this lost city. It 
was (1) a city of Galilee, Luke 4 : 31 ; 
(2) by the lake-coast, Matt. 4:13; John 
6 : 17, 24 ; (3) with collectors of customs, 
and probably a custom-house, Matt. 17 : 
24 ; Mark 2:1,14; Luke 5 : 27 compared 
with Matt. 9 :1,9; (4) it had a noted syn- 
nagogue, built by a Roman centurion, 
Matt. 8:5; Mark 1 : 21 ; Luke 7:1,5; 
(5) it was joined with Chorazin and Beth- 
saida in the woes pronounced upon them 
by Christ, and its complete destruction 
was predicted, Matt. 11:20-23; Luke 
10 : 13-15; (6) it has been inferred also 
from the Scriptures that Capernaum was 
in the land of Gennesaret, but this is not 
certain. Comp. Matt. 14 : 34 with John 
6 : 16, 17, 24, 25. These indicate that the 
city was on the west side of the Sea of 
Galilee, and near its northern end. 

Two places have been mainly urged 
as marking the site of ancient Caper- 

! naum : (1) Khan Minyeh, supported by 
Robinson (1852), Macgregor (1864), 

j Porter (1875), Kiepert, Sepp, and by 

| members of the recent British and Amer- 
ican Palestine Exploration Societies 
(Kitchener and Merrill) ; (2) Tell Hum, 

j maintained by Dr. Wilson, Major Wil- 

! son, W. M. Thomson, Stanley, Hep- 
worth Dixon, Ritter, Baedeker, De- 
litzsch, Plumptre, Schaff, and others. 

Tell Hum is a ruin near the Sea of 
Galilee, about two miles south-west of 
where the river Jordan enters the sea. 
K1ku\ Minyeh is a Saracen inn on the 
northern extremity of the plain of 
Gennesaret (el-Ghliweir), about 5 miles 
south-w r est of the mouth of the Jordan 
and 1\ to 3 miles below Tell Hum. and 
situated near the lake. 

Several other places have been sug- 
gested : as 'Ain Mudawarah, once urged, 

| but afterward abandoned, by Tristram, 
and ruins near Bethsaida Julias : but 
their claims are generally regarded as 

j not well supported. 

The argument from tradition is divid- 

I ed between Khan Minyeh,a,nd Tell Hum, 



but prevailingly in favor of Tell Hum. 
Conder ( Tent- Work in Palestine, ii. 182) 
claims Jewish and Arab tradition for 
Khan Minyeh, but Dr. Thomson and 
Furrer claim it decidedly for Tell Hum. 
The arguments for Khan Minyeh, 
briefly stated, are: (1) It is near the 

Kafr) "of Nahum," and Tell Hum 
means "the mound or ruins of Hum" 
— i. e. Nahum. 

The strongest argument against Khan 
Minyeh is the absence of ruins of suffi- 
cient importance to indicate a city of 
the size of Capernaum. The English Sur- 
vey party in 1866 
jf dug up at Khan Min- 
\ yeh chiefly fragments 
of pottery ; Kitchener 
in 1877 examined the 
more extensive exca- 
vations, bringing to 
light what appeared 
to him to be a wall 
of squared stones. 
Robinson conjectures 
that the ruins of Ca- 
pernaum were trans- 
ported to Tiberias,but 
Tiberias was already 
built when Caper- 
naum was in its 
prosperity. Those 
place Caper- 


naum at Khan 


Gennesaret, from Khan Minyeh. (From a Photograph taken for the 
Palestine Exploration Fund.) 

yeh usually locate 

sea-shore r while Tell Hum is at some 
distance from the shore; (2) it is in 
the land of Gennesaret, if Gennesaret is 
identical with el-Ghuweir ; (3) it is well 
located for a custom-house, on the high- 
way from Jerusalem to Damascus. 

The arguments in support of Tell Hum 
mainly are : (1) The extensive ruins, cov- 
ering a space half a mile long by a quar- 
ter of a mile wide, indicate a large city 
like Capernaum ; (2) the ruins of a large 
synagogue have been discovered there ; 
(3) when Christ crossed the lake from 
Capernaum, Mark 6 : 33, the crowd ran 
around the end of the lake to meet him : 
and it is claimed that Tell Hum is more 
likely, therefore, to have been his start- 
ing-point than Khan Minyeh ; (4) Jose- 
phus, wounded on the plain of Batikha, 
at the north end of the lake, was car- 
ried to Capernaum, most likely the 
nearest place — not, therefore, at Khan 
Minyeh, but Tell Hum; (5) historical 
narratives of the sixth and seventh cen- 
turies and the Jewish and Arab tradi- 
tion appear to favor Tell Hum as Caper- 
naum ; (6) the identity of name, for Ca- 
pernaum means " the village" {Kefr or 

C h o r a z i n at Tell 
Hum and Bethsaida 
at Et- Tabighah. This theory leaves the 
important ruins at Kerazeh to be ex- 
plained. As the latter cannot be ig- 
nored, they form a strong objection to 
Khan Minyeh. If, however, Capernaum 
was at Tell Hum, then Chorazin was 
doubtless at Kerazeh, and no important 
ruins remain unexplained. 

At present, therefore, the arguments 
are strongly in favor of Tell Hum, but 
a final decision of the question must 
wait further excavations. The explo- 
rations of the English society organ- 
ized in 1878-1879 for the purpose of 
determining the sites of the three cities 
may furnish information for the satis- 
factory settlement of this question. 

Ruins at Tell Hum. — The most re- 
markable ruin at Tell Hum is that of a 
Jewish synagogue. Around this, and 
up the slope behind it, are the remains 
of an ancient town; the walls of many 
private houses can be traced, and the 
appearance of a main street leading 
toward ancient Chorazin. The syna- 
gogue was about 75 feet long by 58 feet 
wide ; its walls were built of hard white 
limestone, almost marble, resting on ba- 



saltic ruck. Portions of columns, pedes- 
tals, capitals of the Corinthian order, and 
blocks of stone have been uncovered on 
its Bite, and on the lintel of a door a rep- 
resentation of the pot of manna was dis- 
covered, recalling the words of Jesus: 
"Your fathers did eat manna in the 
wilderness, and are dead." John 6 : 49. 
If Tell Hum is Capernaum, then this 
synagogue was doubtless the one which 

northward along the bank, on which 
several springs and the remains of build- 
in ir s nre to be seen, until it reaches Tell 
limn. From thence northward to Kera- 
zeh, probably Chorazin, is about 2 miles, 
and there are traces of a paved road 
which connected the city with the great 
caravan-road to Damascus. Following 
the shore of the lake to the north-west 
about 2 miles, where the Jordan emp- 
ties into the Sea of 
Galilee, is Abu Zany, 
which Dr. Thomson 
regards as Beth- 
saida, the birthplace 
of Peter and An- 
drew. The ruin of 
all these cities has 
! been so complete as 
to render their very 
sites doubtful, and 
strikingly to remind 
us of the fearful pre- 
diction of our Lord 
concerning them. 
Matt. 11:21-23. 

{chajjlet), the origi- 
raiins at Tell Hum. (From a Photograph. Palestine Exploration Fund.) nSi \ home of the 

the pious Roman centurion built, Luke 
7 : 1-10, and in which Jesus taught. 

North of the town are two tombs, one 
built under ground of limestone blocks 
after the hard basaltic rock had been cut 
away ; the other above ground and white- 
washed within and without, as in our 
Lord's day. Matt. 23 : 27. 

The road from Khan Mini/eh to Tell 
Hum now leads over the rocks at some 
height above the lake. It is a narrow 
path, more like an ancient conduit than 
a road. From this height the view ex- 
tends to Tiberias. A short distance 
from Khan Minyeh by the seashore is 
'Ain et-Tin, or "Fig Spring" (which 
Dr. Robinson erroneously identified with 
the spring "Kapharnaum," mentioned by 
Josephus). A mile farther north is the 
charming bay Et-Tabighah, by which 
some locate western Bethsaida, but at 
which, more probably, was the suburb 
and harbor of Capernaum ; here is a 
very copious fountain abounding in 
fish (probably the " Kapharnaum " of 
Josephus), and a large stream which 
turns a mill and once watered, through 
an aqueduct, the plain of Gennesaret. 
The road from Et-Tdbujhah continues 

Caphtorim or Philistines. Deut. 2 : 23 ; 
Jer. 47 : 4 ,• Am. 9 : 7. Some have placed 
it in Cappadocia, others in Cyprus or in 
Crete. It is more probably identical with 
Caphtur, and the northern deltaof Egypt. 

CAPPADO'CIA, the largest and 
most easterly province of Asia Minor. 
On the north was Pontus, on the east 
the Euphrates, beyond which were Ar- 
menia and Mesopotamia, on the south 
Syria and Cilicia, and on the west Ga- 
latia. It was high table-land, inter- 
sected by ranges of mountains, sparse- 
ly wooded, but good for grain or graz- 
ing. Cappadocia was conquered by 
Cyrus, ruled by Alexander the Great, 
tributary to the Seleucida?, and became 
a Roman province, a. d. 17. Some of 
its people were in Jerusalem on the day 
of Pentecost, Acts 2 : 9, and afterward 
Christians of the province were ad- 
dressed by Peter. 1 Pet. 1:1. 

CAP'TAIN, an officer in the Jew- 
ish army whose rank or power was des- 
ignated by the number of men under 
his command, as captain of fifty or 
captain of a thousand, and the com- 
mander or chief of the whole army was 
called the captain of the host. Deut. 1 : 



15; 2 Sain. 19:13, etc. The divisions 
of the army were regulated in some 
measure by the division of families, as 
the heads of families were usually offi- 
cers. 2 Chr. 25 : 5. Captains of hun- 

A Roman Captain or Centurion. 
dreds, or larger companies, were proba- 
bly what would be called in modern 
phrase staff-officers, and formed the 
council of war. 1 Chr. 13 : 1. The " cap- 
tain of the guard," Acts 28 : 16, was the 
commander of the Praetorian troops at 
Rome. See Centurion. 

Captain of the Temple, Acts 4:1, 
was the chief of the priests and Levites 
who kept guard around and within that 
sacred edifice. In this non-military 
sense is Christ called " Captain " in 
Heb. 2: 10. 

CAP'TIVE. Gen. 14:14. Usually 
denotes one taken in war. Among East- 
ern nations such persons were treated 
with great cruelty, and were subjects 
of merchandise. Eor instances of this 
merciless treatment see Jud. 1 : 7 ; 1 Sam. 
11 : 2 ; 2 Sam. 8 : 2 ; 2 Kg?. 25 : 7. It 
is a remarkable fact that though the Is- 
raelites dealt in many instances harshly 
with those they captured, yet their con- 
duct, stood out in such favorable contrast 
to that of heathen nations that the hu- 
manity of some even of their worst kings 
was reckoned upon by their conquered 
enemies. 1 Kgs. 20 : 31-34. The pas- 
sage Joel 3:3 brings out into melan- 

choly prominence both the lot of pris- 
oners of war and also the contempt 
manifested for the Jews. The Bible 
(Speaker's) Commentary thus expounds 
the verse: " The Jewish prisoners were 
held so cheap that a slave-girl was sold 
by her captor for a draught of wine, and 
a slave-boy was given in place of the 
small coin thrown to a prostitute. Dur- 
ing the Jewish war Titus took 97,000 
prisoners, of Avhom he publicly sold all 
that were under 17 years of age. After 
Hadrian's Jewish war four Jews were 
sold for a measure of barley at Hebron." 
The Romans sometimes compelled a cap- 
tive to be joined with a dead body, and 
to bear it about until the horrible efflu- 
via destroyed the life of the living. 

The capture of Judaea by the Romans, 
A. D. 70, was commemorated by coins 
which are shown in the following cut: 

Coins to Commemorate the Capture of Judsea. 
(Farrar's "'Life of Christ.") 
On the left-hand coin is seen the emperor Titus ; Ju- 
daea is weeping at the foot of a palm tree. On the 
right hand, a Jewish captive with hands tied hehind 
his hack looks upon a Jewess seated at the foot of a 
palm tree. 

CAPTIVITY. Num. 21 : 29. A 
term usually employed to denote an im- 
portant era in the history of the Jewish 
people. To punish their rebellions and 
idolatries, God suffered them to come 
into frequent bondage to surrounding 
nations. Six of their partial and tran- 
sient captivities took place at an early 
period of their history, of which a par- 
ticular account is given in Judges. 

Soon after the close of Solomon's 
reign the kingdom was divided. Ten 
of the tribes took the name of " the 
kingdom of Israel," leaving the tribes 
of Judah and Benjamin to constitute 
the kingdom of Judah. Each of these 
two kingdoms suffered a distinct captiv- 
ity. The Jews reckon four national cap- 
tivities — the Babylonian, the Median, 
the Grecian, and the Roman. 

Pul, B. c. 762, and then Tiglath-pileser, 
B. c. 740, kings of A ssyria, made war upon 



the kingdom of Israel and carried a large 
number of the people (chiefly those of 
the tribes of Reuben, Gad, and Manas- 
seh) into captivity, 2 Kgs. 15 : 29 ; ] Chr. 
5 : 26, and the residue remained under 
their own king, but paid tribute to the 

Priaoijeid Le lore Saigon. (Nineveh Marbles.) 

Assyrian government. After the lapse 
of 20 years this tribute was refused, 
and therefore Shalmaneser besieged and 
(after three years) Sargon captured 
Samaria, the capital of the kingdom, 
and the great mass of the people were 
transported to provinces beyondthe Eu- 
phrates, b. c. 721. Their fate is a fre- 
quent subject of speculation, but noth- | 
ing definite can be determined. Nor 
was the kingdom of Judah long left un- I 

Jewish Captives before Darius. (From Ancient 

molested. In Hezekiah's reign Senna. . 
cherib, king of Assyria, took the fenced [ 
cities of Judah, b. c. 713, and would j 
have taken Jerusalem had Hezekiahnot j 
sent him a heavy tribute. 2 Kgs. 18: 13. 
His next attempt on the city, which oc- I 

curred some little time after, was defeat- 
ed by a miracle. 2 Kgs. 19 : 35. 

Nebuchadnezzar repeatedly overran 
the kingdom of Judah, the first time in 
the third year of Jehoiakim. He carried 
a few captives to Babylon, among whom 
were Daniel and his companions, b. c. 
605. 2 Kgs. 24 : 1 j Dan. 1 : 1-4. In the 
tenth or eleventh year of Jehoiakim he 
came again, B. c. 598, 2 Chr. 36: 6, and 
a third time in the eighth year of the 
reign of Jehoiachin. This invasion re- 
sulted in the carrying away of 10,000 
Jews. 2 Kgs. 24: 10-16. The 70 years' 
captivity began when Nebuchadnezzar, 
for the fourth time, invaded Judaea, 
B. c. 588. 2 Kgs. 25 : 1. The king, Zed- 
ekiah, was taken, his sons slain, the 
temple burnt and the city despoiled, 
and the greater part of the population 
carried into Babylonia. Jer. 52 : 8-13. 
During this long captivity the rite of 
circumcision was observed, the genea- 
logical tables filled, distinctions of rank 
maintained, and thus the Jews retained 
their nationality intact. 

In b. c. 536 the Jews were allowed to 
return from Babylon by Cyrus, as a 
portion of them did under Zerubbabel, 
Ezr. 2 :2, and some time afterward un- 
der Ezra, Ezr. 7 : 7, b. c. 458, and Nehe- 
miah, Neh. 7 : 66, b. c. 445. Those who 
remained in Assyria or scattered over 
the Roman empire kept up their na- 
tional distinctions and were known as 
" The Dispersion," John 7 : 35 ; 1 Pet. 
1:1; Jas. 1:1, and afterward were 
starting-points for Christianity. 

Children of the Captivity, Ezr. 
4 : 1, a common figure of 
speech, denoting those who 
were in captivity, or per- 
haps sometimes literally 
their posterity. Turn again, 
Ps. 126 : 1, turn away, Jer. 
29 : 14, turn back, Ze'ph. 3 : 
20, or bring again, Eze. 16 : 
53, the captivity, are figura- 
tive phrases, all referring to 
the Jewish nation in bondage 
and their return to Canaan. 
A similar expression is used 
in relation to individuals, as in Job 
42 : 10 : The Lord turned the captiv- 
ity of Job — that is, he released him from 
the unusual sufferings and perplexities 
to which he had been in bondage, and 
caused him to rejoice again in the favor 

Bas-relief at 



of God. He led captivity captive, Eph. 
4 : 8, or " he led those as his captives who 
had made captives of others," is a figur- 
ative allusion to the victory which our 
blessed Redeemer achieved over sin and 
death, by whom our ruined race are 
brought into bondage. Rom. 8 : 21 ; 
Gal. 4 : 24 : Heb. 2:15; 2 Pet. 2:19. 

CAR'BUNCLE. This term repre- 
sents two Hebrew words. The first, Ex. 
28 : 17 ; 39 : 10 : Eze. 28 :. 13, meaning 
flashing like lightning, is supposed to be 
either the emerald or beryl, both of 
which are precious stones of a green 
color. " Thy gates of carbuncles," Isa. 
54: 12, has reference to a stone shining 
like fire — possibly a brilliant species of 


CHEMISH {citadel of Chemosh), a 
chief city of northern Syria, on the 
Euphrates, where a great and decisive 
battle was fought, in which Nebuchad- 
nezzar defeated Pharaoh-necho, 2 Chr. 
35 : 20 ; 2 Kgs. 23 : 29 ; Jer. 46 : 2, in 
b. c. 605. It was formerly identified 
with Circesium. Rawlinson placed it ; c 
Bir, near Hierapolis, on the Euphrates : 
a later writer at Kalaat, below Bered/i,. 

CARE'AH {bald-head), the father 
of Johanan. 2 Kgs. 25 : 23. Elsewhere 
spelt Kareah. 

CA'RIA, a small Roman province 
in the south-western part of Asia Minor. 
Its cities, Cnidus and Miletus, are men- 
tioned in Acts 20 : 15 ; 27 : 7. 

CAR'MEL [fruitful, or wooded). 
1. One of the most noted mountains in 

Mount Carmel, from the Bay of Acre. (After Views of G. M. Powell.) 

Palestine, a range or ridge about 12 
miles long, one end jutting into the 
Mediterranean Sea in a bold bluff over 
500 feet high, extending thence south- 
east until it abruptly breaks off in an 
inland bluff over 500 feet above the sea- 
level. Its highest elevation, about 4 miles 
from the east end, is nearly 1740 feet. 
It is specially noted as being the scene 
of remarkable events in the history of 
Elijah and Elisha. 2 Kgs. 2 : 25 ; 4 : 25. 
The scene of the famous contest between 
Elijah and the prophets of Baal, 1 Kgs. 
18 : 20-42, was near the east end of the 
ridge, at el-Mahrakah {>. e. " burnt-offer- 
ing") ; a well is near, and a slippery path 
leads down to the Kishon, several hun- 
dred feet below. This stream is now call- 

ed Nahr el-Miikutta," river of slaughter, 
in memory of this event. It is a sacred 
mountain alike to Jews, Christians, and 
Moslems, and formerly swarmed with 
monks and hermits. One tract, known 
as the Monk's Cavern, has hundreds of 
caves, and a little below is the traditional 
cave of Elijah. On the mountain is the 
large monastery of the Carmelites, which 
affords hospitable accommodation and a 
magnificent view. It is now occupied 
by eighteen monks. The German col- 
ony of Haifa has recently planted vine- 
yards on Mount Carmel. 

Present Appearance. — Carmel is cov- 
ered with a profusion of vegetation, 
illustrating " the excellency of Carmel." 
Isa. 35 : 2. It is still known as Kurmttl 



and Mar EUjas (Mount St. Elias). The 
rugged sides of the ridge are of hard, 
dark stone, always steep, often precip- 
itous, covered with shrubs of dark, rich 
green. These shrubs are chiefl} r a kind 
of pistachio with no berries, the sponge- 
laurel, the hawthorn, and the arbutus. 
The bare spots are covered with flowers, 
as rock-roses, striped asphodel, the daisy, 
and the red and purple anemone. The 
horse of the traveller often presses out 
a sweet fragrance from the thyme and 
mint. Herds of goats are frequently seen 
climbing its steep sides, and occasional- 
ly a gazelle bounds through the shrubs, 
while the fox, jackal, wolf, and a stray 
wild boar and a panther (chetah) add to 
the animal life of the mountains. The 
partridge and woodcock also abound. 
Huge valleys upward of 1000 feet deep 
wind tortuously from the main ridge to 
the sea, requiring hours to cross to the 
opposite summits. The rock is a com- 
pact, sandy limestone. 

2. A town in the mountains of Judah, 
where Saul set a monument, 1 Sam. 15 : 
12 ; 25 : 2, 5, 7, 40 : 27 : 3, and Uzziah 
had vineyards, 2 Chr. 26 : 10 ; now Kur- 
mvl, 10 miles south-east of Hebron, 
where are ruins of a strong castle. 

CAR'MI (vine-dresser). 1. The 
fourth son of Reuben, progenitor of the 
Carmites. Gen. 46 : 9 : Ex. 6:14; Num. 
23 : 6 : 1 Chr. 5 : 3. 

2. The father of Achan, the " troubler 
of Israel." Jos. 7:1, 18. 

CARPENTER. The first allu- 
sion to the carpenter's trade in the 
Scriptures occurs in the command to 
Xoah to build the ark, Gen. 6: 14-16, 
and the directions here given presup- 
pose quite a considerable skill. The 
second time the trade is mentioned 
is in the description of the setting up 
of the tabernacle in the wilderness, Ex. 
25 : 23 ; 27 : 1-15, where various kinds 
of wood-work — the ark, the table, the 
altar, the acacia boards, etc. — are spoken 
of. From this point and throughout the 
holy writings frequent mention is made 
of this trade: and though it appears 
that both David, 2 Sam. 5:11, and Sol- 
omon, 1 Kg?. 5 : 0, employed foreign art- 
isans, the numerous allusions, in the his- 
torical, prophetical, and poetical books of 
the 0. T., to the tools, implements, and 
methods of this trade, show that the na- 
tive craftsmen must have been possessed 

! of great skill, and the trade itself held in 
I high esteem among the people. 

Joseph, the husband of Mary, was a 
! carpenter, Matt. 13 : 55, and our Lord 
! himself worked at the trade, Mark 6 :3. 
" Is not this the carpenter's son ?" yea, 
"Is not this the carpenter?" asked the 
! people, not in contempt, but in wonder. 
! They implied, however, that they re- 
i garded him as one of themselves, as no 
[ better than they. But we may be thank- 
j ful that our Lord is thus called, for the 
very word "is full of meaning, and has 
exercised a Aery noble and blessed in- 
fluence over the fortunes of mankind. 
! It has tended to console and sanctify 
j the estate of poverty, to ennoble the 
duty of labor, to elevate the entire con- 
I ception of manhood as of a condition 
| which in itself alone, and apart from 
every adventitious circumstance, has 
its own grandeur and dignity in the 
| sight of God." — FARRAR : Life of Christ, 
ch. vii. 

CARPUS (fruit), a friend of Paul 
at Troas. 2 Tim. 4: 13. 

C AR'RIAGE (from carro, « a car "), 
old English for " baggage," luggage re- 
quiring to be carried. Jud. 18 : 21 ; 1 Sam. 
17 : 20, 22 ; Isa. 10 : 28 : 46 : 1 ; Acts 21 : 
15. They "took up their carriages" — 
i. e. they packed up their things and 
commenced their journey. 

CARSHENA (illustrious?), one 
of the seven highest princes of Persia 
and Media. Esth. 1 : 14. 
CART. See Wagon. 
CASE'MENT. See Window. 
CASIPH'IA. Ezr. 8:17. Probably 
near Ahava. 

CAS'LUHIM (fortified), a Mizra- 
ite people or tribe. Gen. 10 : 14; 1 Chr. 

CAS'SIA. Ex. 30 : 24. The bark of 
a tree (Cinnamomum cassia) like the cin- 
namon, and one of the ingredients, of 
the holy anointing oil. It was brought 
from India by the Tyrians. The He- 
brew refers, in Ps. 45 : 8, to another 
kind of spice, remarkable for its fra- 
grance, and not yet identified with 
much probability. 

CAS TLE, in Acts 21 : 34, 37 : 22 : 
24 ; 23 : 10, 16, 32, means " the fortress 
at the north-west corner of the temple 
in Jerusalem. It was called by Herod 
the Tower of Antonia, in honor of his 
patron, Mark Antony. The temple was 



a kind of citadel that guarded Jerusa- 
lem, and so the Tower of Antonia was 
a fortress that commanded the temple." 

28:11. In heathen mythology," Castor" 
and " Pollux " were the names of twin 
sons of Jupiter who presided over the 

Castor and Pollux. (From a Coin of Bruttii.) 

destinies of sailors. Hence an image 
representing them was often seen on the 
prow of ancient ships, like the figure- 
heads of modern days. In the case of 
Paul's ship, the name was Castor and 

CAST OUT, comp. John 9 : 22 
and 34, or EXCOMMUNICATE, 
was to cut off from the privileges of 
the Jewish Church. 

CAT'ERPILLAR {the consumer), 
probably another word for locusts in 
their .immature or wingless state, ap- 
pearing in vast numbers and of most 
destructive voracity. 1 Kgs. 8 : 37. 
Hence they were often employed as the 
agents in the execution of God's judg- 
ments, Ps. 78 : 46 and 105 : 34, and fig- 
uratively represent a great multitude. 
Isa. 33 : 4; Jer. 51 : 14, 27. They were 
regarded as among the most desolating 
visitations of God's hand. 

CAT'TLE. Gen. 1 : 25. In the 
common scriptural use of this term it 
embraces the tame quadrupeds em- 
ployed by mankind, as oxen, horses, 
sheep, camels, goats, etc. Gen.l3:2; Ex. 
12 : 29 and 34 : 1 9 ; Num. 20 : 19 ; 32 : 
16, and Ps. 50 : 10, and Job 1 : 3, where 
the word translated *' substance" would 
be more properly rendered " cattle." 

The allusion in Job 36 : 33 is ex- 
plained by the well-known fact that 
certain animals of this class are pecu- 
liarly sensitive to the change of air 
which precedes rain. 

CAUL. Isa. 3:18. The attire of 
the head, made of net-work and orna- 
mented. In Hos. 13 : 8 the word "caul" 

denotes the pericardium, or membranous 
bag which encloses the heart. This 
word in the Pentateuch denotes one of 
the viscera, probably the great lobe of 
the liver. 

CAVE. Caves are very common 
in Palestine, and the names of sec- 
tions of country were derived from 
this fact, as the Hawaii, Eze. 47 : 16, is 
caveland, and the Horites are dwellers 
in caves. They were made use of as 
temporary dwelling-places, Gen. 19 : 30 ; 
as places of concealment, Josh. 10 : 16; 
Jud. 6 : 2 ; 1 Sam. 13 : 6 ; 22 : 1, 2 ; 
24:3; 2 Sam. 23: 13: 1 Kgs. 18 : 4; 
19 : 9; Heb. 11 : 38 ; and as burial- 
places, Gen. 23 : 17, 19 and 49 : 29; 
John 11 : 38. Some noted ones are named 
in the Bible, such as Adullam, the Mach- 
pelah, Makkedah, etc. The manger in 
which our Lord was born may have been 
a cave. See Tombs and Burial. 

CE ' DAR. Undoubtedly several 
cone-bearing, evergreen trees are in- 
cluded under this title. But ordinarily, 
and especially when the full form is 
given — cedar of Lebanon — the still fa- 
mous tree of that name (Cedrus Libani) 
is meant. The Scriptures correctly give 
its characteristics. Comp. Ps. 92 : 12 ; 
Eze. 31 : 3-6 ; 1 Kgs. 7 : 2 ; 10 : 27 ; Song 
Sol. 4 : 11 1 Hos. 14 : 6 ; Isa. 2 : 13 ; 10 : 
19. It is one of the most valuable and 
majestic evergreen trees of Eastern 
forests, and is found upon Mounts 
Amanus and Taurus, in Asia Minor, and 
other parts of the Levant, but in its 
greatest perfection on Mount Lebanon. 
It grows to the height of 70 or 80 feet. 
The branches are thick and long, spread- 
ing out almost horizontally from the 
trunk, which is sometimes 30 or 40 
feet in circumference. Eze. 31 : 3, 6, 8. 
Maundrell measured one which was 36 
feet and 6 inches in the girth, and 111 
feet in the spread of its boughs. The 
wood is of a red color and bitter taste, 
which is offensive to insects, and hence 
it is very durable and admirably adapt- 
ed for building. A specimen of this 
wood in the British Museum is labelled 
" Cedar of Lebanon, from Palace of 
Nimrod; 3000 years old." Cedar was 
used for the most noble and costly edi- 
fices, as the palace of Persepolis, the 
palace of Solomon, and the temple at 
Jerusalem. This timber served not only 
for beams for the frame and boards for 



covering buildings, but was also wrought 
into the walls. 2 Sam. 7 : 2 ; 1 Kgs. 6 : 
36 and 7 : 12. The gum which exudes 
from the trunk and the cones is as soft 
and fragrant as the balsam of Mecca. 

This tree, there is reason to believe, 
once quite covered the mountains of 
Lebanon between the heights of 3000 
and 7000 feet. Rev. H. H. Jessup has 
visited and described eleven distinct 
groves of cedars on those mountains, 
including, altogether, several thousand 

The principal forest visited by trav- 
ellers is 8 hours' ride from Baalbec, on 
Cedar Mountain (Jebel el-Arz), about 

6300 feet above the sea-level, a little 
below the summit. Baedeker ( I'ahstine 
and Syria, p. 505) thus ("escribes it: 
" The group occupies the top of a hill 
with five culminating points of various 
sizes, on the eastern and western sides 
of which runs a water-course. It con- 
sists of about 350 trees, the tallest of 
which does not exceed 78 feet in height. 
The rock on which they grow is white 
limestone, and the decaying spines, 
cones, and other matter have formed 
a dark-colored soil. The oldest trees, 
about 9 in number, are on the south- 
eastern height. In the midst of the 
north-western group stands a Maronite 

Cedars of Lebanon. 
chapel. Unfortunately, no care what- 
ever is taken of these noble trees. The 
goats eat all the young shoots, and cedar 
branches are even used for fuel, par- 
ticularly on the occasion of an annual 
festival in August. Countless names 
are cut on the trunks of the trees. 
... In gloomy weather the sombre 
group and its black surroundings 
form a weird and wild picture." 

In most of the botanic gardens and 
arboretums of Europe and America 
growing specimens of this monarch of 
Eastern forests may now be seen. It 
thrives especially well in England. In 
the general appearance of its bark and 
foliage it is much like the larch, but it 

{After Photographs.) 

is a far more widely-branching an 

massive tree. 

Dr. G. E. Post, of Beirut, Syria, who is 
a good botanist, supplies the following 
interesting information concerning this 
tree-: " The first mention of the cedar 
in the Bible is in Lev. 14:4, 6, 49, 51, 
52, with the parallel passage, Num. 
19 : 6. The children of Israel were 
then in the peninsula of Mount Sinai. 
Did the cedar grow in that region? or 
is the cedar there alluded to a differ- 
ent tree from the cedar of Lebanon ? 

" There are other trees known now in 

Syria as cedars. The Aleppo pine is 

one, and it is quite probable that this 

tree may have grown in that region, 




although not more so than that the 
cedar itself was there. The juniper 
(Juniper us oxycedrus) still grows in the 
peninsula of Sinai; and being of the 
same family as the cedar, it is allowable 
to regard it as the plant here intended. 
A species of juniper is known in Eng- 
lish by the name of 'cedar.' In view, 
however, of admitted changes in climate 
in all the countries bordering the east- 
ern end of the Mediterranean, there is 
nothing to forbid the possibility of the 
cedar of Lebanon having once existed 
on Sinai. It grows on the Atlas chain 
and the mountains connecting Taurus 
with the Himalayas, as well as in the 
latter groups. May it not have found 
in Sinai a connecting station between 
its distant homes in the Atlas and the 
Lebanon and Himalayas ? 

(i Some very foolish things have been 
said about the durability of the cedar. 
It has been pronounced, perhaps from 
trials on specimens taken from Euro- 
pean or American trees, a crooked, in- 
ferior, perishable wood. In point of 
fact, it is notable for toughness, dura- 
bility, and adaptedness to the climate 
and circumstances of Syria. There is 
no such thing as a rotten cedar. 
Branches broken off by the tempests 
lie unrotten on the ground. The trunks, 
where barked by travellers or peeled by 
the lightning, remain dead, but un- 
corrupted. The name of Lamartine, 
carved on one of the giant trees 109 
years ago, is fresh and legible to-day. 
All other woods indigenous to Syria are 
liable to the attacks of insects or a kind 
of dry rot. Cedar beams are unchange- 
able. No greater injury has been done 
to Lebanon than denuding it of its kingly 
tree. The cedar is a desirable wood for 
carving. Isa. 44 : 14. It is hard, fra- 
grant, takes a high polish, which devel- 
ops a beautiful grain, and it grows 
darker and richer bv time. 

" ' The trees of the Lord are full of sap ; 
the cedars of Lebanon, which he hath 
planted.' Ps. 104:15. The aromatic 
sap of this tree exudes from the slight- 
est scratch, and distills in copal drops 
down the ba;-k. If two branches rub 
together, they soon unite. Several trees 
are often joined in this way through the 
superabundance of their vitality. 

" ' The righteous shall flourish like the 
palm tree ; he shall grow like a cedar 

in Lebanon.' A palm tree attains its 
height in a hundred years or less ; a ce- 
dar grows for thousands of years. A 
palm tree soon bears fruit and flour- 
ishes ; a cedar grows slowly and tarries 
long before it bears fruit, but it con- 
tinues to bear fruit long centuries after 
the palm tree has decayed. It continues 
fat and flourishing (green). The cedar 
is ever green. Its vitality is equally 
apparent in the heat of summer and 
the snows of winter. How apt a likeness 
of the righteous, who grows in grace as 
he lengthens out his years ! The cedar 
still bears multitudes of cones when it 
has been riven by lightning, torn and 
almost uprooted by the wind. So afflic- 
tion but develops the graces of the 
righteous, and the green branches bear 
abundance of fruit when the blighted 
ones have been severed and for ever 
lost." See Lebanon. 

CE'DRON. John 18:1. See Ke- 


CEII/ING. We have a description 
of the ceiling of Solomon's temple and 
palace in 1 Kgs. 6:9,10,15; 7:3; 2 
Chr. 3:5. It was made of planks of 
cedar or fir "laid on beams or rests in 
the wall." Eastern floors and ceilings 
were just the reverse of ours. Their 
ceilings were of wood, painted, Jer. 22: 
14, ours are of plaster ; their floors were 
of plaster or some sort of tiles, ours are 
of wood. 

CELLARS. 1 Chr. 27 : 27. Of 
cellars such as are common among us 
nothing was known in the East, if we 
except the chambers which are used in 
Persia for the storing of earthen jars 
or other vessels of wine. Among the 
Hebrews and Greeks these jars were 
buried up to the neck in the ground. 
The word "wine-cellars" in the passage 
cited probably denotes the patches of 
ground used to bury wine. See Wine. 

CEL'O-SYR'IA. See Ccelo- 

CEiV'CHREA (accurately CEN'- 
CHRE.E), the eastern harbor of Cor- 
inth, on the Saronic Gulf, and the em- 
porium of its trade with the Asiatic 
shores of the Mediterranean, about 9 
miles east of that city; the western 
harbor was Lechasum. A church was 
formed at Cenchrea, of which Phebe 
was a deaconess. Rom. 16 : 1. Paul 
sailed from thence to Ephesus. Acts 



18 : 18. The town was full of idolatrous 
monuments and shrines. It is now call- 
ed Kikrie*. 

CENSER. Lev. 10:1. A vessel 
used in the temple-service for the pur- 
pose of carrying the fire in which the 
incense was burned, taken from the per- 
petual supply on the altar of burnt- 
offering. It was sometimes made of 
pure gold. 1 Kgs. 7 : 50; 2 Chr. 26 : 
10, 19. The censer was held in one 


Egyptian Centers. (Wilkinson.) 
hanrl. and the incense was carried in 
the other hand. The priest strewed the 
pulverized incense upon the fire, and 
the cloud of smoke ascended up in a 
dark volume and filled the apartment 
with its fragrance. The word ren- 
dered "censer" in Heb. 9 : 4 means a 
golden altar of incense. 

CEN'SUS. In the 0. T. there is 
mention made of twelve censuses. 

1 . The earliest was under Moses, in the 
third or fourth month after the Exodus. 
Its object was to raise money for build- 
ing the tabernacle, each person num- 
bered — ('. e. every male from 20 years and 
upward — being obliged to pay half a 
shekel. The census showed there were 
603,550 men. Ex. 38 : 26. 

2. In Num. 1 : 2 there is the order for 
a second numbering, in the second 
month of the second year after the 

Exodus. The result showed the same 
figures. Num. 1 : 46. This fact has led 
some to suppose that these two number- 
ings were in fact one, but applied to dif- 
ferent purposes. 

3. The next census was made imme- 
diately before the entrance of the He- 
brews into Canaan. Num. 26. The 
total number of males fit for military 
service was 601,730. while the Levite 
males from a month old were 23,000. 

4. For a long time after that there 
Avas no reckoning made. But David, 
instigated by Satan, out of mere curi- 
osity and ambition to know how large 
a people he governed, ordered a count, 
which showed that the men of Israel 
over 20 years of age were 800,000, and 
of Judah" 500,000. 2 Sam. 24:9; 1 Chr. 
21 : 1. These are round figures, and do 
not quite agree with those of 1 Chr. 21 : 5. 

5. Solomon completed the census by 
causing the foreigners and remnants of 
the conquered nations resident within 
Palestine to be numbered. 2 Chr. 2 : 
17, 18. 

We read of much more frequent cen- 
suses after this : 6. Rehoboain, 1 Kgs. 
12 : 21 : 7. Abijam, 2 Chr. 13 : 3, 17 ; 8. 
Asa, 2 Chr. 14:8, 9; 9. Jehoshaphat, 2 
Chr. 17 : 14-19 ; 10. Amaziah, 2 Chr. 25 : 
5,6; 11. Uzziah, 2 Chr. 26 : 13. All 
these must have kept at least an account 
of how many could bear arms, since we 
find in the passages cited the number of 
their troops. Besides, the numbers re- 
ferred to are those of the separate tribes 
and companies — e. g. Jud. 7 : 3; 1 Kgs. 
20:15: Jer. 52:30. 

12. The last general census was that 
made at the time of the Return. Ezr. 
2 : 64 and 8:1-14 give the numbers of 
males in the first and second caravan. 

These figures indicate the importance 
attached to the census, though no sci- 
entific use was made of it, as by us. 
It would appear that the kingdom of 
Judah was most populous under Je- 
hoshaphat. The numbers, in propor- 
tion to the area of the country, have been 
quoted as an objection to the narrative. 
But while it must be freely granted that 
the population was dense, still the den- 
sity has been paralleled, and even ex- 
ceeded, in modern times. Palestine, it 
should be remembered, was a very fer- 
tile land. On the census of Cyrenius, 
Luke 2:2, see Taxing, Days of the. 



CENTURION. Matt. 8 : 5. The 
title of an officer of the Roman army 
who had command of 100 soldiers. See 

CE'PHAS {rock), a Syriac surname 
given to Simon, which in the Greek is 
rendered Petros, and in the Latin Petrus, 
both signifying " a rock." John 1 : 42. 
See Peter. 

CESARE'A. See Cjesarea. 


CHAFF. The Hebrew farmer sepa- 
rated the corn from the husk by throw- 
ing the mixed mass up against the wind. 
On account of their weight, the grains 
were thrown quite a distance, while the 
light chaff fell immediately to the ground 
if not blown entirely away. Hence the 
exceedingly forcible image of the Avicked 
being swept off by the breath of God. Ps. 
1 : 4; 35 : 5. In the figurative language 
of John the Baptist, the winnowing- 
shovel — called in our version a " fan " 
— is said to be in the hand of God, and 
with it he will thoroughly purge his 
floor. Matt. 3 : 12: Luke 3 : 17. 

CHAINS. A distinction must be 
made between fetters, which were for the 
feet, and chains, which were for any part 
of the body. Chains were worn for orna- 
ment, dignity, or restraint. They were 
made of gold for the first two purposes, 
and of iron for the last. In the ancient 
Orient both sexes wore them ostenta- 
tiously. They were put on Joseph and 
Daniel as a symbol of sovereignty. Gen. 
41 : 42 ; Dan. 5 : 29. So to-day kings 
wear the chain of the order of the Gold- 
en Fleece. Chains were put by the Mid- 
ianites upon their camels. Jud. 8:21. 
They were also worn by women as a fas- 
tening between the anklets. Isa. 3:19. 
The chains used on prisoners, Jud. 16 : 
21 : 2 Sam. 3 : 34 ; 2 Kgs. 25 : 7 ; Jcr. 39 : 
7 ; 52 : 11, were fetters. Handcuffs were 
also used. The Roman practice was to 
bind the prisoner's hand to the hand of 
a soldier, or to a soldier by either hand. 
Acts 12 : 6, 7; 21 : 33 ; 28 : 16, 20; 2 
Tim. 1:16. 

The " chains " which bound the mad- 
man of Gadara, Mark 5 : 3, 4, were prob- 
ably not of iron, but were ropes. The 
iron "fetters" he shivered. 

" Chain " is used in Lam. 3 : 7 in a met- 
aphorical sense to denote tribula'ion. 

CHALCEDONY. Rev. 21 : 19. 

A variety of quartz much like the agate, 
of pearly, wax-like lustre, and of great 
translucency ; sometimes called white 
carnelian. Its name is from Chalcedon, 
near Constantinople. 

CHALDiF/A, a country anciently 
situated on both sides of the river Eu- 
phrates, and bordering on the Persian 
Gulf. It had an estimated area of 23,000 
square miles, about the same as the mod- 
ern kingdom of Denmark, or half that of 
Louisiana in the Mississippi Delta. In 
later times, and in a more extended 
sense, it included a territory about 450 
miles long by 100 to 130 miles wide. 
It occupied the southern portion of the 
great Mesopotamian plain, the most fer- 
tile part of that country. It was ren- 
dered still moi-e productive by numer- 
ous canals, which were used for defence, 
for commerce, and for navigation. The 
country was naturally divided into two 
portions, the larger part lying between 
the rivers Tigris and Euphrates, and 
the smaller portion lying on the south- 
western side of the latter river. It was 
also divided into Northern and South- 
ern Chaldaaa, each having four import- 
ant cities. In later times the " land 
of the Chaldseans " was applied to 
all Babylonia, and to the whole of the 
empire over which the Chaldasans ruled. 

Physical Features and Products. — The 
chief features of the country were the 
rivers, for on all sides it was a dead 
level, broken now only by solitary 
mounds, old ruins, marshes, and streams. 
The summers are hot, the winters rainy, 
and seldom colder than 30° F. Wheat, 
millet, barley, dates, and fruits of all 
kinds were abundant. Its fertility and 
productions were proverbial in ancient 
times. For sketch-map of Chaldasa, 
see Assyria. 

History. — It is noticed in Scripture as 
the native country of Abram, Gen. 11 : 31 ; 
its people attacked Job, Job 1 : 17, and 
it was the term by which the empire of 
Nebuchadnezzar was sometimes called. 
Originally it was the district in the south 
of the " land of Shinar " where Nimrod 
built four cities. Gen. 10 : 10. Chaldasa 
soon extended its influence and sway, 
until in the time of Abraham its con- 
quests reached nearly to the sources of 
the Euphrates, and westward into Ca- 
naan and Syria. Among the four great 
kingdoms or empires on the Euphrates, 



secular historians usually place the 
Chaldasan as the first in order or earli- 
est, lasting for about ten centuries, from 
B. c. 2300 to about B. c. 1300 ; the Assyr- 
ian empire next, lasting about six and 
a half centuries, from b. c. 1270 to b. c. 
625; the Babylonian empire third in or- 
der, continuing from about B.C. 625 to B.C. 
538 ; and the Medo-Persian fourth. Some 
of these kingdoms in their earlier history 
no doubt existed contemporaneously for 
a time. Chaldasa and Assyria were at 
times independent of each other: hence 
the order given above applies chiefly to 
them as empires. The great cities of 
the Chaldasan empire were Ur, Ellasar, 
Babylon, Erech, Accad, Calneh, Sephar- 
Vaim, Ahava, and Cutha. Its great rulers 
were Nimrod, Urukh, and Chedorlaomer. 
The latter marched an army for 1200 
miles on a conquering tour to the Dead 
Sea, and held Canaanitish nations in 
subjection for 32 years. Gen. 10:9; 
14: 1-4. The Chaldasans, according to 
Rawlinson and others, were chiefly of 
Cushite origin, while their more north- 
ern neighbors were Semitic. After the 
lapse of centuries the former lost their 
Cushite character, and became a people 
scarcely distinguishable from the Assyr- 
ians. After their subjugation, in B.C. 
1300, they held an insignificant place in 
history for over six centuries, but re- 
covered themselves in b. c 625, and es- 
tablished a new kingdom, known as the 
Babylonian empire. For the later his- 
tory see Babylon, Assyria, and Nine- 

CHALK-STONES. Isa.27:9. A 
soft mineral substance resembling what 
we call limestone. To make the stones 
of the Jewish altars like chalkstones is 
to crumble and destroy them. 

CHAMBER. Gen. 43:30. Usu- 
ally, the private apartments of a house 
are called chambers. 2 Sam. 18 : 33 ; Ps. 
19 : 5 ; Dan. 6 : 10. Particular rooms 
of this class in Eastern houses were 
designated by significant terms. 

Guest-chamber. Mark 14 : 14. This 
we may suppose to have been a spacious 
unoccupied room, usually in the upper 
part of the house, and furnished suita- 
bly for the reception and entertainment 
of guests and for social meetings. The 
proverbial hospitality of the Jews would 
make such provision necessary, and es- 
pecially at Jerusalem, in festival sea- 

sons, when every house in the city was 
the stranger's home. Mark 14 : 15 ; Luke 
22 : 12 ; Acts 1 : 13. See Hospitality. 

Inner Chamber. 2 Kgs. 9:2. A 
chamber within another chamber. 

Little Chamber. 2 Kgs. 4 : 10. An 
apartment built upon and projecting 
from the walls of the main house, and 
communicating by a private door with 
the house, and by a private stairway 
with the street. 

Upper Chamber, or Loft, Acts 9 : 37, 
occupied the front part of the building, 
over the gate or outer entrance, and was 
used to lodge strangers. Comp. 1 Kgs. 
17 : 19 and 23 with 2 Kgs. 4 : 10. See 

CHAMBERING, licentiousness, 
wantonness. Rom. 13 : 13. 

CHAMBERLAIN. 2 Kgs. 23: 11. 
An officer who has charge of the royal 
chambers, or the king's lodgings, ward- 
robes, etc. In Eastern courts eunuchs 
were commonly employed for this ser- 
vice. Esth. 1 : 10, 12, 15. The word oc- 
curs twice in A. V. of N. T., but entirely 
different offices are meant in the Greek. 
Blastus, " the king's chamberlain," men- 
tioned in Acts 12 : 20, " held a post of 
honor which involved great intimacy 
and influence with the king." Eras- 
tus, " the chamberlain of the city of 
Corinth," who sent salutations to the 
Roman Christians, Rom. 16 : 23, was 
probably the treasurer of the city. 

CHAMELEON. Lev. 11:30. A 
species of lizard of very singular anat- 
omy, appearance, and habits. "It re- 
mains exclusively on trees (and bushes), 
often suspended by its tail to the ex- 
tremity of a branch, whence it darts 
forth its long tongue, covered with a 
viscous fluid, to entrap passing insects. 
Each foot is a grasping hand, by which 
it clings with great force to a branch, 
but it is almost helpless on the ground. 
The chief peculiarity of this lizard is 
the enormous size of the lungs (whence 
arose the fable that it lived on air), and 
these, when filled, render the animal 
semi-transparent. It has the faculty 
of changing color more developed than 
in any other lizard, and this change is 
influenced, not by the bodies on which 
it happens to rest, but by the wants 
and passions of the animal. The struc- 
ture of the eyes is very wonderful. They 
are so prominent that one-half of the ball 



projects out of the head, and not only 
can they be moved in any direction, 
but each has an independent action : 
one eye may be looking forward, while 
with the other the animal examines an 

Chameleon. {After Tristram.) 
object behind it. The chameleon is 
very common in Egypt and the Holy 
Land, especially in the Jordan valley." 
— Tristram. 

CHAM'OIS (pronounced sham' my). 
Deut. 14 : 5. The true chamois is be- 
lieved never to have lived in Arabia or 
Palestine. It is now thought that this 
animal of the Bib'e was a species of 
wild sheep (Oois tragelephus) formerly 
abundant among the mountains of Si- 
nai, but now apparently confined to 

CHA'NAAN, Greek form of Ca- 
naan. Acts 7:1. See Caxaan. 

CHANCELLOR. The word oc- 
curs in Ezr. 4: 8, 17 as the translation 
of the Hebrew lord of counsel — i. e. 
counsellor, royal prefect — the office held 
by Rehum, who was the Persian gover- 
nor in Samaria at the time. 

APPAREL. See Clothes. 

12; John 2:14. When Judaea became 
a province of Rome the Jews were re- 
quired to pay taxes in Roman currency, 
while the annual tribute for the service 
of the sanctuary was the half-shekel 
of Jewish currency. To exchange the 

one for the other was the business of 
the money-changers, like the business 
of modern brokers. They stationed 
themselves in the courts of the temple, 
the place of general resort for stran- 
gers from every part of the land, and 
their oppressive and fraudulent prac- 
tices probably justified the allusion of 
our Saviour to a den of thieves. 

See Clothes. 

CHANT. See Viol. 

CHAP'EL. The word occurs, Am. 
7:13, as a mistranslation for SANC- 
TUARY, a place of worship. Bethel 
is called the king's sanctuary by one 
of the idol-priests, because there the 
king of Israel paid idolatrous worship 
to the golden calves. See Bethel. 

CHAPITERS (French chapitre), 
Ex. 36:38, or CAPITALS (as they 
are called in modern architecture), are 
the upper or ornamental part of a 

CHAPMAN (from the same root 
as cheap, chop), merchant. 2 Chr. 9 : 14. 
In the corresponding passage, 1 Kgs. 
10 : 15, spice-merchants. 

CHA'RAN. See Hara*. 

(ravine of craftsmen), near by Lydda. 
1 Chr. 4 : 14; now Hirsha. 

CHARCHEMISH. 2 Chr. 35 : 
20. See Carchemish. 

CHARGER (old English, from 
the French charger), that on which a 
thing is laid, a dish. Num. 7 : 13 ; Ezr. 
1:9; Matt. 14 : 8, 11. A shallow bowl 
or basin used for receiving the blood at 
the preparation of the sacrifices. The 
charger in which Herod's daughter 
brought the head of John Baptist was 
probably a trencher or platter. 

CHARIOT. Chariots were not 
exclusively used for warlike purposes. 
In the Bible, instances of a peaceful use 
occur, as in the account of Joseph's ex- 
altation, Gen. 41:43, and meeting with 
his father, 46 : 29 ; Ahab's fleeing before 
the coming storm at the command of 
Elijah, 1 Kgs. 18:44; Naaman's com- 
ing to Elisha, 2 Kgs. 5:9; and the 
Ethiopian eunuch's journey homeward. 
Acts 8 : 2S. But the commoner use was 
for war. They are first mentioned in 
the Bible in connection with Joseph in 
Egypt. Later on they formed part of 
Pharaoh's pursuing army at the Exodus. 



And they were part of the offensive 
weapons among all nations which figure 
in Bible history. The use of war-chari- 
ots was introduced by David. 2 Sam. 
8:4. This change was obedient to the 
altered condition of the people, from a 
democracy, which relies upon volunteers 
for its defence, to a monarchy, which 
employs a regular army. Solomon had 
1400 chariots, and cities fortified for 
their safe-keeping. 1 Kgs. 10 : 26 ; 9 : 
19. After his day they formed a regu- 
lar branch of the military service, and 
are frequently mentioned. 1 Kgs. 22 : 
34 ; 2 Kgs. 9 : 16, 21 j 13 : 7, 14 ; 18 : 24 ; 
23 : 30 ; Isa. 31 : 1. The texts just 

Egyptian Chariot. (After Wilkinson.) 

quoted also prove that Egypt was the 
source whence both the chariot-horses 
and the chariots themselves were prin- 
cipally drawn. A description of an 
Egyptian chariot will therefore be a 
description of a Jewish one. The 
Egyptian chariot was an " almost semi- 
circular wooden frame with straight- 
ened sides, resting posteriorly on the 
axle of a pair of wheels, a rail of wood 
or ivory being attached to the frame by 
leathern thongs, and a wooden upright 
in front. The back of the car was open, 
and the sides were strengthened and 
embellished with leather and metal 
binding : the floor was of rope net-work, 
to give a springy footing to the occu- 

pants. On the off-side were the bow- 
case, sometimes the quiver, and spear- 
case, crossing diagonally : the last named 
inclined backward. If two warriors 
were in the chariot, there was a second 
bow-case. The wheels had usually six 
spokes, fastened to the axle by a linch- 
pin, secured by a thong. The horses 
had a breast-band and girths attached 
to the saddle, but were without traces. 
They wore head-furniture, often orna- 
mented, with a bearing-rein. The driv- 
ing-reins passed through rings on each 
side of both horses. Two persons gen- 
erally were in a chariot, but there was 
sometimes a third, holding the umbrella 
of state." — Wil- 
kinson: An e . 
Egypt., 1879, vol. i. 
pp. 222-241 : vol.ii. 
pp. 201-203. The 
Assyrian war- 
chariots were near- 
ly similar. Some- 
times a third horse 
was attached, but 
in later times this 
was laid aside; the 
chariot was made 
higher, and the 
quiver placed in 
front instead of on 
the side. — Lat- 
ARD: Nineveh, vol. 
ii. pp. 348-354; 
AYRK : Treas.qf 
Bib. Knowledge. 

