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" A painfull work it is, and more than difficult, wherein what toyle hath 
been taken, as no man thinketh, so no man believeth, but he that hath made 
the trialL" — Anthony a Wood. 

" To reduce Surnames to a Method is matter for a Ramist, who should 
haply find it to be a Typocosmy." — Camden^ s Remaines. 

" This is a subject which involves many curious questions of antiquarian 
interest, bearing upon the language, habits, and pursuits of our countrymen in 
bygone days. It is one, also, that immediately concerns every vian n-Jio feels an 
honest jfride in being called hy his father's name J" — Notes and Queries, vi. 201. 














M. A. L. 


October 1, ISCO. 


t!L\)t #rtgin attlr Progress of «.tirname Hiterature. 

HE illustrious Camden, " Nourice of Antiquitie," has been happily 
termed the common fire whereat all after-coming British antiquaries 
"have kindled their little torches." The Britannia^ one of the finest 
literary projects ever carried into execution, is the basis of all 
British topography, and needs no commendation ; but there is another of his works 
which, though trivial in bulk, and held in much less consideration than the " Choro- 
graphical Description," is of greater positive value, as containing the germ of all 
modern antiquarianism. I allude to the " Remaines concerning Britain.''' This com- 
paratively small volume consists of some fourteen essays on various branches of 
archaeology, which are not only highly curious and original in themselves, but most 
suggestive of more elaborate enquiries and illustrations ; in fact each essay is a brief 
upon which large pleadings may be based — the foundation whereon a spacious structure 
may be reared. For example, the essay on " Money " is the first attempt that was 
made to illustrate the coinage of these realms, long before such a science as numismatics 
was dreamed of Again, the dissertation on " Apparell " is the groundwork of sub- 
sequent treatises on British costume. The chapter on "Languages" is a curious 
piece of philology ; and the rest all serve more or less as themes upon which many 
volumes have since been written. One of the best of these prolusions is that on 
" Surnames," extending in the * sixth impression,' 1657, to more than fifty pages. It 
shows great and original research, and it has been extensively made use of by all sub- 
sequent writers on the subject. The great antiquary, after a sketch of the history of 
second or 5Mr-names in difierent ages and countries, traces the first appearance of 
settled family names in England about the time of the N'orman Conquest. He next 
treats of Local names in the two classes of which they consist ; namely, first, those 
which are derived from the names of specific localities, towns, villages, manors, Src. ; 
and, secondly, those which allude to the situation of the residences of the original 
bearers, such as Field, Clifie, Wood, &c. Then follow remarks on surnames derived 
from Occupations and Professions ; from Offices and Functions, civil and ecclesiastical ; 


from " Qualities of the MInde ;" from " Habitudes of Body ;*' from Ages and Times ; 
from the Weapons of War borne by the first of the name ; from Parts of the Body ; 
from Costume ; from the Colours of complexion and clothing ; from Flowers and 
Fruits ; from Animals, whether Beasts, Birds, or Fishes ; from Christian Names ; from 
Nicknames or ' Nursenames ;' from By-names (sobriquets) ; and from Signs of Houses. 
All these are illustrated by examples and curious anecdotes ; and the dissertation is 
wound up with remarks on Changed and Corrupted surnames, Latinizations of sur- 
names in ancient charters, and references to analogies in classical nomenclature. As a 
whole, there are few essays of the period more readable or instructive than this of 
Camden on Surnames. 

The next illustrator of the subject is Verstegan, who, in his Restitution of Decayed 
Intelligence in Antiquities concerning our Nation^ published in 1605, devotes a Chapter 
to the enquiry " How by the Surnames of the families in England, it may be discerned 
from whence they take their Originals, to wit, whether from the ancient English Saxons, 
or from the Danes and Normans." This Chapter is mostly based upon Camden, and 
has little value, either historical or philological. A few of his definitions will suffi- 
ciently demonstrate this : — 

" Bolt, of the straightness of his body. 
" Cole, of his blackness. 

" DoD, of that thing anciently so called which groweth in the sides of waters 
among flags, and is of boys called a fox-tail. 
" GowER, of a certain kind of cake. 
" Rows, of his making a noise I 
" RussEL, of his fatness. 
" Stone, of some cause concerning it! 
" YoNG, of his fewness of years.'' 

After Verstegan, I am not aware of any British writer who undertook to illustrate 
this curious subject, except in the most desultory manner, until a comparatively 
recent date. N. Bailey, in his English Dictionary^ gives definitions of many sur- 
names, and there are detached articles in many of the Magazines of the last century. 
The best of these are the Essays which appeared in the Gentleman's Magazine for 
1772. These were written by the Rev. Dr. Pegge, F.S.A., under the pseudonym of 
T. Row. Some time in the last century was printed Buchanan On Ancient Scottish 
Surnames (re-printed 1820): but the title misleads, as the subject of the book is the 
history of some Scottish clans. In 1804 the Rev. Mark Noble, F.S.A., published 
A History of the College of Arms^ in the preliminary dissertation of which, there are 
some good incidental remarks on family names. 

In Archeeolngia, vol. XVHI. pp. 105, 111, James H. Markland, Esq., D.C.L., 
F.S.A., printed a valuable paper, entitled " Remarks on the Antiquity and Introduc- 
tion of Surnames into England." This appeared in 1813. 

In 1822, Mr. J. II. Brady published a small duodecimo volume called A Disserta^ 
Hon on the Names of Persons, which, among much amusing, though irrelevant matter, 
contains several ingenious remarks on English surnames ; and the Rev. Edward 
Duke's Halle of John Halle, furnishes some illustrations of the subject. 

Such were the materials at the command of the student of our family nomenclature 
when, about the year 1836, my attention was first directed to its investigation, though 
at that time my residence in a village, remote from libraries, rendered these materials 
all to me as if they had not existed ; and, indeed, my own researches were conducted 
in total ignorance of there having been any labourer in this field before me. 

Some years before that, in my early boyhood, I had accidentally met with Home 
Tooke'9 Diversions of Purley. Attracted by the title, which seemed to promise 


some stories of " fun and frolic," I opened the book, read, and was arrested by the 
wonderful genius of the author, though there was much upon his pages that 
transcended my boyish range of thought. That book, then, directed my mind — 
always desirous causas rerum cognoscere — into a channel of investigation, which while 
it has entailed upon me no small amount of toil, has also been the consolation of a too 
anxious and too laborious existence. 

The result of my desultory studies of Surnames first appeared in the columns of a 
provincial newspaper — the Sussex Express — at irregular intervals during the year 
1838. In the following year these scraps were published in a pamphlet of 68 pages, 
bearing the title of " The Book of English Surnames, being a short Essay on their 
Origin and Signification." The impression, like the book itself, was very small, but 
some copies of it having fallen into the hands of gentlemen interested in the subject, 
I was encouraged to enlarge my plan. Accordingly in 1842, I published "English 
Surnames, Essays on Family Nomenclature, Historical, Etymological, and Humorous," 
London, post 8vo. pp. 240. Of this a considerable edition was sold in about nine 
months ; and in 1 843 a second and enlarged edition (pp. 292) appeared. This was 
followed in 1 849, by a third and still augmented edition in two volumes post octavo, 
(pp. xxiv. and 264, and pp. vi. and 244), my last publication on the subject. 

Encouraged by such a measure of success, I began to make notes for the present 
work, feeling persuaded that I had not over-estimated the interest of the subject as a 
curious, but as yet an imperfectly developed branch of archaeology and philology. In 
this design I was urged on by numerous communications from almost every part of the 
world where the English language is spoken, and where British Surnames are borne. 
Hundreds, nay, thousands, of letters, a few conveying — but the great majority 
seeking— information as to the names of the writers, reached me, and the process is 
still going on. So much, at present, for the procuring causes of the Patronymica 

I shall now give a brief account of the various contributions to this department of 
English literature since my earliest treatise on the subject, whether as independent 
works or as communications to periodical publications. 

Mr. John, now Dr., O'Donovan, whose antiquarian learning requires no commend- 
ation from me, printed in the "Irish Penny Journal " (Dublin, 1841), a series of six 
able articles on the Origin and Meaning of Irish Family Names. Of his labours I 
have freely availed myself. 

In 1842, the Rev. C. W. Bradley, M.A., Rector of Christ Church, Connecticut, 
published a small brochure entitled " Patronoraatology, an Essay on the Philosophy 
of Surnames." 8vo. Baltimore, U.S. To the author of this essay, which evinces 
considerable ability and research, I owe many thanks. 

In 1846, the late eminent scholar, John M. Kemble, Esq., M.A., published a small 
pamphlet on the Names, Surnames and Nicknames of the Anglo-Saxons ; but this, re- 
lating as it does to a period antecedent to the adoption of hereditary or family names, 
possesses little in common with my specific object. 

The Edinburgh Review for April, 1855, contains a considerable article on English 
Surnames. The classification adopted is : " 1st. Norman names dating from the 
Conquest. 2nd. Local English Names. 3rd. Names of Occupation. 4th. Deriva- 
tives from the Christian Names of father or mother. 5th. Names given on account of 
personal peculiarities. 6th. Names derived from the animal, mineral, and vegetable 
kingdoms. 7th. Names derived from the Celestial Hierarchy. 8th. Irish, Scotch, 


French, Flemish, Dutch, German, Spanish and other continental names, mainly im- 
ported within the last two centuries." Of the able and scholarly writer of this article 
I have to complain that, although he has based his remarks chiefly upon my " English 
Surnames," the title of which he has adopted, and although he would not apparently 
have written his essay without the assistance of my previous researches, he has but 
slightly acknowledged me, and has mis-spelt my name on each occasion of its being 
mentioned, though he has paraded at the head of his article the titles of a French and 
a German publication,* both of which, though excellent in their kind, touch but inci- 
dentally, and then not always correctly, upon the subject of English family names ! I 
trust that there are not many public critics in our land to whom the insidentes humeris 
non sine supercilio would so justly apply as to this Edinburgh Reviewer.f 

The first attempt at a Dictionary of Surnames, at least in our language, that I have 
seen, is that by B. H. Dixon, Esq., K.N.L., formerly of Boston in the United States, 
now of Toronto in Canada. It was first privately printed at Boston in 1855 ; 8vo. pp. 
xviii. 80. This was suppressed by the author, who issued a second edition in 1857; 8vo. 
xxvi. 86. The work illustrates a few hundreds only of surnames, many of which are 
German, Dutch, French, &c. The Introduction is very interesting and amusing, and 
has afforded me some assistance. 

In 1857 also appeared at Boston, a work entitled Suffolk Sumames^X by N. J. Bow- 
ditch, Esq., 8vo. pp. 108. This was followed in 1858 by a greatly enlarged edition — a 
handsome octavo of 384 pages. JVlr. Bowditch has arranged, in a most humorous and 
amusing manner, such names as had occurred to his professional notice as a con- 
veyancer, in deeds, &c., as well as those which he had met with in various directories, 
subscription- lists, and similar collections of names. He observes that his volume might 
bear the title of " Directories Digested ; or the Romance of the Registry." 

I am sure that my reader will excuse, while the author will pardon, my making 
a few extracts from this singular and entertaining melange of Surnames. It is right 
to bear in mind that the author has " sometimes regarded their apparent, rather than 
their actual, derivations and original meanings." Mr. Bowditch acknowledges the 
assistance he received from the article in the Edinburgh Review above mentioned, and 
from Mr. Dixon's publication, as well as from what he is pleased to call my "elaborate 
essay." He adds : " Had I seen these publications at an earlier period, the great extent 
of the subject would have deterred me altogether." I am sure that many, in common 
with myself, will feel glad that Mr. Bowditch's reading in this direction was originally 
thus limited. 

I shall make, quite at random, an inroad into Mr. Bowditch's pleasant pages, as 
the very best method that I could adopt of exhibiting the vast and odd variety of 
family nomenclature. At the same time I must remind the reader, that many of the 
names borne on the other side of the Atlantic are from sources unconnected with 
England, Scotland, Wales, and Ireland, to which the present volume is devoted. The 
American nation comprises the greatest admixture of races yet experienced in the 
history of the world ; and family names of every imaginable origin are, therefore, 
to be found in that country. I cannot perhaps more forcibly illustrate this, than by 

• E»ai nintoriqae ct PhfloaopWqae «mr les Noma d'Hommes, de Peaples, et de Lleux. Par Eurtbe SalTerte. 
2toI». ftvo. ParU, 1824. 

Die Pcrsoncnnamen Insbeaondere die Familicnnamen und ihre Entstehungsartea auch untcr BcrUcIuich- 
tigung dcr Ortsnamen. Von August Friedrich Pott. Leipzig, 1863. 

t The Quarterly Ecricw, for April, 1860, has treated ray labours much more handsomely. 

X Snflblk County cooaistn of the city of Boston, and its suburb, Chelsea. 


giving the following singular list of names of three letters, as extracted from the New 
York Directory. It will be seen that very few of them are English : 

























































































Bowditch. p. 10. 

" Mr. Augur has a case now pending, which his opponent doubtless feels to be a 
bore : he is of an old family. A Mr. Augur appears in 1658 ; and Mr. Augurs received 
the notice of our forefathers in 1671. Both Sibel and Sibell are found in New York. 
Mr. Soldem has ventured to bring a suit. Our Messrs. Parson, Parsons, Shriever, 
Friar, Friary, Priest, Divine, Deacon, Creed, Quaker, Church, Pray, and Revere, are 
probably not more pious than our Mr. Pagan or Mr. Turk. Both Mr. Churchman 
and Mr. Mussalman live in New York ; also Messrs. Bigot, Munk, and Nunns. Mr. 
Rosery lives at Lockport, C.W. ; Dr. Kirkbride at Philadelphia; also Messrs. Bigot, 
Bapst, and Musselman. Mr. Layman, in 1857, committed a murder at the South, and 
will doubtless be hung without benefit of clergy. Mr. Praed, one of England's sweet- 
est poets, has by no means confined his muse to sacred themes. Dr. Verity lives at 
Haysville, C.W. An English clergyman, the Rev. Arundel Verity, falsely and fraudu- 
lently converted to his own use, funds designed for conversion of the heathen. Mr. 
Newgate (1651) was not an escaped convict; nor does it appear that Mr. Selman (1674) 
was a slaveholder. Mr. Mothersell lives at Kingston, C.W. No clerical associations 
surround the name of Rev. William Youngblood of New York. A Dr. Youngblood 
lives at Sandwich, C.W. Pleasant M. Mask of Holly Springs, Miss., treacherously 
murdered a young lady in 1857. We have both the Bible and the Coran in our direc- 
tory. Mr. Pastor makes casks instead of converts, and can operate better upon hoops 
than upon heathens ; but though our Pastor is a cooper, our Cooper was the best of 
pastors."— Pp. 23, 24. 

" We have Angel, (what a misnomer for a lawyer ! unless derived from the com, 
when it becomes appropriate) ; Bogle, a spectre ; Geist, the German for spirit ; Soul, 
Fay, and Mabb ; also Warloch. We have also Engal and Engals, from the German 
for "angel." Mr. Puck lives in New York. Mr. Wand, of that city, deals in spirits. 
Our Mr. Paradise did not venture on the Eden of matrimony without making a mar- 
riage settlement, duly recorded (L.653, f 284). We have also Soil (Latin for sun) ; 
Mond (German for moon); Moon, Moone, Starr, Starrs, and Star. Mr. Solis prefers 
the genitive case. We have also Cloud. The attorney-general of Iowa is named 
Cloud. Mr. Cloudman lives at Levant. I find but one Sky. Sky, indeed, has been 
extensively used up in ending off names in Poland! Skey lives in Philadelphia. Else- 
where there are families of Heaven, Devil, and Hell. In the New York Directory 
there are ten families of Hellman. Mr. Helhouse was an English author in 1819. 
Among the graduates of Yale, are three named Dibble. Mr. Dibble lives at Brook- 
field, Connecticut ; Mr. Teufel (German for devil) at Bridgeport ; and this last is com- 
mon in New York. Indeed, our name of HoU is, I believe, pronounced as if spelt with 
an e. And we have Deuell, Diehl, Devlin, and Debell. Himmel (German for heaven) 
was a well-known German composer. Eden is the name of a distinguished English 


family. Both Eden and Edenborn are found in Philadelphia, • • ♦ The heathen 
deities, Odin, Backus, and Mars, dwell with us. Rev. IStr. Mars is a clergyman at 
Worcester. The goddess Ilora keeps house in Boston. An edition of Pallas's Travels 
appeared in 1812. * * * Mr. Jupiter lives at Wateringbury, Conn. ; INIr. Jove in 
New York ; Mr. Soul at Lagrange. Mr. Plannet is found in our directory, and sells 
beer ! Mr. Planert lives in New York ; Mr. Comet in Montreal. 

"Columbus discovered a world ; and so have I. Mr. World lives at Orilla, C. W." 
—Pp. 47, 48, 49. 

" Nations are represented by Greek, Gretian, Switzer, Sabine, Britton, English, 
French, Dutch, German, Hollander, L-ish, Russ, Dane, Fleming, Malay, Norman, Lom- 
bard, Scott, Welsh, Picard, Finn, Wallach, Wallack, Turk, Amerigo, &c. Our Thomas 
Gipsey iSjinname, a citizen of the world. There was an English author named Welchman 
in 1767. Mr. Hunn was a clergyman in Hadley in 1839. Mr. Neil Etheopean died in 
1727. John Bohemion made a deed in L.IO, f. 269. George Sirian was a gunner in 
our navy in 1849. Mr. Vandal lives at St. John's, C. E. ; and in Philadelphia, I find 
families of Algier and Algiers. 

" Countries are represented by Poland, Gaul, Spain, Spane, Flanders, Holland, 
Hague, Greenland, Finland, Brittain, Scotland, Savoy, Wales, Ireland, Guernsey, 
Garnsey, Lorain, Virginia, Maine, Domingo, Rhodes, Barbadoes. Mr. England lately 
died at Newburyport. In L. 169, Mr. Canada is party to a deed. Mr. Iceland lives 
at Sandhill, C.W. Mrs. Norway lives at Brewster, Mass. Greece is found at Chat- 
ham, C. E. Mr. Brazil lately died in Suffolk coimty. Mr. France appears in our 
directory for 1857. The firm of Bates and France failed in New York in 1857. Mr. 
Dlius is, perhaps, of Trojan descent. Mr. Clime and Mr. Countraman of New York 
seem to have no fixed residence. Our Mr. Freeland's name is but an alias for America. 
Mr. Acie, who appears in our colony records 1677, may perhaps claim his name from 
another continent." — Pp. 95, 96. 

" Mr. Hopper was a well-known American philanthropist. One of the present 
judges of Maryland (1857) bears that name. Mr. Budge lives at Lee, Me. ; Mr. Stubbs 
at Wellfleet ; Mr. Shove at Uxbridge ; Mr. Toward at Augiista, Me. ; and Mr. Fresson 
at Lynn. Frederick Jump of Ashland, N. Y., failed in 1857. Dr. De Camp was a 
graduate of Yale. In the New York Directory I find nineteen families of Quick ; also 
Mr. Rusher, Mr. Racer, Mr. Start, Mr. Leap, Mr. Leaper, Mr. Stivers, Mr. Springman, 
Mr. Spry, Mr. Stalker, Mr. Stamper, Mr. Wran, Mr. Went, Mr. Passmore, ISlr. Hopp, 
Iklr. Hopps, ]Mr. Jerker, Mr. Stramm, Mr. Walk, Mr. Wellstood, Mr. Ambleman, Mr. 
Stanback, Mr. Slow, Mr. Slowey, Mr. Hobbler, Mr. Fagg, Mr. Tag, Mr. Dally, Mr. 
Tarry, Mr. Rest, Mr. Stops. Mr. Fugit, the Kansas murderer, though acquitted, has 
been obliged to fly from the territory. 

"Ikir. Rushout is a British M.P., and that name is found in Roxbury. Mr. 
Climb lives at Sclby, C. W. We have Climie. Mr. Clymer is a graduate of Harvard. 
[He will, doubtless, eventually take the highest degree.] Mr. Clymer of Philadelphia 
signed the Declaration of Independence. Mr. Creeper lives at Hampton. Mr. Diver 
was witness as to a late fire in North-Street : and that name is found in Philadelphia ; 
as are also Divin and Stemmer. Mrs. Slider appears in our directory for 1857, and 
Francis Flyer in our Colony Records, 1629. Air. Flew lives in Pliiladelphia ; and Mr. 
Reising lives at Elmeira, C. W. 

"Air. Puller is a Member of Parliament, liev. George Tugwell published a work 
on sea-anemones in London, 1857. AVriglcy's Mathematical Collections appearcil in 
London in 1845. Sir K. B. Crowder is one of the judges of the English court of Com- 


mon Pleas ; and in Illinois is a firm of Crowder and Co. Mr. Haule became a colonist 
here in 1638, as did Mr. Twitchwell in 1633, and Mr. Lug in 1647. Mr. Prest was 
admitted a freeman in 1643. In the New York Directory I find seven families of 
Stucke, Mr. Pulling, and Mr. Pullman; also ISIr. Tugwell and Mr. Tugno^ Mr. 
Tuggy lives at Montreal." — Pp. 77, 78. 

" Mr. Fabel lives at Chatham, C. W. ; and in Philadelphia there are four families 
of Fable : also Messrs. Muse and Paradee. Mr. Versey lives at Canfield ; Mr. Pen- 
phraise at Cobourg; Mr. Learn atRidgeway; Mr. Lingo at Westport ; IVIr. Spellin at 
Toronto. Mr. Tuype, of that city, goes for printing : Mr. Nibbet seems to prefer 
manuscript. Both Quire and Ream are found in Philadelphia, and furnish writing 
materials. In that city I find, also, a Mr. Wrighter, nineteen families of Righter, and 
eight families of Roat; also eight families of Book, Mr. Bookman, Mr. Spell, Mr* 
Spellbink, Mr. Spellinbuch, and two families of Word. Quil appears in the Buffalo 
Directory for 1855."— P. 185. 

As I am dealing (although not scientifically) with the Surnames of the great Trans- 
atlantic nation — our brothers or near kinsmen for the most part — I trust that I shall 
not be deemed guilty of impropriety in continuing these quotations from Mr. Bow ditch's 
really curious volume, to an extent somewhat out of proportion to the other notices 
which I am giving of surname literature. 

For they shew, better than any original observations of my own could do, the vast 
variety of the subject which I have undertaken to elucidate. They prove, too, the 
force of verbal corruption in a new and only partially established nation, in which, 
until of late, literature has been comparatively little cultivated. Like plants translated 
to a new soil, the family names of the old world are modifying themselves in their new 
habitat in a manner unprecedented in the history of language. The family nomen- 
clature of America is a philological curiosity and phenomenon. 

" Law," says Mr. Bowditch, " has furnished many names of families ; as Brass, 
(its rmv material), Wyles, Law, Laws, Lawless, Goad, Court, Leet, Roll, Record, 
Docket, Case, Traverse, Levy, Chancellor, Mace, Judge, Justice, Foreman, Sheriff, 
Sheriffs, Constable, Marshall, Beadle, Crier, Sumner, Warning, Warner, Warn, Ses- 
sions, Dunn, Dunham, Dunning, Jewett, SewaU, Fee, Fines, Bail, Lien, Search, 
Ferriter, Nabb, Ketchum! IVIi-. Getum lives at Toronto, C.W. Mr. Fetchum 
appears in the Middlesex Records .... I do not add Lyes to this collection ; 
though it is justified by the conundrum : ' Why is a lawyer like a person who cannot 
sleep at night ?' — ' Because he first lies on one side, and then he lies on the other.' 

Messrs. Doe and Roe are not fictitious personages. Mr. Warrant, Mr 

Argue, and I^Ir. Countsell, all live in New York ; as does Mr. Writmire — a most 
suggestive name. J. G. Fee, of Madison, Ky., is a clergyman, having apparently 
mistaken his profession. Pulling and Pynchon was an old law firm in Salem, colloqui- 
ally called Pullem and Pinchem. Mr. Sheard, of Toronto, has a name appropriate 
to a patron of the law. Dane cites the law-cases of Legal, Title, Fairtitle, Goodtitle, 

Fetter, &c In New York I find families of Dun, Dunner, Detter, Duely, 

Ittem (item), Legal, &c. ; also Satchell, which seems to belong here, as a green 
bag was formerly a lawyer's badge. Pp. 186, 187. Mr. Sparrow was a member of 
our bar in 1839. Mr. Sparhawk, i.e. sparrowhawk, has a more appropriate name; as 
have also IVIr. Shears, Mr. Shearer, Mr. Skinner, Mr. Keen, and Mr. Scaley. Mr. 
Trick was permitted to serve on the grand jury (1674). Mr. Blacklaw lives in New 
York. Mr. Carlaw, of the same city, can give only travelling advice. Mr. Greenlaw 
would seem to be equally untrustworthy. If the law be viewed as one of the black 


arts, as was once suggested by the late Douglas Jerrold, it is a curious coincidence 
that its chief ministers are Coke and Blackstone ! 

" We have two names which seem amenable to the law — Mr. Swindle and Mr. 
Robb ; and unless Mr. Sharper and Mr. Trickey are careful, their names will brinsf 
them into trouble. P. 1 89. 

" The late European belligerents ought to have employed as umpire our fellow- 
citizen, Mr. Royal Makepeace. Mr. Jobs lived in New York — a name in the 
plural rather suggestive of city-contracts. Our Mr. Job is a family man, and pro- 
bably owns railroad stock. Messrs. Tittle, Blank, and Cyfer, have insignificant names. 
Mr. Blankman and Mr. Aught live in New York. At Philadelphia I find families of 
Blanck, Blank and Blankman, two families of Dito, and six families of Null. . . . 
Mr. Earless was sued in 1857. Mr. Mear made a deed in December, 1856. More is 
very common. Mr. Most appears in the Directory. Mr. Overmore was admitted a 
freeman in 1671 ; and Mr. Climax himself lives in New York. Messrs. Very and 
Welcombe appear extremely cordial ; while, on the other hand, Messrs. Nay, Nott, 
Nevers, Nerey, Naromore, Denio, and Miss Repell, seem quite the reverse. Mr. 
Denyer lives at Toronto, C.W. ... In New York are found the names of 
Doolady, Duduit, and Ducom— all implying a pressing request. . . . Alexander 
Garden was a distinguished botanist of the last century. . . . Mr. Cars is a car- 
man ; and Mr. Carty a driver. Pp. 42, 43. 

" Mr. Coache lives at St. John's, C.E. ; Mr. Van at Strathroy, C.W. ; Mr. Still- 
wagon at Toronto." P. 213. 

Mr. Bowditch has a curious chapter on misapprehended, translated, and changed 
surnames ; e. g. : — 

" In 1844, one Joseph Galliano died in Boston, and in our probate records he has 
the alids of Joseph Gallonr-that having been his popular name. Plamboeck, in some 
of our conveyances, became Plumback. These are names in a transition state. A 
foundling named Personne (i. e. nobody) became Mr. Pearson. Jacques Beguin of 
Texas, as we learn from Olmstead, became John Bacon ! Mr. Cisco is sub- treasurer 
of New York. The family originated in a foreigner named John Francisco, who, for 
brevity, voluntarily changed his signature to John F. Cisco. A German named 
Riibsum, who emigrated to Charleston, S.C., became by translation Mr. Turnipseed. 
The Blague family of this country became Blake ; Everedd was altered to Webb ; 
Fitzpen became Phippen. Crowninshield was formerly popularly called Groundsell. 
. . . . A distinguished lawyer of Middlesex county, named Burnside, disliking 
his Christian name, applied for leave to change it ; and, as he wrote a very bad hand, it 
was supposed that he wished to change his surname also into Bu/nside ! The change 
was made accordingly; and after suffering a year's penance, it became again necessary 
to ask legislative aid." Pp. 241, &c. 

In the United Kingdom, when we change a name for another, it is ordinarily at the 
mandate of some testator who has made it a condition of acquiring property, but in 
America the change is often made for the sake of euphony ; thus, a Mr. Samuel Quince 
Whitefoot, disliking the metre of his name, deprived it of its final foot, and now, under 
legislative sanction, he writes himself S. Q. White. "An entire family of Corporal in 
1847 laid aside that rank ; and a very numerous family of Vest divested themselves in 
1848. Mr. Thomas Jest, in 1850, decided that it was no joke to retain such a name 
any longer." In these last cases the change was for something totally difTerent; not 
the mere adding of a letter, or the omission of a disliked syllable. As the example 
has now been fairly set, it is probable that in time the Americans will have the purest 



family nomenclature in the world — all such coarse and indelicate names as those 
alluded to by Hood being for ever laid aside, since the American " party " has a 
voice and a veto : — 

" A name — if the party hatl a voice, 
What mortal would he a Bugg hy choice, 
As a Hogg, a Grubh, or a Chubb rejoice, 

Or any such nauseous blazon ? 
Not to mention many a vulgar name, 
That •would make a door-plate blush for shame. 
If door-plates were not so brazen I" 

One more extract, exhibiting some harmony between the name and the calling of 
the bearers, must bring these humorous passages to a close. 

" Rev. IVIr. Service reads the Methodist-Episcopal service at Lynden, C.W. ; and 
Rev. Mr. Rally, of Haysville, C.W., manifestly belongs to the church-militant. Mr. 
Lappe, of New-Hamburg, C.W., is a shoemaker ; Miss Vest, of Toronto, a dress- 
maker ; Mr. Vizard, of Peterborough, an attorney ; and Mr. Supple, of Pembroke, a 
member of the provincial Parliament, 1857. Messrs. Carveth, of Port Hope, C.W., 
and Mr. Gash, of Dunville, C.E., are butchers. Mrs. Lone is a widow at Oriquois, 
C.E. Mrs. Cinnamon, of Kingston, C.W., keeps a grocery. The Messrs. Broadwater, 
of Philadelphia, are fishermen. Mr. Brick, of that city, is a mason ; and Mr. Cart- 
man, a labourer. Mr. Bricklayer, of Montreal, is a labourer ; Mr. Rumble, of 
Clinton, C.W., a wagon-maker; and IMr. Saddler, of Adelaide, C.W., a harness- 
maker. Mr. Builder, of Caledonia, C. W., is merely a cabinet-maker. [On the other 
hand] Mr. Spurgeon, of Toronto, C.W., has cure of soles, not of souls ; and Mr. 
Hatter, of Ottawa, C.W., is a shoemaker. Mrs. Bloomy is a school-mistress at St. 
Zepherine, C.E. — an employment decidedly unfavourable to the complexion." 

Mr. Bowditch's Lidex Nominum of 114 pages is a philological curiosity. 

In 1857 appeared a small work, entitled The Family Names of the Folks of 
Shields traced to their Origin. By William Brockie. South Shields, 8vo., pp. 113. In 
this ingenious little essay, the author classifies the names of the people of North and 
South Shields, two rising towns, situated respectively in the counties of Northumber- 
land and Durham, in the following manner : — 

Local — 

I. — Anglo-Northumbriaxs. From Northumberland, Durham, York, Cumberland, 

Westmoreland, Lancashire. 
n. — ScoTo- Northumbrians. From cos. Linlithgow, Edinburgh, Haddington, 

Berwick, Roxburgh, Selkirk, Dumfries. 
IH. — Old English. From ' England Proper,' that is " south of the Humber and 

east of the Dee and Wye." 
IV. — Britons of Strathcluyd. From cos. Peebles, Lanark, Renfrew, Ayr, 

Wigton, Dumbarton. 
V. — Scots, Picts, and Saxons. From beyond the Forth. 
VI. — Orcadians. From Orkney and Shetland. 
VII. — South Britons. From Wales, Cornwall, and the Isle of Man. 
VIH.— Irish. 
IX. — French. 

X. — Local Najies not identified. 

XI. — Gentile or National Names, as English, Fleming, Scott, &c. 
XII. — Generic Local Names, as Burn, Craggs, Croft, Holm. 
XIII. — Natural Objects. Names expressive of these, from the Anglo-Saxon, 

Scottish, French, Irish, Welsh, Gaelic, Danish, Dutch, Italian, and Greek 

languages. Some of the etymologies are of a very doubtful kind. 
XIV. — From Objects, such as tools, weapons, costume, parts of ships and houses. 
XV. — From Occupations and Professions. 
XVI. XVn. XVin. XIX.--For£ign Names. 


XX. — Patbontmics, or names derived from those of parents or ancestors. 

These are estimated at 263. 
XXI.— Descriptive. (From personal, moral, and other qualities.) 

This brochure is interesting and amusing, though some of its statements are open 
to animadversion. I have obtained several useful hints from it. 

In the same year appeared, from the American press, An Etymological 
Dictionary of Family and Christian Names; with an Essay on their Derivation and 
Import. By William Arthur, M.A. New York, small 8vo., pp. 300. This is ap- 
parently the production of a young writer, from whom better things may be 

By far the most important of these recent works on Family Nomenclature 
appeared in 1858, under the title of English Surnames^ and their Place in the 
Teutonic Family. By Robert Ferguson. London, f -cap. 8vo., pp. 430. I forgive the 
author his small trespass in having plagiarized, in part, the title of my former work, 
in consideration of the pleasure and advantage I have derived from his pages, numer- 
ous quotations from which will be found in this volume. The following Table of 
Contents will convey some idea of the nature of IVIr. Ferguson's labours. 

Chapter — 

I. — Introduction. 

II. —Names signifying Man and Woman. 

m. — Names derived from, or connected with, Teutonic Mythology. 
IV. — Names derived from, or connected with, Hero Worship. 
V. — Names taken from Animals. 
VI. —Names taken from Trees, Plants, Metals, &c. 
VII. — Names taken from War, Arms, and Warlike Occupations. 
VIII. — Names expressive of Peace, Friendship, and Affection. 
IX. — Names derived from Relationship. 
X. — Names derived from Nationality. 
XL — Old Saxon and Anglo-Saxon names. 
XII. — Scandinavian Names. 
XIII. — Patronymics and Diminutives. 
XIV. — Names derived from Physical Characteristics. 
XV. — Names derived from Mental and Moral Qualities. 
XVI. — Names derived from OflSce or Occupation. 
XVII. — Names from the Sea and the Sea Life. 
X VIII.— Local Surnames. 
XIX. — General Observations. 
XX. — Conclusion. 
&c., &c. 

So many references to these prolusions will be found throughout my pages that 
my estimate of them will be inferred from such frequent notice. Like the rest of us 
who explore the mazes of nominal etymology, the author sometimes falls into a bog or 
quagmire, visible enough to all eyes but his own ; and he might perhaps be justly 
charged with giving too great a prominence to the Scandinavian element in oar Nomen- 
clature, an error in which he is evidently a disciple of Worsaae ; while his researches 
into the history of " the Northmen in Cumberland and Westmoreland " have naturally 
given his mind a further bias in that direction. But as he justly observes in the pre- 
face — " The field is a wide one, and there will be much to add — it is a difficult one, 
and there will be much to correct." " I hope to have the credit," he continues, •* of 
having fairly grappled with the subject, and of having done something to lift up the 
veil which hangs over our English names." 

Last, and least in bulk, not the least in amusing interest, of recent publications 
on this subject, is a brochure of 72 pages published in 1859, entitled Surnames 


Metrically Arranged and Classified. By Thomas Clark, Esq. Mr. Clark's arrange- 
ment of the names is into forty- six groups, each representing a certain set of objects 
or ideas, with little reference to etymology. Several quotations from the work will be 
found in this volume. 

Here I close my cursory review of what has been done in the English language 
in the way of classifying and illustrating Family Nomenclature. More elaborate pro- 
ductions are spoken of as forthcoming, and there are grounds for predicting, that at 
no distant period this department of philology will assume proportions, and achieve 
an importance, which twenty years ago were not even dreamed of. As I have ever, 
throughout my literary career, endeavoured to observe the maxim Suum Cuique, so I 
hope that all after-coming cultivators of this curious and extensive field, will be will- 
ing to admit my claim to having been the first, since the days of the illustrious 
Camden, who attempted to reduce to a method the farrago of terms by which the 
men and women of our happy country are distinguished among the nations of the 


©f ti)e ^utiject at large. 

N my Essay on English Surnames, I have entered somewhat fully into the 

history and classification of our family nomenclature ; and it is unnecessary 

here to go over the same ground. I shall therefore content myself with 

some new illustrations of the subject, in the same order as was pursued in 

the former work. 

1. Antiquity of Surnames. — I see no reason for departing from the year 1000, 
as the proximate date for the assumption of family names. The practice commenced 
in Normandy, and gradually extended itself into England, Scotland, and Ireland. I 
have assumed, that although the use of surnames may, on the whole, be regarded as 
one of the importations of the Norman Conquest, yet they were occasionally heredi- 
tary among the Anglo-Saxons at a date anterior to that event, and many generations 
before the general adoption of family designations. This is pretty satisfactorily proved 
by a document in the Cottonian MSS. quoted in Sharon Turner's History of the 
Anglo-Saxons. This document (No. 1356 in Cod. Dipl.) has no date, but there can 
be no doubt of its being earlier than 1066. It states that — " Hwita Hatte was a 
keeper of bees in Haethfelda ; and Tate Hatte^ his daughter, was the mother of 
Wulsige, the shooter ; and Lulle Hatte^ the sister of Wulsige, Hehstan had for his 
wife in Wealadene. Wifus, and Dunne, and Seoloce were born in Haethfelda. Duding 
HaMe^ the son of Wifus, is settled at Wealadene ; and Ceolmund Hatte^ the son of 
Dunne, is also settled there ; and ^theleah Hatte^ the son of Seoloce, is also there ; 


and Tate Hatte^ the sister of Cenwald, Maeg hath for his wife at Weligan ; and 
Ealdelm, the son of Herethrythe, married the daughter of Tate. Werlaff Hatte^ the 
father of "Werstan, was the rightful possessor of Hsethfelda." Hence Mr. Ferguson 
remarks, that the existing HaM is probably the "oldest hereditary surname we have 
on record." 

2. Local Surnames. — To be named after one's own landed possessions seems to 
have been an inevitable result of the feudal system. The Norman Conquerors, who 
had in many instances used the territorial Dc, introduced the fashion into England. 
Camden's remark that there is no "village in Normandy that gave not denomination 
to some family in England'' is justly followed by another, that "every town, village, 
or hamlet in England and Scotland hath afforded names to families." 

This is a large subject, and demands a separate essay : but I can only touch 
upon one or two of its more prominent points. 

While comparatively few existing British families can indicate the very manor in 
Normandy, in England, or in Scotland, from whence their founders, in the eleventh, 
twelfth, thirteenth, or fourteenth century, borrowed their names, there are multitudes 
who have no direct proof of being territorially associated with the places whose names 
they bear, even though there is strong probability in many cases that such was the 
fact. In numberless instances the founder of a surname was merely a resident at the 
place from which it was borrowed, and not its feudal proprietor. This is especially 
the case in names derived from considerable towns. 

Though local surnames, as above intimated, have been borrowed from every part 
of England, the practice was probably most rife in Cornwall, where the Tre, Pol, Pen, 
&c., seem tx) have been used almost to the exclusion of the other species of names. 
This is remarkable, as in the other Celtic portions of these realms — Wales, Ireland, 
the Highlands of Scotland, &c. — the patronymical surname was almost always pre- 
ferred, and the Ap, the O', and the Mac were the prefixes instead of the Anglo-Norman 
De. In the Cumbrian province territorial surnames appear, however, as in Cornwall, 
to have been in favour. Out of a list of 55 Cumberland families extinct before A.D. 
1500, thirty-nine took their designations from the places where they were settled.* 

My original intention was, to exclude from this work all British local surnames. 
The design being chiefly etymological, I thought I should forward that object very little 
in informing the reader that ' York ' was derived from the city, and * Essex ' from the 
county, so called. But on mature consideration I came to the conclusion, that though 
the meaning of names was my main object of research, a natural curiosity might 
exist on the part of the reader to know when ft particular surname first appeared in 
ancient records, and that I might thus usefully combine its history with its etymology. 
Besides, it is not always easy, without a considerable acquaintance with gazetteers, and 
other topographical books, to determine what are, or what are not, local names. Who 
for example, not having heard of some ten obscure localities which hardly find a place 
upon any map, would take the well-known surnames Ilartshorne, Blenkinsopp, Fare- 
well, Inkpen, Ellerker, Blencowe, Clewer, Antrobus, Inskip, and Charley, to be terri- 
torial designations ; yet this is undoubtedly the case. 

The number of local surnames is immense ; but while a large proportion of them 
can be identified with their localities, an equal, if not a larger, one cannot be so identi- 
fied by means of the ordinary topographical dictionaries. A careful exam'mation of 
the indices locorum of our best county histories would shew the origin of many of 
these from extinct manors and petty territorial possessions ; and no inconsiderable nura- 
* Ferguson's Northmen in Cumberland, iic. 


ber of them have either lost their designations or corrupted them almost beyond iden- 
tification. And it may be observed as a rule, that the more trivial the locality which has 
given rise to a surname — a poor hamlet, perhaps, or a farm of small dimensions — the 
more likely the first assumer of the designation is to have been the owner of such 
locality. Every topographical inquirer must have remarked the number of surnames 
that have originated from these, humble possessions ; and how many have either become 
utterly extinct or have been transferred to other, and often remote, districts. The 
proportion of English families who still enjoy possession of the lands from which their 
surnames are derived, as Ashburnham of Ashburnham, Wombwell of Womb well, 
Polwhele of Polwhele, is infinitessimally small. The same remark applies to the 
Scottish families who properly write themselves ' of that Hk.* 

Besides these more regular local names, there are two other classes which are 
derived from places ; namely — 1. Those which indicate the country or district from 
which the family came, as Ireland, Maine, Cornwall (with the adjective forms, Irish, 
Maunsel, Cornwallis) &c. ; and 2. Those which are borrowed from the situation^ rather 
than the name, of the original bearer's residence ; as Hill, Wood, Tree, originally At- 
Hill, At-Wood, At-Tree, &c. See this class of names largely treated of in English 
Surnames, vol. i. pp. 59 — 91. 

I may observe here, that in a few of the many cases in which I have failed to 
identify local surnames with localities, I have proved them to belong to this class by 
giving the etymology of the word. 

3. Surnames derived from Trades, Occupations, and Offices. — I have 
little to remark here, beyond what has been said in English Surnames. Several 
names of this class occur in Domesday Book, shewing their early use among the 
Normans. Some of these, as Carpentarius, Faber, Barbitonsor, may be regarded as 
descriptions^ rather than names, though Carpenter, Smith, and Barber afterwards 
became hereditary names. The oflScial names Pincerna, Dapifer, &c., usually aliased 
other and more regular names, and were not in a strict sense of the word hereditary, 
though the corresponding designations Botiler, Steward, and the like, afterwards 
became so. But, as I have sufficiently shewn elsewhere, surnames were in a very un- 
fixed condition in the early generations after the Conquest. Sometimes one and the 
same individual would bear three surnames — one territorial, another patronymical, and 
the third official. The powerful Richard, son of Gilbert Crispin, Earl of Brionne, in 
Normandy, and Earl of Clare, in England, bears Jive names in Domesday, viz. : — 

1. Richard de Tonebridge, from his lordship of that name in Kent. 

2. Richard Benfeld. 

3. Richard de Bene/acta. 

4. Richard de Clare^ from the Suffolk lordship. 

5. Richard Fitz- Gilbert, from his father's baptismal name.* 

It would seem that, among the Anglo-Saxons, words designating employments 
were sometimes used as we now employ baptismal or Christian names. For example, 
a Coleman (or Colemannus) and a Wodeman are found among the under-tenants of 
Domesday. Whether these persons had been baptized by those names, or whether 
they were, by occupation, respectively a charcoal-burner and a woodman, does not 

While surnames remained irregular and unfixed, as they did among the common 

people, throughout a great part of the middle ages, it is often difficult to determine 

whether the affix is a surname, or whether it is simply a descriptive epithet. It was 

sometimes both, especially as a particular vocation was frequently pursued hereditarily. 

* Dugdale's Baronage. Kelham's Domesday. 


In the reign of Edward I., we find a dancing girl called Maude Makejoy, which evi- 
dently refers to her occupation. Much later, temp. Henry VI., 1 have seen the name 
Renneawaie (Run- away) applied to a perfuga; but the most curious instance of this 
sort is to be found so late as 15 Edward IV., in an extract from a record book of 
the manor of Hatfield Broad-Oak, co. Essex, which shows how a poacher upon 
the manor, who bore the name of * Partridge-taker,* from his illicit occupation, was fined 
twelve pence for his offence : — 

" Item dlcit, quod Robertoa Partrychetaker intravit gareniam hujus manerii, et in eadem cepit perdrieet, 
et illas asportavit, sine licentifi Domini."* 


rationale of this class of names has been discussed in Eng. Sum., vol. i. pp. 139 — 148 ; 
and my remarks there, and in various articles in the present work, are sufficient on 
this division of our subject. 

5. Surnames derived from Baptismal or Personal Names. — This most 
fertile source of family names has received due attention in my former work ; and I 
have only one or two further illustrations to offer. 

To any one who will examine this dictionary, few things will be more obvious 
than that a large number of modern surnames are identical with Anglo-Saxon personal 
names before the Conquest. This may appear to be no more remarkable than that 
the Celtic names of Ireland and Scotland deprived of O' or Mac, or the Anglo- 
Norman names despoiled of Fitz, or the Welsh names destitute of Ap, should have 
remained in our family nomenclature — yet I think there is a difference between these 
really patronymical forms and those old Teutonic designations; because the latter 
would more naturally have assumed the desinence ing (more rarely sunij), which 
would have adhered, and become permanent. My theory is this : — 

For several generations after the in-coming of the Normans, the Anglo-Saxon 
race, down- trodden by their imperious conquerors, had (with few notable exceptions) 
small consideration as to their names — little more, it would appear, than their fellow 
burthen-bearers, the horse and the bullock. But when some of them, by force of 
character, emerged from what might with truth be called the common herd, they 
would assert for themselves the distinction of a Twrn de famille, and emulate the 
Norman example. It is not difficult to imagine one of these adopting an argument 
like the following : " Well, though I have been a serf, I have purchased my freedom, 
and, as a free man, I am determined to resume as much as I can of the social position 
which my family, under the Norman sway, have lost. My great-great-grandfather, who 
possessed the lands upon which I have till lately been a mere chattel, fell at Hastings, 
bravely defending his country's liberties. He was called Wulsi, that being his only 
name. Now, my name is Edward ; but, as many Edwards still remain in servitude, 
I am anxious to distinguish myself as a free Englishman from those unhappy indi- 
viduals, and I will therefore adopt the additional name of Wulsi, and call myself 
Edward Wulsi ; and all my posterity shall be known after our common forefather as 
Wulsis." By this kind of ancestor- worship, it is highly probable that the old pre- 
Norman nomenclature has in numerous cases l>een handed down to the present day. 

Mr. Ferguson observes, that it may be a question whether the epithets of Teutonic 
antiquity — the " surnames of illustrious men may not sometimes, on the principle of 
hero-worship, have been adopted by other men in after times as surnames, or even in 
some cases as baptismal names. We have a few names which correspond with the 
snmames borne by distinguished personages, long before the time when surnames 

* Inf. W. Clayton, Esq. 


became hereditary." The instances cited by Mr. F. are Ironside, Barfoot, Lightfoot, 
Ludbrock, and Barnacle. In this connection see the articles Robynhod and Littlejohn 
in the present volume. 

Although I cannot agree with M. Salverte * that a moiety of family names are 
derived from baptismal appellations — at least in the British Islands — this is indisput- 
ably one of the largest som-ces of these appellatives. This will be apparent if we 
reflect that not only has nearly every " font-name " become a surname per *e, but also 
in its various patronymical, or rather Jilial forms and its nicked, or abbreviated modifi- 
cations. A reference to the article William in this work, and to what I have already 
said in English Surnames, vol. i. p. 166, will show how copious a source of nomen- 
clature this has been. The Irish, Gaelic, and Welsh surnames, as will be seen 
elsewhere, are almost exclusively of this kind. 

Under the head Patronymics and Diminutives^ Mr. Ferguson has the following 
judicious observations : — " Of the two Teutonic patronymics, ing and son^ common in 
English names, the former is more properly Germanic, the latter Scandinavian. 1 . 
Ing or inger signifies son, offspring, being cognate with the English young. It was 
discontinued about the time of the Conquest, and consequently all the names in which 
it appears are carried back to Anglo-Saxon times. In some few cases, however, the 
termination ing in proper names may not be from this origin, but rather local, from 
ing, a meadow.f 2. The termination son is a characteristic feature of all the Scandi- 
navian countries, while in Germany, on the other hand, it is of comparatively rare 
occurrence. So well is this distinction understood, that a writer on the ' Nationality 
and Language in the Duchy of Sleswick and South Jutland,' advances the frequency 
of names ending in son as an argument for the Danish character of the population." 
Too much stress ought not, however, to be laid upon this termination to prove the 
nationality of the bearer, since in England it is aflSxed to Christian names of every 
origin, as I have stated under the article Son in this dictionary. 

Mr. Dixon remarks that the equivalent of our English son is in Germany sohn^ 
often corrupted to son and sen^ and in Holland zooti, also generally changed to son^ sen^ 
and se, or abbreviated to z. 

6. The Anima.l and Vegetable Kingdoms have supplied a rich variety of 
family names. See the articles Birds, Quadrupeds, Fishes, Trees and Plants, &c. In 
English Surnames, vol. 1, p. 186, I have given a list of names identical with the desig- 
nations of Minerals. ]Vir. Clark, with his usual ingenuity, adduces a more copious 
one : — 

" We've Agate, Allum, Brass, 

Chalk, Copper, Crystal, Flint, and Glass ; 
Slate, Iron, Freestone, Sand, Clay, Mould, 
Lime, Lias, Pe'svter, Silver, Gold ; 
Stone, Gamett, Emery, Argent, Nickel, 
Talk, JeweU, Jasper, Brick, and Brickell ; 
Salt, Ruby, Winstone, Ore, and Nodes, 
Gravel and Coal — by wagon loads ; 
And lastly, Diamond, Turn, and Zincke." 

But the curiosity of this catalogue is, that scarcely a single name " means what it 
says." They are principally derived from localities, and several are known modifica- 
tions of baptismal names. 

7. To what I have said respecting the small class of surnames derived from 
Symbols, such as the charges of the Armorial Shield, the Signs of Innkeepers and 

* Essai sur les Noms, &c. 

t I believe that in mami, if not most cases, the termination ing denotes a local origin, and ranks with ham, 
i<KT, TON, &c. It signifies a meadow. But when the ing occurs in the middle of the name of a place, as in 
BeddfTisrham, Willingrton, Possingrworth, it is the Saxon filial: thus Beddiugham, or rather Bedingham, signifies 
the ham, or home, of the inga, or sons, of Beda, or Bede. 


Tradesmen, &c., I have nothing to add, except that I should be disposed rather to 
limit than to extend it. Compare, for instance, what, following Mr. Montagu's " Study 
of Heraldry," I have said in English Surnames, i. 195-6., respecting the name Septvahs 
with what is stated in the present volume. 

8. Several new illustrations of surnames, supposed to be derived from the SociAii 
Bbiations, Periods or Time, Age, &c., will be found scattered through this volume ; 
but in the article Times and Seasons it will be seen that many names apparently 
from this source belong to other categories. 

9. Touching surnames indicative of RrDicuLE and Contempt, I have only to 
remark here, that this kind of nomenclature was largely imported into England in 
Norman times. Among early designations which were anything but complimentary, 
but which adhered to descendants, and were borne in the XII. and succeeding 
centuries — some even remaining to our own limes — the following three classes may be 
adduced ; viz., those derived, — 

a. From dangerous or ill-reputed beasts, such as Urso, Purcell, Machell, (Mal- 
chien). Lupus (Lovel), Maulovel, Asinus (L'Asne); Anglice^ Bear, Pig, Evil-dog, 
Wolf, Bad-wolf, Ass, &c. 

h. From personal deformities, such as Malemains, Malebranche, Foljambe, 
Tortesmains, Maureward, Vis-de-Leu, Front-de-Boeuf ; Anglice^ Bad-hands, Bad-arm, 
Bad-leg, Twisted-hands, Squinter, Wolf's-face, and Bullock' s-head. 

c. From moral defects, such as Malvoisin, Mauduit, Mautenant ; Anglice^ Bad- 
neighbour, Ill-conducted, Faithless (?), &c. 

Analogous surnames of indigenous growth, and later date, are widely scattered 
over the pages of this volume. 

10. With regard to surnames apparently relating to the Virtues and other 
Abstract Ideas, I have found occasion to modify some of the statements which I 
formerly advanced. 

11. Surnames identical in form with Oaths and Exclamations, though a very 
limited class, are more numerous than I formerly considered them to be, as will be 
seen on perusal of the dictionary. 

12. On the family names said to have been borrowed from Historical Inci- 
dents, and to which I have devoted the first chapter of Vol. II. of English Surnames, 
I have bestowed a considerable amount of criticism, and the result is, that they are, at 
least in numerous instances, derived from much more probable, though less romantic, 
sources. See, for example, Lockhart, Dalziel, Napier, Tyrwhitt, Skene, Erskine, and 
many other articles in the present volume. 

13. Foreign Surnames naturalized in these islands have caused me much 
trouble, from the difficulty which exists of determining when an immigrating family 
may be truly said to have become denizens of the United Kingdom. This by no 
means depends upon length of residence ; for while there are many (especially those 
connected with merchandise), who, though long among us, are not of us, there are, on 
the other hand, still more who, albeit their settlement is recent, may be reckoned 
among the truest-hearted of Britons. I have endeavoured to follow the middle 
course, of neither hastily admitting, nor of unfairly rejecting, surnames of foreign 
origin, according to the means of judging which I possessed. Without a range of 
enquiries far wider than was within my power, it has been impossible to decide accu- 
rately on this subject. You cannot pass through the streets of any great town — of 
London especially — without remarking the large number of foreign names which are 
seen on every hand, though whether those names belong to recent settlers, or to 
families of several generations' standing, nothing short of elaborate investigation could 


decide. In the London Directory for the year 1852, page 839, no less than fifty one 
traders, in consecutive order, bear foreign names ! These are principally Germans. 

Whatever my sins of omission on this score may have been (those of commission 
are not to be found), I trust that few of those naturalized names which have adorned 
our annals in literature, science, arts, politics, or war, have been overlooked. 

14. The Corruptions which hundreds of our family names have undergone 
tend to baffle alike the genealogical and the etymological inquirer. These mainly proceed 
from two causes — first, the unfixed orthography of ancient times ; and secondly, the 
desire which seems inherent in most minds of attaching a signification to names. In 
addition to many other instances occurring in these pages, I may mention that Shire- 
cliffe has become Shirtley ; Ollerenshaw, Wrench; Molineux, Mull; Debenham, 
Deadman; Wainhouse, Venus; Sibthorpe, Tharp; MacLeod, Ellicott; Lenthall, 
Lentern; Delamond, Dolhjmount; Pasley, Parsley; Gillingham, Gillicum; Satherley, 
Saturday; Pickford, Pick/at; Clavesley, Classey ; Thurgod, Thoroughgood ; Talbois, 
Tallboys. JMr. Ferguson well observes that " the tendency of corruption is almost 
invariably towards a meaning, and not away from one" — because people like to know 
what they are talking about, and hence our uneducated folk call asparagus 
" sparrow-grass," and the passiflora a "passion-flower."* 

The inexact orthography of the middle ages has led to much error and misappre- 
hension, as might be expected when the name of Shirecliffe is found spelt in fifty-five, 
and that of Mainwaring in one hundred and thirty-one, different ways. But another 
cause of uncertainty has arisen from what may be called the variations rather than 
corruptions of names, as when in deeds executed by the same person, he is called 
indifferently Chapman and Mercator, or Smith and Faber. In deeds of one and the 
same person, whose name would now be written John Church, or John Kirke, and who 
flourished in Derbyshire in the reign of Edward III., the following variations occur : — 

John atte Schirche, 
John at Chyrch, 
John del Kyrke, 
Johannes de Kyrke, 
John Othekyrke, 
John at Kyrke.f 

In Scotland still greater irregularities prevailed, and do still prevail, as when 

kinsmen write themselves Ballantyne, Bannatyne, Ballenden, and Belenden. The 

following extract of a letter, addressed to me by Mr. Alexander Gardyne, will suffi- 
ciently attest this want of uniformity in the orthography of family names : — 

" I have always prided myself upon bearing a very uncommon black-letter looking surname, 
which in our part of the country — say Forfarshire — is clipped down in common parlance to Gairn. 
During the greater part of a somewhat advanced life I have been content to call myself Gardyne, 
and to receive the aforesaid equivalent for it ; but having recently made a pilgrimage to Father- 
land, after many years absence from Europe, it has, unhappily, resulted in placing me somewhat 
in the position of Jacob Faithful, with this difference, however, in my favour, that whereas 
Maryatt's hero was in search of a Father, with me it was only a Grandfather ; the imperfect regis- 
tration of the parish authorities of Glammis having so mystified that interesting relative to me, 
as to bafiie my endeavours to fix his identity, to say nothing of the suspicion it has awakened in 
my mind that as regards the name I have so long borne, I have, in nautical phrase, been sailing 
' under false colours.' I may here state that my worthy parent was gathered to his fathers long 
before I felt any great curiosity about the Gardynes of the Nether Middleton, in the Glen of 
Ogilvie, and that, moreover, having no relatives of my own name beyond an aged mother and a 
maiden sister — being, in fact, the last of my race and a bachelor to boot, my sources of information 
as to the history of my family were so few in number, and so scant in detail, that I considered it 
would be advisable, before seeking the immediate locality of my ancestors, to check oflf the genea- 
logical scraps in my possession, principally of an oral and legendary character, with that never-to- 
be-doubted record, the Parish Register. 

" In carrying out this resolution I realized ' the pursuit of knowledge under difiiculties,' for, 

* An old sailor once told me, almost in the same breath, that he had " sarved" on board the Billy-Bougli-un 
(Bellerophon) ; and that he had seen Muster Abraham Packer (Ibrahim Pacha). 
t Inf. Rev. J. Eastwood. 


on making known my wants to the functionary of Glammis, and furnishing my name, he drew 
forth a shabby volume, and therefrom responses of such a startling character, as to leave me 
in considerable doubt between my belief in the oracular qualitj' usually ascribed to such records, 
and my own identity. The first entry turned up by the worthy interpreter, and assigned to my 
family, was the birth, Feb. 6, 1767, of 

• Margaret Gairden, lawful daughter of Alex. Gairden, Nether Middleton.' 
The date of this event and everything else but the orthography of the name agreeing, I was 
obliged to accept it for what it undoubtedly was — the registry of my father's elder sister. Mutter- 
ing to myself that here was, at all events, something like an approach to a reconciliation of my 
written name of Gardyne with the pronounced one of Gairn, the next turned up by the old gentle- 
man and presented to me, as one of the said family, was thus recorded : — 

'Born Oct. 30, 1768, David Dalgaims, lawful son of Alex. Dalgairns, Nether Middleton.' 
'Beheading' this, I got my pronounced name at once ; but what is more surprising is, that on referring 
to my own memoranda I was satisfied that the said David Dalgairns was my man father^ the 
brother of Margaret Gairden, and both the children of the worthy farmer at Nether Middleton, 
calling himself, or rather being called by the sessions clerk of the day both Gairden and Dalgairns ; 
and, as if this confusion were not enough, the said David Dalgairns bearing himself in later life, 
and handing down to the next generation, the name of Gardyne ! " 

My correspondent goes on to inform me that he has discovered the additional 
forms of Garden, Gam, Gardin, Gardne, Game., Dalgam, Dalgamer^ Dalgardns, 
Dalgardyne, and Dalgama^ all springing of course from Gahden, with or without its 
medieval prefix Del. And I may add, from the information of Mr. William Jerdan 
M.R.S.L., &c., that his family and that of Jardine were identical, both names being 
additional products of the fertile Garden ! 

15. In my former work will be found a chapter on Changed Surnames. To 
what is there said, I would add a few words on the practice prevalent in the middle 
ages, of ecclesiastics, especially the regulars, forsaking their ancestral names, and 
adopting either the name of the place in which they were born, or that of some dis- 
tinguished angel, saint, or father of the church. Being dviliter mortui, dead to the 
world, they assumed, with their spiritual life, a new name.* The following is a 
remarkable set of instances : — 

On October 17, 1537, the religious fraternity of Winchcombe, co. Gloucester, 
consisted of the abbot and seventeen monks, who, as parties to a document of small 
importance executed that day, sign themselves by their assmned or spiritual names. 
On December 3, 1539, little more than two years later, when they executed their deed 
of surrender to Henry VIII., laying aside these designations, they sign in their secular 
or civil names, as shown below : — 

Bond of Oct. 17, 1537. 
Ricardus Ancelmus, Abbas 
Johannes Augustinus, Prior 
Willelmus Omersley 
Johannes Gabriel 
Ricardus Angelus 
Willelmus IMaurus 
Willelmus Overbury 
Hugo Egwinus 
Ricardus Barnardus 
Ricardus ^lartinus 
Georgius Lconardus 
Johannes Anthonius 
Gulielmus Hieronymus 
Christoferus Benedictus 
Walterus Aldelnius 
Richardus Michahel 
Willelmus Kenelmus 
Ricardus A-mbrosius 

Surrender, Dec. 3, 1539. 
Richard Mounslow, last Abbot 
John Hancock, Prior 
William Craker 
John Whalley 
Richard Freeman 
William Blossom 
William Bradley 
Hugh Cowper 
Ricnard Boidon 
Richard Parker 
George Foo 

William Trentham 
Christopher ('hawnfut 
Wttlt<?r Cowper 
Richard WiHlams 
William Howard 
Richard Banister.f 

• Alban Butler remarks that thla Is done, " partly to cxpreM thdr obligation to become new men, and partly 
to pnt themselTcs luider the special patronage of certain uints, whose examplea they propoee to tbcmselvea for 
their models."— XirM of the 8atnt$, June 29. 

t Commanicated to the Arcb»ologicaI Journal, by Albert Way, Esq., MJL, F.SJL 



My former researches were devoted almost exclusively to English family names. 
The present volume includes those of the other ' nationalities,' which with England 
make up the United Kingdom. A few remarks on Scotch, Welsh, and Irish surnames 
therefore seem necessary here. 


These range themselves under two classes ; those of the Highlands, and those of 
the Lowland Counties. The surnames of the Celtic, or Highland, population are 
chiefly of the patronymical class, and known by the prefix Mac. A large number of 
these, through the courtesy of gentlemen who had taken the trouble to collect them, 
I have been enabled to print in the dictionary. With these names I have etymologi- 
cally little to do. They are simply Christian names with the patronymical prefix, and 
it is no part of my plan to explain those designations, which belong to a more recon- 
dite branch of etymology than I have yet investigated, and about which even Gaelic 
philologists are frequently " wide as the poles asunder."* Had I followed the advice 
of some of my esteemed friends and correspondents beyond the Tweed, I should have 
omitted Scottish surnames altogether from this work. However profane the act of a 
Southron's meddling with the northern nomenclature may be considered, with me it 
was a matter of all but absolute necessity that I should bring in as many as I could 
collect of Scottish surnames, for the simple reason that they are borne by many thou- 
sands of English families whose ancestors, at a period more or less remote, crossed the 
Cheviots and the Tweed, and became de facto Englishmen. What, I ask, would be 
thought of a Dictionary of English Surnames that did not admit within its covers the 
names of Stuart, Campbell, Murray, Macpherson, Bruce, Douglas, and Erskine ! 

Scottish surnames are doubtless a difficult subject to deal with, and this principally 
by reason of the system of clanship so long prevalent in that kingdom. In Scotland 
whoever joined a particular clan, no matter what his position or descent, assumed the 
surname of his chief, and this was accepted as an act of loyalty. In England, had 
any retainer of a feudal baron presumed to do such a thing, he would soon have found 
himself at the bottom of the deepest dungeon of the castle ! 

A clan^ therefore, is a very different thing from a family. When the system of 
Clanship originated is unknown. Nothing certain is known of it by documentary evi- 
dence before the year 1450, although the genealogies of many who were then chiefs of 
clans may be traced to much earlier periods. See Skene, passim. It is probable that 
no two enumerations of clans would correspond with each other, and the whole sub- 
ject is involved in considerable obscurity, as their historian himself frankly confesses. 
The following list of clans is quoted as one of the latest that have appeared in 
print : — 












Mac Donnell 


Mac Farlane 


Mac Dougal 


Mac Gregor 


Mac Intosh 


Mac Kay 


Mac Kenzie 


Mac Kinnon 

Mac Donald 

Mac Lachlan 

Mac Lean 
Mac Leod 
Mac Nab 
Mac Neil 
Mac Pherson 
Mac Quarrie 
Mac Rae 

* In a few instances I have given the etymons of Gaelic names as supplied to me by the courtesy of corres- 
pondents. If they should be found incorrect, the fault belongs to Celtic rather than to South-Saxon 


Murray OHphant Rose Sinclair 

Ogilvie Robertson Ross Stewart 

Sutherland * 

Some of these bear undoubted evidence of being, at least as to their names, any- 
thing but of Celtic origin, as Mr. Skene has sufficiently shown. 

The Lowland and Border clans were formed in imitation of the Gaelic, but the 
family names of these districts are in principle and classification precisely analogous to 
those of England. 

The introduction of surnames into Lowland Scotland seems, as in England, to have 
been chiefly brought about by Norman influence and example. No precise period can 
be assigned for it. As in the case of most fashions, the adoption was gradual. Many 
of the Norman noblesse who had brought family names across the Channel not long 
after the Conquest, transferred themselves to North Britain, and of course did not drop 
those designations into the river Tweed. It is asserted in Father Augustin Hay's 
" Genealogie of the Sainteclairs," that King Malcolm Canmore called a general council 
at Forfar, in 1061, in which he directed his chief subjects, after the custom of other 
nations, to adopt names from their territorial possessions. (Volens ut Primores, quod 
antea non fuerat, aliarum more gentium, a prsediis suis cognomina caperent).f I can- 
not say, however, that I have seen any proof of territorial surnames in Scotland before 
the XII. century, and they are certainly unusual before the XIII. 


The Welsh, like most of the other Celtic nations, adopted Patronymics by way of sur- 
names. The prefix Ap^ applied to the father's baptismal designation, showed the filial 
relation, and was continued through every link of the longest pedigree. Henry VIH. 
discountenanced this imfixed nomenclature, and, during his and the succeeding reigns, 
the name of the father or of some earlier ancestor began to be adopted by gentle 
families. Hence, nearly the whole of the family names of the Principality are derived 
from Christian names ; and hence the great frequency of Jones, Williams, Evans, 
Thomas, Morgan, Davis, &c. 

But, until within quite recent times, say about the beginning of the present cen- 
tury ,'the practice of using simple patronymics prevailed in the southern counties of the 
principality ; in other words the baptismal name of the father was the surname of the 

Thus, if Morgan Richards had three sons; John, William, and Griffith, they 
would be John Morgan, William Morgan, and Griffith Morgan. 

John Morgan's two sons, Peter and James, would be Peter Jones and James Jones. 

William Morgan's two sons, Job and Abel, would be Job Williams and Abel Wil- 

And Griffith Morgan's two sons, Howel and Cadwallader, would be Howell Grif- 
fiths and Cadwallader Griffiths. 

About the year 1825, at the Hereford assizes, a witness in a Welsh cause was ex- 
amined before Mr. Justice Allan Park. His name was John Jones. He was asked if 
he had always gone bv that name, and he said he had. He was then asked whether at 
the time when he lived at Carmarthen, he did not go by the name of Evan Evans, and 

* Folks of Shields, p. 96. 

t 0«u. Sointeclairo, p. 3. See also art. Seton in this Diet. 


to this he replied in the affirmative. This apparent discrepancy was explained to the 
court by Mr. Taunton (afterwards Sir William Taunton, and a Judge of the Court 
of King's Bench), who stated that Evan is the Welsh synonym of John, and Evans 
that of Jones ; and that John Jones might be called indifferently Evan Jones, John 
Evans, or Evan Evans, without any real change of name.* 


These are formed after the Celtic method by the prefixes O' and il/ac, the former 
being, however, by far the most usual. See 6>, in the body of the work. 

The word 0\ signifying grandfather, or more loosely any ancestor, appears to 
have been in use in times of remote antiquity. In some instances the name of the 
progenitor became fixed and stationary as a family name by the addition of this 
prefix so early as the XI. century. This was chiefly in noble and distinguished 
families ; and O'Brien, O'Mahony, O'Donohoe, O' Donovan, O'Dugan may be mentioned 
as examples of surnames adopted at that early period, at the instance of King Brian 
Boru. See Eng. Surn. ii. 67. In some few cases the prefix Mac can be traced to a 
like antiquity. 

These patronymics formed the staple of Irish family nomenclature until the con- 
quest of Ireland by the Anglo-Normans in the reign of Henry II. At that epoch 
many non-Celtic surnames were introduced by the followers of Strongbow, and some 
of their descendants adopting the Irish manners, costumes, and language, became more 
Irish than Irishmen — Hibernis ipsis Hiberniores^ and went so far, especially in the pro- 
vince of Connaught, as to translate their names ; while on the other hand many of the 
Irishmen in more immediate contact with their Conquerors adopted English names. 
The Fitz Geralds, the Butlers, the Costellos, the Naugles, the Gibbons, the Burkes, the 
Carews, the D'Altons, the De Courcys, the Graces, the Husseys, and scores of other 
families, many of whom exhibited a strong Irish nationality, sprang from England at 
and after the period alluded to. 

In 1465 (5. Edward IV.) a legislative enactment took place, commanding the 
Irish who dwelt in the counties of Dublin, Meath, Uriell, and Kildare, to adopt 
" English Surname," either that of a town, as Sutton, Chester, Trym, Corke, Kinsale, 
— that of colour, as White, Blacke, Browne — that of arte or science, as Smith or 
Carpenter— that of office, as Cooke, Butler, and the like. How far this mandate was 
obeyed we know not. Such English Surnames are of course abundant in Ireland, but 
whether many of them can be attributed to legislation is extremely doubtful, since 
there has always been a considerable immigration of English and Scotchmen into the 
sister island, to say nothing of the voluntary adoption of English names in different 

A correspondent (Wm. J. O'Donnavan, Esq.) has furnished me with a list of sur- 
names apparently derived from places in Ireland. The indigenous Irish were prouder 
of the ancestral patronymic than of territorial names, and therefore the number of 
this class is extremely small. And even from that small number deductions must be 
made : First — of those names which are taken from peerage titles, such as Desmond, 
Galtrym, Howthe, Naas, and Swordes, which were but aliases for FitzGerald, Hussey, 
St. Lawrence, FitzGerald, and Croly. Also Kildare, Kilkenny, Ormond, and De^sy : 
Secondly— of those which, though identical with names of places in Ireland, have really 

* Inf. F. A. Carrington, Esq. See some curious anecdotes on this subject in English Surnames, vol. i., p. 18. 


imposed those names on, instead of taking them from, the localities, snch as Archdall, 
(Castle- Archdall) and Devenish (Court-Devenish) both English names and families : 
Thirdly — of those that are corruptions of indigenous patronymics, and have no con- 
nection with the places whose designations they resemble, as Carbery, Ennis, and 
Shannon. Thus expurgated, Mr. O'Donnavan's list stands as under, and it is quite 
probable that it is susceptible of still further pruning : — 

" Names before 1600. Adare, Attry, Cashell, Callan, Derpatrick, Dromgoole or 
Drumgould, Finglas, Galway, Galbally, Malofant, Oriell or Uriell, Pallia. 

" Names in present use. Antrim, Annaly, Ardagh, Augrhim, Banaher, Corballis, 
Corbally, Cork, Corrigans, Derry, Durrow, Dangan, Fingal, Femes, Gorey, Gowran, 
Golden, Kerry, Killery, Kenlis, Kells, Killarney, Killeen, Kyle, Limerick, Lusk, 
Longford, Meath, Monaghan, Meelick, Prehen, Sligo, Slane, Skryne, Tuyan, Tyrone. 

" Names of doubtful origin. Clare, Down, Den, Holywood, Louth, Mayo, Moyne, 
Money, Rush, Ross, Slaney, Sutton, Shaen. These are as likely to have been assumed 
from English as from Irish localities." 

Dr. O'Donovan's researches, referred to at page v. ante, leave little to be desired 
as to the history and classification of Surnames in Ireland ; while ISIr. D 'Alton's 
" King James's Irish Army List " — of which, I learn, a new edition has lately ap- 
peared — will afford much valuable information on the subject of Irish families, their 
fortunes, and their misfortunes. 


S»tatisttr3 of Surnames. 

OME Statistics relative to the subject of this volume naturally find a 

place here. 

First— as to the Number of these vocables. It will possibly astonish 

most readers, to be told that this is as great as that of the words composing 
our language. According to the best authorities, the number of words in the English 
tongue (if we reject the obsolete on the one hand, and the technical and the un- 
authorized on the other) amounts to about thirty-five thousand. Now there is good 
reason for accepting the calculation of the Rev. Mark Noble, based upon a proximately 
ascertained enumeration of the surnames of which A is the initial letter (1500), and 
the proportion which that letter is found to bear to the other letters of the alphabet, 
that the number of English surnames must amount to between thirty and forty 
thousand.* And if we add in the Irish, Scottish, and other non-English family names 
which come within the scope of the present undertaking, we may safely assume that 
Mr. Noble's estimate rather falls short of than exceeds the truth. 

This calculation, roughly made many years since, has recently received singular 
• Hist. Coll. Anns, rrelim. Diawrt. 


corroboration in a most trustworthy quarter— the sixteenth Annual Report of Her 
Majesty's Registrar- General, printed in 1856. By the courtesy of that gentleman 
I am allowed to reproduce the following statements, the result of a careful official 

" The probable number of surnames in England and Wales has been the subject of 
conjectural estimates based on a small collection of facts. By the careful collation of all 
the jegistration indexes it could be approximately ascertained ; for during a period of more 
than seventeen years it is probable that almost every resident family contributed to the 
registers an entry of birth, death, or marriage. The task of collating upwards of two 
hundred immense quarterly indexes would, however, involve a vast amount of labour with- 
out any commensurate result; moreover the number of names is constantly varying, 
owing, on the one band, to emigration, or to the extinction of families by death, and on 
the other, to the introduction of fresh names by foreigners and immigrants, to the corrup- 
tion of existing names always going on amongst the illiterate, and to various other circum- 
stances. I have ascertained the number of different surnames contained in one quarterly 
index of births, and in another of deaths ; the former selected with reference to the period 
of the last census, and the latter without premeditation. The following are the 
results : — 

Persons Different 

registered. surnames. 

Births. Quarter ending 31st March, 1851 .... 157,280 25,028 

Deaths. Quarter ending 31st March, 1853 .... 118,119 20,991 

" According to these numbers, there were for every 100 of the births registered about 
16 different surnames, and for every 100 of the deaths about 18, reckoning every surname 
with a distinctive spelling, however slightly it may differ from others, as a separate 
surname. Taking the two indexes together, and by a careful collation eliminating all 
duplicates, the numbers stand thus : — 

Persons Different Different surnames to Persons to 

registered. surnames. every 100 persons. one surname. 

275,405 32,818 11'9 84 

" An alphabetical list of 32,818 surnames, the largest collection yet made, is thus 
obtained ; and as this result is furnished by two quarterly indexes only, it may be assumed 
as a rough estimate that the whole number in England and Wales is between tlivHy-five 
&ud. forty thousand. It is important, however, to remember that the list includes a large 
number derived from the same roots as others, commonly agreeing in sound, but differing 
in orthography often only to the extent of a single added or substituted letter. By these 
trifling variations the number is immensely increased. The name of Clerk, for instance, is 
also commonly spelt Clarlt and Clarke, one and the same primary name (from clericus) 
being implied in the three forms ; but three separate items necessarily appear in the list, 
for practically as sumiames they represent different and distinct persons and families. 
Again, the widely spread name of Smith appears in family nomenclature also as Smyth, 
Smxjthe, and even as Smijth. It is not usual, however, to regard these diverse forms as re- 
presenting one name only, nor would their bearers probably all concur in admitting the 
common origin of the several variations. Until a comparatively recent period, an entire 
disregard of uniformity and precision in the mode of spelling family names prevailed, even 
amongst the educated classes, and many family Bibles and writings might be adduced as 
evidence that this was apparently less the result of carelessness than of affectation or 
design. While the sound was in a great measure preserved, the number of different sur- 
names became greatly multiplied by these slight orthographical variations, as well as by 
other corruptions ; and if, in reckoning the number, each original patronymic with its 
modifications were counted as one, the list of 32,818 would be considerably reduced.* 

" The contribution of Wales to the number of surnames, as may be inferred from what 
has been already stated, is very small in proportion to its population. Perhaps nine-tenths 
of our countrymen in the Principality could be mustered under less than 100 different sur- 
namesf ; and while in England there is no redundancy of surnames, there is obviously a 
paucity of distinctive appellatives in Wales, where the frequency of such names as Jones, 
Williams, Davies, Evans, and others, almost defeats the primary object of a name, which 
is to distinguish an individual from the mass. It is only by adding his occupation, place 
of abode, or some other special designation, that a particular person can be identified when 
spoken of, and confusion avoided in the ordinary affairs of life. The name of John Jones 
is a perpetual incognito in Wales, and being proclaimed at the cross of a market town 
would indicate no one in particular. A partial remedy for this state of things would 
perhaps be found in the adoption of a more extended range of Christian names, if the 

* The reader will bear in mind that the Registrar-General's functions are limited to England and Wales 

t " Of the -328 Registration Officers and their deputies acting in the districts of Wales 207 are comprised 
under 17 surnames, in the following proportions ; viz: Jones 46, Williams 2Q, Davies \Q, Evansld, Thomas Uj, 
Roberts 14, Leicis U, Hughes 10, Edwards 8, Lloyd 8, James 6, Griffith &, Morgan 6, Rees 6, Owen 5, Morris 4, 
Ellit 4. There is only one officer of the name of Smith (!)" 



Welsh people could be induced to overcome their unwillingness to depart from ancient 
customs, so far as to forego the use of the scriptural and other common names usually- 
given to their children at baptism." 

I am authorised to state, that in some early Report the Registrar- General will 
print a list of all the Surnames of England and Wales occurring in the official indexes 
of a single year. This will necessarily be a document of great curiosity and interest. 

The reader, seeing that we possess certainly more than 30,000 surnames, will 
naturally ask why this volume should contain less than one half of that number. This 
I shall hereafter have occasion to apologise for and to explain. 

Secondly — as to the comparative commonness of our most frequently occurring 
surnames, the Registrar-General furnishes the following information : — 

" The subjoined Table of 50 of the most common surnames in England and Wales is 
derived from 9 quarterly indexes of births, 8 of deaths, and 8 of marriages; and 
although the inquiry might have been extended over a more lengthened period, it was 
found that the results were in general so constant as to render a further investigation un- 
necessary. When arranged according to the numbers in each index, the names appeared 
almost always in the same order, and the variations, when they occurred, rarely affected 
the position of a name beyond one or two places. These 50 names embraced nearly 18 in 
every 100 persons registered. The three names at the head of the list, Smith, Jones, and 
Williams, are, it will be observed, greatly in advance of the others ; and if the numbers 
may be taken as an index of the whole population, it would appear that on an average one 
person in every 28 would answer to one or other of these three names." 

Table XVT,— Frrrr of the most common Surnames in Enjfland and Wales, with the agfrre^te Number of each 
entered in the Indexes of Births, Deaths, and JIarriapes in the Year ending 30th June 1838, of Births in the 
Quarter ending 31st March, 1851, and of Births, Deatlis, and Marriages in tlie Year 1853. 




of Entries 
of each 


of Entries 
of each 







Harris - 












Cooper - 



Taylor - 






Davies - 






Brown - 






Thomas - 



Baker - 






Martin - 



Roberts - 






Johnson - 









Morgan - 



Wilson - 






Wright - 



Allen - 






Clarke - 









Walker - 



Moore - 






Parker - 



Green - 






Lewis - 



PlULLirS - 






Watson - 









WHrrK - 






Jackson - 



Bennett - 



Turner - 



Carter - 







Total - 



The Registrar General makes some pertinent remarks on the grouping of these 
familiar surnames. " It seems," he says, " that of the 50 most common names more 
than half are derived from the Cliristian or fore-name of the father, and they arc lite- 
rally jire-names or sirnames.'^ Thirteen arc derived from employments and occupa- 


tions ; seven from locality ; two from peculiarities of colour — Brown and White. 
King, the thirty-seventh in point of commonness, stands the sole representative of its 

Table XVH.— Fifty of the most Common Sornasies m England and Wales, arranged with reference 

to their Origin. 



(from the 





(from the 





(from the 



Derived from Christian 
or Forenames. 


Williama - 

Robinson - 


Edwards - 
Thompson - 














Derived from Christian 
or Forenames— coTi^. 


(27 Names) - 

Derived from Occupa- 














(13 Names) - 


Derived from Localitt. 

Hall - 
Hill - 

Lee - 

(7 Names) 

Derived from Pebsonal 


(2 Names) 

From other Circum- 


Total - 


















Under the article Smith in this dictionary, I have given the Registrar-General's 
statistics of the two great names Smith and Jones. I shall here add his table which 
shows first, the estimated number of persons bearing each of the 50 names, and secondly, 
the proportion which they bear to the population of England and Wales. It will be 
seen that one person in every 73 is a Smith ; one in every 76 a Jones ; and one in 
every 148 a Taylor. The most striking feature, perhaps, of this table, is, the exceed- 
ingly limited monarchy possessed by our Kings ; for it clearly appears that if all the 
Kings in England and Wales should come to an understanding to divide these realms 
in a fair and equitable manner, each monarch could claim but 434 subjects. In other 
words, every four hundred and thirty-fifth man amongst us is a King ! 

It is observed in this very interesting Report, that the class of surnames derived 
from occupations is peculiarly instructive, " as illustrating the pursuits and customs of 
our forefathers ; many of them furnish evidence of a state of society impressed with the 
characteristics of feudal times ; and not a few are derived from terms connected 
with the amusements of the chase and other field sports to which our an- 
cestors were so ardently attached. Widely difierent would be a national nomenclature 
derived from the leading occupations of the present day. The thousands employed 
in connection with the great textile manufactures would take precedence even of the 
Smiths ; while the Taylors would give place to the shoemakers (now scarcely recog- 
nisable under the not common surname of Suter^ with its variations Soutter, Sowter, 
&c.) as well as to the Colliers^ the Carpenters^ the Farmers^ and others." 

I must remark, however, what appears to have escaped the notice of the Registrar- 



General, that the Hosiers go to swell the number of artizans in leather (see Hosier 
in this dictionary) ; that the Colliers of old times were not pitmen, but were makers 
of charcoal ; and that Farmer as applied to the husbandman is a word that has come 
into use in times long subsequent to the introduction of surnames. 

" The Hawkers^ Falconers^ Bowyers^ Fletchers, Arrowsmiths, Palmers, Pilgrims^ 
Friars, and Freres, and a host of other family names, derived from various callings 
which have become obsolete in this country, would be wanting." 

Table XIX.— Estimated Ndhbeb of Persons in Enolakd and Wales bearing the under-mentioned Fifty moat 
common Scbnames. (Deduced from the Indexes of the Registers of Births, Deaths, and Marriages, and the 
estimated Population in the Year 1853.) 


Of the 


Of the 



of Persons 

in 1853. 




of Persons 

in 1853. 


One in 

One in 

Allen - 












Bennett - 



Martin - 



Brown - 






Morgan - 



Carter - 



Morris - 






Clarke - 



Parker - 






Phillips - 



Cooper - 






Daviks - 



Roberts - 





















Green - 



Taylor - 






Thomas - 









Turner - 



Harris - 






Walker - 






Ward - 



Hughes - 



Watson - 



White - 



Jackson - 









Wilson - 



Johnson - 










Wright - 
Total of 50 Surnames 






The subject of the local distribution of surnames is one that deserves more atten- 
tion than it has received. While some names are scattered broad-cast over the 
kingdom, others are almost peculiar to some county or lesser district. Not to mention 
the famous example of Tre, Pol, and Pen in Cornwall, we may almost localize the ter- 
mination hurst to Sussex and Kent, combe to Devonshire, and thwaite to Lancashire 
and the adjacent counties, because in those districts respectively most of the places 
with those terminations are found. But this is not always confined to surnames 
derived from places. Some other names seem to adhere to the district which gave 
them birth with a fond tenacity, as I have elsewhere had occasion to observe.* The 
locomotive character of the present age is, however, doing much to alter this, and to 
fiise all provincial peculiarities and distinctions. It would be well, therefore, for com- 
petent observers in various parts of the kingdom to record the habitats of particular 
names ere the opportunity now existing shall have passed away. 

• CoDtrib. to Llteratore, p. 169. 



iPrincipal Collections of Surnames* 

HE main sources for the history of English Surnames may be briefly 

Many personal or baptismal names in use in Anglo-Saxon times, 
such as are scattered everywhere up and down in the Saxon Chronicle, 
and the Codex Diplomaticus, became in course of time, hereditary or family appel- 
lations ; but sufficient allusions to these will be found in the body of this work, and 
I shall therefore limit my observations on this subject to Domesday Book and sub- 
sequent records. 

The document called Domesday, by common consent allowed to be the finest 
national record in Europe, was compiled by commissioners appointed by William the 
Conqueror, and finished about the 1086. It is a faithful summary of all the lands of 
his realm (three or four northern counties excepted), and contains the names of their 
proprietors. Sir Henry Ellis's General Introduction to Domesday, published in 1833, 
contains lists of all the tenants, from which it is evident that surnames of the heritable 
kind were very unusual, many even of the great Norman proprietors being entered 
simply by their Christian name, or by that accompanied by some description, and some- 
times, as we have before seen, one and the same tenant is called by different names in 
different places. The common people (except in a few isolated cases already noticed) 
did not aspire to the dignity of a family name. As a specimen of the descriptions 
rather than surnames found in this noble Survey, I subjoin an extract from the 
Introduction, of under-tenants bearing the baptismal name of Ulf. 

Vlf quidam homo, Buck. 149 b. 

ViiF et frater ejus, Yorksh. 374. 

Vlf cilt, Line. 366. 

Vlf diaconus, Yorksh. 373, 374. 

Vlf fenisc. Hunt. 203, Derh. 277 b., Nottingh. 280 b., Line. 354 b. bis. v. Vlfenisc, 

Vlf fil. Azor, Northampt. 220 bis. 

Vlf fil Borgerete, Buck. 146 b. 

Vlf filius Suertebrand, Line. 336. 

Vlf homo Asgari stalre, Buck. 149 b. 

Vlf homo Heraldi Comitis, Buck. 146. 

Vlf homo Wallaf Comitis, Northampt. 228. 

Vlf huscarle Regis E. Midd. 129, Buck. 149. 

Vlf pater Sortebrand, Clam, in Chetst. 377. 

Vlf tope sune,* Clam, in Chetst. 376 b. 

Vlf teignus R. E. Midd. 129, Buck. 148 b. bis. 149, 149 b., Camh. 196 b. 197, 
197 b. bis., Essex 27. 

The Winton Domesday, a survey of the lands which had belonged to King 
Edward the Confessor, made on the oath of eighty- six burgesses of Winchester in the 
time of Henry I. is remarkable for the number of surnames which it comprises.f 

* Vlf Alius Topi was one of the witnesses to William the Conqueror's Charter to the Abbey of Peterborough. 
See Mon. Ang., last edition, vol. i. p. 383. 

t Sims's Manual for the Genealogist, &c. 


The Monastic Records, such as chartularies, leiger-books, registers, chronicles, &c., 
contain many early family names, as also do a great number of Ancient Charters in the 
public offices, and in private possession. A vast number of these have in the lapse of 
succeeding centuries, become extinct. The Public Records of the kingdom, published 
by the Record Commission, either in extenso, or in calendars, such as the Liber Niger, 
or Black Book of the Exchequer, temp. Henry II. ; the Patent Rolls, commencing 
temp. King John; the Charter and Plea Rolls, and many others, abound in early 
surnames, and throw much light on the rise and progress of these appellations. 

The most valuable of these authentic documents, for our purpose, are the two folio 
volumes known as the Rotuli Hundredorum, or Hundred Rolls, of the date of 1273. 
King Edward I., on his return from Palestine, after the death of his father, Henry IH., 
caused inquiries to be made into the state of the demesnes, and of the right and 
revenues of the crown, many of which, during the previous turbulent reign had been 
usurped both by the clergy and the laity. The inquisitions being made upon the oath 
of a jury of each hundred throughout the realm, this mass of documents is appro- 
priately called Rotuli Hundredorum, or the Hundred Rolls. 

Of the Indices Nominum of these volumes, which contain references to about 70,000 
persons, I have made extensive use. The period at which the Rolls were drawn up, 
was one when family names, which had been gradually coming into use for nearly two 
centuries, had become general among all classes of persons; not indeed with the regu- 
larity which prevailed in later centuries, though almost every individual mentioned in 
the record bears a surname of some kind. Some of the surnames are in Latin, some 
in French, and some in English, The prefixes of the local names are J)e, At fate or 
atenj^ In the^ &c. iMost of the names derived from occupations, offices, &c., retain the 
Xc, though this is sometimes omitted. Not unfrequently the same person's name is 
written in two or three languages, with twice that number of varying orthographies. 
I have gone through the whole of these copious indices for the purpose of collating the 
family names of the thirteenth century with those of the nineteenth, and it cannot fail to 
strike the curious reader how great a general similarity exists between the nomen- 
clature of the liegemen of King Edward I. and that of the subjects of Queen Victoria. 
The letters H.R. throughout this dictionary refer to these ancient surnames. 

The other publications of the Record Commission, and various chronicles, &c., 
down to the XVI. century contain useful illustrations of our family nomenclature. 

With regard to the existing nomenclature of the people of England and Wales, 
the returns deposited in the office of the Registrar General may be considered to con- 
tain every name ; and when that official shall have carried out his intention of printing 
all the names registered in a whole year, we may expect to have an approximately 
complete list of the designations not only of the English and Welsh people, but also 
of settlers from Scotland and Ireland, and of the strangers for the time being within 
our gates. 

As yet, the greatest repertorium of printed surnames is the London Directory — 
that wonderful book which not only supplies us with the designations of literally mil- 
lions of Englishmen, but also shews us how and where they " live and move, and have 
their being." Every district of the United Kingdom is more or less represented 
there, for the simple reason that there is no district that does not, in our cnterprizing 
age, send some or many of its denizens to the capital. Two hundred years ago old 
Fuller foresaw the concentrating force of this great city, and predicted that in time all 
England would 'Londonize,' — "c< tola Anglia Londonizabit ;" and even so it is ; London 
in this, as in many other respects, is England, or rather the United Kingdom. You 


may trace from Caithness to Cornwall, and from the mouth of the Thames to that of 
the Shannon, and few, comparatively, will the names be, borne by Englishman, Welsh- 
man, Cornishman, Scotchman, Gael, or Irishman, that have not a place in that great 
nominal treasure-house. In fact it is commonly remarked of an unusual name, that 
"it is not to be found in the London Directory." Of that bulky tome, as well as of the 
local directories of several great provincial cities and towns, I have largely availed 

It will be observed that very often in the ensuing pages I have spoken with distrust 
and disparagement of what is called the Roll of Battel Abbey. In my English Sur- 
names I printed three considerable lists of Norman surnames going under this general 
designation, not however without duly cautioning the reader against accepting them 
as genuine documents of the period to which they are ascribed. 

Fuller investigation convinces me that the Roll of Battel Abbey is a nonentity. 
But like many other mythic things, we may safely say that it ought to have existed. 
For, the Conqueror on the field of Hastings made a famous vow that if God would 
grant him the victory over the English, he would found upon the spot a great Abbey, 
wherein masses should be said for all those who should be slain in the battle. Now, 
when the Victor carried his intention into effect, there ought to have been a bede-roU 
or list of those whose souls were thus to be cared for ; (and this, as Mr. Hunter has 
well observed, would have been " in the highest and best* sense, the Battel Abbey 
Roll;") but if we consider the utter improbability of his having had a muster-roll of 
the vast army who embarked with him on this expedition, and at the same time reflect 
upon the impossibility of the monks performing the Church's rite individually for the 
souls of the thirty thousand warriors who are said to have fallen on that dreadful day, 
we shall at once see that, however theoretically accordant with the vow such an ar- 
rangement may have been, it could not be practically carried out. 

It may be urged, however, that a Roll containing the names of the leaders and 
grandees of the expedition was preserved. But to this it may be replied that, although 
Battel Abbey was unusually rich in every kind of monastic chronicle, record, and other 
muniment, most of which are preserved to the present day, no mention whatever is 
found of such list or Roll, either during the existence of the Monastery or at its 

But while the existence of any such record as an authoritative roll of the Norman 
invaders is denied, there can be no doubt that the various lists which purport to be 
the Roll of Battel Abbey are of considerable antiquity — much earlier probably than 
the date of the Reformation, though certainly much later than the year 1066. Mr. 
Hunter mentions no less than ten such lists, but in no case is there an attribution of 
them either to Battel Abbey or to any authority nearly contemporary with the Con- 
quest. It is not necessary to accept the censure of Camden and of Dugdale as to the 
falsifications of one or any of these lists by the monks of Battel in order to gratify the 
vanity of benefactors. They were doubtless drawn up, as a matter of curiosity, by 
private individuals, and without any sinister design. Perhaps the greatest proof of 
their being non-official, and of a date long subsequent to the Conquest is, that many of 
the names of distinguished followers of William which are found in Domesday Book 
have no place in any copy of the so-called Battel Abbey Roll. The whole 
question has been fully and most ably treated by the Rev. Joseph Hunter, 
F.S.A., in vol. VI. of the Sussex Archasological Collections, and it is therefore un- 
necessary to enter further into the subject. 


iKtsccllaneows ©fisetbations. 

N dealing with the surnames of my fellow subjects and countrymen, the 
principal object I have had in view has always been to shew from 
what sourctes those multitudinous and various words are derived, and to 
give a rationale of the means by which they have become the distinguishing 
marks of kindreds and families. It is but just to enter into some details on this sub- 
ject, for the twofold purpose of guarding the reader against misapprehensions as to 
my real intentions, and of defending myself from the possible accusation of not having 
fully discharged the labour I have undertaken to perform. For this purpose it will 
be necessary to state in general terms my own views of the whole subject, so that there 
may be no mistake as to whether * performance ' on my part falls short of promise,* 
in the laborious pages now offered to public notice, or not. 

My design throughout has been chiefly etymological — using that word in its most 
popular, and least technical sense. I wish to convey to the inquirer information as to 
the immediate origin of each particular surname. Thus if a man is known among his 
neighbours by a word which is identical with the name of a place, an occupation, or an 
office— by a word which is expressive of a physical or mental quality— by a word 
which is identical with some object natural or artificial — my duty is simply to state 
that that man's surname is derived from such place, occupation, office, quality, or 
object, and to show, as well as I can, how that surname came to be adopted six or 
seven hundred years ago, more or less, as the distinctive mark of the original bearer's 
posterity in all time to come. It is no more a part of my design to enter into the his- 
tory of the word which has become a surname, than it is the duty of the man who puts 
bricks and stones into a wall to make himself acquainted with the chemical ingredients 
of the brick or the geological formation to which he is indebted for the stone. I wish 
to be clearly understood upon this point, because I infer from the remarks of many of 
my correspondents, that they imagine that I am to trace every name to the radical 
meaning of the word which it represents, than which nothing has ever been further 
from my intention. 

But while thousands of surnames of the kinds above referred to may be said to 
explain themselves, there arc multitudes of others of which the meaning is, to most 
persons, entirely hidden. Words obsolete for centuries in our spoken and written 
language are still retained in our family nomenclature, fossilized, as it were, alongside 
of words still current and known to all. 

And here lies the principal charm of this pursuit. It is interesting enough to 
know that the Mortimers came from a place so called in Normandy; that the Stuarts 
sprang from a personage who was in old times the High Steward of Scotland ; that 
the Rouses sprang from a certain Norman, who, like his countryman and sovereign, 
was called Rufus by reason of his red hair ; that the Longs descended from a tall, and 
the Shorts from a diminutive specimen of human kind — that our Ashes and our 


Elmeses, in the old unsophisticated times, were content to bear designations borrowed 
from some great tree, near which they dwelt — all this, I say, is very pleasant know- 
ledge ; but it is among names derived from less obvious sources, from obsolete words, 
from forgotten employments, customs, offices, and dignities, from old and disused 
personal appellations, and from a host of other such-like things, that the curious 
enquirer finds his chief enjoyment ; and to examine and place in their proper ranks 
and orders these fossils of earlier stratifications is the object of every one who enters 
with zeal and judgment into this wide but hitherto little known field of inquiry. 

At the present time, a taste seems to prevail for fanciful etymology ; but I have 
little sympathy with those philologists, to whom " the deduction of Jeremiah King 
from a cucumber is child's (not to say childish) play." I am not one of those 

' leam'd philologists who chase 

A panting syllable through time and space, 
Start it at home, and hunt it, in the dark. 
To Gaul, to Greece — and into Noah's Ark ! " 

If I can find a reasonable etymon for a name upon the surface, I do not consider 
it worth while " to dig and delve ten fathoms deep" for one. Of course there are 
many exceptions to this as to most other rules, and it will be seen in numerous in- 
stances in these pages, that surnames very often signify something entirely different 
from what at first sight they seem to represent. 

Of speculative etymology we have already more than enough. Much time, paper, 
and ink would be saved if men would look a little more at the obviom, and a little less 
at the recondite, in these investigations. In support of this remark, in respect of Sur- 
names, let me adduce a single instance : The name Affleck is explained in the little 
publication " The Folks of Shields," as a derivation from the Gaelic ^abhleag, a burning 
coal,' and in a far more important work, as ' a, negative, and Jieck, a spot ; spotless.' 
These are the opinions of two gentlemen bearing respectively the Scottish names of 
Brockie and Ferguson, who, if they had taken the trouble to look into a gazetteer of 
their fatherland, would have found that Affleck is simply a local corruption of Auchin- 
leck, a well-known place in Ayrshire. It would be easy to multiply instances, but I 
hope that this one is quite sufficient to illustrate the present argument. 

To prevent misapprehension of another kind, let me say that it was never intended 
to give a genealogical character to this work. This would have involved interminable 
labour to little purpose. Next to the derivation of a name, its history and origin have 
claimed my attention. In the case of territorial and of foreign surnames, I have en- 
deavoured, as often as possible, to mention the epoch at which it first appears in our 
records. Occasionally, when the history of a name requires it, some genealogical 
details are given, but these are as few and slight as possible. 

And now I come to another point requiring explanation — the numerous omissions 
of surnames from this work. Thousands of names have been passed over sub silentio, 
and for this a variety of reasons can be assigned. In the first place, it has never been 
any part of my plan to hunt after names, but only to record and to illustrate such as 
have crossed my path. Secondly : Thousands of local surnames which I have met 
with, I have been unable to identify with the places from which they were derived. I 
had some thoughts of making a list of these unidentified names, but this would have 
been of little practical utility. Thirdly : Hundreds of names have been so corrupted 
as to baffle the most ingenious guess-work that I could bring to bear upon them. 
Fourthly : Many foreign names naturalized here have not appeared of sufficient stand- 
ing to claim a place. These and other minor reasons must be my apology for the 
numerous omissions that every reader will be able to discover. I trust, however, that 


the number of well-known and widely-spread names that have been overlooked is 
comparatively small. I believe, moreover, that the names to be found in the Patrony- 
mica Britannica represent nine-tenths of the numerical strength of the United King- 
dom, the omissions being principally of those names which are limited either to remote 
districts, or to an exceedingly small number of individuals.* On the whole, the sur- 
names that do not appear at all have cost me more trouble than those that do. 

One more duty remains for me to perform, and that is the very agreeable one of 
returning my sincere thanks to the numerous friends who have assisted my labours 
by their kind and interesting communications. The list of these would more than 
occupy this page, but I cannot refrain from mentioning the names of afew to whom I 
have been specially indebted. 

My best thanks are due to the Right Honourable the Earl of Stair, for the list of 
Scottish Surnames commencing with Mac^ printed at pp. 205 et seq., and to Patrick 
Boyle, Esq., of Shewalton, N.B., for a supplementary list, also printed at p. 208. To 
Charles Dalrymple, Esq., F.S.A., Scotl., of West Hall, in Aberdeenshire, I am under 
great obligations for many useful criticisms and suggestions. David Mackinlay, Esq., 
of PoUokshields, Glasgow, placed at my disposal a copious list of surnames with many 
useful elucidations, the result of his own researches on the subject. From Sir Erasmus 
Dixon Borrowes, Bart. ; from William Smith Ellis, Esq. ; from James T. Hammack, 
Esq. ; from Wm. J. O'Donnavan, Esq. ; and from J. Bertrand Payne, Esq., I have re- 
ceived valuable aid; nor must I omit to record my obligations to George Graham, Esq., 
Her Majesty's Registrar-General, for his permission to make use of much of the 
matter on " Family Nomenclature," contained in his XVI. Annual Report. 

Surnames used as Christian Names. — " Reader, I am confident an instance can 
hardly be produced of a surname made Christian in England, save since the Reforma- 
tion ; before which time the priests were scrupulous to admit any at the font except 
they were baptised with the name of a Scripture or legendary saint. Since, it hath 
been common ; and although the Lord Coke was pleased to say he had noted many of 
them prove unfortunate, yet the good success in others confutes the general truth of 
the observation." — Fuller's Worthies, vol. i. p. 160. 

The following observations from Dean Trench's Study of Words, are well worthy 
of transcription here : — 

" I am sure there is much to be learned from knowing that the Surname, as dis- 
tinguished from the Christian name, is the name over and above, not the 'sire '-name 
or name received from the father, but 'sur'-name (super nomen) — that while there 
never was a time when every baptised man had not a Christian name, inasmuch as his 
personality before God was recognised, yet the Surname, the name expressing a man's 
relation, not to the kingdom of God, but to the worldly society in which he lives, is 
only of a much later growth, an addition to the other, as the word itself declares. 
And what a lesson at once in the upgrowth of human society, and in the contrast 
between it and the heavenly society, might be appended to this explanation. There 
was a period when only a few had Surnames — only a few, that is, had any significance 
or importance in the order of things temporal ; while the Christian name from the first 
was common to every man." 

I would say a few words as to the title I have chosen for this work — Patronymica 
Britannica — since an objection may be raised to such a use of the former word. A 
• The name Bnuhfield is limited to ten persons, and that of Fairholt to a single individual. 



patronymic, in its true and original sense, is a modification of the father's name borne 
by the son, as Tydides, the son of Tydeus. The ancients formed their patronymics 
by an addition at the end of the father's name, and modem nations have done the same 
in several instances, as, for example, in such names as Johnson, 'Pa.uHowitz, Peter Aztw. In 
others, the filial relation is shown by a prefix, as in O'Brien, Mac Intosh, jPtfe-Herbert, 
Ap John. These may be correctly called patronymical surnames ; while those that are 
derived from places, occupations, physical characteristics, and the rest, have no claim 
to be so considered. 

But there is a secondary sense in which the word patronymic applies to every sur- 
name. It is the " father name," and shows the relation of the individual to a particular 
family descended from a common parent. Just as the Christian name should designate 
the individual as a member of the visible church of God, so the surname identifies 
him with his Father and his Father's Fathers, up to the very fons et origo of the 


AUNGffiR. AUNGER. This name is 
found in England temp. Edward I. and XL, 
when flourished Hervey of Staunton, a 
Judge, and the founder of Michael House 
(now merged in Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge), who was of this family. The 
name is derived from the province of 
Anjou, and is found in chart;ers in the 
Latinized form of Angevinus. 

BRYAN. The signification of this name 
is given in the dictionary. The family 
were seated, from a very eariy period, at 
Tor-Bryan, co. Devon; as also at Lang- 
heme, in South Wales, and Woodford 
Castle, CO. Dorset. Of this family was the 
chivalrous Sir Guy Bryan, Lord Bryan, 
K.G., temp. Edward III., and standard- 
bearer at the celebrated battle of Calais. 
He is called Sir Guy Bryan by contempo- 
rary writers. See Scrope and Grosvenor 
Roll, Beltz's Order of the Garter, &c. But 
in an inscription formerly at Scale, co. 
Kent, his second son, William, was called" 
" Dominus Willelmus de Bryene" (ob. 
1395). This territorial prefix was doubt- 
less a clerical blunder. Other spellings of 
the name are Brian, Brien, Brianne, &o. 
The Christian name Guy was frequent in 
the family. 

BUTLIN.* "In Northamptonshire 
Boutevillaine is now corrupted to Butlin. 
I have had documents of the time of Eliza- 
beth in my hands, in which it has been 
given * Butlin, alias Boutevillaine,' and in 
Bridges' Northamptonshire it occurs in an 
inscription." Communicated by Edward 
Pretty, Esq., F.S.A. 

CITOLIN. See under Sitterling in these 

CROWDY. In the West of England a 
violin is called a "crowdy-kit;" in Scot- 
land ** crowdie " means porridge, or some- 
thing of a similar kind. These arc Ijoth 
extremely unlikely etymons, and the name 
is probably local. 

DICKEY. This name might well be 
taken as one of the " nui-senames" of 
Richard, but against this a correspondent 
strongly protests. Another, but rather 

fanciful derivation, is from the " Clan of 
the Dike," or Roman Wall. (See, how- 
ever. Dykes in the dictionary.) A family 
pedigree deduces them from a Celtic clan 
called the Clanna Diagha, founded by a 
chieftain called Diagha and Dega. The 
family went from Scotland into Ireland 
about the year 1666, and settled in co. 
Derry. Inf. A. M'Naghten Dickey, Esq. 

DICKIE. An older form of Dickey, 

DRAKEFORD. The name is clearly 
local, though the place is not to be found. 
The family have long been connected with 
Staffordshire, and there is a tradition of 
their having been anciently called De Dra- 

DUDENEY.* In Hogg's Picturesque 
Views, published in 1786, there is a view 
of a building called Dudeney chapel, which 
is said to have stood in Ashdown Forest, 
CO. Sussex. No such building is now re- 
membered in the district ; but as the sur- 
name seems to be localized to Sussex, it is 
probably indigenous to that county, and 
not of French origin as I have suggested 
in the body of the dictionary. 

FELL.* We must not overlook the ad- 
jective meaning of this word, which is 
sharp, keen, biting, cruel, from the A-Sax. 

FOURACRE. This name, sometimes 
written Foweraker, has been for some cen- 
turies connected with Exeter. It is doubt- 
less local, the termination signifying a 
field. The arms of the family, "on a 
saltire five escallop-shells," have been thus 
expounded by an advertising '* herald " : — 

" Thit arms it a reward for valour in mounting an 
enemy's wall ; for which the saltirc was used as a 
ladder; and the scallo])s show the founder of this 
family to have been Jive times on pilgrimage to the 
Holy I .and ! " 

A facetious correspondent remarks that 
the name was most likely borrowed by the 
crusading hero (never before heard of by 
the family) from the fact of his having 
l>een present with Coeur de Lion, in 1190, 
afore Acre! 



HENSMAN. "Hensman, alias Hench- 
man." Bridges' Northamptonshire. 

HERVEY.* According to Collins, "the 
surname of Hervey or Harvey, written an- 
ciently with Fitz (i.e., son of Hervey), is 
derived from Robert Fitz -Hervey, a younger 
son of Hervey, Duke of Orleans, who is 
recorded among those valiant commanders 
who accompanied William the Conqueror 
in his expedition into this kingdom in 1066." 
Although this statement does not appear to 
be well supported, there is no doubt of the 
early Norman origin of the noble family. 
Be Hervey is evidently a misnomer, as the 
name is derived from the baptismal Herve, 
which was by no means unusual in Norman 
and later times. See under Harvey. 

HORSENAIL.* It has been discovered 
that this Kentish name is a corruption of 
Arsenal. Mr. C. Roach Smith has seen a 
seal inscribed with the name (D') Arsenel. 

KINNINMONTH. A corruption of 
the Scottish local name, Kynninmond. 

LYNAM. There are places called Lyne- 
ham in cos, Oxford and Wilts. The family 
occur in Cornwall as Lynham at any early 
period, and the Irish branch are said to 
have sprung from that county. 

LYNOM. See Lynam. 

MEDLAND * The H.R. De Medelands 
occur in Cambridgeshire, but the existing 
family spring from Devonshire, and in that 
county there is a manor called Medland. 

NORWAY. Possibly from the country, 
but far more likely a corruption of some 
English local name — Northway for in- 
PECKOVER. This surname is local, 
though the place is not ascertained. The 
termination over (A-Sax. ofer) signifies a 
margin, brink, bank, or shore. Halliwell 
quotes from a medieval poem the following 
lines : — 

" She came out of Sexlonde 
And rived here at Dovere, 
That stondes upon the sees were." 

PERCEVAL,* not Percival, is the an- 
cient and recognised orthography. 

SHAKSPEARE.* The earliest person 
of this name discovered by the Poet's best 
and most recent illustrator, Mr. Halliwell, 

is Thomas Shakspeare, who was oflBcially 
connected with the port of Youghal, in 
Ireland, in 1375 ; but recent research has 
adduced an earlier possessor of the name, 
in the person of one Henry SJuikespere^ who 
was holder of a ploughland in the parish 
of Kirkland, co. Cumberland, in the year 
1350. Notes and Queries, Aug. 18, 1860. 
Hence it is probable that the name origi- 
nated on the Border, and had its rise in 
those feuds from which the Armstrongs, 
the Bowmans, the Spearmans, and other 
belligerent families also derived theirs. 

SHENSTONE. A parish in Stafford- 

SITTERLING. In the parish register of 
St. John, Lewes, a certain surname undergoes 
various changes from " Citoline " to " Sit- 
terling." This is about the year 1640, and 
no doubt refers to the family of one of 
John Evelyn's instructors. " It was not 
till the yeare 1628," says that admirable 
diarist, " that I was put to leame my Latine 
rudiments, and to write, of one Citolin, a 
Frenchman in Lewes." Diary i. 8. 

STREATFEILD.* I think there is no 
doubt of the derivation of this name from 
the locality which I have indicated, not- 
withstanding the occasional forms Strat- 
vile, Stretvile, &c. The latinization De 
Strata Villa has been supposed to imply 
" the paved town." Among some papers 
preserved in the family, it is noted that an 
ancestor, travelling about a century since 
in Saxony, met with a family named 
Streightveldt, who bore the arms and crest 
of the Kentish Streatfeilds. Inf. W. C. 
Streatfeild, Esq. 

TRAYTON. This family, originally 
written Treton, and springing from Che- 
shire, settled at Lewes, co. Sussex, in the 
XVI. century. The family became ex- 
tinct in the XVIII. century, but not the 
name, for, singularly enough, at Lewes, 
and in a great many of the surrounding 
parishes, Tray ton is extremely common as 
a baptismal name, among families totally 
unconnected by blood. Many who bear it 
would be astonished to leani that it is not 
as regular a Christian name as Henry, or 
George, or Philip. 

VIDGEN. Said to be a corruption of 

**» In the Ulster Journal of Archaeology, vols. v. and vi., there are two very curious 
and interesting papers, on the names prevalent in the counties of Down and Antrim, with 
maps showing their localization, by the Rev. A. Hume, LL.D. This mode of illustration, 
if applied to the British islands at large, would be of great importance and vaJue. 

jFamilg (Ktatactetistics* 

Many English families, especially In the northern counties, are characterised by 
some epithet, complimentary or otherwise, which usually begins with the same letter as 
the surname. A few of these will be found scattered through the dictionary. The 
following were sent me by the late Mr. M. A. Denham, of Pierse Bridge : — 


The beggarly Baliols. 
The base Bellasis. 
The bloody Brackenburies. 
The bold Bertrams 
The bauld Blakestones. 
The brave Bowes. 
The bare-boned Bulmers. 
The bacchanalian Burdons. 
The clacking Claxtons. 
The confident Conyers. 
The crafty Cradocks. 
The cozening Croziers. 
The eventful Evers. 
The friendly Forsters. 
The filthy Foulthorpes. 
The generous Garths. 
The handsome Hansards. 

The hoary Hyltons. 
The jealous Jennisons. 
The lamb-like Lambtons. 
The light LUburnes. 
The lofty Lumleys. 
The mad Maddisons. 
The manly Mairs. 
The noble Nevilles. 
The politic Pollards. 
The placid Places. 
The ruthless Ruths. 
The solvable Salvins. 
The shrewd Shadforths. 
The sure Surtees. 
The testy Tallboys. 
The wily Wilkinsons. 
The wrathful Wrens. 


The princely Percys. 
The potent Percys. 
The peerless Percys. 
The proud Percys. 
The thrifty Thorntons. 
The fierce Fenwicks. 

The heartless Halls. 

The greedy Greys. 

The warlike Widdrlngtons. 

The courteous CoUIngwoods. 

The royal Roddams. 

The grave Gascoynes. 
The proud Pickerings. 
The trusty Tunstalls. 
The undenled Tunstalls. 
The lofty Cliffords. 


The grave Griffiths. 
The stern Stapletons. 
The manly Mauleverers. 
The tall Tilneys.* 

• Of what a lofty disposition must one branch of this eminent fenoUy be, who not content to pass throngh the 
world as Tall Tilneys, must needs add a Long Pole to their name I 


Explanation of ^fttitebiations, $^t. 

Arthur. — Etymological Dictionary of Family and Christian names, by William Arthur, M.A. 

Bowditch. — Suffolk Surnames, by N. J. Bowditch. (See p. vi). 

B. L. G. — The Landed Gentry of Great Britain and Ireland, by Sir Bernard Burke, Ulster. 

Collins. — The Peerage of England, by Arthur Collins, Esq. 

Cod. Dipl. — Codex Diplomaticus Saxonici iEvi. Saxon Charters, collected by J. M. Kemble, 
Esq., M.A. 

Cotgrave.—K Dictionarie of the French and English Tongues, compiled by Handle Cot- 
grave. 1632. 

B' Alton. — Illustrations, Historical and Genealogical, of King James's Irish Army List, 
1689. By John D'Alton, Esq., Barrister. Dublin, 1855. 

Bixon. — Surnames, by B. H. Dixon, Esq. (See p. vi). 

Bomesd. — Domesday Book. 

Bncycl. Herald. — Encyclopaedia Heraldica, or a complete Dictionary of Heraldry, by W. 
Berry. Four vols, quarto. 

FergiLson. — English Surnames, and their place in the Teutonic Family. (See p. xii). 

To prevent misapprehension, it is as well to rflmark, that Eng. Sum. throughout means my own 
former work ; while the volume of Mr. Ferguson is always referred to as here indicated. 

Halliwell. — A Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial Words, &c., from the Fourteenth 
Century, by J. O. Halliwell, Esq., F.R.S. 2 vols. 8vo. 

H. JB.— Rotuli Hundredorum— the Hundred KoUs. (See p. xxx). 

JacoJ). — Jacob's Law Dictionary. 

Kelham. — 1. Domesday Book Illustrated, 1788. 2. Anglo-Norman Dictionary, 1779. 

Lcmdnamabok. — Islands Landnamabok, hoc est, Liber Originum IslandiaB. Copenhagen, 

For most of the references to this work I am indebted to Mr. Ferguson's volume. 

Nlsbet. — System of Heraldry, by A. Nisbet, Esq. 2 vols. fol. Edinburgh, 1722. 

iV". and Q. — Notes and Queries. 

R. G. 16.— The Sixteenth Annual Report of the Registrar General. Published by au- 
thority, 1856. , 

Richardson. — Dictionary of the English Language, by Chas. Richardson, L.L.D. 

Shirley. — The Noble and Gentle Men of England, by Evelyn Philip Shirley, Esq., M.A. 


P. 13. AssENDER. Pronounciation. 

39. Bbaybrook should be Braybrook. 

62. Clive— /row the time, &c. 

88. Dewey. Read, Walter de Douuai, not Dounai. 

103. Ellis. The quotation beginning " Elles or Ellis — ends at husband. 

166. HoNTER. Read, " The Hunters of Polmood, .... in the V. cent." 

173. John. For Mickejohn read Micklejohn. 

180. KiNLOCK should be KinlocA. 

192. Leighton. B.QdAvicecomes. 

192. Lempriere. For Ex. inf. read Ex inf. 

205. Mac. For Lord Stair, read the Earl of Stair. 

220. Mauleverer. Read Norroy, king of arms. 

In a volume containing so many thousands of proper names, errors of orthography will doubtless be found, though 
it is hoped that they are comparatively few and trifling. 



jCX? as the initial syllable of many sur- 
names, has at least three distinct origins, 
namely : I. A contraction of ' at,' formerly 
a verj'^ common prefix to local names ; thus 
John at the Green became John a Green ; 
John at the Gate, John a Gate or Agate ; 
John at the Court, John a Court, &c. II. 
A corruption of ' of,' as John a Dover, Adam 
a Kirby. III. It implies descent, and is 
derived either from the Latin preposition 
' a,' or more probably from the vernacular 
* of,' the word ' son ' being understood. For 
example, John a "Walter is precisely the 
same kind of designation as John ap Tho- 
mas among the Welsh, John Mac-Donald 
among the Scotch, or John Fitz-Hugh of 
the Anglo-Norman period. 

" It was late in the XVII. cent, (observes the Rev. 
M. Noble) that many families in Yorkshire, even of 
the more opulent sort, took stationary names. Still 
later, about Halifax, surnames became in their dialect 
genealogical, as William a Bills a Toms a Luke," that 
is, William the son of BiU, the son of Tom, the son of 
Luke. Hist. Coll. Arms, 22. This sort of nomen- 
clature is saifl still to prevail in remote parts of Cum- 
berland and Westmoreland. 

This prefix was gradually dropped for the 
most part during the XVI. and XVII. 
centuries, except in those instances where, 
by force of euphony, it had been made to 
coalesce with the name itself, as in Abank, 
Attree, Abarrow, Abridge, Abrook, &c. 

AARON. AARONS. A common Jew- 
ish surname. 

ABA DAM. A recent resumption of the 
old baronial name of Ap- or Ab- Adam. 
See B. L. G. 

ABAXK. See Banks. 

a barrow or tumulus See Atte. 

ABBEY. Perhaps originally given to 
some menial attached to a monastery, as 
'John of the Ahbey;' more probably, how- 
ever, from Abbe, the ecclesiastical title, 
since we find it written in the H. R. le 
Abbe. The Scottish form is Abbay. 


ABBISS. Probably Abby's (that is 
Abraham's) son. Ferguson, however, 
thinks it is the A- Sax. Abbissa, a name 
borne by one of the sons of Hengist. 

ABBOT. See Ecclesiastical Surnames. 
A sobriquet most likely applied to such 
leaders of medieval pastimes as acted the 
Abbot of Unreason, the Abbot of Misrule, 
&c. Abet in Domesd. is a baptismal name. 

ABBS. Probably a nickname of Abra- 
ham ; so Tibbs from Theobald, and Watts 
from Walter. To the similar name Abbes 
are assigned the arms, " a lady abbess, 

ABDY. An estate in Yorkshire, where 
the family anciently resided. 

ABECKETT. A name of doubtful ety- 
mology. Mr. Ferguson derives it from the 
A- Sax. becca, an axe, of which he considers 
it a diminutive. The 0. Fr. beqnet is ap- 
plied to a species of apple, a fish, and a 
bird, and the arms attributed to Thomas a 
Becket contain three heckits, or birds like 
Cornish choughs. The A by which the 
name is prefixed is, however, the customary 
abbreviation of at, and shows it to be of 
the local class. The A- Sax. becc, a brook, 
whence we have many local and fiimily 
names, may have had a diminutive bechet, 
or " the little brook," but I confess that I 
find no such word. 

ABEL. ABELL. From the personal 
name. It frequently occurs temp. Edwd. I. 
in the same forms. 

ABER. A Celtic prefix to many names 
of places, signifying " any locality of 
marked character, either knolly or 
marshy, near the mouth of a stream, 
whether the stream falls into a lake or 
sea, or runs into confluence with another 
stream." Gazetteer of Scotland. Several 
such localities have given rise to sur- 
names, as Abercrombie, Aberdwell, 
Aberkerdour, Abemethey. 



ABERCORN. A parish in co. Linlith- 

ABERCROIVIBIE. A parish in Fife- 
shire, the original residence of the Barons 
Abercromb}', temp. Jas. II. of Scotl. 

ABERDEEN. A well-known Scottish 

ABERDOUR. A parish of Aberdeen- 

ABERNETHEY. A town in the shires 
of Perth and Fife. 

ABETHELL. (Welsh.) Ab Ithel, the 
son of Ithel. 

ABETOT. See Abitot. 

ABILON. Probably from Ablon, in the 
canton of Honfleur, in Lower Normandy. 

ABITOT. Now Abbetot, in the arron- 
dissement of Havre, in Normandy. The 
foimder of this family in England was 
Urso de Abetot or Abetoth, brother to 
Hugh de Montgomery, Earl of Arundel. 
He was sometimes called Urso Vicecomes, 
and Urso de Worcester, because he was 
made hereditary sheriff of the county of 
Worcester. He was one of the Conqueror's 
great councillors. Kelham. 

ABLE. SeeAbell. 

ABLEWHITE. A curious corruption 
of Applethwaite, in the parish of Winder- 
mere, CO. Westmoreland. 

ABNEY. An estate near the Peak, in 
CO. Derby, possessed by a family of the 
same name in verj'^ early times. 

ABRAHAMS. L The personal name. 
It occurs in the H.R., as Abraam, Abbra- 
ham, and fils Abrahee. Some Jewish 
families have in recent times modified it to 
Braham. 2. The township of Abram, co. 


See under Abraham. 

ABRINCIS DE. From Avranches, in 
Normandy. " Rualo de Abrincis, or Ave- 
renches, a valiant and skilful soldier, mar- 
rying Maud, daughter and heir of Nigel de 
Mandevil, lord of Folkestone, had all her 
lands and honours given to him in marriage 
by King Henry I." Banks. The town of 
Avranches is the capital of an arrondisse- 
ment in the department of La Manche, in 
Lower Normandy. 

ABRISCOURT. A known corruption 
of Da))ridgcourt. 

ABROOK. See under Brook. 

ABSELL. A contraction of Absolom? 

sonal name. 

It Is strange that any p|irent should give his son 
a haptismal appollntion like this, associaU'd as It Is 
with all that is vile and nnfilial ; yet an instance has 
occurred within my own obscn-atlon. As a surname 
it was not unusual in the middle ages. In the H.Il. 
it (Kcurs as Af>.%elon and Absolon. The latter is 
Cliaucer's orthotrraphy : 

•* Now was thcr of that chirclie a parish clerke, 
The wWch that was yclepcd Absolon." 

milere's Tale. 

ABURNE. Contraction of at-the-Burn, 
or brook; also an old orthography of 
auburn, and may relate to the colour of 
tlie hair : 

" Her black, browne, aburne, or her yellow hayre, 
Naturally lovely she doth scorn to weare." 


ABVILE. H.R. Abbeville, the well- 
known town in Picardy. The family came 
in with William the Conqueror, and Wace 
mentions Wiestace or Eustace d'Abevile 
among those who rendered their commander 
great aid. Taylor's Chron. of Norm. Conq. 
p. 214. 

I^*^AC or ACK. The initial syllable of many 
local surnames, signifying oak (A- Sax. 
ac), as, Ackfield, Ackworth, Akehurst 
or Ackliurst, Ackham, Acked, or Aked, 
^^ACH or AUCH. A prefix in many topo- 
graphical names of Gaelic origin. It 
signifies simply "a field" in a loose or 
general sense of that word. From it 
proceed the surnames Achmuty, Ach- 
any, &c. 

ACH ARD. An early personal name. As 
a surname it is found in the H.R. 

ACHILLES. An ancient family of this 
name bore two lions rampant endorsed, 
probably with reference to the lion-like 
acts of the classical hero. Encyc. Herald. 
In the H.R. the name is written A Chillis. 

ACHYM. " Signifies in British (Cornish) 
a descendant, issue, offspring, or progeny." 
The family were of great antiquity in Corn- 
wall. D. Gilbert's Comw. IV. 23. Acham 
appears from heraldric evidence to be the 
same name. 

ACKERMANN. Germ. See under 

ACKER. ACKERS. See under Aker- 

ACL AND. " From the situation of their 
ancient seat in Lankey, near Barnstaple, 
CO. Devon, which being in the midst of a 
large grove of oaks (in Saxon ac), obtained 
the name of Ac or Oakland. . . They 
were settled in this place as early as the 
reign of Henry II." Kimber's Barts. 

ACKROYD. See under Rojd. 

ACLE. A parish in Norfolk, where the 
family resided temp. Edw. I. 

ACLOME. From Acklam, the name of 
two parishes (East and West) in the North 
Hiding of Yorkshire. 

ACOURT. A'COURT. See Court. 

ACTON. The Gazetteer mentions fifteen 
j)arishe8 or townshijw so called, and there 
are many other minor localities. The Ac- 
tons of Acton, in Omlwrsley, co. Worcester, 
are said to have l>een settled there in Saxon 
times. They were certainly there temji. 
Henry IlL 

ADAIR. A branch of the great Ando- 
Hihcniian family of Fitz-Gerald settled at 
Adare, a village in co. Limerick, and thug 
acquired the local Bumame. In the XV. 



century Robert Fitz- Gerald de Adair, in 
consequence of family feuds, removed to 
Galloway, in Scotland, and dropping his 
patronymical designation, wrote himself 
Adair, a name which has since ramified 
largely on both sides of the Irish Channel. 
In temp. Chas. I., the senior branch trans- 
ferred themselves from Galloway to co. 
Antrim, where they resided for some gene- 
rations, until on the acquisition of English 
estates they again settled in Britain. 

The mij^rations of the family may be thus stated : 
1. England before the Conquest. 2. Ireland. 3. 
Scotland. 4. Scotland cum Ireland. 5. Ireland. 6. 
Ireland cum England. 7. England cum Ireland. 
Inf. Kcv. Wm. Reeves. 


personal name, much more used as a bap- 
tismal appellation in the middle ages than 
at present. In the H.R. it is written, Adam, 
Adams, fil' Ad, and ab Adam. There are 
various modifications of this name which 
have also become surnames. See Eng. 
Surn. ii., IGG, and subsequent articles in 
this work, all under AD. 


ADCOCK. A diminutive of Adam. See 
termination Cock. 

ADCOT. Sometimes the same as Adcock, 
which see ; sometimes local. 

ADDECOTT. Addy is a " nurse-name " 
of Adam, and cot a further diminutive; 
" little Adam." See termination Cott. 

ADDENBROOK. From residence near 
a brook, originally Atten-broke. See prefix 
Atte and Atten. 

ADDERLEY. A parish in Shropshire. 

ADDY. A "nursename" of Adam; 
" little Adam." Hence Addis or Addy's, 
Addiscott, Addiscock, and Addison. 

ADEY. ADIE. ADY. See Addy. 

ADDICE. ADDIS. Addy's son, the 
son of Adam. 

ADDICOT. A diminutive of Addy or 

ADDINGTON. Parishes in Surrey, 
Bucks, Kent, and Northampton. 


ADDISCOT. See Addy. 

ADDISON. See Addy. 

ADE. A curt form or diminutive of 
Adam. In the archives of Edinburgh we 
find " Ade, alias Adamson." In Sussex 
and Kent it has been varied to Ayde, Ade, 
Adey, and Adye. In medieval records Ade 
is the usual contraction of Adam. 

ADEANE. The same as Dean with the 
prefix a for at. 


diminutive of Adam. See termination Kin. 

ADLARD. ADLER. See Alard. Ade- 
lard, H. R. Adelardus, Domesd. 

ADLINGTON. Townships in Cheshire 
and Lancashire. 

ADNAM. A corruption of Addingham, 
parishes in Yorkshire and Cumberland. It 
is sometimes written Adnmn. 

ADOKES. Probably the old Welsh 
personal name Adoc, from whence also 
Ap Adoc, now Paddock. 

sonal name. As a surname it is of recent 

ADRIAN. A personal name, the Lat. 

ADRECY. See Daroy. 

AFFLECK. A singular contraction of 
the surname Auchinleck, borne by an 
ancient family 'of that ilk' in Ayrshire. Sir 
Edmund Afiieck created baronet in 1782, 
was sixth in descent from Sir John Auchin- 
leck, son of Gilbert A. of Auchinleck. 

AGAR. Aucher, a Norman personal 
name, whence Fitz -Aucher. 

AGATE. At- the- Gate, of some town or 
forest; less probably, a sobriquet ' applied 
to a diminutive person, in allusion to the 
small figures cut in agate for rings.' Nares 
and Halliw. in voc. 

" In shape no bigger than an agate stone 
On the forefinger of an alderman," 

Romeo and Juliet, i., 4. 

AGENT. The occupation. 

AGER. See Aucher. 

AGG. See Female Christian Names. 

AGGAS. Probably the son of Agatha, 
since such forms as Fil' Agath' and Fil' Agacie 
are found in the H.R. See Female Chris- 
tian Names. 

AGLIONBY. The family "trace their 
descent from Walter de Aguilon, who came 
into England with William the Conqueror, 
and into Cumberland with Randolph de 
Meschines. He gave name to the place of 
his dwelling, and called his seat or capital 
messuage Aguilon, or Aglion's building." 
Such is the statement of Hutchinson (Cum- 
berland i, 195), and there is no doubt that 
a person called Aglion or some similar name, 
in early times, imposed the name on the 
manor of Aglion-by, but whether that per- 
sonage came from Normandy as here as- 
serted may well be doubted. See Aguillon. 

AGNEW. Possibly from the French 
agneau, a lamb ; but more likely from 
Agneaux, a village in the arrondissement 
of St. Lo, in Nomiandy. Co. Wigton, XIV. 

AGUE. Fr. aigu^ corresponding with 
our Shai-pe. 

AGUILAR. Span. ' Of the eagle.' Comp. 
Aquila, Eagles, &c. 

AGUILLIAMS. Another form of Guil- 
liam or Ap William. 

