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Full text of "A dictionary of botanical terms"

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A DICTIONARY 



BOTANICAL TERMS 



BY 

A. A. CROZIER 




NEW YORK 
HENRY HOLT AND COMPANY 

1892 



Copyright, 1893, 

BY 

HENEY HOLT & CO. 



PREFACE. 



It is now nearly twenty years since an English dictionary 
of botanical terms was published, and the development of 
botany during that time has brought into use many new 
terms and led to the abandonment of some of those which 
were formerly employed. The present work, though larger 
than any of its predecessors, is therefore Avautiug in certain 
terms which are found in the earlier botanical dictionaries. 
A few obsolete terms, however, which occur in standard 
botanical literature are retained and marked as such. The 
scope of this dictionary is nearly the same as that of its 
predecessors, except that it is broader on the side of agri- 
culture and horticulture, as it aims to include all technical 
terms applied to plants both by botanists and others. Very 
many of the newer terms are from the German botanists, to 
whom we owe by far the greater part of modern structural 
and physiological botany. These terms, particularly, in- 
clude an unfortunately large number of synonyms, which 
seem to be a necessary result of active research by inde- 
pendent workers in the same fields. With few exceptions, 
no definition is repeated, all approved synonyms being 
brought together under one term. Where a choice existed 
this has permitted the preferable term alone to be defined. 
No obsolete or wholly undesirable synonyms, however, 
accompany the definitions, and such of these as occur in 
alphabetical order have usually been admitted only to refer 



PREFACE. 

the reader to the proper term. The cross-references freely 
given to terms of similar and opposite meanings will be 
found useful in broadening the scope of the definitions. 

I desire here to express my gratitude to various botanical 
friends for their contributions to this work, particularly to 
Dr. W. J. Beal, of the Michigan Agricultural College, who 
has revised the entire manuscript and improved many of 
the definitions; to Professor V. M. Spalding, of the Uni- 
versity of Michigan, who has revised and corrected the 
terms relating to fungi; to Mr. F. 0. Newcombe for aid 
upon the terms applied in karyokinesis; and to Professor 
L. H. Bailey, of Cornell University, for advance proof-sheets 
of his glossary of horticultural terms. 

The marking of the pronunciation was begun by Mr. B. 
Pickman Mann, of Washington, D. C, and completed by 
Mr. F. P. Jordan, of the University of Michigan. In their 
work Webster's dictionary was mainly followed as authority. 

Ann Arbor, Mich., January, 1892. 



SIGNS AND ABBREVIATIONS. 



(T) annual. 

(2) biennial. 

if . . ..perennial. 

5 . . . .staminate. 

5 pistillate. 

£ ... .perfect. 

oo numerous ; more than 

twenty when applied to 
stamens. 

? doubt. 

! certainty. Indicates that 

the author has seen the 
specimen iu question. 

n. sp. new species. Used only 
with the first printed 
description. 

Eu...the Greek word "well," 
sometimes written after a 
species to indicate that it 
is certainly a well-defined 
species, not a variety. 



MEASUREMENT. 

foot. 

' inch. 

" line ( T V inch). 

cm. ..centimeter. 

c.c. . .cubic centimeter. 

m.m. millimeter. 

/.i mu (the Greek letter m), 

micromillimeter, j-J^ of 
a millimeter, the unit 
of microscopic measure- 
ment. It is about .000039 
of an inch. 

X. • ..used to express magnifica- 
tion. Thus, X 150 indi- 
cates a magnification of 
150 diameters. The im- 
proper fraction if a indi- 
cates the same, but this 
form is little used. 



A DICTIONARY 

OF 

BOTANICAL TERMS. 



A, prefixed to words of Greek 
origin often signifies absence, 
as apet'alous, without petals. 
Before a vowel it is changed 
to an, as anan'therous, without 
anthers. 

ABAX IAL, out of the axis. See 

EXCENTRIC. 

ABBRE VlATED, shorter than an 
adjoining organ, or one with 
which it is compared. 

ABERRANT, differing widely 
from the usual form or struc- 
ture; as: the Fumariacese have 
been regarded as an aberrant 
group of Papaveraceas. 

ABIOGENESIS, see Spontane- 
ous Generation. 

ABJEO'TION, throwing off with 
force, as spores or seeds. 

ABJOINT', to separate at a joint. 

AB JUNCTION, the separation 
of one part from another; de- 
limitation. Compare Abstrio 
tion. 

ABNORMAL, differing from the 
* usual structure or condition. 

ABORIG INAL, see Indigenous. 

ABORTION, the non-formation 
or imperfect formation of an 
organ, so that it does not per- 



form its usual function. Com- 
pare Suppression, Degener 
ation, Atrophy. 

ABORTIVE, imperfect, or want- 
ing. See Obsolete. 

ABRUPT', terminating sud- 
denly, as a leaf which ends 
without a tapering extremity, 
a compouud leaf without a 
terminal leaflet, or a stem 
which is sharply bent. 

Abrupt ly Acuminate, hav- 
ing a broad extremity from 
which a point arises. 

ABRUPT LY PINNATE, pinnate 
without a terminal leaflet, and 
usually with an even number 
of leaflets. There may be a 
terminal point or tendril; even 
pinnate; equally pinnate. 
Compare Imparipinnate. 

ABSCIS SION, cutting off sharply, 
as the separation of the f rus- 
tules of diatoms. Compare 
Abstriction. 

AB SCISS LAY'ER, a layer of cells 
formed by renewed cell-divi- 
sion in the base of the leaf- 
stalk in autumn, the formation 
of which permits the fall of 
the leaf. 



Absorption 



A DICTIONARY 



Acerose 



ABSORPTION, the method by 
•which fluids enter the plant. 
See Osmose and Imbibition. 

ABSTRIC TION, the separation of 
one part from another by con- 
striction and the formation of 
a septum. Applied especially 
to the separation of spores from 
their hyphte. Compare Ab- 
scission aud Abjunction. 

AcAL'YCINE, without calyx; 

acalycinous. 
ACALYC INOtJS, see Acalycine. 

ACAN'THA (pi. Acan'thje), a 
thorn, spiue, or prickle. 

AcANTHA CEOUS. having thorns, 
spines, or prickles. 

ACANTHOCAR POUS, having the 
fruit furnished with spiues or 
prickles 

ACANTHOC LADOTJS, having 
spiny branches. 

ACANTHOPH OROtTS, bearing 
prickles, spines, or thorns. 

ACANTHOP ODOIJS, having the 
petiole or pedicel furnished 
with spines or prickles. 

AcAR'POUS, not producing fruit. 

ACAULESCENCE, an abnormal 
suppression of the stem. 

ACAULESCENT, having only a 
very short atrial leaf-bearing 
stem, apparently none, as in the 
dandelion; acauline; acaulose; 
acaulous. 

ACAU'LINE, see Acatjlescent. 

ACAU'LIS, see Acaulescent. 

ACAULOSE, see Acaulescent. 

ACAU LOUS, see Acaulescent. 

ACCESSORY, additional to the 
usual number, or accompany- 
ing something else; supernu- 
merary. Said of the additional 
buds when more than one 
occur in an axil ; applied to 
the border of the apothecium 
in lichens when of a different 



substance or color from the 
disk. 

ACCESSORY BUDS, also called 
secondary buds and super- 
numerary buds; the additional 
buds when more than one occur 
in or near the axil, as in the 
butternut. 

ACCES SORY CELL, the sister-cell 
of a guard-cell; subsidiary cell. 

ACCESSORY FRUIT, one in 
•which some additional part or 
parts is associated with the 
matured ovary, as in the win- 
tergreen, Qcmltheria procum- 
bens; anthocarpous fruit. The 
term is not applied to fruits 
with an adherent calyx-tube, 
as the apple and currant. Com- 
pare Aggregate Fruit and 
Collective Fruit. 

ACCESSORY GONID'lA, gonidial 
formations in some species of 
Mucorini in addition to the 
typical kind. 

ACCIDENTAL, see Adventi- 
tious. 

ACCOMMODA'TION, see Adapta- 
tion. 

ACCRES'CENT, increasing in size 
after Idoweriug; — applied to 
parts accessory to the fruit, as 
the calyx of Physalis. 

ACCRETE', grown together in 
any manner. 

ACCRETION, the growing of one 
thing to another ; growth by 
addition of particles to the out- 
side. 

ACCUM'BENT, lying upon or 
against another body, as the 
edge of the cotyledons against 
the caulicle in some Crucif era 1 . 
Compare Incumbent. 

ACEPH'ALOUS, headless; said of 
an ovary when the style is at- 
tached to some other part than 
the summit. 

ACEROSE', narrow, stiff, and 



Acervate 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Acrogynous 



pointed, like the leaves of the 
hr. Intermediate in form be- 
tween Acicular and Subulate. 

ACER'VATE, growing- in heaps or 
"clusters; coacervate. 

ACER'VULtJS (pi. Acer'vuli), a 
small heap, as of spores. 

ACETABU'LIFORM, deep saucer- 
shaped, with a broad concave 
bottom and nearly upright 
sides. Compare Cotyliform. 

ACETA'RlOtJS, used for salads. 

AC'ETOSE, sour; acid. 

ACHiE'NlUM, see Acheniu.m. 

ACHiE'NOCARP, any simple dry 
indehiseent fruit. (Masters.) 

ACHEI'lARY, destitute of a label- 
lum, as some orchids. 

AOHENE', see Achenium. 

ACHE'NltJM (pi. Ache'nia), a 
small, dry, indehiseent, one- 
seeded seed-like fruit or carpel 
in which the covering does not 
adhere to the seed, as in the 
sunflower or buttercup; aclnp- 
niuni; achene; akene. Com- 
pare Caryopsis, Utricle, 
Cypsela. 

ACHENO'DIUM, see Cremocarp. 

AOHlAMY'DEOUS, destitute of 
calyx and corolla. 

Achromatic, not readily 

colored by the usual staining 
agents. 

ACHRO'MATIN, the basic sub- 
stance of the nucleus, less 
highly colored by staining 
agents than the rest. 

ACIC'ULA (pi. Aqic'uIS), a needle- 
shaped spine, prickle, or other 
body. 

ACICULAR, slender needle- or 
bristle-shaped, as the leaves of 
most pines; aciculate; aeiculi- 
form; aciform. Compare 
Acerose. 

ACICULATE, see Acicular. 

AciC'tJLATED, marked by fine 



grooves, as if scratched with 
a needle. Finer than striate, 
and not necessarily parallel. 

AciC'tJLIFORM, see Acicular. 

A'CIES, an edge. 

ActFORM, see Acicular. 

ACINACEOUS, full of kernels. 

(Rare.) 
AclNAC'IFORM, s c y m i t a r - 

shaped, — having one edge thin 
and convex, and the other 
thick and straight or concave, 
like many bean-pods. 

AC'INE, one of the succulent car- 
pels of a fruit like the rasp- 
berry; acinus.. (Originally 
Acinus meant a bunch of grapes 
or similar fruit, as the currant, 
and later the term was applied 
to one of the berries of such a 
bunch and to the seeds of the 

„ grape.) 

AfJINOSE', consisting of granular 
bodies somewhat resembling 
grape-seed. More rarely, re- 
sembling a grape-berry or 
bunch of grapes. 

AC'INUS (pi. As'inl), see Acine. 

ACOTYLED'ONOUS, destitute of 
cotyledons, as Cuscuta. 

ACRAMPHIB'RYOUS, said of 
plants whose growth is not 
confined to the apex, i.e., which 
produce lateral as well as 
terminal buds. (Rare. ) Com- 
pare. Acrogenous. 

ACROB'RYOUS, see Acrogenous. 

ACROCARPOUS, having terminal 
fructification. Used chiefly in 
mosses. Compare Clado- 

CARPOUS. 

ACROG'ENOUS, growing chiefly 
at the apex, as the stem of 
ferns; produced at the apex of 
a filament, as the spores of 
some fungi. 

ACROGYNOUS, having the stem 
terminated by archegonia or 



Acropetal 



A DICTIONARY 



Adnate 



other female organs. Compare 
Anacrogynous. 

ACROP'ETAl, produced iu suc- 
cession toward the apex; in 
the direction of the summit; 
basifugal; centripetal (when 
applied to the order of inflores- 
cence only). Compare Basip- 
etal. 

ACROSCOP IC, facing the apex. 
Compare Basiscopic 

ACROSPIRE, an old name for 
the plumule of a grain in ger- 
minatiou. 

ACROSPORE, a spore borne at 
the summit of a filament. 

ACTINOMOR'PHIC, regular and 
poly symmetrical, as the 
dowers of radish, i.e., capable 
of bisection iu two or more 
planes into similar halves. 
Compare Zygomoisfhic 

ACTINOMOR'PHOUS, see Actino- 

MOKPniC. 

ACTIVE, in a growing condition; 

opposed to Dormant. 

ACULEATE, having prickles, 
prickle-pointed; aculeated. 

AcU'LEOlATE, having small or 
f ew prickles. 

ACU'LEUS (pi. Acu lei), see 
Prickle. 

ACU'MINATE, ending in a pro- 
longed tapering point. 

ACtTMINOSE, having a sharp or 
tapering point; somewhat acu- 
minate. (Bare.) 

ACUMINULATE, having a small 
acuminate point. 

ACUTE', ending in a distinct 
angle, but not prolonged. 

ACYC'L f C, having all the organs 
of a flower iu a continuous 
spiral. Compare Hemicyclic 
aud Cyclic 

ADAPTATION, the modification 
of a plant to better fit it for 
surrounding conditions, or of 



an organ for a particular func- 
tion; accommodation. Com- 
pare Metamorphosis. 

ADEL'PHlA, (pi. Adel'phiae), a col- 
lection of stamens united by 
their filaments. Compare 
Phalanx. 

ADEL'PHOtJS, having the stamens 
united by their filaments in an 
adelphia or bundle. 

ADEN'IFORM, gland-shaped; 
adenoid. 

ADEN'OPHORE, a stalk support- 
ing a gland. 

ADENOPH'OROUS, gland-bear- 
ing. 

ADENOPHYL'LOUS, having on 
the leaves glands, or gland-like 
spots or tubercles. 

ADENOP'ODOUS, having glands 
or gland- like tubercles on the 
petioles. 

ADENOSE', gland-like, or bearing 
glands; adenoid; adenous. 

AD'ENOtJS, see Adenose. 

AD'ESMY, the separation of parts 
usually joined. Compare 
Chorisis, Dialysis, Fission. 

ADGLU'TINATE, see Aggluti- 
nate. 

ADHERENT, attached or grow- 
ing to an organ or body of a 
different nature, as the calyx 
to the ovary. The parts may 
or may not have grown together 
from the first. Compare Cohe- 
rent and Adnate. 

ADHESION, the sticking or 
growing together of organs of 
a different nature, as a leaf to 
the stem. It implies a union of 
parts which in most other 
plants or iu a younger state of 
the same plant are separate. 

ADNAS'CENT, growing to or upon 
something else; as, "moss is 
an adnaacent plant." 

AD'NATE, said of parts of a dif- 



Adnation 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Agamospore 



fereut nature which are grown 
together from the first, or over 
their whole surface or length. 
(Compare Connate.) Applied 
to an anther, it indicates that 
it is attached throughout its 
length to the upper or lower 
surface of the filament. Com- 
pare Innate. See Adherent. 

ADNA'TION, the same as adhe- 
sion, but implying an earlier 
or more complete union. 

ADPRESS ED, see Appressed. 

ADSCEN'DENT, see Ascending. 

ADStfR GENT, see Ascending. 

ADUN'COUS, crooked, twisted, or 
hooked. (Rare.) 

ADVENTITIOUS, out of the usual 
place, as buds on a leaf or at a 
distance from a node; growing 
spontaneously out of its native 
locality, but not fully estab- 
lished; adveutive. 

AdVEN'TIVE, see Adventi 
tious. 

AD' VERSE, (1) opposite (rare); 
(2) directed toward or facing 
the main axis or other object. 
Compare Averse. 

ADVERSIFO'LIATE, see Adver- 
sifolious. 

ADVERSIFO'LIOUS, having op- 
posite leaves; adversifoliate. 

JECID'IOSPORE, a spore pro- 
duced in an secidium. 

JECID'IUM (pi. Mqi&'ik), the cup 
shaped spore-case with its con- 
tents in certain Urediuere, in 
which'the spores are produced 
serially from below; a3cidium 
fruit. 

AEREN'CHYMA, tissue homolo- 
gous with cork, with thin cell- 
walls and large intercellular 
spaces, found in the stems of 
some marsh-plants, as Lythrum 
salicaria. It is supposed by 
Schenk, the author of the term. 
to serve for aeration, but by 



others it is regarded as floating 
tissue. 

AE'RIAL, growing in the air, not 
attached to the soil, as a para- 
site or epiphyte upon the top 
of some other plant. 

AE'RIAL ROOTS, those appearing 
above ground, whether they 
afterwards enter the ground 
or not, as the clinging roots of 
the ivy and the brace-roots of 
Indian corn. 

AERO'BLA (sing. Aero'bium), or- 
ganisms which thrive only in 
the presence of. air or free 
oxygen. Applied in bacteria. 
Compare Anaerobia. 

AERIOBIOT'IC, thriving only in 
the presence of air. 

A'EROCYST, an old name for air- 
bl adder. 

A'EROPHYTE, see Air-plant. 

A'EROTROP'IC, seeking the air, 
as certain roots. 

.ERU'GINOSE, clear light bluish 
green; verdigris-green. 

JERTJ GINOUS, see ^Eruginose. 

JESTI VAL, see Estival. 

AESTIVATION, the arrangement 
of the floral organs in the bud; 
proefloratiou. 

JETHA'LlfJM, a compound spo- 
riferous body in Myxomycetes, 
formed from a large combina- 
tion of plasmodia. 

AFFIN'ITY, true or near relation- 
ship. Compare Analogy and 
Homology. 

AgAm'IC, destitute of sex. 
Formerly applied to all cryp- 
togams. 

AG'AmOGEN'ESIS, asexual repro- 
duction of auy kind. See 
Parthenogensis and Apog- 
amy. 

AgAM OSPORE, a spore formed 
without fertilization; — a go- 



Agamous 



A DICTIONARY 



Albumen 



nidium or asexually produced 
spore of an}- kind. (Rare.) 

AgAmOUS, see Agamic. 

AGGLOMERATE, see Agglom- 
erated. 

AGGLOMERATED, clustered or 
crowded together but not co- 
hering, as the staininate flowers 
of pines. 

AGGLUTINATED, glued to- 
gether. Compare Accrete. 

AGGREGATED, collected to- 
gether but. not cohering. 
About the same as Agglomer- 
ated. 

AGGREGATE FLOWERS, those 
with several in the same head, 
as in clover. The term ex- 
cludes Composite. 

Aggregate fruit, one in 

which distinct carpels of a 
single flower are crowded on 
the receptacle into one mass, 
as in the raspberry and magno- 
lia; syncarp. Compare Col- 
lective Fruit. 

AGGREGATION, the condensa- 
tion of the protoplasm of a liv- 
ing cell, or of some of the 
contained proteids under stimu- 
lation, hist observed in the 
tentacle cells of Drosera and 
subsequently produced in the 
cells of other plants by means 
of various basic substances 

Agricultural botany, that 

branch of economic botany 
which treats of weeds and cul- 
tivated plants. It includes the 
systematic study of such plants 
and their methods of reproduc 
tion, the laws of improvement 
and degeneration in plants, 
etc., also vegetable pathology 
in its application to cultivated 
plants. 
AgrOSTOG'RAPHY, see AGROS- 
TOLOGY. 



AGROSTOLOGY, the part of bot- 
any relating to grasses. 

AG'YNOUS, without pistils. 

Al'GRET, any feathery crown or 
tuft attached to the seed, as 
the coma of the milkweed or 
pappus of the thistle; aigrette; 
egret. 

AIGRETTE', see Aigret. 

AIR-BLADDER, an organ filled 
with air for the purpose of 
floating the plant in water, as 
in the sea- weed Fucus; air-sac; 
air-cell. 

AIR-CHAMBER, see Stomatic 
Chamber and Air-passage. 

AIR-PASSAGE, an extended open- 
ing between the cells contain- 
ing air, as in the stems of 
many water-plants; lacuna; 
air-chamber. 

AIR-PLANT, a plant growing in 
the air detached from the soil, 
as certain orchitis; aerophyte. 
Generally applied only to epi- 
phytic flowering plants. 

AIR PORE, see Stoma. 

AKENE' see ACHENIUM. 

ALA (pi. Alse), see Wing. 

AlAbAS'TRUM, an old term for 
flower-bud. 

A'LAR, (1) borne in the forks of 
a stem ; (2) relating to or hav- 
ing wings. See Alate. 

A'LATE, see Winged. 

A'LATE-PIN'NATE, pinnate with 
a winged petiole. 

ALBES'CENT, whitish; candi- 
cant. * 

Al'BICANT, see Albescent. 

AL BINISM, see Chlorosis. 

ALBI'NO, a plant or variety near- 
]}' destitute of chlorophyll, or 
of which the fruit is abnormal- 
ly white or colorless. 

ALBU'MEN, nutritive material in 
many seeds surrounding or 



Albumen Crystals OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Ambigenus 



adjoining the embryo, endo- 
sperm or perisperm. 

ALBUMEN CRYSTALS, see 
Crystalloids. 

ALBU'MINOID, an organic sub 
stance containing nitrogen in 
its composition, as protoplasm; 
proteid. 

ALBUMINOUS, furnished with 
albumen. 

ALBUR'NOUS, having, consist- 
ing of, or pertaining to, albur- 
num. 

ALBUR'NUM, sap-wood; a some- 
what distinct, usually lighter 
colored, outer zoue of wood in 
many exogenous trees and 
shrubs. 

ALECTO'RIOId, filiform, like the 
thallus of the genus Alectoria 
in lichens. 

ALEU RONE, proteine-grains 
which replace starch in the 
cotyledons or albumen of cer- 
tain oily seeds. 

AlGOLOGY, the part of botany 
relatiug to algoe. 

AlIF EROUS, having wings. 

AL'IFORM, wing-shaped. 

ALIG'EROUS, see Aliferous. 

AhAN'TOID, sausage-shaped; 
botuliform; narrowly oblong; 
cylindrical with somewhat 
hemispherical terminations. 

AllASSOTON'IC MOVEMENTS, 
a term applied by Vries to the 
movements of mature orgaus,as 
the sleep of plants; movements 
of variation. Compare Auxo- 
tonic Movements. 

ALLlA'CEOUS, having the odor 
or otrier qualities of the genus 
Allium, which includes the 
onion and garlic. 
AXLi'ANCE, see Cohort. 

AllOG'AMOUS, habitually cross- 
fertilized. 



ALLOGAMY, cross-fertilization. 
Compare Autogamy. 

AlLOT'ROPISM, appearance un- 
der an unusual form. 

ALPES'TRINE, growing on high 
mountains below the timber- 
line, or on the tops of inferior 
mountains; mountainous. 

ALPHITOMOR'PHOUS, resem 
bling barley meal, said of cer- 
tain fungi (Rare.) 

ALPINE, growing on mountains 
above the timber-line. 

ALTER'NATE, applied to leaves, 
indicates one at a node; ap 
plied to parts of the flower, in- 
dicates that the members of 
one whorl are placed opposite 
the intervals between the mem- 
bers of the next whorl. 

Alternately -pin'nate, 

pinnate with the pinna? or leaf- 
lets alternating on opposite 
sides of the rachis. 

Alternation of genera- 
tions, the growth of reproduc- 
tive bodies into structures dif- 
fering from that on which they 
were produced, to return after 
one or more generations to the 
original stage or form. Thus, 
the spore of ferns produces a 
small prothallus, and upon this 
sexual bodies are borne which 
after fertilization reproduce 
the original fern-plant. See 
Metagenesis. 

AlUTA'CEOUS, of a pale brown 
color; resembling soft tanned 
skin in color or texture. 
(Rare.) 

AL'VEOLATE, deeply pitted so 
as to resemble honey-comb, 
like the receptacle of many 
Composite ; faveolate; favose. 

AMBIG'ENtJS, having the outer 
surface of the perianth resem- 
bling a calyx and the inner 
surface a corolla. 



Ambiguous 



A DICTIONARY 



Amphitropous 



AMBIG'tJOtTS, indistinct or doubt- 
ful, so that it cannot well be 
referred to any definite condi 
tion or place in a system of clas- 
sification, as a bract which has 
nearly the appearance of an 
ordinary leaf, or a species 
which is doubtfully of higher 
rank than a variety, or one 
which it is difficult to deter- 
mine into which of two genera 
il should be placed. 

AMBtP'AROUS, producing two 
kinds, as a bud which pro- 
duces directly both flowers 
and leaves. 

Am'ENT, a slender spike of 
naked and usually separated 
flowers with imbricated scales 
or bracts; amentum; julus; 
catkin. Staminate aments are 
usually deciduous. 

AMEN'TA, pi , see Amentum. 

AMENTACEOUS, resembling, 
consisting of, pertaiuing to, or 
bearing aments; as an amenta- 
ceous inflorescence or plant. 

AmENT'IFORM, amentaceous; 
juliform. 

AMEN'TUM (pi, Amen'ta), see 
Ament. 

Am IDOPlAST, see Leucoplast. 

AMMOPH'ILOUS, growing in 
sandy places. 

AM'NIOS, the contents of the 
embryo-sac before the forma- 
tion of the embryo. Seldom 
used. 

AMCE'BOID, assuming various 
shapes, like the Amoeba 

AMORPHOUS, without definite 
form, structure, or position. 

AMPHA^N'THIUM, see Clinan- 

THIUM. 

Am'PHIASTER, a term for the 
combined nuclear spindle and 
cytasters in karyokinesis when 
the latter are present, which is 
rare in plants. The term is 



also applied to the combined 
cytasters only. 

AMPHIBIOUS, growing readily 
either in water or upon dry 
land. 

AMPHIB'RYOUS, growing by ad- 
ditions over the whole surface. 

AmPHICAR'PIC, producing two 
kinds of fruit, either as regards 
form or period of ripening; 
amphicarpous. Compare Het- 
erocarpous. 

AMPHICAR'POUS, see Amphi- 

CARPIC 

AmphIG'Amous, see Agamic. 

AMPHIGAS'TER, used by Bennett 
and Murray for Amphigas- 
trium. 

AMPHIGAS'TRlA (sing. Amphi- 
gastrium), peculiar scale-like 
leaves accompanying those of 
ordinary form as a third row 
upon the underside of the stem 
in certain Hepatic*. 

AMPHIG'ENOUS, growing on 
either surface of a leaf. Said 
chiefly of certain parasitic 
fungi. 

AmpHISAR'CA, any indehiscent 
fruit, hard and dry externally 
and pulpy within, as a gourd. 
(Rare.) 

AmPHISPER'MOUS, closely in- 
vesting the seed so as to have 
the same form, as the ovary in 
Graminese. 

AMPHIT'ROPAL, see Amphit- 
ropous. 

AMPHIT'ROPOUS, having the fu- 
niculus attached to the ovule 
or seed for half the distance be- 
tween the chalaza and micro- 
P3'le; semiauatropous; half- 
ana tropous; half-inverted; 
hemitropous; heterotropous; 
transverse; amphitropal. Ap- 
plied to the embryo it means 
curved so that both ends are 
brought close together. 



Amphora 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Anamorphism 



Am'PHORA, the lower division 
of a pyxis. 

AMPLEC'TANT, embracing or 
clasping, as tendrils, or the 
sheath of grasses. 

AMPLEX'ICAUL, partially sur- 
rounding or clasping the stem, 
as the base of many leaves. 
Compare Sheathing and Per- 
foliate. 

Am'PLIATED, enlarged, or mod- 
erately dilated. 
AMPUL'LA, see Bladder. 
AMPULLA'CEOUS. inflated, and 

swelling 'out toward the base 
like a bladder or short flask. 
Compare Lageniform. 
AMYG'DALINE, pertaining to or 
resembling the almond. 

Amylaceous, pertaining to, 

composed of, or resembliug 
starch. 

AMYLOGEN'ESIS, starch-forma- 
tion. 

AMYLOGEN'IC, starch-forming. 
Applied to chlorophyll-gran- 
ules and similar bodies which 
originate starch. 

AM'YLOID, a colloid substance 
having nearly the properties 
of boiled starch which is found 
in many sea-Aveeds and in the 
seeds of the bean, the almond, 
etc. 

AMYLOLYT'IC, pertaining to the 
transformation of starch into 
other substances, as amylolytic 
diastase. 

AM'YLUM, starch. 

AMYLUM BODIES, see Pyre- 
NOIDS. 

AMYLUM STAR, see Starch- 

BTAK. 

AN'ABIX (pi. Anab'ices), a stem 
like that of many ferns, etc., 
which continually dies below 
and grows above. (Rare.) 

ANABOLIC, applied by Geddes 



to the series of ascending meta- 
bolic changes in protoplasm 
by which food is assimilated. 
Compare Katabolic. See 
Assimilation. 

AnAcAn'XHOUS, without spines. 

AnACROG'YNOUS, applied in 
Jungermanuieae hy Leitgeb to 
forms in which the archegonia 
do not arise upon or near the 
apex of the shoot, which there- 
fore usually continues to grow 
after their formation. Com- 
pare ACROGYNOUS. 

ANAERO'BiA (sing. Anaerobium), 
organisms unable to live or 
thrive in the presence of free 
oxygen. Applied to certain 
bacteria. Compare Aerobia. 

AnAEROB'IC, see Anaerobiotic. 

AnAEROBIOT'IC, being unable 
to live in contact with air or 
free oxygen, as some bacteria. 
or capable of living in an at- 
mosphere destitute of oxygen; 
anagrobious; anaerobic. 

AnAEROB'IOUS, see Anaerobi- 
otic. 

AnAE'ROPHYTE, a plant which 
does not need a direct supply 
of air. 

AN'ALOGUE, an organ or body 
resembliug or having the func- 
tion of another with which it 
is compared. 

AnAL'OGY, resemblance in cer- 
tain respects, as in general 
appearance or function. Ap- 
plied to organs or to classes of 
plants. Compare Affinity. 
Homology, and Morphology. 

AnAL'YSIS, the systematic ex- 
amination of a plant prelimi- 
nary to determining its position 
in the classification. Compare 
Determinatk )X. 

ANAMORPHISM, see Anamor- 
phosis. 



9 



Anamorphosis 



A DICTIONARY 



Androus 



AnAMOR'PHOSIS, (1) a gradual 
change of form (generally 
ascending) traced in a group 
of plants the members of which 
have succeeded each other in 
point of geological time; (2) a 
similar gradation of form be- 
tween the members of a group 
now existing; (3) a remarkable 
or profound alteration of form 
resultiug immediately from a 
change in the conditions of 
growth. 

AnAN'DROUS, without stamens. 
AnAN'THEROUS, without an- 
thers. 
ANAN'THERUM (obs.), see Sta- 

MINODIUM. 

ANAN'THOUS, without flowers. 

ANAPHASES. Strasburger's term 
for the phenomena of karyoki- 
nesis following the metaphases 
(which see) up to the formation 
of the resting daughter nuclei. 

AN'AplAsT, see Leucoplast. 

Anastomose, to communicate 

or unite with one another, as 
the veins of leaves. 

AnASTOMO'SIS (pi. Anastomo- 
ses), the inosculation or junc- 
tion of similar parts, often 
forming a network, as in the 
veins of leaves. 

ANATOMY, VEGETABLE, see 
Vegetable Anatomy. 

AnAT'ROPOUS, applied to an 
ovule or seed which grows so 
that the funiculus coheres to 
and forms a raphe along its 
whole length, bringing the hi- 
lum near the foramen and the 
chalaza at the apparent apex, 
as in Liliaceae; anatropal. 

ANCIP'ITAL, flattened and two- 
edged, as the stem of Panicum 
anceps; ancipitous. 

ANCIP'ITOtJS, see Ancipital. 

ANDROCLIN'IUM, see Clinan- 

DRIUM. 



ANDRODiffi'CIOIJS, having per- 
fect flowers on one set of 
plants and staminate flowers 
on another set, but no indi- 
viduals with pistillate flowers. 
Compare Andromoncecious 
and Gynodicecious. See Po- 
lygamous. 

ANDRffi'CIUM, the stamens of a 
flower taken together. 

ANDRdGONiD'lUM, see Andro- 

SPORE. 

ANDROG'YNAL, see Androgy- 
nous. 

ANDROG'YNIsM, the change 
from a dioecious to a monoe- 
cious condition. 

ANDROGYNOUS, monoecious 
with the staminate and pistil- 
late flowers in the same inflo- 
rescence. Said mainly of the 
heads of certain Composite. 
Compare Polygamous. 

ANDROMONCECIOUS, having 
staminate and perfect flowers 
on the same plant, but no pis- 
tillate flowers. Compare An- 
drodioscious. See Polyga- 
mous. 

ANDROPET'AlOtJS, said of flow- 
ers which have become double 
by the conversion of petals into 
stamens. (Rare.) 

AN'DROPHORE, a column of 
united filaments, supporting 
the anthers; stamineal column. 

ANDROPH'ORUM, see Andro- 

PHORE. 

ANDROSPORAn'GIUM, a sporan- 
gium containing audrospores. 

AN'DROSPORE, a kind of asexual- 
ly produced zoogonidium or 
swarm-pore in CEdogonieae 
which develops into small 
male plants called "dwarf 
males;" androgonidium. 

AN'DROUS, pertaining to sta- 
mens; male. 



10 



Anemophilous 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Annual Ring 



ANEMOPHILOUS, having the 

pollen or seeds conveyed by 
the wind. 

AnfrACT'UOSE, bent hither and 
thither, as the stamens of the 
melon. 

ANGIOcAR'POUS, having the 
fruit invested with a calyx, re- 
ceptacle, or other covering; 
having spores enclosed by a re- 
ceptacle of some kind; angio- 
sporous. Especially, having a 
closed instead of open apothe- 
cium in lichens. Compare 
Gymnocarpous. 

ANGIOSPERM'OtJS, having seeds 
produced in a closed ovary. 

ANGldS'PdROUS, having spores 
or asci produced in a closed 
receptacle, angiocarpons. 

Angle of deviation, the 

augle which a leaf, branch, or 
root makes with the axis on 
which it is borne — on the upper 
side in branches and leaves, on 
the lower side in root. 

Angle of divergence, the 

angle measured by the part of 
a cycle between succeeding 
organs in the same spiral or 
whorl; divergence. 

AN'GULAR, having angles or 
ridges prismatic. In Pomolo- 
gy, having one side developed 
more than the other, as in the 
Newtown Pippin apple. Com- 
pare Oblique. 

AN'GULAR DIVER'GENCE, see 
Angle of Divergence. 

AnGULATE, see Angular. 

AnGULODEN'TATE, having an- 
gular teeth. 

ANGUS'TATE, narrow. 

ANGtJS'TIFO'LlATE, having nar- 
row leaves; angustifolious. 

ANGUSTIFO'LIOUS, see Angus- 

TIPOLIATE. 

ANGUSTISEP'TATE, having a 



narrow septum or partition, as 
the pod of shepherd's-purse. 

AnISOG'YNOUS, having fewer 
carpels than sepals. 

AnISOM'EROUS, not having the 
same number of floral organs in 
the different whorls. Compare 
Isomerous and Unsymmetri- 

CAL. 

AnIsOPET'ALOUS, having petals 
of unequal size. (Rare.) 

ANIS&PHYL'LOUS, unequal- 

leaved, as when the two leaves 
. of a pair are of unequal size. . 

ANISOP'TEROUS, having wings 
of unequal size. 

AnIsOSTAM'ENOUS, see Aniso- 
stemonous. 

AnISOSTEMONOUS, having the 
stamens differing in number 
from the petals (or parts of the 
perianth when the sepals are 
petaloid). Compare Isostem- 
onous. 

ANISOTRdPiC, having the dif- 
ferent parts or organs endowed 
with different kinds of irrita- 
bility, or in different degrees, 
as stems which seek the light 
and roots which shun it. 

ANNOT'INUS, the ring upon a 
stem which marks the close of 
a season's growth. It consists 
of the scars left by the fallen 
scales of the bud from which 
the next year's growth pro- 
ceeded. 

AnNOT'INOUS, having distinct 
yearly growths. 

AN'NUAL, a plant which usually 
lives but one year or season. 

ANNUAL RING^ the ring or cyl- 
inder of wood produced by 
exogenous plants during the 
year. In some cases the an- 
nual ring consists of more than 
one ring of growth, hence the 
term "growth-ring" is now 
often used. 



11 



Annular 



A DICTIONARY 



Antherozoid 



ANNULAR, in the form of a cir- 
cle or zone. 

ANNULAR DUCTS, see Vessels. 

ANNULAR VESSELS^ vessels 
marked with thickenings in 
the form of a ring. 

AN'NULATE, marked with rings 
or circular transverse lines; an- 
nulated. 

AN'NULATED, see Annulate. 

ANNUlA'TION, a ring or belt. 

AN'NULOSE, furnished with or 
composed of rings. 

AN'NULUS (pi. An'null), any 
body in the form of a ring; the 
ring or band of thick-walled 
cells in the sporangium of 
most ferns which by contrac- 
tion bursts the sporangium and 
liberates the spores; the ring 
of cells upon the inner side of 
the base of the peristome at 
the orifice of the theca in many 
species of mosses which is 
thrown off to detach the oper- 
culum; the ring on the stem of 
mushrooms; the abortive foliar 
sheath at the base of the spike 
in Equisetum. 

AN'6dAl, see Anodic. 

ANOD'IC, applied to the edge of 
a leaf which a leaf-spiral leaves 
in its upward course. In a 
right-handed spiral it would 
be the right edge of the leaf, 
and vice versa. Compare 
Cathodic. 

An&M'ALOUS, unusual in appear- 
ance; contrary to rule; abnor- 
mal; irregular. 
ANOM'ALY, any deviation from 
the essential or usual character. 
AN'SULATE, coiled at the apex 
and the whole coil bent over so 
as to make a loop projecting 
above the coil, as the growing 
extremity of the vine of the 
musk-melon. 
AN' TECH AMBER, the upper 



(outer) angle or space between 
the guard-cells of a stoma. 
Compare Vestibule. 

ANTEN'NJE (sing. Anten'na), 
two sleuder horn-like prolonga- 
tions of the rostellum in the 
genus Catasetum in orchids 
which, upon being touched by 
an insect or other object, cause 
the liberation of the retinacu- 
lum at their base and the ejec- 
tion of the pollinium. 

ANTEPOSI'TION, see Superposi- 
tion. 

ANTE'RIO-POSTE'RIOR PLANE, 
see Median Plane. 

ANTE'RIOR, the side of a flower, 
leaf, or other organ away 
from the main stem or axis; 
inferior; exterior; in front. 
Compare Dorsal. 

ANTHE'LA, a paniculate cyme 
with the lateral axes over- 
topping the central, as in 
many species of Juncus and 
Luzula. 

AN'THEMY, a flower-cluster of 
any kind. (Obs.) 

AN'THER, the pollen-bearing 
part of a stamen. 

An'THERID'IUM (pi. Anther- 
Id'ia), the male organ in the 
higher cryptogams within 
which antherozoids are pro- 
duced. 

ANTHERIF'EROUS, anther-bear- 
ing. 

AN'THER-LOBES, the cells or 
sacs of an anther, usually two 
in number, containing the 
pollen. 

AN'THEROID, anther-like. 

AntherosporAngium (pi. 
Antherosporan'gia), see Micro- 
sporangium. 

AN THEROZOID, one of the mo- 
tile fertilizing bodies produced 
in an antheridium; spermato- 
] zoid. 
12 



Anthesis 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Apical Cell 



ANTHE'SIS, the time or act of 
flowering; florescence. 

ANTH6cAR P0US FRUIT, gener- 
ally used for Collective fruit, 
but more properly for Acces- 
sory fruit. 

ANTHOCLIN IUM, see Clinan- 

THIOM, 

ANTHO DIUM, the capitulum or 
head of flowers in Composite 
(popularly culled a flower). 
Compare Clinanthium. 

AN'THOID, resembling a flower. 

AN THOLITE, a fossil flower. 

ANTHOL'YSlS, a retrograde met- 
amorphosis of a flower b} r 
which normally united or con- 
tiguous parts are separated; 
solution of a flower. The 
parts of the altered flower may 
or may not be changed in char- 
acter. 

AN'THOPHORE. a stalk or inter- 
node sometimes developed be- 
tween the calyx and corolla, 
as in Sileue. 

ANTHOTAX'IS, the arrangement 
of flowers in an inflorescence; 
anthotaxy. 

AN'THOtAXY, see Axtiiotax- 
is. 

ANTICLI'NAL, said of cell-walls 
or any lines when perpendicu- 
lar to the outer surface. Com- 
pare Periclinal. 

ANTI'COUS. facing anteriorly. 

ANTID ROMAL, twisted or coiled 
in an opposite direction to that 
with which it is compared, as 
when the leaf - spiral of a 
branch turns in the opposite 
direction from that of the 
stem; antidromous. Compare 
Homodromous and Heterod- 

ROMOUS. 

ANTID'ROMOUS, see Antidro- 

mal. 
ANTID ROMY, haviug the course 



of a spiral reversed from the 
usual direction. 

ANTIMYCOT'IC, see Fungici- 
dal. 

Antipathetic, said of plants 

which do not unite readily 
when grafted. 

ANTlPEDUN'CULAR, situated 
opposite to a peduncle. 

ANTIPET'ALOtJS, situated oppo- 
site to a petal, i.e., directly be- 
tween the petal and the axis; 
antepetalous. 

ANTIPODAL CELLS, a group of 
four cells at the lower end of 
the embryo-sac, one of which, 
destitute of a wall, is the lower 
polar nucleus. Compare Egg- 
apparatus. 

ANTISEP'TIC, preventing putre- 
faction. 

ANTIT'ROPAL, see Antitro- 
pous. 

ANTIT'ROPOUS, having the rad- 
icle of the embryo directed 
away from the hilum, as in 
orthotropous seeds. 

ANTIZYMOT'IC, preventing or 
checking fermentation. 

ANTRORSE', directed upward 
or forward. Compare Anti- 
cous. 

APERISPER'MIC, see Exalbumi- 
nous. 

APET'ALOUS, destitute of corol- 
la. 

A'PEX (pi. Apexes or Ap'ices), 
the extremity opposite the 
point of attachment. 

APHELIOTROP'IC, turning from 
the sun; negatively heliotrop- 
ic. 

APHYL'LOUS, without leaves. 

APHYL'LY, the abnormal sup- 
pression of leaves. 

APICAL CELL, the generating 
cell of a growing point. 



13 



Apical Cone 



A DICTIONARY 



Aquatic 



APICAL CONE, see Punctum 
Vegetationis. 

APIC'tJXATE, terminated by an 
abrupt short acute point. 

ApICULATED, see Apiculate. 

APIC'ULUS (pi. Apic'uli), a small 
acute point. 

APLAN OSPORE, applied by Wille 
to non - motile reproductive 
cells formed by rejuvenescence 
in Conjugate* and some other 
greeu algae. 

APLAS'TIC, not capable of being 
organized, or converted into 
animal or vegetable tissue. 

APOCARPOUS, having the car- 
pels separate or easily sepa- 
rable, as in Ranunculus; dialy 
carpous. 

AP6G'AMY, habitual non-sexual 
reproduction, especially vege- 
tative reproduction where 
sexual reproduction usually 
occurs, as in the budding of a 
prothallus in ferns. Compare 
Parthenogenesis and Vege- 
tive Apogamy. 

APOGEdTROP'iC, growing away 
from the earth, as ordinary 
stems. 

ApOPETALOUS, having the pet 
als of the corolla unattached 
to each other; eleutheropetal- 
ous; polypetalous. 

APOPHYL'LOtJS, sometimes used 
for aposepalous, especially in 
flowers having but one perianth 
whorl. 

APOPH'YSATE, having an apoph- 
ysis. 

APOPH'YSIS, an enlargement of 
the seta below the theca in cer- 
tain mosses; a thickening on 
the scales of the cones of cer- 
tain pines; any irregular swell- 
ing. 

APOSEP'ALOUS, having the leaves 
of the calyx unattached to each 
other. 



APOS'TASIS, a term applied by 
Engelmanu to the separation 
of organs by an unusual exten- 
sion of the iuternodes; solu- 
tion. Compare Dialysis. 

APOS'TROPHE, the collection of 
the protoplasm and chlorophyll 
grains along the side walls of 
a cell instead of the outer sur- 
face — often caused by cold or 
excess or deficiency of light. 
When caused by deficiency of 
light, as at night, it is called 
"negative apostrophe"; when 
caused by too bright a light, 
"positive apostrophe." Com- 
pare Epistrophe and Sys- 

TROPHE. 

APOTHE'CIUM (pi. Apothecia), 
the ascocarp in lichens. See 
Discocarp, Shield, and Peri- 
thecium. 

APPENDAGE, any superadded 
or subordinate part; as hairs, 
prickles, leaves, etc., upon a 
stem. 

APPENDIC'ULATE, having an 
unusual appendage or append- 
ages, as a winged petiole, or 
spurred corolla. 

AP'PLANATE, flattened out or 
horizontally expanded. Com- 
pare Explanate and Com- 

PLANATE. 

Applicative, see Condupli- 

CATE. 

AP'POSITE, close together; side 

by side. 
APPRESSED', lying close, as 

leaves to a stem; ad pressed. 

Approximate, close together 

but not united. Compare Re- 
mote. 

APTEROUS, having no dilated 
appendage or wing. Com- 
pare Alate. 

AQUAT'IC, growing in water or 
wet soil. See Palustrine. 



14 



Aqueous 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS 



Armed 



AQUEOUS, nearly colorless. See 
Hyaline. 

ARACHNOID, covered with long 
and loosely entangled hairs, 
the hairs fewer and longer 
than in Tomentose; cobwebby. 

ArA'NEUS, see Arachnoid. 

ARBOR, see Tree. 

ARBOREAL, pertaining to trees 
or forests. 

ARBOREOUS, having the nature 
of a tree; pertaining to trees. 

ARBORESCENT, tree-like in size 

or form. 
ARBORETUM, a botanical tree 

garden. 
AR'BUSCLE, a low shrub having 

the form of a tree. 
ARCES'THIDA (obs.), see Gal- 

BULTJS. 

AROHEbIO'SIS, the origin of life. 
See Spontaneous Genera- 
tion. 

AR€HEGO'NlUM (pi. ArehegS'- 
nia), the female organ in the 
higher cryptogams. Com- 
pare Oogonium. See Anthe- 
ridium. 

AR€HESPO'RlUM, the cell, 
group, or layer of cells from 
which the spore-mother-cells, 
and tapetum if any, are de- 
rived in the higher cryptogams 
and flowering plants. 

ARCHETYPE, the original type 
or condition. 

ARCH'ICARP, the beginning of a 
fructification; a cell or group of 
cells fertilized by a sexual act, 
as an ascogonium or carpogo- 
nium. 

ARCUATE, curved like a bow. 

AREA, a rather large space 
bounded by cracks, lines, veins, 
or part differing in color or 
texture. Compare Areola. 

ARENA'CEOUS, growing in sandy 



places; arenareous; arenose; 
sabuline; sabulose. 

ARENA'RIOtJS, see Arena- 
ceous. 

AR'ENOSE, see Arenaceous. 

ARE'6LA(pl. Are'olae), diminutive 
of area, any small space sur- 
rounded by a part differing in 
structure or color, as the spaces 
bounded by the veins in reticu- 
late leaves, by the cracks in 
the surface of the thallus of cer- 
tain lichens, or by the cell- 
walls in the leaves of mosses; 
areolation ; areole. 

ARE'OLATE, divided into areolae. 

AREOLA'TION, (1) see Areola; 
(2) the form and arrangement 
of the areoke in mosses, etc. 

A'REOLE, see Areola. 

ARGEN TEUS, white with a tinge 
of gray; silvery. 

ARGILLA'CEOUS, growing in a 
clayey soil; argillose. 

AR GlLLOSE, see Argillaceous. 

ARHI'ZAL, without roots. 

AR'IL, a false coat which some- 
times surrounds the seed, 
growing from the funiculus, 
hilum, or placenta, as the mace 
of nutmeg. Compare Stro- 
phiole. 

ARIL'lA, see Aril. 

AR'ILLATE, having an aril. 

AR'ILLATED, see Arillate. 

AR'ILLODE, a false covering to a 
seed resembling an aril. 

ARIL'LUS, see Aril. 

ARISTA, see Awn. 

ARIS'TATE, having an awn. 

ARIS'TUlATE, having a small 
awn. 

ARM, in horticulture, a large 
branch of a vine trained hori- 
zontally. 

ARMED, having thorns, spines, 
or prickles. 



15 



Armilla 



A DICTIONARY 



Ascus 



ARMfL'LA, an anuulus in the 
form of a plaited frill sus- 
pended from the top of the 
stipe below the cap in certain 
mushrooms. 

AROMA, a pleasant characteristic 
odor. 

AROMAt'IC, possessing aroma, 
especially if spicy. 

ARRECT', directed upward from 
an inclined base, as the pods 
of milkweed. (Asclepias.) 

ARROW-HEADED, see Sagit- 
tate. 

ARROW-SHAPED, see Sagit- 
tate. 

AR'TH6n6ID, resembling the 
apothecium of the genus Ar- 
thouia in lichens. 

AR'THROSPORE, used mainly in 
bacteria for a spore formed by 
segmentation, as opposed to 
Endospore. 

ARTHROSTERIG'MA (pi. Arthrd- 
sterig'mata), a jointed sterigma 
in many lichens, composed of 
a row of cells from each of 
which spores are abstricted. 

ARTICULATE, jointed; articu- 
lated. 

ARTICULATED, see Articu- 
late. 

ARTICULA'TION, (1) a node, 
joint, septum, or separable 
place; (2) oue of the segments 
so marked off or separated. 

ARTICULUS, formerly used both 
for node and internode. 

Artificial system, a system 

of classification based on oue 
or a few features only, and not 
intended to show true relation- 
ship, as that of Linnaeus. 

ArUNDINAQEOUS, reed-like. 

ASCEND'ENT, see Ascending. 

As§END'ING, rising obliquely, 
or curving upwards from near 
the base, as the stems of 



Stellaria or the branches of 
Norway spruce; adsceudent; 
ascendent: assurgent; adsurg- 
ent. Said of ovules which 
are attached to the middle por- 
tion of the placenta or sides 
of the ovary and are directed 
upward. Also, directed up- 
ward in any manner in con- 
trast to descending, as the 
ascending axis. 

AscEnD'ING Axis, the stem. 

Ascending metAmor'pho 

SIS, see Progressive Meta- 
morphosis. 

AS'CI, pi., see Ascus. 

ASCID'lA, pi., see Ascidium. 

ASCID'IFORM, ascidium- shaped. 

ASCID'IUM (pi. As9id'ia), a hollow 
pitcher-shaped leaf, like that of 
Sarracenia. 

ASCIF'EROUS, see Ascophorous. 

ASCIG'EROUS, see Ascogenous. 

AS'COCARP, the sporocarp of 
Ascomycetes. See Apothe- 
cium, Perithecium, and 
Cleistocarp. 

ASCOG'ENOUS, producing asci; 
ascigerous. 

AS'COGONE, see Ascogonium. 

ASCOGO'NIUM, the carpogonium, 
or female organ in Ascomy- 
cetes before fertilization. 

AS'COPHORE, the ascus-bearing 
layer of hyphse liniug an asco- 
carp. 

ASCOPHOROUS, ascus-bearing; 
asciferous. Compare Ascoge- 
nous. 

AS'COSPORE, a spore produced 
in an ascus. Often inappro- 
priately called sporidium or 
sporule. 

ASCUS (pi. As'91), one of the char- 
acteristic spore-cases of Asco- 
mycetes borne in an ascocarp. 
It consists of an enlarged 
terminal cell containing free 



16 



Ascus-apparatus OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Auriculate 



spores, most frequently eight 
in number. 

As CUS-APPARA TUS, the asci, 
together with the ascogenous 
cells. See Envelofe-appara- 
tus. 

ASCY'PHOUS, without scyphi. 

ASEP'TIC, not liable to putre- 
faction. 

ASEXUAL, without sex; desti- 
tute of stamens and pistils in 
flowering plants, or other sex- 
ual organs in cryptogams. 

Asexual generA'tion, the 

second stage or generation in 
plauts having an alternation 
of generations. It produces 
spores asexually, but is itself 
the result of fertilization. In 
ferns the prothallus is the sex- 
ual, and the leaf-bearing plant 
the asexual, generation. See 
Sporogonium. 

AS'PERATE, see Scabrous. 

AS PERGIL'LIFORM, resembling 
an aspergillus (a round brush 
used to spriukle holy water in 
Roman Catholic churches), as 
the stigmas of some grasses. 
Compare Muscariform. 

AspERIFO'LIATE, having leaves 
rough to the touch. 

ASPERIFO'LIOUS, see Asperfo- 

LIATE. 

ASPER'MOUS, without seeds. 
As'PEROUS, see Scabrous. 

Assimilation, the conversion 

of foreign material into the 
substance of the plant; con- 
structive metabolism. 

ASSUR GENT, see Ascending. 

AS'TER, see Mother-star, Dt- 
aster, Amphiaster, and Cy- 

TASTER. 

ASTEROID, having flowers like 
the Aster. Compare Actini- 
form 

AS'TICHOUS, not in rows. 



AS'TOMOUS, without aperture, as 
mosses which have not a de- 
ciduous operculum. 

Asymmetrical, not symmet- 
rical, which see. 

ATAVISM, resemblance to a dis- 
tant ancestor; remote heredity. 

A'TER (in composition, atro-), 
pure black, as distinguished 
from Niger. 

AthAL'LINE, without thallus. 

AT ROPAl, see Obthotropous. 

AT'ROPHY, a dwarfed or stunted 
condition of an organ as com- 
pared with others, or with the 
usual state. Especially ap- 
plied to parts which seem 
wasted away from lack of 
nourishment or other cause. 
Compare Abortion and De- 
generation. 

AT'ROPOUS, see Orthotropous. 

ATROPURPU'REUS, dark purple. 

ATTEN'UATE, tapering gradu- 
ally to a point or narrow ex- 
tremity. 

ATTENUATED, see Attenuate. 

AUGMENTATION, increase be- 
yond the normal number, espe- 
cially the production of addi- 
tional floral whorls. 

AU'LOPHYTE, a plant which 
lives within another for shelter 
only, not as a parasite, as some 
Protococcaceae. 

AURANTIA'CEOUS, orange-col- 
ored. Darker than Aureus. 

AU'REUS, yellow, with a slight 
admixture of red; golden. 

AU'RICLE, any ear-like append- 
age, as the lobes at the base of 
the leaves in sorrel. 

AU RICLED, see Auriculate. 

AURICULA (pi. Auric'ulee), see 
Auricle. 

AURICULATE, having auricles, 
or ear-like lobes or append- 
ages. 



17 



Auriculated 



A DICTIONARY 



Ax-shaped 



AURICULATED, see Auricu- 

LATE. 

AU RIFORM, having the form of 
the human ear. 

AUSTERE', astringent or harsh to 
the taste. 

AUTOCAR POUS, said of ovaries 
which are not adherent to the 
calyx; superior. 

AUTffi'CIOUs, said of a parasitic 
fuugus which inhabits the 
same host-plant through all its 
stages of growth. Compare 
Heteiwecious. Applied in 
mosses when the male and fe- 
male "tiowers" are in sepa- 
rate involucres upon the same 
plant. 

AUTOGAMOUS, self-fertilizing. 

AUTOG'AMY, close-fertilization ; 
the fertilization of a flower by 
its own pollen. Compare Al- 
logamy. 

AUTOGEN'ESIS, see Spontane- 
ous Generation. 

AUTOGENOUS, self-originating. 
Applied to diseases which have 
their origin or cause within the 
effected organism. Compare 
Infection, Esoteric, and Ex- 
oteric. 

AUTOG'ENUS or MONdG'ENUS, 
terms proposed in place of 
Monotypic, to indicate that a 
genus contains but a single 
species. 

AUTON'OMOUS, complete in it- 
self. Applied to forms which 
continually and directly repro- 
duce themselves, and are not 
mere stages in the life of a 
plant. 

AUTOPHYLLOG ENY, the growth 
of one leaf upon another. 

AU'TOPLAST, see Chlorophyll- 
body. 

AUTOTEM'NOUS, capable of spon- 
taneous division, as ordinary 
growing cells. 



AUX'OSPORE, a large renewal- 
cell in Diatomaeese, formed 
either by rejuvenescence, or 
developed from a zygospore 
produced by conjugation. 

AUXOTONIC MOVEMENTS, 

those made by growing organs, 
as the twining of stems. Com- 
pare Allassotonic Move- 
ments. 

AVERSE', turned or facing away 
from the central axis or other 
object. Compare Adverse. 

AWL -SHAPED, see Subulate. 

AWN, a bristle-shaped append- 
age, like those on the glumes of 
many grasses; arista; beard. 

AWNED, having an awn or 
beard; aristate. 

AX'-FORM, see Dolabriform. 

Ax'IAL, pertaining to an axis; 
extending in the direction of 
an axis; forming an axis. Com- 
pare Axile. 

AXIFEROUS, having an axis; 
producing stems but no leaves. 

Ax'IL, the upper angle between 
leaf and stem; any angle. 

AX ILE, occupying or belonging 
to the axis, as an axile placenta. 

AXIL'LA (pi. Axil'lsie), see Axil. 

AX'ILLAR, see Axillary. 

AX'ILLARY, pertaining to or oc- 
cupying an axil. 

AX'IS, the central line of any 
body; an organ around which 
others are attached, especially 
a main stem or root. 

AXIS, ASCENDING, see Ascend- 
ing Axis. 

AXIS, DESCENDING, see De- 
scending Axis. 

AXIS OF INFLORES'CENgE, the 
part of the stem or branch 
along which flowers are borne. 
See Receptacle and Rachis. 

AX'-SHAPED, see Dolabri- 
form. 



18 



Azygospore 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Basin 



AZYGOSPORE, a spore in certain 
algae and fungi resembling a 
zygospore, but produced asex- 
ually. 

AZ YGOUS, without a fellow or 
corresponding part, as a leaflet 
which does not have another 
leaflet on the opposite side of 
the rachis. 

BACCA, see Berry. 

BACCATE, berry -like; pulpy. 

BAC'CATED, covered with ber- 
ries, or bodies resembling ber- 
ries. 

BACCJF'EROUS, producing ber- 
ries. 

BAC'CfFORM, see Baccate. 

BA'CILLAr, rod- or club-shaped, 
like a bacillus; bacilliform. 

BACK, see Dorsum. 

BACTE'RIOIDS, protoplasmic 
bodies endowed with Brown 
ian movement, and resembling 
bacteria. 

BALD, destitute of the usual cov- 
ering, as of hair, foliage, etc. ; 
destitute of beards or awns. 

BAlUS'TRA, sometimes applied 
to fruits like the pomegranate. 

BAND, (1) a space between two 
ridges on the fruit of Umbel 
liferae; (2) a broad stripe, es 
pecially if transverse. 

BAN'NER, see Vexilltjm. 

BARB, a sharp reflexed point on 
an awn or other process; a 
hair or other process having 
such reflexed points, or with a 
reflexed tip. 

BAR'BATE, see Bearded. 

BAR'BATED, see Bearded. 

BARBE, see Barb. 

BAR'BELLATE (diminutive of 
Barbate), having minute barbs; 
barbel lulate. 



BARBEL'LULATE, see Barbel- 
late. 

BAR BULE, a small barb. 

BARK, the covering of the stem 
and roots of exogeus, separated 
from the wood by the cambi- 
um. 

BARRED, crossed by parallel 
horizontal bands or lines. 

BARREN, unproductive; un- 
fruitful; sterile, — said of a 
plant or organ. The term "bar- 
ren" is seldom applied except 
to a plant as a whole, and even 
then the term "sterile" is more 
often used. 

BA'SAL, pertaining to the base. 

BASE, the part of an organ by 
which it is attached to its sup- 
port. 

BASIDIOGENET'IC, borne on a 
basidium. 

BASID'IOPHORE, a sporophore 
bearing a basidium. 

BASID'IOSPORE, a spore borne 
on a basidium, as those of 
mushrooms. 

BASID'ltJM (pi. Basid'ia), one of 
the branched cells on the 
spore-bearing surface of mush- 
rooms, etc., which bear the 
spores. Compare Sterig.ma. 

BAS'IFIXED, attached by its 
base, as an inuate anther. 

BASIF'tJGAL, (1) proceeding 
away from the base; upward; 
acropetal; centrifugal (centrip- 
etal when applied to the or- 
der of inflorescence); (2) de- 
rived from the base or situ- 
ated at the base, as basifugal 
growth in the leaves of certain 
grasses. 

BASIGYN'IUM, see Gynophore. 

BASILAR, relating to or situated 
at the base. 

BA SIN, the depression at the 



19 



Basipetal 



A DICTIONARY 



Eicrenate 



apex of an apple. Compare 
Cavity and Eye. 

BASIPETAL, proceeding or pro- 
duced in succession toward 
the base; downward; centrifu- 
gal (when applied to the order 
of inflorescence only). Com- 
pare Acropetal. 

BASISCOP'IC, on the side toward 
the base; facing the base. 

BASS, see Bast. 

BAST, the liber or inner bark; 
particularly the long, taper- 
ing, thick-walled phloem-cells 
characteristic of such bark. 

BAS'TARD, spurious; resembling 
something else. Used improp- 
erly for Hybrid. 

BAST-CELLS, thick-walled elon- 
gated spindle-shaped cells in 
the phloem portion of fibro- 
vascular bundles. They give 
strength and flexibility to the 
tissues; bast-fibres. 

BAST FIBRES, see Bast-cells. 

BAST SHEATH, see Phloem- 
sheath. 

BAST, SOFT, see Soft Bast. 

BAST-TISSUE, see Phloem 

BAST-VES'SEL, see Sieve-tube. 

BEAK, a process like the beak of 
a bird terminating the fruit of 
many leguminous and other 
plants; rostrum. 

BEAKED, ending in a prolonged 
narrow rigid tip like a beak; 
rostrate. 

BEARD, the awns of grasses, 
singly or collectively; a tuft 
of hairs, especially if stiff and 
long; sometimes applied im- 
properly to the lower lip of 
labiate corollas. 

BEARDED, having a beard; be- 
set with hairs, especially if 
stiff and long. 

BEARD'LETED, having minute 
beards or awns. 



BELL'-SHAPED, see Campanu- 
late. 

BEL/LYING, swelling out on one 
side, as the tube of the corolla 
in many Labiateae. 

BISR'RIED, see Baccated. 

BER'RY, an indehiscent fruit 
pulpy or fleshy throughout, as 
the grape, currant, and tomato. 

BIACU'MINATE, two-pointed. 

BIAN'GUlATE, having two an- 
gles or corners. 

BIARTIC ULATED, having two 
joints. 

BIAURIC'ULATE, two-eared. 

BIBRAC'TEATE, with two bracts. 

BIBRAC'TEOLATE, having two 
bractlets. 

BICAL'cArATE, having two 
spurs. 

BlcAl'LOSE, having two small 
hard spots or protuberances. 

BICAP'SULAR, having two cap- 
sules. Sometimes applied to 
capsules which are divided be- 
fore dehiscence into two parts. 

BIcAR'PELLARY, see Dicarpel- 

LARY. 

BICAR'InATE, two-keeled, as the 
palet of grasses. 

BICEPHALOUS, having two 
heads. 

BICIPITAL, divided into two 
parts. 

BlCIP'ITOUS, see Bicipital. 

BlCOLLAT'ERAL BUNDLE, a 
tibro-vascular bundle in which 
a strand of xylem lies between 
two strands of phloem. 

BI'COLOR, of two colors. 

BI'COLORED, see Bicolor. 

BICON'JUgATE, see Bigemi- 

NATE. 

BlCOR'NUTE, with two horn-like 

processes. 
BlCRE'NATE, with two crena- 
20 



Bicrural 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Binate 



tures or rounded teeth. Com- 
pare DoUBLY-CRENATE. 

BICRU'RAL, having two legs or 
narrow elongations, as the lip 
of the " man-orchis." 

BICUSPID, having two sharp 
stiff points or cusps; bicuspi- 
date. 

BICUS'PIDATE, see Bicuspid. 

BIDEN'TATE, having two teeth. 
Compare Doubly -dentate. 

BIDIG ITATE, having two finger- 
like divisions. 

BID'UOUS, lasting two days onty. 

BIENNIAL (adj.), living two 
years, or requiring two seasons 
to come to maturity. 

BIEN'NIAL, (n.), a plant which 
usually matures its fruit the 
second year aud then dies. 

BIFA'CLAL, applied to leaves 
which have a distinct upper 
and lower surface differing in 
texture. Compare Centric. 

BlFA'RIOtJS, pointing in two 
directions; two-ranked; disti- 
chous. 

BITER, a plant which ripens 
fruit twice a year. 

BIF'ERO US, fruiting twice a year. 

BI'FID, divided about to the mid- 
dle in two parts; two-cleft. 

BIF'IDATE, see Bifid. 

BIFIS'TULAR, containing two 
tubular openings. 

BIFLO'RATE, see Biflorous. 

BIFLO'ROUS, two-flowered. 

BIFO LlATE, having two leaves 
or leaflets. 

BIFO'LIOLATE, having two leaf- 
lets. 

BLFdLLIC'tJLAR, with a double 
follicle. 

BIFO'RATE, having two perfora- 
tions, as the anthers of Rhodo- 
dendron. 

BIF'ORINE, a peculiar cell con- 



21 



taining raphides found in 
arums and certain other plants 
— so called because when 
placed in water they become 
turgid aud discharge their con- 
tents, often from both ends. 

BIF'OROUS, see Biforate. 

BI'FRONS, having two faces or 
aspects; growing on both sur- 
faces of a leaf (amphigeuous). 

BIFUR'CATE, forked; divided 
into two branches. 

BIFURCATED, see Bifurcate. 

BIFURCATION, division into 
two branches. 

BIFUR'COUS, see Bifurcate. 

BIGEM'INATE, twice paired, as 
a decompound leaf with two 
pairs of leaflets, i.e., having a 
forked petiole with a pair of 
leaflets at the end of each divi- 
sion; bicon jugate. 

BI'GENER, see Genus-Hybrid. 

BIGLAnD'ULAR, having two 
glands or gland-like bodies. 

BIJU'GATE, having two pairs, as 
a leaf with two pairs of leaflets. 

BIJU'GOUS, see Bijugate. 

BILABIATE, see Labiate. 

BILAM'ELLAR, see Bilamel- 
late. 

BIlAM'ELLATE, of two plates 
or lamellae. 

BILAm'ELLATED, see Bilamel- 
late. 

BILAT'ERAL, two-sided. 

BILO'BATE, two-lobed. 

BILO'BATED, see Bilobate. 

BI'LOBED, see Bilobate. 

BILOC'ULAR, two-celled— ap- 
plied to ovaries, anthers, etc. 

BImACULATE, having two spots. 

BImACULATED, see Bimacu- 

LATE. 

BINARY, in twos; double. 
BI'NATE, in twos or pairs; con- 
jugate — said of two bodies of 



Bine 



A DICTIONARY 



Bipinnatisect 



the same nature springing 
from the same point. In 
speaking of pinnate leaves the 
term conjugate is generally 
used. 

BINE, a twiuiug or climbing 
stem. Rare except in composi- 
tion, as wood-bine. 

BINERV'ATE, having two nerves 
or veins, or two which are es- 
pecially prominent. 

BINO DAL, containing two nodes 
only. 

BINO'MI AL, of two names, as the 
generic and specific names 
which compose a " botanical 
name." 

BI NOUS, see Binate. 

BInU'CLEAR, see Binucxeate. 

BINU'ClEATE, have two nuclei 
or central points; binuclear. 

BINU'CLEOLATE, with two nu- 
cleoli. 

BIOC'ELLATE, with two eye-like 
spots. 

BIOGEN'ESIS, (1) the origin of 
life; (2) the production of liv- 
ing beings from other living 
beings in any manner — the 
converse of spontaneous gen- 
eration (abiogenesis). 

BIOG'ENGUS, growing on living 
plants, either parasitic or not. 

BIOG'ENY, the genesis or evolu- 
tion of living forms, or the sci- 
ence which treats of it, includ- 
ing Ontogeny and Phyllogeny. 

BI6L0GY, zoology and botany. 

BIOLYT'IC, injurious or destruc- 
tive to life. 

BI'ON, an individual morphologi- 
cally independent. 

BldPH'AGOtJS, feeding on living 
organisms. Applied chiefly 
to insectivorous plants. 

Bl'OPLASM, any living fluid; 
the same as protoplasm. 



BIPAL'EOLATE, with two lodi- 
cules; bilodiculute. 

BIPAL'MATE, said of leaves 
which are palmate upon sec- 
ondary palmate petioles. 

BIP'AROUS, bearing two objects, 
as a leaf with two leaflets. 

BIPAR'TED, see Bipartite. 

BIpAR'TIBLE, divisible into two 
parts. 

BIpAR'TILE, see Bipartible. 

BIPARTITE, two-parted; divid- 
ed into two parts to the base or 
nearly so. 

BIPARTI'TION, the act of di- 
viding into two equal parts. 
Compare Bisection. 

BIPEC'TINATE, toothed like a 
comb on two sides. 

BIPEL'TATE, having two shield- 
shaped parts. 

BIPEREN'NiAL, said of a part 
which lives two years, but 
reproduces itself indefinitely, 
as the tubers of the potato. 
(Rare.) 

BIPET'ALOtJS, having two pet- 
als. 

BIPlN NATE, said of a pinnate 
leaf with secoudary petioles, 
each bearing more than one 
leaflet, as the honey-locust; 
doubly pinnate; twice pin- 
nate. 

BIPIN'NATED, see Bipinnate. 

BIPINNAT'IFID, having the di- 
visions of a pinnatifid leaf 
pinnatifid; twice pinnately 
cleft. 

BIPINNAtIpAR'TITE, having 
the divisiousof a pinuatipartite 
leaf pinuatipartite; twice pin- 
nately parted. It differs from 
Bipiunatifid in having the di- 
visions extend to uear the mid- 
rib. 

BiPINNAT'ISECT, having the di- 
visions of a pinnatisect leaf 



Biplicate 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Blastocolla 



piunatisect; twice pinnately di- 
vided. The divisions extend 
to the midrib, but the segments 
are sessile. 

BiPLI'CATE, twice or doubly 
folded. 

BIPO'ROSE, having two small 
openings or pores. 

BIPUNC'TATE, having two small 
spots. 

BIRA'DlATE, having two rays. 

BIRI'MOSE, opening by two slits, 
as most anthers; having two 
clefts, slits, or narrow open- 
ings. 

BISACCATE, having two sacs or 
pouches. 

BISCU'TATE, resembling two 
round bucklers placed side by 
side. 

BISECT', to divide into two equal 
parts. 

BISECTION, the act of cutting 
or dividing into two equal 
parts; bipartition. 

BISEP'TATE, having two parti- 
tions or septa. 

BISE'RIAL, in two rows or series. 

BISER'RATE, having the teeth or 
serratures serrate; doubly ser- 
rate. The latter term is pref- 
erable, and Biserrate, though 
in more common use in this 
sense, should be applied in anal- 
ogy with Bidentate to leaves 
or margins bearing two serra- 
tures. 

BISE TOSE, having two bristles; 
bisetous. 

BISE'TOUS, see Bisetose. 

BISEXUAL, containing both 
sexes, as a flower with both sta- 
mens and pistils; hermaphro- 
dite; mouoclinous; synoecious. 

BISPI'NOSE, having two spines. 

BI'SPORE, a two-spored tetra- 
spore. 



BISTIP'tTLED, having two stip- 
ules. 

BISUL CATE, having two longitu- 
dinal grooves or furrows. 

BITER'NATE, divided iuto three 
parts, each of which is divided 
iuto three. 

BIT'TEN, see Erose. 

BIVALVE (adj.), having two 
valves, as some capsules; bi- 
valvular. 

BI'VALVE (n.), a capsule of two 
valves. 

BIVALV'tJLAR, see Bivalve. 

BIVAs'CULAR, having two ves- 
sels. 

BIVIT'TATE, having two vittae. 

BLADDER, (1) an inflated mem- 
branous pericarp; (2) a mem- 
branous air-sac in some water- 
plants which enables them to 
float. See Air-bladder. 

BLADDERY, thin and inflated 
like a bladder, as the calyx of 
Silene inflata. 

BLADE, the expanded portion 
of a leaf; lamina. The term 
blade is more commonly ap- 
plied in grasses and lamina in 
other plants. 

BLANCHED,whitened by absence 
of light; etiolated. Compare 
Chlorosis and Albinism. 

BLAND, fair; beautiful. 

BLASTE'MA, the embryo aside 
from the cotyledons; also used 
for any point of growth or 
budding part. (Rare.) 

BLASTE'MAL, rudimentary; nas- 
cent. (Rare.) 

BLASTOCAR'POUS, applied to a 
fruit when the seed germinates 
within the pericarp, as some- 
times occurs in the mangrove. 
(Rare.) 

BLAsTOCOL'LA, the gummy sub- 
stance on many buds, as on 
the horse-chestnut. 



23 



A DICTIONARY 



Botany 



BLASTOGEN'ESIS, reproduction 
by buds; gemmation. (Obs.) 

BLAS'TUS (obs.), see Bud and 
Plumule. 

BLIND, applied to a malforma- 
tion, chiefly in certain culti- 
vated plants, as cabbage and 
cauliflower, in whicb the stem 
terminates without producing 
a head or inflorescence. A 
" blind bud " is one which fails 
to develop. To ' ' go blind " is 
to fail to produce flower-buds 
where expected. 

BLISTERED, see Bullate. 

BLOOM, a coating on the surface 
of fruits, leaves, etc., often 
grayish or bluish in color, con- 
sisting of minute, waxy parti- 
cles in the form of filaments, 
granules, or layers. See Glau- 
cous. 

BLOSSOM-BUD, see Flower- 
bud. 

BLOTCHED, having distinct ir- 
regular spots of color. Com- 
pare Clouded. 

BLUNT, obtuse. 

BOAT'-SHAPED, see Navicular. 

BOB, a popular name for the in- 
florescence (thyrse) of sumach. 

BOLE, the body of a tree. 

BOLL, a globular pericarp, as 
that of cotton. 

BOLT (Hort.), to run premature- 
ly to seed, as carrots when they 
seed the first year. 

BONY, hard, brittle, and close in 
texture, as the stone of the 
peach. 

BOOT, a popular name for the 
sheath of grains and other 
grasses. 

BOR'DER, the expanded portion 
of a gamopetalous corolla, con- 
sisting of the united limbs. 
See also Bordered Pit. 

BORDERED, having the margin 



different from the remainder 
in form, color, or texture. 

BORDERED PIT, a thin spot or 
opening in a cell-wall covered 
on each side by a thickened 
convex body having a central 
perforation; areolated dot; 
discoid marking. Bordered 
pore of Gregory. These mark- 
ings are characteristic of the 
wood-cells of Coniferoe. The 
border is the more or less di- 
lated central portion of the 
pit or passage between the 
cells. 

BORDERED PORE, see Border- 
ed Pit. 

BOSS, a rounded protuberance. 
BOSSED, having a boss. Compare 
Umbonate. 

BOS'TRYCHOlD, CYME see Heli- 
coid Cyme. 

BOS'TRYCHOlD DICHdT'OMY, see 
Helichoid Dichotomy. 

BOS'TRYX, see Helicoid Cyme. 

BOTAN'ICAL 6E0G'RAPHY, see 
Geographical Botany. 

BOTANICAL NAME, the generic 
name followed by the specific 
name. 

BOTAN'ICAL NOMENCLATURE, 
an account of the names of 
plants, and of the laws for their 
application. 

BOTAN ICAL TERMIN6L'66Y,an 
account of the special words 
used in describing plants. 

BOTANIC GARDEN, a collection 
of growing plants systemati- 
cally arranged for the purpose 
of study. 

BOTANIZE, to seek for growing 
plants for the purpose of bo- 
tanical investigation. 

BOT'ANY, the science of plants; 
phytology. See Structural, 
Physiological, and System- 
atic Botany, Botanical No- 



24 



Bothrenchyma 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Brownian 



MENCLATURE, aild BOTANICAL ! 

Terminology. 
BOTHREN'CHYmA (obs.), see 

Pitted Tissue. 
BOT'RUS, an old term for a clus- 
ter like that of the grape. 

BOT'RYOID, having the form of 
a bunch of grapes; botryoidal; 
botryose. 

BOT'RYOSE, see Botryoid. 

BOTRYOIDAL, see Botryoid. 

BOTTLE-SHAPED, see Lageni- 
porm. 

BOTU'LI-FORM, see Allantoid. 

BRACH'IATE, applied to branch- 
es which are decussate and 
spreading, as iu the ash, and 
sometimes improperly to those 
which are long and widely 
spreading, but not decussate. 

BRAOHYpODOUS, short-stalked. 

BRACT, a leaf of an inflorescence, 
generally subtending a flower 
or flower-branch. Bracts are 
intermediate in position be- 
tween foliage leaves and floral 
leaves, and are usually much 
smaller than the ordinary 
leaves, and in other respects 
more or less modified. 

BRACTEA (pi. Bracteee), see 
Bract. 

BRACTEAL, of the nature of a 
bract. 

BRAc'TEATE, furnished with 
bracts; subtended by a bract 
or bracts; bracted. 

BRACTE'OLA (pi. Bracteolse), see 
Bractlet. 

BRACTEOlATE, furnished with 
bractlets. 

BRACTEOLE, see Bractlet. 

BRAC'TEOSE, having many or 
conspicuous bracts. 

BRACT'LET, a small bract, or 
bract upon a pedicel or second- 
ary branch of an inflorescence. 

BRACT'LESS, without bracts. 



BRAIRD, to germinate. (Scotch.) 

BRANCH (n.), a division of astern 
or other elongated organ; sec- 
ondary axis. 

BRANCH (v. i.), to produce 
branches; to ramify. 

BRANCH'LET, a little branch or 
subdivision of a branch; twig. 

BREAK (v. i.) (Hort.): (1) to de- 
part widely from the type and 
suddenly produce a new vari- 
ety (uearly the same as sport); 
(2) to " bolt " or run prema- 
turely to seed, as a biennial the 
first year; (3) to put forth new 
buds or leaves. 

BREAST-WOOD (Hort.), branches 
which project outward from a 
wall or espalier. 

BREATH'ING-PORE, see Stoma. 

BREED, see Race. 

BRI'DLES, strings of protoplasm 
which often connect the nu- 
cleus with the layer of proto- 
plasm next the cell wall. 

BRIS'TLE, a stiff, short hair or 
hair-like body. 

BRISTLE-POINTED, ending in a 
bristle; terminating gradually 
in a fine sharp point, as the 
leaves of many mosses. 

BRIS TLY, beset with bristles. 

BROOD-BUD, a deciduous leaf- 
bud capable of growing into a 
new plant, such as the bulbils 
of the tiger-lily and the decidu- 
ous buds of certain lycopodi- 
ums; also applied to the sore- 
dium of lichens. 

BROOD'-CELL, any reproductive 
unicellular body produced 
asexually which separates from 
the parent plant, as the gonidia 
of fungi. 

BROOD'-GEM'mA, see Gemma. 

BROWNLA.N MOVEMENT, a 
trembling movement common 
to all minute particles sus- 
25 



Brunneus 



A DICTIONARY 



Bulliform Cells 



pended in a liquid. Called 
also Brunonian movemeut, 
Pedesis, Non-vital motion, and 
(improperly) Molecular move- 
ment. The cause is not known. 

BRUN'NEUS, deep brown, a mix- 
ture of dark gray and red. 

BRUSH'-SHAPED, see Aspergil- 

LIFORM. 

BRYOL'OGY, the division of bot- 
any relating to mosses; mus- 
cology. 

BUCK'LER-SHAPED, see Scu- 
tate. 

BUD, an undeveloped stem or 
branch, or its extremity, bear- 
ing rudimentary leaves which 
are specially modified for its 
protection. See Leaf-bud, 
Flower-bud, aud Gemma. 

BUD'DING, putting forth buds or 
gemmoe. Also applied to Pul- 
lulation, which see. 

BUD'LET, a little bud attached 
to a larger one. 

BUD RUDIMENT, the special 
cells which originate the leaf- 
bearing axis in the pro-embryo 
of Characeae. 

BUD'-SCALE, one of the modified 
leaves of a bud; perule. 

BUD'-SPORT, see Bud varia- 
tion. 

