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Berkeley 5 Califori 













t^ted in Gennaaf: 




Published April 1907. 
privilege of copyright in the United States 
reserved under the Act approved March 3, 
1905, by BREITKOPF&H ARTEL, Leipzig. 



In these days of inexpensive full-scores, when almost everyone, 
with any pretence to be considered musical, possesses copies of 
their favourite works in the original orchestral form, some such 
dictionary as the present seems necessary. The previous dic- 
tionaries of musical terms were published before the cult of the 
"miniature" score began, and before the employment of musical 
directions in the composer's own language became so universal, 
and thus, many orchestral terms were omitted, as not being of 
sufficient general interest, and the explanation of many German 
indications (now in everyday use) was considered unnecessary. 
Even in Italian (the musician's language until recent years), 
alterations have taken place, which existing dictionaries have not 
noted, and hence while Clarino, for example, is explained as being 
a name for a trumpet, nothing is said as to the word being now 
employed in modern Italian scores as equivalent to ClarinettOy 
and terms such as Clarone are not mentioned at all. 

The original idea of the present work was to include simply 
orchestral terms and instruments, but as it was obvious that for 
the proper understanding of a full-score, translations of indica- 
tions of tempo and expression were necessary, these were added: 
thus the book, it is to be hoped, will prove as serviceable to the 
pianist and vocalist as to the reader of full-scores, or the player 
on some orchestral instrument. Obsolete terms are not given 
as a rule, although in many cases they have been introduced, 
either the better to explain their modern meaning, or because, 
although obsolete in general use, they are to be found in scores, 
which are still living. That every term employed in modem 
music is included, can scarcely be expected: many composers, 
fearful lest their ideas should be misunderstood, mark some fresh 
indication every few bars, and so, even if the number of musical 

— IV — 

works were less than it is, the number of musical expressions 
would still be enormous. 

Owing to various reasons, the chief of which being perhaps 
the translation of foreign musical works into English by persons 
ignorant of musical technicalities, certain errors of nomenclature 
have crept into even our standard English treatises, and there- 
fore occasional divergences may be discovered between the 
explanations given in the following pages and those found in one 
or other of these standard works. It is almost needless to state, 
that these variations from consecrated meanings have been given 
only after due consideration, and a careful collation of the various 
authorities, with an ultimate appeal to the scores themselves. 

I here take the opportunity of tendering my best thanks to 
my friends Ad. Schloesser and Walter F. H. Blandford not only 
for many helpful suggestions, but for having been good enough 
to undertake the ungrateful task of overlooking the proofs. 

Londbn, 1907. 





DAY, C. R. 





Works in the English Language. 

Treatise on Orchestration (translated by 
Mary Cowden Clarke; revised by Joseph 

The Orchestra. 

Catalogue of the Musical Instruments in 
the Royal Military Exhibition, London, 

Dictionary of Music (ist edition); ditto 
(2nd edition, edited by J. A. Fuller- 

Catechism of the Organ. 

Dictionary of Musical Terms. 

The Organ. 

Military Music. 

Six Lectures on Harmony. 

A concise Dictionary of Musical Terms. 

Harmony, Counterpoint, Fugue, 6-. (se- 
parate volumes). 

The Orchestra. 

Musical Handbook. 

Dictionary of Musical Terms. 

Encyclopcsdia Britannica (loth edition). 
Standard English Dictionary (Funk cS- 
• W agnails). 

Works in the French Language. 



Traite d' Instrumentation et d' Orchestration. 
Curiosites Musicales. 
Nouveau Traite d' Instrumentation. 
Cours Methodique d' Orchestration. 
Traite pratique d' Instrumentation. 
Dictionnaire des Instruments de Musique. 
Manual g^ntral de Musique Militaire. 

— VI 




La Musique et les Musiciens. 

Histoire de V Instrumentation. 

Histoire de la Musique. 

Traite de I'Expression Musicale. 

Catalogue descriptif et analytique du Musee 
Instrumental du Conservatoire Royal de 
Musique de Bruxelles. 

Elements d'Acoustique. 

Traits d' Instrumentation et d' Orchestra- 
tion d I'usage de Musiques Militaires. 

Dictionnaire Musical des Locutions etran- 

Technique de I'Orchestre Moderne. 



KOCH, H. C. 
LOBE, J. C. 

MARX, A. B. 

Works in the German Language. 

Instrumentationslehre (herausgegeben von 
F. Weingartner); dieselhe (ergdnzt und 
revidiert von R. Strauss). 

Handlexikon der Musik. 

Praktische Instrumentationslehre. 

Katechismus der Musikinstrumente. 

Musikalisches Lexikon. 

Lehrbuch der musikalischen Komposition: 

Musikalische Kompositionslehre. 

Katechismus der Orgel. 


Worterbuch der in der Musik gebrduch- 
lichen Ausdriicke. 

Encyklopddisches Deutsch-Englisches Wor- 
terbuch (Muret-Sanders). 


Works in the Italian Language. 

Manuale del Capo-Musica, 
Dizionario e Bibliografia della Musica. 
Strumentazione (versione italiana di Ricci). 
Trattato di Strumentazione Pratica. 
Italian-English Dictionary (Millhouse 6- 

The Catalogues of the principal English, French, German and 
ItaUan makers of Musical Instruments have also been consulted, as 
have numerous articles in EngUsh and foreign musical magazines. 



A bbreviation. 









past part 

past participle 






























1. The part of the verb usually given is that which is ordinarily 
met with in scores, although often it has been deemed advisable to 
give the infinitive also. It is to be noted, that in many languages the 
infinitive is at times used in the sense of the imperative, as:- prendre 
la flute instead of prenez la flute. 

2. Both in Italian and German (and more especially in the latter), 
the spelling has been so altered within recent years that it is im- 
possible to give all the forms of certain words. Where feasible, the 
letters which are now usually omitted are placed between brackets, 
thus:- get{h)eilt; in other cases, the two spellings are placed in 
their alphabetical order, and occasionally, when in spite of differ- 
ences {e. g. Controfagotto for Contrafagotto), the resemblance is such as 
to lead to no misunderstanding, the altered spelling is omitted. 

3. In modern German, Roman type is so often used that its 
employment throughout this dictionary needs no apology. The 
sign for the double 5 (^) has been frequently introduced, although 
at the present time its use cannot be considered as universal. 

4. Since in a work of this description it is impossible to enter 
into the differences that are found in similar instruments of various 
makers, it must not be taken that these differences do not exist or 
that they are of necessity unimportant. Because a Heckelphon is 
described as a baritone oboe, it must not be supposed that Heckel's 
invention is identical with the Hautbois baryton of the French maker, 
Loree ; and because a Pelittone is described as a saxhorn, that there- 
fore Pelitti's instrument is precisely the same as that of Sax. 

5. As it is often convenient to represent the pitch of notes other 
than by music type, it is as well to give here the method adopted 
in the following pages, adding in brackets some other methods of 
designating the notes of any particular octave. 

8^» bassa... 

Wotton, Dictionary. 

C2 to B2. (32ft octave; CCC to BBB.] 

— 2 — 

C|; Cito Bi. {i6ft octave; Contra octave; CC to BB, 

' *^* \ ! ■ In English organ mus: ~~ 

Hi dr" to the octave above.) 

In EngUsh organ music, CC, DD, EE & FF refer 

z: to 

9* — ^ C to J5. (8ft octave; Great octave.) 


9* J I c to h. (4ft octave; Small octave.) 


J I c' to h\ (2ft octave; one-lined or once accented 
1 octave; c to b.) 

•^ to 

to JL 

p — c" to 6". (ift octave; two-Hned or twice accented 

Cp I octave; c to b.) 



Y: y - c'" to h'". (6 in. octave; three-lined or thrice ac- 
- cented octave; c to b.) 

to r: 


ip '- c"" to h"", (3 in. octave; four-lined or four times 
- accented octave; c to b.) 

Note. Expressions not found under the initial word of the sen- 
tence will often be found under one or other of the prin- 
cipal words of the phrase. 

A. The 6th note of the normal scale of C major; in Fr. and It. 
it is called la. The highest string of the violoncello and viola, 
and 2nd string of the violin. 

A A. Sometimes found for Ai. 
AAA. Sometimes found for A 2. 
A (Fr.). To, at, in, with, etc. 

A chaque accord. With every chord; direction for using the 

damper pedal in piano playing. 
A cylindres. With cyhnders. v. Valves. 

A defaut de. In the absence of. A dSfaut de clarinette basse, in 
the absence of a bass clarinet. 

demi jeu. j wjth half the power of the voice or instrument. 

A deux, a 2. In two parts. More often used in the contrary 
sense, and meaning that 2 instruments of a kind (2 flutes, 
2 bassoons, etc.) are to play the same part. 

A deux cordes. On two strings. 

A deux huit. In Vs time. 

A deux mains. For two hands. 

A deux quatre. In 2/4 time. 

A deux temps. In 2/2 time, or, generally, in any binary rhjrthm, 

A grande orchestre. For full orchestra. 

A la, a r. To the, etc: often meaning "in the style of". 

A recossaise. In the Scotch style. 

A la corde. The bow kept well on the strings ; legato. 

A la demi ere mesure. At the last bar. 

A la fin. At the end. 

A la mesure. In time. 

A la pointe d'archet. With the point of the bow. 

A la polonaise. In the Polish style ; in the style of a polonaise. 

A livre ouvert. (Playing) at sight. 

A mesure (battue). In strict time. 

A peine entendu. Scarcely heard. 

A pistons. With pistons, v. Valves. 

A premiere vue. At first sight. 

A quatre mains. For four hands. 

A six temps. In 6 time. 

A un quart de voix. Sung as softly as possible, v. Quart. 

A un temps. In one beat. 

A voix sombre. In a gloomy voice. 

A volonte. At will, at one's pleasure; ad libitum 

— 4 — 

A (Ger.). The note A. Ajf is Ais; A I? is As. 

A dur. A major. 

A moll. A minor. 

A-Saite. The A string. 
A (It.). To, at, with, etc. 

A ballata. In the ballad style. 

A battuta. In strict time. 

A bene placito. At pleasure, ad libitum. 

A cappella, a capella. (i) In the style of church music. (2) Com- 
positions are so designated, which are either for voices alone, 
or in which the instrumental accompaniment is in unison 
or octaves with the voices. (3) A term sometimes used for 
alia breve. 

A capriccio. At pleasure, capriciously. 

A cinque. In five parts. 

A due, a 2. In two parts. More often used in a contrary sense, and 
meaning that two instruments play the same part. cf. A deux. 

A due corde. On two strings. 

A due mani. For two hands. 

A due voci. For two voices. 

A man(o) dritta. For the right hand. 

A manjo) nianca. / p ^^ j ^ ^ ^ ^ 

A man(o) sinistra, j 

A mezza forza. With half the power of the voice or instrument. 

A mezza voce. With half the power of the voice or instrument, 
but more soft than loud. 

A mezzo manico. In the middle of the fingerboard. 

A piacere. U^ pleasure, ad libitum. 

A piacimento. ( ^ ' 

A poco a poco. Little by little. 

A prima vista. At first sight. 

A prime tempo. In the first (original) tempo. 

A punta d'arco. With the point of the bow. 

A quattro mani. For four hands. 

A quattro parti. For (in) four parts. 

A quattro voci. For four voices. 

A rigore del tempo. In strictest time. 

A scelta del cantante. At the discretion of the singer. 

A sola voce. With the voice alone, i. e. without an instrumental 

A suo arbitrio. j 

A suo beneplacimento. > At one's pleasure, ad libitum. 
A suo beneplacito. ) 

A suo com(m)odo. At one's convenience, 
a t., a tem. Abbr. of a tempo. 
A tempo. In time. 

A tempo com(m)odo. In a convenient time, at a leisurely pace. 
A tempo di gavotta, di minuetto, etc. In the time of a gavotte, 

minuet, etc. 
A tempo giusto. In exact time. 
A tempo, ma un poco piii lento. In time (i. e. in the main time 

of the movement), but a little more slowly. 

A tempo ordinario. In ordinary time, i. e. in moderate time, 

neither too fast nor too slow. 
A tempo prime. In the first (initial) time. 

A tempo rubato. Lit. "in robbed time", i. e. time in which, 
while every bar is of its proper time value, one portion of it 
may be played faster or slower at the expense of the 
remaining portion, so that, if the first half be somewhat 
slackened, the second half is somewhat quickened, and vice 
versa. With indifferent performers, this indication is too 
often confounded with some expression signifying ad libitum. 
A tre, a 3. In three parts; or that 3 instruments should play 

the same part. cf. A due. 
A tre corde. For three strings. In piano music, contradicting 

the use of the soft pedal, una corda. 
A tre mani. For three hands. 
A tre parti. In three parts. 
A tre voci. For three voices. 
A una corda. For one string, and on the piano, indicating the 

use of the soft pedal. 
A vista. At sight. 
A voce sola. For voice alone. 
Ab initio (Lat.). From the beginning. 
Abbandonatamente (It.). 
Abbandonevolmente (It.). 
Abbandono (It.). Abandonment; abandon. 
Abbassamento (It.). Lowering (subs.). 

Abbassamento di mano. Lowering of the hand. 
Abbassamento di voce. Lowering of the voice. 
Abbassando (It.). Lowering, diminishing the sound. 
Abbassare (It.). To lower. I Contrabassi abbasseranno d'un mezzo 
tono la corda La, the double-basses must lower the A string a 
Abbellimenti (It.). Embellishments, ornaments. 
Abbreviations. (Abbreviations of ordinary words and terms will 
be found in their alphabetical order. The signs used in modern 
music will be found under "Signs".) 

To save the trouble of writing in full a passage which is imme- 

Unrestrainedly ; with abandon. 

diately repeated, it is often placed between double bars 


his — written above it. In MS. music and in old engraved scores, 
bars which occur later are often numbered, and on their repetition, 
the numbers are alone written in the empty bars, with come sopra 
(as above) sometimes added. The ordinary abbreviations will 
Jbe understood from the following examples: — 

Written, or or 






— 6 

Written. or 




f4^ | jjjj'jjj i ^^j?1^ i 









d ' ^^ w^ 



(S^ri'c;irJJ^ I >-nri^crirjJ^ l r[j:j | rJJ^ 


Played on 
the violin. 

Played on 
the piano. 

;£r 4^ \ J J, J, J, J| J, J| J I J J - J^i 1 ^ ^ - 

Abbreviaturen (Ger.). Abbreviations. 
Abdampfen (Ger.). To damp, mute. 
Abend (Ger.). Evening. 

Abendgesang. Evening hymn. 

Abendgottesdienst. Evening service; vespers. 

Abendlied. An evening song. 

Abendmusik. A serenade. 
Aber (Ger.). But, at the same time. p. aber gut markierty p. but 
well accentuated. 

Aber bestimmt. But with decision. 

Aber deutlich. But distinct. 

Aber immer noch Halbe. But still (beating) minims. 

Aber immer noch nicht so schnell wie zu Anfang. But still 
not so fast as at the commencement. 
Abfloten (Ger.). To play upon the flute. 
Abgerundetes Spiel (Ger.). Finished execution. 
Abgesang (Ger.). The last portion of a song. 
AbgestoBen (Ger.). Staccato. 
Abkiirzungen (Ger.). Abbreviations. 
Ablosen (Ger.). To detach, separate; in piano playing, to take 

off a finger. 
Abnehmend (Ger.). Decreasing, diminuendo. 
AbreiBen (Ger.). To break off. 
AbreiBung (Ger.). A sudden pause. 
Absatz (Ger.). An interval, a pause; a section, phrase 
Abschnitt (Cxer.). A section, period. 
Absetzen (Ger.). To detach, to play staccato; in piano playing^ 

to raise the finger. 
Abspielen (Ger.). To play off. Vom Blatt abspielen, to play at sight. 

AbstoBen (Ger.). To play a note in a sharp distinct manner; to 
play staccato. 

Abt(h)eilung (Ger.). Division, part, section. 

Abwartsschreiten (Ger.). To descend (a note or an interval). 

Abwechselnd (Ger.). Alternating, interchanging; changing (fingers): 
alternate. In abwechselnden Choren, antiphonally ; mit abwechseln- 
den Manualen, with alternate manuals; mit Althoboe abwechselnd, 
alternating with cor anglais; mit Kl. Flote abwechselnd, inter- 
changing with piccolo. 

Abwechselung (Ger.). Alternation, change, modulation. 

Abziehen (Ger.). To unstring a violin, etc. The opposite to auf- 

Ace. Abbr. of accompaniment. 

Accablement (Fr.). Dejection, depression. 

Accarezzevole (It.). Fond, caressing, flattering. 

Accarezzevolmente (It.). Caressingly. 

Accel. Abbr. of accelerando. 

Accelerare (It.). To quicken, accelerate. 

Accelerando (It.). Quickening, accelerating (the tempo). 

Accelerando bis fest in gewonnenem, lebhaftem Zeitmafi. 

Quickening until the fast tempo is firmly established. 
Accelerando sin'al fine. Accelerating until the end. 

Acceleratemente (It.). Quickly, in haste. 

Accelerato (It.). Quickened. 

Accentato (It.). Accented. 

Accent© (It.). Accent. 

Accentuare, accentare (It.). To accentuate, lay a stress upon. 

Accent(u)ato (It.), j Arrented 

Accentue (Fr.). } Accented. 

Accentui(e)ren (Ger.). To accentuate. 

Acciaccato (It.). Literally "crushed", and applied to a note, which 
is to be played as an acciaccatura {q. v.). The term is sometimes 
used to signify that the notes of a chord on the piano are to be 
played in rapid succession (considerably faster than an ordinary 
arpeggio) for the sake of greater resonance: it is an effect which is 
often abused. 

Acciaccatura (It.). A term now used for a short appoggiatura {q. v.), 
a note rapidly "crushed" into the principal note. Formerly it 
meant a grace-note, which was played at the same time as the 
melody note above, but which was instantly released after being 

Accidentalen (Ger.). \ 

Accidenti (It.). I Accidentals 

Accidentien (Ger.). ( occidentals. 

Accidents (Fr.). / 

Accolade (Fr.). A brace connecting two or more staves. 

Accom., accomp. Abbr. of accompaniment, accompagnamento, &c. 

Accompagnamento (It.). Accompaniment. 

Accompagnare (It.). To accompany. 

Accompagnateur (Fr.). An accompanist, 

Accompagnato (It.). Accompanied. 

Accompagnatore, -trice (It.). An accompanist. 

— 8 — 

Accompagnement (Fr.). Accompaniment. 

Accompagner (Fr.). To accompany. 

Accoppiamento (It.). The act of coupling; coupling. 

Accoppiamento dell* O. C. (organo corale) all* O. E. (organo 
espressivo). Choir coupled to swell. 
Accoppiato (It.). Coupled. 

Accord (Fr.). (i) A chord. (2) Method of tuning an instrument. 
(3) Agreement in pitch. Tenir r accord, to keep the pitch: cet in- 
strument est d'accord, this instrument is in tune. 
Accord a I'DUvert. Chord on open strings. 
Accord arpege, brise, or figure. A broken chord. 
Accord de septieme. Chord of the seventh. 
Accord de violon. The notes to which the strings of a violin 

are tuned. 
Accord parfait, A common chord. 
Accordamento, Accordanza (It.). Agreement in pitch, consonance. 
Accordando (It.). Tuning. 
Accordante (It.). Harmonising, accordant. 
Accordare (It.). To tune. 
Accordato (It.). Tuned. 

Accordati per quinta. Tuned to the fifth. (A direction sometimes 
found in Timpani parts, where, when the notes are Bj; — F, 
or C — F, some doubt might exist as to whether F were the 
lower or higher note.) 
Accordatura (It.). Same as the Fr. accord. 
Accordeon (Fr.). An accordion. 
Accorder (Fr.). To tune. 

Accordion. A free reed instrument of oblong form, with bellows 
worked by the left hand, with from 10 to 20 keys (or even more), 
and with stops for producing "effects" or chords of several notes. 
Accordo (It.). A chord. 

Accord© consono. Consonant chord. 
Accordo dissono. Dissonant chord. 
Accouple (Fr.). Coupled. Tous les claviers accouplSs, all the manuals 

Accouplement (Fr.). Coupling. 

Accrescendo (It.). Increasing, augmenting (the sound). 
Accrescimento (It.). Augmentation. 
Accresciuto (It.). Augmented. ("Augmented" when applied to 

intervals is eccedente.) 
Accuratezza (It.). Accuracy, care, attention. 
Acht (Ger.). Eight. 

Achte (Ger.). Eighth. Sometimes used for Oktave, an octave. 
Achtel (Ger.). An eighth part. Usually employed for Achtelnote, 
a quaver (the eighth part of a semibreve). 
Achtelnote. An eighth note, a quaver. 
Achtelpause. A quaver rest. 
Achtelschlag. A quaver beat. 
Die Achtel als vorher die Viertel. The quavers like the previous 

Die Achtel bedeutend ruhiger als soeben die Viertel. The quavers 
considerably more tranquil than the previous crotchets. 

— 9 — 

Die Achtel der Triolen etwas schneller als soeben die gewohn- 
lichen Achtel. The quavers of the triplets somewhat faster 
than the preceding ordinary quavers. 
Die Achtel etwas langsamer als soeben. The quavers somewhat 

slower than before. 
Die Achtel etwas langsamer als vorher die Halben. The quavers 

somewhat slower than the previous minims. 
Die Achtel viel gemessener als soeben die Viertel. The quavers 

much more measured (slower) than the previous crotchets. 
Die Achtelschlage etwas langsamer als vorher die Halben. The 
quaver beats somewhat slower than the previous minims. 
Act (Ger.). Act. v. Akt. Aufzug is perhaps now the more ordinary- 
Acte (Fr.). Act. 

Acte de cadence. The two chords forming the cadence. 
Acteur (Fr.). An actor. 
Action musicale (Fr.). Term used by d'lndy for his later operas 

and corresponding to the Ger. Handlung {q. v.). 
Actrice (Fr.). An actress. 

Acutezza (It.). Acuteness; degree of elevation of a sound. 
Acute, -a (It.). Acute, elevated. Voce acuta, a high voice. 
Ad lib. Abbr. of ad libitum. 

Ad libitum (Lat.). At the will or pleasure of the executant. 
Adagio (It.), adj. Slow. Less slow than Largo and slower tham Andante. 
Used also as a subs., as "an Adagio" of Mozart. 
Adagio assai. Very slow. 

Adagio con molt* espressione. Slow with great expression. 
Adagio di molto. Very slow. 
Adagio molto semplice e cantabile. Slow and in a very simple 

singing style. 
Adagio non troppo lento. Slow, but not too slow. 
Adagio pesante. Slow and heavy. 
Adagissimo (It.). Very slow: sup. of Adagio. 

Additional accompaniments. Instrumental parts added to a score 
by someone other than the composer, either for the filling-in of 
the figured bass, or for merely "thickening" the accompaniment 
in accordance with modern ideas, or for the simplification of 
certain parts such as the extremely high trumpet parts of Handel 
and Bach, or as substitution for parts written for obsolete instru- 
ments. Although the result may be sometimes questioned, the 
term is usually held to imply an artistic desire to fit an ancient 
score to the requirements of modern days, and does not include 
the introduction of extra brass instruments into a score of (say) 
Mozart by a conductor suffering from "orchestral deafness". 
Addolcendo (It.). Softening; gradually becoming quieter. 
Addolorato (It.). Dolorous, sad, agonised. 
Adirato (It.). Irritated, angry. 
Ado. Abbr. of Adagio. 
Adornamento (It.). Ornament. 

Aehnlich, Aengstlich, etc. v. Ahnlich, Angstlich, etc. 
.ffiolian Harp. An oblong box, serving as a sound-board, on which 
are stretched cat-gut strings tuned in unison. The sounds are 

— 10 — 

produced by the action of the wind vibrating the strings in 

AEVIA. The vowels in Alleluia, used as an abbreviation. 
Affabile (It.). Affable, courteous, kindly. 
Affanato (It.). Agitated, anxious. 
Affanosamente (It.). In a painful, sad manner. 
Affanoso (It.). Stifling, sultry; distressing, sad. 
AffektvoU (Ger.). Same as mit Affekt, — with passion, fervour. 
Affettato (It.). Affected, artificial. 
Affetto (It.). Affection, tenderness. 
Affettso. Abbr. of affettuoso. 

Affettuosamente (It.). Affectionately, tenderly, with emotion. 
Affettuoso (It.). Affectionate, tender. Occasionally used as an 

indication of tempo, and meaning a speed somewhere between 

adagio and andante. 
Afflitto (It.). Sad, melancholy. 
Afflizione (It.). Affliction, sorrow. 
Affrettando (It.). Hastening, hurrying. 
Affrettatamente (It.). Hastily. 
Affrettdo. Abbr. of affrettando. 
Affrettuoso (It.), v. Affrettando. 

Agevole (It. ). Easy, without effort ; implying a light, facile execution. 
Agevolezza (It.). Facility, ease. 
Agg. Abbr. of aggiungi, add. 

Agg. Contrabasso i6 e Basso 8. Add diapasons i6 and 8ft. 
Agg. Ripieno. Add Mixture. 
Aggiungi (It.). Add; from aggiugnere, or aggiungere. 
Aggiustamento (It.). Adjustment, agreement. 

Aggiustatamente (It.). With justness, regularity; strictly in time. 
Aggradevole (It.). Agreeable, pleasing. 
Aggrappando (It.). Grappling, hooking. In harp music, hitching 

a pedal into one of the notches in the pedestal, to raise the pitch 

of the instrument. 

Afiiitt (Fr.^j. | ^S^^^^' lightness, nimbleness. 
Agilmente (It.). Nimbly. 
Agitamento (It.). Agitation. 
Agitatamente (It.). With agitation. 
Agitato (It.). Agitated, troubled, excited. 

Agitato con passione. Agitated with passion. 

Agitato con pianto. Agitated with grief. 

Agitato molto or assai. Very much agitated. 
Agitazione (It.). Agitation. 
Agiti(e)rt (Ger.). Agitated. 
Agito. Abbr. of agitato. 
Agnus Dei (Lat.). "Lamb of God". One of the parts of the Mass. 