AGUILLON. Banks says that Manser 
de Aguillon, the first of this family men- 
tioned, lived temp. Richard I. They were 
a Norman race, and as the name is fre- 
quently spelt Aquilon it is probably a mere 
variation of Aquila, q.v. 



AIGUILLOiSr. Fr. a spur. This name 
was probably conferred on the original 
bearer to denote his impetuosity, and may 
therefore be classed with our own Hotspur, 
as borne by the celebrated Henry Percy, 
temp. Henry TV. The family had posses- 
sions in West Sussex in the reigns of the 
Norman kings. See preceding article. 

AlKIN. A Scottish Christian name, as 
"Aikin Drum." 

AIKMAN. Ac is the A-Sax and Aik the 
Scottish for oak, and the families of this 
name bear inte)- al'ui an oak-tree in their 
arms. The surname however is probably a 
modification of Akerman, or of the Domesd. 

AINULPH. An ancient personal name. 

Scotland, but I cannot ascertain the county. 
Thomas de Ainslie, the baronet's ancestor, 
was " of that ilk " in 12U. 

AINSWORTH. A chapelry in the 
parish of Middleton, near Manchester. 

AIR. From Ayr, a town of Scotland, 
capital of Ayrshire. The family had 
doubtless lost sight of their having been 
originally "of that ilk" when they assimied 
for arms, Argent, a camclcon proper, in al- 
lusion to the unsubstantial food of that 

AIRD. Defined as " any isolated heijjht 
of an abrupt or hummocky character, 
either on the coast or in the interior" of 
Scotland. Imp. Gaz. Scot. The word oc- 
curs in composition in many Scottish names 
of towns and parishes, as well as sepa- 

AIREY. This Cumberland family con- 
sider the name to have been bon'owed from 
some elevated dwelling among the moun- 
tains called an P^yrie, such designations for 
residences not being uncommon. The 
•* Eagle's Nest " would be a much more 
eligible name for an abode than Rook's- 
nest, Goose-nest, or Stoat's-nest, which are 
still to be found. See Aquila. An aery 
also signifies a place for the breeding or 
{raining of hawks. Ellis, Introd. Domesd. 
I, 341. 

AIRTII. A barony in Stirlingshire. 

AISKELL. Probably the same as Askew 
and Ayscough. 

AISL ABIE. One of the oldest names in 
the county of Durham, from Aishiby, a 
parish on the river Tecs, on the banks of 
which the family still reside. In old docu- 
ments it is written Asklackby, Ayzalibic, 
and in about fifty other modes. 

AI STROP. Probably a corruption of 
Aisthorpe or East Thorpe, a parish ofLin- 


AITCIIISON. Qu. if this common Scot, 
name be not a corruption of Archie's son, 
the son of Archibald? 

AITKEN. Probably the Scot, form of 

J®" AKE, as a prefix, is the same as Ac, 
which see. Examples occur in Ake- 
land, Akehurst, Akeley, Akeris, &c. 

AKERISE. Probably from Acrise, a 
parish in Kent. De Acrise, H.R. 

AKERMAN. A- Sax. yS^cer-won, a field- 
man, farmer, ploughman, clown. Bos- 
worth. The German Ackermann, natural- 
ized amongst us, has precisely the same 
signification. The forms in the H.R. are 
Akerman, le Akermon, le Akermannes, 
Acherman, and le Acreman. Sometunes 
the Akermanni were a peculiar class of 
feudal tenants, the tenure of whose lands 
is uncertain, as it is stated that the lord 
could take them into his own hands when 
he would, yet without injurj' to the heredi- 
tary succession. These holdings were very 
small, consisting in some instances of five 
acres only. Hale's St. Paul's Domesd., 
p. xxiv. " Agricola, oecer-man." Wright's 
Vocab. p. 74. 

less local ; from Aikin, an early proprietor. 

ALABASTER. O. Eng alhlastere, a 
cross-bowman. In Latin, Albalcdarim^ 
under which form it occurs in the H.R. 
See Arblaster. 

ALARD. ALLARD. A corruption, it 
is said, of the A-Sax. personal name 
^thelwald, but jElard occurs in Domesd. 
as a tenant of Earl Godwin in the time of 
the Confessor. "The name flourished in 
Winchelsea from the Conqueror's days." 
Collins. Cooper's Winchelsea. 

ALASTER. ALISTER. Celtic form of 

ALB AN y . Originally the same as Albion 
— Britain ; but after the Roman invasion the 
name was restricted to Scotland. Ulti- 
mately the appellation was still further 
limited to the somewhat extensive district 
of the Highlands, which includes Breadal- 
bane, Athole, part of Lochaber, Appin, and 
Glenorchy. This district has frequently 
given the title of Duke to a younger son of 
the king, both before and since the union 
of the two crowns. As a surname it has 
been borne by several respectable families. 

ALBEMARLE. Odo, Count of Cham- 
pagne, married Adelidis, niece of William 
the Coiupicror, and in her right became 
Lord of Albemarle, Albamale, or Aumale, 
in Nonnandy. At the Conquest of England 
he received large jKissessions in Holdemcss. 
Wace mentions his presence at the battle of 
Hastings as the " Sire d'Aubemare." This 
was more jiroiHjrly a title than a surname, 
although it occurs as the latter in the H.R. 
The title has also lK>on borne by the families 
of De Fortibus, Plantagenct, Monk, and 
Kcp|)el. AllK-marle is a small ancient town, 
chef-lieu of a canton in the arrondissement 
of Neufchatel. It is now called Aumale, 
luul it gave title of duke to a branch of the 
royal house of Bourbon. 

ALBERT. A well-known Teutonic bap- 
tismal name. Albi-echt and Albrett ore 




ALBIN. Alban. 

ALBINT, DE. William de Albini at- 
tended William the Conqueror at the Con- 
quest. Wace mentions him as " the butler 
d'Aubignie." Kom. de Rou. Taylor, p. 221, 
where some genealogical notes will be 
found. But Wace is in eiTor in calling the 
Hastings warrior, " hotelllers,'''' since the 
official surname, Pinceraa, or the butler, 
was borne not by him but by his descendant 
of the same names, who received the manor 
of Buckenham from Henry I., by the tenure 
of being butler at the King's coronation, 
an office now discharged by his descen- 
dants, the Dukes of Norfolk. He had also 
another name, Sirunglmanus, or the "strong- 
handed," from his having slain a lion under 
very extraordinary circumstances. See 
Eng. Sum. His son was created Earl 
of Arundel. Aubigny, the original resi- 
dence of the family in Normandy, is in 
the Cotentin. Taylor, p. 220. Nigel de 
Albini occurs in Domesd. as a tenant in 
capite in co. Bucks. He slew Robert, 
Duke of Normandy's horse at Tencrchebrai, 
and brought Robert himself prisoner to his 
brother, King Henry I. His descendants 
assumed the name of Mowbray. Kelham. 

ALBOMIXSTER. An ancient Cornish 
family. A corruption of the latinization de 
Albo Monasterio, "ofthe white monastery," 
the designation of more than one religious 
house. See under Blackmonster. Albi- 
monast. H.R. 

ALBON. Alban, a personal name, borne 
by the proto-martyr of England. 

ALCIilN. ALLCHIN. A known cor- 
ruption of Alchome. 

ALCHORNE. A manor in the parish of 
Rotherfield, Sussex, where the family 
lived in the XIV cent. Some of their 
descendants, still resident in that parish, 
have, within a generation or two, cor- 
rupted their name to Allcorn. 

ALCOCK. (See termination Cock). A 

diminutive of Hal, or Henry. In the H.R. 

it is written Alcoc and Alcock. 

B^^ALD. A prefix of local names, the A- 

Sax. eaUl, old, ancient ; as in Aldridge, 

Aldwinckle, Aldworth, Aldham, Ald- 

wark, &c. 

ALDBOROUGH. A Suffolk seaport, 
a Yorkshire market-town, and a Norfolk 

ALDE. O. Eng., old. A Domesd. per- 
sonal name. 

" Princes and people aid and yong, 
All that spac with Duche tung." 

MinoVs Poems (HaUiw.) 

Aldman (i. e., old man) occurs as a sur- 
name in the H.R. 

ALDEN. Perhaps Halden, co Kent. 

83^ ALDER. Enters into the composition of 
many local names, and consequently of 
surnames. It indicates places favour- 
able for the growth of the tree in some 
instances, but much oftener it is no 
doubt a corruption of the A-Sax. per- 
sonal name Aldred, as in Alderibrd, 

Alderby, Aldemham, Aldersey, Aider- 
ton — the ford, the dwelling, tlie home, 
the island, and the enclosure, of Aldred. 
ALDERIMAN. 1 he Eolderman of Saxon 
times was a person of great distinction. 
In Domesd. Aldreman occurs without a 
prefix, so that it ai)y)ears to liave become 
first a baptismal, and then a family name. 

ALDERSEY. An estate in co Chester, 
possessed by the family temp. Henry III,, 
and still owned by them. 

ALDERSON. The son of Alder or 

Aldred. The H.R. have, however, »fU' 

Alditli," Aldith's son. 
ALDINGTON, A par. in Kent, and a 

hamlet in Worcestershire. 
ALDIS. See Aldous. 
ALDOUS. ALDHOUS. A local name; 

" the old house." 

ALDRED, An A-Sax. personal name. 

ALDRICn. An ancient personal name. 
As a surname it is found in the H.R. 

ALDRIDGE. Places in Staffordshire 
and elsewhere. 

ALDUS. Local. " The old house." 

ALDWINCKLE. Two parishes in co. 
Northampton are so called. 

ALDWORTH. A parish in Berkshire, 
which the family originally possessed. 

ALE. Apparently an ancient Christian 
name, as we find in the H.R. the form 
fir Ale, the son of Ale. In the south of 
England the surname Earle is often pro- 
nounced Ale. 

It is an odd fact that we have in English family 
nomenclature all the terms ordinarily applied to malt 
liquors ; Ale, Beer, Porter, and Stout ; yet not one of 
these appellations is in the remotest degree related to 
Sir John Barleycorn ; for Beer is the name of a place, 
and Porter that of an occupation, while Stout reters 
to the moral quality of courage or braverj', and, as 
we see above, Ale seems to have been a personal 

ALEFOUNDER. In most places the 
official whose duty it is to inspect the malt 
liquor of a hundred or franchise is called 
the ale-taster or ale-conner. The origin of 
" founder " is uncertain. 

" At a Court Leet or Law Day, and Court of the 
Portmen of the Borough of Kew Buckenham, the 
sub-bailiff, affiers, searchers and sealers of leather, 
examiners of fish and flesh, a/e/cmn^ez-s, inspectors of 
weights and measures, and a pinder were appointed." 
(Norfolk Chron., Aug. 19, 1854). 

In the records of the manor of Hale in the XV 
cent., one Thomas Layet is mentioned as being fined 
for ha^ing brewed once, 2d., and for having concealed 
the " founding-pot " (quia concelavit le fowundjTige 
pot), 3d. Three Early Metr. Rem., Carnd. Soc. p. 

ALEGH. 'At the Lee' or meadow. See 
Leigh or Lee. Its form in the H.R. is A la 
Legh. Attlee is another existing form of 
the same name. 

ALEHOUSE. From residence at one; 
an innkeeper. 

ALEi\Ll]^. 1. See Alman. 2. A dealer 
in ale. 

ALESBURY. Aylesbury, co. Bucking- 



ALEX. A nickname of Alexander ; or 
perhaps Allic or Alick, a Domesd. name. 

ALEXANDER The personal name. 
In the H.ll. it is variously written, as 
Alexandre, fil' Alex, Alexandri, &:c. A com- 
mon name itself, it has become, by the ab- 
breviating process, the parent of others 
still more so. From its last two syllables 
we have Sander, Sanders, Sanderson, Saun- 
der, Saunders, Saunderson, Sandie, Sandi- 
son, Sandercock ; from its first tw^o sylla- 
bles we get in like manner, Alex, Allix, 
Alley, and Aiken ; and besides these forms 
we have the corruptions Elshender, Elshie, 
and probably Assender. 

ALFORD. Parishes in cos. Lincoln and 

ALFRED. The personal name. Very 
common in Domesd. and later, as Alured. 

ALFREY. Probably a corruption of 
Alfred ; or it may be local, though I cannot 
discover any place so designated. The 
name belongs, I think, almost exclusively 
to Sussex. The forms -^Ifer, Alfere, and 
Alferus occur before 1086 in that county. 

ALGAR. SeeElgar. In the II. R. the 
forms are Algar and Algor. 

ALGERNON. The personal name. 

ALICOCK. A diminutive of Alick, the 
nickname of Alexander. 

ALINGTON. The Alingtons of Horse- 
heath, CO. Camb., claimed descent from 
Hildebrand de Alington, " under-marshal 
to the Conqueror at Hastings," though 
their pedigree was not traceable beyond 
temp. Edw. IV. 

ALISON. William Alls occurs in Domes- 
day as a chief tenant in Hampshire under 
the Conqueror, and he was probably the 
patriarch of the large tribe of the Ellises, 
as well as of the Ellisons, Alisons, Fitz- 
Ellises, &c. See under Ellis. It may be 
remarked that the vulgar pronunciation of 
Pill is in the South is exactly the same as 
that of the female personal name Alice. 
The prevalence of the Christian name Ar- 
cliibald, and the use of the fleur-de-lis by 
the Alisons sui)port this conjecture. 

ALKINS. Probably the same as Haw- 

ALLAINE. See Allen. 

ALLAN. See Allen. Also Gael. aUean^ 
grim, fierce. 

ALLAN SON. See Fitz-Alan. 

ALLARD YCE. An estate in the parish 
of Arbuthnot, co. Kincardine. 

ALL AWAY. AUoway, a parish in Ayr- 

ALLBLASTER. O. Eng. alhlastere, a 

ALLBONES. Perhaps a corruption of 
Ald]x)umc. So Hollow bone from Holy- 
bourne. The personal name Alban may, 
however, be the source. 

ALLBRTGHT. A personal name (Al- 
bert). Ailbriht occurs in Domesd. anterior 
to 1086. 

ALLCARD. An A-Sax. personal name, 
Alcheard. Codex Dipl. 520. 

ALLCOCK. See Alcock. 

ALLCROFT. See Croft. 

ALLEN. From the personal name Alan, 
common in Norman times. Edw. Allen 
or Alley ne, when he founded Dulwich Col- 
lege, 1619, directed that the master and the 
warden of his establishment should bear 
the name of AllejTie or Allen, a regulation 
which has always been adhered to without 
much inconvenience, on accoimt of the nu- 
merousness of the families bearing it. 
There are more than fifty coats-armorial 
assigned to the surname. 

Scaliper, who reckoned among his ancestry some 
■who bore the name of Alan, deduces the word from a 
Sclavonic term, signifying " a hound." Chaucer ap- 
plies this name to a breed of large dogs : 

" Aboutcn his char ther wenten white alauns" 
for deer or lion hunting ; and the Lords Dacre used 
for their supporter an alaun or wolf-dog ; but Cam- 
den dissents from this derivation, and thinks as the 
name was introduced here in the Conqueror's time by 
Alan, Earl of Brittany, that it was from an Amiorican 
source, and etiuivalent to the Koman " iElianus, that 
is, sun-bright." 

ALLENBY. Allonby, a parish in Cum- 

ALLENDER. A small river in the shires 
of Dumbarton and Stirling. 

ALLENSON. Thesonof Alienor Alan. 
Perhaps in some cases from Alen^on, in 

ALLERTON. There are parishes and 
chapel ries so called in cos. Lancaster, York, 
Somerset, &c. 

ALLEY. A small passage or lane be- 
tween houses. Perhaps, however, a dimi- 
nutive or nursename of Alfred, Allen, or 
some other Christian name. 

ALLEYNE. See Allen. 

ALLFREE. See Alfrey. 

ALLG OOD. Algod occurs before Domesd. 

as a jKjrsonal name. 
ALLTBONE. A corruption probably of 

Halliboume, i.e., Holy-bourne. 
ALLICK. A common nickname of 

Alexander; but Allic and Alich occur in 

Domesd. as baptismal. 
ALLINGHAM. A parish in Kent. 

ALLNUTT. The A-Sax. iElnod or 
Alno<l. Domesd. ante 1086. 
ALLOM. Scellallam. 

ALLOTT. Probably the same as Hal- 


ffW, old, and trcow, tree — a local suniame. 
AliLWORK. Aldwark, a hamlet in co. 

ALL WRIGHT. Perhaps a maker of 

awls. See Wright. 


ALMACK. The family have a tradition 
that the first Almack was a Mac-All, of 
Argyleshire, who transposed the syllables 
of his name on coming to the South. 

Most if not all the existing? bearers of this sinpnilar 
patronymic descend from a Richard Almoke, of York- 
shire, whose curious will, with that of his son John, 
is printed in Arch. Joum. v. 316. In 34 and 35, 
Hen. VIII., this Richard is written Awmoke, and 
still later Ha\\Tnoke. It is worth recording that 
"Almack Place," in Hong Kong, wjms named after 
William A., one of the founders of the city of Victoria 
in that Colony, who died on his voyage from China in 
1846. The founder of the celebrated Almack's Rooms 
was of a Yorkshire Quaker faraUy. The Almack 
motto, based upon the supposed Scottish extraction of 
the race, is MACK AL SICKER. 

ALMAINE. Not from the Fr. AUe- 
magne, Germany, as might be supposed ; 
but from Allemagne, a place near Caen, 
famous for its quarries of Caen stone. 
From this identity of name, that stone is 
often misunderstood to have been brought 
from Germany. 

ALMAN. From the Fr. V Allemajid—the 
German. See however, Almaine. The 
family were in E. Sussex in the XIV cent. 

ALMER. See Aylmer. 

ALMIGER. Probably a corruption of 
Alnager, " an officer, who by himself or 
his deputy, looks to the assize of all cloth 
made of wool throughout the land, and 
puts a seal for that purpose ordained unto 
them. Stat. 35 Edw. III." Tennes de la 
Ley. See Aulnager in Jamieson. 

ALMON. ALMOND. See Alman and 

ALMONT. A corruption of the latini- 
zation "de Alto Monte," and therefore 
synonymous with Monthaut and Mountain. 


PHEGH. See under Elphick. 

ALPHRAIIAX. Alfarez, Span., an en- 
sign. According to Halliwell, this term is 
used by Ben Jonson and Beaumont and 
Fletcher; and Nares, on the authority of 
Harl. M.S. G804, aiiirms that it was in use 
in our army during the civil wars of 
Charles I. It is therefore possible that 
Alphraman may be equivalent to the old 
corrupt " ancient," or ensign. The reader 
will doubtless call to mind the " Ancient 
Pistol " of Shakspeare. 

ALPINE. MacAlpin, a Scottish name. 

ALPRAJVI. Alpraham, a parish in Che- 

ALS. A place in Burian, co. Cornwall. 

ALSAGER. A chapelry in Cheshire. 

ALSCHUNDER. Supposed to be a cor- 
ruption of Alexander, which in Scotland is, 
in common parlance, pronounced Elshiner. 

ALSFORD. Two parishes in Hampshire, 
and one in Essex bear the name of Aires- 

ALSOP. ALLSOP. This ancient race 
were seated at Alsop-in-the-Dale, in Derby- 
shire, about the time of the Conquest, and 
there continued in an uninterrupted descent 
for 19 or 20 generations. 


ALSTON. Places in cos. Lancaster, 
Worcester, &c. 

ALTARIPA DE. See Hawtrey and 
Dealtry. "^ 

ALTERIPE. See Altaripa de. 

ALTHORPE. Places in COS. Northampt, 

Lincoln, and Norfolk. 
ALTON. A town in Hampshire, and 
parishes or places in cos. Wilts, Dorset, 
Stafford, &c. 

ALUM. ALLUM. See Hallam. 

ALVERD. This name is sometimes 
written Alured, i.e., Alvred or Alfred, but 
it may occasionally be a corniption of Al- 
ford. Another variation is Alvert. 

AL^VYN. An A-Sax. personal name. 
It has taken the various forms of Aylwin, 
Elwin, Alwine, Aylen, &c., &c. Fitz Alwyn 
was the first Lord Mayor of London, from 
1189 to 1212. 

ALWORTH Y. Most likely a corruption 
of Aldworth. See Ald and Worth. 

AMAND. A Saint Amand was vene- 
rated in Normandy, and there are several 
places in that province which bear his 
name. Fil' Amand, i.e., Fitz-Amand, oc- 
curs in the H.R. 

AMBER. An A-Sax. personal name, 
whence Amberley, Ambersham, Amberhill, 

AMBLER. Le Ambleur, Fr., an officer of 
the king's stable. Ambuler means an am- 
bling horse. 

" Soo was Epynogrj's and his lady horsed, and his 
lady behjTide hym upon a softe ambuler" Morte 
<r Arthur, u., 148. 

AMBROSE. The Greek personal name. 

Divine, immortal. 
AMCOTTS. A township in co. Lincoln. 
AJVIER. See Amour. 

AMEREDITH. The same arms are as- 
signed to this name as to that of Meredith ; 
the initial "A" may therefore be regarded 
as the equivalent of " Ap." 

AMERVILLE. Probably the same as 
Amfreville. Eight places of this latter 
name are given in Itin. de la Normandie, 
and are said to have received their desig- 
nation from the personal name Anfred. 
" Ces Amfreville devraient etre ecrits Anfre- 
ville, puis que leur nom latin est Anfredi- 
villa." Itin. p. 373. 

AMES. A corrupt spelling, though still 
retaining the sound, of Exmes, a town in 
the department of Ome, in Normandy. 

AMESBURY. A town in Wiltshire. 

AMHERST. The pedigree is traced to 
A.D, 1400, at Pembury, co. Kent, and the 
locality of Amherst is in that parish. 

AlVHAS. Camden treats this as a per- 
sonal name, deducing it from the Lat. 
amatus. " The earls and dukes of Savoy, 
which be commonly called Aime, were in 
Latin called Amadeus, that is, 'loving God,' 
as Theophilus. We do now use Amias for 
this, in difference from Amie, the woman's 




name. Some deduce Amias from iEmilius, 
the Roman name." It may be added, 
however, that the town of Amiens, in Pi- 
cardy, is spelt Amias hy our old chroni- 
clers. In R.G. 16 it is written wrongly — 
or, at all events, Amiss ! 

AMIES. Probably another form of 
Amias, which see. 

AMMOX. Either Amand or Hammond 

AMOORE. See Amour. 

AMOR. The same as Amour, which see. 

AMORY. AMERY. From the per- 
sonal name Emeric or Almericus, equiva- 
lent to the Italian Amerigo, latinized Ame- 
ricus, whence the name of the great western 
continent. It seems to have undergone 
the following changes: Emeric, Emery, 
Amery, Amory, Ammory, and in Domesd. 
Haimericus. It is asserted, however 
(B.L.G.), that " the family of D'Amery 
came to Engl, with the Conqueror from 

AJVIOS. The personal name. 

AMOUR. A-Moor, that is, at or of the 
moor, from residence upon one. 

AMPHLETT. " Amflete, Amfleot et aliis 
Amplent [Sax,], a haven in France (as I 
gesse) near Boloigne." Lambarde's Diet. 

AMSON. Probably a corruption of 

AMYAND. The first baronet of this 
name (1764) was grandson of M. Amyand, 
a native of France, who quitted that 
country on the Rev. of the Edict of Nantes, 
1685. Baronetage. 

AM YE. Fr. ami. A friend. L'Amye 
occurs temp. Eliz. as a Frenchman in 

AMYOT. A derivative of the personal 
name Amias. Amiot. H.R. 

ANCELL ANSELL. Anselm, a well- 
known Norman Christian name. 

ANCHOR. 1. An inn sign. 2. An an- 
chorite or hermit. 

" An anchor't cheer in prison be my hope." 


AND. A family of this name bore as 
arms a Roman **&." Jlncycl. Herald. 
" And" would appear to have lieen either 
a qualifying epithet or an ancient jxirsonal 
designation, since it often occurs in comjK)- 
sition with topographical terms ; e. g., And- 
borough, And-by, And-over, An-croft. 

ANDERS. Probably a corruption of 


ANDERSON. The son of Andrew. 
ANDERTON. A township and estate 

in CO. Lancaster, formerly possessed by the 


ANDREW. The personal name. 
ANDREWS. The son of Andrew. 
ANDROS. A corruption of Andrews. 

Tliis orthography is in use in the Channel 


ANGELL. A common inn sign. More 
probably, however, from Anegole or Angold, 
a personal name, as we find it occasionally 
with the suffix son. Sometimes there may 
be a direct allusion to the celestial hierarchy, 
as in the cognate foreign surnames Angelo, 
Angellis, Angellico. 

ANGELSON. The son of Anegold, a 
personal name. 

ANGER. Perhaps from one who per- 
sonated this vice in some miracle play; 
more probably, however, from hayi/jer, a 
word descriptive of locality. A hanger is 
a wooded declivity. 

" The high part to the south-west consists of a vast 
hill of clialk, rising three hundred feet above the 
villaRe ; and is divided into a sheep-down, the high 
■wood, and a long hanging wood called the Hanger." 
White's Selborne. 

ANGEVINE. A native of Anjou. In 
the H.R. the name is written with the pre- 
fix "le." 

ANGOS. See Angus. 

ANGOVE "In this parish (Illogan) 
liveth Reginald Angove, Gent., i. e., Regi- 
nald the Smith, a simame assumed in me- 
mory of his first ancestor, who was by 
trade and occupation a smith. And of tliis 
sort of simame in England thus speaks 
"Verstigan : 

" From whence came Smith, all be it knight or squire, 
But fi*om the smith that forgeth in the Are." 

Hals MSS. D. Gilbert's Cornwall. 

local, from its termination in wish ; or per- 
haps a corruption of Angus. 

ANGUS. The ancient name of Forfar- 
shire, in Scotland. 

ANHAULT. Probably a corruption of 
Hainault, a territory or province of the 

ANKETELL. Anchitel, apersonnl name 
of Scandinavian origin, occurring in 
Domesd. and other early records. 

ANN. ANNS. See Anne. 

ANN AD ALE. See Annan. 

ANNAN. A parish in co. Dumfries, on 
the river of the same name, whence Annan- 

ANN AND ALE. Sometimes written An- 
nadale. See Annan. 

ANNE. Anna is a Scandinavian male 
personal name of high antiquity, and hence, 
[Kirhaps, Anne, Anson, Anns, Annctt, Ann- 

ANNl^SLEY. A parish in co. Netting- 
ham, whicli was possessed by the family 
from the reign of the Contiucror, 1079. 

ANNEVILLE. There are several vil- 
lages in Normandy l>caring this name. 
The English family, according to De (Jcr- 
ville, originated from Anneville-cn-Saine, 
a parish in the arrondissemcntof Valognes. 
One of the family was lord of that place in 
lOiUJ; his brother joined the Conqueror's 
army, and became progenitor of the d'An- 


villes of this country. Mem. Soc. Ant. 
Normandie, 1825. 

ANNIS. See Female Christian Names. 

ANSELME. Anselm, a well-known per- 
sonal name. It is sometimes corrupted to 
Ancell and Ansell. 

ANSLOW. A township inco Stafford. 

ANSON. Such names as An-son, Nel- 
son, Bet-son, &c., have been regarded as a 
sort of metronymics, and therefore consi- 
dered indicative of illegitimacy ; but I think 
there is little doubt of the former part of 
these names being in many cases corrup- 
tions of masculine appellations. Anson is 
probably a contraction of Alanson. 

ANSTEY. Parishes and places in cos. 
Herts, Leicester, Warwick, Wilts, and Devon, 

ANSTIS. Probably a contraction of 

ANSTRUTHER. William de Candela 
held the barony of Anstruther, in co. Fife, 
about 1153. His grandson Henry appears 
to have assumed the surname in or before 
1221. Baronetage. 

ANTHON. ANTON. 1. An abbre- 
viation of Anthony. 2. A river of Hamp- 

ANTHONY. The personal name ; also 
a parish in Cornwall. Places called St. 
Antoine and Antoigni occur in Normandy. 

ANTILL. Ampthill, a parish in co. Bed- 

ANTROBUS. A township in Cheshire, 
the original residence of the family, sold by 
them temp. Hen. VI., but repurchased in 
1808, by Sir Edm. Antrobus. 

ANTRON. A place in the parish of Sith- 
ney, co. Cornwall. 

ANVERS. The city of Antwerp, in 
Belgium. Danvers is another form of the 
same name. 

ANVIL. See Anneville. 

I^^AP. A Welsh prefix, signifying "the son 
of." It was sometimes written Ab and 
Vap. See Eng. Sum., i., 17., for 
anecdotes and remarks. Andrew Borde, 
in his Boke of Knowledge, makes a 
Welshman say : 

" I am a gentylman and come of Brutns blood, 
My name is ap Ryce, ap Davy, ap Flood, 

* * * * * 

My kyndred is ap Hoby, ap Jenkin, ap Goffe, 
Because I do go barelegged I do cache the coffe." 
Sometimes the letter P or B (in ab) 
coalesced with the following syllable, 
and thus Ap Ryhs became Price ; Ap 
Howell, Powell ; Ap Robyn, Probyn ; 
Ab Ithell, Bithell ; Ab Enyon, Benyon. 

ANWYL. (Welsh,) Bear, beloved. 

APADAM. (Welsh.) The son of Adam, 

APE. Joh?i le Ape. H.R. This " Jack- 
anapes" appears to have been an inhabitant 
of the parish of St. Frideswide's, Oxford. 
Prof. Leo. thinks that the ape (siniius) 


gave name to some English localities, which 
seems incredible. It is true, however, that 
we have some names of places, of which this 
word is a component syllable, as Apethorpe, 
Apeton, Apewood, Apenholt, Apedale, &c. 


APEELE. At-the-Peel. See Peel. 

AP GRIFFYN (Welsh ) The son of 
Griffin or Griffith. 

AP GWENWEY. (Welsh.) The son 
of Gwenwey. 

AP HARRY. (Welsh.) The son of 
Harry, Harrison. Hence Parry. 

AP HOWELL. (Welsh.) The son of 
Howell. Hence Powell. 

APJOHN. (Welsh.) The son of John, 
Johnson. It is sometimes strangely cor- 
rupted into Upjolm and Applejohn. 

AP MADOC. CVVelsh.) The son of 

AP MERICK. (Welsh.) The son of 

AP MEURICE. (Welsh.) The son of 

Meurice or Morris. 

APOSTLES. Probably a religious inn 

APOWELL. (Welsh.) ApHowel, the 

son of Howel. 


The CO. town of Westmoreland ; also 
parishes in cos. Leicester and Lincoln. 

APPENRICK. (Welsh.) ApHenrick, 
the son of Henrich or Henry. 

1^^ APPLE, a prefix to many local sur- 
names, is the A-Sax, a^jtl, and denotes a 
place where apples abounded, as Apple- 
by, Applesbury, Apledrefield, Apelton, or 
Appleton, &c. 

APPLEFORD. A chapelry in Berks. 

APPLEGARTH. (Apple and garth.) 
An enclosure for apple trees, an orchard. It 
has been corrupted to Applegath, Apple- 
gate, &c. 

APPLEJOHN. Most probably a cor- 
ruption of the Welsh Ap- John. There was, 
however, a species of apple which bore this 
name. "Do I not bate ? Do I not 
dwindle?" says Falstaff; "Why my skin 
hangs about me like an old lady's loose 
gown ; I am withered like an old Apple- 
John:'' Hen. IV., act iii. An apple grown 
in the eastern counties is still known by 
this a/fpellation. 

APPLEMAN. A grower of, or dealer 
in apples. The trade of a costermonger 
derives its name from costard, a large kind 
of apple, the commodity in which he 
principally dealt. The original Mr. Apple- 
man must then have been a medieval cos- 

APPLETON. Parishes and places in co^. 
Berks, Chester, Lancaster, Norfolk, York, 


APPLETREE. (A-Sax. cepl and treow). 
Our Saxon forefathers named many locali- 
ties — which have since given rise to sur- 
names — from trees. Appledore, Kent, Ap- 
pledore, Devon; Appledram, Sussex, and 
other places are well-known to have de- 
rived their designations thus. The Saxon 
Chronicle describes the battle of Hastings 
as having taken place at thoere hdran 
ajnddran, " at the hoary apple-tree," pro- 
bably from same venerable tree of that 
Bl^ecies growing near at hand. Contrib. to 
Lit. 71. The "hoar apple tree" was a 
common landmark in Saxon times. Mr. 
Hamper has collected no less than 14 in- 
stances in different counties. Archaeo- 
logia XXV, 35. 


ILIARD. An orchard. The word is em- 
ployed by Hulvet in his Abecedarium, 
1552. Halliw. 

APPS. Apparently a genitive form of 
Ape or Appe ; a personal name, ante 1066. 

AP RYCE. (Welsh). Ap Rhys, the son 
of Rhys. The baronet's family (Apreece) 
claim descent from Gruflfyth ap Rees, prince 
of South Wales. Hence Price. 

AP ROBERT. (Welsh). The son of 
Robert. Hence Probert. The name some- 
times took the form of Robin, and hence 
Ap Robyn, Probyn. 

APSLEY. A manor in Thakeham, co. 
Sussex, where the family were resident in 

AP THOMAS. (Welsh.) The son of 

APWENWYN. (Welsh.) The son of 
Enyon or Wenwyn. This name has also 
taken the form of Benyon. 

AQUILA DE. " The surname of this 
family was originally assumed from Aquila, 
in Normandy; so denominated by reason 
an eagle had made her nest in an oak 
growing there when the castle was first 
building. Eugenulf de Aquila accompanied 
Duke William into England." Banks. The 
family were banished by Henry III., and 
probably never returned, as their name does 
not occur in more recent times, unless, in- 
deed, the modem Eglett he a translation of 
it. See Mirh/'U. The manor of Pevensey, 
CO. Sussex, of which the De Aquilas were 
anciently lords, is still called the "honour 
of the Eagle," from that circumstance. 
Eugenulf, who is called by Master Wacc 
Engerran del'Aigle, fell at Hastings. Ord. 
Vit. " And Engerran de I'Aigle came also, 
with a shield slung at his neck, and, gal- 
lantly handling his spear, struck down many 
English. He strove hard to serve the Duke 
well for the sake of the lands he had pro- 
mised him." Taylor's Roman de Rou, p. 

ARABIN. I am informed that the 
founder of this family came over with 
William III., and fought at the battle of 
the Boyne, 

10 ARC 


from Arragon, the Spanish province. 
ARBER. See Harbour. 
ARBLASTER. An arbalistarius or 

" And in the kemils* here and there, 
Of arblastirs great plenty were." 

Rom. of the Rose, 4198. 
It was sometimes applied to the cross-bow 

" With alblastres and with stones, 
They slow^ men and braken bones." 

Kpng Alisaumkr, 1211. (Ilalliw.) 

Several of the distinguished archers at the 
battle of Hastings became tenants in chief 
under the (Conqueror, and are entered in 
Domesd. with the surname Arbalistarius 
or Balistarius. Hence the names Alabaster, 
Blast, and others. 

ARBUCKLE. A possible corruption of 

ARBURY. ARBERY. A township in 

ARBUTHNOT. A parish in Kincar- 
dineshire. The first of the family was 
Hugh de Aburbothenoth, who assumed his 
surname from the lands which he acquired 
in 11 05 with the daughter of Osbert Olifard, 
and on which his descendants have resided 
for more than twenty generations. Peerage. 

ARBUTT. Probably a corruption of 

ARCEDECKNE. See Archdeacon. 

ARCH. From residence near one. A 
bridge is often provincially called an arch. 

ARCHARD. A provincial pronuncia- 
tion of orchard. 

ARCHBELL. A corruption of Archi- 

ARCHBISHOP. See Ecclesiastical Sur- 

ARCHBOLD. A corruption of Archi- 

ARCHBUTT. A corruption of Archi- 

ARCHDEACON. An eminent Cornish 
family in the XIV. cent, wrote themselves 
Archdekne. The cognate name Archidi- 
acre occurs in France, from which country 
the English family would appear to have 
migrated, since three cheverons form the 
main feature of the anns of both families, 
as well as of another English family named 
ARCHER. The progenitor of the Barons 
Archer is said to have been Fulbert L'Ar- 
cher, who came in with the Conqueror. 
Ext, Peerage. But this name must have 
had many distinctorigins. See Auciieuy. 
BaTARCHERY. In old Euglish warfare 
the long l>ow was the favourite weapon, 
and it was also the chief instrument of 
the national pastime. Our family nomen- 
clature abounds in names relating to 
archery ; thus we have Archer and Bow- 
man, Bowyer and Bowmaker, Arrow- 

• Embra.^tires of n wall. 




smith and Fletcher, Stringer and Butts, 
besides many others whose reference to 
the pursuit is less obvious. 

ARCHIBALD. The baptismal name. 

ARCHIE. In Scotland, a diminutive or 
nurse-name of Archibald. 

ARKCOLL. Perhaps from the parish of 
of Ercall Magna, or High Ercall, in Shrop- 
shire. A more likely derivation, however, 
is from the Dutch Van Arkel, a noble fa- 
mily renowned for their courage. 

According to an ancient proverb, of all the nobles 
of Holland, the Brederodes were the noblest, the 
Wassenaars the oldest, the Eginonts the richest, and 
the Ai-kels the stoutest in conflict : 

" Brederode de edelste, "Wassenaars de outste, 
Egrnont de rijkste, en Arkel de stoutste." 
The locality from which the Arkels derived their 
title was so called from the remams of a temple de- 
dicated in Roman times to Hercules. It is worthy of 
notice that the A-Sax. form of Hercules is Ercol. 
Dixon's Surnames. Arkil was also a Saxon name. 
Arkil, a great baron of Northumbria, who fled before 
William the Conqueror, settled in Scotland, and be- 
came the founder of the Earls of Lennox. 

ARDEN. The Ardens of Arden, co. 
Warwick, claimed direct descent from Si- 
vard de Arden, son of Turchil de Warwick, 
w^ho, though of Saxon origin, held under 
the Conqueror as a tenant in chief. See 

ARDERNE. " The traditionary account 
of the origin of this family is from Tur- 
chetil, son of Alwyn, officiary earl of War- 
wick, in the time of Edward the Confessor ; 
which Turchetil succeeded his father, but 
being afterwards deprived of his earldom 
by William the Conqueror, retired to the 
woody part of the county, and assumed 
the name of Arderne or Arden." Banks. 


DERES. May be various forms of the 
same name. There are two small parishes in 
Kent called Upper and Lower Hardres. 
See Hardres and Hards. In Scot. AUar- 
dyce is so corrupted. 

ARDLEY. A parish in co. Oxford. 

ARESKIN. A sufficiently obvious cor- 
ruption of the Scottish name Erskine, 
which, indeed, is so pronounced in the 

AREY. See Airey. 

ARGALL. Possibly from Ercall, a 
parish in Shropshire. 

ARGENTE. ARGENT. A contrac- 
tion of Argenton. 

gentan, a considerable town in the south of 
Normandy, formerly written Argentomagus. 
David de Argentomago was a tenant in chief 
under the Conqueror, in cos. Bedford and 
Camb. His descendants were ennobled as 
barons Argentine. 

ARGEVILLE. Perhaps from Argueil, 
near Neufchatel, in Normandy. 

ARGLES. Possibly a corruption of 
Argyle, the Scottish county. 

ARGUMENT. This strange name occurs 
in the R.G. 16. It is probably a corruption 
of the French aigu mont, mont-agu, mons 
acutus, the sharp-pointed hill. There is a 

hamlet bearing the name of Aigumont, in 
the arrondissement of Dieppe, in Normandy. 

ARIELL. Ariel, the name of an angel, 
cognate with Michael, Gabriel, &c. 

ARIES. Probably a Latinization of the 
name Ram. Aris, Areas, and Ares seem to 
be mere variations in the orthography. 

ARKELL. See ArkcoU. 

ARKWRIGHT. An « ark," in the north, 
signifies a meal or flour-chest, which is 
usually made of oak, and sometimes elabo- 
rately carved. Halliw. The maker of 
such chests was an Arkwright. The strong 
boxes in which the Jews kept their 
valuables, were anciently called their arks 
(arcJuis) . Hunter's Hallamshire Gl ossary. 
Area is used in this latter sense by the 
classical writers : 

Quantum quisque suil nummorum servat in arcA, 

Tantum habet et fidei. 

Juv. Sat. iii., 143. 
The word occurs in Fcedera 45, Hen. III. 
In the H.R. the surname occurs as le Coffrer, 

ARKYBUS. The harquebus or hand- 
cannon, and probably also the man who 
wielded it. See a cognate example of this 
double application under Arblaster. 

ARLE. Possibly from Aries, in Pro- 

ARM. Appears to have been an ancient 
personal name. It is found in composition 
with the local surnames, Armfield, Arm- 
stead, Armsby, Armsworth, &c. 

ARMENY. ARMONY. Old spellings of 
Armenia. This name originated, perhaps, 
in the days of pilgrimages and crusades. 

" Shewe me the ryght path 
To the hills of Armony." — Skelton. 

miger, an esquire, the next in degree to a 
knight. The upper servants of an abbey 
were also called Armigeri. 

" Concessimus etiam Alano per annum imam robam 
cum furura de eodem panno quo vestiuntur armigeri 
nostri." A. D. 1300. Regist. of Battel Abbeij. 

ARMINE. Dutch for a beggar ; but a 
more probable derivation is from Armine, 
a chapelry in the parish of Snaith, in the 
W. Riding of Yorkshire. 

ARMITAGE. A provincial pronuncia- 
tion of hermitage; also a parish in Stafford- 
shire. The Armytages of Kirklees, co. 
York, trace their patronymic back to the 
reign of King Stephen. Baronetage. 

ARMORER. The occupation. 

ARMOUR. A corruption of Armourer. 

ARMSTRONG. Doubtless from strength 
of limb, as displayed in war and athletic 
sports. Armstrang is the same, and 
Strongi'th'arm, a cognate surname. The 
well-known border clan of Armstrong were 
of old a truly armipotent race, and Johnnie 
A., their chief, tlie great freebooter, lived 
in Eskdale ; while Liddesdale was another 
habitat of the family. 

" Ye need not go to Liddisdale, 
For when they see the blazing bale 
Elliots and Armstrongs never fail." 

Lay of Last Minstr. 




The influential family of this name in Ire- 
land, of Scottish origin, settled there on 
the attainder of Sir Thomas A. for the Eye 
House Plot, and they still enjoy large estates 
in King's co., and in cos. Limerick, Tippe- 
rary, &c. The A's, of Fermanagh, who claim 
descent from a brother of the celebrated 
Johnnie, settled in that co. about the com- 
mencement of the XVII. cent. 

Tradition asserts that the original name 
of this renowned race was Fairbaim, and 
that an ancestor who was armour-bearer 
to one of the Scottish Kings, once saved his 
royal master's life on the battle field by 
lifting him on horseback after he had been 
dismounted. The crest of the family, " an 
armed hand and arm ; in the hand a leg 
and foot in rich armour, couped at the 
thigh," is said to allude to the manner in 
which Fairbairn raised the King to the 
saddle. For this service the monarch gave 
his follower broad lands in the S. of Scot- 
land, together with the appellation Arm- 
^^ARN. The initial syllable of many local 
names, as Amcliffe, Amwood, Arney, 
Arnholt, meaning respectively the cliff, 
the wood, the island, and the grove of 
eagles, from the A-Sax. erne, an eagle. 
Occasionally, however, it may be derived 
fix)m arn, the Scottish for an alder 

ARXE. A parish in Dorsetshire ; also a 
Norse personal name. See Heimskringla, 
i, 201. 

ARNEY. A nick-name for Arnold, 
whence Amison. 

ARNISON. See Arney. 

ARNOLD. The personal name ; also a 
parish in the county of Wilts. 

ARNULL. ARNOULD. Corruptions of 

ARNOTT. ARNETT. Corruptions of 

ARXULFE. The same as Arnold, which 
in medieval records is sometimes latinized 

ARRAS. From the French city, the 
capital of the ci-devant province of Artois, 
once famous for its manufacture of tapestry, 
and the source of the " arras hangings," 
with which the cliambers of our ancestors 
were erewhile adorned. 

ARRINGTON. A parish in co. Cam- 

ARROW. A parish co. Warwick; a 
township CO. Chester; also two western 

ARROWSAIITH. A maker of arrows, 
or rather arrow-heads. This, in the days 
of archery, was a distinct trade. In the 
curious burlesque poem, Cock Lorelles Bote, 
these artizansare called "arowe-heders." 

ART. A nickname for Arthur. 

ARTER. A vulgar pronunciation of 

ARTHUR. The Christian name. Other 
surnames from it are Atty, Atts, Atkin, 
Atkins, Atkinson, Atcock. Aikin and Ait- 
kin may be northern varieties. 

ARTIS. Artois, the French province. 

ARTOIS. The French province. 

ARUNDELL. Roger de A., who took 
his name from the Sussex towTi, w^as a 
tenant-in-chief at the making of Domesd., 
and ancestor of the Lords A., of Wardour, 
Dudg. Bar. ii, 422. Kelham, 157. 
fi^"AS, as a termination, is generally a cor- 
ruption of Hurst, e. g., Byas should be 
Byhurst ; Tyas, Tyhurst ; Haslas, Hazel- 
hurst ; Boggas (and Boggis ?), Boghurst. 

ASBONE. A corruption of Asborne or 

ASCOT. ASCOTT. Parishes and places 

in COS. Berks, Warwick, and Oxon. 

ASCOUGH. See Askew. 
ASCUE. See Askew. 

ASDALL. A modern Irish corruption 
of Archdall, a local name. 

j^^ASH. The premier syllable of many 
names of places, and of surnames de- 
rived from them, as Ashdown, Ashton, 
Ashley, Ashwell, Ashurst, Ashford, Ash- 
bume, &c. It denotes a place where 
this species of tree flourished. 

ASH. ASHE. There are places so called 
in Derbyshire, Surrey, Hampshire, and 
elsewhere. It seems probable, however, 
that the name was sometimes adopted from 
residence near a remarkable ash tree. We 
find the Atten-Ashe of the XIV. cent 
contracted into Nashe soon after. In the 
H.R. it is latinized ad Fmxinani and de 
Fraxlm. The French Dufreme is its sy- 


MORE. Localities unknown. 

ASHBEE. A corruption of Ashby. 

ASHBURNER. A maker of potash or 
some such article. Latinized in chai-ters, 
Ciiierarim. Sussex Arch. Coll. viii., 152. 

ASHBURNHAM. The noble earls of 
this surname and title claim to have pos- 
sessed Ashbumhara, co. Sussex, from before 
the Norman Conquest. In lOilG Bertram 
de Ashbuniham, son of Anchitel, son of 
Piers, was constable of Dover, and held out 
against William. Peerage. 

ASHBY. A local name occurring 18 times 
in the Gazetteer, mostly in the cos. of Lin- 
coln, Leicester, and Northampton. 

ASHCOMBE. Places in Devonshire, 
Sussex, &c. 

ASHCONNER. An old method of divi- 
nation by ashes is mentioned l)y Herrick, 
i., 170. 

" Of a.^h-hoapc» by the which yc use, 
IIiifllMindn ami wives liy streaks to chiise. 
Of criu-klintr Imirell, which fore-sounds 
A plenteous harvest to your jrrounds." 

An *' ash-conncr" was therefore probably a 




man well skilled in this mode of foretelling 
events — a cunning man. An ale-conner in 
a corporate town is the person appointed to 
superintend the assize of malt liquors. 

ASHDOWN. A great district, formerly 
a forest, in Sussex. 


ASHENDEN. Ashendon, co. Bucks. 

ASHER. Perhaps the same as Ashman. 

ASHES. From residence near a grove 
of ash trees. 

ASHFIELD. Places in Suffolk and else- 

Kent, Derby, and other counties. 

ASHLEY. Parishes in Staffordshire, 
Wilts, Cambridge, &c. 

ASHLIN. Ashling, a parish in Sussex. 

ASHMAN. In A- Sax. poetry esse or 
ash is constantly used in the sense of 
spear, because the staff of a spear was 
usually made of that wood. So the Latin 
ferrum signifies both iron and sword. Ash- 
man is therefore the equivalent of spearman. 
Its forms in the H.K. are Asscheman, Asch- 
man, and Ashman ; and in Domesd. 

ASHPLANT. A corruption of the local 
Aspland, as the cognate Ashpole appears to 
be of Ash-pool, a pool near which ash trees 

ASHTON. The Gazetteer mentions 
eighteen parishes and townships so called, 
in various counties, and there are many 
minor localities of the same name. 

ASHURST. A parish in Kent, another 

in Sussex. 
ASHWELL. Parishes in cos. Herts, 

Kutland, and Norfolk. 

ASHWOOD. Villages in Staffordshire 
and other counties. 

ASHWORTH. A chapelry in Lanca- 

1^^ ASK. As a prefix in such local sur- 
names as Askeby, Askham, Askley, As- 
kerby, Askwith, &c., is probably the 
A- Sax. asc, an ash tree. 
ASKE. A township in the N.R. of York- 
shire, the ancient abode of the family. 
ASKER. A corruption of Askew. 
ASKEW. Aiskew, a township in the 
parish of Bedale, N.R. Yorkshire; Ascue, 
Ayscue, Ascough, and Ayscough, are various 
spellings of this patronymic. 

ASKIN. A modern Irish corruption of 

ASKHAM. ASCHAM. Parishes in 

Yorkshire, Notts, and Westmoreland. 
Roger Ascham, toxophilite and school- 
master, was a Yorkshireman. 

ASPALL. A parish in Suffolk. In Ire- 
land Archbold or Archibald is so corrupted. 

ASPDEN. A parish in Herts. 

ASPIN. Aspen, a species of poplar tree. 
ASS. The animal ; a sobriquet. 

ASSER. An ancient personal name, as 
Asserius Menevensis, the preceptor of King 
Alfred. Two tenants called Azor are found 
in Domesd. 

ASSENDER. Perhaps from Assendon 
a to^vnship, co. Oxford : ' r ' and * n,' in vul- 
gar pronounciation are often used inter- 
changeably ; thus Hickman and Hickmer, 
Heasman and Heasmar, Harmer and Har- 
man, all English family names. It may 
however be a corruption of Alexander. 

ASSMAN. (H.R. Asseman.) A donkey- 
driver. A book printed by Wynkyn de 
Worde, entitled "Informacyon for Pyl- 
giymes," has the following direction: — 

" Also whan ye take your asse at iwrte Jaffe (Joppa) 
be not too longe behynde your felowes, for and ye 
come betyme, ye may c'huse the best mule or 
asse that ye can, for ye shall pay no more for the best 
than the worst. Also ye must gyve your Asseman 
there of curtesy a grote of Venyse." Retrosp. Rev. 
ii., 326, 

ASTLEY. Astley, co Warwick, was 
possessed by Thos. Lord A. (killed at 
Evesham, 49, Hen. HI.), the ancestor of 
the Baronet's family. 
ASTON. The Gazetteer of England con- 
tains nearly fifty Astons, and above twenty 
armorial coats are assigned to the name. 
Lord Aston's family descend from Aston, 
CO. Stafford in the XIII. cent. 
^T'AT. ATE. ATTE. ATTEN. A common 
prefix to early surnames, to designate 
the locality of the bearer's residence, as 
Atte-Wood, by or near a wood; Att- 
Tree, at the tree ; Atten-Oke, near or at 
the oak, &c. The N in Atten was added 
for euphony before a vowel. These were 
common forms in the fourteenth cen- 
tury. Subsequently At or Atte was sof- 
tened to A, as A'Gate for At-Gate, A- 
Broke for At- Brook, &c. Many names 
are so written down to the time of 
Elizabeth and later. In some instances 
the At or Att is still retained, as in Att- 
wood, Atwells, Atwater, Attree, &c. 
Sometimes the final N of Atten is made 
to coalesce with the name, though the 
Atte is dropped, and hence we get such 
names as Noakes (Atten-Oke), Nash 
(Atten-Ash), &c. 
The following names with these prefixes 
are met with in medieval documents. 
Several of them are now extinct, but 
the others remain in forms variously 
modified. I shall add explanatory words 
where necessary, but most of the names 
will be found in their proper places in 
the Dictionary. 
Ate or Atte — barre — ^beme (bam) — ^brigge 
(bridge)— brok (brook)— brug (bridge) 
— brugeende (at the bridge end) — bury 
— burn — chirche — chyrchene (at the 
church end, i.e., ofthe village)— churche- 
haye (churchyard) — c\eyi (clift) — croch 
(See Crouch) — cnmdle — cumbe (See 
Combe) — dam (weir or river dam) — dene 
(SeeDean) — dich (ditch) — drove (drove- 
way for cattle) — dune (a down or hill) — 
elme (tree) — felde (field) — fen, fenne 




(marshy spot) — ^flod(an expanse of water) 
ford — forth — forge — grange — gappe (in 
a wall or hedge) — gardin — gate — grave 
(grove) — grene — hache (a forest gate) — 
hale (a hall) — harne (?) — hegge and haye 
(a hedge) — hide — hil — hulle — and hyl (a 
hill) hok (See Hooke) — howe (an emi- 
nence) — lak (a lake)— lee (a meadow) — 
lane — line (a lime tree) — londe (a 
heath) — lownde (a lawn) — lowe (a hill) 
— med or mede (a meadow) — melneway 
(road to a mill) — mere — ^mershe (a 
marshe) — ^more (a moor) — nasse (ash 
tree, the N coalescing) — Atenelme (an 
elm tree) — Atenesse (ash or nesse, doubt- 
ful) — Atenock (an oak tree) — Atenor- 
chard (an orchard) — Atenotebeme (a 
common medieval name — nut-beam, 
hazel) — pilere (pillar) — pleystowe (a re- 
creation ground) — pol (a pool) — pond — 
porte — punfald (poundfold) — putte (a 
pit) — pyrie (pear orchard ?) — sete (seat) 
stiele (stile)— stone — streme (a stream), 
streteshend (at the end of the street) — 
tunishend (at the town's end) — wal — 
water — welle — welde (weald, wood) — 
wence (?) — westende (at the west end) — 
wey (a road ?) — ^wich (a salt spring) — 
wod or wode (a wood) — wolf hongles (a 
place where wolves were hung in ter- 
rorem. A- Sax, Jwngiaii, to hang ; comp. 
Tuingles in Halliw.) — wurth (See 

ATCHESON. Probably the same as 

ATCOCK. See Arthur. 

ATIIERTON. A chapeh-y in Lanca- 
ATTHILL See Hill. 
ATKEY. At the key or quay. 




ATMORE. See Moore. 

ATTENBOROUGH. A parish in co. 

ATTLOWE. See Lowe. 

ATTY. ATTYE. See Tye and Ar- 


ATWATER. See Waters. 


ATWICK. See Wick. 


ATWORTH. See Worth. 

AUBERVILLE. Roger de Aubcrville 
came in with the Conqueror and is men- 
tioned in Domesd. as holder of 1 8 manors 
in Essex and Suffolk. Baronetage. De 
Abreville. H.R. 

AUBREY. A Norman personal name, 
as Aubrey or Albericus de Vere. A pedigree 
of this family drawn up by Vincent, Wind- 
sor Herald, temp. Elizabeth, commences 
with '• Saint Aubrey, of the blood royal of 

France, came into England with William 
the Conqueror, anno lOGG, as the Chronicles 
of All Souls College testify, which are there 
to be seen tyed to a chaiue of iron." 
Courthope's Debrett. What the Chronicle 
here referred to may be, I know not, but 
there is no doubt of the Norman origin of 
the family. 

AUCHINCRAW. A village in Berwick. 


AUCHINLECK. A parish m Ayrshire. 
The surname is sometimes corrupted to 
Affleck, and is always so pronouncwi. 


Auckland, and three other places in co. 

AUDLEY. Formerly Alditheley, a 
parish and estate in co. Stafford, from 
which a branch of the noble family of 
Verdon assumed the surname, temp. King 
John. Dugdale. 

AUGER. AUCIIER. A Norman name, 
whence Fitz-Aucher. Also a corruption of 
Alsager, a place in Cheshire. Archaeologia 
vol. xix. p. 17. 

AUGUR. See Auger. 

AUGUST. Auguste, the Fr. form of 


AUKWARD. See Ward. The keeper 
of the hawks. 

AULD. The Scotch form of Eld— old. 

AUREL. The Fr. form of Aurelius. 

AUSENDER. See Assender. 

AUST. A chapelry in co. Gloucester. 

AUSTEN. AUSTE^r. Augustine, the 
well-known baptismal name, so abbreviated 
in 0. Fr. and Eng. The Lond. Direct, 
presents us with a Mr. Austing. 

AUSTWICK. A township in W.R. of 

AVANT. Probably from Havant, a town 
in Hampshire ; or it may be from the old 
war-cry, Avaiit ! " Forward ! " 

AVENEL. The sire des Biars, who was 
at the battle of Hastings (Taylor's Roman 
de Rou., pp. 219, 227), bore the name of 
Avenals, without prefix. William Avennel 
probably the " sire " referred to, was lord 
of Biars, in the canton d'Isigny, and 
seneschal to the Count of Mortain. (De 
Gerville, Mem. Soc. Ant. Nonn). It does 
not appear whether the surname was 
originally derived from Avenelles, in the 
department of Eure. 

AVENON. The city of Avignon in 

AVERANCE. Avranches. SeeAbrincia. 

AVERY. This is a name which may 
claim its origin with nearly equal probability 
from several distinct sources, which I shall 
brietiy enumerate. I. Ariariug, a keeper of 
the birds. The Forest Charter (s. 1 4,) enacts 
that freemen may have in their woods 




" avyries of sparhawkes, falcons, eagles, and 
herons." II. JLrery, the place where forage 
for the king's horses was kept ; either from 
the Lat. avena, Anglo-Norm, haver, oats, 
or from aver, a northern provincialism for 
a working horse. III. Alberic, a German 
personal name, latinized Albericus, and 
softened in Norman times to Aubrey. 

AVIS. AVES. The personal name Avice, 
latinized Avitius, is found before 1086. 

AXE. Two western rivers are so called, 

AXFORD. A tything in Ramsbury, 

CO. Wilts. 
AXON". Axton, a hundred in Kent. 

AXUP. Axehope, local. See Axe and 

AYER. See Eyre. 

AYLETT. SeeAylott. 

AYLIFFE. SeeAyloff. 

AYLMER. Ailmarus, JEilmar, or Ail- 
mar, occurs several times in Domesd. as 
a personal name. 

AYLOFF. A baptismal name ante 1086. 
Ailof. Domesd. 

AYLOTT. A personal name ante 1086. 

Ailet. Domesd. 

AYLWARD. ^Iward and Ailward 
were personal names before 1086. 

AYLWIN. Alwinus, Alwin, and other 
forms occur in Domesday as personal 

AYNSWORTH. See Ainsworth. 

AYRTON. A township in Yorkshire. 

AYSCOUGH. See Askew. 

AYTON. Parishes and places in cos. 
York and Berwick. 

AYTOUN. A parish in Berwickshire. 


13 ABB. See Female Christian Names. 

BABER. Probably from the hundred of 
Babergh, in Suffolk, though some of the 
name affect a descent from the Sultan Baber 
or Babour, the founder of the Mogul dynasty 
in Hindostan, A.D. 1525 ! 

BABINGTON. The family traditions 
point to Normandy as the source of the 
race. The name, however, is derived from 
Great and Little Babington, near Hexham, 
CO. Northumberland, where the family were 
located in the XIII. and XIV. centuries, 
and there are reasons for believing that they 
resided there " from the period of the Con- 
quest or before it." Topog. and Geneal, i., 
135. Some of the name may spring from 
Babington, co. Somerset. 

BABY. From its termination probably 

BACCHUS. Certainly not from the God 
of Wine, but a corruption of Bakehouse, 
which see. 

BACHELOR. See Batchelor. 

BACK. (Pluralized to Backs, whence 
Bax.) Sometimes sjTionymous with Beck, 
but more generally either a wharf or a 
ferry. Hence Backman and Backer. 

BACKER. The same as Backman. 

BACKHOUSE. See Bakehouse. 

BACKMAN. One who had the care of 
a back or ferry. See Back, Baxman, H.E. 

BACON". A seigniory in Normandy. 
According to the genealogy of the great 
Suffolk family of Bacon, one Grimbald, a 
relative of the Norman chieftain William 
de Warenne, came into England at the 
Conquest, and settled near Holt. His great- 
grandson is stated to have taken the name 
of Bacon. This was only a resumption of 
an ancient Norman surname, which is 
still existing in the North of France. Wil- 
liam Bacon, in 1082, endowed the abbey of 
the Holy Trinity at Caen. Taylor's Roman 
de Eou. The name is in the Battel Eoll, 
and in the H.E. it is written variously 
Bachun, Bacun, and Bacon. In some in- 
stances the surname may be a corruption of 
Beacon. From their connection with Bay- 
eux, the Bacons were sometimes latinized 
De Bajocis. 

BADCOCK. See Bartholomew. 

BADD. Bad in the Coventry Mysteries 
means bold. 

BADDELEY. A parish in Cheshire. 
BADDER. A bather. Ferguson. 

BADGER. 1. A huxter or hawker. 
" If any person shall act as a badger with- 
out license, he is to forfeit five pounds." 
Jacob's Law Diet. The etymon seems to 
be the Fr. hagagier, or baggage-carrier. 
" Badger is as much to say as Bagger, of 
the Fr. word baggage, i. e., sarcina; and it 
is used with us for one that is licensed to 
buy corn or other victuals in one place, and 




carry them to another." Termes de la Ley. 
2. A parish in Shropshire. 

BADKIN" See Bartholomew. 

BADLESMERE. A parish in Kent, 
where the family were resident in the XIII. 

BADMAN, Bead-man, O. E., from A- 
Sax. h'lMan. One who prays for another. 
The word is more commonly written " beads- 

BAGGALLAY. See Baguly. 

BAGGE. (Of Norfolk.) Said to be of 
Swedish extraction. 

B AGNALL. A chapelry in the parish of 
Stoke-upon-Trent, co. Stafford. 

BAGOT. BAGOD. Domesd. The family 
have possessed Blythefield and Bagot's 
Bromley, co. Stafford, from the time of the 

BAGSTER. The same as Baxter. 

BAGULY. A township in Cheshire, for- 
merly o^vned by a family of the same name. 

BAGWELL. Bakewell, CO. Derby? 

BAILEY. BAILY. 1. From BailH, in 
the arrondissement of Neufchatel ; Bailli in 
that of Dieppe, in Normandy; Bailey, a 
township in Lancashire ; or Bailie, a town- 
ship in Cumberland. 2. Another form of 
bailiff, a title of office applied in many ways 
under our feudal and municipal laws. 3. 
A name given to the courts of a castle 
formed by the spaces between the circuits 
of walls or defences which surround the 
keep. Gloss. Arch. 

BAILLIE. The Scottish form of Bailiff 
or Bailey. See Bailey. 

BAINBRIDGE. A township in York- 

BAINES. BAYNES. A village near 
Bayeux, in Normandy, probably so called 
from Fr. haln, a bath. 

BAIRD. Said to be the Scottish form of 
hard, or poet. Jamieson. This, however, 
is doubtful as to the surname, which in 
North Britain is widely spread. Its prin- 
cipal modes of spelling have been Bard, 
Byrd, Bayard. The last supports the tra- 
dition of a derivation from the south of 
France, the country of the Chevalier Bay- 
ard, the knight mm pe^ir, mm reproche. 

That the family are numerous Is not to be won- 
dered at, if even a few of them have been as proliHc 
aa was Gilbert Baird of Auchmudden, who by his wife 
LiJias hml 32 children; this was in the XVI. cent. 
Tliat prreat prophet, Thomas the Hymcr, is said to 
have predictod that " there shall be an eagle in the 
cralj? wliilc there is a Halrd in Auchnie<lden." And it 
is asserted that, when the estate changed hands in the 
last century the eagles dcsiTted their eyrie — only to 
return, however, when the lan<l8 reverted to a Baird. 
Account of mime of Baird, Edmburgh, 1857. 

BAIRNSFATIIER. The father of the 
bairn or child — a sobriquet. 

BAKE. An estate in St German's, 

BAKEHOUSE. From residence at one 
or employment in it. It haa been cor- 

rupted to Backhouse, and still further to 
Bacchus. Thus the provider of bread has 
assimilated himself to the tutelar divinity 
of wine 1 


Bagepuz. From Bacquepuis, in the arron- 
dissement of Evreux, in Normandy. 

BAKER. The occ^ipation. In old do- 
cuments, Pistor, Le Bakere, &c. 

BAKEWELL. A market town and 
great parish in Derbyshire. 

^^BAL. A Gaelic local prefix which, like 
Bally, in Ireland, implies a town,' or 
rather a central seat of population on a 
single estate — ^the homestead ; in short 
an equivalent of the A-Sax. tvn, which 
means anything from an enclosure con- 
taining a single habitation, up to a 
veritable town. Several places in the 
Celtic portions of Scotland, with this 
prefix, have given surnames to families, 
as Balcasky, Balcanquall, Balmain, &c. 

BALAAJM. Doubtless local. Bale-ham. 

BALBIRNIE. An estate in Fifeshire. 

BALCH. An abbreviation of Balchin. 

BALCHIN. A very old Teutonic per- 
sonal name, in old German Baldechin. In 
Domesd. a Balchi is mentioned as living 
before the compilation of that record. Bal- 
dachin! is an Italian, and Baldechin a Ger- 
man family name. 

BALCOCK. A diminutive of Baldwin. 

BALCOMBE. A parish in Sussex. 

BALDERSON. A northern deity, the 
son of Odin (and the wisest, most eloquent, 
and most amiable of the northern Gods) bore 
the name of Balder, which also became a 
name of men, whence the places designated 
Baldersby, Balderston, and Balderton, in 
what are called the Danish counties. The 
A- Sax. balder signifies prince, hero. 

BALDERSTON. A chapelry in co. 

BALDIIEAD. Probably local ; or, per- 
haps, from loss of hair. 

BALDOCK. A town in co. Herts. 

BALDRIC. Hugh fil' Baldri was sheriff 
of Northumberland. Domesd. In other 
counties he is styled fil' Baldrici. A bap- 
tismal name. 

BALDWIN. The baptismal name. Se- 
veral chief tenants in Domesd. are called 
Baldwinius and Baldvinus. H. R. Bau- 

BALDY. Perhaps from Baldwin. 

BALE. A parish in co. Norfolk. 

BALES. A pluralization of Bale. 

BALFOUR. A castle and fief in Fife- 
shire of which coimty the chiefs were here- 
ditary sheriffs. The family sprang from 
Siward, a Northumbrian, who settled in 
Scotland temp. Duncan I. 

BALGU Y. This singular name borne by 
an ancient Peak family is apparently a 



corruption of Baguly. The arms are iden- 
tical with those of Baguly of B., co. 
Chester. Lysons' Derbyshire. 

BALIOL. Guy de Baliol entered Eng- 
• land at the Conquest, and was lord of 
Biweld, CO. Northumberland. His lineal 
descendant, John de B., was, on the award 
of Edward I., made King of Scotland. 
There are several localities in Normandy 
called Bailleul: that which claims to be 
the birthplace of this noble and royal race 
is Bailleul-en-Gouffem, in the arrondisse- 
ment of Argentan, called in charters Bal- 
liolum. "On pretend, sans beaucoup de 
fondement, que c'est de cette commune que 
sont originaires les Bailleul, rois d'Ecosse." 
Itin. de la Normandie. 

BALL. A nickname of Baldwin. A West 
of England provincialism for hald. 

" As BAD AS Ball's bull — who had so little ear for 
musick that he kicked the fiddler over the bridge!" — 
An eastern-counties proverb. (Halliw.) 

BALLANTYNE. This Scottish name 
has undergone remarkable changes. " Sir 
Richard of Bannochtine of the Corhous," 
who flourished circ. 1460, sometimes wrote 
himself Bannachty', and his son is called 
Sir John Bannatyne. This spelling con- 
tinued till temp. Chas. II., when the pro- 
prietor of Corhouse was called indifferently 
John Bannatyne and Johne Ballentyne, and 
his son is described as the son of John 
Ballenden. In fact, down to a recent 
period, the forms Bannat}Tie and Ballan- 
tyne have been used indifferently by bro- 
thers of one house, and even by the same 
individual at different times. Inf. F. L. B. 
Dykes, Esq. 

BALL AED. An ancient baptismal name. 
Balard, H. R. 

BALLINGER. A corruption of Fr. 
boiilanger, a baker. Also a small sailing 
vessel. See Halliw. 

BALLOCK. Gael. Spotted in the face. 

BALMER. Qu. O. Fr. havlmier. A dea- 
ler in fragrant herbs. 

BALSAM. From Balsham in Cam- 
bridgeshire, which Fuller characterizes as 
"an eminent village," and the only one in 
England bearing the name. The place was 
anciently called Bals-ham, not Balsh-am. 

The corruptions made by the " genteel" in names 
of places within the last 50 years are very much to be 
reprobated. I allude especially to names vnth two 
consonants in the middle. These consonants which 
should, according to etymology, be kept distinct, are 
made to coalesce in a most improper manner, and 
Walt-ham becomes Walth-am, Felp-ham Felph-am, 
Bent-ham Ben-tham, and Hails-ham Hail-sham ! 

BALSTON. Ballesdon, co. Berks. 
BALY. See Bailey, &c. 
BAMBER. A village in Lancashire. 
BAMFIELD. See Bampfylde. 
BAMFORD. Places in cos. Derby and 

BAMPFYLDE. At Weston, co. Somer- 
set, XIII century, whence Weston Bamp- 
fylde. The ancient orthography is Baum- 


17 BAN 

BAMPTON. Towns, places, and pa- 
rishes in cos. Oxon, Devon, Westmoreland, 
and Cumberland. 

BANBURY. A town in Oxfordshire. 

BANCE. Probably of French Protestant- 
refugee origin. Bance occurs at Paris, and 
De Bance in Guienne. 

BANCOCK. A second diminutive of 
Ban or Banny, Barnabas. 

BANCKER. A corrupt spelling of 

BANDINTEL. From Ranuncio Bandi- 
nelli of Sienna, in Italy, whose descendant, 
David B., renounced the Roman Catholic 
faith, was the intimate friend of Arch- 
bishops Abbott and Laud, and of James I., 
and finally Dean of Jersey. Baccio Bandi- 
nelli,^ the famous sculptor and rival of 
Michael Angelo, and also Pope Alexander 
III. were of this family. They claimed 
descent from one Band-Scinel, a renowned 
warrior of Aix-en- Provence, circ. 84G, who 
was sent as military governor to Sienna. 
Inf. J. B. Payne, Esq., F.S.A. 

BANE. BAYN. Scotland. Gaelic, hane, 
white or fair, as Donald Bane, " the fair 
Donald;" often confused with Baines, which 

BANES. See Baines. 

BANGER. A provincialism for a large 
person, see Halliw. Or, possibly, from one 
of the Bangors in Wales. 

BANGHAM. Banningham, a parish in 


BANKS, BANKES. Anciently written 
Atte-bank, A-Bank, &c. The A-Sax. implies 
a bench, bank, or hillock — a place whereon 
to sit, whether indoors or out. 

"As KNOWING AS Banks's HORSE." Baukswas a well- 
knoAVTi vintner in Cheapside, temp. Elizabeth, and liis 
horse "Morocco" was remarkable for his sagacity. 
See more of both in Halliw. 

BANN. BANS. BANSON. Banny is a 
known nickname of Barnabas, and this 
group of names is probably from the same 
source. Ferguson says A- Sax. hanaf a 

BANNATYNE. See Ballantyne. 

BANNER. May have had an origin 
similar to that of Bannerman. 

BANNERMAN. As early as the days 
of Malcolm IV. and William the Lion, the 
office of king's standard-bearer was here- 
ditary in Scotland, and gave name to the 
family. The armorial coat refers to the name 
and office, being " a banner displayed arg. ; 
on a canton azure, St. Andrew's Cross." 

occurs in Holinshed's Roll of Battel Abbey. 
Camden derives it from halneator, the 
keeper of a bath. 2. A term used in the 
parish accounts of Chudleigh, co. Devon, 
and supposed to mean a traveller in 

BANWELL. A parish in co. Somerset. 




BANNY. A provincial nickname of 

BANNYERS. Said to be Fr. De-la- 
Barmiere, *of the banner' — a standard- 

BAPTIST. An O. Fr. personal name. 

B ARBAULD. In the Life of Mrs. Bar- 
bauld it is said, that the grandfather of her 
husband, the Rev. Rochemont Barbauld, 
(to whom she was married in 1774,) was, 
when a boy, carried on board ship, enclosed 
in a cask, and conveyed to England, where 
he settled, and had a son, who was chaplain 
to a daughter of king George 11., wife of 
the Elector of Hesse. He attended her to 
Cassel, where Rochemont was bom. About 
the year 1699, the Rev. Ezekiel and the 
Rev. Peter Barbauld were among the 
French Protestant ministers settled in Lon- 
don after the Revocation of the Edict of 

occupation. Le Barbur. Barbator, H. R. 

BARBERIE. Barberi, famous of old 
for its abbey (1170), is a parish near Falaise, 
in Normandy. 

BARCH ARD is apparently identical with 
the Burchard or Burchardus of Domesd., 
where it is used as a baptismal name. 

BARCLAY. We find a Theobald de 
Berkeley, probably an offshoot of the Eng- 
lish family, settled in Scotland, so early as 
temp. David I. Fourth in descent from 
him was Alex, de B., who married the 
heiress of Mathers, and wrote himself De 
Berkeley of Mathers. His great grandson 
Alex, changed the spelling to Barclay in 
the XV. century. Geneal. Ace. of Barclays 
of Ury. 

BARDELL. Corruption of Bardolf. 

BARDOLPH— F. Hugh Bardolph, 
(called by Wace, Hue Bardous,) who was 
contemporary with William the Conqueror, 
was ancestor of the great baronial house of 
Bardolf, alike celebrated in the annals of 
England and of Normandy. 

BARDON. A place in co. Leicester. 

BARDSEA. A township in co. Lan- 
caster ; the name was assumed by an early 
possessor, who was a cadet of the barons of 
Malpas. Eng. Surn. ii., 49. 

BARE. A township, co. Lancaster. 

BAREBONES. (See in Godwin's Com- 
monwealth an explanation of the error 
concerning this name.) Barl)one, the an- 
cient and existing name, has been defined 
as " the good or handsome beard." 

BAREFOOT. Probably local. A Nor- 
wegian king, however, bore tliis sobriquet. 

BARENTINE. A place in the arron- 

dissement of Rouen in Normandy, near the 

Rouen and Havre Railway. 
BARENTON. A town in the arron- 

dissement of Mortain, in Normandy. 
BARFF. Barf or Bargh means in the 

North, a horseway up a hill. 

BARFORD. Parishes and other places 
in COS. Bedford, Norfolk, Warwick, Oxon, 

BARGE. Perhaps an inn sign. 

BARHAM. The family were lords of 
Barham, in Kent, at an early period, and 
according to Philipot, the Kentish gene- 
alogist, descendants of Robert de Berham, 
son of Richard Fitz-Urse, and brother of 
one of the assassins of Thomas a Beckett. 

BARING. The peer and the baronet 
descend from John Baring of Devonshire, 
Esq., (XVin. cent.) son of John Baring, 
minister of the Lutheran church at Bremen, 
in Saxony, whose ancestors had been either 
municipal officers or Lutheran ministers of 
that city from the time of the Reformation. 
Courthope's Debrett. The name is possibly 
identical with that of Behring, the eminent 

BARKER. A tanner, from his using 
bark of trees in his trade. In the old 
ballad of the King and the Tanner in 
Percy's Reliques, the latter calls himself "a 
bar1m% Sir, by my trade." Eng. Sum. Bar- 
carius and Le Barkere. H.R. 

BARKLEY. See Barclay. 

BARLEY. Parishes and places in cos. 
Hertford and York. 

BARLEYMAN. In Scotland, one who 
assists at the Burlaw or Barley courts, 
assemblies held in rural districts to de- 
termine on local concerns. Jamieson. 

BARLICORN. Sir John Barleycorn, it 
seems, was no mythical personage, but a 
living person. 'Joh'es Barlicom' was, in 
the time of Edw. I. one of the tenants of 
Berclawe, co. Cambridge. H.R. See 

BARLING. A parish in Essex. 

BARLOW. Townships in cos. York 

and Derby. 
BARLTROP. A corruption of Barley- 

thorpe, CO. Rutland. 
BARMBY. Two parishes and a chapelry 

in Yorkshire. 

BARMORE. Barmoor, a township in 

BARN. A pre-Doraesd. name ; Bame, 
Bern. For Siward Bam, the patriot rebel 
against William Conq. see Sax. Chron. 
Ingram, 276. 

BARNABY. A nickname of Barnabas. 

BARNACK. A parish in co. North- 
BARNACLE. A hamlet in co. Warwick. 

BARNARD. A well-known Teutonic 
personal name. 

BANARDISTON. A parish in Suffolk, 
said to have been the residence of the family 
temp. Will. I. B.L.G. 

BARNEBY. Barnby in the E.R. of 

Yorkshire, anciently possessed by the 


BARJ^TES. BARNS. 1. The same as 
Bemers, which see. Dame Juliana Bemers, 
the author of the well-known treatise on 
sporting and heraldry called the Boke of 
St. Albans, wrote herself Berns and Barnes. 
2. From residence near a bam ; say a mo- 
nastic or manorial barn. Atte Berne is the 
XIV. cent, orthography. 3. Bames,> parish 
in CO. Surrey. See however Bam. 

BARNETT. A town in Hertfordshire, 
and parishes in that co. and in Middlesex 
and Lincoln. In many instances the name 
Barnard is so corrupted. It is — ^why I know 
not — a common name among the Jews. 

BARJ^EWALL. Lord Trimlestown's 
ancestor, De Bemvale, accompanied Wil- 
liam the Conqueror to England m 1066. 
He came from Lower Brittany, and was 
allied to the dukes of that province. The 
family settled in Ireland temp. Hen. II. 

BARNEY. 1. A parish in Norfolk. 2. 
A contracted form of Barnabas and of 

BARNFATHER. See Bairnsfather. 

B ARNFIELD. A hundred in Kent, and 
places in other counties. 

BARNHAM. Parishes in Sussex, Suf- 
folk, and Norfolk. Bamum is a corruption 
of it. 

BARNSTON. A curt pronunciation of 

BARNWELL. Parishes in cos. Cam- 
bridge and Northampton. See Bamewall. 

BARON. BARRON. Does not imply 
any dignity. In Norm. Fr. it means only 
a husband ; and in 0, Eng. it is simply 
barn, or bairn — a child. Halliw. Some- 
times it may have been given as a sobriquet. 
2. Baron, a village near Caen, in Nor- 
mandy. Le Baron, Le Barun. H.R. 

BAROUGH. See Barrow. Two town- 
ships CO. York are called Bamgh. 

BARR. 1 . A parish and a hamlet in co. 
Stafford; also a parish in Ayrshire. 2. 
The gateway of a fortified town. 3. A pre- 
Domesd. name Bar, meaning probably 
either A- Sax. bar, bear, or bdr, boar — a 
sobriquet. De la Bare. H.R. 

BARRATT. The same as Barrett, which 
see. One family so called settled in Eng- 
land on the persecution of the Fr. Protes- 
tants, consequent upon the Revocation of 
the Edict of Nantes. 

BARRELL. A corruption of Barwell. 

BARRETT. BARRITT,&c. Baret, a 
personal name of Teutonic origin, is found 
here in Saxon times. See Domesd. In 
various forms it has always been very com- 
mon in France and England. 

BARRINGER. The old Teutonic per- 
sonal name Berengarius, whence also the 
Fr. Beranger. 

19 BAR 

BARRINGTON. Some of the families 
of this name claim a Norman descent, and 
derive their name from Barenton (which 
see). The Irish baronet deduces himself 
from a Saxon progenitor, keeper of the 
Forest of Hatfield in the days of the Con- 
queror. Le Neve derives the name from an 
unagmary Saxon called Barentine, but ac- 
cordmgtoSir Jonas Barrington's Memoirs, 
the family's Norman origin is unques- 
tionable. The surname was variously 
written Barentin, Barentyn, Barenton, 
Barentine, and at length took the English 
form of Barrington, There are parishes 
bearing this name in four English counties. 

BARRISTER. The occupation. 

BARROW. Parishes and places in cos. 
Derby, Gloucester, Northumb., Rutland, 
Salop, Suffolk, Chester, Somerset, Lincoln, 
Leicester, &c. See Borrowes. 

BARRY. In some instances from the 
Welsh ab Harrj^, the son of Henry ; but 
the Barrys of Roclaveston, co. Notts., claim 
to be descended from Godfridus, who 
flourished at Teversal, in that shire, temp. 
Will. I. In the H.R. the surname appears 
without a prefix. There is a parish of 
Barry in co. Forfar. 

BARSHAM. Parishes in Norfolk and 


BARTELL. A contraction of Bartholo- 
mew. In the N. of England, the Feast of 
St. B. is called Bartle. 

BARTER. Probably the 0. Eng. bar- 
rator, one who stirs up strife between the 
king's subjects, either at law or otherwise. 

BARTH. See Bartholomew. 

BARTHELEMY. See Bartholomew. 

BARTHOLOjVIEW. a well-known 
Christian name, which, besides having 
itself become a surname, has given rise to 
many others, viz. : Barthelemy, Barth, 
Bartlett, Barttelot, Bartle, and Bartie ; also, 
through its nicTied form, to Batt, Batts, 
Bate, Bates, Batson, Bateson, Batey, Batty, 
Battye, Battcock, Badcock, Badkin, and 

BARTIE. See Bartholomew. 

BARTLE. See B^holomew. 

BARTLETT. See Barttelot. 

BARTLETT. See Bartholomew. 

BARTON. The Gazetteer gives thirty- 
seven parishes, towns, and places so called 
in various counties of England. In the 
W. of England the demesnes of a manor 
or any considerable homestead are caUed 

BARTRUM. A corruption of Bertram. 

BARTTELOT. The Barttelots of Stop- 
ham have a tradition that they came into 
England at the Conquest, and settled at a 
place called La Ford, in that parish, in 
which they still reside. They are of un- 
doubted antiquity, and the church of Stop- 
ham contains a long series of their monu- 

BAS 20 

Tnents. The name is probably, like the 
modem Fr. Berthelet, a diminutive of 

BAR WELL. A parish in co. Leicester. 

BAR WICK. Parishes and places in cos. 
Essex, Somerset, Norfolk, York, &c. Also 
an old spelling of Berwick. 

BAR^\aS. BARWISE. An ancient name, 
at Ilekirk, co. Cumberland, and doubtless 

BASE. See Bass. 

BASHFORD. Basford, places in cos. 
'Notts, Stafford, and Chester. 

BASIL. The personal name. Basil, 
Basile, Basille. H.R. 

BASIRE. A modification of Basile. So ' 
in Normandy Cecire from Cecile, and Ma- 
bire from Mabile. Mem. Soc. Ant. Norm. 

BASKERVILLE. The head of this 
family was at the battle of Hastings, (Tay- 
lor's Roman de Rou, p. 229.) He is styled 
Martels de Basqueville (Ibid). The parish 
of Baskerville, now Bacqueville, is in the 
arrondissement of Dieppe. One of his 
descendants, who was butler to king 
Stephen, resumed the name of (William) 

BASKETT. Probably Fr. Basquet, a 
diminutive of Basque, a native of Biscay ; 
a page or footboy, because the natives of 
that province were often so employed. 

BASS. Fr. has^ short, low of stature. 
Le Bas is a very well-knoAvn Fr. surname, 
and has been naturalized here since the 
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. 

BASSETT. O. Fr. basset, ' a dwarf or 
very low man." Cotgrave. This family, 
who became great barons and gave their 
name as a suffix to Drayton Basset, Win- 
terboume Basset, &c., are said to have 
been of humble origin. One of the family 
appears in Domesd. as an undertenant. 
Ordericus Vitalis speaks of Ralph B. as 
having been raised by Henry II. from an 
ignoble stock, and from the very dust — 
" de ignobili stirpeacde pulvere." The B.'s 
of Beaupre, however, claim descent from 
Turstin B., the Conqueror's grand falconer. 

BASSINGHAM. Places in cos. Norfolk 
and Lincoln. 

BASSINGTHWAITE. Bassenthwaite, 
a parish in co. Cumberland. 

BASSINGTON. A township in Nor- 

BASTABLE. A corruption of Barns- 
taple, CO. Devon. 

BASTARD. In Norman times illegiti- 
macy was not regarded with the same 
contempt as now. The Conqueror himself, 
though illegitimate, not only succeeded to 
his father's duchy, but frankly avowed 
himself a bastard in offi9ial writings. 
Robert Bastard appears in the Domesd. 


survey as an important tenant in capite 
in Devonshire, in which county the family 
have ever since flourished as great pro- 
prietors. Bastardus, le Bastard, and de 
Bastard. H.R. 

BASTICK. Bastwick, a chapelry, co. 

BATCHELOR. The word bachelor has 
long been a sore puzzle to etymologists. 
Whatever its origin, it seems to imply 
something inchoate — the partial achieve- 
ment of a desired object ; thus a bachelor 
of arts, laws, &c., is one who having 
attained a certain scholastic honour, aspires 
after the higher degree of master or doctor; 
so a knight-bachelor is one who in the 
exercise of chivalry has won his spurs, but 
hopes to be elected into some order ; while 
the bachelor of common life is one, who 
having attained the age of manhood, has 
not yet taken a position necessary to the 
proper fulfilment of the social relation — 
that of marriage. The surname may have 
been applied originally to persons in this 
imperfect condition, either in the scholastic, 
the chivalric, or the social sense. 

BATCOCK. (See Cock.) A sub-dimi- 
nutive of Bartholomew. Badecok and 
Batecok, H.R. The form Batecok is sug- 
gestive of ' fighting cock' which may be the 
true source of the name, from ' bate,' con- 
flict, combat ; a sobriquet given to a boxer, 
or metaphorically to a quarrelsome person. 


BATEMAN. A-Sax. hat, a boat. A 
boatman. A less likely derivation is from 
the O. E. hate^ strife — one who contends, 
which is rather supported by the analogous 
surname Bater. It is probable that the 
Derbyshire family came from Norfolk 
(Lysons) and so they may have been des- 
cendants of the old Norse vikingr. Like 
many other names terminating in man, this 
appears to have been originally a baptismal 
appellation. A Bateman de Apletrewyk 
occurs in the H.R. in co. York. 

BATER. See Bateman. 

BATEY. See Bartholomew. 

BATH. BATHE. A city in Somerset- 

BATHER. The keeper of a bath. 
BATHGATE. A town in co. Linlithgow. 

BATHURST. An ancient manor near 
Battel Abbey, co. Sussex, which was pos- 
sessed by the family in the XIV. cent. 

BAT KIN. See Bartholomew. 

BATLEY. A parish in Yorkshire. 

BATSFORD. An estate at Warbleton, 
CO. Sussex, which had owners of its own 
name in the XIV. cent. It was variously 
written Battesford, Batisford, &c. 

BATSON. Sec Bartholomew. 






town in Sussex, so named from the battle, 
commonly called, of Hastings. The sur- 
name is latinized De Bello. 

BATTEN. The family of B. of Somer- 
set have been seated there for nearly six 
centuries. They are considered of Flemish 
origin. Among eminent merchants of the 
staple (wool-trade) temp. Edw. I., were 
several De Beteyns and Batyns. B. L. G. 
2. An estate in the parish of North Hill, 
CO. Cornwall, " from which place was 
denominated an old family of gentlemen 
sumamed Battin." Hals, in D. Gilbert's 
Cornwall, ii., 227. 

BATTERSBY. An estate and township 
in CO. York, long possessed by the family. 

BATTY. BATTYE. See Bartholo- 

BAUCOCK. BAWCOCK. A diminutive 
of Baldwin. 

BAUD. A-Norm. baude. Joyous. 

BAUEB. Germ. Boor, husbandman. 

BAUERMAJN". Germ, hauer-mann. 

BAUGH. An old Scottish word signi- 
fying bad or indifferent ; but the name is 
probably local. 

BAVENT. The lords B., who gave the 
sufi&x to Eston-Bavent, co. Suffolk, were a 
Norm, family, and came from a place still 
so called, four leagues N.E. of Caen. 

BAVERSTOCK. A parish in Wilts. 

BAVIJsT. A corruption of Bavent. 

BAWN. Celtic. Fair-haired. 

BAWSON. Son of Ball, or Baldwin. 

BAWTREE. Bawtry, a town in York- 
shire. The family resided there temp. 
Edw. I. H.E. 

BAX. See Back. 

BAXTER. The O. Eng. and Scot, form 
of Baker. See termination Ster. See also 
Eng. Sum. i., 114, &c. John le Bakestere. 

BAYFIELD. A parish iu Norfolk. 

BAYFORD. A parish in Herts, in which 
CO. the family resided temp. Edw. I. H.E. 

BAYLES. Descendants of a refugee 
family, who fled from a persecution of the 
Protestants in the Low Countries, and 
settled at Colchester. 


&c. See Bailey. 

BAYLY. "The Bailies or Baylys de- 
rived their name from their ancestor 
having anciently been bailiffs of the dis- 
tricts of Carrick, Kyle, and Cunningham, 
in Scotland." See Bayly of Ballyarthen, co. 
Wicklow, in B.L.G. See Bailey, &c. 

BAYNARD. Ralph Baignard, or Bani- 
ardus, was a tenant in chief at the making 
of Domesd. in Essex and Suffolk. The head 
of his barony was Baynard'a Castle, in 

Thames Street, London, which was lost by 
his grandson Henry's taking part against 
Hen. I. Kelham. 

BAYNE. In Scotland this name is pro- 
bably in some instances a corruption of the 
Gaelic word " Baan," or " Bhaan " irhite— 
but as the arms are bones (Scottice bane») 
placed saltier- wise, it is possibly wiuivalent 
to Bane or Bone. 

BAYNTUN". Bainton, parishes and 
places in cos. York, Northampton, and 

Perhaps the vilest pun ever uttered was that on the 
name of a lat« M.P. " Why is the memljer for York 
Tiot a member?" " Because he baint un /" CBayntunJ. 

BEACHAM. A vile mispronunciation 

of Beauchamp. 

BEACOiN". Elevated spots in many dis- 
tricts, where beacon fires were formerly 
lighted to announce the approach of the 
enemy, are still called beacons. Residence 
on such a place probably originated the 
name. See Hobler. 

BEADLE. BEADELL. A well-known 
office. In Domesd, we have, among the 
greater tenants. Godwin Bedellus, and "Be- 
dellus quidam Regis," a beadle, ap- 
paritor, or messenger of the King. Le 
Bedel is very common in H.R. 

BEADON. Probably local ; and of con- 
siderable antiquity in co. Devon, as Beau- 
din, Beadyn, &c. 

BEAK. See Beke. 

BE ALE. BEAL. 1. A hamlet in the 
detached portion of Durham. 2. An open- 
ing between hills ; a narrow pass. Jamie- 
son. Ferguson thinks it an ancient per- 
sonal name. Beli, the Scandinavian giant, 
was slain by Freyr. But Le Beale is found 
in H.R. 

BEALES. See Beale. 

BEA]VIISH. The Beamishes of co. Cork 
have been settled there nearly three cen- 
turies, but nothing is known of the earlier 
history of the name, which would appear 
to be derived either from the Germ. Bohm- 
isch, a Bohemian, or from Beamish, a 
township in Durham. 

BEAN. BEANE. A Scotch abbrevia- 
tion of Benjamin. 

BEANBULK. This name, as well as Bean- 
shop, Beanship, and Beanskin, bafiles my 
etymological skill. They may possibly be 
connected with the vegetable, like the Ro- 
man familyofFabii, whose name originated 
in their being great cultivators of the bean 
(faba), as were the Cicerones of the cieer, 
or chick pease, and the FisoneSjOfthej^mtm, 
or pea. A hamlet in co. Leicester is called 
Barton-in-Fabis, or Barton-in-the- Beans. 

BEAR. A gentleman in Kent, some 
years since, rejoiced in the christian and 
sur-(or rather ?/;i-chri8tian and sur-Zy)- 
names of Savage Bear. Eng. Sum. Although 
I do not recollect any other instance of this 
name in modem English, the nomenclature 
of many European countries, both personal 




and local, abounds with it in various 

A writer in Edinb. Rev, April, 1855, observes that 
"a proper name obtained from the bear, is still pre- 
served in Bernard, while Ursus and Urso are names 
of great antiquity. St. Ursus belongs to the V. cent. 
Ursus, Ursinus, De Ursinis, are found in England 
after the Conquest as names of clergymen, not un- 
frequently foreigners. But the Bear had ceased to 
exist in England so long before hereditary surnames 
were adopted, that traces of the old kuig of the nor- 
thern forest are mainly to be found in such surnames 
as are derived from the names of places. Urswick, 
in Lancashire, is a source of such a surname." [This 
is a misapprehension. Urswick is more Ukely from 
eofer, A-Sax. for wild-boar, and trie. I have no 
faith in the derivation of one word from two lan- 
guages]. "Some of the names Berens, Berridge, 
Berworth, Bemey, Berenham, Beresford, Berford, 
Berewick, Baring, Bearcroft, Bearsley, may be de- 
rived from the bear ; but here, the A-Sax. for 
barley, which was much cultivated in early times, is 
a more probable etj-mologj' for most of them. On 
the continent, Berlin derives its name from the bear, 
which is the city's armorial bearing, as it is of the 
canton and city of Berne. The bear has been highly 
honoured in the Scandinavian peninsula, where many 
surnames compounded with Bjorn, indicate a deriva- 
tion from him. He gave his name to Albert the 
Bear, Margrave of Brandenburg, who flourished early 
in the XII. cent. At Rome, he produced the Orsini, 
in France, St. Ursus, and in Britain, St. Ursula, who 
is said to have headed the 11,000 ■virgins in achieving 
the honours of martyrdom at Cologne, and who in 
more recent times has' been patroness of the Ursuline 
sisters, and of the celebrated Princess Des Ursins." 

BEARD. "When the unnatural process 
of shaving was unknown, as it was during 
a great part of the middle ages, many per- 
sons were known by sobriquets having 
reference to this appendage to the manly 
chin. Besides Beard, we have, or have 
had, Blackbeard, Fairbeard, Longbeard, 
Heavybeard, and Beardman. A common 
form in H.R. is cum Barba, as Hugo cum- 
Barba, Johannes cum Barba. In Domesd. 
the powerful Hugh de Montfort is some- 
times described as Hugo Barbatus. The 
name may, however, be local, from Beard, 
a township in Derbyshire. 

BE ARMAN. Probably the same as Ber- 

BEATH. A parish in Fifeshire. 

BEATON. This great Scottish name is 
a corruption of Bethune. On the occasion 
of the marriage between James II of Scot- 
land and Mary of Gueldres in 1448, a 
member of the distinguished family of 
Bethune, coming into Scotland in the 
train of the princess, was solicited by 
James to remain at the Scottish court, 
where he married the heiress of the great 
house of Balfour. His name was corrupted 
by the Scots to Bethun, Beton, and Beaton. 
See L'Histoire Genealogique de la Maison 
de Bethune, par Andre du Chesne. Paris, 

BEATSON. The son of Beattie, which 

BEATTIE. An "abbreviation of the 
female name Beatrix." Jamieson. See 
Female Christian Names which have be- 
come Surnames. 

BEAU. Fr. Fine, handsome. 

BEAUCIIAMP. This illustrious name 
is found in many countries of Europe — e. g. 
in France as Beauchamp, in Scotland as 

Campbell, in England as Fairfield, in Ger- 
many as Schonau, and in Italy as Campo- 
bello. It was introduced into England at 
the Norman Conquest by Hugh de Bel- 
champ, Beauchamp, or de Bello Campo, to 
whom William gave 43 lordships, chiefly 
in the county of Bedford. Between forty 
and fifty coats are assigned in the armoritd 
dictionaries to this name, which, in vulgar 
parlance, is vilely corrupted to Beecliam. 
The Itin. de la Normandie mentions a 
Beauchamp near Avranches, and a Beau- 
camp near Havre. 

BEAUCLERK. Fr. heauclerc; "Fine 
scholar' ' — an honourable appellation bestow- 
ed on men versed in letters ; among others 
upon our Henry I. The present surname 
was imposed by Charles II. on his natural 
son Charles, first duke of St. Albans. The 
opposite najae Maitclerc — the bad scholar — 
is found in ancient records. 

BEAUFOY. Not 'fair faith,' as it might 
appear from the Fr. ; but bella fagus, " fair 
beech," the name of a locality now called 
Beau-Fai, in the arrondissement of Mortagne, 
in Normandy. Ralph de Bella Fago, or 
Beaufoy, accompanied the Conqueror, and 
became a tenant in chief in Norfolk and 
Sufiblk. He was a near relative of William 
de Beaufoe, the Conqueror's chancellor 
and chaplain. Kelham's Domesd. Dixon 
mentions that the latinization is sometimes 
Bella Fide, equivalent to Truman and 

BEAUMAN. Originally Bauman. The 
family were expelled from Bohemia for 
their Lutheran opinions, and a branch 
settled in Holland, from whence, after the 
accession of William III., they transferred 
themselves to co. Wexford. B.L.G. 

BEAUMONT. Roger de Belmont ap- 
pears in Domesd. as a chief tenant in cos. 
Dorset and Gloucester. According to Sir 
H. Ellis, he was a near kinsman of the 
Conqueror, being a lineal descendant of 
that king's great grandfather. Some trace 
the noble English families from the Vis- 
counts Beaumont of Normandy, and others 
from the blood-royal of France. The Itin. 
de la Normandie gives five places in that 
province called Beaumont, i. e., * the fair 
or beautiful hill,' and there are English 
parishes, &;c., so called in cos. Cumberland, 
Essex, and Leicester. In charters the name 
is written De Bello Monte. 

BEAUSIRE. A Huguenot family in 
Ireland. Fr. Jm ?/-«><?, "fair sir." Belsiro 
is found in the H.R. 

BEAU VESYN. O. Fr. bel voisin, fair or 
good neighbour, the opposite of Malvoisin 
or Mauvesyn. 

rived from a follower of the Conqueror, 
called Benuvois, who by some genealogists 
is made father of the Sir Bevis of Hamp- 
toun, of medieval romance (which, how- 
ever, represents liim as a pre-Norman). The 
family afterwards settled in Guernsey, then 
in COS. Suffolk and Middlesex. The De 
Beavoirs of Berks, the De Beauvoirs of 




Ireland, and the various families of Beaver, 
Beever, Bevor, &c., claim descent from a 
common stock. See Life of Capt. P. 
Beaver, E.N., by Admiral Smyth. 

BEAVAN. BEAVEN^. The same as 

BEAVER. See Beauvoir. 

BEAVIS. SeeBevis. 

BECCLES. A town in Suffolk. De 
Beckles, H.R. 

BECK. BECKE. Teutonic hecc. A 
rivulet or small stream, in various dialects 
of England. Bee in Normandy gave name 
to a baronial race, and a Flemish family of 
Bee, wholly unconnected with them, held 
Eresby and other manors at the time of the 
Domesd. survey. Gent. Mag., Jan., 1832. 

BECKET. BECKETT. See A'Beckett. 
There is a tything in co. Berks so called. 

BECKFORD. A parish in Gloucester- 
shire, in which county the family first ap- 
pear, in connection with the Abbey of 
Gloucester, in the XII. cent. De Beck- 
ford. H.R. 

BECKINGHAM. Parishes In cos. Lin- 
coln and Notts. De Bekingham occurs in 
the former co. H.R. 

BECKLEY. Parishes in cos. Sussex and 

BECKMAN". Beck, a stream, and man. 

See termination Man. 

BECKWITH. The last syllable is a 
corruption of ivortli. Most of the armi- 
gerous families of the name spring from 
Yorkshire, and Beckwith, a hamlet in the 
parish of Pannal, in that coimty, is pro- 
bably the cradle of the race. It is said 
(see B.L.G.) that the original name of the 
family was Malbie, or Malbysse, and that 
it was changed to B. temp. Hen. III. 

BECON. See Beacon. 

BED ALE. A parish in Yorkshire. 

BEDDING. From Bede. The descen- 
dants of Beda. See Ing. 

BEDDOE. Perhaps a modification of 
Bede. Ferguson. 

BEDE. A personal name of great an- 
tiquity, borne by the " venerable" A- Sax. 

BEDFORD. Godwidere and Osgar de 
Bedeford were tenants in capite in Bed- 
fordshire, 1086. Domesd. The former had 
held the same lands before the Conquest. 

BEDHAMPTON. A parish in Hants. 
De Bedampton, H.R. 

BEDINGFIELD. Orgerus de Pugeys 
(or Longueville) came hither at the Con- 
quest, and was one of the four knights of 
the Lord Malet, lord of the manor of Eye, 
CO. Sufiblk, who gave him the manor of 
Bedingfield in that vicinity, wide luymen. 
Courthope's Debrett. 

BEDINGIIAM. A parish in Norfolk. 

BEDINGTON. A parish in Surrey. 

BEDWELL. A hamlet, co. Bedford. 
De Bedewell, H.R. 

BEDWIN. Two parishes, in Wilts. 

Bedewine. H.R. 
BEE. Probably allusive to the industry 
of the original bearer, or the sign of his 
I^^BEE, as a termination, is a corruption 
of * by.' Examples : Holmbee, Batters- 
bee, Bradbee, Boltbee. 

BEEBY. A parish in co. Leicester. 

BEECH. From residence near a tree of 
this species. Atte-Beche. Also a place in 
CO. Stafford. See, however, Beke. 

BEECHER. Becher is found in the 
H.R, without any prefix. Le Becher, Le 
Becchur, and Le Beechur, also occiur there. 

BEEDHAM. See Beetham. 

BEEMAN. BEMAN. In former times, 
when mead or methlegn was a favourite 
beverage, the number of bees kept in Eng- 
land must have been much larger than 
now. Bee-jjarh^, or enclosures, exist in 
several parts of the country, though now 
appropriated to other uses. The keeper of 
such a park was called Gustos Apium — 
"keeper of the bees" — whence Beeman. 
His duties are defined in the Gloss, of 
Services, Cott. M.S. Titus. A. XXVII. 
fol. 150, Ellis, Introd. Domesd. Among 
the Domesd. tenants of Herefordshire is 
a Gustos Apiimi. In one instance, however, 
this surname is a known corruption of 

BEER. BEERE. BEARE, Two places 
on the banks of the Tamar, in co. Devon, 
are called Beer-Alston and Beer-Ferris, 
while two others in Dorsetshire bear the 
names of Beer-Hacket and Beer-Regis. 

BEESON. A corruption of Beeston. 

BEESTON. Parishes, &c. in cos. Bed- 
ford, Chester, Norfolk, Notts and York. 

BEET. Perhaps the same as Beath. 
BEETHAM, A parish in Westmoreland. 
BEETLE. A corruption of Bedel or 

Beadle — the office. 
BEEYOR. BEEVERS. See Beauvoir. 

BEGG. A personal name. An A-Sax. 
saint was so called. 

BEHARREL. Three brothers of this 
name from Holland came over with Sir C. 
Vermuyden to assist in draining Hatfield 
Chase, co. York, temp. Chas. I. 

BEIGHTON. Parishes In cos. Norfolk 
and Suffolk. 

BEKE. This family has no connection 
with that of Bee or Beck; nor is it of 
Norman origin. It was founded m Eng- 
land by the Goisfred de Beche, of Domesd. 
De Beche and De la Beche were the Nor- 
man-Fr. modes of writmg the Flemish 
Van der Beke, which was, doubtless, the 
real name borne by this Godisfred in his 


native country, where he had a good estate. 
There can be no doubt that the ch was 
sounded hard, for in East Kent, where the 
family acquired the estate of Lyving's- 
Boume, they altered the prefix to Bekes, 
and the parish still bears the designation of 
Beakesbourne, while, in some Kentish re- 
cords, the name is written De la Beke. 
The barons Beke of Eresby were of this 

At the present day there are Van der Beekes in 
Holland, Vander Beekes in Germany, and Del Becques 
in Belgium and Fr. Flanders. Inf. C. Beke, Esq. 

Beek or Beke is Dutch for brook or 
rivnlet, and therefore etymologically iden- 
tical with Brook and Beck. 

BELASYSE. The genealogists of this 
family assert, that the great ancestor of the 
Earls Fauconberg was one Belasius, who 
came over with the Conqueror in 10G6, and 
became general against the forces of Edwin 
and Morcar in the Isle of Ely. His son, 
Roland, married the heiress of Ralph de 
Belasyse, of that Ilk, in the bishoprick of 
Durham, and thereupon assumed her sur- 
name. Collins. De Belasyse is doubtless 
found in early Norman times, though Be- 
lasius is probably a figment. Bellasis is a 
hamlet near Morpeth, 

BELCHER. O Fr. hel chere, good com- 
pany. So Boncompagnon, and our own 
Goodfellow, &c. 

BELCOMBE. A recent refinement upon 
Bulcock, properly Boulcott, a local name. 

BELCUMBER. Belencombre in the ar- 
rondissement of Dieppe in Normandy. De 
Belecumbr', De Belencumbr', &c. H.R. 

BELDAM. ** A woman who lives to see 
a sixth generation descended from her." 
Kennett. The surname, however, is doubt- 
less local. See Eng. Sum. i. 213. 

BELESME. In the Battel Roll Belemis. 
The second son of Roger de Montgomery 
was so named. Kelham. Belleme is a 
town, once of great strength, in the arron- 
dissement of Mortagne, and it gave name 
to a powerful race of counts. 

BELFORD. A parish in Northumber- 

BELGRAVE. A parish in co. Leicester, 
long possessed by the family. 

BELKE. Probably Belgh, a hamlet in 
CO. Nottingham. 

BELL. Thig common surname is doubt- 
less le Bel, 0. Fr. for fine, handsome ; and 
in this form it is found in the H.R. The 
chief habitation of the Bells has long been 
on the Scottish border. In a MS. of loOO, 
relating to the defences of that district, we 
find in Cumljerland, under Bridekirk, this 
entry : ** About them is a great surname of 
Bells and Carlisles, who have been long in 
feud with the Irwyns." Again : " In Gils- 
land is no great surname : tlie Belles is the 
most." Archscolog. XXII. p. 109—70. 

BELLAIRS. Ilaraon, one of the sons 
of Nigel de Albini by Maud de Aquila, 
niece of Hugh Lupus, assumed the name 

24 BEL 

of De Beler, subsequently corrupted to Bel- 
lars and Bellairs. B.L.G. 

BELLAMY. Dr. Giles regards this as a 
corruption of the Norman surname Belesme; 
but there is abundance of evidence to shew 
that it is the old or Norman-French hel- 
amy, " fair friend," used much in the de- 
preciatory way in which we now employ 
" good fellow." When William Rufas had 
scolded his chamberlain for offering him a 
a pair of silk hose that had cost only 
three shillings, and the oflicial had pro- 
cured a worse pair for a mark, Robert of 
Gloucester makes the monarch say — 
"Aye bel-amtf, quoth the King, these were well 
bought ; 
In this manner serve me, other ne sen'e me not." 
Camd. Rem. 
The Promptorium defines the word, 
"Amicus pulcher, et est GiiUicum, et 
Anglice dicitur, fayre frynde." 

BELLARNEYS. A probable corruption 
of the Fr. name Beauhamais, " fine 

BELLASISE. (See Belasyse). A hamlet 
in the parish of Stannington, co. Northum- 
berland. This ancient family afterwards 
removed, unfavourably for themselves, to 
Henknoull, whence the old northern dis- 
tich : 

" Bellasis, Bellasis, daft was thy knoll. 
When exchanged Bellasis for Henknoull." 

Sharpe's Chronicon Mirdbile. 

BELLCH AMBERS 1. A name appro- 
priate enough for church tower. 2. "Bellus 
Camerarius" may have been the sobriquet 
of a '* handsome chamberlain. " See 
Chamberlain, Chambers, &c. 

BELLENDEN. See Ballantyne. That 
it is a distinct name, however, is proved by 
the existence of De Bellenedene in the 

BELLET. William Belet, steward of 
William the Conqueror, was a tenant-in- 
chief in COS. Hants and Dorset. Domesd. 
As the name is not prefixed by De, it is 
doubtless a descriptive sobriquet, perhaps 
signifying a " handsome little fellow." His 
descendants were barons by tenure till temp. 
Hen. III. Nicolas' Synopsis. 

BELLEW. Probably of Norman origin, 
meaning bel-rau, in Lat. hella-aqna, the 
fair water ; the designation of some locality. 
Belleau is a parish in Lincolnshire. Jolm 
de B. was a baron of Parliament temp. 
Edw. L 

BELLHOUSE. A-Sax. bel-hus, a man- 
sion. It was a mark of dignity to be pos- 
sessed of a bell. In the reign of Athelstan 
every ceorle or freeman who owned five 
hides of land, a church, a kitchen, and a 
bell-Juvixe took rank as a Thane. De Bel- 
hus and De la Belhuse are in H.R. 

BELLING 1 1 AM. The pedigree is de- 
duced from Alan de B., of Bellingham, in 
Northuml>erland, temp. William the Con- 
queror. In the XV. and XVI. cent, a 
younger branch became widely extended in 
Sussex, and in that county there existed 
contemiKjraneoualy with it, a distinct family 




of B., who seem to have borrowed their 
name from Belingeham, a manor near 
Hastings, mentioned in Domesday. 

BELLMAN. An officer in corporate 
towns, who rings his bell and proclaims the 
hour of the night. 

BELLOW and BELLOWS bear arms 
similar to those of Bellew. 

BELLRINGER. From very early ages 
England has been famous for its bells ; so 
much so, that Britain was known even in 
Saxon times as " the ringing island." A 
skilful ringer of the medieval period would 
readily acquire this surname. 

BELLY. A curious corruption of Bel- 
eau. See Bellew. 

BELSIIAM. Balsham, a parish in co. 

BELTON". Parishes in cos. Leicester, 
Lincoln, Kutland, and Suffolk. 

BEL WARD. " One Beluard" occurs as 
a Domesd. tenant, co. Gloucester, and 
William Belward, lord of Malpas, co. Ches- 
ter, founded many great Northern families. 
See Eng. Sum. ii. 49. 

BENCHE. Benche and Bence occur 
in the H. R., without the prefix de 
or le. The A- Sax. ham and Fr. hanc 
signify, like the modem hencli^ a long seat 
affording accommodation for more than 
one person ; hence the Queen's bench, the 
bench of Bishops, a bench of magistrates, 
or any plurality of dignified persons. The 
surname probably originated in some 
ancient legal court. 

BENCOCK. See Benjamin. 

BEXDISH. See Bennett andBendyshe. 

BEN^DYSHE. A manor in Radwinter, 
CO. Essex,' acquired in the XIII. cent, by 
one of the De Westley family, who there- 
upon assumed his surname from it. 

BEN'E. See Bean. See also Eng. Surn. 
i. 222. 

BENETFINK. The name of a parish in 

BENFIELD. Places in cos. Northampt. 
and Durham. 

BENGE. A curt or nicked form of 

BENHACOCK. See Benjamin. 

BENHAM. A tything in co. Berks. 

BENJAMIN. The personal name. As 
a sumame it is chiefly, but not altogether, 
confined to the Jewish families. The deri- 
vative surnames are Benn, Bean, Benns, 
Benson, Benhacock, Bencock, Benkin, 
Benny, Bense, 

BENON. See Benjamin. 

BENN. BENNS. See Benjamin. 

BENNELL. Benwell, co. Northumb. 

BENNETT. From the personal name 
Benedict.^ In the reigns of Edwards II, and 

ni. the name is found thus modified: Fitz 
Benedict, Benediscite, Bendiste, Bendish, 
Bennett. This was in the city of Norwich. 
N. and Q. v. 291. The derivation from heiiet^ 
a minor order of priests, is improbable. 

BENNICK. Benwick, a chapelry, co. 

BENNINGTON. Parishes in cos. Lin- 
coln and Herts. 

BENNISON. The son of Bennet or 
Benedict, or of Benjamin. 

BENNY. BENE Y. See Benjamin. Per- 
haps local. 

BENSE, i.e. Ben's. See Benjamin. 

BENSLEY. Most persons of the name 
trace back to Norfolk and Suffolk, and 
there is a tradition of Danish descent. The 
name is certainly foimd in Sweden. The 
celebrated Benzelius, Archbishop of Upsal, 
derived his surname from the village of 
Benzely near that city. (V. Gorton and 
Watkins). In Domesd. we have a Benze- 
linus, apparently a follower of the Con- 
queror, and as the forms Benesle, Bensleyn, 
&c., are used indiscriminately, there is little 
doubt of these names coming from a com- 
mon Scandinavian source. The name is 
found in 28 forms of spelling. Inf. T. 
Bensley, Esq. 

BENSON. See Benjamin. But De 
Benson is found in H.R. 

BENSTED. Bmsted, places in Hants 
and Sussex. 

BENT. An open plain, common, or 
moor. See Eng. Sum. 1. 64. 

BENTHALL. A parish in Shropshire. 

BENTHAM. There is not much reason 
to doubt that this name is derived from the 
parish of Bentham, in the West Riding of 
Yorkshire. Jeremy Bentham, however, 
fancied himself descended from the German 
Counts of Bentheim, and, utilitarian and 
democrat though he was, at one time 
actually meditated the purchase of some 
property which had formed part of their 
territories. Westminster Rev., July, 1853. 

BENTINCK. William B. (first duke 
of Portland) accompanied William III. to 
this country from Holland in 1688. 

BENTLEY. Parishes and places in cos. 
Hants, Stafford, Suffolk, Warwick, York, 
Essex, Derby, Sussex, &c. 

BENTON. A parish in Northumb. 

BENVVELL. A township in Northum- 
berland. The Benwells were descended 
from the Shaftos of that county. 

BENYON. Ab Enion, "the son of 
Enion," a Welsh personal name. See re- 
marks under Bunyan, Pinion, and Onion. 

BERE. See Beer. De Bere, H.R. 

BEREBREWER. See Brewer. 

BERESFORD. A manor and township 
in Astonfield, co. Stafford, posses,-ed by the 
ancestors of the several noble families of 



this surname for centuries. In the XVII. 
it passed by marriage to the family of 
Cotton, the Angler, and the fishing-house 
which he built for Isaac Walton still exists. 
In 1823 Lord Beresford repurchased the 
estate of his ancestors, and it now belongs 
to A. J. Beresford Hope, Esq., M.P. &c. 

BERGER. Fr. A shepherd. 

BERKELEY. This noble race descend 
from Thos. de B., lord of Berkeley castle, 
CO. Gloucester, temp. Edw. I., and fifth in 
lineal succession from Harding, a Dane of 
royal blood, and one of the companions of 
"William the Conqueror. Hence the name 
and title Fitz-Hardinge in connection with 
the family. Such is the statement of the 
Peerages, " though it is well ascertained," 
says a correspondent of Gent. Mag., 
June 1846, that the founders of the house, 
•' Harding of Bristol, and his son Robert 
Fitz- Harding, were only burghers of that 
city." Sayers' Hist. Bristol. 

BERKS. Possibly from the county. 

BERMINGHAM. A baronial family, 
who derived their name from their manor 
and castle of Birmingham, co. Warwick, 
where they were settled temp. Hen. I. 

BERNAL. Probably the same as the O. 
Prankish personal name Bemald. Fergu- 
son. It may, however, be the same as 

known i)ersonal name. 

BERNAYS. See under Berney. 

BERNERS. According to Domesd., 
Hugh de Bemers, as a tenant in chief, held 
Evresdon, co. Cambridge. The Itin, Norm, 
mentions six localities called Beniieres, in 
different parts of Normandy, but Avhich of 
them is the cradle of this noble race is im- 
known. A very diflerent origin is assigned 
in Arch. Joum. vii., 322, viz. : O. Fr. 
ternier, a vassal who paid berenage, a feudal 
due for the support of the lord's hounds. 
Bemer, Bemerus, &c., are found in Domesd. 
as baptismal names. 

BERNEY. The baronet's family are as- 
serted to have l^een seated at Berney, near 
Walsingham, co. Norfolk, at the tivw of the 
Norman Conquest — a great improbability, 
although their very early settlement there 
cannot be questioned. Beniays is of dis- 
tinct origin, being a recent importation 
from Germany ; it is supposed that the 
latter family were originally French, and 
that they derived their designation from 
the town of Bemay, in the department of 
the Eure, in Normandy. 

BERN OLD. An A-Sax. personal name. 

BERNONVILLE. A Fr. refugee family 
after the Rev. of the Edict of Nantes. 

BERRALL. See Burrell. 

BERRINGTON. Places in cos. Durham, 
Gloucester, Salop, Worcest., Hereford, &c. 

BERRY. A parish in Devon; but from 
the commonness of the name it must bo 


regarded as another form of Bury, which 
see. See also Burgh. 

BERTIE. A very pretty tradition brings 
the Berties, at the time of the Saxon in- 
vasion, from 'Rertxland, in Prussia, toBertie- 
stad, now Bersted, in Kent, where " one of 
our Saxon monarchs gave him a castle and 
town I" A Cottonian MS. makes one Leo- 
pold de Bertie (!) constable of Dover Castle 
in the time of King Ethelred, but his son 
of the same name, being out of favour at 
court, retired to France. From that country 
in the year 1154 his descendant came to 
England with Henry II., who restored to 
him his ancestral estate at Bersted. See 
Burke's Ext. Peerage. 

BERTRAM. A well-known baptismal 
name. The family is Norm., dating from 
temp. Hen. I., when William B. founded 
the Priory of Brinkbume, co. Northumb. 
Also local, as William de B. occurs in 
Domesd, as a tenant in chief, co. Hants. 
Two baronies by tenure were held in the 
name of Bertram down to the XIII. cent. 

BERTRAND. The same as Bertram. 

BERWARD. Bear-ward, the keeper of 
a bear. 

" Here is Jenkyne Berwarde of Barwycke." 

Cocke Lorelle's Bote. 

BERWICK. In Domesd. a herewica 
generally means an outlying portion of a 
manor. Of places so called we have, be- 
sides the great northern town, parishes, 
&c., in COS. Sussex, York, Northumb., Wilts, 
Haddington, &c. 

BESFORD. A parish in co. Worcester. 

BEST. BESTE. This name has pro- 
bably no connection with the adjective. 
In the H. R. it occurs as Le Beste, 
* the beast,' a sobriquet ; but there is one 
well-authenticated instance, in which it is a 
corruption of the Norman Basset. Inf. 
Stacey Grimaldi, Esq., F.S.A. 

BESWICK. Places in cos. York and 
Lancaster. The B.'s of Gristhorpe have 
been seated there for upwards of four 
centuries. B.L.G. 

BETHAM. See Beetham. 

BETHELL. See Bithell. 

BETIIUNE. This illustrious name is 
traceable, l)eyond question, to Robert, sur- 
named Faisseus, Feigneur of the town of 
Bethune, in Artois, in the year 1000, and 
there is good reason to suppose that he was 
a descendant of the ancient Counts of 
Artois. His descendants, who were en- 
nobled in every grade and in various 
countries, reckon among their number many 
princes of Hainaiilt in Flanders, Cardinal 
Beaton in Scotland, and the great Due de 
Sully in France. See L'Histoire Genealo- 
gifjuc de la maison De Bethune par Andre 
du Chesne, Paris, 1039. (See Beaton). 

BETTELEY. Betley, co. Stafford. 

BETTS See Betty. 

Christian Names become Surnames. Bedo 
mentions a priest ctiUed Bctti, A.D. 053. 



likely from the ' booty ' than from the good 
looks which the first of the name was pos- 
sessed of. The Scotch orthography is 
Bootiman, and a correspondent suggests 
that " boothie"-man, or cottager, is the 

BEVAN. Welsh. Ab Evan, the son of 

BEVER. See Beauvolr. 

BEVERIDGE. Beferige, i. e. "the Bea- 
ver's edge," occurs in Cod. Dipl. Several 
other local names in Befer, in that col- 
lection, show that the beaver was an 
inhabitant of this island in Saxon times. 

BEVERLEY. Can be traced as residents 
at Beverley, co. York, to temp. King John, 

BEVIS. Camden treats of this among 
Christian names, and thinks it may be 
corrupted from " the famous Celtique king, 
Bellovesus." The town of Beauvais, in 
France, is however a more likely source for 
the surname. The Sir Bevys of medieval 
romance seems to have no place in veritable 
history, though Hej^lin claims him as a 
real Earl of Southampton. The first in- 
stance of the surname that I can call to 
mind is in Sir John Bevis, or Befs, who 
took Richard, brother of King Henry III., 
prisoner in a windmill at the battle of 
Lewes, in 1264. See Beauvoir. A Goisbert 
de Belvaco occurs in Domesday. 

BEW. Ab Hugh, the son of Hugh. 

BEWICK. Old and New Bewicke are in 
Northumb., where the family, (well known 
as a border clan, and still better for having 
produced the restorer of the art of wood- 
engraving,) flourished immemorially. 

BEWLEY. See Bowley. 

BEYER. Dutch Beyers—'' of Bavaria." 

derived from 0. Norse hlf, movement. 

BIBER. Perhaps the same as " bibber,'' 
one too much addicted to potations. The 
name is found in H.R., without any prefix. 

BIBLE. Probably an Irish corruption of 
some other name. 

BICK. An A- Sax. personal name, Bicca. 

Cod. Dipl. 994. 

BICKER. BICKERS. A parish in co. 

BICKERSTAFF. The O. Eng. bicker 
means to skirmish or contend, and a 
bicker-staff, therefore, probably signifies a 
weapon analogous to a quarter- staff, or 
single stick. The name belongs to the 
same class as Longsword, Broadspear, &c. 

BICKERSTETH. A name of uncertain 
origin ; perhaps the same as Bickerstaff. 

BICKERTOK Townships in Chester 
and Northumb. 


BICKLEY. A township in Chester. 

BICKNELL. Bickenhall, co. Somerset, 
or Bickenhill, co. Warwick. 

BICKTON. A manor in St. Eve, co. 

Cornwall, held by the family in Norman 
times. D. Gilb. Cornw. i. 412. 

BIDDEL. Perhaps Biddulph ; perhaps 

BIDDER. A-Sax. biddere, a petitioner — 
" petitor, vel petax." Wright's Vocab. p. 60. 
equivalent to ' beadsman.' Piers Plowman 
views the bidderes with small favour ; he 
calls them ' Eoberdes knaves,' and classes 
them with vagabonds : — 

" Bidderes and beggerea 
Fast about yede, 
With hire beUes and hire bagges 
Of breed ful y-crammed." 
# Vision, I. 79. 

BIDDLE. 1. A modification of Bid- 
dulph. 2. A- Sax. by del, a beadle, mes- 
senger, herald, or proclaimer. Biddle, with- 
out a prefix, is found in the H.R. 

BIDDULPH. A parish in co. Stafford, 
very anciently possessed by the family, 
who descended from Ricardus Forestarius, 
a great Domesd. tenant. Erdeswick's Staf- 
BIFFEN. Qu. Bevan? 
BIGG. BIGGE. BIGGS. A pr^-Domesd. 
personal name, Biga. The officer who 
provided carriages for the king was called 
a Biga — probably with some reference to 
the Lat. biga, a two-horse chariot. EUis, 
Introd. Domesd. i. 91. 

BIGGAR. A parish in co. Lanark. Also 
Scot., a builder. 
I^^BIGGIN. A common termination of 
local names, especially in the North. It 
means a building of considerable size — 
a house, as opposed to a cottage. A- 
Sax. byggari to build. 
BIGLAND. Bigland Hall, co. Lancaster, 
where the family are said to have been 
seated from the time of the Conquest. 


in CO. Stafford. 

BIGOD, BIGOT. " When RoUo had 
Normandy made over to him by Carolus 
Stultus, with his daughter Gisla, he would 
not submit to kiss Charles's foot. And 
when his friends urged him by all means to 
kiss the king's foot, in gratitude for so 
great a favour, he made answer in the 
English tongue, Ne se by God ; that is. Not 
so by God. Upon which the king and his 
courtiers deriding him, and corruptly re- 
peating his answer, called \x\mBigod; from 
whence the Normans are to this day termed 
BiGODi." Camd. Britannia, Ed. 1722, 
Vol i. p. ccix. It was said of that people 
that at every other word they would swear 
*' By God," and thus Bigod, (whence our 
word bigot,) became synonymous with 
Norman. The equivalent French oath 
' Par Dieu,' has in like manner become an 
English surname. See Pardew. 

Why one particular baronial fixmily of Normandy 
should have assumed a name attributed to Normans 


in general is not very obvious. That the name was 
understood to be derived from the source indicated 
above, even long after the Conquest, appears from a 
speech made by Ralph, Earl of Chester, an opponent 
of King Stephen, before the great battle of 1141. 
"Next comes," says he, "Hugh By -God, his name 
merely sountUng his perjury, who thought it not 
suflficient to break his oath with the Empress (Maud), 
but that he must be once again foresworn, as all the 
world doth know that Henrj- at his death bequeathed 
the crown to Stephen, to the prejudice of his daugh- 
ter ; — a man, in a word, who accounts treachery a 
\-irtue, and perjury a courtly quality." Speed's 

BIKER. A village near Newcastle-upon- 

BILKE. Ferguson deduces Bill, Bilson, 
BiLke, &c., from Bil, a small goddess among 
the Scandinavians, but I much question 
the legitimacy of such parentage. 

BILL. A nickname of William. 

BILLET. Probably a corruption of the 
great baronial name Belet. 

BILLIARD. Ferguson ranks this name 
with Bill, Bilke, &c. 

BILLING. BILLINGE. Parishes, &c., 
in cos. Northampt. and Lancaster (two in 

BILLINGHURST. A parish in Sussex. 

BILLINGS. A pluralization of Billing ? 

BILLINGSLEY. A parish in co. Salop. 

BURLINGTON. Chapeb-ies in cos. Bed- 
ford and Lancaster. 

BILLITER. Apparently a bell-founder. 
The Promptorium has hellezeter (Halliw.), 
which Mr. Way derives from the A- Sax. 
zeotere, fmar. '■'■ Zetyrige of metelle, as 
bellys, fuswy The old name of Billiter 
Lane, in London, was originally " Belzet- 
tar's Lane" (Stowe), doubtless from the bell- 
founding trade there carried on. 

BELLMAN. A soldier who carries a 
war-bill or battle-axe. Cotgrave has 
*• Bouscheron, a bill-man, a faggot-maker," 
from the wood-bill used in that employ- 

BILLS. BILLSON. See BiU and Bilke 

BIIjLY. Not fromWilliam,but from aplace 
in thearrondissementof Caen, in Nonnandy. 
Also a comrade, conii)anion. Jamieson. 

BILNEY. Parishes in Norfolk. 

BILTON. Places in cos. York and 

BINDLOOSE. This contradictory- 
looking name, formerly written Byndlos, is 
prol)ably local. 

BINFIELD. A parish in Berks. 

BING. SeeByng. 

BINGHAM. Seated temp. Henry I., at 
Sutton-Bingham, co. Somerset, and after- 
wards and now at Melcombe-Bingham. 
Said to Ikj of Saxon antiquity. 

BINGLEY. A parish in Yorkshire. 

BINNEY. Binnie, in the parish of Up- 
hale, Linlithgowshire. 

28 BIS 

BINNTE. SeeBinney. 

BINNINGTON. A township In York- 

BINNS. A place in Abercon, co. Lin- 

BIRBECK. A district of Westmore- 

BIRCH. Parishes and chapelries in cos. 
Essex, Hereford, and Lancaster. 

BIRCHAM. Three parishes in Norfolk. 

BIRCHENSTY. An estate in Sussex, 
contracted to Birsty. 

BIRD. See Birds. 

IS"BIRDS, Names of , which hare hecome 
Sunmmes. The names of animals have 
in all ages, and among nearly all nations, 
been applied as sobriquets to individuals, 
and these in modem times have ac- 
quired the force of surnames, and thus 
been handed dowTi hereditarily. How 
common such names are in our family 
nomenclature, has often been made the 
subject of remark. See anecdotes in 
Eng. Sum., i., 178, et seq. A writer in 
Edinb. Rev., April, 1855, says— "We 
once knew Hawkes, a Hare, a Peacock, 
and a Partridge, all quietly dwelling in 
the same staircase at Trinity College, 
Cambridge, where a Coote was at the 
same time an occasional visitor; and 
we have been honoured by the friend- 
ship of a distinguished Whig, whoso 
mother was a Crow, whose nieces were 
Sparrows, whose housekeeper was a 
Partridge, and whose cook was a Raven." 
For a list of sumames from Birds, 
see Eng. Sum. nt supra. But as usual 
when generalising, we are apt to at- 
tribute to this source many names 
which do not belong to it ; for example, 
Bunting, Buzzard, Barnacle, Drake, 
Gosling, Corbett, Parrott, Starling, 
Wrenn, and Pye, have proven etymo- 
logies which take them out of this 
category, and probably many others have 
no reference to the *' winged nation." 

BIRDSEYE. Local: "the island of 

BIRDWHISTLE. Birdoswald, on the 
Roman Wall in Cumberland, the station 
Amboglanna, is so pronounced locally. 

BIRKBECK. SeeBirbeck. 

BIRKETT. A corruption of Birken- 
head, CO. Chester. 

BHILEY. The cradle of this family Is 
the township of Baldorston, co. Lancaster, 
where the lands of Birclogh or Byrlogh 
l)elonffcd to them, in or iKjfore temp. Edw. 
II. B.LG. 

BIRNIE. A parish in Morayshire. 

BIRT. See Burt. 

BISH. SeeByshe. 

BISHOP. Sec Ecclesia-stlcal Sumames. 

BISHOPRICK. The co. of Durham Is 




frequently called, in old writings, par 
e.rccUenee, the Bishoprick, and hence this 

BISLE Y. A town in co. Gloucester, and 
a parish in Surrey. 

BISS. Perhaps Bish, formerly written 
Bysse. Ferguson, however, says that Bis is 
an old Teutonic personal name, and thinks 
Bissell and Bissettmay be its diminutives ; 
but Bissell is found prefixed by De, showing 
its local origin, and Bisset is said by Cam- 
den to mean a dove. 