Chariots armed 
with scythes were 
used in later times. 
Warriors some- 
times fought standing up in them, or 
else used them to carry them into the 
battle, and leaping from them fought 
on foot. 

The word "chariot" is sometimes 
used figuratively ; e. g. in Ps. 68 : 17 it 
means the angelic host. Elisha called 
Elijah " the chariot of Israel and the 
horsemen thereof." 2 Kgs. 2:12. The 
imagery was borrowed from the phe- 
nomena of the miraculous ascent. The 
phrase means that Elijah, by his pray- 
ers and his counsels, was the true de- 
fence of Israel, and better than either 
chariots or horsemen. 

Captains of Chariots. The phrase 
occurs in Ex. 14 : 7 ; 15 : 4 ; 1 Kgs. 



22 : 33. In the first two passages it 
means "commanders of the highest 
rank, chosen specially to attend on the 
person of Pharaoh ; probably com- 
manders of the 2000 Calasirians, who, 
alternately with the Hermotybians, 
formed his body-guard. They may 
have been, for the most part, known to 
Muses.*' — Bible (Speaker's) Commen- 
tary, i)i loco. 

Chariots of the Sun. It was a 
Persian practice to dedicate a char- 
iot and horses to the sun. These 
chariots were white, and drawn proba- 
bly by white horses in sacred proces- 
sions. This idolatrous practice found 
favor in Judah, for it is recorded, to the 
honor of Josiah and as a proof of his 
zeal, that he took away the horses which 
previous kings had given to the sun, 
and burned the chariots of the sun with 
fire. 2 Kgs. 23:11. 

CHARITY (from Lat. caritas, 
Fr. charite). In 1 Cor. 13 : 1 and paral- 
lel passages the Saxon word love (to 
God as well as to man) would better ex- 
press the sentiment intended. See Love. 
Charity, in the popular acceptation of 
the word, is confined to love to suffering 
men, or almsgiving. See Alms. 

Adder, Asp. Divination. 

CHARRA1V. Acts 7 : 2, 4. The 
Greek form of Haran, which see. 

CHATTER. See Crane, Swal- 

CHE'BAR, a river in Chaldsea, 
Eze. 1:1,3; 3 : 15, etc. : probably the 
same as Habor, and perhaps the royal 
canal which connected the Tigris with 
the Euphrates, 30 miles above Babylon. 

CHE'BEL (cord), a Hebrew topo- 
graphical term, Josh. 2:15; 1 Sam. 10 : 
5; Ps. 16 : 6 : usually applied to the Ar- 
gob. Deut. 3:4, 13, 14; 1 Kgs. 4 : 13. 
See under Bashan. 

of sheaves), the king of Elam, and one 
of the four allied kings who subjected 
:he kings of the five cities of the plain. 
These remained in the service of Che- 
dorlaomer for twelve years, but in the 
thirteenth rebelled. Chedorlaomer sum- 
moned the allies, met the five kings, 
completely routed them, carried off much 
spoil, part of which belonged to Lot, 
whom they likewise captured. Abram 
started in pursuit with his own ser- 

j vants, defeated them, was able to re- 
cover all the spoil and his nephew Lot. 

| In the battle Chedorlaomer appears to 
have perished. The narrative is given 
in Gen. 14. 

CHEEK. To be struck upon the 
cheek was, among the Hebrews, to be 
grossly insulted. In proof see 1 Kgs, 

22 : 24 : Job 16 : 10 ; Matt. 5 : 39. 
CHEESE was a common article of 

food among the Hebrews. The word 
occurs but three times in the Bible, and 
in each case the original word is differ- 
ent. 1 Sam. 17 : 18 ; 2 Sam. 17 : 29 ; Job 
10 : 10. It is difficult to decide how far 
these terms correspond with our notion 
of cheese. In the original the first word 
means " a cutting," " ten sections of 
curds," soft cheese; the root of the 
second word means "to scrape," im- 
plying that the cheese was grated ; 
while the third word means " curdled 
milk." The modern Bedouins use a 
kind of coagulated butter-milk, which 
is ground when dried hard, and eaten 
mixed with butter. 

CHE'LAL {perfection), one who had 
a strange wife. Ezr. 10 : 30. 

CHEL'LUH (completed), one who 
had a strange wife. Ezr. 10 : 35. 

CHE'IiUB (fruit-basket, or bird- 
cage). 1. One of Judah's posterity. 1 
Chr. 4:11. 

2. The father of one of David's offi- 
cers. I Chr. 27 : 26. 

CHELUBAI (capable), Hezron's 
son ; same with Caleb. 1 Chr. 2 : 9, 18, 

CHEMARIMS (those who go about 
in black : i. e. ascetics), priests of false 
gods. Zeph. 1:4; 2 Kgs. 23 : 5, margin : 
Hos. 10:5, margin. 

CHE'MOSH (subduer), the na- 
tional deity of the Moabites, who were 
his people, as the Israelites are the peo- 
ple of Jehovah. Num. 21:29; Jer. 48: 
7, 46 ; called " the abomination of Moab." 
1 Kgs. 11 : 7. Solomon introduced, 1 
Kgs. 11 : 7, and Josiah suppressed, 2 Kgs. 

23 : 13, his worship in Jerusalem. Upon 
the recently discovered Moabite Stone, 
King Mesha, 2 Kgs. 3 : 4, attributes to 
his god Chemosh his victories. See 
Dibon. The same traits of cruelty and 
lust prove him to have been identical 
with Molech, the god of the Ammon- 
ites. Jud. 11 : 24. It was to Chemosh 
that Mesha offered his son. 2 Kgs. 3 : 



27. The god is also identified with 
Baal-Peor. Saturn, or Mars. 

CHENA'ANAH(mei-fki4 1- 
The father of the false prophet Zedeki- 
ah. 1 Kgs. 22 : 11, 24; 2 Chr. 18 : 10, 23. 

2. A Benjamite, 1 Chr. 7:10; perhaps 
same as the preceding. 

CHEN'ANI (contracted from next 
name), a Levite who took part in the 
purification of the people under Ezra. 
Neli. 9:4. 

CHENANI' AH (whom Jehovah hath 
mode), a Levite chief in David's reign. 

1 Chr. 15:22. 27: 26:29. 

(village of Ammonites), a village of Ben- 
jamin. Josh. 18 : 24. 

CHEPHI'RAH (village), one of 
four towns of the Gibeonites, belonging 
to Benjamin, Josh. 9 : 17 ; 18 : 26 ; Ezr. 

2 : 25 ; probably now Kefir, 8 miles west 
of Gibeon. Conder gives it as Kefireh. 

CHE'RAN (lyre), a Horite chiefs 
son. Gen. 36:26; 1 Chr. 1:41. 

CHER'ETHIMS, identical with 

THITES (executioners and couriers) 
formed the body-guard of King David. 
2 Sam. 8: 18; 15: 18; 20: 7. It is 
probable they were mercenaries, origi- 
nally Philistines, for Cherethite is con- 
nected with Pelethite, which was, it is 
likely, only another form of the word 

CHE'RITH (gorge), THE 
BROOK, a brook or torrent " before 
Jordan" where the prophet Elijah was 
hid. 1 Kgs. 17 : 5. Its location is much 
disputed. Robinson and several others 
identify it with Wady Kelt, a swift, 
brawling stream, 20 yards wide and 3 
feet deep, running into the Jordan from 
the west, a little south of Jericho. Some 
identify it with Wady Fusail, a little 
farther north, and yet others think it 
was some stream on the other, or eastern, 
side of the Jordan. 

CHERUB. Ezr. 2:59; Neh. 7: 
61. A place in Babylonia; perhaps 
Cheripha of Ptolemv. 

Many derivations have been proposed. 
The best are from roots signifying either 
" strong " or " to plough ;" hence, terri- 
ble. The cherubim were not angels, 
since altogether different occupations 
are given to them in the Bible. Thus 

angels are sent out upon messages, but 
the cherubim always are in the presence 
of God. They are winged, and are in 
appearance like combinations of parts 
of different animals. The word first 
occurs in Gen. 3 : 24, and is applied to 
the guard which was placed over Eden 
after the expulsion of fallen man. 

" It is remarkable that while there 
are precise directions as to their position, 
attitude, and material, Ex. 25 : 18, etc., 
and descriptions, 2 Chr. 3 : 10-13, noth- 
ing is said about their shape, except 
that they were winged. On the whole, 
it seems likely that the word ' cherub ' 
meant not only the composite creature 

Egyptian Winged Figures. 

form, of which the man, lion, ox, and 
eagle were the elements, but, further, 
some peculiar and mystical form." — 
Smith : Dictionary of the Bible. 

According to the primitive concep- 
tion, the cherubim were the bearers of 
God when he appeared in his glory upon 
the earth, Ps. 13 : 1 ; so, in Ezekiel's vis- 
ion, they carry the throne of God. Eze. 
11 : 22 ; cf. 1 : 19 ; 10 : 16 ff. They are the 
" wings of the wind," by which God 
in the thunder-cloud is borne to the 
world. Isa. 19 : 1 ; Ps. 104 : 3. Hence 
they are the witnesses of his presence : 
wherever they are, God is. How appro- 
priately, therefore, were representations 
of them placed in the tabernacle and tem- 
ple! In the former, two golden cheru- 
bim stood in the holy of holies, upon 
the mercy-seat. Ex. 37 : 8. They Avere 
likewise pictured upon the curtains. 26 : 
1,31; 36:8,35. In Solomon's temple 
two colossal figures of the cherubim, 
overlaid with gold, stood upon the floor 



and overshadowed the ark, which was 
between them, in the holy of holies. 1 
Kgs. 6 : 27. They were also carved 
upon the doors, upon all the "walls of 
the house," and put between represen- 
tations of palm trees. 1 Kgs. 6 : 29, 32, 
35 ; 2 Chr. 3 : 7. Indeed, in all parts 
did they constitute, with lions, oxen, 
and palm trees, the ornamentation of 
the temple. 1 Kgs. 7 : 29, 36. The cheru- 
bim, therefore, testified that God was in 
the midst of his people. 

A second idea which they represent is 
that they were the watchers of the places 
where God is. They cover his glory from 
vulgar gaze ; they stand in the service 
of the invisible and the unapproachable 
God. Comp. Ex. 19:9, 16; 24:15. 

Similar winged creatures are met with 
in great variety in the legends and sym- 
bols of other peoples of antiquity, but 
the originality of the Hebrew cherubim 
is not to be disputed. Still, the forms 
Avhich they assumed may have been in 
part derived from these nations. Very 
interesting is the comparison of the He- 
brew cherubim with figures in the Egyp- 
tian and Assyrian temples. 

CHES'ALON (strength,), a place on 
the north-west of Judah, Josh. 15:10; 
probably Kesla, 8 miles west of Jeru- 

CHE'SED (gain), Nahor's son. 
Gen. 22:22. 

CHE'SIL (fool, or idolatrous), in 
the south of Judah, Josh. 15 : 30 ; proba- 
bly the same as Bethul and Bethuel : if 
so, it may be at Belt Aula, 7 miles north- 
west of Hebron. 

CHEST. There are two Hebrew 
words so translated. The first is applied, 

Egyptian Chest or Box. 
in 2 Kgs. 12:9,10; 2 Chr. 24: 8, 10, 11, 
to the coffer into which the people threw 

their voluntary contributions for the re- 
pair of the temple under Joash. But the 
original word in every other place ex- 
cept Gen. 50: 26, where it is applied to 
Jacob's coffin, means the ark of the cove- 
nant. A different word altogether is used 
for Noah's and Moses's " ark." The sec- 
ond word occurs only in Eze. 27 : 24. and 
means a treasure-chest where valuables 
are stored. 

37. Doubtless the translation here should 
be "plane tree" (Platanns orientalis). 
This tree closely resembles the well- 
known American species which we call 
sycamore or buttonwood (Platanus oc- 
cldentalls). The Oriental tree gi'ows 
along streams in the north of Pales- 
tine, and when long spared attains 
great size. Eze. 31 : 8. 

CHE SUE' LOTH {loins, or 
flank), a town of Issachar ; possibly the 
same as Chisloth-tabor. Josh. 19 : 12, 
18 ; now Iksal, 4 miles west of Tabor. 

CHE'ZIB (lying), probably iden- 
tical with Ach,iib, 2. Gen. 38 : 5. Con- 
der places it at 'Alu Kezbak. 

CHI'DON. 1 Chr. 13 : 9. Called also 
the threshing-floor of Nachon, 2 Sam. 6 : 
6 ; it was near Jerusalem. 

CHIEF OF ASIA. Acts 19 :31. 
Certain wealthy persons were appointed 
annually in the Asiatic provinces of 
Bome to preside over the religious rites, 
public games, etc., which they maintain- 
ed in honor of the gods, and at their own 
expense. They received their title from 
the name of the province ; as, the chief of 
Caria was called cariarch, or of Ly'cia, 
lyciarch, etc. The title is properly " asi- 
arch," and was borne, it would seem, af- 
ter the duties of the office had been dis- 
charged. This explains the reference in 
the Acts. These asiarchs, who advised 
Paul not to expose himself needlessly to 
the fury of the populace in Ephesus, may 
well have been friendly to the apostle, 
without being Christians. 

CHIEF PRIEST. See Priest. 

CHILDREN. The term is used in 
A. V. where " sons " would better repre- 
sent the Hebrew or Greek ; as, " the chil- 
dren of Abraham," " the children of 
Israel," "the children of God." It was 
regarded among the Jews as not only 
a misfortune, but even a disgrace, if a 
married woman was barren. The more 
sons a man had, the more was he es- 



teemed. The inheritance of the father 
was divided equally among all the sons, 
except the eldest, who received a double 
portion. The daughters got nothing 
unless there was no son, in which case j 
they shared equally the property, and J 
were forbidden to marry out of their j 
father's tribe. Num. 27 : 7-12 5 35 : 2, 8. ' 
Wills were needless, and therefore un- 
known. The authority of the parent 
was very great, and children are com- 
manded to reverence their parents. The 
law allowed children to be sold into 
bondage in payment of the parents' 
debts. Lev. 25 : 39-41. We find al- 
lusions to the practical working of this 
law in 2 Kgs. 4: 1 and Matt. 18 : 25. 

Child-birth in Eastern countries is 
usually, although not always, compara- 
tively easy. Gen. 35:17; 38:27; Ex. 
1:19; 1 Sam. 4:19,20. The new- 
born Hebrew child was washed, rubbed 
with salt, and wrapped in swaddling- 
clothes, Luke 2 : 7 ; circumcised on the 
eighth day, when the name was given. 
Child-birth rendered the woman cere- 
monially unclean for 40 days in the case 
of a son, and 80 in the case of a daugh- 
ter. At the conclusion of the period 
she offered for her cleansing the sac- 
rifices the Law prescribed. Lev. 12. 
Women nursed their own children in 
most cases, and did not wean them until 
the lapse of 30 months, or even 3 years. 
The weaning was made a festive occa- 
sion. This custom was very old. Gen. 
21 : 8. Daughters remained under the 
care of the mother until the period of 
marriage, but boys passed in their 
fifth year under the training of the 
father. See Education. 

CHII/EAB {like to his father?), 
a son of Abigail by David, 2 Sam. 3:3; 
called Daniel in 1 Chr. 3:1. 

CHILI'ON (sickly), son of Naomi, 
and husband ofOrpah. Ruth 1:2-5; 4: 
9, 10. 

CHIL/MAD, a place or country, 
Eze. 27 : 23 ; perhaps identical with 
Kalwadha, near Bagdad. 

CHIMHAM. 2 Sam. 19 : 37. It 
is possible he was a son of Barzillai, but 
it cannot be certainly inferred from 1 | 
Kgs. 2 : 7, which is sometimes cited to 
prove it. Some have supposed that 
David gave Chimham a parcel of land 
which was afterward known by his 
name. Jer. 41 : 17. 

CHIM'NEY. See Dwellings. 

NEROTH. Josh. 11:2. A fenced 
city of Naphtali, on the lake, or sea, 
of the same name; afterward called 
Gennesar, and about 3 miles north-west 
of Tiberias, according to Fiirst. 

See Galilee. Sea of. 

CHIOS, an island of the ^Igean 
Sea, 5 miles from the coast of Ionia, in 
Asia Minor. It is 32 miles long and 
from 8 to 18 miles wide, and noted for 
its wines. Paul passed by it. Acts 20: 
14, 15. Its modern name is Scio or 

CHIS'LEU. See Months. 

CHIS'LON (confidence), the fathei- 
of Elidad the Benjamite, who was chosen 
to represent his tribe in the division of 
the land. Num. 34:21. 

CHIS'LOTH-TABOR, either a 
mountain or a place. Josh. 19 : 12. If 
the former, it is probably identical with 
Tabor ; if the latter, it is perhaps to be 
found at Iksal, 2£ miles west of Tabor. 

24: 24 ; Isa. 23 : 1, 12 ; Jer. 2 : 10 ; Eze. 
27 : 6 ; Dan. 11 :30. In these passages 
the "isles," "ships," "products," and 
"people" of Chittim are mentioned or 
alluded to ; hence the name has gener- 
ally been supposed to mean the island 
of Cyprus, though Kitto thinks it a 
general term applied to islands and 
coasts west of Palestine. See Cyprus. 

CHI'UN. Am. 5 : 26. An idol 
which the Israelites made and wor- 
shipped in the wilderness. See Rem- 

CHLO'E (green herb), a Christian 
woman, some of whose family told 
Paul of the dissensions in the Corinth- 
ian church. 1 Cor. 1 : 11. 

CHORA'SHAN. 1 Sam. 30:30. 
Probably the same as Ashan ('Aseileh). 

CHORAZIN, a city named with 
Capernaum and Bethsaida in the woes 
pronounced by Christ. Matt. 11 : 20-23 ; 
Luke 10 : 13. The identification of 
Chorazin depends largely, though not 
wholty, upon that of Capernaum. Rob- 
inson places it at Tell Hum, but others, 
with greater probability, fix its site at 
Keidzeh, 2£ miles west of Tell Hum, 
and west of the valley of the Jordan. 
The ruins cover a large area, and con- 
sist of a synagogue, the ornaments be- 



ing cut in black basalt rock, walls of 
dwellings, columns which supported the 
roofs and doorways, some of them in 
a tolerably perfect condition, and a 
paved roadway leading to the great 
caravan-route to Damascus. See Ca- 

CHOZEBA. 1 Chr. 4 : 22. It 
has generally been regarded as iden- 
tical with Chezib and Achzib, but Con- 
der places Chozeba at a ruin of import- 
ance in Wady Arrub, or valley of Bera- 
choth, and called Kneiztbah, a name 
which is almost the exact equivalent for 
the Hebrew Chozeba. 

CHRIST, JESUS. Matt. 1:1. 
Christ is the official, Jesus the personal, 
name of our Lord. It is from the Greek 
word Christos, which signifies "anoint- 
ed," corresponding to the word Messiah in 
the Hebrew. He is called the Anointed 
in allusion to the custom of anointing 
with oil such as were set apart to a sa- 
cred or regal office, because by the Spirit 
he was anointed to the threefold office 
of prophet, priest, and king. 

The word "Jesus" is derived from a 
Hebrew word signifying " to save," or 
" sent to save." Matt. 1 : 21 : Luke 2 : 
11,21. The word "Joshua" has the 
same meaning, and is a very common 
name among the Hebrews, and should 
have been used in Acts 7:45 and Heb. 
4: 8 instead of " Jesus." 

Jesus the Christ is a descriptive 
phrase, like John the Baptist. Matt. 
26:63, Mark 8:29; 14:61; John 1: 
20, 25, 41: 6:69; 7:41; 10:24; 11: 
27; 20:31. The word "Jesus" is 
almost always used alone in the Gos- 
pels, while, in the Acts and Epistles, 
" Jesus Christ " or "Lord Jesus Christ" 
is the prevailing expression. 

The first promise of the Messiah was 
given in Gen. 3:15. The Son of God 
and all true believers are "the seed of 
the woman." Comp. Acts 13 : 23 : Gal. 
4:4, and Heb. 2:16 with John 17:21- 
23. The devil and all his servants rep- 
resent the serpent and his seed. John 
8 : 44 ; 1 John 3 : 8. The temptations, 
sufferings, and ignominious death of 
Christ, and the fierce opposition and 
persecution which his followers have 
endured, are significantly described by 
the bruising of the heel ; while the 
complete victory which our Redeemer 
has himself achieved over sin and 

death, and which his grace enables the 
believer also to obtain, and the still 
more perfect and universal triumph 
which he will finally accomplish, are all 
strikingly illustrated by the bruising 
or crushing of the serpent's head. 

The books of heathen mythology 
furnish curious allusions to this pas- 
sage of the Bible. In one of them Thor 
is represented as the eldest son of Odin, 
a middle divinity, a mediator between 
God and man, who bruised the head of 
the serpent and slew him. And in one 
of the oldest pagodas of India are 
found two sculptured figures, repre- 
senting two incarnations of one of 
their supreme divinities, the first to be 
bitten by a serpent and the second to 
crush him. 

The promise thus given when man 
fell was supplemented by so many par- 
ticulars in the course of the centuries 
that the coming Messiah was the great 
hope of Israel. In type and symbol, in 
poetry and prose, in prophecy and his- 
tory, the Jews had set before them in 
increasing prominence and clearness 
the character and life and death of 
the promised Messiah, and yet, as a 
nation, they grossly misapprehended 
his character and the purpose of his 
mission. They were accustomed to re- 
gard his coming as the grand era in the 
annals of the world, for they spoke of 
the two great ages of history, the one 
as preceding and the other as following 
this wonderful event ; but they per- 
verted the spiritual character of the 
Messiah and his kingdom into that of 
a temporal deliverer and ruler. 

We find that about the time of the 
Messiah's appearance Simeon, Anna, 
and others of like faith, were eagerly 
expecting the promised salvation. Luke 
2 : 25-38. 

At the appointed time the Redeemer 
of the world appeared. He was born in 
the year of the city of Rome 749 — i. e. 
4 years before the beginning of our 
era — at Bethlehem, in Judaea, of the Vir- 
gin Mary, who was espoused to Joseph : 
and through them he derived his descent 
from David, according to prophecy. Ps. 
89 : 3, 4 and 110:1. Comp. Acts 2:25, 
36; Isa, 11:1-10: Jer. 23 : 5, 6 ; Eze. 
34 : 23, 24 ; 37 : 24, 25 ; John 7 : 42. 

The story of Christ's life is told with 
so much simplicity, completeness, and 



sweetness in the Gospels, and is at the 
same time so familiar to every Bible- 
reader, that it is not necessary here to 
repeat it. In one sentence, Jesus Christ 
was the incarnate God, whose coming 
was the fulfilment of prophecy ; whose 
life was the exemplification of absolute 
sinlessness ; whose death was the result 
of man's malice, and yet the execution 
of God's design and the atonement for 
the sins of the world; whose resurrec- 
tion was the crowning proof of his di- 
vinity ; whose ascension was a return 
to his abode, where he ever liveth to 
make intercession for us. To prove his 
character we have the unanimous testi- 
mony of eighteen centuries. " The per- 
son of Christ is the miracle of history." 
We claim for him perfect humanity and 
perfect divinity. He was not only the 
Son of man, but the Son of God in one 
undivided person. The term "Son of 
man," which Christ applies to himself 
about eighty times in the Gospels, places 
him on a common level with other men 
as partaking of their nature and consti- 
tution, and at the same time above all 
other men as the absolute and perfect 
Alan, the representative Head of the 
race, the second Adam. Comp. Rom. 5 : 
12 ff. ; 1 Cor. 15:27; Heb. 1:8. While 
other great men are limited by national 
prejudice, Christ is the King of men, 
who draws all to him ; he is the uni- 
A-ersal, absolute Man, elevated above 
the limitations of race and nationality. 
And yet he is most intensely human. 
The joys and sorrows of our common 
life are met by his deep and tender sym- 
pathy. All love him who know him. 
His foes are the cruel, the licentious, 
and the malicious. The records of the 
evangelists are not elaborate, artistic 
pages with many erasures, as if the 
writers had toiled after consistency. 
They are simple, straight - forward, 
guileless testimonies; and yet the im- 
pression they leave upon the attentive 
reader is that in Jesus Christ the plant 
of Humanity bore its rarest flower, the 
tree of Life its most precious fruit. It 
will be granted that the question of the 
justice of this claim turns upon his per- 
fect sinlessness. Some have dared to 
say that while in the Gospels no sinful 
acts are recorded, there may have been 
sins which are unrecorded. But with- 
out fear he challenged his foes to con- 

vict him of sin. John 8:46. He was 
the only man who has made any such 
demand. Christ's sinlessness is con- 
firmed by his own solemn testimony, the 
whole course of his life, and the very 
purpose for which he appeared. Self- 
deception in this case would border on 
madness, falsehood would overthrow the 
whole moral foundation of Christ's cha- 
racter. Hypocrites do not maintain 
themselves under such a strain. But 
besides being sinless, he was perfectly 
holy. He did not simply resist sin : he 
blended and exercised actively all vir- 
tues. The grandeur of his character 
removes him at once from all the sor- 
didness, pettiness, and sinfulness of our 
every-day life. His memory comes to 
us with tKe refreshment of the cooling 
breeze on a summer's day. We can 
supplicate his help because we have 
seen him tried and triumphant, and we 
know his strength is great. All human 
goodness loses on closer inspection, but 
Christ's character grows more pure, sa- 
cred, and lovely the better we know him. 

But Jesus was likewise the Son of God, 
and so he is usually called by the apos- 
tles. The perfection of his humanity i? 
matched by the perfection of his divin- 
ity. His Godhead comes out in many 
ways. He exercises a supernatural con- 
trol over Nature. The waves sink at hi£ 
command, the fig tree withers away, the 
water turns into wine. By his touch or 
word, without a prayer or any recogni- 
tion of superior power, the lepers are 
cleansed, the blind see, and the lame 
walk. Higher yet does Christ go : he 
forgives sins — not with the ostentation 
of a presuming charlatan, but simply, 
decidedly, gently. He takes from the 
sinner his damning load by the same 
action which brings back health. He 
likewise intercedes with the Father for 
men. He claims equality and eternity 
with God. Twice God proclaims him 
as his Son. Accompanied by legions 
of angels, sustained by divine strength, 
Jesus of Nazareth lives as the express 
image of the Father, conquers the grave, 
rises from the dead, and ascends to take 
his place as God, blessed for ever. 

The Church has the daily experience 
of her Lord, who is present always in 
the hearts of all true believers. When 
souls yearn for cheer, when mourners 
cry out for comfort, when men need 



counsel, they seek Jesus ; and they are 
supplied from the inexhaustible fount 
of his humanity. When the sinner feels 
the burden of his sin pressing heavily 
and groans for release, when the insolv- 
ent debtor falls at the feet of his Lord, 
crying, " Have mercy I" when the saint 
is set amid the perplexities of life, when 
he enters the valley of the shadow of 
death, when he comes to the brink of the 
river, — these are times when the perfect 
divinity of Jesus is proven to the satis- 
faction of the soul. 

" Behold the God-Man !" cries the 
Church ; and this is the exultant ex- 
clamation of the soul left to its deepest 
instincts and noblest aspirations, the 
soul which was originally made for 
Christ, and finds in him the solution of 
all moral problems, the satisfaction of 
all its wants, the unfailing fountain of 
everlasting life and peace. 

Personal Appearance of Jesus Christ. 
— None of the evangelists — not even the 
beloved disciple and bosom-friend of 
Jesus — has given us the least hint of 
his countenance and stature. This was 
wise. We ought to cling to the Christ in 
the spirit rather than to the Christ in 
the flesh. Yet there must have been 
spiritual beauty in his face. He won 
the hearts of his disciples by a word. 
We are indeed left to conjecture merely, 
but we cannot read in the hints of his 
personal power any necessity for taking 
Isaiah's description of the suffering Mes- 
siah in all its literal baldness. There 
was nothing repulsive about Jesus. He 
had not the physiognomy of a sinner; a 
supernatural purity and dignity must 
have shone through the veil of his flesh. 

The first formal description of his 
looks dates from the fourth century — 
is, indeed, unauthentic, probably a monk- 
ish fabrication, and yet, because it is 
curious and has had a groat influence 
upon the pictorial representations of 
Jesus, we insert it here. It is ascribed 
to Publius Lentulus, a heathen, supposed 
contemporary and friend of Pilate, in an 
apocryphal letter to the Roman Senate : 
" In this time appeared a man, who 
lives till now — a man endowed with 
great powers. Men call him a great 
prophet; his own disciples term him 
the Son of God. His name is Jesus 
Christ. He restores the dead to life 
avid cures the sick of all manner of dis- 

eases. This man is of noble and well- 
proportioned stature, with a face full of 
kindness, and yet firmness, so that be- 
holders both love him and fear him. His 
hair is the color of wine, and golden at 
the root, straight and without lustre, but 
from the level of the ears curling and 
glossy, and divided down the centre, 
after the fashion of the Nazarenes. His 
forehead is even and smooth, his face 
without blemish, and enhanced by a 
tempered bloom, his countenance in- 
genuous and kind. Nose and mouth 
are in no way faulty. His beard is full, 
of the same color as his hair, and forked 
in form ; his eyes blue and extremely 
brilliant. In reproof and rebuke he is 
formidable : in exhortation and teach- 
ing, gentle and amiable of tongue. 
None have seen him to laugh, but 
many, on the contrary, to weep. His 
person is tall, his hands beautiful and 
straight. In speaking he is deliberate 
and grave and little given to loquacity; 
in beauty, surpassing most men." 

It may be proper to suggest the lead- 
ing points and principal references re- 
specting the divinity of our Lord. 

I. The names and titles of the su- 
preme Being are applied to him. John 
1:1; Rom. 9 : 5 ; 1 John 5:20; Rev. 1 : 
11 ; comp. Isa. 6 : 1-10 with John 12 : 41. 

II. The principal attributes of God 
are ascribed to Christ; as, eternity, 
John 1:1; 8 : 58 ; Rev. 22 : 13 ; super- 
human knowledge, Matt. 9:4; John 16 : 
30; 21:17; omnipotence, Phil. 3:21; 
Col. 2 : 9, 10 ; omnipresence, Matt. 18 : 
20 ; 28 : 20 ; John 3:13; and unchange- 
ableness. Heb. 13 : 8. 

III. The works and prerogatives of 
God are ascribed to him, such as the 
creation of all things, John 1:1,3; Col. 
1 : 16, 17, and their preservation, Heb. 
1:3; forgiveness of sins, Dan. 8:9; 
comp. with Ps. 30 ; Matt. 9:2,6; Col. 
3 : 13 ; power to raise the dead and to 
judge the world. Matt. 25 : 31-33 ; John 
5 : 2-29 : Rom. 14 : 10 ; 2 Cor. 5 : 10. 

IV. He is the object of religious wor- 
ship. Phil. 2:10, 11; Heb. 1:6; Rev 

We insert here, as a help in study- 
ing the harmony of the four Gospels, the 
chronological table of the life of Christ, 
from Schaff's Popular Commentary on 
the New Testament (New York, 1879), 
vol. i. p. 18. 



Outline of the Gospel History. 

Ye;ir of 

A. C. 








B. C. 


A. D. 


I. Introduction. 

1 : 1-4 
3 : 23-38 

1 : 5-80 

2 : 1-52 

3 : 1-23 

1 :l-5 

2: 12 

2 : 13- 






1 : 1-17 
1 : 18-25 

2 : 1-23 

4: 11 

II. Birth and Childhood of Jesus. 

III. Our Lord's Introduction to his 

From appearance of the Baptist } 
To wedding at Cana of Galilee / 

IV. First Year of our Lord's Min- 

{According to Andrews, narrated by John 
From the first Passover } f 


To the second Passover) { 

V. Second Year of our Lord's Min- 

( Wholly in Galilee.) 
From the beginning of the min-~) 

istry 1 
To the feeding of the five thou- j 

sand and J 


1 :14- 
6 :56 

4: 14- 




IV. First Year of our Lord's Min- 

{According to Robinson.) 
From the first Passover, includ-"] 

ing the following events, nar- > 

rated by the Synoptists : j 
Beginning of Galilean ministry... 
Kejection at Nazareth and re-) 

moval to Capernaum j 





4 : 13-16 
4 : 18-22 


2: 14 

4 : 16-31 

5 : 1-11 
4 : 31-37 

4 : 38-41 

4 : 42-44 

5 : 12-16 
5 : 17-26 
5 : 27, 28 

Healing of a demoniac at Caper- ) 

naum f 

Healing of Peter's wife's mother... 

First circuit through Galilee 

8 : 14-17 

4 : 23-25 

8: 2-4 



Call of Matthew 

Followed bv second Passover 

V. Second Year of our Lord's Min- 
From second Passover and the") 
Sabbath controversy in Galilee > 
To feeding of five thousand and] 
Discourse at Capernaum, including 

Events narrated by Luke in 

12 : 1- 


2 : 23- 


f 11:14- 

And those narrated by Matthew, 
not cited under IV. 




VI. Third Year of our Lord's Min-) 

istry. v 

Until arrival at Bethany j 

VII. From the Arrival at Bethany ) 
to the Burial of Jesus / 

VIII. Kesurrection and Ascension 

15 : 1- 
20 : 34 





11 : 1- 





19 : 29- 





20, 21 1 




The life of Christ has heen of late 
studied with an eagerness, a keenness, 
and a wealth of illustration that argue 
well for the future. The question, 
"What think ye of Christ?" is asked 
to-day with peculiar emphasis. This 
new-born interest in the earthly life of 
the Founder of the Christian religion 
will bear fruit in the increased rever- 
ence of believers and the increased re- 
spect of his foes. 

Christs, False. Matt. 24 : 24. Our 
Lord warned his disciples that false 
Christs should arise. Not less than 24 
different persons of such pretensions 
have appeared, and the defence of their 
claims to the Messiahship has cost the 
Jews a great expense of life and treas- 
ure. One of them, Coziba, or Barcho- 
cheba, lived early in the second century. 
He put himself at the head of the Jew- 
ish nation as their Messiah; they ad- 
hered to him. The Romans made war 
upon him, and the Jews themselves 
allow that in their defence of this false 
Messiah they lost between 500,000 and 
600,000 souls ! In the twelfth century 
not less than 8 or 10 impostors appeared 
under the same name, and were followed 
by great numbers of the Jews. Most of 
them were punished for their imposture 
with death, and usually involved a mul- 
titude of their deluded followers in per- 
secution and death. The last that 
gained any considerable number of 
converts was Mordecai, a Jew of Ger- 
many, who lived in 1682. He fled for 
his life, and his end is not known. 

CHRISTIAN. Acts 26: 28. This 
was a name given to the followers of our 
Saviour, and its proper beautiful mean- 
ing is " a follower of Christ." The Chris- 
tians called themselves first " disciples," 
" believers," " brethren," "saints." The 
name " Christian " originated at Anti- 
och, Acts 11 : 26, about the year 42 or 
43, and probably (like the names " Naza- 
renes" and "Galilaeans") as a term of re- 
proach or contempt. The word occurs 
in only three places in the New Testa- 
ment — viz. in the two passages before 
cited and in 1 Pet. 4:16, where it is 
implied that the very name was asso- 
ciated with reproach and suffering. 
Tacitus (b. about A. D. 54), a profane 
historian, tells us of the low or vulgar 
people called the followers of Christ, 
or Christians. 

The term Christian is now employed 
(1) in contradistinction to pagans, Jews, 
and Mohammedans, and (2) to denote 
the open professors of religion, in con- 
tradistinction from those who are not 
professors. In some countries it is still a 
term of bitter reproach, and the assump- 
tion of it is attended with persecution, 
cruelty, and death. 

The Christian religion is received at 
the present day (as it is supposedj by 
nearly one-third of the inhabitants of 
the world--?, e. over 400,000,000 among 
1.460,000,0(10. But in point of intelli- 
gence, civilization, and influence on the 
world the Christian nations far surpass 
all other nations combined. One of the 
most recent estimates is the following: 

Jews 7,000,000 

Mohammedans 230,000,000 

Pagans 793,000,000 

Roman Catholics 210,000,000 

Protestants 130,000,000 

Eastern Christians 84,000,000 


CHRONICLES. In its general 
signification, this term denotes a chron- 
ological history, or an account of facts 
and events in the order of time. The 
thirteenth and fourteenth books of the 
Old Testament, which among the an- 
cient Jews formed only one book, are call- 
ed the First and Second Book of Chron- 
icles, and are in some sense supple- 
mental to the two books of Kings, which 
precede them, with this difference — that 
the Chronicles are written from the 
sacerdotal point of view and present 
chiefly the fortunes of Jewish worship, 
while the Kings are written from the 
prophetic view of the history of the 
theocracy. They appear to have been 
compiled from the national diaries or 
journals, and the constant Jewish tra- 
dition, which internal evidence sup- 
ports, is that they were written by 
Ezra. These voluminous diaries are 
referred to frequently under different 
names, 1 Kgs. 14 : 19 j 1 Chr. 27 : 24; 
Esth. 2 : 23, but are not to be con- 
founded with the abstract which con- 
stitutes the books to which this article 

The principal object of the author of 
these books was to point out, from the 
public records, the state of the different 
families before the Captivity and the 



distribution of the lands among them, 
that each tribe might, as far as possible, 
obtain the ancient inheritance of its 
fathers at its return. So that this por- 
tion of the Old Testament may be con- 
sidered as an epitome of all the sacred 
history, but more especially of that from 
the origin of the Jewish nation to their 
return from the first captivity, embra- 
cing a period of nearly 3500 years. The 
first book traces the rise and propaga- 
tion of the children of Israel from 
Adam, together with a circumstantial 
account of the reign and transactions 
of David ; the second continues the 
narrative, and relates the progress and 
dissolution of the kingdom of Judaea 
(apart from Israel) to the year of the 
return of the people from Babylon. 
Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles should 
be read and compared together, as they 
relate substantially the same histories, 
though with different degrees of par- 
ticularity and with different means of 
information, so that the whole contains 
but one history : and what is obscure or 
defective in one part may be explained 
or supplied in another. 

CHRONOLOGY. We present 
here a condensation of the article of 
It. S. Poole on this subject in Smith's 
Dictionary of the Bible. 

We must seek a ma media between 
putting absolute reliance upon the bib- 
lical chronological data and declaring 
them altogether vague and uncertain. 
The truth is, the Bible does not give a 
complete history of the times to which 
it refers : in its historical portions it 
deals with special and detached periods. 
This accounts for its scantiness and oc- 
casional want of continuity. Hence there 
is great value in independent evidence 
in the N. T. and in incidental evidence 
in the 0. T. 

Scientific observation of the natu- 
ral changes of the weather and the sea- 
sons was probably unknown to the 
Jews until the Captivity. But still 
these changes must have been noted, 
and from these observations we are safe 
in deducing their divisions of time. 
An hour was the smallest division the 
J^-ws recognized. The " sun-dial of 
Ahaz" — whatever instrument, fixed or 
movable, it may have been — implies a 
division of the kind. The civil day 
was reckoned from sunset, the natural 

day from sunrise. The rir'yht was di- 
vided into three watches, though the 
first must be inferred. The "middle 
watch " occurs in Jud. 7:19; the " morn- 
ing watch " is mentioned in Ex. 14 : 24 
and 1 Sam. 11 : 11. In the N. T. four 
watches are mentioned — the Roman 
system ; all four are mentioned to- 
gether in Mark 13 : 35 — the late watch, 
midnight, the cock-crowing, and the 
early watch. The Hebrew iceek was a 
period of seven days, ending with the 
Sabbath, which word indeed is oftt n 
used for " week." As the Egyptians di- 
vided their month of 30 days into de- 
cades, the Hebrews could not have bor- 
rowed their week from them ; probably 
both it and the Sabbath were used and 
observed by the patriarchs. The month 
was lunar. The first day of it is called 
the " new moon," and was observed as 
a sacred festival. In the Pentateuch, 
Joshua, Judges, and Ruth we find hut 
one month, the first, the month Abib, 
mentioned with a special name, the rest 
being called according to their order. 
In 1 Kgs. three other names appear — 
Zif, the second, Ethanim, the seventh, 
and Bui, the eighth. No other names 
are found in any book prior to the Cap- 
tivity. The year was made up of 12 
lunar months, beginning with the first 
part of our April. The method of in- 
tercalation can only have been that 
which obtained after the Captivity — the 
addition of a thirteenth month when- 
ever the twelfth ended too long before 
the equinox for the first-fruits of the 
barley-harvest to be offered in the mid- 
dle of the month following, and the 
similar offerings at the time appointed. 
The later Jews had two beginnings to 
the year, the seventh month of the 
civil reckoning being Abib, the first of 
the sacred. The sabbatical and jubilee 
years began in the seventh month. 
Agricultural considerations probabty led 
to this anomaly. The seasons do net 
appear to have been fixed among the 
ancient Hebrews. We find mention of 
the merely natural divisions of "sum- 
mer and winter," " seed-time and har- 
vest." Anciently, their festivals and 
holy-days were noticeably few ; for be- 
sides the Sabbaths and new moons, there 
were but four great festivals and one fast 
— the feasts of the Passover, of weeks, 
trumpets, tabernacles, and the fast on the 



day of atonement. But after the Cap- 
tivity many holy days were added, such 
as the feast of Purim, of the dedication — 
recording the cleansing and rededication 
of the temple by Judas Maccabseus — 
and fasts on the anniversaries of great 
national misfortunes connected with the 
Babylonish captivity. The sabbatical 
year was a year of rest. It commenced 
at the civil beginning of the year, with 
the seventh month, at the feast of tab- 
ernacles. Deut. 31 : 10. The jubilee 
year began on the day of atonement, 
after the lapse of seven sabbatical 
periods, or 49 years. It was similar to 
the sabbatical year in its character, 
although doubtless yet more important. 
Eras seem to have been used by the 
ancient Hebrews, but our information is 
scanty. The Exodus is used as an era 
in 1 Kgs. 6:1, in giving the date of 
Solomon's temple. The era of Jehoi- 
aehin's captivity is constantly used by 
Ezekiel. The earliest date is the fifth 
year, 1 : 2, and the latest the twenty- 
seventh. 2d: 17. The era of the Seleu- 
cidae is used in the First and Second 
Maccabees, and the liberation of the 
Jews from the Syrian yoke, in the first 
year of Simon the Maccabee, is stated 
to have been commemorated by an era 
used in contracts and agreements. 1 
Mace. 13 : 41, 42. Regnal years seem to 
have been counted from the beginning 
of the year, not from the day of the 
kind's accession. 

We may distinguish different periods 
in Jewish history, although we are not 
able with accuracy to assign them dates. 
1. From Adam to Abram's departure 
from Haran. This period is the most 
indefinite of all. We have indeed two 
genealogical lists — from Adam to Noah 
and his s >ns, Gen. 5 : 3-32, and again from 
Shem to Abram. 11 : 10-26. But the Ma- 
spretic Hebrew text, the Septuagint, and 
the Samaritan Pentateuch greatly dif- 
fer. The Septuagint makes this period 
1000 years longer than the Hebrew. 
The question to which list the prefer- 
ence should be given is still unset- 
tled. 2. The second period is from 
Abram's departure from Haran to the 
Exodus. The length of this period is 
stated by Paul in Gal. 3 : 17 to be 430 
years, and there is no difficulty in the 
way of accepting his figures which can- 
not be solved. 3. The third period is 

from the Exodus to the foundation of 
Solomon's temple. We may consider this 
period about 638 years, but others reduce 
it to one-half. 4. The fourth period is 
from the foundation of Solomon's tem- 
ple to its destruction. We come now 
upon tolerably sure ground ; from b. c. 
1000 on we have contemporary evi- 
dence. Two interregnums have been 
supposed — one of 11 years, between Jer- 
oboam II. and Zachariah, and the other 
of 9 years, between Pekah and Hoshea. 
We prefer, in both cases, to suppose 
a longer reign of the earlier of the two 
kings between whom the interregnums 
are conjectured. The whole period 
may be held to be of about 425 years ; 
that of the undivided kingdom, 120 
years ; that of the kingdom of Judah. 
about 388 years ; and that of the king- 
dom of Israel, about 255 years. 5. The 
fifth period is from the destruction of 
Solomon's temple to the return from the 
Babylonish captivity. The difficulty in 
calculating this period springs from the 
prophesied number — the 70 years. Two 
numbers, held by some to be identical, 
must here be considered. One is the 
period of 70 years, during which the 
tyranny of Babylon over Palestine and 
the East generally was to last, Jer. 25 ; 
and the other the 70 years of the Baby- 
lonish captivity. The commencement 
of the first is the first year of Nebu- 
chadnezzar and the fourth of Jehoi- 
akim, Jer. 25 : 1, when the successes 
of the king of Babylon began, Jer. 46 : 
2, and the conclusion is the fall of Baby- 
lon. The famous 70 years of captivity 
would seem to be the same period, since 
it was to terminate with the return of 
the captives, Jer. 29 : 1 ; and the order 
for this was published by Cyrus, who 
took Babylon, in the first year of his 

Principal Systems of Biblical Chro- 
nology. — There are three, long, short, 
and Rabbinical. The long chronology 
takes the Septuagint for the patriarchal 
generations, and adopts the long interval 
from the Exodus to the foundation of 
Solomon's temple. The short chronol- 
ogy — that in the margin of the A. V., 
and derived from Archbishop Ussher 
(1580-1656)— takes the Hebrew for the 
patriarchal generations, and makes the 
second period to be 480 years. The 
Rabbinical chronology accepts the bib- 



Heal numbers, but makes the most ar- 
bitrary corrections. 

We subjoin a table in which the 

results of some of the more important 
of the various chronological schools are 
contrasted : 


R. S. Poole. 

W. Palmer 






1 5421 ) 

(3160 j 












Foundation of Solomon's Temple... 
Destruction of Solomon's Temple.. 

CHRYSOLITE. Rev. 21 : 20. 

The word means " golden stone," and we 
thus learn its color. It is quite agreed 
that it was the yellow topaz or the beryl 
of the 0. T. 

20. A stone of a "golden leek" or 
green color, as its name imports. It 
is of a most agreeable hue, opaque, and 
extremely hard. 

CHUB, a people, probably in north 
Africa, and of a land near Egypt. Eze. 

CHUN. 1 Chr. 18 : 8. Same as Ber- 
othai. 2 Sam. 8 : 8. 

CHURCH. The English word (like 
the similar terms in the Teutonic. Celtic, 
and Slavonic languages) is derived from a 
Greek word (Kvpia<6v) meaning " belong- 
ing to the Lord" (Christ), "the Lord's 
house." Some derive it from a Celtic root 
meaning "round," because the temples in 
which the first Christian congregations 
gathered were circular. In the N. T. the 
original word is ecclesia, which means 
an assembly, either secular, Acts 19 : 32, 
or religious, Acts 2 : 47, etc. It is ap- 
plied either to the whole body of believ- 
ers in Christ, the Church universal, Matt. 
16 : 18 Eph. 1 : 22, or to a particular 
congregation in a local sense, as "the 
church at Jerusalem." Acts 15:4; "at 
Antioch,"13 : 1, " of the Thessalonians," 
2 Thess. 1:1, "at Corinth," 1 Cor. 1:2. 
The original word is used only twice in 
the Gospels, each time by Matthew, 16: 
18, where it means the Church univer- 
sal, and 18 : 17, where it means a local 
congregation. The evangelists usually 
employ the term " the kingdom of God " 
or " the kingdom of heaven " for the 

spiritual substance of the Church uni- 

The day of Pentecost is the birth- 
day of the Christian Church. Prom 
small beginnings it has spread over all 
the earth and been the one permanent 
fact amid all temporal changes. To-day 
it is the foundation of true civiliza- 
tion, virtue, and religion. What the 
Christian Church condemns the world 
must eventually give up, for darkness 
cannot abide the entrance of light. 

A distinction must be made between 
the real Church of Christ, the genuine 
believers, and the outward organization, 
which comprises both true and false 
friends of Christ. To the former only 
do the promises belong. 

In the outward sense the Church is 
divided into various denominations, 
as the Baptist, the Congregational, the 
English, the Episcopal, the Greek, the 
Lutheran, the Methodist, the Moravian, 
the Presbyterian, the Reformed, the 
Roman, and other churches. But in 
the Bible the word is never used in a 
denominational or confessional sense, 
or in the sense of a church-building. 

OF, is the translation in Acts 19 : 37, 
instead of "robbers of temples" or 
" sacrilegious " persons. 

CHURN. See Butter. 

Jnd. 3 : 8-10. A king of Mesopotamia, 
and an oppressor of the Israelites. Oth- 
niel, Caleb's nephew, delivered them 
from his dominion. 

CHU'ZA (a seer ?), the steward of 
Herod Antipas. His wife, Joanna, was 
one of the women who ministered to 



Jesus in life and in death. Luke 8:3; 

CILI'CIA, the south-easterly prov- 
ince of Asia Minor, having Cappadocia 
on the north, Syria on the east, the 
Mediterranean Sea on the south, and 
Pamphylia and Pisidia (?) on the west. 
Eastern Cilieia was a rich plain ; west- 
ern Cilicia was rough and mountainous, 
lying on the Taurus range. Its capital 
was Tarsus, and many of its people 
were Jews. It is frequently mentioned 
in the book of Acts. 6:9; 15 : 23, 41 ; 
21 : 39 ; 22 : 3 ; 23 : 34 ; 27 : 5 ; and 
Gal. 1:21. See Tarsus. 

CINNAMON. Song Sol. 4: 14. A 
well-known aromatic, produced from the 

Cinnamon. (C. zeylanecum. After Dr. Birdwood.) 
inner bark of a tree which grows chiefly 
in Ceylon, and being peeled off and cut 
into strips curls up in the form in which 
it is usually seen. The cinnamon tree 
belongs to the laurel family, and attains 
the height of 30 feet. Cinnamon was 
one of the ingredients of the holy oil, 
Ex. 30 : 23, and was probably an article 
of commerce in ancient Babylon. Rev. 

CIN'NEROTH. 1 Kgs. 15 : 20. 
Same as Chinnereth. 

CIRCUMCISION (cutting round), 
a rite or ceremony of the Jewish relig- 
ion, which consisted in cutting off the 
foreskin of all males on the eighth day 
after their birth. It was established as 
the token of God's covenant with Abra- 
ham, Gen. 17 : 9-14, who immediately 
subjected himself and all his family to 
its observance. The precept of circum- 
cision was renewed to Moses, Ex. 12 : 
44; Lev. 12:3; John 7 : 22, 23, requir- 
ing that all should submit to it who 
would partake of the paschal sacrifice. 
The Jews have always been very scru- 
pulous in its observance, though it was 
omitted in their journey through the 
wilderness for some reason. Many 
other nations have the rite. It existed 
among the Egyptians, the Ethiopians, 
the Mexicans, and the West Indians, 
and to-day among the Caffres of South 
Africa, the Abyssinians, the islanders 
of the Pacific Ocean, and the South 
American tribes. It is the chief cere- 
mony of initiation into the religion of 
Mohammed, though it is regarded only 
as a traditionary precept, and is not 
performed till the child is 13 years old. 
The instrument used for this purpose 
was a knife, a razor, or even a sharp 
stone. Ex. 4 : 25 ; Josh. 5 : 3. 

The design of this requirement obvi- 
ously was to fix upon the persons of all 
the natural male descendants of Abra- 
ham a distinguishing mark, separating 
them from all the rest of the world. As 
this rite was peculiar to the Jews, they 
are called " the circumcision," and the 
Gentiles "the uncircumcisiou." Rom. 

The terms " uneireumcised " and " un- 
circumcision " are also used to denote 
impurity or wickedness generally, and 
" to circumcise the heart " was to become 
tractable and docile. Ex. 6 : 1 2, 30 ; Jer. 
4:4; 6: 10; 9:26; Eze. 44:7; Acts 7: 
51. Jews who renounced Judaism some- 
times endeavored to erase the mark of 
circumcision by a surgical operation, and 
probably Paul alludes to this. 1 Cor. 7 : 
18. See Covenant, Concision. 