Used as a subs., as "the Agnus Dei" of Weber's Mass. 
Agrements (Fr.). Grace notes, embelUshments. 
Agreste (Fr.). Rural, sylvan, rustic. Dans un sentiment de gatU 

agreste, with a feeling of rustic gaiety. 
Ahnlich (Ger.). Similar, like. 
Ai (It.). To the (masc. plur.). 

— II — 

Aigu, -gue (Fr.)- Sharp, shrill, acute. Petite trompette aigue en tni\^y 

or petite trompette en mi"; aigu, small trumpet in high E [?. 
Air (Fr.). Air, aria, song. 
Ais (Ger.). A-sharp, A|f. 

Ais dur. A-sharp major. 
Ais moll. A-sharp minor. 
Aj. Abbr. of ajoutez, or ajouter, add. {v. Remark I.). 

aj. Fl. 4 P. au Recit. Add flute 4ft to swell. 
Ajouter (Fr.). To add. 
Akademie (Ger.). Academy, college. 

Akkompagnement (Ger.). Accompaniment. (Ususl word Begleitung.) 
Akkompagni(e)ren (Ger.). To accompany. (Usual word Begleiten.) 
Akkord (Ger.). A chord. Dissonierender Akkord, discord. 
Akkord in Dur. Major chord. 
Akkord in Moll. Minor chord. 

Die Akkorde moglichst gebunden. The chords as smoothly as 
Akt (Ger.). Act. cf. Aufzug. 

Al (It.). A compound of a and 2/, at the, to the, etc. (masc. sing.). 
Al fine. To the end. 

Al loco. At the place ; used after Zva or ^va bassa, and meaning 
that the notes are to be played in the octave written, cf. Loco. 
Al meno. To the least, i. e. becoming as soft as possible. 
Al piacere. At the pleasure (of the performer). 
Al rigore di tempo. In strict time. 
Al rovescio, al riverso. By contrary motion. 
Al seg. Abbr. of al segno. 

Al segno ^. To the sign ^ ; meaning that the performer has to 
return to the sign, and then play on till he reaches the word 
fine, or a double bar with a pause above it. 
Albert! bass. A bass consisting of broken chords, so-called after 

Domenico Alberti {circa 1717 — 1740). 
Albumblatt (Ger.). "An album leaf", a short composition osten- 
sibly intended for the pages of an album, and therefore partaking 
of the nature of an impromptu. 
Alerte (Fr.). Alert, active, nimble. 

Aliquot tones. Overtones, upper partials. v. Harmonics. 
Aliquottone (Ger.). Aliquot tones. 
All (Ger.). All, every; plur. alle {q. v.). 

Alia, air (It.). Compound of a and la, to the, at the, etc. (fern. sing.). 
Like the Fr. d la, alia often means "in the style of". 
Air antico. In the ancient style. 
Alia ballata. In the ballad style. 
Alia breve. In a modern sense, 2/2 time, often written as (p ; 

a tempo of two beats to a bar. 
Alia breve taktieren (Ger.). Beat alia breve. 
Alia bur la, ma pomposo. In a burlesque style, but pompously. 
Alia caccia. In the hunting style. 
Alia camera. In the style of chamber music. 
Alia cappella. In the style of church music, cf. A cappella. 
Alia coda. (Go) to the coda, i. e. the concluding portion of the 

— 12 — 

Alia francese. In the French style. 

Air inglese. In the English style. 

Air italiana. In the Italian style. 

Alia marcia. In march style. 

Alia mente. (i) A barbarous form of counterpoint in 3rds and 

5ths, in use in the 14th and 1 5th centuries. (2) Extemporaneous. 
Air ongarese. In the Hungarian style. 
Air ottava bassa. In the lower octave. 
Alia Palestrina. (i) In the style of Palestrina. (2) Same as 

a cappella. 
Alia polacca. In the style of a polonaise. 
Alia scozzese. In the Scotch style. 
Alia tedesca. In the German style. 
Air unisono. In the unison. 
Alia zampogna. In the manner of a bagpipe. 
Alia zingara. In the gipsy style. 

Alia zoppa. In a halting manner; in a syncopated rhythm. 
Allargando (It.). Enlarging, broadening; gradually slackening the 

Allargando al fine. Slackening until the end. 
Alle (Ger.). All, every (plur.). Used in scores after "Solo" or 
"ein allein" to signify that all the instruments (violins, violas, etc.) 
are to be employed. 

Alle ersten. All the first (violins, etc.). 

Alle Horner mit hochster Kraftentfaltung. All the horns with 

the utmost vigour. 
Alle mit — bezeichneten Noten sollen wahrend ihrer ganzen 

Dauer gleichmaBig stark ausgehalten werden. All the notes 

marked — must be held with equal strength throughout their 

whole duration. 
Alle Saiten. All the strings; in piano music, ire corde. 
Alle zweiten. All the second (violins, etc.). 

^&r„r,i?i- i Gaily, joyously. 

Allegrettino (It.). Not so fast as allegretto. Sometimes used for a 

short composition marked allegretto. 
Allegretto (It.). Diminutive of allegro. A tempo, which is somewhat 
animated, but not so fast as allegro. 

Allegretto grazioso. Moderately fast with a graceful execution. 
Allegretto, quasi andantino. A slow allegretto; one which is 

almost an andantino. 
Allegretto scherzando. Moderately animated and playfully. 
Allegretto tranquillo. Tranquilly without being dragged. 
Allegretto un poco agitato. Moderately fast and somewhat 

Allegretto villereccio. Moderately fast, in a rural style. 

Allelr^Tlt.^ '^' } ^'^^' gladness, joyousness. 

Allegrissimo (It.). Sup. of allegro; very fast, but not so fast as presto. 

Allegro (It.). Literally, joyous, gay, cheerful, mirthful. In music, 
the word is used to express a tempo between moderato and presto^ 
and perhaps covers a greater range of metronomic value than any 

other tempo indication, in Tannhduser for instance the \ in Allegro 
(t time varying from 69 to 108. It is greatly modified by the 
adjective or words with which it is associated, but always indi- 
cates a brilliant, animated execution. The term has been in- 
corporated into other languages, and is also used as a subs., e. g. 
un allegro tres rhythme, a very rhythmical allegro. 

Allegro agitato. Quick and agitated. 

Allegro agitato e appassionato assai. With restless animation 
and very impassioned. 

Allegro allegro. An intensified form of allegro. 

Allegro assai. Very fast. 

Allegro a^sai moderato. Very moderate allegro. 

Allegro assai quasi presto. Very fast, almost presto. 

Allegro assai vivo. Very quick allegro. 

Allegro ben moderato. Fast, but very moderately so. 

Allegro brillante. Fast and with brilliant execution. 

Allegro brioso. Quick and with spirit. 

Allegro comodo. Conveniently fast. cf. Comodo. 

Allegro con allegrezza. Quick and with joyousness. 

Allegro con brio. Fast and with vivacity. 

Allegro con fuoco. Fast and with fire. 

Allegro con moltissimo moto. Fast and with the greatest move- 
ment (animation). 

Allegro con moto. Fast and with animation. 

Allegro con spirito. Fast and spirited. 

Allegro deciso. Quick and in a decided manner, i. e. with a 
well marked rhythm. 

Allegro di bravura. A brilliant allegro, full of warmth and 

Allegro di molto. Very fast. 

Allegro di moto. Fast, with animation. 

Allegro feroce. Quick and with ferocity. 

Allegro fiero. Fast and proudly. 

Allegro frenetico. Fast and with frenzy. 

Allegro fuocoso. Fast and with fire. 

Allegro gaio. Animated and gaily. 

Allegro giusto. Fast and in strict time. 

Allegro impetuoso. With impetuous speed. 

Allegro ma non presto. Fast without being too fast. 

Allegro ma non troppo. Fast, but not too much so. 

Allegro maestoso. Quick, but stately. 

Allegro marziale. Quick and in a martial style. 

Allegro moderato. Moderately fast. 

Allegro molto e con brio. Very fast and with verve. 

Allegro mosso. Fast and animated, v. Mosso. 

Allegro non tanto. Not too fast. 

Allegro piacevole. Agreeably fast, i. e. neither too fast nor 
too slow. 

Allegro risoluto. Fast and with decision. 

Allegro sciolto. Fast and with a free, nimble execution. 

Allegro sostenuto. Fast but sustained. 

Allegro spirituoso. Quick and with spirit 

— 14 — 

Allegro tranquillo. Tranquilly but with a certain amount of 

Allegro veloce. Fast and rapidly. 
Allegro vivace. Faster than allegro; quick and brisk. 
Allegro vivo. Faster than allegro ; quick and lively, very quick. 
Allegro vivo e leggiero. Very quickly and lightly. 
Allein (Ger.). Alone, solo. Eine Violine allein, one violin alone. 
Allemand, -nde (Fr.). German. Allemande. (i) a dance; (2) one of 

the movements of a suite. 
Allentamento (It.). A slackening, relaxation. 
Allentando (It.). Slackening. 

Allmahlich, allmalig (Ger.). Gradually, little by little, by degrees. 
Allmahlich belebend. Gradually becoming animated. 
Allmahlich bewegter. Gradually with more motion. 
Allmahlich ein wenig zuriickhaltend. By degrees somewhat 

Allmahlich etwas beruhigter. Gradually a little more tran- 
Allmahlich etwas flieBender. Gradually somewhat more flow- 
ing, i. e. faster. 
Allmahlich etwas maBiger in ZeitmaB. By degrees in rather 

more moderate tempo. 
Allmahlich etwas zuriickhaltend. Gradually somewhat slackening. 
Allmahlich immer belebter, auch im ZeitmaB. With growing 

animation, but in tempo. 
Allmahlich immer gedehnter. Constantly more drawn-out 

Allmahlich immer ruhiger. With growing tranquillity. 
AllmahUch lebhafter. Gradually faster. 
Allmahlich nachlassend. Slackening httle by Httle. 
Allmahlich sich beruhigend. Becoming calmer by degrees. 
Allmahlich wieder bewegter. Gradually again with more motion. 
Allmahlich wieder etwas langsamer. Again gradually somewhat 

Allmahlich wieder maBiger. Gradually again more moderately. 
Allmahlich wieder zuruckhaltend. Gradually again slackening. 
Alio. Abbr. of allegro. 

Allongez (Fr.). Draw-out; slacken the time. 
Allora (It.). Then; at that time. 
All"o. Abbr. of allegretto. 
Allure (Fr.). Manner, way. Avec une allure gate, in a gay manner, 

Allzu (Ger.). Too, rather too, much too. Mostly used in combi- 

A^uttt- \ Altogether. 

Allzusehr. Much, very much. 

Allzuviel. Too much, overmuch. 

Alphorn, Alpenhorn (Ger.). A wooden trumpet-like instrument, 

from 3 to 8 feet long, used in Switzerland for the Ranz des Vaches 

(q. v.). Only the Natural Scale {v. Harmonics) can be produced 

on it, the notes which are out of tune, according to the modern 

— 15 - 

scale, being particularly characteristic. There is a smaller variety 
made out of a horn. 
Als (Ger.). As, like; than; but; when. 
Also (Ger.). Thus, so, in this way; therefore, consequently. 

Also nicht weniger geschwind. Consequently not less quick 
{i. e. as quick as before). 
Alt. The notes from g" to /'" are said to be "in alt" (alto). 
Alt (Ger.). (i) Old. Im alien Menuettempo, in old minuet time. 
(2) Alto, contralto. (Many of the following compound words are 
sometimes written as two words, often joined by a hyphen.) 
Alt-Clarinette. v. Altklarinette. 
Alt-Cornett. v. Altkornett. 

Altflote. Alto flute, practically the same as what is called the 
Bass Flute in English. It goes down to g, and has been used 
by Weingartner in Das Gefilde der Seligen. 
Altfliigelhorn. v. Althorn. 
Altgeige. The viola. 

Althoboe. The Englische Horn, the cor anglais. 
Althorn. An instrument corresponding to the Fr. Saxhorn alto 

en mih, usually called in English, Tenor horn. v. Saxhorn. 
Altklarinette. The alto clarinet. 
Altkornett. Another name for the Althorn. 
Altophikleid. The alto ophicleide. 
Altposaune. The alto trombone. 
Altsarrusophon. The alto sarrusophone. 
Altschliissel. The alto clef. 
Altstimme. The alto or contralto voice. 

Alttrompete. The alto trumpet (in Bl? or Ab), an instrument 
used in German and Austrian cavalry bands. The notes sound 
a minor 7th or minor 6th above the written ones. 
Altviole. The Viola da braccio. 
Altzeichen. The C clef on the 3rd line. 
Alta (It.). Fem. of alto, high. Ottava alta, an octave higher. 
Alteration (Fr.). j The alteration in the pitch of a note by raising 
Alteration (Ger.). j or lowering it a semitone. 
Altere (Fr.). (i) Altered. (2) Weakened. D'une voix alteree, with 

weakened voice. 
Alternativo (It.). Alternate; by turns. 
Alternato (It.). Altered (in pitch); alternate. 
Altieramente (It.). Proudly. 
Altissimo (It.). Sup. of alto, high. The octave from g'" to /"" is 

called "in altissimo". 
Altist (Ger.). A male alto. 
Altista (It.). An alto singer. 
Altistin (Ger.). A contralto. 

Alto. The highest male voice, the counter-tenor, having a compass 
from about g to c". The alto part is as a rule taken by a bass 
voice singing in falsetto, and the female voice of similar range is 
usually designated a contralto. The term "alto" is applied to 
a number of instruments taking a position in the harmony cor- 
responding to the alto voice, but unfortunately the various nations 
differ as to what is that position, the French for example, calling 

— i6 — 

a viola an "alto", while we call it a "tenor", still however writing 
for it in the alto clef. Amongst the multitude of Brass Instru- 
ments {q. V.) this inconsistent nomenclature is especially confusing. 
Alto Clarinet. An instrument of the same compass as the ordi- 
nary clarinet, but sounding a 5th or 6th lower according 
as to whether it is in F or E'7. 
Alto clef. The C clef on the 3rd line. 
Alto Sarrusophone. A member of the sarrusophone {q. v.) 

family, but practically never employed. 
Alto Saxophone, (in £[? or F.) In many respects the most 
satisfactory member of the saxophone {q. v.) family, and 
the one usually employed for solos in the symphonic orchestra 
into which it has been introduced by many French composers 
(Bizet, Charpentier, Massenet, etc.). 
Alto-tenor Clarinet. Same as alto clarinet. 

Alto Trombone. Often called the "Trombone in E[7" (its funda- 
mental note), and now seldom found in the orchestra, v. Trom- 
Alto (Fr.). adj. Alto. subs. The viola in the symphonic orchestra; 

the saxhorn-alto en mi \? in the military band. 
Alto, -ta (It.) adj. High. (The instruments specified as "alto" in 
Eng. and Fr., and Alt in Ger., are called "contralto" in It.) 
subs. The alto voice, 
Altri (It.). Plur. of altro; the others, the rest. 

Altro, -a (It.). Other, different, another. Una meta legato e I'altra 
meta pizz., one half legato and the other half pizzicato. 
Altra gran cassa. Another bass drum. 
Altro lampo. Another flash of lightning. 
Alzamente di mano. (It.). The raising of the hand. 
Alzando (It.). Raising. 

Alzando la mano. Raising the hand. 
Alzando la voce. Raising the voice. 
Am (Ger.). Compound of an, at, about, for, etc., and dem, dat. 
of der or das, the. 

Am Frosch. At the nut (of the bow). 
Am Griff brett. On the fingerboard (of the vioUn, etc.). 
Am Steg(e). Near the bridge (of the violin, etc.). 
Amabile (It.). Sweet, agreeable, amiable. 
Amarezza (It.). Bitterness, grief. 
Amatore (It.). Amateur. 
AmboB (Ger.). An anvil. 

. 18 AmboB hinter der Scene. 18 anvils behind the scenes. 
Ame (Fr.). Soul, feeling, emotion. In violins, etc., the sound-post. 
Amerement (Fr.). Bitterly. 

American organ. A key-board wind-instrument with free reeds, 
which are smaller and more curved than those in an harmonium ; 
it also differs from this latter in that the wind is sucked inwards, 
instead of being forced outwards. It is provided with stops imi- 
tating those of the organ, another manual and pedals being occasion- 
ally added. 
Amore (It.). Love. 
Amorevple (It.). Tender, soft, with love. 

— 17 — 

Amorevolmente (It.). Tenderly, lovingly. 

Amoroso (It,). Loving, amorous. 

Amoureusement (Fr.). Lovingly, tenderly. 

Amusement (Fr.). Amusement, pastime. A short composition of 

a pleasing nature. 
An (Ger.). At, against, from, in, to. 

An der groBen Trommel befestigt. Attached to the bass drum. 

An der Spitze. At the point (of the bow). 

An jedem Pulte nur die ersten Spieler. At every desk, only the 

first players. 
An jedem der 3 letzten Pulte. At each of the 3 last desks. 
Anblasen (Ger.). To blow upon, to sound. Stark anblasen (to 
blow strongly) is used for brass instruments as the equivalent 
of the Fr. cuivrer {q. v.). 

Anblasen ein Horn. To sound (or wind) a horn. 
Anche (Fr.). A reed. Instruments a anche, reed instruments; jeux 
d anches, reed stops, reed-work. 

Anche battante. A beating or striking reed. 
Anche double. A double reed (oboe, bassoon). 
Anche libre. A free reed. 
Anche simple. A single reed (clarinet). 
Anches de 8 et 4 P. (pieds). Reeds, 8ft and 4ft. 
Anche (It.). Also, too, likewise. 

Ancia(It.). A reed. (The Reed work of an organ is called cawwe a /m^wa.) 
Ancia battente. A beating or striking reed. 
Ancia libera. A free reed. 
Ancia per clarinetto. A clarinet reed. 
Ancora (It.). Yet, still, again. 

Ancora piu mosso. Again with more animation. 
Andacht (Ger.). Devotion, religious meditation. 
Andachtig, or mit Andacht (Ger.). Piously, devotionally. 
Andamento (It.). Literally "mode of walking, proceeding", (i) A fugue 
subject of considerable dimensions. (2) An episode of a fugue. 
(3) In the sense of the movement (tempo) of a piece, as un anda- 
mento rapido, a fast movement. 
Andante (It.). From andare, to go, walk, proceed leisurely. It 
implies a slow tempo, but not so slow as adagio. The word is also 
used as a subs., as "an Andante" of Haydn, and has been incor- 
porated into most languages. 

Andante affettuoso. Slow and with tender emotion. 

Andante cantabile. Slow and singingly. 

Andante espressivo. Slow and with expression. 

Andante grazioso. Slow and with grace. 

Andante ma non troppo. Slow, but not too much so. 

Andante maestoso. Slow and with dignity. 

Andante mesto. Slow and with sadness. 

Andante moderato. Moderately slow. 

Andante molto. Very slow. 

Andante mosso. Slow, but with animation. 

Andante poco piii lento della la volta. Somewhat slower than 

the ist time. 
Andante quasi adagio. Slow, almost adagio. 

Wotton, Dictionary. 2 

— i8 — 

Andante tranquillo. Slow and peaceful. 
Andante un poco lento. Somewhat slow. 
Andantemente (It.). Fluently, without interruption. 
Andantino (It.). A tempo, strictly speaking, faster than andante, 
although employed by some composers to indicate a slower move- 

Andantino con moto. Somewhat slow, but with animation. 
Andantino espressivo. Somewhat slow, and with expression. 
Andantino ma non troppo. Somewhat slow, but not too slow. 
Andantino mosso. Somewhat slow, but with animation. 
Andantino quasi allegretto. Almost as fast as allegretto. 
Andantino quasi andante. Almost as slow as andante. 
Andantino sostenuto e semplicemente. Somewhat slow, sustained 
and with simplicity. 
Ander (Ger.). Other, another. Used as a subs., as Die Anderen, 
the others. 

Die andere Halfte. The other half. 
And^o. Abbr. of andantino. 
Andte. Abbr. of andante. 
Anello (It.). A ring (on a wood-wind instrument); a thumb-ring 

for playing the zither, plur. both anelli and anella. 
Anfang (Ger.). The beginning, commencement. A Is zu Anfang, 

as at the commencement. Tempo imo. 
Anfangs (Ger.). In the beginning, at the commencement. 

Anfangs noch sehr ruhig. At the commencement, very tran- 
Anfangstempo. The initial (original) tempo. 
Angeben (Ger.). To state, to give. Falsch angeben, to give a wrong 

Angeben den Takt. To give the time. 
Angeben den Ton. To give the pitch. 
Angemessen (Ger.). Suitable, agreeing with. 
Angenehm (Ger.). Agreeable, pleasing. 
Anglais, -aise (Fr.). English. Anglaise, a contredanse, a name given 

by the French to the English Country Dance, Ballad or Hornpipe. 
Angoscia (It.). Pain, grief. 
Angosciosamente (It.). Painfully, with grief. 
Angoscioso (It.). Sorrowful, anxious, grieved. 
Angstlich, Aengstlich (Ger.). Anxious, restless, troubled. 
Anhalten (Ger.). To hold, sustain. 

Anhaltend (Ger.). Holding, sustaining, sostenuto. Arresting, check- 
ing the speed. Einen Ton anhaltend, sustaining a note. 
Anhaltende Kadenz. Organ point, pedal note. 
Anhang (Ger.). Appendix; coda. 
Anima (It.). Soul, mind, imagination. The sound-post of a violin, 

etc. Canne d'anima, the flue-pipes of an organ. 
Animando (It.). Animating (the movement), becoming quicker. 

ASiSfU";'' I Animated, lively, spirited. 
Animez (Fr.). Quicken (the tempo). 

Animez peu k peu. Quicken little by little. 
Animo. Abbr. of animando. 

— 19 — 

Animo (It.). Heart, courage, energy. 

Animoso (It.). Bold, spirited. 

Anlage (Ger.). (i) Design, plan (of a composition). (2) Talent, 

Anleitung (Ger.). Instruction, guidance. 

Anmut(h) (Ger.). Agreeableness, gracefulness, suavity. 

Anmut(h)ig (Ger.). Agreeable, charming, grazioso. 

Annulaire (Fr.). The third finger. 

AnreiBen (Ger.). To tear. Die Saiten stark anreifien, the strings 
strongly torn, i. e. a pizzicato with great energy, cf. Arrache. 

Ansatz (Ger.). (i) The cup-shaped mouthpiece of brass instru- 
ments. (2) The position of the vocal organs in singing, or the 
position of the player's lips, etc., in wind-instrument playing. 
(3) The tuning slide in wind instruments. 

Anschlag (Ger.). (i) A form of turn, now obsolete. (2) Touch 
on a keyboard instrument. Das Klavier hat einen guten Anschlag, 
the piano has a good touch; der Spieler hat einen harten Anschlag, 
the performer has a harsh touch. 

Anschlagen (Ger.). To strike, sound, touch. Einen andern Ton 
anschlagen, to sound another tone, i. e. to change the key; den 
Ton anschlagen, to give the pitch (key-note). 

Anschlager (Ger.). The hammer in a piano. 

Anschmiegend (Ger.). Insinuating, compliant, yielding. 

Anschwellen (Ger.). A crescendo, a swelling on a note. In gleicher 
Starke, ohne A nschwellen, of uniform strength, without a crescendo. 

Ansia (It.). Anxiety. 

Ansprache (Ger.). Sound, intonation, tone, speech (of an organ 

Anspruchslos (Ger.). Unpretending, modest. 

Anstatt (Ger.). Instead of, in place of. 

Anstimmen (Ger.). To tune, to begin to sing, to lead (the choir). 
Die Geige anstimmen, to tune the violin; einen andern Ton anstim- 
men, to change to another key. 

Anstrich (Ger.). A bow-stroke. 

Antico, -a (It.). Ancient. 

Antienne (Fr.). Anthem, but not exactly in the Eng. sense of the 
word. Originally an antiphon, i. e. something sung by two choirs 
alternately, it now means a short vocal piece set to words from 
the Bible, or a short instrumental one, suitable for certain portions 
of the Mass or Vespers. 

Antifona (It.). An antiphon; an anthem, v. Antienne. 

Antiphonie (Fr.). Singing antiphonally ; two parts of the choir singing 

Antropoglossa (It.), v. Vox humana. 

Antwort (Ger.). Answer; the answer in a fugue. 

Anvil. The anvil has been introduced into several operas: Benvenuto 
Cellini (Berlioz), // Trovatore, Die Kdnigin von Saba (Goldmark), 
Das Rheingold, etc., and is occasionally directed to be tuned to 
a particular note. 

Anwachsend (Ger.). Increasing, swelling, crescendo. 

Aolsharfe, Aeolsharfe (Ger.). The ^olian harp. 

Aperto (It.). Open. Le note aperte, the open notes on a brass instru- 

— 20 — 

ment; le canne aperte, the open pipes of an organ. An open string 

is corda vuota. 
Appassionamente (It.). Passionately, ardently. 
Appassionamento (It.). Ardour, passion, love. 
Appassionato (It.). Passionate. 

Appassionato e molto sentiment©. Passionately and with much 
Appel d'anches (Fr.). A mechanism on some modern organs, by means 

of which certain powerful reed stops already drawn can be brought 

into play by pressing a pedal; by raising it, the stops again 

become mute. 
Appell (Ger.). A trumpet or drum call, a rappel. 
Appenato (It.). Afflicted, distressed 
Applikatur (Ger.). Fingering. 
Appoggiando (It.). "Leaning against"; laying stress upon. The term 

is also used for syncopated notes, and notes which are to be sung 

or played with portamento. 
Appoggiato (It.). "Leant against"; accented, v. Appoggiando. 
Appoggiatura (It.). A grace note, which may be either long or 

short: in the first case, it is in the nature of an auxiliary note, 

and occupies and subtracts from the principal note half its value; 

in the second case, it is usually written with a line through it, 
t^ and corresponds to the modern use of the term acciaccatura 

(q. v.). 