BISSELL. See Biss. 

BISSETT. See Biss. The Bisets were 

])arons by tenure in 1153. 
BITHELL. Ab-Ithel, the son of Ithel, 

a "Welsh jxjrsonal name. 

BLAAUVV. This name, a somewhat 
recent introduction from Holland, signifies 
' blue,' probably from the favourite colour 
of the costume of the primitive bearer of 
it. It occurs in various forms among the 
magistrates of Amsterdam, and is identical 
witli Blcau, borne by the eminent printer, 
the friend of Tycho Brahe, and the well- 
known author of some of the earliest maps. 
This is perhaps the only name now Iwrne 
by an English family that can boast of five 
consecutive vowels, (Bl <7*e/'), although a 
thirteenth-century orthography of Newman 
gives six — Ni^MW«nan. 

BLABER. Probably some occupation. 
In Scotland it means a kind of French 
cloth. Jaraieson. Blaber without prefix 
is found in H.K. 

BLACK. Blac and Blache are praj- 
Domesday names, and doubtless refer in 
general to the dark complexion and black 
hair of the original o\vner8. Mr. Wright 
tells us that Wulric the Black, the ally of 
the famous Hereward the Saxon, was " so 
named because on one occasion he had 
blackened his face with charcoal, and thus 
disguised, had penetnited unol >sei-ved among 
his enemies, and killed ten of them with 
his spear before he made his retreat Essays, 
ii., 102. 

BLACKADDER. A probable corrup- 
tion of Blackater, a river in the south of 

BLACKAMORE. R.G. 16. See Black- 


BLACKBIRD. Probably "black-beard." 

BLACKBURN. A great town in Lanca- 

BLACKE. See Black. 

BLACKER. SeeBlakcr. 

BLACKETT. Dan. hlakheU greyish. 
Fergiison. But the B.'s of Nortlunub, trace 
to Richard de l^lack-heved, or Blackhead, 
forester of Stanhope, 1350 ; and the name ia 
consequently local. 

BLACKFORD. Parishes in cos. Perth 

and Somerset, and minor localities in many 

BLACKBALL. Or Blackwell. A town- 
ship in Cumberland. 

BLACKHEAD. Either from black hair, 
or local. See Blackett. 

BLACKIE. Probably a diminutive of 
Black — applied to a man of dark com- 

BLACKLEY. A chapelry in co. Lan- 

BLACKLOCK. From the colour of the 
hair. So Wliitelock, Silverlock, &c. 

BLACKMAN. A baptismal name 
originally derived from the personal quality 
of a dark complexion. It is common in 
A-Sax. charters, and several persons called 
Blacheraan and Blachemannus occur in 
Doniesd. as holders antecedently to the 
making of that survey. One of these is in 
Kent, where there is a parish called Black- 
manstone, which may have been named 
after him. 

BLACKMOXSTER. This repulsive 
name is a corruption of Blanchminster, the 
White Monaster)', the designation of more 
than one religious house. Muncvinster is 
an ancient alias for the town of Oswestry. 
The name was commonly latinized De Albo 

BLACKMORE. A parish in co. Essex. 
Blachemer is a prte-Domesd. baptismal 

BLACKSHAW. A viUage in co. Dum- 

BLACKSTONE. A ridge of hills in 

BLACKSTOCK. Places in Sussex and 
other counties. 

BLACKWELL. Parishes, &c., in cos. 
Derby, Durham, Worcester, and Cumber- 

BLACKWOOD. Lord Dufferin descends 
from a Scottish family. Adam B. was one 
of the privy-council to Mary, Queen of 
Scots. I find no locality of this name in 
North Britain, except the Blackwood Hills, 
CO. Dimifries. 

BLADE. Ferguson thinks from O. Norse 
bleydi, implying bashfulness. 

BLADON. A parish in co. Oxon. 

BLAGDEN. Blagdon, places in Somer- 
set, Northumb., &c. 

BLAGROYE. Blagrave, a tything in 

BLAIN. See Blane. 

BLAIR. The Blairs "of that ilk" in 
Ayrshire, have been seated in that co. for 
more than GOO years. They claim the chief- 
ship of all the Blairs in the S. and W. of 
Scotl., though that honour is challenged by 
the B.'s of Balthayock, co. Perth, who date 
back to the beginning of the XIII. cent. 
B.L.G. Blair, in Scottish topography, 




Bignifies a moss or heath, and as there are 
many localities so called, there may be 
several distinct families. Imp. Gaz. Scotl. 
Some etymologists make the word signify 
a battle-field. 

The existing Blairs of Blair spring from a cadet 
of Scott, who married the heiress, and adopted her 
samame, but have none of the blood of that race. 

BLAKE. ''Bleke, wan of colour," 
Palsgr. A- Sax. hlcec, hide, pallidas — a person 
of pale complexion. The Blakes of Ireland 
descend from Richard B., who accompanied 
Prince John to that comitry in 1185, and 
settled in co. Galway. 

BLAKELEY. Another form of Black- 

BLAKENEY. A parish of Norfolk, in 
which CO. the family had great possessions. 
The B.'s of Ireland, settled there temp. 
Eliz., were a younger line. 

BLAKER. BLACKER. Cotgrave de- 
fines a blacker as noircissenr. The latter 
word he Englishes by " blacker, blackener, 
hleaclier" &c., thus confounding two op- 
posite ideas, and literally " making white 
black." The truth is, that the A-Sax. 
hlac, unaccented, means black, while hide 
signifies pale or white, and the deriva- 
tive verb, hldcian, to bleach, or make pale. 
The Promptorium makes ' bleykester' and 

* whytster' synonymous, and explains them 
by ca/ufidarhij(, a whitener or bleacher of 
linen, which is doubtless the meaning of 
this surname. Blacre, apparently used as 
a baptismal name, is found in Domesd. 
The Blackers of co. Armagh, derive them- 
selves traditionally from Blacar, a North- 
man chief who settled at Dublin early in 
the X. cent. Burke's Commoners, ii. 48. 

BLAKESLEY. A parish in Northampt. 

BLANCH. Fr.hlanc. White— of light 
complexion. Blanche. H.R. 

grave says, *' an order of Friers, who goe 
ordinarily in white sheets." It had most 
likely a wider application, to any person 
who affected white raiment See Jamie- 

BLANCIIETT. Perhaps a diminutive 
of Blanch, white. 

BLANCIIFLOWER. Blanch flerir, Fr. 
white flower. I have seen this name in 
Sussex documents of XVII. cent. Blan- 
cheflor occurs in an old Fr. romance as the 
name of a lady. See Wright's Essays, i. 88. 
It is not unworthy of remark in connection >rith 
thin name, which lookn Ukc an awkwanl ml'^tiirc of 
French and KntfliKh. that, at the i 
oritcinntod, the Frmcli word /»*»/>• v. 
two KnKlisli wonls l)otwc<'n whit li ; 
bo little relation, except sindlari 

* flower' and ' flour.' The truth 1- • 
more immc«liatolyrc»eml»le9 the pai 
means by metai/bor Jto$ fluinac, tlenr (le 

;h to 
inne, the 
finest part of Kmrnd com, as we my ' the flower of the, 
family- -of the nobility,* 4m:. Indeed tlierc in a phrano 
In which even now the wonlsare convertible, nameljr 
' flour of sulphur' and ' flowers of sulphur.' 

BLANCILMAINS. Fr. blanche» mains 
'* white hands." From this jHJCuliarity 
Robert do Beaumont, 8rd earl of Leicester, 

received his sobriquet ; it also became the 
hereditary surname of a family. The cog- 
nate name Blanchfront, or rather Blaunk- 
front likewise occurs. 

BLANKFRONT. An A-Norm. sur- 
name, hlane-froivt, "white forehead." 

terally translated in Whitebread, which 
see. There was a species of bread so called 
in the XIII. cent. Hugh de Elsfield, 
circ. 1220, gave one virgate of land in Els- 
field, CO. Oxon, to the prioress of Studley, 
and further directed one hundred white 
loaves of the sort called in Oxford hlanpeyn 
to be given to the nuns for ever on the 
feast of the assumption. " Dedi et con- 
cessi praedictis monialibus centum panes 
albos, de panibus illis qui vocantur hlanpeyn 
apud Oxon." Dunkin's Oxfordshire, i. 135. 

BLAND. The adjective hland, mild, 
gentle, is, I think, of insufficient antiquity 
to be the etymon. It is probably one of 
the many forms of Blundus, Blondus, 
Blond, &c., meaning fair or light-haired. 
The Blands of Kippax, at a very early 
period, resided at and gave name to Bland's 
Gill, CO. York. 

BLANDFORD. A town in co. Dorset. 

BLANEY. From one of the two places 
called Blagni, near Bayeux, in Normandy. 

BLANK. BLANKS. See Blanch. 

BLANKETT. See Blanchett. 

BLATCHLEY. A parish in Bucks. 

BL ATHERW YCK. A parish in co. Nor- 

BLATHWAYT. Said to be the same as 

Braithwaite. See Thwaite. 

BLAUNCFRONT. Fr. hlancfront; 
having a white forehead. It is sometimes 
written Blaunchfront. 

BLAYNEY. Of Welsh extraction, 
claiming descent from Cadwallader, king 
of Britain. The first Lord B. created by 
James I., and settled in Monaghan, was 
Edward, son of Thomas-ap-Evan-Lloyd- 

BLAZE. An ancient personal name, 
bonie by St. Blase or Blaise, the i)atron of 
the wool-comlwrs of England. See Brady's 
Clavis Calend. i. 201. 

BLEADEN. Blcadon, co. Somerset 

B^"BLEN. A syllable occurring in several 
Cumbrian local surnames, as Bloncowo, 
Blennerhasset, Blenkinsoi)]), &c. It 
seems identical with the hlan in Blan- 
tyro, Dumblane, &c., and probably like 
the Cambro-Brit hlaen signifies a 
}>oint or top. 

BLENCOWE. There are two townships 
of this name in CumlMjrland : one in the 
parish of Dacre, the other in that of Grey- 
8t<ikc. The family name is dirived from 
the latter, where temp. Edw. III. resided 
Adam do Blcncowe, standard-bearer to 




William, * the Good Baron of Greystoke', at 
the battle of Poictiers. Hutchinson's Cum- 
berland. Other forms of the name are 
Blinko, Blinkowe, kc. 

BLENKARNE. An estate in Cumber- 

BLEXKIXSOPP. A township in the 
parish of Haltwhistle, co. Northumb. The 
castle there was the seat of the family, a 
race well remembered for their border 
feuds in olden times, and designated by 
Camden as " a right ancient and generous 

BLENXERHASSET. A township in 
the parish of Torpenhow, co. Cimnberland. 
By a mistake of N for U, this name is often 
found mis-spelt Bleuerhasset and Blever- 
hasset. Members of this ancient race re- 
presented Carlisle during almost every 
reign from Richard II. to James I. 

BLESSED. Probably a translation of 
the Latin name Benedictus, and thus sy- 
nonymous with Bennett. 

BLETIIYN. An ancient Welsh personal 
name. Meredith ap Blethyn was prince 
of North Wales in the XL cent. 

BLEW. Probably the same as BeUew. 

BLEWITT. See Bluet. 

BLIGH. Perhaps the same as Blythe. 

BLISS. A John Bliss occurs in the II.R. 
without any prefix of De or Le, The name 
seems to he connected with the A- Sax. 
verb hlisnan, laitificare, to make glad or 
joyous. The singular name Alicia Blisse- 
wenche in the H.R appears to be nearly 
synonymous with that of Maud Makejoy, 
whose dancing afforded Edward, prince of 
Wales, so much pleasure in 1297. See Eng. 
Sum. ii. 15. 

BLOCKLEY. A parish in co. Wor- 

BLODLETER. (Bloodletter, a phlebo- 
tomist.) Gold le Blodleter occurs in the 
records of Yarmouth in the XIV. cent., 
and one Blodletere still earlier in the H.R. 

BLOFIELD. A parish in Norfolk, in 
which CO. the family were seated at an 
early date. 

BLOIS. From the city of Blois in 
France. The family were settled in Suf- 
folk, temp. Rich. I. or John. Courthope's 

BLOMFIELD. See Bloomfield. 

BLONDEVILLE. Blonville, a place 
near Pont TEveque, in Nonnandy. 

BLOXG. Fr. Le Blanc, white. A Hu- 
guenot family in Ireland. 

BLOOD. O. Norse hlauclr, bashful, 
timid, Ferguson. 

BLOOMER. A 'bloom' is a mass of 
iron that has gone a second time through 
the fire — A-Sax. hhma ; and a ' bloomary' 
was a refining house ; hence probably a 
Bloomer was a person employed in the ma- 
nufueture of iron. 

BLOOMFIELD. A village In co. Wor- 
cester, and probably other localities. Nor- 
folk has long been the greatest habitat of 
the name. 

BLORE. A parish in Staffordshire, 
comprising the district called Bloreheath, 
memorable for the great battle between the 
Yorkists and Lancastrians in 1459. 

BLOSSEVILLE. A village near Rouen, 
now called Bon-Secours, a great resort for 
devotees to the Virgin Mary. 

BLOUNT. French hlond, fair-haired, 
light-complexioned. The great baronial 
house of Blount, lords Mountjoy, deduced 
themselves from William, son of Blound, 
earl of Guisnes, one of the companions of 
the Conqueror, who was traditionally de- 
rived from the B'wndi of Italy and the 
Flavii of classical Rome ! It is probable 
that there are several families so designated 
from the personal peculiarity of the original 
assumers, without any consanguinity. It 
has taken various forms ; as for example in 
the H.R. U Blond, le Blont, Blunt, le 
Blunte, le Blovnd, &c. It may be regarded 
as the Anglo-Norman synonjTn of our 
indigenous White ; and some of the Irish 
Blunts have in recent times translated it 
into WTiite. The Norwegian royal surname, 
JTarfaffer, means * fair-haired,' and in the 
H.R. we have a Flaxennehed. 

BLOAV. A contraction of Bellew, Bel- 
low, which see. The parish in Norfolk 
popularly called Blo'-Norton is really Nor- 
ton -Belleau. 

BLOWER. Probably the same as Blore, 
q. V. There is however a Le Blower in 
H.R. denoting some occupation. 
parish in Oxfordshire; Bloxholme, a parish 
in CO. Lincoln. 

BLUE occurs in Scotland, but I have not 
met with it in England. It is probably de- 
rived from the favourite colour of the 
costume of the original bearer. 

In a church in Berkshire the following epitaph is 
said to exist :— 

" Underneath this ancient pew, 
Lieth the bo<ly of Jonathan Blue. 
N.B. His name was Black, but that wouldn't do!" 

BLUETT. The family of Bluet is said 
by Camden to have come from Brittany. 
The name is spelt in the Battel Roll Bluet, 
and Bluat, and elsewhere Bloet. 

BLUMPAY. An American corruption 
of Blancpied, or WTiitefoot. Eng. Sum. 

BLLTNDELL. Blondel well-known in 
France, in both ancient and modem times, 
and rendered romantic by the fidelity of 
Blondel de Nesle, the minstrel of Cceur de 
Lion, is a personal name— a diminutive ot 
Blond, fair-haired or light-complexioned. 
As an Eng. surname it dates beyond the 
XIV. cent. 

BLUNDEN. See Den. 

an ancient personal name. Ferguson 
makes the former signify drowsy, stupid, 
from O. Norse Uitnda, to sleep. 


BLUNDERFIELD. A corruption of 
Blondeville. This awkward and unpro- 
mising name was borne some years ago by 
a farming bailiff at Bayfield Hall, co. 

BLUNSUM. Bluntisham, a parish in co. 
Himts, 80 pronounced. 

BLUNT. See Blount. Robert and Wil- 
liam Blundus were tenants in chief under 
the Conqueror. Domesd. 

BLYTH. BLYTHE. 1. Towns in York- 
shire and Northumberland, and rivers in 
several counties. 2. The adjective blithe, 
merry, gay ; whence Blythman. 

BLYTHMAN. See Blyth. 

BLYTON. A parish in co. Lincoln. 

BOAG. See Bogue. 

BOAKS. See under Noakes. 

BOAR. Though not a common surname 
itself, this is one which forms the centre of 
a considerable group of family names, of 
which the principal are Wildbore, Hogg, 
"W'etherhogg, Clevehogg, Pigg, Purcell, 
Gryceand Grisell. Porcus occurs temp. King 
John. Hoggett and Hoggins, as well as 
Piggins, may be diminutives. Hogsflesh is 
clearly connected, but Gammon and Bacon 
belong to other classes. These names cor- 
respond with the Aper, Suillus, Scrofa, 
Porcius, and Verres of the Romans. 

WTien in A-Sax. times wild boars ranged the pri- 
meval forests of our island, many localities were 
desijmated flrom them, and in Domesday Book a very 
considerable portion of the property on most manors 
con»Lste<l of woods which supported an estimated 
nunilKT of ho^^s, and the swineherd's duty was even 
more important than that of the shepherd. The 
principal prefixes of local surnames from this source 



1. Ever, as in Everton, Everley, Evers, Ebers. 
A-Sax. tofer, a wild boar. 

2. Bar, as in liarwood, Barham, Barlow, though 
In some instances the Bear may have a better claim, 

for bar is the A-Sax. for ursus,a& Mr, for aper. In 
the rude Zoolog}' of our ancestors such a sli;;iit dis- 
tinction as a simple accent >iave would be satticicnt 
for discrimination between two savage denizens of the 
woods. (Sec Bear). 

8. SwiN, as in Swindale, Swinton, Swinburne. 
A-Sox. nHn. 

4. .Sow, as in Sowdon, Sowcrby, Sowton. 

6. Pio, as in Pigdon, PighilLs. 

6. IIoo, as in Hogben, Hogwood, though the 
Teutonic hog (high) may assert in these instances an 
e(|ual claim. 

BOARDER. A cottager. See Bordo. 

BOARDAIAN. A cottager. Sec Borde. 

BOASE. Perhaps the same as Bowes. 

BOAST. Ferliaps a corruption of some 
local name like Bowlmrst. 

Some thirty years ago, a worthy poMcssor of this 
name, while dressing one winter morning, wrote it 
with his finger naH upon a frosted jmne of his win- 
dow — " /iotur—ainl tiien nildeil — " not tliyself of to- 
morrow, for thou knowr.Ht not what a diiy may bring 
forth." True and proj>lM'tic words — for In otic short 
hour (ha\ing been crushe«l l»y the fkll of a building) 
he was brotight into that cliambcr— dead I 

BOAT. SeeBott 
BOATBUILDER. The occupntion. 
BOATMAN. The occupation. 

BOBBIN. A surname of Robert. Vide 

old nursery song of " Robin and Bobbin." 

BOBBY. A nickname of Robert. 

BOBKIN. A double diminutive of Ro- 

BOCHER. An archaic form of Butcher. 

BOCHYM. A manor in Cury, co. Corn- 
wall, held by the family, temp. Henry VIIL 

BOOKING. A parish in Essex. De 
Boking is found in H.R. in association 
with CO. Gloucester. 

BOCKETT. The ancient surname va- 
riously written Boket, Bocket, Buckwit, 
Bucket, &c., is probably of Norman origin, 
as it occurs in the form of Buket in Scri- 
ven's list in Fuller's Church History, in 
that of Buquet of Caumont, in Milleville's 
Armorial de France, 1845, and in that of 
De Bocquet in the Nobiliare Normand., 
1666. Froissart also mentions a Bucquet, 
a fellow-general with the renowned Sir 
John Hawkwood, temp. Edw. Ill, at the 
battle of Brignais. But it may possibly be 
of English origin, as there was a con- 
siderable family of Bokeyt of Bokeyt, 
in the parish of Little Hemi)ston, co. 
Devon. Westcote's Devon. Inf. Miss Julia R. 

BOCOCK. SeeBawcock. 

BODDINGTON. Parishes in cos. Glou- 
cest. and Northampton. 

BODDY. See Body. 

BODEN. BOADEN, Bodin or Bo- 
ding, a pne- Domesd. name. 

sibly Fr. heau-Jils, son-in-law. 

BODILY. BODILLY. A Cornwall name, 
and probably local there. 

BODGER. Probably the same as Badger. 

BODICOTE. Bodicote Grange, near 
Banbury, co. Oxon., which had owners so 
called in the XIII. cent. 

BODINEL. An estate in Bodmin, co. 
Cornwall, anciently possessed by the family. 

BODKIN. A younger son of the Fitz- 
geralds of Desmond and Kildaro settled in 
Connaughtin the XIII. cent., and obtained, 
as wa.s not then uncommon, a Bobricjuet 
which usuri)cd the place of a surname, and 
BO was handed down. This was Bawdekin, 
probably from Ills having affoctcd to dress 
in the costly matt^riul of hilk and tisBue of 
gold, so ]M)j)ular in that age under the 
name of fmiull' in. (Sec Halliw.) The Bod- 
kins still use the '* Crom-a-boo" motto of 
the Fitzgcralds. The Bokckin of the H.R. 
Ib probably from a different source. 

BODLE. This name occurs in the Nonae 
return of 1841 at Herstmonceux, co. 
8u88cx, under the form of //; Bothel, and a 
place in that parish named after the family 
is still called B(Mlle-strcet. There is a 
manor of iiodyll in Northumberland. The 
old hJcottLih coin called a ' bodle' is said to 


have received its designation from the ce- 
lebrated Bothwell. Again A-Sax. hotl, and 
Angle bodl, signify a dwelling. 

BODRIGAN. An estate in Gorran, co. 
Cornwall, where the family resided temp. 
Edw. I. C. S. Gilbert's Cornwall, and H.R. 

BODY. Boda, (latinized Bodus,) occurs 
in Domesd. as a previous tenant, and there- 
fore probably a Saxon. Now hoda is A- 
Sax., and bodi 0. -Norse, for a messenger, 
and, in a subordinate sense, a preacher. 
It follows, therefore, that Truebody is 
equivalent to 'faithful messenger,' Light- 
body to 'active messenger,' and Freebody 
to 'ambassador of peace.' (A- Sax. frith, 
peace.) Again Handsomebody (the original 
meaning of handsome being handy, active) 
is a 'useful messenger,' while Goodbody, 
originally written Godebodi, may be no 
other than God's messenger — a preacher of 
the Gospel. The Gr. dyytkoq is used in the 
double sense of messenger and preacher in 
Mark, i. 2. See Ferguson for further con- 

BOE VY. The family is of Dutch origin. 

BOFFEY Probably same as Boughey, 
a local name. 

BOGIE. A river of Aberdeenshire. 

BOGE. BOGUE. Boge occurs on Sax. 
coins, as the name of a moneyer. 

BOIIUN. Humphrey de Bohun came 
hither with the Conqueror, and was a 
tenant in capite in Norfolk and elsewhere. 
Domesd. From him sprang a great ba- 
ronial race. The Norman habitat of the 
family appears to have been the village of 
Bohon in the arrondissement of St^ Lo. 

BOILEAU. On a tablet in Ketteringhara 
church, Norfolk, to the memory of John 
Peter Boileau, Esq., it is stated that *' he 
was the son of Simeon B., Esq., merchant, 
of Dublin, whose father, Charles Boileau, 
baron of Castlenau and Sainte Croix, in 
the i)rovince of Languedoc, in France, fled 
to England in 1091, on the persecution of 
the Protestant religion." The family des- 
cend in an unbroken line from Etienne 
Boileau, first grand provost of Paris in 
1 250 ; and they were early professors and 
zealous defenders of the reformed faith. 
Another branch of the family fled from 
France into Italy to avoid persecution, and 
subsequently wrote themselves Bevelaqua. 
The Duke of Bevelaqua bears the same 
arms as the English baronet, and both 
names are of course equivalent to our 
indigenous Drinkwater. 

BOILS. A corruption of Boyle ? 

BOLD. A-Sax., a house or dwelling. 
It may ^sometimes refer to a courageous 

BOLDEN. From Bolden, an estate in 
Ellel, CO. Lancaster. B.L.G. 

BOLDERO. The family pedigree is 
clearly traced back to the XV. cent., in 
CO. Suffolk. Similar armorials are assigned 
to the name of Boldrowe iu the »ame 

33 BON 

county, and also to that of Boldron. Both 
these latter forms are purely local, and 
Boldron is a township in the parish of 
Bowes, in Yorkshire. The motto of this 
family is a happy pun — " Audax ero .'" 

BOLE. BOLES. See Bowles. 

BOLEBECK. Hugh de Bolebeck, so 
sumamed from his fief near Havre, came 
in with the Conqueror, and was a tenant in 
capite in co. Bucks, where his descendants 
remained for several generations. 

BOLEYNE. The genealogy of the un- 
fortunate Queen goes no further back than 
1451, w^hen Sir Geoffrey B. was lord-mayor 
of London. The surname is doubtless de- 
rived from the Fr. town Boulogne. 

BOLITHO. A Cornish name, probably 
local in that county. 

BOLLARD. See BuUard. 

BOLLEN. See Boleyne. 

BOLNEY. A manor and parish in 
Sussex, possessed by the family in XIV. 

BOLT. A-Sax. See Bold. 

BOLTER. A maker of bolts or blunt- 
headed arrows, much in use among me- 
dieval fowlers. Handle Holme, however, 
defines a bolt as an arrow with a round 
knob, with a sharp point proceeding 
from it. 

BOLTON. Towns, parishes, and places 
in COS. Lancaster, Cumberl., Northumb., 
York, Westmorel., Haddington, &;c. The 
first-mentioned gave name to an important 

BOMGARSON. According toGent. Mag., 
Oct. 1820, this is the Germ, baum-gai'ten, 
tree-garden, orchard. The Fr. bon-gargoii 
is a far likelier etymon. Ferguson thinks 
it a patronjnnic of " A-Sax. bongar, a fatal 
spear," but there is no proof of such a 
name having existed. 

BOMPAS. See Bumpus. 

BONAFOXS. Fr. hon enfant, "good 
child." A Huguenot family in Ireland. 

BONAR. A village of Sutherlandshire, 
and a feudal barony of which the family 
were possessed temp. William the Lion, 
ante 1200. 

BONAVUE. Fr. bon neveu, " good ne- 
phew." French Protestant refugees in 

BOND. A-Sax. bonda, a householder, 
proprietor, husbandman. Latinized Pa- 
terfamilias, according to Mag. Brit. i. 61, 
"and rightly enough as it should seem, 
because much in the same sense in com- 
position we use hvi^bond or husband." Le 
Bond. H.R. There are several persons 
called Bonde in Domesd., one of whom 
is somewhat contradictorily called ^' liber 

BONE. A probable corruption of Bo- 
hun. See Bowne. 

BONES. A corruption of Bone. 


BOXFELLOW. Perhaps a partial 
translation of either Goodfellow or Bon- 

BONHAM. Although no place so called 
appears in the topographical dictionaries, 
this would appear to be, like Bonby, Bon- 
church, &c., the name of some locality. 
There was, however, a religious order called 
honJwmvies, or friars minors, from whom 
the name may have originated. Bonhomme 
occurs in the H.R. as a stationary sur- 

BONIFACE. A well-known personal 
name, borne by several popes, &c. 

BOXIFANT. SeeBonyfant. 

BONITHOK An estate in the parish of 
Cury, CO. Cornwall, where the family flou- 
rished till temp. Queen Anne. 

BONNER. O. Fr. honer and Fr. bonaire. 
Gracious, kind. Bishop Bonner was an 
excellent illustration of Horace Smith's 
dictum, that surnames *' ever go by con- 

BONNELL. The family came from 
Ypres. Thos. B. settled at Norwich on the 
Duke of Alva's persecution. His great- 
grandson was accomptant-general of Ire- 

BONNET. Fr. a Cap. Probably allu- 
sive to some fashion adopted by the first 

BONNICK. Bon(w)ick, a township m 

BONNY. BONNE Y. « Bonny ; good in 
any respect; having good features, good 
complexion, good form, good and manly 
dispositions." Richardson. Fr. ban, good. 
An enviable surname. In the S. of Eng- 
land the name Boniface is thus con- 

BONNYCASTLE. I do not discover 
this ' fair fortress' in any book of topogra- 
phical reference. 

BONNIMAN. See Bonny. 

BONSALL. A parish in co. Derby. 

BONTYNE. See Bunting. 

BONVILLB. In Holinshed's list Bon- 
devile. An ancient Norman family, enno- 
bled as barons in 1449. The Itin. de la 
Norm, shows three places so called — two 
near Rouen, and the otlier near Yvetot. 

BONYFANT. Fr. ban enfant, literally 
translated in our Goodchild. 

BOODLE. SeeBootle. 

BOOG. See Boge. 

BOOGLE. Probably hugle, O.K., a bul- 
lock. See Bugler. 

BOOKER. 1. See Bowker. 2. Bdcere, 
(c hard,) A-Sax. A writer, doctor, inter- 

BOOKLESS. "Not so called from the 
scantiness of his library, but rather from 
the good use he made of what he had — Old 



Norse bolikes, book-learned, or, perhaps 
rather, able to read — a much more notable 
fact in his day than that of being without 
books." Ferguson. 

BOONE. Probably a corruption of 
Bohun, as Moon is of Mohun. Boon is, 
however, an adjective referring to natural 
disposition; gay, merry. It is now only 
retained in the phrase " boon companion." 
Fr. ban compagnon. 

BOORD. See Borde. 

BOORE. A farmer, a rustic. So the 
Lat. Rusticus, Germ. Bauer, &c. 

BOORMAN. See Borrer. 

BOOSEY. A place covered with bushes 
or wood. See Jamieson. 

BOOT. BOOTE. Perhaps a trader's 


BOOTHMAN. See Beutyman. 

BOOTH. "An house made of bowesP 
Tyndall. A temporary building or shed, 
in Low Lat. botha. The form in the 
H.R. is De la Boothe. But the great 
family of B. of Lancashire and Cheshire 
take their designation from their lordship 
of Booths in the former county, where they 
resided in the XIII. cent. 

BOOTHBY. Two parishes in co. Lin- 
coln ; but the baronet springs from co. 

BOOTLE. Places in cos. Cumberland 

and Lancaster. 
BOOTY. A pra;-Domesday name, Boti. 

A Gilbert de Budi was a tenant in chief in 

CO. Warwick. 


borde, " a little house, lodging, or cottage of 
timber, standing alone in the fields . . . and 
in some parts of France any messuage, 
farme, or farme house." Cotgr. In 
Domesd. the occupants of cottages are 
called bordarii, and amount to 82,119 in 
number. See Ellis, Introd. Domesd. The 
Fr. form of the surname is De la Borde. 

BOREHAM. Places in cos. Essex and 

BOREMAN. See Borrer. 

BORLASE. A descendant of Taillefer, 
the celebrated follower of William the 
Conqueror, is said to have settled at Bor- 
lase in the parish of St. Wenn, co. Cornwall, 
from which manor he assumed the surname, 
since variously written Burlas, Burlace, 
Borlas and Borlase. C. S. Gilbert's Comw. 

BORLEY. A parish in Essex. 

BORN. The same as Bourn. 


BORRADAILE. Borrowdalc, a chapelry 
in Cumberland. 

BORRELL. SecBurrell. 

BORRER. This name appears in Sussex 
from the XV. cent under the forms of 


Bourer, Boorer, Borer and Borrer, the extra 
' R' being a somewhat recent addition. 
Tliese, together with the Atte-Bore, Atte- 
Bowre, de la Bore, Boreman, and other 
modifications, are probably derivable from 
the A- Sax. bur, a bower, inner room, or 
bed-chaml3er. Every baronial residence 
had its ' Ladye's Bower,' and the original 
Atte Bore, or De la Bore, (subsequently 
modified to Borer.) was probably the cham- 
berlain of a great feudal household. This 
supposition is strongly supported by the 
A- Sax. name for chamljerlain, which is 
* hur-thegn'' bower-thane — one who was 
admitted to the private apartments and 
councils of the lord. 

BORROW. See under Burgh. ^ 

BORROWES. See the art. Burgh, De 
Burgh, &c. 

In addition to what is said under Burgh and 
Burke, I may here remai*k tliat the first departure 
from the form De Bnrph appears temp. Edw. I., when 
the name was sometimes written Atte Burgh, Atte 
Buregh, &c. This orthography hecame very common 
temp. Edw. III. The Lords Burgh of Gamsborough, 
descendants of Hubert de Burgh, Earl of Kent, were 
written A'Burgh, Aborough, and Barow, and the 
Irish I^rd Deputy in ln99, Lord Burroughes. The 
late Sir Wm. Betham, Ulster king of arms, deduced 
the pecUgree of the Irish baronet family of Borrowes 
from the great Hubert, through the Atte Boroughs 
or De Burghs of Hants, and the Barrowes and Abo- 
roughs of Calais. Henry Borrowes, the first settler in 
Ireland, was the son of Erasmus Aborough. Inf. Sir 
Erasmus D. Borrowes, Bart. 

BORSTALL. A winding road up a 
steep hill — common to many places on the 
South Downs in Sussex. See Suss. Arch. 
Coll. ii. 292. A-Sax. heorh gtu/ele, "the hill 
or mountain path." Also a parish in co. 

BORTHAVICK, Lands near Borthwick 

Water in co. Selkirk appear to have given 
this surname. B.L.G. There is also a 
parish in Edinburghshire so designated. 

BORWICK. A chapelry in Lancashire. 

|^"BOS. A Cornish word said to mean a 
house or dwelling. It is found in Bos- 
cawen, as well as in Bosmetherick, 
Bospidnick, Bosistow, Bosaveme, Bos- 
sowsack, and other names of Cornish 

BOSANQUET. Pierre Bosanquet of 
Lunel in Languedoc, at the period of the 
Rev. of the Edict of Nantes, had seven 
children, two of whom, John and David, 
sought refuge in England, and from the 
latter the various English branches are 
descended. The name is local, and it was 
formerly prefixed with 'De.' 

BOSBURY. A parish in co. Hereford. 

BOSCAWEN. The earl of Falmouth's 
family were possessors of the estate of 
Boscawen-Ros, in Burian, co. Cornwall, 
temp. King John. Hals asserts that an 
Irish gentleman settled there temp. Edw. 
IV., and assumed the name. D. Gilbert's 



Perhaps the same as Bour- 

35 BOT 

BOSLEY. A parish in Cheshire. 

BOSS Probably local. De Boss. H.R. 

CO. Norfolk. 

BOSTOCK. A township in co. Chester. 

BOSTON". A town in co. Lincoln, and a 
hamlet in co. York. 

BOSVILLE. In the H.R. De Bosevil. 
Bosville is a village of 1400 inhabitants, 
near Yvetot in Normandy. The family 
were in England in 1126, and probably 
from the period of the Conquest. 

BOSWELL. Originally De Bosevil, 
(H.R.) — of Norman extraction. They 
migrated from England to Scotland in the 
reign of David I. 

The change from Ville to Well as a termination is 
also seen in the alteration of Rosseville to Ro.swell, La 
ViUe to Larwell or Larwill, FrecheviUe to FretweU, &c. 

BOSWORTH. Parishes in co. Leicester, 
one of which is historical for its famous 

BOTFIELD. According to Mat. Paris, 
Geoffrey and Oliver de Bouteville, bro- 
thers, came from Poitou to assist King 
John, and from the former of these the 
heralds deduce John de llnne, otherwise 
John of th'Ynne of Botefield, near Chm-ch- 
Stretton. From ' the Inn,' the seat of the 
Botefeldes at that place, was formed the 
surname of Thynne, (Marquis of Bath.) 
Others of the same stock retained Boteville 
or Botfield, and it is a moot point whether 
the name was imported from France or 
derived from the locality in Shropshire, to 
which a Saxon etymology would readily 
apply. The principal variations are Bote- 
ville, Botvile, Bottefeld, and Botfield. The 
last form is found as far back as 1549. Inf. 
Beriah Botfield, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., &c. 

BOTHAM. See Bottom. 

BOTILER. In ordinary life a wine- 
merchant or butler. The king's botiler, or 
' Pincema regis,' was an officer of consi- 
derable importance, answering to the col- 
lectors of customs in modem ports. In 
virtue of his office he was empowered to 
seize for the king's use, from every ship 
laden with wine, one cask from the prow 
and one from the poop, paying for each 
twenty shillings. Jacob's Law Diet. Le 
Boteler, le Botiller, H.R. 

BOTLEY. Places in cos. Hants, Here- 
ford, &c. 

BOTONER. Le Botoner, H.R. The 

de B. held great possessions in Cornwall 
temp. Henry I., the chief of which was 
Botreux's-castle, by contraction Boscastle. 
The family were Norman, and doubtless 
came from Les Bottereaux, near Evreux. 

BOTT. Local— in the H.R. De Botte, 

CO. Norfolk. Perhaps, sometimes the Germ. 
bate, a messenger. Ferguson thinks 
Botton, Botten, Botting, &c., modifications 
of the same word- 



Peter de Botine occurs in the H.K., co. 
Dorset, temp. Edw. I. 

BOTTERILL. Probably the same as 
Bottreaux. In Ayrshire, however, a thick- 
set, dwarfish person is so designated. 

BOTTLE. A-Sax. h6tl, a dwelling, man- 
sion, or hall. Hence Harbottle, Newbottle, 
and other names. 

^^ BOTTOM. A termination of many 
local surnames, as Oakenbottom, Othen- 
bottom, Owlerbottom, Longbottom, 
Sidebottom, Shoebottom, Ramsbottom, 
Shufilebottom, &c. It has been ex- 
plained by the 0-Eng. hothna or buthna, 
an enclosure for cattle ; but in the S. of 
England it means simply a valley or 
depressed ground. 

BOTTON. Local. De Botton, H.R. 

BOTVILLE. See under Botfield. There 
is a place near Valognes in Normandy, 
called Boutteville. 

BOUCHER. See Butcher, and Bourchier. 

BOUCHERETT. Matthew Boucheret, 
a descendant of the ancient French family 
of De Boucherat, settled at Willingham, co. 
Lincoln, and was naturalized in 1644. 

BOUGHTON. Parishes, &c., in cos. 
Kent, Norf., Northampt., Notts, Chester, &c. 
The baronet's family, then called De Bove- 
ton, were of co. Warwick in XIV. cent. 

BOUIL. Camden mentions this among 
Norman surnames introduced here in the 
XI. cent. It is of course identical with 
Bovill, and probably also with Boyle. 

BOULTER. One who sifts meal— an 
occupation formerly distinct from that of 
the miller. See Richardson and Halliwell. 

BOULTON. See Bolton. 

BOUND. See Bowne. Also O.E. houn, 
Prepared, ready. See interesting remarks 
in Richardson's Diet. 

BOUQUET. Probably from Bouquetot, 
near Pont-Audemer in Normandy. It is 
now scarcely known except by its cor- 
ruption Buckett. 

BOURCHIER. ANorman name of un- 
certain origin. Holinshed's list gives a 
Bourcher, but the family do not appear to 
have been ennobled until 12l>2, in the i>cr- 
Bon of Sir William B., third son of William 
B., earl of Eu, in Normandy. The name 
is written so variously as to render its ety- 
mology very doubtful. Burscr is one of its 
numerous forms. The latinization De 
Burgo Charo, " of the dear borough," affords 
us no clue. It is sometimes confounded 
with Boucher, 0. Fr. for butcher. 

BOURDILLON. Descendants of the 
Rev. Jacob Bourdillon, minister of a refugee 
congregation in London, who left France 
in con8e(|uence of the Rev. of the Edict of 
Nantes in 1G85. 

BOURKE. The same as Burke. 

BOURN. BOURNE. Parishes and places 
in COS. Cambr., Durham, Lincoln, Hants, 
Sussex, &:c. Many trivial localities are so 
called, and Atte Burne is a common medie- 
val surname. As a topographical t^rm it 
means sometimes a bound or limit, (Fr. 
bar fie,) and sometimes a running stream, 
(A-Sax. bynia.) See Eng. Sum. i. 64. 

BOURNER. The modern form of At- 
Bourne. See prefix atte. 

BOURTON. Parishes, &c. in cos. Berks, 
Bucks, Dorset, Warwick, Oxon, Gloucest., 

BO UTCHER. See Bourchier. 

BOUTELL. BOWTELL. Perhaps from 
♦Bouteilles, a village near Dieppe in Nor- 

BOUTEVILEIN. A great family of 
Norman origin. The name has undergone 
the following degradations : Butvelin, But- 
william, Butlin I 

BOUVERIE. Fr. an ox-stall. Lawrence 
des Bouveries, a native of Sainghien, near 
Lisle in Flanders, fled to England on 
account of his religion, and settled at Can- 
terbury in 1568. From him descends the 
Earl of Radnor. Courthope's Debrett. 

BOVEY. Two parishes in co. Devon. 

BOVINGDON. A chapelry in co. Herts. 

BOVILLE. Bouville (Bovis villa) a 
parish in the arrondissement of Rouen. 
De Boville, De Boyvile, &c. H. R. 

BOW. Parishes in Devon and Essex. 

BOWCHER. See Bourchier and Butcher. 

BOWDEN. BOWDON. The B.'s were 
of Bowdon Hall, co. Derby, in the XV. 
cent. Yet they have a tradition that they 
are of Norman descent, and that the 
name was originally Bodin. In 1572 two 
protestant Walloons, Nich. and John Bow- 
den, settled at Rye. Lansd. MS. 15. 70. 

in Dorsetshire, possessed by the family at 
an early period. 

BOWDLER. Probably the name of 
some ancient emplo>Tncnt, as Le Boudler 
occurs in H. R. " To huddle" signifies to 
cleanse ore. North. 

BOWELL. Probably the same as Bo- 
ville and Boyle, which see. De Bowell.H.R. 

BOWEN. Welsh, Ab-Owen, Owen's 
son. Pembrokeshire is the greatest habitat 
of this name. 

BOWER. A Scotticism for Bowyer. 
Also a room in a feudal mansion. See 
under Borrcr. 

BOWERMAN. A Chamberlain. See 
imder Borrer. 

BOWERS. See Bower. 

BOWES. A parish in Yorkshire. 

BOWKER. The A-Sax. buc is a water- 
vessel, and 'to bouke' in P. Plowman 
means to wash. Wo still call a great 




washing of linen a * bucking.* Henca the 
original Bowker must have been a washer- 
man. See Lavender. 
BO^\T^AND. A township in Lancashire. 

BOWLER. In Fifeshire, ' to bowl" is to 
boil. One who cooks. Or perhaps a maker 
of bowls. 

BOWLES. Domesd. presents us with 
two tenants in chief called Bollo and Bollo, 
the former in Hants, and the latter in 
Dorset, Bouelles is the name of a place 
near Neufchatel in Normandy. Ferguson 
derives it, and several similar names, from 
the O. Norse haidi, a bull, but it is probably 
local, as De Bolle is found in H.R. 

BOWLEY. Probably a corruption of 
the Fr. heau-lieu, a " beautiful situation." 
Several places in England and Normandy 
were so called. 

BOWLING. A township in Yorkshire. 

BOWiVIAKER. A common employment 
in the days when archery was in vogue. 

BOWMAN. An archer. A common 
name on the English border under the 
Percys, and derived from their weapon — 
the long bow. 

" Come Spearman ; come Bowman ; 
Come bold-hearted Truewicke : 
Repel the proud foe-man, 
Join lion-like Bewick'" 

Richardson's Gathering Ode. 

See, however, Bulman. 

BOWjMER. The same as Bulwer. 

BOWNE. In a document of the XVI. 
cent, the name of Bohun is thus spelt. 
Sussex Arch. Coll, iii., 187. It also means 
ready, prepared. Jamieson. 

BOW NESS. A parish in Cumberland. 

BOWSHER. BOWSER. The same as 

BOWYER. A maker of bows for ar- 
chery. A Bowjer's Company still exists in 

BOX. A place in co. Wilts, remarkable 
in modem times for its long railway 

BOXALL. BOXELL. This name is 
clearly traced to Boxhulle, an ancient 
manor in Salehurst, co. Sussex, among 
whose lords was Alan de B., one of the 
earliest Knights of the Garter. In this 
same county the name has been queerly 
varied to Boxall, Boxsell, Buckshell, Bax- 
hall, Sec. 

BOXER. A pugilist. 

BOY. See Boys. 

BOY ALL. A corruption of Boyle ? 

BOYCE. The name of the Scottish his- 
torian Boethius, spelt Boece and Boyce, 
may be derived from the Fr. boiJt — wood. 

BOYCOTT. An estate in co. Salop, still 
possessed by the family. 

BOYD. Gael, boidh. Fair or yellow- 
haired. A nephew of Walter, fii-st high- 

steward of Scotland, circ. 1160, was known 
by this appellation, and was ancestor of 
the lords Boyd, earls of An-an, and lords 
Kilmamoch — a family conspicuous in 
Scottish history, and now represented by 
the earl of Errol. 

BOYER. See Bowyer. But this is also 
Fr. A family so called settled in Ireland 
after the Rev. of the Edict of Nantes. 

BOYES. See Boys. 

BOYKETT. A corruption of Boycott. 

BOYLE. Sii' Richard B., father of Sir 
Robert B., one of the barons of Scotland 
who swore fealty to Edw. I. in 1296, was 
of Kelburne in N.B. It is probable that he 
was of Norman descent, and that the sur- 
name is a modification of Boville, as it was 
written Boyvill or Boyvile in the XIII. and 
XIV. cent. See Boville. 

BOYMAN. Perhaps a person who looked 
to the buoi/s near some port or dangerous 
sea passage. 

BOYNE. An ancient thanedom of Scot- 
land, which included Banff. Gaz. Scotl. 

BOYNTON. A parish in the E. R. of 
CO. York, where the baronet's family re- 
sided temp. Hen. III. 

BOYS. Fr. bois, a wood. The latinized 
form De Bosco, ' of the wood,' is retained in 
the Fr. Dubois, Dubosq, &c., while Attwood 
is the precise Eng. equivalent. 

BOYSE. See Boys. 

BOYSON. Perhaps boatswain, vulgo 
boson ; or more probably a Fr. local name 
compounded with bok, a wood. 

BOYTON. Parishes in Devon, Wilts, 
and Suffolk. 

BRABAN. From the duchy of Brabant. 
The name occurs in the present orthography 
in the H.R. ; otherwise we might with 
equal probability derive it from the parish 
of Braborne, co. Kent. 

BRABANT. See Braban. 

BRABAZON. The English and Irish 
Brabazons claim from Jacques le Brabazon, 
who is said to have come into England with 
the Conqueror and to have borne the 
honourable distinction of " The Great 
Warrior." His posterity settled, during the 
early Norman reigns, at Betchworth, co. 
Surrey, and from them descended in an 
imbroken line the B.'s, earls of Meath, and 
baronets in Ireland. The name, variously 
written Barbauzon, Barbanzon, Brabazon, 
&;c., is traditionally derived from the town 
or castle of Brabazon, in Normandy, but as 
no such locality can be found, its true source 
appears to be Brabant in Flanders, as stated 
in Lodge's Peerage of Ireland. In that 
duchy the village and castle of Braban^on 
had lords of the same name, one of whom 
espoused a grand-niece of Godfrey of 
Bouillon, King of Jei*usalem, circ. 1100. 
See Geneal. Hist, of Fam. of Brabazon. 
Paris, 1825. 
A Braban9on was a native of Brabant. 




The mercenary soldiers employed by William 
Kufus, Stephen, Henry II., and John, were 
80 called from their having principally come 
from that district. See Grose, Military Antiq. 
Edit. 1786, i. 5G. Like the Genoese and Swiss 
of later times, they were soldiers by trade, 
and lent their services to any monarch who 
would pay them best. 

BRACE. A parish in co. Salop. 

BRACEBRIDGE. A parish near Lin- 
coln, possessed by the family in XIII. and 
XIV. cent. 

BRACEY. Perhaps from Breci, or from 
Brecei in Normandy. 

BRACKENBURY. Apparently from 
Bmckenborough, co. Lincoln, in which 
shire the family are still seated. They 
claim to be of Norman descent. See B.L.G. 

|^g"BRAD. A- Sax. brad, broad or large. 
A component syllable of numerous 
local surnames, as Bradfield, Bradley, 
Braddon, Braddock, &c. 

BRADBEE. Bradby, a chapelry in co. 

BRADBROOK. Local— * the broad 

BRADBURY. A township in Durham. 

BRADDON. Bradden, co. Northampt. 
in which co. the fiaiuily were originally 

BR ADEN. Bradon, a parish in co. So- 

BRADFIELD. Parishes, &c., in cos. 
Berks, Essex, Norfolk, York, and Suffolk. 

BRADFORD. A great town of York- 
shire, and places in cos. Devon, Lancaster, 
Northumb., Stafford, Somerset, &c. 

BRADFUTE. The Scottish form of 

BRADING. A parish in the Isle of 

BRADLEY. Parishes, &c., in cos. Berks, 
Chester, Derby, Leicester, Lincoln, Hants, 
Stafford, &c. 

BRADNEY. A place in co. Somerset, 
belonging to Sir Simon de Bredenie in 
134C. Bardney or Bradney, co. Lincoln, 
may also have a claim. Tliere is a tra- 
dition of Norman descent. 

BRADSHAW. A chapelry, co. Lancaster, 
" where the BradHhaws have Hourishecl 
from the time of the Saxons, the prcHcnt 
owner thereof l)eing Thomas BradKhaw 
Isherwood, Esq." B.L.G. Bradshaw, near 
the Peak of Derbyshire, gave name to 
another ancient family. Lysons. 

BRAGG. BRAGGER. Skelton uses 
braff in the sense of proud, insolent; it also 
signifies lirisk, full of spirits. Halliw. The 
Scandinavian Ajwllo was so called. 

BRAIIAM. Among the Jews, a modified 

form of Abraham. 

BRAID. The northern form of Broad. 

BRAIDWOOD. A vUlage in Lanark- 

BRAILSFORD. A parish in co. Derby, 
possessed by the family from Nicholas de 
B. temp. Henry II., till temp. 'Richard IL 

BRAINE. See Brayne. 

BRAITHWAITE. A township in Cum- 
berland. De Bratwayt occurs in H.R. in 
CO. York. 

BRAKE. A word of various significa- 
tions, as a large barrow, an enclosure for 
cattle, &c. ; but the name is probably de- 
rived from a braJis according to Kennett's 
definition — "a small plat or parcel of 
bushes growing by themselves." The word 
is familiar to Shakspereans : " Through bog, 
through bush, through brake, through 
briar." See Hal li well in voc. 

BRAMLEY. Parishes, &c., in cos. Hants, 
Surrey, and York. 

BRAMPTON. Parishes, &c., in cos. 
Cumberl., Derby, Hunts, Lincoln, Norfolk, 
Suffolk, Northampt., York, &c. 

BRAMSTON. The B's of Skreens trace 
lineally to temp. Rich. II., but I cannot 
find the locality from whence the name 
was assumed. 

BRANCH. A hundred in co. WUts. 
Branche, Braunche, H. R. 

BRANCHFLOWER. See Blanchflower. 

BRAND. O. Norse brandr^ a sword, 
whence the 0. Eng. bra/id, with the same 
meaning. As a personal name it occurs in 
the genealogy of the Northumbrian kings 
from Woden. It was a very common old 
Scandinavian name, and it is still used in 
Iceland. Ferguson. Brand is found in 
Domesd. as a previous tenant. Mr. Den- 
ham observes, that it is rather singular that 
the ordinary synonym for a sword should 
be brand. The name of the weapon taken 
from King Bucar by the Cid was Tizona, 
or the fire-brand. And he adds that 
"many swords were flamboyant; hence 
the word brand." Slogans of N. of Eng. 
p. xvii. 

BRAND ARD. The same as Brander. 

BRANDER. 1. Perhaps synonymous 
with Sworder. See Brand. 2. An oflficer 
belonging to a manor. His duties are not 
exactly known ; it has been conjectured 
that he was the petty executioner who 
branded criminals, and had charge of the 
pillorv and cuckingstool. See Archacologia 
XXXIII. 277. 

BRANDON. Places in cos. Northumb. 
Sntfolk, Norfolk, and Warwick. 

BRANDRAM. From the Scand. brand, 
a sword, and ram, strong — ' strongsword. ' 

BRANDY. A Scandinavian name, Brandt, 

** one having a brand or sword." Ferguson. 

BRANDRETH. Probably the same as 
Brandard. See Brand. 




BRANFTLL. There is armorial evidence 
of the identity of this family with that of 
Bamfield. B.L.G. 

BRANKSTON. Branxton, a parish in 

BRAN SCOMBE. A parish in Devon. 

BRANSFORD. A hamlet in co. Wor- 

BRANSTON. A parish in co. Lincoln. 

BRANTON. A township in Northum- 

BRAOSB. The castle of Braose, now 
Brieuse, is two leagues from Falaise in 
Normandy. It was built by Robert de 
Braose, who had two sons: 1. Alan, who 
with his posterity remained in Normandy, 
and 2. Robert, who came to England with 
the Conqueror, but died soon after. He 
left, however, two sons : 1. William, who 
founded the baronial house of Braose of 
Bramber, Gower, &c., and 2. Adam, ances- 
tor of the Bnice» of Skelton, Annandale, 
&c,, and of King Robert Bnice. Dr. John- 
ston's Hist, of Fam. of Bruce. See Bruce. 

BRASS. Perhaps a synonym of Strong. 
The A- Sax. bmesen signifies both made of 
brass, and strong, powerful. Ferguson. 

BRASSINGTON. A chapelry in co. 

BRASTED. A parish in Kent. 

BRATHWAYTE. See Braithwaite. 

BRATT. O. Norse hrattr, impetuous ; 
the name of a Northman in the Landna- 
mabok. Ferguson. 

BRAUND. See Brand. 

BRAY. This name occurs in all the 
copies of the so-called Roll of Battel Abbey, 
and that a great family so designated 
migrated from Normandy at the period of 
the Conquest seems pretty certain. Three 
places in that province are still called 
Brai ; two in the arrondissement of Falaise, 
and one in that of Bemai. But we have 
also at least two places called Bray in 
England ; one a parish in Berkshire, well 
known for its time-serving ecclesiastic, who 
amidst all the fluctuations of creeds in the 
XVI. century, made it his ruling principle 
" to live and die vicar of Bray ;" the other, 
an estate in the parish of St. Just, near 
Penzance, co. Cornwall. This latter, ac- 
cording to Hals, " gave name and origin to 
an old family of gentlemen sumamed De 
Bray, who held in this place two parts of a 
knight's fee of land 3. Hen. IV. I take the 
Lord Bray of Hampshire to be descended 
from this family." D. Gilbert's Cornwall, 
ii. 282. As a proof of the wide diffusion of 
the name, it may be mentioned that the 
dictionaries of Heraldrj' assign more than 
twenty different coats of anus to it. 

BBAYBROOK. A parish in Northampt. 
Robert de Braibroc was a baron by tenure 
temp. King John. 

furious, from A-Sax. br'mnatiy to bum. 

BRAZIER. The occupation. Some- 
times varied to Brasier, Brashier, and 
Brasher. Le Brazur, H.E. 

BREADCUTT. Most likely a corruption 
of Bradcote; so Notcutt from Northcote. 
De Bredecote, H.R. 

BREADS. BREEDS. Brid, an A-Sax. 

BREAD Y. Parishes in co. Dorset. 

BREAKSPEARE. According to Cam- 
den, Nicholas Breakspeare, the monk of 
St. Albans, afterwards Adrian the Fourth, 
(the only English Pope,) derived his name 
from a place in Middlesex, bearing that 
designation. I cannot, however, find any 
locality in that county which is so called. 
Most of his biographers fix his birth-place 
either in Hertfordshire or in Buckingham- 
shire. It is a curious circumstance that 
about half a century ago there resided at 
Brill on the Hill, in the latter county, one 
of the reputed birth-places of the pope, a 
man in himible life who bore his identical 
Christian and surnames of Nicholas Break- 
speare. N. and Q. May 3, 1856. The sur- 
name clearly belongs to the same category 
as Shakspeare, Broadspear, Langstaffe, &c. 

BREAIVL BREEM. 1. A chapelry in 
CO. Gloucester. 2. 0. Eng. hrim^ renowned, 
famous, from A-Sax. breman, to celebrate. 
3. A baptismal name. Breme, a freeman 
of Edw. the Confessor, was slain at Has- 
tings. Domesd. 

BREDE. A parish m Sussex. 

BREDEL. A French refugee family 
who settled in London after the Rev. of the 
Edict of Nantes in 1685. 

BREDON. A parish in co. Worcester. 

BREE. A northern word signifying a 
brow or declivity, apparently the same as 
the " brae" of Scottish song. See Brae in 

BREEN. When in 1607 Hugh ONeill, 
earl of Tyrone, went into voluntary exile, 
the government of James I. wished to dis- 
place his adherents from Ulster, in order 
to introduce an English colony there. One 
of the seven native septs thus dispossessed 
were banished to the distant county of 
Kerry, where, to avoid persecution, they 
dropped the unpopular name of O'Neill, 
and adopted instead that of Breen, from 
Braon O'Neill, the head of their branch. 
Inf. H. H. Breen, Esq. 

O. Norse brenfiandi, fervidus, vehement, 
earnest. Ferguson. 

BREEZE. Corresponds with Bresi, a 
Northman name in the Landnamabok, by 
metathesis for berd, O. Norse, a bear. 

BRENDON. An estate in St. Dominick, 
CO. Cornwall, possessed by the family in 
early times. 

BRENT. Small rivers in Middlesex and 
Somerset, and parishes in Suflfolk, Somer- 
set, and Devon. 


BRERETOK One of the great Cheshire 
families who can be proved to have existed 
at or near the time of the Conquest, and 
are yet unnoticed in Domesd. Ormerod. 
They came over with the Conqueror, in the 
train of Hugh Lupus, with Gilbert de Ve- 
nables, to whom they were apparently 
related, and settled at Brereton, from which 
place the name was assumed as early as 
temp. William Rufus. 

BRETON. Le Breton in the H.R. A 
Breton, a native of Brittany. The name is 
common in France. See Brett. 

BRETT. Brito, a native of Brittany. 
The parish of Samford Brett, co. Somerset, 
was the lordship of Hugh Brito, one of the 
assassins of Thomas a Becket. Domesday 
Book abounds with Brito as a surname. 
No less than seven persons bearing it were 
tenants in chief in many counties. They 
had probably served in the Conqueror's 
army under his great ally, Alan, earl of 
Brittany. Morant's Essex. Kelham's 
Domesd. In Scotland, Bret» was a name 
given to the Welsh or ancient Britons in 
general : also to those of Strath-Clyde, to 
distinguish them from the Scots and Picts. 

BRETTENHAM. Parishes in Norfolk 
and Suffolk. 

BREWER. 1. Bruyere, Fr., a heath. 
This was a frequent name in Norman 
times. The princij)al English family were 
settled in Devonshire at the time of the 
Domesd. survey, and founded Tor Abbey. 
In after times they impressed their name 
U|>on Teign Brewer and Buckland Brewer 
in that county, as also upon Temple 
Brewer, co. Lincoln. Among those of the 
name in France, Thibaut de la Bru)'ere, the 
cnisader, stands conspicuous. The ortho- 
graphy is much varied, the principal forms 
in the H.R. being Brewer, Brewere, de 
Bruario, de la Bruere, Brywer, de Brueris. 
2. The occui)ation. In the H.R. it occurs 
in the Latin and Norman-French fonns of 
Braciator and Le Bracer. The business of 
brewing was formerly carried on by women, 
and hence the A-Sax. feminine termination 
gtre, in Brewster. In the H.R. we find the 
name of one Clarissa la Braceresse. In the 
XV. cent, the name as well as the occupa- 
tion was often written Berebrewer. 

Fuller, Bpcaklnjf of William Brewer, a man famous 
In our early annals, says: "His mother, unable to 
maint^iin him, cast him in breirert, (whence he was so 
named,) or in a be(\ of brakes in the \ew Forest. . . . 
Kin>? Henry H., riilinjc to rouse a stag, found this 
child, and causc<l him to l»c nursed anti well broiittht 
np." Worthies, i, 4:}1. He afterwards created him 
baron of (Mlcomb. 

BKEWIIOUSE. A known corruption of 

BREWIN. See Bruin. 

BREWSTER. A brewer. Sec termina- 
tion STER, and Eng. Sum. in voc, 

BRIAR. See Bryer. 

BRICE. A personal name. The feaat of 
St. Brfcc. bisbop and confessor, is on the 
13th of Novemlxjr. There are three places 
in Normandy denominated from him. 

40 BRI 

1^^ BRICK. A common syllable in local 
surnames, signifying bridge, from A- Sax. 
bncff, a bridge ; as Shubrick, Brickhill, 
Bricklande, Brickdale, Brickwood. 

BRICKDALE. An estate in co. Lan- 
caster, possessed by the family temp. 
Edw. I. 

BRICKMAN. A brickmaker; or more 
probably Briggman, i.e. Bridgeman. 

BRIDE. May be the A-Sax. brid, a 
bird; but is more probably the Gael. Mac- 
Bride, by the suppression of Mac. Brideson 
is an anglicized form of that name. 

St. Bride or Bridpet was a celebrated saint of Celtic 
stock, and was much venerated in Ireland, Scotland, 
and Wales, where many places take their names from 
her. A well-known church in Fleet Street is dedi- 
cated to her, and ft-om a sacred well under her invo- 
cation, in the same parish, the arjc palatina of our 
early kinps took the name of Bridewell. The palace 
aftenvards became a prison, and hence Bridewell has 
become a generic term for small or minor prisons. 

BRIDESON. See Bride. 

BRIDGE. From residence at one. The 
medieval forms are Ate-Bruge, Atte Brigge, 
&c. It has been pluralized in the forms of 
Bridges, Brydges, &c. ; and has given rise 
to Bridger and Bridgman. Tlie A-Sax. is 
h'ieg ; whence Brigg and Briggs. In the 
H.R. we have Ate Brugeende, i.e. ' at the 


BRIDGER. See Bridge, and the termi- 
nation ER. 

BRIDGES. See Bridge. 

BRIDGETT. See Female Christian 


BRIDGEWATER. A town in Somerset. 

BRIDGMAN. From the remotest anti- 
quity, the building of bridges was considered 
a pious and charitable deed, and hence the 
erection and custody of them was confided 
to the priesthood. The Roman pontifices 
or higher order of priests were so styled a 
ponte faciendo. In the middle ages chapels 
were commonly built either upon or at the 
approaches of bridges. In some places the 
reparations of a parish church and those of 
a bridge were paid for out of a common 

The coi\innction of the duties of superintending 
the church and the bridRcofa town, which is not 
unusual in similar situations, may be distinctly traced 
at Henley-upon-Thames as early as the reitfu of Kdw. 
II. There are numerous instances in early thnes of 
jrrants and be<iuests to the "church and briilpe;" and 
ui» to the present ilay the bridjfe-masters for the time 
iK^iris: have, l)y j»re»cription, Ix-en churchwardens of the 
parish of Henley. Farl. Oaz. The charter ^'ranted by 
Queen KlizalK-th to the corimration, styles that Ixxly 

. " the warden, bridKcmen, burgesses, and commonalty 
of Henley." This wa,H dat<'<l Iftfig; but at a much 
earlier period the wonls " bridgeman " and " church- 
man " were u.sod iniliwriminatx'ly to denote the same 
official ; and this was doubtless the case in other 
jilaccs. Our nomenclature affords several analoj^oua 
names, a.H Brijrirs (tVom brig, an archaic form of 
bridjre), Bridjrer, Poiitifex, a latinization yet retained, 
and (In America) Bridjfebuilder, which, 1 am told, is a 
tninslation in verj- m<Mlern times of the German 

BRIDLE. Possibly from Bridell, co. 




BRIEK See Bryan and O'Brien. 

BRIERLEY. A township in Yorkshire. 

BRIGG. Glanford-Brigg, co. Lincoln. 

BRIGGS. See Bridge. 

BRIGHAM. A township and estate in 
Yorkshire, possessed by the family for 
several centuries. 

BRIGHT. A-Sax. beort, brilliant, illus- 
trious. It is this ancient Teutonic root that 
is found in numerous personal names like 
Albert, Cuthbert, Lambert, &c. Brighting 
seems to be a patronymical derivative. 

BRIGHTING. See Bright. 

BRIGHTMAN. A man of sprightly 

BRIGHTON. A name of recent as- 
sumption ; since that town — the modem 
Baite — has only been so called since the 
middle of the XVII. cent. 

BRIGHT WELL. Parishes in cos. Berks, 
Suflfolk, Oxon, &c. 

BRIGNALL. A parish in Yorkshire. 

BRIGSTOCKE. A parish in co. Nor- 

feRILL. A parish in co. Bucks. 
BRIM. See Bream. 

BRIMBLE. O. Norse brimeU, a seal ; a 
Scandinavian personal name. Ferguson. 

BRIMFIELD. A parish in co. Here- 

BRINCKMAN. From Hanover with 
George I. 

BRIND. A township in the parish of 
Wressel, co. York. 

BRINDLE, A parish in Lancashire. 

BRINDLEY. A township in Cheshire. 

BRINE. An Irish corruption of O'Brien. 

BRINGLOW. Brinklow, co. Warwick. 

BRINKLEY. A parish in co. Cam- 

BRINKWORTH. A parish in Wilts. 

BRINTON. A parish in Norfolk. 

BRTSCO. " They were called De Birks- 
kt'uuli, because their first ancestors dwelt at 
Birivskeugh, or Birchwood, a place by New- 
biggin, in a lordship belonging to the priory 
of Carlisle," in the XIII. cent., or earlier. 
Denton's Cumberland MSS. They were, 
however, lords, not tenants, of that fee. 
Hutchinson's Cumb. ii, 458. 

BRISK. From character and disposi- 



which see. 

BRISTOLL. Bristol, the city. 

BRISTOAVE. An old orthography of 
Bristol — also of Burstow, co. Surrey. 

A parish in co. Norfolk. 
A corruption of Bristowe, 


Bristows of Broxmore derive from a John 
de Burstow of the latter place, 1294. 
Stephen de Burstow, temp. Richard I. was 
styled De B. alias Fitzhamon, of which 
distinguished family he was probably a 
cadet. See Brayley's Surrey. 

BRITTAINE. Breton; a native of 

BRITTON. My late friend, Mr. John 
Britton, F.S.A., the oldest antiquary of 
England, writing in his eighty-sixth year, 
says: "Britton, Britain, Briten, Bretten, 
Brittain, &c. — not common in England. I 
find that they abounded in parishes between 
Bath and Bristol. I have names from ten 
different registers. They rarely emigrated 
to Bath, Bristol, or London." A branch 
however did settle at Bristol about a cen- 
tury ago, and thence removed to Jamaica. 
The respectable family of Breton, of Kent 
and Sussex, usually pronounce their name 
as if spelt Britton, and there is no doubt of 
its original identity with it. See Breton. 

BRIXEY. Apparently a personal name. 
Brixi occurs in the Domesd. of Notting- 

BROADRIBB. Probably a corruption 
of Broderip. 

BROAD. This name which might at first 
sight appear to relate to breadth of back and 
shoulders — the " vidtli " which Mr. Tony 
Weller associates with " visdom " — really 
refers to that part of a river which expands 
into a mere or lake. Le Brode, or The 
Broad, is a name which was given in ancient 
times to many such localities. 

" Broad is a provincial t<?nn used in Suffolk and 
Norfolk, to designate that part of a river where the 
stream expands to a great width on either side." 

iSout hep's Hist, of Brazil. 

Brode is also a personal name occurring in 

lerBROAD. See Brad. Hence Broad- 
bent, Broadbridge, Broadhead, Broad- 
stock, Broadmead, Broadwell, &c. 

BROADFOOT. Perhaps from the per- 
sonal peculiarity ; but more likely local. 

BROADHEAD. Perhaps local, or per- 
haps from a personal peculiarity. Brod- 
heved, H.R. 

BROADSPEAR. From the weapon of 
the original assumer. So Langstaflfe, 
Longsword, &c. 

BROADWATER. A parish in Sussex. 

BROADWAY. Parishes in cos. Worces- 
ter, Dorset, and Somerset. A common 
Gipsy surname. 

BROAD WOOD. Two parishes in Devon. 

BROCK. A-Sax. broc.—K badger. (See 
hoAvever Brockman). Also a medieval 
fonn of Brook. From one or other of these 
sources come the local surnames Brock- 
bank, Brocksopp, Brockwell, Brockhurst, 
Brocklehurst, Brockway, &c. 

BROCKETT. According to Harrison's 
Descr. of Engl. p. 226, a brocket is a stag in 
his second year, but other authorities apply 




the term to one in his third year. Hence 
the adoption by the family of a stag for 
their crest, Leland uses the word as a 
diminutive of brook — *' A hroJiet to the 
sea." Itin. iii. 132. But the true deriva- 
tion of the surname appears to be from 
A-Sax. Brochesheved — " the head of the 
brook," the form in which it appears in the 
Pipe Kolls, 3. King John, (co. Essex.) 
There is evidence, principally heraldric, 
that the Brockheveds, Brockheads, 
Brockets or Brocketts, were of a common 
stock with the Brokes, Brookes, &c. 

BROCKELL. Brockhall, a parish in 

BROCKHOLES. The B.'s of Claughton, 
where they have been seated from the XIV. 
cent., formerly possessed Brockholls, co. 

BROCKLEB ANK. A parish in Cumber- 

BROCKLESBY. A parish in co. 

BROCKLE Y. Parishes in cos. Somerset, 
Suffolk, and Kent. 

BROCKMAN. The Kent family occur 
as Brokeman, in the XIV. cent. It may 
be synonjTnous with Brookman and 
Brooker ; but brock is 0. Eng. both for a 
draught horse and a badger, and the primi- 
tive Brockman may have been either a 
horseman, as Kennett suggests, or a hunter 
of badgers. See Eng. Sum. i. 176, 

BRODERIP. The manor of Bowdrip 
near Bridgewater is said to have been given 
to this family by Henry II. As if this 
were not sufficient to account for the name, 
there is a ridiculous tradition that the first 
person who bore it was " sauce-bearer " to 
that monarch, and that from his undue 
fondness for the contents of the sauce- 
bowls, the king gave him the sobriquet of 
" Bag-o'-drip," since refined to Broderip 1 

BRODIE. Lands in the shire of Nairn. 
The Brodies of that Ilk date from the XIII. 
cent., and are still in possession. 

BRODRICK. Came from Normandy 
temp. William Rufus, and settled in co. 
York. Peerage. 

BROKE. An archaism of Brook. Tlie 
baronet springs from William de Doyto del 
Broke, circ. temp. King John, 

BROKER. See Brooker. 

BROMAGE. A corruption of Brom- 

BRO M BY. A parish in co. Lincoln. 

BROME. Tradition derives the B.'s of 
W. Mailing from Broome, co. Saloj), their 
residence from the XIII. to the XVI. cent. 

BROMFIELD. Parishes in cos. Cum- 
berland and Salop. 

BROMIIEAD. An estate in Hallam- 
shire, co. York, which passed from tlie 
family through an lieireas so early as temp. 
Richard II. Courthopc's Debrett. 

BROMLEY. Parishes and places in 
COS. Kent, Stafford, Northumb,, Essex, 
Middlesex, &c. The word is pure A-Sax,, 
and equivalent to "broom-field." 

BROMWICH. A town in co. Stafford, 
and places in co. Warwick. 

BROND. See Brand. 

BROOK. BROOKE. From residence 
near a stream. Its medieval forms are Ate- 
Broc, Atte-Broc, Attenbroke, &c., after- 
wards softened to A-Broke, and pluralised 
to Brooks and Brookes. Brooker and 
Brookman are simple variations of the 
same name. 

BROOKER. See Brook, and the ter- 
mination ER. 

BROOKMAN. See Brook, and the ter- 
mination MAN. 

BROOM. BROOME. Some families 
claim to be of Plantagenet origin with an 
anglicised name; but the name is more 
likely to be local, from one of the parishes 
so called in cos. Norfolk, Suffolk, Stafford, 
Bedford, and Durham. 

BROOMAN. In Domesd. Bruman. Fr. 
" a sonne-in-law." Cotgr. 

BROOMFIELD. Parishes in cos. Essex, 
Kent, Somerset, &c. 

BROOMHALL. Bromhall, co. Berks, 
or Broomhaugh, co. Northumb. 

BROSTER. An old form of Brewster. 

BROTHER. Apparently not from the 
relation of kindred, but from a baptismal 
name. There was a Danish king so called, 
as also one of the Scandinavian kings oiF 
Dublin. In Germany the corresponding 
name of Bruder is found. Two Danish 
nobles at the Court of Canute also bore the 
name. Ferguson. The forms in Domesd. 
are Broder, Brodre, &c., and in the H.R, 
Brother and Le Brother. Hence Brothers, 
Brotherson, and the local Brotherton. 

BROTHERS. See Brother. 

BROTHERSON. See Brother. Also 
like the 0. Norse, hrodvrson, a nephew. 

BROTHERTON. A parish in York- 
shire. See Brother. 

BRO UGH. Parishes, &c., in cos. West- 
moreland, Derby, Ycrk, &c. 

BROUGHAM. From Brougham castle, 
CO. Westmoreland, the Koman station 
Brocovum of Antoninus. Tlie De Burghams 
held it temp. P^dw. Confessor, and their 
successors, varying the name to Bruhara, 
Broham, Browham, &c,, have been, with a 
tcmiM)rary interruption, possessors ever 
since. See Hutchinson'B Cumberland, L 

BROUGHTON. From Broughton, co. 
Stafford, and first assumeti by a descendant 
of Hugh de Vernon (Baron of Shipbrook, 
Uimp. Will. L) in or about the reign of 
Edw. I. 




BROUNE. The Scottish form of Brown. 
BROWKER. See Brooker. 

BROWN. BROWXE. One of the 

commonest of our family names, entering 
into the proverb, " Smith, Jones, Brown, 
and Robinson," to designate the igmhile 
tulgus. According to the Reg. General's 
XVI. Report, it stands sixth among the sur- 
names of England and Wales in point of 
numbers, Williams, Taylor, and Davies 
intervening between Jones and this. 
Within a given period the Smiths were 
33,557, and the Browns, 14,346. Its ety- 
mology is obvious, and like the Roman 
Fuscus, the Fr. Le Brun, the Germ, and 
Dutch Bruin, the name refers to the dark 
complexion of its original bearers. It is diffi- 
cult to discriminate between the Bro^vns of 
Saxon and those of Norman descent, the 
old orthography being in both instances 
brun. Domesd. has several Bruns, appa- 
rently Saxon, but the Battel Abbey Roll has 
its Le Brun from Norraand3% and subse- 
quently we have Le Bruns in plenty, in 
England, Scotland, and (at Henry II. 's in- 
vasion) in Ireland, and ultimately in 
every rank of society. The Scottish form is 
Broun, a retained medievalism. A family 
of Fr. refugees who settled in Norfolk after 
the Rev. of the Edict of Nantes, 1G85, under 
the name of Brunet, now write themselves 

BROWNBILL. A well-known weapon 
in medieval warfare. 

BROWNING. An A-Sax. baptismal 
name, usually written Bruning. The ap- 
pellation originally referred to complexion. 

BROWNJOHN. See under the termi- 
nation JOHN. 

in CO. Kincardine. 



BROWSTER. See Brewster. 

BROXHOLM. A parish in co. Lincoln. 

BRUCE. I always conjectured that the 
Bruces of Scotland were of a common stock 
^'ith the great baronial house of Braose of 
Bramber, in Sussex, Gower, in Wales, &c. 
A passage in Drummond's British Families 
seems conclusiveon this point: — "Nathaniel 
Johnstoue, M.D., wrote a history of the 
family of Bruce ; he affirms the identity of 
tlie Bruces and Braoses. The assertion is 
supported by many probabilities. 

"1. The Raron of liramber was not a mere upstart 
who had signalised himself for the first time in the 
ranks of the Contiueror's army, for he held lands and 
churches in Normandy, as is asserted by wTithijfs still 
extiint. 2. The alliances first recorded of his des- 
cendants are of the first families of the countrj-. 3. 
The spellinji of the name in one of the olilest records, 
(G John, Clans. Kot.) The name of the Baron of Bram- 
l>er is spelt Breus, and one of the latest ways of spell- 
ing by his posterity is lireices ; the spelling of another 
is /irui/s and lirehns, whilst Pagan, one of the sons 
of Itobert de Brus, writes his name Brausa, and in 
another charter liraiosa, the very spelling supiwsed 
to be peculiar to tlie Barons of Bramber, and which 
name is written identically the same in both families. 
What is really extraordinary is, that in more than 

one instancethe father signs his name Robert de Brus, 
and the son Pagan de Brehuse. The difference in 
orthography arises from the different way in which 
the people of Sussex and Herefordshire would pro- 
nounce the same name from the people of Yorkshire 
and Scotland." There is a general resemblance, also, 
between the arms of the Braoses of Normandy and 
England and those of the Bruces of Scotland. M. de 
GersTlle, however, deduces the royal Bruces of Scotland 
from a perfectly distinct source, namely, from the Cha- 
teau d'Adam, in the great parish of Brix, a few miles 
south-east of Cherbourg. This chateau was bmlt in 
the time of the dukes of Normandy, by Adam, a lord 
of Brix, whom M. de GervUle presumes to have been 
an ancestor of the Bruce who accompanied the Con- 
queror into England. The name of the parish has 
frequently been written Bruis. Mem. Soc. Antiq. 
Normandie, 1825. See Braose. 

The follo^rmg passage, from Boswell's Tour in the 
Hebrides with Dr. Johnson, is of some interest : — "We 
proceeded to Fort George. ^\Tien we came into the 
square, I sent a soldier with the letter to a Mr. Feme. 
He came to us immediately, and along -with liim came 
Major Brewse, of the Engineers, pronounced Bruce. 
He said he believed it was originally the same Norman 
name with Bruce, and that he had' dined at a house in 
London where were three Bruces, one of the Irish 
line, one of the Scottish line, and liimself of the English 
line. He said he was shown it in the Heralds' Office 
spelt in fourteen different ways." I think it would 
be easy to produce double that number of spellings. 

BRUDENELL. The name is probably 
local. As to its origin, we learn only from 
Collins, that it was of good and chivalrous 
repute, temp. Hen. III., and that it was 
diversely written Bredenhill, Bretenill, 
Britnill, Bricknill, Bredenhull, Brutenelle, 
and Brudenell. Peerage, 1768. 

BRUFF. Hearty, jolly, healthy, proud. 

BRUIN. 1. A nickname of the bear. 2. 
Bruin, Du. brown, dark complexioned. 

A small shopkeeper in Surrey ha<l a board, announc- 
ing the sale of " Tabel Bciir," affixed to his wall, and 
mider it a waggish neighbour wrote, "His own 
Bruin 1" 

BRUISE. One of the many forms of 
Braose or Bruce. R.G. 16. 

BRUNKB. See Bourne and Brown. 

BRUNROBYN. This name occurs in 
the archives of Yarmouth. A certain liti- 
gious fellow named Robert, a tailor, thence 
called Robert Tailor, frequently figures as 
" Brown Robin the Tailor," or more curtly 
as " Bninrobyn." Papers of Norfolk Ar- 
chaeol. Soc. iv., 253. 

BRUNSWICK. Some traders so called 
appear in the Lond. Direct., and seem to be 
of German origin. 

BRUNT. Probably a corruption of 
Brent, places so called in cos. Somerset, 
Devon, Suflblk, &c. 

BRUNTON. Two townships in Nor- 

BRUSH. Perhaps from Germ, bnisch^ 
broom. See Broome. 

BRUSHFIELD. A small village and 
manor in the parish of Bakewell, co. Derby, 
anciently written Brightrithfield and Brith- 
rithtfield (quasi, "the field of Brihteric " — 
an A- Sax. personal name). The family 
have long been located about Eyam, a few 
miles distant, and they have ever been re- 
markable for their paucity of numbers. At 
present not above ten persons in England, 



BUG 44 


and those all related to each other, bear the 
name. Inf. T. W. Brushfield, Esq. 

BRUTON. Parishes, &c., in Northumb. 
and Somerset. 

BRYAN. BRYANT. Bryan is a Celtic 
personal name of great antiquity, impljdug 
originally, regulus, or chieftain. 

Brice, which see. 

BRYDGES. Originally written Bruges, 
and assumed to be of Flemish origin, from 
the famous city of that name. 

BRYDSON. 1. The sonof Bryd, an A- 
Sax. personal name. 2. See Bride. 

BRYER. The same as Brewer, in the 
local sense. 
BRYON. See Brian. 

BUBB. BUBBS. From Bubba, an 
ancient Teutonic name. Ferguson. 

BUCH AN. A district of Aberdeenshire, 
which gave title of earl to the families of 
Cummins and Erskine. The first of the 
Buchans is stated to have been a son of the 
last Earl of Buchan of the Comyn family. 

BUCHANAN. A parish in co. Stirling, 
possessed by the family in early times. 

BUCK. The animal, famed in the chase, 
and familiar as an annorial ensign and as 
a trader's sign. Le Buc. H.R. 

B^"BUCK. Many local surnames have 
been borrowed from this animal, some 
of which are not readily explainable, as 
Buckmill, Buckthought, Buckner, and 
Bucktooth. Buckoke, Buckthorpe, and 
others, are quite intelligible, though the 
localities are unknown to me. 

BUCKENHAM. Four parishes in Nor- 
folk, anciently Bokenham. 

BUCKETT. See Bouquet. 

BUCKING HAM. The town from which 
the shire is named. 

BUCKLAND. Parishes and places in 
cos. Berks, Bucks, Gloucest., Herts, Kent, 
Surrey, Somerset, Devon, Dorset, &c. 

BUCKLE. Probably corrupted from the 
local name Buckwell. 

BUCKLER. Doubtless from the trade 
of making buckles. I^ Bokeler, H.R. See 
under Smith. The name has, however, Injen 
thought to 1x5 a corrui)tion of Beauclerk. 

BUCKLEY. A township in Cheshire. 

BUCKMAN. One who had the care of 

BUCKM ASTER. One who had the care 
of deer, or who superintended the sjwrt of 

rishes, &c., in COS. Lincoln, Stafford, Oxon, 
and Hereford. 

BUCKSTON. The same as Buxton (the 
Derbyshire family). 

BUCKTON. A township in Yorkshire. 

BUCKWORTH. A parish in co. Hunts. 

BUDD. A prae-Domesd. personal name. 
Boda, Bodus, &c. 

BUDDEL. Le Budel and Budellus. 
H.R. Halliwell has hudel, a beadle. 


guson derives these names from the Teut 
bote, a messenger. 

BUGG. Tom Hood has said— 

" A name ! If the party had a voice, 
^Vhat mortal would be a Bugg by choice ?" 

But though it is not as the old phrase is, 
" a pretty name to go to bed with," yet, as 
Mr. Ferguson says, there are several 
" crumbs of etymological comfort for the 
Buggs. I think (he adds) a good case may 
be made out, to show that it is a name of 
reverence rather than of contempt." At 
all events it is a name that an A- Sax. lady, 
Hothwaru Bucge, was not ashamed of, al- 
beit she was a holy woman and an abbess. 
Kemble. Ferguson thinks it is derived 
from a root implying bowed or bent. How- 
ever that may be, it is evidently of the 
same origin as Bogue. 

BUGLEHORN. R. G. 16. See Bugler. 

BUGLER. BUGLAR. (The bugle-horn 
was originally the horn of a bull, anciently 
in some dialects so called. Sir John Maun- 
deville tells of " grififounes" with talons as 
large as '* homes of grete oxen, or of bugles, 
or of kyzn !") A player on the bugle-horn. 

BUIST. Thick and gross. "He is a 
buigt of a fellow — ^he is a gross man." 

BULFINCH. See Birds. 

BULFORD. A parish in Wilts. 

BULHEAD. May be either local, or the 
heraldric sign of an inn, or a sobriquet de- 
rived from baldness — A-Sax. hold, bald, and 
heved, head. It most probably comes from 
the last-mentioned source, as Boleheved is 
found in the H.R. 

BULKELEY. A township in Cheshuxj, 
now Buckley. 

BULL. A very natural sobriquet, as well 
as a common inn -sign, and a frequent he- 
raldric charge. It may, however, l)e a per- 
sonal name, as the fonns Bole, Bolle, &c., are 
found in Domcsd. The corresponding 
names Taureau, Torel, Tyrel, Torelli, Bulle, 
&c., are plentiful on the continent. Let no 
Frenchman, liowever, think that "John 
Bull" is the commonest of designations in 
E)ngland, for in the Lond. Direct, of 1852, 
I lind only four people so called. 

BULLARD. Bull-ward — cither the man 
who presided over the sport of bull-baiting, 
or the one who had the care of the " town- 

BULLCOCK. See Belcombe. 

BULLEN. See Boleyne. 




BULLER. A-Norm. A deceiver. Hal- 
liwell quotes from an ancient poem : — 
" The sexte case es of fals hullers. 
Both that thain makes and that tham wers." 
MS. Cot. Vesp, A. iii., f. 161, 

Several Le Bolm^ appear in H.R. 

BULLEY. A parish in co. Gloucester. 

BULLICK. Bullwick, co. Northampt.? 

BULLOCK. Doubtless from the animal. 
Le Boeuf occurs as an early A-Norm. sur- 
name, as also does Front-de-Boeuf, " bul- 
lock's forehead." 

BULLIkL^N. Bollman in the Orkneys 
means a cottager. It is always pronounced 
homman, Jamieson. 

BULLPIT. Probably such a place as 
that described by Hentzner. " There is a 
place built in the form of a theatre, which 
serves for baiting of bulls and bears." — 
Travels in England. 

BULMER. Parishes in cos. Essex and 
York. A distinguished family derived 
from the latter, and flourished temp. Henry 
I. See Baronage. 

BUL STRODE. An estate in co. Bucks, 

long possessed by the family. This origin 
of tlie name is tolerably satisfactory, but 
tradition accounts otherwise for it. It is 
asserted that — 

" When William conquered English ground, 
Bulstrode had per annum three hundred pound." 

At all events he seems to have been a sub- 
stantial personage and a sturdy ; for when 
the Conqueror gave away his estate to a 
Norman follower, he and his adherents, 
vwunted vpon Bulls, resisted the invaders, 
and retained possession. Afterwards, ac- 
companied by his seven sons, mounted in 
the same fashion, he went under safe 
conduct to William's court, and the Con- 
queror was so much amused with the 
strangeness of the scene, that he permitted 
the stalwart Saxon to hold his lands under 
the ancient tenure, and conferred upon him 
and his heirs for ever the surname of BuU- 
gtrode ! See Hist, and Allusive Arms. 

BUMPSTEAD. Two parishes in Essex. 

BUMPUS. Fr. hon pas^ good pace, or 
good passage. It may therefore either be 
local, or have reference to the pedestrian 
powers of the assumer. Conf. Mai pas. 

BUNBURY. A cadet of the Norman 
house of St. Pierre accompanied Hugh 
Lupus, earl of Chester, at the Conquest, 
and obtaining the manor of B. in Cheshire, 
assumed his surname from it. 

BUNGAY. A town in Suffolk. 

BUNKER. Fr. bon coeur^ " good heart," 
from the moral quality of the original 

BUNKLE. A parish in Berwickshire. 

Also a Scottish term for a stranger. 
BUNN. Probably the Fr. bon, and 

etjuivalent to Good. 
BUNNY. Probably from Bunny, co. 

Notts. The B.'a of Ibdrope were said to 

have held that Hampshire estate from temp. 
King John. B.L.G. 

BUNTING. Probably local ; buntin is 
however a Scottish word meaning short 
and thick, as "a buntin brat," a plump 
child. Jamieson. TheBunteins were of 
Ardoch in the middle ages. A Thomas 
Bunting swore allegiance to Edward I. of 
England, in 1296. Bunting without a pre- 
fix occurs in H.R. 

BUNYAN. Nomen venerabilel Al- 
though associated in sound with that pedal 
excrescence, a buna ion, — so calculated to 
hinder the Progress of a Pilgrim I —this 
surname is in reality derived from the 
Welsh Ab Enion, the son of Enion, a per- 
sonal name. So Bevan from Ab Evan, 
Bithell from Ab Ithell, &c. From Benyon 
to Bunyan, the transition is easy and natural. 
The Bunyans were a Gipsy race. 

BURBAGE. Places in cos. Wilts and 

BURBIDGE. See Burbage. 

BURCH. See Birch. 

BURCHARD. Burchard, Burchardus, 
&c., a personal name in Domesday. 


BURDEN. See Burdon. 

BURDER. A bird-catcher, formerly 
written BjTder. See a quaint anecdote in 
Eng. Sum. i. 119. 

BURDETT. Hugh Burdet, and Robert 
Burdet, occur as tenants in Domesd. The 
former, who was ancestor of the baronets of 
Bramcote, was settled in co. Leicester, The 
baronets of Burthwaite seem to be of 
another family, and bear different arms. 
The origin of the name is unknown ; that 
it is not local is shown by the non-existence 
of the territorial JDe in the earliest records. 

BURDON. Two townships in co. Dur- 

BURFIELD. A parish in Berks. De 
Burfield, co. Oxon. H.R. 

BURFORD. Places in cos. Oxon and 

BURGER. Burgher; in Scotland the 
same as Burgess in England. 

BURGESS. BURGES. A freeman of 
a corporate town or borough. 

{^"BURGH. A component syllable in 
many local surnames. It also stands 
alone, and may be derived from one or 
more of the various places so called in 
Cumberland, Suffolk, Norfolk, and Lin- 
coln. It is the A-Sax. burh, bvreh, 
bijvig, a word common to most German 
dialects, and somewhat resembling the 
Gr. Tn'pyoe, turris. This is subject mat- 
ter for a lengthened dissertation, had 
we space for it, but it will be sufiicient 
for the present purpose to observe, that 
its meaning appears to be that which 
Richardson assigns, viz. — " a place of 




defence or security," whether that place 
be a walled town, a mountain, or the 
place in which the "conies," though 
*' but a feeble folk," fortify themselves. 
Imperial Petersburgh, royal Edinboro', 
and a rabbit's Burrow, have therefore a 
community of origin and of name. The 
word occurs very largely in local no- 
menclature, sometimes as a prefix or 
termination, and sometimes in the mid- 
dle of a name, and in variously modified 
forms, as hurg, htir, her, berk, hormigh, 
hi'ough, herry, barnm\ hiuij, &c. 

BURGHERSH. Burwash, co. Sussex, 
was anciently so called, and thence the 
Barons from 1303 to 1369. 

BURGON. See Burgoyne. 

BURGOYNE. A native of Burgundy. 
The date of this family's settlement in 
England is uncertain. They have a tra- 
dition of having been in co. Bedford from 
temp. John, (Courthope's Debrett's Baro- 
netize) ; but Lysons asserts that they did 
not possess lands in that shire till about 
14G5, having resided at a more remote date 
in CO. Cambridge. If this be so, we must 
not accept as genuine a certain rhyming 
grant, by which John of Gaunt assigns to 
a member of the family the lands of Sutton 
and Potton in the former county : — 
" I, John of Gannt, I And the heirs of his loin. 

Do give and do grant, Both Sutton and Potton, 

, Unto Roger BurgojTie, | Until the world's rotten." 

BURKE. A hardened pronunciation of 
Burgh, and equivalent to Borrowes, «fec. 
See Burgh. The great Irish family are 
traced to the Anglo-Norm. De Burghs, 
one of whom settled in Ireland soon after 
the acquisition of that country by the 
English monarchs. The name Alfric de 
Burc, apparently of Saxon origin, appears 
in the Domesd. of Suffolk. In the H.R. 
the name of the famous Hubert de Burgh, 
temp. King John, is sometimes written De 


See Birket. 

BURLACE. See Borlase. 

BURLAND. A township in co. Chester. 

BURLEIGH. BURLEY. (Often inter- 
changeably used.) Places in cos. Northampt., 
Rutland, Hants, York, &c. 

BURLINGIIAM. Three parishes in 

BURLINGTON. An older and moro 
correct orthography of Bridlington, co. 

BURLS. A corruption of Borel, BurrcU. 

BURMAN. The same as Boreman. 

BURMISTER. A mayor, or chief 
officer of al)orough (Jnirgi magixter'), a cor- 
ruption either of the German hurginieixtrr, 
the Dutch hnrgammter, the Russian hour- 
mister, or the Danish horgemester. 

BURNESS. Known variations of the same 
name, which however may have several 

origins. Sometimes it appears to be equiva- 
lent to Bourne, and in the North a small 
stream is still called a hurn. In Saxon 
times, however, it seems to have been a per- 
sonal name, whence Burneston, Burnes- 
dale, and such-like local names. In the 
time of Edward the Confessor, Godric de 
Burnes was a great landholder in Kent, 
and his posterity continued in that 
CO. for several centuries. In Scotland the 
name appears in early records, under such 
various forms as to baffle the most astute 
genealogist in any attempt to deduce a 
clear pedigree. It is, however, within recent 
generations that the near kinsmen of Robert 
Bums have varied that name to Burnes and 
Buniess. See, for an elaborate account of 
this surname, "Notes <5n his Name and 
Family, by James Burnes, K.H., F.R.S." 
Edinburgh, 1851. 

BURNARD. A corruption of Bernard. 

BURNBY. A parish in Yorkshire. 

BURNELL. The etymon is uncertain, 
unless it be a diminutive of Brun. The 
family, who gave the suffix to Acton Bur- 
nell, CO. Salop, are found in England so 
early as 1087. Dugdale. 

BURNETT. Probably a corruption of 
Bernard ; or it may be, by a transposition 
of letters not uncommon, the Fr. hrunet, 
brownish, tawny, and so a diminutive of 
Browne. 2. A parish in Somersetshire. 

BURNE Y. Probably the same as Ber- 
nay, which see. A Ralph de Bemai occurs 
in the Domesd. of Worcester and Here- 

BURNHAM. Parishes in cos. Bucks, 
Essex, Somerset, Norfolk, &c. 

BURNINGHAM. Briningham, co. Nor- 

BURNMAN. See Bourn and Man. 

BURNSIDE. Villages in the shires of 
Fife, Nairn, and Kincardine. 

BURNUP. Probably Burnhope, a local 

BURR. Said to be of Dutch extrac- 

BURRELL. Plain, rude, unpolished. 
* Borel-clerks,' lay clerks ; ' borel-folks,' lay- 
men. The Franklin in Chaucer says in hia 
prologue — 
" But, sires, because T am a horel man. 
At my beginning first I you besoche 
liave me excused of my rude speche. 
I lemcd never rhetorike certain ; 
Tilings that I 8})ekc, it mote be bare and plain ; 
I slept never on tlie mount of remaso, 
No lenicd Marcus Tnlliiw Cicero." 

The following quaint passage, written temp, 
Elizabeth, is put into the mouth of a * plow- 
man,' and illustrates a feature in the ar- 
rangements of our churches — the rood-loft- 
interesting to ccclesiologists : — 

" When Master Taradin began his speech of the 
crosse he wakenetl me. I remember well when It 
bUhxI at the ujiper end of our church bo<ly (nave) and 
ha<l a trim loft for it, with a curten drawne Itefore it 
to keejK" it wanne ; yea, zur, zutch was the time then, 
that we borrtU folii were taught there waa a God 




npon it, and we must creepe many a time, and make 
many otftTinffs of effgs to il for our sinncs."— Feme's 
Blazon of Gentrie. — Laoie's Nobilitie, page 99. 
There are however other, and perhaps more 
probable, etymons for the name. Borel 
occurs in Domesd. as a baptismal name, 
and a to\vnship in Yorkshire is called 
Burrel. The Baronet's family were seated 
in Northumberland, but removed into 
Devon in the XIV. and into Sussex in the 
XV. century. 
BURRISH. From Burwash, co. Sussex, 
still locally so pronounced. 

BURROUGHS. See Burgh. 

BURRO WES. See Burgh. 

BURROWS. See Burgh. 

BURSLEM. A town in Staffordshire. 

BURST ALL. Parishes in cos. York and 

BURSTER. A corruption of Burstow, 
CO. Surrey. 

BURT. The trivial name of a fish ; but 
the surname is no doubt derived from the 
A- Sax. heorht, bright, clear, splendid. The 
founder of the family was probably a 
"shining character." Berte, however, is 
found as a personal name in H.R. 

BURTENSHAW. Anciently written 
B>Tchenshaw, i. e., the shaw or grove of 
birch trees. 

BURTON. A fortified enclosure. (A- 
Sax.). Hence the names of no less than 
forty parishes and places in England, and 
hence the commonness of this surname. 
The B.'s of Longner are deduced from 
Boerton or Burton, in Condover, co. Salop, 

BURTWELL. A corruption of Bright- 

BUR WASH. A parish in Sussex, for- 
merly Burghersh, whence the barons of 
that title. 

BURY. Towns and places in cos. Lan- 
caster, Suffolk, Sussex, &o. See also 

BUSBRIDGE. An ancient Sussex family. 
Locality unknown. 

BUSBY. A village in co. Renfrew. 

BUSH. See Bysh. This word, now 
applied to a low thick tree, formerly meant 
a whole wood or grove (sylva, nemus), and 
this proj)er sense is retained in America and 
Australia. Atte-Busche therefore, in me- 
dieval writings, is equivalent to De Bosco, 
while the singular name Cutbush is simply 
a translation of Tailgebosch, Tallebosc, 
(Taille-bois) so common in Domesd. There 
is nothing clearer in the etymology of sur- 
names than that the dissimilar appellations 
Cutbush and Talboys mean one and the 
same thing, or that Bush and Boys are 

BUSHBY. A hamlet and estate at 
Thornby, co. Leicester. 


iixmily who supplied the affix of Newton- 
Bushell, CO. Devon. 

BUSK. Busch, an ancient Swedish family 
settled at Leeds early in the XVIIl. cent. 

BUSS. Ferguson says a "stout man." 
A Si vard Buss occurs in Domesd. and there 
were Norsemen and Norsewomen called 
respectively Buss and Bussa. Hence would 
come the 0. Norse bustinn, burly — our name 
Bustin. Ferguson. In the S, of Engl. 
Buss is a common nickname of Barnabas. 

BUSTARD. See Birds. 

BUSTLNT. See Buss. 

BUSSEY. Anciently written Buci, Bussi, 
&:c,, probably from Boussei, a place in the 
arrondissement of Evreux, in Normandy. 
Robert de Boci was a tenant in chief in co. 
Northampt. Domesd. One of the same 
family gave the suffix to Kingston-Buci or 
Bowsey, co. Sussex. 

BUSTER. The local pronunciation of 

Burstow, in Surrey. 

BUSWELL. See Boswell. 

BUTCHER. The occupation. Le 
Bocher, H.R. Some of the older forms 
are easily confounded with Bourchier. In 
ancient times this was a title of honour 
bestowed by the French on great warriors 1 
See Eng. Sum. i. 121. 

BUTE. A great island of Scotland. 

BUTLAND. This common Devonshire 
name is probably a corruption of one of the 
many places called Buckland in that 

BUTLER. See under Botiler. The 
origin of the great Irish family of Butler is 
a vexed question. They have been va- 
riously deduced — from Hers-eius, a com- 
panion of William the Conqueror — from the 
illustrious De Clares — and from a brother 
of Thomas a Becket. Certain it is that 
they went over to Ireland, temp. Henry II., 
and that the name is derived from the office 
of King's Butler, which was conferred upon 
Theobald sumamed le JBoteler by that 
monarch in 1177, and remained hereditary 
in his descendants for many generations. 
The head of the family claimed prisage and 
butlerage for all wines imported into Ire- 
land, and it was not until 1810 that the 
claim was finally surrendered, for the valu- 
able consideration of £216,000. 

BUTLIN. See Boutevilein. 

BUTT. But — the name of several places 
in the arrondissement of Falaise, 

BUTTEMER. Two or three generations 
since was written Buttermer, and it is pre- 
sumed to have been derived from a famous 
northern Lake. 

BUTTER. Boterus and Botonis are 
found as personal names in Domesday. 

BUTTERICK. See Butterwick. 




BUTTERWICK. Places in cos. Durliam, 
Lincoln, York, &c, 

BUTTERWORTH. A township in 

BUTTERY. Probably analogous to 
Kitchen, Chamber, &c. It may however be 
a corruption of Botreaux. 

BUTTON". The pedigree of the Hamp- 
shire family was traced to the XIII. cent. 
as De Button; and as it was sometimes 
spelt Bitton it may have been derived from 
the parish of Bitton, co, Gloucester. In 
Sussex, Burton is often pronounced Button. 

BUTTRESS. A corruption of Botreux. 

BUTTS. The marks for archery. In 
old times all corporate towns, and most 
parishes, had a provision for this sport, and 
numerous fields and closes where the long 

. bow was exercised are still called " The 

BUTVELLN". See Boutevilein. 

BUTWILLIAM. See Boutevilein. 

BUXTED. A parish in Sussex. 

BUXTON. Places in cos. Derby, Here- 
ford, and Norfolk. The baronet traces to 
the XV. cent, in the last-named county. 
The Buxtons of Derby, in the XIIL cent., 
wrote themselves De Bawkestone. Lysons. 

BUZZACOT. Probably Buscot, co. 

BUZZARD. An A-Norm. family, named 
Bosard or Bossard, were influential in 
Bedfordshire in the XIV. cent., and gave 
the suffix to Leighton-Buzzard. Lysons. 

BUZZY. See Bussey. 

A very common termination of 
names of places in the north of Eng- 
land, many of which have, of course, 
given names to families. It is an old 
Scandinavian word signifying primarily 
a farm-house or dwelling, and afterwards 
a village or town. It is found only in 
what are called the Danish counties, 
and particularly in Lincolnshire, in 
which there are no less than 212 places 
with this desinence. See Worsaae's 
Danes in England, which contains 
Borae curious notes respecting it. Seve- 
ral names of places are adduced which 
seem to have reference to the particular 
nation or tribe by whom thoee places 
were first colonized, viz : — 

Komanby, by the Romans. 
. Saxby, „ Saxons. 

Flemingsby „ Flemings. 

Frisby „ Frisians. 

Scotsby „ Scots. 

Norraanby „ Nonnans. 

Danby „ Danes, &c. 

Other places with this termination are 
more satisfactorily attributed to indi- 
viduals; thus, a Northman or Dane 

IJollo, or Rolf, gave name to Rollesby. 

Ilacon „ „ Hnconby. 

Swe>Ti „ „ Swainby. 

Thlrkel „ „ Thirkelsby. 

Brand „ „ Rrandsby. 

Oagod „ „ Osgodby, 4ic., itc 

And these compounds have in turn given name 
to as many faniilies. 

As a surname, Bi/ is probably the 
shortest we possess. 

BYASS. Bias was one of the seven sages 
of Greece; but we must probably look for 
the origin of this name in an unclassical 
corruption from Byhurst, a local designa- 
tion ; or it may be the De Byus of theH.R. 

BYE. See by. But it seems also to 
have been a personal name, as Fil.' Bye 
occurs in H.R. 

BYERS. The chateau of Biars in the 
canton of Isigni, La Manche, Normandy, 
had lords of its own name, temp. Conq. 
De Gerville. Mem. Soc. Ant. Norm. 1825. 

BYFIELD. A parish in co. Northampton. 

BYFORD. A parish in Herts. 

BYGATE. See under Gates. 

BYGRAVE. A parish in Herts. 

BYGROVE. See Groves. 

BYNG. From the occurrence of such 
compounds as Bingley, Bingham, Bing- 
field, in names of places, it is highly pro- 
bable that Bing, or Byng, was an ancient 
personal name. 

BYRNE. In Scotland, a topographical 
expression, implying the high part of a 
farm where young sheep are summered — or 
dry heathy pasture for weanlings. Celt, bryn, 
a hill. Jamieson. The Irish family of 
O'Byme claim from Hermon, the yoimgest 
son of Milesius. B.L.G. 

BYRON. The poet's ancestors were of 
unquestioned Norman origin. Emisius de 
Burun held 32 lordships in Yorksliire, and 
Ralph de Burun, 13 in Notts and Derby, at 
the compilation of Domesday. Kelhara. 
Others derive the name and family from the 
town of Biron in Guienne. 

BYSH. BYSSHE. Aluric Busch (P de 
Bosco) was a Domesd. tenant in co. Herts. 
See Cutbush and Bush. In some medieval 
writings "bishop" is thus abbreviated. 

BYSSHOP. See Bishop. 

BYTHESEA. The gentry family of this 
name have a tradition that their ancestor 
was a foundling, and that he obtained his 
surname from the place where he was dis- 
covered — " by the Sea." It is far likelier 
to have Ikjcu derived from residence in 
such locality. At-Sea is a common me- 
dieval name, and both correspond with the 
continental De la Mer, Delmar, De Meer, 
&c., as well as with the Pelagius, Pontius, 
&c. of antiquity. 


BYTHEWOOD. From residence near 
a wood. 

BYWATER. See Waters. 

BYWOOD. See Wood. 

BY WORTH. A manor in Petworth, co. 





Cab BELL. Probably descended from 

*' Jean Cabibel cy devant ministre de 
Brassac," one of the seventy-seven French 
Protestant refugee ministers who signed 
the Declaration of Faith in 1091 ; penes J. 
S. Burn, Esq. There is, however, a Ri'cus 
Cabel in H.R. 

CABBURN. Cabourn, a parish in Lin- 

CABLE. Probably the same as Caple or 

CABOT. See Ghabot. 

CADBURY. Two parishes in co. So- 

CADBY. Cadeby, places in cos. Leices- 
ter and York. 

CADE. See illustrations of this name 
in Eng. Sum. i. 112. 202. Notwithstand- 
ing Shakspeare's allusion, it may be 
doubted whether the name is derived from 
cadf, a barrel. Several Cades are men- 
tioned in H.R. without prefix. 

In addition to wliat I have said {ut sHpra) respect- 
ing tlie probable residence of Jack Cade, the arch- 
rebel, at Hcathficld, CO. Sussex, I may mention that I 
liave seen the will of another John Cade of Heath- 
field, which was proved at Lcwe« so lately as tlie 
year IGOO. 

CADELL. CADDELL. 1. (Welsh.) 
Warlike, stout. 2. Probably a corruption of 
Caldwell. An ancient family, Caldwell of 
that Ilk, flourished in co. Renfrew, down 
to the end of the XVII. century. 

CADGER. A packman, or itinerant 
huckster. According to Kennett " a cad- 
ger is a butcher, miller, or carrier of any 
load." Halliw. 

CADMAN. A maker of cades, or bar- 
rels. Cademan, H.R. 

CADNEY. A place in Lincolnshire. 

CADOGAN. Earl Cadogan's family de- 
duce from the princes of Powys in Wales, 
some of whom bore the baptismal name of 
Cadwganor Kydwgan, which, by the sup- 
l)ression of the patronjnnical ap, became an 
hereditary surname. 

^g'CAER. CAR. The initial syllable of 
man)' local names, which have become 
surnames, especially in Scotland and 
Cornwall. It is a Celtic word signify- 
ing " an artificial military strength, 
whether fort or castle." 

CAESAR The celebrated Sir Julius 
CjEsar, master of the rolls, temp. James I., 
was son of one of Queen Elizabeth's phy- 
sicians, who according to Fuller's Worthies, 
(ii. 32G) was descended from the ancient 
family of the Dalmarii in Italy. In the 
epitaph on Sir .Julius Caisar, written by 
hiiiir^elf, and formerly existing at Great St. 
Helen's, in London, he is styled " Julius 

Dalmare, alias Caesar." But according to 
a more recent authority the original family 
name was Adelmare. Peter Maria Adel- 
mare of Treviso, near Venice, L.L.D., had a 
son, Csesar Adelmare, M.D., who settled in 
England in 1550. This gentleman had 
several sons, one of whom received the 
baptismal name of Julius ; this was the ce- 
lebrated Sir Julius, who adopted his father's 
praenomen as a fixed surname for his fa- 
mily. Lodge's Life of Sir Julius Ceesar, 
The name still exists in the county of 
Surrey, principally in humble life. See 
anecdotes in Eng. Sum., vol. i.,page 209. A 
correspondent at Godalming writes : " We 
have here more than one Julius Ciesar ; in 
fact, we have twelve Ctesars, all of one 
family. Julius Cfesar, the younger, is a 
noted cricketer, and one of the Eleven of All 

CAFE. Perhaps from Scot, caif, tame, 

CAFFIN. Ft. chauve, from Latm calvus^ 
bald. Hence the name of the great Pro- 
testant reformer, Calvin. The forms in the 
H.R. are Le Cauf, Chauf, Chaufyn. An 
eminent example of the application of this 
sobriquet is in Charles the Bald, King of 

CAGER. See Cadger. 

CAILEY. CAILAY. See Cayley. 

CAIN. Gael. Beloved. 

CAINE. See Cane. 

CAINS. See Keynes. 

CAIRD. A Gipsy; a travelling tinker ; 
a sturdy beggar. Jamieson. 

CAIRN. " Any locality, stream, or 
mountain, designated from a cairn or an- 
cient sepulchral tumulus." Gaz. Scotl. 

CAISTOR. CAISTER. A town in Lin- 
colnshire and two parishes in Norfolk are 
so called. 

CAKEBREAD. Seems to belong to the 
same category as Whitbread, Wastel, &c. 

CAKEPEN. One Wm. C, a baker, ap- 
pears in the early records of Lewes Priory. 

CALCOTE. CALCUTT. Contractions 
of Caldecott, q. v. 

CALCOTT. A contraction of Caldecott. 

CALDECOTT. There are many local- 
ities in England bearing this name, and 
there is also a Caude-Cote in Normandy. 
Like Cold-Harbour, about which so much 
has been written, the Caldecots are said to 
lie principally in the vicinity of Roman 
roads. " It is a singular fact," says the 
Rev. John Taddy, "that wherever we have 
traces of a Roman road, we find hamlets 
in the near neighbourhood of it of the 




name of Caldecott. I could quote abun- 
dance of such." Papers of the Architect. 
Soc. of Northampton, York, Lincoln, and 
Bedford, Vol. II., page 429. The Calde- 
cotts of Kugby claim from Calcot or Cal- 
decote, co. Chester, of which place their 
ancestors were mesne lords in the time of 
the Conqueror. B.L.G. 

CALDELOUERD. This singular name 
of Le Caldelouerd is found in the H.R. Qu : 
*the called Lord,' a sobriquet. 

CALDER, signifying a wooded stream, is 
a name borne by several small rivers and 
streams, and by places on their banks in 

CALDERWOOD. See Calder. 

CALDWELL. " The cold well." Seve- 
ral localities in various counties are so de- 


Apparently derivatives of some personal 
name — possibly Charles. 

CALEY. See Cayley. The H.R. how- 
ever shoAv us Le Caly and Le Calye — appa- 
rently denoting some employment. 

CALF. CALFE. An island of Argyle- 

CALHOUN. A contraction of Colqu- 

CALISHER. A correspondent suggests 
' Calaiser,' a man of Calais. 

CALL. 1. Probably Macall, by the sup- 
pression of the first two letters. See Art. 
Mac. 2. A- Sax. calla^ the same as carl or 
ceorl, a man. Ferguson. Calle. H.R. 


Irish O'Callaghan. 

of lark was so called ; but a likelier deriva- 
tion is from caletiderer, a presser of cloth 
— a trade still existing. 

" I am a linen-draper bold, 

As all the world doth know, 
And my good friend, the Calender, 
Will lend his horse to go." 

John Gilpin. 
The name is also local, from places in the 
shires of Perth, Stirling, &c. 

CALLAWAY. A corruption of Gallo- 
way ? 

CALLER. One who drives oxen or 
horses under the yoke. Jamieson. 

CALLEY. The Calleys of Wilts deduce 
from Norfolk. I find no locality so de- 
nominated, and the family may possibly 
spring from the Scottish M'Caulays. 

CALLOW. Places in cos. Hereford and 

CALMADY. The family are said to be 
lineally descended from John C. of Calma- 
dy, 1460. The name is therefore local. 

CALM AN. Identical with the old 
Scandinavian Kalman, and the Fninkish 
Carioman. Ferguson. Calemao. U.R. 

CALTHORPE. The ancestors of Lord 
C. assumed the name from Calthorpe, co. 
Norfolk, temp. Hen. III., and they are 
said to have been resident there from the 
time of the Conquest. Courthope's De- 

CALTHROP. See Calthorpe. The C.'s 
of Gosberton claim descent, (collateral it is 
to be presumed,) from Walter de C, bishop 
of Norwich, in the XIII. cent. 

CALTON. Places in cos. Stafford and 
York, and suburbs of Edinburgh and 

CALVARY. Many monastic establish- 
ments had within their ambit an elevated 
mound representing the supposed * mount' 
Calvary, the scene of our Lord's Passion. 
A spiral path leading to its summit was 
called " the way of the cross," iria crucis,) 
and hither on Good Fridays a large crucifix 
was borne in procession by the monks, and 
fixed upon the summit. A fine example of 
a calvary exists at Lewes Priory. The sur- 
name was probably derived from residence 
near such a spot. 

CALVER. A hamlet in Derbyshire. 

CALVERLEY. John Scott came into 
England in the suite of the Princess Maud 
of Scotland, on her marriage with King 
Henry I., and acquired the estate of Cal- 
verley, co. York, whence he adopted the 
surname, and where he was resident in 
1 136. From him descended a right knightly 

CALVERT. The baronet's family trace 
to a Mr. C, who was minister of Andover, 
CO. Hants, in the XVI. cent., and probably 
of French extraction. 

CALWAY. See Callaway. 

CAM. Rivers in cos. Cambridge and 
Gloucester. Del Cam, and De Cam. H.R. 

CAMBER. L A place in E. Sussex. 
2. An ancient form of Comber. 3. A- 
Norm., a brewer. Kelham. 

CAMBRAY. The well-known city of 
the Netherlands. De Cambreye. H.R. 

CAMDEN. The great antiquary, "the 
Nourice of Antiquitie," was descended 
from a plebeian family in Stafl'ordshire. 
Noble's Coll. of Arms. The name may 
have l>een originally taken from Campden, 
CO. Gloucester. The house in which AVil- 
liam Camden lived, at Chiselhurst co. 
Kent, is called Camden Place, and from it 
the Marquis Camden derives his title. 

CAMERON. In an ancient manuscript 
history of this valorous Highland clan, it 
is said : " Tlie Camcrons have a tradition 
among them, that they are originally des- 
cended of a younger son of the royal 
family of Denmark, who assisted at the 
restoration of king Fergus II., anno 404. 
He was called Cameron from his crmthcd 
none, which that word imports. But it is 
more probable that they are of the ancient 
I Scote or Caledonians that first planted 




the country." Skene, in his Highlanders 
of Scotland, (ii. 193,) agrees to the Celtic 
derivation; but it must be remembered 
that in the Lowland county of Fife there is 
a considerable parish so called, which 
would discountenance this opinion. Ro- 
bertus de Cambrun, dominus de Balegre- 
nach swore fealty to Edw. I. at Perth in 

CAMMEL. Two parishes in co. Somer- 
set. Sometimes a corruption of Campbell. 

CAMMIS. The same as Camoys. 

CAMOYS. The fair daughter of Chau- 
cer's Miller of Trompington is described as 
having a " camoys nose," by which it ap- 
pears we are to understand an organ of the 
" snub" or retrouMc species. Halliwell 
says, " Camoise, crooked, flat, (A-Norm.) 
Also spelt camuse. The word is generally 
applied to a nose." But the baronial fa- 
mily used the territorial " De," as early as 
temp. Henry III., and they were most pro- 
bably surnamed from some locality in Nor- 

CAMP. Aluric Camp or Campa was a 
Domesd. tenant in the eastern counties. 
Kelham supposes that he was a champion ; 
but he had held under Edward the Confessor, 
and, as Ellis observes, the office of cham- 
pion does not occur so early. It is doubt- 
less connected with Kemp, which see. In 
Selkirkshire, camp still means " brisk, ac- 
tive, spirited." Jamieson. 

CAMPBELL. The Campbells' claim to 
a Norman origin is said to be unfounded. 
It is based upon the presumed existence of 
a Norman family called De Campo Bello. 
Skene says that no such name is found, 
though the Beauchamps did most certainly 
so latinize themselves. The oldest spelling 
(that in Ragman Roll, A.D. 1296) is Cambel 
or Kambel. The two great branches of the 
family were distinguished as Mac- Arthur 
and Mac-Cailinmor. Skene, Scott. High. ii. 
280. If the De Campo Bello theory were 
true, the name would be a synonym of 
Beauchamp and Fairfield. The name is 
deduced by Gaelic et}Tnologist8 from cam- 
heul (pronounced cam -pat) which means 
" crooked mouth." Whether the family be 
of Norman or of Gaelic origin, the clan 
bearing their name are the most numerous 
and powerful in the Highlands, and for- 
merly, under their chiefs, the earls, mar- 
quises, and dukes of Argyle, they could 
muster 5000 fighting men, who were gene- 
rally arrayed against the Stuart family. It 
is to their superior influence and power, 
and the dread of them by other clans, that 
we probably owe the disparaging proverb, 


FALSE." By the Highlanders the clan 
Campbell are called "Clan Duine," and 
their chiefs have always been styled Mac- 
Calean-Mohr (not Mac'-Callum More as Sir 
Walter Scott has it) i. e. •' the son of Colin 
the Great," in memory of their distinguish- 
ed ancestor. Sir Colin Campbell of Lochow, 
who in the XIII. cent, laid the foundation 
of the greatness of his family. This name 

is abundant in the province of Ulster. " It 
is somewhere recorded, that a Scotch regi- 
ment, quartered at Carrickfergus in the 
XVII. century, contained no less than 110 
John Campbells." Ulster Joum. of Arche- 
ology. No. 20. 

CAMPER. A-Sax. cempa^ a combatant. 

CAMPIN. The same as Campion. 

CAMPION". A champion. Ital. campione. 
O. Eng. and Scot, campioun. See Kemp. 
The C.'s of Danny were of Campion's Hall, 
CO. Essex, temp. Edw. II. The forms of 
orthography in H.R. are Campion, Le Cam- 
pioun, Campio\vn, Le Campiun, Campyun, 

CAMPKIN". CAMKIN. Probably a 
diminutive of Camp or Kemp — a combatant 
or fighting man. 

CAMPS. Many localities where Roman, 
Saxon, or other ancient earthworks exist 
are so called. 

CANCELLOR. The same as Chancellor, 
Lat. cancellarius. Le Cancel er. H.R. 

CANDLEMAKER. The trade. 

CANDLER. See Chandler. 

CANDY. An island in Essex. 

CANE. Cane, Cana, or Canus, appears 
in the Domesd. of Sussex, as a baptismal 
name, and as a surname it is still found in 
that county. See Eng. Sum., i. 29. 

CANEY. Probably the same as Cheyney. 

CANN. A parish of Dorset. 

CANNING. Probably from Cannings, 
CO. Wilts, (Bishop's Cannings). The two 
viscounts, Canning and Stratford de Red- 
clifte, are descended from W. Cannynges, 
the pious founder of St. Mary RedcliflFe, 
Bristol, in the XV. cent. 

CANNON. A canon, a member of an ec- 
clesiastical order. See Ecclesiastical Sur- 
names. In the H.R. Le Gannon, Le Canon, 
Canoun. There is a place called Canon, 
near Lisieux in Normandy. 

CANOCHSON. Canock is the Gaelic 
Corimich or Kenneth, and hence Canochson 
is a translation of Mac Corimich, which is 
the same as Mac Kengyie — the old form of 
Mac Kenzie. 

CANON. CANNAN. See Cannon. 

CANT. 1. Germ, hanie, a comer, edge, 
coast — a local name radically equivalent to 
Kent. 2. Strong; hearty; lusty. Halliw. 

CANTALUPE. This ancient Norman 
family, renowned for having produced a 
Saint (Thomas C, bishop of Hereford 1275) 
was seated in early times at Hempston- 
Cantilupe, co. Devon. The heiress married 
Sir Thomas de West, ancestor of the Earl 
de le Warr, whose second title is Viscount 
Cantalujje. There are several places in 
Normandy called Canteloup, Canteleu, &c., 
but from which of them the surname is 
derived is not positively certain, though M. 
de Gerville says, it is the parish of Chante- 




loup, in the canton of Brehal, in Lower 
Normandy. Mem. Soc. Ant. Normandie. 
The surname has been spelt in a variety of 
modes, as Cantelo, Cantelou, Cantelhope, 
Canteloy, Chantelo, Cantalupe, Cante- 
lupe, Cantilupe, Cantulupe, &c. 

CANTELO. See Cantalupe. 

CANTER. Lat cantor. A precentor or 

CANTLE. Probably the same as Cant, 
or its diminutive. 

CANTON. Fr. A territorial division or 

CANTOR. Lat. a singer; a precentor 
in a church, still so styled in cathedral 

Low Lat. ca/Uerellus — " the little singer." 

CANUTE. The Danish personal name. 

CAPEL. The Earl of Essex descends 
from a lord-mayor of London, 1503. The 
surname is probably derived from one of 
the parishes so called in Surrey, Kent, and 
Suffolk. The Capels of Gloucestershire 
claim from How Capel, co. Hereford. In 
charters it is latinized De Capella. 

CAPELIN. Synonymous with Chaplin, 
which see. 

In H.R. Caperun. 

CAPLIN. See Chaplin. 

CAPP. CAPPS. Probably borrowed 
from that article of costume. See under 
Quaife, Mantell, Freemantle, &c. &c. 

CAPPELL. See Capel. 

CAPPER. 1. A maker of caps. 2. Ap- 
parently, says Jamieson, a cup-ljearer — a 
person in the list of the king's household 
servants. Le Cappere. H.R. 

CAPPUR. See Capper. 

CAPRON. See Caperoun. 

lO'CAR. See under Cornish Surnames. 

|®"CAR. See Caer. 

CARADOC. Lord Howden claims 
descent from Caradoc and the princes of 
Wales. Peerage. See Cradock. 

CARD. The same as Caird, which see. 

CARDEN. CARDON. William Cardon 
or Cardun appears in the Domosd. of Essex, 
as one of the homines of Geoffrey de Mag- 
naville. A township in Cheshire bears the 
name of Carden. 

CARDER. One who dresses wool, so 
calle<l from the card or comb which he 

CARDINALL. See Ecclesiastical Sur- 
names. There is a family of Cardinal! in 

CARDMAKER. A maker of carrU, in- 
struments with wire teeth, with which wool 
is ' teased ' or worked. 

CARE. CARES. Probably the same as 
Carr or Kerr. 

CARELESS. A well-known corruption 
of Carlos. 

CAREW. The Carews of Wales, Corn- 
wall, &c., are descended from Gerald de 
Carrio, called by Giraldus Cambrensis (his 
relative) Gerald de Windsor and Fitz- Walter, 
who was castellan of Pembroke castle under 
Amulf de Montgomery. He married Nest, 
a concubine of King Henry I., and had two 
sons ; William Fitzgerald, the progenitor of 
the Carews, and Maurice who accompanied 
Strongbow into Ireland, and founded the 
FitzGeralds, Geraldines, and Geralds of 
that country. Gent. Mag., May, 1829. 
Carew castle is near Milford Haven. 
Carey is said to be another form of this 
name, which circ. 1300 was spelt De Carru. 

CAREY. The Carews of the West of 

England pronounce their name as if written 
Carey, and hence the surnames have been 
accounted identical. See Anecdote in Eng. 
Sum. ii. 39. See, however, Cary. 

CARGILL. A parish in Perthshire. 

modifications of Carolus, Charles. 

CARLE. A-Sax. ceorl, a man, a rustic, 
a stout man. Carl is used in all these 
senses in Scotland. Also see under Caryll. 

CARLEILL. See Carlisle. 

CARLEY. Scot, carlie, a little man— 
a diminutive of carl. Jamieson. Perhaps 
however local. 



CARLOS. CARLOSS. A corruption of 

Carolus, Charles. 

lish gazetteer shows twenty-two parishes, 
townships, &c. so called, and there are 
many others. Lord Dorchester's family 
deduce from Carleton, co. Cumberland. 

CARLYON. An estate near Truro, 
Cornwall, in which co. the family have long 
been eminent. 

CARMAN. Not so likely from the occu- 
pation, as from residence at a Carr. See 
Carr and Man. More prol)able than either, 
is its derivation from the personal name 
Carman, mentioned in Domesd. 


ancient barony and jjarisli in co. Lanark, 
possesised by the family in the XII. cent., 
and pn)l>al)ly even earlier. From thence 
the family of C. of CarHpherne, in the 
st«wartr\' of Kircudbright, are i)re8umed 
to have spnmg. For the genealogy of the 
latter family, see Enowles's Oen. of Coult- 

CARMINOW. A manor and barton in 
the parish of St. Mawgan, co. Cornwall. 
In the XIV. centur}- there was a remark- 
able controversy in the Court of Chivalry, 
or Earl Marshal's Court, touching the 




right of bearing the coat-armorial, 
"Azure, a bend Or," which was claimed 
by the three fiimilies of Scrope, Grosvenor, 
and Carminow. In the course of the 
pleadings, Carminow averred that these 
had been the ensigns of the Carminows 
ever since the days of King Arthur 1 and 
moreover that one of his ancestors bearing 
these arms had been ambassador from 
king Edward the Confessor to either the 
French king or the duke of Normandy. 
To this it was replied on the part of Scrope, 
that in case the ancestor alluded to 
" lived at Carmenow before the Norman 
Conquest, those arms could not he appro- 
priated to him by the name of De Carme- 
now, far it was not tlie custom, of the BH- 
tom till abovt a hundred years after to style 
themselves from local places^ ivith the Latin 
prej)osition or pai'ticle De, after the vtanner 
of the French ; hut before rrere generally 
dUstinguished by the names John- Mac- Rich- 
ard, RicJiard-Mac-TJiovias, Robert- Ap- 
Ralph, ^'c, that is to say, the son of Ric?iard, 
Thomas, and Ralph, according to their 
lineal descents " Hals, inD. Gilbert's Corn- 
wall, iii., pp. 130, 131. I may add, that 
Carminow was nonsuited, and compelled 
to make the addition of a '* Label of three 
points Gules" to his previous coat, " and 
was so distasted therewith that he chose 
for the motto of this new bearing arms, a 
Cornish sentence, which abundantly ex- 
pressed his dislike thereof: cala kao 
GER DA — id est, "A Straw for Fame !" 

CARNABY. A parish in Yorkshire. 

CARNACHAN. Said to be derived 
from the Gael, carnach, a heathen priest. 

CARNE. The Games of Nash, co. Gla- 
morgan, " descend in an unbroken line 
from Ynyr, king of Gwent, brother of 
Ithel, who was slain in 84G. His great- 
grandson, Thomas o'r Came, was brought 
up at Pen -came, whence he was named 
Came." Such is the statement, which 
may pass quant, ral., in B.L.G. 

CARNEGIE. The first of the earl of 
Northesk's family on record, is Duthac de 
C. 1410. The locality does not appear in 
the Gaz. of Scotland. 

CAR NELL. May be a local name en- 
ding in WELL, with the W suppressed. 
There was however a bird so called, (see 
Eng. Sura.) — apparently a kind of lark. 
See Halliw. in voc. Calander. 

CARNSEW. See under Car\'eth. 

CARPENTER. The well-known trade. 
Domesd. mentions several tenants in chief 
under the name of Carpentarii. 

CARR. Collins (Peerage, edit. 1768, v. 
83,) remarks that *' the Cars or Kers are 
uudoubtedly a very ancient people in this 
island, but it is uncertain whether they be 
of French or English extraction. Those 
who contend for the former, allege that 
the baron Ker and other families of his 
name now existing in France, trace their 
origin higher than the time of William, 

duke of Normandy, who, being attended 
by a considerable commander of their 
name in 1060, rewarded him for his bra- 
ver}' and conduct with divers possessions 
in the north of England. . . . The Cars of 
England and France have the same armo- 
rial bearings, viz.. Gules, on a cheveron Ar- 
gent, 3 mullets of the First. Others are of 
opinion that the surname is local, and was 
at first assumed by the owners of the lands 
and baronies of Car and Carshall in Lan- 
cashire." The Scottish Kers bear their 
arms of different tinctures from those of 
England and France ; and Collins adds, 
that some are of opinion that they are 
"Aborigines, and endeavour to support 
their conjecture by affirming the surname 
to be Gaelic or Celtic." They were nume- 
rous and flourishing temp. Alexander III. 
A.D. 1249. I think it highly probable that 
this monosyllabic name may be traced to 
several local sources. A car in various 
dialects signifies " a wood or grove on a 
moist soil, generally of alders. Any hollow 
place or marsh is also called a car." In 
Anglo-Saxon, on the contrary, it means a 
lock. Again in Lincolnshire it signifies a 
gutter. Halliwell. Once more, the Celtic 
caer means a fortification, and ' carr' is 
applied in various districts to a place where 
some castle or earthwork has existed. 

CARRIAGE. Probably a corruption of 
Carr- Edge, or some shuilar local name. 

CARRERE. O. Fr. and Eng. a quarry. 

CARRICK. L In Scotl. a crag or craig 
— any rocky locality. 2. The southern dis- 
trict of Ayrshire is so called. 

CARRIER. Originally a messenger. 

CARRINGTON. Places in cos. Chester 
and Lincoln. 

CARROLL. I. Possibly from the ro- 
mantic rock so called in co. Sutherland, 
2. A modification of Carolus, Charles. 

CARRUTIIERS. A hamlet in the pa- 
rish of Middlebie, co. Dumfries. 

CAUSE. A Scot, topographical expres- 
sion, probably meaning a low alluvial tract 
near a river, as the Carse of Gowrie, of 
Forth, of Falkirk, &c. 

CARSON. Probably Charles's son. 

CARSTAIRS. A parish in Lanarkshire. 

CARSWELL. A parish united with 
Buckland, co. Berks. 

CARTER. The occupation— a driver of 
carts. In medieval documents Carectarius 
and Le Carectar. 

CARTERET. A parish adjoining Bar- 
neville, in the arrondissement of Valogues, 
in Normandy, immediately opposite to 
Jersey. Its seigneur took part in the 
Conquest of England, 10G6. The Jersey 
family left the parent stock in the reign of 
Philip Augustus, and another descendant 
was created Lord Carteret in England. De 
Gerv'ille, in Mem. Soc. Antiq. Normaudie. 