BtJD-VARiA'TION, the develop- 
ment of a bud in a manner un- 
usual to the species or variety, 
and different from the other 
buds upon the plant. It may 
be the production of a new 
variety or a reversion to an 
earlier form. Bud-variations, 
or "bud-sports" as they are 
often called, may usually be 
propagated by division, but 
their characters are seldom re- 
tained when grown from seed. 
Compare Seed-variation. 

BUD VARIETY, a variety which 
originated by bud-variation. 



BUGLE SHAPED, having the 
shape of a bugle bead; — a 
form varying from obloug to 
obovoid. Used in describing 
the fruit of certain cranberries. 

BULB, a bud with thickened 
scales containing nutriment 
for its development, thus differ- 
ing from ordinary buds, the 
scales of which are for pro- 
tection only. Bulbs are usu- 
ally subterranean. 

BULBA'CEOUS, having bulbs; 
bulbous. 

BULBED, in the form of a bulb; 
bulbaceous. 

BUL'BEL, see Bulblet. 
BULBIF'EROUS, bulb-bearing; 
bulbous. 

BUL'BIL, see Bulblet. 

BULB'LET, a little or secondary 
bulb, especially one above 
ground, as in some lilies and 
ferns; bulbel; bulbil; bulbule. 
See Clove. 

BUL'BOSE, bulb-like in shape or 
structure. 

BUL'BO-TUBER, see Corm. 

BUL'BOUS, producing bulbs, 
growing from bulbs, or bul- 
bose. 

BULB- SCALE, one of the thick- 
ened scale like leaves of a 
bulb. 

BULB, TU'NIcATED, see Tuni- 
cated Bulb. 

BUl'BULE, see Bulblet. 

BUL'BUS, the swollen base of the 
stipe in mushrooms. 

BUL'LATE, having the surface 
blistered or puckered, as the 
leaves of the Savoy cabbage, 
the spaces between the veins 
of which are concave on one 
side and convex on the other, 

BUL'LIFdRM CELLS, see Hygro- 
scopic Cells. 



26 



Bunch 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Callosity 



BUNCH, an indefinite cluster or 
tuft. 

BUNDLE-SHEATH, a layer of 
closely united thin-walled 
parenchyma partly or wholly 
surrounding each fibro-vascu- 
lar bundle or continuous 
around the fibro- vascular cylin- 
der; phloem-sheath. 

BUR, a seed or head bearing 
hooked or barbed appendages 
which serve for its attach- 
ment to various animals, thus 
securing its dissemination. 

BURSIC'ULATE, pouch-like or 
furnished with pouch-like ap- 
pendages. 

BURSIC'UlA (pi. Bursic'ulae\ an 
old term for the stigmatic 
chamber in orchids. 

BURSIC'ULATE, having a bursic- 
ula or small pouch. 

BUSH, a shrub, especially if dense 
and low. Shrub implies the 
habitual form or limit of 
growth, but a bush may grow 
into a tree. 

BUT'TERFLY-SHAPED, see Papi- 
lionaceous. 

BUTTERY, applied to fruits, es- 
pecially pears, the flesh of 
which is soft and yields read- 
ily to the pressure of the teeth, 
as in the White Doyenne and 
Seckel pears. The texture is 
in some respects intermediate 
between Breaking and Melting, 
which see. 

BUTTON (v. i.) (Hort.), to form 
small heads prematurely, as 
cauliflower. 

BICYCLIC, having two cycles or 
whorls. 

BYSSA'CEOUS, resembling or con- 
sisting of fine filaments like 
cobweb, as the mycelium of 
mushrooms. 

BYS'SOID, resembling bissus. 

BYS'SUS, an old name for the 



filamentous mycelium of cer- 
tain fungi. 

CADUCOUS, falling early, as the 
calyx of the poppy. 

CJERULES'CENT, see Cosrules- 

CENT. 

CZERU'LEUS, see Cceruleus. 

CE'SIOUS, pale bluish-gray; lav- 
ender-colored. 

CZESPIT'ELLOSE, diminutive of 
Crespitose. 

CZES'PITOSE, see Cespitose. 

CAlAthIdIUM (obs.), see 
Capitclum. Formerly applied 
to the head of flowers in Com- 
posite, or sometimes to the in- 
volucre only. 

CAlATH'IFORM, bowl-shaped, 
with the margin more or less 
flaring, like a fruit-dish or 
flower- basket. 

CAL'CAR, see Spur. 

CAL'CArATE, having a spur, as 
the flower of larkspur; spur- 
shaped. 

CALCAREOUS, of a dull chalk- 
white color; growing in chalky 
or limestone soils. 

CAL'CEIFORM, see Calceolate. 

CAL'CEOLATE, slipper-shaped, 
as "the lip of Cypripedium; 
calceiform; soleaBform. 

CAL'CIFORM, powdery, like 
chalk or lime. 

CALCIV'OROUS, eating into lime 
rock, as certain lichens. 

CAliCULAR, cup-shaped. 
(Rare.) 

CAlICULATE, see Calyculate. 

CA'LIX, see Calyx. 

CAl'LI (pi.), see Callus. 

CAL'LOSE, having hardened spots 
or protuberances; callused. 

CALLOSITY, a hard or thickened 
spot or protuberance; callus; 
wart. 



27 



Callus 



A DICTIONARY 



Camara 



CAl'LUS (pi. Calluses or Calli\ 
(1) a hard or thickened spot or 
protuberance ; callosity : (2) 
the new formation upon au in- 
jured surface, as seen at the 
end of a cutting: (3) a thick- 
ened deposit of formative 
material in the pores of the 
sieve-plates in certain trees in 
autumn: (4) a term applied to 
an extension of the flowering 
glume in grasses -below its 
point of insertion, and which 
is grown to the axis or rachilla 
of the spikelet and separated 
from the free portion by a 
more or less distinct furrow. 
It is frequently covered with 
hairs or bristles (as in Stipa) 
which serve for attachment to 
other objects to secure the 
distribution of the seed. The 
Callus is sometimes present in 
the empty glumes also. — 
(Scribner.) 

CAl/VOUS, bald; having a sur- 
face on which hairs are usually 
present destitute of them, as in 
an achenium without a pappus. 

CALYCAN'THEMOUS, having 
petaloid sepals. 

CALYCAN'THEMY, a partial or 
entire conversion of sepals into 
petals. 

CAlYCIFLO'RAl, having t h e 
calyx free from the ovar}', and 
the stamens (and therefore the 
petals also) inserted on the 
calyx. Compare Thalami- 

FLOKAL and COROLLIFLORAL. 

CALYC'IFORM, having the form 
or position of a calyx. 

CALYC'INAL, see Calycine. 

CAL'YCINE, pertaining to or 
situated on a calyx; calycinal. 

CAL'YCLE, a whorl of bracts 
forming a secondary or ac- 
cessory calyx outside the true 
calyx. 



CAL'YCLED, having a calycle. 
CAL'YCOID, resembling a calyx. 

CALYCULATE, having a calycu- 
lus. 

CALYC'tJLATED, see Calycu- 

LATE. 

CALYC'tJLUS, a set of involucral 
bracts resembling a calyx, as 
in Dianthus. 

CALYP'TRA, the membranous 
hood or veil covering the cap- 
sule in mosses. It consists of 
the ruptured archegonium 
carried up by the growing 
sporophore. The term is also 
applied to the root-cap, which 
see. 

CALYP TRATE, having a calyp- 
tra or similar covering. 

CALYP'TRIFORM, shaped like a 
calyptra or candle-extinguish- 
er, as the calyx of Eschscholt- 
zia. 

CALYP'TRdGEN, a special layer 
of cells in certain plants from 
which the root-cap is devel- 
oped. (Jancewski.) 

CA'LYX, the outer set of floral 
leaves between the bracts, if 
any, and the corolla. When 
there is but one set external to 
the stamens, it is usually called 
calyx or perianth. 

CA'LYX TUBE, a tube of united 
sepals adherent to the ovary 
or enclosing the other parts of 
the flower. As the elevated 
margin of the receptacle some- 
times forms a portion of this 
tube, the term " receptacular 
tube" is also applied to it. 

CAM'ArA (pi. Cam'arae), an in- 
definite term formerly applied 
to various fruits having more 
or less membranous carpels, as 
the Ranunculus and apple. 
Also applied to a single carpel 
of such a fruit. 



28 



Cambial 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Capitular 



CAM'BIAL, pertaining to cambi- 
um. 

CAM'BIFORM, said of narrow 
prismatic thin-walled cells, 
like those characteristic of 
cambium. 

CAM'BIUM, a layer of meristem 
belonging to the fibrovascular 
system, between the xylem and 
phloem. In exogeus it is 
permanent, and forms the con- 
tinuous ring or layer of soft 
growing tissue between the 
wood and inner bark, from 
which the new growth of each 
is derived. It was formerly 
considered merely a viscid se- 
cretion, often called " de- 
scending sap," but it is now 
known to be composed wholly 
of young, easily broken cells 
rilled with protoplasm or for- 
mative matter. 

CAM'BIUM LAYER, see Cam- 
bium. 

CAM'BIUM RING, see Cambium. 

CAMPAnIfoRM, see Campanu- 

LATE. 

CAmpAnIl IFORM, see Campan- 

ULATE. 

CAmpAN'ULATE, bell-shaped, as 
the corolla of the harebell. 

CAMPES'TRAL, growing mainly 
in uncultivated fields. 

CAMPULIT'ROPOUS (obs.), see 
Campylotbopous. 

CAMPYlOSPER'MOUS, having 
the edges of the seed rolled in- 
ward to form a longitudinal 
groove or furrow, as in sweet- 
cicely and some other Umbel- 
liferoe. 

CAMPYLOT'ROPAL, see Campy- 
lotbopous. 

CAMPYLOT'ROPOUS, applied to 
ovules or seeds which are 

p curved upon themselves so 
that the micropyle is near the 



chalaza, as in Cruciferoe ; cam- 
pylotropal. 

CAnAL'-C,ELLS, an axial row of 
cells in the neck of the arehe- 
gonium the connecting septa 
of which disappear, forming a 
canal filled with mucilage for 
the passage of the anthero- 
zoids. 

CANALICULATE, channelled. 

CANALICULUS (pi. Canaliculi), 
a channel. 

CAN'gELLATE, having open 
network; lattice-like. 

CAN'DICANT, see Albescent. 

CAN'DIDUS, Latin for pure 
white. 

CANE, the stem of reeds and 
other large grasses. Applied 
in horticulture to the stems of 
raspberries and blackberries, 
and one-year-old stems of 
grape-vines. 

CANES'gENT, hoary (gray or 
whitish) from a coating of fine 
hairs; canus; incanus; iuca- 
nous; incanescent. 

CA'NUS, see Canescent. 

CAP, see Pileus. 

CAPILLA'CEOUS, see Capillary. 

CAPIL'-LAMENT (rare), see Fil- 
ament. 

CAP'ILLARY, long and narrow 
like a hair; said of a filament 
or channel. 

CAPIL'LIFORM, see Capillary. 

CAPlLLIT'IUM, sterile fila- 
ments, often in the form of 
network, among the spores of 
puff -balls and some other fun- 
gi- 

CAP'ITATE, furnished with a 
globose head; growing in a 
head. 

CAPITfiL'LATE, diminutive of 
capitate; capitular. 

CAPIT'ULAR, see Capitellate. 



29 



Capituliform 



A DICTIONARY 



Carpadelium 



CAPIT'ULIFORM, iii the form of 

a small head. 
CAPiT'ULUM (pi. Caplt'ula), a 

dense flower-cluster, as in the 

clover or sunflower; a head of 

any kind. 

CAP'RE&LATE, having tendrils; 
cirrhose. 

CAPRE'OLUS (pi. Capre'611), see 
Tendril. 

CAPRIFicA'TION, (1) the fertili- 
zation of the fig, by hand or 
by means of insects. Some- 
times extended to the artificial 
fertilization of other fruits. (2) 
The process of accelerating the 
ripening of figs by placing on 
the cultivated plant branches 
of the wild fig (caprificus). A 
hymenopterous insect found on 
the wild plant enters the fruit 
to lay its eggs, causing it to 
ripen earlier. The same result 
is obtained by the practice of 
pricking the green figs with a 
needle dipped in olive-oil; also 
by the application of a drop of 
the oil to the eye of the fig. 
There seems to be some doubt 
as to whether the result from 
caprification by means of the 
wild fig is due to fertilization, 
or the punctures of the insect, 
or to both. 

CAPSOMA'NlA, an unnatural de- 
velopment of pistils. It may 
consist of excessive multiplica- 
tion or of any alteration in 
form which impairs their func- 
tion. 

CAP'SULAR, pertaining to a cap- 
sule. 

CAP'SUlATE, enclosed in a cap- 
sule. 

CAP'SULE, any dry dehiscent 
fruit, especially one which is 
superior and polycarpellary. 
The sporangium of mosses is 
usually called a capsule. 



CAPSULIF'EROUS, bearing cap- 
sules. 

CARBONACEOUS, appealing as if 
burnt. 

CAR'gERULE, a dry fruit formed 
from a polycarpellary ovary, 
the carpels of which separate 
when ripe into iudehiscent 
few-seeded cocci, as mallow; 
carcerulus. Compare Schizo- 
carp. 

CAR§ER'ULUS, see Carcerule. 

CARQITH'IUM, an old term for 

Mycelium. 

CARICdL'OGY, the study of the 
genus Carex. 

CARIES, an old term for decay. 

CARI NA, see Keel. 

CARl'NAL, pertaining to a keel. 

cArI'nAl Estivation, when 

the carina embraces the other 
parts of the flower. 

CARl'NAL cAnAl', a lacuna iu 
the xylem of a fibrovascular 
bundle, as in Equisetum. Com- 
pare Vallecular Canals. 

CArInATE, keel-shaped, or hav- 
ing a longitudinal ridge like a 
keel; keeled. 

CAR'InATED, see Carinate. 

CArIOP'SIS, see Caryopsis. 

CARIOUS, decayed. (Rare.) 

Compare Caries. 
CARNEOUS, flesh-colored; pale 

red. Compare Carnose. 
CAR'NEUS, see Carneous. 
CARNIVOROUS, see Insectivo- 
rous. 
CAR'NOSE, fleshy in texture. 

More firm than succulent or 

pulpy.^ 
CAR'NOUS, pertaining to flesh; 

fleshy. 
CARPADELIUM, see Cremq- 

carp. 
30 



Carpel 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Catacorolla 



CARTEL, a simple pistil or one 
of the elements (modified 
leaves) of a compound pistil. 

CAR'PELLARY, pertaining to a 
carpel. 

CARPEL'LtJM (pi. Carpel'la), see 
Carpel. 

CAR'PID, a ripe carpel, especially 
if separable. 

CARPID'IUM, a carpid or carpel. 

CARPOGEN'IC, fruit-producing. 
In Florideae applied to the 
special cell (or cells) of the pro- 
carpium which develops into 
the carpogonium. 

CAR'POGON, see Carpogonium. 

CARPOGO'NltJM, the female or- 
gan, usually multicellular, of 
Carposporeoe before fertiliza- 
tion. Compare Oogonium. 

CAR'POLlTE, a petrified fruit; 
lithocarp; carpolith. 

CARPOL'OGY, the part of botany 
which relates to the structure 
of fruits. Compare Pomolo- 
gy. 

CARPOPHORE, the stalk of a 
sporocarp; a stalk elevating 
the gynecium above the rest of 
the Bower (gynophore); a pro- 
longation of the axis between 
the carpels, as in Umbellifera3. 

CAR'POPHYLL, see Carpel. 

CARPOPHYL'LUM (pl.Carpophyl'- 
la), see Carpel. 

CAR'POSPORE, a spore produced 
in a sporocarp. De Bary ex- 
tends the term to all those pro- 
duced on a sporophyte, thus 
including the spores of ferns. 
This makes it equivalent to 
the term "spore" as used by 
Sachs. 

CAR'POSTOME, the opening in a 
sporocarp through which the 
spores are discharged. 

CARTILAGINOUS, firm and 
tou°;h like cartilaere. 



CAR'UNCLE, a partial aril grow- 
ing from the hilum, as in Po- 
lygala; strophiole. 

CARUN'CULA, see Caruncle. 

CARUN'CULAR, see Caruncu- 
late. 

CARUN'CtJLATE, haviug a car- 
uncle or the form of a carun- 
cle; caruncular; carunculous; 
carunculated. 

CARUN'CULATED, see Caruncu- 
late. 

CARUNCtJLOUS (rare), see Ca- 

RUNCULATE. 

CArYOCINE'SIS, see Karyoki- 

NESIS. 

CArYOPHYLLA'CEOUS, pink- 
like; especially having five 
petals with long claws, as iu 
the pink family (Caryophylla- 
ceae). 

CARYOPH'YLLOtJS, see Cary- 

OPHYLLACEOUS. 

CARYOP'SIS, a dry one-seeded 
iudebiscent fruit, with the per- 
icarp thin and adherent to the 
seed, as in wheat and most 
other Gramineae; cariopsis. 

CASQUE, see Galea. 

CASSID'EOUS, a term applied to 
an irregular corolla having the 
upper petal broad and helmet- 
shaped as in Aconitum. 

CASTA'NEOTJS, chestnut-colored. 

CAS'TRATE (adj.), said of a sta- 
meu which contains no anther, 
or no good pollen. 

CAS'TRATE (v.), to remove the 
anthers. 

CAtABOL'IC, see Katabolic. 

CAtACLE'SIUM, a term some- 
times applied to an achenium 
like Mirabilis, being a one- 
celled, one-seeded fruit within 
a hardened calyx. 

CAtAC0R6l'lA, a secondary co- 
rolla sometimes found inside 
or outside the true corolla. 



31 



Catapetalous 



A DICTIONARY 



Cell 



CATAPET'ALOUS, having the 
bases of the petals in a 
polypetallous corolla adher- 
ent to the bases of the stamens, 
as in Malva. 

CAT'APHYL, a scale-like leaf, 
as on buds, rhizomes, etc. 
Compare Euphyll. 

CAtAPHYL'LARY, scale-like, as 
the perules of a bud or the 
rudimentary leaves on a root- 
stock. 

CATENATE, see Concatenate. 

CAtEN'UlATE, see Concate- 
nate. 

CATH'ODAL, see Cathodic. 

CATHOD'IC, applied to the edge 
of a leaf which is entered by 
an ascending spiral. In a 
right-handed spiral it would be 
the left edge and vice versa. 
Also spelled Kathodic. Com- 
pare Anodic. 

CAT'KIN, see Ament. 

CAU'DATE, having a long termi- 
nation like a tail. 

CAU'DATED, see Caudate. 

CAU'BEX (pi. Cau'dexes or Cau'- 
diQes), the trunk of a palm, a 
tree-fern, or other arborescent 
endogen or acrogen; an up- 
right root-stock; the persistent 
base of various herbaceous 
perennials (in this sense obso- 
lete). Formerly applied to the 
trunk of any tree. 

CAU'DICLE, a little stalk, as that 
"to which each pollen-mass in 
orchids is attached. 

CAUDIC'tJLA, seeCAXJDiCLE. 

CAULES'CENT, having a distinct 
leaf-bearing stem. 

CAU'LICLE, the first internode, 
or portion of the stem below 
the cotyledons and above the 
radicle or beginning of the 
true root; tigellum; cauliculus, 
usually called radicle. Seldom 



applied to the part after the 
plant has developed. 

CAU'LICULE, see Caulicle. 

CATJLIC'tJLtJS (pi. Caulic'ull), see 
Caulicle. 

CATJLIF EROUS, having a stem; 
caulescent. 

CAU'LIFORM, stem-like. 

CAULi6'ER0US, borne upon the 
stem. 

CAULINE, pertaining to the 
stem; belonging to the stem, 
or main stem, as cauline 
leaves. 

CAULINE BUN'DLES, fibrovas- 
cular bundles confined exclu- 
sively to the stem and not con- 
nected with those in the leaves. 
Compare Common Bundles. 

CAU'LIS, the stem; especially 
the main stem in herbaceous 
plauts. 

CAULOCAR'POUS.producing fruit 
upon a permanent stem, as or- 
dinary trees and shrubs. 

CAU'LOME, a general term for 
stems of all kinds, whether 
having the ordinary form and 
functions of stems or nut. 
Compare Phyllome 

CAULO'MER, a name proposed 
for one of the secondary axes 
which form a sympodium. 

CAULOTAX'IS, the arrangement 

of the brauches upon a stem. 
CAVITY (Hort,). the depression 
in the stem end of an apple. 
Compare Basin. 
C,ELL, (1) one of the structural 
elements of living bodies, by 
the multiplication of which 
growth is effected. In plants 
the cell usually appears as a 
closed sac surrounded by a 
firm wall of cellulose and con- 
taining the essential element, 
protoplasm, and usually a nu- 
cleus, the active agent in cell- 



32 



Cell-family 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Central Cord 



division. See Cellulose, 
Cell-wall, Cell- sap. Pro- 
toplasm. Nucleus. (2) Any 
cavity, as that of an auther or 
ovary. 

CELL FAMILY, a group of cells 
of common origin: used mainly 
among the lower algae; colony. 
See Ccenobium. 

CELL-FI'BRE, see Nuclear Fi- 
bril. 

gELLIF'EROUS, bearing or pro- 
ducing cells. 

CELL NU'CLEUS, see Nucleus. 

CELL-PLATE, the early condi- 
tion of a cell-wall at the equa- 
tor of a dividing nucleus, 
formed by the fusion of a se- 
ries of thickenings of the spiu- 
dle-nbres called by Strasburger 
Dermatosomes. 

CELL, PRIMOR DIAL, see Pri- 
mordial Cell. 

CELL SAP, fluid in living cells 
which separates from the pro- 
toplasm as one or more vacu- 
oles; cytenehyma. Compare 
Vascular Sap and Deuto- 

PLASM. 

CELL-TIS'SUE, tissue composed 
of cells as distinguished from 
vessels. See Cellular Tis- 
sue. 

CELLULAR, composed of cells; 
pertaining to cells as distin- 
guished from vessels; having 
the cells large and soft; con- 
taining cavities of any kind; 
porous. 

CEL'LULAR BARK, see Meso- 

PHLCEUM. 

CELLULAR EN'VELOPE, see 
Mesophtxeum 

CEL'LULAR PLANTS, those which 
contain no fibrovascular tis- 
sue, as fungi and algae; thallo- 
phytes. 

CELLULAR SPORE, see Com- 
pound Spore. 



CEL'LULAR SYS'TEM, the cellu- 
lar portion of a plant as distin- 
guished from the fibrovascu- 
lar. 

CEL'LULAR TIS'SUE, tissue iu 
which none of the cells are 
modified into ducts or vessels. 
Especially, tissue composed of 
cells which are large and loose, 
like the pulp of fruits; paren- 
chyma. Compare Vascular 
Tissue. 

gEL'LULE, a small cell. 

CELLULIF'EROUS, bearing or 
producing little cells. 

CEL'LULOSE, primary cell-wall 
substance; the material form- 
ing most of the dry matter of 
plants. It is seen nearly pure 
in cotton-fibre and in the cell- 
walls of most plants while 
young. There are many mod- 
ifications of cellulose, among 
them Lignin in older wood and 
Suberin in bark. 

CELL-WALL, a sac enclosing the 
living contents of a cell. 

CEMENTA'TION OF HY'PH^, 

their inseparable union by a 
cementing substance; concres- 
cence. (DeBary.) 

CEM'ENT-DISK, Midler's term for 
the glandular disk or retinacu- 
lum of orchids. 

CENAN'THY, the suppression of 
stamens and pistils. 

CENO'BiUM, see Ccenobium. 

CENOGENET'IC, secondary. 

CEN'TRAL CELL, the cell of an 
archegonium, from which the 
oosphere originates. Compare 

E.MBRYO-SAC. 

CEN'TRAL CORD, a cord or bun- 
dle of elongated thin-walled 
cells at the centre of the stems, 
leaves, and fruit-stalks of many 
mosses which serves for the 
transfer of water; tissue-cord. 



33 



Central Cylinder 



A DICTIONARY 



Chinky 



gflN'TRAL gYL'INDER, the por- 
tion of the tissue of roots and 
stems within the cortex. It 
includes the medullary and 
fibrovascular systems, — used 
mainly in roots. Compare 
Fibrovascular Cylinder. 

CEN'TRIC, a term applied to such 
leaves as show no considerable 
difference between the internal 
structure of their upper and 
under sides. Compare Bifa- 
cial. 

C,ENTRIF'UGAl, said of an inflo- 
rescence in which the terminal 
flower blossoms first; definite; 
determinate. Applied to a 
radicle which is turned toward 
the side of the fruit, or to any- 
thing else which points out- 
ward. 

gENTRIP'ETAL, said of an inflo- 
rescence in which the lower or 
outer flowers blossom first; in- 
definite; indeterminate. Ap- 
plied to radicles or seeds which 
point toward the axis of the 
fruit. Now little used in the 
latter sense. 

gflN TURY, a hundred things, as 
a package of plants containing 
a hundred specimens. 

^EPHAlAN'THIUM, see Antho- 
dium. 

C,EPHAL0'd1A (sing. Cephalo'- 
dium), outgrowths of a lichen 
thallus in which algal cells are 
situated. 

CEPH'ALOID, capitate or head- 
shaped. 

gERA'gEOtfS, wax-like. 

§ERAMIDlUM (pi. Ceramid'ia), 
the ovate or urn-shaped cap- 
sule containing the spores in 
the red algae (Florideee). 

§ERlF'EROu*S, producing wax. 

§ER NOtJS, nodding, curved over 
near the top, as the flower of 



narcissus upon its stem; nu- 
tant, Compare Drooping. 

CER'NUOUS, see Cernous. 

gER'NUUS, see Cernous. 

5ESIOUS, see Cacsious. 

CES'PITOSE, in tufts or dense 
bunches; caespitose; tufted. 

CES'PITOXJS, see Cestttose. 

CESPIT ULOSE, in small tufts or 
bunches. 

CHiE'TA, Greek for bristle. 

CHAFF, the glumes and palets of 

grains and other grasses; the 
bracts which subtend each 
flower in the head of Composi- 
te, etc. 

CHAlN-GEM'MA, a kind of 
gemma found in JMucorini 
having the form of a septate 
coufervoid filament, the seg- 
ments of which are capable of 
germination; sprouting gem- 
ma. (DeBary.) 

€HALA'ZA, the base of the ovule 
or place where its coats unite 
with each other and with ihe 
nucleus. In orthotropous 
seeds it corresponds with the 
hilum. 

CHAP'LfiT, a series of objects ar- 
ranged like beads on a string, 
as the spores of Cystopus. 

CHARACTER, whatever distin- 
guishes a plant or group of 
plants from others; a descrip- 
tion composed of the distinc- 
tive features of a species or 
other group. See Specific 
Character, Generic Char- 
acter, etc. 

€HARTA'CE0US, of the texture 
of parchment or writing-paper. 

€HASM6G'AMY, the opening of 
the perianth at flowering time. 
(Rare.) 

CHiNK Y (Tuckerman), see Ri- 

MOSE. 

34 



Chlamydospore 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Chronizoospore 



CHLAMYDOSPORE, a kiud of 
thick-walled spore formed 
asexually ia Mucorini by free- 
cell formation within the hy- 
phoe. The term is also applied 
to certain thick-walled spores 
in protophytes, and occasion- 
ally elsewhere. 

CHLO'RAntHY, the conversion 
of the parts of a flower into 
green leaves. 

-CHLOROLEU'ClTE, see Chloro 
plast. 

-eHLO ROPHYL, see Chloro- 
phyll. 

-CHLOROPHYLL, the green color- 
ing matter of plants. 

-CHLOROPHYLL BODY, a proteid 
body (plastic!) in the cells of 
plants containing the chloro- 
phyll; chlorophyll -grannie; 
chlorophyll-corpuscle ; chloro- 
plast; autoplast; chloroleucite. 
See Plastid and Chromato- 
phore. 

-CHLOROPHYLL - CORPUSCLE, 
see Chlorophyll-body. 

CHLOROPHYLL-GRAIN, see 

Chlorophyll-body. 

-eHLO'ROPHYLL GRANULE, see 
Chlorophyll-body. 

CHLOROPHYLL-VESICLES, see 
Pyrenoids. 

-CHLO'ROPLAST, see Chloro- 
phyll-body. 

CHLOROSIS, an abnormal ab- 
sence or diminution of the 
green coloring matter of 
plants; albinism. Compare 
Etiolation. 

-CHORDA PISTILLA'RIS, a fibro- 
vascular bundle in the style. 
(Obs.) 

-CHORiPET'ALOUS, see Polypet- 

ALOUS. 

-CHORISliP'ALOUS, see Polysep- 

ALOUS. 

CHO'RISIS, the production of two 



or more organs in the position 
of oue. It is considered in 
most cases to be a branching 
of very early origin. The con- 
dition may be normal or ab- 
normal. See Collateral 
and Transverse Chorisis. 
Compare Unlining. 

CHORISTOPH'YLLOUS, separate- 
leaved. (Rare.) 

CHROMATIC, capable of being 
colored by staining agents; 
pertaining to color. 

CHROMATIN, that part of the 
protoplasm of the cell, mainly 
in the nucleus, which is read- 
ily and deeply colored by stain- 
ing agents. It forms the chief 
portion of the granular fibrils 
called " nucleiu" or "nucleo- 
plasm." 

CHROmAT'OPHORE, the proto- 
plasmic body (plastid) in which 
chlorophyll or other coloring 
matter is produced ; color-gran- 
ule; chromoplast; chromoleu- 
cite. The term is also extended 
by some to all plastids. See 
Chlorophyll-body. 

CHROMID'IUM, a term some- 
times applied to the gouidium 
or algal host of lichens. 

CHROMOLEU'CITE, see Chro- 

MATOPHORE. 

CHRO'MOPLAST, see Chromato- 

PHORE. 

CHROMOPLAs'TID, see Chro- 

MATOPHORE. 

CHROMOSOME, one of the seg- 
ments of the nuclear filament 
in karyokinesis. 

CHROM'ULE, a term applied to 
all coloring pigments found in 
living plants. 

CHRON'IZOOSPORE, oue of the 
microzoogouidia produced in 
vast numbers in Hydrodictyon 
— so called, because they rest 
for several weeks or more be- 



35 



Cicatrice 



A DICTIONARY 



Cladophyll 



fore germinating; chronispore; 
chronizoospore. 

CICATRICE, see Cicatrix. 

CICATRIX (pi. Cicatrixes), a scar 
left by a falling leaf or other 
organ. 

C_IEN'€HYMA, a system of inter- 
cellular spaces. (Kcehler.) 

glL'IA (sing. Cilium), hairs or 
bristles forming a row or 
fringe; the tail-like appenda- 
ges of zoospores; single, tine, 
soft, hair-like terminal append- 
ages of any kind. Compare 
Flagella. 

CIL'lATE, having cilia. 

CIL'IATE-DEN'TATE, having 
teeth fringed with hairs. 

glL'IIFORM, resembling cilia. 

cIL'IOGRADE, moving by means 
of cilia, as zoospores. 

CILI'OLA (sing. Cili'olum), sec- 
ondary or minute cilia. 

CII/IUM (sing.), see Cilia. 

giN'CINNAL CYME, see Scor- 
pioid Cyme. 

CiN'CINNAL DICHOTOMY, see 
Scorpioid Dichotomy. 

CIN'CINNUS, see Scorpioid Cyme 

CLNe'rA'CEOUS, a little paler than 
Cinereous. 

CINEREOUS, ash-gray. 

CINERES'CENT, becoming ash- 
gray; cineraceous. 

CINERI TIOUS, see Cinereous. 

CI'ON, see Scion. 

CIR'CINAL, see Circinate. 

giR'CINATE, rolled forward from 
the end, as the young leaves of 
many ferns. 

CIRCUMCISED', divided in a 

transverse circular manner. 
CIRCUMNUTA'TION, the act of 
bending around successively 
through different points of the 
compass, as is done by the 
ends of twining vines, and in 



a less degree by other growing 
points; revolving nutation. 
See Nutation. 

CIRCUMSCIS'SILE, dehiscing or 
dividing by a transverse circu- 
lar line, as the fruit of purs- 
lane. 

CIRCUMSCRIPTION, an outline 
or boundary. 

CIRRHIF'EROtJS, having ten- 
drils. See Cirrhose. 

CIR'RHIFORM, tendril - shaped; 
cirri form. 

CIRRHOSE, having tendrils; 
cirrhiferous; cirrhous; cirrous; 
cirrose; capreolate. Also, re- 
sembling a tendril or coiling 
like a tendril; tipped with a 
wavy tili form appendage; slen- 
derly tiagellate. 

giR'RHOSELY PIN'NATE.pinnate 
with a terminal leaflet replaced 
by a tendril, as in the pea. 

CIRRHOUS, see Cirrhose. 

CIR'RHUS (pi. Cir'rbi), a tendril; 
capreolus. 

CIRRIF'EROUS, see Cirrhif- 
erous. 

gIR'RIFORM, see Cirrhiform. 

CIRRIF'EROUS, producing ten- 
drils. See Cirrhose. 

CIR'ROSE, see Cirrhose. 

CIR'ROUS, see Cirrhose. 

CIRRUS (pi. Cirri), see Cirrhus. 

CISTO'MA, see Cistome. 

CIS' TOME', a term sometimes 
given to a stomatic chamber 
when it exists as a kind of sac 
lined by a special layer of cells. 

ClADOCAR'POUS, having the fruit 
in mosses on short lateral 
branches ; pleurocarpous. 
Compare Acrocarpous. 

CLAD ODE, see Phyllocladium. 

CLAdO'DIUM (pi. Cladod'ia), see 
Phyllocladium. 

CLAd'OPHYLL, see Phyllo- 
cladium. 
36 



Clamp-cell 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Clinidium 



CLAMP-CELL, see Clamp-con- 
nection. 

CLAMP-CONNECTION, a semi- 
circular process couuectiug two 
adjoining cells of a hyplm. In 
some cases it may communicate 
with but one of the cells, that 
from which it originated, in 
others its extremity becomes 
applied to the wall of the ad- 
joining cell, at which point 
both walls are absorbed, leav- 
ing a passage around the sep- 
tum between the cells of the 
filament. The process may 
become cut off from the origi- 
nating -cell by a septum when 
it is called a " clamp-cell.'' It 
is found mainly in Basidiomy- 
cetes. 

CLASS, a group of related orders. 

CLASSIFICATION, the system- 
atic distribution of individuals 
into groups. 

CLATH'RATE, latticed; furnished 
with openings like lattice- 
work; cancellate. 

CLATH'RATE CELL, see Sieve- 
tube. 

CLA'VATE, club-shaped; gradu- 
ally thickened upward or away 
from the extremity of attach- 
ment. 

CLAVjEFORM, see Clavate. 
CLAV'ELLATE, diminutive of 

Clavate. 
CLAVICLE, see Tendril. 
CLAVIC'tiLA (pi. Clavic'ulse), a 

term formerly used for tendril, 

especially a tendril formed by 

a petiole. 

CLAViC'ULATE, having a tendril. 
(Rare.) 

CLAv IFORM, see Clavate. 

CLAVtJLE, the club-shaped con- 
jugating process in Mucorini. 
(DeBary.) 

CLAW, the stem or narrow base 



37 



of a petal, as those of the pink; 
unguis. 

CLEFT, having narrow sinuses 
reaching about, half way to the 
base. Compare Parted and 
Divided. 

CLEI'STOCARP, an a SCO carp 

which is entirely closed, and 
from which the spores escape 
by its nual rupture, as that of 
the Erysiphese. 

CLEISTOG'AMOUS, having closed 
fertilization: a term applied to 
certain more or less depauper- 
ate flowers, sometimes under- 
ground, which never open, but 
are self-fertilized, as in some 
violets; clandestine. Cleistoga- 
mous flowers sometimes accom- 
pany flowers of the usual form 
on the same plant. 

CLElSTOGAMY, self-fertilization 
without the flowers opening; 
closed-fertilization. 

CLEI'STOGENE, a plant which 
bears cleistogamous flowers. 
See above. It may bear flow- 
ers of the ordinary form also. 

CLESTINE, see Raphidian 
Cell. 

CLIMB'ING, rising by layiug hold 
of other objects in any way 
except by twining; scauclent. 

CLINAN'DRIUM, the part of the 
column of orchids containing 
the anther. 

CLINAN'THIUM, the receptacle 
of the flowers in Composite; 
phorauthium; clinium; antho- 
clinium. Compare Antho- 
dium. 

CLING'STONE, applied to varie- 
ties of the peach and other 
drupaceous fruits, in which the 
flesh when ripe is not readily 
separable from the pit. Com- 
pare Freestone. 

CLlNID'IUM, the stalk or filament 



Clinium 



A DICTIONARY 



Coccus 



supporting a stylospore. (Tuck- 

erinan.) 
CLIN'IUM, see Clinanthtum. 
CLINOSPORAN'GIUM, see Pyc- 

NIDIUM. 

CLI'NOSPORE, see Stylospore. 

CLISTO-, see Cleisto-. 

CLOSED, applied to fibro-vascular 
bundles in which all the cam- 
bium cells become permanent 
tissue, as in monocotyledons. 
Compare Open. 

CLOSED - FERTILIZATION, see 
Cleistogamy. 

CLOSE-FERTILIZA'TION, the fer- 
tilization of pistils by pollen 
from the same flower; self-fer- 
tilization. 

CLOS'ING-MEM BRANE.the origi- 
nal unthickened cell-wall at 
the centre of a bordered pit. 

CLOU'DED, having a pale ground 
with ill-defined patches of a 
darker tint gradually shading 
into it. 

CLOVE, one of the small bulbs 
developed in the axils of the 
scales of a larger bulb, as iu 
garlic. 

CLUB, one of the elements com- 
posing the pulp iu the seed- 
cavities of the lemon and orange. 
It consists of a more or less 
oval body about one fourth of 
an inch long filled with juice 
and attached by a stalk to the 
inner side of the cavity or cell. 
Morphologically, it is a peri- 
cellular hair. 

CLUBBED (Hort.), applied to the 
stem of an apple when its base 
is enlarged and fleshy. Com- 
pare Clavate. 

CLUB SHAPED, see Clavate. 

CLUS'TER, an indefinite popular 
term, applied mainly to small- 
fruits in which several fruits 
grow together in an inflores- 
cence, as in the raceme of the 



currant. About the same as 
Bunch, but applied more often 
perhaps to loose collections. 

CLUS'TER-CtJP, see ^cidium. 

CLUS'TERED, collected into or 
growing in a bunch, as the 
conglomerate flowers of dod- 
der. 

CLYP'EATE, see Scutate. 

CLY'PEIFORM, see Scutate. 

COAgER'VATE, see Acervate. 

COAD'UNATE, united at the base 
or farther; connate. 

COAETA'NEOUS, existing or ap- 
pearing at the same time; con- 
temporaneous. 

COALESCENCE, the complete 
union of similar things. The 
same as Cohesion when applied 
to organs. Compare Conju- 
gation. 

COALES'CENCE OF CELLS, the 
partial or entire absorption of 
the partition-walls of adjoining 
cells, as when the cavities of 
long rows of cells in a tissue 
become connected iu the for- 
mation of ducts or vessels. 

CO ARC T ATE, crowded together; 
compact. Opposed to effuse. 

COATED, composed of layers, or 
having a rind. 

COATED BULB, see Tunicated 
Bulb. 

COB'WilBBY, having fine slender 
filaments or hairs like cobweb; 
arachnoid. 

COCCID'IUM (pi. C6c9id'ia), a 
spbrocarp like that of Delesse- 
ria (one of the alga?), being a 
closed case with the spores 
borne on a central placenta. 

COCCIF'EROUS, producing ber- 
ries; bacciferous. 

COCCIN'EUS, scarlet. 

COCCUS (pi. Coc'91). (1) One of the 
separable one-seeded carpels of 
certain dry fruits, as Euphor- 



38 



Cochlea 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. Collective Fruit 



bia. Compare Regma. (2) A 
spherical or spheroidal cell 
among bacteria, especially of 
the genus Micrococcus. 

CdCH'LEA, see Strombus. 

COCHLEAR, a form of aestiva- 
tion in which one piece being 
larger covers all the others, as 
in Aconituui. Compare Vex- 

ILLARY. 

COCHLEArIFORM, shaped like 
the bowl of a spoon. 

COCH'LEATE, shaped like a snail- 
shell; spirally turbinate. Prac- 
tically the same as Stronibuli- 
form. 

COCKS'COMBED, fasciated. Ap- 
plied mainly in horticulture to 
strawberries which are irregu- 
lar in shape from being flat- 
tened at the sides or fasciated. 

gffiL'OSPERM, a ccelospermous 
seed. 

CCELOSPER'MOUS, applied to the 
seeds (cremocarps) of coriander 
and some other Uinbellifera?, 
which have the inner surface 
hollowed by the curving in of 
the top and bottom. 

CCENAN'THIUM, see Clinan- 
thium. Also sometimes ap- 
plied to receptacles like the 
fig, or to any fleshy receptacle 
in which the flowers are more 
or less embedded. 

CCENO'BIUM (1) a community of 
a definite number of unicellu- 
lar individuals uuited in one 
body of definite form, as in 
Volvox: cenobium. Compare 
Cell-family. (2) A name of 
the fruit peculiar to the Bora- 
ginaceae and Labiateae, con- 
sisting of four distinct nutlets 
around a common style. 

COZRULES'CENT, bluish, lighter 
than cceruleus. 

gdSRIJ'LEtJS, light blue; sky- 
blue. 



COETA'NEOtJS, appearing or ex- 
isting at the same time; of the 
same age. 

COHERENT, having similar parts 
more or less uuited, as the 
petals in a gamopetalous co- 
rolla. Compare Adherent. 

COHESION, the union of mem- 
bers of the same whorl or kind. 
Compare Adhesion. 

COHORT, a natural group of or- 
ders within a class; alliance. 

COLEOPHYL'LUM, a membra- 
nous or fleshy sheath investing 
the plumule in Monocotyle- 
dons. 

COLEOP TILE, see Coleophyl- 

LUJL 

COLEORHI'ZA, the covering 
through which the radicle of 
most Monocotyledons bursts 
in germination; root-sheath. 
The term has also been applied 
to the vascular-bundle sheath 
in roots. 

COL'LAR, the line of junction be- 
tween the stem and root; col- 
lum; neck. Also applied to the 
annulus of a mushroom. 

COLLATERAL, side by side. 

COLLATERAL BUN'DLE, a fibro- 
vascular bundle having a single 
strand of phloem in continu- 
ous contact with a single strand 
of xylem. Compare Bicol- 

LATERAL BUNDLE, RADIAL 

Bundle, and Concentric 
Bundle. 

COLLATERAL CHORISIS, when 
the parts originating by chor- 
isis stand side by side; parallel 
chorisis. Compare Trans- 
verse Chorisis. 

COLLECTING HAIRS, hairs upon 
the style in certain Compositae 
which serve to collect the 
pollen as it is discharged from 
the anther. 

COLLECTIVE FRUIT, a fruit- 



39 



Collectors 



A DICTIONARY 



Common Name 



like body originating from 
more than one flower, as the 
mulberry; multiple fruit; 
pseudo - syncarp. Compare 
Anthocarpous Fruit, Ac- 
cessory Fruit, and Aggre- 
gate Fruit. 

COLLECTORS, see Collecting 
Hairs. 

COLLEN'CHYMA, tissue com- 
posed of cells having cartilagi- 
nous thickenings at the angles. 
Common beneath the epidermis 
of stems, and in other places 
where strength is required. 

CftL'LET, an old term for collar. 

COLLE'TERS, glandular hairs 
which secrete a gummy matter 
(blastocolla) upon buds. 

CdL'LOID, n., any substance in 
the colloid state. 

CdL'LOID, adj., resembling jelly; 
the molecular condition of a 
class of substances, such as 
gums, usually produced by the 
disorganization of organized 
matter, which mix with water 
in all proportions and pass 
from the solid to the fluid state 
through all stages of softening, 
thus differing from Crystal- 
loids, which see. 

CdLLOID'AL, see Colloid. 

CdL'LUM, the neck or tapering 
base of the capsule in mosses; 
the line of junction between 
root and stem; collar. 

COL MAR SHAPED, pear-shaped 
with a rather slender neck and 
large body. (J. J. Thomas.) 

COL' ON Y, see Cell-family. 

COL'ORED, of any other color 
than green. 

C6LPEN'€HYmA, epidermal tis- 
sue composed of cells with 
sinuous margins. Not in gen- 
eral use. 

CdL&MEL'LA, the axis or central 



column of a pod or spore-case. 
Usually a placenta. 

COLUMEL'LLFORM, shaped like 
a little column or columella. 

CdL'UMN, the united filaments 
and styles in a gynandrous 
flower, as an orchid. 

COLUMNAR, shaped like a col- 
umn or pillar: round or nearly 
so, tapering slightly or none, 
and not so long as to be called 
slender. Often applied to 
styles. Compare Terete. 

CO'mA, a tuft of hairs on a seed; 
a terminal cluster of empty 
bracts; any tuft. 

CO'MATE, see Comose. 

COMBINED' HYBRID, a deriva- 
tive hybrid in which three or 
more species or varieties are 
united, as when a hybrid unites 
with a new parent form or 
another hybrid. 

COMB-SHAPED, see Pectinate. 

COMMEN'SALlSM, see Symbiosis. 

COM'MISSURE, a line of junction 
of two parts. In the JMarattia- 
ceae a longitudinal partition 
connecting the two stipules 
and forming an anterior and a 
posterior chamber. Compare 
Suture. 

C6M'M0N, general, primary, or 
universal, as opposed to partial 
or secondary. 

COM'MON BUD, one containing 
both leaves and flowers, or one 
from which more than one 
flower is produced. 

CdM'MON BUNDLE, a fibrovas- 
cular bundle a part or the whole 
of which passes from the stem 
into a leaf. 

COM M6N IN'VOLUCRE, one sub- 
tending an inflorescence; gen- 
eral or universal involucre. 

COM'MON NAME, any name, ex- 
cept the "botanical name," by 
which a plant is known. 



40 



Common Peduncle OF BOTANICAL TERMS. Compound Sporophore 



CdM'MdN PEDUNCLE, one sup- 
porting several pedicels. 

COM'MON PERIANTH, applied 
to certain common involucres, 
as that surrounding the head 
of flowers in Composite. 

COMMON RECEP'TACLE, one 

supporting more than one 
flower or other organ. 

COM'MON UM'BEL, see Com- 
pound Umbel and Univer- 
sal Umbel. 

CO'MOSE, bearing a coma or tuft, 
or growing in tufts; comate. 

COMPACT , solid; close. 

COM'PLAnATE, flattened verti- 
cally to a level surface above 
and below. Applied also to 
several organs which are flat- 
tened or arranged so as to lie 
in one plane, and to such as lie 
flat upon or against each other, 
as when leaves lie flat upon the 
stem. Compare Explanate 
and Compressed. 

COMPLETE', having calyx, co- 
rolla, stamens, and pistils. 
Compare Perfect. 

C&M'PLEX, an assemblage of in- 
terwoven fibres, or any group 
of complicated parts. 

CuM'PLICATE, folded together 
forward. Compare Repli- 
cate and Conduplicate. 

CC-M'POUND, consisting of a num- 
ber of similar subordinate 
parts forming a complete 
whole, as the leaf of the wal- 
nut. 

COM'POUND CORYMB, one with 
more than one flower on each 
ray or branch. 

COM'POUND DICHA'SiUM, one in 
which the primary axis termi- 
nates in a flower, beneath 
which arise several secondary 
axes, each of which terminates 
in like manner, as in valerian. 



COMPOUND FLOWER, an old 

term for the flower-head in 
Composite. 

COMPOUND FRUIT, see Aggre- 
gate Fruit. 

COM'POUND INFLORESCENCE, 

one in which the ultimate 
branches each bear more than 
one flower, thus forming a com- 
pound spike, corymb, etc. 

COM'POUND LEAF, one having 
two or more distinct blades, or 
leaflets, as in the ash. 

COMPOUND O'VARY, one having 
more than one carpel. 

COM'POUND PlS'TIL, one com- 
posed of more than one carpel. 

COM'POUND RACEME', see Pan- 
icle. 

COM'POUND SPIKE, one having 
more than one flower or spike- 
let on each short branch, as 
wheat. Applied especially 
when the secondary spikes are 
well developed, or when, as in 
Panicum mnguinale, the inflo- 
rescence consists of several 
spikes of nearly equal size aris- 
ing from the apex of the pe- 
duncle. 

COM'POUND SPORE, a spore con- 
sisting of more than one cell, 
each of which is frequently 
capable of germination. It 
differs from Gemma by its 
more definite form and special- 
ized method of production. 
The synonyms are spore-group, 
semen-multiplex, compound 
spore, cellular spore, multi- 
cellular spore, pericellular 
spore, septate spore, polyspore, 
sporidesm, etc. See Meri- 
spore. 

COM POUND SPO ROPHORE, one 
formed by the cohesion of 
separate hyphal branches. 
Compare Simple Sporo- 
phoke. 



41 



Compound Stem 



A DICTIONARY 



Conformed 



COM'POUND STEM, a brauched 
stem. 

COM'POUND UM'BEL, one ia 
which each primary ray bears 
a smaller umbel instead of a 
single flower. Formerly 
known as Common, General, 
or Universal Umbel. 

C6MPRESSED', flattened, espe- 
cially lengthwise laterally, the 
horizontal diameter much less 
than the vertical. Compare 
Depressed, Obcompressed, 
and Complanate. 

CONCATENATE, joined in _ a 
continuous series like a chain; 
catenate; catenulate. 

CONCATENATED, see Concate- 
nate. 

CONCAULES'CENCE, the coal- 
escence of the pedicel of a 
flower with the stem for some 
distance above the subtending 
bract. 

CONCEN'TRIC, having a common 
centre. 

CONgEN'TRIC BUN'DLE, a fibro- 
vascular bundle in which a 
strand of one element is wholly 
surrounded by the other, as in 
some ferns in which the xylem 
is wholly surrounded by 
phloem. 

CONCEP'TACLE, a name applied 
to'sac-like receptacles of vari- 
ous kinds, as peritheciuin, 
cystocarp, follicle. 

CONCEPTAC ULUM, see Con- 
ceptacle. 

COFCH'IFORM, like half a clam- 
shell. 

CON'COLdR, of the same color as 
another part or plant. Also 
applied to several objects 
which are all of the same color. 
Compare Unicolor. 

CON'COLdRED, see Concolor. 

C6N'c6lOROUS, see Concolor. 



CONCdM'ITANT, applied by De 
Bary to tibrovascular bundles 
which run continuous^ side 
by side without becoming sep- 
arated by other bundles. 

CONCRESCENCE, see Cementa- 
tion. 

CON'CRETE, grown together. 

CONDUCTING CELLS, narrow 
elongated cells associated with 
sieve tubes, and similar to 
them, but without perforated 
walls. 

CONDUCTING TIS'SUE, tissue 
composed of conducting cells. 
Compare Conductive Tissue. 

CdNDUCT'IVE TIS'SUE, that 
through which the pollen tube 
passes on its w r ay to the ovary. 
It is often loose in texture and 
moist with nutritive fluid for 
the growth of the pollen tube. 

CONDU'PLICATE, folded together 
forward and lengthwise in any 
manner; complicate. Coin- 
pare Replicate and In- 
flexed. 

CONE, the fruit of Coniferse; 
strobile; also applied iu other 
plants to a fruit or inflores- 
cence resembling the cone of 
the fir or pine. See Galbulus. 

CONFERRU'MINATE, closely 
united, as the cotyledons of 
the horse-chestnut. 

CONFER'TED, crowded or clus- 
tered; opposed to distinct. 
Compare Congested. 

CONFER'VOID, loose and fila- 
meutose, like conferva among 
alga?. 

CON'FLUENT, running together 
or blended into one; coherent. 

CON'FLUENT FRUIT, an old term 
for collective fruit. 

CONFORMED', (1) closely re- 
sembling; (2) closely fitted to, 
as the skin to a seed. 



42 



Congener 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Consolidated 



CdN'GENER, a plant of the same 
genus as another. 

CONGENERIC, said of two spe- 
cies or individuals which be- 
long to the same genus. 

CONGERIES, a collection of parts 
or organs. (Rare.) 

CONGESTED, packed closely 
together. 

CONGLOBATE, clustered into a 
ball. 

CONGLOMERATE, clustered to- 
gether; opposed to Diffuse. 

CONGLU'TINATE, glued together 
in a mass. 

CON'ICAL, in the form of a geo- 
metric cone. Said of a root 
when it tapers downward, or 
of tiuy other part when it tapers 
upward or outward. Compare 
Obconical. 

CONID'lA, pi., see Conidium. 

CONIDIIF'EROUS, hearing co- 
nidia. 

CONiD'IOPHORE, a branch of 
mycelium bearing one or more 
conidia, 

CONID'IOSPORE, see Conidium. 

CONID'iUM (pi. Conid'ia), an asex- 
ual spore (gonidium) abstricted 
singly or otherwise from the 
apex of a filament, as in Peron- 
ospora. Applied chiefly where 
the spores form a dusty or 
powdery coat, but not used in 
Hymenomycetes, and in less 
use elsewhere than formerly, 
the general term Gonidium 
being now usually employed 
instead. 

CONIF'EROUS, cone-bearing. 

CONIFORM, see Conical. 

CO'NIOCYST, a term applied by 
Harvey to the oogonium of 
Vaucheriese. 

CON'JtJGATE, joined or arranged 
in pairs, as the leaflets of many 



compound leaves; paired. See 

BlNATE. 

CONJUGATION, the simplest 
method of fertilization, iu 
which the male and female 
cells are alike or nearly so, as 
in the order Conjugates; zy- 
gosis. The uniting cells are 
called gametes and the product 
a zygote. The conjugation of 
naked protoplasmic bodies, as 
zoospores, is sometimes called 
Coalescence. 

CONJUGATION CELL, see Ga- 
mete. 

CONJUNCTIVE THREADS, Fol's 
term for spindle-fibres, which 
see. 

CONNAS'CENT, produced at the 
same time. 

CdN'NATE, said of organs of the 
same nature which are grown 
together from the first or united 
at the base. Compare Ad- 
nate. 

CONNATE PERFOLIATE, said 
of a pair of opposite leaves 
when their bases are united 
around the stem. 

CONNECTING CELL, Harvey's 
term for Heterocyst, which 
see. 

CONNECTIVE, the part of the 
anther (being a continuation of 
the filament) which connects 
its two lobes. 

CONNECTI'VUM, see Connect- 
ive. 

CONNI'VENT, converging. 

CONNU'BIUM, a term applied 
by Pringsheim to that stage 
iu the conjugation of Conju- 
gates in which the protoplasm 
of the conjugating cells has 
coalesced. 

CO'NOID, cone-like; conical. 

CONOID'AL, somewhat conoid. 

CONSOLIDATED, (1) grown to- 



43 



Consortism 



A DICTIONARY 



Corculum 



gether, said either of like or 
unlike parts; (2) having a small 
surface iu proportion to bulk, 
as many cacti. 

C&N'SdRTISM, see Symbiosis. 

CON'STANT, always present, or 
always in the same condition; 
uniform. 

CONSTRICTED, narrowed in cer- 
tain places. 

CONSTRUCTIVE METAB'OLISM, 
see Assimilation. 

CONTABES'CENCE, the condition 
of being wasted away or abort- 
ed; said of anthers which 
contain little or no fertile 
pollen. 

CONTA'GIOUS, said of diseases 
which are communicable from 
one plant or animal to another 
by contact only, or by the 
direct transfer of the disease- 
producing organism. Strict 
contagion implies parasitism, 
the organism being unable to 
grow outside the supporting 
body. Compare Infectious. 

CONTERMINOUS, of equal ex- 
tent. 

CONTIGUOUS, near, or in con- 
tact. 

CftNTIN'UOUS, uniform in struct- 
ure or outline; uninterrupted. 
Said of hyphoe which are with- 
out septa, or of objects which 
are in all parts of the same size, 
or whose diameter increases or 
diminishes regularly. 

CONTORTED, in aestivation, 
when the margins of the floral 
leaves successively overlap 
each other (obliquely or other- 
wise) iu one direction; twisted. 
Compare Convolute. 

CONTORTED JESTIVA'TION, see 
above. 

CONTORTION, an abnormal 
twisting of branches or other 
organs. 



CONTORTU'PLICATE, twisted 
and folded. 

CONTRACTED, uarrowed, or the 
successive parts shortened. 
Compare Constkicted. 
CONTRACTILE VACUOLES, 

small cavities containing a 
watery fluid which make 
their appearance in the pro- 
toplasm of many zoospores and 
other motile organisms and 
then suddenly disappear; pul- 
sating vacuoles. Their func- 
tion is not known. 

CONTRACTILITY, a property of 
protoplasm by which it is en- 
abled to change its form spon- 
taneously, or by virtue of 
forces within itself. Com- 
pare Irritability. 

CON'TRARY, extending in an 
opposite direction to some- 
thing witli which it is com- 
pared; as, the pod of shep- 
herd's purse is flattened con- 
trary to the partition. 

CO'NUS, see Cone. 

CON'VOLUTE, rolled together 
lengthwise from one edge, as 
theleaves of the plum in the 
bud. The term Coutorted 
(used mainly in aestivation) 
refers more especially to the 
relation of the organs to each 
other and to the axis, while 
Convoluted (used mainly in 
vernation) refers more to the 
manner of folding of the organ 
itself. A contorted corolla may 
or may not have its parts con- 
voluted. 

CONVOLUTED, see Convolute. 

COP'ROPHYTE, see Saprophyte. 

COR'ACOID, shaped like a crow's 
beak. 

C6R'ALLINE, resembling coral; 
coralliform; coralloid. 

CdR'CLE, see Corculum. 

CORCULUM, an old term for 
44 



Cordate 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Corollifloral 



plumule, or plumule and radi- 
cle together. 

CORDATE, heart-shaped, as usu- 
ally pictured, with the point of 
attachment at the broad end. 
Applied mainly to leaves. 

COB/DATED, see Cordate. 

COR'DATE HAS TATE, interme- 
diate in form between cordate 
and hastate, approaching more 
nearly to hastate. 

CORDATE-OVATE, between cor- 
date and ovate, approaching 
more nearly to ovate. 

COR'DATE - SAGITTATE, be- 
tween cordate and sagittate, 
approaching more nearly to 
sagittate. 

COR'DIFORM, sometimes applied 
to solid bodies shaped like the 
human heart. Compare Cor- 
date. 

CORE, the bony endocarp of a 
pome containing the seeds. 

CORIACEOUS, leathery in text- 
ure. 

CORK, tissue composed of firm 
elastic cells, generally soon 
tilled with air, which are pro- 
duced in the bark and upon 
injured surfaces. It is com- 
posed of a modification of cel- 
lulose called Suberin, and is 
designed for protection. 

CORK-CAMBIUM, see Phello- 
<;en. 

CdRK-MER ISTEM, see Phello- 

UEN. 

CORKY ENVELOPE, see Corky 
Layer. 

CORKY LAYER, the layer of 
bark immediately below the 
epidermis which produces the 
cork; epiphlceum. Compare 
Mesophlceum. 

CORM, the enlarged base of an 
herbaceous stem, consisting of 
one or a few short internodes, 
and serving for the storage of 



starch or other reserve food- 
materials; pseudo-bulb; solid 
bulb; bulbo-tuber. It differs 
from a Tuber mainly iu being 
upright, or more nearly so, and 
in seldom being produced upon 
an elongated subterranean 
stem. The Indian turnip and 
crocus are examples. Com- 
pare Plateau. 

COR'MUS, see Corm. 

COR'MOPHYTE, a plant having a 
true stem. Compare Thallo- 
phyte. 

COR'NEOUS, having the texture 
of horn. 

CORNIC tTLATE, having a process 
or appendage like a little spur 
or horn. Compare Cornute. 

COR'NIFORM, horn-shaped. 

COR NU (pi. Cor'nua), see Horn. 

COR'NUTE, horn-shaped, as the 
nectary of columbine, or bear- 
ing a horn-shaped process; cor- 
niform. Compare Cornicu- 

LATE. 

COR'OL (obs.), see Corolla. 

COROLLA, the conspicuous part 
of most flowers, being the in- 
ner set of floral envelopes when 
there is more than one, com- 
monly distinguished by its fine 
texture and by having some 
other color than green. See 
Petal, Calyx, and Peri- 
anth. 

COROLLA'CEOtlS, like a corolla 
in appearance or texture; peta- 
loid. Petaloid is the term 
usually employed, especially 
when referring to individual 
organs. 

COR OLLATE, having a corolla. 

COR OLLATED, see Corollate. 

COR'OLLET, see Floret. 

COROLLIFLO RAL, haviug calyx, 
petals, and ovary inserted sepa- 
rately on the receptacle and 



45 



Corolline 



A DICTIONARY 



Cotyledon 



the stamens iuserted upon the 

corolla. Compare Calyciflo- 

ral aud Thalamifloral. 
COR'OLLINE, see Corollaceous. 
COR'OLLULE, see Floret. 
CORCnA (pi. Coro'nae), see 

Crown. 
COR'ONATE, having a corona or 

crown. 
CORON'iFdRM, Laving the form 

of a corona or crown. 
CORO'NUlA (pi. Coro'nulae), see 

Coronule. 
COR'ONULE, a diminutive corona 

or crown. 
CORPUSCLE, (1) any very small 

body; *(2) see Corpusculum 

(in the first sense). 
CORPUS'CUlA, pi., see Corpus- 

CTJLUM. 

CORPUS'CULE, see Corpi'sculim. 

CORPUS'CULAR, pertaining to or 
composed of corpuscles or 
small particles. 

CORPUS'CULUM (pi. Corpus'cula), 
(1; an old term for the central 
cell in the archegouium of 
Gymnosperms: sometimes ap- 
plied to the whole archego- 
uium; (2) the connecting body 
between the arms (retiuacula) 
which bear the polliuia of milk- 
weeds (Asclepias). 

CORRUGATED, in folds or 
wrinkles. 

CORTEX, that portion of the 
fundamental tissue lying out- 
side the ribrovascular bundles. 
In trees it is the "outer bark." 

CORTICAL, pertaining to the 
bark or cortex. 

CORTICAL SHEATH, the ring of 
primary bast (phloem) bundles. 
Compare Medullary Sheath. 

COR'TICATE, having a rind or 
cortex. 

CORTICIF'EROUS, producing 
bark or cortex. 



CORTIC'IFORM, like bark. 

CORTIC'OLOUS, growing upon 
the bark of trees, as many 
mosses aud lichens. 

COR'TICOSE, having or resem- 
bling bark; coiticous. 

COR'TICOUS, see Corticose. 

CORTI'NA, the remnant of the 
veil sometimes found at the 
border of the pileus or cap in 
mushrooms. 

COR'YMB, a convex or flat-topped 
indefinite or centripetal inflo- 
rescence, like a raceme with 
the lower pedicels elongated. 
Compare Cyme. 

CORYM'BATE, having corymbs, 
or growing in corymbs. 

CORYMBIF'EROUS, producing 
corymbs. 

CORYMBOSE, growing in or re- 
sembling corymbs; corymbous. 

CORYM'BOUS, see Corymbose. 

CORYMBULOSE, arranged in 
small corymbs. 

CORYM BUS, see Corymb. 

COSMOPOLITE, a plant widely 
extended in the world, as Pte- 
rin aq i (Hi hit. 

COS'TA (pi. Cos'tae), see Rib. 

COSTAL, pertaining to a rib. 

COS'TAL-NERVED, a term some- 
times applied to parallel-veined 
leaves when the veins arise 
from a midrib and run toward 
the margins, as in the banana. 

COS'TATE, having one or more 
prominent veins or ribs. 

COSTEL'LATE, having small ribs. 

COtYLE'DON, the first _ leaf or 
leaves of a plant; seminal-leaf; 
seed-lobe; seed-leaf. In exo- 
gens they are usually different 
in form from the leaves pro- 
duced afterward, and are stored 
with nutritive matter for the 
young plant. 



46 



Cotyledonous 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. Cross-fertilization 



COTYLED ONOUS, havim 
dons. 



cotyle- 



COTYL'IFORM, like a cotyle, the 
articulating cavity of a bone; 
a little shallower than aceta- 
buliform. 

COWLED, see Cucullate. 

CRAM'PON, see Hold-fast. 

CRAteR'IFORM, goblet-shaped; 
narrower than Calathiforin and 
less flaring than Gyathiform. 

CREEPING, running upon or 
under ground and rooting; re- 
pent. 

CREM OCARP, the fruit of Urn- 
belliferae. Also applied to 
other fruits of somewhat simi- 
lar structure, as that of maple. 
See Mericarp and Schizo- 
carp. 

CRE'NA, see Crenature. 

CRE'NATE, having the margin 
furnished wilh rounded teeth, 
which usually point toward 
the apex of the object bearing 
them: crenated; crenelated; 
crenel led. See Doubly, 
Acutely, and Obtusely 
Crenate. 

CRE'nATED, see Crenate. 

CRENATURE, a tooth of a cre- 
nate margin; crenel; creua. 

CRENEL', see Crenature. 

CREN'ELATED, see Crenate. 

CRENELED , see Crenate. 

CRENELLED', see Crenate. 

CREN'ULATE, diminutive of 
crenate; having the margin 
furnished with fine rounded 
teeth. 

CREN'ULATED, see Crenulate. 

CREST, (1) a partial aril in the 
form of a ridge along the 
raphe of some seeds, as San- 
guiuaria and Dicentra. Com- 
pare Aril, Strophiole, and 
Caruncle. (2) An elevated 
ridge or appendage terminating 



any organ: a stamen is crested 
when the filament (connective) 
projects beyond the anther. 

CRESTED, having a ridge or ter- 
minal appendage; cristate. 

CRETACEOUS, (1) of the color of 
chalk; (2) growing on chalky 
laud. 

CRIB'RATE, see Cribrose. 

CRIB'RIFORM, see Cribrose. 

CRIBRIFORM CELLS, see Sieve- 
tubes. 

CRIB'ROSE, pierced with small 
holes like a sieve; cribriform; 
cribrate. 

CRIB'ROSE CELLS, see Sieve- 
tubes. 

CRI'NITE, having a tuft or fringe 
of long weak hairs. 

CRI'NOID, resembling a lily. 

CRISP, having the surface, espe- 
cially near the margin, strong- 
ly and finely undulate, as the 
leaves of Savoy cabbage or the 
cultivated endive; curled; 
crispate; crisped. 

CRIS'PATE, see Crisp. 

CRISPED, see Crisp. 

CRIS'TATE, see Crested. 

CRIS'TATED, see Crested. 

CRITICAL, difficult to character- 
ize or classify. 

CROSS, a union of two varieties 
of the same species. Applied 
in a narrower sense to the off- 
spring of any two flowers 
which have been cross-ferti- 
lized. Compare Hybrid. 

CROSS-ARMED, see Brachiate. 

CROSS-BREED, see Cross. 

CROSS-FERTILIZA'TION, the fer- 
tilization of a flower by pollen 
from another flower, especially 
from one of another variety of 
the same species; allogamy. 
Compare Close-fertiliza- 
tion. 



Cross-pollination 



A DICTIONARY 



Cultrated 



CROSS-POLLINATION, the con- 
veyance of pollen to the stigma 
of another flower. 

CROWN, (1) an appendage in the 
throat of the corolla in some 
flowers, as Sileue and Narcis- 
sus; corona; paracorolla. In 
some cases it represents a circle 
of metamorphosed stamens. 

(2) A ring of cells at the apex 
of the nucule in Characeae. 

(3) Any circle of organs in the 
form of a crown, as the scales 
at the apex of an acheue. 

CROWNING, home at the apex. 

CRO'ZIER, auything with a coiled 
end, as the young leaves of 
most ferns. 

CRUCIATE, in the form of a 
Maltese cross, as the petals of 
Cruciferae; cruciform; cross- 
shaped. 

CRUCIF'EROUS, (1) belonging to 
tlie Cruciferae or mustard 
family; (2) resembling plants 
of the mustard family, espe- 
cially in the form of the 
flower. 

CRUCIFORM, see Cruciate. 

CRUMPLED JESTTVA'TION, when 
the petals are irregularly fold- 
ed in the bud, as in the poppy. 

CRU'RAL, somewhat leg-shaped. 
Used mainly in composition. 

CRUSTA'CEOUS, said of the tbal- 
lus of a lichen when it forms 
an adherent crust which can 
not be removed from the sub- 
stratum without injury. 

CRYPTOGAM, a plant belonging 
to the lowest of the two chief 
divisions of the vegetable king- 
dom, including ferns, mosses, 
fungi, etc. Cryptogams pro- 
duce no true seeds or flowers, 
but in most groups there is a 
process of fertilization essen- 
tially the same as in the higher 
plants. 



CRYPTOG'AMOUS, pertaining to 
cryptogams, or plants having 
no true flowers or seeds. 

CRYP'TOPHYTE, see Crypto- 
gam. 

CRYSTALLOIDS, protein bodies 
in the form of crystals; albu- 
men crystals. Applied also in 
opposition to Colloids to indi- 
cate all substances susceptible 
of crystallization and of diffu- 
sion through a membrane 
(Graham.) 

CU'CULLATE, conical, with the 
side cleft, and often inrolled 
like a cornet of paper, as the 
spathe of arum and the calyp- 
tra of some mosses: cuculi- 
form; hooded; hood-shaped; 
cowded. 

CUCUL'LIFORM, see Ccctllate. 

CUCUL'LUS (pi. Cucul'li), a term 
sometimes given to various 
hood-shaped organs, especially 
a concave and arched sepal or 
petal, as the large upper sepal 
(galea) of Aconiumi. 

CUCU'MIFORM, having the form 
of a cucumber. 

CUCURBITA CEOUS, belonging 
to or resembling plants of the 
Cucurbitacea3 or melon family. 

CUL-DE SAC, a tubular or bag- 
shaped cavity closed at one 
end. 

CULM, the stem of grasses; some- 
times applied to that of sedges 
also. 

CULMIC'OLOUS, growing upon 
the stems of grasses, as certain 
fungi. 

CULMiF'EROUS, producing 
culms. 

CUL'TRATE, shaped like a prun- 
iug-kuife; broad, thin, point- 
ed, with the end curved edge- 
wise; cul triform. 

CUL'TRATED, see Cultrate. 



48 



Cultriform 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Cyclosis 



CUL TRIFORM, see Cultrate. 

CU'NEAL, see Cuneate. 

CUNEATE, wedge-shaped in out- 
line. Said of leaves which are 
broad above and narrowed to 
the base in straight lines. The 
same as Obdeltoid but usually 
narrower; cuneiform. 

CUNEIFORM, see Cuneate. 

CUNIC'ULATE, pierced with a 
long narrow passage or pas- 
sages. 

CUP, (1) a concave involucre en- 
closing a nut, as iu the acorn; 
cupule; (2) a discocarp (apo- 
thecium) in Ascomycetes. 

CUP-SHAPED, a rather indefinite 
term, usually applied to cavi- 
ties from one half to twice as 
deep as broad, with concave 
bottom and nearly vertical 
sides 

CUPULA, see Cup. 

CUMULATE, furnished with a 
cup or cupule. 

CU'PULE, see Cup. 

CUPULIF'EROUS, bearing or fur- 
nished with a cupule or cu- 
pules. 

CU'PULIFORM, see Cup-Shaped. 

CURD, applied iu horticulture to 
the material composing the 
head iu cauliflower. Some- 
times the heads individually 
are called " curds." 

CURLED, see Crisp. 

CURVICAU'DATE, having a 
curved tail. 

CURVICOS'TATE, having curved 
ribs or large veins. 

CURVIDEN'TATE, having curved 
teeth. 

CUR'VlFORM, curved. 

CUR'VINERVED, having curved 
nerves. Applied to the veins 
(so-called nerves) of endogens. 

CURVISE'RIAL, in curved ranks. 
Compare Recti serial. 



49 



CUSHION, a thickened medial 
portion of the prothallus in 
ferns; any pulviuus. 

CUSP, a sharp rigid point. 

CUSPED, see Cuspidate. 

CUS'PIDATE, furnished with a 
cusp. 

CUS'PIS, see Cusp. 

CUT, acutely cleft or parted; 
having acute incisions deeper 
than Dentate. CompareC'LEFT, 
Incised, and Laciniate. 

CU'TICLE, the outer cell-wall of 
the epidermis when thickened 
or otherwise modified. 

CUTICULARIZA'TION, the for- 
mation of cuticle. 

CU'TIN, see Subekin. 

CUTIS, see Cuticle. 

CUTINIZA'TION, the formation 
of cuticle. Compare Suberi- 
zation. 

CUT-TOOTHED, deeply and sharp- 
er toothed. 

CYA'NEUS, pure blue. Compare 

C/ERULEUS. 

gYAN'IC FLOWERS, those whose 
color contains more or less 
blue. Compare Xanthic 
Flowers. 

CYAn'OPHYLL, see Phyllocya- 

NIN. 

CYATH'IFORM, wine - glass 

shaped. Compare Cotyli- 
porm and Acetabuliporm. 

CYATH'IUM, a corolla-like iuvo- 
lucre, as in Euphorbia. 

CY ATHOID, see Cyathiform. 

(JY'CLE, a complete turn in a 
spire or circle. 

£ YC'LIC, having the floral organs 
in distinct whorls. Compare 
Hemicyclic and Acyclic. 

CYCLICAL, coiled into a full 
circle. 

CYCLO'SIS, see Rotation. 



Cyclospermous 



A DICTIONARY 



Cytodieresis 



CYCLOSPER'MOTJS, having the 
embryo coiled around the cen- 
tral albumen, as in the Caryo- 
phyllaceae. 

CYLINDRA'CEOUS, nearly cylin- 
drical. 

CYLIN'DRICAL, circular in trans- 
verse outline and tapering but 
little if at all, as most stems. 

CY'MA, see Cyme. 
CYM'BJiFORM, see Navicular. 
CYM'BIFORM, see Navicular. 
CYME, a somewhat flat-topped 

determinate inflorescence re- 
sembling a corymb. 

CYME LET, see Cymule. 

CYMIF'EROUS, producing cymes. 

CYMO-BOT'RYS, a mixed inflo- 
rescence in which the primary 
inflorescence is botryose while 
Ihe secondary is cymose, as in 
the horse-chestnut. 

CY'MOID, having the form of a 
cyme. 

CY'MOSE, growing in cymes; cy- 
mous; or cymoid. 

CY'MOSE INFLORES'CENCE, a 
cyme or other determinate 
inflorescence. 

CY'MOSE tJM'BEL, one having 
the inflorescence centrifugal; 
a cyme resembling an umbel. 
Umbels are usually botryose 
(centripetal) in inflorescence. 

CY'MOtJS, see Cymose. 

CYM'ULA, see Cymule. 

CY'MULE, a little cyme, or divi- 
sion of a compound cyme. 
Sometimes applied to the' ver- 
ticil lasters of Labiatse. 

CYNARRHO'DIUM, a fruit-like 
body, like the hip of roses, 
consisting of several acheuia 
enclosed in a fleshy receptacle. 

CYNAR'RHODON, see Cynar- 

RHODIUM. 

CYPERA'CEOUS, resembling or 



pertaining to plants of the fam- 
ily Cypeiacese. 

CYPHEL'LA (pi. Cyphel'lae), a 
kind of pit in the under-sur- 
face of the thallus of some 
lichens. Cyphelke sometimes 
appear as spots or as eleva- 
tions. Their nature is un- 
known. 

CYPHEL'LATE, having Cyphel- 
* lee. 

CYP'SELA, an achenium with 
an adherent calyx-tube, as in 
Composite. (Obs.) 

CYST, a closed sac, especially one 
abnormally produced, or 
whose nature is not under- 
stood. 

CYS'TID (pi. Cystlds or Cys'tides), 
a large sterile club-shaped cell 
common among the basidia in 
some agarics. 

CYSTID'IUM (pi. Cystid'ia), see 
Cystid. 

CYS'TOBLAsT (obs.), see Nu- 
cleus. 

CYS'TOCARP, an old term for the 
Sporocarp of Florideae. 

^YS'TOLITH, a cluster of crys- 
tals of calcium carbonate in a 
cell upon a stalk of cellulose. 
Common in the leaves of the 
nettle family (Urticacese). 

gYTAS'TER, a series of achro- 
matic rays extending from 
each pole of the nucleus in 
karyokinesis into the cyto- 
plasm. Rarely seen as yet in 
plants 

CYTEN'CHYMA, see Cell-sap. 

CYT'IODERM, the cell-wall in 
Diatomaceoe. 

CY'TOBLAST (Schleideu), see 
Nucleus. 

CYTODIER'ESIS, cell-division, in- 
volving division of the nucleus 
with the formation of a nu- 



50 



Cytogenesis 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Decursive 



clear-spindle aud asters. (Car- 
noy.) Compare Stenosis. 

CYTOGEN'ESIS, cell-formation. 

CYTOL'OGY, the science of cells. 

CY'TOPLASM, the protoplasm in 
a cell outside the nucleus. It 
excludes granules of protein, 
starch, etc. Compare Nucleo- 
plasm. 

DARWINIAN CUR'VATURE, the 
curvature of the growing apex 
of a root away from any source 
of irritation placed upon one 
side near the tip. It is the 
irritability which causes this 
curvature that enables grow- 
ing roots to pass around ob- 
stacles in the soil. 

DAUGHTER-CELL, any cell when 
mentioned in relation to the one 
from which it was derived. 
Compare Mother-Cell. 

DAUGHTER-SPORE, a spore pro- 
duced directly from another, 
or upon a promycelium. 

DAUGHTER-STAR, one of the 
groups of chromatic filaments 
at the poles of a dividing nu- 
cleus. The two polar figures 
together with the connecting 
spindle-fibres are called a Dy- 
aster. 

DEAL'BATE, appearing as if 
whitewashed; covered with a 
very white bloom or powder. 

DECAGYN'IAN, see Decagynous. 

DECAG'YNOUS, having ten pistils 
or styles; decagyniau. 

DECAM'EROtJS, having the parts 
in tens, as ten floral organs in 
a whorl. Also written 10- 
merous. 

DECAN'DRIAN, see Decan- 
drous. 

DECANDROUS, having ten sta- 
mens; decaudriau. 



DECAPET'ALOUS, having ten 
petals. 

DECAPHYLLOUS, having ten 
leaves, as a decaphyllous peri- 
anth. 

DECEMDEN'TATE, having ten 
teeth or tooth-like processes. 

DECEM'EID, ten-cleft. 

DECEMLOC'ULAR, having ten 
loculi or cells in an ovary. 

DECIDUOUS, falling at the usual 
time, or at the close of the 
season. Applied to leaves 
which fall in autumn after 
one season's growth, and to 
plants which bear such leaves. 
Also applied to petals which 
fall immediately after blossom- 
ing. Compare Caducous, 
Marcescent, Persistent, 
and Evergreen. 

DECLINATE, bent or curved 
downward; declining; de- 
clined. Applied to stamens 
it means curved to one side, 
neither outward nor inward 
nor erect. Compare Recur- 
ved, Reflexed, Reclinate. 

DECLINED', see Declinate. 

DECLI'NOUS, see Declinate. 

DECOMPOUND', twice compound, 
as a compound leaf whose 
parts are compound. See 

SUPRADECOMPOUND. 

DECREAS'INGLY - PIN'NATE, 
having the leaflets of a pinnate 
leaf gradually smaller in size 
from base to apex. 

DECUMBENT, erect at the base, 
then prostrate, with the end 
rising. 

DECUR'RENT, prolonged and 
attached below the main point 
of insertion, as the leaves of 
thistles; decursive. The stems 
in such cases are often called 
Winged. Compare Surcur- 

RENT . 

DECURSIVE, see Decurrent. 



51 



Decursively-pinnate A DICTIONARY 



Dentate 



DECUR'SIVELY-PIN'NATE, ap- 
parently pinnate, but having 
the segments decurrent along 
the rachis. 

DECUS'SATE, said of leaves 
which grow in pairs succes- 
sively at right angles to each 
other. Compare Brachiate. 

DECUSSATED, see Decussate. 

DEDOUBLEMENT [Day-doobl-i- 
man], see Chorisis. 

DEDUPLICA'TION, see Chorisis. 

DEFERENT, carrying anything 
downwards. 

DEFINITE, (1) having a con- 
stant, fixed, or limited, sum 
ber; in stamens not exceeding 
twenty; (2) the same as Deter- 
minate, which see. 

DEFINITE GROWTH, see De- 
terminate Growth. 

DEFINITE INFLORES'CENCE, 
see Determinate Inflores- 
cence. 

DEFLECTED, see Deflexed. 

