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Full text of "A Dictionary Of English Pronunciation"

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A DICTIONARY OF 
ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION 
WITH AMERICAN VARIANTS 



LONDON AGENTS: 

SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, HAMILTON, 
KENT AND CO., LTD. 



A DICTIONARY OF 
ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION 
WITH AMERICAN VARIANTS 

( In Phonetic Trans cription ) 

BY 

H. E. PALMER 

Linguistic Adviser to the Japanese Ministry of Education 

J. VICTOR MARTIN 

Aoyama Gakmn 
AND 

F. G. BLANDFORD, M.A. 

Corpus Chrutt CoUcge^Cambridge 



CAMBRIDGE 

W. HEFFER & SONS LTD. 
1926 



PRINTED IN ENGLAND 



PREFACE 

WHILE I lived in Europe I took it for granted that there was 
such a thing as American pronunciation; I took it equally 
for granted that educated Americans used and respected 
American pronunciation just in the same way as educated 
English people use and respect English pronunciation or that 
educated Scots use and respect Scottish pronunciation. 
On this matter, no question arose in my mind; it seemed in 
the natural order of things that it should be so. My English 
friends (phoneticians and others) held the same view. Some 
of my phonetician friends even expressed the view that to 
advocate the adoption of British pronunciation in the United 
States would be in point of impertinence about equal to 
advocating the adoption of the British flag in the United 
Spates. 

% Doming to Japan four years ago, and thereby coming into 
Very close contact with the not inconsiderable American 
population here, I discovered certain discdncerting facts 
concerning this matter of pronunciation. I would be engaged 
in conversation with an English-speaking person, and 
eventually enquire from what part of England he hailed. 

The Stranger: Oh, I'm American. 

Myself: Really? Naturalized? 

The Stranger: Oh no, native born. A hundred per cent 
American. 

Myself [too astonished to be tactful]: But, but, you . . . 
well . . . you pronounce English just as if you were English! 

The Stranger [too annoyed to be gentle} : Well, hang it all, 
man, I hope you don't suppose that all Americans are back- 
woodsmen or raw country hayseeds comparable to the yokels 
of Sussex or Yorkshire! 

That sort of conversation, repeated in modified fornTwith 
other Americans, made me realize that the people who grow 
red and angry at the mention or the assumption of American 



vi PREFACE 

pronunciation are the Americans themselves. Not all, of 
course, but still, a good many. 

I receive publications and pamphlets from America, ay, and 
letters too, all assuring me that there is no such thing as 
Standard American Pronunciation, or, worse, that what many 
call "American Pronunciation" is synonymous with "Amur- 
rican Pronunciation/' in other terms, the "Uneducated 
Pronunciation of America" or "Cockney American." I am 
assured that there is only one pronunciation that is ever 
worth mentioning or thinking about, and that is neither 
British nor American nor Scottish nor Slocum-in-the-Hole 
pronunciation, but simply "Good Pronunciation," the same 
for America as for the British Isles and Empire. 

Then comes Professor Wyld, who states (backing up his 
statements with incontrovertible evidence) that what many 
have termed "Southern English" or "British English" has 
a name but no local habitation, and the name is " Received 
Standard," the same for England (South or North) as for 
America (East, Canada, West or Southern States). 

Nevertheless, I have taken the initiative in proposing that 
column in this dictionary entitled "American Variants," that 
is to say: Pronunciations found in America which differ 
from the pronunciation of those American and British friends 
of mine who use the Received Pronunciation. 

My above-mentiohed American friends and correspondents 
are protesting against this column, which they consider to 
be a pillory rather than a pedestal. 

But let us look at the other side. For every one of my 
American friends, acquaintances or correspondents who uses 
the Received Pronunciation, I know about ten who do not. 
Some of them even allude to the Received Pronunciation as 
a local dialect confined to London and its environs. Then 
I have before me the works of Professor Krapp and the book 
of Professor Kenyon, evidences of scholarly research. On 
both sides a place is claimed for the pronunciation which is 
that of the vast majority of educated Americans. Then we 
have the evidence afforded by Hempl's dictionary, and a 
host of other witnesses testifying not only to the existence of 



PREFACE vii 

American pronunciation, but to its eligibility to be considered 
as American Standard Pronunciation. 

Not to mention the evidence of Professor Mencken who, 
going beyond the bounds of American Pronunciation, claims 
the rights of the American Language. 

And so with the help of one of my American colleagues, 
who with me has verified most of the statements made by 
American phoneticians, I have ventured to make one of the 
chief features of this dictionary the column entitled "American 
Variants." 

HAROLD E. PALMER. 
TOKYO, 

May, 1926. 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

PREFACE --__.... v 

INTRODUCTORY ....... i x 

PHONETIC SYMBOLS xxix 

NTE BY THE AMERICAN COLLABORATOR - - xlviii 

FURTHER NOTE xlix 

DICTIONARY OF ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION WITH 

AMERICAN VARIANTS ..... 1-436 



INTRODUCTORY 
The Object of this Dictionary 

THE object of this dictionary is threefold: 

(1) To provide phoneticians, students of phonetics, and 
foreign students of English with a dictionary using the 
"narrower" system of English phonetic notation. 

By "narrower system of English phonetic notation " 
is meant any system that makes use of the symbols [i], 
[ ]> M> [ U L M- For some years past the tendency to 
use the narrower system has been increasing. The 
Mattre Phonetique, the organ of the International 
Phonetic Association, makes an exclusive use of it, as 
does also the supplement Textes pour nos eleves. School 
textbooks using this notation have made their appearance, 
and their number is growing. What has been lacking, 
however, is a dictionary to serve as a key to the narrower 
notation and to the way of using it. The first object 
of the present dictionary is to provide such a key. 

(2) To provide an English pronouncing dictionary that 
will include not only the more important variants in that 
sort of English pronunciation which may be called " Received," 
but also the more important variants used by educated 
Americans whose standard of pronunciation is other than 
Received. 

Whether such a thing exists as Standard American 
Pronunciation we are prepared neither to affirm nor to 
deny. It may, however, be affirmed that the vast 
majority of Americans and Canadians use a pronun- 
ciation which varies considerably from that pronunciation 
called by Jones in the latest edition of his dictionary 
"Received Pronunciation" (identical with the P.S.P. 
of earlier editions) and by Wyld "Received Standard 
Pronunciation." In this dictionary we have attempted 
to record that variety of American pronunciation that 
seems most characteristic of educated speakers. 



x INTRODUCTORY 

(3) To provide foreign students of English and their 
teachers (including those who are engaged in composing 
textbooks for them) with a vocabulary selected in such a way 
as to include essential and to exclude non-essential words. 

On the principle of "All beginnings are difficult/' 
the first few thousand English words are more difficult 
for the foreign student than the many thousands that 
he may learn subsequently. The foreign student, 
bewildered at the extent and variety of our English 
vocabulary, rarely knows which words are of importance 
and which are without importance for his purpose. Our 
selection may be considered as a collection of "Words 
worth Learning"; it constitutes a vocabulary of "Plain 
English/' excluding alike the trivial on one hand, and the 
decorative on the other. The vocabulary therefore has 
been deliberately restricted, so that many comparatively 
frequent words will not be found in it. (See pp. xxi- 
xxviii, "Choice of Words.") 

Utility of this Book 

This book may prove of general utility to those who wish 
to ascertain the most usual pronunciations in England and 
America of some 9000 of the most useful English words and 
their inflected forms. 

It may help an English or American student better to 
realize what sounds he uses when he speaks. * This knowledge 
will be particularly useful to him when he is learning the 
pronunciation of foreign languages, or if he should be called 
upon to teach his own pronunciation of English. 

By comparing the forms given in the two columns, the 
British student of pronunciation will better be enabled to 
familiarize himself with the forms characteristic of the speech 
of (probably) the majority of educated Americans; the user 
of Received Pronunciation (be he British or American) will 
better be enabled to realize the differences between his 
dialect and a dialect which is not his; and the American 
student whose pronunciation is not Received will be better 
enabled to realize what Received Pronunciation is, and to 



INTRODUCTORY xi 

what extent Received Pronunciation is a class dialect rather 
than a Regional Pronunciation of speakers living in London 
and the South of England. 

The foreign student of English will realize the important 
fact, fundamental to all linguistic study, that great variations 
of pronunciation exist and are likely to be expected. 

Foreign students whose circumstances are likely to bring 
them into contact with America rather than with England 
will find it to their advantage to realize the nature of what 
has probably been represented to them as American pro- 
nunciation, and to familiarize themselves with it. 

Lastly, the facts recorded in this dictionary will furnish 
evidence to those who wish to see realised certain reforms 
of existing pronunciations on either side of the Atlantic. 

Pronunciation 

In the present dictionary two distinct types of pronun- 
ciation are given, each in its respective column. 

The one is headed Received Pronunciation (which term we 
may abbreviate to R.P.), and the other American Variants 
(which term we may abbreviate to A.V.). 

A casual observer, glancing at these two columns, is likely 
to assume that the first stands for that local pronunciation 
characteristic of the southern counties of England, and that 
the second is that local pronunciation characteristic of certain 
parts of the United States. Or his assumption may take a 
more concise and more generalized form; the first is British 
and the second is American. Or, moved by linguistic pre- 
judice, the casual observer may (according to the direction 
of his bias) stigmatize the first as "cockney" or the second 
as "Amuirican." 

But his assumptions are ill-founded. 

In the South of England, as in the North, as in Scotland, 
Ireland or America, there are regional pronunciations, but 
these Southern English Regional pronunciations (including 
cockney) have no closer connection with R.P. than have 
certain regional pronunciations of the United States or 
Canada. 



xii INTRODUCTORY 

If it required a Jones 1 to describe and set forth the nature 
of what he called Received Pronunciation, it required a 
Wyld 2 to show us conclusively, what ought to have been self- 
evident, that this pronunciation (called by him Received 
Standard Pronunciation) is not one of the regional pronun- 
ciations at all, but a special sort of class dialect that is in- 
dependent of locality. 

The casual observer may be excused if he shares the illusion 
so widely prevalent, viz. that all educated people pronounce 
alike. If it were true that all educated people pronounced 
alike, there would certainly be no need for a dictionary 
showing variant pronunciations, American or other. 

Whether the existence of a Standard American pronun- 
ciation is a myth or not is a matter which hardly concerns 
those who have collaborated in writing the A.V. column. 
We note, however, that when we do hear protests against the 
types of pronunciation figuring in this column, the protests 
almost invariably come from American users of R.P. 
c Although the comparison of these two columns may in- 
directly throw some light on certain divergencies between 
British and American usages, the two columns are not in- 
tended to set forth and to contrast British and American 
pronunciations. 

A user of R.P. is by no means necessarily an inhabitant of 
the British Isles, nor of England in particular, still less 
perhaps of London, a city in which probably the majority 
of natives consider R.P. only slightly less humorous than the 
rawest of American dialectal pronunciations. 

The column headed Received Pronunciation is intended to 
show one way (or more than one way) in which words are 
pronounced by those speakers who are the least influenced by 
Regional Dialects (such as Cockney, Devonshire, Yorkshire, 
Edinburgh, Belfast, New England, New York, Toronto, 
Middle West, Southern States, or other). In this column is 

1 An English Pronouncing Dictionary (Dent), Professor D. Jones, 
University College, London. * 

2 A History of Modern Colloquial English (Fisher Unwin), Professor 
H. C. Wyld, Merton College, Oxford. 



INTRODUCTORY xiii 

included a number of those variants which are commonly 
heard among the same class of speakers V 

The column headed American Variants (as the heading 
implies) is not intended to represent any given standard of 
pronunciation. Its object is to provide a place for noting 
variants which are rarely heard beyond the limits of the 
United States and Canada. 

A given native hundred-per-cent American or Canadian 
may or may not use R.P. Similarly, a given native hundred- 
per-cent Englishman or Scot may or may not use R.P. 
But rare are the cases, if any, of an Englishman or Scot 
using habitually the pronunciations shown in the A.V. column. 

We trust some day to see a similar dictionary (or a new 
edition of this one) providing a third column for Scottish 
Variants, and then probably some of us will be astonished to 
find how much more these will occasionally differ from R.P. 
than do the American Variants. Among other examples 
we might see: 





R.P. 


A.V. 


Sc.V. 


first 


f3'St 


fsast 


farst 


harmonious 


hd'moumes 


has'mounias 


har'monjas 


where 


^wes 


hwes 


M.er, AV6T 


thither 


'5ida 


'6169 


'GiQar, 'did; 



Those who have had little occasion to reflect upon the 
problems involved in composing a pronouncing dictionary 
may imagine the work to be one of elementary simplicity. 
"It is quite a simple matter: you write down in the most 
appropriate system of notation the pronunciation that seems 
to be in the greatest conformity with correct usage." Even 
the far more difficult and delicate duty of distinguishing 
between variants which are American and variants which 
are not may give the impression of being one involving no 
considerations beyond that of accurate observation. 

"Take a typical American, hear him pronounce each word, 
and whenever his pronunciation differs from the typical 
pronunciation of the user of Received Pronunciation, write 
down his pronunciation in the column reserved for American 
Variants/' 



xiv INTRODUCTORY 

Such empirical methods as these, however, will not suffice. 
Moreover, there are in the above two pieces of well-meant 
advice three or four examples of question-begging. We have 
to ask ourselves, "What is the most appropriate system of 
notation" (especially for a pronouncing dictionary that 
includes more than one dialect)? 

And we have to determine in some way or other the meaning 
of the term "good usage," avoiding on the one hand the 
trivial and slovenly, and" on the other the pedantic and 
affected. 

Then again what is a "typical American"? It is only a 
little less difficult than finding a "typical Briton." 

From the point of view of certain Americans, the procedure 
might be reversed, as "Take a typical Briton; hear him 
pronounce each word, and whenever his pronunciation makes 
you laugh, write down his pronunciation in the column 
reserved for Briticisms." 

But the finest example of question-begging is represented 
by the term "user of Received Pronunciation," for until we 
have defined the term Received Pronunciation (and, not 
content with defining it, come to realize what it stands for), 
we shall be no nearer the solution of our problems. 

Empiricism, an excellent thing in its way, is insufficient 
for the solving of the two main problems involved in the 
composing of a dictionary such as this. 

The first problem is "What is Received Pronunciation"? 

The second problem is: "In our phonetic notations, are we 
to use one symbol for every sound or one symbol for every 
phone"? The second problem we shall consider in its right 
place. The first problem cannot well be discussed without 
reference to Wyld, who is the originator of the term Received 
Standard Dialect, and apparently the discoverer of the 
abstraction for which the term stands. 

"Dialect" 

In popular usage, the term "dialect" is generally taken to 
mean: variety of a language other than the standard type, 
such as local patois. In this sense, the term "dialect" is 



INTRODUCTORY xv 

used as the antithesis of "standard" or "classical/ 1 and 
implies a certain amount of reproach or disdain. Among 
philologists, however, the term "dialect" is used in the sense 
of: any variety of a given language, including its most 
standard or classical variety. Thus Wyld speaks of Regional 
Dialects, of the Received Standard Dialects and of Modified 
Standard Dialects. In the same sense, we may use such 
terms as the "American Dialect" of English, or the "Court 
Dialect of fourteenth century English," or the "Academic 
Dialect" of French, etc., etc. 

"Dialect" and "Pronunciation" 

Any dialect is marked off from any other dialect by three 
criteria: Pronunciation, Grammar and Vocabulary/ So far 
as English is concerned, the factor of pronunciation is the 
most important. Wyld says, in this connection: 

"A great deal has been said about different types of dialect, 
and it is well to be quite clear as to the nature of the dis- 
tinctions which separate these. It will be convenient to 
deal with these under the three main heads of Pronunciation, 
Accidence, or Grammatical forms, and Vocabulary." 

"Perhaps the most important characteristic of dialect 
is its pronunciation. At the present time, it is certainly 
this feature which chiefly distinguishes Received Standard 
from the different kinds of Modified Standard, especially 
when the latter, as so often happens, is spoken by persons who 
are more or less highly educated. Such people will hardly 
differ in their grammar from Received Standard, and as 
regards Vocabulary, except in a limited number of familiar 
colloquialisms and slang which certainly do vary from class 
to class, it may be said that, on the whole, persons of the 
same kind or degree of instruction possess approximately the 
same range of words." 

When, therefore, we speak of the Received Standard 
Dialect, or of the Regional Dialects, or of the Modified 
Standard Dialects, the compilers of this pronouncing dic- 
tionary are concerned solely with the pronunciation aspect 
of these dialects. What Jones calls Received Pronunciation 



xvi INTRODUCTORY 

is hardly anything other than the pronunciation aspect of 
Wyld's "Received Standard Dialect." 

The Wyld Theory of Dialect 

Henry Cecil Wyld, Merton Professor of English Language 
and Literature at Oxford, in his various books and articles, 1 
has set forth the only theory of English dialect which (in its 
broad lines at any rate) affords a simple and reasonable 
explanation of linguistic facts as we find them. From one 
point of view, however, Wyld errs on the side of over- 
conscientiousness in his scholarly research. Although his 
theory fits the linguistic facts of English in England and 
America, he makes no statement that he cannot prove, and 
we therefore find in his works no reference to the place of 
Received Standard in America, nor indeed any reference 
whatever to America (either the United States or Canada). 
The theory explains the facts of dialects other than those 
qf English. It seems of equal application notably to 
languages so widely differing as French and Japanese. 

The limited space afforded by the introductory pages of 
a dictionary such as this renders it impossible to set forth the 
theory in the actual words of Professor Wyld, but the following 
(partly quoted, partly abridged, partly interpreted freely) 
may give a sufficiently clear idea of the theory in question. 
The remarks added between parentheses are our own, and 
may not represent Wyld's opinion. 

REGIONAL DIALECTS. 

Written English is fixed and uniform. On the other hand, 
we find almost endless variety in the spoken language. It 
is apparent that two or three different types of spoken English 
differ very much from each other in almost every respect. 
Their sounds are different, so too, in many respects are the 
grammatical forms, and there are differences in the names of 
quite common objects. 

1 Notably: The Historical Study of the Mother Tongue (Murray); 
The Place of the Mother Tongue in National Education (Murray); 
The Growth of English (Murray) ; A History of Modern Colloquial English 
(Fisher Unwin). 



INTRODUCTORY xvii 

As a rule, when we speak of English dialects we mean 
varieties of English which are associated with particular 
geographical areas or countriesr Many of these types are 
distinguished, according to the popular view, chiefly by 
possessing a more or less strange pronunciation and certain 
elements in their vocabulary which are not current in every 
part of the country, and especially not among the more 
educated portion of the community. Speech varieties of 
this kind confined to particular areas, we may call Regional 
Dialects. 

RECEIVED STANDARD. 

By the side of these, there are numerous other types of 
English which are not characteristic of any special geo- 
graphical area, but rather of social divisions or sections of the 
population, in other terms they are types of English which 
are tinged neither with the Northern nor Midland, nor Southern 
(Wyld might have added: nor Eastern, Middle- West, or 
Southern States) peculiarities of speech, which give no in- 
dication, in fact, of where the speaker comes from the 
form of English which is generally known simply as Good 
English, Well-bred English, Upper-class English, and it is 
sometimes, too vaguely, referred to as Standard English. 
Received Standard is spoken, within certain social boundaries, 
with an extraordinary degree" of uniformity all over the 
country (we might add: ancT the English-speaking world). 
It is not any more the English of London, as it is sometimes 
mistakenly maintained, than it is of York (we might ajid: 
New York), or Exeter, or Cirencester or Oxford, or Chester, 
or Leicester (we might add: Harvard, or Chicago, or New 
Orleans, or San Francisco). In each and all of these places, 
and in many others throughout the length and breadth of 
England (we might replace " England " by "the English- 
speaking world"), Received Standard is spoken among the 
same kind of people, and it is spoken everywhere, allowing 
for individual idiosyncrasies, to all intents and purposes, in 
precisely the same way. 

It has been suggested that perhaps the main factor in this 
singular degree of uniformity is the custom of sending 



xviii INTRODUCTORY 

youths from certain social strata to the great public schools. 

(But this does not account for the uniformity of Received 
Standard pronunciation among those Americans who use it.) 
If we were to say that Received English at the present day 
is Public School English, we should not be far wrong. 

Since this form of English is not now confined to any one 
prdvince, but is spoken by people of corresponding education 
and cultivation all over the country, we say that it is no 
longer Regional Dialect, but the dialect of a class, using the 
word in a very wide sense. (Or, to be precise, in Great 
Britain by the majority of people of corresponding education 
and cultivation, and, considering a wider geographical field, 
by a certain number of people of corresponding education and 
cultivation, in the United States and Canada.) " 

MODIFIED STANDARD.. 

By the side of Received Standard there exist innumerable 
varieties, all more or less resembling Received Standard, but 
differing from it in all sorts of subtle ways. These varieties 
are certainly not Regional Dialects, and, just as certainly, 
they are not Received Standard. Until recently it has 
been usual to regard them as being practically identical 
with Received Standard, .and to group them together with it 
under the general title of Standard English or Educated 
English. This old classification was very inadequate, since 
it ignored the existence of more than one Class Dialect, and 
included under a single title many varieties which differ as 
much from what we now call Received Standard as this does 
from the Regional Dialects. 

It is now proposed to call these variants Modified Standard. 
This additional term is a great gain to clear thinking.- These 
forms of Modified Standard may, in some cases, differ but 
slightly from Received Standard, so that they are felt merely 
as eccentricities by speakers of the latter; in others they 
differ very considerably, and in several ways, from this type, 
and are regarded as vulgarisms. It is a grave error to assume 
that what are known as "educated" persons, meaning thereby 
highly trained, instructed and learned persons, invariably 



INTRODUCTORY xix 

speak Received Standard. Naturally, such speakers do not 
make "mistakes" in grammar, they may have a high and 
keen perception of the right uses of words, but with all this 
they may, and often do, use a type of pronunciation which is 
quite alien to Received Standard, either in isolated words or 
in whole groups/ These deviations from the habits of 
Received Standard may be shown just as readily in over- 
careful pronunciation (as when t is pronounced in often) as 
in too careless a pronunciation (as when buttered toast is 
pronounced butter toce). Again the deviation from Received 
Standard may be in another direction. There may be 
simply a difference of sound, as when clerk is made to rhyme 
with shirk. 

Different social grades have different standards of what 
is becoming in speech, as they have in dress or manners. 
Thus, for example, where some habitually use 'em, ain't, 
broke (past participle), shillin, others would regard such 
usage with disapproval. 

Wyld then goes on to show that one type of London speecK 
of the fourteenth century is the ancestor not only of Literary 
English, but also of our present-day Received Standard. 

In concluding these observations and quotations having 
reference to dialects and pronunciation types, we may say in 
the spirit that inspired the Jones dictionary: to those who 
believe that a universal standard of English pronunciation is 
necessary must be left the task of deciding what is to be 
approved and what is to be condemned. This book will 
provide them with certain materials which will serve as data 
for their invidious task. 

How the facts were ascertained 

Thanks to the painstaking work accomplished over ten 
years ago by Jones during the preparation of his dictionary, 
the bulk of the materials used in the present dictionary were 
already to hand when the compilers started their work. 
With very few exceptions, we have accepted the facts as stated 
by Jones, and divergencies from his treatment are rare. But, 
for more than one reason, the facts afforded by the Jones 



xx INTRODUCTORY 

dictionary were too voluminous and too detailed to be in- 
corporated in their entirety into the present work. 

In the first place, the greater the choice of variant pro- 
nunciations, the greater the embarras du choix on the part 
of those for whom this dictionary is primarily designed. 
We have to reduce to the minimum the number of variant 
pronunciations both on the side of the R.P. and of the A.V. 
columns. Moreover, our attempt to show the characteristic 
divergencies between R.P. usage and the usage of Americans 
who do not use R.P. has necessitated certain adjustments 
in both columns. Without such adjustments the diver- 
gencies would seem to be either greater or less than is really 
the case. 

The evidence afforded by the phonetic transcription in 
CasselTs French-English and English-French Dictionary 
has been of value in many cases in which the choice between 
one or more variants presented difficulty. In certain cases 
the pronunciation of the English compilers, and the evidence 
offered by their own observations, have been used to determine 
doubtful points. 

The tendency has been to level under one form variants of 
little importance or significance. 

To ascertain the facts concerning the American variants, 
we have consulted the works of three American phoneticians: 
Hempl, 1 Krapp, 2 and Kenyon, 3 and brought them to con- 
cordance through the first-hand and second-hand evidence 
provided by Mr. J. V. Martin, whose pronunciation is charac- 
teristic of the educated American whose standard is other 
than the more or less special pronunciations of the Southern 
States and the Atlantic seaboard. 

1 International French-English and English- French Dictionary, 
Editorial critic of English Pronunciations- George Hempl, Professor 
of English Philology and General Linguistics in the University of 
Michigan, President of the American Dialect Society, and recently 
President of the American Philological Association, and President of 
the Modern Language Association of America. 

2 Pronunciation of Standard English in America, George Philip 
Krapp, Professor of English in Columbia University. First Lessons 
in Speech Improvement, Birmingham and Krapp. 

8 American Pronunciation, John Samuel Kenyon, Ph D., Professor 
of the English Language in Hiram College. 



INTRODUCTORY xxi 

Apparent Inconsistencies 

With regard to apparent inconsistencies, we cannot do 
better than quote from the introduction to the Jones 
dictionary : 

"A word may be said here on the 'inconsistency fallacy* 
because some critics of books on phonetics (particularly 
foreign critics) are always on the look-out for what they are 
pleased to call inconsistencies. Such critics have not fully 
realized the important fact that in linguistic matters con- 
sistency (so-called) means inaccuracy/* 

"In the best type of book on phonetics, viz. that which 
aims at recording accurately, there may be errors of observa- 
tion, but there can be no such thing as inconsistency. The 
word 'inconsistency' presupposes the existence of rules or 
principles. The accurate record is not concerned with rules; 
it furnishes materials from which rules may be deduced, and 
if the material is complete or nearly so, the principles deduced 
therefrom will probably be correct." 

Choice of Words 

The object of the compilers has not been to present a 
exhaustive vocabulary, but, on the contrary, to furnish 
that sort of vocabulary which is likely to be of the greatest 
utility to those for whose use it is primarily designed. (See 
"The Object of this Dictionary.") 

The selecting of the words was no simple task; to decide 
whether a given word should be included or excluded entailed 
the deep consideration of such questions as those of frequency, 
utility, proportion, style, and grammar. It was necessary 
to choose the words systematically, and in accordance with 
a more or less definite plan. 

For reasons into which we cannot enter here, the principle 
of relative frequency of occurrence would not have proved 
adequate, otherwise we might have been content to use the 
various word-lists so painstakingly compiled, notably by 
American educationists. 

The choice was determined largely by considerations set 
forth in the following pages. 



xxii INTRODUCTORY 

Words may, of course, be classified in various ways. They 
may be classified grammatically, each category being a given 
part of speech. Again, nouns may be grouped under such 
headings as singular, plural, uncountable, common, proper, 
etc., and verbs may be classified under such headings as 
infinitive, present- tense, preterite, participles, transitive, 
intransitive, regular, irregular, etc. Words may be classified 
on a basis of etymology as when in English we distinguish 
words of Germanic, Latin, French, Greek, etc., origin. 

But, in addition to such bases of classification, there is one 
which is concerned neither with grammar nor with etymology, 
but with what we may call (for want of a better term) style, 
or tone colour. The words precious and valuable are synony- 
mous (so far as any two words may be synonymous), they are 
both adjectives, but they are distinguished by a something 
to which it is not easy to give a name. While awaiting the 
development of the science of Semantics 1 we must content 
ourselves with calling it " a difference of style " or " a difference 
of tone colour." 

The word precious has an emotional content not suggested 
by the dry and matter-of-fact word valuable. Similarly, to 
plunder is of a different style-category (or has a tone colour 
different) from that of to rob, and plight from that of pre- 
dicament. 

Some words, then, convey not only a concept, but also the 
emotion felt by the user of such words. We may call them 
words with emotional colour, or dramatic words. Under the 
letter P we may note the following examples: 

paltry perish plunder 

pamper pestilential poesy 

pander piteous precious 

pang plague preposterous 

peal plead prowess 

perfidy plenteous puny 
perilous 

Such words as these are used only when the speaker or 

1 Consult such works as La Stmantique (Bral) , Signifies and Language 
(Welby), The Meaning of Meaning (Ogden and Richards), Word Magic 
(Ogden), etc., etc. 



INTRODUCTORY xxiii 

writer is actually moved with some sort of emotion (e.g. 
admiration, detestation, scorn, tenderness, protest, fear, etc.). 
Closely allied to these are words which, without implying 
definite emotion on the part of the user, convey or suggest 
ideas in which there is some special "tone colour/' words 
which are descriptive, even vividly so, evoking picturesque 
or striking images, of movements, of behaviour, or of ap- 
pearance. Such words (which we may term words of descriptive 
colour] are part of the vocabulary of the "painter in words.'* 
Under the letter P, we may note the following examples: 
peep pettish prank 

peer portly prattle 

peevish pounce prowl 

pelt prance puffy 

pert 

These "words of descriptive colour" lead almost in- 
sensibly into the group of onomatopoeic words, in fact, 
onomatopoeic words might be included as a subdivision of 
the group. The chief examples under P are: 
patter plash ' pop N 

pmg * plop , prickle 

pish pom purr 

pit-a-pat - 

To these might be added such doubtful "words" as pooh, 
pshaw and phew. 

These "words of descriptive colour" lead in their turn 
towards or into a style-category that might be called trivial 
words. They are "coloured" with the tints of jocularity or 
familiarity suggestive of the colloquial style as used among 
intimate friends. Under P, we find the following examples: 
pal phiz poser (problem) 

pants (noun) phossy pram 

papa piccanniny preachify 

pasty pickaback prig 

peckish piffle pub 

pelf piggy pup 

pep piggish puss 

peppery podgy pussy 

pesky 

It will be seen that some of these are frankly slang words, 
others vulgar, others childish, etc. 



xxiv INTRODUCTORY 

Returning to the words of emotional colour, we note that 
these are words that are most frequently met with in the 
elevated styles of oratory and poetry. But there is another 
class of words which, for a different reason, produce the same 
or a very similar emotional effect. These are the archaic, 
obsolete and obsolescent words. Just as a ruin or an ancient 
building may have a greater appeal to the artist than a 
modern structure, so do most of our dead and dying words 
convey an impression of charm, of glamour and picturesque- 
ness. Let us call these: words of antique colour. Out of a 
list of some forty words occurring under the letter P, we may 
note the following most typical examples: 

panoply philtre pottage 

paynim pipkin pottle 

peradventure plaguy prepense 

perchance plaudit prithee 

perforce pother 

Many words of this class are obsolete or obsolescent, for 
the simple reason that the objects, customs, etc., for which 
they stand are no longer extant. Drawbridge is a dying word, 
not by reason of anything inherent in the word itself, but to 
the fact that drawbridges themselves have become obsolete. 

In a different category from any of these are words which 
are suggestive of dignity of diction; pompous words, sen- 
tentious words; words which, when used too freely or in an 
inappropriate context, betray the pedant or the prig. Dignity 
in such cases lapses into pretentiousness, and the dignified 
into the stilted. So well is this recognized, unconscious 
though such recognition may be, that a certain type of humour 
consists in the facetious use of these words, which we may 
call words of dignified colour. 

Among these, choosing once again our examples from words 
under P, we find 

pabulum potation progeny 

palpability prandial prognosticate 

peregrinate prefatonal propinquity 

pertain prestidigitation protuberance 

peruse predilection proximity 

pluvial procrastinate pusillanimity 

ponderosity profundity 



INTRODUCTORY xxv 

Another category, which may be divided into sub-categories, 
we may call words of foreign classical and exotic colour. Among 
those of French origin, w_e_nnd 

panache personnel penchant 

persiflage prestige piquancy 

among those of Latin origin: 

peccavi pomatum paterfamilias 

penates proviso 

among those originating in America (including Spanish- 
American and American-Indian) : 

palaver palmetto powwow 

parakeet pampas pueblo 

papoose - 

with which we may include 

paleface and pathfinder 
among those from the East: 

pariah pundit punkah 

pasha 

Returning to the vocabulary of pomposity, the words of 
dignified colour, we may here remark that there are two 
categories of words which are often unjustly confused with 
these, viz. 

Technical words (including the terminology of science and 
special subjects), and precise words. (Or, continuing to use 
the term "colour" in designating the various categories, we 
may speak of these respectively as words of technical colour 
and words tinted with the colour of precision.) 

Among the 120 or so technical words figuring under the 
letter P in an ordinary dictionary, we find such typical 
examples as: r 

phanerogam pisciculture pragmatism 

pleonastic " plesiosaurus phosphite 

parthenogenesis rjolonaise jaatentfte 

pawl " piscina polyandrous 
parabola 

These technical words are, after all, nothing other than 
words of extreme precision as used by technicians whose 



xxvi INTRODUCTORY 

business it is to call by their names things which are relatively 
unknown to the majority of users of languages. 

Under the letter P, we find about the same number of words 
which cannot be assigned to any particular branch of science 
or to any particular technical subject, but which are none the 
less words of precision, words which express certain ideas more 
concisely and more aptly than their more popular synonyms 
(when such exist). Among these are: 

palliative phase proficiency 

penetration postulate provisional 

permeate prejudicial provocative 

perspicacity procedure pugnacity 

Then comes a category coloured by the tint of artificiality, 
words which are obvious inventions. Among these: 

pantechnicon palmistry pianola 

phonography philately plasticine 

pantograph 

t Now all "the words in all the categories that we have been 
considering have this much in common: that, in addition to 
expressing some concept, they suggest in various ways the 
mood, attitude, point of view, and even the character of the 
user, or the conditions in which the word is used. For 
diverse reasons each of these words may be said to be a word 
with some sort of "tone colour.".. ^ 

All the other words that make up the sum of the English 
vocabulary may, in contrast, be called colourless words. If 
we call a cat a cat we are using a word without colour, the 
word cat suggests a cat and nothing more. If we call a cat 
a PUSS, a pussy or a pussy-cat, we are using words that suggest 
the child's attitude towards the cat ; if we call a cat a domestic 
feline quadruped we are using terms that suggest the point 
of view of the scientist, the humourist or the pedant. 

In the ordinary dictionary, wherein all words are duly 
set forth in alphabetical order, the "colourless" words seem 
to be in a poor minority. On the other hand, on any printed 
page of connected text," or in the speech of an orator or of a 
conversationalist, we shall probably find that it is made up 
of from 90 per cent, to 100 per cent, of "colourless" words. 



INTRODUCTORY xxvii 

One of the purposes of the present dictionary is to present 
a selection of words which shows the truer proportion. 
Having in mind the needs of foreign students of English we 
have given the benefit to "colourless" words, and have 
included all those which, in our judgment, stand for those 
concepts which in ordinary circumstances are the most 
necessary for readers and for speakers. JH 

Among these "colourless" words we find notably "form- 
words," such as prepositions, connectives) personal pronouns 
and determinatives) and such "full-words" as the names of 
common objects, together with the commonest abstract 
nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs.' Common "colourless" 
words had the first right of admission in our select and 
restricted vocabulary. 

Among the words with "colour," the first place was given 
to words tinted with the colour of precision, the words that 
figure with such profusion in such works as encyclopaedias, 
articles in reviews, leading and special articles in newspapers, 
in other terms: in the language of those who furnish infor- 
mation with the minimum of emotion. 

Other words of "colour" received less attention, and of 
these relatively smaller proportions were chosen. 

A bushel basket can contain nothing more than a bushel 
of whatever we choose to put in it, and a dictionary inten- 
tionally limited to some 9,000 words cannot contain more 
than 9,000 of the words we consider necessary to insert in it 1 . 
In accordance with the claims of proportion, we have ad- 
mitted a certain percentage of words of every category. 
The categories which have the fewest representatives are those 
of the onomatopoeic words, words of antique colouring, words 
with foreign, exotic and artificial colourings, words with 
pompous colourings, words with technical colourings, and 
words associated with the tone-colour of the emotional and 
subjective. 

A certain number of proper nouns have been included. 
These are for the most part the commonest Christian names 

1 Actually this dictionary contains 9,645 words in heavy type. 



xxviii INTRODUCTORY 

and the best-known or the oldest-known geographical names. 
In the cas_of these and of other words, the compilers will 
welcome expressions of opinion concerning the desirability 
of including in a future edition those which, intentionally or 
unintentionally, have been omitted in the present edition. 

" Plain English" is an attractive term and an inspiring 
ideal, but a term which, from its very nature, must be and 
remain indefinite and provokingly vague. But those who 
have selected the present vocabulary have endeavoured to 
bring together a representative collection of words which may 
be considered as a vocabulary of Plain English, the sort of 
English which constitutes from 95 per cent, to 100 per cent, 
of the great majority of English as used in connected speech 
or texts. 



PHONETIC SYMBOLS 
Phones 

In the system of notation and transcription used in this 
dictionary, English (R.P. or A.V.) has been considered as 
consisting of so many independent integral units of pro- 
nunciation called "phones/' A sound, as such, may con- 
stitute a phone, but more often a phone consists of a group of 
interchangeable sounds. 

Thus ffj is both a sound and an English phone ; [ k ] represents 
an English phone, which is in reality a group of sounds varying 
between the initial sound of key and the initial sound of cool, 
and [i ] is a phone varying between the / of leap and the / 6f fool. 

[ei], [on |, [~ai], | an], [01], and other units are successions of 
sounds, but each of these successions constitutes for practical 
purposes one integral, unit of English pronunciation, and 
each is therefore considered as an independent phone. The 
theory of the phone may or may not be considered as difficult 
or abstract, but the effect of the theory is towards a simpli- 
fication of the problems of phonetic transcription. 

The Notation 

The notation used is that of the International Phonetic 
Association. The more precise form of notation has been 
adopted, a form which is in its essence identical with that 
used in the MaUre Phonctique, the organ of the Association. 
In the interest of a greater latitude and facility, the symbol 
[i] has been added. The device of "bigraphs" (i.e. the fusion 
of two adjacent letter-shapes in one symbol), e.g. [ei], [ai], 
[ f L [tjfj nas been adopted as tending to a better grasping 
of the nature of English phones (i.e. phonetic units). 

Received Pronunciation Column 

The sym|jols (with their values) used in the column headed 
"Received Pronunciation" are those figuring in the following 
list. 



xxx PHONETIC SYMBOLS 

VOWELS. 

(a) Five "free" vowels, i.e. more or less static vowels 
occurring in any position; initially, medially or finally, and in 
any sort of syllable, stressed or unstressed. In stressable 
syllables they take the length-mark []. 

1 [i] see [si-], me [mi'], [mi]. 

2 [a] France [frcrns], are [a-], [a], artistic [a'tistik]. 

3 [a] chalk [tfo-k], blackboard ['blaekbad], although [ol'ou]. 
4. [u] too [tu 1 ], you [jir], [ju], value ['vaelju]. 

6 [3] bird [b3-d], her [hs*], [hs], suburb ['sAbsb]. 

(b) Six "checked" vowels, i.e. static vowels occurring, 
in stressed syllables, only before a consonant that checks 
their duration. They generally do occur in stressed positions, 
but not always, [ae] alone may be lengthened and that only 
in certain words. 

6. [i] live [hv], mislay [ims'lev]. 

7. [e] desk [desk], parallel ['paeralsl]. 

8. [ae] map [maep], bad [baed], enthusiasm [m'Ojirziaezm]. 

9. [A] front [frAnt], product ['prodAkt]. 

10. [D] box [bnks], voluminous [vt/1/irminds]. 

11. [u] book [buk], painful ['petnful]. 

(c) Five kinetic free vowels, or diphthongs, occurring 
in any position and in stressed or unstressed syllables. 

12. [ei] name [neim], estimate (verb) ['ssttmeit]. 
13 [ou] no [nou], omit [ou'mit]. 

In unstressed syllables the two above phones tend towards 
[e] and [o]. The tendency seems more marked in typical 
American than in R.P. 

14. [ai] my [mai], idea [ai'dia]. 

15. [au] house [hai/s], outside [aut'said]. 

The first element of the above two phones varies between 
cardinal [a] and cardinal [a] both in R.P. and typical American 
usage. 

16. [01] boy [boi], royal [raid]. 

(d) Two "obscure" vowels, occurring only in unstressed 
positions, often (in rapid fluent speech) weakened to a point 
at which one can hardly be distinguished from the other, or 
(in slow and careful speech) strengthened to points at which 
they are almost indistinguishable respectively from [A] or [i] 
(or from other vowels). 



PHONETIC SYMBOLS xxxi 

17 [a] America [a'menka], better ['beta], understand [Anda- 
'staend], magazine [maega'zrn] 

In slow and careful speech, [a] tends towards [A], [o], [ou], 
[u], or [ea]. See R.P. Variants. 

18. [i] city ['siti], eleven [i/levn], majesty ['maedjisti], houses 
['hauziz], goodness ['gudnis], useless ['ju-slis], obvious 
['obvtos], magistrate ['msedjistrit]], adequate ['aedikwit]. 
In slow and careful speech, [i] tends towards [i], [e], [ei], 
[i], or [a]. 

(e) Four "murmur diphthongs," so-called as they end 
in the murmur-glide of [a]. 

19 [13] here [hid], pier [pia] 

20. [ea] chair [tfea], prayer [ptfa] 

21. [oa] door [doa], war [woa] 
22 [ua] poor [pua], cure [kjua] 

Some speakers invariably replace [oa] by [o]. 
CONSONANTS. 

23. [p] piece [prs], map [maep] 

24. [b] box [boks], rub [rAb] 

25. [t] too [tir], not [not] 

26. [d] desk [dssk], send [send] 

27. [k] come [kAm], book [buk] 

28. [g] go [gou], dog [dog]. 

29. [m] my [mat], gum [gAin]. 
30 [n] no [nou], man [msen]. 
31. [n] wing [win] 

32 [1] look [luk], small [smo-1] 

When not followed by a vowel [1] is usually pronounced 
as "dark-//' for which the phonetic symbol is [1]. 

33. [f] four [foa], if [if] 

34. [v] very [veri], five [faiv] 

35. [6] thing [Gin], earth [39]. 
36 [8] that [daet], te/^^ [wi5] 

37. [s] 5^ [si r ], piece [pi's] 

38. [z] ^ow^ [zoun], nose [nouz]. 

39. [J] shoe [fir], fcywsA [brA/] 

40. [3] measure ['mega]. 

41. [r] red [red]. 

42. [h] Ao^ [hot]. 

43. [tf] chalk [tfo'k], which [Awitf], 

44. [<Jj] /ww^ [cfcirn], /a^ [la'dj]. 

45. [j] ^55 [jss]. 

46. [w] a;asA [WD/]. 



xxxii PHONETIC SYMBOLS 

In the pronunciation of many speakers [hw] counts as an 
independent phone, as an integral unit of the English phonetic 
system. In the R.P. column this is shown throughout as 

[Aw]. 

MISCELLANEOUS SIGNS. 

['] The stress mark. This shows that the stress may fall 
on -the syllable that it precedes. The use of two stress marks 
in one word shows that the stress may fall on one syllable 
or the other, in accordance with the rules governing sentence- 
stress. Thus, the entry ['fif'trn] indicates that the word may 
be stressed as [fif'ti-n] as in [ai so- fifti-n], or as ['fiftin], as 
in [ai so- 'f if tin 'pi'p} Bed], 

[] The length mark. This shows that the vowel to which 
it is attached is long. The length mark is used only in syllables 
that are susceptible of being stressed. 

Italics. A phonetic symbol printed in italics indicates 
that the sound for which it stands is often omitted, especially 
in fluent speech. (See "Received Pronunciation Variants," 
Categories 1 to 5.) 

[(r] This indicates that when the word is followed without 
a break or pause by a word beginning with a vowel, the 
sound [r] is added. Thus the entry ['beto(r] means, for 
example, that This one is better is pronounced [6 is WAII z 
'beta], but that This is a better example is pronounced [dis 

iz d bstsr ig'za'mp}]. 

[,] The syllabic mark. Placed under [1], [n] or (rarely) 
[m], it indicates that the consonant has the value of a syllable, 
suggestive of a preceding [>] or [i]. 

American Variants Column 

The symbols (with their values) used in the column headed 
"American Variants " are essentially the same as those figuring 
in the preceding list. 

In transcribing certain American variants six additional 
symbols are required: 

[a] This symbol designates any sound between the two 
extremes of [a] and []. Thus the entry [pa-s] means that 



PHONETIC SYMBOLS xxxiii 

the word is pronounced variously as [pa's], [pa's], or in some 
manner intermediate between these two extremes. 

[o] This symbol is used notably before [] to represent the 
vowel of soar [so]. Compare this with [sous], which repre- 
sents the pronunciation of sower (one who sows). It is also 
used in those cases in which the [], by reason of a following 
vowel, becomes [r], thus soaring, story, pouring, etc., are 
transcribed ['so-rig], ['stoTi], ['po-rig], etc. 

[e] stands for the "retroflex" variety of [9]. Similarly 

[e] and fo] are used for the "retroflex" varieties of [ea] 
and [oa]. 

For further details on these and other points, see the 
general explanation of "American Variants." 

Received Pronunciation Variants 

To record all the possible variant pronunciations of the 
Received Standard dialect of English is a task lying outside 
the scope of the present dictionary. Those who wish for" 
further or more detailed information on the subject would 
do well to consult Jones' An English Pronouncing Dictionary. 
For more than one reason, however, we have thought it 
desirable to provide in many cases one or more variant 
pronunciations. In the first place, the recording of variants 
affords a more liberal or broader interpretation of pronun- 
ciation values. In the second place, it often happens that 
two variant pronunciations seem to be equally common, and 
the invidious task of selecting the one and rejecting the other 
is one that we do not feel justified in undertaking. 

Another important reason for providing Received Pro- 
nunciation variants is the presence of the column headed 
American Variants. It frequently happens that a pro- 
nunciation typical of American speech is at the same time 
not unknown as a Received Pronunciation variant; to omit 
the Received variant in such cases would convey an ex- 
aggerated or erroneous impression concerning the kind or 
degree of divergencies between Received and typical American 
usage. Thus the first vowel of the word either is generally 



xxxiv PHONETIC SYMBOLS 

[i'] according to typical American usage; to give in the R.P. 
column [nai5a(r] and [nrds] in the A.V. column would imply 
that the word neither pronounced with [r] is an Americanism, 
whereas this pronunciation is common both to R.P. and to 
typical American, although rarer in R.P. 

A certain number of variant entries are in the nature of 
isolated cases. Possibly nephew is the only word in which 
[v] and [f] are variants. Possibly primer is the only word in 
which fi] and [at] are interchangeable. But the great majority 
of the variants recorded fall into categories, most of which 
are easily recognized. 

Variant pronunciations are shown: 

(a) By italicizing a symbol with the convention that the 
sound for which the symbol stands may be or need not be 
pronounced. Thus the entry ['kAmfotab}] means ['kAmfotab}] 
or ['kAmfteb}]. 

(b) By re-spelling the word. The first of two or more 
forms indicates that it is the one which seems the most 
prevalent. Thus 

neither 'nai3a 
'ni-da 

indicates that the word has two pronunciation- values, and 
that ['nai5a] seems more prevalent than [ni8a]. 

(c) In one case we have used the device of placing a 
dagger (f) before certain words. This dagger serves as a 
reference to note 30, p. xxxv. concerning a certain category 
of variation. 

The following is a list of the more important categories: 



1. Omission of [3] 

2. Omission of [i] 

3. Omission of [j] 

4. Omission of [h] h wot 

6. Omission of various consonants 'laemfbd, lerj&6, prompt 

6. [ja] for [la] and vice versa prrvjas, pri-vias 

7. [j] for [i] and vice versa pi'aenou, 'pjaenou 

8. [la] for [i-a] and vice versa ri-al, rial 

9. [i] for [t] and vice versa ri'pleis, ri'pleis 
12. [a] for [e] and vice versa 'paeralel, 'paeralal 



PHONETIC SYMBOLS 



XXXV 



13. 


[ei] for [i] and vice versa 


'maedjtstrit, 'maedjistrevt 


10 


[9] for [i] and vice versa 


'pDlisi, 'potosi 


11. 


[e] for [i] and vice versa 


li'geij>n, le'gei/zn 


14. 


[ei] for [9] and vice versa 


kg'mju'nikgtiv, ko'mju'mkeitiv 


15. 


[r] for [e] and vice versa 


'prrmgtjua, 'prsmgtjua 


16 


[a] for [9] and vice versa 


pg'sweid, pa'sweid 


17 


[ae] for [9] and vice versa 


vg'hditi, vae'hditi 


18. 


[ae] for [a] and vice versa 


trans'leit, traens'levfc 


19 


[ae] for [ae 1 ] and vice versa 


'bae-dli, 'baedli 


20. 


[9] for [a] and vice versa 


po/tij>n, p9'tij;?n 


21 


[ae] for [ei] and vice versa 


'peitnt, 'paetnt 


22 


[A] for [9] and vice versa 


9n'les, An'les 


23 


[D] for [D] and vice versa 


lost, lost 


24 


[9] for [o] and vice versa 


'melbgn, 'melbon 


25. 


[9] for [D] and vice versa 


voryu'inings, V9'l/u'mm5s 


26. 


[o 1 ] for [09] and vice versa 


moan, mo ( n (mourn) 


27. 


[a 1 ] for [o 1 ] and vice versa 


hrntf, Icrntf 


28. 


[9] for [ou] and vice versa 


ou'bei, 9'bei 


29 


[D] for [ou] and vice versa 


'prougrss, 'progres t 


30 


[ou], [o], [D], or sounds intermediate between them for [9], marked 
by [f9], thus [fg'ridjineit] may stand for [9'rid$ineit], 
[ou'ndjmeit], [o'ndjmeit], or [D'nd$meit]. 


31. 


[o] for [ou] and vice versa 


'pouitri, 'poitn 


32. 


[09] for [ug] and vice versa 


pu9, poa (poor) 


33 


[u] for [u 1 ] and vice versa 


'bru'9n, 'bru9n 


34. 


[9] for [us] and vice versa 


'ju'3usl, 'ju'39l 


35 


[9] for [u] and vice versa 


'lo'fuh, 'lo'foh 


36. 


[i] for [ai] and vice versa 


mai'nDnti, mi^noriti 


37. 


Miscellaneous Vowel Variants 






such as 


Iei9, Ie9 (layer) 


38. 


Voiced for Voiceless Consonants 






and vice versa 


traen'si3?n, traen'zi/^n 


39. 


Miscellaneous Consonant 






Variants such as 


'pAnktjueit, 'pAnk^ueit 


40. 


Stress Variants with or without 






vowel variation 


'reprimand, repn'ma-nd 



41. Strong and Weak Forms of the 
" Weakenable Words " indi- 
cated in the text by the 
s.f. (= strong form) and 
w.f. ( weak form). 



ri'mDnstrett, 'rsmsnstreit 



aet 5/., 9t w f. 



xxxvi PHONETIC SYMBOLS 

R.P. Variants not noted in the Dictionary 

(Many of these are also common to A.V.) 
Among these are the following: 

1. [i] tends towards, and is often replaced by, a diphthong 
consisting of [i] followed by [i]. 

2. [u] tends towards, and is often replaced by, a diphthong 
consisting of [u] followed by [u] 

3 [19] tends towards, and is often replaced* by, [i] followed by 
[9] in one syllable. 

4 [ua] tends towards, and is often replaced by, [u] followed by 
[9] in one syllable. 

6 [a] vanes between cardinal [a] and a point about half-way 
between cardinal [a] and cardinal [a]. 

7. [o] is subject to slight variations, more especially in the matter 
of the amount of lip-rounding. 

8. [u] is subject to the same sort of variations in the matter of 
the amount of lip-rounding. 

9. [3] varies to some extent. 

10. [a] varies noticeably according to its position in the word 
and in the sentence. In final position, it is often replaced by 
[A] Three different values may be heard in the words 
China, cathedral ; in the latter word, the second [a] has a 
lower and more retracted position than the first [a], 

11. [ei] tends towards, and is often replaced by, [si] or [ee], and 
sometimes by a sound practically indistinguishable from [e]. 

12. [ou] varies considerably, generally in the direction of being 
advanced towards the mixed position, also to some extent 
by partial unrounding of the first element ; with some the 
diphthong approaches [ou], especially when followed by a 
" dark " [1]. Others again tend to make it [o], especially in 
unstressed syllables. 

13. [ai] varies slightly both in the direction of [aei] and in the 
direction of [ai]. 

14. [au] varies between [au] (with cardinal [a] and [au] (almost 
with cardinal [a]). 

15. [is] when final tends towards and is often replaced by [IA]. 

16. [ea] tends towards, and is often replaced by [aea. When 
final, it tends towards and is often replaced by [EA] or [A]. 

17. [oa] when final tends to have a rather open variety of [a]. 

18. [ua] when final tends to have a rather open variety of [a]. 



PHONETIC SYMBOLS xxxvii 

For more detailed information concerning the above 
variants see Jones' An English Pronouncing Dictionary, 
pages xxii-xxiii, on which the foregoing summary of variants 
is based. 

American Variants 

In the column headed "American Variants" figure variant 
pronunciations ' other than those given in the "Received 
Pronunciation" column. We have called these "American 
Variants' 1 because these particular variants are never (or 
only exceptionally) heard except from Americans and 
Canadians. The inclusion of any of these variants does not 
by any means imply that all speakers in America use the form 
indicated] it implies merely that a large number of educated 
Americans (including Canadians) use or tend to use instead 
of the Received Pronunciation, the pronunciation indicated, 
or one closely approximating to it. 

The variants indicated in this column may be classified 
under the following 12 headings: 



VARIANT 1. [a] for [D]. 

A large number of speakers replace or tend to replace the 
R P. [D] by a vowel more or less approximating to [a]. Thus 
hot, box, stop, etc., which are pronounced [hot], [boks], [stop], 
etc., in R.P., appear in the A.V. column as [hat], [baks], 
[stap], etc. 

This, however, does not apply to all words with R.P. [D]. 
Long, wrong, dog, etc., remain [log], [n>g], [dog], or, with 
certain speakers, tend rather towards [a] or [o ? ], [log], [n>g], 
[dag]. 

VARIANT 2. [a-] for [a*]. 

In certain important categories of words most American 
speakers replace the R.P. [cr] by more advanced varieties of 
the phone, these ranging between [<r] and []. Such 
varieties are indicated by the symbol [a], 



xxxviii PHONETIC SYMBOLS 

Thus half, brass, ask, nasty, etc., are transcribed with the 
symbol [a], indicating that the vowel varies between [a-] 
and [ae]. 

R.P. A V. 

half hcrf ha'f = hcrf, ha'f, hae-f, etc 

brass brers bra's = bra's, bras, brae*s, etc. 

ask crsk a-sk = a f sk, a-sk, ae-sk, etc. 

nasty ncrsti na-sti = ncrsti, na'sti, nae ? sti, etc. 

The most general value given to this phone in America is 
probably that of "cardinal" [a]. 

VARIANT 3. jVj for [a], 

In "most parts of New England, New York City and 
vicinity, the South-East and large parts of the South of the 
United States" (Kenyon), speakers conform to the Received 
usage of the [9], thus better, actor, etc., are pronounced ['beta], 
['aekts], etc. 

In the other regions, most American speakers replace or 
t6nd to replace [a] by [o] in all cases where the letter r figures 
in the traditional spelling. 1 This [s] is a "retroflex" [o], 
i.e. a variety of [9] which is produced while the tip of the 
tongue is raised and slightly curled back. Krapp repre- 
sents it by the symbol [j], and describes it as "a voiced sound, 
but the friction accompanying the vocal element is so slight 
that one might hesitate to group it with the fricatives, or 
with the consonants at all. ... In pronouncing this sound, 
the point of the tongue is not tilted as high as in [r], but if 
it were permitted to touch the roof of the mouth, which it 
does not do, it would strike the region just back of the upper 
teeth and in front of the place where the concavity of the 
roof begins." 

It should be mentioned here that the form of the symbol 
[] was designed by Krapp to represent the sound of the first 
element of the ir of bird (which he represents as [baid]). 

Considering, however, that the ir of bird may be more 
aptly represented by [so], and that the symbol [jt] is specified 
by the International Phonetic Association to be the "narrow" 

1 And at least in one case (colonel) where r does not figure. 



PHONETIC SYMBOLS xxxix 

representation of the true "fricative" r (as in red, rich, try, 
etc.), we have taken the liberty of using Krapp's symbol [] 
to represent the "retroflex" variety of [a], for which Krapp 
uses the symbol [j]. 

Examples : 

R.P. A.v. 

better 'beta 'beta 

actor 'aekta 'aekts 

collar 'kola 

honour 'Dna 



Notes concerning [ar]. 

When, however, R.P. [9] is followed immediately by [r] 
(either in the same or in the next word), the [9] remains 
and does not become []. Thus: 

R.P. A.V. 

remember ri'memba ri'msmbs 

remembering ri'msmbarir) (same as R.P.) 

after 'a'fta 'a-fts 

after all a-ftar 'o-l a-ftgr 'o'l 

VARIANT 4. [as] for [a*]. 

In a certain important category of words spelt with ar 
(occasionally, however, ear, uar, and, in one case, er), most 
American speakers give to this letter r the value of [a] (see 
Variant 3). This does not apply, however, to the majority 
of speakers in "most parts of New England, New York City 
and vicinity, the South-East and a large part of the South of 
the United States" (Kenyon), in which regions either [<r] 
remains [a-] or is replaced by [09] (see "Variants Omitted"). 

Examples : 

R P. A.V. 

far fa- fas 

farm fa-rn fasm 

heart ha't hast 

guard ga'd gasd 

artist a'tist aatist 

artistic a'tisttk as'tzstik 

sergeant 'sa'djant sasdjant 



xl PHONETIC SYMBOLS 

Note concerning [QT]. 

When, however, [a-] is followed immediately by [r], either 
in the same word or in the next word, [<r] generally remains 
[<r], and does not become [a]. Thus: 

R.P A V. 

far fa fa 

far away fcrr s'wei (same as R.P.) 

bar bcr baa 

barring 'ba-rir) (same as R.P.) 

VARIANT 5. [a] for [&}. 

With the exception of speakers in "most parts of New 
England, New York City, and vicinity, the South-East, and 
a large part of the South of the United States" (Kenyon), 
most speakers in America replace or tend to replace Received 
Standard [3] by a variant which we represent by the symbol 

M- 

According to Kenyon, in such words as her, stir, fur, hers, 
stirred, etc., the r-sound is not made before or after the vowel, 
but is the vowel itself, and he represents it by the symbol [9-]. 
Krapp, however, implies that there is a vocalic element 
(which he represents by []) followed by an r-element (which 
he represents by [j]). 

Examples : 

R.P. A.V. 

bird bs'd basd 

hurt hs-t hsst 

girl 93 '1 939! 

convert kan'vs't kon'vsat 

Note concerning [ST]. 

When, however, [aa] is followed immediately by [r], either 
in the same word or in the next word, the [3] is lengthened 
and the [] is omitted. Thus: 

R.P. A.V. 

stir st3' sts 

stirring f stsrirj (same as R.P.) 

stir away st9r a'wei (same as RP.) 

fur f9 fss 

furry 'f3-ri (same as R.P.) 



PHONETIC SYMBOLS xli 

VARIANT 6. [e] for [ea], 

With the exception of speakers in "most parts of New 
England, New York City and vicinity, the South-East, and a 
large part of the South of the United States" (Kenyon), the 
majority of speakers in America replace or tend to replace 
Received Pronunciation [ea] by a variant which we represent 
by the symbol [E]. 

The variation consists in replacing the vowel [a] by the 
retroflex variety []. See Variant 3. 

Examples : 

R.P. A.v. 

care ka kes 

dare dea dcs 

fair tea fea 

wear wea wes 

Note concerning [ear]. 

When, however, [ea] is followed immediately by [r], the 
variant is generally [e-r]. Thus: 

R.P. A.V. 

fair fea fes 

fairy 'feari 'fe-ri 

wear wea we 

wearing 'weanrj 'weTii) 

See Variant 12. 

VARIANT 7. [o] for [o] and [oe]. 

In a certain important category of the words containing in 
R.P. the vowel [o-], or its R.P. variant [oa], the majority 
of speakers in America replace or tend to replace this phone 
by a variant which we represent by the symbol [oa]. This 
variant, however, is not commonly used by speakers in " most 
parts of New England, New York City and vicinity, the 
South-East, and a large part of the South of the United 
States" (Kenyon). 

The variation consists in adding the retroflex vowel [] 
or in using it in place of [a]. 

See Variant 3. 



xlii PHONETIC SYMBOLS 

Examples : 

R.P. A.V. 

corn ko'n kosn 

fork fo'k fosk 

war wo',wo9 \vos 

Norway 'no f wei 'noswei 



concerning [OT] and [oar]. 

When, however, [o-j is followed immediately by [r], instead 
of [oar] we generally hear [OT]. Thus: 

R.P A.V. 

nor no- nos 

nor 1 HOT ai (same as R P ) 

for fo fos 

/or it IDT it (same as R.P.) 

adore 9'cba s'dos 

adoring a'cbarir) a'do-ni) 

See Variant 12. 

VARIANT 8. [o] for [oa], [o-]. 

In an important category of the words containing in 
Received Standard the vowel [oa] (in most cases with [o*] as 
a variant), the majority of speakers in America replace or 
tend to replace this [09] by a variant which we represent by 
the symbol [o]. In the pronunciation of speakers in "most 
parts of New England, New York City and vicinity, the 
South-East and a large part of the South of the United 
States" (Kenyon) this particular variant is commonly re- 
placed by [oa]. 

See "Variants Omitted." 

The main variation consists in replacing [o] by [o]. The 
secondary variation consists in replacing [d] by the retroflex 
variety [a]. 

Examples : 

R P. A v. 

force foas, fo-s foas 

mourn moan, mo-n mosn 

store sto3, sto 1 stoa 

four foa, fo r fo9 



PHONETIC SYMBOLS xliii 

Note concerning [oar]. 

When, however, [oa] is followed immediately by [r], instead 
of [or], we generally hear [OT], Thus: 

R.P. A.V. 

store stoa stoa 

story 'stoTi 'stoTi 

pour poa pos 

pouring 'poarii) 'po-rirj 

See Variant 12. 

VARIANT 9. [ar] for [AF]. 

In most cases in which R.P. has [AF], a large number of 
speakers in America use [sr]. 
Examples : 

R.P. A V. 

hurry 'hAFi 'hsn 

hurried 'hAnd 'hsrid 

worry 'WAR 'wsn 

thorough 'GArs 'Gara 

(But borough apparently remains ['bArou].) 

VARIANT 10. [en] for [art]. 

The ending -ary or -ery is generally pronounced in R.P. a s 
[an]. The majority of speakers in America pronounce it 
as [en]. 

Examples : 

R P. A v. 



customary 

dictionary 'dik/angn 'dikjsneri 

ordinary 'o'dmari 'o'dmeri 

stationary 'steijanan 'steijonen 

VARIANT 11. [on] for [an]. 

The ending -ory is generally pronounced in R.P. as [an]. 
The majority of speakers in America pronounce it as [on]. 
Examples : 

R.P. A.V. 

category 'kaetigsn 'kaetigon 

oratory 'oratan 'araton 

preparatory pn'paerstan pn'paeraton 

territory 'tsntari 'teuton 



xliv PHONETIC SYMBOLS 

VARIANT 12. Omission of [9]. 

Under the heading "Variant 3" we have noted that R.P. 
[a] may have as an A.V. [], or that it may undergo no change. 

In the following cases, however, R.P. [a] is represented 
neither by [] nor by [9] but by an omission of the vowel 
(with or without lengthening of the preceding vowel): 

R.P. [iar], [uar], [ear], [oar], [aiar], and [auar]. 
See notes to Variants 3, 6, 7, and 8. 
Examples : 

R.P. A.V 

fearing 'fianr) 'fiTirj 

fear it 'fiar it 'frr it 

touring 'tuarir) 'tu-rtr) 

tour and . . . 'tuar and . . 'tirr and 

during 'djuarii) 'dju-nrj 

Europe ' j uarap ' j u Tap 

caring 'keanrj 'ke-nr) 

Mary 'mean 'me r n 

fairy 'feari 'fe f n 

R P. A.V. 

wearing 'weanr) 'we-nr) 

wear it 'wear it 'WET it 

warring 'woanr) 'wcvru) 

war of 'woar av 'WDT av 

soaring 'sorir) 'so-nrj 

story 'stDTi 'sto'n 

pour out poT 'aut po-r 'ai/t 

In all the above cases the preceding vowel is lengthened 
as a compensation for the omission of [a]. 

R.P. A.V. 

firing 'faiaruj 'fairirj 

fire away faiar a'wei fair a'wei 

environment m'vaiaranmant in'vairanmant 

overpowering ouva'pauanrj ouvs'paunr) 

Miscellaneous Variants 

In addition to the 12 groups of variants noted above, there 
will be found a number of smaller groups, and of individual 



PHONETIC SYMBOLS xlv 

words in which variations from R.P. may be noted. Among 
these are, for instance, the well-known variants: 

R P. A V. 

clerk klct'k klssk 

mayor mea meis 

schedule 'Jsdjul 'skedjul 

lieutenant lef'tenant lu'tenant 



American Variants not noted in the Dictionary 

In addition to the American Variants indicated in this 
dictionary, American pronunciation is or may be marked by 
other and minor variants. Most of these may be covered 
by conventions, the chief of which are indicated below. 

(1) [uj-j for [u-] and [ra] for [u]. Some speakers articulate 
[u'] and [u] with little lip-rounding, and the tongue in an 
advanced position so that they approximate to the sound 
represented in phonetic notation by [ra]. 

(2) [e-] or [e] for [ei]. Many speakers replace the kinetic 
(or diphthongal) vowel [ei] by vowels tending towards the 
static [e]. This is especially the case in unstressed syllables. 
But in very few cases is the [e] so markedly static as the [e] 
of certain Scottish pronunciations. Thus take may be heard 
as [te'k], and allocate as ['aetoket]. 

(3) [o] or fo] for [ou]. Many speakers replace the kinetic 
(or diphthongal) vowel [ou] by vowels tending towards the 
static [o]. This is especially the case in unstressed syllables. 
But in very few cases is the [o] so markedly static as the [o] 
of certain Scottish pronunciations. Thus home may be heard 
as [hcrm], and obey as [o'bei]. 

(4) In general, the vowel represented by [e] tends to be 
articulated in a more open position than in R.P. 

(5) [e] for [es]. Some speakers tend to replace [E] by 
[eej. Thus care may be heard as [kea], and, as a consequence, 
the distinction between fairy and ferry may be heard as 
['fe-n] and ['feri]. 

(6) [j] for []. Some speakers use in place of the re- 
troflex vowel [a] sounds more closely approximating to a 
consonant r, thus better may be heard as ['betar]. 



xlvi PHONETIC SYMBOLS 

(7) [9] for [i]. The tendency to use in certain categories 
of words [o] for [i] is more marked among users of the A.V. 
pronunciation than among users of R.P. Thus: 

['ksenz] (carries) tends to ['kaerez] 
['kserid] (carried) tends to ['kasrad] 
['jtrslis] (useless) tends to ['jirsbs] 
['gudms] (goodness) tends to ['gudnas] 

It is difficult to say to what extent this is the result of 
speakers (possibly aiming at a "careful" pronunciation) 
tending to make their pronunciation conform to the conven- 
tional spelling. 

These seven categories of non -recorded variants seem fairly 
usual, and are not considered by Americans to represent any 
particular local or undesirable dialect. As much cannot be 
said for the seven following categories. Most educated 
Americans would probably consider them as undesirable 
pronunciations and would never deliberately set out to teach 
them to foreign students of English. 

(8) [o] for [D]. Some speakers tend to replace in certain 
words [D] by [o]. Thus on, long, etc., may be pronounced 
by such speakers as [on], [log], etc. 

(9) [aeu] for [air]. Certain speakers in the States adjoining 
the Atlantic seaboard tend to replace [a] by [se] as the first 
element of the diphthong. Thus [haus] (house) may be 
heard as [haus]. The tendency is not unknown in England. 

(10) fu-] for [ju'J. Some speakers habitually make this 
substitution in a very large number of words. Thus [njtr] 
new may be heard as [nu]. 

(11) [oey] for [a]. The vowel [oey] seems identical in 
acoustic effect with the Dutch m in huts, and is distinct 
from the [01] of the admittedly vulgar variety of New York 
dialect. 

[oey] is used by a large number of educated speakers in the 
Southern States, and [basd] (bird) is heard as [boeyd]. 

(12) Flapped t. Many speakers replace plosive [t] by 
a "flapped" variety, giving the effect of an r. Thus thirty, 
forty, may give the impression of thirry, forry. 

(13) Flapped n. When n is followed by t, many speakers 



PHONETIC SYMBOLS xlvii 

tend to combine the n and the Mn a sound known as 
"flapped-^." Thus, twenty, wanted, give the impression of 
twenny, wannid. 

(14) Nasal Vowels. In certain of the Eastern States, 
especially in New England, many speakers tend to nasalize 
the vowels. 

We may take the opportunity to note here an interesting 
fact concerning certain phenomena of "weakening." It is 
assumed by users of R.P. that in typical American pro- 
nunciation, weakening is more prevalent than in R.P., and 
they will point to such occasional weak forms as [ga] go, 
[kam] come, or too [to], as in [ga 'houm] go home, [kam 'hia] 
come here, [ta 'bae'd] too bad. Similarly users of typical Ameri- 
can assume the same thing of R.P. pointing to such occasional 
weak forms as [noubadi] nobody or [i?i6ig] anything. As a 
matter of fact, honours seem to be about evenly divided in 
this respect. "Mr. Martin of Birmingham" will be pro- 
nounced in R.P. as fmista 'ma-tin sv 'bs-mtrpm], with the 
* of Martin pronounced very distinctly and the ham of 
Birmingham reduced to [am]. The user of the pronunciation 
represented in the A.V. column, on the contrary, will pro- 
nounce [mists 'maatiji sv 'bs'rmrjhaem], with the i of Martin 
omitted, but with the ham of Birmingham given its full value. 



NOTE BY THE AMERICAN COLLABORATOR 

TPIE foregoing introduction has dealt with the main purpose 
or purposes of this book. It remains only for a brief word to 
be added concerning the matter of variants. 

The scope and size of the present book admit of only a 
minimum of variants. These have been selected with great 
care. All available trustworthy authorities 1 have been 
consulted. Unfortunately (or is it fortunately?) there is 
no commonly accepted Received Standard American English 
pronunciation and therefore no final authority on the subject 
can be cited. Scholars who have attempted to deal with 
the subject often do not agree, and in consequence the com- 
piler of such a book as this is compelled to sum up the pros 
and cons and record his findings. If a tie occurs, his personal 
opinion must then be exercised and added to one side or the 
other. Happily in the present work this has not been 
frequently the case. Indeed, only a few such instances have 
occurred. Nevertheless, the undersigned holds himself 
responsible for the variants recorded, and while realizing 
the impossibility of avoiding some mistakes, and while 
further realizing the utter hopelessness of meeting the approval 
of all his fellow American teachers and American phoneticians, 
he hopes that his errors may be few and that his critics will 
be charitable. 

It will of course be understood by users of this book that 
the omissions in the third column merely indicate that 
Received Pronunciation is most commonly used for those 
words in America as well as in England. 

As this part of the dictionary is pioneer work it may serve 
either as a guide to some abler person to do a more perfect 
and completer work, or as a warning of what is good not to do. 

JAMES VICTOR MARTIN. 
AOYAMA GAKUJN, TOKYO, 
July i, 1926. 

1 Particular mention may be made of Krapp, Kenyon and Hempl. 

xlvin 



FURTHER NOTE 

THIS third preface is at once an apology and a minority 
report. The apology is for any textual errors and misprints 
that may have been overlooked in preparing the MS. for the 
press and in marking the proofs. For such errors my 
colleagues are in no way to blame. 

For the plan and general conception of the book I can 
claim no credit and in certain details of treatment, 
notably, the selection of words and the inclusion or re- 
jection of variant pronunciations, I have very rarely 
modified the original draft even when I may have felt some 
modification to be desirable. 

I am in entire agreement with my colleagues on the 
important question of the value of differentiating [i] and [i]. 
In the present work we have rigidly observed the rule of 
keeping [*] in stressed syllables only ; but I think it safe to 
say that when much work of observation and reclassification 
has been done, which lack of time prevents for the purpose 
of this dictionary, a further very important distinction will 
be established, namely, certain categories of unstressed 
syllables in which [i] alone can occur and cannot be 
replaced by any "obscure" vowel. 

I hope to be able before long to offer the results of such 
observation to those who may be interested. 

F. G. BLANDFORD. 
CAMBRIDGE, 
Sept. 1926. 



xlix 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



A 


A 


ei 




A's 


eiz 




a 


eis./., zwj. 




aback 


9'baek 




abandon 


o'baendon 




abandons 


9'baend9nz 




abandoned 


o'baendand 




abandoning 


o'baendamr) 




abate 


a 'beit 




abates 


9 f beits 




abated 


o'beitid 




abating 


o'beitirj 




abbey 


'sebi 




abbeys 


'aebiz 




abbreviate 


9'brrvieit 




abbreviates 


9'brrvieits 




abbreviated 


9'bri'vieitid 




abbreviating 


9'bri'vieitir) 




abbreviation 


9bnvi'eiJ>n 




abbreviations 


sbnvi'eij^nz 




abdicate 


'aebdikeit 




abdicates 


'aebdikeits 




abdicated 


'aebdikeitid 




abdicating 


'aebdikettir) 




abdication , 


a?bdi'keij^n 




abdications 


aebdi'keij^nz 




abdomen 


aeb'douman 




abdomens 


aeb'doumanz 




abdominal 


aeb'dDmm} 


aeb'damm} 


abduct 


ab'dAkt 




abducts 


ab'dAkts 




abducted 


ab'dAktid 




abducting 


sb'dAktirj 




abduction 


ab'dAkj>n 




abductions 


ab'dAkJpnz 




abhor 


ab'ho'(r 


ab'hoa 


abhors 


ob'ho'z 


Qb'hosz 


abhorred 


ob'ho'd 


ab'hosd 


abhorring 


sb'hoTirj 




abhorrence 


ab'hurdns 


9b'hardns 


abhorrent 


db'hordnt 


ab'harant 


ability 


d'biliti 




abilities 


9'bihtiz 





Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variant* 



able 


'eibj 




abler 


'eibla(r 


eibl9 


ablest 


'eiblist 




ably 


'eibh 




abnormal 


aeb'no'nu?! 


aeb'nosmpl 


abnormally 


aeb'no'mah 


aeb'nosmah 


aboard 


9'bo'd 


9'bod 


abolish 


9'bohJ 


9'bahJ 


abolishes 


s'bolijiz 


9'balijiz 


abolished 


9'bDliJt 


9'bahft 


abolishing 


9'bDlifiij 


9'bah/uj 


abolition 


aebg'hjzn 




abominable 


9 r bDmui9b} 


a'bammobj 


abominably 


a'bDmmobli 


9'bamin9bli 


abound 


a'baund 




abounds 


9'baundz 




abounded 


a'baundid 




abounding 


a'baundii) 




about 


a'baut 




above 


a'bAv 




abreast 


a'brest 




abridge 


a'brid$ 




abridges 


9'bncfeiz 




abridged 


9'bn^d 




abridging 


9'bn<%irj 




abroad 


9'bro-d 




abrupt 


9'blApt 




abruptly 


9'brAptli 




abruptness 


9'brAptnis 




abscond 


9b'skond 


ob'skand 


absconds 


gb'skondz 


9b'skandz 


absconded 


9b'skondid 


9b'skandid 


absconding 


gb'skondirj 


9b'skandii) 


absence 


'aebsns 




absences 


'aebsnsiz 




absent, adj. 


'aebsnt 




absent 


9b'sent 




absents 


gb'ssnts 




absented 


ab'scntid 




absenting 


ab'sentqj 




absent-minded 


'aebsnt'maindid 




absolute 


'aebsalut 




absolutely 


'aebsaluth 




absolve 


ab'zolv 


ob'salv 


absolves 


ob'zolvz 


ab'salvz 


absolved 


db'zolvd 


ob'salvd 


absolving 


b'zolvu) 


ob'saivii) 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



absorb 


ab'so'b 


sb'soab 


absorbs 


Qb'so'bz 


gb'soabz 


absorbed 


Qb'so-bd 


ab'sosbd 


absorbing 


ab'so'bii) 


sb'sosbu) 


abstain 


ab'stem 




abstains 


ab'steinz 




abstained 


9b'stetnd 




abstaining 


sb'stemu) 




abstainer 


9b'steui9(r 


9b'stema 


abstainers 


ab'stemoz 


gb'steinaz 


abstemious 


ab'strmias 




abstention 


9b'stenj>n 




abstentions 


8b'stenj>nz 




abstinence 


'aebstinons 




abstinent 


'aebstinant 




abstract, noun, adj. 


'aebstraekt 




absurd 


9b'S3'd 


9b'S3d 


absurdly 


ab'ss-dli 


gb'ssadk 


absurdity 


ab's^-diti 


gb'sssditi 


absurdities 


ob'ss'ditiz 


9b'ssditiz 


abundance 


9'bAndons 




abundant 


9'bAndant 




abundantly 


o'bAndanth 




abuse, noun 


9'bjU'S 




abuses 


a'bju'siz 




abuse, verb 


9'bjU'Z 




abuses 


9'bjU'ZlZ 




abused 


9'bju'zd 




abusing 


o'bju-zir) 




abusive 


9'bjU'SlV 




academic 


sekg'demik 




academy 


g'kaedgmi 




academies 


9'kaed9miz 




accede 


gk'si'd 




accedes 


gk'si'dz 




acceded 


ak'si-did 




acceding 


9k'si f dir) 




accent, noun 


'aeks^nt 




accents 


'aeks^nts 




accentiverb 


dk'sent 




accents 


sk'scnts 




accented 


ak'sentid 




accenting 


ak'sentu) 




accentuate 


sk'sentjueit 




accentuates 


dk'sentjueits 




accentuated 


Qk'sentjuettid 




accentuating 


ak'sentjueitirj 





Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



accentuation 


aksentju'eijzn 




accentuations 


okssntj u'eij>nz 




accept 


ak'sept 




accepts 


ok'septs 




accepted 


gk'ssptid 




accepting 


ak'septii) 




acceptable 


ok'septsb} 




acceptably 


ok'ssptobli 




acceptance 


. 'septens 




acceptances 


ak'septonsiz 




acceptation 


aekssp'teifjm 




acceptations 


aeksep'teif^nz 




access 


'aeksss 




accessible 


ak'sesib}, ak'sesob] 




accession 


ak'seJVn 




accident 


'aeksid^nt 




accidents 


'aeksid^nts 




accidental 


aeksi'dsnt} 




accidentally 


aeksi'deiitph 




acclimatize 


o'klaimotaiz 




acclimatizes 


o f klaim9taiziz 




acclimatized 


s'klaimataizd 




acclimatizing 


o'klaimataizir) 




accommodate 


o'komodeit 


o'kamodeit 


accommodates 


o'kDmsdeits 


s'kamadeits 


accommodated 


9'komadeitid 


o'kamadeitid 


accommodating 


g'kDmodeitir) 


o'kamsdeitir) 


accommodation 


akDmo'deiJ^n 


okams'deij^n 


accommodations 


akomo'deij^nz 


okam3''deij^nz 


accompaniment 


s'kAmp^nimont 




accompaniments 


o'kAmp^mmgnts 




accompanist 


a'kAmppnvst 




accompanists 


a'kAmp^msts 




accompany 


o'kAmp^m 




accompanies 


o'kAmp^mz 




accompanied 


o'kAmppnid 




accompanying 


s'kAmp^niirj 




accomplice 


s'komplis 


a'kamplis 


accomplices 


s'kDmphsiz 


a'kamplisiz 


accomplish 


o'kDinplif 


s'kamphj 


accomplishes 


a'kDmphJiz 


9'kampli/iz 


accomplished 


9'komphjt 


a'kamplift 


accomplishing 


a'kDmph/ti) 


a'kampli/u) 


accomplishment 


s'kDmpliJmant 


s'kamphjmant 


accomplishments 


a'kDmpliJmants 


s'kamplvfmsnts 


accord 


9'ko'd 


s'kosd 


accords 


o'ko'dz 


o'kosdz 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



accorded 


o'ko'did 


s'kosdid 


according 


o'ko-dirj 


a'kosdirj 


accordance 


a'ko'd^ns 


a'kosdsns 


accordingly 


a'ko'dirjh 


s'kosdirjli 


account 


s'kaunt 




accounts 


a'kaunts 




accounted 


a'kauntid 




accounting 


o'kauntir) 




accountable 


o'kauntab} 




accountant 


o'kauntant 




accountants 


^'kauntants 




accumulate 


9'kju'mjuleit 




accumulates 


a'kju'mjirleits 




accumulated 


a'kju'mjuleitid 




accumulating 


o'kju'mjuleitirj 




accumulative 


o'kju'mjuleitiv 




accumulation 


akjumju'leipn 




accumulations 


akj umj u'letpnz 




accuracy 


'aekj urosi 




accurate 


'aekj urit 




accurately 


'aekj urith 




accusation 


aekju'zeijpn 




accusations 


aekju'zeipnz 




accuse 


a'kju'z 




accuses 


o'kju-ziz 




accused 


a'kju'zd 




accusing 


o'kju'zirj 




accustom 


^'kAstam 




accustoms 


a'kAstamz 




accustomed 


o'kAstamd 




accustoming 


o'kAstomir) 




ace 


'eis 




aces 


'eisiz 




acetylene 


o'sstilin 




ache 


'eik 




aches 


'eiks 




ached 


'eikt 




aching 


'eikirj 




achieve 


a'tfrv 




achieves 


o'tfi-vz 




achieved 


a'fi'vd 




achieving 


9'^i'virj 




achievement 


a'tfi'vmant 




achievements 


a'tfi'vmants 




acid 


'aesid 




acids 


'aesidz 




acidity 


a'siditi 





Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 


acknowledge 


ak'nDlidj 


gk'nahc^ 


acknowledges 


sk'nDhdjiz 


9k'nalio^iz 


acknowledged 


ak'nohd^d 


gk'nalicfcd 


acknowledging 


9k'nDlid$irj 


ak'nalio^irj 


acknowledgment 


9k'nDhd$ni9nt 


9k'nahc^m9nt 


acknowledgments 


ok'nolidsmants 


9k f nali6^m9nts 


acorn 


'eikcrn 


'eikosn 


acorns 


'eiko'nz 


'eikosnz 


acoustic 


9'kaustik, 9'ku'stik 




acoustically 


a'kaustikali, 






a'ku'Stiksli 




acoustics 


9'kaustiks, 9'ku'stiks 




acquaint 


9'kwemt 




acquaints 


o'kwemts 




acquainted 


9'kwemtid 




acquainting 


9'kweintirj 




acquaintance 


9'kweint9ns 




acquaintances 


9'kwemt9nsiz 




acquaintanceship 


9 r kweint9nsjip 




acquaintanceships 


9 / kweint9ns/ips 




acquiesce 


aekwi'es 




acquiesces 


aekwi'esiz 




acquiesced 


aekwi'est 




acquiescing 


aekwi'esii) 




acquire 


9'kwai9(r 


9'kwai8 


acquires 


d'kwai9z 


a'kwaisz 


acquired 


9'kwatad 


9'kwaid 


acquiring 


9'kwai9rirj 


9'kwairirj 


acquirement 


9'kwai9m.9nt 


9'kwaim9nt 


acquirements 


s'kwaiamgnts 


a'kwaismgnts 


acquisition 


aekwi'zij^n 




acquisitions 


aekwi'zif^nz 




acquit 


9'kwit 




acquits 


9'kwits 




acquitted 


9'kwitvd 




acquitting 


o'kwitirj 




acre 


'eik9(r 


eiks 


acres 


'eik9z 


'eiksz 


acrimonious 


aekri'mounjss 




acrimoniously 


aekn'moun j ssh 




acrobat 


'aekrabaet 




acrobats 


'aekrobaets 




acrobatic 


aekrs'baetik 




across 


a'kros, o'kros 




acrostic 


9'kTDStlk 




acrostics 


a'krostiks 




act 


'aekt 





Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



acts 


'eEktS 




acted 


'sektid 




acting 


'aektuj 




action 


'aek|0n 




actions 


'Eekj>nz 




active 


'aektiv 




activity 


aek'tiviti 




activities 


aek'tivitiz 




actively 


'aektivli 




actor 


'aekt9(r 


'aekta 


actors 


'aektaz 


'aektaz 


actress 


'anklris 




actresses 


'aektnsiz 




actual 


'aektjiral 




actually 


'aektjuali 




actuality 


aektju'aeliti 




actualities 


aektju'aehtiz 




actuary 


'asktjuari 


'aektjuen 


actuaries 


'aektjugriz 


'aektjueriz 


acute 


9'kjU't 




acuter 


9'kju*t9(r 


9'kjU't9 


acutest 


g'kju'tist 




acutely 


9'kjU'tlt 




acuteness 


o'kju'tnis 




A.D. 


'ei'di 1 ('aenou'dDminai) 




adapt 


a'daept 




adapts 


o'daepts 




adapted 


9'daeptid 




adapting 


9'daeptirj 




adaptability 


9dsept9'biliti 




adaptable 


o'dsept9b] 




adaptation 


aedaep'teij^n 




adaptations 


aedaep'teij^nz 




add 


'd 




adds 


'aedz 




added 


'aedid 




adding 


'sedu) 




addition 


a'dijsn 




additions 


9'diJ^nz 




additional 


a'dijanpl 




address 


9'dres 




addresses 


9'drssiz 




addressed 


s'drest 




addressing 


s'drssirj 




adept, noun 


'aedept, a'dspt 




adepts 


'asdcpts, s'dspts 




adept, adj. 


9 f dspt, ae'dept 





Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



adequacy 


'ccdikwosi 




adequate 


'aedikwtt 




adequately 


'aedikwitlt 




adhere 


9d'hi9(r 


od'hio 


adheres 


9d'hl9Z 


9d'hl9Z 


adhered 


9d'hi9d 


9d'hisd 


adhering 


9d'hi9rirj 


9d / hi i rirj 


adherer 


9d'hi9r9(r 


jd'hiT9 


adherers 


od'hioroz 


ad'hi'rsz 


adherence 


dd'hiarans 


od'hrrans 


adherent 


9d'hi9ront 


od'hi'rant 


adherents 


od'luaronts 


ad'hi'rants 


adhesion 


9d'hi'3Pn 




adhesions 


9d'hi"^nz 




adjectival 


aed$ik'taiv01 




adjectivally 


aed$ik'taivph 




adjective 


'aed$iktiv 




adjectives 


'aedjiktivz 




adjoin 


a'dpm 




adjoins 


o'c^oinz 




adjoined 


o'o^omd 




adjoining 


9'6^oinirj 




adjourn 


9 f <^3'n 


o'd^san 


adjourns 


o'djs'n/. 


o'o^ssnz 


adjourned 


9^3'nd 


9'c^39nd 


adjourning 


o'^s'nui 


o'o^ssnir) 


adjournment 


a'f^S'nmsnt 


n'c^39nrn9nt \ 


adjournments 


o'c^s'iimoiits 


a'c]53nm9nts 


adjunct 


'ced$Ai)/rt 




adjuncts 


'aec^Arj/^ts 




adjust 


s'c^Ast 




adjusts 


a'^Asts 




adjusted 


9'<^AStld 




adjusting 


g'djAStirj 




adjustment 


9 f c^AStm9nt 




adjustments 


9'(^Astni9nts 




adjutant 


'sed;ut9nt 




adjutants 


'aec^ut9nts 




administer 


9d'mimst9(r 


ad'mmist 


administers 


gd'mmistgz 


9d'mmistsz 


administered 


9d'mmist9d 


ad'mmistsd 


administering 


gd'mmist^rirj 




administration 


Qdmmis'tretJ^n 




administrations 


9dmims'treiJ>nz 




administrative 


9d'mmistr9ttv 


9d'mimstreitiv 


administrator 


ad'mmistreit9 




admirable 


'sedmorabl 





Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



admirably 
admiral 


'sedni9r9b}i 




admirals 


'aedm9r9lz 




admiralty 
admiration 
admire 

admires 


'aedmgrelti 
aedm9'reij>n 
9d'mai9(r 
9d'mai9z 


9d'mais 


admired 


9d'mai9d 


gd'maisd 


admiring 
admiringly 
admissible 
admission 


dd'maiaru) 
od'maionnli 
od'rmsib} 
9d'rnif<?n 


gd'mairir) 
gd'mairinh 


admissions 


gd'mifpnz 




admit 


9d'rmt 




admits 


ad'mits 




admitted 


9d f mittd 




admitting 
admittedly 
admittance 


gd'mituj 
9d'mittdli 
od'mit9ns 




admittances 


9d'mit9nsiz 




ado 


o'du- 




adolescence 


aedg'lespns 




adolescent 


aeda'lss^nt 




adopt 

adopts 
adopted 
adopting 
adoption 
adoptions 
adorable 


9'dopt 
o'dDpts 
9'dDptid 

9'dDptU) 

a'dopj^n 
o'doppnz 


a'dapt 
9'dapts 
9'daptid 
9'daptir) 


adorably 
adoration 


9'dOT9b}l 




adorations 
adore 


aedg'reif^nz 
g'do9(r 


9 , dD8 


adores 


9'doaz 


9'doaz 


adored 


9'dD9d 


9'dosd 


adoring 
adorer 


9'do9rtrj 


9'do'rir) 

9'dOT3) 


adorers 


9 QD9r9Z 


9 f do'rz 


adorn 


9 dD*n 


s'dosn 


adorns 


9'do'nz 


9'dosnz 


adorned 


9'do-nd 


s'doand 


adorning 
adornment 


9'do'nmsnt 


9'dosnmont 


adornments 


9'do'nmonts 


g'dosnmQnts 


adrift 


s'drift 




adult 


9'dAlt 





Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



adults 


9'dAlts 




adulterate 


9'dAlt9reit 




adulterates 


9'dAlt9ietts 




adulterated 


o'dATtereitid 




adultering 


9 f dAlt9reituj 




adulteration 


adAlta'reij^n 




adulterations 


9dAlt9'reiJ>nz 




advance 


od'vcrns 


9d'va f ns 


advances 


ad'vcrnsiz 


9d'vansiz 


advanced 


od'vcrnst 


adVanst 


advancing 


od'vcrnsir) 


9d'vansvi) 


advantage 


ad'vcrntidi; 


adVantic^ 


advantages 


9d'va f ntid$iz 


9d'vanti<%iz 


advantageous 


sedvan'teid$9s 




advantageously 


aedv9n'teid$asli 




adventure 


9d'ventf9(r 


9d'ventfs 


adventures 


ad'ventfaz 


9dVentfaz 


adventurous 


ad'ventjaras 




adverb 


'aedvsb 


'aedvasb 


adverbs 


'aedvsbz 


'aedvssbz 


adverbial 


ad'vs'bial 


9d'vsbi9l 


adverbially 


sd'vs'biali 


9d'vsabi9li 


adverse 


'aedvss 


'aedvsss 


adversely 


'aBd'va-sh 


'aed'vsssli 


advertise 


'aedv9taiz 


'aedvataiz 


advertises 


'aedv9taiziz 


'aedvataiziz 


advertised 


'aedv9taizd 


'aedvstaizd. 


advertising 


'aedv9taizu) 


'aedvstaizig 


advertisement 


9d'v3'tism9nt 


'aedvstaizmgnt 


advertisements 


ad'vs'tismgnts 


'aedvstaizmants 


advice 


od'vais 




advices 


od'vaisiz 




advisability 


9dvaiz9'bihti 




advisable 


ad'vaizab} 




advise 


ad'vaiz 




advises 


Qd'vaiziz 




advised 


ad'vaizd 




advising 


sd'vaizir) 




adviser 


ad'vaiza(r 


ad'vaizs 


advisers 


ad'vaizaz 


ad'vaizsz 


advisory 


ad'vaizan 




advocate 


'aedvgkeit 




advocates 


'aedvakeits 




advocated 


'aedvakeitid 




advocating 


'aedvskeitir) 




aerial 


'9rt9l 


ei'iTial 


aerially 


'9ri9ll 


ei'i'rwh 



10 



Traditional Spelling 



Received Pronunciation 



American Variants 



aeronaut 


'9r9not 




aeronauts 


'earanots 




aeronautic 


eara'no'tik 




aeronautical 


eara'no'tik^l 




aeronautics 


Earo'no'tiks 




aeroplane 

aeroplanes 
aesthetic 


'eareplem 
'earaplemz 
es'Gettk, is'Oetik 




aesthetically 
affable 
affair 

affairs 


ss'9etik9h, is'0etik*h 
'eefobl 

o'feo(r 
a'feoz 


9 f fE3 
9'fESZ 


affect 


9'fekt 




affects 


9'fekts 




affected 


9'fektid 




affecting 
affectation 
affectations 
affection 
affections 
affectionate 
affectionately 
affiliate 


a'fsktirj 
aefek'teijpn 
aefek'teij^nz 
o'fekj^n 
o'fskj^nz 
s'fskj^nit 
a'fskj^nith 
g'filieit 




affiliates 


s'filieits 




affiliated 


a'filieitvd 




affiliating 
affinity 

affinities 


a'filieitirj 
9'fmiti 
a'fmitiz 




affirm 


o'f3-m 


9'f3Hl 


affirms 


o'fs-mz 


o'fasmz 


affirmed 


a'fs'md 


9'f9smd 


affirming 
affirmation 
affirmations 
affirmative 


3'f9'mirj 
asfo'meijsn 
aefa'meijpnz 
a'fs'mativ 


g'fasmirj 
aefa'meif^n 
aefs'meijpnz 

9'f38m9tlV 


affirmatively 
afflict 


9 f f3'm9tivll 

9'fhkt 


o'fssmgtivli 


afflicts 


a'flikts 




afflicted 


s'fliktid 




afflicting 
affliction 
afflictions 
afford 


s'fliktirj 
a'flik/ra 
o'flikj^nz 
9'fo'd 


9'fosd 


affords 


9'fO'dz 


9'foadz 


afforded 


9'fo'did 


9'fosdid 


affording 
afraid 


d'fo'dirj 
o'freid 


o'fosdirj 



11 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



afresh 


9'freJ 




Africa 


'aefrikg 




African 


'aefrikan 




Africans 


'aefnkanz 




after 


'd'fta(r 


'a-fts 


afternoon 


afta'mrn 


afts'nu-n 


afternoons 


aftd'nirnz 


aft9'nu r nz 


afterthought 


'd'ft90Dt 


'a-ftsOot 


afterwards 


'crftowodz 


'a ? ftwdz 


again 


9'gein, 9'gsn 




against 


o'geinst, e'genst 




age 


'eid; 




ages 


'etd$iz 




aged, adj. 


'eid$id 




agency 


'eic^snsi 




agencies 


'eic^onsiz 




agent 


'eid^ont 




agents 


' ei chants 




aggravate 


'aegroveit 




aggravates 


'acgroveits 




aggravated 


'aegroveitid 




aggravating 


'aegrsveitirj 




aggressive 


9 f grsstv 




aggressively 


9'grssivli 




agile 


'aec^ail 


'ac^il 


agility 


s'o^ihti 




agitate 


'se^tteit 




agitates 


'aec^iteits 




agitated 


'ardjiteitid 




agitating 


'sed^iteituj 




agitator 


'aed$iteito(r 


'aec^iteita 


agitators 


'aed^iteitoz 


'oedtjitettsz 


agitation 


aeo^/teij^n 




agitations 


aedji'teiJVnz 




agnostic 


aeg'nostik, g'nDStik 


aeg'nastik 


agnostics 


aeg'nDStiks, 


seg'nastiks 




ag'nostvks 




ago 


a'gou 




agony 


'aegani 




agonies 


'aeganiz 




agree 


s'gri' 




agrees 


a'gri'z 




agreed 


9'grrd 




agreeing 


9'gri'ii) 




agreeable 


d'grwbj, s'gri'ab) 




agreeably 


d'griQbh. a'gri'dbh 




agreement 


d'gh'mdnt 





12 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



agreements 


a'grrmants 




agricultural 


aegri'kAltjaral 




agriculture 


'aegnkAltfa(r 


'aegnkAl^a 


aground 


a'graund 




ague 


'eigju 




ah 


'd- 




aha 


a'hd' 




ahead 


9'hsd 




ahem 


'm, 'hm 




aid 


'eid 




aids 


'eidz 




aided 


'eidid 




aiding 


'eidirj 




aim 


eim 




aims 


'eimz 




aimed 


'eimd 




aiming 


'eirmr) 




ain't 


'emt 




air 


f9(r 





airs 


't9Z 


3Z 


aired 


'tad 


ead 


airing 


't9rirj 


e-rirj 


airship 


\9jlp 


'fsjip 


airships 


'tojips 


'esfips 


aisle 


ail 




aisles 


'ailz 




aitch, H 


eitf 




aitches, H's 


'eitfiz 




alarm 


o'la-ni 


o'ldom 


alarms 


o'la-mz 


9'ldsmz 


alarmed 


o'lcrmd 


9'laamd 


alarming 


s'la-miij 


o'laamirj 


alarmingly 


o'la-mirjli 


9'lci)inirjli 


alas 


o'laes, 9'lci'b 




Albert 


'aelbot 


'aelbat 


album 


'aelbam 




albums 


'aelb9mz 




alcohol 


'aelk9hol 




alcoholic 


aelkg'hDhk 




alert 


9'l3't 


9'l3t 


Alexander 


'aehg'zaenda^ 


sehg'za'nd 


Alfred 


'selfrid 




algebra 


'aelc^ibra 




algebraic 


aeldji'brenk 




algebraically 


aelcfci'breukQh 




Algeria 


Serbians 


ael'^iTia 


alien 


'evlwn, 'eiljan 





13 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



aliens 


'eiltanz/eiljanz 




alight 


a'lait 




alights 


9'laits 




alighted 


9'laitid 




alighting 


9'laitirj 




alike 


9'laik 




alive 


s'laiv 




alkali 


'aelkalai 




alkalies 


'aelkdlaiz 




all 


'O'l 




allay 


9'lei 




allays 


s'leiz 




allayed 


9'leid 




allaying 


9'leurj 




allegation 


aeh'geifpn 




allegations 


aeli'geifimz 




allege 


9'lS(% 




alleges 


9'lso^iz 




alleged 


g'lecfcd 




alleging 


9'lS(|lI) 




allegiance 


s'li' <^^ns 




allegory 


'seliggri 


'seligori 


allegories 


'aehggriz 


'aelupriz 


alleviate 


9'h'vieit 




alleviates 


g'li'vieits 




alleviated 


9'li'vieitid 




alleviating 


9'li'vieitir) 




alley 


'sell 




alleys 


'aehz 




alliance 


a'laians 




alliances 


a'laiansiz 




alliterate 


g'litoreit 




alliterates 


9'ht9reits 




alliterated 


9'ht9reitid 




alliterating 


9'ht9reitirj 




alliteration 


9ht9'reiJ^n 




alliterations 


ghts'reijpnz 




allocate 


t'aelakeit 




allocates 


f'ael9keits 




allocated 


faelakeitid 




allocating 


f'aelskeitirj 




allocation 


taeb'keij^n 




allocations 


jaela'keif^nz 




allot 


9'lPt 


a'lat 


allots 


9'lDtS 


o'lats 


allotted 


s'lotid 


9'latid 



f See Note 30, p. xxxv. in Introduction. 
14 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



allotting 


9'lotirj 


a'latii) 


allotment 


a'lDtmant 


a'latmQnt 


allotments 


o'lotmants 


a'latmants 


allow 


a'lau 




allows 


9'lauz 




allowed 


9'laud 




allowing 


a'lauuj 




allowance 


o'lauans 




allowances 


9'lau9nsiz 




all right 


'al'iait 




allude 


a'tyu'd 




alludes 


a'l/u-dz 




alluded 


a'1/u'did 




alluding 


9'1/u'duj 




allure 


a'l;ua(r 


9 r l]U3 


allures 


a'l/uoz 


a'ljusz 


allured 


a'l;udd 


o'ljusd 


alluring 


o'lyuonr) 


9'lju'rir) 


alluringly 


3 r l;u3rinh 




allusion 


a'tyu^n 




allusions 


o'l/u'35nz 




ally, noun 


'aelai 




allies 


'aelaiz 




ally, verb 


a'lai 




allies 


9'laiz 




allied 


o'laxd 




allying 


o'laiir) 




almanac 


'o'/manaek 




almanacs 


'o'/manaeks 




almighty 


ol'maiti 




almond 


'a'mand 


'a 'mend 


almonds 


'a'mandz 


'a f ni9ndz 


almost 


'o'lmoust 




alms 


a'mz 




alone 


9'! oun 




along 


9'lor) 




alongside 


alon'said 




aloof 


3'lU'f 




aloofness 


a'hrfnis 




aloud 


a'laud 




alpaca 


ael'paeka 




alphabet 


'lf3btt 


'aelf9bst 


alphabets 


'aelfabits 


'aelfabsts 


alphabetic 


selfa'betik 




alphabetical 


ffilfa'betvkpl 




alphabetically 


aelfa'bstilwli 




already 


'ol'redi 





Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



also 


'O'lSOU 




altar 


'o'lt9(r, 'olt9(r 


'o-lts 


altars 


'o'ltaz, 'oltoz 


'O'ltSZ 


alter 


'o'lt9(r, 'Dlt9(r 


'D'lt 


alters 


'0'rt9Z/Dlt9(z 


'O'ltSZ 


altered 


'D'lt9d,'Drt9d 


'D'itsd 


altering 


'o'ltmrj, 'oltmrj 




alteration 


olt9 f reij>n, Dlt9'reiJ0n 




alterations 


olts'reij^nz, 






Dlta'reifznz 




altercation 


Dlto'keifan, 






Dlt9'keiJ0n 




altercations 


olta'kcij^nz, 






ult^'keij^nz 




alternate, ad] . 


ort3'mt 


ortssnit 


alternately 


ol'ts'nith 


ort39mtlt 


alternate, verb 


'o'ltsneit 


'o'ltssneit 


alternates 


'D'ltaneits 


'o'ltssneits 


alternated 


'o'ltsneitid 


'o'ltssneitid 


alternating 


'o'ltsneituj 


'o'ltssneitii) 


alternation 


Dlt3'neijs>n 


oltss'neij^n 


alternations 


olts'neij^nz 


oltss'neij^nz 


alternative 


orte'n9tiv 


Drtssn9tiv 


alternatives 


ort3'n9tivz 


ort3sn9tivz 


alternatively 


ol'ts'ngtivh 


ort3sn9tivh 


although 


ol'dou 




altho (Amer } 






altogether 


olt9'ge69(r 


olt9 r gs6 


altruism 


'aeltruizin 




altruist 


'aeltruist 




altruists 


'aeltruists 




altruistic 


aeltru'istik 




altruistically 


aeltru'istikgh 




alum 


'ael9m 




aluminium 


aelju'mmJ9m, 






aelju'mmi9m 




aluminum (used only 


tn America) 


a'lju'mmam 


alveolar 


'aelvi9l9(r, aelvi'oul9(r 


aelvi'ouls 


alveolars 


'aelvi9l9z, selvi'oulgz 


aelvi'oulsz 


alveole 


'aelvioul 




alveoles 


'aelvioulz 




always 


'o-lwiz, 'o-lwaz, 






'o'lweiz 




a.m. 


'ei 'em 




AM from be 


asms./. 






am, m, w.fs. 




amalgamate 


a'maelgameit 





16 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



amalgamates 


g'maelggmeits 




amalgamated 


9'maekj9meitid 




amalgamating 


g'maekpmeitir) 




amalgamation 


9maelg9'meif;m 




amalgamations 


9maelg9'meiJ>nz 




amass 


9'maes 




amasses 


9'maesiz 




amassed 


9'maest 




amassing 


9'maesvr) 




amateur 


'aem9tju9(r, 


'aem9tfs, 'aematjus, 




'aema't3'(r 


'aem9't9s 


amateurs 


'aemgtjugz, 


^aematfaz, 'aematjus 


amateurish 


'am^tjuanj 


sem9'tju'nj 




'aem9't3Tif 




amaze 


9'meiz 




amazes 


9'meiziz 




amazed 


g'meizd 




amazing 


g'meizirj 




amazingly 


9'meizinh 




ambassador 


aem'baes9d9(r 


aem'baessds 


ambassadors 


aem'baes9d9z 


aem'baesgdaz 


ambiguity 


aembi'gjuiti 




ambiguities 


aembi'gjuitiz 




ambiguous 


aem'bigjugs 




ambiguously 


aem'bigjugsh 




ambition 


aem'bij^n 




ambitions 


'sem'bif^nz 




ambitious 


aem'bi/9s 




ambitiously 


aem'bij9sli 




ambulance 


'aembjubns 




ambulances 


'aembjulgnsiz 




amend 


9'msnd 




amends 


9'msndz 




amended 


9'mendvd 




amending 


9'mendirj 




amendment 


d'mGndmgnt 




amendments 


g'mendmgnts 




America 


9 f merik9 




American 


g'msnkpn 




Americans 


g'msrik^nz 




americanism 


9 f menk9nizin 




americamsms 


9'msrik9nizmz 




americanize 


s'merikanaiz 




americanizes 


9'msrik9naizvz 




americanized 


9'msnkonaizd 




americanizing 


9 / m6nk9naizir) 





17 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 


amiable 


'eimjab}, 'eimiab} 




amiably 


'eimpbh, 'eimiobli 




amicable 


'aemikabj 




amicably 


'aemikabh 




among 


s'mArj 




amongst 


a'mAnst 




amorous 


'aemaras 




amorously 


'aemorash 




amount 


9'maunt 




amounts 


o'maunts 




amounted 


a'mairntid 




amounting 


a'mauntu) 




ample 


'aemp} 




ampler 


'aempl9(r 


'aempla 


amplest 


'aemplist 




amply 


'aemph 




amplification 


aemphfi'keij^n 




amplifications 


aemphfi'keijpnz 




amplify 


'aemphfai 




amplifies 


'aemphfaiz 




amplified 


'aemphfaid 




amplifying 


'aemphfaiir) 




amputate 


'aempjuteit 




amputates 


'aempjuteits 




amputated 


'aempjuteitid 




amputating 


'aempjuteitirj 




amputation 


aempju'teijsn 




amputations 


aempju'tei/^nz 




Amsterdam 


'aemsta'daem 


'aemstadaem 


amuse 


a'mju-z 




amuses 


a'mju-ziz 




amused 


a'mju'zd 




amusing 


a'mju'zirj 




amusingly 


o'mju'zirjh 




amusement 


a'mju'zmdnt 




amusements 


s'mju'zmants 




an 


aen s.f., an w.f. 




anachronism 


d'naekrdmzm 




anachronisms 


a'naekrsmzmz 




anaemic 


a'ni'mik 




anaesthetics 


aenis'Getiks 




analogous 


d'naelagas 




analogously 


d'naelagasli 




analogy 


d'naelac^i 




analogies 


a'naebc^iz 




analyse 


'aenalaiz 




analyses 


'aenalaiziz 





18 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



analysed 


'aenslaizd 




analysing 


'aenalaizirj 




analysis 


a'naelasis 




analyses 


a'naelasiz 




analyst 


'aenalist 




analysts 


'aenalists 




anarchist 


'aenakist, 'aenakist 


'aenakist, 'aenaakist 


anarchists 


'aenakist, 'aenakists 


'aenkists, 'asnaakists 


anarchy 


'aenaki, 'aenaki 


'aenki, 'aenaaki 


anatomy 


9'naet9mi 




ancestor 


'aensista(r, 


'aensest 




'aensest9(r 




ancestors 


'aensistaz, 


'aensestez 




'aensest9z 




ancestral 


aensestral 




ancestry 


'aensistri, 'aensestri 




anchor 


f aerjk9(r 


'aerjks 


anchors 


'aerjkaz 


'aerjksz 


anchored 


'aerjkad 


'aerjkad 


anchoring 


'aenkanrj 




ancient 


'emj>nt 




anciently 


'einj^nth 




and 


'aend s.f , and w.f. 