Appoggiatura doppia. A double appoggiatura. 

Apprestare (It.). j^ prepare, to tune an instrument. 

Appreti(e)ren (Ger.). \ f r » 

Apres la parole (Fr.). "After the word". A direction signifying 

that though the accompaniment (as written) enters on the note 

with which the voice part concludes, it is to be deferred until the 

voice has sung that note. 
Aqual, Aequal (Ger.). 8ft, as applied to organ stops. '\ 

Aqualprinzipal. 8ft open diapason. ^-' - ' ^ 

Arbitrario, arbitrate, arbitrio (It.). At the will (pleasure) of the 

Areata (It.). Bowing, in the sense of the Fr. coup d'archet (Ger. 

Strichart), the particular manner in which a passage is to be bowed. 
Areata in giu. Bowing with a down-stroke. 
Areata in su. Bowing with an up-stroke. 
Archeggiamento (It.). Bowing, in the general sense of the art of 

Archeggiare (It.). To bow. 
Archet (Fr.). The bow of a violin, etc. 

L'archet bien a la corde. The bow (lying) well on the string, 
i. e. legato. 
Archi (It.). Plur. of arco. 
Arco (It.). A bow. 

Ardemment (Fr.). Fervently, intensely. 
Ardente (It.). Ardent, fiery, amorous. 
Arditamente (It.). Boldly, daringly. 
Ardito (It.). Bold, daring, hardy. 
Ardore (It.). Ardour, warmth, fervour. . 

— 21 — 

Aria (It.). Air, song. Specifically, a piece for a solo voice with 
orchestral accompaniment, of a more or less set form, and which 
might figure in an opera or oratorio, or simply be a separate com- 
position for concert room use. It usually consists of three parts, 
the last being a repetition of the first. 

Aria concertata. An aria with orchestral accompaniment. 
Aria di bravura. An aria of a florid nature. 
Aria di cantabile. An aria of a melodious flowing character. 
Aria parlante. An aria of a declamatory nature. 
Arie (Ger.). Aria. 
Arietta (It.). ) 

Arietta (Fr.). \ A short or diminutive aria. 
Ariettina (It.). ) 
Armenia (It.). Harmony. Also used in the sense of the Fr. Har- 

monie, a military orchestra. 
Armonica (It.), (i) An harmonic. (2) The harmonica. 
Armonico, -a (It.). Harmonic, musical. 
Armoniosamente (It.). Harmoniously. 
Armonioso (It.). Harmonious, melodious. 
Armonium (It.). The harmonium. 

Armure (Fr.). The number of flats or sharps in the signature. 
Arpa (It,). The harp. 
Arpege (Fr.). Arpeggio. 

Arpegement. Played as an arpeggio. 

ArpelgLrMIt.). i ^"^ arpeggio, to play an arpeggio. 

Arpeggiato (It.). Played as an arpeggio. 

Arpeggio (It.). The sounding of the notes of a chord in regular 
succession, such as is common in music for the harp (arpa). The 
word is now angUcised, and often used both as subs, and verb. 

Arpo. Abbr. of arpeggio. 

Arrache (Fr.). Literally "torn"; an intensified form of pizzicato. 

Arranger (Fr.). j ^ arrantre to score 

Arrangieren (Ger.). ( ^^ arrange, to score. 

Arsis (Gk.). The up-stroke in beating time. 
Arte (It.). Art. 

Articolare (It.). To articulate, to pronounce. 
Articolato (It.). Articulated, distinctly pronounced. 
Articolazione (It.). Articulation. 
Articuler (Fr.). To articulate. 
Artificial Harmonics, v. Harmonics. 

Artig (Ger. ). ( i ) Gentle, pleasing. (2) Like, similar ; in this sense often 
used as a suffix, as Balladenartig, like (in the style of) a ballad. 
Artigkeit (Ger.). Gracefulness, pleasantness. 
Artikulieren (Ger.). To articulate. 
As (Ger.). Ai?,^ A-flat. 
As dur. Ai? major. 
As moll. Ai? minor. 
Asas (Ger.). A^j?, A-double-flat. 
Ascending piston, v. Valve. 
Aspramente (It.). Harshly. 
Asprezza (It.). Harshness, asperity. 

— 22 — 

Ass* voce. Abbr. of a sola voce. 

Assai (It.). Now usually meaning "very". Formerly synonymous 

with the Fr. assez. 
Assemblage (Fr.). Double-tonguing or other rapid passages on a 

Assez (Fr.). Enough, rather, tolerably, somewhat. 

Assez anime. Somewhat animated. 

Assez lent. Rather slow. 

Assez marque. Somewhat accentuated. 

Assez retenu. Somewhat slackened. 

Assez vif. Tolerably lively. 

Assez vite. Moderately fast. 
Assieme (It.). Together, in company with, the Fr. ensemble. Pezzo 

d'assieme, a piece for several instruments or voices. 
Assoluto, -a (It.). Absolute: free, not tied or slurred. Prima donna 

assoluta, the supreme leading lady, the "star" (female) singer. 
Astuccio (It.). Case for a musical instrument. 
At(h)em (Ger.). Breath. 

Atem holen. To take breath. 
Attacca (It.). Attack, proceed to the next piece or movement without 
a break. 

Attacca subito il seguente. Immediately proceed to the following. 
Attaccare (It.). To attack, to join, unite. 
Attacco (It.), (i) A short phrase, used either as the subject of a fugue» 

or for imitation. (2) Attack (subs.), v. Attack. 
Attack. The precise and vigorous entry of voices or instruments. 
Attaque (Fr.). Attack. Chef d'attaque, the leader of the orchestra. 

Chaque attaque assez en dehors. Every attack somewhat pro- 
Atto (It.). Act. 
Attore (It.). Actor. 
Attrice (It.). Actress. 
Au (Fr.). Compound of d, to, at, with, etc., and le, the (masc). 

Au dessous. Below. 

Au dessus. Above. 

Au mouvement. In the movement (tempo). 
Aubade (Fr.). Morning music; the antithesis of serenade. 
Auch (Ger.). Also, so, but. 

Auch in 2feitmaB. But in time. 
Audace (It.). Audacious, bold, rash. 
Auf (Ger.). On, upon, at, near to. 

Auf das Holz der grofien Trommel geschlagen. Struck on the 
wood (hoop) of the bass drum. 

Auf dem Griffbrett. On the fingerboard. 

Auf dem Stege. On the bridge. 

Auf dem Theater. On the stage. 

Auf der G(Saite). On the G(string). 

Auf der Mitte der Saite. At the middle of the string. 

Auf der Mitte des Bogens. In the middle of the bow. 

Auf einer Saite. On one string. 

Auf einer Seite. At one end (of a drum). 
Auffassung (Ger.). Interpretation of a work; reading. 

— 23 — 

Auffiihrung (Ger.). Performance. 

Auffiihrungsrecht vorbehalten. Performing rights reserved. 
Aufgeregt (Ger.). Agitated, restless. 
Aufgeweckt (Ger.). Brisk, gay, lively. 
Aufhalt, Aufhaltung (Ger.). Suspension. 
Auflage (Ger.). Edition, impression. 
Auflosen (Ger.). To resolve. Eine Dissonanz auflosen, to resolve 

a dissonance. In harp music, to restore a string to its original 

pitch, b in h auflosen, restore B7 to Bi;|. 
Auflosung ( Ger. ). Resolution. Restoration of a note to its original pitch. 
Auflosungszeichen. Restoration signs, i. e. iSs, hs, and ts, in- 
troduced to contradict previous accidentals. 
Aufsatz (Ger.). (i) An "ear" or "beard" of an organ pipe. (2) The 

stopping the string of a violin, etc., with a finger. 

Aufsatzbogen. The ordinary crook for horns, etc., placed at 
the mouthpiece end of the instrument, as opposed to an 
Einsatzbogen, which is fixed in the middle of the instrument. 
Aufschlag (Ger.). The up-beat, arsis. 
Aufschlagende Zunge (Ger.). A striking or beating reed. 
Aufschnitt (Ger.). A cut. 
Aufschreiend (Ger.). Screaming, screeching. 
Aufsetzen (Ger.). To stop a string on a vioUn, etc. 
Aufstrich (Ger.). The up-bow in violin playing. 
Auftakt (Ger.). v. Aufschlag. 
Auftretend (G^r.). Entering. 
Aufzeichnung (Grer.). Notation. 
Auf Ziehen (Ger.). (i) To string a violin, etc. (2) To draw up (the 

curtain at a theatre). 
Aufzug (Ger.). An act of a play or opera; procession, pageant, and 

hence the music accompanying such pageant. 
Augmente (Fr.). Augmented. Une quinte augmentee, an augmented 

Aumentando (It.). Augmenting. 
Aumentato (It.). Augmented. 
Aus (Ger.). Out of, from, by, for, in. 
Ausarbeitung (Ger.). Elaboration. 
Ausbilden (Ger.). To cultivate, develop. Die Stimme ausbilden, 

to develop the voice. 
Ausdehnung (Ger.). Extension (of the fingers); compass. 
Ausdruck (Ger.). Expression. 

Ausdrucksvoll. Full of expression, expressive. 
Ausfiihrung (Ger.). Development (of a theme). Performance, 

Ausfiillgeiger (Ger.), A ripieno violin-player. 
Ausgehalten (Ger.). Sustained. 
Ausgelassen (Ger.). Left out, omitted. 
Aushalten (Ger.). To sustain. Eine Note aushalten, to dwell on, 

to sustain a note. 
Aushaltung (Ger.). A sustaining, lengthening. 

Aushaltungszeichen. A pause. 
Auslassen (Ger.). To leave out, omit. 
Ausschlagen (Ger.). To beat. Achtel ausschlagen, teat quavers. 

— 24 — 

Ausser, AuBer (Ger.). Out of; beside; outside. 

AuBer sich. Beside himself (or herself). 
AuBer (Ger.). Outward, exterior. 

AuBere Stimmen. Extreme parts. 
AuBerhalb (Ger.). Outside, without. 

AuBerhalb des Orchesters. Outside the orchestra. 
Ausserst, AuBerst (Ger.). Extremely. 

AuBerst rasch. Extremely fast. 

AuBerst ruhig. Extremely tranquil. 
Aussi (Fr.). Likewise, also, too. Aussi. . . . que, as .... as. 

Aussi calme que possible. As quiet as possible. 

Aussi p. que possible. As p. as possible. 

Aussi tendre que possible. As tenderly as possible. 
Autres (Fr.). Others. 

Avanti, avante (It.). Before, forward; preceding. 
Avec (Fr.). With. 

Avec abandon. With unconstraint. 

Avec ampleur. With breadth. 

Avec emotion. With emotion. » 

Avec entrain. With high spirits, with enthusiasm. 

Avec la corde lache {or relachee). With the corde du timbre {i. e. 
the snare) slackened, v. Muffled. 

Avec les autres. With the others. 

Avec plus d'accent. With a stronger accent. 

Avec plus de mouvement. With more movement, i. e. faster. 

Avec (les) sourdines, avec la sourdine. With (the) mutes, with 
the mute. 

Avec un accent cuivre. With a brassy tone. v. Cuivre. 

Avec un grand sentiment recueilli et soutenu. With a deep and 
sustained emotion. 

Avec un peu plus de mouvement. Somewhat faster. 

Avec un sentiment de calme et de fraicheur. With a feeling of 
tranquillity and freshness. 

Avec une grande tendresse. With great tenderness. 

Avec vigueur. Vigorously. 
Azione sacra (It.). A sacred drama (opera). 


B. The 7th note of the normal scale of C major, and the leading 
note of that key. In German it is called H, B being the English B[7 ; 
in French and Italian, it is called si. 

B. Abbr. of bass, and occasionally of bassoon. 
Bb Bass. The bass saxhorn in Bl?. 
BBb Bass. The contrabass saxhorn in Bj?. 
B. C. or b. c. Abbr. of basso continuo. 
B. CI. Abbr. of bass clarinet. 
B. T. Abbr. of bass tuba, or bass trombone. 
B. (Ger.). B flat, Bi?. 

B or Be (plur. Been). The flat sign (b). Die Be-Tonarten, the 

flat keys. 
Bb- Same as Bbb in English. 

— 25 — 

B dur. Bb major. 
B.Kl. Abbr. of BafiklarineUe. 
B moll. B[7 minor. 
B.P. Abbr. of Bafiposaune. 
Baccanale (It.). jA festival in honour of Bacchus, which often de- 
Bacchanale (Fr.). (generated into a drunken orgy. A term some- 
times used for movements (principally in ballets) of a wild orgy- 
like nature. 
Bacchetta (It.). A drumstick for a kettledrum, a snare-drum, or 
a tenor-drum; also a conductor's baton, plur. bacchette. 
Bacchette di legno. Wooden drumsticks. 

Bacchette di spugna. Sponge -headed drumsticks (for kettle- 
Bach Trumpet. A trumpet constructed for the production of the 
high notes found in Bach's scores, usually of the same length and 
pitch as a cornet in A. It therefore employs a lower series of 
harmonics than the natural trumpet: e. g., the note a" (actual 
sound) is the 12th harmonic on the trumpet in D, and the 8th 
harmonic on the Bach trumpet in A. It is provided with valves, 
and is extended like a coach-horn — more for the sake of im- 
pressing the eye than for any musical reason. The trumpet of 
Bach's time was • an entirely different instrument. 
Back. That part of a stringed instrument opposed to the belly. 
Badinage (Fr.). Playfulness, trifling: a term applied to pieces of 

an impromptu character, and of a light playful nature. 
Bagatelle (Fr.). A trifle, cf. Badinage. 

Bagpipe, or Bagpipes. An instrument of ancient origin. It consists 
of, (i) a leathern bag, serving as a wind-chest (the wind being 
blown into it by the player, who then squeezes it under his left 
arm); (2) a chanter, on which the melody is played; (3) one or 
more drones, tuned in 5ths and octaves {v. Chanter and Drone). 
In the Irish bagpipes, the leathern bag is inflated, not by the 
player's breath, but by an ordinary pair of bellows, carried under 
his other arm. 
Baguette (Fr.). A drumstick for a kettledrum, a snare -drum or a 
tenor-drum; also a conductor's baton. 

Baguettes d'eponge. Sponge-headed drumsticks (for kettledrums). 
Baguettes de bois. Wooden drumsticks. 
Baguettes dures. Hard drumsticks. 
Baguettes ordinaires. The ordinary drumsticks. 
Baisser (Fr.). To lower. 

Baissez le rideau. Lower the curtain. 

Baissez vite le mij? en reb. Lower the EJ? quickly to Dj?. 
Bajo (Sp.). Bass. 

Balalaika. A species of Russian guitar, with a triangular body, and 
a neck of about the same length. It has three strings, which are 
tuned in various keys, two being tuned to the tonic of the key 
and one to the dominant. 
Balancement (Fr.). An effect obtained on bowed instruments by 
pressing a finger firmly on a string, and giving the finger a 
tremulous motion producing a species of vibrato. A similar effect 
was formerly obtained on the clavichord. It is called Bebung 

— 26 — _ 

in Ger., but there is no precise Eng. equivalent. Trds legerement 
martele dans un doux halancement, very lightly martele (q. v.) and 
with a gentle vibrato. 
Balg, Balge (Ger.). Bellows. 

Balgetreter. An organ-blower. Literally "a bellows-treader", 
the bellows of an organ being originally worked with the feet. 
Ballabile (It.). Suited to dancing. Coro hallabile, a chorus accom- 
panied by dancing. 
BaJlad Horn. A species of tenorhorn intended to imitate the tone- 
quality of a French horn, but with the facility of execution of a 
cornet or saxhorn. 
Ballade (Fr.). A ballad, in the Ger. sense. 

Ballade (Ger.). {Balladen- in combination.) A ballad but not in 
the modern Eng. sense, which usually implies a simple unpre- 
tentious song. In Ger., the term is applied to a composition 
partaking more of the nature of a dramatic scene. 
Balladenartig. In the style of a ballad. 
Balladendichter. A ballad maker. 
BalladenmaBig. In ballad style. 
Balladensanger. A ballad singer. 
Ballata (It.), (i) A song for dancing. (2) A ballad. 
Ballatella, Ballatetta, Ballatina (It.), v. Ballata. 
Ballerino, -a (It.). A dancer. 

Ballet (Fr.). A ballet, (i) An artistic dance with elaborate steps, 
figures and postures, performed by a number of persons. (2) A 
pantomimic dance. (3) The persons who dance the ballet. 

Ballet d'action. A pantomimic dance illustrative of a story, 
and often in 2 or 3 acts, as the Sylvia and Coppelia of Delibes. 
Ballet divertissement. A ballet consisting of a number of dif- 
ferent dances, but not illustrative of any particular story. 
Ballett (Ger.). A ballet. 

Balletttanzer. A ballet dancer (male). 
Balletttanzerin. A ballet dancer (female). 
Balletto (It.). A ballet. 
Ballo (It.). A dance, plur. Balli. 
Balli inglesi. English dances. 
Balli ongaresi. Hungarian dances. 
Ballonzare (It.). To dance without method; to skip about. 
Band. A collection of instrumental players, usually now-a-days 
implying a military band, "orchestra" being as a rule the term 
for a band playing symphonic music, v. Brass Band and Orchestra. 
Band (Ger.). A volume. 
Banda (It.). A band. As in Eng., usually implying a military band. 

cf. Armonia. 
Bande (Fr.). A band. 

Une bande de musique militaire. A military band. Unlike the 
Eng. and It. the "bande" is almost always omitted, and a 
military band is called une musique militaire, or more fre- 
quently une Harmonie {q. v.). 
Bander (Fr.). To brace a drum. 
Bandurria (Sp.). A species of mandoline. 
Banjo. A stringed instrument consisting of: — (i) a hoop, over which 

— 27 — 

parchment is stretched, acting as a sound-board; (2) a long neck 
serving as a finger-board. It has from 5 to 7 strings, which are 
plucked by the fingers of the right hand, "thimbles" being sometimes 
used to protect them. 
Bankelsanger (Ger.). A ballad-singer; an itinerant minstrel. 
Barcarola (It.). / A barcarole, a Venetian boatman's song, usually 
Barcarolle (Fr.) ( in Vs time. 

Barem (Ger.). A soft stopped organ pipe, usually of 8ft. 
Barenpfeife (Ger.). The bourdon. 
Baribasso (It.). A deep bass voice. 
Baritenore (It.). A deep tenor voice. 
Baritonalo (It.). Baritone-like. Strumenti bariionali, instruments 

possessing a baritone register. 
Baritone, Barytone. A male voice intermediate between a bass and 
a tenor, with a compass from A or B\f to f or g' (or even a' for 
solo voices). 

Baritone. In military bands, the name of the baritone saxhorn. 
Baritone clef. The F clef on the 3rd line, now obsolete. 
Baritone Oboe. Sometimes called the basset oboe; an instru- 
ment an octave lower than the ordinary oboe. cf. Hautbois 
baryton and Heckelphon. 
Baritone Sarrusophone. A member of the sarrusophone {q. v.) 

family and practically never employed. 
Baritone Saxhorn. An instrument of the saxhorn (q. v.) family. 
It stands in Bl7, and has an effective compass from about 
E to b'\; or c'\ Of lighter build and slenderer bore, it has 
less volume of tone than a bass saxhorn, or a euphonium, 
and lacks the low notes of these latter, although theoretically 
from its length of tube it should have the same compass. 
Baritone Saxophone. An instrument of the saxophone {q. v.) 
family, and although of use in the military band, seldom 
employed in the orchestra; it has however been used by 
Thomas (Hamlet and Frangoise de Rimini), and Massenet 
{Marche deSzahadi). Its usual key is E [7, but for orchestral pur- 
poses it is sometimes made in F (Strauss, Symphonia domestica). 
Its written compass is from h\f (modern instruments) to e'"^, 
a tone less than the alto saxophone. 
Barkarole (Ger,). A barcarole {q. v.). 

arocco ( .;. 1 odd, bizarre; mostly applied to the whimsical artistic 
^arocic C^er.j. . j ^ ^^ ,^ ^^ ^^^ centuries. 
Baroque (Fr.). ) ^ ' 

Barra (It.), j A bar-line. Also used for the low bridge of some stringed 
Barre (Fr.). (instruments of the lute class. 

Barre (d'harmonie). The bass-bar of a violin, etc. 
Barre de luth. The bridge of a lute. 

Barre de repetition. A double bar with dots, the sign of a repeat. 
Barre (Fr.). In guitar playing, the stopping of two or more strings 

by placing the index finger of the left hand across them. 
Baryton, bariton (Fr.). Baritone; the baritone voice; in military 

bands, the baritone saxhorn. 
Baryton, Bariton (Ger.). Baritone; the baritone voice; sometimes 
the baritone saxhorn or Euphonion (euphonium). 

— 28 — 

Barjrtonklarinette. A name occasionally found for the Alt- 

Barjrtonschlussel. The baritone clef. 
Bas, basse (Fr.). Low. 

Bas a re, sol. Low (i. e. lower) to D, G. 

Bas-dessus. The mezzo-soprano. 
Basflicorno (It.), v. Flicorno basso. 

Baskische Trommel (Ger.). The tambourine. In many Ger. scores, 
the name of the instrument is given as "Tambourin", a method 
of nomenclature which cannot but tend to confusion, since Tam- 
bourin {q. v.), the Fr. for the long drum used by Bizet in L'Ar- 
lesienne, is equally the Ger. name for this latter instrument. 
Bass. The lowest male voice, having a range from E to e', with a 
few semitones at each end for exceptional voices. In Russia are 
found basses trained to descend as low as A^"?. 

Bass. The violoncello; when used in the plur., the violoncellos 
and double-basses of the orchestra; in military bands, the 
bass saxhorn. 

Bass-bar. A strip of wood glued to the under side of the belly 
of the violin, etc., and placed under the bass or lowest string. 

Bass Clarinet. An instrument an octave below the ordinary 
clarinet, and thus possessing an actual compass from D to /", 
when in B[7, and a semitone lower, when in A: instruments 
in C are rarely found. It is either written in the treble clef, 
when, for the Bf? instrument, the actual sounds are a minor 
9th below; or, following the example of Wagner, in the bass 
clef (using the treble clef only for the highest register), when 
the sounds are only a tone lower. Originally introduced 
for special effects, and played by one of the ordinary clari- 
nettists, it may now be said to form a constituent part of 
the orchestra (especially the operatic one) and requires a 
separate performer. 

Bass clef. The F clef on the 4th line. 

Bass Drum. Sometimes called the "Big Drum", an instrument 
of percussion made in two forms : — ( i ) with two heads, for 
military purposes, with a diameter of from 28 to 32 inches; 
(2) with only one head (often called a "gong" or "tam- 
bourine" drum), which is useful in orchestras, where the 
two-headed drum would occupy too much space, and is con- 
sidered preferable by some authorities, if it be of very large 
diameter. Rolls are obtained on the bass drum either by 
a rapid movement of the ordinary drumstick, or by one having 
a knob at both ends, or (in modern scores) by kettle-drum- 
sticks. The instrument has been called a double drum {q. v.) 
by some writers, but this is evidently a confusion of nomen- 

Bass Flute. A flute going down to g, and but rarely used. Bass 
flutes are also made descending to B\f. cf. Altflote. 

Bass Horn. A keyed instrument played with a cup-shaped 
mouthpiece, a predecessor of the ophicleide and now obsolete, 
though used by Spohr and Mendelssohn. 

B21SS Saxhorn. An instrument used in military bands and often 

— 29 — 

taking the "tuba" part in the orchestra. Although of the 
same length as the baritone saxhorn, its larger bore, etc. 
renders the production of the low notes easier. It is in B|7, 
and has a compass from C to c", the highest notes being 
seldom employed. There is nothing to distinguish it from the 
euphonium, which is a member of the tuba {q. v.) family, 
and identical as regards compass, v. Saxhorn. 

Bass Trombone. The lowest of the trombone (q. v.) family- 
used by the classic masters, and made in 3 keys: — (i) in G, 
with a compass from Dl? to g-', it is only found in Great Britain, 
and is unsatisfactory since it does not give the low C found 
in Mozart, Beethoven, etc.; (2) in F (a 4th lower than the 
tenor trombone), extending from Bi to f ; (3) in £[7, with 
a compass a tone lower than the last. In France and Italy 
the bass trombone is seldom employed; Verdi uses it in Otello 
to form a bass to the 3 (tenor) trombones, instead of a tuba. 

Bass Trumpet. An instrument pitched an octave lower than 
the ordinary trumpet, in use in military (principally cavalry) 
bands in several countries. Wagner uses it in his Ring, and 
writes for it in E|7, D and C, and it has been employed by other 
modern composers. It is made in Ei? for military, and in C 
and B7 for orchestral purposes. 

Bass Tuba. v. Tuba. 

Bass Viol. A now almost obsolete term for the double-bass. 
Bass, BaB (Ger.). Bass. Used in combination with other words, 
and often written so as to form a single word. 

BaBblaser. A player on the bassoon. 

Bass-Clarinette. v. BaBklarinette. 

BaBfliigelhorn. The baritone saxhorn in Bj? 

BaBgeige. The double-bass. 

BaBklarinette. The bass clarinet. 

BaBnote. A bass note. 

BaBophikleid. The bass ophicleide. 

BaBposaune. The bass trombone. 

BaBsaite. The bass or lowest string of a stringed instrument. 

BaBsanger. A bass singer. 

BaBschlussel. The bass clef. 

BaBstimme. A bass voice. 

BaBtrompete. The bass trumpet. 

BaBtuba. The bass tuba. 

BaBzeichen. The bass clef. 
Bass. con. Abbr. of basso continuo. 

Bassa (It.). Fem. of basso, bass, low. Ottava bassa, an octave lower, 
Basse (Fr.). Bass. The violoncello; the bass saxhorn. 

Basse chantante. A high bass voice of a flexible character. 

Basse chiffree. Figured bass. 

Basse continue, v. Basso continuo. 

Basse contrainte. Ground bass. 