CIS'TERN. The face of the coun- 
try and the rarity of rain between May 
and September made cisterns indispen- 
sable in Judaea. They were mostly pri- 
vate property. Num. 21 : 22. Some were 
formed by merely excavating the earth ; 
others were covered reservoirs, into 



which the water was conducted ; and 
others still were lined with wood or ce- 
ment, or hewn out of the rock with great 
labor and ornamented with much skill. 
When the pits were empty there was a 
tenacious mire at the bottom, and they 
were used as the places of the most 
cruel punishments. It was into such 
a pit, probably, that Joseph and Jere- 
miah were cast. Gen. 37 : 22 ; Jer. 38 : 
6. Large cisterns are now found in Pal- 
estine at intervals of 15 or 20 miles. 
One of them is described by a modern 
traveller to be 660 feet long by 270 broad. 
These cisterns were the chief dependence 
of the people for water ; hence the force 
of the allusion. Jer. 2: 13. The city of 
Jerusalem was remarkably well supplied 
with water, so that during her many 
sieges her inhabitants never suffered 
from thirst. See Conduit. 

Various illustrations from the cistern 
are given in Scripture. A wheel was 
used to draw up the bucket, and "the 
wheel broken at the cistern," in Eccl. 
12 : 6, denotes the breaking up of the 
vital powers of the human body. An 
exhortation to due restraint in pleasure 
is indicated by " Drink waters out of 
thine own cistern." Prov. 5 : 15. 

no earthly citizenship in the Roman 
sense : his commonwealth was a congre- 
gation of believers, governed by the 
Lord himself. But Roman citizenship 
is referred to in the N. T. This was the 
term for the privileges enjoyed by cer- 
tain subjects of the Roman empire. The 
right was obtained by inheritance or by 
purchase, Acts 22 : 28, or by military 
service, by favor, or by manumission. 
Among the privileges of this position 
was, the possessor could not be impris- 
oned without trial, Acts 22 : 29, still less 
be scourged, Acts 16 : 37, or crucified. 
Since to inflict either of these was a 
great indignity and severely punished, 
the assertion that one was a Roman 
citizen was a deterrent. But Jews 
who escaped on this account were still 
liable to their own law. 2 Cor. 11 : 
24. The right of appeal unto Caesar 
was one of the privileges of Roman 
citizenship. Acts 25 : 11. Paul was a 
Roman citizen, and repeatedly availed 
himself of his privileges against the 
violence of the mob. The words " I 
am a Roman citizen " had a magic 

power all over the civilized world, and 
even among barbarians. 

CIT'Y. It is not very easy to de- 
termine by what the Jews distinguished 
villages from towns, and towns from cit- 
ies. Probably, at first, a number of 
tents and cottages formed a village. 
They were brought together by family 
relationship, by local attraction, and 
for mutual defence against more pow- 
erful clans or tribes. When their sit- 
uation became insecure, they began to 
protect themselves by a ditch or hedge 
or a wall. The advancement from this 
rude state to the fortified towns and cit- 
ies of ancient days was easy and rapid. 
The first city was built by Cain. Gen. 4 : 
17. It may be presumed that cities were 
always walled. Num. 13 : 28. They were 
often (if not always) fortified, and many 
of them were very populous. The streets 
were crooked and narrow, so that in some 
of them loaded camels could not pass 
each other, as is the case to-day in 
Alexandria, Cairo, Jerusalem, and Da- 
mascus. Sometimes, in Asiatic cities, a 
broad street, or a section of it, is cover- 
ed for the accommodation of merchants 
or tradesmen, and such places are called 
bazaars ; and the prominent branch of 
business transacted there gives the name 
to the street ; as, the woollen-drapers', 
coppersmiths', etc. Around the gates 
of cities was the principal concourse of 
people, Neh. 8:1; Job 29 : 7 ; and there- 
fore these stations were desirable for 
booths or stalls for the sale of merchan- 
dise. 2 Kgs. 7:1. These square or 
open places are probably intended in 
2 Chr. 32:6 and Neh. 3:16; 8 : 1, 3. 
Some cities were adorned with open 
squares and large gardens. One-third 
of the city of Babylon was occupied 
with gardens. Caesarea, Jerusalem, 
Antioch, and other of the largest cit- 
ies, were paved. 

Fenced City, 2 Kgs. 10 : 2, or De- 
fenced Cities, Isa. 36:1, a fortified 
city. To build a city and to fortify or 
fence it, in the Oriental idiom, mean 
the same thing. The fencing or fortifi- 
cation was usually with high walls, and 
watch-towers upon them. Deut. 3 : 5. 
The walls of fortified cities were form- 
ed, in part at least, of combustible ma- 
terials, Am. 1 : 7, 10, 14, the gates being 
covered with thick plates of i v on or 
brass. Ps. 107:16; Isa. 45:2; Acts 



12 : 10. There was also within the 
city a citadel or tower, to which the 
inhabitants fled when the city itself 
could not be defended. Jud. 9 : 46-52. 
These were often upon elevated ground, 
and were entered by a flight of steps. 

See GrATE. 

At the time when Abraham came 
into the land of Canaan there were al- 
ready in existence numerous towns, 
which are mentioned in the book of 
(ienesis — Sodom, Gomorrah. Zeboim, 
Admah, Bela, Hebron, and Damascus. 
This last is probably the oldest city in 
the world. The spies who were sent to 
Canaan brought back an account of well- 
fortified cities. In the book of Joshua 
we read of no less than 600 towns of 
which the Israelites took possession. 
When the city of Ai was taken, its in- 
habitants, who were put to the sword, 
amounted to 12,000, Josh. 8 : 16-25, and 
we are told that Gibeon was a still greater 
city. 10 : 2. It is commonly calculated 
that in Europe one-third or one-fourth 
of a nation is comprised in its cities and 
towns. Reckoning the Hebrews, then, 
at 3,000,000, it would give about 1250 
for the average population of the towns, 
and it is probable that half the inhab- 
itants dwelt in towns for greater safety. 
Now, in Gibeah, Jud. 20 : 15, there were 
700 men who bore arms, and of course 
not less than 3000 inhabitants. By a 
similar calculation, we conclude that 
the 48 cities of the Levites contained 
each about 1000 souls. In the time of 
David the population of Palestine was 
between 5,000,000 and 6,000,000, and 
we may suppose that the towns and cit- 
ies were proportionately increased. On 
the great annual festivals Jerusalem 
presented a sublime spectacle of count- 
less multitudes, when all the males of 
the nation were required to be there 
assembled. At such times the city 
itself was insufficient to contain the 
host of Israel, and thousands encamp- 
ed around on its outskirts. After the re- 
turn from the Babylonish captivity, the 
population of the towns may have been 
inconsiderable, but the subsequent in- 
crease was most rapid ; so that in the 
time of Josephus the small villages of 
Galilee contained 15,000 inhabitants, 
and the larger towns 50,000. At the 
same period Jerusalem was 4 miles in 
circuit and had a population of 150,000. 

The same author tells us that under 
Cestius the number of paschal lambs 
was 256,500, which would give about 
2,700,000 persons attending the Pass- 
over. At the time of the fatal siege of 
Jerusalem more than 1.000,000 of per- 
sons were shut in by the Romans ; so 
that the space included by the 4 miles 
must have been remarkably economized. 
But the number may be exaggerated. 

City of David, 1 Chr. 11 : 5, a sec- 
tion in the southern part of Jerusalem, 
embracing Mount Zion, where a fortress 
of the Jebusites stood. David reduced 
the fortress and built a new palace and 
city, to which he gave his own name. 
Bethlehem, the native town of David, 
is also called, from that circumstance, 
the city of David. Luke 2:11. 

City of God, Ps. 46 : 4, was one of 
the names of ancient Jerusalem, and 
j its appropriateness is evident from 
Deut. 12 : 5. 

Holy City. Neh. 11 : 1. The sacred- 
ness of the temple extended itself in 
some measure over the city, and hence 
Jerusalem itself was called the " Holy 
City," and is so distinguished in the 
East at the present day. 

Cities of the Plaix. See Sodom. 

Cities of Refuge, Deut. 19 : 7, 9 ; 
Josh. 20:2, 7, 8, were six of the Leviti- 
cal cities divinely appointed by the Jew- 
ish law as asylums, to which those who 
had been undesignedly accessory to the 
death of a fellow-creature were com- 
manded to flee for safety and protec- 
tion. The kinsmen of the deceased, or 
other persons who might pursue to kill 
him, could not molest him in one of 
these cities until his offence was inves- 
tigated and the judgment of the congre- 
gation passed. If he were not within 
the provisions of the law, he was deliv- 
ered to the avenger and slain. If he 
was, then his life was safe so long as he 
lived within the city or in the circuit of 
1000 yards beyond. There he must re- 
main until the death of the high priest 
during whose term of office the homicide 
was committed. The custom of blood- 
revenge was deeply rooted among the Is- 
raelites, and continues among the Arabs 
to this day, and the institution of cities 
of refuge was wisely designed to check 
the violence of human passion. Several 
sections of the Jewish law have relation 
to this subject. For the size and situa- 



tion of the cities, see Num. 35 : 4, 5, 14 ; 
the description of persons and the man- 
ner of killing in cases which entitled 
the slayer to protection, Num. 35 : 15- 
25; Deut. 19:4-13. For the mode of 
ascertaining whether the offence was 
worthy of death and the consequences 
of the judgment, see Num. 35 : 24-33 : 
and for the rules to be observed by the 
manslayer in order to avail himself of 
the benefit of the city of refuge, see 
Num. 35 : 25-28. It is doubtful wheth- 
er the trial of the manslayer was had at 
the city of refuge or in the vicinity of 
the place where the offence occurred. 
Perhaps there were two processes, one 
introductory to the other, as we have a 
preliminary xamination to determine 
if the party accused shall be held to an- 
swer for his offence. This first process 
might have been at the city of refuge. 
Jewish writers say that signs were erect- 
ed in some conspicuous place, pointing 
to the cities of refuge, at every cross- 
road, on which was inscribed, " Refuge, 
Refuge." which, with many other simi- 
lar provisions, were designed to direct 
and facilitate the flight of the unhappy 
man who was pursued by the avenger of 
blood. There were other sacred places 
of refuge, particularly the temple and 
the altar of burnt-offerings. Ex. 21 : 14. 

Cities with Suburbs. Josh. 21:41, 
42. This expression is explained by 
reference to Num. 35 : 1-5. See Treas- 
ure-cities, Walls. 

CLAU'DA, a small island, 7 
miles long by 3 miles wide, in the Med- 
iterranean Sea, south of Crete, Acts 
27:16: now Gozzo. 

CLAU'DIA, a Christian woman in 
Rome who joins Paul in saluting Timo- 
thy. 2 Tim. 4:21. 

CLAUDIUS {lame), the fourth 
Roman emperor, successor of Caius 

Coin of Claudius. (British Museum.) 

Caligula, A. D. 41-54. Acts 11 : 28. Her- 
od Agrippa I. was mainly instrument- 

al in securing him the throne. Several 
different famines took place during his 
reign, one of which, predicted by Aga- 
bus, was very severe, and lasted three 
years. In the ninth or twelfth year of 
his reign he banished the Jews, proba- 
bly including the Christian converts, 
from Rome. Acts 18 : 2. 

chief captain or commander of a band 
of soldiers stationed as a public guard 
over the temple, who interposed his au- 
thority, and thus saved Paul from vio- 
lence at the hands of a temple-mob, and 
afterward sent him with a strong guard 
to the procurator Felix at Csesarea. 
Acts 21, 22, and 23. 

CLAY. The Hebrew word is used 
in the 0. T. in the sense of ordinary 
mire in the streets, Ps. 18 : 42 ; at the 
bottom of the sea, Isa. 57 : 20 ; in a cis- 
tern or subterranean prison. Jer. 38 : 6. 
It is also translated "clay" — i. e. pot- 
ter's clay— Isa. 41 : 25 ; Nah. 3 : 14. In 
the N. T. the word " clay " is applied to a 
mixture of spittle with dust. John 9 : 6, 
11, 15.- For the use of clay in brick- 
making, see Brick ; and in pottery, see 
Potter. Clay was also used for seal- 
ing. Job 38 : 14. Wine-jars, tombs, and 
doors were, and are, sealed with clay. 
See Seal. 

CLEAN, and UNCLEAN'. Lev. 
10 : 10. These words are applied in 
the Jewish law to persons, animals, and 

In order to partake of the privileges 
of the Jewish Church, the individual 
must not only be circumcised, but be 
ceremonially clean. How the various 
kinds of uncleanness were contracted, 
what time it continued, and what was 
the process of purification, are partic- 
ularly described in Lev. 11-15 : Num. 19. 

The division of animals into clean 
and unclean existed before the Flood, 
Gen. 7 : 2, and was probably founded 
upon the practice of animal sacrifice. 
Those animals only which divide the 
hoof and chew the cud were regarded 
as clean. Lev. 11 : 3, 4. The same chap- 
ter enumerates a variety of beasts, birds, 
reptiles, fishes, and things which are un- 
clean. See also Ex. 22 : 31 ; 34 : 15, 26 ; 
Deut. 14:21. One object of these dis- 
tinctions was to guard the Jews against 
heathen idolatry. Eating with the Gen- 
tiles was regarded as a peculiar aggra- 



vation of the offence of associating with 
them. Matt. 9:11; Acts 11: 3. Some of 
the prohibited animals were unwhole- 
some. The Hebrews were taught by 
these strict regulations to habitually 
regard their relation to God, and to ab- 
stain from everything that should offend 
his infinite holiness or involve the least 
appearance of pollution. The distinc- 
tion between clean and unclean ani- 
mals and nations was annulled by a 
special revelation to Peter. Acts 10 : 

CLEM'ENT, a fellow-laborer 
of Paul, Phil. 4:3; probably the same 
who was afterward bishop of Rome and 
wrote two epistles to the Corinthians, 
which are still extant, and were once 
read in some churches. 

CLE'OPAS {very renowned), one 
of the two disciples who were met by 
Christ on the way to Einmaus. Luke 
24 : 18. Some regard him as the same 
with Cleophas. 

CLEOPHAS. John 19: 25. See 

CLERK. See Town-clerk. 

CLOAK. See Clothes. 

CLOSET. See Dwelling. 

CLOTH. The art of making cloth 
was known very early. The skins of 
animals supplied the place of cloth at 
first, but we may suppose that spinning 
and needle- work were so far perfected 
as to furnish cloth, of a coarse kind at 
least, at an early period. Ex. 35 : 25 ; 
Jud. 5 : 30. The beauty of dress con- 
sisted in the fineness and color of the 
cloth. See Sackcloth. 

immobility of the East is evinced in 
nothing more than in the absence of 
any change in dress from generation to 
generation. The clothing of the ancient 
liebrews may be known from that of the 
modern Orientals. The ordinary dress 
consisted of the inner garment, the out- 
er garment, a girdle, and sandals. 

1. The inner garment originally was 
a sort of shirt, sleeveless, and reaching 
only to the knees. Afterward it was 
larger and longer, and with sleeves. A 
girdle confined it around the waist. Jud. 
14:13. A person with only it on was 
said to be naked. 1 Sam. 19 : 24 ; Isa. 
29:2-4; John 21 : 7. Its material was 
wool, cotton, or linen, varying in qual- 
ity according to the taste and wealth of 

the owner. This inner garment is com- 
monly translated in the Bible " coat," 
but "shirt" would be more correct. 

2. The girdle. — When the garments 
came to be made long and flowing they 
were confined around the loins with gir- 
dles, which served not only to bind 

A Modern Arab. 

A Modem Greek. 

them to the body, but also to hold them 
when tucked up. This increased the 
gracefulness of their appearance and 
! prevented them from interfering with 
labor or motion. Hence " to gird up 
the loins " became a significant figu- 
rative expression, denoting readiness for 
service, activity, and watchfulness, and 
"to loose the girdle" was to give way 
to repose and indolence. 2 Kgs. 4 : 29 ; 
Job 38 : 3 ; Isa. 5:27; Jer. 1:17; Luke 
12 : 35 ; John 21 : 7 ; Acts 12 : 8 ; 1 Pet. 
1:13. This girdle was a belt or band 
of cord, cloth, or leather, 6 inches or 
more in breadth, with a clasp affixed to 
loosen or draw it closer. Sometimes 
the girdle was made of linen, Eze. 16 : 
10, and was often adorned with rich 
and beautiful ornaments of metal, pre- 
cious stones, and embroidery. 

The girdle was used to carry weapons, 2 
Sam. 20 : 8, money, and other things usu- 
ally carried by us in the pocket. The 
Arabs carry their daggers in it, point- 
ing to the right side, and through all 
the East it is the place for the handker- 
chief, smoking-materials, and the im- 
plements of one's profession. See Ink- 
horx. The word translated "purses," 
Matt. 10 : 9, is in other places trans- 
lated " girdle.'' The girdle not only 
protected the body, but braced it with 
strength and firmness. The girdle is 



supposed by some to have been a chief 
article or appendage of the armor ; 
hence to have it continually fastened 
upon the person is emblematical of great 
fidelity and vigilance. And because it 
encircled the body very closely, the 

Girded for Walking. 

perfect adherence of the people of God 
to his service is figuratively illustrated 
by the cleaving of the girdle to a man's 
loins. Jer. 13 : 11. In the same view, 
righteousness and faithfulness are call- 
ed by the prophet, Isa. 11 : 5, " the gir- 
dle" of the promised Messiah. 

3. The outer or tipper garment, Matt. 
21 : 8, or cloak, Matt. 5 : 40, was a square 
or oblong strip of cloth, 2 or 3 jards long 
and 2 yards wide. Such a garment is 
now worn by the Arabs. It was simply 
wrapped around the body as a protec- 
tion from the weather ; and when oc- 
casion required, it might be thrown over 
the shoulder and under the arm, some- 
what like an Indian blanket, and be 
fastened with clasps or buckles, two 
corners being in front, which were call- 
ed skirts, and were often used as aprons 
sometimes are among us. Ex. 12 : 34 ; 
2 Kgs. 4:29; Luke 6:38. The Arabs 
throw this garment over the left shoul- 
der and under the right arm, and thus 
cover the whole body, leaving only the 
right arm exposed. This garment was 
the poor man's bed-clothing. Ex. 22 : 
26, 27 ; Job 22 : 6 ; 24 : 7. This was 
probably the cloak and the coat or 
linen garment to which reference is had 
in Matt. 5:40, and, in a more ample 
form, was called a robe, Luke 23 : 11, 
or a mantle. 2 Kgs. 2 : S. It is sup- 
posed that the fringes, with the blue 
ribbon. Num. 15:38, were placed on 
the corners or borders of this garment. 

Matt. 23 : 5. They are seen still on 
ancient monuments. 

In winter fur dresses or skins were 
worn, as at the present day, in Eastern 
countries. A dress of sheep- or goat- 
skins is, perhaps, meant in 2 Kgs. 1 : 8 
and Zech. 13:4. The common skins 
of this kind were worn by the poorest 
and meanest people, Heb. 11 : 37, but the 
fur dresses were sometimes very costly, 
and constituted a part of the royal ap- 
parel. The word translated "robe," 
Jon. 3 : 6, is supposed to mean a fur gar- 
ment. The sheep's clothing, Matt. 7:15, 
was considered emblematical of inno- 
cence and gentleness, and was the dis- 
guise of the false prophets, who were, in 
truth, fierce and ravenous as wolves for 
the blood of souls. The word trans- 
lated "sheets," Jud. 14:12, 13, is sup- 
posed to denote some kind of garment 
worn next to the skin, and probably 
the same which is spoken of under the 
general name of "fine linen " in Prov. 
31 : 24 : Isa. 3 : 23 ; and Mark 15 : 46. 
See Sheets. 

The linen cloth mentioned in Mark 
14 :51 was probably an article of bed- 
clothing caught up in haste and thrown 
around the body — " a wrapper of fine 
linen, which might be used in various 
ways, but especially as a night-shirt." 
The Arabs use for a complete dress by 
day the same garment which serves 
them for a bed and covering by night. 
Deut. 24 : 13. Such 'also is the use of 
the Highlander's plaid. 

The dress of the women differed from 
the men's only in the outer garments. 
A veil further distinguished them. 
It was considered a token of mod- 
esty in unmarried women, Gen. 24:65, 
and of subjection and reverence in 
those that were married. 1 Cor. 11 : 3- 
10. The robe was often made full, and 
when tucked up the front of it would 
answer the purpose of a large apron, 
which is one meaning of the word 
translated "veil." Euth 3:15. The 
Arabs put their hykes or cloaks to a 
like use. 

Handkerchiefs. Acts 19 : 12.— These 
were common among the Hebrews. The 
people of Eastern nations at this day 
carry them in their hands, and they 
are often wrought beautifully with 
the needle. 

Aprons, mentioned in Acts 19 : 12, 



were sweat-cloths from the apostle's 

4. Sandals and shoes. Deut. 25 : 9 ; 
Mark 6 : 9. — The sandal was at first a 
flat piece of wood or leather suited to 
the sole of the foot, and bound upon it 
by straps or strings. The fastening 
was called a latchet. Gen. 14 : 23. 

The common sandal is made of a 
piece of hide from the neck of a camel, 
and sometimes of several thicknesses 
sewed together. It is fastened by two 
straps, one of which passes between the 
great and second toe, and the other 
around the heel and over the instep. 
Hence it appears that the shoe was 
easily slipped off, and that it afforded 
no protection from the dust and dirt. 
Sandals were never worn in the house. 
The taking: off of the shoes was a mark 

of reverence shown to exalted persons 
and sacred places. At the doors of 
Hindoo pagodas and Mohammedan 
mosques sandals are collected in great 
numbers for the use of strangers. 

The necessity of washing the feet 
after every walk is obvious, and it was 
the first token of hospitality to supply 
water for this purpose. Gen. 24:32; 
Luke 7 : 44. To unloose the straps or 
latchets was the business of a menial, 
Mark 1 : 7, as was also the washing of 
the feet. John 13 : 1-16. 

The wooden sandal is much worn 
in Arabia, Judaea, and Egypt. Though 
often expensive and neat, it was usually 
a cheap, coarse, and very clumsy article. 

The following represent various forms 
of sandals which are still in common 
use in many countries of the East. 

Sandals. (From Farrar's "Life of Christ.") 

Mitre, Ex. 39 : 28, or bonnet, Ex. 28 : 
40, was a part of the sacred dress only, 
worn on the head. The Arab women 
wear a cap of folded cloth not unlike 
the modern turban, and the Hebrew 
women wore head-dresses of various 
shapes. Isa. 3 : 20. 

Blue fringes were attached to the four 
corners of the outer garment to remind 
the wearer of God's commandments. 
Num. 15 : 37-39. It was one of the 
fringes of Jesus's garment which is 
called the " hem " touched by the woman. 
Matt. 9 : 20 ; Luke 8 : 44. For enlarging 
these fringes to attract notice Jesus re- 
bukes the Pharisees. Matt. 23 : 5. 

Change of raiment or garments. 2 
Kgs. 5 : 5, 22. — It is customary in the 
East at this day to make presents of 
garments; and the Asiatic princes keep 
changes of raiment ready made for 

presents to persons of distinction whom 
they wish particularly to honor. The 
simple and uniform shape of the gar- 
ments makes this custom practicable, 
and accounts also for the change of 
one person's dress for another's which 
is mentioned in sacred history. Gen. 
27:15; 1 Sam. 18:4. See also Deut. 
22 : 5 ; Luke 15 : 22. 

Changeable suits of apparel, or festal 
robes, Isa. 3 : 22, are supposed to have 
been made of some thin fabric orna- 
mented with embroidery and worn over 
garments of various colors ; of which 
beautiful representations are to be seen 
in Indian paintings. 

Coat of many colors. — This was, prop- 
erly speaking, a " shirt of extremities " — 
a " shirt" which reached to the feet — prob- 
ably made of fine material. Gen. 37 : 3. 

Among the appendages to Jewish 



dress were jewels of gold and silver, I 
bracelets, necklaces, ear-rings, etc. 
Nose- and ear-rings are very common 
in the East. The thread, Gen. 14 : 23, 
is supposed by some to mean the thread 

Eastern Fringed Garment. {From Fo,rrar's 
"Life of Christ") 

on which precious stones were hung for 
neck-chains. Eze. 16 : 11. Bracelets were 
worn on the arms by both sexes, 2 Sam. 
1:10, and by females upon the leg also. 
Isa. 3 : 19, 20. See Bracelets. Women 
in Persia and Arabia wear rings full of 
little bells about the ankle. Isa. 3:16. 
Hand-mirrors, made of molten brass and 
finely polished, were aviso a common ac- 
companiment of female dress, Ex. 38 : 
8 ; Isa. 3 : 23, and were either carried 
in the hand or suspended from the gir- 
dle or neck. In later times these mir- 
rors were made of polished steel. 

All the Grecian and Roman women, 
without distinction, wore their hair long. 
On this they lavished all their art, dis- 
posing it in various forms and embellish- 
ing it with many ornaments. In an- 
cient medals and statues we see the 
plaited tresses interwoven with expen* 

sive and fantastic decorations so point- 
edly condemned by the apostle as proofs 
of a vain mind, and as inconsistent with 
the modestj* and decorum of Christian 
women. 1 Tim. 2 : 9, 10 ; 1 Pet. 3 : 1, 3, 
4. See Phylacteries. 

Rending Clothes. See Rend. 

CLOTH, LINEN. See Clothes. 

CLOUD. The Hebrew words thus 
translated bring out the ideas of a 
•■covering" for the sky, a " darkness," 
or simply a "vapor." The references 
to clouds in the Bible will be better un- 
derstood when the fact is known that 
from the beginning of May to the end 
of September not a cloud is usually seen, 
1 Sam. 12 :17, 18; hence their appear- 
ance would be phenomenal. The on- 
coming of clouds marked the approach 
of rain. 1 Kgs. 18:44; Luke 12 : 54. 
"A cloud without rain" was indeed a 
proverb for a man whose performance 
belied his promise. Prov. 25 : 14. 
Clouds shield the divine Presence, Ex. 
16:10; 33 : 9: Num. 11: 25; 1 Kgs. 8: 
10 ; Job 22 : 14 ; Ps. 18 : 11 ; and in evi- 
dence of the divinity of Christ is the 
fact that clouds play a part in his re- 
corded life and in his future glory. 
Matt. 17:5; 24:30; Acts 1:9; Rev. 
14 : 14. Clouds symbolize transitori- 
ness, Job 30 : 15; Hos. 6:4; armies 
and multitudes of people, Isa. 60 : 8; 
Jer. 4:13: Heb. 12 : 1. "A cloudy 
day" is a day of calamity. Eze. 30 : 
3 ; 34 : 12. Peter likens false teachers 
to "clouds that are carried with a tem- 
pest." 2 Pet. 2 : 17. 

the people of Israel commenced their 
march through the wilderness, God 
caused a cloud resembling a pillar to 
pass before the camp. In the day-time 
it was like a cloud, dark and heavy, and 
in the night bright and shining like fire. 
It also served as a signal for rest or mo- 
tion. Num. 9 : 17-23. 

CLOUTED. Josh. 9 : 5. Worn out 
and patched. 

CNI'DUS, a Greek city at the ex- 
treme south-western corner of Asia 
Minor, now in ruins, on Cape Crio. 

COAL. There is no evidence that 
the Hebrews were acquainted with coal. 
They used charcoal for their fires. The 
Hebrew words which are translated 
"coal" etymologically refer to heat in 
general, usually to fuel of wood, and in 



1 Kgs. 19 : 6 and Isa. 6 : 6 to hot stones. 
In the N. T. the Greek words. Rom. 12 : 
20 and John 18 : 18 ; 21 : 9, refer like- 
wise to charcoal. 

COAST (from the Latin coata, « a, 
rib") is often used in the English Bible 
for "border," and has no reference to 
the sea. Jud. 11 : 20 ; 1 Sam. 5:6; Matt. 
8 : 34. 

COAT. See Clothes. 

COCK. See Cock-crowing. 

COCKATRICE. Jer. 8:17; Isa. 
11 : 8 ; 14 : 29 ; 59 : 5. The word, in the 
Scriptures, evidently denotes a very ven- 
omous reptile. The original signifies a 
creature that hisses, doubtless some spe- 
cies of serpent. Tristram proposes the 
great yellow viper, the largest of its 
kind found in Palestine, and one of 
the most dangerous. On one occasion 
he saw one of these vipers spring on a 
quail which was feeding : " It missed its 
prey, and the bird fluttered on a few 
yards, and then fell in the agonies of 
death. On taking it up I found that 
the viper had made the slightest possi- 
ble puncture in the flesh of one of the 
wings as it snapped at it, and this had 
caused death in the course of a few sec- 
onds." In the passage from Jeremiah 
above cited allusion is made to thS un- 
yielding cruelty of the Chaldean armies 
under Nebuchadnezzar, who were ap- 
pointed ministers of divine vengeance 
on the Jewish nation for their manifold 
and aggravated sins. 

COCK'- CROWING. Mark 13 : 
35. A name given to the third watch 
of the night, from midnight to day- 
break. Some perplexity has been occa- 
sioned by the difference between the ex- 
pressions in Matt. 26 : 34, " before the 
cock crow, thou shalt deny me thrice," 
and Mark 14 : 30, " before the cock crow 
twice, thou shalt deny me thrice." To 
reconcile this seeming variance, it is 
stated that there were two cock-crow- 
ings — one soon after midnight, and the 
other about three o'clock — and that the 
last, which was the signal of approaching 
day, was spoken of as the cock-crowing. 
To this it has been answered that only 
one hour elapsed between the denials. 
Luke 22 : 59. This is true of the second 
and third, but there seems to be no au- 
thority for saying it is of the first and 
second. It seems most natural to sup- 
pose that the phraseology in both cases 

was substantially the same, and that the 
Jews understood by the phrase " before 
the cock crow" the same time which 
was denoted by the phrase '•' before the 
cock crow twice." Both referred to that 
cock-crowing which especially and most 
distinctly marked a watch or division 
of the night. There is no reference to 
poultry in the 0. T., and only an inciden- 
tal one in the New. Matt. 23 : 37 ; Luke 
13 : 34. Some suppose that poultry were 
introduced into Judaea by the Romans. 

COCK'LE {stinking like carrion). 
This word may denote troublesome or 
offensive weeds in general. Job 31 : 40. 
But the arums, which abound in Galilee 
and other Eastern regions, have pre- 
cisely the odor indicated by the orig- 
inal, and may be the plants meant. 
The proximity of these offensive growths 
is sometimes scarcely endurable. 

CarLE-SYR^A (hollow Syria), 
the great valley between the Lebanon 
and Anti-Lebanon ranges of mountains. 
See Lebanon and Syria. 

COF'FER, "a movable box hang- 
ing from the side of a cart." 1 Sam. 6 : 
8, 11, 15. 

COF'FIN. See Bury. 

COHORT. See War. 

COL-HO'ZEH (all-seeing), a man 
of Judah. Neh. 3 : 15 ; 11 : 5. 

COLLEGE. 2 Kgs. 22 : 14. This 
word is the translation of what was 
probably the name of one of the di- 
visions of Jerusalem — viz. " the lower 
city," built upon the hill Akra. 

COL'LOPS. Job 15 : 27. Thick 
pieces of flesh. 

COI/ONIT. Acts 16 : 12. A city or 
province planted or occupied by Roman 
citizens, as Philippi. Roman laws and 
manners naturally prevailed, but the 
colony had an independent internal 
government. The colonists were in 
the beginning all Roman citizens, and 
therefore entitled to vote at Rome. 

COLORS. Gen. 37:3. The art 
of coloring cloth seems to have attain- 
ed to great perfection among the Jews, 
though it did not originate with them, 
but with their idolatrous neighbors, the 
Phoenicians and Egyptians, the former 
supplying the dyes, the latter the mode 
of applying them. Four artificial col- 
ors are spoken of in the Bible. 

1. Purple, which was derived from a 
shell-fish native to the Mediterranean 



Sea. The coloring-matter was found in 
a small vessel in the fish, and the rest 
of the fish was useless. Purple was 
the royal and noble color, indicative of 
wealth and station. Jud. 8:26; Esth. 
8 : 15 ; Luke 16 : 19 ; Rev. 17 : 4: 

2. Blue, produced from a similar 
source, used in the same way, and for 
the same purposes. Ex. 25 : 4 ; Esth. 1 : 6. 

3. Scarlet and crimson appear to ex- 
press the same color. " The dye was 
produced from an insect somewhat re- 
sembling the cochineal, which is found 
in considerable quantities in Armenia 
and other Eastern countries" — Smith. 
The three colors above mentioned, to- 
gether with white, were employed in 
the tabernacle curtains and in the vest- 
ments of the priests. 

4. Vermilion was used in fresco-paint- 
ing, Eze. 23 : 14, for coloring the idols 
themselves, and for decorating the walls 
and beams of houses. Jer. 22 : 14. 

The natural colors noticed in the Bi- 
ble are white, black, red, yellow, and 
green, yet only three colors are sharply 
defined, lohite, black, and red. To show 
the vagueness of the use of the others, 
the tint green (translated "yellow" in 
the A. V.) is applied in the Hebrew to 
gold, Ps. 68 : 13, and to the leprous 
spot. Lev. 13 : 49. 

city of Phrygia, on the Lycus. a branch 
of the Maeander, and 12 miles above 
Laodicea. Paul wrote to the church 
there, Col. 1 : 2, and possibly visited it 
on his third missionary journey. See 
Acts 18: 23; 19:10. The town is now 
in ruins ; there is a little village called 
Chronos 3 miles south of the site of 

TO THE, was written by Paul while 
be was a prisoner at Rome, A. D. 62. It 
is probable that Epaphras, who is spo- 
ken of as the minister of Christ in that 
place, Col. 1 : 7, came to Rome to con- 
sult Paul respecting the semi-Judaistic 
and semi-Oriental opinions that had 
been preached among the Colossians by 
Jews who had been tainted by Essenic 
Gnosticism. See Essenes. These no- 
tions would tend not only to mar the 
simplicity of their belief, but to obscure 
the glory of Christ. Col. 2 : 8-23. To 
these damaging errors Paul writes a 
refutation. "The occasion, then, of 

the Epistle being the existence and in- 
fluence of false teachers in the Colos- 
sian church, the object of the apos- 
tle was to set before them their real 
standing in Christ, the majesty of his 
person, and the completeness of his re- 
demption, and to exhort them to con- 
formity with their risen Lord, following 
this out into all subordinate duties and 
occasions of common life." 

The Epistle to the Ephesians, written 
at a little later date, is very similar to 
it, but more full on the doctrine of the 
church. Both were sent from Rome by 
the same bearers, Tychicus andOnesimus. 
COLT. The young of camels and 
asses are so called. Gen. 32 : 15 ; 49 : 11 ; 
j Jud. 10 : 4 ; Job 11 : 12 ; Matt. 21 : 2, 5, 
7, and elsewhere. 

COME BY. In Acts 27 : 16 this 
! phrase means " to secure the boat, so as 
i to hoist it into the ship." 

COM'FORTER. John 14: 16. 
This word is the English rendering for 
Paraclete, and occurs only in the Gos- 
i pel of John. In four out of the five 
! passages in which it is used it is ap- 
| plied to the Holy Ghost, and should 
! be translated " advocate" or " helper." 
I For the Paraclete does not simply com- 
fort, but defends our cause and inspires 
j our courage. See Advocate. 

COMMERCE. In some form this 
j must have existed from the time when 
men formed separate communities, and 
when the dwellers in cities became de- 
pendent upon farmers and foreign na- 
tions for food. We find notices of trade 
I in this way in the time of Abraham, 
and particularly in the history of Jo- 
seph and of the Egyptian famine. But 
I foreign trade was not much cultivated 
| by the Jews. Indeed, they do not seem 
to have been in the least a sea-faring 
| people, for the commercial enterprises 
j of Solomon and of Jehoshaphat both 
I ultimately failed. 1 Kgs. 22 : 48, 49. 
j But we know that the Jews consum- 
ed foreign articles, Neh. 13:16; Ezr. 
j 3:7, and also supplied foreign coun- 
tries, as Phoenicia. 1 Kgs. 5 : 11; 
Eze. 27:17; Acts 12:20. Joppa, the 
modern Jaffa, the port of Jerusalem, 
carried on a busy trade. From it went 
vessels to various ports. Isa. 2:16; Jon. 
1 : 3. The internal trade was largely 
increased by the festivals. The sale of 



animals for sacrifice and the exchanging 
of money were carried on even in the 
temple-enclosure, and led to our Lord's 
indignant rebuke. John 2 : 14 ; Matt. ! 

COMMUNION. 1 Cor. 10 : 16. 
Intimate fellowship and communica- 
tion, such as is expressed in John 15 : 
1-7 and 17 : 10, 21-26 ; Rom. 12 : 4, 5 ; 
2 Cor. 13:14; 1 John 1: 3. As the or- 
dinance of the Lord's Supper furnishes 
both the opportunity for and the motive 
to this mutual love and confidence, John 
13 : 34; 15 : 12, it is called, by way of 
distinction, "the holy communion." 

means " to go around." 2 Sam. 5 : 23 ; 
2 Kgs. 3:9: Acts 28 : 13. 

CONANFAH {whom Jehovah hath ! 
made), a Levite chief. 2 Chr. 35 : 9. 

CONCISTON, a term used sarcas- 
tically to denominate the Judaizers who ; 
insisted on circumcision as necessary 
for Gentile converts. Phil. 3 : 2. They 
thus perverted the rite, and therefore, 
instead of calling them by the honora- 
ble name of the " circumcision," Paul 
calls them the " concision," the " muti- 

CONCUBINE, by the Jewish 
law, a lawful wife of a secondary or in- 
ferior rank, and consequently neither 
regarded nor treated as the matron or 
mistress of the house. Concubines ! 
were either Hebrew girls bought of 
their fathers, or Gentile captives taken 
in war. Foreign slaves or Canaanitish 
women were also illegally concubines. 
Concubines were not betrothed or wed- j 
ded with the usual solemnities and cere- j 
monies which attended marriage. They j 
had no share in the family government, I 
and the children of the wife were pre- 
ferred to the child of the concubine in j 
the distribution of the inheritance. 
Yet the children of the latter were I 
not counted as illegitimate, but stood | 
upon the same footing as those of the 
wife in the family, as their names oc- j 
cur in the genealogical lists. Gen. 22 : 
24; 1 Chr. 1 : 32. The custom among 
the Jews originated in the great de- 
sire for children, and therefore it was 
that barren wives gave their maid-ser- 
vants to their husbands that they might 
have children by them. Gen. 16 : 3 ; 30 : 
4. The law of Moses did not stop the 
practice, but modified it. Ex. 21 : 7-9 ; 

Deut. 21 : 10-17. There was no stigma 
upon the position. The concubine was 
a recognized member of the family; 
when she had been a slave previous to 
becoming such a one, she still remained 
in slavery. Her distinction from the 
wife was in her lower social position, 
and in her far looser hold upon her 
husband. She might be dismissed with- 
out any formal divorce. Her unfaithful- 
ness was criminal, but not looked at as, 
strictly speaking, adultery, and hence 
was not so severely punished. Jud. 19 : 
2. In the days of the monarchy the 
kings imitated their heathen neighbors 
in the establishment of harems, and 
multiplied the number of wives and 
concubines. To seize on the royal concu- 
bines for his own use was thus a usurp- 
er's first act. Such was probably the 
intent of Abner's act, 2 Sam. 3 : 7, and 
similarly the request on behalf of Adon- 
ijah was construed. 1 Kgs. 2 : 21-24. — 
Smith : Dictionary of the Bible. 

Where polygamy was tolerated — as it 
was among the Jews — the permission of 
concubinage would not seem so much at 
war with the interests and preservation 
of society as we know it to be. The 
gospel restores the sacred institution 
of marriage to its original character, 
Gen. 2 : 24 ; Matt. 19 : 5 ; 1 Cor. 7 : 2, 
and concubinage is ranked with forni- 
cation and adultery. 

refers to the sentence pronounced upon 
an adjudged criminal. In the sight of 
God the race lies under condemnation 
because of Adam's inherited sin and 
their actual transgressions. Rom. 5 : 
16, 18. The law which convicts men 
of sin is called the "ministration of 
condemnation." 2 Cor. 3:7, 9. But 
the gospel announces deliverance from 
sin. John 3 : 18. Therefore it is truly 
"good tidings of great joy." Luke 2 : 
10. By faith in Christ are we deliver- 
ed from condemnation, and are brought 
into the glorious liberty of the children 
of God. Rom. 8:21. 

CON'DUIT (te'ahih in Hebrew).. 
2 Kgs. 18 : 17 ; 20 : 20 ; Isa. 7:3; 36 : 
2. Used to signify something for con- 
veying water, as a " water-course," Job- 
38 : 25, or a " trench." It probably in- 
cluded an aqueduct, such as must have 
been used to convey the water from the 
Pool of Solomon to Jerusalem. Pilate 



built a new aqueduct or repaired that 
of Solomon, which still remains. 

CONEY (the hitler), a small animal 
(By rax Syriacus) found in Syria and 
Arabia, and much resembling the rab- 
bit in size, general appearance, and 
habits. Ps. 104 : 18 ; Prov. 30 : 26. Its 
Hebrew name is appropriate, from its 
dwelling in the rocks. The coney, 
however, does not burrow, but, like the 
rhinoceros and hippopotamus (with 
which naturalists class it), has hoofs 
rather than nails upon its toes. It is 
almost tailless, has short ears, is clothed 

in tawny fur, and is a very timid and 
harmless creature. 

Solomon justly pronounced the co- 
neys " exceeding wise." So great is 
their wariness that they have never 
been trapped and can but rarely be 
shot. They are accustomed to feed in 
small companies upon the herbage near 
their fastnesses, but it is said they al- 
ways first post a sentinel, and at a 
squeak of alarm, on the least indication 
of danger, they all plunge into their 

The references to this animal in the 


Law (Lev. 11 : 5 : Deut. 14 : 7) are to be 
understood in a popular sense. Though 
not strictly a ruminant animal, the 
coney, like the hare and rabbit, has a 
habit of moving its jaws as if chewing, 
while it does not completely divide the 
hoof, as does the ox or deer. 

The coney " is an exceedingly active 
creature, leaping from rock to rock with 
wonderful rapidity, its little sharp hoofs 
giving it a firm hold of the hard and 
irregular surface of the stony ground. 
Even in captivity it retains much of its 
activity, and flies about its cage with a 
rapidity that seems more suitable to a 
squirrel than to an animal allied to the 

(Hyrax Syriacus. After Houghton.) 

rhinoceros and hippopotamus. ... It 
is a tolerably prolific animal, rearing 
four or five young at a birth, and keep- 
ing them in a soft bed of hay and fur, 
in which they are almost hidden. If 
surprised in its hole and seized, the 
Hyrax will bite very sharply, its long, 
chisel-edged teeth inflicting severe 
wounds on the hand that attempts to 
grasp it. But it is of a tolerably docile 
disposition, and in a short time learns 
to know its owner, and to delight in 
receiving his caresses." — J. G. Wood. 

CONGREGATION, an assem- 
bly ; a gathering of people for either 
political or religious purposes. 



1. In the 0. T. (kahal) it denotes 
the Hebrew people in its collective 
capacity, under its peculiar aspect 
as a holy community, held together by 
religious rather than political bonds. 
Deut. 31 : 30 ; Josh. 8 : 35 ; 1 Chr. 29 : 1, 
etc. " Sometimes it is used in a broad 
sense, as inclusive of foreign settlers, 
Ex. 12 : 19, but more properly as ex- 
clusively appropriate to the Hebrew 
element of the population. Num. 15 : 
15." The congregation was governed 
by the chief of the tribes and families, 
but from these was selected a council 
of 70 elders. Num. 16 : 2 ; 11 : 16. This 
was a permanent institution, for these 
representatives of the people — who at 
first met at the door of the tabernacle 
at the call of one silver trumpet, while 
the congregation came at sound of the 
two, Num. 10 : 3, 4, 7 — became in post- 
exilic days the Sanhedrin. Doubtless 
these meetings of the elders are often 
meant when the term " congregation " 
is used. Thus they meet to elect a 
king. 1 Sam. 10 : 17. Their decisions 
bound the nation. Josh. 9 : 15, 18. 

2. In the N. T. it means the Christian 
Church at large or a local congregation, 
but in King James's Version the corre- 
sponding Greek word (ecclesia), when 
used of a religious assembly, is always 
rendered " church," even in Acts 7 : 38, 
where it means the Jewish congregation 
in the wilderness. King James ex- 
pressly commanded the revisers to do 
this, in opposition to the Geneva Ver- 
sion, which uses the more literal render- 
ing "congregation." In Acts 19 : 32, 
39, 40 it means simply a popular assem- 
bly. See Church. 

CONFAH. See Jehoiachin. 

CONONFAH {whom Jehovah hath 
set), a chief among the Levites. 2 Chr. 
31 : 12, 13. 

CONSCIENCE is the inborn sense 
of right and wrong, the moral law written 
on our hearts which judges of the moral 
character of our motives and actions, 
and approves or censures, condemns or 
justifies us accordingly. Rom. 2:15. 
This universal tribunal is established in 
the breast of every man, even the hea- 
then. It may be weakened, perverted, 
stupefied, defiled, and hardened in vari- 
ous ways, and its decisions are more or 
less clear, just, and imperative accord- 
ing to the degree of moral culture. John 

8:9; Acts 23 : 1 ; 24 : 16 ; Rom. 9:1; 
and 1 Tim. 1 : 5. 

CRATION. Ex. 32 : 29 : Lev. 7 : 
37. The word means "to set apart for 
holy uses." It is applied in the Bible to 
both persons and things. The tribe of 
Levi was consecrated to the priesthood 
with the most solemn and imposing 
ceremonies. Vessels, Josh. 6 : 19, prof- 
its, Mic. 4 : 13, fields, Lev. 27 : 28, cat- 
tle, 2 Chr. 29 : 33, individuals, Num. 6 : 
9-13; 1 Sam. 1 : 1L, 28, and nations, 
Ex. 19 : 6, were anciently consecrated 
or set apart to sacred purposes. See 

CONVENIENT signifies "becom- 
ing," " fitting," " appropriate," in sev- 
eral passages ; e. q. Prow 30 : 8 ; Jer. 
40 : 4 : Rom. 1 : 28 ; Eph. 5:4; Phile. 
8. This is the old Latin sense of the 

CONVERSATION is never used 
in the A. V. in its ordinary sense, but 
always denotes "course of life," "con- 
duct." Phil. 3 : 20 reads " our conver- 
sation is in heaven," but the Greek is 
properly translated by "citizenship." 
What is now called " conversation " is 
expressed in the A. V. by " communica- 
tion." 2 Kgs. 9:11; Matt. 5 : 37 ; Eph. 
4 : 29, etc. 

CONVERSION, or turning from 
one state, pursuit, inclination, or direc- 
tion to another. Acts 15 : 3. The corre- 
sponding Greek term in the N. T. de- 
notes a change of mind or heart which 
takes place in the sinner when the Holy 
Spirit convinces him of his sinfulness, 
persuades him to hate sin and to for- 
sake it, and to lead a life of holv obe- 
dience to Christ. Matt. 3:8: Luke 3 : 
3: 15:7: 24:47: Acts 5 : 31 ; 11:18; 
20 : 21 : 2 Cor. 7:9, 10; 2 Tim. 2 : 25 : 
Heb. 6:16; 12:17; 2 Pet. 3:9. Con- 
version is an act of man, while regenera- 
tion, or the new birth, is an act of God, 
but both are produced by the agency 
of the Holy Spirit, and usually coincide, 
though not always : for very young chil- 
dren may be regenerated, but cannot, 
strictly speaking, be said to be converted. 
TheScriptures describe mankindas alien- 
ated from God. as having the understand- 
ing darkened, and as dead in trespasses 
and sins. Hence the corresponding force 
and pertinency of the terms by which the 
change is described; such as created, re- 



newed, Eph. 4 : 23, 24, restored to sight, 
Eph. 1:18; Eev. 3 : 18, and raised from 
the dead. John 5 : 21, 24 ; Eph. 2 : 1. 

CONVOCA'TION, sometimes 
used with the adjective "holy," denotes 
a meeting of a religious character. Ex. 
12 : 16 ; Lev. 23 : 2 ; Num. 28 : 18. 

COOK'ING was not carried by the 
Jews to any perfection, because meat 
did not form part of their ordinary 
diet. It was done in early times ex- 
clusively, and in all periods of their 
history usually, by the matron of the 
family, apparently irrespective of her 
social condition, Gen. 18 : 6 ; although 
professional cooks were sometimes em- 
ployed in later times. 1 Sam. 8:13; 
9 : 23. As is evident from the expedi- 
tious way in which meals were gotten 
up, the animal, usually a kid, a lamb, 
or a calf, was cooked immediately after 
killing. For roasting, a fire of wood 
or else an oven, which was merely a 
hole dug in the ground, heated by ashes, 
and then covered up, was employed. 
When the animal was boiled, which was 
the usual way, both in the case of sacrifice 
other than the paschal lamb, Lev. 8 : 
31, and for domestic use, it was cut up, 
the flesh separated from the bones and 
minced, and the bones themselves 
broken up, and the whole mass thrown 
into a caldron filled with water, Eze. 
24 : 4, 5, and boiled over a wood-fire, and 
the salt or spices thrown in to season it. 
The meat and broth were served up sep- 
arately, the latter being used as a sauce 
to dip bread into. Gen. 18 : 8 ; Jud. 6 : 
19. Vegetables were usually boiled and 
served as pottage. Gen. 25 : 29 ; 2 Kgs. 
4 : 38. Fish was probably boiled. Luke 
24 : 42.— Smith : Diet, of the Bible. 

CO'OS, or COS, a small island 
north-west of Rhodes, Acts 21 : 1, in 
the jEgean Sea ; now called Stanchio. 

COP'ING. 1 Kgs. 7 : 9. The top 
course or finish of a wall. It is usually 
of flat or semi-circular bricks or hewn 
stone, projecting beyond the face of the 
wall, and forming an ornament similar 
in effect to the capital of a column. 

COPTER, a well-known metal, 
once as "precious as gold." Ezr. 8: 
21 ; 2 Tim. 4 : 14. The word translated 
"copper" in Ezra is elsewhere improp- 
erly rendered Brass, which see. 

COR. See Measures. 

CORAL, Eze. 27:16, was an 

article of Tyrian merchandise, and is 
well known as a marine production, 
found in almost every variety of shape 
j and size, and sometimes increasing to 
such an extent as to form the basis of 
islands, or to stretch out in dangerous 
reefs for many miles. It is capable of 
being worked up into beads and other 
ornaments ; for which use the red spe- 
cies is the most valuable. Job mentions 
it in connection with pearls. Job 28 : 

COR'BAN {offering) signifies a 
gift or thing consecrated to God or his 
service, particularly in fulfilment of a 
vow. Mark 7 : 11. The Jews permitted 
, such an abuse to be made of this con- 
secration that a child was suffered to 
deny the request of his parents, or 
withhold assistance from them in their 
distress, merely on the pretence that 
what they asked or needed was conse- 
crated to God. 

CORDS. See Ropes. 

CO'RE, the Greek form of Korah ; 
used in Jude 11. 

31. The coriander plant (Con'andrum 
sativum) grows wild in Palestine and 
neighboring countries, and is often cul- 
tivated in the United States. The seeds 
are globular, and when dry are pleasant 
to the taste and smell, and, incrusted 
with sugar, are often sold by confec- 
tioners. We are told that the particles 
of manna were shaped like coriander 

COR'INTH, the capital of Achaia, 
and a renowned and voluptuous city of 
Greece, about 40 miles west of Athens, on 
an isthmus about 10 miles wide at that 
point. It had two sea-ports, Cenchrea, 
on the east, about 9 miles distant, and 
Lechasum, on the west, only about 2 miles 
away. Corinth was about 5 miles in cir- 
cuit, and on the south an immense rocky 
mountain called Acrocorinthus rises ab- 
ruptly to the height of 2000 feet, upon the 
summit of which was a temple of Venus. 
It had an extensive commerce, like all 
the large towns on the Mediterranean 
Sea, and became celebrated for its 
wealth, magnificence, and learning. It 
was esteemed as the light and ornament 
of all Greece. It was, however, no less 
remarkable for its corruption and licen- 
tiousness. "To live as at Corinth" was 
a proverb meaning profligate indul- 



gence, and the name " Corinthian " ap- 
plied to a woman was infamous. 