Andrew 


'aendru 




anecdote 


'aenikdout 




anecdotes 


'aenikdouts 




aneroid 


'aenorpid 




aneroids 


'aenaroidz 




angel 


'em^l 




angels 


'em<%^lz 




anger 


'aeng 3 (r 


'aenga 


angle 


'aerjgl 




angles 


'aerjglz 




anglicism 


'aenghsizip 




anglicisms 


'aerjglisizrpz 




anglicize 


'aerjghsaiz 




anglicizes 


'aerjglvsaiziz 




anglicized 


'aerjglisaizd 




anglicizing 


'aerjglisaizirj 




Anglo-, prefix 


'aerjglou 




angry 


'ae^gri 




angrier 


'aerjgriafr 


'aerjgrid 


angriest 


'aerjgnist 




angrily 


'aerjgrilt 




anguish 


'aengwij 




angular 


'aei)gjul9(r 


'angjula 



19 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



aniline 


'aemlin, 'aenilam 




animal 


'aenim01 




animals 


'aemmplz 




animate 


'aemmeit 




animates 


'aemmeits 




animated 


'aenimeitid 




animating 


'aemmeitirj 




animation 


aem'meij>n 




animosity 


aeni'mositi 


aem'masiti 


- animosities 


aem'mDSitiz 


aeni'masitiz 


ankle 


'aenkj 




ankles 


'a^rjkjz 




Ann(e) 


'am 




annals 


'aen^lz 




annex, verb 


s'neks 




annexes 


o'nsksiz 




annexed 


a'nekst 




annexing 


o'neksirj 




annex, noun 


'aeneks 




annexes 


'aeneksiz 




annexation 


aenek'seijzn 




annexations 


aensk'seij^nz 




annihilate 


a'nai9leit 






o'naiileit 




annihilates 


a'nai9letts 






a'nauletts 




annihilated 


a'naioleitid 






o'naiileitid 




annihilating 


9 f nai9leitirj 






9'naiiletttr) 




annihilation 


an^'kitT 




annihilations 


onaia'leij^nz 




anniversary 


aeni'vs'san 


aeni'vsason 


anniversaries 


aeniVs'sanz 


aeni'vsssanz 


announce 


e'nauns 




announces 


g'naunsiz 




announced 


o'naunst 




announcing 


9'naunsirj 




announcement 


s'naunsmant 




announcements 


a'naunsmants 




annoy 


a'noi 




annoys 


a'noiz 




annoyed 


o'noid 




annoying 


s'noiirj 




annoyance 


a'naians 





20 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 


annoyances 


9'noi9iisiz 




annual 


'aenji/9l 




annually 


'aenjugh 




anomalous 


9'nDm9l9S 


9 f nam9l9s 


anomaly 


9'nDmali 


o'namgh 


anomalies 


a'nDmaliz 


9 f nam9hz 


anonymous 


o'nDnim9S 


9'nan9m9s 


anonymously 


a'nDnim9sh 


o'nangmgsli 


another 


a'nA59(r 


9'nA6s 


answer 


'crns9(r 


'a-nss 


answers 


'crns9z 


'a-nssz 


answered 


'crns9d 


'a-nssd 


answering 


'a-nsarirj 


'a-ns9rirj 


answerable 


'a-ns^ob} 


'a-ns^rgbj 


ant 


'aent 




ants 


'aents 




a 'n't, am not 


'ci'nt 


(apparently not used in 






America] 


antagonism 


aen'tseg9mzm 




antagonisms 


aen'taegamzmz 




antagonist 


aen'taeganist 




antagonists 


aen'taeggmsts 




antagonistic 


aentaeg9'nistik 




antagonize 


aen'taeganaiz 




antagonizes 


asn'taegonaiziz 




antagonized 


aen'taeg^naizd 




antagonizing 


aen'taegonaizirj 




antecedent 


aenti'si'dont 




antecedents 


aenti'si'donts 




antelope 


'aentiloup 




antelopes 


'aentdoups 




anterior 


aen'ti9rto(r 


aen'trri9 


anthracite 


'ajnOrgsait 




anti-, prefix 


'aenti 




antics 


'aentiks 




anticipate 


aen'tisipeit 




anticipates 


aen'tisipeits 




anticipated 


aen'tisipeitid 




anticipating 


asn'tisipeitirj 




anticipation 


aentisi'peipn 




anticipations 


aentisi'peij^nz 




antidote 


'aentidout 




antidotes 


'aenttdouts 




antipathy 


aen'tip99i 




antipathies 


aen'tip99iz 




antipodes 


aen'tip9diz 




antiquarian 


aenti'kws9ri9n 


asnti'kwe'rwn 



21 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



antiquarians 


aenti'kweariQnz 


aenti'kwBTianz 


antiquated 


'aentikweitid 




antique 


aen'trk 




antiques 


aen'ti'ks 




antiquity 


aen'tikwiti 




antiquities 


aen'tikwitiz 




antiseptic 


aenti'septik 




antiseptics 


senti'septiks 




anxiety 


aen'zai9ti 




anxieties 


aen'zaiatvz 




anxious 


'aerj/tjas 




anxiously 


'aen^Jssh 




any 


'em s /"., ni w f. 




anybody 


'enibudi, 'enibadi 


'enibadi 


anyhow 


'enihau 




anything 


'sniOirj 




anywhere 


'em/rwa(r 


'smhw9 


anyway 


'eniwei 




apart 


9 f pQ't 


9 r past 


apartment 


9'pa'tmant 


a'pastmant 


apartments 


s'pQ'tmants 


s'pastmants 


ape 


'eip 




apes 


'eips 




apiece 


o'pi's 




apologetic 


apola'd^etik 


apala'd^etik 


apologetically 


apDla'o^etikoli 


opal9' o^etiksh 


apologize 


o'pDted$aiz 


9'pal9Q^aiz 


apologizes 


a'pDlst^aiziz 


a'patodjjaiziz 


apologized 


a'polao^aizd 


o'palgo^aizd 


apologizing 


o'polao^aizir) 


o'palac^aizir) 


apology 


a'pDlao^i 


9'pal9d^i 


apologies 


o'pDlodjiz 


9'pal9O^lZ 


apostle 


a'posj 


9'pasJ 


apostles 


a'posjz 


o'pasjz 


apostrophe 


a'pDstrofi 


o'pastrafi 


apostrophes 


a'pDStrofiz 


s'pastrafiz 


appal 


a'po'l 




appals 


a'po'lz 




appalled 


a'po'ld 




appalling 


a'po'luj 




appallingly 


s'pD'lujli 




apparatus 


aepa'reitas 




apparent* 


s'paerant 




apparently 


a'paersntli 




appeal 


a'pi'l 




appeals 


a'pi'lz 




appealed 


a'pi'ld 





22 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



appealing 


9'pHirj 




appear 


9'pi9(r 


9'pis 


appears 


9'pjaz 


9 r pisz 


appeared 


9'pi9d 


9'piad 


appearing 


o'piarirj 




appearance 


o'piarans 


9'piT9ns 


appearances 


a'piaransiz 


9'plT9nSlZ 


append 


9'pend 




appends 


9'psndz 




appended 


9'pendid 




appending 


9'penduj 




appendicitis 


apendi'saitis 




appendix 


o'pend iks 




appendixes 


9'pendikstz 




appendices 


Q'pendisiz 




appetite 


'aepitait 




appetites 


'aepitaits 




appetize 


'aepitaiz 




appetizing 


'aepitaizirj 




applaud 


9'plD'd 




applauds 


9'plo'dz 




applauded 


9'pb'did 




applauding 


9'plo-dirj 




applause 


9'plD'Z 




apple 


'Pl 




apples 


'aepjz 




appliance 


9'plaians 




appliances 


9'plai9nsiz 




applicable 


'aephkgbj 




applicant 


'aephk9nt 




applicants 


'aeplikgnts 




application 


aepli'keijpn 




applications 


aeph'keij>nz 




apply 


9'plai 




applies 


9 f plaiz 




applied 


a'plaid 




applying 


9'plaiirj 




appoint 


9'pomt 




appoints 


a'p Dints 




appointed 


9'pointvd 




appointing 


9'pointirj 




appointment 


9 f pointm0nt 




appointments 


a'pomtmants 




appreciable 


9 r prrJi9bJ 




appreciably 


d'pri'Jisbji 




appreciate 


9'pri'Jieit 




appreciates 


9'pri'Jieits 





23 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



appreciated 


9'pri'Jieitid 




appreciating 


a'pri'Jfieitirj 




appreciation 


9priJYeif2n 




appreciations 


9priJYeiJ0nz 




appreciative 


g'pri'Jiativ 


9 f pri'fieitiv 


apprentice 


9'prentis 




apprentices 


g'prsntisiz 




approach 


9'proutf 




approaches 


a'proutfiz 




approached 


a'proutft 




- approaching 


a'proutfirj 




approbation 


aepr9'beij>n 






aeprou'beij>n 




appropriate, adj. 


9'prouprut 




appropriate, verb 


9'proupneit 




appropriates 


g'proupneits 




appropriated 


9'proupneitid 




appropriating 


9'proupriettirj 




approval 


9 f pru'v01 




approve 


9'prirv 




approves 


9'pnrvz 




approved 


9'pru'vd 




approving 


9'pru'virj 




approvingly 


9'pni'virjli 




approximate, adj. 


9 f prDksimit 


9'praksimit 


approximate, verb 


o'prDksimeit 


o'praksimeit 


approximately 


9'proksimitli 


9'praksimitli 


approximation 


oproksi'mei/^n 


9praksi'mei/^n 


approxi mations 


9prDksi'meiJ>nz 


9praksi'meij>nz 


April 


'eiprgl, 'eipnl 




apron 


'eiprgn 




aprons 


'eiprgnz 




apt 


'aept 




aptly 


'aeptli 




aptitude 


'aeptitjud 




aptitudes 


'aeptitjudz 




Arab 


'aer9b 




Arabs 


'aergbz 




Arabia 


9'reibia 




Arabic 


'aerabik 




arbitrary 


'a'bitrsri 


'asbitren 


arbitrarily 


'a f bitr9rih 


'asbttrerili 


arbitrate 


'a-bitreit 


asbitreit 


arbitrates 


'a'bitreits 


aobitreits 


arbitrated 


'a'bitreitid 


asbitreitid 


arbitrating 


'a'bitreitirj 


asbitreitirj 


arbitration 


a-bi'treij^n 


asbi'treij^n 



24 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



arbitrations 


d'bi'treijznz 


dsbi'trei/^nz 


arc 


d'k 


ask 


arcs 


d'ks 


ddks 


arcade 


d'keid 


d'keid 


arcades 


d'keidz 


ds'keidz 


arch 


d'tf 


dStf 


arches 


'd-tfiz 


datfiz 


arch-, prefix 


d'tf 


aatf 


archaeological 


d'kia'lDdjik?! 


dskia'ldci;ikj 


archaeology 


d'ki'oladji 


dski'dladji 


archaic 


d'keuk 


ds'keuk 


archaism 


d'keuzm 


'dskeuzm 


archaisms 


'd'keuzmz 


dskeuzmz 


archbishop 


d" tfbljap 


dr)tf bifap 


archbishops 


d* tf'bi faps 


dstf bifaps 


archer 


'd'tfa(r 


dstfs 


archers 


'd'tfaz 


'dstfsz 


archery 


'd'tf an 


'da^an 


architect 


'd'kitekt 


dakitekt 


architects 


'd'kitekts 


'dskitekts 


architectural 


d'ki'tektfaral 


dski'tck^aral 


architecture 


'd'kitektfa 


dskvtektfs 


archway 


'd'tfwei 


'dstfwei 


archways 


'd'tfweiz 


'ds^weiz 


arctic 


'd'ktik 


'daktik 


arduous 


'd'djuas 


'dsdjuas 


ARE 


d'(rs/.,a(r wf. 


d9 s./., a w.f. 


AREN'T 


d-nt 


dsnt 


area 


'saria 


'e-ria 


areas 


'eariaz 


'sTiaz 


Argentina 


ddjan'trno 


dso^an'ti'na 


Argentine 


'd- Bantam 


'ds (Bantam 


argue 


'd'gju 


'dsgju 


argues 


'd-gjuz 


'dagjuz 


argued 


'd'gjud 


'dsgjud 


arguing 


'd-g'juirj 


'dsgjuirj 


argument 


'd-gjumant 


'dsgjumant 


arguments 


'd-gjumants 


'dsgjumants 


argumentative 


dgju'msntativ 


dsgju'mentativ 


aristocracy 


aeri'stokrasi 


aeri'stdkrasi 


aristocracies 


aeri'stokrasiz 


aeri'stdkrasiz 


aristocrat 


'aeristakraet 




aristocrats 


'aeristakraets 




aristocratic 


serista'kraetik 




arithmetic 


a'ri0matik 




arithmetrical 


aeriG'mstikzl 




arithmetically 


aeriBmetikah 




25 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 


arithmetician 

arithmeticians 
ark 


an0ma'tij>n 
aer 18 ma 't 1/211 
ariBma'ti/^nz 
aen9ma'ti|>nz 
a'k 


ak 


arks 


crks 


asks 


arm 


crm 


asm 


arms 


crmz 


asmz 


armed 


crmd 


asmd 


arming 
armament 


'crmir) 
'a-mamant 


asmirj 
asmomant 


armaments 


'a-mamants 


'asmsmants 


armchair 

armchairs 
armful 


a'm'tjio(r, 'a-mtffa(r 
a-rn'tfeaz, 'a-mt/toz 
'crmful 


am A tfE3 
asm'tjeaz 
'aamful 


armfuls 


'crmfulz 


'aamfulz 


armistice 


'a 'must is 


'aomistis 


armistices 


'a'mistisiz 


'asmistisiz 


armour 


'a'ma(r 


'asms 


army 


'a- mi 


'asmi 


armies 


'crmiz 


'asmiz 


army- corps 
around 


'a'mikD'(r, 'a f miko9(r 
9'raund 


'asmikos 


arouse 


a'rauz 




arouses 


o'rauzi^ 




aroused 


o'rauzd 




arousing 
arrange 
arranges 
arranged 
arranging 
arrangement 
arrangements 
arrest 


9'rauzirj 
9 'rein d$ 
a'reinc^iz 
a'remc^d 
o'remc^irj 
o'remc^mant 
a'rem^mants 
3 'rest 




arrests 


a'rests 




arrested 


a'restid 




arresting 
arrive 


a'restirj 
s'raiv 




arrives 


o'raivz 




arrived 


a'raivd 




arriving 
arrival 


o'raivirj 
o'raiv^l 




arrivals 


a'raiv^lz 




arrogant 
arrogantly 


'aeragant 
'aeraganth 




arrow 


'aerou 




f See Note 30, p. xxxv. in Introduction 


26 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



arrows 


'aerouz 




arsenal 


'd'sm?l 


'asszn^l 


arsenals 


'a-sm01z 


'asszn^lz 


art 


a-t 


ast 


arts 


d'tS 


asts 


artery 


'a 'tart 


'astari 


arteries 


'crtariz 


'aatariz 


artful 


'a-tful 


'aatf] 


artfully 


'a'tfoh, 'a-tfuli 


'astfali, 'aatiulv 


Arthur 


a'63(r 


'as6s 


article 


'crtikl 


'astikj 


articles 


'a-tik}z 


'aatikjz 


articulate, adj. 


cr'tikjuht 


aa'tikjuht 


articulate 


cr'tikjuleit 


as'tikjuleit 


articulates 


cr'tikjuleits 


as'tikjuleits 


articulated 


a-'tikjuleitid 


aa'tikjuleitid 


articulating 


a''tikjuleitirj 


aa'tikjuleitirj 


articulation 


d'tikju'lei/zn 


aatikju'leij^n 


articulations 


a'tikju'leifmz 


aatikju'leij2nz 


artificial 


d'tl'fij>l 


asti'fi|>l 


artificially 


a'ti'fi/dli 


asti'fijah 


artificiality 


a'tifiji'aehti 


astifiji'aeliti 


artillery 


a-'tilari 


as'tilari 


artist 


'a-tist 


'astist 


artists 


'a'tists 


'aotists 


artistic 


cr'tistik 


aa'tistik 


artistically 


a f 'tistvk?li 


as'tistik^h 


as 


3BZ S/., OZ W /. 




ascent 


a'ssnt 




ascents 


a'sents 




ascertain 


aesa'tem 




ascertains 


aesa'temz 




ascertained 


aesa'teind 




ascertaining 


aesa'teinirj 




ash 


aef 




ashes 


'ae/iz 




ashamed 


d'feimd 




ashore 


9'Joa(r 


a'/oa 


Asia 


'ei/9 




Asiatic 


ei/i'xtik 




Asiatics 


eiji'setiks 




aside 


a'said 




ask 


Q'Sk 


a-sk 


asks 


a'sks 


a-sks 


asked 


Q'SJfet 


a'S^t 


asking 


'a'skirj 


'a-skirj 


asleep 


d'sh'p 





27 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



asparagus 


9s'paer9g9s 




aspect 


'aespekt 




aspects 


'aespekts 




aspirate, noun 


'aespgrit 




aspirates 


'aespsnts 




aspirate, verb 


'aespareit 




aspirates 


'aespgreits 




aspirated 


'aespareitvd 




aspirating 


'aespareitirj 




ass 


'aes 




asses 


'aesiz 




assassin 


g'saesin 




assassins 


9'saesmz 




assassinate 


s'saesmeit 




assassinates 


a'saesmeits 




assassinated 


s'saesmeitvd 




assassinating 


9'saesmeitirj 




assassination 


9saesi'neiJ0n 




assassinations 


asaesi'nei/^nz 




assault 


9'solt, 9'solt 




assaults 


9'soltS, 9'SDltS 




assaulted 


9'soltid, 9'soltid 




assaulting 


9'SDltirj, 9'SDltirj 




assemble 


a'semb} 




assembles 


g'sembjz 




assembled 


g'sembjd 




assembling 


9'ssmblirj 




assent 


9 f ssnt 




assents 


9'sents 




assented 


9'sentid 




assenting 


g'ssntirj 




assert 


9'S3't 


d'S39t 


asserts 


9'S3'tS 


9'ssats 


asserted 


9'S3'tld 


9'ssatid 


asserting 


9 f S3'tirj 


a'ssatvrj 


assertion 


9'S3'/J?n 


9'S3/Pn 


assertions 


g'ss'pnz 


9'S39/9nz 


assets 


'aesets 




assimilate 


9'simileit 




assimilates 


g'simileits 




assimilated 


g'simileitid 




assimilating 


a'simileitirj 




assimilation 


osimi'leij^n 




assimilations 


9Simi'levj9nz 




assist 


9 f SlSt 




assists 


o'sists 




assisted 


o'sistid 





28 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 


assisting 


o'sistirj 




assistance 


9'sist9ns 




assistances 


9'sist9nsiz 




assistant 


a'sistant 




assistants 


9'sistants 




associate, noun 


9'sou/ut 




associates 


9'sou/uts 




associate, verb 


a'soufieit 




associates 


9'sou/ieits 




associated 


o'soufieitid 




associating 


9'soufieitii) 




association 


asouJYeiJVn 






asousi'eif^n 




associations 


9souji'eij>nz 






9sousi'eiJ>nz 




assort 


9'so-t 


9'SQSt 


assorts 


9'SD'tS 


9'S09tS 


assorted 


a'sD'tid 


9'sostid 


assorting 


9'SD'tirj 


9 f S09tirj 


assortment 


s'so'tmant 


g'sostmgnt 


assortments 


9'so'tmants 


9'soatm9nts 


assume 


s'sju-m 




assumes 


9'sju'mz 




assumed 


9'sju'md 




assuming 


9'sju'mirj 




assumption 


9'sAmppn 




assumptions 


o'sAmpJ^nz 




assure 


9 r ju3 




assures 


9'/U3Z 


Q'/USZ 


assured 


9 f /uad 


s'Jusd 


assuring 


9'Juarirj 


a'JuTirj 


assurance 


g'Juargns 


a'Ju'rans 


assurances 


g'Jusrgnsiz 


g'Jirransiz 


asterisk 


'aest9risk 




asterisks 


'aestarisks 




asthma 


'aesmo 


'aezma 


astonish 


9'stomJ 


a'stonij 


astonishes 


9'stDmJvz 


a'stanijvz 


astonished 


9'stDmJt 


a'stani/t 


astonishing 


9'stDmJirj 


a'stamjirj 


astonishingly 


9'stDniJirjh 


9'stamjirjli 


astonishment 


9'stDmJmant 


9'staniJ"m9nt 


astound 


g'staund 




astounds 


g'staundz 




astounded 


s'staundid 




astounding 


9'staundirj 




astray 


9'strei 





29 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



astrology 


a'strDlac^i 


a'strola^i 


astronomer 


o'strDnDma(r 


a'stranams 


astronomers 


a'stronamaz 


g'stransmsz 


astronomical 


aestra'nDmikpl 


Eestra'namikal 


astronomy 


a'strDnami 


9'stranamt 


at 


a2ts./.,at w.f. 




ATE, from eat 


'et 


eit 


atheist 


'eiOust 




atheists 


'eiGusts 




Athens 


'aeBmz 




athlete 


'aeeiit 




athletes 


'ae0hts 




athletic 


aeO'lstik 




atlas 


'aettes 




atlases 


'setlasiz 




atmosphere 


'aetm8sfi8(r 


'aetmasfis 


atmospheres 


'aetmasfiaz 


'aetmasfisz 


atom 


'aetam 




atoms 


'aetamz 




atrocious 


o'troujas 




atrociously 


o'troujash 




atrocity 


o'trositi 


a'trasiti 


atrocities 


g'trositiz 


a'trasitiz 


attach 


s'tae^ 




attaches 


o'taetfiz 




attached 


a'taetft 




attaching 


o'tsefir, 




attachment 


s'taetfmant 




attachments 


a'taetfmants 




attack 


o'taek 




attacks 


a'taeks 




attacked 


s'taekt 




attacking 


a'taekig 




attain 


a'tem 




attains 


a'teinz 




attained 


a'teind 




attaining 


a'teimr) 




attainment 


a'temmant 




attainments 


a'temmants 




attempt 


a't6m/>t 




attempts 


d't&mpts 




attempted 


a'tem^tid 




attempting 


o'tsm^tir) 




attend 


a'tsnd 




attends 


a'tendz 




attended 


a'tendid 




attending 


o'tendir) 





30 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



attendance 


a'tendans 




attendances 


o'tendansiz 




attendant 


a'tendant 




attendants 


a'tendants 




attention 


a'tsnj>n 




attentions 


o'tenj>nz 




attentive 


a'tentiv 




attentively 


a'tentivli 




attitude 


'aetitjud 




attitudes 


'aetitjudz 




attract 


a'traekt 




attracts 


g'traekts 




attracted 


9'traektid 




attracting 


8'traektirj 




attraction 


9'traekJ^n 




attractions 


g'traekjznz 




attractive 


a'traektiv 




attractively 


a'traektivh 




attribute 


'aetnbjut 




attributes 


'aetribjuts 




attribute 


a'tribjut 




attributes 


o'tribjuts 




attributed 


o'tnbjutid 




attributing 


o'tribjutirj 




auction 


'o-kpn 




auctions 


'D'kjpnz 




auctioneer 


Dk/3'mo(r 


okja'nis 


auctioneers 


okja'maz 


okja'nisz 


audacious 


o'dei/as 




audaciously 


a'dei/ash 




audacity 


o'daesiti 




audible 


b-dibl 




audience 


'o'djans, 'o'dians 




audiences 


'o-djansiz, 'o-diansiz 




audition 


o'di/^n 




auditorium 


odi'to'riam 


odi'to'riam 


auditoriums 


odi'to'rwmz 


odi'toTiamz 


August 


'o-gast 




aunt 


a f nt 


a-nt 


aunts 


a'nts 


a'nts 


auspices 


'O'SplSlZ 




Australia 


os'tredjo 




Australian 


os'treiljan 




Australians 


os'treiljanz 




Austria 


'o'strw, 'ostna 




Austrian 


'o'trion, 'Dstrwn 




Austrians 


'o-strianz, 'ostrianz 





31 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 


authentic 


o'0entik 




author 


'cv09(r 


'0'09 


authors 


'O'09Z 


'o-0az 


authoress 


'o'09ris 




authoresses 


'o'09nsiz 




authority 


e'Oonti, o'Oonti 


9'0ariti, o'0anti 


authorities 


9'0Dritiz, o'0Dntiz 


9'0antiz, o'0arvtiz 


authorization 


^9rai'zeiJ0n 




authorizations 


o99rai'zeiJ0nz 




authorize 


'o'09raiz 




authorizes 


'o'09raiziz 




authorized 


'o'Garaizd 




authorizing 


'D-99raizii) 




autocrat 


'o-t9krjt 




autocrats 


'o't9kraets 




autocratic 


ot9'kraetik 




autograph 


'o-t9graef, 'o't9graf 




autographs 


'o-t9graefs, 'o't9grafs 




automatic 


ot9'maetik 




automobile 


otg'moubil 


ot9mou'bi'l 


automobiles 


otg'moubilz 


ot9mou'brlz 


autumn 


'D't9ni 




auxiliary 


og'ziljgri, ok'zi!J9ri 




auxiliaries 


og'zilJ9riz, 






ok'ziljgriz 




avail 


9'veil 




avails 


9'veilz 




availed 


9'veild 




availing 


9'veihrj 




available 


9'veil9bJ 




avalanche 


'a6V9la'nf 


'aev9la'nj 


avalanches 


'aevgla-njiz 


'aevgla'nfiz 


avarice 


'sevgris 




avaricious 


aev9'ri/9S 




avenge 


9'vsnc^ 




avenges 


9'ven^iz 




avenged 


9'vsn(%d 




avenging 


9'v6n6^irj 




avenger 


9 vcnok9(r 


9'vsndp 


avengers 


9'vEnd?9z 


g'venc^sz 


avenue 


'aevmju 




avenues 


'aevmjuz 




averse 


9'V3'S 


9 f V3S 


aversion 


s'vs'J^n 


9'vsJpn 


aversions 


g'vs'f^nz 


g'vssfpnz 


avert 


g'vs't 


9 f V39t 


averts 


9 f V3'tS 


9 f V39tS 



32 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



averted 


o'vs-tid 


oVastid 


averting 
aviation 
aviator 

aviators 


o'vs'tirj 
eivi'eif^n 
'eivieit9(r 
'eivieitaz 


a'vsstirj 

'eivieits 
'eivieitsz 


avoid 


9'void 




avoids 


9'voidz 




avoided 


9'voidid 




avoiding 
await 


9'voidirj 
9'weit 




awaits 


9'weits 




awaited 


o'wcitid 




awaiting 
awake 


o'wettir) 
9'weik 




awakes 


9'weiks 




awaking 
awaken 


9 r weikijg 
o'weik^n 




awakens 


o'weik^nz 




awakened 


o'weik^nd 




awakening 


a'weik^niT) 




aware 


9'W9 


9^63 


away 
awful 
awfully 
awkward 


o'wei 
'o-f}, o-ful 

'O'foll, 'O'full 

'o'kwod 


'o'kwsd 


awkwardly 
awkwardness 


'o'kw9dli 
'o'kwgdnis 


'o'kwsdh 
'o'kwsdms 


awoke 


a'wouk 




axe (Amer ax) 
axes 


aeks 
'aeksiz 




B 


B 


bi- 




B's 


bi-z 




baby 

babies 


'beibi 
'beibiz 




bachelor 

bachelors 
back 


'baetf?l9(r 
'baet|>l9z 
bk 


baetf^la 
'baetf^lsz 


backs 


baeks 




background 

backgrounds 
bacon 


'baekgraund 
'baekgraundz 
'beik*n 




bad 


bssd 




badge 


baecfe 




33 



Received Pronunciation 



American Variants 



badges 


'baedgiz 




badly 


'baedh 




baffling 


'baeflirj 




bag 


baeg 




bags 


baegz 




baggage 


'baeg id; 




bait 


beit 




bake 


beik 




bakes 


beiks 




baked 


beikt 




. baking 


'beikirj 




baker 


'beika(r 


beika 


bakers 


'beikaz 


beiksz 


balance 


'baelans 




balances 


'baslansiz 




balanced 


'baetenst 




balancing 


'baetensirj 




bald 


bD-ld 




bale 


bed 




bales 


beilz 




baled 


beild 




baling 


'beihg 




ball 


bo'l 




balls 


ba-lz 




balloon 


ba'lu-n 




balloons 


ba'lu-nz 




Baltic 


'boltik, 'boltik 




bamboo 


baem'bu' 




bamboos 


basm'bu'z 




banana 


ba'na-na 


b8 na*n9 


bananas 


ba'na'ndz 


bs na*ndz 


band 


baend 




bands 


baendz 




bandage 


'baendic^ 




bandages 


'baendic^iz 




bandaged 


'baendicJ^d 




bandaging 


'baendidjjir) 




bandmaster 


'baenrfmast9(r 


'baenrfmast 


bandmasters 


'baenflfmastaz 


'baenrfmastaz 


bandstand 


'baen^staend 




bandstands 


'baen^staendz 




bang 


baerj 




bangs 


baerjz 




banged 


baerjd 




banging 


'baerjirj 




banish 


'baenij 




banishes 


'baenijiz 





Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



banished 


'baemjt 




banishing 


'baemjirj 




banishment 


'baemjmsnt 




banishments 


'baemjmants 




bank 


baerjk 




banks 


baerjks 




banker 


'baerjk9(r 


baerjkd 


bankers 


'baerjkaz 


'bserjkaz 


bank-note 


'baerj knout 




bank-notes 


'baerj knouts 




bankrupt 


'baerjkrApt 






'baerjkrapt 




bankrupts 


'bserjkrApts 






'baerjkrgpts 




baptism 


'baeptizrn 




baptisms 


'baeptizmz 




baptist 


'baeptist 




baptists 


'baeptists 




baptize 


baep'taiz 




baptizes 


baep'taiziz 




baptized 


baep'taizd 




baptizing 


baep'taizirj 




bar 


ba-(r 


bas 


bars 


barz 


basz 


barred 


ba-d 


basd 


barring 


ba'nrj 




barbarian 


ba'btsrisn 


bas'be'rian 


barbarians 


ba'beananz 


baa'be'nonz 


barbarous 


'ba-b^res 


'baab^ras 


barbarously 


'ba-b^rosh 


'baebprasli 


barber 


'ba'ba(r 


'basbd 


barbers 


'ba'baz 


'baabaz 


Barcelona 


'basi'louno 


'baasi'louna 


bare 


bto(r 


bes 


bareness 


'branis 


'beams 


bargain 


'ba-gm 


'ba^gm 


bargains 


'ba'gmz 


'basginz 


bargained 


'ba'gind 


'basgind 


bargaining 


'ba-gimrj 


'basgimrj 


barge 


ba'c^ 


basc^ 


barges 


'ba-c^iz 


'basdjiz 


bark 


ba'k 


bask 


barks 


ba-ks 


books 


barked 


borkt 


baakt 


barking 


'ba-kirj 


'bakirj 


barley 


'ba-li 


'bali 


barn 


ba-n 


baon 



36 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



barns 


bcrnz 


baanz 


barometer 


b3'romito(r 


ba'ramito 


barometers 


ba'rDmitaz 


ba'ramitsz 


baron 


'baeran 




barons 


'baeranz 




barrack 


'baerak 




barracks 


'baeraks 




barrel 


'bseral 




barrels 


'baeralz 




barren 


'baeran 




barrier 


'baeria(r 


'baeris 


barriers 


'baenaz 


'baensz 


barrister 


'baerista(r 


'baerists 


barristers 


'baenstaz 


'baenstsz 


base 


beis 




bases 


'beisiz 




based 


beist 




basing 


'beisirj 




baser 


'beisa(r 


beiss 


basest 


'beisist 




basely 


'beisli 




baseness 


'beisnis 




bashful 


'bcejful 




bashfully 


'baejfali, 'baejfuh 




bashfulness 


'baejfslnis, 'baejfulms 




basic 


'beisik 




basin 


'beisp 




basins 


'beisnz 




basis 


'beisis 




bases 


'beisiz 




basket 


'ba-skit 


'ba-skit 


baskets 


'bcrskits 


'ba-skits 


basketful 


'ba'skitful 


'ba-skitful 


basketfuls 


'ba'skitfulz 


'ba'skitfulz 


bass (in music) 


beis 




bat 


baet 




bats 


baets 




batch 


baetf 




batches 


baet/iz 




bath, noun 


ba'G 


ba-9 


baths, noun 


ba6z 


ba-6z 


bath, verb 


ba-G 


ba-9 


baths 


ba'9s 


ba'Gs 


bathed 


ba'Gt 


ba-et 


bathing 


f ba'6irj 


'ba'9irj 


bathe 


beid 




bathes 


beidz 





36 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



bathed 


beidd 




bathing 


'beidii) 




bathroom 


'ba f 0rum, 'ba'9rum 


'ba-Srum 


bathrooms 


'ba'6rumz 


'ba'6rumz 




'bcrGrumz 




battalion 


bo'taelpn 




battalions 


b9'tae!J9nz 




battle 


'baetj 




battles 


'baetjz 




Bavaria 


ba'vegrio 


b9'vSTl9 


Bavarian 


b9've9rum 


b9'vsTi9n 


Bavanans 


b9'v9ri9nz 


b9've'ri9nz 


bazaar 


ba'za f (r 


b9'zaa 


bazaars 


b9'za ? z 


b9'zaaz 


be 


bi' s/., bi, bi w.fs. 




being 


'brig 




been 


bi'n, bin, s./s. 


(usually bin) 




bin w f. 




am 


aems./.,om, mivjs. 




is 


izs /., z, s w.fs. 




are 


CL'(rsf.,a(rwf. 


a s/, 9 w.f. 


was 


WDZ S./., W9Z W.f. 


waz s./., W9z w.f. 


were 


W3'(rwe9(r, s./s., 


W38 S/., WS W.f. 




W9(r w.f. 




beach 


bi-tf 




beaches 


'brtfiz 




bead 


brd 




beads 


bi-dz 




beak 


brk 




beaks 


brks 




beam 


bi'm 




beams 


bi-mz 




bean 


bi'n 




beans 


brnz 




bear 


be9(r 


b3 


bears 


b9Z 


b3Z 


bore 


boa(r 


bo 


borne 


bo ? n, boan 


bosn 


bearing 


'b9rirj 


bSTU) 


bearer 


'b3rs(r 


'bT 


bearers 


'bearsz 


'be'raz 


beard 


biad 


bisd 


beards 


bisdz 


bisdz 


bearded 


'biadid 


'bisdid 


beast 


brst 




beasts 


bi'Sts 




beastly 


'brstli 


* 



37 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



beat 


bi't 




beats 


bi'ts 




beaten 


bi-tn 




beating 


bi'tirj 




beautiful 


'bju'tiful 




beautifully 


'bjirtiMi 




beauty 


'bjirti 




beauties 


'bjirtiz 




BECAME from become 


bi'keim 




because 


bi'koz, bi'koz 




beckon 


'bek^n 




beckons 


'bekpnz 




beckoned 


'bek^nd 




beckoning 


'bek^nii) 




become 


bi'kAm 




becomes 


bi'kAmz 




became 


bi'keim 




becoming, adj. 


bi'kAmir) 




bed 


bed 




beds 


bedz 




bedroom 


'bcdrum, 'bedrum 




bedrooms 


bedrumz, 'bsdrumz 




bee 


br 




bees 


bi'z 




beef 


brf 




beefsteak 


'bi-fsteik 




beefsteaks 


'bi'fsteiks 




BEEN /row be 


bin, bin 


(usually bin) 


beer 


bi9(r 


bid 


beetle 


'bi't} 




beetles 


f bi-tjz 




before 


bi f foa(r 


bi'fos 


beforehand 


bi'foahaend 


bi'foahaend 


beg 


beg 




begs 


begz 




begged 


bsgd 




begging 


'begin 




BEGAN from begin 


bi'gaen 




beggar 


'bsgsfr 


bsgs 


beggars 


'bsgaz 


'begz 


begin 


bi'gm 




begins 


bi'g inz 




began 


bi'gaen 




begun 


bi'gAn 




beginning, noun 


bi'gmir) 




behalf 


bi'ha'f 


bt'ha-f 


behave 


bi'heiv 





38 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



behaves 


bi'heivz 




behaved 


bi'heivd 




behaving 


bi'heivirj 




behavior (Amer.) 






behaviors (Amer ) 






behaviour 


bi'heivja(r 


bi'heivjs 


behaviours 


bi'heivjaz 


bi'hetvpz 


behind 


bi'hamd 




behindhand 


bi'hamdhaend 




being, noun 


'brirj 




beings 


'bi'irjz 




BEING from be 


'brirj 




Belgian 


'beld$0n 




Belgians 


'beldjjmz 




Belgium 


'beldam 




Belgrade 


bel'greid 




belief 


bi'lrf 




beliefs 


bi'li-fs 




believe 


bi'li-v 




believes 


bt'li'vz 




believed 


bi'lrvd 




believing 


bi'h'virj 




believer 


bt'li f va(r 


bi'h'vs 


believers 


bi'h'vaz 


bi'lrvaz 


bell 


bel 




bells 


belz 




bellows 


'bslouz 




belly 


'bsli 




bellies 


'beliz 




belong 


bi'lorj 




belongs 


bi'lorjz 




belonged 


bi'lorjd 




belonging 


bi'lorjirj 




below 


bi'lou 




belt 


belt 




belts 


belts 




bench 


bsn^ 




benches 


ben^iz 




bend 


bend 




bends 


bendz 




bent 


bent 




bending 


bendirj 




beneath 


bi'ni-0 




benefactor 


'bemfaekt9(r 


beni'faekt 


benefactors 


'benifaektaz 


beni'faektdz 


beneficial 


bem'fij?l 




benefit 


'benifit 





89 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



benefits 


'bemfits 




benefited 


'benifitid 




benefiting 


'bemfitirj 




benevolence 


bi'nevalans 




benevolent 


bi'nevzlont 




benevolently 


bi'nevalanth 




Bengal 


berj'go'l, ben'go'l 




BENT from bend 


bent 




Berlin 


'bs-'lm 


'bsa'lin 


berry 


'ben 




berries 


'benz 




berth 


b3'9 


bss9 


berths 


bs-Gs, bs-az 


bssGs 


beside 


bi'said 




besides 


bi'saidz 




best 


best 




bet 


bet 




bets 


bets 




betted 


'betid 




betting 


'betirj 




betray 


bi'trei 




betrays 


bi'treiz 




betrayed 


bi'treid 




betraying 


bi'treurj 




better 


'beta(r 


bet 


betterment 


'betamsnt 


'bet9ni8nt 


between 


bi'twi'n, ba'twrn 




bewilder 


bi'wild9(r 


bi'wilds 


bewilders 


bi'wildaz 


bi'wildaz 


bewildered 


bi'wildad 


bi'wildad 


bewildering 


bi'wild^nrj 


bi'wildprirj 


beyond 


bi'jond 


bi'jand 


Bible 


'baib} 




Bibles 


'baibjz 




biblical 


'bibhkj 




bicycle 


'baisik} 




bicycles 


'baisikjz 




bid 


bid 




bids 


bidz 




bidding 


'bidirj 




big 


big 




bigger 


'bigd(r 


'big 


biggest 


'bigist 




bill 


bil 




bills 


bilz 




billiard 


'biljad 


'biljsd 


billiards 


'biljadz 


'biljdz 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



bind 


baind 




binds 


baindz 




bound 


baund 




binding 


'bamdirj 




biography 


bai'ografi 


bai'agrafi 


biographies 


bai'ografiz 


bai'agrafiz 


biology 


baiDl9d$i 


bai'alao^i 


birch 


bs'tf 


bsstf 


birches 


bs'tfiz 


bsa^iz 


bird 


bs-d 


bsad 


birds 


bs-dz 


bssdz 


Birmingham 


'bs'mirpm 


'bssmirjhaem 


birth 


bs'9 


bs99 


births 


b3'9s 


bssSs 


birthday 


'b3'6dei 


'bss9dei 


birthdays 


'b3'9deiz 


'bss9deiz 


birthplace 


'b3'9pleis 


'b39pleis 


birthplaces 


'b3'9pleisiz 


'bss9pleisiz 


biscuit 


'biskit 




biscuits 


'biskits 




bisect 


bai'sekt 




bisects 


bai'sskts 




bisected 


bai'sektid 




bisecting 


baisektirj 




bishop 


'bijap 




bishops 


'bijaps 




bit 


bit 




bits 


bits 




bite 


bait 




bites 


baits 




bit 


bit 




bitten 


bitn 




biting 


'baitirj 




bitter 


'bita(r 


'bita 


bitterer 


'bitara(r 


'biters 


bitterest 


'bitarist 


'bitrist 


bitterly 


'bitali 


'bit8h 


bitterness 


'bitanis 


'bitsnis, bitonas 


black 


blaek 




blacker 


'blaeka(r 


'blaeka 


blackest 


'blaekist 




blackish 


'blsekij 




blackness 


'blaeknis 




blackbird 


'blaekbad 


'blaekbsad 


blackbirds 


'blaekbadz 


'blaekbasdz 


blackboard 


'blaekbo-d 


'blaekboad 


blackboards 


'blskbo'dz 


'blskbosdz 



41 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



blacken 


'blaek^n 




blackens 


'blaek^nz 




blackened 


'blaekznd 




blackening 


'blaek^nug 




blacksmith 


'blaeksmi0 




blacksmiths 


'blaeksmiGs 




blade 


bleid 




blades 


bleidz 




blame 


bleim 




blames 


blevmz 




blamed 


bleimd 




blaming 


bleimir) 




blameless 


'bleimlis 




blank 


blserjk 




blanks 


blaenks 




blanker 


'blanks (r 


'blaenks 


blankest 


'blaegkist 




blankly 


'blaenkii 




blanket 


'blsenkit 




blankets 


'blaerjkits 




bleed 


bird 




bleeds 


blrdz 




bled 


bled 




bleeding 


blrdir) 




bless 


blss 




blesses 


'blesiz 




blessed 


blest 




blessing 


'blssirj 




blessings 


'blesinz 




blessed, ad) 


'blesid 




BLBW/f0w blow 


bhr 




blind 


blaind 




blinder 


'blaind9(r 


blainds 


blindest 


'blaindist 




blinds 


'blaindz 




blinded 


'blamdvd 




blinding 


'blaindirj 




blindfold 


'blain^fould 




blindfolds 


'blain^fouldz 




blindfolded 


'blainrffouldid 




blindfolding 


'blainrffouldirj 




blindly 


'blaindh 




blindness 


'blaindnis 




blister 


'bhst9(r 


'bhsts 


blisters 


'blistaz 


'bhstsz 


block 


blok 


blak 


blocks 


bioks 


blaks 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



blocked 


blokt 


blakt 


blocking 


'blokirj 


'blakirj 


blockade 


blo'keid 


bla'keid 


blockades 


blD'keidz 


bla'keidz 


blockaded 


blD'keidid 


bla'keidid 


blockading 


blu'keidirj 


bla'keidirj 


blood 


blAd 




bloom 


blu'm 




blooms 


blu-mz 




bloomed 


blu-md 




blooming 


blu'mirj 




blossom 


'biDsam 


'blasom 


blossoms 


'blDsamz 


'blasamz 


blossomed 


'blosamd 


'blasamd 


blossoming 


'blDSDimrj 


'blasamirj 


blot 


blDt 


blat 


blots 


blots 


blats 


blotted 


'blDtid 


'blatid 


blotting 


'blDtll) . 


'blatirj 


blotter 


'biota (r 


'blate 


blotters 


'blotaz 


'blatsz 


blotting- paper 


'blDtinpeipo(r 


'blatirjpeips 


blouse 


blauz 




blouses 


'blauziz 




blow 


blou 




blows 


blouz 




blew 


blu- 




blown 


bloun 




blowing 


'bloinrj 




blue 


blu- 




blues 


blu'z 




blueness 


'blu-nis 




bluish 


'blu-ij 




blunder 


'blAnda(r 


'blAnds 


blunders 


'blAndaz 


'bLvndsz 


blundered 


'bLvndad 


'blAndsd 


blundering 


'blAnd^rirj 




blunderer 


'blAnd^r8(r 


'blAndsr 


blunderers 


'blAnd^roz 


'blAndorsz 


blunt 


bLvnt 




blunter 


'blAnt9(r 


'blAnta 


bluntest 


'bLvntist 




blunts 


blAnts 




blunted 


'blAntid 




blunting 


'blAntirj 




bluntly 


'blAnth 




bluntness 


'bLvntnis 





43 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



blush 


blAj 




blushes 


'blA/lZ 




blushed 


blAjt 




blushing 


'blAfirj 




boa 


boa, 'boua 


boa 


boas 


boaz, 'bouaz 


boaz 


boar 


boa(r 


bos 


boars 


boaz 


bosz 


board 


bo'd, boad 


boad 


boards 


bo'dz, boadz 


bosdz 


boarded 


'bo'did, boadid 


'bosdid 


boarding 


'bo-dirj, boadirj 


'bosdirj 


boarder 


'bo'd9(r, 'boada(r 


'bosds 


boarders 


'bo-daz, 'boadaz 


'boodsz 


boarding- house 


'bo'dirjhaus 


'bosdinhaus 




'boadirjhaus 




boarding-houses 


'bD'dirjhauziz 


'boadirjhauziz 




'bDadirjhauziz 




boarding- school 


'bo'dirjsku'l 


'bosdirjsku'l 




'boadirjsku'lz 




boarding-schools 


'bo'dirjsku'lz 


'boodirjsku'lz 




'boadirjsku'lz 




boast 


boust 




boasts 


bousts 




boasted 


'boustid 




boasting 


'boustirj 




boaster 


'bousta(r 


'bousts 


boasters 


'boustaz 


'boustsz 


boastful 


'boustful 




boastfully 


'boustfeh, 'boustfuh 




boat 


bout 




boats 


bouts 




boating 


'bouttrj 




boatman 


'boutman 




boatmen 


'boutman 




bodily 


'bodUi 


'badili 


body 


'bodi 


'badi 


bodies 


'bodiz 


'badiz 


Bohemia 


bou'hrmja, 






bou'hi'mia 




Bohemian 


bou'hi-mjan 






bou'himian 




Bohemians 


bou'hi-mjanz 






bou'hi'mianz 




boil 


boil 




boils 


bodz 




boiled 


bodd 





Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



boiling 


'boihrj 




boiler 


'boite(r 


'boil 


boilers 


'boitez 


'botbz 


boisterous 


'b Distorts 




bold 


bould 




bolder 


'boulda(r 


'boulds 


boldest 


'bouldist 




boldly 


'bouldli 




boldness 


'bouldnis 




Bolivia 


|ba'livi9 




Bolivian 


fba'livion 




Bolivians 


fba'lrvianz 




bolster 


'boulst9(r 


'boulsts 


bolsters 


'boulstoz 


'boulstsz 


bolt 


boult 




bolts 


boults 




bolted 


'boultid 




bolting 


'boultirj 




bomb 


bom 


bom, bAm 


bombs 


bDmz 


bornz, bAmz 


bombard 


bDm'bcrd 


bom'basd 


bombards 


bDm'bcrdz 


bDm'basdz 


bombarded 


bDm'ba'did 


bDm'basdid 


bombarding 


bDm'bcrdirj 


bDm'basdirj 


bombardment 


bom'ba dmont 


bom'baad mant 


bombardments 


bDm'ba'dmgnts 


bDm'basdmants 


Bombay 


'bDm'bei 


'bam'bei 


bond 


bond 


band 


bonds 


bondz 


bandz 


bone 


boun 




bones 


bounz 




bonfire 


'bonfaia(r 


'banfais 


bonfires 


'bonfaiaz 


'banfaisz 


bonnet 


'bontt 


'bamt 


bonnets 


'bumts 


'bamts 


book 


buk 




books 


buks 




booked 


bukt 




booking 


'bukirj 




bookbinder 


'bukbainds(r 


Hbukbainda 


bookbinders 


'bukbaindaz 


'bukbaindaz 


bookbinding 


'bukbaindirj 




bookcase 


'bukkeis 




bookcases 


'bukkeisiz 




book-keeper 


'bukki'pa(r 


'bukki f p 



| See Note 30, p xxxv. in Introduction. 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



book-keepers 


'bukkrpaz 


'bukki'psz 


book-keeping 


'bukki-pirj 




book- seller 


'buksel9(r 


'buksels 


book-sellers 


'bukselaz 


'bukselaz 


book- shelf 


'bukjelf 




book-shelves 


'bukfelvz 




book- shop 


'bukjbp 


'bukjap 


book-shops 


'bukfops 


'bukjaps 


book-stall 


'buksto'l 




book-stalls 


'buksto'lz 




boot 


bu't 




boots 


bu-ts 




border 


'bo'da(r 


'basds 


borders 


'bo-daz 


'boadsz 


bordered 


'bo-dad 


'bo^dsd 


bordering 


'bo'dmrj 


'boadmrj 


bore 


bo-(r, boa(r 


bos 


bores 


bo'z, boaz 


boaz 


bored 


bo'd, boad 


boad 


boring 


'bo Tin, boarirj 


'bo-rirj 


BORN from bear, 


bo-n 


bosn 


bring forth 






BORNE/TOW bear, 


bo'n, boan 


boan 


carry 






borough 


'bAra 


'bArou 


boroughs 


'bAraz 


'bArouz 


borrow 


'borou 


'barou 


borrows 


'borouz 


'barouz 


borrowed 


'boroud 


'baroud 


borrowing 


'borouir) 


'barouirj 


Boston 


'boston 


'bast^n 


botanical 


ba'taenik^l 




botanist 


'botanist 


'botanist 


botanists 


'botanists 


'botanists 


botany 


'botani 


'batani 


both 


bou0 




bother 


'bo9a(r 


'baa 


bothers 


'budaz 


'bafiaz 


bothered 


'bo6ad 


'ba6d 


bothering 


'bodarirj 


'baoaru) 


bottle 


'botl 


'bati 


bottles 


'botjz 


'bat}z 


bottled 


'botjd 


'batjd 


bottling 


'botlirj, 'botjirj 


'bathn, 'batjirj 


bottom 


'botam 


'batam 


bottoms 


'bDtemz 


'batamz 


bough 


bau 





46 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



boughs 


bauz 




BOUGHT from buy 


bD't 




bounce 


bauns 




bounces 


'baunsiz 




bounced 


baunst 




bouncing 


'baunsuj 




bound 


baund 




bounds 


baundz 




BOUND from bind 


baund 




boundary 


'baundm 




boundaries 


'baimdmz 




bow,yor shooting, etc., 


bou 




knot 






bows 


bouz 




bow, bend 


bau 




bows 


bauz 




bowed 


baud 




bowing 


bauirj 




bowl 


boul 




bowls 


boulz 




bowled 


bould 




bowling 


'bouluj 




box 


boks 


baks 


boxes 


'buksiz 


'baksiz 


boxed 


bDkst 


bakst 


boxing 


'buksirj 


'baksirj 


boxer 


'buksa(r 


'baks 


boxers 


'bDksaz 


'bakssz 


boy 


boi 




boys 


boiz 




boyhood 


'boihud 




boyish 


'bouj 




brace 


breis 




braces 


'breisiz 




bracelet 


'breisht 




bracelets 


'breislits 




bracket 


'braekit 




brackets 


'braekvts 




brag 


braeg 




brags 


braegz 




bragged 


braegd 




bragging 


'braeg irj 




braid 


breid 




brain 


brein 




brains 


breinz 




brake 


breik 




brakes 


brevks 





47 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



branch 


brcrntf 


bra-ntf 


branches 


'brcrntjiz 


'bra-ntfiz 


branched 


bra-ntft 


bra-ntft 


branching 


'bra-ntfirj 


'bra -ntfirj 


brand 


braend 




brands 


braendz 




brandy 


'braendi 




brass 


bra's 


bra's 


brave 


breiv 




braver 


'breiv9(r 


'breivs 


bravest 


'bretvist 




bravely 


'breivlv 




bravery 


'breivm 




Brazil 


bra'zil, bri'zil 




Brazilian 


bro'zilpn, bri'ziljon 




Brazilians 


bra'zilpnz 






bri'ziljanz 




bread 


bred 




breadth 


bredG 




break 


breik 




breaks 


breiks 




broke 


brouk 




broken 


'brouk^n 




breaking 


'breikirj 




breakable 


'breikab] 




breakfast 


'brekfast 




breakfasts 


'brekfasts 




breakfasted 


'brekfsstid 




breakfasting 


'brskfastirj 




breast 


brest 




breasts 


brests 




breath 


brs9 




breaths 


brsGs 




breathe 


bri'5 




breathes 


bri'6z 




breathed 


bri-6d 




breathing 


'bri'Sirj 




breathless 


'brsGlis 




breathlessly 


'brs91isli 




breed 


bri-d 




breeds 


bri'dz 




bred 


bred 




breeding 


bri'dirj 




breeze 


bri'z 




breezes 


bri-ziz 




brevity 


'brsviti 




brew 


bru- 





48 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 


brews 


bru'z 




brewed 


bru'd 




brewing 


'brtrirj 




brewer 


'bru-9(r 


'bru' 


brewers 


'bru-az 


'bru-sz 


brewery 


'brirari, 'bruari 




breweries 


'bnrarvz, 'bruanz 




bribe 


braib 




bribes 


braibz 




bribed 


braibd 




bribing 


'braibirj 




brick 


brik 




bricks 


briks 




bricklayer 


'brikleia(r 


'brikleia 


bricklayers 


'bnkleiaz 


'brikleiaz 


bride 


braid 




brides 


braidz 




bridegroom 


'braidgrum 






'braidgrum 




bridegrooms 


'braidgrumz 






'braidgrumz 




bridge 


bridj 




bridges 


bridjiz 




brief 


bri'f 




briefer 


'bn-fa(r 


'brrfs 


briefest 


'bn-fist 




briefly 


'bri-fli 




brigand 


'brigand 




brigands 


'brig and z 




bright 


brait 




brighter 


'braita(r 


'brail 


brightest 


'braitist 




brightly 


'braith 




brightness 


'braitnis 




brilliance 


'briljans 




brilliant 


'briljant 




brilliantly 


'briljanth 




brim 


brim 




brims 


brimz 




bring 


brirj 




brings 


bnr)z 




brought 


bro-t 




bringing 


'bnrjirj 




brink 


brirjk 




brinks 


brirjks 




brisk 


brisk 




briskly 


'briskh 





49 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



Britain 


'britsm 




British 


'britij 




brittle 


'britj 




brittler 


'brit}9(r 


'bntl 


brittlest 


'britjist 




broad 


bro-d 




broader 


'bro'do(r 


'bro'da 


broadest 


'bro'dist 




broadly 


'bro-dh 




broadcast 


'brD'dkast 


'bro'dkast 


broadcasts 


'bro-dkasts 


'bro'dkasts 


broadcasting 


'bro'dkastirj 


'bro'dkastirj 


broaden 


'bro'di^ 




broadens 


'bro'dnz 




broadened 


'bro-dnd 




broadening 


'bro'dnvrj 




BROKE from break 


brouk 




bronchitis 


bron'kaitis 


bran'kaitis 




brDrj'kaitis 




bronze 


bronz 


branz 


bronzes 


'bronziz 


'branziz 


brooch 


broutf 




brooches 


'broutfiz 




brook 


bruk 




brooks 


bruks 




broom 


bru'm, brum 




brooms 


bru'mz, brumz 




broth 


bro9, bro6 




broths 


broGs, broSz 




brother 


'brA6a(r 


'brA6s 


brothers 


'brAdoz 


'brAdsz 


brotherhood 


'brAdahud 


'brASshud 


brotherhoods 


'brA^ahudz 


'brA&hudz 


brother-in-law 


'brAdprvnlo 




brothers-in-law 


'brAd^zmlo 


'brAftazinlo 


brotherly 


'brAftsli 


'brAftah 


BROUGHT from bring 


bro't 




brown 


braun 




browner 


'brauno(r 


'braun* 


brownest 


'braunist 




bruise 


bru'z 




bruises 


'bru'ziz 




bruised 


bru'zd 




bruising 


'bru'zirj 




brush 


brA/ 




brushes 


'brA/iz 




brushed 


brA/t 




brushing 


'brA/irj 





50 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



Brussels 


'brAsJz 




brutal 


'bnrtj 




brutally 


'bnrteli 




brutality 


bnr'taehti 




brutalities 


bnr'taehtiz 




brute 


bru-t 




brutes 


bru'ts 




bubble 


'bAbJ 




bubbles 


'bAb}z 




bucket 


'bAkit 




buckets 


'bAkits 




bucketful 


'bAkitful 




bucketfuls 


'bAkitfulz 




buckle 


'bAk} 




buckles 


'bAk}z 




buckled 


'bAk}d 




buckling 


'bAkhn, 'bAkJirj 




bud 


bAd 




buds 


bAdz 




budded 


'bAdid 




budding 


'bAduj 




budget 


'bA<it 




budgets 


'bAC^ltS 




bug 


bAg 




bugs 


bAgz 




bugle 


'bju-gj 




bugles 


'bju-gjz 




bugler 


'bju'gl9(r 


'bju-gls 


buglers 


'bju'glgz 


'bju-glsz 


build 


bild 




builds 


bildz 




built 


bilt 




building 


'bilduj 




builder 


'bilda(r 


'bilda 


builders 


'bilddz 


'bilddz 


bulb 


bAlb 




bulbs 


bAlbz 




bulge 


bAl<^ 




bulges 


'bAlc^iz 




bulged 


bAlc^d 




bulging 


'bAl^in 




bulky 


'bAlki 




bulkier 


'bAlkia(r 


'bAlkia 


bulkiest 


'bAlkiist 




bull 


bul 




bulls 


bulz 




bull-dog 


'buldog 





51 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 


bull-dogs 


'buldDgz 




bullet 


'bulit 




bullets 


'buhts 




bulletin 


'buhtm 


'buhtn 


bulletins 


'buhtinz 


'buhtnz 


bully 


'buh 




bullies 


'buhz 




bullied 


'buhd 




bullying 


'bulurj 




bump 


bAmp 




bumps 


bAmps 




bumped 


bAtnpt 




bumping 


'bAmpuj 




bun 


bAii 




buns 


bATlZ 




bunch 


bAntf 




bunches 


'bAntfiz 




bundle 


'bAndJ 




bundles 


'bAndJz 




bungalow 


'bArjgalou 




bungalows 


'bArjgalouz 




buoy 


boi 




buoys 


boiz 




burden 


'bs-di,! 


'bssdn 


burdens 


'bs'dnz 


'bssdnz 


burdened 


'bs'dnd 


'bsadnd 


burdening 


'b3 ( dnir) 


'bssdnir) 


bureau 


bju^'rou, 'bju^rou 


'bjurou 


bureaus 


bj u^'rouz 


'bj urouz 




'bjusrouz 




burglar 


'bs'gl9(r 


'bssgls 


burglars 


'bs'glaz 


'bssglsz 


burglary 


'b3-glan 


'bssglari 


burglaries 


'bQ-glariz 


'bssglariz 


burial 


'berwl 




burials 


'berialz 




burn 


bs'n 


bssn 


burns 


b3nz 


baanz 


burned 


bs-nt 


bosnt 


burnt 


bs-nt 


bssnt 


burning 


'bs'nirj 


'bssnirj 


burner 


'bs'na(r 


'b9sn 


burners 


'bs'naz 


'bssnsz 


burst 


bs'St 


bssst 


bursts 


bs'sts 


bsasts 


bursting 


'bs'stirj 


'bsastirj 


bury 


'ben 





52 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation 



American Variants 



buries 


'bsriz 




buried 


'bend 




burying 


'berurj 




bus 


bAS 




buses 


bASlZ 




bush 


buj 




bushes 


bujiz 




bushel 


'buj*l 




bushels 


'bujslz 




business 


'biznis, 'biznis 




businesses 


'bizmsiz 




bustle 


'bAS} 




bustles 


'bAs}z 




bustled 


'bAsjd 




bustling 


'bAsJirj, 'bAsltrj 




busy 


'bizi 





busier 


'bizi9(r 


'bizis 


busiest 


'bizust 




busily 


'bizih 




but 


b At 5 / , bat w f. 




butcher 


'butjo(r 


'butfs 


butchers 


'butjoz 


'bu^sz 


butler 


'bAtla(r 


'bAtlo 


butlers 


'bAttez 


'bAtlsz 


butterfly 


'bAtaflai 




butterflies 


'bAtaflaiz 




button 


'bAti^ 




buttons 


'bAtnz 




buttoned 


'bAtnd 




buttoning 


'bAtnirj 




buy 


bai 




buys 


baiz 




bought 


bo't 




buying 


baiirj 




buyer 


'baia(r 


'baxs 


buyers 


'baioz 


'baisz 


by 


bai, normal form 






bi, bo, weak forms 




by- and- by 


'baiond'bai 




by-product 


'baiprDdakt 


'baipradokt 




'baiprDdAkt 




by-products 


'baiprodakts 


'baipradakts 




'baiprndAkts 




by-road 


'bairoud 




by-roads 


'bairoudz 




by-the-by(e) 


'baida'bai 





63 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 


C 


c 


si' 




C's 


Sl'Z 




cab 


kaeb 




cabs 


kaebz 




cabbage 


'kaebic 




cabbages 


'kaebid$iz 




cabin 


'kaebm 




cabins 


'kaebinz 




cabinet 


'kaebimt 


'kaebmat 


cabinets 


'kaebunts 


'kaebmats 


cable 


'keib] 




cables 


'keibjz 




cabled 


'keibjd 




cabling 


'keiblii), 'keibjir) 




cafe 


'kaefei, 'kaefi 


kap'fei 


cafes 


'kaefeiz, 'kaefiz 


kae'feiz 


cage 


keicJ5 




cages 


'keidjiz 




caged 


keicfcd 




caging 


'keicfejii) 




Cairo 


'kaiarou 


'kairou 


cake 


keik 




cakes 


keiks 




calamity 


ko'lasmitv 




calamities 


ko'laemitiz 




calculable 


'kaelkjulob} 




calculate 


'kaelkjuleit 






'kaelkjoleit 




calculates 


'kaelkjuleits 






'kaslkjaleits 




calculated 


'kaelkjuleitid 






'kaslkjaleitid 




calculating 


'kaelk]uleitir) 






'kaelkjaleitirj 




calculation 


kaelkju'lei/^n 






kaelkja'leijVn 




calculations 


kaelkju'lei/pnz 






kaslkja'lei/^nz 




Calcutta 


kael'kAts 




calendar. 


'kaehndd(r 


'kaelinds 


calendars 


'kaehndsz 


'kaehndsz 


calf 


ka'f 


ka-f 


calves 


ka'vz 


ka f vz 


calm 


ka-m 




calmer 


'ka f ni3(r 


'ka-ma 


64 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



calmest 


'ka-mist 




calms 


ka-mz 




calmed 


kcrmd 




calming 


'kcrmir) 




calmly 


'kcrmli 




calmness 


'kcrmnis 




CAME (from come) 


keim 




camel 


'kaenu?! 




camels 


'kaemdlz 




camera 


'kaem^ra 




cameras 


'ksem^rsz 




camp 


kaemp 




camps 


kaemps 




camped 


kaempt 




camping 


'kaempirj 




campaign 


kaem'pem 




camp^-'gns 


kaem'pemz 




can, noun 


kaen 




cans 


kaenz 




can, verb 


kaens/., kan w f. 




could 


kud 5./., kad w.f. 




Canada 


'kaenada 




Canadian 


ks'neidian, k8'neidJ9n 




Canadians 


ks'neidianz, 






ks'neidjanz 




canal 


ks'nael 




canals 


ka'naelz 




canary 


ko'nean 




canaries 


ks'neartz 




cancel 


'kaens^l 




cancels 


'kaens^lz 




cancelled 


'kaens^ld 




cancelling 


'kaens^luj 




cancer 


'kaensa(r 


'kaenss 


cancers 


'kaensaz 


'kaensaz 


candid 


'kaendid 




candidly 


'kaendidh 




candidate 


'kaendidit, 'kaendid eit 




candidates 


'kaendidits 






'kaendidetts 




candle 


'kaendj 




candles 


'kaendlz 




candle- stick 


'kaendlstik 




candle-sticks 


'kaendlstiks 




candor (Amer.) 






candour 


'kaenda(r 


'kaends 


candy 


'kaendi 





65 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



cane 


kein 




canes 


keinz 




cannibal 


'kaemb?! 




cannibals 


'kaemb^lz 




cannon 


'kaenan 




cannons 


'kaenonz 




cannot 


'kaenot 


'kaenat 




(contracted kcrnt) 


(contr. ka'nt, kaent 


canoe 


ka'mr 




canoes 


ka'nirz 




canon 


'kaenjan 




canons 


'kaenjanz 




can't 


ka-nt 


ka ? nt, kaent 


Canton 


'kaen'ton 




canvas 


'kaenvas 




canvases 


kaenvasiz 




cap 


kaep 




caps 


kaeps 




capability 


keipa'bihti 




capabilities 


keipo'bilitiz 




capable 


'keipab} 




capably 


'keipabh 




capacious 


ka'peijos 




capacity 


kQ'paesiti 




capacities 


ko'paesitiz 




cape 


keip 




capes 


keips 




Capetown 


'keip'taun 




capital 


'kaepit} 




capitals 


'kaepitjz 




capitalism 


'kaepitalizin 




capitalist 


'kaepitslist 




capitalists 


'kaepitalists 




capricious 


kQ'pnJss 




capsize 


kaep'saiz 




capsizes 


kaep'saiziz 




capsized 


kaep'saizd 




capsizing 


kaep'saizu) 




captain 


'kaeptin 




captains 


'kaeptmz 




captive 


'kaeptiv 




captives 


'kaepttvz 




captivity 


kaep'tiviti 




capture 


'kaep^9(r 


'kaeptfs 


captures 


'kaeptfaz 


'kaeptfsz 


captured 


'kaep^sd 


'kaep^sd 


captunng 


'kaep^rir) 





56 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



car 


ka-(r 


ka 


cars 


kcrz 


kaaz 


caravan 


'kaera'vaen 




caravans 


'kaers'vaenz 




carbon 


'ka'ban 


'kasban 


carbons 


'ka-banz 


'kasbanz 


card 


kcrd 


kasd 


cards 


ka-dz 


kaddz 


card- board 


'kcrdbo'd 


'kasdbosd 


cardinal 


'kcrdin} 


'kasdm] 


care 


kta(r 


kes 


cares 


kioz 


kesz 


cared 


ktad 


ktsd 


caring 


'ktarii) 


'ks'rtrj 


career 


ka'riafr 


ko'ris 


careers 


ka'rioz 


ka'rioz 


careful 


'ktoful 


'kesful 


carefully 


'keafzh, 'keafuh 


'kesf^h, kssfuli 


careless 


'kealis 


'keslis 


carelessly 


'keahsh 


'kEslish 


carelessness 


'kealisnis 


'keshsnis 


caretaker 


'kcoteika (r 


'kesteike 


caretakers 


'ktoteikaz 


'kEoteiksz 


cargo 


'ka-gou 


'kaago 


cargoes 


'ka'gouz 


'kasgoz 


caricature 


r kacrtko'tjuo(r 


'kaenka'tjua 


caricatures 


'kaenka'tjuoz 


'kaenka'tjusz 


caricatured 


'kaerika'tjuad 


'kajrika'tjud 


caricaturing 


'kaeriko'tjuarirj 


'kaerika'tju-rirj 


carnation 


ka'neipn 


kas'neij^n 


carnations 


ka'neij^nz 


kad'neij^nz 


carnival 


'ka ? niv^l 


'kaaniv^l 


carnivals 


'ka-mv^lz 


'kaaniv^lz 


carp 


ka-p 


kasp 


carps 


ka-ps 


kasps 


carpenter 


r ka ( p9nta(r 


'kaspants 




'ka f pinta(r 




carpenters 


'ka'pantaz 


'kaapantsz 




'ka'pintaz 




carpentering 


'ka'psnt^rirj 


'kaapantarirj 




'ka'pmtprirj 




carpet 


'ka'pit 


'kaspit 


carpets 


'ka'pits 


'kaapits 


carriage 


'kaeridj 




carriages 


'kaend;iz 




carrot 


'kaerat 




carrots 


'kaerats 





57 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



carry 


'kaen 




carries 


'kaeriz 




carried 


'kaervd 




carrying 


'kaerurj 




carrier 


'kaeria(r 


'kaeria 


carriers 


'kaeriaz 


'kaerisz 


cart 


kd-t 


kdt 


carts 


kcrts 


kdats 


carted 


'ka'tid 


'kdtid 


carting 


kd'tirj 


'kdstirj 


carter 


'kd't9(r 


'kd^ta 


carters 


'kd'taz 


'kdtsz 


carve 


kd'v 


kdv 


carves 


kd'vz 


kdsvz 


carved 


kd'vd 


kdvd 


carving 


'kd'vuj 


'kdsvirj 


case 


keis 




cases 


'keisiz 




cash 


kaej 




cashes 


'kae/iz 




cashed 


kaejt 




cashing 


'kaejirj 




cashier 


kae'fia(r 


kae'Jw 


cashiers 


kae'Jiaz 


kae'Jiaz 


cask 


kd'sk 


ka-sk 


casks 


kd'sks 


ka-sks 


cast 


kd'St 


ka'st 


casts 


kd'sts 


ka'sts 


casting 


'kd'Stirj 


'ka-stirj 


castle 


'kd's} 


'ka's}, 'kaes} 


castles 


'kd-s}z 


'ka-sjz, 'kaes(z 


casual 


'kaB3;ual 




casually 


'kae3yu9li 




cat 


kaet 




cats 


kaets 




catalog (Amer.) 






catalogue 


'kaetolixj 


'kaetalag 


catalogs (Amer.) 






catalogues 


'kaetalogz 


'kaetdlagz 


catastrophe 


ks'taestrafi 




catastrophes 


ks'taestrafiz 




catch 


kae^ 




catches 


'kaetfiz 




caught 


ko-t 




catching 


'kae^ii) 




categoric 


kaeti'gonk 




categorical 


kaeti'gorik^l 





58 



ArBuiuonai opeuiag 

categorically 
category 

categories 
cathedral 


tieceivea rronuncuraon 

kaeti'gDrik^li 
'kaetigan 
'kaetigariz 
kd'Gi'dral 


American vanani* 

'kaetigori 
'kaetigoriz 


cathedrals 


ka'Grdralz 




Catholic 


'kaeOahk 




Catholics 


'kae9aliks 




Catholicism 
cattle 

CAUGHT/TOW catch 
cause 


ko'ODlvsizni 
'kaetj 
ko-t 
ko'z 


ka'Gahsizm 


causes 


'ko'ziz 




"caused 


ko'zd 




causing 
caution 


'ko'zuj 




cautious 


'ko'Jss 




cautiously 
cavalry 
cave 


'ko-Jash 
'kaev^ln 
keiv 




caves 


keivz 




cavern 


'kaevan, 'kaevsn 


'kaevsn 


caverns 


'keBvanz, 'kaevanz 


'kaevsnz 


cavity 

cavities 


'kaeviti 
'kaevitiz 




cease 


SI'S 




ceases 


'si'siz 




t ceased 


si'st 




ceasing 
ceiling 
ceilings 
celebrate 


'si'sirj 
'si'hrj 
'si-lirjz 
'selibreit 




celebrates 


'selibreits 




celebrated 


'seltbreitid 




celebrating 
celebration 
celebrations 
cell 


'selibreitir) 
seli'breij^n 
seh'breij^nz 

SEl 




cells 


selz 




cellar 

cellars 


'sela(r 
'selaz 


'selaz 


cement 


si'ment 




cements 


si'ments 




cemented 


si'mentid 




cementing 
cent 


si'mentig 
sent 




cents 


sents 




centigrade 


'sentigreid 





59 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



centimeter (Amer } 






centimetre 


'sentimrto(r 


'ssntimrts 


centimeters (Amer.} 






centimetres 


'ssntimi'to- 


'sentimrtsz 


central 


'sentrsl 




centrally 


'sentroli 




center (Amer.} 






centre 


'sents(r 


'ssnta 


centres 


'sentaz 


sentsz 


century 


'sentfun, 'sentjon 




centuries 


'ssntjunz 






'sentjanz 




ceremonial 


sen'mounpl 






seri'moum^l 




ceremonious 


seri'mounjas 






seri'mouniQs 




ceremony 


'serimam 




ceremonies 


'serimamz 




certain 


'ss'tr^ 


'sssti? 


certainly 


'ss-tnli 


'ssstnli 


certainty 


's3 f tnti 


'ssstnti 


certificate 


sa'tifikit 


sss'tifikit 


certificates 


sa'tifikits 


sso'tifikits 


Ceylon 


st'lon 




chain 


tfem 




chains 


tfeinz 




chained 


^emd 




chaining 


'tfemvrj 




chair 


tfea(r 


tf3 


chairs 


tfeaz 


tfesz 


chairman 


'tfeamon 


'tfeomsn 


chairmen 


'tfeoman 


'tfeaman 


chalk 


tfo-k 




challenge 


't/aelano^, '^"aelindj 




challenges 


'tfaelonc^iz 






'^aelmc^iz 




challenged 


'IJaelancfcd 






'tfaelmc^d 




challenging 


'telmAi 10 




champion 


'tfaempian 




champions 


'^aempianz 




chance 


tforns 


^"a-ns 


chances 


'tfa-nsiz 


'^ansiz 


change 


^em(^ 




changes 


'tfeino^iz 




changed 


^emd;d 





60 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



changing 


'tfemd$irj 




changeable 


'tfemcfcab} 




channel 


'tfenj 




channels 


'tfaenjz 




chap 


tfaep 




chaps 


tfaeps 




chapel 


'tfaepj 




chapels 


'tfaepjz 




chapter 


'tjaepto(r 


'tfaepts 


chapters 


'tfaeptaz 


'tfeeptsz 


character 


'ksenkt9(r 


'kaerikts 


characters 


'kariktaz 


'kaenktoz 


characteristic 


kaenkto'nstik 




characteristics 


kaerikta'ristiks 




charcoal 


'tfcrkoul 


'tfaskoul 


charge 


tfa-dj 


tfasc^ 


charges 


'tfd'C^lZ 


't[as<^iz 


charged 


'tfa-c^d 


'tfaacfcd 


charging 


'tfa-^irj 


'^a^<^irj 


charitable 


tfaentabj 




charitably 


fseritsbh 




charity 


tfaeriti 




charities 


tfaentiz 




Charles 


tfa-lz 


tfaslz 


charm 


^a'm 


^asm 


charms 


tfa-mz 


^asmz 


charmed 


tfcrmd 


tjasmd 


charming 


'tfa-mir) 


'tfasmirj 


chart 


^a-t 


tfast 


charts 


tfa-ts 


tfasts 


chase 


tfeis 




chases 


'tfeisiz 




chased 


tfeist 




chasing 


'tfeisirj 




chat 


tfaet 




chats 


tfaets 




chatted 


'IJaetid 




chatting 


'tfaetirj 




chauffeur 


Jou'f3'(r, 'Jouf9(r 


fou'fss, 'Jbufo 


chauffeurs 


Jou'fs'z, '/oufaz 


Jou'fssz, 'Joufsz 


cheap 


^rp 




f cheaper 
^cheapest 


^i' P 9(r 
'^fi-pist 


'tfrp* 


cheaply 


^i'ph 




cheat 


tfi-t 




cheats 


^i-ts 




cheated 


'tfrtid 





61 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



cheating 


'tfrtir. 




check 


tfek 




checks 


tfeks 




checked 


tfekt 




checking 


tfekirj 




cheek 


tfi'k 




cheeks 


tfi'ks 




cheer 


tjia(r 


tfis 


cheers 


tfiaz 


tfiaz 


cheered 


tfed 


tfisd 


cheering 


'tfianrj 


'tfrrirj 


cheerful 


'tfiaful 


'tfisful 


cheerfully 


'tfiaMi, 'tfiafuh 


'tfiafyli, 'tf is full 


cheese 


tfi'z 




chemical 


'ksmik^l 




chemicals 


'ksmik^lz 




chemist 


'ksnust 




chemists 


'kemists 




chemistry 


'kermstri 




cheque 


tfek 




cheques 


tfeks 




cherry 


'tfsn 




cherries 


'tferiz 




chess 


tfes 




chest 


^sst 




chests 


tfssts 




chestnut 


'tfesnAt 




chestnuts 


'tfssnAts 




chew 


tfu 1 




chews 


tfu'Z 




chewed 


tfu'd 




chewing 


'tfU'lT) 




Chicago 


Ji'ka-gou 


Ji'ka'go 


chicken 


'tfikin 




chickens 


'ijikinz 




chief 


tfi'f 




chiefs 


tfrfs 




chiefly 


'tfi'fli 




child 


tfaild 




children 


'tfildron 






'^uldran 




childhood 


'^addhud 




childish 


'^[aildij 




childishly 


'tfaildvjli 




childishness 


'^[aildijnis 




Chile 


'twill 




Chilian 


'^fiiian 





62 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



Chilians 


'tfihonz 




chilly 


'tfih 




chillier 


'tfiho(r 


'fihs 


chilliest 


'tfilust 




chimney 


'tfimm 




chimneys 


'tfimmz 




chin 


tfm 




chins 


tfmz 




china 


'tfamo 




China 






Chinese 


't/ai'ni'z 




chip 


tfip 




chips 


flips 




chipped 


tfipt 




chipping 


'tfipir) 




chisel 


'tfizl 




chisels 


'tfizjz 




chivalrous 


'Jiv^lros, 'tfivplras 




chivalry 


'jivffln, '^"ivplri 




chocolate 


'tfok^ht 


'tfak^lot 


chocolates 


'tfuk^lits 


'tfak^bts 


choice 


tfois 




choke 


^ouk 




chokes 


tfouks 




choked 


^oukt 




choking 


'tfouktrj 




cholera 


'kolors 


'kalara 


choose 


tfu-z 




chooses 


'tfll'ZlZ 




chose 


^"ouz 




chosen 


tfouzi^ 




choosing 


'tfu-zii) 




chop 


tfD P 


t[ap 


chops 


tfDpS 


tfaps 


chopped 


^D P t 


tfapt 


chopping 


'tfopirj 


'tfapig 


chopper 


'^D P 9(r 


tfaps 


choppers 


f ^Dpaz 


'tfapsz 


chop- stick 


'tfppstik 


'tfapstik 


chop-sticks 


'fopstiks 


'^fapstiks 


chord 


ko-d 


kosd 


chords 


ko-dz 


kosdz 


chorus 


'ko'ras 




choruses 


'ko'rasiz 




CHOSE/rom choose 


^ouz 




Christian 


'kristjan 




Christians 


'kristjanz 





63 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



Christianity 


kristt'aemti 




Christmas 


'krismas 




chronic 


'krDmk 


'kranik 


church 


tfs'tf 


'tfwtf 


churches 


'tfS'tflZ 


'tfss-fiz 


cider 


'ssud9(r 


'saids 


cigar 


si'gcr(r 


si'gaa 


cigars 


si'gcrz 


si'gasz 


cigarette 


sigs'ret 




cigarettes 


sup'rsts 




cinder 


'smd9(r 


'smds 


cinders 


'sindoz 


'sindsz 


cinema 


'smim9 




cinemas 


'smimaz 




cinematograph 


smi'maet9gra'f 


smi'mcetagra-f 




sim'maetagraef 




cinematographs 


sini'maet9gra'fs 


smi'maet9gra'fs 




sini' mastagraef s 




circle 


7 S3'k} 


'ssak} 


circles 


'S3'k}z 


'ssskjz 


circuit 


'ss'kit 


'ssskit 


circuits 


'ss-kits 


'ssskits 


circular 


's3'kjul9(r 


'ssskjula 


circulars 


'ss'kjulaz 


'ssskjulsz 


circulation 


sakju'leij^n 


S3skju'leij?n 


circulations 


sskju'let/^nz 


ssskju'leij^nz 


circumference 


89'kAmf^r9ns 


sa'kAmf^rsns 


circu mf erences 


sg'kAmf^ransiz 


ss'kAmf^rgnsiz 


circumstance 


's3'k0mst9ns 


'Bssk^mstaens 


circumstances 


's3'k>mst9nsiz 


'sssk^mstaensiz 


citizen 


'SltlZl,! 




citizens 


'sitiznz 




city 


'siti 




cities 


'sitiz 




civil 


'sivil 




civilly 


'sivili 




civilian 


si'vi!J9n 




civilians 


si'viljgnz 




civilization 


sivilai'zeifzn 






sivili'zeij^n 




civilizations 


sivilai'zeij^nz 






sivili'zevfsnz 




civilize 


'sivilaiz 




civilizes 


'sivilaiziz 




civilized 


'sivdaizd 




civilizing 


'sivilaizirj 




claim 


kleim 





64 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



claims 


kleimz 




claimed 


kleimd 




claiming 


'kleimirj 




clap 


klaep 




claps 


klaeps 




clapped 


klaept 




clapping 


'klaepirj 




clarify 


'klaenfai 




clarifies 


'klaenfaiz 




clarified 


'klaenfaid 




clarifying 


'klaerifaiirj 




class 


kkrs 


kla's, klaes 


classes 


'kla-siz 


'kla-svz, klaesiz 


classic 


'klsDsik 




classics 


'klaesiks 




classical 


'klaesik^l 




classification 


klajsifi'keij>n 




classifications 


klaesifi'keif>nz 




classify 


'klaesifai 




classifies 


'klsesifaiz 




classified 


'klaesifaid 




classifying 


'klaesifaurj 




clause 


kkvz 




clauses 


'kb'ziz 




clay 


klei 




clean 


kirn 




cleaner 


'klrnafr 


'klrna 


cleanest 


'klrnist 




cleans 


kli-nz 




cleaned 


klrnd 




cleaning 


'kli'mrj 




clear 


klra(r 


khs 


clearer 


'kli9ra(r 


'klrrs 


clearest 


'klionst 


'kh-rist 


clearly 


'kliali 


'kliah 


clergyman 


'Ms- caiman 


'klss^iman 


clergymen 


'kls 1 caiman 


'kl33(|imon 


clerk 


kkrk 


klsdk 


clerks 


kla-ks 


klasks 


clever 


'kleva(r 


'klsvs 


cleverer 


'kl6vara(r 


'klevar 


cleverest 


'klevarist 




cleverly 


'klevali 


'klevah 


cleverness 


'klevams 


'klevsnis 


cliff 


khf 




cliffs 


khfs 




climate 


'klaxmit 





65 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



climates 


'klaimits 




climb 


klaim 




climbs 


klaimz 




climbed 


klaimd 




climbing 


'klaimirj 




cling 


khi) 




clings 


klinz 




clung 


klAi) 




clinging 


'klinuj 




cloak 


klouk 




cloaks 


klouks 




cloak-room 


'kloukrum 






'kloukrum 




cloak-rooms 


'kloukrumz 






'kloukrumz 




clock 


klok 


klak 


clocks 


klDks 


klaks 


close, noun 


klouz 




close, adj. 


klous 




closer 


'klous9(r 


'klousd 


closest 


'klousist 




close, verb. 


klouz 




closes 


'klouziz 




closed 


klouzd 




closing 


'klouzirj 




closely 


'kloush 




cloth 


klo6, kk>0 




cloths 


kb'Qz, klo5z, 






kloOs, klo0s 




clothes 


klouz, kloudz 




cloud 


klaud 




clouds 


klaudz 




cloudy 


'klaudi 




club 


klAb 




clubs 


klAbz 




clumsy 


'klAmzi 




clumsier 


'klAmzia(r 


'klAmzia 


clumsiest 


'klAmzust 




clumsily 


'klAmzih 




CLUNG from cling 


MAI) 




coach 


koutf 




coaches 


'koutfiz 




coal 


koul 




coals 


koulz 




coarse 


ko's, koas 


koos 


coarser 


'kos9(r, 'kD3sa(r 


'kO9S8 


coarsest 


'ko'sist, 'koasist 


'kossist 


66 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



coarsely 


'ko'sli, 'koaslt 


'kossli 


coast 


koust 




coasts 


kousts 




coat 


kout 




coats 


kouts 




cock 


kok 


kak 


cocks 


koks 


kaks 


cocoa 


'koukou 




qoco(a)nut 


'kouksnAt 




coco (a) nuts 


'koukanAts 




code 


koud 




codes 


koudz 




coerce 


kou's's 


kou'ass 


coerces 


koi/3-siz 


kou'38SlZ 


coerced 


kou'3'st 


kou'ssst 


coercing 


kou'3'sii) 


kou'sssii) 


coffee 


'kofi 




coffin 


'kofin 


'kaftn 


coffins 


'kofinz 


'kafinz 


coil 


koil 




coils 


koilz 




coiled 


koild 




coiling 


'koihr) 




coincide 


kouin'said 




coincides 


koum'saidz 




coincided 


koum'saidid 




coinciding 


koum'saidir) 




coincidence 


kou'insid^ns 




coincidences 


kou'msid^nstz 




coin 


koin 




coins 


koinz 




cold 


kould 




colder 


'koulda(r 


'kould 


coldest 


'kouldist 




colds 


kouldz 




coldly 


'kouldlt 




coldness 


'kouldms 




collaborate 


ka'laebsreit 




collaborates 


ka'laebareits 




collaborated 


ko'laeborettid 




collaborating 


ko'laebsreittrj 




collaborator 


ka'laeb9reit9(r 


ko'laebsreits 


collaborators 


k^'laebareitoz 


ka'laeboreitsz 


collaboration 


kolaeba'reij^n 




collapse 


ka'lasps 




collapses 


ka'laepsiz 




collapsed 


ko'laepst 





67 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



collapsing 


kg'laepsirj 




collar 


'kDfo(r 


'kala 


collars 


'kotez 


'kalsz 


colleague 


'kolig 


'kalig 


colleagues 


'koligz 


'kahgz 


collect 


k9'lskt 




collects 


ka'lskts 




collected 


ka'lsktid 




collecting 


ko'lektirj 




collector 


ko'lskt9(r 


ko'lekts 


collectors 


k9'lektoz 


k9'lektsz 


collection 


ko'lekfpn 




c ollections 


k9'lskJ0nz 




collective 


ka'lektiv 




collectively 


ko'lektivh 




college 


'kDlld$ 


'kali(^ 


colleges 


'kDhd$iz 


'kahc^iz 


collide 


ko'laid 




collides 


ko'laidz 




collided 


k9 'laid id 




colliding 


ko'laidirj 




collision 


ka'lrj^n 




collisions 


k9 / 'li3^nz 




colloquial 


ks'loukwiol 




colloquially 


ko'loukwigh 




colloquialism 


k9'loukwi9hzm 




colloquialisms 


k9'loukwi9hzmz 




Colombia 


ka'lAmbw 




Colombian 


kg'lAmbwn 




Colombians 


ko'lAinbionz 




colon 


'koul9ii 




colons 


'koutanz 




colonel 


'ks-nl 


'k99n| 


colonels 


'ks-njz 


'kssnjz 


colonial 


k9 f lounj9l 




colonials 


k9'lounj9lz 




colonist 


'kDl9mst 


'kalgnist 


colonists 


'kolsnists 


'kalanists 


colonization 


kolanai'zeij^n 


kabnai'zeij^n 


colonize 


'kobnaiz 


'kalonaiz 


colonizes 


'kolanaiziz 


'katenaiziz 


colonized 


'kolanaizd 


'kalanaizd 


colonizing 


'kobnaizirj 


'kalanaizirj 


colony 


'kDlani 




colonies 


'kol9niz 


* 


color (Amer.) 






colour 


'kAl9(r 


'kAla 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



colors (Amer.) 
colours 


'kAbz 


'kAl,2 


colored (Amer.) 
coloured 


'kAbd 


'kAl,d 


coloring (Amer.) 
colouring 
column 


'kAbrirj 
'kobrn 




columns 


'kobmz 




comb 


koum 




combs 


koumz 




combed 


koumd 




combing 
combination 
combinations 
combine 


'kourmrj 
kombi'neij^n 
kDmbi'neifpnz 
kam'bam 


kambi'neipn 
kambi'neijpnz 


combines 


kam'bamz 




combined 


kam'bamd 




combining 
combustion 
come 


kam'baimrj 
kam'bAstj>n 
kAm 




comes 


kAmz 




came 


keim 




coming 
comedian 


'kArmrj 






ka'mi'dian 




comedians 


ko'mi'djanz 
ka'mrdianz 




comedy 

comedies 


'komidi 
'komidiz 


'kamidi 
'kamidiz 


comet 


'komit 




comets 


'komits 




comfort 


'kAinfat 


'kAmfst 


comforts 


'kAmfats 


'kAmfats 


comforted 


'kAmfatid 


'kAmfatid 


comforting 
comfortable 


'kAmfatirj 
'kAmfptobJ 


kAmfstsbl 


comfortably 
comic 


'kAmf<?t8bli 
'komik 


kAmfstsbli 
'kamvk 


comical 


'kDmik^l 


'kamik^l 


comma 


'kom9 


'kams 


commas 


'komaz 


'kamdz 


command 


kg'ma'nd 


ka'ma'nd 


commands 


ka'ma'ndz 


ka'ma'ndz 


commanded 


ka'ma-ndid 


ka'ma-ndid 


commanding 
commander 


ko'ma'ndirj 
ka mQ'nddir 


kd'ma'ndirj 


commanders 


ka mQ'nddz 


kd'ma'ndaz 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



commandment 


ka'ma'ndmont 


ka'ma'n^mant 


commandments 


ka'mcrndmants 


ka'ma'ndmants 


commemorate 


ka'memareit 




commemorates 


ka'memareits 




commemorated 


ka'memareitid 




commemorating 


ka'memareitirj 




commemoration 


kamema'reif>n 




commemorations 


kamema'reij^nz 




commence 


ka'mens 




commences 


ka'mensiz 




commenced 


ka'menst 




' commencing 


ka'mensing 




comment 


'kDinent 


'kament 


comments 


'kDments 


'kaments 


commented 


'komentid 


'kamsntid 


commenting 


'kDmentirj 


'kamentirj 


commerce 


'kDinss, 'kDmas 


'kamsss, 'kamss 


commercial 


ka'ms'J^l 


ka'mssj^l 


commercially 


ka'ms'Jali 


ka'mssfQli 


commission 


ka'mij^n 




commissions 


ka'mij^nz 




commit 


ka r mit 




commits 


ka'mits 




committed 


ko'mitid 




committing 


ka'mitirj 




committee 


ka'miti 




committees 


ka'mitiz 




common 


'koman 


'kaman 


commoner 


'kDmana(r 


'kamans 


commonest 


'komanist 


'kamanist 


commonly 


'kDmanli 


'kamanh 


common- sense 


'komsn'sens 


'kaman'sens 


commotion 


ka'mouj^n 




communicate 


ka'mju'mkeit 


ka'mj u'niket 


communicates 


ka'mju'nikeits 


ka'mj u'mkets 


communicated 


ka'mj u 'mkeitid 


ka'mj u'mketid 


communicating 


ka'mj u 'mkeitirj 


ka'mj u'mketirj 


communication 


kam j u f m'keij^n 




communications 


kamj u -ni'kei/^nz 




communism 


'komjumzni 


'kamjunizm 


communist 


'kumjunvst 


'kamjunist 


communists 


'komjunists 


'kamjunists 


community 


ka'mj u'niti 




communities 


ka'mj u'nitiz 




compact, adj , 


kam'paekt 




companion 


kam'paenjan 




companions 


kam'paenjsnz 





70 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



company 


'kAmp;?m 




companies 


'kAmp^niz 




comparable 


'komp^rabj 


'kamparob} 


comparably 


'komp^rabli 


'kampsrsbli 


comparative 


kam'paerativ 




comparatives 


kam'paerativz 




comparatively 


kam'paerativh 




compare 


kam'pea(r 


kam'pes 


compares 


kam'peaz 


kam'pesz 


compared 


kom'pead 


kam'pesd 


comparing 


kom'pEorii) 


kam'pe'riT) 


comparison 


karn'paeris^n 






kam'paenz^n 




comparisons 


kom'paensmz 






kam'paeriz^nz 




compartment 


kam'pct'tmont 


kam'pastmont 


compartments 


kam'pa'tmonts 


kam'pastmonts 


compass 


'kAmpas 




compasses 


'kAmpssiz 




compatible 


kom'paetvb} 




compel 


ksm'pel 




compels 


kam'pelz 




compelled 


kom'peld 




compelling 


kom'pelii) 




compensate 


'kDmpsnsett 


'kampanseit 




'kompensett 




compensates 


'knmponseits 


'kampanseits 




'kompenseits 




compensated 


kompanseitid 


'kamponseitid 




'kompsnseitid 




compensating 


'kumpansettirj 


'kampanseituj 




'kompensettii) 




compensation 


kumpan'seij^n 


kampan'seipn 




kDmpen'sei/^n 




compensations 


kompon'seij^nz 


kampon'seij^nz 




kDtnpen'seiJsmz 




compete 


ksm'pi't 




competes 


kam'pi'ts 




competed 


kam'pi'tid 




competing 


kam'pi'tirj 




competence 


'kDmpitons 


'kampit^ns 


competent 


'kompit^nt 


'kampit^nt 


competition 


kompi'ti/^n 


kampi'tij^n 


competitions 


kompi'tij^nz 


kampi'tij^nz 


competitive 


kam'petitiv 




competitor 


kam'petita(r 


kam'petits 


competitors 


kam'petitaz 


kam'petitaz 



71 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



compile 


kam'pail 




compiles 


kam'pailz 




compiled 


kam'paild 




compiling 


kam'paihr) 




compiler 


k9m'pail9(r 


kam'pails 


compilers 


kam'pailgz 


kom'pailsz 


complain 


kam'plem 




complains 


kom'plemz 




complained 


kam'plemd 




complaining 


ksm'pleinirj 




complaint 


kam'plemt 




complaints 


kam'plemts 




complement 


'kDmplimant 


'kamphmgnt 


complements 


'komphmants 


'kamphmants 


complete 


kam'pli't 




complicate 


'komphkeit 


'kamphkeit 


complicates 


'kDmphkeits 


'kamplikeits 


complicated 


'komplikeitid 


'kamphkeitid 


complicating 


'komphkeitir) 


'kamphkeitir) 


complication 


kDmph'kei/^n 


kamph'keij^n 


complications 


kDmph'keiJ>nz 


kamph'keij^nz 


compliment, noun 


'kDmplimont 


'kamphmant 


compliments 


'komplimsnts 


'kamphmsnts 


compliment, verb 


'komphmsnt 


'kamphmsnt 


compliments 


'kDmpltments 


'kamphments 


complimented 


'kDmplimentid 


'kamplimentid 


complimenting 


'kDmphmsntir) 


'kamphmentti) 


complimentary 


kompli' mentor i 


'kampliment^ri 


comply 


kam'plai 




complies 


kam'plaiz 




complied 


kam'plaid 




complying 


kdm'plaiii) 




compose 


kom'pouz 




composes 


kam'pouziz 




composed 


kam'pouzd 




composing 


kam'pouzirj 




composer 


kam'pouza(r 


kam'pouzs 


composers 


kam'pouzaz 


kam'pouzsz 


composition 


kDmpa'ziJ^n 


kampa^zi/^n 


compositions 


kDmps'zi/Pnz 


kampd'zij^nz 


compound 


'kompaund 


'kampaund 


compounds 


'kDmpaundz 


'kampaundz 


compress 


kam'pres 




compresses 


kam'prssiz 




compressed 


kam'prest 




compressing 


kam'prevSirj 




compromise 


'kDmpromaiz 


'kamprsmaiz 



72 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



compromises 


'kDrnpramaiziz 


'kampramaiziz 


compromised 


'kDmpramaizd 


'kampramaizd 


compromising 


'kDmpromaizu) 


'kampramaizirj 


compulsory 


kam'pAlsari 




concave 


'kon'keiv 


'kan'keiv 


conceal 


kan'srl 




conceals 


kan'srlz 




concealed 


kan'sHd 




concealing 


kan'srhrj 




concede 


kan'srd 




concedes 


kon'srdz 




conceded 


kon'srdid 




conceding 


kon'srdirj 




conceit 


ksn'srt 




conceited 


kan'srtid 




conceivable 


kon'si'vab} 




conceivably 


kon'si-vobli 




conceive 


kan'si'v 




conceives 


kan'srvz 




conceived 


kan'si'vd 




conceiving 


kon'si'virj 




concentration 


kDnson'treiJ^n 


kans8n''treij9n 




kDnsen'treiJ^n 




concentrations 


konsan'treijnz 


kanssn'treij^nz 




kDnsen'treifnz 




concept 


'konsept 


'kansspt 


concepts 


'kDnsepts 


'kansepts 


concern 


kan'sa'n 


kon'sssn 


concerns 


kon'ss'nz 


kon'sssnz 


concerned 


kan'ss'nd 


ksb'sssnd 


concerning 


kan'sa'nirj 


kan'sssnirj 


concert, noun 


'konsat 


'kansst 


concerts 


'konsots 


'kanssts 


conciliate 


kon'siheit 




conciliates 


kan'siheits 




conciliated 


kan'siheitid 




conciliating 


ksn'siheitirj 




concise 


kdn'sais 




concisely 


kon'saisli 




conciseness 


kan'saisms 




conclude 


kon'klu'd 




concludes 


kan'klu'dz 




concluded 


kan'klu'did 




concluding 


kan'klu'dirj 




conclusion 


kan f klu'30n 




conclusions 


kan'klu'3?nz 





73 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



concrete 


'konkrrt, 'korjkrit 


kankri't 


concur 


kan'ks 1 


kan'kss 


concurs 


kan'ks'z 


kan'kssz 


concurred 


ksn'ks'd 


kan'kasd 


concurring 


kan'ksTirj 




condemn 


kan'dem 




condemns 


kan'demz 




condemned 


kan'demd 




condemning 


kan'demirj 




condemnation 


kDndem'neiJ^n 


kandem'neij^n 


condemnations 


kDndem'neiJVnz 


kandem'neij^nz 




kDndam'neij^nz 




condense 


kan'dens 




condenses 


kan'densiz 




condensed 


kan'dsnst 




condensing 


kon'dsnsirj 




condition 


kan'dij^n 




conditions 


kan'dif^nz 




conditional 


ksn'di/^n^l 




conditionally 


kan'di/nali 




conduct, noun 


'kondAkt, 'kondakt 


'kandAkt, 'kandakt 


conduct, verb 


kan'dAkt 




conducts 


kan'dAkts 




conducted 


kan'dAktid 




conducting 


kan'dAktir) 




conductor 


kan'dAkta(r 


kan'dAkt 


conductors 


kan'dAktaz 


kan'dAktsz 


cone 


koun 




cones 


kounz 




confectionery 


kan'fekj^npri 


kan'fekj^neri 


confederation 


k^nfsda'reijpn 




confederations 


kanf eda f r ei J^nz 




confer 


kan'f3'(r 


kan'fsa 


confers 


kan'fs'z 


kan'fasz 


conferred 


kan'f3'd 


kan'fsad 


conferring 


kon'fsTir) 




conference 


'konf^rans 


'kanf^rans 


conferences 


'konforansvz 


'kanf^ransiz 


confess 


kan'fes 




confesses 


kan'fesiz 




confessed 


kan'fest 




confessing 


kan'fesirj 




confession 


kan'fef^n 




confessions 


kan'fepnz 




confide 


kan'faid 




confides 


kan'faidz 





74. 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



confided 


kan'faidid 




confiding 


kan'faidirj 




confidence 


'kDnfidpns 


'kanfvd?ns 


confident 


'konfutont 


'kanfid^nt 


confidently 


'konfutenth 


'kanfvd^ntli 


confidential 


kDnfi'den|>l 


kanfrdsnf?! 


confidentially 


kDnfi'denJah 


kanfi'den/oh 


confine 


kan'fam 




confines 


kan'famz 




confined 


kan'famd 




confining 


kan'famirj 




confirm 


kon'fs'm 


kan'fssm 


confirms 


kan'fs'mz 


kan'fsSmz 


confirmed 


kan'fs'ind 


kon'fsemd 


confirming 


kan'fs'mirj 




confirmation 


kDnfa'meif^n 


kanfs'meif^n 


confirmations 


kDnfa'meif^nz 


kanfs'meij^nz 


confiscate 


'konfiskeit 


'kanfiskeit 


confiscates 


'konfiskeits 


'kanfiskeits 


confiscated 


'konftskeitid 


'kanfiskeitid 


confiscating 


'konfiskeituj 


'kanfiskeitirj 


confiscation 


konfis'keij^n 


kanfis'keijpn 


conflict, noun 


'konflikt 


'kanflikt 


conflicts 


'konflikts 


'kanflikts 


conflict, verb 


kan'fhkt 




conflicts 


kan'fhkts 




conflicted 


kan'fliktid 




conflicting 


kon'fliktirj 




conform 


kan'fo'm 


kan'foam 


conforms 


kan'fo'mz 


kan'foamz 


conformed 


kan'fo'md 


kan'foamd 


conforming 


kan'fo'mir) 


kan'faamir) 


conformity 


kon'fo'miti 


kon'fosmiti 


confront 


kan'frAnt 




confronts 


kan'frAnts 




confronted 


kan'frAntid 




confronting 


kan'frAntirj 




confuse 


kan'fju'z 




confuses 


kan'fju'ziz 




confused 


kan'fju-zd 




confusing 


kan'fju'zirj 




confusion 


k9n'fju3?n 




confusions 


kan'fju'3?nz 




congestion 


kan'o^es^n 




Congo 


'korjgou 




congratulate 


kan'graetjuleit 




congratulates 


kan'graetjuleits 





75 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



congratulated 


kan'graetj uleitid 




congratulating 


kan'graetj ulettiri 




congratulation 


kangraetj u'leijim 




congratulations 


ksngraetj u'leiJVnz 




congregation 


kDngri'geiJpn 


karjgn'geij^n 


congregations 


kDrjgn'geifsnz 


kangn'geij^nz 


congregational 


kDngn'geiJ^nj 


karjgri'geij^n] 


congress 


'korjgres 


'karjgns 


congresses 


'korjgresiz 


'karjgnsiz 


conical 


'komkpl 


'kanik^l 


conjecture 


k3n'cekt(9(r 


k9n'd$ektf9 


conjectures 


kan'djektfQz 


kan'c^ektfoz 


conjectured 


kan'djektfad 


kan'c^ek-y'ad 


conjecturing 


kon'djektj^nr) 




conjoint 


'kondpmt, kon'djoint 


' kan d$ Dint 


conjointly 


'kDnc^Dinth 


'kanc^omth 




kan'c^omth 




conjugal 


'kondjugpl 


'kanc^ug^l 


conjugate 


'kon^ugeit 


'kanc^ugeit 


conjugates 


'konc^ugeits 


'kand$ugeits 


conjugated 


'kondjugeitid 


'kane^ugeitid 


conjugating 


'konc^ugeitirj 


'kanc^ugeitirj 


conjugation 


konc^u'geijpn 


kand^u'gei/pn 


conjugations 


kon <^u'g eij^nz 


kan d$u'g eij^nz 


conjunction 


ksn'c^Arj/jJpn 




conjunctions 


kan'c^nrj^Janz 




conjunctive 


ksn'c^Arj^tiv 




conjunctively 


k^n'c^Ar)/?tivli 




conjure 


'kAnd$9(r 


'kAnc^s, 'kanc^s 


conjures 


'kAnc^az 


'kAn^sz, 'kand$az 


conjured 


'kAn<^ad 


'kAii^sd, 'kanc^ac 


conj unng 


'kAnci;9rtr) 


'kanc^onrj 


conjurer 


r kAnd$9ro(r 


'kAnc^ars 


conjurers 


'kAndpraz 


'kAnd$9rsz 


connect 


ks'nekt 




connects 


ko'nskts 




connected 


ks'nektvd 




connecting 


k^'nektirj 




connectedly 


ka'nektidh 




connection 


ko'nekpn 




connections 


ka'nsk/^nz 




connective 


ko'ncktiv 




connexion 


ka'nekpn 




connexions 


ko'nekf^nz 




connivance 


k8'naiv^ns 




connive 


ka'naiv 




connives 


ks'naivz 





76 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



connived 


ka'haivd 




conniving 


ks'naivirj 




connotation 


kDnou'teifpn 


kanou'teifpn 


connotations 


kDnou'tei|>nz 


kanou'teijpnz 


conquer 


'kDrjk9(r 


'karjks 


conquers 


'korjkaz 


Tkarjksz 


conquered 


'korjkad 


'karjkad 


conquering 


'konkmrj 


'karjkmrj 


conqueror 


'kDrjkj?r9(r 


'karjk^ra 


conquerors 


'konk^rsz 


'karjk^rsz 


conquest 


'kDrjkwest 


'karjkwsst 


conquests 


'kDrjkwssts 


'karjkwests 


conscience 


'kDnJ>ns 


'kanfzns 


consciences 


'konj^nsiz 


'kanj^nsiz 


conscientious 


kDnJYenJss 


kanji'enjos 


conscientiously 


kDnJYenj9sh 


kanji'snjash 


conscientiousness 


kDnJYenJasms 


kanji'snjssnis 


conscious 


'kDn/9S 


'kanfas 


consciously 


'konjgsh 


'kanjasli 


consciousness 


'konjosnis 


'kanjgsnis 


conscript 


'konskript 


'kanskript 


conscripts 


'konskripts 


'kanskripts 


conscription 


kon'skripj^ii 




consecutive 


kan'sekjutiv 




consecutively 


kan'sekjutivh 




consent 


kan'ssnt 




consents 


kan'ssnts 




consented 


kon'sentid 




consenting 


kan'ssntirj 




consequence 


'kiinsikw^ns 


'kansikwons 


consequences 


'knnsikw^nsiz 


'kansikw9nsiz 


consequent 


'konsikwant 


'kansikwgnt 


consequently 


'konsikwantli 


'kansikw9ntli 


conservatism 


kan's3'V9tizni 


k9n's3vatizrp 


conservative 


kan'ss'vativ 


k9n'sssv9tiv 


conservatives 


k9n'S2'V9tlVZ 


k9n'S9SV9tlVZ 


consider 


k9n'sida(r 


kgn'sid 


considers 


ksn'sidoz 


k9n f sidsz 


considered 


kon'sidad 


kgn'sidsd 


considering 


kan'sid^rirj 




considerable 


kan'sid^rab} 




considerably 


kon'sid^rabh 




considerate 


kan'sidmt 




considerately 


kan'sid^rith 




consideration 


kansida'reij^n 




considerations 


ksnsida'reij^nz 




consign 


k9n'sain 





77 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



consigns 


kan'samz 




consigned 


kan'samd 




consigning 


kan'saimrj 




consigner 


kan'saino 




consigners 


kan'samaz 




consignment 


kon'sainmant 




consignments 


kon'sammants 




consist 


kan'sist 




consists 


kan'sists 




consisted 


kon'sistid 




"consisting 


kan'sistirj 




consistency 


kan'sisfcmsi 




consistent 


kon'sistent 




consistently 


kon'sisfcmtli 




consolation 


konsa'leij^n 


kansa'leij^n 


consolations 


kDnsa'leiJ^nz 


kanss'levj^nz 


console 


kan'soul 




consoles 


kan'soulz 




consoled 


kan'sould 




consoling 


kan'souhrj 




consonant 


'konsanont 


'kansonant 


consonants 


'konsonants 


'kanssnonts 


conspicuous 


kan'spikjuas 




conspicuously 


kan'spikjuQsh 




conspiracy 


kan'spwasi 




conspiracies 


kan'spirdsiz 




conspirator 


kan'spir9to(r 


kan'spirats 


conspirators 


kan'spirataz 


kon'spiratsz 


conspire 


kan'spai9(r 


kon'spais 


conspires 


kon'spaiaz 


kan'spaiaz 


conspired 


kon'spaiad 


kan'spaisd 


conspiring 


kan'spaiarirj 


kan'spairirj 


constable 


'kAnstabJ 




constables 


'kAnstabJz 




constancy 


'konst^nsi 


'kanst^nsi 


constant 


'konstont 


'kanst^nt 


Constantinople 


kon'staenti'noi/p} 




constantly 


'konst^ntli 


'kanst^nth 


consternation 


konsts'neij^n 


kDnst9'nei/pn 


constitute 


'konstitjut 


'kanstitjut 


constitutes * 


'konstitjuts 


'kanstitjuts 


constituted 


'konstitjutid 


'kanstitjutid 


constituting 


'konstitjutirj 


'kanstitjutirj 


constitution 


konsti'tju'J^n 


kansti'tju'J^n 


constitutions 


konsti'tju'Jpnz 


kansti'tju'J>nz 


constitutional 


konsti'tju'J^n^l 


kansti'tju'f^nj?! 