Basse-centre. / » ■, , 

Basse de Juif. ^ ^^^P ^^^ ™^®- 

Basse d' Harmonic. A name formerly given to the ophicleide. 

Basse fondamentale. Fundamental bass. 

— 30 — 

Basse obstinee. v. Basso ostinato. 
Basse recitante. A solo bass. 
Basse tuba. The bass tuba. 
Basset Horn. An alto clarinet, but with 4 extra keys, which enable 
it to descend to c {F, actual sound). Its name is derived from 
bassetto (a diminutive of basso), and "Horn", the name of the 
inventor, whose patronymic has been rendered literally into Fr. 
and It. as Cor and Corno. Although a favorite instrument of Mozart, 
it is now seldom used, its place being taken by the alto clarinet, 
which descends only to e (written note); and it is to be noted 
that some basset horns did not possess keys for producing the 
low cjlf and e^. The low notes were often written in the bass clef, 
in which case, as with the French horn, they were written an 
octave lower than their proper notation. 
Basset Oboe, v. Baritone oboe. 
Bassi (It.). Masc. plur. of Basso. 

Bassin (Fr.). Basin ; the cup-shaped mouthpiece of brass instruments. 
Basso, -a (It.). Low; bass. A bass singer. 
Basso basso. A very deep bass. 
Basso buffo. A bass singer taking comic parts. 
Basso cantante. A "singing" bass, i. e. one of a hghter character, 

as opposed to the basso profondo. 
Basso cifrato. Figured bass. 
Basso continuo. A bass part, which may be figured or not, 

for the piano, harpsichord or organ. 
Basso costretto. Ground bass. 
Basso figurato j p. ^ ^ 
Basso numerate. ( ^^e" ^^ 
Basso ostinato. A persistent figure occurring in the bass; a 

ground bass. 
Basso profondo. A deep bass voice. 
Basso ripieno. A bass used only in tutti passages. 
Basson (Fr.). The bassoon. 

Basson quinte. The tenor bassoon, — an instrument a 5th higher 
than the ordinary bassoon. Widor uses the term for an 
imaginary bassoon, which should descend a fifth lower: this 
would resemble the obsolete Ger. Quartfagott {q. v.). 
Basson russe. A species of serpent, now obsolete. 
Bassone (It.). A name for the fagotto, bassoon. 
Bassoon. A bass instrument played with a double reed, with a 
compass of 3 octaves from Bil?. The low A^, used by Wagner, 
Raff, etc., is obtained by temporarily fixing on another lower 
joint to the instrument. As in France all the leading orchestras 
possess 4 bassoons, many Fr. composers write 4 parts for the 
instruments; in modern Ger. scores, the usual number is three. 
Bastante (It.). Sufficient, enough. 
Bastoncino (It.). A conductor's baton. 
Baton (Fr.). A stick used for conducting. 

Batons ronds. A method of executing a roll on the snare-drum 
with the drumsticks held in the manner of kettledrum-sticks, 
i. e. with the backs of the hands uppermost in both hands, 
and without a double (repercussive) stroke. 

— 31 — 

Batte (Fr.). The beater or stick for a bass drum, a triangle, or a gong. 

cf. Mailloche and Tampon. 
Battement (Fr.). Beating, throbbing. Formerly used for a species 

of mordent. 
Battente (It.). A beater, cf. Batte. 

Battente a due pomi. A bass-drumstick with two heads. 
Battere (It.). To beat. 

Battere il tempo, j^ ^ . 

Battere la misura. ( 
Batterhead. That end of a snare or tenor drum, on which the per- 
former strikes. 
Batterie (Fr.). (i) The instruments of percussion, usually not in- 
cluding the kettledrums. (2) The rapid alternation of 2 notes, not 
only those a tone or semitone apart (shake), but with a greater 
interval between them. (3) The beating of a snare-drum; a drum 
Battez (Fr.). From hattre, to beat. 

Battez a 2 temps. Beat 2 to the bar. 
Battez a Vs. Beat in Vs time. 
Battimento (It.), v. Battement. 

Battitore di musica (It.). A beater of time; a conductor. 
Battre (Fr.). To beat. Battre le tambour, beat the snare-drum; but 

blouser les timhales (kettledrums). 
Battuta (It.), (i) A beat. (2) A bar. 

Batyphone. A species of double-bass clarinet, standing a 5th lower 
than the bass clarinet. It was employed for some little time in 
military bands, but without much success. 
Bau (Ger.). Build, make (of a musical instrument). 
Bauer (Ger.). A peasant, countryman. 

Bauerlied. A rustic song. 
Baxoncello (Sp.). The open diapason. 
Be (Ger.). The flat sign (b). 
Bearbeitet (Ger.). Adapted, arranged. 
Bearbeitung (Ger.). Arrangement, adaptation. 
Beating reed. v. Reed. 

Beaucoup (Fr.). Much, many, a great deal. En elargissant beaucoup, 
broadening a great deal. 

Beaucoup d'archet. Much (i. e. many changes of) bow. 
Beaucoup de son. Much tone; sonorous. 
Bebend (Ger.). Trembling, tremolando. 
Bebung (Ger.). v. Balancement. 

Bee (Fr.). A beak; the mouthpiece of a clarinet, or saxophone. 
Becarre (Fr.). The natural sign (IJ). 
Becco (It.). V. Bee. 

Becken (Ger.). Cymbals. A single cymbal is called a Schale, or a 

Becken gewohnlich. Cymbals played in the ordinary manner. 
Becken mit Holzschlagel. Cymbals played with a wooden beater. 
Becken nach militarischer Art an der groBen Trommel befestigt. 

Cymbals fastened to the bass drum in military fashion. 
Beckenschlager. A cymbal-player. 
Bedachtig (Ger.). DeUberate, thoughtful. 

— 32 — 

Bedeckt (Ger.). Covered. 

Bedeckte Saiten. Covered (stopped) strings, as opposed to here 
Saiten, open strings on a violin, etc. 
Bedeutend (Ger.). Significant, important, considerable. 

Bedeutend langsamer. Considerably slower. 
Bedeutet (Ger.). From bedeuten, to signify. 
/ Bedeutet stets starkes portamento. / Signifies always a strong 
Bedeutungsvoll (Ger.). Full of significance, important. 
Bedon (Fr.). An old name for a species of drum something like a 
Tambourin {q. v.). 

Bedon de Biscaye. A form of tambourine. 
Bedrohlich (Ger.). Menacing, threatening. 
Befestigt (Ger.). Fixed, fastened. 

Beffroi (Fr.). A belfry. A name formerly given to the Tam-tam. 
Begeisterung (Ger.). Exaltation, animation, rapture, enthusiasm. 
Begleiten (Ger.). To accompany. 
Begleitend (Ger.). Accompanying. 

Begleitende Stimmen. Accompanying parts. 
Begleiter (Ger.). An accompanist. 
Begleitung (Ger.). Accompaniment. Ohne Begleitung, without 

Behaglich (Ger.). Easy, agreeable. 

^^IJ^"^!^) (?^^:)- j Agile, nimble, dexterous. 
Behendig (Ger.). ( ^ 

Behendigkeit (Ger.). Nimbleness, dexterity. 
Beherzt (Ger.). Resolute, determined. 
Beide (Ger.). Both. 

Beide Pedale. Both pedals. 

Beide Schalen. Both cymbals, i. e. clashing them in the ordi- 
nary way after one has been struck by a drumstick, etc. 
Beinah(e) (Ger.). Nearly, almost. 

Beinah doppelt so langsam. Almost double as slow. 
Beinah doppelt so rasch. Almost double as fast. 
Beispiel (Ger.). Example. 
Beifier (Ger.). A mordent. 
Beizeichen (Ger.). An accidental. 
Bel bello (It.). Softly, gently. 
Belebend (Ger.). Becoming animated. 
Belebt (Ger.). Animated. Belebter, more animated. 
Belebt, nicht zu rasch. Animated, not too fast. 
Belieben (Ger.). Pleasure, will. Nach Belieben, ad libitum. 
Beliebig (Ger.). Optional. Mit beliebig starker Besetzung, with 

the parts strengthened ad libitum. 
Beliebt (Ger.). Loved, popular. 

Bell, (i) A hollow metallic percussion instrument varying in shape 
and size from a sleigh-bell to the great bell of Moscow (yet unhung) 
weighing about 200 tons. The deep bells written for by composers 
are never by any chance heard in the octave written, on account 
of the practical difficulty of procuring bells weighing several tons. 
The effect of these low notes is produced in various ways : — a piano 
wire in a long wooden box, hollowed discs of bronze, tubes of 

— 33 — 

metal, etc. Sets of small bells {Carillon or Glockenspiel) were used 
by Handel and Mozart, but now-a-days the bells are replaced 
by bars of steel or tuning-forks. Sleigh-bells {q. v.) are occasionally 
used for picturesque effects. 

(2) The end of a wind-instrument opposed to the mouthpiece. 
The directions in modern scores as to the upturning of the bells 
for the purpose of producing a greater volume of tone, are not 
always well considered, since in many instances (more particularly 
with the horn) it is impossible to play in tune under such conditions. 
Bell diapason. An open metal organ pipe with a bell mouth, 

of a reedy character, and generally of 8 ft pitch. 
Bell gamba. An organ stop of a sweet somewhat reedy nature. 
Bell metronome. A metronome {q. v.) so constructed that a 
bell is struck at the commencement of every bar. 
Bellezza (It.). Beauty. 

Bellicosamente (It.). In a warlike manner, bravely. 
Bellicoso, -a (It.). Martial, warlike. 
Belle, -a (It.). Beautiful, agreeable. 

Belly. The portion of the violin, etc. on which the strings are 
stretched. In a harp, the soundboard into which the lower ends of 
the strings are fixed. In the piano, the soundboard. 
Belustigend (Ger.). Rejoicing, gay, joyful. 
Bemol (Fr.). The flat sign (7). La bemol, A-flat, A^, 
Bemoliser (Fr.). To add a flat sign. 

BemoUe (It.). The flat sign (!?). Mi hemolle, E flat, eK 
Bemollizzare (It.). To add a flat sign. 
Ben (It.). The most usual form of bene, well, very. 

Ben articolato e staccato. Very distinct and detached. 

Ben cantato. Well sung, i. e. the melody executed singingly. 

Ben espressivo il canto. The melody with much expression. 

Ben in tempo. In exact time. 

Ben legato. Well sustained. 

Ben marcata la melodia. The melody well marked. 

Ben marcato il basso, ma piano. The bass distinctly marked, 

but softly. 
Ben misurato. In exact rhythm. 
Ben pronunciato. Very distinct. 
Ben sostenuto. Very sustained. 
Ben tenuto. Well sustained. 
Bene (It.). Well, very. 
Benedictus (Lat.). Part of the Mass. 
Beneplacito (It.), subs. Goodwill, convenience, adv. At one's pleasure, 

ad libitum. 
Bequadro (It.). The sign of the natural (^). 
Bequem (Ger.). Convenient, easy, comfortable, comodo. 
Berceuse (Fr.). A cradle-song, lullaby. 
Bereite vor (Ger.). From vorbereiien, to make ready, prepare. 

Bereite vor, Hauptw. Flote 8', Rohrfl. 8', Fugara. Prepare, 
Man. I, Fl. 8ft, Rd Fl. 8ft, Fugara. 
Bereits (Ger,). Already; previously. 
Bergeries (Fr.). Pastoral pieces. 
Beruhigend (Ger.). Moderating, becoming more tranquil, calando. 

W o 1 1 o n , Dictionarj'. -i 

-- 34 — 

Beruhigt (Ger.). Calmed. 

Beruhigung (Ger.). A quieting, tranquilisation. 

Bes (Ger.). BI? flattened, i. e. Bj?!?, usually called hh or Doppel-b. 

Besaiten (Ger.). To string a violin, etc. 

Beschleunigend (Ger.). Accelerating, hurrying. 

Beschwingt (Ger.). Hastened, hurried. 

Beseelt (Ger.). Animated, spirited. 

Besetzung (Ger.). The distribution, laying-out of the parts, casting: 

the disposition of an organ or orchestra. 
Besitzen (Ger.). To possess. Die Kontrahdsse, welche die C-Saite 

nicht besitzen, pausieren, the double-basses, which do not possess 

the C-string, cease to play. 
Besponnene Saite (Ger.). Covered strings, — as opposed to plain 

catgut ones. 
Bestimmt (Ger.). Accentuated, with decision. A direction, like /le;'- 

vortretend, constantly found in Ger. scores, and meaning that 

the particular part has to be played firmly, so as to stand out 

from the rest. Solo is often found in the same connection in 

Fr. scores. 
Betend (Ger.). Praying. Viel hetend, prayerful. 
Betonen (Ger.). To accentuate, to emphasise. 
Betont (Ger.). Accentuated, cf. Bestimmt. 
Betonung (Ger.). Accentuation, stress; intonation. 
Betriibt (Ger.). Affhcted, troubled. 
Bettleroper (Ger.). A "Beggars'" opera; ballad opera. 
Beweglichkeit (Ger.). Agility, alertness. 

Bewegt (Ger.). j With motion, movement: animated; con 

Bewegt gehend (Ger.). j moto. 

Bewegter (Ger.). With more motion, movement: more animated. 
Bewegter und immer mehr zu beschleunigen. With more move- 
ment, and continually faster. 
Bewegter werdend. Becoming more animated. 
Bewegung (Ger.). Movement, motion, moto. In derselben Bewegung 

fortfahrend, continuing with the same movement. 
Bezeichneten (Ger.). Sharply detached. Die mit '" hezeichneten 

Noten sehr kurz abgestofien, the notes marked ' ' ' very sharply 

Bezif farter Bass (Ger.). Figured bass. 
Bezifferung (Ger.). Figuring (a bass). 
Bezug (Ger.). A thing furnished, e. g. a set of strings, hair for a 

bow, etc. 
Bg. Abbr. of Bogen. 

Bianca (It.). A minim. From bianco, white. 
Bicordo (It.). A double string on a violin, etc. 
Bien (Fr.). Well, very. The It. bene. 
Bien accuse. Well accentuated. 
Bien chants, doux et soutenu. Well sung {i. e. singingly), soft 

and sustained. 
Bien en dehors. Very prominent. Marked against a part 

intended to stand out well. cf. Hervortretend. 
Bien rhythm6. Well rhythmed, i. e. the rhythm precisely marked. 
Bimolle (It.), v. BemoUe. 

35 — 

Bindung (Ger.). \ 

Bindungsbogen (Ger.). J A tie, slur. 

Bindungszeichen (Ger.).) 

Biniou, Bignou, Binviou. A species of bagpipe found in Britany. 

Biquadro (It.). The natural sign (fej). 

Birn(e) (Ger.). That portion of a clarinet, in which the mouthpiece 

is fixed, so-called from its resemblance in ancient instruments to 

a "pear". 
Bisbigliando (It.). Literally, "murmuring"; a term used in harp 

music for a species of tremolo, obtained by alternating a chord 

arpeggio between the two hands. 


R. H 


fL^JL^ f] .. f1 i5 




Bischero (It.). A peg of a stringed instrument. 

Biscroma (It.). A semiquaver. 

Biscrome (Fr.). A semiquaver; usually called une double croche. 

Bisser (Fr.). To encore a performer, or performance. 

Bittend (Ger.). Entreating, supplicating. 

Biucolo (It.). A bugle. 

Bizzarramente (It.). Oddly, strangely. 

Bizzarria (It.). Strangeness, oddity. 

Bizzarre (It.). Bizarre, extraordinary. 

Bl. Abbr. of Bldser. 

Blanche (Fr.). Fem. of hlanc, white, blank. The name of a minim, 
the crotchet being called une noire, a black. 

Blasebalg (Ger.). Bellows. 

Blaser (Ger.). A performer on a wind-instrument, plur. Bldser. 

Blasinstrument (Ger.). A wind-instrument, plur, Blasinstrumente. 

Blasmusik (Ger.). Music for wind-instruments. 

Blatt (Ger.). (i) A leaf, a sheet of paper. Fliegende Bldtter, fly- 
leaves ; vom Blatte spielen, to play from the sheet {i. e. at sight). 
(2) A clarinet reed. cj. Rohrblatt, Zungenblatt. 
Blattschraube. A clarinet ligature. 

Blechblaser (Ger.). A player on a brass instrument. 

Blechinstrument (plur. -e) (Ger.). A brass instrument. 

Blitz (Ger.). A flash of lightning. 

Blochflote (Ger.). An obsolete organ stop still found in some Ger- 
man organs. 

Blouser (Fr.). To play the kettledrums. 

Bluette (Fr.). A small work full of life and wit. 

Blumicht, Blumig (Ger.). Flowery. 

Bn. Abbr. of bassoon, basson. 

Bocal (Fr.). The curved metal tube, on which the reed is fixed, 
in a bassoon or similar instrument. The term is occasionally 
improperly used for embouchure, a cup-shaped mouthpiece. 

Bocca (It.). The mouth. 

- 36 - 

Bocca chiusa. (With) closed mouth ; an indication that the part 
is to be hummed or sung with closed lips. 
Bocchino (It.). A mouthpiece. 
Bockpfeife (Ger.). Bagpipe. 

Bockstriller (Ger.). "The bleating of a goat"; an indifferent species 
of shake on a single note. Die Triller {tr) sind von den San gem 
ah sogenannte Bockstriller auszufiihreny the shakes (tr) are to be 
executed by the singers as so-called Bockstriller. {Die Meister- 
singer. Act III.) 
Boden (Ger.). The back of a violin, etc. 
Bogen (Ger.). (i) The bow of a violin, etc. (2) A tie, slur. 
Bogenfrosch. The nut of a bow. 
Bogenfiihrung. Bowing (method of), as opposed to Strichart, 

the particular form of bowing. 
Bogenhaar. Bow-hair. 
Bogeninstrument. A bowed instrument. 
Bogenstange. A bow-stick. 
Bogenstrich. A bow-stroke, coup d'archet. 
Bogenstrichbezeichnungen. Signs for bowing. 
Bogen wechsel. Change of bow. 
Bois (Fr.). Wood. Avec le hois d'archet, with the wood (back) of 
the bow, col legno; baguettes de bois, wooden kettle-drumsticks. 
The wood-wind instruments of the orchestra are briefly called 
"les Bois". 
Boite expressive (Fr.). The swell box of an organ. 
Bolero. A Spanish dance of a Uvely character in V4 time. 
Bombard, (i) A family of double-reed instruments now completely 
obsolete. (2) A reed stop on the organ, which is also often called 
by one or other of the variations of Bombard found below. 
Bombarda (It.). Name sometimes given to the eufonio (euphonium). 
Bombarde (Fr.). A powerful reed stop on the organ. Clavier de 

bombardes, a manual found on some Fr. organs. 
Bombardino (It.). A little bombardo; a baritone saxhorn. 
Bombarde (It.), v. Bombarda. 

Bombardon. The contrabass saxhorns are usually called tubas in 
the orchestra and bombardons in military bands. They are either 
in Eb, a fifth below the bass saxhorn or euphonium, or in B|7, 
an octave below. 
Bombardone (It.). A large bombardo; a contrabass saxhorn, a bom- 
Bombo (Sp,). A bass drum. 

Bon temps de la mesure (Fr.). The accented note of the bar. 
Bordone (It.). Bourdon {q. v.). 

Bottoncino (It.). Pad for key of a wood- wind instrument. 
Bouche ferm^e (Fr.). (With) closed mouth, v. Bocca chiusa. 
Bouchi (Fr.). Stopped, closed; applied to notes on the horn {q. v.). 
Bouche avec un accent cuivr^. Closed, with a "brassy" tone. 
V. Cuivre. 
Bourdon, Bordun. A stopped organ pipe of i6ft tone. 
Bourree (Fr.). An old dance in rapid V4 tempo, often found in the 

suites of Bach and his contemporaries. 
Bout de I'archet (Fr.). The point of the bow. 

— 37 — 

Boutade (Fr.). A piece, or even a short ballet, in the style of an 

Bouton (Fr.). Button. End pin of a violin; a valve top; stud of 
an organ. 

Bow. A wooden stick with raised ends, between which are stretched 
a hundred or more horse-hairs, tightened by means of a screw. 
It is used to vibrate the strings of violins and similar instruments, 
after the hairs have been rubbed with rosin. 

Bowing, (i) The art of using the bow. (2) The special method of 
manipulating the bow for particular passages ; the species of bow- 

Boyau (Fr.). The so-called catgut: La corde or les cordes de hoy an 
du timbre, the snare of a side-drum, usually shortened to timbre. 

Br. Abbr. of Bratsche. 

BrabanQonne, La. The Belgian national hymn. 

Brace, (i ) A bracket connecting two or more staves. (2) The leather 
tags round the shell of a drum (snare, tenor, or bass), through 
which the "ropes" or cords, which strain or relax the head, pass. 
In modern drums, rods and screws often take the place of the 
cord and braces. 

Branle, Bransle (Fr.). A Brawl {q. v.). 

Brass Band. A collection of players on brass instruments, to which 
are occasionally added saxophones, which although made of metal, 
being played with a reed, are classed amongst the "Wood-wind". 
The band consists mainly of saxhorns of varying pitch, cornets, 
and trombones, to which are added the snare-drum, bass drum 
and cymbals. 

Brass Instruments. A convenient, if not quite correct term for metal 
instruments played with a cup-shaped mouthpiece {q. v.). The 
principle of all of them depends on the vibration of a column 
of air in a tube {v. Harmonics), the player's lips and breath being 
able (theoretically) to produce the following Harmonic Series, 
known on the "Brass" as open notes: — 

— 234*^ 



o 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 


The black notes are out of tune according to our modern scale, 
and in modern practice none are used above the c" (i6th har- 
monic). Bach and Handel however writing the d'" and e'", and 
Haydn, in an early symphony {Concertante), even venturing on 
the /"'. In practice, few instruments can produce both the very 
low and very high notes; and on any instrument, these extreme 
notes depend on the individual powers of the performer. (For 
this last reason, the compass of the various brass instruments 
must be taken as approximate.) Generally speaking, the horn 
employs sounds 2 — 16; the trumpet, 2 — 12; the cornet, sax- 
horn, trombone, etc., 2 — 8: and since the higher harmonics are 
harder to produce, it can be understood why a trumpet, for in- 

- 38 - 

stance, is more difficult than a cornet. On a natural instrument 
{i. e. one without mechanism for altering the pitch), these open 
notes are the only ones obtainable with the lips (with one rare 
exception, v. Factitious notes), and as they always bear the same 
relation to the fundamental note, it is clear that if this latter be 
F, the 5th and 6th harmonics will be a' and c'\ and so on for the 
other harmonics; if E, then 5 and 6 will he g'^ and b\ etc. The 
alteration in the length of tube necessary to produce a different 
fundamental note is effected by extra pieces of tubing called 
crooks {q. v.) or shanks added to the main tubing; and as the series is 
always the same, it is more convenient for the player to have his 
part always written in C, with an indication at the beginning as to 
what crook he is to use, this being given as : — Trumpet in F, Horn 
in E, etc. Obviously an instrument, which could instantly be 
changed into one with another crook, or, what is the same thing, 
instantly have the length of its tube altered, could produce all 
the notes of the chromatic scale. This alteration is done in three 
ways : — ( i ) By a portion of the tubing being double, one part sliding 
over another, and by altering the position of this slide, changing 
the length of the tube into the seven positions necessary for the 
complete chromatic scale. Ex. The slide trumpet, and the ordinary 
trombone. (2) By means of keys, which by opening holes in the 
tube shorten its length. Ex. The ophicleide and the old keyed 
bugle. (3) By some system of valves {q. v.) whereby the air can 
be diverted at will through additional lengths of tubing. Ex. All 
the brass instruments in use in the modern symphonic or mihtary 
orchestras, with the exception of the trombones, and these too 
(especially in military bands) are occasionally played with valves. 
The number of brass instruments now-a-days is very large, and the 
nomenclature bewildering, for not only are manufacturers inclined 
to call their special makes of instruments by special names, but 
owing to the difficulty apparently experienced by musicians in 
deciding the register of an instrument {e. g. whether it be alto, 
tenor or baritone), it is difficult to identify instruments in different 
languages, or even in the same language, as for instance when 
one musician calls a form of saxhorn a Flicorno basso, while another 
denotes it a Flicorno tenore. 

Bratsche (Ger.). The viola. 

Bratschist (Ger.). A viola player. 

Brautlied (Ger.). A bridal song. 

Bravissimo, -a (It.). Sup. of bravo, -a. 

Bravo, -a (It,). Bravely done! An exclamation of applause. It is 
to be noted, that when applied to a female performer, brava is used. 

Bravoure (Fr.). /Literally, "bravery", and implying a style, for which 

Bravura (It.), (a brilliant execution and great technical skill are 

Brawl. An old round dance. 

Brechung (Ger.). A breaking. 

Brechung der Stimme. Breaking of the voice. 
Brechung eines Akkordes. An arpeggio. 

Breit (Ger.). Broad, broadly. 

Breite Achtel. Broad quavers. 

— 39 — 

Breiten Strich. Broad bow-stroke. 

Breit gestrichen. Broadly bowed. 

Breit, ruhige Achtel. Broadly, the quavers tranquilly. 

Breit stoBen. Detach broadly. 

Breit und getragen. Broad and sustained (dragged). 

Breit und wuchtig. Broadly and heavily, largamente e pesante. 
Breiter (Ger.). More broadly. 

Breve. A note double the length of the semibreve, J=^ or [^ . 
Bridge. A thin piece of wood over which are stretched the strings 

in stringed instruments. 
Brill. Abbr. of hrillante. 

Brillant Fr.). ( Brilliant; implies an execution full of fire and vir- 
Brillante (It.). ( tuosity. 
Brillenbasse (Ger.). Literally, "spectacle basses": a familiar name 

for basses such as 


Brindisi (It.). A toast, a health; and hence a drinking song. 

Brio (It.). Vivacity, fire, spirit. 

Brioso (It.). Lively, spirited. 

Brise (Fr.). Broken. Accord hrise, a broken chord. 

Broderies (Fr.). Embellishments. 