Paul preached at Corinth, about A. D. 
53, a year and six months, Acts 18 : 11 ; 
paid it, A. D. 54-57, a short second visit 
("by the way"), not mentioned in the 
Acts, but implied in 1 Cor. 16 : 7 ; 2 Cor. 
12:13, 14; 13:1, where he speaks of 


Corinth and Aciocoiinthus. 
an intended third journey to Corinth, 
which coincides with that in Acts 20 : 
2 ; and spent there the three winter 
months, from 57 to 58, during which he 
wrote the Epistle to the Romans. Acts 
20 : 2, 3 ; comp. 1 Cor. 16 : 6 ; Rom. 16 : 
1. He wrote two letters to the Chris- 
tians in that city, rebuking their sins, 
and refers to the Isthmian games cele- 
brated at Corinth evei-y Olympiad. The 
city is now desolate, the little miserable 
village of Gortho occupying its site. 

hibit the trials and temptations, the vir- 
tues and vices, of a Greek congregation 
in apostolic times, and the wisdom and 
love, the trials and patience, of Paul 
in dealing with some of the most diffi- 
cult practical and doctrinal questions 
which arise again and again in the his- 
tory of every church. They are so full 
of individuality and local adaptation 
that their Pauline origin has never 
been disputed. 

1. The First Epistle was written at 
Ephesus, toward the close of the apos- 
tle's three years' residence there, in 
the spring of A. n. 57. It was sent to 
the church by Stephanas, Fortunatus, 
Achaicus, and Timotheus, according 
to the superscription. Its immediate 
cause was the painful news which 
had reached Paul that there were 

dissensions in the church between the 
different elements — converted Jews, 
proselytes, and Gentiles — which com- 
posed it. Some of the members de- 
clared themselves Pauline, while others 
were Petrine ; others were of Apollos, 
and others of Christ — Christians in a 
sectarian and exclusive sense, chs. 1-4. 
This state of things is explic- 
3^ able. The Corinthian church 
(jfc| was founded by the apostle 
while upon his second mis- 
sionary journey, Acts 18 : 1, 
sq., during his eighteei? 
months' residence in Cor- 
inth. Not long after he left, 
Apollos came, Acts 19 : 1, who 
by his eloquence won follow- 
ers. Judaizers also from Je- 
rusalem came to the city, who 
misrepresented Paul as a dan- 
gerous radical, denied his 
apostolic authority, and 
obliged him to defend him- 
self. Thus the church was sadly rent. 
Those who styled themselves " of 
Christ" may have at first attempted 
reconciliation by going back of all hu- 
man authority to Christ, but would seem 
finally to have added a fourth to the ex- 
isting factions. Another trouble which 
demanded decisive action was a lax state 
of sexual morals. This gives Paul op- 
portunity to express his views upon 
marriage and the relation of the sexes 
generally, chs. 5-7. From these spe- 
cific cases of overt act he passes to the 
consideration of several matters of 
Christian practice — eating meats offer- 
ed to idols, chs. 8, 9 : the proper observ- 
ance of the Lord's Supper and its true 
nature, ch. 10 ; the proprieties of wor- 
ship, ch. 11 ; the gifts of the Spirit, chs. 
12, 13, 14. In ch. 15 he treats of the 
resurrection in a strain of marvellous 

2. The Second Epistle was written 
from Macedonia, 7:5; 8:1; 9 : 2, in the 
same year, a few months later than the 
First — i. e. in the summer or autumn of 
a. n. 57. The contents seem to have 
been determined by the accounts the 
apostle had received from Titus, and 
perhaps, also, from Timothy, of the ef- 
fect of his previous Epistle. This was 
upon the whole favorable; still, many 
denied Paul's right to the apostleship. 
Accordingly, in this Epistle he first of 



all gives an account of his ministry 
and opens his heart toward his con- 
verts, chs. 1-7; next, exhorts them to 
give liberally to the support of the 
church in Jerusalem, probably because 
this proof of Christian brotherhood 
would cure their local jealousies, chs. 
8, 9: and lastly, he defends his apos- 
tolical character, chs. 10-13. 

It has been generally supposed, from 
1 Cor. 5 : 9, that there were more epis- 
tles to this church than these two, but 
how many cannot be determined. The 
two Epistles are singularly affectionate, 
although this church was sadly removed 
from the ideal. 

CORIN THUS, the Latin form of 
Corinth, which see. It occurs in the sub- 
scription to the Epistle to the Romans. 

CORMORANT {the plunger), a 
bird mentioned as unclean in Lev. 11 : 
17 ; Deut. 14 : 17. In two other passages 
a word meaning the Pelican, which 
see, is translated "cormorant." The 
true cormorant is found along the salt 
and fresh waters of Syria, and is cer- 
tainly a "plunger," so that there is no 
reason for a change in the passages of 
the Pentateuch, as some have suggest- 
ed. These birds are as large as the 
raven, of a dark color, with long necks, 
webbed feet, feed upon fish, and are pro- 
verbial for their voracity. See cut on p. 

CORN. Mark 4: 28. This word is 
generally applied in the United States 
to maize or Indian-coim, which it never 
means in the Bible, for that grain, like 
the Western continent, was, in scriptural 
times, as yet undiscovered. The English 
Bible uses the word as the general name 
for all sorts of cereals, such as wheat, 
barley, millet, and fitches, and of such 
cornfields only must we think. Oats 
are not known in Palestine, and rye is 
rarely, if ever, grown. 

A " corn of wheat " is a kernel of 
wheat. The figurative use of the word 
" corn," usually in connection with wine 
and oil, is very frequent, as grain and 
wine and olives were the leading pro- 
ductions of the country. Deut. 11: 14'; 
18:4; 28:51; 2 Chr. 32:28; Hos. 2 : 
22 ; Joel 2 : 19. 

It is probable that grain was commonly 
used in its crude state in the early ages 
of the world. It was sometimes done in 
later times, Matt. 12 : 1 ; and even now 

it is no uncommon thing, in passing a 
field of wheat, to pluck an ear, and, af- 
ter rubbing the husk or beard off by 
rolling it between the hands, to eat the 
grain, which is very palatable, even in 
that state. The Jewish law permitted 
standing corn to be plucked by any one 
passing through it, Deut. 23:25; and 
this custom, or right, is still respected 
in some parts of the East. See Mills. 

The " parched corn " of the Bible, Lev. 
23 : 14 ; Ruth 2:14; 1 Sam. 17 : 17, etc., 
"corresponds to the kaly of the Arabs, 
and is obtained in the following man- 
ner : When wheat is being harvested, 
some of the green ears are thrown upon 
the coals of fire and roasted ; they are 
but partially divested of the hull by 
rubbing between the hands, and are 
very much relished." — Van Lennep. 

CORNELIUS, a Roman centu- 
rion of the Italian cohort stationed at 
Caesarea, and the first»heathen convert 
to Christianity. He was a Gentile by 
birth, but a God-fearing man, a half 
proselyte — i. e. leaning to the Jewish 
religion, yet uncircumcised, and hence 
considered unclean. Acts 10 : 1. His 
prayers, being offered in the faith of a 
promised Messiah, were heard, and God 
sent Peter to make known to him the 
plan of salvation through a crucified 
and risen Redeemer. Thus the door of 
faith was opened to the Gentiles. Cor- 
nelius and his family were baptized in 
the name of the Lord Jesus. Acts 10 
and 11. 

CORNER. According to the Mo- 
saic law, it was forbidden to reap the 
corners of the field, so that there might 
be gleanings for the poor. Lev. 19 : 9 ; 
23 :22. The "corner of the house-top," 
Prov. 21 : 9, is a narrow place exposed to 
sun and rain, contrasted with the wide 
room or house below. The word " cor- 
ner" in the phrase "corners of Moab," 
or of any other country, Num. 24 : 17 ; 
Jer. 48 : 45, means the length and 
breadth of the country, and also of 
the world. " Corner of a bed," Am. 
3 : 12, the corner of a room, was on 
the elevated part (used by night for a 
bed or couch), and contained the most 
honorable seat. See Bed. In the pas- 
sage last cited it figuratively denotes 
the most proud and luxurious of the Is- 
raelites in Samaria. In Zech. 10 : 4 the 
word "corner" is used to denote either 



the corner-stone or the most conspicuous 
part of a building, and evidently refers 
to Christ, Matt. 21 : 42, where he is men- 
tioned as " the head " (or chief ) " of the 
corner," though the Jews, in erecting the 
temple of their faith, rejected him as un- 
fit for so impoi-tant a place. 

Corner-stone. Job 38:6. A massive 
stone, placed at the foundation in the cor- 
ner of a building, and binding the two 
walls together. Christ is called "the 
Corner-stone of the Church " because 
he gives strength and unity to the whole 
structure of God's house. Comp. Eph. 
2:20; 1 Pet. 2:6; Matt. 21 : 42 ; Rom. 
9 : 32, 33 ; 1 Cor. 1 : 23. 

CORNET. 1 Chr. 15 : 28. An in- 
strument of music about 18 inches long, 
used by the priests, and giving a loud, 
smooth sound. 

See Olives, Mount of. 

COS. See Coos. 

CO'SAM (a diviner), one of Christ's 
ancestors. Luke 3 : 28. 

COTTAGE. Isa. 24 : 20. The 
same with tent or garden-hut. 

COT'TON is now grown in Syria 
and Palestine, and is preferred to linen 
for turbans and shirts. But there is no 
proof that the ancient Hebrews knew 
anything about it. The word occurs 
only in Esth. 1 : 6, where the A. V. ren- 
ders "green." 

COUCH. See Bed. 

COUN'CIL. There are three legal 
bodies called " councils " in the English 
N. T. 

1. The Sanhedrin, the supreme court 
of the Jews, the fountain of their gov- 
ernment, which sat at Jerusalem. By 
this body Jesus was tried. Matt. 26 : 59. 
See Sanhedrin. 

2. The lesser courts. Matt. 10:17; 
Mark 13 : 9. One was in each town, but 
two in the capital. Josephus states that 
each court consisted of seven judges, 
with two Levites as assessors. The 
"judgment," Matt. 5:21, probably ap- 
plies to them. 

3. The "council" spoken of in Acts 
25:12 was a kind of jury "composed 
of councillors appointed to assist and 
advise the Roman governors." 

COUNSELLOR. Luke 23 : 50. 
An officer connected with the royal 
camp of the Jews; supposed to be re- 
ferred to in 1 Kgs. 12 : 6-12. 

COURSE. See Abia. 

COURT. See Temple, Dwellings. 

COVENANT, an agreement or mu- 
tual obligation contracted deliberately 
and with solemnity. God's covenant 
with men signifies his solemn promise 
or engagement. Gen. 17 : 14; Ex. 34 : 
10; Deut. 4:13; Isa. 59:21. 

The Hebrew word for " making a 
covenant" signifies "a cutting," be- 
cause covenants were often made by 
cutting animals in two and passing be- 
tween their parts. Gen. 15 : 10, 17 : Jer. 
34 : 18. 

The term "the covenants," Rom. 9 : 
4, refers to the various promises made 
to Abraham. God made a covenant 
with Noah and with Abraham. 

The chief and most important use of 
the word, however, is in relation to the 
two great dispensations which are dis- 
tinguished as the old and new, or as the 
covenant of the law and the covenant of 
the gospel. The former was made with 
the children of Israel through Moses, 
and rested much in the outward cere- 
monies and observances which the law 
enjoined (meats and drinks, and divers 
washings and carnal ordinances). The 
new covenant was made through Christ, 
sealed by his own blood, and secures to 
every believer the blessings of salvation 
and eternal life. Comp. Ex. 20 : 24 ; 
Gal. 3 ; Heb. 8. The titles " Old and 
New Testaments" arose from the inac- 
curate rendering of the word "cove- 
nant" by testamenUim in the Latin Vul- 

Covenant of Salt. Num. 18 : 19 ; 2 
Chr. 13 : 5. This term denotes a cove- 
nant in the sealing or ratification of 
which salt was used, which made it 
inviolable. Lev. 2 : 13. See Salt. 

COVET, Ex. 20:17, COV'ET- 
OUSNESS. Ex. 18 : 21. To covet is 
to desire strongly. 1 Cor. 12 : 31. When 
such a desire is felt for that which we 
cannot lawfully possess, it is sinful and 
becomes covetousness, which is idolatry, 
Col. 3 : 5, for it is placing the heart and 
affections on the creature rather than on 
the Creator. Covetousness has relation 
commonly to riches, and, in the scrip- 
tural sense, includes the desire of accu- 
mulating, whatever may be the means. 
Prov. 28 : 16 : Eccl. 5 : 10 ; Luke 12 : 15- 
34; 1 Tim. 6:9, 10. 

COW. Isa. 7 : 21. In this remark- 

Crane. (After Tristram.) 



able prophecy the event foretold is that 
the face of the land of Judah should be 
so completely changed, and the inhabit- 
ants so greatly reduced in number, that, 
with only a single young cow and two 
sheep, a family should be supplied with 
an abundance of milk and butter, and 
vineyards which before commanded a 
high rent should be overgrown with 
briers and thorns. 

By the Levitical law, Lev. 22 : 28, a 
cow and her calf were not to be killed 
on the same day. A similar precept is 
found in Ex. 23 : 19, and another in 
Deut. 22 : 6, 7. Whether they were de- 
signed to prevent inhumanity or referred 
to some heathen custom is uncertain. 
The cow is esteemed holy by the Hin- 

COZ {thorn), a descendant of Judah. 
1 Chr. 4 : 8. 

COZ'BI {lying), the daughter of a 
Midianite chief. She was slain by 
Phineas. Num. 25 : 15, 18. 

CRACKNELS denotes crumb- 
cakes, so called because of the " sharp 
noise made when breaking." 1 Kgs. 

CRANE, next to the ostrich, the 
largest bird found in the Holy Land, 
measuring 4 feet in height and 7 feet 
from tip to tip of its extended wings. 
The crane {Grits cinerea) feeds upon 
frogs, fish, worms, insects, and some- 
times vegetable , substances. When 
upon the wing it is always noisy, and 
its cry is hoarse and melancholy : hence 
the allusion of Isa. 38 : 14. These birds 
return in the spring with great regu- 
larity from their migrations, and flocks 
of thousands pass over Palestine. Jer. 

CREATES Ps. 51:10, CREA'- 
TOR, Eccl. 12 . 1, CREATION. 
Mark 10 : 6. The word " creation " some- 
times denotes all living things, and at 
others the act of creation. To create is 
to cause anything to exist that never ex- 
isted in any form or manner before. Gen. 
1:1; Col. 1:16. It is to make without 
materials to make of. Thus, " God said, 
Let there be light, and there was light." 
Gen. 1:3. 

The panorama of creation in the first 
two chapters of Genesis is the sublimest 
that can be found or conceived, and em- 
inently worthy of God, and man as made 
in the image of God. Neither poetry 

nor science has been able, or will ever 
be able, to produce anything better. 
God must have revealed it to the writer 
in a retrospective vision. The Bible 
gives two accounts. Gen. 1:1 to 2 : 3, 
and 2 : 4-25. They supplement each 
other, and they differ as the names of 
God Elohim (used in the first) and Je- 
hovah (used in the second) differ. The 
first refers to the creation of the whole 
universe, the second looks particularly 
to the creation of man and to the subse- 
quent history of the fall and of redemp- 
tion. The great object of the inspired 
writer in both was to show that God is 
the Author of all existence, that he made 
all things in beautiful order, and that he 
made them for his glory and for the use 
and dominion of man as the crowning 
work of his hands; that the God who 
created the universe is the same as the 
Jehovah of the history of the redemption 
of fallen man. The six days represent 
six indescribable divine works in six 
divine periods, ending in a divine rest. 
Gen. 2 : 2, 3. 

The first work was the creation of 
light — i. e. the diffused cosmic light; 
the second, the organization of the 
physical heavens and the separation of 
the firmament from the earth ; the third, 
the formation of the earth and the divis- 
ion of sea and land, with the creation of 
vegetable life; the fourth, the creation 
of the sun — i. e. the concentrated solar 
light — and the planetary system ; the 
fifth, the creation of lower animal life in 
water and air ; the sixth, the creation 
of higher animals on land, and the cre- 
ation of man in the image of God. On 
the seventh day God rested from his 
creative work and entered upon his ac- 
tivity as the Preserver of all things, 
blessing his creatures and instituting 
the weekly day of rest for the benefit of 
body and soul. The first three days 
represent the era of matter, the next 
three days the era of life : the seventh 
day introduces the period of history, or 
of the moral world as distinct from the 

The six days of creation are not ne- 
cessarily six literal days, but may be, 
and are probably, periods of indefinite 
length. The question is not what God 
could do (for one hour or one minute 
would suffice for his omnipotence), but 
in what manner he usually works. That 



the word " day " is often used in a wider 
sense is evident from such expressions 
as the " day of the wicked," the " day 
of grace," the "day of judgment." To 
God a thousand years are as one day. 
Ps. 90 : 4 ; 2 Pet. 3 : 8. The narrative 
itself indicates such a wider use of the 
word ; for the sun, that luminary which 
determines the solar day, was not created 
before the fourth day, and the seventh 
day, which represents the period of di- 
vine rest or preservation, has no evening. 
Gen. 2:4. For aprofound scholarly hand- 
ling of this matter see Tayler Lewis's, 
"Special Introduction to the First Chap- 
ter of Genesis," part ii. pp. 131-135, in 
Lange's Commentary on Genesis (and his 
Six Days of Creation). He says: "It 
is not any duration, but the phenomenon, 
the appearing itself, that is called day." 
The Bible and science, nature and 
revelation, being the products of one 
and the same God, cannot contradict 
each other ; and various attempts have 
been made to harmonize the Mosaic 
cosmogony with modern geology and 
astronomy by able Christian scientists 
(such as Prof. Guyot, Principal Daw- 
son, and others). But it should be kept 
in mind that the Bible does not intend 
to teach science, but religion and the 
way of salvation. The great truths 
taught by Moses in the first two chap- 
ters of Genesis are obvious and inde- 
pendent of all science, as Guyot says : 
" A personal God calling into existence 
by his free, almighty will, manifested by 
his word, executed by his Spirit, things 
which had no being ; a Creator distinct 
from his creation; a universe, not eter- 
nal, but which had a beginning in time; 
a creation successive — the six days — and 
progressive — beginning with the lowest 
element, matter, continuing by the plant 
and animal life, terminating by man, j 
made in God's image; thus marking 
the great steps through which God, in 
the course of ages, has gradually real- 
ized the vast organic plan of the cosmos j 
we now behold in its completeness, and 
which he declared to be very good, — ; 
these are the fundamental spiritual 
truths which have enlightened men of 
all ages on the true relations of God to 
his creation and to man. To under- j 
stand them fully, to be comforted by 
them, requires no astronomy or geology. 
To depart from them is to relapse into 

! the cold, unintelligent fatalism of the 
old pantheistic religions and modern 
philosophies, or to fall from the upper 
regions of light and love infinite into 
the dark abysses of an unavoidable 

It is interesting to compare with the 
Mosaic cosmogony the old Assyrian 
tradition of the Creation, which has 
been brought to light by modern dis- 

These Chaldasan or Assyrian legends 
of the Creation have been discovered in 
a mutilated form, written upon twelve 
tablets, and are printed by the late Mr. 
George Smith in his Chaldsean Account 
of Genesis (London, 1876). He thus 
translates the fragments which contain 
the first part of the story : " When 
above were not raised the heavens, and 
below on the earth a plant had not 
grown up; the abyss also had not 
broken up their boundaries : the chaos 
(or water) Tiamat (the sea) was the 
producing mother of the whole of them. 
Those waters at the beginning were 
ordained ; but a tree had not grown, a 
flower had not unfolded. When the 
gods had not sprung up, any one of 
them ; a plant had not grown, and 
order did not exist; were made also the 
great gods, the gods Lahmu and Laha- 
mu they caused to come . . ^ and they 
grew . . . the gods Sar and Kisar were 
made ... a course of days and a long 
time passed" (pp. 62, 63). Compare 
Gen. 1:1,2. 

The succeeding tablets are so bi'oken 
that no connected story can be read from 
them until we come to the fifth, which 
gives an account of the fourth day of 
creation : " It was delightful, all that 
was fixed by the great gods. Stars, 
their appearance [in figures] of animals 
he arranged. To fix the year through 
the observation of their constellations, 
twelve months (or signs), of stars in 
three rows he arranged, from the day 
when the year commences unto the 
close. He marked the position of the 
wandering stars [planets] to shine in 
their courses, that they may not do in- 
jury, and may not trouble any one ; the 
positions of the gods Bel and Hea he 
fixed with him. And he opened the 
great gates in the darkness shrouded — 
the fastenings were strong on the left 
and right. In its mass [?'. e. the lower 



chaos] he made a boiling, the god Urn 
[the moon] he caused to rise out, the 
night he overshadowed, to fix it also 
for the light of the night, until the 
shining of the day, that the month 
might not be broken, and in its amount 
be regular. At the beginning of the 
month, at the rising of the night, his 
horns are breaking through to shine on 
the heaven. On the seventh day to a 
circle he begins to swell, and stretches 
toward the dawn further" (pp. 69-71). 
Comp. Gen. 1 : 14-19. 

The seventh tablet is very imperfect, 
but the translation gives some interest- 
ing coincidences with Genesis : " When 
the gods in their assembly had created 
. . . were delightful the strong mon- 
sters . . . they caused to be living crea- 
tures . . . cattle of the field, beasts of 
the field, and creeping things of the 
field . . . they fixed for the living crea- 
tures . . . cattle and creeping things of 
the city they fixed . . . the assembly of 
the creeping things the whole which 
were created . . . which in the assem- 
bly of my family . . . and the god Nin- 
si-ku (the lord of noble face) caused to 
be two . . . the assembly of the creep- 
ing things he caused to go ... " (pp. 
76, 77). Comp. Gen. 1 : 24, 25. 

The tablets which relate the creation 
of man are unhappily so mutilated that 
the sense is totally uncertain, but the | 
first fragment appears to give the speech j 
of the Deity to the newly-created pair, j 
and on the reverse a particular address 
to the woman. Then follow more tab- 
lets relating the Fall. 

Prof. Oppert read before the congress j 
of Orientalists in Florence (1878) atrans- | 
lation of the Assyrian tablets relating to 
the Creation and the Fall, which differs 
greatly from the above-given translation 
of Mr. George Smith. The mutilated j 
condition of the tablets, together with j 
the uncertainty of many of the mean- 
ings, easily accounts for the differences. 
We give, by way of comparison, Prof. 
Oppert's translation of the tablet on 
which the fourth creative day is de- 
scribed : 

"1. He distributed the stations of the 
great gods, seven in number, 
2. And fixed the stars, the mansions of 
the seven lumari (i.e. fixed stars J 
regulating the celestial move- j 
ments). I 


3. He created the perpetual renewal of 

the year and divided it into thirty- 
six decades. 

4. For each of the twelve months he 

fixed three stars. 

5. From the day of the beginning of 

the year until its close 

6. He fixed the station of the god Nib- 

iru that their circles (of days) 
might be perpetually renewed. 

7. In order to prevent either shorten- 

ing or interruption 

8. The stations of Bel and Hea he fixed 

with it, 

9. And he spread the three gates on the 

limbs of the angles. 

10. He made a sigar on the right and on 

the left : 

11. At the four exteriors he established 


12. The moon was appointed to betray 

the night, 

13. And he made it renew itself to hide 

the night and make day perpetual; 

14. (Saying): 'Every month with day- 

break accomplish thy circle. 

15. In the beginning of the month the 

night will reign : 

16. Thy horns will be invisible, for the 

heaven is renewed. 

17. The seventh day thy disk will be 

filled up on the left, 

18. But open in darkness will remain 

the half on the right. 

19. (In the middle of the month) the 

sun will be on the horizon of the 
sky at thy rising. 

20. (In splendor may thy form reign 

and make . . . 

21. (Hence go back) and turn thyself 

toward the way of the sun. 

22. (Then will change) the darkness : to 

the sun return, 

23. . . . seek her ways . . . 

24. (Rise and) set according to the eter- 

nal laws.'" 

The account of the Creation upon 
these tablets is manifestly confused. 
How different the account in Genesis, 
which bears throughout the impress of 
truth ! The Bible contains the revealed 
order of events ; the tablets have only 
the traditional, and in part purely fan- 
ciful, story to tell. 

CREDITOR. See Loax. 

CRES'CENS (growing), a Christian 
of whom Paul speaks in 2 Tim. 4 : 10. 

CRETE, now Candia, a large island 



in the Mediterranean Sea, midway be- 
tween Syria and Italy. It is about 140 
miles long by 35 miles wide. Its sur- 
face is mountainous, the classic Mount 
Ida being one of its peaks, but there 
are fertile valleys. It was formerly 
possessed by a rich and powerful peo- 
ple ; Virgil speaks of its hundred cities. 
But the people were proverbially liars, 
Tit. 1 : 12 — a character they are said 
still to bear. " Homer dates all the 
fictions of Ulysses from Crete, as if he 
meant to pass a similar censure on the 
Cretans to that quoted by Paul — Kp^Te? 
del \\iev<TTai." — Cowper : Odyssey, b. xiii. 
Cretans were at Jerusalem on the day 
of Pentecost, Acts 2:11; Paul was ship- 
wrecked near the island, and he left Titus 
there as the first pastor and superintend- 
ent, who was "to ordain elders in every 
city" of the island. Tit. 1:5. It is now 
under the tyranny of the Turks, but 
thoroughly Greek in nationality and 
sympathy, and will probably ere long 
be annexed to the kingdom of Greece. 
It is supposed to have been first set- 
tled by the Philistines. See Caphtorim. 

CRIB, a stall for cattle or fodder, 
Prov. 14 : 4 ; Job 39 : 9 ; Isa. 1:3; or 
perhaps simply the manger out of which 
the cattle were to eat. 

CRIMSON. Jer. 4 : 30. See 

CRISP'ING-PINS. The word is 
not properly translated in Isa. 3 : 22, 
for it denotes a reticule, probably richly 

CRIS'PUS. Acts 18: 8. An officer 
of the Jewish synagogue at Corinth. 
He and his family were converted un- 
der Paul's preaching, and he received 
the ordinance of baptism at the apos- 
tle's hands. 1 Cor. 1 : 14. 

CROSS, CRUCIFY. Matt. 23 . 
34; 27:32. Crucifixion is a mode of 
execution of great antiquity, and still 
prevails among the Hindoos and Chi- 
nese. It was regarded by the Romans 
as the basest and most ignominious 
death, deserved only by traitors and 
slaves. Luke 23 : 32. It was an accursed 
death'. Deut. 21 : 23 ; Gal. 3:13. Hence 
the force of the expressions 1 Cor. 1 : 
23 ; Phil. 2:8; Heb. 12 : 2. As soon as 
the sentence was pronounced, " Thou 
shalt be crucified," the person was 
stripped and fastened to a post about as 
high as the waist, and was then scourged 

with rods or whips made of leather 
strips armed with small bits of lead or 
bone, and often so severely as to occasion 
death. After the scourging the person 
was compelled to bear his own cross to 
the place of execution. This was usu- 
ally an elevated place without the city, 
and near the highway. 

There are three forms of the cross — 
one in which the two pieces of wood 
cross below the top, one in which they 
are placed one on the top of the other, 
and one in which they are placed diago- 
nally : 

Three Forms of the Cross. 
The first is the usual form ; the second 
is probably the oldest. 

The monogram of Christ used by the 
early Christians and by Constantine 
represents the cross with the initials 
of the name of Christ (the X and the 
P), thus : 


The cross was so fixed into the earth 
that the feet of the sufferer were usu- 
ally about 2 feet from the ground. In 
or near the middle of the upright post 
there was a projection, to which he was 
raised by cords ; and being previously 
divested of his clothing, he was first 
bound to the cross-beam, and then nailed 
by his hands, with strong iron spikes, 
to its extremities. There is conclusive 
evidence from profane history that the 
hands were pierced in this way, and 
that it was peculiar to the punishment 
of crucifixion, but whether the feet were 



nailed separately, or whether a single 
nail transfixed them both, or whether 
they were merely tied to the beam by 
a cord, is doubtful. In order to lessen 
the pain, it was customary to give the 
sufferer wine medicated with myrrh, 
etc. Our Redeemer rejected this draught, 
Mark 15 : 23, choosing to suffer to the 
full extent the pains of death. Vinegar, 
too, was a refreshing and sustaining 
drink, and was offered to him. Matt. 
27 : 48. The criminal was fastened to 
the cross by four soldiers appointed for 
the purpose, who were allowed the ap- 
parel of the sufferer as the perquisite of 
their office. Matt. 27 : 35. 

Over the cross was commonly placed 
a writing or superscription, indicating 
the offence for which the individual 
was put to death. It was called by 
the Romans titulus, or the title. John 
19 : 19-22. 

Among the Romans the prisoner often 
remained upon the cross till his body 
fell to the earth by its own weight, but 
the Jews were permitted, in obedience 
to the precept of their law, Deut. 21 : 
22, 23, to terminate the sufferings of the 
malefactor before sundown. This was 
effected in various ways — sometimes by 
setting fire to the foot of the cross, and 
at others by breaking the limbs with a 
hammer or piercing the body with a 
lance. John 19 : 31-37. The agonies of 
this death were extreme. Cicero says : 
" The executioner, the covering of the 
head, the very name of the cross, should 
be removed afar, not only from the 
body, but from the thoughts, the eyes, 
the ears, of Roman citizens ; for of all 
these things, not only the actual oc- 
currence and endurance, but the very 
contingency and expectation — nay, the 
mention itself — is unworthy of a Roman 
citizen and a freeman." The judges 
denominated it "the utmost torment, 
the extremest punishment." 

The extension of the limbs just after 
so severe a scourging, and the impossi- 
bility of making the slightest motion 
without occasioning suffering, the pier- 
cing of the hands and feet in the parts 
most susceptible of acute and agonizing 
pain, the exposure of the wounded and 
lacerated flesh to the action of the sun 
and air hour after hour, the loss of blood, 
and the sense of the indignity and con- 
tempt, which, as shown to our Saviour, 

was the most bitter, malicious, and un- 
sparing that can be conceived, — all con- 
spired to make it, to the very last de- 
gree, a death of pain. Often the 
strength of the malefactor lingered for 
three days, and even longer. Hence 
the surprise of Pilate. Mark 15 : 44. 

The figure of a cross has often been 
represented on the banners of contend- 
ing armies, thus : 

With the conversion of the Roman 
empire, the cross, front a sign of shame, 
became a sign of honor. It reminds us 
of the great price of our salvation, and 
])oints the true way to immortality and 
gloi-y : " No cross, no crown." 

The cross is often used figuratively for 
those reproaches, self-denials, and sac- 
rifices which the true followers of Christ 
must be expected to endure if they faith- 
fully maintain their profession. Matt. 
16 : 24. 

The classic work upon the cross and the 
crucifixion of Jesus is Justus Lipsius's 
(d. 1606) De Grv.ce, 1595. But in 1878, 
Herman Fulda, pastor near Halle, Ger- 
many, issued a work entitled Das Kreuz 
und die Kreuzigung, which maintains that 
Lipsius and all his followers are wrong. 
This statement he fortifies by a fresh 
examination of the sources. According 
to Fulda, the cross of Jesus was a post. 
His hands were nailed on either side of 
it ; his feet, the knees being much bent, 
were fastened by a stout cord to this 
post, but not nailed, and they, together 
with the nailed hands, supported the 



body. Owing to haste, he deems it prob- 
able that the customary " seat " fasten- 
ed to the cross as a partial support was 
wanting. Fulda finds in this extreme- 
ly painful position one reason for the 
speedy death of Jesus, which occasioned 
Pilate's incredulity. 

CROWN. 2 Kgs„ 11 : 12. Anciently 
the crown or diadem was only a head- 
band, Eze. 16 : 12, or a ribbon or fillet, 
made of silk or linen, surrounding the 
head, and probably connected behind. 
Crowns arose probably from the natu- 
ral custom of wearing wreaths of flow- 
ers on occasions of joy and festivity, or 
else from the custom of binding the hair 
to prevent its dishevelment by the wind. 
Ex. 28 : 36, 37 ; 29 : 6. We find it rep- 
resented on ancient medals. Newly- 
married persons of both sexes wore 
crowns. Comp. Song Sol. 3:11 with 
Eze. 16 : 12. It was usually a badge 
of royalty or princely distinction. It 
was sometimes of pure gold, and was 
worn by kings, 2 Chr. 23 : 11 ; Matt. 
27 : 29, and sometimes in battle. 2 Sam. 
1:10; 12 : 30. The weight, in the last 
passage, denotes the value, and not the 

Crowns. {After Ayre.) 
1. Crown of Upper Egypt. 2. Crown of Upper and 
Lower Egypt United, 3. Assyrian Crown, from Nine- 
veh Marbles. 4. Laurel Crown. 5. Crown of Herod 
the Great. 6. Crown of Aretas, King of Arabia. 

gravity, of the crown. Afterward the 
shape and size were changed, and cost- 
ly ornaments appended to it. 2 Sam. 
12 : 30. It was worn by queens. Esth. 
2:17. It was customary for a king to 
wear as many crowns as he had king- 
doms. Rev. 19 : 12. The word is figu- 

ratively used by the sacred writers to 
denote honor, Prov. 12 : 4, prosperity, 
Lam. 5 : 16, eternal life, and blessed- 
ness. 1 Pet. 5 : 4. The inscription on 
the crown of the high priest, Ex. 39 : 30, 
was significant of his sacred office and 
functions. Such inscriptions have some- 
times been placed on the crowns of 
princes and heroes to indicate some 
splendid action or service. Paul uses the 
custom of giving crowns of laurel or pars- 
ley to the victors in the Greek games to 
furnish an illustration of the difference 
between the honor of earthly distinction 
and that which comes from following 
■Christ. In Rev. 17 : 5 allusion seems 
to be made to the crown of the Jewish 
high priest, whose raiment is described 
as having the colors and ornaments of 
the sacred vestments. It is said that 
the word mysterium ("mystery") was 
| formerly engraven on the papal crown, 
j and was erased in the time of Julius III. 
The " crown of thorns " worn by 
Christ, Matt. 27 : 29, was probably made 
! of a common Arabian plant, called nabk, 
which has "many small and sharp spines, 
soft, round, pliant branches, leaves much 
I resembling \vy, of a very deep green, 
| as if in designed mockery of a victor's 
wreath." — Hasselquint, quoted in Ayre : 
Treasury of Bible Knoioledge. The sol- 
diers plaited the wreath for Christ 
rather as an insult than to cause him 
CRU'CIFY. See Cross. 
CRUSE. 1 Kgs. 17 : 12. A small 
vessel for liquids, used by the Jews. 

CRYSTAL. Job 28: 17. The word 
here rendered " crystal " is used nowhere 
else, and is believed to mean "glass," 
which was made by the ancient Egyp- 
tians and highly valued. Elsewhere the 
subject of this paragraph usually denotes 
ice or frost, and the original term is often 
so translated, as "frost," Gen. 31:40; 
Job 37 : 10; Jer. 36 : 30 ; and "ice." 
Job 6:16; 38:29; Ps. 147:17. In Eze. 
1 : 22, rock-crystal, a stone perfectly 
transparent and resembling the purest 
glass, was plainly meant, and there may 
be reference to the peculiarly dazzling 
effect of light reflected from its surface. 
The ancients supposed that this mineral 
was only "ice congealed by intense 
cold," and valued it highly for its great 
beauty. Its transparency is alluded to 
in Rev. 4:6; 21 : 11 j 22 : 1. 




CU'BIT. See Measures. 

CUCK'OO. Lev. 11:16. Doubtless 
a mistranslation. It is thought most 
probable that " the slender bird " here 
referred to may have been a species of 
shearwater {Puffinus), several kinds of 
which are common on the coast of Pal- 
estine, are sold in the markets of mari- 
time towns, and, as living on fish, would 
be forbidden food to the Jews. 

CUCUMBER. Num. 11 : 5. A gar- 
den-vegetable well known in this coun- 

Squirting Cucumber. {From Rielim.) 
c. Section of the Fruit, a. Plant. 6. Fruit. 

try. Cucumbers, melons, and onions are 
now among the leading productions of 
Egypt, and are also commonly cultiva- 
ted in Palestine. Besides our own kind, 
another (Cucumis chate) is cultivated, 
having a fruit with less flavor, but 

'•' Cucumbers form an important item 
in the summer food of the poor, and are 
eaten with the rind on, without any con- 
diment. In the oppressive heat of sum- 
mer they form a most grateful vegetable. 
I remember seeing dinner served out to 
an Arab school in Jerusalem, which con- 
sisted of a thin barley-cake and a raw 
cucumber to each boy." — Tristram. 

The "lodge in the garden of cucum- 
bers," Isa. 1 : 8, rudely constructed of 
poles and boughs, may still be seen in 
many fields. It is intended to shelter a 
watchman set to protect the fruit from 
jackals and other animals, as well as 
from thievish men. When the crop is 
over and the lodge forsaken by the 
keeper, " the poles fall down, or lean 
every which way, and those green 

boughs with which it is shaded will 
have been scattered by the wind, leav- 
ing only a ragged, sprawling wreck, a 
most affecting type of utter desolation." 
— Thomson. Job seems to have had 
such ruins in mind. 27 : 18. 

CUM'MIN. Matt. 23 : 23. A low 
herb {Cuminum sativum) of the fennel 
kind, which produces aromatic seeds 
and is found in Syria. In Isa. 28 : 25, 
27 reference is made to the manner of 
sowing and threshing it. The same 
method is observed in Malta at this day. 
It was one of the things of less conse- 
quence which the Pharisees strictly 
tithed. See Mint. 

CUN'NING is used in the Bible in 
its original sense of " knowing," " skil- 
ful." Gen. 25 : 27 : 1 Sam. 16 : 16, etc 
In 2 Pet. 1 : 16 the word '' cunningly " is 
used in a similar sense. 

CUP. 1 Kgs. 7 : 26. The horns of 
animals were anciently used by some 
nations as drinking-vessels, but the 
Jews had cups and goblets at a very 
early period, Gen. 44 : 2, though they 
used horns for anointing-oil. 1 Sam. 
16 : 13. Some of their cups were highly 
ornamented, 1 Kgs. 7 : 26, and in shape 
were probably not unlike those now 
used for culinary purposes by the Egyp- 
tians. Cups of this kind, made of gold, 
silver, copper, etc., according to the 
owner's wealth, are in use in Persia at 
this day. 

Syrian King aud Cup-bearer. 

The figurative use of this word in the 
Scriptures is frequent. Generally, how- 



ever, it represents the blessings or the 
judgments of Heaven, or the allotments 
of God's providence. Ps. 23 : 5 ; 75 : 
8 : 116 : 13 ; Isa. 51 : 17-22. Comp. Jer. 
25 : 15 and 51 : 7 with Eev. 14 : 10 and 
16 : 19. The sufferings of our Saviour 
are also represented bv a similar figure. 
Matt. 20 : 22 and 26 : 39. 

CUP-BEARER. See Butler. 


CURSE. Gen. 27 : 12. In the 
scriptural use it is the opposite of bless. 

To curse is to imprecate evil upon any 
one. Gen. 9 : 25 ; comp. Gen. 27 : 12 ; 
Neh. 13:2; Matt. 5:44; John 7:49: 
James 3 : 9. The curses which are re- 
corded in the Bible as being pronounced 
by Noah, Moses, Joshua, and others, are 
not to be regarded as the effects of pas- 
sion or revenge. They were either pro- 
nounced under the immediate influence 
of God's Spirit, or are to be viewed as 
only predictions of evil uttered in the 
form of imprecation. 

The words "curse" and "cursed" 
are the opposite of "bless" and 
" blessed," and are often so contrasted. 
Deut. 28. See Bless. The curse of 
the ground and of the serpent, Gen. 
3 : 14, 17, is to be regarded as the 
doom or judgment of God upon them. 

The curse of the Law is the sentence 
of condemnation which it pronounces 
on the transgressoi-, Gal. 3 : 10, and 
from which Christ redeems us by " be- 
ing made a curse for us." Gal. 3 : 13 ; 
comp. Bom. 8:1 and Gal. 3:13 with 
Bom. 5 : 16 and 2 Cor. 3 : 7-9. 

To curse, in an evil or blasphemous 
sense, is to affirm or deny anything 
with thoughtless or rash imprecations 
of divine vengeance. Matt. 26 : 74. 

CUSH {black?). 1. The oldest son 
of Ham. and father of Nimrod. Gen. 
10 : 6, 7, 8 ; 1 Chr. 1 : 8, 9, 10. 

2. A Benjamite in the time of Saul. 
Ps. 7, title. 

CUSH. 1. A country near the Gi- 
hon, Gen. 2 : 13, marg., north of Assyria. 

2. The country peopled by Cush or 
the Ethiopians, Gen. 10 : 6, lying to the 
south of Egypt, on the upper Nile, and 
possibly extending its rule into south- 
ern Arabia. See Ethiopia. 

CUSHAN. Hab. 3 : 7. Perhaps 
the same as Cush, though some think it 
refers to the king- Chushan-rishathaim. 

CU'SHI {the Ethiopian). 1. One to 
whom Joab intrusted the news of the 
defeat and death of Absalom. 2 Sam. 
18 : 21-23, 31, 32. 

2. An ancestor of Jehudi. Jer. 36 : 

3. The father of Zephaniah the proph- 
et. Zeph. 1:1. 

CUSHITE. See Cush. 
CUTH, and CUTHAH. 2 Kgs. 

17 : 24, 30. A city of Assyria, 15 miles 
north-east of Babylon, where the name 
Cutha is inscribed upon bricks of Nebu- 
chadnezzar's age. At Cutha was the 
great university from whence the origi- 
nals of the tablets giving an Assyrian 
account of the Creation were brought 
by Assurbanipal. H. Bassam, a distin- 
guished Assyrian scholar, in 1879 at- 
tempted to discover the site of the royal 
record-office and to re-explore these 
ruins of Cutha. 


This repulsive practice, common among 

idolaters, ancient and modern, originates 

in the notion that pain and blood please 

| the angry deity. Cutting with a knife 

' also formed a part of a funeral ceremony. 

I It would seem that the Syrians were 

! particularly addicted to the custom ; 

! accordingly, the Israelites were strongly 

1 forbidden thus to mutilate themselves. 

! Comp. Lev. 19 : 28 ; Deut. 14 : 1 ; 1 Kgs. 

18 : 28 ; Jer. 16 : 6. 
CYM'BALS. There are two kinds 

of cymbals, both of which we find men- 
tioned in Ps. 150 : 5. The first kind, 
called the "loud cymbals," like casta- 
nets, consisted of small round plates, 
two of which are held in each hand, one 
upon the thumb and the other upon the 
middle finger, and being struck together 
skilfully make an agreeable sound. The 
second kind, called the " high-sounding 
cymbals," were two broad convex plates 
of brass, the concussion of which pro- 
duced a shrill, piercing sound, like clat- 
tering rather than tinkling. 1 Cor. 13 : 1. 
The cymbals were used in connection 
with other instruments, not only in the 
temple or on sacred occasions, but in 
times of war and as a musical accom- 
paniment to Hebrew women in dan- 
cing. Both kinds are in common use 
to-day in the East. 

CY PRESS. Isa. 44 : 14. The 



Hebrew word indicates a tree with, hard- 
grained wood, but there are objections 
to the true cypress, and there is no cer- 
tainty what it was. It may have been 
the Syrian juniper, which grows wild 
upon Lebanon, as the cypress never 
does in the Holy Land. The latter tree 
(Cupresstis sempervirens) is a tall ever- 
green, the wood of which is heavy, aro- 
matic, and remarkably durable. Its foli- 
age is dark and gloomy, its form close 
and pyramidal, and it is usually planted 
in the cemeteries of the East. Coffins 
were made of it in the East, and the 
mummy-cases of Egypt are found at 
this day of the cypress-wood. The tim- 
ber has been known to suffer no decay 
by the lapse of 1100 years. 

CYPRUS, a large, fertile island 
of the Mediterranean Sea, triangular in 
form, 150 miles long, and from 50 to 60 
miles broad. Venus was its chief god- 
dess ; hence her name Cypria. It con- 

tained two prominent cities, Salamis and 
Paphos, and 17 towns. Salamis was at 
the east and Paphos at the west end of 
the island. Acts 13 : 5. Barnabas was 
a native of Cyprus, and its people are 
noticed in apostolic history. Acts 4 : 
36 ; 13 : 4 : 15 : 39. Sergius Paulus, 
proconsul of Cyprus, was converted by 
Paul on his first missionary-tour, Acts 
13 : 7 ff., and thus became the first 
Christian ruler on record. 

History. — Cyprus was colonized by the 
Phoenicians at a very early date. It was 
the Chittim, or Kittim, of the O. T. 
Num. 24 : 24. Through Greek colonists 
it received the name of Kypros, perhaps 
from the plant Cyprus (henna — Lawsonia 
alba. See Camphire). Copper-mining 
and the production of swords, armor, and 
other articles in bronze were its princi- 
pal industries. There was also an ex- 
tensive commerce. In literature, Cyprus 
boastedof very early distinction. Thoth- 

Map of 

mes III. of Egypt conquered the island. 
At a later period Belus, king of Tyre^ de- 
stroyed most of its cities. Sargon made 
it tributary to Assyria, B. c. 707 ; Apries, 
king of Egypt (the Pharaoh of Scripture), 
plundered it. Later, it was ti-ibutary to 
Darius. The Athenians and Lacede- 
monians conquered part of Cyprus from 
the Persians, B. c. 477. Alexander the 
Great was aided by 120 ships from this 
island in his siege of Tyre, b. c. 335. In 
B. c. 294 the island was a dependency of 
Egypt. Cato took possession of it for 
the Romans. Cicero was proconsul 


there, B. C. 52. The Byzantine empe- 
rors and the Arabs successively held 
sway. Cyprus was a frequent halting- 
place of the Crusaders. Richard I. of 
England captured it in A. D. 1191, and 
sold it to the Knights Templars. Later, 
the Genoese and Venetians held the 
island. The Turks dispossessed the 
Venetians A. D. 1570, and have retained 
their mastery for more than 300 years. 

The control of Cyprus was secured 
in 1878 by the English government as a 
naval station and base of operation for 
the protection of Asiatic Turkey and the 



Indian government. The recent exca- 
vations and discoveries of General Ces- 
nola have brought to light a vast num- 
ber of antiquities and works of art of 
Phoenician, Egyptian, Greek, and spe- 
cific Cypriotic characters, which are de- 
posited in the Metropolitan Museum of 
New York. See Cesnola : Cyprus, its 
Ancient Cities, Tombs, and Temples, New 
York, 1878. 

CYRE'NE, the capital of a small 
province, and the chief city of Libya, 
in northern Africa. It was the cen- 
tre of a wide district between Car- 
thage andEgypt, and corresponding 
to modern Tripoli. It was a Grecian 
city, founded about B. c. 631. Under 
Alexander the Great the Jews were 
about one-fourth of the population, 
and were granted citizenship on the 
same terms as Greeks. At Alexan- 
der's death it was attached to Egypt : 
became a Roman province in b. c. 
75 ; Simon, who bore our Saviour's 
cross, was of that city, Matt. 27 : 
32 ; its people were at Jerusalem 
during the Pentecost, and they had 
a synagogue there, Acts 2 : 10; 6 : 
9, and some of them became preach- 
ers of the gospel. 11 : 20 ; 13 : 1. Cy- 
rene was destroyed by the Saracens in 
the fourth centurv, and is now desolate. 

CYRE NIANS. See Cyrene. 

CYRE'NIUS {Kyrenios), the Greek 
form of the Roman name Quirinius. 
Luke 2:2. He was probably twice 
governor of Syria — the first time from 
b. c. 4 (the year of our Lord's birth) to 
b. c. 1, and again from a. d. 6 to 11. It 
was during his first governorship that 
the " first taxing " or enrolment occurred, 
which necessitated the visit of Joseph 
and Mary to Bethlehem. The second 
census took place A. d. 6, and is men- 
tioned by Luke in Acts 5 : 37 and by 
Josephus. His full name was Publius 
Sulpicius Quirinius. See Taxing, Days 


CY'RITS {the sun; in Hebrew, Ko- 
resh), founder of the Persian empire, 
a prince, statesman, and conqueror of 
great renown, and an instrument em- 

ployed by Jehovah in the execution of 
his designs of mercy toward the Jews, 
as foretold by Isaiah. 44 : 28 ; 45 : 1-7 ; 
comp. 2 Chr. 36 : 22, 23 ; Ezr. 1:1-4; 
Dan. 6 : 28. He was the son of Cam- 
byses, king of Persia, and a nephew of 
Darius the Mede (Cyaxares), and united 
the crowns of Persia and Media. His 
chief biographers (Xenophon and He- 
rodotus) present his history and ex- 
ploits in very different aspects. His 
conquests extended over all western 

Reputed Tomb of Cyrus. 

Asia, but the most brilliant of them 
was that of Babylon, b. c. 538. After 
this event he ordered a return of the 
Jews, who had been 70 years in cap- 
tivity, fo their own land, and furnished 
them very liberally with the means of 
rebuilding their temple. Daniel lived 
at his court, and was his favorite 
minister and adviser. Dan. 6 : 28. His 
edict for the rebuilding of the temple 
may be said to mark the beginning of 
strict Judaism, for the Jews from that 
time became consolidated ecclesiastically 
under the government of the Sanhedrin. 
Cyrus died from a wound received in 
battle, b. c. 529. His reputed tomb still 
exists, near Murgab, the ancient Pasarga- 
da3. — RAWLINSOX : Ancient Monarchies, 
vol. iii. p. 318. The captivity of the Jews, 
which was ended by the decree of Cy- 
rus, ended also the sin of idolatry in the 





DABAREH. Josh. 21 : 28. An 
incorrect form for Daberath. 

DAB'BASHETH (hump of a 
camel), a town of Zebulon. Josh. 19 : 11. 

DABERATH (pasture), a town of 
Zebulon and Issachar, Josh. 19 : 12 : 21 : 
28 ; now Beburieh, west of Mount Tabor. 

DAG'GER, a short sword, usually 
made with a double edge, and suspended 
from the girdle. Jud. 3 : 16, 21, 22. See 

DA'GOIV (diminutive, to express 
endearment, of fish), the national god 
of the Philistines. His corresponding 
goddess was Atargatis or Derceto, and 
they were, at times worshipped in a 
common temple. Atargatis is man- 
ifestly related to Astarte. There were 
temples of Dagon at Gaza, where Sam- 
son performed his final feat of strength 
in pulling down the pillars, Jud. 16 : 23 ; 
at Ashdod, where the idol miraculously 
fell down before the ark of the covenant, 
1 Sam. 5 : 1-4 (this temple was de- 
stroyed by Jonathan in the Maccabsean 
war, 1 Mace. 10 : 83, 84; 11 : 4; Joseph., 
Ant., 13, 4, $ 5) ; at Beth-dagon, in Judah, 
Josh. 15: 41, and in Asher, Josh. 19: 
27 ; and elsewhere. Dagon was repre- 
sented with the face and hands of a man 
and the body of a fish, the fish part sig- 
nifying fecundity. 

The worship of a fish-god was not 
original with the Philistines or the 

The Fish-God. {From a bas-relief pom 
Khorsabad. Botia.) 

Phoenicians, who also were Dagon's 
worshippers, but with the Assyrian 
Babylonians, upon whose monuments 
are representations of such a god, under 
the name Odakon, sporting in the sea 

surrounded by fishes and marine ani- 
mals. He was said to have emerged 
from the sea and to have been "one of 
the great benefactors of men," because 
he taught them the use of letters, the 
arts, religion, and agriculture. 

DALAI'AH (tohom Jehovah hath 
freed), a man of David's posterity. 1 
Chr. 3 : 24. 

DALE, THE KING'S. Gen. 14: 
17:2 Sam. 18 : 18. Probably in the val- 
lev of Jehoshaphat, near Jerusalem. 

DALMANUTHA, a town on the 
Sea of Galilee, near Magdala, Mark 8 : 
10; Matt. 15:39; probably at 'Ain-el- 
Bdrideh, on the west side of the sea, 2 
miles from Tiberias, where are ruins. 

DALMA'TIA, a mountainous dis- 
trict on the east of the Adriatic Sea; 
visited bv Titus. 2 Tim. 4 : 10. 

DALPHON {swift ?), the second 
of the ten sons of Haman. Esth. 9 : 7. 

DAM'ARTS (a heifer), a woman, 
probably of distinction, who was con- 
verted under Paul's preaching in Athens. 
Because she is mentioned, Acts 17 : 34, 
immediately after Dionysius the Areop- 
agite, Chrysostom and others maintained 
she was the latter's wife. But the very 
mode of mentioning — " a woman named" 
— is against the conjecture. 