constitutionally 


kDnsti'tju'j>nah 


kansti'tju'^nsli 


78 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



construct 


kan'strAkt 




constructs 


kan'strAkts 




constructed 


kan'strAktid 




constructing 


kan'strAktirj 




constructor 


kan'strAkta(r 


kan'strAkt 


constructors 


kan'strAktaz 


kan'strAktsz 


construction 


kon'strAkfm 




constructions 


kon'strAkfznz 




constructive 


kan'strAktiv 




constructively 


kon'strAkttvh 




consul 


'konsj 


'kansj 


consuls 


'konsjz 


'kansjz 


consular 


'kDnsjul9(r 


'kansuls 


consulate 


'konsjuht 


'kansuht 


consulates 


'konsjulits 


'kansuhts 


consult 


kan'sAlt 




consults 


kan'sAlts 




consulted 


kan'sAltid 




consulting 


ksn'sAltirj 




consultation 


kuns}'teij9n 


kans|'teij9n 


consultations 


kDnsJ'teiJ^nz 


kansj'teij^nz 


consume 


kon f s;u'm 




consumes 


kan'sju'mz 




consumed 


kon f s;u'md 




consuming 


kan's;u T mir) 




consumer 


kan's;u'm3(r 


kail's; u mo 


consumers 


ksn's/u-moz 


kan'&;u f mz 


consumption 


k9n'sAm/?f^n 




contact 


'kontaekt 


'kantaekt 


contacts 


'kontaekts 


'kantaekts 


contagion 


kan'teid$;?n 




contagious 


kan'tei^s 




contain 


kan'tem 




contains 


kan'teinz 




contained 


kan'teind 




containing 


kan'tetmrj 




contaminate 


kan'taeinmeit 




contaminates 


kan'taemmeits 




contaminated 


kon'taemineitid 




contaminating 


ksn'taemineitirj 




contamination 


kontaemi'neij^n 




contemplate 


'kontempleit 


'kantsmpleit 




'kontsmpleit 




contemplates 


'kontempleits 


'kantsmpleits 




'kDntampletts 




contemplated 


'kontempleitid 


'kantempleitid 




'kontampleitid 





79 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



contemplating 


'kontempleitirj 


'kantempleitirj 




'kontampleitirj 




contemplation 


kDntem'pleifzn 


kantem'pleiJVn 




kDntam'pleiJ^n 




contemporary 


kan'tsmp^rari 


kan'tempareri 


contemporaries 


kon'tempzranz 


kan'tempsreriz 


contempt 


kon'tsm/)t 




contemptible 


kon'tem^tobj 




contemptibly 


kan'tem^tabli 




contemptuous 


kon'tsmptjuos 




contemptuously 


kgn'tsmptjuosh 




contend 


kan'tend 




contends 


kon'tendz 




contended 


kon'tsndid 




contending 


kan'tsndir) 




content, noun 


'knntent 


'kantsnt 


contents 


'kontents 


'kantsnts 


content, verb, adj. 


kan'tent 




contents 


kon'tents 




contented 


kan'tentid 




contenting 


kan'tentirj 




contentment 


kan'tentmont 




contention 


ken'tsnj^n 




contentions 


kan'tenpnz 




contentious 


kon'tsnfas 




contest, noun 


'kontest 


'kantest 


contests 


'kontests 


'kantests 


contest, verb 


kan'test 




contests 


ksn'tBsts 




contested 


kan'testid 




contesting 


ksn'testirj 




context 


'kontekst 


'kantekst 


contexts 


'kunteksts 


'kantsksts 


continent 


'kontmont 


'kantinant 


continents 


'kontmants 


'kantmsnts 


continental 


kunti'nent) 


kanti'nsntj 


contingent 


kon'tm^nt 




contingents 


kan'tm^nts 




continual 


kan'tmju^l 




continually 


kan'tmjuzh 




continuation 


kanttnju'eij^n 




continuations 


kontinj u'eipnz 




continue 


kan'tmju 




continues 


ksn'tmjuz 




continued 


kan'tmjud 




continuing 


kan'tmjuirj 




continuity 


konti'nju'iti 


kanti'nju'iti 



80 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



continuous 


kan'tinjuas 




continuously 


kan'tmjuash 




contortion 


kan'to-J>n 


kan'tosj^n 


contortions 


kan'to'Janz 


kan'tasj^nz 


contract, noun 


'kuntraekt 


'kantraekt 


contracts 


'kontraekts 


'kantraekts 


contract, verb 


kan'traekt 




contracts 


kan'traekts 




contracted 


kan'traektid 




contracting 


kan'traektirj 




contraction 


kan'traek|>n 




contractions 


kaii'traekj>nz 




contractor 


kan'traekta(r 


kan'traekts 


contractors 


kan'traektaz 


kan'trasktsz 


contradict 


kontra'dikt 


kantra'dikt 


contradicts 


knntra'dikts 


kantra'dikts 


contradicted 


kontra'diktid 


kantra'diktid 


contradicting 


kontro'diktir) 


kantra'diktirj 


contradiction 


kDntr9'dikJ>n 


kantra'dikj^n 


contradictions 


kontra'd ikj^nz 


kantra'dikj^nz 


contradictory 


kontra'dikt^ri 


kantra'dikt^rv 


contrarily 


'kontrarih 


'kantranh 


contrary 


'kontrari 


'kantrsri 


contraries 


'kuntranz 


'kantrsnz 


contrast, noun 


'kontrast, 'kontraest 


'kantrast 


contrasts 


'kontrasts 


'kantrasts 




'kontraests 




contrast, verb 


kon'tra-st 


'kan'tra'st 




kan'traest 




contrasts 


kan'tra-sts, 


kan'tra'sts 




kan'traests 




contrasted 


kan'trcrsted 


kan'tra'stid 




kan'traestid 




contrasting 


kan'tra'stirj 


kan'tra-stig 




ksn'traestirj 




contribute 


kan'tribjut 




contributes 


kan'tribjuts 




contributed 


kan'tribj utid 




contributing 


kan'tribjutirj 




contribution 


kontn'bju'J^n 


kantn'bjti'J^n 


contributions 


kDntn'bju'JVnz 


kantri'bju'J>nz 


contributor 


kan'tribjuta^ 


kan'tribjuts 


contributors 


kan'tnbjutaz 


kan'tribjutsz 


contrivance 


kan'traiv^ns 




contrivances 


kan'traiv^nsiz 




contrive 


kan'traiv 




contrives 


k^n'traivz 





81 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



contrived 


kan'traivd 




contriving 


kon'traivirj 




control 


kan'troul 




controls 


kan'troulz 




controlled 


kon'trould 




controlling 


ksn'trouhr) 




controller 


kan'troulo(r 


k^n'troul 


controllers 


kon'troulaz 


k9n'troulsz 


controversial 


kDntra'vs'Jpl 


kantr9 f v3J^l 


controversy 


'kontravssi 


'kantrsvsssi 


controversies 


'kontrovssiz 


'kantravsostz 


conundrum 


kg'nAndrsm 




conundrums 


ks'nAndramz 




convalescence 


konva'lesns 


kanvo'lssns 


convalescent 


kunva'lesnt 


kanvo'lesnt 


convenience 


kan'vi-njons 




conveniences 


kgn'vrnjansiz 




convenient 


kon'vrnjoiit 




conveniently 


ksn'vi'njanth 




convent 


'konv^nt, 'konvent 


'kanvent 


convents 


'kunv^nts 


'kanvents 




'konvsnts 




convention 


kon'venj^n 




conventions 


kon'venf;mz 




conventional 


kon'vsnjpnj 




conventionally 


kan'venj^nji 




converge 


k9n'v3'4 


k9n'v3^6^ 


converges 


k9n'v3'(^iz 


kon'vsso^iz 


converged 


kan'vs-o^d 


k9n'v3(5cd 


converging 


kan'vs-djir) 


kan'vsso^irj 


conversation 


konva'seij^n 


kanvs'setj^n 


conversations 


kDnvo'seif^ns 


kanva'seij^nz 


conversational 


konva'seij^n} 




conversationally 


konva'seij^nji 




converse, noun 


'konvss 


'kanvsas 


converse, verb 


kon'vs-s 


kan'vsas 


converses 


kan'va'siz 


kon'vsasiz 


conversed 


kan'vs'st 


kan'vsost 


conversing 


kgn'vs'sirj 


k9n'vsssirj 


conversion 


kgn'vs'Ji^ 


kgn'vsajn 


conversions 


kan'vs-Jnz 


kan'vssjnz 


convert, noun 


'konvst 


'kanvsst 


converts 


'konvsts 


'kanvsats 


convert, verb 


kgn'vs't 


k9n'v3s>t 


converts 


kan'vs'ts 


kan'vsdts 


converted 


kon'vs'tid 


k9n'vs8tid 


converting 


ksn'vs'tirj 


kan r \ 3tirj 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



convex 


'kon'veks 


'kan'veks 


convey 


kon'vei 




conveys 


ksn'veiz 




conveyed 


kan'veid 




conveying 


ksn'veur) 




conveyance 


kan'vcians 




conveyances 


kan'veisnsiz 




convict, noun 


'konvikt 


'kanvikt 


convicts 


'konvikts 


'kanvikts 


convict, verb 


kon'vikt 




convicts 


kon'vikts 




convicted 


kan'viktid 




convicting 


kan'viktu) 




conviction 


kan'vikpn 




convictions 


kan'vikf^nz 




convince 


kan'vms 




convinces 


kan'vmsiz 




convinced 


kan'vmst 




convincing 


kon'vmsir) 




convivial 


kon'vivial 




convulsion 


kan'vAl/^n 




convulsions 


kan'vAlJpnz 




cook 


kuk 




cooks 


kuks 




cooked 


kukt 




cooking 


'kukir) 




cookery 


'kukori 




cool 


ku-1 




cooler 


'ku'lo(r 


'ku'ls 


coolest 


'ku-list 




coolly 


'ku'lh 




coolness 


'ku'lms 


ku'lnss 


co-operate 


kou'Dp8reit 


kou'apareit 


co-operates 


kou'opareits 


kou'apareits 


co-operated 


kou'opareitid 


kou'apsreitid 


co-operating 


kou'Dpareitir) 


kou'apareitirj 


co-operator 


kou'Dpareito(r 


kou'ap9reits 


co-operators 


kou'oporettaz 


kou'apareitoz 


co-operation 


kouDpa'reipn 


kouapa'reij^n 


co-ordinate 


kou'o'dmeit 


kou'osdmeit 


co-ordinates 


kou'o'dmeits 


kou'osdmeits 


co-ordinated 


kou'o-dineitid 


kou'osdmeitid 


co-ordinating 


kou'o'dineitir) 


kou'oadineitig 


Copenhagen 


'koupn'hetg^n 




copper 


'kupa(r 


'kapo 


copy 


'kopi 


'kapi 


copies 


'kopiz 


'kapiz 



83 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



copied 


'kopid 


'kapid 


copying 


'kopurj 


'kapurj 


copyright 


'kDptrait 


'kapirait 


coral 


'kural 




cord 


ko'd 


koad 


cords 


ko-dz 


kasdz 


cordial 


'ko'djal, 'kD'disl 


'koso^al, 'koadval 


cordially 


ko-djali, 'ko-diah 


'koadiali 


core 


ko'(r, koo(r 


kos 


cores 


ko-z, koaz 


kOQZ 


cork 


ko-k 


kosk 


corks 


ko-ks 


kosks 


cork-screw 


'kcvksknr 


'kDskskru' 


cork-scre\\ s 


'ko-kskrirz 


'koakskru'z 


corn 


ko-n 


ko3n 


corns 


ko'nz 


koanz 


corner 


'ko'nsfr 


'kosns 


corners 


'ko-noz 


'koansz 


corollary 


ko'rDbn 


'koralsri 


corollaries 


ko'rolanz 


'koralenz 


coronation 


kDra'nei/^n 




coronations 


kora'neij^nz 




corporal 


'ko'p^rol 


'kospprsl 


corporals 


'ko-p^ralz 


'kaap^ralz 


corporation 


ko'ps'reij^n 


kospa'reif^n 


corporations 


ko'po'reipnz 


kospa'rei/^nz 


corps, sin. 


koa, ko' 


kos 


corps, plu. 


koaz, ko'z 


kosz 


corpse 


ko'ps 


kosps 


corpses 


'ko-psiz 


'kaspsiz 


correct 


ko'rekt 




corrects 


ko'iskts 




corrected 


ko'rektid 




correcting 


ko'rsktirj 




correction 


ka'rskjpn 




corrections 


ka'rek/^nz 




correctly 


ka'rekth 




correctness 


ka'rektnis 




corrector 


ko'rekt3(r 


ko'rektd 


correctors 


ka'rektaz 


ka'rektsz 


corrective 


ka'rektiv 




correlate 


'knrileit 




correlates 


'korileits 




correlated 


'korileitid 




correlating 


'kDnleitirj 




correlation 


kori'leij^n 




correlations 


kuri'leij^nz 





84 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



correspond 


koris'pDnd 


kons'pand 


corresponds 


knns'pDndz 


kans'pandz 


corresponded 


koris'pDndid 


koris'pandid 


corresponding 


koris'pDndirj 


kDrts'pandirj 


correspondence 


kDris'pondans 


koris'pandans 


correspondingly 


kDris'pDndirjh 


kDris'pandinh 


corridor 


'kondo(r 


'kDridos, korid 


corridors 


'koridDz 


'koridoaz, koridsz 


corroborate 


ka'robareit 


ka'rabareit 


corroborates 


k8'rDboreits 


ka'rabareits 


corroborated 


ks'roboreitid 


ka'rabareitid 


corroborating 


ks'rDboreitirj 


ks'rabsreitirj 


corroboration 


korDbo'ret|>n 


karaba'reij^n 


corrupt 


ko'rApt 




corrupts 


ks'rApts 




corrupted 


ka'rAptid 




corrupting 


kg'rAptirj 




corruption 


ko'rApJ^n 




corruptly 


ka'rApth 




corset 


'ko'sit 


'kossit 


corsets 


'ko-svts 


'kaasits 


cosmopolitan 


kDsma'pDht^n 


kazma'palit^n 


cost 


kost, kost 




costs 


kosts, kosts 




costing 


'kostuj, 'kDStirj 




costly 


'kosth, 'kostli 




costume 


'kostjum 


'kastyum 


costumes 


'kostjumz 


'kast/umz 


cosy 


'kouzi 




cosier 


'kouzva(r 


'kouzia 


cosiest 


'kouzust 




cosily 


'kouzilt 




cot 


kDt 


kat 


cots 


kots 


kats 


cottage 


'kDtio^ 


'katicfc 


cottages 


'kotio^iz 


'katio^iz 


cotton 


'koti? 


'kati^i 


cough 


kof 




coughs 


kDfs 




coughed 


kDft 




coughing 


'kofirj 




COULD from can 


kud s f , kad w /. 




council 


'kaunsl 




councils 


'kaunsjz 




councillor 


'kaunsil9(r 


'kaunsils 


councillors 


'kaunsilsz 


'kaunsilsz 


counsel 


'kauns} 





85 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



counsels 


'kaunsjz 




counsellor 


'kauns0l9(r 


'kauns^la 


counsellors 


'katms^loz 


'kaunsplsz 


count 


kaunt 




counts 


kaunts 




counted 


'kauntid 




counting 


'kauntirj 




countenance 


'kauntmans 




countenances 


'kauntmansiz 




counter 


'kaunt9(r 


'kaunts 


counters 


'kauntaz 


'kauntsz 


counterbalance 


kaunta'baetens 


kaunts'baelgns 


counterbalances 


kaunto'baelonsiz 


kaunts'baetensiz 


counterbalanced 


kaunt9'ba3l9nst 


kaunta'baebnst 


counterbalancing 


kaunt9 r bael9nsirj 


kaunta'bael9nsir) 


countermand 


kaunto'mcrnd 


kaunts'ma'nd 


countermands 


kaunta'ma'iidz 


kaunts'ma'ndz 


countermanded 


kaunto'ma -ndid 


kaunto'ma'ndvd 


countermanding 


kaimto'ma 'ndirj 


kaunt9'ma'ndirj 


countess 


'kauntis 




countesses 


'kauntisiz 




countless 


'kaunths 




country 


'kAntri 




countries 


'kAntriz 




countryman 


'kAntnmsn 




countrymen 


'kAntriman 




couple 


'kA P l 




couples 


'kAp}z 




coupled 


'kAp}d 




coupling 


'kApJirj 




courage 


'kAric| 


'ksric^ 


courageous 


ks'reio^as 




courageously 


ko'retd^ash 




course 


ko's 


koos 


courses 


'ko'Siz 


'kossiz 


court 


ko't, koat 


kost 


courts 


ko'ts, koots 


koats 


courteous 


'ks'tjas, 'ks'tias 


'kastjas, 'k3ti9s 


courteously 


'ks'tjash, 'k9'ti9sh 


'ksatjosh, 'ksatiash 


courtesy 


'ks'tisi 


'ksstisi 


courtesies 


'ka'tisiz 


'kastistz 


cousin 


'kAzn 




cousins 


'kAznz 




cover 


'kAV9(r 


'kAVS 


covers 


'kAV9Z 


'kAVSZ 


covered 


'kAV9d 


'kAvad 


covering 


'kAV^nrj 





86 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



COW 


kau 




cows 


kauz 




coward 


'kauad 


'kausd 


cowards 


'kausdz 


'kausdz 


cowardice 


'kauadis 


'kausdis 


cowardly 
crab 


'kauadh 
kraeb 


'kau3dh 


crabs 


kraebz 




crack 


krsek 




cracks 


kraeks 




cracked 


krsekt 




cracking 
cradle 
cradles 
craft 


'kraekirj 
'kreidj 
'kreidjz 
kra-ft 


kra-ft, kraeft 


crafts 
craftily 
crafty 
cram 


kra-fts 
'kra-ftih 
'kra-fti 
kraem 


kra'fts, kraefts 
'kra-ftih, kraeftih 
'kra'fti, kraefti 


crams 


kraemz 




crammed 


kraemd 




cramming 
cramp 
crane 


'kraemirj 
krsemp 
krem 




cranes 


kreinz 




crank 

cranks 
crash 
crashes 
crashed 
crashing 
crater 
craters 


kraerjk 
kraerjks 
kraej 
'kraejiz 
'kr^Jt 
'kraefirj 
'kreito(r 
x 'kreitaz 


'kreits 
'kreitsz 


crave 


kreiv 




craves 


kreivz 




craved 


kreivd 




craving 

cravings 
crawl 


'kreivtrj 
'kreivirjz 
kro-1 




crawls 


kro-lz 




crawled 


kro'ld 




crawling 
crazy 

crazier 
craziest 


'kro'hrj 
'kretzi 
'kreizis(r 
'kreizist 


'kreizia 


cream 


kri'm 




crease 


kri-s 





87 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



creases 


'krrsiz 




create 


kri'eit 




creates 


kn'eits 




created 


kn'eitid 




creating 


kri'eitirj 




creation 


kri'eij>n 




creations 


kri'eij^nz 




creative 


kri'eitiv 




creator 


kn'eita(r 


kri'eita 


creators 


kri'eitaz 


kn'eitsz 


creature 


'kn-tja(r 


'kri-tf 


creatures 


'kri-tfaz 


'kri-tfsz 


credential 


kri'denj^l 




credentials 


kri'denj^lz 




credible 


'kredibj 




credibly 


'kredibh 




credit 


'kredit 




credits 


'krsdits 




credited 


'kreditid 




crediting 


'kreditirj 




creditable 


'kreditabj 




creditably 


'kreditabh 




creditor 


'krsdita(r 


'kredits 


creditors 


'krsditaz 


'krsditsz 


credulity 


kri'dju'liti 




credulous 


'kredjulas 




creed 


krrd 




creeds 


kri'dz 




creep 


kri'p 




creeps 


kri'ps 




crept 


krept 




creeping 


'kri'pirj 




creeper 


'kri'pa(r 


'kri'ps 


creepers 


'kri'paz 


'krrpsz 


cremate 


kri'meit 




cremates 


kri'meits 




cremated 


kn'meitid 




cremating 


kri'meitirj 




cremation 


kn'meif^n 




CREPT jrom creep 


krept 




crescent 


'kresnt, 'kreznt 




crescents 


'kresnts, 'kreznts 




crest 


krest 




crests 


krests 




crew 


kru- 




crews 


kru-z 




CREW from crow 


kru 





88 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



cricket 


'knkit 




crime 


kraim 




crimes 


kraimz 




criminal 


'krimm} 




criminals 


'krmun|z 




crimson 


'krimzu 




cripple 


'kripj 




cripples 


'kripjz 




cnppled 


'kripjd 




crippling 


'kriphrj, 'kripjirj 




critic 


'kritik 




critics 


'kritiks 




critical 


'kritikpl 




critically 


'kritikoh 




criticism 


'kritisizrji 




criticisms 


'kritisizmz 




criticize 


'kntisaiz 




criticizes 


'kritisaiziz 




criticized 


'kritisaizd 




criticizing 


'kritisaizirj 




critique 


kn'trk 




critiques 


kri'ti'ks 




crockery 


'krokan 


'krakari 


crocodile 


'krokadail 


'krakadail 


crocodiles 


'krokadailz 


'krakadailz 


crooked 


'krukid 




crookedly 


'krukidh 




crop 


krop 


krap 


crops 


krops 


kraps 


cropped 


kropt 


krapt 


cropping 


'kropirj 


'krapirj 


cross 


kros, kros 


kro'S, kras 


crosser 


'kroso(r, 'krosa(r 


kross, kross 


Grossest 


'krosist, 'krosist 




crosses 


'krosiz, 'krosiz 




crossed 


krost, krost 




crossing 


'krosirj, 'krosirj 




crossings 


'krosirjz, 'krosirjz 




crossly 


'krosh, 'krosli 




crossness 


'krosms, 'krosnis 




crouch 


krautf 




crouches 


'krautfiz 




crouched 


krautft 




crouching 


'krautf ir) 




crow 


krou 




crows 


krouz 




crowed 


kroud 





89 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



crowing 


'krouirj 




crowd 


kraud 




crowds 


kraudz 




crowded 


'kraudid 




crowding 


'kraudirj 




crown 


kraun 




crowns 


kraunz 




crowned 


kraund 




crowning 


'kraumrj 




crude 


kru'd 




Cruder 


'knrd8(r 


'kru'da 


crudest 


'knrdist 




crudely 


'kru-dh 




crudeness 


'knrdnis 




cruel 


'kruol, 'kruil 




crueller 


'kruak>(r, kruila(r 


'krusls 


cruellest 


'kruolist, 'kruihst 




cruelly 


'kruah, 'kruih 




cruelness 


'krualnis, 'kruilms 




cruelty 


'krui?lti 




cruelties 


'kru^ltiz 




cruise 


kru'z 




cruises 


'knrziz 




cruised 


kru'zd 




cruising 


'kru-zirj 




cruiser 


'kru f za(r 


'kru'za 


cruisers 


'kru'zsz 


'kru'zsz 


crumb 


krAm 




crumbs 


krAmz 




crumble 


'krAmbJ 




crumbles 


'krAmbJz 




crumbled 


'krAmbjd 




crumbling 


'krAmblirj 




crumple 


'krAmpl 




crumples 


'krAmpJz 




crumpled 


'krAmpjd 




crumpling 


'krAmplirj 




crush 


krAj 




crushes 


'krAjiz 




crushed 


krAjt 




crushing 


'krA/irj 




crust 


krAst 




crusts 


kTAStS 




cry 


krai 




cries 


kraiz 




cried 


kraid 




crying 


'kraitg 





90 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



crystal 


'kristj 




crystals 


'knstjz 




Cuba 


'kju'b9 




Cuban 


'kju'bon 




Cubans 


'kju'bonz 




cube 


kju'b 




cubes 


kju'bz 




cubic 


'kju'bik 




cuff 


kAf 




cuffs 


kAfs 




cultivate 


'kAltiveit 




cultivates 


'kAltiveits 




cultivated 


' 'kAltiveitid 




cultivating 


'kAltiveitirj 




cultivation 


kAJti'veipn 




culture 


'kAltfa(r 


'kAltfa 


cultures 


'kAltfaz 


'kAltfsz 


cultured 


'kAltfad 


'kAltfad 


cumbrous 


'kAmbras 




cunning 


'kAnuj 




cunningly 


'kAnirjh 




cup 


kAp 




cups 


kAps 




cupboard 


'kAbad 


'kAbsd 


cupboards 


'kAbadz 


'kAbsdz 


cupful 


'kApful 




cupfuls 


'kApfulz 




curable 


'kju^rob} 


'kju'robj 


curate 


'kjusrit 


'k]UTlt 


curates 


'kjuorits 


'kjuTits 


cure 


kjua(r 


kjU9 


cures 


kjuaz 


kjusz 


cured 


kjuad 


kjusd 


curing 


'kjuaruj 


'kju'rirj 


curio 


'kj uariou 


'kju-riou 


curios 


'kjuanouz 


'kjuTiouz 


curiosity 


kjuan'ositi 


kjuTi'ositi 


curiosities 


kjuan'ositiz 


kju'n'asitiz 


curious 


'kjuarias 


kju'rias 


curiously 


'kjuarissh 


kju'riasli 


curl 


k3'l 


ksal 


curls 


ks'lz 


ksdlz 


curled 


k3-ld 


kssld 


curling 


'ks'ltrj 


'kashrj 


currant 


'kAront 


'ksrant 


currants 


'kAronts 


'ksrants 


current 


'kArant 





91 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



currents 


'kArants 




currently 


'kAranth 




curse 


k3'S 


ksas 


curses 


'kS'SlZ 


'ksssiz 


cursed 


ks'St 


kssst 


cursing 


'ka-sirj 


'ksasirj 


cursed, adj. 


'ka-sid 


'ksssid 


curt > 


ks-t 


ksst 


curter A 


'k3-to(r 


'kssts 


curtest 


'k3-tist 


'ksotist 


curtain 


'k3-ti? 


'ksstn 


curtains 


'ks'tnz 


'ksstnz 


curtly 


'k3*th 


'ksath 


curve 


ks'v 


kssv 


curves 


ks'vz 


kssvz 


curved 


ks'vd 


kssvd 


curving 


'ks'virj 


'kssvir) 


cushion 


'kujtn 




cushions 


'kujtnz 




custom 


'kAstam 




customs 


'kAStamz 




customer 


'kASt9ma(r 


'kAstams 


customers 


'kAstamaz 


'kAstomsz 


custom-house 


'kAStamhaus 




custom-houses 


'kAstamhai/ziz 




cut 


kAt 




cuts 


kAts 




cutting 


'kAtir) 




cutter 


'kAt9(r 


'kAta 


cutters 


'kAtaz 


'kAtsz 


cycle 


'saikj 




cycles 


'saikjz 




cycled 


'saikjd 




cycling 


'saikhrj 




cyclist 


'saikhst 




cyclists 


'saikhsts 




cylinder 


'silmd3(r 


'sihnds 


cylinders 


'silmd9z 


'silinddz 


cynic 


'smtk 




cynics 


'siniks 




cynical 


'smik^l 




cynically 


'simkoli 





92 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



D 


D 


dr 




D's 


drz 




daily 


'deih 




dainty 


'demti 




dainties 


'deintiz 




daintier 


'demtio(r 


'deintia 


daintiest 


'demtust 




daintily 


'demtili 




dairy 


'dtari 


'de f ri 


dairies 


'deariz 


'deTiz 


dam 


dsem 




dams 


daemz 




damage 


'daemid$ 


* 


damages 


'daemid$iz 




damaged 


'daermd$d 




damaging 


'daemid$irj 




damp 


daemp 




damper 


'daemp9(r 


'daemps 


dampest 


'daempist 




dampness 


'dsempms 




dance 


dcrns 


da-ns 


dances 


'da'nsiz 


'da'nsiz 


danced 


dcrnst 


da'nst 


dancing 


'da'nsirj 


'da-nsirj 


dancer 


'dcrns9(r 


'da-nss 


dancers 


'da-nsoz 


'da-nssz 


Dane 


dein 




Danes 


deinz 




danger 


'demd$a(r 


'deindjo 


dangers 


'dein^8z 


'demc^sz 


dangerous 


'demc^sras 




dangerously 


'dem^rssli 




Danish 


'deimf 




dare 


dE9(r ' 


dea 


dares 


deoz 


deaz 


dared 


dead 


dead 


daring 


'dEanrj 


'de'rirj 


daren't 


deant 


desnt 


daring, adj 


'dearirj 


'de'rirj 


daringly 


'dsarirjli 


'de'rirjli 


dark 


dak 


dask 


darker 


'da'ka(r 


'dask 


darkest 


'da'kist 


'daskvst 


darkness 


'da'knis 


'dasknis 


darken 


'da-k^n 


'dask^n 



93 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



darkens 


'dd'k^nz 


'ddstonz 


darkened 


'dd'&md 


ddsk^nd 


darkening 


'dd'kpmrj 


'dddkanirj 


darling 


'dd'lirj 


'ddslirj 


darlings 


'dd'lirjz 


'ddshrjz 


dart 


dd't 


ddst 


darts 


dcrts 


ddsts 


darted 


'dd'tid 


'ddstid 


darting 


'dd'tirj 


'ddatirj 


dash 


da;J 




dashes 


'daejiz 




dashed 


daejt 




dashing 


'daejirj 




date 


deit 




dates 


deits 




dated 


'deitid 




dating 


'dcitirj 




daughter 


'do'ts(r 


'do'ta 


daughters 


'do'toz 


'do'tsz 


daughter-in-law 


'do'tmnlo 




daughters-in-law 


'do'tozmlo 


'do'tszmb 


dawn 


do*n 




dawns 


do ? nz 




dawned 


do-nd 




dawning 


'dD-nirj 




day 


dei 




days 


detz 




daylight 


'deilait 




daytime 


'deitaim 




dazzle 


'daezj 




dazzles 


'daezjz 




dazzled 


'daezjd 




dazzling 


'daezjirj 




dead 


ded 




deaden 


'dedi^ 




deadens 


'dednz 




deadened 


'dednd 




deadening 


'dednirj 




deadly 


'dedh 




deaf 


def 




deafer 


'defafr 


'dsfa 


deafest 


'dsfist 




deafness 


'dsfnis 




deafen 


'dsfr^ 




deafens 


'defnz 




deafened 


'defnd 




deafening 


'defnirj 





94 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



deal 


di-1 




deals 


di-lz 




dealt 


dslt 




dealing 


'di'hrj 




dealer 


'di'l9(r 


'di-ls 


dealers 


'di'tez 


'di-bz 


dealings 


'di'hrjz 




dear 


dia 


did 


dearer 


'diara(r 


'drr 


dearest 


'diarist 


'drrist 


dearly 


'diali 


'disk 


dearness 


'diams 


'didnvs 


death 


ds6 




deaths 


de9s 




debate 


dt'beit 




debates 


drbeits 




debated 


di'beitid 




debating 


di'beitirj 




debt 


det 




debts 


dets 




debtor 


'dsta(r 


'dsta 


debtors 


'detaz 


'detaz 


decay 


di'kei 




decays 


di'keiz 




decayed 


di'keid 




decaying 


di'keurj 




deceased, adj 


di'si'St 




deceit 


di'si-t 




deceitful 


di'si'tful 




deceive 


di'si'v 




deceives 


di'st'vz 




deceived 


di'si'vd 




deceiving 


di'si'vtrj 




December 


di'sembo(r 


di'semb* 


decent 


'drs^nt 




decently 


'di'spntli 




deception 


di'sepjjm 




deceptions 


di'sep/^nz 




deceptive 


di'septiv 




decide 


di'said 




decides 


di'saidz 




decided 


di'saidid 




deciding 


di'saidirj 




decidedly 


di'saididli 




decimal 


'desimi?! 




decimals 


'desim^lz 




decipher 


di'saifd(r 


di'saifd 



95 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



deciphers 


di'saifaz 


di'saifaz 


deciphered 


di'saifad 


di'saifod 


deciphering 


di'saifortrj 




decision 


di'si3?n 




decisions 


di'si3*nz 




decisive 


di'saisiv 




decisively 


di'saisivli 




deck 


dsk 




decks 


deks 




declaration 


dskla'reij>n 




declarations 


dekte'rei/^nz 




declare 


di'kka 


di'kka 


declares 


di'kleaz 


di'kksz 


declared 


di'klead 


di'klead 


declaring 


di'kleonrj 


di'kle-rirj 


declension 


di'klsnjVn 




declensions 


di'klen/^nz 




decline 


di'klain 




declines 


di'klainz 




declined 


di'klaind 




declining 


di'klamirj 




decompose 


di-kom'pouz 




decomposes 


di'kam'pouziz 




decomposed 


dikam'pouzd 




decomposing 


di'kam'pouzirj 




decomposition 


dikompa'zipn 


dikampa'z i J^n 


decorate 


'dekareit 




decorates 


'dekareits 




decorated 


'dekareitid 




decorating 


'deksrettirj 




decorator 


'dekareit9(r 


'deksreits 


decorators 


'dekoreitaz 


'dekarettsz 


decoration 


dska'reij^n 




decorations 


deka'retj^nz 




decorative 


'dek^rstiv 


'dekoreittv 


decoratively 


'detorotivli 


'dekareitivli 


decrease, noun 


'di'kris, di'kri'S 




decrease, verb 


di'kri'S, di'kri'S 




decreases 


di'kri'siz, di'kri'Siz 




decreased 


di'kri-st, di'kri'st 




decreasing 


di'kri'sirj, di'kri'sirj 




decreasingly 


di'kri'sirjh, di'kri'sirjli 




decree 


di'kri' 




decrees 


di'kri-z 




dedicate 


'dsdikeit 




dedicates 


'dsdikeits 




dedicated 


'dedikeitid 





96 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



dedicating 


'dsdikeitirj 




dedication 


dsdi'keiJ9n 




dedications 


dedi'keij>nz 




deduce 


di'dju's 




deduces 


di'dju'siz 




deduced 


di'dju'st 




deducing 


di'dju'suj 




deduct 


di'dAkt 




deducts 


di'dAkts 




deducted 


di'dAktid 




deducting 


di'dAktuj 




deduction 


di'dAkj>n 




deductions 


di'dAk|>nz 




deed 


drd 




deeds 


drdz 




deep 


di'p 




deeper 


'drp9(r 


'di'ps 


deepest 


'drpist 




deeply 


'di'ph 




deepen 


'drp?n 





deepens 


'drpmz 




deepened 


'drp^nd 




deepening 


'di'pzmr) 




deer 


dia(r 


dia 


default 


di'fo-lt, di'folt 




defaulter 


di'fo-lta(r, di'fDlta(r 


di'fa'lt 


defaulters 


di'fo'ltaz, di'foltaz 


di'fo'ltsz 


defeat 


di'frt 




defeats 


di'fi-ts 




defeated- 


di'frtvd 




defeating 


di'fi'tig 




defect 


di'fekt, 'di'fekt 




defects 


di'fskts, 'di'fekts 




defective 


di'fektiv 




defectively 


di'fektivli 




defence 


di'fsns 




defences 


di'fsnsiz 




defenceless 


di'fenslis 




defend 


di'fend 




defends 


di'fsndz 




defended 


dv'fsndid 




defending 


di'fsndig 




defender 


di'fenda(r 


di'fends 


defenders 


di'fsndaz 


di'fendaz 


defendant 


defendant 




defendants 


defendants 




defensive 


di'fsnsiv 





97 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



defer 


di'f3-(r 


di'f3 


defers 


di'fa'z 


di'fa^z 


deferred 


di'fs-d 


di'fasd 


deferring 


di'fsTirj 




deference 


'deferans 




defiance 


di'faians 




defiant 


dt'faiant 




defiantly 


di'faiantli 




deficiency 


di'fif^nsi 




deficiencies 


di'fij>nsiz 




deficient 


di'fijwit 




deficit 


'defisit 






'drfisit 




deficits 


'defisits 






'drfisits 




define 


di'fam 




defines 


di'famz 




defined 


di'famd 




defining 


di'fainir) 




definite 


'defimt 




definitely 


'defimth 




definition 


dsfi'nipn 




definitions 


defi'mj>nz 




deform 


di'fo'm 


di'fosm 


deforms 


di'fo'mz 


di'fosmz 


deformed 


di'fo'md 


di'fosmd 


deforming 


di'fo'muj 


di'foamig 


deformity 


di'fD'mtti 


di'fasmiti 


deformities 


di'fo'mitiz 


di'foamitiz 


defraud 


di'fra-d 




defrauds 


di'fra'dz 




defrauded 


di'fro'did 




defrauding 


dv'fro'du) 




defy 


di'fai 




defies 


di'faiz 




defied 


di'faid 




defying 


di'faiirj 




degenerate, adj. 


di'djen^rit 




degradation 


degra'dei/^n 




degrade 


di'greid 




degrades 


di'greidz 




degraded 


di'greidid 




- degrading 


di'greidirj 




degree 


di'gri' 




degrees 


di'gri-z 


- 


deject 


di'c^skt 




dejects 


dv'^ekts 





98 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



dejected 


di'cfcsktid 




dejecting 


di'd$ektii) 




dejection 


di'djekJVn 




delay 


di'lei 




delays 


di'leiz 




delayed 


di'leid 




delaying 


di'leurj 




delegate, noun 


'dsligit, 'dehgeit 




delegates 


'dehgits, 'dsligeits 




delegate, verb 


'dehgeit 




delegates 


'dsligeits 




delegated 


'dshgeitid 




delegating 


'dshgeitirj 




delegation 


deli'geij>n 




delegations 


dsli'geij^nz 




deliberate, adj. 


di'hbmt 




deliberately 


di'hbmtli 




deliberate, verb 


di'libareit 




deliberates 


di'hbareits 




deliberated 


di'libarevtid 




deliberating 


di'libdreitu) 




deliberation 


diliba'reijpn 




deliberations 


dilibs'reij^nz 




delicacy 


'dslikasi 




delicacies 


'dslikssiz 




delicate 


'dslikit 




delicately 


'dslikith 




delicious 


di'h/as 




deliciously 


di'li/ash 




delight 


di'lait 




delights 


di'laits 




delighted 


di'laitid 




delighting 


di'laitirj 




delightful 


di'laitful 




delightfully 


di'laitf^h, di'laitfuh 




delirious 


di'hnas 




deliriously 


di'liriasli 




deliver 


di'livd(r 


di'hvs 


delivers 


di'livaz 


di'hvoz 


delivered 


di'livad 


di'hvad 


delivering 


di'liv^rii) 




deliverance 


di'liv0rans 




deliverances 


di'hv^ransiz 




delivery 


di'hv^ri 




deliveries 


di'hv^riz 




delude 


di'l/u-d 




deludes 


di'1/u'dz 





Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



deluded 
deluding 
deluge 
deluges 
delusion 


di'tyu'did 
di'1/u'duj 
'deljudj 
'deljudjiz 




delusions 


di'l/u'3?nz 




demand 


di'ma'nd 


di'ma-nd 


demands 


di'mcrndz 


di'ma'ndz 


demanded 


di'ma'ndid 


di'ma'ndid 


demanding 
democracy 

democracies 


di'ma-ndir) 
di'mokrasi 
di'mokrasiz 


di'ma'ndit) 
di'makrosi 
di'makrasiz 


democrat 


'demakraet 




democrats 


'demokraets 




democratic 


dema'kraetik 




democratically 
demolish 

demolishes 
demolished 
demolishing 
demonstrate 


dema'kraetik^h 
di'mDhJ 
di'mohjiz 
di'molijt 
di'mohjir) 
'demanstreit 


di'mahj 
di'mah/iz 
di'mahjt 
di'mahjirj 


demonstrates 


'demonstreits 




demonstrated 


'demanstreitid 




demonstrating 
demonstration 
demonstrations 
demonstrative 


'demanstreitirj 
demans'treij^n 
demons' treij^nz 
di'monstrativ 


di'manstrativ 


demoralize 


di'morolaiz 




demoralizes 


di'moralaiziz 




demoralized 


di'niDralaizd 




demoralizing 
den 


di'mtDralaizirj 
den 




dens 


denz 




denial 


di'naid 




denials 


di'nawlz 




Denmark 


'denma'k 


'denmask 


dense 


dens 




denser 
densest 


'densa(r 
'densist 


'dens. 


densely 
density 
dentist 


'densli 
'densiti 
'dentist 




dentists 


'dentists 




deny 

denies 


di'nai 
di'naiz 




denied 


di'naid 




denying 


di'naiir) 





100 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variant* 



depart 


di'pci't 


di'pdt 


departs 


di'pd'ts 


di'pdsts 


departed 


di'pd-tid 


di'pdatid 


departing 


di'pd-tirj 


di'pdstir) 


department 


di'pd'tmant 


dipdstmant 


departments 


di'pd'tmonts 


di'pdstmants 


departure 


di'pd'tf3(r 


di'pda^s 


departures 


di'pd'tfaz 


di'pds^sz 


depend 


di'pend 




depends 


di'pendz 




depended 


di'pendid 




depending 


di'pendirj 




dependant 


di'pendant 




dependants 


di'pendants 




deplorable 


di'pkvrab) 


di'plo T9b| 


deplorably 


di'plo'rabh 


di'plo-rabli 


deplore 


di'pb', di'pba 


di'plos 


deplores 


dipb'z, di'ploaz 


di'ploaz 


deplored 


di'pb'd, dv'pload 


di'plosd 


deploring 


di'pb'rin, di'plDanrj 


di'plo -nrj 


deport 


di'pD't 


di'post 


deports 


di'po'ts 


di'poats 


deported 


di'pD'tid 


di'poatid 


deporting 


di'pD'tirj 


di'poatirj 


deportation 


dipo'teij>n 


dipos'teij^n 


deportations 


dipo'teif^nz 


dipo'teij?nz 


deposit 


di'pozit 


di'pdzit 


deposits 


di'pozits 


di'pdzits 


deposited 


di'pozitid 


di'pdzitid 


depositing 


di'pDzitirj 


di'pdzitirj 


depositor 


di'pDzita(r 


di'pdzita 


depositors 


dv'pozitsz 


di'pdzitsz 


depot 


'depou, 'di'pou 




depots 


'depouz, 'di'pouz 




deprave 


dipreiv 




depraves 


di'preivz 




depraved 


di'preivd 




depraving 


di'preivirj 




depravity 


di'praeviti 




depress 


di'prss 




depresses 


dt'presiz 




depressed 


di'prest 




depressing 


di'presii) 




depression 


di'prej^n 




depressions 


di'prej^nz 




deprivation 


dcpri'vevjpn 




deprivations 


depri'veijpnz 





101 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 


deprive 


di'praiv 




deprives 


di'praivz 




deprived 


di'praivd 




depriving 


di'praivii) 




depth 


depG 




depths 


dsp9s 




deputation 


depju'teij>n 




deputations 


depju'teij>nz 




depute 


di'pju't 




deputes 


di'pju-ts 




deputed 


di'pju'tid 




deputing 


di'pju'tuj 




deputy 


'depjuti 




deputies 


'depjutiz 




derivation 


dsri'vei)>n 




derivations 


deri'veijznz 




derivative 


di'nvativ 




derivatives 


di'nvativz 




derive 


di'raiv 




derives 


di'raivz 




derived 


di'raivd 




deriving 


di'raivig 




descend 


di'ssnd 




descends 


di'sendz 




descended 


di'sendid 




descending 


di'sendig 




descendant 


di'sendant 




descendants 


di'sendants 




descent 


di'sent 




descents 


di'sents 




describe 


dis'kraib 




describes 


dis'kraibz 




described 


dis'kraibd 




describing 


dis'kraibii) 




description 


dis'krippn 




descriptions 


dis'knpj^nz 




descriptive 


dis'kriptiv 




desecrate 


'desikreit 




desecrates 


'dssikreits 




desecrated 


'desikreitid 




desecrating 


'desikreitirj 




desecration 


dcsi'kreipn 




desecrations 


desi'kreif^nz 




desert, noun 


'dczat 


'dezat 


deserts 


'dezats 


'dezsts 


desert, verb 


di'za't 


di'zadt 


deserts 


di'za'ts 


di'zasts 


102 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation 



American Variants 



deserted 


di'z3'tid 


di'zaatid 


deserting 


di'zs'tirj 


dv's3tirj 


deserter 


di'zs'tafr 


di'zssta 


deserters 


di'zs'taz 


di'zsataz 


desertion 


di'z3'J>n 


di'zss/^n 


desertions 


di'zs'Jsmz 


di'zsaj>nz 


deserve 


di'zs'v 


di'zssv 


deserves 


di'zs'vz 


di'zsvz 


deserved 


di'zs'vd 


di'zssvd 


deserving 


di'zs-virj 


di'zsavirj 


deservedly 


di'za'vidli 


di'zssvidh 


design 


di'zam 




designs 


di'zamz 




designed 


di'zamd 




designing 


di'zam irj 




designer 


di'zaina(r 


di'zaina 


designers 


di'zamaz 


di'zainaz 


designate 


'dezvgneit 




designates 


'dezigneits 




designated 


'dezigneitid 




designating 


'dezigneitii) 




designation 


dezig'neijsn 




designations 


dezig'neij>nz 




desirability 


dizai3rd'biliti 


dizaira'biliti 


desirable 


di'zaiarab} 


di'zairabl 


desirably 


di'zaiorQbli 


dv'zairabh 


desire 


di'zaia(r 


di'zaia 


desires 


di'zaiaz 


di'zaisz 


desired 


di'zaiad 


di'zaiad 


desiring 


di'zaianr) 


di'zairirj 


desirous 


di'zaiaros 


di'zairas 


desk 


desk 




desks 


desks 




desolate 


'desaht 




despair 


dis'ped(r 


dis'pea 


despairs 


dis'p9z 


dis'pEdz 


despaired 


dis'pead 


dis'pesd 


despairing 


dis'pEarirj 


dis'pe'nrj 


despatch 


dis'paelj 




despatches 


dis'pae^iz 




despatched 


dis'pae^t 




despatching 


dis'pae^irj 




desperate 


'despzrit 




desperately 


'desp^ritli 




desperation 


d&spa'reij^n 




despise 


dis'paiz 




despises 


dis'paiziz 





103 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



despised 


dis'paizd 




despising 


dis'paizir) 




despite 


dis'pait 




dessert 


di'za't 


di'zaat 


destination 


desti'neif9n 




destinations 


desti'neiJVnz 




destiny 


'destmi 




destinies 


'destmiz 




destitute 


'destvtjut 




destitution 


desti'tju'/fti 




destroy 


dis'troi 




destroys 


dis'troiz 




destroyed 


dis'troid 




destroying 


dis'trourj 




destroyer 


dis'trois(r 


dls'tTDia 


destroyers 


dis'troiaz 


dis'troiaz 


destructible 


dis'trAkt9b} 




destruction 


dis'trAkj^n 




destructive 


dis'trAktiv 




destructively 


dis'trAktivh 




destructiveness 


dis'trAktivnis 




detach 


di'tae^ 




detaches 


di'tae^iz 




detached 


di'tae^t 




detaching 


di'tae^ir) 




detachment 


di'taetfmant 




detail* noun 


'drteil, di'teil 




details 


'di'teilz, di'teilz 




detail, verb 


di'teil 




details 


di'teilz 




detailed 


di'teild 




detailing 


di'teihi) 




detain 


di'tem 




detains 


di'teinz 




detained 


di'teind 




detaining 


di'teimrj 




detect 


di'tekt 




detects 


di'tskts 




detected 


di'tektid 




detecting 


di'tektirj 




detection 


di'tekjpn 




detective 


di'tektiv 




detectives 


di'tektivz 




deter 


di't3(r 


di'tsd 


deters 


di'ts-z 


di'tasz 


deterred 


di'ts-d 


di'taad 


deterring 


di't3Tirj 





104 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



deteriorate 


di'tiariareit 


di'ti-nareit 


deteriorates 


di'tianaretts 


di'trnareits 


deteriorated 


di'tiorioreitid 


di'tiTiareitid 


deteriorating 


di'tioriareitir) 


di'ti-riareitii) 


deterioration 


diti9ri9'rei|>n 


diti'rio'rei/^n 


determinative 


di't'smmeitiv 


di'taammeitiv 




di'ts-mmativ 


di'taamutetiv 


determine 


di'ts'imn 


di'tssmm 


determines 


dv'ts'rmnz 


di'tssminz 


determined 


di'ta'mind 


di'tasmind 


determining 


di'te'imnii) 


di'tssmimr) 


detest 


di'test 




detests 


di'tests 




detested 


di'testid 




detesting 


di'testir) 




detestable 


di'testabj 




detestably 


di'testabh 




detestation 


dites'teij^n 




detract 


di'traekt 




detracts 


di'traekts 




detracted 


di'traektid 




detracting 


di'traektirj 




detriment 


'detnmont 




detrimental 


detrimental 




devastate 


'devasteit 




devastates 


'devosteits 




devastated 


'devosteitid 




devastating 


'devosteitirj 




devastation 


devas'teifjm 




develop 


di'velap 




develops 


di'velaps 




developed 


di'velapt 




developing 


di'velapir) 




developer 


di'vetepa(r 


di'velops 


developers 


di'velopoz 


di'velapsz 


development 


di've^pmant 




developments 


di'velapmants 




deviate 


'di'vieit 




deviates 


'di'vieits 




deviated 


'di'vieitid 




deviating 


'di'Vieituj 




deviation 


divi'eipn 




deviations 


divi'eij^nz 




device 


di'vais 




devices 


di'vaisiz 




devil 


'devtl 




devils 


'devtlz 





105 



iTwaraonmi opwuing 

devious 


necavea rronuncwuoo 

'di-vias 


7vmcnvu vnruuits 


deviously 


'di'viasli 




devise 


di'vaiz 




devises 


di'vaiziz 




devised 


di'vaizd 




devising 


di'vaizirj 




devoid 


di'void 




devote 


di'vout 




devotes 


di'vouts 




devoted 


di'voutid 




devoting 


dv'voutirj 




devotedly 


di'voutidh 




devotion 


di'voujpn 




devotions 


di'voujjmz 




devour 


di'vai/o(r 


di'vaua 


devours 


dv'vauaz 


di'vauaz 


devoured 


di'vausd 


di'vausd 


devouring 


di'vauanrj 


di'vaunrj 


devout 


di'vaut 




devouter 


di'vautafr 


di'vauta 


devoutest 


di'vautist 




devoutly 


di'vauth 




dew 


dju 




diabolical 


daia'bDhkpl 


dau/bahk*! 


diabolically 


daia'bDlikah 


daid'bahkali 


diacritic 


daia'kritik 




diacritics 


daia'kritiks 




diacritical 


daia'kritik^l 




diagnose 


'daiognouz 


'daiagnous 


diagnoses 


'daiagnouziz 


'daisgnousiz 


diagnosed 


'daiagnouzd 


'daiagnoust 


diagnosing 


'daiagnouzirj 


'daidgnousig 


diagnosis 


daiag'nousis 




diagnoses 


daiag'nousiz 




diagonal 


dai'aegdnl 




diagonals 


dai'aeganjz 




diagonally 


dai'aegandh 




diagram 


'daiagraem 




diagrams 


'daiagraemz 




dial 


'dawl 




dials 


'dawlz 




dialect 


'daialekt 




dialects 


'daialskts 




dialectal 


daia'kktl 




dialogue 


'daialog 




dialogues 


'daidlugz 




diameter 


dai'aemitd(r 


dai'gemita 



106 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



diameters 


dai'aemitdz 


dai'aemitaz 


diametrical 


daia'metrikpl 




diametrically 


daia'metrikali 




diamond 


'daiamand 




diamonds 


'daiamandz 




diary 


'dawn 




diaries 


'daidriz 




dictate, verb 


dik'teit 




dictates 


dik'teits 




dictated 


dik'teitid 




dictating 


dik'teitirj 




dictator 


dik'teits (r 


dik'teitd 


dictators 


dik'teitaz 


dik'teitaz 


dictation 


dik'teipn 




dictionary 


'dikfftOTi 


'dikpnsn 


dictionaries 


'dikj>nmz 


'dikj^nenz 


DID from do 


did 




DIDN'T from did not 


'didnt 




die 


dai 




dies 


daiz 




died 


daid 




dying 


'daiirj 




diet 


'daiat 




diets 


'daiats 




differ 


'difa(r 


'difo 


differs 


'ditez 


'difaz 


differed 


'difsd 


'difad 


differing 


'difanrj 




difference 


'difrans 




differences 


'difransiz 




different 


'difrant 




differently 


'difrantli 




difficult 


'difik^lt 




difficulty 


'difik^lti 




difficulties 


'difikpltiz 




dig 


dig 




digs 


digz 




dug 


dAg 




digging 


'digirj 




digest, noun 


'daio^est 




digests 


'daidjests 




digest, verb 


digest, dai'o^est 




digests 


digests, dai' d$ests 




digested 


di'oiestid 






dai'o^estid 




digesting 


di'ojsstirj 





107 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



digestible 


di'djestabj 






dai'djestobj 




digestion 


di'd$estj>n 






dai'djestfjm 




digestions 


di'djestj^nz 






dai'c^ss^nz 




dignify 


'digmfai 




dignifies 


'digmfaiz 




dignified 


'digmfaid 




dignifying 


'digmfaur) 




dignity 


'digmti 




dignities 


'dig nit iz 




dilemma 


di'lem9, dai'lema 




dilemmas 


di'lemaz, dai'lemaz 




diligence 


'dilid$2ns 




diligent 


'dihc^nt 




diligently 


'dihdj^ntli 




dilute 


dai'tyu't, di'l/u't 




dilutes 


dai'l^u'ts, di'1/u'ts 




diluted 


dai'lju'tid 






di'l;u'tid 




diluting 


dai'l^u'tirj 






di'lju'tirj 




dim 


dim 




dimmer 


'dimafr 


'dims 


dimmest 


'drniist 




dime 


daim 




dimes 


daimz 




dimly 


'dimli 




dimness 


'dimnis 




dimension 


di'menf^n 






dai'menjpn 




dimensions 


di'menpnz 






dai'men/^nz 




diminish 


di'mmij 




diminishes 


di'mmi/iz 




diminished 


di'mmvjt 




diminishing 


di'mmvju) 




diminution 


dimt'nju'J^n 




diminutions 


dimi'nju'J^nz 




dine 


dam 




dines 


dainz 




dined 


daind 




dining 


'dainirj 




diner 


'daina(r 


'dains 


diners 


'dainaz 


'dainsz 


dingy 


'dmoji 





Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variant* 



dining-room 


'damirjrum 






'damirjrum 




dining-rooms 


'damirjrumz 






'damirjrumz 




dinner 


'dma(r 


'dins 


dinners 


'dinaz 


'dmz 


dint 


dint 




dip 


dip 




dips 


dips 




dipped 


dipt 




dipping 


'dipirj 




diphthong 


'd if 809 




diphthongs 


'dif0Drjz 




diploma 


di'plouma 




diplomas 


di'ploumaz 




diplomacy 


di'ploumasi 




diplomat 


'diploumaet 






'diplomat 




diplomats 


'diploumaets 






'diplomas ts 




diplomatic 


diplou'maetik 






dipla'maetik 




diplomatically 


diplou'maetiksh 






dipla'maetikolv 




diplomatist 


di'ploumatist 




diplomatists 


di'ploumatists 




direct 


di'rekt, dai'rskt 




directs 


di'rekts, dai'rekts 




directed 


di'rektid, dai'rektid 




directing 


di'rektirj, dai'rektirj 




director 


di'rekt8(r, dai'rkt9(r . 


di'rekts, dai'rekta 


directors 


di'rektaz, dai'rektsz 


di'rektsz, dai'rektz 


direction 


di'rekf^n, dai'rekfsmi 




directions 


dv'rek/^nz 






dai'rekj^nz 




directly 


di'rekth, dai'rektli 




directory 


di'rektm, dai'rskt^n 




directories 


di'rekt^riz 






dai'rskt^nz 




dirt 


d3-t 


dsst 


dirty 


'd3-ti 


'dssti 


dirtier 


'd3 f tia(r 


'dsatis 


dirtiest 


'ds'txist 


'dsstiist 


dirties 


'd3'tlZ 


'dsstiz 


dirtied 


'ds-tid 


'dsatid 


dirtying 


'd3'turj 


'dssturj 


disadvantage 


disad'va'ntioi 


disad'va'ntvdj 



109 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 


disadvantages 


disad'vQ'ntic&iz 


disad'va'ntic^iz 


disadvantageous 


dissedvan'tetdjas 


disaedvan'teicds 




disaedvan'teidjds 




disagree 


disa'gri 1 




disagrees 


disa'gri'z 




disagreed 


disa'gri'd 




disagreeing 


diso'gri'irj 




disagreement 


disa'gri'mant 




disagreements 


disa'gri'mants 




disagreeable 


disa'gnab} 




disagreeably 


diss'gnabli 




disappear 


dis9'pia(r 


disa'pia 


disappears 


disa'piaz 


dlS9'pl9Z 


disappeared 


disa'piad 


disa'piad 


disappearing 


dvsa'piarirj 


disa'pi'nrj 


disappearance 


disa'piarans 


disa'prrans 


disappearances 


diso'piaransiz 


disa'pi'ransiz 


disappoint 


disa f point 




disappoints 


disa'potnts 




disappointed 


diss'pointid 




disappointing 


disa'pDintirj 




disappointment 


disa'pamtmant 




disappointments 


diss'pointmants 




disapproval 


disa'pru'vj 




disapprove 


disa'pru-v 




disapproves 


disa'pru'vz 




disapproved 


disa'pru'vd 




disapproving 


disa'pru'vuj 




disarm 


dis'a'm 


dis'asm 


disarms 


dis f a f mz 


dis'asmz 


disarmed 


dis'a'md 


dis'aamd 


disarming 


dis'a'mu) 


dis'aamu) 


disarmament 


dis'a'mamant 


dis'admdmant 


disarrange 


'disa'remdj 




disarranges 


'diss'remc^iz 




disarranged 


'disd'reinc^d 




disarranging 


'disa'retndjirj 




disaster 


di'za'sta(r 


di'zast 


disasters 


di'zcrstaz 


di'za-staz 


disastrous 


dt'za'stras 


di'za-stras 


disastrously 


di'za'strasli 


di'za'strasli 


disbelief 


'disbi'li-f 




disbelieve 


'disbi'li-v 




disbelieves 


'disbi'li'vz 




disbelieved 


'disbi'li'vd 




disbelieving 


'disbi'li'virj 




disc 


disk 





110 



discs 


disks 




discharge 


dis'tfa'd; 


dis'tfaac^ 


discharges 


dis'tfa'd$iz 


dis'tfasc^iz 


discharged 


dib'tfa'ci$d 


dis'tjascjsd 


discharging 


dis'tfcrcjirj 


dis'^aa^irj 


disciple 


di'saip} 




disciples 


di'saip}z 




discipline 


'disipltn 




disciplines 


'disiplmz 




disciplined 


'disiplmd 




disciplining 


'disiplimr) 




disciplinary 


'dibiplmari 


'disiphnsri 


disclaim 


dis'kleun 




disclaims 


dis'kleimz 




disclaimed 


dis'klemid 




disclaiming 


dis'kleinuij 




disclose 


dis'klouz 




discloses 


dis'klouziz 




disclosed 


dis'klouzd 




disclosing 


dis'klouzirj 




disclosure 


dis'kloi/3o(r 


dis'klou3S 


disclosures 


dis'kloi/39z 


dis'klou33z 


discomfort 


dis'kAmfat 


dis'kAinfst 


discomforts 


dis'kAmfots 


dis'kAmfsts 


discomforted 


dis'kAmfotid 


dis'kAmfstid 


discomforting 


dis'kAmfatirj 


dis'kAmfstirj 


disconcert 


diskan'sa't 


disk9n's3t 


disconcerts 


diskan'ss'ts 


diskan'ssats 


disconcerted 


diskan'ss'tid 


diskon'ssstid 


disconcerting 


dibkan'ss'tirj 


diskan'ssotirj 


disconnect 


'diaka'nskt 




disconnects 


'd iska'nskts 




disconnected 


'diska'nsktid 




disconnecting 


'diska'nektirj 




discontent 


'diskan'tsnt 




discontented 


'diskan'tsntid 




discontinue 


'diskan'tmju 




discontinues 


'diskan'tmjuz 




discontinued 


'diskan'tinjud 




discontinuing 


'diskan'tinjutrj 




discord, noun 


'disko'd 


'cliskasd 


discords 


'disko-dz 


'diskaadz 


discount, noun 


'diskaunt 




discounts 


'diskaunts 




discount, verb 


dis'kaunt, 'diskaunt 




discounts 


dis'kaunts 






'diskaunts, 





111 



iraoinonai opening neceivea fronancuKion American vwrutnia 


discounted 


dis'kauntid 






'diskauntid 




discounting 


dis'kaimtirj 






'diskauntirj 




discourage 


dis'kAndj 


dis'ko'rio^ 


discourages 


dis'kArid$iz 


dlS kSTlCHlZ 


discouraged 


dis'kAndjd 


dis'ks'rid^d 


discouraging 


dis'kAridjirj 


dis'ksTK^irj 


discouragement 


dis'kAridjmant 


dis'ksTio^msnt 


discouragements 


dis'kArid$monts 


dis'ks'ric^monts 


discourse, noun 


'diskos 


'd iskoas 


discourses 


'diskosiz 


'diskossiz 


discourteous 


dis'ks'tjos 


dis'ksstios 




dis'ks'tios 




discourteously 


dis'ks'tjash 


dis'ksatiask 


discourtesy 


dis'ks'tisi 


dis'kastisi 


discover 


dis'kAva(r 


dis'kAva 


discovers 


dis'kAvaz 


dis'kAvsz 


discovered 


dis'kAvad 


dis'kAvad 


discovering 


dis'kAvonrj 




discoverer 


dis'kAVoro(r 


dis'kAvsro 


discoverers 


dis'kAvaraz 


dis'kAvarsz 


discovery 


dis'kAvon 




discoveries 


dis'kAvonz 




discredit 


dis'kredit 




discredits 


discredits 




discredited 


dis'kredit id 




discrediting 


dis'kredit irj 




discreditable 


dis'krsditabj 




discreet 


dis'kri't 




discreetly 


dis'kri'tli 


. 


discretion 


dis'krej^n 




discriminate, verb 


dis'krimmeit 




discriminates 


dis'knmmeits 




discriminated 


dis'krimmeitid 




discriminating 


dis'krimineitir) 




discrimination 


diskrimi'neij^n 




discuss 


dis'kAs 




discusses 


dis'kASiz 




discussed 


dis'kASt 




discussing 


dis'kASirj 




discussion 


dis'kA/9n 




discussions 


dis'kAj^nz 




disdain 


dis'dein 




disdains 


dis'deinz 




disdained 


dis'deind 





112 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



disdaining 


dis'deimrj 




disdainful 


dis'deinful 




disdainfully 


dis'demteh 






dis'demfuli 




disease 


di'zrz 




diseases 


di'zrziz 




diseased 


di'zi'zd 




disengage 


'disin'gei<|[ 




disengages 


'dism'geid$iz 




disengaged 


'dism'geic^d 




disengaging 


'dism'geid$ir) 




disfavour 


'dis'feiv9(r 


'dis'feivs 


disfigure 


dis'figa(r 


dis'figja 


disfigures 


dis'figaz 


dis'figjsz 


disfigured 


dis'figad 


dis'figj^d 


disfiguring 


dis'figonrj 




disfigurement 


dis'figamont 


dis'figjsmant 


disfigurements 


dis'figaments 


dis'figjsmsnts 


disgrace 


dis'greis 




disgraces 


dis'greisiz 




disgraced 


dis'greist 




disgracing 


dis'grcistr) 




disgraceful 


dis'greisful 




disgracefully 


dvs'greisf^li 




disguise 


dis'gaiz 




disguises 


dis'gaiziz 




disguised 


dis'gaizd 




disguising 


dvs'gaizirj 




disgust 


dis'gAst 




disgusts 


dis'gASts 




disgusted 


dis'gAStid 




disgusting 


dis'gAstirj 




dish 


dij 




dishes 


'dijiz 




dishearten 


dis'ha-ti^ 


dis'hastijL 


disheartens 


dis'ha-tnz 


dis'hastnz 


disheartened 


dis'ha-tnd 


dis'hastnd 


disheartening 


dis'hcrtnirj 


dis'hastnir) 


dishonest 


dis'Dnist 


dis'amst 


dishonestly 


dis'unistli 


dis'anisth 


dishonesty 


dis'onisti 


dis'anisti 


dishonour 


dis'Dn9(r 


dis'ans 


dishonours 


dis'onoz 


dis'ansz 


dishonoured ' 


dis'onad 


dis'ansd 


dishonouring 


dis'Dnarirj 


dis'anarirj 


dishonourable 


dis'Dnprob} 


dis'anarsb} 


dishonourably 


dis'Dn^rablv 


dis'anardbli 



113 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 


disinclination 


dismkh'neiJ0n 




disinclined 


'dism'klamd 




disinfect 


'dism'fekt 




disinfects 


'dism'fskts 




disinfected 


'dism'fektid 




disinfecting 


'dism'fektirj 




disinfectant 


dism'fektant 




disinfectants 


dism'fektants 




disinterested 


dis'mtenstid 




disinterestedly 


dis'interistidh 




disinterestedness 


dis'inteistvdnis 




disk 


disk 




disks 


disks 




dislike 


dis'laik 




dislikes 


dis'laiks 




disliked 


dis'laikt 




disliking 


dis'laikuj 




disloyal 


'dis'lou?! 




disloyalty 


'dis'loi^lti 




dismal 


A dizms>l 




dismally 


'dizmali 




dismiss 


dis'mis 




dismisses 


dis'misiz 




dismissed 


dis'mist 




dismissing 


dis'misirj 




dismissal 


dis'mis} 




dismissals 


di&'mis]z 




dismount 


'dis'maunt 




dismounts 


'dis'maunts 




dismounted 


'dis'mauntid 




dismounting 


'dis'maimtirj 




disobedience 


disa'bi'djans 






disa'bi'dians 




disobedient 


dis9'brdJ9nt 






disa'bi'disnt 




disobey 


'diS3'bei 




disobeys 


'disa'beiz 




disobeyed 


'disa'beid 




disobeying 


'disa'beurj 




disobliging 


'dis3'blai<i;ir) 




disorder 


dis'o'da(r 


dis'osds 


disorders 


dis'o-daz 


dis'osdaz 


disordered 


dis'o'dad 


dis'osdsd 


disordering 


dis'o'dmrj 


dis'oadprirj 


disorderly 


dis'o'dah 


dis'osdali 


dispatch 


dis'paetf 




dispatches 


dis'psetfiz 




114 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



dispatched 


dis'paetft 




dispatching 


dis'paeljirj 




dispel 


dis'pel 




dispels 


dis'pelz 




dispelled 


dis'peld 




dispelling 


dis'peliT) 




dispense 


dis'pens 




dispenses 


dis'pensiz 




dispensed 


dis'psnst 




dispensing 


dis'penstrj 




disperse 


dis'ps'S 


dis'psas 


disperses 


dis'ps'siz 


dis'paasiz 


dispersed 


dis'ps'&t 


dis'passt | 


dispersing 


dis/ps'sirj 


dis'psssirj 


displace 


dis'pleis 




displaces 


dis'pleisiz 




displaced 


dis'pleist 




displacing 


dis'pleisirj 




display 


dis'plei 




displays 


dis'pleiz 




displayed 


dis'pleid 




displaying 


dis'pleur) 




displease 


dis'pli'z 




displeases 


dts'pli-ztz 




displeased 


dis'ph'zd 




displeasing 


dis'pli'zirj 




displeasure 


dis'ple3o(r 


dis'pl639 


dispose 


dis'pouz 




disposes 


dis'pouziz 




disposed 


dis'pouzd 




disposing 


dis'pouzuj 




disposition 


dispa'zif^n 




dispositions 


dispa'zij^nz 




disproportion 


'dispro'pD'/^n 


'disprQ'pooJ^n 


disproportioned 


'dispro'po'Jpnd 


'disprg'posj^nd 


disproportional 


dispr^'po-Jpn]. 


dispra'posjpn] 


disproportionally 


dispro'pD'Jpnji 


dispra'posj^nji 


disproportionate 


chspro'po'Js>mt 


dispra'posj^nit 


disproportionately 


dispr9'po'Ji?nith 


dispr9'posj^nith 


disprove 


'dis'pru'v 




disproves 


'dis'pru'vz 




disproved 


'dis'pru'vd 




disproving 


'dis'pru'virj 




disputable 


'dispjutob} 




dispute 


dis'pju't 




disputes 


dis'pju'ts 




disputed 


dis'pju'tid 





115 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 


disputing 


dis'pju'ttrj 




disqualification 


diskwDlifi'keifpn 


diskwaliiv'kei/^n 


disqualifications 


diskwDhfi'keiJ^nz 


diskwahfi'keipnz 


disqualify 


dis'kwDhfai 


dis'kwahfai 


disqualifies 


dis'kwDhfaiz 


dis'kwahfaiz 


disqualified 


dis'kwDhfaid 


dis'kwalifaid 


disqualifying 


dis'kwDlifaurj 


dis'kwahfaiirj 


disregard 


'disn'gcrd 


'disn'gasd 


disregards 


'disri'ga'dz 


'disn'gasdz 


. disregarded 


'disri'gcrdid 


'disri'gasdid 


disregarding 


'disri'gcrdirj 


'disri'gasdii) 


disreputable 


dis'repjutebj 




disreputably 


dis'repjut^bli 




disrepute 


'disn'pju't 




disrespect 


'disns'pekt 




disrespectful 


disris'pektful 




disrespectfully 


disris'pektfpli 




dissatisfaction 


'd issaetis'f aekj>n 




dissatisfy 


'dis'saetisfai 




dissatisfies 


'dis'saetisfaiz 




dissatisfied 


'dis'saetisfaid 




dissatisfying 


'dis'saetisfaiirj 




dissect 


di'sekt 




dissects 


dv'sekts 




dissected 


di'sektid 




dissecting 


di'sektirj 




dissension 


di'senj^n 




dissensions 


di'senpnz 




dissent 


di'ssnt 




dissents 


di'sents 




dissented 


di'ssntid 




dissenting 


di'sentirj 




dissenter 


di'senta(r 


di'sents 


dissenters 


di'sentoz 


di'sentsz 


dissimilar 


'dis'simik^r 


'dis'simib 


dissimilarity 


'dissimi'laeriti 




dissimilarities 


'dissimi'laeritvz 




dissipate 


'disipeit 




dissipates 


'disipeits 




dissipated 


'distpeitid 




dissipating 


'disipetttrj 




dissipation 


disi'peij^n 




dissipations 


disi'peij^nz 




dissolute 


'disol/ut 




dissolutely 


'disal/uth 




dissolution 


disa'l;'u'Jn 




dissolutions 


disa'l/u'J^nz 





116 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



dissolve 


di'zolv 


di'zalv 


dissolves 


di'zolvz 


di'zalvz 


dissolved 


di'zolvd 


di'zalvd 


dissolving 


di'zolvirj 


di'zalvirj 


dissuade 


di'sweid 




dissuades 


di'sweidz 




dissuaded 


di'sweidtd 




dissuading 


di'sweidirj 




distance 


'distens 




distances 


'distonsvz 




distant 


'distant 




distantly 


'distonth 




distil 


dis'til 




distils 


dis'tilz 




distilled 


dis'tild 




distilling 


dis'tihrj 




distinct 


dis'tinAt 




distinctly 


dis'tirjAth 




distinctness 


dis'tirjAtms 




distinction 


dis'tinApn 




distinctions 


dis'tin^J^nz 




distinctive 


dis'tirj^tiv 




distinguish 


dis'tirjgwij 




distinguishes 


di&'tirjgwijiz 




distinguished 


dis'tirjgwijt 




distinguishing 


dis^tirjgwtjirj 




distort 


dis'to't 


dis'toat 


distorts 


dis'to'ts 


dis'tosts 


distorted 


dis'to'tid 


dis'tastid 


distorting 


dis'to'tirj 


dis'tostirj 


distortion 


dis'to'pn 


dis'tosj^n 


distract 


dis'traekt 




distracts 


dis'traekts 




distracted 


dis'traektid 




distracting 


dis'traektirj 




distress 


dis'tres 




distresses 


dts'trssiz 




distressed 


dis'trest 




distressing 


dis'trssirj 




distribute 


dis'tribjut 






'distribjut 




distributes 


dis'tnbjuts 






'distnbjuts 




distributed 


dis'tribjutid 






'distribjutid 




distributing 


dis'tribjutirj 






'distribjutirj 





117 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



distribution 


distn'bju'pn 




district 


'distnkt 




districts 


'distrtkts 




distrust 


dis'trAst 




distrusts 


dis'trASts 




distrusted 


dis'trAbtid 




distrusting 


dis'trAStirj 




distrustful 


dis'trAstful 




disturb 


dis'ts'b 


dis'tssb 


disturbs 


dis'ts'bz 


dis'tssbz 


disturbed 


dis'ts'bd 


dis'tssbd 


disturbing 


dis'ts'birj 


dis'tssbirj 


disturbance 


dib'ts'b^ns 


dis'tssb^ns 


disturbances 


dib'ts-b^nsiz 


dis'tsob^nsiz 


disuse, noun 


'dis'ju's 




ditch 


ditj 




ditches 


'ditfiz 




ditto 


'drtou 




dive 


daiv 




dives 


daivz 




dived 


daivd 




diving 


'daivirj 




diver 


'daav9(r 


'daivs 


divers 


'daivaz 


'daiv9z 


diverge 


dai'vs'cfc;, di'v3'(^ 


dai'vsad^, di'vssc^ 


diverges 


d^Vs-oJiz 


dai'vssc^iz 


diverged 


dUvs-^d 


dai'vsoc^d 




di'v3-<%d 


di'vssdjd 


diverging 


dai'vs-djirj 


dai'v39d$ir) 




di'v3'(^irj 


di'vssdjirj 


divergence 


d?v3 9> 1ns S 


dai vssdf^ns 
di vssdf^ns 


divergences 


"iir^si? 


di'v33d?^nsiz 


divergency 


dax'vI-VnsT 12 


dai'vss^nsi 


divergent 


dat'vs'^nt 


dai'vs9(%9nt 


diverse 


dai'vs's, di'vs's 


daJv9ss!di'v3s 


diversely 


dai'vs'sli, di'v3'sh 


dai'vsasli, di'v9ssh 


diversity 


dai'vs'siti, di'vs'siti 


dat' vsositi, di'v9siti 


divide 


di'vaid 




divides 


diVaidz 




divided 


di'vaidid 




dividing 


di'vaidirj 




divine 


di'vain 





118 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



divinely 


di'vamh 




divinity 


di'vmiti 




divinities 


di'vmvtiz 




divisible 


di'vizib], di'vizab} 




division 


di'vr^n 




divisions 


di'vr^nz 




divisional 


di'vrjpnj 




divorce 


di'vo's 


di'voss 


divorces 


di'vo'siz 


di'vossiz 


divorced 


di'vo'st 


di'vosst 


divorcing 


di'vo'sirj 


diVossirj 


dizzy 


'dizi 




dizziness 


'dizims 




do 


dir s.f , du, d?> w fs 




does 


dAz $/., dsz w f. 




did 


did s/.,did w f. 




done 


dAn 




doing 


'du'irj 




docile 


'dousail, 'dDsail 


'dosil 


dock 


dok 


dak 


docks 


doks 


daks 


dockyard 


'dokja'd 


'dakjasd 


dockyards 


'dokja-dz 


'dakjasdz 


doctor 


'dokto(r 


'dakt9 


doctors 


'dokt9z 


'daktsz 


doctrine 


'doktrin 


'daktrin 


doctrines 


'doktrmz 


'daktrtnz 


document 


'dokjumgnt 


'dakjumant 


documents 


'dokjumpnts 


'dakjumants 


dodge 


dD(% 


dac 


dodges 


'duc^iz 


'dao^iz 


dodged 


doo^d 


dao^d 


dodging 


'dDd^irj 


'dad;irj 


DOES/yowdo 


dAz s./., ddzw f. 




DOESN'T jvowi do 


'dAznt 




dog 


dog 




dogs 


dugz 




dogma 


'dogma 




dogmas 


'dDgmoz 




dogmatic 


dog'maetik 




doings 


'du'inz 




doll 


dol 


dal 


dolls 


dolz 


dalz 


dollar 


'dola(r 


'date 


dollars 


'dDbz 


'dalaz 


domain 


dou'mein, da'mein 




119 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



domains 


dou'memz 






da'meinz 




dome 


doum 




domes 


doumz 




domestic 


da'mestik 




dominate 


'dommeit 


'dammeit 


dominates 


'donuneits 


'damtnetts 


dominated 


'domineitid 


'dammeitid 


dominating 


'dDmineittrj 


'daminatirj 


domination 


dDim'neiJ>n 


dami'neif^n 


dominations 


dDim'neifznz 


dami'netj^nz 


dominion 


da'mmpn 




dominions 


do'mmpnz 




donation 


dou'neipn 




donations 


dou'neif^nz 




DONE /row do 


dAn 




donkey 


'dorjki 




donkeys 


'dorjkiz 




DON'T from do 


dount 




door 


do-(r, doa(r 


doe 


doors 


do'z, doaz 


dosz 


dormitory 


'do-mitrt 


'daamiton 


dormitories 


'do'mitriz 


'dosmitoriz 


Dorothy 


'duraGi 




dose 


dous 




doses 


'dousiz 




dot 


dot 


dat 


dots 


dots 


dats 


dotted 


'dotid 


'datid 


dotting 


'dotirj 


'datirj 


double 


'dAbl 




doubles 


'dAbJz 




doubled 


'dAb}d 




doubling 


'dAblirj, 'dAbJirj 




doubly 


'dAbh 




doubt 


daut 




doubts 


dauts 




doubted 


'dautid 




doubting 


'dautirj 




doubtful 


'dautful 




doubtfully 


'dautfuh, dautfoli 




doubtless 


'dautiis 




doubtlessly 


'dautlish 




dough 


dou 




dove 


dAV 




doves 


dAVZ 




down 


daun 





120 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



down-hearted 


'daun'hcrtid 


'daun'hastid 


downstairs 


'daun'stoz 


'daun'stesz 


downward 


'daunwad 


'daunwsd 


downwards 


'daunwadz 


'daunwsdz 


doze 


douz 




dozes 


'douziz 




dozed 


douzd 




dozing 


'douzirj 




dozen 


'dAzn 




dozens 


'dAznz 




draft 


dra'ft 


dra-ft 


drafts 


dra'fts 


dra'fts 


drafted 


'dra-ftid 


'dra'ftid 


drafting 


'drct'fttr) 


'dra'ftirj 


drag 


drapg 




drags 


draegz 




dragged 


draegd 




dragging 


'draeguj 




drain 


drem 




drains 


dremz 




drained 


dremd 




draining 


'dreimrj 




drama 


'dra-rnQ 




dramas 


'drcrmoz 




dramatic 


drs'maetik 




dramatically 


dro'maetikah 




DRANK from drink 


draenk 




draper 


'dreipa(r 


'dreips 


drapers 


'dreipaz 


'dreipsz 


draught 


dra-ft 


dra'ft 


draughts 


dra-fts 


dra'fts 


draughty 


'dra'fti 


'dra-fti 


draw 


dro' 




draws 


dro'z 




drew 


dru' 




drawn 


dro-n 




drawing 


'dro'irj 




drawer, person who 


'dra'a(r 


'dro 'a 


draws 






drawers 


'dro'oz 


'dro'sz 


drawer, sliding box 


dro-(r, 'droa(r 


dros 


drawers 


dro f z, 'droaz 


'drosz 


drawing-room 


'droirjrum 






'droirjrum 






'dro'irjrum 






'dro'irjrum 





121 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 


drawing-rooms 


'droirjrumz 






'droirjrumz 






'dro'irjrumz 






'dro'irjrumz 




DRAWN from draw 


dro'n 




dread 


dred 




dreads 


dredz 




dreaded 


'dredid 




dreading 


'dredirj 




dreadful 


'dredf ul " 




dreadfully 


'dred full, 'dredfoh 




dream 


drrm 




dreams 


drrmz 




dreamed 


drem/?t, dri-md 




dreamt 


drem/>t 




dreaming 


'drrmirj 




dreamer 


'drrm9(r 


'dri'ms 


dreamers 


'dri-maz 


'drrmsz 


dreary 


'driari 


drrri 


drearier 


'dnana(r 


'dri'ris 


dreariest 


'driarust 


dri'riist 


dress 


dres 




dresses 


'dresiz 




dressed 


drest 




dressing 


'dresirj 




dresser 


'drso(r 


'dreso 


dressers 


'dresaz 


'dressz 


DREW from draw 


dru ? 




DRIED from dry 


draid 




DRIES from dry 


draiz 




drift 


drift 




drifts 


drifts 




drifted 


'drift id 




drifting 


'driftirj 




drill 


dril 




drills 


dnlz 




drilled 


dnld 




drilling 


'drihrj 




drily (== dryly) 


'draih 




drink 


drirjk 




drinks 


dnrjks 




drank 


draerjk 




drunk 


drArjk 




drinking 


'drirjkirj 




drip 


drip 




drips 


drips 




dripped 


dript 




122 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



dripping 


'dripirj 




drive 


'draiv 




drives 


draivz 




drove 


drouv 




driven 


'dnviji 




driving 


'draivirj 




driver 


'draiv9(r 


'draiv 


drivers 


'draivaz 


'draivsz 


drop 


drop 


drap 


drops 


drops 


draps 


dropped 


dropt 


drapt 


dropping 


'dropir) 


'drapirj 


DROVE from drive 


drouv 





drown 


draun 




drowns 


draunz 




drowned 


draimd 




drowning 


'draimirj 




drudgery 


'drAd$?n 




drug 


drAg 




drugs 


drAgz 




druggist 


'drAgist 




druggists 


f drAgu>tb 




drum 


drAm 




drums 


drAmz 




DRUNK from drink 


drArjk 




drunken 


'drATjkan 




drunkenness 


'drArjkanms 




dry 


drai 




drier 


'draio(r 


'draio 


driest 


'draiist 




dries 


draiz 




dried 


draid 




drying 


'draiirj 




dryly 


draih 




dryness 


'drainis 




duchess 


'dAtfis 




duchesses 


'dAtfisvz 




duck 


dAk 




ducks 


dAks 




duel 


dju-^1 




DUG /row dig 


dAg 




duke 


dju-k 




dukes 


dju-ks 




dull 


dAl 




duller 


'dAla(r 


'dAb 


dullest 


'dAlist 




dullness 


'dAlms 




duly 


'dju'h 





123 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



dumb 


dAm 




dumbness 


'dAinms 




duplicate, noun 


'dju'plikit 




duplicates 


'dju'plikits 




duplicate, verb 


'dju'phkeit 




duplicates 


'dju'phkeits 




duplicated 


'dju-plikeitid 




duplicating 


'dju'phkeitirj 




duplicity 


dju'plisiti 




durability 


djuaro'bihti 


dju'ra'bihti 


durable 


'djuarab] 


'djirrab] 


duration 


dju0'reij>n 


dju-'reif^n 


during 


'djuarirj 


'dju'ng 


dusk 


dAsk 




dust 


dASt 




dusts 


dAStS 




dusted 


'dAstid 




dusting 


'dAstirj 




dusty 


'dAStl 




Dutch 


dAtf 




Dutchman 


'dAtfman 




Dutchmen 


'dAtfman 




duty 


'dju-ti 




duties 


'dju'tiz 




dwarf 


dwo'f 


dwosf 


dwarfs 


dwo'fs 


dwosfs 


dye 


dai 




dyes 


daiz 




dyed 


daid 




dyeing 


'daurj 




DYING /n die 


'daurj 




dynamo 


'dainamou 




dynamos 


'damamouz 





The phonetic value of the symbol [i]. 

When this symbol stands for the e of traditional spelling, its 
phonetic value is variable and very unstable. In slow and careful 
speech, it approximates to [e], in rapid speech either to the i of 
inspect or to the a of ago. In the case of slow and careful speech, 
usage in England and America is practically identical ; in rapid 
speech the vowel tends rather towards the i of inspect in England, 
and towards the a of ago in America. 

Such entries as fi'fekt] are therefore tp be interpreted in the 
following sense 

124 



[i'fekt.] This is the more normal pronunciation of users of 
Received Pronunciation, either in England or in America. 

[a'fekt] or a form intermediate between [o'fekt] and [e'fekt] 
These forms are characteristic of American speakers, and are also 
heard in the speech of users of Received Pronunciation 

[e'fekt]. This form is frequently heard in the case of slow and 
careful speech, both in England and in America, but especially in 
America. 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



E 


i- 




E's 


I'Z 




each 


rtj 




eager 


'i'ga(r 


'vge 


eagerly 


'rgali 


'i-gsh 


eagerness 


Vganis 


'i-gsnis 


eagle 


Vg| 




eagles 


i<g]z 




ear 


ia(r 


19 


ears 


laz 


19Z 


early 


'3-h 


'ssh 


earlier 


'3'li9(r 


'sahs 


earliest 


'3 -lust 


'sahist 


earn 


s ( n 


ssn 


earns 


s'nz 


3nz 


earned 


3 f nd, 3'nt 


ssnd 


earnt 


3-nt 


ssnt 


earning 


's'mrj 


'sanirj 


earnest 


's'mst 


'ssnist 


earnestly 


's'nisth 


'sanisth 


earnestness 


's'mstms 


'ssnistnis 


earnings 


's'ninz 


'ssmrjz 


earth 


3'0 


396 


earthquake 


'3'Okweik 


'asOkweik 


earthquakes 


's-Okweiks 


'ssGkweiks 


ease 


i'z 




easily 


Yzih 




east 


rst 




Easter 


'rstafr 


'i'sts 


easterly 


'i -stall 


'r stall 


eastern 


Vstgn 


'rstsn 


eastward 


'i'Stwad 


'rstwad 


eastwardly 


'i'stwadli 


'i'stwadlv 


easy 


'l'Zl 




easier 


'i'Sio(r 


'i'zi 


easiest 


'rzust 





125 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



eat 


rt 




eats 


I'tS 




ate 


et 


eit 


eaten 


'rti? 




eating 


'rtirj 




eccentric 


ik'sentnk 




eccentricity 


eksen'trisiti 






eksan'trisitt 




eccentricities 


cksen'trisvtiz 






skson'trisitiz 




echo 


'skou 




echoes 


'ekouz 




echoed 


'skoud 




echoing 


'ekouirj 




eclipse 


I'klips 




eclipses 


i/klipsiz 




economic 


iks'nDmik 


eks'namik 




ska'nDmik 




economical 


ikQ'nomik^l 


ska'namik^l 


economically 


i^'nDmikoli 


sko'namikoh 




sk^'nomikali 




economics 


ika'nomiks 


ska'namiks 




eko'nDmiks 




economize 


i f kDnomaiz 


I'kanamaiz 


economizes 


I'konamaiziz 


I'kanamaiziz 


economized 


I'kDnamaizd 


I'kanamaizd 


economizing 


I'kDnomaizir) 


I'kanamamr) 


economy 


t'kDnamt 


I'kanomi 


economies 


I'konamiz 


I'kanomiz 


edge 


sc% 




edges 


'so^tz 




edgeways 


'eo^weiz 




edit 


'edit 




edits 


'edits 




edited 


'sdvtid 




editing 


'editirj 




edition 


i'dij?n 




editions 


I'diJ^nz 




editor 


'sdito(r 


'edit 


editors 


'editaz 


'sditsz 


editorial 


sdi'to'rial 


sdi'to'rigl 


editorials 


edi'to'rialz 


edi'to'rialz 


educate 


'sdjukeit 




educates 


'sdjukeits 




educated 


'edjukeitid 




educating 


'edjukeitirj 





126 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



education 


edju'keij;m 




educational 


edju'keijprij 




educationist 


edju'keijomst 




educationists 


sdju'kei/amsts 




educator 


'sdjukeita(r 


'edjukeita 


educators 


'sdjukeitaz 


'edjukeitsz 


Edward 


'edwad 


'sdwd 


eel 


i-l 




eels 


rlz 




effect 


I'fekt 




effects 


I'fskts 




effected 


I'fektid 




eftectmg 


I'fsktir) 




effective 


i/fektiv 




effectively 


I'fsktivh 




effectual 


I'fsktju?! 




effectually 


I'fsktjuzh 




effeminate 


I'fsmimt 




efficacious 


efi'keijos 




efficaciously 


sfi'ketjasli 




efficacy 


'sfikosi 




efficiency 


I'fijpnst 




efficient 


i'fij*nt 




efficiently 


t'fij^ntli 




effort 


f f9t 


'sfst 


efforts 


'sfats 


'efets 


egg 


eg 




eggs 


egz 




egotism 


'Egoutizin 


'i-gatizni 


egotist 


'eguutist 


'i-gatist 


egotists 


'sgoutists 


'Egotists 


egotistic 


egou'tistik 


igg'tistik 


egotistically 


sgou'tistikoh 


iga'tistik^h 


Egypt 


'r<%ipt 




Egyptian 


t'c^ip/^n 




Egyptians 


I'o^ip/^nz 




eh 


ei, ', 




eight 


eit 




eighteen 


'ei'ti'n 




eighteenth 


'ei'trnO 




eighteenths 


'ei'ti'nOs 




eighth 


eit0 




eighths 


eitOs 




eighty 


'eiti 




eightieth 


'eituB 




eightieths 


'eitues 




either 


'aidd(r, 'i'59(r 


'i'5s 



127 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



elaborate, adj. 


t'lab^rit 




elaborately 


I'laebmth 




elaborate, verb 


I'laebsreit 




elaborates 


I'laebareits 




elaborated 


I'laebareitid 




elaborating 


I'laebarevtirj 




elapse 


ilaeps 




elapses 


I'laepsiz 




elapsed 


i/laepst 




elapsing 


ilaepsirj 




elastic 


t'laestik, I'lostik 




elasticity 


Uses'tisiti, ilaes'tisiti 




elbow 


'slbou 




elbows 


'elbouz 




elder 


'elda(r 


'sld 


elders 


'sldoz 


'sldoz 


elderly 


'eldah 




eldest 


'sldist 




elect 


I'lskt 




elects 


t'lekts 




elected 


I'lektid 




electing 


I'lsktirj 




election 


I'lskJ^n 




elections 


I'lskf^nz 




elector 


i'lekta(r 


I'lsktd 


electors 


I'lsktaz 


I'lektsz 


electric 


I'lsktrik 




electrically 


t'lektriksh 




electrician 


ilek'trij;?n 




electricians 


ilek'trij^nz 




electricity 


ilek'trisiti 




electron 


I'lsktron 


I'lektran 


electrons 


v'lektrDnz 


I'lsktranz 


elegance 


'eligans 




elegant 


'eligant 




elegantly 


'eliganth 




element 


'ehmant 




elements 


'ehmants 




elementary 


sh'msnteri 




elephant 


'shfsnt 




elephants 


'shfants 




elevate 


'shveit 




elevates 


'slvveits 




elevated 


'slivevtid 




elevating 


'sliveitirj 




elevation 


eli'vei/^n 




elevations 


eli'veij^nz 




128 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



elevator 


'sliveita(r 


'eliveits 


elevators 


'ehveitaz 


'ehveitdz 


eleven 


t'levn 




eleventh 


v'lsvnO 




elevenths 


I'levnGs 




eligible 


'eho>bj 




eliminate 


I'limmeit 




eliminates 


v'limineits 




eliminated 


I'hmmeitid 




eliminating 


I'limmeitirj 




elimination 


ihmi'neifan 




eliminations 


Uimi'neijpnz 




elision 


i r hyn 




elisions 


i'li3<mz 




Elizabeth 


I'hzabaO 




ellipse 


v'lips 




ellipses 


I'lipsiz 




elliptic 


t'hptik 




elliptical 


I'hptikpl 




elocution 


eto'kju'Jpn 




elocutionist 


eb'kju'Jamst 




elocutionists 


sla'kju'Jamsts 




eloquence 


'elakwsns 




eloquent 


'elakw^nt 




eloquently 


'elakw^ntli 




else 


els 




elsewhere 


'sls f /twea(r 


'els'hwes 


'em, weak form of them 


^m 




emancipate 


I'maensipeit 




emancipates 


I'maensipeits 




emancipated 


I'maensipeitid 




emancipating 


I'maenstpeittrj 




emancipation 


imaensi'peij^n 




embankment 


im'baerjkmont 




embark 


im'ba'k 


im'bask 


embarks 


im'ba'ks 


im'baaks 


embarked 


im'ba-kt 


im'baakt 


embarking 


im'ba'kirj 


im'baakirj 


embarrass 


im'baeros 




embarrasses 


im'ba^rosiz 




embarrassed 


im'baerast 




embarrassing 


im'baerasirj 




embarrassment 


im'baerasmont 




embassy 


'smbasi 




embassies 


'smbasiz 




emblem 


'smblom 




emblems 


'smblamz 





129 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



embody 


im'bDdi 


im'badi 


embodies 


un'bDdiz 


im'badiz 


embodied 


im'bDdid 


im'badid 


embodying 


im'bDdurj 


im'badiu) 


embodiment 


im'bodimant 


im'badimant 


embodiments 


im'bDdimants 


im'badimants 


embroider 


im'brc>ida(r 


im'broid^ 


embroiders 


im'broidaz 


im'broidaz 


embroidered 


un'broidad 


im'broidsd 


embroidering 


im'brDidimr) 




embroidery 


im'broidm 




embroideries 


im'broid^nz 




emerald 


' emarald 




emeralds 


' emarald z 




emergency 


i'ni3'd$onsi 


i'm396iaiisi 


emergencies 


i'ms'd$ansiz 


i'm38 c^ansiz 


emigrant 


'emigrant 




emigrants 


'emigrants 




emigrate 


'emigreit 




emigrates 


'emigreits 




emigrated 


'emigreitid 




emigrating 


'emigreituj 




emigration 


emi'greipn 




eminence 


'emmans 




eminent 


'emmant 




eminently 


'emmanth 




Emma 


'ema 




emotion 


i f mouj?n 




emotions 


I'mouJ^nz 




emotional 


I'moufan*! 




emotionally 


I'moujan^li 




emperor 


'emp5ra(r 


'emp^r 


emperors 


'emp^raz 


'emp^rsz 


emphasis 


'emiasis 




emphasize 


'emfasaiz 




emphasizes 


'emfasaiziz 




emphasized 


'emfasaizd 




emphasizing 


'emfasaizir) 




emphatic 


im'faetik 




emphatically 


im'faetikzli 




empire 


'empaia(r 


'empais 


empires 


'empaiaz 


'empaiaz 


employ 


im'ploi 




employs 


im'ploiz 




employed 


im'ploid 




employing 


im'plour) 




employer 


im'ploia(r 


im'plots 


130 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



employers 


im'ploiaz 


im'ploisz 


employment 


im'ploimant 




empty 


'em^ti 




empties 


'em^tiz 




emptied 


'em^tid 




emptying 


'em/?turj 




emptiness 


'smptims 




enable 


I'neibJ 




enables 


i'neibjz 




enabled 


i/neibjd 




enabling 


I'neiblirj 




enamel 


i'naem<?l 




encamp 


m'kaemp 




encamps 


m'kaemps 




encamped 


m'ksempt 




encamping 


m'kaempuj 




encampment 


m'kaempmont 




encampments 


m'ksempmants 




enclose 


m'klouz 




encloses 


m'klouziz 




enclosed 


in'klouzd 




enclosing 


m'klouzirj 




enclosure 


in'klousgtr 


m'klou3?> 


enclosures 


in'klou33z 


in'klou3sz 


encounter 


in'kairnto(r 


m'kaunts 


encounters 


in'kauntaz 


in'kauntsz 


encountered 


m'kauntad 


in'kauntod 


encountering 


in'kaxmtorirj 




encourage 


in'kArici; 


m'ksrid; 


encourages 


m'kAricjji/ 


in'ksrio^iz 


encouraged 


in'kAnc^d 


m'kariojd 


encouraging 


m'kAnd5irj 


m'ksrK^irj 


encouragement 


in'kAnc^m^nt 


m'ksrK^mant 


encyclopaedia 


ensaikla'pi'dio 






ensaiklou' pi f d la 




encyclopaedias 


cnsaiklo'pi 'diaz 






ensaiklou'pi'diaz 




end 


end 




ends 


sndz 




ended 


'endid 




ending 


'endirj 




endeavour 


tn'devs(r 


m'devs 


endeavor (Amer.) 






endeavours 


m'dsvaz 


m'devaz 


endeavors (Amer.) 






endeavoured 


in'dsvsd 


m'devad 


endeavored (Amer.) 







131 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



endeavouring 


tn'dev^nrj 




endeavoring (Amer.) 






ending 


'endirj 




endings 


'endirjz 




endless 


'endlis 




endlessly 


'endlisli 




endorse 


in'da's 


m'doss 


endorses 


m'do'Siz 


m'dossiz 


endorsed 


m'do'st 


in'doast 


endorsing 


m'do'Sirj 


in'dossirj 


endorsement 


in'da'smant 


m'doasmant 


endorsements 


tn'do'smants 


m'doasmants 


endow 


in'dau 




endows 


in'dauz 




endowed 


m'daud 




endowing 


in'dauirj 




endowment 


in'daumont 




endowments 


m'daumants 




endure 


m'dju9(r 


in'djue 


endures 


m'djuaz 


m'djusz 


endured 


m'djuad 


in'djusd 


enduring 


m'djuarirj 


m'dju'rirj 


endurance 


m'djuor^ns 


m'djuT^ns 


endways 


'endweiz 




enemy 


'enimi 




enemies 


'enimiz 




energetic 


eno'c^stik 




energetically 


enae'd$6tik2h 




energy 


'ena^i 


'ensd^i 


energies 


'Enao^iz 


'snsc^iz 


enforce 


m'fo'S 


m'foss 


enforces 


in'fo'siz 


m'foosiz 


enforced 


m'fo'st 


m'foQst 


enforcing 


m'fo'sirj 


m'fossirj 


enforcement 


m'fo'smant 


in'fossmant 


engage 


in'geio^ 




engages 


m'geio^iz 




engaged 


m'geidjd 




engaging 


m'geio^irj 




engagement 


m'geio^mant 




engagements 


in'geio^mants 




engine 


'sno^m 




engines 


'endjmz 




engineer 


en6^i'nia(r 


eno^i'nis 


engineers 


enc^i'niaz 


snc^misz 


engineering 


enc^i'niaruj 


endsi'nrnrj 


England 


'irjgland 





132 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



English 


'^g 11 ! 