BrummbaB (Ger.). Bourdon. 

ir^rrnt ','^r'-,. I Abruptly, rudely. 

Bruststimme (Ger.). The chest voice. 

Buccolico (It.). Rustic, bucolic. 

Buch (Ger.). A book. 

Buchstabe. A letter (of the alphabet). Die Buchstaben R. . . . 

und A bedeuten geringe Ritardando und A ccelerando, the 

letters R and A indicate a slight ritardando and 


Bucolique (Fr.). Rustic, bucolic. 

Buffet d'orgue (Fr.). An organ case. 

Buffo, -a (It.). A comic actor or singer. 

Buffonescamente (It.). In a burlesque style. 

Buffonesco (It.). Droll, ludicrous. 

Biigelhorn (Ger.). The keyed bugle, c/. Klappenhorn & Buglehorn. 

Bugle. A brass instrument used in the infantry of most nations 
for giving calls. For practical purposes it has only 5 notes, c' g' 
c" e" and g" . The bugle, which was at first given keys [v. Kent- 
horn), and of which the ophicleide is the bass form, was later 
fitted with valves, and in this guise became the parent of the 
saxhorn and tuba families. 

Bugle (Fr.). The name is used in France for two members of the 
saxhorn family, the soprano saxhorn {petit bugle mi^) and the 
contralto saxhorn {bugle, or grand bugle sil?). The term used for 
the infantry bugle is Clair on. 

Buglehorn (Ger.). Also called Signalhorn, the bugle, i. e. the ordinary 
instrument without keys. In modern Ger., Buglehorn is used for 
a bugle, with or without keys. cf. Biigelhorn. 

— 40 — 

Buhne (Ger.). Scene, stage, theatre. Posaunen auf der Biihne, 
trombones on the stage. 

Buhnenweihfestspiel. The name given by Wagner to Parsifal 
and meaning, a stage sacred festival play. 
Buona nota (It.). The accented note of the bar. 
Burla (It.). Waggery, joke. 
Burlando (It.). Quizzing, joking, ridiculing. 
Burlescamente (It.). In a ludicrous style. 
Burlesco (It.). Burlesque. 

Burletta (It.). A farcical comedy; a burlesque operetta. 
Bussando (It.). Knocking, thumping, striking with force. 

In modern German spelling, A has usually been substituted for the hard c {Klarinetie 
for Clarinette, Oktave for Octave, etc.), and z for the soft tz sound (Konzert for Concert). 
In many cases both spellings are given in the dictionary; if only one, the modern spelling 
has been always chosen by preference. 

C. The first note of the normal scale of C major; in Fr. it is called 
ut (occasionally do) and in It. do. In stage directions C. stands 
for the "Centre" of the stage. 
c.a. Abbr. of colVavco. 
C.angl. Abbr. of coy anglais. 
c.B. Abbr. of col Basso. 

C.barre (Fr.). (j^, the sign of alia hreve time. 
C.Bn. Abbr. of contra-bassoon, or contre-basson. 
CC. (i) The note Ci. (2) In Eng. organ music, the note C 

(8 ft C). 
C clef. The clef ||:j|, or ||^^, indicating the position of c' on the 
stave, now only used on the 3rd line (alto clef) and the 4th 
line (tenor clef). On the ist line it was the soprano clef, 
and on the 2nd, the mezzo-soprano. 
c.d. Abbr. of colla destra. 
c. 8va. Abbr. of coW ottava. 
c.s. Abbr. of come sopra. 

C string. The lowest string of the viola and violoncello. 
c.voc. Abbr. of colla voce. 
C (Ger.). The note C. 
C dur. C major. 
C moll. C minor. 
C Saite. C string. 

C Saite nach h herunterstimmen. Lower the C string to B. 
C Schliissel. C clef. 
Cabaletta (It.). A simple air, easily impressed on the listener, and 

usually forming part of the It. aria. 
Cabinet d'orgue (Fr.). A small organ case, without montre {i. e. the 

pipes mounted in front). 
Caccia (It.). The chase, hunting. 
Cachucha (Sp.). A dance in triple time of moderate tempo. 

Cacoolionie (Fr ) ( Cacophony, a discordant combination of sounds. 
Cad. Abbr. of cadenza. 

— 41 — 

Cadence (Fr.). (i) A cadence or close. (2) A trill or shake. 

Cadence evitee. An interrupted cadence. 

Cadence imparfaite. An imperfect cadence. 

Cadence interrompue. An interrupted or deceptive cadence. 

Cadence irreguliere. An imperfect cadence. 

Cadence parfaite. A perfect cadence. 

Cadence plagale. A plagal cadence. 

Cadence rompue. An interrupted cadence. 
Cadenza (It.), (i) A passage of an extempore nature introduced into 
a concerto or vocal piece to exhibit the powers of execution of the 
performer. (2) A cadence or close. 

Cadenza ad libitum. The cadenza at the discretion of the per- 

Cadenza d'inganno. A deceptive cadence. 

Cadenza fiorita. A florid, brilliant cadenza. 

Cadenza in tempo. A passage of the extempore nature of a 
cadenza, but in time. 

Cadenza sfuggita. An interrupted cadence. 
Cadenzato (It.). Cadenced, in good rhythm. 
Cahier (Fr.). A copy book: a stitched book containing a vocal or 

instrumental part. 
Caisse (Fr.). A chest, a box. Used also as an abbr. of caisse a tam- 
bour, a drum. Grosse caisse, the bass drum. 

Caisse a cordes. A drum braced by means of cords. 

Caisse a tringles. A drum braced by means of rods and screws. 

Caisse a vent. The wind-chest of an organ. 

Caisse claire. The tambour militaire, the snare or side-drum. 

Caisse plate. A side-drum of a shallow build. 

Caisse roulante. The tenor drum. 

Caisse sourde. The tenor drum, — the "dull" drum, as opposed 
to the caisse claire, the "clear" drum. 

Caisse tarolle. A flat shallow side-drum. 
Caja (Sp.). V. Caisse. Bombo is a bass drum. 

Caja de guerra. The side-drum, military drum. 
Cal. Abr. of calando. 
Cala (It.). From calare, to lower. 

Cala la tela {or il sipario). Lower the curtain. 
Calando (It.). Decreasing in volume of tone, or in speed, or in both. 
Calascione (It.), A species of lute, probably of Eastern origin. 
Calata (It.). A dance. 
Calcando (It.). Hurrying the time. 
Caldamente (It.). Warrnly, with ardour. 
Caldo Abbr. of calando. 
Calm. Abbr. of calmato. 
Calma (It.). Calmness, tranquillity. 
Calmato (It.). Calmed, tranquilised. 
Calme et placide (Fr.). Calm and serene. 
Calore (It,). Heat, ardour. 
Caloroso (It.), Fiery, ardent. 
Cambia (It.). Change (sing.). 

Cambia in fa. Change into F. 
Cambiano (It.). Change (plur.). 

— 42 — 

Cambiano in do. Change into C. 
Cambiato, -a (It.). Changed, displaced, cf. Nota cambiata. 
Camera (It.). A room, chamber. 

Camminando (It.). Literally, "travelling". Hurrying the movement. 
Campana (It.), (i) A bell. (2) The bell of a wind instrument. 
Campanella (It.). A little bell. 
Campanetta (It.). A set of bells, cf. Carillon. 
Can. Abbr. of canto. 
Canaille (Fr.). subs. Rabble, mob. adj. In a coarse vulgar manner. 

(Charpentier, Impressions d'ltalie.) 
Canarder (Fr.). To "quack" on reed instruments. 
Canarie (Fr.). ) 

Canaries (Eng.). V An old dance of a lively character. 
Canario (It.). ) 
Cancellen (Ger.). v. Kanzellen. 
Cancrizzamente (It.). Reversed. 
Canna (It.). A cane, a reed; a pipe. 

Canna alingua. Reed-pipe in an organ. 
Canna aperta. An open pipe. 
Canna chiusa. A closed pipe. 
Canna d'anima. Flue-pipe. 
Canna d'organo. An organ pipe. 
Canon (Gk.). A canon. The various kinds of canon are so numerous 
that a complete list would be as lengthy as it would be unnecessary ; 
a selection is given below. 

Canon apertus. An open canon, one in which all the parts are 
written on a separate stave, instead of the subject alone 
being given, with signs for the entries of the other parts. 
Canon cancrizans. A "crab-like" canon, one in which the answer 

is the subject read backwards. 
Canon enigmaticus. A riddle canon, one in which the arrange- 
ment and entry of the parts have to be guessed. 
Canon finitus. A canon which is brought to a conclusion after 
all the parts have entered with an imitation of the subject. 
Canon infinitus, or perpetuus. A canon without a definite con- 
clusion, which could be performed for infinity. 
Canon per augmentationem. A canon, in which the answer is 

an augmented version of the subject. 
Canon per diminutionem. A canon, in which the answer is a 

diminished version of the subject. 
Canon per tonos. A circular canon, which on every repetition 
is in a different key, so that eventually it returns to the key 
from which it started. 
Canon polymorphus. A canon which is capable of being worked 
in a great variety of ways. 
Canone (It.). A canon. 

Canone al sospiro. A canon in which the parts enter at the 

distance of a crotchet-rest from one another. 
Canone chiuso. A close canon, one not written out in full. 
Canone per moto contrario e per intervalli giusti. A canon in 

contrary motion and by exact intervals. 
Canone sciolto. A free canon. 

— 43 — 

Cantab. Abbr. of cantahile. 

Cantabile (It.). In a singing style, singingly. 

Cantabile e molto espressivo. Singingly and with much expression. 

Cantabile e molto tranquillo. Singingly and very quietly. 

Cantabile ed espressivo. In a singing style and with expression. 
Cantacchiare (It.). To sing in a low voice; to hum. 
Cantamento (It.). Singing, air, tune. 
Cantando (It.). Singing, singingly. 

Cantando e con espressione. Singingly and with expression. 

Cantando molto. Very singingly. 
Cantante (It.), adj. Singing, that may be sung. subs. A singer. 
Cantare (It.). To sing. 

Cantare a orecchio. To sing by ear. 

Cantare a prima vista. To sing at sight. 

Cantare di maniera. To sing in a florid style, with many maniere 
Cantata (It.). Originally applied to something sung, as opposed to 
sonata, something sounded (an instrumental composition) ; gene- 
rally now confined to a short oratorio, not necessarily on a 
sacred subject. 

Cantata da camera. A chamber cantata; one intended for a 
small room and requiring but small means 

Cantata da chiesa. A church cantata. 
Cantatina (It.). A short cantata. 
Cantato, -a (It.). Sung. 

Messa cantata. High Mass. 
Cantatore (It.). A male singer. 
Cantatrice (Fr. and It.). A female singer. 
Canterellando (It.). Singing low, humming. 
Canterino, -a (It.). A singer. 
Cantico (It.). A canticle, a hymn on words taken from the Bible, 

and used in the service of the Church. 
Cantilena (It.), j A little song; now-a-days usually a smooth flowing 
Cantilene (Fr.). ( melody. 
Cantino (It.). The "singing" string on a bowed instrument; the 

E string on a violin, the A string on a violoncello. 
Cantique (Fr.). v. Cantico. 

Canto (It.), (i) A song, a melody. (2) The melodic part in vocal 
or instrumental music. (3) v. Cantino. 

Canto a cappella. Unaccompanied vocal church music. 

Canto corale. A choral song. 

Canto d'amore. A love song. 

Canto espressivo e cantabile. The melody with expression and 

Canto fermo. Plain song. v. Cantus firmus. 

Canto figurato. A florid melody ; a melody in florid counterpoint 

Canto funebre. A funeral song, a dirge. 

Canto gregoriano. Gregorian chant, plain song. 

Canto piano. Plain song. 

Canto primo. First soprano. 

Canto recitativo. Declamatory singing. 

Canto secondo. Second soprano, mezzo-soprano 

— 44 — 

Canto solo. Unaccompanied melody. 
Cantor (Lat.). A singer, especially a church singer. 
Cantore (It.). A singer. 

Cantoris (Lat.). The cantoris side in a cathedral choir is the precentor's 
side, as opposed to the decani (the dean's) side. It is usually the 
north side of the choir. 
Cantus (Lat.). Singing, a song, a melody. 

Cantus firmus. Gregorian chant, plain song. A subject chosen 

for contrapuntal treatment. 
Cantus planus. Plain song. v. Cantus firmus. 
Canzona (It.). Song, ode, ballad. 
Canzoncina (It.). A short song, a canzonet. 
Canzone (It.), v. Canzona. 

Canzone a balla. A song for dancing. 
Canzone sacra. A sacred song. 
Canzonetta (It.). A little song. 
Canzoniere (It.). A song book. 

Capo (It.). Head, chief: beginning. Da capo, from the beginning. 
Capobanda. The head of a band of music, band-master. * 
Capo d'opera. A masterpiece, a chef d' cBUvre. 
Capo d'orchestra. The conductor of an orchestra, chef d*orchestre. 
Capo tasto, or Capodastro. (i) A sort of bridge which is fixed 
on the fingerboard of a guitar, whereby the strings are raised 
a semitone, a tone, a third, etc. (2) The thumb position on 
the violoncello. (3) The nut of stringed instruments. 
Cappella (It.). Chapel; the musicians forming the orchestra of a 

church. V. Chapelle. 
Capriccietto (It.). Diminutive of capriccio, 
Capriccio (It.). Caprice. The term is applied to a species of fantasia 

A capriccio, capriciously. 
Capricciosamente (It.). Capriciously. 
Capriccloso, -a (It.). Capricious, whimsical, fanciful. 
Caprice (Fr.). v. Capriccio. 

Caracteres de musique (Fr.). The signs used in musical notation. 
Carattere (It,). Character, style. 
Caratteristico (It.). Characteristic. 

ctrl^zSidf(It:).j Caressing, coaxing, flattering. 

Carezzevolmente (It.). Lovingly. 

Caricatamente (It.). In the style of a caricature. 

Caricato (It.). Overloaded with embellishments. 

Carillon (Fr.). A chime, a set of bells. Also used for the Jeu de Timbre 
(Glockenspiel), an instrument formerly consisting of small bells and 
now composed of tuned plates of steel, played by small hammers 
or a keyboard. Sonner un carillon, to ring a peal. 

Carilloneur (Fr.). A bell-ringer. 

Carita (It.). Charity, affection. 

Carmagnole (Fr.). The name of a song and dance of the Revolution. 

Carola (It.). A ring or round dance accompanied by singing. 

Cassa(It.). A box, chest. A drum. (Aside-drum is called tamburo.) 
The swell box of an organ. 
Cassa aperta. Swell open. 

— 45 — 

Cassa grande, or Gran cassa, or Cassa. The bass drum. 
Cassa rullante. A tenor drum. 

Cassazione (It.). Originally a "farewell" piece, afterwards the name 
of a kind of serenade. 

Castagnette (It.), j Castanets 

Castagnettes (Fr.). ( castanets. 

Castanets. Small clappers of hard wood or ivory, the rhythm of 
which plays a large part in Spanish dances. They were formerly 
made also of iron, St.-Saens using castanets of this material in 
Samson et Dalila. 

Catena di trilli (It.). A chain of shakes. 

Catgut strings. More properly "gut" strings, since they have now 
nothing to do with a cat, but are made from a sheep. They are 
used for most stringed instruments, and for the snare of the side- 

Cattivo (It.). Bad, wicked. 

Cattivo tempo. The unaccented part of the bar. 

Cavalletto (It.), v. Ponticello. 

Cavalquet (Fr.). A cavalry call. 

Cavare il suono (It.). To produce (literally, "to dig out") the sound 
or tone of an instrument. 

CaS ('Pr',-. I A Short air, or song. 

Caviglia (It.). A peg of a stringed instrument, plur. caviglie. 

Cb. Abbr. of contra-basso. 

Cedant (Fr.). Giving way; slackening the time. 

Ceder (Fr.). To yield, give way, slacken. 

Cedez un peu. Slacken a little. 
Celeramente (It.). With speed, velocity. 
Celere (It.). Swift, nimble. 

8^1erili (Fr.'j. i Speed, quickness. 

Celesta- Mustel (Fr.). Or simply Celesta, a keyboard instrument 
usually made with a compass of 4 octaves from c' to c'"" (Mahler 
writing for it as low as d). As a rule the written notes are an 
octave below the actual sounds: Tschaikovsky {Casse-Noisette) 
however writes the notes at their actual pitch, probably because 
the part is to be played by a piano, should a celesta not be available. 
The instrument is much like a Typophone {q, v.), but instead of 
tuning-forks, the hammers strike small plates of steel. 

Celeste (Fr.). Celestial, heavenly. 

Celestina. A manual 4ft stop of delicate tone. 

Celeste, -a (It.), v. Celeste. 

Cembalista (It.). A player on the cembalo. 

Cembalo (It.), (i) A dulcimer, v. Salterio tedesco. (2) An abbre- 
viation of Clavicembalo, the harpsichord. 

Cercar della nota (It.). Literally, to search after the note: to pro- 
ceed to the next note before the proper time, and use it as a sort 
of grace-note to the real note. 

Ces (Ger.). C flat. 

Cetra (It.). The zither. 

Ch. Abbr. of Choir, Choir Organ, etc. 

- 46 - 

Chaconoe (Fr.). A slow dance, often founded on a ground bass. 
Chaleur (Fr.). Warmth, fervour. 
Chaleureusement (Fr.). Warmly, with passion. 
Chaleureux, -euse (Fr.). Impassioned, glowing. 

Chalumeau (Fr.). (i) A term used for the lowest register of a clarinet, 
and in some old scores written an octave higher, with the indication 
"chal." above the part. {2) v. Schalmei. 
Changez (Fr.). Change, alter. 

Changez de jeu. Change the register (of an organ or harmonium). 
Changez la en sol. Alter A to G. 
Chanson (Fr.). A song. 
Chansonette (Fr.). A little song. 

Chansonnier (Fr.). (i) A song-writer. (2) A song-book. 
Chant (Fr.). A song, a chant; singing. 

Chant et piano. Voice-part and piano. Partition chant et piano, 

vocal score. 
Chant funebre. A dirge. 
Chant gregorien. Plain song, chant. 
Chantant, -te (Fr.). Tuneful, melodious. 

Chante (Fr.). Sung. Bien chante is a direction often found in Fr. 
scores and means that the melody is to be played in a melodious 
singing style. 
Chanter (Fr.). To sing. 

Chanter a livre ouvert. j ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ j^^ 
Chanter a premiere vue. \ ^ ^ 

Chanterelle (Fr.). The ist or "singing" string of a stringed instru- 
ment, and unless otherwise specified usually denoting the E string 
of a violin. 
Chanteur (Fr.). A male singer. 
Chanteuse (Fr.). A female singer. 
Chantre (Fr.). Chanter, precentor, chorister. 
Chapeau chinois (Fr.). The Turkish crescent, v. Crescent. 
Chapelle (Fr.). (i) A chapel. (2) The musicians of a church (choir 
and orchestra), or those in the employment of a prince or other 
person of rank. cf. Kapelle and Cappella. 
Chaque (Fr.). Each, every. 

Chaque attaque assez en dehors. Every attack {q. v.) somewhat 
Charakter (Ger.). Character, plur. Charakter{e), the characters used 
in music. 

Charakterstiicke. Characteristic pieces. 
Charivari (Fr.). Discordant music; a mock serenade with pots, 

pans, etc. 
Chasse (Fr.). The chase, hunting. 
Che (It.). Who, which. 
Chef (Fr.). Head, chief. 

Chef d'attaque. The leader of the orchestra. 
Chef d'ceuvre. A master-piece, plur. chefs d'ceuvre. * 

Chef d'orchestre. A conductor of an orchestra. 
Chevalet (Fr.). The bridge of a vioUn, etc. A stand for suspending 

a cymbal, gong, etc. 
Cheville (Fr.). A peg of a violin, etc. 

— 47 — 

Chevrotement (Fr.). The bleating of a goat. cf. Bockstriller. 
Chevroter (Fr.). To bleat like a goat; to execute a false shake on 

one note. cf. Bockstriller. 
Chiaramente (It.). Clearly, plainly. 
Chiarezza (It.). Clearness; brightness, light. 
Chiaro (It.). Clear, bright. 
Chiaroscuro (It.). Light and shade (in painting), and like many 

other terms in painting occasionally applied to music. 
Chiave (It.), (i) A clef. (2) A key of a wind instrument. 
Chiave di Basso. Bass clef. 
Chiave di Violino. Violin (treble) clef. 
Chica (Sp.). A dance popular in South America. 
Chiesa (It.). A church. 
Chiffre (Fr,). Figured. 

Chinese Pavilion. Usually called a Crescent {q. v.) or Turkish crescent. 
Chirula. v. Galoubet. 
Chitarra (It.). A guitar. 
Chiudendo (It.). Closing, terminating. 
Chiuso, -a (It.). Closed. Bocca chiusa, closed mouth; note chiuse, 

closed notes (on the horn, q. v.). 
Choeur (Fr.). Choir, chorus. The plur. is often used in place of 
the Eng. sing. ; pour orchestre et chceurs, for orchestra and chorus. 
Choir. A band of singers, usually in a religious service ; the portion 
of a church where the musicians, save the organist, as a rule, 
perform, cf. Chorus. 

Choir Organ. One of the portions of an organ, containing stops 
of softer character than those of the Great Organ. 
Chor (Ger.). (i) Choir, chorus. (2) A rank of pipes on an organ, 
plur. Chore. 

Choramt. Choral service. 
Chorfiihrer. Leader of choir. 
Chorknabe. Choir-boy. 

Chorton. In old Ger. music the customary pitch of church 
organs, and church music. It was approximately a tone 
higher than the Kammerton {q. v.). 
Choriibung. Choral exercise. 
Choral (Ger.). A chorale, a hymn, plain-song. 
Choralbuch. A hymn-book. 
Choralist. A chorister. 
ChoralmaBig. In the style of a hymn or psalm. 

Chorefe (Ger.). | ^ ^^^^^^ °^ ^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^'- 

Chorus, (i) A band of singers, usually applied to one singing in a 
secular work, or performing in a secular building. (2) A compo- 
sition written for a number of voices in several parts. 

Choryphee (Fr.). One of the principal members of the chorus or ballet. 
In concerted music a choryphee sometimes takes a minor part. 

Chromatic Drums, v. Kettledrum. 

Chromatique (Fr.). (/-u_-,^„^.:^ 

Chromatisch (Ger.). j<-^romatic. 

Chromatische Tonleiter. Chromatic scale. 

Ciaccona (It.). A chaconne. 

- 48 - 

Cifrato (It.). From cifrare, to write in figures or cyphers. Basso 
cifrato, figured bass. 

Cimbal (Ger.). A name for the Hackbrett, dulcimer. 

Cimbalo, Cimbano (It.), (i) Sometimes written for Cembalo (q. v.). 
(2) According to Lichtenthal, a term occasionally used for the 
Tamburino or tambourine. (3) A mixture stop on the organ. 

Cimbel, or Zimbel (Ger.). A mixture stop on the organ. The term 
is sometimes used for a Hackbrett {q. v.). 

Cinelli (It.). Cymbals. Piatti is the more ordinary term. 

Cinque (It.). Five. 

Cio (It.). This, that. 

Cis (Ger.). C sharp. 

Cis dur. C sharp major. 
Cis moll. C sharp minor. 

Cisis (Ger.). C double-sharp. 

Cit(h)ara (It.). A lute, lyre. 

Cither, v. Zither. 

Civettando (It.). Coquetting. 

Civetteria (It.). Coquetry, flirtation. 

CI. Abbr. of Clarinet, clarinette, clarinetto. 
Cl.B. Abbr. of clarinette basse. 
Cl.C.B. Abbr. of clarinette contre-basse. 

Clairon (Fr.). The term for an instrument corresponding to the 
Eng. bugle, bugle (Fr.) being ordinarily reserved for the acuter 
members of the saxhorn family. The clairon is made more in the 
shape of a trumpet than its Eng. equivalent. The name is also 
given to a reed-stop on the organ. 

Clairon d'ordonnance. The regulation bugle of the Fr. army. 

Claquebois (Fr.). A name for the xylophone. 

Clar. Abbr. of clarinet, etc. 

Clarabella. An organ stop of fluty tone, usually of 8 ft pitch. 

Claribel flute. An organ stop, usually of 4ft pitch. 

S Ifpo'- i The clairon. 

Clarina. An instrument invented by Heckel, and resembling the 
saxophone. It is made in B|7 and EJ7 (sounding a minor 3rd above). 

Clarinet. A single reed instrument with a compass from e to c"". 
Clarinets in A [7, G and F are found only in the Austrian and some 
few other military bands ; that in E [7 is used in all military bands, 
and of late years in the orchestra; that in D is seldom found in 
bands, but has been occasionally introduced into the orchestra 
{Die Walkiire, Mazeppa, Symphonia domestica, etc.); the C clarinet 
is now rarely employed, and where it is indicated in the scores 
of the older masters, the performer almost invariably transposes 
his part on a Bb instrument; this last (the typical member of the 
family) forms the basis of the "Wood" in a military band (there 
being from 12 to 16 performers on the instrument), and since 
Mozart has always been employed in the orchestra. The A clarinet, 
though still constantly written for, is discarded by some players 
in favour of the one in B|7, and in order to obtain the cj(, the lowest 
(actual) note on the A, B[7 instruments are now often provided 
with a lengthened bell and an extra key for producing this note. 

— 49 — 

Attempts have been made to construct a clarinet of double tonality, 
which can be altered from a Bi? to one in A at pleasure, but 
hitherto without success. 
Clarinete (Sp.). (narinpt 
Clarinette (Fr.). r^^"^^®*- 

Clarinette alto. The alto clarinet. 
Clarinette basse. The bass clarinet. 

Clarinette contrebasse. The double-bass or pedal clarinet. 
Clarinette (Ger.). v. Klarinette. 

Clarinettino (It.). A small clarinet. Clarinettino in mi\;, the clarinet 
in Ei? (both Clarinetto in mi^ and Clarino in mi\> are also terms used 
for the instrument). 
Clarinettista (It.). A clarinettist. 