DAMAS'CUS, the most ancient and 
famous city of Syria, 133 miles north-east 
of Jerusalem, at the base of Anti-Leb- 
anon mountains. It is on a fertile plain 
30 miles in diameter, with mountains on 
three sides. The plain is well watered 
by the Barada, the Chrysorrhoas (or 
"Golden Stream") of the Greeks, the 
Abana of Scripture ; and El A'waj (" the 
crooked"), the Pharpar of Scripture. 2 
Kgs. 5 : 12. These streams flow into 
meadow-lakes 18 miles east of the city. 
Damascus lies 2260 feet above the sea- 
level. The climate is delightful : frost 
is not uncommon in winter, but fire- 
places are unknown : in summer the 
thermometer marks 1 00° to 104°, but the 
nights are cool and the dews heavy ; yet 
the people sleep on the flat roofs of their 
houses. Damascus is called by the Arabs 
" the Eye of the Desert " and the " Pearl 



of the East." It is to the Mohammedan 
the earthly reflection of paradise. The 
chief cause of its beauty and fertility is 
the abundance of water, which calls forth 
a most luxuriant vegetation round about 
the city, and makes it a blooming oasis 
in the midst of a vast desert. 

History. — Damascus is called the old- 
est city in the world ; said by Josephus 
to have been founded by Uz, a grandson 
of Shem ; Abraham visited it, Gen. 14 : 

15 ; 15 : 2; it was conquered by David, 2 
Sam. 8 : 5, 6 : was allied with Israel and 
against Israel, 1 Kgs. 15 : 18, 20 ; 2 Chr. 

16 : 3 ; was taken by Tiglath-pileser ; de- 

Wall of Damascus. 

(From Conybeare and Howson's 
■St. Paul.") 

nounced by Jeremiah. Jer. 49 : 27 ; and 
afterward seldom noticed in 0. T. his- 
tory. It was surrendered to Alexander 
the Great after the battle of Issus. B. c. 
333. In the N. T. it is noticed as the 
place of the scene of Paul's conversion, 
Acts 9 : 1-25 : later it became the resi- 
dence of a Christian bishop ; was con- 
quered by the Arabs, a. d. 635 : attacked 
by the Crusaders, A. n. 1126: several 
times besieged : was taken by the Mon- 
gols, 1260 ; plundered by the Tartars, 
1300 ; attacked by Timour, 1399, to whom 
it paid a million pieces of gold : became 
ft provincial capital of the Turkish em- 

pire, 1516; and is now- the residence of 
a Turkish governor. It is the hot-bed 
of Mohammedan fanaticism. In 1860, 
6000 Christians were massacred by the 
Moslems in cold blood, in the city and 
adjoining districts. 

Present Condition. — Though twelve 
times pillaged and burned, it now ex- 
tends on both sides of the Barada, and 
has a population of from 110,000 to 
150,000. The most remarkable building 
is the Great Mosque, which was once a 
Byzantine church dedicated to John the 
Baptist. The principal street, known 
i as Stdtany, or Queen's street, runs in 
nearly a straight line from east to 
west, and is supposed to be the same 
as the street called " Straight " in 
Acts 9 : 11. The traditional sites of 
the houses of Naaman and Ananias 
and the place in the wall where Paul 
was let down in a basket are still 
pointed out. No less than four 
places near the city have been 
claimed as the scene of Paul's con- 

The Presbyterian Church of Ire- 
land maintains a Protestant mis- 
sion there, which has several sub- 
stantial buildings and labors among 
the Greeks and the Jews. There is 
also an Episcopal mission and 
chapel in Damascus. 

DAMNATION. This term, 
in common use, denotes the endless 
perdition of the ungodly. Matt. 23 : 
33 ; Mark 3 : 29 ; John 5 : 28, 29 : 2 
Pet. 2 : 3. But when the Bible was 
translated the word was used where 
"condemnation" or "judgment" 
would more properly express the 
sense, so that, while generally ap- 
plying to the eternal state of the 
soul, it is sometimes to be taken in its 
milder meaning. Igndrance of this 
fact has led to deplorable consequences. 
Saints have been made despondent and 
sinners driven to despair. 1 Cor. 11 : 
29 ought to be translated "eateth and 
drinketh judgment to himself." So in 
Bom. 13:2 and 14 : 23. 

DAN (judge), the' fifth son of Jacob, 
and the first of Bilhah, Bachel's maid. 
Gen. 30 : 6. Nothing is known person- 
ally of the patriarch. The prediction 
uttered by Jacob respecting him, Gen. 
49 : 16, 17, is variously interpreted. It 
is probable that the elevation of his 



tribe to an equal rank with the others, 
notwithstanding that he was born of a 
concubine, was foretold in v. 16, and the 
residue of the prediction may allude to 
the subtle and crafty disposition of his 
descendants. Indeed, we know that 
Samson, who was among the most noted 
of them, was remarkably successful in 
stratagem, Jud. 14 ; 15; and perhaps 
the same trait was characteristic of 
their tribe. Jud. 18 : 26, 27. 

It is noticeable that the tribe of Dan 
is omitted from the numbering in Rev. 
7. Because of this, and because Dan 
first introduced idolatry into Israel, 
Jud. 18, many of the fathers maintained 
that Antichrist would come from Dan. 

DAN. 1. The territory in Canaan 
allotted to Dan was on the sea-coast, 
west of Benjamin and between Ephraim 
and Judah. It embraced a broad plain, 
14 miles long, near the sea. The Am- 
orites kept them from the plain and 
forced them into the mountains. Hence 
they had another portion granted them, 
near Mount Hermon, Jud. 18, where 
they set up a graven image stolen from 

2. Dan, City of, the chief city of the 
northern district held by this tribe. 
Jud. 20 : 1. It was originally called 
Laish, Jud. 18 : 29 ; noted for idolatry, 
Jud. 18 : 30 ; now called Tel-el-K&dy, or 
" mound of the judge," 3 miles from Ba- 
nias, north of the waters of Merom. 

3. The Dan of Eze. 27 : 19 is possibly 
the same as No. 2, but some identify it 
with Dedar, others with Aden, in Arabia. 

DANCE. The Jewish dances were 
generally expressions of joy and grati- 
tude, sometimes in honor of a conquer- 
or, Jud. 11 : 34 : 1 Sam. 18 : 6, 7, and 
sometimes on domestic occasions. Jer. 
31 : 1, 13 ; Luke 15 : 25. The dance was 
also introduced into the religious ser- 
vice, and the timbrel (tambourine) was 
employed to direct it. Some individ- 
ual led, and the rest followed with 
measured steps and devotional songs. 
Thus, David and Miriam led such a 
band. 2 Sam. 6 : 14; Ex. 15 : 20. In- 
dividuals often expressed feelings of 
joy in the same way. Luke 6 : 23 ; 
Acts 3 : 8. 

Dancing was practised from a very 
early period as a natural exercise and 
amusement. Job 21 : 11 ; Mark 6 : 22. 
But the mingling of males and females 

which is so common in modern dances 
was unknown to the Jews. Indeed, the 
dancing was mostly done by the women 
alone, as is still the case in Egypt. 

A Hebrew word, mahhol, which oc- 
curs in some passages — e. g. Ps. 150 : 
4 — and is rendered " dance " in our ver- 
sion, is supposed by some scholars to 
mean a musical instrument. 

DAN'IEL {God is my judge). 1. One 
of the four greater prophets. He was of 
noble, perhaps of royal, descent, and 
probably born at Jerusalem. Dan. 1 : 
3; 9:24; comp. Josephus's Antiq. In 
his early youth he was carried captive 
by Nebuchadnezzar to Babylon, together 
with three other Hebrew youths of rank, 

i Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah,'B. c. 

I 604. He was there instructed in the 
language and arts of the Chaldasans, 
and, with his three companions, trained 
for the royal service in the palace. Dan. 
1 : 1-4. The prince of the eunuchs 
changed all their names, calling them 
respectively Belteshazzar (t. e. " prince 
of Bel"), Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed- 
nego. These four refused to eat of the 
king's meat and to drink his wine, but 
chose "pulse and water." Notwith- 
standing this diet, they were in better 
condition than the heathen courtiers. 

After three years' training, God gave 
Daniel an opportunity to display his 
learning and wisdom. He interpreted 
a dream which Nebuchadnezzar had 
forgotten. Dan. 2. In reward, he was 
made "ruler over the whole province 
of Babylon, and chief of the governors 
over all the wise men of Babylon," and 
in this position so distinguished himself 
that he won great fame and was men- 
tioned as a model man even by his con- 
temporaries. Eze. 14 : 14, 20 ; 28 : 3. On 
another occasion he faithfully explained 
to his monarch the intention of God to 
punish him for his pride. Dan. 4. For 
Belshazzar, a grandson and successor 
of Nebuchadnezzar, he performed a 
similar service, reading the handwi-it- 
ing upon the wall, Mene, Mene, Tekel, 
Upharsin. Dan. 5. 

Under Darius the Mede, Daniel was 
made the first of the " three presidents " 
of the empire. His enemies obtained a 
command from Darius forbidding all 
prayer save unto the king for 30 days. 
But Daniel did not stop praying ; and 
this fact being discovered, he was cast 



into the den of lions, which, was the 
punishment for a violation of the king's 
order. But God delivered him, and he 
was kept in his office. In the reign of 
Cyrus he likewise prospered, but seems 
to have left Babylon, as his latest re- 
corded vision, 10 : 1, 4, was by the Hid- 
dekel, in the third year of Cyrus, B. c. 
534. When he died, and where, are 
uncertain. His reputed tomb is shown 
at Susa, on the Tigris. 

Daniel at the court of Babylon resem- 
bles Joseph at the court of Pharaoh. 
Both were involuntary exiles from their 
country and people ; both were great 
statesmen ; both maintained the purity 
of their religion and their personal cha- 
racter, though surrounded by idolatry 
and corruption ; both rose by their wis- 
dom and integrity from slavery to the 
highest dignity in a heathen empire j 
both are shining examples of loyalty 
to God and to virtue. 

2. Daniel is the name of two, or per- 
haps three, other persons mentioned in 
the Bible. 

(a) The second son of David by Abi- 
gail the Carmelitess. 1 Chr. 3:1. He is, 
however, called Chileab in 2 Sam. 3 : 3. 

(6) A priest of the family of Itha- 
mar, mentioned, Ezr. 8 :2, as having re- 
turned with Ezra. He is probably again 
spoken of in Neh. 10 : 6 among those 
who sealed the covenant drawn up by 
Nehemiah, b. c, 445. 

sists of two distinct parts. 1. Histori- 
cal, chs. 1-6, containing the interesting 
narrative given in the preceding section, 
and with it an account of the attempt- 
ed burning of Shadrach, Meshach, and 
Abed-nego in a fiery furnace because 
they would not worship the golden im- 
age which Nebuchadnezzar set up on 
the plain of Dura. 2. Apocalyptic, chs. 
7-12, or the record of Daniel's visions. 
Ch. 1 contains the introduction; chs. 
2-6 present a general view of the 
progressive history of the powers of 
the world, and of the principles of the 
divine government, as seen in events 
in the life of Daniel ; and chs. 7-12, the 
prophecy of the future of the people of 
God. The book is written in prose, but 
not in the same language throughout. 
The introduction, chs. 1-2 : 4, first clause, 
is written in Hebi'ew, but from the sec- 
ond clause of the fourth verse of the 

second chapter to the end of ch. 7 it 
is in Aramaic, called Syriac in that 
verse. From the beginning of ch. 8 to 
the end, in which part the visions are 
related in the first person, the language 
is Hebrew. 

The interpretation of Daniel requires 
profound knowledge of ancient history. 
The book is, in fact, a sort of religious 
philosophy of history. Its fundamen- 
tal idea is that all the kingdoms of the 
world, which pass away, are ruled and 
overruled by divine Providence for the 
kingdom of Christ, which will last for 
ever. The book of Daniel occupies in 
the 0. T. the same position which the 
Revelation of John occupies in the 
New. It views the kingdom of God 
in its contact and conflicts with the em- 
pires of the world, and looks forward 
to the universal reign of Christ, the 
resurrection of the dead, and the final 
judgment. The empires of the world 
appear first in Nebuchadnezzar's dream, 
ch. 2, under the figure of a colossal im- 
age with a head of gold, a breast and 
arms of silver, a belly of brass, and 
legs and feet of iron and clay. These 
represent respectively (according to the 
usual orthodox interpretation) the Baby- 
lonian, the Medo-Persian, the Macedo- 
Greek, and the Roman empires : they 
are overthrown at last by a stone cut 
out of the mountain without hands and 
becoming a great mountain, which rep- 
resents the reign of the Messiah. The 
indestructible rock of God's own work- 
manship breaks to pieces the metal 
colossus of man's hand. The same suc- 
cession of monarchies is presented in 
the seventh chapter, under the form of 
a vision of four beasts seen by the 
prophet himself. The fourth beast has 
ten horns, denoting ten kingdoms, grow- 
! ing out of it, and a little horn (7 : 8, 24) 
springing up among the four fractured 
horns of the Greek empire. Interpret- 
ers agree as to the first empire, which 
must be Babylonia, but differ as to the 
other three. Some combine the Medes 
and Persians in one empire ; others di- 
vide them, and regard the Greeks (Alex- 
ander the Great and his successors) as 
representing the fourth empire, and re- 
fer the " little horn " to Antiochus 
Epiphanes. Still others give the proph- 
ecy of Daniel a more comprehensive 
sweep over all the world-empires before 



and after Christ, as preparing the way 
for the ultimate and everlasting reign 
of Christ. This prophecy of Christ, 
the most important in the book, is 
constantly fulfilling before our eyes, and 
cannot be set aside by any negative crit- 

The book of Daniel has been much 
attacked, but also successfully vindica- 
ted by biblical scholars. In the second 
part Daniel speaks in the first person as 
the receiver of the divine revelations re- 
corded therein, so that the only alterna- 
tive here is between truth and fraud. 
The very fact that two languages are 
used renders it extremely unlikely that 
it should have been forged or written 
in any later period, but to Daniel, 
familiar as he was with both Hebrew 
and Aramaic, it was natural. The 
book displays familiar acquaintance 
with Babylonian life and royal man- 
ners, and suits throughout the period 
of the Babylonian exile and the pecu- 
liar position of Daniel at the Babylo- 
nian court. The genuineness is sanc- 
tioned by the highest authority — that 
of Christ, Matt. 24 : 15, from which 
there is no appeal for believers. 

The attacks upon the book have been 
in three lines: (1) Its extraordinary 
events — the golden image, the burning 
fiery furnace, the dreams, the lions' den, 
etc.; (2) its minute propnecies ; (3) its 
foreign (Greek) words ; (4) its narrative. 
To these objections it is sufficient to re- 
ply : (1) The characteristics of Babylon, 
the manners and customs of the East, am- 
ply justify the language and prove that 
the book is genuinely Oriental and Baby- 
lonian. (2) The peculiar position of Dan- 
iel required an exceptional and startling 
character for his revelations; his proph- 
ecies have been in great part fulfilled. (3) 
The Greek words are only four in num- 
ber, and are the names of musical in- 
struments which may have been import- 
ed from Greece as early as b. c. 600. 
(4) Its historical difficulties. Belshaz- 
zar is represented as the last king of 
Babylon, while the authority there known 
gave Nabonnedus as the last king. This 
difficulty was solved by Sir Henry Raw- 
linson's decipherment of a cylinder 
among the ruins of Ur in Chaldasa in 
1854. Nabonnedus had his eldest son, 
Belshazzar, as co-regent, and therefore 
it might well be that while he met the 

Persians in the field his son ruled in the 
capital. Thus is explained how Daniel 
was made the third ruler in the king- 
dom. Dan. 5:16, 29. 

Apocryphal Additions to Daniel. — 
These exist in the Greek version, and 
are : The Song of the Three Holy Chil- 
dren, the History of Susanna, and the 
Story of Bel and the Dragon. They 
passed into the Vulgate, and so into 
j modern translations. They embody 
I popular traditions, but never formed 
j part of the Hebrew Bible. 

1. The Song of the Three Holy Chil- 
dren purports to be the triumphal song 
of the three confessors in the furnace, 

j Dan. 3 : 23, in praise of their miraculous 
deliverance. The chief part has been 
used as a hymn (Benedicite) in the Chris- 

i tian Church since the fourth century. 

2. The History of Susanna, who was 
1 cleared from a charge of adultery by the 

shrewdness of Daniel. Probably based 
upon a fact. 

3. The History of Bel and the Drag- 
on, a strange exaggeration of the rec- 
ord of the divine deliverance of Daniel, 

| ch. 6. 

DAN-JA'AN. 2 Sam. 24: 6. Prob- 
I ably Dauian, a ruin north of Achzib. 
DAiV'XAH, a city in the mountains 
of Judah. Josh. 15 : 49. Conder identi- 
fies it with modern Idhnd, about 8 miles 
north-west of Hebron. 

DA'RA, contr. form of DAR'DA 
{pearl of wisdom), one whom Solomon 
outrivalled in wisdom. 1 Kgs. 4 : 31 ; 1 
Chr. 2 : 6. 

DAR/IC, the name of a Persian 
: gold coin, which is translated " dram" 
j in 1 Chr. 29 : 7 : Ezr. 2 : 69 ; 8 : 27 ; Neh. 
7 : 70, 71, 72. The name comes from the 
j Persian word dara, " a king," like the 
: English sovereign. It was the common 
j gold-piece of the Persian empire. It 
| was current in Palestine under Cyrus, 
and Artaxerxes Longimanus. It weigh- 
ed about 128 grains Troy, and was worth 
about five dollars. Besides the gold there 
was a silver daric, worth about fifty cents. 
There is no mention of this latter coin 
in the Bible. 

DARI'US (restrainer), the name of 
several kings of Media and Persia men- 
: tioned in the Bible. 

1. Darius the Median, Dan. 5 : 31, was 
the son of Ahasuerus ; he took Babylon 
from Belshazzar the Chaldsean, being at 



that time about 62 years old. The best 
identification is that which makes him 
Astyages, the last king of the Medes. 
" Only one year of the reign of Darius 
is mentioned, Dan. 9:1; 11 : 1 : and if, 
as seems probable, Darius (Astyages) 
occupied the throne of Babylon as su- 
preme sovereign, with Nerigalsarasser 
as vassal-prince, after the murder of 
Evil-merodach (Belshazzar), b. c. 559, 
one year only remains for this Median 
supremacy before its overthrow by Cyrus, 
b. c. 558, in exact accordance with the 
notices in Daniel." Under him Daniel 
was advanced to the highest dignity, 
which exposed him to the malice of 
enemies and led to his being cast into 
the den of lions, but by a miracle he 
escaped injury. See Daniel. 

2. Dai'ius, the son of Hystaspes, the 
founder of the Perso-Aryan dynasty, 
and ruler, b. c. 521-486. Ezr. 4 : 5, 24; 
Hag. 1:1, 15; Zech. 1 : 1, 7 ; 7:1. He 
found in the palace at Achmetha or 
Ecbatana, the capital of Cyrus, a decree 
of that king concerning the temple in 
Jerusalem. This he confirmed, and the 
temple was finished in 4 years, b. c. 
516. Ezr. 6 : 15. It may, however, have 
been used before it was entirely com- 
pleted, as is inferred from Zech. 7 : 2, 3. 

3. Darius the Persian, mentioned in 
Neh. 12 : 22, is generally identified with 
Darius Codomannus, the antagonist of 
Alexander the Great, who ascended the 
throne b. c. 336, and reigned until 
B. c. 330. He was the last Persian 
monarch, and was killed by his own 
generals. Alexander defeated him, and 
thus the prophecy of Daniel, ch. 8, was 

DARKNESS. The darkness which 
constituted one of the plagues of Egypt 
might " be felt." Ex. 10:21. This may 
have been occasioned by a thick, heavy 
vapor, or other sensible change in the at- 
mosphere, which caused an entire inter- 
ception of the sun's rays. It was evident- 
ly miraculous, and the dread and ter- 
ror it inspired are vividly described. Ex. 
10 : 22, 23. So of the darkness that 
shrouded the earth when our Saviour 
was put to death, Luke 23 : 44, 45 ; it 
was manifestly miraculous, as no natu- 
ral eclipse of the sun could take place 
at that period of the moon. " Dark- 
ness" is used in a metaphorical sense 
for ignorance or sin, John 1:5; Rom. 

13 : 12 ; Eph. 5:11; for misery, Isa. 5 : 
30 ; 59 : 9, 10 ; for the final doom, Matt. 
8 : 12. God is said to dwell in the thick 
darkness. Ex. 20 : 21; 1 Kgs. 8:12. 

DAR'KON (scatterer), one whose 
posterity returned from Babylon. Ezr. 
2 : 56 : Neh. 7 : 58. 

DARL ING. The word occurs in 
Ps. 22 : 20 and 35 : 17 as the translation 
of a Hebrew word which correctly means 
" my only one," as it is applied to 
" something which exists singly and 
cannot be replaced if lost, as an only 
son, Gen. 22 : 2, or daughter." Jud. 
11 : 34. 

DA'THAN (belonging to a foun- 
tain), a Reubenite chieftain who joined 
in Korah's rebellion. Num. 16 ; 26 : 9 ; 
Deut. 11 : 6 ; Ps. 106 : 17. 

DAUGHTER is used in the Bi- 
ble in several other senses than the 
literal one. It describes a female de- 
scendant, Gen. 27 : 46, the women of a 
city or country, Gen. 36 : 2, or women 
in general, Prov. 31 : 29 ; the female 
worshippers of an idol, Mai. 2 : 11 ; 
cities and their dependent towns. In 
Eccl. 12:4 " daughters of music " are 

DA'VID (beloved), the youngest of 
the eight sons of Jesse, of the tribe of 
Judah, was born in Bethlehem, B. c. 
1085, and was both in his prophetical 
and regal character an eminent type of 
: the Messiah. 1 Sam. 16 : 13. While he 
| was employed as a shepherd in his 
i father's fields God sent Samuel to Beth- 
! lehem, on the occasion of the annual 
j sacrificial feast, with instructions to 
anoint David as king of Israel in the 
place of Saul, who had incurred the di- 
vine displeasure, and was therefore to 
be deposed. Dean Stanley thus de- 
scribes David's appearance and phys- 
ique as he stood before Samuel : " He 
was short of stature, had red hair and 
bright eyes. He was remarkable for 
the grace of his figure and countenance, 
well made, and of immense strength 
and agility. In swiftness and activity 
he could only be compared to a wild 
gazelle, with feet like harts' feet, with 
arms strong enough to break a bow of 
steel. Ps. 18 : 33, 34." — History of the 
Jewish Church, 2d series, Lect. 22- 
Probably neither David nor any one 
else understood the real meaning of this 
anointing. At all events, David went 



back to the shepherd-life. We next 
hear of him as chosen by Saul, upon 
the suggestion of one of the body- 
guard, to play upon a harp, and thus 
soothe the troubled spirit of the 
king. In this he was eminently suc- 
cessful. Saul made him one of his ar- 
mor-bearers, and requested permission 
of Jesse to allow him to remain at his 
court. 1 Sam. 16:21-23. But it seems 
that David after a time returned home. 
It was then perhaps that his adventure 
with the lion and the bear took place. 
After an interval of uncertain length — 
Josephus says " after a few years " — 
David had his famous fight with Go- 
liath. But he had so altered that Saul 
did not recognize in the grown man 
flushed by triumph the lad who had 
played the harp in his hours of .men- 
tal distress ; hence his question of Ab- 
ner — " Whose son is this youth ?" — was 
natural. 1 Sam. 17 : 55. The superiority 
in military glory which the women gave 
David excited the jealousy of the king, 
and so, although David was made a 
chieftain, lived at court, and enjoyed 
the friendship of the king's son, yet 
he was constantly exposed to the wrath 
of Saul. 

Agreeably to the terms of the king's 
promise to him who slew the giant, 
David became the king's son-in-law, 
marrying Michal, whom he loved, but 
only on condition that he slew a hun- 
dred Philistines — an exaction made in 
hope that the attempt would end fatally. 
But David and his men slew two hun- 
dred. David found his position full of 
danger. His very presence seemed to 
arouse the envy of Saul, so that the lat- 
ter determined to kill him, and several 
times cast his javelin at him as he stood 
playing before him. By a stratagem 
Michal saved David's life and enabled 
him to flee to Samuel at Ramah. 1 Sam. 
19 : 13, 18. David then became con- 
vinced that a further residence at court 
was impossible, and accordingly an 
affecting parting with Jonathan took 
place, 1 Sam. 20, and David became a 
fugitive from the hand of Saul. Armed 
with the sword of Goliath and anointed 
with the sacred oil, the future king 
sought a home among the Philistines. 
But his fame had preceded him, and 
his assumed madness scarcely saved 
him. 1 Sam. 21. Therefore he went 

to the cave of Adullam and gathered 
gradually a motley crowd, composed of 
insolvent debtors and malcontents. 1 
Sam. 22 : 1, 2. But David proved his 
fitness to rule a kingdom by controlling 
these men and bringing them to accede 
to his wishes. 

The history of David's life for the 
next few years is filled with the details 
of alternate defeats and victories, of 
his flight, of his magnanimous refusal 
to lay hands on the Lord's anointed, 
1 Sam. 24: 16, of his residence among 
neighboring tribes, of the episode of Abi- 
gail, 1 Sam. 25, and finally of the battle 
of Gilboa, in which Jonathan fell and 
Saul slew himself, unable to bear defeat. 
1 Sam. 31. The lament which he then 
composed is one of the noblest odes of 
friendship, and a monument of his gen- 
erosity to a fallen foe and of devotion to 
a fallen friend. 2 Sam. 1 : 19-27. 

Then David, by divine direction, re- 
moved to Hebron, where the chief men of 
Judah met him and offered him the gov- 
ernment of their tribe, which he accepted. 
Accordingly, he was anointed for the sec- 
ond time. 2 Sam. 2:4. In Hebron, as 
king of Judah, he reigned seven years 
and a half. During this time Ishbo- 
sheth, the son of Saul, by means of 
the skilful general Abner, maintained a 
decreasing semblance of authority over 
Israel. But at length he and Abner 
were killed, and thus the way prepared 
for the execution of God's plan to set 
David on the throne of united Israel. 

David was solemnly anointed for the 
third time. 2 Sam. 5 : 3. Soon after he 
assumed the government he obtained 
possession of Jerusalem, reduced the 
fortress which the Jebusites had main- 
tained, and established the seat of his 
government there. Under his wise and 
liberal policy the place was greatly en- 
larged ; magnificent edifices rose up on 
every side, fortifications were erected, 
and the ark, which had been before 
without a fixed abode, was brought into 
the new city with religious ceremonies 
peculiarly joyful and solemn. 2 Sam. 6 : 
12-19. Thenceforward, Jerusalem be- 
came the capital of the kingdom, the res- 
idence of the royal family, and, more 
than all, the city of God. Ps. 48 : 2 ; 
Matt. 5 : 35. To it the tribes repaired 
from every quarter of the land to cel- 
ebrate their annual festivals, and its 



growth in population, wealth, and splen- 
dor was very rapid. 

David now formed the design of 
building a magnificent temple for the 
worship of Jehovah, to take the place 
of the tabernacle, which was but a 
temporary and movable structure. He 
was informed, however, by God's di- 
rection, that this service would be 
reserved for his son Solomon. 2 Sam. 7. 

After several contests with the nations 
that bordered on Israel, in which David 
was uniformly victorious, there broke 
out a war with the Ammonites (see 
Ammonites), during the progress of 

; vated sins of murder and adultery which 
brought disgrace and distress on his 
family and government and involved 
him in trouble during the remnant of 
his days. 2 Sam. 12 : 9. His domestic 
peace was destroyed by the outrage 
committed upon Tamar by Amnon, re- 
venged, " after two full years," by Absa- 
lom, who slew Amnon at a feast. 2 Sam. 
13 : 14, 29. This murder occasioned 
Absalom's flight to his father-in-law's 
court at Geshur. Being recalled, he 
started a rebellion which compelled the 
king to flee from his capital and exile 
himself to avoid being cut off by a 
parricidal hand. 2 Sam. 15-18. The 

Tomb of David. (After 

death of Absalom, though it brought 
relief to the kingdom, inflicted a deep 
wound on the father's heart. The in- 
surrection under Sheba and the mur- 
der of Amasa by Joab followed in quick 
succession. And to close the melan- 
choly catalogue was the terrible judg- 
ment which he brought upon himself 
and the nation by numbering the people 
for some purpose which was sinful in 
the sight of God, though not explained 
to us. 2 Sam. 24. 

David was now 70 years old, and 
had reigned seven and a half years 
over the tribe of Judah and thirty- 
three over the whole kingdom of 
Israel. Just before his death his son 

a Photograph by Godd.) 

Adonijah made a bold attempt to 
usurp the throne : and to secure the king- 
dom against any pretender, David re- 
signed "the crown to Solomon, put into 
his hands the plan and model of the 
temple and the treasure accumulated 
for it, summoned the influential men of 
the nation, and delivered his farewell 
address. He died B. c. 1015, and was 
buried in the •'city of David." 1 Kgs. 
2 : 10. His tomb became the sepulchre 
of subsequent kings, and one of the sa- 
cred places of the kingdom. It is point- 
ed out on Mount Zion, at Jerusalem, 
outside the city wall. See cut. above. 
David was a type of Christ. They 
both inherited their kingdoms after 



suffering. And David, as the ruler over 
temporal Israel, was a forerunner of the 
Son of David, who was to reign over 
the spiritual Israel for ever. Matt. 1:1; 
9:27; 12:23, etc. 

When David is spoken of as a man 
after God's " own heart," 1 Sam. 13 : 
14 ; Acts 13 : 22, reference is obviously 
intended to his general character and 
conduct, and not to every particular in- 
stance of it. As he was human, he 
was imperfect ; and when he sinned, 
God punished him, and that with great 
severity. But he was remarkable for 
his devotion to God's service, and he 
kept himself from idols. He established 
the government of Israel, and extended 
its dominions to the full extent of the 
promise to Abraham, and left a com- 
pact and united empire, stretching from 
Egypt to Lebanon, and from the Eu- 
phrates to the Mediterranean. 

The life and character of David shine 
in his poetry — the life of action, ad- 
venture, war : the character of manly 
strength and womanly tenderness. 
Thus his Psalms supply biographical 
material. By means of them his heart 
is read. The man who could kill a 
giant is found to have a delicate appre- 
ciation of friendship. He whose pas- 
sion led him into sin, whose hate into 
words of cursing, was able to mourn 
with deepest humility and bless with 
heartiest assent. It is to the Psalms 

of David, albeit he did not write the 
entire collection, that the Church of 
God has appealed for comfort in ad- 
versity and sanctification in prosperity. 
In regard to them Canon Perowne 
truthfully and eloquently says : " The 
very excellence of these Psalms is their 
universality. They spring from the 
deep fountains of the human heart, 
and God, in his providence and by his 
Spirit, has so ordered it that they should 
be for his Church an everlasting heri- 
tage. Hence they express the sorrows, 
the joys, the aspirations, the struggles, 
the victories, not of one man, but of 
all. And if we ask, How comes this to 
pass ? the answer is not far to seek. 
One object is ever before the eyes and 
the heart of the Psalmist. All enemies, 
all distresses, all persecutions, all sins, 
are seen in the light of God. It is to 
him that the cry goes up ; it is to him 
that the heart is laid bare ; it is to him 
that the thanksgiving is uttered. This 
it is which makes them so true, so pre- 
cious, so universal. No surer proof 
of their inspiration can be given than 
this — that they are not of an age, but 
for all time ; that the ripest Christian 
can use them in the fulness of his 
Christian manhood, though the words 
are the words of one who lived cen- 
turies before the coming of Christ in 
the flesh." — The Psalms, 3d ed., vol. i. 
p. 21. 

Genealogical Table. 

Salmon or Salman. Elimelech=Naomi. Ruth 1:1. 

Ruth 4: 21; 1 Chr. 2:11. | 



Ruth 4 : 17. 


2 Sam. 17 : 25, Nahash=unknown=Jesse. 

Jonathan. 1 Chr. 27 : 32. 

1 Chr. 2 : 1 

1 Chr. 

1 Chr. 
2:17. 11:40. 


1 Chr. 


Abishai. Joab. Asahel. Amasa. 

1 Chr. 27 : ' 

Abi h ai l=:Rehoboam . 
2 Chr. 11 : 18. 


2 Sam. 

21 : 21. 


I I 

Raddai Ozem 
(Rael). (Asam) 

I I 

(one DAVID 
, is not 



Chr. 2:15). 

Jonathan. Jonadab. Joel ? 
2 Sam. 21 : 21 ; '2 Sam. 1 Chr. 
1 Chr. 27:32. 13:3. 11:38. 

Nathan ? ? 
1 Sam 16 : 12. 

David, City of, applied to Zion, 2 
Sam. 5:7; to Jerusalem, 1 Kgs. 2:10; 
3:1; to Bethlehem, Luke 2 : 4, 11. 

DAY. The natural day consists of 
24 hours, or one revolution of the earth 
upon its axis. The artificial day is the 



time during which the sun is above the 
horizon. The civil day is reckoned 
differently by different nations — some 
from sunrise to sunrise ; others from 
sunset to sunset ; others still from noon 
to noon, or from midnight to midnight. 
The Jewish day was reckoned from 
evening to evening, adopted, as some 
think, from Gen. 1 : 5, or, as others 
with more probability hold, from the 
" use of the lunar calendar in regulating 
days of religious observance." Lev. 23 : 
32. Their Sabbath, or seventh day, 
which was the only day named — the 
others were numbered merely — began on 
what we call Friday, at sunset, and 
ended on what we call Saturday, at 
sunset. Ex. 12 : 18. This mode of reck- 
oning days was not uncommon in other 
Eastern nations. The day was origi- 
nally divided into morning, noon, and 
night. Ps. 55 : 17. But besides, the 
Jews distinguished six unequal parts, 
which were again subdivided. 1. Dawn, 
subdivided into gray daion and rosy 
dawn. 2. Sunrise. Some supposed that 
the Hebrews, prior to leaving Egypt, 
began the day at that time, but discon- 
tinued it by divine command, and began 
at even in order to be different from those 
nations which worshipped the rising 
sun. 3. The heat of the day, about nine 
o'clock. 1 Sam. 11:11; Neh. 7 : 3, etc. 
4. The two noons. Gen. 43 : 16 ; Deut. 
28 : 29. 5. The cool (lit. wind) of the 
day, before sunset. Gen. 3:8. 6. Even- 
ing. In Ex. 12 : 6 ; 30 : 8, margins, occurs 
the phrase " between the two evenings," 
which probably is correctly taken to 
mean " between the beginning and end 
of sunset." 

The mention of hours in the Bible 
dates from the Captivity, Dan. 3 : 6, 
and it is therefore reasonably presumed 
that this division of time is of Baby- 
lonish origin. Before the Captivity the 
Jews divided the night into three 
watches — from sunset to midnight, 
from midnight to cock-crow, Jud. 7 : 
19 ; from cock-crow to sunrise. Ex. 14 : 
24. In the N. T. mention is made of 
four watches, because the Greek and 
Roman division was then adopted. In 
our Lord's time the division of the day 
into 12 hours was common. John 11 : 9. 
The word " day " is used of a festal day, 
Hos. 7:5; a birthday, Job 3 : 1 ; a day 
of ruin, Hos. 1:11; Job 18 : 20 ; the 

judgment-day, Joel 1 : 15 ; 1 Thess. 5 ; 
2 ; Acts 17 : 31 ; and the kingdom of 
Christ. John 8 : 56 ; Rom. 13 : 12. It 
is also often used to denote an indefi- 
nite time. Gen. 2:4; Isa. 22 : 5. The 
term " three days and three nights," 
in Matt. 12 : 40, denotes the same space 
of time as " three days." Matt. 27 : 
63, 64. 

Day's Journey, a distance mentioned 
Gen. 31 : 23 ; Ex. 3 : 18, etc. It is quite 
evident that this phrase does not mean 
any particular distance, but rather the 
space travelled during one day, and this 
would of course vary with the circum- 
stances of the traveller. But unless 
there is special reason for believing the 
contrary, we may interpret it as mean- 
ing a stretch of 25 to 30 miles, since 
this is the usual length of a day's jour- 
ney in the East, on camel or horseback, 
performed in 6 to 8 hours. See also 
Sabbath Day's Journey. 

Day, Lord's. See Sabbath. 

Daysman. Job 9 : 33. The word is 
derived by Webster from " him who 
fixes the day upon which he will decide 
as judge or arbitrator." It was in com- 
mon use, when the Bible was transla- 
ted, in the sense of "umpire." 

Dayspring. Job 38 : 12 ; Luke 1 : 78. 
The first dawning of light. Comp. Isa. 
60:1, 2 and Rev. 22:16. 

Day-star, or Morning-star, 2 Pet. 
1 : 19, in the figurative language of the 
apostle, is supposed to mean the light 
which shines on the soul of the believer, 
and cheers him with the expectation 
of a perfect day of holiness and joy. 

DEACON {servant). This name, 
as a title of office, has been applied to the 
"seven men of honest report, full of 
the Holy Ghost and wisdom," who were 
appointed over the business of serving 
tables, in order that the apostles might 
be at liberty to give themselves contin- 
ually to prayer and the ministry of the 
word. They were set apart by prayer 
and the laying on of the apostles' hands. 
Acts 6 : 1-6. Very likely these seven men 
held a higher position than those after- 
ward appointed, as, in addition to rou- 
tine and more or less servile duties, they 
preached and did the work of evan- 
gelists ; e. g. Stephen and Philip. The 
idea that a man must be a deacon be- 
fore he can be an elder or bishop is not 
found in the N. T. The qualifications 



and duties of deacons are particularly 
set forth in Acts 6 : 1-6 and 1 Tim. 3 : 

DEA'COXESS. Such was Phoebe, 
and in all probability Tryphena, Try- 
phosa, and Persis occupied the same 
office in the church in Rome. Rom. 16 : 
1, 12. It is therefore probable that 
there was in the different churches an 
order of pious women employed in at- 
tending upon those of their own sex in j 
some of the same offices and duties ; 
which the deacons performed for their j 
brethren. Among these we reckon the j 
care of the sick, of the poor and the 
widows, the education of orphans, at- 
tention to strangers, the practice of 
hospitality, comp. 1 Tim. 5 : 10, and the 
assistance needed at the baptism of fe- 
males. The question whether the " wid- 
ows" in 1 Tim. 5 : 9-16 are proper dea- 
conesses may be answered in the affirm- 
ative, because the word translated "to 
take into the number" or "to enroll" 
applies not to widows in general, but to 
the deaconesses, for the following rea- 
sons : 

1. If understood of any insertion I 
merely in the list of those supported 
from the congregational fund, it implies 
an injustice to widows under 60 years ! 
old or to those twice married, who might 
easily be even more destitute. 

2. The opposite interpretation con- 
flicts with the context, for Paul ad- j 
vises, in v. 14, the younger widows to j 
remarry ; but this would be to cut them 
off from all help in case they were wid- 
ows again. 

3. This interpretation leaves it inex- 
plicable why a special vow was required 
of these widows, v. 12. 

4. But by understanding the word to j 
apply, not to widows in general, but to : 
those who were specially elected and 
ordained to the particular office of dea- j 
coness, all these objections vanish. 

DEAD, DEATH. Death is the ' 
destruction or extinction of life. By j 
the transgression of God's command- 
ment our first parents became liable to 
death. The threatening was , " In the j 
day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt 
surely die." Gen. 2 : 17 (comp. Rom. 5 : 
12-14; lCor.l5:21,22:Heb.9:27). This | 
expression does not mean to define the 
time of actual dissolution, but rather 
to denote an inevitable liability or 

exposure to death, which, in that day 
and by that act, they should surely 

The sacred writers speak of a death 
which affects the body only, Gen. 25 : 
11; of another, which describes the 
condition of the soul under the power 
of sin, Eph. 2:1; and a third, which 
denotes the everlasting perdition of the 
wicked. James 5 : 20. In each of these 
senses our divine Redeemer may be re- 
garded as having virtually destroyed 
death and delivered them who, through 
fear of death, were all their lifetime 
subject to bondage. Heb. 2 : 14, 15. To 
avail ourselves, however, of the benefits 
of his perfect triumph, we must believe, 
trust, love, and obey him. See Bury, 
Resurrection, Christ. 

DEAD SEA, a name not found in 
Scripture. See Salt Sea. 

DE'BIR (sanctuary), the name of 
three places. 1. In the highlands of 
Judah, near Hebron ; captured by Josh- 
ua, Josh. 10 : 38, 39 : was first called 
Kirjath-sepher, Josh. 15 : 15, and Kir- 
jath-sannah, 15 : 49 j was allotted to 
the priests. 21 : 15. It has been placed 
at Deioir-ban, 3 miles west of Hebron, 
and at Dilbeh, 6 miles south-west. 
Conder, however, rejects these, and sug- 
gests Dhaheriyeh, north of which are 
copious springs, which he identifies 
with "the upper springs and the nether 
springs " of Jud. 1 : 15. 

2. A place near the valley of Achor, 
Josh. 15 : 7 ; perhaps Wady Dabir, be- 
tween Jericho and Jerusalem. 

3. A place on the boundary of Gad, 
east of the Jordan, Josh. 13 : 26 ; possi- 
bly the same as Lo-debar, which see. 

DE'BIR, king of Eglon, one of the 
five kings who warred against Gibeon. 
He, with his companions, was slain by 
Joshua and hanged on a tree. Josh. 10 : 
3, 23, 26. 

DEBORAH (a bee). 1. The nurse 
of Rebekah, and her companion into Ca- 
naan. Gen. 24:59. She was buried at 
Bethel, under the "oak of weeping." 
35 : 8. "Nurses held a high and hon- 
orable place in ancient times, and espe- 
cially in the East, where they were of- 
ten the principal members of the fam- 
ily. 2 Kgs. 11 : 2 ; 2 Chr. 22 : 11." 

2. A woman of eminent wisdom and 
holiness (called a prophetess), and a 
judge of the people of Israel. Jud. 4: 



4. She was the wife of Lapidoth (al- 
though some think the passage should 
read "a woman of Lapidoth"), and 
had her judgment-seat under a palm 
tree, which from this circumstance, and 
from the rarity of the tree, is spoken 
of as " the [well-known] palm tree of 
Deborah." Jud. 4 : 5. Israel was suffer- 
ing at that time a most oppressive bond- 
age under Jabin, a Canaanitish king, 
to which it was doomed in consequence 
of its sin. Deborah, by divine direc- 
tion, called upon Barak, who had proba- 
bly signalized himself in some way, and 
commanded him to station himself upon 
Mount Tabor with a prescribed number 
of men, and she would see to it that 
Sisera, the commander of the tyrant's 
army, should be there, and should fall 
into Barak's hands. Barak engaged to 
undertake the enterprise if Deborah 
would accompany him. To this she 
consented, prophesying, however, that 
if she went the honor of the victory 
would be hers and not his, and that 
Sisera would be regarded as having 
fallen by the hands of a woman. Jud. 
4:9. The two armies met, and the 
event was as Deborah predicted. Sis- 
era fled, and died by the hand of Jael; 

his army was cut off and every man 
slain. Jud. 4: 21. 

The triumphal song composed or dic- 
tated by Deborah on that occasion is re- 
garded as one of the finest specimens of 
Oriental poetry. Jud. 5. We give a few 
verses from a revised version : 

'Lord, when thou wentest forth out of 

When thou marchedst out of the field of 

The earth trembled, the heavens also 

Yea, the clouds dropped water. 
The mountains flowed down at the presence 

of the Lord, 
Even that Sinai at the presence of the Lord 

the God of Israel. 

The kings came, they fought ; 

Then fought the kings of Canaan 

In Taanach hy the waters of Megiddo; 

They took no'gain of silver. 

They fought from heaven ; 

The stars from their courses fought against 

The river Kishon swept them away, 
That ancient river, the river Kishon. 
March on, my soul, with strength." 
See Barak. Jael. 

DEBTOR. See Loan. 

DECAP'OLIS (ten cities), a region 
noticed three times in the Bible. Matt. 

Map of Decapolis. (Frovi Schaff's "New Testament Commentary.") 

4:25; Mark 5 : 20 ; 7:31. It lay near I sides of the Jordan. The cities were 
the Sea of Galilee, probably on both | rebuilt by the Romans about B. c. 65; 



but as other cities grew up, writers are 
not agreed as to the Dames of the ten 
cities. Pliny gives them as follows: 
Scythopolis, Hippos, Gadara, Pella, 
Philadelphia, Geiasa, Dion, Canatha, 
Raphana, Damascus. Six are deserted, 
and none have many inhabitants except 

Joel 3:14. See Jehoshaphat. 

DE'D AS (low yronnd). 1. The name 
of a descendant of Ham. Gen. 10 : 7 ; 
1 Chr. 1 : 9. 

2. A son of Jokshan, son of Abra- 
ham by Keturah. Gen. 25 : 3 ; 1 Chr. 

a religious ceremony by which any per- 
son, place, or thing is set apart for the 
service of God or to some sacred use. 
Num. 7; 2 Sam. 8 : 11 : 1 Kgs. 8. Cities, 
walls, gates, and private houses were 
thus dedicated. Neh. 12 : 27. The prac- 
tice of consecration was very common 
among the Jews, and was suited to the 
peculiar dispensation under which they 

Dedication, Feast of the, mentioned 
only once in the canonical Scriptures, 
John 10 : 22, was instituted to commem- 
orate the purging of the temple and the | 
rebuilding of the altar after Judas Mac- I 
cabaeus had driven out the Syrians, 1 j 
Mace. 4 : 52-59, b. c. 164. Like the 
other Jewish feasts, it lasted eight days, J 
but, unlike them, attendance at Jerusa- j 
lem was not obligatory. In general, it 
was kept like the feast of tabernacles. ; 
The Hallel was sung every day. It was 
a time of rejoicing. It began upon the 
25th day of Chisleu (December), the an- 
niversary of the pollution of the tem- 
ple bv Antiochus Epiphanes, B. c. 167. 

DEEP, THE, in Luke 8: 31 and 
Rom. 10 : 7, does not refer to the sea, 
but to the abyss, the place where lost 
spirits await their final doom. The 
same word is rendered the " bottomless 
pit" in Rev. 9 : 1, 2, 11: 11:7; 20:13. 

DEFILE'. Under the Jewish law, 
many blemishes of person and conduct 
were regarded as defilements or pollu- 
tions, rendering those upon whom they 
were found unclean, and subjecting 
them, for the time being, to many civil 
and religious disabilities. Mark 7 : 2. 
The term is most frequently used by 
the saored writers in a figurative sense. 

DEGREE 7 . This word is used to 
signify rank or station. Ps. 62 : 9 ; 1 
Tim. 3 : 13. The phrase "song, or 
psalm of degrees," which forms the 
title to Psalms 120 to 134 inclusive, has 
been variously interpreted ; some sup- 
pose it has reference to the elevated 
voice in which they were sung, others 
to the time when they were sung — viz. 
at the annual festivals, when the Jews 
went up to Jerusalem, and that in this 
sense they were called " odes of ascen- 
sion." The Rabbins suppose they were 
sung by the Levites as they ascended 
the 15 steps which separated the men's 
court from the women's in the temple j 
and others again suppose that the word 
" degree " denotes the peculiarly climac- 
teric style of these Psalms — viz. that the 
thought or expression of one verse is 
resumed and carried forward in the next 
succeeding verse, as in Psalm 121 ; but 
this is improbable. 

DEHAVITES, supposed by Herod- 
otus to be a Persian tribe, and, as some 
think, the same who are mentioned as 
from Ava. Ezr. 4:9; 2 Kgs. 17 : 24. 

DE'KAR (a lancer), the father of 
one of Solomon's commissariat officers. 
1 Kgs. 4 : 9. 

DELAI'AH {whom Jehovah hafh 
freed). 1. The head of the twenty- 
third temple-course of pi'iests. 1 Chr. 

2. " Children of Delaiah " are spoken 
of in Ezr. 2 : 60 : Neh. 7 : 62. 

3. The father of a man who tried to 
terrify Nehemiah. Neh. 6: 10. 

4. A prince in the time of Jeremiah. 
Jer. 36: 12, 25. 

DELILAH (pining with desire), 
a harlot of the valley of Sorek, in the 
tribe of Judah, and near the borders of 
the Philistines, with whom Samson as- 
sociated, and who betrayed him. Jud. 
16:4-18. See Samson.' 

DELUGE. See Flood. 

DE'MAS, a zealous disciple and 
fellow-laborer of Paul, Phile. 24; Col. 
4 : 14, who afterward left him through 
inordinate love of the world, 2 Tim. 4 : 
10. The name is most probably a con- 
traction from " Demetrius " or from 
" Demarchus." 

DEME'TRIUS. 1. A silversmith 
who resided at Ephesus and manufac- 
tured silver shrines or small portable 
temples and images of Diana. See Di- 



ANA. Acts 19 : 24. These were pur- 
chased by foreigners, who either could 
not come to Ephesus, or else desired a 
memento of the city and a model of its 
famous temple. This was a very lucra- 
tive business in that city, where the 
worship of Diana was chiefly main- 
tained; and hence, when the gospel 
began to make an impression, and the 
people to forsake their vain idols for the 
service of the living God. Demetrius saw 
that he should lose his business unless 
he could still keep the people in sin. So 
he called a meeting of those who worked 
at that trade, and made a speech to them. 
By this harangue he inflamed the pas- 
sions of his fellow-craftsmen, and they 
excited the multitude, until the whole 
city of Ephesus was thrown into an up- 
roar, which was finally quelled by the 
politic and seasonable advice of the 
town-clerk. Acts 19. 

2. A disciple of high reputation, and, 
as some suppose (though without war- 
rant), the Demetrius of Ephesus con- 
verted to the faith of the gospel. 3 
John 12. 

DENA'RIUS, a Roman silver coin 
nearly equivalent to the Greek drachma, 
and worth about 15 cents; translated in 

Roman Denarius. (From Eiehm.) 
the A. V. "penny," which makes the 
impression of a very small sum ; it was 
really the amount of a day's wages. 
Matt. 20 : 2 ; comp. Luke 10 : 35. " Shil- 
ling" would be a much nearer equiva- 
lent ; but the better way would have been 
to transfer the Greek term into English 
(denar), as the evangelists retained the 
Latin term in the Greek. See Penny. 

DEPUTY. The office was that of 
proconsul, or governor of a senatorial 
province. Acts 13 : 7, 8, 12 ; 19 : 38. 

DER'RE, a city of Lycaonia, Acts 
14 : 16, 20; 16: 1, about 20 miles from 
Lystra. Kiepert places it near Lake Ak- 
Ghieul, but Hamilton at Divle, several 
miles farther south. 

DESERT. The popular concep- 
tion of the term must not be applied 

to all passages in the English Bible, in 
which the word is the translation of 
four Hebrew words denoting definite 

1. It is applied to the ArabnTi, Eze. 
47 : 8, the name of the remarkable de- 
pression which runs through the land 
of Palestine : but this is a waste merely 
because of the depopulated and neglect- 
ed state of the country. It is capable 
of cultivation. See Arabah. 

2. It is used to translate midbar, 
" pasture-ground," in Ex. 3:1; 5:3; 
19:2; Num. 33:15, 16. 

3. Borbah. Ps. 102 : 6 ; Isa. 48 : 21 ; 
Eze. 13 : 4. But the term commonly 
employed is "waste places " or " deso- 

4. Jeshimon. With the definite arti- 
cle, it is treated as a proper name. See 
Jeshimon. Without the article, it oc- 
curs in a few passages of poetry. In 
the following verses it is translated 
"desert:" Ps. 78 : 40 ; 106:14; Isa. 
43 : 19, 20. 

The " desert," as an illimitable stretch 
of heavy sand, does not exist in Bible 
lands. The " desert of Sinai " is a wild 
and desolate region of country, but in 
many parts, especially from Elim ( Wady 
Ghurundel) to Mount Sinai, and the re- 
gion toward the southern border of Pales- 
tine, are traces of previous fertility ; and 
when the Israelites guided their flocks 
through it, they found pasture in many of 
the little valleys, and perhaps upon some 
of its plains. The different tracts men- 
tioned under this name in the Bible, as 
Shur, Sin, Paran, etc., will be found par- 
ticular^ noticed in their proper places. 

TION" OF. See Abominable. 

DEUEL {invocation of God), the 
father of the prince of Gad in the wil- 
derness. Num. 1:14; 7 : 42 ; 10 : 20. 
But in 2:14 he is called Reuel. 