CARTHEW. " The name Is local, com- 
pounded of Car-dew, or Car-thew, i. e. Rock 
Black in this parish." (St. Issey.) Hals, 
in D. Gilbert's Cornwall, ii 255. * Caer- 
dhu' would rather signify in Celtic, the 
black castle or fortification. The family 
■were eminent in Cornwall temp. Edw. II. 

C ARTIER. Fr. chartier. A carter. 

CARTMAN. The same as Carter. 

CARTMEL. A town in Lancashire. 

CARTTAR. A whimsical orthography 
of Carter. 

CARTWRIGHT. See under Wright. 
CARTY. The Irish M'Carthy. 
CARVER. The occupation. 

CARVETH. Carverth or Carveth, an 
estate in the parish of Mabe, co. Cornwall. 
The family originally bore the name of 
Thoms. *' Those gentlemen, from living at 
Carveth or Carverth in Mabe, were trans- 
nominated from Thoms to Carverth; as 
another family of those Thomses, from 
living at Camsew in the said parish, were 
transnominated to Camsew ; and there are 
some deeds yet extant, dated temp. 
Henry VLII. which will evidence the truth 
of this fact, as Mr. Carverth told me." 
Hals, in D. Gilbert's Cornw. ii. 94. 

GARWOOD. A parish in Salop. 

CARY. See Carey. "The ancient fa- 
mily of Cary derives its surname from the 
manor of Cary or Kari, as it is called in 
Doomsday Book, lying in the parish of St. 
Giles-on-the Heath, near Launceston." 
B.L.G. See Carew. 

CARYLL. CARELL. Carle was an 
under-tenant in Sussex before Domesday, 
and about the XV. century the name begins 
to apjMjar among the gentry of that county. 
A more likely derivation, however, is from 
Carel in the arrondissement of Lisieux in 

CASE. This name is found in the H.R. 
and may be the Anglo-Norman cos, 
chance, hazard — probably with reference 
to the character, or some incident in 
the life, of the first person who bore it. 
So Hazard has become a family name. A 
family in Devonshire thus designated ac- 
count for it by a tradition that, about two 
hundred years since, a foundling was laid 
at the door of a certain gentleman, to 
whom popular scandal attributed its pa- 
ternity ; the gentleman denied the allega- 
tion, but from motives of humanity had 
the infant taken care of, and, from the 
circumstance of its having been enclosed 
in a packing-case, imposed upon the poor 
foundling this curious appellation. The 
Fr. case, from Latin cam, a mean house, 
cottage, or hut, is, however, a more likely 

CASELEY. SeeCastley. 

CASH. A place in Strathmiglo, co. Fife. 

CASHMERE. R.G. 16. Does not refer 

54 CAT 

to the "far-oflf East," but to some English 
locality unknown to me. Mere is not un- 
frequent as a termination. 

CASSAN". The family of Cassan, or De 
Cassagne, derive from Stephen Cassan, a 
native of Montpellier, who fled into Hol- 
land at the Rev. of the Edict of Nantes, and 
aftenvards accompanied Schomberg into 
Ireland. B.L.G. 

CASSELL. A shortened pronunciation 
of Castle? 

CASTELL. See Castle. 

CASTELLAN. The guardian of a 
castle. 0. Fr. cJiastellan. 

CASTELMAN. A castellan; constable 
of a castle; " keipar of the Kingis Castell." 

CASTLE. From residence in one. De 
Castello. H.R. 

CASTLEGATE. From residence near 
the gate of a fortress. 

CASTLEMAN. One who had the care of 

a castle — a castellan. 

CASTLEY. A township in Yorkshire. 

CASTON. A parish in Norfolk. 

CASWELL. See Carswell. Perhaps, 
however, from Caswell Bay in the Bristol 


IG. Doubtless corruptions of some local 

CATCHPOOLE. In Low Latin cache- 
polUis, a catchpole, or petty constable. In 
Piers Plowman, the executioner who broke 
the legs of the thieves at the Crucifixion 
is so designated : 

" A cachepol cam forth, 
And cracked both hirelepges." 

Le Cacher in the H.R. is probably synony- 
mous. In those documents we meet like- 
wise with the names Le Cacherel and Ca- 
cherellus, which, according to Jacob and 
Halliwcll, also signify a catchpole or infe- 
rior bailiff. '* In stipendiis Ballivi xiiia. 
rvd : in stipendiis unius cachcpolli ixs. 
Virrd. Consuet. Farendon. Thorn men- 
tions •' cacherellos vicecomitis," the she- 
riff's under bailiffs. This last form of the 
name seems to have become extinct. 
CATER. CATOR. Formerly acater, a 
caterer or purveyor. Halliw. Le Catour, 
Le Catur. H.R. The place allotted to the 
keeping of provisions purchased for the 
court was calletl the acatry, and the pur- 
chaser himself bore the name of the Acha- 
tour. Le Achatur is another form in the 

" A Kcntil manciple was ther of the temple, 
Of which achatourt mi((hten take ensoniple." 
Chaucer, Cant. T. fi70. 

CATERER See Cater. 

CATESBY. A parish in co. Nortliamp- 
ton, in which county the family chiefly 

CATHARINE. See Female Christian 




CATHCART. The earl of this title 
derives his name from the lands and town 
of Cathcart, co. Renfrew, and from Reynald 
de C. in the XI. cent. 

CATHERICK. Catterick, a parish in 


Tliis name reminds one of that of the 
Roman incendiary Cataline, as Fuller sug- 
gests. Worthies ii. 234. It may possibly 
belong to the same class as Cato, Caesar, 
Virgil, &c. Its forms in theH.R. are Cate- 
l}Ti and Catoline. 

CATMORE. CATMUR. Catmere, co. 

CATNACH. The surname Cattanach is 

found in the Highlands of Scotland. Gael. 

cata/ia^h, a warrior. 

CATO. An old Germ. name. Ferguson. 

CATON". Until the close of the XVI. 
cent., Catton and De Catton ; from the ma- 
nor of Catton near Norwich, which in 
Domesday is spelt Catun and Catuna. The 
family were located in Norfolk from time 
immemorial till the middle of the last 
century. The latinizations Catonus, Ga- 
thonus, and Chattodunus occur in old re- 

The annexed illustra- 
tion, representing the seal 
of Bartholomew de Catton, 
has been kindly presented 
by U. II. Caton, Escj. F.S. A. 
The matrix was found in 

CATT. From the animal — like Lion, 
Bear, Wolf, Sec. The family are probably 
of Norman origin, and the name was writ- 
ten Le Chat. Ilbert de Chaz, whose 
tombstone is at Lacock Abbey, came from 
Chaz or Cats in the neigbourhood of Bohun. 
A family of Le Cat were lords of Berreuil, 
near Goumay, in the XV. cent. The re- 
cords of Norfolk show that the name of Le 
Chat, Le Cat, or Catt, existed at or about 
Heveningham from temp. King John till 
the XV. cent. The Ketts of Wymond- 
ham are said to have been a branch of the 
family. See Pedigree, &c., in Records of 
House of Gouraay. There was also an 
ancient Teutonic personal name, Cato or 
Cat, whence perhaps the local names 
Cateby, Catton, Catcott, &;c. An old fa- 
mily in Kent wrote themselves De Cat, 
implying a local origin. Philipotts Vill. 
Cant. 75. 

CATTELL. The Welsh Annals (An- 
nales Cambriaj, Mon. Hist. Brit.) mention 
a Catell, king of Powys, in a.d. 808, and 
other eminent personages of the same 
Christian name. Cattal is, however, the 
name of a township m the W. R. of York- 
shire. The forms in the H.R. are De 
Catallo and Catel. A French Protestant 
refugee family of Catel settled in England 
temp. Elizabeth. 

CATTERNS. Probably from one of the 
places called St. Catherine's, in cos. Somer- 
set, Dorset, Surrey, &c. 

CATTON. See Caton. 

CAUDLE. A corruption of Cauldwell, 
a hamlet in Derbyshire. 

CAUDWELL. Cauldwell, co. Derby. 

CAUGHT. R.G. 16. Possibly a Cock- 
ney pronunciation of Court. 

CAUL. A dam-head. Jamieson. 

CAULCUTT. The same as Caldecott. 

CAULTON. See Calton. 

CAUSEY. A causeway, or raised path, 
latinized De Calceto. A priory in Sussex 
bore this designation from its having 
stood at the end of a causeway. 

CAVALIER. A horseman, knight. 

CAVALL. "Caval signifieth a horse." 
Camd. Fr. cheval, from Lat. cahallus. 

CAVE. Two parishes in Yorkshire, 
called North and South Cave, were the 
residence of the ancestors of the Caves now 
of Stretton, co. Derby, soon after the Con- 
quest. Shirley. 

CAVELL. CAVILL. Cavill, a township 
in Yorkshire. 

CAVENDISH. Roger de Gcrnon, a 
cadet of the great Norman family, temp. 
Edw. II., acquiring with the heiress of 
John Potton, the lands of Cavendish, co. 
Suffolk, adopted De Cavendish for his sur- 
name. Peerage. 

CAW. Probably the same as Call. 

CAWDREY. See Cowdery. 

CAWLEY. See Galley. 

CAWOOD. A parish in Yorkshire. 

CAWSTON. CAUSTON. A parish in 

CAWTHORN. A parish in Yorkshire. 

CAXTON. The illustrious printer was 
bom in Kent about the year 1412. The 
name occurs in Sussex in 1341, (Nonae,) 
and in Cambridgesh. and Hunts temp. 
Edw. I. (H.R.) as De Caxton, doubtless 
from Caxton a parish in co. Cambridge. 

CAY. Formerly spelt Key. B.L.G. 

CAYLEY. CAYLY. Cailli in the ar- 
rondissement of Rouen gave title in 1661 
to a marquisate. Some six centuries 
earlier, it had probably given name to the 
A-Norm. family, whose representative, 
temp. Edw. I., was Hugh de Cailly, lord of 
Orby, CO. Norfolk, ancestor of the baronetic 
and other existing branches of the sur- 

CAYSER. In the H.R. Le Cayser is no- 
thing more nor less than Caesar. This 
illustrious patronymic is borne at the pre- 
sent day, (teste London Directory) by a 
smith-in-general, a tailor, and a bird-cage 




CEASE. R.G. 16. Possibly from Seez 
or Sees, a town of Normandy. 

CECIL. The name of this noble family 
was written in ancient times, Sitsilt, Sicelt, 
Seycil, Seisil, Cyssell, &c,, until William 
tJecil, Lord Burghley, Queen Elizabeth's 
famous minister, from a whimsical 
notion that he was descended from the 
Roman Caecilii, adopted the present ortho- 
graphy. The family, doubtless of Nor- 
man origin, can be traced to Robert Sitsilt, 
who in 1091 assisted Robt. Fitz-Hamon in 
the conquest of Glamorganshire. Collins. 

CERNE. Parishes in cos. Dorset, &c. 

CHABOT. CABOT. A common French 
surname. In the latter form it is of fre- 
quent occurrence in Jersey. It appears to 
be derived from the little fish known by us 
as the "bullhead," but on the shores of 
Normandy and the Channel Islands, where 
it abounds, as the chabot or cahot. Sebas- 
tian Cabot, the discoverer of Newfoundland 
(bom at Bristol in 1477) is generally as- 
serted to have been of Venetian extraction, 
but there is much reason to believe that his 
father was a native of Jersey, between 
which island and the port of Bristol there 
was commercial intercourse from an early 

CHAD. CHADS. The A-Sax. personal 
name, rendered illustrious in England by 
St. Chad or Cedde, third bishop of Lich- 
field, in the VII. century. 

CHADWELL. A parish in Essex. 

CHADWICK. Chadwyke, a hamlet in 
the parish of Rochdale, the property of the 
family in the XIV. cent. 

CHAD WIN. An ancient personal name. 

CHAFF. Probably from Fr. chauve, 

CHAFFER. See Chaffers. 

CHAFFERS. This name is believed by 
a family bearing it, to be a rather recent 
corruption of the German scliafcr, shep- 

CHAFFIN. See Caffin. 

CHAFFINCH. The bird. 

CHAIGNEAU. A Fr. Protestant refugee 
family, settled in Ireland. 

CHALDECOTT. See Caldecott. 

CHALFONT. Two neighbouring pa- 
rishes in CO. Bucks. 

CHALK. In the county of Kent, where 
this name is principally found, there are a 
parish and a hundred so designated, and 
there is also in co. Wilts, a (mrish called 

CHALKER. A digger of Chalk. Le 
Chalker. H.R. 

CHALLACOMBE. A place in co. 

CHALLEN. The family have sometimes 
borne the arms of Challenor, but query, if 

the name be not derived from Chalons in 
Champagne or Chalons in Burgundy ? 

bably identical with Champion. 

CHALLENOR. See Chaloner. 

CHALLIS. CHALLICE. Probably from 
Chains in Guienne, memorable for the death 
of Coeur de Lion. De Chales. H.R. 

CHALLON. SeeChallen. 

CHALIklERS. Scot, chalmer^ a chamber. 
A name taken from the oflice of chamber- 
lain, dating as far back as the XII. cent, 
in the household of the Scottish kings. It is 
latinized De Camera, and corresponds with 
Chambers and De la Chambre. The family 
of C. of Gadgirth, co. Ayr, who seem to 
have been chiefs of the name, sprang from 
Reginald of the Chalmer, who flourished 
circ. 1160. They fell into decay in the 
XVII. cent. Other families in various 
parts of Scotland bore the same arms and 
were probably cadets. In the H.R. we find 
Le Chalmer, which may be synonymous 
with Thatcher, from the 0. Fr. chahne or 
cliaume^ thatch. 

CHALONER. Cole admits this name 
into his Dictionarj' as that of an ancient 
family. It means in old French either a 
boatman, from chalun, a boat ; or a 
fisherman, from ckalon, a kind of net. 
N. & Q., V. 592. It occurs in the H.R. in 
the forms of Le Chalouner, Le Chaluner, 
Le Chalunner. 

CHALON. See ChaUen. DeChalouns, 
Chaluns, H.R. 


LA YNE. A well-known officer of state, in 
royal and noble houses and courts. There 
are several distinct families bearing the 
surname. Aiulfus Camerarius (the latin- 
ized form) was a tenant in chief in co. 
Dorset, and probably the Conqueror's own 
chamberlain. One of his possessions in 
that county is still called Hampreston- 
Charaberlaine. Ellis, In trod. Domesd. The 
Chamberlaynes of Maugersbury claim from 
John, count of Tancarville, whose descend- 
ants were hereditary chamberlains to kings 
Henry L, Stephen, and Henry II. The 
office of the camerarius was to take charge 
of the king's camera or treasury, and an- 
swered to the treasurer of the household at 
present. Kelham. Besides Aiulfus above 
mentioned, at least five other tenants in 
capite so designated occur in Domesday. 

CHAMBERS. See Chambre de la. 

CHAMBRE DE LA. Literally, ' of the 
CliamlKjr.' Certain royal courts* were an- 
ciently styled camerje or chambers ; e.g., 
the Painted chanil>er, the Star chamber, &o. 
See the Law Dictionaries. Hence the title 
of chamberlain. Sul)ordinate officers were 
styled Tn'sorier,&c., — de la Chambre: hence 
the surname. See Chaml)erlain. 

CHAMIER. Yt. Protestant refugees. 
Sec Deschamps. Perhaps Fr. chaumicre^ 
a cottage. This name was introduced into 


England at the Revocation of the Edict of 
Nantes, 1085. The Chamiers of France 
had been distinguished Protestants of long 

CHAMOXD. In Charters, De Calvo 
Monte. Chaumont, in the arrondissement 
of Argentan in Normandy. The name in 
this orthography occurs in the Battel 

CHAMP. Fr. Afield. 

CHAMPAGNE. From the French pro- 

NON. The parish of Cambemun, in the 
canton of Coutances in Normandy, gave 
name to this family, who in their turn gave 
designation to Clist-Champernowne, co. 
Devon. De Gerville in Mem. Soc. Ant. 
Normandie, 1825. In the XIII. cent, the 
name was latinized ' De Campo Arnulphi.' 

CHAMPIOX. One that fights a public 
combat in his own or another man's quarrel. 
Cotgrave. The well-known office of King's 
Champion has been hereditary in the fami- 
lies of Marmion and Dymoke for centuries. 
Le Champion, Le Champiun, &c. H.R. 

CHAMPNEYS. Fr. Champagnois. A 
native of Champagne. Berry attributes 
four coats to this name, and twenty-one to 
that of Champney. It is sometimes varied 
to Champness. The family claim to have 
been seated at Orchardley, co. Somerset, 
from the period of the Conquest. Sir 
Amian C. lived there temp. Henry II. 
Courthope's Debrett. The latinization is 
De Campania. 

CHANCE. Originally Chance. The 
same as Chancey. 

CHANCELLOR. A name applied to 
various offices, civil and ecclesiastical. 

CHANCEY. Scot, chancy, Fr. chan- 
cexiXy fortunate, happy. Jamieson. See 
however Chauncy. 

CHANDLER. Originally a maker of 
candles, though now erroneously applied to 
a dealer in small wares. In the H.R. Le 
Chaundeler, Le Candeler, and Candelarius. 

CH AND LESS. Perhaps a corruption of 


CHANDOS. Robert de C, ancestor of 
the barons of that name, came from Nor- 
mandy with William the Conqueror, and 
obtained by arms large possessions in 

CHANNING. Apparently an ancient 
personal name. Chening. Domesd. in 

CHANTER. A singer. 

pendage to a church, in which prayers for 
the dead were chanted. Also the residence 
of the precentor (cantor) of a collegiate 
church. In many places lands set apart 
for the endowment of a chantry are so 


w CHA 

CHAPEL. From residence near one. 
In the H.R. we find it written Capello, De 
Capella, Chaple, and Chapel ; and elsewhere 
De la Chapel and Chapelle. 

CHAPLIN. A chaplain ; a priest who 
did the duty of a chapel. Latin capellan us. 
See under ' Ecclesiastical Surnames,' in this 
Dictionary. Albert Chapelain, a Domesd. 
tenant in chief, was the king's chaplain. 
'* The word capellanns may likewise be in- 
terpreted both secretary and chancellor, for 
these officers were in early times one and the 
same, being always an ecclesiastic, and one 
who had the care of the king's chapel." 
Spelman. Kelham. Other Chaplains occur 
in Domesd. In the H.R. the name is found 
under the forms of Capellanus, Chapelein, 
&c. ; we also find Capelyn, now Capelin. 

CHAPMAN. A- Sax. cedpman. Any 
one who traffics, buys, or sells. Richardson. 
In medieval deeds one and the same person 
is described as Chapman and Mercator. 
Le Chapman, H.R. About 150 traders in 
London very appropriately bear this name. 


CHARD. A town in co. Somerset. 

CHARKER, 'To chark' is to make 
charcoal ; a Charker is therefore a charcoal 

CHARLES. 1. The baptismal name. 
2. A parish in co. Devon. In H.R. it is 
found as a surname without prefix. 

CHARLESWORTH. A hamlet in Der- 

CHARLEY. L A diminutive of Charles. 
2. A liberty in co. Leicester. 

and places in cos. Berks, Gloucester, Kent, 
Sussex, Wilts, Worcester, Somerset, Nor- 
thumb., Dorset, &c. &c. The Charltons of 
Hesleyside descend from Adam, lord of the 
manor of Charlton in Tynedale, co. Nor- 
thumb., 1303. B.L.G. 

CHARLWOOD. A parish in Surrey, 
and plaxjes in other counties. 

CHARMAN. Probably a charcoal- 
burner, from * char.' It may however be 
the masculine of char- woman — a man who 
works by the day in trivial occupations. 
The H.R. form is Le Charrer. 

CHARNOCK. A township and estate In 
the parish of Standish, co. Lancaster, an- 
ciently the possession of the family. The 
name has been written Chemoke, Char- 
noke, &c. 

CHARPENTIER. Fr. A carpenter. The 
family bearing the name are obliged to sub- 
mit to the Anglo-French pronunciation 
SJiarpenteer f 

CHART. Parishes, &c. in cos. Kent and 

CHARTER. Probably from the town of 
Chartres, in France. 

Corruptions of Charterhouse — from resi- 




dence at or near a Carthusian monastery. 
Comp. Temple. 

CHARTIER. Fr. A wagoner, carter. 

town in the department of Eure et Loire, in 

CHASE. A cliase " is a privileged place 
for the receipt of deer, &c., being of a middle 
nature betwixt a forest and a park." 
Nelson's Laws of Game. 

CHATAWAY. From its termination, 

doubtless local. 
CHATER. A river of Rutlandshire is 

so called. See Chaytor. 
CHATFIELD. A locality which is not 

identified, but apparently near Lewes, 

CHATLEY. A hamlet in Essex. 
CHATT. A celebrated district in Lan- 
cashire is called Chat Moss. 
CHATTERIS. A parish in the Isle of 

Ely, CO. Cambridge. 
CHATTERLEY. A township in co. 

CHATTERTON. Chadderton, a cha- 

pelry in Lancashire. 
CHATTO. There is, I believe, a place 

80 called in the S. of Scotland. It may 

however be the Fr. chateau. 

CHAT WIN. The same as Chetwynd. 

CHAUCER. See under Hosier. 

CIIAUNCY Cauncy occurs in Holin- 
shed's so-called Roll of Battel Abbey, and 
Chauncy in that of Leland, and the proge- 
nitor of the family is said to have come 
into England with the Conqueror, from a 
place of that name near Amiens. 

CHAUNDLER. See Chandler. 

CHAUNTLER. See Chandler. 

CHAWORTH. Patrick de Cadurcis, or 
Chaworth, a native of Brittany, accompa- 
nied William the Conqueror, and was a 
baron by tenure under that monarch. The 
name was sometimes latinized De Chauris. 

CHAYTOR. See Chater; but, qu. if 
both these names may not be derived from 
the office of king's eschrator — the jHirsoii ap- 
pointe<l to inquire into escheats, or property 
lapsing to the crown through want of heirs 
and other causes. 

CHE ALE. CHEELE. 1. Perhaps the 
same as the Scottish chirl, which has 
the several meanings of child, servant, or 
fellow, in either a good or bad sense, al- 
though, according to Jamieson, niore com- 
monly expressive of di8resi)cct ; it also im- 
plies a stripling, or young man, and is some- 
times an appellation expressive of fondness. 
Pcrhafm ita best synonym is "fellow." 
" A chicl's amanjf uh takin' notes, 
And faith hell prcnt it." 

2. A local name. De Chela is found in 
H.R. CO. Lincoln. 

CHEAPE. A-Sax. cedpan to buy. A 
market ; whence Eastcheap and Cheapside 
in London, and many other local names. 

CHECKLEY. A parish co. Stafford, and 
a to^vnship co. Chester. 

CHEEK. CHEKE. See Chick. 

CHEER. CHEERS. Fr. cAer— like the 
English Dear. 

CHEESE. Ferguson ranks this with the 
A- Sax. Cissa, the Frisian Tsjisse, &c. Chese. 

CHEESMAN. A maker of, or dealer in 
cheese. Le Cheseman, Le Chesemaker. 
H.R. Analogous to the modem 'butter- 


CHEESEWRIGHT. See under Wright. 

CHEEVER. Fr. chevre. A goat. In 
the Domesd. of Devonshire is a tenant in 
capite called William Chievre, otherwise 
Cajira. In B.L.G. it is stated, that "the 
family was established in England by a 
Norman knight in the army of the Con- 
queror, and in Ireland by Sir William 
Chevre, one of the companions of Strong- 

CHEFFIN. SeeCaffin. 

CHENEVIX. A Huguenot family, set- 
tled in Ireland. One of that name was con- 
secrated bishop of Waterford, 1745. 

CHENEY. From Quesnay in the canton 
of Montmartin, department of La Manche, 
Normandy. De Gerville, Mem. Soc. Antiq. 
Normandie, 1825; but Mr. Walford with more 
probability derives the family fromCahagnes 
in the department of Calvados, a village of 
2000 inhabitants, lying S.W. of Caen. They 
held a fief of the Count of Mortain, and at- 
tended him to the Conquest of England ; and 
the feudal relation was retained long after- 
wards in the rape of Pevensey, co. Sussex, 
where their estate was called Horsted 
Keynes. They also denominated Milton 
Keynes, co. Bucks, Winkley Keynes, co. 
Devon, Combe Keynes, co. Dorset, and 
Keynes Court, co. Wilts. Sussex Arch. 
Coll. i. 133. The orthography has taken 
numerous forms, particularly De Chaaignes 
de Caisneto, Keynes, de Cahaysnes, and 
more recently Caney and Cheney. It has 
alHO l)een variously latinized De Caneto, De 
Cnsincto, anil De Querceto— the last under 
an erroneous impression that the name had 
its origin in chexnau^ a grove of oaks. 

CHEPMAN. See Chapman. 

CHEQUER. An inn sign. 

CHERITON. Parishes in cos. Warwick, 
Kent, Hantw, Devon, and Somerset 

CH ERRINGTON. Places in cos. Glou- 
cester and Salop. 

CHERRY. Of Fr. Huguenot origin, and 
said to be descended from the family of De 
Cheries, seigneurs of Brauvel, Beauval, 
&c., in Normandy. B.L.G. Cheris is a 
place near Avranches. The name is latin- 
ised De Ceraso. 




CHERRYMAN. A grower of cherries 
or a dealer in that fruit. So Appleman, 
Pearman, Notman (i.e. Nut-man), &c. 


palatine county. 
CHESNEY. Probably O.f! cheme— 

the oak tree. 
CHESNUT. The tree— from residence 

near a remarkable one. 
CHE SS ALL. Perhaps from Chesil Bank, 

CO, Dorset. 
CHESSMAN. See Cheesman. 

CHESTER. The palatine city; also 
places in Durham, Northumb., and Derby. 
It was probably from Little Chester, in the 
last-named co., that the Cliesters of Cocken- 
hatch assumed the name. 

CHESTERMAK 1. A native of Chester, 
just as we say a Comishman, a Kentish- 
man. 2. Many places where Roman and 
other military stations (castra) existed are 
called cliesters, and residence at such a 
spot may have conferred the surname. 

CHESTERTOX. Parishes, &c. in cos. 
Cambridge, Hunts, Oxford, Stafford, and 

CHESTON. The same as Chesterton. 

in the parish of Manchester, formerly pos- 
sessed by the family. In America the name 
is corrupted to Chetum. 

CHETUM. An American corruption of 
Chetham. See Anecdote in Eng. Sum. 

CHETWODE. Seated at Chetwode, 
CO. Bucks, as early as the Conquest. There 
soon after, Robert de C. fountled a priory. 
The family resided at C. for more than 
twenty generations. Courthope's Debrett. 

CHETWYND. A parish in Shropshire, 
where the family were seated in or before 
the reign of Henry III. 

CHEVALIER. Fr., a knight or horse- 
man. Chivaler was the medieval equiva- 
lent of miles. Le Chevaler. H.R. 

CHEVELEY. Parishes in cos. Berks 
and Cambridge. 

CHEVERON. Possibly from Fr. chevrier, 
a goat-herd. 

CHEW. A parish of Somerset. Cheux, 
a village near Caen in Normandy. 


Modifications of Cheney, which see. 

CHICH. A parish m Essex. St. Osyth 
— Chich. 
CHICHELEY. A parish in co. Bucks. 

CHICHESTER. The family were an- 
cient in Devonshire before their connection 
with Ireland, and the name is doubtless 
derived fi-om Chichester, co. Sussex, though 
some genealogists assert that it is from 
Cirencester, co. Gloucester. 

CHICK. See Chich. 

CHIDELL. Cheadle, towns in cos. 
Chester and Stafford. 

CHIDLOW. A township in Cheshire. 

CHIFFINCH. A provincial pronuncia- 
tion of Chaffinch. 

CHILCOTT. Chilcote, a chapelry in co. 

CHILD. The son and heir in noble 
and royal families. The word was em- 
ploved by Spenser, and in the old ballads, 
as the " Childe of Elle," " Child Waters," 
&c. See Eng. Sum. i. 214. InDomesd.the 
epithet Cild or Cilt is applied to several 
persons of distinction. Le Child. H.R. 


CHILDREN. Corresponds, as Ferguson 
thinks, with the O. Germ, personal name 
Childemna or Hildemna. 

CHILLMAN. Perhaps from A-Sax. dlle, 
a wooden tankard, or leather bottle, and 
man. Childman and Childmannius are 
found in the H.R. 

CHILTON. Parishes in cos. Berks, 
Bucks, Somerset, Suffolk, Durham, Wilts, 

CHILVERS. A parish in co. Warwick. 

CHIMBLEY. Probably a corruption 
of Cholmondeley. 
CHIMNEY. Probably local. 

CHIN. Perhaps a diminutive of Chinbald, 
but more likely local. A De Chene 
occurs in H.R. co. Bedford, and there is also 
a Le Chene. 

CHINBALD. An A-Sax. personal 

CHINNOCK. Three parishes in Somer- 

CHIPCHASE. A place in Northumber- 

CIHPMAN. See Chapman. 

CHIPP. SeeCheape. 

CHISEL. Chishall, two parishes in Essex. 

CHISHOLM. The right of the C's to 
be considered a Gaelic clan has been 
strongly asserted, but Skene thinks their 
Lowland origin evident, and he deems them 
a Norman race from Roxburghshire. Scot. 
Highl. ii. 313. The name however is Saxon 
enough, from cis'd, gravel, and holm, a river 
island. The Highland estate in Inverness- 
shire has been so named from the family in 
recent times. The chief is always distin- 
guished as Tlie Chisholm. There is a pro- 
verb to the effect that, " there are only four 
Thes in the Highlands; Tlie Chisholm, 
Tlie Macintosh, Tlw Devil, and TJw Pope "1 

CHISLETT. A parish in Kent. 

CHISM. An Ulster corruption of the 
Scottish Chisholm. 

CIHSMAN. See Cheeseman. 

CIIITTY. Freckled. "Every lover 
admires his mistress, tho' she be very de- 




formed, ill-favoured, wrinkled, pimpled, 
pale, red, yellow, tamied, yellow-faced; 
have a swollen juggler's platter-face, or a 
thin, lean, chitty face . . . . ; be crooked, 
dry, bald, goggle-eyed ; [though] she looks 
like a squiz'd cat," &c. &c. Burton's 
Anatomy of Melancholy. 

CHIVERS. SeeCheever. 

CHOAT. Probably the same as Chute. 

CHOICE. See Joyce. 

CHOLMLEY. See Cholmondeley. 

CHOLMONDELEY. From the lordship 
of that name in Cheshire, which was pos- 
sessed by the family under the Norman 
earls palatine of Chester. The family 
sprang, in common with many others, from 
the celebrated William Belward, lord of 

I cannot refrain from reprobating the cnrt and ab- 
surd pronunciation of this name — Chulmlerj or Chum- 
ley. Strange that some of our most aristocratic fami- 
lies, who would not willingly concede one jot of their 
dignity in other respects, should be willing to have 
their ancient names thus nicked and mutilated. 
Why should the St. Johns submit to be Sinjen'd, the 
Majoribanks to be Marchbank'd, the Fitz-Johns to be 
Fidgen'd, or the Cholmondeleys to be Chumley'd? 
"VVTiy should the contractions of illiterate " flunkeys " 
be accepte<l in the places of fine old chivalrous sounds 
like those? I would fain have this practice reformed 

CHORLEY. Parishes in cos. Lancaster 
and Chester. 

CHOWNE. Castle Chiowne, Chioune, 
Chun, or Choon, in Cornwall, is a very an- 
cient ruin. See Archaeologia, XXII. 300. 
Davies Gilbert say 8 that this appellation "is 
well known to mean a house in a croft." 
Hist. Comw. iii. 244. Chun, a Welsh fa- 
mily name, is probably identical in signi- 
fication. Chone. H.R. The Chownes of 
Kent and Sussex were said to be descended 
from a follower of the Conqueror, who 
came from La Vendee. B.L.G. 

CHRIPPES. The same as Cripps. 

CHRISP. See Crisp. 

CHRISTIAN. Very common in some 
parts of Scotland. Sir Walter Scott tells a 
story of an imsuccessful gaberlunzie woman 
who in the bitterness of her disappoint- 
ment exclaimed : " Are there no Christians 
here?" and was answered: ^^ C/iri-atians / 
nae, we l)e a' Elliots and Armstrangs!" 
When leprosy was the scourge of Europe, 
the disease was sometimes personal, and 
the patient was called lazarius or lad re ; 
sometimes hereditary, and then the suf- 
ferers were termed Giezites and Les 
Gezits, from Gehazi, the false sen-ant of 
Elisha, from whom they were l)elieved to 
be descended. Sometimes they were called 
Cagots de Chanaan, lepers of Canaan, from 
this belief ; but " their most curious title, 
Crextiaas or Christians, was not given them 
in direct affirmation, but in denial of a 
negative, * not non- C7irigtian,' because being 
considered of Gehazi's lineage, — not only 
Jews, but Jews under a curse, — many would 
be disposed to repel them from commu- 
nion." N. and Q. v. 494. 


See Christopher. 

ally imposed, Camden thinks, as a bap- 
tismal name, in consequence of the indivi- 
dual having been bom on the day of the 
festival. In like manner in France, Noel 
was first a Christian, afterwards a family 

CHRISTOPHER. The Christian name, 
whence Christoffers, Christopher, Christo- 
pherson, Christie, Christy, Christey, and 
probably Chrystall. Also Kitt and Kitson. 

CHRISTOPHERSON. See Christopher. 

CHRYSTALL. Probably a corruption 
of Christie for Christopher. 

CHUMLE Y. A contraction of Cholmon- 

CHURCH. From residence near one. 
In the H.R. this name is found under va- 
rious forms, as Atte Chirche, De la Chirke, 
Ecclesia, De Ecclesia, and Ad Ecclesiam. 

CHURCHER. From residence near 
some church ; or it may be the same as 

CHURCHILL. Kelham makes Roger 
de Corcelles, a great Domesd. tenant in 
the western counties, the ancestor of the 
Dukes of Marlborough. See Courcelle. 
Churchill has, however, a sufficiently Eng- 
lish aspect, and as we find four parishes in 
different counties so called, we need hardly 
seek for a Norman origin. 

CHURCHMAN. One who had the care 

of a church — a churchwarden. See Bridg- 
man. Le Chercheman occurs in the H.R. 

CHURCHYARD. From residence near 
one. The forms in the H.R. are Ate 
Churchehaye (the enclosure of the church), 
and Be and In Cimeterio, the cemetery. 

CHURTON. Places in cos. Chester and 

CHUTE. A parish in Wilts, from which 
county the Chutes of Kent and Somerset 
probably sprang. 

GIBBER. Caius Gabriel Cibber, the 
father of CoUey Cibber the dramatist, was 
a native of Flensburg in Holstein, and set- 
tled in London a short time before the res- 
toration of the Stuarts. 

CITIZEN. A member of the common- 
wealth. The French have the same family 
name in Citoyen. 

CLACHAN. Gael. A druidical circle. 

CLACK. A hamlet in Wiltshire. 

CLAGGETT. See Clcggett. 

CLAPCOTE. A liberty in the parish of 
All -Hal lows, Berkshire. 

CLAPHAM. Parishes, &c., in Surrey, 
Bedford, Sussex, Yorkshire, &c. 

CLAPP. An early Danish surname. 
Osgod Clapa was a Danish noble at the 
court of Canute. From him it is supposed 




that Clapham, co. Surrey, where he had a 
country house, derives its name. Ferguson. 
Hence Clapson, and the local surnames 
Clapton, Clapham, Clapcote, Clapperton, 
Clapshaw, Clapshoe, &c. 

CLAPPERTON. I do not find the lo- 
cality ; but see Clapp. 

CLAPPS. The son of Clapa, an A-Sax. 

personal name. 

CLAPSHAW. Local— "the shaw or 
wood of Clapa." See Clapp. 

CLAPSHOE. A corruption of Clap- 

CLAPSON. See Clapp. 

CLAPTON. Parishes, &c., in cos. Glou- 
cester, Northampton, Somerset, and Cam- 

CLARE DE. "The whole of the south- 
em district eventually fell under the feu- 
dal control of the great De Clare or Cla- 
rence family, who have given their name 
to an English town, an Irish county, a 
royal dukedom, and a Cambridge college." 
Dr. Donaldson, in Cambridge Essays, 
185G, page 60. The name was first as- 
simied from the barony of Clare, co. 
Suffolk, by Richard Fitz- Gilbert, a com- 
panion of the Conqueror, son of Gilbert 
Crispin, Earl of Brione in Normandy, who 
was son of Geoffrey, a natural son of 
Richard I., duke of Normandy. 


CLARK. CLARKE. Lat. cleHcus. Fr. 
Le Clerc. A learned person — that is, one 
who could in old times read and write — 
accomplishments not so rare, after all, as 
we are sometimes induced to think, since 
this is among the commonest of surnames. 
Clark stands 27th and Clarke 39th in the 
Registrar General's comparative list: and 
for 33,557 Smiths registered within a given 
period, there were 12,229 Clarks and 
Clarkes. Thus for every three hammermen 
we have at least one * ready writer.' If the 
Reg. General had reckoned Clark and 
Clarke as one name, it would have stood 
ninth in point of numerousness. As a sur- 
name, Clarke appears frequently to have 
aliased some other appellative; for instance 
the baronet family, C. of Salford, originally 
Woodchurch, from the parish of that name 
in Kent, soon after the Conquest became 
Clarkes (Le Clerc) in consequence of a 
marriage with an heiress, and the family 
for some generations wrote themselves 
"Woodchurch alias Le Clerc," and vice 
versa, until at length the territorial appel- 
lation succumbed to the professional one, 
which was right, for 

" When house and land be gone and spente, 
Then learning is most excellent." 

Several other instances might be quoted to 
show that medieval bearers of the name 
were very proud of it, and hence, doubtless, 
its present numerousness. The word has 
several compounds in our family nomen- 
clature, as Boauclerk, Mauclerk, Kenclarke, 
Petyclerk — the good, the bad, the knowing, 

and the little clerks. Several Domesday 
tenants are designated Clericus. 

CLARKSON. The son of a clerk. 

CLARY. Possibly from Cleri, near 
Alen9on in Normandy. 

CLAVERING. The family spring from 
Eustace, a noble Norman, who had two 
sons ; Serlo de Burgo, who built Knaresbo- 
rough castle, and" John the One-eyed, (Mo- 
noculus). The latter had a son Pagan, 
(" the One-eyed Pagan 1" — qu. Cyclops ?) 
and another son Eustace, the progenitor of 
this line, who derive their name from 
Clavering, co. Essex. See Kimber's Ba- 

CLA VILE. Walter tie C. was a tenant 
in chief in Dorset and Devon. Domesd. 
His male descendants continued to possess 
lands in the former county till 1774. Ly- 
sons. Two Clevilles occur in the Itin. 
Norm. ; one near Pont I'Eveque, the other 
near Yvetot. 

CLAXTON. Parishes, &c. in cos. Nor- 
folk, Durham, Leicester, and York. 

CLAY. Several localities bear this name, 
but the surname must sometimes have 
been adopted from residence in a clayey 
district. The forms in the H.R. are Cley, 
Clai, in le Clay, del Clay, and de la Cleye. Le 
Clayere may be synonymous, although a 
Cleymanne was, according to the Promp- 
torium Parvulorum, a dauber or plasterer. 

CLAYDON. Parishes, &c., in Suflblk, 
Oxon, and Bucks. 

CLAY POLE. A parish in Lincolnshire. 

CLAYTON. Parishes and places in cos. 
Stafford, Sussex, York, and Lancaster. 
The Claytons of the last-named shire claim 
descent from one Robert, who came 
into England with the Conqueror, and 
received Cla}'ton in reward of his services, 

CLAYWORTH. A parish in co. Notts. 

CLEARE. See Clare. 

CLEAR Y. See Clary. 

CLEASBY. A parish in Yorkshire. 

CLEAVE. SeeCleeve. 

CLEAVER. One who cleaves wood. In 
forest districts, lath-cleaving is still a dis- 
tinct occupation. 

CLEE. Parishes in cos. Lincoln and 

CLEEVE. Parishes, &c., in Gloucester, 

Somerset, and Worcester. 

CLEGG. " O. Norse, AZe^^i, a compact 
mass. There was a Northman with this 
surname in the Landnamabok." Fergu- 

CLEGGETT. Perhaps Cleygate, a manor 
in Surrey. 
CLEGHORN. A place in co. Lanark. 

CLELAND. The family were " of that 
Ilk," in CO. Lanark, temp. Alexander III. 




and connected by marriage with Sir William 
Wallace. B.L.G. 

CLEMENCE. See Clement. 

CLEMENT. The personal name, whence 
the modifications Clements, Clemence, 
Clementson, Clemitson, Clemmans, Clem- 
mit, Climpson. 



CLE^nTSON. See aement. 

CLEMMANS. See Clement. 

CLEMMIT. See Clement. 

CLENCH. A parish in Norfolk. 

CLENDON. Perhaps Clandon, co. Surrey. 

CLENNELL. A township in Northum- 

CLERK. CLERKE. See Clarke. 

CLEVE. CLEEVE. Parishes in cos. 
Gloucester, Somerset, and Worcester. 

CLEVEHOG. This name is found in the 
H.R. several times, and in one instance is 
borne by a lady, ' Sibilla Clevehog.' Cleve- 
gris igrU A-Norm., a pig) occurs in the 
same records. Whether from some hazard- 
ous encounter with a wild boar, or from the 
occupation of the hog-butcher, I leave others 
to decide. 

CLEVELAND. A hamlet in the parish 
of Ormesby, co. York. 

CLEVERLY. A corruption of Claverley, 
CO. Salop. 

CLE VL AND. The C.'s of Devonshu-e 
are a branch of the Cleulands or Clelands 
of CO. Lanark. 

CLEWER. A parish in Berkshire, for- 
merly called Cleworth. 
CLIBURN. A parish in Westmoreland. 

CLIFF. Parishes, &c., in cos. Kent, 
York, Sussex, Northampton, and Wilts. 

CLIFFORD. The noble family, sur- 
named from Cliflford (their castle and lands 
in CO. Hereford, which they acquired in 
marriage in the XII. cent.), came from 
Normandy with the Conqueror, and then 
bore the name of Fitz Pons. They claimed 
lineal descent from Richard, Duke of Nor- 
mandy, the grandfather of VVMlliam I. In 
charters, the name is latinized De Clivo 

CLIFT. See Cliff. 

CLIFTON. Parishes, &c., in many coun- 
ties. The Cliftons of Clifton, co. Lancaster, 
have possessed that estate for more than six 

CLIMMIE. A Scottish diminutive of 

CLIMPSON. See Clement 

CLINCH. A township in Northumber- 

C L I N K E R. A-Norra. clink, to ring. A 
ringer of belU. 

CLINKSCALES. As shell signifies a well, 
(see Skell) the second syllable may be a 
corruption of it, and thus the name would 
be local. A capital surname for a shop- 

CLINTON. The duke of Newcastle 
derives from Reinbaldus, who came hither 
at the Conquest, and assumed his surname 
from Glimpton, (anciently written Clinton) 
CO. Oxford, part of the possessions granted 
to him for his services. Peerage. Some 
authorities make Reinbald a De Tancarville. 

CLISBY. SeeCleasby. 

CLIST. At least seven places in co. 
Devon are so denominated. 

CLITHEROE. A town in Lancashire. 

CLIVE. The earl of Powis's ancestors 
derived their name from Clive, co. Salop, 
in which county the family have been seated 
the time of Henry II. 

CLIXBY. A parish in co. Lincoln. 

CLOAKE. CLOKE. Probably from 
the costume of the first bearer. So 
from Mantell, &c. 

CLODD. Perhaps the same as Clode. 

CLODE. Fr. Claude, from Lat. Claudius. 

CLOGG. Ferguson derives it from the 

Danish klog, prudent. 
CLOKE. See Cloake. 

CLOSE. Any piece of ground that is 
enclosed with hedge, wall, or water. 


of cloth, or a dealer in that article. 

CLOUD. In Scotland, M'Cloud is the 
corruption of Mac Leod. 

CLOUGH. A ravine, glen, or deep 
descent between hills. N. of Eng. Cloff, 
Scotl. The doughs of Plas-Clough claim 
a Norman origin, from the Seigneurs de 
Rohan, and appeal to their name and arms 
for proof B.L.G. To my eye, both arms 
and name are as English as need be. 

CLOUTER. Glut, A-Sax., signifies in a 
secondary use a seam or sewing, and hence 
to clout in various provincial dialects means 
to patch or mend, especially shoes. " Old 
shoes and clouted," O. Test. The Promp- 
torium Parvulorum gives — "Clowter, or 
coblere, sartorius," and also " Clowter of 
clothys, sartorius, sartor." Hence a Clouter 
was a man who either improved the * un- 
derstanding,' or mended the ' habits ' of his 
customers ; i.e. either a cobbler or a tailor ; 
probably the former. 

CLOUTMAN. See Clouter. 

CLOVE. Probably a variation of Clough. 

CLOW. A rock. A-Sax. Ilalliw. 

'Clows,' in Dugdale's Hist, of Imbanking, 

signify floodgates. 
CLOWES. Probably the same as Clow. 

CLOWSER. The Scotch dome is a sluice 
or mill-dam. Hence Clowser may be 
" sluice-man " — ^probably a miller. 




CLUFF. See Clough. 
CLUNIE. Cluny, places in cos. Aber- 
deen and Inverness. 
CLUXN. Clun, a town in Shropshire. 

CLUTTERBUCK. The family settled 
in England from the Low Countries, at the 
time of the Duke of Alva's persecution of 
the Protestants. In 1586 Thomas Cloerter- 
booke was sheriff of Gloucester, and from 
that CO. the existing gentry families of C. 

CLUTTON. A township in Chester, in 
which CO. the elder line of the family still 

CLYBURN". aibum, a parish in West- 

CLYDE. The great and beautiful Scot- 
tish river. 

CLYDESDALE. The dale or valley of 
the Clyde in Scotland. 

COACHMAN. The menial servant 

CO AD. COADE. A wood or forest. A 
Breton name, from the Celtic coit, sylva, 

CO ALES. See Cole. 

COAT. See Cott. 

COATES. Parishes, &c., in cos. Glou- 
cester, Leicester, Lincoln, Sussex, York, &c. 

COBB. There is perhaps no monosyl- 
lable in any language that has so many 
distinct meanings as cob. It may be 
thought curious to enumerate them. As a 
VERB, it signifies, 1, to strike; 2, to pull 
the ear or hair ; 3, to throw ; and 4, to 
outdo. As a NOUN, it stands for — 5, a seed- 
basket ; 6, the material of mud walls ; 7, a 
bay-stack of small dimensions ; 8, clover 
seed; 9, an Hibemo-Spanish coin; 10, a 
lump or piece ; 11, a sea-gull ; 12, the fish 
called the miller's thumb ; 13, a harbour, 
as the Cobb of Lyme-Regis ; 14, a young 
herring ; 15, a leader or chief; 16, a weal- 
thy or influential person ; 1 7, a small horse ; 
18, a spider (whence cob-web); 19, the 
bird called a shoveller. It has also many 
compounds, as — cob-castle, a prison ; cob- 
coals, large pit-coals ; cob-irons, andirons ; 
cob-joe, a nut at the end of a string ; cob- 
key, a bastinado used among sailors ; cob- 
loaf, a loaf of peculiar form ; cob-nut, a 
well known dessert fruit — also a game 
played with it; cob-poke, a bag c^irried 
by gleaners ; cob-stones, large stones ; cob- 
swan, a very large swan ; cob-wall, a wall 
composed of clay and straw. The heralds 
in devising anns for the various families of 
Cobbe and Cobb, have as usual alluded to 
some of these objects ; thus Cobb of Bed- 
fordshire has fish (be they herrings or 
miller's thumbs), and shovellers in his coat ; 
Cobb of Peterbridge, co. Norfolk, displays 
two swans (cob-swans) and a fish ; another 
Cobb of Norfolk carries two teals (? shovel- 
lers) and one fish ; while Cobb of Oxford- 
shire gives two shovellers and a (cob-) fish. 
This however by the way. As to the sur- 

A corruption of Corbett or 

name, it may be derived either from — 1, 
Cobb, a port or haven : we have besides the 
names Port and Harbour in our family no- 
menclature ; 2, from the fish or the bird, in 
the same way that we have Pike, Salmon, 
Hawk, Sparrow ; 3, a chief or leader : in 
Cheshire, to cob signifies to outdo or excel 
another in any effort ; or 4, a wealthy or 
influential person, as in the following lines 
from Occleve : — 

" Susteynid is not by personis lowe, 
But cobbis grete this note sustene." 

{See HaUiwell, Johnson, Eng. Sum.) 
This is a very ancient surname. One Leu- 
ricus Cobbe occurs in the Domesd. of Suf- 
folk, doubtless as a Saxon. 



COBBIK Local. De Cobbin.H.R. co. 

COBBLEDICK. Local. De Cupeldik. 

COBBLER. The occupation. Le Cobe- 
ler, H.R. 

COBBOLD. "From the Kobold of 
Germany, a harmless and often kindly 
sprite, something like the Scotch brownie, 
may perhaps come our name Cobbold ; but 
this is doubtful, for we have the name of 
Cobb, answering to a Germ, and Dan. 
name Kobbe, and * bald' or * bold' is one of 
the most common Teutonic composites." 
Ferguson. Cuboid, an A- Sax. personal 
name, is found in Domesday. 

COBBY. Brisk, lively, proud, tyran- 
nical, headstrong. Halliwell — who quotes 
a northern proverb : " Cobby and crous, as 
a new-washed louse." 

COBDEK See Den. 

COBHAM. Parishes in Surrey and 

COBURN. A 'fashionable' pronuncia- 
tion of Cockbum. 

were resident in co. Renfrew for many cen- 
turies. See Peerage, Earl of Dundonald. 
The name is probably local, from a place in 
the district of Paisley. 

COCK. The bird — corresponding to the 
Lat, Gallus, the Fr. Le Coq, Cochet, Coque- 
rel, the Germ. Hahn, &c. Sometimes it was 
as probably a sobriquet applied to a di- 
minutive person. See Cock, below. 
^^COCK. A termination common to 
many surnames. Several theories have 
been advanced as to its meaning, which I 
have discussed at large in Eng. Sum. 
i. 160 — 165. After mature consideration 
I still adhere to the opinions there ex- 
pressed ; namely, that though it may in 
some instances be a corruption of cott, 
a local termination, and in others may 
relate to the male of birds, it is, in a 
great majority of cases, a diminutive 
of ordinary baptismal names, like -kin, 
or -oft, or -ett. I shall not, therefore, 
go over the old ground, but content my- 
self with giving as full a list as I have 




been able to collect, of names with this 
desinence, for with names beginning 
with the syllable I have here nothing to 
do. I do not pretend to account for 
every name, but elucidations of most of 
them will be found in theirproper places 
in this book. 

Acock, Adcock, Addiscock, Alcock, 

Badcock, Bancock, Benhacock, Bea- 
cock, Barcock, Batcock, Bawcock, Bull- 



Grocock. Glasscock. 

Hancock, Hitchcock, Haycock, and 
Hey cock, Hillcock, Heacock, Hedgcock. 

Johncock, Jeffcock. 

Locock, Luccock, Leacock, Laycock, 

Marcock, Meaoock, Maycock, Mul- 


Pocock, Pidcock, Peacock, Pencock, 

Ranecock, or Raincock. 

Sandercock, Slocock, Straycock, Sim- 
cock, Stercock, Silcock, Salcock. 

Tancock, Tillcock. 

Watcock, Woolcock, Wilcocke. 

B^*COCK. This syllable in many local 
names refers probably to the woodcock 
rather than to the gallm, especially in 
Buch names as Cocksedge, Cockshaw, 
CJockshote, Cockshut, Cocksworth. 


* Cokaygne' seems to have been a sort of 
medieval Utopia. Perhaps the earliest 
specimen of English poetry which we pos- 
sess, and which Warton places earlier than 
the reign of Henry 11. , is the humorous 
description of it, beginning — 

" Fur in see, bi west Spaygne 
Is a lond ihote Cockaygne." 

Whatever may be the origin of the word, it 
is evidently connected with the much-de- 
bated cockney, which probably implied an 
undue regard for luxury and refinement in 
the persons to whom it was applied — gene- 
rally to Londoners as contrasted with 
"persons rusticall." See Way's Prompt. 
Parv. HalliweH's Diet. 

COCK BURN. Probably from either 
Cockbumlaw, co. Berwick, or from Cock- 
bumspath in the same county. There is a 
mountain in Ber\vick8hire which is socalled. 

COCKELL. See Cockle and Cockerel!. 

COCKER. In variona EnojHsh dialects 
means a cock-fighter. Halliwell. See how- 
ever Coker. 

AccORDixo TO Cocker — 
is a common phrase as to the correctness of 
an arithmetical calculation. Edward Cocker 
was a Cflebrated arithmetician who flou- 
rislied in the time of the Conmionwealth. 
Le Cockere, H.R. 

COCKERELL. O. Eng. cokerelle. A 
young cock, "gallulus." Prompt. Parv. 

COCKERTON. A township in Dur- 

COCKESBRAYN. This surname occurs 
in the H.R. * Cockbrained' is an epithet 
of much more recent use, implying, accord- 
ing to Halliwell, fool-hardy or wanton. 

COCKETT. A diminutive of cock, 
gallm, like the Fr. Cochet from Coq. 

COCKFIELD. Parishes in Durham and 

COCKIN. A-Norra. co^m — a rascal. 
COCKING. A parish in Sussex. 

COCKLE. Perhaps applied as a term of 
contempt to the followers of Wickliffe, 
who were regarded as cockle, tares, or 
zizania among the true Catholic wheat. 
More probably the second syllable may be 
a corruption of hill. Or it may be like 
Cockett, a diminutive of cock, galliLS. 

COCKMAN. A cockfighter. 

COCK RAM. Cockerham, a parish in 

COCKRELL. See CockereU. 

COCKS. See Cox. 

COCKSHUT. Achapelryin co. Salop, 
and many minor localities. 

CODDINGTON. Parishes in cos. Ches- 
ter, Hereford, and Notts. The Irish family 
migrated to Ireland from Cheshire in 1656. 

CODMAN. Doubtless the same aa Cot- 
man, though a correspondent suggests 
that it means pedlar, from the cod or bag 
in which he carries his wares. 

CODNOR. Places in Derbyshire. 

CODRINGTON. A parish united with 
Wapley, co. Gloucester, where the family 
were seated in the XV. century, and pro- 
bably much earlier. 

COE. 1. In Norfolk, an eccentric old 
man. 2. A Scottish rivulet giving name 
to Glencoe. There is a Beatrix le Coe in 

May be local, or may be of common origin 
with Coffin, Caffin, &c., the root being Lat 
calru,% bald. •' Coffee," says Ferguson, ** I 
take to be the same as Coifi, the name of a 
converted heathen priest, who, on the re- 
ception of Christianity by the people of 
Northumbria, undertook the demolition of 
the ancient fanes. It has l)een asserted 
that this is not an A-Sax. but a C^Tnric 
name, and that it denotes in Welsh a Druid, 
but Mr. Kenible has shown that it is an 
adjective formed from cof, strenuous, and 
means " the l>old or active one." ♦ 

COFFIN. This family possessed Al- 
wington manor, co. Devon, temp. William 
Conq.. and they still reside at I'ortledge in 
that manor. B.L.G. Colvin or Colvinus 


held lands in chief (probably the same) 
under Edward the Confessor. 

COGAN. Local. H.R. co. Devon. 

COGHILL. The baronet descends from 
John Cockhill of Cockhill, gent., who lived 
at Knaresborough, co. York, temp. Rich- 
ard II. 

COHxlM. An estate near Torrington, 
CO. Devon, still in possession of the family, 
who trace their pedigree only to 1547, 
though they were doubtless proprietors at 
a much earlier date. B.L.G. 

COHEN. A common Jewish surname, 
— the Hebrew for Priest. Nearly sixty 
traders of this name occur in Lond, Direct. 

COKE. Lat. coqmis, cocus^ a cook. In 
the rude old ages when family surnames 
began, the chief officers of the kitchens of 
kings and great men were persons of im- 
portance. For example, in Domesday we 
find several Coci, some of whom were 
tenants in capite, and one is expressly 
named " Coquus quidam Regis." The 
orthography coke, for cook, is retained by 
Chaucer ; and in the family of the Earl of 
Leicester, illustrious for its great lawyer 
and its great agriculturist, it still exists. 
In most cases, however, it has taken the 
form of Cook. 

COKER. 1. The original meaning of 
coke is charcoal, prepared or ' cooked' by 
a Coker, or charcoal-burner. 2. Two pa- 
rishes in CO. Somerset, with which one 
family were associated as early at least as 
1272. B.LG. 

COKEYNE. See Cockaigne. 

COLBOURKE. A township in York- 

name of great antiquity. It occurs in Cod. 
Dipl. charter 925,and it is probably of Scan- 
dinavian origin. According to Ferguson it 
may either mean kolhrandr, a burning coal, 
or be a compound of hdlr, ' helmeted,' and 
the proper name Brand. Both Colbrand 
and Colebrand are found as under tenants 
in Domesday. 

COLBURN. See Colbourn. 

COLBY. A parish in Norfolk, and a 
township in Westmoreland. 

COLCHESTER. The town in Essex. 

COLCLOUGH. An estate in Stafford- 
shire, in which county the family resided 
temp. Edw. III. The Irish branch settled 
at Tintcm, co. Wexford, about the middle 
of the XVI. cent 

COLD. A corruption of Cole. 

COLDMAN. A corruption of Coleman. 

COLDRED. An A-Sax. personal name. 

COLDSTREAM. A parish in Berwick- 

COLE. Places in cos. Wilts and Somer- 
set. Also a very ancient Teutonic personal 
name. In Domesd. it appears as a bap- 
tismal — in the H.R. as a family name. 

The same as Cowley, Cooley, 

65 COL 

COLEBROOKE. Places in Salop and 

COLEBY. A parish in co. Lincoln. 

in St. Leonard's Forest, near Horsham, 

A- Sax. personal name mentioned by Bede. 
Coleman and Colemannus in Domesd. 
Probably derived from the occupation of 
charcoal burning, and synonymous with 

COLENSO. R.G. 16. makes this a Cor- 
nish name. 

COLENUTT. SeeColnett. 

COLERIDGE. A hundred and a parish 
in CO. Devon. 

COLES. A genitive form of Cole. 

COLET. COLLETT. "Acolyth, aco- 
lythvsy in our old English called a colet, 
was an inferior church servant, who next 
under the sub-deacon waited on the priests 
and deacons, and performed the meaner 
offices of lighting the candles, carrying the 
bread and wine, and paying other servUe 
attendance." Rennet's Parochial Antiq. 
Bum's Eccles. Law. See Collett below. 


COLFOX. The same as the Colvox of 
the H.R., whatever that may be. 

COLIN. In ScotL probably different 
from the Eng. Collins. Gaelic etymologists 
derive it from cailean or caUean, " the man 
of the wood," or forester. It is still in use 
as a Christian name. 

COLLARBONE. A presumed corrup- 
tion of Collingboume, co. Wilts. So Hol- 
lowbone from Hollyboume. 

COLLARD. Mr. Ferguson fancifully 
derives it from A-Sax. eol, a helmet, and 
heard, hard. But I find no such hard- 
headed gentleman in any early record. 

COLLARMAKER. The occupation. 

COLLEDGE. Probably local, and with 
no reference to any seat of learning, or 
abode of charity. 

COLLEGE. In the west of England 
any court or group of cottages having a 
common entrance from the street is called a 
college, and residence at such a place rather 
than in a university probably originated 
the name. 

COLLEN. See Collin, and Colin. 

COLLER. An idler. See Eng. Sum. 

COLLETT. Has been derived from colet, 
an acolyte, the fourth of the minor sacer- 
dotal orders ; but its true meaning is 
" little Nicholas." Thus the parents of 
St. Colette, who held St. Nicholas in great 
veneration, gave their child in baptism the 
name of " Colette, c'est a dire Petit McJwleJ'^ 
Edinb. Rev. April, 1855. 


COLLET. The original surname of the 
Marquis Wellesley, the Duke of Wellington, 
&c., was written Cowley, temp. Hen. VIII. 

COLLICK. Probably Colwick, co. Not- 

COLLIER. A maker of charcoal, for- 
merly a much more important and common 
occupation than now. In medieval docu- 
ments it is written Le Cohere, Carbonarius, 

lin is one of the diminutives of Nicholas, 
and Collins may be its genitive, and Collis a 
corruption thereof. There are, however, 
other assigned etymons, as Fr. colline, a 
hill, and Gael, cnilein, a term of endear- 
ment. But Collinc is also an ancient 
baptismal name, which existed before the 
compilation of Domesday. According to 
B.L.G. the Collinses of Walford existed, 
eo nomitie, in the time of the Conqueror, in 
cos. Hereford and Salop. 


COLLINGHAM. Parishes in cos. York 
and Nottingham. Like Collingridge, Col- 
lington, Collingwood, CoUingboume, Sec, 
this local name seems to be derived from 
some early proprietor called Colling. 

COLLINGWOOD. I cannnot discover 
the locality. It is probably in Northumb., 
where the famOy have flourished for several 


COLLISON. Colin's son— the son of 
Nicholas. Coly, Colys, and fil'Colini are 
found in the H.R. 

COLLMAN. See Coleman. 

COLLYER. See Collier. 

COLNETT. The Hampshire family are 
said to be descended from a French Pro- 
testant refugee who settled at Gosport, and 
introduced glass-making. Colenutt appears 
to be the same name. 

COLPITTS. I have observed this name 
about Newcastle-upon-Tyne. It was proba- 
bly assumed in the first instance by a per- 
son resident near a coal-jnt. 

COLPUS. A Surrey surname. Calpus, 
probably a Saxon, is found in Domesday. 

COLQUHOUN (pron. Cohoon). An 
ancient clan seated near Loch Lomond. 
The name was taken from the lands of 
Colquhoun in Dumbartonshire. Urafridus 
of Kilpatrick, who had a grant of them 
from Maldowen Earl of Lennox about 
1250, was founder of the family. 

COLSON. The son of Cole. This was 
the name of one of the Danish invaders of 
Northumbria, where Coulson is still a com- 
mon family name. 

COLSTON. A parish in co. Notts. 

COLT. Ferguson thinks this a cor- 
ruption of the name Gold ; but it api>ear8 

66 COM 

in the XIII. cent, in its present form, and 
I see no reason why it should not be de- 
rived from the animal, especially as Le 
Colt is found in H.R. The Colts of co. 
Lanark derive from Blaise Coult, a French 
Huguenot refugee in the XVI. cent. 

COLTIVIAN. A trainer of colts. 

COLTON. Parishes, &c. in cos. Norfolk, 
Stafford, and York. 

COLVILLE. There are three places in 

Normandy called Colleville, situated in the 
respective neighbourhoods of Caen, Bayeux, 
and Yvetot. From which of these came 
William de Colvile of Yorkshire, and 
Gilbert de Colavilla of Suffolk, mentioned 
in Domesd., is not ascertained. The Scot- 
tish peer descends from Philip de C, a 
scion of the A- Norm, family who settled 
beyond the border in the XII. cent. Cole- 
vil, Colevile, Coleville, Colwile, Colewille. 

COLVIN. Colvin or Colvinus was a 
Devonshire tenant in chief, and held his 
lands in the reign of Edw. the Confessor, 
and at the making of Domesd. See Coffin. 

COLWELL. A corruption of Colville. 
COLYER. SeeCoUier. 

comb, Celt, ewm, a hollow in a hill, a valley. 
In medieval writings, At- Comb, At-Cumb, 
&c. There are places called Comb or 
Combe in Sussex, Devon, Somerset, «fcc. — 
Combs in Suffolk — Coombe in Wilts, Dorset, 
and Hants, — and Coombs in Sussex, Derby, 
and Dorset. Several of these have conferred 
their names on families. 

^^COMBE, as a termination. See pre- 
ceding article. A correspondent has sent 
me a list of surnames with this desin- 
ence. Some of these will be found iden- 
tified with the localities which gave 
them birth in their proper places in this 
work. Of others the situation is un- 
known to me. 
Ashcombe, Aynscombe. 
Bamscombe, Brimblecombe, Burcombe, 
Bronescombe, Brownscombe, Buncombe, 
Bascombe, Belcombe, Brimacombe, Brans- 
combe, Bidecombe, Battiscombe, Buddi- 
combe, Biddlecombe, Balcombe. 
Corscombe, Challacombe. 
Doddescombe, Dimscombe, Discombe, 
Duncombe, Dacombe, Delacombe, Duns- 
combe, Dascomlje, Dorkcombe. 

Ellacorabe or Ellicombe, Encombe, Ee- 
combe, Edgecombe. 

Famcombe, Feamcombe. 
Ooscombe, Gatcombe. 
Hanscombe, Halcombo, Harcorabe, Hol- 
licomlHj, Holcombe, Haccombe, Har- 

Tjftrcomlw, Ijoscombe, Liscombe, Lips- 
coml)e, Luscombe, Luocombe, Levercombe. 


Norcombe, Newcombe, Nutcombe. 

Puddlecombe, Puddicombe, Pincombe, 

Ranscombe, Rascombe. 

Stincombe, Sercombe, Smallcombe, 
Smallacombe, Slocombe, Stancombe, See- 
combe, Southcombe, Syndercombe, Sal- 

Tingcombe, Tincombe, Tidcombe, Tud- 
dicombe, Totscombe. 

Withecombe, Woolcombe, "Winchcombe, 
Wescombe, Wollocombe, Whitcombe, 
Wamecombe, Widecombe, Winscombe, 
Wiscombe, "Welcombe. 


Yarcombe, Yescombe. 

Professor Leo asserts that cumb means a mass of 
water — it originally signified a trough or bowl, and 
subsequently, not a valley — as Bosworth wrongly 
asserts — ^but an extensive though running sheet of 
water. The I*rofessor's groimd for this statement 
appears to be the occurrence of a hed/od and an 
oewylm, — a head and a spring — ^in connection with 
a cumb; (Cod. Dipl. II. 28, 29.) but surely this is very 
slender e\idence for so sweeping an assertion. The 
upper end of a valley is called its head, and that there 
should be a spring in a valley is nothing extraonlinary. 
I maintain, therefore, with Dr. Bosworth, that combe 
is a valley, either with or without water. Within 
the compass of a morning's walk from the spot where 
I write this, there are a score or two of combes with- 
out a drop of water. In fact, the South Dowms are full 
of these depressions, which, fh)m their geological 
position, can no more ' hold water ' than can this 
notion of the le^imed philologist of Ualle. 

COMBER. 1. One who combs or pre- 
pares wool. 2. A modification of At- 
Combe. See termination er. 

COMBERBACH. A township in Cheshire. 

COMER. Perhaps the same as Comber. 

COMFORT. Perhaps a corruption of 
the local surname Coraerford. 

COMIN. See under Gumming. 

COMLEY. Doubtless local, rather than 

COMMANDER. R.G. 16. A leader 
in some enterprise. Le Comandur, H.R. 

COMIMERELL. 1. From Heilbronn in 
Suabia in 1732, and naturalized in 1752. 
2. Comberwell near Bradford, co. Wilts, 
gave name to a family called De Comer- 
welle, whence probably this surname, in 
some cases. Vide Jackson's Account of 
Kingston House, Bradford, reprinted from 
the Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine. 

COMMINS. See under Cummmg. 

COMMOX, Local — from residence at 

COMMONER. 1. Local— from residence 
at a common. See termination er. 2. A 
member of a university. 

COMMONS. A pluralization of Common. 

COMPTON. The Marquis of Nor- 
thampton derives from Turchil, possessor 
of Arden, co. Warwick, before the Con- 
quest. His descendant Osbert, in 11G9, 
assumed the name of Compton from his 
estate in the same county. The Gazetteer 
mentions thirty other places of this name 
in various counties. 

67 CON 

COMRIE. A parish in Perthshire. 

COIVIYN. See Cumming. 

CONAN. An ancient personal name oc- 
curring in the poems of Ossian. It is some- 
t jnes corrupted to Cannon and Canning. 


O'Concanons derive from Dermot, brother 
of Murias, 29th king of Connaught, who 
flourished in the IX. cent. B.L.G. The 
surname seems to have been established 
prior to the XL cent. 

CONDER. " Conders (in Fishery) are 
those who stand upon high places near the 
sea-coasts, with boughs, «kc., in their hands, 
to make signs to the men in fishing-boats, 
which way the shoal of herrings passes, 
which they discover by a kind of blue 
colour the fish make in the water." Bailey's 
Diet. See Eng. Surn. 

CONDUIT. Local — from residence near 

CONGERTON. Perhaps either Conger- 
ston, CO. Leicester, or Congleton, co. 

CONGREVE. An estate in co. Staflbrd, 
which has been held by the family almost 
from the time of the Conquest. B.L.G. 

CONINGSBY. A parish in Lincolnshire. 
The peers of this name are descended from 
a family who formerly possessed Coningsby, 
a town in co. Salop. Burke's Ext. P. But 
qu : 1 . Can such descent be shown ? 2. Is 
there a to^vn so called in Shropshire ? 

CONNELL. The Irish O'Connell, 
sans O. 

CONNELL AN. The family O'Connellan 
is Milesian and deduced from the great 
famUy of O'Neill. B.L.G. 

CONNINGTON. Conington, parishes in 
cos. Cambridge and Hunts. 

CONNOCK. Cornish. Rich, prosperous, 
thriving, successful. Davies Gilbert's Corn- 
wall, i. 176. 

CONNOP. Probably Conhope, a town- 
ship in CO. Hereford. 

CONNOR. See O'Connor. 

CONQUEROR. A victor— probably in 
some rustic game. Conquestor is found in 
the H.R. The singular name Conquergood 
is not easily explained. 

CONQUEST. Probably a contraction 
of Conquestor. •' Willelm' Conqnestor''' 
is the name of a private person mentioned 
in the H.R., and Robert Conqneraunt is 
found in the same documents. Houghton- 
Conquest, co. Bedford, derives its suflix 
from the family, who were possessors of it 
before 1298. Esch. 26. Edw. L Lysons. 

CONRATH. Probably Conrad, a per- 
sonal name. 

CONSTABLE. An office formerly of high 
dignity in ro5-al courts. The great York- 
sliire family descend from Robert de Laci, 
whose ancestors had been constables of 




Chester under the celebrated Hugh Lupus, 
temp. Will. Conq. 

CONSTANCE. Probably Coutances in 
Normandy, which is latinized Constantia. 

CONSTANT. 1 . A contraction of Con- 
stantine. 2. An honourable appellation 
denoting the constancy of the bearer. 3. A 
sobriquet applied to one who was regular 
and pertinacious in some habit or custom. 
I knew a person whose real name was Has- 
tings, who was better known among his 
neighbours as * Old Constant,' from the , 
regularity with which he appeared at a 
certain time in a certain place. 

CONWAY. One of the few local sur- 
names adopted from places in Wales. The 
extinct noble family was traced to 5 Richard 
II. Conway or Aberconway is in co. Caej- 

CONY. Of common origin with the 
Dues de Coigni in France. The ancestor 
was chamberlain to Isabella of France, 
and accompanied her to England on her 
marriage with king Edw. II. The Eng. 
family's armorial coat is identical with that 
of the present Due de Coigni. Gent. Mag. 
May, 1859. 

CONYERS. "Of this ancient famOy, 
originally wrote Coigniers, denominated 
from a place of that name in France, was 
Roger de Coigniers, that came into England 
about the end of the reign of Will, the Con- 
queror, to whom the bishop of Durham 
gave the constableship of Durham." Kimber. 
The family gave the Bufl&x to Howton 
Coigniers, co. York. 

CONYNGHAM. The family of the 
Marquis C. and of Lord Londesborough 
descend from the Scottish house of Cunyng- 
ham and from the Earls of Glencaime. 

COODE. Code was a tenant before 
the compilation of Domesd. An ancient 
family long settled at Morval, co. Cornwall, 
have at various periods written themselves 
Code, Coad, and Coode. C. S. Gilbert's 
Comw. ii. 72. 

COOK. COOKE. The occupation. In 
Domesd. there are several tenants styled 
Cocus, and one, * quidam Coquus Regis.' 
Coke is an archaic form of the name. 
The Lond. Direct, has more than 250 
traders of this surname. 

COOKES. Cook pluralized. 

COOKSON. One of the few instances of 
the addition of the termination son to a 
profession or employment So Smithson, 
Stewardson, Shepherdson. Fil'Coci is its 
form in the H.R. 

COOKWORTHY. Doubtless local, the 
Y being an unnecessarj- addition. 

COOLEY. Probably a corruption of 
Cowley. The ancestors of the Duke of 
Wellington, prior to their assumption of the 
name of Wesley or Wellesley, wrote their 
name indifferently Colley, Cowley, and 
Cooley. Tinies, 15 Sept., 1852. So Cooper 
waa anciently Cowper. 

COOLING. A parish in Kent. 

COOMBER. See Comber. 

COOIVIES. See Coombe. 

COOPER. The occupation— a maker of 
barrels, tubs, &c. ; originally from coop, to 
keep or contain anything, whether wine in 
a cask, or a hen in her prison. A-Sax. 
kepan, cepan. See Cowper. Le Coupere, 
Coupare, Cuparius, &c., H.R. 

COPE. In Domesd. signifies a hiU. 
Bailey's Diet. 

COPEMAN. 1. A chapman or merchant. 
Halliwell. 2. Bailey says that cope was a 
tribute paid to the king out of the lead 
mines in Wicksworth, co. Derby. Perhaps 
the collector of this tax was the original 
Copeman. 3. Cope is also the name of a 
priest's vestment; and the Copeman may 
have been the maker of that article. 4. It 
may be equivalent to Hillman. See Cope. 

COPLESTONE. A hamlet in the parish 
of Colebrook, co. Devon, said to have been 
possessed by the family before the Conquest. 
Polwhele's Devon, ii. 35. See Croker. 

COPLEY. Very ancient in Yorkshire. 
Local — but I do not find the place. 

COPNER. A-Sax. copenere, a lover. 

COPP. The top of a hill, or any emi- 

COPPEN. COPPENT. Elevated— as 

'■'■ coppin in hevin," elevated to heaven. 
Jamieson. The root appears to be A-Sax. 
cop. the summit. Probably from the lofty 
residence of the first bearer. 

COPPER. A cup bearer. "Palice of 
Honour," quoted by Jamieson. A-Sax. cop^ 
a cup. 

COPPERWHEAT. A corruption of 
Copperthwaite. See Thwaite. 

COPPERWRIGHT. See under Wright. 

COPPINGER. * Copenere ' is the A-Sax. 
for lover; but a more probable derivation is 
from copjnn, which Halliwell defines as * a 
piece of yam taken from the spindle.' A 
Coppinger was then perhaps in medieval 
times one who had the care of yarn or who 
produced it. To live like a Coppinger is 
a Suffolk proverb, which points to the 
wealth and hospitality of a family of this 
name who flourished in the XVL and 
XVII. cent, at Buxhall in that county. 
Gent. Mag. Jan. 1831. The name is found 
in the archives of Cork so early as temp. 
Edw. II. B.L.O. 

COPPOCK. From the termination, pro- 
bably local. See OCK. 

COQUERELL. See Cockerell. 

CORBET. Corbet, a noble Norman, came 
into England with the Con<iueror, nnd from 
his son Roger Corbet descended the baro- 
nial house, as well as the families of the 
name now existing. Courthope's Debrett. 

CORBY. Parishes, &c. in cos. Lincoln, 
Northampton, and Cumberland. 




CORDER. Perhaps a maker of cord — 
analogous to Koper. Le Corder. H.R. 

CORDEROY. Fr. Coeur de Rot, king- 
hearted ; metaphorically applied to a man of 
noble and generous disposition. Perhaps, 
however, the same as Cowdray. 

CORDINER. Fr. cordonnier. A shoe- 
maker. In the H.R. Le Cordewener, Le 
Cordewaner, Corduanarius, &c. 

CORDREY. See Corderoy. 

CORDUKES. In Ireland, said to be a 
corruption of the Fr. surname Cordeaux, 
which means literally small cords or lines. 

CORDY. Ferguson derives it from O. 

Norse kordlj a sword, but it is more probably 

CORFB. Parishes in cos. Dorset and 


CORK. Not from the Irish city, as has 
been conjectured, but from Core, an ancient 
Celtic personal name. 

CORKER. Perhaps a maker of corks. 

CORLEY. A parish in co. Warwick. 

CORMACK. A personal name. Gael. 

CORNS. CORNU. R.G. 16. See under 

CORNELIUS. The personal name. 

CORNELL. A local pronunciation of 

Cornwall ? 

CORNER. From residence at the corner 
of a street or highway. In the H.R., De la 
Comere. It was latinized by in Angulo. 
In the second vol. of the Rolls it occurs as 
in Agrjlo five times (all with diflferent 
Christian names,) as in Anglo 17, andasi/i 
Angnlo 19 times. A less likely derivation 
is from Le Coruner and Coronator, a coroner. 
De Comer and Le Corner are also found in 
the H.R. See Nangle. 

CORNEWALL. Richard, second son of 
King John, titular King of the Romans 
and Earl of Cornwall, had according to 
Sandford's Geneal, Hist, two natural sons, 
Richard de Come wall, and Walter de C. 
From the fonner sprang the barons of Bur- 
ford, now represented by Geo, Coraewall 
Legh, of High Legh, co. Chester, Esq., the 
Cornewalls of Delbury, co. Salop, &c. 

CORNEY. A parish in Cumberland. 
Also a nickname of Cornelius. 

CORNFORD. Perhaps Cornforth, co. 

CORNISH. Belonging to Cornwall- 
applied originally to one who had removed 
from that to another county. A family so 
called at St. Issey in Cornwall, "origin- 
ally descended from one William Cornish, 
who settled here temp. Queen Mary, a 
Wchhman:'' D. Gilbert's Comw., ii. 255. 

surnames of Cornwall present some 
marked peculiarities, which render it 
convenient to treat of a large body of 

them in one article. In most of the 
countries and districts where the Celtic 
dialects prevail, or have prevailed, the 
family names are principally of the 
yaironymical class — the son or descend- 
ant having assumed the name of the 
father or ancestor with some prefix. 
For instance, most of the Gaelic sur- 
names were personal names compounded 
with Mac ; the Irish with O' ; the Welsh 
with Ap or Ab. In Comwall, however, 
the names are principally of the local 
sort, and as the names of places in that 
county are generally derived from Celtic 
roots, possessing, as to the first syllable 
at least, a generic meaning, it has be- 
come proverbial that — 
" By Tre, Pol, and Pen, 
Ye shall know the Cornish-men." 
while a less known and more compre- 
hensive distich with more truth affirms 
" By Tre, Ros, Pol, Lan, Caer, and Pen, 
You may know the most of Comishmen." 
Tke is equivalent to the A- Sax tun, a 
town, or enclosure ; Ros to heath, or 
unenclosed ground ; Pol, to pool ; LAN, 
to church ; C.ver or Car, to a fortified 
place; and Pen, to a headland. In 
Breton local names and surnames, the 
same prefixes occur, though " pol " is 
written poul, and " car," or " caer," 
Tier. In Wales there are likewise many 
place-names with these syllables, with 
modified orthographies and modified sig- 
nifications — Tre, Rhos, Pwll, Llan, Caer, 
and Pen ; but these with rare exceptions 
have not given names to families. In 
Scotland, Ros, Caer, and perhaps some 
of the others, occur in the same sense ; 
and also in Ireland, but as these are but 
rarely, if at all, found as surnames, they 
belong rather to topographical than to 
family nomenclature. In the following 
lists I have arranged such Cornish sur- 
names as have occurred to me en masse, 
reserving such elucidations as seem 
necessary for their particular and proper 
places in the alphabetical order of the 
Surnames in Tre. — Trebarfoot, Treber- 
sey, Trebilliock, Trebilcock, Treby, Tre- 
carrell, Tredenham, Tredidon, Tredin- 
ham, Tredinick, Tredrea, Trefelens, 
TreflErey, Trefusis, Tregaga, Treagagle, 
Treagago, Treganyan, Tregarick, Tre- 
garthen, Tregea, Tregeagle, Tregean, 
Tregeare, Tregedick, Tregenna, Tregian, 
Tregillas, Tregion, Treglisson, Tregon- 
nelJ, Tregors, Tregose, Tretgohnan, 
Tregoweth, Tregoze, Tregury, Tregyon, 
Trehane, Trehavarike, Trehawke, Tre- 
iagn, Treice, Trejago, Trekynin, Tre- 
lander, Trelawney, Tremaine, Treman- 
heer, Trembraze, Tremearne, Treman- 
heere, Tremere, Tremle, Tremogh, Tre- 
nance, Trencreek, Trengone, Trengore, 
Trenhayle, Trenheale, Trenouth, Tre- 
noweth, Trenwith, Trerize, Tresahar, 
Tresilian, Tresithney, Treskewis, Treth- 
ake, Trethinick, Trethurfe, Trevanion, 
Trevannion, Treveale, Treveally, Trevel- 
lans, Trevelles, Trevener, Trevenor, 




Treverlyn, Trevethen, Trevilian, Tre- 
ville, Trevingy, Trevisa, Trevithick, 
Trevorva, Treweeke, Trewenethick, 
Treweme, Trewhella, Trewhythenick, 
Trewin, Trewinard, Trewolla, Trewoofe, 
Trewoolla, Trework, Treworthen, Tre- 

Surnames in Ros. — Roscarrack, Ros- 
carrock, Roscorla, Roscrow, Roscruge, 
Rosecossa, Roskynier, Rosogan, Ros- 
wame, Roseveal, Roskilly. 

Surnames in Pol. — Polamonter, Pol- 
kinghome, Pol whele (modified in Sussex 
to Polhill), PoUey, Polwin, Pollexfen (?), 
Polglaze, Polwarth, Polyblank (?). 

Surnames in Lan. — Lanbaddern, Lance, 
Lander, Langhaime, Langheme, Lan- 
hadem, Lanhedrar, Lannar, Lan- 
wordaby, Lanyon. 

Surnames in Car. — Cardew, Cardinham, 
Carew, Carlyon, Carminowe, Came, 
Camesew, Carrow, Carthew, Carverth, 

SURNA^LES in Pen. — Penalmick, Pena- 
luna, Penarth, Pencarow, Pencoil, Pen- 
darves, Pender, Pendrea, Peneligan, 
Penferm, Penforme, Penhallow, Pen- 
halluwick, Penhellick, Penkevil, Penlee, 
Penlyer, Pennalyky, Pennant, Penneck, 
Penpons, Penrin, Penrose, Pentine, 
Pentire, Penularick, Penwame. 

For another group of Cornish surnames 
see the article Nan. 

CORNOCK. The family settled in Ire- 
land temp. Cromwell. B.L.G. The name 
may be from Camock, a parish in Fifeshire. 

CORNWALL. See Cornewall. 

CORNWELL. A parish in Oxfordshire. 

CORNWALLIS. Originally applied to 
a native of Cornwall ; so Wallis to a Welsh- 
man, Londonoys to a Londoner, &c. Le 
Comwaleys, Comvaleis, &:c. H.R. 

CORRIE. CURRIE. Sir Walter Scott 
has introduced this ancient word into the 
beautiful funeral song of the Clansman, in 
his Lady of the Lake : — 

" Fleet foot in the corrie. 
Sage counsel in cumber, 
Red hand in the foray, 
How sound is thy slumber." 

An explanatory note to the word says : — 
•' Corrie or Cori ; the holhm side of the 
hill where game usually lies." 

CORRY. See Cotvxq. 

CORSBIE. CORSBY. Perhaps Cosby, 
CO. Leicester. See Cosby. 
CORSCOMBE. A parish in co. Dorset. 

CORSELLIS. Refugees from the Low 

Countries, who settled in Essex or Norfolk. 

A descendant became lord of the manor of 

Layer- Maniey, in P^ssex. 
CORSHAM. A parish in Wiltshire. 
CORSTON. Places in cos. Somerset, 

Wilts, and Worcester. 
CORT. Probably the O. Norse kortr, 

short. Ferguson, 

CORTIS. Courteous. See Curtis and 

CORY. The same as Corrie. 

CORYTON. An estate in Lifton, co. 
Devon, possessed by the family as early at 
least as 1242. C. S. Gilbert's Cornwall. 

COSBY. A parish and estate co. Lei- 
cester, said to have been the property of the 
family before the Conquest. 

COSCAR. See Mac Oscar. 

in Northamptonshire. 

COSHAM. Probably the same as Cor- 

COSSENTINE. A correspondent of 
N. & Q., X. 409, states, that more than 
thirty years ago he knew a small farmer of 
this name in Cornwall, as illiterate as men 
of his class usually are, and in straightened 
circumstances, who notwithstanding was 
the " high lord " of a considerable estate in 
or near to the parish of St. Veep, and exer- 
cised manorial rights over certain wood- 
lands there. This man's statement was, 
that his family " were formerly Emperors of 
Constantinople, that their name was Con- 
stantine, and that it had been softened into 
Cossentlne by vulgar pronunciation. When 
the Turks took the city, his family made 
their escape, and came to England, bringing 
with them great wealth, with a portion of 
which they bought the property of which 
he was still the ' high lord ; ' and a large 
sum was also deposited in the Tower of 
London." The honest man doubtless be- 
lieved himself to be a descendant of the 
Eastern Emperors, and thought the pos- 
session of the ancestral right referred to a 
sufficient confirmation of his lofty claim. 
The probability however is, that his fore- 
fathers were a gentry family whose surname 
had been borrowed from the parish of Con- 
stantine in Cornwall, and that he had con- 
founded them with another family who 
settled in the XVII. cent, at Landulph, in 
that county, and who were veritable des- 
cendants of the imperial house. See Paleo- 
logus. In the reign of Queen Elizabeth, a 
family of Costentyne resided in the West 
Riding of Yorkshire. 

COSSINGTON. Parishes in cos. Lei- 
cester and Somerset. 

COSSOM. See Cosham. 

COSTEKER. Of a common origin with 
the 0. Germ, name Custica. Ferguson. 

COSTELLO. Among the many A- 
Norm. settlers in Ireland, temp. Henry IL, 
was Hostilio de Angulo. His descendants 
were called Mac-Ostello (son of Hostilio) 
which by still further corruption became 

COSTER. COSTAR. Du. "A'o«ter, 
deurwaarder van een Catholyke kerk." 
Marin's Diet. A sacristan. 

COSTIDEL. Costedhall, a manor in 
Essex. Hist. Lewes, ii. Apj). i. 



COSTO^MER. A collector of royal 
customs was called a cuMomer so lately as 
the XVII. cent. 

COSTON. Parishes in cos. Leicester 
and Norfolk. 

COTE. See Cott. 

COTGRAVE. A parish in co. Notting- 
ham. De Cotegrave occurs in that county 
in H.R. There was also a Cheshire family 
of this name. Thomas, one of the grand- 
sons of the great William Belward, Lord of 
Malpas, held the lands of Cotgrave, and 
from them assumed the surname De Cot- 

COTHAINI. Places in cos. Nottingham 
and Lincoln. 

COTHER. A corruption of the name 
of several places and rivers in Scotland 
called Calder. 

COTHERBONG. "I know," says a 
Lancashire correspondent, " a man whose 
name was Calderbank, from the river 
Calder; his grandson on entering the 
militia persisted that it was Cotherbong, 
under which corrupt spelling it was enrolled. 
I was only satisfied by a reference to the 

The same correspondent pertinently adds : " Names 
which are unaccountable are generally mere corrup- 
tions of names of places or other words. The ignorant 
do not know how to spell ; the curate, the registrar, 
and the relieving-officer just do it phoneticaily, and 
take no interest, and no trouble : and thus a perpetual 
corruption is going on. 

COTMAN. The cotmannus, i.e., the cot- 
tarius, cotter, or cottager, of Domesd. was 
one who held by free socage tenure, and 
paid rent in provisions or money. Ellis, 
Introd. Domesd. In H.R. Cotman is used 
as a baptismal name. 
COTON. See Cotton. 
COTSFORD. Cottesford, a parish in co. 

B^COTT. COT. COTE. A common 
termination of local surnames, as in 
Walcott, Caldecott, Norcot, Northcote, 
Southcote, &c. It appears to be the 
A- Sax c6te. Professor Leo observes that, 
" ifsele be the dwelling of the wealthy — 
of landowners, cute on the other hand 
indicates the abode of the poorer classes. 
Cote is the house of an indigent de- 
pendent countryman, who, without any 
personal estate, holds a transferable 
tenement in fief. It was originally 
a house of mud, or of earth, with 
loam walls." The prefixed word some- 
times indicates the owner's name, and is 
sometimes descriptive of the situation. 

COTTAGE. From residence in one. 

COTTAM. See Gotham. 

COTTER. COTTAR. Scotch. A cot- 
tager. See Cotman. 

times, " the cotcrcllus held in absolute vil- 
lenage and had his person and goods dis- 
posed at the pleasure of the lord." Kennet's 
Paroch. Antiq. He was probably so called, 


like the Cotmanni, or Cottarii of Domesd. 
from residing in a cottage. Another origin 
may be from the cotarelU, costeraux, 
cotermix, mercenary soldiers and freebooters 
whose trade was war and pillage, (Conf. 
Brabazon) and who were so called from the 
coterel, a large knife they carried. Cot- 
grave defines cotereaiix as " a certaine crue 
of peasantly outlawes who in old time did 
much mischiefe unto the nobilitie and 

COTTINGHAM. Parishes in cos. York 
and Northampton. 

COTTLE. Perhaps from the district 
now called Cottles in Wiltshire. 

COTTON. Cottun, a place in the de- 
partment of Calvados in Normandy ; also 
several parishes in the counties of York, 
Chester, Stafford, &c. Both forms, viz. 
De Cottun, and De Cotton, are found in 
the H.R. The Eng. Gazetteer gives many 
places called Cotton. Lord Combermere's 
family trace unbrokenly to the days of 
King John, and there is some evidence of 
their having been seated at Cotton or Co- 
ton, CO. Salop, prior to the Conquest. 

A correspondent sends me the following note from 
a family pedigree. " Cotwn is an ancient British 
word, and signifies in the Welsh language ' an en- 
closure.' The ver>' great antiquity of the family in 
Cheshire, as well as the name of their seat, shows 
them to be of British extraction." The successive 
steps of the orthography seem to have been Cotun, 
Coton, Cotton. 

COTTRELL. See Cotterell. 

COUCHMAN. Probably the same as 
caueher, which Bailey defines as, " an old 
word signifying a factor residing in some 
foreign country for traffic." 

COULES. See Coles. 

COULMAN. See Colman. 

COULSON. See Colson. 

COULTER. A lake at St. Nynians, co. 
Lanark, is so called. 

COULTHART. According to Tradition 
and a most elaborate Pedigree, the Coult- 
harts of Coulthart, co. Wigtown, are des- 
cended from Coulthartus, a Roman lieute- 
nant who fought under Julius Agricola, 
and who gave his name to certain lands 
near Whithorn, which in much later times 
were erected into a barony, and returned 
to the family its generic appellation, when 
surnames became common. The genealogy 
in question associates the heads of the fa- 
mily with many great national events in 
connection with the Romans, Picts, Scots, 
Danes, Irish, Normans, &c., and may pass 
quarUitm valeat. It is sufficient to observe, 
that few families in Britain can claim a 
more respectable origin than the Coultharts 
of Coulthart and CoUyn, as attested by 
documentary evidence. There can be no 
doubt of the name having origmated from 
the place, as it is written, in the XIII. and 
XIV. centuries, with the territorial prefix 
De. The name of the Scottish locality is 
probably synonymous with that of Coud- 
hard, a village in the department of Ome, 




a few miles N.E. of Argentan in Norman- 
dy. It is deserving of mention, that tlie head 
of this family (in whom now centres the 
blood of Coulthart " of that Ilk," Ross of 
Renfrew, Macknyghte, Glendonyn of Glen- 
donyn, Carmiohael of Carspheme, Forbes 
of Pitscottie, Mackenzie of Craighall, and 
Gordon of Sorbie) has immemorially borne 
supporters to his coat-armour, allusive to 
the name, and perhaps this may be consi- 
dered a unique instance of canting sup- 
parters. A colt and a hart uphold the an- 
cestral escocheon, and I am enabled to give 
an engraving of a seal appended to a char- 
ter of Sir Roger de Coulthart, dated 1443. 
The surrounding legend is " Sigillum 

COULTOX. A parish in co. Lancaster. 
COUMBE. See Combe. 
COUNCILMAN. The office. 
COUNT). A parish in Salop. 


and Barkshire; Cheshire and Chesshyre; 
Cornwall with Cornish ; Cumberland ; 
Derbyshire and Darbishire ; Devonshire 
and Devon, with Devenish ; Dorsettand 
Dorset; Durham; Essex; Hampshire; 
Kent with Kentish: Lancashire and 
Lankshear; Rutland; Somerset; Suf- 
folk; Surrey: Sussex: Westmoreland; 
Wiltshire, Willshire, and Willsher. 

These surnames must have l>een ori- 
ginally given, for the most part, to 
persons emigrating from one county to 
another. TTius a person from Derby- 
shire settling in Sussex, would naturally 
get from his rustic neighl)ours the ap- 
IHjllation of " the Darbishire man," and 
at length by the dropping of unnecessary 
words, he would be called simply 
"Darbishire," and that in course of 
time would become his acknowledged 
surname. Analogous to this is the 
origin of such names as French, 
Scott, Welsh, Fleming, bestowed on 
foreigners who had settled in England. 
In some cases, however, these names 

have a much more dignified origin. See 
for example, Cornwall, and Essex. 

In Wales and Ireland names thus 
formed will hardly be looked for, and 
in Scotland those which appear to be 
of the same class have probably other 

COUPAR. COUPER. Parishes in 
Fifeshire and Perthshire. Sometimes a 
corruption of Cooper. 

COUPER. See Cowper and Coupar. 

COURAGE. 1. Perhaps from Currage, 
a manor in the parish of Cheveley, co. 
Bucks. 2. A family of this name settled 
here after the Rev. of the Edict of Nantes. 

COURCELLE. A place near Bernay— 
another near Andeli in Normandy. 

COURCY DE. According to DeGerville 
this Norman family did not originate from 
the parish of Courcy near Coutances, but 
came from the arrondissement of Falaise, 
Calvados. Mem. Soc. Antiq. Normandie, 
1825. Richard de Curci was a Domesd. 
tenant in chief in co. Oxford. The latini- 
zation in charters is De Curceo. 

COURT. From residence at a court or 
manor-house. At-Court, A'Court, Court. 
A branch of the great Sussex family of 
Covert corrupted their name to Couert and 
Court. Inf. W. D. Cooper, Esq., F.S.A. 

the pedigree of this family is carried up to 
Pharamond, the founder of the French 
monarchy in the year 420, Gibbon only 
traces the residence of the race at Cour- 
tenay, in the Isle of France, to the year 
1020. Indeed it would be useless to attempt 
to carry the origin of the surname beyond 
that point, notwithstanding the extremely 
curious and ingenious suggestion which 
follows : In the history of France we find, 
that "Charlemagne avait donne I'Aquitaine, 
avec le titre de roi, a son fils Louis, sous la 
tutelle de Guillaume au Court-Ncz, due de 
Toulouse." Now who knows but the great 
French family of the Courtenays, and the 
illustrious Courtenays of Devonshire, may 
owe their name to this deficiency of nose in 
William of Toulouse ? Though he does not 
pretend to get at the root, Gibbon only traces 
the family to 1020, when they were estab- 
lished at Courtenay ; but the sobriquet was 
given about the year 790, and might have 
conferred a name upon the castle which 
William inhabited, and the country round 
it." N. & Q. vi. 106. 

COURTHOPE. First occurs in a Sub- 
sidy Roll at Wadhurst, co. Sussex, in exactly 
its present form, temp. Edw. I. Philijwt, 
Somerset-herald, derives it from the hamlet 
of Court-at-Streot, co. Kent, which is im- 
probable, and the real source of the name 
appears to be the lands of Curthope, in Lam- 
berhurst, in that co., which Theobald, 
archbishop of Canterbury, in the XIL cent, 
gave to the abbey of Leeds. Hasted, v. 308. 

COURTIER. Fr. A ship-broker ; pro- 
bably a recent importation from France. 


cousin, consanguineous, kinsman, relation 
by blood. Cosin, Cosyn. H.R. 

COUZENS. COZENS. See Cousens. 

COVE. Places in cos. Hants, Suffolk, 

COVENTRY. The city in co. War- 

COVER. 1. A place where game is pre- 
served. 2. Couver, a domestic connected 
with a court kitchen. Halliw. 

COVERDALE. Perhaps from Cuerdale, 
a township in Lancashire. 

COVERT. « Coverts," says Nelson, " are 
those woods which are thickets, and full of 
trees touching one another .... a covering 
or hiding-place for deer." Laws of Game. 
The great Surrey and Sussex family of 
Covert, whose contiguous manors are said 
to have extended from Southwark to the 
English Channel, traced their pedigree to 
temp. Henry II. 


parish in co. Huntingdon. 

COW. Apparently local. There is a 
place called Cow-Honeyboume in Glouces- 
tershire, and a John de Cowe occurs in the 
H.R., CO. Bedford. It may however be a 
sobriquet, for both De Cu and Le Cu are 
found in the same records, and cu is an an- 
cient orthography of cow. 

COWAN. Probably a corruption of 
Colban, an ancient Celtic name, since Col- 
banstoun in the S. of Scotl. was corrupted 
to Cowanstoun. 

COWARD. Although the popular de- 
rivation of this opprobrious word from 
'"cow-herd *' (whose occupation would l)e re- 
garded with some disdain by the chivalrous 
in the middle ages) is untenable, I think it 
quite probable that the surname may be 
from that source, like Shepherd, Hayward, 
and other similar names. 

COWBRAIN. A known corruption of 

Colbran ! 

COWCHER. See under Couchman. 


DEROY. The map of Normandy exhibits 
many localities called ' Le Coudray,' mean- 
ing a wood or grove of hazels. There is 
also an estate called Cowdray, near Mid- 
hurst, CO. Sussex. De Coudray. H.R. 

CO WELL. Possibly from Cowal, a con- 
siderable district of Argyleshire. 

COWHORN. R.G.16. The H.R. have 
the similar name, Comdeboef (corn-de- 
hfmif) and Corns and Comu still exist as 
suniames. Perhaps applied originally to 
one who blew a cow's horn. See Bugler. 

COWIIUS. {Cowhouse.) Occurs in the 
H.R. It may perhaps be a translation of 
the French Bo u eerie. 

COW IE. A village in co. Kincardine. 

COWL. Probably of similar origin with 
Quaife, which see. 


73 CRA 

COWLEY. Parishes, &'C. in cos. Glou- 
cester, Middlesex, Oxford, and Salop. 

COWLING. Places m Suffolk, Kent, 
and Yorkshire. 

COWLSTOCK. Probably Calstock, co. 
Cornwall. See however Eng. Sum. i. 203. 

COT\^DON. Goundou, places in Dur- 
ham and Warwick. 

COWNE. Probably Cound, a parish in 
CO. Salop. 

COWPER. The old speUing of Cooper. 
The pronunciation of the poet's name, an 
unnecessarily vexed question, is settled by 
this identity. Both the earl and the poet 
sprang from a Sussex family, who in 1495 
wrote themselves Cooper. 


COWTON. A parish and two townships 
in Yorkshire. 

COX. COXE. See Eng. Surn. under 
Cock, i. 165. Probably a synonym of 
Little. It may, however, be the same as 
Cook, from its latinized form, thus : Cocus, 
Cocks, Cox. 

COXELL. Either CoxaU, co. Hereforvi, 
or CoxweU, co. Berks. 

COXON. Coxswain? 

COY. M'Coy, sans Mac. 

COYFE. See Quaife, which in Kent and 
Sussex was so spelt until within the last 

COYNE. SeeCoyney. 

COYNEY. The manor of Weston- 
Co>Tiey, in the parish of Caverswall, co. 
Stafford, seems to have been in possession 
of the family from temp. Hen. III. B.L.G. 
The family probably came from Coigni, 
near Coutances, in Normandy. 

CRABBE. Probably a sobriquet allusive 
to the awkward gait of the bearer. It occurs 
in H.R. in the same orthography and with- 
out prefix. 

CRABTREE. Probably belongs to the 
same category as Appletree, which see. 

GRACE. Fr. gras, from Lat. crassuSf O. 
Eng. crasse. Fat. 


• thorpe. 

CRACROFT. The family were lords of 
the manor of Cracroft, co. Lincoln, in 1284. 

CRADDOCK. See Cradock. 

CRADOCK. Welsh, Cradoc, latmized 
Caractacus — illustrious in British history 
from the patriotic opposition of the Silurian 
leader, Caractacus, to the forces of the 
Roman emperor Claudius. 

This proverb in Ray's collection is supposed 
to apply to an astute, and not over con- 
scientious, ecclesiastic, John Cradock, of 




Durham, at the end of the sixteenth cen- 

CR AFFORD. See Crawford. 

^^ CRAFT. A corruption of Croft, as in 
Horscraft, Calcraft, &c. See Croft. 

CRAFT. A northern pronunciation of 

CRAFTER. The occupant of a craft 
(croft), or small piece of land. Jamieson. 

CRAGG. CRAGGS. See Craig. 

CRAGGY. Probably Craigie. 

CRAIG. A parish in Forfarshire, and 
an estate in Perthshire. As a topographical 
expression, Oraig has the same meaning as 
Carrick, which see. 

CRAIGHEAD. A place in the parish 

of Dailly, co. Ayr. 
CRAIGIE. Parishes in cos. Ayr, Perth, 

and Linlithgow. 

CRAIGMYLE. Probably Craigmill, a 
village in the Clackmannan division of the 
parish of Logic. 

CRAKE. CRAIKE. A parish in co. 

CRAKENTHORPE. A manor in co. 

Westmoreland, which had owners of its 

own name in XII. cent. 
CRALLAN. Perhaps from Crollon, a 

village in the department of La Manche, in 

Normandy. It is sometimes written 

CRAMBROOK. Cranbrook, co. Kent. 

CRAMER. Germ, kramer, a mercer or 
general dealer in a small way of business. 
Creamer is, according to Halliwell, a pro- 
vincial name for " one who has a stall in a 
market or fair, " which is evidently of the 
same origin. Again, to C7'aine means in the 
North to join or mend, and a tinker is 
called a cramcr. Halliwell. 

CRAMOND. A parish in the shires of 
Linlithgow and Edinburgh. 

CRAMP. Possibly from Crambe, a pa- 
rish in Yorkshire. 

B^CRAN. The first syllable of several 
local surnames, signifying crane. This 
was formerly a common bird in Eng- 
land, and its designation was borrows! 
by numerous localities. Among sur- 
names we have — Craney (the isle of 
cranes), Cranfield, Cranston, Cranmer 
(crane's lake), Cranswick, Cranwell, «kc. 

CRANBERRY. Doubtless local— Cran- 

CRANE. The bird— probably first ap- 
plied to a tall, meagre person. Cran, 
Crane. H.R. 


parish in Bedfordshire. 

CRANK. Brisk, jolly, merry. Hal- 

CRANLEY. A parish in Surrey. 

CRANMER. Anciently Crane-mere — 
the hill side of a low swampy country at 
Long Melford, co. Suffolk. 

CRANSTON. A parish in Edinburgh- 
shire, sometimes written Cranstoim. 

CRANSTOUN. See Cranston. The 
Cranstouns were old borderers ,and their 
motto, " Thou shalt want ere I want," pro- 
bably refers to any Englishman in general. 
This charitable sentiment has its parallel 
in the grace aft^r meat of an old lady in 
Sussex : *' Thank God, I've had a good 
dinner, and I don't care who ha'n't 1" 

CRANWELL. A parish in Lincoln- 

SHAY. Local — ' the shaw or coppice 
frequented by crows.' 

CRASKE. O. Fr. eras. Fat. Prompt. 

CRA'STER. The manor of Cra'ster, 
oUm Crawcestre, near Alnwick, was held 
by the family temp. Henry L, and still 
belongs to Cra'ster of Cra'ster Tower. 

CRASWELLER. See CrosweUer. 



CRAVEN. In the days of chivalry this 
word meant a coward — one who 'craved' 
mercy from an antagonist, and it was also 
applied to a fighting-cock that failed in 
" No cock of mine, you crow too like a craven.** 

Taming of the Shrew. 

But the surname is probably derived from 
Craven, a district of Yorkshire. 

gi^CRAW. The Anglo-Saxon word craw 
or crane signifies, not only crow, but also 
the jackdaw, chough, and other con- 
geners of that bird. Several localities 
bear names commencing with this 
syllable, and surnames have been Iwr- 
rowed from them, as Crawford, Crawley, 
Crawshaw, Crawthome, Crawcombe, 
&c. In H.R. we have a John Crawe- 
nest, i.e. Crow's-nest. 

CRAWCOUR. This name, which is 
found in the London Director)', is appa- 
rently a corruption of the baronial Creve- 

CRAWFORD. A parish of Lanarkshire, 
and several other places in North Britain. 
Sir licKinald de Craufurd, sheriff of Ayr- 
shire in 12JM», seems to have been the 
common ancestor of many branches of the 
family. Tlie name was anciently written 

Tradition nays that the first bearer of thin name 
wan one Mackornock, who RiKna]i7.c<l himself at an 
engagement by " the water of Cree in (Jiilloway, by 
discovering of a Foonl, wliicli gave a signal iidvaiitago 
to Ids party." Hence lie got the name of Cree-Foord 
or Craufurd I ! Sec Crawfurd's Description of Ken- 

CHAWLEY. Parishes, &c., in Nor- 




thumb., Oxon, Hants, Sussex, and Bed- 

CRAY. A mutilation of Macraj. 

CRAZE. Halliwell has " Crayze, a wild 
fellow." Conf. Craze in Jamieson. 

CREAGH. This ancient Irish family 
claim descent from the famous Niall of 
the Nine Hostages, and they bore his name 
until, in a campaign against the Danes, the 
head of this section having come off vic- 
torious, the citizens of Limerick placed 
green boughs in the headstalls of their 
deliverer's horses, and the chief himself 
received the complimentary title of O'Niall 
na Creavh, or " O'Niall of the Green 
Branch." The crest of the Creaghs of 
Ballyandrew, co. Cork, is a horse's head 
with a laurel branch in the headstall of 
the bridle. B.L.G. 

CREAKE. Two parishes in Norfolk. 

CREAM. A merchant's booth; a stall 
in a market. Teut. kraem, taberna rerum 
venaliura. Jamieson. 

CREAMER. See Cramer. In Scotland 
a pedlar, or one who keeps a booth. 

CREAN". Formerly O'Crean, a very an- 
cient family in Sligo. 

CREASE. (A Lancashire word.) Lo- 
ving, fond. 

CREASEY. See Creasy. 

CREASY. Doubtless from Crecy in 
Picardy, so memorable in English history 
for the battle between Edw. III. and the 
French. The family are said to have come 
hither at the Conquest. Cressy appears in 
Holinshed's list. The name has undergone 
many changes in orthography. Among 
the tenants of the manor of Robertsbridge, 
temp. Eliz. was an Edward Crescye, and 
Crescye was at that period the mode of 
spelling the French town. 

CREATON". Two places in co. Nor- 

CREE. Probably from McCrie or Ma- 

CREED. A parish in Cornwall. 

CREEDY. A river in Devonshire. 

CREELMAN. One who carries a wicker 
basket, called in the North a creel. 

CREGOE. An estate in the parish of 
Tregony, co. Cornwall. 

CREIGHTON. See Crichton. 

CRESEY. See Creasy. 

CRESPIN. See Crispin. 

CRESSET. A fire-cage borne on a lofly 
pole by way of beacon or guiding light. 
See one figured and described in Eng. 
Sum, i. 203, 204. The soldier or watch- 
man who carried such a light might in 
the XIII. or XIV. cent, naturally acquire 
the surname. 

ship and estate in Northumberland, pos- 

sessed by the family temp. Rich. I., and 
still belonging to them. 

CRESSY. See Creasy. 

CREVEQUER. Hamo, the head of this 
celebrated race, came into England with 
the Conqueror, from Crevecoeur, his estate 
in the arrondissement of Lisieux. The 
name was latinized ' de Crepito Corde,' 
that is, says Lambarde, Peramb. of Kent, 
'Crackt- Heart.' By others it is interpreted 
** of the trembling heart." Hamo, who 
was sheriff of Kent for life, was otherwise 
called Sheriff, alias Dapifer. Hasted. 

CREWE. The ancestors of Lord C. 
were lords of Crewe, co. Chester, 13 Ed- 
ward I. 

CREWES. See Crewys. 

CREWYS. A West of England family, 
so ancient that an old distich asserts 

" Croker, Crewj'S, and Coplestone, 
When the Conqueror came were at home." 

CREYKE. Probably from Craike in the 
N. Riding of Yorkshire. De Creyke oc- 
curs in that co. in the XIV. cent. 

CRICHTON. An ancient castle and es- 
tate in Edinburghshire, well known in 
history, and long the seat of the family. 
" Crichton ! though now thy miry court 
But pens the lazy steer and sheep ; 
Thy turrets rude and tottered keep 
Have been the minstrel's loved resort." 


Here also was bom the '* Admirable 

CRICK. Places in cos. Northampt. and 
Monmouth. Camden derives the surname 
from the Welsh " krick, that is curl-pate." 

two parishes in co. Somerset. 

CRIMP. A dealer in coals. Norfolk. 

CRIOL. A great Norman family, (in 
Domesd. Cruel,) who appear to have come 
from Criel near Dieppe. 

CRIPPS. The same as Crisp. Such 
transposition of consonants is not un- 

CRISP. The curt or abbreviated form 
of Crispin. 

CRISPIN. Grimaldus L, prince of Mo- 
naco, married Crispina, daughter of Rollo, 
duke of Normandy, and had, besides other 
children, Crispinus, baron of Bee, who 
flourished about the year 1000. The next 
in succession assumed the paternal name 
by way of surname, and was called Gilbert 
Crispin, baron of Bee. He had three sons 
William, Gilbert, and Milo. William and 
Gilbert fought at the battle of Hastings, 
and Milo, whether present or not on that 
memorable field, received a large share in 
the spoil, namely the honour of Walling- 
ford and eighty-eight lordships. See Gent. 
Mag., Jan. 1832. 

CROAK. The same as Croke. Fergu- 
son says 0. Norse, krokr, bent or crooked. 


CROCKER. 1. A maker of earthen 
jars, provincially called crocks. Le Croc- 
kere. H.R. 2. A corruption of Croker. 

CROCKFORD. Possibly Crocketford, 
a village in co. Kirkcudbright. 

CROFT. Places in cos. Leicester, Lin- 
coln, York, Durham, and Hereford. Croft 
castle, in the first-named county, was the 
seat of an ancient family to which it gave 

|^"CROFT. " Croft is a little close or 
pightle adjoining to an house, either 
used for pasture or arable, as the owner 
pleases; and it seems to be derived 
from the old word creaft, that is handi- 
craft, because the lands are for the 
most part manured with the best skill 
of the owner." Termes de la Ley. The 
word is, however, pure A-Sax., and is 
defined by Bos worth as a small en- 
closed field. This is a very common 
termination for surnames ; as Cock- 
croft, a poultry yard ; Haycroft, a rick- 
yard ; Ashcroft, a close where ash-trees 
grow; Horsecroft, a yard for horses, 
Allcroft (for Hallcroft) an enclosurse by 
the hall, &c. 

CROFTOX. Places in cos. Salop, Kent, 
York, and Lancaster. The noble family 
descend from the Croftons of C. in the 
last-named county. 

CROFTS. Probably a pluralization of 

CROKE. Apparently the same as Crooke, 
which see. Leswin Croc, however, occurs 
in Domesd, as a tenant prior to the Survey, 
in COS. Sufi"olk and Essex. 

CROKER. The Crokers of Lineham are 
said to be of Saxon origin and to have 
been settled in Devon before the Conquest, 
on the authority of an ancient alliterative 
rhyme : — 

" Croker, Crewys, and Coplestone 
When the Conqueror came were at home." 

CROLY. See Crowley. 

CROM ARTIE. A town and parish in 
the shire of the same name in Scotland. 

CROMMELIN. Samuel C, of a respect- 
able family at Armancour in Picardy, on 
the Rev. of the Edict of Nantes took refuge 
in Holland. His sons settled at Lisbuni, 
in CO. Antrim, as linen manufacturers under 
the auspices of William III. B.L.Q. 

CROMPTON. A township in Lanca- 

CROMWELL. The family of the Pro- 
tector were of Welsh origin, and bore the 
name of Williams. Though of ancient 
descent they abandoned that surname at 
the instigation of King Henry VIIT., and 
Sir Richard Williams, the Protector's 
linenl ancestor, being sister's son to Tliomas 
C, the noted vicar-general, adopted his 
uncle's family name. That person was of 
hiimblc origin, and there is no ])roof of any 
connection with the Lords Cromwell of 
Tateshall castle, co. Lincoln, whoso pedi- 

78 CRO 

gree goes back to the days of King John. 
Cromwell, the place from which the name 
is derived, is a parish in Nottinghamshire. 


Places in Westmoreland, Durham, and 
Moray, are called Crook, but the name is 
probably identical with Croke. 

CROOM. 1. A parish in Yorkshire. 
2. Gael. A circle of stones. 

CROSBIE. See Crosby. 

CROSBY. Parishes, &c. in cos. Ayr, 
Cumberland, Lincoln, York, Westmoreland^ 
and Lancaster, and an ancient chapelry in 

CROSCOMBE. A parish in co. Somerset. 

CROSIIAW. SeeCrashaw. 

CROSIER. A crosier is a bishop's staff, 
fashioned like a shepherd's crook, symbo- 
lical of his spiritual pastorate — but this is 
an unlikely origin for the name, which is 
more probably derived from the old Fr. 
croiseiir, one who stamps or marks any- 
thing with a cross, or perhaps from crois^, 
one who has designated himself with the 
Christian 83nnbol — a Crusader. 

CROSS. This name is sufficiently ex- 
plained under the article Crouch. 

CROSSE. " The family of De la Croyz, 

De Cruce, Del Crosse, Crosse, as the name 
is variously spelt in ancient deeds, were 
seated at Wigan, co. Lancaster, in the 
reign of Edw. I., and about the year 1350 
were seated at Crosse Hall in Liverpool, 
and afterwards at Crosse Hall in Chorley.'* 

CROSSFTELD. A place at Uist in the 


CROSSKEY. Doubtless an ancient 
trader's sign — "the Crossed-keys," perhaps 
originally l>orrowed from the arms of some 
bishopric. The Catholic dogma of the 
•' power of the keys" led to the frequent 
adoption of this symbol, as seen in the 
arms of the sees of York, Peterborough, St. 
Asaph, Gloucester, Exeter, Ripon, Cashell, 
Ferns, Dromore, Down and Connor, Li- 
merick, &c. 

CROSSLAND. A township in York- 

CROSSLEY. Tlic Crossleys of Scait- 
cliffe, CO. Lancaster, anciently Del Cros- 
legh, are of unknown antiquity. B.L.G. I 
find no locality so called. 

CROSSMAN. Probably from residence 
near a cross. See Cross and Crouch. 

the middle age-s when many wells were 
deemed Bncre<l, crosses were often erected 
near them, to denote their sanctity. A 
resident near such a spot would readily ac- 
quire the surname of Atte Cross-well, 
which would afterwards modify itself to 
Crosswellcr. See Eng. Sum. i. 90. 

CKOSTIIWAITE. A parish in co. 
Cunjlwrland, and a chapelry in co. West- 


CROSWELLER. See under Crosswell. 
CROTOX. Crowton, a parish in Cheshire. 

CROUCH. O. Eng. from Lat. crux—a, 

cross. The word was applied in general to 
such crosses as stood at the intersection of 
two roads. These crosses were frequently- 
dedicated to some saint and served also as 
direction posts — and although they have 
long disappeared, they have left the name 
of ' ^ross' and ' crouch' upon many local- 
ities, especially in the South of England. 
In Sussex, where the name is one of the 
oldest indigenous designations (especially 
in the Cinque Ports) it is found in the 
forms of Crouch and De Cruce, 20 Edw. I, 
Cooper's Winchelsea. In the H.R. it is 
written Ad Crucem, and elsewhere At 
Crouch. Croucher and Crouchman are 
also derived from the same source. 

CROUCHER. See Crouch. 
CROUCHMAN. See Crouch. Croche- 

man. H.R. 
CROUGHTON. A parish in Northampt. 

and a township in Cheshire. 
^^CROW. This initial syllable of several 
local names is borrowed from the bird. 
See Craw. Among other surnames 
from this source are Crowhurst, Crow- 
ley, Cromer, Croham, Crowshaw, and 
perhaps Crowfoot. 
CROW. CRO^VE. From the bird, like 
Raven, Rook, &c. We find it written 
Craw in the H.R., where also we meet 
with Crawenest or Crow's-nest. 

CROWDER. A player on the croicdy an 
ancient species of violin with six strings. 
(Irish eruit, Welsh cnvth). In the West of 
England a small fiddle is still called a 
"crowdy-kit." It appears to have been a 
favourite instrument in Britain so early as 
the VI. cent. In Wickliffe's translation of 
the Bible, in Judges xi. 34, Jephthah's 
daughter is described as coming to meet her 
father " with tympans and eraiulijt,'" i. e. 
with drums and fiddles. Way's Prompt. 

CROWDON. Croydon, co. Cambridge, 
was formerly so written. 

CROAVER. In the H.R. Ze Grower, 

Among the religious puerilities of the mid- 
dle ages was the office of " King's Cock- 
crower." I have seen in some old wardrobe 
accounts of (I think) the time of Edward 
I. entries for the payment of a person for 
crowing like a cock at the door of the 
king's bedchamber at Easter. Hence pro- 
bably the surname. 

This absurd custom, which was intended to typify 
Peter's fall and repentance, was continued at our 
court even at the commencement of the last century. 
A rather laughable occurrence led to its discon- 
tinuance. It had been the practice during Lent for an 
official desiiniated the king's cock-croicer to usurp the 
office of watchman and to crcnc, instead of crs-ing, the 
hour of the night. " (rti the first Ash-Wednesday 
after the accession of the House of Hanover, as the 
Prince of Wales, afterwards Geor^je H., sat down to 
supper, this officer abruptly entered the apartment, 
and acconlinp to established usape proclaimed, in a 
Bound resembling the shrill pipe of a cock, that itwaa 
' past ten o'clock.' Taken by surprise and imperfectly 
acquainted with the English language, the astonisbed 

77 CKU 

pnnce naturally mistook the tremulation of the as- 
sumed crow as some mockery intended to msult him : 
nor was it without difficulty that the interpreter ex- 
plamed the nature of the custom, and satisfied him 
that a compliment was designed, according to the 
court etiquette of the time. From that period we 
find no further account of this important officer." 
Brady's Qavls Calendaria. 

CROWFOOT. This name may be local. 
See Crow, and the termination foot; but it 
is more probably derived from some pecu* 
liarity of gait on the part of the original 
bearer. ' To strut like a crow in a gutter, 
is a proverbial phrase. 

CROWHURST. Parishes in Sussex and 
Surrey, the former of which had land-own- 
ers of its own name temp. Edw. I. Crow- 
herst. H.R. 

CROWLEY. A township in co. Chester. 

CROWN. A popular inn sign. 

CROWTHER. SeeCrowder. 

CROXTON. Parishes and places in cos. 
Cambridge, Lincoln, Chester, Norfolk, Lei- 
cester, Stalford, &;c. 

CROYDEN. Probably the same as 

CROYDON. Parishes in Surrey and 

CROZIER. See Crosier. 

CRUCEFIX. Possibly a religious sign, 

CRL^DEX. A parish in Aberdeenshire. 

CRUIKSHANK. Scotch. " Crooked 
legs" — a sobriquet 

CRLHSE. SceCrewys. 

CRUM. SeeCroom. 

CRUMP. Belgic crom^ uncus. Crooked, 
in relation to personal deformity. " Crumpt 
or crookt." Nomenclator, p. 44. Hal- 

CRUNDEL. There is a parish called 
Crundal, in Kent, and another called Cron- 
dall, in Hampshire; but from the occurrence 
of ^ Ate Crundle' in the H.R. some of the 
families bearing the name probably derive 
it from the A-Sax. enmdel or ennidn-yll, a 
designation frequently occurring in charters. 
" I find," says Dr. Leo, " no explanation of 
the word crund in any of the Gothic dialects, 
except in the Old High German. Accord- 
ing to the regular transposition of the 
Anglo-Saxon consonants in words derived 
from that dialect, the primitive word should 
be cfirunt or chrunti, and this word is 
found in the Gloss. Junii, where it is ex- 
plained by the middle Latin word cen/Ia, 
or, as it is also written, coerola, i.e. arca^ 
arcul/t, pyxh. A Crundel or Crundwell is 
therefore a spring or well, with its cistern, 
trough, or reservoir, to receive the water, 
such as are still found in the banks by the 
side of great roads, sometimes furnished 
with an iron ladle secured by a chain." 
Leo's Local Nomenclature of the A-Saxons, 
translated by Williams, p. 95. 

CRUNDEN. A contraction of Crut- 




CRUSE. See Crews. 

CRUTCH. A district in Halfshire, co. 

CRUTCHER. The same as Croucher. 

DEN. A place in West Kent. In 1481 
the name was written Crotynden. 

CRUTTWELL. Probably CrudweU, co. 

CRUX. A latinization of Cross. 

CR YER. The officer in corporate towns, 
&;c., who makes public announcements. 
CRYTON. SeeCrichton. 
CUBISON. SeeCubitt. 

CUBITT. I cannot explain this some- 
what common and well-known surname, 
unless it be a diminutive or corruption of a 
personal name, which seems to be supported 
by the existence of the patronymical Cubi- 
son. Jaraieson has " Cube, Cubic, probably 
the abbreviation of Cuthbert." If this con- 
jecture be correct, Cubitt and Cuthbert are 
most likely identical. 

CUBLEY. A parish in Derbyshire. 

CUCKNEY. A parish in co. Notts. 

CUCKOLD. According to Camden, a 
corruption of the local name Cockswold. 

CUCKOO. The bird. In the XIV. 
cent, it was written Le Cucko, Cuckuk, 
Cucku, &c. 

CUDDIE. A Scottish nurse-name for 

CUDAVORTH. A parish in Somerset, 
and a township in Yorkshire. 

CUERTON. Cuerden, a township in 

This name, which is often corrupted to 
Cullen, and anglicized to Collins, signifies 
catullm, whelp. Ulster Joum. of Archaeo- 
logy, No. 2. Tlie tribe or clan of Cullen 
took their name from Cuilean, an Irish 
chief of the VIII. cent. O'Donovan. 

ft^ CUL. For several names with this 
. syllable, see col. 

CULCHETH. A township in Lancashire 
possessed by the family at an early date. 

CULHAM. A parish in Oxfordshire. 

CULL. Silly, simple. North. Halliw. 

CULLEN. 1. Irish. See Cuillean. 2. 
An old spelling of Cologne. 

CULLIFORD. A hundred in co. 

CULLING. See Cullen. 
CULLOCII. Macculloch, saru Mac. 

CULPECK. Probably Kilpeck,co. Here- 

CULVER. A pigeon. See Dove. 

Amonff the man-cls of the Ewt, Sir .1. Maundevlllc 
mentions that people besieged in a town, so as to be 

cut off from succour " maken letters, and bynden 
hem to the nekke of a colver, and letten the colver 
flee." p. 118. A-Sax. cuifre. 

CULVERHOUSE. A dove-cot. See 

CUMBER. 1. The same as Comber. 2. 
" One of the A-Sax. words for an ensign or 
standard was cumbor, whence probably 
Cumbra, the name of an A-Sax. chief, A.D. 
756. (Roger of Wendover). One having or 
bearing a standard, Ferguson. 

CUMBERLAND. The county. 

CUMIN. See Cumming. 



CUM^HNG. This ancient family claim 
descent from the great house of Comines in 
France. They seem to have come into 
Britain at the Conquest, though they do not 
appear eo nomine in Domesd. Holinshed's 
list shows the name of Comin, and Leland's 
that of Comyn. According to the Scotch 
genealogists, Robert Cumine was earl of 
Northumberland by gift of the Conqueror, 
and acted vigorously against the Saxon 
insurgents. His descendant, William C. 
was lord-chancellor of Scotland temp, king 
David L, who ascended the throne in 1124, 
and he laid the foundation of what became 
one of the most influential and wealthy 
houses in Scotland. Courthope's Debrett. 
Other authorities claim for the family a 
Celtic original, chiefly, it would appear, on 
the strength of there having been an abbot 
of Icolmkill in the TI. cent, called Cum- 
mine, and another in the VII. named 
Comineas Albus. Dixon. 

CUMMINGS. See Cumming. 

CUMNOR. A parish in co. Berks. 

CUMPER. Supposed by Ferguson to 
be the same as Cumber. 

CUNDALL. CUNDELL. A parish in 

CUNNIGAN. In Ireland often con- 
founded with Cunningham, though it is a 
distinct name. 

CUNNING. Wise, skilful. In this sense 
the word is employed in the authorized ver- 
sion of the 0. Test. 

CUNNINGHAM. The northern district 
of Ayrshire, containing many parishes, 
whence tlie old earls of Glencairn. Conyng- 
hani and Cunynghame are varieties of this 

CUNYNGHAME. See Cunningham. 

CUPAR. Cupar-Angus, Cupar-Fife, 
Cupar Grange, &c., well-known places in 

CUPIL. H.R. Probably from the old 
French, Govpil, a fox, a surname still in 
use in the vicinity of Havre. 

CUPPLEDITCH. The same as Cobble- 


CURETON. Perhaps Cuerden, co. Lan- 

CURLEOPLE. Gilbert White, in his 
Natural Histor>^ of Selbome, mentions two 
tribes of Gipseys, who in his time were in 
the habit of visiting that village. One was 
called Stanley, " but the other is distin- 
tinguished by an appellation somewhat 
remarkable. As far as their harsh gibberish 
can be understood, they seem to say that 
the name of their clan is Ourleople. Now 
the termination of this word is apparently 
Grecian : and as Mezeray and the gravest 
historians all agree that these vagrants did 
certainly migrate from Egypt or the East, 
two or three centuries ago, may not this 
family name, a little corrupted, be the very 
name they brought with them from the 
Levant ? " 

CURLL. CURL. Probably the same 
as the Scottish carl, which is connected 
with the Germ. Jierl, fortis, corpore robusto 
praeditus. See Jamieson. 

CURR. Doubtless a mis-spelling of 

CURRANT. R.G. 16. Has probably 
some connection with the Lat. ourrOf and 
the Fr. courant. 

CURRER. O. Eng. currour, from Lat. 
curro ; a runner, running footman, mes- 
senger, courier. Curur XIII. cent., Currer 
XIV. cent. Battel Abbey Deeds. 

CURREY. CURRY. Three parishes 
in Somerset are called Curry. See, how- 
ever, Currie and Corrie. 

CURRIE. 1. The same as Corrie. 2. 
A parish near Edinburgh. 

CURRYER. The occupation. 

CURSON. SeeCurzon. 

CURTEPIE. H.R. Apparently an- 
glicised from the A-Norm. Curte»pie,'^%hoTt' 
sword,' from the fashion of the original 
bearer's weapon. So that famous son of 
Fair Rosamond, William, Earl of Salisbury, 
bore the name of Longuespee, or Long- 


Norm. Fr. cwteis, curtois. Civil, courteous. 
See Eng. Sum. i. 143. 

CURWEN. The Curwens of Working- 
ton claim descent from the famous Gospa- 
tric, earl of Northumberland. They "took 
that name by covenant from Culwen, a 
family of Galloway, the heir whereof they 

79 CUT 

had married." Camden. De Culwen was 
changed to Curwen temp. Henry VI. B.L.G. 

CURZON. Geraldine de Curzon came 
into England with the Conqueror. His 
descendants were in Derbyshire temp. Hen. 
I., and Curzon, Lord Scarsdale, is *of 
Scarsdale' in that county. 

CUSACK. There are two distinct origins 
assigned to this name. On one side it is 
asserted that the family spring from an 
illustrious race, the Sieurs de Cusac of 
Guienne in the IX. cent. ; and on the other 
that they are of ancient Irish extraction, 
from Isog, founder of the Clan Isog or Clan 
Cusack, and eleventh in descent from 
OlioU Olium, king of Munster in 234. 

CUSDEN. CUSDIN. Cutsdean, a cha- 
pelry, co. Worcester. 

CUSHION. Co. Limerick and elsewhere. 
A corruption of Mac Ossian. It is other- 
wise written Cushin and Cussen, and an- 
glicised to Cousins, but pronounced Cuz- 
zeen. Ulster Joum. of Arch^eol. No. 2. 

CUSHIN. GUSHING. See Cushion. 

CUSSEN. See Cushion. 

CUTBEARD. See Cuthbert. 

CUTBUSH. See Bush. 

CUTCHEY. A supposed corruption of 

CUTHBERT. An A-Sax. baptismal 
name, whence also Cuthbertson, ttie cor- 
ruption Cutbeard, the diminutive Cutts, 
and perhaps Cuxon. 

CUTHBERTSON. See Cuthbert. 

CUTLER (in Scotland often CU TEAR). 
The trade, from coutcan, Fr. a knife, caute- 
lier, a knife-maker. In the H.R. we find 
it written Le Coteler and Le Cotiler. 

CUTTER. A northern provincialism 
for engraver. Halliw. 

CUTTLE. Cuthill or Cuttle is a suburb 
of Prestonpans, co. Haddington. In several 
surnames the final LE represents hill in a 
shortened pronunciation. This remark 
may be of use to the reader, to whom I 
would say in the words of an illustrious 
possessor of this name — " When found 
make a Note of." 