DEFLEXED', bent abruptly to 
one side or outward at an 
angle of forty-rive degrees or 
less; deflected. Compare Re- 
fracted and Recurved. 

DEFLORATE, past the flowering 
state, as an anther after it has 
shed its pollen, or a plant or 
flower after the petals have 
fallen. 

DEFOLIATE, having cast its 
leaves. 

DEFOLIATION, the fall of leaves. 

DEF CRMA'TION, an alteration in 
the usual form of an organ, by 
accident or otherwise; mal- 
formation. 

DEGENERATION, deficiency in 
size or quality, or appearing in 
a less developed or lower state, 
as when scales take the place 
of leaves, or petals the place of 
stamens; degradation. 



DEGRAdA TION, see Degenera- 
tion. 

DEHISCE', to open for the escape 
of seeds, spores, etc. 

DEHIS CENCE, the opening in a 
regular manner of certain 
fruits to discharge their seeds, 
and of anthers and spore cases 
to discharge their contents. 

DEHISCENT, opening in a regu- 
lar manner to discharge the 
contents, as most pods to liber- 
ate the seeds. Compare Inde- 

HISCENT. 

DELIMITATION, see Abjunc- 
tion. 

DELIQUES'CENT, dissolving. 
Said of a tree which branches 
repeatedly, so that the main 
stem is lost. Compare Excur- 
rent. Also applied to fungi 
which dissolve at maturity by 
the absorption of moisture 
from the air, as some mush- 
rooms. 

DELTOID, nearly in the shape of 
an equilateral triangle, or the 
Greek letter delta. When ap- 
plied to leaves it implies that 
the attachment is at the broad 
end, otherwise the term Ob- 
deltoid is used. 

DEMERSED', growing constantly 
or naturally under water; im- 
mersed; submersed. 

DENDRIFORM, tree-shaped. 

DENDRIT'IC, branched like a 
tree; dendriform. 

DENDROID, tree-shaped; den- 
driform; dendritic; arbores- 
cent; applied to small plants, 
such as mosses, which branch 
like a tree or shrub. 

DiSNDROL'OGY, the natural his- 
tory of trees. 

DJ&N'IGRATE, dark dusky brown. 

DfiNSE, crowded together. 

DENTATE, having broad acute 



Dentated 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. Descending Sap 



marginal teeth which are usu- 
ally directed outward. Com- 
pare Serrate and Crexate. 

DEN'TATED, see Dentate. 

DEN TATE-CIL'IATE, haviug the 
margin dentate and fringed. 

DEN'TATE-CRE'NATE, (1) haviug 
part of the margin dentate and 
the remainder crenate; (2) in- 
termediate between dentate 
and crenate, i.e., having some- 
what rounded teeth. 

DEN'TATE-LAcIN'IATE, haviug 
the teeth extended into long 
lax points. 

DEN'TATE-SER'RATE, (1) inter- 
mediate between dentate and 
serrate; having the teeth di- 
rected but slightly forward; 
(2) having part of the margin 
dentate and the remainder ser- 
rate. 

DEN'TATE-SIN'tJATE, having 
broad shallow sinuses between 
the teeth of a dentate margin. 

DENTATO-SER'RATE, see Den- 
tate-Serrate. 

DENTATO-SIN'tJATE, see Den- 
tate-Sinuate. 

DENTICLE, a small tooth or pro- 
jecting point. 

DENTICULATE, having small 
teeth or notches; finely den- 
tate. 

DENTICULA'TION, (1) the state 
of being denticulate; toothed; 
(2) one of the teeth of a dentic- 
ulate leaf. 

DJSN'TIFORM, see Dentoid. 

DEN'TOID, tooth-shaped. 

DENUDATE, deprived of the 
usual covering, especially of a 
coating of down or hair. The 
term has been applied with 
little reason to plants whose 
flowers appear before their 
leaves. 

DEOPER'CULATE, applied to 



moss capsules iu which the lid 
does not separate spontane- 
ously to liberate the spores. 
Compare Disoperculate. 

DEPAUPERATE, said of a plant 
or part of a plant which is re- 
duced in size from lack of nu- 
triment, or apparently so; 
starved; stunted; undeveloped. 

DEPEND', to hang directly down- 
ward. 

DEP'LANATE, flattened vert ically 
and expanded. Both sides may 
be flattened (Complanate) or 
only the upper. (Rare.) See 
Explanate, Depressed, and 
Complanate. 

DEPRESSED', more or less flat- 
tened vertically or endwise; 
oblate. Also applied to any 
part having a lower position 
than usual, as a leaf whose 
disk is lower than the margin, 
as iu some water lilies. 

DEPRESSED'-GLO'BOSE, globular 
with the poles slightly flat- 
tened; oblately spheroidal. 

DERIV'ATIVE-HY BRID, a hy- 
brid of which one or both the 
parents is a hybrid; secondary 
hybrid. 

DERMAT'OGEN, the primordial 
epidermis, i.e., the epidermis 
in an organ when first formed 
and still capable of cell-divi- 
sion. 

DERMATOPHYTE, any fungus 
parasitic upon the skin of man 
or other animals, as Trichophy- 
ton tonsurans, the fungus which 
causes ringworm. 

DESCENDING, directed down- 
ward in any degree. 

DESCENDING AXIS, root. 

DESCENDING METAMORPHO- 
SIS, see Retrogressive Meta- 
morphosis. 

DESCENDING SAP, a term for- 
merly applied to cambium 



53 



Descriptive Botany 



A DICTIONARY 



Dialysis 



■when in a soft mucilaginous 
condition, from the supposi- 
tion that the sap passed in a 
current upward in the wood to 
the leaves, then downward be- 
tween the wood and bark. See 
Proper Juice. 

DESCRIP'TlVE BOTANY, see 
Phytookaphy. 

DESTRUCTIVE METAB'OLISM, 
the chemical changes which 
take place during the waste of 
tissues. Compare Assimila- 
tion. 

DESTRUCTIVE PARASITE, one 
which causes the death of the 
tissues of the host upon which 
it feeds. 

DETERMINATE GROWTH, when 
the season's growth ends in a 
well-formed bud. 

DETERMINATE INFLORES- 
CENCE, one in which the flow- 
ering begins with a terminal 
bud so that it puts a limit to 
the elongation of the stem; cen- 
trifugal or definite inflores- 
cence. 

DETERMINATION, the discov- 
ery of the botanical name of a 
plant, or of its position in a 
system if unnamed; identifica- 
tion. It implies some knowl- 
edge of its characters acquired 
by a more or less complete 
analysis, and is frequently 
completed by the aid of a 
systematic key. 

DEU'TOPLASM, the portion of 
the cell contents aside from 
the protoplasm proper, con- 
sisting of cell-sap in which 
may be granules or other sub- 
stances; paraplasm. Compare 
Metaplasm. 

DEXTRORSE, twining upward 
from left to right, with the 
sun or hands of a watch, as 
the hop. Used in the opposite 
sense, however, by most Eng- 



lish and American botanists. 
Compare Sinistrose. 

DlAOHiE'NIUM, see Mericarp. 

DiACH'YMA (obs.), see Meso- 

PHYLLUM. 

DlADEL'PHIAN, see Diadel- 
PHOUS. 

DIAdEL'PHOUS, having filaments 
united by their edges in two 
sets (one of which may be only 
a single stamen), as in the pea. 

DIAgEOT'ROPISM, a kind of 
geotropic irritability in certain 
organs, as rootstocks, which 
causes them to assume a hori- 
zontal position; transverse geo- 
tropism. 

DIAGNOSIS (pi. DIagno'ses), a 
brief characteristic description 
of a plant or species. 

DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTER, see 
Essential Character. 

DIAGONAL PLANES, the two 
planes which bisect the right 
angles between the median and 
lateral planes. See Median 
Plane and Lateral Plane. 

DIAG'ONALPOSI'TION, a position 
intermediate between the me- 
dian and the lateral plane and 
bisected by the diagonal plane. 

DIAGRAM, FLORAL, see Flo- 
ral Diagram. 

DIAhELIOT'ROPISM, the ten- 
dency of organs to place their 
surfaces at right angles to Ihe 
sun's rays, as most leaves; 
transverse heliotropism. 

DlALYCAR POUS, see Apocar- 
pous. 

DlALYPETALOUS, see Poly- 

PETALOUS. 

DlALYPHYL'LOUS, see Polysep- 
ALOTJS. 

DlALYSEP ALOUS, see Polysep- 

alous. 
DiAL'YSIS, the separation of or- 
gans usually joined; adesmy. 
54 



Diamesogamous OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Diffract 



When applied to parts of a 
flower it refers to the separa- 
tion of organs of the same 
whorl from each other, as 
when a normally gamopeta- 
lous corolla has its petals dis- 
tinct. Compare Solution. 

DIAMESOGAMOUS, fertilized by 
the aid of some external agent, 
as wind, water, or iusects. 

DlAN'DRIAN, see Diaxdrous. 

DIAN'DROUS, having two sta- 
mens. 

DIAPHANOUS, transparent, or 
nearly so. 

DIAPHRAGM, any dividing 
membrane or partition; sep- 
tum. The term is usually 
applied to the septum at the 
node of a hollow-stemmed 
grass. 

DlAP'HYSIS, an old term for the 
proliferation of a flower. 

DIASTASE, a ferment generated 
iu germinating seeds, etc., 
which assists in the transfor- 
mation of starch into sugar. 

DlAs'TER, see Dyaster. 

DIAT'OMINE, see Phycoxax- 

TIIIXE. 

DIcAR'PELLARY, of two carpels; 
digyuous. 

DlCHA'SIUM (pi. Dicha'sia), a 
false dichotomy iu which two 
lateral shoots of nearly equal 
strength arise beneath the apex 
which bears a flower; bipa- 
rous, dichotomous, or forked 
cyme. Compare Compound 

DlCHASIUM. 

DICHAs'TIC, spontaneously di- 
viding. 

DICHLAMYD'EOUS, having both 
calyx and corolla. 

DICHOG AMOUS, having flowers 
in which the stamens and pis- 
tils mature at different times; 
either protandrous or protogy- 
nous. Compare Synacmic. 



DlCHOTOMAL FLOWER, one 

seated in the fork of a dicha- 
sium. 

DICHOTOMIZE, to fork. 

DICHOT'OMOUS, forked; furcate; 
bifurcate. 

DICHOTOMY, forking into two 
branches of the same nature 
and usually of about the same 
size. True dichotomy is caused 
by the cessation of the previous 
increase in length of a member 
at the apex, and its coutiuuauce 
in two diverging directions 
from two newly constituted 
apices. Compare Helicoid 
and Scorpioid Dichotomy. 

DICLE'SlUM, a name formerly 
applied to an achenium having 
an adherent calyx, as in Mirab- 
ilis. 

DICLINOUS, having the stamens 
and pistils iu separate blossoms 
— either monoecious or dioe- 
cious; separated; digainous; 
unisexual. 

DICOC'COUS, having an ovary 
consisting of two closed car- 
pels or cocci with one seed in 
each, as in the Urnbelliferae. 

DICffi'LOUS, having two cavities. 

DICOTYLEDONOUS, having two 
cotyledons. 

DID'YMOUS, in pairs. 
DIDYNA'MIAN, see Didyna- 

MOU8. 

DIDYN AMOUS, having two long 
and two short stamens. Com- 
pare Tetkadynamous. 

DIE'CIOUS, see Dicscious. 

DIFFLUENT, readily dissolving. 
Compare Deliquescent. 

DfFFORMED', of unusual shape. 

DIFFRACT', said of a lichen 
thallus which is broken into 
areolae separated by clefts or 
chinks. 



55 



Diffuse 



A DICTIONARY 



Diplanetism 



DIFFUSE', spreading widely, 
loosely, and irregularly. Com- 
pare Effuse. 

DIFFU'SION, the spontaneous 
mixture of one liquid with 
another, or of any dissolved or 
finely divided substance or any 
liquid through a liquid or solid. 
Compare Osmose. 

DIGAMOUS, see Diclinous. 

DIG'ENOUS, containing both 
sexes or produced sexually. 
(Rare.) 

DIGITATE, having several parts 
radiating from one point, or 
nearly so, somewhat like the 
fingers on one's hand. Ap- 
plied in grasses where several 
spikes radiate from nearly the 
same point, as in crab-grass 
(Sanguiuaria). In leaves it is 
the same as Palmately-com- 
pouud. Compare Pedate. 

DIGITATE PlN'NATE, having a 
digitate leaf with pinnate leaf- 
lets. 

DIGITATE-VEINED, see Pal- 

mately-yeined. 

DIG'ITIFORM, see Digitate. 
DIG'ITINERVED, see Pal- 

MATELY-YEINED. 

DIG'ONOUS, two-angled, as the 
stems of some cacti. 

DIGYN'IAN, see Digynous. 

DIGYNOUS, having two pistils, 
styles, or stigmas in a flower. 
Generally the same as Dicarpel- 
lary. 

DILAmiNA'TION, see Chorisis. 

DILATED, expanded or widened. 

DIMEROUS, having the parts in 
twos, as two sepals, two petals, 
two stamens, and two pistils in 
a flower. 

DIMIDIATE, halved, or appear- 
ing as if one side or one half 
were wanting, as a leaf which 



is developed on one side of the 
midrib only. Compare Ob- 
lique. Applied also to the 
calyptra of mosses when di- 
vided along one side. The 
term is also applied to bodies 
which are actually halved or 
divided into two parts, and to 
those in which one side differs 
from the other in function. 

DIMORPHOUS, existing under 
two forms, as two forms of 
leaves, sterile and fertile, on 
one plant in ferns. Applied 
especially to heterogenous 
plauts having two forms of 
flowers ou separate individuals, 
one with long stamens and 
short styles and another with 
short stamens and long styles. 
Compare Trimorphous. 

DlfE'CIAN, see Dkecious. 

DIG2CI0US, having stamens and 
pistils in separate flowers upon 
different individuals. 

DI02CI0USLY POLYGAMOUS, 
when some of the flowers in 
dioecious plants are perfect. 
Each set of plauts may have 
perfect as well as unisexual 
flowers, or one set may have 
all perfect flowers and the 
other all staminate or all pistil- 
late; polygamo-dioecious. 

DI'OSMOSE, see Osmose. 

DIPET ALOUS, having two petals 
in a flower. 

DIPHYL'LOUS, two-leaved. Hav- 
ing two leaves, leaflets, or leaf- 
like parts. Sometimes used for 
Disepalous. 

DIPLAN'ETISM, the property of 
beiug twice active with an in- 
tervening period of rest. It 
occurs in the zoospores of cer- 
tain genera of Saprolegniese in 
which the zoospores escape 
without cilia from the spo- 
rangium and come to rest in a 



56 



Diploe 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Disk Flower 



cluster each forming a cell- 
wall. After some hours of 
rest the protoplasm of each 
spore escapes from its cell-wall, 
acquires cilia, and enters upon 
a period of active movement. 

DIPLOE, see Mesophyll. 

DIPLOGEN'ESlS, the duplication 
of parts normally single. 

DIPLOPERIS'TOMOUS, said of the 
capsule in mosses when the 
peristome consists of a double 
row of teeth. Compare Aplo- 

PERISTOMOUB. 

DIPLOSTEM'ONOtJS, having the 
stamens in two whorls, those 
of each whorl equal in number 
to the petals, which are in one 
whorl. Compare Isostemo- 
nous. 

DIPLOTE'GIUM (pi. Diplote'gia), 
an inferior capsule, as in Cam- 
panula. 

DIP'TEROUS, two-winged. 

DIRECTION-CELLS, see Polar 
Cells. 

DIREC'TION-COR'PUSCLES, see 
Polar Cells. 

DIRECT' METAMORPHOSIS, see 
Progressive Metamorpho- 
sis. 

DIRECT' SUPERPOSITION, the 
situation of accessory buds in 
an axil above the leading bud 
or one first formed, as is usu- 
ally the case in superposition. 
Compare Inverted Superpo- 
sition. 

DIREMP'TION, see Displace- 
ment. 

DISARTICULATE, to separate at 
an articulation or joint, as 
most leaves iu autumn. 

DISC, see Disk. 

DISCIFORM, disk-shaped; flat 
and circular. 

DISCIG'EROUS, disk-bearing, as 
the woody tissue of conifers. 



DIS'COCARP, an ascocarp in 
which the hymenium lies ex- 
posed while the asci are matur- 
ing, as in Peziza. The term 
has also been applied to fruits 
like the rose and fig, in which 
the receptacle is expanded and 
forms the main part of the 
fruit, enclosing the seeds or 
acheuia. 

DISCOID, disk-shaped; flat and 
circular; belonging to the disk, 
as the central florets in a head 
of Composite. 

DISCOID FLOWER, a head of 
flowers in Compositae in which 
each flower is tubular. 

DIS'COID MARK'ING, see Bor- 
dered Pit. 

DISCOLOR, of more than one 
color; variegated; especially 
having the two surfaces of a 
leaf differing in color, as iu the 
begonias. Compare Unicolor 
and Concolor. 

DIS'COUS, disk-shaped. 

DISCRETE', distinct; separate. 
Compare Concrete. 

DIS'CUS, see Disk. 

DISEP'ALOUS, of two sepals. 

DISK, any fiat, circular area: the 
central part of such an area or 
of any flat body as opposed to 
the border; disc. Especially 
(1) the central part of a head 
of flowers in Composite, gen- 
erally bearing tubular florets 
only; (2) the portion of the 
receptacle of a flower between 
the stamens and pistil, often 
more or less dilated and serv- 
ing as a nectary; (3) a circular 
bordered pit, as in Coniferae; 
(4) the circular adhesive base 
(retinaculum) of a pollinium. 

DISK FLORET, see Tubular 
Floret. 

DISK' FLOWER, see Tubular 
Floret. 



Disk-shaped 



A DICTIONARY 



Dorsal 



DISK'-SHAPED, flat and more or 
less circular; discoid. 

DISLOCATION, see Displace- 
ment. 

DISOPER'CULATE, having lost 
the operculum or lid. Com- 
pare Deoperculate. 

DISPLACEMENT, the situation 
of an organ out of its normal 
positiou; dislocation; diremp- 
tion. 

DISSECTED, cut deeply into 
many lobes or divisions. Com- 
pare Laciniate and Divided. 

DISSEMINATION, the natural 
dispersion of seeds. 

DISSEP'IMENT, one of the double 
walls separating the cells of a 
syucarpous ovary; septum. 
Compare False Dissepiment. 

DISSIL'IENT, dehiscing with 
elastic violence, as the pod of 
Impatience. 

DISSOCIA TION, separation. 

DISTAL, pertaining to the apex 
or outer extremity. Compare 
Proximal. 

DISTANT, having larger inter- 
vening spaces than usual. Op- 
posed to Dense or Approximat e. 

DISTICHOUS, two-ranked, as the 
leaves of grasses. Applied also 
to leaves arranged like those of 
the fir, which are turned in two 
directions, though not inserted 
oppositely in the same plane. 
In this latter sense Bifarious is 
somewhat the better term. 

DISTINCT', when parts of the 
same kind are unconnected; 
opposed to Coherent. Com- 
pare Free. 

DISTRAC'TILE, widely separated. 
Applied mainly to anthers in 
which the connective is devel- 
oped so as to keep the lobes 
wide apart, as in Salvia. 

DITRI€HOT'OMOUS, dividing into 
two or three branches. 



DIUR'NAL, said of flowers which 
open in the day and close at 
night. 

DIUR'NAL SLEEP, see Parahe- 

LIOTROPISM. 

DIVARICATE, diverging at a 
wide angle. 

DIVERGENCE, see Angle of 
Divergence. 

DIVERSiFLO'ROtJS, having flow- 
ers of two or more forms. 

DIVID'ED, having incisions ex- 
tending to the midrib. Com- 
pare Cleft and Parted. 

DODECAg'YNOUS, having twelve 
pistils. 

DODECAM'EROUS, having the 
floral organs in twelves; 12- 
merous. 

DODECAN'DROUS, having twelve 
stamens. 

DODECAPET'ALOUS, having 
twelve petals. 

DOLAB RIFORM, having the form 
of an axe or hatchet, as the 
leaves of Mesembryanthemum 
dolabriforme. 

DOMESTICATED, introduced 
and found to thrive and repro- 
duce itself under cultivation. 
It does not necessarily imply 
any change of character. 

DORMANT BUD, one which is 
poorly developed and which 
under ordinary circumstances 
will not grow into a branch. 
Often the first-formed buds on 
a season's growth are of this 
character; latent bud. 

DOR'MANT STATE, the condition 
of a living plant during win- 
ter, or other definite period of 
cessation from active growth; 
latent period. 

DOR SAL, pertaining to the back, 
or situated upon the back. The 
dorsal surface of a leaf or other 
foliar organ is the anterior, 



58 



Dorsal Suture 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Duramen 



outer, or normally lower sur- 
face. Some botanists, how- 
ever, apply the term dorsal to 
the upper surface. Compare 
Ventral. 

DORSAL SU'TURE, one situated 
at the midrib of the carpellary 
leaf. 

DORSiCUM'BENT, see Supine. 

DORSIFEROUS, bearing the fruit 
upon the back, as the spores of 
many ferns; dorsi parous. 

DORSIP'AROUS, see Dorsifer- 
ous. 

DORSIVEN'TRAL, having a dis- 
tinct front and back, as leaves. 

DOR' SUM, the back of any organ: 
the outer or lower surface of 
leaves or parts of a fJovver. 
See also Dorsal. 

DOR'TY, (Hort.), delicate; diffi- 
cult to cultivate. (Rare.) 

DdT'TED, see Punctate 

DOTTED DUCT, see Pitted 
Vessel. 

DOUB'LE, having more than one 
whorl of petals. A flower is 
completely double when all 
the essential organs are re- 
placed by petals. 

DOUB'LY-COM'FOUND, twice 
compound, as bipinnate or 
bipalmate. 

DOUB'LY-CRE'NATE, having the 
crenatures or teeth of a cre- 
nate leaf again crenate. 

DOUB'LY-DEN'TATE, having the 
teeth of a dentate leaf dentate. 
Compare Bidentate. 

DOUB'LY-PIN'NATE, see Bipin- 
nate. 

DOUBLY-SERRATE, having 
small serratures upon the large 
ones, as in the elm. Compare 

BlSERRATE. 

DOUB'LY-TER'NATE, see Bi- 

TERNATE. 



DOUBLY-TOOTHED, having the 
teeth themselves toothed, as in 
Doubly-dentate. 

DOWN, soft short pubescence. 

DOWN'Y, having a dense cover- 
ing of short weak hairs. 

DRAWN, elongated by absence of 
light, as plants which are 
crowded together. 

DREP'ANIFORM, see Falcate. 

DROOPING, inclining downward 
more than ceruous and less 
than pendent or pendulous. 

DRUPACEOUS, like, or pertain- 
ing to, a drupe; producing 
drupes, as drupaceous trees. 

DRUPE, a stone-fruit, as the 
peach, almond, and cherry. 
It consists of one carpel, with 
usually a single seed surround- 
ed by a thickened bony endo- 
carp called the pit or stone. 

DRU'PEL, a very small drupe, as 
the so-called seeds of the black- 
berry. 

DRUPELET, see Drupel. 

DU'BIOUS, doubtful. 

DUCT, see Vessel. 

DUL'CIS, devoid of acidity; 
sweet. 

DUMOSE , having the form of a 
bush or low compact shrub. 

DU'MUS, see Busu. 

DU'PLICATE, doubled or folded. 

DU'PLICATE-CRE'NATE, see 

DOUBLY-CRENATE. 

DU'PLICATE-DEN'TATE, see 
Doubly-dentate. 

DU'PLICATE SERRATE, see 
Doubly-serrate. 

DURA'MEN, heart-wood; the cen- 
tral portion of the trunk of 
most exogens, consisting of 
wood cf darker color and 
denser texture than the outer 
newer layers, and possessing 



59 



Dwarf 



A DICTIONARY 



Egg-apparatus 



the characteristic color of the 
species. 
DWARF, habitually attaining 
much less than 'the ordinary 
size of related species or vari- 
eties; nanus. Compare Hu- 
milis and Depauperate. 

DWARF MALES, very small indi- 
viduals in CEdogonieae, origi- 
nating from special swarm- 
spores called androspores, and 
producing only antherozoids, 

DYAS'TER, a stage of karyokine- 
sis succeeding the monaster or 
mother-star stage and ending 
with the formation of the 
daughter-skeins. During this 
stage the chromatic filaments 
are grouped about the poles, 
the two groups (asters) being 
more or less united by the 
spindle fibres or conjunctive 
threads. See Daughter-star. 

E- or £X-, a prefix meaning des- 
titute of, outside of, or' away 
from. 

EAR, a prominent lobe, as those 
at the base of the leaf in sorrel 
(Rumex acetocella). 

EARED, see Auriculate. 

EBE'NEOUS, black like ebony. 

EBRAC'TEATE, without bracts. 

EBUR'NEOUS, ivory-white. 

ECAL'CArATE, without, a spur. 

ECAU'DATE, without a tail or 
tail-like appendage. 

ECBLASTE'SIS, the production of 
buds within a flower in conse- 
quence of lateral prolitication. 

ECCENTRIC, out of the centre or 
axis; not having the same cen- 
tre; when the centre or axis of 
growth does not coincide with 
that of the mass, as in most 
starch-grains, or in trees which 
develop more rapidly on one 
side than on the other. 



ECH'InATE, spiny or prickly. 

ECHlN'ULATE, diminutive of 
Echinate; having small 
prickles. 

ECID'ltJM, see ^Ecidium. 

ECONOMIC BOTANY, the classi- 
fication of useful and injurious 
plants, and the study of all 
botanical questions having a 
practical bearing. See Agri- 
cultural Botany. 

ECOS'TATE, without a rib. 

ECTOGE'NIC, capable of living 
outside of an animal body. 
Said of certain disease-pro- 
ducing organisms, as the ba- 
cillus of anthrax. 

ECTOPLASM, a hyaline layer of 
protoplasm free from granules 
next to the cell-wall; hyalo- 
plasm. 

flC'TOSPORE, see Basidiospore. 

ECTOSPO'ROUS, see Exosporous. 

ECTOTHE'CAL, gymnoearpous, 
as applied to Ascomycetes. 
(Rare. ) 

EDEN'TATE, without teeth, as 
an entire leaf. 

EDGED, see Marginate. 

EFFETE', exhausted; no longer 
productive or fruitful; past 
the bearing age. 

EFFLORES'CENCE, the time or 
act of flowering. 

EFFUSE', spreading loosely, 
especially on one side, as the 
panicle of Juncus effusus. 
Compare Diffuse and Se- 
cund. 

EGG-APPARATUS, a group of 
three nucleated bodies at the 
upper end of the embryo-sac, 
which together with the upper 
polar nucleus correspond with 
the antipodal cells. The cen- 
tral deeper cell of the egg-ap- 
paratus becomes the oosphere, 
the others form the elongated 
60 



Egg cell 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Embryo Nodule 



synergidae; germinal appa- 
ratus. 

EGG CELL, see Oospheke. 

EFUL'CRATE, said of buds from 
below which the leaf has 
fallen. (Rare.) 
EGLANDULOSE, without glands. 

EGRET, see Aigret. 
EIS'ODAL, anterior. Applied to 
the outer or anterior part of 
the opening of a stoma. Com- 
pare Opisthodal. 

EJEC TION, throwing out with 
force, as spores from a sporan- 
gium or seeds from a pod. 
Compare Abjection. 

ELABORATION, a term applied 
to the changes which take 
place in plant-food after it is 
absorbed, to prepare it for the 
use of the plant. Compare 
Assimilation and Metasta- 
sis. 

EL'ATER, a term for various 
elastic, usually spiral, bodies 
which serve for the dispersion 
of spores, as those in the cap 
sules of mosses and liverworts 
and those attached to the spores 
of Equisetum. 

ELATE'RitJM, a term sometimes 
applied to fruits which dis- 
charge their seeds by means of 
elastic carpels, as in certain 
Euphorbias; regma. 

ELEUTHEROPET 7 ALOUS, see 
Apopetalous. 

ELEtJTHEROPHYL'LOUS, s e 3 
Apophyllous. 

ELEtJTHEROSEP'ALOUS, see 
Aposepalous. 

ELLIPSOIDAL, nearly elliptical 
in outline. 

ELLIPTICAL, oblong, and 
rounded at the ends; longer 
than oval. 

ELLIP'TIC-LAn'CEOLATE, inter- 
mediate between elliptical and | 



lanceolate, but approaching the 
latter. 

ELOC'tJLAR, see Unilocular. 

ELONGATED, exceeding the 
usual or average length. 

ELYT'RIFORM, resembling the 
wing-cover of a beetle; ely- 
troid. 

EMARCID, flaccid; wilted. 
(Obs.) 

EMAR'GINATE, notched at the 
end. Sometimes applied to 
organs which are notched at 
other places, as to the gills of 
mushrooms when notched or 
cut out before reaching the 
stem. 

EMBOSSED , see Umbonate. 

EMBRACING, clasping by a 
broad surface. Compare Am- 
plectant and Sheathing. 

EM'BRYO, the rudimentary plant 
within the seed. 

EMBRYO-BUD, a rudimentary 
bud, especially if adventitious. 

EM'BRYO-CELL, see Oospheke. 

EMBRYOGEN'IC, pertaining to 
the development of an embryo. 

EMBRYdG'ENY, embryo-forma- 
tion. 

EMBRYOLOGY, the study of the 
embryo and its development. 

EM'ERYONAL CELL, see Oo- 

SPHERE. 

EM'BRYONAL VES'ICLE, see 
Oospheke. 

EM'BRYONATE, having an em- 
bryo. 

EMBRYON'IC, in an early unde- 
veloped condition; rudiment- 
ary. 

EM'BRYO NODULE, a term ap- 
plied to small knots, frequently 
about the size of a pea, found 
beneath the bark in certain 
trees, and sometimes containing 
one or more rudimentary buds. 



01 



Embryonic Sac 



A DICTIONARY 



Endogenous 



EMBRYdN'IC SAC, see Embryo- 
sac. 
EMBRYdN'IC VESICLE, see 

OOSPHERE. 

JSM'BRYO-SAC, a large cell in the 
nucleus of the ovule within 
which the germinal vesicles or 
oospheres (one or more) are 
produced, and which finally 
contains the embryo. Com- 
pare Central Cell. 

EMBRY6TEGIA (pi.), see Em- 

BRYOTEGIIM. 

EMBRYOTE'GIUM (pi. Embryo- 
te'gia), a small cap covering 
the micropyle in certain seeds, 
as asparagus, and detached by 
the radicle in germination. 

EMERGENCIES, a term applied 
to outgrowths of various kinds 
derived from the fundamental 
tissue below the epidermis, and 
covered by the latter, as the 
prickles of the rose. 

EMERGENT, protruding through 
or elevated above surrounding 
parts. 

EMERSED', raised out of water. 

EMPALE'MENT, an old term for 
calyx. 

EMP'TY GLUMES, one, two, or 
more bracts or scales subtend- 
ing a spikelet in grasses, and 
enclosing one or more flowers; 
outer glumes. Formerly called 
merely glumes. Compare 
Flowering Glume. 

ENAnTIOBLAS'TIC, a term some- 
times applied to the embryo of 
o.-thotropous seeds. Compare 

HoMOBLASTIC. 

ENA'TION, having outgrowths or 
excrescences the result of ex- 
cessive development, as scales 
upon petals. Compare Cho- 
risis. 

£N€HYLE'MA, the unorganized 
proteids in living cells, asaleu- 
rone grains. (Hanstein.) 



ENCYS'TED, enclosed in a cyst 
or sac. Applied, for example, 
to a stage of growth in Proto- 
coccaceoe in which the indi- 
vidual exists as a free cell with 
a cell-wall, but destitute of 
cilia. 

flNDECAG'YNOUS, having eleven 
pistils or styles. 

flNDECAN'DROUS, having eleven 
stamens. 

ENDECAPHYL'LOUS, said of a 
leaf containing eleven leaflets. 

ENDflM'IC, occurring in the one 
limited locality or region only. 
Compare Sporadic. 

ENDOBASID IUM, an enclosed 
basidium, as in Gasteromy- 
cetes. 

EN'DOCARP, the inner layer of a 
pericarp, particularly if de- 
veloped in a special manner, 
as the pit of a peach or core of 
an apple. 

ENDOCHROME, coloring matter 
in cells, or colored cell-con- 
tents aside from chlorophyll — 
used mainly in algoe. Often 
applied to the entire cell-con- 
tents of algae, and sometimes 
to colored cell-contents in 
other plants, but less used 
now than formerly. 

ENDODER'MIS, a layer, of one or 
more cells in thickness, which 
forms the inner boundary of 
the cortex and surrounds the 
fibrovascular cylinder. 

ENDOGENOUS, produced within 
another body. Applied also 
to the stems of monocotyle- 
dons and their maimer of 
growth, which was formerly 
supposed to take place chiefly 
at or near the centre. 

ENDOGENOUS CELL-FORMA- 
TION, see Free* Cell- forma- 
tion. 



62 



Endogonidium OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Entozoic 



fiNDOGONID'IUM, a gouidium 

formed within a receptacle, 
as in the sporangium of Mu- 
corini. 

ENDOPERID'IUM, the inner 
peridium when there are more 
than one, as in Geaster. 

ENDOPHLffi'UM, inner bark; li- 
ber. See Bast. 

ENDOPHYL'LOUS, enclosed in a 
leaf or sheath, as the young 
leaves of monocotyledons. 

EN'DOPHYTAL, growing within 
other plants; entophytal. 

EN'DOPHYTE, a plant which 
grows within another, either 
parasitic upon it or not; euto- 
phyte. 

flN'DOPLASM, the internal gran- 
ular portion of the protoplasm; 
when distinguished from an 
outer layer free from granules 
called Ectoplasm. 

£NDOPLEu"RA, see Tegmex. 

END6PTILE, an old term ap- 
plied to the plumule of endo- 
gens. 

ENDORHI'ZA (pi. Endorhi'zae), 
an old term for eudogen. 

ENDORHI'ZAL, said of an embryo 
in which the radicle is sheathed 
by the cotyledons wrapped 
around it. Applied also to 
the method of germination iu 
eudogens. 

ENDORHI ZOTJS, see Exdorhi- 
zal. 

EN'DOSMOSE, an inward current 
established between fluids of 
different densities when sepa- 
rated by an animal or vegeta- 
ble membrane; eudosmosis. 
The absorption of moisture by 
roots is due to eudosmose. See 
Osmose. 

ENDOSMO'SIS, see Endosmose. 

ENDOSPERM, the albumen of 
the seed, especially when 



formed in the embryo-sac. 
Compare Perisperm. 

EN DOSPORE, the inner coat of a 
spore. 

EN'DOSTOME, the orifice of the 
inner coat of the ovule, i.e., the 
inner portion of the foramen. 
Compare Exostome. 

ENDOTHELIUM, the lining (ta- 
petum) of an anther cell, con- 
sisting of one or more layers 
within the exothecium. 

ENDOZO'IC, living inside an ani- 
mal; entozoic. 

ENNEAG'YNOUS, having nine 
pistils or styles. 

ENNEANDRlAN, see Exneax- 
DROUS. 

ENNEAN'DROUS, having nine 
stamens. 

ENNEAPET'ALOtJS, having nine 
petals. 

ENNEASEPALOUS, having nine 
sepals. 

ENNEASPER'MOUS, nine-seeded. 

ENO DAL, without nodes. 

EN'SATE, see Exsiform. 

EN'SIFORM, sword - shaped ; 
straight, or nearly so. two- 
edged, and tapering very grad- 
ually from base to apex, as 
the leaves of iris; gladiate. 

ENTIRE', having margins desti- 
tute of teeth or notches. 

ENTOMOG'ENOUS, growing upon 
insects, as certain fungi; ento- 
mophytous. 

ENTOMOPH'ILOUS, adapted to 
pollination by insects. 

ENTOMOPH'YTOUS, see Exto- 

MOGEXOTJS. 

ENTOPArASITE, a parasite liv- 
ing entirely within its host. 

EN'TOPHYTAL, see Exdophy- 
tal. 

EN'TOPHYTE, see Endophyte. 

ENTOZO'IC, see E.ndozoic. 



63 



Envelope-apparatus A DICTIONARY 



Epigone 



EN'VELOPE-APPARA'TtJS, all of 

the ascocarp except the ascus- 
apparatus. 

EPAN'ODY, a general term for 
reversion from an irregular to 
a regular condition. In flow- 
ers it is termed " regular pe- 
loria." 

EPAN'THOUS, growing upon 
flowers, as certain fungi. 

EP'EN, see Epenciiyma. 

EPEN'€HYMA, cambium, and all 
tissue arising from it. (Nit- 
geli.) Compare Proten- 
chyma. 

EPHEMERAL, lasting but a day 
or a very short time, as the 
corolla of purslane. 

EP'IBLAST, a term applied to a 
small scale-like appendage in 
front of the embryo and oppo- 
site the scutellum in the seeds 
of rice and many other grasses. 
(F. L. Scribner.) 

EPIBLE'MA, a collective name 
for the epidermal cells of a 
young organ, especially a root, 
including the root-hairs. (Obs. ) 
See Epidermis and Dermat- 
ogen. 

EPICA'LYX, an involucre re- 
sembling an exterior calyx, as 
in mallow. 

EP ICARP, the outer layer of a 
pericarp. 

£P'I€HIL, see Epichilium. 

EP'I€HILE, see Epichilium. 

EPICHIL itJM, the upper or dis- 
tal portion of the labellum of 
an orchid, when especially dif- 
ferent from the lower or basal 
portion. Compare Hypo- 
chilium. 

EPICLI'NAL, seated upon the 
receptacle. 

flPICOR'MIC, applied to side 
branches which develop on 
the body of a forest tree from 



which surrounding trees have 
been removed. 

EPICOROL'LINE, upon the co- 
rolla. 

EPICOT'YL, the portion of a 
young stem between the coty- 
ledons and the lowest true 
leaves. Compare Caulicle. 

EP'IDERM, see Epidermis. 

EPiDER'MAL, pertaining to the 
epidermis. 

EPIDER'MIS, the external layer 
of cells in a plant. Compare 
Cuticle and Dermatogen. 

EPIDERMOI'DAL LAYER, a 

term sometimes applied to an 
outer layer of cortical cells 
bordering on the epidermis. 

EPIG.ffi'AN, upon or above 
ground; growing on land in 
distinction from water; grow- 
ing close to the earth, as some 
leaves; rising above ground 
instead of remaining beneath, 
as the cotyledons of beans; 
epigreous. 

EPIGE'AL, see Epig^ean. 

EPIGEN'ESIS, (1) originating 
upon another body; (2) the 
theory that the embryo is the 
joint product of both sexes, 
as distinguished either from 
the doctrine that the male 
parent furnishes the germ and 
the female simply the nidus or 
resting-place in which it is 
nourished, or from the theory 
that the female furnishes the 
germ which is merely quick- 
ened by the influence of the 
male. Seldom used in botany. 

EPIG'ENOtJS, growing upon the 
surface or on the upper sur- 
face, as a fungus on its host. 
Compare Hypogenous and 
Edogenous. 

EPIGE'OtJS, see Epig^ean. 

EP'IGONE, see Epigonium. 



64 



Epigonium 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. Equatorial Plane 



EPIGO'NIUM, the archegonium 

iu mosses after the capsule has 
developed. It is frequently 
ruptured, a part being carried 
up to form the calyptra, aud a 
part remaining at the base of 
the sporangium or its stalk, as 
the vaginule. Also an homol- 
ogous sac enclosing the young 
sporangium iu Hepaticre. 

EPIG'YNOtJS, growing upon the 
ovary. 

EPINAS'TIC, denoting curvature 
resulting from growth on the 
upper side of au organ making- 
it curve downward. Com- 
pare Hyponastic. 

EP'INASTY, that state of a grow- 
ing dorsi-ventral organ in 
which the upper surface grows 
more rapidly than the lower. 

EPIPET'ALOtJS, upon the corolla. 

EPIPHLCE'ODAL, upon the epi- 
dermis or outer surface. Com- 
pare Hypophlceodal. 

EPIPHLffi'tJM, see Corky Layer. 

flP'IPHRAGM, a membrane clos- 
ing the month of the capsule 
iu mosses; also a delicate mem- 
brane closing the cup-like spo- 
rophore in Nidularia. 

EPIPHYL'LOtJS, growing or in- 
serted upon a leaf, or upon the 
upper side. Compare Hypo- 

PHYLLOUS. 

EPIPHYTAL, see Epiphytic. 

EPIPHYTE, a plant growing 
upon another but not nour- 
ished by it ; air-plant. Com- 
pare Parasite. 

Epiphytic, growing upon 

another plant but not nour- 
ished by it; epiphytal; pseudo- 
parasitic. 
EPIPHYTOT'IC, a term applied 
by Erwin F. Smith to any 
wide-spreading disease among 
plants, corresponding to an 



epidemic among men or an 
epizootic among animals. 

ER'IPLASM, protoplasm which 
remains in an ascus or other 
unicellular sporangium after 
the formation of the spores. 

EPIP'TEROUS, winged at the 
apex. 

EPIRRHEOLOGY. the portion of 
physiological botany which 
treats of the effects of ex- 
ternal agents on living plants. 
(Rare.) 

EPIRRHI'ZOtJS, growing upon 
roots. 

EP'ISPERM, the seed-coat, espe 
cially the outer coat or testa. 

EPiSPORAN'GiUM, an old term 
for indusium. 

EP'ISPORE, the outer coat of a 
spore; exospore. 

EPIS'TROPHE, said of chloro- 
phyl-bodies when they take 
their position along the outer 
wall of the cell, usually when 
the light is of medium inten- 
sity. Compare Apostrophe 
and Systrophe. 

EPITHAL'LINE, growing upon 
the thallus. 

EPITHE'LIUM, any distinct layer 
of one or more cells in thick- 
ness bounding an internal cav- 
ity. Formerly applied also to 
delicate epidermis of rootlets 
and other external parts. 

EPIX'YLOUS, growing upon 
wood, as many fungi. 

EPIZO'IC, growing upon living 
animals, either parasitic or not. 

E QUAL, symmetrical ; regular ; 
of the same number ; like 
another iu all respects, or in 
length. 

E'QUALLY - PIN'NATE, see 

Abruptly-pinnate. 

EQUATORIAL PLANE, the plane 
which passes through the equa- 



65 



Equilateral 



A DICTIONARY 



E valvular 



tonal plate (mother-star) of 
the cell-nucleus, or between 
the parts when the plate has 
divided, and which occupies 
the position of the future cell- 
wall. It is the plane of cell- 
division. 

EQUATORIAL PLATE, see 

MOTHER-STAR. 

EQUIL AT'ER AL, equal - sided ; 
opposed to Oblique. 

EQUINOCTIAL, said of flowers 
which open and close at par- 
ticular hours of the day. 

EQ'UITANT, having the leaves so 
arranged that the base of each 
is enclosed within the opposite 
base of that which is next 
below it, as in the iris. Com- 
pare Half-equitant. 

EQUiVAL'VULAR, having the 
valves of a capsule all of the 
same size. 

EQUIVOCAL GENERATION, see 

Spontaneous Generation. 

ERADIC'ULOSE, without rootlets 
or rhizoids. 

ERECT', perpendicular, or nearly 
so, to the surface to which it 
is attached; standing without 
support, not weak or lax. 
Compare Strict. Applied to 
ovules or seeds it means grow- 
ing vertically from the base of 
the ovary. Compare Ascend- 
ing and Inverted. 

ERECTOPAt'ENT, intermediate 
between erect and spreading. 

ERE'MOBLAST, a unicellular 
plant. (Sachs.) 

ERlAN'THOUS, woolly-flowered. 

SRICA'gEOUS, heath-like. 

CRICOID, ericaceous. Said of a 
subulate form of leaves often 
fouud upon the juniper. 

JlRIOPHYL'LOUS, woolly-leaved. 

ERODED, see Erose. 



EROSE', having irregular sinuses 
as if bitten out; eroded. 

EROS'TRATE, without a beak. 

ERUM'PENT, breaking out, as 
the spore clusters of some fungi 
through the epidermis of their 
host. 

ERYTH'ROPHYL, red coloring 
matter in plants. 

ES'CULENT, used for food by 
man. 

ESEP'TATE, without septa. 

ESOTER'IC, originating within 
the organism. Compare Ex- 
oteric. 

ESSEN'TIAL CHARACTER, a 
feature which distinguishes a 
plant or group of plants from 
all others; diagnostic charac- 
ter. 

ESSEN'TIAL OR'GANS, stamens 
and pistils. 

ESTI'VAL, pertaining to summer; 
sestival. 

ES'TIVATE, to pass the summer 
in a dormant condition. Com- 
pare Hibernate. 

ESTlVA'TION, (1) the arrange- 
ment of the floral organs in 
the bud — usually written yEsti- 
vation; (2) passing the sum- 
mer in a dormant condition. 

ET-E'RIO, a term sometimes ap- 
plied to such fruits as the rasp- 
berry and blackberry. 

ETIOLATED, blanched by exclu- 
sion of light. Compare Chlo- 
rosis. 

EUCYC'LIC, applied by Braun to 
flowers having the members in 
each whorl equal in number 
and alternating with those in 
an adjoining whorl. 

EU'PHYLL, an ordinary foliage- 
leaf. See Phyllome. 

EUTROP'IC, twining or turning 
with the sun; dextrorse. 

EVAL V'ULAR, without valves. 



66 



Evanescent 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Exogynous 



EVANES'CENT, (1) soon passing 
away; (2) applied to veins 
which disappear before reach- 
ing the margin of the leaf. 

EVEN PIN'NATE, see Abruptly- 
pinnate. 

EVERGREEN, having green 
leaves throughout the year, as 
most Coniferse. 

EVERLASTING FLOWERS, see 
Immortelles. 

EVER'NLZEFORM, resembling the 
thallus of the lichen Evernia. 

EVER'SION, the protrusion of a 
part which is generally pro- 
duced in a cavity. 

EVERT/ED, turned inside out. 

EVIDENT, distinctly visible. 

EVIT'TATE, without vitta?, which 
see. 

EVOLU'TION, the act of unfold- 
ing or unrolling; hence growth 
or development, especially the 
supposed development through 
successive generations of the 
higher from lower or simpler 
forms of life, both in animals 
and plants. 

EXALBU'MlNOUS, having the 
nutriment in the seed all stored 
in the cotyledons. 

EXAN'NtJLATE, without an 
aunulus. 

EXAR'ILLATE, without an aril. 

ilXAs'PERATE, covered with 
short hard points; muricate. 

EXgEN'TRIC, out of the centre; 
abaxial. An embryo is excen- 
trie when it lies within the 
albumen, but not in the centre 
of it, as in asparagus; the trunk 
of a tree is excentric when de- 
veloped more on one side of 
the heart than on the other. 

EX'CIPLE, see Excifulum. 

EX'giPtJLE, see Excipulum. 

EXCiP'tJLUM, the portion of the 
thallus supporting or surround- 

67 



ing the apothecium in lichens. 
In some cases the excipulum 
is an outer rim of the perithe- 
cium itself, and is then termed 
a " proper" excipulum. 
EXCITABILITY, the general 
faculty, characteristic of living 
bodies, of being influenced by 
external stimuli. Compare 
Irkitability. 

EXCRES'CENT, growing out in a 
morbid or unnatural manner, 
as a wart or tumor; superflu- 
ous. 

EXCRE'TION, the separation of 
unassimilable matter from an 
organism. Compare Secre- 
tion. 

EXCUR'RENT, projecting beyond 
the usual limit, or to the ex- 
treme summit or apex. 

EXFOLIATE, to cast off layers or 
plates, as the bark of s3'camore. 

EXHALATION, see Transpira- 
tion. 

EXIG'tJOtJS, small or slender. 
See Gracile. 

EX'INE, see Extine. 

EXIN'TINE, a term applied by 
Fritsche to a third coat ob- 
served by him in the coveriug 
of certain pollen-grains be- 
tween the inline and a second 
coat called by him the intex- 
ine. The terms Intexine and 
Exintine are not in ordinary 
use and do not represent any 
constant recognized structures. 

EX'OCARP, the outer layer of a 
pericarp. 

EXOGENOUS, growing by addi- 
tion to the outside, or spring- 
ing from the exterior tissues. 
Applied also to the manner of 
growth of the stem in ordinary 
trees (dicotyledons and gymno- 
sperms). 

EXOGYNOUS, having the style 
exserted beyond the corolla. 



Excperidium 



A DICTIONARY 



Facies 



flXOPERID IUM, the outer perid- 

ium when there are more than 

one, as in Geaster. 
EXORHI'ZA (pi. Exorhfzae), an 

old term for exogeu. Compare 

Endoiuiiza 

EXORHI'ZAL, the manner in 
which the radicle of dicotyle- 
dons is developed in germina 
tion. (Rare.) 

EXOSMOSE, the passage of gases 
or liquids through a closed 
membrane from within out- 
ward, or from the denser to the 
rarer fluid in the process of 
osmose. 

EX'OSPORE, see Epispore. 

EXOSPO'RIUM, see Epispoke. 

EX'OSTOME, the orifice in the 
outer coal of an ovule or seed, 
which with the endostome 
forms the foramen. 

fiXOSTO'SIS, any indurated pro- 
tuberance. 

EXOTER'IC, having its cause or 
origin outside the organism. 
Compare Esoteric. 

flXOTHE'ClfjM, the outer coat or 
epidermis of an anther. Com- 
pare Endothecium. 

EXOTIC, introduced from a for- 
eign country. 

EX'PLANATE, spread or flattened 
out. Applied to a part usually 
rolled or folded. Compare 
Complanate. 

flXSERT'ED, protruding beyond 
the margin of a receptacle, as 
stamens beyond the corolla, or 
a panicle of a grass above the 
leaf-sheath. 

EXSICCA'TA (pi. Exsicca'tae), a 
dried herbarium specimen; 
exsiccate. 

EXSICCATE, see Exsiccata. 

EX'SICCATED, dried; especially, 
collected and dried for preser- 
vation as a botanical specimen. 



EXSTTP'ULATE,without stipules. 

fiXSUC'COUS, destitute of juice. 

EXTERIOR, wheu applied to the 
parts of a flower, means the 
same as Anterioi, i.e., the side 
away from the axis; lower ; 
outer. 

EX'TINE, the outer coat of a 
pollen -grain. (E x i u e of 
Schacht.) Compare Intine. 

extra -Axillary, situated 

out of the axil. 

EXTRACELLULAR, outside of 
a cell. 

EX'TRA FOLIA CEOtJS, not situ- 
ated upon or near the leaves, 
as extra-foliaceous prickles. 

EXTRAvAG'INAL, applied to 
branches in grasses which in 
growth burst through the base 
of the subtending sheath. 
Compare Intka vaginal. 

EXTRORSE', applied to anthers 
the lobes of which are situated 
on the outside of the filament 
or connective, i.e , on the side 
farthest removed from the pis- 
til. Such anthers generally 
dehisce on the outside also. 

EXtJNGUIC'tJLATE, without an 
unguis or claw, as most petals. 

ExtJ'VLffi, anything excreted or 
cast off. (Rare.) 

EYE (Hort.), a bud on a tuber; 
the cavity enclosed by the calyx 
in the apple; the ostiolum or 
opening in the apex of a fig; 
any conspicuous central spot 
in a flower or petal, including 
the disk in Composite. 

FACE, the upper, inner, or free 

surface of an organ as opposed 

to the back. 
FA'CIES, the general aspect of a 

plan t. (Obs. ) Compare 

Habit. 



68 



Facultative 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Fascicle 



FACULTATIVE, occasional; in- 
cidental. Compare Obligate. 

FACULTATIVE PARASITE, a 
plant (usually a saporophytic 

fungus) capable of passing 
through at least certain stages 
of its development as a para- 
site, but which does uot always 
or necessarily do so. 

FACULTATIVE SAP'ROPHlTE, a 
plant (usually applied to para- 
sitic fungi) which is capable of 
living as a saprophyte during 
the whole or a part of its life. 

F.ECULA, see Fecula. 

FALCATE, scythe - shaped, or 
sickle-shaped. Compare Unci- 
nate. 

FAL'ClFORM, see Falcate. 

FALSE, similar in appearance, 
but different in structure or 
origin; spurious. The same 
as the Greek pseudo-. 

FALSE DICHOTOMY, any dichot- 
omous appearance which does 
not arise from a terminal divi- 
sion of the main axis, as a 
dichasium. 

FALSE DISSEPIMENT, one of 
the additional partitions in 
certain fruits which is not 
formed by the edges of car- 
pels. False dissepiments fre- 
quently proceed from the 
dorsal suture. 

FALSE INDUSlUM, a recurved 
margin of the frond in ferns 
covering the sporangia, as in 
the genus Pteris. 

FALSE RACEME', see Helicoid 
Cyme. 

FALSE PAREN'CHYMA, see 

PSEUDOPARENCHYMA. 

FAM'ILY, the same as Order, 
which see, and in more fa- 
miliar use. The term is also 
employed, especially among 
cryptogams, to indicate groups 
lower than the order. In hor- 

69 



ticulture it is sometimes used 
to indicate groups of related 
varieties, as the Duchess fam- 
ily among apples. 

FAN'-SHAPED, like a fan in out- 
liue, especially if also plaited; 
fhibelliform; flabellate. 

FAN'-VEINED, see Palmately- 

VEINED. 

FARCTATE, without vacuities; 
stuffed; obstructed; infarctate; 
infarcted; opposed especially 
to ristulose. Seldom used, the 
word solid or turgid being 
nearly always preferable. See 
Stuffed. 

FARI'NA, starch. Formerly ap- 
plied also to pollen. 

FARINACEOUS, containing 
starch, or of the texture of 
meal or flour. 

FAR'INOSE, covered with a white 
mealy powder. 

FAR'INOSE, u., a supposititious 
cellulose substance in starch- 
grains, which is not colored 
blue by iodine. Compare 
Granulose. 

FAS'ClA [fdsh-i-d] (pi. Fasciae), 
a cross-baud, especially of 
color. (Rare.) 

FAS'CIATED, (1) having broad 
parallel bands or stripes; 
(2) exhibiting fasciation, which 
see. 

FASCIA'TION, a monstrous flat- 
tened expansion of the stem, 
as in the garden cockscomb 
(Celosia). 

FASCICLE, a bundle, as the 
clustered leaves on the dor- 
mant branches or spurs of the 
larch; a bundle of tuberous 
roots, as in the dahlia; a fibro- 
vascular bundle, especially if 
rudimentary; a close cyme, as 
in sweet-william; a bundle of 
herbarium specimens. 



Fascicled 



A DICTIONARY 



Fibre 



FASCICLED, growing in tufts or 
clusters; fascicular; fascicu- 
lated. 

FASCICULAR, see Fascicled. 

FASCICULAR SYS'TEM, see 

FlBROVASCULAR SYSTEM. 

FASCICULAR TIS'SUE, see Fi- 

BROVA8CULAR TISSUE. 

FASCICULATE, see Fascicled. 

FASCICULATED, see Fascicled. 

FASCIC ULUS (pi. Fascic'ull), a 
dense cymose inflorescence, as 
in sweet-william; fascicle. 

FASTIG'lATE, having t h e 
branches close, parallel, and 
upright, as in Lombardy pop- 
lar. Sometimes erroneously 
used for flat-topped. 

FAUX (pi. Fauces), the throat or 
orifice of a gamopetalous or 
gamosepalous flower. 

FAVEL'LA (pi. Favel'lae), a form 
of sporocarp in Florideae, con- 
sisting of an irregular mass of 
spores embedded in more or 
less gelatinous material and 
without a distinct conceptacle. 
It may be seated upon the 
frond or more or less embedded 
in it, and is derived from one 
or from several contiguous 
cells. In the latter case, and 
also when embedded in the 
frond, it was formerly called 
a favellidium. 

FAVE'OLATE, see Alveolate. 

FA VOSE', see Alveolate. 

FEATHER-VEINED, see PiN- 

NATELY- VEINED. 

FEATH'ERY, see Plumose. 

FECULA, any powdery farina- 
ceous matter. 

FECULENT, muddy; thick with 
sediment. 

FECUND A' TION, see Fertiliza- 
tion. 

FECUNDITY, fertility; fruitf ill- 
ness. 



FEED'ER, an outgrowth of the 
hypocotyl in the embryo of 
some genera of Gnetaceoe 
which serves for the absorp- 
tion of the endosperm. 

FELT'ED-TIS'SUE, hyphal tissue 
in which the filamentous cells 
are not regularly united, as in 
phen ogams, but cross one 
another irregularly, and are 
often more or less grown to- 
gether; telacontexta; spurious 
tissue. In its more consoli- 
dated forms it is known as 
pseudo-parenchyma. 

FE'MALE FLOWER, one having 
pistils only; pistillate flower. 

FENES'TRATE, having rather 
large openings like windows. 

FERAL, see Wild. 

FERRU'G-INOUS, resembling iron- 
rust ; brownish - red. For 
synonyms see Rubiginose. 

FER'TILE, producing fruit, or 
reproductive bodies of any 
kind; having pistillate or per- 
fect flowers. 

FERTILIZATION, the process by 
which the pollen causes the 
ovule to develop as a seed. It 
is the essential feature of sex- 
ual reproduction of every kind, 
being the union of the male 
and "female reproductive bod- 
ies. In some cases, and per- 
haps always, it consists in the 
coalescence of the nuclei of 
two cells of different nature 
and origin; fecundation; im- 
pregnation. See Conjuga- 
tion. 

FEU'lLLEMdRT, of the color of 
a faded leaf; filemot. (Rare.) 

FI'BER, see Fibre. 

FI'BRE, any slender thread-like 
body of considerable strength; 
especially: (1) the slender fusi- 
form cells of the inner bark, 
known as bast; (2) small slen- 



:o 



Fibril 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Fimbria 



der roots like those of grasses. 
Also applied to bodies of simi 
lar form which have no special 
strength, as the threads or fila- 
nients in a nucleus during cell- 
division. 

Fl'BRIL, diminutive of Fibre; a 
small or secondary fibre. 

FIBRIL'LA (pi. Fibril'lse), see 
Fibril. 

FI'BRILLOSE, diminutive of 
Fibrous; bearing fibrils or com- 
posed of small fibres. 

FI'BRILLOSE MYCE'LIUM, see 
Fibrous Mycelium. 

FIBROUS, composed wholly, or 
in large part, of fibres; separa- 
ble into fibres. 

FIBROUS MYCE'LIUM, myce- 
lium in which the hyphae form 
by their union elongated 
branching strands; fibrillose 
mycelium; mycelial strand. 

FI'BRO-VA'SAL BUN'DLE, see 

FlBRO VASCULAR BUNDLE. 

FI'BRO VA'SAL STRING, see 

FlBROVASCULAK BUNDLE. 

FIBROVAS'CULAR BUN'DLE, one 
of the characteristic elements 
in the stem of all flowering 
plants and the higher crypto- 
gams. Isolated fibrovascular 
bundles form the ' ' fibres" in 
the so-called pith of a corn- 
stalk, and the veins in leaves. 
Each bundle usually consists 
of two parts, xylem and phloem 
(which see), the whole often 
surrounded by a special layer 
of cells called the bundle- 
sheath. 

FIBROVAS'CULAR CORD, a term 
applied by Strasburger to a 
fibrovascular bundle in mono- 
cotyledons, but not generally 
adopted. 

FIBROVAS'CULAR CYL'INDER, 
a name given to the peculiar 



fibrovascular system in the 
stem of Lycopodiaceaa. Some- 
times used in exogeus, espe- 
cially in roots, where it is 
generally called "central cyl- 
inder." 

FIBROVAS'CULAR SYS'TEM, the 
fibrovascular tissues of a plant 
taken together. In exogenous 
trees it includes the veins of 
the leaves, and all the material 
of the stem and branches, ex- 
cept the pith, medullary rays, 
and outer bark. 

FIDDLE-SHAPED, see Panduri- 

FORJI. 

FIL'AMENT, the stalk of a sta- 
men supporting the anther. 

FILAMEN'TOUS, slender and 
thread-like, or composed of 
filaments. 

FILAMEN'TOUS MYCE'LIUM, 
one composed of free hyphae, 
which are at most loosely in- 
terwoven with one another, 
but without forming bodies of 
definite shape and outline; Hoe- 
cose mycelium. 

FILAMEN'TOUS SPOR'OPHORE, 
see Simple Sporophoke. 

FILA'RIOUS, see Filamentous. 

FIL'EMOT, see Feuillemort. 

FIL'ICOID, fern-like. 

FIL'IFORM, thread-shaped; slen- 
der, round, and of equal thick- 
ness throughout. Compare 
Capillary. 

FIL'IFORM APPARATUS, a ho- 
mogeneous, strongly refrac- 
tive, cellulose cap often found 
at the apex of each synergida, 
especially in monocotyledons. 

FILIPEN'DULOUS, hanging by a 
thread. 

FI'LOSE, terminating in a thread- 
like process. 

FIM'BRlA, a fringe. 



n 



Fimbriate 



A DICTIONARY 



Floral 



FIM'BRlATE, fringed; bordered 
by lax, slender processes, gen- 
erally larger than hairs. 

FIM'BRICATE, see Fimbriate. 

FIMBRIL'LATE, diminutive of 
Fimbriate; having a very small 
or fine fringe; fimbrilliferous. 

FIMBRILLIF'EROUS, see Fim- 

BRILLATE. 

FINGERED, see Digitate. 

FIS'SILE, capable of being split 
or divided. 

FIS SION, the division of au organ 
which is usually entire; that 
mode of cell-division in which 
the cell separates into two 
nearly equal portions. 

FISSIP AROtJS, reproducing by 
spontaneous division into two 
parts. 

FIS TULAR, see Fistulose. 

FIS TULIFORM, tubular. 

FIS'TtJLOSE, hollow and cylin- 
drical, or nearly so, as the stems 
of many grasses; tistular; fistu- 
lous. Used especially when 
the hollow is of considerable 
size, as in reeds. 

FIS'TULOUS, see Fistulose. 

FLABEL'LATE, see Fan-shaped. 

FLABEL'LIFORM, see Fan- 
shaped. 

FLACCID, unable to support its 
own weight. Compare Lax. 

FLAGEL'lA, pi., see Flagel- 

LTJM. 

FLAGELLAR"?, pertaining to or 
caused by flagella, as the flag- 
ellary, movements of certain 
zoospores. 

FLAG'ELLATE, (1) bearing fla- 
gella; (2) flagelliform. 

FLAgEL'LIFORM, long and 
supple like a whip-lash; flag- 
ellate. 

FLAGEL'LUM (jd. Flagel'la), 
any slender flexible process or 



organ, as (1) a solitary long 
swinging process of proto- 
plasm on certain zoospores (a 
large cilium); (2) a similar ap- 
pendage to the cells of many 
bacteria; (3) a young flexible 
shoot, especially a long trail- 
ing branch of a vine (sar- 
ment). 

FLAT (Hort.), in describing 
fruits, means flattened eudwise 
(depressed). 

FLAVES'CENT, yellowish. 

FLA'VOUS, see Flavus. 

FLA'VITS, pure pale yellow; 
lemon-yellow. Compare Lu- 

TEUS. 

FLESH'Y, enlarged and some- 
what soft, as a tuber. Com- 
pare Succulent. 

FLEX'UOSE, zigzag; wavy; 
winding; flexuous. 

FLEX'tJOtJS, see Flexuose. 
FLOATING, see Natant. 
FLOC'CI, pi., see Floccus. 

FLOCCOSE', covered with matted 
woolly hairs, especialty if they 
fall away in tufts. Said of 
the perithecia of Erysiphe 
when the appendages are of 
equal diameter throughout, 
more or less tortuous, and end 
abruptly, or in a straight point 
(thus distinguished from 
"hooked" and " dichoto- 
mous). " 

FLOCCOSE' MYCE'LIUM, see 
Filamentous Mycelium. 

FLOC'CULENT, see Floccose. 

FLOCCUS (pi. Floc'ci), any woolly 
.hair or thread, or a tuft of 
such filaments. 

FLO'RA, the aggregate of the 
species of plants of a country 
or region, or a book which de- 
scribes them. 

FLORAL, pertaining to a flower. 



Floral Diagram OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Foliiform 



FLORAL DIAGRAM, a drawing 
showing the relative position 
of the parts of a flower. 

FLO'RAL EN VELOPES, in ordi- 
nary plants the calyx and 
corolla, sometimes including 
bracts when developed in a 
special manner so as to sur- 
round a flower: in grasses the 
flowering glume and palet. 

FLO'RAL GLUME, used by Dr. 
W. J. Beal instead of flower- 
ing glume or lower palet. 

FLO'RAL LEAF, see Bract. 

FLORES'CENCE, the opening of 
flowers; blossoming; anthesis. 

FLO RET, an individual flower of 
a head or cluster, especially in 
Composite; floscule; tiosculus; 
floweret. 

FLORIF'EROUS, flower-bearing. 

FLORIP'AroUS, floriferous; some- 
times used when a proliferous 
branch or flower bears addi- 
tional flowers instead of stems 
and leaves. 

FLOS'CULAR, see Flosculous. 

FLOS'CULE, see Floret. 

FLOS' CtJLOSE, see Flosculotjs. 

FLOSCULOUS, composed of or 
bearing florets; applied mainly 
to heads of flowers iu Com- 
posites when composed of 
tubular florets only. Com- 
pare Semiflosculous. 

FLOWER, the part of a plant 
immediately concerned in the 
production of seed. A com- 
plete flower in ordinary plants 
consists of pistils, stamens, 
corolla, and calyx, of which 
the two former are essential to 
the production of seed. The 
parts of a flower are modified 
leaves. 

FLOWER-BUD, an unopened 
flower or cluster of flowers. 

FLOWERET, see Floret. 



FLOWER-HEAD, see Head. 

FLOWERING GLUME, the organ 
in grasses formerly called the 
lower palet. It may subtend 
one flower or more. Dr. W. 
J. Beal proposes the more 
appropriate term Floral Glume. 

FLU'ITANT, floating in or upon 
water. Compare Natant. 

FLU'VIAL, see Fluviatic. 

FLUVIAT'IC, belonging to flow- 
ing water; fluvial; fluviatile. 

FLU'VIATILE, see Fluviatic. 

FOLDED, (1) said of leaves in 
vernation wheu the two halves 
are simply brought together 
forward; (2) (Hort.) when a 
narrow projection of the flesh 
of an apple extends into the 
cavity. (Warder.) Compare 
Lipped. 

FOLIA'CEOUS, leaf -like; having 
leaves intermixed with the 
flowers, as a foliaceous spike; 
consisting of thin laminae or 
layers; foliose. 

FOLIA'CEOUS THAL'LUS, the 
thallus in lichens when flat 
and leaf-like and attached by 
one or few points; frondose 
thallus. Compare Crusta- 
CEotrs Thallus. 

FOLIAGE LEAVES, ordinary 
green leaves, in distinction 
from those which are trans- 
formed into petals, scales, etc. 

FO'LIAR-TRACE, see Leap- 
trace. 

FOLIATION, the act of leafing 
out; frondescence. Some- 
times used erroneously for 
prefoliatiou. 

FOLIF'EROUS, bearing or pro- 
ducing leaves; foliiferous; foli- 
i parous. 

FOLIIF'EROUS, see Foliferotjs. 

FO'LIIFORM, leaf -shaped . 



73 



Foliiparous 



A DICTIONARY 



Foveate 



FOLllP'AROUS, producing leaves 
or leaves only. 

FO'LIOLATE, pertaining to leaf- 
lets, as trifoliolate— having 
three leaflets. 

FO'LIOLE, a little leaf or leaflet. 
(Rare.) 

FOLI'6LUM (pi. Foll'ola), see Fo 

LI OLE. 

FO'LIOSE, (1) abounding in 
leaves; foliaceous; leafy; 
(2) having the nature or ap- 
pearance of a leaf. 

FO'LIOUS, see Foliose. 

FO'LltTM (pi. Fo'lia), a leaf. 

FOL'LICLE, a simple pod opening 
by the ventral suture only, as 
in the milkweed (Asclepias). 

FOLLIC'ULATE, having follicles. 

FOLLIC'ULUS, see Follicle. 

FOOT, a basal protrusion of the 
fern-plant which maintains its 
connection with the prothallus. 
Also a similar base to the seta 
in mosses. 

FOOT-STALK, the stem of a leaf, 
flower, or other organ. See 
Petiole, Peduncle, Pedi- 
cel, Stipe. 

FORA'MEN (pi. Foram'ina), any 
small aperture, especially that 
in the integuments of the ovule, 
at which fertilization is effect- 
ed. Compare Mickofyle. 

FORAM'InATED, having small 
holes or perforations. Com- 
pare Lacunose. 

FORAMIN'ULOSE, pierced with 
very small holes; diminutive 
of Foraminated. 

FORCIPATE, like a pair of pin- 
cers. 

FORKED, having two or more 
main branches arising from 
nearly the same point; furcate. 
Compare Bifurcated. 

FORM, (1) nearly the same as 
Variation, which see; (2) one 



of the conditions or states when 
several regularly appear among 
plants of the same parentage, 
as the short-styled form in 
heterostyled species. 

FdRM'ATIVE, concerned with or 
serving for growth, as forma- 
tive material (starch, albumi- 
noids, etc.), formative tissue 
(meristem). 

FORM-GE'NUS, a so-called genus 
constituted by similar form- 
species, as Botrytis in fungi; 
pseudo-genus. 

FORM-SPE'CIES, a particular 
phase in the development of a 
protean organism, as the rusts; 
so called because the different 
stages have often been mistaken 
for distinct species. Used also 
by E. L. Sturtevant synony- 
mously with Race. 

FORM-SPORE, a body which is 
morphological!}' or physio- 
logically a spore, but which 
either does not become de- 
tached as an ordinary spore 
for dispersion, or which has 
not the power of germination. 

FOR'NICATE, see Vaulted. 

FORNIX (pi. F6r'nice§), arched 
scales in the throat of a corolla, 
as in comfrey. 

FOSSIL BOT'ANY, the science of 
fossil plants, including their 
order of succession on the 
earth; paleobotany; paleo- 
phytology; geological botany; 
phytolithology. 

FOSTER-PLANT, see Host. 

FOUR-FOLD POL'LEN - GRAIN, 
see Pollen-tetrad. 

FO' VEA (pi. Fo'veae), a pit or de- 
pression, as that in the leaf of 
Isoetes, containing the sporan- 
gium. 

FO'VEATE, marked with deep or 
rather large pits or depressions. 
Compare Alveolate. 



74 



Foveola 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Frustule 



FOVEOLA (pi. Fove'olae), a little 
pit or depression; diminutive 
of Fovea. 

FO'VEOLATE, marked with little 
pits or depressions. 

FOVIL'LA (pi. Fovil'lae), the con- 
tents of a pollen-grain; gener- 
ally used in the singular for 
the entire contents, but some- 
times applied to the individual 
granules in the fluid proto- 
plasm. 

FREE, not united with any dis- 
similar part; opposed to Ad- 
herent. Compare Distinct. 

FREE CELL-FORMATION, the 
production of new cells within 
another, generally free from 
the cell-wall of the original or 
mother cell. Usually applied 
to cases in which several nuclei 
appear within the cell, each of 
which becomes surrounded by 
an independent cell-wall, as in 
the production of pollen; in- 
ternal or endogenous cell-for- 
mation. 

FREE GROWING, thrifty or vig 
orous, as opposed to dwarf or 
feeble. 

FREE-STOCK, a seedling tree of 
the same species used for graft- 
ing, as opposed to a stock of a 
different species, the latter be- 
ing generally used for dwarf- 
ing. 

FREE'STONE, applied to drupes 
in which the flesh separates 
readily from the pit when 
ripe. Compare Clingstone. 

FRILL, see Armilla. 

FRIN&ED, see Fimbriate. 

FROND, the leaf in ferns, espe- 
cially the foliage portion of it; 
the expanded leaf -like portion 
of the thallus of liverworts; 
the stem and leaves taken to- 
gether in plants where the dis- 
tinction between leaf and stem 



is not obvious, or where, as in 
Equisetum, the leaves are un- 
important; the whole expanded 
leaf-like or branching thallus 
of many marine algae. 

FRONDES'CENCE, see Foliation 
and Phyllody. 

FRON'DIFORM, frond-like or 
frond-shaped, especially like 
the leaves of ordinary ferns. 

FRON'DOSE, frond like, or pro- 
ducing fronds instead of ordl- 
dary foliage; leafy or leaf like. 
(Kare.) Compare Thalloid. 

FRON'DOSE THAL'LUS, see Fo- 
liaceous Thallus. 

FR6TH Y, see Warty. 

FRtJCTES'CENCE, the time at 
which a fruit arrives at ma- 
turity. 

FRUCTIFICA'TION, the fruit and 
attendant parts; an inflores- 
cence at any stage of growth, 
the process of development of 
a fruit and its attendant parts. 

FRUCTIFICATION, ORGANS OF, 
stamens and pistils. 

FRUIT, the mature ovary and its 
contents, together with any 
closely adhering part; special- 
ized reproductive bodies of any 
kind, as the spores of crypto- 
gams, including any modified 
portion of the plant in which 
they are produced. The term 
is also extended to many con- 
solidated forms of inflores- 
cence, as the cone of the pine. 

FRUIT'-BUD, generally the same 
as Flower-bud. which see. 

FRUIT' DOT, see Sonus 

FRUIT' SPUR, a short stout 
branch, bearing one or more 
flower-buds, as in the apple. 

FRUMENTA'CEOUS, producing or 
pertaining to edible grain. 

FRUS'TULE, the individual 3n 
Diatomaceae (often joined to- 
gether in colonies). 



75 



Frustulose 



A DICTIONARY 



Funiculus 



FRUS TULOSE, consisting of sim- 
ilar separable parts, like the 
frustules of diatoms. 

FRUTES'CENT, somewhat shrub- 
by, — woody at the base and 
herbaceous above, like the gar- 
den sage; subfrutescent; suf- 
frutesceut. 

FRU'TEX, a shrub, which see. 

FRU'TICOSE, shrubby; pertain- 
ing to shrubs; shrub -like. 
Compare Frutescent. 

FRU'TiCOSE THAL'LUS, a thallus 
in lichens which is attached to 
the substratum by one point 
only, or by a narrow base, and 
grows upward as a simple, or 
more usually branched, shrub- 
like body. 

FRUTICULOSE, like a small 
shrub; diminutive of Fruticose. 

FRUTICULUS, a little shrub. 

FtJ'COID, pertaining to, or resem- 
bling, Fucus, a genus of marine 
alga;. 

FUGA'CIOUS, disappearing in a 
very short time; ephemeral. 
Compare Caducous. 

FU'GTTIVE, quickly disappear- 
ing; easily blown away or 
absorbed; volatile; evanescent; 
fugacious. 

FUL'CRATE, furnished with ful- 
cra, which see. 

FUL'CRUM (pi. Ful'cra), a gen- 
eral term for various append- 
ages to the plant which serve 
for support or defence, as ten- 
drils, spines, prickles, hairs, 
etc. Now little used. 

FULIG'INOSE, see Fuliginous. 

FULIGINOUS, dark brown ; sooty 
or smoky. 

FULL, applied to double flowers 
in which all the stamens and 
pistils are transformed into 
petals; completely double. 

FUL' VID, see Fulvous. 



FUL'VOUS, yellow, mixed with 
gray and brown; tawny. 

FUL'VUS, see Fulvous. 

FU'MOSE, smoke-colored; brown- 
ish gray. 

FU'MOtJTS, see Fumose. 

FUNDAMENTAL ORGANS, root, 
stem, and leaf. 

FUNDAMEN'TAL SYS'TEM, all 
that portion of the substance 
of the higher plants which is 
not included in the fibrovas- 
cular and epidermal systems. 
Compare Cellular System. 

FUNDAMEN'TAL TIS'SUE, pith, 
cortex, and medullary rays; 
ground-tissue. 

FUNGICIDAL, destructive to 
fungi; antimycotic. 

FUNGICIDE, anything destruc- 
tive to the life of a fungus. 

FUN'GIFORM, mushroom-shaped. 

FUNGIL'LIFORM, diminutive of 
Fungiform. 

FUNGOID, fungus-like. 

FUNGOL'OGY, see Mycology. 

FUN'GOSE, spongy in texture, like 
many fungi. 

FUN'GOUS, produced by a fungus; 
pertaining to a fungus or to 
fungi, as a fungous disease. 
The substantive form "Fun- 
gus" is also used as an adjec- 
tive. 

FUN'GUSED, injured by a fungus. 
(Rare.) 

FU'NICLE, see Funiculus. 

FUNICULAR CORD, see Funicu- 
lus. 

FUNICULUS, the stalk of an ovule 
or seed by which it is attached 
to the placenta; funicular cord; 
umbilical cord; podosperm. 
In Nidularise a hyphal cord 
attaching the peridiolum to the 
inner surface of the wall of the 
peridium. 



76 



Funiliform 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Gemmaceous 



FUNIL'IFORM, like a rope or 
cord, as the roots of many 
en doge us. 

FUN'NEL-FORM, tubular, and 
gradually enlarging upward to 
a spreading border; infundi- 
buliform. Compare Rotate 
and Cyathiform. 

FURCATE, see Forked. 

FUR'CATED, see Forked. 

FURCATION, division into two 
(rarely said of more) main 
branches. See Bifurcation. 

FURFURA'CEuUS, covered with 
soft scales easily displaced; 
scurfy. 

FURROWED, see Sulcate. 

FUSCES'CENT, slightly fuscous. 

FUS'COUS, grayish brown. 

FUSIFORM, spindle-shaped; en- 
larged, terete, and tapering 
toward each end, as the roots 
of some radishes. 

FU'SOID, somewhat fusiform. 

GAL BULUS, a closed fleshy cone, 
resembling a berry, as that of 
juniper. 

GA'LEA, an arched sepal or petal 
resembling a helmet; helmet; 
hood; cucullus. Also applied 
lo the upper lip of some Scro- 
phulariaceae, though not so 
arched. 

GA'LEATE, helmet-shaped, as the 
flower of Aconitum. 

GALVAnOT'ROPISM, the curva- 
ture of growing organs under 
the influence of a current of 
electricity. 

GAM'ETE, any sexual proto- 
plasmic body, naked or in- 
vested with a membrane, mo- 
tile or non-motile, as an 
oosphere or antherozoid; con- 
jugation-cell; generative cell. 
Used mainly in Conjugates. 



GAMETOGEN'ESIS, the produc- 
tion of gametes (male or fe- 
male). 

GAM'ETOPHYTE, the prothallus 
or sexual generation in ferns, 
etc. Compare Sporophyte. 

GAmOGEN'ESIS, sexual repro- 
duction. 

GAmOPET'ALOUS, having the 
petals more or less united; 
sympetalous. Also called erro- 
neously Monopetalous. Com- 
pare Polypetalous and Unx- 

PETALOUS. 

GAmOPHYL'LOUS, a term includ- 
ing Gamopetalous and Gamo- 
sepalous, but applied mainly 
to sepals. 

GAMOSEP'ALOUS, having sepals 
more or less united; mono- 
sepalous. 

GANGLION (pi. Gan'glia), a term 
applied to various enlargements 
on the mycelium of certain 
fungi, some of which at least 
are rudimentary fructifications. 

GEITONOG'AMY, the fertilization 
of a pistil by pollen from 
another flower of the same 
plant — the closest kind of cross- 
fertilization. 

GEM, see Gemma. 

(jEM'INATE, in pairs or twins; 
biuate. 

GEM MA (pi. Gem'msei, an old 
term for leaf -bud, now usually 
confined to various asexual re- 
productive bud-like processes 
in cryptogams. They may be 
distinguished from gonidia by 
not having as uniform methods 
of production, by greater vari- 
ation in size, and by usually 
containing many cells. See 
Gonidium. 

GEMMA'CEOUS, having the na- 
ture of gemmae; bearing 
gemmas; gemmiferous. 



77 



Gemmation 



A DICTIONARY 



Germination 



GEMMA'TION, reproduction by 
means of gemmae. 

GEMMIFEROUS, bearing gem- 
mas. 

GEMMIP'AROUS, producing 
gemmae. 

GEM'MULE, diminutive of 
Gemma— an old term for leaf- 
bud aud plumule. Now ap- 
plied to certain primary for- 
mative granules in the proto- 
plasm. (Nageli.) 

GENEA6EN'ESIS, see Parthe- 
nogenesis. 

GENERA, pi., see Genus. 

GENERAL, see Common. 

6ENERAL INVOLUCRE, see 
Common Involucre. 

GENERATING TIS'SUE, see 
Meristem. 

GENERATIVE CELL, a sexual 
reproductive cell of any kind. 
See Gamete. Also applied to 
the cell in a pollen -grain which 
develops into the pollen-tube. 
Compare Vegetative Cell. 