Clarinetto (It.). A clarinet. This is the term universally used until 
comparatively recently, and still employed by composers who 
prefer to use It. names to those in their own language; It. com- 
posers more frequently use clarino for a clarinet. 

Clarinetto a doppia tonalita. A B7 clarinet, which can be altered 

at will to one in A. v. Clarinet. 
Clarinetto alto. The alto clarinet. 
Clarinetto basso. A bass clarinet, cf. Clarone. 
Clarino (It.), (i ) In ancient scores, the term was given to the trumpet 
playing the highest parts, and afterwards to any trumpet. In 
scores of the first half of the i8th century, where 3 trumpets are 
written for, the ist and 2nd are clarini and play florid passages, 
the 3rd which plays the lowest and simplest part being known 
as principale. (2) In modern It. scores clarino is a clarinet. (3) A 
reed-stop on the organ, usually of 4ft pitch. 

Clarino di fila. A clarinet of the rank and file, not an obbligato 
clarinet, in a miUtary band. 

r!nrlnnnHnlr^,°;!The principal clarinet in a military band. 

Clarino principale. i 
Clarion. A high pitched trumpet, the term not being now used 

except in a poetical sense. 
Claro, -a (It.). Clear. Clara voce, a clear voice. 
Claro. Abbr. of Clarino. 
Clarone (It.). A large clarinet; the term is usually applied to a 

bass clarinet, but at times used for the basset horn. 
Clavecin (Fr.). A harpsichord. 
Claviatur (Ger.). v. Klaviatur. 

Clavicembalo (It.). The harpsichord, and often abbreviated to 
Cembalo. As cembalo is the term for a dulcimer, confusion has 
occasionally arisen between the two instruments. 
Clavichord. A precursor of the pianoforte, differing from the harpsichord 
in the fact that the strings were struck by hammers and not plucked. 
Clavicorno (It.), v. Genis. 
Clavier, etc. (Ger.). v. Klavier. 

Clavier (Fr,). A keyboard, a manual (on an organ). 
Clavier d'echo. The echo organ. 

Clavier de bombardes. A manual on some Fr. organs containing 
some powerful reed-stops; it often corresponds to the Eng. 
Solo organ. 

Wotton, Dictionary. a 

— 50 — 

Clavier de recit. The swell organ. 
Clavi-timbre (Fr.). A species of harmonica with a keyboard, but 

in which tubes are used instead of strips of metal. 
Cle (Fr.). V. Clef. 

Clef (Fr.). A clef. A key of a wind-instrument. 
Clef d'ut. C clef. 
Clef de fa. F clef. 
Clef de sol. G clef. 
Cloche (Fr.). A bell. 
Clochette (Fr.). A little bell. 

Coda (It.). Tail, end. The concluding portion of a movement. 
Closed or stopped notes, v. Horn. 

Codetta (It.). A little coda. The end (often limited to a few notes) 
of the first part of a movement in binary form, immediately before 
the double bars. 
Codina (It.). Diminutive of coda. 

Cogli (It.). The usual contraction of con (with) and gli (the, masc. 

Cogli strumenti da fiato. With the wind-instruments. 
Coi (It.). Contraction of con (with) and i (the, masc. plur.). 
Coi fagotti. With the bassoons. 
Coi sordini. With the mutes. 
Coi violini. With the violins. 
Col (It.). Contraction of con (with) and il (the, masc. sing.). 
Col basso. With the bass. 

Col c. Abbr. of col canto, with the vocal part. 
Col C.B. Abbr. of col contrabasso, with the double-bass. 
Col legno. With the wood or back (of the bow); an effect 
found in modern scores (Symphonie fantastique, Siegfried. 
Danse Macabre, etc.), and only effective if there be a large 
body of strings. 
Col pedale e una corda. With the pedal and on one string, i. e. 
putting down both pedals of a piano. 
Colla, coir (It.). Contraction of con (with) and la or /' (the, fem. sing.). 
Colla destra. With the right hand. 

Coir ott. Abbr. of colV otiava, with the octave, i. e. doubling 
a part with the octave above or below, usually implying the 
Coir ottava bassa. With the octave below. 
Colla parte. With the part, i. e. the accompanying parts are to 

wait on that of the solo voice or instrument. 
Colla piu gran forza e prestezza. With the greatest force and 

Colla punta d'arco. With the point of the bow. 
Colla sinistra. With the left hand. 
Colla voce. With the voice, cf. Colla parte. 
Colle (It.). Contraction of con (with) and le (the, fem. plur.). 
Colle trombe. With the trumpets. 
Colle viole. With the violas. 
Collo, coir (It.). Contraction of con (with) and lo or /' (the, masc. sing.). 
Coir arco. With the bow. An indication used to contradict 
a previous col legno or pizzicato. 

— 51 — 

Colofonia (It.)- j Colophonium or colophony, the resin used for rub- 
Colophane (Fr.). \hmg the hair of the bows of stringed instruments. 
Colorato (It.). Coloured. 

SloraSra^fltO.^'K ^^"""^ ^^^'^^^ '"^ "'''''^^ '^"'^^- 
Colpo (It.). Blow, stroke; the same as the Fr. coup. 
Colpo d'arco. A stroke of the bow, coup d'archet. 
Colpo di lingua. "Tonguing" on a wind-instrument, coup de 
Combinaison (Fr.). Combination. 
Come (It.). As, Hke. 

Come il tempo del tema. Like the tempo of the theme. 
Come prima. As before, as at first. 
Come primo. Like the first (tempo). 
Come sopra. As above, as before. 
Come sta. As it stands, as it is indicated. 

Come una fantasia, ma in tempo. Like a fantasia {i, e. in an 
extempore manner), but in tempo. 
Comes (Lat.). The answer of a fugue, the dux being the subject. 
Comique (Fr.). Comic, jocular, funny. The word is often employed 
as the adjective of comedy, and therefore does not of necessity 
imply anything very laughable. 
Comme (Fr.). As, like. 

Comme un murmure. Like a murmur, i. e. almost inaudible. 
Com(m)odamente (It.). Conveniently, easily, leisurely. 
Com(m)odo (It.). Convenient, fit, leisurely, v. Tempo comodo. 
Compass. The complete series of sounds that can be produced on 
any particular voice or instrument, which is divided into registers. 
Compiacevole (It.). Agreeable, pleasing. 
Compiacevolmente (It.). Agreeably, pleasingly. 
Componista (It.). A composer. 
Composition (Fr. and Ger.). Composition. 

Composition pedals. Pedals, by means of which certain combinations 
of stops on an organ can be brought into play at the same time, 
and so arranged that gradations from pp to // can be obtained. 
Composition studs, or buttons. These serve the same purpose as the 
composition pedals, and are placed immediately above the differ- 
ent manuals. 
Composto (It.). Composed. 
Composizione (It.). Composition. 
Compound stops, v. Mixture stops. 

Comptent (Fr.). 3rd pers. plur. of compter, to count. An indication 
found in Fr. scores when particular instruments have not a stave 
devoted to them for some time, e. g. Les trombones comptent. 
Con (It.). With. V. Col, Collo, CoUa, Coi, Cogli, CoUe. 

K. B. For indications commencing with con, not given below, 
see the word to which it is prefixed. 
Con anima. With soul, feeling. 
Con animo. With spirit, animation. 
Con brio. With vivacity, fire, spirit. 

Con discrezione. With discretion, i. e. following the composer 
both in letter and spirit. 

— 52 — 

Con divisione. With division, i. e. making each beat of the bar 

separate and distinct. 
Con due pedali. With both pedals. 
Con espressione e semplice. With expression and in a simple 

Con fluidezza. With fluidity, i. e. flowing smoothly and evenly. 
Con forza. With force. 
Con garbo. With grace and lightness. 
Con giustezza dell* intonazione. With true intonation. 
Con gli oboi. With the oboes. 

Con la punta dell* arco. With the point of the bow. 
Con molto carattere. With much character. 
Con molto espressione. With much expression. 
Con molto passione. With great passion. 
Con mote. With animation. 

Con osservanza. With scrupulous care. cf. Con discrezione. 
Con pedale. With the pedal, i. e. with the damper pedal. 
Con precipitazione. With haste. 

Con precisione. With precision, cf. Con discrezione. 
Con replica. With repeat; repeating the same passage. 
Con sdegno. With indignation, anger. 
Con somma expressione. With the greatest expression. 
Con sordino (plur. -ni). With the mute(s). 
Con tutta la forza. With the greatest force. 
Con un dito. With one finger. 
Con voce. With the voice, cf. CoUa parte. 
Con voce rauca. With a hoarse voice. 
Concento (It.). Concord, harmony. 
Concentrato (It.). Concentrated; concealed. 
Concert (Fr.). Concert. 

Concert spirituel. A concert of sacred music. 
Concert (Ger.). v. Konzert. 
Concert pitch. The recognised standard pitch in any particular 

Concertante (It.). Formerly used for compositions (with or without 
orchestra), in which there were parts for solo instruments. Now, 
usually employed to signify prominent solo parts. 
Concerted music. Music for two or more performers in contradistinction 

from music for a solo performer (with or without accompaniment). 
Concertina. A free reed instrument with keys at both ends and 
bellows between. The ordinary instrument (the treble) has a 
range from g to g"" (or even a"'0» and in the best makes will 
have from 48 to 60 keys. Piccolo, baritone and bass Concertinas 
are also made. 
Concertino (It.). A short concerto. 

Concerto (It.), (i) A concert. (2) A composition for a solo instru- 
ment with orchestral accompaniment, usually in symphonic form 
but without a scherzo or minuet. The older form of the concerto 
was simply a suite with a part for a solo instrument. 
Concerto da camera. A chamber concerto. 
Concerto da chiesa. A church concerto. 
Concerto doppio. A concerto for two solo instruments. 

— 53 — 

Concerto grosso. (i) The old name for a concerto with three 
or more solo instruments (concertante). (2) The accompanying 
parts in the old form of the concerto, as opposed to the 
solo instruments. 
Concerto spirituale. A sacred concert. 
Concitamento (It.). Emotion, agitation. 
Concitato (It.). Moved, troubled. 
Concitazione (It.), v. Concitamento. 
Concordant (Fr.). Baritone. 

Conductor. The director of the orchestra (the term, leader of the 
orchestra, being applied to the chief violinist), who regulates the 
time of the movements, sees that the various instruments and 
voices make their entries at the proper moment, and generally 
interprets the composer's ideas to the public. 
Conservatoire (Fr.). J 

Conservatorio (It.). vA public school for music and declamation. 
Conservatorium (Ger.). ) 

Consolante (It.). Giving comfort, consoling. 
Consonanz (Ger.). j^ 
Consonanza (It.), j <-onsonance. 
Cont. Abbr. of contano. 

Contano (It.). 3rd pers. plur. oi contare, to count, v. Comptent. 
Continuato (It.). Continued. 
Continuo (It.), v. Basso continuo. 
Contra, v. Contra (It.). 

Contra-bass. v. Double-bass. 
Contra-bass Clarinet, v. Pedal clarinet. 
Contra-basson. v. Double-basson. 
Contra-bass Sarrusophone. v. Sarrusophone. 
Contra-bass Trombone. An instrument an octave lower than the 
tenor trombone, used by Wagner in his Ring, where he writes 
for it at its actual pitch. It has been used by d'lndy in his 
2nd symphony in the place of the tuba. 
Contra-bass Tuba. The bombardon in F, Ej?, or Bi? (an octave 

below the euphonium). 
Contra octave. The i6ft octave; the notes from Ci, to B^. 
Contra (Ger.). v. Kontra. 

Contra (It.). Against, opposite to. Often used in combination with 
other words to express something an octave deeper. (For the sake 
of euphony the first consonant of the word, with which it is com- 
pounded is usually doubled.) 

Contr'arco. Bowing contrary to the usual method, i. e. commen- 
cing the bar on the up-stroke. 
Contra-basso, or Contrabbasso. The double-bass. 
Contraddanza. A country dance, a contre-danse. 
Contrafagotto. The double-bassoon. 
Contra-gamba. An organ pipe of i6ft. 

Contralto (It.), (i) The lowest female voice with a compass 
from g to e'\ exceptional voices attaining e ox e^ at the 
bottom, f "iff or g" at the top of the compsiss. (2) adj. Applied 
to instruments, it is used in place of the Eng. or Fr. 'alto'. 
e. g. trombone contralto. 

— 54 ~ 

Contrappuntista. A contrapuntist. 

Contrappunto. Counterpoint. 

Contrappunto alia duodecima. Counterpoint at the twelfth. 

Contrappunto alia mente. Improvised counterpoint. 

Contrappunto doppio. Double counterpoint. 

Contrassoggetto. Counter-subject. 

Contrattempo. Syncopation. 
Centre (Fr.). Opposite to, against, contra-. 

Contre-basse. The double bass. 

Contre-basse (en cuivre). The double-bass (in brass), the contra- 
bass saxhorn. 

Contre-basson. The double bassoon. 

Contrepoint. Counterpoint. 

Contrepointiste. Contrapuntist. 

Contre-sujet. Counter-subject. 

Contretemps. Syncopation. 
Coperto (It.). Covered, veiled. Tamburi coperti, muffled drums. 
Copribocchino (It.). A cap for a clarinet mouthpiece. 
Copricordo (It.). A wrist protector for the mandoline. 
Copula (It.). The coupler of an organ. 
Cor. Abbr. of corno. 
Cor (Fr.). A horn. 

Cor a cylindres. Horn with cylinders, v. Valves. 

Cor allemand. German horn, equivalent to Eng. "French horn". 

Cor a pistons. Horn with pistons, v. Valves. 

Cor chromatique. Chromatic horn, valve horn. 

Cor d'harmonie. The ordinary horn (with or without valves), 
as opposed to the cor de chasse. 

Cor de chasse. v. Trompe de chasse. 

Cor de signal. The post horn. 

Cor de vaches. The cow-horn, the Stierhorn. 

Cor omnitonique. An instrument constructed by Sax, without 
crooks, but which could be pitched in any key by means 
of a piston moving in a graduated tube. 

Cor russe. v. Russian horn. 

Cor simple. The horn without valves. 
Cor anglais (Fr.). The English horn, the Fr. name being usually 
employed. An alto oboe having a similar compass to the ordinary 
oboe (from h {b\^) to /'"), but sounding a fifth lower than the ^vritten 
notes. At first introduced for occasional picturesque effects and 
played by one of the oboists, it now forms part of the ordinary 
full orchestra. 
Cor de Basset (Fr.). v. Basset horn. 
Corale (It.). Plain-song, chorale. 
Coranto (It.), v. Courante. 
Corda (It.). The string of a vioUn, etc.; plur. corde. 

Corda d'acciaio. A steel string (for a piano, etc.). 

Corda di budello. Cat-gut string. 

Corda di metallo. Metal string. 

Corda di minugia. A cat-gut string, often applied to the snare 
of a side-drum. 

Corda doppia. Double string. 

— 55 — 

Corda fasciata. A covered string, i. e. cat-gut bound with wire 

or silk. 
Corda vuota. An open string on a stringed instrument. 
Corde di budello. The snare on a side-drum. 
Cordage (Fr.). The rope of a drum, the cord for tightening the head. 
Corde (Fr.). String of a viohn, etc. In the plur. {cordes) it also means 
the snare of a side-drum, and in this sense is occasionally used in 
the sing. Avec la corde Idche, with the snare slackened. 
Corde a {or en) boyau. A cat-gut string. 

Corde 4 vide* ( "^^ open string on a stringed instrument. 
Corde filee. A covered string, i. e. one bound with wire or silk. 
Cordes du timbre. Usually abbreviated to timbre, the snare of 
a side-drum. 

CordieraTlt.^). i '^^^ ^ail-piece of a violin, etc. 

Corhorn (Fr.). A species of tenorhorn {q. v.) designed to imitate 
the tone of a French horn, but with the facility of execution of 
a cornet or saxhorn, v. Comophone. 

Corifeo (It.). One of the leaders of a choir. 

Corista (It.), (i) A chorister. (2) A tuning-fork. 

Cormorne. v. Cromorne. 

Cornamusa (It.). The bagpipes. 

Cornare (It.). To blow or wind the horn. 

Cornemuse (Fr.). The bagpipes. 

Cornet, (i) The obsolete cornetto {q. v.). (2) The cornet-d-pistons, a 
brass instrument with a chromatic compass from /jt to c"" (the last 
3 notes being difficult). The typical instrument is in Bj? (with a 
shank for changing into A), and in many brass bands a cornet in 
E7 is employed (the soprano cornet, q. v.). Instruments are also 
made in C, and in some miUtary bands are found high comets 
in D and A 7. Easier to play than a trumpet {v. Brass instru- 
ments), the comet lacks the nobility of the latter, but nevertheless 
in the hands of a skilful artist is capable of a considerable amount 
of expression. 

Cornet (Fr.). The simple cornet, i. e. the cornet without valves, a 
brass instrument of the posthom type, is obsolete, and the term 
cornet is now used for the cornet-d-pistons, but it is to be noted 
that the ordinary Fr. abbreviation is not cornet but piston. Pistons 
en si^, cornets in B7. 

Cornet a bouquin. The ancient cornetto {q. v.). It has recently 
been revived by d'Indy in the Celtic ceremony in Fervaal, 
but is there used only to give the two notes g and 67, as a 
Cornet-a-pistons, v. above. 
Cornet de poste. The simple or natural cornet. 

Cornetta (It.). The term for the cornet-d-pistons in modern It. scores. 
Cornettino (It.). The small comet, in E|?, D or A|7, also called piccolo 

Cornetto (It.), (i) An obsolete instrument, found in scores of the 

- 56 - 

XVIth and XVIIth centuries, made originally of a goat's horn, 
but later of wood covered with leather. It was played with a 
cup-shaped mouthpiece, and had six or seven holes pierced in the 
side, and sometimes possessed a key. Its compass was from a to a'". 
(2) The modern cornet-a-pistons, but unlike the French, the Italians 
abbreviate the name to cornetto or cornetta, reserving "pistone" for 
the cornet in EJ?. 

Cornetto soprano. The ordinary cornet in BJ7, C or A. 
Cornetto contralto. The tenor horn. 
Cornista (It.). A horn-player. 
Corno (It.). The horn. 

Corno alto. ) Names formerly given to performers who practised 

Corno basso. ( the higher or lower part of the horn's compass 

respectively. In the scores of the classical masters, the two 

horn parts must be considered not as being ist and 2nd in 

the modern sense, but as to be played by two instruments 

of equal importance, the one, the alto horn, the other, the 

bass horn. In fact the corno basso may be considered the 

more important, since it was the one preferred by soloists. 

Beethoven, it is to be noted, frequently gives a solo to the 

corno basso in preference to the corno alto. 

Corno a macchina. A valve horn. 

Corno di caccia. (i) The Fr. Trompe de chasse. (2) The ordinary 

Corno primo. First horn. 
Corno secondo. Second horn. 
Corno sordo. A muted horn. 

Corno tenore. Usually called Flicorno basso {q. v.). 
Corno di bassetto (It.). The basset-horn. 
Corno inglese (It.). The cor anglais. 

Cornopean. A name formerly used for the cornet-a-pistons. 
Cornophone (Fr.). An alto or tenor saxhorn of somewhat narrow 
bore, designed to be played with a horn mouthpiece as a sub- 
stitute for the Fr. horn. It is allied to the saxotrombas and 
the ballad horn in C, used in some Eng. wind bands. 
Coro (It.). Chorus, choir. 
Corona (It.). The signer-. 

^rVs dl rS^e *,Fr'). ! ^ -ok of a horn or trumpet. 
Corrente (It.), subs. Same as coranto, a courante {q. v.). adj. Flowing. 

cSitor"/(It)-.M^''« ^"'"^"^ °^ '"^ °P^^"*'= ^'^°™" 

Coryphee (Fr.). One of the leaders of a chorus or ballet. 

Costretto (It.). Bound, constrained. Basso costretto, v. Basso ostinato. 

Cotillon (Fr.). A dance with no particular tune attached to it, and 
consisting of a series of figures more resembling a game than a dance. 

Couac (Fr.). An onomatopoeic word for the squeak, which the reed 
of an instrument gives, arising from tired lips or from some imper- 
fection in the reed. 

Coucou (Fr.). The cuckoo; an instrument for imitating the bird. 

CouU (Fr.). (i) A slur. (2) A passage included under a slur. (3) A 
slide in dancing. 


— 57 — 

Couler (Fr.). To slide, glide, slur. 

Coulisse (Fr.). (i) The slide of a trombone or slide-trumpet. (2) In 
a theatrical sense, a "wing", a side scene. Dans les coulisses, in 
the wings. 
Counter-tenor. A male alto voice. 
Coup (Fr.). A blow, stroke. 

Coup d'archet. A bow-stroke ; in Eng. often to be translated as 

Coup de langue. Tonguing. 
Coupler. An appliance on an organ, by which the various manuals 

can be connected with one another, or with the pedals. 
Couplet (Fr.). A couplet, stanza. 
Coupure (Fr.). A cut. 

Coupure theatrale de A a B. Theatrical {i. e. for stage pur- 
poses) cut from A to B. 
Cour (Fr.). In a theatrical sense the cotS de la cour is the side of the 

stage to the right of the spectator. 
Courante (Fr.). An old spirited dance in triple time. It often formed 

one of the numbers of the old suite. 
Couronne (Fr.). The sign ^r^. 
Courroie (Fr.). A strap. Une cymhale suspendue par sa courroie, 

a cymbal suspended by its strap. 
Court (Fr.). Short. Tres court le point d' argue, the pause very short. 
Couvert (Fr.). Covered. 

Couvre-bec (Fr,). A mouthpiece cap for a clarinet, or saxophone. 
Cracovienne (Fr.). A Polish dance. 

Cran (Fr. ). A notch ; a notch into which the pedal of a harp is hitched. 
Crecelle (Fr.). A rattle. 

Credo (Lat.). "I believe"; part of the Mass. 
Cremona. A reed stop on an organ. 
Cres. Cresc. Abbr. of crescendo. 

Crescendo (It.). Increasing in loudness, becoming louder. 
Crescendo al ff. Growing louder up to the //. 
Crescendo ed affrettando poco a poco. / Gradually growing lou- 
Crescendo ed animando poco a poco. ( der and quicker. 
Crescendo fin al fortissimo. Becoming louder until the fortissimo. 
Crescendo molto ed animato. Rapidly increasing in loudness 

and becoming more animated. 
Crescendo pedal. A term sometimes used for the ordinary swell 

pedal of an organ. 
Crescendo poco a poco al forte, ed un pochettino accelerando. 
Becoming gradually louder until the forte, and very slightly 
Crescendo poco a poco ed accelerando. Gradually growing louder 
and faster. 
Crescent. Or Turkish crescent, an instrument in the form of a cres- 
cent on the top of a staff, adorned with horse tails and small bells, 
which jingle when the staff is struck on the ground to mark the 
time. It was used only in infantry bands and now is practically 
obsolete. It was popularly known as "Jingling Johnny". 
Crin (Fr.). The horse-hair used for bows. Une mdche de crin^ a "lock" 
of horse-hair for a bow. 

- 58 - 

Croche (Fr.). A quaver. Les croches conservent toujour s la mime 

valeur, the quavers always keep the same value. 
Croisez les mains (Fr.). Cross the hands; term found in piano duets. 
Croma (It.). A quaver. 
Cromatico (It.). Chromatic. 

Cromorne (Fr.). (i) An obsolete double reed instrument recurved 
at the extremity, which has given its name to (2) a soft reed 
stop found in Eng. organs. 
Crook. ( I ) A length of tubing added to horns and trumpets for the 
purpose of altering their pitch. They are now almost always 
fitted on to the mouthpiece end of the instrument, but used also 
to be made to fit into the middle of the instrument. With the 
old natural instruments, the crooks required were numerous, but 
with modern valve instruments only a few are directed to be 
used, and this number is often reduced still further by the ^exe- 
cutants themselves, v. Brass instruments. (2) The curved rnetal 
tube of a bassoon on which the reed is fixed. 

Croque-note (Fr.). An unskilled musician. 

Croquer un passage (Fr.). To bungle a passage. 

Cross fingering. On wood-wind instruments, closing a hole lower 
than that through which the sound issues. 

Cross flute. The flauto traverso, the ordinary flute. 

Crotales (Fr.). A species of clapper, usually made of wood. (From 
the Lat. crotalum.) They have been used by Massenet and other 

Crucifixus (Lat.). "Crucified". A portion of the Credo in the Mass. 

Csardas. A Hungarian dance, usually in duple time. 

Cto. Abbr. of concerto. 

Cue. A few words or notes of one part interpolated in that of another, 
in order to indicate to the performer of the latter, when to make 
his entry. 

Cuivre (Fr.). Brass, copper. Instrument de cuivre, a brass instrument. 
The "Brass" of the orchestra are called "Les cuivres". 

Cuivre (Fr.). An expression used for all the brass instruments, but 
more particularly for the horns. It means forcing the sound in 
a particular way, so that it resembles the "brassy" tone of the 
Trompe de chasse {q. v.) or Fr. hunting horn. Sforzato notes are 
usually played in this manner. The modern Ger. equivalent is 
schmetternd (q. v.). Some composers limit the term to the strident 
but muffled tone obtained by forcing the sound of the stopped notes. 

Cuivrer (Fr.). To make brassy. The Ger. equivalent is stark anblasen, 
to blow strongly. Cuivrez les sons, make the sounds (tone) brassy. 

Cum Sancto Spiritu (Lat.). "With the Holy Spirit"; a part of the 
Gloria of the Mass. 

Cupo (It.). Deep, hollow, sombre. 

Cuscinetto (It.). A pad for the key of a wood-wind instrument. 

Gustos (Lat.). A direct; a sign at the end of a stave to indicate the 
first note of the next stave. 

Cylinders. A form of valve for brass instruments mostly used in 
Germany and Italy. It is on the principle of an ordinary brass cock. 

Cylindre (Fr.). A cylinder. Cor d cylindres, a horn with cylindrical 

— 59 — 

Cymbal (Ger.). The dulcimer; usually called the Hackbrett. 