CUTTS. CUTS. Camden thinks this is 
a nickname of Cuthbert. 





I think, a trivial or nurse-name of David. 

DABNEY. A corruption of D'Aubigne. 

DACE. Not so likely from the fish so 
called as from some continental locality 
named Ace or Aes with the prefix D'. 

DACRE. Early genealogists pretend 
that this name was borrowed during the 
Crusades from Acre in Palestine, (quasi 
D'Acre). "The d' Acres took their name 
from Acres in the Holy Land, where one 
of their ancestors fought. Mr. Gale would 
derive the name from the Cohors Dacorum 
statiouetl here," — viz.atDacre, co Cumber- 
land. Hutchinson's Cumb. i. 468. What- 
ever may have been the origin of the name 
of the place, there is no doubt that the 
family derive their surname from it, as we 
find them in possession temp. Edw. I., and 
from them at a subsequent period sprang 
the two noble houses of Lord Dacre of Gils- 
land, called Dacre of the North, and Lord 
Dacre of Herstmonceux, called Dacre of 
the South. The latter title came however 
through a female into the family of Fynes, 
from whom through other female lines it 
has descended to the present peer. 

DADD. DADE. Probably an ancient 
personal name, since we fimd the derivative 

DADSWELL. Probably from Dowdes- 
well, a parish in Gloucestershire. 

D'AETH. An old Kent family, said to 
have come originally fi-om the town of 
Aeth in Flanders. The name has been cor- 
rupted to Death. 

DAFFY. A diminutive of David. 
DAGG. Ferguson thinks it may be de- 
rived from the Teut. dceg, day. 

DAGGER. Probably from the imple- 
ment, like Sword, Brownbill, &c. 

DAILY. DAELLEY. Dailly, a parish 
in Ayrshire. 

DAIN. DAINES. See Dane. 

DALNTRY. Daventry, co. Northamp- 

DAISY. Possibly from tlic ancient 
barony of Aisie (D'Aisie) in tin.- arrondisse- 
ment of Pont Audemer in Normandy — now 
written Aisier. 

The motto of this widely-spread family, 
Stryke Dakeyne, the Devil'8 in the 
Hempe, is said to have originate<l from an 
incident in a sea-fight. It was used temp. 
Edw. VI., and probably much earlier. 

D'ALBIAC. There arc three towns in 
Langucdoc bearing the name of Albiac. 

The family derive from Albiac del Conte in 
the department of Aveyron. They were 
early and devoted adherents to the reformed 
faith. At the massacre of St Bartholomew 
(24 Aug., 1572,) four out of seven brothers 
of this name, who were then residing at 
Paris, fell beneath the knife of the assassin. 
The surviving three escaped into Languedoc, 
where their descendants remained in com- 
parative security until after the Revocation 
of the Edict of Nantes in 1G85, when some 
of the descendants, abandoning all consider- 
ations of fortune, kindred, and country, fled 
from a land where they could not exercise 
the religion of their adoption, and settled in 
England. These were James D' Albiac of 
Nismes. and his three sons, James, Simon, 
and Pierre, who left France in 1693. The 
last however embraced Roman Catholicism, 
returned to his native country, and re- 
gained a portion of the confiscated estates. 
The present representative of this ancient and 
noble family in England, is Her Grace the 
Duchess of Roxburghe, daughter of the late 
Lieut. Gen. Sir Charles D'Albiac, K.C.H., 
who was third in descent from James D'Al- 
biac of Nismes. 

D ALB Y. Parishes in cos. Lincoln, York, 
Leicester, &c. 

I^^DALE. A termination of local sur- 
names. It signifies, generally, a valley, 
and in the North more particularly a 
river valley, as Tyndal from the Tyne, 
Annandale, from the Annan, Tisdale 
from the Tees, Esdaile from the Esk, 
Redesdale from the Rede, &c. 

DALE. A valley. The medieval form 
was At Dale, softened afterwards to A'Dale, 
as often found in parish registers of the 
XVI. cent., and widely renovmed through 
the ballad of Robin Hood and All in a' Dale. 
In the H.R. we find De Dale, and De la 

DALGETY. A parish in co. Fife. 

DALGLEISH. Local in Scotland ? 

DALISON. A supposed corruption of 
D'Alenyon, from the town in Normandy, 
and said to have been introduced at the Con- 
quest. Its older forms are Dalyson and Dal- 

DALLAS. A parish in CO. Moray. The 
name is traced by Douglas to the year 1 298, 
as De Dallas. Other ancient orthographies 
are De Doleys and Dollas. 

DALLAWAY. Daliwcy occura without 
prefix, in H.R. co. Lincoln. 
DALLING. A parish in Norfolk. 
DALLINGTON. A parish in Sussex. 

DALLISON. The extinct baronet's fa- 
mily arc said to have descended from 
William d'Alanzou (Alen90u) who came 


into England with the Conqueror. Burke's 
Ext. Baronetage. See Dalison. 

DALLMAN. 1. Possibly Dale-man, an 
inhabitant of a valley. In Scotl. a " dale's- 
man." 2. The same as D'Almaine. 

DALMAHOY. An estate in the shire of 
Edinburgh, whose owners of the same 
name were great barons in the XIII. 

D'ALMAINE. See Almaine. 

DALMAN. SeeDaUman. 

DALRY. A town and parish in Ayr- 

DALRYMPLE. About the end of the 
thirteenth century the lands of Dalrumpill 
or Dalhimpyl in Ayrshire belonged to the 
ancestors of the Earl of Stair, who as- 
sumed their surname from them. Gaelic 
etjTnologists derive the name of the place 
from Dal-ckrom-puil, " the meadow of, or 
by, the crooked pool." This renowned fa- 
mily, which has probably produced more 
eminent men than any other in Scotland, 
was not ennobled until the XVII. century, 
by the title of Viscount (afterwards Earl) of 

DALSTON. Ranulph de Meschines, 
earl of Chester, temp. Will. Conq., gave 
Dalston in Cumberland to Robert, second 
brother of Hubert de Vaux, who derived 
his name from that manor, and founded 
the family. 

DALTON. Parishes and places in cos. 
Lancaster, Northumberland, Durham, 
York, Dumfries, Lanark, &c. Dalton 
Hall, in the first named co., had owners of 
its own name temp. Edw. III. From them 
sprang the Daltons of Thumham. 

DALTREY. De Alta Ripa. See Haw- 

DALWAY The Irish family migrated 
from Devonshire in 1573, under Walter, 
earl of Essex, B.L.G. 

DAL YELL. The same as Dalzell and 

Dalziel, which see. 

DALYNGRUGE. Sir Edward Da- 
lyngruge, the builder of Bodiam Castle, 
CO. Sussex, in the XIV. cent., was des- 
cended from a family who possessed Da- 
lyngruge, a manor near East Grinstead, 
now called Dallingridge. The name was 
variously written Dalj-ngrigg, Dalegrigg, 
Dalyngregge, &c. 

DALZIEL. DALZELL. Anciently writ- 
ten Dallyell, Daleel, Dalyiel, &c. From 
the barony of Dal-yeel (i.e. 'the beautiful 
meadow') on the river Clyde. The Earls 
of Camwath are the chiefs of the family. 
The often-quoted romantic story which as- 
signs another origin for the name (See 
Eng. Sura. ii. 8.) has neither history, ety- 
mology, nor common sense to support it. 

DAMARELL. The family descended 
from Robert de AU^emarle, a great tenant 
in chief under William the Conqueror in 
Devonshire. Stoke Damarell and Milton 

81 DAN 

DamareU have hence their suffixes. Ly- 
sons' Devon. 

DAMER. This name, as well as Da- 
mory, is said to have been derived from 
the Norman fief of De la Mer, near the 
mouth of the Seine. 

DAMES. 1. Perhaps the same as Ames 
with the local prefix D'. 2. Perhaps an 
old personal name. Dame without prefix 
is found in H.R. 

DAMORY. Said to be synonymous 
with Damer. 

DAMPIER. Dampierre, a place near 
Dieppe, and another in the department of 
Orne, both in Normandy. 

COURT occur in Norman times, but of 
their origin I am ignorant, except that they 
are French and local. 

DAMSON. " Dame's son," but whether 
the son of Dame, apparently an old Chris- 
tian name, or " filius dominae," I know 

DANBY, (i.e. the Dane's dwelling.) 
Parishes in Yorkshire. 

DANCASTER. A corruption of Don- 

DANCE. Perhaps from A.-Sax. Densc^ 

DANCER. One skilled in the saltatory 
art. One Hervius le Dansur is foimd in 
the H.R. 

DANCE Y. 1. A corruption of Dantsey, 
or Dauntsey, a parish in Wiltshire. 2. 
Dance, a place in the department of Orne, 
in Normandy. 

DAND. DANDY. Familiarly used in 
Scotland for Andrew. Pitcaim's Trials, 

DANDELYON. Fr. Dentde lion, "lion's 
tooth;" probably from the formidable cha- 
racter of the first who bore it. So Coeur 
de Lion, Front de Bceuf, &c. This family, 
of Norman origin, were great proprietors in 
the Isle of Thanet, and became extinct 
about the beginning of Edw. TV. See 
Lewis's Isle of Tenet, 1723. 

DANDO. L A corruption of D Anlo. 
Ashton Dando, a tything in the parish of 
Ashton, was formerly called Ashton D'Anlo. 
Curios, of Bristol. 2. An O.-Germ. per- 
sonal name. Several persons of this sur- 
name occur in H.R. 

DANDY. See Dendy. One Dandi oc- 
curs m the H.R. of Lincolnshire as an 
under bailiff, but whether that was his 
surname or his Christian appellation does 
not appear. 

DANE occurs singly in Domesd., in the 
coimties of Notts and Lincoln, as a personal 
name, like Norman, Frank, &c. ; and Da- 
nus as a distinctive epithet or surname is 
added to the personal names Osmund, Si- 
mond, Strang, and Turchil to indicate 
their Danish birth or extraction. But 





Dane is also a topographical expression, 
the meaning of which is not clear. In the 
H.K. we find both Atte Dane, and De la 

DANGER. D'Angers — from Angers, 
the capital of Anjou in France. 

DANGERFIELD. See Dangerville. 

D'ANGERVILLE. Five places in 
Normandy still bear the name of Anger- 

DANIEL. The baptismal name, very 
common as a surname, and the parent of 
Daniels, Dann, &c. 

DANIELS. See Daniel. 

DANN. See Daniel. 

DANSAYS. French Protestant refugees 
who settled at Rye, co. Sussex, in 1685, im- 
mediately after the Revocation of the Edict 
of Nantes. Holloway's Rye, 582. 

DANSEY. William Dauntesey held 
lands in Wiltshire temp. Henry III., and 
his son Richard D. held lands in that co. 
and in Hereford. Camden. See Dancey. 

DANTZIGER. A native of Dantzig, 
the capital of West Prussia, according to 
the German mode of adding er to denote 
residence in a town. 

DANVERS. William Denvers, evidently 
one of the Conqueror's adherents, occurs 
in the Norfolk Domesd. ; and genealogists 
assert that a Roland D' An vers assisted at 
the Conquest. The name may be derived 
from the city of Antwerp, continentally 
written Anvers. 

DAPIFER. Qui dapes fert. Qui cibos 
mensas imponit. Literally, a bearer of 
dainties — a sewer ; in old times a principal 
officer in the households of kings and 
magnates. This was borne as a second or 
official surname by several distinguished 
persons under the Norman kings, especially 
by the celebrated Eudo Dapifer of Domesd. 
He was fourth son of Hubert de Rie, and 
steward of the Conqueror's household. 

DARBEY. See Darby. 

DARBISHIRE. See Counties. 

DARBY. A corruption of Derby. So 
Darbishire from Derbyshire. 

D'ARCY. DARCEY. Under William 
the Conqueror, Norman de Adreci, or 
Areci, was a tenant in chief in Lincoln- 
shire, which was the principal seat of the 
family during many generations, whence 
the earl of Holdemess. Collins' Peerage. 
The name was gradually corrupted to its 
present form. The name Audresset, appa- 
rently the same, still exists in the Norman 
town of Louviers. 

DARELL. "William de OrreU, a gen- 
tleman of the north parts of Normnndie, 
soe called of a castle and family of that 
countrie, (and soe by contraction the vowels 
E and are changed to A, by which Dart II 
is pronounced for De Orell,) the which 

came in with the Conqueror, being for his 
good services done in the North. . . . en- 
dowed with the possessions of a Saxon 
called Etheldred of Broadsworth, an an- 
cient seat twelve miles west of Yorke." 
Such is the statement attached to an old 
pedigree quoted in Burke's Commoners. 
The family were undoubtedly ancient at 
Sesay in Yorkshire, but there appears to be 
no documentary evidence for the above 
assertion; neither does any place in the 
north of Normandy bear the name of Or- 
reU. The Norman origin of the family, 
is, however, probable. 

DARB::E or dark. This name, which 
is not uncommon in the West of England, 
is probably identical with the De Arcis, of 
Domesday book. William d'Arques, or de 
Arcis, was lord of Folkestone, co. Kent, 
temp. William I., having settled in Eng- 
land after the Norman Conquest. His an- 
cestors were vicomtes of Arques, now a 
bourg and castle, four or five miles from 
Dieppe in Normandy. Stapleton on the 
barony of William of Arques, in Canter- 
bury Report of Brit. Archaeological Asso- 
ciation, p. 166. 

DARKIN. A corruption of Dorking, a 
town in Surrey, still so pronounced by the 
uneducated of the locality. 

DARKMAN. From complexion. 

DARLE Y. A parish and a township in 
CO. Derby. 

DARLING iElfmar Dyrling, a noble 
youth, is mentioned in the Saxon Chro- 
nicle. Mr. Kemble says, " dyrling and ciW, 
(darling and child) are terms used to de- 
note the young nobles of a house, perhaps 
exclusively the eldest son, in whom all ex- 
pectation rests." The difficulty is, to ac- 
count for such designations having become 
hereditary surnames. 

DARLINGTON. A town in co. Dur- 

in CO. York. 

DARNTON. The local pronunciation 
of Darlington. 

DARRINGTON. A parish in York- 

DART. A river of Devonshire. 

DARTMOUTH. A town in Devon- 
DARTON. A parish in Yorkshire. 

near Battel, co. Sussex. 

DARWIN. Deorwyn was an A-Sax. fe- 
male name. Ferguson, p. 198. 

DASENT. See Decent. 

DASH. Possibly from De Ash, a local 

DASHWOOD. I cannot find any locality 
so called, but the name may have been 
originally Do Ashwood, then D'Ashwood, 

DAV 83 

and finally Dashwood, This would an- 
swer to the old latinization, De Fraxineto, 
a twelfth century surname, with which it 
is doubtless identical. 

DAUBENEY. The same as D'Albini. 
SeeAlbini De. 

D'AUBERNOiSr. The Abernon of 
Domesday sprang from the fief in Nor- 
mandy of that name, and was tenant in 
chief in co. Surrey, giving name to Stoke 

DAUBUZ. The first immigrant of this 
family into England was the Rev. Charles 
Daubuz. " He was a native of Guienne, but 
at twelve years of age was driven from his 
native country, with his only surviving 
parent, Julia Daubuz, by the religious per- 
secution of 1686. ... He died in 1717." 
Hunter's Hallamshire, page 175. 

DAUKES. Like Dawkes, a diminutive 

of David. 
DAUNE. Probably from Fr. aune^ an 

alder tree. 

DAUNT. Said to be the same as the 
Dauntre of the so-called Battel Abbey Roll. 

DAVENEY. The town and castle of 
Avene, near Louvaine in Flanders, were 
occupied by our King Edward I., and from 
that place the family probably migrated to 
England. In 1279 we find John and Hugh 
de Aveney resident at Lakenheath and 
Wongford, co. Suffolk. At a later period 
the name in different forms is found in the 
neighbouring counties of Norfolk and Cam- 
bridge. In the fifteenth century it under- 
went various corruptions, and was written 
Daubeney, Daubeny, Deweney, &c. Still 
later it got twisted out of all identity of 
form as Dybnye, Debney, Dibney, and even 
Obney. At length these different spellings 
came to distinguish different branches, 
until towards the middle of the last century, 
when the orthography prevalent in each 
was fixed and handed down, the knowledge 
of any former identity between such difier- 
ing names having been lost, except to such 
genealogical enquirers as Mr. H. Daveney, 
of Norwich, who has courteously supplied 
these particulars. The Catton branch of 
the family appear to have preser\ed the 
old and correct orthography for more than 
three centuries back. 

DAVENPORT. A township and estate 
in Cheshire, which gave name to a family 
remarkable for their fecundity, as witness 
the proverb. As many Davenports as 
dogs' tails. They claim descent in an 
unbroken line from one Ormus de Daven- 
port, who flourished in the time of the 

DA\Ti:S. See David. 


forms of David, which see. The first is the 
English, the second the Scottish, and the 
third the more prevalent Welsh ortho- 


DAVID. Though of ancient standing in 
"Wales, this Christian name scarcely ap- 
pears in England before the Conquest. 
Modified in various forms it has since pro- 
duced many family names, some of which 
are among the commonest in use, as Da- 
vids, Davidson, Davidge — Davey, Davy, 
Davie — Davies, Davis, Daviss, Daves, Da- 
vison. From Daw, the nickname, come 
Dawe, Dawes, Daws, Dawson, Dawkes, 
Dawkins, Dawkinson, and from another 
form of the nickname, according to Cam- 
den, we get Day, Dayes, Dayson, and 

DAVIDGE. See David. 


DAVIES. See David. Owing to the 
commonness of the Welsh patronvmical 
use of Davies, this name stands fifth in 
point of numerousness in England and 
Wales, yielding priority only to Smith, 
Jones, Williams, and Taylor. In the XVI. 
Ann. Rep. of the Registrar Gen., the num- 
ber of Williamses registered within a given 
period was 21,936, Taylors 16,775, and 
Davises 14,983 ; but as Davis is to all in- 
tents and purposes identical with Davies, 
by adding in 6206 Davises, this name num- 
bers 21,188 individuals, beating the Tay- 
lors out of the field, and well-nigh van- 
quishing the Williamses. In fact by taking 
in the Davisses and the Daveses, I believe 
the aggregate of the name would stand 
next after Smith and Jones for numerous- 

DAVIS. DAVISS. See Davies and 

DAVISON. See David. 

DAWBER. The medieval name of a 
plasterer. Le Daubere. H.R. 

DAWE. DAWES. DAWS. See David. 
In some cases the derivation may be from 
the O.-Fr. awe, which Roquefort defines as 
a water, river, fountain, or pond ; and this 
notion is supported by the former mode of 
writing the name — D'Awes, which makes 
it the equivalent of De Aquis. 


DAWNAY. The genealogists of Vis- 
count Downe's family set out with a state- 
ment that " Sir Paine Dawnay, of Dawnay 
Castle in Normandy, came in with the 
Conqueror ;" but this off-hand account re- 
quires a little examination. In the first 
place, I do not see the surname in Domes- 
day, and secondly, though somewhat versed 
in the topography of NoiTuandy, I cannot 
find ' Dawnay Castle' where the respectable 
knight had his residence. Yet substantial 
truth is probably conveyed in this spark- 
ling sentence. Daunay is doubtless DAu- 
nai, and there are at least seven places 
called Aunai in Normandy, one of which, 
Aunai TAbbaye, in the arrondissement of 
Vire, was an ancient barony, and from 
thence probably the family came. At all 
events the D'Aunays were eminent in 
Cornwall in the fourteenth centur}\ As a 




" Curiosity of Heraldry," I may note that 
the crest of the family is a Demi- Saracen, 
holding in one hand a lion's paw, and in 
the other a gold ring set with a sapphire. 
This cognizance originated, it is said, in 
manner following. Sir William D. was 
made a ' general' at Acre by King Coeur- 
de-Lion in 1192, for having killed, first a 
chief prince of the Saracens, and afterwards 
a mighty lion, whose paws he cut off and 
presented to Richard. The king, delighted 
with the 'general's' exploit, took a ring 
from his royal finger and presented it to 
him ; and that sapphire ring is still in 
the possession of Lord Downe — tangible 
evidence of the truth of this circumstantial 

DAWSON. See David. The late earl 
of Portarlington averred that it ought to be 
D'Ossoune 1 Arthur says there is a town 
in Normandy called Ossone, but the Itin. 
Norm, does not give it. 

DAY. 1. See David. 2. A tradition 
states that a follower of the Conqueror 
settled at Eye in Suffolk, and assumed 
therefrom the name of D'Eye or Deye. 

DAYES. See David. 

DAYLABOURER. From the occupa- 

DAYMAN A known corruption of 
Dinan. B.L.G. 

DAYRELL. This family who gave the 
suffix to Lillingston Dayrell, co. Bucks, 
which they have possessed from temp. 
Richard I., are of a common stock with the 
the Darells of Sesay, Calehill, &c. See 

DAYSON. See David. 

DE. A French preposition prefixed to 
a surname to show that the bearer is 
owner of a certain estate or territory, as 
Jourdain de Saqueville, William de 
Warren. This practice which originated 
in France, and which still continues to 
some extent in that country, was one 
of the many importations of the Nor- 
man Conquest. Such followers of Wil- 
liam as had been noble before the Con- 
quest, generally retained their ancestral 
denominations after they acquired their 
lands in England, but their younger 
sons and otliers applied the de to those 
estates which had been awarded to 
them as their portion of the conquered 
country, and styled themselves De 
Hastings, Do Winton, De Bodiara, &c. 
This prefix continued in use till the 
fifteenth century when it was gradually 
laid aside. During the present century 
a few instances of the resumption of the 
DE have occurred, with the sanction of 
the royal sign-manual. In France at 
the present day it is regarded as a dis- 
tinctive mark of nobility, and though 
one not belonging to the "noblesBe" 
should V>ear it by courtesy, it would not 
be conceded to him in any legal instru- 
ment. He would l>e disparagingly des- 
cribed as "Bemardin Sauville, 

mnnemeiit appelU Bemardin de Sau- 
ville," or the like. Many families 
have borrowed surnames from places of 
which they were never proprietors, but 
in medieval documents the de is gene- 
rally pretty good evidence that either 
the person himself or some ancestor 
owned the lands from which his name 
was derived. 

The French DE must not be con- 
founded with the Dutch de, which is an 
article equivalent to our the and the 
French le. The latter occurs in a few 
family names naturalized here and in 

DEACON. The ecclesiastical office. 
Walter the Deacon was at the compilation 
of Domesday a tenant in chief in the coun- 
ties of Gloucester and Essex. 

DEADLY. See Deadman. 

DEADMAN. a known corruption of 
Debenham. In Sussex it is further cor- 
rupted to Deadly 1 

DEAKIN. The same as Dakin. 

DEAL. The town in Kent. Sometimes 
a corruption of Dale. 

DEALCHAMBER. A corruption of 
De la Chambre. 

DEALTRY. See Hawtrey. 

DEAN. DEANE. A-Sax. denu, a vale 
or plain. Atte Dene is the common form 
in old times, implying residence at such a 
place. There are, however, eighteen pa- 
rishes or places called Dean in the Gazet- 
teer of Engl., and Dene occurs in Domesd. 
as a personal appellation. 

DEANS. A village district of Lanark- 

DEAR. 1. Appears to be synonymous 
with the Fr. family name Cher, the Latin 
Cams, &c. 2. Deor occurs in the Codex 
Exoniensis as a personal name. It is 
doubtless derived from the deer, so spelt in 

DEARDEN. Evidently local, perhaps 
from a place so called near Edenfield in 
Bury, CO. Lancaster. " The ancient and 
modem pronunciation of the name by the 
natives of Lancashire is Du-er-den," which 
Cowell, with fanciful ingenuity, interprets 
'* a thicket of wood in a valley." See 
B.L.G. The Deardens of Rochdale Manor 
claim descent from Elias de Duerden, 
temp. Hen. VI., but so early as the thir- 
teenth century the name of Durden, Dur- 
dent, or Durcdent is variously applied to a 
certain knight who may have been a pro- 
genitor of the family. 

DEARING. See Dering. 

DEARLING. See Darling. 

DEARLOVE. 1. Possibly local- from 
dcf^r, the animal, and //w, a bill. 2. The 
old Germanic personal name Deorlaf. 

DEARMAN. 1. An A. Sax. personal 
name. In Domesday Dereman and Der- 
man. 2. A keeper of deer. 

DEE 85 

DEARY. " There was a Diora, bishop 
of Rochester, whose name must have been 
an epithet of affection." Ferguson. 

DEASE. " Of Milesian origin." B.L.G. 
But as the oldest individual of the family 
of Dees or Dease adduced, lived no longer 
since than the days of Henry VII., we must 
take this statement at its fair value. 

DEATH. " Death" was a common cha- 
racter in the medieval mysteries or miracle 
plays : but this surname is probably de- 
rived from a local source. Aeth is a place 
in Flanders, and the family of Death or 
D'Aeth of Knowlton, baronets, are asserted 
to have come from that locality. See 
Burke's Ext. Baronetage. 

DE BATHE. Hugo de Bathe is said to 
have accompanied Strongbow into Ireland 
in 1176. The surname was probably de- 
rived from the city of Bath. 


DE BLAQUIERE. John Blaquiere, 
Esq., settled in England after the Revoca- 
tion of the Edict of Nantes, 1G85, and his 
son. Sir John B., was created Baron de 
Blaquiere in the peerage of Ireland. The 
chief branch of the family had been long 
seated at Sorraye, in Limousin, and had 
ranked among the noblesse of France for 
more than five hundred years. Previously 
to the expatriation, the immediate ancestry 
of Mr. John B. resided at Loreze in Lan- 
guedoc. Courthope's Debrett. 
DEBONNAIRE. Fr. Meek, gentle, 
good-natured. Settled in England after 
the Rev. of the Edict, of Nantes ; descend- 
ants of John Debonnaire, of St. Quentin — 
now represented by Wm. Debonnaire Hag- 
gard, Esq., F.S.A. There was, however, a 
much earlier importation of the name into 
England, for I find in the H.R. the name of 
one Philip Debeneyre. 

DE BURGH. The Marquis Clanricarde 
deduces his descent from Charles, oth son 
of the Emperor Charlemagne, who was the 
common ancestor of the counts of Blois, 
the kings of Jerusalem, the great baronial 
De Burghs of England, the Burkes of Ire- 
land, and a number of other ancient fami- 
lies. The surname is said to have been 
assumed by John, earl of Comyn, in the 
XI. cent. 
DECENT. Probably from the becoming 
demeanour of the first owner of the surname. 
Dasent may be a corruption. 

DECKER. Dutch, deliker^ one who 
covers roofs with tile, slate, or thatch. 

DE CRESPIGNY. "This family is 
originally of Normandy, where Maheus 
Champion was lord of Crespigny about 
13.")0.'' Courthope's Debrett. 

DEE. Well-known rivers in Cheshire 
and Aberdeenshire. 

DEEBLE. Perhaps one of the numerous 
corruptions of Theobald. 

A parish and places in co. 


DEEKER. Perhaps a corruption of 

DEER. DEERE. Sometimes, doubtless, 
from the animal, like Buck, Hart, Stagg, 
&c. ; but it is also a local name from two 
parishes. Old and New Deer, in Aberdeen- 

DEGORY. See Digory. 

DE HORNE. The ancestors of the De 
Homes, of Stanway Hall, were exiled from 
Holland for their Protestantism temp. 
Elizabeth. Oliver De Home, of Nieuw- 
Kirke, near Ipres, settled at Norwich temp. 
James I. B.L.G. 



DEL. A Norm. Fr. prefix to many 
medieval surnames, signifying "of the " 
as Del Dykes, Del Claye, Del Ho, &;c. 

DE LA. Fr. " of the." This prefix is 
found with many medieval sumames. It 
does not necessarily imply the French 
extraction of the bearer, for many of the 
names are purely English ; e. g. De la 
Broke, De la Bury, De la Cumbe, De la 
Dale, De la Field, De la Forde, De la 
Fenne, De la Grene, De la Halle, De la 
Hoke, De laLane, De la Pleystowe, De 
la Stone, and verj- many others occurring 
in medieval records. 

DE LA BECHE. (Probably Beke— 
see that name.) Nicholas De la Beche, of 
Aldworth, co. Bucks, was a baron by writ 
summoned to parliament 16. Edw. III., 

DEL ACHAMBRE. See Chambre, de la. 

DE LA CHEROIS. At the Rev. of the 

Edict of Nantes, 1685, three brothers of 
this ancient and noble French family fled 
into Holland, and were received into one of 
the Huguenot regiments raised by the Prince 
of Orange. They accompanied that per- 
sonage to England at the Revolution, and 
eventually settled in Ireland. The family 
came originally from Cheroz or Cherois, in 
the pro^^nce of Champagne. B.L.G. 

DE LA COND AMINE. This ancient 
and noble family, distinguished through 
many generations for their military and 
literary abilities, were long settled in Lan- 
guedoc, and a branch were recently resident 
at Metz. The English branch derive from 
Andre de la Condamine, co-seigneur de 
Serves, bom in 1665. This gentleman, who 
was the head of the family, professed the 
Protestant faith and took refuge from per- 
secution in this country about the year 
1714, with his lady, Jeanne Agerre, 'fille 
de noble Pierre Agerre de Fons,' and six of 
their children. The eldest son, Pierre, re- 
turned to his native country and to the 
ancient faith. Heavy misfortunes befel 
him ; he lost a portion of his property by 
the great earthquake of Lisbon, and the re- 
mainder by a fire at Paris. The De la Con- 
damines of Guernsey and England are 
descended from Jean Jacques, the fourth 
son of Andre. About the period of the 




Eevolution of 1789, the family conceiving 
a horror of every thing French disused the 
De la, which however they have of late 
years resumed. The origin of this surname 
is very curious. The family were, as we 
have seen, co-seigneurs of Serves and as 
such the head of the house wrote himself 
Co)idi)minm (or "joint lord") which by a 
slight orthographical change became De la 
Condamine, and settled down in to an heredi- 
tary surname. It is right however to add, 
that a junior branch have always main- 
tained " que son nom venait de Campus 
Domini, le champ du maitre, ou le champ 
seigneurial, et dans 1' ancien lanquedocien, 
on apellait du nom de Condamine, le champ 
oul'enclos attenant au chateau du seigneur." 
(the field or enclosure belonging to the lord's 
castle.) Nobiliare Universel de France, 
Paris, 1819, vol. xvi. p. 447. 

DE LA MER. See Damorj. 

DELAMOTTE. See Motte. 

DELANY. The Irish patronymical 
O'Dulaine has been thus gallicised. 

DELAP. A known corruption of Dun- 
lop, which see. 

DE LA POLE. See Pole. 

DELARUE. Fr. " Of the street." 

DEL AUNE. Fr. de I aune, " Of the elder 
tree," congenerous with Oak, Ash, vVe. 

i®"DE LE. This prefix is found with a 
few medieval surnames, as De le Berne, 
De le Hil, De le Clif. It is, of course, 
the equivalent of the modem Fr. du, 
"of the." See De la. 

DELFOSSE. Fr. De la Fosse. "Of 
the Ditch." See Foss. 

DE L'ISLE. See Lisle. 

DELL. A little dale or valley. From 

residence in one. 
DELLER. One who resided in a dell. 

See termination er. 

DELLOW. Fr. De VEau. The same 
as Waters. 

DELMAR. Fr. De la Mer. "Of the 

DELORME. Fr. De tOrme, The same 
as Elms. 

DELVE. DELVES. De Delve occurs 
in H.R, indicating the local origin of the 
name. I do not find the place. The A- 
Sax. del/, dcplf, means a digging, and the 
name may he cognate with Ditch, Foss, &c. 

DEMON. This name is found in the 
Ifith Report of the Registrar-General. I 
have not met with it elsewhere. It may, 
perhaps, liave descended from medieval 
times, and from some one wlio played the 
devil in a miracle play. A more probable 
origin, however, is from the northern dre, 
day, and mon, man ; day-man, a man who 
works by the day ; or from the Fr. Du Mont 

derive from Geoffrey of Montmorenci, a 

younger son of Herve de Montmorenci, 
grand butler of France, whose elder son 
was ancestor of the great Dukes de Mont- 
morency, of Luxembourg, of Beaumont, 
and Laval. Geoffrey's descendants had 
large possessions in England and Ireland, 
in which latter country they eventually 
settled. In the XV. century they assumed 
the name of Morres, but the ancient and 
distinguished patronymic was resumed by 
the third Viscount Montmorency, who suc- 
ceeded to the title in 1756. 

DEMPSTER. A judge ; the officer of a 
court who pronounces doom. A-Sax. deman, 
to judge. Jamieson. The Isle of Man is 
divided into two districts, over each of which 
a deenister still presides. Before the Union, 
there was an officer in the Scottish senate 
called the Dempster of Parliament, pro- 
bably corresponding with the English 
" Speaker." This office was hereditary in 
the ancient family of Dempster of Auchter- 
less, and hence their surname. In the old 
M.S. poem called Cursor Mundi, quoted by 
Halliwell, we read : — 

" Ayoth was thennc demester 
Of Israel foure-score yeer." 

j^^DEN. A local termination, frequently oc- 
curring in the Weald of Kent and Sussex. 
It is synonymous with dean, a valley ; but 
in this district it has the peculiar signifi- 
cation of "a woody valley, or place yield- 
ing both covert and feeding for cattle, 
especially swine." Somner's Roman 
Ports in Kent, p. 108. The right of pan- 
nage, or hog-feeding, in this woody tract 
— the Sylva Anderida of anterior times 
— is called in Saxon charters Denhera. 
Somner. Dr. Bosworth defines denhoire 
a8"wood-bearing, woody, yieldingmast." 
In a charter of the year 804, Kenwulf, 
King of Mercia, and Cuthred, King of 
Kent, gave to the Monks of St. Augustine 
" xiij denberende on Andred," which a 
chronicler subsequently rendered, " xiij 
dennas glandes portantes — 13 Dens 
yielding acorns or mast in the forest 
of Andred." The following list con- 
tains such surnames with this termi- 
nation as appear to me to belong exclu- 
sively to the Wealden district of Kent, 
Sussex, and Surrey. 


Ballden, Bamden, Blechenden, Bod- 
denden, Brickenden, Blunden, Boulden, 
Brigden, Brissenden, Barden, Brogden. 

Conden, Cobden, Chittenden, Couden, 
Cruttenden, Crunden, Chapden, Garden. 


Fishenden, Fowden, Farnden. 

Oosden, Godden, Gadsden, Goulden. 

Ilepdcn, Haffenden, Horsmonden, 
Hasden, Hnrendcn, Hcnden, Hensdcn, 
Haiselden, Hearnden, Hcsdcn, Hosden, 
Holden, Hovcrden, Hovcnden, Holm- 
den, Hayden, Holnlen, Harden, Horden. 

Igglcsdcn, Iden, Iddenden. 


Lumsden, Lechenden, Lovenden, 




Maplesden, Mayden, Marsden. 

Newenden, Norden. 

Ockenden, Oxenden, Ovenden, Ogden, 
Oden (?) 

Plurenden, Polesden, Pagden, Pittles- 
den, Pattenden, Picklesden. 


Rigden, Ramsden, Rayden. 

Singden, Sinden, Surreuden, Shatter- 
den, Standen, Sladden, Southerden, 

Tappenden, Twissenden, Tenterden, 
Tilden, Twysden. 



Whelden, Witherden, Wickenden, 
Wisden, Wetherden. 


DENBIGH. Probably from Denby, a 
parish in co. Derby, rather than from the 
Welsh town. 

DENCE. See Dench. 

DENCH. Denshe and Dench are me- 
dieval forms of Danish. A-Sax. Dcimc. 

DENDY. The family tradition is, that 
the name was originally D'Awnay, or 
Dawndy. In the sixteenth century it was 
written Dendye, and from that time the 
cliief habitat of the family has been the 
borders of Surrey and Sussex. In the pa- 
rish register of Newdigate, co. Surrey, I 
have observed the spellings Dandie, Dandy, 
Dendy. See Dawnay. 

DENHAM. Parishes in cos. Suffolk and 

DENIAL. " Martha Denial, widow, aet. 
75, was buried in Ecclesfield churchyard, 
3rd Feb. 1851. Her husband, Joseph De- 
nial, told the parish clerk that his grand- 
father was found when an infant deserted 
in a church-porch, and that he was sur- 
named Denial as one whom all deny, and 
was christened Daniel, which is composed 
of the same letters. This is the tradition 
of the origin of a surname now common 
in this parish." Notes and Queries, III., 
p. 323. 

DENIS. See Dennis. 


Denis. See, however, Deunistoun. 

DENMAN. See the termination, den 
and INIAN.- The form in H.R. is Ate Dene. 
A dweller in a dene or ' den' would be 
called a Denman or a Denyer. The writer 
of the article on Surnames in Edinb. Rev. 
April, 1855, thinks the original Denman 
was a swineherd. 

DENMARK. From the country. 

DENNE. An ancient Kentish family 
deduced from Robert de Dene, butler 
(pjncenui) to Edw. the Confessor. He is 
said to have been a Norman, though the 
surname is English, and is doubtless de- 
rived from West Dean, co. Sussex. Sussex 
Arch. Coll. V. 157. 

DENNETT. 1. A diminutive of Denis. 
2. There is an unsupported tradition in the 
Sussex family that the name was originally 
At Donne, or Dean, and that by a syllabic 
trauriposition it became Den- At or Dennett. 

DENNINGTON. A parish in Suffolk. 

DENNIS. DENIS. A baptismal name : 
the patron saint of France. Sometimes, 
however, as Ferguson observes, it may be 
from the A. -Sax. Denisca, Danish, and 
this is confirmed by the Le Deneys of the 

DENNISTOUN. The Dennistouns " of 
that Hk," have an extraordinary way of 
accounting for their surname. One Dan- 
ziel, or Daniel, (say they) probably of Nor- 
man extraction, settled in Renfrewshire, 
and calling the estate Danzielstoun, as- 
sumed therefrom his surname ! The family 
are unquestionably ancient, the name ap- 
pearing in a charter of king Malcolm IV., 
who died in 1165, but the Norman Danziel 
is probably a genealogical figment. The 
English Denisons are said to have sprung 
from a cadet of this ancient house, who 
went from Scotland temp. Charles I., and 
fought at Mars ton Moor. B.L.G. 

DENNY. DENNEY. Denis— the bap- 
tismal name. Some families so called are 
known to have settled here from France 
after the Rev. of the Edict of Nantes, 

DENSILL. DENZIL. An estate in 
Mawgan, co. Cornwall, which was possessed 
by the family down to the sixteenth cent., 
when one of the heirs female married 

DENSTON. Places In cos. Stafford and 

DENT. A township and chapelry in 
Yorkshire, and a place in Northumber- 

DENTON. Parishes in cos. Durham, 
Hunts, Kent, Lancaster, Lincoln, Norfolk, 
Oxon, Northampt., Sussex, York, and Nor- 

DENYER. See Denman. 

DE PUTRON. The village or contree 
de Putron, of which the family were an- 
ciently lords, is in Guernsey, but there is 
good authority in the heraldic archives of 
Paris for the De Putrons having ranked 
among the nobility of Normandy in the 
thirteenth century. They seem to have 
been resident near Falaise. De Puj'tren, 
well known as the name of the eminent 
French surgeon, has been supposed to be 

DERBY. The town. 

DERICK. DERRICK. A contraction 
of Theodoric. Ainsworth. 

DERING. The source of this ancient 
family, (whence the affix of Surenden- 
Dering, co. Kent,) appears to be from that 
of De Morinis, who probably originated in 
the territory of the Morini in the N.E. of 
France. One of the early members, De- 


ringus de M., seems to have stamped his 
baptismal appellative upon his descendants 
as a surname in the twelfth century. 
See Hasted's Kent ; but it is to be remarked 
that there was in that county prior to 
Domesday a tenant who bore the name of 
Derinc filius Sired. 

DE RINZY. The estate of Clobemon, 
CO. Wexford, was granted by Charles I. to 
Sir Matthew de Kenzy, a native of CuUen 
in Germany, and a descendant of George 
Castriota, the famous Scanderbeg. The 
family still possess Clobemon Hall. B.L.G. 

DERMOTT. See Diarmuid. 

DBRN. DERNE. A solitary place. 
A. -Sax. diertia. 

DERRICK. A Flemish Christian name. 
See Derick. 

DESCHAMPS. (Now Chamier). Fr. 
Protestant refugees from Bergerac in Pe- 

DESPAIR. " Richard Despair, a poor 
man buried." Par. Reg., East Gr instead, 
Sussex, 1726. Probably a corruption of 
the French family name Despard. 


Spencer or Spenser. 

DE ST. CROIX. Many places in France 
and particularly in Normandy are dedicated 
to the Holy Cross. The English family 
left Normandy at the Rev. of the Edict of 
Nantes, and settled in the island of Jersey 
from whence they have subsequently trans- 
ferred themselves to this country. 

Since their settlement in England, the family have 
uniformly omitted the E final of Sainte, contrary to 
grammar — apparently for the purpose of making the 
name more intelligible to the English eye. 

DE TEISSIER. A member of the noble 
Italian family Teisseri of Nice, settled in 
Languedoc, and his descendants became 
Barons of France. Lewis, Baron de Teis- 
sier, settled in England in the last century, 
but the title of baron was disused until 
1819, when, at the desire of Louis XVIII. 
and with the consent of the Prince Regent, 
it was resinned by James de Teissier, the 
representative of the family. 

DETHICK. An estate in Derbyshire, 
now Dethwick, which was possessed by 
the family temp. Hen. III. 

DEUCE. In various dialects this is one 
of the many aliases of the Devil. The 
name (which may be found in the 10th 
Report of the Registrar General) is more 
probably a corruption of D'Ewes, which 

DEUCHAR. An ancient parish in co. 


DEV ALL. See DevoU. 

DEVENISH. The family first appear 
as gentry in co. Sussex about the year 
1399. The name, clearly indicative of a 
Devonshire origin, is cognate with Kentish, 
Cornish, &c. The Irish branch, who trans- 
ferred themselves to the sister island in 
the reign of Henry VIII., have a tradition 

88 DEW 

that it is corrupted from a Saxon root sig- 
nifying "deep waters," and that their 
original patronymic was Sutton ; but there 
is no evidence of the truth of either state- 
ment. Le Deveneys, Deveneys, and De- 
venist are found in H.R., and there is an 
Isabella la Deveneis. 

DEVERELL. In most cases the same 
as Devereux. There are, however, English 
localities called Deverell and DeverhSl in 
COS. Dorset and Wilts. 

DEVEREUX. "Of this famUy, which 
had its surname from Evreux, a town in 
Normandy, and came into England with 
the Conqueror, there were divers genera- 
tions in England before they became 
barons of the realm." Banks. Bar. i. 287. 

DEVEY. I have no doubt of the local 
origin of this name, though Ferguson con- 
siders it a diminutive of " dove." 

DEVIL. This surname occurs in many 
languages; but the only instance of it 
which I recollect in England is that of the 
monk, Willelmus cognomento Diabolus. 
See Eng. Sum. i., 223. The French De 
Ville, naturalized amongst us, has often 
been misunderstood to be the 8}Tionym of 
Satan, and various vowel changes have 
been made by the bearers of it to avoid 
this very objectionable notion. Hence it 
is commonly written Divall, Divoll, Devall, 
&c., while in records Devol, Devile, Deyvil, 
&c., are found. 

DEVOLL. Notwithstanding my expla- 
nation of Devil by De Ville, Mr. Ferguson 
deduces the pedigree of Devoll, Devall, &c., 
direct from Satan, which is, methinks, 
giving the devil more than his due. By 
way of salvo, however, Mr. Ferguson 
admits that they may possibly be diminu- 
tives of " dove !" 

DEVON. Perhaps from Devonshire ; 
but it may be from the river Devon in the 
COS. of Perth, Kinross, and Clackmannan. 

DEVONPORT. Must be a corruption 
of Davenport, for the large suburb of Ply- 
mouth now so called has only borne 
that designation a few years. 

DEVONSHIRE. From the county. 

DEW. Probably from Eu in Normandy, 
commonly called la Ville d'Uu. 

DEWAR. A hamlet in the parish of > 
Heriot, Edinburghshire. The patriarch of 
the family is said to have received the 
lands of Dewar in reward for his having 
slain a fonnidable wolf. Gaz. of Scotland. 

DEWDNEY. SeeDoudney. 

D'EWES. "Sir Simonds was ffrand- 
child unto Adrian D'ewes, descended of the 
ancient stem of Des Ewes [des Eaux, the 
synonym of our English Waters'] dynasts or 
lords of the dition of Kessel in the duchy of 
Geldcrland, who came first thence when 
that province was wasted with civil war, in 
the l>oginning of king Henry the Eighth." 
Fuller's Worthies iii. 195. 

DEWEY. AV alter de Dounai was a great 




baron and lord of Bampton and Were, 
under William the Conqueror. In Domesd. 
he occurs as a tenant in capite in the coun- 
ties of Devon, Wilts, Dorset, and Somerset. 
He is sometimes called Walscinus. It is 
probable that he came from Douay in 

DE WINTON. Robert de Wintona, or 
de Wincestria, (doubtless a native of Win- 
chester) went into Glamorganshire with 
Kobert Fitzhamon, soon after the Conquest, 
and built the castle of Lanquian, near Cow- 
bridge. His descendants continued to use 
those names for many generations, but at 
length their place was usurped by the bye- 
name (for it can hardly be a corruption) 
Wylcolyna or W^ylklyn, and this was at 
length further degraded into Wilkins. 
Thus it remains with many of the ex- 
isting branches, though others have by 
royal authority resumed the ancient desig- 
nation of De Winton. 

DEWSBURY. A town in Yorkshire. 

DEXTER. Possibly from Lat. dexter, 
in the sense of lucky, fortunate — the anti- 
thesis of «i«/,?f^r; but more likely a con- 
traction of De Exeter, from the chief town 
of Devonshire. 

D'EYNCOURT. Walter de Aincurth 
or D'Eyncourt came over with William the 
Conqueror, and received from him several 
lordships in the shires of Northampton, 
Derby, Nottingham, York, and Lincoln, in 
which last Blankney became his caput 
baronite. Kelham's Domesd. 

DIAL. A corruption of Doyle. 

DIAMOND. In the parish register of 
Brenchley, co. Kent, there is an entry to 
the effect that, in 1612 — ' John Diamond, 
son of John du Mont the Frenchman, was 
baptized.' The elder Du Mont was a 
Kentish iron-master, who had settled in 
that county from France. Inf. H.W. 
Diamond, M.D., F.S.A. 

DIARMUID. An ancient Irish personal 
name, anglicized to Dermott, Darby, and 
even to Jeremiah. Ulst. Joum. Archffiol., 
No. 2. 

DIBBLE. Perhaps the same as Tipple, 

DIBDIN. Dibden, a parish in Hamp- 

DICEY. Probably local— though Fer- 
guson thinks it may be 0. Germ., Disi or 
Disa, from Goth, deis, wise. 

DICK. See Richard. 

DICKENS. The same as Digons, which 


DICKER. A district in Sussex, formerly 
an extensive waste. Ate Dykere occurs 
temp. Edw. III. among the Barons of the 
Cinque Ports, and le Dykere some years 
earlier, in the same county. 

DICKESON. See Richard. 

DICKINS. See Digons and Richard. 

DICKISON. See Richard. 

DICKMAN. I. From residence near a 
dyke, or possibly a constructor of dykes, 
locally called dicks. 2. The same as Dyke- 

DICKS. See Richard. 

DICKSEE. The same as Dixie. 

DICKSON. See Richard. 

DIDSBURY. A chapelry of Manchester. 

DIGBY. A parish in Lincolnshire. The 

noble family are of great antiquity in co. 


DIGG. SeeDigory. 

DIGGENS. See Digons. 

DIGGERY. Degory, a personal name. 

DIGGES. The same as Dicks. See 


DIGHTON. See Deighton. 

DIGONS. Diquon or Digon is an early 
'nursename' of Eichard. One of the mes- 
sengers of Eleanor, countess of Montfort, 
in 1265, was called Diquon. Blaauw's 
Barons' War. In the "Hundred Merry 
Tales" there is an anecdote of a rustic from 
the North of England, who, as Richard III. 
was reviewing some troops near London, 
stepped out of the ranks and clapping the 
monarch upon the shoulder, said : "Diccon, 
Diccon ! by the mis ays blith that thaust 
kyng !" (Dick, Dick ! by the mass I'm glad 
you are king!) Nor must we forget the 

" Jocky of Norfolk be not too bold ; 
For Dickon thy master is bought and sold." 
Xing Richard III., Act. 6, 8c. 3. 

Dickens is the more usual form of this 
name. It may be remarked that the word 
" Dickins" used as a nickname of Satan 
has a different origin, being a contraction 
of the diminutive Devilklm. 

DIGORY. DEGORY. The personal 
name, whence probably the modifications 
Digg, Digges, Diggins. Digginson ; though 
these may perhaps be from Dick and 

DIKE. See Dyke. 

DILGER. SeeDilke. Dilker. H.R. 

DILKE. Presumed to be Danish, as it 
is chiefly found in the Danish counties 
from temp. Edw. I. According to Forste- 
mann,the root of Dill, Dilley, Dillow, Dilke, 
Dilger (^^r, spear), and Dillimore (mar^ 
illustrious) is the old High Germ, tilen, to 
overthrow. Corresponding Old German 
names are Dilli, Tilli, Tillemlr, and modern 
German Dill and Till. Ferguson, p. 380. 
A Nicolaus Dilkes occurs in the H.R. of 

DILL. See Dilke. There is, however, 
a hundred so called in Sussex. Dill with- 
out prefix is found in H.R. 

DILLER. « To dill" is a Northernism 
meaning to finish, and both this name and 




Dillman may have been derived from some 

DILLEY. See Dilke. 

DILLIMORE. See Dilke. 

DILLMAN. See Diller. 

DILLON. The common ancestor of the 
noble Dillons of Ireland was Henry Dillon, 
who settled in that country in the year 
1185. King John, while Earl of Mortain, 
gave him immense tracts of land about 
Drumrany, which were afterwards collec- 
tively known as Dillon's country. See 
Geneal. Hist, of the Fam. of Brabazon, p. 
17. Nothing seems to be known of the 
ancestors of this personage or of the origin 
of the name. 

DILLOW. See Dilke. 

DILLWYN. A parish in Herefordshire. 

DIMBLEBY. A corruption of Thimble- 
by, places in cos. York and Lincoln. 

DLVIMACK. See Dymock. 

DIMMOCK. See Dymock. 

DBIOND. See Diamond. 

DIMSDALE. Probably Dinsdale, a pa- 
rish in Durham, and a township in York- 

DINAN. A town in Brittany, whose 
viscounts, dating from the end of the 
tenth century, became ancestors of several 
noble houses in France, and of Foulke de 
Dinan, a baron by tenure under the Con- 
queror. His posterity were barons by 
writ from 1295 to 1509. The name has 
been wonderfully corrupted, having gone 
through the following changes: Dinan, 
Dinant, Dynaunt, Dynham, Dymant, Dei- 
mond, Dyamond, Deyman, and Dayman. 

DINE. DLNTES. See Dyne. 

DINGLE. "A narrow valley between 
two hills." Bailey. 

DINGLEY. A parish in Northampton- 

DINGWALL. A parish and royal 
burgh in Ross-shire. 

DINHAJVI. A hamlet in Monmouth- 

DINMORE. A district connected with 
the parish of Clun-Gunford, co. Salop. 

DINSDALE. A parish co. Durham, 
and a township co. York. 

DIPLOCK. A corruption of Duplock. 

DIPNALL. Dippenhall, a tything in 
the parish of Crondale in Hampshire. 

DIPPERY. Fr. Du Pre, 'Of the 

Meadow.' D'Ypres — from Ypres in Flan- 
ders, has however been suggested to me. 

DIPPLE. An ancient parish now com- 
prehended by that of Speymouth, in Moray- 

DIPROSE. A corruption of De Preaux. 
There are in Normandy seven places called 

Preaux, two of which are St. Michel de 
Preaux and Notre-Dame de Preaux. 

DIRK. DIRCKS. Corruptions of 

DISHER. A maker of bowls or dishes. 
It is used in a feminine form as Dyssherea 
in Piers Plowman. 

DISNEY. " Disney, alias De Iseney, he 
dwelleth at Diseney, and of his name and 
line be gentilmenof Fraunce," says Leland, 
speaking of Norton- Disney, co, Lincoln. 
The surname appears in the various lists 
called the Roll of Battel Abbey, and the 
family came, it would appear, from Isigni, 
near Bayeux, a small town, famous at pre- 
sent for its butter. 

DITCH. From residence in or near the 
ditch of a fortified town, like the French De 
la Fosse. Its forms in the H.R, are De 
Fossa, De la Fosse, &;c,, and there is one 
unlucky wight called *' Absolon in le 

DITCHBURN. A township in Nor- 

DITCHER. The occupation. Fossator. 

DITCHLING. A parish in Sussex. 

DITCHMAN. Probably the same as 

DITTON. Parishes in cos. Kent, Lan- 
caster, Cambridge, Surrey, Salop, &c. 


DIVER. 1. Possibly from expertness in 
diving. 2. A river in Wiltshire. 

DIVERS. Apparently a French local 
name, the D of De coalescing. 

DIVES. Probably a corruption of Dive. 
Uxor Boselini de Dive was a tenant in 
capite under William the Conqueror, co. 
Cambridge. Kelham's Domesd. There 
is a village so called in the department of 
Calvados in Normandy. De Dyve, Le 
Dyve. H.R. 

DIVIE. A romantic river in Moray- 

DIVINE. Probably formed like Divers 

DIVOLL. See Devil and Devoll. 

DIX. See Richard. 

DIXEY. See Dixie. 

DIXIE. According to Wootton's Bar- 
onetage the family are descended from 
Wolstan, earl of Ellenden (now called 
Wilton) who married the sister of Egljert, 
the first monarch of all England ; and there 
are other traditions of their immense anti- 
quity. The name is probably not very an- 
cient, and the heralds' Visitations only 
commence the pedigree with Wolstan Dixie 
who flourished about the time of Edw. III. 

DIXON is Dick's son, that is Richard's 
son, " In Scotland it has been variously 
writtenat different periods, as Dicson, Dyk- 




son, Dikson, Diksoun, Diksoune, Dixson, 
and Dickson. They are descended from one 
Kichard Keith, said to be a son of the 
family of Keith, earls-marshal of Scotland, 
and in proof thereof they carry in their 
arms the chief of Keith Mareschal. This 
Richard was commonly called Dick, and 
his sons, with the carelessness of that age, 
were styled " Dickson." It is probable 
that he was the son of the great Marshal, 
Hen-ey de Keth, (ob. 1249,) by his wife 
Margaret, daughter of William, third lord 
Douglas." Dixon on Surnames. Boston, 
U. S., 1857. The Irish Dixons came from 
Scotland, in a clan, in the reign of Henry 
VIII. In 1617, if not earlier, they bore the 
arms of the English Dixons, which goes 
far to prove community of origin for the 
Dixons, Dicksons, &c., of the three king- 
doms. The oldest spelling in Ireland is 
Dykesone. Inf. Sir Erasmus Dixon Bor- 
rowes, Bart. The great baron of Malpas, 
CO. Chester, William Belward, had two 
sons, David and Richard. The latter's 
third son, Richard, sumamed Little, on ac- 
count of his diminutive size, had two sons, 
the younger of whom was John, who re- 
ceived the surname of Richardson (Filius 
Ricardi) from his father's Christian name. 
It has been conjectured that some of the 
Dixons of the North of England, who trace 
their pedigree to the county of Chester, 
may be descendants of that John Richard- 
son, alias Dick's son. 

DOBB. DOBBS. See Robert. 


DOBBY. DOBBIE. See Robert. 

DOBELL. Perhaps originally from the 
Roman personal name, Dolabella. The 
French have always been fond of adopting 
classical names, and this occurs as a sur- 
name in Normandy in the twelfth and 
thirteenth centuries in the form of Dolbell. 
In 1296, however, it is found in Sussex as 
De Dobel, implying a local origin, and in 
the sixteenth century the family ranked 
with the gentry of that county, bearing the 
canting arms of a Doe between three Bells. 

DOBINSON. The son of Dobin or 


DOBLE. The same as Dobell, which is 
commonly pronounced Double. 

DOBREE. Probably D'Aubri. The 
Itin. Norm, shows two places so called, 
viz. Aubri-en-Exmes, and Aubri-le-Pan- 
thon, both in the arrondissement of Ar- 
gentan in Normandy. 

DOBSON. See Robert. 

DOCKER. A township in Westmore- 

DOCKING. A parish in Norfolk. 

DOD. The Do<l3 of Edge claim from 
Hova, son of Cadwgan Dot. He about the 
time of Henry II. married the heiress of 
the lord of Edge, co. Chester, who is pre- 
sumed to have been the son of Edwin, a 
Saxon thane, who was allowed to retain 
hia lands after the Conquest. Ormerod, 

(Hist. Cheshire), adduces arguments in fa- 
vour of Cadwgan Dot's having been des- 
cended from a Saxon called Dot, who, at 
the Conquest, had been expelled from the 
lands in Cheshire which he had held 
jointly with that very thane Edwin. Dod 
of Edge, and their cadet Dod, of Cloverley, 
rank amongst the most ancient territorial 
families in the kingdom. 

DODD. DODDS. Doda, an A -Sax. 

personal name, whence Dodds, Dodson, 

&c. Its forms in the H.R. are Dod and 

Dodde, and in Domesd. Doda, Dode, and 

DODDRIDGE. Evidently local, but I 

know not the place. De Doderig, H.R., co. 

DODGE. A corruption of Dodds, the 

genitive of Doda. See Dodd. 
DODGSON. The same as Dodson. 

DODMAN. A class of men called Do- 
domanni appear in the Exon Domesday, 
and afterwards as Dodeman and Deudeman. 
The word awaits explanation. See Dud- 
man. Several De Dodmanstones occur in 

DODSON. The son of Doda. Alwinus 
Dodesone occurs in Domesday as a tenant 
in chief, Hertfordshire, 142. He was 
doubtless of Saxon blood. 

DODSWORTH. Dodworth, a township 
in Yorkshire. 

DOE. From the animal, like Hart, 
Buck, Roe, &c. Those mythical ' parties' 
to so many legal proceedings, " John Doe 
and Richard Roe," are evidently of fo- 
rest extraction, and point to the days when 
forest laws prevailed and venison was a sa- 
cred thing. In H.R. there is a John le Doe. 

DOGGETT. An old London name, 
probably corrupted from Dowgate, one of 
the Roman gateways of the city. Ferguson 
makes it a diminutive of the Icelandic doggr, 
and the English dog, but no such diminu- 
tive is found. 

surname is derived from Dochartach, lord 
and prince of Inishowen, co. Donegal," a 
direct descendant of " Cean Faola, prince 
of Tire Connell, now the county of Donegal, 
and 12th in descent from Conal Gulban, 
7th son of Niall of the Nine Hostages," 
from whom so many of the ancient Irish 
families are descended. B.L.G. 

DOLAMORE. The termination shows 
its local origin, though I find no place so 
designated. Ferguson, however, deduces 
it from O. Norse doll, a woman, and mar, 

DOLBEN. " The name is presumed to 
be taken from, a place be- 
tween Caernarvon and Pemnorfa." Court- 
hope's Debrett's Baronetage. If it be so, 
this is one of the extremely few local sur- 
names that have originated in Wales. 

DOLBY. See Dalby. 




DOLE. 1. Dole or dooJe is an eastern 
and southern provincialism for a boundary 
mark, whether an earthen mound or a 
post of stone or wood. In the western 
counties it means a low, flat, place. Halliw. 
2. Dol, a well known town in Brittany. 
Doll, Dolle, De Doll. H.R. 

DOLLAR. A town and parish in Clack- 

DOLLING. About the year 1580, a 
younger son of the Count Dolling, of Doll- 
ing, near Toulouse, having embraced 
Huguenot opinions, is said to have fled 
into England, and settled in the Isle of 

" to dole" signifies to share or divide ; to 
set out in portions or lots, whether of land, 
goods, or money. A.-Sax.flteZan. Perhaps 
the original Dolenian may have been 
a distributor either of alms, or ^f lands 
under the " tenantry " arrangements of 
feudal times. Or he may have been such a 
"judge or divider " — that is arbitrator — as 
the one mentioned in Luke XII. 14. A less 
desirable derivation is from the A. -Sax dol, 
foolish, erring, heretical, and man. Dole- 
man. De la Dole. H.R. 

DOLPHIN. An ancient personal name. 
One Dolfin was a tenant-in-chief in cos. 
Derby and York at the making of Domesd. 
The family were in Ireland before the year 
1307. B.L.G. 

DOMESDAY. Not from the famous 
national record so often referred to in these 
pages, nor from the Day of Doom ; but from 
one of the many religious establishments to 
which the name of Maison-Dieu, JDomus 
Dei, or " God's House," was given. 

DOMMTNNEY. This singular name 
occurs in Lond. Direct. It may be a cor- 
ruption of Domine — a sobriquet. 

DOMVILLB. Donville in the arron- 
dissement of Lisieux, in Normandy, was 
anciently written Dumoville, as in a papal 
bull of 1210. Itin. de la Normandie. The 
family, who probably entered England at 
the Conquest, were resident in co. Chester 
from the time of Henry III. till the begin- 
ning of the XVIII. cent. 

DONAHOO. A corruption of the Irish 
name O'Donohogue. 

DONALD. A well-known northern per- 
sonal name, whence Donalds, Mac Donald, 
Donaldson, Donnison, Donkin. Gaelic ety- 
mologists derive the name from '* Don- 
huil," i.e., " brown-eyed." 

DONALDS. See Donald. 

DONALDSON. See Donald. 

DONCASTER. A town in Yorkshire. 

DONE. A great Cheshire family, whom 
Ormerod designates as " a race of Warriors 
who held Utkinton (supposed to be the 
' Done ' of Domesday), as military tenants 
of Venables, from the time of King John. 
The chiefs of this house will be 

found in the battle rolls of Agincourt, 
Bloreheath, and Flodden." Miscell. Palat. 
p. 90. The name is pronomiced Done, as is 
seen in Drayton's description of the bloody 
battle between Henry IV. and Hotspur 
Percy : 

"There Dutton, Dutton kills ; a Done doth kill 
a Dom; 
A Booth, a Booth ; and Leigh by Leigh is over- 

thrown ; 
A Venables against a Venables doth stand ; 
And Troutbeck fighteth with a Troutbeck hand to 

hand ; 
There Molineux doth make a Molineux to die, 
And Egerton the strength of Egerton doth try ; 
Cheshire, wert thou mad, of thine own native 

So much until this day thou never shed'st before." 
Polyolbion, Song 22. 
Tliis family, or at least the female members 
thereof, seem to have been remarkable for 
their beauty, if we may trust the proverb, 
quoted by Kay. 


DONELAN. One of the most ancient 
families in Ireland, deriving from Cahal, 2nd 
son of Morough Molathan, King of Con- 
naught, who died A.D. 701. One of hig 
descendants built the castle of Bally- 
Donelan, co. Galway. B.L.G. 

DONHUE. See Donahoo. 

DONKIN. See Donald and Duncan. 

DONNA VAN. See Donovan. 

DONNE. Izaak Walton, in his Life of 
Dr. Donne, says that " his father was mas- 
culinely and lineally descended from a very 
ancient family in Wales." The etymon is 
probably d^n, black or dark complexioned. 
It must not be forgotten, however, that one 
Donne, a tenant in chief, held land in 
Devon, temp. Edw. Conf. Domesd. 

DONNISON. See Donald. 


great Irish family spring from a chieftain 
of the X. cent, who was killed in 1)77, by 
the famous Brian Boru. By old writers 
the name is written Dondubhan, which 
signifies " brown-haired-chief." O'Donovan 
in Irish Pen. Joum. p. 331. 

DOO. The Scottish for Dove ? Le Do. 

DOOGOOD. Has probably no allusion 
to practical benevolence, but, like many 
other surnames terminating in good, is 
the corruption of a local name with the de- 
sinence n'ood. Or it may possibly be a 
corruption of the Scottish Duguld. 

DOOLITTLE. I fear that the original 
owner of this name was a lazy fellow, 
though some of his descendants have been 
distinguished for zeal and industry. 

DOON. 1. A-Sax. dun, a hill. 2. A 
'bonny' river with 'banks and braes,' in 

DOORS. Dores, a castle said to have 
been the abode of Macbeth, in the parish of 
Kettins, co. Forfar. 

DORE. A chapelry in Derbyshire, and 
a parish in co. Hereford — Abbey Dore. 




DORLING. Probably the same as Dar- 
ling. A.S. de6rUng. 

DOllMAN". A-Sax. ddr^ a gate or large 
door, and man. A door-keeper, porter. 

DORMAR. See Dormer. 

DORMER. Collins traces Lord Dormer's 
family no higher than the XV. cent. With 
the origin of the name I am unacquainted. 

DORRELL. Probably the same as 

DORRINGTON. A parish in Lincoln- 
shire, and a township in Shropshire. 

DORTOX. A parish in Buckingham- 

DORVELL. See Dorville. 

DORVILLE. Probably from one of the 
two places in Normandy now called Dou- 
ville, situated respectively in the arrondisse- 
ments of Andeli and Pont-l'Eveque. 

DORWARD. See Durward. 

DOSSELL. A richly ornamented cloak 
worn by persons of high rank. Lat. 
dorsale. Analogous to Mantell. 

rupted from Uttoxeter, co. Stafford. So 
Rossiter from Wroxeter. 

DOSSON. The same as Dowson. 

DOTTRIDGE. Mr. Ferguson inge- 
niously derives this name from the Low 
German Deotric, Theoderic ; but it is more 
probably identical with Doddridge. 


DOUBLE. A sobriquet relating to ex- 
traordinary size — or to duplicity of cha- 
racter ? The name Dobell is often so pro- 

DOUBLEDAY. This name and its 
companion, Singleday, bafile my inge- 

DOUBLEMAN. The same as Double. 

DOUBLETT. " An old fashion'd gar- 
ment for men ; much the same as a waist- 
coat." Bailey. Also a military garment 
covering the person as low as the waist. 
The corresponding French surname is Pour- 
point. The name was first given on the 
same principle as Cloake, Mantell, &c. 

DOUCH. An old orthography of ' Dutch/ 
by which however we must understand, not 
a Hollander, but a German : the latter word 
being of rather recent importation into 
English. The first translation of the whole 
Bible into our language, by Miles Cover- 
dale, is stated on the title page to have been 
rendered " out of the Douche (meaning 
German) and Latyn into Englyshe, 1535." 
Even 80 lately as IGGO, Howell, in the pre- 
face of his Lexicon says, " the root of most 
of the English language is Dutch" by 
which of course he means the Teutonic or 
old German. 

DOUDNEY. As the name Oudney 
occurs, it is very probable that Doudney 

(with its variations Dewdney, Dudeney, &c.) 
is the same designation with the prefix D', 
although I have not been successful in 
finding any place in Normandy, or elsewhere 
in France, called Oudeney or Oudenai. 

DOUGALL. (Generally Mac-Dougall). 
Gael, dhu, black, and gall, a stranger — an 
expression used by the Celtic inhabitants 
of Scotland to denote a Lowlander, or any 
one not of their own race. It is still in use 
as a baptismal name. 

DOUGHTON. A parish united with 
Dunton. co. Norfolk. 

DOUGHTY. A.-Sax. dohtig, valiant, 
hardy, manly. 

DOUGLAS. The most powerful and 
widely celebrated family that Scotland ever 
produced. The name was assumed from 
lands on the small river Douglas, in Lan- 
arkshire, (Gael, duf-glas, du-glas, i.e., dark 
grey, from the colour of its waters), where 
William of Dufglas was established as early 
as 1175. This illustrious race, renowned 
throughout western Europe for its romantic 
career, may well be accounted an "his- 
torical " family, for as Hume, the annalist 
of the House, has it — 


The family rose into power under King 
Robert Bruce, of whom " the good Lord 
James of Douglas " was the most distin- 
guished adherent, but suffered a partial 
eclipse when the ninth earl, James, rebelled 
against King James II. The earls of 
Angus, however, partly restored the ances- 
tral glory of the house, which has always 
continued to be one of the most important 
in Scotland. 

DOULTON. Probably Dolton, a parish 
in Devonshire. 

DOUSBERY. Probably Dewsbury, co. 

DOUTHAVAITE. See Thwaite. 

DOVE. The bird. Also a beautiful 
river of Derbyshire. 
DOVER. The Kentish town. 

DOVEREN. Doveran, a river in the 
shires of Banff and Aberdeen. 

DO VAY. Possibly D'Auffai, "of Auffai," 
a small town near Dieppe, in Normandy. 

DOW. Probably a corruption of the 
Gaelic, D/iu, i.e. black; but dorv or dvo, 
the Scottish for dove or pigeon, may be 
the origin. Dow, without prefix, is found 
in H.R. It also appears to have been a 
personal name, and to have given rise to 
Dowson, Dowse, Dowsing, and Dowsett, 
and also to the local name Dowsby in Lin- 

DOWDESWELL. A parish in Glou- 

DOWER. A rabbit's burrow, cunicidus. 
Prompt. Parv. 

D OWL AND. A parish in Devonshire. 




DOWNE. DOWN. A-Sax. dun, a hill, 
as the South Downs, Marlborough Downs, 
&c. From residence in such a locality 
have come the surnames Downe, Downer, 
Downman, Do>vnes, &c. The H.R. form is 
Ate-Dune, i.e. * At the Down.' 

DOWNER. See Downe. 

DOWNES. See Downe. 

DOWNEY. Perhaps the same as 

DOWNHAM. Parishes, &c., in cos. 
Norfolk, Cambridge, Essex, and Lancaster. 

DOWNIE. A range of hills in Forfar- 
shire, and a headland in Kincardineshire. 

DOWNING. This common surname is 
doubtless local, but I cannot ascertain the 

DOWNMAN. See Downe. 

DO WNTON. Parishes in Wiltshire and 

DOWNWARDS. Mr. Ferguson inge- 
niously derives it from A-Sax. dun, a down 
or hill, and weard, a watchman — " a look- 
out man on the Downs." 


DOWSON. See Dow. 

DOXEY. DOXSEY. Corruptions of 
De Dockescy, H.R. Dockesey may probably 
be insula anatum, the island of ducks. 

DOYLE. One of the commonest of 
Irish surnames, and presumed to be of 
Anglo-Norman origin. See D'Oyley. It is 
found as Doyl and Doil in England, temp. 
Edward I. H.R. 

D'OYLEY. Robert de Oilgi was a te- 
nant-in-chief in many counties, and Wido 
de O. in co. Oxford. Domesd. The former 
is mentioned in the chartulary of Oseney 
Abbey as a sworn companion of Roger de 
Ivery (fratres jurati et per sacramentum 
confoederati) in assisting at the invasion of 
England. Ellis, Introd. According to ge- 
nealogists the ancestors of these persons 
were lords of Olgii or Oyly in Normandy 
long before the Conquest. The map of 
modem Normandy shows no such locality 
as Oilgi, or Oyly, but there are three places 
in the neighbourhood of Falaise, called 
Ouilli. It was probably to Ouilli-le-Basset 
in the canton of Falaise, written in the XI. 
cent. Oillei (and latinized Olleium) that 
the family originated. 

DOYNE. Originally O'Doyne of Castle- 
bracke in Ireland. B.L.G. 

DRAGE. Perhaps one of the modifica- 
tions of Drogo, the i)er8onal name. 

DRAKE. Not from the waterfowl, but 
from A-Sax. draca (Latin r/rflz-f;,) a dragon. 
Le Di'agnn, the Anglo-Norman form, oc- 
curs in the H.R., but the nearest approach 
to this that I have seen in modem times is 
Drago, a name which existed at Ely about 
a century since. Several families of Drake 
bear as arms the wyvem, or two-legged 
dragon ; and it is worthy of remark that in 

giving to various pieces of cannon the 
names of monsters and animals of prey, 
that of ' drake' was assigned to a peculiar 
species of gun, as those of caliver, basilisk, 
culverin, fawconet, saker — all appellations 
of serpents and rapacious birds — were to 
others. The compounds, "fire-drake," and 
"hell-drake," become intelligible when the 
latter syllable is understood to mean, not 
the harmless and familiar denizen of the 
pool, but the * fell dragoun ' of medieval 
romance. Sir Thomas Smith, in his trea- 
tise " De Republica Anglicana," speaking 
of his contemporary', the celebrated Eliza- 
bethan admiral. Sir Francis Drake, (con- 
trary to the generally received notion that 
he was born in Devonshire,) asserts that 
he was the son of a fisherman in the Isle of 
Wight, and that the name of Drake was 
not his family appellation but an assump- 
tion : " Draconis nomen ipse sibi sumpsit, 
quod est serpentum quoddam genus." He 
adds that the Dunkirkers fitted out a fine 
ship called the Dog, for the purpose of 
hunting and perhaps catching this sea-ser- 
pent : " Dunkercani insignem navem in- 
struxemnt, Doggani (id est Canem) a se 
appellatam, innuentes ea se Draconem 
hunc venaturos et forte capturos." Le Drac 
is an ancient form of the name. 

DRAPER. A draper — a dealer in cloth. 
Fr. drap. Le Draper. H.R. 

DRAWBRIDGE. First imposed upon 
a retainer in a fortified house whose duty 
it was to superintend the drawbridge. 
Harry o' the Drawbridge would be a very 
likely appellation for such a guardsman. 

DRAWSWORD. A name analogous to 
Shakspeare. Draweswerd, H.R. 

DRA^\"^VATER. A drawer of water ; 
or perhaps local. Drawater. H.R. 

DRAX. A parish in Yorkshire. 

DRAY. A diminutive of Drogo. Dreye. 

DRAYCOTT. Parishes and places in 
COS. Derby, Wilts, Berks, and Stafford. 

DRAYNER. A drainer, or conductor 

of water. See Leader. 


DRAYTON. Towns, parishes, &c., in 
COS. Berks, Leicester, Norfolk, Oxon, 
Somerset, Staflord, Buckingham, Cam- 
bridge, Nottingham, &c. 

DRESDEN. From the metropolis of 

DRESSER. Probably some handicraft. 

DREW. DREWE. 1. Dro^^o, an early 
Nonnan personal name, was so anglicised. 

2. It is a common nickname for Andrew. 

3. Dreux, a town of Brittany. At the time 
of the Norman survey, Herman de Dreuues 
was a t<.'nant-in-chief in Herefordshire. 
There is a L^- Dreu in H.R. 

According to the prcaml)le of the pedi- 
gree of the Drews of Youghal, arranged by 

The son of Drogo or 




Sir Wm. Beiham, Ulster, the family descend 
•' from Drogo or Dru, a noble Norman, son 
of Walter de Ponz, and brother of Richard, 
ancestor of the Cliffords who accompanied 
William the Conqueror into England." 
There are apparently several tenants-in- 
chief called Drogo in Domesd., and one of 
them who had great possessions at Drews- 
cliffe and elsewhere in co. Devon, is now 
represented by E. S. Drewe, Esq., of The 
Grange, in that shire. B.L G. 

DREWETT. Probably a diminutive of 
Drogo or Drew, q. v. 

DREWRY. See Drury. 

DRIFFIELD. A parish and market- 
town in Yorkshire. 

DRING. Drengage was a feudal tenure 
said to be peculiar, or nearly so, to the nor- 
thern counties. Sir Henry Ellis, in his In- 
troduction to Domesday, says: — "The 
drenchs or dren{fhs were of the description 
of allodial tenants, and from the few entries 
in which they occur, it certainly appears 
that the allotments of territory which they 
possessed were held as manors." But there 
are proofs of drengage having been far from 
a free tenure, which both Spelman and 
Coke consider it ; for it appears from the 
Boldon Book that the services of the drengh 
were to plough, sow, and harrow a portion 
of the bishop of Durham's land ; to keep a 
dog and horse for the bishop's use, and a 
cart to convey his wine; to attend the 
chase with dogs and ropes, and perform 
certain harvest works. Spelman says the 
drengs were such as, being at the Conquest 
put out af their estate, were afterwards 
restored. In Lye's Saxon Diet, dreng is 
defined as " miles," vir fortis. See Notes 
and Queries, VII. p. 137-8. Halliwell gives 
a different definition ; he says " Drenges^ 
a class of men who held a rank between the 
baron and tha}Ti. Uaveloky The ordinary 
interpretation would be Soldiers. 


DRINKSOP. I have authority for the ex- 
istence of these names, which appear to 
belong to the same category as Drinkwater. 
I cannot account for them. 

DRINKWATER is said in Magna 
Britannia, vol. i. p. 60, to be a corruption 
of Derwentwater. Camden also places it 
among local surnames, without specifying 
the place ; but Drinkewater is found in 
H.R., and the occurrence of Boileau among 
French, and Bevelacqua among Italian 
family names, seems rather to indicate that 
it was originally imposed upon some early 
' teetotaller.' 

DRISCOLL. The Irish O'DriscoU, 
sans O. 

DRIVER. A carter or wagoner. Alio' 
la Driveres (a female wagoner!) occurs in 

DROOP. Ferguson says, O. Norse, 
d/'it/pr, sad. 

DRON. A parish in Fifeshire. 

DROVER. A driver of cattle. 

DRUCE. Drew's, that is, the son of 
Drew or Drogo. 

DRUITT. See Drewett. 

DRUMMER. I suppose Mr. Arthur's 

roundabout definition is the right one : 
" One who, in military exercises, beats the 

DRUIVLMOND. " The noble house of 
Drummond," says Collins, " derived from 
Malcolm Beg (i.e. ' low ' or ' short '), who 
flourished under Alex. II,, and being pos- 
sessed of the lands of Dry men, co. Stirling, 
took that surname, which in after times 
varied to Drummond." Peerage, edit. 1768. 
v. 77. The name is found spelt in eighteen 
different ways. Ulster Joum. Arch. No. 20. 
Of these Drumyn, Drummane, and Dro- 
mond are the principal. 

DRURY. The founder of the family in 
England is mentioned in the Battel-Abbey 
Roll. He settled first at Thurston and 
subsequently at Rougham, co. Suffolk, and 
his descendants continued in possession of 
that estate for about six hundred years. 

DRYBOROUGH. Dryburgh, co. Ber- 
wick, famous for its romantic abbey, 
where — 

in solemn solitude, 

In most sequestered spot. 
Lies minglinp with its kindred clay, 
The dust of Walter Scott." 

DRYDEN. As in the oldest records the 
name is spelt Dreyden, Driden, &c., it is fair 
to presimie that it is of local origin, 
although the place itself is not ascertained. 
Mr. Arthur, however, gives quite another 
etymology, namely: " Welsh, drnrj/dnm, 
BROKEN NOSE (I) According to Evans, 
Jonreth sumamed Dnvydwn, the father of 
Llewelyn, was the eldest son of Owain 
Groynedd, but was not suffered to enjoy his 
right on account of that blemish !" Who 
Jonreth was, or when he lived, Mr. Arthur 
does not inform us, though we cannot but 
regret that in a two-fold sense his nose was 
thus " put out of joint." 



Dryfesdale, a parish in 



DU. The initial syllable of many sur- 
names of Fr. origin naturalized amongst 
us. It is of course the preposition <^ con- 
joined with the article le, and answers a 
purpose similar to that of atte in 0. Eng. 
surnames ; for instance Dubois is ' of the 
wood,' (our Wood or Attwood) ; Dubosc, 

* of the thicket,' (our Shaw) ; Dubourg, 
' of the burg,' (our Burrowes) ; Du- 
chesne and Ducane, * of the oak,' (our 
Noakes) ; Dufour ' of the oven ;' Dufort 

* of the fort :' Dupree, Duprey, (^re) ' of 
the meadow,' (our Mead); Dupuy ' of the 
well,' (our Wells); Duvall, Duval, 'of 
the valley,' (our Dale); and many others. 

Dubbe, an A- Sax. personal 

DUBBER. A word of uncertain mean- 
ing. It may signify either a trimmer or 




binder of books, (See Halliwell,) or a maker 
of tubs. (See Eng. Sum.) 

DU CA:N^E. O. Fr. Du Quesne, "of the 
Oak." Gabriel, Marquis du Quesne, grand- 
son of the celebrated Admiral Abraham du 
Quesne of Dieppe, fled to this country at the 
Eev. of the Edict of Nantes. At an earlier 
period another branch of the family being 
Huguenots, settled in Holland, from whence 
they were driven by the persecution of the 
Duke of Alva, and settled here temp. Eliza- 
beth. The orthography was altered to its 
present form in the XVII. cent. The 
existing family are descended from this 

DUCAREL. The family were French 
Protestant refugees after the Rev. of the 
Edict of Nantes. 

DUCIE. Two places in Normandy are 
called Duci ; one near Bayeux, the other 
near Caen. The first of this family who 
settled in England came from Normandy 
with an armed force to support Isabel, con- 
sort of Edw. II. against the Spencers. 
Atkin's Gloucest. Collins' Peerage. 

DUCK. Most likely Le Due, *the 
duke,' as written in H.R. 

from the Scot. duMte, dow-cate, dove-cot, 
or pigeon-house. See Jamieson. The 
Ducketts of Fillingham, co. Lincoln, were 
resident there in 1205. B.L.G. 

DUCKRELL. Duckerel is the old di- 
minutive of duck, as is ' cockerel ' of cock, 
and hence this surname, probably with re- 
ference to the gait of the first person to 
whom it was applied. 

DUCKWORTH. Before the lime of 
Henry VIIL it was written Dykewarde. 
B.L.G. An officer who had the care of 

DUDEKEY. See Doudney. 

DUDLEY. A town and castle in co. 
Worcester. In Norman times it was the 
fief of the De Someries, whose descendants 
were barons by tenure, though, as Sir H. 
Nicolas observes, it is questionable whether 
their title was that of " Dudley." So far 
as I see, no noble family called Dudley was 
ever possessor of that barony. Dudley, 
one of the notorious extortioners of Henry 
VII., claimed to be a descendant of the 
Buttons, barons Dudley, and his father is 
said to have assumed the name of Dudley, 
though a more probable account makes 
him a travelling carpenter. Monasticon, v. 5. 

DUDMAN. Apparently an ancient per- 
sonal name implying some quality or some 
employment. In Domcsd. Dodeman and 
Dudeman. See Dodman. 

DUFF. "This noble family is derived 
from Fife Mac-Duff, who was a man of 
considerable wealth and power in Scotland 
temp, king Kenneth II., and gave that 
prince great assistance in his wars with tlie 
Picta about the year 834." Kenneth made 

him a maoiinor or kinglet, and gave him 
the lands which he called after his Chris- 
' tian name, Fife, now the shire or county of 
that designation. Courthope's Debrett. 
His descendants, from their great dignity, 
were sometimes called kings of Fife, and 
they were entitled to place the king of 
Scotland on the inaugural stone, to lead 
the van of the royal army, and to enjoy the 
privilege of a sanctuary for the clan Mac- 
Duff, of which he was the founder. Gaz. 
Scotl. The Earl of Fife is a descendant of 
a junior branch of this ancient line. 

DUFFELL. See Duffield. 

DUFFEY. Probably D'Auffay, a small 
town in Normandy, on the Dieppe and 
Rouen railway. In H.R. Dofi. 

DUFFIE. Scotch. A soil, silly fellow. 

DUFFIELD. A parish in co. Derby, 

and two townships in Yorkshire. 

DUFFUS. A parish on the coast of 
Morayshire, Scotland. The name may, 
however, be a corruption of Dovehouse, 
like Bacchus from Backhouse, or Malthus 
from Malthouse. In support of the latter 
derivation, we may cite the de Duffus, del 
Duffus, Duflius, Columbiers, and de Colum- 
bariis of the H.R. Residence near one of 
the great monastic or manorial pigeon- 
houses of the middle ages would readily 
confer such a surname. 

DUFTON. A parish in Westmoreland. 

DUGALD. The same as Dougall. 

DUGDALE. From the termination 
manifestly local, but I cannot discover the 
place. The family were long resident in 
Lancashire. Noble's Hist. Coll. Arms. 

DUGDELL. See Dugdale. 

DUKE. 1 . Ly dgate and other old writers 
employ this word in its etymological sense 
of leader. In Capgrave's Chronicle, under 
the year 1381, we read: "In thisyere, in 
the month of May, the Comones risen 
agejTi the King .... Her dvTie was Wat 
Tyler, a proud knave and malapert." 2. 
Camden makes it a nickname of Manna- 

DUKES. See Duke. 

DUKESON. This name was probably 
applied in the first instance to the illegiti- 
mate eon of a Duke. It is analogous to 

DUKINFIELD. The ancestors of the 
baronet were seated at Dukinfield in Che- 
sliire as early at least as the reign of 
Edward I. 

DULHUMPHREY. Of the origin of 
this singular name nothing is known, 
though it has ceitainly no reference to the 
want of vivacity in any particular Hum- 
phrey. It may be a corruption of some 
French local name with the prefix De, Du, 
or De la. 

DULMAN. SeeDolmaa 




DUMBRELL. Qu. dummerel^ a silent 
person? Halliwell. 

DUMINIER. A parish in Hampshire. 

DUMONT. Fr. ' Of the hill.' 

DUMSDAY. See Domesday. 

DUXBAR, A parish and town in Had- 
dingtonshire, anciently the fief of the fa- 
mous historical earls of Dunbar, immediate 
descendants of Gospatric, earl of Northxma- 
berland, who fled into Scotland with Edgar 
Atheling at the Norman Conquest, and to 
whom Malcolm Canmore gave the manor 
soon afterwards. 

DUNCAN. The Gael. Donn-cann (pro- 
nounced Doun-kean,) signifying " Brown- 
head." Originally and still a Christian 

DUNCANSON. See Duncan. 

DUNCH. Deaf; dull. 

" I -waz amozt blind and dunch in mine eyez." 


DUNDAGEL. A castle in Cornwall, 

now written Tintagel. 

DUND AS. The family of Dundas " are 
generally believed to have sprung from the 
Dunbars, earls of March, who derived 
themselves from the Saxon princes of Eng- 
land ;" (B.L.G.) not however from the re- 
semblance of names, as might be thought, 
for the two localities are unconnected. 
Uthred, second son of the first Earl of 
March, temp. David I., obtained the barony 
of Dundas in West Lothian. 

DUNDEE. The Scottish town. 

DUNFORD. A known corruption of 

DUNHAM. Parishes and places in cos. 

Chester, Nottingham, Norfolk, &;c. 

DUNK. A Dutch surname, rather 
common both here and in America. It is 
probably an epithet implying dark or ob- 
scure. Du. donker. 

DUNKTN. An Eng. corruption of the 
Scottish Duncan. The Duncans * came 
south ' at an early date, for one Donecan 
had got as far as Somersetshire at the 
making of Domesd. In the XIV. cent, it 
was often written Dunkan and Duncon in 
English records. 

DUNLOP. (Oflen corrupted in Scotland 
to Dunlap and Delap.) Traced to the year 
1260, when Dom. Gulielmusde Dunlop was 
lord of Dunlop in Ayrshire, an estate still 
in possession of the family. 

DUNMAN. The same as Downman. 

DUNMOLL. Qu. Dunmow, co. Essex, 
famous for its bacon-flitch, the reward of 
connubial fidelity ? 

DUNN. Dun, Dunne, Dunna, were 
A-Sax. personal names, and . Done, 
Donne, &c. are in Domesd. Kemble con- 
siders them " adjectives relating to the dark 

colour of the persons," but Mr. Ferguson 
rather fancifully connects them with 
thunder, and with Thor, the god of thunder. 
But that the surname is sometimes local is 
shown by its H.R. forms, De Dun, De la 
Dune, &c. A-Sax., dun, a hill. 

DUNNAGE. Dunwich, co. Suffolk. 

DUNNELL. Perhaps a corruption of 

DUNNING. Dunning, proprietor of 
Latham, co. Chester, and ancestor of the 
family of Lathom, or Latham, of that 
place, was contemporary with the making 
of Domesday Book. Whether he was a 
continued possessor, of the Saxon race, or a 
Norman grantee, is, Dr. Ormerod thinks, 
doubtful. His son was called Siward Fitz- 
Dunning. Miscellanea Palatina, p. 60. 
The contemporary lord of Kingsley, co. 
Chester, also bore the personal name of 
Dunning, as did several other persons in 
Norman times. 

DUNSBY. A parish in co. Lincoln. 

DUNSFORD. A parish in the county 
of Devon. 

DUNSTALL. A township in the parish 

ofTatenliill, co. Stafi"ord. 

DUNSTANVILLE. Reginald de Duns- 
tanville was a baron by tenure in the 
western counties, temp, Henry I. The fa- 
mily were doubtless Norman, but I do not 
find the locality ft^m which they assumed 
their name. 

DUNSTER. A town and parish in co. 
Somerset. De Dunsterre. H.R. 

bably from one of the places so called in 
cos. Lincoln, Norfolk, Northumberland, and 
StaflFord, than from the well-known A-Sax. 
personal name. 

DUNTON. Parishes in cos. Bedford, 
Bucks, Essex, Norfolk, and Leicester. 

DUPLEX. DUPLEIX. Probably re- 
fers neither to duplicity of character nor to 
a corporeal bulk of double proportions. It 
is most likely a Fr. local name with the 
prefix i>M. 

DUPLOCK. This name appears in old 
parish registers in East Sussex as Du Plac, 
and is therefore probably of French origin. 
It may have been introduced in the six- 
teenth century, when many Frenchmen 
settled in that county to carry on the iron- 
works then flourishing there. Its etymo- 
logy is obscure. 

DUPONT. Fr. ' Of the Bridge.' 

PUPPA. Said to be a corruption of 

" D'Uphaugh, ' of the upper ^a?/^A,'— haugh 

being a low flat ground on the borders of a 

river (Jamieson); but of this I have strong 


DUPRE. Fr. Du Pre. 'Of the Meadow.' 
DURANT. DURAND. See Durrant. 




DURBIN. DURBAK Local— from 

TJrbin or TJrbino, the Italian city, the 

birth-place of Raphael. 
BURDEN. 1. See Dearden. 2. An 

A. -Norm, sobriquet — Duredent, " hard 

tooth." See H.R. 
DURHAM. The northern city, anciently 

written Duresme. 
DURHAMWEIR. Apparently from a 

dam or weir in co. Durham. This singular 

name is found in Scotland. 
DURIE. An estate in the parish of 

Scoonie, co. Fife. 
DURLEY. Parishes in Hants and 

DURNFORD. A parish in Wiltshire. 

DURRANT. An ancient personal name, 
in Latin Durandus, under which form it 
occurs in Domesday. An early Norman 
proprietor of this name founded Duran- 
ville (called in charters Durandi villa) 
near Bemai, in or before the eleventh 
century. The name of the immortal 
author of the Inferno was by baptism 
Durante — afterwards shortened by his fa- 
miliar friends into Dante. 

DURRELL. Probably the same as 

DURSTON. DURST AN. See Thurston. 
Also a parish co. Somerset. 

DURWARD. A-Sax. duru-weard, a 
door-keeper, a porter. " A Porter, which 
we have received from the French, they 
(the Anglo-Saxons) could in their own 
tongue as significatively call a Borercardy 
Camden's Remaines. 

DURY. The ' braes of Dury' are in the 
parish of Fowlis- Wester in the centre of 

DUTTON. A very ancient Cheshire fa- 
mily sumamed from Dutton in that 
county, but of Norman descent, having 
sprung from Rollo, the conqueror of Neus- 
tria, through William, earl of Eu, who 
married a niece of William the Conqueror. 
Their founder in England was Odard, 
nephew of the far-famed Hugh Lupus, 
who gave him the barony of Dutton. 

DUX. Lat. A leader ; the same as Duke. 
D WIGHT. Possibly a corruption of 

DWYER. Said to be the Gaelic do-ire^ 

a woody uncultivated place. Arthur. 

DYCE. 1. Anciently De Dyce or Diss, 

CO. Norfolk. 2. A parish in Aberdeen- 

DYCHE. Probably the same as Ditch, 
though it is sometimes pronounced like 
Dyke. The words dyke and ditch, indeed, 
appear to be etymological ly identical, and 
primarily to mean a barrier or defence; 
and to this day in some provincial dialects 
a water-course is called a dyke or dick. 

The A- Sax. die means both a mound or 
bank, and a ditch, trench, or moat. 

DYER. The occupation ; tinctor. Tein- 
turier, its equivalent, is a Fr. surname, 
and the famous Italian painter Tintoretto, 
whose family name was Robusti, was so 
called because his father had been a tintore 
or dyer. 

DYKE. See Dykes. The baronets of 
Sussex and Kent sprang from the family of 
Dykes of Cumberland. 

DYKEMAN. A maker of dykes. See 

DYKES. There is every reason to be- 
lieve that this name is derived from no 
less an object than Hadrian's Roman Wall 
— the "Barrier of the Lower Isthmus." The 
family originated at Dykesfield, co. Cum- 
berland, on the line of that celebrated de- 
fence. There is no doubt that the popular ap- 
pellation of Hadrian's work was "the Dyke," 
or " the Dykes," just as " Graham's Dyke" 
was that of the more northern defence of Lol- 
lius Urbicus. See much interesting informa- 
tion on this subject in Dr. Bruce's " Roman 
Wall," edit. 1853, pp. 279, et seq., and Pre- 
face, p. ix. Dykesfield may have been so 
named either from the family, or imme- 
diately from the fact of the barrier's passing 
over the place. However this may be, the 
surname Dykes was borrowed from the 
wall itself, as appears from its earliest 
known form, which is not De Dykesfield, 
but Del Dykes, i. e. " of the Dykes." Ro- 
bert Del Dykes, the first recorded indivi- 
dual of the family, is mentioned in a deed 
(without date, but known from internal 
evidence to be) of temp. Henry III,, penes 
F. L. B. Dykes, Esq. Another ancient 
northern family of the same district — that 
of Thirl wall — also derive their appellation 
from the Roman Wall. See Thirlwall. 

DYMOCK. This ancient family, in which 
the office of King's Cha3ipion has long 
been hereditary, claim descent from Tudor 
Trevor, lord of Whittington in Shropshire, 
(ancestor of the Pennants,) from whom 
sprang David ap Madoc, commonly called 
Dai, whence the gradual corruptions, Dai- 
Madoc, Damoc, Dymoc, Dymock. Such 
is the statement in B.L.G., but having no 
faith in such twisted derivations, I shall 
take the liberty of deducing the name from 
the parish of Dymock in Gloucestershire, 
the birth-place of the " Man of Ross," and 
also, it is said, of the celebrated breed of 
sheep now called Merino, exported from 
thence to Spain in the fourteenth century. 

DYMOND. See Diamond. 

DYNE. Anciently Dine. Might come 
from the Fr. difftie, worthy. There is a 
statement, however, I know not of what 
authority, that the family were identical 
with the Dyves, who came into England 
from Normandy with the Conqueror. De 
Dine. H.R. 

DYVE. See Dives. 





EaCHARD. ECHARD. An ancient 
personal name. Achard. Domesd. 

EADE. EADES. Probably the same 
as Eady. A Joh'es fil'Ede occurs in H.R. 

EAD Y. E ADIE. ^di occurs as a per- 
sonal name in Domesday. In Scotland 
Edie is the * nurse-name' of Adam. 

EAGER. EAGAR. A trait of cha- 
racter ; or, perhaps, a corruption of 
Edgar (spelt in A- Sax. Eadgar) by the 
suppression of the letter D. 

phorically applied to a person of ambitious 
or soaring disposition. There are several 
legendary stories of eagles which may have 
originated the name; e. g. that of De 
Aquila mentioned in this Dictionary, and 
the well-known Stanley tradition. See 
Curiosities of Heraldry, page 187. The 
Eagle is also a familiar heraldric bearing 
and a common inn sign. 

EAGLETON. Eggleton, co. Hereford, 
or Egleton. co. Rutland. 

EALAND. Probably EUand, co. York. 

EAJVIES. Probably the same as Ames. 

EARDLEY. A township in Stafford- 
EARITH. Erith, a parish in Kent. 

eorl. Primarily a man — a man of valour 
or consideration — Hr ; afterwards a head, 
ruler, leader, or hero ; and finally a noble- 
man of the highest rank, equivalent to an 
" ealdor-man ;" an Earl. See Bosworth. 

EARLY. A liberty in the parish of 
Sonning, co. Berks. 

EARNES. Perhaps from the A-Sax. 
earn, an eagle. 

EARNSHAW. Local— from A-Sax. 
earn, an eagle, and sceagGj a wilderness, 
(Leo) grove, or shaw. 

EARTHROWL. This remarkable name, 
which occurs twice in London Direct., 
1852, would appear to be derived from 
A-Sax. ear, the ear, and thyrl, an aperture, 
hole, or perforation — " the ear-hole." The 
word nostril is a compound of nase, the 
nose, and tJiyrl — a cognate expression. 
How " ear-hole" became a surname I do 
not venture even to guess. 

EARWAKER. This apparently absurd 
name may, with great probability, be de- 
rived from the Genn. Herr-tracker, "gallant 
lord," or " noble sir." Domesday, however, 
shows us a previous tenant in Devon, who 
rejoiced in the appellation of Eureuuacre. 

EARWmSPER. Qu. ear-whisperer— 
a conveyer of scandals ? 

EASEL. Perhaps the A-Sax. esol, an 

EASLEY. Eastley, a place in Hamp- 

EASON. EASSON. A corruption of 

EAST. See under North. Del Est, 
" of the East." H.R. 

EASTBURY. Places in Berks, Dorset, 
&c. * 

EASTER. This name may be derived 
with nearly equal probability from several 
distinct sources, as : L From the parishes 
called Easter in Essex. 2. From the 
Christian festival, like Christmas, Noel, 
Pentecost, &c. : we have also Pask from 
Lat. Pascha, O. Fr. Pasche. 3. Prom the 
old Teutonic divinity, Ostre or Eastre. 4. 
It may be synonymous with Eastman and 
Easterling. The last derivation is sup- 
ported by the form Le Ester of the H.R. 

EASTERLING. A native of the Hanse 
Towns, or of the East of Germany. Mer- 
chants trading with us from those parts 
are called in medieval writings " Mercatores 

EASTGATE. From residence near the 
eastern gate of a town. The medieval form 
would be " Atte, de, or in, Estgate." North- 
gate, Westgate, and Southgate, well-known 
surnames, originated in like manner from 
the contiguity of the bearers' residences to 
the respective gates. 

EASTHAM. Parishes in cos. Chester 
and Worcester. 

EASTHOPE. A parish in Shropshire. 

EASTICK. Eastwick,by the suppression 
of w, the same as in Greenwich, Wool- 
wich, &c. 

EASTMAN". Probably synonymous with 
Easterling, which see. 

EASTO. Perhaps a corruption of East' 

EASTON. Like Norton, Sutton, Weston, 
in its origin, meaning an enclosure or 
homestead, lying relatively towards the 
east. Besides minor districts and farms, 
there are seventeen parishes, hamlets, 
tythings, &c., in England so designated. 

EASTWICK. A parish in Hertford- 

EASTWOOD. Parishes in Essex and 

EASUM. A provincial pronunciation of 
Evesham, co. Worcester. 

EASY. EASEY. 1. From indolence of 
character. 2. The name of some locality ? 


3. By transposition of letters from Esay, 
the old form of Isaiah. 

EATON. Parishes and places in cos. 
Leicester, Chester, Berks, Nottingham, 
Salop, Derby, Hereford, Bedford, ^c. 

EATWELL. Probably from Etwall, a 
parish in Derbyshire. 

EAVES. A township in Staffordshire. 

EAVESTAFF. Most likely a corruption 
of Heave-staff, analogous to Hurlbat, 
Shakeshaft, Wagstaff, and Shakspeare. 

EBBETS. Ferguson derives it from an 
O. German name — Ibbet. 

EBBLEWHITE. A corruption of Ap- 
plethwaite, a township in Westmoreland. 

EBBS. From an old Frisian name Ebbe. 

EBELING. See Evelyn. 

EBELTHITE. The same as Ebble- 

EBERS. Perhaps from A-Sax. eofer, a 
boar. See Boar. 

{^"EUCLES — as a component part of 
many local names — is not, as has been 
erroneously conjectured, derived from 
the Lat. ecclesia, implying the existence 
of a church in early times ; neither can 
it be a corruption of eagle's. It is pro- 
bably a modification of some A- Sax. 
personal name. Among surnames with 
this word as a root, we have Eccleshall, 
Ecclesboum, Ecclesfield, Eccleston, 
Icklesham, Igglesden, &o. 

ECCLES. 1. A parish in Lancashire; 
another in Norfolk. 2. " Assumed by the 
proprietors of the lands and barony of 
Eccles in Dumfries-shire, as early as the 
period when surnames first became here- 
ditary in ScotlancL John de Eccles was a 
personage of rank in the reign of Alexander 
IIL" B.L.G. 

ECCLESFIELD. A parish in York- 

While it is easy to understand why 
names of civil offices and occupations 
should have l^ecome transmissible or 
hereditary surnames, it is not so obvious 
how such names as Pope, Cardinal, 
Bishop, AblK)tt, Prior, Archdeacon, 
Rector, Parsons, Vicar, Priest, Deacon, 
Clerk, Friar, Monk, Saxton, Pontifex, 
Novice, &c., have found their way into 
our family nomenclature. A writer in 
the Edinb. Rev., April, 1855, says: 
" Most probably such names were given 
by mothers, or nurses, or playfellows, 
and, adhering to individuals, when sur- 
names began to be hereditary, were 
handed down to posterity." There 
were Roman families called Flaminius 
and Pontifex, who were neither flamcns 
nor i)rie8ts, though Sigonius reckons 
them amongst those whose ancestors 
had held such offices. This explanation, 
however, will not apply to modem sur- 

100 ECK 

names, which have originated long sub- 
sequently to the enforced celibacy of the 
Roman Catholic priesthood. Noble 
(Hist. Coll. Arms) thinks that the 
bearers of these sacerdotal names origi- 
nally held lands under those who 
really were entitled to them from ofl&ce. 
Another theory is, that the names were 
assumed by the children of persons who 
on becoming widowers had entered 
into holy orders. Florence of Worcester, 
under A.D. 653, mentions one Bene- 
dictus Biscop (bishop) who certainly 
never enjoyed episcopal authority. Ac- 
cording to Kemble, the last true-bom 
king of Kent, was sumamed * Pren,' or 
the Priest, because, before his advance- 
ment to regal honours, he had received 
ordination. Similar was the case of 
Hugh de Lusignan, a French arch- 
bishop, who by the death of elder 
brothers unexpectedly became a great 
seigneur, and who, by Papal dispensa- 
tion, resigned his ecclesiastical dignity 
on the condition that he and his pos- 
terity should use the name o{ ArcJie- 
vesque, and bear a mitre over their 
arms for ever. Camden. In the reign 
of king John we find a Jew bearing the 
surname of ' Bishop' — ' Deulecres le 
Eceske.^ Ed. Rev. ut supr. About the 
same time a manorial tenant of St. 
Paul's is described as " Gulielmum au- 
rifabrum, cognomento Monachvm,^'' 
which, as he was a married goldsmith, 
was of course a sobriquet. Hale's 
Domesday of St. Paul's. In many in- 
stances the surname was probably im- 
posed by way of scandal, when the 
putative father of an illegitimate cliild 
was of the ecclesiastical order. 

ECCLESTON. Parishes and townships 
in COS. Lancaster and Chester. An ancient 
family were seated at Eccleston in the 
latter shire, temp. Henry III., and continued 
in possession until the last generation when 
it was sold, and the estate of Scarisbrick, 
with the name acquired by marriage about 
the same period. Shirley's Noble and 
Gentle Men of England, p. 117. 

ECniNGHAM. A parish in Sussex, 
possessed by the family from temp. Henr^' 
II. till 1482. See Hall's Echyngham of 
Echyngham, Lond. 1850. 

ECU LIN. Crawford the genealogist in 
a MS., dated 1747, deduces the family 
from Philip le Brun, who flourished in 
Fifeshire temp. Robert I., and was enfeoffed 
with lands called Echlin in that county by 
Roger de Mowbray. The family were 
transplanted to Ireland by Dr. Rolxjrt 
Echlin, bishop of Down, temp. James L 

ECK. Probably an old personal name. 
Ecke, a well-known character in the Ger- 
man poems of the middle ages, seems to 
have been a sort of Teutonic demigod. See 

ECKERSALL. Supposed to be a cor- 


niption of Eccleshall, a parish in Stafford- 
ECKINGTON. Parishes in cos. Derby, 
and Worcester ; also the parish in Sussex 
now known as Ripe. 

ECKROYD. The same as Ackroyd. 

EDDELS. ;Mr. Ferguson ingeniously 
derives this name from a common source 
with that of Attila, the renowned leader 
of tlie Huns. It appears to signify " grand- 
father." Mr. F. remarks that "it is 
difficult to conceive how such a name 
could in the first instance be baptismal, 
and how an infant could be called Father 
or Grandfather. But it is not difficult to 
conceive how the name might be given as 
a title of honour and respect to the head of 
a family or or a people, and how, once 
established as a name, it might afterwards 
become baptismal." 

EDDIKER. The singular name Ear- 
waker (q. v.) is thus corruptly called and 
written in Lancashire. 

EDDIS. SeeEdis. 

EDDIS. EDDISON. :May be derivatives 
either of Edie (see Eady), or of Edward 
through Eddy. 

EDDY. See Eady and Eddis ; perhaps 
a nickname of Edward. 

EDE. See Eade. 

EDEN. Though the pedigree is not 
traced higher than the year 1413, there is 
no reason to doubt that the name is local 
and derived from either Castle Eden or 
Little Eden in the county of Durham, 
where, as Mr. Courthope asserts, the family 
were resident for several generations prior 
to the close of the XIV. cent. 

EDENBOROUGH. Probably Edin- 

EDES. EEDES. See Eades. 

EDEY. EDAY. See Eady. 

EDGAR. Eadgar, a well-known and 

royal personal name among the A-Saxons. 
There are probably several distinct families 
of this designation. The Scottish family 
deduce themselves from Gospatrick, earl 
of Northumberland, temp. William I., who 
was a kinsman of Eadgar Atheling, and a 
descendant of king Eadgar, great grandson 
of Alfred the Great. The Edgars of Suffolk 
claim from a John Edgar of Dunwich, 
living in 1237. B.L.G. 

I^^EDGE. The side of a hill ; a ridge- 
whence Wolledge, Titheredge, Erredge, 
Muggridge, Edgeworth, Edgecombe, 
Egerton, Edgerlev, Edgington, Edgley, 

EDGECOMBE. See Edgecombe. 

EDGECUMBE. The earl of Mount- 

Edgecumbe's family were in possession of 
Eggcombe or Edgcumbe, an estate in the 
parish of Milton -Abbot, co. Devon, as 
early as the XIII. century. C. S. Gilbert's 
Cornwall, i. 444, note. 

101 EDS 

EI^GELER. See Hedgeler. 

EDGELL. A corruption of Edgehill. 

EDGER. Probably a corruption of 
Hedger, the occupation. 

EDGERLEY. A township in Cheshire. 

EDGEWORTH. 1. A parish in Glou- 
cestershire. 2. The family of Miss Maria 
Edgeworth, the novelist, claim from 
Edward Edgeworth, bishop of Down 
and Connor, who settled in Ireland temp. 
Elizabeth. His ancestors were originally 
of Edgeworth, now called Edgeware, in the 
county of Middlesex. B.L.G. 

EDGHILL, Edgehill, a chapelry in co. 
Lancaster, and a hilly ridge in Warwick- 
shire, famous for a battle between Charles 
L and the Parliamentarians. 

EDGLEY. See Edgerley. 

EDGWORTH. A township in Lan- 

EDIKER. See Eddiker. 

EDINBURGH. The Scottish metropolis. 

EDINGTON. A parish in Wiltshire, 
and places in cos. Somerset and Northum- 

EDIS. EDISON. May be from the 
same source as Eady; but see Eddis. 

EDKINS. A diminutive of Edward. 

EDLIN. Probably a corruption of the 
A-Sax. Atheling. 

ruption of Edmonstone. 

EDMETT. Probably the same as the 
Etemete of the H.Il.; perhaps originally 
imposed as a sobriquet upon some great 

SON. EDMUNDSON. The son of Ed- 

EDMONSTONE. An estate in Newton, 
CO. Edinburgh. 

EDMONDSTOUNE. Edmundus, said 
to have been a younger son of Count Eg- 
mont of Flanders, who attended Margaret, 
daughter of Edgar Atheling into Scotland, 
in 1070, rose to great eminence, and became 
the progenitor of the E.'s of cos. Roxburgh 
and Lanark. B.L.G. He is said to have 
imparted his name to Edmonstone in Edin- 
burghshire, from which estate his successors 
subsequently derived their distinctive ap- 
pellation. Courthope's Debrett. 

EDOLPH. An ancient personal name, 
written in the Saxon Chronicle Eadulph. 
The same as Adolphus. 

EDRIDGE. May be local, though I do 
not find the place; it is, however, more 
probably the well known A- Sax. name 
Eadric, with a softened termination. 

EDSAW. The same as Edsor? 

EDSOR. EDSER. Perhaps corruptions 
of Edensor, co. Derby. See Eusor. 




EDWARD. The personal name, which 
has given rise as surnames to Edwards, 
Ethards, Edwardson, Tedd, and perhaps to 
Edes, Edkins, &c. 

EDWARDES. (Bart.) "Descended in 
the male line from the ancient kings or 
princes of Powysland in Wales. They be- 
came seated at Kilhendre, in the parish of 
Ellesmere, Shropshire, as early as the 
reign of Henry I. The surname of Ed- 
wardes was first assumed by John ap 
David ap Madre of Kilhendre, temp. Hen. 
VIL, and he was great-grandfather of Sir 
Thomas Edwardes, the first baronet." 
Courthope's Debrett. Shirley. Edwardes 
of Rhyd-y-gors claims from Ethelstan 
Glodrydd, through Cadwgan, lord of Rad- 
nor, and Edwardes of Sealy Ham claims 
from the celebrated Tudor Trevor. B.L.G. 

EDWARDS. This name is so common 
that more than two hundred and fifty 
London traders bear it. In the Registrar- 
General's List it occupies the twentieth 
place for frequency, there being for every 
four Smiths or Joneses about one Ed- 
wards, or 25 per cent. Many families of 
Edwards and Edwardes are of Welsh 
patrician origin. For example, Edwards 
of Nanhoron descends from one of the 
royal tribes of Wales through Sir Griffith 
Lloyd and Sir Howell y Fwyallt ; Edwards 
of Ness Strange descends from Einion 
Effel, lord of Cynllaeth, co. Montgomery, 
1182 ; Edwards of Old-Court, co. Wicklow, 
claims from Roderick the Great, king of 
all Wales in 843, through his younger son, 
Tudwall Gloff or "the lame," whose des- 
cendants settled in Ireland in the XVIL 
century. It may seem remarkable that 
such a thoroughly Saxon name should 
occur so frequently in Welsh families of 
ancient blood, but it must be remembered 
that settled surnames do not appear among 
the Welsh till within the last two or three 
centuries, long after the prejudices against 
our early Edwards had passed away. See 

EDWARDSON. See Edward. 

EDWARDSTON. A local surname 
mentioned by Camden. Place unknown. 

EDY. EDYE. See Eady. 

EEDLE. Edolph, an A-Sax. personal 

EEL. EELES. Most likely some A-Sax. 
personal name softened from JVA, JEthel. 

EGAN. 1. The cineal Eoghain^ were 
the * genus' or progeny of Eoghan, a great 
Irish chief contemporary with St. Patrick. 
The name is anglicised to Owen and 
Eugene. O'Donovan in Irish Penny Joum. 
p. 327. Gaelic, eiffin, force, violence ; 
hence strong-handed, active. Arthur. 

EGERTON. The Egertons have a com- 
mon descent with the Cholmondeleys from 
the celebrated William Bel ward, baron of 
Malpas, under the Norman earls-palatine of 
Chester. David de Malpns, son of Bclward, 
was grandfather of David de Egerton, so 

named from a township and estate in the 
parish of Malpas, of which he was pos- 

EGG. Probably a hardened pronuncia- 
tion of the A-Sax. ecg, an edge. See Edge. 
De Egge, H.R., co. Salop. 

EGGAR. Mr. Ferguson thinks it " sig- 
nifies an inciter, stimulator," as we say 
"to egg on," but it is far more likely to be 
a corruption of Edgar. 

EGGS. A corruption of Exe, the Devon- 
shire river ? But see Egg. 

EGLETON. A parish in Rutlandshire. 


monds were one of the most eminent 
families of Holland, and derived their sur- 
name from their residence at the mouth 
inwnd) of the river Hegge, in North Hol- 
land. There is an old Dutch proverb, 
which makes Brederode the noblest, Was- 
senaar the oldest, Egmont the richest, and 
Arkel the boldest, of the aristocracy of 
Holland. Dixon. 

EGREMONT. An ancient barony in 
Cumberland, from which the Wyndhams 
in more recent times took the title of earl. 

EIGHTEEN. From the number— though 
it is difficult to account for its adoption as 
a name. We have, however, several ana- 
logous surnames. 

ELAM. Eleham, or Elham, a parish in 

ELD. ELDE. ELDER. I think these 
names must be taken literally as relating 
to the advanced age of the original bearer, 
(A-Sax. eald) especially as we have the cor- 
relatives Young and Younger. 

ELDRED. The extinct baronet family 
of Saxham, co. Suftblk, claimed a Saxon 
origin. The na7ne is an A-Sax. personal 

ELDRIDGE. Perhaps local. Eldridge, 
elriche, or elrifch, is, however, a medieval 
word signifying "wild, hideous, ghastly, 
lonesome, uninhabited except by spectres," 
Gloss, to Percy's Reliques, edit. 1839. In 
the ballad of Sir Cauline is a description 
of an " eldridge knight." The fair Chris- 
tabelle sends her lover on a perilous 
errand, but forewarns him — 

•• The Eldridge knipht, so mickle of might, 

Will examine you befome ; 
An<l never man hare life awaye, 

lint he dill him scath and scome. 
That kniffhte he la a fond paynlm. 

And larjtc of limb and bone ; 
And but if heaven may be thy spcede, 

Tliy life it l.s but gone." 

ELEMENT. Possibly a corruption of 
Alihemiont, a district containing several 
parishes in the arrondissementof Dieppe in 
Normandy. Alihennont would readily 
l)Ccome Alermont, Alemont, Element. 

ELEN. A in Hampshire. 

ELERS. " Peter filers, of the ancient 
baronial family of that name, migrated from 
Germany, and came over to this country at 




the time when George I. was called to the 
throne." Burke's Commoners, IV. 418. 

ELEY. See Ely. 

ELFORD. A parish in Staffordshire, 
and a village in Northumberland. 

ELGAR. An ancient personal name, 
still often used in the South as a baptismal 
appellation. Its forms in Domesd. are Algar 
and ^Igar. 

ELIAS. Elias or Heljas was a very 
common A-Norm. baptismal name, and 
became the parent of the surnames Ellis, 
Ellison, and perhaps of Elliot, Elliotson, Els 
or Ells, Elson, Elley, Ellet, and Lelliot. 

ELIOT. See Elliott. 


derivation in Eng. Sum. i. 166, is probably 
incorrect. Mr. Ferguson has the following 
observations. *' Allkins and Elkin may 
possibly mean ' Englishman.' So common 
was Alia or Ella as an early Saxon name, 
that the Northern Scalds familiarly termed 
Englishmen in general Ello-Kijn, the race 
of Ella. Wheaton's Hist, of the Northmen. 
Allkins and Elkin may, however, simply 
be diminutives of Alia or Ella." 

ELKINGTON. Parishes in cos. Lincoln 
and Northampton. 

ELLACOMBE. A place under the 
Haldon hills, co. Devon, where the De 
EUacombes were resident in 1306. 

ELLARD. Elard, an A-Sax. personal 

ELLERKER. A township in the parish 

of Brantingham, Yorkshire. 

ELLERY. A corruption of Hilary. 

ELLES. ELLET. See Elias. 

and parish in cos. Salop and Flint. 

ELLIOTT. A name of doubtful origin. 
A William Allot came into England with 
the Conqueror, and the name seems to be 
connected with Alls and Ellis. But Hals, 
speaking of the Eliots (Lord St. Germain's 
family), says: " These gentlemen I take to 
be of Scots original and so denominated 
from the local place of Eliot, near Dundee." 
D. Gilbert's Cornwall, ii. 66. The name, 
though very widely spread, certainly seems 
in most instances to have come from N. 
Britain, where a great clan so called 

ELLIS. In the whole ran^e of family 
nomenclature there is perhaps no name 
which admits of more variety of origin, or 
a greater number of ditfering forms. 
" Elles or Ellis in British," says Hals, in 
D. Gilbert's Cornwall, iii. 429, "is ason-in- 
law by the wife, and Els or Ells, a son-in- 
law by the husband. Ella or MWa is a well- 
known regal name of A- Sax, times, and its 
genitive form would in later days become 
Ellis. From these two sources some of our 
very numerous families may have sprung, 
but there is little doubt that the surname 

Ellis has for the most part been formed 
from the scripture name Elias, which does 
not occur as an A- Sax. name, but which 
was in use in France as early as the days 
of Charlemagne, as a baptismal designation, 
and afterwards gave name to several fami- 
lies of Elie. Elias, though uncommon now 
as a Christian name, was not so in the early 
Norman reigns, and indeed it had become 
hereditary at the time of the Norm. Conq., 
in the form of Alls. William Alls, men- 
tioned in Domesd. and by Orderious Vitalis, 
was progenitor of the Ellises of Kiddal, co. 
York, and Stoneacre, co. Kent, from whom 
sprang Sir Archibald Ellys, a crusader 
t€mp. Richard I., who is said to have 
originated the cross and crescents so 
common to the Ellis coat-armour. Ellis 
in later times, both in Wales and England, 
became a common personal name, and con- 
sequently there are in both countries many 
families of distinct origin. See ' Notices of 
the Ellises,' Lond. 1857. and Peds. of Ellis 
and Fitz-Ellis in ' Topographer and Ge- 
nealogist,' vol. iii. The principal forms of this 
name in the H.R. are Eleys, Elice, Elies, 
Elis, Elys ; and other proven variations are 
Alls, Halis, Elias, Helias, Ellys, Elles, 
Hellis, Hellys, Hilles, Helles, Hollys, Holys, 
Holies, lies, Ilys, Eyles, and Eales. Of 
course several of these forms are etymologi- 
cally traceable to other and very different 
sources. Ellison, Alison, and Fitz-Ellis are 
also well-known surnames. Inf. W. S. 
Ellis, Esq. 

ELLISON. See Ellis. 

ELLMAN. Doubtless the Elmund, Al- 
mund, Elmund, or ^ilmundus of Domesd. 
— a baptismal name. 

ELLWOOD. See Elwood. 

ELMER. An A- Sax. personal name. 
An individual so designated was a tenant 
in chief in co. Hereford, temp. Domesd. 
The same as Aylmer. 

John Elmer, bishop of London, temp. Eliz., once 
called Mr. Maddox " a.s mad a beast as he ever saw;" 
but Mr. Maddox replied, " By your favour, Sir, your 
deeds answer your name rigliter than mine, for your 
name is Elmar, and you have marred all the elms in 
Fulham by lopping them." 

ELMES. ELMS. This surname is 
congenerous with Ash, Oakes, &c., and 
there are many localities so designated in 

ELMIIIRST. An estate near Doncaster, 
CO. York, which was owned by Robert de 
Elmehirst, temp. Edw. I., and still belongs 
to the family. Hunter's Doncaster. 

ELMORE. See Elmer. 

ELPHEE. SeeElphick. 

ELPIIICK. There is a group of names 
which may fairly be placed around this as 
a common centre ; viz. Alphe, Alphen, Al- 
phew, Alpheg, Elphee, Elfeck. Alphegh, 
&c. ^Ifech occurs in Domesd. as having 
been a sub-tenant in Sussex, temp. Edw. 
Confessor, and not long previously, viz. 
A.D. 1006, St. Elphegus or Alphago was 
Archbishop of Canterbury. The personal 




name is evidently of A- Sax. origin, and it 
has been derived from two words in that 
language — al, all, and fegan, to fix or join, 
and interpreted to signify "a man who can 
do anything ; a Jack of all Trades." En- 
cycl. Periihensis. 

ELPHINSTONE. The ancestor of Lord 
Elphinstone was, according to a family 
tradition, a German, who, marrying a re- 
lative of king Robert I., settled in Lothian, 
and gave his lands there the designation of 
Elvington, after his own name. Burke's 
Peerage. I do not find the slightest evi- 
dence in support of this statement, but 
there is abundant proof that the surname 
De Elphinstone was of good consideration 
from the XIII. century, when it occurs in 
charters dated 1250, 1252, &c. It was 
doubtless derived from the estate and 
village of Elphinstone co. Haddington. 

ELS. ELLS. See Elias. 

ELSHENDER. A northern corruption 
of Alexander. 

ELSIIIE. 1. Now Ws\iiQ-sMelds, a di- 
vision of the parish of Lochmaben, co. 
Dumfries. 2. A Scottish nickname for 

ELSOM. Elsham, a parish in Lincoln- 

ELSON. A corruption of Elston. 

ELSTOB. A township in Stainton, co. 

ELSTON. ELLSTON. Parishes, &c , 
in COS. Nottingham, Lancaster, &c. 

ELSTOW. A parish in Bedfordshire, 
the birthplace of the "illustrious dreamer," 
John Bunyan. 

rish in CMnbridgeshire. 

ELTHAM. A parish in Kent. 

ELTON. Parishes and places in cos. 
Chester, Derby, Durham, Hereford, Hun- 
tingdon, Lancaster, Nottingham, &c. 

E L V ES. A corruption of Elwes. 

EL WES. Not improbably from Alwi, 
an ancient personal name. Several of this 
name occur in Domesday Book as capital 
tenants, and at least two of them were of 
Saxon origin. Ellis's In trod. i. 372. 

ELWYN. The same as Aylwin. 

ELWOOD. Several tenants in chief in 
Domesd. are called Alwoldus or Aid wold, a 
contraction of the A-Sax. -5Cthelwald. 
Ellis, Introd. i. 373. A border clan of El- 
wood existed temp. Elizabeth. In a MS. 
tract copied in Archaiologia, XXII., 1 OH, it 
is stated in reference to Liddesdale, that 
" the Htrength of this country consisteth in 
two sui-names of Armeetronges and El- 

ELWORTIIY. A parish in co. Somerset. 
ELY. A city in Canibridgeslnre. 
EMANUEL. A well-known JewiHh sur- 

EMARY. See Amory. 

EJVIBERSON. A corruption of Emer- 

EMBLETON. Parishes, &c., in cos. 
Northumberland, Cumberland, and Dur- 

EMERICK. See Amory. 

EMERSON. The son of Emeric or 

Almericus. See Amory. 

EMERTON. See Emmerton. 

EMERY. The ancient personal name 

Almericus. See Amory. 

EMES. See Ames. 
EMMENS. See Emmett. 
EMMERSON. See Emerson. 

EMMERTON. A parish in co. Bucks, 

more usually written Emberton. 

EMMETT. Ferguson derives the group 
Emms, Emmens, Emmet, Emms, Emson, 
&c., from the A- Sax. edm, an uncle. 

EMJVIOTSON. See Emmett. 

EMMS. See Emmett. 

EMPEROR. Probably a modern trans- 
lation of Lempriere, which see. 

EMSON. EMPSON. See Emmett. 

ENGAINE. "The first mentioned of 
this name is Richard Engaine, in the 
time of the Conqueror, to whom he held 
the office of chief engineer. Hence the 
name D'Engaine from De Ingeniis." This 
very unlikely derivation is given without 
authority in Banks's Baronage, i. 292. 

ENG ALL. The same as Ingold. 

ENGLAND. Engelond occurs several 
times in H.R. as a surname, without any 
prefix. It seems quite absurd to have 
adopted the name of one's country while 
still residing in it, as a family name; but 
I am inclined to think that it was first 
given to an Englishman when living in a 
foreign country, and that he, on his return, 
continued to use it. Or, England may 
possibly be the name of some obscure lo- 
cality of which the family were anciently 
possessed, just as the Hollands take their 
name, not from the land of Dutchmen, but 
from a district of Lincolnshire. 

ENGLEBURTT. The O. and Mod. 

Germ, personal name Englebert. 
ENGLEDOW. See Ingledew. 

ENGLEFIELD. A parish in Berkshire. 
The family continued m j>088e88ion of the 
estate when Lambarde wrote, temp. Queen 
Elizabeth. " It is at this day part of the 
possessions of a man of that name, whear- 
by it may ap|xjare that the place som tyme 
gyveth name to the parson" (person). The 
Engleficlds are said to have Ijeen proprietors 
of the lands in the time of Egbert, some 
years l)eforc he became king of all England. 
This must of course be doubtful, though 
there seems to he evidence of their residence 
there before the Conquest. 


ENG LEHEART. A recent importation 
from Germany. It is doubtless from the 
O. and Mod. Germ, personal name Engel- 

ENGLISH. An additional name applied 
for distinction's sake, in early Norman 
times, to such persons as were permitted to 
retain their lands. Thus in Domesd. we 
find " quatuor Angli" — Four English, men- 
tioned as holding in capite in Hampshire. 

ENNESS. See Ennis. 

ENNIS. A contraction of the Irish Mac 


ENSIGN. Probably a corruption of 
Enson, Henson, Henryson. 

ENSOLL. Seelnsoll. 

ENSOM. ENSUM. Ensham, co. Ox- 

ENSOR. The Ensors of Rollesby Hall, 
CO. Norfolk, are descended from the Eden- 
sors of Staffordshire, who doubtless bor- 
rowed their surname from the parish of 
Edensor in the neighbouring county of 

ENTWISLE. A township and estate 
in Lancashire, which was possessed by 
the family temp. Henry V. and VI., and 
doubtless much earlier. 

ENYS. An estate in Cornwall, still pos- 
sessed by the family, to whom it belonged 
temp. Edward III. 


EPPS. The genitive form of an old 
personal name. A Roger Eppe is found 
in H.R. 

B^ER, as a termination. In the XIII. 
and XIV. centuries, many small pro- 
prietors and cottagers assumed a station- 
ary name, as we have seen, rather from 
the situation than from the name of 
their residences, generally prefixing 'At.' 
Thus one who dwelt by a brook was 
called At Broke, or for softness A' Broke, 
one who resided near the church was 
called AtChurch. In course of time 
the At was dropped, and the termination 
-ER, or very frequently -man, affixed ; 
thus the one old name "At Brook' be- 
came the common parent of three mo- 
dem ones — Brook, Brooker, and Brook- 
man'; so At-Church of Church, Church- 
er, and Churchman. Boumer, Croucher, 
Fenner, Fielder, Furlonger, Grover, 
Heather, Hother, Holter, Hoper, Knap- 
per, Laker, Plainer, Ponder, Rayner, 
81ader, Streeter, Stocker.Stoner, Towner, 
Witcher, and numerous others, belong 
to this class. 

In Germany, Belgium, &;c., the suflix 
ER denotes the town from which the 
person came, as Rusbridger, Dantziger, 
Hamburgher. These and several other 
surnames similarly formed have been 
naturalized in England. Such names 
have generally been assumed by Jewish 

105 ESP 

ERBY. The same as Irby. 

ERICKSON. From Eric, a Teutonic 
personal name. 

BRIDGE. ERREDGE. An estate in 
the parish of Frant, co. Sussex. 

ERITH. A parish in Kent. 

ERLAM. A corruption of Earlham, co. 


ERLE. SeeEarle. 

E R LING. An ancient Norse appellation . 
Magnus Erlingsson was king of Norway 
from 1162 to 1184. 

ERNLEY. A parish in Sussex. 

ERREY. Perhaps from the Teutonic 
personal name Eric. 

ERRINGTON. Perhaps Erringden, co. 

ERROL. A parish in Perthshire, from 
which the noble family of Hay take their 
title of earl. 

ERSKINE. The name of this ancient 
and noble Scottish family is derived from 
the barony of Erskine on the Clyde, in 
Renfrewshire, and it was first assumed by 
Henry of Erskine, about the year 1220. 

ESAM. Perhaps from Evesham, co. 

ESCOMBE. A chapelry in co. Durham. 

ESAU. The personal niune. It is strange 
that the maxim, " Bonum nomen bonum 
omen," could ever have been so disregarded 
as in the imposition of this designation as 
a family name. Stranger still is it that 
any parent in modern times should give it at 
the font ! Yet I have known an Esau, as 
well as an Ananias and an Absolom. 

ESDAILE. "At the Revocation of the 
Edict of Nantes, 1685, the ancestor of this 
family, descended from an honourable 
house, then represented by the Baron 
D'Estaile, being a Protestant, fled from 
France, and lived and died in obscurity 
in England." Such is the account in 
B.L.G., which, however, shows no con- 
nection between the existing family and 
the refugee. The name appears to be de- 
rived either from Eskdale in Cumberland, 
or from Eskdaleside, co. York. 

ESGILL. A river in Herefordshire, now 
called the Eskle. 

ESPIN ASSE. The founder of this family 
in England, was a French Protestant, who 
settled here under the sanction of Charles 
II., by his order in council, 28 July, 1681, 
authorizing the denization of foreign Pro- 
testants without fee. 

ESPINETTE. The family bearing this 
name were French Protestants, who left 
their native place. Port Danvau, on the 
river Charente, near Rochelle, at the Rev. 
of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, and settled 
at Rye in Sussex. Holloway's Rye, p. 582. 


ESQUIRE. See Armiger. 

ESSELL. Probably the same as Hassell. 

ESSEX. The county. One Swain of 
Essex was a tenant in chief in co. Hun- 
tingdon at the making of Domesday. Henry 
de Essexia, probably his descendant, was a 
powerful, but at length an unfortunate 
baron, temp. Henry II. See Chronicle of 
Battel Abbey, p. 95. 

ESTAMPES. Now Etampes, a large 
town of France, department of Seine and 
Oise, twenty-eight miles S. by W. of Paris. 
Camden places this among French names 
introduced at the Conquest. 