GENERATIVE NU'CLEUS, the 
nucleus in the pollen-tube 
which is directly concerned in 
fertilization. 

GENERIC, pertaining to a genus- 

GENET'IC, pertaining to genera- 
tion or origin; e.g., things are 
genetically related which have 
the same origin. 

GENET'IC SPIRAL, a spiral line 
passing through the point of 
insertion of all equivalent lat- 
eral members ou an axis from 
older to younger; generating 
spiral; fundamental spiral. 

GENICULATE, bent abruptly at 
an angle, like the knee, as the 
stems of decumbent grasses. 

GENICULUM, a term occasionally 
applied to a node, especially 
when the stem is bent at that 
point, as is frequent in grasses. 



GENUFLECTION, the formation 
of a knee-like bend in a con- 
jugating filament, as in Siro- 
gonium. 

GE'NUS (pi. Gen'era), a group of 
species within a family or 
order. 

GE'NUS HY'BRID, a hybrid be- 
tween plants of distinct genera; 
bigener. 

GE'OBLAST, a plumule which in 
germination leaves the cotyle- 
dons under ground, as in the 
pea. 

GEOGRAPHICAL BdT'ANY, the 

study of plants iu respect to 
their geographical distribution ; 
botanical geography. 

6EOL6GICAL BOT'AnY, see Fos 
sil Botany. 

GEOT'ROPISM, the tendency to 
grow downward or toward the 
centre of the earth. Compare 
Apogeotropism. 

GERM, a bud or growing point; 
the embr} r o iu a seed; a rudi- 
mentary ovary or young fruit; 
a female reproductive cell— 
germ-cell, oosphere; a spore 
or seed; especially a spore or 
reproductive individual in bac- 
teria. 

GERM-CELL, any female repro- 
ductive cell. Compare Sperm- 
cell. See Oospiieue. Ap- 
plied also by Brefeld to spores 
of the simplest character (Spo- 
ridia) borne on a promycelium. 

GER'MEN, an old name for ovary. 

GER'MINAL APPARA'TUS, see 
Egg-apparatus. 

GER'MINAL COR'PUSCLE, see 
Oosphere. 

GER'MINAL VES'ICLE, see 
Oosphere. 

GERMINATION, the early stage 
of growth of a seed or spore 
into a new plant; sprouting. 



Germinative Nucleus OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Glaucous 



GER'MINATIVE NU'CLEUS, see 
Generative Nucleus. 

GERM - NU'CLEUS, the nucleus 
resulting from the union of 
the pronuclei of two gametes 
in conjugation or fertilization. 

GERM-PORE, a pit in the coat of 
a spore through which the 
germ-tube issues in germina- 
tion. 

GERM-TUBE, the first growth 
from a spore or sclerotium 
upon germination. 

GIBBOUS, convex, as though 
swollen; protuberant, espe- 
cially upon one side, or some 
distinct part of the surface. 

GILLS, the spore-bearing plates 
upon the lower side of the cap 
in mushrooms; lamellae. 

GIR'DLE, the overlapping edge 
of one of the two valves in 
diatoms. 

GLA'BRATE, nearly glabrous. 

GLABRES'CENT, slightly gla- 
brous. 

GLABRIUS'CULUS, almost but not 
quite glabrous. 

GLABROUS, smooth; free from 
roughness or hairs — the sur- 
face may be uneven. Com- 
pare Scabrous and L;evis. 

GLAD'lATE, see Ensiform. 

GLAND, any secreting apparatus. 
A gland is generally a group 
of cells having a peculiar form 
and character to adapt them to 
their special function. They 
sometimes form wart-like pro- 
jections upon the surface, or 
depressions within it. The 
hairs of many plants also serve 
as glands (see Glandular 
Hair). In deeply - seated 
glands of certain kinds, as 
those of the pine, the internal 
cell-walls of the gland are 
more or less absorbed to form 
reservoirs for the secreted sub- 



stance. The term gland is also 
applied to certain wart-like 
swellings which are not secre- 
tory, as the abortive teeth at 
the base of the leaf in the peach 
and cherry. 

GLANDIFORM, gland-shaped or 
gland-like; adenoid. 



GLAND OF 

Lepal. 



THE TORUS, see 



GLANDULAR, gland-like or bear- 
ing glands; glanduliferous. 

GLAN'DULAR DISK, see Re- 
tinaculum. 

GLAN'DULAR HAIR, an epi- 
dermal appendage of one or 
more cells, the apex of which 
is usually enlarged and contains 
the peculiar secretion. 

GLAN'DULAR WOOD'ifr TIS'SUE, 
a term formerly applied to the 
woody tissue of Coniferne from 
the appearance of its circular 
bordered pits. 

GLAN'DULA'TION, the position 
arid arrangement of the glands 
upon a plant. 

GLANDUlIF'EROUS, bearing 
glands. 

GLAn'DULOSE, see Glandular. 

GLAN'DULOSE-SER'RATE, hav- 
ing serratures tipped by so- 
called glands, as the leaves of 
Primus glandulosa. 

GLANS, a nut like that of the oak 
and chestnut, and sometimes 
extended to all large nuts. A 
term of little use. 

GLAR'EOSE, growing in gravelly 
places. 

GLAUCES'CENT, slightly glau- 
cous. 

GLAU'COUS, covered with a 
whitish bloom, as the leaves 
of cabbage; more accurately, 
light bluish green; sea-green. 
Compare Pruinose, Hoary, 
and Canescent. 

9 



Gleba 



A DICTIONARY 



Granula-gonimia 



GLE'BA (pi. Gle'bae), chambered 
sporogeuous tissue within a 
sporophore, as in puff-balls. 

GLO'BATE, globular. 

GLO'BOIDS, granules of calcium- 
maguesium phosphate fouud in 
grains of aleurone. 

GLO'BOSE, see Globular. 

GLOB'ULAR, spherical or nearly 
so; globose. 

GLOB'ULE, the antheridium or 
male organ of Characeae. 

GLO€HID'lATE, barbed like an 
arrow or fish-hook. 

GLO'CHIS, a barbed hair or 
bristle. 

GLOMERATE, collected into a 
close round head. 

GLOM'ERtTLE, a capitate cyme. 

GLU'MA, see Glume. 

GLUMA'gEOUS, bearing or re- 
sembling glumes. 

GLUME, one of the outer floral 
envelopes in grasses. The 
term as now used includes the 
bracts which subtend a spike- 
let (empty glumes) and the 
lower of the" two bracts sub- 
tending the individual flower 
(flowering glume). 

GLUMEL'LA, an obsolete term 
which has been applied both 
to the palet and lodicule in 
grasses. 

GLUMEL'LULA, see Lodicule. 

GNAUR, a knot. (Obs.) 

GNOMON'ICAL, bent at right 
angles. (Ohs.) See Genicu- 
late. 

GOB'LET-SHAPED, see Crateri- 

FORM. 

GONID IOPHORE, a stalk bearing 
a gonidium. 

GONID'IUM (pi. Gonld'ia), a gen- 
eral term for nearly all asexual 
reproductive bodies in crypto- 
gams. Also applied to the 



80 



algal host of lichens. Com- 
pare Spore and Carpospore. 

GONIM'IA (sing. Gonim'lum), a 
term of little importance origi- 
nated by Nylander and used 
by Tuckerman and others for 
pale hluish green gouidia in 
lichens. 

GONIM'IC LAYER, the gonidial 
layer in certain lichens. " Go- 
nidial layer" is preferable. 

GON'IMOUS, gonidial as applied 
to the algal host of lichens; 
gonimic. (Rare.) 

GON'OPHORE, a stalk elevating 
the stamens and pistils only. 

GONOPH'ORUM, see Gonophore. 

GON'OPLASM, in Peronosporeae, 
the portion of the protoplasm 
of the antheridium which 
passes through the fertilizing 
tube and coalesces with the 
oosphere. (De Bary.) 

GORGE, see Throat. 

GOS'SYPINE, cottony. 

GRAC'ILE, slender. 

GRAFT - HYBRID, a plant, or 
portion of a plant, which is 
supposed to have been essen- 
tially modified through the 
influence of a graft. 

GRAIN, the seed or fruit of 
Gramineae; any small seed. 

GRAINED, having grain - like 
tubercles or processes, as those 
on the flowers of dock (Ruraex). 

GRAMINACEOUS, pertaining to 
grasses; gramineous. 

GRAMIN'EAL, see Gramina- 
ceous. 

GRAmiN'EOUS, see Gramina- 
ceous. 

GRAminOl'OGY, see Agrostol- 
ogy. 

GRAN'ULA - GONIM'lA, an old 
term for the gonidia of lichens. 



Granular 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Gynaecium 



GRAN'ULAR, composed of grains 
or granules; covered with small 
tubercles. 

GRAN'ULATE, see Granular. 

GRAN'ULE, any small grain-like 
body. 

GRANULIF'EROUS, see Granu- 
lar. 

GRAVE'OLENT, having a strong 
unpleasant odor. 

GREEN LAYER, see M e s o - 

PHLCSUM. 

GREGARIOUS, thesame as Social ; 
also applied to the fruiting 
spols or sori of a parasitic 
fungus when they appear in 
groups upon the host. Com- 
pare Cespitose. 

GROSSIFICA'TION, the swelling 
of the ovary after fertilization. 

GROUND-TIS'SUE, see Funda- 
mental Tissue. 

GROWING POINT, see Punctum 
Vegetationis. 

GROWTH-FORM, a vegetable 
structure marked by some 
easily recognized feature of 
growth, characterizing stages 
in the lives of plants which are 
not necessarily closely related, 
as a filamentous fungus. 

GROWTH' - RING, see Annual 
King. 

GRUMOSE', see Grumous. 

GRU'MOUS, consisting of clus- 
tered grains or tubercles; gru- 
mose. 

GUARD-CELLS, special epidermal 
cells, usually two in number, 
enclosing the opening of a 
stoma, and whicb have the 
power of altering their shape 
so as to increase or diminish 
the size of the opening. 

GUARD'IAN-CELLS, see Guard- 
cells. 

GU'LAR, pertaining to the throat. 



GUM, a name applied to various 
viscid (not oily) secretions of 
amorphous character which 
either dissolve in water or 
merely swell in it. as cerasin, 
the characteristic element of 
cherry gum. 

GUM-PAS'SAGE, a glandular in- 
tercellular passage containing 
gum. 

GUS'SET, an intercellular space, 
either filled or hollow, at an 
angle where more than two 
cells meet. 

GTJT'TATE, covered with small 
dots, as though sprinkled with 
some colored fluid. 

GUT'TIFER, a plant which pro- 
duces gum or resin. 

GUTTIF'EROUS, yielding gum or 

resin. 
GUT'TULATE, resembling small 

drops of oil or resin. 

GYMNAX'ONY, a monstrous con- 
dition in which the placenta 
protrudes from the ovary. 

6YMN0BLAS'TUS, having the 
ovary superior. (Obs.) 

GYMNOCAR'POUS, naked-fruited ; 
having the fruit destitute of 
hairs (rare), or free from the 
perianth or other covering; in 
fungi, having the hymenium 
exposed when the spores are 
maturing. Compare Angio- 

CARPOUS. 

GYMNOSPER'MOUS, having the 
seeds naked (not enclosed in a 
pericarp), as in Couiferse. 

GYMNOS'TOMOUS, said of the 
mouth of the sporangium in 
mosses, when destitute of a 
peristome. 

GYM'NOSPORE, a naked spore — 
one not produced in a recep- 
tacle. 

GYN-SCI'tlM, see Gvncscium. 



si 



Gynander 



A DICTIONARY 



Hairy 



GYNAN'DER, a plant having the 
stamens inserted on the pistil. 
(Rare.) 

GYNAND'RIAN, see Gynan- 

DROUS. 

GYnAND'ROPHORE, a stalk sup- 
porting the stamens and pistils 
above the insertion of the 
corolla; gonophore. 

gYnANDROS'POROUS, bearing 
both male and female spores; 
applied in (Edogoniea; to cer- 
tain female plants which pro- 
duce audrospores. 

GYNAn'DROUS, having stamens 
and pistils united. 

GYnAN'THEROUS, having sta- 
mens couverted into pistils. 

6YNECI'tJM, see Gyno2Ctum. 

GYN'OBASE, an elevated portion 
of the receptacle supporting 
the ovary, as in geranium. 
Compare Gynophore. 

GYNOBA'SIC, having a gynobase. 
Also applied to styles which 
are attached to the base instead 
of the summit of the ovary. 

GYNODICE'CIOUS, having only 
pistillate flowers on one set of 
plants and perfect flowers upon 
another set. Compare Gyno- 
moncecious and Androdtce- 
cious. 

GYNCEfJIUM (pi. Gynffi'9la), the 
pistils of a flower taken to- 
gether. 

GYNOMON(E'CIOUS, having per- 
fect and pistillate flowers on 
the same plant but no stami- 
nate flowers. Compare Gyno- 
diozcious and Andromonce- 
cious. 

GYNOPHORE, the stalk of a 
pistil elevating it above the 
receptacle; carpophore; basi- 
gynium; podogynium; the- 
caphore. (Obs. ) Compare 
Gynobase. 



82 



GYNOSTE'GIUM (pi. Gynoste'gia), 
a sheath or covering of the 
gyncecium, as the monadel- 
phous filaments of Asclepias. 

GYNOSTE'MlUM, a term formerly 
used for the united stamens 
and style (column) in orchids. 

GY'RATE, coiled, circiuate, or 
taking a circular course. Com- 
pare Gyrose. 

GYRO'MA, an old term for the 
annulus of ferns. 

GYROSE', curved alternately 
backward and forward; nearly 
the same as Aufractuose. 
Sometimes used in the sense 
of Gyrate. 

HAB'IT, the general appearance 
or manner of growth, as loose 
or compact, dwarf or other- 
wise, climbing, creeping, or 
upright. Also the character 
with regard to fruitfulness, 
hardiness, etc. 

HAB'iTAT, the kind of situation 
in which a plant is naturally 
found, as marsh, woods, moun- 
tains, etc. Compare Habita- 
tion. 

HABITATION, the entire locality 
or geographical range within 
which a species is found. Com- 
pare Habitat and Station. 

HAD'ROME, see Xylem. Ap- 
plied by Ptonie to the phloSm- 
like portion of the fibrovascular 
bundle in vascular cryptogams. 

HAlR, any feeble outgrowth 
from the epidermis; trichome. 
Hairs may be of auy shape, 
and may consist of one cell or 
more. They are usually de- 
rived from a single epidermal 
cell. 

HAlR-POINTED, terminating in 
a very fine weak point. 

HAlR'Y, covered with longer and 



Half-breed 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Hebecarpous 



coarser hairs than "pubes- 
cent." 

HALBERD SHAPED, see Has- 
tate. 

HAL'BERT-SHAPED, see Has- 
tate. 

HALF-AnAt'ROPOUS, see Am- 

PHITKOPOUS. 

HALF-BREED, applied in stock- 
breeding to a cross between a 
well - established breed and 
common or "scrub" stock, 
but seldom used in botany. 
(Used by Burbidge in the sense 
of Cross.) 

HALF-EQ'UITANT, said of oppo- 
site leaves whose margins are 
folded forward and enclose the 
stem and one edge of tbe oppo- 
site leaf, leaving one margin of 
each leaf outside. Compare 
Equitant. 

HALF INFE'RIOR, said of an 
ovary when the stamens are 
perigynous. 

HALF" STEM-CLAsP'ING, see 
Semiamflexicaul. 

HALF SUPE'RIOR, see Perigy- 
NQTJS. 

HALOPH ILOUS, salt loving. 

HAL'OPHYTE, a plant containing 
a large quantity of common 
salt in its composition, and 
which thrives best in salty 
places, as Salsola Kali. 

HALVED, see Dimidiate. 

HA'MATE, hooked. 

HAMOSE', see Hamate. 

HA'MOUS, see Hamate. 

HAM'ULATE, diminutive of 
Hamate. 

HAmULOSE, diminutive of Ha- 
mose; bearing small hooks. 

HAMULUS, a small hook. 

HAplOGONID'IUM, an algal 
gonidinm in lichens resem- 
bling Protococcus. (Bare.) 



HAPLOPERIS'TOMOUS, having a 
peristome in mosses with but a 
single row of teeth. 

HAPLuSTEM'ONOUS, having the 
stamens in one whorl. 

HARD, said of fruit*, chiefly pears, 
which require cooking to soft- 
en them for eating. 

HARD'Y, said of plants capable 
of passing the winter uninjured 
by cold. Hardiness also im- 
plies the ability to withstand 
any injurious climatic influ- 
ence, but its limited use re- 
ferring to cold is most common. 

HAS'TATE, like the head of a 
halberd— applied to leaves 
which have a spreading lobe 
on each side of the base. 
Compare Sagittate. 

HAS'TIFORM, see Hastate. 

HAs'TILE, see Hastate. 

HATCH ET SHAPED, see Dola- 

BRIPORM. 

HAULM, the dead stems of any 
herbaceous plant. 

HAUSTO'RIUM (pi. Hausto'ria), 
the special organ of certain 
parasites by means of which 
they obtain food from their 
host. 

HEAD, any compact somewhat 
rounded body upon a stem. 
The term is also applied to a 
cluster of nearly sessile flow- 
ers, as in the clovers and 
Composite, also to other more 
or less compact inflorescences, 
as the spike, corymb, and 
panicle. See Capitulum. 

HEART, the organic centre of 
anything, as the central por- 
tion of a tree-trunk, or a grow- 
ing point surrounded by leaves. 

HEART-SHAPED, see Cordate. 

HEART-WOOD, see Duramen. 

HEBECAR'POtJS, having pubes- 
cent fruit. (Obs.) 



83 



Hebetate 



A DICTIONARY 



Hermaphrodite 



HEBETATE, having an obtuse 
point; blunted. 

HEDERA'CEOUS, pertaining to or 
resembling ivy. 

HED'ERAL, see Hedekaceods. 

HELIC/IFORM. see IIelicoid. 

HEL'ICOID, (I) coiled into the 
form of a helix or snail shell; 
spiral; (3) in inflorescence con- 
trasted with Scorpioid, which 
see. See Helicoid Cyme and 
Helicoid Dichotomy. 

HEL'ICOID CYME, one in which 
each successive flower is situ- 
ated upon the same side of a 
pseudaxis, winch may or may 
not be coiled, as the primary 
branches of the inflorescence 
of Hemerocallis fulva ; bostry- 
choid cyme; bostryx; false ra- 
ceme. Compare Scorpioid 
Cyme. 

HfiL'ICOID DICH&T'OMY, a di- 
chotomy in winch a branch on 
the same side in each succes- 
sive bifurcation continues to 
develop while the other does 
not; bostrychoid dichotomy. 
Compare Scorpioid Dichot- 
omy. 

HELIOgY'RATE, having a circu- 
lar line carried obliquely 
around au object, as the annu- 
lus on the spore-case of Tri- 
chomaues. 

HELIOT'ROPISM, having the 
power of movement under the 
influence of light. 

HflLMflT, see Galea. 

HELMET-SHAPED, see Gale- 
ate. 

HELO'BIOtJS, see Paltjstrine. 

HEM! ANAT ROPOUS, see Am- 

PHITROPOUS. 

HEM'ICARP, one of the ripened 
separable carpels of a dicar- 
pellary fruit, as in Umbel- 
liferse; diachoenium. See 
Mericarp. 



HEM ICYCLE, half of a coil or 
circle. 

HEMlCYC'LIC, having part of 
the floral organs arranged in 
whorls and the remainder in 
a spiral. Compare Cyclic 
and AcY'CLic. 

HEMIT'ROPAL, see Amphitro- 

FOUS. 

HEMIT'ROPOtJS, sec Ampiiitro- 
pous. 

HEPTAgYNOUS, having seven 
pistils or styles. 

HEPTAM'EROUS, having seven 
parts. 

HEPTAN'DROUS, having seven 
stamens. 

HEPTAPET'ALOUS, having seven 
petals. 

HERB, a plant of which the stem 
contains but little wood and 
dies to the ground at the close 
of the season. It. may be au 
annual, a biennial, or a peren- 
nial. 

HERBACEOUS, like an herb; 
succulent. Also green, as 
opposed to colored like an 
ordinary corolla, as a petal 
with an herbaceous (green) tip. 

HERBACEOUS PERENNIAL, see 
Perennial Hehb. 

HERBAL, see Herljaiuum. 

HERBARIUM (pi. Herba'rium? 
or Herba'ria), a classified col- 
lection of dried specimens of 
plants; herbal; hortus-siccus. 

HERBES'CENT, herbaceous or 
somewhat so. 

HERBORiZATION, see Bota- 
nizing. 

HERCOGAMOUS, said of an 
hermaphrodite flower when 
some structural obstacle pre- 
vents self-fertilization, as in 
many orchids. 

HERMAPHRODITE, see Per- 
fect. 
84 



Hesperidium 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Heterophyllous 



HESPERIDIUM, a fruit like the 
orange, being succulent within 
and covered with an indehis- 
ceut leathery riud. 

HET-K'RIO, a collection of dis- 
tinct indehisceut carpels be- 
longing to a single flower. 
They may be either dry upon 
a fleshy receptacle, as in the 
strawberry, or dry upon a dry 
receptacle, as in Ranunculus, 
or fleshy upon a dry receptacle, 
as in the raspberry. Usually 
but improperly spelled Eterio. 

HETERAUXE'SIS, any irregular 
or unsymmetrical growth, 
either normal or abnormal. 

HETEROCAR'POUS, bearing fruit 
of two or more kinds or forms, 
as in the genus Amphicarpea. 
Compare Homocarpous. 

HETEROCEPH'AlOUS, bearing 
heads of more than one kind. 
For example, having flower- 
heads some of which contain 
only staminate flowers and 
some only pistillate. 

HETEROCHRO'MOtJS, having dif- 
ferent members unlike in color; 
also applied to a flower-head 
in Composite when the florets 
of the centre or disk differ in 
color from those of the circum- 
ference or ray. 

HETEROCLI'NOUS, having male 
and female flowers in separate 
heads or receptacles. 

HET'EROCYST, one of the inter- 
calated cells of special charac 
ter in the filaments of Nosto- 
chiueae; limiting-cell. They 
are usually large, rounded, 
brownish, and glassy in ap- 
pearance. 

HETEROD'ROMOUS, turning or 
coiling in opposite directions, 
as a tendril which coils first 
one way and then the other, or 
a plant on which the leaf-spiral 
of a branch runs in the oppo- 



site direction from that of the 
main axis. Compare Homo- 
dromous and Antidromous. 

HETERCE'CIOUS, parasitic on dif- 
ferent plants at different stages 
of growth; metcecious; metox- 
enous; heteroxenous. 

HETERCECIS'MAL, see Heterce- 

cious. 
HET'EROZCYST, see Hetero- 

cyst. 

HETEROG'AmOUS, said of the 
heads of flowers in Composita? 
when the florets are not all 
alike in sex. 

HETEROGE'NEOUS, not of uni- 
form substance or character. 

HETEROGEN'ESIS, see Sponta- 
neous Generation. 

HETEROGENOUS, having two or 
more kinds of flowers differing 
in the relative lengths of the 
stamens and styles; hetero- 
styled. See Dimorphous and 
Tkimorphous. 

HETEROM'ALOtJS, spreading in 
all directions. Compare Ho- 

MOMALOUS. 

HETEROM EROUS, having a dif- 
ferent number of parts in the 
different whorls of a flower. 
Compare Isomerous. Applied 
also to a lichen thallus when a 
layer of the algal cells divides 
it into an outer cortical and an 
inner medullary portion. Com- 
pare HOMOIOMEROUS. 

HETEROMOR'PHOUS, of two or 
more forms, as the flowers of 
Buchloe dactyloides. 

HETEROPHYLLOUS, having two 
or more distinct sorts of foliage- 
leaves on the same plant, as in 
junipers; also applied to species 
whose leaves differ widely from 
those of related species. The 
term is not usually applied to 
plants in which the leaves mere- 
ly assume different forms at 



85 



Heterorhizal 



A DICTIONARY 



Histogeny 



successive elevations on the 
stem. 

HETERORHIZAL, Laving roots 
which seem to proceed from 
no fixed point, as those of acro- 
gens; said also of spores which 
germinate indifferently from 
auy portion of the surface. 
Little used. 

HETEROS'POROUS, bearing asex- 
ually produced spores of more 
than one kind, as in the Ure- 
diueoe; having inacrospoies 
and microspores, as in Sela- 
ginella. Compare Homo- 
spokous and Isosporous. 

HET'EROSTYLED, see Heterog- 
onous. 

HET'EROTAXY, the deviation of 
organs from their normal posi- 
tion. 

HETEROT'ROPAL, see Amphit- 

UOPOUS. 

HETEROT'ROPOUS, see Amphit- 
ropous. Also applied to any 
part which is turned iu an 
unusual direction. 

HETEROX'ENOUS, see Heterce- 
ciocs. 

HEX-, a prefix derived from the 
Greek, meaning six. See Sex-. 

HEXAG'YNOUS, having six pistils 
or styles. 

HEXAM EROUS, having the parts 
in sixes. Applied mainly to 
the parts of a flower, and 
meaning six organs in each 
whorl. Also written 6-merous. 

HEXAN'DROUS, having six sta- 
mens; hexastemouous. 

HEXAPflT'ALOUS, having six 
petals. 

HEXAPHYL LOUS, having six 
leaves or leaflets. 

HEXASTEM'ONOUS, see Hexan- 

DHOUS. 

HIBER'NACLE, see Hibernactj- 
lum. 



HIBERNAC'ULUM, a protection 
for a growing part through the 
winter, as a bud or bulh. 

HIBER'NAL,pertaining to winter; 
blooming or vegetating in win- 
ter; hiemal; hyemal. 

HIBERNATION, passing the wiu- 
ter in a dormant condition. 

HIDDEN-VEINED, having the 
veins of a leaf buried in the 
tissue so as not to be easily 
visible. 

HIDE-BOUND, see Bark-bound. 

HIEMAL, see Hibernal. 

HILAR, pertaining to the hilum. 

HILE, see Hilum. 

HI'LUM (pi. Hi'la, or preferably 
Hflum§), the scar, or point of 
attachment of a seed. The 
term is also applied to the 
nucleus of a starch-grain. 

HIP, the fruit of the rose; a 
cynarrhodium. 

HIPPOCREP'IFORM, horseshoe- 
shaped. 

HIRSUTE, clothed with rather 
numerous long coarse hairs, 
harsher than pubescent and 
less harsh than hispid. 

HIR'TUS, indefinite in meaning, 
but nearly the same as Hirsute, 
which see. 

HIRTEL'LOUS, slightly hirsute; 
stiffly pubescent. 

HISPID, clothed with erect stiff 
hairs, as Borage. 

HISPLD'ULOUS, minutely hispid. 

HISTIOL'OGY, see Histology. 

HISTODIAL'YSIS, the separation 
of the cells of a tissue from 
each other. 

HISTOGENET'IC, tissue-forming; 
pertaining to histogeny. 

HISTOGEN'IC, see Histoge- 

NETIC. 

HISTOG'ENY, the origin or for- 
mation of tissue. 



Histology 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Homosporous 



HISTOLOGY, the science of the 
structure of tissues. Compare 
Morphology. 

HOARY, grayish white; canes- 
cent. 

HOLD -FAST, any root or root-like 
organ whose chief function is 
to retain the plant in place, as 
the afirial roots of ivy, or the 
suckers or rhizoids of rnauy 
sea-weeds; crampon. 

HOLERA'CEOUS, see Olera- 
ceous. 

HOLOCAR'POUS, having the peri- 
carp entire. (Rare.) 

HOLOSAP'ROPHYTE, a complete 
saprophyte: one which lives 
entirely on dead organic mat- 
ter. 

HOLOSERIC'EOIJS, covered with 
veiy short silky hairs hardly 
visible to the eye. Compare 
Veluttnous. 

HOMOBLAs'TIC, said of the 
embryo when in its usual 
position with the radicle di- 
rected toward the micropyle 
and the cotyledons in the oppo- 
site direction. Compare Enan- 
tioblastic. 

HOMOCAR'POUS, bearing fruit all 
of one kind. Compare Hete- 
rocarpots. 

HOMOCEN'TRIC, see Concen- 
tric. 

HOMOCHRO'MOUS, of uniform 
color. 

HOMOD'ROMAL, see Homodro- 

MOUS. 

HOMOD'ROMOUS, turning contin- 
uously in the same direction. 
Compare Heterodromous. 

HOMODY'NAMOtJS, of equal 
strength, size, or vigor. 

HOMOG'AMOtJS, having all the 
florets of a head in Composite 
alike in sex. Compare Hete- 



rogamous. Also used for 
Synacmic, which see. 

HOMOGENEOUS, having the same 
nature or structure throughout. 

HOMOG'ONOUS, having the sta- 
mens and pistils alike in char- 
acter in all flowers of the 
species; homostyled. Com- 
pare Heterogonous. 

HOMOIOM'EROUS, applied to a 
lichen thallus in which the 
gonidia and hyphoe are min- 
gled together and not dis- 
tinctly stratified. Compare 
Heteromerous. 

HOMOLOGOUS, of the same mor- 
phological nature, as leaves, 
bracts, sepals, petals, stamens, 
and pistils are all homologous, 
or forms of the same funda- 
mental organ. 

HOM OLOGUE, a part homologous 
with another, as a stamen with 
a leaf; homotype. Compare 
Analogue. A nectary, for 
example, is in some cases the 
homologue of a stamen and in 
others of a petal, but it is 
always the analogue of any 
other nectary. 

HOMOL'OGY, correspondence in 
structure or morphological na- 
ture. Compare Analogy. 
See Homologous and Homo- 
logue. 

HOMOM'ALOUS, applied to leaves 
or other organs which originate 
on the different sides of a stem, 
but are all turned toward one 
side. Compare Secund. 

HOMOMOR'PHOUS, of the same 
shape or character, as when 
the disk-flowers as well as the 
ray-flowers of a head in Com- 
posite are ligulate. 

HOMOPET'ALOUS (obs.), see 
Regular. 

HOMOS'POROUS, having asexu- 
ally produced spores of only 



Homostyled 



A DICTIONARY 



Hybrid 



one kind; isosporous. Com- 
pare Heterosporous. 

HOMOSTYLED, see Homogo- 

NOUS. 

HOMOT'ROPAL, see Homotro- 
pous. 

HOMOT'ROPOUS, said of an em- 
bryo in a curved seed when it 
is curved in the same manner 
as the seed. 

HOM'OTYPE, see Homologue. 

HON'EY, see Nectar. 

HONEY-COMBED, see Alveo- 
late. 

HON'EY DEW, a sweet substance 
found on the leaves of plants, 
usually a secretion from plant- 
lice. 

HON'EYGUIDE, see Nectar- 
guide. 

HONEY-PORE, the supposed pore 
in flowers which secretes 
honey. (Obs.) 

HONEY-SPOT, see Nectar- 

GUIDE. 

HOOD, see Cucullus. 

HOOD'ED, see Cucullate. 

HOOD -SHAPED, see Cucullate. 

HOOP, the connecting baud be- 
tween the valves in Diatoma- 
ceae. 

HORIZONTAL SYSTEM, the cel- 
lular as distinguished from the 
fibrovascular system. Little 
used. 

HOR'MOGON, see Hormogonium. 

HORMOGONI'UM (pi. Hormogo- 
ni'a), a reproductive body in 
certain alga 1 , as the Oscilla- 
torieae, consisting of a short 
chain of cells, one of the natu- 
ral fragments of a filament. 

HORN, any horn-shaped appen- 
dage, as the spur of a flower. 

HORN'LET, a little horn. 

HORNY, of the texture of a horn, 



as the pericarp of witch-hazel, 
Hamamelis Virgin tea. 

HOROLOG'ICAL, said of flowers 
which open and close at defi- 
nite hours of the day. 

HORTEN'SIS, pertaining to a 
garden. 

HOR'TUS-SiCCUS, see Herba- 
rium. 

HOSE-INHOSE, when the calyx 
iu a gamopetalous flower takes 
the form of the corolla, or 
when the corolla itself in such 
a flower is in two parts or 
whorls. 

HOST, a plant which supports a 
parasite. 

HOST -PLANT, see Host. 

HU'MIFUSE, spreading upon the 
ground. 

HTJ'MILIS, low, or less in stature 
than related species, but not 
necessarily dwarf; pumilus. 

HUMUS PLANT, see Sapro- 
phyte. 

HUSK, any large, dry, thin 
envelope covering the fruit or 
inflorescence, as one of the 
bracts surrounding an ear of 
corn. 

HYALES'CENT, somewhat hya- 
line. 

HY'ALINE, clear and colorless 
like glass or water; translucent 
or transparent. 

HYALOPLASM, the clear portion 
of the protoplasm free from 
granules. Often restricted to 
such a layer next to the cell- 
wall, then called by some 
Ectoplasm. 

HYBER'NACLE, see Hibernacu- 
lum. 

HY'BERNATING, see Hiber- 
nating. 

HY'BRID, the offspring of two 
species of the same genus. 
Compare Cross. The term 



Hybridization 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Hypnospore 



Hybrid is often erroneously 
used to designate tbe result of 
cross-fertilization between any 
different species or varieties. 
As true hybrids are often sterile, 
the term " mule" has been ap- 
plied to them. Burbidge pro- 
poses to retain the term " mule'' 
for sterile hybrids only. See 
Genus-hybrid. 

HYBRIDIZA'TION, the fertiliza- 
tion of a flower by pollen from 
a- plant of another species. 
Often erroneously used for 
cross-fertilization in general. 

HY'DROID, see Tracheid. 

HYDROPHILOUS, having the 
pollen conveyed to the stigma 
by means of water. 

HYDROPHYTE, an aquatic plant 
of any kind. 

HYDROTROPISM, power in a 
growing organ of turning 
in a definite manner or direc- 
tion through the influence of 
moisture, i.e. of taking a 
definite position with respect to 
the source of moisture. See 
Positive and Negative Hy- 
drotropism. Compare Hy- 
groscopic. 

HYE'MAL, see Hibernal. 

HYGROMET RIC, moving in a 
definite manner as a result 
of a change in the degree of 
moisture ; hygroscopic. 

HYGROPH'ANOtTS, having a 
watery appearance. 

HY'GROPLASM, the fluid portion 
of the protoplasm. Compare 
Stereoplasm. 

HYGROSCOPIC, (1) absorbing 
moisture with avidity; 
(2) showing an increase or 
diminution of moisture by mo- 
tion; hygrometric. Compare 
Hydrotropism. 

HYGROSCOPIC gELLS, certain 
cells in the leaves of grasses 



which have the power of alter- 
ing their form under the influ- 
ence of moisture and causing 
the leaves to "curl" in dry 
weather. From their bladder- 
like appearance they are also 
called Bulliform Cells. 

HYME'NIUM (pi. Hyme'nia), a 
spore-bearing surface in fungi, 
especially in mushrooms and 
their allies. 

HYMENOPHORE, the portion of 
a sporophore immediately be- 
neath a hymenium; hymen- 
ophorum. 

HYMENOPHORUM, see Hymen- 
ophore. 

HYpAN'THIUM, an expanded, 
usually fleshy, receptacle, 
more or less enclosing the 
flowers, as in the fig, rose, 
Dorstenia and Ambora; hy- 
panthodium. See Hip and 
Syconus. Compare Clinan- 

THIUM and ReCEPTACULAR 

Tube. 
HYpAntHO DltJM, see Hypan- 

THIUM. 

HYPERBOREAN, growing in the 
extreme north. 

HYPER' TROPHY, excessive de- 
velopment. Compare Atro- 
phy. 

HY'PHA (pi. Hy'phse), a filament 
of mycelium. 

HYPHAS'MA, an old term for 
mycelium, still occasionally 
used when particularly deli- 
cate and web-like. 

HYP'NOSPERM, an asexually pro- 
duced resting-spore in algae; 
hypnospore. 

HYPNOSPORAN'GIUM, a sporan- 
gium containing resting-spores. 

HYPNOSPORE, any resting- 
spore, especially one produced 
asexually. Compare Hypno- 
sperm. See Resting-spore. 



89 



Hypo- 



A DICTIONARY 



Idioplasm 



HYPO-, in Greek derivatives, 
under. 

HYpOCARPOGE AN, producing 
fruit beneath the surface of 
the ground, as the peanut. 

HYP'OCHIL, see Hypochilium. 

HYPOCHIL'IUM, the lower or 
basal part of the divided label- 
luni in certain orchids; hypo- 
chil. Compare Epichiliom. 

HY'POCOTYL, the caulicle. Com- 
pare Epicotyl. 

HYPOCOTYLE'DONArY, situated 
below the cotyledons. 

HYPOCRAtERIFORM, having a 
long tube with an abruptly 
spreading border, as in phlox; 
salver-form. 

HYP'ODERM, see Hypoderma. 

HYPODERMA, cells or layers of 
cells next beneath the epider- 
mal system which are devel- 
oped in a special manner, usu- 
ally as colleuchyma or other 
strengthening tissue. 

HYPODER MAL, situated beneath 
the epidermis; hj'podermous. 

HYPODER'MOUS, see Hypoder- 
MAL. 

HYPOGJEAN, see Hypogeax. 

HYPOGJE OUS, see Hypogeax. 

HYPOGE'AL, see Hypogeax. 

HYPOGE AN, subterranean: ap- 
plied to parts which grow 
beneath the surface of the 
ground, and to plants which 
ripen their fruit beneath the 
surface; hypogoeau; hypogae- 
ous; hypogeal; hypogeous. 

HYP0G'iN0u*S, growing upon 
the lower surface of anythiug. 

HYPOGE'OUS, see Hypogeax. " 

HYpOG'YNOUS, growing beneath 
the pistil, and free. 

HYPONAS'TIC, denoting curva- 
ture from growth on the lower 
side of au organ, causing it to 



bend upward. Compare Epi- 

XASTIC. 

HY'POnASTY, having more rapid 
growth upon the lower than 
upon the upper surface. Com- 
pare Epixasty. 

HYPOPHLOZ'ODAL, beneath the 
bark. 

HYPOPH'YLLOUS, situated upon 
the lower side of a leaf. 

HYPOPHYL'LUM, an abortive or 
scale-like leaf subtending any- 
thing. (Rare.) 

HYPOPHYSIS, an appropriate 
but seldom used term for the 
Apophysis in mosses. 

HYpOTHAL'LUS, a lower or in- 
terior stratum in a thallus. 

HYPOTHE CltJM, a portion of the 
thallus beneath or around the 
apothecium in lichens. 

HYP'SOPHYLL, see Bract. 

HYSTERAN'THOtJS,said of plants 
which have the flowers ex- 
pand after the leaves have 
appeared. The leaves there- 
fore in a hysteranthous plant 
are proteranthous. 

HYSTEROGENIC, formed late; 
applied to intercellular spaces 
formed in older tissues. Com- 
pare Protogexic. 

ICOS-, in Greek compounds, 

twenty. 
ICOSAN'DROUS, having twenty 

or more perigynous stamens. 

Compare Polyandrocs. 
IDENTIFICATION, see Deter- 

MIXATIOX. 

ID'IOBLAST, a single cell in a 
tissue which differs greatly 
from its neighbors iu form, 
size, nature of cell-wall, or 
cell-contents. 

IDIOPLASM, a term applied by 
Nageli to the active organiz- 
ing part of the protoplasm. 



90 



Igneus 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Incubation 



IG'NEUS, fiery-red, a lively scar- 
let. 

IMBER'BIS, without a beard or 
other hairs. See Glabrous. 

IMBIBITION, the addition of 
moisture to organized bodies 
in a manner which causes 
them to swell up. Compare 
Absorption. 

IMBRICATE, overlapping like 
tiles or shingles on a roof, as 
the scales of buds. In aesti- 
vation at least one piece is 
wholly external and one 
wholly internal. 

IMBRICATED, see Imbricate. 

IM'BRICAtIVE, see Imbricate. 

IMMAR'GINATE, without a dis- 
tinct rim or border. 

IMMERSED', (1) growing wholly 
under water; demersed; sub- 
mersed. (2) When one part 
or organ is completely em- 
bedded in another; innate. 
Compare Emersed. 

IMMORTELLES', a term applied 
to various plants, the dower- 
heads of which retain their 
original shape and an attrac- 
tive appearance when dried, as 
Gnaphalium and some other 
Composite; everlasting flow- 
ers. 

iMPARIPIN'NATE, pinnate with 
a terminal leaflet, thus usually 
making an odd number; oddly 
pinnate. 

IMPERFECT, said of a flower 
which lacks either stamens or 
pistils. 

IMPERFORATE, closed; without 
an opening. 

IMPREGNATION, see Fertili- 
zation. 

IN-AND-IN, breeding for succes- 
sive generations from closely 
related individuals. Growing 
a "stock" or " strain" of corn 
on the same farm for many 



years would be called in-and- 
in breeding. 

INANE', empty. 

INAN'THERATE, bearing no an- 
ther; said of certain sterile fila- 
ments or abortive stamens. 

INARCHING, the natural union 
of stems or roots which grow 
in contact; natural grafting. 
Also applied in horticulture to 
a form of grafting in which 
both stock and scion remain at 
first attached to their own roots. 

INARTICULATE, not jointed; 
continuous. 

INCANES'CENT, see Canescent. 
Strictly, somewhat or slightly 
canescent. 

INCA'NOUS, see Canescent. 

INCISED', irregularly and deeply 
cut into rather large lobes. 

INCLINED', gradually bent out 
of a perpendicular at less than 
a right augle, as the branches 
of most deciduous trees. 

INCLUDED, contained in a cavity 
and not projecting beyond it; 
enclosed. Compare Exserted. 

INCOMPLETE', destitute of some 
part which is usually present; 
said especially of flowers which 
lack one or more of the four 
sets of primary organs, sepals, 
stamens, and pistils. 

INCONSPICUOUS, small in size; 
not readily observed. 

INCRAS'SATE, thickened; espe- 
cially, gradually thickened or 
enlarged upward from the base. 

INCRES'CENT, growing. 

INCUBATION, the period from 
the time of infection or the 
sowing of the spores until a 
bacterium or fungus becomes 
externally or visibly manifest. 
Applied mainly to pathogenic 
bacteria affecting animals to 
indicate the period from the 



91 



Incubous 



A DICTIONARY 



Infectious 



time the organism enters the 
body until the disease appears. 

IN'CUBOUS, having the tip of one 
leaf overlap the base of the one 
above it, as in the Jungerman- 
niaceae. Compare Succubous. 

INCUMBENT, leaning or lying 
upon; applied to cotyledons 
when the radicle is folded 
against the back of one of 
them (the radicle in such case 
being dorsal). Compare Ac- 
CUMBENT. An anther is in- 
cumbent when lying on the 
inside of the filament to which 
it is attached. Compare Ver- 
satile. 

INCUR'VATE, see Incurved. 

INCURVED', bent or curved in- 
ward; incurvate. 

INDEC,ID'UOUS, either evergreen 
or persistent. 

INDEFINITE, either uncertain 
or not uniform in number, or 
too many to be readily count- 
ed; numerous; over twenty 
when applied to stamens. 
Also applied to objects which 
have no well-defined boundary 
or outline. 

INDEFINITE GROWTH, see In- 

DETERMINATE. 
INDEFINITE INFLORESCENCE, 

see Indeterminate. 

INDEHIS'CENT, not opening in 
a definite manner at maturity 
to discharge the contents. The 
fruits of the pea and lily are 
dehiscent, those of the tomato 
and apple indeldscent. 

INDETERMINATE, a mode of 
centripetal infloresceuce in 
which the flowers all arise 
from axillary buds. Applied 
also to all stems which do not 
produce a well-developed ter- 
minal bud at the close of the 
season, as the grape. Com- 
pare Determinate. 



92 



INDIF'FERENT, undifferen- 
tiated; not specialized; as in- 
different cells or tissues. 

INDIGENOUS, strictly native; 
aboriginal. Compare Natu- 
ralized. 

INDIVIDUAL FERTILIZATION, 
a term applied by L. H. 
Bailey to cross-fertilization 
between different flowers 
upon the same plaut. 

INDUMEN'TUM, any hairy cover- 
ing upon plants. 

INDUP'LICATE, having the mar- 
gins folded inward. Compare 
Involute. 

INDUrAS CENT, becoming hard. 

IN'DURATED, hardened. 

INDU'SlATED, furnished with an 
indusium. 

INDU'SIUM, an outgrowth of the 
epidermis covering the sorus in 
many kinds of ferns; shield. 
Also applied to a ring of "col- 
lecting hairs" below the stigma, 
as in Lobeliacese. 

INDtJ'SIUM, FALSE, see False 
Indusium. 

INDU'VIiE, any parts of the flow- 
er which persist and cover the 
fruit at maturity; also dead 
and withered leaves which re- 
main persistent on the stem. 
Compare Reliquiae. 

INEQUILAT'ERAL, unequal 
sided. 

INER'MOUS, unarmed; destitute 
of spines, prickles, etc. 

INFARCT'ATE, see Farctate. 

INFECTIOUS. In ordinary use 
this term has the same sense 
as Contagious, being applied to 
all diseases which are commu- 
nicable from one plant or ani- 
mal to another by direct con- 
tact or otherwise. In a broad 
sense infectious includes Con- 
tagious, as defined under that 



Inferior 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Instipulate 



term, and applies also to dis- 
eases originating from germs 
which are able to vegetate for 
a time at least outside of the 
affected plant or animal. In a 
strict sense Infectious applies 
only to diseases produced by 
organisms which have their 
natural home outside of the 
infected body. 

INFE'RIOR, lower, as an ovary 
to which the other floral organs 
are adnate so that they arise 
from its summit. If the other 
organs are free from the ovary 
they are inferior and the ovary 
superior, though the term is 
seldom applied to them. The 
inferior side of a leaf or flower 
is the lower or anterior side 
which faces away from the 
supporting axis or stem. 

INFLA'TED, puffed up; bladdery. 

INFLECT'ED, see Inflexed. 

INFLEXED', abruptly bent in- 
ward or downward; inflected. 

INFLORESCENCE, (1) the ar- 
rangement of the flowers or 
flower-clusters on a plant; an- 
thotaxy. Compare Phyllo- 
taxy. (2) The portion of the 
plaut which bears the flowers 
and fruit, i.e., a flower-cluster 
of any kind. 

INFRA-AXILLARY, situated be- 
low the axil. 

INFRACTED, see Inflexed. 

INFRtJCTES'CENCE, an inflores- 
cence in fruit; the fruiting 
portion of a plant, together 
with its fruit. Little used, 
and applied mainly to col- 
lective fruits. 

INFUNDIB'ULAR, see Infundib- 

TJLIFORM. 

INFUNDIB'ULIFORM, funnel- 
shaped; having a tube which 
gradually eularges upward and 
bears a moderately spreading 



border, as Datura. Compare 
Hypocrateriform. 

INI'TIAL CELLS, the first formed 
cells of a tissue. 

INJECTION, filling of inter- 
cellular spaces by water, an 
occurrence which rarely hap- 
pens. 

INNATE', (1) said of anthers at- 
tached by their base to the 
apex of the filament; such 
anthers are sometimes called 
Vertical ; (2) said of an organ 
or object which grows within 
the substratum, as "mycelium 
or perithecia innate," i.e., 
growing within the tissue of 
the host. 

IN'NER LAM'INA, the layer of a 
liguified cell-wall adjoining the 
inside of the cell. Compare 
Middle Lamina. 

INNOVATION, a new or addi- 
tional growth or shoot, as the 
supplementary extensions of 
the stem in mosses. Applied 
also to an entire group of off- 
growths of the same morpho- 
logical value if some of the 
forms are true innovations in 
their manner of growth; thus 
Dr. William Trelease applies 
this term in Epilobium to 
forms which vary in differ- 
ent species from sessile buds 
to dense rosettes, running leafy 
shoots, scaly rhizomes, and 
filiform bulbiferous stolons. 

INOSCULATING, opening into 
each other; anastomosing. 

INSERT'ED, attached to or grow- 
ing out of, as stamens inserted 
on the corolla. 

INSERTION, the place or mode 
of attachment. 

INSPIS'SATED, thickened by 

drying. 
INSTIP'ULATE, see Exstipu- 

LATE. 



93 



Integrifolious 



A DICTIONARY 



Intine 



INTEGRIFO'LIOUS, having entire 
leaves. 

INTEG'UMENT, any covering 
layer or membrane. 

IN'TER-, in composition, be- 
tween. Compare Intra-. 

INTERAX'ILLARY, between the 
axils. 

INTER'CALATflD, inserted be- 
tween or in the midst of. 

INTERCAR'PELLARY, between 
the carpels. 

INTERCEL'LULAR PASS' AGE, a 
continuous opening between 
the cells. 

INTERCEL'LULAR SPACE, any 
cavity within the plant. Usu- 
ally applied to smaller open- 
ings than intercellular passages. 

INTERgEL'LULAR SUB'STANCE, 
material extruded from the 
cells within the plant. 

INTERCEL'LULAR SYS'TEM, the 
intercellular spaces and mate- 
rial of a plant taken together. 

INTERCOSTAL, situated between 
the ribs of a leaf. 

INTERFASglC'ULAR, between 
the bundles: said of a la} r er 
of cambium which extends 
from one fibrovascular bundle 
to another. 

INTERFI'LAR, between the fila- 
ments, as the resting-spore in 
the conjugation-tube of Meso- 
carpus, or the fluid portion of 
the protoplasm in the hypo- 
thetical fibrillar network. 
Compare Intrafilar. 

INTERFOLlA'CEOUS, attached to 
the stem between the bases or 
petioles of opposite leaves; in- 
terpetiolar. Compare Intra- 
foliaceous. 

INTERME'DIATE TIS'SUE, all 
the fundamental tissue in exo- 
gens, except that which is im- 
mediately associated with the 



94 



epidermis and the fibrovas- 
cular bundles. It includes 
the pith, medullary rays, and 
most of the cortex. The 
term is of little use. 

INTERME'DIATE ZONE, the zone 
in endogens between the pith 
and epidermis containing the 
fibrovascular bundles. 

INTERNAL GLAND, a secreting 
cell, or usually a cluster of 
secreting cells, within the 
plant, as those containing es- 
sential oil which form the 
translucent dots in the leaves 
of the orange. 

IN'TERNODE, the portion of a 
stem between two nodes. 

INTERPET IOLAR, see Inter- 
fouaceous. 

INTERRUPTED, said of any 
surface or series the continuity 
of which is broken, as a pin- 
nate leaf in which leaflets much 
larger or smaller than usual are 
interposed among the others, or 
a slender stem or root which is 
contracted at intervals. 

INTERRUP'TEDLY - PIN'NATE, 

pinnate with small (or some- 
times large) leaflets interposed 
between those of the usual size. 

INTERSTI'TIAL, applied to that 
method or theory of growth 
which consists in the inter- 
position of new particles be- 
tween the older ones instead 
of additions to the surface. 

INTEX'INE, see Intextine. 

INTEX'TINE, a term applied by 
Fritzsche to the inner part of 
the extine when, as in Oeno- 
thera, it separates as a dis- 
tinct membrane. Compare 
Exintine. 

IN'TINE, the inner coat of a 
pollen-grain. 



Intortion 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Involucre 



INTOR'TION, turning to oue side 
from the vertical or any straight 
line. (Rare.) 

INTRA-, in composition, within. 
Compare Inter-. 

INTRAcAR'PELLARY, produced 
inside a carpel. 

INTRACELLULAR, within a cell. 

INTRAfASCICULAR, within the 
bundle, as an intrafascieular 
lacuna in Equisetum. 

INTRAfI'LAR, within the fila- 
ment. Compare Interfilar. 

INTRAfOLIA'CEOUS, within a 
leaf; between the leaf and 
stem, as the stipules of Potyg- 
onum; iutrapetiolar. Compare 
Interfoliaceous. 

INTRAlAM'ELLAR, within spe- 
cial layers or lamellae, as the 
trama of Hymeuomycetes. 

INTRAmARCJINAL, situated 
within but near the margin. 

INTRAMAT'RICAL, in a matrix 
or nidus. 

INTRAPET'IOLAR, (1) inside or 
beneath the petiole, as the buds 
of sumach and sycamore (sub- 
petiolar); (2) between the petiole 
and the stem, as the stipules of 
sycamore and most buds; in- 
trafoliaceous. 

INTRAvAG'INAL, within the 
sheath: applied to branches 
in grasses which in their 
growth do not break through 
the base of the sheath of the 
subtending leaf, but push up- 
ward between the sheath and 
the stem. Compare Extra- 
vaginal. 

INTRODUCED', applied to plants 
brought' from another country, 
and growing spontaneously 
unless otherwise noted. Com- 
pare Naturalized. 

INTROFLEXED', bent strongly 
inward. Between Incurved 
and Infracted. 



INTRORSE', facing or turning 
inward. Applied to anthers 
which open on the side next 
the pistil. 

INTRUDED, appeariug as if 
pushed inward or indented; 
intruse. 

INTUSSUSCEP'TION, the inter- 
calation or formation of other 
particles among those already 
present. 

IN'ULIN, a material isomeric 
with (resembling) starch 
w 7 hich replaces that substance 
in many Composite. 

INVAg'INATED, iuclosed in a 
sheath. 

INVERSE', see Inverted. 

INVERT'ED, having a position or 
mode of attachment the reverse 
of that which is usual; inverse. 
A seed or ovule is inverted 
when attached to the top of 
the ovary. It is then, how- 
ever, more properly called 
' ' suspended . " Compare 
Erect and Ascending. 

INVERT'ED SUPERPOSITION, 
the situation of accessory 
buds below the principal bud 
or one first formed. Compare 
Direct Superposition. 

INVOL'UCEL, a partial or secoud- 
ary involucre, as one subtend- 
ing a partial umbel. 

INVOLUCEL'LUM, see Involu- 
cel. 

INVOLU'CRAL, pertaining to an 
iuvolucre. 

INVOLU'CRATE, having an iu- 
volucre; involucred. 

IN'VOLUCRE, a set of bracts im- 
mediately subtending a flower 
or infloresceuce; involucrum. 

IN'VOLUCRED, see Involu- 

CRATE. 

INVOLU'CRET, see Involucel. 
INVOLU'CRUM, see Involucre. 



95 



Involute 



A DICTIONARY 



Joint 



IN'VOLTJTE, rolled inward from 
both sides. Compare Con- 
volute. 

INVOLU'TION-EORM, a swollen 
bladder-like form in Schizo- 
mycetes, supposed to be a dis- 
eased couditiou of the form 
with which it is found asso- 
ciated. (De Bary.) 

INVOLU'TION-PE'RIOD.see Rest- 
in g-period. 
INVOLUTION-STAGE, see Rest- 

ING-STAGE. 

IRREG'ULAR, denoting flowers 
in which one or more of the 
orgaus of a set are different 
in size or form from the 
others. Irregularity occurs 
most frequently in the petals. 
The pea is an example of an 
irregular flower, the tulip of 
a regular. Compare Symmet- 
rical. 

IRREG'ULAR PELO'RlA, a tera- 
tological condition in which an 
irregular flower becomes regu- 
lar by the formation of the 
irregular parts in increased 
number. Compare Regular 
Pelorta. 

IRRITABIL'lTY, having the 
power of movement in a 
definite manner under the 
influence of external stimuli, 
as in the coiling of tendrils, 
twiuing of stems, or "sleep" 
of leaves; sensitiveness. Com- 
pare Excitability and Con- 
tractility. 

isADEL'PHOUS, having an equal 
number of stamens in each 
adelphia. 

ISOBlLAT'ERAL, having two 
sides alike in form and struc- 
ture, as the leaves in the iris. 

ISOB'RIOUS, applied to the em- 
bryo of dicotyledons because 
both are equally developed; 
isodynamous. Little used. 



ISOOHRO'US, uniform in color 
throughout; uuicolor. Com- 
pare Concolor. 

ISODY'NAMOUS, equally devel- 
oped. 

ISOG'AmY, the conjugation of 
gametes of similar form. 
Compare Oogamy. 

ISOG YNOUS, having the pistils 
of a flower all alike. Compare 
Heterogynous. 

ISOMERIC, see Isomerous. 

ISOM'EROUS, having the same 
number of orgaus in each 
floral whorl; isomeric. There 
may be more than one whorl 
of any of the kinds of organs. 
Compare Heteromerous. 

ISOPH'OROUS, transformable into 
something else, as "Actinia is 
an isoplwrous form of Deudro- 
bium." 

I'SOSPORE, said of a spore when 
all arealike, as in ferns. (Rare.) 
Compare Macrospore and 
Microspore. 

ISOS'POROUS, not having macro- 
spores and microspores; ho- 
mosporous. Compare Heter- 
osporous. 

ISOSTEM'ONOUS, having the sta- 
mens equal in number to the 
petals. More properly, having 
the stamens and petals each in 
one whorl aud of equal number. 
Compare Anisostemonous, 
Meiostemonous, Diplostem- 
onous, and Obdiplostemo- 
nous. 

ISCS'TOMOUS, having calyx aud 
corolla of equal size. (Rare.) 

ISTH'MUS, the constricted por- 
tion between the two half-cells 
in most desmids. 

JOINT, a node; the septum be- 
tween two cells in a filament; 
articulation. 



96 



Juba 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Labium 



JU'BA, a loose panicle. (Obs.) 

JtJ'GUM (pi. Ju'ga), (1) one of 
the ridges on an umbelliferous 
fruit; (2) a pair of leaflets in a 
pinnate leaf. 

JULA'CEOUS, see Amentaceous. 

jfj'LIFORM, resembling an anient 

or catkin. 
JU'LUS, see Ament. 
JUVENES'CENCE, see Rejuve 

nescence. 

KARYOKINE'SIS (also spelled 
Caryocinesis), Schleicher's 
term, which has been gener- 
ally adopted, for the trans- 
formations of the nucleus 
during cell-division ; indirect 
division of Fleming. 

KARYOL'YSIS, the dissolution of 
the uucleus or some part of it. 

KARYOMITO'SIS, see under 
Mitosis. 

KAR'YOPLAsM, see Nucleo- 
plasm. 

KArYOSO'MA (pi. Karyosom'ata), 
a consolidated mass of micro- 
somata in a nucleus. 

KATABOL'IC, a term applied by 
Geddes to disruptive, destruc- 
tive, or descending metabo- 
lism, accompanying the waste 
of tissues, resulting in the 
formation of chemical prod- 
ucts of simpler composition; 
catabolic. Compare Anabolic. 

kATHOD'IC, see Cathodic. 

KEEL, a ridge somewhat resem- 
bling the keel of a boat; par- 
ticularly the two inferior petals 
of a papiliouaceous flower 
which are more or less united 
into a keel-shaped body; ca- 
rina. 

KEELED, having a keel or longi- 
tudinal ridge; cariuated. 

KERAMID IUM, see Ceramid- 
ium. 



KEY, see Samara. 

KEY-FRUIT, see Samara. 

KID'NEY FORM, see Reniform. 

KID'NEY-SHAPED, see Reni- 
form. 

KNEE, a kind of knot which pro- 
jects upward into the air from 
the roots of the bald cypress 
{Taxodium distkhum) and 
some other trees. Produced 
mainly in wet soil, and for- 
merly supposed to serve for 
aeration, but now believed to 
be an organ of strength. See 
Pneumatode. The term knee 
is also applied to any abruptly 
bent or knee-shaped organ. 

KNEE-JOINTED, see Genicu- 
late. 

KNEEPAN-SHAPED, see Patel- 

LIFORM. 

KNOT, a node or swolleu joint; 
a protuberance on the surface 
of a tree, as where a branch 
has been removed and the cut 
or broken surface is more or 
less overgrown; a place in the 
wood where the tissues are dis- 
placed by an injury or by the 
passage of a branch. 

KNOTTED, cylindrical, and 
swollen at intervals, some- 
what like a knotted cord. 

LABEL'LUM, the large lower 
petal of au orchid; lip. 

LA'BlATE, gamopetalous, with 
two divisions, anterior and 
posterior; two-lipped; bila- 
biate. The two lips of a la- 
biate flower are usually un- 
equal and the flower irregular, 
as in snap-dragon. 

LA'BIOSE, having the petals of a 
polypetalous corolla arranged 
so as to imitate the labiate form. 
(Rare.) 

LA'BIUM, the lower lip of a 
labiate flower. 



97 



Lacerate 



A DICTIONARY 



Larval State 



LAC ERATE, having the margin 
deeply cut iuto irregular seg- 
ments as if torn. Compare 
Erose, Incised, Laciniate. 

LAc'ERATED, see Lacerate. 

LACH'RYMiEFORM, see Tear- 
shaped. 

LACIN'lA (pi. Lacin'ise), a seg- 
ment of a laciniate leaf. 

LACIN'lATE, deeply cut into 
narrow incisions, more ir- 
regular and larger than Fim- 
briate; slashed. 

LACIN'IFORM, fringe-like. 

LAglN'ULATE, finely laciniate. 
Compare Lacinulose. 

LAc,IN'UL6SE, laciuulate or bear- 
ing little fringes. 

LACTES'CENT, resembling or 
producing milk or latex. 

LACTIFEROUS, producing or 
conveying latex; laticiferous. 

LACTIFEROUS VES'SELS, see 
Laticiferous Vessels.^ 

LAcU'NA (pi. Lacu'nae), a large 
deep depression on the surface, 
or open space between the 
cells. 

LACU'NAR, having, resembling, 
or pertaining to lacunar. 

LAC'UnOSE, (1) perforated with 
rather large holes. Compare 
Foraminated. (2) Having 
depressions in the surface 
larger, more irregular, or 
more irregularly placed than 
in Alveolate. 

LAC'UNOSE - RUGOSE', marked 
with deep broad irregular 
wrinkles, as the shell of the 
walnut or pit of the peach. 
Compare Ruminated. 

LAcUS'TRINE, growing in or on 
the margins of lakes. 

LADDER CELLS, see Scalari- 
form Vessels. 

LEVIGATE, smoothed, as if 
polished; loevis. 



L.&"ViS, smooth; having an even 
surface devoid of hair or 
roughness of any kind; op- 
posed especially to asperate, 
striate, sulcate, or any un- 
evenuess. Compare Nitid 
and Glabrous. 

LAgE'NIFORM, shaped like a 
Florence flask (the ordinary 
bulbous flask of chemists). 
The term bottle-shaped means 
the same, or nearly the same. 

LAM'EL, see Lamella. 

LAMEL'LA (pi. Lamellae), dimin- 
utive of Lamiua; a thin plate, 
as one of the " gills" beneath, 
the cap of a mushroom. 

LAM'ELLATE, composed of thin 
plates or scales; lamellose. 

LAMEL'LlFORM, in the form of 

a plate or scale. 
LAM'ELLOSE, see Lamellate. 

LAMINA (pi. Lam'inae), the blade 
of a leaf or limb of a petal or 
sepal. 

LAM'INATED, consisting of 
plates, scales, or layers; plated. 

LAMINATED BULB, see Tuni- 
cated Bulb. 

LA'NATE, covered with long 
curled hairs like wool; la- 
nose; lanuginous; woolly. 

LAN'CEOLATE, tapering abrupt- 
ly toward the base and gradu- 
ally toward the apex, like the 
head of a lance. 

LANCE-OVATE, between lanceo- 
late and ovate, but approaching 
nearer the latter. 

LA'NOSE, see Lanate. 

lAnU'GINOUS, see Lanate. 

LAP'IDOSE, growing in stony 
places. 

LAPPA'CEOUS, bur-like. 

LAR'VAL STATE, resting state, 
as the sphacelium of ergot. 
(W. G. Smith.) Seldom used. 



Lasiocarpous 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Leaflet 



LASIOCARPOUS, having pubes- 
cent fruit. 

LA'TENT, remaining dormant 
beyond the usual time, or 
until called into growth by 
some particular stimulus. 

LA'TENT BUD, see Dormant 
Bud and Adventitious Bud. 

LA'TENT PERIOD, see Dor- 
mant State and Resting I 
Period. 

LAT ERAL, attached to the side 
of an organ. 

LAT'ERAL, n., a side branch or 
root. 

LAT'ERAL BUD, one situated on 
the side of a branch, usually 
in the axil of a leaf. Compare 
Terminal Bud. 

LAT'ERAL DEHISCENCE, when 
the opening of an anther takes 
place upon one or both sides, 
instead of on the surface facing 
or opposite to the pistil. 

LATERAL NUCLEOLUS, see 
Paranucleolus. 

LAT'ERAL NU'CLEUS, see Para- 
nucleus. 

LAT'ERAL PLANE, of a flower 
or other lateral structure, a 
plane passing from side to 
side at right angles to the 
median plane. The lateral 
plane of a leaf, for example, 
would pass between its upper 
and lower surfaces. 

LA'TEX, a viscid milky fluid 
found in certain plants, as the 
lettuce. See Laticiferous 
Vessels. 

LA'TEX TUBES, see Laticifer- 
ous Vessels. 

LATICIFEROUS VES'SELS, spe- 
cial" anastomosing tubes con- 
taining the latex in such plants 
as have milky juice; latex 
tubes. 



LATIFO LlATE, having broad 
leaves. Compare Stf.noph- 
yllous and Angustifoliate. 
LAtIFO'LIOUS, see Latifoliate. 
LATISEP'TATE, having a broad 
septum or partition; — applied 
to pericarps. Compare An- 
gustiseptate. 
LAT'TICED, see Clatiirate. 
LAT'TICED CELL, see Sieve- 
tube. 
LAX, loose; the opposite of close 
or crowded. An inflorescence 
may be lax because its pedicels 
are flaccid or slender. 
LEADER, the upper portion of 
the primary stem of a tree.or 
a central upright branch which 
extends beyond the rest of the 
head . 
LEAF, an appendage to the stem, 
definite in position, and usu- 
ally expanded to receive air 
aud light. Besides leaves of 
the usual forms which serve as 
foliage there are other forms 
for additional purposes, in- 
cluding those which form the 
various parts of a flower. See 
Phyllome. 
LEAF-ARRANGE'MENT, see 

Phyllotaxis. 
LEAF-BLADE, the expanded por- 
tion of ordinary leaves; lamina. 
LEAF-BUD, a bud which imme- 
diately upon expansion pro- 
duces leaves only. Compare 
Flower-bud. 
LEAF-CYCLE, the course of a 
spiral from the insertion of a 
leaf through that of interme- 
diate ones to the insertion of 
the next leaf directly above or 
below the place of starting. 
LEAF-GREEN, see Chloro- 
phyll. 
LEAFLET, one of the divisions 
or blades of a compound leaf. 
Leaflets are often articulated 



99 



Leaf-scar 



A DICTIONARY 



Leptome 



to the common petiole, and iu 
order to be distinguished from 
segments they must them- 
selves have distinct petioles, 
however short. 
LEAF-SCAR, the place on a stem 
from which a leaf has fallen. 

LEAF- SHEATH, see Sheath. 

LEAF-STALK, see Petiole. 

LEAF-TENDRIL, a tendril which 
is a transformed leaf or part of 
a leaf. 

LEAF TRACE, a fibrovascular 
bundle, or collection of bun- 
dles, while on its passage from 
the fibrovascular system of the 
stem to the leaf. 

LEATHERY, see Coriaceous. 

LEFT. The left margin of a leaf, 
petal, or other foliar organ is 
the one upou the left hand as 
its stem is held downward or 
toward the observer and t he- 
organ is viewed upon the 
upper or inner surface. The 
left side of a lateral flower is the 
side upon the left hand as the 
observer stands in front with 
the stem erect and the flower 
between him and the main axis. 
See remarks under Dextrorse. 

LEGITIMATE FERTILIZA- 

TION, fertizliatiou iu the 
usual or natural manner, 
either close or cross fertili- 
zation, whichever in the par- 
ticular case occurs iu nature. 

LEG'tJME, the fruit of the Legu- 
minosse. It is monocarpellary, 
with the seeds attached to the 
ventral side, and usually mon- 
olocular and dehiscent into 
two valves by ventral and dor- 
sal sutures. The pea and bean 
are examples. Compare Lo- 

MENT. 

LEGU'MINOUS, bearing legumes, 
or relating to plants of the 
order Legurninosoe. 



LEIO-, a prefix from the Greek, 
meaning smooth. 

LEN'TICELS, small developments 
of cork at particular points on 
the surface of many kinds of 
stems. They appear during 
the first season's growth, and 
in some cases, at least, origi- 
nate beneath the stomata. 
They probably aid iu the 
transfer of gases and aqeuous 
vapor. 

LENTICELLE', see Lenticel. 
LENTIC'ULA (pi. Lentic'ulae), see 
Lenticel. 

LENTICULAR, in the form of a 
double convex lens; lentiform. 

LEN'TIFORM, see Lenticular. 

LENTIG'INOSE, see Lentigi- 
nous. 

LENTIG'INOUS, covered with 
small dots, like dust, scurf, 
or freckles; lentigiuose. 

LEP'AL, a rudimentary sterile 
stamen, or organ supposed to 
be such, usually in the form 
of a nectar-gland or petaloid 
scale; gland of the torus. See 
Staminodium. 

LEPAN'THltJM, an old term for 
a petal which contains a nec- 
tary. 

LEP'IDES, epidermal scales of 
various kinds, especially when 
attached at the centre. Com- 
pare Ramenta. 

LEPIDOTE, scaly; scurfy; lep- 
rous; leprose. 

LEP'ROSE, see Lepidote. 

LEP'ROUS, see Lepidote. 

LEP TA-, or LEPTO-, a prefix 
from the Greek, meaning 
small, thin, or slender. 

LEP'TOME, see Phloem. Ap- 
plied by Potonie to the 
phloem-like portion of the 
fibrovascular bundle in vas- 

100 



Leptophloem 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Liguliflorous 



cular cryptogams. Compare 
Hadrome. 

LEPTOPHLO'EM, a term applied 
by Vaizey to a portion of the 
central fascicle or strand in the 
seta of Polytrichaceae (in 
mosses) which he considers 
to be rudimentary phloem. 

LEPTOPHYL'LOUS, having scale- 
like leaves. 

LEPTOSPORAN'GIUM, a sporan- 
gium derived from a single 
epidermal cell, as in the true 
ferns, in distinction from one 
derived from a group of epi- 
dermal cells (eusporangium), 
as in the Ophioglossaceee and 
Marattiaceae. 

LEPTOXY'LEM, so-called rudi- 
mentary xylem in the seta of 
Polytrichaceae. (Vaizey.) 

LETT-, or LEUCO-, a prefix from 
the Greek, meaning white. 

LEUCAN'THOUS, white-flowered. 

LEU'CITE, see Leucoplast. 

LEU'COPLAST, a colorless proto- 
plasmic granule (plustid) such 
as those in which starch origi- 
nates; starch-builder; leuco- 
plastid; amidoplast; anaplast; 
leucite proper. See Plastid. 

LEVIGATE, see Levigate. 

LE'VIS, see L^evis. 

Ll'ANE, a woody climbing or 
twining plant of considerable 
size; applied only to those 
which ahound in some tropical 
forests. 

LI'BER, the inner layer of bark, 
consisting chiefly of the phloem 
of the fibrovascular system and 
therefore containing the bast- 
tissue; bast. 

LI'BRIFORM CELL, a narrow 
thick-walled cell of woody 
tissue resembling bast; wood- 
fibre. 

LID, see Operculum. 



LID-CELLS, terminal cells of the 
neck in some archegonia which 
for a time close the canal; stig- 
matic cells. 

LIFE-CY'CLE, the course of de- 
velopment from any given 
stage, as the spore or seed, 
back to the same stage again. 

LIG'NEOUS, woody, or pertain- 
ing to wood. 

LIGNIFICA'TION, the process of 
becoming converted into wood ; 
sclerosis. 

LIG'NINE, a secondary deposit, 
forming the greater part of the 
bulk of ordinary wood. It 
contains less oxygen than cel- 
lulose, and accordiug to Pay en 
has the formula CasH^C^o- 
It is also written Ligniu, and 
is the same as Sclerogen. 

LIG'NUM, see Wood. 

LIG'ULA (pi. Lig'ulie), see Lig- 
ule. 

LIG'ULATE, (1) having a ligule; 
(2) strap - shaped, i.e., linear 
and about four to six times as 
long as broad. 

LIG'ULATE FLORET, one of the 

marginal flowers of a head in 
Compositae, bearing a ligulate 
or strap-shaped corolla; ray- 
floret. Compare Tubular 
Floret. 

LIGULE, (1) a strap-shaped co- 
rolla in Compositae, such as 
those on the outer margin of 
the head in most sun-flowers; 
(2) a membranous appendage 
on the inner side of the leaf in 
many grasses and some other 
endogens at the top of the 
sheath. 

LIGULLFLO'ROUS, said of a head 
of flowers in Compositae which 
contains ligulate flowers only, 
as in Chicory. 



101 



Limb 



A DICTIONARY 



Loculose 



LIMB, the expanded portion of a 
petal or sepal. Compare Blade 
and Border. 

LIM'BATE, see Bordered. 

LIM'BUS, border, blade, or limb. 
(Obs.) 

LIM'ITING CELL, see Hetero- 
cyst. 

LINE, one twelfth of an inch. 

LIN'EAR, very narrow, with the 
margins parallel or nearly so. 

LIN'EATE, marked with tine par- 
allel lines, especially of color. 
Compare Striate and Acicu- 

LATED. 

LIN'EOLATE, diminutive of Lin- 
eate. 

LIN'GUJEFORM, see Tongue- 
shaped. 

LIN'GUIFORM, see Tongue- 
shaped. 

LIN'GtJLATE, see Tongue- 
shaped. 

LI'NINE, a term proposed by 
Schwarz and adopted by Stras- 
burger (1888) for the substance 
of the hyaloplasmic filaments 
of the nucleus in a state of 
repose. 

LINNJ:'AN SYS TEM, the system 
of classification devised by 
Linnaeus, founded upon the 
number and arrangement of 
the stamens and pistils; sexual 
system. 

LIP, (1) one of the divisions 
(especially the lower) of a la- 
biate calyx or corolla; (2) the 
labellum in orchids. 

LIPOX'ENOtJS, said of a parasite 
which leaves its host and com- 
pletes its development inde- 
pendently at the expense of 
the reserve material appro- 
priated from the host. (De 
Bary.) Compare Metcecious. 

LIPPED, see Labiate. Applied 
in pomology to the cavity of 



an apple when a broad pro- 
jection of the flesh protrudes 
against the stem. Compare 
Folded. 

LIREL'LA (pi. Lirel'lae), a linear 
sessile apothecium in lichens. 

LITHOPHILOUS, see Saxico- 

LOUS. 

LITH'OCARP, see Carpolite. 
LITH'OCYST, a cell containing a 



cystolith. 

LITHOSPER'MOUS, having very 
hard seeds. 

LIT'TORAL, growing upon 
shores, especially upon the 
sea-shore between tide-marks. 
Compare Marine. 

LIVID, lead-color; bluish brown 
or gray. 

LOB ATE, lobed; said of a leaf 
the margin of which is divided 
about to the middle into round- 
ed parts with broad sinuses. 

LOBE, a rounded portion of a 
leaf or petal; any division of a 
leaf larger than a tooth which 
is not a leaflet. 

LOBED, see Lobate. 

LOB'ULATE, having small lobes. 

LOB'ULE, a small lobe. 

LOCEL'LATE, having small or 
secondary cavities (locelli). 

LOCEL'LUS (pi. Lo^el'll), diminu- 
tive of Loculus; a little cavity. 
Used by some in the sense of 
Loculus for a compartment in 
an ovary or anther. 

LOC'ULAmeNT, see Loculus. 

LOC'ULAR, having a cavity or 
cavities; loculose. 

LOCULICI'DAL, dehiscent 
throughout the middle of 
the back of each cell at a 
dorsal suture. Compare Sep- 

TICIDAL. 

LOCULOSE, locular; cellular; es- 
pecially, having numerous cav- 
102 



Loculous 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Lysi genie 



ities, as the pith of poke, Phy- 
tolacca decandra. 

LOCULOUS, see Locular. 
LOC'ULUS (pi. Loc'uli), the cell of 
an ovary, anther, or similar 
cavity. 
LOCUS TA, see Spikelet. 
LODIC'ULA (pi. Lodic'ulae), see 

Lodicule. 
LOD'ICULE, one of the small 
scales at the base of the grain 
between the stamens and palet 
of many grasses. 
LOMENT, a jointed or pluri- 
locular legume formed by 
spurious transverse dissepi- 
ments, as in Desmodium. 
Some loments are articulated 
and separable at the septa or 
pseudo-septa between the seeds. 
LOMENTA'CEOUS, bearing or re- 
sembling a loment. 
LOMEN'TUM, see Loment. 
LONGITUDINAL SYS'TEM, an 
obsolete term for fibrovascular 
system. 
LO'RATE, having the form of a 
thong or strap; ligulate; linear. 
Compare Flabelliform. 
LU'BRICOUS, slippery. 
LU'CID, clear. Often used in the 

sense of Nitid. 
LUM BRICAL, about the shape of 
an earth-worm. Compare Ver- 
micular. 
LU'MEN (pi. Lu'mina), the cavity 
of a cell or filament, or any 
part or spot which seems to 
emit light. 
LU'NAR, (1) pertaining to the 
moon; (2) in the form of a 
half-moon or crescent, as a 
lunar spot upon a leaf; semi- 
lunar; semilunate. Compare 
Lunate. 
LU'NATE, said of an organ hav- 
ing the form of a half- moon or 
crescent, or which is marked 



with one or more spots of that 
form, as a lunate leaf. Com- 
pare Lunar. 

LU'NATED, having lunar mark- 
ings; lunate. 

LU'NIFORM, half-moon or cres- 
cent shaped; lunate. 

LU'NULATE, diminutive of Lu- 
nate. 

LU'PULINE, a yellow waxy pow- 
der resembling pollen, upon 
the scales of the hop, contain- 
ing the active principle, which 
is bitter, aromatic, and tonic. 

LUPULI'NOUS, resembling a head 
or cone of hops. 

LU'RID, dingy brown. 
LUTES'CENT, yellowish. 

LU'TEUS, bright orange yellow. 

Compare Flavus. 
LYCOT ROPAL, see Lycotro- 

POUS. 

LYCOT'ROPOUS, said of an other- 
wise orthotropous ovule which 
is curved like a horseshoe. 
LYMPHATIC, clear, like water; 
not clouded: said, for example, 
of ordinary plant-hairs contain- 
ing clear cell-fluid in distinc- 
tion from those which are 
glandular, in which the cell- 
contents are usually granular 
and turbid. 
LYRATE, pinnatifid, with the 
lobes decreasing in size to- 
ward the base. 
LY'RATELY PIN'NATE, pinnate, 
with the pinnae decreasing in 
size toward the base of the leaf. 
LYRE-SHAPED, see Lyrate. 
LYSIGENET IC, see Lysigenic. 
LYSIGEN'IC, formed by the dis- 
organization of cells; applied 
to the formation of certain in- 
tercellular spaces which origi- 
nate by the breaking down of 
contiguous cells; lysigenetic; 

103 



Lysigenous 



A DICTIONARY 



Manubrium 



lysigeuous. Compare Schizo- 

GENIC. 

LYSIG'ENOUS, see Lysigenic. 

MACRAN DROUS, having large or 
elongated male plants in algae. 

MACRO-, large or long. 

MACROCEPHALOUS, a term 
sometimes applied to embryos 
which have the cotyledons 
very large and consolidated, 
as in horse-chestnut. Com- 
pare Macropodous. 

MACROGONID'IUM (pi. Macrogo- 
nid'ia), see Mackospore. 

MACROPH'YLLOUS, having loDg 
or large leaves. 

MACROP'ODOtJS, a term of little 
importance applied to a leaf 
having a long petiole, or to an 
embryo, chiefly in monocoty- 
ledons, having a large radicle. 

MACROSPORAN'GltJM, a sporan- 
gium containing macrospores; 
megasporangium; oosporan- 
gium. 

MAC'ROSPORE, a female or ar- 
chegonium - bearing spore in 
some vascular cryptogams. 
The macrospores are larger 
than the male or microspores. 

MACROSPO'ROPHYL, the leaf 
bearing the macrosporangium 
in the heterosporous Pterido- 
phyta. It is the homologue of 
the carpel in flowering plants. 

MACROSTY'LOUS, applied to het- 
erostylous flowers with long 
styles and short filaments. See 
remark under Microstylous. 

MACULATE, spotted or blotched; 
maculose. 

MACULA'TION, the pattern or 
arrangement of the spots upon 
a plant. 

MAC ULOSE, see Maculate. 

MAIDEN (Hort.), a term some- 
times applied to a tree or other 
plant of one year's growth from 



the bud or graft. Also applied 
to any plant which has not 
fruited, and in forestry to a 
seedling in distinction from a 
tree which has sprung from an 
old root or stub. 

mALACOID, mucilaginous. 