Cymbale (Fr.). A cymbal. Also the name of a mixture stop on 
the organ. 

Cymbale avec la mailloche. Cymbal struck with a bass-drumstick. 
Cymbale frappee avec une baguette de timbale. Cymbal struck 
with a kettle-drumstick. 

Cymbales (Fr.). (i) Cymbals. Une paire de cymbales, a pair of cym- 
bals. (2) The jingles of a tambourine. 

Cymbals. Circular plates of metal, which are ordinarily clashed 
together, — or rather, swung together with a sUding motion. In 
inferior orchestras one of the cymbals is attached to the bass-drum, 
to the immense disadvantage of the former's tone. (That this 
method is not universally condemned is apparent from certain 
of Mahler's symphonies, where he specially directs the cymbals 
to be attached to the bass drum, even in places where two per- 
formers are necessary.) A species of roll {v. Overture to Tann- 
hduser) is obtained by rapidly rubbing the two plates together, 
or by agitating the beater of a triangle between the two cymbals 
held a short distance apart. In modern works a single suspended 
cymbal is often directed to be struck with a bass-drumstick, or is 
played upon by kettle-drumsticks or side-drumsticks. 

Cjrmbel (Ger.). v. Cymbal. 

Czakan. A flute with a flageolet mouthpiece, made in the form of a 
walking-stick, and formerly much used in Hungary. 


D. The second note of the normal scale of C major. It is called 
re in Fr. and re in It. 

D. Abbr. of destra, or droite. 

D. C. Abbr. of Da capo. 

D Clarinet. A small clarinet sounding a tone above the written 

notes, used in Die Walkure, Liszt's Mazeppa, and several 

modern works. 
D7 Flute. V. Flute. 
D (Ger.). The note D. Des is D flat, and Dis D sharp. 
D dur. D major. 
D moll. D minor. 
D Saite. The D string. 
D' (Fr.). Abbr. of de, of, from etc. 
D'abord. At first. 
D'accord. In agreement, in tune. 
Da (It.). From, by, of, for, from. 

Da ballo. In the style of a dance. 

Da camera. For a chamber, as sonata da camera, a chamber 

Da capo. From the beginning, meaning that the performer 

has to go back to the beginning of the piece and play on till 

fine is marked. The term is also used to express a desire for 

an encore at a theatre or concert. 
Da capo al fine. From the beginning to where fine is marked. 
Da capo al segno ^. From the beginning to the sign ^. 

— 6o — 

Da capo senza ripetizione, e poi la coda. From the beginning 

without repeats, and then the coda. 
Da chiesa. For the church. Sonata da chiesa, church sonata. 
Da destra. From the right. 
Da lontano. In the distance. 
Da prima. First. 

Da teatro. In the theatrical style. 
Dach (Ger.). A roof, covering. The belly of a violin. 

Dachsweller. The swell of an organ. 
Dagli, dai, dal, dall', dalla, dalle, dallo (It.). Compounds of da {q. v.) 

with gli, i, il, r, la, le, lo (all forms of the definite article). 
Dal (It.). Compound of da {q. v.) and il (the, masc). 
Dal segno. From the sign (of repeat). 

Dal segno fin al segno. From the sign (of repeat) and then to 
the same sign. 
Damp. In a musical sense, used in two ways, (i) To check the 
vibrations of the string of a harp, guitar, violin, etc., or of a per- 
cussion instrument such as a gong, a suspended cymbal, etc. 
(2) To deaden the sound of an instrument by some mechanical 
contrivance, to mute. This sense is rare. 
Damper. The part of the mechanism of a piano which checks the 
vibrations of a string as soon as the key is released. 

Damper pedal. A contrivance, whereby the dampers can be kept 
raised from the strings of a piano, even after the fingers have 
left the keys. As with the inexperienced or inartistic, the 
effect of using this pedal is simply to increase the noise, it is 
vulgarly known as the "loud pedal". 
Dampfer (Ger.). A mute for a violin, etc., or for a brass instrument 
(horn, trumpet, trombone, etc.). 
Dampfer auf. Put on the mutes. 
Dampfer ab. \ 

Dampfer fort. [Take off the mutes. 
Dampfer weg. ) 
Dampfung (Ger.). Damping, muting; on the piano, the damper pedal. 
Dann (Ger.). Then, at that time. 

Dann sogleich immer langsamer. Then forthwith becoming stead- 
ily slower. 
Dans (Fr.). In. 

Dans les coulisses {occasionally la coulisse). In the wings, i. e. 

off the stage, from either side. 
Dans une exaltation croissante. In (or with) increasing en- 
Danse Macabre (Fr.). The dance of Death. 
Danza (It.). A dance. 

Dare (It.). To give. (As with many other words, the final "e" is often 
dropped before a consonant.) 
Dar la voce. To give the pitch. 
Dareinfahren (Ger.). To interpose, break in. 
Darmsaiten (Ger.). Cat-gut strings. 
Darunter (Ger.). Under that, among, of the number. 

Darunter 2 fiinfsaitige. Amongst the number, 2 five-stringed 

— 6i — 

Das (Ger.). Neuter form of Der, the, which. 

Das doppelt langsamer. Twice as slow. 

Das namliche. The same (tempo). 

Das zweite Mai. The second time. 
Dasselbe (Ger.). Neuter form of Derselbe, the same. 

Dasselbe ZeitmaB. The same tempo. 
Dauer (Ger.). The duration (of a note) 
Daumen (Ger.). The thumb. 

Daumeneinsatz. The thumb position on the violoncello. 

Daumenventil. A valve operated by the thumb, found on certain 
tenor and bass trombones, v. Trombone. 
De (Fr.). Of, from, to. 

De meme que precedement. The same as before. 

De plus en plus vite. More and more quickly. 

De suite. One after another; so forth. 
Debile, Debole (It.). Faint, weak. 

D4but (Fr.). Commencement, beginning. Of an artist, first appear- 
ance. Plus vite qu'au debut, quicker than at the commencement. 
Debutant, -ante (Fr.). A performer appearing for the first time. 
Dec. Abbr. of Decant, 

Decani (Lat.). Of the Dean. Term used in cathedral music for that 
part of the choir on the dean's side (usually the south side), as 
opposed to the cantoris {q. v.). 
Decide (Fr.). With decision, in precise rhythm. 
Decima (It.). A tenth; the interval of a tenth. 

Decima quarta. The interval of a fourteenth. 

Decima quinta. The interval of a fifteenth. 

Decima terza. The interval of a thirteenth. 
Decimole (Ger.). A group of ten equal notes played in the time 

of four or eight, a decuple t. 
Decisissimo (It.). Sup. of deciso. 
Deciso (It.). With decision, in precise rhythm. 
Decke (Ger.). A covering. The belly of a violin, etc. 
Declamando (It.). Declaiming. 
Decompose (Fr.). Incoherent, unconnected. 
Decoration (Fr.). Term occasionally used for the sharps or flats in 

the key signature. 
Decors (Fr.). The scenery etc., of a play or opera. 
Decouplez (Fr.). Uncouple. 
Decresc. Abbr. of decrescendo. 
Decrescendo (It.). Decreasing in loudness. 
Decresciuto (It.). Decreased, diminished in loudness. 
Degre (Fr.). Degree, step; degree of the scale. 
Dehnung (Ger.). A lengthening out, a prolongation. 

Dehnungsstrich. A long drawn-out stroke with a bow. 
Del, deir, della, delle, dello, dei, degli. Compounds of di {q. v.) with 

il, /', la, le, lo, i, gli (various forms of the definite article). 
Deliberamente (It.). Deliberately. 
Delicatamente (It.). Delicately, tenderly. 
Delicatezza (It.). Delicacy, grace, softness. 
Delicatissimo (It.). Sup. of delicato. 
Delicate (It.). DeUcate, gentle, soft 

— 62 — 

D61i6 (Fr.). Loose, easy. 
Delirio (It.). Raving, madness. 
Deliziosamento (It.). Deliciously, sweetly. 
Delizioso (It.). Delicious, sweet. 
Demancher (Fr). To "shift" on a violin, etc. 
Demanchement (Fr.). "Shifting" on a violin, etc. 
Demande (Fr.). A term for the subject of a fugue. 
Demi (Fr.). Half. 

Demi-baton. The sign for two bars rest. 

Demi-cadence. A half close. 

Demi-jeu. Half the power of the instrument. 

Demi-mesure. Half a bar. 

Demi-pause. A minim rest. 

Demi- quart de soupir. A demisemiquaver rest. 

Demi-soupir. A quaver rest. 

Demi-ton. A semitone. 

Demi-voix. Mezza voce. 
D^monter (Fr.). To unstring a stringed instrument. 
Demut(h)ig (Ger.). Humble, lowly, meek. 
Demut(h)igung (Ger.). Humiliation, abasement. 
Dentro (It.). Within. 

Dentro le quinte. In the "wings". 

Dentro le scene. Within (behind) the scenes. 
Derb (Ger.). Firm, ponderous, vigorous. Mit derbem Humor, with 

rude humour. 
Derriere (Fr.). Behind. 

Derriere la scene. Behind the scenes. 

Derriere le rideau. Behind the curtain. 
Des (Ger.). D flat. 

Des dur. D flat major. 

Des moll. D flat minor. 
Deses (Ger.). D double-flat. 
Desesperement (Fr.). Desperately. 
Desinvoltura (It.), v. Disinvoltura. 
Desinvolture (Fr.). Freedom, ease. 

Desk (Fr. Pupitre; Ger. Pult; It. Leggio). In the modern orchestra 
where the strings are often very elaborately divided, the desk (at 
which two performers sit) is taken as the basis of these divisions. 
The Fr. composers usually content themselves with dividing the 
desks into odd and even {impairs et pairs), or simply writing d 2, 
d 4, etc. The Germans, with their more elaborate string divisions, 
often indicate the absolute number of desks for a particular part, 
and thus we find such subtle directions as Desks i , 2 and 3 playing 
one part, while Desks 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 play another. 
Dessin (Fr.). Plan, arrangement. 
Dessous (Fr.). Under, below. 

Dessus (Fr.). Above, over. As a subs., the upper part, and formerly 
used for the treble, both vocal and instrumental. 

Dessus de viole. The violin part (term now obsolete) 
Dest. Abbr. of destra. 
Desto (It.). Lively, brisk. 
Destra (It.). The right hand. A destra, to the right. 

- 63 - 

Destro, -a (It.). Skilful, dexterous. Used for right, as the opposite 

of sinistra, left. 
Detache (Fr.). Detached, staccato. In violin playing, there are 
several kinds of ditachS, the names of which somewhat vary with 
different authors, all however agreeing as to the grand detache {q. v.). 
In piano playing, t he detach e may be wrist staccato, finger staccato, 
or mezzo staccato ^ ^ ^ ^, 

Detache de la pointe. Sometimes called petit detache, detached 

notes given with the point of the bow. 
Detache moyen. Detached notes obtained by using a third 

of the bow. 
Detache sec. The same as martele {q. v.). 
Determinate (It.). Determined, resolute. 

D^tonn^MF^r'^' i ^"^ '''^''''^ ^^^'^^^' ^"^ ''""^ ''''^ ""^ ^''''^• 
Deutlich (Ger.). Clear, distinct, conspicuous, prominent. 

Deutlicher und stets gut hervortretend. More distinctly and 
always well brought out. 
Deutsch (Ger.). German. 

Deutsche Flote. German flute. 

Deutsche Tanze. German dances. 
Deux (Fr.). Two. 

Deux quatre. V4 time. 
Deuxieme (Fr.). Second. 
Devozione (It.). Devotion. 
Dezimenflote (Ger.). The piccolo in EJ?. 
Di (It.). Of, from, by. 

Di grade, (i) By degrees. (2) Willingly, with pleasure 

Di molto. Very much. 

Di nuovo. Anew, again, once more. 

Di petto. Of the chest, chest voice. 

Di testa. Of the head, head voice. 
Diap. Abbr. of Diapason. 
Diapason. A principal stop in an organ, and of two kinds : — the open 

diapason and the stopped diapason. 
Diapason (Fr,). (i) Pitch. (2) A tuning-fork: a pitch-pipe. 

Diapason a bouche. A pitch-pipe. 

Diapason a branches. A tuning-fork. 

Diapason normal. The standard pitch decreed by the Fr. Go- 
vernment in 1859, a' being fixed at 435 vibrations at a tempera- 
ture of 150 C. (59 F.). 
Diatonico (It.). ) 
Diatonique (Fr.). > Diatonic. 
Diatonisch (Ger.). ) 
Dicht (Ger.). Close, serre. Indication sometimes added to a tremolo, 

and meaning that it is to be very rapid. 
Die (Ger.). The, fem. sing., and plur for all genders. (Expressions 
commencing with die will be found under the heading of the noun.) 

Die 5 ersten Pulte. The 5 first desks. 
Diecetto (It.). A composition for ten instruments. 
Dies irae (Lat.). "Day of wrath". The principal number of a Re- 
quiem Mass. 

- 64 - 

Diesare (It.). To sharpen, to put a sharp before a note. 

Diese (Fr.). The sharp sign (jj). 

Dieselbe (Ger.). The same. (fern, and plur. form.) 

Dieselbe Bewegung. The same movement. 
Dieser (Fr.). To sharpen, to place a sharp before a note. 
Diesis (It.). The sharp sign (it). 
Dietro (It.). Behind. 

Dietro la scena. Behind the scene; in the wings. 
Difficile (Fr. and It.) Difficult. 
Digitare (It.). To finger. // digitare, fingering. 
Digitatura (It.). Fingering. 
Dillettante (It.). An amateur; one who practises an art for 

pleasure and not as a profession. 
Diluendo (It.). Dying away. 
Dilungando (It.). Prolonging the sound. 
Dim. Dimin. Abbr. of diminuendo. 
Diminue (Fr.). Diminished. L' accord de quinte diminuee, the chord 

of the diminished fifth. 
Diminuendo (It.). Diminishing (in loudness). 

Diminuendo e poco ritenuto. Diminishing in loudness and some- 
what slower. 

Diminuendo e rallentando. Becoming softer and slower. 

Diminuendo poco a poco. Gradually diminishing. 
Diminuer (Fr.). To diminish 
Diminuito, -a (It.). Diminished. 
Diminuzione (It.). Diminution. 
Directeur (Fr.). A director; a conductor, usually applied to the 

conductor of a choir {directeur des chceurs). 
Dirigent (Ger.). A director; conductor. 
Dirigi(e)ren (Ger.). To direct; to conduct an orchestra. 
Diritto, -a (It.). Direct, straight. 
Dis (Ger.). D sharp. 

Discretamente (It.). Discreetly, cf. Con discrezione. 
Discrete (It.). Discreet, prudent. 
Discrezione (It.). Discretion. 
Disgiunto (It.). Disjunct. 

Disharmonisch (Ger.). Dissonant, discordant. 
Disinvolto (It.). Ease, freedom, gracefulness. 
Disis (Ger.). D double-sharp. 
Diskant (Ger.). Discant; soprano, treble. 

Diskantbratsche. A treble viol. 

Diskantschliissel. The soprano clef; the C clef on the ist line. 

Diskantstimmen , or Diskantregister. Organ stops which com- 
prise only the treble notes. 
Diskantist, or Diskantsanger (Ger.). A treble, or soprano singer. 
Disperabile (It.). Hopeless. 
Disperante (It.). Grievous, hopeless. 
Disperatamente (It.). Desperately, madly. 
Disperato (It.). Desperate, hopeless. 
Disperazione (It.). Despair, desperation. 

Disposition. The arrangement of the stops on an organ, or of the 
various instruments in an orchestra. 

- 65 - 

Dissonance (Fr.). \ 

Dissonanz (Ger.). [ Dissonance. 

Dissonanza (It.). ) 

Distanza (It.). Distance, space. 

Distinto (It.). Distinct, clear. 

Distonare (It.). To sing out of tune. 

Diteggiatura (It.). Fingering. 

Dito (It.). A finger, plur. dita, or (less frequently) diti. 

Dito annulare. The ring or third finger. 

Dito grosso. The thumb. Also pollice. 

Dito indice. The index or first finger. 

Dito medio. The middle or second finger. 

Dito mignolo. The httle finger. 

Ditono (It *) ( ^^ interval of two tones; a major third. 
Div. Abbr. of divisi, or divise. 

Divertimento (It.). A diversion, a pastime. In a musical sense, it 
is used (i) for a potpourri of tunes strung together; (2) for a com- 
position consisting of a series of movements, much in the style of 
a Serenade; (3) a short ballet. 
Divertissement (Fr.). v. Divertimento (i), (2) and (3). Also an 
episode in a fugue. Une divertissement tiree de la tete du sujet, an 
episode founded on the first notes of the subject. 
Divided Strings, v. Desks. 
Diviso, -a (It.). Divided, plur. divisi, -e. Violini divisi, divided 

violins; viole divise, divided violas. 
Divotamente (It.). Devoutly, piously. 
Divoto, -a (It.). Devout, devoted. 
Divozione (It.). Devotion, piety. 
Dixieme (Fr,). Tenth; the interval of a tenth. 
Do (It.). The note C. The French occasionally also use it instead 
of the customary Ut. 
Do maggiore. C major. 
Do minore. C minor. 
Doch (Ger.). But, still, nevertheless. 

Doch immer noch sehr lebhaft. But still very animated. 
Doch nicht allzu sehr. But not too much. 
Doglia (It.). Grief, pain. 
Dogliosamente (It.). Grievously, sorrowfully. 
Dogliosissimo (It.). Sup. of doglioso. 
Doglioso (It.). Afflicted, sorrowful. 
Doigt (Fr.). Finger. U index, the ist finger; le mSdium, 2nd; Vannu- 

laire, 3rd; le petit doigt, 4th; le pouce, the thumb. 
Doigte (Fr.). subs. Fingering, past part. Fingered. 

Doigte fourchu. Cross fingering. 
Doigter (Fr.). To finger. Le doigter, fingering. 
Dol. Abbr. of dolce. 

Dolcan. An organ pipe of agreeable tone. 
Dolce (It.). Sweet, agreeable, pleasant, soft. 
Dolce con gusto. Sweetly and with taste. 
Dolce e lusingando. Sweetly and in a caressing manner. 
Dolce e molto tranquillo. Softly and very peacefully. 

Wotton, Dictiooary. c 

— 66 — 

Dolce e piacevolmente espressivo. Sweetly and pleasingly ex- 

Dolce grazioso ed espressivo. Softly, gracefully and expressively. 

Dolce, ma marcata (la melodia). Softly, but marked (the melody). 

Dolce maniera. In a pleasing style. 
Dolcemente (It.). Sweetly, softly. 
Dolcezza (It.). Sweetness. 

Dolciano (It.), (i) A dulcian {q. v.). (2) An organ stop. 
Dolciore (It.), v. Dolcezza. 
Dolcis. Abbr. of dolcissimo. 
Dolcissimo (It.). Sup. of dolce. 
Dolcitudine (It.), v. Dolcezza. 
Dolente (It.). Doleful, sad, plaintive. 
Dolentemente (It.). Sorrowfully, sadly. 
Dolentissimo (It.). Sup. of dolente. 
Dolore (It.). Pain, anguish. 
Dolorosamente (It.). Sorrowfully. 
Doloroso (It.). Sad, painful. 
Dolzflote (Ger.). (i) An obsolete flute, the flute douce. (2) An organ 

Dom (Ger.). A cathedral. 

Domchor. A cathedral choir. 
Dominante (Ger.). The dominant. Dominanten- in combination. 

Dominantenakkord. The dominant chord. 

Dominantendreiklang. The dominant triad. 
Domine salvum fac (Lat.). "O Lord, preserve". A prayer for the 

reigning sovereign, sung after the Mass. 
Dona nobis pacem (Lat.). "Give us peace". The last movement 

of the Mass. 
Donner (Fr.). To give. 

Donner le cor. To blow the horn. 
Donner (Ger.). Thunder. 

Donnermaschine. A machine for imitating thunder. 
Doppel (Ger.). Double. 

Doppel-B {Of Be). The double-flat sign (?\f). 

Doppelfagott. A name for the double-bassoon (Kontrafagott). 

Doppelflote. A stop on the organ, the pipes of which have two 

Doppelfuge. A double fugue. 

Doppelgeige. A name for the viole d'amour. 

Doppelgriff. A double-stop on a violin, etc. 

Doppelkonzert. A concerto for two solo instruments. 

Doppelkreuz. The double-sharp sign (x). 

Doppeloktave. An interval of two octaves. 

Doppelschlag. A turn. ■ 

Doppelstielige Note. A note with two stems, f» 

Doppelstlirze. A double bell; an extra joint placed on a wood- 
wind instrument instead of the ordinary end joint, in order 
to produce low notes not on the ordinary instrument, as for 
instance the low A^ oi the bassoon. 

Doppeltriller. A double shake. 

Doppelzunge. Double tonguing. 



_ 67 - 

Doppelt. (Ger.). Doubled. 

Doppelt ganze Note. A breve. 

Doppelt ganze Pause. A breve-rest. 

Doppelt langsamer. ( r>-,,t,,_ __ _i^^ 

Doppelt so langsam.i ^^ouble as slow. 

Doppelt so schnell. Double as fast. 
Doppio, -a (It.). Double. 

Doppio colpo di lingua. Double tonguing. 

Doppio movimento. A movement twice as fast as the previous one. 

Doppio pedale. In organ music, using both feet for the pedal- 

Doppio piu lento. Double as slow. 

Doppio tempo. Double time. 
Double. A term occasionally equivalent to the It. Contra {q. v.). 

Double bass. The lowest of the stringed instruments used in the 
modern orchestra, and now usually made with four strings 
tuned to £. ^. d. g. (sounding an octave lower). This tuning 
is however not invariable, many players tuning the 4th string 
to D, and generally speaking the tuning has always been 
rather a matter of individual taste. The 3-stringed D. B. 
(tuned A. d. g, or G. d. a), though still found in many or- 
chestras, and preferred by some on account of its greater 
resonance, is not written for now-a-days by composers, who 
on the other hand often require an instrument descending to C. 
This last is either a 5-stringed D. B., or a 4-stringed one, 
having a mechanical arrangement whereby the E-string can 
be immediately lowered to C, and the notes C, Cj}, D and £[7 
obtained by means of keys. Whether the classical masters 
wrote for D. B, tuned down to C, or whether the low notes 
found in their scores arose from carelessness, in writing the 
same part for both 'cellos and D. B., is a moot point: but 
on the authority of Koch {Musikalisches Lexikon, 1802), we 
know that the E-string of the 4-stringed D. B. was often 
lowered to E? and D. 

Double Bassoon. An instrument an octave lower than the 
ordinary bassoon, and formerly descending to B2?, but now 
only to Di or Ci (Mahler writes the B^^), ey or / being as a 
rule considered as its highest available note (Beethoven and 
Mahler however using the a). In most scores the notes are 
written an octave higher than their actual sounds, but Wagner 
in Parsifal writes them at their proper pitch. With modern 
instruments the D. Bn. is often made of brass, and in many 
orchestras it has been superseded by the contra-bass sarruso- 
phone V. Sarrusophone. 

Double C, or CC. The same as C^x in Eng. organ music, it stands 
for C, the C below the bass stave, all the notes from Gi to F 
inclusive being called "double". 

Double diapason. An organ stop of 16 ft pitch. 

Double drum. According to some writers, a name for the bass 
drum, "because it is beaten on both heads", but probably 
this is a mistake, arising from a confused impression of the 
instruments given in the next paragraph. 


— 68 — 

Double drums. A term formerly used for the kettledrums, and 

of obvious signification, since there was always a pair of them. 

The term is found in almost any of the lists of the orchestras 

of a hundred years ago. 

Double quartet, A composition for two sets of four voices or 

Double reed. Two reeds bound together to form a mouthpiece, 

as in the oboe and bassoon. 
Double stopped diapason. An organ stop of i6ft tone on the 
manuals, and of 32 ft tone on the pedals, in which latter case it 
is often called the Sub-bourdon. 
Double stopping. On the violin, etc., playing two notes at the 
same time. As a rule this is done with two fingers, but it is 
also possible to stop two strings with one finger, which natu- 
rally form a fifth. 
Double tonguing. On the flute and brass instruments, the rapid 

repetition of notes made with a movement of the tongue. 
Double travale. A rapid repetition of sounds on a tambourine. 
Double trumpet. A reed stop of 16 ft on the organ. 
Double (Fr.). Double. Le double plus lent, double as slow. 
Double bemol. A double flat. 

Double {or 2ble) corde. A double string on a stringed instrument. 
Double croche. A semiquaver. 
Double diese. A double sharp. 
Double mailloche. A bass drumstick with two heads, used for 

executing a species of roll. 
Double-mains. A mechanism attached to some organs and 
harmoniums, whereby when a key is depressed the octave 
above is depressed at the same time. 
Double triple. V2 time. 
Doublette (Fr.). In Fr. organs, a stop an octave above the Principal; 

the Fifteenth. In Eng. organs , a stop of two ranks of pipes. 
Doucement (Fr.). Softly, sweetly. 
Douleureusement (Fr.). Sadly, sorrowfully. 
Doux, douce (Fr.). Sweet, soft. 

Doux mais tres soutenu. Soft but very sustained. 
Douzieme (Fr.). Twelfth: the interval of a twelfth. 
Downbow. On a violin, etc., the drawing of the bow towards the 

Drahtsaite (Ger.). A metal string. 
Dramma (It.). Drama, play. 

Dramma lirica. A lyrical drama. 

gjtS;ra^erJ^t'^ica.i A musical dra„.a. 

Drammaticamente (It.). Dramatically. 
Drammatico (It.). Dramatic. 
Dr&ngend (Ger.). Pressing, hurrying. 

Drangend und immer heftiger. Hurrying and with increasing im- 
Dreher (Ger.). A species of slow waltz. 
Drei (Ger.). Three. 

Dreichorig. (i) Of a piano, trichord. (2) For three choirs. 