ESTARLING. See Easterling. 

ESTCOURT. An estate at Shipton- 
Moign, CO. Gloucester, which was the pro- 
perty of the family 14 Edw. IV. and doubt- 
less much earlier. Shirley's Noble and 
Gentle Men, p. 87. 

EST WICK. See Eastwick. 

ETHARDS. A common corruption of 


ETHELSTON. The Ethelstons of 
Wicksted Hall, co. Chester, claim descent 
from King Athelstan, and their pretensions 
are set forth in a certain Harleian MS. 
(No. 2042) entitled Ethelegtopliylax! B.L.G. 
"Without conceding this lofty claim from 
the grandson of Alfred, we may fairly de- 
rive the Tuime from its Anglo-Saxon pro- 

ETTRICK. The family of E. of High 
Barnes, co. Durham, trace to Dorsetshire, 
temp. Henry VIII. The name, however it 
got so far south, is in all probability de- 
rived from Ettrick, parish, river, and forest 
in Selkirkshire, where a certain well-known 
' shepherd' wooed the Muses. 

EU. EW. EWE. A town of Nor- 
mandy, well known in ancient times for 
its powerful earls, and in the present cen- 
tury for the chateau of King Louis Philippe. 

EUSTACE. From the proper name 
Eustachius. The family, settled in Ireland 
under Henry II., were of Norman descent. 

EVANS. The genitive of Evan, a com- 
mon Welsh baptismal name, equivalent to 

EVANSON. The son of Evan. 

EVE. Apparently an obsolete personal 
name — perhaps the same as Ivo ; whence 
Eveson and Eves. A London perfumer 
(1852) bears the queer epicene appellation 
of Adam Eve ! In the H.R. we have Adam, 
son of Eve— Ad fil' Eve I 

EVELYN. Probably an ancient personal 
name corresponding with the German 
Ebeling or Abeling, the INO Injing patro- 
nymical. Burke, however, derives it from 
a place in Shropshire " now called Evelyn, 
but formerly written Avelyn and Ivelyn." 


EVENING. See Times and Seasons. 

106 E Y R 

EVERARD. A well-known Teutonic 
baptismal name. The family were ancient 
in the county of Essex. In Domesd. 
Ebrardus : in H.R. Eborard. 

EVERETT. An evident corruption of 

EVERINGHAM. A parish in York- 

EVERMUE. H.R. A small town in the 
arrondissement of Dieppe, hodie Enver- 

EVERSFIELD. An old local surname 
in Sussex — locality unknown. 

EVERSHED. Probably from Eversholt, 
a parish in Bedfordshire, or from Evershot, 
a parish in Dorsetshire. 

EVERTON. Parishes, &c. in cos. Bed- 
ford, Notts, and Lancaster. 

EVERY. See Avery. 

EVES. See Eve. 

EVESON. From Eve, which see. 

EVIL. See Eyvile. 

EVORS. EVERS. Probably the same 
as Mac Ivor, though Ferguson derives 
them from the A- Sax. efor or efyr^ a boar. 

EWART. A township in Northumber- 

EWELL. 1. A town in Surrey. 2. 
Ewald, an A- Sax. personal name. 

EWEN. EWENS. See Ewing. 

EWER. SeeUre. 

EWING. Euing, probably a Saxon, oc- 
curs in Domesday. 

EXALL. Two parishes in co. Warwick. 

EXCELL. SeeExall. 

EXETER. The chief town of Devon- 
shire. A Baldwin de Exeter was a tenant 
in chief in that county at the compilation 
of Domesday. 

EXPENCE. In Clewer church "some 
very indifferent verses on a brass plate 
commemorate Martin Expence, a famous 
archer who shot a match against a hundred 
men near Bray, co. Berks." Lysons' Berks. 

EXTON. Parishes in cos. Rutland, So- 
merset, and Hants. 

EYLES. One of the many forms of 

EYRE. For the traditional origin of 
this name in the circumstance of a Norman 
knight having, at the battle of Hastings, 
succoured duke William of Normandy and 
given him air when he was in danger of 
8uflF(XMition — sec Eng. Surn. ii. 3. The 
true meaning of the name seems to l)e heir 
(hirres) since the H.R. give us the fonns of 
Le Eyr, and Le Eyre ; in fact the O. Eng. 
orthography usually rejects the initial h in 
this word. Brother, Cousin, Friend, and 




various other words expressive of consan- 
guineous and social relations, are also 
found in our family nomenclature. 

EYRES. See Eyre. 

EYTOX. The family were certainly re- 
sident at Eyton, co. Salop, as early as the 

reigns of Henry I. and II. ■ Shirley's Noble 
and Gentle Men, p. 190. 
EYVILE. EYYILL. The name wth 
the prefix de occurs in the H.R. It is 
doubtless derived from Normandy or France. 
A crasis of the preposition and the noun 
produce Devil ! 


FaBER. The latinization of Wright, 
which see. 

FABIAN. FABYAN. An ancient per- 
sonal name — the Latin Fabianus. 

FACER. An impudent person ; a 
boaster. Halliwell. More probably a 
workman who puts the ' face' or finish 
upon some article of manufacture. 

FADDY. A west of England pro- 
vincialism, meaning frivolous. 

FAED. Gael, faidh, a prophet ? 

FAGAJN". A corruption of the patrony- 
mical O'Hagan. The Fagans of Feltrim, 
CO. Cork, deduce themselves from Patrick 
O'Hagan, who opposed the invasion of 
Ireland by the Anglo-Normans in the 
XII. cent. See B.L.G. 

FAGG. Feg occurs in Domesday, and 
Fag in the H.R. The Kentish family 
were long connected with the parish of 
Rye, CO. Sussex, and perhaps derived their 
name from lands there, still called Fagg 

FAGGETTER. Fr. fugoteur, a fagot- 
maker. Cotgr. 

FAIL. A corruption of the Gaelic Mac- 


FAIR. FAYRE. Allusive to com- 
plexion. So the Latin Flavus, the French 
Blond, Blondel, &c., and the Italian 
Biondi, &c. 

It is often found in composition with 
other words, in English family names, as 
will be seen l)elow. Sometimes the epithet 
alludes to a personal peculiarity, as in 
Fairhead, Fairbeard, and sometimes to a 
local one, as in Fairford, Fairholm, Fair- 
bank. Fairbridge, Fairbuni. 

FAIRBAIRN. Bairn, Scot., a child. A 
fair or beautiful child. It may, however, 
mean, like the French beau-Jils, a step-son. 

FAIRBEARD. See Beard. 

FAIRBROTHER. See Farebrother. 

FAIRCHILD. The same as Fairbairn, 

which see. In the H.R. we have Farchild 
and Fayrchild. 

FAIRCLOTH. A corruption of Fair- 
clough, (pronounced Faircluff). A ' clough' 
is a narrow ravine or glen. 

FAIREST. Probably a local name. 

FAIRFAX. A-Sax. fcegr and feax, 
fair-haired. The same as the Latin Flavus, 
the Fr. Blond, &c. " Ihu^ and rex are the 
same, signifying hair. Hence Matthew of 
Westminster calleth a comet, which is 
Stella crinita, a vexed star lASax.feaxed 
stcorra ;] and this family had their name 
from beautiful bushy hair. I confess I 
find in Florilegus, writing of the Holy 
War, " Primum bellum Christianorum fuit 
apud pontem Pliarfax fluminis ; but can- 
not concur with them who hence derive 
the name of this family." Fuller, (Worthies 
of England, iii, 414,) who adds, that in his 
time (two hundred years ago) twenty ge- 
nerations of Fairfaxes had resided on one 
spot, at Walton, co. York — a rare instance 
of long territorial possession by one name 
and family. The existing representative of 
this ancient race is Lord Fairfax, an 
American by birth and parentage, who, 
with the same republican principles which 
actuated his great ancestor, prefers a quiet 
life at Woodburne in Maryland, to a seat 
in the House of Peers. 

F AIRFOOT. Perhaps from pedal beauty, 
since the cognate Belejambe (fair leg) is 
found in H.R. ; more likely from the name 
of some locality. See the termination 

tiful bird. Qu. a provincialism for pea- 

FAIRFULL. Fearful, timid. Or per- 
haps the same as Fairfoul. 

FAIRHAIR. See Fairfax. 

FAI RH ALL. Perhaps Fairhaugh, a 
place in Northimiberland. 
FAIRHEAD. From the light colour of 
one's hair, or i^erhaps a local name. See 




termination HfiAD. Fairhevid, the Saxon, 
and Belteste, the Fr. forms of it, occur in 

FAIRHOLT. The father of Mr. F. W. 
Fairholt, F. S. A., a well-known living 
author, came from Germany about the end 
of the last century, and translated his 
German appellative into Fairholt, which 
he bequeathed to his son, who is the only 
person now bearing it. 

FAIRLAMB. Most likely a corruption 
of some local name terminating in liavi,. 

FATRLES. This northern surname, 
which originated near Durham, is of 
doubtful etymology, as it has been va- 
riously written Fairlie, Faderless, Farrales, 
and Fairless. Whether it is local, or 
whether it relates to the orphanhood of 
its first bearer, is uncertain, though the 
family consider it to be derived from a 
place now called Fawlees, or Fawnlease, 
near Wolsingham. Folks of Shields. 

FAIRMAN. 1. A huckster, or attender 
at fairs. 2. (A-Sax. faran, to go). A 
messenger. The H.R. present the variations 
Fareman, Feirman, Fayrman. 

FAIRMANNERS. This name has pro- 
bably nothing to do with the honi mores, or 
deportment of the first bearer, but is most 
likely a translation of the French licau- 
manoir, the 'fair manor,' or beautiful man- 
sion or dwelling-place — a local name not 
uncommon in France. 

FAIRN. Parishes in cos. Ross and 

FAIRPLAY. From fairness in sport or 
combat. So Playfair. 

FAIRWEATHER. Fayrweder, II. R. 
See the cognate name Merryweather. 

FAIRY. FAIREY. A-S&x. fagr and ig. 

* Fair-island,' a local name. This surname 
which occurs in the Registrar-General's list 
has therefore no connection with Queen 
Mab, Puck, Robin Goodfellow, or any of 
their family. 

FAITH. From one who personated this 
Christian virtue in some medieval miracle 
play. The anniversar}' of St. Faith, virgin 
and martyr, occurs in the Roman calendar 
on the 0th of Octolxjr ; perhaps the original 
owner of this surname was bom on that 
day. See Christmas, Noel, Pentecost, &c. 

FAITHFUL. Loyal, trustworthy. 

FALCON. 1. The bir<l, from some fancied 
resemblance. 2. A trader's sign. The 

* falcon and fetterlock ' was a favourite 
badge of the house of York. 


pursued the sport of falconry, so much ad- 
mired in the middle ages, when a patrician 
was recognised by "his horse, his hawk, 
and his greyhound." Kings and great men 
kept a state falconer, and in such estima- 
tion was the office held in Norman times 
that Domesday Book shews us four different 
tenanta-in-chief besides others who are 

described each as Accipitrarim — ^hawker, or 
falconer. Even at the present time the 
Duke of St. Albans holds the office of Here- 
ditary Grand Falconer of England ; and a 
late possessor of the title made an unsuc- 
cessful attempt to reinstate the sport, which, 
however picturesque, is not exactly adapted 
to these days of miwie-rifles and long- 

FALDO. F. and W. being interchange- 
able letters, this may be the same as 

FALKE. Falk, Danish, a Falcon. 

FALKINER. See Falconer. 

FALKNER. See Falconer. 

FALKOUS. A North of England sur- 
name which has the variations Faucus, 
Fawcus, Farcus, and is sometimes con- 
founded with Fawke, Fawkes, &c. It pro- 
bably me2ii\sfaleo,/mwati, a hawk. 

FALL. 1. See Times and Seasons. 2. 
In the North of England the name is fre- 
quently of Gipsy origin. See Faw. 3. The 
De Fall of the H.R. shows a local origin. 

FALLOW. The Scottish form of Fel- 
low, which see. 

Norfolk family, one of whose members 
Shakspeare is supposed to have caricatured 
in his immortal Sir John Fal staff. The 
name seems to be Scandinavian, and per- 
sonal. It appears from Domesd., that a 
Fastolf held one church in the borough 
of Stamford, co. Lincoln, freely from the 

FALVESLEY. An eminent family took 
their surname from Falvesley, co. North- 
ampton, and one of the family was created 
a baron by this title 7 Richard II. 

FANCOURT. Falencourt, a place near 
Neufchatel in Normandy. De Fanecourt. 

FANCY Probably local, Vanchi, near 
Neufchatel in Normandy, has been sug- 

FANE. Welsh, * slender,' — an ancient 
personal name. The ancestors of the earls 
of Westmoreland, " wrote their name Vane, 
and descended," says Collins, " from Howel 
ap Vane of Monmouthshire, living before 
the time of William the Conqueror." 
Peerage, Edit. 17(;8. iii. 173. The Vanes 
(Duke of Cleveland) are of the same lineage. 
Coll. vi. 118. 

FANNEL. An article of dress, a maniple 
or scarf-like omnment ; fanon. Cotgrave. 

FANNER. Perhaps the O. Fr. venenr, 
a hunter. Or it may Ije O. Eng. faner, 
a winnower, a word used by Lydgate. Fan- 
ncre. H.R. 

FANNY. Probably local— the nurse- 
name for Frances lujing of too recent a 

FANSH and FONSH. Derbyshire cor- 
ruptions of Fansbawe. 




FANSH AWE. The family were resident 
at Fanshawe-Gate in the parish of Dron- 
field, CO. Derby, at the middle of the XVI. 
cent., and doubtless much earlier. Lysons. 

FARADAY. This, like other compounds 
of day, is not Very easily explained. Mr. 
Ferguson derives it from A- Sax. fara, a 
traveller, with dag as a suffix ; this, how- 
ever, assists us but little. 

FARAMOND. Pharamond, an ancient 
Teutonic personal name. 

FARA^STD. See Farrant. In Lincoln- 
shire /arm/t^ means deep, cunning. 

FARCUS. See Falkous. 

FARDEX. One Fardan occurs as an 
undertenant in Domesday. 

FAREBROTHER. In Scotland, 'father- 
brother' is a phrase employed to designate 
an uncle ; but we may with more than 
equal probability derive this name from 
i^ir-brother, the equivalent of the French 
heau-frere, brother-in-law. 

FAREWELL. Cannot be interpreted 
as ' good bye' ; it is derived from a little 
parish in Staffordshire, known by the 
curious designation of Farewell-with 
Charley 1 

FAREY. See Fairy. 

FARGUSON. See Ferguson or Far- 

FARLEY. FARLEIGH. Parishes and 
places in cos. Hants, "Wilts, Surrey, Staf- 
ford, Somerset, Bedford, and Kent. 

FARLOW. A chapelry ha Staffordshire. 

FARM. From residence at one. 

FARMAN. See Fairman. Farman or 
Farmannus is however personal in Domesd. 

FARMAR. FARMER. See Fermor. 

FARMING appears in the Reg. Gen.'s 

list of odd names. It is doubtless local : 
perhai)s a contraction of Farmington, co. 

I^^FARN— the first syllable of several 
local surnames — is the A- Sax. feam, 
fern, from the abundant growth of that 
plant. Hence Famaby, Famfold, 
Farnham, Famwell, Famcombe, Fams- 
worth, Famdell, Farnden, Femwold, 

FARN. An island on the Northumber- 
land coast. 

FARNALL. 1 . A parish in Forfarshire. 
2. Famhill, a township in Yorkshire. 

FARNCOMBE. An estate at West 
Blatchington, near Brighton, co. Sussex, 
where the family were resident in the 
XIII. century, and the neighbourhood of 
which is still their principal habitat. 

FARNES. A-Sax. femes; a desert or 

FARNFOLD. An ancient local name in 
Sussex ; place unknown. 

FARNSWORTH. Famworth, two 
chapelries iu Lancashire. 

FARNHAM. Parishes, &c., in cos. 
Surrey, Dorset, Essex, Northumberland, 
Suffolk, Yorkshire, Bucks, &c. The sur- 
name occurs in co. Leicester, before the 
reign of Edw. I. B.L.G. 

FARQUHAR. A common Scottish sur- 
name — the same as the Irish Ferchard, an 
ancient personal name in both countries. 
The London Farquhars spring from Aber- 

FARQUHARSON. The son of Far- 
quhar. Shaw Fercharson was chief of 
the Macphersons in 1450. He was the 
great-grandson of Ferchar, from whom he 
derived his surname. See Skene's High- 
landers, ii. 177. 

FARR. FARRE. A parish m Suther- 
landshire ; a place in Inverness-shire. 
FARRANCE. See Farrant. 

FARRAND. Mr. Ferguson derives it 
from the O-Norse farandl, signifying a 
traveller; but see Farrant, with which it 
is no doubt identical. 

FARRANT. The English form of Fer- 
dinandus, Spanish Fernandez, Italian Fer- 
ando, O. French Ferant. Camden says 
that these forms are corruptions of Bertran 
or Bertram, which I doubt. 

FARRAR. FARRER. Probably a 
corruption of Fair-hair, answering to Le 
Blond, Harfager, &c. In the H.R. we 
have Fayrher. In a document of the year 
1 555, a Norfolk incumbent is called John 
Fayrhawr, alias Farrar. Blomefield's Nor- 
folk, vii. 286. 2. Perhaps another form 
of Ferrers. 

FARRELL. The Farrells, now of 
Dalyston, spring from the O'Ferrals of 
Momyng and Bawn, co. Langford, who 
were of the clan Boy. B.L.G. 

FARRER. See Ferrers. 

FARRIER. See under Shoesmith and 

EARRING DON. Alsi de Farendone 
was a tenant in capite in the county of 
Bucks at the making of Domesday. He 
probably derived his surname from Far- 
ringdon in Berkshire. 

FARRINGTON. The Baronet's family 
came from Lancashire, in which co. there 
is a township so called. 

FARRIS. See Ferris or Ferrers. 

FARSYDE. The Farsydes, olim Faw- 
side, derive their name from the castle, 
lands, and villages of Easter and Wester 
Fawsyde, near Tranent in East Lothian, 
where they were seated as early as 1253. 

FARTHING. See Monet, denomina- 
tions of. 

FAR WIG. A place at Bromley, co. 




FATHER. In old records Fader. Pro- 
bably to distinguish a person from his son 
bearing the same Christian name ; just as 
in France they still say Pourpoint pere 
(senior) in contradistinction to Pourpoint 

jils (junior). 

FATT. Stout, large as to person. So 
the Fr. Le Gros, and the Germ. Feist, both 
naturalized as surnames in England. 

FAUCUS. FAWCUS. See Falkous. 

FAULCONER. See Falconer. 

FAULD. A Scotticism for Fold. 

FAULKlSrER. See Falconer. 

FAULTLESS. Two London traders 
bear this unobjectionable name. 

FAUNCE. Perhaps from A-Norm. 
faun, a flood-gate or water-gate. 


several armigerous families — apparently 
unconnected with each other — have borne 
this name, it is presumed to be of consider- 
able antiquity in England. It is perhaps a 
corruption of an ancient Fr. war-cry — de- 
FENDEZ LE ROi — ' Defend the King !' In 
course of time, the meaning of the name 
being forgotten, the De would be dropped, 
and the remaining syllables would easily 
glide into Fauntleroy. For examples of 
other surnames derived from war-cries, see 
Hay and Halliday. 

FAUSSETT. See Fawcett. 

FAUX. SeeVaux. 

FAVELL. Fauville-la-Campagne is 
near Evreux, and Fauville-en-Caux, near 
Yvetot. The name is found as a suffix in 
Weston-Favell, co. Northampton. 

FAW or FAA. A celebrated Gipsy 
family or clan in Scotland. King James 
V. issued an edict on behalf of Johnnie Faw, 
*'lord and erle of Little Egypt." Faw or fa' 
is a Scottish verb for ' to obtain,' which, con- 
sidering the acquisitive habits of this wan- 
dering race, is appropriate enough. 

FAWCETT. Probably from Forcett, a 
township in the wapentake of GillingAvest, 
N. li. of Yorkshire. Forsyth and Faussett 
seem to be mere varieties of the same 

FAWCON. See Falcon. 


BRIDGE. Tlie great barons by writ, Do 
Fauconberg, were summoned to Parliament 
from \2\):> till about 187(1. The heiress 
married William, younger son of Ralph, Ist 
Earl of Westmoreland, who thereupon wrote 
himself W. Neville de Fauconbcrgc. The 
name seems to Ik; derived from nn estate in 
Yorkshire, perhaps the same as that called 
in H.R. Fulkebrigge. 

FAWKENER. See Falconer. 

FAWKES. FAWKE. L The same as 
Vaux. 2. A modification of Fulke or Fulco. 

FAWN. The young of a deer. 

more correct forms of Farsyde, which 

FAZAKERLY. A township in the 
parish of W^alton, co. Lancaster. 

FEAR. Gaelic, a man, a hero —the Latin 

FEARN. A parish in Ross-shire, and 
another in Forfarshire. 

FEARNHEAD. A township in Lanca- 

FEARNLEY. Two chapelries in York- 
shire are called Famley. 

FEARON. Feron, anciently Le Feron. 
Le Feyron, (H.R.) A name still well known 
in Normandy: derived by M. de G^rville 
from the same source as Ferrier — viz., from 
fer^ferrum — a worker in iron. Mem. Soc. 
Ant. Norm., 1844. There are horse-shoes 
in the arms of one family of this name. 

FEARS. Probably the same as Ferris. 
E. Sum. ii, 95. Fear is, however, Gaelic 
for a man or hero. 

FEAST. See Feist. 

FEATHER. Probably a sobriquet ap- 
plied to a person who wore a remarkable 
one in his cap. 

FEE. A feudal possession. Sometimes 
certain lands obtained this name, e. g. 
Bassett's Fee, Neville's Fee. 

FEETUM. A corruption of Feetham, a 
local name. 

FEIST. German ; fat. Feste. H.R. 

FELBRIGGE. A parish in Norfolk, 
where the familv resiaed temp. Edward I. 
De Felbrigg, H.R. 

FELD. An old form of Field. 

FELIX. Happy : a latinization, or the 
personal name. 

^^ FELL. A component syllable in many 
local surnames, (see Fell below), such as 
Felbridge, Fellgate, Feltham, Felton, 
Grenfell, &c. 

FELL. FELLS. ''By frith and hy fell,'' 
a common medievalism ; equivalent to the 
classical ^'per .vjlrani, per cammim." "Also 
there is difl'ercnce between the fryth and 
the fel ; the fels are understood the moun- 
tains, vallyes, and pastures, with corn and 
such like ; [open ground] the frythes be- 
token the springs and coppyses" [wood- 
lands,] — Noble Art of Venerie, quoted by 

FELLIklONGER. A-Sax. fell, a skin. 
A dresser of sheepskins — a word still in use 
in the South, though not recognized by 

FELLOW ES. FELLOWS. Besides its 
more projxjr meaning of ' comi>anion,' the 
word Fellow is used in some dialects to sig- 
nify a young unmarried man, or a servant 
engaged in husbandry. — Halliw. Chaucer 
uses the phrase ** a proper felawe " to de- 




note a well-formed young man. Tlie H.E. 

spellings of the name are Le Felawe, Le 

Felawes, and Fellawe. 
FELSTED. A parish in Essex. 
FELTHAM. A parish it Middlesex. 

FELTON. Parishes and places in cos. 
Hereford, Northumberland, Somerset, and 

n'Jdch have become Surnames. — Several 
family names have the appearance of 
being derived from the baptismal names 
of females, and this has been thought 
to imply illegitimacy, though it is not 
necessarily the case. King Henry II., 
though legitimate, was sumamed after 
his mother, Fitz-Empress. Recent re- 
search has convinced me that Alison, 
Anson, and some others are traceable to 
niale. names, though at first sight they 
appear to be derived from female ones. 
The following, however, seem clearly to 
he metranymws : Ann, Anns, Agg, and 
Aggas, from Agatha ; Bridgett, Betts, 
Betty, Bettyes, from Elizabeth ; Cath- 
arine, Susan, and Susans, Babb, from 
Barbara; Marjory, Margerison, Margetts, 
Margetson, Margison, Maggs, Magson, 
and perhaps Pegg, from Margaret ; Moll, 
Molson, and perhaps Malkin, from Mary; 
with others. Beattie is the Scottish for 
Beatrix, whence that name, as also Beat - 
son. In the H,R. are found the forms 
Fir Alice, Fil' Elene, Fil' Emme, and 
in one case the metronymic had be- 
come a regular surname, the "filius" hav- 
ing been dropped — Robertus Elyanore. 
On this subject Camden observes : 
" Some also have had names from their 
mothers, as Fitz-Pamell, Fitz-Isabel, 
Fitz-Mary,Fitz-Emme,Maudlens, (Mag- 
dalen,) Susans, Mawds, Grace, Emson, 
&c. ; as Vespasian, the emperour, from 
Vespasia PoUa, his mother, and Popoea 
Sabina, the empress, from her grand- 

FEN, a syllable of frequent occurrence 
in local surnames (see Fenn) as Fen wick, 
Fenton, Fensham, Swynfen, Fenrother, 

FENCOTT. Fencot, a hamlet in Oxford- 

FENDER. The O. E. fend signifies to 
defend, (see Halliwell in r'oc.) : a ' Fender' 
may therefore mean a defender, and this 
indeed is almost proved by the Le Fendur 
of the H, R. — An appellation given in com- 
memoration of some remarkable exploit. 

FENN. A-Sax. feniL, a marsh or bog. 
From residence near one. In old docu- 
ments the forms are Atte Fenne, Del Fen, 
De Fen, De Fenne, &c., sometimes modified 
to Fenner, 

FENNELL. See Vennell. 

FENNER. Fenn Place in the parish of 
Worth, CO, Sussex, had owners for several 
generations, called from it Atte Fenne, but 
in the time of Henry VI. the name was 

changed to Fenner, while a Kentish branch 
wrote themselves Fenour. Camden con- 
siders the name a corruption of Veneur, Fr., 
a huntsman. 

FENNING. May be local, but I do not 
find the place. I think it may possibly be 
a Scandinavian personal name, and the 
genitive form, Fennings, rather confirms 
this view. 

FENROTHER. A township in Nor- 

FENTON. Parishes and places in cos. 
York, Lincoln, and Stafford. The neigh- 
bourhood of Leeds was the principal liabitat 
of the name in the XIV. cent. 

FENAVICK. "The Fenwykes of Nor- 
thumberland, ["insignis et illustris Fen- 
wickorum progenies."] are of Saxon origin, 
and take their cognomen from their ancient 
fastness in the fenny lands in the vicinity 
of Stamfordham." Slogans of the North, 
p, 11, In 'border' times they formed a 
powerful clan, and were the constant allies 
of the Percies, 

" We saw come marching ower the knowes, 
Five hundred Fenwicks in a flock — 
With jack and speir, and bowes all bent, 
And warlike weapons at their will." 

The Raid of the Reidswire. 
The family were characterized as " The 
Fierce Fenwicks," and "The Fearless 
Fenwicks," and their slogan or war-cry 
was — 

?l JPcntDslit ! H iPcntDpiie ! ! ?l Jpc ntoeiie ! ! ! 
FERDINAND. The personal name. 
FEREDAY. See Faraday. 

FERGUS. FE ARGUS. A Scottish saint 
(whence St. Fergus in Aberdeenshire) — 
Gaelic etymologists deduce the name from 
fear, a man, and eas, hardiness — energy — a 
man of hardy, energetic character. 

of Fergus, which see. This ancient family, 
characterized as — 

" A line that has struffgled for fi-eedom with Bruce," 
trace themselves uninterruptedly from Jon- 
kine Fergusson, lord of Craigdarrock in 
1298, B.L,G. 

FERMOR. Low Jj&t Jirmarius. Fr./er- 
mier, a farmer. This word is in modem 
times used as the equivalent of agriculturist, 
whether a tenant or not. Originally it 
meant, one who held of another anything 
for a profitable use, and paid him a red- 
ditus or rent. Thus taxes, customs, &c. 
were farmed as well as lands. Le Farmer, 
and A; la Fermer, are found in H.R. The 
family of Fermor (Baronet, 1725), came into 
England from France temp. Edward III., 
and settled in Sussex. 

FERNE. Perhaps from the Fame is- 
lands on the Durham coast, anciently 
written Feme. 

FERNIE. FERNEE. An estate in the 

parish of Monimail, co, Fife. 
FERRABY, FERRIBY. Parishes In cos. 

York and Lincoln. 


at a very early period into the deanery of 
Craven, in Yorkshire, from Normandy, 
where it is still to be met with. From 
"William de Fortibus, earl of Albemarle, 
Hugh Ferrand, in the XIII. cent, had a 
deed of grant to himself and his heirs of 
the office of Warder of Skipton castle." 

FERRER. See Ferrers. 

la Norm, gives nine places called Ferriere, 
and four called Ferrieres, in Normandy. M. 
de Gerville considers the name to have some 
relation to the ancient iron-trade of that 
province, which is probable. Mem. Soc. 
Ant. Norm., 1844 ; but that this very ancient 
and noble family were farriers is an absurd 
notion, originating probably in some 
heraldric and feudal allusions. Many of 
the numerous coat-armours assigned to the 
name contain horse-shoes, and at Oakham, 
the chief town of Kutlandshire, an ancient 
barony of the family, a custom prevails to 
this day of demanding a horse-shoe of every 
peer of the realm who passes through the 
town, or a composition in money. See 
"Wright's Rutland. Lewis' Topog. Diet., &c. 
Henry de Ferieres, ancestor of the old Earls 
of Derby, was a tenant in capite under the 
Conqueror, and held enormous estates in 
many counties, his caput baronise being 
Tutbury, in Staffordshire. Collins. Kelham. 
A tradition makes the original Ferrers 
Master of the Horse to the Conqueror. The 
following account is given in B.L.G., though 
no authority is cited. The family derive 
from Walchelin, a Norman, whose son 
Henry assumed the name of Ferriers, a 
small town of Gastinors in France, other- 
wise called Ferrieres, from the iron-mines 
with which that country abounded. 

FERREY. See Ferry. 

FERRIER. A more correct orthography 
of Farrier, which see. 

FERRIS. FERRIES. See Ferrers. 

FERRY. 1. From residence near one. 
2. Possibly however from fer ey, the remote 
or distant island. 3. Camden says, "For 
Frederick th' English have commonly used 
Frery and Fery, which hath been now a 
long time a Christian name in the ancient 
family of Tilney, and lucky to their house 
as they report." — Remaines, edit. 1G74, p. 

FERRYMAN. The occupation— a very 
important one in old times when bridges 
were few. 

FESANT. O. Eng.,/e«au«A a pheasant. 

Northumberland. The founder of this an- 
cient family is said to have been a Saxon 
commander named Frithestan, who, settling 
in that county at an early period, gave 
to the place of his abode the name of 
Frithestan's Haugh, which, when local sur- 
names l^egan to be used after the Conquest, 
was adopted by his descendants. Some I 



genealogists distinguish between the 
Fetherston-haughs of Northumberland and 
the Fetherston-halges of Durham, but there 
seems to be no ground for such distinction. 
See Kimber. Other authorities deduce the 
family from a William de Monte, temp. 
King Stephen, through the Stanhopes. 
Courthope's Debrett. 

FETTIPLACE. A tradition makes the 
founder of this family a "gentleman -usher" 
of William the Conqueror ! — ^but the pedi- 
gree ascends only to John Feteplace, temp. 
Henry VI., grandfather of William F., a 
benefactor to Queen's College, Oxon. ob. 
1516. Feteplace, Feteplece, &o., are found, 
however, in H.R. 

FEVER. FEVERS. O. Fr. Le fevre, 
the smith. 

FEW. Under the feudal system a feu 
was a dependency, or something held by 
tenure. The holder was sometimes called 

FEWSTER. 1. Halliwellhas/tt^ferer, 
a maker of pack-saddles. 2. Ihnster, a fe- 
male feoffee. See Few. 

^^ FF. The double-f is used in some sur- 
names, quite needlessly, in affectation of 
antiquity ; e. g., Ffrench, Ffarington, 
Ffoulkes, Ffooks, Ffolliott. Now as 
double-f never did and never will begin 
an English word, this is ridiculous, and 
originates in a foolish mistake respecting 
the ff of old manuscripts, which is no 
duplication, but simply a capital f. 

FFARINGTON. Farington, an estate 
in the parish of Penwortham, co. Lancaster. 
Farington or Ffarington Hall (see fi^'FF) 
was the residence of the family from temp. 
Henry III. till the year 1549. B.L.G. 

FFOULKES. The pedigree is deduced 
from Marchudd ap Cynan, lord of Brynf- 
fenigi, who flourished in the ninth century. 
The name appears to have been borrowed 
from Ffoulk ap Thomas, who lived early 
in the sixteenth century, and whose 
descendants have ever since borne it. 

FFRENCH. The ancestors of Lord 
Ffrench are said to have been seated at 
Castle Ffrench, co. Galway, for many cen- 
turies. Courthope's Debrett. The name 
was anciently written De Frignes, De 
ffreygne, Frynshe, &c. B.L.G. 

FIDDLER. A violinist. 

FIDLER. A mis-spelling of fiddler. 
The name is common about Ewell, co. Sur- 

FIELD. A component syllable in a 
great number of family names. It has 
]>een said : — 

" In Field, in Hrhi, in Ix«y, in Ton, 
The most of English sumamea run." 

The A-Snx/rWi8ap])lied to open locali- 
ties, and is nearly e(juivaleiit to campus. 
Sometimes, however, it signifies *' places 
detached but not entirely oi)en, loca gyU 
ratwa, or swine-walks, which might at 
least be partially overgrown with brush- 
wood." Williams's Trans, of Dr. Leo's 


Local Nomencl., p. 101. This termina- 
tion is found in many counties, but par- 
ticularly in the three south-eastern ones 
of Sussex, Kent, and Surrey, and there 
it almost invariably pertains to spots 
cleared out of the great primeval forest 
of Andred, just as the ' woods ' and the 
' hursts ' even to this day give proof of 
the original densely-wooded character 
of the country. The number of sur- 
names with this termination must amount 
to hundreds ; I shall cite but a sample : 
Aberfield, Bedingfield, Bousfield, Bav- 
field, Cranfield, Duffield, Eglesfield, 
Fairfield, Greenfield, Heathfield, Hart- 
field, Ifield, Lindfield, Mayfield, Mans- 
field, Stansfield, Sheffield, Tanfield, To- 
field, Wingfield, Westfield. 

FIELDER. A person who had the care 
of a common field. 

FIELDING. In a docimient dated 9 
Edvv. II., mentioned by Collins, Geoffrey 
de Fielding calls himself " Filius Galfridi 
filii Galfridi, comitisde Hapsburg et domini 
in Laufenburget RinFlLDiNG inGermania." 
It appears from the same authority that 
GeoftVey, earl of Hapsburg, by the oppres- 
sion of Rodolph, emperor of Gennany, being 
reduced to extreme poverty, Geoffrey, one 
of his sons, " served Henry III. in his wars 
in England, and because his father. Earl 
Geoff"rey, had pretensions to the dominions 
of Laufenburg and Rinjilding, he took the 
name of Filding." 

FIENNES. FIENES. This noble 
family derive from Conon de Fiennes, who 
in 1112 was earl of Boulogne, taking his 
name from a village in the Boulonnais ter- 
ritory. John de Fiennes, a collateral an- 
cestor, had accompanied William the Con- 
queror to England in 10(»G, and he and his 
descendants for five generations were con- 
stables of Dover castle and lord-wardens of 
the Cinque Ports. The name has been 
varied to Fenes, Fenys, Fynes, and Fines. 

FIFE. The Scottish county. 

FIFEHEAD. The easternmost point of 
Fifeshire, generally called Fifeness. 

FIGG. A Feg occurs in Yorkshire ante 
1086. Domesd., and a Figge in Kent 31. 
Edwd. III. In the latter co. at a later 
period the Figgs, Faggs, and Foggs flou- 
rished contemporaneously, and may have 
had a common origin. Other kindred forms 
are Fig, Figes, Figgs, &c. 

FILBERT. PhUibert, a French personal 
name. St. Philibert was abbot of Jumieges 
in theVII. cent., and several villages in Nor- 
mandy and Picardy bear his name. From 
some one of these the filljert-nuts — nnce.<i 
de Saiwto Ph'dibcrto — are presumed to have 
been imported into England. This nut has 
been a particularly hard one for the teeth 
of etymologists. See Richardson. See also 
Mr. Blaauw, in Sussex Arch. Coll. vi. 46. 

FILBY. A parish in Norfolk. 

FILDER. See Fielder, 


See Fyler. 

113 FIN 

FILIOL. In mod. Yr.filletd^ a godson. 
'Filiolus regis' occurs in the laws of Ina and 
of Henry I., and the Confessor makes grants 
' filiolo suo ' — to his godson or adopted son. 
Ellis, Introd. Domesd. 

FILKIN. A diminutive of Philip. 

FILL AN. A Scotch personal name ; also 
a rivulet in Perthshire. 

FILLINGHAM. A parish in Lincoln- 

FILLMER. SeeFilmer. 

FILLPOTTS. See Filpot. 

FILMER. "This family formerly wrote 
their name Finmere, Fylmere, Filmour, and 
Filmor, temp. Edw. III., but of late, Filmer, 
and were seated at Otterinden in Kent, at a 
place called Finmore. ' ' Kimber's Baronet - 

FILMORE. An old German personal 
name (Filimer) signifying "full-famous." 

FILPOT. A corruption of Philipot, from 

FILTNESS. Local; place unknown. 
The name is common and ancient in East 

FINAL. SeeVinall. 

FINCH. Perhaps a corruption of Vin- 
cent. Vincent Herbert of Winchelsea, 20 
Edw. L bore the alias of Finch. The early 
pedigree of the Earl of Winchelsea's family 
is very obscure. Their former surname was 
Herbert, and one of the earliest if not the 
first who was known as Finch was this very 
Vincent. In support of this notion I may 
add, from Collins, that the family had pre- 
viously borne their father's name, as Her- 
bertus filius Herberti, &c. In the H.R. the 
spelling is Fynch ; in 13 Edw. III., Vynche. 
In Sussex the baptismal name Vincent is 
often corrupted to Winch or Vinch. 

FINCHAM. A parish in Norfolk. 

FINCK. Germ, the bird, or rather class 
of birds, known by the general name of 

FINDEN. The same as Findon. 

FINDLATER. A district in the parish 
of Fordyce in Banffshire. 


FINDON. A parish in Sussex. 

FINER. Ajrefiner of metals. "Fyners," 
with this meaning, are mentioned in the old 
poem called Cocke Lorelle's Bote. 

FINES. See Fynes. 

FINEUX. "The Frenchman which 
craftily and cleanly conveyed himself, and 
his prisoner T. Cryoll, a great Lord in Kent, 
about the time of king Edw. II., out of 
France, and had therefore Swinfield given 
him by Crioll, as I have read, for his fine 
conveyance was then called Fineux, and 
left that name to his posterity." Camd. Re- 
maines, edit. 1674, p. 170. 


FINE WEATHER. See Merryweather. 

FINGAL. Finegal appears as a tenant 
in Yorkshire before Domesd. He was pro- 
bably of Gaelic descent. 

FINGHIN. An ancient Irish surname, 
now anglicized to Florence, means ' fair 
oflfspring.' O'Donovan in Irish Penny Joum. 
p. 327. 

FINGLASS. Probably Finlass, a river 
of Dumbartonshire. 

FINK. A provincialism for Finch. See 

FINLAY. An ancient Scottish personal 
name, said to be the same as Kinlay. 

FINLAYSON. The son of Finlay, and 
equivalent to Mackinlay. 

FINN. A native of Finland. A- Sax. 
plur. Finnas. Fin. H.R. 

FINNINGLEY. A parish in the cos. of 

York and Nottingham. 

FINNIS. A native of Finland ; a Fin. 
Ulf Fenisc occurs as a previous tenant in 
Domesd. in cos. Derby, Nottingham, Lin- 
coln, and Huntingdon, and Fin Danus (a 
Dane) in co. Bucks. 

FIRBY. A township in l'"orkshire. 

FIREBRACE. The extinct baronet 
family, whose pedigree ascends only to the 
XVII. cent., seem to have had a tradition 
of a Norman origin (Burke's Ext. Barts.), 
and the name is said to signify Jier-hras, 
" bold or stout arm," like our indigenous 
Armstrong and Strong i' th' arm. The H.R. 
form, Ferbras, is suggestive of " Iron-arm." 

FIREMAN. The occupation. 

FIRKIN. Perhaps the diminutive of 
some Christian name — perhaps an ancient 
trader's sign ; but certainly not what Mr. 
Ferguson would have us think, viz : fir-cyti, 
* race of man,' an impossible appellation. 

FIRMAN. Either fireman, ox ferd-mon^ 
A-Sax., a soldier. 

bably O. YTQn(i\i,fro7nageur, a cheese-maker. 
In O. Scotch the word furmage is used for 

FIRTH. A parish in Orkney; also a 
Scottish topographical word, signifying, 1. 
An ajstuary or bay ; 2. A sheltered place or 
enclosure. The etymon in both cases seems 
to be the A-Sax. frithian, to protect or 

FISH. See Fishes, below. 

FISHBOURNE. A parish in Sussex. 

FISHPOND. From residence near one. 
Ad Fispond, H.R. 

FISHER. This seems to be a suf- 
ficiently obvious derivation from the calling 
of a fisherman, especially since * fisher ' 
occurs in our version of the New Testament 
in this sense ; and Leland in his Itinerary 
usually describes the smaller sea-coast 
places as " fischar tounes." In Domesd. 



and other early records, we meet with the 
forms Piscator, Le Pecheur, &c. There is, 
however, curious evidence that some fami- 
lies bearing this name are descendants of 
Fitz-Urse, one of the assassins of Thomas a 
Becket. Fitz-tJrse is said to have gone over 
to Ireland, and there to have become ances- 
tor of the Mac Mahon family — Mac Mahon 
being the Celtic equivalent of 'Bear's son;' 
but other branches of the family remained 
in England, and gradually corrupted the 
family name thus; Fitzour, Fishour, Fisher. 
The great Kentish family of Berham, or 
Barham, is also deduced by Philipot, Harris, 
and other Kentish historians from the same 
source — apparently upon the strength of 
the first syllable of that name resembling 
the word hear, (Ourse — Ursus), See Quar- 
terly Review, September, 1858, p. 379. 

1^" FISHES. NoAfnes of, which have he- 
come Surnames. 

The following catalogue of these has 
been arranged by Mr. Clark : 
Barnacle and Brill, 

Crabbe, Cockle, Salmon, Trout, and Eel ; 

Bream, Dolphin, Haddock, Carp, and Loach, 

Chubb, Winkles, CwUl, Smelt, Pike, and Roach ; 

Base, Burt, Whale, Herring, Shark and Dace, 

Tench, Gudgeon, Flounders, Koe, and Plaice ; 

Kay, Mackrell, Whiting, Grayling, Skate, 

Perch, Mullett, Gurnard, Mussell, Spratt; 

With Sturgeon, Lamprey, Pickerel, Sole, 

And these perhaps include the whole, 

Unless, indeed, we add thereto 

The names of Fish and Fisher too." 

Of these names, perhaps the majority 
are derived from sources unconnected 
with the inhabitants of the waters ; for 
example, Barnacle, Brill, Bream, Roach, 
Perch, Mussell, and Winkles are local ; 
Roe and Ray (Rae) belong to quadrupeds 
rather than fishes ; and Burt, Mackrell, 
Salmon, Whiting, with several others, 
are shewn in their proper places to have 
no place in this category. 

It is difficult to account for the adop- 
tion of the designations of fishes as 
proper names for persons and families. 
A few, such as Dolphin, Pike, and 
Crabbe, may have been borrowed from 
Heraldry; and others, such as "WTiale, 
Shark, and Herring, were perhaps sobri- 
quets which having been applied to an 
individual afterwards adhered to his 

FISK. A-Sax. /*c, a fish. 

FIST. The same as Feist. 

FITCH. A polecat — perhaps the sign 
adopted by some medieval furrier. It may 
however be a corruption of Fitz. H.R. m 
Fitche. ^ 

FITCHETT. A polecat: formerly a 
tenn of contempt. It may have a nmch 
more re8pectal)le origin, from J/ow^fichett, 
which see. Fichet, without prefix, is found 
in H.R. 

FITCHEW. 1. A corruption of Fitz- 
Hugh. 2. A kind of polecat — a word of 

FITKIN. SeeFitt. 

FITNESS. SeeFUtness. 



FITT. Apparently an ancient personal 
name, whence the diminutive Fitkin. 
FITTER. A person who vends and 
loads coals, fitting ships with cargoes. 
FITTIS. Said to be the Gael, feadha, 
forward, fierce, surly. Folks of Shields. 
FITZ. Occurs at the present day as a 
surname without any addition. This is 
probably local, from the parish of Fitz in 
Sliropshire ; or it may be the Norman-Fr., 
Le Fitz, " the Son "—like CJousin, Frere, 
Brother, &c. Fiz. H.R. 
B^FITZ. A Norman-French prefix, sig- 
nifying son, being a corruption of the 
ljB.t\n JiUus. Many of the names which 
occur in Domesday Book with films and 
the father's name in the genitive case, 
become Fitz in later records. Like AP 
among the Welsh, and MAC among the 
Scotch, the Fitz prefixed to the father's 
name was the only surname in use in 
many noble families, thus: 1. Bardolf; 
2. AkarisFitz-Bardolf; 3. Hervey Fitz- 
Akaris ; 4. Henry Fitz- Hervey ; 5. Ran- 
dolph Fitz-Henry, and so on, down to 
the tune of Edw. III. This succession 
is found in the family known as Fitz- 
Hugh, which then became their per- 
manent surname. In general, however, 
this patron}Tuical method was disused at 
an earlier period. Camden informs us 
that " King Edward the First, disliking 
the iteration of Fitz, conmaanded the 
Lord John Fitz-Robert, an ancient baron 
(whose ancestours had continued their 
surnames by their fathers' Christian 
names) to leave that manner, and be 
called John of Clavering, which was the 
capital seat of his Barony. And in this 
time many that had followed this course 
of naming by Fitz, took them one set- 
tled name and retained it." Remains, 
p. 185. The origin of the word Frrz, 
which has so much puzzled some Anti- 
quaries, is this : in contracting the word 
lillus, our old scribes drew a stroke 
across the *1,' to denote the omission 
of the following ' i,' and thus assimilated 
it in form to the letter *t.' The charac- 
ter * z ' is the usual contraction of ' us.' 
Thus the word looked like ^'fitz" and 
came to be so pronounced. 
FITZ-CLARENCE. This surname was 
given to the natural children of the late 
Duke of Clarence, afterwards King William 
FITZ-ELLTS. The knightly family so 
named, who flourished at Waterpyrie near 
Oxford, sprang from Sir William Alis men- 
tioned in Domesd. The forms are Fitz- 
Elys, Fitz-Elias, Fitz-Ellis, &c. See Ellis. 

FITZ-GERALD. The Geraldines, as this 
great family are sometimes called, claim to 
be descended from the same stock as the 
Gherardini, a noble Florentine family, 
whose progenitor, Rainerio, flourished 
A.D. 1)10; but it is doubtful whether this 
is not a fiction of the XV. cent., invented 
as a compliment from the Italian family. 


(Gent. Mag. Aug. 1858). It is however 
sufficient for the antiquity of this distin- 
guished race to state, that their pedigree is 
perfect up to Otho, Other, or more properly 
Ohtere, who passed into England before the 
Conquest. The name itself is probaby de- 
rived from that chieftain's descendant, 
Maurice, the son of Gerald, (filius Geroldi) 
great-grandson of Otho, companion of Wil- 
liam I. at the Conquest, who married Nesta 
the famous Welsh princess, temp. Henry I. 
Maurice Fitz -Gerald accompanied Strong- 
bow in his invasion of Ireland, temp. 
Henry 11., and thus built up in that country 
the fortunes of the family, which under the 
title of Leinster has yielded Ireland her 
only duke. The original Other, castellan 
of Windsor under the Confessor, is said to 
have sprung from a Norse vi-king Ohtere, 
whose descendants settled in Normandy, 
and to have been the common ancestor of 
the Windsor, Carew, Fitz-Maurice, Gerard, 
Otter, and many other families, as well as of 
that amusing and credulous historian, Gi- 
raldus Cambrensis. 

FITZ-GIBBON. The earl of Clare's 
family, the chief of whom was styled The 
White Knight, otherwise Clan-Gibbon, 
are a branch of the great Anglo- 
Irish Fitzgeralds, being descended from 
Gilbert, other^vise Gibbon, son of John 
Fitzgerald, ancestor of the houses of Kil- 
dare and Desmond. From the same stock 
spring the knights of Kerry, called The 
Black Knights. 

FITZ-HARRIS. See Harris. 

FITZ-HERBERT. Herbert Fitz-Her- 
bert is said to have come into England with 
the Conqueror. His descendants settled at 
Norbury, co. Derby, in 1125, and are still, 
I believe, possessors of the estate. Lysons' 

FITZ-IIUGH. See underi^Fitz. The 
great baronial race of this name descended 
from a feudal chief named Bardolph, who 
was lord of Ravensworth, co. York, at the 
period of the Conquest. The surname was 
not fixed until the tune of Edw. III., when 
Henry Fitz- Hugh was summoned to Par- 
liament as Baron Fitz -Hugh. 

FITZ-JAMES. James, illegitimate son 
of king James H., by Arabella Churchill, 
sister of the great Duke of Marlborough, 
received the surname of Fitz-James, and 
was created Duke of Berwick. Being at- 
tainted after the Revolution of 1688, he was 
created Duke Fitz-James by the king of 
France, and the title is still enjoyed in that 
country by his descendant, the present Duo 

FITZ-IVIAURICE. The Marquis of 
Lansdowne's family are of common origin 
with the Fitz-Geralds, being descended 
from the famous Otho of Windsor, temp. 
Edw. Confessor. The surname is derived 
from an early ancestor, named Maurice 

FITZ-PATRICK. The anglicized form 
of GioUa-Phadruic, an ancient Irish chief 


of the X. cent. Its literal meaning is, The 
Servant of St. Patrick, Such names were 
common in Ireland soon after the introduc- 
tion of Christianity. O'Donovan, in Irish 
Penny Journal, p. 330. Comp. Gilchrist, 
Gillespie, &c, John Fitz-Patrick, descended 
from the ancient monarchs of Ireland, was 
ancestor of the Earls of Ossory, who became 
extinct in 1818. 

FITZ-ROY. Filius Regis— "Son of a 
King." This surname has frequently been 
given to the illegitimate offspring of our 
monarchs, e. g. to Robert, natural sou of 
Henry I. ; to Geoffrey, bishop of Lincoln, 
natural son of Henry II. ; to Henry, natural 
son of Henrj' VIII., by Elizabeth Blount ; 
and to Charles, Henry, and George, natural 
sons of Charles II., by Barbara Villiers, 
Duchess of Cleveland. From Henry, the 
second of these, are descended the Duke of 
Grafton, and Lord Southampton. 

FITZ-SWAIN. See Swainson. 

FITZ-WILLIAM. The Earl of this 
title and surname is lineally descended 
from William Fitz-Goderic, a cousin of 
king Edward the Confessor. His son, Wil- 
liam Fitz-William, is said to have been 
ambassador from England to the Norman 
court, and to have accompanied Duke Wil- 
liam in the invasion of this country. He 
was at the battle of Hastings, and tradition 
asserts that in reward for his prowess, the 
Conqueror gave him a scarf from his own 
arm. Collins. 

FITZ-WYGRAM. See Wigram. 

FIVE ASH. The name of a locality. 
There are two places in E. Sussex called 
respectively, Five-Ashes and Five-Ash 

FLACK. Possibly from Flagg, a town- 
ship in CO. Derby. 

FLADGATE. Probably a corruption of 

FLAGG. A township in the parish of 
Bakewell, co. Derby. 

FLAMANT. O. Fr. Flamand, a Flem- 
ing. Le Flamant, H.R. 

FLANDERS. From the country. See 

FLASH. See under Flashman. The 
Prompt. Parv. defines JfoMhe as ' watyr,' 
and vmAer ploMjhe we have " flasche, where 
rayne watyr stondythe." Mr. Wny says, 
•' a shallow pool, in low Lntiii ffac/tia, 
flaJtca, 0. Yr.Jiache or flestqve.''' Camden, 
in his Britannia, applies the term to those 
artificial reservoirs in Sussex which had 
been formed for the driving of iron- 

FLASHMAN. Flashes is a word pro- 
vincially applied to flood-gates. The Flash- 
man probably had the care of such gates. 
See, however, Flash. 

FIjATMAN. a baptismal name One 
Floteman was an undertenant in Yorkshire 
before the compilation of Domesday. The 

116 FLE 

name appears to have been originally the 
A-Sax. JfOtmann, a sailor. 

FLAVEL. FLAVELL. An ancient 
family presumed to be of Norman extrac- 
tion, who gave the affix to Flavel Flyford, 
CO. Worcester. The name may be derived 
from the Low Lat. flarellus, a diminutive 
oijfaims, yellow, or golden — perhaps with 
reference to the hair. 

FLAX^LA.N. A dresser of flax, or a 
spinner. In old authors " flax-wife" signi- 
fies a female spinner who is married, pro- 
bably to distinguish her from the spinster^ 
or maiden of the distaff!, The records of 
Castle Combe shew the existence in that 
district of a family who in the reign of 
Edw. III. were called Spondel, most proba- 
bly a provincialism for "spindle," in allu- 
sion to the spinning trade carried on by 
them. One of the family is described as 
"JohannemSpoundel dictum Flexmangere," 
or flax-monger, and twenty years later this 
person, or a descendant, is simply described 
as "Johannes Flexman." See Scrope's 
Hist, of Castle Combe, reviewed in Quar- 
terly Rev., vol. xcii., p. 291. 

FLEET. A-Sax. jieot A harbour for 
vessels, an arm of the sea, a haven ; hence 
Northfleet, Southfleet, and the Fleet, a tri- 
butary of the Thames, which gave name to 
Fleet Street. The celebrated jurist, Fleta, 
is said to have adopted that name, about 
temp. Edw. II,, from his having been a 
prisoner in the Fleet at the time when he 
wrote his treatise on the common law. 
Fuller's Wor. ii. 3G6. There are parishes 
in COS. Dorset and Lincoln so called. 

FLEETWOOD. The place from which 
the name was derived is probably in Lan- 
cashire, where the family resided in the 
XV. cent., and in that county a new town 
bearing this designation has recently 
sprung into existence under the auspices of 
Sir Hesketh Fleetwood. 

FLEGG. Eost and West Flegg are two 
hundreds in Norfolk. 

FLEMEN. See Fleming. 

of Flanders. Many natives of that country 
joined William the Conqueror in the in- 
vasion of England. Several })erson8 de- 
signated Flandrensis occur in Domesday 
Book ; thus Winemar F. was a tenant 
in chief in co. Bucks, and Hugo F. in Bed- 
fordshire. Walterus Flandrensis was a ■ 
tenant in chief in Herts, Bucks, Bedford, *m 
&.C. He "assumed this suraame in regard ■ 
he came from Flanders, and assisted Wil- 
liam at the battle of Hastings. Walter 
Bek, who came over with the Conqueror, 
had a large inheritance in Flanders, and 
had several lordships given him in Eng- 
land ; but whether Walter F. and Walter 
Bek were one and the same person does not 
Bufliciently appear." Kelham's Domesday. 
There have been numerous settlements 
of Flemings at subsequent periods, and Le 
Fleming was a ver}' common surname 
throughout the middle ages. 

FLO 117 

FLESHER. A butcher ; a word still in 
use in the North. In the H.K. the name 
is sometimes written Le Flesmongere, the 
flesth monger. In Old Scotch, &fleschour was 
a hangman or executioner — camifex. 

FLETCHER. Fr. fleche, an an-ow. A 
maker of arrows — a common and most ne- 
cessary trade in the middle ages. Le 
Flecher, Le Flecchir, Le Fletcher. H.R. 

FLEWELLEX. (Lond. Direct.) A cor- 
ruption of Llewellyn, the Welsh baptismal 
and family name. 

FLEXMAN. SeeFlaxman. 

FLIGG. SeeFlegg. 

FLINT. Our Anglo-Saxon ancestors 
had a subordinate deity whom they named 
Flint, and whose idol was an actual flint- 
stone of large size. The name of the god 
would readily become the appellation of a 
man, and that would in time become here- 
ditary as a surname. Such it had become, 
witliout any prefix, at the date of the H.R., 
and even in Domesday we have in Suffolk 
an Alwin Flint. The town of Flint, in 
North Wales, may however have a claim to 
its origin. 

FLITTOX. A parish in co. Bedford. 

FLOAT. 1. A-Sax flota, a sailor. 2. 
Local ; an ancient Hampshire family wrote 
themselves De Flote. 

FLOCK. Probably from Floques, near 
Eu, in Normandy. 

FLOCKHART. A guttural pronuncia- 
tion of Lockhart. 

FLOCKTON. A chapelrj in Yorkshire. 

FLOOD. The English corruption of 
Lloyd, which is too guttural for our organs 
of pronunciation. Andrew Borde in his 
Boke of Knowledge makes a Welchman 
say — 

" I am a pentylman and come of Bruttis' blood ; 
My name is Ap Ryce, Ap Davj-, Ap Flood." 

FLORENCE. The capital of Tuscany. 
It is sometimes written Florance. See also 

FLOUNDERS. Perhaps a corruption of 


FLOWER. The London Directory ex- 
hibits more than a quarter of a hundred of 
traders bearing this beautiful surname, 
which probably had its origin in some pe- 
culiar manly beauty or excellence, such as 
tliat implied in the phrases ' Flower of Chi- 
valry, ' Flower of the Family, &c. Le Floer. 

FLOWERDAY. See Flowerdew, of 
which it is probably a corruption. 

FLOWERDEW. Probably from 'Jieur' 
and ' I)ie>i,' Fr. '* God's flower," from some 
peculiar sanctity attached to the original 

FLOWERS. See Flower. 

FLOYD. The same as Flood, which 


^LOYER. Burke says, that the pedigree 
of the Floyers of co. Dorset is " authenti- 
cally deduced from Floierus, who settled 
soon after the Norman Conquest on the 
lands beyond the river Exe, co. Devon, 
whence the name of Floiers-Lands and 
Floiers- Hayes." 

FLUDE. See Flood. 

FLY. A place near Gournay, in Nor- 
mandy, once famous for its great abbey. It 
was anciently called Flagi. Chron. of 
Battel Abbey, p. 49. 

FOAKES. The same as Folkes. 

FOARD. See Ford. 

FOE. Probably inimicus^ an enemy — the 
antithesis of the surname Friend; or it may 
be the Yv.faux, false, unfaithful. I believe 
the territorial De of De Foe was assumed 
by the author of Robinson Crusoe. 

FOGGE. An ancient Kentish family, 
possibly identical with that of Fagge. 
Ferguson says "/^^," Danish, a simpleton. 

FOLD. An enclosure for sheep or 

FOLEY. Collins says that the family 
have been of ancient standing in co. Wor- 
cester, and some adjoining counties. Local: 
place unknown. 

FOLGER. See Foulger. 

FOL JAMBE. Jambe is Fr. for leg, and 
fol^folle is often employed in 0. Fr. for 
something useless or of little value, aa 
* farine folle,' mill-dust, 'figue foUe,' a good- 
for-nothing fig. Hence Foljambe was pro- 
bably a sobriquet allusive to a useless or 
defective Leg. We find in the H.R. the 
antithetical Bele-jamhe, or "handsome leg," 
as a surname, and indeed the Jambe, or leg, 
gave rise to other sobriquets and family 
names in the middle ages. As a remarkable 
instance, in the far-famed Scrope and Grosve- 
nor controversy, temp. Rich. II., one of the 
witnes-ses calls Edward I. " the good king 
Edward with the long legs," — ovcz les long 
jawnbes. This family were doubtless of 
Norman origin, and the pedigree is traced 
to Sir Thomas Foljambe, who was bailiff 
of the High Peak, co. Derby, in 1272. 

FOLK. FOLKES. A corruption of 
the Norman personal name Fulco, from 
whence also Fulke. 

or Fulcherus, a Domesd. name, is doubt- 
less the same as Folchard or Folcard, borne 
by an eminent Flemish scholar, who settled 
in England about the time of the Conquest 
and became abbot of Thorney. 

FOLKER. See Folkard. 

FOLLENFANT. Fr. "Foolish child" 
— probably a term of endearment. 

FOLLETT. Fr. follet, "somewhat 
fond, pretty and foppish, a little foolish." 
Cotgr. Probably used by way of endear- 
ment. ' Feu follet ' is an exact rendering 
of ignis fatuus. In the Domesday of Kent 
there is a William Folet. 



An old Ft. epithet formed from the extinct 
verb f oiler, to play the fool, to be merry or 
frolicsome. Comp. Follett. The family 
came into England at or soon after the 
Conquest. The surname has become histo- 
rical from Gilbert Foliot, bishop of Here- 
ford, the staunch defender of Henry II. 
against the demands of Thomas a Becket. 
One night as he lay ruminating on the 
quarrel of the king and the archbishop, a 
terrible and unknown voice sounded in his 
ears the words : — 
Voice. " FoUoth ! FoUoth ! thy God is the Goddess 

Azaroth." (Venus.) 
Foliot. Thou lyest, foule fiend ; my God is the God of 


FOLLY. " Any ridiculous bmldins:, not 
answering its intended puri)Ose." Halliwell. 
Most counties have many spots so called ; 
but I do not find Mr. Halliwell's definition 
always correct. I should prefer calling a 
" folly," a temporary or fragile building, 
and that seems to have been the sense of 
the Norman-French /<?iZ^i/?. In the Roman 
de Rou of Master Wace, line 12,136 we 
read — 

" Mult veient loges h/oillies" 
which M. Pluquet explains as " baraques 
faites avec des branches d'arbre ;" — tempo- 
rary buildings made of branches of trees. 
See Notes and Queries, Nov. 1856. De la 
Folye. H.R. 


local name of northern origin. One of the 
principal habitats of the family was in the 
county of Durham, where they acquired 
(probably for no better reason than a play 
upon the first syllable) the undesirable ap- 
pellation of the " The Filthy Foul- 


FONNEREAU. This family were 
founded in England by M. Zacharie F. who 
fled from I^ Rochelle at the Rev. of the 
Edict of Nantes, and settled in London. 
He is said to have been of noble descent, 
and a branch of the Earls of Ivry in Nor- 
mandy. B.L.G. 

FONT. Lat./o7fc9, a spring. De Fonte, 
Ad Fontera. H.R. 

FOOKES. FOOKS. See Folk, Folkes. 
Perhaps, however, the High German /uch.s, 
a fox. 

FOORD. See Ford. 

FOOT. FOOTE. Probably from resi- 
dence near the ' foot' of a mountain. This 
surname was hereditary from the time of 
the Conqueror. Among the undertenants 
of Domesday we have an Emui Fot in 
Cheshire, and a Godwin Fot in Kent. Tlie 
descendants of the latter gave the prefix to 
Foot's Cray. Fot is the common spelling 
in H.R. 

FOOTMAN. Not a domestic servant, 
but a foot-soldier, an infantry man. It is 
used in this sense in Hall's Chronicle. 

FORBES. A town and barony in Aber- 
deenshire. The family possessed tliat lord- 
ship as early as temp. William the Lion, 

118 FOR 

and were seated at Pitscottie in the same 
shire in 1476. Debrett. See Art. Coult- 

FORCE. In the North, a waterfall, a 
cascade. Worsaae considers it of Danish 
origin, and finds fifteen localities with the 
termination in the northern counties. 
Danes in England, p. 71. 

f^" FORD. A shallow place in a river, 
which may be crossed without bridge 
or boat — a common termination of local 

" In Ford, in Ham, in Ley, in Ton 
The most of English Surnames run." 


FORD. Parishes and places in cos. 
Durham, Sussex, Bucks, Northumberland, 
Salop, Wilts, Devon, &c. 

FORDER. 1. A village near Trematon in 
Cornwall. 2. A modification of At Ford. 
See termination EU. 

FORDHAM. Parishes in cos. Cambridge, 
Essex, and Norfolk. 

FORDRED. An ancient personal name. 

FORDYCE. A parish in Banffshire. 

FORECAST. Quasi/or^A-cflW^; one cast 
forth ; a foundling ? 

FORECASTLE. Probably local, and 
having no connection with a ship. 

FOREHEAD. Local. See Head. 

FORES. Probably Forres in Moray- 

FOREST. FORREST. From residence 
in one. Forest is, however, the specific 
name of places in cos. Durham, Brecon, 



officer made by letters patent under the 
great seal, and sworn to preserve vert and 
venison in the forest ; and to attend upon 
the wild beasts within his bailiwick; to at- 
tach oflfenders there either in Vert or Veni- 
son, and to present the same at the courts of 
the Forest, that they may be punished ac- 
cording to the quantity and quality of their 
offences aud trespasses. Some Foresters 
have their office in fee, paying to the king 
a fee-farm rent." Manwode, cited in Nel- 
son's Laws of Game. In allusion to the 
origin of the name, many families of Forester 
bear bugle-horns in their anns. Several 
Forestarii are found in Domesday. 

FORGE. From residence at one ; a local 
synonym of Smith. 


The president or chief man of a company. 
Bailey. Still applied to the spokesman of 
a jury, and to the chief of a body of work- 

FORMBY. A chapelry in Lancashire. 

FORRETT. Possibly from Fr./ortV— a 

FORSAITH. See Forsyth. 

FORSCUTT. SeeFoskett. 


119 FOX 

FORSTER. A curt pronunciation of 
Forester. There are many families of this 
name of separate origins. The Durham 
family were characterized as The Friendly 


FORSYTH. Probably from Forcett 
(whence also Fawcett) a township in the 
wapentake of Gillingwest, N.R. of York- 

FORT. Fr. Le Fort. Strong, powerful. 

FORTESCUE. Doubtless from O. Fr. 

foHe esc'u, " strong shield," referring proba- 
bly to such a weapon carried by the pri- 
mary bearer of the name. This, together 
with the punning motto of the family, 
" JFhrte Scutum salus dnciim" ' a strong 
shield is the safety of commanders,' doubt- 
less led to the fabrication of the legend that 
the founder of the family, one Sir Richard 
le Fort, at the battle of Hastings was the 
safety of his commander, by bearing a 
gtroiig shield in front of him. K we may 
trust genealogists of the old school, the field 
of Hastings witnessed many wonderful 
scenes and exploits ; but as the Norman 
Duke was quite able to carry his own shield 
we may dismiss this story to the regions of 
romance. The Norman origin of the family 
is, however, pretty certain, and their resi- 
dence at Winston in Devonshire, temp. 
King John, seems fully proved. Shirley's 
Noble and Gentle Men. If the name origi- 
nated in any military incident, it is more 
likely to have taken place in the Holy 
Land, where two members of the family 
are said to have fought under Coeur de 

FORTH. A well-known river of Scot- 
land ; also a village in Lancashire. 

FORTNER. A combatant in a tilting 
match. See Eng. Siuti. i. 109. 

FORTUNE. A place in Haddington- 

used by the Scot, poet Douglas, in the sense 
of brave. Fr. fort. Hence these names 
probably refer to the courage of their 
original o\vners. 

FORWARD. May refer to disposition, 
but is more probably the /<?r(9-n'ar<i, or guard 
— an advanced sentinel. 

FOSBROKE. A township in Stafford- 
shire, hodie Forsbroke. The family were 
.settled in Northamptonshire temp. Rich. II. 

FOSCUE. A corruption of Fortescue. 

parish in Lincolnshire. John de Focedik 
occurs in that shire temp. Edw. I. H.R. 

FOSKETT. Probably from the ancient 
manor of Foscott, co. Bucks, or from Fors- 
cote, a parish co. Somerset. 

FOSS. FOSSE. The ditch of a fortified 
place. Conf. De la Fosse, and Ditch. 

FOSSETT. The same as Fawcett and 
Forsyth, which see. 

FOSSEY. A Fosse-way, or ancient forti- 
fication of earth. 

FOSTER. Sometimes a contraction of 
Forester: but there is an origin at least 
equally probable, viz: fosterer, one who 
feeds and has the charge of children instead 
of their parents. "When a gesithcund- 
man left his land, he was at liberty to take 
away his Reeve, his Smith, and his child's 
Fosterer. Laws of Ina, King of Wessex. 
Thorpe, i. 145. Archasologia, xxxiii. 277. 

FOTHER. Apparently an ancient Scan- 
dinavian personal name, to which probably 
we owe the local names and surnames, 
Fotherby, Fothergill, Fotheringham, Fo- 
therley, &c. 

FOTHERBY. A parish in Lincoln- 

FOTHERESTGHAM. A place in the 
parish of Inverarity, co. Forfar. 

FOULGER. A-Sax./oZ^ere, a follower, 
an attendant, a servant, a free-man who 
had not a house of his own, but who was 
the retainer of some " heorth-faest," or 
house-keeper. Bosworth. 

FOULIS. The ancestor of the baronet 
was in great favour with king James VI. of 
Scotland, whom he accompanied into Eng- 
land. The name is probably derived from 
one of the two parishes of Perthshire now 
called Fowlis-Easter and Fowlis-Wester. 
In charters it is latinized De Foliis. 

FOULKES. The personal name, Fulco 
or Fulke, through the Fr. Foulques. 

F0ULSHA3I. A town in Norfolk. 

FOUND. This name was given to a 
foundling at Doncaster not many genera- 
tions since. Eng. Sum. ii. 18. The cor- 
responding name Inventus formerly existed 
there. Ibid. 

FOUNTAIN. From residence near one 
— like the Fr. De la Fontaine. 

FOURDRINIER. O. Fr. " The blacke 
tliorne that beareth sloes ; also the wild or 
mountain plumme tree." Cotgrave. The 
surname is analogous to our indigenous 
Thome, Hawthorne, &c. 

FOURMY. Fr. fourmi—aji ant; 
bably allusive to industry. 

FOURNIER. Fr. A baker or furnace- 

FOURNISS. Furness, co. Lancaster. 

FOWELL. The same as Fowle. 

FOWKE. FOWKES. See Foulkes. 

FOWLE. A bird of any species. Le 

Fowle. H.R. 
FOWLER. A bird-catcher ; a destroyer 

of birds by any method, whether with net, 

bird-bolt, or " fowling-piece." Le Fowelere. 


FOWLES. FOWLS. See Foulis. 

FOX. FOXE. 1. From the animal, 
like Wolf, Bear, Boar, &c. Le Fox. H.R. 





2. In some cases it may be connected with 
the Yorkshire family of Fawkes, and if so 
with the Nonnan Vaux or De Vallibus. 

FOXALL. FOXELL. See Foxhall. 

FOXHALL. A parish in Suffolk. 

FOXLEY. FOXLEE. Parishes, &c., 
in cos. Norfolk, Northampton, and Wilts. 

FOXTON. Parishes, &c., in cos. Cam- 
bridge, Durham, and Leicester. 

FOY. A parish in co. Hereford. 

FOYSTER. An evident corruption of 
Forester, resulting from mispronunciation 
of the letter R. 

FRAIN. See Freyne. 

FRAMPTON. Parishes, &c., in cos. 
Dorset, Gloucester, Lincoln, «fec. The 
Framptons of the first-named county have 
resided at Moreton from 1385. Shirley's 
Noble and Gentle Men. 

FRANCE. From the country. 

FRANCIS. Not from the personal name, 
which is of too recent introduction ; but as 
in the H.R., Le Franceys, Le Franseys, 
Le Fraunceys, " the Frenchman." 

FRANEY. See Freyne. 


nursename Frank stands for Francis, Fran- 
ciscus, and this may be in some instances 
the origin of the surname. Lc Frank, 
however, appears in H.R,, and may mean 
either "the free," an enfranchised man; 
or a " Franc," by nation. 

FRANKHAM. I find no such place as 
Frankham, and the name seems not to be 
local, but the old Fr. Fraunchumme (homo 
liber) " a free man." The name is so 
written in H.R. See under Freeman. 

FR ANKL AND. Sometimes a corruption 
of Franklin. 

FRANKLIN. In the H.R. Franckleyn, 
Frankelain (with and without the prefix 
Le), Franklanus, &c. Halliwell's definition 
is " a large freeholder." Properly the son 
or descendant of a vilein, who had become 
rich; but the tenn was also applied to 
fanners and country gentlemen of incon- 
siderable property. Chaucer's description, 
however, makes the Franklin a much more 
important personage. See Eng. Sum., i. 

FRANKOK. H.R. The personal name 
Ih'atie occurs in Domesd., and this seems 
to be its diminutive. 

FRANKS. See Frank. 

FRANKTON. A parish in co. War- 

ERASER. " Of the Norman origin of 
the Frasers it is impossible for a moment to 
entertain any doubt." Skene's Highlanders, 
ii. 311. Down to the reign of Robert Bruce 
they appear to have remained in the southern 
counties of Scotland, though afterwards 
they removed to the North, and assumed 
the dignity of a clan. The advocates of 

their Celtic origin derive the name from 
Frith-siol, " forest race," Dixon. In the 
Ragman Roll it is spelt Fresar, Frizel, 
Freshele, Frisele, and Frisle. Ibid. Frisell 
occurs in the so-called Battel Roll, and an 
ancient fief near Neufchatel, in Normandy, 
was called Fresles. 

A perpetuity of Frasers is promised to 
Philorth (the estate of Fraser, Lord Sal- 
toun), by the following rhyme : — 

" As lanjf as there's a cock in the North, 
Therell be a Fraser in Philorth." 
Chambers' Popular Rhymes of Scotland. 

The following anecdote is given by Mr. 
Dixon. Surnames, preface, p. xviii. : — 

"An Irish pentleman once told me that in his 
youth the Fra.ser Fencihles were quartered near his 
father's residence, and that lie had many times heard 
the roll called. It commenced Donald Fraser, senior; 
Donald Fraser, junior ; Donald Fraser, Baine ( White); 
Donald Fraser, Ruadh (Red); Donald F'raser, Buidhe 
{Yellotc -haired) ; Donald Fraser, Dubh (Black); 
Donald Fraser, No. 1 ; Donald Fraser, No. 2 ; and so 
on to Donald Fraser, No. 18., before a new baptismal 
name appeared." 

FRATER. A latinization of Brother. 

FREARSON. Perhaps "Friar's son," 
the son of a friar, anciently yfritten /rere. 

FRECHEVILLE. The family descended 
from Ralph Fitz-Herbert, a tenant in capite 
in Derbyshire and the neighbouring coun- 
ties. Lysons* Derb. The name, which is 
latinized De Frisca-villa, may have been 
derived from Francheville, near Argentan 
in Normandy. Camden considers Fretwell 
a corruption of it. 

FREDERICK. The personal name. 
Frederic was a tenant in Kent prior to the 
making of Domesday. 

FREE. Under the feudal system, one 
who was not in servile condition ; the same 
as Freeman, which see. Le Free. H.R. 

FREEBODY. See under Body. 

FREEBORN. Under the feudal law, 
one whose parents were not in a state of 
villenage. Freeburn is, however, the name 
of a i)arish in Scotland, Tlie Friebemus 
of Domesd. and the Frebem of the H.R. 
point rather to an ancient baptismal 

FREELAND. Perhaps local, though 
the place does not occur. In the H.R. it is 
Frelond, without prefix. 

FREELOVE. In all probability the 
same as the A-Sax. name Frealaf. (Fergu- 
son.) Frelove. H.R. 

FREEM AN. Fremond is an A-Sax . per- 
sonal name; but this surname is more pro- 
bably derived from the social condition. 
" A Freeman (liber homo), is one distin- 
guished from a slave; that is, born or 
made free." Jacob, Law Diet. In the 
early days of feudalism two neighl)ours 
bearing some common Christian name 
would be distinguished by epithets denot- 
ing their rcs|)ective conditions, as John le 
Freeman and John le Bonde, and these 
epithets would often become family names. 
In the H.R. we have not only many Le 
Fremans, but also one Matilda Frewoman, 




and an Agnes Frewif, or free wife, prolmbly 
the wife of a bondman. The name also 
occurs there in the fonns of Franchome and 
Framichomme. Also one who has received 
the freedom of any corporation. 

FREEMANTLE is latinized Frigidum- 
Mantellum, " cold cloak," which is suffi- 
ciently absurd. It should be Frieze-mantle, 
a cloak oi frieze or Friesland cloth ; as we 
now say, a Flushing coat, a Guernsey shirt, 
Nankin trowsers, &c. (Dixon). 

FREERE. Fr.frere, a brother; also a 
friar, which Chaucer writes /fere. In the 
H.R., LeFrere. 

FREEZE. Possibly a native of Fries- 

FREESTOXE. Perhaps local, from 
Frieston, a Lincolnshire parish ; or perhaps 
a modification of Frithestan, the A-Sas. 
personal name. 

FREETH. See Frith. 

FREKE. FRECK. 1 . O.-Eng., a man, 
a fellow. Halliwell. Also an epithet; 
quick, eager, hasty ; firm, powerful, brave. 

" lyrek as a fiiyre in the flj-nt." 

Thornton Romances, p. 234. 
•• We have foughten in faithe by yone flresche strandez, 
With Xhefrekkeste folke that to thi too lanjcez." 

Morte Arthure (quoted by Halliwell). 
" This day a man is fresche and /ryi-e," 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. (Ibid). 

2. An 0. Germ, personal name; perhaps 
the same in origin as Fricker. 

FRENCH. From the country. Le 
Frefisch. H.R. See Francis. The Frenches 
of Frenchgrove, co. Mayo, are said to have 
sprung from Robert Fitz- Stephen de France, 
who accompanied Stronglww into Ireland 
temp. Henry II., and he is said to have 
been a descendant of one Theophilus de 
France, a follower of William L at the 
Conquest. B.L.G. 

FRERE. Fr. A brother. 

FRERRY. A * nurse-name ' of Frede- 
rick. Camden. 

FRESHYILLE. See Frecheville. 

FRESHWATER. A parish in the Isle 
of Wight. 

FRETWELL. Said by Camden to be 
a corruption of the Norman De Freche- 
ville, but is more probably derived from 
Fritwell, a parish in Oxfordshire. 

FREVILLE. A place between Ste. 
Mere Eglise and Valognes, in Normandy. 
It gave its name to a family celebrated 
both in that duchy and in England. Mem. 
Soc. Ant. Normandie, 1825. De Frivile. 

FREW. A-Sax. freo, free — having 
liberty or authority. 

FREWEN. FREWIN. "Is manifestly 
as old as the worship of Frea," the Teu- 
tonic Venus. Edinb. Rev., April, 1855. It 
occurs as the fourth from Woden in the 
genealogj' of the Northumbrian kings. Its 
A -Sax. form is Frcawin, signifying *' dear 

or devoted to Frea." Ferguson. Several 
tenants prior to the Domesd. survey bore 
it^ as Frauuin, in Sussex, Frauuinus, in 
Devonshire, and Freowinus, in Suffolk. 

FREWER. A free-man. See Frew, and 
the termination er. 

FREYNE. O. Fr. fresne^ an ash-tree, 
from residence near one. So the modem 
Fr. surname Dufresne and our own Ash. In 
Norman times this name had the variations 
Fresnel, Fresnay, Frenne, &c. 

FRIAR. See Ecclesiastical Surnames. 

FRICKF]R. A-Sax. fricca, a crier or 
preacher — one who proclaims. 

FRIDAY. From the day of the week ; 
from some event which occurred to the 
original bearer on that day. So Munday, 
Christmas, Pentecost. This name is found 
in the H.R. in its modem orthography. 

FRIEND. FREND. Probably charac- 
teristic of the original bearer. Le Frend. 

FRIENDSHIP. This Devonshire name 
is probably local, the termination being a 
corruption of h^tpe. 

FREER. 1. See Fryer. 2. *' Many friars 
at the Reformation renounced their vows of 
chastity, married, and became fathers of 
families ; from one of them descend the 
Friers of Melrose parish, Roxburghshire." 
Folks of Shields. 

FRISBY. FRISBEE. A parish and a 
chapelry, co. Leicester. 

FRISELL. Probably a native of Fries- 

FRISTON. A parish in Sussex. 

FRITH. See under FeU. 

FROBISHER. A fiirbisher or poUsher 
of metals. Fr. fourbmeur, an artizan who 
polishes and mounts swords ; a sword 
cutler. Boyer. In the Promptorium we 
read, " Foorbyschowre, emginator," one 
who removes mst. The transposition of 
the and the r has many analogies. The 
name Le Furbur in the H.R. is probably 

FROCKE. Analogous to Mantell, Cloake, 
FR0DSHA3I. A parish in Cheshire. 

FROG. One John Frog flourished, ap- 
propriately enough, under King Edward 
Longshanks, in the green pastures of New- 
ington, CO. Oxford. H.R. ii. 761 ; andBurke's 
Armory gives the ensigns armorial oiFrogg ; 
but whether the name has descended, or 
rather leaped down, to modem times, I am 
unable to determine. 

FROGGAT. A township in Derby- 

FROGMORTON. A corruption of 

FROISSART. The surname of the 
worthy old chronicler was borne much 




earlier by ■Willelmus Froissart, a Domesd. 
tenant in co. Bedford. It is evidently con- 
nected with the Fr. froisser, and means a 
crasher or bruiser — no improper name 
either for a follower of the Conqueror, or 
for the historian of Oresci and Poictiers. 

FROST. Frost is the name of a dwarf 
in the Scandinavian mythology, and our 
nursery hero, *' Jack Frost," as Mr. Fer- 
guson suggests, may be derived from that 
source. One Alwin Forst was a tenant in 
CO. Hants before Domesd., and his name by 
a slight and common transposition would 
become Frost. The H.R. have many Frosts 
without prefix. 

FROUDE. FROWD. The epithet 
Frode, wise, or much-knowing, was applied 
to more than one eminent Northman. See 
Laing's Chronicle of the Sea-Kings of Nor- 
way, 1. 26 and 29. In Domesd. we find a 
Frodo, described as " frater Abbatis" (i.e., 
of St. Edmundsbury), and he had a son 
Gilbert, called " filius Frodonis," or Fitz- 

FROYLE. A parish in Hampshire, 
which had owners of the same name in 
1166. Lib. Nig. Scac. 

FRY. Old English ior free ; in the H.R. 
Le Frye and Le Frie ; the same as Free and 
Freeman, which see. Also with regard to 
disposition — free, noble. 

" The child that was so/ry." 

Rembrun, quottd by Halliwell. 

FRYER. A-Norm. Brother. Kelham. 

FUBBS. A corruption of Forbes ? 

a fowl. In some instances the name has 
taken the more modern form of Fowle. 

rishes in COS. Warwick, Oxon, &c. 

FULFORD. The family assert a Saxon 
origin, and are said to have held Folefort, 
now Great Fulford, co. Devon, temp. Wil- 
liam I. William de F., who held the estate 
temp. Richard I. is the first ascertained 
ancestor. His lineal descendant, Baldwin 
Fulford, Esq., still possesses it. Shirley's 
Noble and Gentle Men. There are also 
places called Fulford in cos. York and 

FULHAM. A town in Surrey. 

FULKE. The A-Norm. personal name 


An amorous person — " full of love "? 

FULLER. One who thickens and 
whitens cloth. The H.R. forms of the 
name are Le Fuller and Le Fullere, and the 
latinization Fullo. 

larton is a burgh and estate at Irvine in 
Ayrshire, to which place the family is 
traced in 1371. B.L.G. 

FULL J AMES. A corruption of Fol- 

FULLWAY. FuUaway, a tything in 

FULMER. A parish in Bucks. 

FULTON. An extinct border village in 
CO. Roxburgh. 

FULWELL. A township in Durham. 

FULWOOD. A township in co. Lan- 
caster, for many generations the seat of the 

FUNNELL. This name, though very 
common in Sussex, is, I think, rarely 
met with beyond the limits of that county. 
I will hazard a conjecture that it is a cor- 
ruption of Fontenelle, now St. Wandrille- 
sur- Seine, in Normandy, an ancient barony, 
and the site of a famous monastery, near 
Caudebec. The corruption may have taken 
place thus : — Fontenelle, Fonnell, Funnell. 

FUNNS. See Eng. Sum. i. 66. 

FUNTNER. " Fontainier or Fontenier 
(celui qui a soin des eaux et des fontaines), 
water bailiff"; he that has the charge of 
springs." Boyer's Diet. The Le Fontur of 
the H.R. is probably identical. 

FURBER. See Frobisher. 

FURBISHER. See Frobisher. 

FURLONG. See Furlonger. 

FURLONGER. A furlong, A-Sax. 

furlang, is a division of a common or 
tenantry field. It may have been the duty 
of the "Furlonger " to attend to the boun- 
daries of such divisions. 

FURlVnNGER. A cheese-maker. See 
Firminger. A Rob. Formagier, an Ansel m 
le Formgir, and a Godfrey le Furmagerare 
found in H.R. 

FURNACE. Probably from Furness, 
CO. Lancaster, celebrated for its fine mo- 
nastery ; perhaps, however, from residence 
near some great iron-furnace, before the 
existing method of smelting that metal was 

FURNEAUX. A Norman family who 
came either from Foumeau-sur-Baise, near 
Falaise, or from Foumeaux-sur-Vire, near 
St. Lo. They gave the suffix to Pelham- 
Fumeux, co. Herts. 

FURNELL. See Furneaux. 

FURNER. Fr.foumier, a baker or fur- 
nace man, Foumier, Dufour, &c., are 
common Fr. surnames. 

FURNESS. FURNISS. Furness, co. 
Lancaster; but see Furnace. 

FURNIVALL. Gerard de Furnival 
came from Normandy into England temp. 
Richard I., and accompanied that monarch 
to the Holy Land. His successors were 
barons by tenure and writ for several des- 
cents. Foumeville, the place in Normandy 
from wliich the name appears to have been 
derived, is in the neighbourhood of Hon- 

FURSDON. An estate in tbe parbh of 




Cadbury, co. Devon. From the days of 
Henry III., if not from an earlier period, 
the family have resided at the place from 
whence the name is derived. Shirley's 
Noble and Gentle Men. 

FURSE. An estate in the parish of 
Spreyton was possessed by a family of the 
same name, temp. Richard I. They claimed 
descent from the Ferse of Domesd., but the 
local origin is sufficient. See B.L.G. 

FURZE. Furse, Ferse, an ancient per- 
sonal surname. Domesd. 

FUSMAN". Perhaps foot-man. Germ. 
fusz, foot. 

FUSSELL. Said to be the Italian 
Fuseli. Fussel. H.R. 

FUST. This name appears in the ar- 
chives of Switzerland, Germany, &;c., in 
early times, in the various forms of Faus- 
tus, Faust, Vaust, First, Furst, Futz, &;c. 
Faust or Fust, the eminent printer of 

Metz, was about contemporary with the 
first appearance of the name in Sussex, but 
whether there was any connection between 
the English and the continental name there 
is no evidence to show. See Kimber's Ba- 
ronetage, ii. 255. 

FYFE. FYFFE. See Fife. 

FYLER. Probably a file-maker ; or per- 
haps a spinner, from the Yr.fil, a thread. 

FYNES. See Fiennes. 

FYNHAGH. See VinaU. 

FYNN. See Finn. 

FYREBRAND. Possibly refers to a man 
of " incendiary " character, but is more 
likely an ancient inn sign. 

FYSSHE. An O. Eng. orthography of 

FYTHELER. A fiddler. Le Fytheler. 
Non. Inq. 

FYYIE. A parish in co. Aberdeen. 


GtABB. The Lond. Direct, shews us 
several traders gifted with tliis patronymic, 
which Ferguson thinks derivable from the 
O. High German gchan^ to give. It is more 
probably a nick-name of Gabriel. Or it 
may relate to loquacity, for the A-Norm. 
(/flfWi'r means to jest or talk idly. Wick- 
lift'e uses gabbing in the sense of lying and 
jesting ; and in the H.R. we have Le 
Gabber as a surname. 

GABBETT. The Gabbetts of Cahirline, 
CO. Limerick, trace an English lineage to 
the year 1487. The name is probably iden- 
tical with Garbett and Garbutt. 

Possibly a corruption of 



GABRIEL. A personal name borrowed 
from the celestial hierarchy. 

GABY. In many dialects a silly fellow. 
More probably a nick-name of Gabriel. 

GAD. GADD. A- Sax. gad, a goad or 
spear. Halliwell quotes from an old MS. : 
" And hys axes also snu'tcn, 
With gaddea of stele that made them to betjii." 

GADSBY. Gaddesby, a parish in co. 


den, two parishes in co. Herts. 

GAEL. The Gaels of Cliarlton-Kings 
CO. Gloucester, have written themselves, at 
various periods, "Galle, Gale, Gael, and 
originally De Gales." B.L.G. K this be 
correct, the family may have been of Welsh 
origin in Anglo-Norman times, when that 
country was known as Galles or Gales. 

GAFFER. A provincialism for Grand- 

GAGE. The oldest copy of the so-called 
Battel Abbey Roll mentions a De Gaugy 
or Gage as having come into England at 
the time of the Conquest. He settled in 
the forest of Dean, and his descendants 
were ennobled. Banks, i. 89. *' Modem 
Heralds trace the genealogy of the family 
of Gage, now flourishing in the rank of the 
peerage, from this ancient stock." Ibid. 
p. 87. 

GAICOTE. The first of this name was 
probably a medieval fop. 

GAIN^. GAINES. Gain. H.R. 

GAINER. Probably a corruption of 

ancient Surrey family are alleged, I know 
not on what authority, to have originated 
at Gaii\fordy a great parish in co. Durham. 



If so, their migration southward must haye 
been early, as they were in their southern 
habitat temp. Edwd. II. 

GAIRDNER. A local pronunciation of 

GAIRNS. The Gairn is a small river of 

GAISFORD. The same as Gainsford. 

GAIT. See Gate. 

GALABIX. Perhaps the same as 

GALBRAITH. A Celtic family of re- 
mote antiquity, formerly settled at Balder- 
noch in Stirlingshire. " The Galbraiths 
are called in the Gelticlanguage Breatanuich 
or Clann a Breatanuich, i.e. Britons, or the 
children of the Briton. They were once a 
great name in Scotland, according to the 
following lines : — 

" Bhreatanuich, o'n Talla dhearg 
Hailse sir Alba do shlDinneadh." 
That is :— 

" Galbraiths from the Red Tower, 
Noblest of Scottish surnames." 

Fraser's Statist. Account. 

GALE. A Scottish Highlander. Gale. 
H.R. See, however, Gael. 

GALER. Perhaps the same as Gaylord. 

GALL. An ancient personal name. Two 
saints GiiUe occur in the Roman Calendar, 
one of whom was a Scotch abbot. 

GALL AND. The name of a locality un- 
known to me, whence belike GuUon. 

GALLANT. R.G. 16. Brave in war. 
Galaunt, H.R. 

GALLARD. See Gaylord. H.R. GaUard. 

GALLAWAY. See GaUoway. 

GALLON. O. Norse gallirL, crazy. Fer- 
guson. The H.R. forms are Galien, Galiun, 
Gallon, Galun, and Galeyn. 

GALLOP. Probably local— the last 
syllable being a corruption of norE — Gal- 

GALLOWAY. An extensive district 
forming the S.W. comer of Scotland. The 
surname is written in the H.R., Galaway 
and Galewey. 

GALLOWS. From residence near a 
place of public execution ; or perhaps the 
hangman himself. 

GALEY. GALLEY. Scandinavian 
surnames, which Ferguson deduces from 
gdli, crazy, 

GALPIN. A corruption of Mac Alpin, 
thus Mac Calpin, Calpin, Galpin. See under 

GALT. O. Norse galH; O. Eng. gait; 
a boar pig, like the lloman Verres. The 
word is still retained in the North of Eng- 
land. See HalliwelL 

GALTON. A small hamlet in Dorset- 
shire, which was held by the De Galtona at 
an early petiod. 



town of Galway in Ireland — one of the very 
few local surnames that have originated in 
that country. The family are a branch of 
De Burgh. John de B., younger brother of 
Ulick de B., ancestor of the Marquis of 
Clanricarde, having accredited the bills of 
the citizens of Galway, was commonly 
known as Sir John de Galway. From this 
personage descended the extinct baronets 
Gallwey, and the existing Galweys of Lota, 
CO. Cork. 

GAMBLE. Gamel occurs both in 
Domesday and in the H.R. In the latter 
*Fils Gamel' is also found. A.S. ganwl or 
gamel, old, aged. It is compounded with 
some Domesd. names, as Gamel-bar, * old 
bear' — Gamel-carle, 'old male,' — both in 
CO. York. Gamblesby in Cumberland, 
probably derived its name from a Danish 

GAMBLING. H.R. Gamelin and De 

GAJSIE. Gam was a Yorkshire tenant 
prior to Domesday. 

f^W" GAME. A corruption of the termina- 
tion HAM, when a G precedes; thus, 
Walkinghara becomes Walkingame 
(well known to school-boys), and All- 
ingham, Allengame. 

GAMMON. Apparently an old personal 
name. Gamen, Gamon, &c., are found in 
H.R. without prefix. 

GAND. A corruption of Ghent or 

GANDEE. SeeGandy. 

GANDER. The bird. The name of the 
celebrated Genseric, the Vandal chief, is be- 
lieved to be Teutonic, and to signify like the 
modern Germ, gamerich, a gander. Why 
(as Prof. Donaldson remarks) a great war- 
rior should bear such a name is not very 
obvious ; " but, if anyone feels disposed to 
smile at such a title, he may correct the im- 
pression by recollecting that names of birds 
are not always imposed on the principles 
suggested by our modem associations." 
Cambridge Essays, 1 8aG, p. 42. The professor 
proceeds to exemplify his observation in 
Attila's chief opponent, Aetius, 'the aquiline,' 
synonymous with OrlofT, the name of the 
Russian plenipotentiary at the Congress of 
Paris. In like manner Woronzow, a name 
equally well known in recent history, means 
"raven like;" and the classical as well as 
the modem nomenclature of families sup- 
plies us with ntiraerous analogies. It must 
not be forgotten, however, that gandr in O. 
Norse means a wolf. 

GANDY. Ferguson says, O. Norse 
gandr, a wolf. 

GANT. See Gaunt. Le Gant and De 
Gant. H.U. 

GANTLETT. See Gauntlett. 

GAPP. From residence noar somQ gap 
or pass. In the chalky cliflTs of Sussex 
many places are so called, as Birliug Gap, 




Crowlink Gap, Cow Gap— some of which, 
were defended by iron portcullises. The 
original Mr. Gapp was probably stationed 
near one of these. Gappe and Del Gap. 

GARBETT. See Garbutt. 

G ARBUTT. From the Flemish personal 
name Gherbode. Georbodus, a Fleming, 
was created earl of Chester by the Con- 
queror, and a Gerbodo, probably of that 
nation, occurs in the Domesd. of York- 

GARD. Ft. A guard. See Ward. Le 
Gard and Le Garder. H.R 

GARDEN. From residence in or near 
one. See Gardener. 

GARDENER. The occupation. Its forms 
in the H.R. are Le Gardener and Le Gardi- 
ner ; also De Gardmo and De Gardinis. Its 
principal modern forms are Gardiner, which 
according to Camden's joke denotes the gen- 
tleman ! (E. Sum. i. 118) and the more 
plebeian Gardner : Gardener itself is rare. 

GARDINER. See Gardener. 

GARDNER. See Gardener. 

GARDYNE. The O. Scottish form of 
Garden. It is asserted that the Gardynes, 
Jardynes, Gardens, and Jerdans are one and 
the same family. The Gairdynes of that 
Ilk, CO. Forfar, are described by a writer of 
IGGO or 1670, as a very ancient race. 

GARFORD. A chapelry in Berkshire. 

GARLAND. A local surname, but I 
cannot find the place. John de Garlande, 
author of the Dictionarius, flourished in 
the XII. and XIII. cent. Though a pro- 
fessor at Paris, he was an Englishman by 
birth. See Wright's Vocab. p. 1 20. Ger- 
land, the first mathematical writer in Eng- 
land after the Conquest, was living in 1086, 
but whether he was of English birth is un- 
certain. Garlond, Garland, and Gerlaundes 
occur in the H. R., without prefix. 

The family have long possessed lands in Essex, 
Surrey, Lincolnshire, and Sussex. James Garland, 
Esq., who was bom in 176S, gave to his daughter 
and heiress "a property at I'cnlmrst, in the last- 
named coimty, which was granted to the family by 
King John, and of which the original grant is the only 
title deed." B.L.G. 

GARLTCK. In the H.R., Garlec, which 
looks like a sobriquet : otherwise it might 
be a contraction of Garlwick, the name of a 

GARMAN. A-Sax. gar, a spear, and 
man. A spearman. 

GARMENT. A corruption of the A- 
Sax. personal name Garmund. Cod. Dipl. 

GARNAULT. A French Protestant 
family, who settled in England at the Re- 
vocation of the Edict of Nantes. 

GARNER. 1. A granary or storehouse. 
From residence at one. 2. A small river 
tributary to the Wye. 

GARNET. GARNETT. Said to be a 
corruption of Gernet. 

GARNHAM. A contraction of Garden- 
ham, " The garden homestead." 


GARRETT. GARRATT. It has been 
decided legally (!) that GaiTett and Gerald 
are but one name. Jacob, Law Diet., title 
Misnomer. But Garrett is a hamlet in 
Surrey, famous for its mock-mayor. 

G ARRICK. A parish united with Heck- 
ington, CO. Lincoln. David Garrick is said 
to have been of French refugee extrac- 

GARRISON. A corruption of Garriston, 
a township of Yorkshire. 

GARROD. GARROOD. See Garrett. 

G ARROW. Probably local ; but Arthur 
derives it from the British ^aw, fierce, keen, 

GARSTANG. A town in Lancashire. 

GARSTIN. The O. Norse personal 
name, Geirsteinn, which is found in the 
Landnamabok. Ferg. 

GARTU. A yard, or any small enclosure. 
Also places in cos. Montgomery and Gla- 
morgan. It is a prefix to several names of 

GARTON. Two parishes in co. York. 

GARTSHORE. An estate in co. Perth, 
which has still owners of the same name. 

GARVEY. The Irish family deduce 
themselves from the ancient monarchs of 
that island, through Garbhe or Garvey, that 
is " The Warlike," Prince of Morisk, co. 
Mayo, in the XV. cent. B.L.G. 

GAR VIE. See Garvey. 

in CO. Hereford. 

of Gaacony, the French province, which 
being in the possession of England, during 
a portion of the XTV. cent., supplied this 
country with many new families and names. 
See Ducatus Leodiensis, p. 181, for the 
twenty spellings of this name. The heads 
of the family were all Williams, the coura- 
geous Chief-Justice who sent Prince Henry 
to prison being one, 

GASELEE. See Gazeley. 

GASKELL. Arthur says, Gael, gaisgeil, 

GASKIN. GASKOIN. See Gascoigne. 

GASSON. Fr. gargon, a boy, or atten- 

GASTON. 1. A grassy enclosure. A- 
SsLX.,fffers, grass, and tun, an enclosure. 
De la Garston. H.R. 2. A baptismal 
name, as Gaston do Foix. 

GATACRE. A family of great antiquity, 
said to have been established at Gatacre, 




CO. Salop (where they still reside) by 
Edward the Confessor. The pedigree, how- 
ever, is not traced beyond the time of Henry 
III. Shirley's Noble and Gentle Men. 

GATE. From residence near either the 
gate of a fortified town, or of a chase, forest, 
or the like. Its medieval forms are Ate 
Gate and Atte Giite, which have since the 
XV. cent, modified to Agate, Gater, and es- 
pecially to Gates, now one of the commonest 
of surnames. In North Britain gate is 
equivalent to way; as in the phrase, "Gang 
your Gate " for " Go your way." See 
also Northgate, Southgate, &c. De la Gate, 
de Gate, and Le Gater, occur in the H.R. 

GATEHOUSE. From residence at the 
gatehouse of a monastery, castle, or town. 

GATER. See Gate, and the termination 


GATES. See Gate. 

GATH. A corruption of Garth. 


gatherer or collector of coals ? or of coles 
(cabbage) 1 

GATHERGOOD. As the opposite name 
Scattergood exists, I suppose this must 
be taken literally for a person of acquisitive 
and thrifty habits. Thomas Gadregod 
occurs in the Deeds of Battel Abbey, XIII. 

GATUS. A corruption of Gatehouse. 

GATWARD. Gate-ward, a porter or 

GAUDY. May relate to foppery in 
attire, but is more likely to be of local 
origin. See Gawdy. 

GAUNT. Like John, fourth son of Ed- 
ward III., some families of this surname 
evidently derive it from the town of Gaunt, 
now Ghent, in Flanders. De Gaunt and 
Le Qaunt are both found in the H.R. ; the 
latter form is probably from the personal 
I)eculiarity of the first bearer. Shakspeare 
makes John of Gaunt play upon his own 
name in Richard II. in this sense : — 
" Oh, how my name befits my composition 1 

Old Gaunt, indeed, and gaunt in being old ; 

Within me grief has kept a tedious fast ; 

And who abstains from meat that is not gannt ? 

For sleeping England long time have I watched ; 

Watching breeds leanness ; leanness is all gaunt." 

Gilbert de Gand or Gant, a great Domesd. 
tenant, was son of Baldwin, Earl of Flan- 
ders, whose sister William the Conqueror 
married. Dugdale, i. 400. 

GAUNTLETT. An iron glove. Perhaps 
adopted from some incident of war. 

GAUSSEN. The family migrated to 
England at the Rev. of the Edict of Nantes. 
The last survivor of the French line, the 
Clievalier de Gaussen, long ambassador at 
the court of Berlin, died at Paris about the 
year 1851. Another branch is resident at 
Geneva. B.L.G. 

GAVIN. See Gawen. 

GAWDY. Local. Gawdy Hall, co. 

GAWEN. GAW AN. A Welsh and O. 
Scotch personal name. " The Gawens of 
Norrington, in the parish of Alvideston, 
continued in that place four hundred fifty 
and odd yeares. On the south downe of 
the farme of Broad Chalke is a little barrow 
called Gawen's Barrow, which must bee 
before ecclesiastical lawes were established." 
Aubrey's Nat. Hist. Wiltshire, edit. Britton, 
p. 121. Sir Gawayn is one of the fabulous 
heroes of ancient chivalry, and nephew of 
King Arthur. 

GAY. O. Fr. gai, cheerful, merry. A 
Be Gay is found in H.R. (co. Oxon) ; but 
Le Gai and Le Gey are more common. 

GAYER. Perhaps the Gare of the Wilt- 
shire Domesday. 

GAYLER. A jailor. In the H.R. Le 

Gayeler, Gaylur, and Gayolir. 

GAYLORD. " Has no reference to 
aristocratical gaieties, but means simply 
jovial or jolly." E. Sura. i. 145. See 
Wright's Chaucer, 4364 :— 

s* A prentys dwelled whilom in our dtee, 
And of the craft of vitaillers was he ; 
OayUird he was as goldfjTiche in a schawe, 
Brown as a bery, and a proper felawe." 

Gaillard, as a family name, is well known 
in Normandy, and is borae as an affix by 
the Chateau-Gaillard, and by Gaillard-Bois, 
two communes in the arrondissement of 

GAYMER. Apparently a personal or 
baptismal name, which at an early period 
became a surname. Geoffrey Gaimar, the 
well-known Ang.-Norm. trouvere, or ro- 
mantic poet, bore it about the middle of the 
XII. cent. See Wright's Edit, of his Metr. 
Chron. London, 1850. 

GAYTON. Parishes and places in cos. 
Chester, Norfolk, Northampton, Stafford, 
Lincoln, &c. 

GAY WOOD. A parish in Norfolk. 

GAZE. Mr. Ferguson refers it to an 
Old German personal name, Gaiso, which 
Forstmann derives from gais, ger, a spear. 

GAZELEY. GAZELLE. A paiish in 


GEAR. The origin assigned in Eng. 
Surn. i. 133, is hardly tenable. There is an 
estate so called in the parish of St. Earth, 
CO. Cornwall. 

GEARING. See Geering. 

GEARY. An old personal name. Uxor 
Geri was atcnant-in-chiefinco. Gloucester. 
Domesd. Gery, Geri. Domesd. 

GEDDES. Several places in Scotland 
are called Geddes-hill, Geddeston, Geddes- 
well, &c. Hence Gedde is probably a per- 
sonal name. According to the Statistical 
Account of Scotland, the family of Geddes, 
of Rachan in Peeblesshire, have possessed 
that esUite for 1,300 years I 

GEE. The Celtic Mac Gee, sans Mac. 

GEELE. Dutch. Yellow— probably with 
reference to the bearer's hair or costume. 



GEERE. GEER. See Gear. 

GEERING. The A-Sax. personal name. 
The Domesd. of Hants gives us a Gerin, 
and that of Warwick, a Gerinus. 

GEESON. The anglicised form of Mac 

GELL. The classical name Gellius, 
through the French. 

GEISTESE. A Genoese ? 

GENN. This name, which is Comish, 
and rare, is believed to be the Celtic form 
(or rather root) of Planta-^^/i-ista, broom. 
The G is sounded hard. 

GENOURE. The same as Jenner. 

GENOWER. Seems about half way 
between Genoure and Genoa, but is pro- 
bably neither. 

GENT. Anglo-Norman. Neat; pretty; 
gallant; courteous; noble. Halliwell. Gent 
H.R. Perhaps, however, from the city of 
Ghent in Flanders. The Gents of Moyns 
Park, CO. Essex, were of Wymbush in that 
CO. in 1328, but obtained their present set- 
tlement by marriage with the heiress of 
Moyne, or Moyns, in the following century. 
Morant's Essex, 11. 353. Shirley's Noble 
and Gentle Men. 

GENTLE. From disposition. 

GENTLEMAN. Joh. Gentilman, and 
Nichs. Gentilman occur in H.R. 

GENTRY. Probably local 

GEOFFREY. See Jeffery. 

GEORGE. The personal name. Unlike 
most names of its class, it seems not to have 
given rise to any diminutive or derivative. 

GERARD. A Norman personal name, 
probably identical with Gerald. In the 
H.R. it is written Fil' Gerardi. Tlie baronet's 
family derive their origin from the same 
ancestor as the Dukes of Leinster and many 
other noble houses, viz., from Other, Cas- 
tellan of Windsor, temp. Edw. Confessor, 
whose grandson Gerard, or Gerald, had a 
son William Fitz-Gerard, who founded the 
Cheshire and Lancashire Gerards. The fa- 
mily have possessed Bryn, in the latter 
county, uninterruptedly from temp. Edw. 
III. Courthope's Debrett. 

GERISON. Is used for Margerison at 
Eckington, co. Derby, It is curious that 
at the same place there have been Megsons 
and Moxons — perhaps all descended from 
one and the same Margery. See Female 
Names, &c. 

vianuft; of the same stock ; a near kinsman ; 
thus we say cousin-german for first-cousin. 
As a personal name it is of great antiquity 
in Britain, dating from St. German, the suc- 
cessful opponent of the Pelagian heresy in 
the fifth century. Possibly in some in- 
stances it is derived from the country, like 
French, Irish, &c. 

GERNET. The house of G. of Lanca- 


shire were descended from Sir Roger G., 
hereditary forester of Lancashire, temp. 
Hen. Ill — ^the male representative of a 
great Norman family. Omerod, Misc. Pal. 

GERNON. Robert de Gernon came into 
England with the Conqueror, and his 
descendant, Ralph de Gernon, temp. Hen. 
IL, had two sons : 1. — Ralph, ancestor of 
the Gemons and Cavendishes of England ; 
and 2. — Roger, who accompanied Strong- 
bow into Ireland, and became progenitor of 
the Irish Gemons still subsisting at Ath- 
came Castle, co. Meath. Of the locality of 
Gernon, whence at the Conquest the family 
came, I am ignorant ; but it appears not to 
be in Normandy. Gemun, Gemoun. H. R. 

GERRANS. A parish in Cornwall. 

GERRARD. See Gerard. 

GERRETT. See Gerard. 

GERV AIS. The French form of the per- 
sonal name Gervasius, which we have cor- 
rupted to Jarvis. The family of Gervais of 
Cecil, CO. Tyrone, descend from Jean G. 
of Toumon in Guienne, whose two sons, at 
the Rev. of the Edict of Nantes, fled Into 

GERVIS. See Gervais, Jervis, &c. 

GEST. An old spelling of Guest. 


Diminutives of the Norman personal name 
Gislebertus, or Gilbert. According to B.L.G. 
several of tlie gentry families of this name, 
viz., those of Belmont, co, Somerset ; Al- 
denham, co, Herts ; Tyntesfield, co. Somer- 
set ; and apparently those of Deny, co. 
Cork, are descended from two brothers, 
Gibbe or Gibbes, temp. Richard II. , one of 
whom was settled at Honington, co. War- 
wick, and the other at Fenton, co. Devon. 
Jenkin Gibbes, t^rap. Henry VII,, a scion 
of the house of Fenton, whose descendants 
were of Elmerstone, co, Kent, possessed an 
ancient roll deducing the family from Nor- 
mandy, where they were resident long be- 
fore the Conquest of England, B.L.G. The 
identity of this name with the Fr. DeGuibes 
has not been established, nor is it at aU 


GIBBINGS. See Gilbert. 

See Gilbert. 

GIBBONSON. See Gilbert. 

GIBSON. See Gilbert. 

GIDDEN. A corruption of Gideon. 

parishes in cos. Huntingdon and Suffolk. 

GIDDY. An ancient Comish family, 
formerly written Gedy, Geddey, Gidey, &c. 
Possibly a nurse-name of Gideon. 

GIDEON. The personal name. 

GIDLEY. A parish in Devonshire. 
Gidley Castle, a fragmentary ruin, still be- 
longs to the family. 




GIFFORD. GIFFARD. The old his- 
torical Giffards of Normandy and England 
descended from the De Bollebecs, who were 
connected by marriage with Richard I., 
Duke of Normandy. Walter, son of Osborne 
de Bollebec, though sumamed "Giffard," 
or " the Liberal," seems also to have been 
consej^vative in the acquisition and retention 
of lands; for he got not only the fair domain 
of Longueville, near Dieppe, from Richard 
11. of Normandy, who created him Count 
de Longueville, but also the Earldom of 
Buckingham, with above a hundred manors 
ia various counties of England, from Wil- 
liam I., whom he had accompanied to the 
Conquest of this country. Li Leland's time 
there were four "notable houses" of Giflford 
remaining in England, in the cos. of Devon, 
Southampton, Stafford, and Buckingham. 
At the present time the only one of these 
existing is the Staffordshire family, whose 
ancestor married the heiress of Corbosone, 
temp. King Stephen, and thus became Lord 
of Chillington, which has ever since been 
the abode of his posterity. Shirley's Noble 
and Gentle Men of England. 

GILBART. GILBURD. Corruptions 
of Gilbert. 

GILBERT. A personal name, largely 
introduced at the Norman Conquest, in the 
form of Gislebertus. See Domesd. passim. 
It is not only a very common surname, 
but has given birth to Gibb, Gibbs, Gybbes, 
Gibbard, Gibbings, Gibbonson, Gibson, 
Gill, Gilks, Gilpin, and many others. 

GILDER. The occupation. 

GILDERSLEEVES. This queer name 
is found in the Registrar General's cabinet 
of oddities, and is doubtless identical with 
that which was borne by the Roger Gyld- 
enesleve of the H.R. Did he, or some ances- 
tor, wear sleeves largely embroidered with 

GILES. The baptismal name. 

GILKS. See Gilbert. This name was so 
common in the northern part of Oxford- 
shire in the last century, that, on the enclo- 
sure, in 1774, of some lands in the parish 
of Swalcliffe, it was necessary to describe 
six claimants thus : — 

1. Thomas Adderbury Gilks (probably from 8orao 
connection with the parish of Adderbury). 

2. Thomas Gilks, of the Slat-house (a house covered 
with slate). 

3. Thomas Gilks, at the Vine (a vine covered the 
front of his residence). 

4. Thomas Shoemaker Gilks (from his business). 
6. Thomas Gilks, at the Well (from contiguity to 

the villa;?e well?). 

fl: Tliomas Sweetbriar Gilks (from a sweet-briar or 
eglantine with which his cottage was overgrown). 

At a somewhat earlier period (1764) five Thomas 
Gilks voted at a cont«'»t<;d elcttion in respect of pro- 
perty in the same parisli. Inf. D. D. Hopkj-ns, Esq. 

GILL. 1. See Gilbert. 2. This word 
occurs singly as a surname, and also with 
many compounds, as Asgill, Pickersgill, 
Dowgill, Gilham, Gilby, &c. It either sig- 
nifies a narrow pebbly rivulet in a ravine, 
or is a diminutive of Gillx;rt. According to 
B.L.G. the Gills of Devonshire liavc {hm- 

sessed lands in that county ever since the 
reign of King Stephen. 

Of the barony of Gilsland in Cumberland, 
Camden thus speaks : — "A tract so cut or 
mangled with brooks, or so full of rivulets, 
that I should suppose it to have taken its 
name from those gills, had I not read in 
the register of Lanercost church, that one 
Gill, son of Bueth, who in the charter of 
Henry II. is also called Gilbert, anciently 
held it, and probably left his name to it." 
To this Gough adds : — " Gilsland might 
also take its name from Hubert de Vaux, 
since De Vallibus and Gills mean the same." 
But this is an inversion of the proper order 
of things, for the name De Vallibus or Vaux 
was borrowed from these gills. See Vaux. 

GILLARD. Probably one of the many 
modifications of William, which see. 

GILLBANKS. In old family records 
Ghylbanke. Gilbank, a small hamlet in 
CO. Cumberland, in which county the family 
still reside. 

GILLEANRIAS. Gael. The servant 

of St. Andrew. See Gill. 
GILLEBRIDE. Gael. The servant of 
St. Bridget. See Gill. 

GILLEMORE. The bearer of the 
broadsword to a Scottish chief. 

GILLER. See GUI, and the termination 


GILLESPIE. A corruption of Gille- 
Esjmaig, Gaelic, "the Servant of the 
Bishop." It was originally spelt Gillespie, 
and frequently employed in the Highlands 
as a Christian name. 

GILLET. (In pronunciation Jillet.) 
The name is supposed to be derived from 
Gilleste, a town on the borders of France 
and Piedmont. Inf. Rev. Edw. Gillet. 
When the G is hard, the name is probably 
a derivation of Guillaume, William. 

GILLETT. See Gillet. 

GILLIAM. See William. 

GILLIATT. See William. 

GILLIE. A menial servant. Jamieson. 

GILLIES. Gael. Gille Jesa, the Ser- 
vant or Follower of Jesus ; " a youth under 
the protection of Jesus." Johnstone's 
Anecd. of Olave the Black. 1780. 

GILLING. Two wapentakes and a 
parish in Yorkshire. De Gilling. H.R. 

GILLINGHAM. Parishes in cos. Dor- 
sot, Kent, and Norfolk. 

GILLMAN. Probably derived from 
Gill, in its topogmi)hical meaning, like 
Milman from Mill, and Hillman from Hill. j| 
The Irish family (originally from England jj 
in lCt*)0) have a tradition of their descent 
from a Cnisader who cut off the right leg of 
a Saracen — an event supix)8ed to be com- 
memorated in the family arms. B.L.G. 

GILMAN. I should have said — from 
residence near a Gill, <]. v. ; but both Dixon 
and Arthur arc against me. Mr. D. derives 





it from the Fr. surname, Vdlemmn, which 
latter lie (incorreotly) makes a diminutive 
of Guillaume, William. Mr. A. states that 
*' the Gillmans are said to have come from 
the province of Maine, with William the 
Conijueror, and to have settled in Essex." 
See preceding article. 

GILLMORE. Gael. Gille-mohr, "great 
servant." The armour-bearer of a High- 
land chief was so called, and was probably 
selected for his size and strength. 

GILLON. The GUlons of Linlithgow- 
shire consider themselves of Norman origin, 
but some derive the name from the clan 

GILLOTT. SeeWUliam. Gillot, GU- 
lote. H.R. 

GILLRAY. SeeGib-oy. 

GILMER. SeeGillmore. 

GILMOUR. GILMORE. See Gillmore. 

GILrATRIC. Gael. The Servant of 

St. Patrick. 

GILPIN. See Gilbert. An eminent 
family seated at Kentmere Hall, co. West- 
moreland, temp. King John. B.L.G. 

rvadh or roy, i. e. "the red lad." The cele- 
brated Highland freebooter of the XVI. 
cent., Gilderoy, derived his designation 
from this source. Arthur says, " Gille- 
roh/th, a rmming footman attendant on a 
Highland chieftain ; or Gllle-ndh, the ser- 
vant of the king." Others make it equiva- 
lent to Fitz-Roy — the son of a king. Thus 
do Gaelic etymologists differ. 

GILRUTH. The same as Gilroy. 

GILSON. The son of Gill or Gilbert. 

GINK ELL. Godart de Ginkcll, baron 
de Reede, came with William, Prince of 
Orange, into England. He accompanied 
him to Ireland, where he besieged and took 
Athlone, for which service he was created 
Earl of Athlone. 

GINMAN. SeeGinner. 

GINN. GIN. Perhaps the same as 
Genn, with the G softened. 

GINNER. Now more usually spelt 
Jenner. Old English ffinovr, an engineer, 
a craftsman. Le Engynur, Le Ginnur, H.R. 
The word ' gin' is retained in our version of 
the Old Testiiment, and occurs in many old 
writers, in the bad sense of a trap, snare, or 
crafty device. Pott derives Jenner from 


GIPSY. Must be a surname of compara- 
tively recent date, if borrowed from the 
wandering tribe so called. See next ar- 

B^" GIPSY SURNAMES. AVhatevermay 
be the true origin of this remarkable 
nomadic race, it is pretty cert«in that 
they did not arrive here until late in 

tlie XV. century, and equally so that 
they did not possess when they came, 
any hereditary surnames. Ihtv and 
Curleople (see those articles) are the 
only patronjTnics that I have met with 
that are not borrowed from well-known 
English family names. For example, 
Smith is no uncommon appellation 
amongst them. I know a Gipsy Smith 
who, although possessed of several 
messuages and tenements, chooses 
to travel the country in his 'wan.' 
Again, our "illustrious dreamer, '^ 
John Bunyan, an undoubted Gipsy,' 
bore a name of Welsh origin. 
There are plenty of Bakers, Coopers, 
Bametts, Buckleys, Broadways, Drapers, 
Aliens, Joneses, Glovers, Lights, Taylors, 
Williamses, Martins, Smalls, Blewitts, 
Carters, Bucklands, and Drapers. There 
are also Ballachys, Loversedges, Corries, 
Eyreses, Lees in plenty, and Scamps 
more than enough ! It is not wonderM 
that Carew is a favourite surname, when 
we know the career of the celebrated 
Bampfylde Moore Carew; but where 
these wanderers picked up Bosville, 
Lovell, Mansfield, Plunkett, Stanley, 
and other aristocratic designations is 
not so easily explained. 

A writer in N. and Q., April 17, 1858, 
says, that there are a quarter of a million 
of Gipsies of all kinds in the British 
Isles; and he adds that in Scotland 
"there are Gipsies in every sphere of life 
—even barristers, clergymen, and gen- 

GIRARDOT. From France, after the 
Rev. of the Edict of Nantes. 

GIRDLER. A maker of girdles — an an- 
cient occupation. The Girdlers' Company 
in London was incorporated in 1449. 

GIRTH. Gyrth, an A-Sax. baptismal 

GISBORNE. Gisburn, a great parish 
in Yorkshire, well-known for its priory, its 
wild cattle, and its forest outlaw, Guy of 

GISSING. A parish in Norfolk. 

GITTINGS. Gittin, a Welsh and Armo- 
rican personal name. 

GLADDIN. See Gladwin. 


word employed by Gower, in the sense of 
pleasant, cheerful. 

GLADMAN. The definitions in Eng. 
Sum. are not satisfactory to me. That 
which I am now to assign will hardly be so 
to the Ixjarers of the name. Jamieson gives 
us fflad or glaid as smooth, slippery ; and 
he adds, that it is also applied to one who is 
not to be trusted— "a slippery fellow." 

GLADSTONE. Local : place unknown. 

GLADSON. A corruption of Glad- 
GLADWIN. An A-Sax. personal name. 




Gladewinus, Gladuin, &c, occur as ante- 
Domesd. tenants. 

tion of Glazier. 

GLAISTER. Probably the same as 
Glenister, a local name, though glaister in 
Scotland signifies a thin covering of snow 
or ice. Jamieson. Again, Glasterer means 
a boaster. Ibid. 

GLAIVE. GLAVE. A long cutting 
blade at the end of a lance. Halliwell. 
The name was assumed in the same way as 
Sword, Lance, and many others. 

GLANFIELD. See GlanviUe. 

GLANVILLE. A place in the arron- 
dissement of Pont-l'Eveque, in Normandy. 
It is latinized ' De Glan villa,' and anglicized 
Glanfield. Robert de GlanviUe, a tenant 
in Suffolk, temp. Domesd. was ancestor of 
the earls of Suffolk of that name. 

The Glanvilles of Catchfrench, co. Corn- 
wall, are descended from the G.'s of Halwell, 
CO. Devon, circ. 1400, (Shirley's Noble and 
Gentle Men) and they, according to tradi- 
tion, from Ranulf de GlanviUe, lord of 
GlanviUe, near Pont I'Eveque, who entered 
England with the Conqueror. C. S. Gil- 
bert's Cornwall, ii. 171. 

GLASGOW. The great northern city. 

GLASIER. A glazier. 

GLASS. A parish in cos. Aberdeen and 
Banff : also an island, a lake, and a river 
in Scotland. 

GLASSBROOK. See Glazebrook. 

GLASSCOCK. See Nicholas. The 
Glascocks of High Estre, co. Essex, traced 
their pedigree to temp. Edw. III. 

GLASSCOTT. Glascote, a township co. 
Warwick. The Glascotts, who went into 
Ireland in 1049, claim, however, from the 
Glascocks of High Estre. 

GLASSON. Glaston, parishes, &c., in 
COS. Rutland, Lancaster, and Somerset. 

GLASSWRIGHT. A glass maker. An- 
drew le Glasswright occurs in the records 
of Great Yarmouth in the XIV. century. 
Papers of Norfolk Archaeol. Soc., iv. 253. 
Little is known of the history of the glass 
manufacture in this country in the middle 
ages. In Sussex there are some traditions, 
but very little can be positively ascertained 
respecting it, notwithstanding Fuller's as- 
sertion that " plenty hereof is made in this 
county." In Thomas Chamock's Breviary 
of Philosophy we read : — 

" As for glass makers, they be scant in this land, 
Yet one there is, as I do understand ; 
And in Sussex is now his habitation. 
At CliiddinKfold he works of his occupation." 

This was written in 1557. Chiddlngfold is 
in Surrey, not Sussex. 

GLAZEBROOK. A recent southern 
corruption of Grazebrook, which see. 

GLAZIER. The trade. 

GLEGG. Scottish, ^fe^. Quick of per- 

ception, keen, clever, expeditious. Scott 
in the Antiquary makes his old "blue- 
gown" say : — " I was aye gleg at my duty 
— naebody ever catched Edie sleeping." 

1^^ GLEN. A common syllable in 
Celtic names of places, as Glendinning, 
Glendor, Gleneaglis, Glenister, Glenfield, 
Glenham, Glennie, Glenny, and Glen- 

It signifies a vale, or rather a narrow 
valley, formed by two acclivities bound- 
ing a stream or river, which gives rise 
to the local name. Thus Glenalmond 
is the glen or valley of the river Almond, 
Glenapp, that of the App, &c. 

GLENDINNING. An ancient estate 
at Westerkirk, co. Dumfries. 

GLENDONWYN. Probably the same 
as Glendinning or Glendonyn. 

GLENDONYN. The exact spot from 
which the surname was adopted cannot be 
ascertained, but it was near the coast of 
Ayrshire. Robert de Glendonyn obtained 
a confirmation grant of the lands of Glen- 
donyn from Alexander III. for his services 
at the battle of Largs. The heiress married 
Macknyghte in the XIV. century, and the 
representation now vests in Coulthart. 

cality in Scotland ; but I do not find the 

GLENNY. A place at Abernyte, in 

GLENTON. Probably Glinton, co. 

GLIDE. SeeGlyde. 

GLISTER. As Glaister. 

GLITHEROW. See Clitheroe. 

GLOVER. The occupation. Lc Ganter. 

GLYDE. GLIDE. A sort of road, or 
more properly speaking an opening. Aber- 
deenshire. Jamieson. 2. Gleid, squinting. 

GLYNDE. A parish in Sussex. 

GLYNN. A place in the parish of Car- 
dinham, co. Cornwall, the abode of " an 
ancient family of gentlemen of this name, 
who for many generations flourished there." 
Hals, in D. Gilbert's Cornwall, i. 171. 

GLYNNE. The baronet derives his des- 
cent from Cibnin Uroed-tu, one of the fif- 
teen tribes of North Wales who were 
flourishing in A.D. 843. The local name 
was assumed in the XVI. cent. 

GOAD. Probably Good. A-Sax. gM. 

GOAT. A narrow cavern or inlet into 
wliich the sea enters. Jamieson. 

GOATER. GOTER. A goat-herd ? 

GO ATM AN. A keeper of goats ; a goat- 

GOBLET. Perhaps a trader's sign. 
GODBEUERE. R.G. 16. I have met 




with it as a surname in Sussex, temp Hen. 
III. See under Goodbeer. 

GOD BID. A-Sax. biddian, to pray. See 
' Gotobed.' Perhaps, however, a corruption 
of Godbert, a personal name also used in the 
XIII. cent, as a surname. 

GOD BODY. Probably a medieval oath 
— '' By God's body." 

GODBOLD. 1. Occurs in Doraesd. as a 
previous A-Sax. tenant. 2, A-Sax.^(J<Z and 
bold — " the good dwelling." 

GODDAME. (Parish-register of Charl- 
ton, CO. Kent.) Probably * good-dame,' 
ft mother-in-law; so 'good-brother,' in 
some dialects, signifies brother-in-law ; and 
there are several analogies in the French 
language: as bcaupere^^ step-father; ' beUe- 
www,' mother-in-law. Perhaps it may be 
synonymous with godmother, which is 
found in the H.R., under the orthography 
of Godmoder, and borne by an individual 
named William, proving that at that time 
it had passed into a transmissible or family 

GODDARD. Godardus appears in 
Domesd. as a personal name. The ancestor 
of the Goddards of Cliffe and Swindon are 
said to have been seated in Wiltshire before 
temp. Rich. II. B.L.G. 

GODDEN. Often a corruption of God- 

GODDIN. See Godwin. 

GODDING. Francis Goddinge, mer- 
chant, and his wife, Protestant refugees, 
left Dieppe and settled at Rye, co. Sussex, 
in 1572. Lansd. M.S., 15-70. But the 
name is also indigenous, for Goding, Godin- 
gus, &c., occur in A-Sax. times. 


Teutonic personal name — the same as Geof- 
frey. The form Goisfridus is very common 
in Domesd. The Godfreys of Brook- Street 
House, Kent, are supposed to be descended 
from Godfrey le Fauconer, lord of the manor 
of Hurst in that county, in the reign of 
Henry II. B.L.G. 

GODIIELPE. 1. An exclamation : the 
name was probably given to a person who 
habitually used it. See 'Helpusgod.' 2. 
Tlie A-Sax. name Godulph. 

(iODKIN. Perhaps a diminutive oath; 
or it may be a nickname of Godfrey or 

GODLEE. See Godley. 

GODLEY. A toAvnship in Cheshire, 
where the family of De Godlee were resident 
temp. Edward I. GodeU is an archaism for 
goodly, well favoured. 

" Feyre and longe was he thore, 
A godehjar man waa none bore." 
M.S. Cantab. F/. it. 38 (HalUw.) 

GODLIMAN. May have relation to the 
assumed sanctity of the first bearer, but is 
more likely to be a corruption of Godal- 
ming, the Surrey town, fonnerly so pro- 
nounced by the vulgar. 

GODLOVEMILADY. This remarkable 
name really existed not many years since. 
The similar designation Rogerus JDem- 
salvet-dominas (Roger God-save-the-Ladies) 
occurs in the Domesd. of Essex. It was 
probably the sobriquet of some admirer of 
the fair sex, who frequently employed the 

GODMAN. (A-Sax. god). The same 
as Goodman. 

" God-me-fetch"— 
profane exclamation. 

A-Sax. baptismal 


" God ttike me" — a 
See Godhelpe. 


GODOLPHIN. A manor in the parish 
of Breage, near Helston, co. Cornwall, an- 
ciently written Godolghan, a word which 
is said to mean in the Cornish tongue "the 
\Vhite Eagle," whence the 'eagle displayed 
with two necks argent,' in the armorial 
shield. John de Godolphin is said to have 
possessed the manor at the time of the Con- 
quest. C. S. Gilbert's Cornwall, i. 520. 


GODSALL. SeeGodsell. 

GODSALVE. Probably an exclama- 
tion — " God save youl" 

GODSELL. Perhaps from Godshill, in 
the Isle of Wight. 2. The same as God- 
esilus, the name of an early Burgundian 
King. Ferguson. 

GODSHALL. In charters, De Casa 
Dei. I do not find the locality. 

GODSMARK. Appears to be of similar 
import to Godspenny, which see. It was 
formerly common in E. Sussex. 

GODSON". The spiritual relation— iden- 
tical with the Fr. Fllleul. The name in 
its modem form is found in the H.R., as is 
also the singular surname Godmoder (God- 

GODSPENNY. This word in the N". of 
England means a deposit, or earnest-money. 
How it became a name is not clear. 

GODWIN". A well-known personal 
name of Teutonic origin. In Domesd. it 
is very common. 

GOFF. GOFFE. See Gough. When 
not a corruption of Gough, it is said to 
signify in the Armorican dialect " the 
smith." In the Cornish, Angove has the 
same meaning, while Trengrove is "strong 
smith." Queingoff is another Armorican 
surname meaning " whitesmith," according 
to the conjecture of Mr. Dixon. These are 
all, of course, allied to Gow. 