SECOND LAW (so called from its 
repeating the Law), is the fifth book of 
the Bible, and (except the last chapter) 
was evidently written by Moses. Deut. 
1 : 5, comp. with Deut. 34 : 1 ; 2 Chr. 
25 : 4 ; Dan. 9:13; Mark 12 : 19 ; Acts 
3 : 22. This book contains three ad- 
dresses of Moses to the Israelites in the 
plain of Moab in the eleventh month of 
the fortieth year of their journeyings, 
expounding, supplementing, and en- 



forcing the Law, the delivery of the 
book of the Law to the Levites, and the 
song of Moses. The first address, 1 : 1- 

4 : 40, is a brief rehearsal of the history 
of the "Wandering," particularly of 
those events which conditioned their 
entry into the Promised Land. Upon 
this resume Moses grounds an exhorta- 
tion to obedience. The second address, 

5 : 1-26 : 19, follows almost immedi- 
ately after the first, being separated 
from it only by three verses, giving a 
brief notice of the three cities of refuge 
which Moses severed on the east side of 
the Jordan. This address, like the first, 
has a formal historical setting, 4 : 44—49, 
by way of introduction. It contains a 
recapitulation, with a few additions and 
alterations, of the Law given on Sinai. 
Particularly noticeable is the slightly- 
different version of the ten command- 
ments. But this long address is not the 
least like a dry legal recital. Through- 
out, the spiritual earnestness of Moses is 
shown, and, as has been well said, " It 
is the father no less than the legislator 
who speaks. And whilst obedience and 
life are bound up together, it is the obe- 
dience of a loving heart, not a service of 
formal constraint, which is the burden 
of his exhortations." The third part of 
Deuteronomy, 27 : 1-30 : 20, opens with 
the joint command of Moses and the 
elders to keep all the commandments, 
and, when they had crossed the Jordan, 
to write them upon the great plastered 
stones they were ordered to set up with 
appropriate ceremonies. Then follows 
the third address, 27 : 11-30 : 20, whose 
topic is " The blessing and the curse." 

After these three addresses, in ch. 31 
there follows the delivery of the Law to 
Joshua and Moses's speech on the oc- 
casion, containing a command to read 
the Law every seven years. In ch. 32 
we have the song of Moses; in ch. 33, 
Moses's blessing of the twelve tribes. 
These were the last written words of 
Moses, and most beautifully do they set 
forth the majesty of God and the excel- 
lency of Israel. The final verses of the 
book give an account of the death of 
Moses, and were, of course, written by 
another hand. The date of the book 
may be set down as about B. c. 1277. 
See also Pentateuch. 

DEVIL {slanderer). This word (from 
the Greek diabolos) is sometimes applied 

to very wicked men or women, John 
6:70 (Judas Iscariot) ; Acts 13:10; 
2 Tim. 3:3; Tit. 2 : 3, and translated 
" devil " or " false accusers," but usually 
it denotes the one most subtle and ma- 
lignant of the evil spirits, and the great 
enemy of God and man. It corresponds 
to the Hebrew Satan ("adversary"),, 
which is also used in the N. T. Matt. 
16 : 23 ; Mark 8 : 33 : Luke 22 : 3. 
Satan can assume a character quite 
opposite to his real one, and hence he 
is said by Paul to transform himself 
into an " angel of light," 2 Cor. 11 : 14. 
Although there is only one devil, our 
English version often speaks of " cast- 
ing out devils" and of persons "pos- 
sessed with devils " — e. g. Matt. 4 : 24. 
The word is not the same as that applied 
to Satan, but means " demons" or " evil 
spirits." It is common to call these af- 
flicted people demoniacs. Three views 
are held upon the demoniacal posses- 
sions : 

1. That the possession of the devil 
symbolizes the prevalence of evil in the 
world, the casting out of the devils by 
our Lord, his conquest over that evil 
power by his doctrine and his life. 
This theory of course gives up the 
historic character of the narratives. 

2. That the demoniacs were not really 
under the power of demons ; but inas- 
much as it was commonly believed they 
were, our Lord and the evangelists spoke 
to them and of them in this fashion. 
They wei-e merely persons suffering 
unusual diseases of body and mind, es- 
pecially epilepsy, melancholy, insanity. 
The advocates of this view present three 
arguments: (1) The symptoms of the 
" possessed " were frequently those of 
bodily disease — dumbness, Matt. 9 : 32 ; 
blindness, Matt. 12 : 22 ; epilepsy, Mark 
9 : 17-27 — or those seen in cases of or- 
dinary insanity, Matt. 8 : 28. (2) " To 
have a devil" seems to be equivalent 
to to be " mad," John 7 : 20 : 8 : 48 ; 10 : 
20. (3) There is no such thing to-day 
as " demoniacal possession," but there 
are frequent cases similar to those re- 
corded. Hence the language is popular, 
and not exact. 

3. That there were persons actually 
possessed by demons — such possession 
manifesting itself in the forms of bod- 
ily and mental disease. Our Lord really 
cast out demons. This theorv has in its 




support: (1) The plain meaning of the 
text. It is the most natural interpreta- 
tion. The demons are plainly distin- 
guished from the persons whom they 
possess : they have a separate con- 
sciousness; they know Jesus, and look 
forward with trembling to the judg- 
ment-day ; they pass from one person 
to another, or even into a herd of swine. 
(2) It accords with the Scripture notion 
of the malignity of Satan that he should 
make a special exhibition of his power 
against Jesus. (3) It explains the con- 
fessions of our Lord's divinity which 
imply superhuman knowledge. (4) It 
renders intelligible the crucial narrative 
of the man among the tombs, Mark 5 : 1- 
20. The other theories either deny the 
fact or give a forced interpretation. (5) 
It vindicates the truthfulness of Jesus, 
which the other theories impugn. He 
not only addressed the patients as 
"possessed," Luke 4 : 35, but distinct- 
ly linked demoniacal possession with 
the evil one. Matt. 12 : 25-30 ; Luke 

DEVO'TIONS. In Acts 17 : 23 we 
should read " your objects of devotion " 
instead of "your devotions," because in 
King James's day the word denoted 
the objects, and not the acts, of wor- 

DEW, a dense vapor which falls on 
the earth during the night, and which 
in Judaea was so copious as in a great 
measure to supply the absence of show- 
ers. It thus became a beautiful em- 
blem, of spiritual blessings, Deut. 32 : 
2; Job 29 : 19, as well as of temporal 
prosperity, because without the appar- 
ent etfort of rain it gently accomplished 
the same result. But then it vanished 
so quickly on exposure to the sun that 
it was likewise an emblem of transient 
desires and relinquished efforts in God's 
service. Hos. 14 : 5-7. The heat and dry- 
ness of the air in the Holy Land are such 
that if it were not for the dews the earth 
would be parched and all its fruits with- 
ered. The same fact may be inferred from 
Jud. 6 : 37-40 : 2 Sam.* 17 : 12 : Job 29 : 
19 : Song Sol. 5 : 2. The Psalmist, Ps. 
133 : 3, mentions particularly the dew of 
Hermon as emblematical of the rich and 
abundant blessings of spiritual com- 
munion. So Hos. 14 : 5-7. 

DIADEM. See Crown. 

DI'AL, an instrument employed to 

measure time, or to determine the ap- 
parent progress of the sun by the shad- 
ow which the gnomon, or point in the 
centre of a graduated arc, casts. 

The "dial of Ahaz" is the only one 
mentioned in the Bible. 2 Kgs. 20 : 11 ; 
Isa. 38 : 8. The sign of Hezekiah's 
recovery was that the shadow of the 
sun went ten degrees backward upon 
it. The best interpretation of the pas- 
sage is to suppose that the dial, like 
those discovered in Babylonia, " was a 
series of steps or terraces on which an 
upright pole cast its shadow." It was 
therefore probably modelled after those 
in familiar use with the ally of Ahaz, 
Tiglath-pileser. The fact that ambas- 
sadors came from Babylon to inquire 
of the wonder proves that the fame 
thereof had reached that city. It is a 
question of considerable importance 
whether this miracle was wrought upon 
the rays of the sun, by which they were 
deflected in an extraordinary manner, so 
as to produce this retrograde motion of 
the shadow, while the sun itself seemed 
to go on its way, or whether the motion 
of the earth or the position of the sun 
was so changed as to produce this result. 
It was this miracle to which reference 
is made in 2 Chr. 32 : 31. 

DIAMOND. Ex. 28 : 18 ; Eze. 

28 : 13. " There is no trace of evidence 

! that the ancients ever acquired the skill 

I to engrave on the diamond, or even that 

they were acquainted with the stone." — 

I Canon Cook. The claims of jasper, 

| onyx, chalcedony, emerald, and rock- 

: crystal to be the diamond of the Bible 

I have all been urged. Its diversity from 

any other stone in the high priest's 

breast-plate will incline some minds 

to advocate rock-crystal. For Jer. 17 : 

1, see Adamant. 

DIA'NA, a heathen goddess of great 
celebrity, whose worship was attended 
with peculiar splendor and magnificence 
at Ephesus, her guardian city. Acts 
19 : 28. Her magnificent temple in that 
city was ranked among the Seven Won- 
ders of the world. It was 220 years in 
building. Pliny tells us that it was 
425 feet long and 220 in breadth, and 
that it was adorned with 127 columns, 
each 60 feet high, 27 of which were 
curiously carved and the rest polished. 
Little silver models of the temple, with 
the image of the goddess enshrined in 



them (see the opposite cut), were made 
for sale, and were disposed of in such 
quantities as to afford profitable work 
for many hands. Acts 19 : 24, 25. See 

In tbis temple there was "the image 

Diana of Ephe.sus. (From Lewin's "St. Paul.") 
(This figure was taken from an alabaster image in 
the museum of Naples, but it is in great measure 
ideal A more accurate representation is on the coin, 

which fell down from Jupiter," a rude 
wooden image having a head decorated 
with a mural crown : "each hand held a 
bar of metal, and the lower part ended 
in a rude block covered with figures of 

Temple of Diana. (From a Coin in the Pem- 
broke Collection.) 

animals and mystic inscriptions." Later 
figures had many breasts, evidently 
symbolical of the reproductive powers 
of Nature, and therefore it was a sort 
of companion-idol to Ashtoreth. No 
bloody sacrifices were offered in her 
worship. Her temple in Ephesus was 
the treasury in which immense quanti- 
ties of wealth were stored up, and was 
also a place of safety. It was beloved 
with singular passion, and hence the 
insinuation that Paul's preaching tend- 
ed to lower the regard for it led to the 
uproar so graphically described in Acts 
19. See Ephesus, Paul. 

DIB'JjAIM (double cake), one whose 
daughter the prophet Hosea married. 
Hos. 1:3. 

DIB'LATH. Eze. 6 : 14. It has 
been identified with the modern ruin 
Uibl. See Riblah. 

DIBLATHA'IM. See Almon- 


DI'BOFf (toasting), the name of 
two towns. 

1. Dibon in Moab. Num. 21 : 30 ; Isa. 
15 : 2. It was built by Gad, Num. 32 : 
34, and hence called Dibon-grad : was 
assigned to Reuben, Josh. 13 : 9, 17 ; 
was also called Dimon. Isa. 15 : 9. It 
afterward returned to Moab, Isa. 15 : 2; 
Jer. 48:18, 22; now called Dhttdn, 
about 12 miles east of the Dead Sea and 
3 miles north of the Amon. Its ruins 
are extensive, covering the tops of two 
adjacent hills. 

The famous Moabite Stone, bear- 
ing an inscription of Mesha, a king 
of Moab, about 900 b. c, was found 
here within the gateway by Rev. F. A. 
Klein (a German missionary at Jerusa- 
lem) in 1868. The stone is of black 



basalt, 3 feet 8£ inches high, 2 feet 3£ 
inches wide, and 1 foot 1.78 inches 
thick. It has 34 lines of Hebrew-Phoe- 
nician writing, and contains a most re- 
markable corroboration of the Scripture 
history in 2 Kgs. 3. Translations haye 



{yyy4i\* e y v 'jr •/$*.< ty-vy.)' 
*r ^n^ wr z-»4rny/*f 

*vif V w 

The Moabite Stone. 
been made by Dr. Ginsburg, M. Gan- 
neau, and Prof. Schlottmann. The lat- 
ter's translation is as follows: 

I Mesa, son of Chamos-nadab, the 
king of Moab [son ofl Yabni. My 
father ruled over Moab [ . . years], 
and I ruled after my father. And I 
made this high place of sacrifice to 
Chamos in Korcha, a high place of 
deliverance, for he saved me from all 
[who fought against Moab]. 

Omri, king of Israel, allied himself 
with all his (Moab's) haters, and they 
oppressed Moab [many days] : then 
Chamos was irritated [against him and 
against] his land, and let it go over 

[into the hand of his haters], and they 

oppressed Moab very sore. 

In my days spoke Ch[amos], I will 

therefore look upon him and his house, 

and Israel shall perish in eternal ruin. 

And Omri took possession of the town 
of Medeba, and sat therein [and they 
oppressed Moab, he and] his son, forty 
years. [Then] Chamos looked upon 
Moab in my days. 

And I built Baal Meon, and made 
therein walls and mounds. And I went 
to take the town of Kirjathaim, and the 
men of Gad [lived] in the district [of 
Kirjathaim] from days of their grand- 
fathers, and the king of Israel built 
Kirjathaim. And I fought against 
the town and took it, and I strangled 
all the people that were in the city [as 
a sacrifice] to Chamos, the god of M oab. 

(Here follows a lacuna: at the end of 
it the words 'before the face of Chamos 
in Kirjathaim.' Probably stood here, just 
as in lines 17, 18, a notice of the change 
of an Israelitish to a Moabite sanctuary.) 

And I destroyed the High Place of 
Jehovah, and dedicated it before the 
face of Chamos in Kirjathaim. And I 
allowed to dwell therein the men of 
.... and the men of ... . 

And Chamos said to me, ' Go up. 
Take [the town of] Nebo against Is- 
rael . . .' and I went up during the 
night, and fought against it from the 
dawn to midday, and I took it . . . and 
I saw it quite . . . 

(In the rest of this part — more than 
two lines— there are, besides isolated let- 
ters, only legible through the gaps the 
names of God separated from each other.) 

to Astar Chamos . . . Jehovah .... 
before the face of Chamos. 

(It may safelv be presumed that mention 
was made here of the restoration of heathen 
in the room of the Israelitish worship.) 

And the king of Israel built Jahaz, 
and sat therein, while he fcught against 
me, and Chamos drove him before my 
sight. And I took from Moab two hun- 
dred men, fully told. And I beleaguer- 
ed Jahaz and took it, in addition to 

I built Korcha, the wall toward the 
forest, and the wall . . . and I built 
her gates, and I built her towers, and 
I built the king's house: and I made 
store-places for the mountain water in 
the midst of the town. And there were 



no cisterns within the town, in Korcha, 
and I said to all the people, ' Make (you) 
every man a cistern in his house.' 

(Here follows a sentence with difficult 
expressions at the beginning and a gap in 
the middle. The following is conjectural :) 

And I hung up the prohibition for 
Korcha [against association with the] 
people of Israel. 

I built Aroer, and I made the streets 
in Arnon. I built Beth Bamoth, for [it 
was destroyed]. I built Bezer, for men 
of Dibon compelled it, fifty of them, for 
all Dibon was subject; and I filled [with 
inhabitants] Bikran, which I added to 
the land. And I built . . . the temple 
of Diblathaim, and the temple of Baal 
Meon, and brought thither Ch[amos]. 

(After a hiatus are the words :) 

. . the land . . . And Horonaim . . 
dwelt therein . . . 

(Probably there followed the name of 
an Edonrite parent tribe or clan. Then 
again after a gap:) 

Chamos said to me, ' Come. Fight 
against Horonaim and [take it].' 

In the last gap, out of more than two 
lines, it is only possible, besides separated 
letters, to read the word of Chamos. With- 
out doubt it was here related how the king, 
by the help of Chemosh, took the town. 

Prof. Schlottmann divides the inscrip- 
tion into three parts : the first to the sixth 
section, inclusive, of the victories of Mesa 
over Israel; the second, sections seven and 
eiitht, of the buildings and erections of the 
king; and the third, of a battle in the south, 
toward Edom. (See The Recovery of Jerusa- 
lem, pp. 396-399.) 

2. A town in the south of Judah, 
Neh. 11 : 25 ; the same as Dimonah, 
Josh. 15 : 22, and probably modern eh- 

DI'BON-GAD. Num. 33 : 45, 46. 
See Dibon, 1. 

DIB'RI (eloquent), a Danite, father 
of Shelomith, wife of an Egyptian. 
Lev. 24:11. 

DID'YMUS. See Thomas. 

DIK'LAH (palm tree), a son of 
Joktan, Gen. 10 : 27 ; 1 Chr. 1 : 21, who 
settled a district in Arabia abounding 
in palm trees ; probably Yemen, in 
southern Arabia. 

DIL/EAIV (gourd, or cucumber), a 
city in the lowlands of Judah, near 
Mizpeh. Josh. 15 : 38. Van de Velde 

places it at Tina, south of Ekron (Rob- 
inson's Beit-Tima), Warren at B'abin. 

DIM'NAH, a Levitical city in Zeb- 
ulon, Josh. 21 : 35,; same as Rimmon. 
1 Chr. 6 : 77 ; now Mummdneh. 

DIMONAH. Josh. 15 : 22. See 
Dibon. 2. 

15 : 9. See Dibon, 1. 

DFNAH (judged, or avenged), the 
only daughter of Jacob and Leah, Gen. 
30 : 21, mentioned in Scripture, al- 
though there were probably others. 
The daughters were less likely to be 
spoken of than the sons. Jacob, on his 
return from Padan-aram to Canaan, 
halted at Shechem : here Dinah was 
wronged by Shechem, son of the prince 
Hamor. His offer of marriage was ac- 
cepted on condition that he and all the 
other men in the town were circumcised. 
But while they were recovering, Simeon 
and Levi, Dinah's own brothers, led an 
attack upon them and killed them all, 
completely pillaged the place, and made 
prisoners of the women and children. 
Jacob's words to his sons after the act 
betray more fear of the anger aroused 
among their neighbors and its bad con- 
sequences than offence at their treach- 
ery. Gen. 34:30. Dinah is mentioned 
with the rest of the family who went 
into Egypt. Gen. 46:8,15. 

DF1VAITES, the name of some of 
the Cuthaean colonists placed in Samaria 
by the Assyrians after the conquest of 
the ten tribes. Ezr. 4: 9. 

DINHABAH. Gen. 36 : 32 ; 1 
Chr. 1 : 43. A capital city of Edom ; 
site unknown. 

DINNER. See Meals. 

DIONYSIUS (rotary of Dionysus ; 
i. e. Bacchus), a member of the court of 
the Areopagus ; converted under the 
preaching of Paul at Athens. Acts 17 : 
34. Tradition says he became the bish- 
op of Athens, where he suffered martyr- 
dom, a. d. 95. The writings which bear 
his name are of much later date. 

DIOTREPHES (Jove-nourished), 
the head of the church, situation un- 
known, in Asia Minor to which Gaius 
belonged. 3 John 9. John rebukes him 
for his arbitrary use of authority and 
resistance to the higher powers. See 
John, Eptstles of. 

DISCERNING of spirits 
was one of the miraculous gifts of the 



Holy Ghost, by virtue of which the 
spirits of men were tried whether they 
were of God. 1 Cor. 12 : 10 ; 1 John 4 : 1. 
It was a most desirable gift in the first 
ages of the Church, when false prophets 
and wicked spirits abounded on every 
side. Comp. Acts 5:1-10; 13 : 6-12. 

DISCI'PLE, one who receives, or 
professes to receive, instruction from 
another. In the N. T., it denotes the 
professed followers of our Saviour, but 
not always his true followers. Matt. 10 : 
24 ; 11 : 2 ; Luke 14 : 26, 27, 33 ; John 
6 : 66 : 9 : 28. See School. 

DISCO V'ER (from dis, negative, 
and cover) is used in the English Ver- 
sion for " uncover," " lay bare." Ps. 29 : 
9; Isa. 22:8; Mic.l:6. "The voice of 
the Lord . . . discovereth the forests " — 
i. e. strippeth off the leaves. 

DISEASES. The multiplied forms 
in which sickness and suffering appear 
among men are so many signs of the 
evil of sin. Reference is made to the 
interposition of God in sending and re- 
moving diseases. Ps. 39 :9-l 1 : 90 : 3-12. 

The plagues, pestilences, and other 
instrumentalities by which, in former 
ages, a multitude of lives were de- 
stroyed at once were often miraculous 
— that is, the natural causes and prog- 
ress of disease were not employed, or 
were not visible. Ex. 12 : 23, 29 : 2 Kgs. 
19 : 35 ; 1 Chr. 21 : 12-15 ; Acts 12 : 23. 

The simple diets and habits of the 
Jews would keep them from many dis- 
eases, but the Bible proves that they en- 
joyed no miraculous protection. The 
diseases of the East of to-day were 
known to them ; such are ophthalmia, 
leprosy, brain-fever, pestilential fevers, 
lung-disorders. There was also a special 
form of disease, known as " having an 
evil spirit," very common in our Lord's 
dav. See Devil, Medicine. 

DISH. See Table. 

DI'SHAN (ante/ope), a son of Seir 
the Horite. Gen. 36:21, 28, 30; 1 Chr. 
1 : 38. 42. 

DISHON (antelope). 1. Another 
son of the same. Gen. 36 : 21, 26, 30 j 
1 Chr. 1:38. 41. 

2. A son of Anah, and a grandchild 
of Seir. Cen. 36:25: 1 Chr. 1 : 40. 

in its scriptural use, generally denotes 
a plan or scheme, or a sys'em of pre- 
cepts and principles prescribed and re- 

vealed by God for his own glory, and 
for the advantage and happiness of his 
creatures. 1 Cor. 9:17; Eph. 1:10; 3 : 
2 ; Col. 1 : 25. In the passages above 
cited it is supposed to mean an author- 
ity or commission to preach the gospel. 
The dispensation of the Law by Moses 
and of the gospel by Jesus Christ are 
examples of the use of the word in its 
former meaning. 

SION. These terms are usually ap- 
plied to the Jews who after their cap- 
tivity, and during the time of the second 
temple, were scattered abroad through the 
earth. Jas. 1:1; 1 Pet. 1:1. In the time 
of Christ they were divided into three 
g^eat sections — the Babylonian, the Syr- 
ian, and the Egyptian. The Epistles of 
James and Peter were addressed to them. 
Apostolic preaching followed the line of 
these Jewish settlements. 

The settlement of the Jews in Rome 
dates from the conquest of Palestine by 
Pompey, b. c. 63. But long ere this 
Jews became residents in other lands. 
Naturally, they gave up some of their 
distinctive customs. The thrice-a-year 
visitation of the temple was impossible. 
The temple in Jerusalem, although 
their national centre, was no longer 
their religious home. The synagogue 
became their usual place of meeting. 
Thus the loosening of the stiff hold of 
original Judaism prepared them for the 
change to the freedom of Christianity. 

DIS'TAFF, a staff around which 
the tow is wound for spinning. Prov. 
31:19. The spindle is mentioned in 
connection with the distaff as an instru- 
ment of employment on the part of the 
virtuous woman. In early ages, spin- 
ning (hence, the law-term "spinster" 
for an unmarried female) was a part of 
the household duties of women, even in 
rich and distinguished families; and it 
was a maxim that a young woman 
should never be married until she had 
spun herself a set of body-, bed-, and 
table-linen. At the present day the 
Egyptian women spend their leisure- 
hours in working with the needle, par- 
ticularly in embroidering veils, hand- 
kerchiefs, etc., with colored silk and 
gold, in which they carry on a sort of 
traffic through the channel of a female 
broker. In ancient Egypt the yarn 
seems all to have been spun with the 



hand, and the spindle is seen in all the 
pictures representing the manufacture of 
cloth, as well as both men and women 
employed in the manufacture. See 

DIVES. See Lazarus. 

DIVINA'TION is the practice of 
divining or foretelling future events. 
Deut. 18 : 1 0. In the passage cited it is 
put in connection with witchcraft, nec- 
romancj^, and other abominations of the 
heathen which the Jews were to avoid. 
Divination prevailed among the Israel- 
ites and many of the Eastern nations. 
The modes or means of divining were 
by consulting or being familiar with 
spirits, by the motions of the stars, 
clouds, etc., and by lots, rods or wands, 
dreams, the flight of birds, the entrails 
of animals, etc., etc. It is said of Jo- 
seph's cup, Gen. 44:5, that he divined 
by it. It is not to be inferred, however, 
that he practised divination, but rather 
that he uses the words in his supposed 
character of a native Egyptian. His 
brethren would therefore believe that 
by the cup he did actually divine, as was 
the custom of the land. In so speaking, 
Joseph practised deception; we are not, 
however, called upon to believe he was 
•perfect. The Egyptian magicians were 
diviners, so were the wise men, the 
Chaldasans of Babylon. There are 
many words used in Scripture to de- 
note them. Some diviners were learn- 
ed, others very ignorant. Ventriloquism 
and illusion formed part of their busi- 
ness, although many believed in the 
reality of their revelations. In divin- 
ing with the cr.p, a small piece of gold 
or silver, or a jewel, was thrown into 
a spherical goblet, an incantation was 
pronounced, the number of waves were 
counted and the appearance of the ob- 
ject studied. Or else the goblet was 
simply filled with pure water and ex- 
posed to the sunlight : whatever it re- 
flected was suppose to give an answer. 
In the case of the witch of Endor, she 
began to practise her art, but, to her 
amazement, no less than to Saul's, the 
vision or spirit of Samuel actually arose, 
and announced the imminent defeat and 
death of the king. The root of the He- j 
brew word translated " witch " means 
" a bottle." The term arose from the 
supposed inflation of these persons by I 
the spirit. 

The Jews were familar with four 
genuine ways adopted by God to make 
known the future. These were (1) by 
visions, as in the case of the patri- 
archs; (2) dreams interpreted, as by 
Joseph and Daniel; (3) by the Urirn 
and Thummim ; (4) and by the proph- 
ets. 1 Sam. 28 : 6. The practice of 
divination in all its forms is severely 
reprobated by Moses and other sacred 
writers, Lev. 20 : 27 ; Deut. 18 : 9-14: 
Jer. 14:14; Eze. 13:8,9, because "c, 
prying into the future clouds the mine 
with superstition and is an incentive 
to idolatry," as is the case with the 
pagans. In whatever form it is prac- 
tised or regarded, it is reproachful to 
Christianity, and argues great folly,, 
ignorance, and sin. 2 Pet. 1 : 19. 

DIVORCE', the dissolution of the 
marriage relation. This was permit- 
ted by the law of Moses because already 
existent, but so regulated as to miti- 
gate its injustice and' cruelty to the 
wife, Deut. 24 ; 1-4, and in certain cases 
forbidden, Deut. 22 : 19, 29. Although 
divorce was common in the later days 
of the Hebrew nation, Mai. 2 : 16, and 
men put away their wives for trivial 
causes, Matt. 19 : 3 — and many of the 
Jewish doctors contended that this was 
the spirit of the Law — there is no dis- 
tinct case of divorce mentioned in the 
0. T. Our Saviour was questioned upon 
this matter, but he defeated the purpose 
of his inquisitors to entangle him in 
his talk, and took the opportunity to 
rebuke the lax morals of the day and 
set forth adultery as the only proper 
ground of divorce. Matt. 5 : 32 ; 19 : 9 ; 
Mark 10:11; Luke 16: 18. 

According to Jewish customs, the 
husbiind was required to give his wife 
a writing or bill of divorcement, in 
which was set forth the date, place, 
and cause of her repudiation, and a 
permission was given by it to marry 
whom she pleased. It was provided, 
however, that, she might be restored to 
the relation at any future time if she 
did not meanwhile marry any other 
man. The woman also seems to have 
had power — at least in a later period 
of the Jewish state — to put away her 
husband — ?'. e. without a formal divorce 
to forsake him. Mark 10 : 12. 

DIZ'AHAB {region of gold), a 
place in the Arabian desert, near which 



Moses rehearsed to Israel God's dealings 
with them, Deut. 1:1; possibly Dehab. 

DOCTOR. Doctors or teach- 
ers of the law were those who made it 
their business or profession to teach the 
Law of Moses, and they were in great 
repute among the Jews. Luke 2 : 46. 
Some have distinguished the scribes 
from the doctors by supposing that the 
former wrote their opinions, while the 
latter taught extemporaneously. The 
doctors were generally of the sect of the 
Pharisees, perhaps always. Luke 5 : 17. 
The word " teachers" came into early use 
among Christians as a title to those who 
taught the doctrines of the faith, 1 Cor. 
12 : 28, and hence was afterward applied 
to those who became eminent for their 
learning and aptness in teaching. 

DOD'AI {loving), one of David's 
captains. 1 Chr. 27:4. 

DOD'ANIM (lenders ?), a family or 
race descended from Javan, son of Japh- 
eth. Gen. 10:4: 1 Chr. 1:7. 

DOD'AVAH [love of Jehovah), a 
man of Mareshah, father of the Eliezer 
who prophesied against Jehoshaphat. 2 
Chr. 20 : 37. 

DODO {amatory). 1. The father 
of Eleazar, one of David's mighty men. 
2 Sam. 23:9: 1 Chr. 11:12. 

2. The father of Elhanan, another 
mighty man. 2 Sam. 23 : 24 : 1 Chr. 11 : 

DO'EG (fearful). See Ahimelech. 

DOG. Ex. li:7. The dog was not 
only an unclean animal by the Jewish 
Law, but was regarded with peculiar 
contempt, Ex. 22 : 31 ; Deut. 23 : 18 ; 1 
Sam. 17: 43; 24:14; 2 Sam. 9 : 8 ; 2 
Kgs. 8 : 13; Phil. 3:2; Eev. 22 : 15; 
and he is so regarded at the present 
day by the Turks, who can find no more 
abusive and contemptuous language to 
apply to a Christian than to call him 
a dog. In Eastern countries dogs are 
more like wolves than our dogs, and 
live wild in the open air. 

Solomon puts a living dog in contrast 
with a dead lion to show that the mean- 
est thing alive is of more importance 
than the noblest that is dead. Eccl. 9: 
4. Abner's exclamation, "Am I a dog's 
head?" 2 Sam. 3 : 8, has a signification 
of the same kind. Isaiah expresses the 
necessity of repentance and sincerity to 
make a sacrifice acceptable to God by de- 
claring that without them " he that sac- 

rifices a lamb " does nothing better than 
" asif he cut off a dog's neck." Isa. 66 : 3. 
The only useful purpose to which dogs 
appear to have been put was to guard 
the flocks, Job 30 : 1, and even in that 
passage they are spoken of with con- 
tempt. Isaiah may be understood to al- 
lude to this manner of employing them in 
his description of the spiritual watchmen 
of Israel. Isa. 56:10, 11. 

Although dogs were numerous in the 
Jewish cities, they were not kept in 
the houses, but wandered through the 
streets (as they do to this day in Con- 
stantinople), picking up whatever was 

Dog modelled in Clay. (From Kouyunjik. After 

thrown out of the remains of the table 
afler the family had eaten. So David 
speaks of his wicked enemies. Ps. 59 : 
6, 14, 15. The Mosaic law directed the 
people to throw to the dogs the flesh 
that was torn by beast?. Ex. 22:31. 

This manner of living accounts for 
the savageness of dogs in the East. 
They preyed upon human flesh, licked 
the blood of the slain, and sometimes 
were wild enough to attack men as 
bloodhounds do. 1 Kgs. 14:11; 16:4; 
21 : 19, 23 ; 22 : 38 ; 2 Kgs. 9 : 10, 36 ; 
Ps. 22:16, 20; 68:23; Jer. 15:3. 
Their habits made them dangerous to 
touch. Prov. 26: 17. 

The Eastern people were in the prac- 
tice of applying the names of animals 
to men who resemble them in their dis- 
position, as we call a cunning man a 
fox, a brave man a lion, etc. So our 
Saviour told his disciples, " Give not 
that which is holy unto the dogs," lest 
they turn upon you and tear you after 
they have eaten it. Matt. 7 : 6, meaning 
that they should not offer the sacred 
truths of the gospel to those insolent 



and abominable men who would only 
heap abuse on them for it, having ref- 
erence, also, to the practice of the priests 
at the altar, who would not throw to the 
dogs any of the meat used in sacrifice. 
He told also the Syro-Phoenician woman 
that it was not proper to give the chil- 
dren's meat to dogs, Matt. 15 : 26 — that 
is, the gospel was sent first to the Jews, 
who are called the children, and was not 
yet to be given to one of the Gentiles, 
as she was, whom the Jews called dogs 
— for the children must first be fed 
before the meat was thrown into the 
street. Those who are shut out of the 
kingdom of heaven are dogs, sorcerers, 
etc., Rev. 22 : 15, where the word is ap- 
plied to all kinds of vile persons, as it 
is to a particular class in Deut. 23 : 18. 
The comparison of Solomon illustrat- 
ing the return of a fool to his folly, 
Prov. 26 : 11, cited in 2 Pet. 2 : 22, is 
taken from a natural fact. Persecu- 
tors are called dog. Ps. 22 : 16. 

DOOR. See Dwellings. 

DOPH'KAH (cattle-driving), an 
encampment of Israel in the wilderness, 
Num. 33 : 12, 13 ; somewhere in Wady 

DOR (dwelling), a royal city of the 
Canaanites, Josh. 11 : 2 : 12 : 23, within 
the territory of Asher, but allotted to 
Manasseh, Josh. 17 : 11 ; Jud. 1 : 27 ; 1 
Chr. 7 : 29, and was one of Solomon's 
provision-districts, 1 Kgs. 4:11; now 
Tantura, 8 miles north of Caesarea, 
where there are considerable ruins. 

DOW CAS (gazelle). See Tabitha.. 

DO'THAiV (two cisterns), where Jo- 
seph found his brethren, Gen. 37:17, 
and Elisha resided. 2 Kgs. 6 : 13. It 
was on the south side of the plain of 
Jezreel, 12 miles north of Samaria ; now 
called Tell- Dothdn, 5 miles south-west 
of Jenin. Numerous bottle-shaped cis- 
terns hewn in the rock are still found, 
which are supposed to resemble the 
"pit" of Gen. 37:24. Caravans still 
pass this place, as of old, on their way 
from Damascus to Egypt. 

DO TO WIT means to make known. 
2 Cor. 8:1. 

DOUGH. See Bread. 

DOVE. Gen. 8:9. A bird clean 
by the Mosaic law, and often mentioned 
by the sacred writers. In their wild 
state doves dwell principally in holes in 
the rocks. Song Sol. 2 : 14 ; Jer. 48 : 28. 

They are innocent in their dispositions, 
and make no resistance to their enemies. 
Matt. 10 : 16. They are very much at- 
tached to their mates ; and when one is 
absent or dies, the other, or survivor, 
laments its loneliness. Isa. 38:14; 
59 : 11 ; Eze. 7 : 16 ; Nah. 2 : 7. 

There are various allusions to the 
mildness, peacefulness, and affection of 
doves. The Church is called a " turtle- 
dove " and a " dove," or compared to it. 
Ps. 74 : 19 ; Song Sol. 1 : 15 ; 2 : 14; 4: 
1 ; 5 : 2 ; 6:9. Where " doves' eyes " 
are spoken of in these passages, allusion 
is made to the meekness of their ex- 
pression. Lange's Commentary translates 
Song Sol. 5 : 12 thus : " His eyes [are] 
like doves by brooks of water, bathing 
in milk, sitting on fulness." Thus un- 
derstood, the passage compares the iris 
nestling in the white of the eye to a 
blue pigeon bathing in a brook of milk. 
It was in the manner of a dove that 
the Holy Spirit descended upon our Sa- 
viour at his baptism. Matt. 3:16; Mark 
1:10; Luke 3 : 22 ; John 1 : 32. Hosea 
compares timid Ephraim to " a silly 
dove without heart," 7:11, and says 
that when the Jews shall be called to 
their own land they shall " tremble," or 
fly, "as a dove out of the land of As- 
syria." 11 : 11. David in his distress 
wished that he could fly from his trou- 
bles as the doves do to warmer climates 
on the approach of winter. Ps. 55 : 6-8. 
The appearance of the dove is spoken 
of as an emblem of spring. Song Sol. 

The dove is mentioned in an inter- 
esting part of the early history of 
the world as being sent out by Noah 
from the ark to discover whether the 
dry land had appeared. Gen. 8 : 6-12. 

The dove was used in sacrifices. It 
was, among other animals, prepared by 
Abram when God manifested his inten- 
tion to bless him, as narrated in Gen. 
15 : 9. When a child was born the 
mother was required within a certain 
time to bring a lamb and a young pig- 
eon, or turtle-dove, for offering; but if 
she were too poor to afford a lamb, she 
might bring two turtle-doves, or two 
young pigeons. Lev. 12 : 6-8. Thus we 
may judge of the poverty of Mary, the 
mother of Jesus, when upon his birth 
she brought to the temple at Jerusalem 
the two birds instead of a lamb. Luko 



2 : 24. It was to supply applicants 
with animals for sacrifice that certain 
persons sat in the temple with doves to 
sell, whom our Lord forced to leave it 
because "the house of prayer" was not 
a fit place for buying and selling. Mark 
U: 15; John 2:14-16. 

David, Ps. 68 : 13, " refers to a kind" 
of dove " found at Damascus, whose 
feathers, all except the wings, are lit- 

erally as yellow as gold ; they are very 
small and kept in cages. I have often 
had them in my house, but their note is 
so very sad that I could not endure it." 
— Thomson. 

In all Eastern towns homes are pro- 
vided for the pigeons ; sometimes spe- 
cial towers are erected for them ; some- 
times the upper stories of the houses 
are fitted with openings or " windows," 

Turtle Dove. (After Houghton.) 

and are sacred to their use. The im- 
mense compact masses of these birds as 
they are seen flying to their houses or 
places of resort can never be forgotten 
by Eastern travellers. They sometimes 
resemble a distant cloud, and are so 
dense as to obscure the rays of the 
sun. Hence the allusion in Isa. 60 : 8. 
Tristram says that the pigeon tribe 
abound in Palestine to a degree un- 
known in other countries. The great 

abundance of plants of the clover and 
vetch family accounts for their num- 
bers. Eock-doves, in myriads beyond 
computation, inhabit the caves and fis- 
sures which honeycomb the limestone 
cliffs of Palestine. The wild rock-pig- 
eon (Colitmba livin), the ancestor of 
the domestic races, is found here, as 
well as other species. See Turtle- 

Dove's Dung. There are two views 



Concerning the material to which there 
is reference in 2 Kgs. 6 : 25. Some sup- 
pose that this substance was in great 
demand as a quick manure for those 
vegetables which might be soonest 
raised for the famishing Samaritans ; 
others believe that so terrible was the 
extremity that the people were glad to 
get even so disgusting a substance as 
this for food. The great price at which 
it was held — about a dollar and a half a 
pint — militates against either form of 
this view. The other view is that the 
produce of some plant not commonly used 
for food is intended. The seeds of a kind 
of millet formerly called by the Hebrews 
" doves' seed," and of other plants, have 
been proposed. The root of the star- 
of-Bethlebem {Ornithognlum — i.e. bird- 
milk) meets with much favor. The 
bulb of this plant has often be n eaten, 
and it is abundant in Palestine. 

DOWRY, in the Eastern accepta- 
tion of the word, means that which the 
husband pays for his wife, instead of 
that which the wife receives from her 
father and brings to her husband. Gen. 
29 : 18 ; 34 : 12 ; 1 Sam. 18 : 25. So, Ex. 
22 : 16, 17 ; Josh. 15 : 18, a man was re- 
quired to pay a certain sum as dowry or 
a nuptial-present, and this was to be 
according to the rank the woman sus- 
tained, and such as the fathers of vir- 
gins of the same rank were accustomed 
to receive for their daughters. Hos. 3 : 
2. See Marriage. 

DRACHMA, a Greek silver coin, 
translated "a piece of silver" in Luke 
15 : 8, 9, equal in value to a Roman 
denarius, or about fifteen and a half 
cents (wrongly translated "penny"). 
See D knar us. 

DRAGON. This word, in the Bible, 
has at least three meanings. Very com- 
monly, where it occurs in connection 
with ostriches, owls, deserts, and ruins, 
it denotes the jackal, whose characteris- 
tics are unmistakably indicated, such as 
his "wailing" and "snuffing up the 
wind." So in Job 30 : 29 ; Ps. 44:19; 
Jer. 9:11, in all which passages soli- 
tude and desolation are illustrated. Mic. 
1 : 8. In some passages it denotes mon- 
sters of the deep or huge land-reptiles, 
as in Deut. 32:33; Ps. 91:13. The 
figurative use of this term, as in Ps. 
74 : 13 ; Eze. 29 : 3 ; Rev. 12 : 3 and 
20 : 2, is sufficiently obvious. 

DRAMS. See Daric 

DRAUGHT. Matt. 15: 17. A vault 
or drain for the reception of filth. In 
this sense it is probably used in 2 Kgs. 
10 : 27. When applied to fishes it means 
those which are caught by one sweep or 
drawing of the net. 

DREAM. From a very early peri- 
od dreams have been observed With su- 
perstitious regard. God was pleased to 
make use of them to reveal his purposes 
or requirements to individuals, and he 
also gave power to interpret them. Gen. 
20 : 3-6 ; 28 : 12-14 ; 1 Sam. 28 : 6 ; Dan. 
2 ; Joel 2 : 28. And if any person 
dreamed a dream which was peculiarly 
striking and significant, he was permit- 
ted to go to the high priest in a partic- 
ular way and see if it had any special 
import. But the observance of ordinary 
dreams and the consulting of those who 
pretend to skill in their interpretation 
are repeatedly forbidden. Deut. 13 : 1- 
5 ; 18 : 9-14. 

The words dreams and visions are some- 
times used indiscriminately, Gen 46 : 2 ; 
Num.12: 6: Job 20 : 8 ; 33: 14, 15 ; Dan. 
2:28; 7:1, though elsewhere they would 
seem to be distinguished. Joel 2 : 28. In 
the vision the subject may be awake even 
though it take place at night. 2 Kgs. 6 : 
17 ; Acts 18 : 9 ; 23 : 11 ; 27 : 23. Paul's 
vision, 2 Cor. 12 : 1, 2, 4, was an ecstasy. 
To his mind heaven was open, yet so real 
was the vision that he could not tell 
whether he were in the body or out of 
it. Some commentators place this vis- 
ion while Paul lay on the ground at 
Lystra as if dead from the stoning. 

Sometimes miraculous revelations of 
God's will are called visions. Luke 1 : 
22 : 1 Sam. 3:15. See Vision, Trance. 

The power of interpreting dreams was, 
of course, a supernatural gift, so far as 
the dreams had reference to future 
events ; for these are necessarily un- 
known, except to the supreme Disposer 
of them. Gen. 40:5, 8; 41:16. Since 
the fuller revelation of God's will has 
been made to us in the gospel, all confi- 
dence in dreams as indicative of future 
events is presumptuous and delusive, 
and all pretension to the power of inter- 
preting them must be regarded as in the 
highest degree impious and absurd. 

DRESS. See Clothes. 





DRINK, STRONG. The use of 

strong drink, even to excess, was not 
uncommon among the Israelites. This 
is inferred from the striking figures by 
which the use and effects of it are de- 
scribed, Ps. 107 : 27 j Isa. 24 : 20 j 49 : 
26 ; 51 : 17-22, and also from various 
express prohibitions and penalties. 
Prov. 20 : 1 ; Isa. 5:11. A variety of 
intoxicating drinks are comprised un- 
der the term. Isa. 28 : 7. Although the 
Bible sheds little light upon the nature 
of the mixtures described, it doubtless al- 
ludes to drink brewed from grain or made 
of honeycombs, dates, or boiled fruits, 
and the beer of Egypt. Date-wine was 
in great request among the Parthians, 
Indians, and other Orientals, and is said 
by Xenophon to have produced severe 

The Jews carefully strained their wine 
and other beverages, from fear of vio- 
lating Lev. 11 : 20, 23, 41, 42, as do now 
the Buddhists in Ceylon and Hindostan. 
This fact explains our Lord's remark 
to the Pharisees in Matt. 23 : 24: "Ye 
blind guides, who strain out" (not of) "a 
gnat and swallow a camel." See Wine, 

DROMEDARY. Isa. 60 : 6. A 
breed of the camel remarkable for its 
speed. Jer. 2 : 23. It can travel from 60 
to 90 miles or more in a day. The drom- 
edary is taller and has longer limbs than 
other varieties of camel, and cannot as 
well bear heat or cold. See Camel. 

UAL. The force of the comparison used 
in Prov. 27 : 15 will be understood when 
it is borne in mind that Oriental houses 
have flat roofs made of mud. These 
naturally crack under the heat, and so 
in a shower the water often comes 
through the large crack. 

DROUGHT. From the end of 
April to September in the land of Ju- 
daea is "the drought of summer." The 
grass is sometimes completely withered, 
Ps. 102 : 4, and all the land and the 
creatures upon it suffer, and nothing 
but the copious dew of the night pre- 
serves the life of any living thing. Hag. 
1 : 11. The heat is at times excessive. 
Near Cana, in Galilee, in July, the ther- 
mometer, in a gloomy recess under 
ground, perfectly shaded, stood at 100° 
Fahrenheit at noon. For a more full 
account of the climate, see Palestine. 


DRUSIL'LA, third daughter of the 
Herod who is mentioned in Acts 12 : 1- 
4, 20-23. She first married Azizus, king 
of Emesa, who professed Judaism for 
her sake. But by means of a sorcerer, 
Simon uf Cyprus, she was induced to 
forsake her husband and marry Felix, 
the Roman governor, and was present 
at the hearing of the apostle Paul before 
her husband at Caesarea. She was noted 
for great personal beauty. Acts 24 : 24. 

DUKE, in the English Bible, means 
only a chief or leader (an Oriental 
Sheikh), and must not be understood, 
in the modern sense, as a title of he- 
reditary nobility. Gen. 36j 15-19. 

DU1/CIMER. Tke instrument 
denoted by this word was, in the opin- 
ion of the best Bible scholars, as well as 
of the Rabbins, a bag-pipe like that in 
use at the present day among the peas- 
ants of north-western Asia and southern 
Europe, and called by them zampayna, 
which is a word of similar sound to the 
word here used, sumphoniah. Dan. 3 : 5, 
10, 15. It was composed of two pipes 
with a leathern sack, and produced a 
harsh, screaming sound. It has no re- 
semblance at all to the modern dulcimer. 

D U'MAH (silence), a son of Ishmael. 
Gen. 25: 14: 1 Chr. 1 : 30. 

DU'MAH (silence). 1. A town in Ju- 
dah, near Hebron, Josh. 15 : 52 ; now ed- 
JDdmeh, 10 miles south-west of Hebron. 

2. A region, perhaps near Mount Seir. 
Isa, 21:11. 

DUNG. In many countries of the 
East wood is so scarce and dear as to 
be sold by weight. Hence animal ex- 
crements are used as fuel. Eze. 4:12. 
It is a very common material for heat- 
ing ovens, even among people of com- 
fortable circumstances. In Arabia the 
excrements of asses and camels are col- 
lected in the streets by children, mixed 
with cut straw, put in the sun to dry, 
and thus fitted for use as fuel. The ef- 
fluvia arising from the use of it are very 
offensive, and penetrate the food. 

Dove's Dung. See Dove. 

DUNG- GATE. See Jerusalem 
(Gates of). 

DU'RA, the plain near Babylon 
where Nebuchadnezzar set up a golden 
image. Dan. 3 : 1. Oppert identifies it 
with Ditair, a little south-east of Baby- 



Ion, where the pedestal of a huge statue 
was discovered. 

DURE, Matt. 13 : 21, for "endure," 
"last." "During," which is still com- 
mon, is the participle of the same verb. 

DUST. " To shake off the dust of 
one's feet" against another, Matt. 10 : 
14 ; Mark 6:11; Acts 13 : 51, was ex- 
pressive of entire renunciation, because 
it conveyed the idea that " those against 
whom it was directed were so unworthy 
that it was defiling to one to allow so much 
as a particle of the soil to cleave to his 
garments." The custom is supposed to 
have been common among the Jews, 
when they had set a foot on heathen 
ground, to shake off the dust, so as to 
carry nothing unclean or polluting into 
their own land. Dust thrown into the 
air, 2 Sam. 16 : 13 ; Acts 22 : 23, was an 
expression of rage and threatening, 
while the very act probably increased 
the passionate hatred. " Dust and 
ashes " are coupled together as a phrase 
describing man's feebleness as con- 
trasted with divine strength. Gen. 18 : 
27; Job 30: 19. 

Dust, Rain of. Deut. 28 : 24. In Ju- 
daea or its immediate vicinity are 
plains or deserts of fine sand, which 
when agitated by a violent wind makes 
most terrific and desolating storms. 
Eastern travellers describe them par- 
ticularly, and think them much more 
dreadful than storms at sea. This fact 
affords us a striking illustration of the 
nature and horrors of the plague men- 
tioned in Ex. 8:16. 

DWELLINGS. The most com- 
mon dwellings in the earlier ages of the 
world were tents, formed by setting 
poles in the ground and stretching over 
them a covering of cloth or skin, which 
was fastened to stakes by means of 
cords. Isa. 54:2. Sometimes they were 
divided into apartments by means of 
curtains, and the ground was covered 
with mats or carpets. The door was 
formed of a fold of cloth, which was 
dropped or raised. The fire was kin- 
dled in an excavation in the middle of 
the tent-ground, and the cooking-uten- 
sils, which were very few and simple, 
were easily moved from place to place. 
Isa. 38 : 12. 

When the habits of mankind changed 
and their pursuits fixed them to one 
spot, their dwellings were built with a 

view to permanency, and we may sup- 
pose that the science of building was 
well understood at a very early period. 
But while the Canaanites and Assyrians 
built cities, the Hebrews dwelt in tents; 
and it was not until they went down to 
Egypt, or more likely not until the con- 
quest of the Promised Land, that they 
abandoned their simple habits ; then 
they entered the houses the Canaanites 
left. It thus appears that the science 
of architecture first developed itself 
among the idolatrous peoples. 

That large and costly houses were 
often built in Judaea we have scriptural 
evidence, Jer. 22 : 14 ; Am. 3:15; Hag. 
1 : 4, though doubtless those which were 
occupied by the mass of the people were 
rude and inconvenient. 











e" ■ D " " 







Plan of an Eastern House, 
c, Entrance. A, Family-room. E, Walls, or gal- 
leries, between the open court and the rooms. G, 
Stairs to the upper stories and roof. h, Private 

The above cut represents the ground- 
plan of an Eastern house of the better 
class. The house is built in the form 
of a cloister, surrounding the area or 
open court. The entrance is by a door, 
which was commonly locked, and at- 
tended by some one who acted as por- 
ter. Acts 12 : 13. This door opens into 
a porch, which is furnished with the 
conveniences of sitting, and through 
which we pass, both to the flight of 
stairs which leads up to the chambers 
and also to the open quadrangular 

AVe will first examine the court and 
its uses. It is called the middle of the 
house, or " midst," Luke 5 : 19, and is 



designed to admit light and air to the 
apartments around it. It is covered 
with a pavement more or less costly, 
which receives and sheds rain, and is 
often supplied with fountains or wells 
of water. 2 Sam. 17 : 18. In Damascus 
every house has a court of this kind, 
and often several, and the wealthier 
citizens spare no expense in making 
them places of delightful resort in the 
hot season. A veranda or colonnade 
such as is often seen in modern houses 
surrounds the court and supports a gal- 
lery or piazza above. In this court large 
companies assemble on festive and oth- 
er occasions, Esth. 1:5; and it is then 
furnished with carpets, mats, and set- 
tees or sofas, and an awning or roof of 
some suitable material is stretched over 
the whole area. It is alluded to in the 
beautiful figure of the Psalmist. Ps. 
104:2. Around the court, over the 
doors and windows of the house, 
each apartment has a door open- 
ing into the court or gallery, and 
the communication with each is 
only on the outside, so that to go 
from room to room it is necessary 
to come out into the court or gal- 
lery. These galleries are guard- 
ed by a balustrade or lattice- 
work in front, to prevent acci- 

"The stairs are frequently 
placed in the corner of the court, 
and sometimes at the entrance. 
In large houses there are often ^§fj 
two or more sets of steps from "^ 
the court, but there is seldom Uppei Room or Guest-Chamber. {From Schaff's" Popular 

of the ground floor often include a whole 
side of the court, and are eniered by 
spacious doors from the piazza. The 
rooms on the farther side of the court, 
both above and below, are assigned to 
the females of the family, and upon 
them is bestowed the greatest expense. 
Hence, as some suppose, these rooms 
are sometimes called " palaces." 1 Kgs. 
16 : 18; 2 Kgs. 15 : 25 ; Isa. 32 : 14. 
The " house of the women," Esth. 2 : 3, 
was what is now so well known as the 
" harem," a part of the royal residence, 
and like that referred to in 1 Kgs. 7 : 
8-12. It is supposed that in the houses 
of Judaea, as in those of the East at the 
present day, the ground floor was ap- 
propriated principally to domestic uses, 
such as storing provisions, oil, baggage, 
lodgings for servants, etc., etc. 

If we ascend to the second story by 
the stairs before mentioned, we find the 

more than one from the gallery 
to the roof. They are usually of simple 
Structure, and of stone or wood." The 
kind of stairs mentioned in 1 Kgs. 6 : 8 
was more complicated. 

On the side of the court which faces 
the entrance is the reception-room of 
the master of the house. It is generally 
fitted up handsomely, has a raised plat- 
form and a divan on three sides, which 
is a bed by night and a seat by day. The 
guests on entering takeoff their sandals 
before stepping upon the raised portion. 