MALE, bearing stamens only; 
staminate; bearing only male 
organs of whatever kind, or 
pertaining to individuals 
which bear them. 

MALE FLOWER, staminate 
flower. 

MALPIGHIA'CEOUS HAIRS, stel- 
late hairs attached by their 
middle, as in the order Mal- 
pighiaceae. 

MALPIG'HIAN CELLS, palisade- 
like cells in which tine or more 
light lines are present, found 
in the seed-coats of Legu- 
minosae, Malvaceae, etc. 

MAM'MIFORM, breast-shaped. 

MAMMIL'LA (pi. Mammil'lae), a 
small nipple or teat-like promi- 
nence, as on some pollen-grains. 
More short and obtuse than 
Papilla. The term is some- 
times applied to the apex of 
the nucleus of an ovule. 

MAm'MILLATE, nipple-shaped, 
or bearing mammillae. Com- 
pare Papillate. 

MAM'MILLATED, bearing mam- 
millae. 

MAm'MOSE, breast - shaped, or 
bearing breast-shaped promi- 
nences. 

MAN'ICATE, having a coating of 
entangled hairs which may be 
removed entire. Compare 
Floccose and Pannose. 

MANUBRIUM (pi. Manu'bria), 
a cylindrical cell which pro- 
jects inward from the centre 
of each of the eight shields 
composing the wall of the glob- 
ule in Characeae. The mauu- 



104 



Marbled 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. Medullary Rays 



bria support the apparatus 
which contains the anthero- 
zoids. 

MARBLED, covered with faint 
irregular wide stripes, or trav- 
ersed by vein-like markings 
like those which occur in cer- 
tain kinds of marble; marmo- 
rate. 

MARCES'CENT, withering but 
not falling off, as the corolla 
of lobelia. 

MAR'GINAL VEIL, in Hymen o- 
mycetea (mushrooms, etc.), a 
membrane stretching from the 
margin of the pileus to the sur- 
face of the stipe in the young 
sporophore and covering the 
hymeuium; velum partiale. 

MAR'GINATE, having a margin 
differing in texture, form, or 
color from the remainder of 
the surface; margined; edged. 

MAR'GINED, see Marginate. 

MARINE', growing in the sea or 
upon the immediate sea-shore. 
Compare Littoral and Mari- 
time. 

MARITIME, growing upon or 
near the sea-shore. 

MAR'MORATE, see Marbled. 

MASKED, see Personate. 

MAs'StJLA (pi. Mas'sulse), one of 
the lumps of mucilage derived 
from the disorganized tapetum 
of the microsporaugium of 
Azolla and enclosing a num- 
ber of spores. Also applied 
to an adherent group of pol- 
len-grains derived from a sin- 
gle mother-cell, as the ulti- 
mate groups in a pollen-mass 
in orchids, each containing 
four grains. 

MAST, a popular name for the 
fruit of the oak, chestnut, 
beech, and some other forest 
trees. 



MAS'TOID, large teat - shaped. 
(Rare.) 

MA'TRIX, the place or body 
upou or within which any- 
thing grows. 

MATTUL'LA, the fibrous material 
at the base of the petioles of 
palms; reticulum. 

MATtJRES'CENT, approaching 
maturity. 

MATUTI'NAL, pertaining to the 
morning; expanding in the 
morning, as the flowers of 
morning-glory. 

MEAL'Y, see Farinaceous. 

MEDIAL, pertaining to the mid- 
dle; median. 

MEDIAN, see Medial. 

ME'DIAN LINE, a line along the 
centre or axis of a bilateral 
organ, as along the midrib of 
a leaf. 

ME'DIAN PLANE of a flower or 
other lateral structure, the same 
as antero-posterior plane, i.e., 
a vertical plane which bisects 
an organ into right and left 
halves. The median plane of 
a leaf would pass through the 
midrib above and below. Com- 
pare Lateral Plane. 

MEDTJL'LA, pith; also central 
tissue of some other kinds, as 
of the thallus in lichens. 

MED'ULLARY, pertaining to 
medulla or pith. 

MED'ULLARY RAYS, vertical 
plates of cellular tissue in the 
fibrovascular system of exo- 
gens connecting the pith and 
the cortex. They form the 
glistening spots called "silver 
grain " which are seen on 
the surface of wood which is 
split radially. Only the rays 
formed the first season extend 
entirely to the pith. See Xy- 
lem Ray and Phloem Ray. 



105 



Medullary Sheath 



A DICTIONARY 



Meristem 



MEDULLARY SHEATH, the ring 
of primary xylem bundles 
which project into the pith. 
Compare Cortical Sheath. 

MED'ULLARY SYS'TEM, a term 
sometimes applied to the whole 
fundamental system, but usu- 
ally, and more properly, em- 
ployed to include only the pith 
and medullary rays, or funda- 
mental tissue withiu the cortex. 

MED'ULLOSE, pith-like. 

MEGAlOGONID'IUM, see Macro- 
spoke. 

MEGARHY'ZOUS, large-rooted. 
MEGASPOrAN'GIUM, see Mac- 

ROSPORANGIUM. 

MEG ASPORE, see Microspore. 

MEI'OPHYLLY, the suppression 
of one or more leaves or foliar 
organs in a whorl; miophylly. 
It differs from Abortion in the 
fact that the suppressed organs 
have never started to grow. 

MEIOSTEM'ONOUS, having fewer 
stamens than petals. This is 
its usual meauiug. Compare 

IsOSTEMONOUS. 

MEI'OTAxY, the complete sup- 
pression of a whole set of or- 
gaus, as all of the corolla or 
all of the stamens. 

MELAnOSPERM'OUS, having 
dark-colored seeds or spores. 

MELLIFEROUS, honey-bearing. 

MEL'ON-SHAPED, oval, with de- 
pressed lines running from end 
to end, as in most muskmelons. 

MELT'ING, easily dissolving in 
the mouth, or under slight 
pressure. A descriptive char- 
acter in certain varieties of 
pears. 

MEMBER, a term employed to 
designate any part of a plant 
when treated with reference to 
its position and fundamental 
structure, but not with refer- 



ence to function. Thus, all 
leaves are one and the same 
member, though they may be 
developed in different ways to 
form different organs. Com- 
pare Organ. 

MEMBRANACEOUS, see Mem- 
branous. 

MEM'BRANE, a very thin ex- 
panded tissue, serving the 
purpose of separation or pro- 
tection. 

MEMBRANEOUS, see Membra- 
nous. 

MEM'BRAnOUS, thin, soft, and 
usually translucent, like a 
membrane. Compare Sca- 
rious. 

MENIS'COID, shaped like a me- 
niscus or concavo-convex lens. 

MEN'TUM, a forward projection 
of the foot of the column in 
some orchids. 

MER'ICARP, one of the carpids 
or ripened carpels of a schizo- 
carp, especially one of the 
halves of the cremocarp in 
Umbel liferae; diachoenium; 
hemicarp. 

MER'IDISK, a name proposed by 
Clos for any process upon the 
receptacle, aside from the floral 
organs, whether glandular or 
not. See Lepal. 

MERISMAT'IC, dividing into 
parts by the formation of 
septa. 

MER'ISPORE, one of the cells of 
a compound spore. 

MER'ISTEM, tissue in an early 
condition or nascent state while 
the cells are still undergoing 
cell-division, as in cambium; 
formative tissue; generating 
tissue. 

MER'ISTfiM, PRIMARY, see 
Primary Meristem. 

MER'ISTEM, SECONDARY, see 
Secondary Meristem. 
106 



Meristematic 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Metaphases 



MERISTEMAtIC, consisting of 
meristem. 

MER'ITHALL, see Internode. 

MERITHAL LUS (obs.), see IN- 
TERNODE. 

MEROBLAs TIC, applied to the 
formation of the embryo from 
a part only of the oosphere, as 
in some Gymnosperms. 

MES'OBLAST (obs.), see Nu- 
cleus. 

MES'OCARP, the middle layer of 
a pericarp when distinguish- 
able into three layers. This 
layer is sometimes developed 
as a sarcocarp. Applied main- 
ly to stone-fruits. 

MES'OCHIL, the central part of 
the labellum in such orchids as 
have that organ separated into 
three distinct portions. 

MESOPHLtE'UM, the middle or 
green layer of the bark, be- 
tween the liber and the outer 
(usually dry) epiphlceum or 
corky layer; cellular-envelope. 

MES'OPHYLL, all the fundamen- 
tal tissue of a leaf within the 
epidermis. 

MESOPHYL'LtJM, see Meso- 

FIIYLL. 

MESOPH'YTtJM (obs.), see Col- 
lar. Also applied by Lind- 
ley to the line of demarcation 
between interuode and petiole. 

MES'OSPERM, see Secundine. 

MES'OSPORE, the middle coat of 
a spore when there are three. 

MESOSTY'LOUS, having styles of 
intermediate length in hetero- 
styled plants. 

MESOTHE CIUM, the central of 
the three layers of cells in the 
coat of an immature anther; 
fibrous layer. The cells of 
this layer have annular thick- 
enings. In the mature anther 
the proper endothecium has 



often disappeared, leaving the 
mesothecium as the inner lay- 
er, which is then usually called 
endothecium. 

MfiS'TOME, a term applied by 
Schweudeuer to nbrovascular 
tissue on functional grounds, 
in distinction from cortical tis- 
sue, which (serving for sup- 
port chiefly) he termed stere- 
ome. Strictly, however, the 
term mestome refers only to 
the essential or conductive por- 
tion of a bundle, the bundle- 
sheath being strengthening tis- 
sue and therefore stereome. 

METABOLISM, the chemical 
changes which take place in 
a plant in the process of 
growth; metastasis; transmu- 
tation. It includes both Ana- 
bolism and Catabolism. 

METAGEN'ESIS, the production 
of sexual individuals by non- 
sexual means, either directly 
or through intervening sexless 
generations; alternation of 
generations; polymorphism. 

METAkINE'SIS, that part of the 
metaphases in karyokinesis 
which includes only the sep- 
aration of the threads. 

MET'AMER, applied by Sachs to 
a Phyton (which see), or one 
of any number of similar parts 
connected in a series. 

METAMORPHOSIS, the varied 
development of members of 
the same morphological value, 
resulting from their adapta- 
tion to different functions. 
Compare Transformation. 

METAPHASES, a term applied 
by Strasburger to those por- 
tions of karyokinesis which 
include the longitudinal split- 
ting of the threads, the for 
niation of the mother-star, and 
the subsequent separation of 



107 



Metaplasm 



A DICTIONARY 



Microzoogonidium 



the segments to form the 
daughter-stars. 

MET'APLASM, a name given by 
Hanstein^to that part of the 
protoplasm which holds the 
formative material. Used by 
some synonymously with Deu- 
toplasm . 

METASPER'MOUS, see Angio- 

SPERMOTS. 

METASTASIS, see Metabolism. 

METEORIC, applied to flowers 
whose openiug or closing is 
influenced by the weather. 

METOTCIOUS, see Heterce- 

CIOL'S? 

METOTCISM, see Hetercecism. 
METOX'ENOUS, see Heterce- 

CIOUS. 

MIASMATIC, pertaining to in- 
fectious organisms floating in 
the atmosphere. See Infec- 
tion. 

MICEL'lA (pi. Mhjel 'lae), a term 
proposed by Ntigeli for certain 
structural particles which serve 
for the building up of all plant 
and animal tissues. Tbey are 
considered to be aggregations 
of molecules which, like crys- 
tals, are able to iucrease or 
diminish in size without chem- 
ical change. 

MICRAN'DRE, see Dwarf-male. 

MI CROBE, a micro-organism, 
auimal or vegetable. In use 
restricted chiefly to plants, es- 
pecially the Schizomycetes, 
or bacteria and their allies. 
See Microphyte. 

MI'CROCYST, a resting state of 
certain swarm-cells in Myxo- 
mycetes. 

MICROGONID'lUM (pi. Microgo- 
nid'Ia), applied to gonidia of 
smaller size than others pro- 
duced by the same species; — 
they are usually male gonidia, 
as the so-called androspores of 



(Edogonium. In pteridophytes 
and their allies they are usu- 
ally called microspores. See 
Microspore. 

MICROGRAPHY, the description 
or study of microscopic objects; 
micrology. 

MICROPHYL'LOUS, having small 
leaves. 

MICROPHYTE, any plant, such 
as the bacteria and smaller 
species of fungi, which can 
be clearlj r seen only by means 
of a microscope. 

MI'CROPYLE, the nearly closed 
foramen as it exists in the 
ripened seed. 

MICROSO'MA (pi. Mleroso'mata), 
a name proposed by Strasbur- 
ger for a class of granules in 
the protoplasm which have a 
high degree of refringency and 
are deeply stained by haema- 
toxylin. 

MICROSPORAN'GIUM (pi. Micro- 
sporan'gia), a sporangium con- 
taining microspores. 

MICROSPORE, a small male 
spore, as in Rhizocarpae, Sela- 
giuellae, and Isoetse. See 
MiCROGONiDiCM. Compare 
Macrospore. 

MI'CROSTOME, a small mouth or 
orifice. 

MiCROSTY LOUS, applied to that 
form in heterostyled plants in 
which the flowers have short 
styles and long filaments. The 
expressions " long - styled," 
"medium- or mid-styled," 
and "short-styled" are pref- 
erable to Macrostylous, Meso- 
stylous, and Microstylous, and 
are more frequently used. 

MICROZOOGONIDIUM, a motile 
microgonidium, as in Ulothrix, 
differing from a macrozoogo- 
nidium in size and in having 
the power of conjugation. 



108 



Microzyme 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Mono- 



MI'CROZYME, a microscopic or- 
ganism capable of producing 
fermentation. 

MID DLE LAMEL'LA, the portion 
of a lignified cell-wall which 
occupies the place of the pri- 
mary membrane. It usually 
appears as a fine dividing line 
between adjoining cells. Com- 
pare Middle Lamina. 

MIDDLE LAM'InA, the portion 
of a lignified cell-wall between 
the middle lamella and the 
inner lamina. 

MID RIB, the large central vein 
of a leaf, which usually exists 
as a ridge continuous with the 
petiole. 

MILK, see Latex. 

MILK-SAC, a form of laticiferous 
vessel existing in some species 
of maple. 

MILK-SAP, see Latex. 

MILK-VESSEL, see Laticifer- 
ous Vessel. 

MIMETIC, pertaining to mim- 
icry. 

MIM'ICRY, special resemblance 
to another object, serving usu- 
ally for protection, as when 
plants bear a marked resem- 
blance in color to the soil in 
dry regions, thus being less 
liable to be seen and eafen by 
animals. 

MIN'lATE, vermilion-colored. 

MI'OPHYLLY, see Meiophylly. 

MIOSTEM'ONOUS, see Meiostem- 
onoes. 

MITO'SIC, pertaining to, charac- 
terized by, or exhibiting mito- 
sis; mitotic. 

MlTO'SIS, (1) the splitting of the 
chromatin of the nucleus (ka- 
ryomitosis) or the subdivision 
of any minute granular body 
found in protoplasm; (2) a 
figure occurring during mito- 
sis as a result of that process. 



MITOTIC, see Mitosic. 

MI TRE-SHAPED, see Mitri- 

FORM. 

MIT'RIFORM, conical and slight- 
ly narrowed toward the mouth 
like a pope's mitre. Also the 
same as Cucullate, but not slit 
upon one. side; mitre-shaped. 

mixed Inflorescence, one 

in which each partial inflores- 
cence develops in a reverse 
order from that of the general 
inflorescence, as in Composite 
where the general inflorescence 
is usually centrifugal, the ter- 
minal "flower" opening first, 
while each head is centripetal, 
the marginal florets being first 
developed. 

MIXED VES SELS, those having 
thickenings in their walls of 
more than one kind, as both 
spiral and annular thickenings. 

MO'BILE, movable. 

MdL'LIS, soft. 

MONADEL'PHOUS, having the 
filaments free, and united in 
a ring around the pistil, as in 
most Malvaceae. 

MONANDROUS, having but a 
single stamen. 

MOnAN'THOUS, having but one 
flower upon a plant or pedun- 
cle. 

MdNAs'TER, see Mother-star. 

MONE'CIOUS, see Monozcious. 

MON'GREL, property, a cross. 
Usually applied in the United 
States to inferior mixed breeds 
resulting from unknown or 
heterogeneous crossing. 

MONIL'IFdRM, necklace-shaped; 
cylindrical, and contracted at 
regular intervals so as to re- 
semble a string of beads. 
Compare Nodose. 

MONO-, a Greek prefix, meaning 
one or single. 



109 



Monocarp 



A DICTIONARY 



Monosymmetrical 



MflN'OCARP, an annual or other 
plant that fruits but once. 

MONOCAR'PELLArY, of one car- 
pel; monogynous. 

MOnOcAR'PIAN, see Monocar- 
pic. 

MdNOCAR'PIC, bearing fruit but 
once. Compare Polycarpic. 

MdNOCAR'POUS, said of a flower 
in which the gynoeciurn forms 
but one ovary, whether simple 
or compound. Compare Poly- 
carpous. 

MONOCELLULAR, see Unicel- 
lular. 

M6n6CEPH'AL0TJS, in single 
heads, or having one head. 
Applied to an ovary with but 
one style, or to flowers dis- 
posed in single umbels or 
other clusters. 

MdNOCHA'SIAL, in single dicha- 
sia. See Dichasium and Com- 
pound Dichasium. 

MdNOCHA'SIUM, a uniparous 
cyme. Compare Dichasium. 

MONOCHLAmYD'EOUS, having 
but one floral envelope or 
perianth-whorl. As this is 
usually clearly a calyx, and 
as in doubtful cases it is con- 
sidered so, the term is often 
equivalent to Apetalous. Com- 
pare ACHLAMYDEOUS. 

MONOCHRO MIC, see Unicolor. 

MONOC'LINOUS, see Hermaph- 
rodite. Compare Diclinous. 

MONOcOTYLEDONOUS, having 
but one cotyledon or seed- 
leaf. A term applied to endo- 
geus. 

MONOCYCLIC, of a single whorl. 

MONCE'CIOUS, having stamens 
and pistils in separate flowers 
on the same plant. 

MONGE'CIOUSLY POLYG'AMOUS, 
having perfect and separated 
flowers on the same plant. 



Compare Dioeciously Polyg- 
amous. 

MONOGAMOUS, see Homoga- 
mous. 

MONOG'YNOUS, having but one 
pistil or style. There may be 
several carpels. 

MONOI'COtJS (obs.), see Monoe- 
cious. 

MONOLdC'ULAR, see Uniloc- 
ular. 

MONOM'EROUS, of one part, as a 
flower having but one organ of 
each kind, one pistil, one sta- 
men, etc.; applied also to tu- 
bers having but one in tern ode. 

MONOPET'ALOUS, see Gamopet- 
alous. 

MdNOPHYL'LOUS, see Gamoph- 

YLLOUS. 

MON'OPODE, see Monopodium. 

MONOPOD'IAL, having a single 
main axis, as ordinary plants. 
Compare Sympodial and 
Dichotomous. 

MONOPO'DIUM, an axis of growth 
which continues to elongate at 
the apex, while lateral struc- 
tures of like kind are pro- 
duced beneath it in acropetal 
succession. Compare Sympo- 
dium and Dichotomy. 

MONOP'TEROUS, one-winged. 

MONOSEPALOtJS, see Gamosep- 
alous. 

MOnOSI'PHONOUS, said of a 
frond in Florideae when it 
consists of but a single row 
of cells. 

M6N0SPER'M0tJS, one - seeded. 
Compare Polyspermous. 

M0N6s'TI€H0US, in one vertical 
rank. 

MONOSTY'LOUS, having but one 
style. 

MdNOSYMMET'RICAL, capable 
of division in but one direc- 
tion into similar halves, as the 



110 



Monothalamous OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Multifarious 



flower of the pea; z3 r gonior- 
phous. Compare Symmet- 
rical and PoLYSYMMETRICAL. 

MONOTHAL AMOUS, unilocular; 
applied to galls and rarely 
(Tuckerman) to the apotbecia 
of lichens. 

MONOTHAL'MIC, derived from a 
single flower, as ordinary fruits. 
Compare Polythalmic. 

MONOTYP'IC, said of a genus 
which contains but one spe- 
cies, or of the species itself in 
such a case. 

MONSTER, a plant or animal 
having any marked abnormal 
development in form; mon- 
strosity. See Sport and Tera- 
tology. 

MONSTROSITY, see Monster. 

MONSTROUS, developed in a re- 
markably abnormal manner. 
The term has no reference to 
size, 

MOP-HEADED, said of a tree 
without a leader and with an 
unusually large number of 
small branches. 

MORPHOGENESIS, the produc- 
tion of morphological char- 
acters. 

MORPHOLOGY, the science of the 
homologies and metamorpho- 
ses of members. It treats, 
for example, of the different 
forms which leaves assume in 
different plants, and in the 
same plant to serve different 
purposes. 

MOS CHATE, having an odor like 
that of musk. 

MOTHER-CELL, one from which 
another is derived. 

MOTHER-STAR, a stage of karyo- 
kinesis in which the nuclear 
threads lie in the equator of 
the nucleus, usually in the 
form of loops, with their free 
ends pointing away from the 



centre; monaster; nuclear disk; 
nuclear plate; equatorial plate. 

MOT'TLED, covered with par- 
tially confluent dots, or with 
blotches of varying intensity. 
Applied mainly to "fruits. 

MOUNTAINOUS, see Alpes- 
trine. 

MOVEMENTS OF VARIATION 
(Pefl'er), see Allassotonic 
Movements. 

MUCED'INOUS, mould-like. 

MU'CILAGE, dissolved vegetable 
jelly; any slimy vegetable 
product. 

MUCILAGINOUS, slimy, or yield- 
ing mucilage; mucous. 

MU'COUS, see Mucilaginous. 

MU CRO, a short sharp point. 

MU'CRONATE, terminating ab- 
ruptly in a short stiff point. 

MUCRON'UlATE, diminutive of 
Mucronate; ending abruptly 
in a minute stiff point. 

MULE, see Hybrid. The term 
Mule is by some restricted to 
genus-hybrids and by others 
to sterile hybrids of any ori- 
gin. The term is now useless 
in botany. 

MULTAN'GULAR, having more 
than four angles; polygonal. 

MULTI-, a Latin prefix denoting 
many. 

MULTigiP'ITAL, many-headed; 

applied to a root or root-stock 

from which several stems arise. 
MULTICOS'TATE, having many 

ribs proceeding from the base 

of the leaf. 
MULTICUS'PIDATE, having many 

cusps or points. 
MULTIDEN'TATE, having many 

teeth. 
MULTIFARIOUS, (1) diversified, 

or composed of many diverse 

parts; (2) arranged in many 

ranks or rows. 



Ill 



Multiferous 



A DICTIONARY 



Mycosis 



MULTIF'EROUS, producing fruit 
several times in a season. 

MUL'TIFID, cut about half way 
to the midrib into many seg- 
ments; many-cleft. 

MULTIFLOROUS, many-flow- 
ered. 

MULTIFO'LlATE, having numer- 
ous leaflets. 

MULTIJU'GATE, having many 
pairs of leaflets. 

MULTILAT ERAL, many-sided. 
MULTILOC ULAR, many-celled: 

applied mainly to ovaries or 

pericarps. 

MULTOCULAR SPORE, see 
Compound Spore. 

MULTINUCLEATE, having more 
than one nucleus in a cell. 

MULTIPARTITE, divided into 
many parts. 

MUL'TIPLE, compound. 

MUL'TIPLE COROL'LA, one hav- 
ing more than one whorl of 
petals, as in "double" flowers. 

MUL'TIPLE FRUIT, see Col- 
lective Fruit. 

MUL'TIPLE PRI'MARY ROOT, 
one having several main divi- 
sions from the crown, as the 
fascicled root of dahlia. 

MUL'TIPLICATE FLOWER, see 
Double Flower. 

MULTIRA'DlATE, having many 
rays. 

MULTIRAMOSE', having many 
branches. 

MULTISEP'TATE, having numer- 
ous septa. 

MULTISE'RIAL, in several hori- 
zontal rows. Compare Multi- 
stichous. 

MULTIS'TI€HOUS, in several or 
many vertical rows. 

MURAL, growing upon walls. 



MU'RICATE, covered with short, 
sharp points. Compare Scab- 
rous. 

MUrICULATE, slightly niuri- 
cate. 

MURIFORM, arranged like 
courses of bricks or stones in 
a wall, as the cells in medul- 
lary rays. 

MUSCAR'IFORM, having long 
hairs toward the end like an 
ancient fly-flap, as the stjdes 
of some Cornpositse. Compare 

ASPERGILLIFORM. 

MUS'CIFORM, moss-like. 

MUSCOL'o6y, see Bryology. 

MU'TICOtJS, pointless; blunt. 
Mainly in distinction from 
Awned or Mucrouate. 

MU'TUALISM, see Symbiosis. 

MU'TUAL " PARASl'TISM, see 
Symbiosis. 

MYCE'LIAL STRAND, see Fi- 
brous Mycelium. 

MYCE'LltJM, the vegetative por- 
tion of a fungus, consisting of 
one or more hyphae. 

MYCETOGENET'IC, produced by 
fungi. 

MYg£T06ENET'IC METAMOR'- 
PHOSIS, deformation due to a 
parasitic fungus. 

MYCETO'LOGY, see Mycology. 

MYC0L'06y, the botany of fungi. 

MYCOPRO'TEIN, a term some- 
times applied to the peculiar 
protoplasm of which the putre- 
factive bacteria are composed. 

MYCORRHI'ZA, a term applied 
by Frank to a symbiotic rela- 
tion supposed to exist between 
the roots of many plants and 
the m3 r celium of certain fungi 
in soils containing a large 
amount of humus. 

MYCO'SIS, the presence of para- 
sitic fungi in a plant or animal, 

112 



Mycoprotein 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Nectariferous 



together with the morbid ef- 
fects of their presence. 

MYCOPROTEIN, a term some- 
times applied to the peculiar 
protoplasm of which the putre- 
factive bacteria are composed. 

MY'CROPYLE, see MtCROPYLE. 

MYXAMOZ'BiE, zoospores in 
Myxomycetes having an amoe- 
boid or creeping motion. 

MYX'OSPORE, a spore produced 
in the midst of a gelatinous 
mass without distinct ascus or 
basidium. 

NA'KED, destitute of the usual 
covering, as a cell without a 
wall, a stem without leaves, a 
flower without floral envelopes. 

NAKED-SEEDED, see Gymno- 

SPERMOUS. 

NANAN DROITS, having short or 
dwarf male plants. Applied 
to certain alga?. 

NA'NISM, a dwarf condition. 

NA'NUS, dwarf. Compare Hu- 

MILIS. 

NA'PIFORM, turnip-shaped; i.e., 
depressed-globose and tapering 
below, like most varieties of 
turnip. 

NAS'CENT, in the earliest rudi- 
mentary condition. 

NAS'CENT TIS'StJE, see Meri- 

STEM. 

NA'TANT, floating unattached in 
or upon water. Compare Flui- 
tant. 

NAT URAL GRAFTING, see In- 
arching. 

NATURALIZED, introduced from 
another country, but fully es- 
tablished, growing and repro- 
ducing itself spontaneously. 
Compare Adventitious. 

NAT'URAL ORDER, see Order. 

NAT'tJRAL SYS'TEM, the system 
of classification introduced by 

1 



A. L. de Jussieu and now in 
general use, which takes into 
account all parts of the plant, 
and seeks to place each species 
or other group nearest to those 
which in all respects it most 
resembles. Compare Arti- 
ficial System. 

NAU'TIFORM, see Navicular. 

NAVICULAR, boat -shaped, or 
like the hull of a ship, as the 
glumes of many masses; na- 
viculoid; nautiform; cynabae- 
form; cymbiforin; scaphoid. 

nAvICULOID, see Navicular. 

NEB'ULOSE, clouded. 

NECK, the line of junction be- 
tween root and stem (collar); 
the upper tapering end of a 
bulb: the narrow part of a 
pear, toward the base; the 
upper end of the sheathing 
petiole in grasses; the upper 
part of the tube of a gamo- 
petalous corolla (throat); the 
prolonged apex of a pyreno- 
carp; the outer portion of an 
archegouium containing the 
canal, etc. 

NECKLACE SHAPED, see Monil- 

IFOKM. * 

NECROG'ENOUS, hastening or 
producing death. A term 
formerly applied to certain 
parasitic fungi. 

NECTAR, a sweet secretion by 
some part of a flower. 

NECTAR-GUIDE, a term applied 
to various color-marks on flow- 
ers which seem designed to in- 
dicate to insects the locality of 
the nectar; nectar-spot; nectar- 
mark; honey-guide; honey- 
spot; pathfinder. 

NECTARIFEROUS, secreting nec- 
tar, or having a nectary. 

NECTA'RIUM, see Nectary. 

NECTAR MARK, see Nectar- 
guide. 
13 



Nectarotheca 



A DICTIONARY 



Niveous 



NECTAROTHECA, a spur or other 
receptacle containing a nec- 
tary. (Obs.) 

NECTAR SPOT, see Nectar- 
guide. 

NECTARY, the part of a flower 
which secretes nectar. Ap- 
plied especially to spur-shaped 
appendages to the petals con- 
taining nectar, as in the colum- 
bine, and sometimes used for 
similar organs which contain 
no nectar. 

NEEDLE-SHAPED, see Acerose 
and Acicular. 

NEGATIVE GEOT'ROPISM, see 

Apogeotropism. 

NEGATIVE HELl6T'R0PISM, 

see Apiieliotkopism. 
NEGATIVELY HELIOTROP IC, 

see Apheliotropic. 
NEGATIVELY RHEOTROP'IC, 

said of an organ (usually a 
root) when it tends to grow 
in a direction opposite to 
that of a current of water in 
which it is placed, as the roots 
of maize. (Jonsson.) 
NEMATHE'CltJM (pi. Nemathe'- 
91a), a wart-like group or mass 
of tetraspores in Florideae. 

NfiMATOID, thread-like; fila- 
mentous. 

NE'MEOUS, composed of threads 
or filaments; nlamentose. 
(Obs.) 

NEM'OROSE, growing in groves. 

NEPHROID, see Reniform. 

NERVATE, see Nerved. 

NERVATION, the manner in 
which the nerves of a leaf 
are arranged; venation. 

NERVE, a term formerly in gen- 
eral use for the veins of mono- 
cotyledons, now mainly used 
for the veins (when moderately 
developed) on the floral enve- 



lopes of grasses. Compare Vein 
and Rib. 

NERVED, having nerves instead 
of veins; nervate. 

NERVOSE', abounding in nerves. 

NEST LING, see Nidulant. 

NETTED, see Reticulated. 

NEtJRA'TION, see Nervation. 

NEUTER, having neither sta- 
mens nor pistils; neutral. 
Said of a plant or flower. 

NEU'TRAL, see Neuter. 

NEW SPECIES. A species is con- 
sidered new when its name 
and description are published 
for the first time. The botan- 
ical name is then followed b} r 
the words " new species," or 
their abbreviation (" n. s." or 
" n. sp." in English, "sp. nov." 
in Latin), without the name of 
the author, the writer of the 
description being understood 
to be the author of the name. 
When the name is republished 
in any manner the species is 
no longer considered new, and 
the name of its author is then 
appended. 

NID'ULANT, embedded in pulp 
or other loose material, or 
partly enclosed in a recepta- 
cle; nestling. 

NIDUS, a suitable place for a 
spore or seed to germinate. 

NIGER, black and either glisten- 
ing or slightly tinged with gray. 
Compare Ater. 

NIGRESCENT, becoming black 
or blackish; nigricant. 

NIG'RICANT, see Nigrescent. 

NIT'ID, smooth and shining; 
bright; lustrous. Compare 
Lucid and Levigate. 

NIT'IDUS, see Nitid. 

NIVEOUS, snow-white; pure 
white. A clearer and purer 
white than Candidus. 



114 



Nocturnal 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Nucleus 



NdCTUR'NAL, lasting through a 
night, or occurring at night. 

NODDING, see Cernous. 

NODE, the place on a stem where 
one, two, or more leaves are 
attached; any knot or swell- 
ing; a point of intersection, as 
of threads in reticulated proto- 
plasm. 

NODIF'EROUS, bearing nodes. 

NODOSE', knotted; with swollen 
joints; swollen at intervals. 
Compare Monii.iform. 

NODULE, a small knot or round- 
ed body. 

NODULOSE, diminutive of No- 
dose. 

NOR'MAL, according to rule; 
usual; of the ordinary type 
or structure. 

NOSOL'OGY, VEGETABLE, see 
Vegetable Nosology. 

NO'TATE, marked by colored 
spots or lines. 

NOTORHI'ZAL, see Incumbent. 

NO'TOTRLBE, said of an irregular 
flower when arranged so that 
the pollen from the stamens 
strikes the back of a visiting 
insect. Compare Sterno- 
tribe and Pleurotribe. 

NUcAMENTA'CEOUS, nut - like, 
or pertaining to nuts. 

NUCAmeN'TUM (obs.), see 
Ament. 

NUCEL LUS, the nucleus of an 
ovule. 

NUgiF'EROUS, nut-bearing. 

NU'CIFdRM, nut-shaped; nuca- 
mentaceous. 

NU'CLEAR, pertaining to a nu- 
cleus. 

NU'CLEAR BAR'REL, a stage in 
karyokinesis, immediately pre- 
ceding the nuclear spindle. 

NU CLEAR DISK, see Mother- 
star. 



NU'CLEAR FIBRILS, see Spin- 
dle-fibres. 

NU'CLEAR FIL'AMENT, a gen- 
eral term for the chromatin of 
a nucleus, which in karyoki- 
nesis appears as segments of a 
filament, and in the resting 
state as a filamentous net- 
work; chromatic filament. 
See Chromosome. 

NU'CLEAR PLATE, see Mother- 
star. 

NU'CLEAR SPINDLE, a spindle- 
shaped achromatic figure in 
the nucleus during cell-divi- 
sion, consisting of slender fila- 
ments which cross the equator 
or extend toward it from the 
poles. It begins to appear in 
the skein stage, and is com- 
pleted in the mother-star stage. 

NU'CLEAR STAR, see Aster. 

NU'CLEAR THREADS, see Spin- 

DLE-FIBRES. 

NUCLEATED, having a nucleus. 

NU'CLEIN, usually employed in 
the sense of chromatin. By 
some authors there is believed 
to be a distinct chemical sub- 
stance, a form of protoplasm, 
which is termed nuclein. 

NU CLEOLATED, having a nucle- 
olus. 

NU'CLEOLE, see Nucleolus. 

NUCLEOLUS (pi. Nucleoli), any 
distinct body of considerable 
size within a nucleus — not a 
definite and constant organic 
structure. There may be more 
than one. 

NUCLEOPLASM, the more fluid 
protoplasm of the nucleus be- 
tween the nuclear threads; ka- 
ryoplasm. 

NUCLEUS, (1) an organized struc- 
ture within the living cell by 
means of which cell-division 
takes place. It is usually 
spherical in form, richer in 



115 



Nuculanium 



A DICTIONARY 



Oblate 



protoplasm, and of higher re- 
fractive power than the re- 
maining cell-contents; (2) the 
part of the ovule containing 
the embryo - sac (nucellus); 
(3) any organic centre, as the 
hilum of a starch -grain. 

NU'CLEUS OF THE EMBRYO- 
SAC, see Secondary Nucleus. 

NUCULA'NIUM, a term some- 
times applied to fruits like 
the medlar which contain 
several nut-like seeds or car- 
pels. 

NUCULE, (1) the female organ 
in Chara; (2) any small nut- 
like seed or pericarp. 

NUDE, see Naked. 

NUDICAU'LOUS, having no leaves 
on the stem. 

NU'MEROUS, too many to be 
readily counted; indefinite. 

NURSE (Hort.), a shrub or tree 
which serves for the temporary 
protection of a younger tree 
or plant. 

NUT, the fruit of certain trees 
and shrubs, consisting of a 
hard shell enclosing the seed; 
— also applied to other small 
nut-like fruits, as those of Ca- 
rex, Rumex, and Lithosper- 
mum. These latter are more 
properly called nutlets. See 
Glans. 

NU'TANT, see Cernous. 

NUTA'TION, the motion of a 
flower, leaf, or growing stem 
in following the apparent 
movement of the sun from 
east to west during the day; 
simple nutation. Compare 

ClRCUMNUTATIOX. 

NUT'LET, a small nut, or nut- 
like seed or fruit, as many 
achenia. 

NUTRI'TION includes the ab- 
sorption, elaboration, distri- 
bution, and final assimilation 



of plant • food resulting in 
growth. 

NUX, see Nut. 

NYCTOTROP'IC, applied to the 
movements of organs which 
occur at night, or upon the 
approach of nigh.,, producing 
what is called the "sleep" of 
plants. 

NYCTOT'ROPISM, the so-called 
' ' sleep" of plants. 

0B-, inversely. 

OBCLA'VATE, clavate in shape, 
but attached by the large end. 

OBCOMPRESSED', flattened in the 
reverse of the usual direction, 
as when a legume is flattened 
so that the dorsal and ventral 
sutures approach each other. 
Compare Depressed. 

OBCON'IC, conical, but attached 
at the iipex instead of the b:ise; 
inversely conical. Also applied 
improperly in pomology to a 
fruit which has the form of a 
very short or flattened cone. 

OBCON'ICAL, see Obconic. 

OBCOR'DATE, inversely heart- 
shaped, i.e., with the attach- 
ment at the small end. 

OBDIPLOSTEM'ONOUS, d i p 1 o - 
steuionous, with the stamens 
of the outer whorl opposite to 
the petals. 

6BIM'BRICATE, (1) having over- 
lapping scales directed down- 
ward or backward; (2) having 
the outer scales in an involucre 
progressively longer than the 
interior ones. 

OBLAN'CEOLATE, lanceolate in 
form, but tapering toward the 
base instead of toward the 
apex. 

OBLATE', flattened or depressed 
at the ends or poles. Compare 
Prolate. 
116 



Obligate 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Octosporous 



OB'LIGATE, necessary; essential. 
Compare Facultative. 

OBLIGATE PARASITE, an or- 
ganism to which a parasitic 
life is indispensable for the 
attainment of its development. 
Compare Facultative Para- 
site. 

6BLIQUE', (l) occupying a posi- 
tion between horizontal and 
erect; (2) having one side ex- 
tending farther forward than 
the other; (3) having one side 
more developed than the other, 
as many leaves and some fruits; 
unsymmetrical. In pomology, 
Oblique is used in the second 
sense only, the third being 
called Angular. 

OBLITERATION, see Suppres- 
sion. 

OB LONG, longer than wide, with 
nearly parallel sides. Com- 
pare Oval. 

OBO VAL, sometimes used im- 
properly for Obovate. 

OBOVATE, ovate with the at- 
tachment at the narrow end. 

OBO'VOID, ovoid, and attached 
by the small end. Sometimes 
used incorrectly for somewhat 
obovate. 

OB'SOLETE, suppressed, or very 
rudimentary; scarcely appar- 
ent. See Abortive. 

OBTUSE', having a rounded end 
or apex ; blunt. Compare 
Acute. 

OBVAL'LATE, appearing as 
though surrounded by a wall. 

OBVERSE', inverse; reverse; — as 
a leaf which is narrowest at 
the base. 

OB'VOLUTE, a modification of 
Convolute in which the entire 
halves of adjoining organs suc- 
cessively overlap or enfold each 
other. Half-equitant is one 
form of this condition. 



OCEL'LATE, see Ocellated. 

OCEL'LATED, having a circular 
patch of color with a spot of 
another color within it like an 
eye; ocellate; oculate. 

OCEL'LUS, a circular spot, re- 
sembling an eye. 

OOHRA'CEOUs, brownish yellow; 
yellowish. 

O'OHREA (pi. O'-ehreae), see 
Ocrea. 

CHREATE, see Ocreate. 

OOHROLEU COUS, yellowish 
white; whiter than Ochraceous. 

O'OREA (pi. 6'€reae), a sheath 
formed by a stipule or pair of 
stipules united around the 
stem, as in sycamore. 

©CREATE, having ocrese. 

OCTAG'YNOUS, see Octogynous. 

OCTAM'EROUS, having the parts 
in eights, as a flower with eight 
petals, eight stamens, etc. 

OCTAN DROUS, having eight sta- 
mens. 

OCTO- (or OCTA-), (from the 
Greek,) eight. 

OCTOGYNOUS, having eight pis- 
tils or styles; octagynous. 

OCTOLOC'ULAR, having eight 
cells or compartments in a 
fruit or pericarp. 

OCTOPET'ALOUS, having eight 
petals. 

OCTORADlATE, having eight 
rays, as some ligulate flowers. 

OCTOSPER MOUS, eight-seeded. 

OC'TOSPORE, an eight-fold tetra- 
spore. Formerly applied to 
the oogonium of Fucus vesicu- 
lous, "which contains eight 
oijspheres. 

OCTOSPOROUS, containing eight 
spores, as most asci. 

OC ULATE, see Ocellated. 

ODD LY PIN'NATE, see Impari- 

PINNATE. 



117 



Officinal 



A DICTIONARY 



Operculate 



OFFIC/INAL, used in medicine or 
the arts. 

OFF'SET, a short lateral branch 
or stolon proceeding from the 
base of the plant, which serves 
or may serve for propagation. 
It usually takes root of itself. 
Lateral bulbs are also called 
offsets. 

OFFSHOOT, an offset, or lateral 
branch. 

OIL-TUBE, see Vitta. 

OLEAGINOUS, oily. 

(JLERA'CEOUS, esculent; used for 
food ; applied mainly to garden 
vegetables. 

6LIGANDR0US, having few sta- 
mens; oligostemonous. 

6L'IGAR€H, applied to a fibro- 
vascular cylinder having few 
rays, i.e., containing or repre- 
senting few hbrovascular bun- 
dles. 

OLIGOPHYL'LOUS, having few, 
or comparatively few, leaves. 

dLIGOSPER'MOUS, few-seeded. 

6LIG0STEM ONOUS, see Oligan- 

DROUS. 

flLIVA'gEOUS, dusky green. 

OMNIVOROUS, applied to a para- 
sitic fungus which attacks 
many kinds of plants. 

OM'PHAloDE, see Omphalo- 
dium. 

OMPHAlO'DIUM (pi. Omphalo- 
dia), the central part of the 
hilum, containing the vessels 
which enter the raphe or cha- 
laza. 

ONE-SIDED, see Secund, Uni- 
lateral, and Homomalous. 

ONTOGENY, the study of the 
development of an individual 
through all its stages. Com- 
pare Phyllogeny. 

O'OCYST, a female organ or oogo- 
nium of doubtful nature. 



OdG'AMY, the conjugation of 
gametes which are dissimilar 
in form. Compare Isogamy. 

OOGONIUM (pi. Oogo'nia), the 
female sexual organ in Oo- 
sporese before fertilization, con- 
taining one or more oospheres, 
as in Perouospora. 

00 NUCLEUS, the nucleus of an 
oosphere. Compare Spermo- 
nucleus. 

O'OPHORE, the first or sexual 
stage or generation in plants 
having an alternation of gen- 
erations, as ferns; oophyte. 
Compare Sforophore. 

OOPHORID'IUM (pi. Oophorld'ia) 
(obs.), see Macrosporangium. 

OOPHYTE, see Oophore. 

OOSPERM, see Oospore. 

O'OSPHERE, the oospore previous 
to fertilization; i.e., the cell or 
protoplasmic mass which after 
fertilization becomes the oo- 
spore. 

OOSPORAnge, see Oosporan- 
gium. 

OOSPORANGIUM (pi. Oosporan'- 
gla), an old term for oogonium. 

OOSPORE, a fertilized oosphere; 
oosperm. As a result of fer- 
tilization the oosphere, thus 
changed to an oospore, takes 
on a firm cell-wall aud acquires 
the power of germination. 

OPAQUE', having a dull surface; 
neither transparent nor shining. 

O'PEN, applied to hbrovascular 
bundles which always contain 
cambium capable of further 
growth, as in exogens. Com- 
pare Closed. 

OPER'CULAR, like an operculum; 
operculate. 

OPERCULATE, having an oper- 
culum. Compare Deopercu- 
late. 



118 



Operculum 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Oscillating- 



OPER'CULUM, (1) a transversely 
dehiscent lid or cap, like that 
covering the capsule of many 
mosses; (2) the lid of a pitcher- 
shaped leaf. 

OPIS'THODAL, posterior; applied 
to the inner or posterior open- 
ing of a stoma. Compare 
Eisodal. 

OP'POSITE, opposed in position. 
Said, for example, of leaves 
when situated over against 
each other in pairs at the 
same height upon the stem. 
One floral organ, however, is 
opposite another when it is 
superposed to it, i.e., when it 
stands between it and the axis. 
Compare Alternate. 
OPPOSITIFLO'ROUS, having op- 
posite peduncles. 
OPPGSITIFO'LIOUS, (1) having 
opposite leaves; adversifolious; 
(2) situated opposite a leaf, as 
the tendrils in the grape. 
OPPOSITELY-PINNATE, having 

leaflets in pairs. 
ORBICULAR, circular in outline, 

or nearly so; orbiculate. 
ORBIC'UlATE, see Orbicular. 
OR'DER, a division of a class con- 
taining one or more genera; 
family. 
ORDINAL, pertaining to an 

order. 
OR GAN, any part having a spe- 
cial function, as a leaf or sta- 
men. Compare Member. 
ORGANIC CENTRE, a point or 
axis around which growth 
takes place. It may not re- 
main the mathematical centre. 
ORGANOGENY, the origin and 
development of organs; organ- 
ogenesis. 
SrgAnOG'RApHY, the study of 

organs. 
6RGAN0PLAS'TIC, having the 



power of producing organs, 
as organoplasty tissue. 

Organs of reproduction, 

those whose chief function is 
to serve directly or indirectly 
in the production of seeds or 
spores. In the higher plants 
the stamens and pistils are 
usually indicated by the term. 

ORGANS OF VE6ETATI0N, 

those ^whicb minister to the 
growth of the whole plant: 
roots, stem, and leaves. 

Orientation, strictly, facing 

the east. Used in horticulture 
for the setting of transplanted 
trees facing the same way as 
they stood originally. Used 
in botany for assuming any 
definite direction with respect 
to the points of the compass or 
to the axis of the plant or or- 
gan. 
OR'MOGON, see Hormogonium. 

0RTH0PL0 CEOUS, having con- 
duplicate cotyledons. (Obs.) 

ORTHOS TICHY, a vertical row 
of organs. Compare Para- 
stichy. 

ORTHOs'TOMOUS, having a 
straight opening. 

ORTHOt'ROPAL, see Orthot- 
ropous. 

ORTHOTROP'Ic, growing erect, 
as stems in contrast with 
leaves, etc. Compare Pla- 
giotropic. 

ORTHOT'ROPOUS, (1) applied to 
an ovule or seed in which the 
hilum coincides with the cha- 
laza and the micropyle occu- 
pies the apex opposite. Com- 
pare Anatropous. (2) Applied 
to the embryo it means the 
opposite of antitropous, i.e., 
having the radicle next the 
hilum, as in anatropous seeds. 

OSCILLATING, see Versatile. 
119 



Osmose 



A DICTIONARY 



Palmate 



tiS'MOSE, the mutual diffusion of 
liquids of differeut deusities 
through a membrane. It is 
the peculiar property of os- 
mose that the denser fluid 
absorbs from the other 
through the membrane more 
than it gives in exchange. 
The imbibition of fluids by 
roots is due partially to os- 
mose (endosmose), the fluid 
within the plant being denser 
than that in the soil. The out- 
ward diffusion of fluid from 
the plant into the soil, which 
takes place in a feeble degree, 
is termed Exosmose. 

dSMO'SIS, see Osmose. 

OSSEOUS, bony in texture. 

OSSIFIED, become like bone, as 
a peach-stone. 

dS'TIOLE, a small orifice, as that 
in a perithecium for the dis- 
charge of spores. 

tiSTI'OLUM, see Ostiole. 

OUTER GLUMES, see Empty 
Glumes. 

O'VAL, about twice as long as 
broad, with regular curved 
outlines; broadly elliptical. 

OVARIUM (pi. Ova'ria), see 
Ovary. 

O'vAry, the part of a pistil con- 
taining the ovules or seeds. 

O'VATE, like a longitudinal sec- 
tion of an ordinary hen's egg, 
with the attachment, if any, 
at the broad end. Compare 
Ovoid. 

OVIFORM, see Ovoid. 

6'VOID, of the shape of a hen's 
egg, aud attached, if at all, at 
the large end. Compare Ovate. 

O'VULE, the seed previous to fer- 
tilization. 

OVULIFEROUS, bearing ovules. 

O'VUM (pi. O'va), see Oosphere. 



PAOHYPHYL'LOUS, thick-leaved. 

PAD, a popular name for the leaf 
of a water-lily. 

PAG'INA (pi. Pa^'ime), the sur- 
face of an organ, especially the 
upper or lower surface of a 
leaf. 

PAlNT'ED, haviug colors dis- 
posed in streaks of unequal 
intensity. (Rare.) 

PAIRED, see Conjugate. 

PALMACEOUS, see Paleaceous. 

PAL'ATE, the convex base of the 
lower lip of a personate corolla, 
as in snap-dragon. 

PALE, see Palet. 

PA'LEA (pi. Pa'leae), (1) the inner 
bract of a flower in grasses 
(palet); (2) one of the bracts 
or scales upon the receptacle 
in Composite. Also used by 
some for Ramentum. 

PALEACEOUS, chaff-like; bear- 
ing chaff or chaffy scales; con- 
sisting of chaff. 

PALEOBOTANY, see Fossil 
Botany. 

PAlE'OLA (pi. Pale'olae), see Lod- 

ICULE. 

PALEOPHYTOL'OGY, see Fossil 
Botany. 

PAL'ET, the inner bract or chaff 
of a flower in grasses; former- 
ly known' as the upper palet; 
palea. Compare Glume. 

PALISADE' CELLS, elongated 
cells perpendicular to the epi- 
dermis in the upper side of 
most leaves. 

PALLES'CENT, somewhat pale. 

PAL'LID, pale; wan; deficient in 
color. 

PALM, three inches. 

PAL'MATE, lobed or divided so 
that the sinuses all point to- 
ward the apex of the petiole, 
either moderately as in the 
maple-leaf, or more deeply, 
20 



Palmated 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Panicle 



when it is sometimes improp- 
erly called pedate, or so as to 
make the leaf compound when 
it is digitate. 

PAL'MATED, see Palmate. 

PAL MATELY CLEFT, having the 
sinuses in a palmate leaf reach- 
ing about half way to the base; 
palmatifid. 

PAL MATELY COMPOUND, hav- 
ing the leaflets all attached to 
the apex of the petiole; digi- 
tate. 

PAL MATELY DIVI'DED, cleft to 
the base in a palmate manner, 
hut not compound; palmati- 
sect. 

PAL MATELY LOF.ED, having the 
lobes directed toward the apex 
of the petiole. 

PAL'MATELY NERVED, some- 
times applied to palmately 
veined leaves in endogens; 
palm-nerved ; palmin erved. 

PAL'MATELY PARTED, cleft 
nearly to the base in a pal- 
mate manner. 

PAL'MATELY VEINED, having 
the principal veins proceeding 
from the apex of the petiole, 
as in palmate leaves; palm- 
veined; palmiveined; radiate- 
veined. 

PALMAT'IFID, see Palmately 
Cleft. 

PALMAT ILOBED, see Palmate- 
ly Lobed. 

PALMAtIpAR'TITE, see Pal- 
mately Parted. 

PAlmAT'ISECT, see Palmately 
Divided. Sometimes improp- 
erly used for Palmately Parted. 

PAL'MINERVED, see Palmately 
Nerved. 

PALM-NERVED, see Palmately 
Nerved. 

PALM-VEINED, see Palmately 
Veined. 



PAL'fJDINE, see Paltjstrine. 

PALU'DINOUS, see Paltjstrine. 

PAL'tJDOSE, see Paltjstrine. 

PALTJS'TRINE, growing in 
marshes or swamps; palu- 
dine; paludinous; paludose; 
uliginose; uliginous. 

PANCHE, have pale faint stripes. 

PAN'DtJRATE, see Panduri- 

FORM. 

PANDU'RIfORM, obovate, with 
one or two large sinuses or 
concavities in each side, like the 
body of a violin; fiddle-shaped. 

PANGEN'ESIS, a theory proposed 
by Charles Darwin to account 
for the reproduction of every 
part of an organism. It is, that 
each separate part of the indi- 
vidual throws off minute re- 
productive gemmules, which 
are capable of multiplication, 
and may be transmitted from 
generation to generation. 
Spores and seeds are abun- 
dantly supplied with these 
gemmules from all parts of 
the organism, and therefore 
specially fitted for reproduc- 
tion. If other parts can serve 
for propagation, it is because 
gemmules from the remaining 
parts are present; — if a cutting 
" strikes root," for example, it 
is because it contains root gem- 
mules. Atavism is caused by 
dormant gemmules from a pre- 
vious generation. A modifica- 
tion of this theory proposed by 
De Vries is that each cell con- 
tains all the essential elements 
for the reproduction of the 
plant, the protoplasm con- 
taining a vast number of self- 
reproductive particles (pan- 
gens) which transmit the 
characters of the individual. 

PAN'ICLE, a branched raceme, 
as in oats. Panicles are either 
determinate or indeterminate 



121 



Panicled 



A DICTIONARY 



Paraheliotropism 



ia their mode of inflorescence. 
If the former they are called 
"cymose;" if the latter, " bot- 
ryose." They have a variety 
of shapes, the typical form be- 
ing loose and spreading, with 
repeatedly branched peduncles, 
as in many grasses. Panicles 
of certain forms have received 
special names. A compact 
panicle like that of lilac is 
called a thyrsus; a spike- 
shaped pauicle like that of 
wheat is usually called a spike, 
or compound spike; a corymb 
might be called a level-topped 
centripetal panicle, and a cyme 
a similar centrifugal panicle. 

PAn'ICLED, see Paniculate. 

PANICULATE, resembling a 
panicle; furnished with pani- 
cles; arranged in panicles; 
panicled. 

PAniCULATED, see Panicu- 
late. 

PANIC'ULIFORM, panicle-shaped. 

PAN'NArY, pertaining to bread; 
suitable for making bread. 

PAN'NIFORM, thick and spongy, 
like coarse cloth. 

PAn'NOSE, (1) having a felted 
coat of hairs. Compare Floc- 
cose and Manicate. (2) Hav- 
ing the texture of coarse cloth; 
panniform. 

PANSPERMIA, the theory that 
seeds and spores are every- 
where present, ready to be 
developed upon favorable op- 
portunity. 

PA'PERY, see Chartaceous. 

PAPILIONACEOUS, having flow- 
ers, as in the Papilionacese, a 
tribe of the Leguminosoe or pea 
family; i.e., with a large upper 
or posterior petal called the 
vexillum, two lateral petals 
called wings, and two small 



inferior petals more or less 
united into a carina or keel. 

PAPIL'lA (pi. Papil'lae), a small 
soft, elongated teat-shaped pro- 
tuberance. Compare Mam tlla 
and Wart. 

PAp'ILLARY, having or resem- 
bling papillae. Compare Ver- 
rucobe. 

PAPILLATE, having papillae; 
papuliferous. Compare Mam- 
illate. 

| PAPULIFEROUS, see Papil- 

i LATE. 

PAPIL'LIFORM, in the form of a 
papilla. 

PAP'ILLOSE, papillate or papil- 
lary; especially, covered with 
papillae. 

PAPPIF'EROUS, bearing a pappus, 
as the seeds of thistle. 

pAP'PIFdRM, like a pappus. 

PAPPOSE', pappiferous or pap- 
piform. 

PAP'PUS, the calyx in Composi- 
te, especially when developed 
in a hairy or feathery manner 
to effect the dispersion of the 
seed. Compare Coma. 

pAP'tilA (pi. Pap'ulae), see Pa- 
pilla. 

PAP'ULOUS, see Papillose. 

PAPYRA CEOUS, papery; charta- 
ceous. 

pArAcOROL'lA, see Crown. 

PAR'ACYST, a term proposed by 
Tulasne, but not generally 
adopted, for De Bary's term 
Pollinodium. 

PArAhELIOT'ROPISM, the pow- 
er which certain leaves have 
when placed in bright sunlight 
of placing their surfaces paral- 
lel to the rays of light; diurnal 
sleep. Compare Diaheliot- 
ropism. 



122 



Parallel Nerved OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Paratonic 



PARALLEL NERVED, see Par- 
allel Veined. 

PARALLEL VEINED, having the 

veius or the principal ones par- 
allel, or merely diverging: op- 
posed to Reticulate veined and 
characteristic of the veins (or 
nerves) of endogens. Iu some 
exogens, however, as the beech, 
the principal lateral veius are 
parallel, but in exogens the 
term parallel veined is not ap- 
plied, the condition being ex- 
pressed iu examples like this 
by the special term pinnately 
veined. 

PArAmI'TOM, a name given by 
Flemming to the more fluid 
portion of the cell-substance 
which is contained in the 
meshes of the mitom or net- 
work of threads. It is the 
paraplasma of Kupffer. 

PArANE'MAtA (sing. Parane'- 
ma), paraphyses among the 
spores of Fucus and other 
algoe. (Obs.) See Pakaph- 

YBES. 

PARANUCLE'OLtJS (pi Paranu- 
clei oil), oue of the additional or 
secondary nucleoli in a nu- 
cleus, when there are more 

than one. 

PARANU'CLEUS ipl. Paranuclei), 
an object resembling an addi- 
tional nucleus— generally ad- 
joining the true nucleus and 
in some cases budded off from 
it; lateral nucleus. 

PARAPET'ALOUS, standing by 
the side of a petal, as stamens 
in some Rosacese. 

PARAPHYL'LUM (pi. Paraphyl'- 
la), a foliaceous expansion 
which is not a true leaf, as 
the large stipules of the pea. 
Especially one of the leaf-like 
scaly hairs among the true 
leaves in mosses. 



PARAPH'YSES (sing. Paraphasia |, 
sterile filaments among repro- 
ductive bodies of various kinds, 
as those among the archegonia 
and autheridia in certain moss- 
es, among the asci in Ascomy- 
cetes, and among the basidia 
in Basidiomycetes. 

PAR'ASITE, a plant which grows 
upon or within another living 
body, from which it derives a 
part or the whole of its nour- 
ishment. Compare Sapro- 
phyte. 

PARASITE - SAPROPHYTE, a 
parasite which kills its host, 
then continues to feed upon it. 

PARAsiT'IC CASTRA'TION, ster- 
ility of a reproductive organ 
caused by a parasite. 

PAR'AsITISED, affected by a par- 
asite; having a parasite grow- 
ing upon or within it. 

PARASITISM, the condition of 

being a parasite. 
PArAstA'MEN, see Stamino- 

DIUM. 

PARASTE'MON, see Stamino- 

divm. 
PARAS'TI€HY, a whorl, or spiral 

row of organs. Compare Or- 

THOSTICHY. 

PAR'ASTYLE, an abortive style. 

PARATON'IC, depressing or re- 
tarding: opposed to stimu- 
lating. Applied mainly to 
certain spontaneous move- 
ments of plants, such as the 
"sleep" of leaves, induced by 
the withdrawal of the usual 
stimulus, in distinction from 
movements caused by mechan- 
ical or artificial irritation. 
Sometimes applied to all 
movements of organs which 
are produced by the presence 
or absence of external stimuli. 
The term is also applied to the 
condition of plants when unu- 



123 



Parenchyma 



A DICTIONARY 



Patulous 



sually insensitive to stimuli of j 
any kind. Compare Photo- 
tonic. 
pAREN'CHYMA, all tissue com- 
posed of cells -which do not 
have tapering extremities. Es- 
pecially soft cellular tissue like 
that of pith and the pulp of 
leaves. Compare Prosen- 

CHYMA and SCLERENCHYMA. 

PARENCHYMATOUS, pertaining 
to, containing, or resembling 
parenchyma; spongy; porous. 

PA'RIEg (pi. Pari'etes), the wall 
of any eu closing body. 

PARI'ETAL, belonging to or situ- 
ated upon the wall, as ovules 
or seeds upon the wall of the 
pericarp. 

PARIPIN'NATE, see Abruptly 
Pinnate. 

PARbZ'CIOUS, having male and 
femafe " flowers" in mosses 
placed close together. (Les- 
quereux and James.) 

PARTED, divided nearly to the 
base. 

PARTHENOG/EN'ESIS, the occa- 
sional production of true spores 
or seeds without fertilization. 
Compare Apogamy. 

PAR THENOSPORE, a spore in 
certain algae resembling a zygo- 
spore, but produced without 
conjugation. 

PAR'TIAL, secondary or subor- 
dinate. 

PARTIAL IN'VOLUCRE, one 
which subtends a subordinate 
part of an inflorescence, as a 
partial or secondary umbel. 

PARTIAL PEDUN'CLE, a branch 
of an inflorescence (pedicel) 
bearing more than one flower. 

PARTIAL PET'IOLE, a division 
of a petiole bearing one or more 
leaflets; petiolule. 

PARTIAL UMBEL, one of the 
parts or secondary umbels of 

1 



a compound umbel; umbel - 
lule; umbellet. 

PARTIBLE, capable of being 
readily divided, but not divid- 
ing spontaneously. 

PAR'TITE, see Parted. 

PARTI'TION, see Septum. 

PAR'VUS, relatively small. 

PASTEUR'ISM, a term applied by 
some writers to the protective 
or prophylactic inoculation of 
the attenuated virus of certain 
diseases, especially of hydro- 
phobia, as devised by Louis 
Pasteur. The older term Vac- 
ciuation, however, is being very 
properly extended to all opera- 
tions involving this principle. 
Compare Pasteurization. 

PASTETJRlZ ACTION, the preserva- 
tion of wines or other ferment- 
ed liquids by destroying the 
fungi and their spores that 
would produce further and 
deleterious changes. This is 
effected by prolonged heating 
to a moderate degree (about 
140° F.) for the purpose of 
inducing the germination and 
subsequent destruction of the 
spores which are present. 

PATEL'LA (pi. Patel'ks), a form 
of sessile apothecium in li- 
chens. (Obs.) 

PATEL'LiFORM, kneepan shap- 
ed; in the form of a watch- 
crystal or shallow saucer, espe- 
cially if thickened like a knee- 
pan. 

PAT'ENT, spreading nearly at 
right angles. 

pAtH'FLNDER, see Nectar- 
guide. 

pATHO<j£N'IC, disease - produc- 
ing; pathogenetic. 

pAthol'O^Y, see Vegetable 
Pathology. 

PAT'ULOUS, slightly spreading. 
24 



Pauci- 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Peltate 



PATJCI-, a Latin prefix: few. 

PAUgiFLO'ROUS, few-flowered. 

PEAR FORM, see Pear-shaped. 

PEAR-SHAPED, ovoid or obo- 
void, and contracted at the 
sides like the Eartlett pear. 
Compare Tear-shaped. 

PECTINATE, having close nar- 
row divisions like the teeth of 
a comb. Applied also by De 
Bary to two series of fibro vas- 
cular bundles when the mem- 
bers of each alternate with those 
of the other, like the teeth of 
two combs. 

PflD'ATE, palmately parted or 
divided into somewhat linear 
lobes, with two strong lateral 
lobes from each of which some- 
what linear divisions arise, as 
in the maidenhair fern and 
Viola pedata. Compare Pal- 
mate. 

PED'ATELY CLflFT, see Pedat- 
ifid. 

PED'ATELY VEINED, having no 
mid-vein, but with two strong 
lateral veins, from each of 
which others originate which 
extend toward the apex; pe- 
datinerved. Compare Pal- 
mately Veined. 

PEDAT'IFID, divided in a pedate 
manner about half-way to the 
base; pedately cleft. 

PEDAT INERVED.see Pedately 
Veined. 

PEDAtIpAR'TITE, pedately 
veined and lobed with the 
sinuses reaching nearly to the 
principal veins. 

PED'ICEL, a branch of an inflo- 
rescence, supporting one or 
more flowers. Also applied 
to a little stalk or support of 
any kind. In orchids it is a 
portion of the pollinium in 
some genera which is derived 
from the rostellum and con- 



nects the caudicles with the 
retinaculum. Compare Foot- 
stalk and Peduncle. 

PEDICELLATE, having a pedi- 
cel; pedicelled. 

PED'igELLED, see Pedicellate. 

PEDIC'ULATE, see Pedicellate. 

PEDUN'CLE, the stalk of an in- 
florescence, whether of one 
flower or more. Compare 
Pedicel and Partial Pe- 
duncle. 

PEDUN'CLED, see Peduncu- 

LATE. 

PEDtJN'CULAR, pertaining to or 
serving as a peduncle; grow- 
ing upon or attached to the 
side of a peduncle, as a pedun- 
cular tendril. 

PEDTJN'CULATE, having a pedun- 
cle, as a pedunculate flower or 
inflorescence; ped uncled. 

PEG, a lip or projection at the 
lower end of the hypocoty] in 
Cucurbitaceae which serves in 
germination to hold the seed- 
coats down while the cotyle- 
dons are withdrawn. 

PELAGIAN, see Pelagic. 

PELAGIC, pertaining to the deep 
sea; widely dispersed through 
the ocean; pelagian. 

PEL'LICLE, a distinct, firm, and 
in some cases separable, outer 
layer of the cortex in lichens 
and some other fleshy fungi. 

PELLUCID, translucent. 

PELO'RlA, a regular condition in 
flowers which are usually ir- 
regular. See Regular and 
Irregular Peloria. 

PEL'TA (pi. Pel'tse), an obsolete 
term for certain target-shaped 
apothecia in lichens. 

PEL'TATE, shield- or target- 
shaped; circular, and fixed by 
the lower surface, especially 
the centre of it. 
25 



Peltately Veined 



A DICTIONARY 



Perianth 



PEL'TATELY VEINED, having 
veins radiating in all direc- 
tions from the summit of the 
petiole, as in a peltate leaf. 

PEL'VIFORM, shaped like the 
cavity of the pelvis; basin- 
shaped. (Rare.) See Aceta- 
buliform and Cotyliform. 

PENCILED, marked with fine 
distinct lines as if with a pen- 
cil. 

PENCILLED, see Penciled. 

PENDENT, hanging directly 
downward. Compare Cer- 
nous and Drooping. 

PflN'DULOUS, hanging down- 
ward more than cernous, 
nearly vertically. 

PENICIL'lATE, bordered or 
tipp'ed with fine hairs like 
those of a camel's-hair pen- 
cil. Compare Penciled. 

PENICIL'LIFORM, like a camel's- 
hair pencil. 

PEN'NATE, see Pinnate. 

PEN'NIFORM, in the form of a 
feather or plume. 

PEN'NINERVED, see Pinnately 
Veined. 

PENTA-, a Greek prefix: five. 

PENTAcAR'PELLARY, having an 
ovary with five carpels. 

PENTAcoCCOUS, of five cocci. 

PENTACYC'LIC, in five whorls. 

PENTAG'YNOUS, of five pistils or 
styles. 

PENTAm'EROUS, of five parts: 
said of a flower having five 
organs in each whorl. Some- 
times written 5-merous. 

PENTAN'DROtJS, having five sta- 
mens. 

PENTAPET'ALOUS, of five petals. 

PENTAPHYL'LOtJS, five-leaved; 
applied mainly to the parts of 
the calyx; peutasepalous. 

PENTAP'TEROtJS, five-winged. 

1 



PENTASEP'ALOtJS, of five sepals; 
pentaphyllous. 

PENTAsPER'MOtJS, five-seeded. 

PENTAS'TICHOUS, in five ver- 
tical ranks. 

PE'PO, a cucurbitaceous fruit, as 
a melon or gourd. It is inde- 
hisceut, fleshy, inferior, poly- 
carpellary, and has a thick, 
more or less hardened, rind. 

PERAPHYL'LUM, an accrescent 
foliaceous calyx, as in quiuce. 
(Obs.) 

PERCUR'RENT,runningthrough- 
out, as a midrib through the 
entire length of a leaf to the 
extreme apex. 

PERENNIAL, adj., living more 
than two years. 

PEREN'NIAL, u., a plant which 
lives more tban two years. 

PEREN'NIAL HERB, a plant 
that lives from year to year, 
but dies to the ground or 
nearly so at the close of each 
season. 

PERFECT, containing both sta- 
mens and pistils; hermaphro- 
dite; bisexual. Compare Com- 
plete. 

PERFO'LIATE, said of a leaf 
which is united around the 
stem at its base. Compare 
Connate. 

PERFORATE, pierced with small 
round holes. Compare Per- 
tuse and Punctate. 

PERGAME'NEOtJS, see Perga- 

MENTACEOUS. 

PERGAmENTA'CEOUS, like 

parchment. (Rare.) See 
Chartaceous. 
PER'lANTH, the calyx and co- 
rolla taken together, or calyx 
alone when there is no corolla. 
Used mainly where calyx and 
corolla are much alike, as in 
lilies. Formerly applied to the 
26 



Perianthomania OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Perisperm 



calyx only, or to calyx and in- 
volucre. 

PERlAN'THitiM, see Perianth. 

PERIANTHOMANIA, an unnatu- 
ral multiplication of sepals, 
bracts, etc. 

PER'IBLEM, the primordial cor- 
tex, i.e., the layer of nascent 
cortex beneath the dermatogeu. 

PERICAM'BIUM, see Phloem- 
sheath. 

PERICARP, the -wall of a ripened 
ovary or seed-vessel. Some- 
times improperly applied to 
husks or other protective cov- 
erings surrounding the fruit. 

PER'ICH-ETH, the involucre of 
leaves around the base of the 
seta (or sessile capsule) in 
mosses; also around the ar- 
chegonia in Marchantia, etc.; 
perichsetium. 

PERICHJTTIAL, belonging or 
pertaining to the perichaeth. 

PERICH-E'TiUM, see Peki- 

CH^ETH. 

PERICLA'DIUM, a sheathing peti- 
ole in exogens, as iu many 
Umbel lifera?. (Rare.) 

PERICLI'NAL, said of cell-walls 
or any lines when parallel with 
the outer surface of the plant 
or organ. Compare Anticli- 
nal. The annual rings of a 
trunk, for example, extend 
in a periclinal direction, and 
the medullary rays in an anti- 
clinal. 

PERICLlN'IUM, a name for the 
involucre in Composite. 

PER ICYCLE, the outer portion 
of the central or hbrovascular 
cylinder. 

PERIDERM, see Epiphlozum. 
Also applied to the cell-wall 
or any other enclosing mem- 
brane. 

PERIDI'OLUM (pi. Peridi'ola), di- 



minutive of Peridium: a sec- 
ondary or interior peridium 
containing a hymeniuin, as in 
Crucibulum. 

PERID'ltJM (pi. Perid'ia), the cov- 
ering of almost any closed 
spore-case, or fungus-fruit, as 
of a puff-ball. 

PER'IGONE, see Pekianth. 

PERIGO'NIUM (pi. Perigonia), 
see Pekianth. Sometimes 
used for Perichseth. 

PERIGYN IUM (pi. Perigyn'Ia), a 
term applied to various appen- 
dages of unusual or doubtful 
character surrounding the pis- 
til, as the sac -like envelope 
(utriculus) surrounding the 
ovary in Carex. Also used 
for Perichteth iu Hepaticse and 
mosses. 

PERIG'YNOUS, adherent to the 
calyx aud free from the ovary: 
said of stamens. 

PERIPET'ALOUS, around the 
petals. 

PERIPHERIC, situated around 
the outside or periphery. 

PERIPHLO'EM, see Phloem- 
sheath. 

PERIPHORAN'THiUM, see Peri- 

CLIMITM. 

PERIPHYL'LUM (pi. Periphyl'la), 
see Lodicule. 

PERIPLASM, a hyaline periph- 
eral layer of protoplasm; ecto- 
plasm. Especially, in Pero- 
nosporea?, a part of the 
protoplasm iu the oogonium 
aud antheridium which does 
not take part iu fertilization. 
Compare Gonoplasm. 

PERIP'TEROUS, surrounded by 
a wiug-like expansion. 

PER ISPERM, the albumen of a 
seed, especially that formed 
outside the embryo-sac. Some- 
times applied also to the seed- 



121 



Perispermic 



A DICTIONARY 



Phaenocarpous 



coat and to the pericarp. Com- 
pare Endosperm. 

PERISPER'MIC, furnished with 
perisperm. 

PERISPORAN'GTUM, see Indu- 

8IUM. 

PflR'ISPORE, a covering of one or 
more spores, as the cell or sac 
in which tetraspores are formed. 

PERISTOME, the fringe of teeth 
around the mouth of the cap- 
sule in mosses. 

PERITHELIUM (pi. Perithelia), 
the receptacle containing the 
asci in Ascomycetes. Com- 
monly applied in a general 
way to the whole ascocarp. 

PERIT'ROPAL, see Peritro- 
pous. 

PERIT'ROPOUS, having the axis 
of the seed perpendicular to 
that of the pericarp. (Rare.) 

PJSRIZO'NIUM, a thin non-sili- 
cious membrane of a young 
auxospore in Diatomaceae. 

PERPENDICULAR SYS'TEM, see 

FlBROVASCULAR SYSTEM. 

PERSISTENT, remaining longer 
than usual, as parts of _ the 
iiower which remain (either 
living or dead) until the fruit 
is ripe, or leaves which die but 
remain upon the tree during 
winter. 

PER'SONATE, labiate, with the 
throat nearly closed by a pro- 
jection in the lower lip called 
the palate; masked. Compare 

RlNGENT. 

PERSPIRATION, see Transpi- 
ration. 

PERTUS'ATE, see Pertuse. 

PERTUSE', having slits or holes; 
perforate. 

PERTUSED', see Pertuse. 

PER'ULA (pi. Per'ulae), see Per- 
ule. 

PER'ULATE, having perules. 



PER'ULE, see Bud-scale. 

PETAL, a leaf of a corolla; 
flower-leaf. 

PETALED, having petals; pet- 
al ous: opposed to Apetalotis. 
Used mainly in compouuds, as 
five-petaled. 

PETALIF'EROIJS, bearing petals. 
PETAL'IFORM, shaped like a 

petal. 
PET ALINE, see Petaloid. 

PETALODE, an organ resembling 

a petal; a false petal. 
PETAL'ODY, the conversion of 

other floral organs into petals. 

PETALOID, petal-like in texture, 
color, and form; petaliue. 
Compare Corallaceous. 

PETALOMANlA, any unusual 
development of the petals. 
Not usually applied to ordi- 
nary doubling, but to some re- 
markable development in size 
or form. 

PETALOUS, see Petaled. 

PET'IOLAR, pertaining to or 
having a petiole; borne on a 
petiole, as a petiolar gland or 
tendril. 

PET'IOLARY, pertaining to a 
petiole. 

PET'IOLATE, having a petiole; 
petioled. 

PET'IOLE, the stem or foot-stalk 
of a leaf. Compare Stipe aud 
Peduncle. 

PET'IOLED, see Petiolate. 

PETIOL'ULAR, pertaining to the 
petiole of a leaflet. 

PET'IOLtJLE, see Partial Pet- 
iole. 

PEZ'IZOID, in the shape of Pe- 
ziza; cyathiform, or nearly so. 

PHJSNOCAR'POUS, having the 
fruit free from the perianth. 
(Rare.) 
128 



Phaeocyst 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Phototonic 



PH.&N5G AMOUS, see Phenoga- 
mous. 

PH-ENOLOGICAl, see Peno- 
logical,. 

PHiE'OgYST, an old term for 
Nucleus. 

PHA'LANX (pi. Phalange?), a 
bundle of more or less cohe- 
rent stamens with broad fila- 
ments, as in some Malvaceae. 
Compare Adelphia. 

PHAN'EROgAM, see Phenogam. 

PHANERGgAMIAN, seePHENOG- 

AMOU8. 

PHANEROGAMIC, see Phenog- 

AJIOUS. 

PHANEROGAMOUS, see Phenog- 

AMOUS 

PHEL'LEM, cork. 

PHEL'LODERM, green cells be- 
neath the cork formed from 
the inner layers of the phel- 
logen; cork-cortex. 

PHEL'LdGflN, the inner active 
growing layers of cork-tissue; 
cork-cambium; cork-meristem. 

PHE'NOgAM, a flowering plant, 
i.e., one which produces true 
seeds; phanerogam. Compare 
Cryptogam. 

PHENOGA'MIAN, see Phenog- 

AMOUS. 

PHENOGAm'IC, see Phenog- 
amous. 

PHENOG AMOUS, producing true 
flowers and seeds. Compare 
Cryptogamous. 

PHENOLOG'ICAL, applied to the 
blossoming of plants, and other 
periodical phenomena of plants 
and animals; phonological. 

PHLO EM, that portion of a fibro- 
vascular bundle which contains 
the bast and sieve tissue; lep- 
tome. In exogeus it is always 
sharply defined from the re- 
maining portion (xylem) by a 
layer of cambium. The inner 



bark is derived from thephloGm, 
and the wood from the xylem. 

PHLO'llM-RAY, a ray or plate of 
phloem between two medullary 
rays. It is an outward con- 
tinuation of a xylem-ray. 

PHLO'EM-SHEATH, a layer of 
thin-walled cells surrounding 
the fibrovascular cylinder next 
within the cortex — usually 
better defined in roots than 
in stems; bast-sheath; peri- 
phloem; pericambium; vascu- 
lar bundle-sheath. 

PHORAn'THIUM, see Antho- 

DIUM. 

PHOTO - EP'INASTY, downward 
curvature due to the presence 
of light. Compare Photo- 

HYPONA8TY. 

PHOTO - HY'PONASTY, upward 
curvature due to increased il- 
luminatiou. Photo - epinasty 
and photo - hyponasty should 
be distinguished from heliot- 
ropism, as the curvatures are 
in the directions stated, from 
whatever direction the light 
comes. 

PHOTOTAX'IS, taking a definite 
position with reference to the 
incident rays of light, as cer- 
tain desmids and the leaves of 
the compass-plant, SUphium, 
laciniatum. 

PHOTOTdN'IC, a term applied to 
the stimulating influence of 
light upon plants, inducing or 
increasing irritability and ex- 
citability. Thus, when growth 
which has been arrested by 
prolonged darkness is restored 
upon admission of light, the 
effect is termed the phototonic 
influence of the light; witli 
most organs, however, growth 
is more rapid iu darkness. 
This effect of light iu retard- 
ing growth is called its para- 
129 



Fhragma 



A DICTIONARY 



Phylogeny 



tonic influence. See Para- 
tonic. 

PHRAG'MA (pi. Phrag'mata), a 
horizontal false dissepiment in 
a pericarp, as in some species 
of Cassia. Formerly any false 
dissepiment, or any dissepi- 
ment. 

PHYCOCY'ANINE, a bluish pig- 
ment, found in certain marine 
algae. 

PHYCOERYTH RINE, the reddish 
pigment in Florideae. 

PHYcOLOGY, see Algology. 

PHYCOmA, the whole plant in 
algae, including tballus and re- 
productive organs. (Obs.) 

PHYCOMA'TER, gelatine contain- 
ing spores in algae. (Obs.) 

PHYCOPH-E'INE, the brown pig- 
ment of Fucaceae and some 
other algae. 

PHYCOXAN'THINE, a buff-col- 
ored pigment in diatoms and 
certain other algae; diatomine. 

PHY'LA, pi., see Phylum. 

PHYLLA'RIES, an old term for 
the bracts forming the invo- 
lucre of the flower-head in 
Corapositae. 

PHYL'LOCLADE, see Phyllocla- 

DIUM. 

PHYLLOCLA'DIUM (pi. Phyllo- 
cla'dia), a flattened branch 
Avhich somewhat resembles a 
leaf, as in Ruscus and Psilo- 
tum; cladode; cladodium; 
cladophyll; ph} r lloclade. Com- 
pare Phyllodium. 

PHYLLOCY'ANIN, a bluish pig- 
ment which with phylloxan- 
thiue forms the green coloring 
matter of chlorophyll; cyano- 
phyll. 

PHYL'LODE, see Phyllodium. 

PHYLLO'DltfM (pi. Phyllo'dia), a 
dilated petiole taking the place 
of a blade. 



130 



PHYL'LODY, the reversion of 
bracts or floral organs to 
leaves; frondescence; phyllo- 
morphy. 

PHYL'LOGEN, see Phyllo- 

PHORE. 

PHYLLOGENET'IC, leaf -produc- 
ing. 

PHYLLOG'ENOTJS, growing upon 
leaves. 

PHYL'LOID, leaf-like. 