GOLD. A personal or baptismal name. 
Golde and Goldus occur in Domesd., and 
Gold, in the H.R., had become a surname. 
As a baptismal name it was in use in the 
XrV. cent., when Gold le Blodlcter is found 
as the designation of an inhabitant of Yar- 
mouth. Papers Norf. Arch. Soc. iv. 253. 


Mr. Fergugon observes that " there are 
several names which appear to express 
metaphorically the material of which a 
man is made. Such are the names of metals, 
at the head of which is Gold. This seems 
to have been a term of endearment, and to 
denote love, value, affection. An A- Saxon, 
* Dudda, was a husbandman in Hasthfelda, 
and he had three daughters ; one was called 
Deorwyn ; the other Deorswythe; and the 
third Golde,' " — all terms significant of pa- 
rental love. As a man's name, Gold must 
have been somewhat common in England, 
as many local names, since become sur- 
names, are compounded with it; e.g., 
Goldby, Goldham, Goldney, Goldsbury, 
Goldsby, Goldsworthy, Goldthorpe. It 
also appears to have given rise to the 
names of Golden and Goulden, Golding 
and Goulding. The latter are probably 

GOLDBEATER. The trade. A Rob. 
le Goldl)eter is found in H.R. 

GOLDEN. See Gold. 

GOLDFINCH. From the bird. Gold- 
finche. H.R. Sobriquets derived from 
names of birds are numerous. See Sparrow, 
Hawk, &c. Lavater found resemblances 
between human faces and those of oxen, 
goats, &c. So a friend of mine disco- 
vered in a neighbour of hers, not remark- 
able either for brilliancy of dress or sweet- 
ness of song, something which reminded 
her of a goldfinch. From similar caprices 
and notions many surnames doubtless 

GOLDING. See Gold. 

GOLDRIDGE. Goldericus occurs in 
Germany in the IX. cent, as a personal 

GOLDSBURY. Goldsborough, a parish 
in Yorkshire. 

in Lincolnshire, sometimes corrupted to 

GOLDSMIDT. Germ. Goldsckmid. A 

GOLDSMITH. The great value of the 
commodity in which the medieval gold- 
smith dealt rendered him a i)er8on of con- 
sequence. No less than three tenants-in- 
chief under the Conqueror are entered in 
Domesday under the name of Aurifaber. 
One of these, Otto Aurifaber, held in Essex, 
and his descendants, under tlie surname of 
Fitz-Otho, appear to have been hereditary 
mint-masters to the crown for two centu- 
ries, becoming extinct in 1282. Kclham. 
Ellis, Introd. The equivalent Fr. Orfcvre, 
and the Germ. Goldsclmiid, are well-known 

GOLDSPINK. A northern provincial- 
ism for Goldfinch. 

GOLD WIN. An A-Sax. personal name. 

GOLIGIITLY. Has nothing to do, I 
think, with lightness of foot. Tlie name 
has many forms, to none of which a mean* 

132 GOO 

ing can well be attached ; but from the ter- 
mination it is probably local. 

GOLLEDGE. Gulledge, an estate near 
E. Grinstead, co. Sussex. 

GOLLOP. Probably the same as Gallop. 
The Gollops of Strode, co. Dorset, have a 
tradition of Danish or Swedish descent from 
a soldier of fortune who was living in 1465. 

GOMERSALL. Gomersal, a township 
in Yorkshire. 

GON VILLE. There are two places named 
Gonneville in the department of Seine Infe- 
rieure in Normandy, but from which of 
them the family came I am unable to de- 


uncertain origin ; but Mr. Ferguson thinks 
the last form a derivation from the O. 
Norse ^ud, war. Goche without prefix is 
found in the H.R. 

GOOD. From excellence of character, 
like the Fr. Le Bon. 

GOODACRE. Vrohahly Germ. gottesaker, 
a burying ground (literally God's Field). — 
Analogous to our Churchyard, and the me- 
dieval In Cemeterio. 

GOOD AIR. The same as Goodere. 

GOODALE. Is probably local, being 
not Good-ale, but Goo-dale. 


GOODY. The third form rather counte- 
nances the supposition of a local origin. 
But it may be from the salutation " Good- 
day !" especially if GooDEVE may be consi- 
dered correlatively. 

GOODBAIRN. See Goodchild. 

GOODBAN. Probably Good-bairn— 

GOODBEER. A corruption of Godbe- 
here — Dens adsit! — a name occurring in 
Sussex records of the XIII. century. It was 
probably applied as a sobrifjuet to some 
person who used this adjuration, the more 
recent form of which is " 'fore God." 

GOODBEHERE. See Godbehere. 

GOODBODY. A portly person— like the 
Fr. Iicaueorj)s; perhaps, however, an oath: 
' By God's body,' — not unusual in the 
middle ages. The orthography in the H.R. 
is Godbodi, which rather confirms the 
latter derivation. Under the name Pardew 
will be found some remarks on surnames 
derived from Oaths. See however the re- 
marks under Body. 

GOODBORN. See Gowlbaim. 

GOODBOYS. Doubtless a corruption 
of some French local name ending in bolx, 

GOODCHAP. See Goodcheap. 

GOODCHEAP. "Very cheap"— a com- 
mon expression' in old times, equivalent 
to the existing French phrase, htn marcM. 
Perhaps a sobriquet applied to an early 




trader. The H.R. orthography is Godcliep. 
The corresponding family name Goedkoop 
is found in Holland. 

GOODCHILD. As 'good-brother' in 
some dialects means brother-in-law, so this 
name may mean a step-child. It may, 
however, refer to the natural disposition of 
the first bearer, as we find its opposite, 
Erilchild, in the H.R. 

GOODDEN. A corruption of Goodwin, 
or Godwin. The Gooddens of Over Comp- 
ton, CO. Dorset, are descended from John 
Goodwyn, who flourished temp. Edward 

GOODE. See Good. 


Corruptions of Godwin. 
GOODENOUGII. The original bearer 
was perhaps a sufficiently worthy fellow, but 
I think his name had no reference to his 
moral qualities. Knowe is a Scotticism, 
equivalent to the southern hnoll, a little 
round hill, and the prefix ' good ' probably 
indicated the nature of the soil of the hill 
at or upon which he resided. 

GOODERE. AVhence Gooderson. Most 
likely an old personal name. 

GOODEVE. Possibly from the saluta- 
tion, " Good eve 1" See Goodday. More 
probably, however, from the A- Sax. female 
name, Godiva, famous at Coventry. 

GOODFELLOW. A man of sociable 
and friendly character. The Fr. have their 
Boncompagnon. GK)dfelawe. H.R. 

GOODGER. See Goodyear. Ilalliwell 
tells us that in Devonshire Gootlger means 
both Good-man, or husband, and the Devil. 
Let us hope that the Damnonian wives are 
not responsible for so evil an association of 
ideas ! 

GOODGROOM. G^romc originally meant 
simply a servant. Among the Domesd. 
tenants-in-chief in co. Warwick was a Wil- 
lelmus Bonvalest, of which William Good- 
groom would be a literal translation. A 
Bonvalet occurs in the H.R., as also a Gotle 
Grum and several Lc Godcgi'ums. Or, 
taking the prior syllable as the name of the 
Divine Being, it may mean 'God's ser\'ant,' 
for we find, in the same records, Godeknave, 
and Godknave. * Knave,' it must be re- 
membered, was anciently no disgraceful 
epithet, but meant simply child or servant. 
See Gilchrist, &c. 

GOODHAND. R.G. 16. A dexterous 


GOODHIND. "The good farm-ser- 
vant." See Hind. 


latter syllable appears to be a mis-spelling 
of hue. Of good colour or complexion. 
Temp. Edwd. III. it was written Godeheue. 

GOODIIUSBAND. To contradistinguish 
the first bearer from another person of the 
same Christian name, who was not remark- 
able for fidelity towards hia wife. In the 

H.R. we find an Agnes Godhosbonde, which 
shows that it had become (temp. Edw. I.) 
a permanent surname. Younghusband is 
also a well-known family name. 

GOODIER. See Goodyer. 

GOODJER. The same as Goodyear. 

GOODLAD. Apparently the English 
form of Bon-gargoii, a Fr. surname. 

GOODLAKE. The A-Sax. baptismal 
name Guthlac. It has been variously 
written Godelac, Godlac, &c. 

GOODLUCK. The A-Sax. personal 
name Guthlac. Goodluck's Close at Nor- 
wich was formerly Guthlac's Close. Ferg. 

GOODMADAM. Dixon says a patro- 

GOODMAN. 1. Gudmund, a very 
common Teutonic and A-Sax. baptismal 
name. 2. A common form of address in old 
times. Also a complimentary sobriquet. 
Thus a gi-eat-grandson of the famous Wil- 
liam Belward was called Goodman. Eng. 
Sum. ii. 41). 

GOODRAM. As Goodrum. 

GOODRICH. 1. A parish in co. Here- 
ford. 2. See Goodrick. 

GOODRICK. An ancient Teutonic 
personal name, usually written Godric and 
Godericus. Verj- common in Domesday. 

GOODRUM. A probable corruption of 
the Scandinavian name Guthrum. 

GOODSON. 1. Another foi-m of God- 
son. 2. The parish of Gooderstone, co. 
Norfolk, is so called. 8. It corresponds 
with the French Beaujils, son-in-law, 

GOODSPEED. The sobriquet of a good 
runner ? 

singular names have no reference to the 
chai-acter, good or bad, of any of the vast 
Gulielmian tribe, but, according to Pitts- 
cottie, a good-wilier and a well-wisher are 
synonymous. Jamieson. 

GOODWIN. The same as Godwin. 

GOODWRIGHT. See Wright. A ma- 
ker of gads, goads, or spears. 

GOODYEAR. In Domesd. Godere and 
Goderus ; in the H. R. Godyer. Goodman, 
or husband ; still used in this sense in De- 

GOODYER. See Goodyear. 

GOOK. GOWK. Ferguson says^o?/'*, 
a northern name for the cuckoo. Gaukr, 
the O. Norse for this bird, appears in the 
Landnamabok as a baptismal name. 

GOOLD. See Gold. The Goolds of 
CO. Cork, went thither from England in or 
about the reign of Heniy VI. Courthope's 

GOOLE. A township in Yorkshire^ 




GOOSE. " The nobility of the goose is 
not so obvious as that of the swan. Yet it 
was in ancient and honourable use as a 
man's name. Genserie, the name of the 
great Vandal chief, is referred by Grimm to 
fffinserich, a gander. But it was no doubt 
the wild goose that gave the name ; and if 
we consider, we shall see that this bird has 
some qualities calculated to command the 
respect of those early roving tribes. A 
powerful bird, strong on the wing, taking 
long flights to distantlands, marshalled with 
the most l>eautiful discipline of instinct, it 
formed no inapt emblem of those migratory 
plunderers who renewed their unwelcome 
visitations with each succeeding spring." 
Ferguson. The name Goose is not unusual 
in East Anglia, and Gosland, Gosnell, Gos- 
lee, local surnames, appear to be from this 
source, as well, perhaps, as Goss, A-Sax. Le 
Gos is the H.R. form. 

GOOSEJVIAN. A breeder of Geese. 

GOOSEY. A tything in Berkshire. 

GOODSHEEP. See Goodcheap. 

GORBELL. See Gorbold. 

GORBOLD. The O. Germ. Garibald 
(i.e. " spear-bold") has been thus anglicized, 
while in Italy it has taken the form of 
Garibaldi (Ferguson), where it is now ap- 
propriately borne by a patriotic hero. 

GORDON. According to some genealo- 
gists this name is derived from Gordonia, a 
town in Macedonia ; according to others 
from a manor in Normandy — origins liter- 
ally too " far-fetched," since the parish of 
Gordon, in Berwickshire, where we find the 
family located at an early date, is its true 
source. " There is a nice little romance to 
the tune of making the founder of the 
family a certain Bertrand de Gourdon, 
who shot Richard the Lion-Hearted at 
Chaluz. According to history, this Gourdon 
was a common archer, who having been 
brought before the dying monarch was for- 
given by him, and ordered to be liber- 
ated with a handsome present; but the 
Flemish general, who had no notion of such 
generosity, very coolly ordered him to be 
flayed alive. How, after such an operation, 
he could get into Scotland we are not told." 
N. and Q., Nov. 1, 185(3. The cheerfulness 
of this family is exhibited in the proverb, 
The Gay Gokdons. 

An anon}Tnou8 correspondent sends me 
the following — 

" Dialogue between the first Marqui* of Huntley and 
his Gentleman-in-waitiTig. Mauq.— Send me Sandy 
Gordon. (Jest.— W fat Sandy (;ordon":' Maiiq.— I itc 
Sandy Gordon. Gknt.— »>«/ fltc S4indy Gordon ? 
Marq.— Fitc fat Sandy Gordon." And the Wliitc, 
Fat, Sandy (Jonlon wa.s doubtless fortlicoiuing. Sly 
correspondent asks: "How many Sandy Gordons 
must there have been in his lordsldp's service ? " 

GOREN. A corruption of Goring. 

GORGES. Tlie chateau de Gorges, one 
of whose lords was at the battle of Hastings, 
Rtands in the parish of the same name, in 
the canton of Periers, department of I^a 
Manche, Normandy His descendant, 
Raoulde Gorges, married an heiress of 

Morville, and had the manors of Wraxall and 
Bradpole, cos. Dorset and Somerset, and 
was sheriff of Devonshire. M. de Gerville, 
in Mem. Soc. Antiq. Normandie, 1825. 

GORMAN. Gormand is an old Scotti- 
cism for the Fr. gourmand^ an enormous 
eater, a glutton. 

GORME. Three lakes in Scotland are so 

GORRING. GK)RRINGE. Sussex sur- 
names, and doubtless modifications of the 
ancient local name Goring in that county. 
As in the case of Hardinge, the G in the 
latter of these two forms has been impro- 
perly softened, and the pronunciation ia 

GORTON. A chapelry in the parish of 

GOSDEN. See under Den. 

GOSHAWK. The bird. 

GOSLAND. See Goose. 

GOSLEE. See Goose. 

GOSLIN. See Gosling. 

Anglo-Norman Christian name Joscelyn, 
or Goceline. Fil' Gocelini, Goscelin, Gos- 
selin, and several other forms are found in 
the H.R. The assimilation of the name to 
that of a young goose by the addition of the 
g final is of modem date. Similar instances 
of the hardening of the soft g orj are ob- 
sei'vable in the Norman dialect. Thus janibe 
and ge7'be are made gambe and gnerbe. 

GOSNELL. Anciently Gosnold, and 
therefore probably from some locality called 
Gosenwold, a wold or plain whereon geese 
were numerous. 

GOSPATRICK. Originally a personal 
name, and stated in a rare tract by the Rev. 
Jas. Johnstone, entitled " Anecdotes of 
Olave the Black, King of Man," (1780) to 
signify the ' Boy of St. Patrick.' 

GOSPELL. Gosbell, an ancient Teu- 
tonic personal name. 

GOSSE. In Scotland, a sponsor for a 
child ; but more probably the A- Sax. gos^ 
a goose. 

GOSSELTN. A family of Norman origin 
who have long resided in Guernsey. They 
claim descent from Robert Gosselin, who 
for eminent services in the rescue of Mont 
Orgueil from the French in 1839, is said to 
have Iwjcn made governor of that fortress, 
and to have received from f^dward IIL a 
gnint of the anns now borne by his des- 
cendants. B.L.G. The name is identical with 

GOSWICK. A hamlet in Northumber- 

GOTT. Apparently an old baptismal 
name. Will lil' Gotte. H.R. 

(JOTIIAHD. L Either Godard, the 
personal name, or Goat-herd. 2. A foolish 
fellow. North. Halliwell. Probably because 

G R 135 

the occupation of keeping goats requii-ed 
little skill. Conf. Coward. 

G OTOBED. O. Germ. Gott-het, ' Pray to 
God.' Talbot's Engl. Etymol. Robert Go- 
tobedd, Winchelsea, 20. Edw. I. Juliana 
Gotebedde, ibid. (Cooper). Notwithstand- 
ing Mr. Talbot's conjecture, we may as well, 
perhaps, take this name aup'wd de la Uttre, 
and assimie that it was given as a sobriquet 
to people more than ordinarily attached to 
their couch. A similar collocation of words 
forming a surname occurs in the H.R., viz. : 
Serlo Go-to-Urlie, which was borne by one 
of the cottars of the hundred of Trippelowe, 
CO. Cambridge, temp. Edw. I.— most pro- 
bably in allusion to his constant attention 
to his public devotions. 

GOUGH. Welsh. Red— from com- 

GOULBORN. Golborn, townships in 
Cheshire and Lancashire. From the former, 
David, grandson of the patriarchal William 
Belward, baron of Malpas, originally as- 
sumed the name, in Norman times. 

GOULD. See Gold. The Goulds are 
traceable in the municipal records of Exeter 
to the time of Edward III. Lysons. 

GOULDEN. See Gold. 

GOULDING. See Gold. 

GOULDSMITH. See Goldsmith. 

GOULTY. Probably the French Gual- 
tier, (Walter) to which in sound it closely 

GOURD. The A-Sax. personal name 
Gyrth or Gyrd. 

ancient race accompanied Rollo into Neus- 
tria and became lords of Goumay, whence 
their name. Goumai-en-Brai is a town in 
the arrondissement of Neufchatel. There 
were two Hugh de Goumays at the battle 
of Hastings, the father, an old man, leading 
on his vassals of Bray — 

" li viel Hue de Gomal, 

Ensemble o li sa gent de Brai." 

Roman de Rou. 

Both Hughs had grants from William, the 
caput haron'uB being in Norfolk, still the 
stronghold of the name, and their blood 
became mingled with that of the Conqueror 
himself, by the marriage of Gerard de 
Gournay with Edith, daughter of Wm. de 
Warenne, by Gundrada, daughter of Wil- 
liam the Conqueror. He joined the first 
Crusade, 1096, and subsequently died on a 
pilgrimage to Jerusalem. From Walter de 
G. who nourished under Stephen, and whose 
son William still held a portion of the fief 
of Bray, " came a long line of country gen- 
tlemen in Norfolk, who seem never to have 
risen above or fallen below that honourable 
old status." Athenanm, Sept. 18, 1858. 

GORE. A " narrow slip of ground," as 
Kensington Gore. See Faulkner's Kensing- 
ton, p. G17. 

GORING. A parish in Sussex where 
the ancestors of the baronet's family were 


resident at an early period. John de 
Goring was lord before temp. Edw. II. 

GOW. Gael. A smith. 

GOWAN. Scotch, a 'Daisy,' which is 
also (but why, it is difficult to guess) an 
English surname. 

GOWARD. GO WAR. Corruptions of 

GOWER. "All our Antiquaries agree 
that this family is one of the oldest in the 
county of York, and of Anglo-Saxon origin, 
though they difier as to its patriarch, whom 
some will have to be Sir Alan Gower, said 
to be sheriff of that county at the time of 
the Norman Conquest, A.D. 10G6, and lord 
of Stittenham in the same county, [now 
possessed by the Duke of Sutherland, the 
chief of the house] while others with greater 
probability assert that it descended from 
one Guhyer, whose son, called William 
Fitz-Guhyer of Stittenham, was charged 
with a mark for his lands in the sheriff's 
account, HOT, 13 Henry II., and that Alan 
was very likely his son." Collins' Peerage 
1708, V. 340. The poet Gower is said to 
have been of the Stittenham stock, though 
he did not bear the same arms. Leland 
says : " The house of Gower the poet yet re- 
maineth at Switenham (Stittenham), in 
Yorkshire, and divers of them syns have 
been knightes." The noble Gowers pro- 
nounce their name as if written Gore, but a 
yeomanry family in the south of England 
make it rhyme with 'power,' or ' shower.' 

GOWERS. See Gower. 

GOY. A place on the river Seine in 
Lower Normandy. 

GOYMER. See Gaimar. 

GRABBY. A corruption of Grobj, or 
some similar local name. 

GRACE. Raymond Fitz-William de 
Carew, sumamed ' Cmssus,' 'Le Gros,' 
and ' Le Gras,' accompanied Strongbow, 
Earl of Pembroke, in his celebrated expedi- 
tion into Ireland in 1 1(59, and he may be re- 
garded "as the Achilles of the enterprise." 
He married Basilia de Clare, Strongbow's 
sister, with whom he ac(iuired an enormous 
estate in Killarney, subsequently known as 
" the Cantred of Grace's country ;" for "his 
cognomen Gros, given him on account of 
his prowess, gradually became first Gras, 
and then by English pronunciation Grace." 
Many of the English families of this name 
deduce their descent from Ireland. See 
Memoirs of the Fam. of Grace, by Sheffield 
Grace, Esq., F.S.A. 

GRADDON. See Gratton. 

GRADY. The Irish patronymical 
O'Grady, sans O. 

GRAEIME. According to the Scottish 
genealogists, who, as Camden tells us, 
" think surnames as ancient as the moon," 
this illustrious patronymic is derived from 
Greme, who was regent of Scotland during 
the minority of Eugene II. (commencnig 
A.D. 419), and had many "engagements 



with the Britons, and by forcing that 
mighty rampartthey had reared up between 
the rivers of Forth and Clyde, immortalized 
his name so much, as that to this day that 
entrenchment is called Graham's Dyke." 
Collins, who gravely states this, finds, 
however, no record of the family earlier 
than the time of King David I., a.d. 1125, 
when the name was written Grcme. Some- 
what later it was written De Graeme, which 
shows its local origin ; and indeed it is 
Bimply a Scottish pronunciation of Graham, 
which see. 

GRAFTER. Of trees? 

GRAFTON. Parishes and places in cos. 
Chester, Gloucester, Hereford, Oxford, 
Worcester, Warwick, and Northampton. It 
is from Grafton-Regis in the last-named 
CO. that the Duke of Grafton takes his title. 

GRANTHAM. A town in Lincoln- 

GRAPES. An innkeeper's sign. 

GRAHAM. The name hns always been 
written interchangeably with Graeme — the 
Scottish orthography. The earliest tracea- 
ble ancestor, (for we reject of course the 
fifth-century hero Greme — See Graeme,) is 
William de Graham, who settled in Scot- 
land early in the XIL century. The sur- 
name therefore is clearly local, and from 
it« termination undoubtedly English. The 
only place in S. Britain of the name which 
we find is Graham, near Kesteven in Lin- 
colnshire. H.R., vol. i., page 288. 

GRAIN. GRAINE. An island-parish 
of Kent. 

GRAINGER. See Granger. 

GRAMMER. O. Norse, gramr, a king. 

GRANCESTER. Grantchester, a parish 
in Cambridgeshire. 

GR ANDISON. Camden places this among 
the great families who came hither at the 
Conquest from the Netherlands. The name 
was eminent in the XIII. cent., and at the 
siege of Carlaverock (a.d. 1300) " William 
de Grandison (Grant son) bore paly, silver 
and azure, surchan^ed with a red bend, and 
thereon three bcautifid eaglets of fine gold." 
Nicolas' Siege of Carlav. 

GRANDORGE. The family of Do 
Graind'orge existed in Normandy at an 
early period. In the reign of Louis XI. 
they were ennoble<l by the title of Vicomte de 
Graindorge of Falaise. In the reign of king 
Stephen, a branch came into England and 
assisted in the endowment of Fumesni Ab- 
bey. The family flourished in knightly de- 
gree until the XV. century, principally in 
Craven, co. York. A William G. fought at 
Agincourt, and a Nicholas G. was mast<.'r- 
foreater to Roger de Cliffonl. See Annorial 
General of France, Nicolas' Agincourt, 
and Wliittaker's Craven. Our old EngliHli 
name of Barlicom, (see H.Il.) may 1)6 a 
translation. Tlio arms of the family (three 
eon of barley) allude to die name. 


GRANGE. Fr. A barn; applied in 
monastic times to the homestead of an out- 
lying manor belonging to an abbey or 
priorj'. Mr. Chas. Knight says, "a lone 
" Wliat tell'st thou me of robbing ? this is Venice ; 
My house is not a grange." 

Othello, i. 1. 

Several hamlets in various cos. are so 

GRANGER. See Grange. The bailift' 

who presided over one, was called Ate 
Grange, (H.R.) and afterwards Granger. 

GRANT. "Nothing certain is known re- 
garding the origin of the Grants. They 
have been said to be of Danish, English, 
French, Norman, and of Gaelic extraction, 
but each of these suppositions depends for 
support on conjecture alone." Skene's 
Highlanders, ii. 254. The advocates of a 
Gaelic source adduce a tradition which 
makes them McGregors. Tliose who con- 
sider the name French, derive it fvam grand. 
On the first appearance of the family in 
Scotland, it is written "dictus Grant," af- 
terwards "le Grant," and sometimes ridicu- 
lously "de Grant," for there was no ancient 
property so called. As to " le," that particle 
was prefixed by clerks to most Highland 
epithets, as well as to Norman. The name 
first occurs in charters in 1258. Ibid. p. 
25G. Other accounts of the name are given 
by Dixon, edit. 1855, where we meet with 
the following anecdote. "A wag contrived 
to alter in the family Bible of a former laird 
of Grant, the words in Genesis, 'There were 
giants in those days,' into 'There were 
Grants in those days ; ' and the good old 
chief believed it!" 

GRANVILLE. See GrenviUe. 
GRASS. Fr. gras. Fat, stout. 
GRASSBY. A parish in Lincolnshire. 
GRATTON. A hamlet in Derbyshire. 

GRAVE. 1. A northern pronunciation 
of Grove. 2. A bailiflf or reeve. 3. A 
cave. 4. A personal name, whence Graves 
and Graveson. 

GRAVELEY. Parishes in the counties of 
Herts and Cambridge. A Ralph de Gravcle 
occurs in the hundred of Ed^vin8tree, in the 
former shire, temp. Edward I. H.EL 

GRAVELL. If not from Gravelle near 
Lisieux in Normandy, may he derived from 
the soil ujwn which the first proprietor of 
the name dwelt, like Clay, Sands, &o. 

GRAVENOR. Sec Grosvenor. 

GRAVER. Perhaps the same as Grover. 
See Grave. 

GRAVES. See Grave, 4. 

GRAVETT. A little Grove. 

GRAY. See Grey. 

GRAYGOOSE. A sobriquet. The 
name Greengoose is also found. It is pro- 
bable that the two apiMjUations originated in 
the some locality and were somewhat anti- 




thetical of each other — the Gray being the 
old, and the Green, the young, goose. 

GRAYHURST. Perhaps from Graven- 
hurst, CO. Bedford. 

GRAYLING. See Fishes. 

GRAYSON. See Greyson. 

GRAZEBROOK. The G.'s of cos. Staf- 
ford and Gloucester descend from Gerse- 
burg, Gersebroc, or Greysbrook, co. York, 
which manor they held with others in fee 
from the Conquest. B.L.G. 

GRAZIER. The occupation. 

GREA]M. The same as Graham and 
Graeme, which see. 

GREAR. See Gregory. 

GREAT, From size, like the Fr. Le 
Grand, the Dutch De Groot, &;c. 

GRE AT A. A river of Cmnberland. 

GREATHEAD. Apparently from the 
personal peculiarity. Kobt. Grosteste, the 
celebrated bishop of Lincoln, sometimes so 
wrote his name. 

GREATHEART. A man of courage. 

GREAVES. See Grieve. 

GREEDY. From disposition. 

GREEL Y. Local : probably in co. Rut- 
land, as De Greley and De Greyley are 
foimd there in H.R. temp. Edw. I. 

1^" GREEN. A common prefix to local 
surnames, many of which cannot be 
traced to their sources in the ordinary 
gazetteer, such as Greengrass, Green 
haigh, Greenhale, Greenhome (!), Green 
ing, Greenland, Greenleaf, Greentree, 
Greenslade, Greenway, Greenwell, 
Greenberry, Greengrow, (-grove,) Green 
half, (-haugh,) Greensides, Greenacre 
Greenhead, (-promontory.) The prefix 
is the A- Sax. grdne, and the compounds 
mostly explain themselves. 

GREEN. From residence near an unen- 
closed space, or common ground. H.R. Ate- 
Grene, Del Grene, De-la-Grene, and A la 
Grene. As every village had its green, the 
commonness of the name is easily accounted 
for. The Lond. Direct, for 1852 mentions 
222 traders so called, besides a few Greenes. 
Grene is also a personal name occurring in 

GREENE. See Green. 

GREENER. From residence at a green. 

GREENFIELD. A Lincolnshire hamlet. 
Also a corruption of Grenville or Granville. 

GREENGOOSE See Graygoose. 

GREENHILL. A liberty in co. Lin- 

GREENHORNE. This undesirable 
surname appears to be of the local kind, 
and the place from which it is derived is 
probably in Scotland. 

GREENIIOW. A township co. York. 


GREENISH. Has no reference to green- 
ness, either physical or mental. It is doubt- 
less a corruption either of Greenwich, co. 
Kent, or of ' Greenwish,' a local name. 

GREENLEAF. A character in the pa- 
geants of Robin Hood. See Eng. Sum. i. 
184, note. 

GREENMAN. Perhaps the same as 
Greener ; or it may be a keeper of game, 
from the colour of his costume in the old 
times of " vert and venison." A keeper of 
Broyle park, at Ringmer, co. Sussex, on re- 
tiring from his duties opened an inn, to 
which he gave the name of the Green Man, 
the sign being his own portrait. 

The name was also given to the 'salvage' 
or ' man of the wood,' in old shows. See 

GREENWELL. "The wide-spreading 
and ancient family of Greenwell are des- 
cended from Gulielmus Presbyter, who in 
1183, as appears from 'Boldon Buke,' held 
the lands of Greenwell in the parish of Wal- 
singham, co. Durham, and whose son James 
assiuned the name of the place of his in- 
heritance." B.L.G. 

GREENWOOD. I find no specific 
locality called by this name ; but it is quite 
probable that in old times many a sylvan 
district gave a name of distinction to 
lovers of " vert and venison," whose abode 
was " the merrie green-wood." 

GREER. See Gregory. 

GREG. See Gregory. Gregg of Nor- 
cliff"e Hall, co. Chester, claims from the clan 
Macgregor of Scotland. Kings James VI. 
(1) and Charles 1. issued edicts against the 
clan Gregor, denouncing the whole clan, 
and forbade the use of the name ; in conse- 
quence of which many of the race became 
Campbells, Gregorys, Greigs, and Gregs. 

GREGORSON. See Gregory. 

GREGORY. The well-known personal 
name has not only become a surname, but 
has given rise to various others, especially 
Gregorson, Gregg, Gregson, Griggs, Grigson, 
Greig, Grix, and possibly Grocock. These 
forms are mostly Scotch, and Grier and 
Grierson, not to mention Mac-Gregor, are 
entirely so. 

The family of Gregory of "Warwickshire 
is traced to John G., lord of the manors of 
Freseley and Asfordby, co. Leicester, in the 
XIII. cent. Shirley's Noble and Gentle 

GREGSON. See Gregory. 

GREIG. See Gregory. 

GREIVE. See Grieve. 

GRENE. See Green. 

GRENTMESNIL. Literally 'the great 
manor,' a place in Normandy. According 
to Ordericus Vitalis, Hugo de Greutmesnil 
was made governor of the county of Hants, 


3 Will. Conq., and was high steward to that 
monarch's son Rufus. Kelham. 

GRENVILLE. The Grenvilles of Woot- 
ton, CO. Bucks, descend from Richard de 
Granville, who came in with the Conqueror 
in the train of Walter Giffard, earl of Lon- 
gueville and Buckingham, whose son in law 
he was. The name, which has been 
variously written, Greynevile, Greinville, 
Granville, &c., and latinized De Granavilla, 
was doubtless borrowed from Granville, 
the well-known seaport of Lower Nor- 
mandy. The Grenvilles of the West are 
of the same stock. George G. of Stowe, in 
Cornwall, the poetical Lord Lansdowne, 
writing in 1711 to his nephew, Wm. Henry, 
Earl of Bath, says : " Your ancestors for at 
least five hundred years never made any 
alliances, male or female, out of the western 
counties : thus there is hardly a gentleman 
either in Cornwall or Devon, but has some 
of your blood, as you of theirs." Quart. 
Rev. V. CII. p. 297. The G.'s of the Buck- 
inghamshire Stowe could boast of a still 
longer territorial stability. 

The more correct form of the name is 
Granville, the spelling now and anciently 
used for the town. George Grenville, in 
his letter to his kinsman Charles, Lord 
Lansdowne, on the bombardment of the 
town of Granville, in Normandy, by the 
English fleet, alludes to the arms of Gran- 
ville as till then preserved over one of the 
gates of that town : — 

** Those arms which for nine centuries (?) have braved 
The wrath of time, on antique stone engraved, 
Now torn by mortars, stand yet undefaced 
On nobler tropliies, by thy valour raised. 
Safe on thy eagle's wings they soar above 
The rage of war or thunder to remove ; 
Borne by the bird of C«esar and of Jove." 

The allusion here is to his lordship's 
creation as a Count of the Empire, the 
family arms to be thenceforth borne on the 
breast of the imperial eagle. It seems sin- 
gular that the noble family should have 
tolerated the spelling Grenville, though 
Clarendon goes even further, and writes 
Greenvil, ji?a«*m. A still grosser corrup- 
tion brings the great town Qrande ville) to 
the level of a Green-field. There is, how- 
ever, a locality in Normandy which appears 
really to have experienced this metamor- 
phosis, for of another Granville there runs 
a proverb : — 

" Granville, grand vilain! 
Unc dglise et un monlin, 
On volt Granville tout Ji plcin." 

WrigMt Essays, i. 134. 

GRESHAM. A parish in Norfolk. 

GRESLEY. Did no such nlace as 
Oresley, co. Derby, exist, I should be dis- 
posed to assign, as the ancestorof the family, 
that Domesd. tenant, Albertus Oratlet, who 
held *' inter Ripam et Mersam ;" but the 
Greslcy pedigree is clearly traced to the Con- 
quest, and even to an earlier date, as cadets 
of the great house of Toni, hereditary 
standard-bearers of Normandy. Lysons' 
Derb. ** Descended from Nigel, called De 
Stafford, mentioned in Domesd. and said to 
have been a younger son of Roger do Toni, 
and very soon after the Conquest established 

138 G R I 

in Derbyshire, first at Gresley {undo runnen) 
and afterwards at Drakelow in the same 
parish," where they still remain. Shirley's 
Noble and Gentle Men. 

GRETTON. Places in cos. Northampton 
and Gloucester. 

GREVILLE. Greville, a parish at the 
extremity of the isthmus of La Hogue in 
Normandy, is supposed to have given name 
to the Lord of Greville, who accompanied 
William I. to the Conquest of England ; but 
this is uncertain, as there were three dis- 
tinct fiefs which gave to their possessors the 
title of Sire de Grevile. M. De Gerville in 
Mem. Soc. Antiq. Norm. 1825. 

*' This family was founded [re-founded] 
by the wool -trade in the XIV. cent., by 
William Grevel, ' the flower of the wool- 
merchants in the whole realm of England,' 
who died and was buried at Campden, in 
Gloucestershire, in 1401." Shirley's Noble 
and Gentle Men. 

GREW. L A greyhound. North. (Old 
I)eople in Sussex say greiclwund.^ 2. An 
old Scotticism for grove is grev£. Jamie- 

GREY. Most genealogists derive this 
ancient and noble family from Fulbert, 
chamberlain to Robert, duke of Normandy, 
who held by his gift the castle of Croy, in 
Picardy, from whence the name is assumed 
to have been borrowed. There is however 
no evidence for this ; for the pedigree is 
only traced to Henry de Grey, to whom 
Richard Cc6ur-de-Lion gave the manor of 
Thurrock, co. Essex, which manor was sub- 
sequently known as Grey's Thurrock. From 
the "Recherches sur le Domesd." of D'Anisy, 
it appears probable that the family came 
from Grai or Gray, a village near Caen. 
However this may be, the first settler of the 
name in England, was clearly Anchitillus 
Grai, a Domesd. tenant in Oxfordshire. 

GREYSON. Probably Gregorson, the 
son of Gregory. 

GRICE. O. Fr. A pig. See PurceU. 

GRIEF. See Grieve. 

GRIER. See Gregory. 

GRIERSON. The son of Gregor ; de- 
scended from the clan Gregor. B.L.G. 
under Macadam. 

GRIEVE. A-Sax. geref(L, prajses, like 
the Germ. graf. In Scotland the manager 
of a farm, or superintendent of any work — 
a reeve. It has been variously corrupted to 
Greive, Greaves, Greeves, &c. 

GRIFFIN. A common baptismal name 
in Wales. Domesday shews us a Grifin in 
Cornwall, and in Cheshire a Grifin Itcjr^ 
first a favourite of Edw. the Confessor, and 
afterwards a rebel against him. He was 
probably a Welsh J)order prince. The same 
old record presents us with a " Grifin puer" 
and a " Grifin filius Mariadoc," most likely 
itlontical, as a tenant in chief in co. Here- 



GRIFFINHOOFE. This Germ, name 
was introduced into England by one of the 
physicians of Geo. I. Mr. Fox Talbot ob- 
serves that, " one might suppose this to be 
from the Germ, grafen-hvf, impl}4ng some 
person attached to the court of a count," if 
there had not existed a Germ, family name 
Greifenklau, or the Griffin's Claw. Eng. 
EtjTii. 302. In medieval poems &c. many 
references to grifl&ns' claws are found. In 
" Ruodlieb," the hero wears, apparently, a 
hunting horn made of such a talon. 

" Pendet et & niveo sibimet gripis ungula collo." 
The so-called griffins' claws were doubt- 
less the horns of some species of the 
genus hos, or, as Dr. Grew thinks, of the 
ibex vim. See some curious details in 
Curios, of Heraldr}', pp. 97, 98. 

known Welsh baptismal name. 

GRIGGS. See Gregory. 

GRIGNON. " Chagrin, et de mauvaise 
humeur," generally applied to children. 
Decorde's Diet, du Patois du Pays de Bi-ay. 


GRIMBELL. The old personal name 

GRBIBLEBY. Apparently from Grim- 
oldly, a parish in co. Lincoln. 

GRIMES. Grym, an ancient personal 
name, apparently Scandinavian, whence 
Grimson and the local names Grimwood, 
Grimshaw, Grimsdale, Grimwade, and 
several others to be found in their proper 

GRIIMLEY. A parish in co. Wor- 

GRIMM. See Grimes. The etymon 
seems to be the 0, Norse grimr, grim, 

GRI^ISBY. A town in Lincohishire. 

GRIMSON. See Grimes. 

GRIMSTON. Several places bear this 
designation, four of them in Yorkshire, the 
ancient and present abode of the family. 
The pedigree is traced to Sylvester, who is 
traditionally said to have attended the Con- 
queror from Normandy in the capacity of 
standard-bearer: He settled at Grimston, 
and held his lands of the Lord Rosse, and 
he or his immediate descendants took the 
name of De Grymeston, B.L.G. His pos- 
terity have been resident there from the 
period of the Conquest. Shirley's Noble 
and Gentle Men. 

GRIND ALL. A chapelry in Yorkshire. 

GRINDER. A journeyman miller — still 
so called in the S. of England. Le Grindar. 

ship united with Tushingham, co. Chester. 

GRINDON. Parishes in cos. Stafford 
and Durham. 


GRINSTED. E. and W., parishes in 

GRINTER. One who has the care of a 
granary. Scotch grainter, from Fr. grene- 
tkr. In Aberdeenshire this person is called 
grintalman. Jamieson. 

zelda or Grizel occurs in Scotland, though 
omitted by Camerarius in his list of 
Scottish saints. Chambers' Pop. Rhymes 
of Scotland. A less complimentary deriva- 
tion would be from grisel, the diminutive of 
the A-Norm. gris, a pig. So we have the 
vernacular Pigg, Wildbore, and other ana- 
logous surnames. See Purcell. 

GRIX. See Gregory. 

GROAT. See Money — or perhaps the 
same as Grote. 

GROCER. The occupation. 

GROCOCK. Possibly a diminutive of 


GRONOW. An ancient Welsh personal 
name. King Henry VII. was grand-mater- 
nally descended from Sir Tudor ap Gronow, 
who lived temp. Edw. IIL 

GROOM. GROOME. "One who at- 
tends, observes, takes or has the care or 
custody of anything, whether of horses, 
chambers, garment, bride, &c." Richard- 
son. Dutch grom, an attendant. 

GROOMBRIDGE. A chapelry in Kent. 

GROOT. Originally De Groot, (that is 
the great or big) from Holland. The real 
surname of the illustrious Grotius. The 
connection between the Dutch and English 
Groots is sufficiently shewn in one of Dr. 
Johnson's letters to his friend. Dr. Vyse, of 
Lambeth. " I doubt not but you will readily 
forgive me for taking the liberty of request- 
ing your assistance in reconunending an old 
friend to his Grace the Archbishop, as 
Governor of the Charter-House. His name 
is De Groot ; he was bom in Gloucester ; I 
have known him many years. He has all 
the conmaon claims to charity, being old, 
poor, and infirm in a great degree. He has 
likewise another claim, to which no scholar 
can refuse attention ; he is by several des- 
cents the nephew of Hugo Grotius — of him 
from whom perhaps every man of learning 
has learnt something. Let it not be said in 
any lettered country that a nephew of Gro- 
tius asked a charity and was refused. I am, 
reverend sir, your most humble servant, 
Sam. JoiixsoiJ. July 9, 1777." 

GROSE. See Gross. 
GROSER. See Grocer. 
GROSJEAN. See John. 
GROSS. GROSSE. Fr. gros. Great, 
big, as to stature. 

GROSSMITH. See under Smith. 
GROTESTE. See Grcathead. 
GROSVENOR. Le Gros Fenewr— "the 



great or chief hunter"— that office having 
been hereditary in the family under the 
dukes of Normandy. The family descend 
from an uncle of Rollo the founder of Nor- 
mandy ; and the first settler in England was 
Gilbert le Grosvenor, nephew of Hugh 
Lupus, earl of Chester, who was nephew 
of the Conqueror. This illustrious name 
is properly latinized Magnus Venator, but 
sometimes, absurdly, De Grosso Venatore. 

GROTE. Perhaps Dutch groot, big of 
stature. See Groot Grote without prefix 
is in H.R. 

GROUCOCK. See Gregory. 

GROUSE. " Is certainly not from the 
bird, but from an old Germ, name Grauso, 
VI. cent., which Forstmann refers to A- Sax. 
greosan, horrere." Ferguson. 

GROUT. The same as Groot. 

GROVE. From the original bearer's 
residence near one. Hence also the common 
names Groves and Grover. The Groves of 
Fern, co. "Wilts, claim descent from John de 
Grove of Chalfont St. Giles, who died 2G 
Edward III. 

GROVER. See Grove. 

GROVES. See Grove. 

GROWSE See Grouse. 

GRUBBE. "The family of Gnibbe, 
spelt in the old registers Griibe or Groube, 
migrated from Germany about the year 
1430, after the Hussite persecutions, and 
subsequently settled at Eastwell in the par- 
ish of Potteme, co. Wilts, where they have 
ever since remained. B.L.G. The name 
is analogous in signification to our Pitt. 

GRUMBLE. A corruption of the per- 
sonal name Grimbald. 

GRUJMBRIDGE. See Groombridge. 

GRUKD. See Grundy. 

GRUNDY. Apparently the old Teutonic 
personal name Grund, whence Grundis- 
borough, a parish in Suffolk. 

GRYLLS. An old Cornish fanuly. The 
manor of Grylls (commonly mispronounced 
Garles), from which they probably derive 
their name, is in the parish of Lesnewth in 
that county. 

rived from the old Norman family name of 
Gobion ; or more probably from the French 
gohlriy a hunchback or ill-formed man. 
This name was borne by a singular tril)e or 
horde of barbarians, who from the XV. to 
the XVII. century infested the borders of 
Dartmoor. Fuller, writing of them in 1G62, 
says: — 

" Hitherto have I met with none who conM render 
a reason of tlioir name. We call the shavinfrs of fish 
which are little worth, guVtbinps; and sure it is they 
are sensible that the word itnporteth shame and dis- 
grace. As for the sujrpi*stion of my worthy and 
learned friend, Mr. Joseph Maynard, l>orrowed from 
IJuxtorttus tliatsuch who did 'inhabitare montes K'b- 
Ix^rosos' were called CfUbbinps, such will smile at the 
ingenuity, who dissent flrom tlie truth of the etymo- 


" I have read of an England beyond Wales ; but thd 
Gubbings land is a Scythia within England, and they 
pure heathens therein. It lieth nigh Brent-Tor, on 
the edge of Dartmoor. It is reported that some two 
hmidrcd years since, two strumpets being with child 
fled liither to hide themselves, to whom certain lewd 
fellows resorted, and this was their first original." 

" They are a, peculiar of their own making, exempt 
fi"om bishop, archdeacon, and all authority, either 
ecclesiastical or civil. They live in cots (rather holes 
than houses) like swine, having all in common, multi- 
plied without marriage into many hundreds. Their 
language is the dross of the dregs of the vulgar 
Devonian ; and the more learned a man is, the worse 
he can understand them. During our civil wars, no 
soldiers were quartered amongst them for fear of being 
quartered amongst them, Tlieir wealth consistcth in 
other men's goods, and they live by stealing the sheep 
on the moor ; and vain it is for any to search thrir 
houses, being a work beneath the pains ofa sheriff and 
above the power of any constable. Such their fleet- 
ness, they will outrun many horses; vivaciousness, 
they outlive most men, living in the ignorance of 
luxury, the extinguisher of life. They hold together 
like burrs; offend one, and all will revenge his 

" But now I am informed that they begin to be 
civilized, and tender their children to baptism and 
return to be men, yea, Cliristians again. I hope no 
civil people amongst us wiH turn barbarians, now 
these barbarians begin to be civilized." 

Fuller's Worthies, i. 898. 

GUDE. The Scottish form of Good. 

GUDGEN. GUDGIN. See Fishes. 

GUERIN. The family of this name in 
England derive from "a noble French 
family, established in Champagne, the 
Isle of France, and Auvergne." Burke's 

GUERRIER. Fr. A warrior, soldier. 

GUESS. A corruption of Guest. 

GUEST. Gest, an A-Sax. name occur- 
ring in Domesd. and before, and signifying 

GUESTLING. A parish in Sussex. 

GUILLE. See under Mauger. The 
Jersey family sent some branches to Eng- 
land, where they altered the orthogi-aphy to 

GUILLIAM. SeeVTilliam. 

GUrLLIM. See William. 

GUINNESS. A modern corruption of 
the old Irish Magennis. 

GUISE. A district in the east of France. 

GULL. Is susceptible of various inter- 
pretations, as : 1. The bird ; 2. A dupe or fool, 
very common in the old dramatists, 
and still in use ; 3. One of the numerous 
modifications of Guillaume, William; 4. 
See Guille. 

G ULLI VER. This name occurs in Lend. 
Direct., in juxto-position with GuUi/bn^ 
suggesting the local origin. 

GUMBOIL. This "most villanous of 
all corruptions is the same no doubt as an 
old German name Gumpold or Gimdbold." 

GUMM. A-Sax. g-M/no, a man. 

GUMMERSALL. See Gomcrsal. 

GUNN. GUN. An ancient personal 
name, or rather a contraction of one, such as 
Qundebert, Gundric, or Gundbald. 




GUKNliR. An ancient baptismal name 
borne by various persons who held lands 
prior to Domesd. It is variously spelt 
Gunner, Gunnerus, Gunnere, Gunnor, and 
Gonnar. Gunnora is probably its femi- 

GUNNING. An O. Norse personal 

GUNSON. The son of Gun. See Gunn. 
Sackford Gunson, Esq., was one of the 
commissioners for Surrey, in 1649. Bray- 
ley's Surrey, i. 68. 

GUNTER. GUNTHER. A tradition 

"^n tlie family says, from gaunt d'or, allusive 
to the golden gauntlets in their arms ; but 
this is very improbable. Guntaric was an 
old Teutonic personal name, and Gonther 
and Gunter appear as tenants in Domesd. 

GUNTON. Parishes in cos. Norfolk and 

GUPPY. Perhaps O. Fr. goupil, a fox. 

GURD. Gurth or Gyrth, an A-Sax. 
personal name, which was borne by one of 
the brothers of Harold, who fell with him 
at Hastings. 

GURDON. "This family came into 
England with the Conqueror, from Gourdon 
on the borders of Perigord." B.L.G. But 
the earliest member of the family there 
mentioned is Sir Adam de G., who was 
keeper of Wolmer Forest, co. Hants, temp. 
Edward I. 

GURNALL. GURNELL. Scott makes 
The Antiquary say of his residence : " I live 
here as much a Coenobite as my predecessor, 
John o' the Giraell ;" and the Scottish 
Dictionaries give ^^ girnall, ginwll, a large 
chest for holding meal." The novelist pro- 
bably had in his eye a brother who presided 
over the garner or granary rather than over 
the meal-chest of " Monkbarns." 

GURNARD. See Fishes. 

GURNETT. A known corruption of 

GURNEY. SeeGournay. 

GURR. Probably from Gueures, a vil- 
lage in Normandy, near Dieppe. One Peter 
Gyrre, apothecar>', from Dieppe, a Protestant 
refugee, arrived at Rye, co. Sussex, 1572. 
Lansd. M.S. 15-70. 

GURRIER. Perhaps a corruption of 
the Fr. guerrier, a warrior. 

GUTHRIE. An estate in Forfarshire, 
Scotland. Tliis might be considered a 
tolerably satisfactory origin for the name, 
especially as the family continue to write 
themselves 'of that Ilk,' to the present day. 
Tradition, however, has invented another, 
which is amusingly absurd ; I give it as I 
find it in Chambers' Popular Rhymes of 
Scotland : — 

" One of the kings of Scotland, when on 
an aquatic excursion to the northern part 
of his dominions, was overtaken by a storm, 

and driven ashore on the east coast, some- 
where between Arbroath and Montrose. 
Getting in safety to land, the king, like the 
pious ^neas, under similar circumstances, 
turned his thoughts upon the means of ac- 
quiring food wherewith to satisfy his o^vn 
hunger and that of his attendants, both 
considerably sharpened by the sea breeze. 
He had not, however, the good fortune of 
the Trojan hero in seeing — 

" tres littore cervos 


—nothing appeared on the bare Scottish coast 
but a poor fisherwoman, who was cleansing 
some small fishes she had just caught. 
" Will you gut one to me, good-wife ?" said 
the monarch. " I'll gut three !" being her 
immediate answer, the king exclaimed in 
rapture at her heartiness and hospitality — 

Your name shall be I 

and immediately put her family in posses- 
sion of the adjoining lands, which yet con- 
tinue to be the property of her descendant, 
the present Guthrie of Guthrie 1" 

GUTSELL. This elegant surname is 
chiefly found in Sussex, and may be that 
which, in the XIV. century was written De 
Guttreshole. Godsol and Godsouele, how- 
ever, occur in the H.R., favouring the idea 
that as in the case of Goddody, an oath is 
intended. To swear by the body and soul 
of the Almighty was a prevalent vice of old 
times. King Edward III., at a tournament, 
had his trappings embroidered with this 
profane couplet : — 


GUTTER. A drain for water. One 
Joh'es of the Gutter is found in the Nonse 
returns, 1341. 

GUY. The old personal name Guido, 
probably from Gains, and the Celtic Kei, as 
Baxter thinks. Glossary, p. 58. 

GUYATT. SeeWyatt. 

GUYENNETTE. A native of Guienne ? 

GUYER. Old English guyour^ a guider 
or leader. Piers Ploughman. 

GUYMAR. GUYMER. See Gaymer. 

GWATKIN. The Welsh form of Wat- 
kin, as Guillim is of William. 

GWILT. Celtic givylt^ an inhabitant of 
the woods. Thompson's Etymons, p. 3. 

GWINNETT. Welsh— and apparently 
a modification of Gwynne. 

GWYN. GWYNNE. (Welsh) White. 

GYDE. Possibly a nursename of Gideon. 

GYLES. As Giles. 


GYPP. GYPSON. Probably the same 
as Gibb and Gibson. 





HaBERDIKE. Said to be identical 
with Hawardine, which is clearly the same 
as the local Hawarden. If so, Herberden 
is a still further departure from the true 

HACK. A-Sax. hege. A hedge. The 
word hack is still used in this sense in co. 

HACKBLOCK. Probably from some 
manual feat. Wagstaff, Hurlbat, Shake- 
shaft, &c., are of analogous derivation. See 
under Shakspeare. 

HACKER. See Hackman. But Mr. 
Arthur derives it from a Dutch word signi- 
fying "a chopper, cleaver, or hewer, and 
figuratively, a brave soldier." 

HACKETT. A known corruption of 
Harcourt, 1669. See Bum's Tradesmen's 
Tokens, p. 73. But Hacket, a non-prefixed 
surname, is found in H.R. 

HACKFORTH. A township in York- 

HACKMAN. Hack is a provincial word 
for a pick-axe or mattock, and also for a 
hedge ; hence Hackman and Hacker may 
imply either a maker of axes, or a^mender 
of hedges. 

HACKNEY. A parish in Middlesex. 
In H.R. the surname is written Hakeneie, 
Hakeneye, Hakenie, &c. 

HACKSTAFF. See under Shakspeare. 

HACKWELL. A parish in Essex. 

HACKWITH. A corruption of Ack- 
worth, a local name. 

HACKWOOD. A corruption of Ac- 
wood, " the wood of oaks." 

HACON. A family so surnaraed reside 
at Swaff ham, co. Norfolk, and are doubt- 
less of Norse extraction. Hacon the Good 
and Hacon the Broad- Shouldered occur 
among the Kings of Norway; and their 
deeds, with those of others of the name, are 
recorded in the Heimskringla. In the 
H.R. for Suff'olk (i. 181), we find mentioned 
one Semannus Hacon, '* Hacon the Sailor," 
which looks sufficiently Norwegian. 

HAD AW AY. See Hathaway. 

HADDAN. HADDEN. Sec Haddon. 

HADDOCK. Not so likely from the fish 
as from some place terminating in ock. 

HADDON. Parishes and places in cos. 
Hunts and Northampton, as well as the 
famous Haddon Hall, in Derbyshire. 

HADEN. See Haydon. 

HADFIELD. A parish in Derbyshire. 

HADGLEY. Probably Haddesley, a 
township and a chapelry in Yorkshire. 

HADKISS. A corruption of Adkins. 

HADLEIGH. HADLEY. Parishes in 
Suffolk, Essex, Berks, and Middlesex. 

HADLOW. A parish in Kent, which 
" gave both seat and surname to a family 
ancient and conspicuous," temp. Edw. III. 
Philipott's Vill. Cantianum. 


in Shropshire. 

Probably Hodnet, a parish 

HAFFENDEN. The locality does not 
seem to be known. The gentry family de- 
rive from Lawrence Kaffenden, of Buggles- 
de?i, bailiff of Tenterdeti, temp. Richard III. 
This is sufficient proof of the origin of the 
race among the den^ of Kent, even if we 
did not know that they formerly had lands 
at Smarden and ^sAden. See Den. It is 
worth recording, that a younger and decayed 
branch of this family, the representative of 
which branch was lately the keeper of a 
small country inn at Heathfield, co. Sussex, 
have, for a series of generations, had right 
of sepulture in Heathfield church, where 
numerous gravestones mark their claim to 
ancient gentry. 

HAGAN. One of the heroes of the 
Nibelungen Lied bore this name. Hagen 
also occurs as an A- Sax. personal name in 
a charter of Ceadwalla, King of Wessex. 

HAGG. Broken ground in a bog. Hjdliw. 

HAGGARD. 1. According to B.L.G. 
the family are supposed to be derived from 
the Ogards of co. Herts. 2. Haggard is a 
corruption of " hay-garth," a rick yard, 
and is so employed in Hall and Holinshed, 
as well as in several provincial dialects. 
See Garth. 3, and most probably, an 
ancient baptismal name which occurs in 
Domesday as Acard and Acardus, and in 
the H.R. as Hacgard. 

HAGGER. See Haggard. 

HAGGERSTON. The pedigree is not 
regularly traced beyond Robert de Hagres- 
ton, lord of Hagreston in 1399, although a 
Rol>ert de Hagardeston occurs in 1312. The 
name is derived from Haggerston Castle, 
CO. Northumberland. Shirley's Noble and 
Gentle Men, p. 161. Some genealogists 
derive the name from Halkcrston, in Scot- 
land. William and Richard do H. are 
witnesses to a donation anno 1190. The 
settlement of the family in England seems 
to have taken place on the marriage of 
Thomas de H. with a coheir of Umfrevillo 
of Northumberland. Kimber's Baronetage. 

HAGON. See Hacon. 


HAGUE. Perhaps the same as Haig or 

HAGWORTHINGHAjM a place near 
Grimsby, co. Lincoln. 

HAIG. From Sir R. Douglas' Baronage 
of Scotland it appears that this family 
claim a Pictish, or an ancient British ex- 
traction ; but as in many similar cases the 
nanie is only traceable to the XI. century, 
and the reign of Malcolm IV. and William 
the Lion, when Petrus de Baga was lord 
of Bemerside, in Berwickshire. Twenty 
generations of Haigs have held that estate, 
and upon the authority of a distich, attri- 
buted to Thomas the Rhymer, the family is 
perennial : 


The family motto, "Tide what may," 
seems to have reference to this flattering 
prediction. An anecdote is related of a no 
very remote ancestor of the family, Zoroba- 
belHaig, Esq., with whose life the truth of 
it appeared likely to become extinct. The 
lady of Bemerside had blessed her loving 
lord with twelve daughters in succession, 
but a son by whom the name should be 
perpetuated was wanting. The worthy gen- 
tleman's faith was sorely tried, and the 
place is still pointed out whither he was 
wont daily to retire to pray that God would 
vouchsafe hun an heir. At length the 
much-desired boon was sent, and the Rhy- 
mer's prophecy came into higher credit than 
ever. Scott's Minst. Scott. Border, iii. 200. 
Jerdan's Autobiography, vol. i. Chambers' 
Popular Rhymes, p. 24. 

HAIGH. A township in Lancashire. 

HAIL. See Hale. 

HAILES. See Hales. 

HAILEY. A chapelry in Oxfordshire. 

HAILSTONE. Alestan is Athelstan, 
the ancient personal name. An Alestan 
was a tenant in chief in co. Hants at the 
making of Domesday. The surname may, 
however, be local, either from Hailston, a 
bum in co, Stirling, famous for its blocks 
of jasper, or from Ailston-hill near Here- 

HAINES. Perhaps a corruption of 
Ainulph. Camden. 

HAINSON. The son of Haine or 

HAIR. A corruption of heir, the eldest 

HAIRE. This Irish surname, previously 
to the year 1770, was written O'Hehir. 
The traditions of the family deduce them 
from the race of Fingal in the third cent., 
but historical evidence carries them back 
no further than the reign of Edw. III., 
13G5, when the representation of the family 
vested in the O'Haitchir or O'Hehir, chiefs 
of Hy Flancha and Hy Cormac, in the 
barony of Islands, co. Clare. In O'Connor's 
map of Ireland published about 1640, a 
large portion of that county still bore the 

143 HAL 

name of "the O'Hehir country." Inf. Tho. 
Haire, Esq., M.D. 

Doubtless a contraction of 



HAKEWILL. Probably Hackwell, a 
parish in Essex. 

HALDANE. Halfdene, a name occurring 
in the Saxon annals, is considered by Fer- 
guson to imply a Danish extraction on one 
side only — "half Dane." Hence perhaps 
the surname of the Scottish family. Among 
the tenants in chief in Norfolk, appears a 
Godwinus Haldein. Haldanus, Haldane, 
and other forms also occur in Domesd.. 
principally in the eastern counties. 

HALDEN. High Halden, a parish in 

HALE. 1. Healthy, stout. A-Sax. 
h^le^ a brave man, chief, or hero. 2. The 
name of many localities in various parts of 
England, particularly in cos. Chester, Cum- 
berland, Kent, Lancaster, Northampton, 
Hants, and Lincoln. 3. A hall. The forms 
in the H.R. generally relate to this meaning, 
as De la Hale, En la Hale, In the Hale, 

HALES. A town in Norfolk. Roger de 
Halys in 19 Hemy II. gave a tenement 
which he possessed in that place to the 
Abbey of Baungey. From him the Haleses 
of Woodchurch and Bekesboume, co. Kent, 
and of Coventry, baronets, are presumed to 
have sprung. See Burke's Ext. Barts. 

HALESWORTH. A town in Suffolk. 

HALEY. HALY. See Hayley. 

HALF ACRE. A local name ; or perhaps 
A-Sax. iKBr-fcegr^ fair or beautiful-haired. 

HALFENAKED. Walter de Ilalfe- 
naked lived in Sussex in 1314. The mano- 
rial estate from which he derived his name 
is now called Halnaker. It is near Good- 

HALFHE^VD. Perhaps a corruption of 
Halford or some such local name. 

H ALFHIDE. Possibly the feudal holder 
of half a hide of land. 

HALFKNIGHT. Might appear to refer 
to one who was only half a knight — an oc- 
casional servitor or follower ; but from the 
occurrence of one Robertus de Halveknycht 
in the H.R. it should be of local origin. 
The DE however may have been an error of 
the scribe. Other H.R. forms are Halve- 
knit and Halve Knycht. 

HALFORD. Parishes, &C., in cos. War- 
wick and Salop. 

HALFPENNY. See Money, denomina- 
tions of. In H.R. we have Halpeni and 
Halpeny without prefix. 

shire town. 

HALKETT. Probably a diminutive of 
Hal, Henry. The Halketts of Hale Hill, 
CO. Edinburgh, claim descent from the Hal- 
ketts, who were " free barons in Fifeshire 




six hundred years ago." David de H, was 
a " powerful warrior " in the reign of King 
Robert Bruce. B.L.G. 

H ALKINS. See Hawkins, of which it is 
a more correct form. 

HALL. A manor house. In medieval 
docmnents, Atte Halle, Del Hall, De Aula, 
&c. The principal apartment in all old 
mansions was the hall, and in feudal times 
it was a petty court of justice as well as the 
scene of entertainment. The chief servitor 
when the lord was resident, or the tenant 
when he was non-resident, would naturally 
acquire such a surname ; and hence its 
frequency. Nearly 300 traders so called 
appear in the Lond. Direct. 

The Halls of Cheshire are a cadet of the 
Kingsleys of that county. The elder branch 
of the family temp. Henry III. assumed the 
name of De Aula, or Del Hall, from the hall 
or mansion in which they resided. 

HALLAM. There are parishes so called 
in Derbyshire and Yorkshire, and that part 
of the West Riding of the latter county 
which contains the parishes of Sheffield and 
Ecclesfield is known as Hallamshire. 

HALLEKNAVE. A servant (cnapa, 
knave) who waits in the Hall. This name 
is found in the records of Leicester. 

HALLER. L See Hall, and the termi- 
nation ER. 2. More probably a native of 
Halle, in Germany. 

HALLETT. L A-Sax. haletta, one who 
is hailed or greeted — a hero, an eminent 
man. 2. A diminutive of Hal or Henry. 

H ALLEY. Local ; but I do not find the 

HALLIDAY. A well-known Scottish 
border clan, who from their great animosity 
against the Southron are said to have 
adopted the war-cry or slogan of A Holy 
Day, (Scottice, " a ffaly Day "), because 
the chiefs and people of Annandale, when- 
ever they made a raid or foray upon the 
Saxon border, accounted the day spent in 
rapine and slaughter a Jioly one. Burke's 
Commoners, ii. 127. In the XIII. century the 
name began to be common on the south of 
the Tweed, There were English Hallidays 
in our Scottish and French wars under 
Edw. III. and Hen. V. The Hallidays of 
the western counties descend from Walter 
Halliday, called the Miturtrcl^ who was 
master of the revels to King Edward IV., 
and acquired lands at Rodborough, co. 
Gloucester. B.L.G. 

HALLIFAX. Halifax, a town in York- 
HALLING. A parish in Kent. 

HALLIWELL. "The Holy Well"— a 
name given to many sacred fountains in the 
middle ages; but specifically applied to 
parishes and places in Lancashire, Middle- 
sex, &c. 

HALLOW AY. Sec Holloway. 

HALLO WELL. The same as llalliwcU. 

HALLOWS. Hallow, a parish in co, 

HALLS. Either Hawes, vihich see, or a 
pluralization of Hall. 

HALLWARD. The keeper of a hall. 
See Ward. 

HALSE. I. The son of Hal. See Henry. 
2. A parish in co. Somerset. 

HALSEY. The founder of this family 
was William Hawse alias Chamber, to 
whom Henry VIII. granted the rectory and 
patronage of Great Gaddesden, co. Hert- 
ford, where, under the name of Halsey, the 
family have ever since resided. B.L.G. 

HALSH AIM. Hailsham, a town in Sussex, 
where the family were flourishing in the 
XrV. cent. 

HALSON. 1 . The son of Hal or Henry. 

2. The same as Alison. 

HALSTEAD. A town in Essex. 

HALTON. Parishes and places in cos. 
Lancaster, Chester, Buckingham, Northum- 
berland, Lincoln, York, Sussex, &c. 

HALY. SeeHailey. 

HAM. A-Sax. ham, a homestead, 
whence — 

1^" HAM, as a component syllable in 
many local family names : 
" In Ford, in Ham, in Ley, in Ton, 
The most of English surnames nm." 

Professor Leo finds 96 out of 1,200 place- 
names in the Codex Dipl., vols. i. & ii., 
(or nearly one-twelfth of all the names 
of places in England mentioned in that 
collection of Charters) terminating in 
7id}n. Leo's Local Nomenclature, by 
Williams, p. 34. 

HAMBLEDON. Parishes, &c., in cos. 
Rutland, Lancaster, Buckingham, and York. 

HAMBROOK. A hamlet in co. Glou- 

HAIVIBROUGH. Of Hanoverian des- 
cent. The epitaph on Henry Hambrough 

at , CO. Huntingdon, records that he 

was of honourable ancestry. He was bom 
in 1574. B.L.G. 

HAJVIER. An O. Germ, personal name 
of the VIII. cent, whence probably also 

HAMES. See Ames. 

HAIHERTON. Descended from Richard 
de Hamerton, who was living in 1170, at 
Hamerton, co. York. In the reign of Edw. 
III. the family acquired Hcllifield in the 
same county, where they still reside. Shir- 
ley's Noble and Gentle Men. 

HAMILTON. A corruption of Ham- 
bledon, a manor in Buckinghamshire. 
William de Hambledon, a younger son of 
Robert de Beaumont, third earl of Leicester, 
" is said to have gone about the year 1215 
into Scotland, where he was well received 
by Alexander II. From liim sprang all the 
noble and other Scottish lines of Hamilton. 




A foolish tradition places the emigration of 
Hambledon from England to Scotland a 
century later, temp. Edw. II., and connects 
it with his having taken part with the mur- 
derers of that King's favourite, Spenser. 
Compelled by the monarch's resentment to 
leave England, and being closely pursued 
into a forest, Hambledon and his squire 
changed clothes with a couple of woodmen, 
whom they accidentally met, and the better 
to sustain their assumed character, seized 
a saw and began to cut down a tree. While 
engaged in this act their pursuers passed 
by, and De Hambledon finding his attend- 
ant's gaze directed towards them, hastily 
cried out " Tlirou<jli .'" and thus diverted 
him from the imprudence of revealing his 
features to their view. From this cir- 
cumstance, continues the legend, the Ha- 
miltons borrowed their crest — ' an oak tree 
penetrated transversely in the main stem 
by a frame saw,' and their motto 
* through!'" 

The Hamiltons are a migratory race, 
and are to be found in almost every region 
of the world. In the kingdom of Sweden 
alone, there are three noble houses of this 
name, descended from ofl&cers who served 
Gustavus Adolphus in the 30 years' war. ^ 
Grant's Memoirs of Sir John Hepburn, ' 
p. 33. 

HAMLETT. Hamlet or Hamleth ap- 
pears to have been an old Scandinavian 
personal name, whether the hero of Shaks- 
peare's tragedy was a real character or 
only an imaginary one. If this derivation 
is incorrect, we can hardly fall back upon 
hamlet, a small village, for the origin of 
the surname. Grose says that it is a pro- 
vincialism for a high constable. 


HAMLYN. The ancient personal name, 
as Hameline Plantagenet, brother of Henry 

HAMM. See Ham. 

shire surnames, believed to be derived from 
the Teutonic personal name Almaric or Al- 
meric. In the Domesd. of Devonshire 
Haimericus holds Polthnore and other lands 
in capite, and he was probably the founder 
of the family. The usual orthography prior 
to the beginning of the XVIII. century was 
Halmarick, but it has been subsequently 
still further corrupted by some of its bearers 
by the substitution of the letter M for the 
liquid L — the obvious result of a rapid pro- 
nunciation of the word. At length it was 
contracted to a dissyllable. The older 
spelling is still preserved by a Staffordshire 
branch of the family. The baronet (created 
1834) is of the Devonshire stock. The varia- 
tion from Haramick to Hammack in another 
branch is said to have originated in a mis- 
spelling of the name in a royal commission. 
Inf. J. T. Hammack, Esq. 

HAMMANT. See Hammond. 

HAMMER. According to Grimm and 
Forstemann, Hammer or Hamer is " a name 

under which traces of Thor are still to be 
found in the popular speech of Germany, 
and it is derived, no doubt, from the 
celebrated hammer or mallet which he 
wielded." Ferguson. This is rather indi- 
rect and inconclusive etymology. In like 
manner Kemble derives the "hammer- 
ponds " of the Weald of Sussex from the 
cultus of Thor, (Saxons in England), 
though it is well known that the majority 
of those ponds were formed within the last 
three centuries for the purpose of driving 
the machinery of the vast hammers which 
were used in the manufacture of iron, for- 
merly carried on to a large extent in that 
district. See Hamer. 

HAMMERTOE. See Hamerton. 


See Hammack. 
See Hammond. 

HAMMOND. Hamo is a well-known 
Domesd. personal name, which in later 
times assumed the form of Hamon, Hamond, 

HAJVIOND. See Hammond. 

HAMP. As we have the local names 
Hampstead, Hampden, Hampsthwaite, &c., 
as well as the patronymical Hampson, this 
was probably an ancient personal name. 

HAMPDEN. Great Hampden, co. 
Buckingham, where the patriotic John 
Hampden dwelt, in the ancient seat of his 

HAMPER. Apparently from the large 
coarse basket called in old times a hanaper. 
The Hanaper Office is a place where writs 
were formerly deposited in baskets, and the 
original Mr. Hanaper or Hamper may have 
been connected with that establishment. 
A Galfridus le Hanaper, occurs in H.R. — 
probably a sobriquet. 

HAMPSHIRE. From the county. 

HAMPSON. SeeHamp. 

HA]MPSTEAD. Parishes, &c. in cos. 
Middlesex and Berks. 

HAMPTON. Parishes and places in cos. 
Middlesex, Chester, Warwick, Hereford, 
Oxford, Worcester, Devon, Salop, Wilts, &c. 

HAMSHAR. This Sussex family derive 
their name, not from the adjoining county, 
Hampshire, but from an estate called 
Hammesheme in the parish of Slaugham. 
Inq. Non. 1341. 

HANBURY. A parish in co. Worcester, 
which in very early times was the seat of 
the family. 

HANCOCK. See John. 

HAND. HANDS. An ancient personal 
name. Hand and Hande are, however, 
surnames without prefix in H.R. Mr. Fer- 
guson says: "Walking through Hands- 
worth in Staffordshire, and seeing the name 
of Hand upon the shops, I said to myself, 
' Handsworth is the woiih or estate of a 
man called Hand, and these may be des- 
cendants of that man.' " 



A chapelry in co. Staf- 

HAXDLEY. There are parishes so 
called in Cheshire and Dorset; but the 
name may with equal probability spring 
from Andeli, in Normandy, famous as the 
residence of Coeur de Lion, as the birth-place 
of Poussin, the painter, and for the tomb 
of Corneille, the dramatist. Richer de An- 
deli was a capital tenant in Hampshire at 
the making of Domesday. 

HANDOVER. Probably a Cockney 
corruption of Andover. 

HANDSOiVIEBODY. See under Body. 
It may however refer to personal beauty, 
like the Fr. Beaxicorps, which is also a 
family name. 

HANDSAVORTH. A parish in Stafford- 

HANDY. Expert, clever — the charac- 
teristic of the first bearer. 

HANDYSIDE. As the orthography in 
the XVII. cent, was Handasyd, this name 
was perhaps originally given to a person 
who had a badly formed or ill-set hand. It 
may however be local — side being a very 
usual termination. 

HANFORD. From Hanford or Honford, 
CO. Chester, the original residence and estate 
of the family. See Ormerod's Cheshire, iii. 

HANGER. A wooded declivity. " The 
high part to the south-west consists of a vast 
hill of chalk, rising three hundred feet 
above the village ; and it is divided into a 
sheep down, the high wood, and a long 
hanging wood called the Hangek." White's 
Selbome, Letter i. 

HANHAM. A chapelry in c6. Gloucester, 
which was in the XIII. cent, the fee of 
Peter de Hanham, the first of the name on 

HANKEY. A modification of Hankin, 
the nickname or diminutive of Randolph, 
prevalent in some of the oldest families of 
Cheshire. The existing families of this 
Bumame derive from that county, and the 
name was borne there in the rank of gentry 
in the XV. century. 

nickname for Randolph, as in the ancient 
family of Manwaring and many others. 
Hanks, Hankin, and Hankinson are modi- 
fications of it. 

HANKINSON. See Hankin. 

HANKS. See Hankin. 

HANMER. A parish in Flintshire. 
The name was assumed from that place by 
it« owner. Sir John Hanmer, temp. Edw. I. 
The original name of the family is said to 
have been Mackfel. See Burke's Ext. 
Baronetage. The estate is still in the 

HANN. Germ. Imhn^ a cock. 

146 H A R 

HANNAH. See Female Christian Names. 

HANNAY. Anciently Ahannay or 
Hannay, of Sorbie, in Wigtonshire. A 
Gilbert de Anneth or Hannethe is found 
in Ragman Roll, A.D. 1296. Nisbet's 

HANNEY. A parish in Berkshire. 

HANNINGTON. Parishes in cos. Hants, 

Northampton, and Wilts. 

HANSARD. An ancient personal name, 
which Mr. Ferguson derives from the 
Gothic flw^, semi-deus, a hero, with the 
termination heard, hard. The Hansards 
of Evenwood, co. Durham, formerly had a 
seat in the palatinate parliament convened 
by the bishop of Durham. Folks of Shields, 
p. 1 8. Hansard is also a provincialism for 
a bill-hook or hedge-bill. The Hansards of 
Durham were commonly characterized as 
the Handso^ie Hansards. 

HANSELL. A corruption of Anselm, 
the personal name. 

HANSHAW. The more common, but 
less correct, form is Henshaw. It is doubt- 
less a compound of A- Sax. liana and sceaga ; 
" the shaw frequented by woodcocks." 

HANSLIP. Ferguson derives the former 
syllable from the Gothic aiis, a demi-god or 

HANSON. See John. 

HANWAY. A native of Hainault. 
That country was so called until temp, 
Henry VIIL 

HANWELL. A parish in Middlesex, 
and another in Oxfordshire. 

HANWORTH. Parishes in Middlesex, 
Norfolk, and Lincoln. 

HAPPY. R.G. 16. From natural dis- 

HARALD. See Harold. 

cation of the personal name Herbert, which 
in its older and truer form, is Harbard, a 
common Scandinavian designation, which 
Mr. Ferguson considers to mean "hairy- 
beard ;" but since a beard not hairy would 
be a great anomaly, I prefer " A^wiry-beard" 
as the truer rendering. 

HARBORD. See Harbard. 

HARBOROW. Harborough, a parish 
in CO. Warwick, and Market- Harborough, a 
town in Leicestershire. 

IIARBOTTLE. A small town in Nor- 

HARBOUR. Any place of refuge, 
whether for ships, travellers, beasts of the 
chase, &c. 

HARBUD. See Harbard. 

HARBY. Places in cos. Leicester and 

HARCOURT. A town and ancient 




chateau, now in ruins, near Brionne in 
Normandy, which gave title to the Fr. Dues 
de Harcourt. The ancient earls of Harcourt 
played a distinguished part in the history 
of Normandy. They were descended from 
Bernard, of the hlood-royal of Saxony, who 
having been born in Denmark was sur- 
named the Dane. He was chief counsellor 
and second in command to Hollo at the in- 
vasion of Neustria in A.D. 876, and ac- 
quired Harcourt and other fiefs for his 
eminent services. Collins. Eobert de 
Harcourt attended William I. to the Con- 
quest of England, and his descendants pos- 
sessed Stanton- Harcourt, co. Oxon, from 
1166 to 1830, when the elder line became 
extinct. Shirley's Noble and Gentle Men. 
It is rather remarkable that this illustrious 
and widely-spread name should have pre- 
served itself within the strict limits of 
patrician life. The London Direct. (1852) 
shows us only one tradesman so named, 
while Howards, Nevilles, Mortimers, Percys, 
Sinclairs, and Pierpointsare superabundant. 
I have kno^vn a Seymour who was a miller ; 
a Pelham who was a rat-catcher ; a Gage 
who was a mendicant ; and a Fitz-Gerald 
who was a strolling player; there are 
Gipsey s who are Stanleys ; butchers who are 
Fortescues ; huxters who are Hastingses ; 
tailors who are Montagues; and bakers 
who are Warrens ; but Harcourt, with the 
solitary exception I have named, seems ex- 
clusively to belong to high life. 

HARDBOTTLE. See Harbottle. 

HARD. A quay or landing place ; a harcL, 
that is a safe place for debarkation. The 
word occurs in several dialects, and a well- 
known instance of it as a topographical 
term is the 'Common Hard,' at Ports- 

HARDCASTLE. Must be, I think, a 

contraction of Harden Castle, the ancient 
residence of the Scotts of Harden, and a fine 
specimen to this day of a border fortress, in 

HARDEN. A parish in Wiltshire. 

HARDIE. A northern spelling of 

HARDIMAN. A man of courage and 


Hardings— in A- Sax. Heardingas, in Old 
Norse Haddingjar — were celebrated as an 
illustrious and heroic race. Grimm sup- 
poses them to have been an Eastlying 
people of the Danes and Swedes. (Deutsch 
Myth.)" Ferguson. The lute Lord Har- 
dinge claimed to be descended from a 
Danish family settled near Derby. The 
Domesday forms are Harding, Hardingus, 
Hardinc and Filius Harding. The soft 
sound given to the G, when the E final is 
employed, seems to be a modem affectation, 
quite unworthy of this sturdy old nict.. 

HARDINGHAM. A parish in Norfolk. 

HAR DMA N. According to an old su- 
perstition, a man '* who by eating a certain 

herb became impervious to shot, except 
the shot was made of silver." Halliwell. 

HARDMEAT. A curious corruption of 
Hardmead, a parish in Buckinghamshire. 

HARDRES. Robert de Hardres is men- 
tioned in Domesd. under L}Tninge, co. Kent. 
There are two parishes in that county so 
called, and Hardres Court was the family 
seat down to the extinction of the baronetcy 
in 1 764. An undisputed tradition says that 
the family came from Ardres in Picardy, 
and conferred their name upon the Kentish 
localities — a circumstance of rare but not of 
unique occurrence. In Heraldic Visitations 
and in records, the name is sometimes 
corrupted to Hards. 

HARDS. The Sussex family so desig- 
nated originally wrote themselves Hardres, 
and they are known to have been of tliat 

HARDSTAFF. This name is found in 
Sherwood Forest, and looks like an appel- 
lation as old as the days of Robin Hood and 
Little John. 

HARD WICK. Pai-ishes, &c., in cos. 
Cambridge, Gloucester, Norfolk, Oxon, 
Suflfolk, Worcester, York, Derby, Warwick, 
Bucks, Northampton, &c. 

HARDY. Fr. hardi^ brave, courageous, 
hardy. H.R. Hardi. 

HARE. From swiftness of foot. " The 
family of Hare (of Stow-Bardolph, Barts.) 
claimed to be a scion of the house of Hare- 
court or Harcourt in Lorraine, who were 
counts of Normandy." Burke's Ext. Barts. 

HAREBY. A pai'ish in Lincolnshire. 

HAREFIELD. A parish in Middlesex. 

HAREFOOT. Many names of places 
have ' Hare ' for their initial syllable, and 
many others, ' foot,' as their termination. 
I think, however, that this surname had a 
figurative reference to swiftness of foot. 
We have an instance of this application in 
king Harold Harefoot ; and at the present 
day the family name Pie-de-lie^re exists 
in France. 

HARFORD. The town and county of 
Hertford are vulgarly so pronounced, but 
there is a parish of Harford in Devonshire 
with which however the family do not 
appear to have been connected. According 
to Burke, "the cunabulagenfi^yvsis Bosbury, 
CO. Hereford, in the chiu-ch of which parish 
there are several ancient monuments of the 
family." B.L.G. 

&c. in cos. Chester, Northampton, and 

HARGREAVES. See Hargraves. 

place in Cumberland, where Robert H. lived 
temp. Henry III. Shirley's Noble and 
Gentle Men. It is elsewhere asserted that 
the baronet springs from Osulphus, who 
held the manor of Flemingley in Cumber- 
land temp. Richard I., and that his son took 




the name of Harington from a manor in co. 
Durham. Courthope's Debrett. 

HARKER. A corruption of Harcourt. 

HARLAND. I do not find any place so 
called. Her] and occurs as one of the cha- 
racters in the well-known romance of 
" Horn," as a personal name. See Wright's 
Essays, i. 104. 

HARLEY. A parish in Shropshire, which, 
according to the genealogists of the noble 
family, was their residence before the 
Nonnan Conquest " In an ancient leiger 
book of the abbey of Pershore, in Worcester- 
shire," says Collins, " is a commemoration 
of a noble warrior of this name, who com- 
manding an army under Ethelred, king of 
England, in his wars against Sweyn, king of 
Denmark, gave the Danes a great defeat 
near that town, about the year 1013. 
Before the Conquest, Sir John de Harley 
was possessed of Harley castle and lord- 
ship." The same, or another. Sir John de 
Harley accompanied the expedition to the 
Holy Land in 1098. By some genealogists, 
both French and English, the great house 
of Harlai in France are deduced from this 
stock, " though others maintain that they 
are denominated from the town of Arlai in 
the Franche-Compte of Burgundy.'' Collins. 
This ancient race is now represented by the 
Harleys of Down Rossal. 

" Soaliger had a most ridiculous aversion 
to the name of Harlai, and he thus ex- 
presses himself in I^tin-Grallic jargon. 
•' Omnes Harlai sunt bizarres. Sunt quin- 
que familiic, et omnes avari." (All the 
Harlais are queer. There are five different 
families of them, and all of them miserl}'.) 
He prooeeds to specify instances of their 
Avarioe, and closes his sarcasms with the 
character of " Dominus de Saint Aubin, 
qui est unus ex Harlais, gu1>cmator de 
Saint Maixcnt. Semper vivit in hospitio, ne 
OOgatur amicos cxcipcrc. Plus consumo in 
ano anno quam ille." (The sieur de St. 
Aubin, who is one of the Harlais, and go- 
vemorof St. Maixent, always lives at an inn, 
that he may have an excuse for not enter- 
taining his friends. Even I spend more in a 
year than he does), M. de Mougla.«i, one 
of the Harlai family, who had a particular 
esteem for Soaliger, happened to liglit one 
day upon this ill-tempcretl, weak paragraph. 
Ver>' naturally he flung the book into the 
fire, and discarded its writer from his 
friendship." Andrews' Anecdotes, 1790. 

HARLINO. E. and W., parishes in 

HARLOT. 1. A scoundrel. 2 A boor; 
synonymous with carlr. Su-Gothic haer^ 
cxercitus, and /i////*, mancipium vile, a boor 
or villain. Jamieson. 

HARLOWE. A hundred and a parish 
in Rmcx, and a township in Northuml^er- 

HARM AN. Hermann was the marching 
Mcrcur)' of the old Germans. "Irman, 
Armin, F.orman, Hermann," says Professor 
Donaldson, *' is the oldert deity of our 

race. He combines the functions of the 
two later deities, Tiv, or Ziv, or Ziu, cor- 
responding to Mars, and Wodan, corres- 
ponding to Mercury ; and therefore claims 
as his own both the third and the fourth 
days of the week. He is the Er or Eor of the 
Scythic tribes, and the Ares of the Greeks. 
He appears equally in the heroic Arminiua 
of the Low Grermans, and in the heroic 
Hemiinius of Roman fable." Cambridge 
Essays, 1856, p. 68. As^n English sur- 
name, Herman or Harman is of great 
antiquity. Hermann, Hermannus, as a per- 
sonal name, is found in Domesday. 

HARMER. An ancient personal name, 
occurring in the Domesd. of Norfolk among 
the tenants in chief as Hermerus. 

HARMSAVORTH. A corruption of 
Harmondsworth, a parish in Middlesex. 

HARNESS. The old word for body- 
armour. Hence Lighthamess, and the Fr. 
Beauharnois, or " fair harness." 

HAROLD. The well-known Scandina- 
vian personal name, borne by Norwegian, 
Danish, and English kings. 

HARPER. A performer on the harp. 

HARPHAM. A parish in Yorkshire. 

HARPUR. The family is traced to 
Chesterton, co. Warwick, temp. Henry L 
and II. Shirley's Noble and Gentle Men, 
p. 47. The name is synonymous with 
Harper, since it occurs indiflferently in H.R. 
as Le Harpur and Le Harpere. 

H ARRAD. A corruption of Harold. 

bably corruptions of Harrowden, places in 
cos, Northampton and Bedford. 

HARRAP. Probably a corruption of 
Hareup or Harehope, a township in Nor- 

HARRIDGE. Harwich, co. Essex. 

HARRIE. A Scottish pronunciation of 

HARRIES. The pedigree is traced to 
Cruchton, co, Salop, A.D. 1463. It has 
been supposed that the Harries' s are of the 
old race of '* Fitz-Henry," mentioned in 
deeds of that county, and who were seated 
at Little Sutton prior to the reign of Edward 
III. Shirley's Noble and Gentle Men, p. 204. 

HARRILD. The same as Harold. 


harrle is an old northernism for to pillage, 
and a Harriman is therefore a freebooter or 

HARRINGTON. Parishes in cos. Lin- 
coln and Northampton. 

HARRIS. From Henry, through Harry, 
and thence Harrison. •' It is in recent 
times only, that a Saxon Harris, equivalent 
to Harry's son, has been converted into the 
etymological mongrel of Fitz-llarn*^ which 
is almost as startling as Fitz-Harrison or 
Fitz-Thompson would be." Edinb. Rev., 
AprU, 1865. 




HARRISON. See Henry. 

HARROD. 1. Harold. 2. Harewood. 

HARROP. See Harrap. 

HARROW. A town in Middlesex. 

HARROWER. The occupation. A 
tiller of land. 

HARRY. See Henry. Harry was fami- 
liarly applied even to royal Henries. See 
Shakspeare, passim. 

H ARSTON. A parish in co. Cambridge. 

HART. A male deer — a common charge 
of heraldry. Its medieval form as a sur- 
name is ' Le Hart.' We have a large im- 
portation of Harts from Germany, where 
the word implies hard, stiff, inflexible, rude, 
or severe. Many Jewish families bear this 

HARTCUP. Of German extraction. 

HARTFIELD. A parish in Sussex. 

HARTING. A parish in Sussex. 

HARTLAND. A town in Devonshire. 

HARTLEY. Places in cos. Kent, Nor- 
thumb., Westmoreland, Hants, Berks, Sec. 

HARTON. Townships in cos. Chester 
and York. 

HARTOPP. Lo(!al: from hart, the 
animal, and noPK, which see. The first of 
the family on record is Ralph Hartopp who 
was living in 1377. Burke's Ext. Barts. 

HARTRIDGE. Local : "the hill or ridge 

frequented by deer." 


parish in co. Derby. 

HARTWELL. Parishes in cos. Buck- 
ingham and Northampton. 

HARVARD. A Scandinavian personal 

HARVERSON. The son of Harvard, 

which see. 

HARVEY. HERVEY. An ancient 
Norman personal name — Hervi. M. de 
Ger\nlle in Mem. Soc. Ant. Norm., 1844, 
observes : " We sometimes call it Hervot . . 
La Hervurie signifies the habitation of 
Herve." As a family designation it appears 
in England in the XH, cent. Osbert d€ 
Hervey is styled, in the register of St. Ed- 
mundsbur}', the son of Hervey. From him 
according to the Peerage sprang the Herveys, 
ennobled in England and Ireland, and also 
(in all probability, from the resemblance of 
their arms) the De Hervi's and Hervies of 
Aberdeenshire and other parts of Scotland. 

HAR VIE. A northern form of Harvey. 

HARWOOD. Prior to the latter half of 
the XrV. cent, the name was written Har- 
ward and Hereward, and tradition derives 
the family from the celebrated Hereward, 
the patriot Saxon, who a few years after the 
Conquest headed his oppressed countrymen 
against the forces of William. He was the 

younger son of Leofric, earl of Mercia. See 
Ellis' Domesd. i. 308 and ii. 14G. See also 
Wright's Essays, ii. 91, &c. It may how- 
ever be of the local class, there being many 
places in England called Harwood. 

HASELDEN. More commonly written 
Hesledon ; a place in Gloucestershire, well- 
known for its abbey. It is often corrupted 
to Hazeldine, Haseltine, &;c. See Den. 

HASELER. See Hasler. 

HASELGROVE. Local : " the grove of 
hazel trees." 

HASELL. HAZELL. Hasle, a town- 
ship in Yorkshire. 

HASELTINE. See Hazelden. 

HASELTREE. From residence near a 
remarkable hazel. Conf Oak, Ash, &c. 


slewood, a parish in Suffolk. 
HASKER. A Spenserean word for a fish- 
basket is hask. Hence, perhaps, a maker 
of such baskets. 

HASKINS. From Haw or Hal, Henry, 
with the diminutive kin. 

HASLEFOOT. Local : from the hazel 
tree and foot, which see. 

HASLEHURST. The hurst or wood 
where hazel-trees abound. 

HASLEMORE. Haslemere, a town in 

HASLER. The Dutch hasselaer, a hazel 
tree, has been suggested ; but there are 
places in cos. Dorset, Wanvick, and Staflford 
called Haselor. 

HASSALL. A township in Cheshire 
gave name to a great family. 

HASSARD. Of Norman extraction. The 
orthography was originally Hassart, and 
the extinct dukes of Charante were of the 
same family. Soon after the Conquest a 
branch settled in co. Gloucester, and after- 
wards removed into Dorsetshire. The Irish 
Hassards settled in that country from Eng- 
land, temp. Charles IL B.L.G. 

HASSELL. 1. From the Christian 
name Asceline ; so Ansell from Anselm. In 
the H. R,, Fil'Acelini, Acellin, Acelyn. 2. 
Local : De Hassell, co. Oxon. H.R. 

HASSETT. A common name in co. 
Keny. It is believed to l)e a contrac- 
tion of the surname Blenerhassett, just as 
Shanks is of Cruikshanks, Cott of Cotting- 
ham, and Mull of Moliueux. 

HASTIE. Probably alludes to tempera- 
ment—quick, impulsive. 

HASTINGS. That the town of Hastings, 
CO. Sussex, the chief of the Cinque- Ports, 
derived its name from one Hasting, is evi- 
dent from the Bayeux Tapestry, where it is 
styled Hcxtenga-craiftrn, "the fortification 
of Hasting." Whether he was the well- 
known Northman pirate is, however, but 
matter of coiyecture. The noble families 




ot this sarname are descended from Robert 
da Hastings, portreeve of that town, and 
steward to king William tlie Conqueror, 
(Collins' Peerage,) but it is possible that 
others may be of different origin, and that 
their name is a direct derivation or patro- 
nymic of Hasting, the personal name. 

HASWELL. A township in Durham. 

HATCH. In forest districts, agate across 
the highway to prevent the escape of deer. 
At-Hache and De la Hacche are found in 
the H.R. Hache in Domesday appears as 
a pentonnl name. 

HATCIIARD. The Achard of Domes- 
day — a personal name. In H.R. it occurs 
as a surname. 

Hatcher. From residence near a 
Hatch, which see, and also Kit. 

HATCH ETT. Voltaire mentions a 
grand vizier of Turkey called Alep Baltagi, 
so named from balta which signifies a 
hatchet — that l)eing the Turkish designa- 
tion of the slaves who cut wood for the 
princes of Ottoman blood. " Ce vizir avait 
{•t^ baltagi dans sa jeunessc, et en avait 
tot\jours retenu le nom, selon la coutume 
des Turcs, que prennent sans rougir le nom 
de Icur premiere profession, ou celle de leur 
pire, ou du lieu de leur naissance." Vol- 
teii«, Charles XII. Our English family may 
also have derived their name from the use of 
tiie instrument. Hachet without prefix is 
fbond in H.R. 

HATCH MAN. The same as Hatcher. 

HATFEILD Parishes, &c., in cos. 
Hereford, Hertford, Essex, &c., bear the 
Qame of Hatfield. Several places so called 
are in Yorkshire, and in that county an an- 
dent family. Hatfeild of Thorp- Arch, still 

HATFIELD. See Hatfeild. 

H ATFULL. A corruption of Hatfield. 

AWAY. Correspond with the Old Germ. 
names Hathuwi, Hathwi, Hadewi. Fer- 

HATHERLEY. Two parishes in co. 

HATHORXE. See Hawthorne. 

HATLEY. HATELY. Parishes in 

HATRED. Mr. Ferguson derives thi« 
name from the O. Germ, one, Hadarat. 

HATT. See Preliminary Dissertation. 

HATTEMORE. The medieval Atte- 
Mors, with H prefixed. 

HATTEN. A mis-spelling of Hatton. 

1 1 A TT E R. The occupation. Le Hatter 
aod \jc Hatt4^rc. H.R. 

HATTER.SLEY. A Tillage and town- 
ship in (licahiro. 

HATTON. Si^vcral parishes, 4rc, bear 
this naine la diiteent oottiitke. The 

noble family were descended from Sir Adam 
Hatton, of Hatton, co. Cheshire, grandson 
of Wulfrid, brother of Nigel, who was lord 
of Hal ton in the same county, by the gift 
of Hugh Lupus, Earl of Chester, soon after 
the Conquest. 

HAUCOCK. The same as Alcock. 

HAUGHTON. Parishes, &c., in cos. 
Durham, Chester, Northumberland, Staf- 
ford, Nottingham, &c. 

IIAVELL. SeeHavill. 

HAVELOCK. A well-known Danish 
personal name. Geoffrey Gaimar's metrical 
romance, called " Le Lai d'Havelok le 
Danois," records the valorous doings of a 
great Danish chieftain. The family of the 
greatest hero of his age, the late Gen. Sir 
Henr}' Havelock, claimed to be of Danish 
extraction, having been, according to tradi- 
tion, a scion of an ancient race descended 
from Guthrun, the historical viking of the 
days of Alfred, and settled at Great Grims- 
by from his time ! There is indeed a tra- 
dition that that town was so named from a 
merchant called Grime, who obtained great 
wealth and honour in consequence of his 
having brought up an exposed child called 
Haveloc, who, after having been scullion 
in the king's kitchen, turned out to be a 
Danish prince. The curious corporate seal 
of the town seems to have some allusion 
to the circumstance, as it bears the names 
of ' Grym' and ' Habloc ; ' and one of the 
boundary marks of the corporation is known 
as ' Haveloc's Stone.' 

HAVEN. HAVENS. 1. From resi- 
dence near a jwrt or haven. In Scotland 
the hollow or sheltered part of a hill is 
called the haaf or haven. 

HAVILAND. A member of the ancient 
Norman family of DeHavilland of Guernsey 
settled in Somersetshire temp. Henry VIL, 
and founded this surname in England. 
Gent Mag., June, 1852. The family ori- 
ginated in the Cotentin in Normandy, and 
settled in Guenisey l>efore 117(5. B.L.G. 
De Havilland, of Havilland Hall in that 
island, is still the representative of tlxis 
ancient race. 

HAVILL and IIOVELL. Are said to 
be almost proven corruptions of Auberville. 

IIAWARD. Seellayward. 

HAWARDEN. A town in Flintshire, 




on the English border, seven miles from 

HAWARDIXE. Doubtless the same as 

HALVES. Sometimes from Henry, through 
Hal, and so the parent of the surname 
Hawkins ; but probably oftener from the 0. 
Eng. and Scot, haygh, low-lying ground 
near a river — sometimes confounded with 
hough, a hillock. In le Hawe is a H.R. 
surname, as is also Del Hawes. 

HAWGOOD. A corruption of Hawk- 

HAWKE. The bird : allusive to keen- 
ness of disposition. 

HAWKER. The remarks under Falconer 
apply to this name — this being the A-Sax., 
the other the A-Norm. form. The H.R. 
have Le Haukere, Le Hauckere, &c. 

HAWKES. A diminutive of Harry or 
Henry, connected with Hal and Hawkins, as 
Wilkes is with Will and Wilkins. 

HAWKHURST. A parish in Kent. 

HAWKIN. HAWKINS. The diminu- 
tive of Hal or Haw, from Henry. The 
Hawkinses of The Gaer, co. Monmouth, 
and those of Cantlowes, co. Middlesex, 
claim a local origin from the parish of 
Hawking, near Folkestone, in Kent, of 
which Osbert de Hawking was possessor 
temp. Henry II. The family removed to 
Nash Court in the parish of Boughton- 
under-Bleane in the same county, and there 
remained until the year 1800. B.L.G. 

HAWKINSON. The son of Hawkin, 
which see. 

HAWKRIDGE. A parish in co. Somer- 
set, and many minor localities. 
B^ HAWKS— The first syllable of several 
surnames, from localities frequented by 
the bird, as Hawkshaw, Hawksby, 
HAWKS. SeeHawkes. 

H AWKSWORTH. Places in cos. York, 
Notts, &c. 

HAWKWOOD. Local: "the wood fre- 
quented by hawks." For the anecdote of 
the celebrated warrior of the XIV. cent. 
Sir John Hawkwood, being latinized 
Johannes Acutus, and re-translated into 
Sharp, seeVerstegan's Restitution, as quoted 
in Eng. Sum. ii. 191. 

HAWLEY. Places in Hampshire and 
other counties. 


Juiiiltuin, " hautie, loftie, statelie, proud, 
highminded, surlie, disdainfull, arrogant." 
HAWTHORNE. Hawthorn, a township 
in the parish of Easington, co. Durham, 
memorable for the fifty shipwrecks which 
happened there on Nov. 5, 1824. The New 
England family of this name left this 
country in or before 1634, and until recently 
wrote themselves Hathome. 

HAWTON. A parish in co. Notts. 


family were in Sussex in Norman times, 
and founded Heringham Priory, temp. 
Henry II. The name was derived from 
their residence on a high bank or shore — 
Norman-Fr. haulte-rive — and hence the la- 
tinization De Alta Ripa, often modified to 
Dealtry and Dawtrey, while Hawtrey and 
Haultrey are closer adhesions to the primi- 
tive form. "The chiefest house of these 
Dawtereis," says Leland, ** is in Petworth 
paroche called the Morehalfe, a mile from 
Petworth toune. There is another house 
longing to them in Petworth by the chirch." 
The elder line subsisted at Moorhouse till 
1758. Hauterive in the arrondissement of 
Alenyon, in Normandy, was latinized Alta 
Ripa in the XI. cent. Itin. de la Norm. 

HAY. A-Sax. haeg^ Fr. haie^ a hedge, 
and that which it encloses — a field or park. 
The map of Normandy shows many locali- 
ties called La Haie, and from one of these, 
doubtless, came, in early Norman times, if 
not actually at the Conquest, the family 
once eminent in England and still so in 
Scotland. The name was written De Haia 
and De la Hay. King Henry I. gave to Robert 
de Haia the lordship of Halnaker, co. Sus- 
sex, and so early as the close of the XII. 
cent. William de H. passed into Scotland 
and held the office of plneerna regis or 
king's butler, temp. William the Lion. 
From his two sons descend Hay, marquis 
of Twcoddale, and Hay, earl of Errol,heredi- 
tarj' lord high constable of Scotland. Tliese 
are well-ascertained facts, but tradition as- 
signs a different origin both to name and 
family. It asserts that in 980 a yeoman 
called John de Luz and his two sons by 
their prowess reinvigorated the army of 
Kenneth III., when they were on the point 
of succumbing to the Danes. Tliey took 
the yokes from the oxen with which they 
were ploughing, and so belaboured the in- 
vaders as to drive them from the field, 
amidst shouts of Hay! Hay! The king in 
reward for these services gave the yeoman 
as much land as a falcon could fly round 
(the lands of Loncarty near Fife), and in 
memory of the event the family adopted a 
falcon for their crest, two husbandmen with 
ox-yokes for their supporters, and Hay for 
their surname ! 


well-known name near Reigate in Surrey, 
written in XVI. cent. Heybetylle. Mr. 
Way (Sussex. Arch. Coll. v. 261) suggests 
that it is derived from haia, Fr. an enclo- 
sure, and bedel A-Sax., bydel, beadle, or 
bail iff. See Hay ward. 

HAYCOCK. Said to have been given to 
a foundling exposed in a hay field. 

HAYCRAFT. See Haycroft. 

HAYCROFT. From hay, and croft, a 
small enclosure : a place for hay-ricks. 

HA YD AY. Corresponds with the O. 
Germ, name Haida of the VIIL cent 




HAYDEN. See Haydon. 

HAYDIGGER. Haydegines^ an archaism 
for a certain round or country dance. 
Perhaps a skilful performer in that dance 
may have first received this name. 

HAYDON. Places in Essex, Dorset, and 

HAYER. See under Hayman. 

HAYES. Parishes in Middlesex and 

HAYLEY. Hailey, a chapelrj in co. 

near the coast of Hampshire and Sussex. 

HAYLORD. Probably "high-lord," or 
lord paramount. In the western counties 
this phrase is sometimes applied to the lord 
of a manor, however unimportant. 

HAYMAN. Hay signifies both a hedge 
and what it encloses ; hence Hayman and 
Hayer probably sometimes mean the same 
as Hay ward, which see. But the Irish 
family of Hayman or He}'man deduce their 
pedigree from Rollo, the founder of Nor- 
mandy, through the Crevecoeurs, one of 
■whom, Haimou de C, had a son Robert, who 
assumed his father's baptismal name as a 
Bumame, which he transmitted to his pos- 
terity. B.L.G. 

HAYNE. HAYNES. See Haines. 

HAYNOKE. A corruption of A'Noke. 
See Noakes. 

HAYS. Hayes, parishes in Kent and 

HAYSTACK. Said to have originated 
from a foundling. 

HAYTER. The personal name Haitar, 
which occurs in Germany in the IX. cent. 
Ferg. It may however be local, from the 
hundred of Haytor in Devonshire. 

H AYTON. Parishes, &c., in cos. Cumber- 
land, Nottingham, York, &c. 

HAYWARD. Fr. Aai>, a hedge, and wardy 
O. Eng. a guardian or keeper. Inclosures 
as well as the fences which encircled them 
were called hay»; hence a Hayward was 
a person employed to watch enclosed 

** I hart an home and be a flafvard 
And Uggcn out a ny(cht«s, 
And kepe my com ati<) my croft 
From pf\uin and theves." 

PierM PUneman, 

Jacob defines it as " one that keeps the 
oommon hetd of cattle of a town ;" and 
adds: "the reason of his being called a 
h^ward may be because one part of his 
office b to see that they neither break nor 
crop the keiget cf enclosed grotmdH, or for 
thai he kasM tiie fnsM from hurt and dc- 
■InMrtkm. He is an officer appointed in the 
lord's court for the due execution of his 
office." Law Diet in «». See Hed^eler 
In this Diet, The orthography In the H . H. 
is Hayward, Le Ucywai^ Le Heiward, Lo 

HAWORTH. A chapelry in Yorkshire. 

HAYWOOD. See Heywood. Also a 
liberty in co. Hereford, and a hamlet in co. 

HAZARD. See Hassard. 

HAZELDEN. An ancient manor, in or 
near Dallington, co. Sussex. The name ap- 
pears to have been corrupted to Haseldine, 
Haseltine, Hazeldine, Hesseltine, &c. 

HAZLEDINE. See Hazleden. 

HAZELGROVE. From residence near 

HAZLERIGG. An estate in Northum- 
berland, which belonged to the family temp. 
Edward I. Leland speaking of the head of 
the family, then living in Leicestershire, 
says : " Hazelrigg hath about oOiJ lande in 
Northumberland, where is a pratie pile of 
Hasilriggs, and one of the Collingwooddes 
dwelleth now in it, and hath the over-site 
of his landes." Shirley's Noble and Gentle 

B^ HEAD. A component syllable of 
many surnames derived from places, as 
Headford, Heading, Headland, HeadJ§y 
&c. See next article. 

HEAD. A promontory or foreland, as 
Beachy Head, Spurn Head. Also the source 
of a river. Head or Hed, was a baptismal 
name in Scotland, in the XII. century. 
Hedde, without prefix, is found in H.R., as 
is also the A- Sax. form Heved. 

HEADACHE. Mr. Ferguson says, 
"properly Headick, a diminutive of 

HE ADEN. A parish in co. Nottingham. 

HEADLAM. A township in co. Dur- 



HEADY. L Self-willed. " Heady, high- 
minded." 2. Edie, Eddy, a diminutive of 

HEAL. See Hele. 

HEALEY. Places in Yorkshire and else- 

HEALING. Probably Ealing, co. Mid- 

HEANE. HEENE. A parish in Sussex. 

HEAPS. HEAP. Probably the same 
as Monceux, which see. 

HEARD. O.Eng. herd, a herdsman or 
keeper of cattle. 

HEARDER. May either moan herd^ 
a keeper of cattle, &c. ; or hiirder, a nor- 
thern provinciulism for a heap of stones, 
thii.H coming under the same category as 
Heap, Monceux, &c. 

HEARDSON. The son of a herd or 

HEARN. HEARNE. A modification 
of the Irish O'Ahcm. 

A township in co. 




HEAROX. See Heron. 
HEARSEY. See Hercy. 
HEARTLY. The same as Hartley. 
HEARTMAN. The same as Hartman. 

HEARTWELL. The same as Hart- 

HEASJklAN. Qu. a headsman, execu- 
tioner ? 

HEATH. From residence at a heath or 
common. In the H.R. Atte-Hethe, Apud 
Hethe, De la Hethe, &c. — in after times 
modified to Heather. 

HEATHCOTE. The baronets trace to 
the XVI. century in Derb)'shire. The 
name is local, though the place is unknown. 
— " The heath-cottage," or " The cot on the 

HEATHER. See Heath, and the ter- 
mination EB. 

HEATHFIELD. A parish in Sussex, 
where the family in plebeian condition still 
reside. Also places in several other coun- 

HEATHWAITE. A chapelry in Lan- 

HEATON. A parish in co. York, and 
townships in cos. Lancaster, Chester, Nor- 
thumberland, &c. Heaton, co. Lancaster, 
gave name to a family in very early times, 
and from them sprang the Heatons of North 

HEAVEN. HEAVENS. Cockney cor- 
ruptions of Evan and Evans ? 

HEAVER. Hever, a parish and castle 
in CO. Kent, memorable as the birth-place 
of Queen Anne Boleyn. 

HEAVISIDE. More likely a local name 
than characteristic of what Dr. Johnson 
might call 'lateral ponderosity.' It may, 
however, have been a sobriquet, like that 
applied by the Norwegians to Magnus, 
king of Sweden, who had threatened them 
with invasion : — 

" The fat-hipped king with heavy-sides 
Finds he must mount before he rides." 

Laing's Heimskringla, III. 134. 

as Hubert. 

HEBBLEWHITE. S^ Ebblewhite. 

HEBDEN. Two villages in Yorkshire. 

HEBER. The Hebers take their name 
from a place in Craven, co. York, called 
Hiijbergh. Emulphus de Haybergh lived 
at Milnethorpe in that co. towards the end 
of the XII. century. The name has passed 
through the changes Hayburgh, Heibire, 
Heiber, to Heber. B.L.G. 

HEBERDEN. 1. See Haberdine, 2. A 
field formerly belonging to the Abbey of St. 
Edmund's Bury was called Heberden. 

HECK IN. A Cheshire provincialism for 
Richard, and hence possibly the origin of 
Higgin, Higgins, and Higginson, though 

Hugh (Hugo) may perhaps have the prior 

HECTOR. The personal name, de- 
rived from classical antiquity. 

HEDDLE. A local name of Scandina- 
vian origin. It was variously written 
Haidale, Hedal, and Heddell. The family 
held lands in Orkney prior to 1503. 

HEDGE. See Hedges. 

HEDGELER. Probably the ag^7^anM5 of 
feudal times ; a " hay ward,'" or keeper of 
cattle in a field fed in common by many 
tenants. "Towns and villages had their 
heyivards to supervise the greater cattle, or 
common herd of kine and oxen, and keep 
them within due bounds ; and if they were 
servile tenants, they were privileged from 
all customary services to the lord, because 
they were presumed to be always attending 
their duty, as a shepherd on his flock ; and 
lords of manors had likewise their heywards 
to take care of the tillage, harvest work, 
&c., and see there were no encroachments 
made on their lordships : but this is now 
the business of bailiff's." Kennet's Paroch. 
Antiq. Jacob's Law Diet. See Hayward. 

HEDGELEY. A township in Northum- 
HEDGER. A maker of hedges, 

HEDGES. The modern form of At- 
Hedge — first derived from residence near 

HEDGMAN. The same as Hedger or 

HEDLEY. Townships in Northumber- 
land, Durham, and Yorkshire. 

HEELE. See Hele. 

HEEPS. HEAPS. Like the Norman 
name Monceux, heaps, monticxdi. This 
may be a translation of Monceux. 

HEIGHA3I. A hamlet in the parish 
of Gaseley, co. Suffolk, which belonged to 
the family in 1340. Shirley's Noble and 
Gentle Men, p. 233. Also a hamlet in 

HEIGIUNGTON. Places in cos. Dur- 
ham and Lincoln. 

HEIGHTON. A parish in Sussex. 

HELE. Hele, Heale, or Heal, is a 
manor in the parish of Bradninch, co. 
Devon. The pedigree commences with Sir 
Roger De la Heale, who was lord of Heale, 
temp. Henry III. 

Matthew Hele, of Holwell, co. Devon, 
was high sheriff of the county the year of 
Charles the Second's Restoration, 1660, and 
so numerous and influential were the family 
that he was enabled to assemble a grand 
jury all of his orvn name and blood, gentle- 
men of estate and quality, which made 
the Judge observe, when he heard Hele of 
Wisdom, Esq. called — a geutill seat in the 
parish of Comwood— ' that he thought they 
must be all descended from Wisdom, in that 
they had acquired such considerable for- 
tunes.' Burke's Ext. Barts. 

HEN 154 

HELLEAVELL. See Halliwell, 

HELLIER. The A-Sax. hekin, like the 
southern provincialism, to heal, signifies 
to cover; and in the West of England a 
helli^ is a thatcher or tiler, equivalent to 
the French courreur, one who covers build- 
ings with any material whatever. It was 
a kind of generic appellative, including the 
Thatchers, TN'lers, Slaters, Shinglers, and 
Beedos, all of whom are also separately 
represented in our family nomenclature. 
In Wnlsingham's History, the arch-trai- 
tor, Wat Tyler, is designated "Walterus 

HELLINGLY. A parish in Sussex. 

HELLIS. See Ellis. 

HELM. IIELME. Teutonic, a helmet ; 
* name borrowed from military associa- 
tions. '^ Hdm as a termination entered 
into a great numl>er of regular Anglo-Saxon 
names, such as Eadhelm, Brighthelm, Alf- 
helm, kc Wilhelm (William) is an earlier 
name, occurring in the genealogy of the 
Bfttt-Anglian kings from Woden." — Fergu- 

HELMS. See Helme. 

HELPUSGOD. This name, probably 
derived from the frequent use of a profane 
■^juration by the original bearer of it, and 
cognate with Godhelp, Grodmefetch, God- 
bebwe, Jcc, is found in the Sussex Subsidy 
Boll of 1296. Sussex Arch. Coll., vol. ii. 

HELSDON. Hellesden, a parish near 

HELSHA^^I. Hailsham, co. Sussex, is so 
pronoanoed, and a gentry family of De 
Halsham, existed in that co. in the XIY. 

BELT. An old form of Elias, the per- 

HELTAR. SeeHellier. 

HEMBURT. Broad Hembury, a parish 
In 00. Devon. 

HEMINGFORD. Two parishes in co. 
Huntingdon. De Hemingford. H.R. 

personal name. 

HEMS. See under Emmett. 

HEMPSTEAD. A manor in Framfield, 
CO. Sussex, which hail owners of the same 
name in the XIII cent. 

HEMSWORTH. A parish in York- 

HENBERY. Parishes, fire, in cos. Glou- 
oester and Chester are called Henbury. 

HENCHMAN. A follower ; an attend- 
ant upon a nobleman or personage of high 
distinction. A Chaucerian word. 

"TiMMUDalwwMto kjiy«aiage,sfl«r 
kM • nflMMt MMM sttksgraMr sSiSls. 1 

___ Wmm*$ FmmxM Mom, p. 834. 

HENDER. Sm Hendower. 

tiMn called 


HENDERSON. Either from the per- 
sonal name Hendric, or from Andrew — ^pro- 
bably the latter. 

HENDO^VER. A distinoruished Cbrnish 
family, who are said to have originated in 
W'ales. The elder line became extinct 
about temp. Henry VIII., but younger 
branches who had abbreviated the name to 
Hender, were living near Camelford a few 
years since. 

DRIE. HENDRY. Hendric, an ancient 
personal name. 

HENDY. Gentle, polite. Halliwell. 

HENE. SeeHenn. 

HENEAGE. Sir Robert, de Heneage 
was in Lincolnshire, temp. WiUiam Rufiis. 
I find no locality so called. 

HENFREY. An ancient personal name, 
corresponding with the 0. Germ. Enfrid. 

HENLEY. Towns and places in cos. 
Warwick, Suffolk, Hants, and Oxford. 

HENMAN. An ancient personal name, 
like the O. Germ. Enman. 

HENN. The Irish family derive from 
an English one written Henne, but an- 
ciently Hene, and the name seems to have 
been originally derived from Hene now 
Heene, a hamlet or extinct parish, near 
Worthing, co. Sussex. A William de Hene 
is mentioned in Domesd., as holding of 
William de Braose in the immediate vici- 
nity. There are Le Hens and Fil' Hens in 

HENNIKER. The ancestors of Lord 
Henniker were a mercantile family from 
Germany, who settled in London early in 
the XVIII. century. Of the origin of the 
name I know nothing, but it is suspi- 
ciously like the German Henker, a hang- 
man or executioner. That the execu- 
tioner's employ, like other occupations, 
occasionally became a surname, is shown 
in the following anecdote : — 

" Resolute, of late years, was the answer 
of Verdugo, a Spaniard, commander in 
Friseland to certain of the SimniHh nobility, 
who munnured, at a great feast, that the 
Sonne of a Hang-man should take place 
above them (for so he was, as his name 
imfwrteth). Gentlemen (quoth he) ques- 
tion not my birth, or who my father was ; 
I am the sonne of mine own Desert and 
Fortune ; if any man dares as much as I 
have done, let him come and take the 
table's end with all my heart." 

PeachanCs Compleat Gentleman, 

IIENNINGIIAM. Ileveninffhara (now 
Haveningham) a parish in Suffolk. 

HENNIS. SeeEnnis. 

HENRISON. See Henry. 

HENRY. A personal name of Norman 
imiM>rtation, which has given birth in a 
motUHcil form to many surnames, includ- 
ing Henrison, Henson, Penry (ap-Henry), 




Harry, Parry (ap-Harry), Harris, Harri- 
son, Hall (from Hal), Hallett, Halkett, 
Halse, Hawes, Hawkins, Hawkinson, 
Allkins, Haskins, and perhaps Alcock. 
Thus as Henry has given name to the 
most numerous group of English monarchs, 
so it has furnished surnames for a very 
great number of their subjects. 

HENSALL. A township in Yorkshire. 

HEXSHALL. Either Henshaw or Hen- 

HENSHAW. See Hanshaw. A town- 
ship in Northumberland. 

HENSMAN. A page ; the confidant and 
principal attendant of a Highland chief ; a 
henchniaji. Jamieson. 

HENSON. See Henry. 

HENTON. A district near Chinnor, 
CO. Oxon. 

KENWOOD. 1. A tithing in the parish 
of Cumnor, co. Berks. 2. Perhaps another 
form of Honywood. See that name. 

HENZEY. See under Tyttery. 

HEPBURN. From the lands of Heb- 
bume, Haybome, or Hepbume, co. Dur- 
ham, near the mouth of the TjTie. Tradi- 
tion derives the noble family seated in E. 
Lothian, from the XIV. cent., from an 
English gentleman taken prisoner by the 
Earl of March, who generously gave him 
lands, upon which he settled. From him 
descended the Earls of Both well, whose line 
ended with the notorious James H., Earl 
of Bothwell, Marquis of Fife, and Duke of 
Orkney, the husband of Mary, Queen of 
Scots, 15G7. The battle-cry of this war- 
like race was — " A Hepburn ; BroE me 
FAIR !" — (i.e., Meet my onset fairly.) 

HEPDEN. See under Den. 

HEPTONSTALL. A chapelry in the 
parish of Halifax, co. York. 

HEPPELL. HEPPLE. Two townships 
in Northumberland. 

HEPWORTH. A township in the W.R. 
of Yorkshire ; also a parish in Suffolk. 

HERAPATH. See Herepath. 

HERAUD. :Might be either the per- 
sonal name Harold ; a herald-at-arms ; or a 
derivation from the 0. Norse Jieradr, the 
leader of an army. 

HERBERT. An ancient personal name. 
The noble Herberts descend from Herbert, 
Count of Vermandois, who came hither 
with the Conqueror, and was chamberlain 
to William Rufus. B.L.G. Collins says : 
" the genealogists deduce the family from 
Herbert, a natural son of King Henry I., 
but I think it more evident that Henry 
Fitz-Herbert, chamberlain to the said king, 
was ancestor to all of the name of Her- 

HERCY. The pedigree is traced to 
temp. Henry III., when Malveysin de 

Hercy was constable of the honour of Tyk- 
hill, CO. York. The locality of Hercy 
does not appear either in the English 
Gazetteer or in the Itin. de la Normandie. 

HERD. A-Sax. hyrd^ a keeper of cattle, 
sheep, swine, &c. 

HERDINGSON. The same as Fitz- 

HERDMAN. A-Sax. hirdman, an at- 

HERDSMAN. The occupation. 

HEREFORD. From the city. The 
Herefords of Sufton Court, co. Hereford, 
claim from Roger de Hereford, a famous 
philosopher of the XU. century. B.L.G. 

HEREPATH. "Might be from the A- 
Sax. herepced, an army-path, in which case, 
it would be, I presume, local. But I think 
more probably from herepdd, a coat of 
mail." Ferguson. 

HERING. See Herring. 

HERINGAUD. Norm. Fr. herigavd, an 
upper cloak. See Mantell, &c. 

HERINGTON. Herrington, two town- 
ships in CO. Durham. 

HERIOTT. Heriot, a parish in Edin- 

HERITAGE. Most probably the name 
of some lands or possessions, analagous to 
"the Franchise," "the Purchase," &;c., 
frequently applied to estates. Heritag'. 

HERLE. The Herles of Prideaux 
Castle, CO. Cornwall, whose name has 
been occasionally written Earle and Hearle, 
are " descended from the house of West 
Hearle in Northumberland, of which Sir 
William Herle was made, by Edward III., 
chief justice of the Bench." C. S. Gilbert's 
Cornwall, ii. 145. De Herl, co. Northum- 
berland. H.R. 

HERMITAGE. The surname was pro- 
bably first acquired by some person who 
dwelt near the abode of a solitary ascetic. 

HERMON. See Harman. 

HERNE A contraction of the Celtic 

HEROD. SeeHeraud. 

HERON. Taken au pied de la lettre this 
name would appear to be derived from the 
bird ; but Heron is a comparatively modem 
orthography, it having been formerly writ- 
ten Hairun, Heyrun, Heirun, &c. " Sir 
John Hairun entered England with the 
Conqueror, and was possessed of Ford 
Castle, and a very good estate." Kimber's 
Baronetage. There is a commune in the 
arrondissement of Rouen called Le Heron, 
but it does not appear whether this was the 
cradle of the race. 

This family is thus spoken of in Den- 
ham's Slogans of the North of England : 
"Habtinm!" was evidently the slogan (or war cry) 




«r tte ■odHt lords of Ford and Chipchase Castles. 
Ihs BeroM bad also a stronghold at TwiselL 
*'Sir Hugh the Heron bold. 
Baron of Twiaell and of Ford, 
And cftptain of the Hold." 

Bwtaban CasOe also belonged to this famUy, as also 
did Bobenfleld ; and Haddestoo, the eapui baronia of 
Beroo or Heronne, was their ancient residence. Sir 
Gconn Heron had the misfortune to he alain at 
die ddnnlah of the Raid qf the Reidtwirt, to the 
great regret of both parties, beins a man greatly 
* * "- our Scottish neighbours, as well 
When the English prisoners were 
to Morton, at Dalkeith, and among other 

Um some Scottish falcons, one 

at kto Xxwbk olisenred, that the English were nobly 
they got are Hawks for dead Herons." 

m theEn^. 

HERRICK. This name was formerly 
spelt EyT}'k, Eyrik, Eyrick, and Heyricke. 
Dean Swift, whose father married a lady 
of this famUy, informs us that " there is a 
tradition that the most ancient family of 
the Ericks derive lineage from Erick the 
Forester, a great commander, who raised 
an army to oppose the invasion of William 
the Conqueror, by whom he was vanquished, 
but afterwards employed to command that 
prince's forces, and in his old age retired 
to his house in Leicestershire, where his 
family hath continued ever since." Quoted 
In B.L.G. 

HERRI ES. A Norman race, probably 
from Heries in the arrondissement of 
B«yeux. They were settled in the S. of 
8ooti. from the XII. cent, and were, it is 
pretty certain, deduced from the A-Norm. 
nmily of Heriz, lords of Wiverton or 
Worton, CO. Northampton. The older line of 
Heriz or Herries ended in heirs female, in 
the XVI. cent, and the title of Lord H. was 
carried by the eldest co-heiress to the Lords 

HERRING. Possibly from the fish, and 
originally applied by way of sobriquet, since 
in the XIV. cent, we find some compounds 
of it| now apparently extinct ; viz. Cast- 
herring, Schottenheryng, and Rotenheryng 1 
It b more likely however to be an ancient 
Scandinavian i)ersonal name, whence the 
namcfl of the parishes, &c., of Herringby, 
Herringfleet, Hcrringstone, Herringswell, 
and Ilerrington. 

HERRON See Heron. 

HER8EY. Seellercy. 

HERTFORD. The town. 

HERVEY. Sec Harvey. 

HERWARD. The well-known A-Sax. 
name Hvreward. 

HI-^iKETH. Musard Ascuit, Hascoit, 
or UAMolfttt, appeare in Domesday as a 
capital tenant in the counties of Derby, 
Bttolu, Oxfcird, Warwick, &o. Camden, 
^Making of the name Askew, erroneously 
layi, that it comes from Aeoouth, and that 
'• fmm the old Ohrietiao name Ai?cuith, 
which in Latin wm Haacnlphueand Hastul. 
pb«t,tbatis,8peed7.Help.^' The baronet's 
ftunily claim to have been poMewed of Hos- 
kelh, CO. Laacaeter, from the Conquest, and 
the pedigree k deduced wiUiout hiatus 
fraa Btoh. de HMkayth in the XIU. cent 

A native of Hesse ; a 


HESSELL. A narrowed pronunciation 

of Hassell. 

HESSELTINE. See Hazelden. 
HESTER. A spelling of Esther. See 

Female Christian Names. 

IIETT. A township in Durham. 

HETTON. Townships in cos. Durham, 
Northumberland, and York. 

HEVYBERD. " Heavy-beard." See 

HEWARD. Possibly a corruption of 

Howard, but more likely of Hay ward. 

Hayward's Heath, co. Sussex, was formerly 

with rustics Heward's Hoth. 

HEWER. Of wood or stone? See 
Cleaver and Stonehewer. 

HEWES. A mis-spelling of Hughes. In 
the great Scottish family of Dalrymple the 
Christian name Hugh has generally been 
spelt Hew. 

HEWETSON. SeeHewett 

HEWETT. A diminutive of Hugh, and 
hence Hewitt, Hewetson, and Hewitaon. 

HEWGILL. Probably Howgill, a cha- 
pelry in Yorkshire. 

HEWISH. A parish in WUtshire. 

HE^VITT. SeeHewett. 

HEWLETT. Perhaps a diminutive of 

HEWSON. The son of Hugh. 

HEXAMER. Of this singular name I 
can make nothing, unless it means a native 
of Hexham, co. Northumberland. 

HEXT. A-Sax. hexta, O. Eng. hexU 
highest. Haliiwell quotes from an ancient 
MS. :— 

" The Erchbischop of Canturberi, 
In Engclond that is hext." 

The surname may relate either to physical 
height or to social eminence. 

IIEXTER. Possibly a corruption of 

HEY. The same as Hay. 

HEYDEN. SeeHaydon. 

HEYLIN. An old baptismal name. Filius 
Hcilin is found in H.K. 

HEY WARD. An old and more correct 
form of Hayward. 

HEYWOOD. A town and chapelry in 
CO. Lancaster. Heywood Hall wa.s long the 
reMidence of the ancestors of the baronet's 


HIBBERT. The Ilibberts of Marple, 
Rirtles, &c., co. Chester, claim descent from 
Pagnnus Jluhrt, who accompanied Richard 
Cccur-de-Lion in the Crusade of 11!K>. See 
Ormerod's Cheshire. An A-Sax. bishop of 
Lichfield was called Hygbert 





HIBBITT. A corruption of Hibbert, 
from Hubert. 

HIBBS. From Hibb, the "nurse-name" 
of Hubert. 

HICK. See Isaac ; but it may be local, 
from Heck or Hick, a Yorkshire township. 

HICKES. See Isaac. 

HICKEY. See Isaac. 

HICKIB, See Isaac. 

HICKINBOTHAM. See Higginbottom. 

cos. Nottingham and Norfolk. 

HICKMAK The pedigree of the ex- 
tinct baronet family, Hickman of Gains- 
borough, is traced to Robert Fitz-Hick- 
man, lord of the manors of Bloxham and 
Wickham, co. Oxford, 56 Henry III. 
Hence the name must originally have been 
a baptismal api>ellation. In the next reign 
we find both a Hykeman and a Walter 
Hikeman, in the same county, the former 
being apparently a Christian name. H.R. 

HICKMOTT. Anciently Hicquemot— 
probably a derivative of Isaac. 

HICKOCK. Said to be the same name 
as Hiscock, which see. 

HICKOT. HICKOX. Diminutives of 
Hick, Hyke, or Isaac. 

HICKS. The village so called in Glou- 
cestershire can hardly have been the source 
of this numerous surname, which is 
generally derived, doubtless, from Hicque, 
or Hick, a nick-name of Isaac. 

HICKSON. See Isaac. 

HIDE. A feudal portion of land of un- 
certain extent, according to its quality. A 
bide appears generally to have been so 
much land as "with its house and toft, 
right of common, and other appurtenances, 
was considered to be sufficient for the ne- 
cessities of a family." Archfeologia, vol. 
XXXV. p. 470. There are specific locali- 
ties called Hide, in Warwickshire, Bed- 
fordshire, Herefordshire, and many other 

HLDER. See Hyder. 

HIDES. See Hide. 

HIGGINBOTTOM. Following a writer 
in Gent, Mag. Oct, 1820, I have elsewhere 
sujxgested that this strange word might be 
Ickenhamn, O. Germ, for oak tree. Another 
etymology assigned was hickin, a Lanca- 
shire provincialism for the mountain ash, 
and bottom, a low ground or valley. A cor- 
respondent suggests its identity with the 
Dutch family name Hoogonboom, which 
signifies " high tree," either from the first 
bearer's residence near one, or a sobriquet 
allusive to stature. 

HIGGIN. HIGGINS. A diminutive 
of Hugh, through its Latin fonn Hugo. 
Hugonis the genitive case of that name 
(equivalent to Hugh's or Hughes) would 

easily become in rapid pronunciation 
Huggins, and Higgins. See however Heckin. 

HIGGINS. See Isaac. 

HIGGINSON. See Isaac. 

HIGGS. See Isaac. 

HIGHAM. Parishes and places in cos. 
Northampton, Kent, Derby, Suffolk, Bed- 
ford, Leicester, Sussex, &c., &;c. 

HIGHLEY. A parish in Shropshire. 

HIGHWORTH. A town In Wiltshire, 
which has given birth to a surname spelt 
indiflferently Earth, Worth, and Yerworth. 

HIGSON. The same as Hickson. 

HTLDEBRAND. The personal name. 

HILDER. ' The elder'— a word stUl used 
in Norfolk. This form also occurs in MS. 
Arundel, 220. HalliweU. But the Supp. 
to Alfric's Vocab. says " kyldere, lictor, vel 
virgifer," i.e., an usher or mace-bearer. 
Wright's Vocab., 60. 

HILDERSLEY. Hildesley, a tything in 

HILDROP. An obscure hamlet near 
Marlborough, co. Wilts. 

HILDYARD. Formerly HUdheard, an 
ancient personal name. The family are 
said to have sprung from Robert Hildheard, 
who was of Normanby, co. York, in the 
year 1109. B.L.G. 

HI LEY. Highley, a parish in Shrop- 

HILGERS. An old personal name, cor- 
responding with the Germ. Hilger, and the 
O. High Germ. Hildegar. 