The rooms assigned to the women are 
up stairs if the house has only one court. 
but if there are two they are around the 
inner one. These apartments, known 
as " the harem." are never entered by 
any man save the master. The rooms 


chambers are large and airy, and often 
finished and furnished, with much ex- 
pense and elegance, with mats, curtains, 
and divans. Mark 14 : 15. This room 
or story is higher and larger than those 
below, projecting over the lower part 
of the building, so that the window of 
the apartment, if there is one, consid- 
erably overhangs the street. Secluded, 
spacious, and commodious as such a 
room must have been, Paul would be 
likely to preach his farewell sermon 
there. And in a large company it is 
common to have two circles or ranks, 
the outer circle being next to the wall 
and elevated on cushions, so as to be 
on a level with the lower part of the 
window -casement. In this situation 



we may suppose Eutychus fell asleep, 
and was thence precipitated to the 
street. Acts 20 : 9. 

A structure called an alliyeli is some- 
times built over the porch or gateway. 
It usually consists only of one or two 
rooms, and rises one story above the 
main house. It is used to enter- 
tain strangers, also for wardrobes and 
magazines, or for places of retire- 
ment, repose, and meditation. Matt. 6 : 
6. There is an entrance to it from the 
street without going into the house, but 
there is also a communication with the 
gallery of tlie house when it is needed. 
It is observed that its terrace afforded a 
much more retired place for devotional 
exercises than the roof of the main house, 
which was liable to be occupied at all 
times and for various purposes by the 
whole family. The "little chamber" 
for Elisha, 2 Kgs. 4 : 10, the "summer 
chamber" of Eglon, from which Ehud 
escaped by a private stairway, Jud. 3 : 
20-23, the "chamber over the gate," 
2 Sam. 18 : 33, the "upper chamber," 2 
Kgs. 23 : 12, the " inner chamber," 1 
Kgs. 20 : 30 (see Chamber), may des- 
ignate this part of the house. 

But the roof is one of the most im- 
portant parts of an Eastern house. We 

An Eastern Housetop. 

ascend to it by a flight of steps, as al- 
ready mentioned, which are entirely 
unconnected with the interior of the 

house. Matt. 24 : 17. It is made in 
most cases flat, but sometimes with 
domes over some of the rooms, and is 
surrounded by a parapet, battlement, or 
balustrade, lest one should heedlessly or 
unwittingly fall from it. This was a 
matter of divine command. Deut. 22 : 
8. A wall on the roof designates the 
limits of contiguous houses, but it is so 
low that a whole range of buildings, and 
even a street, may be passed over with- 
out coming down. The roof is covered 
with a kind of cement, which hardens 
by exposure to the weather, and forms 
a clean, smooth, and very agreeable 
floor. If the cement be not put on at 
the proper season, it will crack under 
the sun, and hence must be rolled,- and 
rollers are found on many roofs. On 
ill-packed roofs grass is often seen, and 
hence the frequent allusion to " grass 
upon the housetops." 2 Kgs. 19 : 26 ; Ps. 
129 : 6. Sometimes tiles or broad bricks 
were used. The roof was a place of re- 
pose, Neh. 8 : 16, and of resort. 2 Sam. 
11 : 2 ; Isa. 15 : 3 ; 22 : 1 ; Jer. 48 : 38 ; 
Luke 12 : 3. It was also used for dry- 
ing linen and flax, corn and figs. Josh. 
2 : 6. Sometimes a tent was spread to 
protect the sleeper from the cold and 
damp of the night. 2 Sam. 16 : 22. It 
was a place of conference, 
3|H|=^gj 1 Sam. 9 : 25, and worship, 
also of public wailing, Isa. 
15:3; Jer. 19: 13; 48:38; 
2 Kgs. 23:12; Zeph.l:5; 
Acts 10 : 9. 

The windows of Eastern 
houses, as already intima- 
ted, open into the court. 
Hence the appearance of 
Eastern cities, in passing 
through the streets, is very 
gloomy and inhospitable. 
Sometimes latticed win- 
dows or balconies are open 
upon the streets, but they 
were used only on some 
public day. 2 Kgs. 9 : 30. 
See Window. 

The doors of Eastern 
houses are not hung with 
hinges. The jamb, or in- 
ner side-piece of the door, 
projects, in the form of a 
circular shaft, at the top and bottom. 
The upper projection is received into a 
socket in the lintel or head-piece, and 



the lower projection falls into a socket 
in the threshold or sill. 

Chimneys were unknown, though the 
word occurs in Hos. 13 : 3. What we 
call chimneys were not invented till 
the fourteenth century. The snvjke of 
ancient houses escaped through aper- 
tures in the wall. 

The hearth, Jer. 36 : 22, was afire-place 
or portable furnace, such as is still used 
in Eastern countries. 

The materials for building were abun- 
dant. Stone and brick and the best spe- 
cies of timber, for the strong and heavy 
as well as the light and ornamental work, 
were easily obtained. Hewn stone was 
often used, Am. 5:11, and marble of 
the richest vein and polish. 1 Chr. 29 : 
2 ; Esth. 1 : 6. Cedar was used for 
wainscots and ceilings, Jer. 22 : 14; 
Hag. 1 : 4, which were of carved panel- 
work, with mouldings of gold, silver, or 
ivory. Perhaps the profusion of ivory 
in them may account for the expressions 
1 Kgs. 22 : 39 ; Ps. 45 : 8 ; Am. 3:15. 

The houses of the class described are 
entirely different from those inhabited 
by the common people, which are mere 
hovels of only one room, built with mud 
walls, reeds, and rushes, and sometimes 
only stakes plastered with clay. Hence 
they were very insecure, Matt. 6:19, 20, 
and afforded place for serpents and ver- 
min. Family and animals occupy the 
same room, although the former some- 
times were raised over the latter by a 
platform. The windows were mere holes 
high in the wall, perhaps barred. Am. 

In addition to what we have before 
said in treating of the alliyeh, it may be 
remarked that the winter- and summer- 
houses or parlors, Am. 3 : 15, were con- 
structed with particular reference to the 
season. The summer-houses were built 
partly under ground and paved with 
marble. The fountains which gush out 
in the courts, and the various contri- 
vances to exclude heat and secure a cur- 
rent of fresh air, render them exceed- 
ingly refreshing amid the torrid heats of 
summer. The winter-houses might have 
had accommodations corresponding to 
the season. 

We are told that it was customary 
among the Hebrewe to dedicate the 

house when it was finished and ready 
to be inhabited. The event was celebra- 
ted with joy, and the divine blessing and 
protection implored. Deut. 20 : 5. 

The doors of Eastern'houses are made 
low, especially when they are in an ex- 
posed situation, and one must stoop, or 
even creep, to enter them. This is done 
to keep out wild beasts or enemies, or 
as some say, to prevent the wandering 
Arabs from riding into them. 

The Eastern mode of building is 
brought to our view in the case of the 
destruction of the temple of Dagon 
by Samson. It is probable that the 
place where Samson made sport for 
many thousand spectators, Jud. 16 : 27, 
was a court or area consecrated to the 
worship of Dagon ; that this was sur- 
rounded by a range of galleries, Eze. 
41: 15, 16, or cloisters, which were sup- 
ported chiefly by one or two columns in 
front or at the centre. The palace of the 
dey of Algiers has such a structure. It 
is an advanced or projecting cloister 
over against the gate of the palace, 
Esth. 5:1, where the officers of state 
assemble and transact public business, 
and where public entertainments are 
given. The removal of one or two 
contiguous pillars would involve the 
building and all that were upon it in 
one common destruction. 

Leprosy in the House was probably 
a nitrous efflorescence on the walls which 
was injurious to the health of the house- 
hold, and therefore it was imperatively 
ordered to be removed. Lev. 14 : 34-53. 
DYE'ING was a familiar art in 
Bible-times. The Phoenicians and 
Egyptians were skilful in it. From 
Ex'. 26 : 1, 14; 35 : 25 it is evident 
that at the Exodus the Israelites un- 
derstood the art, and we are the better 
able to picture the process because we 
find so minute an account of it on the 
Egyptian monuments. There is, how- 
ever, no precise mention of dyers in the 
0. T. In the N. T., Lydia is spoken of 
as " a seller of purple of the city of 
Thyatira." Acts 16 : 14. This city was 
famed for its dyers ; inscriptions testify 
to the existence of a guild of them, and 
Lydia probably dealt in the cloth thus 
colored, or po'ssibly in the dye itself, 
which is procured from a shell-fish. 




EA'GLE (Hebrew nesher ; i. e. a 
tearer with the beak). There can be 
little question that the eagle of Scrip- 
ture is the griffon (Gyps fulvns), or great 
vulture, a bird very abundant in Pales- 
tine and adjacent countries. In spite 

Griffon Vulture, the Eagle of Scripture. {Gyps fulcus. After Tris 

of its name, it is a much nobler bird 
than a common vulture, and is little 
more a carrion-feeder than are all eagles. 
Indeed, the griffon is used by the Ori- 
entals as the type of the lordly and the 

This well-known bird of prey was un- 
clean by the Levitical law. Lev. 11 : 13 ; 
Deut. 14 : 12. The habits of the eagle 
are described in Num. 24 : 21 ; Job 9 : 
26; 39:27-30; Pro v. 23 : 5 ; 30 : 17, 19; 
Jer. 49 : 16 ; Eze. 17 : 3 ; Ob. 4 ; Hab. 1 : 
8 ; 2 : 9 ; Matt. 24 : 28 ; 
Luke 17 : 37. 

In these last pas- 
sages the Jewish na- 
tion is compared to a 
decaying body expos- 
ed in the open field, 
and inviting the Ro- 
man army, whose 
standard was an 
eagle, to come to- 
gether and devour it. 
The eagle was also on 
the Persian standard. 
The tenderness of the 
eagle toward its young 
is characteristic, and 
is beautifully and ac- 
curately described in 
Ex. 19 : 4; Deut. 32 : 
11. The rapidity of 
the eagle's flight is al- 
luded to in Deut. 28 : 
49; 2 Sam. 1:23; Jer. 
4:13; 48: 40; Lam. 4: 
19 ; its destructive 
power in Isa. 46 : 11 ; 
Hos. 8:1; and its great 
age, and the popular 
opinion that it renews 
its plumage in ad- 
vanced life, are inti- 
mated in Ps. 103 : 5 
and Isa. 40 : 31. 

Many Scripture ref- 
erences are much more 
clear and forcible if 
by "eagle" we under- 
stand the griffon. The 
head and neck of this 
bird are bald. Mic. 1 : 16. Although 
eagles are attracted by carcasses, it is 
the griffons which, from their great 
numbers and superior strength, are 
pre-eminently the scavengers of the 
East. Matt. 24 : 28. Of all rapacious, 



birds, these select the loftiest and most 
inaccessible cliffs. Jer. 49 : 16. 

" The griffon is found in all the 
warmer parts of the Old World, from 
the Himalaya to Spain and Morocco, 
and throughout Africa to the Cape of 
Good Hope. It measures about 4 feet 
8 inches in length, and 8 feet in ex- 
panse of wing. The nest is sometimes 
large, but frequently scanty, formed of 
sticks and turf, and it lays one egg in 
February or March. Its plumage is a 
uniform brown, with a fine ruff of whit- 
ish down round the lower part of its 
neck, at the termination of the bare por- 
tion. Its beak is hooked and of great 
power, but its claws and feet are much 
weaker than those of the eagle, and are 
not adapted for killing prey." — Tris- 

The pains which such birds take in 
teaching their young to fly, as well as 
such passages as Isa. 40:31, are illus- 
trated by the following narrative : " I 
once saw a very interesting sight above 
the crags of Ben Nevis. Two parent 
eagles were teaching their offspring, two 
young birds, the manoeuvres of flight. 
They began by rising from the top of 
the mountain in the eye of the sun. It 
was about midday, and bright for the 
climate. They at first made small cir- 
cles, and the young birds imitated them. 
They paused on their wings, waiting 
till they had made their flight, and then 
took a second and larger gyration, al- 
ways rising toward the sun. and enlarg- 
ing their circle of flight so as to make a 
gradually-ascending spiral. The young 
ones still and slowly followed, apparent- 
ly flying better as they mounted ; and 
they continued this sublime exercise, 
always rising, till they became mere 
points in the air, and the young ones 
were lost, and afterward their parents, 
to our aching sight." — Sir Humphry 

EAR'ING is an old English word 
for ploughing. Gen. 45 : 6 ; Ex. 34 : 21 ; 
Dent. 21:4: 1 Sam. 8:12. 

EAR'NEST. This is something 
going before or given in advance 
as a pledge of more in reserve : thus, 
earnest, or earnest-money, is a sum paid 
in advance as a pledge of full payment J 
at a future time. In a spiritual sense, I 
it denotes those gifts and graces which 
the Christian receives as a pledge or | 

earnest of perfect holiness and happi- 
ness in the future world. 2 Cor. 1 : 22 ; 
Eph. 1 : 14. 

EAR-RINGS. The ordinary He- 
brew word for "ear-ring" means also 
" nose-ring," and the context must 
decide between these interpretations. 
There are two other words which mean 
more specifically an ear-ring. The one 
occurs Num. 31 : 50 j Eze. 16 : 12. This 
word describes a circle of gold, such as 
is found portrayed upon the sculptures 
of Egypt and Persepolis ; the other 
word, though literally translated a 
" charm," seems to indicate ear-rings, 
which were worn as amulets. They 
were given up to Jacob at his request, 
along with the " strange gods," when, 
at the divine command, he went to 
Bethel from Shechem. Gen. 35 : 4. This 
fact proves their superstitious use. Such 
ear-rings, bearing talismanic characters 
and figures, are found to-day in the 
East. Ear-rings were made of gold, 
were usually, though by no means al- 
ways, circular, sometimes had jewels 
hanging from them, and were larger 
and heavier than those worn with us. 
In Bible-times ear-rings were orna- 
ments for both sexes. Ex. 32 : 2. The 
same is true to some extent to-day. 
See Amulet. 

EARTH. The word first occurs 
Gen. 1 : 2. The Hebrews made the 
usual distinction between the earth as 
the planet which we inhabit and the 
earth as the soil which we cultivate, by 
employing altogether different words 
for these different ideas. But like other 
ancient nations, they had vague and in- 
accurate ideas in regard to the size of 
the earth. The phrases "the ends of 
the earth," all the "kingdoms of the 
earth," " the whole world," really took 
in only a limited extent. Geographical 
terms were loosely used. For example, 
the same word (y>m, which means 
"sea") is applied to the Mediterranean, 
to the lakes of Palestine, and to great 
rivers such as the Nile. But they were 
much more definite when describing lo- 
calities with which they were intimately 
acquainted, and these descriptive words 
for the minor features of the country are 
often singularly correct, and at the same 
time poetical. We can mark a progres- 
sion in geographical knowledge from 
the days of the patriarchs to those of 



the N. T. Jews. As nation after nation 
was brought into contact with them 
their notions of the character and ex- 
tent of the world enlarged. 

Owing to the highly poetic nature of 
the language in which descriptions of 
the earth as a whole are given, it is im- 
possible to decide upon the ordinary 
ideas on this subject. Like other na- 
tions of antiquity, and like most people 
in all ages, the Hebrews viewed the 
world from a geocentric standpoint, as 
if the earth were the centre of the uni- 
verse, every other heavenly body being 
formed for it and playing a subsidiary 
part. The heavens were conceived of 
as an inverted bowl, which rested on the 
flat earth at its edges, holding up the 
snow and rain, which came through 
when a window was opened. Gen. 7 : 
11 ; Isa. 24: 18. All natural phenomena 
are traced directly to the almighty will 
of God, without taking into account 
(yet without denying) secondary causes. 
The thunder is his voice, the lightning 
his arrows, the storm and the wind his 
messengers. Job 37 : 5 ; Ps. 77 : 17 ; 
148 : 8. When he drew near, the earth- 
quake, the eclipse, and the comet were 
the signs of his presence. Joel 2: 10; 
Matt. 24 : 29 ; Luke 21 : 25. We should 
remember that this is to this day the 
language of poetry and religion, and 
that it represents one and the most im- 
portant aspect of truth, the primary 
cause; while prose and science view the 
other aspect, the secondary and finite 
causes — that is, the laws of nature, 
which are the agencies of the almighty 
will of God. 

If all things in heaven above and 
earth beneath were created by the word 
of God, they were as certainly created 
for the sons of God — for man. To the 
Hebew nothing existed independent of 
some effect, good or bad, upon man. Ps. 
104: 11, 23 expie.^ses in poetry his sober 
opini m. 

The earth spoke to him likewise of 
orderly and preconce "ted progress. 
From one day to the other, as he read 
the account in Genesis, there was devel 
opment of higher from lower forms, 
until, as the crown and lord of all cre- 
ation, man stood in Eden. 

EARTHQUAKE. Korah and 
his companions were destroyed by the 
rending asunder of the ground where 

they stood, thus engulfing them in the 
cavity, Num. 16 : 32 ; in other words, by 
an earthquake. The earthquake men- 
tioned in Am. 1:1; Zech. 14 : 5 is also 
mentioned by Josephus, who adds that 
it divided a mountain near Jerusalem, 
and was so violent as to separate one 
part some distance from the other. The 
earthquake was among the fearful signs 
which attended the crucifixion of our 
Saviour. Matt. 27 : 51-54. 

Earthquakes are mentioned among 
the calamities which should, and did, 
precede the destruction of Jerusalem. 
Matt. 24:7. Earthquakes, in prophet- 
ical language, denote revolutions and 
commotions in states and empires. 

An earthquake, " conveying the idea 
of some universal and unlimited dan- 
ger," as Humboldt says, was an appro- 
priate illustration of the awe which 
strikes the soul when God seems to 
draw nigh. It is therefore a fitting 
token of his presence, 1 Kgs. 19 : 11, 
and is used in Scripture, poetry, and 
prophecy in descriptions of the coming 
of Jehovah. Jud. 5:4; 2 Sam. 22 : 8; 
Ps. 77: IS; 97:4; 104:32; Am. 8 : 8; 
Hab. 3:10. 

Gen. 11 : 2 ; Job 1 : 3 ; Eze. 47 : 8 ; Matt. 
2 : 1. The Hebrews used the word kedem, 
or "east," to describe any country which 
was before or in front of another — that 
is, to the east of it ; and it generally re- 
fers to the region around and beyond 
the rivers Tigris and Euphrates, includ- 
ing portions of Arabia, Mesopotamia, 
and Babylonia. 

EASTER (originally the festival 
of the Anglo-Sixon goddess Eostre), a 
mistranslation for " Passover," the Jew- 
ish feast. Acts 12 : 4. See Fkast. 

EAST SEA. Eze. 47:18; Joel 2 : 
20. See Salt Sra. 

EAST WIIVD. See Wind. 

EAT, EATING. The Hebrews 
were scrupulous about eating and drink- 
ing with those of another religion or 
another nati nalitv. - They would not 
eat with the Egyptians, any more than 
the Egyptians would with them, Gen. 
43 : 32, nor with the Samaritans. John 
4 : 9, nor with " publicans and sinners," 
Matt. 9 : 1 1, and the refusal to eat with one 
implied an entire separation. 1 Cor.5:Tl. 

Anciently, the Jews sat at table; but 
when they encountered the practice of 



reclining upon couches during meals, 
resting the body on the left elbow and 
using chiefly the right hand, they ap- 
pear to have adopted it. This peculiar 
position makes the scene described in 
Luke 7 : 36-50 perfectly natural, and 
also shows how one of the guests could 
repose his head on another's bosom. 

Roman Triclinium, illustrating Jewish Method of Eating. 

John 13 : 23. Women were never pres- 
ent at Jewish meals as guests. 

The Jews, in 0. T. times, appear to 
have taken their principal meal at 
night, after the heat of the day was 
over. This, to be sure, is largely con- 
jecture, since we have no detailed in- 
formation given us in the Bible. See 
Ruth 3:7; Ex. 16 : 12 : 18 : 12, 1 3. The 
institution of the paschal feast in the 
evening likewise helps to confirm the 
opinion. Ex. 12 : 6, 18. They made 
tlfeir other meal in the morning. In 
N. T. times they did not ordinarily 
breakfast until 9 o'clock, Acts 2:15, 
and on the Sabbath, as Josephns says, 
not before noon, because not till then 
was the service of the synagogue com- 
pleted. In the evening the more sub- 
stantial meal took place. In general, 
the Jews led the simple, abstemious 
life of the modern Oriental, eating the 
fruits of the earth in the morning, and 
meat only once a day, if at all. But 
besides this occasional reference to the 
ordinary life of the Jews, the Bible con- 
tains notices of numerous feasts in hon- 
or of all the events which broke the mo- 
notony of their existence. Leaving out 
of account the religious festivals and 
the formal banquets at the ratification 

of treaties and on other public occa- 
sions, we read of feasts given at mar- 
riages, Gen. 29:22; Jud. 14:10, etc., 
on birthdays, Gen. 40 : 20 ; Job 1 : 4, 
etc., burials, 2 Sam. 3 : 35 ; Jer. 16 : 7, 
sheep-shearing, 1 Sam. 25 : 2, 36 ; 2 Sam. 
13 : 23, and at other times. According 
to the means of the host, an elaborate 
meal was prepared. The 
guests were formally in- 
vited, and when the day 
came they were invited a 
second time. Prov. 9 : 23 ; 
Matt. 22 : 3. The guests 
were received with a kiss, 
their feet and hands were 
washed, their person was 
perfumed with ointment. 
Luke 7 : 44-46. The par- 
able of the Man without 
the Wedding-garment has 
led to the conjecture that 
it was customary, or at 
least usual, in certain 
cases for the host to pro- 
vide robes. Matt. 22:12. 
The present mode of 
eating among Eastern nations illustrates 
some passages of the N. T. In Syria the 
guests use their fingers, a knife, spoon, and 
plate being used only by foreigners, and 
that as a special privilege. The bread, 
which is very thin, is dipped in the 
vegetable soup ; and if there is a 
dainty morsel on the table, the master 
of the house takes it in his fingers and 
presents it to the mouth of his guest. 
From Matt. 26 : 23 we presume that 
Judas was near enough to our Lord to 
use the same dish and receive the sop 
from our Lord's hand, according to the 
custom above described. John 13 : 26, 
27. See Feast. 

To eat a meal together is regarded in 
the East as a pledge of mutual confi- 
dence and friendship; hence the force 
of the expression Ps. 41 : 9. 

The expression John 6 : 53-58 is evi- 
dently metaphorical. " Eating and 
drinking " here means believing, or 
appropriating the life of our Lord by 
faith. He is the Bread of life for our 

E'BAL {stone). 1. A descendant 
of Seir the Horite. Gen. 36 : 23 ; 1 Chr. 
1 : 40. 

2. A descendant of Eber, 1 Chr. 1 : 22; 
called Obal in Gen. 10 : 28. 



E'BAL (stone, stony), one of the two 

mountains upon which Israel stood pro- 
nouncing blessings and cursings. Deut. 
11 : 29 ; Josh. 8 : 30-35. Ebal and Ger- 
izini are opposite each other, nearly meet- 
ing at their bases, but are a mile and a 
half apart at their summits. Mount 
Ebal, the northern peak, is rocky and 
bare: it rises 3077 feet above the sea 
and 1200 feet above the level of the val- 
ley, which forms a natural amphitheatre. 
From repeated experiments it has been 
found that the voice can be heard dis- 
tinctly from the top of one mountain 
to the other and in the valley between. 
In the valley lay ancient Shechem, now 
Nablus. The summit of Ebal is a pla- 
teau of some extent, reaching its great- 
est height toward the west, from which 
there is an extensive view of the coun- 
try from Hermon on the north to the 
heights of Bethel on the south, and 
from the plain of the sea on the west to 
the Hauran plateau on the east. Con- 
der suggests that the site of Joshua's 
altar may be represented by the modern 
sacred place called Amad ed-D%n, " mon- 
ument of the faith," on the top of Ebal. 
See Grrizim and Shechem. 

E'BED (slave). 1. The father of 
Gaal, who conspired with the Shechem- 
ites against Abimeleeh. Jud. 9 : 26, 28, 
30, 31, 35. 

2. A companion of Ezra on the Re- 
turn. Ezr. 8:6. 

E'BED-ME'LECH (slave of the 
king), an Ethiopian eunuch of Zedekiah, 
king of Judah, who was instrumental in 
saving the prophet Jeremiah from death 
by famine, and who for his kindness in 
his behalf was promised -deliverance 
when the city should fall into the ene- 
my's hands, Jer. 38 : 7 ; 39 : 15-18. His 
name seems to have been an official title. 

EB'EjV-E'ZER (stone of help), set 
up as a memorial by Samuel, 1 Sam. 4 : 
1 ; 5 : 1 ; 7 : 12, between Mizpeh and Sben. 
The curious fact that the name of this 
place occurs twice, 1 Sam. 4:1; 5:1, be- 
fore the account of the naming of it, is ex- 
plained by the familiarity of the place to 
the writer of the narrative, who of course 
lived sometime subsequent to the battle. 
While the Israelites were worshipping 
God at Mizpeh they received intelli- 
gence that the Philistines were ap- 
proaching them with a formidable 
army. In this emergency they betook 

| themselves to sacrifice and prayer, and 

; God interposed in a most signal manner 

for their deliverance. 1 Sam. 7 : 5-12. 

! In commemoration of this event, Sam- 

' uel erected a monument near the field 

of battle, and called it " Eben-ezer," or 

the'stone of help, saying, " Hitherto hatl 

Jehovah helped us." Hence it is often 

! said, "Here we will set up our Eben- 

1 ezer." Conder places Ebenezer at Deir 

; Abdn, 3 miles east of 'Ain Shems. Birch 

disputes this, and proposes Khurbet 


E'BER (beyond). 1. The great- 
grandson of Shem, Gen. 10 : 21, 21; 11 : 
14—17 ; 1 Chr. 1 : 19, and the ancestor 
of Abraham in the seventh generation. 
See Hebrews, Heber. 

2. Son of Elpaal, and one of the build- 
ers of Ono and Lod, with the adjacent 
villages. 1 Chr. 8:12. 

3. A priest of the days of Joiakim. 
Neh. 12 : 20. See also Heber. 

EBI'ASAPH ( father of gathering), 
a Levite. 1 Chr. 6 : 23, 37; 9 : 19. See 
Abiasaph and Asaph. 

EBONY. Eze. 27 : 15. A black, 
heavy, and very hard wood, which was 
brought to ancient Tyre from India. It 
is susceptible of a fine polish, and is 
used for musical instruments and orna- 
mental work. Ebony is the heart-wood 
of a tree (Diospyros ebenus) of the same 
genus with the persimmon of our warm- 
er States, and, like that tree, bears an 
{ edible fruit. 

EBRO'NAH (passage), a station of 
! the Israelites near Ezion-geber, Num. 
33:34,35; site not known. 

ECBAT'ANA. Ezr. 6:2, margin. 
The name of two cities. 

1. The capital of northern Media, now 
known as the ruins Takht-'i- Suleiman, 
about 75 miles south-west of the Caspian 

2. The larger city was the metropolis 
of lower Media, now called Hamadan, 
one of the most important cities of Per- 
sia, having from 30,000 to 40,000 in- 
habitants. Both cities are referred to 
in the Apocrvphal books. 

or (as the name signifies) THE 
PREACHER, was written by Sol- 
; omon toward the close of his splendid 
I and eventful career as monarch of Is- 
rael, or by a later author, who imper- 
sonates Solomon and gives us the prac- 



tical lesson of his sad experience. It 
corresponds to the old age of Solomon, 
as the Canticles to his youth and the 
Proverbs to his mature manhood. The 
design of the author evidently is, (1) 
To demonstrate the folly and mad- 
ness of making this world, its pleas- 
ures, or its pursuits the objects of af- 
fection or hope; (2) To show the cha- 
racter, influence, and advantages of true 
wisdom or religion. The key-note is 
struck in the opening lines, repeated 
at the close, 12 : 8 : 

" O vanity of vanities ! the Preacher saith; 
O vanity of vanities ! all is vanity." 

The practical lesson of the book is 
summed up in the concluding words, 
12 : 13, 14, which, literally rendered, 
read thus : 

"Fear God and keep his commandments, 
For this is all of man." 

The writer looks from the vanity be- 
neath the sun to the eternal realities 
above the sun, and from the shifting 
scenes of this life to the judgment-seat 
of God, who will judge "every work, 
yea, every secret deed, both good and 
evil." The book represents Hebrew 
scepticism subdued and checked by the 
Hebrew fear of God and reaping lessons 
of wisdom from the follies of life. It is 
an ethical or philosophical treatise in 
prose, with regular logical divisions, 
but full of poetic inspiration, and in 
part also poetic in form, with enough 
of rhythmical flow to awaken a deep 
and emotional interest in these sad so- 
liloquies of the author. 

in the Latin Vulgate, of the Apocryphal 
book called in the Septuagint " The Wis- 
dom of Jesus the Son of Sirach." Both 
titles are given in the English transla- 
tion. The Latin title, " The Eccfesias- 
tical Book," designates it as a book that 
was read for edification in the churches. 
The original Hebrew is not now extant, 
although Jerome asserts he saw a copy 
of it. The Hebrew text was composed 
by Jesus, the son of Sirach, between b. c. 
290-270. His grandson translated it 
into Greek about the beginning of the 
second century. 

In general, its contents resemble the 
Proverbs of Solomon, only with much 
greater particularity of detail, extend- 
ing to all spheres of religious, civil, and 
domestic life, and giving rules for the 

conduct of the same. Along with the 
maxims are discussions and prayers. 
The book closes with two discourses, 
one, chs. 42 : 15-43, etc., " the praise 
of God for his works;" the other, chs. 
44-50, "the praise of famous holy 
men," from Enoch to Simon the high 
priest, the son of Onias. The final 
chapter is a thanksgiving and a prayer. 
The book is of great value as an indica- 
tion of the current Jewish theology and 
ethics at the time of its composition. 

ED (witness). This word printed in 
italics, is inserted in Josh. 22 : 34 as the 
name given to the altar set up by the 
trans-Jordanic tribes, but it does not 
occur in the received Hebrew text, 
which, literally translated, reads, "And 
the children of Reuben and the children 
of Gad named the altar: 'It [i. e. the 
altar] is a witness between us that Je- 
hovah is God.'" Some place the altar 
on the east or Moab side of the Jordan. 
Conder put it on the west side, at Kitm 
Surtabeh, 11 miles north-east of Shiloh, 
but this identification is disputed. 

E'DAR (tower of the flock). Gen. 35 : 
21. Conder would place it on the Shep- 
herds' plain, about 1 mile east of Beth- 
lehem : Jerome states that it was 1000 
paces from that city. 

E DEN (pleasantness). 1. The home 
of Adam and Eve before their fall. Gen. 
2:15. Its site has not been fixed. Two 
of its rivers are identified, the Euphra- 
tes, and the Hiddekel or Tigris; the 
others are disputed. Some say Gihon 
was the Nile and Pison the Indus. The 
best authorities agree that the " garden 
of Eden eastward " was in the highlands 
of Armenia, or in the valley of the Eu- 
phrates, but its precise location cannot 
be determined. The Bible, after the 
history of the fall of our first parents, 
withdraws paradise lost from our view, 
and directs our hope to the more glori- 
ous paradise of the future, with its river 
of life and tree of life. Rev. 22:2. 

2. A region conquered by the Assyri- 
ans, 2 Kgs. 19 : 12 : Isa. 37:12: prob- 
ably in Mesopotamia, near modern Ba- 
lis, and same as the Eden of Eze. 27 : 23. 

3. The house of Eden. Am. 1 : 5. See 

E'DEN (pleasantness), a Levite in 
the days of Hezekiah. 2 Chr. 29:12; 

E'DER (flock), a Merarite Levite in 



the days of David. 1 Chr. 23 : 23 j 24 : 

E'DER {flock), a town of Judah 
near Edoin. Josh. 15: 21. Not the same 
as Arad : modern site is ' Addr. 

E'DOM {red), called also Idumaea 
and Mount Seir. The country extended 
from the Dead Sea southward to the 
Gulf of Akabah, and from the valley of 
the Arahah eastward to the desert of 

Arabia, being about 125 miles long and 
30 miles wide. 

Physical Features. — A mountain-range 
of porphyritic rock forms the backbone 
of the country ; above this rises sand- 
stone, assuming fantastic forms, while on 
either side of these formations are lime- 
stone hills. On the west, along the val- 
ley of the Arabah, the hills are low; on 
the east the mountains attain their high- 

est elevation, and border on the great 
plateau of Arabia. The country is well 
watered, rich in pasturage, abounding 
with trees and flowers, reminding us of 
Isaac's prophecy : " Thy dwelling shall be 
the fatness of the earth." Gen. 27 : 39. 

Cities. — Its principal towns were Boz- 
ra, Elath, Maon, Ezion-geber, Selah, or 
Petra. A description of them will be 
found under their proper titles. For 
a history of the people see Esau and 


ED'REI {strength, stronghold). 1. 
A capital city of Bashan. Num. 21 : 33 ; 
Deut. 3:1-10. It was in the territory 
of Manasseh beyond (east of) Jordan. 
Num. 32 :33. It is not noticed in later 
Bible history, although it was an im- 
portant city until the seventh century 
of the Christian era. Its ruins, called 
Edhra, cover a circuit of 3 miles. 
Without a spidng, river, or stream, with- 
out access except over rocks and through 
nearly impassable denies, without tree 
or garden, it is a place of security and 

strength. Among the ruins are remains 
of churches, temples, and mosques. 
The place has now about 500 popu- 

2. A town of Naphtali. Num. 19 : 37. 
Porter identifies it with Tell Khuraibeh, 
near Kedesh ; Conder with Yater. 

EDUCATION. Of secular edu- 
cation, in our sense of the word, the 
Jews knew little, but they enjoined the 
duty and enjoyed the privilege of relig- 
ious and moral training at home and 
in public worship far more than any 
nation of antiquity. They learned 
from their parents and their public 
teachers, the Levites, and later the Rab- 
bins, to read and write and commit the 
Law. During the Captivity they were 
brought into contact with the extensive 
learning of the Chaldaeans. Moses de- 
rived his knowledge from Egyptian 
priests, and Solomon was both a schol- 
ar and a wise man, to whose open mind 
the gathered treasures of instruction 
and the books of nature and human 



life brought lessons of priceless wisdom. 
The people at large must have been ig- 
norant of things outside of religion, and 
their religious exclusiveness would 
tend to keep them so, but there were 
men among them acquainted with men- 
suration, Josh. 18 : 8, 9, and with for- 
eign languages, 2 Kgs. 18 : 26, and who 
were skilled in writing, like the chron- 
iclers of the various kings, and in keep- 
ing accounts, like the scribes who are 
often mentioned. In the days of the 
monarchy the advantages of education 
were secured by many in the so-called 
"schools of the prophets." After the 
Captivity the Rabbins regularly gave 
instruction in the synagogues upon the 
Bible and the Talmud. In the entire 
history it holds good that boys remain- 
ed up to their fifth year in the women's 
apartments and then their fathers began 
to instruct them in the Law. Later, the 
boys began at this age the Rabbinical 
books. The Captivity was. in many re- 
spects an incalculable blessing to the 
Jews. It taught them that there was 
something worth learning outside of the 
Mosaic books. Hence, alter their re- 
turn, they were a greatly-improved peo- 
ple. It was then that synagogues sprang 
up, furnishing practical instruction. 
After Jerusalem fell the Jews kept up 
these schools, and they exist even in 
this day. One valuable custom was the 
learning of a trade on the part of each 
one. Well known is the instance of 
Paul, who, although well trained, a pu- 
pil of Gamaliel, still could, and did, 
make tents. Acts 18 : 3 ; 22 : 3. 

Girls were generally without much 
more education than the rudiments, yet I 
they could attend the schools and learn j 
more than to do needle-work, keep j 
house, and care for the children. Wo- j 
men were far higher in the social scale I 
among the Jews than at present among j 
the Orientals. 

The sect of the Essenes, by preference | 
celibates, took great pains to instruct I 
children, but confined their attention 
chieflj 7 to morality and the Law. The j 
Rabbins taught the physical sciences, j 
In these schools the teachers sat on 
raised seats ; hence Paul could say lit- 
erally that he was brought up at the 
feet of Gamaliel. Luke 2 : 46 ; Acts 22 : 
3. Unmarried men and women were 
forbidden to teach bovs. 

The ancient Jews enjoyed more ad- 
vantages in mental training than other 
contemporary nations. And if they 
knew little about matters of common 
information among us, they knew more 
than did the great mass of people living 
outside of Judaea. 

EG'liAH (a heifer), one of David's 
wives. 2 Sam. 3 : 5. 

EG'LAOI (two ponds), a place on 
the border of Moab, Isa. 15 : 8 ; prob- 
ably the same as En-eglaim. 

EGLON (calf -like), king of the 
Moabites, who held the Israelites in 
bondage 18 years. Jud. 3 :14. He form- 
ed an alliance with the Ammonites and 
Amalekites, and took possession of Jer- 
icho, where he resided, and where he 
was afterward assassinated by Ehud. 
See Ehud. 

EG'LON (calf), an Amorite town in 
Judah, Josh. 10 : 3-5 ; 15 : 39 ; now 
'Ajlan, a hill of ruins, 10 miles north- 
east of Gaza. 

EGYPT, the valley of the Nile, in 
the north-eastern part of Africa, and one 
of the most remarkable countries in an- 
cient history, famous for its pyramids, 
sphinxes, obelisks, and wonderful ruins 
of temples and tombs. It figures large- 
ly in the Bible as the cradle of the peo- 
ple of Israel, and the training-school of 
its great leader and legislator. 

Names. — In Hebrew, Egypt is called 
Mizraim, a dual form of the word, indi- 
cating the two divisions, Upper and 
Lower Egypt, or (as Tayler Lewis sug- 
gests) the two strips on the two sides of 
the Nile. It is also known as the Land 
of Ham, Ps. 105:23. 27, and Rahab, 
('• the proud one "). Ps. 89 : 10 ; 87 : 4 ; 
Isa. 51 : 9. The Coptic and older title 
is Kemi, or Chemi, meaning " black," 
from the dark color of the soil. The 
name " Egypt" first occurs in its Greek 
form in Homer, and is applied to the 
Nile and to the country, but afterward 
it -is used for the country only. 

Situation and Extent. — Egypt lies on 
both sides of the Nile, and in ancient 
times included the land watered by it, 
as far as the Eirst Cataract, the deserts 
on either side being included in Arabia 
and Libya. Ezekiel indicates that it 
reached from Migdol (now Telles-Semut, 
east of the Suez Canal) to Syene (now 
Aswan or Asuouan), on the border of 
Nubia, near the First Cataract of the 



Xile. Eze. 29: in. margin. The Delta 
and the valley of the Nile are estimated 
to have an area of about 960(1 square 
miles (or a little more than the State 
of Xew Hampshire), of which only 5626 
miles are fit for cultivation. In the more 
extended sense of later times. Egypt is 
bounded on the north by the Mediter- 
ranean, on the east by the Red Sea and 
Arabia, on the south by Xubia, and on 
the west by the Great Desert. The 
length of the country in a straight line 
from the Mediterranean to the First 
Cataract is about 520 miles : its breadth 
is from 300 to 450 miles, and its entire 
area is about 212.000 square miles. 
Nubia. Ethiopia, and other smaller dis- 
tricts bordering on the Nile to the south 
of Egypt, have been brought under its 

The following statement of the area 
and population of Egypt and dependen- 
cies is from the official report of 1876 : 





Darfur, etc 




Square Square 
kilometres. ni'les. 

550.630 = 212.543 

864,500 = 333.697 
2,918,000 = 1,146,348 

444.700= 171.674 



4.777 830 = 1,864,262 

16,952, l 

Egypt proper has thus an area almost 
as large as that of Xew York. Pennsyl- 
vania. Illinois, Ohio, and Indiana com- 
bined, and the present ruler of Egypt 
controls a territory nearly half as large 
as the United States of America. 

Physical Features. — The country 
has three great natural divisions: (1) 
the Delta : (2) the Nile valley; (3) the 
sandy and rocky wastes. The Delta is 
one vast triangular plain, watered by 
the branches of the Xile and numerous 
canals, and covered with remains of an- 
cient cities and villages and groves of 
palm trees, which stand on mounds of 
great antiquity. The Delta extends 
along the Mediterranean for about 200 
miles and up the Xile for 100 miles. 
The Tanitic branch of the Xile is on 
the east of the Delta, and the Canopic 
branch on the west, though the Delta is 
now limited chiefly to the space between 
the Rosetta and the Damietta branches, 
which is about 90 miles in extent. The 
valley of the Xile extends to the lower 
or First Cataract, near the island of 

Philte. which is about 500 miles south 
of Cairo. It is in a rich state of culti- 
vation, but is very narrow, and hemmed 
in by low mountains or rocky table-land, 
rarely rising into peaks, though often 
approaching the river in bold promon- 
tories. Eehind the rocky range, which 
varies from 300 to 1000 feet in height, on 
either side of the Nile, are deserts rocky 
and strewn with sand. The valley is 
scarcely more than 10 miles wide, and 
there is little fruitful land beyond its 
limits, or such portions as are reached 
by its fertilizing waters on the rise and 
overflow of the river. See Xile. 

C Kite and Productions. — The climate 
of Egypt is remarkably equable, the at- 
mosphere dry and clear except on the 
sea-coast : the summers are hot and sul- 
try, the winters mild : rain, except along 
the Mediterranean, is very rare, the fertil- 
ity of the land depending almost entire- 
ly upon the annual overflow of the Xile, 
or upon artificial' irrigation by canals, 
water-wheels, and the shadoof. Winds 
are strong, those from a northerly source 
being the most prevalent, while the si- 
moon, a violent whirlwind and hurricane 
of sand, is not infrequent. The chief 
fruits are dates, grapes, figs, pomegran- 
ates, oranges, apricots, peaches, lemons, 
bananas, melons of various kinds, mul- 
berries, pears, and olives. Among the 
vegetables are beans, peas, onions, leeks, 
lentils, gourds, cucumbers, caraway, 
coriander, cummin, anise, and pepper; 
and of grains, wheat, barley, millet, 
maize, and rice. Among plants are 
the indigo-plant, cotton, flax, poppv. 
madder, and a species of saffron. Many 
kinds of reeds were found in the coun- 
try, but they have wasted away, as pre- 
dicted. Isa. 19 : 6. 7 : even the famous 
papyrus, or byblus, from which paper 
was made, has nearly, if not quite, dis- 
appeared. Of animals, the camel, horse, 
mule. ass. sheep, and goat are common, 
and the wolf. fox. jackal, hyena, weasel, 
jerboa, hare, gazelle, hippopotamus, and 
crocodile were all found in considerable 
numbers; but the last two are now found 
only in the upper Xile. Of birds, the 
vulture (Pharaoh's hen^. eagle, falcon, 
hawk, kite, crow, lark, sparrow, hoopoe 
a sacred bird), and the ostrich were the 
most common : and of reptiles, the co- 
bra, cerastes, and other species of ven- 
I omous snakes abounded, and are yet 



the dread of native and of traveller. 
Fish abound in the Nile and in Lake 
Menzaleh. Insects are well represented, 
the scorpion being among the most dan- 
gerous, -while swarms of flies, fleas, bee- 
tles (the scarabEeus being held sacred by 

the ancient Egyptians), and bugs of 
various kinds attack man and beast, 
and occasionally swarms of locusts sweep 
over the land, reminding one of the plague 
preceding the Exodus, and of the descrip- 
tion of the invading army by the prophet 

Joel. Ex. 10: 12-15; Joel 2:1-11. The 
principal minerals are granite, syenite, 
basalt, porphyry, limestone, alabaster, 
sandstone, and emeralds. The first four 
were formerly prized for the purposes of 
architecture and sculpture. 

Language. — The sources of knowledge 

respecting ancient Egypt are chiefly 
four: (1) the Pentateuch : (2) the writ- 
ings of Manetho, b. c. 300-250, whose 
work is lost, but fragments of which 
have come down to us through Jose- 
phus, Julius Africanus, and Eusebius; 
(3) the accounts of Greek travellers — 



Herodotus, b. c. 454, Diodorus Siculus, 
B. c. 58, and Strabo, B. c. 30 ; (4) the 
monumental inscriptions and papyrus 
rolls in the temples and tombs or about 
mummies. Copies of the inscriptions 
and many of the papyrus rolls have been 
discovered during the present century 
and transferred to museums in London, 
Paris, Berlin, Leyden, Turin, and Bulak, 
and have been deciphered by Egyptolo- 
gists. The hieroglyphic signs on the 
monuments are partly ideographic or 
pictorial, partly phonetic. The hiero- 
glyphic, the shorter hieratic, and the 
demotic alphabets were deciphered by 
Champollion and Young by means of 
the famous trilingual Rosetta Stone, dis- 
covered in 1 799, and the Coptic language 
■which is essentially the same with the 
old Egyptian. For a summary of the 
respective merits of Young and Cham- 
pollion with regard to the interpreta- 
tion of Egyptian hieroglyphic, see Al- 
libone's Dictionary of Authors, vol. iii. 
p. 2902. 

The process of decipherment was, 
briefly, as follows: The Rosetta Stone 
had an inscription in three characters, 
hieroglyphic, demotic, and Greek. The 
Greek, which was easily read, declared 
that there were two translations, one in 
the sacred, the other in the popular, lan- 
guage of the Egyptains, adjacent to it. 
The demotic part was next scrutinized, 
and the groups determined which con- 
tained the word Ptolemy. These were 
compared with other framed symbols 
on an obelisk found at Phila>. The 
symbol on the obelisk which occurred 
in connection with the name Ptolemy 
was conjectured to be Cleopatra, as the 
number of letters also indicated. The 
two groups were then compared : 

were afterward verified by comparing 
them with the names of other kings, 
and particularly with that of Alex- 
ander the Great as below: — 






The second symbol in the second group. 
a lion, Champollion took to be /, and the 
same symbol has the fourth place in the 
first group. By a similar process of com- 
parison, the nine letters of Cleopatra's 
name were ascertained, while the dif- 
ferent letters in the case of Ptolemy 

The prevailing opinion is that the 
ancient Egyptians were of Asiatic 
rather than of African origin. Their 
language was Egyptian, and was re- 
lated, though it has not yet been proved 
as belonging, to the Semitic family. It 
had two dialects, that of Upper and that 
of Lower Egypt, and by degrees a vul- 
gar dialect was formed, which became 
the national language not long before 
the formation of the Coptic. The writ- 
ten character of the Egyptian language 
was the hieroglyphic — a very complex 
system, which expressed ideas by sym- 
bols or by phonetic signs, syllabic and 
alphabetic, or else by a combination of 
the two methods. From this combina- 
tion was formed the hieratic, a running- 
hand, or common written form of the 
hieroglyphic, principally used for docu- 
ments written on papyrus. The later 
Coptic language was written in Greek 
letters, with the addition of six new 
characters to that alphabet. The writ- 
ings of the ancient Egyptians which 
have come down to our times are dis- 
jointed, and, from a literary point of 
view, have disappointed the expecta- 
tions even of warm admirers of Egyp- 
tian civilization. See Poole in Ency- 
clopedia Britannica, 9th Ed., vol. vii. 

Learning and Art. — The progress of 
the Egyptians in the various sciences 
was equalled by that of no other 
he took to be ancient people except the Greeks, 

Ptolemais. and perhaps the Babylonians and 

the Assyrians. In astronomy, ge- 
d the arts 
ttested by the 
for the ad- 
justment of different reckonings 
of time, and by their skill in shaping and 
moving vast blocks of stone used in 
building, which, considering their want 
of iron and the very simple mechanical 
appliances at the command of Egyptian 
builders, are an enigma to modern en- 
The hardening of bronze tools 

7~— — ^^^ ^ ZT^\ 9 ometr y> chemistry, and 

4o □ V\ ^\ | | their knowledge is attest 

^ _g^\ <-— ^ j^ Q} l\ 5. cycles they formed for 

' ? iustment of different re 




with which they cut granite and the mode 
in which Moses destroyed the golden calf 
indicate the progress they had made in 
using metals. In medicine also they 
were inferior only to the Greeks. 

In architecture the Egyptians occupy 
the most distinguished place among the 
nations of antiquity. None have equalled 
them in the grandeur, massiveness, and 
durability of their structures. Mr. Fer- 
gusson says : "Neither Grecian nor Gothic 
architects understood more perfectly all 
the gradations of art and the exact cha- 
racter that should be given to every form 
and every detail. They understood also, 
better than any other nation, how to use 
sculpture in combination with architec- 
ture, and to make their colossi and ave- 
nues of sphinxes group themselves into 
parts of one great design, and at the 
same time to use historical paintings, 
fading by insensible degrees into hier- 
oglyphics on the one hand and into 
sculpture on the other, linking the 
whole together with the highest class 
of phonetic utterance and with the 
most brilliant coloring, thus harmoniz- 
ing all these arts into one great whole 
unsurpassed by anything the world has 
seen during the 30 centuries of struggle 
and aspiration that have elapsed since 
the brilliant days of the great kingdom 
of the Pharaohs." — Handbook of Archi- 

tecture. And Poole observes : " In the 
whole range of ancient art Egyptian 
may take its place next after Greek. 
Indeed, in some instances it excels 
Greek, as when in animal forms the 
natural is subordinated to the ideal. 
The lions from Gebel Barkel . . . are 
probably the finest examples of the 
idealization of animal forms that any 
age has produced." — Encyclopaedia Bri- 
tannica, vol. vii. The pyramids and 
sphinxes, the immense temples, tombs, 
and remarkable obelisks, have called 
forth the admiration alike of the past 
and of the nineteenth century. 

Religion. — In religion the ancient 
Egyptians had an idea of one supreme, 
self-existent creator, but this idea was 
mixed with the basest forms of poly- 
theism and idolatry. Every town had 
its local divinities and its sacred ani- 
mal or fetish. Herodotus remarked 
that it was easier to find a god than a 
man on the Nile. Seth, the destructive 
power of Nature, was for many centu- 
ries the special divinity of Lower 
Egypt, but he was at length displaced. 
There appear to have been various or- 
ders of gods, each town having a cycle 
called a society of the gods, or "the 
nine gods." The Egyptians explained 
this cycle as the self-development of 
Ra, the chief or supreme god, already 

Tlie Principal Egyptian Triad, Osiris, Isis, and Horus. (Ajtcr Eiehm.) 

mentioned, and who appears to be iden- 
tified in Egyptian history of the "eigh- 
teenth dynasty " with the sun and sun- 

Two lists of their deities are given: 
the first is according to the system of 
Memphis, the earlier capital, whos» 
chief gods were Ptah, Ha, Shu or Mu, 

Temple at Karnak. Columns in the Great Hall. (After Photographs by Sebah.) 

Temple of Medinet Abou at Thebes. (Ajter Photographs by beoah,.) 




Seb, Hesiri or Osiris, Hes, Seth or Sethos, 
and Har. Those of the system of Thebes, 
the later capital, were, according to Lep- 
sius, Amen, Mentu, Atmu, Shu, Seb, He- 
siri, Set, Har, and Sehek. These two 
systems, however, may be treated as one, 
consisting of male divinities with whom 
are associated goddesses. Wilkinson 
gives a list of thirteen triads of gods, 
two of whom were usually of equal rank 
and the third subordinate. At Philae 
was the triad of Osiris, Isis, and Horus. 
Sun-worsbip was the primitive formof the 
Egyptian religion. Ra was represented 
as a hawk-headed man, generally bear- 
ing on his head the solar disk. Osiris (in 
Egyptian Hesiri) was usually repre- 
sented as a mummy with a royal cap 
having ostrich plumes; he is the good 
being, the judge of all the dead, and is 
opposed to Seth, the evil being. The 
worship of these gods required priests, 
sacrifices, offerings of fruits, libations, 
and at some early periods human vic- 
tims. Vast temples were built in honor 
of the deities, each town usually hav- 
ing at least one temple, and immense 
tombs were also constructed as a relig- 
ious duty and connected with the wor- 
ship of some of the gods, usually that 
of Osiris or a divinity of that group. 

The Egyptians had a very strong be- 
lief in a future life, and were taught to 
consider their abode here merely as an 
inn upon the road to a future existence 
where there was no distinction in rank. 
After death the body was embalmed 
and often kept in the house for months 
or a year before the burial. See Embalm. 
The mummy of a deceased friend was 
sometimes introduced at their parties 
and placed in a seat at the table as one 
of the guests. Herodotus says that the 
Egyptians were the first to maintain the 
immortality of the soul. They also be- 
lieved in the transmigration of souls. 
Though " Moses was learned in all the 
wisdom of the Egyptians," the system 
of worship and religion which was given 
to the Hebrews under him is in marked 
contrast to the polytheistic and idola- 
trous forms of Egypt, and attests its 
divine origin. 