Englishman 


'irjglijmgn 




Englishmen 


'irjglifman 




Englishwoman 


'irjghjwuman 




Englishwomen 


'irjghfwunin 




engrave 


m'greiv 




engraves 


m'greivz 




engraved 


m'greivd 




engraver 


in'greiva(r 


in'greiva 


engravers 


m'gretvaz 


in r greivsz 


engraving 


m'greivii) 




engravings 


m'greivirjz 




enjoy 


in' dpi 




enjoys 


m'dpiz 




enjoyed 


m'djoid 




enjoying 


m'dpurj 




enjoyment 


in'd$oim9nt 




enjoyable 


m'djoiab] 




enlarge 


in'la'd} 


m'la(J 


enlarges 


m'la'cijiz 


m'lasc^iz 


enlarged 


m'la'^d 


in'lasc^d 


enlarging 


in'la'C^iT) 


mlascljir) 


enlargement 


m'lcr djmsnt 


m'la9<^mont 


enlargements 


m'la'C^mants 


m'lasc^mants 


enlighten 


m'laiti? 




enlightens 


m'laitnz 




enlightened 


m'laitnd 




enlightening 


m'laitnirj 




enlightenment 


m'laitnmont 




enlist 


in' list 




enlists 


in'lists 




enlisted 


m'hstid 




enlisting 


in'listirj 




enmity 


'enmiti 




enormous 


I'no'mas 


i^noamas 


enormously 


I'no'mash 


i'nosm9sli 


enough 


i'nAf 




enquire 


m'kwai9(r 


m'kwaia 


enquires 


in'kwaiaz 


m'kwaisz 


enquired 


m'kwaiad 


in'kwaiad 


enquiring 


in'kwaiarirj 


in'kwairii) 


enquirer 


in'kwai9rd(r 


in'kwairs 


enquirers 


m'kwai9raz 


m'kwairaz 


enquiry 


in'kwaiori 




enquiries 


m'kwaiariz 




enrage 


m'reio^ 




enrages 


in'reio^iz 





133 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



enraged 


in'reicljd 




enraging 


tn'reidiirj 




enrich 


in'ritf 




enriches 


m'rrtfiz 




enriched 


in'rrtft 




enriching 


in'rrtfirj 




enrol 


tn'roul 




enrols 


m'roulz 




enrolled 


m'rould 




enrolling 


in'roulirj 




enrolment 


m'roulmant 




ensure 


m'Ju9(r, in'Ja3(r 


in'Jua 


ensures 


in'Juaz, m'Jo9z 


in'Juaz 


ensured 


m'Jusd, in'/aad 


in'J^ad 


ensuring 


m'Juarin, in'Jo^rirj 


m'fu'nrj 


entangle 


m'taeng} 




entangles 


tn'tasrjgjz 




entangled 


m'taengjcl 




entangling 


m'taerjgltrj 






m'taengjirj 




enter 


'enta^ 


'ents 


enters 


'sntsz 


'ent9z 


entered 


'entod 


'entsd 


entering 


' enter irj 




enterprise 


'entapraiz 


'sntapraiz 


enterprises 


'entapraiziz 


'sntspraiziz 


entertain 


snta'tein 


enta'tein 


entertains 


enta'temz 


ents'teinz 


entertained 


ento'teind 


ents'teind 


entertaining 


entd'teinirj 


ents'teinir) 


entertainment 


ento'teinmont 


enta'temmant 


entertainments 


enta'temmsnts 


snts'teinmsnts 


enthusiasm 


in'0ju'ziaezrfi 




enthusiast 


m'Gju'ziaest 




enthusiasts 


tn'Oju'ztaests 




enthusiastic 


in0juzt f aesttk 




enthusiastically 


tn9j uzi r aestik^h 




entire 


m'tai9(r 


in'tais 


entirely 


in'taiah 


in'taisli 


entirety 


in'taiati 


in'taisti 


entitle 


m'tait} 




entitles 


tn'taitjz 




entitled 


in'taitjd 




entitling 


m'taitlirj, m'taitjirj 




entomology 


ents'niDlac^i 


enta'mal9d$i 


entrance 


'entrans 




entrances 


'ntransiz 




entrust 


m'tTASt 





134 



'~ Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation 



American Variants 



entrusts 


m'trAsts 




entrusted 


m'trAstid 




entrusting 


m'trAStirj 




entry 


'entri 




entries 


'entriz 




envelope, noun 


'snviloup 






'snvaloup 






'onvaloup 




envelopes 


'enviloups 






'snvaloups 






'rmvaloups 




envious 


'eiivias 




enviously 


'enviosh 




environment 


m'vdiorsnmsnt 


tn'vairanmont 


environments 


m'vaiargnmonts 


m'vaironmant 


environs 


'enviranz 


in'vairanz 




m'vaioranz 




envy 


'snvi 




envies 


'snviz 




envied 


'snvid 




envying 


'envurj 




epidemic 


spi'dsmik 




epidemics 


spi'dsmiks 




episode 


'spisoud 




episodes 


'spisoudz 




epoch 


'I'pDk 


'I'pak 


epochs 


'rpoks 


'rpaks 


equal 


'i'kwal 




equals 


'I'kwalz 




equalled 


r i'kwald 




equalling 


'i'kwalir) 




equality 


I'kWDlltl 


I'kwaliti 




I'kwuliti 


I'kwahti 


equally 


'I'kwah 




equation 


I'kweiJ^n 




equations 


i'kweij^nz 




equator 


i'kweita(r 


i'kweit 


equip 


I'kwip 




equips 


I'kwips 




equipped 


I'kwipt 




equipping 


I'kwipirj 




equipment 


I'kwrpmant 




equivalent 


I'kwivslant 




equivalents 


v'kwivdlants 




erase 


I'reiz, I'reis 




erases 


i/reiziz, I'reisiz 




erased 


I'retzd, I'reist 





135 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



erasing 


I'reizuj, I'reisirj 




eraser 


t'reiza(r, i'reisa(r 


I'reiss 


erasers 


i/reizsz, I'reisaz 


I'reissz 


erect 


I'rekt 




Ernest 


Vnist 


'sanist 


err 


3-(r 


39 


errs 


3'z_; 


39Z 


erred 


3'd 


sod 


erring 


3'nrj 




errand 


'erand 




errands 


'srandz 




erratic 


i/raetik 




erroneous 


I'rounjos, I'rouniss 




erroneously 


I'roimpsh, I'roumssh 




error 


'era(r 


era 


errors 


'sraz 


'sraz 


erudite 


'srudait, 'i'rudait 




erudition 


eru'dij>n, iru'dij^n 




erupt 


i'rApt 




erupts 


i f rApts 




erupted 


i'rAptid 




erupting 


I'rAptirj 




eruption 


I'rApJ^n 




eruptions 


I'rApJ^nz 




escalator 


/ 6sk9leit9(r 


'esksleits 


escalators 


'eskoleitoz 


'eskaleitsz 


escape 


is'keip 




escapes 


is'ketps 




escaped 


is'keipt 




escaping 


is'keipirj 




escort, noun 


'esko't 


'sskoat 


escorts 


'esko'ts 


'eskasts 


escort, verb 


is'ko't 


is'koat 


escorts 


is'ko'ts 


is'kosts 


escorted 


is'ko'tid 


is'kostid 


escorting 


is'ko'tirj 


is'kostirj 


especially 


is'pej>h 




esquire 


is'kwai9(r 


ts'kwais 


essay, noun 


'ssei 




essays 


'sseiz 




essence 


'ssns 




essential 


i'ssnj>l 




essentially 


I'sen/ali 




establish 


is'taeblif 




establishes 


is'tasblifiz 




established 


is'taebhjt 




establishing 


is'tseblijirj 





136 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



establishment 


is'taebhjmant 




establishments 


is'taeblijmants 




esteem 


is'trm 




esteems 


is'trmz 




esteemed 


is'trmd 




esteeming 


is'trmirj 




estimate, noun 


'estimit, 'estimeit 




estimates 


'estimits, 'estimeits 




estimate, verb 


'estimeit 




estimates 


'estimeits 




estimated 


'estimeitid 




estimating 


'estimeitii) 




estimation 


esti'meij^n 




etc. = etcetera 


it'setro, st'setra 




eternal 


i't3'n01 


l't39TL3>l 


eternally 


i't3'nah 


i't39nali 


eternity 


i't3'niti 


I'tsaniti 


Ethel 


'0} 




ether 


'i'89(r 


'1-69 


ethics 


'e6iks 




etiquette 


eti'ket, 'etiket 




etymological 


etimo'lodjik^l 


etima'lac^ik^l 


etymologically 


etimo'ln (Alkali 


etimo'lac^iksh 


etymologist 


sti'molodjist 


sti'malo^ist 


etymologists 


eti'moladjists 


eti'mala deists 


etymology 


sti'mDlac^i 


eti'maladji 


Europe 


'juarap 


juTap 


European 


juora'pi-on 


jura'pran 


Europeans 


juaro'pr^nz 


jura'pi'snz 


evaporate 


I'vaepareit 




evaporates 


I'vaepareits 




evaporated 


I'vaeporeitid 




evaporating 


iVaepareitirj 




evaporation 


ivaepa'reijsn 




evasive 


I'veisiv 




even 


'i'vn 




evening 


'i'vnirj 




evenings 


'I'vmrjz 




evenly 


'i'vnli 




event 


I'vent 




events 


t'vents 




eventful 


iVentful 




eventual 


I'ventju^l 




eventually 


I'vsntju^li 




ever 


'sv9(r 


'eva 


every 


'evri 




everybody 


'svribodi 


'evribadi 



137 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



everyday 


'evri'dei 




everyone 


'evriwAn 




everything 


'evriSuj 




everywhere 


'6vn/rwea(r 


'svrihwe 


evidence 


'evid^ns 




evident 


'evident 




evidently 


'evixtenth 




evil 


'i'vtl 




evils 


'rvilz 




evolution 


ivs'l/u'Jpn, eva'l/ir/Tn 




em-iprefiz meaning 


eks 




former 






exact 


ig'zaekt 




exactly 


ig'zaektli 




exaggerate 


ig'zaed$oreit 




exaggerates 


ig'zaedjaretts 




exaggerated 


ig'zaedjareitid 




exaggerating 


ig'zaedjareitirj 




exaggeration 


igzaec^s'reipn 




exaltation 


egzol'teij^n 




examination 


igzaemi'netj^n 




examinations 


ig zaemi'neijpnz 




examine 


ig'zaemm 




examines 


ig'zaeminz 




examined 


ig'zaemmd 




examining 


ig'zaemmirj 




examiner 


ig'zaemm9(r 


ig'zaemma 


examiners 


ig'zaeminoz 


ig'zaeminsz 


example 


ig'za'mp} 


ig'za'mp} 


examples 


ig'za'mpjz 


ig'za-mpjz 


exasperate 


ig'zcrsp^reit 


ig'za-sp^reit 




ig'zaesp^reit 




exasperates 


ig'za'sp^reits 


ig'za'Spsreits 




ig'zaespareits 




exasperated 


ig'za'Sp^reitid 


ig'za'sp^reitid 




ig'zaespsreitid 




exasperating 


ig'za'sp^reitirj 


ig'za'sp^reituj 




ig'zaesppreitirj 




exasperation 


igzaspa'rei/^n 


igzaspa'reij^n 




tgzaespo'reij^n 




excavate 


'ekskaveit 




excavates 


'ekskeveits 




excavated 


'skskaveitid 




excavating 


'ekskeveitirj 




excavation 


sksks'veij^n 




excavations 


eksks'veijpnz 




exceed 


ik'srd 





138 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



exceeds 


ik'srdz 




exceeded 


ik'srdid 




exceeding 


ik'srdir) 




exceedingly 


ik'si'dinlt 




excel 


ik'sel 




excels 


ik'selz 




excelled 


ik'seld 




excelling 


ik'selir) 




excellence 


'ekszlans 




excellency 


'ekszkmsi 




excellencies 


'eks^lansiz 




excellent 


'eks^lsnt 




excellently 


'ekszlontli 




except 


ik'sept 




excepts 


ik'septs 




excepted 


ik'septul 




excepting 


ik'septirj 




exception 


ik'sepj^n 




exceptions 


ik'sepj>nz 




exceptional 


ik'sepjsnal 




exceptionally 


ik'sepjsmah 




excess 


ik'ses 




excessive 


ik'sesiv 




exchange 


iks'tjemdj 




exchanges 


iks'tfeindjiz 




exchanged 


iks'^emc^d 




exchanging 


iks'^emoiir) 




excite 


ik'sait 




excites 


ik'saits 




excited 


ik' salt id 




exciting 


ik'saitir) 




excitement 


ik'saitmont 




exclaim 


iks'kleim 




exclaims 


iks'kleimz 




exclaimed 


iks'kleimd 




exclaiming 


ik'skleimir) 




exclamation 


ekskb'meipn 




exclamations 


ekskb'meij^nz 




exclamatory 


iks'klaematm 


iks'klaemoton 


exclude 


iks'klu'd 




excludes 


iks'klu'dz 




excluded 


iks'klu'did 




excluding 


iks'klu'dirj 




exclusion 


iks'klu'30n 




exclusive 


iks'klu-siv 




exclusively 


iks'klu'sivh 




excursion 


iks'ks-J^n 


iks'kss/^n, iks'kaajpn 



139 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



excursions 


iks'ks'J^nz 


iks'kssj^nz 


excursionist 


iks'ks'Jmist 


ikii/sr 


excursionists 


iks'ks'Jjmists 


iks'ksaj^msts 


excusable 


iks'kju'zobj 




excusably 


iks'kju'zabh 




excuse, noun 


iks'kju-s 




excuses 


iks'kju'Siz 




excuse, verb 


iks'kju'z 




excuses 


iks'kju'ziz 




excused 


iks'kju'zd 




excusing 


iks'kju'zirj 




execute 


'sksikjut 




executes 


'eksikjuts 




executed 


'sksikjutid 




executing 


'eksvkjutirj 




execution 


eksi'kju'JVn 




execu tions 


eksi'kju'pnz 




executioner 


sksi'kju'J0n9(r 


eksi'kju'J^ns 


executioners 


sksi'kju'Jpnoz 


sksi'kju'J^naz 


executive 


ig'zskjutiv 




executor 


ig'zekjuto(r 


ig'zskjuta 


executors 


ig'zekjutaz 


ig'zekjutoz 


exemplify 


ig'zsmphfai 




exemplifies 


ig'zsmphfaiz 




exemplified 


ig'zsmplifaid 




exemplifying 


ig'zBmphfaiir) 




exempt 


ig'/em/'t 




exempts 


ig'zsm.y?ts 




exempted 


ig 'zGnr/?tid 




exempting 


ig'zBm^>tirj 




exemption 


ig'zsmpfffn 




exemptions 


ig'z&mpjdnz 




exercise 


'eksasaiz 


'eksssaiz 


exercises 


'sksasaiziz 


'eksasaiziz 


exercised 


'eksasaizd 


'eksasaizd 


exercising 


'sksasaizu3 


'eksasaizirj 


exert 


ig'za^t 


ig'zsst 


exerts 


ig'zs'ts 


ig'z3ts 


exerted 


ig f z3'tid 


vg'zsatvd 


exerting 


ig'zs'tu) 


ig'zastirj 


exertion 


ig'zs'J^n 


vg'zssj^n 


exertions 


ig'zs'J^nz 


tg'zssf^nz 


exhaust 


ig'zo'st 




exhausts 


ig'zo'sts 





140 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



exhausted 


ig'zo'stid 




exhausting 


ig'zo'stirj 




exhaustion 


ig'zo'stf^n 




exhaustive 


ig'zo'Stiv 




exhaustively 


ig'zo-stivli 




exhibit 


ig'zibit 




exhibits 


ig'zibits 




exhibited 


ig'zibitid 




exhibiting 


ig'zibvtirj 




exhibitor 


ig'zibita(r 


ig'zibits 


exhibitors 


ig'zibitaz 


ig'zibitsz 


exhibition 


eksi'bifcn 




exhibitions 


sksi'bif^nz 




exhilarate 


ig'zilareit 




exhilarates 


ig'zitoretts 




exhilarated 


ig'ziterevtid 




exhilarating 


ig'zilareitirj 




exhilaration 


ig'zila'reiJVn 




exile 


'sksail, 'egzail 




exiles 


'sksailz, 'sgzailz 




exist 


ig'zist 




exists 


ig'zists 




existed 


ig'zistid 




existing 


ig'zistirj 




existence 


ig'zist^ns 




existences 


ig'zist^nsiz 




exit 


'eksit 




exits 


'eksits 




exonerate 


ig'zonareit 


tg'zan9reit 


exonerates 


ig'zDnsreits 


ig'zanareits 


exonerated 


ig'zDnareitid 


ig'zansreitid 


exonerating 


ig'zonoreitirj 


ig'zanoreitirj 


exotic 


sk'sotik, sk'zotik 


sk'satik, ek'zatik 




sg'zDtik 


sg'zatik 


expand 


iks'paend 




expands 


iks'paendz 




expanded 


iks'paendid 




expanding 


iks'paendirj 




expansion 


iks'paenj^n 




expect 


iks'pskt 




expects 


iks'pekts 




expected 


iks'pektid 




expecting 


iks'psktirj 




expectation 


skspek'teij^n 




expectations 


skspek'teij^nz 




expedient 


iks'pi'djsnt 






iks'pi'diont 





HI 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 


expedients 


iks'pi'djants 






iks'prdiants 




expedition 


ekspi'djj>n 




expeditions 


skspi'diffnz 




expel 


iks'pel 




expels 


iks'pelz 




expelled 


iks'peld 




expelling 


iks'pehrj 




expend 


iks'pend 




expends 


iks'pendz 




expended 


iks'pendid 




expending 


iks'pendirj 




expenditure 


iks'penditfa(r 


iks'pGndi^s 


expense 


iks'psns 




expenses 


tks'psnsiz 




expensive 


iks'pensiv 




expensively 


iks'pensivh 




experience 


iks'piarions 


iks'pi'risns 


experiences 


iks'pianonsiz 


iks'prnansiz 


experienced 


iks'piariQnst 


iks'pi-nsnst 


experiencing 


iks'piarionsirj 


iks'piTiansirj 


experiment, noun 


iks'penmant 




experiments 


iks'psnmants 




experiment, verb 


iks'periment 




experiments 


iks'periments 




experimented 


iks'perimentid 




experimenting 


iks'perimentirj 




experimental 


sksperi'ment} 






ikspen'ment} 




experimentally 


eksperi'ment^h 






ikspen'ment^li 




expert, noun 


'ekspst 


'ekspsst 


experts 


'ekspsts 


'ekspssts 


expert, adj. 


iks'p3't, 'skspst 


iks'psst, 'ekspsst 


expertly 


iks'ps'th, 'ekspsth 


iks'psstli, 'ekspssth 


expiration 


skspi'reij^n 




expire 


iks'paia(r 


iks'pais 


expires 


iks'paisz 


iks'paisz 


expired 


iks'paisd 


iks'paidd 


expiring 


iks'paisnr) 


iks'painr) 


expiry 


iks'paian 




explain 


iks'pleir. 




explains 


iks'plemz 




explained 


iks'pleind 




explaining 


iks'plemirj 




explainable 


iks'pleindb) 




explanation 


6kspl'neijsn 





142 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



explanations 


ekspb'neij?nz 




explanatory 


iks'plsenoteri 


iks'plaenatori 


explicit 


iks'phsit 




explicitly 


iks'plisvth 




explode 


iks'ploud 




explodes 


iks'ploudz 




exploded 


iks'ploudid 




exploding 


iks'ploud irj 




exploration 


ekspb'rei/^n 






ekspb'reij^n 




explorations 


kspb'reij>nz 






ekspb'reij<?nz 




explore 


iks f pb'(r, iks'pbt}(r 


iks'plos 


explores 


iks'pb'z, tks'pboz 


iks'ploaz 


explored 


iks'pb'd, iks'pbad 


iks'plosd 


exploring 


iks'pb'nrj 


iks'plo'nrj 




iks'pbanrj 




explorer 


iks^pfo-rafr 


iks'plo'rs 


explorers 


iks'pb'roz 


iks'ploTQz 




iks'pbaroz 




explosion 


iks'plou3?n 




explosions 


iks'plou3^nz 




explosive 


iks'plousiv 




explosives 


iks'plousivz 




export, noun 


'ekspot 


'ekspost 


exports 


'ekspots 


'eksposts 


export, verb 


iks'po't 


iks'post 


exports 


iks'po'ts 


iks'posts 


exported 


iks'po'tid 


iks'postid 


exporting 


iks'po'tirj 


iks'postirj 


exporter 


iks'po'to(r 


iks'posts 


exporters 


iks'po'taz 


iks'postsz 


exportation 


ekspo'teij?n 


ekspos'teij^n 


expose 


iks'pouz 




exposes 


iks'pouziz 




exposed 


iks'pouzd 




exposing 


iks'pouzirj 




exposure 


iks'pou39 (r 


iks'pou39 


exposures 


iks'pou3az 


iks'pou3az 


express 


iks'pres 




expresses 


iks'prssiz 




expressed 


iks'prest 




expressing 


iks'presirj 




expression v 


iks'prej^n 




expressions 


iks'pre/^nz 




expressive 


iks'presiv 





143 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation 



American Variants 



exquisite 


'ekskwizit 




exquisitely 


'ekskwvzitlt 




extend 


iks'tend 




extends 


iks'tendz 




extended 


iks'tendid 




extending 


iks'tendirj 




extension 


iks'tenj^n 




extensions 


iks'tenfanz 




extensive 


iks'tenstv 




extensively 


iks'tensivh 




extent 


iks'tent 




exterior 


iks'tiari3(r 


iks'trns 


exterminate 


tks'ts'imneit 


iks'tssmineit 


exterminates 


iks'ts'imneits 


iks'tasmmeits 


exterminated 


iks'ts'mmeitid 


iks'tssmmeitid 


exterminating 


iks't3 f mmettir) 


iks' tss mineitirj 


external 


iks'ts-n} 


iks'tssn} 


externally 


iks'ts-noh 


iks'tssnah 


extinct 


iks'tinA-t 




extortionate 


iks'to'J^mt 


tks'tospnit 


extra 


'ekstra 




extras 


'ekstraz 




extract, noun 


'ekstraekt 




extracts 


'ekstraekts 




extract, verb 


iks'traekt 




extracts 


iks'traekts 




extracted 


iks'traektid 




extracting 


iks'traektirj 




extraordinarily 


iks'tro'dznrili 


iks'trosdmerih 




iks'tro'dmmh 






ekstr^'o'dznrili 


ekstr^'osdmerili 


extraordinary 


iks'tro'dznn 


ikstro'osdinsn 




ikstra'o'din^ri 


Ekstr ,, aadm6n 


extravagance 


iks'traevigans 






iks'trsevagans 




extravagant 


iks'traevigsnt 






iks'traevagant 




extreme 


iks'tn-m 




extremes 


iks'tri-mz 




extremely 


iks'tri'mh 




extremity 


iks'tremiti 




extremities 


iks'tremitiz 




eye 


ai 




eyes 


aiz 





144 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



eyeglass 

eyeglasses 



'aiglas 
aiglasiz 



'aiglas 
'aiglasiz 



F 

F's 
fable 

fables 
face 

faces 

faced 

facing 
facilitate 

facilitates 

facilitated 

facilitating 
facility 

facilities 
fact 

facts 
factor 

factors 
factory 

factories 
fade 

fades 

faded 

fading 
Fahrenheit 
fail 

fails 

failed 
failing 

failings 
failure 

failures 
faint 

faints 

fainted 

fainting 
faintly 
faintness 
fair 

fairer 



ef 

efs 
'feibj 

'feib}z 
feis 
'feisiz 

feist 

'feisir) 
fa'siliteit 

fa'siliteits 

fo'siliteitid 

fo'sihtevtu) 
fo'sihti 

fa'sihtiz 
fsekt 

faekts 
'faekta(r 

'faektaz 



'faekt^nz 
feid 

feidz 

'feidid 

'feidir) 

'faeronhait, 'fa-ranhait 
feil 

feilz 

feild 
'feihrj 

'feihnz 
'feilJ3(r 

'feiljaz 
feint 

feints 

'feintid 

'feint ir) 
'femth 
'femtnis 
feo(r 

'feara(r 

145 



'fekta 
'faektsz 



'fa ronhait 



'feiljsz 



fea 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



fairest 


'fearist 


'fe-rist 


fairly 


'feoh 


'fesh 


fairness 


'feanis 


'fEsnis 


fairy 


'fean 


'fe'ri 


fairies 


'feoriz 


'fe-riz 


faith 


fei9 




faiths 


fei9s 




faithful 


'feieful 




faithfully 


feiOfuh, 'feiGteh 




fall 


fo-1 




falls 


fo'lz 




fell 


fel 




fallen 


'fo'bn 




falling 


'fo'lirj 




fallacy 


'faelasi 




fallacies 


'faelasiz 




false 


fols, fols 




falser 


'fols9(r, 'fDlsa(r 


'folsa, 'folse 


falsest 


'folsist, 'folsist 




falsely 


'folsh, 'folsli 




fame 


feim 




familiar 


fa'miljo(r 


fo'miljs 


familiarity 


famili'aeriti 




familiarities 


fdmili'aentiz 




familiarize 


fa'miljaraiz 




familiarizes 


fa'miljaraiziz 




familiarized 


fa'miljoraizd 




familiarizing 


fa'miljoraizirj 




familiarly 


fd'miljah 


fo'miljsli 


family 


'faemih 




families 


'faemiliz 




famine 


'faemm 




famines 


'faemmz 




famous 


'feimas 




famously 


'feimssh 




fan 


faen 




fans 


faenz 




fanned 


faend 




fanning 


'faenirj 




fanatic 


fa'naetik 




fanatics 


fa'nsstiks 




fanaticism 


fa'naetisizm 




fancy 


'faensi 




fancies 


'faensiz 




fancied 


'faensid 




fancying 


'faensug 




fantastic 


faen'taesttk 





146 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



fantastically 


faen'taestikah 




far 


fcr(r 


fas 


fare 


fea(r 


f3 


fares 


feaz 


fesz 


farewell 


'fea'wel 


'fEs'wel 


farewells 


'fea'welz 


'fes'welz 


farm 


fcrm 


faam 


farms 


fa-mz 


fasmz 


farmer 


'fa'ma(r 


'fasms 


farmers 


'fa'lTWZ 


'fasmoz 


farming 


'fa 'mug 


'fasmirj 


farther 


'fa-5a(r 


'fas 5s 


farthest 


'fa-dist 


'fasSist 


fascinate 


'faesineit 




fascinates 


'faesmeits 




fascinated 


'faesineitid 




fascinating 


'faesmeitir) 




fascination 


faesi'neijpn 




fascinations 


faesi'neij^nz 




fashion 


'faej^n 




fashions 


'faepnz 




fashionable 


'faejVnab} 




fashionably 


'faef^nabh 




fast 


fa-st 


fa-st 


faster 


'fa'sta(r 


'fa'sts 


fastest 


'fa-stist 


'fa-stist 


fasten 


'fcrsn 


'fa's^i 


fastens 


'fa-snz 


'fa-snz 


fastened 


'fa-snd 


'fa -slid 


fastening 


'fa-snirj 


'fa'snirj 


fat 


fset 




fatter 


'faeta(r 


'faets 


fattest 


'faetist 




fatal 


^feit} 




fatally 


'feitah 




fate 


feit 




father 


'fa-0a(r 


'fa '5s 


fathers 


'fa 1 5a/ 


'fa-5sz 


fatigue 


fa'trg 




faucet 


'fo-sit 




faucets 


'fO'SltS 




fault 


fD'lt, fDlt 




faults 


fo'lts, folts 




faultless 


'fo-lths, 'folths 




faultlessly 


'fa-ltlisli, 'foltlish 




faulty 


'fD'ltl, 'fDltl 




favor (Amer.) 







147 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



favour 


'feiva(r 


'feiva 


favors (Amer.) 






favours 


'feivaz 


'feivsz 


favored (Amer ) 






favoured 


'fetvad 


'feivsd 


favoring (Amer.} 






favouring 


'feiv^rirj 




favorable (Amer.) 






favourable 


'feiv<?rob| 




favorably (Amer.} 






- favourably 


'feiv^rabli 




favorite (Amer.} 






favourite 


'fervent 




favorites (Amer ) 






favourites 


'fewmts 




fear 


fia(r 


fl9 


fears 


fiaz 


fiaz 


feared 


fiad 


fisd 


fearing 


'fianrj 


'frruj 


fearful 


'fiaful 


'fisful 


fearfully 


fiafuh, 'f lafpli 


'fisfuh, 'fisf^li 


feast 


fl'St 




feasts 


frsts 




feather 


'fsda(r 


'feQs 


feathers 


7 fs8oz 


'fe6az 


feature 


'frtfo(r 


'frtfs 


features 


'frtfaz 


'frtfsz 


February 


'februan 


'februen 


FED from feed 


fsd 




fee 


fi- 




fees 


fi'z 




feed 


fi-d 




feeds 


frdz 




fed 


fed 




feeding 


'fi'dirj 




feel 


frl 




feels 


fi'lz 




lelt 


felt 




feeling 


'fi'hrj 




feelings 


'frhrjz 




FEET plur. of foot 


fi't 




FELL from fall 


fsl 




fellow 


'felou 




fellows 


'fslouz 




felt 


felt 




FELT from feel 


felt 




female 


'frmeil 





148 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



females 


'frmeilz 




feminine 


'femimn 




fence 


fens 




fences 


'fensiz 




ferocious 


fa'roujas 




ferry 


'feri 




ferries 


'feriz 




fertile 


'f3'tail 


'fsatil 


festival 


'festiv}, 'fsstavl 




festivals 


'festivjz, 'festavjz 




festivity 


fes'tiviti 




festivities 


fes'tivitiz 




fetch 


fetf 




fetches 


'fetfiz 




fetched 


fetft 




fetching 


'fetfirj 




feudal 


'fju'dpl 




fever 


'frv9(r 


'fi'va 


feverish 


'fi'vprif 




feverishly 


'fl'VOTlJll 




few 


fju- 




fewer 


'fju-a(r 


'fjll'S 


fewest 


'fjll'ISt 




fickle 


'fik} 




fiction 


'fikjpn 




fictitious 


fik'tijas 




fidget 


'fidjit 




fidgets 


'fic^its 




fidgeted 


'fic^itid 




fidgeting 


'fic^itirj 




fidgety 


'flC^ltl 




field 


fi'ld 




fields 


frldz 




fierce 


fias 


fiss 


fiercer 


'i ias9 (r 


'tl9S9 


fiercest 


'fiasist 


'fissist 


fiercely 


'fiasli 


'fjssh 


fierceness 


'fiasnis 


'fissnis 


fifteen 


'fif'trn 




fifteenth 


'fif'trne 




fifteenths 


'fif'ti-nGs 




fifth 


fiftG 




fifths 


fif/6s 




fifty 


'fifti 




fiftieth 


'fiftue 




fiftieths 

fiA 


'fiftuOs 
fia 





149 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



figs 


figz 




fight 


fait 




fights 


faits 




fought 


fo-t 




fighting 


'faitirj 




fighter 


'faita(r 


'faita 


fighters 


'faitoz 


'faitsz 


figure 


'figa(r 


'figjs 


figures 


'figoz 


'figjaz 


file 


fail 




files 


failz 




fill 


fil 




fills 


filz 




filled 


fild 




filling 


'film 




film 


film 




films 


filmz 




filter 


'filter 


'filts 


filters 


'filtoz 


'filtaz 


filthy 


'fi!6i 




fin 


fm 




fins 


finz 




final 


'fain] 




finally 


'famoli 




finance 


fi'naens, fai'naens 




finances 


fi'naensiz, fai'nsensiz 




financial 


fi'naenjd, fai'naenfal 




financially 


fi'naenjoli, fai'nasnjali 




find 


famd 




finds 


faindz 




found 


faund 




finding 


'faindir) 




finder 


'fainda(r 


'fainds 


finders 


'famdoz 


'faindsz 


fine 


fain 




finer 


'fam3(r 


'faina 


finest 


'fainist 




finely 


'fainli 




fineness 


'famms 




finger 


'fing9(r 


'fir)9 


fingers 


'fingaz 


'firjgsz 


finish 


'fmij 




finishes 


'fimjiz 




finished 


'fimjt 




finishing 


'fmijir) 




finite 


'fainait 




fir 


fa-(r 


f3S- 



150 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



firs 


fS'Z 


fsaz 


fire 


'fai9(r 


'fais 


fires 


'faiaz 


'fai3z 


fired 


'fawd 


'faisd 


firing 
fireworks 


'faiarvrj 
'faiawsks 


'faiswasks 


firm 


fs-m 


fssm 


firms 


fs'inz 


fssmz 


firmer 


/ fs'ni3(r 


'fsmQ 


firmest 


'1 3 -mist 


'fsomist 


firmly 


'fs'mli 


'fasnih 


firmness 


'fs-mnis 


'fssmnis 


first 


fS'St 


f39St 


first-class 


'fs's/'kkrs 


'fsas/'kla's 


firstly 


'fs-stli 


'fssstli 


fish 


f*J 




fishes 


'fijiz 




fished 


fijt 




fishing 


' fl l l 




fisherman 


'fijoman 


'fijsman 


fishermen 


'fijamon 


'fi/smgn 


fist 


fist 




fists 


fists 




fit 


fit 




fitter 


'fito(r 


'fits 


fittest 


'fitist 




fits 


fits 




fitted 


'fitid 




fitting 


'fitir) 




fitness 


'fitnis 




five 


faiv 




fix 


fiks 




fixes 


'fiksiz 




fixed 


fikst 




fixing 


'fiksirj 




flag 


flseg 




flags 


flaegz 




flake 


fleik 




flakes 


fleiks 




flame 


fleim 




flames 


fleimz 




flannel 


'flaen) 




flannels 


'flaBnjz 




flap 


flsep 




flaps 


flzeps 




flapped 


flaept 




flapping 


'flaepirj 





151 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



flash 


fUeJ 




flashes 


'flsejiz 




flashed 


flaejt 




flashing 


'flaejirj 




flask 


fhrsk 


fla-sk 


flasks 


fld'sks 


fla-sks 


flat 


fleEt 




flatter 


'flaet3(r 


'flaeta 


flattest 


'flaetist 




flatness 


'flaetms 




flatten 


'flaeti? 




flattens 


'flaetnz 




flattened 


'flantnd 




flattening 


'flaetnirj 




flatter 


'flaeto(r 


'flaets 


flatters 


'flaetaz 


'flaetez 


flattered 


'flaetad 


'flaeted 


flattering 


'flaetarirj 




flatterer 


'flaetorafr 


'flsetsrs 


flatterers 


'flaetQroz 


'flaetsrsz 


flavour 


'fleiv9(r 


'fleivs 


flavours 


'fleivoz 


'fleivsz 


flaw 


flD' 




flaws 


flD'Z 




flea 


fir 




fleas 


fli'z 




fleet 


flrt 




fleets 


fli'ts 




flesh 


fief 




FLEW from fly 


flu' 




flexible 


'fleksib}, 'fleksob] 




flight 


flait 




flights 


flaits 




fling 


flirj 




flings 


flinz 




flung 


flArj 




flinging 


f fl)iT) 




flint 


flint 




float 


flout 




floats 


flouts 




floated 


'floutid 




floating 


'floutirj 




flock 


flDk 


flak 


flocks 


floks 


flaks 


flood 


fUd 




floods 


flAdz 




flooded 


'flAdid 





152 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



flooding 


'flAdirj 




floor 


fk>'(r, floa(r 


floa 


floors 


flo'z, floaz 


flosz 


flour 


'flaua(r 


'flaus 


flourish 


'flATlJ 


'flarij 


flourishes 


'flAriJvz 


'flsnjiz 


flourished 


'flAnJt 


'ftenft 


flourishing 


'flAnJir) 


'flsrifir) 


flow 


flou 




flows 


flouz 




flowed 


floud 




flowing 


'flout!) 




flower 


flauo(r 


'flaus 


flowers 


'flai/oz 


flauoz 


FLOWN from fly 


floun 




fluctuate 


'flAktjueit 




fluctuates 


'flAktjueits 




fluctuated 


'fUktjueitid 




fluctuating 


'flAktjueitir) 




fluency 


'flu'ansi 




fluent 


'flu -ant 




fluently 


'flu-ontli 




fluid 


'flu -id 




fluids 


'flu'idz 




FLUNG from fling 


flAI) 




flute 


flu't 




flutes 


flU'tS 




fly 


flat 




flies 


flaiz 




flew 


flu 




flown 


floun 




flying 


'flaiig 




fog 


fog 




fogs 


fugz 




foggy 


'fogt 




fold 


fould 




folds 


fouldz 




folded 


'fouldid 




folding 


'fouldirj 




folder 


'fould9(r 


'foulds 


folders 


'fouldaz 


'fouldaz 


folk 


fouk 




folks 


fouks 




follow 


'folou 


'falou 


follows 


'folouz 


'falouz 


followed 


'foloud 


'faloud 


following 


'folouirj 


'falouirj 



153 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



follower 


'foloua(r 


'falous 


followers 


'folouaz 


'falousz 


folly 


'foil 


'fah 


fond 


fond 


fand 


fonder 


'fonda(r 


'fands 


fondest 


'fondist 


'fandist 


fondly 


'fondli 


'fandh 


fondness 


'fondms 


'fandnis 


food 


fu-d 




foods 


fu-dz 




fool 


fu-1 




fools 


fu-lz 




foolish 


'fll'llf 




foolishly 


'fu'UJh 




foot 


fut 




feet 


frt 




football 


'futbol 




for 


fo ( (r s/, fo(r w.f. 


foss/, fa w.f. 


force 


fo-s 


foss 


forces 


'fo-svz 


'fossiz 


forced 


fo-st 


fosst 


forcing 


'fO'SU) 


'fossir) 


ford 


fo'd 


fosd 


fords 


fo'dz 


foodz 


foreground 


'fo-graund 


'fosgraund 




'foagraimd 




forehead 


'fond, 'forad 




foreheads 


'fDrvdz, 'foradz 




foreign 


'furon, 'form 




foreigner 


'forona(r, 'fDrino(r 


'forans, 'form 


foreigners 


'foransz, 'forinaz 


'foransz, 'formsz 


foresee 


fo'si 1 , foa'si- 


fos'si 1 


foresees 


fo'si'z, foo'si-z 


fos'si'z 


foresaw 


fo'so 1 , foa'sa' 


fos'sD- 


foreseen 


fo'srn 


fos'srn 


foreseeing 


fo'srig 


fod'si'irj 


forest 


'forist 


'farist 


forests 


'fonsts 


'farists 


forfeit 


'fD'flt 


'fosfit 


forfeits 


'fD'flts 


'fosfits 


forfeited 


'fo'fttid 


'foafitid 


forfeiting 


'fo'fitir) 


'fasfittrj 


FORGAVE from 


fa'geiv 


fa'geiv 


forgive 






forge 


fO'^ 


fo(^ 


forges 


'fD'djlZ 


'foac^iz 


forged 


fo-c^d 


fosdjd 



154 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



forging 


'fo'cfcuj 


'foac^irj 


forgery 


'fo'dj^ri 


'foad$m 


forgeries 


'fo'd$0nz 


'foa^riz 


forget 


fa 'get 


fs'get 


forgets 


f 9 'gets 


fa 'gets 


forgot 


fa'got 


fa 'gat 


forgotten 


fo'gutn 


fa'gati^ 


forgetting 


fa'getirj 


fa'getirj 


forgetful 


fo'getful 


fa'getful 


forgetfulness 


fa'getfulms 


fs'getfulms 




fo'getfolms 




forgive 


f a'g iv 


fs'g iv 


forgives 


fo'g ivz 


fo'g ivz 


forgave 


fo'geiv 


fa'geiv 


forgiven 


fc'givn 


fa'givi? 


forgiving 


fo'g ivir) 


fs'givirj 


forgiveness 


fa'givnis 


fs'g ivms 


FORGO T/Kom forget 


fo'qot 


fs'gat 


fork 


fo-k * 


fosk * 


forks 


fo-ks 


fooks 


form 


fo f m 


fosm 


forms 


fo'mz 


fosmz 


formed 


fo-md 


fosmd 


forming 


'fa-mug 


'fosmirj 


formal 


fo ? m?l 


foam^l 


formally 


'fo'msli 


'foomoli 


former 


'fD'mo(r 


'foams 


formerly 


'fo-moh, 'fo-msh 


'foomsli 


formula 


'fo'mjute 


'fosmjula 


formulae 


'fD'mjuh 


'fosmjuli 


formulas 


'fo-mjulaz 


'fosmjulaz 


fort 


fo-t 


fost 


forts 


fD'tS 


fosts 


forthcoming 


foO'kAmirj 


foaG'kAmirj 


fortieth 


'fo'tuO 


'fostuG 


fortification 


fotifi'keij^n 


fostifi'keij^n 


fortifications 


fotifi'keij^nz 


fostifi'keijsnz 


fortify 


'fo'tifai 


'fostifai 


fortifies 


'fo'tifaiz 


'fostifaiz 


fortified 


'fo'tifaid 


'fostifaid 


fortifying 


'fo'tifaiirj 


'foatifaiirj 


fortnight 


'fo'tnait 


'fostnait 


fortnightly 


'fo'tnaith 


'fostnaith 


fortress 


'fo-tris 


'fostris 


fortresses 


'fo'trisiz 


'fostrisiz 


fortunate 


'fo'tfnit 


'fostfnit 


fortunately 


'fo'^nitli 


'fos^fnith 



155 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



fortune 


'fD'tfan 


'fostf^n 


fortunes 


'fot|>nz 


'foa^nz 


forty 


'fO'tl 


'fosti 


forward 


'fo'wad 


'foswsd 


forwards 


'fo'wadz 


'foswsdz 


fossil 


'fosal 


'fosil 


fossils 


'fosrtz 


'fastlz 


FOUGHT from fight 


fo-t 




foul 


faul 




found 


faund 




founds 


faundz 




founded 


'faundid 




founding 


'faundir) 




FOUND from find 


faund 




founder 


1 aunda (r 


'faunds 


founders 


'fairndoz 


'faundsz 


foundation 


faun'deij>n 




foundations 


faun'deij^nz 




fountain 


'fauntin, 'fauntan 


'faunti^ 


fountains 


'fauntinz, 'fauntanz 


'fauntnz 


four 


fo*(r, foa(r 


fO3 


fourteen 


'fo-'trn 


'foa'ti'n 


fourteenth 


'fo-'trne 


'fos'ti-nG 


fourteenths 


'fD''trn9s 


'fos'trnOs 


fourth 


fD'0, foaO 


fos9 


fourths 


fo'9s, foaGs 


fosGs 


fourthly 


'fo-Oli, 'foaOh 


'fosGli 


fowl 


faul 




fowls 


faulz 




fox 


foks 


faks 


foxes 


'foksiz 


'faksiz 


fraction 


'frsekj^n 




fractions 


'fraekj^nz 




fragile 


'fraec^ail 


'frasc^il 


fragment 


'fraegmant 




fragments 


'fraegmants 




fragrance 


'freigrans 




fragrant 


'freigrant 




frame 


freim 




frames 


freimz 




framed 


freimd 




framing 


'freimit) 




France 


fra ? ns 


frans 


frank 


fraenk 




frankly 


'fraenkh 




frankness 


'frasijknis 


'fraenknis 


fraud 


fro'd 





156 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



frauds 


fro'dz 




free 


frr 




freer 


'fri'a(r 


'fri'3 


freest 


'fri'ist 




freely 


'fri'h 




freedom 


'fri'dam 




freeze 


fri-z 




freezes 


'fri'ziz 




froze 


frouz 




frozen 


'frouzi^ 




freezing 


'frrzirj 




freight 


freit 




freights 


freits 




French 


frentf 




Frenchman 


'frentfman 




Frenchmen 


'frsntfmon 




frequency 


'frrkwansi 




frequent, adj. 


'fri'kwant 




frequently 


'fri'kwanth 




fresh 


frej 




fresher 


'frejo(r 


'frej^ 


freshest 


'frefist 




freshly 


'frejh 




freshness 


'frsjnis 




friction 


'fnkj<m 




Friday 


'fraidi 




Fridays 


'fraidiz 




FRIED from fry 


fraid 




friend 


frend 




friends 


frendz 




friendly 


'frsndh 




fright 


frait 




frights 


fraits 




frighten 


'fraiti^ 




frightens 


'fraitnz 




frightened 


'fraitnd 




frightening 


'fraitnirj 




frightful 


'fraitful 




frightfully 


'fraitfuh, 'fraitfrh 




frock 


frok 


frak 


frocks 


froks 


fraks 


frockcoat 


'frok'kout 


'frak'kout 


frockcoats 


'frok'kouts 


'frak'kouts 


frog 


frog 




frogs 


frogz 




from 


from 5 / , fram w f. 


fram 5 /., from w f. 


front 


frAnt 





157 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 


fronts 


frAnts 




frontier 


'frAntJ3(r, 'frAntia(r 


'frAntis, frAn'tis 


frontiers 


'frAntjoz, 'frAntiaz 


'frAntisz, frAn'tisz 


frost 


frost, frost 




frown 


fraun 




frowns 


fraunz 




frowned 


fraund 




frowning 


'fraumrj 




FROZE from freeze 


frouz 




FROZEN from freeze 


frouzn 




fruit 


fru-t 




fruits 


fnrts 




fry 


frai 




fries 


fraiz 




fried 


fraid 




frying 


'fraiuj 




fuel 


'fjU'01 




fugitive 


'fju'd$itiv, 'fju'd$9ttv 




fugitives 


'f)U'd$ltlVZ 






'fju'd$otivz 




fulfil 


ful'fil 




fulfils 


ful'filz 




fulfilled 


ful'fild 




fulfilling 


ful'fihrj 




full 


ful 




fuller 


'ful3(r 


'fula 


fullest 


'fuhst 




fullness 


'fulnis 




fully 


'fuh 




fun 


fAn 




function 


'fArjAJ^n 




functions 


'fAnAJ^nz 




functioned 


'fArjAJ^nd 




functioning 


'fAnA-Jnirj 




fund 


fAnd 




funds 


fAndz 




fundamental 


fAnds'msntJ 




fundamentals 


fAnda'msntJz 




fundamentally 


fAnds'msnt^h 




funeral 


'fju f n#ral 




funerals 


'fju-n^ralz 




funnel 


r fAU\ 




funnels 


'fAnJz 




funnily 


'fAnih 




funny 


'fAm 




funnier 


'fAni9(r 


'fAni 


funniest 


'fAniist 




158 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



fur 


f3-(r 


fss 


furs 


f3'Z 


fssz 


furious 


'fjuariss 


'fjUTl9S 


furiously 


'fjuariasli 


'fju'riasli 


furnace 


'fs-ms 


'fssnis 


furnaces 


'fs'msiz 


'fssmsiz 


furnish 


'fs-mj 


'fsenij 


furnishes 


'fs'nifvz 


'fssnijiz 


furnished 


'fs-nijt 


'fssnijt 


furnishing 


'fs-nijirj 


'fssnijitj 


furniture 


'f3 f mtf9(r 


'fssnvtfa 


furry 


'fs-n 




further 


'f3'So(r 


'fssds 


furthers 


'fs'Qoz 


'fssQaz 


furthered 


'f3'S9d 


'fssa^d 


furthering 


'fs'Smrj 


'fssd^rirj 


furthermore 


'f3'5o'mo(r 


'fsseb'mos 


furthest 


'f3'5lSt 


'fssOist 


fury 


'i j uori 


'fjUTl 


furies 


'fjuariz 


'fjU'HZ 


fuse 


fju-z 




fuses 


'fjU'ZIZ 




fused 


fju'zd 




fusing 


'fju-zirj 




fuss 


fAS 




fussy 


'fASl 




futile 


'fju-tail 


'fjU'tll 


futility 


fju'tiliti 




future 


'fju-tfo(r 


'fju-tfs 



G 

G's 

gaiety 
gaily 
gain 

gams 

gained 

gaining 

gaiter 
gaiters 

gale 
gales 



'geiati, 'geuti 

'geih 

gem 

gemz 

gemd 

'gemirj 



'geitaz 
geil 
geilz 



'geita 
'geitaz 



159 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



gallant, brave 


'gaelsnt 




amourous 


ga'laent 




gallantly, bravely 


'gaslonth 




amorously 


ga'laenth 




gallantry 


'gaelantn 




gallery 


'gaelan 




galleries 


'gaelariz 




gallop 


'gaelap 




gallops 


'gaelops 




galloped 


'gaelapt 




- galloping 


'gaelapirj 




gamble 


'gaembj 




gambles 


'gaemb}z 




gambled 


'gaembjd 




gambling 


'gaembhrj 




gambler 


'gaembl9(r 


'g82mbl9 


gamblers 


'gaembtaz 


'gaemblaz 


game 


geim 




games 


geimz 




gang 


g^ 




gangs 


gaenz 




gangway 


gaerjwei 




gangways 


gasrjweiz 




gaol 


o^eil 




gaols 


djeilz 




gap 


gaep 




gaps 


gseps 




garage 


'gaeraj, gs r ra'3 




garages 


'gaera3iz, go'rcrjiz 




garden 


'ga-di^ 


'gasd? 


gardens 


'ga-dnz 


'gasdnz 


gardening 


'ga-dnirj 




gardener 


'ga f dna(r 


'gasdns 


gardeners 


'ga'dnoz 


'gasdnsz 


garrison 


'gaeris^n 




garrisons 


'gaeris^nz 




garter 


'ga't3(r 


'gasta 


garters 


'ga-taz 


'gastsz 


gas 


gass 




gases 


'gaesiz 




gaseous 


'geizios, 'gaszias, 






'gaezjss, 'gaesias, 






'geisjas, 'gaesjas 




gasoline 


gaesa'li'n, 'gaesalin 




gasp 


go-'sp 


ga-sp 


gasps 


ga-sps 


gasps 


gasped 


ga-spt 


ga-spt 



160 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



gasping 


'ga-spirj 


'ga-spirj 


gate 


geit 




gates 


geits 




gateway 


'geitwei 




gateways 


'geitweiz 




gather 


'gaeda(r 


f gae6a 


gathers 


'gaeSoz 


'gaedaz 


gathered 


'gaedad 


'gaedad 


gathering 


'gaedzru} 




gatherings 


'gaeo^rinz 




gaudy 


'go-di 




gauge 


9 ei j> 




gauges 


'getd$iz 




gauze 


go-z 




G AVE from give 


geiv 




gay 


gei 




gayer 


'gcia(r 


'geia 


gayest 


'geust 




gayety (Amer.) 


'geiati, 'geuti 




gaze 


geiz 




gazes 


'geiziz 




gazed 


geizd 




gazing 


'geizig 




GEESE, plur. of goose 


grs 




gender 


'd$end9(r 


'o^enda 


genders 


'o^endoz 


'c^sndsz 


general 


o^en^rol 




generals 


'o^sn^rolz 




generally 


'^en^roh 




generation 


cJjena'reipn 




generations 


c^sno'rcij^nz 




generosity 


d^ena'rDSiti 


djsna'rasiti 


generous 


'c^en^ras 




generously 


'c^en^rosh 




genial 


'o^rnjai 




genially 


'(^I'njoh 




genius 


'c^i'njas 




geniuses 


'o^i'njasiz 




gentle 


'o^snt} 




gentler 


'djsntlafr 


'c^entls 


gentlest 


'(^sntlist 




gently 


'djenth 




gentleman 


'c^entjman 




gentlemen 


'c^sntjman 




genuine 


'djenjum 




genuinely 


'c^snjumli 




genuineness 


'o^snjumnis 





161 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 


geographical 


djiou'graefik?! 






djia'graefik^l 




geographically 


djiou'graefikah 






djio'graefikali 




geography 


dji'ografi 


(^I'agr^fi 


geological 


&!^Dd^ 1 


dziou'ld dtik^l 
d? IS'!Q dzik^l 


geologist 


C^Dl90VlSt 


c^i'aloc^ist 


geologists 


dji'oladjists 


<^i'al3 djists 


geology 


cfci'Dlod$i 


c^i'aloo^i 


geometrical 


ckjiou'inetrik^l 






djia'metnk;?! 




geometrically 


djiou'metrikah 






d$io'metrik9li 




geometry 


dji'amitri 


c^i'amitri 


germ 


cJ53m 


c^ssm 


germs 


(%3'mz 


c^ssmz 


German 


'd$3'm.3n 


'd$33mon 


Germans 


'd^S'manz 


'o^samanz 


Germany 


'<%3'mmi 


'^ssm^ni 


gesture 


'6^estf3(r 


'cjestfs 


gestures 


'd^estfaz 


'd^estfsz 


get 


get 




gets 


gets 




got 


got 


gat 


gotten 


'gotn 


'gati? 


getting 


'getirj 




ghastly 


'ga-stli 


'ga'sth 


ghost 


goust 




ghosts 


g ousts 




giant 


'djaiant 




giants 


'(^aisnts 




giddy 


'gidi 




giddiness 


'gidmis 




gift 


gift 




gifts 


gifts 




gifted 


'giftid 




gin 


c^in 




ginger 


'djmdpfr 


f (^m<J; 


gipsy 


'(^IpSl 




gipsies 


'c^ipsiz 




giraffe 


c^i'ra'f 


(^I'ra-f 


giraffes 


c^t'ra'fs 


djt'ra'fs 


girder 


QS'ddfr 


'gssds 


girders 


Q3'dd2 


'gsdsz 


girl 


Q3'l 


gsal 


girls 


gs'lz 


gslz 



162 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



gist 


(fclSt 




give 


giv 




gives 


givz 




gave 


geiv 




given 


'giv? 




giving 


'g ivirj 




glad 


glse-d 




gladder 


'glasda(r, 'glae'da(r 


'gl^ds 


gladdest 


'glaedist, 'glae-dtst 




gladly 


'glse-dli 




gladness 


'glae'dms 




glance 


gla'ns 


gla-ns 


glances 


'gla-nsiz 


'gla-nsiz 


glanced 


'glcrnst 


'gla'nst 


glancing 


'gla-nsir) 


'gla'nsig 


glass 


gla-s 


gla-s 


glasses 


'glcrsiz 


'gla-siz 


glassful 


'glcrsful 


'gla'sful 


glassfuls 


'glcrsfulz 


'gla'sfulz 


glassy 


'glcrsi 


'gla'Si 


gleam 


gh'm 




gleams 


gli-mz 




gleamed 


gli-md 




gleaming 


'glrmirj 




glide 


glaid 




glides 


glaidz 




glided 


'g laid id 




gliding 


'glatdirj 




glimpse 


'glimps 




glimpses 


'ghmpsiz 




glitter 


'glit9(r 


'ghta 


glitters 


'ghtaz 


'ghtsz 


glittered 


'ghtad 


'ghtsd 


glittering 


'ght^rirj 




globe 


gloub 




globes 


gloubz 




gloom 


glu-m 




gloomy 


'glu'mi 




glorify 


'glo-rifai 


'gloTifai 


glorifies 


'glo'rifaiz 


'gloTifatz 


glorified 


'glo-rifaid 


'glo'rifaid 


glorifying 


'glo'rifaiii) 


'gloTifaiii) 


glorious 


'gloTias 


'glo-rias 


gloriously 


'glo'riasli 


'glo'riasli 


glory 


'gkvri 


'glo'n 


glories 


'glo-riz 


'glo-riz 


glove 


glAv 





163 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



gloves 


gLvvz 




glue 


glu 1 




glues 


glu-z 




glued 


glu-d 




gluing 


'glu'irj 




glycerine 


'glisa'ri'n, 'glismn 




gnaw 


no* 




gnaws 


no'z 




gnawed 


no-d 




gnawing 


'no'irj 




go 


goir 




goes 


gouz 




went 


went 




gone 


gun, gon 




going 


'gouirj 




goal 


goul 




goals 


goulz 




goat 


gout 




goats 


gouts 




god 


god 


gad 


gods 


godz 


gadz 


godchild 


'gudtfaild 


'gadtfaild 


godchildren 


'gndtfildrzn 


'gad^ildr^n 


goddess 


'gndis 


'gadis 


goddesses 


'godisiz 


'gadvsiz 


godfather 


'gDdfa5a(r 


'gadfafts 


godfathers 


'godfaQaz 


'gadfa6sz 


godmother 


'gDdmA5o(r 


'gadmAft 


godmothers 


'godniAdoz 


'gadmA9sz 


gold 


gould 




golden 


'gouldr; 




goldfish 


'gouldfij 




goldfishes 


'gouldfijiz 




golf 


golf, gof 




golfer 


'gDlfa(r 


'golfs 


golfers 


'golfaz 


'golfsz 


GONE from go 


gun, gon 




gong 


9 D 5 




gongs 


gor|z 




good 


gud 




good-bye 


'gud'bai 




good- evening, on 


gud'rvnirj 




meeting 






on parting 


'gud'i-vnirj 




good- humor (Amer.) 






good-humour 


'gud'Aju'm3(r 


'gud'hju'ms 




gud'/rju'mo(r 


gud'hju'ms 


164 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



good-humored (Am.) 






good-humoured 


'gud'/tju-mad 


'gud'hju'msd 




gud'Aju'mad 


gud'hju'msd 


goodish 


'gudif 




good-morning, on 


gud'mo'mr) 


gud'moanir) 


meeting 






on parting 


'gud'mcvnvr) 


'gud'moanir) 


good- nature 


'gud'neitja(r 


'gud'neitfs 


good-natured 


'g ud'neitf ad 


'g ud'neitfod 


goodness 


'gudnis 




good- night 


'gud'nait 




goods 


gudz 




goodwill 


'gud'wil 




goose 


gu'S 




geese 


gi-s 




gorge 


QD' d? 


go3(^ 


gorges 


Q3' (JciZ 


'gaac^iz 


gorilla 


go'rila 




gorillas 


ga'nlaz 




gospel 


'gospel 


'gasp} 


gospels 


'gosp^lz 


'gaspjz 


gossip 


'gosip 


'gasip 


gossips 


'gosips 


'gasvps 


gossiped 


'gosipt 


'gastpt 


gossiping 


'gosipir) 


'gasipir) 


GOT from get 


got 


gat 


GOTTEN from get 


'got? 


'gati^ 


gouge 


gauc^ 




gouges 


'gau(%iz 




gouged 


gauc^d 




gouging 


'gauc^ir) 




govern 


'gAvan, 'gAvsn 


'gAvsn 


governs 


'gAvanz 


'gAvsnz 


governed 


'gAvand 


'gAvand 


governing 


'gAVi>nir) 


'gAvsnirj 


governess 


'gAv^nis 


'gAvanis 


governesses 


'gAV^nisiz 


'gAvsnisiz 


government 


'gAv^nmant 


'gAvsnmant 


governments 


'gAV^nmants 


'gAvsnmants 


governor 


'gAvana(r 


'gAvan 


governors 


'gAvanaz 


'gAvsnsz 


grab 


graeb 




grabs 


graebz 




grabbed 


'graebd 




grabbing 


'graebirj 




grace 


greis 




^graceful 


'greisful 





165 



gracefully 


'greisfuli, 'greisfrh 




gracious 


'greifas 




graciously 


'greijfesh 




grade 


greid 




grades 


greidz 




graded 


'greidid 




grading 


'greidirj 




gradual 


'graedjuol 




gradually 


'graedjuoli 




graduate, noun 


'graedjuit 




graduates 


'graedjuits 




graduate, verb 


'graedjueit 


'graedjuit 


graduates 


'graedjueits 


'graedjuits 


graduated 


'graedjueit id 


'graedjuitid 


graduating 


'graedjueitirj 


'graedjuitirj 


graduation 


'graedju'eipn 




graft 


gra-ft 


gra'ft 


grafts 


grcrfts 


gra'fts 


grafted 


'gra-ftid 


'gra'ftid 


grafting 


'gra'ftirj 


'gra'ftig 


grain 


grein 




grains 


gremz 




gram 


graem 




grams 


grasmz 




grammar 


'graeni9(r 


'graems 


grammars 


'graemaz 


'graemsz 


grammarian 


gra'mearion 


gra'me'rian 


grammarians 


gra'meonanz 


gra'meTianz 


grammatical 


grs'mastik?! 




grammatically 


gra'maetik^li 




gramophone 


'graemafoun 




gramophones 


'graemofounz 




grand 


graend 




grander 


'graenda(r 


'graenda 


grandest 


'graendist 




grandly 


'grasndli 




grandchild 


'graenrf^aild 




grandchildren 


'graen^tfildran 




granddaughter 


'graend!dDta(r 


'graenrfdots 


granddaughters 


'graen^dotaz 


'graen^datsz 


grandeur 


' 9 r*n*9 ( (r 


'graendjs 


grandfather 


'grandfa6 3 (r 


'graen^faO^ 


grandfathers 


'gragn^faQaz 


'graeniffaddz 


grandmother 


'graenrfmA8a(r 


'graen^mAds 


grandmothers 


'graen^mAdaz 


'graendfmAdaz 


grandparent 


'graen^pear^nt 


'graenrfpe-nmt 



166 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



grandparents 


'graenrfpearcnts 


'graenrfpe'r^nts 


grandson 


'graen^SAn 




grandsons 


'graen^sAnz 




granite 


'graemt 




grant 


gra-nt 


gra*nt 


grants 


gra-nts 


gra'nts 


granted 


'gra-ntid 


'gra'ntid 


granting 


'gra'ntirj 


'gra-ntirj 


grape 


greip 




grapes 


greips 




graph 


graef, gra-f 


gra'f 


graphs 


graefs, grcrfs 


gra-fs 


graphic 


'graef ik 




grasp 


gra-sp 


gra'sp 


grasps 


gra-sps 


gra-sps 


grasped 


gra'spt 


gra-spt 


grasping 


'grcrspirj 


'gra'spirj 


grass 


gra-s 


gra-s 


grasses 


'gra'siz 


'gra'siz 


grassy 


'gra'si 


'gra'si 


grateful 


'greitful 




gratefully 


'greitfuh, 'greitMi 




gratification 


graetifi'keif^n 




gratify 


'graetifai 




gratifies 


'graetifaiz 




gratified 


'graetifaid 




gratifying 


'graetifaiirj 




gratis 


'greitis 




gratitude 


'graetitjud 




grave 


greiv 




graves 


greivz 




graver 


'greiva(r 


'greivd 


gravest 


'greivist 




gravely 


'greivli 




gravel 


'graev^l 




gravitate 


'grasviteit 




gravitates 


'graeviteits 




gravitated 


'graeviteitid 




gravitating 


'graevitettirj 




gravitation 


graevi'teij>n 




gravity 


'graeviti 




gravy 


'greivi 




gray 


grei 




grayer 


'grei9(r 


'greia 


grayest 


'greiist 




gray- haired 


'grei'head 


'grei'head 


gray- headed 


'grei'hedid 





167 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



grease, noun 


gri-s 




greases 


'gri'Siz 




grease, verb 


gri'z 




greases 


'gri'ziz 




greased 


grrzd 




greasing 


'gri'zirj 




greasy 


'gri'zi, 'grrsi 




great 


greit 




greater 


'greito(r 


'greits 


greatest 


'greitist 




greatly 


'greitli 




greatness 


'greitnis 




Greece 


grrs 




greedy 


gri'di 




greedier 


'grrdia(r 


'grrdis 


greadiest 


'gri'dust 




greedily 


'grrdili 




greediness 


'gri'dims 




Greek 


grrk 




Greeks 


grrks 




green 


gri'n 




greener 


'grrn9(r 


'gri-ns 


greenest 


'grrnist 




greenness 


'grrnms 




greengrocer 


'gri'ngrous3(r 


'gri'ngrouss 


greengrocers 


'grrngrousoz 


'gri'ngroussz 


greenish 


'grrnij 




greet 


grrt 




greets 


gri'ts 




greeted 


'grrtid 




greeting 


'gri-tirj 




greetings 


'gri'tirjz 




GREW/^om grow 


gru' 




grey 


grei 




greyer 


'greia(r 


'greis 


greyest 


'greiist 




greyness 


'g rein is 




grey- haired 


'grei'heod 


'grei'hesd 


grey-headed 


'grei'hedvd 




greyish 


'greuj 




grief 


grrf 




grievance 


'gri-v^ns 




grievances 


'gri'v^nsiz 




grieve 


grrv 




grieves 


gri'vz 




grieved 


gri-vd 




grieving 


'gri'virj 





168 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



grimace 


gn'meis 




grimaces 


gri'meisiz 




grimy 


'grairm 




grin 


grm 




grins 


grmz 




grinned 


grind 




grinning 


'grimrj 




grind 


graind 




grinds 


graindz 




ground 


graund 




grinding 


'gramdirj 




grip 


grip 




grips 


grips 




gripped 


g ri Pt 




gripping 


'gnpirj 




grit 


grit 




gritty 


'gnti 




groan 


groun 




groans 


grounz 




groaned 


ground 




groaning 


'groumrj 




grocer 


'grous3(r 


'grouss 


grocers 


'grousaz 


'groussz 


grocery 


'grous^n 




groceries 


'grousmz 




groom 


grum, gru-m 




grooms 


grumz, gru'mz 




groove 


gru'v 




grooves 


gru'vz 




grooved 


gru'vd 




grope 


group 




gropes 


groups 




groped 


groupt 




groping 


'groupirj 




gross 


grous 




grossly 


'groush 




ground 


graund 




grounds 


graundz 




grounded 


'graundid 




grounding 


'graundirj 




GROUND from grind 


graund 




ground-floor 


'graund 'flo-(r 


'graun^'flos 




'graund'flo3(r 




groundless 


'graundlis 




groundlessly 


'graundlisli 




groundwork 


'graund wak 


'graund wssk 


group 


gru-p 





169 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



groups 


gru-ps 




grouped 


gru-pt 




grouping 


'gru'pirj 




grove 


grouv 




groves 


grouvz 




grow 


grou 




grows 


grouz 




grew 


gru* 




grown 


groun 




growing 


'grouirj 




-grower 


'groua(r 


'groua 


growers 


'grouaz 


'grousz 


growl 


grai/1 




growls 


graulz 




growled 


grai/ld 




growling 


'graulir) 




growth 


groi/0 




growths 


grouGs 




grudge 


grAc 




grudges 


'grAcijiz 




gruff 


grAf 




gruffly 


'grAflt 




gruffness 


'grAfms 




grumble 


'grAmb} 




grumbles 


'grAmb]z 




grumbled 


'grAmbJd 




grumbling 


'grAmbluj 




grumbler 


'grAmbla(r 


'grAmbls 


grumblers 


'grAmbIaz 


'grAmblsz 


grunt 


grAnt 




grunts 


grAnts 




grunted 


'grAnt id 




grunting 


'grAntirj 




guarantee 


gaeran'ti- 




guarantees 


gaeran'ti-z 




guaranteed 


gaeran'ti'd 




guaranteeing 


gaeran'ti'irj 




guard 


ga'd 


gasd 


guards 


ga'dz 


gasdz 


guarded 


'ga-did 


'gasdid 


guarding 


'ga'dig 


'gasdirj 


guardian 


'ga'djan, 'ga-dian 


'gasdjan, 'gasdian 


guess 


ges 




guesses 


'gesiz 




guessed 


gsst 




guessing 


'gestrj 




guesser 


'gesa(r 


'gess 



170 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



guessers 


'gesoz 


'gesoz 


guesswork 


'gssw3k 


'geswssk 


guest 


gest 




guests 


gests 




guidance 


'gaidns 




guide 


gaid 




guides 


gaidz 




guided 


'gaidid 




guiding 


'gaidirj 




guilt 


gilt 




guilty 


'gilti 




guiltier 


'giltio(r 


'g iltia 


guiltiest 


'g iltust 




guiltily 


'giltih 




gulf 


gAlf 




gulfs 


gAlfs 




gum 


gAm 




gums 


gAmz 




gummed 


gAmd 




gumming 


'gAinir) 




gun 


gAn 




guns 


gAnz 




gunner 


'gAns(r 


'gAns 


gunners 


'gAnaz 


'gAnsz 


gunpowder 


'gAnpauda(r 


'gAnpaud 


gust 


gAst 




gusts 


gAsts 




gutter 


'gAta(r 


'gAta 


gutters 


'gAtoz 


'gAtsz 


gymnasium 


(^im'neizjam 




gymnasiums 


(im'neizpmz 






c^im'neiziamz 




gymnast 


'c^imnaest 




gymnasts 


'c^imnaests 




gymnastic, adj. 


djim'naestik 




gymnastics, noun 


djim'naestiks 




gyroscope 


'gaiaraskoup 






'd^aioraskoup 




gyroscopes 


f gai3raskoups 






'^aisrsskoups 





171 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



H 


H 


eitf 




H's 


'eitfiz 




ha 


ha- 




habit 


'haebit 




habits 


'haebtts 




habitual 


ha'bitju?!, hae'bitji/01 




habitually 


ho'bitju^h, hae'bitjir?li 




HAD from have 


haed s / , /?ad, d 






w fs. 




HADN'T 


'haednt 




hail 


heil 




hair 


hta(r 


hea 


hairs 


htoz 


heaz 


hairbrush 


'heobrA/ 


'hesbrA/ 


hairbrushes 


'hcabrA/iz 


'hesbrA/iz 


hairy 


'htari 


'he'ri 


half 


ha-f 


ha-f 


halves 


ha'vz 


ha'vz 


half- a- crown 


'ha'fo'kraun 


'ha'fa'kraun 


half-a-dozen 


'ha-fo'dAzi^ 


'ha'fa'dAzn 


half- an- hour 


'hcrfo'nauo(r 


'ha'fa'naus 


half-crown 


'ha-fkraun 


'ha-fkraim 


half-crowns 


'ha'f'krai/nz 


'ha-f'kraunz 


half-dozen 


'ha'f'dAzn 


'ha-f'dAzn 


half-dozens 


'ha-fdAznz 


'ha-f'dAznz 


half-hearted 


'ha'f'hcrtid 


'ha'f'hastid 


half- heartedly 


'ha'f'ha'tidh 


'ha'f'haatidh 


half- hour 


'ha'f'aua(r 


'ha-faus 


half-hours 


'ha'f'auaz 


'ha'f'auoz 


half-length 


'ha-rienAG 


'ha-rierjAG 


half -measure 


'ha ? f'm63o(r 


'ha'f'mess 


half-measures 


'ha'rme39z 


/ ha t rms3z 


ha If- pay 


'ha'f'pei 


'ha *f 'pei 


half- penny 


'heip^ni 




half -pennies 


'hetp^niz 




half- pence 


'heip^ns 




half-price 


'ha'f'prais 


'ha-f'prais 


half-time 


'ha'f'taini 


'ha'f'taim 


half-way 


'ha'fwei 


'ha'fwei 


half-yearly 


'ha f f'J3'h 


'ha'f'JKili 


hall 


ho-1 




halls 


ho'lz 




hallo (a) 


hs'lou/hA'lou/has'lou 




halt 


holt, holt 





172 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



halts 


holts, holts 




halted 


'holtid, 'holtid 




halting 


'hoi tin, 'hDltir) 




haltingly 


'holtinh, 'holtinh 




halve 


hcrv 


ha*v 


halves 


hd'VZ 


ha'vz 


halved 


hcrvd 


ha'vd 


halving 


'ha f vir) 


'ha-vir) 


ham 


haem 




hams 


haemz 




hammer 


'haema(r 


'haema 


hammers 


'haemaz 


'haemsz 


hammered 


'haemad 


'haemsd 


hammering 


'haemoruj 




hammock 


'haemek 




hammocks 


'haemaks 




hand 


haend 




hands 


haendz 




handed 


'haendid 




handing 


'haenduj 




hand-bag 


'haendbaeg 




hand-bags 


'haentfbaegz 




handful 


'haemftul 




handfuls 


'haenrffulz 




handicap 


'haendvkaep 




handicaps 


'heendikaeps 




handicapped 


'haendikaept 




handicapping 


'hacndiksepuj 




handkerchief 


'haenk^tfij 




handkerchiefs 


'haenk^tfifs 




handle 


f hxnd\ 




handles 


'haend^z 




handled 


'haendid 




handling 


'haendju) 




handsome 


'haensam 




handsomer 


'haens3ma(r 


'haensoma 


handsomest 


'haensomist 




handsomely 


'haensamh 




handy 


'haendi 




handier 


'haendi9(r 


'haendts 


handiest 


'haendvist 




hang 


haeg 




Hangs 


haenz 




hanged 


haerjd 




hung 


hAi) 




hanging 


'haemn 




happen 


haep^n 





173 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



happens 


haep^nz 




happened 


haep^nd 




happening 


'haep<mirj 




happenings 


'haep^mrjz 




happy 


'hsept 




happier 


'haepio(r 


'haepis 


happiest 


'haepust 




happily 


'haepili 




happiness 


'haepmis 




harass 


'haeros 




harasses 


'haerasiz 




harassed 


'hserost 




harassing 


'haerosirj 




harbor (Amer.) 






harbour 


'hcrb9(r 


'hasba 


harbors (Amer.) 






harbours 


'hcrbaz 


'hasbsz 


hard 


herd 


hasd 


harder 


'ha-d9(r 


'haad 


hardest 


'ha-dist 


'hasdist 


harden 


'herd? 


'haadi? 


hardens 


'ha'dnz 


'haadnz 


hardened 


'ha-dnd 


f hadnd 


hardening 


'ha-dnirj 


'hasdmrj 


hardly 


'ha-dli 


'hasdli 


hardness 


'ha-dnis 


'hasdnis 


hardship 


'ha'djip 


'hasdjip 


hardships 


'ha'djips 


'haad/ips 


hardy 


'ha-di 


'hasdi 


hare 


hco(r 


hcs 


hares 


hedz 


hesz 


harm 


ha f m 


hasm 


harms 


ha'mz 


hasmz 


harmed 


ha'md 


hasmd 


harming 


'ha'mirj 


'hasmirj 


harmful 


'ha'mful 


'hasmful 


harmfully 


'ha-mf^h 


'hasmfoh 


harmless 


'ha-mlis 


'hasmlis 


harmlessly 


'ha-mlish 


'hasmlvsli 


harmonious 


ha'mounjas 


has'mounjas 




ha'mounias 


has'moumas 


harmoniously 


ha'mounjash 


has'mounjash 




ha'mounvash 


has'moumasli 


harmony 


'ha'm^ni 


'hasm^m 


harmonies 


'ha-mzmz 


'hasm^mz 


harness 


'ha'nis 


'hams 


harnesses 


'ha'nisiz 


'haanisiz 



174 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



harp 


hd'p 


hasp 


harps 


hd'ps 


hasps 


harsh 


hcrj 


hdJ 


harsher 


'ha-Jo(r 


'hdaj^ 


harshest 


'hd'Jist 


'hdsjist 


harshly 


'hd'Jh 


'haafli 


harshness 


'hd'Jms 


'hasjnis 


harvest 


'hd'vist 


'hdsvist 


harvests 


'hd'vists 


'hdsvists 


harvested 


'hd-vistid 


'hdsvistid 


harvesting 


'hd'vistirj 


'hasvistir) 


harvester 


'hd-vist8(r 


'haavists 


harvesters 


'hd'vistaz 


'hdsvistsz 


HAS from have 


hrez 5 /., /?9z, z w fs. 




HASN'T 


'haeznt 




haste 


heist 




hasty 


'heisti 




hastily 


'heistih 




hat 


hset 




hats 


harts 




hate 


heit 




hates 


heits 




hated 


'heitid 




hating 


'heitirj 




hatred 


'heitnd 




hatter 


'haeta(r 


'haet^ 


hatters 


'haetaz 


'haetsz 


haughty 


'ho'ti 




haughtily 


'bo-till 




haul 


ho-1 




hauls 


ho'lz 




hauled 


hD-ld 




hauling 


'ho-lirj 




haunt 


ho f nt 




haunts 


ho-nts 




haunted 


'hcvntid 




haunting 


'ho'ntirj 




have 


haev s.f , ^av, v w.fs. 




has 


haez s./., Aaz, z w fs. 




had 


haed s /., toad, d w.fs. 




having 


'haevirj 




haven't 


'haevnt 




havoc 


'haevak 




hay 


hei 




hazy 


'heizi 




he 


hi 1 s.f., hi w.f. 




head 


hed 





175 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



heads 


hedz 




headache 


'hsdeik 




headaches 


'hsdeiks 




heading 


'hsdirj 




headings 


'hedirjz 




headmaster 


'hsd'ma'sto(r 


'hsd'ma'sts 


headmasters 


'hed'mcrstoz 


'hed'ma'stoz 


headway 


'hedwei 




heal 


hi-1 




heals 


hi-lz 




healed 


hi-ld 




healing 


'hi'hrj 




health 


hel9 




healths 


helOs 




healthy 


'he!0i 




healthier 


'hslOi9(r 


'helOis 


healthiest 


'heieust 




healthily 


'hsiedi 




heap 


hi'p 




heaps 


hi-ps 




heaped 


hrpt 




heaping 


'hrpirj 




hear 


h(r 


Ins 


hears 


hiaz 


hisz 


heard 


h3-d 


hsad 


hearing 


'hisrirj 


'hrrirj 


hearer 


'hi9ra(r 


'hlT9 


hearers 


'hiaroz 


'hlTSZ 


heart 


ha't 


hd9t 


hearts 


ha-ts 


hosts 


heart- breaking 


'ha'tbreikirj 


'hastbreikirj 


heart-broken 


'ha'tbroukzn 


'haatbrouk^n 


hearth 


ha'6 


has6 


heartless 


'ha-tlis 


'hastlis 


heartlessly 


'ha-tlish 


'hastlish 


hearty 


'ha-ti 


'hasti 


heartier 


'ha'ti9(r 


'hasti 


heartiest 


'ha-tust 


'hastiist 


heartily 


'ha 'tih 


'hatih 


heartiness 


'ha'tmis 


'hastmvs 


heat 


hrt 




heats 


hrts 




heated 


'hrtid 




heating 


'hi'tirj 




heath 


hi'9 




heave 


hi'v 




heaves 


hi-vz 





176 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



heaved 


hi'vd 




heaving 


'hi'virj 




heaven 


'hevn 




heavens 


'hevnz 




heavy 


'hevt 




heavier 


'hsvi3(r 


'hevis 


heaviest 


'hevust 




heavily 


'hevili 




heaviness 


'he vims 




Hebrew 


'hi'bru 




Hebrews 


'hi'bruz 




hedge 


'hsc 




hedges 


'hec^iz 




heel 


lii-1 




heels 


hi'lz 




height 


hait 




heights 


haits 




heighten 


'haitn 




heightens 


'haitnz 




heightened 


'haitnd 




heightening 


'haitnirj 




heir 


ca(r 


.9 


heirs 


eoz 


ESZ 


heiress 


'cons 


'e-ris 


heiresses 


'earisiz 


'e-risiz 


HELD from hold 


held 




hell 


hel 




helm 


helm 




helms 


helmz 




helmet 


'helmit 




helmets 


'helmits 




help 


help 




helps 


helps 




helped 


helpt 




helping 


'helpirj 




helper 


'helpa(r 


'helps 


helpers 


'helpsz 


'helpaz 


helpful 


'helpful 




helpfully 


'helpfuh, 'helpfdi 




helpless 


'helplis 




helplessly 


'helplish 




helplessness 


'helplisnis 




hemisphere 


'hemisfia(r 


'hemisfis 


hemispheres 


'hemisfiaz 


'hemisfisz 


hen 


hen 




hens 


henz 




hence 


hens 





177 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



Henry 
her 
herb 


'henri 

hs'(r s/, /zo w.f. 
hs'b 


has 5./., ha wf. 


herbs 


^hs'bz 


ssbz 


herd 


h3'd 


hssd 


herds 


hs'dz 


hssdz 


here 
hereabout 


hia(r 
'hiarabaut 


his 
'hrubaut 


hereabouts 


'hiarobauts 


'hiTsbai/ts 


hereafter 


hi3'ra f fto(r 


hi'ra'fta 


hereby 
hereditary 
heredity 
heresy 

heresies 


hj9'ra'fto(r 
'hii/bai 
hi'rsditen 
hi' red it i 
'herasi, 'hsrisi 
'hsrasiz, 'hsnsiz 


'h'bai 


herewith 


'hia'wi9, 'hw'wiO 


'his'wiS, 'lus'wiO 


hero 


'hiarou 


'hi-rou 


heroes 


'hiarouz 


'hlTOUZ 


heroic 


hi'rouik 




heroically 
heroine 


hi'rouiks>h 
'hsroum 




heroines 


'hsroumz 




heroism 
herring 

herrings 
hers 


'herouizin 
'henrj 
'herirjz 


\\39Z 


herself, emph. pro. 
herself, reflex, pro. 
hesitate 


hs'sslf 
Aa'self 
'heziteit 


hsaself 
hs'scli 


hesitates 


'heziteits 




hesitated 


'hezvteitid 




hesitating 
hesitation 
heterogeneous 


'heziteitirj 
hszi'teij^n 
'hetarou'o^rnjas 




hi 


hai 




hide 


haid 




hides 


haidz 




hid 


hid 




hidden 


'hidi^ 




hiding 
hideous 
hideously 
high 

higher 
highest 


'haidii) 
'hidias, 'hidjas 
'hidiosh, 'hidjssli 
hai 
'hai9(r 
'haiist 


'hais 



178 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



highly 


'haih 




high-handed 


'hai'haendid 




highness 


'haims 




highnesses 


'hamisiz 




high-road 


'hai'roud 




high-roads 


'hai'roudz 




hill 


hil 




hills 


hilz 




hilly 


'hill 




hillier 


'hili9(r 


'hilw 


hilliest 


'hilust 




hilliness 


'hilims 




him 


him 5 / , Aim w f. 




himself, emph. pro 


him'sslf 




himself, reflex, pro. 


Aim'self 




hinder 


'hmda(r 


'hinds 


hinders 


'hmddz 


'hinddz 


hindered 


'hmddd 


'hmdad 


hindering 


'hmdmrj 




hindrance 


'hmdrans 




hindrances 


'hmdransiz 




hinge 


hmdg 




hinges 


'hmcjjiz 




hint 


hint 




hints 


hints 




hinted 


'hintid 




hinting 


'hint ir) 




hip 


hip 




hips 


hips 




hippopotamus 


hipj'pntJinss 


hipa'patamgs 


hippopotami 


hipyput^nicU 


hipa'patamai 


hippopotamuses 


hips'putamo&iz 


hipa'patamosiz 


hire 


'haia(r 


'hais 


hires 


'haiaz 


'haiez 


hired 


'haiad 


'haisd 


hiring 


'hatarirj 




his 


hizs/, h\z wj. 




historian 


his'toTian 




historians 


his'to'rianz 




historical 


his'tDrik^l 




historically 


his'torik^h 




history 


'histOTi 




histories 


'hist^nz 




hit 


hit 




hits 


hits 




hitting 


'hitirj 




hitherto 


'hi3a'tu' 


f hi6s'tu 



179 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



hoard 


ho-d, hood 


hoad 


hoards 


ho-dz, hoadz 


hosdz 


hoarded 


'ho'did, 'hoadid 


'hoadid 


hoarding 


'ho 'din, 'hoadirj 


'hosdirj 


hoarse 


ho's, hoas 


hoas 


hoarsely 


'ho si i, 'hoasli 


'hossh 


hoarseness 


'ho f snis, 'hoasnis 


'hoasnis 


hoax 


houks 




hoaxes 


'houksiz 




hoaxed 


'houkst 




hoaxing 


'houksiQ 




hobby 


'hobi 


'habi 


hobbies 


hobiz 


'habiz 


hoist 


hoist 




hoists 


h oists 




hoisted 


'hoistid 




hoisting 


'hoistuj 




hold 


hould 




holds 


houldz 




held 


held 




holding 


'houldir) 




holder 


'houlda(r 


'houlds 


holders 


'houldoz 


'houldsz 


hole 


houl 




holes 


houlz 




holiday 


'huladv, 'hmlvdi, 


'haladi, 'hahdi, 




'huhdei 


'hahdei 


holidays 


'holadiz, 'holidiz, 


'haladiz, 'hahdiz, 




'holideiz 


'halideiz 


Holland 


'hobnd 


'haland 


hollow 


'holou 


'halou 


hollows 


'holouz 


'halouz 


hollower 


'hDlou9(r 


'halous 


hollowest 


'holouist 


'halouist 


holy 


'houli 




holier 


'houli3(r 


'houlis 


holiest 


'houliist 




holiness 


'houlmis 




home 


houm 




homes 


houmz 




homeless 


'houmlis 




homely 


'houmli 




honest 


'onist 


'anist 


honestly 


'onisth 


'amstli 


honesty 


'onisti 


'anisti 


honey 


'hAni 




honorary 


'on^r8ri 


'an^reri 



180 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variant* 



tonor (Amer.) 






lonour 


'ona(r 


'ans 


honors (Amer.) 






honours 


'nnaz 


'CLTHQZ 


honored (Amer.) 






honoured 


'onad 


'ansd 


hononng (Amer.) 






honouring 


unarirj 


'ansrirj 


honorable (Amer.) 






honourable 


'on^rsbj 


'an^rob} 


honorably (A mer. ) 






honourably 


'onarabli 


'an^rsbh 


hood 


hud 




hoods 


hudz 




hoof 


hu-f 




hoofs 


hu-fs 




hooves 


hu f vz 




hook 


huk 




hooks 


huks 




hooked 


hukt 




hooking 


'hukii) 




hoop 


hu ? p 




hoops 


hu'ps 




hoot 


hu-t 




hoots 


hu'ts 




hooted 


'hu'tid 




hooting 


'hu'tir) 




hop 


hop 


hap 


hops 


hopb 


haps 


hopped 


hopt 


hapt 


hopping 


'hopirj 


A hapir> 


hope 


houp 




hopes 


houps 




hoped 


houpt 




hoping 


'houpirj 




hopeful 


'houpful 




hopefully 


'houpfuli, 'houpfsli 




hopeless 


'houplis 




hopelessly 


'houplisli 




horizon 


ha'raizi^ 




horizons 


ha'ratznz 




horizontal 


hDrv'zont) 




horizontally 


hDri'zDntPh 




horn 


ho ( n 


hosn 


horns 


ho'nz 


hosnz 


horny 


'ho-ni 


'hosm 


horrible 


'horib^, 'horabl 





1S1 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



horribly 


'hDribh, 'hDrabli 




horror 


'liDra(r 


'hors 


horse 


hD'S 


hoss 


horses 


'ho'siz 


'hossiz 


horseman 


'ho'smon 


'hossman 


horsemen 


'ho'sman 


'hossmsn 


horse- shoe 


'ho'sju, 'ho'JJu 


'hoss/u, 'hosjju 


horse-shoes 


'ho'S/uz, 'ho'JJuz 


'hossjuz, 'hosjjuz 


hose 


houz 




hoses 


'houziz 




hospitable 


'hDSpitab} 


'haspitab} 


hospitably 


'hDspvtebh 


'haspitabh 


hospital 


'huspit} 


'haspit} 


hospitals 


'huspitjz 


'haspitjz 


hospitality 


huspi'taehtv 


haspi'taehti 


host 


houst 




hosts 


housts 




hostage 


'hostidj 


'hastvo^ 


hostages 


'hDstid;iz 


'hastic^iz 


hostel 


'host?! 


'hast} 


hostels 


'hDst^lz 


'hast}z 


hostess 


'houstis 




hostesses 


'houstisiz 




hostile 


'hDstail 


'hastil 


hostility 


hus'tiliti 


has'tihti 


hostilities 


hus'tihtiz 


has'tihtiz 


hot 


hut 


hat 


hotter 


'hDts(r 


'hats 


hottest 


'hDtibt 


'hatist 


hotly 


'hotlt 


'hath 


hotel 


^ou'tel 




hotels 


Aou'telz 




hothouse 


'hDthaus 


'hathaus 


hothouses 


'hDthai/siz 


'hathausiz 


hound 


haund 




hounds 


haundz 




hour 


ai/9(r 


aua 


hours 


auaz 


ausz 


hourly 


'auah 


'aush 


house 


haus 




houses 


'hauziz 




household 


'hausAould 




households 


'hairs/touldz 




housekeeper 


'hauskipa^ 


'hauskips 


housekeepers 


r hairskip3z 


'hauskipsz 


housemaid 


'hausmeid 




housemaids 


'hausmeidz 





182 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



hovel 


'hDV}, 'hAV). 


'hav} 


hovels 


'hovjz, 'hAvjz 


'hav^z 


hover 


'liDva(r, 'hAva(r 


'hav, 'hAve 


hovers 


'hnvaz, 'hAvaz 


'havsz, 'hAvsz 


hovered 


'hDvsd, 'hAvad 


'havsd, 'hAvsd 


hovering 


'hDV9rirj, 'hAvorir) 


'havgrirj, 'hAvsrirj 


how 


hau 




however 


hau'eva(r 


hau'sva 


howl 


haul 




howls 


hai/lz 




howled 


hauld 




howling 


'haulirj 




huddle 


'hAdl 




huddles 


'hAd}z 




huddled 


'hAdjd 




huddling 


'hAdJirj 




hug 


hAg 




hugs 


hAgz 




hugged 


hAgd 




hugging 


'hAgirj 




huge 


hju-6^ 




hugeness 


'hju'O^ms 




hullo 


'hA'lou 




hum 


hAm 




hums 


hAmz 




hummed 


hAmd 




humming 


'hAmirj 




human 


'hju-man 




humanly 


'hju-monh 




humane 


hju'mein 




humanely 


hju'memh 




humanity 


hju'maemti 




humble 


^hAmb} 




humbler 


'hAmbl3(r 


'liAinbls 


humblest 


'hAmblist 




humbly 


'hAmbh 




humiliate 


hju'miheit 




humiliates 


hju'milieits 




humiliated 


hju'miliettid 




humiliating 


hju'miheitu) 




humiliation 


hjumili'eij^n 




humiliations 


hjumili'eiJVnz 




humility 


hju'mihti 




humorist 


'/tju'msrist 




humorists 


'Aju-marists 




humorous 


'Ajii'm^ras 




humorously 


'Aju'm^rash 





183 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



humor (Amer.) 






humour 


'Aju'ma(r 


'hju'ms 


humors (Amer.} 






humours 


'/fju'maz 


'hjipmsz 


humored (Amer.) 






humoured 


'Aju'mad 


'hju-msd 


humonng (Amer.) 






humouring 


'Aju'manrj 




hump 


hAmp 




humps 


hAmps 




hunchback 


'hAntfbaek 




hunchbacks 


'hAntfbaeks 




hunchbacked 


'hAiit/baekt 




hundred 


'hAiidrad 






'liAndrid 




hundreds 


'hAndradz 






'hAndndz 




hundredth 


'hAndradG 






'hAndratG 






'hAndndG 






'hAndritG 




hundredths 


'hAndradGs 






'hAndratOs 






'hAndndOs 






'liAndntOs 




hundredweight 


'hAndradweit 






'hAndridweit 




hundredweights 


'liAiidradweits 






'hAndridweits 




HUNG /row hang 


hArj 




Hungarian 


hArj'gearion 


hAn'gs'rian 


Hungarians 


hAn'gearianz 


liArj'geTianz 


Hungary 


'hATjgon 




hunger 


'hAnga(r 


'hArjgo 


hungry 


'liAngri 




hungrier 


'hArjgna(r 


'hArjgns 


hungriest 


'hArjgrust 




hungrily 


'hArjgnh 




hunt 


hAnt 




hunts 


hAnts 




hunted 


'hAntid 




hunting 


'liAntirj 




hunter 


'hAnt9(r 


'hAnta 


hunters 


'hAntoz 


'hAntsz 


huntsman 


'hAntsman 




huntsmen 


'hAntsman 




hurl 


hs-1 


hsal 



184 



i raoiuonai spelling 

hurls 


tieceiyea rrununciauon 

hs-lz 


rVUlVIT AbU V M, AWUIA 

hsdlz 


hurled 


hs'ld 


hssld 


hurling 


'hs'luj 


'hsalirj 


hurrah 


hu'ra-, hu'rei 




hurry 


'hAri 


'hsri 


hurries 


'hAriz 


'hsriz 


hurried 


'hArid 


'hsrid 


hurrying 


'hArurj 


'hsrnrj 


hurriedly 


'hAridli 


'hsridh 


hurt 


h3't 


hsst 


hurts 


hs'ts 


hssts 


hurting 


'h3'tui 


'hsstirj 


husband 


'liAzb^nd , 




husbands 


'hAzbondz 




hush, verb 


hAj 




hushes 


'llA/lZ 




hushed 


hAjt 




hushing 


'hA/ir) 




hush, inter j* 


hAjJ 




hustle 


'hAS) 




hustles 


'hAsJz 




hustled 


'hAsjd 




hustling 


'hASJl!) 




hut 


hAt 




huts 


llAtS 




hydrogen 


'haidro^n 




hygiene 


'haic^m, 'haidjun 




hygienic 


haic^i'snik, hai'djrnik 




hymn 


him 




hymns 


himz 




hyphen 


'haifn 




hyphens 


'haifnz 




hypnotic 


hip'notik 


hip'natik 


hypnotism 


'hipnatizrp 




hypnotize 


'lupnotaiz 




hypnotizes 


'hipnataiziz 




hypnotized 


'hipnataizd 




hypnotizing 


'hipnataizirj 




hypocrisy 


hi'pukrisi 


hi'pakrisi 


hypocrite 


'hipakrtt 




hypocrites 


'hipokrits 




hypothesis 


hai'pD0isis 


hai'pa0isis 




hai'pD0osis 


hai'pa09sis 


hypotheses 


hat'poGisi'z 


hai'paBisi'z 




hai'pD09si'z 


hai'pa0asi'z 



185 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 


I 


I 


ai 




I's 


aiz 




ice 


ais 




ices 


'aistz 




iceberg 


'aisbsg 


'atsbaeg 


icebergs 


'aisbsgz 


'aisbssgz 


ice-cream 


ais'krrm 




Iceland 


'aisland 




icicle 


'aisik] 




icicles 


'aisikjz 




icy 


4ms\ 




idea 


ai'd la 




ideas 


ai'didz 




ideal 


ai'di'01, ai'dwl 




ideals 


ai'drdz, ai'dialz 




idealism 


ai'dr^hzm, ai'diohzip 




idealist 


ai'di'^list, ai'didlist 




idealists 


ai'di'^lists 






ai'diahsts 




ideally 


ai'di'^li, ai'diali 




identical 


ai'dsntik^l 




identically 


ai'dsntik^h 




identification 


aid entif i' keij^n 




identifications 


aidentifi'keij^nz 




identify 


ai'dentifai 




identifies 


ai'dentifaiz 




identified 


ai'dentifaid 




identifying 


ai'dentifaiii) 




identity 


ai'dentiti 




identities 


ai'dentitiz 




idiocy 


'idiosi 




idiom 


'idiam, 'idjam 




idioms 


'idiamz, 'idjamz 




idiomatic 


idia'maetik 




idiomatically 


idis'maetik^h 




idiot 


'idiat, 'idjat 




idiots 


'idiats, 'idjats 




idiotic 


idi'otik 


idi'atik 


idle 


'aid} 




idly 


'audli 




idleness 


'aid}nis 




idol 


'aid) 




idols 


'aid}z 




i.e. 


'ai'r ['daet'iz] 




if 


if s ./. ,ifwf. 




186 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



ignition 


ig'mj>n 




ignominious 


igna'mmjds 




ignominiously 


igna'mmjash 




ignorance 


'ignarans 




ignorant 


'ignorant 




ignorantly 


'ignaranth 




ignore 


ig'no'(r, ig'noa(r 


ig'nos 


ignores 


ig'no-z, ig'noaz 


vg'nosz 


ignored 


ig'no'd, ig'noad 


ig'noad 


ignoring 


ig'noTin, iq'noonrj 


ig'no'rirj 


ill 


il 




ill-bred 


'il'bred 




illegal 


1'h g 01 




illegally 


ill 'gali 




illegibility 


Uedji'biliti 




illegible 


I'ledjibJ 




illegibly 


I'leo^ibli 




illegitimate 


ili'o^itimit 




illegitimately 


Ui'o^itimitli 




illness 


'ilnis 




illnesses 


'ilnisiz 




illogical 


t'lDO^lk^l 


lUao^ik^l 


illogically 


I'lDO^lkoll 


I'lad^ikali 


ill-treat 


U'trrt 




ill-treats 


irtrrts 




ill-treated 


il'tri'tid 




ill-treating 


irtri'tirj 




ill-treatment 


il'tn'tmant 




illuminate 


i'l;u'mmeit 




illuminates 


I'l/u'mineits 




illuminated 


I'l/u'inineitid 




illuminating 


I'lyu'mineitirj 




illumination 


il^umi'neij^n 




illuminations 


il/umi'neif^nz 




ill-used 


'il'ju'zd 




illusion 


\'lju'W 




illusions 


i'l;u'3nz 




illusive 


i f yu'siv 




illusory 


i'1/u'sm 




illustrate 


'ibstreit 




illustrates 


'ilastreits 




illustrated 


'ilastreitid 




illustrating 


'ilastreitirj 




illustration 


ibs'treijzn 




illustrations 


ilas'treij^nz 




ill-will 


'il'wil 




image 


'imi<% 





187 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



images 


'imidjiz 




imaginable 


I'maedjznab} 




imaginary 


i'maec|5inm 


v'maeo^ineri 


imagination 


imaed$i'neif?n 




imaginations 


imsedji'neifcmz 




imaginative 


I'maed^nativ 




imagine 


i'maecm 




imagines 


I'maedjmz 




imagined 


i'maed$znd 




imagining 


i'maed$mir) 




imaginings 


I'mxd^mnz 




imitable 


'imitob} 




imitate 


'imiteit 




imitates 


'imiteits 




imitated 


'imiteitid 




imitating 


'imiteitir) 




imitator 


'imiteito(r 


'imiteita 


imitators 


'imiteitaz 


'imiteitsz 


imitation 


imi'tei/^n 




imitations 


imi'teij^nz 




imitative 


'imitettiv, 'imitativ 




immaterial 


ims'tiarisl 


ima'trrial 


immediate 


I'mi-djst 




immediately 


I'mi'djath 




immense 


I'msns 




immensely 


I'mensh 




immensity 


I'menstti 




immigrant 


'imigrant 




immigrants 


'imigrants 




immigrate 


'imigreit 




immigrates 


'imigreits 




immigrated 


'imigreitid 




immigrating 


'imigreitti) 




immigration 


imi'greijpn 




immigrations 


um'greif^nz 




immoral 


I'mDrsl 




immorality 


fima'raehti 




immortal 


I'mo-t] 


I'moatJ 


immortally 


I'mD'tali 


I'mostah 


immortality 


imo'taehti 


imos'taeliti 


impair 


im'pea(r 


im'pea 


impairs 


im'peaz 


im'pez 


impaired 


im'pead 


im'pead 


impairing 


im'peanr) 


im'pe'nrj 


impart 


im'pd't 


im'past 



f See Note 30, p. xxxv. in Introduction. 
188 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



imparts 


im'pcrts 


im'pasts 


imparted 


im'pa'tid 


im'pastid 


imparting 


im'pcrtirj 


im'pastir) 


impartial 


im'pa'J>l 


im'pa3J>l 


impartially 


im'pa'Jah 


im'pasjsli 


impartiality 


impaJYaehti 


impasji'aehti 


impatience 


im'peij>ns 




impatient 


im'peij>nt 




impatiently 


im'peij^ntli 




imperative 


im'perativ 




imperceptible 


impa'ssptab} 


impe'septab} 




impa'sspttb} 


imps'septib| 


imperceptibly 


impo'ssptobh 


i mps'septabh 




impa'septibh 


imps'septibh 


imperfect 


im/ps'fikt 


m'psof ikt 


imperfectly 


im'ps'fiktli 


im'pssfikth 


imperial 


im'p loriol 


im'prrial 


impersonal 


im'ps'san} 


im'psssanj 


impersonally 


im'p3'S9n?h 


im'pssssn^h 


impersonate 


im'ps'ssneit 


im'passQneit 


impersonates 


im'p3'S9neits 


im'pssssneits 


impersonated 


tm'ps'saneitid 


im'p39S9neitid 


impersonating 


iin'p3'S3neitirj 


im'p39S9neitir) 


impertinence 


im'ps'tmans 


im'psatmans 


impertinent 


im'ps'tinant 


im r p3stin9nt 


impetuosity 


impetju'DSiti 


impetju'ctsitt 


impetuous 


im'pstjuos 




impetuously 


im'petjuosh 




impiety 


im'paiati 




impious 


'inipias, 'impjos 




impiously 


'jmpiosh, 'impjasli 




implication 


imph'keij^n 




implications 


imph'keij^nz 




implore 


im'pl3'(r, im'ploa(r 


im'plos 


implores 


im'pb'z, im'ploaz 


im'plosz 


implored 


im r plo'd, im'pload 


im'plosd 


imploring 


im'plo'nrj 


im'plo'rirj 




im'ploarirj 




imply 


im'plai 




implies 


im'plaiz 




implied 


im'plaid 




implying 


im'plaiirj 




impolite 


fimpo'lait 




impolitely 


fimpa'laitli 




impoliteness 


fimpa'laitnis 




import, noun 


'impot 


'impost 


imports 


'impots 


'imposts 


f See Note 30, p. xxxv. in Introduction. 