PHYLLOMA'NIA, an abnormally 
abundant growth of leaves, or 
their production in unusual 
places. Compare Pleio- 
phylly. 

PHYL'LOME, a general term for 
all organs which are morpho- 
logically leaves, as bracts, 
scales, petals, etc. 

PHYLLOM'IC, pertaining to a leaf 
or phyllome. 

PHYL'LOMORPHY, see Phyl- 

LODY. 

PHYL'LOPHORE, any leaf-bear- 
ing organ, especially the leaf- 
bearing portion of the stem in 
palms. 

PHYLLOPO'DltJM, the branched 
or unbrauched axis of a leaf, 
as the stipe and rachis of a 
frond, au ordinar} r petiole, or 
any arrangement which serves 
as an axis or support for the 
expanded portion or portions 
of a leaf. 

PHYLLOTAX'IS, the order of 
arrangement of leaves upon 
stems; phyllotaxy. 

PHYL'LOTAXY, see Phyllo- 

TAXIS. 

PHYLLOXAN'THIN, a yellow pig- 
ment associated with phyllo- 
cyanin in the production of 
chlorophyll; xanthophyll. 

PHYL6GENY, the comparative 
study of the development of 
animals or plants. It seeks to 



Phylum 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Pilus 



trace the origin of species, va- 
rieties, etc., and their various 
organs from preexisting forms. 
It deals with the history of a 
species or other group, in dis- 
tinction from Ontogeny, which 
deals with the history of an in- 
dividual. See Evolution. 

PHYLUM (pi. Phy'la), a scale, 
group, or system of organisms 
arranged in the manner in 
which its individuals or subor- 
dinate groups have succeeded 
each other in point of time. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL BOTANY, the 
science which treats of how 
plants live, grow, and per- 
form their various functions; 
vegetable physiology. 

PHYTOGEN ESIS, plant reproduc- 
tion, germination, and devel- 
opment, or the science which 
treats of these processes; phy- 
togeny. 

PHYTOGENY, see Phytogene- 
sis. 

PHYTOGEOG'RAPHY, see Geo- 
graphical Botany. 

PHYTOG'RAPHY, descriptive bot- 
any, including both the de- 
scribing and naming of plants. 
See Vegetable Taxonomy. 

PHY'TOID, plant-like. 

PHY'TOLITE, see Phytolith. 

PHY'TOLITH, a fossil petrified 
plant; phytolite. 

PHYTOLITHOL'OGY, see Fossil 
Botany. 

PHYtOL'OGY, see Botany. 

PHYtOL'YSIS, the change in 
position undergone by the 
chlorophyll of a cell in con- 
secpieuce of the alternation of 
day and night or of the in- 
tensity of the sunlight. See 
Apostrophe, Epistrophe, 
and Systrophe. 

PHY'TOMER, see Phyton. 



PHY'TON, an internode with a 
node at its upper extremity 
which bears one or more 
leaves, in the axil of each of 
which may appear one or 
more buds; phytomer. The 
name was given by Gaudi- 
chaud, who regarded plants 
as compound individuals 
made up of successive phytons. 
See Metamer. 

PHYtON'OMY, see Physiolog- 
ical Botany. 

PHYTON'YMY, see Physiolog- 
ical Botany. 

PHYTOPATHOLOGY, see Vege- 
table Pathology. 

PHYTOT'OMY, (1) the science of 
vegetable anatomy; (2) the 
art or act of plant-dissection. 
Compare Structural Bot 
any 

PHYTOZO'ON (pi. Phytozoa) 
(obs.), see Antherozoid. 

PI LEATE, like a pileus; having 
a cap or pileus; pileiform. 

PILE'IfORM, shaped like the 
pileus or cap of a mushroom. 

PlLE'OLUS (pi. Pile'oli), a little 
pileus, especially where there 
are several from the same 
stem. 

PILEORHI'ZA, see Root-cap. 

PILOUS, see Pilose. 

PI'LEUS (pi. Pi'lel), the cap of 
mushrooms. Extended to 
other similar objects, as the 
stalked stroma of Claviceps. 

PILIF'EROUS, bearing hairs. 

PIL'IFORM, hair-like. 

PILIG'EROtJS, producing hairs. 

PILOSE', (1) covered with long, 
soft, nearly erect and some- 
what distant hairs; (2) having 
the nature of hair. 

PI'LUS (pi. Pi'li), a hair. 



131 



Pin-eyed 



A DICTIONARY 



Pistilliferous 



PIN-EYED, a florist's term for 
certain flowers which have the 
style more conspicuous than 
the stamens. Compare Thrum- 
eyed. 

PIN'nA (pi. Pin'nae), a leaflet, or 
branch of a piunately-coui- 
pound leaf. 

PIN'NATE, having leaflets borne 
along a common petiole; piu- 
nately compound. Compare 
Bipinnate and Tripinnate. 
See Leaflet. 

PINNATED, see Pinnate. 

PINNATELY COMPOUND, see 
Pinnate. 

PIN NATELY CLEFT, see Pin- 

NATIFID. 

PIN'NATELY DECOMPOUND', bi- 
pinnate, or further divided in 
a pinnate manner. 

PIN'NATELY DIVI'DED, see Pin- 

NATISECT. 

PIN'NATELY LOBED, having 
several lobes of about the 
same size on each side of an 
elongated leaf; pinnatilobate. 

PIN'NATELY PARTED, see Pin- 

NATIPARTITE. 

PIN'NATELY TER'NATE, see 

PiNNATELY TRIFOLIATE. 

PIN'NATELY TRIFOLIATE, tri- 
foliolate, with at least the ter- 
minal leaflet distinctly stalked; 
pinnately teruate. 

PIN'NATELY VEINED, having 
one primary vein or midrib 
from which secondary veins 
run parallel toward the mar- 
gin, as in the beech; 'feather- 
veined. 

PINNAT'lFID, piunately veined 
with marginal divisions reach- 
ing about half-way to the mid- 
rib. 

PINNAtILO'BATE, see Pin- 

NATELY LoBED. 



PINNAtIPAR'TITE, having mar- 
ginal divisions in a pinnate leaf 
reaching nearly to the base; 
piunately parted. 

PINNAT'lSflCT, having the lobes 
of a pinnate leaf divided to the 
midrib but not petioled. 

PIN'NIFORM, like a feather. 

PIN'NINERVED, see Pinnately 
Veined. 

PIN'NULA (pi. Pin'nulae), see 
Pinnule. 

PIN'NULATE, having pinnules. 

PIN'NULE, a secondary or other 
subordinate pinna, as in pin- 
nately compound or pinnately 
decompound leaves. 

PIP, originally any seed, now 
sometimes applied to the seeds 
of the apple and to some other 
small seeds or seed- like bodies, 
including the little bulbs of 
lily-of-the-valley. 

Pl'SIFdRM, pea-sbaped. 

PIS'TIL, the central seed-bearing 
organ of a flower, consisting of 
one or more united carpels. It 
consists of the seed-containing 
portion called ovary, the pollen- 
receiving part called stigma, 
and generally an intervening 
stem called the style. Usually 
there is but one pistil in a flow- 
er, but when, as in the- straw- 
berry, there are several distinct 
bodies as here described seated 
upon the receptacle, each is 
properly called a pistil. 

PIS' TILL ARY CORD, an old and 
inappropriate name for the con- 
ductive tissue of the style. See 
Conductive Tissue. 

PIS'TILLATE, said of a flower 
containing pistils but no fer- 
tile stamens. 

PISTILLID'IUM (pi. Pistillld'Ia), 
see Archegonium. 

PISTILLIF'EROUS, bearing pis- 
tils, or pistils without stamens. 



132 



Pistillody 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Plasmolytic 



PIS'TILLODY, the transformation 

of other organs into pistils. 

PIT, (1) a small depression, or a 
thin spot in a cell-wall; (2) the 
endocarp of a drupe containing 
the kernel or seed; stone. See 
Bordered Pit and Bordered 
Pore. 

PIT-CHAMBER, the cavity of a 
bordered pit upon one side of 
the closing membrane. 

PITCHER, see Ascidium. 

PITCHER SHAPED, when ap- 
plied to a corolla means tubu- 
lar with a contracted throat, as 
in Vaccinium ; urceolate. Ap- 
plied to other organs it means 
shaped more or less like an 
ordinary pitcher with a lip or 
spout at the top, as the leaf in 
the various "pitcher-plants." 

PITH, the column or cord of 
soft cellular tissue at the cen- 
tre of an exogenous stem; me- 
dulla. 

PITTED, marked with small 
depressions. 

PIT'TED VES'SELS, vessels hav- 
ing thickenings in the form of 
a network with polygonal 
meshes, leaving thin spots or 
pits; dotted ducts. Compare 
Bordeked Pit. 

PITU'ITOUS, pertaining to pitch 
or mucus. 

PLAcEN'TA, the part of the ovary 
to which the ovules are at- 
tached; the tissue from which 
the sporangia arise in ferns. 
Compare Hymenium. 

PLACENTA TION, the arrange- 
ment of the seeds in the peri- 
carp; the arrangement of the 
placenta itself. 

PLACEN'TIFdRM, in the form of 
a double concave lens; i.e., like 
a circular thickened disk de- 
pressed in the centre upon both 
sides. 

1; 



PLAgIOTROP'IC, growing at an 
angle from the vertical or from 
the axis either upward or down- 
ward. Compare Oktho- 
tropic. 

PLAIN, said of a margin which 
is not undulate in any degree, 
though it may be sinuate. (E.S. 
Goff.) 

PLAITED, see Plicate. 

PLANE, flat. 

PLANE OF INSER'TION, a plane 
which passes through the point 
of insertion of a lateral mem- 
ber, as a leaf, and coincides 
with the main axis and the 
axis of the lateral member. 

PLANE OF SYM'METRY, any 
plane which divides an object 
into symmetrical halves. 

PLAN'obAMETE, a ciliated or 
otherwise motile coalescing 
(sexual) cell; zoogamete. 

PLANT-CANE, a sugar-cane pro- 
duced directly from seed, in 
distinction fromRatoon, which 
see. 

PLANT LfiT, a small or young 
plant. 

PLANT PATHOL'OGT, see Vege- 
table Pathology. 

PLASM (or Plas'ma), see Proto- 
plasm. Also used for nutri- 
tive cell-fluids of all kinds. 

PLAS'MASOME, a protoplasmic 
corpuscle. 

PLASMATIC, serving for growth ; 
plastic. (Rare.) 

PLASMODIUM (pi. Pla§mo ilk), a 
mass of naked multinucleated 
protoplasm exhibiting amoe- 
boid movement; the vegeta- 
tive body in Myxomycetes. 

PLASMOL'YSIS, the contraction 
of protoplasm under the in- 
fluence of reagents. 

PLAsMOLYT'IC, pertaining to 
plasmolysis. 



Plastic 



A DICTIONARY 



Plumose 



PLAS'TIC, serving the purpose of 
growth; plasmic; formative. 

PLAS'TID, one of a class of 
clearly defined protoplasmic 
granules in the protoplasm of 
active cells which forms the 
basis of the chlorophyll and 
other color-granules, and is 
also the centre at which starch- 
grains are produced. For the 
synonymy of the colorless plas- 
tids, see Leucoplast; and for 
that of the color-plastids, see 
Chromatophore. 

PLAS'TIN, see Achromatic. 

PLAs'TOID, see Rhabdoid. 

PLATE, see Nuclear Plate and 
Sieve-plate. 

PLATEAU', the very short stem 
which bears the scales in a 
bulb. Formerly called Corui 
or Cormus. See Corm. 

PLATYCAR'POUS, broad-fruited. 

PLATYLO'BATE, broad-lobed. 

PlATYPHYL LOUS, broad-leaved. 

PLEI0-, a Greek prefix meaning 
full of, or many. 

PLEIOMOR PHISM, (1) a change 
of form due to excessive 
growth of an organ; (2) some- 
times used in fungi for Poly- 
morphism. 

PLEIOPH'YLLOtJS, having leaves 
without apparent buds or 
branches in their axils. (Rare.) 
See Pleiophylly. 

PLEI'OPHYLLY, a state in which 
there is an abnormal number 
of leaves from the same point, 
or an unusually large number 
of leaflets in a compound leaf. 
Compare Polyphylly. 

PLEIOSPER MOUS, containing an 
abnormally large uumber of 
seeds. Formerly the same as 
Polyspermous. 

PLEl'OTAXY, a state in whicli 



there are an abnormally large 
number of whorls. 

PLE'NUS, full, applied to 
" double" flowers. 

PLEOMOR'PHi§M, seePLEiOMOR- 

PHISM. 

PLE ON, a term proposed by 
Nageli for those aggregates of 
molecules which cannot be in- 
creased or diminished without 
changing their chemical na- 
ture. 

PLE ONASM, having any part 
abnormally numerous. (Rare.) 

PLE'ROME, nascent fibrovascular 
tissue. 

PLE'ROME SHE ATH,the phloem- 
sheath in its nascent state. 

PLESIOMOR'PHOUS, nearly of 
the same form. 

PLEUREN'OHYMA, fibrous 
woody tissue. (Rare.) 

PLEUROCAR'POUS, see Clado- 

CAHPOTJS. 

PLEURODIS'COUS, growing upon 
the sides of the disk, as the ray- 
flowers in Composite. 

PLEUROGY'RATE, having the 
annul us in ferns placed later- 
ally, as in the genus Tricho- 
manes. 

PLEURORHl'ZAL, see Acctjm- 
bent. 

PLEU ROTRIBE, said of zygo- 
morphic flowers which have 
the stamens so placed that an 
insect eutering will receive the 
pollen upon its side, as in the 
pea. Compare Nototribe 
and Sternotribe. 

PLEX'US, any network. 

PLI'CA, see Polyclady. 

PLI'CATE, folded like a fan. 

PLICAT'tJLATE, diminutive of 
Plicate. 

PLUMOSE', like a feather, as the 
slender branches of the pappus 



134 



Plumule 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Pollen 



in thistles, which have a row 
of hue hairs on each side. 

PLti'MULA, see Plumule. 

PLU'MULE, the rudimentary stem 
and leaves between the coty- 
ledons. 

PLUM-, a Latin prefix: more 
than one. 

PLURIFO'LIOtJS, several - flow- 
ered. 

PLtJRIFO'LIATE, having several 
leaves. 

PLURIFO'LIOLATE, having sev- 
eral or many leaflets. 

PLtJRIL&C'tJLAR, having more 
than one cell in an ovary; 
multilocular. Compare Uni- 
locular. 

PLURIPET'ALOUS, see Polypet- 

ALOUS. 

FLfJRISEP TATE, having more 
than one septum. 

PNEU'MATODES, upward 

growths from the roots of 
palms and some other plants 
which assist in aeration. The 
" knees" of the bald cypress 
were formerly supposed to be 
of this character. 

POCULIFORM, deep cup-shaped, 
with hemispherical base and 
nearly upright sides. Com- 
pare Alveolate and Cam- 

PANULATE. 

PdD, any dry dehiscent fruit; 
capsule. The term pod is the 
more popular, and is usually 
restricted in its use, among 
botanists as well as others, to 
capsules of considerable size, 
especially when somewhat 
rounded or inflated, as in the 
milkweed (Asclepias). 

PODE'TIIFORM, resembling a 
podetium. 

PODE'TITJM (pi. Pode'tla), a stalk 
of an apothecium in lichens. 



Also applied to the fruit-stalk 
in Marchantia. 

PO'DIUM, a support for some 
other part. The stem, for 
example, is a podium for the 
branches. Used mainly in 
composition. See Monopo- 
dium and Sympodium. 

P6D0CAR'P0US, haviug a gyuo- 
phore. 

P6D0CEPH'AL0u"S, said of a head 
of flowers when supported on 
a distinct peduncle or pedicel. 

PODO(jYN'IUM, see Gynophore. 

POdOP'TEROUS, having winged 
peduncles. 

PO-D'OSPERM, see Funiculus. 

POINT' AL, an old term for Pistil. 

POINTLESS, see Muticous. 

POINT'LETED, see Apiculate. 

PO'LAR BODY, see Polar Cell. 

POLAR CELL, a portion of a ga- 
mete budded off prior to fer- 
tilization; apoblast; directive 
corpuscle; polar body; polar 
globule. Rare in plants. 

PO'LAR COR'PUSCLE, a central 
mass in each aster of a divid- 
ing nucleus. 

PO'LAR GLdB'ULE, see Polar 
Cell. 

PO'LAR NU'CLEUS, a fourth nu- 
cleus in each end of the em- 
bryo-sac previous to fertiliza- 
tion. The two polar nuclei 
unite to form the nucleus of 
the embryo-sac or "secondary 
nucleus." 
POlAR'ITY, the state of having 
distinct poles; the tendency to 
assume a direction parallel to 
the poles of the earth, as the 
leaves of the compass-plant, 
Silphium laciniatum. 
POL'LEN, the fertilizing powder, 
usually yellow, produced in 
the anthers of flowers. It 
consists of unicellular grains 



135 



Pollenation 



A DICTIONARY 



Polyandrous 



of definite form, varying ac- 
cording to species, which begin 
the process of fertilization when 
placed upon the stigma by an 
act of germination. 

POL'LENATE, see Pollinate. 

POLLENA'TION, see Pollina- 
tion. 

POL'LEN-CflLL, sometimes ap- 
plied to the cells or chambers 
of the anther which contain 
the pollen; pollen-sac. 

POL'LEN-CHAM'BER, in gymuo- 
sperms, a cavity at the apex of 
the ovule in which the pollen- 
grains lie during fertilization; 
pollinic chamber. 

PdL'LfiN-GRAlN, the usual term 
for an individual spore, cell, 
or particle of pollen. 

PDL'LfiNIZE, see Pollinate. 

POLLENIzA'TION, see Pollina- 
tion. 

PDL'LENOID, used by Bennett 
& Murray for Autherozoid. 

P&L'Lf!N-MAss, see Pollinium. 

POl'LEN-SAc, the cavity of an 
anther containing the pollen; 
pollen-cell. 

PtiL'LEN-SPORE, see Pollen- 
grain. 

POLLEN-TETRAHEDRON (pi. 
Tetrahe'dra), see Pollen-tet- 
rad. 

POL'LEN-TET'RAD, a pollen- 
mass consisting of four pollen- 
grains united, either perma- 
nently or before fully devel- 
oped; fourfold pollen-grain; 
pollen-tetrahedron. 

PdL'LEN-TUBE, a thin slender 
tube which issues from the 
pollen-grain on its contact 
with the stigma, which it 
penetrates until it reaches the 
ovule where fertilization takes 
place. 

PdL'LEX, an inch. (Obs.) 



PdLLINA'RIUM (pi. Pollina'ria), 
see Antheridium. 

POL'LINATE, to place pollen 
upon the stigma; polleuate; 
pollenize. 

POLLINA'TI&N, the placing of 
pollen upon the stigma — the 
first stage of fertilization; pol- 
leuization. 

PdLLIN'lA, pi., see Pollinium. 

PdLLIN'IC CHAM'BER, see Pol- 
len-chamber. 

POLLINIF'EROUS, pollen - bear- 
ing. 

PdLLIN'IIJM (pi. PolHn'ia), a co- 
herent mass of pollen-grains in 
certain plants, as orchids and 
milk-weeds, so arranged as to 
be conveyed by insects; pol- 
len-mass. For the terminol- 
ogy of the parts supporting a 
pollinium, see Retinaculum, 
Corpusculcm, Caudicle, and 
Pedicel. 

P&LLINIZA'TION, see Pollina- 
tion. 

FOLLINO'DIUM, the antherium 
or male sexual organ in Pyre- 
nomycetes which, either di- 
rectly or by means of an out- 
growth, conjugates with the 
female organ in fertilization. 

POLY-, a prefix derived from the 
Greek, meaning many. 

POLYADEL'PHIAN, see Poly- 
adelphous. 

POLYADELPHOUS, having the 
stamens united by their fila- 
ments into three or more sets. 
See Adelphous, Monadel- 
phous, and Diadelphous. 

POlYAD'ENOUS, bearing many 
glands. 

POLYAN'DRIAN, see Polyan- 
drous. 

P6LYAN'DR0US, having twenty 
or more hypogynous stamens. 
Compare Icosandrous. 



136 



Polyanthous 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Polymorphism 



P6LYAN'THOi&S, having many 
flowers, especially if in one 
bead. A polyanthous invo- 
lucre, for example, is one in- 
vesting many flowers. 

POLYCAR'PELLARY, said cf a 
pistil consisting of more than 
one leaf or carpel. 

POLYCAR'PIC, fruiting succes- 
sively; sychnocarpous. Com- 
pare Monocarpic. Sometimes 
improperly used for Apocar- 
pous. 

POLYCAR'POIIS, used both for 
Polycavpic and Apocarpous. 
Compare Monocarpic and 
Monocarpous. 

POLYCEPH ALOu*S, bearing many 
heads. 

POLYCLA'DlA, see Polyclady. 

POLYCLA'DOtJS, having abnor- 
mally numerous branches. 

P6L'YCLADY, an excessive devel- 
opment of twigs or branches; 
plica. Due either to disease 
or teratology. 

PdL'YCLONY, an old term for 
Polyclady. 

PdLYCOC'COUS, of several cocci. 

PtiLYCdTYLED'ONOiJS, having 
more than two seed-leaves. 

PdLYCOTYLED'dNY, an abnor- 
mal increase in the number 
of cotyledons. 

PdLYDEL'PHOfJS, see Polyadel- 
phous. 

POLYEM'BRYONATE, having 
more than one embryo iu a seed. 

POL YEM BRYONY, the produc- 
tion, either abnormally or 
regularly, of more than one 
embryo in a seed. The term 
has been restricted to cases 
where the additional embryos 
arise without fertilization out- 
side the embryo-sac, but there 
seems to be no good reason for 
the restriction. 



PdLYFLO'ROUS, see Multiflo- 
rous. 
PdLYGA'MlAN, see Polygamous. 

POLYGAmO Dlffi'CIOtJS, see Diffi- 
ciously Polygamous. 

POLYGAMOUS, producing male 
and hermaphrodite, or female 
and hermaphrodite, or male, 
female, and hermaphrodite 
flowers on the same or on dif- 
ferent individuals; i.e., having 
both perfect flowers and those 
of one sex. 

P&LYG'ONOtJS, having many 
angles, knots, or nodes. 

POLYGYNffi'CIAL, containing the 
gyucecia of several flowers, as 
a collective fruit. 

P&LYG'YNOUS, having many 
styles or pistils. 

PdLYHE'DRON (pi. Polyhe'dra), 
in Hydrodictyon, a special 
angular cell with horn-like 
processes, formed by the 
swarm-cells produced in the 
zygospore, and within which 
a new ccenobium is developed. 

POLYM'EROUS, having many 
parts, or more than oue: said 
of a flower with more than 
one organ in each whorl, or 
of a whorl containing more 
than one organ. Compare 
Monombrous. 

POLYMdR'PHIC, see Polymor 

PHOUS. 

PdLYMdR'PHISM, (l) a condition 
in which different individuals 
of the same species have differ 
ent forms, as in many dioecious 
plants; (2) the state of passing 
different stages of existence 
under distinct forms which 
might be mistaken for differ- 
ent species, as is the case with 
hetercecious and some other 
fungi; pleiomorphism. See 
Metagenesis, Alteration 



137 



Polymorphous 



A DICTIONARY 



Positive Geotropism 



of Generations, and Het- 
ercecism. 

POLYMORPHOUS, existing under 
different forms. See above. 
Also having numerous more 
or less definite sub-types under 
a given type. 

P6LYPET' ALOtJS, having distinct 
petals (opposed to Gamopet- 
alous); apopetalous; dialypet- 
alous; eleutheropetalous; cho- 
ripetalous. 

POL'YPHORE, a common recep- 
tacle for many distinct carpels, 
as that of the strawberry. 

POLYPH'YLLOfJS, see Polysep- 

alotjs. 
P&L'YPHYLLY, an increase in 

the usual number of floral 

organs in a whorl. Compare 

Pleiophylly. 
POLYRHI'ZAL, many-rooted. 
POLYSEP'ALOUS, of two or more 

distinct sepals; aposepalous; 

apophyllous. Compare Poly- 

FETALOTJS. 

p6LYSi'PH0N0US, said of the 

thallus in Florideae when it 

consists of several parallel 

rows or filaments of cells. 
PdLYSPER'MOtJS, containing 

many seeds. Compare Pleio- 

spermous. 
POl/YSPERMY, the fertilization 

of a female cell by more than 

one irmie ceii. 
POL'YSPORE, see Compound 

Spore. 
p6LYSP0'R0US, containing many 

spores. 
POLYS'TACHOTJS, having many 

spikes. 
PdLYSTllM ONOtJS, having many 

more stamens than petals. 

Compare Isostemonous and 

POLYANDROUS. 

P6LYSYMMET'RICAL, capable of 
division into two symmetrical 



or equal halves in more than 
one direction; actiuomorphous. 
P6LYTHAL'MIC, derived from 
more than one flower, as a 
collective fruit. Compare 

MoNOTHALMIC. 

POLYT'OMOUS, having the blade 
of a leaf distinctly divided into 
many subordinate parts, but 
not compound; having the 
stem forked or divided into 
many coordinate parts. 

POLYT'RICHOtrS, bearing nume- 
rous hairs. 

P6LYZYG0'SIS,the conjugation of 
more than two cells (gametes). 

POMA'CEOUS, having the appear- 
ance or nature of an apple. 

POME, an indehiscent fruit of 
more than one carpel, with 
the seeds enclosed in horny or 
parchment-like endocarps, and 
an adnate fleshy calyx, as in 
the apple. 

POMIFEROUS, pome-bearing. 

POM'IFORM, apple-shaped. 

P0M6L0GY, the department of 
horticulture wdiich relates to 
fruits. See Fruit. Compare 
Carpology. 

PORE, a small circular opening. 

PORE-CANAL', the passage 
through a bordered or other 
pit between adjoining cells. 

PORE-CAP'StJLE, one from which 
the seeds or spores escape by a 
pore or pores. 

POREN'CHYMA (obs.), see 
Pitted Tissue. 

PO'ROSE, pierced with many 
small circular openings. 

PORRECT", directed outward or 
forward; outstretched. Com- 
pare Arrect. 

PdR'RET, see Scallion. 

POSITIVE GEOT'ROPISM, grow- 
ing toward the centre of the 
earth — usually called simply 



138 



Positive Heliotropism OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Primitive 



Geotropism. Compare Nega- 
tive Geotropism. 

PdS'ITIVE HELIOTROPISM, the 
same as Heliotropism. Com- 
pare Negative Heliotro- 
pism. 

PdS'ITIVELY RHEOTRdP'IC, 

having the direction of growth 
in a rheotropic organ coin- 
cide with that of the stream 
in which it is placed, i.e., 
point down-stream. (Jonsson.) 
Compare Negatively Rheo- 
tropic. 

PflSTE'RIOR, the side of a flower, 
etc., adjoining the axis or main 
stem. Compare Anterior 
and Dorsal. 

POS'TICOUS, see Extrorse. 

POUCH, see Silicle. 

POUCH-SHAPED, like a short hag, 
as the pod of shepherd's- purse. 

PRiE'COX, see Precocious. 

PRJEFLORA'TION, see .Estiva- 
tion. 

PR-EFOLIA'TION, see Verna- 
tion. 

PR2EM0RSE', see Premorse. 

PRATEN'SIS, growing in mead- 
ows. 

FRECO'CIOUS, appearing or ripen- 
ing before the proper or usual 
time: said of flowers which 
expand before the leaves, and 
of plants which flower or fruit 
much younger than usual, etc. 

PREFLORA'TION, see ^Estiva- 
tion. 

PREFOLIA'TION, see Verna- 
tion. 

PREMORSE', abrupt, and irregu- 
larly notched at the end as if 
bitten off. Compare Trun- 
cate. 

PRICK'LE, a small, sharp, stiff 
outgrowth from the epidermis. 
Compare Spine and Thorn. 



PRI'MARY, chief or first formed. 
For examples see Primary 
Axis, Primary Cortex, etc. 

PRIMARY AX'IS, the main stem. 

PRIMARY CdR'TEX, the true 
cortex or fundamental tissue 
of the bark. Compare Sec- 
ondary Cortex. See Peri- 
blem. 

PRI'MARY LEAVES, see Primor- 
dial Leaves. 

PRIMARY MER'ISTEM, the 
growing tissue of a young 
organ . Compare Secondary 
Meristem. 

PRIMARY PETIOLE, the mid- 
rib of a compound leaf. 

PRIMARY ROOT, the central or 
main root, being a direct con- 
tinuation of the stem ; tap-root. 

PRIMARY STRUCTURE, the 
early structure of a plant or 
organ after all its distinctive 
tissues are formed and before 
any further growth or modifi- 
cation takes place. 

PRIMARY TIS'SUE, (1) tissue in 
the condition when first form- 
ed; (2) that which is formed 
during the first stage or season 
of growth. 

PRIMARY WOOD, that con- 
tained in the fibrovascular 
bundles of exogens when first 
developed, before the forma- 
tion of the cambium ring. 
Compare Secondary Wood. 

PRI'MINE, the outer coat of the 
ovule, called testa in the seed. 
Mirbel applied the term pri- 
mine to the inner coat of the 
ovule, because first formed, 
and some other German wri- 
ters have used it in the same 
sense. 

PRIMITIVE, original: applied, 
for example, to the original 
species from which cultivated 
plants have been derived. 



139 



Primordial 



A DICTIONARY 



Prole 



PRIMORDIAL, original, or first 
formed. 

PRIMOR'DIAL CELL, a cell with- 
out a cell-wall; nuked cell. 

primordial epidermis, the 

epidermis as it exists when first 
formed. 

PRIMOR'DIAL LEAVES, the first 
leaves to succeed the cotyle- 
dons. Applied especial]}' to 
lower leaves which differ con- 
siderabty from those on the 
upper portion of the stem. 
Compare Protophyll. 

PRIMOR'DIAL F TRICLE.theout- 
er layer of protoplasm adjoining 
the cell-wall. The term has 
with some about the same sig- 
nificance as Ectoplasm, though 
it usually refers more particu- 
larly to the immediate surface 
of the protoplasm (considered 
as a membrane, though not 
really one) rather than to a 
definite outer layer. The term 
was first used by Mold and ap- 
plied to the layer of protoplasm 
adjoining the cell-wall in cells 
which are nearly filled with 
sap. Upon the application of 
certain reagents the protoplasm 
contracts from the wall as a 
sac, the "primordial utricle." 

PRIMOR'DIUM (pi. Primordia), 
any member or organ in its 
earliest condition. 

PRISMATIC, in the form of a 
prism — with flat, longitudinal 
faces separated by angles. 
Applied to stems. Compare 
Terete. 

PROCAM'BIUM, the first formed 
fibrovascular tissue of an organ 
before it becomes differenti- 
ated into xylem and phloem. 
Compare Cambium. 

PRO CARP, see Procarpium. 

PRO'CARPE (Bornet & Thuret), 
see Procarpium. 



PROCAR'PIUM (pi. Procar'pia), in 
Florideae, the female organ (ar- 
chicarp) before fertilization. 
It consists of a carpogonium, 
together with the trichogyue 
and any other accessory part. 
Compare Ctstocarp. 

PROC'ESS, any projection from a 
surface. 

PROCUM'BENT, see Prostrate. 

PRODUCED, prolonged; extend- 
ed; projected. 

PROEM'BRYO, (1) the Suspensor, 
which see; (2) formerly applied 
to a prothallus, or to the first 
result of the germination of 
any spore; now restricted to 
special cases, as the rudiment- 
ary first stage of the sporophore 
arising from the oospore in 
Characeae. Compare Promy- 
celitjm, Protonema, and 
Prothallus. 

PROEMBRYON'IC BRANCHES, 
short branches sometimes 
found on the nodes of Ghara 
fragilis which resemble the 
progmbryos in structure and 
serve for reproduction. 

PROG'AMOUS, preceding fertili- 
zation: applied to the cell of 
the pollen-grain which forms 
the pollen-tube, in distinction 
from vegetative cells which are 
also sometimes found. 

PROGRESSIVE METAm6RPH0- 
SIS, the appearance in place of 
organs of the usual character 
of those belonging to a higher 
or succeeding set, as when pet- 
als are replaced by or "con- 
verted into" stamens; ascend- 
ing metamorphosis. Compare 
Retrogressive Metamor- 
phosis. 

PRO'LATE, elongated in a polar 
direction. Compare Oblate. 

PROLE, a useless term applied 
both to Form and Race. 
140 



Prolepsis 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Prosenchyma 



PROLEP'SIS, accelerated, antici- 
pated, or burned development, 
• as in the disease known as 
"peach-yellows," where axil- 
lary buds develop into branch- 
es the first year. 

PROLIFERATION, development 
in a proliferous manner. 

PROLIFEROUS, developing 
buds, branches, flowers, etc., 
from unusual places. Ap- 
plied, for example, to a fkwer 
from which another flower or 
a branch proceeds, to a leaf 
from which other leaves or 
branches arise, to a bulbous 
plant which abnormally pro- 
duces bulbs upon the stem 
above ground, or to any plant 
■which forms young plants in 
unusual number about its base. 

PROLIFIC, fruitful. Sometimes 
used in the sense of Prolif- 
erous. 

PROLIFICA TION, development 
in a prolific or proliferous 
manner; proliferation. 

PROLIG'EROUS, bearing repro- 
ductive bodies of any kind. 

PROM'INENT, standing out more 
than usual, or beyond adjoin- 
ing parts. 

PROMYCE'LIUM, in Uredineae 
and Ustilagiueae, a short and 
short-lived mycelial growth 
proceeding from a resting- 
spore and upon which spo- 
ridia are borne. 

PRONATE, inclined to grow 
prostrate; somewhat prone or 
prostrate. 

PRONE, lying flat, especially 
with the face downward; 
ventricumbent. See Pros- 
trate and Supine. 

PRONUCLEUS, the nucleus of a 
gamete. Compare Germ-nu- 
cleus. 

PROP, see Fulcrum. 



PROPAC'ULUM, see Propag- 

ULUM. 

PROPAG'UlA, pi., see Propag- 
ulum. 

PROPAG'ULE, see Propagulum. 

PROPAgULUM (pi. Propag'ula), 
a term applied to ruuners, off- 
sets, and stolons — especially to 
a slender runner or stolon ter- 
minating in a new plant. 

PROPEND'ENT, hanging forward 
and downward. 

PROPER, true or individual. A 
proper calyx, for example, 
would be the true calyx of 
an individual flower as op- 
posed to the general calyx 
(involucre) of a head. 

PROP'ER JUICE, a term formerly 
used for any characteristic 
fluid of a plant (especially if 
thickened) in distinction from 
the ordinary sap, as the ' ' milk " 
of milk-weeds. Applied also 
to the cambium or so-called 
"descending sap" when in a 
growing mucilaginous condi- 
tion. 

PROPHASES, a term proposed 
by Strasburger for all the 
phenomena of karyokiuesis 
up to the longitudinal split- 
ting of the threads. Compare 
Metaphases and Anaphases. 

PROPHLO'EM, the first-formed 
elements of phloem in a fibro- 
vascular bundle; protophloem. 
Applied also to the cylinder 
of elongated cells with thick- 
ened walls containing granular 
protoplasm found in the seta 
of certain mosses surrounding 
the proxylem. 

PROSCOL'LA, an old term for the 
retinaculum in orchids. 

PROSEN'CHYMA.tissuecomposed 
of elongated cells with tapering 
extremities in tbe wood and li- 
ber. Compare Parenchyma. 



141 



Prostrate 



A DICTIONARY 



Protoplast 



PROSTRATE, lying flat upon the 
ground, but not rooting; pro- 
cumbent. Compare C keep- 
ing. 

PROTAn'DROIJS, having stamens 
which ripen their pollen before 
the pistils of the same flower 
are ready for fertilization. 
Compare Protogynous. 

PRO'TEID, see Albuminoid. 

PRO'TEIN, see Albuminoid. 
Formerly considered a dis- 
tinct substance. 

PROTEIN CRYS'TAL, see Crys- 
talloid. 
PRO'TEIN GRAIN, see Aleu- 

RONE. 

PRO'TEN, see Protenchyma. 

PROTEN'CHYmA, a term used 
by Nageli for all tissue not of 
the fibro vascular system; pro- 
ten. Compare Epenchyma. 
These terms are little used. 

PROTERAN'DROtJS, see Protan- 
drous. 

PROTERAN'THOUS, having flow- 
ers which appear before the 
leaves, as in the red maple. 
Sometimes improperly used iu 
the opposite sense. Compare 
Hysteranthous and Synan- 
thous. 

PROTEROG'YNOUS, see Protog- 
ynous. 

PROTHAL'LIA, pi., see Prothal- 
lium. 

PROTHAL'LIUM (pi. Prothal'lla), 
see Prothallus. 

PROTHAl/LtJS, the thalloid struc- 
ture resulting from the germi- 
nation of the spore in ferus 
and other pteridophytes, upon 
which the antheridia and ar- 
chegonia are borne; prothal- 
lium. Extended also to the 
sexual generation of other 
plants which have an alter- 
nation of generations. 



PROTOGEN'ESfS, a term pro- 
posed by Rocison for repro- 
duction by budding after the 
manner of protophytes. 

PROTOGEN'IC, formed in the 
beginning: said of intercel- 
lular spaces which are formed 
at the time the tissues are be- 
ginning to differentiate. Com- 
pare Hysterogenic. 

PROtCG'YNOUS, having pistils 
which are ready for fertiliza- 
tion before the pollen of the 
same flower is ripe. Compare 
Protandrous. 

PRO'TO - MER'ISTEM, see Pri- 
mary Meristem. 

PROTONE'MA (pi. Protone'mata), 
the proembryo, or confervoid 
(often branched) filament first 
formed from the spore in 
mosses, and upon which the 
conspicuous moss-plant is de- 
veloped by budding. 

PROTOPHLO'EM, see Pro- 

PHLOEM. 

PRO'TOPHYL, a cotyledon or 
other first-formed leaf of a 
plant; protophyllum. Used 
mainly in vascular crypto- 
gams. Compare Primordial 
Leaves. 

PROTOPHYL'Lu-M (pi. Protophyl'- 
la), see Protophyl. 

PROTOPHYTOL'OGY, (1) t h e 
study of protophytes; (2) fos- 
sil botany. 

PRO'TOPLASM, the nitrogenous 
fluid of variable composition 
found in living cells. It is the 
vital substance into which all 
food is assimilated and from 
which all parts of the plant are 
formed. 

PROTOPLAST (Hanstein), the 
smallest body of protoplasm 
capable of individual action, 
either with or without a cell- 



142 



Protospore 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Pseudopodium 



wall, and either associated in 
a tissue or independent. It is 

generally at least a nucleus, 
together with the protoplasm 
associated with it. Essentially 
a cell. 

PRO'TOSPORE, any spore which 
develops a promycelium. Ap- 
plied by Cook to secediospores. 
Au unnecessary term. Com- 
pare Sporidium. 

PROTOTHAl/LtJS, see Prothal- 

LUS. 

PROTOXY'LEM, see Proxylem. 

PROTOZOPH'ILOUS, applied to 
certain water - plants which 
have the pollen eonvej'ed by 
minute animalscalled protozoa. 

PROTRUDING, see Exserted. 

PROX'IMAL, pertaining to the 
base, or extremity of attach- 
ment. Compare Distal. 

PROXY'LEM, the first-formed 
xylem in a bundle; protoxy- 
lem. The term has also been 
applied to the layer of water- 
conducting cells destitute of 
protoplasm around the central 
strand in the seta of certain 
mosses. Compare Prophloem. 

PRTJ'INATE, see Pruinose. 

PRU'INOSE, covered with a pow- 
dery bloom, like the fruit of 
most plums; pruinate. Com- 
pare Glaucous, Hoary, and 
Canescent. 

PRU'INOUS, see Pruinose. 
PRTJ'NIFORM, plum-shaped. 
PRTT'RIENT, stinging, as the 

hairs of nettle. 
PSEUDAX'IS, see Sympodium. 
PSEUDO-, a prefix derived from 

the Greek signifying false or 

spurious. 
PSEtj'DO BULB, see CoRM. Es- 

peciall} r the corm or fleshy base 



143 



of the stem in many epiphytic 
orchids. 

PSEUDO-BULBIL, an outgrowth 
which sometimes replaces the 
ordinary sporangia in ferns 
and bears antheridia and ar- 
chegouia. 

PSEU'DOCARP, any fruit which 
is not derived exclusively from 
a single ovary without acces- 
sory parts. The fruits of the 
apple, rose, mulberry, and 
juniper are pseudocarps. 

PSEUDOCOS'TATE, said of a leaf 
in which the veins unite to 
form an outer vein parallel to 
the margin, as in Eucalyptus. 

PSEUDO-GENUS, see Form-ge- 
nus. 

PSEUDo6Y'RATE, sometimes ap- 
plied to the aunulus in ferns 
when it crowns the sporan- 
gium, as in the Schiza'acea?. 
Compare Pleurogyrate. 

PSEUDOMONOCOtYLED'ONOUS, 

having two or more consoli- 
dated cotyledons. (Obs.) 

PSEUDO-PAR AsiTE, see Epi- 
phyte and Saprophyte. 

PSEUDO-PARENCHYMA, a term 
applied by De Bary to tissue in 
fungi which is formed by in- 
terlacing and united hyphae. 

PSEUDOPERITHE CIUM, a false 
perithecium. 

PSEUDO-PIN'NATE, having leaf- 
lets (or rather segments) which 
are not articulated or petioled 
at their base; pinnatisect. 

PSEUDOPO'DIUM (pi. Pseudopo'- 
dia), (1) a stipe or stem of un- 
usual origin, as the leafless 
upper portion of the stem 
which supports the capsule 
in Sphagnum (instead of the 
true seta which remains unde- 
veloped; (2) one of the tern- 



Pseudoramulus 



A DICTIONARY 



Pulvinus 



porary changeable brauckes of 
a Plasmodium, or one of the 
retractile appendages of the 
zoospores (myxamcebse) of 
Myxornycetes. 

PSEUDORAM'tJLUS, a false or 
spurious branch found in cer- 
tain Nostochnceae, consisting 
of a younger filament agglu- 
tinated for a portion of its 
length to an older one. 

PSEU'DOSPERM, an Achene or 
Caryopsis. 

PSEUDOSPER'MIC, having a sin- 
gle seed so closely invested by 
the pericarp that the whole 
appears like a seed, as in 
grasses and Conipositae; pseu- 
dospermous. 

PSETJDOSPER'MOUS, see Pseudo- 

SPERMIC. 

PSEUDOSYN'CARP, see Collect- 
ive Fruit. Compare Syn- 
carp. 

PTERID'IUM, see Samara. 

PTEROCAR'POUS, wing-fruited. 

PTEROCATJ LOUS, having a 
winged stem. 

PTE'ROLD, wing-like. 

PTEROP'ODOUS, having a 
winged petiole. 

PTEROSPER'MOUS, having the 
seeds winged. 

PTERYGO'NOtJS, haviug winged 
expansions on the angles of the 
stem. 

PTO'MAlNE, any alkaloid formed 
by the activity of bacteria. 

PU'BERTY, the period when a 
plant first begins to blossom. 

PUBER'ULENT, minutely pubes- 
cent; covered with short, soft, 
rather distant hairs. Com- 
pare HOLOSERICETJS. 

PUBES'gENCE, soft and rather 
short hairs; also extended to 
hairs of all kinds. 



PUBESCENT, covered with fine, 
soft, rather short hairs. 

PUGION'IFORM, dagger-shaped. 
(Obs.) 

PUL'LEY-SHAPED, see Troch- 
lear. 

PUL'LULATING, budding; 
sprouting; — now used only 
for the budding or sprout- 
ing of a cell, a special form 
of cell-multiplication as seen 
in yeast, in which a new cell 
gradually swells out from an 
older one. 

PULP, the soft, more or less juicy 
portion of a fruit, or other 
plant - substance of similar 
structure. 

PULVERA'CEOUS, dusty or pow- 
dery on the surface. Com- 
pare PPLVERULENT. 

PULVER'ULENT, (1) powdery or 
crumbly; (2) pulveraceous. 

PUL'VINATE, shaped like a 
cushion or pillow; having a 
pulvinus. 

PUL'VINATED, haviug a pulvi- 
nus. 

PULVIN'ULUS (pi. Pulvin'uli), 
diminutive of Pulvinus. Ap- 
plied to various excrescences, 
and also formerly to the sore- 
dia of lichens. 

PULVI'NUS (pi. Pulvl'ni), a term 
applied to various cushion- 
shaped or wart-like protu- 
berances and swellings, as 

(1) the projection left by the 
fall of a leaf in many plants; 

(2) the enlargement at the 
base of the petiole in certain 
Leguminosae which has the 
power of contraction, pro- 
ducing the "sleep" of leaves; 

(3) an enlargement formed by 
the thickening of the bark at 
the base of certain twigs, as in 
arbor-vitae; (4) a thickened, 
usually median, portion of 



144 



Punctate 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Quadrifoliate 



the prothallus in ferns bear- 
ing the arcbegonia aud anthe- 
ridia. 

PU'MILUS, see Humilis. 

PUNCTATE, dotted as if by 
punctures. The dots may be 
colored or colorless, superficial 
or internal, in the latter case 
sometimes caused by minute 
oil-glands. Compare Perfo- 
rate. 

PUNC TIFORM, in the form of 
either a dot or point. 

PUNC'TUM VEGETATIO'NIS, the 

extremity of a stem, or other 
central point where the cells 
are in the process of division 
and growth; growing point; 
apical cone. 

PUN'GENT, terminating in a 
hard sharp point. Compare 

MtJCRONATE. 

PUR'POSE, see Adaptation. 

PUS'TUlATE, bearing pustules 
or low, blister-like elevations; 
pustular; pustulose. 

PUS'TULE, a slight elevation like 
a pimple or little blister. Com- 
pare Papilla. 

PUTA'MEN, the stone of a drupe, 
or shell of a nut. 

PYC'NIDE, see Pycnidium. 

PYCNID'IUM (pi. Pycnld'ia), a re- 
ceptacle in Ascomycetes con- 
taining stylospores; clinospo- 
rangium. 

PYCNOCEPH'ALOUS, having the 
flowers densely crowded in the 
inflorescence. 

PYCNOCONID'IUM, see Stylo- 
spore. 

PYCNOGONID'liJM, see Stylo- 
spore. 

PYC'NOSPORE, see Stylospore. 

PYCNOS'TACHOUS, in compact 
spikes. 



PYOGENfiT'IC, pus-forming, as 
certain bacteria. 

PYRAM'IDAL, either angular and 
tapering upward, or conical. 

PYRE NA (pi. Pyre' me), a nutlet, 
or the stone of a small drupe. 

PY'RENE, see Pyrena. 

PYRE'NOcARP, (1) the perithe- 
cium in Pyrenomycetes; (2) a 
drupe. 

PYRE NOIDS, minute rounded 
colorless granules, one or 
more of which are embedded 
in the chromatophores of many 
algae; amylum bodies; chloro- 
phyll vesicles. 

PYR IFORM, see Pear-shaped. 

PYX'IDATE, resembling a pyxid- 
ium or bearing pyxidia. 

PYXID'ltJM (pi. Pyxid'ia), a cap- 
sule which dehisces by a cir- 
cular transverse line; pyxis. 
Now restricted to seed-cap- 
sules, but formerly applied 
also to certain spore-capsules, 
as those of mosses. 

PYX'IS(pl. Pyx'es), seePYXiDioi. 

QUAD-, or QUADRI-, a prefix from 
the Latin meaning four. 

QUADRAN'GULAR, four-angled. 

QUADRICRU'RAL, having four 
stems or supports. 

QUADRIDEN'TATE, four- 

toothed. 

QUADRIDIG'ITATE, digitate in 
four divisions. 

QUADRIFA'RIOtJS, in four verti- 
cal ranks. 

QUAD'RIFID, cleft into four 
segments half - way to the 
base or midrib. 

QUAD'RIFOIL, see Quadrifo- 
liate. 

QUADRIFO'LIATE, strictly, four- 
leaved, but used for having 
four leaflets arising from the 



145 



Quadrifoliolate 



A DICTIONARY 



Quinquelobate 



apex of the petiole; quadrifo- 
liolate; quadriphyllous; quad- 
rifoil. 

QUADRIFOLIOLATE, the same 
as Quadrifoliate, and more 
precise; i.e., having four leaf- 
lets arising from the apex of 
the petiole. 

QUADRIFUR'CATE, dividing into 
four branches. 

QUADRIGEM'INATE, growing in 
fours 

QUADRIJ'UGATE, having four 
pairs of leaflets; quadrijugous. 

QUADRIJ'UGOUS, see Quadrij- 

UGATB. 
QUADRILO'BATE, having four 

lobes, as a leaf. 
QUADRILOC'ULAR, having four 

cells in an ovary. 
QUAD'RINATE, see Quater- 

NATE. 

QUADRIPARTITE, divided to 
the base or midrib in four 
parts; four- parted. 

QUADRIPHYLLOUS, see Quad- 
rifoliate. 

QUADRIVAL'VULAR, of four 
valves — said of pericarps. 

QUAQUA VER'SAL, directed every 
way. 

QUARTERING, applied by flo- 
rists to petals which have an 
external angle or vacancy be- 
tween them. 

QUAR'TINE, a fourth integument 
in an ovule (if present) counting 
from the outside. It is really 
a layer or fold of the secundiue 
or of the nucleus. 

QUATERNARY, of four parts. 
Compare Tetramerotjs. 

QUATER'NATE, growing i n 
fours. 

QUILLED (Hort.), applied to 
double flowers in Composite 
when the corollas of the flo- 
rets, instead of being ligulate, 



ai - e more or less tubular in 
form like a cornet of paper, 
as is often seen in the dahlia. 

QUIN-, a prefix from the Latin 
meaning five. 

QUI'nAry, in fives or multiples 
of five. 

QUI'NATE, growing together in 
fives, as five leaflets from the 
apex of a petiole. 

QUINCUN'CLAL, applied in {esti- 
vation to a whorl of five parts, 
two of which are external, two 
internal, and one half external 
and half internal (the typical 
method of imbricative aestiva- 
tion when the parts are five). 
Formerly used also in the sense 
of five-ranked. In general use 
the term is applied lo objects 
arranged in squares with one 
at the centre. In horticulture 
this arrangement is sometimes 
termed ''false quincuncial," 
the true quincuncial arrange- 
ment being the disposition of 
objects so that the intervening 
spaces are all hexagons. 

QUIN CUNX, a set of five objects 
arrauged in a quincuncial man- 
ner. 

QUINQUAN GULAR, five-angled. 

QUINQUECOS'TATE, five-ribbed. 

QUINQUEDEN'TATE, five- 

toothed. 

QUINQUEFA'RIOUS, five-ranked. 

QUIN'QUEFID, in five segments 
reaching about half-way to the 
base or margin; five-cleft. 

QUINQUEFO'LLATE, having five 
leaflets; strictly, five-leaved. 

QUINQUEFO'LIOLATE, the same 
as Quinquefoliate; i.e., having 
five leaflets. 

QUINQUEJU'GATE, in five pairs. 

QUINQUELO'BATE. having five 
lobes. 



146 



Quinquelocular OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Eadiciflorous 



QUINQUEL6CULAR, having five 
cells in a pericarp. 

QUIN'QUENERVED, having two 

strong veins arising from the 
midrib on each side near the 
base; quintuple nerved or 
veined. Compare Quinqtje- 
costate and Quinqueveined. 

QUINQUEP'ARTITE, divided into 
five parts nearly to the base. 

QUINQUEVAL'VULAR, having 
five valves in a pericarp. 

QUINQUEVEINED, having five 
strong veins proceeding from 
the base of a leaf. The same 
as Quinquenerved, and usually 
preferable. 

QUIN'TUPLE, in fives, or multi- 
ples of five. 

QUIN'TUPLE NERVED, see Quin- 

QrENERVEC. 

QUIN'TUPLE-RIBBED, see QuiN- 
QUECOSTATE. 

RACE, a variety, artificial or 
natural, which reproduces it- 
self from seed. 

RACEME', an indeterminate in- 
florescence consisting of sin- 
gle-flowered pedicels arranged 
along a common axis. Com- 
pare Panicle and Spike 

RACEMIF'EROUS, bearing ra- 
cemes. 

RAC'EMOSE, disposed in racemes 
or resembling a raceme. 

RAC'EMULE, a small raceme. 

RAfJEM'ULOSE, producing or dis- 
posed in small racemes, or re- 
sembling a small raceme. 

RACHIL LA, the axis of a spike- 
let in grasses. 

RA'CHIS, a common peduncle or 
petiole or elongated receptacle, 
especially (1) The midrib of a 
pinnate frond in ferns; (2) the 
axis of a spike or raceme; rha- 
chis. 



RA'DIAL, pertaining to a radius, 
ray, or border; developed uui- 
formly on all sides around a 
longitudinal axis. Compare 
Dorsiventral. 

RA'DIAL BUNDLE, the axial 
fibrovascular system in roots 
and some lycopods — so called 
because it consists of alter- 
nating radial bands of xylein 
and phloemi. 

RADIANT, spreading from a 
common centre; radiating; ra- 
diate. Also having a ray or 
border, as the inflorescence of 
hydrangea. 

RA'DlATE, having rays or ray- 
florets. 

RA'DIATE - VEINED, see Pal- 
mately Veined. 

RA'DlATlNG, see Radiant. 

RAD'ICAL, proceeding from the 
root, or base of the stem. 

RAdICANT, rooting — applied 
only where roots proceed 
from the stem above ground; 
radicating. 

RAD'ICATED, having a root or 
roots. 

RADICATING, see Radicant. 

RADICA'TION, (1) the arrange- 
ment or disposition of the 
roots in the soil, i.e., whether 
spreading near the surface or 
running vertically downward, 
etc.; (2) the arrangement of 
the roots and rootlets on their 
respective axes (rhizotaxis) — 
corresponding to Phyllotaxis, 
Caulotaxis, and Inflorescence; 
(3) the act of taking root. 
Compare Ramification. 

RAD'ICEL, a rootlet. 

RADICIC'OLOUS, growing upon 
the roots of other plants, as 
certain parasitic fungi. 

RADICIFLO'ROUS, having the 
flower-stalk arising from the 
crown of the root. 



147 



Kadiciform 



A DICTIONARY 



Ratoon 



RADIO IFORM, root-like. 

RAD'ICLE, the portion of an 
embryo below the cotyledons, 
including the caulicle and nas- 
cent root; by some now re- 
stricted to the extreme point 
of the caulicle from which the 
root develops. 

RAD'ICOSE, having roots un- 
usually large or otherwise re- 
markable. 

RADIC'ULA fobs'. ), see Radicle. 

RAd'ICULE (obs.), see Rootlet. 

RADICtJLOSE, bearing rootlets 
or rhizoids, especially if nu- 
merous. 

RADIUS (pi. Ra'dll), see Ray. 

RADIX (pi. Rad'ice§), see Root. 

RAG (Hort.), the placenta and 
dissepiments (core and mem- 
branes) in the orange and 
other citrus fruits. 

RA'MAL, see Rameal. 

RA'MEAL, growing on or per- 
taining to branches; ramal; 
rameous. 

RAM'ENT, sing., see Ramenta. 

RAMEN'TA (sing. Ramen'tum), 
scale - like hairs of various 
forms, especially when at- 
tached at an end or side like 
those on the petioles of ferns; 
laments. Also applied to other 
scales. Compare Lepides. 

RAMENTA'gEOUS, bearing ra- 
menta. 

RAMEN'TUM, sing., see Ra- 
menta. 

RA'MEOUS, see Rameal. 

RAMI, pi., see Ramus. 

rAmiF'EROUS, see Ramose. 

RAMIFICATION, (1) the act or 
process of branching; (2) a 
branch, division, or offshoot; 
(3) the general arrangement of 
a system of branches. Applied 
to either stems or roots. Com- 
pare Radication. 



148 



RAMIFLO'ROtiS, producing flow- 
ers along the larger branches. 

RAm'IFORM, branch-like. 

RAMlP'AROUS, producing 
branches. 

RAMOSE', bearing branches; di- 
vided into branches; especially, 
divided into mauy branches; 
ramous. 

RA'MOUS, see Ramose. 

RAM'tJLI, pi., see Hamulus. 

RAM'fJLOSE, full of small 
branches. 

RAM'ULOUS, see Ramulose. 

RAM'ULUS (pi. Ram'ull), a small 
branch or twig. 

RAMUS (pi. Rami), a branch. 

RANK, a row, especially a verti- 
cal row of leaves or other 
organs upon a stem. 

RA'PHE, the adherent funiculus 
connecting the hiluni and cha- 
laza in anatropous or amphit- 
ropous seeds. Also applied 
to a median line on the frus- 
tules of many diatoms, and 
formerly to the suture between 
the two halves of the fruit in 
Umbelliferaj; rhaphe. 

RAPH'IDES, needle-shaped crys- 
tals; rhaphides. Sometimes 
improperly applied to plant- 
crystals of other forms. They 
are usually composed of oxa- 
late of lime, and occur in large 
numbers in certain plants. 

RAPHID'IAN, pertaining to raph- 
ides. A raphidian cell is a 
cell containing raphides. 

RARE, sparse or few. Seldom 
used in this sense. 

RARE'-RIPE, see Rath-ripe. 

RATH'-RIPE (rare), ripening or 
maturing early in the season; 
rare-ripe. 

RATOON', a sprout from the root 
or base of a plant which has 
been cut off (applied mainly 



Ray 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Region 



to sugar - cane). Compare 
Sucker and Plant-cane. 

RAUMPAR'SIT, see Aulophyte. 

RAY, a branch of an umbel or 
other somewhat radiating in- 
florescence; the ligulate co- 
rolla of an outer floret in a 
head of Composite; the mar- 
gin of any circular surface, as 
distinguished from the central 
portion or disk. 

RAY - FLORET, see Ligulate 
Floret. 

RAY-FLOWER, one of the mar- 
ginal florets of a head in Com- 
posites; ray-floret; ligulate flo- 
ret. Also, a marginal flower 
in other flat-topped flower- 
cfusters, especially when dif- 
ferent from those of the centre 
or disk, as in hydrangea. 

RECEPTACLE, the place upon 
or within which anything is 
borne, as the summit of a 
flower-stalk upon which the 
floral organs are arranged, or 
upon which the flowers of a 
head are situated. 

RECEPTAC'ULAR, pertaiuiug to 
or growing upon a receptacle. 

RECEPTAC'ULAR TUBE, see 
Calyx-tube. Compare Hy- 
panthium. 

RECEPTIVE SPOT, the place in 
an oosphere at which the male 
gamete enters; i.e., at which 
fertilization takes place. 

RECESS', see Sinus. 

RECLINATE, bent over so that 
the apex is lower than the 
base, or until it rests on some 
support; reclined; reclining. 
Said of stems or branches 
when erect or ascending at 
the base, then turning toward 
the ground; of leaves in the 
bud when the blade is bent 
down upon the petiole, etc. 
When applied to a vine grow- 



ing upon the ground it has 
about the same meaning as 
Recumbent and Decumbent. 

RECLINED', see Reclinate. 

RECLIN ING, see Reclinate. 

RECRUDESCENCE (obs.), see 
Rejuvenescence. 

REC'TINERVED, parallel-veined. 

RECTIPETAL'ITY, the tendency 
of growing organs to grow in 
a straight line. (Vochtiug.) 

RECTISE'RIAL, in straight rows. 

RECUR'VATE, see Recurved. 

RECURVED', carved outward or 
backward to a moderate extent, 
between forty-live and ninety 
degrees. Compare Reflexed. 

REDUPLICATE, applied to parts 
of a flower in eestivation when 
they aie valvate and have the 
margins reflexed. 

REDUPLICATION, an increase 
in the number of parts in a 
flower according to the plan 
upon which it is founded, i.e., 
by the addition of similar 
whorls; regular multiplication. 

REFLECTED, see Reflexed. 

REFLEXED', turned backward 
or outward more than Re- 
curved, or to about the same 
extent but abruptly; reflected. 
Compare Recurved and De- 
flected. 

REFLORES'CENCE, blossoming 
anew. 

REFRACTED, bent abruptly out- 
ward or backward, at an angle 
of more than forty-five degrees. 
Compare Deflexed and Re- 
curved. 

REGENERATION, see Rejuve- 
nescence. 

RE'GION, an extent of country 
enclosing particular species, 
which are distributed through 
it in the stations adapted to 
their growth, and which, owing 



149 



Eegma 



A DICTIONARY 



Respiration 



to natural conditions, are not 
generally found elsewhere, as 
the Arctic and Mediterranean 
regions. 

REG' MA, a fruit with elastically 
dehiscing cocci, as in Euphor- 
bia. 

REG'mAcARP, see Regma. 

REGRESSION, see Retrogres- 
sive Metamorphosis. 

REG'ULAR, said of a flower 
which has all the parts of 
each whorl alike in size and 
form; actiuoinorphous. 

REG'ULAR PELO'RlA, when a 
flower, usually regular, be- 
comes irregular by the non- 
development of some part. 
Compare Peloria, Irregu- 
lar Peloria, and Epanody. 

REJUVENESCENCE, (1) the for- 
mation of a siugle new cell 
from the entire contents of a 
cell already formed ("renewal 
of cells"); especially, where 
the new cell escapes from the 
old cell-wall and develops a 
new plant, as in (Edogonium 
and some other algae; (2) the 
renewal of growth and vigor 
as the result of conjugation 
or other form of fertilization 
(rare); (3) any renewed growth, 
or manifestation of increased 
vigor, as the annual growth 
of new canes in the raspberry 
or the formation of vigorous 
shoots from near the ground 
in other shrubs; renewal; re- 
generation. 

RELIQ'UJJE, see Induvi^;. 

REMOTE', separated by greater 
intervals than usual. 

RENEWAL OF CELLS, see Re- 
juvenescence? 

REN'IFORM, kidney - shaped: 
heart-shaped, but broader 
than long and very deeply 
lobed at the base. 



REPAND', having a slightly un- 
dulating or sinuous margin. 
Compare Sinuate. 

REPENT, see Creeping. 

REPLICATE, folded backward 
at the sides or end. Compare 
Revolute. 

RE'PLUM, a frame-like placenta 
in Cruci ferae and certain other 
plants across which the septum 
stretches, and from which the 
two valves fall away in dehis- 
cence. 

REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS, in 
flowering plants, the stamens 
and pistils. 

REP'TANT, see Creeping. 

RESERVE MATE'RIAL, assimi- 
lated plant-food which is capa- 
ble of again becoming food 
to serve in the growth of the 
plant, as starch. 

RES'IN-CELL, a cell which has 
the office of secretins resin. 

RESIN-DUCT, see Resin-pas- 
sage. 

RES'IN-GLAnD, a cell or group 
of cells which secrete resin. 

RESINIF'EROtJS, producing 
resin. 

RES'IN-PAS SAGE, an intercel- 
lular space or continuous gland 
in or into which resin is se- 
creted; resin-duct; resin-tube. 

RESIN-TUBE, see Resin-pas- 
sage. 

RESPIRATION, in a broad sense, 
includes all transfers of gases 
and vapors between the plant 
and the air. As usually em- 
ployed it refers to the absorp- 
tion of carbon dioxide from 
the air, and its decomposition 
in the plant, with the assimi- 
lation of the carbon and the 
liberation of the oxygen. In 
a strict sense it applies to the 
same process as respiration in 
animals, though existing in 



150 



Resting-nucleus OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Retrogressive 



plants to a feebler degree, 
namely, the reception of oxy- 
gen, the oxidation of oxidiza- 
ble matter, and the release of 
the products of oxidation. See 
Transpiration. 

RESPIRATORY CAVITY, see 
Stomatic Chamber. 

RESPI'RATORY CHAMBER, see 

Stomatic Chamber. 
RES'TANT, see Persistent. 

RESTING CELL, see Resting- 
spore, 

REST'ING-NU'CLEUS, a nucleus 
when not in the act of karyo- 
kinesis. The nuclear filament 
then exists in the form of gran- 
ules, or as a network, often 
with one or more nucleoli. 

REST'ING PERIOD, the period 
during which a plant, seed, or 
spore remains dormant. Ap- 
plied mainly to the dormant 
period of a restiug-spore, then 
also called by some "involu- 
tion-period." 

REST ING SPORANGIUM, a term 
applied by Pringsheim to cer- 
tain dormant gonidiaof Sapro- 
leguia and related fungi which 
eventually produce swarm- 
spores. 

REST'ING SPORE, a spore fur- 
nished with thick walls and 
able to retain its vitality for a 
considerable time, and gen- 
erally requiring the lapse of 
time, often over winter, before 
it will germinate; wiuter-spore; 
hypuospore; statospore. 

REST'ING-STAGE, the stage or 
condition of a plant, bulb, 
seed, or spore during its dor- 
mant or resting period. 

RESU'PINATE, upside-down; in- 
verted; retro verted; reversed. 
Compare Supine. 

RETICULATE, in the form of 



network, as the veins in the 
leaves of most plants. 

RETICULATED, see Reticu- 
late. 

RETICULATED VES'SEL, one 
having thickenings in the 
form of network. 

RETICULATION, any network ; 
reticulum. 

RETICULUM, a fibrous mem- 
brane at the base of the pet- 
ioles in palms (mattulla); the 
network which pervades the 
substance of the cell and nu- 
cleus enclosing the softer por- 
tions of the protoplasm; any 
system of filaments or fibres in 
the form of network. 

RET'IFORM, see Reticulate. 

RETINACULUM (pi. Retinac'ula), 

(1) the viscid glandular disk 
derived from the rostellum at 
the base of the caudicle of a 
pollinium in orchids by which 
it is attached to a visiting in- 
sect (cement-disk of Miiller); 

(2) one of the arms connecting 
the polliuia of milk-weeds with 
the corpusculum; (3) the per- 
sistent indurated hook-like fu- 
niculus of the seeds in most 
Acanthacese. 

RET'INERVED, see Reticulate- 
veined. 
RE'TROFLEXED, see Reflexed. 
RE'TROFRACTED, see R e - 

FRACTED. 

RETROGRESSION, see Retro- 
gressive Metamorphosis. 

RETROGRESSIVE METAMOR'- 
PHOSIS, the occurrence in the 
place of organs of the usual 
character of those belonging 
to a lower condition or posi- 
tion, as when pistils become 
converted into stamens, petals, 
or leaves; descending meta- 
morphosis; retrogression; re- 



151 



Ketrorse 



A DICTIONARY 



Rhizophore 



gression. Compare Progres- 
sive Metamorphosis. 

KETRORSE', turned backward in 
any manner. 

RETRORSE'LY ACULEATE, hav- 
ing prickles directed backward 
or downward, as on the stem 
of Galium asprellum. 

RE'TROVERTED, see Resupi- 

NATE. 

RETUSE', slightly notched at a 
rounded apex. Compare 
Emarginate. 

REVERSED', upside-down; resu- 
pinate; directed backward to- 
ward the base; extending in an 
opposite to the usual direction. 

REVERSION, appearance in an 
earlier, lower, or simpler form 
than usual. See Retrogres- 
sive Metamorphosis and 
Atavism. 

REV'OLUTE, rolled outward, 
backward, or downward. 
Compare Involute and Cir- 
cinate. 

REVOLVING NtJTA'TION, see 
CrRCUMTSTDTATION. 

RHAB DOID, an acicular or spin- 
dle-shaped protoplasmic body 
found in the stalk-cells of the 
tentacles of Drosera and in the 
mesophyll cells of Diona?a; 
plastoid. It tends to become 
spherical when the part is 
stimulated, but its full signifi- 
cance is unknown. 

RHA'CHIS, see Rachis. 

RHA'PHE, see Raphe. 

RHAPHIDES, see Raphides. 

RHEOT'ROPISM, having the di- 
rection of growth determined 
(not mechanically) by a current 
of water. (Jonsson.) See Posi- 
tively and Negatively Rhe- 
otropic. Compare Heliot- 
ropism. 

RHIZAmoR'PHOLD, see Rhizo- 

MORPHOUS. 



RHIZAN'THOUS, parasitic upon 
the roots of another plant, and 
producing flowers with little 
or no green foliage of its own, 
as Rattiesia and Monotropa. A 
term of little importance, sel- 
dom used. Compare Radici- 
florous. 

RHIZI'NA (pi. Rhizi'nee), see Rhi- 
zoid. 

RHI'ZINE, see Rhizoid. 

RHIZOCAR'POUS, having a peren- 
nial root and herbaceous stem; 
rhizoearpic. (Rare.) 

RHIZ OGEN, (1) a plant Avhich is 
parasitic upon the roots of 
another; (2) any part or organ 
which emits roots or rhizoids. 

RHIZOGENET'IC, root-produc- 
ing, as rhizogenetic tissue; rhi- 
zogeuic. 

RHIZOGEN'IC, see Rhizoge- 
netic. 

RHI'ZOID, adj., see Rhizomor- 
phous. 

RHI'ZOID, n., a root-like organ 
in many cryptogams; rhizina; 
rhizine. Compare Root. 

RHIZOmA (pi. Rhlzo'mata), see 
Rhizome. 

RHIZOmAT'IC, having the appear- 
ance or character of a rhizome. 

RHIZOME , a subterranean stem, 
especially if uniformly thick- 
ened for the storage of starch, 
etc.; rhizoma; root - stock. 
Compare Stolon and Tuber. 

RHI'ZOMORPHS, root-like organs 
in Agarics and some other 
fungi composed of many 
united hyphal strands. 

RHIZOMOR'PHOUS, root-like ; rhi- 
zomorphoid; rhizoid. 

RHIZOPHORE, a structure in 
certain species of Selaginella 
which resembles a root and 
from which true roots are de- 
veloped. 



152 



Rhizophyllous 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Rosette 



RHIZOPHYL'LOUS, emitting roots 
from the leaves. (Rare.) 

RHIZOTAX'IS, the position or 
order of arrangement of the 
roots upon a plant; radication. 
Compare Phyllotaxis and 
Catjlotaxis. 

RHI'ZOTAXY, see Rhizotaxis. 
RHODOL'OGY, the part of botany 
which treats of roses. 

RHO'DOPHYL, the compound 
pigment which is the coloring 
matter of red alga 1 , the Flo- 
ridese. 

RHODOSPER'MIN, crystalloids of 
proteid found in the Floridete 
containing the rhodophyl or 
red coloring matter. 

RIB, a large prominent vein. 

RIBBED, (1) having more than 
one prominent longitudinal 
vein; (2) applied to an apple 
or other fruit with large longi- 
tudinal ridges. 

RICTUS, an old term for the 
throat of a personate flower. 

RIGflS'CENT, approaching a rigid 
or stiff consistence. (M. C. 
Cooke.) 

RIGHT, see remarks under Dex- 
trorse and Left. 

RI'MA (pi. Ri'mae), a chink or 
cleft. 

RIMOSE', abounding with chinks, 
clefts, or cracks, as the bark 
of many trees and the thallus 
of certain lichens; rimous, 

RIM OUS, see Rimose. 

RIM'ULOSE, diminutive of Ri- 
mose. 

RIND, see Cortex. 

RING, see Annttltjs. 

RINGED, see Annttlated. 

RIN'GENT, bilabiate, with the 
lips widely separated and the 
throat open, as in Latnium. 
Compare Personate. 



RIPA'RIAN, see Ripariots. 

RIPA'RIOUS, growing along riv- 
ers or other water-courses; 
riparian. 

RIVOSE', having sinuate channels. 
Compare Sulcate. 

RIV'ULOSE, having small sinuate 
channels. Compare Striate. 

ROD - FRUCTIFICA'TION, un- 
b ranched gonidiophores in 
Basidiomycetes. 

ROGUE (Hort), an inferior sport 
or variation, i.e., a plant which 
deviates in an undesirable man- 
ner from the type of the species 
or variety. 

ROOT, the descending axis;— 
differing in character from 
the stem chiefly in being des- 
titute of leaves. Compare Rhi- 
zoid and Rhizome. Sachs ex- 
tends the term Root to the root- 
like organs (rhizoids) of cel- 
lular plants. 

ROOT-CAP, a protective covering 
to the growing extremity of 
_roots; calyptra; pileorhiza. 

ROOT-HAIRS, slender hairs upon 
the younger roots, which serve 
to absorb food from the soil. 

ROOT -LEAF, a leaf springing 
from the base of the stem. 

ROOT - PRES'SURE, see Sap- 
pressure. 

R0~0T'LET, a small root; root- 
fibre. 

ROOT-SHEATH, see Coleorhiza. 

ROOT'STOCK, see Rhizome. 

RO RIDUS, covered with trans- 
parent elevations resembling 
drops of dew. (Obs.) 

ROSA'CEOUS, rose-like, or be- 
longing to the family Rosacea?. 

ROSEL'LA (obs.), see Rosette. 

ROSETTE', a cluster of leaves or 
other organs arranged some- 
what like the petals of a 



153 



Rostellate 



A DICTIONARY 



Ruminated 



double rose, as the leaves of 
the dandelion or those upon 
the short spurs of the larch. 

RCS'TEL, see Rostelltjm. 

R6STELLATE, diminutive of 
Rostrate, having a small beak. 

ROSTEL'LIFORM, beak -shaped, 
especially when the process is 
small; rostriform. 

RCSTEL'LUM (pi. Rostel'la), a 
little beak; especially, the 
process upon the column in 
orchids containing the disk 
(retinaculum) of the pollinia. 
It is one of the three united 
styles which has become mod- 
ified for this purpose. 

ROS'TRATE, see Beaked. 

R0STRIF6RM, beak-shaped. 

ROS'TRUM, see Beak. 

RO'sUlA (obs.), see Rosette. 

RO'SULAR (obs.), see Rosulate. 

RO'SUlATE, arranged or shaped 
like a rosette; having the 
leaves in little tufts like the 
petals of a double rose, as 
those of the dandelion. 

ROTATE, wheel - shaped. In 
flowers, applied to a gamo- 
petalous corolla with a very 
short tube and nearly flat 
spreading border. 

RO'TATE-PLANE, gamopetalous, 
with a flat border and no tube. 

ROTATION, a flowing movement 
of the protoplasmic cell-fluid; 
cyclosis; streaming. In some 
active or growing cells the 
movement is readily visible 
as distinct currents having a 
rotary or back-and-forth direc- 
tion. The term Cyclosis is now 
well established, and is perhaps 
preferable to Rotation as a gen- 
eral term, the latter word being 
applied especially to circula- 
tion next the cell-wall, to a 
rotation of the whole mass 



within the cell, or to a pecu- 
liar spiral movement of the 
cell-fluid in certain plants, as 
in Chara. 

RO'TIFORM (obs.), see Rotate. 

ROTUND', rounded; somewhat 
orbicular. 

ROUGH, see Scabrous. 

ROUGH LEAVES, a gardener's 
term for the true leaves which 
succeed the cotyledons. 

RUBES'CENT, reddish or rosy; 
rubicund. 

RU'BICUND, see Rubescent. 

RUBIG'INOSE, of the color of iron- 
rust; brownish red; rubiginous; 
rufous; rusty; ferruginous. 

RUBIGINOUS, see Rubiginose. 

RU'DERAL, growing in rubbish 
or waste places. 

RUDIMENT, an imperfectly de- 
veloped, vestigal, or aborted 
part. 

RUDIMEN'TAL, see Rudimen- 
tary. 

RUDIMEN'TARY, imperfectly de- 
veloped, or in an early stage of 
development; rudimental. 

RUFES'CENT, somewhat rufous. 

RUF'FLED, sometimes applied to 
a margin when very strongly 
waved. 

RU'FOUS, see Rubiginose. 

RU'GA, a wrinkle. 

RUGGED (obs.), see Scabrous. 

RUGOSE', wrinkled, as the leaves 
of sage. Compare Bullate 
and Crisp. 

RU GULOSE, slightly rugose. 

RU'MINATED, said of the albu- 
men or cotyledons of a seed 
which has holes or channels 
into which the inner seed-coat 
penetrates, as in the papaw 
and nutmesr. 



154 



Runcinate 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS 



Sarcocarp 



RUN'CINATE, having large sharp 
teeth or lohes projecting back- 
ward, as the leaves of dande- 
lion. 

RUNNER, a stolon which roots 
and forms new plants at inter- 
vals, as the strawberry; the 
prostrate stem of a vine, as in 
melons. 

RUN'NING, prostrate upon or 
beneath the surface, but not 
rooting. Often used improp- 
erly in the sense of Creeping, 
which see. 

RUPES'TRINE, growing upon 
rocks or in rocky places; lapi- 
dose; saxatile; saxicole; saxi- 
coline; saxicolous; rupicoline; 
rupicolous. The distinctions 
between these terms are main- 
ly slight and inconstant. Lapi- 
dose may, however, be defined 
as growing upon laud abound- 
ing in loose stones or coarse 
gravel (compare Glareose). 
while the other terms usually 
refer to fixed or massive rock. 
There is a tendency, also, to 
restrict the terms Rupicolous 
and Saxicolous to growth di- 
rectly upon the rocks, as with 
many lichens, mosses, and 
some ferns. 

RUPIC OLOtJS, see Rupestrine. 

RUP'TILE, dehiscing in an irreg- 
ular or accidental manner. 

RUSTY, see Rubiginose. 

SAB'ULINE, see Arenaceous. 

SAbULOSE, see Arenaceous. 

SAC, a deep or closed receptacle. 
Also written Sack. 

SACCATE, in the form of a bag 
or pouch ; sacciform. 

SAC OF THE AM'NldS (obs.), see 
Embryo-sac. 

SAC OF THE EM BRYO, see Em- 
bryo-sac. 

SACK, see Sac. 



SAGITTATE, arrow-shaped. Dif- 
fers from Cordate in having 
the lobes as well as apex acute. 

SA'LIENT, projecting outward. 

SA'LINE, growing upon the sea- 
shore or other places impreg- 
nated with salt; salsuginous. 

SALSU GINOUS, see Saline. 

SAL VER FORM, see Hypocra- 

TERIFORM. 

SAL'VER - SHAPED, see Hypo- 

CRATERIFORM. 

SAMA'RA, a winged fruit, like 
that of the ash, elm, or maple; 
pteridium; key. 

SAM'AROID, winged like a 
samara. 

SAP, in general, any vegetable 
fluid, especially limpid fluid, 
such as abounds in many trees 
in spring. See Cell-sap. 

SAP-CAVITY, see Vacuole. 

SAP'ID, having a pleasant taste. 

SAP'LING, a tall seedling tree 
having a stem from two to 
six inches in diameter. 

SAP - PRES'SURE, the force ex- 
erted by the soil-fluid in enter- 
ing the plant, and b}' the sap 
in passing upward within it; 
root-pressure. See Osmose. 

SAPROGENOUS, causing putre- 
faction. 

SAP'ROPHYTE, a plant which 
lives upon dead animal or 
vegetable matter; humus- 
plaut. Compare Parasite. 

SAPROPHYTIC, living upon 
dead organic matter. Com- 
pare Parasitic. 

SAP- VES'SEL, see Vessel. 

SAP' -WOOD, see Alburnum. 

SARCOB'ASIS, see Carcehule. 

SARCOCARP, the succulent 
fleshy portion of a fruit, es- 
pecially of a drupe. Used by 



155 



Sarcoderm 



A DICTIONARY 



Scattered 



M. T. Masters synonymously 
■with Berry. 

SAR'CODERM, a fleshy layer in 
certain seed - coats; sarco- 
derma. 

SAR'MENT, a long slender run- 
ner, stolon, or twig; sarmen- 
tum; flagellum. 

SARMENTA'QEOUS, see Sar- 

MENTOSE. 

SARMENTIF'EROUS, bearing 
sarmeuts. 

SARMENTOSE', bearing or re- 
sembling sarmeuts; sarmeuta- 
ceous; sarmentous. 

SARMEN'TOUS, see Sarmen- 

TOSE. 

SARMENTUM (pi. Sarmen'ta), 
see Sarment. 

SAU'SAGE-SHAPED, see Allan- 

TOID. 

SAW- TOOTHED, see Serrate. 

SAX ATILE, see Rupestrine. 

SAX ICOLE, see Rtjpestrine. 

SAXIC'OLINE, see Rupestrine. 

SAXIC OLOUS, growing upon 
rocks, as many mosses and 
lichens; rupicolous. Com- 
pare Rupestrine. 

SCA'BRATE, see Scabrous. 

SCA'BRID, slightly scabrous. 

SCA'BRIDOUS, somewhat scabrid 
or scabrous. 

SCAbRIDULOUS, slightly scabrid 
or scabrous; scabridous. 

SCA'BROtJS, rough with short 
stiff hairs or points; scabrate; 
asperate. 