HILL. From residence upon one. Its 
medieval form is Atte-Hill. The Lond. 
Direct has more than two hundred traders 
of this name, besides about one-eighth of 
that number in the plural ized form of 
Hills. The most distinguished family of 
this name, the Hills of Hawkstone (Vis- 
count Hill), deduce themselves from Hugh 
de la Hulle ('of the Hill '), who held the 
estate of Court of Hill in the parish of 
Burford, co. Salop, temp. Richard I. Shir- 
ley's Noble and Gentle Men, p. 197. The 
Hills of Stallington, co. Stafford, are des- 
cended from the family of De Monte, of 
Castle Morton, co. Worcester, and they bore 
that name till the XV. cent., when it was 
anglicized to Hyll. See Nash's Worcester- 

HIL LEAR Y. Hilary, an ancient per- 
sonal name. 

HILLER. See Hellier. 

HILLIARD. SeeHildyard. 

HILLIER. SeellUlyer. 

HILLMAN. From residence upon some 
hill. Its ancient forms are Atte-Hill, Ate 
Hull, &c. 

HILLS. See Hill. 

HILLYER. SeeHelHer. 

HIN 158 

HILTON. There are parishes and places 
■o called in many counties, and probably 
sereral distinct families. The great 
baronial race who flourished in the XIV. 
cent derived their name from the Castle 
of Hylton or Hilton, co. Durham, their 
ancient seat 

••Tbe origin of the fiunOy of Hilton is lost in the 
deods of ivmote antiqaitf. It has been sUted that 
in tbe rdgn of Ring Athelstan, one of the family, 
imMHlfrt • cmdflx to the monasterjr of HartlfiKX)!. 
A legeodaiy tale states, that a raven tivw ttom the 
Kortn, and perchinR on the turrets of a tower souted 
OB tbe Wear, nvelred the embraces of a Saxon lady, 
wbon ber Ikthcr, a powerful Abthane, ha<l there con- 
to protect her trom the approaches of a Danish 
lan ; bv which may possibly be odumbrattHl, the 
_ of the family springing from a mixture of 
Diolsb and Saxon blood. . . . It is at least cer- 
tata^ tbat tbe boose of Hilton existed in great splen- 
dov at the time of the Conquest, and ha<l, long before 
to members were summoned to I'arl lament under Ed- 
ward II.. enjoved the rank and n-putation of barons 
br tenure, a title which, after the declension of the 
tunfly, was constantly attributed to the chief of the 
pmm» by popular courtesy." Sharp's Hartlepool, p. 

Tbe diaracterlstic of the family was, " the hoabt 


HIMBURY. SeeHembury. 

HINCE. Seelnce. 

HINCKLEY. A town in Leicestershire. 

diminutive of Henry, just as Wilkes is of 
William, Pirkes or Perkes of Peter, &c. A 
Chester family of this name were written 
Hinckes, temp. James L, and the word 
mppears to have been pronounced as a dis- 
VyUable — Hinck-es. A century later, in 
to prevent a crasis of the two sylla- 
an apostrophe replaced the disused E, 
and the name for two generations was 
furtually written HincVs. Inf. Edward 
HinckH, Esq. 

Mr. FoHfUfton has a much more dignified 
origin for this surname. " Hinks," he says, 
*• is no doubt a corruption of Hengist or 
His(;, which signifies a stallion. Some 
tnulitions make Hengist a PYisian, in 
which language the word is hingst, which 
Approaches nearer to Hincks. In the 
namet of places, Hengist has become 
flanged into Hinks, as in Hinksey, co. 
B«rka,** which, according to the Codex 
Dipkniaticiia, was in Saxon times written 

HIND. IIIXDE. A. S. Ainc. A domestic 
■ervant. Chaucer employs it rather of a 
man employed in husbandry. In an ancient 
poem we read:-— 

•*Iun an Mm; 
Aad I do nae to go to plooj^ta, 
Mak avB anr laeot ere that I dine." 

I*ere^t lUl. 

** A Iriad b one who looks after the rest of 
the Mnraata, the grounds, cattle, com, dec, 
of hia BMMter.** C. 8. Qilbert^s Cornwall, 
In Detrocuhira it is synonymous with 


A parish in York- 



HINDLEY. HINDLE. A chapelry in 


HINDMAN. Analagous to Hartman, 
Buckman, &c., in relation to the care of 
deer. It may, however, be a pleonasm for 
Hind, which see. 

HINDMARCH. See Hindmarsh. 

HINDMARSH. Local : " The hinder 
or more remote marsh." 

HINDSON. The son of a hind or farm 
bailiff. See Hind. 

IIINE. The same as Hind, and a more 
correct spelling of that word. The form in 
H.R. is Le Hine. 

HIXKLEY. See Hinckley. 

HINKS. Properly Henks, from Henry ; 
so Jenks from John, and Wilks from Wil- 
liam. See however Hincks. 

of Henchman. 

HINTON. Parishes and places in cos. 
Salop, Hants, Somerset, Wilts, Gloucester, 
Northampton, Dorset, Berks, &c. 

HIPKIN. See Hipp. 

HIPP. An old Scandinavian name, whence 
Hipson, Hipkin, and the local Hippisley, 
Hipswell, &c. 

HIPPER. The Hypper or Ibber is a 
river of Derbyshire, a tributary of the 

HIPPISLEY. Local: but I do not find 
the place. In an ancient parchment pedi- 
gree, in the possession of the Hippisleys of 
Stoneaston, co. Somerset, is the following 
copy of a rh}Tning grant, said to have been 
made by John of Gaunt to an ancestor of 
the house. [N. B. " Time-honoured Lan- 
caster " would appear to have been much 
addicted to versification of this kind, and 
several similar grants of his have been pre- 
served. Pity it is that he did not get a 
little assistance from his contemporaries 
Gower and Chaucer, his verses being cer- 
tainly amongst the roughest productions of 
the English muse.] 

"I, John a-Gaunt do pive and grant unto Richard 

All the manors herein named, as I thlnlc in number 

To i)e as firm to be thine, as ever they were mine, 

fl-om Heaven above to Hell below : 
And to contlnn the truth, I seal it with my great 

tooth, the wax in doe! I 
" Stone-Easton, Camley, Wakam, Tuddlhouse, Bra- 
slcet, Chardc, Hinton-Bluet." 

HH'SON. See Hipp. Ipscn as a sur- 
name is still found in Denmark. 

HH'WELL. Probably IlipsweU, a cha- 
pelry in CO. York. 

HIRD. See Herd. 

HIRST. See Hurst. 

HISCOCK. A diminutive of Isaac. 

HISCOCKS. Sec Isaac. 

HITCHCOCK. Hitch is an old " nurse- 
name" of Richard, and cock is the ordinary 

HITCHCOX. See Richard. 




HTTCHIN". A town in co. Hertford. 
Also a "nurse-name" of Richard. 

HITCHINS. See Richard. 

HITHE. A haven. A-Sax. Or spe- 
cifically from the town of Hythe, co. Kent. 

HITCHINSON. See Richard. 

HIXON. The same as Hickson. 

HOAD. A hood in the South means a 
heathy or rough ground. In Sussex many 
names of places which comprise the sylla- 
ble hoth or heath have had it corrupted by the 
peasantry to hood, and thus Hothly and 
Roeheath become Hoadly and Roehoad. 
See HoTHEK. 

HOADLY. HOADLEY. The parishes 
of East and West Hothly, or Hoathly, are 
pronounced in the dialect of Sussex as 
Hoad-lie ; and from one of these the sur- 
name has probably been derived. 

HOAR. HOARE. Doubtless from A- 
Sax. hdr, hoary, grey; applied to a person 
having a grey or hoary head. The common 
medieval form is Le Hore. 

HOBART. Probably another form of 


Hobbe, Hobbis. H.R. 

BOBBINS. See Robert. 

HOBDAY. Hoh is a country clown, 
(Halliwell), and day or deye one of the 
humblest class of husbandry servants, or 
as we now call them day-labourers. Eng. 
Sum. Hence a Hobday means an agri- 
cultural labourer. 

HOBKINS. See Robert 

HOBLER. "As weU hoteliers as arch- 
ers." Paston Letters, edit. 1841, ii. 154. 
" Hoblers or hobilers, so called from the 
hobbies or diminutive horses on which they 
rode, or more probably from hobilles, the 
short jackets which they wore. They were 
light horsemen, and proved of considerable 
senice to Edward III. in his French expe- 
ditions. By the tenure of their lands they 
were obliged to maintain their nags, and 
were expected to be in readiness, when 
sudden invasions happened, to spread im- 
mediate intelligence of the same throughout 
the land." Ibid. Note. Lambarde writing 
in 1570, concerning beacons and their 
management in case of invasion, says : " But 
as no doubt the necessitie of them is appa- 
rent, so it were good that for the more 
speedie spreading of the knowledge of the 
enimies comming, they were assisted with 
some horsemen (anciently called of their 
hobies or nags, Uobcliers) that l^sides the 
fire, which in a bright shining day is not so 
well descried, might also run from beacon 
to beacon, and supply that notice of the 
danger at hande." Perambulation of Kent, 
edit. 182G., p. 65, 

HOBMAN. In some local dialects this 
word signifies a clown, a rustic. 

HOBSON. Hob is a known diminutive 

of Robert, and in some cases this surname 
is probably from that source ; but it would 
seem that there was anciently some baptis- 
mal name like Ob, or Hob, as we find in the 
Domesd. of Suffolk one Leuric Hobbesune 
or Obbesune — probably a Saxon. 

HOBY. 1. Robert, through Hob. 

Borde, in his Boke of Knowledge (1542) 

makes a Welshman say : — 

" I am a pentylman, and come of Brutus' blood. 
My name is ap llyce, ap Davy, ap Flood ; 
My kindred is ap Hoby, ap Jenkin, ap GofiFe, 
Bycause that I go barlegged I do each the coflfe." 

2. A parish in co. Leicester. 

cient festival, which commenced the fif- 
teenth day after Easter, was called indiffer- 
ently Hokeday or Hocktide. There is much 
uncertainty as to the origin of the customs 
attending it, as well as to the etymology of 
the word. For what is known of both, see 
Brand's Popular Antiquities, edit. Ellis, i. 
81, 100, &c. The surname must have been 
originally imposed on the same principle as 
that which gave rise to Christmas, Pente- 
cost, Easter, &c. See Times and Seasons. 

HOCKEN. HOCKIK Corruptions of 
Hawkin, Hawkins, or of Hocking. 

HOCKING. The Hokings, according to 
Ferguson, were a Frisian people, and de- 
rived their name from one Hoce, mentioned 
in the poem of Beowulf Mr. Kemble 
(Archaeolog. Joum.) observes that Hoce is 
a " mythical personage, probably the heros 
ejtony mux oithQ Frisian tribe, the founder of 
the Hocings, and a progenitor of the impe- 
rial race of Charlemagne." 

HOCKLEY. A parish in Essex. 

HOCKNELL. Hockenhull, a township 
in Cheshire. 

HODD. 1. See Roger. Hod, Hodd, 
Hodde, H.R. 2. A personal name of great 
antiquity, which may be derived from 
Hodr, the blind son of Odin. See Fergu- 

HODE. See Hoad or Hood. 

HODDER. A river of Yorkshire tribu- 
tary to the Ribble. But there is a Le 
Hoder in H.R. denoting some occupation. 

HODGE. HODGES. See Roger. 

HODGKIN. See Roger. I have before 
me a document of the XV. cent, in which 
the same landed proprietor is called indiffe- 
rently Roger and Hodgkyn. 


HODGSON. The son of Hodge or 
Roger. This name in the North of England 
is pronounced Hodgin, while in the South 
it has taken not only the pronunciation, but 
the spelling, of Hodson or Hudson. The 
name of Hodgson is ancient at Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne, being found in records of temp. 
Edward I., and the Hodgsons of Stella and 
Acton, CO. Northumberland, trace a clear 
pedigree to 1424. 

HODNET. A town in Shropshire. De 
Hodenet. H.R. 


HODSON. See Roger. The son of 
Hodge or Roger. It is curious that Hodge- 
aon become* in the North of England 
Hodgin— in the South, Hodson. 

HOE. A-Sax. Aon, a hUl— as the Hoe at 

HOESE. The same as Husee or Hussey. 

HOEY. Originally MacHoey, a corrup- 
tion of Mac Kay, but retaining a similar 

HOFFMAN. Germ, hofmamu, a cour- 

HOG. See Hogg. 

HOGARTH. A place in Westmoreland. 

HOGBEN. HOGBIN. Probably a pig- 
stye ; from hog, and bin^ a crib or hutch. 
A-Sax. This Kentish surname was proba- 
bly applied in the first instance to a swine- 

HOGG. HOGGE. The animal— analo- 
gous to Wildbore, Purcell, &c. Those who 
oldect to be classed with the swinish multi- 
tude may prefer a derivation from the A- 
Sax. hog, which means prudent, careful, 
thotightful. The northern Hoggs, however, 
claim descent from Hougo, a Norwegian 
baron, wlkois said to have settled in Ettrick 
Porast Folks of Shields, p. 43. Who 
would have guessed at the baronial descent 
of our great Shq>herd 1 

HOGGART. May be the same as Ho- 
sarth, though hog-^wrd, swine-herd, has 
been suggested. 

HOGGEB. SeeHoggart. 

HOGOETT. The same as Hugget. 

HOGGINS. The same as Huggins. 

HOGHTON. Adam de Ilocton, held 
one carucate of land in Hocton (now Hogh- 
ion Tower), co, I>ancaster, temp. Henry II. 
The present Sir Henry Bold Hoghton, who 
■tandisecond on the roll of Baronets (1611) 
is the existing representative. 

HOGSFLESH. A sobriquet, perhaps 
originally applied to a pork-butcher. 
Various shifts have been adopted to modify 
or change this uncomfortable surname. I 
hare known instances of its l)eing written 
Hoflesh, Hoxley, and even Ox ley. 

HOG WOOD. Local : a '' wood abounding 
in swine.'* 

HOILE. Sec Hoyle. 

HOLRECHE. Holl)each, a town in 
lincoinshhpc. The latini/.ation in charters 
faapUee **the holy beech T'—De Saora Fago. 

HOLBECK. Townships in cos. York 
and KoCtingham. 

HOLBORN. A portion of London. 

HOLHROOK. A parish in Suflfolk, and 
a cbapclry In Derbyshire. 

HOLCOMBE. ParMhea, &c., in cos. 
Laaoutar, Ozon^aiKl Devon. 



HOLD. A fortress, or any thing held 

HOLDEN. May be local. See Den; 
but from the occurrence of such local names 
as Holden-by, Holden-hurst, Holding-ham, 
it looks like an ancient personal appella- 

HOLDER. Thin. Camden. 

HOLDERNESS. A great district or 
wapentake of Yorkshire. 

HOLDGATE. A parish in Shropshire. 

HOIiDING. Probably the same as Hol- 

HOLFORD. A parish in Somersetshire. 

HOLE. This word is in many dialects 
applied to a locality which lies much lower 
than the surrounding lands ; and a resident 
at such a place would acquire the surname 
Atte Hole. Hoole and Hoyle are other 
forms of the same name. 

HOLGATE. Holdgate, a parish in 
Shropshire. Also a township in co. York. 



HOLKER. Two townships in Lanca- 

HOLL. HoUe, without prefix, is found 
in H.R. 

HOLLAND. It has been stated on the 
authority of George of Croyland, who wrote 
an account of the family in 1550, that the 
noble and knightly race of this name could 
trace themselves backwards thirteen gene- 
rations beyond the Norman Conquest ! For 
13 we should probably read 3 ; and there 
is a more credible genealogy which makes 
the fundator gentis one Otho, whose son 
Stephen flourished under Edw. the Con- 
fessor, as lord of Stevington, co. Lincoln, 
and his son, Ralph de Holand, it is said, 
continued to hold his lands by the permis- 
sion of William the Conqueror. These 
lands were in the district of Lincolnshire 
still known as Holland, but there is also a 
Holland in Lancashire which belonged to 
the family. Tliey were ennobled by Ed- 
ward I., and their blood mingled with that 
of royalty itself by the marriage of Thomas 
de Holland with the lovely Joane Planta- 
genet, the Fair Maid of Kent, and grand- 
daughter of King Edward III. 

HOLLANDS. See Holland. 

HOLLEBONE. Sometimes corrupted 
to HoUoftlxnu' t It is doubtless ecjuivalent 
to ' lioly l)ourne,' that is, a stream issuing 
from a holy spring or well. It is i)ronounced 
as a trisyllable. 

HOLLET. Probably Holleth, a hamlet 
in the parish of Garstang, co. Lancaster. 

HOLLEY. Probably local. 

HOLLICK. Doubtless Ilolwick, a town- 
ship in Yorkshire, by the suppression of W. 

HOLLU)AY. SeeHaUiday. 




HOLLIER. A mispronunciation of Hel- 

HOLLINGBURY. A conspicuous hill 
near Brighton, Sussex. 


Mottram, co. Chester. 
HOLLINGTOK A parish in Sussex. 

HOLLOND. A variation of Holland, 

which see. 

HOLLOWAY. A part of the parish of 

Islington, co. Middlesex. 

HOLLYGROVE. From residence near 
a grove of holly. 

HOLLYMAN. See Holyman. 

HOLLYWELL. See HalliweU. 

HOLIVIAN. May be a contraction of 
Holyman ; hut is more likely to be " 'ithole 
man," a man of sterling mettle. It must 
be recollected that in medieval English 
rvhole was spelt without the w, and the com- 
monest form of this name in the XTV. and 
XV. cent, is Holeman. 

HOLMER. A dweller by a holm or low 
ground. See termination er. 

HOLMES. A holme is defined by Hal- 
liweU as ' flat land ; a small island ; a de- 
posit of soil at the confluence of two waters. 
Flat grounds near water are called holms.' 
" Some call them the holmes, because they lie low, 

and are good for nothing bat grasse." 


In Scotland a holm means both a small 
uninhabited island, and a detached or insu- 
lated rock in the sea. 

HOLMS. See Hohnes. 

HOLNEY. Local : probably from Olney, 
CO. Buckingham. 

HOLROYD. A local name. fSee koyd.) 
The place is probably in the W. Riding of 
Yorkshire, where William de Howroyde or 
Holroyd, the Earl of Sheffield's ancestor, 
flourished temp. Edw. I. 

HOLSTEN. From the province of 

HOLT. HalliweU says a grove, or small 
forest. On the South Downs generally, if 
not always, it is a small hanging wood. See 
other definitions in Eng. Sum, i. 75.' Leo 
says copse or wood, correspondmg with the 
Germ. holz. The H.R. forms are De, De la, 
Del, and Le Holt. There are towns and 
places specifically named Holt in Norfolk, 
Wiltshire, Worcestershire, and Leicester- 

HOLTER. A man who resided near a 

Holt. See termination er. 


HOLTON, Parishes, &c., in cos. Lincoln, 
Oxon, Somerset, Suffolk, &c. 

HOLYBROOK. Local: ''the sacred 
stream" — in charters, De Sacro Fonte. 

HOLYHEAD. The Welsh town. 

HOLYMAN". In the Landnamabok, ac- 
cording to Mr. Ferguson, there are " forty- 
two men having Helgi (holy) for their bap- 
tismal name, while only three had acquired 
it as a surname." *' Holyman," he adds, 
" corresponds with the Grerman name Hei- 
ligmann." In Germany the name was 
formerly translated into the Greek 

HOLYOAK. From residence near an 
oak to which some sanctity was attached. 
The latinLaation in charters is, De Sacra 

HOMAN. The same as Holman. 

HOME. See Hume, of which it is an 
older orthography. 

HOMER. A medieval personal name. 
A saint bearing it gave name to St. Omer 
in Picardy, from whence the founder of the 
family may have come to England — not 
necessarily, however, since Homerton, Ho- 
mersham, Homersfield,&c., point distinctly 
to some Anglo-Saxon proprietor who re- 
joiced in this poetical designation. The 
first of the family on record, according to 
Mr. Dixon, is Thomas de Homere, 1338, 
who had lands in co. Dorset. A family of 
Homer have been settled in Staflfordshire 
for centuries. Surnames, p. 37. 

HOMES. See Hohnes. 

HOMEWOOD. Local: "the wood of 
holm or holly." 

HONDESDICK. Houndsditch in London 
gave name to a citizen, one GeoflErey de 
Hondesdick, temp. Edw. I. H.R. 

HONE. Probably Holne, a parish in 
Devonshire. There is, however, a Hone 
without prefix in H.R. 

HONEY. In Sussex this name has been 
corrupted from the local Holney; but 
Honey unprefixed is found in H.R. 

bably corruptions of Honeyboume or CJow- 
Honey bourne, co. Gloucester. 

HONEYCHURCH. A parish in Devon- 

HONEYMAN. In old times when mead 
or metheglin was a favourite beverage, and 
when sugar was unknown in England, the 
propagation of bees, and the production of 
honey, furnished employment for many 
persons ; and hence the surnames Beeman 
and HonejTnan. Honeman, Honiman, 
H.R. See Beeman. 

HONEYSETT. Possibly from the A- 
Sax, huniff, honey, and sett, a seat or a set- 
ting — a bee-park. See under Beeman. 


HONYWILL. Probably local, from the 
termination well. It might " be given to 
a well from the sweetness of its waters." 

HONNOR. See Honor. 

HONOR. HONOUR. Probably the 
Lat. Honorius, through the French Honore. 




HON" Y WOOD. " The name is derived 
ftom Henewood near Postling in Kent, 
yfrbere the ancestors of this family resided 
as early as the reign of Henry III." Shir- 
ley's Noble and Grentle Men, p. 97. 

HOO. HOOE. Parishes and places in 
006. Hertfordshire, Sussex, Kent, Sec. 

HOOD. 1. From some peculiarity in 
the head-dress of the original possessor of 
the name. 2. But more probably Odo is 
the source. 

HOOFE. If of English origin (which I 
doubt) may be connected with the A- Sax. 
Uffa or Offa, a well-known personal name. 

HOOK. HOOKE. Many localities in 
England bear the name of " the Hook," an 
expression which is doubtless topographical, 
though its precise derivation is not known. 
It is probably allied to the Teutonic ?ioe, 
koH, hocK ^M All meaning a hill or elevated 
place. The surname was written in the 
XIV. cent. Atte Hooke, and this by crasis 
sometimes became Tooke. It may be men- 
tioned that Hoke, as a personal name, oc- 
curs in Saxon times. See Beowulf, 1. 2146, 
where we find the daughter of Hoke be- 
wailing the death of her sons. 

HOOKER. 1 . See Hook, and the termi- 
nation ER. 2. A maker of hooks. 

local. The latter orthography makes a 
curious compound, and reminds us of one of 
Douglas Jerrold's witticisms. When asked 
if he knew Theodore Hook, he replied : 
" Oh yes, Hook and I are very intimate 1" 

HOOKMAN. See Hook, and the termi- 
nation MAN. Hokeman without prefix is 
found in H.R. 

HOOLE. Places in cos. Chester, Lancas- 
ter, and York. 

HOOPER. The same as Hoper. John 
Hooper, bishop of Gloucester, a victim of 
the Marian persecution, wrote his name in- 
differently Hoper and Hooper. Perhaps in 
some cases a maker of hoops. The form of 
tiM name temp. Edward L was Le Hopere. 


A distinguished family of this name are 
of Dutch origin. 

HOOTTON. Parishes, &c., in cos. York 
uid Chester. 

HOPE. 1. Parishes, Ac, in cos. Derby, 
York, Flint, Kent, Salop, Hereford, &c. 2. 
A topographical expression, meaning a 
sloping hollow l>etween two hills, '' petite 
▼aUte cntre dea montagnes." Jamieson. 
**Thed(to of an hill." Camden. Hence 
Um MiriMincii Hope, Hoper, and Hooper, as 
will M Hopt-kirk, IIoiHjwell, &c. The H.U. 
fDrm, De Hoi»c, l>elongH to the first, and De 
U Hope to the seoond definition. 

IIOPER. From residence near a hope or 
raJley. 8ee Hope, and the termination er. 
TIm Protettaot bishop of Gloucester, temp. 
Queen Mary, wrote hit name indifferently 
HofMr and Hooper. 

HOPKWELL. Hopwell, CO. Derby. 

HOPGOOD. A corruption of Hopwood. 

through Hob, with the diminutive Mn. The 
H.R. form is Hobek}Ti. A family of this 
name have possessed a farm at Swalcliffe, 
CO. Oxon, from the XIII. cent, and nine- 
teen successive proprietors bore theChristian 
name of John. They believe themselves to 
be descended from a younger son of one of 
the three Sir Robert de AVykehams who were 
in succession owners of Swalcliffe, temp. John 
and Henry III. The arms too of Hopkyns 
appear to have been partly borrowed from 
those of Wykeham. Information of D. D. 
Hopkyns, Esq. 

HOPKESrSON. See Robert. 

HOPPE. Probably the same as Hope. 

HOPPER. A-Sax. hoppere, a dancer. 
Le Hoppar, Le Hopper, Le Hoppere. H.R. 

HOPPING. Perhaps Iloppen, a town- 
ship in Northumberland. 

HOPPRINGLE. From the estate so 
called in the S. of Scotl. (Roxburghshire ?) 
The first syllable was dropped in the XVII. 
cent., and the name has since been known 
as Pringle. So says a northern correspon- 
dent — ^but see Pringle. 

HOPPUS. The derivation from "hop- 
house " will hardly do, hops being of too 
recent introduction, unless indeed the name 
be very modem. It is more likely " Hope- 
house," from residence near a hope. See 
Hope, 2. 

HOPTON. Parishes and places in cos. 
Derby, Stafford, Suffolk, Salop, &;c. 

HOPWOOD. A township in Lanca- 

HORACE. I do not see why this name 
should not have been derived, through the 
French, from the Roman Horatius ; but Mr. 
Ferguson deduces it from the O, Saxon, 
Friesic, and Norse, hrosy horaz, Jiross, a 

IIORD. Has been considered a corrup- 
tion of Howard. Hord is however a Swe- 
dish surname, and it was borne by a distin- 
guished general of Charles XU. 

HORDE. Probably the same aa Howard, 
or as Hord. 

HORDEN. Dispensator, steward. Camd. 
From A-Sax. hOrd, a hoard, or treasury. 

HORE. See Hoare. 

HORLEY. Parishes in cos. Surrey and 

HORLOCK. Hoar and lock. Having 
hoary locks; grcy-heade<l. Similar names 
arc Blacklock, Silverlock, Whitelock, Sec. 

HORNBLOWER. Comage is a law 
tcnn (Lat rornagluvi) for a species of tenure 
in grand serjcanty, " the senicc of which 
was to blow a horn when any invasion of 
the Scots was perceived ; and by this tenure 
many persons held their lands northward, 
about the wall, commonly oallod the Pict's 




Wall." Jacob, who cites Camden. The 
person who performed this duty for the 
lord, probably acquired the surname. At 
Kipon there prevails a peculiar custom, 
" which according to some is of a date prior 
to the Conquest, viz., to blow a horn every 
night at nine o'clock; and formerly if any 
house or shop was robbed between that 
hour and sunrise the loss was made good 
to the sufferer, by a yearly tax of fourpence, 
imposed on every house-keeper. The tax 
is now discontinued, but the custom is still 
kept up of blowing the horn every night, 
three times at the mayor's door, and three 
times at the market-cross. The officer who 
performs this duty is called theRorn-bloiver" 
Pari. Gazetteer. Blouliom is met with 
in the H.R. ; and Blower and Homiblow 
still exist. " Comicen, hom-blawere." 
Wright's Vocab. 73. 

HORNBY. Parishes, &c., in cos. Lan- 
caster and York. 

IIORNCASTLE. A town in Lincoln- 

HORNE. One Alwin Home held lands 
in Middlesex and Herts before the making 
of Domesday. Horn is a personal name of 
great antiquity, and is borne by the hero of 
a celebrated O. Eng. and Fr. romance. 
For his history, see Wright's Essays, vol i., 
Ess. iii. 

HORNER. A manufacturer of horn* 
In London the horners and bottle-makers 
form one Company. Horn was anciently 
applied to many uses for which glass and 
other materials are at present employed. 
" Horns," says Fuller, " are a commodity 
not to be slighted, seeing I cannot call to 
mind any other substance so hard that it 
will not break ; so solid that it will hold 
liquor within it ; and yet so clear that light 
will pass through it. No mechanical trade 
but liath some utensils made thereof ; and 
even now I recruit my pen with ink from a 
vessel of the same. Yea, it is useful cap-a- 
pie, from combs to shoeing-homs. What 
shall I speak of many gardens made of 
horns to garnish houses ? I mean artificial 
flowers of all colours. And besides what is 
spent in England, many thousand weight 
are shaven down into leaves for lanthoms, 

and sent over daily into France 

No wonder then that the Horners are an 
ancient corporation, though why they and 
the bottle-makers were formerly united into 
one company passeth my skill to conjec- 
ture." Worthies of England, Lancashire. 
The imion between, the two trades was 
probably formed, because vessels for holding 
liquors were the staple commodity of 

HORNIBLOW. Possibly a corruption 
of Homblower. 

HORNING. A parish in Norfolk. 

HORNSEY. A parish in Middlesex. 

HORNYOLD. The first recorded an- 
cestor is John de H., temp. Edw. HI. Local 
— place unknown. 

HORSECRAFT. The horse-croft, an 
enclosure for horses. 

HORSELL. A parish in Surrey. 

HORSEY. A parish in Norfolk, and 
places in Sussex and Essex. 

HORSFORD. A parish in Norfolk, 

HORSLEY. Parishes and tovraships in 
COS. Northumberland and Derby. 

chevalier as distinguished from a foot- 
soldier, or a keeper of horses. In H.R. we 
have one Agnes le Horseman — doubtless a 
clever Amazon. 

HORSEMONGER. A horse-dealer; 
whence Horsemonger Lane in London. In 
H.R. Le Horsemongere. 

son says, it may " refer to one who was as 
swift-footed as a horse." A- Sax. snel, 
quick, active. A Kentish farrier, with great 
propriety, lately bore this name in the 
former orthography. 

HORTON. (A-Sax. or/, or wort, herbs, 
or vegetables, and tun, an enclosure — a 
garden). Parishes and places in cos. 
Bucks, Chester, Dorset, Gloucest., Kent, 
Northampt,, Northumb., Salop, York, Staf- 
ford, &c. 

HORWOOD. Parishes in cos. Bucking- 
ham and Devon. 

HOSE. The same as Hussey. 

HOSE. The garment. See Hosier. 

HOSEY. Hosatus or Hussey, which 
latter see. 

HOSIER. Camden explains Chaucer by 
Hosier. The hosier of modem times sella 
stockings and other soft * under clothing.' 
Two hundred years ago, the hosiers of 
London were those tailors who sold ready- 
made clothes {qui vendent des habits 
d'hommes ton* faiU. Cotgr.); but the 
original hosier was he who encased the 
" nether man " in leather : " The chmmure 
commonly used in England, when surnames 
were first adopted by the commonalty, was 
of leather, covered both the foot and leg, 
and was called Jwne. Hosier, therefore, is 
the same with Chancier^ which comes from 
the Lat. calcearlm, and differs but little in 
meaning from another word used to denote 
the man who followed this employment, viz., 
Sutor, Sowter, or Souter, which was in use 
in English from the tune of Chaucer to that 
of Beaimiont and Fletcher. It is still pre- 
served in Scotland, and has become a 
surname in both countries." Edinburgh 
Review, April, 1855. 

HOSKIN. See Roger. 

HOSKING. See Hoskins. 

HOSKINS. A softened pronunciation of 

HOSMER. Osmer was a Domesday 
tenant in chief, co. Dorset, who had held 
his lands temp. Edw. Confessor. 




HOSTB. The ancestor of tlie baronet 
was Jacques Hoste, who was driven out of 
the Netherlands in 15G9, by the persecutions 
under the Duke of Alva, and settled in 
England. His ancestors were influential in 
the city of Bruges in the XIV. cent Court- 
hope's Debrett. 

HOTCHKma See Roger. 

HOTCHKISS. A corruption of Ilodg- 

HOTHAM. A parish in Yorkshire. The 

name was assumed by Peter de Trebouse, 

who was Uxing there in 1118. Shirley's 

Noble and Gt;ntle Men. 

IIOTHER. Hoth in Sussex, where this 
surname occurs, signifies furze or gorse, and 
also an unenclosed ground where it grows. 
Atte Hoth is found in the XIV. cent. This 
probably became Hother. It may have 
sprung however from Other, a personal 
name of early date. 

Hoton, CO. Leicester, or Hoton-Pagnel, co. 

HOUGH. A township in Cheshire. 

HOUGHTON. Parishes and places in 
cos. Lancaster, Cumberland, Hunts, Hants, 
York, Northampton, Northumb., Norfolk, 
Bedford, Durham, Dorset, Leicester, &c. 

HOULE. See Howell and Hoole. 

HOUND. 1. A-Sax. hund, a hunting 
dog. A Gilbert le Hund is found in H.R. 
2. The designation of a parish in Hamp- 
shire, which includes within its boimdaries 
the far-famed Netley Abbey. 

HOUNSELL. Possibly a corruption of 
Hounslow, CO. Middlesex. 

WsSr HOUSE. A common termination of 
local surnames, as Woodhouse, New- 
boose, Mirehouse, Whitehouse, Old- 
house, Hobhouse. 

HOUSE. See remarks in Eng. Sum. 
i. 76. 1. It is probably the A-Sax. husa, a 
domestic servant 2. Or, perhaps, Su. 
Goth. At», arx, a castle. 

HOUSEGO. Apparently the old Germ, 
peraonal name Husicho. Ferguson. 

HOUSEHOLD. A hold is a fortress, or 
any Oiing held out Hence Household may 
signify a fortified house. 

HOUSELESS. Perhaps the sobriquet of 
• in«Ddi<mnt 

dooMttte servant in contradistinction from 
<Mie«aq»lo]red in husbandry abroad. 2. Like 
v» A*8u. k^-weard, a housekeeper; a 
HMD who hM ft house of his own. 

HOUSLET. The same as Ouseley. 

^•ol knightly family so called originally 
oofi the name of Paduinan from a place in 
«>. Uuriu In the XH. cent Hugh de 
'• ^g?^ **»• iMdsof Kilpotcr, and built 
ft tmUimm Uiera, to whidh he gave the 

name of Hugh's Town, now Houston, co. 
Renfrew. His descendants of that Ilk 
borrowed their surname from it. 

HOVELL. See Havill. 


South, a small round hill ; in the North, a 
hollow place or plain. The medieval form 
is At How, generally synonymous with 
Hill. A-Sax. ?u>u — a mountain. 

HOWARD. This noble historical name 
has been a sore puzzle to etymologists. See 
Eng. Sum. i. 133. A writer in the Quarterly 
Rev. vol. CII. says, the family " may be 
Saxon, may be Danish." They are more 
probably of Norwegian origin. Havard or 
Haavard was a common personal name 
among the Northmen. " It appears," says 
Laing, " to be the English name Howard, 
and left by them in Northumberland and 
East Anglia." Heimskringla. vol. i. p. 410. 
The seventeenth-century genealogists 
laboured hard to prove a Norman origin 
for this illustrious race, but authentic re- 
cords extend back no farther than the XIII. 
cent., when the Howards rose into eminence 
in Norfolk ; (See Peerage,) though Houar- 
dus, the Essex under-tenant of Domesday 
may be cited on that side. 

HOWDEN. A large parish in York- 
shire, and a township in Northumberland. 

HOWELL. 1. A very common AVelsh 
baptismal name (Huel). 2. A Lincolnshire 

HOWETT. HOWITT. The same &b 
Hewett, a diminutive of Hugh. 

HOWGRAVE. A township in York- 

HOWIE. Supposed to be a corruption 
of the Fr. surname Hauy : another deriva- 
tion is from the Scot, hwvc, a hollow. 

HOWISON. The son of Hugh, Hughie, 
or Hewie. The old Scot mode of spelling 
Hugh was Hew, as especially in the family 
of Dalrymple. In Renfrewshire, where the 
surname abounds, it is pronounced Hewie's- 

HOWIS. A genitive form of Hugh. 
Also local : De Howys, H.R., co, Kent 

HOWKE. See Hooke, of which it is an 
earlier form. 

HOWL AND. Probably Iloyland: three 
places in Yorkshire are so called. 

IIOWLE. A mis-spelling of HoweU. 

IIOWLEY. A river in Cheshire. 

HOWLYN. Supposed to be the Irish 
equivalent of the Welsh Llewellyn. Fitz- 
Howlyn became strangely modified to Mao 
Quillan. Ulster Joum. of Archa?ol., No. 2. 

IIOWORTH. The same as Ilaworth. 

HOWROYD. The same as Ilolroyd. 
See RoYD. 

HOWSE. See How. 

HOY. The same as Iloey. 




HOYLE. A Yorkshire topographer 
thus speaks of the eunabula of this family : 
" Hoile House, so called from being situate 
in a hole or bottom, gave name to a family 
who resided there as late as the beginning 
of the last century (1600), if not later. It 
is reckoned a very ancient situation, but 
has nothing remarkable about it now." 
Watson's Halifax, 1775. A respectable 
family of the name still existing deduce 
their pedigree from Edw. Hoyle of Hoyle 
House in 1528 ; but there are other local 
sources which may in some instances have 
originated the name, as Hoile House, co. 
Dumfries, Hoyle, a hamlet in West Sussex, 
&c. The " Hoele of Flyntshire" mentioned 
by Leland was probably a gentleman of 
the numerous race of the Howells. There 
is, or was, in Kent a family of Hoile, but 
from Hasted it would appear that their 
name was originally Hild. Hole and Hoole 
frequently interchange with Hoyle, and are 
doubtless synonymous. 

HUBBARD. A corruption of Hubert. 

HUBE. A contraction or "nurse-name " 
of Hubert. 

HUBER. See Hubert. 

HUBERT. The personal name. Among 
its derivatives in English family nomen- 
clature we have Hubbard, Hibbert, Hib- 
bins, Hibbs, Hibson, or Ibson, and probably 

HUCKETT. SeeHuggett. 

HUCKIN. Probably Hughkin, a diminu- 
tive of Hugh, like Huggin. 

HUCKSTEPP. Local : "of the high 
steep." In the XIII. cent, it is found in 
Sussex as De Hoghstepe. 

HUDSON. See Roger and Hodgson. 

HUDDLESTONE. A small parish in 
Yorkshire, which the family erewhile pos- 
sessed, tliough they deduce their name from 
king Athelstan 1 

graphical variations of the names Hugh, 
Hewet, Hewetson. 

HUER. The same as Conder — which 
see. . 

HUFF AM. From Hougham, a parish in 
Kent. Robert de H. was constable of Ro- 
chester Castle in 1189, and was at Askalon 
with Cceur-de-Lion. Hougham Court re- 
mained in the family for many generations. 
The corruption of Hougliam to the pho- 
netic Huflfam is not of recent date. Both 
forms are used indifferently in Hasted's 

HUGGARD. See Hogarth. 

nUGGP:TT. 1. A diminutive of Hugh - 
the same as Hewett. 2. Huggate, a parish 
in the E. Biding of Yorkshire. 

HUGGINS. From Hugo, the Latin 

form of Hugh. The name Willelmus fil' 
Hugonis would as readily subside into 

William Huggins as into W. Fitzhugh, W. 
Ap-Hugh, or W. Hughson. 

HUGH. This Norman Christian name, 
though of rare occurrence in its simple form, 
has furnished a host of derivatives, some of 
which would hardly be supposed to be of 
such origin. Who at first sight would take 
the five surnames, Fitzhugh, Pugh, Mackay, 
Hoey, and Huson, to be identical in mean- 
ing? Yet this is the case; for Fitzhugh is the 
A. -Norman rendering of ' Filius Hugonis,' 
the son of Hugh ; Pugh is a contraction of 
the Welsh Ap-Hugh, the son of Hugh; 
Mackay, of the Gaelic Mac-Aiodh, th^ son 
of Hugh ; Hoey is the same name deprived 
of its Mac ; and Huson is clearly Hughson, 
the son of Hugh. Huggins, Higgins, 
Hutchins, Hitchins, Hutchinson, Huggin- 
son, Hewet, Hewetson, Howitt, Howis, 
Howison, Huggett, Hoggins, as well as 
Hughes, Hughson, Hewson, and probably 
many other names, are diminutives and 
patronymics of Hugh, the soft, and of Hugo, 
the hard, form. See more, where necessary, 
under the respective names. 

HUGHES. From Hugh, the personal 
name. See Hugo. 

HUGHMAN. See Human. 

HUGHSON. The son of Hugh. 

HUGO. The A.-Norm. Christian name, 
whence Huggins, Higgins, Huggett, &c. It 
is very common in Domesday. See Hugh. 

HUISH. Parishes in cos. Devon and 

HULL. O. Eng. A hill; but perhaps 
specifically from Hull, co. York. 

HULLS. SeeHulse. 

HULME. Places in cos. Lancaster, 
Northumberland, and Cheshire. 

HULSE. A township in Cheshire. 

HULTON. "Hulton is in the parish of 
Dean (co. Lancaster) and it gave name to 
Bleythen, called de Hulton, in the reign of 
Henry II., and from him this ancient family, 
still seated at their ancestral and original 
manor, are regularly descended." Baines's 
Lancashire. Shirley's Noble and Gentle 
Men, p. 116. 

HUM. A mispronunciation of Home. 

HUMAN. A man who had the care of 
ewes — Ewe-man. Analogous to Tupman, 
one who took charge of rams. 

HUJSIBERSTON. Parishes in cos. Lin- 
coln and Leicester. 

HUMBLE. Though looking like a moral 
characteristic, this appellation is doubtless 
derived from the manor of West Humble in 
the parish of Mickleham, co. Surrey. 

HUMBLESTONE. Humbleton, a parish 
in Yorkshire, or perhaps Humberston, 
which see. 

HUMBY. Places in Lincolnshire. 

HUME. An ancient village and fortress 
in Berwickshire. The Homes or Humes 


were descended from the famous earls of 
Dunbar, and through them from Gospatrick, 
earl of North um^rlaud, and the Saxon 
monarchs of England. 

PHRIES. The personal name. 

HUNCHBACK. From the personal de- 
formity of the first bearer. 

HUXGER. Perhaps Ongar, co. Essex. 

HUNKES. A. diminutive of Humphrey ; 
8o we derive Wilkes from William, Jenks 
fr(Hn John, Sec. 

HUNN. Grimm traces the name from the 
Huns of antiquity. The name Huna ap- 
pears as that of a liberated serf in a charter 
of manumission, Cod. Dipl. 971. Ferguson. 
Le Hunne. H.R., co. Kent. 

HUNXARD. Probably A-Sax. hund, a 
hound, and rveardj a keeper — a huntsman or 

HUNXISETT. See Honeysett. 

HUXXYBUM. A ludicrous corruption 
of the local Honeybourne. 

HUXT. Htinicu, A-Sax., a hunter; con- 
nected with hufui, a hound or dog. See 
Hunter. Le Hunt is very common in H.R. 
and Hunteman is also found there. 

HUNTER. Obviously derived from the 
chase, in old times a necessary art, as well 
as a favourite diversion. The Normans were 
great preservers and mighty hunters of game, 
and though the name is A-Sax. (hunta) it 
ifl generally considered that the families 
beuing it are chiefly of Norman origin. 
Under the Norman and early Scottish 
kings the office of king's hunter ( Venator 
JR^gi*) was one of considerable dignity. 
** T\m hunten of Polmood in Tweedsmuir 
pretend to hare had a charter of their lands 
from Graeme, who broke through the Wall 
of Antoninus in the V. cent 1 Folks of 

HUXTIXGDON. The chief town of 

HUNTINGTON. Parishes and places 
in COS. Hereford, Cheshire, StafToni, and 
Torii. The late William Huntington (who 
wore ft collar of SiS of his own fabrication, 
See Pimeh^ Sept 17, 1859.,) was JIunt, by 
birth, and adopted the final and penult 
syllables on arriving at manhoo<l. 

HUNTLEY. A parish in co. Gloucester. 

HUNTSMAN. See Hunter. 

HUNWICK. A township in Durham. 

HUKDIS. In the Promptorium Parvu- 
lorum we fmd Ilurdvee defined as Hitensile,* 
and 'sopellex/ and h^stglmemi giren as its 

■jrooDym. v * ■I'^tylmeot or hustelmcnt 

is used in - yersion of the Bible 

•sarend'! . • Vulgate trtrnn/ia, and 
Mr. Way pruves from several medieval 
aothoritifOA thnt it ordinarily meant move- 
ablo- ■ ■ " niiture, or implements; 
but i II " and other works, 

kWTii 'irric 

166 HUR 

or large shields chWed pavises. See Way's 
Prompt. Parv. The low-Latin hurditius or 
hurditium means the hurdles {crates) em- 
ployed in ancient warfare — the hurdles or 
mat- work which covered the walls of towns 
(" crates quas obducunt urbium muris" — 
Vossius) during a siege, to resist the bat- 
tering-ram, as seen in ancient pictures. 
The surname may have been metaphorically 
applied to some gallant defender of a town 
or fortress. 

HURLBAT. Halliwell, citing Howell, 
defines hurlehat as a kind of dart, which is 
clearly a misapprehension. I find the word 
in Boyer's Eng. -French, and Ainsworth's 
Latin Dictionaries. The latter gives it as 
the equivalent of the classical ccsstm, and 
describes it as "a kind of club, or rather 
thong of leather, having plummets of lead 
fastened to it, used in boxing." But there 
was another implement of sport used in the 
time of Elizabeth for the game of ' hurling ' 
which was called the " clubbe or hurle- 
batte." For a description of hurling, see 
Hone's Strutt's Sports and Pastimes, pp. 
98-99. This surname, like Shakespeare, 
Wagstaffe, &c., comes from some feat of 
strength on the part of the original bearer. 
Johnson gives "Whirlbat, anything 
moved rapidly round to give a blow," and 
adds, ** It is frequently used by the poets for 
the ancient caestus." He cites L'Estrange, 
Creech, and Dryden, for the use of the 

The names Rob. Hurlebat,and Thos. Hurl- 
le-batte occur in documents 15 Ric. IIL 
Notes and Queries, Jan. 24, 1857. 

HURLER. A man practised in the 
game of hurling the ball, which is almost, 
if not quite, peculiar to the county of Corn- 
wall. For a particular account of this game, 
which Strutt derives from the Roman play 
with the harpastum, see Carew's Survey of 
Cornwall, Book i. p. 73. 

«' In the month of August, 1657, a stranse appari- 
tion of Innumerable persons in white apparel, and in 
the act of hurling, was seen in that county, by many, 
in a field of stanilinR com. near Boscastle, which after 
some time vanishwl into the sea. Some of the si»ec- 
tators Koinj? afler^-ards into the field, foun<l, contrary 
to their expecUtion, that the com was no ways in- 
jured." C. S. aUbert't Cornwall, 1. 18. 

HURLEY. A parish in Berkshire. 

HURLOCK. The same as Horlotk. 

HURLSTONE. Hurlston, a township 
in Cheshire. 

HURRKR. A dealer in hats and caps. 
Notes and Queries, v. 137. The Hurrors' 
Company in Ix)ndon formerly comprised 
the cappers, hatmakers, and haberdashers, 

HURST. Parishes and places in Sussex, 
Berks, Kent, Hampshire, Northumberland, 
York, and many other counties. 

HURST. A-Sax. hyrst, a wood or 
forest— whence numerous names of places 
which have Ixxjome surnames, as Ake- 
burst, Brinkhurst, Crowhurst, Dighurst, 
Elmhurst. Tlie temiiiiation is princi- 
pally found in the South-eastern ooun- 


ties, where it indicates the former exis- 
tence of the great Sylva Anderida, or 
Forest of Andred. 
HUSBAND. Not simply a married man 
OtMritus), but anyone entrusted with the 
higher domestic duties or functions. In 
medieval documents the surname is written 
Le Husbande. 
HUSEY. See Hussej. 

HUSHER. Fr. huissier, an usher, or 
subordinate official of a court. 

HUSKISSON. A corruption of Hodg- 
kinson, the son of Hodgkin or Hugh. 

HUSON. A contraction of Hughson — 
the son of Hugh. 

HUSSEY. According to Stapleton's 
Rotuli Scaccarii Normanniae, Osbert de H., 
who was living in 1180, was so named from 
le Hozu, a fief in the parish of Grand Que- 
villy near Rouen. And one Henry de la 
Hosse or Heuze held, inter alias, the lands 
of Hosse. Ibid. Will, de Hosa occurs as 
witness to a deed of King Stephen soon 
after his accession. Ibid. In an old ac- 
count of the Hussey family, the name is said 
to be "quasi de Hosa — from a boot or 
buskin," and the crest borne was a boot. 
Inf. Edw. Hussey, Esq., M.A. The ordinary 
latinization is Hosatus, 'hosed or booted,' 
but this is merely a pun, for the head of 
the family, who in the XIL cent founded 
the abbey of Durford, co. Sussex, was 
otherwise written De Hoese — a plain proof 
that the name was of local origin. 

There is another locality now spelt Heusse 
in the department of La Manche. 

HUSSON. The same as Huson— -the son 

of Hugh. 
HUSTLER. Perhaps a corruption of 

hosteler, an innkeeper. 
HUSTWITT. A parish in Yorkshire 

called Husthwaite is locally so pronounced. 

167 IDL 

HUTCHESON. See Hutchison. 

diminutives of Hugh. 

HUTCHINSON. See Hutchison. In 
England and Ireland this is the more fre- 
quent orthography. In the N. of England 
the name appears (but erroneously) to be 
regarded as a corruption of Richardson. 
Folks of Shields, p. 37. 

HUTCHISON. Said to be Gaelic with 
an English termination. The son of Hugh. 

HUTHWAITE. Probably Husthwaite, 
a parish in Yorkshire. 

HUTSON. As Hudson. 

HUTT. From residence in a hut — ana- 
logous to Cote. 

BUTTON. Twenty-six parishes and 
townships in different counties bear this 

HUXHAM. A place in Devonshire. 

HUXLEY. A township in Cheshire. 

HYDE. See Hide. "Ahide(A.Sax. Ayrf) 
of land was about 120 acres ; also as much 
land as could be tilled with one plough, or 
would support one family ; a family pos- 
session." Bosworth. Sometimes a specific 
locality bears this name. Atte Hide. 

HYDER. Under the feudal system, the 
tenant of a hide of laud (see Hyde) was 
called a hidarius — whence Hyder. See 
Hale's St. Paul's Domesday, p. xxv. Some- 
times it may be equivalent to Skinner. 

HYKE. The same as Hick. 

HYLTON. See Hilton. 

HYNDMAJN. See Hindman. 


IbBET. See Hbert. 
IBBETSON. The son of Ibbet or Hbert. 
An ancient family in Yorkshire. 

IBBOTSON. See Hbert. 
IBBS. See Hbert. 
IBERSON. See Hbert. 
IBISON. See Hbert. 
IBITT. See Hbert. 
IBSON. See Hbert. 

ICEMONGER. An ironmonger— from 
A- Sax. iscn, iron, and monger. 

IDDENDEN. See den. 

IDE. Possibly Hide, with the initial 
letter suppressed. Ide was however an A- 
Sax., and is to this day a Frisian, proper 

IDEN. A parish in Sussex. 

IDESON. The son of Ide, which see. 

IDLE. A chapelry in the parish of Cal- 




verley, oo. York ; also a river of Notting- 

IFE. The same as Ive. 

IFILL. Perhaps a corruption of Ifleld, 
CO. Sussex. 

DEN. In XIV. cent documents it is spelt 

ILBERT. Thoughthis baptismal appel- 
lation rarely appears as a surname m its 
proper fonn, it has given rise to the follow- 
ing: — Ibbet, Ibbitt, Iberson, Ibbetson, Ib- 
botson, Ibbs, Ibison, Ibson, &o. 

ILBERY. Hilbury, a place in the hun- 
dred of Worrall, co. Chester. 

ILDERTON. A parish in Northumber- 
ILES. Probably the same as L'Isle. 

ILIFF. ILIFFE. Probably the same 
as AyloflF. 

ILLIXGWORTH. A chapelry in York- 

ILLMAN. The same as Hillman. 

ILLYARD. The same as Hilliard. 

ILOTT. The same as Aylott. 

IMPEY. This name is, or has been, 
numerous in cos. Bucks, Surrey, and Essex, 
in which last county stands Impey Hall. 
See Morant's Essex. 

INCE. Places in cos. Chester and Lan- 

INCH. Several parishes and places in 
Scotland. Inch is a topographical expres- 
sion signifying island. It has been derived 
from the British ynys, and the Gaelic inis 
— insula. *'The word is said to occur with 
the same signification in some of the abori- 
ginal languages of North America." Gaz. 
Scotl. But it sometimes denotes level 
ground contiguous to a river. 

INCHBALD. The same as Inchbold. 

INCH HOLD, tocal; from incA, island, 
and hold^ a dwelling : *' the island home." 

fST ING. A very common termination of 
local surnames, for an explanation of 
which see l*reliminary Dissertation. In 
Mr. Clark's " Surnames metrically Ar- 
ran^ and Classified," we have the fol- 
lowing curious list with this termina- 
tion, nearly every one of which, though 
of local origin, Umh* like the active 
participle of some well-known verb. 
**Tluw, then, we've Standing, Rising, Falling, 
Curling, Clipping, Cumming, Calling; 
Budding, Browning, Ikdding, Baring, 
Watering. Weeding. AVhiting, Waring ; 
Codling. CuUin);, Ayling, Catching, 
Ptelin^, Taring, Painting. Patching; 
Btndhna, Suckling, Swadling, Sjicnding, 
IMum, LOTiag, LvUog, Lending ; 
rWdfikg, Finoliig, Harrowing, Tilling, 
Bidding, Bending, Banning, Billing ; 
BowUml Bklding. Banking, Running, 
Ckiiaft luBliV^ KMfpli«, Dunning; 

Making, Marking, Manning, Moulding, 
Spilling, Sprawling, Schooling, Scolding; 
Heading, Harding, Hawking, Hopping, 
Shearing, Spearing, Chipping, Chopping; 
Riding, Walking, Fanning, Reading, 
Conning, Spiking, Shipping, Speeding; 
Hemming, Pulling, Holding, Cutting, 
Seeking, Tapping, Goring, Nutting ; 
T^vining, Pinching, Gambling, Hitching, 
Heeding, Learning, Picking, Twitching; 
Angling, Josling, Rounding, Skipping, 
Twilling, Topping, Tapping, Tipping." 

INGE. Has been derived from the A- 
Sax. ing^ a meadow. It is however far 
more probably a Scandinavian personal 
name. Inge, the son of Harald, was a dis- 
tinguished king of Norway, in the XII. 
cent. Hence probably the local designation 

INGHAM. Parishes in cos. Lincoln, 
Norfolk, and Suflfolk. See Inge. 

INGILBY. There are several places in 
Yorkshire called Ingleby, and in that co., 
at Ripley Castle, the baronet's ancestors 
have been resident from the XIV. century. 
Courthope's Debrett. 

INGLEDE W. The name of Angeltheow 
occurs in the genealogies of the Anglo- 
Saxon kings, as fourth in descent from 
Woden. See Sax. Chron. A.D. 626 and 
755. "A Wodeno originem ducebat Augel- 
theawus." But I have not met with it 
elsewhere in Anglo-Saxon history. It is 
probable however that Ingledew, Engledue, 
and Engledow, as family names, are modem 
forms of it. 

INGLIS. The old Scottish form of 
' English,' formerly applied to the descend- 
ants of Englishmen settled in Scotland, 
especially of prisoners taken by Malcolm 
III. from the northern counties in 1070. 
For years after that date, we are told, Eng- 
lish sen-ants or slaves were to be found in 
every village, and almost in every house. 
Singularly enough, the baronet famil)', 
though of Scottish origin, deduce from 
William Inglis, who had, in 1395, a grant 
of lands and this surname from Robert III., 
for killing an Englishman on the borders — 
Angina ah Anglum occltUndo ; truly as odd 
an origin as surname ever had I 


Scandinavian personal name, retained in the 
designations of Ingleby, Inglesham, Ingle- 
ton, Ingoldsthorpe, Ingoldsby, and other 
parishes and places, lying chiefly in what 
are called the Danish counties. The 
Domesday form is Ingtvldus. 

INGOLDBY. Seelngoldsby. 

INGOLDSBY. A parish in Lincoln- 
shire, of which, in 1230, Sir Roger de In- 
goldsby, the founderoftheiamily, was lord. 
CourthoiJc's Debrett. 

INGPEN. The same as Inkpen. 

INGRAM. Lntlnizcd Jngelramus — an 
ancient jtersonal name. It occurs in the 
various forms of Ingelram, Ingerham, &c 




There is also a parish in Northumberland 
called Ingram. 

INGREY. Probably Ingrave, co. Essex. 

INKPEN. A parish near Hungerford, 
CO. Berks. "The manor was held at an 
early period, under the baronial family of 
Somery, by the Inkpens, who took their 
name from the village." Escheats Edw. I. 
and II. Lysons's Berkshire, p. 304. 

INKSON". Ferguson derives it from a 
very early Teutonic name, Ingo, or Inge. 
See Inge. 

INMAN. Inn-man, inn-keeper. Not 
perhaps equivalent to Tavemer, but the 
person who had the charge of the " inn " 
or town-house of a nobleman. 

INNES. An estate in the parish of 
Urquhart, co. Moray. The first possessor 
who assumed the name was Walter de 
Innes, who died in the reign of king Alex- 
ander II. 

INNOCENT. A personal name, which 
has been borne by several Popes. 

^i" INSECTS and REPTILES. Several 
surnames are identical in orthography 
with the names of Insects and Reptiles. 
We must again invoke the aid of Mr. 
" The Beetle, Butterflv, and Bee, 
The Emmet, Crickett, and the Flea ; 
The Moth, Mite, Magpot, and the Slogg, 
The Grul)t>, Wasp, Spider, and the Bugg ; 
Tlie Turtle, Tron, Blackadder, Leech, 
With New-te and Worms— these all and each, 
Together with the Summerbee, 
Give many of the names we see." 

Surnames Metrically Arranged, p. 30. 

Of these. Butterfly, Wa8p,Frog,and perhaps 
one or two others, may have been imposed 
as sobriquets ; the rest are mostly traceable 
to other sources; for example. Beetle is 
Beadle or Bedel ; Crickett is a place in 
Somersetshire ; Maggott is a * nursenarae ' 
or diminutive of Margaret ; Blackadder is 
corrupted from the name of a river ; Leech 
is the Old English for surgeon ; Bee is by, 
the Danish for a habitation, and Summerbee 
has relation neither to the season of flowers 
nor to the insect that gathers its stores 
from them, but is a corruption of Somerby, 
a local name. 

INSKIP. A township in the parish of 
St. Michael, co. Lancaster, seven or eight 
miles from Preston. 

INSOLL. May possibly be derived from 
the German irisel, an island. 

INVERARITY. A parish in Forfar- 

INWARD. Qy. : inn-ward, the keeper 
of an inn ? ' Inward ' is however an ar- 
chaism implying familiar, intimate ; and to 
this day in Suffolk * inward-maid ' means a 
house-maid. HalliweU. 

INWOOD. Intwood, a parish in Nor- 

IPRES. Ypres, a town in Flanders. De 
Ipre. H.R. 


IRBY. Places in cos. Cumberland 
Lincoln, and Chester. 

IRELAND. A native of that country— 
an Irishman. 

IREMONGER. Not a dealer in wrath, 
but a corruption of Ironmonger. Le Irmon- 
gere. H.R. 

IRETON. A parish in Derbyshire, which 
belonged to the family temp. Richard Coeur- 
de-Lion. Henry, brother of Sewallis, lord 
of Eatington, co. Warwick, ancestor of the 
noble family of Shirley, had a son Fulcher 
de Ireton, lord of Ireton, direct ancestor of 
Henry Ireton, the son-in-law of Oliver 
Cromwell, whose father alienated Ireton in 
the reign of Elizabeth. 

IRISH. A native of Ireland. 

IRON. IRONS. Possibly from Airan, 
a village near Caen in Normandy. 

IRONAIAN. The name Isanman, which 
has the same meaning, is found in Ger- 
many in the IX. cent. Ferguson. See 

IRONMONGER. The trade. It is 
sometimes written Iremonger, and Ise- 
monger or Icemonger. The latter form is 
fromA-Sax. uen, iron. 

IRONPURSE. Several individuals bore 
this surname in the reign of Edward I. 
Irenpurs, Irenpurse, &c. H.R. 

IRONSIDE. A title of valour, well- 
known amongst us, from the days of the 
Saxon Edward, to those of Cromwell's 
* Ironsides,' and since, whenever we speak 
of a robust person. Berry attributes five 
coats to this surname. 

IRTON. " A family of very great anti- 
quity, and resident at Irton, on the river Irt 
(co. Cumberland), from whence the name 
is derived, as early as the reign of Henry L" 
Shirley's Noble and Gentle Men. Samuel 
Irton, Esq., of Irton, still possesses the 
manor which was the fief of his ancestor 
more than seven centuries ago. 

IRVINE. A parish and a river of Ayr- 
shire. The family were of long standing in 
the S. and S.W. of Scotland, but the des- 
cendants of William de L, of Drum, co. 
Aberdeen, have been seated upon that 
estate ever since the days of king Robert 
Bruce, whose armour-bearer he was, and 
who gave him the lands. The name has 
been written Irwin, Irwyn, Irvin, Sec, but 
Irving is a distinct name. 

IRVING. An ancient parish in Dum- 

IRWIN. The Irish form of Irvine. The 
singular Christian name Crinus, which pre- 
vails in the family of L of Tanragoe, co. 
Sligo, is traditionally derived from Kr)Tiin 
AbethnsB, the second husband of the mother 
of Duncan, King of Scotland. 

ISAAC. This, as a baptismal name, was 
introduced about the time of the Conquest. 
One Isac appears as a chief tenant in 
Domesd. A few centuries later it was com- 




monly *nicked' to Hyke, Hicqne, &o. Ulti- 
mately it gave rise to the various surnames of 
Isaacs, Isacke, Isaacson, Hike, Hick, Hicks, 
Hickes, Higgs, Higgins, Higginson, Hick- 
son, Higson, Hixon, Hiscock, Hiscocks, 
Hickox, Hickie, and Hickey. 

ISAACS. See Isaac. 

ISAACSON. See Isaac. 

ISACKE. See Isaac. 

ISBELL. In H.R. Isabel. See Female 
Christian Names. 

ISELTON. Properly Iseldon, the an- 
cient name of Islington, near London. 

ISIIAM. A place in the hundred of 
Orlingbury, co. Northampton, where an 
ekler branch of the existing family, Isham 
of Lamport, were seated soon after the Con- 
quest Shirley's Noble and Gentle Men. 

ISLIP. Parishes in cos. Oxford and 

ISNARD. The name Isanhard occurs in 
the 0. German of the VIII. cent, and means 
" iron-hard," or, as we should say, " as 
tough as iron." 

LSON. Seelve. 

ISRAEL. A common Jewish surname, 
from the personal designation. 

ISTED. Probably of local English origin 
— Highstead, "the lofty situation." The 
family have, however, a tradition of a deri- 
vation '* from Eystcd, a large maritime town 
in the province of Schonen, in the kingdom 
of Sweden." It is conjectured that they 
■eftUed at Framfield, co. Sussex, temp. 
Edward IIL B.L.G. 

ITCIIINGFIELD. A parish in Sussex. 

rVATTS. See Ive. A Job. fil'Ivette 
U found in H.R. 

rVE. This name with some variations 
of orthography seems to have existed in 
several ooontries. The town of St. Ives 
in Oorawall was designatcil after Iva, an 
Irish saint, and that of St. Ives in Hunting- 
donshire after St Ivo, a Persian arehhishop. 
Ive was also an A-Sax. personal name, and 
Ivo was the Norman form. The sumamos 
iTes, Iveton, Ivison, Ison, and perhaps 
iTett and Ivatts, are derivatives. 

IVERSON. The same as Iveson. 

IVES. IVESON. Seelve. According 
to the • Folks of Shields,* Ives or Ivoson 
nionnn Filius Judasi, son of the Jew. Filius 
Iv.inis. ILR. 

IVKTT. Sec Ive and Ivatts. 

IVIMEY. See under Ivy. 

IVINS. IVEN& CorrupUong of Evans. 

IVISON. See Ive. ' 

IVOHY. ** The family De Ivery were 
dwoended from Rodolph, half-brother to 
Rkhaid the ftmt duke of Normnndy, who 
for kiUinff a monstrous boar, while hunting 
with the Duke, was rewarded with the 
OMUe oC Ivwy, on the river I'Evre, and 

from thence entitled Comes de Iberio." 
Dunkin's Oxfordshire, i. 22. John de Ivery 
obtained the manor of Ambrosden, co. 
Oxon, in 1077, and Hugh de Ivri occurs as 
its lord in Domesday Book. 

rVY. May be the same as Ive, or a de- 
rivative of it ; but there was a favourite 
character in the old Christmas games called 
Ivy, whose antagonist was Holly ; and the 
froUcs of the Hblly-JBoy and the Ivy-CUrl 
were maintained in Kent (but on St. Valen- 
tine's day) till towards the close of the eigh- 
teenth cent Gent Mag. 1779. See the song of 
the " Holly and Ivy" quoted in Hone's Myste- 
ries, p. 94, where Ivy is made to be of the 
feminine gender : 

" Holt and his mery men, they dawnsyn and they 

Ivy and hur maydyns, they wepen and they 


The singular name Ivymey, Ivimey, sig- 
nifying ivy-maiden, Mr. Ferguson thinks 
may 1^ from this source. The only diffi- 
culty is to account for such designations 
having become transmissible ; but see Art. 
Female Christian Names, in this Dictionary. 
Ivyleaf may also belong to this class. 

rVYLEAF. See under Ivy. 

IVYMEY. See under Ivy. 


Of these names, probably of common origin, 
I can give no account Burke, speaking of 
Izod of Chapel-Izod, says : " Tlie name ap- 
pears to be an old Irish one." B.L.G. 

IZATSON. A corruption of Isaacson. 
See Eng. Sum., ii., 42. 

JACK. A nickname which has, like 
many others, become a surname. With 
re8i)ect to this appellation, it is curious that 
meaning, as it originally did, Jamen, from 
the French Jacques, and Latin Jacobus, it 
should have come to be considered as a sy- 
nonym of John. It was usually applied in a 
contemptuous way, as in Jackanapes, Jack- 
j)ti(lding, Jack-a-dandy, Jack-at-a-pinch, 
Jack-in-ofiice, &c. 

After writing the above, I met with the 
following i>a88age, which rather militates 
against though it does not disprove, my 
assertion, that Jack was originally Jacques 
or James, and not John. "I know not how 
it has happened, that in the principal mo- 
dem languages, John, or its equivalent, is a 
name of contempt, or at least of slight So 
the Italians use Q ianni, frora -whcncG Zani ; 
the Spaniards t/j/rtw, as Boho-Jnan or foolish 
John ; the French Jean, with various addi- 
tions : and in English when we call a man 
a John, we do not mean it as a title of 
honour. Chaucer uses Jache fool, as the 
Spaniards do Boho Juan', and I suppose 
Jai'k-a*9 has the same etymology." Tyr- 
whitt's Chaucer, note on v. 14,810. See in 
Thomson's Etymons, and Halliwell's 
Diet, a great number of uses to which the 
word Jack is applied. 

JACKLIN. Ft. Jacquclin^ a diminutive 
of James. 

JAN 171 

JACKMAN". A jack was a coat of mail, 
or rather a stout leather jerkin worn by 
soldiers, whence our diminutive, jacket. 
The wearer of such a garment would natu- 
rally be called a Jackman. 

JACKS. The genitive form of Jack. 

JACKSON. The son of John, or more 
properly of James (Jacques). See Jack. 
The Lond. Direct, has nearly 200 traders of 
this name. 

JACOB. JACOBS. The first occurrence 
of tliis baptismal name in England, is I 
think in Domesday. It is now very com- 
mon as a surname, especially in Jewish 

JACOBSON. See Jacob. 

JAFFRAY. The same as Geoffrey or 

JAGGER. JAGGERS. A north-coun- 
try word for a man who works draught 
horses for hire. Halliw. 

JAGO. " As for the name Jago, whether 
it be derived from the Celtish- British lago, 
and signifies James, or from gago or jago^ a 
spear, or military tuck, I determine not, or 
from gages and pledges for battle ; however, 
this name was of ancient use in Britain ; 
for Galfridus Monmuthensis tells us of a 
king named Jago, before Julius Caesar 
landed in Britain, that reigned twenty-five 
years, and lies buried at York." Hals, in 
Da vies Gilbert's Cornwall, i., 397. The de- 
rivation from lago, James (rather Spanish, 
however, than Celtic), is probably the cor- 
rect one. 

JAKEMAN. See Jackman. 

JAMES. The first appearance of this 
Christian name in our annals is in Domes- 
day. It afterwards became a common sur- 
name, besides giving rise to Jameson, 
Jamieson, Jempson, Jemmett. and probably 
through its French form, Jacques, to Jeakes, 
Jacklin, and the widely-spread Jackson; 
though John, through its accepted nick- 
name Jack, may have an equal claim to 
that familiar patronymic. 

The baronets of this family, extinct in 
174:1, originally bore the nameof Htestrecht, 
the designation of their ancient lordship 
near Utrecht, in Holland. Roger son of 
Jacob van Haestrecht came hither in the 
reign of Henry VIII., and being known after 
the Dutch manner by the name of Roger 
Jacob, that name finally settled into its 
equivalent James, and he and his posterity 
were afterwards always so called. See 
Burke's Ext. Barts. 

A very ancient family of James of Pant- 
saison, co. Pembroke, have a tradition that 
tliat estate was owned by thirteen William 
Jameses in succession. B.L.G. 

JAiMESON. See James. 

JAMIESON. The Scottish form of 

JANE. See Female Christian Names. 
It may, however, be a corruption of the Fr. 
Jean, John. 


JANES. See John. 


Genoese. See curious anecdote in Eng. 
Sum., i., 53. 

JANNINGS. A more correct spelling 
than Jennings. See John. 

JANSON. See John, and Janssen. 

JANSSEN. Originally from Guelderland. 
The head of the family was the Baron de 
Heez, one of the Protestant leaders against 
the Inquisition and the tyranny of the Duke 
of Alva; he unfortunately fell into the 
hands of the Duke of Parma, and lost his 
estate and his life. On the dispersion of 
his family, his youngest son took refuge in 
France, and settled at Angouleme, where he 
lived to a very advanced age, leaving " a 
great estate and a numerous issue." His 
grandson, Theodore Janssen, removed into 
England in 1680, and was subsequently 
created a baronet by George L 

JARDYNE. SeeGardyne. 

JARMAN. 1. Possibly a broad pro- 
nunciation of German. 2. A maker of jars 
and large coarse pottery. 

JARR^\JR,D. A broad mispronunciation 
of Gerard. 


Corruptions of Gerard or Gerald. 

JARROLD. A mispronunciation of 

JARVIE. The same as Jervis or Jarvis. 

JAR VIS. A broad pronunciation of 

JASON. Albeit the baronet family of 
this name (extinct in 1738) bore in their 
arms " a golden fleece," I do not think they 
ever proved their pedigree from the leader 
of the Argonautse. It is far more probable 
that they were only Jamesons with the 
omission of a couple of letters. 

JAY. JAYE. A township united with 
Heath, in the parish of Leintwardine, co. 

JAYNE. See Jane. 

JEACOCK. Probably a diminutive of 
James. Jeakins seems to be of the same 
origin, and both proceed from " Jeams," 
the rustic pronunciation of the name. 

JEAFFRESON. See Jeffery. 
JEAKE. JEAKES. Sea James. 
JEANES. jeans. Probably from the 

Fr. Jean, John. 
JEARRAD. A corruption of Gerard. 

JEBB. Apparently an old personal name, 
whence the patronymic Jebson. 

JEBSON. See Jebb. 

JEFF. JEFFS. See Jeffery. 

JEFFCOCK. See Jeffery. 

JEFFERIES. See Jeffery. 




JEFFRIES. See Jeffery. 

JEFFERSON. See Jeffery. 

tonic personal name Godfridus, whence also 
Gtodfrey. In Domesday the ordinary form 
is Goisfiridus. From it we get the modifi- 
cations and derivatives, Jefferson, Jeaf- 
freson, Jeffries, Jefferies, Jefferiss, Jeff, J^ffs, 
Jephson, Jepson, Jeffcock, Jefkins, with 
minor variations of spelling too numerous 
for insertion. 

JEFFRISS. See Jeffery. 

JEFKINS. See Jeffery. 

JEGGINS. A corruption of Jenkins. 

JELL. The same as GelL 

JELLICOE. Forstmann finds the per- 
sonal name Geliko, Jeliko, in the O. 
German of the X, cent Ferguson. 

JELUFF. The same as Joliffe. 

JELLY. In the Scottish di&lect Jelly 
means worthy, upright. Jamieson. 

JEMMETT. A duninutive of Jem or 

JEMPSON. See James. 

JENDEN. See termination den. 

JENKINS. See John. 


JENKS. See John. 

JENNER. Pott, in his « Die Personen- 
namen insbesondere die Familiennamen," 
(Leipzig, 1853), considers this name a cor- 
ruption of the classical Januarius ; but I 
think the medieval gitiour, a craftsman, 
engineer, or clever workman, a much like- 
lier origin — a man of genius (jngenii) in any 
mechanical business. Waldinus Ingenia- 
tor (the engineer) occurs in the Domesday 
of Lincolnshire, as a tenant in chief. 

JENNEY. The family of Jenney of 
Bredfield,co. Suffolk, " are supposed to be of 
French extraction, and the name to be de- 
rived from Guisnes near Calais. The first 
in the pedigree is Edward Jenney, grand- 
father of John Jenney, who died in 14G0." 
Shirley's Noble and Gentle Men. "The 
name of this family was originally spelt 
Oyney." B.L.G. 

JENNINGS. See John. 

JENNISON. The son of Jane? See 
Femalr Christian Names. This family 
have acquired, in co. Durham, the character 
of the Jealous Jennisons. Denham. 

JENOURE. The same as Jenner. 

JK\^-»\ Sec John. 

J 1 . 1 i I X ) N . From G eoffrcy or Jeffery. 

.n:rs()N. See Jeffery. 

Jr.l:n\y. JERDEIN. SeeGardyne. 

J 1. 1 ; \. M V . The O. Eng. form of Jere- 

J KRKTN . A diminutiTe of Jeremiah. 

JERMAIN. The same as Germain and 

JERMAN. A mis-spelling of German. 

JERMY. Jeremy, Jeremiah. 

JERMYN. JERMIN. The same as 

JERNEGAN. An old personal name of 
Norman introduction. 

JERNLNGHAM. Lord Stafford's aa- 
cestors wrote themselves Jemegan till the 
XVI. cent., when the name was corrupted 
to Jemingham. " The first that I meet 
with of this family was called Hugh, with- 
out any other addition, whose son was 
named Jemegan Fitz-Hugh, or the son of 
Hugh ; he is mentioned in the Castle-Acre 
priory register, and he died about 1182." 
Kimber's Baronetage. His successors took 
the baptismal name Jemegan as their sur- 
name, and continued to use it until the 
period above-named. 

JEROME. JEROM. The personal 

JERRAD. See Gerard. 

JERRAM. A corruption of Jerome. 

JERRARD. The same as Gerard. 

JERISON. May be either the same 
as Gerison, or the son of Jerry, that is 

JERROLD. A mis-spelling of Gerald. 

JERVIS. The personal name Gervase, 

JERVOISE. The same as Jervis. 

JESSE. JESSE Y. The personal name. 

JESSON. Jesse's son. 

JESSOP. From the Italian Giuseppe, 
Joseph ? 

JEUNE. Fr. "The young." 

JEVINGTON. A parish in Sussex. 

JEW. Doubtless from the nation of the 
primitive bearer. 

JEWELL. Probably a corruption of the 
Fr. Jules, Julius. 

JEWSBURY. Perhaps a corruption of 

JE WSON. The son of a Jew. 

JEWSTER. Jouster has two widely 
different meanings : 1. One who takes part 
in a tournament ; and 2. A retailer of fish. 

JEX Probably from Jacques, Fr. 

JIFKINS. Probably a diminutive of 
Geoffrey, or of Joseph. 

JINKINS. See Jenkins. 

JINKS. An abbreviation of Jenkins, 
which see. 

JOACIIIM. The personal name. 


JOANES. See John. 

JOB. The personal name, whence also 

JOBBINS. Perhaps a diminutive of 

JOBLINGS. Probably a corruption of 
Jublains, a town in the department of May- 
enne in France. 

JOBSOK See Job. 

JOCELYN. Lord Roden's family are 
" of Norman origin, said to have come into 
England with William the Conqueror, and 
to have been seated at Sempringham, co. 
Lincoln, by the grant of that monarch." 
Shirley's Noble and Gentle Men. 

JODRELL. The family are traced to the 
Peak of Derbyshire in the year 128G, and 
there till the latter end of the XVIII. cent, 
the elder line continued. William Jaude- 
rell, the head of the family, temp. Edward 
IIL, served under the Black Prince in the 
wars with France. 

JOEL. The personal name, common 
among the Jews. 

JOHN. This baptismal name, which is 
of Norman introduction, has rarely passed 
into a surname. The Lond. Direct, for 
1852 aflfords but one instance. It has been, 
however, the source, in various modified 
forms, of a considerable number of names, 
some of which are amongst the most 
common in the whole circle of our nomen- 
clature. Its immediate derivative, John- 
son, and its Welsh genitive form, Jones, 
substantiate this assertion ; but we have 
besides Johns, Johnes, Joanes, Johncock, 
Janson, Jannings, Jennings, Jenks, Jenkyn, 
Jenkins, and Jinkins, Jenkinson, and 
perhaps Janes and Jenson. The Flemish 
nickname Hans from Johannes, seems to 
be the root of Hanson, Hancock, &c. Jack 
and Jackson might seem to claim the same 
parentage, but I think there is more reason 
for affiliating them upon James (See Jack). 

JOHN. A termination of several sur- 
names, as 






Properjohn, and 

Some of these, as Upjohn and Apple- 
John, may be corruptions — the rest 
seem to be significant and descriptive. 
(Eng. Sum. i. 174.) John is a per- 
sonal name so common throughout 
Christendom that some prefix by 
way of epithet seems occasionally to 
have been necessary, in order to dis- 
tinguish between two or more persons 
bearing it ; thus the French have their 
Groi^cam, ' big or fat Johns ;' the Dutch 
their Qrooljam, or 'bulky Johns ;' the 
Italians their Giavanizzi, or ' handsome 
large Johns;' the Highlanders their 
Mac-Fadyeans, the sons of 'long John,' 

173 JON 

as also their Mac-Ivors or sons of ' big 
John ;' and the Lowland Scotch their 
Michejohns or ' large stout Johns.' 

In the H.R. we have one Duraund le 
Bon JoJian — ' Durrant the Good-John !' 

JOHNCOCK. See John. 

JOHNES. See John. 

JOHNS. See John. 

JOHNSON. See John. The Johnsons 
of Ayscough-Fee, co. Lincoln, claim from 
the house of Fitz-John of Normandy. 
Guillim's Display of Heraldry. 

towns and parishes in Dumfriesshire and 
Renfrewshire. For a local surname this is 
exceedingly common, there being between 
sixty and seventy traders bearing it in 
Lond. Direct. It is often confounded with 

JOICE. See Joyce. 

JOLIFFE. O. Eng. jolif, Fr. joli, which 
Cotgrave defines as "jollie, gay, trim, fine, 
gallant, neat, handsome, well-fashioned — 
also livelie, merrie, buxome, jocund." 

JOLL. A nicked form of Jolland. 

says that Jollan is a corruption of Julian. 
In the H.R. the forms of the name are Fil'- 
Jolani, Fil'Jollani, Jollayn, and Jolleyn. 

JOLLEY. See JollifTe. 

JOLLY. JOLLIE. The same as 

JONAS. The personal name. 

JONES. A genitive form of John, through 
Johnes, common everywhere in England, 
but superabundant in Wales. Next to John 
Smith, John Jones is probably the most 
common combination of names in Britain. 
As the Registrar-general well observes, 
"the name of John Jones is in Wales a 
perpetual incognito, and being proclaimed 
at the cross of a market-town would indi- 
cate no one in particular." From the able 
Report of the same functionary (XVI. 1856) 
we learn that Jones is, for numerousness, 
second only to Smith ; for while within a 
given period the nxmiber of Smiths regis- 
tered throughout England, as bora, married, 
or dead, amounted to 33,557, the Joneses in 
like circumstances were 33,341 — a singu- 
larly close approximation. Old Daniel 
Fenning, the author of the immortal phrase, 
"Smith, Jones, Brown, and Robinson," 
was therefore quite right as to the order of 
precedence of the first two names, tliough 
the Reg. Gen. puts Brown sixth, and Robin- 
son eleventh, on the roll of common sur- 
names. The existing number of Joneses 
is estimated at 51,000 families, or about a 
quarter of a million of individuals. XVI. 
Report, p. xxii. 

The commonness of some suraames, es- 
pecially the Welsh, renders the bearers 
of them, though of good family, undistin- 
guishable from the ignohUe valgus. Mr. 

JUD 174 

Edwards may be of as ancient blood as Mr. 
Neville, and high-sounding Mr. St John 
is after all inferior in antiquity to plain Mr. 
Jones. For example — 

Jokes of Llanerchrugog Hall, Denbigh- 
shire, descends in a direct line from Gwaith- 
vood, lord of Cardigan and Gwent, A.D. 
921, and represents one of the Fifteen 
Noble Tribes of North Wales. 

Jones of Trewythen, co. Montgomery, 
derives from Cadwgnn, lord of Nanuau, son 
of Bleddyn ap Cynf^n, King of Powys. 

JoNZS of Hartsheath, co. Flint, claims 
from Cowryd ap Cadvan, a chieftain of 
D^-flfr}!! Clwyd in Denbighland. B.L.G. 

JOXSOX. The same as Johnson. 

JORDAN. JORDEN. Not, as has 
been fancifully conjectured, from the river 
Jordan, in Crusading times, but from Jour- 
dain, an early Norman baptismal name, 
probably corrupted from the Lat. Hodier- 
nus, which was a not uncommon personal 
name of the same period. It may be re- 
marked that the names Jourdain and Ho- 
dicnia, the feminine form, occur almost 
contemporaneously in the pedigree of Sack- 
ville. Marin's Dutch Diet, defines Jorden 
as Gregory, "een man's naam, Gregoire, 
nom d' homme." 

*' The family of Jordan is of Anglo-Nor- 
man origin. The first settler in Wales was 
Jordan de Cantington, one of the com- 
panions of Martin de Tours, in his conquest 
of Kemmes, temp. William I." B.L.G. 

JORDESON. The son of Jordan, which 



See Joslin. 

JOSEPHS. The personal 
name. A common surname among the 
Jews, but not confined to that nation. 

JOSKYN. A diminutive of Joseph. 

Corruptions of the personal name Joscelyne. 


JOY. Probably from one of the several 
places in Normandy called Jouy ; or per- 
haps a contraction of Joyce. 

JOYCE, O. Fr. joyeux, cheerful, hilar- 
loofl ; answering to Gay, Merry, Lively, &c. 

JOYNSON. A corruption of Johnson. 

JUBB. Perhaps a corruption of Job. 

JUDD. Possibly Judc, the Cliristian 
Dune. The Dutch Jttde, a Jew, also sug- 
fTMU itaelf ; and if this be so, Judson must 
M eqoivalent to " Jew's son," Judkin to 
*'UMHtUe Jew," jco. 

JUDE. This now unusual Christian 
HUM wu more common in old times, and 
PtwIVIy guTe rise to Judd, Judkin, and 

JUDQE. Thistarname can hardly have 
bMB b otT u we d ftom the ofBoe, beovue in 
thto oovBtey jndeot hsTe tlwaTs been per- 
mm of dlgatty tud coBifaJwrHtoa. It may 

have been either a sobriquet, or a name 
given to an umpire in some medieval game. 

JUDKINS. See Judd. 

JUDSON. 1. See Jude. 2. See Judd. 
Most of the Judsons, both in England 
and America, trace their origin to the 
neighbourhood of Leeds, and the surname 
is still common in Yorkshire. 

JUGG. Perhaps the sign of an inn. 

JUGLER. Does not imply either a 
shuffling, dishonest person, or one skilled 
in the arts of legerdemain. It is the raet- 
6ie\a,l Jouffelour, a minstrel, one who could 
play or sing, or both. It is true, however, 
that this person often combined both pro- 
fessions, namely, legerdemain and music. 
Hence Chaucer's expression — " Minstrales 
and eke Jaugelotcrs that well to sing did her 

JULER. Perhaps a jeweller. 

JULEUS. A mis-spelling of Julius. 

JULIAN. JULIANS. The personal 

JULIUS. The personal name. 

JUMPER. The first Mr. Jumper would 
appear to have derived his name not from 
his saltatory skill, but from his having been 
a maker of Jumps, a kind of short leather 
coat or boddice, formerly worn by women. 
See Bailey and Halliwell. Jumper is also a 
northern provincialism for a miner's boring 
tool, and may have been metaphorically ap- 
plied to the miner himself. 

JUPP. A nurse-name of Joseph. 

JURDAN. See Jordan. 

JURY. In the middle ages, when the 
Jews were a much-persecuted race, they 
resided partly by compulsion, partly by 
choice, in a particular quarter of our old 
towns and cities. Such a locality was 
usually called the Jewry, as the Old Jewry, 
in London. " Jewerie, a district inhabited 
by Jews." Halliw. 

JUST. From probity of character; or 
more probably from an ancient personal 
name. Saint Just gives name to a Cornish 

JUSTICE. A magistrate ; probably ap- 
plied as a sobriquet. Justice was, however, 
personified in the old miracle plays. See 
particularly Hone's Anc. Mysteries, p. 88. 
et seq. It is remarkable that while we have 
several Le Justices in the H.R. we find 
one lady called Iva la Justice. Qu. was 
she a " miracle" actress ? 

JUSTINS. A genitive form of Justin, 
the personal name. 

JUTSOM. JUTSUM. See Jutson. 

JUTSON. Probably a corruption of 
Judson ; though Ferguson thinks that, to- 
gether with Jutting and Juteom, it relates 
to a JuUsh extraction. 

JUTTING. See Jutson. 





KaIMES. 1. The same as Camoys. 2. 
Scot, kalm, a low ridge, an earthwork or 
camp, like the Antiquarifs " kaims of 

KAIK The same as Kane. The town 
of Caen in Normandy was sometimes so 
written in English records. 

KAINES. The same as Kejmes. 

KAIRNS. See Cairn. 

K ALL ANDER. The same as Callander. 

KALLOWAY. The same as Callaway. 

KAN'E. See O'Cahan. 

K ARBY. A corruption of Kirby. 

KARR. The same as Carr. 

KAVANAGH. The family claim des- 
cent from ancestors who were of old mon- 
archs of all Ireland, and who at the inva- 
sion of Henry II. were kings of Leinster. 
They bore the surname of Mac-Murrough ; 
but in 1171 Donell, son of Dermot Mac- 
Murrough, acquired that of Caomhanach or 
Cavanagh, which became hereditary. Do- 
nell's sister Eva married Strongbow, Earl 
of Pembroke, the leader of the English ex- 

KAYE. KAY. *' The family of Kaye," 
says an old statement, " is of great antiquity 
in the county of York, being descended 
from Sir Kayc, an ancient Briton, and one 
of the Knights of the warlike Table of that 
noble Prince Arthur, Jlorver of chivalry ! /" 
It is added that his descendant at the 
period of the " Norman Duke that made 
Conquest of England, was Sir John Kaye, 
Knight, who married the daughter and heir 
of Sir John Woodesham, of Woodesham, 
Knight, AN ANCIENT Briton 1 1" Not to 
speculate upon the age in round centuries 
that Miss Woodesham must have been at 
the time of her nuptials, we may ask, where 
is the proof of a De Woodesham or a De 
anything in England " before the time of 
the Conquest," when this match is alleged 
to have taken place ? The truth seems to 
be, that at Woodsome in Yorkshire there 
resided in very early times a family of Kay, 
Keay, or Kaye, the head of which, some 
centuries later was created a baronet by 
Charles I. Tlie patent expired in 1810, but 
was revived shortly afterwards in favour of 
the reputed son of the fifth baronet. The 
name may be a modification of Caius or 
some other personal designation. 

Dr. John Caius or Kaye advanced 
Gonville Hall, Cambridge, to the dignity of 
a college in 15r»7, and that house is still 
called indifferently Caius' or Key's. He 
had a contemporary, Dr. Thomas Kay or 

Caius, who was master of University Coll. 

KEAL. East and West Keele, parishes 
in Lincolnshire. 

KEALY. The same as Keeley. 

KEAN. 1. See Keen. In the H.R. it 
is Kene, without prefix. 2. Keyne, a parish 
in Cornwall. 

KEARSLEY. A township in Lanca- 

KE ASLEY. Probably the same as Kears- 

KEATE. KEATS. An old Cornish 
family bore the former name, as also did 
the extinct baronets of the Hoo in Hert- 
fordshire. Hals, the Cornish topographer, 
gives this very uncomplimentary deriva- 
tion of the name: ^^ Keate, eeate, in British 
is fallacy, cheat, or delusion." 

KEAY. See Kay. 

KEBBLE. See Kibble. 

KEBLE. See Kibble. 

KEEBLE. See Kibble. 

KEEL. Keele, a parish in co. Stafford. 

KEELEY. Probably Keighley, co. 

KEEILTY. KIELTY. From the an- 
cient personal name Caoiltc, borne by one 
of the heroes of Ossian. Ulster. Joum. of 
Arclucol. No. 2. 

KEEN. KEENE. Perhaps some- 
times from sharpness of disposition; but 
sometimes probably the Irisli O'Kean, sans 
0'. Both Kene and Le Kene occur in 

KEEP. Perhaps from residence at the 
" keep," or domestic department of a castle. 
If I may be allowed a little self-plagiarism 
here, I will extract from my " Contributions 
to Literature" (Lond. 1854. p. 279), tlie 
following passage : — 

'• Wliy is the strongest part of a castle called a 
Keepi 'This question has often sng^est^d itself to me 
when Tiewing old baronial fortresses. The common 
notion seems to be, that the name originated in the 
fact that prisoners were kept there. The French 
equivalent is Donjon, whence may come our word 
" dungeon," and this may have suggested that etjnno- 
logy. I do not doubt that the baron who had a pri- 
soner of mark would place liim within the strongest 
walls wliich his fiMidal nbode could supply. But for 
obvious reasons he would locate himself and his family 
there also. Now in our cjistem and several other 
p^o^•incial dialects, the more usual sitting-room of a 
fjamily is still called the "keeping-room." I think, 
therefore, the keep, or principal part of a castle was 
80 called because the lord and his domestic circle kept, 
abode, or Uved there. Shakspeare uses the word 
*' keep" in the sense of to dwell, or reside : — 
"And sometimes where earth-delving conies keepJ" 
Venus and Adonis. 




And a^ain: 

" And held in idle price to hannt assemblies, 
Where yonth, and cost, and witless bravery keeps." 
Measure /or Measure. 

KEER. See Keir. 

KEETE. See Keate. 

KEEVTL. A parish in Wiltshire. 

KEIGHLEY. A town and parish in 

KEIGWIN. An ancient Cornish family. 
Mr. Dixon derives the surname from Welsh 
and Cornish roots signifying ^Vhite Dog, 
and the three greyhounds argent in the 
arms seem to allude to this derivation. 

KEIR. A parish in Dumfriesshire. 

KEITH. Several parishes and places in 
Scotland bear this name, which seems to be 
a Celtic descriptive term (Ciz^f^) signifying 
* confined or narrow.' The place from which 
the ancient family of Keith, hereditary 
Earls-Marshal of Scotland from 1010, derive 
their surname, is in the parish of Humbie, 
at the south-western extremity of Hadding- 
tonshire. The district is still known as 
Keith-Marshall, though the estate has long 
passed away from the family. This is a 
sufficient origin of both name and family to 
satisfy ordinary curiosity, but the inventive 
genius of Scottish genealogists goes much 

We have Camden's testimony that 
"some Scottish men think their surnames 
as ancient as the moone ;" but the Earl- 
Marshal of Scotland, who from the nature 
of his office should be well-acquainted with 
these matters, was far more modest, and 
went back no further than just beyond the 
Christian era, a thousand years or so earlier 
than the commencement of any authenti- 
cated royal pe<ligree in Europe. The whole 
genealogy must be rich beyond expression, 
since the mere skeleton of it informs us — 

1. That the Chatti, or Catti, a tribe of Ger- 
mans, occupied the district now known as 
Hesse-Cassel from times of remote anti- 

2. That alx)ut a century before the Chris- 
tian era a part of this German tribe des- 
cended the Rhine and settled in Batavia, 
now Holland, whore many places beginning 
with Cat mark their colonization. 

8. That during the reign of Corbred II. 
of Scotland (a mythic king) about A.D. 76, 
a detachment of the Germano-Hollandic 
Catti emigrated to Britain, and landed at 
Cb/ne08, now corrupted (!) to CaUhncBS, 
that is to say, " the promontory of the 

4. Tliat about eight hundred years later, 
thcue immigrants turn up as the Clan 
Chattan, A.D. 831—834. 

6. That, later still, these Catti called 
thoniMlTw Kethi, Kcths, or Keiths, and 
thai Bobert, chief of the Clan Chattan, was 
OTMttd Hweditary Grand-Marshal of Scot- 
land bjr King Malcolm II. A.D. 1010. This 
n>ooaroh garo him lands in the South of 
WoOaiul, arAJ<;A ka caUed after his own 


KEKEWICH. This family, long resident 
in Cornwall and Devonshire, are said to 
have been of Lancashire origin. There is 
a township in Cheshire called Kekwick, 
from which the name was probably bor- 

KELHAM. A Norman family, who de- 
rive their name from Kelham, near New- 
ark-upon-Trent, co. Nottingham, where 
they were seated at an early period. They 
still bear in their arms three covered cups, 
in allusion to the office of cup-bearer to 
Alan, earl of Richmond, the Conqueror's 
son-in-law, which was held by their ances- 
tor. B.L.G. 

KELKE. The estate of Kelke, co. 
Lincoln, was owned by a family so desig- 
nated from it. Berry's Encyc. Herald. 
There are also two townships in Yorkshire 
called Kelk. 

KELL. 1. Formerly written Cail, and 
said by the family to be derived from Cailly 
in Normandy. See Cailey. In modem 
times some Christianized Jews have changed 
their names from Ezekiel to Kell. 

2. A nickname of Charles — Carl, Karl, 
Kell. Hence the derivatives Kelson, and 


parish in Wiltshire. 

KELLETT. Kellet, two townships in 

KELLY. KELLEY. The Kelleys 
were in old times resident in the parish of 
that name in Devonshire, and the Irish 
Kellys, now very numerous, bear the same 
arms. According to the genealogy in B.L.G., 
the Kellys of Kelly '* may look back beyond 
the Conquest and derive themselves from 
the ancient Britons I" Mr. Shirley says : 
" Kelly is a manor in the hundred of Lifton, 
about six miles from Tavistock. The 
manor and advowson have been in the 
family at least from the time of Henry II. 
and here they have uninterruptedly resided 
since that very early period." Noble and 
Gentle Men, p. 50. The similar name Kellie 
is a diminutive of Charles. See Kell. 

KELLOW. Kclloe, a parish in co. 

KELSEY. North and South Kelsey are 
parishes in co. Lincoln. 

KELSO. A town and parish in Rox- 
burghshire. The family were in Ayrsliire at 
an early period. Hugh de Kelso is men- 
tioned in Ragman Roll, 1296. B.L.G. 

KELSON. The son of Kell, i.e. Charles. 

KEMBALL. The same as Kemble. 

KEMBER. Identical with either Kemper 
or Kimber. 

KEMBLE. A parish in co. Wilts. It 
has been erroneously considered a narrowed 
pronunciation of Campbell. 

KEMEYS. The baronets, created 1642, 
extinct 1735, claimed to be of the old 


Norman baronial house of Camois, which 
claim if not proven is highly probable. 
The family were early settlers in Wales, 
where "as lords of Camaes and St. Dog- 
niaels in Pembrokeshire they exercised au- 
thority little short of regal." Burke's Ext. 

KEIMMISH. A corruption of Kemyss. 

KEMP. KEMPE. Jamieson's definition 
is — "1. A champion. Dougla,^. 2. Some- 
times it includes the idea of strength and 
uncommon size. Bantiatyne Poems. 3. 
The champion of a party in controversy. 
Winyet. — A-Sax. cempa, miles ; Suedo- 
Gothic kcempe, athleta; Danish, kempe^ a 
giant ; Islandic, miles robustus." In Scot- 
land, the verb to Jtemp means to strive in 
whatever way, especially in the harvest- 
field ; a kemper is a reaper who tries to 
outdo another in the amount of his labour ; 
and such a contest is known as a Jtempin. 
In the A- Sax. translation of the Gospels 
made about the year 1000, the word which 
in the Vulgate is miles, and in our version 
" soldier," is rendered cempa. Kempes, 
kemperye-vien are words employed for 
fighting men, in the ballad of King Estmere 
in Percy's Reliques. Hence it appears that 
Kemp and Campion are closely allied, if 
not identical. 

KEMPER. 1. A combatant. See Kemp. 
2. A wool-comber. 

KEMPSON. The son of a Kemp. See 
Kemp. This is one of the few surnames in 
which " son " is afl&xed to names of occu- 
pation, profession, or dignity. Smithson, 
Wrightson, Clarkson, and Dukeson are 
other examples. 

KEMSTER. A wool comber. See ter- 
mination STER. 

KEMPTHORNE. The family name 
(which was originally Ley) was derived 
from an estate so called in the parish of 
Beer- Ferris, co. Devon. C. S. Gilbert's 

KEMPTOX. Perhaps Kempston, 

parishes in Norfolk and Bedfordshire. 

KEMYSS. See Kemeys. 

KENCLARKE. See Clarke. 

KENDALL. Kent-dale, the valley of the 
Kent, a river of Westmoreland. The true 
name of the town known as Kendal is 

The Kendalls of Cornwall, long and still 
resident at Pelyn, were formerly of Treworgy 
in that county, but there does not seem to 
be any proof of their derivation from West- 
moreland. It has been remarked of this 
family, that they have perhaps sent more 
representatives to the British Senate than 
any other in the United Kingdom. C. S. 
Gilbert's Cornwall. Shirley's Noble and 
Gentle Men. 

KENDLE. See Kendall. 

KENDRICK. SeeKenrick. 

KENEL. KENELL. Probably the 

177 KEN 

French surname Quesnel, an archaism for 
the oak-tree. 

KENISTON. The same as Kynaston. 

KENN. Parishes in cos. Devon and 

KENNARD. The same as Kenward, 
which is usually so pronounced, 

KENNAWAY. 1. Probably the same 
as Kenewi orKenewy, which occurs in H.R. 
both as a personal appellation and as a sur- 
name. 2. Kennoway, a parish in Fifeshire. 

KENNAY. See Kenny. 

KENNEDY. Celtic. Cean-m-tighe, 

meaning, it is said, the head of a sept or 
clan. The family descend from the ancient 
earls of Carrick in Ayrshire, and seem to 
have changed their name from Carrick to 
Kennedy in the XIV. cent. The chief was 
K. of Dunure, afterwards Earl of Cassilis 
(now Marquis of Ailsa). In the XVI. cent, 
the power of this great house in the shires 
of Ayr and Galloway was set forth in a 
popular rhyme : — 

" By Wigton and the town of Ayr, 

Port Patrick and the Cruives o'Cree, 
Nae man need think for to bide there, 

Unless he court wi' Kennedie." 

KENNET. 1 . The river Kennet in Berk- 
shire. 2. The Scottish baptismal name 
Keneth. Its latinization is Cunetius. 

KENNEY. The Kenneys, who settled 
in Ireland temp. Edw. IV. A.D. 1472, were 
of high antiquity in Somersetshire, deriving 
their name from Kenne in that county. So 
early as 12 Henry IL, John de Kenne held 
two knight's fees in Kenne. The name has 
been variously spelt Kenne, Kenei, Kenny, 
andKenney. B.L.G. (Kenny of Kilclogher.) 
But another family, Kenny of Ballinrobe, 
claim to be of Huguenot extraction, and to 
have gone from France into Ireland about 
the year 1660. 

KENNINGTON. Parishes and places in 
Surrey, Kent, and Berkshire. 

KENNY. Ferguson thinks that this 
corresponds with the Old Friesic ^nig, a 
king. .But see Kenney. 

KENRICK. The family of Kenrick of 
Nantclwyd Woore, co. Denbigh, claim from 
David Kenrick who fought under the Black 
Prince at Creci and Poictiers. The name is 
clearly the A- Sax. baptismal Cynric, or as 
it is written in Domesd. Kenricus and 

KENSELL. Probably from Kensal 
Green, a hamlet in Middlesex. 

KENSETT. KENSIT. A modification 
of Mackenzie. 

KENSINGTON. A parish in Middle- 

KENT. See Counties, Names of. 

KENTISH. A native of Kent— cognate 
with Cornish, Devenish, &c. 

KENTON Parishes, &c., in cos. Somer- 
set, Suffolk, Northumberland, and Devon. 




KENWARD. An ancient personal name. 
One Kenewardus, or Keneward, mentioned 
in Domesd., was a Thane of Edward the 
Confessor, co. Gloucester. The name may 
have been originally derived from A-Sax. 
euna, cows, and weard, a keeper. 

KENYON. Lord Kenyon's family are 
descended from the Kenyons of Peele, co. 
Lancaster, and their surname is doubtless 
derived from the township of Kenyon in 
that shire. 

KEOGH. A contraction of the Irish 
surname Mac Eochy, or Eochaid. The 
iiunily claim descent from Fergus, king of 
Ulster, and from Roderick the Great, king 
of all Ireland. 

KEPP. A hamlet in Perthshire. 

KEPPELL. The ancestor of Lord Albe- 
marle was Amold-Joost van Keppel, lord 
of Voerst, a descendant of one of the most 
ancient houses in Guelderland, who accom- 
panied King William III. to England in 
1 688, and was by him advanced to the title 
still eryoyed by the family. According to 
" Folks of Shields," the name is equivalent 
to De Capella. 

KEPPOCR An estate in Dumbarton- 

KERBY. SeeKirby. 

KERDESTON. Kerdiston, a parish in 
Norfolk, which gave name to the Barons 
Kerdeston. The family is traced to Roger 
de K., temp. King John. Ext. Peerage. 

KERN. 1. Scot, kerney a foot- soldier 
armed with a dart or a dagger. 2. A beggar. 

KERNOT. This name is found in Brit- 
tany, from whence it was probably imported 
into England after the Kev. of the Edict of 

KERR. KER. See Carr. 

KERRELL. See Kyrle and Caryll. 

KERRICII. This name occurs in the 
records of Dimwich, co. Suffolk, in 1299. 

KERRY. KERREY. A parish in co. 

KERSEY. A parish in Suffolk. 

KERSWELL. " KersweU of Kerswell is 
noticed \rr Norden, as being one of the 
principal noiues of his day, but we have 
not beSao able to ascertain in what part of 
the ootmtjr Kerswell was situated." C. S. 
OilljOTfs ComwaU. 

KERWIN. The same as Curwen, which 

KE8TELL. This family are known to 
have been resident at Kestell, in the parish 
of &;loshavle, co. Cornwall, from the tune 
of King John till about the year 1737. 
a 8. Qflbert's ComwaU. 

KE8TKX. A contraction of Kesteven, 
00. Lincoln, or amis-ipeUing of Keefcon, co. 

KESTEVEN. A division of Lincoln- 

KETLEY. A township in Shropshire. 

KETT. SeeCatt. 

KETTLE. 1. AparishinFifeshire. 2. 
The personal name Chetell occurring in 
Domesday; in H.R. Ketel, Ketyl. 

KETTLEWELL. A parish in York- 

KEVIN. Irish coemhgin, "the beautiful 
offspring." O'Donovan, in Irish Penny 
Journ., p. 327. 

KEY. KEYES. KEYS. The same as 
Kay, which see. 

KEYMER. A parish in Sussex. 

KEYNES. See under Cheney. 

KEYNTON. Perhaps Keynston, a 
parish in co, Dorset. 

KEYSER. German, kaiser ^ an emperor, 
a CaBsar. This name must be an importa- 
tion from Germany, where it was probably 
first applied as a sobriquet. See Lempriere. 

KEYT. The same as Keate. 

KEYWORTH. A parish in Nottingham- 

KIBBLE. KIBBEL. Evidently an old 
personal name, whence the names of the 
localities Kibblestone, Kibblesworth, Kib- 
blethwaite, &c. 

KIBBLER. In the West of England 
kibbles is a name given to pieces of fire- 
wood, and a kibblitig-axe is an axe used 
for cutting them; hence a Kibbler is a 
preparer of firewood, still a common trade 
in many places. In Bedfordshire, how- 
ever, t4) kibble means to walk lamely (Hal- 
liweil), and so the surname may signify a 

KIBBLEWHITE. A corruption of 
Kibblethwalte, a local name. 

KIDD. KID. The young of a goat- 
analogous to Lamb, Colt, &c. 

township CO. York. 

KIDDER. One who travels with goods 
for sale. *' A huckster who carries com, vic- 
tuals, &c., up and down to sell." Bailey. The 
Gothic kyta signifies to deal or hawk. 
Most if not all the Kidders of England 
spring from Maresfield, co. Sussex, where 
they may be traced back as far as the reign 
of Edward II. Sussex Archaeolog. Collec- 
tions. IX. 127. 


KIDMAN. Probably the same as 

KIFFIN. See Kyffin. 

Qgg* KIL — a syllable occurring in many 
Scottish local names, is the Celtic 
e(j[uivalent of rrll — 'cella religionis,' in- 
dicating the abode of some saint in the 




early days of British Christianity. 
Hence several family names, which 
taken in a secondary sense — aupied de la 
lettre — have a very curious, not to say 
8tart;ling, appearance. What a mur- 
derous climax, for instance, appears in 
the five names : Kilboy, Kilman, Kil- 
master, Kilbride, Kilmany ! 
The 0. E. culle signifj-ing kill, necare, is found 
in several medieval but now extinct surnames, as 
Cullebulloc, CuUehare, Cullehog, &c. H.R. 

KILBURN. A hamlet in the parish of 
St. John, Hampstead, co. Middlesex, and a 
parish in Yorkshire. 

KILBY. KILLBY. A parish in co. 

KILHAM. KILLHAM. A township 
in Northumberland, and a parish in York- 

may remark that many local names termi- 
nating in BV, are corrupted in the North 
to BEE. 

KILLBOURN. See Kilburn. 

KILLICK. Perhaps KUnwick, co. York. 
Many provincial dialects drop the final N 
of Kiln; and the w in the tennination 
*-wick ' and *-wich ' is usually suppressed, 
as in WaKw)ick, Nor(w)ich. The north- 
eastern border of East Sussex has long been 
a great habitat of the name. 

2. The f)ersonal name Calixt or Calix- 
tus. The saint in the Roman calendar so 
called is commemorated on Oct. 14. 

KILLIGARTH. An estate in Talland, 
CO. Cornwall, which belonged to the family 
till temp. Hen. VL C. S. Gilbert's Comw. 

KILLIGREW, in charters, Cheligrevus. 
A manor in the parish of St. Enne, co. 
Cornwall, where this celebrated family re- 
sided from an early date down to the reign 
of Richard II. 

KILLINGBECK. Probably the name of 

some northern rivulet. 

KILMANY. A parish in Fifeshire. 

Wick, in Scotland, is a place called Kil- 
minster, of which this name is a corrup- 
tion. The word is easily referred to its 
etymon, but there is a legend which ac- 
counts for it in a different way. During 
the time of William the Lion, a number of 
persons, chiefly of the name of Harrold, 
having some ground of quarrel against the 
bishop of the diocese, waylaid him at this 
place, captured him, and boiled him! 
Hence the name Kill -minister, or, curtly, 

KILNER. One who works at a furnace 

or kiln. 

KILPACK. Kilpeck, a parish in Here- 

KILPATRICK. A parish in Stirling- 
shire and Dumbartonshire. 

KILPIN. Perhaps a corruption of 

KILVINGTON. Parishes, &c., in cos. 
York and Nottingham. 

KIL WICK. SeeKiUick. 

KIMBER. A place in Cornwall is called 

South Kunber. 

KIMBLE. See Kemble. 

KIME. See Kyme. 

KIMPTON. Parishes in Hertfordshire 
and Hampshire. 

^^ KIN. In old Teutonic, a child ; hence 
the diminutives found in so many of 
our family names, as Wilkin, " Little 
William," Tompkin, "little Thomas," 
Perkin, " little Peter," &c. Very few if 
any names in this form are found in 
the H.R., and I believe that they are 
not seen very commonly before the four- 
teenth century. I have attempted in 
vain to ascertain the exact period of 
their introduction, and the precise 
source from which they sprang. 

KENCAU). A place in the parish of 
Campsie, Stirlingshire. 

KINCHANT. John Quinchant, a native 
of Franoe, became a captain in Gen. Harry 
Pulteney's regiment of foot, and fell at the 
battle of Fontenoy, 1745. His son and 
successor, the direct ancestor of the Kin- 
chants, now of Park Hall, co. Salop, 
adopted the present orthography. 

KINCHIN. Mr. Ferguson says : " Kin- 
chin seems to be A- Sax. cyneJtin, royal oflF- 
spring." I should assign a much lower 
and later origin, for if I do not mistake, this 
word is London * slang ' for a young thief. 

KINDER. A hamlet in Derbyshire. 

KINE. Kin, Kinne, and Kyne are found 
as surnames in H.R., probably implying 
the same as Cousin. 

KING. A very common sobriquet in all 
ages and countries. Classical antiquity 
affords us the names of Basilius, Archias, 
Regnlus, Cajsarius, &c., borne by people 
who, as Camden quaintly remarks, " were 
neither kings, dukes, nor Ccesars." Tliere 
are plenty of Lerois in France, and Koenigs 
in Germany, who are of no royal descent, 
and it is only within a few generations 
that the ' Kings ' of England have emerged 
from a plebeian grade. The name may very 
probably have originated in those popular 
medieval pastimes in which Kings of the 
Bean— of ilay — of Cockneys — of Misrule 
held temporary sway. For their functions 
see Brand's Pop. Antiq. edit., 1842. 

It must not be forgotten, however, that 
the epithet King was sometimes applied to 
functionaries more regularly appointed, and 
recognized by the state. For example the 
author of the Clcomades (from which Chau- 
cer is supposed to have drawn his " Squire's 
Tale"), Adencs le Boy, was so named from his 
having l^een chief, or king, of the minstrels 
in the service of Henry III., duke of Bra- 
bant, in the thirteenth century. Nor need 
we go so far a-field, or so far back, to find 
such monarchs, for have we not at this 




moment, and much nearer home than either 
Brabant or Co\ogne,Three King* — and armi- 
patent kings too, in the right worshipful 
Garter, Clarenceux, and Nokroy, who 
Bway their sceptres at the Heralds' Col- 

KJNGCOMBE. A tjthing in Dorset^ 

KING DON. The family have flourished 
in Cornwall and Devon for some centuries. 
The name would appear to have been bor- 
rowed from Kingdon, an estate near Shar- 
row in the former county. 
KINGHAJM. A parish in Oxfordshire. 
KING HORN. A parish in Fifeshire. 
KINGSBURY. Parishes in Middlesex, 
Warwick, and Somerset. 
KINGSCOTE. Ansgerus or Arthur, 
owner of lands in Combe, in the parish of 
Wotton-under-Edge, co. Gloucester, the gift 
of the Empress Maude, is the patriarch of 
this venerable family. The surname was 
acquired by marriage with the heiress of 
Kingscote of Kingscote, soon after the 
reign of Henry XL, and that estate is still 
possessed by the family. Shirley's Noble 
and Gentle Men. 

" Nigel Fitz-Arthur, grandson of Ans- 
gerus the Saxon, in AD. 1085, married 
Adeva, daughter of Robert Fitz- Harding, 
grandson of Sueno, 3rd King of Denmark, 
by Eva, niece of William the Conqueror. 
With this lady he received in dower the 
manor of Kingscote, called in Domesday 
Book, Chingescote." B.L.G. 
KINGSFORD. Hamlets in cos. War- 
wick and Worcester. 

KINGSLEY. A township and estate in 
CO. Chester, the property of Sir Ranulph 
de Kingsley before 1128. In the XIII. 
cent the family divided into two branches, 
the younger continuing the name oif 
KJngsley, and the elder adopting that of De 
Aula or Hale. See Hale. 

KINGSMILL. I find no such locality in 
the Gazetteers. The name appears to have 
been borne by an individual who farmed 
or residetl at a royal mill. From the 
Hundred Rolls, 3. Edw. I., we learn that an 
inquisition was held touching the manors 
belonging to that monarch in Hampshire, 
when one of the jurors who gave evidence 
bore the name of Hugode la Kingesinille — 
♦•Hugh of the King's Mill." Tbc baronet 
family, extinct in 1823, traced their pedigree 
to Uichard Kingsmill of the neighbouring 
county of Berkshire in the XV. cent. 

KINGSTON. Twenty-four towns, 
parishes, &c., of this name art! given in the 
English Gazetteer. 

KINGTON. Pa^i8hc^ &c. in cos. Hunt- 
ingdon, Gloucester, Worcester, Dorset, and 

KINLKSIDE. A local name apparently 
of Northern origin, though I caimot tind 
the place. It may be a corruption of Kin- 
Dcy^de, a towiuhip in the pariah of St 

Bees, CO. Cumberland. It is also written 
Keenliside. At Stockton, co. Durham, it 
is corrupted to Kittliside, and at Newcastle 
to Kittlehiviside ! 

KINLOCK. Many parishes, &c., in 
Scotland are so called. 

KINNAIRD. Radulphus, surnamed 
Rufus, had a charter from King William 
the Lion, of the barony of Kinnaird 
in Perthshire, from whence the family 
assumed their surname. Hence Lord Kin- 

KINNELL. A parish in Forfarshire. 

KINNERSLEY. Parishes in cos. Here- 
ford and Salop. 

KINSEY. Probably Kilnsey, co. York, 
by the suppression of L. 

KINSLEY. Probably a contraction of 

KINSMAN. Analogous to Cousin. 

KINTREA. Kintra, a village in Ar- 

KIPLING. A township in the N. Riding 
of Yorkshire. 

KIRBY. (In charters, Cherchebeius, and 
originally written Kirkby). Parishes, &c., 
in cos. Essex, York, Warwick, and Norfolk. 
Places in cos. Lancaster, York, Nottingham, 
Lincoln, Leicester, and Westmoreland, still 
retain the form Kirkby, which is also a 

KIRCALDY. See Kirkcaldy. 

KIRK. KIRKE. The northern pro- 
nunciation of Church. Many parishes in 
the northern counties have this prefix, as 
Kirk-Heaton, Kirk-Newton, Kirk-lNIalew, 
Kirk-Linton, Kirk-Oswald, Kirk-Sandal, 
&c. There are probably several distinct 
families of this name. 

KIRKBRIDE. A parish in Cumber- 

KIRKBY. SeeKirby. 

KIRKCALDY. A royal burgh and 
parish in Fifeshire. 

KIRK HAM. A town in Lancashire, and 
a lil)erty in Yorkshire. 

KIRKLAND. Villages in the shires of 
Fife, Dumfries, I^nark, &c. 

K I R K M AN. A northern form of Church- 
man, which see. 

KIRKNKSS. A headland in Shetland. 

KIRKPATRICK. Parishes in the shires 
of Kircudbright and Dumfries. 

KIRKTON. The Kirketons, ennobled 
by the title of baron by Edward III., de- 
rived their name and title from Kirkton, 
now Kirton, parts of Holland, co. Lincoln. 

KIRKWOOD. Local : » the church- 

KIRTLAND. A corruption of Kirk- 



KIRWIN. This family, of ancient Irish 
extraction, have been seated at Blindwell, 
CO. Galway from time immemorial. Until 
the time of Elizabeth the name was written 
O'Quirivane. "In a confirmatory grant 
of Charles II., reference is made to their 
recognition by Henry VII. and King John." 

KISSICK. A corruption of Keswick, co. 

KISTER. An abbreviation of Christo- 

a name given to a servitor in the kitchen 
of some medieval nobleman. 

KiTCHIN. KITCHING. See Kitchen. 

KITE. The bird— like Eagle, Falcon, 
Hawk, &c. 

KITSON. The son of Kitt, i.e. Christo- 

KITT. A ' nurse-name' of Christopher. 

KITTERMASTER. An obvious cor- 
ruption of Kidderminster, the town in Wor- 
cestershire. The pedigree of K. of Meriden 
CO. Warwick, given in B.L.G., shews the 
following phases: — Kydermister, 1543 ; 
Kydermaster, 15G8; Kittermaster, 1041). 

KITTLE. See Kettle. 

KITTO. The late Dr. Kitto, the cele- 
brated biblical illustrator, gives the follow- 
ing amusing, if not very convincing, ac- 
count of the origin of his name : — 

" I find myself much in the habit of en- 
deavouring to make out the etjTnology of 
most of the proper names which come across 
me ; and it rarely happens that any name 
which has been the subject of this exercise, 
subsequently escapes my recollection. I 
will illustrate this point from my own. 
Few readers will be able to attach any sig- 
nification to it. It long battled my own en- 
quiries, and I was disposed to refer its ety- 
mology to the unknown tongue. In this 
classical country a disposition exists to 
confound it with Cato, and in the Mediter- 
ranean, Spaniards would have it to be 
Quito, while my Italian friends vowed that it 
was Ghetto, and claimed me for a country- 
man on the strength of it, triumphantly 
adducing my complexion as an undeniable 
proof of their position. This I had good 
reason for disputing, but had nothing better 
to propose, till I found tliat the very word, 
letter for letter — kitto, is that which Dios- 
corides uses for a species of Cassia. This 
again, is called in Hebrew, Kiddak, which 
as well as the Greek probably represents 
the Phojnician name of the aromatic. Now 
the Phoenicians had much intercourse with 
the remote part of Cornwall, from which 
my grandfather brought his family ; and 
the probability is, that it was at least a Phoe- 
nician name, if it does not imply a Phoeni- 
cian origin to those that bear it. The Lost 
Senses, page IGG. 

KITTS. See Kitt. 

KLEIN. German. Little ; small in person. 


KL YNE. A corruption of Klein . 

KNAPMAN. A dweller upon a knap or 

KNAPTON. Places in cos. Norfolk and 

KNAPP. 1. Cncep. A-Sax. A top or 
knop. Bosworth. A hillock or Jotaj) of a 
hill. Cotgrave. In Sussex, the brow of a 
hill is called a nab. 

2. Cnapa. A-Sax. A son, a boy, a youth,^e, equivalent to the Fr. gar^on. 

KNAPPER. See Knapp, and the ter. 
mination er. 

KNATCHBULL. The first recorded 
ancestor of the family is John Knatchbull, 
who had lands in the parish of Lynme, co. 
Kent, in the reign of Edward III., and there 
some of the name remained down to the 
time of Charles I. The main branch were 
at Mersham- Hatch, in the same county, by 
purchase, temp. Henry VII., and there the 
present baronet yet resides. Shirley's 
Noble and Gentle Men. The etymology of 
this singular surname is not very obvious, 
but, in the absence of a better, I will sug- 
gest — hmteh, a northern provincialism, 
meaning to strike or knock, and hull 
(taurus) — perhaps from some courageous 
adventure with an animal of that species. 

KNELL. See Kneller. 

KNELLER. Sir Godfrey K. was a na- 
tive of Lubeck ; but the name is also indi- 
genous to England. Knelle is a topogra- 
phical word of uncertain import, and a 
person residing at such a spot would be 
called At-Knelle or Kneller. The name was 
formerly very common in E. Sussex, and 
may have been derived from Great Knell, 
in the parish of Beckley. See Thorpe's 
Catalogue of Battel Abbey Charters. 


KNIFE. Ferguson says from Cniva, 
an early Gothic name, of which he con- 
siders Knevett a diminutive. Knif. H.R. 

KNIGHT. 1. Applied, not to a person 
who actually possessed knighthood, but by 
way of sobriquet. See Lord, &c. See also 
Eng. Sum. i. 134. 2. Perhaps a more pro- 
bable derivation is immediately from the 
A-Sax. cniht. a servant, youth, military 
follower. The A-Sax. cniht-hdd implies, 
not the modern idea of knighthood, but 
the period between childhood and manhood. 
See Bosworth. The H.R. forms are Le 
Knigt, Kniht, Le Knit, Le Knyt. 

KNIGHTLEY. The first known an- 
cestor is Rainald, mesne Lord of Knightley, 
CO. Stafford, under Earl Roger, temp. 
William the Conqueror. Domesd. Fawsley 
Hall, CO. Northampton, the seat of the 
present baronet, was acquired by purchase, 
temp. Henry V. Baker's Northampton- 
shire. Shirley's Noble and Gentle Men. 

KNIGHTON. Parishes and places in cos. 
, Dorset, Leicester, Stafford, Worcester, &o. 




KNILL. Sir John, a younger son of the 
unfortunate William de Braose, temp. 
King John, having received from his 
father the manor of Knylle or Knill, in the 
marches of Wales (co. Hereford), adopted 
De Knill as his surname. Knill of Knill 
became extinct in the XVII. cent. 

KNIPE. A mountain in Ayrshire — parish 
of New Crunnock. 

in Derbyshire. The extinct baronet family 
descended from Sir Matthew de Kniveton, 
who flourished in that county temp. Ed- 
ward I. Lysons' Derbyshire. 

KNOCK. A hill ; a knoll. Celtic and 
Gaelic, cnoc, collis. De la Knocke. H.R. 
See Knox. 

KNOCKNAILE. Probably a sobriquet 
applied to a hammer-man of some descrip- 
tion. A family of this name in Wiltshire 
were enriched by the spoliation of the mon- 
asteries by Henry VIII., and an old tradi- 
tional rhjTne thus records them and some 
of their neighbours : — 
" HopTON, Horner, Smith, Knocknaile, 

and TiiYNXE; 
When Abbats went out, they came in." 

Aubrey's Live*, vol. ii. p. 3G2. 

KNOLL. See Knowles. 

K NOLLYS. For the etymology see 
Knowles. The founder of the family, a 
person of humble origin, was the famous 
Sir Robert Knollys, who, after the battle of 
Poictiers had established the supremacy of 
the English in France, greatly enriched 
himself by incursions into that country, 
where he was known as " the very Devil 
for fighting" (le veritnble Demon de la 
OMerre)» The following distich by a con- 
temporary poet records his prowess. 


O Robert Knowles, the ktnbborn souls 

Of FrciuluiH-n well you check ; 
Tonr mUrhty l.lwle has Uocely prpyed, 

And wounded many a neck. 

Bodiam a$ul its Lords, p. 17. 

KNOIT. The Scandinavian Cnut or 
Canute, a pcrwrnal name. Camden says 
thai the sandpiper or knot-hin], derives ita 
name from King Canute. Britannia, 971, 
And Drayton in his I'olyolbion sings — 

** TIM Knot t htc al l M WM Cuiati^ Mrd of old, 
Of UMi mM Ktag «r Dnw Mi name that stiU 

His •opetHc to plMw tbatftr and MM- WM sooidit. 
For him, as agoM hare a«ld« ftwa DamMkrk mSiar 

A Cnut appears in the Domesd. of Derby, 

Nottinghanif and York, and h« was evi- 

denUr either a Dane or of Danish ex- 


" Our surname of Knot, being so made by 

abbreviation, some say should more rightly 

be Kanut." Veretcgao. 

KXOWLER, A resideot at a knoU or 
hill. See terminatioii EB. 

KNOA\^SLEY. A township in Lanca- 
shire, anciently Knouselogh. The family 
possessed the estate temp. Edward II., if 
not earlier. 

KNOWLE. KNOWLES. Localities 
in many counties are so called, from A- Sax. 
cnoll a knoll, hill, or summit ; a little 
round hill. See Knollys. 

KNOWLTON. A parish in Kent. 

KNOX. From the lands of Knocks or 
Knox, CO. Renfrew. Knock, Grael,, a round- 
topped hill. The Knoxes were of that Ilk 
at an early i)eriod, and sometimes wrote 
themselves of Ranfurly, whence the family 
of Knox, Earls of Ranfurly in Ireland. 
The great Reformer was of this family. 


KN5rVETT. According to Camden this 
name is a corruption of Dmievit, and Le- 
land derives it from Dunnevit, that is Dun- 
neheved, the original name of Launceston, 
in Cornwall. It is said that Othomarus, 
lord of the castle and town of Launceston, 
took up arms against William the Con- 
queror, and was deprived of his possessions, 
which were afterwards restored to him on 
his marriage with a daughter of William 
Dammartin, a Norman. His descendants 
took the name of De Knjrvet or De Knevet. 
See Burke's Ext. Barts. Knivet, Knivat, 
and Knyvet, as well as De Knyvet, are 
found in H.R. 

KOE. This surname may be the 0-Sax., 
North Frisian, and Danish ko, a cow. Mr. 
Ferguson, after alluding to surnames de- 
rived from the bear, the wolf, the boar, the 
horse, and the dog, and giving a rationale 
of their origin, says : " But the cow — the 
innocent and ungainly cow — what is there 
in her useful and homely life that could 
inspire sentiments of reverence in a fierce 
and warlike people ? The honour which 
was paid to her was from a more ancient 
and a more deeply-seated source. From 
the time when Israel, tainted with Egj'p- 
tion superstition, set up a golden calf, and 
said, * These be thy go<l8 which brought 
thee out of the land of Y^gypi ' — and from 
who can tell how many ages before that 
time, the cow as the type of the teeming 
mother earth, has been an object of 
human idolatry. In the Northern system 
of mythology j*he is not, like the bear, the 
wolf, or the lK)ar, sacred to any particular 
divinity, but ap{)ear8 — in what seems to be 
a fragment of a more ancient myth — as 
mysteriotisly connected with the first cause 
and origin of all things. Grimm has re- 
marked (Drutuch Myth. p. G31), that the 
Sanscrit and Persian words for a cow cor- 
respond with a word signifying the earth. 
An<l he further observes upon the connec- 
tion lx?lween Kinda, a name for the earth in 
Northern mythology, and the Germ, rind, 
an ox. I am unable, in tlie absence of 
proof derived from corresponding ancient 
named, to say whether any of our names 
derived from the cow are to be referred to 
this remote origin." 




KYAN. A corruption of OCahan. The 
ancestors of the family were anciently 
princes of Derry, and a younger branch of 
the royal O'Neills. The Irish annals 
mention a Kian, king of Desmond, in 

KYDD. SeeKidd. 

KYFFIN. A Welsh name. Cyffin in 
that language, implies a limit or abut- 
ment. The surname is therefore probably 

KYLE. A topographical term implying 
a sound or strait. Jamieson. 

KYME. The founder of this family 
founded also the Priory of Bolinton, co. 
Lincoln, temp. King Stephen. The Kymes 
" assumed the surname from a fair lord- 
ship, the principal place of their residence, 
in Kesteven, in the county of Lincoln." 
Burke's Ext. Peerage. The barony of 
Kyme is in abeyance. 

KYMYEL. A place in the parish of 

Paul, CO. Cornwall, anciently the residence 
of the family. C. S. Gilbert's Cornwall. 

KYNASTON. "The Kynastons," says 
Mr. Shirley, " are lineal descendants of the 
ancient British princes of Powys, sprung 
from Griffith, son of Jorweth Goch, who 
took refuge in Shropshire " temp. Henry 
IL, who gave him lands in that county, "to 
be held in capite by the service of being 
latimer (that is interpreter) between the 
English and the "Welsh. He married 
Matilda, yoimgest sister and coheir of Ralph 
le Strange, and in her right became pos- 
sessed of tiie manor of Kinnerley and other 
estates in Shropshire. Madoc, the eldest 
son of Griffith, seated himself at Sutton, 
from him called to this day Sutton-Madoc. 
Griffith Vychan, the younger son, had Kin- 
nerley, a portion of his mother's inheri- 
tance, and in that manor he resided, at 
Tre-gynvarth, Anglice * Kynvarth's Town,' 
usually written and spoken of as KyTiaston; 
and hence the name of this family." Noble 
and Gentle Men, p. 183. 


Laborer. Fr. Moreur, a plough- 
man, or i^erhaps more generally a husband- 
man of any kind. 

LABOUCHERE. This family left 
France at the Revocation of the Edict of 
Nantes, and became established in Holland. 
The first settler in England was Peter Caesar 
Labouchere, Es(j., who purchased estates 
in Essex and Somerset, and died in 1839. 

LACER. A lace-maker. 

LACESTER. A corruption of Lan- 
chester, a parish in Cheshire. 

LAC. Perhaps the Fr. Du Lac, " of the 


LACKEY. A personal attendant, a foot- 

LACKINGTON. A parish in co. 


LACOCK or LAYCOCK. A parish in 

Wiltshire, famous for its abbey. 

LACON. A township in the parish of 
Wem, CO. Salop. 

LACEY. See Lacy. 

LACY. Roger de Laci, eldest son of 
Walter de L., came over with William the 
Conqueror, and was rewarded with the 
tenure in capite of 11 G lordships. To 
Ilbert de Laci the Conqueror gave the 
castle and town of Pontefract, co. York, 

with 164 lordships. Kelham's Domesday. 
The two were probably related, though the 
degree of kindred is unknown. The Itine- 
raire de la Normandie mentions a place 
called Lassi, in the department of Calvados, 
which, as Ordericus Vitalis latinizes it 
Laeeium, is probaby the cradle of this re- 
nowned and noble surname, to which no 
less than 35 coats of arms are ascribed in 
the Encyc. Herald. 

LADBROKE. The Warwickshire 
parish so called is a tolerably satisfactory 
origin ; but it may be a personal name. It 
was the daughter of Lodbrok the Dane 
who wove th