189 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 


import, verb 


im'po't 


im'post 


imports 


im'po'ts 


im'po^ts 


imported 


tm'pD'tid 


im'postid 


importing 


im'pD'tirj 


im'poetirj 


importer 


im'pD'ta(r 


im'posts 


importers 


im'pD'taz 


im'poataz 


importance 


im'po'tens 


im'poat^ns 


important 


im'po'tent 


im'post^nt 


importation 


impD'teifzn 


impos'teij^n 


importations 


impo'teif^nz 


impoa'teij^nz 


impose 


im'pouz 




imposes 


im'pouziz 




imposed 


im'pouzd 




imposing, adj. d> verb 


im'pouz irj 




imposition 


impa'zifjm 




impossibility 


impDsa'biliti 


impasa'biliti 




imposi^bihti 


impasi^bihti 


impossibilities 


imposo^bilitiz 


impaso'bihtiz 




impDsi'bilitiz 


impasi'bilitiz 


impossible 


im'posobj, im'pDSibJ 


im'pasab], im'pasibj 


impossibly 


im'pDSobli, im'pDSibh 


im'pasabh, im'pasibli 


impostor 


un'pDsta(r 


im'pasts 


impostors 


im'pDstsz 


im'pastsz 


imposture 


tm'pDstf9(r 


im'pastfs 


impostures 


im'pDstfoz 


im'pastfsz 


impracticable 


im'praektik9b| 




impregnable 


im'prsgnab} 




impress 


tm'prss 




impresses 


im'presiz 




impressed 


im'prest 




impressing 


im'prssirj 




impression 


im'pref^n 




impressions 


im'prej>nz 




impressionable 


im'prej^nab} 




impressive 


im'prssiv 




impressively 


im'prBsivh 




imprison 


im'prizr^ 




imprisons 


im'priznz 




imprisoned 


im'priznd 




imprisoning 


im'pnznirj 




imprisonment 


im'priznmQnt 




imprisonments 


im'priznmants 




improbability 


unprDba'bihti 


impraba'biltti 


improbable 


im'prDbab} 


im'prabdb) 


improper 


im'prDpa(r 


im'prapa 


improperly 


im'prDpsh 


im'prapsh 


improvable 


tm'pru-vabj 




190 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



improve 


im'pru'v 




improves 


im/prti'vz 




improved 


im'pru'vd 




improving 


tm'pru'virj 




improvement 


im'pru'vmant 




improvements 


im'pru'vmonts 




improvise 


f'lmpravaiz 




improvises 


j'linprovaiziz 




improvised 


fimprovaizd 




improvising 


f improvaizirj 




imprudence 


im/pru'ctens 




imprudent 


im'pni'dant 




imprudently 


im'pru- danth 




impudence 


'impjudpns 




impudent 


'impjudimt 




impudently 


'impjud^ntli 




impulse 


' imp A!S 




impulses 


'impAlsiz 




impulsive 


im'pAlsiv 




impulsively 


im'pAlsivh 




impure 


im'pju9(r 


im'pj us 


impurely 


im'pjudh 


im'pjusli 


impurity 


un'pjudriti 


im'pju'riti 


impurities 


im'pjuoritiz 


im'pju'ntiz 


in 


in 5 / , m w f. 




inability 


ma'biliti 




inaccuracy 


I'nsekjurasi 




inaccurate 


I'naBkjunt 




inaccurately 


I'naekj until 




inaction 


I'naekjsn 




inactive 


t'naektiv 




inactively 


I'naektivh 




inactivity 


inaek'tiviti 




inadequacy 


I'naekdikwssi 




inadequate 


I'naekdikwit 




inadequately 


I'naedikwith 




inadmissible 


mad'misabl 






inod'misib) 




inapplicable 


I'naeplikabj 




inappreciable 


ina'pri'Jiab} 






ma'prrjjab} 




inappropriate 


ina'proupnit 




inappropriately 


ma'prouprutli 




inappropriateness 


ino'proupnitnis 




inattention 


ma'ten/^n 





j See Note 30, p. xxxv. in Introduction 
191 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 


inattentive 


ma'tentiv 




inaudibility 


moda'bihti 




inaudible 


I'no'dab}, I'no-dibJ 




inaudibly 


v'no'dabli, i'no f dibli 


( 


inaugurate 


i'no'gjureit 




inaugurates 


v'no'gjureits 




inaugurated 


I'no'gjureitid 




inaugurating 


I'no'gjureitirj 




inauguration 


inDgju'reif^n 




inaugurations 


inogju'reij^nz 




inauspicious 


mos'pifas 




inauspiciously 


inos'pi/asli 




inborn 


'm'bo'n, 'in'boan 


'm'bosn 


incalculable 


m'kselkjulab} 




incalculably 


m'kaelkjulabh 




incandescence 


mkaen'desns 






inksn'desns 




incandescent 


mkaen'desnt 






mkan'desnt 




incapability 


mkeipa'bihti 




incapable 


m'keipabl 




incapacity 


inko'paesiti 




incense 


'msens 




incentive 


m'sentiv 




incentives 


m'sentivz 




incessant 


m'ses^nt 




incessantly 


m'ses^ntli 




inch 


mtf 




inches 


'mtfvz 




incident 


'msidant 




incidents 


'insidants 




incidental 


msi'dent} 




incidentally 


msi'dentpk 




incite 


m'sait 




incites 


in'saits 




incited 


m'saitid 




inciting 


in'saitii) 




incivility 


msi'vihti 




inclination 


inkli'neifjm 




inclinations 


inkli'neij^nz 




incline 


m'klain 




inclines 


m'klainz 




inclined 


m'klaind 




inclining 


m'klamirj 




inclose, etc See 







enclose, etc. 






include 


m'klu'd 





192 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation . American Variants 


includes 


m'klu-dz 




included 


m'klu'did 




including 


in'klu'dti) 




inclusion 


m'klu'30n, in'klu ? 3^n 




inclusions 


in|klu' 3 *nz 




inclusive 


m'khrsiv, in'klu-siv 




inclusively 


in'klirsivli 






irj'khrsivlt 




incognito 


m'kDgmtou 


m'kagmto 


incoherence 


mkou'hiarons 


inkou'hi'rons 


incoherent 


inkou'hiarant 


inkou'hrrant 


incoherently 


mkou'hiarontli 


inkou'hi'ranth 


incombustible 


mkom'bAStobJ 






mkom'bAstib} 




income 


'mkAm, 'inkam 




incomes 


'inkAmz, 'inkomz 






'iT)komz 




incommensurable 


mka'mensprob} 




incomparable 


!ftompb) b| 


m'kampzrobj 




irj'ktjmpprob] 


irj'kampprabj 


incomparably 


m'kDmp^rabh 


in'kampsrabli 




in'kDmp^robh 


ir)'kampj?r3bh 


incompatibility 


mkompaeto'biliti 






inkompaEti'biliti 




incompatible 


inkom'paetob| 






mkom'paetibl 




incompetence 


in'kDmpiti?ns 


in'kampit^ns 




irj'kDmpitPns 


in'kampvtens 


incompetent 


in'kDmpit^nt 


m'kampit^nt 




irj'kDinpit^nt 


in'kampitpnt 


incomplete 


inkom'ph't 




incompletely 


inkam'plrtli 




incompleteness 


mkam'pli'tms 




incomprehensible 


inkDmprv'hensabJ 


mkampri'hsnsabj 




mkDmpri'hensib] 


mkampri'hensibj 


inconceivable 


inkan'srvob} 




inconclusive 


mksn'klu'siv 




incongruity 


inkDij'gru'iti 


mkarj'gru'itt 




inkDn'gru'iti 


irjkan'gru'iti 


incongruous 


in'korjgruas 


in'karjgruas 




tn'kongruas 


in'kangruos 


inconsiderable 


mkan'sid^rabj 




inconsiderate 


mkan'sidsnt 




193 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 


inconsiderately 


mkgn'sidzritli 




inconsistency 


inkgn'sistonsi 




inconsistencies 


inkgn'sistensiz 




inconsistent 


mk9n'sist0nt 




inconsistently 


inkgn'sistentli 




inconspicuous 


mkan'spikjuos 




inconspicuously 


inkon 'sp ikj ussli 




incontestable 


mkan'testabj 




incontestably 


inkon'testobh 




inconvenience 


mkon'vrnjons 




inconveniences 


mkon'vrnpnsiz 




inconvenienced 


mkan'vi'npnst 




inconveniencing 


mkon'vi'njonsirj 




inconvenient 


mkon'vrnjont 




inconveniently 


mkcin'vrnjonth 




incorporate 


m'ko'poreit 


in'kooporeit 




in'ko'poreit 


nj'ko9p9reit 


incorporates 


m'ko'p^rcits 


in'ko9p9reits 




irj'kn'psrcits 


irj'kogpgreits 


incorporated 


m'ko-poreitid 


m'ko3p9reitid 




in'ko'poreitid 


irj'ko9p9reitid 


incorporating 


m'kj'porcitirj 


m'ko9p9reitirj 




irj'ko-poreitir) 


irj 'k39p9reitirj 


incorporation 


inkopo'reij^n 


inko9po'reij>ii 




irjkopa'reij^n 


irjko9p9'reif;mz 


incorrect 


ink9 A rekt 




incorrectly 


inkv^'rektli 




incorrectness 


inko'rektnis 




incorrigible 


m'kDricijab} 






in'knrid$ibl 




incorrigibly 


m^kuru>,)bh 




increase, noun 


'inkris, 'inkris 




increases 


'inknsiz, 'irjknsiz 




increase, verb 


in'kn-s, irj'kn'h 




increases 


m'kn'siz, irj'kri'siz 




increased 


m'kri'st, irj'kri'st 




increasing 


m'kn'Sirj, irj'kn'Sirj 




incredibility 


mkredi'bihti 






irjkrsdi'biliti 




incredible 


in'kredob}, in'kredib} 






irj'kredob], irj'kredibj 




incredibly 


in'kredabli, m'krBdibli 






in'kredabh, irj'kredibh 




incredulity 


mkrv'dju'liti 






irjkri'djirliti 





194 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 


incredulous 


m'kredjulas 






ir/krsdjulas 




incredulously 


m'krsdjulssli 






irj'kredjulash 




incur 


m'ks^r, trj'k3'(r 


tn'kas, tn'k3 


incurs 


in'ks'z, irj'ks'z 


in'kssz, irj'kaaz 


incurred 


m'ks'd, in'ks'd 


vn'kssd, in'ksad 


incurring 


in'ks'ru), ir/ks-rirj 




incurable 


iii'kjuar^b] 


in'kju'r^bj 


indebted 


m'detid 




indebtedness 


m'detidnis 




indecency 


in'drs^nsi 




indecent 


in'drs,?nt 




indecently 


in'di's^nth 




indecision 


indi'b 13^11 




indecisive 


indi'saisiv 




indecisively 


indi'saisivh 




indecisiveness 


mdi'saisivnis 




indeed 


m'di-d 




indefatigable 


ind/fantigob} 




indefatigably 


mdt'fa?tigoblt 




indefinite 


m'delmit 




indefinitely 


in'definitli 




indefiniteness 


tn'def initn is 




indemnity 


m'dsmniti 




indemnities 


in'demmtiz 




independence 


indi'psndoiis 




independent 


indi'psndont 




independently 


indi'psnd^nth 




indescribable 


indis'kraib.)b} 




indescribably 


indis'kraibobli 




indestructible 


mdis'trAktab} 






indis'trAktib] 




index 


'mdsks 




indexes 


'mdsksiz 




indices 


'indisiz 




India 


'ind]3 




Indian 


'indjan 




Indians 


'indj^nz 




india-rubber 


'indja'rAb9(r 


'indjo'rAbs 


indicate 


'mdikeit 




indicates 


'indikeits 




indicated 


'indikeitid 




indicating 


'indikeitirj 




indication 


indi'keif^n 




indications 


mdi'keij^nz 




indicative 


in'dikativ 





196 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



indict 


m'dait 




indicts 


in'davts 




indicted 


in'daitid 




indicting 


m'daitirj 




indictment 


m'daitmant 




indictments 


m'daitmonts 




indifference 


m'diforans 




indifferent 


m'd iterant 




indifferently 


m'diforontli 




indigestible 


indi'd$estobj 






indi'dgsstibl 




indigestion 


mdi'd$sstj>n 




indignant 


m'dignont 




indignantly 


m'dignanth 




indignation 


tndig'neijzn 




indignity 


m'digniti 




indignities 


in'dignttiz 




indigo 


'indigou 




indirect 


mdi'rekt, mda'rekt 






indai'rekt 




indirectly 


indt'rskth, inda'rcktli 






indai'rektli 




indirectness 


mdi'rektms 






indo'rektnis 






indai'rEktnis 




indiscreet 


indis'kri't 




indiscreetly 


mdis'kri'tlt 




indiscretion 


mdis'krej^n 




indiscretions 


indis'krej^nz 




indiscriminate 


mdis'knminit 




indiscriminately 


indis'knminitli 




indispensability 


'mdispensa'bihti 




indispensable 


mdis'pensob} 




indisputable 


m'dispjutabj 




indisputably 


vn'dispjutabli 




indistinct 


mdis'tirj/ft 




indistinctly 


mdis'tirjAth 




indistinguishable 


mdu/tirjgwijabl 




individual 


indiVidjual 




individuals 


indv'vidjualz 




individually 


indi'vidjuoli 




individuality 


'individju'seliti 




individualities 


' individ j u'aelvtiz 




indivisibility 


'mdivizi'biliti 






'indiviza'biliti 




indivisible 


mdi'vizab} 






mdi'vizib) 





196 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 


indivisibly 


mdi'vizablt 






mdi'vizibh 




indolence 


'mdslons 




indolent 


'mdolant 




indomitable 


ui'domitob} 


m'damitab} 


indoor 


'mdo'(r, 'mdoa(r 


'mdoa 


indoors 


'm'do'z, 'm'doaz 


'm'doaz 


induce 


m'dju's 




induces 


m'dju'siz 




induced 


m'dju'st 




inducing 


in'dju'suj 




inducement 


m'dju'smsiit 




inducements 


m'dju'smonts 




induction 


m'dAkj9n 




inductive 


m'dAktiv 




inductively 


in'dAktivh 




indulge 


m'dAldj; 




indulges 


in'dAlc^iz 




indulged 


m'dAl^d 




indulging 


in'dAlc^ir) 




indulgence 


in'dAl^ns 




indulgences 


m'dAld$<msiz 




indulgent 


in'dAl^nt 




indulgently 


in'dAldj^nth 




industrial 


m'dAstnol 




industrially 


in'dAstnali 




industrious 


m'dAstrtas 




industriously 


in'dAstnasli 




industry 


'indsstri 




industries 


'indastriz 




ineffective 


ini'fektiv 




ineffectively 


ini'fektivh 




ineffectual 


mi'fektjual 




ineffectually 


mi'fektjuali 




inefficacious 


insfi'keijos 




inefficacy 


I'nefikdsi 




inefficiency 


im'fifznsi 




inefficient 


im'fij^nt 




inefficiently 


mi'fi/^ntli 




ineligibility 


ineli^a'bihti 






ineh<%i'biliti 




ineligible 


i'neh<%3bj, i f nelic^ib} 




inequality 


mi'kwDltti 


ini'kwaliti 


inequalities 


ini'kwolitvz 


tni'kwalitiz 


inert 


i'n3't 


i'n.39t 


inertia 


i'n3'Jw, I'ns'fjs 


i'n3Ji9, 1'nsajja 


inestimable 


I'nestimab} 




197 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation^*" American Variants 



inevitability 


insvits'biliti 




inevitable 


I'nevitab) 




inevitably 


I'nevitabh 




inexact 


mig'zaekt 




inexactness 


mig'zsektms 




inexcusable 


imks'kju'zab} 




inexhaustible 


img'zo'stab} 






img'zD'stib) 




inexhaustibly 


img'zD'stabli 






inig'zo'stibli 




inexpediency 


imks'prdpnsi 




inexpedient 


imks'prdpnt 




inexpediently 


iniks'prdjonth 




inexpensive 


iiiiks'psTisiv 




inexperience 


miks'piangns 


miks'pi'rions 


infallibility 


infaela'biliti 






infaeh'biliti 




infallible 


in'fselob}, in'fsehb} 




infallibly 


in'faelobh, m'faehbh 




infamous 


'infamss 




infamously 


'inf9mosli 




infamy 


'mfami 




infancy 


'infonsi 




infant 


'infant 




infants 


'mfonts 




infantry 


'mfontri 




infatuate 


in'faBtjueit 




infatuates 


in'faetjueits 




infatuated 


m'faetjucitid 




infatuating 


in'faetjueitirj 




infatuation 


tiifaetju'ei/^n 




infect 


m'fskt 




infects 


m'fekts 




infected 


m'fektid 




infecting 


in'fektir) 




infection 


m'fskj^n 




infections 


in'fskj^nz 




infectious 


in'fskjas 




infer 


in'fe-(r 


in'fss 


infers 


m'fs'z 


in'fssz 


inferred 


tn'fs'd 


tn'fssd 


inferring 


in'fsTirj 




inference 


'mf^rans 




inferences 


'inf^ransiz 




inferior 


m'fiariofr 


in'fi'ris 


inferiors 


tn'fiarisz 


in'fi'riaz 


inferiority 


infiart'ortti 


mfrrt/Driti 



198 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation 



American Variants 



infidel 


'infidel 




infidels 


'mfiddz 




infidelity 


infi'dsliti 




infinite 


'mftnit 




infinitely 


'infmitii 




infinitive 


m'fimtiv 




infinitives 


m'fmittvz 




infinity 


in'fmtti 




infirm 


m'fs'in 


m'fssm 


infirmly 


m'fs'mli 


m'fni39li 


infirmity 


in'fc'imti 


m'f38miti 


infirmities 


m'fa'imtiz 


ui f f3mitiz 


inflamation 


mflo'meipn 




inflate 


m'fleit 




inflates 


m'fleits 




inflated 


m'flevtid 




inflating 


in'fleitir) 




inflation 


in'fleij^n 




inflect 


m'flekt 




inflects 


m'flekts 




inflected 


ui'flsktid 




inflecting 


in'flektiT) 




inflection 


in'flskjg'n 




inflections 


in'flekpnz 




inflectional 


m'flekjpn^l 




inflexible 


m'fleksab] 






in'fleksib} 




inflexibly 


m'flsksabli 






m'flsksiblt 




inflexion 


m'flskjaii 




inflexions 


in'flskj>nz 




inflexional 


m'flekj^n^l 




inflict 


m'fhkt 




inflicts 


m'flikts 




inflicted 


m'fliktid 




inflicting 


in'fliktirj 




influence 


'mfluans 




influences 


'mfluonsiz 




influenced 


'mflusnstj 




influencing 


'mflusnsirj 




influential 


tnflu'snj^l 




influentially 


influ'enjoh 




influenza 


mflu'enza 




inform 


in'fo'm 


in 'foam 


informs 


m'fo'mz 


m'fosmz 


informed 


m'fo'md 


in'fosmd 


informing 


in'fo'mii) 


m'fosrmrj 



199 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



informer 


in'fD'm3(r 


in'fosm 


informers 


in'fo'maz 


in'fasmsz 


informal 


m'fo'm^l 


in'fDsmpl 


informally 


in'fo'mali 


in'fosmgh 


information 


infa'meif^n 


infs'meij^n 


infringe 


in'frmd$ 




infringes 


m'frmdjiz 




infringed 


m'frmd$d 




infringing 


in'frmd$ii) 




ingenious 


m'djrnjos 




ingeniously 


m'd$i'nj9sli 




ingenuity 


inll^u^ti 




ingrained 


'm'greind 




ingratitude 


m'graetitjud 




ingredient 


m'gri'diant 




ingredients 


m'gn'diants 




inhabit 


in'haebit 




inhabits 


in'haebits 




inhabited 


tn'haebitvd 




inhabiting 


m'haebitu] 




inhabitable 


vn'haebitsb] 




inhabitant 


in'haebitont 




inhabitants 


m'haebitants 




inhale 


m'heil 




inhales 


in'heilz 




inhaled 


in'hetld 




inhaling 


iri'heilir) 




inherit 


m'hsrit 




inherits 


in'hentb 




'inherited 


m'hentid 




inheriting 


in'hentuj 




inhospitable 


in'hDSpitabJ 


m'haspitab[ 


inhospitably 


in'hospitobh 


tn'haspitabh 


inhuman 


m'hju'man 




inhumane 


mhju'mem 




inhumanity 


inhju'maeniti 




iniquitous 


I'nikwitas 




iniquitously 


i'nikwit3sli 




iniquity 


x'nikwiti 




iniquities 


I'mkwvtiz 




initial 


i'ni|^l 




initials 


i f nijplz 




initially 


I'nijsli 




initiate 


i f nijieit 




initiates 


I'nijieits 




initiated 


I'nijieitid^ 





200 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



initiating 


I'ni/ieitir) 




initiation 


tnifi'eij^n 




initiations 


imJYeif^nz 




initiative 


I'nifvotiv, I'nijjativ 




inject 


in'djskt 




injects 


m'd$ekts 




injected 


m'd$ektid 




injecting 


m'djektirj 




injection 


m'cJ5EkJ>n 




injections 


m'd$ekf<mz 




injurious 


m'djuarios 




injuriously 


m'd$u3ri9sli 




injury 


'indjari 




injuries 


'mdjanz 




injustice 


m'd$Astis 




ink 


ink 




inks 


inks 




ink-bottle 


'inkbDt} 


'irjkbat} 


ink-bottles 


'inkbDtJz 


'irjkbatjz 


ink-pot 


'inkpDt 


'inkpat 


ink-pots 


'inkpots 


'irjkpats 


ink- stand 


'inkstaend 




ink-stands 


'inkstaendz 




inland 


'miond, 'inlaend 




inmost 


'inmoust, 'inmost 




inn 


in 




inns 


inz 




inner 


'mo(r 


'ins 


innermost 


'inamoust, 'insmast 


'msmoust, 'insmsst 


inn- keeper 


'inki'po(r 


'inki'ps 


inn-keepers 


'mkrpaz 


'mki'paz 


innocence 


f masons 




innocent 


f'mas^nt 




innocently 


finas^ntli 




innovate 


j'maveit 




innovates 


finavetts 




innovated 


finaveitid 




innovating 


f-'inaveitirj 




innovator 


t'maveits(r 


'inoveite 


innovators 


t'maveitaz 


'insveitsz 


innovation 


fins'veij^n 




innovations 


fma'veijpnz 




innumerable 


I'nju'mprsb} 




inoculate 


I'nokjuleit 


I'nakjuleit 


inoculates 


I'nokjuleits 


I'nakjuleits 



f See Note "30, p. xxxv. in Introduction. 
201 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 


inoculated 


I'nokjuleitid 


t'nakjuleitid 


inoculating 


I'nDkjuleitirj 


I'nakjuleitirj 


inoculation 


mokju'leif^n 


makju'leij^n 


inoculations 


mDkju'leiJ>nz 


inakju'leif^nz 


inoffensive 


ma'fsnsiv 




inoffensively 


ma'fensivli 




inopportune 


t'nopotjun 


I'napstjun 


inorganic 


mD'gaemk 


inas'gaentk 


inquest 


'mkwest, 'inkwest 




inquests 


'mkwests 






'irjkwests 




inquire 


in r kwaio(r 


in'kwais 


inquires 


m'kwaioz 


m'kwaiaz 


inquired 


m'kwaiod 


m'kwaisd 


inquiring 


in'kwaionrj 


in'kwainr) 


inquirer 


m f kwaiaro(r 


in'kwaira 


inquirers 


in'kwaisrsz 


in'kwairsz 


inquiry 


m'kwaion 


in'kwairi 


inquiries 


in'kwaiariz 


in'kwainz 


inquisitive 


m'kwizitiv 






m'kwiz^tiv 




insane 


in'sem 




insanely 


m'seinli 




insanity 


in'saeniti 




inscribe 


in'skraib 




inscribes 


in'skraibz 




inscribed 


m'skraibd 




inscribing 


in'skraibirj 




inscription 


ms'kripjs'n 




inscriptions 


ms^kripj^nz 




insect 


'msekt 




insects 


'insekts 




insecure 


tnsi'kjua(r 


inst'kjus 


insecurely 


insi'kjusli 


insi'kjusli 


insecurity 


insi'kjuariti 


insi'kju'nti 


insensibility 


msenss'bihti 






msensi'bihti 




insensible 


m'sensab} 






in'sensib} 




insensibly 


m'sensabh 






m'sensibh 




inseparable 


m'sep^rabl 




inseparably 


in'ssp^rsbh 




insert 


m f s3't 


in'ssst 


inserts 


m's3-ts 


m'saats 


inserted 


m'ss'tid 


in'sastid 


inserting 


m'ss'tirj 


in'ssstirj 


202 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



insertion 


in'ss'jVn 


in'sasfim 


insertions 


m'ss'J^nz 


m'ssaj^nz 


inside 


'm'said 




insides 


'm'saidz 




insight 


'msait 




insignificance 


insig'mfikans 




insignificant 


insig'mfikont 




insignificantly 


msig'nifikonth 




insincere 


insm'sio(r 


insm'sia 


insincerely 


instn'sioh 


msin'siali 


insincerity 


insin'ssrvti 




insinuate 


m'smjueit 




insinuates 


in'sinjueits 




insinuated 


m'smjueitid 




insinuating 


m'smjueitirj 




insinuation 


insmju'eij>n 




insinuations 


msmju'cijanz 




insipid 


in'sipid 




insist 


in'sist 




insists 


m's ists 




insisted 


m'sistid 




insisting 


m'sistirj 




insistence 


in'sist^ns 




insistent 


m'sistpnt 




insistently 


m'sist^nth 




insolence 


t'insalons 




insolent 


t'msolont 




insolently 


j 'insolonth 




insoluble 


m'sDljubJ 


m'saljub] 


insomnia 


in'bumnio 


m'samnia 


inspect 


m'spekt 




inspects 


m'spskts 




inspected 


m'spekt id 




inspecting 


m'spektirj 




inspector 


in'spskto(r 


m'spekts 


inspectors 


m'spektaz 


m'spektsz 


inspection 


m'spskj^n 




inspections 


in'spekj^nz 




inspiration 


m&pa'reij^n 






mspi'reijpn 




inspirations 


inspo'reifpnz 






mspi'reij^nz 




inspire 


in'spaio(r 


m'spais 


inspires 


m'spaiaz 


m'spaiaz 


inspired 


m'spaiad 


m'spsued 



See Note 30, p xxxv. in Introduction. 
203 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



inspiring 


m'spaianrj 


in'spairirj 


instability 


insta'biliti 




install 


m'sto'l 




installs 


m'sto'lz 




installed 


in'sto-ld 




installing 


in'sto'hrj 




installation 


finsto'leif^n 




installations 


tinsta'leij>nz 




installment (Amer ) 






instalment 


in'sto'lmant 




installments (Amer.) 






instalments 


in'sto-lmonts 




instance 


'mstons 




instances 


'mstansiz 




instant 


'instant 




instants 


'instants 




instantly 


'mstdnth 




instantaneous 


mston'teinjas 




instantaneously 


inston'temjash 




instead 


ms'ted 




instigate 


'mstigeit 




instigates 


'instigeits 




instigated 


'instigeitid 




instigating 


'msttgeitirj 




instigation 


insti'geij^n 




instinct 


'instirj^t 




instincts 


'instincts 




instinctive 


ins'tin^tiv 




instinctively 


ins'tinAtivh 




institute 


'institjut 




institutes 


'institjuts 




instituted 


'institjutvd 




instituting 


'jnstitjutirj 




institution 


insti'tju'j^n 




institutions 


insti'tju'J^nz 




instruct 


ms'trAkt 




instructs 


ms'trAkts 




instructed 


ms'trAktid 




instructing 


ms'trAktirj 




instructor 


ms'trAkta(r 


ins'trAkts 


instructors 


ms'trAktsz 


ins'trAktsz 


instruction 


ms'trAkJ^n 




instructions 


ms'trAkJ^nz 




instructive 


ms'trAktiv 




instructively 


ins'trAktivh 





f See Note 30, p. xxxv. in Introduction. 
204 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 


instrument 


'mstrumant 






'mstramsnt 




instruments 


'instruments 






'instramants 




instrumental 


mstru'ment} 






instrument} 




insubordination 


'msabodi'neif^n 


'ms9bDsdi'nei|>n 


insufficient 


ins3'fi/?nt 




insufficiently 


ins9'fij^nth 




insult, noun 


'ins Alt 




insults 


'ins Alts 




insult, verb 


m'sAlt 




insults 


in 's Alts 




insulted 


m'sAltid 




insulting 


in'sAltir) 




insuperable 


ui^sju'jwrab} 




insupportable 


msa'po'tabj 


inS9' P 09t9bl 


insure 


in'J*u9(r, m'j39(r 


m'Jus 


insures 


in'Juaz, m'Jaaz 


m'Jusz 


insured 


in'Ju9d, in'/o9d 


m'Jusd 


insuring 


in'Juonr), in'Joani) 


m'/irrir) 


insurance 


m'Ju^r^ns, in'/D-rons 


m'Ju'rans 


insusceptibility 


'msasepta'bihti 






'insosspti'biliti 




insusceptible 


insa'septob] 






ins9'septib] 




intact 


m'taekt 




integral 


'mtigral 




integrity 


in'tegnti 




intellect 


'intilekt 




intellects 


'intilekts 




intellectual 


mti'lektjuQl 






inti'lektfu9l 




intellectually 


inti'lskt j ugh 






mti'lsktfu9h 




intelligence 


in'teli^ns 




intelligences 


in'tehc^pnsiz 




intelligent 


in'teh^nt 




intelligently 


m'tsli^nth 




intelligibility 


intshc^9'biliti 






mtslic|i'biliti 




intelligible 


in'tehc^ab} 






in'tehc^ib} 




intelligibly 


m'teli(^9bli 






in'teli(%ibli 




intemperance * 


in'temp^rans 




205 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



intemperate 


m'tempmt 




intemperately 


m'tsmp^ritli 




intend 


in'tend 




intends 


m'tendz 




intended 


m'tendid 




intending 


m'tsndir) 




intense 


m'tens 




intensely 


m'tsnsli 




intensify 


m'tensifai 




intensifies 


m'tenbifaiz 




intensified 


m'tensifaid 




intensifying 


m'tenbifaiir) 




intensity 


m'teiisiti 




intensive 


m'tensiv 




intensively 


m'teiisivh 




intent 


m'tsnt 




intention 


m'tenj>n 




intentions 


m'tenJVnz 




intentional 


in'tenjan} 




intentionally 


m'tsnfanji 




inter-, prefix 


into(r, 'into(r 


inta, 'mta 


intercept 


into'sept 


ints'sept 


intercepts 


into'septs 


ints'septs 


intercepted 


ints'septid 


mts'septid 


intercepting 


mta'septirj 


ints'ssptir) 


intercourse 


'mtako's, 'intskoos 


'intakoss, 'intsskoss 


interest 


'intrist, 'int^rast 




interests 


'mtrists, 'interests 




interested 


'intristid 




interesting 


'jntristirj 






'int^rastirj 




interfere 


into'fia(r 


ints'fis 


interferes 


intyfioz 


ints'finz 


interfered 


inta'fiad 


mta'fisd 


interfering 


inta'fiorir) 


inte'fi'ni) 


interference 


into'fiar^ns 


into'fiT^ns 


interferences 


inta'fiar^nsiz 


mta'fi'r^nsiz 


interior 


in'tiaria(r 


m'trris 


interjection 


mts'o^ekj^n 


mts'o^BkJpn 


interjections 


inta'djskj^nz 


mts'<^6kjnz 


intermediary 


mta'mi'dtari 


int^'nii'disri 




inta'mi'djan 




intermediate 


inte'mrdut 


mto'mi'dut 




into'mi-djat 


mts'mi'djat 


intermission 


intd mif^n 


inte'mi/^n 


internal 


in ts'n^l 


m'tasn^l 



206 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



internally 


tn'ts-nali 


m'tasnoli 


international 


mta'naejn} 


ints'naejn} 


internationally 


mts'naejn^li 


ints'naejn^li 


internationalism 


mto'naejn^hzni 


ints'naejn^hzip. 


interpret 


m'ts'prit 


m'tasprit 


interprets 


m'ts'pnts 


m'tsspnts 


interpreted 


m't3'pntid 


in'tsspntid 


interpreting 


m'ts'prttii) 


tn'taspritir) 


interpreter 


m't3 ? prvto(r 


in'tsoprit 


interpreters 


m'ts-pritaz 


in'tsopritsz 


interpretation 


mtspri'teij^n 


intsspri'teijs'n 


interpretations 


mtspn'teiJVnz 


intsapri'teij^nz 


interrogation 


mtsro'geif^n 




interrogative 


mto'rDgativ 


inta'ragativ 


mterrogatives 


mt9'rDg9tivz 


into'ragativz 


interrogatively 


mto'rDgativh 


into'ragotivli 


interrupt 


mta'rApt 




interrupts 


mta'rApts 




interrupted 


into'rAptid 




interrupting 


ints^rAptir) 




interruption 


ints'rApJ^n 




interruptions 


mto'rAppnz 




interval 


'intov^l 


'intav^l 


intervals 


'intav^lz 


'mtsv^lz 


intervene 


into'vi'n 


ints'vi-n 


intervenes 


inta'vi-nz 


ints'vi'nz 


intervened 


mta'vi-nd 


mts'vrnd 


intervening 


inta'vi'nirj 


mta'vrnig 


interview 


'mtavju 


'mtsvju 


interviews 


'intavjuz 


'mtavjuz 


interviewed 


'mtovjud 


'mtavjud 


interviewing 


'mtavjuirj 


'mtsvjuuj 


interviewer 


'mtavju9(r 


'intsvjus 


interviewers 


'mtavjuoz 


'mtsvjusz 


intimacy 


'mtimasi 




intimate, adj. 


'mtimtt 




intimate 


'mtimeit 




intimates 


'intimeits 




intimated 


'mttmeitid 




intimating 


'intimettir) 




intimately 


'intimith 




intimation 


inti'meifim 




intimidate 


in'timideit 




intimidates 


in'timideits 




intimidated 


m'timideitid 




intimidating 


m'timideitir) 




intimidation 


mtiim'deij^n 





207 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



into 


'mtu s.f. 






mt9, mtu w.fs. 




intolerable 


m'tDtersbJ 


m'tabrob) 


intolerably 


m'toterabli 


m'tal^rabli 


intolerance 


m'tolor^ns 


m'talan?ns 


intolerant 


m'tolar^nt 


in'talar^nt 


intolerantly 


tn'tolarpnth 


m'talor^nth 


intonation 


uitou'neij^n 






int9'neif0n 




intonations 


mtou'neij>nz 






mta'neif^nz 




intone 


m'toun 




intones 


m'tounz 




intoned 


m'tound 




intoning 


m'toumrj 




intoxicant 


m'toksiksnt 


m'taksikant 


intoxicants 


m'toksikants 


in'taksikonts 


intoxicate 


m'toksikeit 


m'taksikeit 


intoxicates 


m'tDksikeits 


in'taksikeits 


intoxicated 


m'toksikeitid 


m'taksikeitid 


intoxicating 


m'toksikeitii) 


m'taksikeitirj 


intoxication 


mtDksi'keiJ^n 


mtaksi'keij^n 


intransitive 


m'tra'nsztiv 


m'tra-nsztiv 




m'traensttiv 




intransitively 


m'trcrnsfctivli 


m'tra'nsttivli 




m'traensztivli 




intricacy 


'intnkasi 




intricacies 


'intrikasiz 




intricate 


'mtrikit 




intricately 


'mtrtkith 




introduce 


mtrs'dju'S 




introduces 


intro'dju-siz 




introduced 


mtro'dju'st 




introducing 


mtra'dju'Sirj 




introduction 


intra'dAk/sn 




introductions 


intra'dAk/^nz 




intrude 


m'tru-d 




intrudes 


m'tru'dz 




intruded 


m'tru'did 




intruding 


m'tru'du) 




intruder 


m'tru'd9(r 


in'tru'da 


intruders 


m'tru'daz 


m'tru-daz 


intrusion 


m'tru'j^n 




intrusions 


m'tru'3Pnz 




intuition 


mtju'ij>n 




invade 


m'veid 




invades 


in'vevdz 





208 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



invaded 


m'veidid 




invading 
invader 

invaders 


m'veidir) 
m'veid9(r 
m'veidoz 


m'veids 
m'veidoz 


invalid, noun 


'invalid 


'involid 


invalid, ad]. 
invalidate 


m'vaehd 
m'vaehdeit 




invalidates 


in'vaehdeits 




invalidated 


m'vaelideitid 




invalidating 
invaluable 
invariability 
invariable 


m'vaehdeitiij 
m'vaeljuzb} 
mvF9ri9'biliti 
m'vE9ri9bJ 


inveTia'bihti 


invariably 
invasion 


m'vE9nobli 
m'vev^n 


in've'rigbli 


invasions 


in'vei3?nz 




invent 


tn'vent 




invents 


m'vents 




invented 


m'ventid 




inventing 
inventor 

inventors 


m'ventir) 
m'vent9(r 
m'vent9z 


m'vents 
m'ventsz 


invention 

inventions 
inventive 


m'venJVn 
m'vsnfpnz 
m'ventiv 




inventory 

inventories 


'invgntri 
'invgntriz 


'mv9nton 
'invgntortz 


inverse 


'm'v3's 


'm'vsss 


inversely 
inversion 

inversions 
invert 


'lll'vS'Sll 

in'vs-t 


in'vssj^n 
m'vssj>nz 
m'vsst 


inverts 


m'vs'ts 


in'\38ts 


inverted 


m'vs'tid 


m'vsotid 


inverting 
invest 


m'vest 


m'vsstir) 


invests 


m'vests 




invested 


m'vestid 




investing 
investor 

investors 


in'vestii) 
m'vsst9(r 
m'vestaz 


m'vests 
m'vestsz 


investigate 

investigates 
investigated 
investigating 
investigation 
investigations 


tn'vestigeit 
m'vsstigeits 
m'vestigeitid 
m'vestigeitu) 
mvssti'geij^n 
investing evpnz 





209 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



investment 


m'vestmgnt 




investments 


m'vestmonts 




invigorate 


m'vigareit 




invigorates 


m'vigoreits 




invigorated 


m'vigareitid 




invigorating 


m'vigareitirj 




invincible 


m'vmsab}, m'vmsibj 




invisibility 


mviza'bihti 






mvizi'bihti 




invisible 


m'vizab}, m'vizib} 




invisibly 


in'vizobli, m'vizibli 




invitation 


mvi'teij^n 




invitations 


invi'teipnz 




invite 


ui'vait 




invites 


m'vaits 




invited 


m'vaitid 




inviting 


m'vaitirj 




invitingly 


tn'vaitirjli 




invoice 


'mvois 




invoices 


'invoisiz 




involuntary 


mVDlant^ri 


m'vabnten 


involuntarily 


mVDlent^rih 


m'valontsrili 


involve 


in'volv 


mValv 


involves 


m'vDlvz 


m'valvz 


involved 


m'vDlvd 


m'valvd 


involving 


mVolvirj 


m'valvirj 


inward 


'in wad 


'mwsd 


inwards 


'inwsdz 


'mwadz 


inwardly 


'mwadli 


'inwadh 


iodine 


'aiadain, 'aiadin 




Ireland 


'aialand 


'aialand 


Irish 


' atari J 


'ainj 


Irishman 


'ai?rifman 


'ainjman 


Irishmen 


'ai^njmon 


'airijmsn 


irksome 


's'kssm 


'asksom 


iron 


'aian 


'aisn 


irons 


'aianz 


'aisnz 


ironed 


'aiand 


'awnd 


ironing 


'aianirj 


'aisnirj 


ironical 


Bi0 r TDnikffl 


ai'ranik^l 


ironically 


aiz'rDnikQli 


ai'ramkali 


irony, noun 


'ai^rsni 


'airani 


irony, adj.( =ironlike) 


'aiam 


'aism 


irrational 


i'raej^r4 




irrationally 


I'rae/^nah 




irreconcilable 


t'rekansailab} 




210 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



irrefutable 


v'refjutobj 




irrefutably 


I'rsfjutabh 




irregular 


i'regjul3(r 


I'regjuls 


irregularly 


I'regjulali 


t'regjulsli 


irregularity 


iregju'lseriti 




irregularities 


iregju'laentiz 




irrelevance 


I'rehvans 




irrelevant 


t'rehvant 




irrelevantly 


I'rehvantli 




irreligious 


iri'lidjas 




irreparable 


i'rep?rob} 




irreparably 


i/rcp^robli 




irresistible 


iri'zistabj 






iri'zistib] 




irresistibly 


irt'zistobli 






in'zistibh 




irrespective 


ins'pektiv 




irresponsibility 


irispDnsa'bihti 


irispanso'bihti 




inspDnsi'bihti 


inspansi'biliti 


irresponsible 


iris'pDnsab]. 


ins'pansib} 




iris'pDnsib] 


iris'pansib} 


irresponsibly 


iris'pDnsobli 


iris'panssbh 




ins'pDnsibh 


ins'pansibli 


irresponsive 


iris'pnnsiv 


iris'pansiv 


irresponsively 


ms'pDnsivli 


iris'pansivh 


irresponsiveness 


tris'ponsivnis 


iris'pansvvnis 


irreverence 


I'rsv^rans 




irreverent 


I'rev^rant 




irreverently 


I'revprsntH 




irrevocable 


I'rsvakobJ 




irrevocably 


I'revokabli 




irrigate 


'irigeit 




irrigates 


'irigeits 




irrigated 


'irigeitid 




irrigating 


'irigeitirj 




irrigation 


iri'geif^n 




irritable 


'mtab} 




irritably 


'iritobh 




irritate 


'iriteit 




irritates 


'iriteits 




irritated 


'mteitid 




irritating 


'intettirj 




irritation 


iri'teij^n 




is from be 


iz s./., iz, z, s w.fs. 




island 


'ailand 




islands 


'ailandz 




isle 


ail 





211 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



isles 


ailz 




isn'T/rom be 


'iznt 




isolate 


'aisaleit, 'aisouleit 


'issleit, 'isouleit 


isolates 


'aisaleits, 'aisouleits 


'isaleits, 'isouleits 


isolated 


'aisaleitid 


'isaleitid 




'aisoulevtid 


'isouleitid 


isolating 


'aisoleitu) 


'issleituj 




'aisouleitu) 


'isouleitirj 


isolation 


aissletfsn, aisouleif^n 


iss'leij^n, isou'letj^n 


issue 


'isju, 'ijju 




issues 


'isjuz, 'ijjuz 




issued 


f isjud, 'ijjud 




issuing 


'isjuir), 'ijjuirj 




Italian 


i'tael]9n 




Italians 


I'taeljanz 




italic 


I'taehk 




italics 


i/taehks 




Italy 


'itsh 




itch 


itf 




itches 


'itfiz 




itched 


'i^t 




itching 


'Mta 




item 


'aitom 




items 


'aitomz 




its 


itss/., its wf. 




itself 


it'self 




ivory 


'aiv^n 




ivy 


'aivi 





jacket 

jackets 
Jacob 
jail 

jails 
am, noun 

jams 
am, verb 

jams 

jammed 

jamming 
James 



djeiz 



c^eilz 



djaem 
d$aemz 
c^aemd 
'(^aemir) 

c^eimz 



212 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



Jane 


cfcem 




janitor 


'd$aemt9(r 


'djaemta 


janitors 


'djaemtaz 


'(^aemtsz 


January 


'djsenjuari 


'(^aenjusrt 


Japan 


dja'psen 




Japanese 


djaeps'ni'z 


o^aepa'ni's 


jar 


d5Q'(r 


d$a& 


jars 


djct'z 


djasz 


Java 


'djcrva 




jaw 


#> 




jaws 


C^O'Z 




jealous 


'cfcetes 




jealously 


'd$elasli 




jealousy 


'd$ebsi 




jealousies 


'djelosiz 




Jelly 


'c^eli 




jellies 


'c^ehz 




jerk 


Cfc3'k 


C^39k 


jerks 


(^3'kS 


d;39ks 


jerked 


C^3'kt 


o^sakt 


jerking 


'c^S'kirj 


'^sakirj 


Jew 


6^u ? 




Jews 


d$u'z 




jewel 


c^uil, c^u^l 




jewels 


o^uilz, d$u^lz 




jeweller 


'ctjuib(r, '(^U9l9(r 


'djuila, '(^uals 


jewellers 


'o^uilaz, 'c^ualaz 


'(^uilsz, 'o^ualsz 


jewellery 


'o^uilri, 'd$u;?lri 




Jewish 


f 4uij 




job 


C^Db 


d^ab 


jobs 


c^obz 


d$abz 


jocular 


'c^okjul9(r 


'(^akjuls 


jog 


<$og 


<^ag 


jogs 


c^ogz 


cfeagz 


jogged 


o^ogd 


<%agd 


jogging 


'c^ogirj 


'o^agirj 


John 


d;nn 


(^an 


join 


CDUI 




joins 


c^oinz 




joined 


<^oind 




joining 


'o^oinu) 




joint 


o^oint 




joints 


d$omts 




jointly 


'o^omtli 




joke 


o^ouk 




jokes 


c^ouks 




joked 


4oukt 





213 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



joking 
jokingly 
jolly 

jollier 

j oiliest 
jolt 

jolts 

jolted 

jolting 
Joseph 
jot 

jots 

jotted 

jotting 
journal 

journals 
journalism 
journalist 

journalists 
journalistic 
journey 

journeys 
jovial 
jovially 
joviality 
joy 

joys 
joyful 
joyfully 
judge 

judges 

judged 

judging 
judg(e)ment 

judg(e)ments 
judicial 
judicious 
judiciously 
Jug 

jugs 
juggle 

juggles 

juggled 

juggling 
juggler 

jugglers 
juice 



'djoukirj 
'djoukirjh 
'dpli 



'djolust 

djoult 
djoults 
'd$oultid 
'djjoultirj 

'd$ouzif 

C^Dt 
C^DtS 
'(^Dtld 



'djs-njz 



c^sns'listik 



'c^ouvjal, ' 
'djouvjah, ' 



c^oi 
O^DIZ 



'gainst 



'cjssnslist 
c^ssna'hstik 
'c^ssmz 



214 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



juices 


'd$u f siz 




juicy 


'd$u'si 




July 


d$u1ai 




jumble 


'd$AmbJ 




jumbles 


'c^AinbJz 




jumbled 


'd$Amb)d 




jumbling 


'd$Ambluj 




jump 


d$Amp 




jumps 


djAmps 




jumped 


d?AnW?t 




jumping 


' djAmpirj 




junction 


'cJ5Ai)J?n 




junctions 


'djArj&J^nz 




juncture 


'<^Ai)^tf9(r 


'd$Ar)^tJ9 


junctures 


' djArjAtj^z 


'd^ArjAtfsz 


June 


c^u*n 




jungle 


'<^AngJ 




jungles 


'(^Arjgjz 




junior 


'6^U'nja(r 


(iu * nj 9 


juniors 


'dju'njsz 


(J?u'ni9z 


jury 


d?u3n 


'dju-ri 


juries 


' d?i/9nz 


OfUTlZ 


just 


C^ASt 




justly 


'd$AStll 




justness 


'o^Astnis 




justice 


'(^AStlS 




justifiable 


'djAstifaiab} 




justification 


^Astift'keijpn 




justifications 


d$AStifi'keiJ0nz 




justify 


'djAstifai 




justifies 


'djAstifaiz 




justified 


'c^AStifaid 




justifying 


'c^Astifaiir) 




Jut 


d$At 




juts 


O^AtS 




jutted 


'djAtid 




jutting 


'(^Atir) 




juvenile 


'o^u'vmail, 'dju'vanail 


'd^u'vmzl. dfU'vsnzl 


K 


K 


kei 




K's 


keiz 




kangaroo 


kaenga'ru' 




kangaroos 


kaerjgs'ru'z 




215 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



Kate 


keit 




Katherine 


'kaeGmn 




Kathleen 


'kaeGlm, kaeG'li'n 




keen 


km 




keener 


'krn9(r 


'kvna 


keenest 


'krmst 




keenly 


'krnh 




keenness 


'krnnis 




keep 


ki-p 




keeps 


ki'ps 




kept 


kept 




keeping 


'krpirj 




keeper 


'krp9(r 


'krp 


keepers 


'krpoz 


'ki'paz 


kernel 


'k3-n| 


'k39n} 


kernels 


'ks-njz 


'kssn^z 


kerosene 


'kerasi-n 




kettle 


'ket} 




kettles 


'ketjz 




key 


ki- 




keys 


krz 




keyboard 


'ki'bod, 'krboad 


'ki'bosd 


keyboards 


'krbodz, 'ki-boodz 


'krbosdz 


kick 


kik 




kicks 


kiks 




kicked 


kikt 




kicking 


'kikir) 




kid 


kid 




kidnap 


'kidnaep 




kidnaps 


'kidnaeps 




kidnapped 


'kidnaept 




kidnapping 


'kidnaepir) 




kidney 


'kidni 




kidneys 


'kidmz 




kill 


kil 




kills 


kilz 




killed 


kild 




killing 


'kiltg 




kilogram (Amer.) 






kilogramme 


'kilagraem 




kilograms (Amer.) 






kilogrammes 


'kilagraemz 




kilometer (Amer.) 






kilometre 


'kila'mrto(r 


'kib'mi'ts 


kilometers (Amer.) 






kilometres 


'kila'mrtoz 


'kils'mrtsz 


kimono 


'kimanou, ki'mounou 





216 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 


kimonos 


'kimanouz 






ki'mounouz 




kind 


kaind 




kinds 


kamdz 




kinder 


'kamda(r 


'kaindo 


kindest 


'katndist 




kindly 


'kamdh 




kindness 


'kamdms 




kindergarten 


'kmdsgatiji 


'kmdsgasti? 


kindergartens 


'kmddgatnz 


'kmdagastnz 


king 


kirj 




kings 


kinz 




kingdom 


'kindam 




kingdoms 


'kirjdomz 




kiss 


kis 




kisses 


'kisiz 




kissed 


kist 




kissing 


'kisirj 




kitchen 


'kitfm, 'kitfon 




kitchens 


'kitfmz, 'kitfanz 




kite 


kait 




kites 


kaits 




kitten 


'kiti? 




kittens 


'kitnz 




knack 


naek 




knacks 


naeks 




knapsack 


'naepsaek 




knapsacks 


'naepsasks 




knee 


ni 1 




knees 


ni'z 




kneel 


ni'l 




kneels 


nrlz 




kneeled 


nelt, ni'ld 




knelt 


nelt 




kneeling 


'nHirj 




KNEW from know 


nju 1 




knife 


naif 




knives 


naivz 




knight 


nait 




knights 


naits 




knighthood 


'naithud 




knighthoods 


'naithudz 




knit 


nit 




knits 


nits 




knitted 


'nitid 




knitting 


'nitirj 




knob 


nob 


nab 



217 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation 



American Variants 



knobs 


nobz 


nabz 


knock 


nok 


nak 


knocks 


noks 


naks 


knocked 


nokt 


nakt 


knocking 
knocker 


'nDkirj 
'nt>ka(r 


'nakirj 
'naks 


knockers 


'nukaz 


'naksz 


knot 


not 


nat 


knots 


nots 


nats 


knotted 


'notid 


'natid 


knotting 
-know 


'notirj 
nou 


'natirj 


knows 


nouz 




knew 


nju 1 




known 


noun 




knowing, adj 6- verb 
knowingly 
knowledge 
knuckle 
knuckles 
Korea 


'nouirj 
'nouirjli 
'nDhci; 
'nAk} 
'nAk}z 
fka'ria 


- 



L 

L's 
label 

labels 
labelled 
labelling 
laboratory 

laboratories 

laborious 
laboriously 
labor (Amev ) 
labour 

labors (Amer.) 
labours 

labored (Amer.) 
laboured 
laboring (Amer.) 
labouring 



el 
slz 

'letbj 
'leibjz 
'leibjd 
'leibltrj 



la'bDTiosh 



'leibaz 
'leibad 
'leib^rirj 

f See Note 30, p. xxxv. m Introduction. 
218 



'laeb^rstoriz 

'leibs 
'leibaz 
'leibad 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



laborer (Amer ) 
labourer 


'leib9i*(r 


'leibaro 


laborers (Amer ) 
labourers 


'leOz 


'leib^raz 


lace 


leis 




laces 


'leisiz 




laced 


leist 




lacing 
lack 


'leisirj 
lajk 




lacquer 
lad 


'laeko(r 
laed 


'laeka 


lads 


laedz 




ladder 

ladders 


1aedo(r 
'laedaz 


'lasdoz 


lady 

ladies 


'leidi 
'leidiz 




lag 

lags 
lagged 
lagging 
LAID from lay 
lake 


laeg 
laegz 
laegd 
'laegirj 
leid 
leik 




lakes 


leiks 




lamb 


laem. 




lambs 


laemz 




lame 


leim 




lamer 
lamest 


'Ieim9(r 
'letrmst 


'leims 


lamely 
lamp 

lamps 
land 


'leimh 
laemp 
laemps 
laend 




lands 


laendz 




landed 


'laendid 




landing 

landings 
landlady 

landladies 


'laendirj 
'laendirjz 
'laenrfleidi 
'laen<5?leidiz 




landlord 


'laen^lod 


'laen^losd 


landlords 


'laenaflodz 


'lnrfbsdz 


landmark 


'laen^mak 


'Isenrfmaak 


landmarks 


'laen^maks 


'laen^maaks 


landscape 

landscapes 
lane 


'laenrfskeip 
'laen^skeips 
lein 




lanes 


leinz 




language 


'laerjgwic^ 





219 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



languages 


'laerjgwidjiz 




lantern 


'laenton 


'laentsn 


lanterns 


'laentonz 


'laentanz 


lap 


laep 




laps 


laeps 




lapse 


laeps 




lapses 


'laepsiz 




lapsed 


laepst 




lapsing 


'laepsirj 




large 


la-cfc 


lasc^ 


larger 


'ld-(a(r 


'Id d$8 


largest 


'ld-cist 


'ldQ<%lSt 


largely 


'Id-c^U 


'Idsc^h 


last 


la-st 


la-st 


lasts 


la-sts 


la-sts 


lasted 


'la-stid 


'la-stid 


lasting 


'la-stir) 


'la-stuj 


lastly 


'Id'Sth 


'la-sth 


latch 


laetf 




latches 


'laetfiz 




late 


leit 




later 


'leita(r 


'leit 


latest 


'leitist 




lately 


'leith 




lateness 


'leitnis 




lather 


la*69(r 


la- da 


Latin 


'laetin 




latitude 


'ketitjud 




latitudes 


'Isetitjudz 




latter 


'laete(r 


'laets 


latterly 


Oaetah 


'laetdh 


laugh 


iG'f 


la'f 


laughs 


krfs 


la-fs 


laughed 


iQ'ft 


la-ft 


laughing 


'la-firj 


la-fir) 


laughingly 


'la-firjh 


'la-firjh 


laughable 


la-fobl 


'la-fabl 


laughter 


'Id'ft9(r 


'la-ftd 


launch 


b'ntf, la-ntf 


b'ntf, la-ntf 


launches 


'b-ntfiz, la-n^vz 


'lo-ntfiz, 'lantfiz 


launched 


lo'n^t, Icrntft 


lo-n^t, la-nf t 


launching 


'lomtfirj, 'Id'ntfirj 


'lo-ntfirj, 'la-ntfir) 


laundress 


'lo'ndris, 'la'ndris 


'lo'ndns, 'la-ndris 


laundresses 


'lo-ndrisiz, 'Id'ndrisiz 


'krndnsiz, 'la'ndrisi; 


laundry 


'lo-ndri, 'la ? ndri 


'lo-ndn, 'la-ndn 


laundries 


'b'ndriz, 'Id-ndriz 


'b'ndriz, 'la'ndriz 


laurel 


'lorsl 





220 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



laurels 


'lorslz 




lava 


'Icrvo 




lavatory 


'laevsten 


'laevaton 


lavatories 


'laevotoriz 


'laevotonz 


law 


b' 




laws 


b'z 




lawful 


'lo-ful 




lawfully 


'lO'full, 'lO'foll 




lawn 


lo ? n 




lawns 


lo-nz 




law- suit 


'lo's;ut 




law-suits 


'lo-s/uts 




lawyer 


'to'p(r, 'loio(r 


'b'js 


lawyers 


'lo'joz, 'loioz 


'lo-jsz 


lax 


Iseks 




lay 


lei 




lays 


leiz 




laid 


leid 




laying 


'leui) 




layer 


leia(r, Ie3(r 


leis 


layers 


leiaz, Icaz 


leisz 


lazy 


'leizi 




lazier 


'leizia(r 


'leizis 


laziest 


'letziist 




lazily 


'leizih 




laziness 


'leizinis 




lead, the metal 


led 




lead, conduct 


li'd 




leads 


Irdz 




led 


led 




leading 


'Irdii) 




leader 


'lrda(r 


'li'da 


leaders 


'h'daz 


'Irdsz 


leaf 


Irf 




leaves 


li'vz 




leaflet 


'li'fht 




leaflets 


'Irflits 




league 


h'9 




leagues 


li-gz 




leak 


Irk 




leaks 


li-ks 




leaked 


h-kt 




leaking 


'h'kirj 




lean 


Irn 




leaner 


'Irn9(r 


'Irns 


leanest 


'h'nist 




leans 


li-nz 





221 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation 



American Variants 



leaned 


lent, Irnd 




leant 


Isnt 




leaning 


'Irmrj 




learn 


Is-n 


ban 


learns 


Is'nz 


Issnz 


learned 


13'nt, Is-nd 


lasnt, lasnd 


learnt 


Is-nt 


Issnt 


learning 


'Is'mrj 


'Isgnii) 


learner 


'Is'n9(r 


'Issns 


learners 


'l3'n9Z 


'Issnsz 


learned, adj. 


'te'nid 


'Issnd 


learnedly 


'Is'mdh 


r l3mdh 


lease 


Irs 




leases 


'h-siz 




least 


ll'St 




leather 


'leda(r 


'1668 


leave 


Irv 




leaves 


ll'VZ 




left 


left 




leaving 


'Irvirj 




lecture 


'I6ktf9(r 


'lektfs 


lectures 


'lektfaz 


'lektfsz 


lectured 


'lektfad 


'lek^sd 


lecturing 


'lektj"?nrj 




lecturer 


'Iektf3ra(r 


lektf^rs 


lecturers 


'lektf^raz 


'lektfirz 


LED from lead 


led 




ledge 


le<i 




ledges 


'lec^iz 




ledger 


'le$a(r 


'lec^a 


ledgers 


'le^az 


'ledjaz 


left 


left 




left-handed 


'left'haendid 




leg 


169 




legs 


legz 




legacy 


'legosi 




legal 


'h-gpl 




legally 


'li-goh 




legation 


h'gei/^n 






le'geif^n 




legations 


li'geij^nz 






le'geij^nz 




legend 


'lec^pnd 


'h'c^and 


legends 


'le^ndz 


'li'c^andz 


legging 


'legirj 




leggings 


'legirjz 




legibility 


ledji'bihti, lecfea'biliti 





222 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



legible 


'leo>bl, 'led$9b} 




legibly 


'led$ibh, 'ledjabh 




legislation 


led$is'leiJ0n 




legitimate 


li'djitimit 




legitimately 


h'djitimith 




leisure 


'Is39(r 


'Ie39/li'33 


lemon 


'leman 




lemons 


'lemanz 




lemonade 


lemo'neid 




lend 


lend 




lends 


lendz 




lent 


lent 




lending 


'Isndirj 




lender 


'Isndafr 


'lends 


lenders 


'Isndaz 


'lendaz 


length 


len^e 




lengths 


lenses 




lengthen 


'Isrj^O^n 




lengthens 


'lenAGznz 




lengthened 


'lenAie^nd 




lengthening 


'Isn^G^nirj 




lengthways 


'ler)A;9weiz 




lengthwise 


lenA0waiz 




lengthy 


'IsnAGi 




lens 


lenz 




lenses 


'lenziz 




LENT/fow lend 


lent 




leopard 


'lepad 


'lepad 


leopards 


'lepadz 


'lepsdz 


less 


IBS 




lessen 


'lesi^ 




lessens 


'lesnz 




lessened 


'lesnd 




lessening 


'lesmr) 




lesson 


'lesn 




lessons 


'lesnz 




let 


let 




lets 


'lets 




letting 


letuj 




letter 


'leta(r 


'lets 


letters 


'letsz 


'letsz 


letterbox 


'letaboks 


'letsbaks 


letterboxes 


letaboksiz 


'letsbaksiz 


level 


'lev! 




levels 


'levjz 




leveled (Amer.) 






levelled 


'lev}d 





223 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 


leveling (Amer ) 
levelling 
lever 
levers 


'li'V3(r 
'li'vaz 


'h'vs, 'lev 
'li'vsz, 'levaz 


leverage 
liability 

liabilities 


'Irvmcb; 
laia'bihti 
laia'bilvtiz 


'lsv?ri<^ 


liable 
liar 

liars 


'laiab} 
'Iai3(r 
'laiaz 


'laisz 


libel 


'laibPl 




libels 


laib^lz 




libeled (Amer.) 
libelled 


'laxbakl 




libeling (Amer.) 
libelling 
libelous (Amer.) 
libellous 


'laibzhrj 




liberal 


'liberal 




liberals 


'hb^ralz 




liberally 
liberality 
liberate 


'hbsrah 
hba'raehti 
'hbareit 




liberates 


'libareits 




liberated 


'libareitid 




liberating 
liberation 


'libareitirj 




liberty 

liberties 


'hbati 
'hbatiz 


'hbsti 
'hbatiz 


librarian 


lai'brtarian 


lai'bre-nan 


librarians 


lai'breananz 


lai'bre'rianz 


library 

libraries 


'laibran 
'laibranz 


'laibren 
'laibrenz 


licence 


'lais^ns 




licences 


'lais^nsiz 




lick 


hk 




licks 


hks 




licked 


likt 




licking 
lid 


'hkirj 
hd 




lids 


hdz 




lie 


lai 




lies 


laiz 




lied 


laid 




lay 
lying 
lieutenant 


lei 
'laiirj 
lef tenant 


lu'tenant 



224 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



lieutenants 


lef'tenants 


lu'tenants 


life 


laif 




lives 


laivz 




lifetime 


'laiftaim 




lifetimes 


'laiftaimz 




lift 


lift 




lifts 


lifts 




lifted 


'hftid 




lifting 


'liftiij 




light 


lait 




lighter 


'laita(r 


'laits 


lightest 


'laitist 




lights 


laits 




lighted 


'laitid 




lit 


lit 




lighting 


'Jaitirj 




lighten 


'laiti^ 




lightens 


'laitnz 




lightened 


'laitnd 




lightening 


'laitnin, 'laitmr) 




light-hearted 


'lait'hcrtid 


'lait'haatid 


light-heartedly 


'lait'ha'tidli 


'lait'hastidh 


lighthouse 


'latthaus 




lighthouses 


'laithauziz 




lightly 


'laith 




lightness 


'laitnis 




lightning 


'laitmr) 




like 


laik 




likes 


laiks 




liked 


'laikt 




liking 


'laikiT) 




likelihood 


'laikhhud 




likely 


7 laikh 




likeness 


'laiknis 




lily 


'hh 




lilies 


IlllZ 




limb 


hm 




limbs 


hmz 




lime 


laim 




limit 


'limit 




limits 


'limits 




limited 


'limit id 




limiting 


'limitirj 




limitation 


limi'teij^n 




limitations 


hmi'teij^nz 




limp 


limp 




limper 


'hmp9(r 


'limp 



225 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



hmpest 


'limpist 




limps 


limps 




limped 


limpt 




limping 


'limpirj 




limply 


'limph 




line 


lain 




lines 


lainz 




lined 


'laind 




lining 


'lamir) 




linen 


'1mm 




liner 


'laino(r 


'laina 


liners 


'lainoz 


'lamsz 


linguist 


'hrjgwist 




linguists 


'lirjgwists 




linguistic 


lirj'gwistik 




linguistics 


lirj'gwistiks 




lining 


'laimrj 




linings 


'lamirjz 




link 


link 




links 


lirjks 




linked 


lirj^t 




linking 


lirjkirj 




lion 


'laian 




lions 


'laianz 




HP 


hp 




lips 


lips 




liquid 


'likwid 




liquids 


'likwidz 




lisp 


lisp 




lisps 


lisps 




lisped 


hspt 




lisping 


'lispirj 




list 


list 




lists 


lists 




listen 


'hsn 




listens 


'lisnz 




listened 


'hsnd 




listening 


'lisnirj 




listener 


'lisns(r 


'hsna 


listeners 


'hsnoz 


'lisn^z 


ill from light 


lit 




literal 


'literal 




literally 


'lit^rah 




literature 


'litoSr 


'hntfu, 




'Iit^rstf9(r 
'lit?rstjua(r 


'htttajfd 
'ht^rstjus 



226 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



literatures 


'Irteritfaz 


'htmtfoz 




aitmtfiraz 


'ht^rt^usz 




'htllltjuzz 


'liters tjusz 


lithograph 


'heograef/heagraf 


'h9agraf 


lithographs 


'hGagraefs 


'hOsgrafs 




'hQografs 




lithography 


li'9Dgr9fi 


h'Gagrafi 


liter (Amer.) 






litre 


'h'to(r 


'h't* 


liters (Amer.) 






litres 


'll'tsZ 


r lvi&z 


little 


'htj 




live, adj. 


laiv 




live, verb 


hv 




lives 


hvz 




lived 


'hvd 




living 


'hvirj 




lively 


'laivh 




liver 


'hvo(r 


'hvs 


livers 


'hvaz 


'hvsz 


Liverpool 


'hvapul 


'hvspul 


LIVES, plur. o/hfe 


laivz 




LIVES from live 


hvz 




load 


loud 




loads 


loudz 




loaded 


'loudid 




loading 


'loudirj 




loaf 


louf 




loaves 


louvz 




loan 


loun 




loans 


lounz 




loathe 


Iou6 




loathes 


louOz 




loathed 


Iou6d 




loathing 


loudtrj 




lobster 


A lDbsto(r 


'labsto 


lobsters 


'lobstaz 


'labstsz 


local 


'loukal 




locally 


'loukali 




locality 


lou'kaehti 




localities 


lou'kaehtiz 




locate 


lou'keit 


'loukeit 


locates 


lou'keits 


'loukeits 


located 


lou'keitid 


loukeitid 


locating 


lou'keitirj 


'loukeitirj 


location 


lou'kei/pn 





227 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



locations 


lou'keijznz 




lock 


iDk 


lak 


locks 


loks 


laks 


locked 


iDkt 


lakt 


locking 


'iDklT) 


'lakirj 


lockout 


'Ink'aut 


'lak'aut 


lockouts 


'iDk'auts 


'lak'auts 


locomotive 


'Iouk9'moutiv 




locomotives 


'louks'moutivz 




lodge 


h>( 


lac^ 


lodges 


'lodjiz 


'lac^iz 


lodged 


'iDC^l 


'lad$d 


lodging 


'lucjju) 


'lac^irj 


lodger 


'k>d59(r 


'lacjs 


lodgers 


'lDd$9Z 


'lac^sz 


lodging 


'lod$ir) 


'lac^irj 


lodgings 


'lD(%inz 


'ladjujz 


lofty 


'to'fti, 'lufti 




log 


log 


lag 


logs 


logz 


lag z 


logarithm 


aoggriem 


'lagondin 


logarithms 


'lDg9n0mz 


'laggridmz 




'iDgondmz 




logic 


'iDC^lk 


'ladjik 


logical 


'loc^ik^l 


'la<%ik^l 


logically 


'!D (Alkali 


'lac^ik^h 


logician 


lou'cji/^n, iD'djiJpn 




logicians 


lou'c^ipnz 






lo'c^ij^nz 




London 


'London 




lonely 


'lounh 




lonelier 


'Iounli9(r 


'lounlw 




'lounlja(r 


'lounljs 


loneliest 


'lounhist 






'lounljist 




loneliness 


'lounlmis 




long 


log 




longer 


'long s (r 




longest 


'iDijgist 




longs 


lonz 




longed 


lond 




longing 


'iDnuj 




longings 


'lonujz 




longitude 


'lond^itjud 


'lanc^itjud 


longitudes 


'lonc^itjudz 


'lanc^itjudz 


look 


luk 





228 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



looks 


luks 




looked 


lukt 




looking 


'lukirj 




looking-glass 


'hiking las 


'lukinglas 


looking-glass 


'lukinglasiz 


'lukujglasiz 


look-out 


'luk'aut 




loop 


lu'p 




loops 


lu'ps 




loose 


lu-s 




looser 


'hrsa(r 


'lu'ss 


I6osest 


'hrsvst 




loosely 


'lU'Sll 




loosen 


'hrsn 




loosens 


'hrsnz 




loosened 


'hrsnd 




loosening 


'lu'smrj 




looseness 


'hi'sms 




loquacious 


lou'kweifas 






la'kwei/as 




lord 


lo-d 


bad 


lords 


lo'dz 


losdz 


lordship 


'lo-djvp 


'losdjip 


lordships 


'b'djips 


'losdjips 


lose 


hrz 




loses 


'lu-ziz 




lost 


iD'St, iDSt 




losing 


'lu'zir) 




loser 


'lu-zo(r 


'lu-zs 


losers 


'1U'Z9Z 


'lU'ZSZ 


loss 


ID'S, IDS 




losses 


'lO'SlZ, 'IDSIZ 




lot 


lot 


lat 


lots 


iDtS 


lats 


lottery 


'lotsri 


'latan 


lotteries 


'lotanz 


'latsnz 


lotus 


'loutas 




loud 


laud 




louder 


'lauds (r 


'lauds 


loudest 


'laudist 




loudly 


'laudh 




loudness 


'laudms 




lovable 


'lAvab} 




love 


IAV 




loves 


IAVZ 




loved 


Uvd 




loving 


'lAVUJ 




lover 


'lAva(r 


'Lw 



229 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



lovers 


'lAvaz 


'lAVSZ 


lovely 


'lAVll 




lovelier 


'lAVll9(r 


'lAVllS 


loveliest 


'lAvlllSt 




loveliness 


'lAvlmis 




lovingly 


'lAvirjli 




low 


lou 




lower 


'Iou9(r 


'lous 


lowest 


'loutst 




lower 


'Iou9(r 


'lous 


lowers 


'louaz 


'lousz 


lowered 


'loi/9d 


'louad 


lowenng 


'Iou9rirj 




lowness 


'lounts 




loyal 


'loizl 




loyally 


'loiali 




loyalty 


'lowlti 




lubricate 


l^u'brikeit 




lubricates 


'tyu'bnketts 




lubricated 


'1/u'bnkeitid 




lubricating 


'I;u'brikeitu3 




lubrication 


l;ubri'keij?n 




luck 


lAk 




lucky 


'lAki 




luckier 


'lAki9(r 


'lAki 


luckiest 


'lAkust 




luckily 


'1 A kill 




lucrative 


'lyu'krstiv 




ludicrous 


'1/u'dikras 




luggage 


'lAgio^ 




lumber 


'lAmbafr 


'lAmbs 


lump 


lAmp 




lumps 


lAmps 




lunacy 


'l/u-nast 




lunar 


'lyu'na(r 


'tyu-na 


lunatic 


'l/u'n^tik 




lunatics 


'ly'u 'n^tiks 




lunch 


lAntf 




lunches 


'lAn^iz 




lunched 


'lAn^t 




lunching 


'lAn^uj 




luncheon 


'lAn^n, 'lAnJ0n 




luncheons 


'lAn^pnz, 'lAnJpnz 




lung 


LATJ 




lungs 


IATJZ 




lurch 


l3'tf 


l38tf 


lurches 


'19'^lZ 


'lad^iz 



230 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



lurched 
lurching 
luxuriant 



luxurious 
luxuriously 

luxury 

luxuries 
LYING from lie 



Is-tft 

'19'tfUJ 

lAk'sjuariant 
lAg'zjuariant 



lAk'sjuanos 



lAg guanos 
lAk'sjuoriosh 



'1 AkJ un, 'lAkfm 
'lAksjuri, lAksja 

'lAkJuriz, r . 

'lAksjuriz, '! 



Isotft 



M 



M 

M's 

Mabel 
machine 

machines 
mad 

madder 

maddest 
madam 
madden 

maddens 

maddened 

maddening 

MADE /row make 
madly 
madness 
Madras 
magazine 

magazines 
magic 
magical 
magically 
magician 

magicians 
magistrate 



em 

smz 
'meib} 



mae'd 

'mae'da(r, 'n 

'mae'dist, 'maedist 
'maedom 
'maedn 

'masdnz 

'maednd 

'maednirj 

meid 

'mae'dli, 'maedli 
'mae'dms, 'maednis 
ms'draes, mo'drcrs 
'maegs'zi'n 

'maega'zi-nz 

'maec^ikj 



mo'c^i/^nz 
'maedjtstrit 
'maec^istreit 
'maecjistret 

231 



'mse'da, 'maeds 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



magistrates 


'maedjistrits 






'rnaedjistrevts 






'maedsistrets 




magnanimity 


maegna'nimvti 




magnanimous 


maeg'naemmas 






mag'naemmas 




magnanimously 


maeg 'naenimash 






mag 'naemmash 




magnet 


'maegmt 




magnets 


'maeg nits 




magnetic 


maeg'netik 






mag'netik 




magnetism 


'maegnitizin 




magnetize 


'maegnitaiz 




magnetizes 


'maegnvtamz 




magnetized 


'masgnitaizd 




magnetizing 


'maegnvtaizirj 




magnificence 


rnaeg'mfisns 






mag'nifisns 




magnificent 


masg'nifisnt 






mag'nifisnt 




magnificently 


masg'nifisnth 






mag'nifisnth 




magnify 


'maegnifai 




magnifies 


'maegmfaiz 




magnified 


'maeg mf aid 




magnifying 


'maegmfaurj 




magnifier 


'ni39gmfai9(r 


'maegnifaia 


magnifiers 


'masgmfaiaz 


'maegnifaiaz 


mahogany 


ma'hog^ni 


ma'hag^m 


Mahommedan 


ma'hDmidpn 


ma'hamid^n 


Mahommedans 


ma'hDmid^nz 


ma'hamid^nz 


maid 


meid 




maids 


meidz 




mail 


meil 




mails 


meilz 




mailed 


meild 




mailing 


'meihrj 




main 


mem 




mainly 


'meinli 




mainland 


'mem'laend 






'memland 




mainspring 


'meinsprirj 




mainsprings 


'meinsprirjz 




ti^ftltitain 


mein'tem 




maintains 


mem'temz 




maintained 


mem'temd 





232 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



maintaining 


mein'temirj 




maintenance 


'meintui9ns 




majestic 


mg'djestik 




majestically 


m9'd$sstik9h 




majesty 


'maec^istv, 'maed$9sti 




majesties 


'maedjistiz 






'maed$astiz 




major 


'meid$9(r 


'meic^a 


majors 


'meidpz 


'meidjaz 


majority 


ma'c^oriti 




majorities 


ma'cijDritiz 




make 


meik 




makes 


meikz 




made 


meid 




making 


'meikirj 




makeshift 


'meikfift 




makeshifts 


'meikjifts 




maker 


'meik9(r 


'meiko 


makers 


'meikaz 


'meiksz 


Malay 


mg'lei 


'meilei 


Malays 


mg'leiz 


'meileiz 


male 


meil 




males 


meilz 




malice 


'maelis 




malicious 


mo'lijas 




maliciously 


ma'hjasli 




malignant 


m9 / lign9nt 




malt 


molt, molt 




Malta 


'mo'lto, 'molta 




mammal 


'maem^l 




mammals 


'm33m3lz 




man 


maen 




men 


men 




manage 


'maenidj 




manages 


'maeni(^iz 




managed 


'maeni(^d 




managing 


'maenic^irj 




manageable 


'maemc^ab} 




management 


'maemdjmgnt 




manager 


'maBmc^9(r 


'maemdjs 


managers 


'maemc^9z 


'maenK^sz 


Manchester 


'maentfist9(r 


'maentfists, 'maen^ests 


Manchuria 


maen'^uana 


maen'^u-ng 


mandarin 


'maend9rm 






masnda'ri'n 




mandarins 


'maendgnnz 






mssnda'n'nz 





233 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



mandate 

mandates 

mandoline 

mandolines 

maneuver (Amer.) 
(See manoeuvre) 
maneuvers 

maneuvered 
maneuvering 

mangle 

mangles 

mangled 

mangling 
manhood 
mania 

manias 
manifest 

manifests 

manifested 

manifesting 
manifestation 

manifestations 

Manila 
mankind 
manly 
manner 

manners 
manoeuvre (Enghsh) 

(See maneuver) 
manoeuvres 

manoeuvred 
manoeuvring 

man-of-war 

men-of-war 



'maendeit, 'maendit 
'maendeits 
'maendits 
f'maendslm 
tmaenda'lrn 
t'maendglinz 
fmaendo'lrnz 

mo'nju'V9(r 
ma'mrvaz 
m9'nju'V9z 
mo'nu'vod 



maerjgl 

maeggjz 

masrjgld 

'maenglir) 
'maenhud 
'meini.9, 'memJ9 

'memi9z, 'memjgz 
'maenifest 

'maemfests 

'maemfsstid 

'maenifestii) 
maenifes'teij^n 
maemfgs'teij'pn 

maemfes'teij^nz 



ma'nilo 

maen'kaind 

'maenh 



'maenoz 



'maen9v'woa{r 



mo'nu'vsz 



ma'nju-vsd 



'maens 
'maensz 

mg'nju'v 
ma'nu'vsz 
ma'nju'vez 

ma'nju'vad 



maenav wo 
'menav'wos 



t See Note 30, p. xxxv. in Introduction. 
234 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



manufactory 


maenj u'faektm 




manufactories 


maenj u'f aekteriz 




manufacture 


maenj u'faektfafr 


maenj u'faektf 


manufactures 


maenj u'f aektf oz 


maenj u'faektfsz 


manu f actured 


maenj u'f aektfod 


maenj u'f aektf sd 


manu f acturing 


maenj u'f 3ekt)>rirj 




manufacturer 


maenj u'f aektf diz (r 


maenj u'f aektf ?ra 


manufacturers 


maenj u'f aektf sraz 


maenj u ' f aektf ^raz 


manuscript 


'maenj uskript 




manuscripts 


'maenj uskripts 




many 


'mem 




map 


maep 




maps 


maeps 




mapped 


maept 




mapping 


'maepirj 




maple 


'meipj 




maples 


'meipjz 




marble 


'ma'b} 


'masbj 


marbles 


'ma'bjz 


'masbjz 


march 


ma'tf 


ma?>tf 


marches 


'ma'tfiz 


'mastfiz 


marched 


ma-tft 


mastft 


marching 


'ma'tfirj 


'mastfirj 


mare 


mea(r 


mes 


mares 


m9Z 


meQz 


Margaret 


'ma-gsrit 


'maagarit 


margin 


'ma-djm 


'masc^in 


margins 


'ma'djmz 


'mas(^inz 


marine 


ma'ri'n 




mark 


nia-k 


mask 


marks 


ma'ks 


masks 


marked 


ma-kt 


maskt 


marking 


'ma-kirj 


'maskirj 


market 


'ma 'kit 


'maokit 


markets 


'ma 'kits 


'maskits 


marketed 


'ma-kitid 


'maskitid 


marketing 


'ma'kitir) 


'maskitirj 


marketable 


'ma-kitabj 


'maskitsb} 


markings 


'ma'kirjz 


'maskirjz 


marmalade 


'ma'm^leid 


'masm^leid 


marquis 


'ma'kwis 


'maskwis 


marquises 


'ma'kwisiz 


'maskwisiz 


marriage 


'maeric^ 




marriages 


'maeric^iz 




marry 


'maeri 




marries 


'maeriz 




married 


'maend 





235 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



marrying 


'maerur) 




[arseilles 


ma'seilz 


mas'seilz 


larsh 


ma-/ 


masj 


marshes 


'ma'Jiz 


'masjiz 


marshal 


'ma'J>l 


'masj^l 


marshals 


'ma'Jplz 


'masj2>lz 


Lartyr 


'ma'ta(r 


'mast 


martyrs 


'ma'tsz 


'mastsz 


Larvel 


'ma-v} 


'masvj 


marvels 


'ma ? vjz 


'mas v}z 


tarvellous 


'ma'vzlas 


'masvilas 


larvellously 


'ma-vdasli 


'masvzlasli 


tary 


'raesn 


'ms'ri 


tasculine 


'maeskjuhn 




task 


ma'sk 


ma'sk 


masks 


ma'sks 


ma'sks 


lason 


'meisn 




masons 


'meisnz 




tasonry 


'meisnri 




tasquerade 


masko'reid 






msesko'retd 




masquerades 


masko'reidz 






maesks'reidz 




masqueraded 


maska'reidid 






maeska'reidid 




masquerading 


maska'reidirj 






maeska'reidirj 




Lass 


mass 




masses 


'maesiz 




.assachusetts 


maesa'tfu'ssts 




assacre 


^nas9ka(r l S 


'maesoks 


massacres 


'maesakoz 


'maesaksz 


massacred 


'maesQkad 


'msesaksd 


massacring 


'maes^k^rirj 




as sage 


mae'sa'3 






'maesa3 




massages 


mae'sa-3iz 




massaged 


mae'sa'3d 




massaging 


mS 3l r, 




assive 


'maesiv 




ast 


ma'St 


ma'st 


masts 


ma'sts 


ma'sts 


aster 


'ma f sta(r 


'ma f st 



236 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



masters 


'moi'Staz 


'ma-stsz 


mastered 


'ma'stad 


'ma-stsd 


mastering 


'ma-stprirj 


'ma'stprirj 


masterful 


'ma-staful 


'ma'staful 


masterly 


'ma -stall 


'ma'stsh 


masterpiece 


'ma-stapis 


'ma'Stspis 


masterpieces 


'ma'stapisiz 


'ma'stapisiz 


mastery 


'ma'stm 


'ma'st^ri 


mat 


maet 




mats 


maets 




match 


maetf 




matches 


'mastfiz 




matched 


maetft 




matching 


'maetfirj 




match-box 


'maetfbDks 


'mastpDaks 


match-boxes 


'maetfbDksiz 


'maetfbaksiz 


matchless 


'maetflis 




mate 


meit 




mates 


meits 




material 


mo'tianal 


mo'tiTial 


materials 


ma'tiarialz 


ma'trnalz 


materialism 


ma'tianalizm 


ma'ti'riohzrn 


materialist 


mo'tianahst 


ma'ti'riolist 


materialists 


ma'tianalists 


ma'ti-riohsts 


materialistic 


matiana'hstik 


matina'hstik 


materially 


ma'tianah 


mo'trnali 


maternal 


ma'ts'n} 


ma'tssn] 


mathematical 


maeBi'maetik^l 




mathematically 


maRo^ mafti-kpl 
iTiaBBi'msptik^li 




mathematician 


masB^ m36tik#li 




mathematicians 


iTiaGB^ma "tjj^n 
maeBima't i JVnz 




mathematics 


maeBi'maetiks 






maeO^'maBtiks 




matriculate 


ma'trikjuleit 




matriculates 


ma'trikjuleits 




matriculated 


ma'trikjuleitid 




matriculating 


ma'trikjuleitirj 




matriculation 


niatrikj u'lei/^n 




matriculations 


matrikju'leipnz 




matter 


'maeta(r 


'maets 


matters 


'maetaz 


'maetsz 


mattered 


'msetad 


'maetsd 


mattering 


'maetdni) 




237 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



Matthew 


'maeGju 




matting 


'maetir) 




mattress 


'maetns 




mattresses 


'maetrisiz 




mauve 


mouv 




maxim 


'maeksim 




maxims 


'maeksimz 




may 


mei 




mayn't 


memt 




might 


mart 




mightn't 


maitnt 




May 


mei 




maybe 


'mei'bi 1 




mayor 


mea(r 


mei 


mayors 


rneaz 


meisz 


me 


mi' sf, mi, m\wfs. 




meadow 


'medou 




meadows 


'msdouz 




meal 


mi'l 




meals 


mrlz 




mean 


mi-n 




meaner 


'nn'na(r 


'mi-ns 


meanest 


'mrmst 




means 


mi'nz 




meant 


ment 




meaning 


'mi'nirj 




meanings 


'mi-ninz 




meanly 


'mi'nh 




meanness 


'mrnms 




means, noun 


mi-nz 




meantime 


'mrn'taim 




meanwhile 


'mi-n'/zwail 


- 


measurable 


'mcs^rab} 




measure 


'me39(r 


A me3 


measures 


'me39z 


'me3sz 


measured 


'me33d 


'me3d 


measuring 


'ms39rtr) 




measurement 


'ms39ni9nt 


'ni639m9nt 


measurements 


'msssmants 


'ms3mants 


meat 


mi-t 




mechanic 


mi'kaenik 


f 


mechanics 


mi'kaeniks 




mechanical 


mi'ksenik^l 




mechanically 


mi'kaemkph 




mechanism 


'msk^nizm 




mechanisms 


'msk^mzmz 




medal 


'med} 





238 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



medals 


'medjz 




meddle 


'medj 




meddles 


'medjz 




meddled 


'med}d 




meddling 


'medhn, 'medJm 




meddler 


'media (r, 'med}9(r 


'media 


meddlers 


'medloz, 'medfcz 


'medlsz 


mediaeval 


medt'i'v}, midi'i'vj 




medical 


'medik^l 




medically 


'medik^h 




medicinal 


mi'disml 




medicinally 


mi'dism^h 




medicine 


'msdism 




medicines 


'msdzssn?.. 




medieval 


medi''i'v}, midi'pv} 




meditate 


'mediteit 




meditates 


'mediteits 




meditated 


'mcditeitid 




meditating 


'msditeitir) 




meditation 


msdt'teij^n 




meditations 


mcdi'teijpnz 




Mediterranean 


medita'remjon 




medium 


'mi'diam, 'mi'djam 




media 


'mi'dia 




mediums 


'mi'diamz 






'mrdpmz 




meek 


mi'k 




meeker 


'mi'ka(r 


'mi'ke 


meekest 


'mi'kist 




meekly 


'mrkli 




meekness 


'mrkms 




meet 


mi't 




meets 


mi'ts 




met 


met 




meeting 


'mrtirj 




meetings 


'mi' tin z 




melancholy 


t'melankali 


'melsnkali 




t'mslankah 




Melbourne 


'melban, 'mslbon 


'melbsn, 'melbosn 


melodious 


mi'loudps 




melody 


f'meladi 




melodies 


f msladiz 




melon 


'melon 




melons 


'melonz 




melt 


melt 





f See Note 30, p. xxxv. in Introduction. 
239 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



melts 


melts 




melted 


'meltid 




melting 


'meltir) 




member 


'membo(r 


'membo 


members 


'mernbaz 


'memboz 


memorable 


fmemzrabj 




memorize 


f'memaraiz 




memorizes 


f'memaraiziz 




memorized 


f memoraizd 




memorizing 


j'memoramrj 




memory 


f'mem^n 




memories 


f'memmz 




MEN, plur o/man 


men 




menagerie 


mi'naedjart 






mi'na'd$ari 




menageries 


mi'naed$ariz 




mend 


mend 




mends 


mendz 




mended 


'mendid 




mending 


'mendirj 




MEN-OF-WAR, plut. 


'menDv'woa(r 


'mensv'wos 


o/man- of -war 






mental 


'mentj 




mentally 


'ment^li 




mentality 


men'taeliti 




mention 


'menj>n 


'men/J^n 


mentions 


'menj^nz 


'men(j>nz 


mentioned 


'men/^nd 


'menfjsnd 


mentioning 


'menj^niri 


'men/J^nirj 


mercenary 


'ms'sznari 


'msasznen 


merchant 


'ms-tf^nt 


'msatf^nt 


merchants 


'm3'tf^nts 


'msetfznts 


merciful 


'ms-siful 


'massiful 


mercifully 


'ms'sifuh, 'ms'sif^h 


'msssifuh, 'massiMi 


merciless 


'ms'silis 


'massilis 


mercilessly 


'ms-silisli 


'msssilish 


mercury 


'ms'kjun, 'ms'kjan 


'msskjun, 'maakjan 


mercy 


'ms'si 


'ni39Sl 


mercies 


'ms'siz 


'msssiz 


mere 


mia(r 


mis 


merest 


miarist 


'mrrist 


merely 


'miah 


'mish 


meridian 


mi'ridian, mi'ridjan 





f See Note 30, p. xxxv. in Introduction. 
240 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



meridians 


mi'ridumz 






mi'ndjonz 




merit 


'merit 




merits 


'merits 




merry 


'men. 




merrier 


'meria(r 


'meris 


merriest 


'merust 




merrily 


'merili 




mess 


mes 




messes 


'mesiz 




message 


'mesid$ 




messages 


'mesid$iz 




messenger 


'mesznd$9(r 


'meszno^o 


messengers 


'mssmcijoz 


'mss2n<%sz 


Messrs. 


'mesaz, 'niesjoz 


'mesoz 


messy 


'mesi 




MET from meet 


met 




metal 


'met} 




metals 


'metjz 




metallic 


mi'taelik 




metaphor 


'metafa(r 


'metofa 


metaphors 


'metafaz 


'metafsz 


metaphoric 


meto'forik 




metaphorically 


mst9'fDnk,?li 




meter 


'mi'ta(r 


'mi'ts 


meters 


'mi'toz 


'mi'taz 


method 


'meGad 




methods 


'meGodz 




methodical 


mi'Godik^l 


mi'Gadik} 


methodically 


mi'GDdikali 


mi'Gadikah 


methodist 


'meGadist 




methodists 


'meGodists 




metre 


'nii r to (r 


'mi'ts 


metres 


'mi'toz 


'mi'tsz 


metric 


'metrik 




Mexican 


'meksikan 




Mexicans 


'meksikanz 




Mexico 


'meksikou 




MICE, plur. of mouse 


mats 




Michael 


'maik^l 




Michigan 


'mijigan 




microbe 


'maikroub 




microbes 


'maikroubz 




microscope 


'maikrsskoup 




microscopes 


'maikraskoups 




microscopic 


maikras'kDpik 


maikros'kapik 


microscopically 


maikros'kDpikah 


maikras'kapikali 



241 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



mlA-, prefix 


mid 




mid- day 


'middei 




middle 


'mid} 




middles 


'midjz 




middle-aged 


'midJ'ei^Jjd 




midnight 


'midnait 




midsummer 


'inidsAm8(r 


'midsAm 


midway 


'mid'wei 




MIGHT from may 


mait 




MiGHTN'T/fow may 


'maitnt 




mightily 


'maitili 




mighty 


'maiti 




mightier 


'maiti9(r 


'maitis 


mightiest 


'maitust 




mild 


maild 




milder 


'mailda(r 


'mailda 


mildest 


'maildist 




mildew 


'mildju 




mildews 


'mildjuz 




mildewed 


'mildjud 




mildewing 


'mildjuir) 




mildly 


'maildh 




mildness 


'maildnis 




mile 


mail 




miles 


mailz 




militarism 


'mihtarizip 




militarist 


'militarist 




militarists 


'militarists 




military 


'miht^ri 


'militen 


milk 


milk 




mill 


mil 




mills 


milz 




miller 


'mila(r 


'mils 


millers 


'milaz 


'milsz 


million 


'miljan 




millions 


'miljanz 




millionaire 


'milj9'nea(r 


'miljd'nes 


millionaires 


'milja'neaz 


'milja'neQz 


millionth 


'miljanG 




millionths 


'miljanGs 




mimic 


'mimik 




mimics 


'mimiks 




mimicked 


'mimikt 




mimicking 


'mimikirj 




mimicry 


'mimikn 




mind 


maind 




minds 


maindz 





242 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



minded 


'mamdid 




minding 


'mamdirj 




mindful 


'mamdful 




mine 


main 




mines 


mainz 




mined 


maind 




mining 


'mamirj 




miner 


'mam9(r 


'mains 


miners 


'mamsz 


'mainsz 


mineral 


'mineral 




minerals 


'mmwv>lz 




minimum 


'mmimoni 




minima 


'minima 




minister 


'mmista(r 


'minis to 


ministers 


'mmist^z 


'mmistoz 


ministry 


'mmistri 




ministries 


'mimstriz 




minor 


'maina(r 


'mains 


minority 


nu'nonti, mai'nDnti 




minorities 


mi'nDritiz 






mai'nDritiz 




minus 


'mainas 




minute, noun 


'minit 




minutes 


'mmits 




minute, adj. 


mai'iiju't, mi'nju't 




minutest 


niai'nju-tist 






mi'nju'tist 




minutely 


mai'nju'tli, mi'njirtli 




minuteness 


mai'nju'tnis 






mi'nju'tnis 




miracle 


'mirokj, 'minkj 




miracles 


'mirakjz, 'mirikjz 




miraculous 


mai'raekjulas 






m/raekjulas 




miraculously 


mai'raekjulobh 






mi'raekjulasli 




mirror 


'mir9(r 


'mirs 


mirrors 


'miraz 


'rmrsz 


mis-, prefix 


mis- 




misbehave 


'misbi'heiv 




misbehaves 


'misbi'heivz 




misbehaved 


'misbi'heivd 




misbehaving 


'misbi'heivirj 




miscalculate 


'mis'kaelkjuleit 




miscalculates 


' m is ' kaelk j uleit s 




miscalculated 


'mis'kaelkj uleitid 




miscalculating 


'mis'kaelkj uleitirj 





243 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 


miscalculation 


'miskaelkj u'lei/pn 




miscalculations 


'rmskaelkj u'leijpnz 




miscellaneous 


miso'lemps 






misi'lemjos 




mischief 


'rmstfif 




mischievous 


'mistfivas 




mischievously 


'mist(ivosh 




misconception 


'miskan'sepj^n 




misconceptions 


'm iskon'sepj>nz 




misconduct, noun 


'mis'kDndskt 


'mis'kandakt 


miser 


'maizo(r 


'maizs 


misers 


'maizaz 


'maizsz 


miserly 


'maizoh 


'maizoli 


miserable 


'rmz^rab} 




miserably 


'mizzrabh 




misery 


'miz;?ri 




misfortune 


rms'fo'tj>n 


mis'fo^tf^n 


misfortunes 


mis'fD'tf^nz 


mis'foQtj'^nz 


misgovern 


mis gAv^n 


'mis'gAvsn 


misgoverns 


'mis'gAvonz 


'rms'gAVsnz 


misgoverned 


'mis'gAvond 


'mis'gAvand 


^misgoverning 


'mis^gAvomrj 


'mis'gAvsnirj 


mis government 


'mis'gAvanmant 


'mis'gAVonmant 


misguided, ad] 


'mis'gaidid 




misinform 


'mism'fo'm 


'mism'fjom 


misinforms 


'mism'fo'mz 


'mism'foomz 


misinformed 


'mism'fo'md 


'mi&m'foomd 


misinforming 


'mism'fo'mirj 


'misin'foomirj 


misinterpret 


'misin'ts-prit 


'misin'tssprit 


misinterprets 


'misin'ts-prits 


'misin'tssprits 


misinterpreted 


'misin r t3'pritid 


'misin'tsspntid 


misinterpreting 


'misin'ts'pritirj 


'm ism't3pritirj 


misinterpretation 


'mismtspri'tetj^n 


'mismtsspri'teij^n 


misinterpretations 


'mistntspri'teipnz 


'misints^pri'teij^nj 


mislay 


'mis'lei 




mislays 


'mis'leiz 




mislaid 


'mis'leid 




mislaying 


'mis'leurj 




mislead 


'mis'li'd 




misleads 


'mis'li'dz 




misled 


'mis'led 




misleading 


'mis'li'duj 




mismanage 


'mis'maenKi; 




mismanages 


'mis'maenic^iz 




mismanaged 


'mis'maenic|d 




mismanaging 


'mis'maemdsir) 




mismanagement 


'mis'maeni<^mant 1 


244 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



misprint 


'mis'prmt 




misprints 


'mis'prmts 




mispronounce 


'mispra'nauns 




mispronounces 


'mispro'naunsiz 




mispronounced 


'mispro'naunst 




mispronouncing 


'mispro'iiatrnsirj 




mispronunciation 


'm ispranAnsi'ei/Pii 




mispronunciations 


'rnispranAnsi'eif^nz 




misread 


'mis'ri-d 




misreads 


'mis'ri-dz 




misread 


'mis'rsd 




misreading 


'mis'rrdirj 




misrepresent 


'misrepri'zent 




misrepresents 


'misrepn'zents 




misrepresented 


'm isrepri'zentid 




misrepresenting 


'misrepri'zentirj 




misrepresentation 


'misreprizsn'teipn 






'misrspriz^n'teij^n 




misrepresentations 


'misrsprizen 'tetpnz 






'misrepriz^n'teijjmz 




Miss 


mis s/, mis w j 




miss 


mis 




misses 


'misiz 




missed 


'mist 




missing, adj. 


'misirj 




mission 


'mij^n 




missions 


'mipnz 




missionary 


'mifpn^n 


'mijansri 


missionaries 


'miji?n^riz 


'mijaneriz 


misspell 


'mis'spel 




misspells 


'mis'spelz 




misspelled 


'mis'spelt 




misspelt 


'mis'spelt 




misspelling 


'mis'spelirj 




misspellings 


'mis'spslirjz 




mist 


mist 




mists 


mists 




mistake 


mis'teik 




mistakes 


mis'teiks 




mistook 


mis'tuk 




mistaken 


mis'teik^n 




mistaking 


mis'teikuj 




mistakenly 


mis'teik^nh 




mistranslate 


'mistrans'leit 


'mistrans'leit 




'mistraens'leit 




mistranslates 


' m istrans'leits 


'm istrans'leits 




'mistraens'leits 





245 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 


mistranslated 


'mistrans'leitid 


'mistrans'leitid 




'mistraens'leitid 




mistranslating 


'mistrans'leitirj 


'm istrans'leitirj 




'mistraens'leitirj 




mistranslation 


'mistrans'leij^ii 


'mistrans'leij^n 




'niistraens'lctjan 




mistranslations 


'mistrans'leij>nz 


'mistrans'lei/^nz 




'mistraens'leifsnz 




mistress 


'nustris 




mistresses 


'mistrisiz 




mistrust 


'mis'trAst 




mistrusts 


'mis'trAsts 




mistrusted 


'rms'trAStid 




mistrusting 


'mis'trAStirj 




misty 


'niisti 




misunderstand 


'm isAndo'stsend 


'miSAnds'staend 


misunderstands 


'miSAnda'staendz 


'miSAnds'staendz 


misunderstood 


'miSAnda'stud 


'miSAnds'stud 


misunderstanding 


'miSAnda'staendirj 


'miSAnds'staendirj 


misunderstandings 


'miSAnds'staendinz 


' m is Ands 'staendirj i 


misuse, noun 


'mis'ju'S 




misuse, verb 


'mis'ju'z 




misuses 


'mis'ju'ziz 




misused 


'mis'ju'zd 




misusing 


'mis'ju'zirj 




mix 


miks 




mixes 


'miksiz 




mixed 


mikst 




mixing 


'miksirj 




mixture 


'mikstfo^ 


'mikstfej 


mixtures 


'mikstfaz 


'mikstfaz 


mob 


mob 


mab 


mobs 


rrmbz 


mabz 


mobilization 


moubilai'zei/^n 




mobilizations 


moubilai'zeij^nz 




mobilize 


'moubilaiz 




mobilizes 


'moubilaiziz 




mobilized 


'moubilaizd 




mobilizing 


'moubilaizirj 




mock 


mDk 


mak 


mocks 


mDks 


maks 


mocked 


mokt 


makt 


mocking 


'mDkirj 


'makirj 


mockery 


'mokori 


'mak^rt 


model 


'modi 


'madj 


models 


'mDd}z 


'madjz 


modelled 


'mDdjd 


'madjd 


246 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



modelling 


'imodjir) 


'madjir) 


moderate, adj. 


'mod^nt 


'madzrit 


moderate, verb 


'mudareit 


'madareit 


moderates 


'mudareits 


'madareits 


moderated 


'niDdareitid 


'madareitid 


moderating 


'mudareitir) 


'madareitir) 


moderately 


'mDdzritli 


'moxbritli 


moderation 


mDda'reiJ<?n 


mada'reij^n 


modern 


'mDd^n 


'madsn 


modest 


'mDdist 


'madist 


modestly 


'mDdisth 


'madistli 


modesty 


'nmdisti 


'madisti 


modification 


modifi'keipn 


madifi'keijs'n 


modifications 


modifi'ketfanz 


madifi'keijpnz 


modify 


'muchfai 


'madifai 


modifies 


'mDdifdiz 


'madifaiz 


modified 


'mixlifaid 


'madifaid 


modifying 


'niDdifaiir) 


'madifaiii) 


modifier 


'm.Ddifai3(r 


'madifaia 


modifiers 


'mudifaiaz 


'madifaisz 


Mohammedan 


ms'hDmid^n 






mou'haemid^n 




Mohammedans 


ma'hDmid^nz 






mou'haemidpnz 




moist 


moist 




moister 


'moisto(r 


'moists 


moistest 


'moistist 




moisten 


'moisi^ 




moistens 


'moisnz 




moistened 


'moisnd 




moistening 


'moisnii), 'moismr) 




moistness 


'moistnis 




moisture 


'moistfo(r 


'moistfa 


mold, Amer. 


mould 




molds 


mouldz 




molded 


'mouldid 




molding 


'mouldirj 




moldy (Amer.} 


'mouldi 




molecule 


'mouhkjul, 'mDhkjul 


'mahkjul 


molecules 


'mouhkjulz 






'mohkjulz 


'malikjulz 


moment 


'moumsnt 




moments 


'moumants 




monarch 


'monak . 


'mansk 


monarchs 


'monaks 


'mansks 


monarchy 


'monaki 


'manski 


monarchies 


'mDnakiz 


'manskiz 


247 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



monastery 


'mDnostri 


'manasteri 


monasteries 


'niDnastriz 


'manastsriz 


Monday 


'niAndi 




Mondays 


'niAndiz 




money 


'UlAHl 




Mongolia 


mDn'gouljo 


man'gouljo 




mDrj'gouha 


marj'gouho 


Mongolian 


mDrj'gouljan 


man'goulpn 




marj'gouhon 


man'goulion 


monk 


mArjk 




monks 


mArjks 




monkey 


'mArjki 




monkeys 


'mArjkiz 




monopolize 


ma'nDp^laiz 


mo'nap^laiz 


monopolizes 


mo'nup<?latziz 


ma'nap^laiziz 


monopolized 


mo'nnp^laizd 


mo'nap^laizd 


monopolizing 


mo'iiDp^kuzu) 


ma'nQp^laizir) 


monopoly 


mo nuppli 


ma'nQp^li 


monopolies 


nio'nDp^liz 


mo'napdliz 


monosyllabic 


'munasi'laebik 


'manosi'laebik 


monosyllable 


'rnDnosilobj 


'manosilab} 


monosyllables 


'mon^silsbjz 


'manasilobjz 


monotonous 


mo'nutpnos 


ms'nat^nas 


monotonously 


mo'nDt^nosli 


ma'nat^nash 


monotony 


mo'iiDt f ?m 


mo'nat^m 


monster 


'mi)nst^(r 


'manste 


monsters 


'monstoz 


'manstsz 


monstrosity 


mons'trositi 


mans'trasiti 


monstrosities 


muns'trusitiz 


mans'trasitiz 


monstrous 


'monstras 


'manstros 


month 


niAnO 




months 


mAn8s 




monthly 


'mAn91i 




Montreal 


niDntri'o'l 


mantri'o-l 


monument 


'mDnjumgnt 




monuments 


'niDnjumonts 






'munjomsnts 




mood 


mu'd 




moods 


mu'dz 




moon 


imrn 




moonlight 


'mu'nlait 




moor 


moa(r, ma'(r, mua(r 


mu3 


moors 


moaz, rno-z, musz 


musz 


moored 


moad, mo'd, muad 


musd 


mooring 


'moarirj, 'mo-rir) 


'muTirj 




'muarirj 





248 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 


moral 


'moral 




morality 


fma'raeliti 




morally 


'muroli 




morals 


'niDralz 




morbid 


'mo 'bid 


'mosbid 


more 


rno'(r, ma9(r 


moa 


moreover 


mo'rouvo(r 


mou'rouvs 


morning 


'mo ' nir) 


'mosnirj 


mornings 


'mo'ninz 


'mosmnz 


Morocco 


ma'rokou 


ma'rakou 


mortal 


'ino't} 


'mDst} 


mortals 


'mo'tjz 


'mostlz 


mortality 


mo'taphti 


mos'taehti 


mortally 


'm,vtr?li 


'mostoli 


mortified 


'mo'tilaid 


'nu?^tifaid 


Moscow 


'muskou 


'muskou 


mosquito 


mas'krtou 






mos'ki'tou 




mosquitoes 


mas'krtouz 






mDs'krtouz 




moss 


mDs 




most 


moust 




mostly 


'mous/h 




moth 


mD0, moO 




moths 


moOs, mo0s, mo'dz 




mother 


'mA9o(r 


'niA6^ 


mothers 


'niAOoz 


'mAdez 


mother-in-law 


'niAd^rmlj 




mother-m-laws or 


'niAd^rmloz 




mothers-in-law 


'niA^ozmlo 


'niAdazinlo 


motion 


'moupn 




motions 


'mouJVnz 




motive 


'moutiv 




motives 


'moutivz 




motor 


'inouto(r 


'mouto 


motors 


'moutoz 


'moutsz 


motor-car 


'mout3ka(r 


'moutska?) 


motor-cars 


'moutokaz 


'moutskasz 


motto 


'motou 


'matou 


mottos 


'motouz 


'matouz 


mould 


mould 




moulds 


mouldz 




moulded 


'mouldid 




moulding 


' mould ir) 




mouldy 


'mouldi 





f See Note 30, p. xxxv in Introduction. 
249 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



mount 


maunt 




mounts 


maunts 




mounted 


'mauntid 




mounting 


'maimtirj 




mountain 


'mauntin 




mountains 


'mairntmz 




mountainous 


'mauntmas 




mourn 


mo'n, moan 


mosn 


mourns 


rno-nz, moanz 


mosnz 


mourned 


mo'nd, moand 


mosnd 


mourning 


'mo-nirj, 'moamrj 


'mosnirj 


mourner 


'mo'nsfr, 'moan a (r 


'moans 


mourners 


'mo-noz, 'moanaz 


'monz 


mouse 


maus 




mice 


mais 




moustache 


mos'tQ'J, mus'tcrf 


mas'ta-J, mus'ta'J 


moustaches 


mas'ta'Jiz 


mas'ta'/iz 




mus'ta'Jiz 


mus'ta'Jvz 


mouth 


mauG 




mouths 


mau5z 




mouthful 


'mau0ful 




mouthfuls 


'mauGfulz 




movable 


'mu'vab} 




move 


mu'v 




moves 


mu'vz 




moved 


mu'vd 




moving 


'mu'virj 




movement 


'mu'vmant 




movements 


'mu'vmants 




Mr. 


'mista(r 


'miste 


Mrs. 


'misiz 




much 


mAtf 




mud 


mAd 




muddle 


r mAd} 




muddles 


'mAd}z 




muddled 


'mAdjd 




muddling 


'mAdlirj, 'mAdJirj 




muddy 


'mAdi 




mule 


mju'l 




mules 


mju'lz 




multiple 


'mAltipJ 




multiples 


'mAltipJz 




multiplication 


mAltipli'keiJ^n 




multiply 


'mAltiplai 




multiplies 


'mAltiplaiz 




multiplied 


'mAltiplaid 




multiplying 


'mAltiplaiirj 





250 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



mumble 


'mAmb} 




mumbles 


'niAmbJz 




mumbled 


'mAmbjd 




mumbling 


'mAmblirj 




mummy 


'm^ m 




mummies 


'mAmiz 




municipal 


mju'nisippl 




murder 


'm3'd9(r 


'mssds 


murders 


m.3 *d9z 


'mssdsz 


murdered 


m.3'd9d 


'mssdod 


murdering 


'ms'dmr) 


'mssd^rirj 


murderer 


m.3 * dor9 (r 


'mssdgrs 


murderers 


rn.3'dr)r9z 


'mssdorsz 


murmur 


'ms'rn9(r 


'mstsmQ 


murmurs 


'ms'inoz 


'mssmsz 


murmured 


'm3'm9d 


'mssmsd 


murmuring 


'ms'mmrj 


'msQmmrj 


muscle 


'm.As} 




muscles 


'mAS|z 




muscular 


'mAsk J "l3(r 


'niAskjuls 

mAS J9 3 


museum 


mju'zi'9m 






mju'ziom 




museums 


mju'zi'9mz 






mju'ziamz 




mushroom 


'mAjrum 




mushrooms 


'mA/rumz 




music 


'mju'zik 




musical 


'mju'zik^l 




musically 


'mju'zik9h 




musician 


mju'zijpn 




musicians 


mju'zifs>nz 




muslin 


'mAzlm 




must 


mASt s./., 






m9S/, ms/w fs. 




mustn't 


'mAsn/ 




mustard 


'm.Ast9d 


'mAsted 


mutton 


'mAtn 




mutual 


'mju'tjual 




mutually 


'mju'tju9li 




muzzle 


'mAz} 




muzzles 


'mAz)z 




muzzled 


'mAzJd 




muzzling 


'mAzlirj, 'mAzJtrj 




my 


mai s./., 






mi occ. w.f. 