SCAlAR'IFORM, having trans- 
verse bars like a ladder: ap- 
plied mainly to thickenings 
of this form characteristic of 
scalariform vessels. 

SCALAR IFORM DUCT, see Sca- 
lariform Vessel. 

SCALAR LFORM MARKING, an 

1 



elongated pit of a scalariform 
vessel. 

SCALAR'IFORM VES'SEL, a ves- 
sel marked with elongated 
transverse bordered pits, as 
iu many ferns. 

SCALE, any thin, scale-like ap- 
pendage, usually a degen- 
erated and metamorphosed 
leaf, as those of buds and 
buds. See Ramentum and 
Lefide. 

SCAL'LION, a small or imperfect 
onion, particularly the shallot, 
Allium Ascalonicum. Com- 
pare Scullion. 

SCALLOPED, see Crenate. 

SCAL'Y, consisting of scales: 
furnished or covered with 
scales; scale-like in texture. 

SCALY BULB, one with narrow 
and somewhat separate scales, 
as in the lily. Compare Tuni- 
cated Bulb. 

SCAN'DENT, see Climbing. 

SCAPE, a peduncle rising from 
the ground, as in blood-root, 
Banguina/ria Canadensis; i.e., 
a stalk from the root or collar 
which bears one or more flow- 
ers but no foliage-leaves. 

SCAPH OID, see Navicular. 

SCAPIFLO'ROUS, having the flow- 
ers on scapes. 

SCA'PIFORM, scape-like; scapoid. 

SCAPiG' EROUS, bearing scapes. 

SCA POID, see ScAPiFORM. 

SCA'PUS, see Scape. 

SCAR, the mark left by the natu- 
ral separation of a leaf or other 
organ; cicatrix. See Leaf- 
scar and Hilum. 

SCA'RIOSE, see Scarious. 

SCA'RiOUS,dry and membranous; 
scariose. 

SCATTERED, either sparse, or 
without apparent regularity 
56 



Schizocarp 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Scrobiculate 



of arrangement. See Alter- 
nate. 

SCHIZOCARP, a fruit of which 
the carpels separate when 
mature and retain the seeds 
in cocci or mericarps. 

SCHIZOGENET'IC, see Schizo- 

GENIC. 

SCHIZOGEN'IC, formed by the 
separation of parts, as some 
intercellular spaces; schizo- 
genetic; schizogenous. Com- 
pare Lysigenic. 

SCHIZOG'ENOUS, see Schizo- 

GENIC. 

SgiM ETAR- SHAPED, see Acina- 

CIFORM. 

SCI'ON, formerly used for any 
shoot or twig; now applied 
only to one intended for 
grafting. Improperly writ- 
ten Cion. A scion is con- 
sidered by most nurserymen 
to be a part of a twig or shoot 
long enough to make one graft, 
usually four to six inches. 

SCI'UROID, in the shape of a 
squirrel's tail. 

SCLEREN'CHYMA, lignified tis- 
sue of any kind, especially 
such as composes the shell of 
a nut. It is not usually ap- 
plied to ordinary woody tis- 
sue, but is used by many bot- 
anists for thick-walled fibres 
of the bast and hypoderma. 

SCLER OGEN, see Lignine. 

SCLE'ROID, woody or bony iu 
texture. 

SCLERO'SIS, see Lignification. 

SCLE'ROTE, see Sclerotium. 

SCLER6T'IC, resembling or con- 
sisting of sclerenchyma. 

SCLERO'TIUM (pi. Sclero'tia), a 
consolidated and hardened 
mass of hyphse in a resting 
condition, as in Claviceps (er- 
got) and some other Ascomy- 



cetes. Also a temporary con- 
dition assumed by the Plasmo- 
dium of Myxomycetes, chiefly 
due to dryness, in which it 
appears in dry, compact, wax- 
like, gritty nodules. 

SCLEROt'OID, consisting of or 
resembling a sclerotium. 

SCOBIC'ULAR, see Scobiform. 

SCGB'IFORM, resembling saw- 
dust; scobicular. 

SCOBI'NA, an old term for the 
zigzag rachis of certain 
grasses. 

SCOL'EgiTE, Tulasne's later term 
for the "vermiform body" of 
Worouin. It is the ascogo- 
nium or archicarp in certain 
Ascomycetes, as Ascobolus 
pnlcherrimus. 

SCOR PIOID, commonly used in 
the sense of Helicoid, but 
properly restricted now to 
alternately progressive or zig- 
zag development. See Scou 
pioid Cyme and Scorpioid 
Dichotomy. 

SCOR'PIOID CYME, one in which 
the successive flowers are situ- 
ated on alternate sides of the 
pseudaxis; cicinal cyme; cic- 
inus or cincinnus. The term 
Scorpioid Cyme was given by 
A. P. de Candolle to a unilat- 
eral cyme, the undeveloped 
portion of which is usually 
rolled up like the tail of a 
scorpion, as in Boraginacese, 
and this is the meaning still 
attached to the term by most 
botanists of England. Com- 
pare Helicoid Cyme. 

SCOR'PIOID DlCHdT'OMY, one in 
which alternate branches de- 
velop in the successive bifur- 
cations; cicinal dichotomy. 
Compare Helicoid Dichot- 
omy. 

SCROBICULATE, pitted. 



157 



Scullion 



A DICTIONARY Secondary Medullary Rays 



SCRO'TIFdRM, see Pouch- 
shaped. 

SCUL'LION, a term applied by 
gardeners in America to 
onions which fail to "bot- 
tom" properly, but remain 
soft and become thick-necked. 
Probably derived from Seal- 
lion, which see. 

SCULP' TURED, a horticultural 
term applied to the seeds of 
certain gourds, etc., which 
have peculiar markings. 

SCURF, small bran-like epider- 
mal scales. 

SCU'TATE, shield-shaped, espe- 
cially like a round shield; scu- 
tif orm ; clypeate. Compare 
Peltate. 

SCU'TEL, see Scutellum. 

SCUTEL'LiEFdRM, see Scutel- 

LIFORM. 

SCU'TELLATE, diminutive of 
Scutate; somewhat scutate, 
like a platter; especially, cov- 
ered with small plate- or shield- 
like surfaces; scutellated. See 

SCUTELLIFORM. 

SCU'TELLATED, see Scutel- 

LATE. 

SCUTEL'LIf6RM, shaped like a 
saucer or small platter; scutel- 
late; scutellseform. Compare 
Patelliform. 

SCUTEL'LUM (pi. Scutel'la), (1) a 
sessile apothecium or " shield" 
in lichens; (2) in Graminefe a 
usually shield-like expansion 
of the hypocotyl which acts 
as an organ of suction through 
which the embryo absorbs nu- 
triment from the endosperm. 
It is regarded as the cotyledon. 
It appears exteriorly as a large 
flat space upon the surface of 
the seed surrounding the em- 
bryo (plumule and radicle) to 
which it is attached. It forms 
the chief part of what is known 



as the " chit" in a kernel of 
corn. Compare Scutum. 

SCU'TIFdRM, see Scutate. 

SCU'TIFdRM LEAF, the first- 
formed leaf (protophyl) in 
Salvinia, differing in form 
from the succeeding leaves. 

SCU'TUM, a large circular disk- 
like part or organ, as the 
dilated stigma (stylostegium) 
of Stapelia; shield. Compare 
Scutellum. 

SCYM'ITAR-SHAPED, see Acin- 
'aciform. 
SgY'PHIFdRM, like a scyphus; 
goblet-shaped. 

SCY'PHUS (pi. Scy'phi), an apo- 
thecium in lichens elevated on 
a podetium. Compare Scu- 
tellum. 

SEBA'CEOUS, wax-like, or pro- 
ducing wax. 
SEBIF'EROUS, producing wax. 

SECONDARY, opposed to Pri- 
mary; often includes Tertiary, 
etc. 

SECONDARY BUDS, see Acces- 
sory Buds. 

SECONDARY CdR'TEX, a collect- 
ive term for the successive for- 
mations of liber or bast within 
the cortical sheath and primary 
cortex. It is not applied to 
secondary cork formations. 

SECONDARY FUN'GUS, a sapro- 
phytic or parasitic fungus 
which attacks a plant after it 
has been killed or injured by 
another fungus. Compare 

SCPERPARASITE. 

SECONDARY HYBRID, see De- 
rivative Hybrid. 

SECONDARY MED'ULLARY 

RAYS, those intermediate be- 
tween the rays first formed, 
and which do not extend to 
the pith. 



158 



Secondary Meristem OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Seed-variety 



SECONDARY MERISTEM, meri- 
steui in an organ or part after 
its first development is com- 
pleted and by means of which 
further growth is effected, as 
cambium. Compare Primary 
Meristem. 

SECONDARY NU'CLEUS, the 
"nucleus of the embryo-sac," 
resulting from the union of 
the two polar nuclei. 

SECONDARY PEDUN'CLE, the 

stalk of a branch of an inflo- 
rescence bearing more than 
one flower; partial peduucle. 
Compare Pedicel. 

SECONDARY PETIOLE, the 
stalk of a leaflet; partial 
petiole petiolule. 

SECONDARY ROOT, a lateral root, 
especially one growing from 
the stem. Compare Primary 
Root and Aerial Root. 

SECONDARY SPORE, a spore 
borne on a promycelium (spo- 
ridium), or one derived imme- 
diately from another spore. 

SECONDARY STRUCTURE, the 
structure or condition of a 
plant or organ after its first 
year, or after it has grown be- 
yond its first formed state. 
Compare Primary Struc- 
ture. 

SEC ONDARY WOOD, the portion 
of the wood or xylem which 
is formed after the primary 
xylem, or after the formation 
of the cambium ring. Com- 
pare Primary Wood. 

sECONDINE (obs.), see Sec- 
undine. 

SECTILE, divided into separable 
parts. 

SE'CUND, either unilateral (one- 
ranked) or homomalous (one- 
sided), i.e., having lateral or- 
gans upon one side only, or all 
turned to one side. 



SECUNDINE, the secondary or 
inner coat of an ovule, called 
tegmen in the seed. By some 
authors this inner coat, since 
it is first formed, is called the 
Primine and the outer coat the 
Secundine 

SEED, a fertilized ovule: a struc- 
ture enclosing when mature a 
rudimentary plant (theembryo) 
which is protected while in a 
dormant condition, and fur- 
nished with nutriment, either 
in its cotyledons or around 
them, with which to begin 
the process of growth. 

SEED'A&E, a term proposed by 
L. H. Bailey for the process, 
state, or condition of being 
propagated by seed. 

SEED-BUD, an old term used both 
for ovule and ovary. 

SEED COAT, the covering of a 
seed. See Tegmen and Testa. 

SEED-LEAF, see Cotyledon. 

SEED'LING, (1) a plant produced 
from seed, in distinction from 
one produced in any other 
manner, either naturally or 
artificially; (2) a young plant 
produced from seed, in dis- 
tinction from one of consid- 
erable age or size. 

SEED-LOBE, see Cotyledon. 

SEED-SPORT, a sport which origi- 
nated from seed ; seminal sport. 
Compare Bud-sport. 

SEED-VARlA'TION, a variation 
derived from seed instead of 
buds. Compare Bud - vari- 
ation. 

SEE*D - VARI'ETY, any variety 
which originated from seed, 
either suddenly (seed - varia- 
tion or seed-sport) or gradu- 
ally in the ordinary way, and 
is propagated in any manner. 
Compare Bud-variety. 

SEED-VES'SEL. see Pericarp. 



159 



Segment 



A DICTIONARY 



Semiterete 



SEG'MENT, a natural division or 
part; as one of the parts of a 
compound or deeply divided 
leaf, an iuternode, the cell of 
a pericarp, any joint or regu- 
lar part whether separable or 
not. 

SEGMENT A TION, the act or pro- 
cess of dividing into segments. 

SEGREGATED, separated. 

SEI'ROSPORE, a kind of gonidium 
produced in mouilliform rows 
in certain red algae. 

SELF, a florist's term for a flower 
or plant which is wholly of one 
color. 

SELF-COL'ORED, applied to fruits 
and flowers which are of one 
color; unicolor. Compare 
Colored. 

SELF - FERTILIZATION, see 
Close-fertilization. 

SEMI-, a Latin prefix meaning 
half or partial. 

SEMIADHER'ENT, adherent half- 
way, as the calyx half-way to 
the summit of the ovary. 

SEMIAMPLEXlCATJL, slightly 
clasping the stem. 

SEMIANAT'ROPOtTS, see Am- 

PHITKOPOUS. 

SEMICOLUM'NAR, see Semi- 
terete. 

SfiMICOR DATE, in the shape of 
a lateral half of a cordate body. 

SEM'IDOUBLE, when a part only 
of the stamens are replaced by 
petals. Compare Full. 

SEMIEQ'TJITANT, see Half- 
equitant. 

SEM LFLORET, a floret in Com- 
positae having a strap-shaped 
corolla; ligulate floret; semi- 
floscule. 

SEMIFLOS'CULAR, having the 
florets of a head in Com- 
posite all ligulate; semiflos- 
culous. 



SEMIFLOS'CULE, see Semiflo- 

ret. 
SEMlFLOS'CULOUS, see Semi- 

FLOSCULAR. 

SEMILENTlCULAR, see Sub- 
lenticular. 

SEMILOC'ULAR, having the dis- 
sepiments incomplete and the 
pericarp therefore really uni- 
locular; semiseptate. 

SEMILUNAR, see Lunar. 

SEMILUNATE, see Lunar. 

SEM'lNAL, pertaining to seed. 

SEM'lNAL LEAF, see Cotyle- 
don. 

SEM'lNAL SPORT, see Seed- 
sport. 

SEMINATION, the production of 
seeds. Sometimes used for 
their dissemination or disper- 
sion. 

SEMINIF'EROUS, seed-bearing. 

SEMIORBIC'ULAR, in the shape 
of one half of a circular body. 
Compare Svborbicular. 

SEMIO'VAL, having the shape of 
half of an oval, divided length- 
wise. 

SEMIO'VATE, in the form of half 
of an ovate figure, divided 
lengthwise, as where one side 
of an otherwise ovate leaf is 
wanting. 

SEMIRA'DlATE, having a part 
only of the marginal florets of 
a head ligulate. 

SEMIREN'IFORM.reniforni, with 
one lobe wanting. 

SEMISAG'ITTATE, sagittate, with 
one lobe wanting. 

SEMISEP'TATE, see Sesiiloc- 

ILAK. 

SEMISTAM'InATE, formerly 
sometimes used for semidouble. 

SEMITERETE', half-terete; half- 
cylindrical ; semicolumnar. 
160 



Semivalvate 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Serrulate 



SEMIVAL'VATE, applied to a 
pericarp in which the valves 
are ouly partially dehiscent. 

SEMIVERTIC'ILLATE, see Sub- 

YEKTICILLATE. 

SEMPERVI'RENT, see EVER- 
GREEN. 

SEN'SITIVENESS, see IRRITA- 
BILITY. 

SEPAL, a leaf or lobe of a calyx. 

SEP'ALINE, pertaining to or re- 
sembling a sepal. 

SEPAL'ODY, the reversion of 
petals to sepals. 

SEP'ALOID, sepal-like. 

SEP ALOUS, having or relating to 
sepals; sepaline. 

SEPARATE, see Free and Dis- 
tinct. 

SEPARATED FLOWERS, those 
having stameus or pistils but 
not both. 

SEPARATING LAYER, see 
Absciss Layer. 

SEP'TA, pi., see Septum. 

SEPTAM'EROUS, having the parts 
in sevens. 

SEP'TATE, having one or more 
partitions (septa). Compare 
Septifehous. 

SEPTATE SPORE, see Compound 
Spoke. 

SEP'TENATE, having seven parts, 
or the parts in sevens; septam- 
erous. 

SEPTICI DAL, a mode of dehis- 
cence in which the separation 
takes place through the parti- 
tions, i.e., along the line of 
junction of the carpels. Com- 
pare Septipragal aDd Locu- 

LICIDAL. 

SEPTIF'EROUS, bearing one or 
more partitions or septa — said 
of the valves of certain cap- 
sides after dehiscence. Com- 
pare Septate. 



! SEP'TIFORM, resembling a sep- 
tum. 

SEPTIF RAGAL, a mode of dehis- 
cence in which the valves break 
away from the septa or parti- 
tions. Compare Sefticidal 
and Loculicidal. 

SEP'TULATE, imperfectly or 
rarely septate, or having false 
or supernumerary septa. 

SEP'TULUM (pi. Sep'tula), dimin- 
utive of Septum: a little sep- 
tum or partition. Also a spuri- 
ous or supernumerary septum. 

SEP'TUM (pi. Sep'ta), a partition 
of any kind, as between two 
cells in a tissue, or between 
cavities in an ovary. See Dis- 
sepiment. 

SERIAL, in rows or regular suc- 
cession. 

SE RIATE, see Serial. 

SERIC'EOUS, silky; covered with 
tine, straight, soft, smooth, 
glossy, appressed hairs. 

SE'RIES, (1) a row or rank; (2) a 
term applied to various subor- 
dinate groups of different val- 
ues, and also used by Asa Gray 
as equivalent to Subkiugdom, 
which see. 

SEROTINOUS, occurring late, or 
comparatively late, in the sea- 
son. 

SER'RATE, having sharp margi- 
nal teeth projecting toward the 
apex. 

SER'RATE - CIL'lATE, having 
the teeth of a serrate margin 
tipped with fine slender hairs. 

SERRATED, see Serrate. 

SER'RATtJRE, one of the teeth of 
a serrate margin. Compare 
Serrulation. 

SER'RIED, close together in rows, 
like the kernels in the rows 
upon an ear of Indian corn. 
I SERRULATE, diminutive of Ser- 



161 



Serrulation 



A DICTIONARY 



Shrub 



rate; serrate with small teeth. 
Compare Subserrate. 

SER'RULATED, see Serrulate. 

SERRULATION, (1) the state or 
condition of being serrulate; 
(2) a tooth of a serrulate mar- 
gin. Compare Serrature. 

SES'QUI-AL'TER, hitlf as many 
more: applied to stamens when 
half as many more thau the 
petals; also to a fertile floret 
in grasses when accompanied 
by a small abortive one. 

SESSILE, (1) having no stalk, as 
a leaf which has no petiole but 
is seated directly upon the stem; 
(2) quiescent, not moving about 
--applied to bacteria and zoo- 
spores at certain times. 

SE'TA (pi. Se'tae), a bristle or 
slender bristle-like body; the 
stalk of the capsule in most 
mosses above the true stem. 

SETACEOUS, (1) bristle-shaped; 
setiform; (2) setigerous. 

SETIFEROUS, see Setigerous. 

SE'TIFORM, see Setaceous. 

SETIGEROUS, bristle - bearing; 
setiferous. See Setose. 

SETOSE', bearing or abounding 
with bristles; bristly; seta- 
ceous; setous; setiferous; se- 
tigerous. 

SE'TOUS, see Setose. 

SET'ULA (pi. Set'iilse), diminutive 
of Seta. 

SET'ULOSE, bearing minute 
bristles. 

SEX-, Latin for six. See Hex-. 

SEX, one of the attributes of 
nearly all living bodies, which 
manifests itself in a certain 
method of reproduction, the 
first stage of which is the 
blending of the contents of 
two cells which are usually of 
distinct character and differ- 
ent origin, one of which is 
called male, the other female. 



SEXAN'GULAR, having six an- 
gles; hexagonal. 

SEXFA'RIOUS, six-rowed. 

SEX'IFID, six-cleft. 

SEXLOC'ULAR, having six cells 

in an ovaiy. 
SEX'PARTITE, six-parted. 

sex'ual Feneration, the 

generation or stage which 
bears the sexual organs in 
plants which have an alterna- 
tion of generations. In ferns 
it is the prothallus. Compare 
Asexual Generation. 

SEX UAL SYS'TEM, see Linn^an 
System. 

SHAGGY, either villose or hir- 
sute. 

SHEATH, the petiole or base of 
the leaf in grasses which sur- 
rounds the stem; any tubular 
part surrounding another ; 
vagina. 

SHEATHED, surrounded by a 
sheath; invagiuated; vaginate. 

SHEATHING, surrounding a stem 
or other body in a convolute 
or tubular manner, as the 
petioles of grasses ; vagiuant. 
Compare Amplexicaul. 

SHELL, the bony covering of a 
nut. 

SHIELD, see Apothecium and 
Indusium. In Chara one of 
the eight flat cells forming the 
wall of the globule. 

SHIELD - SHAPED, scutate or 
peltate. 

SHOOT, a j'oung growing branch 
or twig, or an unusually vigor- 
ous stem or branch, generally 
from the ground or near it. 
Also used by botanists as a 
general term for the stem or 
leaf-bearing part of a plant in 
distinction from the root. 

SHRUB, a woody plant which 
seldom exceeds twenty feet in 



162 



Siccus 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. Simultaneous Whorl 



height; especially one having 
several stems. Compare Bush, 
Undershrub, and Tree. 

SICCUS, dry. 

SlE VE-CELL, see Sieve-tube. 

SIEVE-DISK, the perforated sep- 
tum between the ends of ad- 
joining sieve-tubes ; sieve-plate. 

SLEVE-PLATE, see Sieve-disk. 

SlE VE-PORES, the perforations in 
;i sieve-disk. 

SIEVE-TUBE, a form of vessel 
characteristic of the phloem 
portion of fibrovascular bun- 
dles. Sieve-tubes consist of 
elongated, thin - walled cells, 
united end to end in rows, 
with the transverse septa 
(sieve-disks) perforated in a 
sieve-like manner so that the 
protoplasm is continuous from 
one vessel to another; sieve- 
cell; clathrate-cell; bast- ves- 
sel. 

SIG'lLLATE, appearing as if 
marked with impressions of 
a seal, as the rootstock of 
Solomon's seal. 

SfG'MOID, curved in two direc- 
tions, like the Greek sigma or 
letter S. 

SLL'ICLE, a short silique, as that 
of shepherd's-purse. 

SILIC'ULA (pi. Silic'ulas), see Sil- 

ICLE. 

SlL'ICULE, see Silicle. 

SILIC'ULOSE, having silicles, or 
resembling a silicle. 

SIL'IQUA (pi. Sil'iquae), see 
Silique. 

SILIQUE [pro. SUek'], the fruit 
in Cruciferae — a pod of two 
carpels, which separate in de- 
hiscence from a frame -like 
placenta called a replum; 
siliqua. 

EiL'IQUOSE, resembling or bear- 
ing siliques. 



SILK, the style of Indian corn. 
SILK'Y, see Sericeous. 
SIL'VA, see Sylva. 

SLL'VER GRAIN, plates of medul- 
lary rays which appear as glim- 
mering spots upon the surface 
of wood when split radially. 
See Medullary Ray. 

SIL'VERY, white, tinged with 
bluish gray, and having a 
metallic lustre. 

SIMPLE, without subdivisions; 
entire; unbrauched. Com- 
pare Compound. 

SIMPLE FRUIT, one derived 
from a single flower contain- 
ing a single pistil. Compare 
Collective Fruit and Com- 
pound Fruit. 

SIM'PLE LEAF, any leaf which 
does not have distinct subordi- 
nate leaflets, though it may be 
lobed. Compare Compound 
Leaf. 

SIM'PLE NUTA'TION, see Nuta- 
tion. Compare Circumnuta- 
tion. 

SIMPLE PIS'TIL, one consisting 
of a single carpel. 

SIM'PLE PIT, one having no 
more than a slight enlarge- 
ment at the centre where the 
pits of adjoining cells meet 
(simple pore of Gregory). 
Compare Bordered Pit. 

SIM'PLE PORE (Gregory), see 
Simple Pit. 

SiM'PLE PRIMARY ROOT, a tap- 
root. 

SIM PLE SPOROPHORE, a sporo- 
phore consisting of a single 
hypha or hyphal branch; fila- 
mentous sporophore. Com- 
pare Compound Sporophore. 

SIM'PLE STEM, an unbranehed 
stem. 

SIMULTANEOUS WHORL, one 
whose members originate si- 



163 



Single 



A DICTIONARY 



Solute 



multaneously. (Sachs.) Com- 
part- Successive Whorl. 

SINGLE, said of a flower which 
has but one set or whorl of 
petals. Compare Double, 
Semidouble, and Full. 

SIN'ISTRORSE, turning or twin- 
ing to the left; said of a twin- 
ing stem which turns in the 
opposite direction to the sun 
or hands of a watch. See 
remarks under Dextrorse. 

SIN'UATE, strongly wavy on the 
margin, with large alternate 
convexities and concavities. 
Compare Rep and and Undu- 
late. 

SIN (JOtJS, flexuose; curving back 
and forth. 

SI'NUS, a cavity or recess, either 
rounded or angular, in the 
margin of a leaf or other organ. 

SIPHON, a large tubular cell in 
( hara aud various algae. 

SIS'TER-gfiLL, a cell of the same 
origin as another: thus, if sev- 
eral cells arise simultaneously 
by free cell-formation within 
another, as in the development 
of pollen, they are called sister- 
cells with reference to each 
other, and the same term is 
applied to the relation existing 
ing between two or more cells 
which arise by the division of 
a single cell in ordinary growth. 
Compare Mother-cell and 
Daughter cell. 

SKEIN, a condition of the chro- 
matin of the nucleus in the 
first and last stages of karyo- 
kinesis when the nuclear fila- 
ment is emerging from or 
passing into its reticulated con- 
dition in the resting nucleus; 
mother-coil; tangle. 

SKIN, any soft, thin covering, 
especially if easily removable; 
cuticle; epidermis. Compare 
Rind. 



SLASHED, see Laciniate. 

SLEEP, a condition assumed by 
certain plants, usually upon 
the withdrawal of light, as 
at night, in which the flowers 
temporarily close, and the 
leaves or leaflets droop or 
fold together. 

SMALL FRUITS, a horticultural 
term for certain low-growing, 
perennial, fruit-bearing plants 
and their product, including 
the strawberry, raspberry, 
blackberry, gooseberry, cur- 
rant, huckleberry, aud cran- 
berry. The term includes 
grapes, but excludes cherries. 

SMOOTH, see Glabrous. 

SO'BOLE, an old and useless term, 
usually meaning stolon, but 
sometimes and more properly 
a sucker or slender shoot from 
the ground or base of the stem; 
soboles. 

SOB'OLES (n., siug.), see Sobole. 

SO CIAL, growing naturally to- 
gether, so as to occupy a con- 
siderable extent of ground with 
individuals of the same species; 
gregarious. Compare Cespj- 
tose. 

SOFT BAST, the sieve-tubes, to- 
gether with any other unligni- 
fied portion of the phloem. 

SO'LEJEFORM, see Calceolate. 

SOL'iD, without either cavities or 
separable articulations; con- 
tinuous. 

S6L'ID BULB, see CoilM. 

SOL'ITARY, single, not closely 
associated with other objects 
of the same kind, as flowers 
which grow one upon a stem, 
or plants which do not grow 
in groups or masses. Compare 
Social. 
SOLUTE', free; notadheriug: op- 
posed to Adnate, as a solute 
stipule. 
164 



Solution 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Species 



SOLTJ'TION, the isolation or sepa- 
ration of whorls (apostasis), or 

of organs or parts -which are 
usually close together or ad- 
herent. Compare Dialysis. 

SOMA (pi. So'mata), a small body 
or granule of any kind. Com- 
pare MlCROSOJIA. 

SOMATIC CELLS, cells forming 
a part of the body of the indi- 
vidual, not modified for any 
particular purpose; especially 
the growth-cells of an organ- 
ism, in distinction from repro- 
ductive cells of any kind. 

SOMAtOT'ROPISM, an influence 
which the substratum exerts 
on the direction of growth of 
certain plants andorgans. Thus 
the uypocotyl of the mistletoe 
is directed toward the branch 
(positive somatotropism) and 
the stem at first away from it 
(negative somatotropism) upon 
whatever side of the branch the 
seed is situated. 

SORDID, of a dirty white or 
muddy color. 

SORE'DlA, pi., see Soredium. 

SORE'DIAL BRANCH, a branch 
produced by the development 
of a soredium into a new thal- 
lus while still on the mother- 
thallus. 

SORE'DlATE, see Sorediferous. 

SOREDIF EROUS,beariug soredia; 
sored iate. 

SORE'DIUM (pi. Sore'dia), a single 
gouidial cell or group of go- 
nidia in lichens, surrounded 
by a weft of hyphse, which is 
thrust out of the thallus and 
grows directly into a new li- 
chen; brood-bud. 

SO'RI, pi., see Sorus. 

SORIF'EROUS, bearing sori. 

SO ROSE, (1) heaped or clustered 
together; (2) bearing a sorosis, 
or in the form of a sorosis. 



SOROSIS ipl. Soroses), a collect- 
ive fruit, consisting of a con- 
solidated fleshy spike, as the 
mulberry and pineapple. 

SORROWFUL FLOWERS, those 
which exhale their odors only 
at certain hours of the day, as 
Pelargonium triste. (Rare.) 

SO RUS (pi. So'ri), a heap or col- 
lection of spores or other ob- 
jects, as a "fruit-dot" or 
group of sporangia in ferns. 

SPADI CEO US, resembling or bear- 
ing a. spadix. 

SPA'DICOSE, resembling a spadix. 

SPA'DIX, a spike, usually fleshy, 
enclosed within a spathe. 

SPAN, the space between the 
tip of the thumb and that of 
the little finger, separated as 
widely as possible: nine iuches. 

SPARSE, few and scattered. 

SPA'THA, see Spathe. 

SPATHA'CEOUS, bearing or re- 
sembling a spathe; spathose. 

SPATHAL, furnished with a 
spathe. (Rare). 

SPATHE, a large bract, usually 
colored, enclosing or subtend- 
ing an inflorescence, which is 
generally a spike (spadix). 

SPATHEL'LA (pi. SpatheTke) 
(rare), (1) a glume in grasses; 
(2) a spathilla. 

SPATHIL'LA (pi. Spathil'lee), a 
diminutive or secondary 
spathe, as in palms. 

SPATH'OSE, see Spathaceous. 

SPATH ULATE, see Spatulate. 

SPATULATE, flat, with a linear 
base and gradually rounded 
summit, like a druggist's 
spatula; spatulate. 

SPAWN, the mycelium of mush- 
rooms; occasionally applied to 
that of some other fungi 

SPE'CIES, the lowest well-defined 
natural group of plants, the 
165 



Specific 



A DICTIONARY 



Sphere-crystals 



individuals of which differ but 
slightly among themselves and 
are sharply distinguished from 
those of other groups. They 
reproduce themselves from 
seed for successive genera- 
tions with little or no varia- 
tion. Compare Genus and 
Variety. 

SPE'CIES-HY'BRID, see Hybrid. 
SPECIFIC, relating to species. 

SPECIFIC CHARACTERS, the 

features which distinguish the 

plants of one species from 

those of all others. 
SPECIFIC NAME, the name of 

the species, forming a part of 

the botanical name; trivial 

name. 
SPEC'IMEN, a plant or portion of 

a plant prepared and preserved 

for study. 
SPER'MAgONE, see Spermogo- 

NITJM. 

SPERMAgO'NIUM, see Spermo- 

GONIUM. 

SPER'MAPHORE, see Spermo- 

PHORE. 

SPERMATIF'EROUS, bearing 
spermatia. 

SPERMA TlfjM (pi. Sperma'tia), a 
non-motile male gamete (sper- 
matozoid) in the red algae. 
Also applied to certain mi- 
nute non - germinating spore- 
like bodies in fungi, some of 
which have been regarded as 
functionless male gametes. 
Many of these are now 
known to be stylosjiores capa- 
ble of germination. 

SPER'MATOCYST, the mother- 
cell of a spermatozoid. 

SPERMAtoZO'ID, see Anthe- 
rozoid and Spermatium. 

SPERMAt6Z0'6N (pi. Spermato- 
zo'a), see Antherozoid. 

SPERM - CELL, a male repro- 



ductive cell (gamete). Com- 
pare Germ-cell. 

SPERM'IC, pertaining to seed. 

SPERMID'IUM (pi. SpSrmid'ia), an 
old lerm for achenium. 

SPERM-NU'CLEtJS, the nucleus 
of a male gamete (male pro- 
nucleus) which coalesces with 
the nucleus of a female gamete 
(female pronucleus) to form a 
germ-nucleus; spermo-nucleus. 
In the pollen-tube it is called 
the generative nucleus, which 
see. 

SPER'MODERM, the covering of 
a seed, consisting of the sever- 
al coats taken together; seed- 
coat. 

SPERMOGO'NlUM (pi. Spermogo'- 
nia), a cell or receptacle in 
which spermatia are produced, 

SPERMO-NU'CLEUS, see Sperm- 
nucleus. 

SPERMOPHORE, an old term, 
applied both to funiculus and 
placenta. See Trophosperm. 

SPER'MOPHYTE, a plant which 
produces true seeds instead of 
spores; a flowering plant. 

SPERMOTHE'cA, an old term for 
pericarp. 

SPERMOUS, see Spermic. 

SPHAg'ELATE, dark and with- 
ered as though dying or dead; 
like a sphacelium. 

SPHACE'LIA, a former genus of 
fungi, now known to be the 
first or couidia-beariug stage 
of Claviceps when it appears 
as the spur or ergot. 

SPHACE'LIUM, see Sphacelia. 

SPH.£rAPH IDES, sphere - crys- 
tals, especially if composed of 
needle-shaped parts. 

SPHERE - CRYSTAL?, spherical 

aggregations of crystals, either 

irregularly united or having a 

radiating structure. Compare 

66 



Spicate 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Spiny 



Cystolith and Sph^eraphi- 
des. 

SPHJERO-CRYS'TAL, see Sphere- 

CRYSTAL. 

SPI'CATE, arranged in a spike; 
spike-like; spicose. 

SPICIF'EROtJS, bearing or pro- 
ducing spikes. 

SPI'CIFORM, spike-shaped. 

SPICOSE', bearing spikes or ar- 
ranged in spikes; spicous. 

SPIC'ULA (pi. Spic'ulae), see Spic- 
ule. 

SPIC tJLAR, resembling a spicule 
or bearing spicules. 

SPIC'UIATE, (1) covered with 
spicules; (2) bearing or com- 
posed of spikelets. (Rare.) 

SPICULA'TION, a term employed 
by Ny lander for an attenuated 
constriction of the hypha in 
the formation of spores, leav- 
ing the extremity as a spicule 
after the separation. 

SPICULE, (1) a small pointed 
appendage somewhat soft or 
fleshy, like the sterigmata of 
fungi; (2) a needle-like crys- 
tal; (3) a spikelet (obs.); spic- 
ula. 

SPIKE, an inflorescence of sessile 
or nearly sessile liowers on a 
single elongated axis. See 
Spadix, Ament, Spikelet, 
and Compound Spike. 

SPIKE'LET, (1) a secondary 
spike; (2) in grasses a flower 
(or ultimate flower - cluster) 
ususally enclosed by one or 
more (generally two) empty 
glumes; locusta. 

SPIN'DLE, (1) a name sometimes 
given to the tassel of Indian 
corn; (2) see Nuclear Spin- 
dle. 

SPIN DLE - Fl'BRES, the achro- 
matic filaments which form 
the nuclear spindle; spindle- 



threads; nuclear fibrils and 
cell - fibres of Strasburger; 
conjunctive threads of Fol 
(probably). 

SPIN'DLE - SHAPED, see Fusi- 
form. 

SPINE, aii} r sharp, rigid process 
of considerable size which is 
not a transformed branch; es- 
pecially an organ, such as a 
leaf, stipule, tooth, etc.. of 
whatever size, which is modi- 
fied by becoming sharp and 
rigid for protection. In gen- 
eral, where no other distinction 
exists, as in the cactus, spines 
are considered merely as sharp 
processes intermediate in size 
and rigidity between thorns 
and prickles. See Thorn and 
Prickle. 

SPINES'CENT, somewhat spiny 
in structure, or bearing few 
spines. Compare Spinules- 
cent. 

SPINIF'EROUS, bearing a spine 
or spines; spiuigerous. 

SPIN'IFORM, shaped like a spine 
or thorn. 

SPINIG'EROfJS, see Spiniferous. 

SPlNOSE', bearing spines; cov- 
ered with spines; spinous; 
spiny. 

SPI'NOtJS, spinose or spiny. 

SPIN'ULE, a very small spine. 

SPINtJLES'CENT, slightly spiny 
in structure, or bearing small 
spines; spiuulose. Compare 
Spinescent. 

SPINULIF'EROUS, bearing very 
small spines. 

SPIN'tJLOSE, spinulescent; espe- 
cially, bearing many small 
spines. 

SPIN'Y, bearing spines; having 
the nature of a spine; termi- 
nating in a spine. 



167 



Spiral Marking 



A DICTIONARY 



Spore 



SPI'RAL DUCT, see Spiral Ves- 
sel. 

SPI'RAL MARK'ING, the spiral 
fibrous thickening character- 
istic of spiral ducts or vessels. 

SPI'RAL VES'SEL, a duct or ves- 
sel having fibrous thickenings 
upon the wall in the form of a 
coil or spiral. Formerly called 
Trachea. 

SPIRE, (1) a youug leaf or shoot 
of grass; (2) the continuation 
of the trunk, in exeunent 
trees like pines, above the in- 
sertion of the lowest branches; 
(3) one turn of a coil or spiral. 

SPI'RICLE, a minute spiral thread 
or filament. 

SPITHAMA (obs.), see Span. 

SPLASHED (Hort . ), having 
broken stripes of various sizes. 
Used mainly in describing the 
coloring of apples. 

SPLIT, the same as Parted. 
(Obs.) 

SPON'GIOLE, a term formerly 
applied to the extreme apex 
of growing roots, which was 
erroneously supposed to be 
devoid of epidermis and spe- 
cially fitted for the absorption 
of food from the soil. See 
Root-cap. 

SPONTANEOUS GENERATION, 
the development of living or- 
ganisms from dead or inor- 
ganic matter; equivocal gen- 
eration; heterogenesis; abio- 
genesis; autogenesis. The 
theory of spontaneous gen- 
eration is not now held by 
scientists. 

SPOON'FORM, having the inner 
surface of a leaf concave or 
dish-shaped, as the outer leaves 
of a cabbage-head. (E. S. Goff.) 

SPORADIC, scattered; occurring 
apart from others of the same 
kind. 



SPORANGE', see Sporangium. 

SPORAngID'IUM, (1) the colu- 
mella in mosses; (2) a spo- 
rangium. (Rare.) 

SPORAN GIOLE, an old term for 
Ascus. Also applied to a small 
sporangium produced in some 
genera of Mucoriui iu addition 
to the large form, the spores 
being similar in both; sporan- 
giolum. 

SPORANGTOLUM, see Sporan- 

GIOLE. 

SPOrAN'GIOPHORE, the stalk, 
support, or receptacle of a 
sporangium, including such 
supports as the sporophyll in 
Equisetacea? aud the axis or 
columella from which the spo- 
rangia arise in the sori of cer- 
tain ferns. 

SPORANGIOPHORUM, see 

Sporaxgiophore. 

SPORAN'GiUM (pi. Sporan'gia), 
any case or capsule imme- 
diately enclosing spores. Ap- 
plied chiefly to certain kinds 
which have not received spe- 
cial names, such as the spore- 
cases of ferns and the Mucorini, 
and rarely used for Ascus, 
cluster-cup, and other named 
forms. 

SPORE, one of the reproductive 
bodies of cryptogams which 
take the place of the seeds 
of flowering plants, but from 
which the}' differ in con- 
taining no embryo. Spores 
usually and properly consist 
of but one cell, which differs 
materially in character from 
the other cells of the plant. 
They may thus be distin- 
guished from gemma\ pro- 
duced by comparatively few 
plauts, which usually contain 
a number of cells only slightly 
differing from those of the 
plant producing them. In a 



168 



Spore-cell 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Sporophyl 



restricted sense, proposed by 
Sachs, the term spore is ap- 
plied to reproductive bodies 
which arise either directly or 
indirectly as the result of fer- 
tilization, iu distinction from 
gonidium, which is applied to 
those produced ase'xually. 
Spores in this restricted sense 
are by De Bary termed cnrpo- 
spores. See ^Ecidiospore, 
Mackospoke, Oospore, Pro- 

TOSPORE, TELEUTOSPORE, Te- 
TRASPORE, UrEDOSPOKE, ZOO- 
SPOKE, Zygospore, etc. 
SPORE-CASE, see Sporangium. 
SPORE-CELL, a spore, or a cell 

which gives rise to a spore. 
SPORE - GROUP, see Compound 

Spore. 
SPO'RID, see Sporidium. 
SPORIDESM, see Compound 

Spore. 
SPORID'ltJM (pi. Sporid'ia), a 
spore produced upon a pro- 
mycelium; germ-cell; second- 
ary spore. "Formerly applied 
to any spore, especially if very 
small, and still improperly 
used for Ascospore. 
SPORIF'EROUS, spore-bearing. 
SPO'ROCARP, a group of spores 
resulting from fertilization, to- 
gether with enclosing or attend- 
ant parts. It is thus the fruc- 
tification developed from an 
archicarp or procarp in fungi 
and Rhodophycese; also the 
sporogonium in mosses. The 
term is also used for the body 
enclosing the sporangia in het- 
erosporous Filiciueoe. Com- 
pare Sporogonium. 
SPOROCAR'PIUM, see Sporo- 

carp. 
SPOROCLA'DIUM, a spore-bear- 
ing branch, as a stichidium in 
Florideae. 



SPO'ROCYST, the mother-cell of 
a spore; sporocyte: occasion- 
ally also applied to certain 
sporangia in algae. 

SPO'ROCYTE (Goebel), see Spo- 
rocvst. 

SPO'RODERM, the coat or cover- 
ing of a spore, including exo- 
spore and endospoj-e. Com- 
pare Spermoderm. 

SPORODO'CHIUM (pi. Sporodo'- 
■ehia), a spore-bearing or spore- 
holding apparatus. Applied 
mainly to the sporiferous 
mass, including the spores, iu 
the Tuberculariese. 
SPO'ROGEN, a plant which pro- 
duces spores; cryptogam. 
Compare !>permophyte. 
SPO'ROGONE, see Sporogonium. 
SPOROGONIUM (pi. Sporogo'nia), 
the whole product of the sexual 
act in the higher cryptogams; 
asexual generation; sporo- 
phore; sporophyte; oophyte. 
In ferns it is the segment or 
stage in the life-cycle which 
we see as the ordinary fern- 
plant. Compare Prothallus. 
SPO'ROID, spore-like. 
SPO'ROPHORE, a stalk support- 
ing one or more spores; any 
spore-bearing apparatus or re- 
ceptacle, such as a gonidio- 
phore, sporangiophore, or 
ascophore; particularly the 
second or asexual generation 
in plants having a distinct 
alternation of generations, 
such as ferns and mosses 
(sporogonium). Compare Oo- 
phore. See Simple Sporo- 
phore, Compound Sporo- 
phore, and Basidium. 
SPO ROPHYL, the same as Spo- 
rophyll or Sporophyllum and 
a spelling now in frequent use 
SPO'ROPHYLL, see Sporophyl- 
lum. 
169 



Sporophyllum 



A DICTIONARY 



Spurious Whorl 



SPOROPHYL'LUM (pi. Sporo- 
phyl'la), a spore-bearing leaf 
of any kind; sporopbyl. For- 
merly applied to leaf-like lobes 
of the thallus in algae bearing 
tetraspores. 

SPO'ROPHYTE, see Sporogo- 

NIUM. 

SPOROSTE'GIUM (pi. Sporoste'- 
gia). the oosporangium or 
fruit (nucule) of the Chara- 
cese. 

SPORT, a plant, or portion of a 
plant, which has suddenly 
assumed an appearance very 
different from that character- 
istic of the variety or species; 
a seed- or bud-variation, but 
said mainly of the latter. Its 
peculiarity is not usually capa- 
ble of being perpetuated by 
seed. "When a sport is propa- 
gated artificially it continues 
to be called a sport. Mon- 
strosities or extreme malforma- 
tions are not usually given this 
name. See Variation, Seed- 
variation, and Budvaria- 
tion. 

SPORULA'TION, the production 
of spores. 

SP(!)R"&LE, a small spore. Often 
unsuitably applied to asco- 
spores. Compare Sporidium. 

SPORULIF'EROUS, producing 
sporules. 

SPORULIF'EROUS, see Sporulif- 

EROUS. 

SPOTTED, covered with large 
dots: said of fruits. 

SPRAWLS, a local or obsolete 
term for small branches or 
twigs. 

SPREADING, said of branches 
which bend outward consider- 
ably, but at less than a right 
angle. 

SPROUT, any quickly grown part, 
as a young root or stem from 



the seed, or a vigorous branch 
arising from the root or stem. 
See Water- sprout. 

SPROUT-CELL, in fungi, a cell 
produced by sprouting or pul- 
1 ulation. 

SPROUT-CHAIN, a row of united 
cells in fungi formed by bud- 
ding (pullulation.) 

SPROUT GEMMA, in fungi, a 
gemma having the form of a 
septate confervoid filament the 
segments of which are capable 
of sprouting. (De Bary.) 

SPROUT - GERMINATION, the 

manner of germination of a 
spore in which a small process 
with a narrow base protrudes 
at one or more points on the 
surface of the spore, then 
assumes an elongated cylin- 
drical form, and is finally 
detached as a sprout-cell. 
(De Bary.) 

SPROUTING, see Pullulating 
and Germination. 

SPUMES'CENT, resembling froth 
or foam; spumose. 

SPUMOSE', see Spumescent. 

SPUR, (1) a short, stout branch, 
as those in the larch bearing a 
tuft of leaves or in the apple 
bearing the fruit; (2) a tubular 
appendage of a petal or sepal, 
usually containing nectar, as 
in larkspur (calcar); (3) the 
sclerotium of ergot. 

SPURIOUS, see False. 

SPU'RIOUS BRANCH, see Pseu- 

DORAMULUS. 

SPU'RIOUS FRUIT, a collective, 
aggregate, or accessory fruit. 

SPU'RIOUS TIS'SUE, see Felted 
Tissue. 

SPU'RIOUS WHORL, one which is 
formed by displacement and 
unequal growth of the axis. 
(Sachs.) 



170 



Spurred 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Staminodium 



SPURRED, bearing a spur; cal- 
ibrate. 

SQUA'mA (pi. Squa'mae), a scale 
of any kind, as one of the leaves 
of a bud. 

SQUAMA'CEOUS, see Squamose. 

SQUA'M-SlFORM, see Squ ami- 
form 
SQUA'MATE, see Squamose. 

SQUAMEI/lA (pi. Squamel'lae), 
diminutive of Squama: a small 
scale, as the bracts upon the 
head in Composite; squamula. 

SQUAMEL'LATE, diminutive of 
Squamate. See Squamulose. 

SQTJAMELLIF'EROUS, bearing 
squamellae. 

SQTJAmeL'LIFORM, like a small 

scale; squam aliform. 
5Q,uAMIF'ER0US, scale-bearing; 

squamigerous; squamose. 
CQUAMIFLO'ROtJS, having flow- 
ers which resemble scales or 

are borne upon scales. 
SQUA'MIFORM, scale - shaped; 

squamoid. 
SQUAMiG'EROUS, see Squamif- 

frous. 
SQUA'MOID, see Squamiform. 
SQUAMOSE', scale-like; covered 

with scales; consisting of 

scales; squamous; squamate; 

squamaceous. See Sqtjami- 

fokm and Squamiferous. 
SQUA'MOUS, pertaiuiug to scales, 

or squamose. 
SQTJA'MOUS BULB, see Scaly 

Bulb. 
SQUAM'ULA, see Squamella. 

Formerly applied to the lodi- 

cule of grasses. 
SQUAM'ULATE, see Squamulose. 
SQUAM'ULIFORM, see Squamel- 

LIFORM. 

SQUAM'ULOSE, diminutive of 
Squamose; having or resem- 



bliug small scales; squamel- 
late; squamulate. 

SQUARROSE', having lateral or- 
gans, as leaves, extending at 
about right angles to the axis. 

SQUAR'RULOSE, some w h a t 
squarrose. 

STAG' HEADED, a term applied 
in forestry to a tree which is 
dying at the top. 

STAINED, faintly colored— ap- 
plied to fruits. 

STALKED GLAND, see Glandu- 
lar Hair. 

STALK'LET, a secondary or very 
small stalk. See Secondary 
Petiole and Secondary Pe- 
duncle. 

STA'MEN, the pollen-bearing or- 
gan of a flower, usually con- 
sisting of an anther, or part 
immediately enclosing the pol- 
len, and a filament or stalk. 

STAM'INAL (obs.), see Stami- 
nate. 

STAM'InATE, pertaining to sta- 
mens; containing stamens but 
no pistils — said of a plant or 
flower. See Stamineal. 

STAMIN'EAL, formed of stamens; 
attached to stamens; having 
marked reference to stamens; 
stamineous; staminate. 

STAMIN'EAL COL'UMN, see 
Androphore. 

STAmLN'EOUS, see Stamineal. 

STAMINID'IUM (pi. Staminid'ia) 
(obs.), see Anthkridifm. 

STAMINIF'EROUS, bearing sta- 
mens; staminigerous. Said 
especially of a plant or flower 
bearing stamens but no pistils. 

STAMINIG'EROUS, see Staminif- 
erots. 

STAM'iNODE. see Staminodium. 

STAMINO'DIUM(pl. Stamino'dia), 
an altered, abortive, and sterile 
stamen, or body occupying the 



171 



Staminody 



A DICTIONARY 



Stenosis 



place of a stamen; stamiuode; 
parastemon. See Lepal. 

STAmINODY, the conversion of 
other organs of a flower into 
stamens. 

STAMINA-SB, having the stamens 
unusually large or numerous. 
(Rare.) 

STANDARD, see Vexilltjm. In 
horticulture (1) a tree or shrub 
which stands alone without 
being attached to any wall or 
support, as distinguished from 
an espalier or cordon ; (2) a 
shrub, as a rose, grafted on 
an upright stem or trained to 
a single stem in tree form ; 
(3) in the United States, a 
fruit-tree grafted upon a free- 
growing as opposed to one 
upon a dwarf stock. 

STARCH - BUILDER, a plastid, 
generally a leucoplast, in 
which a starch - grain origi- 
nates. See Ciikomatophoue. 

STARCH GRAIN, the grain of 
starch as it exists in the living 
plaut. It is of definite shape, 
varying according to species, 
but always rounded, and form- 
ed of successive layers (or ap- 
parently so) having a common, 
and usually eccentric, centre. 

STARCH-LAY'ER, a term some- 
times applied to the bundle- 
sheath, which often serves es- 
pecially for the storage of 
starch. 

STARCH- STAR, a form of bulbil 
iu Chora stelligera, consisting 
of an underground node. 

STAR'RY, see Stellate. 

STARVED, see Depauperate. 

STA'SIMORPHY, a changed con- 
dition of form or size arising 
from arrested development. 

STATION, a particular limited 
locality, without regard to 
character or exposure, in 

1 



which a species is found. 
Compare Region, Habita- 
tion and Habitat. 

STATOSPORE, see Resting- 
spore. 

STEGOCAR'POUS, applied to cap- 
sules in mosses which have a 
distinct lid or operculum. 

STEL'LATE, star-shaped; radi- 
ating. 

STELLATE HAlR, a hair having 
several branches arranged in 
the form of a star, as the hairs 
of Malpighiacese. 

STEL LULAR, see Stellulate. 

STEL'LULATE, diminutive of 
Stellate; resembling a little 
star; stellular. 

STEM, see Trunk, Peduncle, 

Pedicel and Petiole. 
STEM-CLASPING, see Ajiplexi- 

CAUL. 

STEM-LEAF, a leaf growing from 
the stem above the ground. 
Compare Radical Leaf. 

STEM'LESS, see Acaulescext. 

STEM'LET, a little stem; the first 
internode above the cotyle- 
dons. 

STEM, SUBTERRANEAN, see 
Subterranean Stem. 

STEM-TENDRIL, a tendril which 
is a transformed stem, as in 
the grape. Compare Leaf- 
tendril. 

STENOPETALOUS, having nar- 
row petals. 

STENOPH'YLLOUS, narrow- 
leaved. Compare Latifoli- 

OTJS. 

STENO'SIS, (1) cell-formation in 
which there is a direct con- 
striction of the walls of the 
original cell, as in budding. 
Compare Cvtodieresis. 
(2) The pathological narrow- 
ing of a passage. 



72 



Stereid 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Stipe 



STE'REID, a cell of stereome, 
which see. 

STE'REOME, strengthening tis- 
sue: a term applied by 
Schweudener to that part of 
a fibrovascular bundle to 
which it chiefly owes its 
streugth; also to the cortex 
on physiological grounds, it 
often serviug mainly for sup- 
port. Compare Mestome. 

STE REOPLASM, the solid portion 
of protoplasm. (Nageli.j Com- 
pare Hygkoplasm. 

STEREOPLAS'MA, see Stereo- 
plasm. 

STERIG MA (pi. Sterig'mata), 
(1) the downward prolonga- 
tion of a decurrent leaf upon 
the stem; (2) a very narrow 
support to a spore, as the 
pointed protuberances upon 
basidia, or the filaments bear- 
ing spermatia and stylospores. 

STER'ILE, (1) unfruitful; barren 
— as a plant which fails to blos- 
som or fruit, a pericarp which 
contains no seeds, or a stamen 
which produces no perfect pol- 
len: (2) devoid of living organ- 
isms — used mainly in bacteri- 
ology. 

STER'ILE FLOWER, one con- 
taining no perfect pistils. It 
may or may not contain sta- 
mens. 

STER'ILIZE, to render free from 
all living bodies, as fluids in 
which bacteria are to be culti- 
vated. 

STER'NOTRIBE, a term applied 
to zygomorphic flowers which 
have the stamens so placed that 
a visiting insect will receive 
the pollen upon its under sur- 
face, as in most Papilionacea?. 
Compare Notothibe and 
Pleurotribe. 

STfiR'OM, see Stereome. 



STICHIDIUM (pi. Stishid'ia), a 
branch of the thallus in red 
alga? (Florideae) containing 
tetraspores. 

STIGMA, the part of the pistil 
which receives the pollen. It 
is usually the apex of the style, 
variously expanded, which is 
destitute of epidermis and se- 
cretes the "stigmatic fluid," 
which see. 

STIG'MA-DISK, a disk forming 
the seat of a stigma, as in 

Asclepias. 

STIGMAT'IC CELLS OF THE 
ARCHEGO'NltJM, " see Lid- 
cells. 

STIGMATIC CHAMBER, the 
part of the rostellum in or- 
chids in which the viscid disk 
or retinaculum is developed. 
(Functionless as a stigma.) 

STIGMAT'IC FLUID, a viscid 
fluid secreted by the stigma 
at maturity which serves to 
hold the pollen, and in which 
the pollen-grains germinate as 
the first stage of fertilization. 

STlLOGONID'iUM, see Stylo- 
spore. 

STIM'ULOSE, covered with sting- 
ing hairs. 

STIM'tTLUS (pi. Stim'uli), see 
Stinging-hair. 

STING, see Stinging-hair. 

STINGING HAlR, a glandular 
hair which secretes an acrid 
fluid; sting; stimulus. 

STIPE, a term applied to various 
kinds of stalks or stems, in- 
cluding the petiole of ferns, 
the stalk of a mushroom, the 
stem of a pappus above the 
seed, the stalk of an ovary 
raising it above the receptacle, 
etc. Various forms of stipes 
in flowering plants are distin- 
guished under the terms the- 
capJwre, gynophore, antho- 



173 



Stipel 



A DICTIONARY 



Stone 



phore, gynobase, gonophore, 
carpophore. 

STI'PEL, the stipule of a leaflet. 

STIPEL'LATE, furnished with 
stipels. 

STI'PE§, an uncommon spelling 
of Stipe. 

STI'PiFdRM, resembling a stipe; 
stipitiform. 

STIP'ItATE, having a stipe; sup- 
ported on :i stipe. 

STIP'ITiFdRM, see Stipiform. 

STIP'ULA (pi. Stip'ulse), see Stip- 
ule. 

STIPULA'CEOUS, see Stipular. 

STIP'tJLAR, haviug stipules; 
formed of stipules; situated 
near or upon stipules; per- 
taining to stipules; stipula- 
ceous. 

STIP'tJLARY, formed of stipules. 

STIP'ULATE, having stipules; 
stipulated; stipuled. 

STIPULATED, see Stipulate. 

STIPULATION, the situation or 
arrangement of the stipules. 

STIP'ULE, an organ situated in 
pairs upon the stem, one on 
either side of the petiole at its 
base and often adherent to it. 
They are usually expanded, 
scale - like or leaf - like, but 
sometimes exist in the form 
of glands, prickles, tendrils, 
or other organs, and are often 
wanting altogether. They fre- 
quently serve for protection to 
the bud or growing point, and 
fall away as the bud expands 
and the leaves develop. 

STIP'ULED, see Stipulate. 

STIPULIF'EROUS, bearing stip- 
ules. 

STIP'ULOSE, having very large 
stipules. (Rare.) 

STOCK, (1) the persistent base 
of an herbaceous perennial ; 



(2) any plant or part consid- 
ered with reference to another 
part which it supports; (3) in 
horticulture a tree or other 
plant which receives a bud 
or graft; (4) the original or 
originals (parentage) of a spe- 
cies or variety; (5) a seeds- 
man's term for a quantity of 
seed grown in a particular lo- 
cality or from a particular 
source. It does not imply 
any peculiarity of character. 
Compare Strain. 

STOLE, see Stolon. 

STO'LON, a slender branch, above 
or below the surface of the 
ground, which takes root or 
bears a bulb at the extremity 
where it forms one or more 
new plants; stole; sobole. 
Compare Runner, Rhizome, 
and Offset. 

STOLONIF'EROUS, bearing sto- 
lons. 

STOMA (pi. Stom'ata), an open- 
ing in the epidermis for the 
admission of air and liberation 
of moisture; breathing- pore. 
See Guard-cells. 

STO'MATE, see Stoma. 

STOMAT IC, pertaining to a 
stoma. 

STOmAT'IC CELLS, see Guard- 
cells. 

STOMAT'IC CHAM BER, the inter- 
cellular space beneath a stoma; 
substomatic chamber; air- 
chamber; respiratory cham- 
ber; respiratory cavit}\ See 
Cistome. Compare Ante- 
chamber and Vestibule. 

STOmATIF'EROUS, bearing stom- 
ata; stomatose. 

STOM'AtOSE, see Stomatif- 
erous. 

STONE, the bony endocarp of a 
drupe, containing the seed ; 
pit. 



174 



Stool 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Strobiliferous 



STONE-FRUIT, see Drupe. 

STOOL, a plant upon "which off- 
shoots of any kind are pro- 
duced, usually for propaga- 
tion, as iu the raspberry and 
strawberry; especially, a plant 
of wheat, oats, rye, or bailey 
which has several sterns from 
one root. 

STOOL, v. i., to tiller, as grain; 
to throw out suckers. 

STRAGGLING, see Divaricate. 

STRAIN, (1) the influence of a 
particular ancestor existing in 
an individual or variety; (2) a 
seedsman's term for a stock of 
seed or subordinate variety 
which has been bred in a spe- 
cial manner and acquired a 
slight individual character, as 
" an excellent strain of Fott- 
ler's cabbage." 

STRAMINEOUS, like straw; es- 
pecially, straw-colored; pale 
yellow. 

STRAND, a fibrovascular bundle; 
a branch of mycelium, or simi- 
lar vegetable filameut; specifi- 
cally, a branch of fibrous my- 
celium, which see. 

STRANGULATED, applied to a 
root or stem which is con- 
tracted at intervals, as though 
growth had beeu restricted by 
cords or bandages wrapped 
around it. Compare Montl- 
LIFORM. 

STRAP, the ligule of a ray-floret 
in Composite. 

STRAP-SHAPED, broad, flat, and 
linear, like a belt; ligulate. 

STRAtIFICA TION, the thicken- 
in g of a cell-wall by the depo- 
sition of successive layers of 
formed material; also the ar- 
rangement of the layers so de- 
posited. 

STRATIFIED THAL'LUS, a thal- 
lus in lichens in which the 



gonidia or algal cells are dis- 
posed in one or more layers. 

STRA'TOSE, iu distinct layers or 
strata. 

STRAW, the stems of various edi- 
ble grains, as wheat and oats, 
especially after being threshed. 
Extended also to the haulm of 
peas, beans, etc. 

STREAK (Hort.), a long narrow 
stripe. 

STREAMING OF PROTOPLASM, 
see Rotation. 

STRI'A (pi. Strl'ee), a straight and 
very narrow mark or groove. 

STRI'ATE, marked with parallel 
striae. Compare Sulcate, 
Rivulose, Actcxi.ated, and 

LlNEATE. 

STRICT, straight or upright; hav- 
ing branches close together 
and erect: opposed to Lax. 
Differs from Fastigiate in be- 
ing applied chiefly to herbs 
and shrubs instead of trees 
and in not necessarily having 
a pointed top. 

STRI'GA (pi. Strigae), a sharp- 
pointed, rigid, appressed bris- 
tle or hair-Tike scale. 

STRIG'ILOSE, minutely strigose. 

STRIGOSE', covered with strigae. 
Formerly regarded as synony- 
mous with Hispid. 

STRIKE (Hort.), to take root, as 
a cutting. 

STRING, any fibre; strand. 

STRI'OLATE, diminutive of Stri- 
ate, having very fine striae. 

STRIPED, having longitudinal 
lines of color, broader than 
Streaked and narrower than 
Banded; having longitudinal 
colored marks of any character. 

STROBILA'gEOUS, cone-bearing; 
cone-like; pertaining to cones. 

STRdB'ILE, see Cone 

STROBILIFEROUS, coniferous. 



Strobiliform 



A DICTIONARY 



Stylospore 



STROBIL'IFORM, coue-shaped. j 
STROBI LUS, see Cone. 

STRO'MA (pi. Stro'mata), a mass , 
in which another object is em- 
bedded, as a protein granule 
which contains a crystal or 
starch - grain. Especially, a ! 
compact mass of mycelium j 
upon or within which spores j 
or sporangia are borne— ap- 
plied mainly to tissue in 
which peritliecia are em- 
bedded. Compare Hymenium. 

STRO'MATuID, having the nature 
or appearance of a stroma. 

STRO'mATOUS, bearing or pro- 
ducing stromata. 

STROMBULIF'EROUS, bearing 
spirally twisted pods (strombi). 

STROMBU LIFORM, twisted in a 
spiral, like the pods of alfalfa; 
cochleate. 

STROM'BUS (pi. Strom'bl), a spi- 
rally coiled legume, like that 
of alfalfa, Medicago saliva; 
cochlea. 

STROPHE, an old term for leaf- 
spiral. 

STRO'PHIOLATE, furnished with 
a strophiole. 

STRO'PHIOLE, see Caruncle. 

STRUCTURAL BOTANY, the 
study of the form and ar- 
rangement of the parts of 
plants, including morphology 
and histology; vegetable anat- 
omy; phytotomy. 

STRU'MA, a one-sided swelling 
or protuberance of any kind, 
as the one-sided enlargement 
(apophysis) at the base of the 
capsule in some mosses, or the 
pulvinus of a leaf or leaflet. 
The term is now seldom used 
except in mosses. 

STRU'MIFORM, like a struma in 
appearance. 

STRUMOSE', swollen upon one 



side like a goitre; bearing a 
struma. 

STRUMULOSE, slightlystrumose. 

STUFFED, the same as Solid, or 
the old term Farctate, but sel- 
dom applied except to stems 
having a fibrous or spongy 
centre. Used mainly in 
mushrooms. 

STUMP-ROOTED, applied in veg- 
etable gardening to the roots 
of certain varieties of the rad- 
ish, carrot, etc., which, in- 
stead of tapering gradually 
from the fleshy edible portion 
to the slender tap-root, have 
the transition abrupt. The 
term is not applied to the 
roots of turnip beets, flat 
turnips, etc., but only to such 
as are more elongated. 

STU'PA, a tuft of matted hairs 
resembling tow. (Obs.) 

STU'PEOUS, see Stupose. 

STUPOSE', resembling tow; cov- 
ered with matted hairs resem- 
bling tow; stupeous. 

STYLE, the slender part of a 
pistil supporting the stigma. 

STYLIF'EROUS, style-bearing. 

STY'LIFORM, style-shaped. 

STYLOGONIDIUM, see Stylo- 
spore. 

STY'LOPOD, see Stylopodicm. 

STYlOPO'DIUM, the fleshy disk 
crowning the ovary in most 
Umbellifenc, formed by the 
expanded bases of the two 
styles. 

STYLOSE', having the styles re- 
markably long, numerous, or 
persistent. (Rare.) 

STY'LOSPORE, a stalked spore, 
sometimes septate, produced 
in a pycuidium; stylogouid- 
ium; pycnogonidium; pycno- 
spore; pycnidiospore ; clino- 
spore. 



176 



Stylostegium 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Subiculum 



STYLOSTEGIUM (pi. Styloste'- 
gia), the peculiar orbicular 
corona, called scutum or 
shield, which terminates the 
style in Stapelia and similar 
asclepiads. 

STYlOSTE'MON, an epigynous 
stamen. (Rare.) 

SUAVE'OLENT, sweet-scented. 

SUB-, a Latin prefix meaning 
under, beneath, subordinate, 
or partially. 

SUBACUTE', moderately acute. 

SUbAE'RIAL, situated just above 
the ground or substratum, but 
covered with fallen leaves, etc., 
as many rhizomes. 

SUBAPIC ULATE, having a small 
or poorly defined apiculus or 
point. 

SUBARBORES'CENT, somewhat 
tree-like. 

SUB AX ILL ARY, situated beneath 
the axil. 

SUBCAULES'CENT, with the leafy 
stem so short as to be hardly 
uoticeable, but rather more de- 
veloped than in Acaulescent. 

SUBCES'PITOSE, somewhat in- 
clined to grow in bunches. 
See Cespitose. 

SUB'CLASS, a group of orders or 
cohorts next subordinate to a 
class. 

SUBCONCAT ENATE, growing 
somewhat in chains — in short 
or imperfect rows or chains. 

SUBCON'ICAL, slightly conical. 

SUBCONTIN'UOtJS, rarely or im- 
perfectly septate; seldom or 
slightly constricted. 

SUBCOR'DATE, slightly cordate. 

SUBCRE'NATE, slightly or ob- 
scurely creuate. 

SUBCUL'TRATE, slightly cul- 
trate. 

SUBDEN'TATE, imperfectly or 



obscurely dentate. Compare 
Denticulate. 

SUBDENTIC'ULAte, obscurely 

denticulate: having small, im- 
perfect marginal teeth. 

SUBEFFUSE', having slightly 
spreading branches or fila- 
ments. 



SUBENTIRE', only 
notched or toothed. 



slightly 



SUBEPIDERMAL TIS'SUE, see 
Htpoderma. 

SU'BER, see Cokk. 
SUBERECT', nearly erect. 
SUBEREOUS, see Suberose. 
SU BER1N, cork - substance— 

nearly or quite the same as 

Cutin. See Cork. 
SUBERlFICA'TION, see Suberi- 

ZATION. 

SUBERIZA'TION, conversion into 
cork; suberisation; su aerifica- 
tion. 

SUBEROSE', having somewhat 
the appearance of being 
gnawed; slightly erose. 
Compare Erose. 

SUBEROSE, of the nature of 
cork; suberous. 

SU'BEROUS, see Suberose. 

SUBfAM'ILY, a group of genera 
subordinate to a family. 

SUBFLEX UOSE, slightly wavy. 

SUBGENIC'UlATE, slightly bent. 

SUBGE'NUS, a species, or group 
of species, having nearly the 
rank of genus. 

SUBGLOBOSE', nearly globose. 

SUBHYME'NlUM, a layer of tis- 
sue next below the hymeniuin; 
hypothecium. 

SUBICULUM, a term applied by 
M. C. t'ooke to the abnormally 
thickened portion of a leaf or 
stem bearing the cluster-cups 
in yEcidium. 



Subkingdom 



A DICTIONARY 



Subventricose 



SUBKTNG'DOM, the highest sub- 
division of a kingdom, as the 
phenogams and cryptogams 
among plants; series. Some 
recenr botanists divide the 
vegetable kingdom into more 
than two subkingdoms. 

SUBLENTICULAR, somewhat 
lens-shaped. 

SUBmAR'GINAL, situated near 
the margin. 

SUBMERGED', see Submersed. 

SUBMERSED', growing under 
water; submerged; demersed. 

SUBNAS'CENT, originating or 
growing beneath au\ r object. 

SUBNUDE', nearly destitute of 
hairs, leaves, or other covering. 

SUBOBTUSE', slightly obtuse. 

SUBORBlC'ULAR, nearly circu- 
lar; subrotund. Compare 
Subglobose. 

SUBORDER, a group of genera 
within an order. Compare 
Tribe. 

SUBO'VATE, somewhat ovate. 

SUBPEDUN'CULATE, having a 
very short peduncle; sub- 
sessile. 

SUBPET'IOLAR, situated beneath 
the petiole, i.e., under (within) 
the base of the petiole, as the 
leaf-bud in sycamore. Com- 
pare Subpetiolate. 

SUBPET'IOlATE, having a very 
short petiole; subsessile. Com- 
pare SUBPETIOLAR. 

SUBRA'MOSE, having very few 
branches; subsimple. Com- 
pare Ramose. 

SUBRIG ID, slightly rigid. 

SUBROTUND', see Suborbic- 

TJLAR. 

SUBSflR'RATE, sparsely or ob- 
scurely serrate. Compare 
Serrulate. 

SUBSES'SILE, nearly sessile; sub- 
petiolate or subpedunculate. 



SUBSHRUB'BY, see Frutescext. 

SUBSIDIARY CELL, see Acces- 
sory Cell. 

SUBSIM'PLE, with very few sub- 
divisions or branches. 

SUBSPE'CIES, a variety nearly 
equal in rank to a species; a 
marked variety. 

SUBSTITUTE FIBRE, a term 
applied by Sanio to a prosen- 
chymatous cell larger in diam- 
eter than a libriform cell and 
without its attenuated ends. 
Not in general use. 

SUBSTOMAT'IC CHAM'BER, see 
Stomatic Chamber. 

SUBSTRA'TOSE, in somewhat 
indistinct or irregular layers 
or strata. 

SUBTEND', to embrace in its axil. 
A flower is subtended by a bract 
when there is a bract situated 
beneath it. Nearly all buds 
are subtended by leaves. 

SUBTERETE', somewhat terete. 

SUBTERRA'NEAN, beneath the 
surface of the ground; hypo- 
gean. 

SUB TRIBE, a group of genera 
subordinate to a tribe. 

SU'BULATE, narrow, and taper- 
ing to a sharp rigid point, as 
the leaves of juniper; awl- 
shaped. 

SUBULIF'EROtJS, furnished with 
awl-shaped spines. (Obs.) 

SU'BULlFORM (obs.), see Subu- 
late. 

SUBUM'BELLATE, somewhat 
umbelliform, as the flower- 
cluster of the apple. 

SUBVARI'ETY, a subordinate 
variety; a variety within a 
variety. 

SUBVEN'TRICOSE, somewhat 
ventricose or inflated. 



178 



Subverticillate 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Superior 



SUBVERTIC'ILLATE, slightly 
verticillate; in imperfect or 
irregular whorls. 

SUCCEDA'NEUM, a substitute. 

SUCCESSIVE WHdRL, a whorl 
the members of which do not 
all originate at the same time, 
but in succession, either iu 
regular order or otherwise. 
Compare Simultaneous 
Whorl. 

SUCCIF'EROUS, producing or 
conveying sap. 

SUCCISE', terminating abruptly, 
as though cut sharply off. 
Compare Truncate and Pre- 
morse. 

SUC'COSE, see Succulent. 

SUC'CUBOUS, having the base or 
lower edge of each leaf over- 
lapping the apex of the pre- 
ceding leaf, as in Jungerman- 
nia. Compare Incubous. 

SUCCULENT, soft, and fleshy or 
juicy; pulpy. 

SUCK'ER, (1) a sprout or shoot, 
especially from the root or 
lower part of the stem (sur- 
culus); (2) sometimes applied 
to aerial roots or other hold- 
fasts; (3) a haustoriuin. 

SUCK'ER, v. i., to put forth 
shoots from the lower part of 
the stem, as Indian corn. 

SUDORIF'IC, causing perspira- 
tion. 

SUFFRUTES'CENT, slightly 
shrubby. 

SUF'FRUTEX, a plant with a 
woody base and herbaceous 
stems or branches. Applied 
mainly to perennials. See 
Undershrub. 

SUFFRU'TICOSE, either suffru- 
tescent or like an undershrub. 

SUFFRUTIC'ULOSE, slightly fru- 
ticulose, as some lichens. 



SUL'CATE, having one or more 
large, straight, longitudinal 
grooves or channels, as the 
stem of parsnip. Compare 
Rivose and Striate. 

SUL'CUS (pi. Sul'91), a longitudi- 
nal groove or furrow; sulca- 
tum. Compare Stria. 

StJLPHU'REOUS, sulphur-yellow 
— paler than Luteus. About 
the same as Flavus. 

SUM'MER-SPORE, any spore or 
gouidium which retains its 
vitality but a short time, and 
is intended for the propaga- 
tion of the plant during the 
summer, as the uredospores of 
wheat-rust. Compare Rest- 

ING-SPORE. 

SUPER- (or SUPRA-), a prefix 
from the Latin, meaning above 
in position or degree. 

sUPERAX'ILLARY, situated 
above the axil, instead of 
within it, as the accessory 
buds sometimes seen in the 
butternut; supraaxillary; su- 
perfoliaceous: suprafoliaceous. 

SUPERCRES'gENCE, a parasite. 
(Rare.) 

SUPERCRES'CENT, growing 
above another part or body; 
especially, growing upon some 
other growing thing. (Rare.) 

SUPERDECOMPOUND', see Su- 

PRADECOMPOUND. 

SUPERFECUNDA'TION, the con- 
jugation of more than two 
gametes. Compare Superfe- 
tation. 

SUPERFETA'TION, the fertiliza- 
tion of an ovary by two or 
more kinds of pollen, so that 
its seeds are not all alike. 
Compare Superfecundation. 

SUPERFOLlA'CEOUS, see Super- 
axillary. 

SUPE'RIOR, said of a radicle 
when it points towards the 



179 



Supernatant 



A DICTIONARY 



Suture 



apex of the fruit (ascending); 
said of the ovary when the 
calyx is free from it; said of 
the calyx when adherent to 
the ovary and thus, with the 
other floral organs, situated 
upon its summit; applied to 
the upper side of a lateral 
flower, the side next the axis: 
the vexillmn, for example, is 
the superior petal of a papilio- 
naceous corolla. 

SUPERNATANT, floating on the 
surface. 

SUPERNUMERARY BUDS, see 
Accessory Buds. 

SU'PERPArAsITE, a parasite of 
a parasite; hyperparasite. 

SUPER- PLANT, a plant which 
grows upon another plant, 
either as an epiphyte or a 
parasite. 

SUPERPOSI'TION, situation 
above some other organ; or, 
when referring to parts of the 
flower, the non-alteration of 
the members of coutiguous 
circles, the corresponding 
parts being opposite instead 
of alternate; auteposition. See 
Direct and Inverted Super- 
position. 

SUPERTUBERA'TION, an abnor- 
mal production of secondary 
tubers directly upon those pro- 
duced in the ordinary manner. 

SUPERVOLUTE', plaited and the 
plaits convolute, as the corolla 
of morning glory. 

SUPINE', lying flat, with face up- 
ward ; dorsieumbent — opposed 
to Prone. Compare Resu- 
pinate. , 

SUPPORT ING PLANT, a plant 
upon or within which another 
grows, either as a parasite or 
an epiphyte. See Host. 

SUPPRESSION, the entire non- 



development of a part; com- 
plete abortion; obliteration. 

SUPRA-, see Super-. 

SUPRAAX'IllARY, see Super- 
axillary. 

SUPRAdECOM POUND, three or 
more times compounded, or 
very much subdivided in any 
manner. A pinnate leaf, like 
that of walnut, is comjiound ; a 
bipinnate leaf, like that of 
honey locust, is decompound ; 
a tripiunate leaf, as in many 
acacias, is mpradecompound. 

SUPRAFOLlA'CEOtJS, see Super- 
axillary. 

SUPREME', situated at the high- 
est point. 

SURCULIG'EROUS, see Surcu- 

LOSE. 

SUR'CULOSE, having suckers 
(surculi). 

SUR CULUS (pi. Sur'culi), a sprout 
or shoot from the ground or 
base of the stem; sucker. 

SURCUR'RENT, having winged 
expansions from the base of 
the leaf prolonged up the stem. 
Compare Decurrent. 

SUSPENDED, said of seeds or 
ovules which are attached to 
the top or sides of the ovary 
and hang downward; pendu- 
lous; inverted. Compare 
Erect and Ascending. 

SUSPEN'SOR, (I) * single or mul- 
tiple row of cells winch is the 
first development of the fertil- 
ized oosphere in phenogams, 
and at the extremity of which 
the embryo is developed: it 
appears upon the embryo as a 
continuation of the radicle; 
proembryo; (2) the cell which 
supports the conjugating cell 
in Mucorini. 

SU'TURE, a line of junction or 
dehiscence. 



180 



Swarm 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Synacmy 



SWARM, a number of spores or 
unicellular individuals of com- 
mon origin which remain near 
together without being united 
in an} r way. 

SWARM-CELL, see Zoospore. 

SWARM'ING, moving about by 
means of cilia — said of zoo- 
spores. Chiefly used when 
many are together. See Swim- 
ming. 

SWARM-SPORE, see Zoospore. 

SWIM'MING, moving unattached 
within a liquid in any definite 
manner. Compare Natant. 
The swimming of zoospores 
when massed, however, is 
termed Swarming. 

SWORD'-SHAPED, seeENSiFORM, 

SYCHNOCAR'POUS, see Polycar- 
pic. 

SYCO'NIUM, see Syconus. 

SYCO'NUS, the fruit (hypanthium) 
of the fig, consisting of au ex- 
panded fleshy receptacle en- 
closing the flowers. 

SYL'VA (pi. Syl'vse), the trees of 
a country or region, or a work 
describing them. 

SYL' VAN, pertaining to woods. 

SYLVESTRINE, growing in 
woods. 

SYMBIOSIS, the coexistence in 
more or less mutual interde- 
pendence of two different or- 
ganisms, as the fungus and 
alga which constitute a lichen; 
mutualism; mutual parasitism; 
commensalism; consort ism. 
With some authors Commen- 
salism implies an association 
less necessary or mutually 
helpful than Symbiosis. 

SYMMETRICAL, (1) having se- 
pals, petals, and stamens of 
the same number, or multiples 
of one another; (2) divisible in 
one or more directions into 
halves, which are similar to, 



or the reflections of, each 
other. See Monosymmetri- 

CAL and P0LY8YMMETRICAL. 

SYMPETALOUS, see Gamopet- 
alous. Also formerly used 
for a partial union of the pet- 
als with monadelphous sta- 
mens, as in Malvaceae. 

SYMPHYAN'THEROUS, see Syn- 
antherous. 

SYMPHYCAR'POUS, having the 
fruits confluent, as the disks 
of the apothecia in certain 
lichens. 

SYMPHYL'LOUS, see Gamophyl- 

LOUS. 

SYMPHYOGENET IC, formed of 
parts which have become 
grown together or united. 

SYMPHYOSTEM'ONOUS, mona- 
delphous, synantherous, or 
with the stamens united in 
any other manner; symphy- 
stemonous. 

SYM'PHYSIS, a union of parts 
usually distinct; cohesion or 
adhesion. 

SYMPHYSTEM'ONOUS, see Sym- 
phyostemonous. 

SYM'PODE, see Sympodium. 

SYMPODIAL DlCHdT'OMY, 

where one branch of each 
successive bifurcation contin- 
ues to develop and the other 
remains subordinate. See 
Scorpioid and Bostrychoid 
Dichotomy. 

SYMPO DIUM, a stem which con- 
sists of a series of secondary 
stems or axes which have 
arisen as branches one from 
another, as in the tomato; 
pseudaxis; false axis. 

SYNACMY, having the stamens 
and pistils ripen at the same 
time, neither protandrous nor 
protogynous: synanthesis: op- 
posed to Heteracmy. 



181 



Synangium 



A DICTIONARY 



Tagma 



SYNAN'GIUM, the peculiar boat- 
shaped sorus of certain ferus 
of the order Marattiaceae. 

SYNAN'THEROUS, having the 
stamens united by their an- 
thers, as in Compositae; sym- 
phyantherous; syugenesious. 

SYnANTHE'SIS, see Synacmy. 