Chronoloyy and History.^ As the 
father of nations, Egypt in its early 
history antedates all records, and is 
lost in obscurity. Egyptian history 
may be divided into 6 great periods : 

(1) The Pharaohs or native kings, to 
B. c. 525; (2) the Persian, to B. c. 332 ; 
(3) the Ptolemies, to B. c. 30 : (4) the 
Roman, to A. d. 640 ; (5) the Arab; (6) 
the Turk. Egyptian chronology is in 
a confused and unsettled condition. 
New information from the monuments 
has simply increased the difficulty of 
settling the many conflicting statements 
and establishing dates on a satisfactory 
basis. The principal facts that appear to 
be generally accepted are: (1) Menes is 
an historical person, and the first known 
king of Egypt. (2) The Great Pyramid, 
at Gizeh, dates from the fourth dy- 
nasty, and is an imperishable monu- 
ment of the skill and resources of the 
people at that very remote period. (3) 
Manetho's lists of dynasties were chief- 
ly, though not entirely, consecutive, as 
appears from the two lists of the first 
Pharaohs found in the temple of Aby- 
dos, the lists at Sakkarah, and another 
in Thebes : the duration of these dy- 
nasties, however, is not settled. (4) 
The Hyksos, or Shepherd- kings of 
Manetho, conquered and ruled Lower 
Egypt for centuries, breaking the con- 
tinuity of the empire, but they were 
expelled by Amasis I. These H.vksos 
are not to be confounded with the 
Hebrews, whom Manetho deridingly 
calls "lepers." (5) During the eigh- 
teenth dynasty the empire of Egypt 
was in the height of its splendor, its 
conquests reaching to Babylon and 
Nineveh on the Euphrates, and over 
Nubia in the south. (6) No dates can 
be definitively fixed before the begin- 
ning of the twenty-second dynasty. 
The two noted authorities on this sub- 
ject — M. Marietfe and Prof. Lepsius — 
differ over 1100 years in their tables as 
to the length of dynasties I.-XVII. See 
J. P. Thomson in liihliotheca Sacra, 
1877, and Poole in Mncyclopsedfa Bri- 
tannica, vol. vii. Some have conjec- 
tured that Menes. the founder of Egypt, 
was identical with Mizraim, a grandson 
of Noah. Gen. 10 : 6. 

E'.mpt and the Bible.— To the Bible- 
reader the chief points of interest in 
Egvp'ian history are those periods 
when that country came in contact with 
the patriarchs and the Israelites. 

1. The first point is the chronology 
of Egypt as compared with that of the 
Bible. On this it may be said that the 



chronologies of both are in such an un- 
settled state that there cannot fairly be 
said to be an irreconcilable difference 
between them until both are more fully 
and definitively established. The ablest 
Egyptologists vary in their estimates of 
the duration of the empire about 3000 
years. Menes, the first Pharaoh, began 
to reign, according to Boeckh, b. c. 5702 ; 
Mariette, B.C. 5004; Brugsch, B.C. 4455- 
4400 ; Chabas, b. c. 4000 ; Lepsius and 
Ebers, b. c. 3892 ; Bunsen, b. c. 3623- 
3039; Birch, b. c. 3000: Poole, B. c. 
2700 : Wilkinson, b. c. 2691 ; G. Eaw- 
linson, b. c. 2450. Egyptologists gen- 
erally agree that the chronology is 
wholly uncertain, and that we must 
wait for further light and better agree- 
ment among scholars. Bible chronol- 
ogy is likewise unsettled, some theo- 
logians holding to the "long" system 
of the Septuagint, which dates the Cre- 

ation b. c. 5400 (Hales, 5400 ; Jackson, 
5426), and others to the shorter system 
of the Hebrew text (Ussher, 4004; Pe- 
tavius, 3983) ; hence no agreement can 
be attempted until the age of Solomon. 
From his time down there is no ma- 
terial disagreement in the two chro- 
nologies of Egypt and the Hebrew 

2. The second point is the visit of 
Abraham to Egypt. Gen. 12 : 10-20. 
This visit took place, according to the 
shorter Hebrew chronology, about b. c. 
1920, which would bring it, according 
to some, at the date of the Hyksos, or 
Shepherd-kings : others regard this as 
too late a date, and put it in the begin- 
ning of the twelfth dynasty ; and his 
favorable reception is supposed to be 
illustrated by a picture in the tombs at 
Beni-Hassan (where are many remark- 
able sculptures), representing the arrival 

Entrance to Tomb at Beni-Hassan. (From a Photograph.) 

of a distinguished nomad chief with his 
family, seeking protection under Osirta- 
aen II. 
3. The third point of contact with 

Scripture is Joseph in Egypt. Gen. 37 : 
36. This beautiful and natural story 
has been shown to be thoroughly in ac- 
cord with what is known of Egyptian 



customs of that age. Inscriptions on 
the monuments speak of the dreams of 
Pharaoh : the butler's and baker's du- 
ties are indicated in pictures ; one of 
the oldest papyri relates the story that 
a foreigner was raised to the highest 
rank in the court of Pharaoh ; and Dr. 
Brugsch believes an inscription on a 
tomb at el-Kab to contain an unmis- 

Profile of Barneses II.. the Pharaoh of the Oppres 
sion. {After Lepsius.) 

takable allusion to the 7 years of famine 
in Joseph's time, as follows : " I gath- 
ered grain, a friend of the god of har- 
vest. I was watchful at the seed-time. 
And when a famine arose through many 
years I distributed the grain through the 
town in every famine." 

4. The fourth point of interest is the 
oppression of the Israelites in Egypt, 
and the Exodus. Ex. 1 : 8-22 ; 12 :' 41. 
Who was the Pharaoh of the oppression, 
and who the Pharaoh of the Exodus ? 
To this two answers are given by differ- 

ent scholars : (1) Amosis or Aahmes I., 
the first ruler of the eighteenth dynasty, 
is identified with the Pharaoh of the 
oppression, and Thothmes II., about 100 
3 T ears later, as the Pharaoh of the Ex- 
odus, by Canon Cook in Speaker's Com- 
mentary on Exodus, p. 443. (2) That 
Raineses II., the third sovereign of the 
nineteenth dynasty, is the Pharaoh of 
the oppression, and Menephthah the 
Pharaoh of the Exodus, is the view 
now held by a majority of Egyptolo- 
gists — as De Rouge, Chabas, Lenor- 
mant, Vigoroux, Bunsen, Lepsius, 
Ebers, and Brugsch. Rameses II. is 
the Sesostris of the Greeks, who blend- 
ed him with his father, Sethi I., or 
Sethos. He ruled 67 years and was 
the great conqueror and builder, cov- 
ering his empire with monuments in 
glory of himself. " His name," says 
Dr. Ebers, "may be read to-day on 
a hundred monuments in Goshen." 
Among his many structures noted on 
monuments and in papyri are fortifi- 
cations along the canal from Goshen 
to the Red Sea, and particularly at 
Pi-tum and Pi-rameses or Pi-ramessu ; 
these must be the same as the treas- 
ure-cities Pi-thom and Rameses built 
or enlarged by the Israelites for Pha- 
raoh. Ex. 1 : 11. It is also said that 
under the reign of Rameses III., 
nephew of Rameses II., the name jen 
Mosche — i. e. "island" or "bank of 
Moses" — occurs among the towns of 
Middle Egypt. It is noted that Men- 
ephthah, the Pharaoh of the Exodus, 
lost a son, who is named on a monu- 
ment at Tanis, which Brugsch connects 
with the loss of the first-born. But 
another fact is of more weight. Herod- 
otus tells us that a son and successor 
of Sesostris undertook no warlike ex- 
peditions and was smitten with blind- 
ness for 10 years because he "impiously 
hurled his spear into the overflowing 
waves of the river, which a sudden 
wind caused to rise to an extraordinary 
height." Schaff says: "This reads like 
a confused reminiscence of the disaster 
at the Red Sea." The chief objection to 
this view is that it allows less than 315 
years between the Exodus and the 
building of Solomon's temple ; but the 
present uncertainties of the Hebrew 
and Egyptian chronologies deprive the 
objection of great weight. 



5. After the Exodus the Israelites 
frequently came into contact with Egypt 
at various periods in their history. 
Through an Egyptian, David recovered 

Portrait of Menephthah II., the Pharaoh of the 
Exodus. (From Eiehm.) 

the spoil from the Amalekites, 1 Sam. 
30:11, etc.; Solomon made a treaty 
with Pharaoh and married his daughter, 
1 Kgs. 3:1; Gezer was spoiled by 
Pharaoh and given to Solomon's wife, 

1 Kgs. 9:16; Solomon brought horses 
from Egypt ; Hadad fled thither for 
refuge, as did also Jeroboam, 1 Kgs. 
10 : 28 ; 11 : 17 ; 12 : 2 ; Shishak plun- 
dered Jerusalem and made Judsea trib- 
utary, 1 Kgs. 14 : 26, and a record of 
this invasion and conquest has been de- 
ciphered on the walls of the great tem- 
ple at Karnak, or el-Karnak. In this 
inscription is a figure with a strong 
resemblance to Jewish features, which 
bears Egyptian characters that have 
been translated "the king of Judah." 
Pharaoh-necho was met on his expe- 
dition against the Assyrians by Josiah, 
who was slain. 2 Kgs. 23 : 29, 30. Pha- 
raoh-hophra aided Zedekiah, Jer. 37 : 
5-11, so that the siege of Jerusalem 
was raised, but he appears to have 
been afterward attacked by Nebu- 
chadnezzar. The sway of Egypt was 
checked, and finally overcome, by the 
superior power of Babylonia, and its 
entire territory in Asia was taken away. 

2 Kgs. 24 : 7 : Jer. 46 : 2. The books 

of the prophets contain many declara- 
tions concerning the wane and destruc- 
tion of the Egyptian power, which have 
been remarkably fulfilled in its subse- 
quent history. See Isa. 19 ; 20 ; 30 : 
3 j 31 : 3 ; 36 : 6 ; Jer. 2:36; 9 : 25, 26 ; 
43 : 11-13 ; 44 : 30 ; 46 ; Eze. 29 ; 30 ; 
31 ; 32 ; Dan. 11 : 42 ; Joel 3 : 19 ; and 
" the sceptre of Egypt shall depart 
away." Zech. 10 : 11. 

6. In the N. T. there are several ref- 
erences to the relations of the Israelites 
to Egypt as they existed in 0. T. times; 
see Acts 2:10; 7 : 9-40 ; Heb. 3:16; 
11: 26, 27; but the interesting fact in 
the N. T. period was the flight of the 
holy family into Egypt, where the in- 
fant Jesus and his parents found a ref- 
uge from the cruel order of Herod the 
Great. Matt. 2:13-19. 

7. Among the various other allusions 
to Egypt in the Bible are those to its 
fertility and productions, Gen. 13 : 10; 
Ex. 16 : 3 ; Num. 11 : 5 ; to its mode 

| of irrigation as compared with the 
j greater advantages of Canaan, which 
had rain and was watered by natural 
streams, Deut. 11 : 10 ; its commerce 
with Israel and the people of western 
Asia, Gen. 37 : 25, 36 ; 1 Kgs. 10 : 28, 29 ; 
Eze. 27 : 7 ; its armies equipped with 
chariots and horses, Ex. 14 : 7 ; Isa. 31 : 
1 ; its learned men and its priests, Gen. 
41 : 8, 45 ; 47 : 22 ; Ex. 7 : 11 j 1 Kgs. 4 : 
30 ; its practice of embalming the dead, 
Gen. 50:3; its aversion to shepherds, 
and its sacrifices of cattle, Gen. 46 : 34; 
Ex. 8:26; how its people should be ad- 
mitted into the Jewish Church, Deut, 
23 : 7, 8; the warnings to Israel against 
any alliance with the Egyptians, Isa. 
30 : 2 ; 36 : 6 ; Eze. 17 : 15"; 29 : 6 ; and 
to the towns of the country. Eze. 30 : 
13-18. The records on existing monu- 
ments have been found to confirm the 
accuracy of all these allusions to the 
customs of the people. 

History. — The history of Egypt, as 
drawn from other sources than the 
Scriptures, is confused, like the chron- 
ology upon which it depends for clear- 
ness and order. Of the thirty dynasties 
from Menes to the second Persian con- 
quest, B. c. 340, some of the most noted 
earlier kings were Thothmes I. and III., 
Amenoph II. and III., Sethos or Sesos- 
tris, and Rameses II. and III. These 
built many of the vast and grand tem- 



pies and palaces at Karnak and Luxor, 
and carried their conquests to Assyria 
and Ethiopia. Among the later rulers 
were Shishak or Sheshonk, Pharaoh- 
necho, Pharaoh-hophra, and Psammet- 
ichus. Its most populous cities were 
Thebes, Latopolis, Apollinopolis, Syene, 
Memphis, Heraclopolis, Arsinoe, Heli- 
opolis, Bubastis, Sais, Busiris, Tanis, 
and Pelusium. The statements of some 
Greek and Roman writers that Egypt in 
its prosperity had 7,000,000 population 
and 20 7 000 cities are believed to be 
greatly exaggerated. This would re- 
quire it to have sustained an average 
population to the square mile, exclusive 
of the desert, twice as great as the most 
densely-peopled lands of modern times. 
Egypt was conquered by Cambyses the 
Persian about b. c. 525 ; regained its 
independence under Amyrteus, of the 
twenty-eighth dynasty of native kings; 
was again conquered by the Persians un- 
der Darius Ochus, b. c. 340 ; by Alexan- 
der the Great, B. c. 332, when he founded 
Alexandria. After Alexander's death it 
formed a kingdom under the Grecian and 
Macedonian Ptolemies, the Greeks be- 
coming the dominant class (the last of 
the Ptolemies reigned jointly with his 
sister and wife, the famous Cleopatra). 
After the battle of Actium, b. c. 30, Egypt 
became a Roman province. Under the 
Roman rule Alexandria continued to be 
the great mart of trade and the centre 
of learning and philosophy ; for three 
centuries it was under Roman rule, and 
during that period Egypt was account- 
ed the granary of Rome. On the trans- 
fer of the seat of empire to Constantino- 
ple, the Christians, who had been se- 
verely persecuted under its Roman 
rulers, gained the sway over the pagans, 
and for three centuries theological con- 
troversies raged with great fiei-ceness. 
The Arab conquest under Caliph Omar 
came A. r>. 640, followed by the Fatimite 
dynasty, A. D. 970, when Cairo was 
founded and made the capital. Saladin, 
the noted prime minister of the last of 
the Fatimites, assumed the sovereignty, 
with the title of sultan, a. r>. 1170, and 
was a vigorous opposer of the Crusaders. 
The government was overturned by the 
Mamelukes about A. r>. 1250 ; again con- 
quered by Seliin I., a. d. 1517.; by Na- 
poleon in 1798; by the combined forces 
of the English and the Turks in 1801 ; 

and, soon after, Mehemet Ali, an Alba- 
nian adventurer, was made pasha, being 
nominally a vassal of Turkey, but his 
power was nearly absolute. Under the 
reign of his grandson, the present khe- 
dive or viceroy (since 1863), Egypt has 
been restored to some extent from its 
low condition, schools and colleges have 
been founded, commerce and manufac- 
tures encouraged, numerous reforms in- 
troduced, the Suez Canal completed and 
opened to the commerce of the world, 
railways and telegraphs have been con- 
structed; but the condition of the people 
has not been improved, and poverty and 
misery prevail. The treasury of the 
khedive is nearly bankrupt. Egypt is 
" the old house of bondage under new 

The Presbyterian Church has estab- 
lished flourishing mission schools in 
Alexandria, Cairo, and Osiout, among 
the Copts. 

Monuments and Ruins. — "Egypt is the 
monumental land of the earth," says Bun- 
sen, " as the Egyptians are the monu- 
mental people of history." Among 
the most interesting ancient cities 
are: (1) On or Heliopolis, "the city of 
the Sun," 10 miles north-east of Cairo, 
where are traces of massive walls, frag- 
ments of sphinxes, and an obelisk of 
red granite, 68 feet high, beai-ing an in- 
scription of Osirtasen I. of the twelfth 
dynasty, and erected, therefore, previ- 
ous to the visit of Abraham and Sarah 
to the land of the Pharaohs. Formerly 
the two "Needles of Cleopatra" stood 
here also, but were removed to Alexan- 
dria during the reign of Tiberius ; and 
one of them has lately been transported 
to London, and now stands on the banks 
of the Thames. Joseph was married at 
Heliopolis, Gen. 41 : 45, and there (ac- 
cording to Josephus) Jacob made his 
home; it was probably the place where 
Moses received his education, where He- 
rodotus acquired most of his skill in writ- 
ing history, and where Plato, the Greek 
philosopher, studied. (2) Thebes "of the 
hundred gates," one of the most famous 
cities of antiquity, is identified with No 
or No- Amnion of Scripture. Jer. 46 : 25 ; 
Eze. 30 : 14-16 : Nah. 3 : 8. The ruins 
are very extensive, and the city in its 
glory stretched over 30 miles along the 
banks of the Nile, covering the places 
now known as Luxor, Karnak. and 

Ascent of the Geeat Ptkamid oe Egypt. {From a recent Photograph.) 



Thebes. (3) Memphis, the Noph of 
Scripture, Jer. 46:19. "Nothing is 
left of its temples and monuments but 
a colossal statue of Rameses II., lying 
mutilated on the face in the mud.'' 

Only a very brief notice of the wonder- 
ful monuments can be given here. For 
convenience these may be grouped into 
two classes: (a) The pyramids, obelisks, 
and statues; (b) the palaces, temples, 
and tombs. 

The Obelisk of On. (Heliopolis. From a Photo- 
graph by Good.) 

(a) The number of pyramids still ex- 
isting in Egypt is variously stated at 
from 45 or 65 to 130. Brugsch says 
" more than 70 ;" Lepsius speaks of no 
less than 30 that had escaped the notice 
of former travellers (1842-1844); others 
count as many as 130, including all pyr- 
amidal structures, ancient and modern. 
Piazzi Smyth (1874) reduces them all to 
38, and gives a list of them. The largest 
and most remarkable are those near 

Memphis, at Sakkara, Aboosir, Dashoor, 
and Gizeh. The three at Gizeh are the 
most interesting of all. The largest 
of these is that of Cheops, which was 
erected from 2000 to 3000 years before 
Christ. It was old when Rome was 
built, when Homer sang, when David 
reigned, and even when Moses led out 
the Israelites. This pyramid, accord- 
ing to General Vyse, is 450 feet 9 inches 
high (it was formerly about 30 feet high- 
er), the present length of its base is 746 
feet (it was formerly 764 feet), and it 
covers an area of about 13 acres. It 
has been stripped of its polished stone 
casing in centuries past to adorn the 
palaces of Greeks, Romans, and Sara- 
cens. It is the largest, and probably 
the oldest, structure in the world. The 
second pyramid is scarcely inferior to 
the first in height, being 447 feet 6 
inches high and having a base 690 feet 
9 inches square. A great part of its 
casing has been preserved. The third 
pyramid is smaller than either of the 
other two, but in beauty and costliness 
of construction is unexcelled by any 
other pyramid. These colossal struc- 
tures were erected as monuments and 
tombs of the kings. The body of the 
dead monarch was embalmed, placed in 
a stone sarcophagus, put into the mas- 
sive tomb, and the entrance closed. See 
Schaff's Bible Lands, p. 40. Near the 
pyramids is the great Sphinx, a massive 
man-headed lion in a recumbent posture, 
nearly 190 feet long, with immense paws, 
formerly 50 feet in length. The vast 
figure is buried in the sand, except his 
colossal head. There are also six other 
smaller pyramids near the three here 
described, three standing to the east of 
the Great Pyramid and three to the 
south of the third one. Southward of 
those at Gizeh are the pyramids at 
Aboosir, and about 2 miles still far- 
ther are those of Sakkara, while about 
5 miles beyond are those of Dashoor, 
two of which are built of stone and three 
of brick. 

(b) Of the palaces, temples, and tomb- 
structures, the most remarkable is the 
famous Labyrinth, in the Feiyoom dis- 
trict, which Bunsen calls the most gor- 
geous edifice on the globe; it includes 
12 palaces and 3000 saloons. The tem- 
ples at Karnak and Luxor are the most 
interesting, the grandest among them 

Front of Temple at Aboo Simbel, Nubia. (Ajter Photographs.) 

Avenue of Sphinxes and Propylon at Karnak, {After Photographs.) 



all being the magnificent temple of 
Rameses II. See No and No-Ammon. 
There are ruins of temples at Denderah, 
Abydos, Philae, Heliopolis, and at Ipsam- 
boul, 170 miles south of Philae, in Nu- 
bia. Among the noted tombs are those 
at Thebes, Beni-Hassan, and Osiout, 
and among the obelisks are those at 

Luxor, Karnak, Heliopolis, and Alex- 
andria. These wonderful ruins attest 
the magnificence and grandeur, but also 
the absolute despotism and slavery, of 
this land in the earliest ages and as far 
back as before the days of Abraham, 
and they also attest in the most impres- 
sive manner the fulfilment of prophecy. 

In a cave near Thebes 39 royal mum- 
mies and various other objects were dis- 
covered in 1881. Among the mummies 
was that of Rameses II., the Pharaoh 
of the oppression, which has been fully 
described by Maspero. A trilingual 
inscription, perhaps a century older than 
the Rosetta Stone, has aiso been lately 
found, and one of the oldest pyramids 

The Egyptians believed in the immor- 
tality of the soul, and that when the 
soul reached the Hall of Double Justice, 
the heart in its vase was placed in one 
scale, and the goddess of Truth in the 
other. Horus and a cynocephalus con- 
ducted the process of weighing, Anubis 
superintended, Thoth recorded the re- 
sult, and Osiris, with 42 counsellors, pro- 
nounced sentence. If the heart was 
light, the soul suffered the torments of 
hell, or was sent into a pig or some un- 
clean animal, then returned to begin life 
anew, and have another trial by judges. 
If the heart was heavy, the soul was 
sent to the regions of the blest. (See 
Baedeker's Lower Egypt, p. 137.) 

For ancient Egypt see the following 
works : Caylus, Comte de, Recueil d'An- 
tiquites Eyyptiennes, etc., Paris, 1761— 
67, 7 vols. 4to ; Alexander, Egyptian 
Monuments now in the British Museum, 

Judgment of the Dead. (After Eiehm.) 

collected by the French Institute, 1805-7, 
5 parts roy. fol. ; Birch, S., Facsimiles 
of the Eyypt inn Belies discovered at 
Thebes in 'the Tomb of Aah Hotep, 1820, 
oblongfol. : Rosellini, I Monumenti dell' 
Egitta e dell a Nubia, Pisa, 1832-44, 3 
vols, atlas fol. and 9 vols. 8vo of text; 
Sharpe, Egyptian Inscriptions from the 
British Museum, etc., London, 1835-65, 
2 series roy. fol. ; Bonomi and Arun- 
dale, Gallery of Antiquities in the Brit- 
ish Museum with Inscriptions by Birch, 
1844, 2 parts; Bunsen, Egypt's Place 
in Universal History, 1848-67, 5 vols. 
Svo, vol. v. being a hieroglyphical lex- 
icon and grammar by S. Birch ; Lep- 
sius, Chronologie der Egypter, etc., Ber- 
lin, 1849, imp.4to; Lepsius, Benkmaeler 
mis ^Eqypten vnd jEthiopien, Berlin, 
1849-59, 12 vols, eleph. fol. and 1 vol. 
of introductory text, imp. 4to ^ Rouge, 
Bituel Funeraire de And ens Egyptiens, 
Paris, 1861-66, 5 y> livraisons, imp. fol. ; 
Pleyte, Etudes Egyptnlogiques, Leide, 
1866-69, 7 parts 4to; Brugsch, Diction- 
naire Hieroglyphiqne, Leipzig, 1867, fol. ; 
Ebers, jEqypten uud die Bucher Mose's, 
vol. i., Leipzig, 1868, 8vo : Pleyte, Lea 
Papyrus Rollin de la Bibliotheque Im- 
ped ale de Paris, 1868, atlas 4to ; Frith, 
Eqypt and Palestine Photographed and 
Described, 1870, 2 vols. roy. fol. ; Wil. 



kinson, Sir J. G., The Manners and Cus- 
toms of the Ancient Egyptians, new edi- 
tion by S. Birch, LL.D.. London, 1879, 
3 vols. 8vo ; Brugsch-Bey, Geschichte 
Aegypten's unter den Pharaonen. Nach 
den Denkm'dlern, Leipzig, 1877 ; Engl, 
translation, London, 2d ed., 1881, 2 vols. ; 
F. Vigouroux, La Bible et les deconvertes 
modernes en Eyypte et en Assyrie, Paris, 
1877,2 vols.; Ebers, Aegypten im Bild 
und Wort, Leipzig, 1879. On modern 
Egypt: Lane, The Modern Egyptians, 2 
vols., London, 5th ed., 1871; Zinke, 
Egypt of the Pharaohs and the Khedive, 
Lond., 1873; Klunzinger, Upper Egypt, 
London, 1878. 

E'HI {my brother), a son of Benja- 
min, Gen. 46 : 21 ; called Ahiram, Num. 
26 : 38 ; Aher, 1 Chr. 7 : 10 ; Aharah, 

E'HUD (union). 1. A great-grand- 
son of Benjamin. 1 Chr. 7:18; 8:6. 

2. A son of Gera, of the tribe of Ben- 
jamin, who delivered the Israelites from 
the oppression which they suffered un- 
der Eglon, king of Moab. Jud. 3 : 15. 
The Israelites sent Ehud to pay some 
tax or tribute to Eglon as a token of 
their allegiance. Under the pretence 
that he had some secret message to the 
king, he obtained a private audience ; 
and while they were together, Ehud 
drew a dagger which he had made ex- 
pressly for the purpose, and gave him 
a mortal wound. The custom of deliv- 
ering confidential messages in secret 
appears to have been so common that 
the attendants of Eglon left his pres- 
ence as soon as Ehud's wish was known. 
Such is the custom in Eastern courts at 
this day ; as soon as a confidential mes- 
sage is announced the audience-cham- 
ber is cleared of all but the messenger. 
Ehud fled toward Mount Ephraim ; and 
summoning the oppressed Israelites to 
his help, they secured the fords of the 
Jordan, so that the Moabites, by whom 
their land was garrisoned, might not 
escape. As soon as he had collected a 
sufficient force he fell upon the Moab- 
ites, and cut them off in every direction. 
" And the land had rest fourscore years." 
Jud. 3 : 26-30. 

E'KER (a rooting up), a descendant 
of Judah. 1 Chr. 2:27. 

EK'RON (emigration), the most 
northerly of the five cities of the Phil- 
istines, Josh. 13 : 3 ; in the lowlands of 

Judah, 15 : 11 ; conquered by Judah 
15 : 45 ; allotted to Dan, 19 : 43 ; recon 
quered by Samuel, 1 Sam. 5 : 10 ; 7 : 14 
again a Philistine city, 1 Sam. 17 : 52 
2 Kgs. 1:2; Jer. 25 : 20 ; Am. 1:8 
Zech. 9:5; now called Akir, on a hill 
12 miles south-east of Joppa, a wretched 
village of about 50 mud hovels. The 
prophecy has been fulfilled, " Ekron 
shall be rooted up." Zeph. 2:4. 

JEL, which often occurs as an ele- 
ment of Hebrew words and names, sig- 
nifies " strength," and is applied not 
only to Jehovah, but to heathen gods. 

EL'ADAH, an Ephraimite. 1 Chr. 

E'LAH (terebinth). 1. An Edomite 
chieftain. Gen. 36 : 41 ; 1 Chr. 1 : 52. 

2. The father of one of Solomon's 
provision officers. 1 Kgs. 4:18. 

3. The son and successor of Baasha, 
king of Israel. He reigned 2 years, 
B. c. 930-928, and was assassinated by 
Zimri, one of his military officers, while 
revelling at the house of his steward, 
Arza, at Tirzah. 1 Kgs. 16 : 6-10. 

4. The father of Hoshea, the last 
king of Israel. 2 Kgs. 15 : 30 ; 17 : 1 ; 
18 : 1, 9. 

5. A son of Caleb, the son of Jephun- 
neh. 1 Chr. 4: 15. 

6. A Benjamite. 1 Chr. 9:8. 

EL A.H. (terebinth), VALLEY OF, 
where David slew Goliath. I Sam. 17 : 
2, 19; 21:9. It is now called Wady 
es-Sunt, or "Acacia Valley," 14 miles 
south-west of Jerusalem. The valley is 
about a quarter of a mile wide, and has 
steep sides rising to a height of about 
500 feet. The torrent or brook has a 
deep channel in the middle of the val- 
ley, and its course is strewn with smooth 
white stones. Terebinth trees, which 
gave the original title to the valley, 
are still found there. 

E'LAM (age). 1. The eldest son of 
Shem, and ancestor of the Elamites 
and Persians. Gen. 10 : 22 ; 1 Chr. 1: 

2. A Korhite Levite in the time of 
David. 1 Chr. 26:3. 

3. A chief man of Benjamin. 1 Chr. 

4. " Children of Elam" returned from 
Babylon. Ezr. 2:7; 8:7; Neh. 7 : 12. 

5. Children of " the other Elam " like- 
wise returned. Ezr. 2 : 31 ; Neh. 7 : 34. 
Their representative sealed the cove- 




nant. N eh. 10:14. Some had foreign 
wives. Ezr. 10 : 26. 

6. A priest who helped to dedicate 
the wall. Neh. 12:42. 

E'LAM, a country peopled by the 
descendants of Shem, and called, after 
his son, Elam. Gen. 10 : 22. It lay 
south of Assyria and west of Persia 
proper, and reached to the Persian 
Gulf. Herodotus called it Cissia. It 
was a province of Persia, of which 
Susa was capital. Ezr. 4:9; Dan. 

History. — Elam was a strong power 
in Abram's time. Gen. 14: 9. Its peo- 
ple aided in the destruction of Babylon, 
Isa. 21 : 2 ; invaded Israel, 22 : 6. Its 
destruction was foretold. Jer. 49 : 34- 
39 ; 25 : 25 ; Eze. 32 : 24, 25. A re- 
markable statement illustrating the 
truth of the Scriptures in respect to 
Elam has lately been deciphered from 
Assyrian cylinders in the British Mu- 
seum. Assur-banipal records, B.C. 668- 
626, " In my fifth expedition, to Elam 
I directed the march. ... I over- 
whelmed Elam through its extent. I 
cut off" the head of Te-umman, their 
wicked king, who devised evil. Beyond 
number I slew his soldiers. . . . For a 
month and a day Elam to its utmost 
extent I swept." There are other rec- 
ords equally remarkable, but there is 
not space to quote them. 

EI/ASAH {whom God made). 1. 
The son of Shaphan. Jer. 29:3. 

2. A priest who had a foreign wife. 
Ezr. 10 : 22. 

E'LATH, or E'LOTH {trees), a 
seaport-town of Edom, at the northern 
end of the eastern arm of the Red Sea. 
Deut. 2:8; 2 Chr. 8:17. It is usually 
associated in Scripture with Ezion-geber. 
The children of Israel passed by it; it 
was a part of David's conquest, Deut. 
2:8; 2 Sam. 8 : 14; was a place of im- 
portance in Solomon's time, 1 Kgs. 9 : 
26, 28 ; was recaptured by the Edom- 
ites, 2 Kgs. 8 : 20 : was retaken by Uz- 
ziah, 2 Kgs. 14 : 22 ; 2 Chr. 26 : 2, who 
rebuilt it ; was afterward taken by the 
king of Damascus, 2 Kgs. 16 : 6, and 
later by Assyria. 2 Kgs. 16 : 7-9. Stan- 
ley thinks that Elath was on the site of 
modern Aknba, and Robinson placed it 
on a mound near A/caba. Palm-groves 
still exist there. 

EL-BETHEL (the Godof Bethel), 

the name given by Jacob to the place 
where he built an altar, or to the altar 
itself. Gen. 35 : 7 ; comp. 33 : 20. See 

EL'DAAH (whom God calls), the 
last named son of Midian, and a grand- 
son of Abraham by Keturah. Gen. 25 : 
4; 1 Chr. 1:33. 

EL'DAD (whom God loves), and 
ME'DAD (love), were of the 70 elders 
of Israel appointed by Moses to assist 
jim in the government of the people. 
Num. 11 : 26. When the elders were 
assembled around the tabernacle to 
seek wisdom from God on a particular 
occasion, Eldad and Medad were ab- 
sent. The Spirit of God was, how- 
ever, poured out on them in the camp, 
and they prophesied. Their proceed- 
ing was represented to Moses, and he 
was asked to prohibit them, but he de- 
clined, and, so far from wishing them 
to be silenced, he uttered a prayer that 
all the people might receive the same 
spirit which was upon Eldad and Me- 

The passage is important as proving 
the distribution of the spirit of proph- 
ecy, which had been concentrated in 
Moses. The mode of prophecy of these 
men was perhaps the extempore produc- 
tion of hymns chanted forth to the peo- 
ple. Compare the case of Saul. 1 Sam. 

ELD'ERS, a comprehensive title, 
the peculiar force of which must be de- 
termined by the connection. Ex. 3 : 16. 

1. Old Testament Usage. — During the 
sojourn of Israel in Egypt the elders, 
Ex. 4 : 29-31, were probably either the 
heads of tribes or the oldest and most 
judicious of the people. And though 
their authority was in its nature pater- 
nal, they were regarded to a certain ex- 
tent as the representatives of the na- 
tion. In the Hebrew commonwealth 
every city had its elders. Deut. 19 : 12 ; 
21:2-9; Josh. 20:4; Jud. 8:14; Ezr. 

There was a body of elders, however, 
selected and appointed for special duties, 
Num. 11 : 16, 17, 24, 25, and they seem to 
have been taken from the general class 
of elders. The expression is." Gather unto 
me seventy men of the elders of Israel, 
whom thou knowest to be elders of the 
people, and officers over them." The 
70 men who were with Moses at Mount 



Sinai were also 70 of the elders of Is- | 
rael. Ex. 24 : 1, 9. At a subsequent 
period of Jewish history we find a tri- 
bunal of 70 elders, known as the San- 
hedrin, which the Rabbins maintain 
was a continuance of the original ap- ] 
pointment of elders by Moses. Elders 
are mentioned in the Maccabaean times, i 
about B. c. 175, 1 Mace. 7:33; 12:6; i 
and in the N. T. are associated, but not 
to be confounded, with the chief priests 
and scribes. Matt. 16 : 21, etc. See San- 


2. New Testament Usage. — The name 
elder or presbyter is no doubt of Jewish- 
Christian origin, a translation of the 
Hebrew title applied to the rulers of 
the synagogues, on whom devolved the 
conduct of religious affairs. Referring 
originally to age and dignity, it came 
to apply to office. The term bishop 
(borrowed, in all probability, from the 
political relations of the Greeks), while 
applied to the same office of elder or 
presbyter, refers to the official duty and 
activity of these rulers of congregations. 
In Acts 20 : 28, Paul addresses as " bish- 
ops" ("overseers" in our version) the 
very same rulers of the Ephesian church 
who had just before (v. 17) been called 
"elders." In Phil 1 : 1 he salutes the 
saints in Pbilippi, with the "bishops 
and deacons," without mentioning the 
elders, which has been explained by 
supposing the latter to have been iden- 
tical with the bishops. The plural form 
is further evidence, since there cannot be 
more than one diocesan " bishop," in the 
latter sense, in any one church. Tit. 1 : 
5 and the other appropriate passages in 
the pastoral Epistles prove the same fact. 

As to the time and manner of the in- 
troduction of eldership we have no such 
information as is given respecting the 
diaconate. Acts 6. But we conjecture 
that it came early in the Church — per- 
haps was even co-eval with it ; in which 
case it is no wonder that its introduc- 
tion is not mentioned. As the office 
was a Christian imitation of the Jew- 
ish "rulers of the synagogues," who 
conducted the prayer, reading, and ex- 
position which constituted the service, 
every church had a number of elders. 
There is in the N. T. no set distinction 
made between the teaching and the rul- 
ing elder; both offices were united in 
the same person. See Bishop. 

Elders, Estate of the. Acts 22 : 5. 
See Estate of the Elders. 

E'JLJEAD (whom God praises), an 
Ephraimite. 1 Chr. 7 : 21. 

ELEALEH (whither God ascends), 
a city east of Jordan ; given to the Reu- 
benites, Num. 32 : 3, 37 ; afterward pos- 
sessed by Moab, Isa. 15 : 4; 16 : 9 ; Jer. 
48:34; now el-A'al ("the high"), 1 
mile north-east of Heshbon. 

ELE'ASAH (whom God made). 1. 
A descendant of Judah. 1 Chr. 2 : 39. 

2. A descendant of Saul. 1 Chr. 8: 
37 ; 9 : 43. The name elsewhere in the 
A. V. is Elasah. 

ELEA'ZAR (God's help). 1. The 
third son of Aaron, Ex. 6 : 23, and his 
successor in the office of high priest, 
which he held for upward of 20 years, 
and his family after him till the time of 
Eli. Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and 
Ithamar, together with their father, 
Aaron, were consecrated to the sacer- 
dotal office. The first two were struck 
dead for offering strange fire. See 
Abihu. Eleazar, being the eldest sur- 
viving son, succeeded his father, and 
was himself succeeded by his eldest 
son, Phinehas, according to the cove- 
nant. Num. 25: 10, 13. The time of 
Eleazar's death is not given, but Jo- 
sephus, probably representing Jewish 
tradition, says it was at the same time 
as Joshua's, or 25 years after Moses. 
The office continued in Eleazar's line 
through seven successions, and then 
passed into the line of Ithamar in the 
person of Eli, who was both high priest 
and judge, but was restored to the fam- 
ily of Eleazar in the person of Zadok. 
Comp. 1 Sam. 2 : 35; 1 Kgs. 2 : 27. 

2. The son of Abinadab, to whose care 
the ark was committed when it was sent 
back by the Philistines. 1 Sam. 7 : 1. 

3. A warrior of distinguished courage, 
two of whose exploits are recorded in 1 
Chr. 11 : 11-18 and 2 Sam. 23 : 9. 

4. A Levite, son of Merari, who is 
mentioned as having no sons ; but his 
daughters were married by their " breth- 
ren " — i. e. cousins. 1 Chr. 23 : 21. 

5. A priest who took part in Nehe- 
miah's dedicatory feast. N eh. 12 : 42. 

6. One with a foreign wife. Ezr. 10 : 

7. A Levite. Ezr. 8 : 33. 

8. An ancestor of Joseph. Matt. 1 : 




ELECT', ELECTION. The I ELEPH (the ox), a city of Benja- 
Greek word (eklektos) for "elect" or J min. Josh. 18:28. The Pal. Memoirs 
"chosen" comes from a verb meaning suggest Lifta, a village about 2 miles 
"to choose." It is applied to persons north-west of Jerusalem, as its site, 
or things. Luke 14 : 7 : John 6 : 70. The EL'EPHANT. See Ivory. 
verb is uniformly translated in A. V. ' ELHA'NAX {whoyn God bestoiced). 

"choose," but the adjective both "cho- 
sen " and " elect." Luke 23 : 35 : cf. 18 : 
7. Choice implies preference, hence ap- 
proval, favor, delight, as in Luke 23 : 35 
the Messiah is called " the chosen of 
God " — i. e. the One in whom God takes 

The elect in N. T. usage are those 
chosen of God unto salvation, who there- 
fore enjoy his favor and lead a holy 
life in communion with him. Matt. 24 : 
22 ; Mark 13 : 27 ; Luke 18 : 7 ; Rom. 8 : 
33 ; Tit. 1 : 1. Paul once speaks of "the 
election," Rom. 11 : 7, instead of " the 
elect," just as he says "the circumcis- 
ion" instead of "the circumcised." 
Rom. 2 : 26. In Matt. 22 : 14 the call- 
ing of God is distinguished from the 
choosing of God : " Many are called, 
but few are chosen." All are called 
who hear the sound of the gospel and 
are invited to accept its terms of salva- 
tion, but those onlv are chosen who re- 

1. One of David's warriors, who slew a 
Philistinian giant. 2 Sam. 21 : 19 j 1 Chr. 

2. Another of David's warriors. 2 
Sam. 23:24: 1 Chr. 11 : 26. 

E'LI (ascent, elevation), a descendant 
of Ithamar, the fourth son of Aaron, and 
successor of Abdon as high priest and 
i judge of Israel. 1 Sam. 2 : 11. In con- 
sequence of his negligence or injudi- 
; cious management of his two sons, 
'\ Hophni and Phinehas, he suffered se- 
j vere chastisement. Samuel was direct- 
ed to disclose to Eli the judgments that 
! would come upon his family, 1 Sam. 3 : 
I 13, 14, chiefly because of his neglect of 
i paternal duty. The old man received 
the intelligence with remarkable sub- 
mission, but it was not until 27 years 
! after that God fulfilled his threatenings. 
Then his two sons were both slain in the 
j same battle with the Philistines, into 
whose hands the ark of God fell. The 

pent and believe and persevere to the end. I aged priest, then in his 9Sth year, was 

Elect Lady. 2 John 1. This title is j 
applied by John to some eminent Chris- 
tian woman, or else it was a figurative 
expression denoting a Christian church. 
of God), the name which Jacob gave to 
an altar near Shechem, Gen. 33 : 18-20 ; 
probably the place where Abraham had 
built an altar. Gen. 12 : 7. The el des- 
ignates God as the mighty One. able to 
do whatsoever he pleased. He delivered 
Jacob, whose other name — "Israel" — 
denoted his power with God. 

ELEMENTS, Gal. 4 : 3. 9. else- 
where rendered RUDIMENTS, Col. 
2 : 8. 20, or the first principles of an art or 
science, is a term applied to the ceremo- 
nial ordinances of the Mosaic law, which 
were weak, and beggarly, inasmuch as 
they consisted very much in outward 
observances, Heb. 9:1, and were of 
temporary and partial service, when 
compared with the disclosures of grace 
and mercy which they were designed 
to shadow forth. In the case of the 
Colossians. probably, these rudiments 
of the world embraced the doctrines of 
some vain and deceitful philosophy. 

so overwhelmed when these calamities 
were made known to him that he fell 
backward from his seat and broke his 
neck. He had governed the Hebrews in 
all their concerns, civil and religious, 
for the long period of 40 years. 1 Sam. 
4 : 18. See Eloi. 

THANI {my God, my God, why hast 
thou forsaken me), our Lord's cry upon 
the cross. Matt. 27 : 46. The words are 
Syro-Chaldaic, but are more correctly 
given in Mark 15 : 34. 

ELI'AB (to whom God. is father). 1. 
The name of the prince of Zebulun when 
the census at Sinai was taken. Xum. 1 : 
9; 2:7: 7 : 24, 29 ; 10:16. 

2. The father of Dathan and Abiram. 
Num. 16 : 1. 12 ; 26 : 8, 9 ; Deut. 11 : 6. 

3. The eldest brother of David. 1 Sam. 
16 : 6 : 17 : 13, 28 ; 1 Chr. 2 : 13 : 2 Chr. 
11 18. 

4. A Levite, ancestor of Samuel. 1 
Chr. 6 : 27. In 1 Sam. 1:1 he is called 
Elihu. and in 1 Chr. 6 : 34, Eliel. 

5. A Gadite leader who joined David 
when in hold. 1 Chr. 12 : 9. 

6. A Levite who was both a porter 



and a musician. 1 Chr. 15 : 18, 20 ; 

ELI'ADA (whom God knows). 1. A 
son born to David in Jerusalem. 2 Sam. 
5:16: 1 Chr. 3:8. In 1 Chr. 14 : 7 he 
is called Beeliada — Baal substituted for 
El, the true God. 

2. A Benjamite, one of Jehoshaphat's 
captains. 2 Chr. 17 : 17. 

ELI'ADAH (lohom God knows), the 
father of Rezon. 1 Kgs. 11 : 23-25. 

ELF AH [my God is Jehovah). 1. A 
Benjamite chief. 1 Chr. 8 : 27. 

2. One who had a foreign wife. Ezr. 

ELI'AHBA (whom God hides), one 
of David's mighty men. 2 Sam. 23 : 32 ; 
1 Chr. 11 : 33. 

ELFAKIM (whom God establishes). 
1. The master of the household of Hez- 
ekiah. and one of the commissioners ap- 
pointed to treat with the king of Assyr- 
ia. 2 Kgs. 18 : 18, 26, 37 ; 19 : 2 ; Isa. 
22:20; 36:3, 11, 22; 37:2. 

2. The son and successor of Josiah, 
king of Judah. His name was changed 
to Jehoiakim. 2 Kgs. 23:34; 2 Chr. 

3. A priest who helped to dedicate the 
wall. Neh. 12:41. 

4. 5. Two persons in Christ's gene- 
alogy. Matt. 1:13; Luke 3 : 30. 

ELFAM (God's people). 1. The 
father of Bath-sheba, 2 Sam. 11 : 3 ; 
called Ammiel in 1 Chr. 3:5; the names 
mean the same. 

2. One of David's warriors. 2 Sam. 
23 : 34. 

ELFAS, the Greek form of Elijah, 
used in the N. T. See Elijah. 

ELFASAPH (whom God added). 
1. The chief of Gad when the second 
census was taken. Num. 1 : 14 ; 2:14; 
7:42,47; 10:20. 

2. A Levite. Num. 3 : 24. 

ELFASHIB (whom God restores). 
1. A priest in the time of David. 1 Chr. 

2. A descendant of David. 1 Chr. 3: 24. 

3. The high priest in the time of Ne- 
hemiah. Ezr. 10 : 6 : Neh. 3 : 1, 20, 21 : 
12 : 10. 22, 23 ; 13 : 4, 7, 28. 

4. A Levite who had a strange wife. 
Ezr. 10 : 24. 

5. 6. Two similar offenders. 10 : 27, 36. 
ELIATHAH (to whom God 

comes), a Levite musician in the time of 
David. 1 Chr. 25 : 4, 27. 

ELFDAD (whom God loves), the 
Benjamite representative in the allot- 
ment of Canaan. Num. 34 : 21. 

E'EIEL (to whom God is strength). 
1. A chief of cis-Jordanic Manasseh. 1 
Chr. 5 : 24. 

2. An ancestor of Samuel. 1 Chr. 6 : 

3, 4. A Benjamite chief. 1 Chr. 8:20, 

5, 6. Warriors under David. 1 Chr. 
11 : 46, 47. 

7. A Gadite chief who joined David 
in the hold. 1 Chr. 12:11. 

8. A Kohathite Levite in David's 
time. 1 Chr. 15:9, 11. 

9. An overseer of offerings in Heze- 
kiah's reign. 2 Chr. 31 : 13. 

ElilE'NAI (toward Jehovah are my 
eyes), a Benjamite chief. 1 Chr. 8 : 20. 

ELIE'ZER (God is help). 1. 
Abraham's steward and confidential 
servant. Gen. 15 : 2. 

2. The second son of Moses and Zip- 
porah. Ex. 18 : 4; 1 Chr. 23 : 15, 17; 

3. A Benjamite chief. 1 Chr. 7 : 8. 

4. A priest in David's reign. 1 Chr. 
15 : 24. 

5. A ruler of the Beubenites in Da- 
vid's time. 1 Chr. 27 : 16. 

6. A prophet who rebuked Jehosha- 
phat. 2 Chr. 20 : 37. 

7. A prominent Jew sent by Ezra to 
fetch Levites. Ezr. 8:16. 

8. 9, 10. Those who had foreign wives. 
Ezr. 10 : 18, 23, 31. 

11. One of Christ's ancestors. Luke 

ELIHOE'NAI (toward Jehovah 
are my eyes), one who returned with 
Ezra. Ezr. 8:4. 

ELIHO'REPH (God his recom- 
pense), one of Solomon's scribes. 1 Kgs. 

ELFHU (God is he; i. e. Jehovah). 
1. An ancestor of Samuel the prophet. 
1 Sam. 1:1. 

2. The eldest brother of David. 1 Chr. 
27 : 18. 

3. A chief of Manasseh who followed 
David to Ziklag. 1 Chr. 12 : 20. 

4. A Korhite Levite in the time of 
David. 1 Chr. 26 : 7. 

5. The son of Barachel the Buzite, a 
friend of Job, and a kind of arbitrator in 
the controversy between him and three 
other of his acquaintances, who had come 




to sympathize with him in his calamities. 
Job 32 : 2. Elihu was the youngest of 
them all, and therefore diffident about 
giving his opinion in the presence of 
such old men, but still, in opposition to 
the three friends, who accused Job of 
secret sins, he sets forth in soothing 
and yet faithful discourse the idea of 
the disciplinary nature of suffering, 
and therefore tells Job to submit him- 
self in loving confidence unto Jeho- 
vah's chastening hand. See Job. 

ELI' J AH (my God is Jehovah), OR 
ELI'AS (which is the Greek form of 
the name). Matt. 17 : 3. A native of Gil- 
ead, and called the " Tishbite," proba- 
bly from the name of the town or dis- 
trict in which he lived. 1 Kgs. 17 : 1. 
He was one of the greatest of prophets. 
He is first introduced to our notice as a 
messenger from God to Ahab, the wick- 
ed king of Israel, probably in the tenth 
year of his reign. He was sent to ut- 
ter a prophecy of a three years' drought 
in the land of Israel. After delivering 
this startling and distressing prophecy, 
he was directed to flee to the brook Cher- 

Place of Elijah's Sacrifice. 
ith, where he was miraculously fed by 
ravens. When the brook had dried up 
he was sent to a widow-woman of Zare- 
phath, and again the hand of the Lord 
supplied his wants and those of his 
friends. He raised the widow's son to 
life. 1 Kgs. 17. After the famine had 
lasted the predicted period, Elijah en- 
countered Ahab, and then ensued the 
magnificent display of divine power 
and of human trust upon the ridge of 
Carmel. ch. 18. See Ahab. 

The reaction from such a mental 
strain left the prophet in a weak, ner- 
vous condition, and in a fit of despond- 
ency he fled from Jezebel into the 
" wilderness " and desired death. But 
by angel-food nourished and inspirited, 

he journeyed 40 days, until he reached 
Mount Sinai. There the downcast man 
of God was witness of Jehovah's strength 
and experienced Jehovah's tenderness 
in a very remarkable vision. 1 Kgs. 
19 : 9-18. Encouraged by the assur- 
ance that contrary to his supposition he 
did not stand alone as the onjy worship- 
per of the Lord in Israel, and, more- 
over, having a fresh commission grant- 
ed him, forth from Mount Sinai he was 
sent with renewed zeal and confidence. 
He anointed Elisha to be prophet in his 
room, ch.19. He then retired into pri- 
vacy, but after the dastardly murder of 
Naboth he suddenly appeared before 
the guilty king and announced the 
judgment of Jehovah against the roy- 
al pair. ch. 21. Several years after oc- 
curred the prophecy of Ahaziah's death. 
2 Kgs. 1 : 3. See Ahaziah. The slaughter 
by fire of the two companies of troops 
sent to take Elijah must have greatly in- 
creased the popular awe of the prophet. 

After executing the prophetic office 
for probably 15 years Elijah was trans- 
lated to heaven in a miraculous man- 
ner. Elisha had persisted in accompa- 
nying him across the Jordan, and it was 
while they were talking together that 
with a "chariot of fire" Elijah was car- 
ried up. Fifty men of the sons of the 
prophet were witnesses of the extra- 
ordinary scene, although they only be- 
held it afar off. A fruitless search was 
made for the body of Elijah, under the 
impression that the Spirit had depos- 
ited it somewhere. 2 Kgs. 2. B. c. 896. 

Malachi prophesied, 4:5, that Elijah 
would reappear as the forerunner of the 
Messiah. Our Lord explained to his dis- 
ciples that Elijah did really appear in 
the person of John the Baptist. Elijah, 
with Moses, appeared on the Mount of 
Transfiguration, conversing with Jesus. 
Luke 9:28-35. 

Elijah was th&prophetof deeds. He 
left no writings save the letter to Jeho- 
rarn, king of Judah, 2 Chr. 21: 12-15, 
delivered after his translation. But he 
made a profound impression upon his 
contemporaries as a bold man, faithful, 
stern, self-denying, and zealous for the 
honor of God. 

2. A priest who had married a for- 
eign wife. Ezr. 10 : 21. 

EL'IKA (God is rejecter?), one of 
David's warriors. 2 Sam. 23 : 25. 



E'LIM (trees), the second station of 
Israel after crossing the Red Sea. Ex. 
15 : 27 ; Num. 33 : 9. It had 12 wells 
and 70 palm trees, and has been identi- 
fied with Wady Gharandel, which is the 

first pleasant spot in the wilderness after 
leaving 'Ayun Musa. The water is the 
best on the whole route from Cairo to 
Sinai. A few palm trees still remain. 
Others locate Elim a little farther south, 

Elim, Sinai ( Wady Gharandel. 

in Wady Useit or in Wady Taiyibeh. It 
certainly must have been in this neigh- 
borhood of running brooks, feathery 
tamarisks, wild acacias, and stately 
palm trees.