261 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variant* 


myself 

mysterious 
mysteriously 
mystery 

mysteries 
myth 
myths 


mai'self & ./. 
mi'self w.f. 
mis'tianos 
mis'tianash 
'mistm 

mi9, mai6 
mi9s, mai9s 


mis'trrids 
nus'tiTiash 



N 


N 


en 


N's 


enz 


nail 


neil 


nails 


neilz 


nailed 


neild 


nailing 


'neihrj 


naked 


'neikid 


name 


neim 


names 


neimz 


named 


neimd 


naming 


'neimu) 


nameless 


'neimlis 


namely 


'neimli 


napkin 


'naepkm 


napkins 


'naepkmz 


narrative 


'naerativ 


narratives 


'naerativz 


narrow 


'naerou 


narrower 


'n2erou9(r 


narrowest 


'naerouist 


narrows 


'naerouz 


narrowed 


'naeroud 


narrowing 


'naerouir) 


narrowly 


'naerouli 


narrow-minded 


'naerou'mamdid 


narrowness 


'naerounis 


nasal 


'neiz^l 


nasty 


'ncrsti 


nastier 


'na'sti9(r 


nastiest 


'na-stust 


nastily 


'na 1 still 


nastiness 


'na'stmis 


nation 


'neij^n 


nations 


'nei/^nz 


national 


'naej^n} 



'na-sti 
'na*sti 
'na'stust 
'na'Stili 
'na'stmis 



262 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



nationally 

nationalism 

nationality 

nationalities 
native 

natives 
natural 
naturally 
naturalist 

naturalists 
naturalization 
naturalize 

naturalizes 
naturalized 
naturalizing 

nature 

natures 
naught 

naughts 
naughty 

naughtier 

naughtiest 
naughtily 
naughtiness 
nautical 
naval 
navigable 
navigate 

navigates 

navigated 

navigating 
navigation 
navigator 

navigators 
navy 

navies 
near 

nearer 

nearest 

nears 



naeja'naelvti 
nseja'naehtiz 

'neitiv 
'neitivz 



'naetj>r9h 

'naetfurghst 

'naet|>r9list 
'naetfurghsts 
'naetj^rghsts 

n<Ttfuralai'zeiJ>n 



'naptfuralaiz 
'naetfzrolaiz 
'naetfuralaiziz 



'naetfurslaizd 
'nae^rglaizd 



'neitf9z 
no-t 

no'ts 
'no-ti 

'no'tust 
'no-till 
'no'tmis 



'naevigeit 
'naevigeits 
'naevigeitvd 
'naevigeitirj 

naevi'geij^n 

'naevigeit9(r 
'neivigeit9z 

'netvi 
'neiviz 

nio(r 



'niarist 
nwz 



'neitfa 
'neitfaz 



'no 'tis 



'naevigeits 
'naevigeitsz 



mo 
'ni'rist 



253 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



neared 


mad 


nisd 


nearmg 


'marirj 


'niTir] 


nearly 


'moli 


'nislt 


nearness 


'moms 


'mams 


near-sighted 


'mo'saitid 


'ma'saitid 


neat 


ni-t 




neater 


'ni-ta(r 


'ni'ts 


neatest 


'ni'tist 




neatly 


'm-th 




neatness 


'ni'tnis 




necessarily 


'nesismli, 'nesas^rih 






'nssisenli 




necessary 


'11SSIS2TI, 'llEbOScm 






'nesissn 




necessaries 


'nesis;mz, 'nssosmz 






'nesisenz 




necessitate 


m'sssiteit 




necessitates 


ni'sssiteits 




necessitated 


m'sesiteitid 




necessitating 


m'sssiteitirj 




necessity 


m'seszti 




necessities 


ni'sssztiz 




neck 


nek 




necks 


nsks 




necklace 


'neklis 




necklaces 


'neklisiz 




neck- tie 


'nsktai 




neck-ties 


'nektaiz 




need 


nrd 




needs 


ni-dz 




needed 


'ni'did 




needing 


'ni'dtrj 




needn't 


'ni'dnt 




needful 


'ni'dful 




needle 


'ni'd} 




needles 


'm-d}z 




needless 


'ni'dlis 




needlessly 


'ni'dhsli 




needlework 


'nrdjwsk 


'ni'djwsak 


NEEDN'T from need 


'ni'dnt 




negative 


'nsgativ 




negatives 


'negativz 




negatively 


'nsgativli 




neglect 


ni'glekt 




neglects 


m'glekts 




neglected 


m'glektid 




neglecting 


ni'glektirj 





254 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



neglectful 


m'glektlul 




neglectfully 


m'glektfuh 






ni'glektfoh 




negligence 


'nsglicfe^ns 




negligent 


'neghdj^nt 




negligently 


'neglid$2nth 




negligible 


'neghd$ib} 




negotiate 


m'gTnrJieit 




negotiates 


ni'goufievts 




negotiated 


m'goujieitid 




negotiating 


m'goujieitirj 




negotiation 


mgouJYeif^n 




negotiations 


mgouJYeifsnz 




negress 


'm-gris 




negresses 


'nrgnsiz 




negro 


'nrgrou 




negroes 


'nrgrouz 




neighbor (Amer.) 






neighbour 


'neiba(r 


'neib 


neighbors (Amer.} 






neighbours 


'neibaz 


'neibsz 


neighborhood (Amer.) 






neighbourhood 


'neibahud 


'neibshud 


neighborhoods (Am ) 






neighbourhoods 


'neibahudz 


'neibshudz 


neighborly (Amer.) 






neighbourly 


'neibQh 


'neibsh 


neither 


'nai69(r, 'ni'89(r 


'naids, 'ni'da 


Nellie or Nelly 


'nsli 




nephew 


'nevju, 'nsfju 




nephews 


'nevjuz, 'nsfjuz 




nerve 


113 'V 


1138V 


nerves 


na'vz 


I133VZ 


nervous 


'ns'vss 


'nssvas 


nervously 


'n3'V9Sll 


'n39V9sll 


nest 


nest 




nests 


nests 




net 


net 




nets 


nets 




Netherlands 


'neQ^lendz 


'nedatondz 


netting 


'nettrj 




neuralgia 


nju9'rael<%;9 






njos'rael^'a 




neuter 


'nju-t3(r 


'nju'ta 


neuters 


'nju'taz 


'nju'tsz 


neutral 


'nju'tral 




neutrals 


'nju'trolz 





255 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 


neutrality 


nju'traeliti 




never 


'neva(r 


'nevs 


nevertheless 


nevpfto'les 


'nevoQo'les 


new 


nju 1 




newer 


'nju-9(r 


'nju's 


newest 


'njirist 




newly 


'njirli 




newcomer 


'nju''kAmo(r 


'nju-'kAma 


newcomers 


'njir'kAmoz 


'njii'^kAmsz 


news, sing. 


njirz 




newspaper 


'njirspeip9(r 


'nju'speips 




'njirzpeipa(r 


'nju'zpeipo 


newspapers 


'njirspeipaz 


'nju'Speipsz 




'njirzpeipoz 


'njirzpeipaz 


New York 


'njir'p'k 


'nju ( 'JD9k 


New Zealand 


nju'zrtend 




next 


nekst 




nice 


nais 




nicer 


'nais3(r 


'naiss 


nicest 


'naisist 




nicely 


'naisli 




niceness 


'naisnis 




nicety 


'naisiti 




niceties 


'naisitiz 




Nicholas 


'nikslas 




nickel 


'nikj 




nickels 


'nikjz 




nickname 


'nikneim 




nicknames 


'niknevmz 




niece 


lll'S 




nieces 


'nrsiz 




night 


nait 




nights 


naits 




nightly 


'naitli 




Nile 


nail 




nine 


nain 




nineteen 


'nain'trn 




nineteenth 


'nain'ti-nO 




nineteenths 


'nain'ti'nOs 




ninetieth 


'nainttiO 




ninetieths 


'nainttiGs 




ninety 


'nainti 




ninth 


nainG 




ninths 


nainGs 




nitrogen 


'naitracljan 




no 


nou 




noble 


'noubj 




256 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



nobles 


'noubjz 




nobler 


'noubla (r 


'noubls 


noblest 


'noublist 




nobleman 


'noubjman 




noblemen 


'noubjmon 




nobleness 


'noubjms 




nobly 


'noubh 




nobody 


'noubf>di, 'noubodi 


'noubadi 


nod 


nDd 


nad 


nods 


iiudz 


nadz 


nodded 


'nudul 


'nad id 


nodding 


'iiDdirj 


'nad IT) 


noise 


noiz 




noises 


'n oiziz 




noiseless 


'noizhs 




noiselessly 


'noizhsli 




noisy 


'noizi 




noisier 


'rioi7u->(r 


'nDizia 


noisiest 


'noizust 




noisily 


'noizih 




nominal 


'numm} 


'naminj 


nominate 


'iiDininett 


'nammeit 


nominates 


'nununcits 


'nammeits 


nominated 


'iiDmineitid 


'iiammeitid 


nominating 


'nummeitir) 


'namineitirj 


nomination 


nDmi'neiJpn 


nami'neij^n 


nominations 


nDmi'neiJ^nz 


nami'neif^nz 


non, ne% prefix 


non 


nan 


none 


11A11 




nonsense 


'npns^ns 


'nans^ns, 'nanssns 


nonsensical 


ni)n'bensikr?l 


nan'sensik^l 


noon 


nti'ii 




noose 


nirs, nu'z 




nooses 


'nu'siz, 'nu'ziz 




nor 


no f (r s /", no(r w /. 


nr>3 sf,n.9wf. 


normal 


'n:)-m^l 


'noam^l 


normally 


'no moli 


'nDsmali 


north 


no'0 


nosO 


north-east 


'nD'0'rst 


'noaO'rst 


northerly 


'no'5oli 


'nosGoh 


northern 


'no'6an 


'no36sn 


northward 


'no'Owad 


'nosOwsd 


northwards 


"no'Bwadz 


'no30wsdz 


north-west 


/ n:)'f3'wsst 


'nosO'west 


Norway 


'no'wei 


'no3wei 


Norwegian 


no'wrd^n 


noo'wi'^n 


Norwegians 


no'wr^nz 


nog'wi'^nz 



267 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 


nose 


nouz 




noses 


'nouziz 




not 


not 


nat 




nt, after finite s ending 






in a vowel 






nt, after finite s ending 






in a consonant 




notably 


'noutabh 




notation 


nou'teij>n 




notations 


nou'teifmz 




note 


nout 




notes 


nouts 




noted 


'noutid 




noting 


'noutirj 




nothing 


'nA0ir) 




notice 


'noutis 




notices 


'noutisiz 




noticed 


'noutist 




noticing 


'noutisiT) 




noticeable 


'noutisob} 




notification 


noutifi'keij^n 




notifications 


noutifi'keiJVnz 




notify 


'noutifai 




notifies 


'noutifaiz 




notified 


'noutifaid 




notifying 


'noutifaur) 




notion 


'nouj^n 




notions 


'noujsnz 




notorious 


nou'to'rias 


nou'torias 




na'toTias 


ns'torws 


notwithstanding 


nutwiO'staendirj 


natwiG'staenduj 




nDtwid'staenduj 




nought 


no-t 




noughts 


no-ts 




noun 


naun 




nouns 


naunz 




nourish 


'nAnJ 


'nsrij 


nourishes 


'nAriJiz 


'narijiz 


nourished 


'nAnJt 


'nsrijt 


nourishing 


'nAtiJirj 


'nsrijirj 


nourishment 


'nATi/mant 


'nsnjmsnt 


novel 


'nov^l 


'nav^l 


novels 


'nov^lz 


'nav^lz 


novelist 


'novelist 


'novelist 


novelists 


'novelists 


'novelists 


novelty 


'novjtv 


'nav}ti 


novelties 


'nDvJtiz 


'navjtiz 


258 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



November 


no'vemb8(r 


no'vemb 




nou'vemb9(r 


nou'vembs 


novice 


'nDvis 


'navis 


novices 


'novisiz 


'navisiz 


now 


nau 




nowadays 


'nausdeiz 




nowhere 


'nou/twe9(r 




N'T = not 


nt after a vowel, nt 






after a consonant 




nucleus 


'nju'klias 




nuisance 


'nju'sns 




nuisances 


'nju'snsiz 




number 


'n Arabs (r 


'nAmbcD 


numbers 


'nAmboz 


'iiAmbsz 


numbered 


'nAinbod 


'iiAmbsd 


numbering 


'nAmbmrj 




numeral 


'nju-mzrol 




numerals 


'nju'in^rolz 




numerical 


nju'merik^l 




numerous 


'nju'mpros 




nun 


nAn 




nuns 


nAiiz 




nurse 


ns's 


n33S 


nurses 


'ns'Siz 


'nsssiz 


nursed 


ns-st 


nssst 


nursing 


'ns'sirj 


'nsasirj 


nursery 


'ns'Ssri 


'nsasari 


nurseries 


'ns's^riz 


'ns^s^nz 


nut 


nAt 




nuts 


nAts 




nutshell 


'nAtJel 




nutshells 


'nAt/elz 










ou 




O's 


ouz 




oak 


ouk 




oaks 


ouks 




oar 


o-(r,o9(r 


OS 


oars 


O'Z, 08Z 


09Z 


oats 


outs 




oath 


ou9 




oaths 


ou9z, ou9s 




oatmeal 


'outmil 





259 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



obdurate 


'Dbdjunt, ab'djuont 


'abdjunt, 'abdjureit 


obdurately 


'obdj urith 


'abdj urith 




ob'dju9nth 


'abdjureith 


obedience 


o'brdians, ou'brdisns 






9'brdjons, ou'brdjons 




obedient 


s'brdiont, ou'brdiant 






o'brdjant, ou'brdjont 




obediently 


Q'brdjonth 






ou'brdjgntli 




obey 


o'bei, ou'bei 




obeys 


o'beiz, ou'beiz 




obeyed 


o'beid, oti'beid 




obeying 


o'beun, ou'beur) 




object, noun 


'nbc^ikt 


'abt^ikt 


objects 


'obd^ikts 


'abc^ikts 


object, verb 


f9b'<%ekt 




objects 


fob'c^ekts 




objected 


tob'o^ektid 




objecting 


fob'cfcsktiT) 




objection 


tob'o^ekf^n 




objections 


fab'o^ekpnz 




objectionable 


fab^ekj^nobl 




objective 


fob'o^ektiv 




objectively 


job'ctjektivli 




objector 


fob'c^ekt^(r 


jab'c^ekto 


objectors 


j-ob'c^ektoz 


fob^ektaz 


obligation 


Dbli'gciJ<?n 


abh'geij^n 


obligations 


ubli'geipnz 


abli'gtnj^nz 


obligatory 


'ubligotm 


'abliggton 




'obligeiton 


'abligeiton 




fo'bligot^n 


ja'bligoton 


oblige 


ta'blaio^ 




obliges 


\3'b\ai6p.z 




obliged 


ja'blaio^d 




obliging 


fo'blaic^ig 




obligingly 


fo'blaic^inli 




oblique 


ta'bli-k 




obliterate 


fa'bhtoreit 




obliterates 


fo'blitgreits 




obliterated 


fo'bhtoreitid 




obliterating 


fj'bhtoreitirj 




oblivious 


fa'blivias 




oblong 


'oblDrj 


'ablorj 


oblongs 


'oblonz 


'oblonz 


obnoxious 


fab'nDkJas 


fab'nakjas 



f See Note 30, p. xxxv. in Introduction. 
260 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



obnoxiously 


tab'nDkfasli 


fab'nakjash 


obscene 


fob'srn 




obscure 


fob'skjua(r 


fab'skjus 


obscurer 


f9b'skjuaro(r 


fob'skjirrs 


obscurest 


fab'skjuanst 


fab'skju'rist 


obscures 


fab'skjuoz 


J9b'sk]usz 


obscured 


fob's kjuod 


fob'skjusd 


obscuring 


tab'bkjuarirj 


fgb'skju'rii] 


obscurely 


tob'bkjuah 


fob'skjuoli 


obscurity 


fab'skjuoriti 


f^b'skju-riti 


observance 


fob'z3'v;ms 


( - 3b / 'z3Qv^ns 


observant 


fob'zs'vpiit 


fsb^zsov^nt 


observation 


Dbzo'veijs>ii 


abzs'veij^n 


observations 


nbz9'vei|>nz 


abzo'veij^iiz 


observe 


fab'zs'v 


fob'zsov 


observes 


job'zs'vz 


fob'zssvz 


observed 


f ab'zs'vd 


fob'zssvd 


observing 


fob'zs'virj 


fob'zssvir) 


observer 


f9b'z3'vo(r 


fob'zssvs 


observers 


fob'zs'vaz 


f9b'Z93V3Z 


obsolete 


fubsoh't 


f'absoli't 


obstacle 


'ubstok} 


'abstak| 


obstacles 


'obstakjz 


'abstokjz 


obstinacy 


'cibsttnosi 


'abstmabi 


obstinate 


'ubstmit 


'abstinit 


obstinately 


'Dbstimtli 


'abstinitli 


obstruct 


job'strAkt 




obstructs 


f^b'strAkts 




obstructed 


j-ab'strAktvd 




obstructing 


fob'strAktir) 




obstruction 


job'strAkJ^n 




obstructions 


fab'strAkJ^nz 




obtain 


jab'tein 




obtains 


job'teinz 




obtained 


t^b'teind 




obtaining 


fab'teinir) 




obtainable 


fob'teinobj 




obtuse 


jab'tju'S 




obviate 


'obvieit 


'abvieit 


obviates 


'obvieits 


'abvieits 


obviated 


'obviettid 


'abvieitid 


* obviating 


'obvieitirj 


'abvteitirj 


obvious 


'obvias 


'abvies 




Vbvjab 


'abvjas 


obviously 


Dbviaslt, 'obvjosli 


'abviosh, 'abvjaslt 



f See Note 30, p. xxxv. in Introduction. 
261 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



obviousness 


'Dbviasms, 'Dbvjosms 


'abviasnis, 'abvjasnvs 


occasion 


fa'kevj^n 




occasions 


fa'ker^nz 




occasioned 


to'kei3<md 




occasioning 


t^'kei33nirj 




occasional 


fo'kev^n] 




occasionally 


!a'kei32n2li 




occupant 


'okjupaiit 


'akji/pont 


occupants 


'Dkjirponts 


'akjuponts 


occupation 


Dkju'peiJVn 


akju'peif^n 


occupations 


Dkju'peif;mz 


akjtr'peij^nz 


occupy 


'nkj upai 


'akjupai 


occupies 


'okjupaiz 


'akjupaiz 


occupied 


'okjupaid 


'akjupaid 


occupying 


'okjupanrj 


'akjupaiirj 


occupier 


'Dkjupai9(r 


'akjupais 


occupiers 


'ukjupaioz 


'akjupaisz 


occur 


ts'ks'(r 


fo'kss 


occurs 


ta'ks-z 


fa'kasz 


occurred 


ja'ks-d 


la'kssd 


occurring 


fa'ks'rii) 




occurrence 


tQ'kAr^ns, t^'ks'wns 




occurrences 


jo'kAr^iihiz 






fo'ks'ronsiz 




ocean 


'ouj<?n 




oceans 


'ou/^nz 




o 'clock 


fo'klok 


fs'klak 


October 


t>k'toubo(r 


ak'toubs 


oculist 


'okjuhst 


'akjulist 


oculists 


'okju lists 


'akjulists 


odd 


Dd 


ad 


odder 


A Dda(r 


'ada 


oddest 


'ndist 


'adist 


oddly 


'Ddli 


'adh 


oddness 


'rjdnis 


'adnis 


odds 


Ddz 


adz 


odor (Amer.) 






odour 


'ouda(r 


'ouda 


odors (Amer ) 






odours 


'oudaz 


'oudz 


odorless (Amer.) 






odourless 


'oudslis 


'oudslis 


of 


DV s.f.j av, v wfs. 9 


av s.f. 


off 


o-f,of,Df 




offence 


fg'fsns 





f See Note 30, p. xxxv. in Introduction. 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



offences 


fo'fensiz 




offend 


ja'fsnd 




offends 


fa'fsndz 




offended 


fa'fendid 




offending 


fs'fendirj 




offender 


f3'fsnda(r 


ja'fsnda 


offenders 


fa'fendaz 


JQ'fsndoz 


offensive 


fa'fensiv 




offensively 


fo'fensivh 




offer 


'pfo(r 


'DO 


offers 


'ufoz 


'ofoz 


offered 


'nfod 


'ofsd 


offering 


'Dfortrj 


'Dforuj 


offerings 


'Dfonrjz 


'ufarigz 


off-hand 


'o'f'haend 




office 


'ufis 




offices 


'ufisiz 




officer 


'Dfisa(r 


'afiss 


officers 


'DflS9Z 


'afissz 


official 


ts'fij^l 




officials 


t^'fij^lz 




officially 


ta'fij^h 




officiate 


fa'fijieit 




officiates 


ta'fifieits 




officiated 


fs'fijieitid 




officiating 


fs'fijieitir) 




officious 


fa'fijas 




officiously 


fa'fijosh 




officiousness 


js'fijosnis 




often 


'o'fn, 'ofn. 'ofi^ 


'afri 


oh 


ou 




oil 


oil 




oils 


otlz 




oiled 


oild 




oiling 


'oilirj 




oily 


'oili 




ointment 


'ovntmant 




old 


ould 




older 


'ould9(r 


'oulda 


oldest 


'ould is t 




old-fashioned 


'ould-faej^nd 




oldish 


'ouldif 




omelet (te) 


'umlit 


'am^lit 


omelet (te)s 


'ornhts 


'amphts 


omission 


o'mij^n, ou'nuj^n 





f See Note 30, p. xxxv. in Introduction. 
263 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



omissions 


s'mif^nz, ou'mij^nz 




omit 


a'mit, ou'rmt. 




omits 


a'mits, ou'mits 




omitted 


o'mitid, ou'mitid 




omitting 


a'mitirj, oi/mitirj 




omnibus 


'Dmnibas 


'amnibas 


omnibuses 


'Dmmbostz 


'anmibssiz 


omnipotence 


Dm'mpat^ns 


am'njp^tzns 


omnipotent 


Dm'nipat<?nt 


am'nipot^nt 


omnipotently 


Dm'njpotentU 


am'nipoti?ntli 


on 


on 


an 


once 


wAns 




one 


wAn 




ones 


WAnz 




oneself 


WAn'self 




onesided 


'wAn'saidid 




onion 


'Anjon 




onions 


'Anjanz 




onlooker 


'nnluka (r 


'anluko 


onlookers 


'onlukoz 


'anluksz 


only 


'ounli 




onward 


'onwod 


'anwsd 


onwards 


'onwadz 


'anwadz 


ooze 


U'Z 




oozes 


'U'ZIZ 




oozed 


u f zd 




oozing 


'u 'zuj 




open 


'oup^n 




opens 


'OUpr711Z 




opened 


'oup^nd 




opening 


'oupnirj 




openings 


'oupmrjz 




opener 


'oupna (r 


'oupns 


openers 


'oupnoz 


'oupnsz 


openly 


'oupnh 




opera 


'Dp^ra 


'ap^ro 


operas 


'op^rsz 


'ap^roz 


operate 


'opareit 


'apareit 


operates 


'opareitb 


'apareits 


operated 


'oporeitid 


'apareitid 


operating 


'opareituj 


'apareitirj 


operator 


'opareita (r 


'aporeit 


operators 


'opareitaz 


'apareitez 


operatic 


Dpa'raetik 


apa'raetik 


operation 


Dpa'reij^n 


apa'reij^n 


operations 


ops'reij^nz 


aps'rei/pnz 


opinion 


fa'pinjan 





264 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



opinions 


ja'pmjanz 




opium 


'oupism 




opponent 


fa'pounont 




opponents 


fa'pounonts 




opportune 


'opotjun 


'apstjun 


opportunely 


'upotjunli 


'apstjunh 




Dpo'tjirnli 


aps'tjii'nli 


opportunity 


Dpa'tjirniti 


apa'tju'inti 


opportunities 


Dpa'tju-nitiz 


apa'tju-nitiz 


oppose 


fo'pouz 




opposes 


fo'pouziz 




opposed 


fo'pouzd 




opposing 


fo'pouzirj 




opposite 


'DpOZlt 


'ap^zit 


opposition 


upo'zij^n 


apa'zijcm 


oppress 


fa'prss 




oppresses 


fa'prssiz 




oppressed 


fa'prsst 




oppressing 


fa'prssir) 




oppressor 


J9'prsso(r 


fo'prsss 


oppressors 


fa'prssaz 


fo'prssaz 


oppression 


fo'prsj^n 




oppressive 


ja'prssiv 




optical 


'optik^l 


'aptikj 


optimism 


'optimizin 


'aptimizni 


optimist 


'optimist 


'optimist 


optimists 


'optimists 


'aptimists 


optimistic 


Dpti'mistik 


apti'mistik 


option 


'oppn 


'apj^n 


options 


'Dppnz 


'appnz 


optional 


'npjpnj 


'apjpnj 


optionally 


'Dppnoli 


'apjnali 


or 


o'(r,o(r 


OS, 


oral 


'OT31 


'or P! 


orally 


'OTOll 


'orali 


orange 


'Drmdj, 'orond} 




oranges 


'orm^iz, 'oranc^iz 




orator 


'oroto(r, 'Dnta(r 




orators 


'orotoz, 'oritaz 




oratorical 


Dra'torik^l 




orchard 


'o'fad 


'ostfod 


orchards 


'o'tfadz 


'ostfodz 


orchestra 


'o'kibtro 


'oakibtro 


orchestras 


'o'kistroz 


'oakistraz 


ordain 


o'dem 


oa'dein 



f See Note 30, p. xxxv. in Introduction. 
265 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



ordains 


o'demz 


os'deinz 


ordained 


o'demd 


os'deind 


ordaining 


o'demirj 


03'demirj 


ordeal 


o'di'01, 'o'dial 


'oadi^l 


ordeals 


o'dr^lz, 'o-di^lz 


'osdMz 


order 


'o'da(r 


'osd 


orders 


'o-daz 


'oadsz 


ordered 


'o'dsd 


'o^dsd 


ordering 


'jvdprirj 


'oad^rirj 


orderly 


'j-doh 


'jsddli 


ordinal 


':>'dui} 


'oadin) 


ordinals 


'o'dmjz 


'odin)z 


ordinary 


'o'dnin 


'a?)dtnsri 


ordinarily 


'o'dzn^nli 


'O3d?nerih 


ore 


o'(r, oa(r 


OS 


ores 


D'Z, D9Z 


O8Z 


organ 


'o-g^n 


'osgaii 


organs 


'o-gsnz 


'osganz 


organic 


o'gaenik 


oa'gaenik 


organically 


o'gaenik^li 


oa'gaentkc?h 


organist 


'o-ganist 


'oaganist 


organists 


'o-gamsts 


'o^gonists 


organization 


^n^zeTbn 1 


oag^nai'zeij^n 


organizations 


og^nai'zeipnz 


^o^^nm'zei^nz 




og^ni'zoipnz 


oyg^m'zeij^nz 


organize 


'cvganaiz 


'jj^ganaiz 


organizes 


'o-gonaiziz 


'osgawiaiziz 


organized 


'o'gonaizd 


'ooganaizd 


organizing 


'o-gonaizirj 


'osgonaizir) 


organizer 


'D'ganaizs^ 


'oagsnaizs 


organizers 


'o-ganaizaz 


'osgaiiaizsz 


orient 


'DTiant, 'oriant 


'onant 


oriental 


ori'entj, Dri'ent) 


ori'ent) 


orientals 


ori f ent)z, Dri'ent)z 


on'ent)z 


origin 


'origin 


Qrid^tn 


origins 


Dnd?mz 


onoxinz 


original 


*Q no?zn) 




originally 


s'ri^nsli 




originality 


9nd$i'naehti 




originate 


9'ric^meit 




originates 


fo'rK^meits 




originated 


ts'ric^meitid 




originating 


ia'rio^ineitirj 




ornament, noun 


'o-ndmant 


38n9mdnt 



f See Note 30, p. xxxv. in Introduction. 
266 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



ornaments 


'o-namonts 


'oanomants 


ornamental 


ona'ment} 


oano'msirtj 


orphan 


'o'fn 


'oafn 


orphans 


'o-fnz 


'osfnz 


orthodox 


'o-Godoks 


'oaGodaks 


orthographic 


oBa'graefik 


oaBo'graefik 


orthographically 


oOa'graefikah 


oaOa'graefikali 


ostrich 


'Dstntf 




ostriches 


'ostritfiz 




other 


'A3o(r 


'A63 


others 


'Adoz 


'A5sz 


otherwise 


'ASowaiz 


'A9waiz 


ought 


D't 




oughtn't 


'D'tn/ 




ounce 


auns 




ounces 


'aunsvz 




our 


'aua(r 


'auo 


ours 


'auoz 


'auaz 


ourself 


auo'self 


aus'self 


ourselves 


aua'selvz 


aus'selvz 


out 


aut 




outbreak 


'autbreik 




outbreaks 


'ai/tbreiks 




outcome 


'autkAm 




outdoor 


'autdD(r, 'autdoa(r 


'autdoa 


outdoors 


'aut'do-z, 'aut'doaz 


'aut'dosz 


outer 


'ai/t9(r 


'auts 


outfit 


'aut fit 




outfits 


'aut fits 




outing 


'autirj 




outings 


'autirjz 




outlaw 


'autlo 




outlaws 


'autloz 




outlay 


'autlei 




outlet 


'autlet, 'autlit 




outlets 


'autlets, 'authts 




outline 


'autlain 




outlines 


'autlainz 




outlined 


'autlaind 




outlining 


'autlainii^ 




outlive 


aut'hv 




outlives 


aut'livz 




outlived 


aut'livd 




outliving 


aut'hvii) 




outlook 


'autluk 




outlooks 


'autluks 




outlying 


'autlaiirj 





267 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



out-of-doors 


'autav'do-z 


'autav'doQZ 




'autov'dooz 




out- of- the- way 


'autoi'63'wei 




outpost 


'autpoust 




outposts 


'ai/tpousts 




output 


'autput 




outrageous 


aut'reidps 




outrageously 


aut'reidjasli 




outright 


'aut'rait 




outset 


'autset 




outside 


'aut'said 




outsides 


'aut'saidz 




outsider 


'aut'saido(r 


'aut'saida 


outsiders 


'aut'saidoz 


'aut r saidi5z 


outskirt 


'autskst 


'autsksst 


outskirts 


'autsksts 


'autskssts 


outspoken 


aut'spouk^n 




outstanding 


aut'staendirj 




outward 


'ai/twsd 


'autwsd 


outwardly 


'autwadh 


'autwsdh 


outwards 


'autwadz 


'autwadz 


outweigh 


aut'wei 




outweighs 


aut'weiz 




outweighed 


aut'weid 




outweighing 


aut'wenrj 




oven 


'Avn 




ovens 


'Avnz 




over 


f ouvo(r 


'ouvo 


overbearing 


ouva'btanr) 


ouva'beTir) 


overboard 


'ouva'bo'd, 'ouv.Vboacl 


'ouva'boDd 


overburden 


ouvo'bs'di,! 


ouvo'baadn 


overburdens 


ouva'bs'dnz 


ouvs'bssdnz 


overburdened 


ouvo'bs'dnd 


ouv'b9sdnd 


overburdening 


ouv3'b3'dnvr) 


oifva'b3dnii) 


overcharge, noun & 


'ouvo'tfa 1 ^ 


'ouvo'tfaadj 


verb 






overcharges 


'ouvo'^a'^iz 


'ouva'^asc^iz 


overcharged 


'ouvs'tfcrdjd 


'ouvs f ^[acd 


overcharging 


'ouvD'tfa'(J;ir) 


'ouvs'^as^irj 


overcoat 


'ouvokout 


'ouvskout 


overcoats 


'ouvokouts 


'ouvakouts 


overcome 


ouvs'kAm 


ouvs'kAm 


overcomes 


ouvo'kAmz 


ouvs'kAmz 


overcame 


ouva'keim 


ouvs'keim 


overcoming 


ouva'kAmirj 


ouvo'kAmir) 


over- confidence 


'ouva'konfvd^ns 


'ouve'kanfidfns 


over- confident 


'ouvd'konfid^nt 


'ouvs'kanfid^nt 



268 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



overdo 


ouvo'du* 


ouvs'du 


overdoes 


ouva'dAZ 


oyvs'dAz 


overdid 


ouvo'did 


ouvs'did 


overdone 


ouva'dAn 


ouvs'dAn 


overdoing 


ouva'du'irj 


ouvs'du-irj 


overdose 


'ouvo'dous 


'ouvs'dous 




'ouvodous 


'ouvodous 


overdue 


ouvo'dj u 


ouvsdju' 


overestimate 


'ouvaVestimeit 


'ouvs'estimeit 


overestimates 


'ouvoVestimeits 


'ouvs'estimeits 


overestimated 


'ouvoVEstimeitid 


'ouva'estimeitid 


overestimating 


'ouvoVsstimeitirj 


'ouvo'sstimeitirj 


overflow, noun 


'ouvoflou 


'ouvsflou 


overhang 


'oiivo'hajrj 


'ouvs'haerj 


overhangs 


'ouvo'haerjz 


'ouva'haerjz 


overhung 


'ouvo'liArj 


'ouvs'hArj 


overhanging 


'oi/vo'hapnirj 


'ouva'haprjirj 


overhaul 


ouvo'hcvl 


ouvo'h^'l 


overhauls 


ouvo'ho'lz 


ouvQ'ho-lz 


overhauled 


ouva'ho-ld 


ouvo'ho'ld 


overhauling 


ouvo'hj'hrj 


ouvs'ho'hrj 


overhear 


ouva'hi9(r 


ouvo'hiQ 


overhears 


ouva'hioz 


ouvs'hisz 


overheard 


ouva'hs'd 


ouvo'hssd 


overhearing 


ouvo'h loruj 


ouva'hiTirj 


overlap 


ouva'laep 


ouva'laep 


overlaps 


ouvo'laeps 


ouva'laeps 


overlapped 


ouva'laept 


ouvo'laept 


overlapping 


ouvo'laepii) 


ouvs'laepirj 


overload 


'ouvo'loiid 


'ouvs'loud 


overloads 


'ouvo'loudz 


'ouva'loudz 


overloaded 


'oiiva'loudul 


'ouvo'loudid 


overloading 


'oUVa'lDU(llI) 


'ouvs'loudirj 


overlook 


ouvo'luk 


ouvo'luk 


overlooks 


ouvo'luks 


ouvo'luks 


overlooked 


ouvo'lukt 


ouva'lukt 


overlooking 


ouva'lukirj 


ouvs'lukirj 


overmuch 


'ouvo'mAtf, 'ouvomAtf 


'ouva'mAtf, 'ouvoniAtf 


overnight 


'ouvo'nait 


'ouva'nait 


overreach 


ouvo'ri'tf 




overreaches 


ouvo'ri'tfiz 




overreached 


ouvo'rrtft 




overreaching 


ouva'rr^irj 




override 


ouvo'raid 




overrides 


ouvo'raidz 




overrode 


ouva'roud 




overridden 


ouva'ndn 




269 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



overriding 


ouva'raidirj 




overrule 


ouva'ru'l 




overrules 


ouva'ru -lz 




overruled 


ouvs'ru'ld 




overruling 


ouvo'ru'hrj 




overrun 


ouvo'rAn 




overruns 


ouvs'rAnz 




overran 


ouvd'TAn 




overrunning 


ouvs'rAmrj 




oversea 


'ouva'sr 


'ouvs f sr 


overseas 


'ouva'srz 


'ouvs'si'z 


overshadow 


ouvo'Jaedou 


ouvo'Jaedou 


overshadows 


ouvo'Jaedouz 


ouvs'Jsedouz 


overshadowed 


ouvg'Jaedoud 


ouvs'Ja^doud 


overshadowing 


ouve'Jaedouirj 


ouv9'Ja;douir) 


overshoot 


'ouva'fu't 


'ouvs'Ju't 


overshoots 


'ouvo'Jtrts 


'ouvs'Ju'ts 


overshot 


'ouvo'jbt 


'ouvs'/at 


overshooting 


'ouv^'Ju'tirj 


'oi/vs'Ju'tirj 


oversight 


'ouvosait 


'ouv^sait 


oversights 


'oiivosaits 


'ouvasaits 


overstate 


'ouva'stett 


'ouvs'steit 


overstates 


'ouva'steits 


'ouvo'steits 


overstated 


'ouva'steitid 


'ouvo'steitid 


overstating 


'ouva'steitirj 


'ouva'steitirj 


overstep 


'ouvo'stsp 


'ouvs'step 


oversteps 


'ouva'stsps 


'ouvs'stsps 


overstepped 


'ouvo'stept 


'ouvs'stept 


overstepping 


'ouva'stepirj 


'ouvs'stepirj 


overtake 


ouvyteik 


ouvs'teik 


overtakes 


ouv^'teiks 


ouvo'teiks 


overtook 


ouvo'ti/k 


ouvs'tuk 


overtaken 


ouvo'teik^n 


ouva'teik^n 


overtaking 


ouvo'teikirj 


ouva'teikin 


overtax 


'ouva'taeks 


'ouvs'taeks 


overtaxes 


'ouva'taeksiz 


'ouvs'taeksiz 


overtaxed 


'ouva'tapkst 


'ouvs'taekst 


overtaxing ^ 


'ouvo'taeksuj 


'ouvs'taeksirj 


overthrow, noun 


'ouvaGrou 


'ouvsGrou 


overthrow, verb 


ouvo'Qrou 


ouvs'6rou 


overthrows 


ouvs'Orouz 


ouva'Grouz 


overthrew 


ouve'Oru 1 


ouva'Oru 1 


overthrown 


ouva'Oroun 


ouvs'Groun 


overthrowing 


ouva'Orouuj 


ouvs'Grouirj 


overtime 


'ouvataim 


'ouvstaim 


overture 


'ouvatjud(r 


A ouvtju 




'ouva^"ua(r 


'ouvatfua 



270 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



overtures 


'ouvatjuaz 


'ouvstjusz 




'ouv9tfuaz 


'ouvstfusz 


overturn 


ouva'ts'n 


ouvs't3sn 


overturns 


ouva'ts'nz 


ouvs'tssnz 


overturned 


ouva't3'nd 


ouvs'tssnd 


overturning 


ouva'ts'mrj 


ouvo'tssnig 


overweight 


'ouvo'weit 


'ouvs'weit 


overwhelm 


ouva'/zwelm 


ouvs'hwelm 


overwhelms 


ouvo'/rwelmz 


ouvs'hwelmz 


overwhelmed 


ouvD'/zwslmd 


ouvo'hwelmd 


overwhelming 


ouvo'/zwelmirj 


ouvs'hwelmirj 


overwhelmingly 


ouva'/zwelmirjli 


ouvs'hwelmirjli 


overwork, noun 6- 


'ouva'ws'k 


'ouva'wsak 


verb 






overworks 


'ouva'ws'ks 


'ouva'wssks 


overworked 


'ouvo'ws-kt 


'ouvs'wsekt 


overworking 


'ouvo'ws'kirj 


'ouvs'wsskirj 


owe 


ou 




owes 


ouz 




owed 


cwd 




owing 


'ouirj 




owing to 


'ouir) tu 5 /. 






'ouirj tu, 'ouirj to w fs. 




owl 


aul 




owls 


airlz 




own 


oun 




owns 


ounz 




owned 


ound 




owning 


'ounirj 




owner 


'ouna(r 


'ouns 


owners 


'ounaz 


'ounsz 


ownership 


'ounajip 


'ounsjip 


ox 


oks 


aks 


oxen 


'Dksp 


'aksn 


Oxford 


'oksfad 


'aksfad 


oxygen 


'oksi^n, 'okzi^n 


'aksidj^n, 'akzidjsm 


oyster 


'oista(r 


'oists 


oysters 


'oistaz 


'oistsz 


P 


P 


Pi' 




P's 


prz 




pace 


peis 




paces 


'peisiz 




pacific 


pa's if ik 





271 



W 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



pacify 


'paesifai 




pacifies 


'paesifaiz 




pacified 


'paesifaid 




pacifying 


'paesifaur) 




pack 


paek 




packs 


paeks 




packed 


paekt 




packing 


'paekir) 




package 


'paekid$ 




packages 


'paekid$iz 




packet 


'paekit 




packets 


'paekits 




pad 


psed 




pads 


paedz 




padded 


'paedid 




padding 


'paedir) 




paddle 


'paedj 




paddles 


'paedjz 




paddled 


'paedjd 




paddling 


'paedhrj 




page 


P ei< % 




pages 


'peidjiz 




PAID from pay 


peid 




pail 


peil 




pails 


peilz 




pailful 


'peilful 




pailfuls 


'peilfulz 




pain 


pein 




pains 


peinz 




pained 


peind 




paining 


'peimrj 




painful 


'peinful 




painfully 


'pemfuh, 'pemfeh 




painless 


'pemlis 




painlessly 


'pemlish 




painstaking 


'pemzteikirj 




paint 


peint 




paints 


pemts 




painted 


'pemtid 




painting 


'peintu) 




painter 


'pemto(r 


'peinta 


painters 


'pemtaz 


'peintaz 


painting 


'pemtiT) 




paintings 


'pemtinz 




pair 


pta(r 


pes 


pairs 


peaz 


pesz 


pajamas (Amer.) 


pa'c^a-msz 


pa'^a-maz 



272 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



palace 


'paelis, 'paelas 




pafaces 


'paelisiz, 'paelasiz 




palate 


'pseht, 'paelat 




palates 


'paelits, 'paelats 




palatial 


po'leij>l, pa'leifjal 




pale 


peil 




paler 


'peila(r 


'peil 


palest 


'peilist 




paleness 


'peilms 




palm 


pa r m 


pa-m 


palms 


pa'mz 


pa-mz 


palpitation 


paelpi'teij>n 




paltry 


'pD'ltri, 'poltri 




pamphlet 


'paemflvt 




pamphlets 


'paemflits 




pan 


paen 




pans 


paenz 




pane 


pern 




panes 


peinz 




panel 


'paenj 




panels 


'paenjz 




panic 


'paenik 




panics 


'paemks 




panorama 


paena'ra-ma 


paena'ra-ma 


panoramas 


pxno'ra'inaz 


paeno'ra-maz 


paper 


'peipa(r 


'peips 


papers 


'petpoz 


'peipsz 


parachute 


paera'Jirt, 'pserajut 




parachutes 


pacra'Ju'ts 






'paerajuts 




parade 


p^'reid 




parades 


po'reidz 




paradise 


'paerodais 




paradox 


'paeradoks 


'paeradaks 


paradoxes 


'paeradoksiz 


'paeradaksiz 


paradoxical 


paero'doksikpl 


paera'dakstk^l 


paraffin 


'paerafm, 'paerofin 




paragraph 


'paer9graf 


'paeragraf 


paragraphs 


'paeragrafs 


'paeragrafs 


parallel 


'paeralel, 'paeralal 




parallels 


'paeralelz, 'paeralalz 




paralyse 


'pasralaiz 




paralyses 


'paeralaiziz 




paralysed 


'paeralaizd 




paralysing 


'paeralaizirj 




paralysis 


pa'raelvlsis 




paraphrase 


'paerofreiz 





273 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



paraphrases 


'pserofreiziz 


. 


paraphrased 


'paerafreizd 




paraphrasing 


'paerofreizirj 




parasite 


'paerasait 




parasites 


'paerosaits 




parasol 


'psera'sol 




parasols 


'paera'solz 




parcel 


'pd-sj 


'pdssj 


parcels 


'pd'Sjz 


'pdssjz 


parchment 


'pd-tfmant 


'pdatfmant 


pardon 


'pd'd$ 


'pdadn 


pardons 


'pd'dnz 


'pdsdnz 


pardoned 


'pd'dnd 


'pdsdnd 


pardoning 


'pd'dmrj 


'pdadnirj 


pardonable 


'pd'dnab] 


'pd^dnabj 


pardonably 


'pd'dnabh 


'pdsdnabh 


parent 


'pearant 


'pe-rant 


parents 


'pearants 


'pe'rants 


parenthesis 


pa'ren9isis 






pa'renSosis 




parentheses 


pa'ren9isiz 




Paris 


'paeris 




parish 


'paenj 




parishes 


'paervjiz 




Parisian 


pa'rizjan, pa'rizi9n 




Parisians 


pa'rizjanz 






pa'rizwnz 




park 


pd'k 


pdsk 


parks 


pd'ks 


pdsks 


parliament 


'pd'lamant 


'pdslamant 




'pd-limont 


'pdahmant 


parliaments 


'pd'l9m9nts 


'pdslamants 




'pd-hrnants 


'pdalimants 


parliamentary 


pdla'ment^n 


pdsla'ment^n 




pah'mentm 


pdsli'ment^ri 


parlor (Amer ) 






parlour 


'pa-l9(r 


'pasla 


parlors (Amer.) 






parlours 


'pd'lsz 


'padlsz 


parody 


'paeradi 




parodies 


'paeradiz 




parrot 


'pserat 




parrots 


'paerats 




part 


pd-t 


pdt 


parts 


pd'ts 


paats 


parted 


'pa'tid 


'patid 



274 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



parting 


'pa 'tig 


'pastirj 


partial 


'pa-J>l 


'pasj>l 


partially 


'pa-Jali 


'pasjah 


partiality 


paJYaeliti 


pasji'seliti 


participate 


pa'tisipeit 


pa^'tisipeit 


participates 


pa'tisipeits 


pas'tisipeits 


participated 


pa'tisipeitid 


pas'tisipeitid 


participating 


pa'tisipeitirj 


pas'tisipeitirj 


participation 


patisi'peiJ0n 


pastisi'peijpn 


participle 


'pa-tzsipl 


pasttsip} 


participles 


'pa'ttsipjz 


'pastzsipjz 


particle 


'pa-tik} 


'pastik} 


particles 


'pcrtikjz 


'pastik|z 


particular 


pa'tikji/to(r 


ps'tikjuls 




p9'tikpla(r 


ps'tikjols 


particulars 


po'tikjuloz 


ps'tikjuloz 




pa'tikjalaz 


ps'tikjolsz 


particularly 


pD'tikjuloli 


ps'tikjulsh 




po'tikploh 


ps'tikjalsli 


parting 


'pa-tig 


'paatirj 


partings 


'pa-tirjz 


'paatirjz 


partition 


pa'tipn, pa'tij^n 


pas'tij>n, ps'tij^n 


partitions 


pa'tij^nz, po'tijpnz 


pas'tijpnz, ps'tij^n 


partly 


'pa-tli 


'pastli 


partner 


'pa-tn9(r 


'pastna 


partners 


'pa'tnaz 


'paotnaz 


party 


'pa-ti 


'paati 


parties 


'pa-tiz 


'paatiz 


pass 


pa f s 


pa ( s 


passes 


'pa'siz 


'pa'siz 


passed 


'pa'st 


pa-st 


passing 


'pa'Sirj 


'pa-sirj 


passable 


f pa f sab] 


'pa -sob} 


passably 


'pa'sobh 


'pa-sabli 


passage 


'paesid; 




passages 


'paesio^iz 




passenger 


'paestno^9(r 


'paestndjs 


passengers 


'paeszn^z 


'paeszno^az 


passer-by 


'pa-sa'bai 


'pa-ss'bai 


passers-by 


'pa'saz'bai 


'pa'ssz'bai 


passion 


'paej^n 




passions 


'paej^nz 




passionate 


'paej^nit 




passionately 


'pa?J>mth 




passive 


'paesiv 




passively 


'paesivh 




passport 


'pa -spot 


'pa-spost 



275 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



passports 


'pa 'spots 


'pa'sposts 


past 


pa-st 


pa'st 


paste 


peist 




pastes 


peists 




pasted 


'petstid 




pasting 


'peistirj 




pastime 


'pa'staim, 'paestaim 


'pa'staim 


pastimes 


'pa'staimz 


'pa'staimz 




'paestaimz 




pastry 


'peistn 




pat 


paet 




pats 


paets 




patted 


'paetid 




patting 


'paetitj 




patch 


paetf 




patches 


'paetfiz 




patched 


paetft 




patching 


'paetfir) 




patchy 


'paetfi 




patent 


'pevtent, 'pact^nt 




patents 


'peit^nts, 'psetonts 




patented 


'peit^ntid 






'paetentid 




patenting 


'pevtentu) 




paternal 


pa't3'n} 


po'tasn} 


path 


pa'0 


pa-9 


paths 


pa-5z 


pa'6z 


pathetic 


po'Getik 




pathway 


'pa'Owei 


'pa'Gwei 


pathways 


'pa-Oweiz 


'pa ? 0weiz 


patience 


'pei/^ns 




patient 


'peij^nt 




patients 


'peij^nts 




patiently 


'peij^ntli 




patriot 


'peitriot, 'paetnat 




patriots 


'peitnats, 'paetriats 




patriotic 


pastn'Dtik 


paetri'atik 




peitn'otik 


peitn'atik 


patriotically 


paetri'Dtikoli 


pastri'atikah 




peitri'otikali 


peitri'atikah 


patriotism 


'paetri3tizni 






'peitnatizin 




patrol 


po'troul 





J British usage tends towards ['peitent], and American usage 
towards ['paetont]. 

276 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation 



American Variant* 



patrols 


pa'troulz 




patrolled 


pa'trould 




patrolling 


ps'trouhrj 




patron 


'peitrsn, 'paetran 




patrons 


'pettronz, 'psetranz 




patronage 


'paetramdj 


'peitramc^ 


patronize 


'paetranaiz 


'peitranaiz 


patronizes 


'paetranaiziz 


'peitrsnaiziz 


patronized 


'paetranaizd 


'peitrsnaizd 


patronizing 


'paetranaizirj 


'peitranaizii) 


pattern 


'paeton 




patterns 


'psetenz 




Paul 


P 0'l 




pauper 


'po-pa(r 


'po'ps 


paupers 


'po-poz 


'po'psz 


pause 


po-z 




pauses 


'po'ziz 




paused 


po'zd 




pausing 


'po-zig 




pave 


peiv 




paves 


peivz 




paved 


peivd 




paving 


'peivit) 




pavement 


'peivmant 




pavements 


'peivmonts 




pavilion 


pa'viljan 




pavilions 


pa'viljonz 




paw 


po- 




paws 


po-z 




pay 


pei 




pays 


peiz 




paid 


peid 




paying 


'peurj 




payable 


'peiabj 




payment 


'peimant 




payments 


'pennants 




pea 


Pi' 




peas 


pi-z 




peace 


prs 




peaceful 


'pi'sful 




peacefully 


'pi'sfuh, 'pi'sfoh 




peach 


pi-tf 




peaches 


'pi'-^iz 




peacock 


'pi'kok 


'pi'lcak 


peacocks 


'pi-koks 


'pi'kaks 


peak 


pi-k 




peaks 


pi'ks 





277 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



peanut 


'pi'nAt 




peanuts 


'prnAts 




pear 


pea(r 


pea 


pears 


peaz 


pesz 


pearl 


p>'i 


pssl 


pearls 


p3'lz 


p38lZ 


peasant 


'pez0nt 




peasants 


'psz^nts 




pebble 


'pebj 




pebbles 


'psbjz 




peck 


psk 




pecks 


pcks 




pecked 


pekt 




pecking 


'pekirj 




peculiar 


pi'kju ? ljo(r 


pi'kju'ljs 


peculiarly 


pi'kju'ljoli 


pi'kju'ljsh 


peculiarity 


pikjuh'aeriti 




peculiarities 


pikjuh'aeritiz 




pedal 


'pedj 




pedals 


'pedjz 




pedalled 


'psdjd 




pedalling 


'psdjirj 




pedant 


'pedant 




pedants 


'pedants 




pedantic 


pi'daentik, pe'daenttk 




pedantically 


pi'daentikah 






ps'daentikah 




pedantry 


'pedzntri 




peel 


pi-i 




peels 


pi'lz 




peeled 


pi 'Id 




peeling 


'pi-hr) 




peep 


prp 




peeps 


pi'ps 




peeped 


prpt 




peeping 


'pi'pirj 




peer 


pia(r 


pi 


peers 


piaz 


pisz 


peerage 


'piaric^ 


'prridj 


peerages 


'pisric^iz 


'pi'ne^iz 


peeress 


'pians, 'piarss 


'pi-ris, 'pi-rss 


peeresses 


'piarisiz, 'piaresiz 


'pi'rvsiz, 'prresiz 


peerless 


'piahs 


'pislis 


peerlessly 


'pialish 


'pislish 


peevish 


'pi'vij 




peevishly 


'pi'vifh 




peg 


peg 





278 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



pegs 


pegz 




Pekin 


pi'km 




Peking 


pi'kirj 




pelican 


'pehksn 




pelicans 


'pelikanz 




pen 


psn 




pens 


penz 




penned 


pend 




penning 


'penirj 




penal 


'prnj 




penalty 


'penjti 




penalties 


'penjtiz 




PENCE, plur. of 


pens 




penny 






pencil 


'pens} 




pencils 


'psnsjz 




pencilled 


'pensjd 




pencilling 


'pens^hrj 




pending 


'pendirj 




pendulum 


'psndjulom 






'pendjalom 




pendulums 


'psndj ulamz 






'pendjabmz 




penetrate 


'psnitreit 




penetrates 


'psnitreits 




penetrated 


'penitreitid 




penetrating 


'penitreitirj 




peninsula 


pi'nmsjula 






pa'ninsjula 




peninsulas 


pi'nmsjulaz 






po'nmsjulaz 




penitence 


'penit^ns 




penitent 


'penitent 




penitently 


'psnit^nth 




penmanship 


'penmsnjip 




penniless 


'psnilis 




penny 


'psm 




pennies 


'peniz 




pence 


'pens 




pension 


'penjim 




pensions 


'psnjpnz 




pensioned 


'psnj^nd 




pensioning 


'pen/^nig 




people 


'pi'pj 




peoples 


'pi-pjz 




peopled 


'prpjd 




pepper 


'pspa(r 


'pepa 



279 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



per 


p3' S./.,p9 W /. 


p39 S.f., p9 W.f. 


perceive 


pa'si'v, ps'srv 


ps'si'v, pas'si'v 


perceives 


pa'srvz, ps'srvz 


ps'si'vz, pss'si'vz 


perceived 


pa'srvd, ps'srvd 


pa'si'vd, pss'si'vd 


perceiving 


po'srvirj, ps'si'virj 


ps'si'virj, p3s'si'virj 


per cent. 


pa'sent, ps'ssnt 


ps'sent, pss'sent 


percentage 


pa'ssntid$, p3'sentid$ 


pa'ssnti^. psa'sentio^ 


perception 


pa'ssp/zn, ps'sepJVn 


pa'sep/^n, pss'ssp/^n 


perceptions 


pa'sspj^nz 


ps'sepjsnz 




ps'sepj^nz 


pss'sepjanz 


perch 


PS'tf 


psstf 


perches 


'pS'tflZ 


'pss^iz 


perched 


ps'tft 


psstft 


perching 


'pS'tflT) 


'psstfirj 


Percy 


'p3'Sl 


'p39Sl 


peremptory 


po'rem^t^n 






'peram^>t^ri 


'psram^tori 


perfect, adj. 


'ps-fikt 


'psafikt 


perfect, verb 


pa'fekt, 'ps-fikt 


ps'fckt, 'pssfikt 


perfects 


pa'fekts, 'ps'fikts 


ps'fekts, 'pssfikts 


perfected 


po'fektid, 'ps'fiktid 


ps'fektid, 'pssfiktvd 


perfecting 


pa'fektirj, 'ps-fiktirj 


ps'fektirj, 'pssfiktirj 


perfection 


ps'fekj^n, ps'fekpn 


ps'fck/^n, pss'fekpn 


perfectly 


'ps-fik/h 


'pssfik/h 


perforate 


'ps'fareit 


'pssfareit 


perforates 


'ps'fareits 


'p3f9reits 


perforated 


'ps'fareitid 


'pssfareitid 


perforating 


'ps'fareitirj 


'pssfarevtirj 


perforation 


psfa'reij^n 


pssfa'reij^n 


perform 


po'fo'm 


ps'foam 


performs 


pa'fo'mz 


p^'fosmz 


performed 


pa'fo'md 


ps'fosmd 


performing 


pa'fo'rmrj 


ps'fosmirj 


performer 


po'fo'm9(r 


ps'fosm 


performers 


p9'fO'm9Z 


pd'fosmaz 


perfume, noun 


'ps'fjum 


'pssfjum 


perfumes 


'ps'fjumz 


'pssfjumz 


perfume, verb 


pa'fju'm, 'ps'fjum 


ps'fju'm, 'paafjum 


perfumes 


pa'fju'mz 


pa'fju'mz 




'ps'fjumz 


'pssfjumz 


perfumed 


pa'fju'md 


ps'fju'md 




'ps'fjumd 


'pssfjumd 


perfuming 


pa'fju'mirj 


ps'fju'mirj 




'ps'fjumirj 


'psafjumirj 


perhaps 


p9 'hasps praaps 


ps'haeps 


peril 


'penl 




perils 


'per?lz 





280 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



period 


'piari9d 


'prnad 


periods 


'pigriadz 


'piri9dz 


periodical 


piari'udik^l 


pi'ri'adik^l 


periodicals 


pi9ri'Ddik01z 


pi'n'adik^lz 


periodically 


pi9n'Ddik9h 


pi'ri'adikdli 


perish 


'penj 




perishes 


'penjiz 




perished 


'pen/t 




perishing 


'penjirj 




permanent 


'ps ' m9n9nt 


'p3sm9n9nt 




'p3'min9nt 


'p3em^n9nt 


permanently 


'p3'ni9n9ntli 


/ p3am.9n9ntli 




'p3'imn9nth 


'p3smzn9ntli 


permissible 


p9'miS9bJ, ps'misgbj 


ps'mis9bj, pssnusob} 




pg'rmsibj, ps'misibj 


ps'misib], pssmisib} 


permission 


p9'imj>n, ps'mjjcm 


ps'mi/^n, pss'mij^n 


permit, noun 


'ps'mit 


'pssmit 


permits 


'ps'imts 


'pssmits 


permit, verb 


p9'mit, ps'mit 


ps'mit, pssmit 


permits 


p9 f mits, ps'mits 


po'mits, pse'mits 


permitted 


p9'mitid, ps'mitid 


ps'mitid, pss'mitid 


permitting 


p9'mitiT), ps'mitirj 


ps'mitirj, pss'mitir) 


pernicious 


p3'ni/9S 


ps'nijgs 


peroration 


fpero'reifpn 




perorations 


fperg'reij^nz 




perpendicular 


p3ps>n'dikjula(r 


psop^n'dikjuls 


perpendicularly 


p3p^n'dikjul9h 


psap^n'dikjulsh 


perpetual 


pg'petju^l, ps'petjupl 


ps'petju^l, pss'petju^l 


perpetually 


po'pstju^h, ps'pstjuph 


ps'petju^h, pss'petju^l 


perplex 


p9'pleks, ps'pleks 


ps'plsks, pss'pleks 


perplexes 


p9'pleksiz 


ps'pleksiz 




ps'pleksiz 


pss'pleksiz 


perplexed 


pg'plskst 


ps'plekst 




ps'plekst 


pss'plekst 


perplexing 


pg'plsksirj 


ps'plsksirj 




ps'plsksirj 


pss'pleksir) 


perplexingly 


p9'pleksirjh 


ps'pleksinli 




ps'pleksirjli 


pss'plsksirjh 


perplexity 


pg'plsksiti 


ps'pleksiti 




ps'pleksiti 


pss'plsksiti 


perplexities 


pg'plsksitiz 


ps'pleksitiz 




ps'plsksitiz 


pss'pleksitiz 


persecute 


'ps'sikjut 


'psssikjut 


persecutes 


'p3*sikjuts 


'psssikjuts 


persecuted 


'ps-sikjutid 


'psssikjutid 



f See Note 30, p. xxxv. in Introduction. 
281 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



persecuting 


'pS'Sikjutirj 


'psasikjutirj 


persecutor 


'p3 f sikjuta(r 


'psssikjuts 


persecutors 


'ps'sikjutaz 


'psssikjutsz 


persecution 


p3si'kju-j>n 


psssi'kju'J^n 


persecutions 


pssi'kju'J^nz 


psssi'kju'J^nz 


persevere 


pssi'via(r 


p38Sl'V!3 


perseveres 


pSSl'viaZ 


p39Sl'V!9Z 


persevered 


pssi'viod 


psssi'visd 


persevering 


pssi'vianrj 


psssi'vz'rig 


Persia 


'ps'Ja 


'psa/a 


Persian 


'ps'J>n 


'pssj^n 


Persians 


'ps ' J0nz 


'psspnz 


persist 


pa'sist, ps'sist 


ps'sist, pss'sist 


persists 


pa'sists, ps'sists 


ps'sists, pss'sists 


persisted 


pa'sistid, ps'sistid 


ps'sistid, pse'sistid 


persisting 


pa'sisttrj, ps'sistirj 


po'sistir), pss'sistirj 


persistence 


pa'sist^ns, ps'sist^ns 


po'sistans, ps'sist^ns 


persistent 


po'sist^nt, ps'sist^nt 


ps'sist^nt, pss'sist^nt 


persistently 


po'sist^nth 


po'sist^nth 




ps'sist^ntli 


pss'sistpntli 


person 


'ps-si? 


'psssi^ 


persons 


'ps-snz 


'p33snz 


personal 


'ps's^nj 


'p39Sffn\ 


personally 


'ps'sn^li 


'psssn^h 


personality 


pss^'naehti 


psss/naehti 


perspective 


pa'spektiv 


pss'spektiv 


perspiration 


p3Sp9'reij>n 


pssspa'reijpn 


perspire 


pos'pai9(r, p3s'pais(r 


pss'pais, psss'paid 


perspires 


pas'paioz, pss'paiaz 


pas'paiaz, psss'paisz 


perspired 


pos'paiad, pss'paiad 


pss'paisd, psss'paisd 


perspiring 


pas'paiarirj 


pss'pairtrj 




pss'paianrj 


psss'pairirj 


persuade 


pa'sweid, ps'sweid 


pa'sweid, psa'sweid 


persuades 


pa'sweidz 


p'sweidz 




ps'sweidz 


pss'sweidz 


persuaded 


po'sweidid 


ps'sweidid 




ps'sweidid 


pss'sweidid 


persuading 


pa'sweidirj 


ps'sweidir) 




ps'sweidirj 


pss'sweidirj 


persuasion 


pa'swei3^n 


ps'swe^n 




p3 r swei3^n 


pss'swerjan 


persuasive 


pa'sweisiv 


ps'sweisiv 




ps'sweisiv 


psssweisiv 


Peru 


pa'ru* 




Peruvian 


ps'ru'vian 




Peruvians 


pa'ru-vionz 




pessimism 


'pesimizin 





282 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



pessimist 


'pesimist 




pessimists 


'pesimists 




pessimistic 


pesi'mistvk 




pessimistically 


pesi'mistikoli 




pest 


pest 




pests 


pests 




pester 


'pesto(r 


'pests 


pesters 


'pestQz 


'pestaz 


pestered 


'pestad 


'pestsd 


pestering 


'pestmrj 




pet 


pet 




pets 


pets 




petted 


'petid 




petting 


'petirj 




petal 


'pet} 




petals 


'pet}z 




Peter 


'pi-t9(r 


'pi 'to 


petition 


pi'tij>n, p9'tij;m 




petitions 


pi'tij>nz, pa'tij^nz 




petitioned 


pi'tijznd, pa'tijjmd 




petitioning 


pi'tijsmu), pa'tij^nirj 




petrol 


'petrol, 'petrel 


pi'troul/petral 


petroleum 


pi'trouliam 






pi'trouljam 




petticoat 


'petikout 




petticoats 


'petikouts 




petty 


'peti 




pettiness 


'petims 




petulant 


'petjulant 




petulantly 


'petjulantli 




phantom 


'faentam 




phantoms 


'faentomz 




pharmaceutic 


fama's^u'tik 


fasms's/u'tik 


pharmacist 


'fa'inosist 


'fasmasist 


pharmacists 


'fa-mssists 


'fasmasists 


pharmacy 


'fa-masi 


'faam9si 


pharmacies 


'fa-masiz 


'fasm9siz 


phase 


feiz 




phases 


'feiziz 




pheasant 


'fsznt 




pheasants 


'feznts 




phenomenon 


fi'nDminan 


fi'nammsn 


phenomena 


fi'nDmm9 


fi'nammo 


Philadelphia 


fib'delfva 




philanthropic 


fibn'QrDpik 


fvlsn'Srapik 


Philip 


'fihp 




Philippine 


fili'pi'n, fili'pain 





283 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



Philippines 


fih'pi'nz, fih'pamz 




philological 


fda'lDcfeikal 


fila'laoiik^l 


philologically 


fila'lDdjikali 


nte'lcKjikali 


philologist 


fi'loladjist 


fi'laladiist 


^ philologists 


fi'lola d$ists 


fi'laladjists 


philology 


fi'loladji 


fi'lalao^i 


philosopher 


fi'lDsafa(r 


fi'lasofs 


philosophers 


fi'losafaz 


fi'lasdfez 


philosophical 


fila'sofik;?! 


fila'safik^l 


philosophically 


fila'sofikali 


fila'safikoh 


philosophy 


fi'lDsafi 


fi'lassfi 


philosophies 


fi'losafiz 


fi'lasafiz 


phonetic 


fa'netik, fou'netik 




phonetically 


fa'nstikoh 






fou'nstikah 




phonetician 


founi'tij^n, foni'tipn 




phoneticians 


founi'tij^nz 






fom'tij^nz 




phonetics 


fo'netiks, fou'netiks 




phonograph 


'founagraef 






'founagraf 


'founagraf 


phonographs 


'founograefs 






'founagrafs 


'founagrafs 


photo 


'foutou 




photos 


'foutouz 




photograph 


'foutagraf, 'foutsgraef 


'foutagraf 


photographs 


'foutsgrafs 


'foutagrafs 




'foutograefs 




photographer 


fa'tDgrafa(r 


fa'tagrafs 


photographers 


fa'tografaz 


fa'tagrafsz 


photographic 


fouta'graefik 




photography 


fo'togrsfi 


fa'tagrafi 


phrase 


freiz 




phrases 


'freiziz 




physic 


'fizik 




physical 


'fizik^l 




physically 


'fizik^h 




physician 


fi'zij^n 




physicians 


fv'zij^nz 




physicist 


'fizisist 




physicists 


'fizisists 




physics 


'fiziks 




physiological 


fizia'lDo^vkpl 


fizia'lac^ik^l 


physiologically 


fizia'lDo^ikah 


fizia'lac|ikali 


physique 


fi'zi-k 




pianist 


'pianist, pi'aenist 




pianists 


'pianists, pi'aenists 





284 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



piano 


pi'aenou, 'pjaenou 




pianos 


pi'aenouz, 'pjaenouz 




pick 


P ik 




picks 


piks 




picked 


pikt 




picking 


'pikirj 




pickle 


'pikl 




pickles 


'pikjz 




pickled 


'pikjd 




pickling 


'pikhrj 




pictorial 


pik'to'nal 




pictorially 


pik'toTiah 




picture 


'piktfa(r 


'piktfs 


pictures 


'piktfaz 


'piktfsz 


picturesque 


piktfo'resk 




picturesquely 


piktfQ'rsskh 




pie 


pai 




pies 


paiz 




piece 


pl'S 




pieces 


'pi'Siz 




pieced 


pi'st 




piecing 


'pi'Sirj 




pier 


pio(r 


pis 


piers 


piaz 


p!9Z 


pierce 


pios 


pios 


pierces 


'p!3SlZ 


'pissiz 


pierced 


piast 


pl3St 


piercing 


'piasirj 


'piasuj 


piety 


'paiati, 'paiiti 




Pig 


P^ 




pigs 


pigz 




pigeon 


'pi<^m, 'pi<^9n 




pigeons 


'pic^inz, 'pid$anz 




pile 


pail 




piles 


pailz 




piled 


paild 




piling 


'paihrj 




pilgrim 


'pilgrim 




pilgrims 


'pilgnmz 




pilgrimage 


'pilgnmic^ 




pilgrimages 


'pilgrimic^iz 




pill 


P ii 




pills 


pilz 




pillar 


'plld(T 


'pile 


pillars 


'pil^z 


'piloz 


pillow 


'pilou 




pillows 


'pilouz 





285 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



pilot 


'pailat 




pilots 


'pailats 




piloted 


'pailotid 




piloting 


'pailatig 




pimple 


'pimp} 




pimples 


'pimp}z 




pin 


pm 




pins 


pmz 




pinned 


pmd 




pinning 


'pmir) 




pinch 


pmtf 




pinches 


'pmtjiz 




pinched 


pmtft 




pinching 


'pmtfii) 




pine 


pain 




pines 


painz 




pink 


pink 




pint 


paint 




pints 


paints 




pioneer 


paio'ma(r 


pais'nis 


pioneers 


paia'maz 


paio'nisz 


pious 


'pai9S 




piously 


'paiash 




pip 


pip 




pips 


pips 




pipe 


paip 




pipes 


paips 




piracy 


'paiorasi 


'pairasi 


pirate 


'paxarot 


'pairat 


pirates 


'paiarats 


'pairats 


pistol 


'pistj 




pistols 


'pistjz 




piston 


'piston 




pistons 


'pistznz 




pit 


pit 




pits 


pits 




pitch 


pitf 




pitches 


'pitfiz 




pitched 


pitft 




pitching 


'p^J 




pitiable 


'pitiabl 




pitiful 


'pitiful 




pitifully 


'pitifuli, 'pitiMi 




pitiless 


'pitihs 




pitilessly 


'pitilish 




pity 


'piti 




pities 


'pitiz 





286 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



pitied 


'pitid 




pitying 


'pitur) 




placard 


'plaekad 


'plaekasd 


placards 


'plaekadz 


'plaekasdz 


place 


pleis 




places 


'pleisiz 




placed 


pleist 




placing 


'pleisuj 




plague 


pleig 




plagues 


pleigz 




plagued 


pleig d 




plaguing 


'pleig if) 




plain 


plein 




plains 


pleinz 




plainer 


'pleins(r 


'pleins 


plainest 


'plemist 




plainly 


'plemh 




plaintiff 


'plemtif 




plaintiffs 


'pleintifs 




plan 


plaen 




plans 


plaenz 




planned 


plaend 




planning 


'plaenirj 




plane 


plein 




planes 


pleinz 




planet 


'plsemt 




planets 


'plaemts 




plank 


'plaenk 




planks 


'plaerjks 




plant 


pla f nt 


pla*nt 


plants 


pla'nts 


pla-nts 


planted 


'pkrntid 


'pla'ntid 


planting 


'plcrntuj 


'pla-ntir) 


planter 


'pla-nta(r 


'pla-nts 


planters 


'pla-ntoz 


'pla-ntez 


plantation 


plaen 'tei/^n 




plantations 


plaen'teij^nz 




plaster 


'pla'sto(r 


'pla-sts 


plasters 


'pla-stsz 


'pla'stsz 


plate 


pleit 




plates 


pleits 




plateau 


'plaetou 




plateaus 


'plsetouz 




plateaux 


'plaetou 




plateful 


'pleitful 




platefuls 


'pleitfulz 




platform 


'plaetfom 


'plaetfosm 



287 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



platforms 


'plaetfomz 


'plaetfosmz 


play 


plei 




plays 


pleiz 




played 


pleid 




playing 


'pletuj 




player 


'plei3(r 


'pleis 


players 


'pleiaz 


'pleiaz 


playful 


'pleiful 




playfully 


'pleifuh, 'pleifah 




plaything 


'pleiGirj 




playthings 


'pleiOinz 




plea 


pii. 




pleas 


pli-z 




plead 


pli'd 




pleads 


plrdz 




pleaded 


'ph'did 




pleading 


'pli'duj 




pleasant 


'pleznt 




pleasanter 


'pleznt9(r 


'pleznts 


pleasantest 


'plezntist 




pleasantly 


'pleznth 




please 


pli-z 




pleases 


'pli'ziz 




pleased 


plrzd 




pleasing 


'pli'zirj 




pleasingly 


'pli'zinh 




pleasure 


'pl63a(r 


'pl63 


pleasures 


'plesaz 


'ple3z 


pledge 


ple^ 




pledges 


'ple^iz 




pledged 


'plecijd 




pledging 


'plec^u) 




plentiful 


'plentiful 




plentifully 


'plsntifuli, 'plentifali 




plenty 


'plsnti 




plight 


plait 




plights 


plaits 




plot 


plot 


plat 


plots 


plots 


plats 


plotted 


'plotid 


'platid 


plotting 


'plDtll) 


'platirj 


plough 


plau 




ploughs 


plauz 




ploughed 


plaud 




ploughing 


'plau IT) 




pluck 


plAk 




plucky 


'plAki 





288 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



plug 


pUg 




plugs 


pLvgz 




plum 


pLvm 




plums 


pLvmz 




plume 


phrm 




plumes 


phrmz 




plump 


plAmp 




plunder 


'plAnda(r 


'plAnda 


plunders 


'plAndsz 


'plAndz 


plundered 


'plAndad 


'pLvndsd 


plundering 


'plAnd^nrj 




plunderer 


'plAnd?ra(r 


'plAnd^ra 


plunderers 


'plAnd^raz 


'plAndsrsz 


plunge 


pLvnd; 




plunges 


'pLuidpz 




plunged 


plAno^d 




plunging 


'plAncfcirj 




plural 


'pluaral 


'pluTsl 


plurals 


'plusrslz 


'plu'ralz 


plus 


plAS 




pan. 


'pi -'em 




pneumatic 


nju'maetik 




pneumonia 


nju'mounja 




pocket 


'pokit 


'pakit 


pockets 


'pokits 


'pakits 


pocketed 


'pokitid 


'pakitid 


pocketing 


'pokitirj 


'pakitirj 


pocketful 


'pokitful 


'pakitful 


pocketfuls 


'pokitfulz 


'pakitfulz 


poem 


'pouim 




poems 


'pouimz 




poet 


'pouit 




poets 


'points 




poetic 


pou'stik 




poetically 


pou'etiksli 




poetry 


'pouitri, 'poitri 




point 


point 




points 


points 




pointed 


'pointid 




pointing 


'pointirj 




pointer 


'pomta(r 


'paints 


pointers 


'pointaz 


'pointsz 


pointless 


'pointlis 




poison 


'poizij 




poisons 


'poiznz 




poisoned 


'poiznd 




poisoning 


'poiznirj, 'pcHznuj 





289 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



poisonous 


'poizass, 'poiznas 




poke 


pouk 




pokes 


pouks 




poked 


poukt 




poking 


'poukuj 




Poland 


'pouland 




polar 


'poula(r 


'pouls 


pole 


poul 




poles 


poulz 




Pole 


poul 




Poles 


poulz 




police 


po'li's, pou'lrs 




policeman 


p/lrsmon 






pou'li'sman 




policemen 


p/li'sman 






pou'li'smon 




policy 


'polisi, 'polasi 


'paltsi, 'palest 


policies 


'pDhsiz, 'potesiz 


'palisiz, 'palssiz 


polish 


'pohj 


'pali/ 


polishes 


'pDllflZ 


'palijiz 


polished 


'pnhjt 


'pahjt 


polishing 


'pDhfirj 


'palijir) 


Polish, ad]. 


'pouhj 




polite 


po'lait, pou'lait 




politely 


pa'laith, pou'laith 




politeness 


p9'laitni.s, pou'laitnis 




political 


pg'htik^l 




politician 


pDli'tipn 


pali'tij^n 


politicians 


poli'tij^nz 


pah'tij^nz 


Polynesia 


poli'ni'zio 


pah'm-zia 


pomp 


pnmp 


pamp 


pompous 


'pDmpss 


'pampas 


pond 


pund 


pand 


ponds 


pDndz 


pandz 


ponder 


'pDnda(r 


'pands 


ponders 


'pondaz 


'pandsz 


pondered 


'pondad 


'pandsd 


pondering 


'pond^nrj 


'pand^rtrj 


ponderous 


'pDndsros 


'pandsrss 


pony 


'pouni 




ponies 


'pouniz 




pool 


pu f l 




pools 


pu'lz 




pooled 


pu'ld 




pooling 


'pu'lirj 




poor 


pua(r, poa(r 


pU9 


poorer 


'puora(r, 'poara(r 


'PUTS 



290 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



poorest 


'puarist, 'poanst 


'pUTlSt 


poorly 


'puali, 'poah 


'puoh 


poorness 


'puanis, 'poams 


'pusnis 


pope 


poup 




popes 


poups 




popular 


'pDpjute(r, 'pDpjal9(r 


'papjuls, 'papjals 


popularity 


popju'laeriti 


papju'laeriti 




pDpp'laervti 


papja'laeriti 


popularize (s) 


'pDpjuloraiz 


'papjulsraiz 




'pDpplaraiz 


'papj9loraiz 


popularizes 


'popjularaiziz 


'papj uloraiziz 




'popjalaraiziz 


'papjateraiziz 


popularized 


'popjuloraizd 


'papjularaizd 




'popJDlaraizd 


'papjalaraizd 


popularizing 


'pDpjularaizirj 


'papj uloraizirj 




'popplaraizirj 


'papjaloraizirj 


popularly 


'pDpjulah, 'popjaloh 


'papjulsh, 'papjolsh 


population 


pDpju'leiJ^n 


papj u'leij^n 


populations 


popju'leij^nz 


papju'leij>nz 


porcelain 


'po'slm, 'po'slem 


'posshn 


porch 


po-tf 


poatf 


porches 


'pD'tflZ 


'postfiz 


pore 


po f (r, poa(r 


poo 


pores 


po ( z, poaz 


pO9Z 


pork 


po'k 


poak 


porridge 


'pori(% 


'paric^ 


port 


P D't 


post 


ports 


po-ts 


posts 


portable 


'po'tab]. 


'postob) 


porter 


'pD'ta(r 


'post 


porters 


'po'toz 


'postsz 


portfolio 


pot'fouhou 


post'fouhou 


portfolios 


pot'fouhouz 


post'fouhouz 


portion 


'po'pn 


'poaj>n 


portions 


'pO'J^nz 


'pospnz 


portmanteau 


pofmaentou 


post'msentou 


portmanteaus 


pot'maentouz 


poat'maentouz 


portrait 


'po'trit 


' post r it 


portraits 


'po'trits 


'postrits 


Portsmouth 


'pO'tsmaG 


A postsm30 


Portugal 


'pD'tjugpl, 'pD'^ugd 


'postjug^l, 'postfugpl 


Portuguese 


pDtju'grz 


poatju'gi'z 




potfu'gi'z 


posfu'gi'z 






poatju'gi'S 






podtfu'gi's 


pose 


pouz 




poses 


'pouziz 





201 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 


posed 


pouzd 




posing 


'poi/zig 




position 


fpa'zijpn 




positions 


fpo'zifpnz 




positive 


'pDZ^tlV, 'pDZltlV 


'paz^tiv, 'pazitiv 


positively 


'pDZ^tlvll, 'pDZltlvll 


'paz^tivh, 'pazitivh 


possess 


tps'zes 




possesses 


fpa'zesiz 




possessed 


fps'zest 




possessing 


fpa'zesir) 




possession 


tp3'zef;?n 




possessions 


tpa'zejpnz 




possessive 


tpa'zssiv 




possessives 


tpa'zesivz 




possessor 


tp9'zes9(r 


ps'zsss 


possessors 


fpa'zesaz 


ps'zSSQZ 


possibility 


pDSl'bllltl 


pasi'bihti 




posa'bihti 


paso'biliti 


possibilities 


pDSl'bllltlZ 


pasi'bihtiz 




pDsa'bihtiz 


pass'bihtiz 


possible 


'pDsib}, 'pDsab} 


'pasib}, 'pasab} 


possibly 


'posibh, 'pusabh 


'pasibli, 'pasabh 


post 


poust 




posts 


pousts 




posted 


'poustid 




posting 


'poustirj 




postage 


'poustto^ 




postages 


'poustic^iz 




postal 


'poust^l 




postcard 


'pous^kad 


'pous/kaad 


postcards 


'pous^kadz 


'pous/kasdz 


poster 


'pousta(r 


'pouste 


posters 


'poustsz 


'poustz 


postman 


'pous^mon 




postmen 


'pous^man 




postmark 


'pous/mak 


'pous/mask 


postmarks 


'pous/maks 


'pousfmaaks 


postmaster 


'pous^masts(r 


'pous^mast 


postmasters 


'pous/mastoz 


'pous^mastsz 


post-office 


'poustofis 


'poustafis 


post-offices 


'poustofisiz 


'poustafisiz 


postpone 


pous/'poun 






pas'poun 




postpones 


pous^'pounz 






pss'pounz 





f See Note 30, p. xxxv. in Introduction. 
292 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



postponed 


poustf'pound 






pas'pound 




postponing 


pous/'pounir) 






pas'poumrj 




postponement 


pous/'pounmant 






pas'pounmant 




postponements 


pous/'pounmants 






pas'pounmants 




postscript 


'pousskript 




postscripts 


'poussknpts 




pot 


pot 


pat 


pots 


pots 


pats 


potato 


fpz'tettou 




potatos 


tp0'tevtouz 




pottery 


'pDtan 


'patarv 


pouch 


pautf 




pouches 


'pautjiz 




poultry 


'poultri 




pound 


paund 




pounds 


paundz 




pour 


po-(r, poa(r 


pos 


pours 


pO'Z, p03Z 


posz 


poured 


po'd, poad 


posd 


pouring 


'po'nrj, 'poonrj 


'poTtr) 


poverty 


'povsti 


'pavati 


powder 


'paud9(r 


'pauds 


powders 


'paudaz 


'paudsz 


powdered 


'paudad 


'paudsd 


powdering 


'paud^rirj 




power 


'paua(r 


'paua 


powers 


'pauaz 


'pauaz 


powerful 


'pauaful 


'pausful 


powerfully 


'pauafuh, 'pauafah 


'pausfuh, 'pauafal 


powerless 


'paualis 


'pauslis 


practicability 


praektika'biliti 




practicable 


'praektikabj 




practicably 


'praektikabli 




practical 


'praektikpl 




practically, in a 


'praektikah 




practical manner 






practically, very 


'praktikh 




nearly 






practice, noun 


'praektis 




practices 


'praektisiz 




practise, verb 


'praektis 





| See Note 30, p. xxxv. in Introduction. 
293 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



practises 


'praektisiz 




practised 


'praektist 




practising 


'praektisirj 




Prague 


pretg, prcrg 




prairie 


'preari 


'prs-ri 


prairies 


'preariz 


'preTiz 


praise 


preiz 




praises 


'preiziz 




praised 


preizd 




praising 


'preizir) 




praiseworthy 


'preizwsSi 


'preizwssdi 


pray 


prei 




prays 


preiz 




prayed 


preid 




praying 


'preurj 




prayer 


'preo(r 


'prs3 


prayers 


'preaz 


'presz 


preach 


pn-tf 




preaches 


'pri'tfiz 




preached 


pn-tft 




preaching 


'prrtfir) 




preacher 


'prrt|3(r 


'pri'tfs 


preachers 


'pri'tfoz 


'pri'tfaz 


prearrange 


'prra'reinc^ 




prearranges 


'pri'a'reind^iz 




prearranged 


'pri'o'reinc^d 




prearranging 


'pri'a'reind$irj 




precaution 


pri'ko'pn 




precautions 


pri'ko'J^nz 




precede 


'pri-'si'd 




precedes 


'pn-'si-dz 




preceded 


'prr'si'did 




preceding 


'pn-'si'dirj 




precedence 


pn'si'd^ns, 'prssid^ns 




precedent 


'president 




precedents 


'presidents 




precious 


'prejas 




preciously 


'prejash 




precipice 


'presipis 




precipices 


'prssipisvz 




precise 


pn'sais, pro'sais 




precisely 


pri'saish, pra'saish 




precision 


pri'si3?n 




preclude 


pri'klu'd 




precludes 


pri'klu'dz 




precluded 


pn'klu'did 




precluding 


pn'klu'dirj 





294 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



precocious 


pn'koujas 




predecessor 


'pri*dises9(r 


'pri'dissss 




pndi'ses3(r 


pndi'ssss 






'prsdissss 






prsdi'ssss 


predecessors 


'prrdisesaz 


'pri'disessz 




pndi'sssoz 


'predissssz 






pridi'sessz 






prsdi'sssez 


predicament 


pri'dikomant 






pro'dikamant 




predicaments 


pri'dikomonts 






pro'diksmants 




predicate 


'predikit, 'predikeit 




predicates 


'prediktts 






'predikeits 




predict 


pri'dikt, pra'dikt 




predicts 


pri'dikts, pra'dikts 




predicted 


pn'diktid 






pro'diktid 




predicting 


pri'diktirj 






pra'diktuj 




prediction 


pn'dikJVn 






pra'dikj^n 




predictions 


pri'dikj^nz 






pra'dikj^nz 




predominate 


pri'dummeit 


pri'dammeit 


predominates 


pri'domineits 


pri'damineits 


predominated 


pri'domineitid 


pri'damineitid 


predominating 


pri'dominettirj 


pn'damineitirj 


preface 


'prsfis 




prefaces 


'prefisiz 




prefaced 


'prsfist 




prefacing 


'prefisirj 




prefer 


pn'f 3 ' (r 


pri'f3S 


prefers 


pn'fs'z 


pri'fssz 


preferred 


pri'fa'd 


pri'fssd 


preferring 


pri'fsTirj 




preferable 


'pref^rabj 




preferably 


'pref^rabli 




preference 


'preforans 




preferences 


'prsfpransiz 




prefix 


'pri'fiks 




prefixes 


'pri'fiksiz 




prehistoric 


'pri'/ns'torik 


'pri'his'tank 


prejudice 


'predjudvs, 'pre^sdis 





295 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



prejudices 


'predjudisiz 






'predpdisiz 




prejudiced 


'predjudist 




prejudicing 


'predjudisirj 






'prsdjadisirj 




prejudicial 


prec^u'dif^l 




preliminary 


pri'lirmnsri 


pri'hmineri 




pra'hmmori 


pra'hmzneri 


preliminaries 


pri'lirmnariz 


pri'hmtneriz 




pra'hrmnariz 


pra'hrmneriz 


prelude 


'preljud 


'pri'ljud 


preludes 


'preljudz 


'pn-ljudz 


premature 


prem9'tju9(r 


premg'tjus 




prim9'tju9(r 


primg'tjus 


prematurely 


prema'tjuah 


prem9'tjusli 




primg'tjuah 


pnma'tjusli 


premeditate 


pri'mediteit 




premeditates 


pri'mediteits 




premeditated 


pri'mediteit id 




premeditating 


pri'mediteit irj 




premeditation 


primedi'teij^n 




premier 


'premJ9(r 


'premjs 


premiers 


'premjoz 


'premjsz 


premises 


'premisiz 




premium 


'pri'mi9m 




premiums 


'pri'miamz 




preparation 


prep9'reij^n 




preparations 


prspa'rei/^nz 




preparatory 


pri'paerstm 


pri'paereton 


prepare 


pri'pea(r 


pri'pES 


prepares 


pri'pesz 


pn'pESz 


prepared 


pri'pesd 


pn'pEsd 


prepanng 


pri'pEarirj 


pn'pe'nr) 


preposition 


prepa'zij>n 




prepositions 


prepa'zi/^nz 




preposterous 


pri'pDSt^ras 


pri'past^ras 




pre'postpras 


pre'pastprss 


prescribe 


pris'kraib 




prescribes 


pris'kraibz 




prescribed 


pris'kraibd 




prescribing 


pns'kraibirj 




prescription 


pns'krip/^n 






pros'kripjpn 




prescriptions 


pns'krrpjpnz 






prss'knpjpnz 





296 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



presence 


'prezns 




presences 


'preznsiz 




present, noun 


'preznt 




presents 


'preznts 




present, verb 


pri'zent 




presents 


pri'zents 




presented 


pri'zentid 




presenting 


pn'zentirj 




presentable 


pn'zentab] 






prs'zentsbj 




presentation 


prezpn'tevpn 






prezen'teif^n 




presentations 


prez?n'teiJ0nz 






prezen'teijpnz 




presently 


'prszntli 




preserve 


pri'zs'v 


pri'zsav 


preserves 


pn'zs'vz 


pn'zsavz 


preserved 


pri'za'vd 


pn'zssvd 


preserving 


pn'zs'virj 


pri'zssvirj 


preserver 


pri'z3'V3(r 


pn'zssvs 


preservers 


prt'Z3'V9Z 


pn'z33Vz 


preside 


pn'zaid 




presides 


pri'zaidz 




presided 


pri'zaidid 




presiding 


pn'zaidirj 




presidency 


'prezid^nsi 




president 


'prezid^nt 




presidents 


'prezid^nts 




presidential 


prezi'dsnfs?! 




press 


prss 




presses 


'presiz 




pressed 


prest 




pressing 


'presirj 




pressingly 


'presirjh 




pressure 


'preja(r 


'preja 


presume 


pn'z^u'm 




presumes 


pn'z^u'mz 




presumed 


pn'z;u'md 




presuming 


pn'z/u'mirj 




pretence 


prv'tens 




pretences 


pri'tensiz 




pretend 


pri'tend 




pretends 


pri'tsndz 




pretended 


pu'tendid 




pretending 


pri'tendirj 




pretentious 


pri'tenjos 




preterite 


'pretpnt 





297 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 


preterites 


'preterits 




pretext 


'prrtekst 




pretexts 


'prrteksts 




Pretoria 


pri'to'rva 




pretty 


'priti 




prettier 


'pntia(r 




prettiest 


'pritust 




prettily 


'pritili 




prettiness 


'pritims 




prevail 


pn'veil 




prevails 


pn'vei'iz 




prevailed 


pri'veild 




prevailing 


pri'veilirj 




prevalence 


'preplans 




prevalent 


'prevent 




prevent 


pri'vent 




prevents 


prt'vcnts 




prevented 


pn'ventid 




preventing 


pri'ventirj 




prevention 


pri'venj>n 




previous 


'pri-vias, 'pri-vjas 




previously 


'pri'vusli, 'pri'vjaslt 




prey 


prei 




preys 


pretz 




preyed 


preid 




preying 


'preurj 




price 


prais 




prices 


'praisiz 




priceless 


'praislis 




prick 


prik 




pricks 


priks 




pricked 


prikt 




pricking 


'prikir) 




prickly 


'prikh 




pride 


praid 




priest 


pri'st 




priests 


pri'sts 




Prig 


png 




prigs 


pngz 




prim 


prim 




primary 


'praimari 




prime minister 


'praim'ministo (r 


'praim 'mmists 


prime ministers 


'praim 'mimstaz 


'praim 'mmistsz 


primer 


'praim9(r, 'pnni9(r 


'praims, 'prims 


primers 


'praimoz, 'primoz 


'praimsz, 'primsz 


primitive 


'primitiv 




primitively 


'primitivh 




298 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



primly 


'primh 




primness 


'primnis 




primrose 


'pnmrouz 




primroses 


'primrouziz 




prince 


prins 




princes 


'prmsiz 




princess 


'prm'ses 




princesses 


'prm'sesiz 




principal 


'prmsip^l, 'prmsop^l 




principals 


'prmsip^lz 






'prmsap^lz 




principally 


'prmsipffh, 'prinsop^h 




principle 


'prmsip}, 'prmsap} 




principles 


'prinsipjz 






'prmsopjz 




print 


print 




prints 


prints 




printed 


'prmtid 




printing 


'prmtirj 




printer 


'prmta(r 


'prints 


printers 


'prmtaz 


'prmtaz 


prism 


'prizm 




prisms 


'prizrpz 




prison 


'prizi^ 




prisons 


'priznz 




prisoner 


'prizu9(r, 'prizn9(r 


'prizns 


prisoners 


'priznoz, 'priznoz 


'priznoz 


privacy 


'praivasi, 'privasi 




private 


'praivit 




privately 


'praivith 




privilege 


'privihdj 




privileges 


'pnvihdjiz 




prize 


praiz 




prizes 


'praiziz 




prized 


praizd 




prizing 


'praizirj 




pro 


prou 




probability 


prDbo'bihti 


prabs'bihti 


probabilities 


prDba'bilitiz 


prabo'bilitvz 


probable 


'prob^b| 


'prab0b| 


probably 


'prDb^bli 


'prab^bli 


problem 


'problam 


'prablam 


problems 


'prDblamz 


'prablamz 


procedure 


fpr9'si'(^9(r 


prs'si'<^s 




tpra'si'dje(r 


pra'si'djus 



f See Note 30, p. xxxv. in Introduction. 
299 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 


procedures 


tpre'si-cfcaz 


pro'si'O^sz 




jpra'si-djaz 


pra'si'djuaz 


proceed 


fpro'si'd 




proceeds 


fpro'si'dz 




proceeded 


fpra'si'did 




proceeding 


tpra'si'dirj 




proceedings 


fpra'si'dirjz 




proceeds, noun 


'prousidz 




process 


'prouses, 'prousis 






'proses, 'prosis 


'prases, 'prasis 


processes 


'prousesiz 






'prousisiz 






'prosesiz 


'prasesiz 




'prosisvz 


'prosisiz 


procession 


tpra'sej^n 




processions 


fpro'sej>nz 




proclaim 


fpr9'kleim 




proclaims 


fprs'kleimz 




proclaimed 


jpra'kleimd 




proclaiming 


fpra'kleimirj 




proclamation 


prDkla'meij>n 


prakla'meij^n 


proclamations 


prDklo'meiJ^nz 


prakla'meij^nz 


procure 


tpra'kju3(r 


prs'kjus 


procures 


fprs'kjuaz 


pra'kjusz 


procured 


fprs'kjuad 


pra'kjusd 


procuring 


fpro'kjuarirj 


pra'kju'rirj 


produce, noun 


'prodjus 


'pradjus 


produce, verb 


fpra'dju's 




produces 


fpro'dju'Siz 




produced 


fprs'dju'st 




producing 


jpra'dju'sirj 




product 


'prodskt, 'prodAkt 


'pradakt, 'pradAkt 


products 


'prodakts 


'pradakts 




'prodAkts 


'pradAkts 


production 


|pra'dAk|>n 




productions 


fprs'dAkJpnz 




productive 


fpra'dAktiv 




productively 


jpr8 f dAktivli 




profess 


jpra'fes 




professes 


fpra'fesiz 




professed 


fpra'fest 




professing 


fpra'fesirj 




profession 


fpra'fejpn 




professions 


fpra'fej^nz 




professional 


tpro'fsj^n} 





f See Note 30, p. xxxv. in Introduction. 
300 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



professor 


tpra'fes3(r 


prg'fess 


professors 


fpre'fesaz 


prs'fesaz 


proficiency 


fpra'fij^nsi 




proficient 


tpra'fij>nt 




proficiently 


tpra'fi/znth 




profit 


'profit 


'profit 


profits 


'profits 


'prafits 


profited 


'profitid 


'prafitid 


profiting 


'profitii) 


'prafitig 


profitable 


'profitsb} 


'prafitab) 


profitably 


'profitsbli 


'prafvtabli 


profound 


fprg'faund 




profoundly 


fpra'faimdli 




program (Amer.) 


'prougraem 




programs (Amer.} 


'prougraemz 




programme 


'prougrEem 




programmes 


'prougraemz 




progress, noun 


'prougres, 'progres 


'pragrss 


progress, verb 


fpra'grss 




progresses 


fpr3 f gresiz 




progressed 


fprQ'grest 




progressing 


tpra'gresir) 




progressive 


fpra'gresiv 




progressively 


fpra'gresivh 




prohibit 


fpra'hibit 




prohibits 


fpra'hibits 




prohibited 


fpra'hibvtid 




prohibiting 


fpra'hibitii) 




prohibition 


prou/ii'bij^n 




prohibitive 


tprs'hibitiv 




project, noun 


'proci;skt, 'prodjikt 


'prao^ekt, 'prao^ikt 


projects 


'proo^ekts 


'pradjskts 




'prDO^ikts 


'prao^ikts 


project, verb 


tpra'o^ekt 




projects 


tpra'^ekts 




projected 


tpra'djektid 




projecting 


tpra'o^ektii) 




projection 


tpra'o^ekj^n 




projections 


fpra'o^skj^nz 




proletarian 


prouli'teanan 


prouli'te'rwn 


prolog (Amer.) 






prologue 


'proulog 


'proulag 


prologs (Amer.} 






prologues 


'proulogz 


'proulagz 


prolong 


tpra'lDrj 





f See Note 30, p. xxxv. in Introduction. 
301 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



prolongs 


tpro'lorjz 




prolonged 


fpro'lond 




prolonging 


fprs'lDnirj 




prominence 


'prDmmans 


'pramtnsns 


prominent 


'prummant 


'prammant 


prominently 


'prDmmantli 


'praminonth 


promise 


'promts 


'pramis 


promises 


'prmmsiz 


'pramisiz 


promised 


'prDimst 


'pramist 


promising 


'promisirj 


'pramisirj 


promote 


pra'mout 




promotes 


pn/mouts 




promoted 


pro'moutid 




promoting 


pro'nioutvrj 




promotion 


pra'moujzn 




promotions 


pro'mouj^nz 




prompt 


prompt 


prampt 


prompter 


' prompts (r 


'prampta 


promptest 


'prDm/?tist 


'pramptist 


prompts 


prompts 


pram^ts 


prompted 


'promptid 


'pram^tid 


prompting 


'prom/^tir) 


'pram^tirj 


promptly 


'prDm/?th 


'pramptli 


promptness 


7 prDm/?tnis 


'pramptnis 


prong 


prorj 




prongs 


prurjz 




pronoun 


'prounai/n 




pronouns 


'prounaunz 




pronounce 


j-pra'nauns 




pronounces 


fpra'naunsiz 




pronounced 


fpra'naunst 




pronouncing 


fpra'naunsirj 




pronunciation 


tpranAnsi'etf^n 




pronunciations 


f prsn Ansi'eiJ^nz 




proof 


pru'f 




proofs 


pru'fs 




propaganda 


prDpa'gaenda 


prapa'gaends 


propagate 


'prDpageit 


'prapa'geit 


propagates 


'propageits 


'praps 'geits 


propagated 


'propageitid 


'prapa'geitvd 


propagating 


'propageitirj 


'prapa'geitirj 


propel 


pra'pel 




propels 


prs'pslz 




propelled 


pra'psld 




propelling 


prs'pehrj 





f See Note 30, p. xxxv. in Introduction. 
302 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



propeller 


fpr9'pel9(r 


pra'pels 


propellers 


fpra'pslaz 


prg'pelsz 


proper 


'props (r 


'prapa 


properly 


'prDp9h 


'prapsli 


property 


'prop9ti 


'prapsti 


properties 


'propatiz 


'prapstiz 


prophecy 


'profisi, 'prDfisai 


'prafisi, 'prafisaa 


prophecies 


'profisiz, 'profisaiz 


'prafisiz, 'prafisaiz 


prophesy 


'prDfisai 


'prafisai 


prophesies 


'profisaiz 


'prafisaiz 


prophesied 


'profisaid 


'prafisaid 


prophesying 


'prDfisaurj 


'prafisaiirj 


prophet 


'profit, 'profet 


'profit, 'prafet 


prophets 


'profits, 'profsts 


'profits, 'prafets 


proportion 


jpra'pD'Jzn 


pro'posj^n 


proportions 


fpro'pD'Jmz 


pra'poaj^nz 


proportionate 


fpra'pD'J^nit 


pra'posj^nit 


proportionately 


fpra'po'Jpmtli 


pra'posjpnith 


proposal 


tpra'pouzpl 




proposals 


fpro'pouz^lz 




propose 


fpra'pouz 




proposes 


fpro'pouziz 




proposed 


fpra'pouzd 




proposing 


tpra'poi/zirj 




proposer 


fpra'pouz9(r 


pra'pouza 


proposers 


jpra'pouzgz 


pra'pouzaz 


proposition 


propa'zij^n 


prapa'zij^n 


propositions 


propa'zipnz 


prapo'zipnz 


proprietor 


|pro'praioto(r 


pro'praiots 


proprietors 


fpro'praietaz 


prs'praiatsz 


proprietress 


fpro'praistris 


pr9'prai9tns 


proprietresses 


fpra'praiatrisiz 


pr9'prai9trisiz 


prosaic 


prou'zenk, pra'zeuk 




prose 


prouz 




prosecute 


'prusikjut 


'prasikjut 


prosecutes 


'prosikjuts 


'prasikjuts 


prosecuted 


'prosikjutid 


'prasikjutid 


prosecuting 


'prDSikjutirj 


'prasikjutirj 


prosecution 


prosi'kju'Js'n 


prasi'kju'Jprt 


prosecutions 


prosi'kju'f^nz 


prasi'kju'J^nz 


prospect, noun 


'prospekt 


'praspskt 


prospects 


'prospekts 


'praspekts 


prospectus 


tpras'psktas 


, 


prospectuses 


fpras'psktasiz 




prosper 


'prospa(r 


'prasp 



f See Note 30, p. xxxv. in Introduction. 
303 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



prospers 


'prpspaz 


'praspaz 


prospered 


'prospod 


'praspsd 


prospering 


'prDsppnrj 


'prasp^rirj 


prosperity 


pros'penti 


pras'periti 


prosperous 


'prDspsras 


'prasp^ras 


prosperously 


'prDSp0rosli 


'prasp^rosh 


protect 


fprs'tekt 




protects 


jprg'tekts 




protected 


tpre'tektid 




protecting 


jpra'tEktirj 




protection 


fpra'tekj;?n 




protective 


fpro'tektiv 




protector 


fpra'tEkto(r 


pra'tskts 


protectors 


fprs'tektez 


pro'tektsz 


protectorate 


fpra'tEkt^rit 




protectorates 


fprQ'tekterits 




protest, noun 


'proutest 




protests 


'proutests 




protest, verb 


fprs'test 




protests 


j-pra'tests 




protested 


fpra'testid 




protesting 


) pro' test irj 




protestant 


'protist^nt 


'pratist^nt 


protestants 


'protistonts 


'pratist^nts 


proud 


praud 




prouder 


"praudo(r 


'prauds 


proudest 


'praudist 




proudly 


'praudli 




prove 


pru'v 




proves 


pru'vz 




proved 


pru'vd 




proving 


'pru'virj 




proverb 


'provob, 'provsb 


'pravsb, 'pravseb 


proverbs 


'prDvabz, 'provsbz 


'pravsbz, 'pravssbz 


proverbial 


|pro'v3'bi9l 


pra'vsobial 


proverbially 


fpra f v3'btah 


pra'vssbtali 




jpra'vs'bjah 




provide 


fpra'vaid 




provides 


tpro'vaidz 




provided 


fprs'vaidid 




providing 


tpra'vaidirj 




providence 


'provides 


'pravid^ns 


provident 


'provident 


'provident 


providently 


'pruvid^ntli 


'pravidanth 


providential 


provi'denj^l 


pravi'denj^l 



See Note 30, p. xxxv. in Introduction. 
304 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



providentially 


prDvi'denJah 


pravi'den/ah 


province 


'provins 


'pravins 


provinces 


'provmsiz 


'pravinsiz 


provincial 


fpro'vinj^l 




provision 


jpr3'vi3^n 




provisions 


fpra'vrjznz 




provisional 


fpro'vr^n} 




provisionally 


tpra'vrjzn^h 




provocation 


prDva'keij^n 


prava'keij^n 


provocations 


prDV3'ket|>nz 


pravo'kei/^nz 


provoke 


jpro'vouk 




provokes 


fpra'vouks 




provoked 


fpra'voukt 




provoking 


tpro'voukirj 




prudence 


'pnrd^ns 




prudent 


'pru'd^nt 




prudently 


'pnrdzntli 




prune 


pru-n 




prunes 


pru-nz 


- 


Prussia 


'prAjs 




Prussian 


'prAj^n 




Prussians 


'prA/^nz 




psychological 


saika'lDo^ik^l 


saiko'lac^ik^l 


psychologically 


saiko'lDc^iks'li 


saika'lacijik^li 


psychologist 


sai'kDlac^ist 


sai'kalac^ist 


psychologists 


sai' kola exists 


sai'kaloo^ists 


psychology 


sai'kola^i 


sai'kolscii 


public 


'pAblik 




publication 


pAbli'keij^n 




publications 


pAbh'kei/^nz 




publicity 


pAb'hsiti, pab'lisiti 




publicly 


'pAblikli 




publish 


'pAbhJ 




publishes 


'pAbliJiz 




published 


'pAblift 




publishing 


'pAbhJirj 




publisher 


'pAbliJa(r 


'pAbliJs 


publishers 


'pAblifaz 


'pAbliJsz 


pudding 


'pudirj 




puddings 


'pudirjz 




puddle 


'pAdJ 




puddles 


'pAdJz 




puff 


pAf 




puffs 


pAfs 




puffed 


pAft 





f See Note 30, p. xxxv. in Introduction. 
305 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



puffing 


'pAfirj 




pull 


pul 




pulls 


pulz 




pulled 


puld 




pulling 


'puhrj 




pulp 


P Alp 




pulpit 


'pulpit 




pulpits 


'pulpits 




pulse 


pAlS 




pulses 


'pAlsiZ 




pump 


pAmp 




pumps 


pAmps 




pumped 


pAmpt 




pumping 


'pAmpir) 




pun 


pAn 




puns 


pAnz 




punned 


pAnd 




punning 


'pAnir) 




punch 


pAntf 




punches 


'pAntfiz 




punched 


pAntft 




punching 


'pAntfir] 




punctual 


'pAT)A:tjU3l 




punctuality 


pAn&tju'aeliti 




punctually 


'pAn^tjuah 






'pAnA'tfuali 




punctuate 


'pAn^tjueit 






'pArjAtfueit 




punctuates 


'pAn/etjueits 






'pAnAtfueits 




punctuated 


'pAn&tjueitid 






'pAn^tfueitid 




punctuating 


'pAn/?tjueitirj 






'pAnAtfueitirj 




punctuation 


pAn^tju'eiJ^n 




puncture 


^SjklJ^r ^ 


'pAnktfs 


punctures 


'pAnktfaz 


'pAijktfsz 


punctured 


'pAnk^ad 


'pAnk^d 


puncturing 


'pAnktf^rir) 




punish . 


'pAniJ 




punishes 


'pAniJiz 




punished 


'pAniJt 




punishing 


'pAniJir) 




punishable 


'pAniJob} 





306 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



punishment 


'pAnifm9nt 




punishments 


'pAnifmants 




pupil 


'pju-pzl 




pupils 


'pju'pilz 




puppy 


' P A P i 




puppies 


'pAplZ 




purchase 


'ps-tfis 


'p33tflS 


purchases 


'ps-tjisiz 


'p39tflSlZ 


purchased 


'p3'tflSt 


'p39tflSt 


purchasing 


'p3'tfisirj 


'p39^"lSir) 


purchaser 


'p3'tJ9S9(r 


'p39tJ9S9 


purchasers 


'p3'tf9S3Z 


'p39t[OS9Z 


pure 


pju9(r 


PJU9 


purer 


'pj u9ro (r 


'PJUT9 


purest 


'pj U9nst 


'pJUTlSt 


purely 


'pJU9ll 


'pJU9ll 


pureness 


'pju9nis 


'pj U9niS 


purify 


'pju9rifai 


'pjuTifai 


purifies 


'pju9nfaiz 


'pju'rifaiz 


purified 


'pj U9nf aid 


'pju'rifaid 


purifying 


'pjuarifaurj 


'pju'rifaiirj 


purity 


'pji/9riti 


'pjUTltl 


purple 


'ps'pl 


'p39p| 


purpose 


'p3'p9S 


'p39p9S 


purposes 


'p3'p3SlZ 


p39p<?SlZ 


purposely 


'ps'p^sli 


'p39p3Sll 


purse 


p3'S 


O39S 


purses 


'pS'SlZ 


'p39SlZ 


pursue 


po'sju 1 , ps's/u* 


p9's/U', p39's^U 


pursues 


pa's;u'z, ps'syu'z 


pg'sju'z, p39's;'u'z 


pursued 


p9's;u'd, ps's^u'd 


p9's;u'd, p39's;u'd 


pursuing 


p9's;u f in, ps's^u'irj 


pg's/u'irj, p39's;u'ir) 


pursuer 


p9'sju'9(r, ps's;u'9(r 


P9'S/U'9, p39's;U'9 


pursuers 


p9's/u'9z, ps's;u f 9z 


p9's;u'9z, psa's;u'az 


pursuit 


p9's;u-t, ps's;u't 


p9's^U't, p39's/U't 


pursuits 


p9's;u'ts, ps's;u'ts 


p9's;u'ts, psg's^u'ts 


push 


P U J 




pushes 


'pujiz 




pushed 


pujt 




pushing 


'pujiij 




put 


put 




puts 


puts 




putting 


'putirj 





putty 


'pAtl 




putties 


'pAtiz 




puzzle 


'pAZj 




puzzles 


'pAZjz 





307 



iVttHitional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 


puzzled 


'pAzJd 




puzzling 
pyjamas 


'pAzhrj 
po'c^crmaz 


(See pajamas) 




pai'djcrmaz 




pyramid 


'piramid 




pyramids 


'pirarmdz 







o 


kju" 




Q's 


kju'z 




quaint 


kwemt 




quainter 


'kwemta(r 


'kwemts 


quaintest 


'kwemtist 




quaintly 


'kweintli 




quaintness 
qualification 

qualifications 
qualify 


'kweintms 
kwDhfi'keiJ^n 
kwDlifi'kei|>nz 
'kwDhfai 


kwahfi'keij^n 
kwohfi'keij^nz 
'kwalifai 


qualifies 


'kwohfaiz 


'kwahfaiz 


qualified 


'kwolifaid 


'kwahfaid 


qualifying 


'kwDhfaiirj 


'kwalifaiir) 


quality 


'kWDlltl 


'kwaliti 


qualities 


'kwohtiz 


'kwahtiz 


quantity 


'kwontiti 


'kwantiti 


quantities 


'kwontitiz 


'kwantitiz 


quarantine 


'kwor^ntin 




quarrel 


'kworal 




quarrels 


'kwurolz 




quarrelled 


'kworald 




quarrelling 


'kwDrahrj 




quarrelsome 


'kworalsam 




quarry 


'kwori 




quarries 


'kworiz 




quart, measure of 


kwo f t 


kwoat 


capacity 






quarts 


kwo'ts 


kwosts 


quarter 


'kwo'ta(r 


'kwosta 


quarters 


'kwD't8Z 


'kwostsz 


quay 


ki 1 




quays 


ki-z 




Quebec 


kwi'bek, kwa'bsk 




queen 


kwi'n 




queens 


kwi-nz 





308 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



queer 


kwis(r 


kwis 


queerer 


'kwiara(r 


'kwi-ra 


queerest 


'kwiarist 


'kwi-rist 


queerly 


'kwiali 


'kwisli * 


quench 


kwentf 




quenches 


'kwsntfiz 




quenched 


kwsntft 




quenching 


'kwentjir) 




query 


'kwiari 


'kwi'ri 


queries 


'kwiariz 


'kwi'riz 


queried 


'kwiand 


'kwrrid 


querying 


'kwiarur) 


'kwi'rurj 


question 


'kwestj>n 




questions 


'kwestp?nz 




questioned 


'kwestj^nd 




questioning . 


'kwestf^nuj 




questionable 


'kwestj^nsbj 




questionably 


'kwes^nabh 




queue 


kju* 




queues 


kju-z 




quibble 


'kwibj 




quibbles 


'kwib}z 




quibbled 


'kwibjd 




quibbling 


'kwiblii), 'kwibjir) 




quick 


kwik 




quicker 


'kwiko(r 


'kwiks 


quickest 


'kwikist 




quickly 


'kwikli 




quickness 


'kwiknis 




quick-tempered 


'kwik'tempod 


'kwik'tempad 


quick-witted 


'kwik'witid 




quiet 


'kwaiot 




quieter 


'kwaitd(r 


'kwai9t 


quietest 


'kwaiotist 




quietly 


'kwaistli 




quietness 


'kwaiatnis 




quilt 


kwilt 




quilts 


kwilts 




quinine 


kwi'ni'n, 'kwinin 




quit 


kwit 




quits 


kwits 




quitted 


'kwitid 




quitting 


'kwitirj 




quite 


kwait 




quits 


kwits 




quotation 


kwou'teijsn 




quotations 


kv/ou'teij^nz 





309 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 


quote 

quotes 
quoted 
quoting 


kwout 
kwouts 
'kwoutid 
'kwoutirj 





R 

R's 
rabbit 

rabbits 
race 

races 

raced 

racing 
racial 
rack 

racks 
radiance 
radiant 
radiantly 
radiate 

radiates 

radiated 

radiating 

radiation 
radiator 

radiators 
radical 

radicals 
radically 
radium 
radius 

radii 
raft 

rafts 
rag 

rags 
rage 

rages 

raged 

raging 
ragged 



R 

cr(r 

crz 
'raebit 

'raebits 
reis 

'reisiz 

reist 

'reisig 

'rei/j^l, 'reij>l 
rack 

rasks 

'reidians, 'reidjans 
'reidiant, 'reidpnt 
'reidionth, 'reidjanth 
'reidieit, 'reidjeit 

'reidieits, 'reidjeits 

'reidieitid 

'reidjeitid 

'reidieitirj 

'reidjeitirj 



7 reidieita(r 
'revdieitQz 



, 'reidj9m 
'reidias, 'revdjas 

'reidiai 
ra-ft 

ra'fts 
raeg 

raegz 



'reidjug 
'raegid 



'reidieits 
'reidieitoz 



ra-ft 
ra-fts 



310 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



raggedness 
raid 


'raegidnis 
reid 




raids 


reidz 




raided 


'reidid 




raiding 
raider 

raiders 


'reidirj 
'reida (r 
'reidaz 


'reido 
'reidsz 


rail 


reil 




rails 


reilz 




railing 

railings 
railroad 


'reihrj 
'reihrjz 
'reilroud 




railroads 


'reilroudz 




railway 

railways 
rain 


'reilwei 
'reilweiz 
rein 




rams 


reinz 




rained 


reind 




raining 
rainy 

rainier 


'remirj 
'reim 
'rein is (r 


'reinis 


rainiest 


'reinust 




raise 


reiz 




raises 


'reiziz 




raised 


reizd 




raising 
raisin 


'reizirj 
'reizi^ 




raisins 
rake 


'reiznz 
reik 




rakes 


reiks 




raked 


reikt 




raking 
rally 

rallies 


'reikirj 
'raeli 
'raeliz 




rallied 


'raehd 




rallying 
Ralph 


'raehirj 
raelf, ra-f, ralf, reif 


ra-f, ra-lt 


ram 


raem 




rams 


raemz 




rammed 


rsemd 




ramming 
ramble 
rambles 
rambled 
rambling 
ramification 
ramifications 


'raemirj 
'raembj 
'raembjz 
'raembjd 
'raembhrj 
raemifi'keij^n 
raemifi'kei/anz 





311 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



RAN from run 


raen 




ranch 


raentf, ra-ntf 


ra-ntf 


ranches 


'raentfiz, 'ra-ntfiz 


'ra-ntfiz 


random 


'raendam 




RANG from ring 


raer) 




range 


rein d$ 




ranges 


'remdjiz 




ranged 


reindjd 




ranging 


'reindjtrj 




rank 


raerjk 




ranks 


raenks 




ranked 


raen At 




ranking 


'raenkirj 




ransack 


'ram'saek 




ransacks 


'raen'saeks 




ransacked 


'raen'saekt 




ransacking 


'raen'saekii] 




ransom 


'raensam 




ransoms 


'raensamz 




ransomed 


'raensomd 




ransoming 


'raensamir) 




rap 


raep 




raps 


raeps 




rapped 


raept 




rapping 


'raepig 




rapid 


'raepid 




rapidly 


'raepidk 




rapidity 


ra'piditi, rae'piditi 




rare 


rea(r 


res 


rarer 


'reor9(r 


're'rs 


rarest 


'rcarist 


're-rvst 


rarely 


'reoh 


'resh 


rareness 


'rcanis 


'reams 


rascal 


'ra'sk^l 


'ra'skpl 


rascals 


'rcrsk^lz 


'ra-sk^lz 


rash 


rxf 




rashly 


'rsejh 




rat 


raet 




rats 


raets 




rate 


reit 




rates 


reits 




rather 


'rd'3a(r 


r ra'6s 


ratification 


raetifi'keijan 




ratifications 


raetifi'kei/^nz 




ratify 


'raetifai 




ratifies 


'raetifaiz 




ratified 


'raetifaid 





312 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



ratifying 


'raetifaurj 




ratio 


'reifiou, 'retfjou 




ratios 


'reijiouz, 'reifjouz 




ration 


'raej<m 




rations 


'raejpnz 




rationed 


'raej^nd 




ratigmng 


'raej>mrj 




rational 


'raej>n} 




rationally 


'raej>n9h 




rattle 


'raetj 




rattles 


'raetjz 




rattled 


'rsetjd 




rattling 


'raethrj 




rattlesnake 


'raetjsneik 




rattlesnakes 


'raetjsneiks 




ravage 


'rsevicfcj 




ravages 


'rsevtc^iz 




ravaged 


'raevi(^d 




ravaging 


'raevic^irj 




rave 


reiv 




raves 


retvz 




raved 


reivd 




raving 


'reivirj 




raven 


'reivi^ 




ravens 


'reivi ( iz 




raw 


ro' 




rawer 


'ro'o(r 


'ro's 


rawest 


'ro-ist 




rawly 


'ro-li 




rawness 


'ro-nis 




ray 


rei 




rays 


reiz 




razor 


'reizo(r 


'reizs 


razors 


'reizsz 


'reizsz 


re-, affix 


ri 1 -, ri- (rarely ra-) 




reach 


ri-tf 




reaches 


'ri-tfiz 




reached 


ri'tft 




reaching 


'ri'tfir) 




react 


ri'aekt, ri'aekt 




reacts 


ri'aekts, ri'aekts 




reacted 


ri'aektid, ri'aektid 




reacting 


n'aektirj, n'sektirj 





reaction 


ri'aekj^n, n'sekj^n 




reactions 


ri'aekf^nz, n'aekj^nz 




reactionary 


ri'aekjpnari 


ri'aekfanen 




ri'aekj^nari 





313 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



reactionaries 


ri'aekj^nariz 


n'aekjansnz 




n'aek|>n9rtz 




read 


ri'd 




reads 


ri'dz 




read 


red 




reading 


'rrdirj 




readable 


'rrdab] 




reader 


'ri'da(r 


'ri'da 


readers 


'ri'daz 


'ri'dsz 


ready 


'redt 




readier 


'redia(r 


'redia 


readiest 


'redust 




readily 


'rsdih 




readiness 


'redims 




real 


'ri-01, rial 




realism 


'rralizin, 'riahzip 




realist 


'rrolist, 'nahst 




realists 


'ri-ahsts, 'rwlists 




realistic 


rja'hstik, ris'listik 




realistically 


ria'hstik^h 






ria'hstik^h 




reality 


n'acliti, rv'aelitv 




realities 


n'aehtiz, ri'aelitiz 




realization 


nalai'zeij^n 






noh'zeij^n 




realize 


'rralaiz 




realizes 


'rralaiziz 




realized 


'ri'alaizd 




realizing 


'ri'alaizirj 




really 


'ri3h 




reap 


n-p 




reaps 


rrps 




reaped 


rrpt 




reaping 


'n-pig 




reappear 


'ri'a'pia(r, ri8 r pia(r 


'ri'o'pis, 'ria'pis 


reappears 


'rro'piaz, ria'piaz 


'ri'a'pioz, 'ria'pisz 


reappeared 


'ri'a'piad, na'piad 


'n-a'pisd, 'ria'pisd 


reappearing 


'ri's'piarirj 


'n-a'prrirj 




'ria'piarirj 


'ria'piTirj 


reappoint 


'ri'3'point, na'point 




reappoints 


'ri' appoints 






no 'paints 




reappointed . 