SYNAN'THOUS, (1) having the 
flowers expand at the same 
time as the leaves. Compare 
Pkoteranthous and Hyster- 
anthous. (2) Exhibiting syn- 
authy. 

SYnAn'THY, the abnormal coa- 
lescence of two or more flowers. 

SYN'CARP, see Aggregate 
Fruit. 

SYNCAR'PIIjM, see Aggregate 
Fruit. 

SYNCAR'POUS, formed of distinct 
aggregated carpels. 

SYNCOTYLED'ONOUS, having co- 
herent cotyledons. 

SYNCY'TIUM, a collection of 
nuclei without cell-walls. 

SYNE'DRAL, growing upon the 
angle of a stem. 

SYNE'MA, that part of the col- 
umn in orchids which repre- 
sents the united filaments of 
the stamens. 

SYNERGID-K (sing. Syner'gida), 
two cells (or nuclei) in the 
upper end of the embryo-sac, 
w T hich together with the oo- 
sphere form the egg-apparatus. 

SYN ERGY, the simultaneous ac- 
tion of several organs. 

SYNGENE'SIOUS, see Synan- 

THEROUS. 

SYNC-CREATE, said of stipules 
when united around the stem 
so as to form an ocrea or sheath. 

SYNffi'CIOUS, (1) having male 
and female flowers in the same 
head, as in some Compositae; 
(2) having antheridia and ar- 



chegonia in the same recep- 
tacle in mosses. 

SYN'ONYM, a superseded plant- 
name. 

SYNOPH'YTY, the cohesun of 
two or more embryos in a 
seed. (M. C. Cooke.) 

SYNCP'SIS (pi. Synop'ses), a con- 
densed description of a genus, 
species, or other group. 

SYNPET'ALOUS, see Gamopet- 
alous. 

SYNSEP'ALOUS, see Gamosep- 

ALOUS. 

SYNTAG'MA (pi. Syntag'mata), a 
name applied by Pfeffer to all 
bodies composed of tagmata, 
which see. 

SYPHON, see Siphon. 

SYS'TEM, (1) an arrangement of 
natural objects according to 
some rule; (2) the sum of the 
parts of an organism which are 
of the same morphological na- 
ture or perform a similar func- 
tion, as the fibrovascular or 
intercellular system. 

SYS'TEM, ARTIFICIAL, see Ar- 
tificial System. 

SYSTEMATIC B6T ANY, the part 
of botany which treats of the 
description, naming, and class- 
ification of plants. See Vege- 
table Taxonomy and Phy- 
tography. 

SYS'TEM, NAT URAL, see Natu- 
ral System. 

SYS TROPHE, the massing of the 
chlorophyll bodies of a cell 
under intense light. Compare 
Apostrophe and Epistrophe. 

TABES CENT, wasting or shrivel- 
ling. 

TAB'ULAR, flattened horizon- 
tally. 

TAG'MA (pi. Tag'mata), a name 
given by Pfeffer to any aggre- 



182 



Tail 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Tergeminate 



gate of molecules, including 
pleoD, micella, and micellar 
aggregate. See these terms. 

TAIL, any long, flexible, terminal 
appendage, as the persistent 
style on the seed of Clematis. 

TAlL'-POINTED, tipped with a 
long, flexible acuminatum. 

TAN'GLE, see Skein. 
TANKARD-SHAPED, thickened, 
about twice as loug as broad, 
gradually enlarged downward, 
then suddenly contracted or 
terminated, as the root of 
some varieties of the turnip 
and radish. Compare Stump- 
hooted. 

TAPER POINTED, see Acumi- 
nate. 

TAPE'TUM, (1) a layer of cells, 
just outside the archesporium, 
lining the cavity of an anther 
or a sporangium. It usually 
becomes disorganized and ab- 
sorbed before the liberation of 
the spores or pollen -grains; 
(2) a similar layer of cells sur- 
rounding the embryo-sac. 

TAP'-ROOT, a main root which 
runs directly downward. 

TARTA'REOUS, having the sur- 
face rough and crumbly, as 
that of many lichens. (Obs.) 

TAS'SEL, the popular name for 
the staminate inflorescence or 
terminal compound spike of 
Indian corn. Sometimes 
called Spindle. 

TAWNY, see Fulvous. 

TAxdL'OGY, see Taxonomy. 

TAX&N OMY, see Vegetable 
Taxonomy. 

TEAR, a drop of gum or resin as 
it has issued from the plant. 

TEAR -SHAPED, of the shape of 
an apple-seed— the same as 
pear-shaped except that the 
sides are not contracted. 



TEETH, see Tooth. 
TEG'MEN, the innermost seed- 
coat; eudopleura. Called Se- 
cundiue in the ovule. 
TEGMEN'TtJM (pi. Tegmen'ta), 

an old term for Bud-scale. 
TEG'UMENT, see Integument. 
TE'lA C&NTEX'TA, see Felted 

Tissue. 
TELEU'TOSPORE, a thick-walled, 
usually compound, gonidium 
produced by the Uredinese or 
rust -fungi late in the season 
and which serves to reproduce 
the fungus the next year; 
brand-spore; pseudospore. 
TEN'DRIL, a slender appendage 
which serves for support by 
coiling around some otber ob- 
ject It may be morphologi- 
cally a leaf, leaflet, stipule, or 
stem. 
TEN'TACLE, one of the sensitive 
glandular hairs on the leaf of 
Drosera. 
TENUIFO'LIOUS, having thin, 

narrow leaves. 
TEP'AL, one of the parts of a 
perianth, either sepal or petal. 
(Bare.) 
TERATOLOGY, the study of ab- 
normal structures; morphol- 
ogv as applied to monstrous 
growths. Not applied to mal- 
formations due to disease. 
TER'CINE, a third coat to the 
ovule, counting from the out- 
side — not a constant and defi- 
nite structure. 
TERETE', cylindrical, or some- 
what tapering. 
TERGEM'INAL, see Tergemi- 
nate. 
TERGEM'INATE, having three 
pairs of leaflets or other organs 
attached, by secondary petioles 
or otherwise, to the apex of a 
common support. Compare 



183 



Tergispermous 



A DICTIONARY 



Tetrandrous 



Ternate, Ternate-pinnate, 
and Trijugate. 

TERGIF'EROUS (obs.), see Dor- 
siferous. 

TERGISPER MOUS, bearing re- 
productive bodies upon the 
back, as the leaves of ferns. 
(Obs.) 

TER'GUM (obs.), see Dorsum. 

TERMINAL, attached to or per- 
taining to the extremity or 
apex. 

TER MINAL BTID, a bud at the 

extremity of a branch or stem. 
Compare Lateral Bud. 

TER'NARY, consisting of three. 
Compare Ternate. 

TER'NATE, growing in threes, as 
tbe leaflets in clover. 

TER'NATELY TRIFO'LIOLATE, 
having three leaflets attached 
at one point, as in clover. 
Compare Trifoliolate. 

TER'NATE - PIN'NATE, having 
three secondary petioles, each 
bearing pinnate leaflets, at- 
tached to the apex of a com- 
mon petiole. If each second- 
ary petiole bears but a single 
pair of leaflets the leaf is called 
Tergeminate. 

TERPIN'NATE, see Trifinnate. 

TERRESTRIAL, growing on 
land, not aquatic; growing 
on the ground, not on trees. 

TES'SELLATED, having square 
spots, arranged like those on a 
chess-board. 

TES'TA, the outer seed - coat, 
called primine, in the ovule ; 
spermoderm. 

TESTACEOUS, brownish yellow, 
like uuglazed earthen-ware. 

TESTIC'ULATE, oval and solid, 
like the tuberous roots of cer- 
tain orchids. 

TEST'ULE (obs.), see Frustule. 



TETRA-, in Greek compounds, 
four. 

TETRAcAM'AROUS (obs.), about 
the same as Tetracoccous. See 
Camara. 

TETRAcAR'PELLARY, of four 
carpels. 

TETRAcHE'NITTM, a fruit con- 
sisting of four achenium-like 
carpels, as in Labiatae. 

TETRACHOT'OMOUS, dividing at 
the end into four branches. 

TETRACOCCOUS, of four cocci. 

TETRACYCLIC, composed of 
four whorls, as a flower hav- 
ing calyx, corolla, and sta- 
mens each of one whorl and 
a single (simple or compound) 
pistil. 

TET'RAD, a group of four pollen- 
grains. 

TETRADYN'AMOUS, having six 
stamens, four of which are 
longer tbau the other two. 
Compare Didynamous. 

TETRAFO'LIO&S, having biju- 
gate leaves, i.e., having leaves 
with two pairs of leaflets. 

TETRAG'ONAL, prismatic and 
quadrangular ; four - angled ; 
tetragonous. Compare Te- 

TRAQUETROUS. 

TETRAGONID'iUM (pi. Tetrago- 
nid la), see Tetraspore. 

TETRAg'ONOUS, see Tetrag- 
onal. 

TETRAG'YNOUS, having four 
pistils or styles. 

TETRAM'EROUS, having four 
parts or the parts in fours. 
Applied mainly to flowers 
which have four members in 
each set or whorl of organs. 
Compare Dimerous, Trim- 
erous. etc. 

TETRANDROUS, having four 
stamens. 
184 



Tetrapetalous 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS, 



Thorn 



TETRAPET'ALOUS, having four 
petals. 

TETRAPH'YLLOUS, four-leaved. 
Often used for Tetrasepalous. 

TETRAQ/UETROUS, having four 
salient angles. Compare Te- 
tragonal. 

TE'TRARCH, a term applied to 
a fibrovascular cylinder which 
represents four fibrovascular 
bundles. 

TETRASEPALOUS, of four se- 
pals. See Tetraphyllous. 

TETRASPER'MOtJS, four-seeded. 

TETRAsPORAN'GIUM, a sporan- 
gium (unicellular) containing 
tetraspores. 

TET'RASPORE, a gonidium or 
asexually produced spore in 
Florideae. So called from 
being often produced four 
together in a mother-cell ; 
tetragouidium. 

TETRAS'TICHOUS, in four verti- 
cal rows upon a stem. 

THAlAMIFLO'RAL, having the 
stamens inserted upon the re- 
ceptacle. Compare Corolli- 
floral and Calycifloral. 

THALAMIFLO'ROtJS, see Thala- 

MIFLORAL. 

THALAMUS (pi. Thal'ami), the 
receptacle of a flower. 

THAlAs'SOPHYTE, a sea-alga. 
(Rare.) 

THAL'LOGEN, see Thallophyte. 

THAL'LOID, having the form or 
nature of a thallus. Compare 
Foliose and Frondose. 

THALLOTdAL, see Thalloid. 

THAL'LOME, see Thallus. 
Compare I'aulome. 

THALLOPHYTE, a plant whose 
vegetative hody is a thallus, as 
a lichen, fungus, or alga; cel- 
lular cryptogam; thallogen. 
Compare Cormophyte. 

THAL'LtJS (pi. Thal'll), a vegeta- 



tive body without true leaf or 
stem, as that of most crypto- 
gams; thallome. 

THAL'LtJS PLACO'DES (obs.), see 
Foliaceous Thallus. 

THAL'LtJS THAMNO'DES (obs.), 
see Fruticose Thallus. 

THE'CA (pi. The'cse), a sporan- 
gium or anther-cell. (Rare.) 
Formerly in general use for 
ascus, and still used by some 
writers for the sporangium or 
capsule of mosses. 

THE'CAPHORE (obs.), see Gyno- 

PHORE. 

THE'CASPORE, see Ascosfore. 

THECIF'EROUS, bearing asci or 
other thecse; thecigerous. 
(Rare. ) 

THEQIGEROUS, see Thecif- 
erous. 

THERMOTROPISM, the property 
or phenomenon of movement 
under the influence of heat 
or cold. Curvature toward a 
source of heat is called positive 
thermotropism ; curvature in 
the opposite direction, negative 
thermotropism. 

THICK'ENING LAY'ER, an ap- 
parent layer of cellulose de- 
posited upon the inner surface 
of a cell-wall. It appears as a 
layer only because of its power 
of absorbing water in a differ- 
ent degree from the remainder 
of the cell-wall. 

THICK'ENING RING, the cam- 
bium-ring, or any other ring 
or layer of thickening or meri- 
stematic tissue. 

THORN, a degenerated, sharp- 
pointed branch, either simple, 
as in the thorn-apple, or 
branched, as in the honey- 
locust. Sometimes applied to 
other large, sharp, rigid pro- 
cesses. Compare Spine and 
Prickle. 



185 



Thread-nerved 



A DICTIONARY 



Toothlet 



THREAD-SHAPED, see Fili- 
form. 

THREE - AN GLED, see Trigo- 
nous. 

THREE-CLflFT, see Trifid. 

THREE - LEAVED, see Trifo- 
liate. 

THREE - LOBED, having three 
lobes or segments. 

THREE-NERVED, having three 
principal veins proceeding 
from the base of the leaf in 
monocotyledons. Applied 
mainly in the floral envelopes 
of grasses; trinervate; triple- 
nerved. 

THREE PART'ED, divided into 
three parts, or having the parts 
in threes: a three-parted leaf 
has three lobes Or leaflets; a 
three-parted flower has three 
petals. 

THREE-RANKED, in three verti- 
cal rows upon a stem; trifa- 
rions; tristichous. 

THREE-VALVED, having three 
valves or dehiscent portions of 
a pericarp; tri valvular. 

THROAT, see Faux. 

THRUM, au old term for stamen. 

THRUM-EYED, a florist's term for 
flowers having long, conspicu- 
ous stamens and a short style. 
( Jompare Pin-eyed. 

THYLL, see Tylosis. 

THY'LOSE, see Tylosis. 

THYRSE, a compact panicle, like 
that of the lilac and grape. 

THYR'SOID, thyrse-like. 

THYRSUS (pi. Thyrsi), see 
Thyrse. 

TIGE [pro. tezh], stem. (Rare.) 

TlGELLE', see Tigellum. 

TIGEL'LUM (pi. Tigel'la), see 
Caulicle. 

TIL'LER, n., a sucker or branch 



from the base of the stem. 
(Obs.) 

TIL'LER, v. i., to put forth new 
shoots from the root or around 
the base of the original stalk, 
as wheat; stool. Applied 
mainly to the smaller culti- 
vated plants of the grass fam- 
ily. Compare Sucker. 

TIL'LOW (obs.), see Tiller. 

TIMBER-LINE, the upper limit 
of arborescent vegetation upon 
high mountains, as determined 
by cold. 

TLNCTO'RIOUS, capable of serv- 
ing as a dye. 

TISSUE, a general term for all 
the material of which plants 
and animals are formed; par- 
ticularly, a collection of cells 
of similar character, as vege- 
table tissue, epidermal tissue, 
nbrovascular tissue. 

TISSUE-CORD, see Central 
Cord. 

TO'MENTOSE, covered with 
matted woolly hairs. 

TOMEN'TOUS, see Tomentose. 

TOMEN'TULOSE, slightly tomen- 
tose. 

TOMEN'TUM, matted woolly 
hairs. 

TOMLP'ArOUS, producing spores 
by division. (M. C. Cooke.) 
See Fissiparous. 

TONGUE, see Ligule. 

TONGUE-SHAPED, long, thick- 
ened, nearly flat, and rounded 
at the end; Ungulate; lingui- 
form; linguoeform. 

TON'OPLAST, a term sometimes 
applied to a vacuole-wall. See 
Vacuole. 

TOOTH, any small, pointed, mar- 
ginal lobe, especially of a leaf. 

TOOTHED, see Dentate. 

TOOTH'LET, a small or second- 
ary tooth; deuticulation. 



186 



Topical 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. Transverse Chorisis 



TOOTH'LilTilD, see Denticu- 
late. 

TdP'ICAL, local; confined to a 
limited area. 

T&P' SHAPED, see Turbinate. 

TORN, with marginal incisions 
deep and irregular. (Rare.) 
Compare Jagged, Laciniate, 
and Incised. 

TOROSE', cylindrical, and swollen 
at intervals. SeeMoNiLiFORM. 

TORSION, the state of being 
twisted spirally. 

TOR'TtJOtJS, bending or turniug 
in various directions. 

TdR'tJLOSE, somewhat torose. 

TO'RUS, (1) the extremity of the 
stem, upon which the floral 
organs are situated, usually 
termed Receptacle; thalamus; 
(2) a thickeued centre in the 
closing membrane of a bor- 
dered pit. 

TRABEC'UlA (pi. Trabec'ulae), 
one of the transverse pro- 
cesses upon the inner face of 
the teeth of the peristome in 
mosses; a projection from the 
wall across a cavity, as the 
bands of tissue crossing the 
sporangia of Isoetes or the cel- 
lular filaments across the space 
surrounding the fibrovascular 
bundles in Selaginella; any 
cross-bar, as one of the con- 
necting threads in a reticulum. 

TRABECULAR, having or per- 
taining to trabecular; trabecu- 
late. 

TRABECULAR VESSEL, one 
•whose cavity is crossed by 
ligneous threads or bands. 

TRAbeCULATE, having trabec- 
ular; trabecular. 

TRA'CHEA (pi. Tra'cheae), see 
Spiral Vessel,. 

TRA'CHEID (pi. Tra'cheids or 
Trache'ides), a woody vessel 



composed of a single cell. 
Applied mainly to those hav- 
ing bordered pits. 

TRAIL ING, elongated, and pros- 
trate upon the ground, but not 
rooting. The same as Run- 
ning, except that the plant 
may be shorter, or may rise 
at first from a woody or other- 
wise self-supporting base. 
Compare Creeping. 

TRAJECTILE (obs.), see Dis- 

TRACTILE. 

TRA MA, the substance of the 
same character, as the pileus 
in the gills of agarics. It sup- 
ports the subhymeneal layer. 

TRANSFORMATION. This term 
is used in botany mainly in the 
same sense as Metamorphosis. 
A petal, for example, is called 
a transformed or metamor- 
phosed leaf, not because the 
particular petal under consid 
eration has ever been a foliage- 
leaf, but because it is a leaf in 
a special or unusual condition. 
The word Transformation is 
also used for the changes in a 
particular organ during its de- 
velopment or growth. 

TRANSMUTA'TION, see Metabo- 
lism. 

TRANSPIRATION, the normal 
escape of fluids from within 
the plant; exhalation. It in- 
cludes not only the escape of 
moisture, both in the form of 
vapor and, as occasionally oc- 
curs, in the liquid state, but 
also the gaseous products of 
respiration. The transpira- 
tion of moisture is sometimes, 
but unnecessarily, termed Per- 
spiration. 

TRANSVERSE' CHO'RISIS, when 
two or more organs in place of 
one stand one above or within 
another ; vertical chorisis. 



187 



Trapeziform 



A DICTIONARY 



Trifarious 



Compare Collateral Cho- 
risis. 

TRANSVERSE' GEOT'ROPISM, 

See DlAGEOTROPISM. 

TRANSVERSE' HELIOT ROPISM, 

see DlAHELIOTROPISM. 

TRAPEZIFORM, unsynimetri- 
cally four-sided, like a trape- 
zium; trapezoid. 

TRAPEZOID, see Trapeziform. 

TRAP'EZOID, n., a body having 
the form of a trapezium. 
(Rare.) 

TREE, a wood)' plant capable of 
growing in the given locality 
at least twenty feet in height, 
with a single self-supporting 
stem. If tue top is unusually 
broad the height may be some- 
what less. The standard is 
arbitrary and varies consider- 
ably according to circum- 
stances. Compare Shrub. 

TREM'ELLOID, gelatinous, like 
the Tremellinege. 

TRI-, three. 

TRlADEL'PHOUS, having the 
filaments in three sets. 

TRlANDRIAN, see Trian- 

DROUS. 

TRlAN'DROUS, having three sta- 
mens. 

TRIANGULAR, having three 
sides or angles ; — a p plied 
either to flat bodies like 
leaves, or to columnar bodies 
like stems. Compare Trigo- 
nous. 

TRiAN'THOtJS, three-flowered. 

TRI'AROH, a fibrovascular cylin- 
der which has three ligneous 
rays, and thus represents three 
fibrovascular bundles. 

TRIBE, a group of genera subor- 
dinate to an order or suborder. 
Similar groups are in some 
cases called families. 

TRICAR'PELLARY, having three 



carpels in a flower or pistil; 
trigynous. 

TRICAR'POtJS, containing three 
ovaries or fruits. 

TRICEPH'ALOtJS, three-headed. 

TRI€H'OBLAST, an internal hair, 
like those which project into 
the intercellular spaces of some 
water-lilies. 

TRICH'OGYNE, a slender pro- 
longation of the carpogonium 
in Florideoe which receives 
upon its apex the anthero- 
zoids in fertilization. 

TRICHOMA (pi. Tricho'mata), a 
term sometimes applied to fila- 
ments of conferva and some 
other alga?, especially to the 
multicellular filaments in Nos- 
tochinere. 

TRIOH'OME, a plant-hair of any 
kind. 

TRIOH'OPHORE, the cell or cells 
immediately supporting a 
trichogyne. 

TRI€HOSPORAN'GIUM, a sporan- 
gium which is morphologically 
a hair. Formerly also applied 
to the plurilocular sporangia 
of Phreosporese. 

TRICHOT OMOUS, dividing at the 
end into three branches; three- 
forked; trifurcate. 

TRICOC'COUS, of three cocci. 

TRICOLOR, of three colors. 

TRICOS TATE, three-ribbed. 

TRICUS'PID, three-poiuted; tri- 
cuspidate. 

TRICUS'PID ATE, see Tricuspid. 

TRIDEN'TATE, three-toothed. 

TRLEN'NIAL, a plaut which fruits 
the third year, then dies. Few 
plants, if any, are strictly of 
this character. Compare Bi- 
ennial. 

TRIFA'RIOUS, in three rows, or 
pointing in three directions; 
especially, in three vertical 
188 



Trifid 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Tripinnatisect 



rows upon a stem; three- 
ranked; tristichous. Compare 
Triserial and Multifa- 
rious. 

TRi'FID, three-cleft; divided into 
three parts about half-way to 
the base. 

TRIFLO'ROIJS, three-flowered. 

TRIFOLIATE, strictly, three- 
leaved, but often incorrectly 
•applied to leaves which have 
three leaflets, as those of 
clover. Compare Triphyl- 
lous. 

TRLFO'LIQLATE, having three 
leaflets. Usually but incor- 
rectly called Trifoliate. 

TRIFtfR'CATE, see Trichoto- 

1COUS. 

TRIG AMOtJS, having staniinate, 
pistillate, and perfect flowers 
in the same head in Composi- 
te, being one of the polyga- 
mous conditions. 

TRIGEM'INOtJS, see Tergemi- 
nate and Trijugate. 

TRIGONAL, see Trigonous. 

TRIGONOUS, prismatic, and 
three-angled, as the stems of 
sedges; trigonal. Compare 
Triquetrous. 

TRIG'YNOUS, having three pistils 
or styles; tricarpellary. 

TRIJUGATE, having three pairs 
of leaflets arranged in any man- 
ner upon a leaf, especially along 
a common petiole; trijugous. 
Compare Tekgeminate. 

TRIJ'UGOUS, see Tri.tugate. 

TRILATERAL, three-sided. See 
Trigonous. 

TRILOBATE, three-lobed. 

TRILOCULAR, three-celled: ap- 
plied to pericarps. 

TRIMEROUS, having the parts 
in threes : applied to flowers 
having calyx, petals, and sta- 
mens each three or a multiple 

189 



of three. Sometimes written 
3-merous. 

TRIMOR'PHIC, see Trimor- 

PHOUS. 

TRlMOR'PHOUS, having three 
kinds of flowers in the same 
species, differing in the rela- 
tive lengths of their stamens 
and pistils; heterogenous tri-' 
morphous. Compare Dimor- 
phous. See Heterogonous. 

TRlNERV'ATE, see Three- 
nerved. 

TRI'NERVED, see Three- 

NERVED. 

TRINOD AL, having three nodes. 

TRIffi'CIOUS, having a polyga- 
mous condition in which there 
are staniinate, pistillate, and 
perfect flowers, each on differ- 
ent sets of plants. 

TRIOI COUS, see Trkecious. 

TRIO'VULATE, containing three 
ovules. 

TRI'PArteD, see Tripartite. 
Compare Three-parted. 

TRIPARTITE, divided into three 
parts nearly to the base; three- 
parted. 

TRLPETALOUS, of three petals. 

TRIPH'YLLOtJS, having three 
leaves or leaf-like bodies in a 
whorl, or otherwise associated; 
— applied especially to a three- 
leaved calyx or perianth. 

TRIPIN'NATE, thrice pinnate, as 
a bipinnate leaf the leaflets of 
which (or some of them) are 
themselves pinnate; terpinnate. 

TRIPINNAT IFLD, thrice pin- 
natifid; thrice pinnately cleft; 
— said of a pinnatind leaf 
when its segments are pin- 
natifid and the subdivisions of 
these are also piunatirid. 

TRIPINNAriSflCT, the same as 
Tripiuuatifid, with the divi- 



Triple-nerved 



A DICTIONARY 



Tubercle 



sions extending iu each case 
to the base or midrib. 

TRIPLE-NERVED, see Three- 

NEBVED. 

TRIP'LE-RiBBED, having three 
prominent ribs or veins. 

TRIPLICATE - GEMINATE, see 
Tergeminate. 

TRIPLICATE - PIN'NATE, see 

TllIPINNATE. 

TRIP'LiCATE-TER'NATE, see 
Triternate. 

TRIP'LINERVED, see Three- 

SERVED. 

TRIP TEROUS, three-winged. 

TRIQUETROUS, prismatic, with 

three acute or salient angles. 

Compare Trigonous. 
TRISECTED, divided into three 

parts or segments by incisions 

extending to the midrib or 

base : said of leaves. 
TRISEP'ALOUS, of three sepals; 

triphyllous. 
TRISEPTATE, having three 

septa. 
TRISE'RIAL, in three rows; tri- 

seriate. See Three-ranked. 
TRISE'RiATE, see Triserial. 
TRISPER'MOUS, three-seeded. 
TRIS'TICHOUS, see Three- 

RANKED. 

TRISTIGMAT'IC, having three 
stigmas. 

TRIS'TIS, of some dull or dingy 
color. (Rare.) 

TRiSTYLOUS, having three 
styles. 

TRISUL'CATE, three-grooved. 

TRITERNATE, thrice ternate. as 
a compound leaf whose pri- 
mary petiole divides into three 
secondary petioles, each of 
which again divides into 
three, each division bearing 
three leaflets. 



TRIVAL'VULAR, see Three- 

VALVED. 

TRIVIAL NAME, see Specific 
Name. 

TROCHLEAR, short-cylindrical, 
with the sides contracted; pul- 
ley-shaped; trochleariform. 

TROcHLEARLFORM, see Troch- 
lear. 

TROPH'OPLAST, a term including 
all essential granules in proto- 
plasm. 

TROpH'OSPERM, see Placenta. 

TRUMP ET - SHAPED, tubular, 
long, very gradually ex- 
panded toward the summit, 
and having a comparatively 
small and usually but slight- 
ly spreading limb or border. 
Compare Hypocrateriform. 

TRUNCATE, terminating ab- 
ruptly, as though cut off or 
flattened at the end; extremely 
obtuse. Compare Premorse 
and Succise. 

TRUNK, the stem of a tree. 

TRUSS, a popular name for a 
rather compact, moderate-sized, 
terminal flower-cluster of any 
kind, as au umbel, corymb, 
spike, or raceme. 

TRY'MA, a drupaceous fruit, like 
the walnut or hickory-nut. It 
is distinguished from a drupe 
by being derived from an in- 
ferior instead of a superior 
ovary. 

TUBE, the united portion of a 
gamopetalous corolla, gamo- 
sepalous calyx, or monadel- 
phous androecium; any elon- 
gated hollow part or organ. 

TUBE'-FORM, see Tube-shaped. 

TU'BER, a short, thickened por- 
tion of a subterranean branch. 

TU'BERCLE, any small, wart-like 
excrescence, as those upon the 
rootlets of various Legumino- 
seae. 



190 



Tubercular 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Tussock 



TUBER'CULAR, in the form of a 
tubercle or having tubercles. 

TUBER'CUlATE, having tuber- 
cles; tuberculose; tubercular. 

TUBER'CULATED, see Tubercu- 

LATE. 

TU'BERCULE, a tuberous root, as 
in the dahlia. (Obs.) 

TUBER'CULOSE, consisting of 
tubercles; bearing many tu- 
bercles; tuberculate. 

TUBERCULOUS, see Tubercu- 
lose. 

TUBERIF'EROUS, bearing tubers. 

TU'BEROSE, see Tuberous. 

TUBEROUS, bearing tubers, as a 
tuberous plant; resembling a 
tuber, as tuberous roots. 

TUBE' - SHAPED, tubular and 
rather long and wide; about 
the same as Trumpet-shaped, 
but may be shorter; tubiform; 
tubseform; tubeform; tubate. 
See Tubular. 

TUBULAR, in the form of a tube 
or pipe; fistular; tubulose. 
Applied in Compositae to 
disk - florets, in distinction 
from the ligulate florets of 
the ray; also to any gamopet- 
alous or gamosepalous flower, 
especially if the tube is rather 
long and wide. See Tube- 
shaped. 

TUBULAR FLORET, a disk- 
flower in Composila?. when, 
as is usual, it differs from 
those of the raj'' in having a 
small and regular corolla; 
disk-floret; disk-flower. Com- 
pare Ligulate Floret. 

TU'BULI, pi., see Tubulus. 

TUBULIFLO ROUS, applied to a 
head of flowers in (Jompositae 
which bears tubular florets 
only. 

TUBULOSE, see Tubular. 

TUBULUS (pi. Tu'buli), (1) one | 

191 



of the cells surrounding the 
central siphon in Chara ; 
(2) applied by some to the 
neck in Pyrenomycetes. 

TUFTED, see Cespitose. 

TUMESCENT, slightly tumid. 

TUMID, somewhat turgid or 
inflated. 

TUNIC, any integument or in- 
vesting layer, as a seed-coat, 
or a peridium; especially, a 
membranous scale of a bulb, 
or a dry sheath surrounding 
one of the lower interuodes in 
certain grasses. 

TUNICATE, covered with a thin, 
separable coat or tunic. 

TU'NICATED, see Tunicate. 

TUNlCATED BULB, a bulb with 
broad, thin scales which form 
successive overlapping coats, 
as in the onion; coated bulb. 
Compare Scaly Bulb. 

TURBINATE, top -shaped; in- 
versely conical, as the peri- 
carp of water-lilies. 

TURGES'CENT, swelling; slight- 
ly turgid. 

TURGID, (1) thickened as if 
swollen, like a tuber; (2) dis- 
tended with liquid, but not 
with air. Compare Inflated 
and Tumid. 

TURIO (pi. Turio'nes), see Tu- 

RION. 

TURION, a leafless or scaly shoot 
from the ground, as a young 
stem of asparagus; turio. 

TURIONIF EROUS, bearing tu- 
rions. 

TURNING IN, commencing to 
head: said of cabbages, etc. 

TURNIP SHAPED, see Napi- 

FORM. 

TUR'PENTINE VESSELS, see 

Resin-passages. 
TUS'SOCK, a tuft growing from 

the ground, as in many grasses. 



"wining 



A DICTIONARY 



Umbonate 



TWIN, see Geminate. 

TWIN'ING, ascending by coiling 
the stem iu a spiral manner 
arouud a support; voluble. 
Compare Climbing. 

TWISTED, see Contorted. 

TWO-CLEFT, see Bifid. 

TWO' -FORKED, see Dichoto- 

MOUS, 

TWO -LIPPED, see Labiate. 

TWO-PARTED, see Bipartite. 

TWO -RANKED, situated in two 
vertical rows on opposite sides 
of the stem, as the leaves of 
grasses; distichous. 

TWO-TOOTHED, see Bidentate. 

TY'LOSE, see Tylosis. 

TYLOSIS (pi. Tyl6'se$), a pro- 
trusion from an adjoining cell 
into the cavity of a vessel, 
sometimes exhibiting repeated 
cell-division within the vessel. 
Sometimes written Thylose 
and Thyll. A vessel which 
contains these protrusions is 
said to exhibit tylosis. 

TYM'PANUM, a membrane clos- 
ing the mouth of the capsule 
iu some mosses. 

TYPE, a perfect specimen or in- 
dividual, exemplifying the es- 
sential characters of the species 
or other group to which it 
belongs. 

TYPE-SPEC'IMEN, the original 
specimen from which a botan- 
ical description was written 
and upon which the name of 
the plant or group is based : 
the actual individual which 
serves as the type of a species 
or other group. 

TYP'ICAL, representing the type 
or plan. 

ULIG' INOSE, see Palustrine. 
ULIG'INOUS, see Palustrine. 



UMBEL, the inflorescence of the 
order Umbelliferae. or any 
flower - cluster in which sev- 
eral primary rays or pedicels 
arise from the apex of the 
stem or peduncle. A typical 
umbel is somewhat flat -topped, 
and has the rays spre&diug like 
the stays of an umbrella. An 
umbel is simple when each ray 
or pedicel bears but a single 
flower; it is compound when 
each bears several flowers or 
secondary rays. 

UM'BEL, CYMOSE, see Cymose 
Umbel. 

UMBELLATE, bearing umbels; 
pertaining to umbels; umbel- 
like. 

UMBELLATE CYME, see Cymose 
Umbel. 

UM'BELLET, a small umbel or a 
partial umbel; umbellule. 

UMBELLIF'EROUS, producing 
umbels. 

UMBEL'LIFORM, in the shape of 
an umbel. 

UMBEL LULATE, iu the form of 
a small or a partial umbel. For- 
merly used for Subumbellate, 
which see. 

UMBELLULE, see Umbellet. 

UMBELLULIF'EROUS, bearing 
small umbels. 

UMBILICAL CORD, see Funicu- 
lus. 

UMBIL'ICATE, having an umbili- 
cus, or central depression like 
the navel. 

UMBILICUS, an old term for 
Hilum; any depression resem- 
bling the navel. 

UM'BO, a central elevation, like 
the boss of an ancient buckler. 

UM'BONATE, having a low, 
rounded central projection, 
as the cap of many mush- 
rooms. 



192 



Tlmbonulate 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Uniparous 



tJMBON'ULATE, slightly umbo- 
nate; Bubumbonate; bearing a 
small, or slightly elevated, 
umbo. 

UMBRAc'ULIFORM, umbrella- 
shaped. 

UMBRACUlUM, the fruit-cap of 
Marchautia, or any such um- 
brella-shaped appendage. 

UNARMED', destitute of thorns, 
spines, or prickles. 

UNCATE, see Uncinate. 

UNCIFORM, hook-shaped. 

UNCINATE, hooked at the end, 
or furuished with hooked ap- 
pendages; uncate; unciform. 
Compare Falcate. 

UNCTUOUS, having a greasy 
appearance. 

UN'DATE, see Undulate. 

UN'DATED, see Undulate. 

UN'DERSHRUB, (1) a low shrub, 
less than three feet high, as the 
wintergreen; (2) a plant with 
woody base and upper portion 
herbaceous and yearly dying 
back, as the garden sage (suf- 
frutex). The term is now gen- 
erally used in the first sense 
only. 

UN'DULATE, applied to leaves 
which have the surface near 
the margin alternately concave 
and convex; undate. Com- 
pare Crisp, Sinuate, 
Waved, and Ruffled. 

UNEQUAL, (1) unsymmetrical, 
as the leaves of begonia; 
(2) differing in length — ap- 
plied to stamens, etc. 

UNEQUALLY PINNATE, see 
Imparipinxate. 

UNE'QUAL - SIDED, unsymmet- 
rical. 

UNGUlC'ULAR, see Unguicu- 
late. 

UNGUIC'UlATE, (1) furnished 
with a "claw" or unguis, as 



the petals of pinks; (2) ending 
in a curved point resembling a 
claw. 

UN'GUIFORM, like the claw of a 
petal. 

UN'GUIS, see Claw. 

UN'GULATE, hoof-shaped. 

UNI-, a Latin prefix, one. 

UNIAXIAL, having an un- 
branched stem. 

UNICAP'SULAR, having the car- 
pels of a flower all united into 
one capsule. 

UNICAR'INATED, one-keeled. 

UNICELLULAR, one celled. 

UNICOL'OR, of the same color 
throughout ; whole - colored ; 
unicolorous; isochrous. Com- 
pare Discolor and Concolor. 

UNICOL'OROUS, see Unicolor. 

UNIFA'RIOtJS, one- ranked. 
Compare SfXUND. 

UNIFLO ROUS, one-flowered. 

UNIFO'LIATE, one-leaved. Used 
also for Uuifoliolate, which 
see. 

UNIFO'LIOLATE, of one leaflet, 
as the theoretically compound 
leaf of the orange and lemon. 

UNIJ'UGATE, having a single 
pair of leaflets or other organs. 

UNILA'BlATE, one -lipped ;— 
sometimes applied also to a 
regular gamopetalous corolla 
which is open on one side, as 
the ligulate florets in Composi- 
tae. See Labiate. 

UNILATERAL, one-sided. See 
Secund. 

UNILOC ULAR, one-celled, as ap- 
plied to anthers and ovaries ; 
elocular. 

UNINTERRUPTED, see Contin- 
uous. 

UNIP'AROUS, bearing or pro- 
ducing but one stem or axis. 



193 



Uniparous Cyme 



A DICTIONARY 



Vague 



UNIP AROUS CYME, a cyme with 
one main axis; mouochasium. 
Compare Dichasium. 

UNIPET'ALOUS, having but one 
petal, as Amorpba. Compare 
Gamopetalous. 

UNISEP'TATE, having a single 
septum. 

UNISE'RIAL, having one row or 
whorl; uuiseriate. Compare 
One-ranked. 

UNISE'RlATE, arranged in a sin- 
gle line; uniserial. 

UNISEX'UAL, applied to an indi- 
vidual or flower which has one 
kind of sexual organs only; 
diclinous. 

UNIVAL'VUL AR, dehiscing along 
one suture only, so that the 
pericarp has but one valve, as 
the pod of the common milk- 
weed, Asclepias Cornuti. 

UNIVER'SAL, see Common. 

UNiVER'SAL IN'VOLUCRE, see 
Common Involucre. 

UNIVERSAL UMBEL, see Com- 
pound Umbel. 

UNLIN'ING, the separation of 
parts originally united. For- 
merly used for Chorisis, from 
the erroneous supposition that 
the additional organs in cho- 
risis were always produced in 
this manner. See Chorisis. 

UNSYMMET'RiCAL, not symmet- 
rical, which see. 

UR'CEOLATE, pitcher- or urn- 
shaped : tubular, and con- 
tracted at the orifice. 

URE'DO-FRUIT, a sorus or group 
of uredospores. 

URE'DOSPORE, a form of unicel- 
lular spore or gonidium in the 
Uredineae or rust-fungi, pro- 
duced earlier in the season 
than the teleutospores, and 
destined for immediate ger- 
mination. 



URE'DO-STAGE, the early sum- 
mer stage of the Uredineae, 
during which only uredo- 
spores are produced. 

URN, the spore-capsule of mosses; 
also the base of a pyxidium. 

URN-SHAPED, see Urceolate. 

URTICA'gEOUS, pertaining to 
nettles or the family Urticacese. 

U'TRICLE, (1) a fruit haviug a 
small inflated membranous 
pericarp, as that of Cbeuopo- 
dium; (2) the bladder of vari- 
ous aquatic plants, as Utricu- 
laria; (3) one of the large 
hyaline cells in the leaves of 
Sphagnum. 

UTRICLE, PRIMOR'DIAL, see 
Primordial Utricle. 

UTRICULAR, bladder -like or 
furnished with utricles. 

UTRIC'ULATE, inflated like a 
bladder; utricular. 

UTRiCULIFORM, shaped like a 
bottle or bladder; about the 
same as Urceolate, but a less 
definite term. 

UTRIC'ULOSE, bearing utricles. 

UTRIC'ULUS (pi. Utric'uli), see 
Utricle. 

VACUOLE, a sap-cavity in the 
protoplasm of a cell. 

VAGI'NA, see Sheath. 

VAG'INANT, sheathing. 

VAG'INATflD, sheathed; invagi- 
nated. 

VAGINERVOSE , having the small 
veins (nerves) in no apparent 
order. 

VAGIN'ULA, a small sheath; es- 
pecially, the apex of the stem 
which surrounds the base of 
the seta in mosses; vaginule. 

VAG INULE, see Vaginula. 

VAGUE, in no definite order or 
direction; of no definite or 
194 



Vallecula 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Vasculum 



constant form. Compare 
Amorphous. 

VAIL, see Veil. 

VALLECULA (pi. Vallec'ulae), a 
groove or furrow, as those 
between the ridges on the 
fruit of Umbelliferse. Com- 
pare Sulcus. 

VAlLEC'ULAR CANALS', large 
intercellular passages, alter- 
nating with the fibrovascular 
bundles in the stem of Equi- 
setum. They are situated in 
the cortex, and lie between 
the ridges on the surface. 
Compare Carinal Canal. 

VALV'ATE, said of the leaves of 
a flower in aestivation when 
they meet at their edges and 
do not overlap, as the sepals 
in the rose; valvular. The 
margins of valvate organs 
may be rolled or folded in- 
ward or outward. 

VALVE, (1) one of the parts of a 
dehiscent pericarp; (2) the lid 
of an ascidium or pitcher; 
(3) one of the halves of a 
frustule in diatoms. 

VALVULAR, see Valvate. 

VA'RlABLE, said of a species or 
other group which embraces 
many individuals wliich de- 
part more or less from the 
type of the group. The term 
is applied in a similar way to 
any organ or character which 
fails to exhibit uniformity. 

VARIA'TION, a transient variety, 
consisting of but one or a few 
individuals, less marked than 
a Sport, and usually but 
slightly differing from the 
type of the species or variety 
to which it belongs. It is sub- 
ordinate in importance to a 
Form, and less frequently pro- 
duced by some peculiar con- 
dition of the soil or climate. 

195 



VAR'ICOSE, appearing abnor- 
mally enlarged in places; — 
applied to hairs and other 
tubular filaments. 

VA'RIEGATED, applied to leaves, 
etc., which have two or more 
colors upon the surface, espe- 
cially to such as are per- 
manently marked with white 
or yellow. Compare Bicolor 
and Chlorosis. 

VARI'ETY, a group subordinate 
to a species, founded on char- 
acters wliich in cultivated 
plants are often temporary, 
and which in the wild state 
are regarded as permanent, but 
which gradually merge into 
those of the main specific 
form. Compare Species, 
Race, Sport, and Variation. 

VARI'ETY-HY'BRID, see Cross. 

VAR'NISH, see Blastocolla. 

VARNISHED, see Vernicose. 

VA'SA PROPRIA, a term applied 
by Mohl to the portion of the 
phloem containing the sieve- 
tubes and other thin-walled 
tubular cells. Now seldom 
used. 

VAS'CULAR, pertaining to or con- 
taining vessels. 

VAS CULARBUN'DLE, see Fibro- 
vasculak Bundle. 

VAS'CULAR BUN'DLE-SHEATH, 
a layer of cells between the 
phloSm and cortex, or sur- 
rounding a nbrovascular bun- 
dle, or an entire fibrovascular 
cylinder; phloem -sheath. 

VASCULAR CYLINDER, see 
Fibrovascular Cylinder. 

VAS CULAR SYSTEM, see Fibro- 
vascular System. 

VAS'CULAR TISSUE, see Vessel. 

VAS'CULUM, a botanist's collect- 
ing-case. Formerly this term 
was applied to an ascidium or 
pitcher-shaped leaf. 



Vase-shaped 



A DICTIONARY 



Velutinous 



VASE' -SHAPED, shaped some- 
what like a common flower- 
pot. (Rare.) 

VAS'IFORM, having the character 
of ducts or vessels. 

VASIFORM WOOD -CELLS, see 
Tracheids. 

VAULTED, overarched, as the 
upper lip of many riugeut 
flowers; fornicate. 

VEGETABLE, (1) any plant; 
(2) in horticulture applied to 
plants cultivated for some edi- 
ble part besides the fruit, and 
also to some, as the melon 
family, in which the part used 
is properly a fruit. 

VEGETABLE ANATOMY, see 
Structural Botany. 

VEGETABLE NOSOL'OGY, the 
department of vegetable pa- 
thology which treats of the 
diagnosis or classification of 
the diseases of plants. 

VEGETABLE PATHOLOGY, the 
scieuce which treats of the 
diseases of plants. It includes 
the study of disease-producing 
parasites and of the means for 
preventing their injuries. It 
does not include Teratology. 

VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY, see 
Physiological Botany. 

VEG'ETABLE TAXONOMY, the 
part of systematic botany 
which relates to the classifi- 
cation of plauts. 

VEG'ETABLE WAX, a wax-like 
substance upon many leaves 
and fruits, an important func- 
tion of which is to protect the 
parts from excessive moisture. 
See Bloom. 

VEGETA'TION, (1) germination 
and growth; (2) plauts in gen- 
eral. 

VEGETATIVE APOG'AMY, the 
apogamous production of 
growing shoots in place of 



seeds or spores. See Apog- 

AMY. 

VEGETATIVE £ELL, a cell in 
a pollen-grain which does not 
develop into the pollen-tube. 
Compare Generative Cell. 

VEGETATIVE NU'CLEUS, any 
nucleus in a pollen-tube which 
takes no direct part in fertili- 
zation. Compare Genera- 
tive Nucleus. 

VEIL, (1) a membrane connect- 
ing the margin of the cap in 
mushrooms with the stalk; 
velum; (2) the calyptra in 
mosses. 

VEIN, a small bundle of fibro- 
vascular tissue within a leaf. 
When large, and occupying a 
prominent ridge, it is called 
rib; when very small it is 
sometimes called nerve, espe- 
cially in monocotyledons; but 
the term Nerve is now little 
used . 

VEIN'LET, a small, secondary 
vein; veinule. 

VEIN'ULET, a branch of a vein- 
let. (Rare.) 

VELA'MEN, an envelope of sev- 
eral layers of cells containing 
air, surrounding the aerial 
roots of orchids and Aroideae. 

VE'LATE, furnished with a veil; 
veiled. 

VE'LUM, the membrauous iudu- 
sium in Isoetes. Formerly ap- 
plied to the veil of mushrooms. 

VE'LUM PARTIALE, see Mar- 
ginal Veil. 

VE'LUM UNIVERSALE, see 

VOLVA. 

VELUTINOUS, covered with a 
close, silky coat of short, fine, 
erect hairs of even length; 
velvety. 

VELVETY, see Velutinous. 



196 



Venation 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Verticillas.ter 



VENA'TION, the manner in which 
the veius are arranged in a 
leaf. 

VENOSE', containing numerous 
veins. 

VEN'TER, the expanded basal 
portion of an archegonium, in 
which the oosphere is formed. 

VENTRAL, pertaining to the 
face or front, being the side 
opposite to the dorsal. See 

DOKSAL. 

VENTRAL CANAL' CELL, a 

small cell below the entrance 
of the neck of an archego- 
nium, cut off from the mother- 
cell of the oosphere. 

VENTRAL SU'TURE, a line of 
union between the margins of 
the carpel or carpels in an 
ovary. Compare Dorsal Su- 
ture. 

VEN'TRICOSE, swelling out in a 
rounded manner. 

VENTRIC'tJLOSE, slightly ven- 
tricose. 

VENTRICUM'BENT, face down- 
ward upon the ground; prone. 

VEN'tJLOSE, abounding in vein- 
lets. 

VERMICULAR, worm-shaped. 

VERMIC'tJLATE, vermicular, or 
bearing worm-like processes. 

VERMIFORM BOD'Y, see Scole- 
cite. 

VER'NAL, pertaining to spring; 
appearing in spring. 

VERNATION, the manner in 
which leaves are disposed in 
the bud; prefoliation. Some- 
times improperly used for Foli- 
ation, the act or time of leaf- 
ing. 

VER'NICOSE, appearing asthough 
varnished, as the buds of mauy 
trees. 

VERRTJ'CA (pi. Verru'cse), a wart- 
like elevation of any kind, in- 



cluding the sessile apothecia 
of some lichens. (Obs.) See 
Wart. 

VERRUCIFORM, wart-like. 

VERRUCOSE, wart-like, or bear- 
ing wart-like prominences. 
Compare Papillate and 
Pustulate. 

VERRU'CULOSE, slightly verru- 
cose. 

VER'SATILE, attached at one 
point, so as to swing freely to 
and fro, as the anthers of the 
lily. 

VERSICOLOR, changeable in 
color, or appearing of differ- 
ent colors from different 
points of view. 

VER SIFORM, varied or varying 
in form. 

VERTEX, an upper extremity; 
summit. Compare Apex. 

VERTICAL, (1) perpendicular to 
the horizon; (2) perpendicular 
to the surface or axis of sup- 
port; (3) in the direction of 
the axis of growth; length- 
wise. 

VERTICAL AN'THER, see In- 
nate. 

VER'TICAL CHO'RISIS, see 
Transverse Chorisis. 

VERTICAL LEAVES, applied 
especially to erect leaves like 
those of Iris, which have no 
distinct or obvious dorsal and 
ventral surfaces. 

VERTICALLY COMPRESSED', see 
Depressed. 

VER'TICAL SYS'TEM, see Fibro- 
vascular System. Compare 
Horizontal System. 

VER'TICEL, see Verticil. 

VER TICIL, see Whorl. 

VERTICILLAS'TER, a pair of 
dense cymes in the axils of 
opposite leaves, forming an 



197 



Verticillate 



A DICTIONARY 



Vine 



apparent verticil, as in most 
Labiatce. 

VERTIg ILLATE, arranged in a 
ring or whorl; whorled. 

VEHICLE, a small bladder-like 
body or cavity. 

VESICULAR, bearing or contain- 
ing numerous vesicles; vesicu- 
late; vesiculose. 

VESICULATE, see Vesicular. 

VESICULOSE, see Vesicular. 

VESPERTINE, pertaining to or 
taking place early in the even- 
ing: applied especially to flow- 
ers which expand at that time 
of the day. 

VES'SEL, a cell, or row of conflu- 
ent cells, having markings pro- 
duced by thickenings in the 
cell-wall, forming dots, bauds, 
rings, spirals, etc. Formerly 
only vessels having spiral 
markings were called vessels, 
in distinction especially from 
those having pitted walls, 
which were known as ducts, 
but the term Duct is now com- 
paratively little used. The 
terms Duct and Vessel are par- 
tially equivalent, Duct being 
perhaps more often used for 
continuous vessels composed 
of more than one cell. See 
Trachea and Tracheid. 

VESTIBULE, a term applied by 
Duchartre to an opening or 
chamber above the stomata in 
certain plants, as Oycas revo- 
luta, formed by the depression 
of the guard-cells and the out- 
ward growth of the adjoining 
epidermal cells. Compare 
Antechamber and S t o - 
matic Chamber. 

VES'TIGE, an abortive part 
which in some aucestral form 
was fully developed. 

VET'ERAN (Forestry), a very old 
tree. 



198 



VllX'IL, see Vexillum. 
VEX'ILLARY JSSTIVA'TION, 

having a vexillum or other 
similar large petal which en- 
folds all the others in the bud. 
More properly " Cochlear ^Es- 
tivation," except in Papiliona- 
ceae. 

VEX'ILLATE, having a vexilluoi. 
VEXIL'LUM, the large upper 

petal of a papilionaceous 

flower; standard; banner. 
VI' ABLE, capable of growing or 

manifesting life— said mainly 

of seeds. 

Vl'BRATILE, having a vibratory 
or back-and-forth motion. 

VI'BR06EN, a term applied by 
Penhallow to certain longitu- 
dinal bands of active tissue in 
thecortex of tendrils to which 
their movements of circumnu- 
tation are supposed to be chiefly 
due. 

VICA'RIOUS, performing the 
function, or occupying the 
place, of some other organ. 

VIL'LI (sing. Villus), veluti- 
nous hairs. 

VIL'LIFORM, resembling villi. 

VILLOSE', covered with rather 
thin, soft, straightish hairs, 
somewhat finer, softer, and 
thicker than in Pilose; villous. 
Sometimes used for Veluti- 
nous, which see. 

VILLOUS, see Villose. 

VIL'LUS, sing., see Villi. 

VI'MEN, a long, flexible shoot 
or branch, like the willow 
branches used for wicker- 
work. (Obs.) 

VIM'INAL, pertaining to twigs. 

VIMIN'EOUS, producing or re- 
sembling long, flexible twigs 
or branches. 

VINE, any plant, or its stem, 
which is incapable of self- 



Virescence 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Water-core 



support, and either grows 
upon the ground or supports 
itself upon other objects. 

ViRES'CENCE, having petals ab- 
normally "green in color, like 
leaves. 

VLRES'CEINT, greenish, or be- 
coming green. 

VIR'GATE, waud-like; long, 
straight, and slender. 

VIR'GULATE, diminutive of 
Virgate; shaped like a little 
twig or rod. 
VIRIDflS'CENT, greenish; vires- 
cent. 
VIROSE', having a nauseous 

odor. 
VIS'CID, sticky; adhesive; vis- 
cous. 
VISCID DISK, the retinaculum 

of "orchids. 
VITEL'LUS, the embryo sac as it 

appears in the seed. 
VITIC'OLOUS, growing upon the 
grape-vine, as certain parasitic 
fungi. 
VITIC'ULA (pi. Vitic'ulee), a trail- 
ing stem, as that of the cucum- 
ber; a little viue; a tendril; a 
stolon; a sarment. (Rare.) 
VITIC'ULOSE, bearing or resem- 
bling viticulie. 
VITREOUS, transparent like 

glass. Compare Hyaline. 
VIT'TA (pi. VI t' tee), one of the 
tubular oil-receptacles in the 
fruit of Umbelliferse; oil-tube. 
They appear externally as 
ridges. 
VIT'TATE, bearing vittse, or lon- 
gitudinal stripes or ridges some- 
what resembling the vittse on 
the fruit of Umbelliferae. 
VIVA giOUS, (1) living over win- 
ter, or from year to year; per- 
ennial; (2) full of life; difficult 
to kill. 



VIVIPAROUS, producing bulbs 
or seeds which germinate 
while still attached to the 
parent - plant. The term is 
not applied to the production 
of ordinary offsets or suckers. 

VdL'UBlLE, see Twining. 

VOL'UBLE, see Twining. 

VOLUNTEER'. A volunteer crop 
or plant is one which has come 
from self-sown seed within the 
boundaries of the field or farm 
and has grown without care or 
cultivation. The term implies 
that the growth is of some 
value. 

VOLUTE', rolled up in any direc- 
tion. 

VOL'VA, a covering, membra- 
nous, gelatinous, or otherwise, 
which extends from the mar- 
gin of the cap to the base of 
the stipe in mushrooms, and 
which is ruptured by growth 
in those species which have an 
elongated stem; wrapper; ve- 
lum universale. 

WALL'ING OVER, a term em- 
ployed in forestry for the 
growth of a callus over a cut 
or injured surface. 

WART, a sessile gland, hard ex- 
crescence, or other protuber- 
ance resembling a wart upon 
animals. Compare Pustule. 

WARTY, applied by gardeners 
to a head of cauliflower when 
it becomes loose aud covered 
with small prominences pre- 
paratory to throwing up the 
seed-stalks; frothy. 

WA'TER-CORE, an abnormal con- 
dition of a part or the whole 
of the flesh of the apple, occa- 
sionally seen, in which the cells 
are unusually firm, do not lose 
their fluid contents upon ripen- 
ing, and appear as though 
water-soaked. 



199 



Water-gland 



A DICTIONARY 



Wing 



WATER-GLAND, a group of cells 
beneath the water-pores of cer- 
tain plants, as in Saxifraga, 
which serve to facilitate or 
regulate the transpiration of 
water. The cells composing 
the gland are rich in proto- 
plasm but destitute of chloro- 
phyll. 

WA'TER-PORE, an aperture in 
the epidermis directly over the 
extremity of a vein in the leaves 
of certain plants, as Galadium 
esculentum. It is a stoma 
whose guard-cells have lost 
their function and become im- 
movable, and its probable func- 
tion is to facilitate the transpi- 
ration of water. 

WATER-SPROUT (Hort.), an un- 
usually long shoot or limb of 
one year's growth, especially 
upon the body of a tree where 
older limbs have been removed. 

WA'TER-STOMA, see Water- 
pore. 

WA'TER-STOR'iNG TIS'StJE, a 
form of water-tissue adapted 
for the storage of water for 
the supply of surrounding 
cells in times of drought, as 
in many plants of dry climates. 

WAVED, said of a margin when 
strongly undulate, but less 
strongly than Ruffled. 

WAVY, alternately concave and 
convex upon the surface or 
margin. See Sinuate, Re- 
pand, Undulate, and Crisp. 

WEATHER PROUD, a gardener's 
term, employed in England, 
denoting that plants are 
larger or more thrifty than 
common for the season of the 
year. 

WEDGE'-SHAPED, see Cuneate. 

WEED, a plant which grows 
where it is not wanted and 
which becomes troublesome. 
Applied chiefly to wild plants. 



WEEP'ING,(1) having the smaller 
branches so lax that many of 
them hang directly downward, 
as those of several species of 
willow; (2) the copious exuda- 
tion of sap from water-pores 
or from an injured surface, iu 
the latter case more often called 
Bleeding. 

WEFT, a collection of interlacing 
hyphse or other filaments. 

WELT, a broad, raised stripe or 
ridge upon the surface of a 
fruit, as is occasionally seen iu 
the orange and lemon. 

WELT'ED, flaccid; droopiug. 
(Obs.) 

WHEEL'-SHAPED, see Rotate. 

WHIP' -SHAPED, see Flagelli- 

FORM. 

WHIRL, see Whorl. 

WHORL, a set of organs arranged 
in a circle around a stem or 
axis; verticil. 

WHORLED, see Verticillate. 

WILD, (1) growing spontaneously 
without care or cultivation, 
either native or introduced; 
feral; (2) in a natural con- 
dition, not improved by cul- 
tivation or artificial selection. 
When used without qualifica- 
tion Wild means strictly native. 

WlLD'ERING, see Wilding. 

WILDING, (1) a cultivated plant 
that has "run wild " or repro- 
duced itself spontaneously; 
wildering; (2) any wild plant; 
wildling. In both senses ap- 
plied to fruit-trees. A fruit- 
tree, however, which has 
sprung up spontaneously 
within cultivated ground is 
not usually called a Wilding, 
but merely a "chance seed- 
ling." 

WING, (1) any thin or membra- 
nous appendage, especially a 
flattened appendage to a seed 



200 



Winged 



OF BOTANICAL TERMS. 



Zodiophilous 



which enables it to be more 
readily conveyed by the wind, 
as in the ash and maple; (2) one 
of the side petals of a papilio- 
naceous flower, as of the pea 
or bean; ala. 

WINGED, bearing a membranous 
expansion or wing; alate. 

WIN'TER ANNUAL, a plant 
which germinates in the fall, 
lives over winter, and produces 
seed and dies the following 
season . 

WIN'TER SPORE, see Resting- 

SPOKE. 

WITH'ERING, see Marcescent. 

WOOD, all that portion of the 
stem in exogens within the 
bark or cambium layer, ex- 
cept the pith and medullary 
rays. It consists of the xylem 
portions of the united fibro- 
vascular bundles. The term 
is also extended in popular use 
to all parts of similar texture 
in plants. See Xylem. 

WdOD-FI'BRE, an elongated 
wood-cell with thick wall and 
narrow cavity. See Bast- 
fibre. 

WOOL, long, dense, curled hairs. 

WOOL'LY, see Lanate. 

WOR'ONIN'S HY'PHA, a coiled 
hypha in various Ascomycetes, 
believed to be morphologically 
an archicarp, but in which fer- 
tilization is either wanting or 
unknown. 

WRAP'PER, see Volva. 

XANTHIC FLOWERS, those 
which have yellow for the 
typical color, including all 
colors except those containing 
blue. Compare Cyanic Flow- 
ers. 

XAN'THOPHYLL, see Phyllox- 

ANTHIN. 



XEN6GAMY, see Cross-fertili- 
zation. 

XEROPH ILOUS, growing in dry 
climates. (Rare.) 

XIPH'IOID (rare in botany), 
see Ensiform. 

XIPHOPH YLLOUS, having ensi- 
form leaves. (Rare.) 

XY'LEM, the portion of a differ- 
entiated tibrovascular bundle 
which contains the larger con- 
tinuous air-containing vessels, 
and the walls of whose cells 
are often thickened and ligni- 
fied; wood; hadrome. The 
xylem is separated from 
another part called Phloem 
by the cambium, if there is 
any, and it usually occupies 
the side of the bundle toward 
the centre of the stem. Com- 
pare Phloem. 

XY'LEM-PLATE, seeXYLEM-RAY. 

XY'LEM-RAY, a radial plate of 
xylem between two medullary 
rays; xylem-plate. Compare 
Phloem-ray. 

XYLOcAR'POUS, having hard, 
woody fruit. (Obs.) 

XYLO'DIUM (obs.), see Ache- 

NIUM. 

XYLO'MA, a sclerotoid body 
which produces spores inter- 
nally: found in Polystigma 
and some other Ascomycetes. 

ZQAd'ULA (pi. Zoad'ulae) (obs.), 
see Zoospore. 

ZODIOPHILOUS, pollinated by 
the agency of animals, includ- 
ing, for example, Protozopbil- 
ous and Entomophilous. It 
is the converse of Anthophi- 
lous, said of the insects or 
other animals which convey 
the pollen. Compare Ane- 
mophilous and Hydrophi- 
lous. 



201 



Zonate A DICTIONARY OF BOTANICAL TERMS. Zymotic 



ZON'ATE, marked with circular, 
colored bauds; zoned. Ap- 
plied to the tetraspores of 
Floridese when in a single 
row, in distinction from a 
cruciate or tripartite arrange- 
ment. 

ZONE, a circular band or stripe. 

ZONED, see Zonate. 

ZO OGAmETE, see Plano- 

GAMETE. 

ZOOGLffi'A (pi. Zoogloe'ae), a ge- 
latinous colony of bacteria. 

ZOOGONIDTUM (pi. Zoogonid'ia), 
a motile gonidium, usually 
called zoospore. Restricted 
by some to a zoospore which 
grows into a plant directly, 
without conjugation. See 
Zoospore. 

ZO'OSPERM, see Zoospore. 

ZOOSPOrAN'GIUM, a sporangium 
enclosing zoospores. 

ZO'OSPORE, a spore or gonidium 
having the power of independ- 
ent movement, usually by 
means of one or more vibra- 
tile cilia; swarm - spore. See 
Zoogoniditjm. 

ZOOTHECA (obs.), see Zoospo- 

RANGIUM. 

ZYGOGO'NIUM, the female con- 
jugating cell in Conjugates, 
together with the accessory 
cells, if any. Compare Asco- 
gonium and Carpogonium. 



ZYGOMOR PHIC, applied to flow- 
ers which are monosymmetri- 
cal, as those of the pea and 
beau. Compare Actinomor- 
phic. Sachs extends the term 
to such irregular flowers as are 
capable of bisection into simi- 
lar halves in two directions, 
but in which the halves pro- 
duced by the two bisections 
are of different shape, as in 
Dicentra. 

ZYG0M6R PHOUS, see Zygomor- 

PHIC. 

ZYGO sis, see Conjugation. 

ZYG OSPERM, see Zygospore. 

ZYG OSPHERE, the female con- 
jugating cell in such zygo- 
phytes as have a distinction in 
sex. Compare Oosphere. 

ZYGOSPORE, a spore resulting 
from conjugation 

ZYGOTE, a general term for the 
product of the union of two 
gametes. 

ZYGOZO OSPORE, a motile zygo- 
spore. 

ZYMASE, a ferment secreted by 
certain bacteria; enzyme. 

ZYMOSIS, (1) fermentation of 
any kind; (2) an infectious or 
contagious disease. 

ZYMOTIC, (1) pertaining to fer- 
mentation, or caused by organ- 
isms capable of producing fer- 
mentation; (2) pertaining to an 
infectious or contagious disease. 



202 



THE AMERICAN SCIENCE SERIES. 



The principal objects of the series are to supply the lack — in 
some subjects very great — of authoritative books whose princi- 
ples are, so far as practicable, illustrated by familiar American 
facts, and also to supply the other lack that the advance of Sci- 
ence perennially creates, of text-books which at least do not 
contradict the latest generalizations. The scheme systemati- 
cally outlines the field of Science, as the term is usually em- 
ployed with reference to general education, and includes 
Advanced Courses for maturer college students, Briefer 
Courses for beginners in school or college, and Elementary 
Courses for the youngest classes. The Briefer Courses are not 
mere abridgments of the larger works, but, with perhaps a 
single exception, are much less technical in style and more 
elementary in method. While somewhat narrower in range 
of topics, they give equal emphasis to controlling principles. 
The following books in this series are already published : 

THE HUMAN BODY. By H. Newell Martin, Professor in 

the Johns Hopkins University. 
Advanced Course. 8vo. 655 pp. 

Designed to impart the kind and amount of knowledge every 
educated person should possess of the structure and activities 
and the conditions of healthy working of the human body. 
While intelligible to the general reader, it is accurate and suffi- 
ciently minute in details to meet the requirements of students 
who are not making human anatomy and physiology subjects of 
special advanced study. The regular editions of the book contain 
an appendix on Reproduction and Development. Copies without 
this will be sent when specially ordered. 

From the Chicago Tribune: " The reader who follows him through 
to the end of the book will be better informed on the subject of 
modem physiology in its general features than most of the medical 
practitioners who rest on the knowledge gained in comparatively an- 
tiquated text-books, and will, if possessed of average good judgmenx 
and powers of discrimination, not be in any way confused by statff 
men's of dubious questions or conflicting views." 



2 THE AMERICAN SCIENCE SERIES. 

THE HUMAN BODY.— Continued. 

Briefer Course. i2mo. 364 pp. 

Aims to make the study of this branch of Natural Science a 
source of discipline to the observing and reasoning faculties, 
and not merely to present a set of facts, useful to know, which 
the pupil is to learn by heart, like the multiplication-table. 
With this in view, the author attempts to exhibit, so far as is 
practicable in an elementary treatise, the ascertained facts of 
Physiology as illustrations of, or deductions from, the two car- 
dinal principles by which it, as a department of modern science, 
is controlled, — namely, the doctrine of the " Conservation of 
Energy" and that of the " Physiological Division of Labor." To 
the same end he also gives simple, practical directions to assist 
the teacher in demonstrating to the class the fundamental facts 
of the science. The book includes a chapter on the action upon 
the body of stimulants and narcotics. 

From Henry Sew all, Professor of Physiology, University of Michi- 
gan : " The number of poor books meant to serve the purpose of 
text-books of physiology for schools is so great that it is well to 
define clearly the needs of such a work: I. That it shall contain ac- 
curate statements of fact. 2. That its facts shall not be too numer- 
ous, but chosen so that the important truths are recognized in their 
true relations. 3. That the language shall be so lucid as to give no 
excuse for misunderstanding. 4. That the value of the study as a 
discipline to the reasoning faculties shall be continually kept in view. 
I know of no elementary text-book which is the superior, if the 
equal, of Prof. Martin's, as judged by these conditions." 

Elementary Course. i2mo. 261 pp. 

A very earnest attempt to present the subject so that children 
may easily understand it, and, whenever possible, to start with 
familiar facts and gradually to lead up to less obvious ones. 
The action on the body of stimulants and narcotics is f idly treated. 

From W. S. Perry, Superintendent of Schools, Ann Arbor, Mick.: 
" I find in it the same accuracy of statement and scholarly strength 
that characterize both the larger editions. The large relative space 
given to hygiene is fully in accord with the latest educational opinion 
and practice; while the amount of anatomy and physiology comprised 
in the compact treatment of these divisions is quite enough for the 
most practical knowledge of the subject. The handling of alcohol 
and narcotics is, in my opinion, especially good. The most admira. 
ble feature of the book is its fine adaptation to the capacity of younger 
pupils. The diction is simple and pure, the style clear and direct, and 
the manner of presentation bright and attractive." 



THE AMERICAN SCIENCE SERIES. $ 

ASTRONOMY. By Simon Newcomb, Professor in the Johns 
Hopkins University, and Edward S. Holden, Director of 
the Lick Observatory. 

Advanced Course. 8vo. 512 pp. 

To facilitate its use by students of different grades, the sub- 
ject-matter is divided into two classes, distinguished by the size 
of the type. The portions in large type form a complete course 
for the use of those who desire only such a general knowledge 
of the subject as can be acquired without the application of ad- 
vanced mathematics. The portions in small tvpe comprise ad- 
ditions for the use of those students who either desire a more 
detailed and precise knowledge of the subject, or who intend to 
make astronomy a special study. 

From C. A. Young, Professor in Princeton College : " I conclude 
that it is decidedly superior to anything else in the market on the 
same subject and designed for the same purpose." 

Briefer Course. i2mo. 352 pp. 

Aims to furnish a tolerably complete outline of the as- 
tronomy of to-day, in as elementary a shape as will yield satis- 
factory returns for the learner's time and labor. It has been 
abridged from the larger work, not by compressing the same 
matter into less space, but by omitting the details of practical 
astronomy, thus giving to the descriptive portions a greater 
relative prominence. 

From The Critic: "The book is in refreshing contrast to the 
productions of the professional schoolbook-makers, who, having only 
a superficial knowledge of the matter in hand, gather their material, 
without sense or discrimination, from all sorts of authorities, and 
present as the result an indigesta moles, a mass of crudities, not un- 
mixed with errors. The student of this book may feel secure as to 
the correctness of whatever he finds in it. Facts appear as facts, and 
theories and speculations stand for what they are, and are worth." 

From \V. B. Graves, Master Scientific Department of Phillips 
Academy : " I have used the Briefer Course of Astronomy during the 
past year. It is up to the times, the points are put in a way to inter- 
est the student, and the size of the book makes it easy to go over the 
subject in the time allotted by our schedule." 

From Henry Lefavour, late Teacher of Astronomy, Williston Semi- 
nary : " The impression which I formed upon first examination, that 
it was in very many respects the best elementary text-book on the 
subject, has been confirmed by my experience with it in the class* 
room." 



4 THE AMERICAN SCIENCE SERIES. 

ZOOLOGY. By A. S. Packard, Professor in Brown Univer- 
sity. 
Advanced Course. 8vo. 719 pp. 

Designed to be used either in the recitation-room or in the 
laboratory. It will serve as a guide to the student who, with a 
desire to get at first-hand a general knowledge of the structure 
of leading types of life, examines living animals, watches their 
movements and habits, and finally dissects them. He is pre- 
sented first with the facts, and led to a thorough knowledge 
of a few typical forms, then taught to compare these with 
others, and finally led to the principles or inductions growing 
out of the facts. 

From A. E. Verrill, Professor of Zoology in Yale College: " The 
general treatment of the subject is good, and the descriptions of 
structure and the definitions of groups are, for the most part, clear, 
concise, and not so much overburdened by technical terms as in sev- 
eral other manuals of structural zoology now in use." 

Briefer Course. i2mo. 334 pp. 

The distinctive characteristic of this book is its use of the 
object method. The author would have the pupils first examine 
and roughly dissect a fish, in order to attain some notion of 
vertebrate structure as a basis of comparison. Beginning then 
with the lowest forms, he leads the pupil through the whole 
animal kingdom until man is reached. As each of its great 
divisions comes under observation, he gives detailed instruc- 
tions for dissecting some one animal as a type of the class, and 
bases the study of other forms on the knowledge thus obtained. 

From Herbert Osborn, Professor of Zoology, Iowa Agricultural 
College : " I can gladly recommend it to any one desiring a work of 
such character. While I strongly insist that students should study 
animals from the animals themselves, — a point strongly urged by 
Prof. Packard in his preface, — I also recognize the necessity of a 
reliable text-book as a guide. As such a guide, and covering the 
ground it does, I know of nothing better than Packard's." 

First Lessons in Zoology, nmo. 290 pp. 

In method this book differs considerably from those men- 
tioned above. Since it is meant for young beginners, it de- 
scribes but few types, mostly those of the higher orders, and dis- 
cusses their relations to one another and to their surroundings. 
The aim, however, is the same with that of the others ; namely, 
to make clear the general principles of the science, rather than 
to fill the pupil's mind with a mass of what may appear to mm 
unrelated facts. 



THE AMERICAN SCIENCE SERIES. 5 

PSYCHOLOGY— Advanced Course. By William James, Pro- 
fessor in Harvard University. 2 vols. 8vo., 689, 704 pp. 

From Prof. E. H. Griffin, John Hopkins University: "An important 
contribution to psychological science, discussing its present aspects and 
problems with admirable breadth, insight, and independence." 

From Prof. John Dewey, University of Michigan; " A remarkable 
union of wide learning, originality of treatment, and, above all, of 
never-failing suggestions. To me the best treatment of the whole 
matter of advanced psychology in existence. It does more to put 
psychology in scientific position both as to the statement of established 
results and a stimulating to further problems and their treatment, than 
any other book of which I know." 

From Hon. W. T. Harris, National Bureau of Education: " I have 
never seen before a work that brings together so fully all of the labors, 
experimental and analytic, of the school of physiological psychologists." 

BOTANY. By Charles E. Bessey, Professor in the Univer- 
sity of Nebraska. 
Advanced Course. 8vo. 611 pp. 

Aims to lead the student to obtain at first-hand his knowledge 
of the anatomy and physiology of plants. Accordingly, the 
presentation of matter is such as to fit the book for constant 
use in the labaratory, the text supplying the outline sketch which 
the student is to fill in by the aid of scalpel and microscope. 

From J. C. Arthur, Editor of The Botanical Gazette: " The first 
botanical text-book issued in America which treats the most important 
departments of the science with anything like due consideration. This 
is especially true in reference to the physiology and histology of plants, 
and also to special morphology. Structural Botany and classification 
have up to the present time monopolized the field, greatly retarding 
the diffusion of a more complete knowledge of the science." 

Essentials of Botany. i2mo. 292 pp. 

A guide to beginners. Its principles are, that the true aim of 
botanical study is not so much to seek the family and proper 
names of specimens as to ascertain the laws of plant structure 
and plant life; that this can be done only by examining and 
dissecting the plants themselves ; and that it is best to confine 
the attention to a few leading types, and to take up first the 
simpler and more easily understood forms, and afterwards those 
whose structure and functions are more complex. 

From J. T. Rothrock, Professor in the University of Pennsylvania: 
" There is nothing superficial in it, nothing needless introduced, noth- 
ing essential left out. The language is lucid ; and, as the crowning 
merit of the book, the author has introduced throughout the volume 
' Practical Studies,' which direct the student in his effort to see for 
himself all that the text-book teaches." 



6 THE AMERICAN SCIENCE SERIES. 

CHEMISTRY. By Ira Remsen, Professor in the Johns Hop* 

kins University. 
Advanced Course. 8vo. 

The general plan of this work will be the same with that of 
the Briefer Course, already published. But the part in which 
the members of the different families are treated will be con- 
siderably enlarged. Some attention will be given to the lines 
of investigation regarding chemical affinity, dissociation, speed 
of chemical action, mass action, chemical equilibrium, thermo- 
chemistry, etc. The periodic law, and the numerous relations 
which have been traced between the chemical and physical 
properties of the elements and their positions in the periodic 
system will be specially emphasized. Reference will also be 
made to the subject of the chemical constitution of compounds, 
and the methods used in determining constitution. 

Introduction to the Study of Chemistry. i2mo. 389 pp. 

The one comprehensive truth which the author aims to make 
clear to the student is the essential nature of chemical action. 
With this in view, he devotes the first 208 pages of the book to 
a carefully selected and arranged series of simple experiments, 
in which are gradually developed the main principles of the sub- 
ject. His method is purely inductive ; and, wherever experience 
has shown it to be practicable, the truths are drawn out by 
pointed questions, rather than fully stated. Next, when the 
student is in a position to appreciate it, comes a simple account 
of the theory of the science. The last 150 pages of the book 
are given to a survey, fully illustrated by experiments, of the 
leading families of inorganic compounds. 

From Arthur W. Wright, Professor in Yale College .-—The student 
is not merely made acquainted with the phenomena of chemistry, but 
k constantly led to reason upon them, to draw conclusions from them, 
and to study their significance with reference to the processes of 
chemical action — a course which makes the book in a high degree dis- 
ciplinary as well as instructive. 

From Thos. C. Van Nuys, Professor of Chemistry in the Indiana 
University: — It seems to me that Remsen's "Introduction to the 
Study of Chemistry" meets every requirement as a text or class book. 

From C. Les Mees, Professor of Chemistry in the Ohio University: 
— I unhesitatingly recommend it as the best work as yet published for 
the use of beginners in the study. Having used it, I feel justified in 
saying this much. 



THE AMERICAN SCIENCE SERIES, J 

CHEMISTRY— Continued. 

Elements of Chemistry. i2mo. 272 pp. 

Utilizes the facts of every-day experience to show what chem- 
istry is and how things are studied chemically. The language 
is untechnical, and the subject is fully illustrated by simple ex- 
periments, in which the pupil is led by questions to make his 
own inferences. The author has written under the belief that 
"a rational course in chemistry, whether for younger or older 
pupils, is something more than a lot of statements of facts of 
more or less importance; a lot of experiments of more or less 
beauty; or a lot of rules devised for the purpose of enabling 
the pupil to tell what things are made of. If the course does 
not to some extent help the pupil to think as well as to see it 
does not deserve to be called rational." 

Chase Palmer, Professor in the State Normal School, Salem, Mass.: 
— It is the best introduction to chemistry that I know, and I intend to 
put it into the hands of my pupils next Fall. 

A. D. Gray, Instructor in Springfield {Mass.) High School : — Neat, 
attractive, clear, and accurate, it leaves little to be desired or sought 
for by one who would find the best book for an elementary course in 
our High Schools and Academies. 

GENERAL BIOLOGY. By William T. Sedgwick, Professor 
in the Mass. Institute of Technology, and Edmund B. Wil- 
son, Professor in Bryn Mawr College. Part I. 8vo. 193 pp. 
This work is intended for college and university students as 
an introduction to the theoretical and practical study of bi- 
ology. It is not zoology, botany, or physiology, and is intended 
not as a substitute, but as a foundation, for these more special 
studies. In accordance with the present obvious tendency of 
the best elementary biological teaching, it discusses broadly 
some of the leading principles of the science on the substantial 
basis of a thorough examination of a limited number of typical 
forms, including both plants and animals. Part First, now 
published, is a general introduction to the subject illustrated 
by the study of a few types. Part Second will contain a de- 
tailed survey of various plants and animals. 

W. G. FARLOW, Professor in Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass..' 
— An introduction is always difficult to write, and I know no work in 
which the general relations of plants and animals and the cell-struc 
ture have been so well stated in a condensed form. 



8 THE AMERICAN SCIENCE SERIES. 

POLITICAL ECONOMY. By Francis A. Walker, President 

of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 
Advanced Course. 8vo. 537 pp. 

The peculiar merit of this book is its reality. The reader is 
brought to see the application of the laws of political economy 
to real facts. He learns the extent to which those laws hold 
good, and the manner in which they are applied. The subject 
is divided, as usual, into the three gr§at branches of production, 
exchange, and distribution. An interesting and suggestive 
"book" on consumption is added, which serves to bring in con- 
veniently the principles of population. The last part of the 
volume is given to the consideration of various practical appli- 
cations of economic principles. 

From Richmond Mayo Smith, Professor in Columbia College, 
N. Y.: — In my opinion it is the best text-book of political economy 
that we as yet possess. 

From Woodrow Wilson, Professor in Princeton University \ JV. J.: 
• — It serves better than any other book I know of as an introduction 
to the most modern point of view as to economical questions. 

Briefer Course. i2mo. 415 pp. 

The demand for a briefer manual by the same author for the 
use of schools in wnich only a short time can be given to the 
subject has led to the publication of the present volume. The 
work of abridgment has been effected mainly through excision, 
although some structural changes have been made, notably in 
the parts relating to distribution and consumption. 

From Alexander Johnston, late Professor in Princeton Univer- 
sity, N. f.: — Using the "Briefer Course" as a text-book, suited to 
any capacity, lam able at the same time to recommend the "Ad- 
vanced Course " to those who are better able to use it as a book of 
reference, or more inclined to carry their work further. 

Elementary Course. i2mo. 323 pp. 

What has been attempted is a clear arrangement of topics ; 
a simple, direct, and forcible presentation of the questions 
raised; the avoidance, as far as possible, of certain metaphys- 
ical distinctions which the author has found perplexing ; a fre- 
quent repetition of cardinal doctrines, and especially a liberal 
use of concrete illustrations, drawn from facts of common ex- 
perience or observation. 

HENRY HOLT & CO., PUBLISHERS, N. Y. 





APR 76 



yjj N. MANCHESTER, 
INDIANA