'ri'3'pomtid 






ria'pDintid 




reappointing 


'rra'pointirj 






rva'pDintirj 




rear 


'ria(r 


'ris 



314 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



rearrange 


'ri'9'reind$, rig'remdj 




rearranges 


'ri'9'remd$iz 






rig'remdjiz 




rearranged 


'rr 9 'remold 






rig'reindjd 




rearranging 


'rro'remdjirj 




rearrangement 


'n '9'rein djnwnt 






ri9'reind$m9nt 




rearrangements 


'ri'g'remdjmgnt 






rig'rem djmants 




reason 


'ri-zi^ 




reasons 


'n-znz 




reasoned 


'ri'znd 




reasoning 


'rrz<mirj 




reasonings 


'rrzpmnz 




reasonable 


'ri'zn9b} 




reasonableness 


'ri'zn9b}ms 




reasonably 


'rrzngbli 




reassemble 


'ri'9'sembj, rig'semb) 




reassembles 


'n^'sembjz 






ri9'semb}z 




reassembled 


'ri'9'sembjd 






ri9'semb}d 




reassembling 


'ri'9'sBmbhrj 






ri9 f sembhi] 




reassert 

reasserts 


'ri'9's3'ts, rig'ss'ts 


'ri'9'sssts 


reasserted 


'ri'9's3'tid 


'ri'9's39tid 




ri9'ss'tid 




reasserting 


n9's3 3 ti tlD 


'ri'g'ssstirj 


reassure 


ria'Jua(r,rw'/03(r 


n9'Ju3 


reassures 


ri9'/U9Z, ri9'/09Z 


ri9'Ji/3d 


reassured 


ri9'Ju9d, rw'J^d 


ri9'Judd 


reassuring 


ri9'/u9rir), rio'/oanrj 


ri9'JuTir| 


rebel, noun 


'rsb} 




rebels 


'reb]z 




rebel 


n'bsl 




rebels 


ri'belz 




rebelled 


ri'bsld 




rebelling 


ri' belir) 




rebellion 


ri'beljan 




rebellions 


ri'beljgnz 




rebellious 


ri'beljos 




rebelliously 


n'belpsh 




rebuild 


'rr'bild 





315 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



rebuilds 


'rr'bildz 




rebuilt 


'n-'bilt 




rebuilding 


'rr'bildvrj 




rebuke 


ri'bju'k 




rebukes 


ri'bju-ks 




rebuked 


ri'bju'kt 




rebuking 


n'bju'kirj 




recall 


ri'ko'l 




recalls 


n'ko'lz 




recalled 


n'kcvld 




recalling 


n'ko'hrj 




recapitulate 


nko'pitjuleit 




recapitulates 


rika'pitjuletts 




recapitulated 


rika'pitjuleitid 




recapitulating 


rika'pitjuleitirj 




recapitulation 


'rrk9pitju'leij>n 




recapitulations 


'rrkopitju'leif^nz 




recapture 


'rr'kseptfa(r 


'rr'kaeptfs 


recaptures 


'rr'kaeptfoz 


'n-'kaeptjaz 


recaptured 


'rr'kaep^od 


'n-'kaeptCsd 


recapturing 


'ri-'kaeptf^rirj 




recast 


'rr'ka'St 


'n-'ka-st 


recasts 


'ri-'ka'sts 


'n-'ka'sts 


recasting 


'ri'^ka'stir) 


'ri-'ka'stirj 


recede 


ri'si'd, n'si'd 




recedes 


ri'si'dz, ri'si'dz 




receded 


ri'si'did, n'sidid 




receding 


n'si'dirj, ri'si'diT) 




receipt 


ri'srt 




receipts 


ri'si'ts 




receipted 


ri'si'tid 




receipting 


n'si'tirj 




receive 


n'si'v 




receives 


ri'si'vz 




received 


ri'si'vd 




receiving 


n'si'virj 




receiver 


ri'si'va(r 


n'si'va 


receivers 


n'si'vaz 


ri'si'vsz 


recent 


'ri'snt 




recently 


'rrsnth 




receptacle 


n'sspt9k| 




receptacles 


n'septakjz 




reception 


ri'sspj^n 




receptions 


ri'sepf^nz 




receptive 


ri'septiv 




recess 


ri'ses 




recesses 


ri'sesiz 





316 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



recipe 


'resipi 


'rssipi 


recipes 


'rssipiz 


'rssipiz 


recitation 


resi'teijfn 




recitations 


resi'teij>nz 




recite 


ri'sait 




recites 


n'saits 




recited 


n'saitid 




reciting 


ri'saitir) 




reckless 


'rskhs 




recklessly 


'reklisli 




reckon 


'rekzn 




reckons 


'retonz 




reckoned 


'rek?nd 




reckoning 


'rekzmrj 




recognition 


rekag'nij>n 




recognizable 


'rekagnaizobj 






rekag'naizobj 




recognize 


'rekagnaiz 




recognizes 


'rek9gnaiziz 




recognized 


'rekagnaizd 




recognizing 


'rekagnaizirj 




recollect 


rek/lekt 




recollects 


rek^'lekts 




recollected 


reks'lektid 




recollecting 


rek^'lektirj 




recollection 


rek^'lekj^n 




recollections 


rek^'lekpnz 




recommend 


reka'msnd 




recommends 


reko'msndz 




recommended 


reko'mendid 




recommending 


reka'msndirj 




recommendation 


rekomen'deifim 




recommendations 


rekamen'deij^nz 




reconcile 


'rek^nsail 




reconciles 


'rek^nsailz 




reconciled 


'rek^nsaild 




reconciling 


'rekznsaihrj 




reconciliation 


rek^nsili'eij^n 




reconciliations 


r ck^nsili' eij^nz 




reconsider 


'ri'k^n'sidafr 


'rrk^n'sids 


reconsiders 


'rrkm'sidaz 


'rrkzn'sidsz 


reconsidered 


'ri'k^n'sidod 


'ri-kan'sidad 


reconsidering 


'ri'k^n'sidprirj 




record, noun 


'rekod 


'reksd 


records 


'rekodz 


'reksdz 


record, verb 


ri'ko-d 


n'kosd 


records 


ri'ko'dz 


ri'koadz 



317 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



recorded 


ri'ko'did 


ri'koadid 


recording 


n'ko'dirj 


ri'kosdirj 


recover, come back to 


ri'kAvo(r 


ri'kAv 


health 






recovers 


n'kAvaz 


ri'kAvsz 


recovered 


ri'kAvad 


n'kAvsd 


recovering 


ri'kAVprirj 




recover, cover again 


'rr'kAvs(r 


'ri'^kAva 


recovers 


'rr'kAvoz 


'rr'kAvoz 


recovered 


'rr'kAvad 


'ri-'kAvsd 


recovering 


'rr'kAVjmrj 




recovery 


n'kAvan 




recreation, refresh- 


rekn'eij>n 




ment 






recreations 


rekri'eijznz 




recreation, creating 


rrkn'eij>n 




anew 






recreations 


'ri'kri'eij>nz 




recruit 


n'kru't 




recruits 


ri'kru'ts 




recruited 


ri'knrtid 




recruiting 


rv'kru'tirj 




rectangle 


'rektaerjgj 




rectangles 


'rektaerjgjz 




recur 


ri'k3 r (r 


ri'kas 


recurs 


ri'ks'z 


ri'kasz 


recurred 


ri'ks-d 


ri'kasd 


recurring 


ri'ks'rirj, ri'kArirj 




red 


red 




redder 


'reda(r 


'reds 


reddest 


'redist 




redness 


'rednis 




redeem 


ri'di-m 




redeems 


rv'di'mz 




redeemed 


ri'drmd 




redeeming 


ri'di'mirj 




red-hot 


'red 'hot 


'red'hat 


redirect 


'n-di'rekt, 'ri-dai'rekt 




redirects 


'n'di'rekts 






'n'dai'rskts 




redirected 


'n-di'rektid 






'ri'dai'rektid 




redirecting . 


'ri'di'rektirj 






'ri'dai'rektirj 




reduce 


ri'dju'S 




reduces 


ri'dju'siz 




reduced 


ri'dju'St 





318 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



reducing 
reduction 


ri'dju'Sirj 
ri'dAkJ^n 




reductions 


n'dAkJ^nz 




reed 


rrd 




reeds 


ri'dz 




reef 


ri'f 




reefs 


ri'fs 




refer 


ri'f3-(r 


ri'fss 


refers 


ri'fe-z 


ri'fasz 


referred 


ri'fa'd 


ri'fsad 


referring 
referee 


n'fa'rirj 
refa'rr 




referees 


refa'ri'z 




reference 


'reforans 




references 


'reteransiz 




refine 


ri'fam 




refines 


ri'famz 




refined 


ri'famd 




refining 
refinement 


n'famirj 
ri'fammant 




refinements 


n'fammants 




reflect 


n'flekt 




reflects 


ri'flekts 




reflected 


ri'flsktid 




reflecting 
reflector 

reflectors 


ri'flektirj 
ri / flekt9(r 
n'flsktaz 


n'flekta 
ri'flektsz 


reflection 

reflections 
reform 


ri'flek/^n 
n'flekj^nz 
ri'fD'm 


ri'foom 


reforms 


ri'fo'mz 


ri'foamz 


reformed 


n'fo'md 


ri'foamd 


reforming 
reformer 


n'fo'maT 


rv'foamirj 
n'fadmos 


reformers 


ri'fo'maz 


ri'fosmaz 


reformation 

reformations 
refrain 


frefa'meij^n 
frefa'meijanz 
ri'frem 


frefa'meifanz 


refrains 


ri'fremz 




refrained 


ri'fremd 




refraining 
refresh 
refreshes 
refreshed 
refreshing 


ri'freimrj 
n'frej 
n'frsjiz 
ri'frsjt 
n'frcjirj 






t See Note 30, p. xxxv. in Introduction. 
319 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



refuge 


'refjudj 




refuges 


'rsfjudjiz 




refugee 


refju'c^i' 




refugees 


rsfju'd$i'z 




refund 


ri'fAnd, ri'f And 




refunds 


n'fAndz, n'fAndz 




refunded 


ri'f Andid, ri'f Andid 




refunding 


ri'fAndirj, ri'fAndirj 




refusal 


ri'f ju f z01 




refusals 


n'fju'zalz 




refuse, noun 


'refjus 




refuse, verb 


ri'fju-z 




refuses 


n'fju'ziz 




refused 


ri'fju'zd 




refusing 


n'fju'zirj 




refutation 


rsfju'teij^n 






refju'teij<m 




refutations 


ref]u'teif>nz 






rEfju'teiJ>nz 




refute 


ri'fju't 




refutes 


ri'fju'ts 




refuted 


n'fju'tid 




refuting 


n'fju-tiT] 




regain 


n'gein, n r gein 




regains 


ri'geinz, n'gemz 




regained 


ri'gemd, ri'gemd 




regaining 


ri'gemin, n'geinirj 




regard 


ri'ga-d 


ri'gasd 


regards 


ri'ga-dz 


ri'gaadz 


regarded 


ri'ga'did 


ri'gasdid 


regarding 


n'ga'dirj 


ri'gasdirj 


regardless 


n'ga'dlis 


ri'gasdhs 


regent 


'rr^nt 




regents 


'ri'^nts 




regiment 


'red^mant 




regiments 


're^zmants 




region 


'ri'C^^n 




regions 


'n * dj^nz 




register 


'rsciist9(r 


'resists 


registers 


'rec^istoz 


'redjistsz 


registered 


're^istad 


'rec^istad 


registering 


'rec^ist^nrj 




regret 


n'gret 




regrets 


n'grets 




regretted 


n'gret id 




regretting 


ri'gretirj 




regrettable 


n'gretabj 





320 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



regretful 


ri'gretful 




regular 


'regjula(r, 'regjala(r 


'regjuls, 'rsgjsls 


regularly 


'regjuteh, 'rsgjoloh 


'regjulsh, 'regjolsh 


regularity 


regju'lsenti 




regulate 


'regjulett, 'regjaleit 




regulates 


'rsgjulevts 






'regjoleits 




regulated 


'regjuleitid 






'regpleitid 




regulating 


'regjuleitirj 






'regjaleitirj 




regulation 


regju'leij>n 




regulations 


reg j u'leiJVnz 




rehearsal 


ri'hs's^l 


ri'hsss^l 


rehearsals 


n'hs'SPlz 


ri'hsss^lz 


rehearse 


n'h3's 


ri'hsas 


rehearses 


ri'h3-siz 


n'hssiz 


rehearsed 


ri'hs-st 


n'hssst 


rehearsing 


ri'ha'Sirj 


ri'hsssirj 


reign 


rein 




reigns 


reinz 




reigned 


reind 




reigning 


'reimr) 




rein 


rein 




reins 


reinz 




reindeer 


'reindi9(r 


'reindis 


reinforce 


mn'fo's 


rim'foss 


reinforces 


riin'fo'Siz 


nin'fossiz 


reinforced 


rnn'fo'st 


rnn'fosst 


reinforcing 


nm'fo'sirj 


rim 'fossil) 


reject 


ri'c^ekt 




rejects 


ri'c^ekts 




rejected 


ri'djektid 




rejecting 


ri'c^sktirj 




rejection 


n'o^skj^n 




rejections 


n'djekj^nz 




relate 


ri'leit 




relates 


ri'leits 




related 


n'leitid 




relating 


ri'leitirj 




relation 


ri'leijsn 




relations 


n'leipnz 




relationship 


n'leijnjip 





relative 


'relatvv 




relatives 


'relativz 




relatively 


'relativh 





321 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



relax 


n'laeks 




relaxes 


ri'laeksiz 




relaxed 


n'lsekst 




relaxing 


n'laeksirj 




relaxation 


rilaek'seij>n 




release 


ri'li's 




releases 


ri'li'siz 




released 


n'h'st 




releasing 


ri'li'Sirj 




relent 


ri'lent 




relents 


n'lents 




relented 


n'lentid 




relenting 


n'lentirj 




relentless 


ri'lentlis 




reliable 


n'lawb] 




reliance 


ri'laians 




reliant 


rt'laiQnt 




relic 


'rehk 




relics 


'rshks 




relief 


ri'lrf 




reliefs 


ri'lrfs 




relieve 


ri'lrv 




relieves 


ri'h'vz 




relieved 


ri'h'vd 




relieving 


ri'li'virj 




religion 


ri'li^n 




religious 


n'hd$as 




religiously 


n'hc^ash 




relish 


'rehj 




relishes 


'rehjiz 




relished 


'rehjt 




relishing 


'rehjirj 




reluctance 


ri'lAktans 




reluctant 


rt'lAktant 




reluctantly 


ri'lAktontli 




rely 


n'lai 




relies 


ri'laiz 




relied 


ri'laid 




relying 


ri'laiirj 




remain 


ri'mein 




remains 


ri'meinz 




remained 


ri'memd 




remaining 


ri'meimrj 




remainder 


ri'memda(r 


n'meinde 


remainders 


ri'memdaz 


n'memdz 


remark 


ri'ma'k 


n'maak 


remarks 


ri'ma'ks 


rt'masks 



322 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



remarked 


n'nurkt 


ri'maskt 


remarking 
remarkable 
remarkably 
remedy 

remedies 


n'mcrkirj 
n'ma-kab} 
n'ma'kabli 
'remidi 
'remidiz 


ri'maskirj 
ri'maskab} 
ri'maskabh 


remedied 


'remidid 




remedying 
remember 

remembers 


'remidurj 
ri'memba(r 
ri'membaz 


ri'memb 
n'membsz 


remembered 


n'membad 


ri'membad 


remembering 
remembrance 


ri'membmrj 
n'membrans 




remembrances 


ri'membransiz 




remind 


ri'mamd 




reminds 


n'mamdz 




reminded 


ri'maindid 




reminding 
reminder 


ri'maindirj 


n'maindd 


reminders 


n'maindaz 


ri'maindsz 


reminiscence 


rEmi'nisns 




reminiscences 
remiss 


remi'nisnsiz 
ri'mis 




remit 


ri'mit 




remits 


ri'mits 




remitted 


ri'mitid 




remitting 
remittance 


ri'mitirj 
ri'mit^ns 




remittances 


n'mit^nsiz 




remnant 


'remnant 




remnants 


'remnants 




remonstrance 


ri'monstrans 


ri'manstrans 


remonstrances 


ri'munstransiz 


n'manstransiz 


remonstrate 


n'munstreit 


ri'manstreit 




'remanstreit 




remonstrates 


n'monstreits 


ri'manstreits 




'remanstreits 




remonstrated 


n'monstreitid 






'remanstreitid 


ri'manstreitid 


remonstrating 
remorse 


ri'munstreitirj 
'rsmanstreitirj 
ri'mo-s 


ri'manstreitirj 
ri'mass 


remote 


ri'mout 





remotely 
removal 

removals 
remove 


ri'mouth 
ri'mu'v} 
ri'mu'vjz 
ri'mu'V 





323 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



removes 


ri'mu'vz 




removed 


ri'rmrvd 




removing 


rt'rmrvirj 




remunerate 


ri'mju'ngreit 




remunerates 


ri'mju'nareits 




remunerated 


n'mju'nareitid 




remunerating 


ri'mju'nareitirj 




remuneration 


rimjuno'reij^n 




remunerative 


ri'mju'narotiv 


ri'mju-nareitiv 


render 


'ren(te(r 


'rends 


renders 


'rendaz 


'rendsz 


rendered 


'rendad 


'rendsd 


rendering 


'rendmrj 




renew 


ri'nju 1 




renews 


ri'nju 'z 




renewed 


n'nju'd 




renewing 


ri'nju'irj 




renewal 


ri'nju;?! 




renewals 


ri'nju^lz 




renounce 


ri'nauns 




renounces 


ri'naimsiz 




renounced 


ri'naunst 




renouncing 


ri'naunsirj 




renown 


ri'naun 




renowned 


ri'naund 




rent 


rent 




rents 


rents 




rented 


'rentid 




renting 


'rentirj 




reorganize 


'rr'o'ggnaiz 






ri'o-ganaiz 


n'osgsnaiz 


reorganizes 


'ri'^'ganaiziz 






n'o-ganaiziz 


n'osganaiziz 


reorganized 


'n''o'g9naizd 






n'o-ganaizd 


ri'yoganaizd 


reorganizing 


'ri-'o-gonaizirj 






n'o-gonaizirj 


ri'asganaizirj 


REPAID from repay 


'rr'peid, n'peid 




repair 


n'pea(r 


ri'pea 


repairs 


ri'pcaz 


n'pesz 


repaired 


ri'pead 


ri'pesd 


repairing 


ri'pEarirj 


ri'pe'nrj 


reparation 


reps'reipn 




reparations 


repa'reifjmz 




repay 


'rr'pei, ri'pei 




repays 


'rr'petz, rt'peiz 




repaid 


'rr'peid, ri'peid 





324 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 


repaying 


'rr'peurj, n'peurj 




repayment 


'rr'peimont 






n'peimont 




repayments 


'rr 'pennants 






ri'peimants 




repeal 


ri'pi'l 




repeals 


ri'pi'lz 




repealed 


n'prld 




repealing 


ri'prlirj 




repeat 


ri'prt 




repeats 


n'prts 




repeated 


ri'prtid 




repeating 


ri'prt irj 




repeatedly 


ri'prtidh 




repeater 


n'pi'to(r 


ri'prts 


repeaters 


ri'pi-toz 


n'pi'taz 


repel 


n'pel 




repels 


ri'pelz 




repelled 


ri'peld 




repelling 


ri'pelirj 




repent 


ri'pent 




repents 


n'pents 




repented 


ri'pentid 




repenting 


ri'pentirj 




repentance 


ri'psntans 




repentant 


ri'pentant 




repetition 


rspi'tipn 




repetitions 


rspi'tij^nz 




replace 


rr'pleis, ri'pleis 




replaces 


n-'pleisiz, ri'pleisiz 




replaced 


rr'pleist, ri'pleist 




replacing 


ri-'pleisin, ri'pleisir) 




reply 


n'plai 




replies 


ri'plaiz 




replied 


ri'plaid 




replying 


ri'plaitrj 




report 


ri'po't 


ri'post 


reports 


ri'po'ts 


ri'posts 


reported 


ri'po'tid 


ri'postid 


reporting 


ri'po'tirj 


ri'postii) 


reporter 


ri'po't9(r 


ri'posts 


reporters 


ri'pD'toz 


ri'postsz 


represent 


repn'zsnt 





represents 


repri'zents 




represented 


rspri'zentid 




representing 


rspri'zentirj 




representative 


rspri'zentstiv 




325 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



representatives 


repri'zentstivz 




repress 


n'pres 




represses 


ri'presiz 




repressed 


n'prest 




repressing 


n'presirj 




repression 


n'prej>n 




reprieve 


ri'pri'v 




reprieves 


ri'pri'vz 




reprieved 


ri'pri'vd 




reprieving 


ri'prrvirj 




reprimand, noun 


'reprimand 


'reprimand 


reprimands 


'reprimandz 


'reprimandz 


reprimand 


'reprimand 


'reprimand 




repri'ma'nd 


repri'ma'nd 


reprimands 


'reprimandz 


'reprimandz 




repn'ma-ndz 


repri'ma-ndz 


reprimanded 


'reprimandid 


'reprimand id 




repn'ma-ndid 


repri'ma-ndid 


reprimanding 


'reprimandirj 


'reprimandir) 




repri'ma-ndirj 


repn'ma'ndirj 


reproach 


ri'proutf 




reproaches 


ri'proutfiz 




reproached 


ri'proutft 




reproaching 


n'proutfirj 




reproachful 


ri'proutfful 




reproduce 


'ri'pra'dju's 




reproduces 


'ri'prs'dju'siz 




reproduced 


'rrpra'dju'st 




reproducing 


'ri'pra'dju'sirj 




reproduction 


'ri'pra'dAkpn 




reproof 


ri'pru-f 




reproofs 


n'pru'fs 




reprove 


n'pru'v 




reproves 


ri'pru'vz 




reproved 


n'pru'vd 




reproving 


n'pnrvirj 




reptile 


'reptail 


'reptil 


reptiles 


'reptailz 


'reptilz 


republic 


ri'pAblik 




republics 


n'pAbhks 




republican 


ri'pAbhkan 




republicans 


ri'pAbhkanz 




repudiate 


ri'pju'dieit 




repudiates 


ri'pju-dieits 




repudiated 


n'pju-dveitid 




repudiating 


n'pju'dieitirj 




repudiation 


ripjudi'ei/^n 





326 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



repugnance 


ri'pAgnsns 




repugnant 


n'pAgnont 




repugnantly 


rv'pAgnantlt 




repulse 


n'pAls 




repulses 


n'pAlsiz 




repulsed 


ri'pAlst 




repulsing 


ri'pAlsirj 




repulsion 


ri'pAlj>n 




repulsive 


ri'pAlsiv 




repulsively 


ri'pAlsvvli 




repulsiveness 


n'pAlsivnis 




reputable 


'repjutsb} 




reputation 


repju'teij>n 




reputations 


repju'teijjmz 




repute 


ri'pju't 




reputed 


n'pju'tvd 




request 


ri'kwest 




requests 


ri'kwEsts 




requested 


ri'kwestid 




requesting 


n'kwestirj 




require 


n'kwaia(r 


n'kwais 


requires 


n'kwaiaz 


ri'kwaisz 


required 


ri'kwaiod 


rv'kwaisd 


requiring 


ri'kwaiarirj 




requirement 


n'kwaiomant 


ri'kwaismsnt 


requirements 


n'kwaiamsnts 


n'kwaismants 


requisite 


'rekwiztt 




rescue 


'reskju, 'reskju 




rescues 


'reskjuz, 'rsskjuz 




rescued 


'reskjud, 'reskjud 




rescuing 


'reskjuirj 




research 


ri'ss'tf 


n'ssstf 


researches 


ri'ss'tfiz 


ri'ssstfiz 


resemblance 


ri'zemblans 




resemblances 


ri'zemblansiz 




resemble 


n'zembj 




resembles 


ri'zsmbjz 




resembled 


ri'zsmbjd 




resembling 


ri'zsmbltrj 




resent 


n'zent 




resents 


ri'zsnts 




resented 


ri'zentid 




resenting 


ri'zsnttrj 


t 


resentful 


ri'zsntful 




resentfully 


rv'zentf uh, n'zentfah 




resentment 


ri'zentmant 




reserve 


n'zs'v 


ri'zsav 



327 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation 



American Variants 



reserves 


n'zs'vz 


ri'zaavz 


reserved 


ri'zs'vd 


ri'zssvd 


reserving 


n'zs'virj 


ri'zasvirj 


residence 


'rezutens 




residences 


'rezid^nsiz 




resign 


n'zain 




resigns 


ri'zainz 




resigned 


ri'zamd 




resigning 


ri'zaimrj 




resignation 


rssig'neij>n 




resignations 


resig'neif^nz 




resist 


ri'zist 




resists 


n'zists 




resisted 


ri'zistid 




resisting 


n'zistirj 




resistence 


ri'zistens 




resolute 


'rezalut, 'rezaljut 




resolutely 


'rezaluth, 'rszoljuth 




resolution 


reza'lu pn .reza'lj u pn 




resolutions 


reza'lu-J^nz 




resolve 


ri'zulv 


ri'zalv 


resolves 


ri'zolvz 


n'zalvz 


resolved 


ri'zolvd 


ri'zalvd 


resolving 


ri'zDlvig 


ri'zalvirj 


resort 


ri'zo't 


n'zDst 


resorts 


ri'zo'ts 


ri'zoats 


resorted 


ri'zo'tid 


ri'zostid 


resorting 


ri'zo-tirj 


n'zostirj 


resource 


ri'so-s 


ri'soss 


resources 


ri'so'siz 


ri'sossiz 


resourceful 


ri'so'sful 


n'sossful 


respect 


ris'pekt 




respects 


ns'pekts 




respected 


ris'pektid 




respecting 


ris'pektirj 




respectable 


ris'pektabj 




respectably 


ris'psktobli 




respectful 


ris'pektful 




respectfully 


ris'pektfuli 






ris'psktfali 




respective 


ris'pektiv 




respectively 


ris'psktivh 




respite 


'respit, 'respait 




respond 


ris'pond 


ris'pand 


responds 


ris'pondz 


ns'pandz 


responded 


ris'pDndid 


ris'pandid 



328 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



responding 


ns'pDndirj 


ris'pandig 


response 


rts'pDns 


ris'pans 


responses 


ris'ponstz 


ris'pansiz 


responsibility 


rispDnsa'biliti 


rispansa'bihti 


responsibilities 


rispDnss'bilitiz 


respansa'bihtiz 


responsible 


ris'pDnsab} 


ris'pansob} 


responsibly 


ns'pDnsabh 


ns'pansabh 


responsive 


ris'pDnsiv 


ns'pansiv 


rest 


rest 




rests 


rests 




rested 


'restid 




resting 


'restirj 




restaurant 


'rest^rorj, 'restorDrj 


'restorant, 'rest^rant 


restaurants 


'resterorjz 


'rest^rants 




'restorDrjz 


'rest^rants 


restful 


'restful 




restless 


'restlis 




restlessly 


'resthslt 




restoration 


jresto'reipn 




restorations 


fresto'retf^nz 




restore 


ns'to'(r, ris'to3(r 


ris'tos 


restores 


ris'to'z, ris'toaz 


ris'tosz 


restored 


ris'to'd, ris'tood 


ris'toad 


restoring 


ris'toTirj, ris'toanrj 


ns'to'rirj 


restorer 


ris'toT9(r, ris'toaro(r 


rus'to'rs 


restorers 


ris'tD'raz, ns'tooroz 


ns'to-rsz 


restrain 


ris'trem 




restrains 


ris'trcmz 




restrained 


ris'tremd 




restraining 


ris'treinirj 




restraint 


ris'treint 




restrict 


ris'trikt 




restricts 


ris'trikts 




restricted 


ris'triktid 




restricting 


ris'triktirj 




restriction 


ris'tnkj^n 




restrictions 


ris'trikj^nz 




result 


ri'zAlt 




results 


n'zAlts 




resulted 


ri'zAltid 




resulting 


ri'zAltirj 




resume 


ri'z^u'm 




resumes 


n'z;u'mz 


t 


resumed 


ri'zjirmd 




resuming 


ri'z;u'mirj 





f See Note 30, p. xxxv. in Introduction. 
329 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



retail, adj. <S- adverb 


'rr'teil 




retain 


ri'tein 




retains 


n'teinz 




retained 


n'teind 




retaining 


ri'teinirj 




retaliate 


ri'taelieit 




retaliates 


ri'taelieits 




retaliated 


ri'taeheitid 




retaliating 


n'taelieitirj 




retire 


n'taia(r 


n'tais 


retires 


ri'taioz 


ri'taisz 


retired 


n'taiad 


n'taiad 


retiring 


ri'taiorirj 




retirement 


n'taiamant 


ri'taismant 


retort 


ri'tD-t 


n'tost 


retorts 


ri'ta'ts 


n'tosts 


retorted 


ri'to'tid 


ri'tostid 


retorting 


n'tD'tirj 


ri'tostirj 


retreat 


ri'tri't 




retreats 


n'tri'ts 




retreated 


ri'trrtid 




retreating 


ri'tri'tirj 




return 


ri't3*n 


ri'tsan 


returns 


ri't3 ? nz 


n'tasnz 


returned 


n'ts-nd 


ri'tasnd 


returning 


n'ts'nirj 


n'tssmrj 


Rev. 


'rev^rsnd, 'rev^rant 




reveal 


n'vi'l 




reveals 


ri'vi'lz 




revealed 


ri'vi-ld 




revealing 


ri'vi'lirj 




revelation 


revi'lei/^n 




revelations 


revi'leif^nz 




revenge 


n' veno^ 




revenges 


ri'veno^iz 




revengeful 


n'veno^ful 




revenue 


'revznju 




revenues 


'revinjuz 




reverence 


'revarans 




reverent 


'revsrant 




reverently 


'r&vprantli 




reverse 


n'va-s 


n'vsss 


reverses 


ri'vs'Siz 


ri'vsasiz 


reversed 


rv'vs'st 


n'vasst 


reversing 


ri'vs'Sirj 


ri'vaasu) 


review 


ri'vju 1 




reviews 


ri'vju'z 





330 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



reviewed 


n'vju'd 




reviewing 
reviewer 


n'vju'irj 
ri'vju'o(r 


n'vju-a 


reviewers 
revise 


ri'vju'az 
ri'vatz 


ri'vju'sz 


revises 


ri'vaiziz 




revised 


ri'vaizd 




revising 
reviser 

revisers 


ri'vaizirj 
rt'vaiZ9(r 
ri'vaizaz 


ri'vaiza 
ri'vaizoz 


revision 


ri'viTpn 




revisions 


ri'vivnz 




revival 


ri'vaiv?! 




revivals 


ri'vaiv^lz 




revive 


ri'vaiv 




revives 


n'vaivz 




revived 


n'vaivd 




reviving 
revolt 


ri'vaivirj 
n'voult 




revolts 


ri'voults 




revolted 


n'voultid 




revolting 
revolution 

revolutions 


ri'voultii) 
reva'lu-J^n 
reva'lju'J^n 




revolutionary 
revolutionize 

revolutionizes 
revolutionized 
revolutionizing 
revolve 


reva'hrjnan 
reva'lju'Jnari 
revs'lu-Jnaiz 
reva'lju'Jnaiz 
revo'lu'Jnaiziz 
reva'lju'fnaiziz 
reva'lu'Jnaizd 
reva'lju'Jnaizd 
rsva'lu'Jnaizirj 
revo'lju'Jnaizirj 
n'vDlv 


reva'hrjnsri 
ri'vaiv 


revolves 


n'vDlvz 


ri'valvz 


revolved 


ri'volvd 


ri'valvd 


revolving 
revolver 

revolvers 


n'vDlvirj 
ri'vDlva(r 
n'vDlvaz 


n'valvirj 
ri'valvs 
ri'valvdz 


reward 


ri'wo'd 




rewards 


ri'wo'dz 




rewarded 


ri'wo'did 




rewarding 
rheumati . 


n'wo'dir) 
ru'maetik 





331 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



rheumatics 


ru'maetiks 




rheumatism 


'ru'matizm 




rhinoceros 


rai'nDSzras 


rai'nas^ros 


rhinoceroses 


rai'nDszrasiz 


rai'nas^rasiz 


rhyme 


raim 




rhymes 


raimz 




rhymed 


raimd 




rhyming 


'raimii) 




rhythm 


'ri6m, 'ri9ni 




rhythms 


'n6mz, 'n9mz 




rib 


rib 




ribs 


ribz 




ribbon 


'riban 




ribbons 


'ribanz 




rice 


rais 




rich 


ntf 




richer 


'ritfa(r 


'ntf9 


richest 


'ritfist 




richly 


'ntfh 




Richard 


'ritfod 


'ntfsd 


rid 


rid 




rids 


ndz 




ridded 


'rid id 




ridding 


'ndu) 




riddance 


'rid^ns 




riddle 


'rid] 




riddles 


'ridjz 




ride 


raid 




rides 


raidz 




rode 


roud 




ridden 


'ndn 




riding 


'raidii) 




rider 


'raid9(r 


'raids 


nders 


'raidaz 


'raidaz 


ridge 


nc^ 




ridges 


'rio^iz 




ridicule 


'ridikjul 




ridicules 


'ridikjulz 




ridiculed 


'ridikjuld 




ridiculing 


'ridikjuhrj 




ridiculous 


ri'dikjulos 






ri'dikjalas 




ridiculously 


ri'dikji/ldsli 






ri'dikjalasli 




rifle 


'raif| 




rifles 


'raifjz 




Riga 


'raiga, 'ri'ga 





332 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



right 


rait 




righteous 


'raitjas, 'raitjas 




rightful 


'raitful 




rightfully 


'raitfuh, 'raitfah 




rightly 


'raith 




Tightness 


'raitnis 




rights 


raits 




rigid 


'ridjid 




rigidly 


'ridjidli 




rigidity 


n'djiditi 




rigor (Amer.) 


'rigo(r 


'rig 


rigorous 


'rigzras 




rigorously 


'rigzrash 




rigour 


'nga(r 


'rigs 


rim 


rim 




rims 


rimz 




ring 


rirj 




nngs 


nrjz 




rang 


raer) 




rung 


rArj 




ringing 


'nnirj 




rinse 


rms 




rinses 


'rmsiz 




nnsed 


rinst 




rinsing 


'rmsirj 




riot 


'raiat 




riots 


'raiats 




rioted 


'raiatid 




rioting 


f rai9tir) 




rioter 


'raiot9(r 


'raiats 


rioters 


'raiotoz 


'ratatsz 


ripe 


raip 




riper 


'raipa(r 


'raip 


ripest 


'raipist 




ripen 


'raip^n 




ripens 


'raip^nz 




opened 


'raip^nd 




ripening 


'raip^mrj 




ripely 


'raipli 




ripeness 


'raipnis 




ripple 


'npl 




ripples 


'ripjz 




rise, noun 6- verb 


raiz 




rises 


'raiziz 




rose 


rouz 




risen 


'rizi^ 




rising 


'raizirj 





333 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



riser 


'raiz9(r 


'raiza 


risers 


'raizaz 


'raizsz 


risk 


risk 




risks 


risks 




risked 


nskt 




risking 


'riskirj 




risky 


'riski 




rival 


'raivzl 




rivals 


'raiv^lz 




rivalled 


'raivpld 




rivalling 


'raiv^lirj 




rivalry 


'raivdri 




rivalries 


'raivalnz 




river 


'nvo(r 


'T1V9 


rivers 


'nvaz 


'rivsz 


road 


roud 




roads 


roudz 




roam 


roum 




roams 


roumz 




roamed 


roumd 




roaming 


'roumirj 




roar 


ro ? (r, roa(r 


ros 


roars 


ro-z, roaz 


TO9Z 


roared 


ro-d, road 


road 


roaring 


'roTirj, 'roarirj 


'ro'nrj 


roast 


roust 




roasts 


rousts 




roasted 


'roustid 




roasting 


'roustirj 




rob 


rob 


rab 


robs 


robz 


rabz 


robbed 


robd 


rabd 


robbing 


'rt)birj 


'rabtrj 


robber 


7 rDb9(r 


'raba 


robbers 


'robsz 


'rabsz 


robbery 


'robari 


'rabsn 


robberies 


'robanz 


'rabariz 


robe 


roub 




robes 


roubz 




Robert 


'robat 


'rabst 


Robin 


'robin 


'rabin 


robust 


rou'bAst, rs'bAst 




rock 


rok 


rak 


rocks 


roks 


raks 


rocked 


rokt 


rakt 


rocking 


'rokirj 


'rakirj 


rocky 


'inoki 


'raki 



334 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



rod 


rud 


rad 


rods 


rodz 


radz 


RODE from ride 


roud 




rogue 


roug 




rogues 


rougz 




roll 


roul 




rolls 


roulz 




rolled 


rould 




rolling 


'rouhrj 




roller 


'route (r 


'route 


rollers 


'route z 


'routez 


Roman 


'reunion 




Romans 


'roumanz 




romance 


rou'maens, ra'maens 




romances 


rou'maensiz 






ra'maEnsiz 




romantic 


rou'maentik 






ra'maentik 




romantically 


rou'maentik^h 






ra'maentik?h 




Rome 


roum 




roof 


nrf 




roofs 


rirfs 




room 


ru'm, rum 




rooms 


ni'mz, rumz 




roomy 


'ru-mi, 'rumi 




root 


nrt 




roots 


ni'ts 




rope 


roup 




ropes 


roups 




rose 


rouz 




roses 


'rouziz 




ROSE from rise 


rouz 




rosy 


'rouzi 




rot 


rot 


rat 


rots 


rots 


rats 


rotted 


'rotid 


'ratid 


rotting 


'rDtirj 


'ratirj 


rotten 


'rotp 


'rati^ 


rough 


TAf 




rougher 


'rAfa(r 


'rAf 


roughest 


'rAfist 




roughly 


'rAfli 




roughness 


'rAfnvs 




Roumania 


ru'meinja, ru'meima 




Roumanian 


ru'memjdn 






ru'meimon 





335 



2A 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



Roumanians 


ru'memjanz 






ru'meimanz 




round 


raund 




rounds 


rairndz 




rounded 


'raundid 




rounding 
rounder 


'raundirj 
'raunda(r 


'raund 


roundest 


'raundist 




roundish 


'raundij 




roundly 


'raundh 




roundness 


'raundnis 




rouse 


rauz 




rouses 


'rauzvz 




roused 


rauzd 




rousing 


'rauzirj 




routine 


ru'trn 




row, verb 6- noun 


rou 




rows 


rouz 




rowed 


roud 




rowing 


'rouirj 




row, noun 


rau 




rows 


rauz 




rowdy 


'raudi 




rower 


'roua(r 


'rou 


rowers 


'rouaz 


'rouaz 


royal 


rowl 




royally 


'roiali, 'roilh 




royalty 


'rowlti 




royalties 


'rowltiz 




rub 


TAb 




rubs 


rAbz 




rubbed 


rAbd 




rubbing 


'rAbirj 




rubber 


'rAba(r 


'rAba 


rubbish 


'rAbiJ 




ruby 


'ni'bi 




rubies 


'ru'biz 




rudder 


'rAda(r 


'rAd 


rudders 


'rAdaz 


'rAdaz 


rude 


ru'd 




ruder 


'ru'da(r 


'ru'ds 


rudest 


'ru-dist 




rudely 


'ru'dli 




rudeness 


'ru'dnis 




rug 


rAQ 




rugs 


'rA^z 




ruin 


'ru'in 





336 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



ruins 


'nrmz 




ruined 


'nrind 




ruining 


'ru'inir) 




ruinous 


'ni'inss 




rule 


nrl 




rules 


ru'lz 




ruled 


ru-ld 




ruling 


'nrlu) 




ruler 


'ru'la(r 


'ru'la 


rulers 


'ru'lQz 


'ru'lsT 


Rumania 


ru'memja, ru'meima 




Rumanian 


ru'memjan 






ru'memian 




Rumanians 


ru'memjanz 






ru'memionz 




rumor (Amer.) 






rumour 


'ru'm3(r 


'ru'm 


rumors (Amer.) 






rumours 


'ru'msz 


'ru'msz 


rumoured 


'nrrndd 


'ru'msd 


run 


rAn 




runs 


rAnz 




ran 


raen 




running 


'rAnuj 




RUNG/rom ring 


TAT) 




rush 


TAj 




rushes 


'rA/iz 




rushed 


TA/t 




rushing 


'rA/irj 




Russia 


'rA/a 




Russian 


'rAj?n 




Russians 


'rA/^nz 




rust 


rASt 




rusts 


rAsts 




rusted 


'rAStid 




rusting 


'rAStuj 




rusty 


'rASti 




rut 


TAt 




ruts 


TAtS 




S 


S 


es 





S's 


'esiz 




sack 


saek 




sacks 


saeks 




sacred 


'sevkrid 





337 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



sacrifice 


'saekrifais 




sacrifices 


'saekrifaisiz 




sacrificed 


'saekrifaist 




sacrificing 


'saekrifaisirj 




sad 


sae-d 




sadder 


'saeda(r, 'sae'da(r 


'sae'de 


saddest 


'saedist, 'sae'dist 




sadly 


'sce'dh 




sadness 


'sae'dms 




saddle 


'saed} 




saddles 


'saed}z 




saddled 


'sa>d}d 




saddling 


'saadhrj, 'saedjirj 




safe 


seif 




safes 


'seifs 




safer 


'seifa(r 


'seifa 


safest 


'seifist 




safely 


'seifh 




safety 


'seifti 




SAID /row say 


sed 




sail 


seil 




saris 


seilz 




sailed 


seild 




sailing 


'seilirj 




sailor 


'seila (r 


'seil 


sailors 


'seilaz 


'seils z 


Saint 


semt s / , s*n/ wjs 




saint 


semt 




saints 


seints 




sake 


seik 




sakes 


seiks 




salad 


'szelad 




salads 


'saeladz 




salary 


'saelgri 




salaries 


'saelarvz 




sale 


seil 




sales 


seilz 




saleable 


'seitabj 




salesman 


'seUzmsn 




salesmen 


'seilzman 




salmon 


'saeman 




salt 


SO'lt, SDlt 




salts 


so -Its, solts 




salted 


'so'ltid, 'sDltid 




saltness 


'so'ltnis, 'soltnis 




salutation 


saelju'teifan 




salutations 


saelju'teij^nz 





338 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



salute 

salutes 
saluted 
saluting 
salvation 


sa'lu-t, ss'lju't 
so'hi'ts, sa'lju'ts 
sa'hrtid, sa'lju'tid 
so'lu'tirj, sa'lju'tir) 
sael'veifsm 




same 


seim 




sample 

samples 
Samuel 


'sa-mp} 
'scrmpjz 


'sa-mp} 
'sa ? mp}z 


sanction 

sanctions 
sanctioned 
sanctioning 
sand 


'saenkj>n 
'saerjkjznz 
'saenkf?nd 
'saenkj>nu) 
'saend 




sandwich 

sandwiches 


'saen^witf 
'saen^wi-^iz 




sandy 


'saendi 




sane 


sein 




sanely 
San Francisco 


'semh 
saenfran'siskou 




SANG /row sing 
sanitary 
sanity 
SANK from sink 
Sarah 


saerj 
'saenit^n 
'saeniti 
sasnk 
'seara 


'saeniteri 

'SST9 


sarcasm 
sarcastic 


'sa'kaezni 
sa'kaestik 


'saskaezni 
sas'kaestik 


sarcastically 
sardine 


sa'kaestiks>h 
'sa-'di'n 


sas'kaestikfrh 
'sas'drn 


sardines 


'sa f 'di f nz 


'sas'drnz 


sash 

sashes 
SAT from sit 
satirical 


S33J 

'saejiz 

S3Et 




satisfaction 
satisfactorily 
satisfactory 
satisfy 

satisfies 


saetis'faekj^n 
saetis'faekt^rili 
saetis'faektsri 
'saetisfai 
'saetisfaiz 




satisfied 


'saetisfaid 




satisfying 
Saturday 

Saturdays 


'saetisfaiir) 
'saetadi 
'saetadiz 


'saetsdi 
'saetsdiz 


sauce 


SO'S 




sauces 


'SO'SIZ 




saucepan 


'sD-span, 'so'spasn 





339 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



saucepans 


'so'Sponz, 'so'spaenz 




saucer 


'so'safr 


SO'S9 


saucers 


'so'saz 


'so'saz 


saucily 


'so -sill 




saucy 


f SD'Sl 




sausage 


'sDSicfc; 




sausages 


'SDSld$lZ 




savage 


'saevidj 




savages 


'saevidjiz 




savagely 


'saevid$li 




save 


sew 




saves 


seivz 




saved 


seivd 




saving 


'seivirj 




savings 


'seivinz 




saw 


SO' 




saws 


SO'Z 




sawed 


so'd 




sawing 


'so'irj 




say 


sei 




says 


SEZ 




said 


sed 




saying 


'seurj 




sayings 


'seurjz 




scaffold 


'skaeMd 




scaffolds 


'skaef^ldz 




scaffolding 


"skaef^ldirj 




scaffoldings 


'skaefrldirjz 




scald 


sko'ld 




scalds 


sko-ldz 




scalded 


'sko'ldid 




scalding 


'sko'ldirj 




scale 


skeil 




scales 


skeilz 




scaled 


skeild 




scaling 


'skeilirj 




scandal 


'skaend} 




scandals 


'skaendjz 




scandalous 


'skaend^las 




scant 


skaent 




scanty 


'skaenti 




scar 


ska*(r 


skaa 


scars 


skcrz 


skadz 


scarce 


skeas 


skess 


scarcer 


'ske3sa(r 


'skedss 


scarcest 


'skeasist 


'skESS'-^t 


scarcely 


'skcash 


'sktasli 



340 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



scarcity 


'skeasiti 


'skessiti 


scarceness 


'skeasnis 


's"kssnis 


scare 


sk3(r 


'skcs 


scares 


'skEaz 


'sk9Z 


scared 


'skead 


'skead 


scaring 


'skeanrj 


'ske f nrj 


scarf 


ska-f 


skasf 


scarves 


skd'vz 


skasvz 


scarlet 


'ska-lit, 'skcrlat 


'skaeht, 'skaebt 


scatter 


'skaet9(r 


'skaets 


scatters 


'skaetaz 


'skaetsz 


scattered 


'skaetad 


'Sk35t9d 


scattering 


'skaeterirj 




scene 


si'n 




scenes 


si'nz 




scenery 


'si 'nan 




scent 


sent 




scents 


sents 




sceptic 


'skeptik 




sceptics 


'skeptiks 




sceptical 


'skeptikal 




sceptically 


'sksptikali 




schedule 


'Jedjul 


'skedjul 


schedules 


'Jedjulz 


'skedjulz 


scheduled 


'Jedjuld 


'sksdjuld 


scheduling 


'Jedjulirj 


'skcdjulirj 


scheme 


skrm 




schemes 


skrmz 




schemed 


ski'md 




scheming 


'skrmirj 




scholar 


'skol9(r 


'skal 


scholars 


'skoloz 


'skalsz 


scholarly 


'skolah 


'skalh 


scholarship 


'skob/ip 


'skalsjip 


scholarships 


'skolajips 


'skalsjips 


scholastic 


fsko'laestik 




school 


sku-1 




schools 


sku'lz 




school- room 


'sku-lrum, 'sku-lrum 




school-rooms 


'sku'lrumz 






'sku'lrumz 




science 


'saians 




sciences 


'saiansvz 




scientific 


saian'tifik 





scientifically 


saisn'tifikait 





f See Note 30, p. xxxv. m Introduction. 
341 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



scientist 


'saiantist 




scientists 


'saiantists 




scissors 


'S1Z9Z 




scoff 


skof 


skaf 


scoffs 


skofs 


skafs 


scoffed 


skoft 


skaft 


scoffing 


'skofirj 


'skafirj 


scoffer 


'skDfa(r 


'skafs 


scoffers 


'skofsz 


'skafsz 


scold 


skould 




scolds 


skouldz 




scolded 


'skouldid 




scolding 


'skouldiq 




scope 


skoup 




scopes 


skoups 




scorch 


sko'tf 


skos^ 


scorches 


'sko'tfiz 


'skod^iz 


scorched 


'sko-tf 


'skos^ 


scorching 


'sko-tfirj 


'skoatfirj 


score 


sko-(r, sko3(r 


skos 


scores 


sko'z, skoaz 


skosz 


scored 


sko'd, skoad 


skosd 


sconng 


'sko'rirj, 'skoaruj 


'skoTirj 


scorn 


skD-n 


skosn 


scornful 


'sko'nful 


'skosnful 


scornfully 


'skomfuli, 'sko'nfah 


'skosnfuh, 'skosnfsh 


Scot 


skDt 


skat 


Scots 


bkots 


skats 


Scotch 


skotf 


skatf 


Scotland 


'skDtland 


'skatlsnd 


Scottish 


'skctij 


'skatij 


scoundrel 


'skaundral 




scoundrels 


'skaundralz 




scour 


'skaua(r 


'skaua 


scours 


'skauaz 


'skausz 


scoured 


'skauod 


'skausd 


scouring 


'skauaru) 


'skaurii) 


scout 


skairt 




scouts 


skauts 




scramble 


'skraemb} 




scrambles 


'skraembjz 




scrambled 


'skraembjd 




scrambling 


'skraemblirj 




scrap ' 


skraep 




scraps 


skraeps 




scrapped 


skraept 




scrapping 


'skraepirj 





342 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



scrape 


skreip 




scrapes 


skretps 




scraped 


skreipt 




scraping 


'skreipuj 




scrappy 


'skraepi 




scratch 


skraetf 




scratches 


'skraetjiz 




scratched 


'skraetft 




scratching 


'skraetfirj 




scrawl 


skro'l 




scrawls 


skro'lz 




scrawled 


skro'ld 




scrawling 


'skro'lirj 




scream 


skri'm 




screams 


skri-mz 




screamed 


skrrmd 




screaming 


'skri'nurj 




screen 


skri'n 




screens 


skri-nz 




screened 


skri-nd 




screening 


'skri'mrj 




screw 


skru* 




screws 


skru'z 




screwed 


skru'd 




screwing 


skruirj 




scribble 


'skribj 




scribbles 


'sknbjz 




scribbled 


'skribjd 




scribbling 


'skriblirj 




scripture 


'skriptfc(r 


'skriptfs 


scriptures 


'skrip^az 


'sknptfsz 


scrub 


skrAb 




scrubs 


skrAbz 




scrubbed 


skrAbd 




scrubbing 


'skrAbirj 




scruple 


'skru'p] 




scruples 


'skru p ]z 




scrupulous 


'skru-pjulas 






'skru -pj alas 




scrupulously 


'skru-pjulasli 






'skru'pjalasli 




scullery 


'skAlarv 




sculleries 


'skAlariz 




sculptor 


'skAlpta(r 


'skAlpte 


sculptors 


'skAlptaz 


'skAlptz 


sculpture 


'skAlptfa (r 


'skAlptfs 


sculptures 


'skAlptfaz 


'skAlptfsz 



343 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



scum 


skAm 




sea 


SI' 




seas 


si'z 




seal 


sH 




seals 


si'lz 




sealed 


si'ld 




sealing 


'sriirj 




seam 


srm 




seams 


si-mz 




seaman 


'srman 




seamen 


'si-man 




seaport 


'srpot 


'si -post 


seaports 


'si -pots 


'srpoats 


search 


S3'tf 


839$ 


searches 


'SS'tflZ 


'ssatfiz 


searched 


S3'tft 


sss^t 


searching 


'ss'tfirj 


'sssfirj 


seasick 


'si'sik 




seasickness 


'si'siknis 




season 


'srzi^ 




seasons 


'srznz 




seasonable 


'si'znob), 'srznabj 




seat 


Sl't 




seats 


srts 




seated 


'si-tid 




seating 


'srtuj 




seaworthy 


'S!'W36l 


'si'waefti 


seclude 


si'klu'd 




secluded 


si'klu-did 




seclusion 


si'klu'3?n 




second 


'ssk^nd 




secondary 


'ssk^nd^n 


'ssk^ndsri 


secondly 


'ssk^ndli 




secrecy 


'srkrisi 




secret 


'srkrit 




secrets 


'srkrits 




secretary 


'sskrotri 


'sekratsn 


secretaries 


'sekratriz 


'sekrQtsnz 


secretive 


si'kri'tiv 




secretly 


'si'krith 




sect 


sskt 




sects 


sekts 




section 


'sek|>n 




sections ' 


'sskj^nz 




secure 


si'kjua(r 


si'kjus 


secures 


si'kjuaz 


si'kjusz 


secured 


si'kjuad 


si'kjusd 



344 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



securing 
security 

secruities 


si'kjuarirj 
si'kjuonti 
si'kjuantiz 


Sl'kjUTUJ 
Sl'kjUTltl 

si'kju-ritiz 


see 


SI' 




sees 


Sl'Z 




saw 


SO' 




seen 


si'n 




seeing 
seed 


'si' IT) 
si'd 




seeds 


si'dz 




seek 


srk 




seeks 


si-ks 




sought 
seeking 


SD't 

'si'kir) 




seem 


srm 




seems - 


srmz 




seemed 


srmd 




seeming 
seemingly 

SEEN from see 
seesaw 


'si'muj 
'si-minii 
srn 
'si ''so* 




seize 


Sl'Z 




seizes 


'Si'ZIZ 




seized 


si-zd 




seizing 
seizure 
seldom 


'srzir) 
'seldom 


'si '39 


select 


si'lekt 




selects 


si'lekts 




selected 


si'lektvd 




selecting 
selection 


si'lektirj 




selections 
self 


si'lek/^nz 
self 




selves 


sslvz 




sell 


sel 




sells 


sslz 




sold 


sould 




selling 
seller 

sellers 


'selirj 
'selsfr 
'sstez 


'sel 
'selsz 


semantic 


si'maentvk 




semantics 


si'maentiks 




semi- , prefix 
semicircle 
semicircles 
semicolon 


'semi- 
'semisskj 
'semisskjz 
'semi'koulan 


'semis3kjz 



345 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



semicolons 


'semi'koulanz 




send 


send 




sends 


ssndz 




sent 


ssnt 




sending 


'sendirj 




sender 


'send9(r 


'sends 


senders 


'sendaz 


'sendsz 


send-off 


'sen'do'f, 'sen'dof 




senior 


'srnja(r 


'si-njs 


seniors 


'srnjaz 


'srnjaz 


sensation 


sen'seij^n, san'seijzn 




sensations 


sen'seij>nz 






son'seijpnz 




sensational 


sen'seifanj 






san'seijanj 




sense 


sens 




senses 


'sensiz 




senseless 


'senslis 




sensibility 


ssnsi'bihti 




sensible 


'sensib} 




sensibly 


'sensibh 




sensitive 


'ssns^tiv 




SENT from send 


ssnt 




sentence 


'sentans 




sentences 


'ssntansiz 




sentenced 


'ssntonst 




sentencing 


'ssntansirj 




sentiment 


'sentimant 




sentiments 


'sentimants 




sentimental 


senti'msnt} 




sentinel 


'ssntin} 




sentinels 


'ssntmjz 




sentry 


'sentn 




sentries 


'ssntnz 




separable 


'sep^rsb] 




separate, adj. 


'scp^rtt 




separately 


'sep^ntli 




separate verb 


'seporett 




separates 


'sspareits 




separated 


'sspareitid 




separating 


'separeitirj 




separation 


sspa'reij^n 




separations 


ssps'rei/^nz 




September 


sop't6mb8(r 


S9p'tembs 




ssp'temb3(r 


sep'tembs 


sequel 


'si'kwpl 




sequels 


'si'kwplz 





346 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



sequence 


'si 'k wans 




sequences 


'si'kwansiz 




Serb 


ss'b 


S39b 


Serbs 


ss'bz 


sssbz 


Serbia 


'ss'bi9 


S3bl.3 


Serbian 


'ss'bian 


ssbi9n 


Serbians 


'ss-bi9nz 


S3dbidnz 


serene 


si'rrn 




sergeant 


'sa-d^nt 


'saa^nt 


sergeants 


'sa-d^nts 


'sas^nts 


serial 


'signal 


'srrial 


serials 


'siarialz 


'si'rialz 


series 


'sianz, 'sianz 


'SITIZ, 'srriz 


serious 


'siarias 


'siTias 


seriously 


'sisnosh 


'siTissli 


seriousness 


'siari9sms 


'srriasnis 


sermon 


'ss'man 


'ssaman 


sermons 


'ss'manz 


'ssamanz 


servant 


's3'v?nt 


'sssvpnt 


servants 


'ss'vznts 


'sssv^nts 


serve 


S3'V 


S39V 


serves 


SS'VZ 


S39VZ 


served 


ss'vd 


S39Vd 


serving 


'ss'virj 


'sssvirj 


service 


'ss-vis 


'S39VIS 


services 


'53'VISIZ 


'S39VISVZ 


serviceable 


'S3'VlS9b| 


'S39VlS9bJ 


session 


'sejsm 




sessions 


'sej^nz 




set 


set 




sets 


sets 




setting 


'setirj 




settle 


'setj 




settles 


'setjz 




settled 


'setjd 




settling 


'setlirj, 'setjirj 




settlement 


'set}m9nt 




settlements 


'setjmants 




settler 


'setl9(r 


'setl 


settlers 


'setloz 


'setl9z 


seven 


'sevn 




seventeen 


'sevn'trn 




seventeenth 


'sevn'ti-nG 


t 


seventeenths 


'sevn'ti-nGs 




seventh 


'ssvnQ 




sevenths 


'sevnGs 




seventieth 


'sevntuQ 





347 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



seventieths 


'sevntuOs 




seventy 


'sevnti 




several 


'sevrel 




severe 


si' vis (r 


si'vis 


severer 


si'viara(r 


SI'VITS 


severest 


si'viarist 


SlVlTlSt 


severely 


si' vial i 


si'vwli 


severity 


si'veriti 




sew 


sou 




sews 


souz 




sewed 


soud 




sewing 


'souir) 




sex 


seks 




sexes 


'ssksiz 




sexual 


'seksju^l, 'sekfu?! 




sexually 


'ssksjupli, 'sekju^li 




shabby 


'Jaebi 




shabbily 


'Jaebih 




shabbiness 


'Jaebmis 




shade 


Jeid 




shades 


Jeidz 




shaded 


'Jeidid 




shading 


'Jeidirj 




shadow 


'Jaedou 




shadows 


'faedouz 




shady 


'Jeidi 




shaft 


jQ'ft 


Ja-ft 


shafts 


jQ'ftS 


fa-fts 


shake 


Jeik 




shakes 


Jeiks 




shook 


Juk 




shaken 


'Jeik^n 




shaking 


Jeikirj 




shall 


Sxlsf.i9lw.fs. 




shallow 


'Jaelou 




shallower 


'Jaeloud(r 


'Jaelou* 


shallowest 


'Jaelouist 




shallowness 


'/aelounis 




sham 


Jaem 




shame 


Jeim 




shames 


Jeimz 




shamed 


Jeimd 




shaming 


'Jeimirj 




shameful 


'Jeimful 




shamefully 


'Jeimf uh, 'Jeimfoli 




shameless 


'Jeimlis 




Shanghai 


'/aerj'hai 





348 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



shan 't, shall not 


Ja-nt 


. Ja-nt 


shape 


Jeip 




shapes 


Jeips 




share 


Jea(r 


I" 


shares 


Jeaz 


j3Z 


shared 


Jead 


Jeod 


sharing 


'Jeanrj 


'Je-nrj 


shark 


Ja'k 


Jask 


sharks 


Jerks 


fasks 


sharp 


J a< P 


Jasp 


sharper 


'Ja-p 9 (r 


'Jasps 


sharpest 


'Jcrpist 


'Jaspust 


sharpen 


'Jct'pm 


'Jasp^n 


sharpens 


'Jcrpznz 


'Jasp^nz 


sharpened 


'Jcrp^nd 


'Jasp^nd 


sharpening 


'Jci'pznirj 


'Jasp^nirj 


sharply 


'Ja-ph 


'Jaaph 


shave 


Jeiv 




shaves 


Jeivz * 




shaved 


Jeivd 




shaving 


'Jeivirj 




shavings 


'Jeivirjz 




shawl 


Jo'l 




shawls 


JD'IZ 




she 


Ji-, s/., fi, jiw.fs. 




shed 


Jsd 




sheds 


Jedz 




shedding 


7edi 5 




sheep 


Ji'P 




sheer 


J(r 


SIB 


sheet 


Jrt 




sheets 


Ji'tS 




shelf 


Jslf 




shelves 


Jelvz 




shell 


Jel 




shells 


Jelz 




shelter 


f /6lto(r 


'/6lt 


shelters 


'Jeltez 


'Jeltsz 


sheltered 


'Jeltod 


'Jeltsd 


sheltering 


'Jeltpni) 




shepherd. 


'Jep^d 


'Jspad 


shepherds 


'Jepadz 


'Jepadz 


sheriff 


'Jsnf 




sheriffs 


'Jsrifs 




shield 


Jrld 




shields 


Ji'ldz 




shielded 


'Ji-ldid 





349 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



shielding 


'Jrldirj 




shift 


Jiit 




shifts 


Jifts 




shifted 


'Jiftid 




shifting 


'Jiftirj 




shine 


Jain 




shines 


Jainz 




shined 


Jamd 




shone 


Jon 


Joun 


shining 


'Jamvrj 




ship 


JiP 




ships 


Jips 




shipped 


Jipt 




shipping 


'Jipuj 




shipwreck 


'Jiprek 




shipwrecks 


'Jrpreks 




shipwrecked 


'Jiprekt 




shirk 


j3-k 


Jsak 


shirks 


Js'ks 


Jasks 


shirked 


j3-kt 


Jsskt 


shirking 


'Js'kirj 


'Jsakirj 


shirker 


'J3'ko(r 


'Jssks 


shirkets 


'Js-kaz 


'Jsskdz 


shirt 


J3't 


Jsst 


shirts 


JS'tS 


Jssts 


shiver 


'Jivs (r 


fiva 


shivers 


'Jivaz 


'Jivsz 


shivered 


'Jivad 


'Jivd 


shivering 


'Jivpnrj 




shock 


Jok 


Jak 


shocks 


Joks 


Jaks 


shocked 


Jpkt 


Jakt 


shocking 


'Jokir) 


'Jakirj 


shockingly 


'Jokirjlt 


'Jakirjh 


shoe 


Ju 1 




shoes 


JU'Z 




SHONE from shine 


Jon 


Joun 


SHOOK from shake 


Juk 




shoot 


Ju-t 




shoots 


Ju-ts 




shot 


jDt 


Jat 


shooting 


'Ju'tirj 




shop 


J D P 


Jap 


shops 


Jops 


Japs 


shopping 


'Jopirj 


'Japirj 


shore 


Jo'(r, Joa(r 


Jos 


shores 


JD-Z, Joaz 


Josz 


350 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



short 


JO't 


J03t 


shorter 


'/D'te(r 


'Josts 


shortest 


'Jo-tist 


'Joatist 


shortcomings 


'Jot'kAmirjz 


'Jost'kAimrjz 


shorten 


'JO't? 


'Joat^ 


shortens 


'Jo'tnz 


'Jostnz 


shortened 


'Jo'tnd 


'Jostnd 


shortening 


'Jo'tmrj 


'Jostnirj 


shorthand 


'Jo'thsend 


'Joathaend 


shortly 


'Jo-tli 


'Jostlt 


shortness 


'Jo'tnis 


'Jostnis 


short-sighted 


'Jo't'saitid 


'Joat'saitid 


shot 


Jot 


Jat 


shots 


Jots 


Jats 


SHOT from shoot 


Jot 


Jat 


should 


Juds/., J?d, ftwfs 




shoulder 


'Joulds (r 


'Joulds 


shoulders 


'Jouldaz 


'Jouldsz 


shouldered 


'Jouldad 


'j'ouldsd 


shouldering 


'Jould^ruj 




shout 


Jaut 




shouts 


Jauts 




shouted 


'Jautid 




shouting 


'Jautirj 




shovel 


'JAVJ 




shovels 


'JAVJZ 




show 


Jou 




shows 


Jouz 




showed 


Joud 




showing 


'Jouirj 




shower, noun 


'Jaua(r 


'Jau 


showers 


'Jauaz 


'Jausz 


showy 


'Joui 




SHRANK from shrink 


Jraenk 




shred 


/red 




shreds 


Jredz 




shrewd 


Jru-d 




shrewdly 


'Jru-dh 




shrill 


Jril 




shrink 


Jnnk 




shrinks 


Jrirjks 




shrank 


Jraenk 




shrunk 


JrArjk 




shrinking 


'Jrirjkirj 





shrub 


JrAb 




shrubs 


JrAbz 




shrug 


JrAg 





351 



2B 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



shrugs 


JTAQZ 




shrugged 


JrAgd 




shrugging 


'/ rA 9 l 9 




SHRUNK from shrink 


JrArjk 




shut 


/At 




shuts 


|AtS 




shutting 


'jAtirj 




shutter 


'/Ate(r 


'/At 


shutters 


'jAtQZ 


'/AtSZ 


shy 


fai 




shyer 


'Jaio(r 


'faia 


shyest 


'Jaiist 




shyly 


'Jaih 




shyness 


'Jamis 




Siam 


sai/aem, 'saiaem 




Siamese 


'saia'mi'z 




Siberia 


sat'biaria 


sai'bi'no 


Siberian 


sai'bianan 


sai'bi'rion 


Sicily 


'sisvli 




sick 


sik 




sickness 


'siknis 




side 


said 




sides 


saidz 




sided 


'saidid 




siding 


'saidirj 




sideways 


'saidweiz 




side wise (Anier.) 




'saidwaiz 


siege 


si'* 




sieges 


'si'd;iz 




sift 


sift 




sifts 


sifts 




sifted 


'siftid 




sifting 


'siftirj 




sigh 


sai 




sighs 


saiz 




sighed 


said 




sighing 


'saiirj 




sight 


sait 




sights 


salts 




sighted 


'saitid 




sighting 


'saitig 




sign 


sain 




signs 


saxnz 




signed 


saind 




signing 


'sainu) 




signal 


'signl 




signals 


'sign)z 





352 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



signalled 


'signjd 




signalling 


'sign^hrj 




signature 


'signvtfa(r 


'sigmtfs 


signatures 


'signvtjaz 


'sigm^sz 


signboard 


'sambod, 'samboad 


'sainbosd 


signboards 


'sambodz/samboadz 


'sainbosdz 


significance 


sig'n if ikons 




significant 


sig'mfikont 




significantly 


sig'nif ikon th 




signification 


sigmfi'keif^n 




significative 


sig'nif ikotiv 




signify 


'sigmfai 




signifies 


'signifaiz 




signified 


'sigmfaid 




signifying 


'sigmfaiu) 




silence 


'sailans 




silences 


'sailansiz 




silenced 


'sailonst 




silencing 


'sailansirj 




silent 


'sailant 




silently 


'sailsnth 




silk 


silk 




silly 


'sili 




sillier 


'silia(r 


'sihs 


silliest 


'silust 




silliness 


'silinis 




silver 


'silvo(r 


'silva 


similar 


'similo(r 


'simila 


similarity 


simi'laeriti 




similarities 


suni'laeritiz 




similarly 


'similoh 


'similsli 


simple 


'simpj 




simpler 


'simplo(r 


'simpla 


simplest 


'simplist 




simplicity 


sim'plisiti 




simplification 


simplifi'keij^n 




simplifications 


simpl if I'keif ffuz 




simplify 


'simplifai 




simplifies 


'simphfaiz 




simplified 


'simplifaid 




simplifying 


'simphfaiirj 




simply 


'simpli 




simultaneous 


simprtemjos 






sim^rtemias 




simultaneously 


sim^rteinjash 




in 


sin 





353 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



sins 


smz 




sinned 


smd 




sinning 


'smirj 




since 


sins 




sincere 


sin's ia(r 


sin 'sis 


sincerely 


sin's wli 


sin's isli 


sincerity 


sin'seriti 




sing 


sirj 




sings 


sirjz 




sang 


saerj 




sung 


SAFJ 




singing 


'sin ii) 




singer 


'sirja(r 


'S1TJ9 


singers 


'sirjaz 


'sirjaz 


single 


'sirjgj 




singly 


'sirjgh 




singular 


'sirjgpte(r, 'singjul9(r 


'sirjgjals, 'sirjgjuls 


singularly 


'snjgjslali, 'singjulali 


'sirjgjalah, 'singjulsh 


sink 


sink 




sinks 


sirjks 




sank 


saerjk 




sunk 


SATjk 




sinking 


'sirjkirj 




sinner 


'smo(r 


'sin 


sinners 


'smaz 


'smz 


sip 


sip 




sips 


sips 




sipped 


sipt 




sipping 


'sipirj 




sir 


S3'(rs./.,s9(r^./. 


S99 S.f., 38 W.f. 


sirs 


S3'Z 


S99Z 


sister 


'sista(r 


'sists 


sisters 


'sistoz 


'sistaz 


sit 


sit 




sits 


sits 




sat 


saet 




sitting 


'sitirj 




site 


sait 




sites 


saits 




situated 


'sitjueitid 




situation 


sitju'eijjm 




situations 


sitju'eij^nz 




six 


siks 




sixteen 


'siks'ti'n 




sixteenth 


'siks'ti'nG 




sixteenths 


'siks'trn8 




sixth 


siks/6 





364 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



sixths 


siks/9s 




sixtieth 


'sikstu9 




sixtieths 


'sikstuBs 




sixty 
size 


'siksti 
saiz 




sizes 


'saiziz 




sized 


saizd 




skate 


skeit 




skates 


skeits 




skated 


'skeitid 




skating 
skater 


'skeitirj 
'skeite(r 


'skeits 


skaters 


'skeitsz 


'skeitz 


skeleton 


'skelitip. 




skeletons 
sketch 
sketches 
sketched 
sketching 
skilful 


'skehtnz 
sketf 
'sketfiz 
sketft 
'sketfir) 
'skilful 




skilfully 
skill 


'skilfuh, 'skilfah 
skil 




skilled 


skild 




skillful (Amer.) 
skillfully (Amer.) 
skin 


'skilful 
'skilfuh, 'skilfah 
skin 




skins 


skinz 




skinned 


skmd 




skinning 
skip 
skips 
skipped 
skipping 
skirt 


'skinirj 
skip 
skips 
skipt 
'skipirj 

Sk3't 


sksst 


skirts 


sks-ts 


sksets 


skull 


SkAl 




skulls 


skAlz 




sky 

skies 


skai 
skaiz 




slab 


slaeb 




slabs 


slaebs 




slack 


slsek 




slacker 
slackest 


'slaekd(r 
'slaekvst 


'slacks 


slacken 


'slaeton 




slackens 


'slaek^nz 




slackened 


'slaek^nd 





355 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



slackening 


'slsekmn, 'slaekmg 




slackly 


'slaekh 




slackness 


'slaeknis 




slam 


slaem 




slams 


slaemz 




slammed 


slaemd 




slamming 


'slaemir) 




slander 


'sld'ndo(r 


'sla'nds 


slanders 


'slcrndaz 


'sla-ndaz 


slandered 


'slcrndad 


'slamdsd 


slandering 


'slcrndmrj 


'sla-nd^ru) 


slanderous 


'slcrnd^rss 


'sla'nd^ras 


slang 


slaeij 




slant 


sla'nt 


sla'nt 


slants 


sla'nts 


sla'nts 


slanted 


'slcrntid 


'sla-ntid 


slanting 


'slcrntii) 


'sla'ntirj 


slap 


slaep 




slaps 


slaeps 




slapped 


slaept 




slapping 


'slaepirj 




slate 


sleit 




slates 


sleits 




slaughter 


'sk>'ta(r 


'sb'td 


slave 


sleiv 




slaves 


sletvz 




slavery 


'sleivan 




slavish 


'sleivij 




slavishly 


'sleivijh 




Slavonic 


slo'vomk, slae'vonik 


sb'vamk, slae'vamk 


sledge 


sle< 




sledges 


'slecj;iz 




sleep 


sh f p 




sleeps 


sli'ps 




slept 


slept 




sleeping 


'slrpirj 




sleeper 


'slrp9(r 


'sli'p 


sleepers 


'sli'poz 


'sli'paz 


sleepiness 


'sh'pims 




sleepless 


'sh'plis 




sleeplessly 


'sli 'plush 




sleeplessness 


'slrplisms 




sleepy 


'sli'pi 




sleeve 


sli'v 




sleeves 


sli'vz 




sleigh 


slet 




sleighs 


sleiz 





356 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



slender 


'slenda(r 


'slends 


slenderness 


'slsndsnis 


'slsndsnis 


SLEPT from sleep 


slept 




slice 


slais 




slices 


'slaisiz 




sliced 


slaist 




slicing 


'slaisii) 




slide 


slaid 




sbdes 


slaidz 




slid 


slid 




sliding 


'slaidirj 




slight 


slait 




slighter 


'slaita(r 


'slaitd 


slightest 


'slaitist 




slightly 


'slaith 




slip 


slip 




slips 


slips 




slipped 


shpt 




slipping 


'shpirj 




slipper 


'slips (r 


'slips 


slippers 


'slipaz 


'slipsz 


slippery 


'slipm 




slit 


sht 




slits 


shts 




slitting 


'shtu) 




slope 


sloup 




slopes 


sloups 




sloped 


sloupt 




sloping 


'sloupirj 




slot 


SlDt 


slat 


slots 


slots 


slats 


sloven 


'sLvvn 




slovenliness 


'sLvvnlinis 




slovenly 


'slAvnh 




slow 


slou 




slows 


slouz 




slowed 


sloud 




slowing 


'SIOUITJ 




slower 


'slou9(r 


'sloua 


slowest 


'slouist 




slowly 


'slouh 




slowness 


'slounis 




slum 


sUm 




slums 


sUmz 





sly 


slai 




slyer 


'slaia(r 


'slais 


slyest 


'slaiist 





357 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 


slyly 


'slaih 




slyness 


'slainis 




smack 


smaek 




smacks 


smaeks 




smacked 


smaekt 




smacking 


'smaekirj 




small 


smo'l 




smaller 


'smo'b(r 


'smo'l 


smallest 


'smo'hst 




smallish 


'smo-hj 




smallness 


'smD'lnis 




smart 


sma't 


smat 


smarts 


sma'ts 


smasts 


smarted 


'sma'tid 


'smaatid 


smarting 


'sma'tirj 


'smaatirj 


smarter 


'sma'ta(r 


'smat9 


smartest 


'sma'tist 


'smastist 


smartly 


'sma'tli 


'smasth 


smartness 


'sma'tms 


'smastms 


smash 


smaej 




smashes 


'smaejiz 




smashed 


smaejt 




smashing 


'smae/irj 




smattering 


'smaet^ru) 




smell 


smel 




smells 


smelz 




smelt 


smelt 




smelling 


'smelirj 




smelly 


'smell 




smile 


small 




smiles 


smailz 




smiled 


smaild 




smiling 


'smailirj 




smoke 


smouk 




smokes 


smouks 




smoked 


smoukt 




smoking 


'smoukirj 




smoker 


'smouk8(r 


'smouks 


smokers 


'smoukaz 


'smoukaz 


smoky 


'smouki 




smooth 


smu'O 




smoother 


'smu'0d(r 


'smii'5 


smoothest 


'smu'Sist 




smooth (e) ' 


smu'd 




smoothes 


smu'Oz 




smoothed 


sxmi'dd 




smoothing 


'smu'Oirj 




358 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



smoothly 


'smu'dh 




smoothness 


'smu'5nis 




smother 


'smA6a(r 


'smAds 


smothers 


'sniASaz 


'smASsz 


smothered 


'sniAdsd 


'smA5d 


smothering 


'smAdmr) 




smuggle 


'smAgJ 




smuggles 


'smAgJz 




smuggled 


'smAg}d 




smuggling 


'smAglin, 'sniAgjir) 




smuggler 


'smAgl9(r 


'smAgIs 


smugglers 


'sniAglaz 


'sniAglaz 


snake 


sneik 




snakes 


sneiks 




snap 


snaep 




snaps 


snaeps 




snapped 


snaept 




snapping 


'snaepvi) 




snapshot 


'snsep'Jt>t 


'snaep'Jat 


snapshots 


'snaep'Jots 


'snsep'Jats 


snatch 


snaetf 




snatches 


'snaetjiz 




snatched 


snaetft 




snatching 


'snaBtfig 




sneer 


sni3(r 


snis 


sneers 


sniaz 


snisz 


sneered 


sniad 


snisd 


sneering 


'sniarirj 


'sniTirj 


sneeringly 


'sniarujh 


'sni'rujli 


sneeze 


sni'z 




sneezes 


'sni'ziz 




sneezed 


snrzd 




sneezing 


'snrzii) 




snow 


snou 




snows 


snouz 




snowed 


snoud 




snowing 


'snouii) 




snowy 


'snoui 




snug 


snAg 




snugly 


'snAgh 




so 


sou s./., so w.j. 




soak 


souk 




soaks 


souks 





soaked 


soukt 




soaking 


'soukuj 




so-and-so 


'souansou 




soap 


soup 





359 



TraditionallSpelling Received Pronunciation m American Variants 



soaps 


soups 




soaped 


soupt 




soaping 


'soupig 




soapy 


'soupi 




sob 


sob 


sab 


sobs 


SDbz 


sabz 


sobbed 


sobd 


sabd 


sobbing 


'sDbirj 


'sabirj 


sober 


'souba (r 


'soubs 


soberly 


'soubah 


'soubsli 


soberness 


'soubsms 


'soubsnis 


so-called 


'sou'ko'ld 




sociable 


'sou/sb} 




sociably 


'soujsbli 




social 


'souf^l 




socialism 


'soufahzrp 




socialist 


'souj^list 




socialists 


'soujalists 




socialistic 


souja'listik 




socially 


'soujph 




society 


fso'saisti 




societies 


fsQ'saiatiz 




sociology 


SOUSl'Dl9(^l 


sousi'alao^i 


sock 


sok 


sak 


socks 


soks 


saks 


soda 


'souda 




sofa 


'soufs 




sofas 


'soufaz 




soft 


soft, soft 




softer 


'softa(r, 'soft(r 


'safta, 'softs 


softest 


'SDftlSt, 7 SDftlSt 




soften 


'sofn, 'sofi? 




softens 


'sofnz, 'sofnz 




softened 


'sofnd, 'sDfnd 




softening 


'sofnin, 'sofnir) 




softly 


'softh, 'softlt 




softness 


'softnis, 'sDftnis 




soil 


soil 




soils 


soilz 




soiled 


soild 




soiling 


'soiluj 




solar 


'soula(r 


'souls 


SOLD from sell 


sould 




soldier 


'soulo^s(r 


'soulo^s 


soldiers 


'soulo^az 


'soulo^sz 


sole 


soul 




soles 


soulz 





See Note 30, p. xxxv. in Introduction. 
360 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



solely 


'soulh 




solemn 


'solam 


'sabm 


solemnly 


'sDlsmh 


'sabmh 


solicitor 


tsa'lisit9(r 


sa'hsits 


solicitors 


fsa'hsitoz 


sa'lisvtaz 


solid 


'solid 


'sal id 


solids 


'sDlidz 


'salidz 


solidly 


'SDlldll 


'sahdlt 


solidity 


fsa'hditi 




solitary 


'sDhtm 


'salitsrt 


solo 


'soulou 




solos 


'soulouz 




soluble 


'sDljub] 


'salj ub} 


solution 


fsa'lirjn, fsa'lju'Ji^ 




solutions 


fsa'hi'Jnz, ts9'lju'Jnz 




solve 


solv 


salv 


solves 


solvz 


salvz 


solved 


solvd 


salvd 


solving 


'sDlvirj 


'salvirj 


some 


SAm 5 /., ssm w.f. 




somehow 


'sAmhau 




something 


'sAm9irj 




sometimes 


'sAmtaimz 






s^m'taimz 




somewhat 


'SAm&wot 


'sAmhwat 


somewhere 


'sAmAwe3(r 


'SAmhwe? 


son 


SAn 




sons 


SAnz 




song 


sorj 


sarj 


songs 


sorjz 


sarjz 


soon 


SU'll 




soothe 


SU'ft 




soothes 


su-dz 




soothed 


su'dd 




soothing 


'su'&Hrj 




soothingly 


'su-dirjli 




sophomore 


'sDf9mo(r, 'sofsmoafr 


'safamos 


sophomores 


'sofamoz, 'sofamoaz 


'safamoaz 


soprano 


fs8'pra'nou 


so'pra f nou 


sore 


so'(r, soa(r 


sod 


sores 


SO'Z, S39Z 


SO9Z 


sorely 


'SD'll, 'SCK)ll 


'sosh 


soreness 


'so'nis, 'saanis 


'sosnis 


sorrow 


'sorou 


'sorou 


sorrows 


'sorouz 


'sarouz 



f See Note 30, p. xxxv. in Introduction. 
361 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American- Variants 



sorrowful 


t'soroful 


'saraful 


sorry- 


'SDH 


'sari 


sort 


SD't 


sost 


sorts 


SO'tS 


sodts 


sorted 


'so'tid 


'sostvd 


sorting 


'sD'ttrj 


'soatuj 


soul 


soul 




souls 


soulz 




sound 


saund 




sounds 


saundz 




sounded 


'saundid 




sounding 


'saundirj 




soundly 


'saundli 




soundness 


'saundms 




soup 


SU'p 




sour 


'sauo(r 


'saus 


source 


so'S, saas 


S09S 


sources 


'so'svz, 'soasiz 


'sossiz 


sourly 


'sauali 


'saush 


sourness 


'sauams 


'sausnis 


south 


sau9 




southerly 


'sAQah 


'sAftali 


southern 


r SA53n 


'sA6n 


south-west 


'sauS'west 




souvenir 


'su-v^ni3(r 


'su-v^ms 


souvenirs 


'su'v^niaz 


'su'v^nisz 


sovereign 


'sDvrin 


'savrin 


sovereigns 


'sDvrinz 


'savnnz 


sow 


sou 




sows 


souz 




sowed 


soud 




sown 


soun 




sowing 


'souirj 




space 


speis 




spaces 


'speisiz 




spaced 


speist 




spacing 


'speisirj 




spade 


speid 




spades 


speidz 




Spain 


spem 




Spaniard 


'spaenjad 


'spaenjsd 


Spaniards 


'spaenjadz 


'spaenjadz 


Spanish 


'spasm/ 




spare 


spea(r 


sped 


spares 


sptaz 


SpC9Z 



See Note 30, p. xxxv. in Introduction. 
362 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



spared 


SpL3d 


spesd 


sparing 


'spearirj 


'sps-rirj 


sparingly 


'spesnrjh 


'spsTirjli 


spark 


spa-k 


spask 


sparks 


spcrks 


spasks 


sparrow 


'spaerou 




sparrows 


'spserouz 




SPAT from spit 


spaet 




speak 


spi'k 




speaks 


spi'ks 




spoke 


spouk 




spoken 


'spouk^n 




speaking 


'spi'kirj 




speaker 


'spi'ks(r 


'spi'ke 


speakers 


'spi'kaz 


'sprkz 


spear 


'spia(r 


'spi 


spears 


'spiaz 


'spisz 


special 


'spej9l 




specialist 


'spsjalist 




specialists 


'spsjalists 




speciality 


speJYaehtt 




specialities 


speji'aehtiz 




specialize 


'spejslaiz 




specializes 


'spej^laiziz 




specialized 


'spejslaizd 




specializing 


'spej^laizu) 




specially 


'spsjph 




specialty 


'spej^lti 




specialties 


'spe/01tiz 




species 


'sprjiz, 'spi'Jiz 




specific 


spi'sifik 




specifically 


spi'sifikgh 




specify 


'spesifai 




specifies 


'spcsifaiz 




specified 


'spesifaid 




specifying 


'spesifaiirj 




specimen 


r spesini8n, 'spesimin 




specimens 


'spesimanz 






'spssiminz 




speck 


spek 




specks 


sp&ks 




spectacle 


'spektek}, 'spektik} 




spectacles 


'spektakjz 






'spektikjz 


J 


spectator 


spek'teita(r 


spek'teits 


spectators 


spek'teitaz 


spsk'teitaz 


speculate 


'spekjuleit 





363 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



speculates 


'spekjuleits 




speculated 


'spskjuleitid 




speculating 


'spekjulevtirj 




speculation 


'spekju'leij>n 




speculations 


spekju'leifpnz 




speculator 


'spekjvleit9(r 


'spekjuleits 


speculators 


'spekjuleitaz 


'spekjuleitaz 


speech 


sprtf 




speeches 


'sprtfiz 




speechless 


'spi'tflis 




speed 


spi-d 




speeds 


spi'dz 




spell 


spel 




spells 


spelz 




spelled 


spelt 




spelt 


spslt 




spelling 


'spelir) 




spellings 


'spslirjz 




spend 


spend 




spends 


spendz 




spent 


spent 




spending 


'spendirj 




spendthrift 


'spend9rift 




spendthrifts 


'spend9rifts 




sphere 


sf(r 


slis 


spheres 


sfiaz 


sfidz 


sphinx 


sfirjks 


- 


spice 


spais 




spices 


'spaisiz 




spider 


'spaida(r 


'spaid 


spiders 


'spaidaz 


'spaidsz 


spike 


spaik 




spikes 


spaiks 




spill 


spil 




spills 


spilz 




spilled 


spilt 




spilt 


spilt 




spilling 


'spilirj 




spin 


spin 




spins 


spmz 




span 


spaen 




spun 


spAn 




spinning 


'spmirj 




spine 


spain 




spiral 


'spawral 




spirals 


'spaurdlz 




spirally 


'spai^rsh 





364 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



spirit 


'spirit 




spirits 


'spirits 




spiritual 


'spirit jual, 'spiritfi/01 




spiritually 


'spirit ju^li, 'spintfuzli 




spit 


spit 




spits 


spits 




spat 


spaet 




spitting 


'spitirj 




spite 


spait 




spiteful 


'spaitful 




spitefully 


'spaitfuli, 'spaitfah 




splash 


splaej 




splashes 


'splaejiz 




splashed 


splaejt 




splashing 


'splaejirj 




splendid 


'splendid 




splendidly 


'splendidh 




split 


split 




splits 


splits 




splitting 


'splitirj 




spoil 


spoil 




spoils 


spoilz 




spoiled 


spoilt, spoild 




spoilt 


spoilt 




spoiling 


'spoilu) 




SPOKE from speak 


spouk 




SPOKEN from speak 


'spouton 




sponge 


spAndj 




sponges 


'spAnd$iz 




spontaneous 


spon'temjas 


span'temjas 


spontaneously 


spDn'teinjash 


span'tempsli 


spoon 


spu'n 




spoons 


spu-nz 




spoonful 


'spu-nful 




spoonfuls 


'spu-nfulz 




sport 


spo't 


spost 


sports 


spo'ts 


sports 


sporting 


'spo'tirj 


'spostiij 


sportsman 


'spD'tsman 


'sportsman 


sportsmen 


'spo'tsman 


'spostsman 


spot 


spot 


spat 


spots 


spots 


spats 


spotted 


'spDtid 


'spatid 


spotting 


'spotir) 


'spatir) 


spout 


spaut 




spouts 


spauts 




sprain 


sprein 





366 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



sprains 


spremz 




sprained 


spreind 




spraining 


'spremirj 




SPRANG from spring 


spraerj 




spray 


sprei 




sprays 


spreiz 




sprayed 


spreid 




spraying 


'spreurj 




spread 


spred 




spreads 


spredz 




spreading 


'sprsdirj 




spring 


sprirj 




springs 


sprirjz 




sprang 


spraerj 




sprung 


sprArj 




springing 


'sprirjirj 




sprinkle 


'sprinkj 




sprinkles 


'sprirjkjz 




sprinkled 


'sprirjkjd 




sprinkling 


'sprirjklirj 




SP RU NG from spring 


sprArj 




SPUN from spin 


spAn 




spur 


sps'(r 


Sp39 


spurs 


Sp3'Z 


Sp38Z 


spurred 


sps'd 


spaed 


spurring 


'spsTirj 




spurt 


sps-t 


sp3t 


spurts 


SpS'tS 


Sp9tS 


spurted 


'spa'tid 


'spatid 


spurting 


'spa'tirj 


'spaatiri 


spy 


spai 




spies 


spaiz 




spied 


spaid 




spying 


r spaiu) 




squadron 


'skwodran 


'skwadran 


squadrons 


'skwDdranz 


'skwadranz 


squander 


'skwDnd9(r 


'skwands 


squanders 


'skwDndaz 


'skwandaz 


squandered 


'skwpndad 


'skwandad 


squandering 


'skwond^rirj 




square 


skwea(r 


skwee 


squares 


skweaz 


skwesz 


squarely 


'skweah 


'skwesli 


squeeze 


skwi'z 




squeezes 


'skwi'zvz 




squeezed 


skwi-zd 




squeezing 


'skwi'zirj 





366 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



squint 


bkwmt 




squints 


skwints 




squinted 


'skwmtid 




squinting 


'skwmtirj 




St. (= Saint) 


sznt 




stability 


sta'bihti 




stable 


steibj 




stables 


steibjz 




stack 


staek 




stacks 


stacks 




stacked 


staekt 




stacking 


'staekuj 




staff 


Std'f 


sta'f 


Stan's 


StU'fb 


sta-fs 


stage 


steidj 




stages 


'steid$iz 




stain 


stein 




stains 


stemz 




stained 


stemd 




staining 


'steimr) 




stair 


stto(r 


St3 


stairs 


sttaz 


stesz 


staircase 


'sttakeis 


"sttskeis 


staircases 


'stwkeisiz 


'steskeisiz 


stale 


steU 




stale ness 


'steilms 




stalk 


sto'k 




stalks 


sto'ks 




stall 


StO'l 




stalls 


StO'lz 




stamp 


stajinp 




stamps 


staeinps 




stamped 


stajm/?t 




stamping 


'stajmpirj 




stand 


staend 




stands 


staendz 




stood 


stud 




standing 


'staendirj 




standard 


'staendad 


'staendad 


standards 


'staendadz 


'staendsdz 


standstill 


'stasn^stil 




STANK from stmk 


staegk 




star 


sta-(r 


stas 


stars 


StQ'Z 


sta^z 


starch 


sta-tf 


staatf 


stare 


stea(r 


stes 


stares 


steoz 


steaz 



367 



2c 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



stared 


stead 


stead 


staring 


'steanrj 


'stsTirj 


starlight 


'std'lart 


'stdalait 


start 


ta-t 


staat 


starts 


sta-ts 


stdats 


started 


'sta-tid 


'stdstid 


starting 


'std'tirj 


'stdstirj 


startle 


'std-tj 


'stast} 


startles 


'sta-tjz 


'stastjz 


startled 


'std'tjd 


'stdstjd 


startling 


'std'thrj 


'stdstlirj 


starvation 


sta'veij>n 


stdo'vei/pn 


starve 


Std'V 


stasv 


starves 


Std'VZ 


staevz 


starved 


std-vd 


stdsvd 


starving 


'std-virj 


'stdsvirj 


state 


stevt 




states 


steits 




stated 


'steitid 




stating 


'stettirj 




statement 


'stettmont 




statements 


'steitmonts 




stately 


'steith 




statesman 


'steitsman 




statesmen 


'steitsman 




station 


'stei/^n 




stations 


'steifmz 




stationed 


'steijand 




stationing 


'steij^nirj 




stationary 


'steij^nan 


'steij^nen 


stationer 


'steij?n9(r 


'steijns 


stationers 


'steipriaz 


'steifnaz 


stationery 


'steijnan 


'steijaneri 


statistics 


sta'tistiks, stae'tistiks 




statue 


'staetju 




statues 


'staetjuz 




stay 


stei 




stays 


steiz 




stayed 


steid 




staying 


'stenrj 




steady 


'stedi 




steadies 


'stediz 




steadied 


'stsdvd 




steadying ' 


'stsdvirj 




steadier 


'stedva(r 


'stsdis 


steadiest 


'stedust 




steadily 


'steddi 





368 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



steadiness 


'stedims 




steak 


steik 




steaks 


steiks 




steal 


sti-1 




steals 


sti-lz 




stole 


stoul 




stolen 


'stouten 




stealing 


'sti'hrj 




steam 


strm 




steams 


strmz 




steamed 


sti'md 




steaming 


'strmir) 




steel 


Stl'l 




steep 


Stl'p 




steeper 


'strpa(r 


'sti'pa 


steepest 


'sti'pist 




steeply 


'sti'pli 




steepness 


'strpnis 




steer 


stia(r 


Stld 


steers 


Stl9Z 


Stl9Z 


steered 


stiad 


stisd 


steering 


'stiaruj 


'Stl'lll) 


stem 


stem 




stems 


stemz 




step 


step 




steps 


steps 




stepped 


stept 




stepping 


'stepig 




step-, prefix 


step 




Stephen 


'strvn 




stern 


sts-n 


stasn 


sternly 


'sts-nli 


'staanli 


sternness 


'sts'nms 


'stsanms 


steward 


'stju-sd, stjuad 


'st/u'sd 


stewards 


'stju'adz, stjuadz 


'st;u'dz 


stick 


stik 




sticks 


stiks 




stuck 


StAk 




sticking 


'stikirj 




sticky 


'stiki 




stiff 


Stlf 




stiffer 


'stifa(r 


'stif 


stiffest 


'stifist 




stiffen 


'stifn 





stiffens 


'stifnz 




stiffened 


'stifnd 




stiffening 


'stifnin, 'stifnirj 





369 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



stiffly 


'stifh 




stiffness 


'stifms 




stifle 


'staif] 




stifles 


'staifjz 




stifled 


'staifjd 




stifling 


'staifluj 




still 


Stll 




stimulant 


'stimjulant 




stimulants 


'stimjutents 




stimulate 


'stimjulevt 




stimulates 


'stimjuleits 




stimulated 


'stinrjuleitid 




stimulating 


'stimjuleitirj 




stimulation 


stimju'levj>n 




stimulus 


'stimj ulos 




stimuli 


'stimjulai 




sting 


stirj 




stings 


stirjz 




stung 


StAQ 




stinging 


'stirjuj 




stink 


stirjk 




stmks 


stinks 




stank 


'staenk 




stunk 


stArjk 




stinking 


'stirjkirj 




stipulate 


'stipjuleit 




stipulates 


'stipjuleits 




stipulated 


'stipjuleitid 




stipulating 


'stipjuleitirj 




stipulation 


stvpju'leifzn 




stipulations 


stipj u'lei/^nz 




stir 


st3'(r 


St39 


stirs 


St3'2 


St38Z 


stirred 


St3'd 


stsad 


stirring 


'sts'rirj 




stirrup 


'stirsp 


'stsrap 


stirrups 


'stiraps 


'stsrap 


stitch 


Stl^ 




stiches 


'stitfiz 




stock 


stok 


stak 


stocks 


stoks 


staks 


Stockholm 


'stokhoum 


'stakhoum 


stocking 


'stDkuj 


'stakirj 


stockings 


'stokirjz 


'stakinz 


stoker 


'stouka(r 


'stouks 


stokers 


'stoukaz 


'stouka? 


STOLE frow steal 


stoul 





370 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



stomach 


'stAinak 




stomachs 


'stAmaks 




stone 


stoun 




stones 


stoumz 




stony 


'stoum 




STOOD from stand 


stud 




stool 


stu-1 




stools 


stu'lz 




stoop 


stu-p 




stoops 


stu'ps 




stooped 


stu-pt 




stooping 


'stu'pirj 




stop 


StDp 


stop 


stops 


StDpS 


stops 


stopped 


StDpt 


stapt 


stopping 


'stopirj 


'stapig 


stoppage 


'stDpl<% 


'stapio^ 


stoppages 


'stDpid$iz 


'stapic^iz 


stopper 


'stDpa(r 


'staps 


stoppers 


'stopaz 


'stapsz 


store 


sto f (r, sto3(r 


stos 


stores 


StO'Z, StOSZ 


stosz 


stored 


sto'd, stoad 


stosd 


storing 


'stoTin, 'stoanrj 


'sto'nrj 


storm 


sto'in 


sto^m 


storms 


sto'mz 


stosmz 


stormed 


sto-md 


stDsmd 


storming 


'sto'mirj 


'stoamirj 


stormy 


'sto-m 


'stoam 


story 


'stOTl 




stories 


'sto'riz 




stout 


staut 




stouter 


'stauta(r 


'stauts 


stoutest 


'stautist 




stoutly 


'stautli 




stove 


stouv 




stoves 


stouvz 




straight 


streit 




straighter 


'streit8(r 


'streits 


straightest 


'streitist 




straighten 


'streiti^ 




straightens 


'streitnz 




straightened 


'streitnd 




straightening 


'streitnirj 




straightforward 


'streit'fo'wad 


'strevt'foawsd 


straightforwardly 


'streit'fD'wadh 


'strevt'foswadlv 


straightf orwardne s s 


' streit' f o ' wsdnis 


'strevt'foawadms 



371 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



straightness 


'streitnis 




strain 


strein 




strains 


stremz 




strained 


streind 




straining 


'stremirj 




strait 


streit 




straits 


streits 




strand 


straend 




strands 


straend z 




stranded 


'straend id 




stranding 


'straend irj 




strange 


strein d$ 




stranger 


'strein d$a(r 


'strein d^s 


strangest 


'strein d$ist 




stranger 


'strein d$3(r 




strangers 


'strein d$az 




strangely 


'strein d$li 




strangeness 


'strein d;nis 




strangle 


'straerjg} 




strangles 


'straerjg }z 




strangled 


'straerjg id 




strangling 


'straerjg lirj 




strap 


straep 




straps 


straeps 




strapped 


straept 




strapping 


'straepirj 




stratagem 


'straeti<|im 




stratagems 


'straetidjimz 




strategic 


stro'ti^tk ^ 






strap' ti'c^ik 




strategically 


stra'tr c^ikali 






strae'ti- c^ikah 




strategy 


'straetic^i 




straw 


stro 1 




straws 


stro'z 




strawberry 


'stro'b^ri 


'stro'bsn 


strawberries 


'stro'b^nz 


'stro-bsriz 


stray 


strei 




strays 


streiz 




strayed 


streid 




straying 


'strenrj 




streak 


stri-k 




streaks 


strrks 




stream 


strrm 




streams 


stri'rnz 





372 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 


streamed 


strrmd 




streaming 


'stri'mirj 




street 


strrt 




streets 


strrts 




strength 


strerjAG 




strengths 


strerj&Gs 




strengthen 


'stren&6;?n 




> strengthens 


'strerj&0<mz 




strengthened 


'strerj&O^nd 




strengthening 


'strerj/?0<?nirj 




strenuous 


'strsnj U9s 




strenuously 


'strenjuasli 




stress 


strss 




stresses 


'stresiz 




stressed 


strest 




stressing 


'stresirj 




stretch 


stretf 




stretches 


'strstfiz 




stretched 


strstft 




stretching 


'strstfir) 




strict 


strikt 




stricter 


'stnkta(r 


'strikts 


strictest 


'striktist 




strictly 


'stnktli 




stride 


straid 




strides 


straidz 




strife 


straif 




strike 


straik 




strikes 


straiks 




struck 


strAk 




striking 


'straikirj 




strikingly 


'straikirjh 




string 


strirj 




strings 


stnrjz 




stringed 


strind 




strung 


strArj 




stringing 


'strirjirj 




strip 


strip 




strips 


strips 




stripped 


stript 




stripping 


'stripirj 




stripe 


straip 




stripes 


straips 




striped 


straipt 


' 


striping 


'straipir) 




strive 


straiv 




strives 


straivz 





373 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



strove 


strouv 




striven 


'stnvi^ 




striving 


'straivirj 




stroke 


strouk 




strokes 


strouks 




stroked 


stroukt 




stroking 


'stroukirj 




stroll 


stroul 




strolls 


stroulz 




strolled 


strould 




strolling 


'stroulii) 




strong 


strorj 




stronger 


'stronger 


'strongs 


strongest 


'strung ist 




strongly 


'strDrjli 




STROVE from strive 


strouv 




STRUCK from strike 


strAk 




structure 


'stTAktfd(r 


'strAktf 


structures 


'stTAktf9Z 


'strAktfsz 


struggle 


'stTAg} 




struggles 


'strAgJz 




struggled 


'strAgJd 




struggling 


'strAglin, 'strAgjirj 




STRUNG from string 


strArj 




stubborn 


A stAb9n 


'stAbsn 


stubbornly 


'stAbanh 


'stAbenh 


stubbornness 


'stAbsnnis 


'stAbsnnis 


STUCK from stick 


StAk 




student 


'stju'd^nt 




students 


'stju'd^nts 




studious 


'stju'djos, 'stju'diab 




study 


'stAdi 




studies 


'stAdiz 




studied 


'stAdid 




studying 


'stAdurj 




stuff 


'stAf 




stuffs 


'stAfs 




stuffed 


f StAft 




stuffing 


'stAfirj 




stuffy 


'stAfl 




stumble 


'stAmb) 




stumbles 


'stAmb}z 




stumbled 


'stAmbJd 




stumbling ' 


'stAmbhrj 




stump 


stAmp 




stumps 


stAmps 




stun 


fatAn 





374 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



stuns 


stAnz 




stunned 


stAnd 




stunning 


'stAnirj 




STUNG from sting 


stArj 




STUNK from stink 


stArjk 




stupid 


'stjupid, 'stju-pid 




stupidity 


stju'piditi, stju'piditi 




stupidly 


'stjupidh, 'stju'pidh 




stutter 


'stAt9(r 


'stAts 


stutters 


'stAt9Z 


'stAtSZ 


stuttered 


'stAtad 


'stAtsd 


stuttering 


'stAtarirj 




stutterer 


'stAtgr9(r 


'stAtors 


stutterers 


'stAtsraz 


'stAtarsz 


style 


stall 




styles 


stailz 




sub- , prefix 


sAb-, sab- 




subdivision 


's Abdi'vrj^n 




subdivisions 


'sAbdi'vi3?nz 




subdued, adj. 


sab'dju'd 




subject, noun 


'sAbdjikt 




subjects 


'sAbd$ikts 




subject, verb 


S9b'd$ekt, 'sAbd$ikt 




subjects 


S9b'd$ekts 




subjected 


Jb*S 




subjecting 


'Ib^tkt? 




subjective 


sab'djektiv 






SAb'o^sktiv 




subjectively 


S9b'ci;ektivli 






svb' o^sktivh 




sublime 


S9'blaim 




sublimely 


S9'blaimh 




submarine 


'sAbm^nn 




submarines 


'sAbm^nnz 




submission 


sab'mij^n 




submit 


sob'mit 




submits 


S9b'mits 




submitted 


S9b'mitid 




submitting 


sab'mitirj 




subordinate, noun 


S9'bo'd^mt 


so'bosd^nit 


subordinates 


so'bo'd^nits 


S9'boad?mts 


subordinate, verb 


so'bo'dmeit 


sg'bosdmeit 


subordinates 


b9'bo'dineits 


b9'bosdineits 


subordinated 


so'bo'dineitid 


S9'bosdineitid 



376 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



subordinating 


sa'bo'dmeitirj 


sa'bosdmeitirj 


subscribe 


sab'skraib 




subscribes 


ssb'skraibz 




subscnbed 


sab'skraibd 




subscribing 


ssb'skraibtrj 




subscriber 


sab'skraiba(r 


sab'skraibs 


subscribers 


sab'skraibaz 


sab'skraibaz 


subscription 


sab'skrippn 




subscriptions 


sab'skripj>nz 




subsequent 


'sAbsikwont 




subsequently 


'sAbsikwanth 




subsidy 


'sAbsidi 




subsidies 


'sAbsidiz 




substance 


'sAbstens 




substances 


'sAbstmbiz 




substantial 


sob'staenpl 




substantially 


S9b'staenj>h 




substitute 


'sAbstitjut 




substitutes 


'sAbstitjuts 




substituted 


'sAbstitjutid 




substituting 


'sAbstitjutirj 




substitution 


SAbsti'tju'j>n 




substitutions 


SAbsti'tju'J^nz 




subtle 


'SAt| 




subtler 


'sAtb(r 


'sAtls 


subtlest 


'SAtllSt 




subtlety 


'SAtJtl 




subtleties 


'SAtjtlZ 




subtly 


'SAtll 




subtract 


sab'traekt 




subtracts 


sab'traekts 




subtracted 


sab'traektid 




subtracting 


sab'traektirj 




subtraction 


sob'trsekj^n 




subtractions 


sab'traekj^iiz 




suburb 


'sAbab, 'sAbab 


'sAbasb, 'sAbab 


suburbs 


'sAbsbz, 'sAbobz 


A SAb3sbz, 'sAbsbz 


suburban 


ss'bs'b^n 


S9'b3b?n 


subway 


'sAbwei 




subways 


'sAbweiz 




succeed 


sak'si'd 




succeeds 


sok'srdz 




succeeded 


sak'si'did 




succeeding 


sak'srdir) 


au 


success 


sak'&es 




successes 


ssk'sesiz 




successful ' 


eak'sesful 





376 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



successfully 


sak'sesfuh, sak'sesfoli 




succession 


sak'sejan 




successive 


sak'sesiv 




successively 


sak'sesivh 




successor 


sak'sesa(r 


sak'ses 


successors 


sak'sesoz 


sok'sessz 


such 


SAtf, S3tf 




such-and-such 


'sAtfansAtf 




suck 


SAk 




sucks 


SAkS 




sucked 


SAkt 




sucking 


'bAkirj 




suction 


'sAkJ>n 




sudden 


'sAdi^ 




suddenly 


'sAdnh 




suddenness 


'sAdnms 




Suez 


'siriz, 'sju'iz 


su'ez 


suffer 


'sAfo(r 


'sAfa 


suffers 


'SAfoz 


'sAfaz 


suffered 


'sAfad 


'sAfad 


suffering 


'sAfonrj 




sufferer 


r sAf^r3(r 


'sAf^rs 


sufferers 


'sAfpraz 


'sAf^raz 


suffice 


sa'fais 




suffices 


so'faisiz 




sufficed 


so'faist 




sufficing 


so'faisirj 




sufficient 


s^'fiji?nt 




sufficiently 


s^'fipntli 




suffix 


'sAfiks 




suffixes 


'sAfiksiz 




suffocate 


'sAfokeit 




suffocates 


'sAfakeits 




suffocated 


'sAfokeitid 




suffocating 


'sAfakeitirj 




suffocation 


SAfa'keiJ^n 




suffrage 


'sAfric^ 




sugar 


'Jug0(r 


7 U 9 


suggest 


sorest "1 While Krapp states that 


suggests 


sa'djssts [sag'o^est], etc , is a purist 


suggested 


ss'djsstvd affectation, Kenyon maintains 


suggesting 


S3'cl$estirj L that the alternative form 


suggestion 


so'd$estf;m [sorest] is very rare in 


suggestions 


so'6^sstf<?nz Northern Onio and probably 


suggestive 


sa'o^estiv J m the North generally. Martin 


suicidal 


s;ui'said| agrees with Kenyon. 


suicide 


's;uisaid 



377 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



suicides 


's^uisaidz 




suit 


S/U't 




suits 


S/U'tS 




suited 


's;u-tid 




suiting 


's^u'tirj 




suitability 


s/uto'bilvti 




suitable 


's;u-tabj 




suitably 


's;u'tabli 




sulk 


SAlk 




sulks 


SAlkS 




sulked 


SAlkt 




sulking 


'SAlkll) 




sulkily 


'sAlkih 




sulky 


'SAlkl 




sulphur 


'SAlf9(r 


'sAlfa 


sultry 


'sAltri 




sum 


SAm 




sums 


SAmz 




summed 


SAtnd 




summing 


'SAimi) 




summarize 


'sAinsraiz 




summarizes * 


'sAmgramz 




summarized 


'sAmaraizd 




summarizing 


'sAmsraizir) 




summary 


'sAmsri 




summaries 


'sAmariz 




summer 


'sAms(r 


'sAms 


summers 


'sAmaz 


'sAmz 


summon 


'sAman 




summons 


'sAmanz 




summoned 


'sAmsnd 




summoning 


'sAmanuj 




summons 


'sAmanz 




sun 


SAn 




suns 


SAnz 




sunburn 


'sAnban 


'sAnbsan 


sunburnt 


"sAnbsnt 


'sAnbsnt 


Sunday 


'sAndi 




Sundays 


'sAndiz 




sundry 


'sAndn 




SUNG from sing 


SAI) 




SUNK from sink 


SArjk 




sunlight 


'sAnlait 




sunny 


'sAm 




sunrise 


'sAnraiz 




sunset 


'sAnsst 




sunshine 


'sAn/ain 





378 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



super-, prefix 


's_;u'po(r 


'syu'ps 


superb 


s;u'ps'b 


sju'pssb 


supercilious 


s/upa'sihas 


s;ups'sili9S 


superficial 


s/up9'fij>l 


s;up'fij^l 


superficially 


s/up9'fij>li 


s;ups'fi/^li 


superfluous 


s;u'p3'fluas 


s^'u'pssfluas 


superfluously 


s/u'p3'fludsli 


s;u'p3flu9sli 


superintend 


s;up<?rin'tend 




superintends 


s^upmn'tendz 




superintended 


s;upmn'tendid 




superintending 


s; up^nn'tendirj 




superior 


s;u'pi9ri9(r 


S^u'plTlS 


superiors 


s;u'pi9ri9z 


s;u'piTJ9Z 


superiority 


syupian'oriti 


S/UplTl'DHtt 


superlative 


s/u'ps'tetiv 


s;u'p39l9ttv 


supersede 


s;upa'si'd 


s/up^'si-d 


supersedes 


sjupa'srdz 


s;upa'si'dz 


superdeded 


sjupa'srdid 


s;'ups'si'did 


superseding 


s/ups'si'dirj 


sjups'si'dirj 


superstition 


s;'upa'stij^n 


sjups'stifzn 


superstitions 


&;up9'stij?nz 


s;ups f stij^nz 


superstitious 


s;up9'sti/as 


s;up9'sti/9S 


supervise 


's;u'pavaiz 


'sj/u'psvaiz 




sjupa'vaiz 


soups' vaiz 


supervises 


's^u'psvaiziz 


's;u'psvaiziz 




s;upaVaiziz 


s/ups'vaiztz 


supervised 


'sy'u-pavaizd 


's/u'psvaizd 




s;up9'vatzd 


s;upa'vaizd 


supervising 


'sj/u'pavaizirj 


's/u'psvaizirj 




s;up9'vaizirj 


s^upa'vaizirj 


supper 


'SAp9(r 


r SAp9 


suppers 


'SAp9Z 


'SApQZ 


Supplement, noun 


'sAplim9nt 




supplements 


'sAphmgnts 




supplement, verb 


'sAphmsnt 




supplements 


'sApliments 




supplemented 


'sAphmsntid 




supplementing 


'sAplimantirj 




supply 


sa'plai 




supplies 


sa'plaiz 




supplied 


sg'plaid 




supplying 


sa'plaiirj 




support 


S9'pO't 


sa'poat 


supports 


99'pO'ts 


39 'pOStS 


supported 


sa'po'tid 


sa'poatid 


supporting 


sa'po'tirj 


S9'postirj 


supporter 


S9'pO't9(r 


S9'poats 



379 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



supporters 


S9'pO't9Z 


sg'postaz 


suppose 


sp'pouz 




supposes 


s^'pouziz 




supposed 


s/pouzd 




supposing 


s/pouzirj 




supposition 


SApa'zi/pn 




suppositions 


SApa'ziJ>nz 




suppress 


89'pres 




suppresses 


59'presiz 




suppressed 


S9'prest 




suppressing 


sa'presirj 




suppression 


S9'preJ;m 




suppressions 


sa'prejznz 




supremacy 


s;u'prem9Si 




supremacies 


s;u'prem9Siz 




supreme 


s;u'prrm 




supremely 


s;u'pri'mh 




sure 


Jua(r, Joa(r 


Ju 


surer 


'Juara(r, '/D3r9(r 


'/UTO 


surest 


7u9rist, 'Joarist 


'/UTlSt 


surely 


'Juali, 'J 03 ^ 1 


'/usli 


sureness 


'Ju9nis, 'Jo9nis 


'Jusnis 


surf 


S3'f 


ssaf 


surface 


'S3'flS 


'ssafis 


surfaces 


'S9'flSlZ 


'sssfisiz 


surgeon 


'ss'dj^n 


'sss^n 


surgeons 


'ss'^nz 


's3d$0nz 


surgery 


'S3 ' (^5Tl 


'sss^ri 


surgical 


'ss'C^ik^l 


'S39<%lk.9l 


surgically 


'ss ' o^ikgh 


'S36^lk9ll 


surly 


'SS'U 


'S39ll 


surmise 


ss'maiz, 'ss-maiz 


sss'maiz, 'sssmaiz 


surmises 


ss'maiziz. 'ss-maiziz 


ssa'maizvz .... 


surname 


'ss'neim 


'sseneim 


surnames 


'ss-neimz 


'ssaneimz 


surpass 


ss'pa's, sa'pcrs 


ssa'p'as, s'pa f s 


surpasses 


so'pa'siz, S9'pa ? siz 


sso'pa'Siz, s'pa'siz 


surpassed 


ss'pa-st, ss'pa-st 


ssa'pa-st, ss'pa-st 


surpassing 


ss'pa'Sirj, S9'pa'sirj 


sss'pa-sirj, ss'pa-sirj 


surplus 


'S3 'pl9S 


's3plos 


surpluses 


'ss'plssiz 


'ssapbsiz 


surprise 


S9'praiz 


ss'praiz 


surprises 


so'praiziz 


ss'praiziz 


surprised ( 


sa'praizd 


se'praizd 


surprising 


ss'praizirj 


se'praizirj 


surprisingly 


sa'praizirjh 


ss'praizirjh 


surrender 


S9 f rsnd9(r 


s'renda 



380 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



surrenders 


so'rendaz 


sa'rendsz 


surrendered 


sa'rendad 


sa'rcndsd 


surrendering 


sa'rsndmrj 




surround 


sa'raijnd 




surrounds 


so'raundz 




surrounded 


sa'raundid 




surrounding 


ss'raundirj 




surroundings 


sg'raLrndirjz 




survey, noun 


'ss'vei, ss'vei 


'sssvei, sss'vei 


surveys 


'ss'veiz, ss'veiz 


'sssveiz, sss'veiz 


survey, verb 


ss'vei 


sss'vei 


survey^ 


ss'veiz 


sss'veiz 


surveyed 


ss'veid 


sss'veid 


surveying 


ss'veurj 


sss'veurj 


surveyor 


S3'veia(r 


sss'veis 


surveyors 


ss'veuz 


sso'veisz 


survive 


ss'vaiv, sa'vaiv 


saa'vaiv, se'vaiv 


survives 


ss'vaivz, sa'vaivz 


sss'vaivz, sa'vaivz 


survived 


ss'vaivd, sa'vaivd 


539'vaivd, s'vaivd 


surviving 


ss'vaivirj, sa'vaivirj 


sss'vaivirj, sa'vaivirj 


survival 


ss'vaiv?!, sa'vaiv^l 


sss'vaiv^l, ss'vaiv?! 


survivals 


sa'vaiv^lz 


ssa'vaxv^lz 




so'vaiv^lz 


sa'vaivslz 


survivor 


S3'vaiva(r, sa'vaiv9(r 


S39 r vaiv3, ss'vaivs 


survivors 


ss'vaivaz, sa'vaivaz 


ssa'vaxvz, s'vaivaz 


Susan 


'su'zn 




susceptibility 


sasepti'biliti 




susceptible 


sa'ssptib) 




suspect, noun 


'SASpBkt 




suspects 


'SASpekts 




suspect, verb 


sos'pskt 




suspects 


sas'pekts 




suspected 


sas'pektid 




suspecting 


sas'pektir) 




suspend 


sas'psnd 




suspends 


sas'psndz 




suspended 


sas'pendid 




suspending 


sas'pendtrj 




suspense 


sas'pens 




suspension 


sas'penj^n 




suspicion 


sos'pipn 




suspicions 


S9s'piJ0nz 




suspicious 


S3S'plj9S 




suspiciously 


sss'pijasli 




sustain 


sss'tem 




sustains 


sas'teinz 




sustained 


S9s'temd 





381 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



sustaining 


sas'teintrj 




swallow 


'SWD!OU 


'swalou 


swallows 


'swDlouz 


'swalouz 


swallowed 


'swDloud 


'swaloud 


swallowing 


'swDlouirj 


'swalouirj 


SWAM from swim 


swaem 




swamp 


swDmp 


swamp 


swamps 


SWDHlpS 


swamps 


swamped 


SWDTTipt 


swam^t 


swamping 


'swDmpirj 


'swampirj 


swan 


swon 


swan 


swans 


SWD11Z 


swanz 


swarm 


swD'm 


swDsm 


swarms 


swo'inz 


swosmz 


swarmed 


swo'ind 


swosmd 


swarming 


'swj'mirj 


'swosmirj 


sway 


swei 




sways 


sweiz 




swayed 


sweid 




swaying 


'sweurj 




swear 


swLa (r 


SWE3 


swears 


bWLOZ 


SW63Z 


swore 


swo'(r, swo^(r 


swoo 


sworn 


swo'n 


swosn 


swearing 


"swearir) 


'swsTirj 


sweat 


swet 




sweats 


swets 




sweated 


'swetid 




sweating 


'swetirj 




Swede 


swi'd 




Swedes 


swi-dz 




Sweden 


'swi'di? 




Swedish 


'swrdij 




sweep 


SWl'p 




sweeps 


SWl'pS 




swept 


swept 




sweeping 


'swi'pirj 




sweet 


swt 




sweets 


SW ; 'tS 




sweeter 


'swi'ta(r 


'swi'ts 


sweetest 


'swi'tist 




sweeten 


'swi't^i 




sweetens 


'swrtnz 




sweetened < 


'swi'tnd 




sweetening 


'swi'tmrj, 'swi'tnirj 




sweetly 


'swi'th 




sweetness 


'swi'tms 





382 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



swell 


swsl 




swells 


swelz 




swelled 


sweld 




swollen 


'swouten 




swelling 


'swelirj 




swellings 


'swehrjz 




SWEPT from sweep 


swept 




swerve 


hW3'V 


swssv 


swerves 


SW3'VZ 


SW3VZ 


swerved 


SW3'Vd 


swsvd 


swerving 


'sws'virj 


'swssvtrj 


swift 


swift 




swifter 


'swifter 


'swifts 


swiftest 


'swiftist 




swiftly 


'swifth 




swiftness 


'swiftnis 




swim 


swim 




swims 


swimz 




swam 


swaem 




swum 


swAin 




swimming 


'swimirj 




swimmer 


'swim3(r 


'swims 


swimmers 


'swimaz 


'swimsz 


swindle 


's\v md\ 




swindles 


'swmd|z 




swindled 


'swmdjd 




swindling 


'swindlirj 




swindler 


'swmdl9(r 


'swindle 


swindlers 


'swindlaz 


'swindlsz 


swing 


swig 




swings 


swirjz 




swang 


swaeri 




swung 


SWAFJ 




swinging 


'swirjuj 




Swiss 


SW1S 




switch 


swrtf 




switches 


'swi^iz 




switched 


SWl^t 




switching 


'switfirj 




Switzerland 


'swits^bnd 






'switz^land 


'switzaland 


SWOLLEN from swell 


'swoul^n 




sword 


so'd, soad 


soad 


swords 


so'dz, soadz 


soldz 


SWORE from swear 


swo'(r, swoa(r 


SW00 


SWORN from swear 


swo'n 


swoan 


SWUM from swim 


swAm 





383 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



SWUNG jvom swing 


SWAI) 




Sydney 


'sidm 




syllable 


'silabj 




syllables 


'silabjz 




symbol 


'simb^l 




symbols 


'simb^lz 




symbolic 


sim'bDhk 


sim'bolik 


symbolically 


sim'bDhkali 


stm'bahkah 


symmetrical 


si'metrikpl 




symmetrically 


si'mstrikoh 




sympathetic 


simps'Setik 




sympathetically 


simpo'0etiks>h 




sympathize 


'simpo6aiz 




sympathizes 


'simpaGaiziz 




sympathized 


'simpaOaizd 




sympathizing 


'simpaGaiziT) 




sympathy 


'simp86i 




sympathies 


'simpaOiz 




symptom 


'sim/?t9m 




symptoms 


'simf>t3mz 




syndicate 


'sindikit 




syndicates 


'sindikits 




synonym 


'si no mm 




synonyms 


'sinommz 




synopsis 


si'nDpsis 


si'napsis 


synopses 


si'nDpsiz 


si'napsiz 


synoptic 


si'ncptik 


si'naptik 


synoptically 


si'nnptik^li 


si'naptikali 


syntax 


'smtaeks 




synthesis 


'smGisis 




synthese.^ 


'sinGisiz 




synthetic 


sin'Ostik 




syrup 


'sirsp 




syrups 


'siraps 




system 


'sistim 




systems 


'sistimz 




systematic 


sisti'maetik 




systematically 


sisti'maetvkpli 




systematize 


'sistimataiz 




systematizes 


'sistimotaiziz 




systematized 


'sistimataizd 




systematizing 


'sistimataiziri 





384 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 


T 


T 


ti- 




T's 


ti-z 




tab 


t<eb 




tabs 


taebz 




table 


'teibj 




tables 


'teibjz 




tablet 


'tsebht 




tablets 


'taebhts 




tabulate 


'tsebjuleit 




tabulates 


'taebj uleits 




tabulated 
tabulating 


'taebjuleitid 
'taebj uleitir) 




tack 


tsek 




tacks 


tseks 




tacked 


taekt 




tacking 


'taektrj 




tackle 


'task} 




tackles 


'taekjz 




tackled 


'taek|d 




tackling 


'taekluj 




tact 


taekt 




tactful 


'taektful 




tactfully 


'taektfuh, 'tektfah 




tactics 


'taektiks 




tactless 


'taekths 




tactlessly 


'taektlish 




tail 


teil 




tails 


teilz 




tailed 


teild 




tailor 


'teila(r 


'teila 


tailors 


'teilaz 


'teilsz 


tailoring 


'teilani) 




take 


teik 




takes 


teiks 




took 


tuk 




taken 


'teiksn 




taking 


'teikirj 




tale 


teil 




tales 


teilz 




talent 


'tasbnt 




talents 


'tselants 




talented 


'tselantid 




talk 


to-k 




talks 


tD'ks 




talked 


to'kt 





385 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



talking 


'to'kirj 




talker 


'to-ka(r 


'to-ks 


talkers 


'tD'kaz 


'to'ksz 


talkative 


'to'kstiv 




talking- to 


'to'kirjtu 




tall 


tO'J 




taller 


'to'l3(r 


'to-l 


tallest 


'to-hst 




tallness 


'to-lms 




tame 


teim 




tames 


teimz 




tamed 


teimd 




taming 


'teimirj 




tamer 


'teima(r 


'teim 


tamest 


'teimist 




tamely 


'teimlv 




tameness 


'teimnis 




tamper 


'taempg (r 


'tsemps 


tampers 


'tsempaz 


'tsempsz 


tampered 


'taempad 


'taempsd 


tampering 


'taemparirj 




tan 


taen 




tans 


taenz 




tanned 


taend 




tanning 


'taenirj 




tangible 


'taend$ib} 




tangle 


'taengj 




tangles 


'taerjgjz 




tangled 


'taerjgjd 




tangling 


'taerjghr) 




tank 


taerjk 




tanks 


taerjks 




tantalize 


'taentolaiz 




tantalizes 


'taentalaiziz 




tantalized 


'taentalaizd 




tantalizing 


'taentalaizirj 




tap 


tep 




taps 


taeps 




tapped 


taept 




tapping 


'taepirj 




tape 


teip 




tar 


ta-(r 


tap 


tars ( 


ta-z 


taaz 


tarred 


ta-d 


tasd 


tarring 


'ta-nrj 




tardy 


'ta'di 


'tadi 


target 


'ta-git 


'tasgit 



386 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



targets 


'td'gvts 


'tasgits 


tariff 


'taerif 




tariffs 


'taenfs 




tart 


tort 


tast 


tarts 


tcrts 


tasts 


task 


to/sk 


ta-sk 


tasks 


ta'sks 


ta'sks 


taste 


teist 




tastes 


teists 




tasted 


'teistid 




tasting 


'teistirj 




tasteful 


'teistf ul 




tastefully 


'teistfult, 'tetstfah 




tasteless 


'teisths 




TAUGHT from teach 


to-t 




tawdry 


'to'dri 




tax 


tseks 




taxes 


'taeksiz 




taxed 


taekst 




taxing 


'taeksirj 




taxation 


taek'seijzn, taek'zeij>n 




taxi 


'taeksi 




taxis 


'taeksiz 




tea 


ti- 




teas 


trz 




teach 


trtf 




teaches 


'tl'tflZ 




taught 


to-t 




teaching 


'trtfirj 




teachings 


'ti-tfirjz 




teacher 


'ti-tf3(r 


'ti-tfs 


teachers 


'ti'tf9Z 


'ti'tfaz 


teacup 


'ti-kAp 




teacups 


'tl'kApS 




teapot 


'tl'pDt 


'ti'pat 


teapots 


'tl'pDtS 


'ti'pats 


tear, noun 


tia(r 


tis 


tears 


tl9Z 


tisz 


tear, verb 


t3(r 


te 


tears 


t3Z 


tesz 


tore 


to-(r, toa(r 


to 


torn 


to-n 


tosn 


tearing 


'twrirj 


;teTir) 


tearful 


'tiaful 


'tisful 


tease 


trz 




teases 


'ti'ziz 




teased 


ti'zd 





387 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 


teasing 


'trzirj 




teasingly 


'trzirjli 




teaspoon 


'ti-spun 




teaspoons 


'trspunz 




teaspoonful 


'trspunful 




teaspoonfuls 


'trspunfulz 




tea-time 


'trtaim 




technical 


'tekmkd 




technically 


'teknikali 




technicality 


tekni'kaeliti 




technicalities 


tskm'kaelitvz 




technique 


tek'nrk 




tedious 


'ti'dias, 'trdjds 




TEETH plur. of tooth 


ti-9 




telegram 


'tehgraem 




telegrams 


'teligraemz 




telegraph 


'tehgraf, 'tshgraef 


'tehgraf 


telegraphs 


'tehgrcifs, 'tsligraefs 


'teligrafs 


telegraphed 


'tehgraft, 'tehgraeft 


'tehgraft 


telegraphing 


'tehgrafirj 


'tehgrafirj 




'tshgraefirj 




telegraphic 


tch'graefik 




telegraphically 


teh'graBfikolt 




telegraphist 


ti'lsgrafist 




telegraphists 


ti'legr^fists 




telegraphy 


ti'lsgrafi 




telephone 


'tehfoun 




telephones 


'tehfounz 




telephoned 


'tehfound 




telephoning 


'tslifounig 




telephonic 


teh'fDmk 


tsli'famk 


telescope 


'teliskoup 




telescopes 


'teliskoups 




telescoped 


'teliskoupt 




telescoping 


'teliskoupirj 




telescopic 


tdis'kopik 


tslis'kapik 


telescopically 


telis'kDpikah 


tshs'kapikah 


tell 


tel 




tells 


telz 




told 


tould 




telling 


'tshrj 




temper 


't6mp9(r 


'temps 


tempers 


'tempaz 


'tempez 


tempered 


'tempad 


'tsmpsd 


temperament 


'temp^romant 




temperaments 


'temp^ramants 




temperance 


'temp^rons 




388 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 


temperate 


'temp^nt 




temperately 


'tempznth 


temperature 


'temp0ntf3(r 


'temp^ritfd 




'temp<?ratp(r 




temperatures 


'temppritfaz 'tempntfaz 




'temp^ratjsz 


temple 


'temp} 




temples 


'tempjz 




temporarily 


'temp^rarili j 'temparerili 


temporary 


'temparan i 'tempgren 


tempt 


tempt i 


tempts 


tempts 


tempted 


'temptid 


tempting 


'tem/?tir) ! 


temptation 


tem/>'teiJ0n 


temptations 


tenr>'teij?nz 


tempter 


'tempto(r 


'tempt* 


tempters 


'tem/?taz 


'temptaz 


tempting 


'tem/tir) i 


temptingly 


'temptiTjh 




ten 


ten 




tenant 


'tenant 




tenants 


'tenants 




tend 


tend 




tends 


tendz 




tended 


'tendtd 




tending 


'tendir) 




tendency 


'tendansi 




tendencies 


'tendanbiz 




tender 


'tendo(r 


'tends 


tenderly 


'tendah 


'tendsh 


tenderness 


'ten dams 


'tendnis 


tenfold 


'tenfould 




tennis 


'tems 




tenor 


'tena(r 


'ten 


tent 


tent 




tents 


tents 




tentative 


'tentativ 




tenth 


tenG 




tenths 


tenBs 




term 


ts'm 


t3m 


terms 


ts'mz 


tssmz 


terminate 


'ts-mmeit 


'taamineit 


terminates 


'ts'inuieits 


'tsamineits 


terminated 


't3'inineitid 


'tssmvneitid 


terminating 


'ts'imneitir) 


'tasmineitirj 


termination 


tsmi'neij^n 


taami'neifffn 


389 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



terminations 


t3mi'neij;mz 


tssmi'neij^nz 


terminology 


tami'nnladsi 


tssmi'nalao^i 


terminologies 


tsmi'nDladjiz 


tssmi'nalad^iz 


terminus 


'ts'imnas 


'tssmmas 


termini 


'ts'imnai 


'tssminai 


terminuses 


'ts'inmasiz 


't9smmasiz 


terrace 


'tens 




terraces 


'terisiz 




terrible 


'teribj 




terribly 


'teribh 




terrific 


ti'nfik 




terrify 


'terifai 




terrifies 


'tenfaiz 




terrified 


'terifaid 




terrifying 


'terifaurj 




territory 


'tervten 


'teriton 


territories 


'tervteriz 


'tentoriz 


terror 


'tera (r 


'ter 


terrors 


'teraz 


'teraz 


test 


test 




tests 


tests 




tested 


'testid 




testing 


'testirj 




testament 


'testament 




testaments 


'testamants 




testimonial 


testt'mounjal 






testi'mounial 




testimonials 


testi'mounjalz 






testi'moumalz 




testimony 


f'testimani 




testimonies 


I'testimamz 




text 


tekst 




texts 


teksts 




textile 


'tekstail 


'tekstil 


textual 


'tekstju^l 




textually 


'tekstju^h 




Thames (in England, 


temz 




Canada, New 






Zealand] 






Thames (in Connec- 


6eimz 




ticut] 






than 


6aen s f , dan, dij w.fs. 




thank 


Oaenk 




thanks 


Baerjks 




thanked 


0aen^t 





f See Note 30, p. xxxv in Introduction. 

390 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



thanking 
thankful 
thankfully 
thankfulness 
thankless 
thanksgiving 

thanksgiving 
that, demonstr. 

pronoun 

that, relative pronoun 
that, conj. 
the 
theatre 

theatres 
theatrical 
theft 

thefts 
their 

theirs 

them 

themselves 

then 

theological 

theology 
theorize 

theorizes 

theorized 

theorizing 
theory 

theories 
there 

thereabouts 

thereby 

therefore 

thereupon 

thermometer 
thermometers 
THESE, plu. of this 

thesis 
theses 

they 

thick 

thicker 



'0a?rjkirj 
'Gaerjkful 

'Gaenkfuh, 'Gaerjkfah 
'0aerjkfulnis 
'0aerjkhs 
'Oaerjks'givirj 

'Gaerjks'givirjz 
5aet 

fat 

5aets/., d9tz<y/. 
fti'6./., 5i, 69 w fs. 
'0i9t9(r, 0i'et9(r 

'0i9t9z, 0i'st3Z 
0i'aetrik^l 
0sft 

eefts 

Qa(r, normal form 
63 (r. occas weak form 
deaz 
dsm s.f. t 6^m w.f. 



6en 



'0iaraiziz 
'0iaraizd 
'0i9raizirj 



6e9(r, normal form 
69 (r, w.f. 
'6eor9'bauts 



Gg'mDmitg^ 
09'mDmit9z 
drz 

'01 'SIS, '0SSIS 
'0i'SlZ, '06S1Z 

6ei, normal form 
6s, weak form 
6ik 

'0ik9(r 

391 



5eoz 



ae^ 

ds 
'6eT9'bauts 



03'mamitsz 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



thickest 


'Gikist 




thicken 


'9ik?n 




thickens 


'9ik*nz 




thickened 


'0ikj?nd 




thickening 


'9ik?nirj 




thickish 


'8ikiJ 




thickly 


'9ikh 




thickness 


'Giknis 




thicknesses 


'9ikmsiz 




thief 


0rf 




thieves 


0i -vz 




thimble 


'9imbJ 




thimbles 


'0imb}z 




thin 


0m 




thinner 


'0ina(r 


'QOL9 


thinnest 


'0imst 




thing 


9irj 




things 


0inz 




think 


9ink 




thinks 


0ii)ks 




thought 


00't 




thinking 


'9irjkirj 




thinker 


'0ir)ka(r 


'0irjk8 


thinkers 


'9irjk3z 


'9irjksz 


thinly 


'9inli 




thinness 


'0 inn is 




thinnish 


'0miJ 




third 


9s'd 


099d 


thirds 


03-dz 


9sdz 


thirst 


03 'St 


03dSt 


thirsty 


'03'Stl 


'938Stl 


thirteen 


'Os-'trn 


'93'tl'Il 


thirteenth 


/ 03- / ti'n0 


f 93'ti'ne 


thirteenths 


'Gs-'ti-nes 


'Gaa'ti'nOs 


thirtieth 


'03-tu9 


'9stu9 


thirtieths 


'69-tii9s 


'939tu9s 


thirty 


'03'tl 


'93tl 


this 


Ois 




tho' = though 


dou 




Thomas 


'tDmas 


'tamas 


thorn 


9o-n 


9osn 


thorns 


0o -nz 


Gaanz 


thorny t 


'0D'lll 


'0oni 


thorough 


'0Ara 


'03ra 


thoroughfare 


'0ArafE9(r 


'93raf 


thoroughfares 


'0Arafaz 


'Gsrofeaz 


thoroughly 


'0Ar9h 


'Oarah 



392 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



thoroughness 


'BArams 


'Baranis 


THOSE, plur o/that 


5ouz 




though, Amer tho 


Sou 




thought, noun 


BO't 




thoughts 


Bo-ts 




THOUGHT from think 


Bo-t 




thoughtful 


'Bo-tful 




thoughtfully 


'Bo-tfuli, 'Bo'tfah 




thoughtfulness 


'Bo-tfulms 




thoughtless 


Uvtlis 




thoughtlessly 


'BO'tllbll 




thoughtlessness 


'Oo'tllblllb 




thousand 


'Ottuz,?nd 




thousands 


'Oauz^ndz 




thousandth 


'Bauz^ndG 




thousandths 


'Bauz^ndBs 




thrash 


BraeJ 




thrashes 


'Braejiz 




thrashed 


Braejt 




thrashing 


'Brsejir) 




thread 


Bred 




threads 


Bredz 




threaded 


'Bredid 




threading 


'Bredirj 




threat 


Bret 




threats 


Brets 




threaten 


'Bretn 




threatens 


'Bretnz 




threatened 


'Bretnd 




threatening 


'Brstnirj, 'Brstnirj 




threateningly 


'Oretnirjlt, 'Bretnirjh 




three 


Brr 




threepence 


'Brep^ns, 'BrApns 






'Brip^ns, 'Brupns 




threepenny 


'Brep^ni, 'Bnp^ni 






'Brup^ni, 'BrAp^m 




thresh 


BreJ 




thi eshes 


'Brejiz 




threshed 


Bre/t 




threshing 


'Brsjii) 




THREW from throw 


Bru' 




thrift 


6rift 




thrifty 


'Bnfti 





thrill 


era 




thrills 


Bnlz 




thrilled 


Bnld 




thrilling 


'Brilirj 





393 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation 



American Variants 



thrillingly 


'Grihnh 




thrive 


0raiv 




thrives 


9raivz 




thrived 


Graivd 




throve 


9rouv 




thriven 


'Qrivty 




thriving 


'Graivirj 




thro* = through 


6ru- 




throat 


Grout 




throats 


Grouts 




throb 


Grob 


Grab 


throbs 


Grobz 


Orabz 


throbbed 


Grobd 


Grabd 


throbbing 


'GrDbirj 


'Grabirj 


throne 


Groun 




thrones 


Grounz 




through, A mer thru 


Gru' 




throughout 


Gru'aut 




THROVE from thrive 


Qrouv 




throw 


Grou 




throws 


Grouz 




threw 


Qnr 




thrown 


Groun 




throwing 


'Grouirj 




thrust 


GrAst 




thrusts 


QrAsts 




thrusting 


'GrAstirj 




thumb 


GAm 




thumbs 


GAmz 




thunder 


'6Anda(r 


'GAnds 


Thursday 


'63'zdi 


'Gsazdi 


Thursdays 


'Gs'zdiz 


'Gsszdiz 


thus 


5AS 




tick 


tik 




ticks 


tiks 




ticked 


tikt 




ticking 


'tikirj 




ticket 


'tikit 




tickets 


'tikits 




tickle 


'tik} 




tickles 


'tikjz 




tickled 


'tik}d 




tickling , 


'tiklirj, 'tikju) 




ticklish 


'tikhj, 'tikjij 




tide 


taid 




tides 


taidz 




tidily 


'taidih 





394 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



tidy, verb 


'taidi 




tidies 


'taidiz 




tidied 


'taidid 




tidying 


'taidurj 




tidy, adj. 


'taidi 




tidier 


'taidia(r 


'taidis 


tidiest 


'taidust 




tie 


tai 




ties 


taiz 




tied 


taid 




tying 


'taiirj 




tiger 


'taup(r 


'taigs 


tigers 


'taigaz 


'taigsz 


tight 


taut 




tighter 


'taita(r 




tightest 


'taitist 




tighten 


'taiti? 




tightens 


'taitnz 




tightened 


'taitnd 




tightening 


'taitmrj, 'taitnirj 




tightly 


'taith 




tightness 


'taitnis 




tile 


tail 




tiles 


tailz 




till 


til 




tilt 


tilt 




tilts 


tilts 




tilted 


'tiltid 




tilting 


'tiltirj 




timber 


'timba^ 


'tnnbe 


time 


taim 




times 


taimz 




timed 


taimd 




timing 


'taimirj 




timely 


'taimh 




timid 


'timid 




timidity 


ti'miditi 




timidly 


'timidh 




tin 


tin 




tint 


tint 




tints 


tints 




tinted 


'tmtid 




tinting 


'tmtirj 





tiny 


'taim 




tinier 


'tainia(r 


'tainis 


tiniest 


'tainust 




tip 


tip 





395 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation 



American Variants 



tips 
tipped 
tipping 
tiptoe 
tire, noun (Amer.) 
tires (Amer.) 
tired 


tips 
tipt 
'tipirj 
'tip'tou 
'tai9(r 
'tai9z 
'taiad 


'taia 
'taisz 
'taisd 


tiresome 


'taiosam 


'taissam 


tiring 
tissue 
title 

titles 
to 
toad 


'taiariT) 
'tisju, 'tiju, 'tijju 
'taitj 
'taitjz 

tU' S/, tU, t9 W.fs. 

toud 


'tairirj 


toads 


toudz 




to- and- fro 


'tu'9n'frou 




toast 


toust 




tobacco 


ts'baekou 




to-day 


ta'dei, tu'dei 




toe 


tou 




toes 


touz 




together 
toilet 


'toiht 


ta'geds, tu'gsds 


token 


'touk?n 




tokens 


'toukmz 




Tokio 
Tokyo 
tolerable 


'toukjou 
'toukjou 
'tolprab} 


'tabrob) 


tolerably 
tolerance 


'tolsraiis 


'tal^rabh 
'talorgns 


tolerant 


'tDlarant 


'talaront 


tolerantly 
tolerate 


'tolarantb 
'tolareit 


'tabronth 
'talgreit 


tolerates 


'tuloreits 


'tal9reits 


tolerated 


'tolsreitid 


'talgreitid 


tolerating 
toleration 
tomato 


'toloreitirj 
t9'ma'tou 


'talarettirj 
tala'reifpn 
ta'ma-tou, ta'meitou 


tomatoes 


t9'ma'touz 


ta'ma'touz 






ta'meitouz 


tomb 


tu f m 




tombs 


tu-mz 




to-morrow 


to'mDrou, tu'mDrou 


t9'marou, tu'marou 


ton 


tAn 




tons 


tAnz 




tone 


toun 




tones 


tounz 





396 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation 



American Variants 



tongs 


torjz 


tanz 


tongue 


tAT) 




tongues 


tAI)Z 




to-night 


to'nait, tu'nait 




too 


tU' 




TOOK from take 


tuk 




tool 


tU'l 




tools 


tu-lz 




tooth 


tu'9 




teeth 


ti-0 




toothache 


'tu'9eik 




toothbrush 


'tu'GbrAj 




toothbrushes 


'tu'SbrAjiz 




toothpick 


'tu-epik 




toothpicks 


'tu-Gpiks 




top 


tDp 


tap 


tops 


tops 


taps 


top-heavy 


'tup'hevi 


'tap'hevi 


topic 


'topik 


'tapvk 


topics 


'tDpiks 


'tapiks 


topical 


'tDpik^l 


'tapik^l 


topmost 


'tDpmoust, 'topmost 


'tapmoust 


torch 


tO'tf 


tostf 


torches 


'tO'tflZ 


'taatfiz 


TORE /row tear 


to-(r, toa(r 


to 


torment, noun 


'to'ment, 'to-msnt 


'tosmsnt, 'toamant 


torments 


'to-ments 


'toaments 




'to'inonts 


'toamants 


torment, verb 


to'ment 


tos'ment 


torments 


to'ments 


tos'ments 


tormented 


to'mentid 


tos'mentid 


tormenting 


to'mentir) 


tos'mentirj 


TORN from tear 


to'n 


toan 


Toronto 


ta'rDntou 


ta'rantou 


torpedo 


to'pi'dou 


tos'pi-dou 


torpedoes 


to'prdouz 


tos'pi'douz 


torrent 


'torant 




torrents 


'torants 




tortoise 


'to-tas 


'tostss 


tortoises 


'to'tostz 


'tOSt9SlZ 


torture 


'to-^9(r 


'toatfs 


tortures 


'to'tfsz 


'tos^z 


tortured 


'to-tfad 


'to^sd 


torturing 


'to'^nrj 


'tos^rii) 


toss 


tDS 




tosses 


'tDSlZ 




tossed 


tDSt 





397 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation 



American Variants 



tossing 


'tosirj 




total 


'tout} 




totals 


'toutlz 




totalled 


'toutjd 




totalling 


'tovrteluj 




totality 


tou'taehti 




totally 


'touteh 




touch 


tAtf 




touches 


'tAtflZ 




touched 


tAtft 




touching 


'tAtfirj 




tough 


tAf 




tougher 


'tAfa(r 


'tAf8 


toughest 


'tAflSt 




toughen 


'tAf? 




toughens 


'tAfnz 




toughened 


'tAfnd 




toughening 


'tAfnirj, 'tAfnirj 




toughly 


'tAfll 




toughness 


'tAfnis 




tour 


tua(r 


t\S9 


tours 


tuaz 


tuaz 


toured 


tuad 


tusd 


touring 


'tuarirj 


'tu-rirj 


tourist 


'tuarist 


'tUTVSt 


tourists 


'tuansts 


'tirnst 


tow 


tou 




tows 


touz 




towed 


toud 




towing 


'touirj 




toward 


to-d, toad, ta'wo'd 


toed 


towards 


to'dz, toadz, ta'wo-dz 


tosdz 


towel 


'taml 




tdwels 


'tauzlz 




tower 


'tavo(r 


'taus 


towers 


'tauaz 


'tauaz 


town 


taun 




towns 


taunz 




toy 


toi 




toys 


toiz 




trace 


treis 




traces 


'treisiz 




traced 


treist 




tracing 


'treisirj 




tracings 


'treisirjz 




track 


traek 





398 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



tracks- 


traeks 




tracked 


traekt 




tracking 


'traekirj 




tract 


traekt 




tracts 


traekts 




trade 


treid 




trades 


treidz 




traded 


'treidid 




trading 


'treidvrj 




trader 


'treida(r 


'treid 


traders 


'treidaz 


'treidaz 


tradesman 


'treidzmon 




tradesmen 


'treidzman 




tradition 


tra'dij>n 




traditions 


tra'dij>nz 




traditional 


tra'difpn} 




traditionally 


trs'dif^nah 




traffic 


'traefik 




tragedy 


'traed$adi 




tragedies 


'traedpdiz 




tragic 


'trsedjik 




trail 


treil 




trails 


treilz 




train 


trein 




trains 


treinz 




trained 


treind 




training 


'tremirj 




trainer 


'trem9(r 


'treins 


trainers 


'tremaz 


'treinsz 


traitor 


'treitd(r 


'treits 


traitors 


'tieitoz 


'treitaz 


tram 


trsem 




trams 


traemz 




tramcar 


'traemka(r 


'traemkas 


tramcars 


'traemkaz 


'traemkasz 


tramp 


traemp 




tramps 


traemps 




tramped 


traem^>t 




tramping 


'traempirj 




trample 


'traemp} 




tramples 


'traempjz 




trampled 


'traempjd 




trampling 


'traemplirj 





trans-, prefix 


Jtraens, tra-ns 






Jtraenz, tra-nz 




transact 


traen'zaekt, traen'saekt 





J This variant [traens tra-ns] applies to all words beginning 
with this prefix. 

399 2B 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 


transacts 


traen'zaekts 






traen'ssekts 




transacted 


traen'zaektid 






traen'saektid 




transacting 


traen'saektirj 






traen'zaektirj 




transaction 


traen'zaekf^n 






traen'saekj>n 




transactions 


traen'zaekjznz 






traen'saekj^nz 




transcribe 


traens'kraib 




transcribes 


traens'kraibz 




transcribed 


traens'kraibd 




transcribing 


traens'kraibirj 




transcription 


traens'knpj>n 




transcriptions 


traens'krippnz 




transfer, noun 


'traensf 3 (r 


'traensfsa 


transfers 


'traensfsz 


'traensfsaz 


transfer, verb 


traens'f3'(r 


trasns'fsa 


transfers 


traens'i3'z 


traens'fasz 


transferred 


traens'fs-d 


traens'fssd 


transferring 


traens'fs'rirj 




transform 


traens'fD'm 


traens'foam 


transforms 


traens'fo'mz 


traens'fosmz 


transformed 


traens'fD'md 


traens'foamd 


transforming 


traens'fo'mir) 


traens'fosmirj 


transformation 


f traensf a'meij^n 


traensfs'meij^n 


transformations 


f-traensfo'meij^nz 


traensf s'meij^nz 


transgress 


traens'gres 




transgresses 


traens'gresiz 




transgressed 


traens'grest 




transgressing 


traens'gresirj 




transgression 


traens'grepn 




transgressions 


traens'gre/^nz 




transit 


'transit 




transits 


'transits 




transition 


traen'si3^n, traen'zij^n 




transitions 


trasn's^^nz 






traen'zipnz 




transitional 


traen'si3Pn} 






traen'zij^nj 




translate 


trans'leit 


traens'leit 


translates 


trans'leits 


traens'leits 


translated 


trans'leitid 


traens'leitid 


translating 


trans'leitirj 


traens'leitig 


translation 


trans'leipn 


traens'lei/^n 


f See Note 30, p. xxxv in Introduction. 


400 



Traditional Spelling 



Received Pronunciation 



American Variants 



translations 


trans'leij^nz 


traens'leij^nz 


translator 


trans'leita(r 


traens'leita 


translators 


trans'leitsz 


traens'leitaz 


transmission 


traenz'mij>n 






traens'mi/jm 




transmissions 


traenz'mif?nz 






traens'mij>nz 




transmit 


traenz'mit, traens'mit 




transmits 


traenz'mrts 






traens'mits 




transmitted 


traenz'mitid 






traens'mitid 




transmitting 


traenz'mitirj 






traens'mitirj 




transparent 


traens'pearant 


traens'ps'ront 




traens'paerant 




transparently 


traens'pearanth 


traens'pe'rsnth 




traens'pseranth 




transplant 


traens'pla-nt 


traens'pla-nt 


transplants 


traens'plcrnts 


traens'pla-nts 


transplanted 


traens'pla ntid 


traens'pla-ntid 


transplanting 


traens'pla*ntirj 


traens'pla'ntvrj 


transport, noun 


'traenspot 


'traenspoat 


transports 


'traenspots 


'traenspoats 


transport, verb 


traens'po't 


trsens'post 


transports 


traens'po-ts 


trasns'posts 


transported 


traens'po'tid 


traens'postvd 


transporting 


traens'po'tirj 


traens'postii) 


transpose 


traens'pouz 




transposes 


traens'pouziz 




transposed 


traens'pouzd 




transposing 


traens'pouzirj 




Transvaal 


'traensval 




trap 


traep 




traps 


traeps 




trapped 


traept 




trapping 


'traspirj 




trash 


traej 




trashy 


'traeji 




travel 


'traev] 




travels 


'traevjz 




traveled (Amer.)} 
travelled J 


'traev^d 




traveling (Amer.)\ 
travelling J 


'traevjirj, 'traevhrj 





traveler (Amer.) 






traveller 


'traev}a(r, 'traevl9(r 


'traevls 


travelers (Amer.) 







401 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation 



American Variants 



travellers 


'traev}9z f 'traevlaz 


'traevlsz 


tray 


trei 




trays 


treiz 




treacherous 


'tretfzrss 




treacherously 


'tretfzrash 




treachery 


'tretfm 




tread 


tred 




treads 


trsdz 




trod 


trod 


trad 


trodden 


'trodiji 


'tradi? 


treading 


'tredirj 




treason 


'tn-zijL 




treasure 


'tre3a(r 


'tr63 


treasures 


'tre39z 


'tre3z 


treasured 


'tre^dd 


'tre39d 


treasuring 


'tre33nrj 




treasurer 


'tre3?ra(r 


'tre3<?ra 


treasurers 


'tT&yidz 


A tre3^r9z 


treasury 


'tr63?n 




treat 


tri't 




treats 


tri-ts 




treated 


'tn-tid 




treating 


'tn-tirj 




treatment 


'tri-tmont 




treatments 


'tri'tmants 




treaty 


'trrti 




treaties 


'tri'tiz 




treble 


'treb} 




tree 


trr 




trees 


tri'z 




tremble 


'tremb| 




trembles 


'trembjz 




trembled 


'trembjd 




trembling 


'trembhrj 




tremendous 


tri'mendos 




tremendously 


trimendash 




trench 


tren^ 




trenches 


'trentjvz 




trend 


trend 




trends 


trcndz 




trespass 


'trespas 




trespasses 


'trespdsiz 




trespassed 


'trespost 




trespassing 


'trsspasirj 




trespasser 


'tresposo (r 


'trespass 


trespassers 


'trespasaz 


'trespassz 


rial 


'trai^l 




trials 


'trawlz 





402 



Traditional Spelling 



Received Pronunciation 



American Variants 



triangle 


'traiaerjg} 




triangles 


'traiserjgjz 




triangular 


trai'aerjgjul9(r 


trai'aerjgjula 


tribe 


traib 




tribes 


traibz 




tributary 


'tnbj uteri 


'tribj uteri 


tributaries 


'tribjuteriz 


'tribjutsriz 


trick 


trik 




tricks 


triks 




tricked 


trikt 




tricking 


'tnkirj 




trickle 


'tnkl 




trickles 


'trikjz 




trickled 


'trikjd 




trickling 


'trikhrj, 'trikjirj 




triHe 


'traifl 




trifles 


'traiflz 




trifled 


'traifjd 




trifling 


'traifhrj, 'traifjirj 




trim 


trim 




trims 


trimz 




trimmed 


trimd 




trimmer 


'trim9(r 


'trim* 


trimmest 


'tnmist 




trimming 


'trimirj 




trimmings 


'trimirjz 




trio 


'tnou 




trios 


'tnouz 




trip 


trip 




trips 


trips 




tripped 


tript 




tripping 


'tripvrj 




triple 


'trip} 




triply 


'triph 




triumph 


'traiamf 




triumphs 


'traiamfs 




triumphed 


'traiamft 




triumphing 


'traiamfirj 




triumphal 


trai'AmM 




trivial 


'trivial, 'trivjol 




TROD from tread 


trod 


trad 


TRODDEN from tread 


'trodn 


'tradi? 


trolley 


'troli 


'trail 


trolleys 


'troliz 


"trahz 


troop 


tru'p 




troops 


tru'ps 




trooped 


tru'pt 





403 



Traditional Spelling 



Received Pronunciation 



American Variant* 



trooping 


'tru-pirj 




trophy 


'troufi 




trophies 


'troufiz 




tropical 


'trDpik^l 


'trapik^l 


tropically 


'trDpikah 


'trapikoli 


tropics 


'tropiks 


'trapiks 


trot 


trot 


trat 


trots 


trots 


trats 


trotted 


'trotid 


'tratid 


trotting 


'trDtirj 


'tratirj 


trouble 


'trAb} 




troubles 


'trAbjz 




troubled 


'tTAbJd 




troubling 


'trAbhrj 




troublesome 


'trAbJsam 




troupe 


tru ? p 




troupes 


tru'ps 




trousers 


'trauzaz 


'trauzsz 


trout 


traut 




truck 


trAk 




trucks 


trAks 




true 


tru- 




truer 


'trua(r 


'trua 


truest 


'tnrist 




trueness 


'tru-nis 




truly 


'tru'h 




trumpet 


'trAmpit 




trumpets 


'trAmpits 




trunk 


trAnk 




trunks 


trAnks 




trust 


trAst 




trusts 


trASts 




trusted 


'tTAStld 




trusting 


'tTAStirj 




trustful 


'trAStful 




trustworthiness 


'trAstwsdinis 


'trAstwaaSinis 


trustworthy 


'trAstwsOi 


'trAstw96i 


truth 


tru '6 




truths 


tru'dz, tru '8s 




truthful 


'tru-eful 




truthfully 


'tru'9fuh, 'tru-efah 




try 


trat 




tries 


traiz 




tried 


traid 




trying 


'traiirj 




tub 


tAb 




tubs 


tAbz 





404 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



tube 


tju'b 




tubes 


tju'bz 




tuck 


tAk 




tucks 


tAks 




tucked 


tAkt 




tucking 


'tAkirj 




Tuesday 


'tju'zdi 




Tuesdays 


'tju'zdiz 




tug 


tAQ 




tugs 


tAQZ 




tugged 


tAgd 




tugging 


'tAgirj 




tuition 


tju'if?n 




tulip 


'tju'hp 




tulips 


'tju'hps 




tumble 


'tAmbJ 




tumbles 


'tAmb}z 




tumbled 


'tAmbjd 




tumbling 


'tAmbhrj, 'tAmb]uj 




tumbler 


'tAmbl9(r 


'tAmbls 


tumbleis 


'tAmblaz 


'tAmblsz 


tune 


tju-n 




tunes 


tju-nz 




tuned 


tju-nd 




tuning 


'tju'nuj 




tunnel 


tAn} 




tunnels 


tAn|z 




tunnelled 


tAnjd 




tunnelling 


'tAnJtrj 




Turk 


ts-k 


tsak 


Turks 


ta'ks 


tasks 


Turkey 


'ts-ki 


'tsakt 


turkey 


'ts'ki 


'tsski 


turkeys 


't3'klZ 


'tsakiz 


Turkish 


't3'kij 


'tsskij 


turn 


t3-n 


tssn 


turns 


ts-nz 


t3nz 


turned 


ta-nd 


tssnd 


turning 


'ts'mrj 


'tssmrj 


turnings 


'ta'mrjz 


'tssnirjz 


turtle 


'ta-t} 


't39t\ 


turtles 


't3'tjz 


'tsatjz 


tutor 


'tju-t9(r 


'tju'ts 


tutors 


'tju'taz 


't/U'tSZ 


twelfth 


twelfO 




twelfths 


twelfGs 




twelve 


twelv 





405 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation 



American Variants 



twentieth 


'twentuB 




twentieths 


'twentnOs 




twenty 


'twsnti 




twice 


twais 




twilight 


'twailait 




twin 


twin 




twins 


twmz 




twinkle 


'twink} 




twinkles 


'twinkjz 




twinkled 


'twinkjd 




twinkling 


'twin klirj 




twist 


twist 




twists 


twists 




twisted 


'twistid 




twisting 


'tWIStiT) 




two 


tU' 




twopence 


'tAp?ns 




type 


taip 




types 


taips 




typed 


taipt 




typing 


'taipui 




typewriter 


'taipraita (r 


'taiprait* 


typewriters 


'taipraitaz 


'taipraitsz 


typical 


'tipikal 




typically 


'tipikali 




typist 


'taipist 




typists 


'taipists 




tyrannical 


ti'raeniks'l, tai'raenik?! 




tyrannically 


ti'raenikoh 






tai'raemkali 




tyrant 


'taioront 


'tairant 


tyrants 


'taiarants 


'tairgnts 


tyre 


'tsuafr 


'tai$ 


tyres 


'taiaz 


7 taiz 


U 


u 


ju- 




U's 


JU'Z 




ugliness 


'Aghnis 




ugiy 


'Agh 




uglier 


'Agli3(r 


'Agha 


ugliest 


'Aghist 




ultimate 


'Altimit 




ultimately 


'Altimttlt 




ultra- , prefix 


'Altra 





406 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



umbrella 


Ain'brsla 




umbrellas 


Am'brelaz 




umpire 


'Ampai9(r 


'Ampai 


umpires 


'Ampaiaz 


'Ampaisz 


un-, prefix 


An- 




unable 


'An'eib} 




unacceptable 


'Anak'septabJ 






'Anaek'septab} 




unaccompanied 


'Ana'kAmppmd 




unaccustomed 


'Ana'kAstamd 




unadvisable 


'Anad'vaizabJ 




unaided 


'An'eidid 




unalterable 


^o'lterabl 




unalterably 


^oSli 




unaltered 


'An'O'lt^d, 'AIl'Dlt9d 


'An'o-ltacJ 


unanimous 


jun'aemmss 




unanimously 


jun'aemmash 




unanswerable 


'An'G'ns^rabJ 


'An'a'ns^rsbJ 


unasked 


'An'crskt 


'An'a'skt 


unassisted 


' Ana's istvd 




unassuming 


'Ana'sju-mirj 




unattractive 


'Ana'traektiv 




unauthorized 


'An'o'O^raizd 




unavailing 


'Ana'veUirj 




unavoidable 


'Ana'voidabJ 




unavoidably 


'Ana'voiddbli 




unaware 


'Ana'wea(r 


'Ana'wea 


unbalance 


'An'baelans 




unbalanced 


'An'baelanst 




unbearable 


An'bEorabJ 


An'be'rebJ 


unbearably 


An'bearabli 


An'be'rabli 


unbeaten 


'An'bi'ti^ 




unbecoming 


'Anbi'kAinirj 




unbelievable 


'Anbi'h'vab} 




unbiassed 


'An'baiast 




unbolt 


'An'boult 




unbolts 


'An'boults 




unbolted 


'An'boultid 




unbolting 


'An'boultirj 




unbound 


'An'baund 




unbroken 


'An'brouk^n 





unbusiness- like 


'An'biznislaik 





unbutton 


'An'bAt^ 




unbuttons 


'An'bAtnz 




unbuttoned 


'An'bAtnd 




407 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variant* 



unbuttoning 


'An'bAtnir) 






'An'bAtnir) 




uncalled (for) 


An'ko'ld 




uncertain 


An'ss'ten 


An S39tffn 


uncertainty 


An'ss'tanti 


An's98t?nti 


unchallenged 


'An'tfaelmcfcd 




unchangeable 


'An'tfemdjabJ 




uncharitable 


'An'tfaeritabJ 




uncharitably 


'An'tfaervtabli 




uncivilized 


' ATI'S ivilauzd 




uncle 


'ArjkJ 




uncles 


'Arjkjz 




uncomfortable 


'An'kAmfatob} 


'An ' k Am f 9 tsb}. 


uncomfortably 


'An'kAmfotabli 


'An'kAmfstobli 


uncommon 


An'krjmsn 


An'kaman 


uncommonly 


An'kDmanli 


An'kamanli 


uncommunicative 


'Anko'mju-nikativ 






'Ankd'mju 'nikeitiv 




uncomplaining 


'Ankam'pleinu) 




uncomplainingly 
uncomplimentary 
uncompromising 


'AnkQm'pleininli 
'Ankompli'mentari 
An'kDmprsmaizirj 


'Ankamph'mentari 
An'kampramaizu) 


unconcern 


'Ankan's3'n 


f Ankan's3n 


unconcerned 


'Anksn'ss-nd 


'Ankan'saand 


unconditional 


'Ankan'diJ^nJ 




unconditionally 


'Ankan'diJ^ndh 




unconnected 


'Anks'nektid 




unconscious 


'An'konjas 


'An'kanjss 


unconsciously 


'An'konjash 


'An'kanjssli 


unconsciousness 


'An'konjosnis 


'An'kanjasnis 


uncooked 


'An'kukt 




unconnected 


'Anks'rsktid 




uncover 


'An'kAva(r 


'An'kAvs 


uncovers 


'An'kAvaz 


'An'kAvaz 


uncovered 


'An'kAV9d 


'An'kAvad 


uncovering 


'An'kAVflrirj 




undamaged 


'An'daemid^d 




undeceive 


'Andi'si'V 




undeceives 


'Andi'si'vz 




undeceived 


'Andi'si'vd 




undeceiving 


'Andi'si'virj 




undecided 


'Andi'saidid 




undefinable 


'Andi'fainabJ 




under 


'And^(r 


'And 


underclothing 


' And^klou 8irj 


'Andklou5irj 


underestimate, verb 


'Ands'restimeit 




underestimates 


'Ands'restimeits 





408 



Traditional Spelling 



Pronunciation 



American Variants 



underestimated 


'Ands'restimeitid 




underestimating 


'Anda'resttmeittrj 




undergo 


Anda'gou 


Ands'gou 


undergoes 


Anda'gouz 


Ands'gouz 


underwent 


Anda'went 


Ands'went 


undergone 


Anda'gon 


Ands'gon 




Anda'go'n 


And'go-n 


undergoing 


Anda'gouirj 


Anda'gouirj 


underground, noun 


'Andagraund 


'Andagraund 


underground, adv 


'Anda'graund 


'Anda'graund 


underlie 


'Anda'lai 


'Ands'lai 


underlies 


'Anda'laiz 


'Ands'laiz 


underlay 


'Anda'lei 


'Anda'lei 


underlain 


'Anda'lem 


'Ands'lem 


underlying 


'Anda'laurj 


'Anda'laiirj 


underline, noun 


'Andalam 


'Andalam 


underlines 


'Andalamz 


'Andslainz 


underline, verb 


'Anda'lam 


'Ands'lam 


underlines 


'Anda'lamz 


'Ands'lainz 


underlined 


'Anda'lamd 


'Ands'laind 


underlining 


'Anda'laimrj 


'Ands'lamirj 


undermentioned 


'Ando'menJ^nd 


'Ands'menJ^nd 


underneath* 


'Ands'ni'G 


'Anda'ni'6 


understand 


Ando'staend 


Ands'staend 


understands 


Ands'staendz 


Anda'staendz 


understood 


Ands'stud 


Ands'stud 


understanding 


Anda'stasndirj 


Ands'staendirj 


understandable 


Anda'staendob} 


Ands'staendab} 


undertake 


Anda'teik 


Anda'tetk 


undertakes 


Anda'teiks 


Anda'teiks 


undertook 


Anda'tuk 


Anda'tuk 


undertaken 


Anda'teik^n 


Anda'teilwn 


undertaking 


Anda'teikirj 


Ands'tevkirj 


undertaking 


Anda'teikirj 


Anda'teikirj 


undertakings 


Ands'teikirjz 


Ands'teikirjz 


UNDERWENT from 


'Anda'went 


'Ands'went 


undergo 






undeserved 


'Andi'z9vd 


'Andi'zasvd 


undeserving 


'Andi'zs'virj 


'Andi'zssvirj 


undesirability 


' Andizaiard'b ihti 


'Andizaira'biliti 


undesirable 


'Andi'zaiarabj 


'Andi'zairabj 


undeveloped 


'Andi'velspt 




VNDID from undo 


'An'did 




undigested 


'Andi'(estid 


* 




'Andai'o^estid 




undignified 


'An'digmfaid 




undiscovered 


'Andvs'kAvad 


'Andis'kAvsd 



409 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 


undisturbed 


'Andis'ta-bd 


'Andis'tssbd 


undo 


'An'du ' 




undoes 


'An'dAZ 




undid 


'An'did 




undone 


'An'dAn 




undoing 


'An'du 'uj 




undoubted 


An'dautid 




undoubtedly 


An'dautidk 




undress 


'An'dres 




undresses 


'An'dresiz 




undressed 


'An'drest 




undressing 


'An'dresuj 




undue 


'An'dju* 




unduly 


'An'dju'li 




uneasiness 


'An'i'zmis 




uneasy 


'An'i'zi 




uneaten 


'An'i'ti^ 




uneducated 


'An'sdjukeitid 






'An'edjukeitid 




unemployed 


'Amm'ploid 




unemployment 


'Antm'ploimant 




unending 


'An'endii) 




unendurable 


'Amn'djuarobJ 


'Anm'dji^r a b} 


unequal 


'An'i* d w^ r9b 




unequally 


'An'i'kwah 




uneven 


'An'i'v$ 




unevenly 


'An'i'vnh 




uneventful 


'Am'vsntful 




unexpected 


'Amks'pektid 




unexpectedly 


'Amks'pektidh 




unexplained 


'Aniks'pleind 




unexplored 


'Aniks'plo'd 


'Aniks'plo^d 




'Aniks'pload 




unfailing 


An'feiluj 




unfair 


'An'fe3(r 


'An'fes 


unfairly 


'An'feah 


'An'fesh 


unfairness 


'An'feanis 


'An'fcsnis 


unfaithful 


'An'feiGful 




unfaithfully 


'An'feiGfuh 




unfamiliar 


'Anfa'niilja(r 


'Anfa'miljs 


unfashionable * 


'An'faeJ^nsb} 




unfasten 


'An'fa'sn 


'An'fa-sn 


unfastens 


'An'fa-snz 


'An'fa'snz 


unfastened 


'An'fa'snd 


'An'fa'snd 


unfastening 


'An'fa'snuj 


'An'fa'snirj 



410 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Varian 


unfinished 


'An'fmift 




unfit 


'An'fit 




unfix 


'An'fiks 




unfixes 


'An'fiksiz 




unfixed 


'An'fikst 




unfixing 


'An'fiksirj 




unforeseen 


'Anfo'si'n 


'Anfos'si'n 


unfortunate 


An'fo'tf^mt 


An fos^pnit 


unfortunately 


An'fo'tfzmtli 


An'fostj^nvtli 


unfriendly 


'An'frsndli 




unfurnished 


'An'fs'mft 


'An'fsanijt 


ungraceful 


'An'greisful 




ungracefully 


'An'greisfuh 






'An'greisfali 




ungracious 


'An'grei/as 




ungraciously 


'An'greijasli 




ungrammatical 


'Angrs'maetik^l 




ungrammatically 


'Angro'maetik^h 




ungrateful 


'An'greitful 




ungratefully 


An'greitfuh 






An'greitfah 




unguarded 


'An'ga-did 


'An'gasdid 


unhappily 


'Aii'haepili 




unhappiness 


'An'haepinis 




unhappy 


'An'haepi 




unhappier 


'An'haepi9(r 


'An'haepia 


unhappiest 


'An'haepust 




unhealthy 


'An'helSi 




unheard-of 


An'hs'dDv 


An'haadav 


unhesitating 


An'heziteitirj 




unhesitatingly 


An'heziteitinh 




unhoped (for] 


An'houpt 




unhurt 


'An'hs't 


'An'hsst 


unification 


j unif i'keiJ0n 




unifications 


junifi'kei/^nz 




uniform 


'ju'niforn 


'ju'mfDsm 


uniforms 


'ju'mfomz 


'ju'mfosmz 


uniformly 


'ju'nifornli 


'ju-nifaamli 


uniformity 


jum'fo'miti 


juni'faamiti 


unify 


'ju-nifai 




unifies 


'ju'nifaiz 




unified 


'ju-mfaid 




unifying 


'ju'mfaiirj 




unimaginable 


Ani'mae c^indb) 




unimaginative 


'Ani'mae^instiv 




uninfluenced 


'An'influanst 




uninhabitable 


'Anm'haebit8bl 





411 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



uninhabited 


'Amn'haebitid 




uninjured 


'An'mcfcad 


'An'm<%9d 


unintelligible 


'Anin'tshdjib} 




unintentional 


'Amn'tsnj>nl 




unintentionally 


'Amn'tenjftidli 




uninterested 


'An'mtristid 




uninteresting 


'An'mtristuj 




uninterrupted 


'Anmta'rAptid 




uninvited 


'Amn'vaitid 




union 


'ju'njon 




unions 


'ju'npnz 




unique 


ju'ni'k 




uniquely 


ju'ni'kh 




uniqueness 


ju'nrknis 




unit 


'ju'nvt 




units 


'ju-mts 




unite 


ju'nait 




unites 


ju'naits 




united 


ju'naitid 




uniting 


ju'naitirj 




unity 


'ju'niti 




universal 


juni'vs-s^l 


juni'vsas^l 


universally 


jum'v3's?h 


juni'v39s?li 


universe 


'ju'nivss 


'ju-niv3ss 


university 


juni'vs'siti 


juni'vsasiti 


universities 


jum'vs'sztiz 


juni'vsssztiz 


unjust 


'An'c^Ast 




unjustifiable 


'An'd^Astifaiab} 






'AH ojAsti'f aiabj 




unjustly 


'An'o^Astli 




unjustness 


'An'c^AStnis 




unkind 


'An'kamd 




unkindly 


'An'kaindlv 




unkindness 


'An'kaindnis 




unknowingly 


'An'nouirjh 




unknown 


'An'noun 




unlawful 


'An'b'ful 




unlawfully 


'An'lo'fuh, 'An'lo'fah 




unless 


an'les, An'les 




unlike 


'An'laik 




unlikely 


'An'laikli 




unlimited 


'An'hmitvd 




unload 


'An'loud 




unloads 


'An'loudz 




unloaded 


'An'loudid 




unloading 


'An'loudirj 




unlock 


'An'lok 


'An'lak 



412 



Traditional Spelling 



Received Pronunciation 



American Variants 



unlocks 


'An'loks 


'An'laks 


unlocked 


'An'lokt 


'An'lakt 


unlocking 


'An'lDkii) 


'An'lakit) 


unlucky 


'An'Lvki 




unluckier 


'An'Lvkia (r 


'An'lAkia 


unluckiest 


'An'lAkust 




unluckily 


'An'lAkili 




unmanageable 


'An'msemd^b} 




unmarried 


'An'niaerid 




unmerciful 


An'ms'siful 


An'msasiful 


unmercifully 


An'ma'sifuli 


An'msssifuli 


unmethodical 


'Anmi'Godik?! 


'Tnmi'eadiLl 


unmindful 


An'mam^ful 




unmistakable 


'Anmis'teikab} 




unmistakably 


'Anmis'teiksbh 




unmixed 


'An'mikst 




unmodified 


'An'modifaid 


'An'madifaid 


unmov(e)able 


'An'mirvabJ 




unmusical 


'An'mju'zUwl 




unnatural 


'An'n2et|>r9l 






'An'naetjurdl 




unnaturally 


'Aa'tUBlfmli 




unnecessarily 


'An'nssisarih 


'An'nssisenli 


unnecessary 


'An'nssvsari 


'An'nesiseri 


unnoticed 


'An'noutist 




unobjectionable 


'Anob'dsekJnsbJ 




unobserved 


'Anab'zs'vd 


'Anab'zsavd 


unoccupied 


'An'okjupaid 


'An'akjupaid 


unofficial 


'Ana'fijpl 




unopened 


'An'oup^nd 




unopposed 


'Ana'pouzd 




unorganized 


'An'o-ggnaizd 


'An'oagonaizd 


unpack 


'An'paek 




unpacks 


'An'paeks 




unpacked 


'An'paekt 




unpacking 


'An'paekuj 




unpaid 


'An'peid 




unpardonable 


'An'pa'dnabJ 


'An'pasdnabJ 


unpatriotic 


'Anpaetn'otik 


'Anpaetri'atik 




'Anpeitri'Dtik 


'Anpeitn'atik 


unpleasant 


'An'pleznt 




unpleasantly 


An'plszntli 


i 


unpleasantness 


An'plezntnis 




unpopular 


'An'popjula^ 


Vn'papjuls 


unpopularity 


'Anpopju'laenti 


'Anpapju'laeriti 


413 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 


unpractical 


'An'praektUwl 




unprejudiced 


'An'predjudist 




unprepared 


'Anpn'p9d 


'Anpn'pesd 


unproductive 


f'Anpra'dAktiv 




unprofitable 


'An'prDfitsbJ 


'An'prafitabJ 


unprovided (for) 


f 'Anpra'vaidid 




unpublished 


'An'pAbhJt 




unpunctual 


'An'pArjAtjuzl 




unpunished 


'An'pAmJt 




unqualified 


An'kwDhfaid 


An'kwahfaid 


unreadable 


'An'ri'dabJ 




unreal 


'An'rrzl, 'An'nal 




unreasonable 


'An'rrznob} 






'An'rrznabj 




unreasoning 


'An'ri'znirj 






'An'rrzmrj 




unrecognizable 


' An'rekag naizabj 




unrecorded 


'Ann'ko-did 


'Ann'kosdid 


unrelated 


'Ann'levtid 




unreliable 


'Anri'laiab} 




unresisting 


'Anri'zistirj 




unrestricted 


'Anri'striktid 




unrewarded 


'Ann' wo 'did 


'Ann'wosdid 


unripe 


'An'raip 




unroll 


'An'roul 




unrolls 


'An'roulz 




unrolled 


'An'rould 




unrolling 


'An'rouhrj 




unsafe 


'An'seif 




unsaid 


'An'sed 




unsanitary 


'An'saenit^n 


'An'saeniterv 


unsatisfactorily 


'Ansaetis'faekt^rili 




unsatisfactory 


'Ansaetis'faekt^n 




unsatisfied 


'An'saetisfaid 




unscrew 


'An'skru* 




unscrews 


'An'skru'z 




unscrewed 


'An'skru'd 





unscrewing 


'An'skru'irj 




unscrupulous 


'An'sknrpjulas 






'An'skru-pjalss 




unseasonable 


'An'si'znab} 






'An'si'znsbj 




unseaworthy 


'An'si'wsdi 


'An'si'wssOv 


unsecured * 


'Ansi'kjuad 


'Ansi'kj usd 




'Ansi'kjosd 





See Note 30, p. xxxv in Introduction. 
414 



Traditional Spelling 



Received Pronunciation 



American Variants 



unseen 


'An'srn 




unselfish 


'An'sslfif 




unselfishly 


'An'sslfifli 




unselfishness 


'An'selfi/nis 




unsettle 


'An'set} 




unsettles 


'An'setjz 




unsettled 


'An'sctjd 




unsettling 


'An'sstjirj 






'An'ssthrj 




unshaken 


'An'Jeiks>n 




unsightly 


An'saith 




unskilful 


'An'skilful 




unskilfully 


'An'skilfuh 






'An'skilfoh 




unskilled 


Vn'skild 




unsold 


'An'sould 




unsolicited 


f'Ansa'lisitid 




unsound 


'An'saund 




unspecified 


'An'spssifaid 




unspoiled 


'An'spoild, 'An'spDilt 




unspoilt 


'An'spailt 




unspoken 


'An'spouk^n 




unstable 


'An'steib} 




unstamped 


'An'staem/?t 




unsteadily 


'An'stedih 




unsteadiness 


'An'stsdinis 




unsteady 


'An'stsdi 




unstressed 


'An'strsst 




unsubstantial 


'Ansob'stsenJ^l 




unsuccessful 


'Ans^k'sssful 




unsuccessfully 


'Ans^k'sssfuli 




unsuitable 


'An'sju^tebl l 




unsuitably 


'An's;u-t3bh 




unsuited 


'An's;u'tid 




unsupported 


'Ansa'po'tid 


'Ansa'poatid 


unsuspected 


'Ansos'psktid 




unsuspecting 


'AnsQs'pekttrj 




unsuspicious 


'Ansas'pijas 




unsympathetic 


'AnsimpQ'Bstik 




unsympathetically 


'Ansimpa'Ostik^h 




unsystematic 


'Ansisti'maettk 




unsystematically 


'Ansisti'maetvk^h 


* 


untasted 


'An'teistid 




untaught 


'An'tD't 





f See Note 30, p. xxxv in Introduction. 
415 



2F 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation 



American Variants 



unthankful 

unthinkable 

unthinking 

unthinkingly 

untidily 

untidy 

untidier 

untidiest 
untie 

unties 

untied 

untying 
until 

untouched 
untrained 
untried 
untrodden 
untrue 

untrustworthiness 
untrustworthy 
untruth 

untruths 

untruthful 
untruthfully 

unused, not made use 

unused, not accustomed 
unusual 

unusually 

unwanted 
unwarranted 
unwelcome 
unwholesome 
unwilling 
unwillingly 
unwillingness 
unwise 
unwisely 
unworkable 
unworthily 
unworthy 
unwrap 
unwraps 



'An'Gserjkful 
Aii'Girjkab} 



'An'Girjkirjh 

'An'taidih 

'An'taidi 

'An'taidia(r 

'An'taidust 
An'tai 

An'taiz 

An'taid 

An'taiir) 
on'til, An'til 



'An'tremd 
'An'traid 



'An'tru' 

'An'tr Astws 6inis 
'An'trAStwsQi 
'An'tru '6 

'An'tru '8z 

'An'tru '6s 
'An'tru-Gful 
'An'tru 'Gfuli 



'An'wDntid 
An'worantid 
'An'welkam 
'An'houlsam 



'An'wihrjh 
'An'wihrjnis 
'An'waiz 
'An'waizh 



An'raep 
'An'raeps 



'An'taidia 



'An'tradn 

' An'tr Ast ws 6mis 



416 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation 



American Variants 



unwrapped 


'An'raept 




unwrapping 


'An'raepirj 




unwritten 


'An'ritiji 




up 


A P 




upbringing 


'Apbrinuj 




upheaval 


Ap'hrv^l 




uphill 


'Ap'hil 




uphold 


Ap'hould 




upholds 


Ap'houldz 




upheld 


Ap'held 




upholding 


Ap'houldir) 




upon 


a'pon 


s'pan 


upper 


'Apa(r 


'Ap9 


uppermost 


'Apamoust, ' Apamast 


'Ap^moust 


upright, noun 


'Aprait 




uprights 


'Apraits 




upright, adj. 


'Aprait, 'Ap'rait 




uproar 


'AprD(r, 'Aproa(r 


'Apros 


upset 


Ap'set 




upsets 


Ap'sets 




upsetting 


Ap'sstirj 




upstairs 


'Ap'steaz 


'Ap'st3Z 


upward 


'Apwad 


'Apwsd 


upwards 


'Apwsdz 


'Apwsdz 


urge 


3'dj 


3^C^ 


urges 


'3'(^lZ 


'ssc^iz 


urged 


3-<%d 


ssdjd 


urging 


'3'4HJ 


'ssc^ig 


urgent 


'9-<^pnt 


'sa(%pnt 


urgently 


'3 'd^nth 


f 3oc|^ntli 


Uruguay 


'yu'rugwei, '/uTagwei 






j/U'rugwai, ^u'ragwai 




us 


ASS./., 3SW.f. 




usable 


'ju'zsb} 




usage 


'JU'ZIC^ 




usages 


'ju'zidjiz 




use, noun 


ju-s 




use, verb 


ju-z 




uses 


'JU'ZIZ 




used 


ju'zd 




using 


'ju'zirj 


. 


used, adj. made use of 


ju'zd 





used, adj. accustomed 


JU'St 




use (d) n't 


'ju'sn^ 




useful 


'ju'sful 




usefully 


'ju'sfuli, 'ju'sMi 




usefulness 


'ju'sfulms 





417 



Traditional Spelling 



Received Pronunciation 



American Variants 



useless 


'ju'shs 




uselessly 


'ju'slish 




uselessness 


'ju'slisnis 




USEN'T 


'ju f sn/ 




user 


'ju'za(r 


'ju-za 


users 


'ju'zaz 


'JU'ZSZ 


USES, plur of use 


'JU'SIZ 




USES /row verb use 


'jU'ZIZ 




usual 


'ju3ual, 'ju'3l 




usually 


'ju'3U9h, 'ju f 3^h 




usurp 


ju'zs-p 


ju'sssp 


usurps 


ju'zs-ps 


ju'zssps 


usurped 


ju'zs'pt 


ju'zsspt 


usurping 


ju'zs'pirj 


ju'zsspirj 


usurper 


ju'z3'p9(r 


Ju'z39p9 


usurpers 


Ju'z3'p9Z 


ju'z39p9Z 


utensil 


ju'tenszl, ju'tenstl 




utensils 


ju'tensilz 






ju'tsnszlz 




utilitarian 


jutilt'tearian 


jutili'te-nan 


utility 


ju'tihti, ju'tihti 




utilization 


jutilai'zeij^n 




utilize 


'ju-tilaiz 




utilizes 


'ju'tilaiziz 




utilized 


'ju-tilaizd 




utilizing 


'ju-tilaizirj 




utmost 


' Atmoust, 'Atmast 




utter 


'Ata(r 


'Ate 


utters 


'At9Z 


'At3Z 


uttered 


'At9d 


'Ated 


uttering 


'Atari!) 




utterly 


'Atali 


'At9ll 


uttermost 


'Atgmoust, 'Atamast 


'At9moust, 'At9mast 


V 


V 


vi' 




V's 


vi f z 




vacancy 


'veik^nsi 




vacancies 


'veik^nsiz 




vacant 


'veikant 




vacation 


va'kei/^n 


vei'keipn 


vaccinate 


'vaeksineit 




vaccinates 


'vaeksmeits 




vaccinated 


'vaeksineitid 




vaccinating 


'vaeksmeitirj 




418 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



vaccination 


vaeksi'neifzn 




vacuum 


'vaekjuam 




vacua 


'vaekjua 




vacuums 


' VSekj U9H12 




vague 


veig 




vaguer 


'veiga(r 


'veigs 


vaguest 


'veigist 




vaguely 


'veigh 




vagueness 


'veigms 




vain 


vein 




vainer 


'vema(r 


'veins 


vainest 


'vetmst 




vainly 


'veinh 




valid 


'vaehd 




validity 


va'hdvti, vae'liditv 




valley 


'vaeli 




valleys 


'vaehz 




valour 


'vael9(r 


'vaels 


valuable 


'vaeljuob} 




valuables 


'vaeljuabjz 




value 


'vaelju, 'vaelju 




values 


'vaeljuz, 'vaeljuz 




valued 


'vseljud, 'vaeljud 




valuing 


'vaeljuirj 




valve 


vaelv 




valves 


vaelvz 




van 


vaen 




vans 


vaenz 




Vancouver 


vaen'ku'V3(r 


vaen'ku'vs 


vanish 


'vaenij 




vanishes 


'vaenijiz 




vanished 


'vsenift 




vanishing 


'vaenijvrj 




vanity 


'vaeniti 




vapour 


' veipo (r 


'veipa 


vapours 


'veipaz 


'veipsz 


variable 


'veori3b| 


've-nab} 


variably 


'vroriabh 


've-risbli 


variation 


veari'eijpn 


ve'ri'eij^n 


variations 


vean'eij>nz 


veTi f ei/^nz 


varied 


'vearid 


'VETld 


variety 


vo'raioti 





varieties 


va'raistiz 





various 


'vearias 


've-nas 


variously 


'veanash 


'vs-nasli 


varnish 


'va'nij 


'vasnij 


vary 


'veari 


'vE'ri 



419 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



varies 


'veariz 


've-nz 


varied 


'V3Ild 


've-rid 


varying 


'v9rur) 


'veTurj 


vase 


VCt'Z 


veis 


vases 


'vcrziz 


'veisiz 


vast 


Vd'St 


va'st 


vastly 


'vcrstli 


'va-sth 


vault 


vo-lt, volt 




vaults 


vo-lts, volts 




veal 


vrl 




vegetable 


've^itabj 




vegetables 


'ved$ttab}z 




vehicle 


'vi'ikj, 'vi'akj 




vehicles 


'vnkjz, 'vrskjz 




veil 


veil 




veils 


veilz 




vein 


vein 




veins 


veinz 




velvet 


'vslvit 




Venezuela 


veni'zwi'la 






venizju'Ha 






vene'zweila 




vengeance 


'vsn^ns 




Venice 


'venis 




ventilate 


'ventileit 




ventilates 


'ventileits 




ventilated 


'ventileitid 




ventilating 


'vsntileitir) 




ventilation 


venti'leipn 




ventilator 


' ventileita (r 


'ventileits 


ventilators 


'ventileitsz 


'ventileitsz 


venture 


'vsn^a(r 


Ventf 


ventures 


'ventfaz 


'ventfaz 


ventured 


'ven^ad 


'ven^sd 


venturing 


'vsn^rirj 




verb 


V9'b 


vssb 


verbs 


V3'bz 


vssbz 


verbal 


'V3'b01 


'vssb^l 


verbally 


'V3'b3ll 


'vssbsh 


verdict 


'vs'dikt 


Vssdikt 


verdicts 


'vs-dikts 


'vsadikts 


verge 


V3'(^ 


V3SC^ 


verify l 


'verifai 




varifies 


'venfaiz 




verified 


'vsrifaid 




verifying 


'verifaiiq 




Versailles 


veo'sai 


ves'sai, vs'seilz 



420 



Traditional Spelling 



Received Pronunciation 



American Variants 



verse 


VS'S 


V3&S 


verses 


'VS'SIZ 


'vsasiz 


version 


'vs'Jjm 


vssj sn 


versions 


'v3 ? J0nz 


V39J^nZ 


versus 


'vs'sas 


'vsasas 


very 


'veri 




vessel 


'vesl 




vessels 


'ves}z 




vex 


veks 




vexes 


'vsksiz 




vexed 


vekst 




vexing 


'veksirj 




via 


'vaia 




vibrate 


vai'breit 




vibrates 


vai'breits 




vibrated 


vai'breitvd 




vibrating 


vai'breitirj 




vibration 


vai'breijzn 




vibrations 


vai'breif^nz 




vicar 


'viko(r 


'viks 


vicars 


'vikaz 


'viksz 


vice, noun 


vais 




vices 


'vaisiz 




vice- , prefix 


'vais- 




vice versa 


'vaisi'vs'so 


'vaisi'vsssa 


vicious 


'vijas 




viciously 


'vijash 




victim 


'viktim 




victims 


'viktimz 




victorious 


vik'to-nas 




victoriously 


vik'to'riosh 




victory 


'viktari 




victories 


'vikt^riz 




vie 


vai 




vies 


vaiz 




vied 


vaid 




vying 


'vaiirj 




Vienna 


vi'ena 




Viennese 


via'nrz, vie'ni'z 




view 


vju 1 




views 


VJU'Z 




viewed 


vju'd 


* 


viewing 


'vjuirj 


* 


vigor (Amer,) 


'viga(r 


'vigs 


vigorous 


'vig^ras 




vigorously 


'vig^rash 




vigour 


'viga(r 


'viga 



421 



Traditional Spelling 



Received Pronunciation 



American Variants 



vile 


vail 




village 


'vihdj; 




villages 


'vilidjiz 




vindictive 


vm'diktiv 




vindictively 


vm'diktivh 




vinegar 


'vmiga(r 


'vmigs 


vineyard 


'vmjad, 'vmjad 


'vinjsd, 'vmjasd 


vineyards 


'vinjddz, 'vinjadz 


'vmjsdz, 'vmjaodz 


violate 


fvaioleit 




violates 


f'vai9leits 




violated 


f'vaialeitid 




violating 


f'vaioleittrj 




violation 


fvai9'leij>n 




violations 


tvai9'leij>nz 




violence 


t 'vaialsns 




violent 


f'vaialsnt 




violently 


t'vaislantli 




violet 


t'vaislvt 




violets 


fvaishts 




violin 


fvaia'lm 




violins 


fvaia'lmz 




violinist 


fvaia'lmist 




violinists 


fvaia'l mists 




virgin 


'vs'd^in 


'vascijin 


virgins 


'v3 ( d$mz 


'vssc^inz 


virtue 


'V3'tjU 


'V39tju 


virtues 


'V3'tjUZ 


'vsstjuz 


virtuous 


'V3'tjU9S 


Vsstjuos 


viscount 


'vaikaunt 




viscounts 


'vaikaunts 




visible 


VizibJ 




visibly 


'vizibh 




vision 


'vi3^n 




visions 


'vi3nz 




visit 


'vizit 




visits 


'vizits 




visited 


r vizitid 




visiting 


'vizitirj 




visitor 


'vizit9(r 


'vizita 


visitors 


'vizitoz 


Vizitsz 


visual 


'vi3ju9l, 'vizjual 




visually 


'vi3Juali, 'vizjuah 




vital 


'vait} 




vitally 


'vait^h 




vitality 


vai'taeliti 





f See Note 30, p. xxxv in Introduction. 
422 



iraaraonai spelling 
vivacious 


jteceivea rTonunuaaon 

vai'veifas, vi'veifas 


/vincnutu VWZ-MULS 


vivacity 


vai'vaesiti, vi'vaesvti 




vivid 


'vivid 




vividly 


'vividli 




viz4 


vi'di'liset, vai'dHiset 




vocabulary 


tva'kaebjulan 


fva'kaebjuleri 


vocabulanes 


fva'kaebjulariz 


fvo'kaebjulervz 


vocal 


'vouk?l 




vocation 


vou'keif^n, va'kei/^n 




vocations 


vou'keij>nz 






va'keijznz 




vogue 


voug 




voice 


vois 




voices 


'voisiz 




volcanic 


vDrkaenik 


varkaenik 


volcano 


vDl'kemou 


varkemou 


volcano (e)s 


vorkeinouz 


varkeinouz 


volition 


fv9u'lij>n 




volley 


Volt 


Vah 


volleys 


'vDhz 


'vahz 


volleyed 


'vDhd 


'valid 


volleying 


'vDlurj 


'valurj 


volt 


voult, volt 




volts 


voults, volts 




volume 


'voljum, 'vDlpm 


'valjum, 'valjam 


volumes 


'voljumz, 'voljamz 


'valjumz, 'valjamz 


voluminous 


vo'l^u'mmas 






vo'l/u-mmas 


va'iyu'minas 


voluntarily 


'volantmh 


'valantsrili 


voluntary 


'volant^ri 


'vabnteri 


volunteer 


vol^n'tia(r 


val^n'tis 


volunteers 


vobn'tiaz 


val^n'tisz 


volunteered 


vDlsn'tiad 


val^n'tisd 


volunteenng 


vDten'tiarii) 


val^n'ti-rir) 


vote 


vout 




votes 


vouts 




voted 


'voutid 




voting 


'voutirj 




voter 


'vouta(r 


'vouts 


voters 


'voutaz 


'voutsz 


vowel 


'vaual, 'vauel, 'vauil 




vowels 


'vaualz, 'vauelz 







'vauvlz 


* 



t See Note 30, p. xxxv in Introduction. 

J Most persons in reading substitute namely ['neimh] for this 
word. It should never be read as [viz]. 

423 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 


voyage 

voyages 
vulgar 
vulgarity 
vulgarly 

VYING /row vie 


'voudj 
'voudjvz 
'vAlga(r 
VAl'gaenti 
'vAlgah 
'vatirj 


'vAlga 
'vAlgsh 



W's 
wade 

wades 

waded 

wading 
wag 

wags 

wagged 

wagging 
wage 

wages 

waged 

waging 
wager 

wagers 
waggon 

waggons 
wagon 

wagons 
waist 

waists 
waistcoat 

waistcoats 

wait 

waits 

waited 

waiting 
waiter 

waiters 
waitress 

waitresses 
wake 

wakes 

waked 

woke 



W 

'dAb}ju 
'dAbjjuz 

weid 
weidz 
'weidid 
'weiduj 

waeg 
waegz 
waegd 4 
'waegirj 

weio^ 
'weidjiz 
weid$d 



'waeg an 

'wseganz 
'waegan 



weist 

weists 
'weskat, f weis/kout 

'weskats 

'weis/kouts 
weit 

weits 

'weitid 

'wettirj 
'weita(r 

'weitaz 
'weitris 

'weitrisiz 
weik 

weiks 

weikt 

wouk 



'weits 



424 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



waking 


'weikirj 




waken 


'weikPn 




wakens 


'weikpnz 




wakened 


'weik^nd 




wakening 


'weikzmrj 




Wales 


weilz 




walk 


wo'k 




walks 


wo'ks 




walked 


wo'kt 




walking 


'wo-kirj 




walker 


'wo f ka(r 


'wo'ka 


walkers 


'wo'kaz 


'wo'koz 


wall 


WO'l 




walls 


wo'lz 




walnut 


'wo -In At, 'wo'lnst 




walnuts 


'wO'lnAtS 






'wo'lnats 




Walter 


'wo'lta(r, 'wolta(r 


'wo 'It, 'waits 


wander 


'wi>nd3(r 


'wands 


wanders 


'wondaz 


'wandsz 


wandered 


'wondsd 


'wandsd 


wandering 


'wondmrj 


'wandmrj 


wanderer 


'wDndar3(r 


'wandars 


wanderers 


'wondsraz 


'wand^rsz 


want 


wont 


want 


wants 


wonts 


wants 


wanted 


'wontid 


'wantid 


wanting 


'wontirj 


'wantit) 


war 


wo-(r, woa(r 


was 


wars 


wo'z, woaz 


W03Z 


wardrobe 


'wo'droub 


'wosdroub 


wardrobes 


'wo'droubz 


'wosdroubz 


warehouse 


'weahaus 


'wEshaus 


warehouses 


'weahauziz 


'weshauziz 


warm 


wo-m 


wosm 


warmer 


'wo'ma(r 


'woama 


warmest 


'wo 'mist 


'woamist 


warmly 


'wo -mil 


'wosmli 


warmness 


'wo'innis 


'wasmnis 


warmth 


wo'm^Q 


'wosm^>6 


warn 


wo'n 


wosn 


warns 


wo'nz 


woanz 


warned 


wo'nd 


\vosnd 


warning 


'wo-nirj 


'wosnirj 


warnings 


'wo'mrjz 


'wasnirjz 


warningly 


'wo-nirjli 


'wosnirjh 


warrant 


'wDrant 


'warant 



426 



iTaaiuonai spelling 

warrants 


tieceiveo i-ronuncianon 

'worsnts 


Ainencan variants 

'warants 


warranted 


'worsntid 


'warantid 


warranting 


'worantirj 


'warontirj 


Warsaw 


'WO'SD 


f W03SO 


WAS from be 


WDZ S.f , VfffZ W.f. 


waz 


wash 


WD/ 


waf 


washes 


'WD/IZ 


'wajiz 


washed 


wojt 


wajt 


washing 


'wD/irj 


'wajir) 


Washington 


'wojirjtan 


'wajirjton 


wasp 


WDSp 


wasp 


wasps 


wosps 


wasps 


waste 


weist 




wastes 


weists 




wasted 


'weistid 




wasting 


'weistirj 




wasteful 


'weistful 




wastefully 


'weistfult, 'weistfali 




watch 


wotf 


watf 


watches 


'wotfiz 


'watfiz 


watched 


WDtft 


watft 


watching 


'wotfirj 


'watf ir] 


watchful 


'WDtfful 


'wa^ful 


water 


'wo-t9(r 


'WD'tS 


waters 


'wo'taz 


'wa'tsz 


watered 


'wo -tad 


'wo-tad 


watering 


'wo'tmrj 




waterproof 


'wo'tapruf 


'wo'tspruf 


waterproofs 


'wo'taprufs 


'wD'tsprufs 


wave 


weiv 




waves 


weivz 




waved 


weivd 




waving 


'weivirj 




wavy 


'wetvi 




wax 


waeks 




way 


wei 




ways 


weiz 




waylay 


wei'lei 




waylays 


wei'leiz 




waylaid 


wei'leid 




waylaying 


wei'leurj 





we 


wi 1 , normal form 







wi, wi wjs. 




weak 


wi'k 




weaker 


'wi-ka(r 


'wi'k* 


weakest 


'wrkist 




weaken 


'wi'k^n 





426 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



weakens 


'wrk^nz 




weakened 


'wrk^nd 




weakening 


'wi'kzmrj 




weakly 


'wi'kli 




wealth 


we!9 




wealthy 


'welGi 




wealthier 


'we!9i9(r 


'welGva 


wealthiest 


'wsl0ust 




weapon 


'wspan 




weapons 


'wepanz 




wear 


wea(r 


wea 


wears 


WEOZ 


WE3Z 


wore 


wo'(r, woa(r 


woa 


worn 


wo-n 


wosn 


wearing 


'wEarirj 


'we'rirj 


wearer 


'wEara (r 


'W6T9 


wearers 


'wtoraz 


'WCTSZ 


weather 


'wsda(r 


'we da 


weathers 


'wedaz 


'we6sz 


weave 


wrv 




weaves 


wi'vz 




wove 


wouv 




woven 


'wouv^n 




weaving 


'wrvirj 




weaver 


'wrva(r 


'wi'va 


weavers 


'W1'V9Z 


'WI'VSZ 


wedding 


'wedirj 




weddings 


'wedirjz 




wedge 


W(% 




wedges 


'weo^iz 




wedged 


wed$d 




wedging 


'wec^ii) 




Wednesday 


'wenzdi 




Wednesdays 


'wsnzdiz 




weed 


wi'd 




weeds 


wi'dz 




weeded 


'wi'did 




weeding 


'wi'dirj 




week 


wrk 




weeks 


wi'ks 




weekly 


'wrkli 




weigh 


wei 




weighs 


weiz 




weighed 


weid 




weighing 


'weivrj 




weight 


weit 




weights 


weits 





427 



Traditional Spelling 



Received Pronunciation 



American Variants 



weird 


wiod 


wisd 


welcome 


'welkam 




welcomes 


'wslkamz 




welcomed 


'welkomd 




welcoming 


'welkamirj 




welfare 


'welfa(r 


'wslfea 


well 


wel 




wells 


welz 




well-to-do 


'welta'dir 




Welsh 


welj 




Welshman 


'weljman 




Welshmen 


'weljman 




WENT/yora go 


wsnt 




WERE /ram be 


W3'(r, wro(r s fs 


W3 S./. 




wo (r w f. 


W9 W f. 


WEREN'T == were not 


W3 r nt, wcant 


wsant 


west 


west 




westerly 


'wsstDh 


'westsh 


western 


'westan 


'wsstan 


westerner 


'west3na(r 


'westsns 


westerners 


'wsstanaz 


'westsnaz 


westward 


'westwad 


'westwsd 


westwardly 


'wGstwadh 


'westwsdli 


westwards 


'wsstwadz 


'wsstwadz 


wet 


wet 




wetter 


'weta (r 


'weta 


wettest 


'wetist 




wetness 


'wetnis 




whale 


^weil 




whales 


/tweilz 




what 


AwDt 


hwat 


whatever 


/twDt'ev9(r 


hwat'eva 


wheat 


Awi't 




wheel 


^Wl'l 




wheels 


Awi'lz 




wheeled 


Awi'ld 




wheeling 


'Awi'hrj 




when 


Awsn 




whenever 


Aws'nsv9(r 


hwe'nevs 


where 


Aweo(r 


hwe 


whereabouts, nouy 


'Awearsbairts 


'hwe'rabauts 


whereabouts, intgrr. 


'/iwearo'bauts 


'hwe'rs'bauts 


whereas 


Awea'raez 


hwe'raez 


whereupon 


Aweara'pon 


hwe-ra'pan 


wherever 


Awa'rsv9(r 


hwsTSV 


whether 


'Awsda(r 


'hwe6 


which 


Awitf 





428 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



whichever 


Awi'tfsva(r 


hwi'^eva 


while 


fcwail 




whiles 


Awailz 




whiled 


Awaild 




whiling 


'Awailirj 




whip 


Awip 




whips 


Awips 




whipped 


hwipt 




whipping 


'Awipirj 




whisker 


'Awisk9(r 


'hwisks 


whiskers 


'Awiskaz 


'hwiskez 


whiskey 


'Awiski 




whisper 


'h wisps (r 


'hwispo 


whispers 


'Awispaz 


'Awispsz 


whispered 


'Awispad 


'hwispad 


whispering 


'Awispmrj 




whistle 


'Jl\VLS\ 




whistles 


'hwis]z 




whistled 


'Awisjd 




whistling 


'Awislii) 




whit 


Awit 




white 


Await 




whiter 


'Awaita(r 


'Awaits 


whitest 


'Awaitist 




whiteness 


'/twaitnis 




whiten 


'Awaiti^ 




whitens 


'Awaitnz 




whitened 


'Awaitud 




whitening 


'Awaitnirj, 'Awaitnirj 




whitewash 


'AwaitwoJ 


'AwaitwaJ 


Whitsun 


'Awitsi^ 




Whitsunday 


'Awit'sAndi 






'Awits^n'dei 




Whitsuntide 


'Awitsntaid 




who, interr. 


hu', hu 




who, relative 


hu', hu 




whoever 


hu'sva(r 


hu'evs 


whole 


houl 




wholesale 


'houl'seil 




wholesome 


'houlsam 




wholly 


'houl/i 




whom 


hirm, hum 




whose 


hu'z 




why 


Awai 




wick 


wik 




wicks 


wiks 




wicked 


'wikid 





429 



Traditional Spelling 



Received Pronunciation 



American Variants 



wickedly 


'wikidh 




wickedness 


'wikidnis 




wide 


waid 




wider 


'waida(r 


r waid 


widest 


'waidist 




widely 


'waidh 




widen 


'waidiji 




widens 


'waidnz 




widened 


'waidnd 




widening 


'waidnu), 'waidnir) 




widow 


'widou 




widows 


'widouz 




widowed 


'widoud 




wife 


waif 




wives 


waivz 




wild 


waild 




wilds 


waildz 




wilder 


'wailda(r 


'wailds 


wildest 


'waildist 




wildly 


'waildh 




wildness 


'wauldnis 




wilful 


'wilful 




wilfully 


'wilfuh, 'wilfah 




will, noun 


Wll 




wills 


wilz 




will, verb 


Wll 




wills 


wilz 




willed 


wild 




willing 


'wihrj 




will, auxil. verb 


wil s.f.j wal, }, 1 w.fs. 




would 


wud s./., wad, ad, d 






w.fs. 




William 


'wilpm 




willing 


'wilirj 




willingly 


'wilujli 




willingness 


'wihnnis 




win 


win 




wins 


wmz 




won 


wAn 




winning 


'winuj 




wind, noun 


wind 




. ' , 
winds 


wmdz 




wind, verb 


waind 




winds 


waindz 




wound 


waiind 




winding 


'wainduj 




windmill 


'win^mil 





430 



xnmmuniu opeiiiug 

windmills 


neceiveu jmrauodaaoii 

'wmdmilz 


t%tncr t <** " variant* 


window 


'wmdou 




windows 


'wmdouz 




windy 


'wmdi 




wine 


wain 




wines 


wainz 




wing 


wirj 




wings 


wirjz 




wink 


wirjk 




winks 


winks 




winked 


wirj&t 




winking 


'wirjkirj 




winner 


'wmo(r 


'wm 


winners 


'wmaz 


'winaz 


winter 


'wmto (r 


'wmt 


winters 


'wmtaz 


'wintsz 


wipe 


waip 




wipes 


waips 




wiped 


waipt 




wiping 


'waipirj 




wire 


'wai9(r 


f wai 


wires 


'waiaz 


'waiQz 


wired 


'waiad 


'waisd 


wiring 


'waianrj 


'wainr) 


wisdom 


'wizdam 




wise 


waiz 




wiser 


'waiza (r 


'waiza 


wisest 


'waizist 




wisely 


'waizli 




wish 


WiJ 




wishes 


'wijiz 




wished 


Wljt 




wishing 


'wifirj 




wit 


wit 




wits 


wits 




with 


wi6, wiO 




withdraw 


wid'dnv, wiG'dro 1 




withdraws 


wid'dro'z, wiO'dra-z 




withdrew 


wifi'dru', wiO'dru- 




withdrawn 


wift'dro'n 




withdrawing 


wiQ'dro'ir) 






wiO'dro'irj 




wither 


'wi6a(r 


'Wi6a 


withers 


'wiQaz 


'widsz 


withered 


'widad 


'widad 


withering 


'wifl^rirj 





431 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation 



American Variants 



withhold 


wid'hould 






wiB'hould 




withholds 


wio'houldz 






wiG'houldz 




withheld 


wio'hsld 






wi6'held 




withholding 


wiQ'houldirj 






wi6'houldirj 




within 


wi'ftm 




without 


wi'daut 




witness 


'witms 




witnesses 


'witnisiz 




witnessed 


'witmst 




witnessing 


'witmsirj 




witted 


'witid 




wittily 


'witili 




witty 


'witi 




wittier 


'witia(r 


'witis 


wittiest 


'witust 




WIVES from wife 


waivz 




wolf 


wulf 




wolves 


wulvz 




woman 


'wuman 




women 


'wimin 




WON from win 


wAn 




wonder 


'wAnda(r 


'wAnds 


wonders 


'wAndaz 


'wAndsz 


wondered 


'wAndad 


'wAndsd 


wondering 


'wAnd^rirj 




wonderful 


'wAndaful 


'wAndsful 


wonderfully 


'wAndafuli 


'wAndsfuli 




'wAndofah 


'wAndsfah 


WON' T= will not 


wount 




wood 


wud 




woods 


wudz 




wooden 


'wudn 




wool 


wul 




woollen 


'wulan 




woolen (Amer ) 






word 


W3'd 


W3d 


words 


W3'dz 


wsdz 


worded 


'ws'did 


'wssdid 


wording ' 


'ws'dirj 


'wssdirj 


wordings ( 


'ws'dinz 


'wssdirjz 


WORE front wear 


wa'(r, woa(r 


W09 


work 


ws'k 


W99k 


works 


W3'ks 


wssks 



432 



Traditional Spelling 



Received Pronunciation 



American Variants 



worked 


ws'kt 


wsakt 


working 


'ws'kirj 


'wsskirj 


workings 


'ws'kirjz 


'wsskirjz 


worker 


'w3'k9(r 


'wssks 


workers 


'ws'kaz 


'wssksz 


workman 


'ws-kman 


'w39km9n 


workmen 


'ws'kman 


'wsskman 


world 


ws'ld 


wssld 


worlds 


ws'ldz 


wssldz 


worm 


W3 f m 


wssm 


worms 


ws-mz 


wsamz 


WORN from wear 


wo f n 


wosn 


worn-out 


'wo''naut 


'wos'naut 


worry 


'WAH. 


'wsn 


worries 


'WAHZ 


'wsriz 


worried 


'wArid 


'wsrid 


worrying 


'wArurj 


'wsriirj 


worse 


W3'S 


W39S 


worship 


'W3'jlp 


'wssjip 


worships 


'ws-Jips 


'wssfips 


worshipped 


'ws'Jipt 


'wssjipt 


worshipping 


'ws'Jipirj 


'wssjipirj 


worshipper 


'w3'Jip9(r 


f W39jlp 


worshippers 


'ws'Jvpaz 


'wsajipsz 


worst 


'ws-st 


'wsast 


worth 


W3'0 


W3S0 


worthily 


'W3'5lll 


'W36lll 


worthless 


'W3'01l8 


r W3901lS 


worthlessly 


'ws-eiisii 


'W3901isll 


worthlessness 


'w3'0hsnis 


'wss01isnis 


worthy 


'W3'dl 


r W396l 


wouLD/rom will 


wud sf. 






wod, d w fs. 




wound 


wu'nd 




wounds 


wu'ndz 




wounded 


'wu-ndid 




wounding 


'wu-ndirj 




WOUND from wind 


waijind 




WOVE from weave 


wouv 




WOVEN from weave 


'wouv^n 




wrap 


raep 




wraps 


raeps 




wrapped 


raept 





wrapping 


'raepirj 





wrapper 


'raep9 (r 


'raepa 


wrappers 


'raepaz 


'raepar 


wreath 


ri-0 





433 



Traditional Spelling 



Received Pronunciation 



American Variants 



wreaths 


ri'6z, ri'Gs 


- 


wreck 


rek 




wrecks 


reks 




wrecked 


rskt 




wrecking 


'rekirj 




wrestle 


'res} 




wrestles 


'resjz 




wrestled 


'res}d 




wrestling 


'reslirj 




wrestler 


'resla(r 


'resla 


wrestlers 


'resbz 


'rcslsz 


wretch 


retf 




wretches 


'retfiz 




wretched 


'rstfid 




wretchedly 


'retjidli 




wriggle 


'ngj 




wriggles 


'ngjz 




wriggled 


'rigid 




wriggling 


'righrj, 'rig}irj 




wrinkle 


'rink} 




wrinkles 


f nrjk|z 




wnnkled 


'nnkjd 




wrinkling 


'rigklii) 




wrist 


rist 




wrists 


rists 




write 


rart 




writes 


raits 




wrote 


rout 




written 


'ritn 




writing 


'raitirj 




writer 


'raito(r 


rait 


writers 


'raitaz 


'raitaz 


writhe 


raiQ 




writhes 


ratSz 




writhed 


ratdd 




writhing 


'rai5irj 




writing 


'raitir) 




writings 


'raitirjz 




wrong 


rurj 




wrongs 


ronz 




wronged 


rDrjd 




wronging 


'rDijirj 




wrongful 


'rorjful 




wrongfully 


'run full, 'rogfali 




wrongly 


'rorjlt 




wrongness 


'rognis 




WROTE from write 


rout 





434 



Traditional Spelling Received Pronunciation American Variants 



X's 



eks 
'eksiz 



Y 

Y's 

yacht 
yachts 

yachting 

yard 
yards 

yarn 

yawn 
yawns 
yawned 
yawning 

year 
years 

yearly 

yell 
yells 
yelled 
yelling 

yellow 

yellowish 

yellowness 

yes 

yesterday 

yet 

yield 
yields 
yielded 
yielding 

you 



young 

younger 
youngest 
your 



jot 

jots 
'jotirj 
jcrd 

jcrdz 
jcm 
P'n 

jD-nz 

jo-nd 

'jo-nuj 
j3'(r,jia(r 

js'z, jiaz 
'J3'li, 'jiali 
jsl 

jslz 

jsld 

'jeluj 
'jslou 
'jelouij 
'jelounis 
jes 

'jsstadi, 'jestadei 
jet 
jrld 

jrldz 

'JL-ldid 

'ji'ldirj 



ja (occasional weak 
form) 



'JAngist 
p-(r,jua(r 



jat 
jats 



jasd 

jasdz 
jaon 



J13Z 



'jsstsdi, ' 



juss./. 

J9W.J. 



435 



Traditional Spelling 



Received Pronunciation 



American Variants 



yours 


jo-z, jooz, juaz 


JUSZ 


yourself 


p'sslf, jua'self 


jus'sslf s./. 




joa'self s.fs. 






ja'self w f. 


js'self w.f. 


yourselves 


jo'selvz, jua'selvz 


jus'selvzs/. 




joa'selvz s fs 






ja'selvz w /. 


ja'sslvz w f. 


youth 


JU'0 




youths 


ju'6z 





z 

Z (Amer.) 

Z's 

Z's (Amer ) 
zeal 
zero 

zeros 
zest 
zinc 
zone 

zones 
zoological 

zoology 



zed 
zedz 

zi'l 
'ziarou 

'ziarouz 
zest 
zirjk 
zoun 

zounz 



zou'ulac^i 



'zi-rou 
'zi'rouz 



zou'aloc^i 



436 




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W. HEFFB.R & SONS LTD., 
CAMBRIDGE. ENGLAND.