- 69 - 

Dreifach. (Often written 3fach.) Threefold. In an organ, of 
three ranks. The term is often found in scores indicating 
that one or other of the string parts is divided into three parts. 
Dreiklang. A triad. 
Dreisaitig. Three stringed. 

Dreistimmig. In three parts; for 3 voices or instruments. 
Dreitaktig (Rhjrthmus). In three bar (rhythm). 
Dreier (Ger.). Ternary rhythm. 
Dreinfahren (Ger.). v. Dareinfahren. 
Dringender (Ger.). (The tempo) more hurried. 
Dritt (Ger.). Third. 

Dritte Lage. Third position. 
Dritto (It.). V. Diritto. 
Drohend (Ger.). Threatening. 
Droit, droite (Fr.). Right; straight. 
Drone. One of the pipes of the bagpipes, which continuously sounds 

the same note. 
Druckknopfe (Ger.). Drawstops (on the organ.) 
Drum. In modern music, besides the kettledrums, there are three 
kinds of drums in general use, with the occasional addition of a 
fourth: — (i) the bass drum, (2) the tenor drum, (3) the side or 
snare-drum, (4) the tamhourin. v. separate articles. 
Drumsticks. For the kettledrums, drumsticks with three kinds of 
heads are used: — the ordinary ones, made of felt; those made of 
sponge covered with chamois leather, for deUcate effects; those 
of wood, for noisy effects. For special effects, side-drumsticks, 
a couple of coins and the fingers have been employed by Sir Ed- 
ward Elgar. The drumsticks for the side drum are of ebony; 
those for the tenor drum being somewhat larger, with felt or 
padded heads. For the bass drum a stick with a large stuffed 
head is used, and for producing rolls, a stick with a head at each 
end; occasionally a wooden-headed stick is used. 
Du (Fr.). Compound of de, of, from, etc., and le, the (masc. sing.). 
Du bout de I'archet. With the point of the bow. 
Du talon. At the nut (of the bow). 
Dudelsack (Ger.). A bagpipe. 
Due (It.). Two. 

Due corde. Two strings. 
Due cori. Two choruses 
Due volte. Twice. 
Duett (Ger.). A duet. 
Duettino (It.). A short duet. 
Duetto (It.). A duet. 

Dugazon (Fr.). The name of a celebrated singer (Louise Rosalie 

Dugazon, 1753 — 1821), and now used to indicate a voice of the 

same range and quality as hers, and thus singers are described as 

"jeunes Dugazon", "mires Dugazon", etc. 

Dulcian. An obsolete bassoon, an octave higher than the ordinary 

Dulciana. An 8 ft organ stop. 

Dulcimer. An instrument consisting of a frame and a sound-board 
over which are stretched wire strings. These strings are arranged 

— 70 — 

in groups (2 to 5 strings forming one note), and are struck by two 
little hammers. 
Dulzaina (Sp.). A dulcian {q. v.). 
Dumpf (Ger.). Hollow, dull. 

Duo (It.). A duet. It is also a usual term in France. 
Duodecima (It.). The interval of a twelfth. 
Duodecimole (Ger.). A group of 12 equal notes instead of the 

normal number in the beat; a dodecuplet. 
Duodramma (It.). A short drama for two persons. 
Duole (Ger.). A duplet. 
Duolo (It.). Grief, pain, mourning. 
Duplicazione (It.). Doubling. 
Dur (Ger.). Major. 

Durtonart. Major key. 
Duramente (It.). Harshly, cruelly. 
Durch (Ger.). Through. 

Durch ein Sprachrohr. Through a speaking trumpet. 

Durch Flageolet. In harmonics. 

Durchblasen. To blow (play) through a composition on a wind- 

Durchfiihrung. Development. 

Durchgangsnote. j . ^asgin^ note 

Durchgangston. ( ^ Passing note. 

Durchgehend. Passing. 

Durchgeigen. To play through a composition on the violin. 
Durchkomponieren. To set to music: in vocal music, to set 
each verse to different music, according to the character of 
the words. 
Durchschlagende Zunge. A free reed. 
Durchspielen. To play through a composition. 
Durchaus (Ger.). Throughout. 

Durchaus fantastisch und leidenschaftlich vorzutragen. To be 
performed fantastically and with passion throughout. 
Durchweg (Ger.). Generally, usually. 

Durchweg leise zu halten. To be kept generally soft. 

KzaTii').! "^''"'''* ''^''^"'''- 
Dure (It.). Hard, strong, firm. 
Duster (Ger.). Gloomy, dark, sombre. 
Dux (Lat.). The subject of a fugue. 

E. The third note of the normal scale of C major. It is called mi in 
Fr. and It. 

E string. The highest string of the violin, called in Fr. chan- 
terelle, the melody string. 
E (Ger.). The note E. 
E dur. E major. 
E moll. E minor. 
E Saite. E string. 
E (It.). And. Before a vowel ed is used. 

— 71 — 

Ebenfalls (Ger.). Again, also, likewise. 

Ebenso (Ger.). In the same manner; likewise. 

Ebollimento (It.). Ebullition, heat. 

Ecart (Fr.). Stretch of the hand in playing. 

Eccedente (It.). Of intervals, augmented. Terza eccedente, aug- 
mented third. 

Ec(c)o (It.). An echo. 

Echeggiante (It.). Echoing, resounding. 

Echelettes (Fr.). A name for the xylophone. 

Echelle (Fr.). Scale. 

Echelle chromatique. Chromatic scale. 
Echelle diatonique. Diatonic scale. 

Echelon (Fr.). The degree of a scale. 

Echo. An echo effect is one in which a phrase is repeated pianissimo, 
or is sometimes merely played very softly, as though coming from 
a distance. With horns, the effect is produced by repeating in 
closed notes a phrase, which has previously been given in open 
notes. In the cornet, there is often a special attachment for 
producing the effect. 

Echo cornet, (i) A cornet with an echo attachment. (2) An 

organ stop, usually found on the swell. 
Echo organ, or Echo-work. One or more sets of pipes, for pro- 
ducing echo effects, placed at some distance from the main 
organ in a swell-box, and in large organs, played from a 
special manual. 

Eclatant (Fr.). Piercing, loud, brilliant. A direction found in scores, 
usually against the Brass, and implying a brilliant somewhat 
brassy tone. 

Eclisses (Fr.). The ribs of a violin. 

Eclogue (Fr.). A pastoral song, or poem. 

Ecole (Fr.). A school. 

Ecossais, -aise (Fr.). Scotch. Ecossaise (subs.), the name of a dance 
originally of a dignified character, but later of a lively nature. 

Ecouvillon (Fr.). A mop, or swab for cleaning the interior of wood- 
wind instruments. 

Ed (It.). And (before words commencing with a vowel). 

Edel (Ger.). Noble. 

Editeur (Fr.). An editor, a publisher. (The double meaning is 
occasionally a source of error, only the context showing which is 
the proper translation.) 

Effect (Fr.). j ^^^ 

Effetto (It.). ( ^"ect. 

Effleurant. Grazing, touching Hghtly. Doigt effleurant la corde, 
finger lightly touching the string, as in artificial harmonics. 

Effleurez (Fr.). Touch lightly, graze. 

Effleurez tres legerement. Graze (the two cymbals) very lightly. 

Eguaglianza (It.). Equality, uniformity. 

Eguale (It.). Equal, like, uniform. 

Egualmente (It.). Equally, uniformly. 
Eifrig (Ger.). Zealous; passionate, warm. 

— 72 — 

Eile (Ger.). Haste. 

Eilen (Ger.). To hasten, hurry. 

Ein (Ger.). One, a, an (masc. and neuter). 

Ein Achtel wie ein Viertel des vorigen Taktes. A quaver Hke a 
crotchet of the previous bar. 

Ein Takt fast so schnell als eben die Viertel. A bar almost as 
fast as the previous crotchets. 

Ein wenig langsamer. A little slower. 

Ein wenig maBiger als zuvor. A little more moderate than before, 

Ein wenig zuriickhaltend. Somewhat slackening. 
Einchorig (Ger.). (i) One stringed. (2) For one choir. 
Eine (Ger.). One, a, an (fem.). 

Eine Oktave tiefer. An octave lower. 

Eine Saite. One string. 
Einer (Ger.). One. 

Einer an jedem Pulte pizzicato, der andere col legno. One at each 
desk pizzicato, the other col legno. 
Einfach (Ger.). Simple; single (as opposed to doppelt, doubled). 
Einfachheit (Ger.). SimpHcity, singleness. 
Einformig (Ger.). Uniform. 

Eingang (Ger.). Entrance; introduction, preamble. 
Eingespielt (Ger.). Practised, exercised. 
Eingestrichene Oktave. The once marked octave, c' to b\ 
Eingreifen (Ger.). To cross the hands in piano-playing. 
Einhaltend (Ger.). Stopping, checking. 
Einheit (Ger.). Unity. 

Einig (Ger.). Some. Mit einigem Pomp, with some pomp. 
Einklang (Ger.). Unison. 
Einleitung (Ger.). Introduction, prelude. 

Einleitungssatz. Introductory movement. 

Einleitungsspiel. Introduction, overture. 
Einlenkend (Ger.). Returning. In das Anfangs-Tempo einlenkend, 

returning to the tempo of the beginning. 
Einmal (Ger.). Once. Noch einmal, da capo, once again, da capo. 
Einsatz (Ger.). An insertion. 

Einsatzbogen. A crook fixed into the middle of the instrument, 
as opposed to an Aufsatzhogen, a crook placed at the end of 
the tubing next the mouthpiece. 

Einsatzzeichen. The signs inserted in a close canon which 
indicate the entry of the various parts. 
Einschiebebogen (Ger.). v. Einsatzbogen. 
Einschlafen (Ger.). To slacken, abate. 
Einschlagend (Ger.). Striking inwards. 

Einschlagende Zunge. A beating or striking reed. 
Einschmeichelnd (Ger.). Coaxing, cajoling. 
Einschnitt (Ger.). A phrase, section; a cut. 
Einsetzen (Ger.). To enter (as with parts). 
Einspielen (Ger.). To practise a piece well. 
Einstimmen (Ger.). To be in accord with; to be in tune. 
Einstimmig (Ger.). In unison. 
Eint(h)eilung (Ger.). Division. 
Eintritt (Ger.). Entrance, entry. 

— 73 — 

Einzeln (G^r.). Single, solo. Zwei einzelne Violinen, two solo violins. 
Einzel- in combination. 

Einzelne gestopfte Tone sind mit + bezeichnet. Single closed 
notes are indicated by a +. 

Einzelpartie. Solo part. 

Einzelsanger. Solo singer. 

Einzelstimme. Single voice; solo part. 

Einzeltanz. Solo dance. 
Einzug (Ger.). Entrance, entry. 
Eis (Ger.). E sharp. 

Eisis. E double sharp. 
Elargi (Fr.). Broadened; slackened. 
Elargissant (Fr.). Broadening; slackening. 

Elel^te (It.t '^'•*' i Elegant, fine, distinguished. 

Elegantemente (It.). Elegantly. 

IKa'flt")'- j Elegance, refinement. 

Elegia (It.). Elegy. 

Elegiac© (It.). Elegiac; expressing grief or mourning. 


Elf (Ger.). Eleven. 

Elevamento, Elevatezza (It.). Elevation. 
Elevate (It.). Elevated, in a sublime style. 
Elevazione (It.). Elevation. 
Eleve (Fr.). Pupil. 
Elicon (It.). V. Helicon. 
Embellir (Fr.). To ornament, to embellish. 

Embouchure, (i) The position of the lips, etc. necessary for the 
proper blowing of a wind-instrument. (2) The mouth-hole of a 
Embouchure (Fr.). (i) The position of the lips, etc. necessary for the 
proper blowing of a wind-instrument. (2) The mouth-hole of a 
flute. (3) The cup-shaped mouthpiece of a brass instrument. 
Emozione (It.). Emotion, agitation. 
Empater (Fr.). "To make into a paste." Of sounds, voices, etc., 

to make mellow and smooth. 
Empfindung (Ger.). Sentiment, sensibility. 

Empfindungsvoll. Sensitive, full of sentiment. 
Emphase (Fr. and Ger.). Emphasis; stress laid on certain notes. 
Emporte (Fr.). Fiery, passionate. 

Emporte et violent. Passionate and violent. 
Empresse (Fr.). Ardent; ready, prompt. 
Emu (Fr.). Affected, moved. 

En (Fr.). In, into, on. Used with the present participle in many 
cases, where in Eng. the latter would stand by itself. 

En accelerant. Quickening. 

En animant un peu. Becoming somewhat animated. 

En badinant. Sporting, trifling. 

En bousculade. Going head over heels. 

En c^dant. Giving way, slackening. 

— 74 — 

En cuivrant le son. Making the tone brassy, v. Cuivre. 

En dehors. Outside, without. Indication often found against 
any particular part, which ought to stand out from the rest. 

En diminuant. Diminishing in force or in tempo, or in both; 

En elargissant. Becoming broader, slackening. 

En fa, mi, etc. In F, E, etc. 

En mesure. In time. 

En ralentissant. Slackening. 

En retenant. Holding back, i. e. slackening. 

En s'eloignant. Becoming more distant, i. e. growing fainter. 

En scene. On the stage. 

En serrant. Becoming closer together, i. e. quickening. 
Enarmonico (It.). Enharmonic. 

Enchainez (Fr.). Unite, connect. Indication meaning that one 
movement or number is to be joined on to the next without 
a break. 
Enclume (Fr.). Anvil. 
Encore (Fr.). Again; still, yet. 

Encore plus vite. Still faster. 
Ende (Ger.). End. End- in combination. 

Endstiick. End-piece. 
Energia (It.). Energy, force, vigour. 
Energicamente (It.). Energetically, vigorously. 

Inerllsch'fGer.). i Energetic, vigorous, forcible. 

Energte. Abbr. of energicamente. 

Enfant de choeur (Fr.). A choir-boy. 

Enfasi (It.). Emphasis. 

Enfaticamente (It.). Emphatically, forcibly. 

Enfatico (It.). Emphatic. 

Eng (Ger.). Narrow, close. 

Enge Harmonic. Close harmony, i. e. when the tenor part lies 
within an octave of that of the soprano. 

Enge Lage. Close position, v. Enge Harmonic. 

Engfiihrung. The stretto of a fugue. 

Eng gcschricbcnc Partitur. A condensed score. 

Eng vcrbundcn. Closely connected, related. 
Engclstimmc (Ger.). The vox angelica {q. v.). 
Englisch (Ger.). English. 

Englischcr Tanz. An English dance. 

Englischcs Horn. The English horn, or cor anglais. 

i;;l;^mSh(<Ger',i Enharmonic. 

Enlcvez (Fr.). Take off, take away. 

Enlcvcz la p4dalc. Take off the pedal. 
Enlcvez la sourdine. Remove the mute. 
Ensemble (Fr.). Together, (subs.) Whole. Un morceau d'ensemble 
is a number in an opera, oratorio etc., in which all or most of the 
principal characters are introduced, with or without the chorus. 
Entfcrnung (Ger.). Distance. In Entfernung aufgestellt, placed at 
a distance. 

— 75 — 

Entr'acte (Fr.). (i) A piece of music played between the acts. (2) A 
"wait" or interval between the acts. 

Entrain (Fr.). Animation, high spirits, "go". 

Entrata (It.), ((i) An introduction. (2) The entry of a part, dancer 

Entree (Fr.). \ or character. 

Entriickung (Ger.). Rapture. 

Entriistet (Ger.). Indignant. 

Entschieden (Ger.). Resolute, with decision; decidedly. Die Viertel- 
schldge entschieden schneller als vorhin die Vs Schldge, the crotchet- 
beats decidedly faster than the previous Vs beats. 

Entschlossen (Ger.). Resolute, firm, determined. 

Entschlossenheit (Ger.). Firmness, determination. 

Entusiasmo (It.). Enthusiasm. 

Entusiastico (It.). Enthusiastic. 

Entwurf (Ger.). Sketch; draft of a composition. 

Eolian harp. v. ^Eolian harp. 

Epicedi^o (It)*. \^^^^'^ funeral oration or song. 

Epinette (Fr.). A spinet. 

Episodic (It.). Episode; a portion of a composition not based on the 

main subjects. 
Equabile (It.). Equable, uniform. 

Equisonnance (Fr.). The consonance of the unison or octave. 
Ergriffen (Ger.). Moved, affected. 
Ergriffenheit (Ger.). Emotion. 

Erhaben (Ger.). Elevated; noble, generous; grand, magnificent. 
Erheben (Ger.). To raise. 

Erhohen (Ger.). To raise; to raise the pitch, to sharpen. 
Erhoht (Ger.). Raised; raised in pitch. 

Erhoht, aufierhalb des Orchesters. On high, outside the orchestra. 

Erhohtes Interval!. Augmented interval. 
Erhohung (Ger.). A raising of a note by means of a sharp. Er- 
hohungs- in combination. 

Erhohungstritt, or Erhohtritt. A term for a harp pedal. 

Erhohungszeichen. The sharp sign (jj). Doppeltes Erhohungs- 
zeichen, the sign of a double-sharp (x). 
Erleichterung (Ger.). The simplified version of a passage. 
Erloschend (Ger.). Growing fainter, weaker. 
Ermangelung (Ger.). Want, deficiency. In Ermangelung der Harfe, 

in the absence of the harp. 
Ermattend (Ger.). Weakening, growing fainter. 
Ermattet (Ger.). Jaded, worn out. 
Emiedrigen (Ger.). To lower in pitch, to flatten. 
Ernst (Ger.). Serious, solemn, (subs.) Earnestness, etc. 
Ernsthaft (Ger.). Serious, solemn. 
Eroico, -a (It.). Heroic, illustrious. 

Erotico, -a (It.). Erotic, amatory. Erotica, a love song. 
Ersatz (Ger.). An equivalent, substitution. Ob. als Ersatz fUr E. 

Horn, oboe as substitute for the Enghsh horn. 
Erst (Ger.). First. 

Erste Bewegung. First movement (tempo). 

Erste Lage. First position. 

- 76 - 

Erster Satz. First movement. 

Erstes ZeitmaB. First tempo, tempo into. 

Erste Violine. First violin. 
Ersterbend (Ger.). Gradually dying away. 
Erstickt (Ger.). Stifled, weak, faint. Mit er stickier Stimme, in a 

weak voice. 
Erweitert (Ger.). Broadened, expanded. 
Erweiterung (Ger.). Enlargement, expansion. 
Erziirnt (Ger.). Exasperated, angered. 
Es (Ger.). It. 

Es fallt schnell ein. It proceeds (to the next number). 

Es (Ger.). E flat. 

Es dur. E flat major. 

Es Klarinette. E flat clarinet. 

Es moll. E flat minor. 
Esacordo (It.). The interval of the sixth. 
Esaltato (It.), v. Exalte. 
Esatezza (It.). Exactness, care. 
Esatto (It.). Exact, precise, careful. 
Esecuzione (It.). Execution, performance. 
Esercizio (It.). Exercise. 
Eses (Ger.). E double-flat. 
Espace (Fr.). Space; space between the lines of the stave. 

l:^ti:;t'.oTit.).'^'^'- 1 ^p--'^- 

Espansione (It.). Expansion. 

Espirando (It.), v. Spirando. 

Espress. Abbr. of espressivo. 

Espressione (It.). Expression. 

Espressivo (It.). Expressive. 

Es(s)empio (It.). Example. 

Estensione (It.). Compass of a voice or instrument. 

Estinguendo (It.). Dying away. 

Estinto (It.). Dead, extinguished. (Used for an almost imperceptible 

Estravaganza (It.), v. Stravaganza. 
Estremamente (It.). Extremely. 
Estro poetico (It.). Poetic frenzy. 
Esultazione (It.). Exultation. 

Et (Fr.). And. / et bien soutenu, f and well sustained. 
Et (Lat.). And. 

Et vitam. Part of the Credo in the Mass. 
£teignez le son (Fr.). Reduce the sound to almost nothing. 
Eteint (Fr.). Extinguished, dull, inaudible. 

£teint, sans expression. Dull, without expression. 
Etendu (Fr.). Extended, (subs.) Btendue, compass. 
£touff6 (Fr.). Damped. 
Etouffez le son (Fr.). Damp the sound. 
Etouffoirs (Fr.). The dampers of a piano. 
Etude (Fr.). A study. 

-_ 77 — 

Ettide (Ger.). A study, plur. Etiiden. 

Etu^ rCe S ! ^ ^^^® ^°^ ^^ instrument. 
Etwas (Ger.). Somewhat. 

Etwas agitiert. Somewhat agitated. 

Etwas belebend. Growing somewhat faster. 

Etwas belebt. Somewhat animated. 

Etwas belebter. Somewhat more animated. 

Etwas betont, doch sehr innig. Somewhat pronounced and with 

much feehng. 
Etwas bewegt. Somewhat agitated. 
Etwas bewegter. Somewhat more agitated. 
Etwas breit in Zeitmafi. Somewhat broad in tempo. 
Etwas deutlicher und allmahlich ausdrucksvoller. Rather more 

distinct and gradually with more expression. 
Etwas drangend. Somewhat hurrying. 
Etwas frei vorzutragen. To be played somewhat freely. 
Etwas gedehnt. Somewhat drawn-out. 
Etwas gehend. "Somewhat going", i. e. with a certain amount 

of movement. 
Etwas gemachlicher. Somewhat more leisurely. 
Etwas geschwind. Somewhat quick. 
Etwas hervortretend. Somewhat prominent. 
Etwas kokett. Somewhat coquettishly. 
Etwas langsam. Somewhat slow. 
Etwas langsamer als das Thema. Somewhat slower than the 

Etwas lansamer als zu Anfang. Somewhat slower than at the 

Etwas langsamer und ruhig. Somewhat slower and quietly. 
Etwas lebhaft und mit innigster Empfindung. Somewhat ani- 
mated, and with the deepest feeling. 
Etwas leichter und bewegter. Somewhat more lightly and 

Etwas markiert. Somewhat accented. 
Etwas maBig, aber dennoch gehende Viertelbewegung. Somewhat 

moderate, but the crotchets still with a certain amount of 

Etwas naher als vorhin. Somewhat nearer than before. 
Etwas rallent. Becoming somewhat slower. 
Etwas ruhiger. Somewhat more tranquil. 
Etwas schneller. Somewhat faster. 
Etwas weniger breit. Somewhat less broadly. 
Etwas zogernd und sehr ruhig. Somewhat slackening and very 

Etwas zuriickhaltend in der Bewegung. Somewhat slackening 

the movement. 
Eufonia (It.). Euphony. 
Eufonio (It.). A euphonium. 

lu?honil|Ger',.i Euphony. 

Euphonion (Ger.). A euphonium. 

- 78 - 

Euphonium. A bass saxhorn with a wide bore, in contradistinction 
to the narrow-bored baritone {q. v.), which gives fulness in the 
lower register and enables the fundamental notes to be easily 
produced. It is usually made in Bb, and is often furnished with 4, 
rarely with 5, valves, for obtaining the complete scale down to 
the fundamental note. v. Saxhorn and Tuba. 

Eveille (Fr.). Sprightly, lively, alert. 

Evocation (Fr.). Evocation; the summoning up of inferior beings 
(demons, evil spirits, etc.), as opposed to Invocation, a prayer or 
request to superior beings. 

Exactement (Fr.). Exactly, precisely. 

Exactement rhythm^. In precise rhythm. 

Exalte (Fr.). Elevated; feverish, over-excited, inspired. 

Executant, -ante (Fr.). An executant, performer. 

Exit (Lat.). He (or she) goes out, i. e. (in plays and operas) leaves 
the stage. Used in some theatrical circles as an infinitive, — to 
exit, and consequently, he or she exits. 

Expressif, -ive (Fr.). Expressive. 

Expressif et largement chante. Expressive, and in a broad 
singing style. 

Expression stop. A stop on the harmonium, whereby the reeds are 
acted upon directly by the pedals, and therefore the various grada- 
tions of nuance are controlled by the feet. 

Expressivorgel (Ger.). A term for the harmonium. 

Extempore (Lat.). On the spur of the moment. 

Extemporieren (Ger.). To extemporise. 

Extremement (Fr.). Extremely. 

Extremement lent. Extremely slow 

F. The fourth note of the normal scale of C major. It is called fa 
in Fr. and It. 

f. Abbr. of forte. 

F clef. The bass clef 2z » with / on the 4th line. Another form 

of F clef was the baritone clef, with / on the 3rd line, but this 
is now obsolete. 

F holes. The /-shaped sound-holes in the belly of a violin, etc. 

P.O. Abbr. of Full Organ. 
F (Ger.). The note F. 

F dur. F major. 

F Locher. The /-holes of a violin, etc. 

F moll. F minor. 

F Schliissel. F clef ; bass clef. 
Fa (Fr.). The note F. 

Fa b6mol. F flat. 

Fa diese. F sharp. 

Fa majeur. F major. 

Fa mineur. F minor. 
Fa (It.). The note F. 

— 79 — 

Fa bemolle. F flat. 
Fa diesis. F sharp. 
Fa maggiore. F major. 
Fa minore. F minor. 

Faces d'un accord. (Fr.). The positions of a chord. 

Facezia (It.). Conceit, jest. 

Fach (Ger.). Compartment, division, -fach, used in combination, 
is equivalent to the Eng. "-fold", or "-times", as zweifach, twofold, 
vierfach, fourfold, etc., these being often written as zfach, ^fach, 
etc. In scores, the words mean that the instruments against which 
they are placed are divided into so many parts. In organs, the 
words are employed in the sense of ranks, as Kornett ^fach (or 
dreifach), Cornet 3 ranks, Mixtur $fach (or fiinffach). Mixture 5 ranks. 

Facile (Fr. and It.). Easy, facile; yielding. 

Facilement (Fr.). Easily, readily. 

Facilita (It.). A simplified version of a passage. 

Facilitate (It.). Facilitated, simplified. 

Facilite (Fr.). v. Facilita. 

Facilmente (It.), v. Facilement. 

Fackeltanz (Ger.). A dance with torches. 

Factitious notes. Certain very low notes on the horn, which form 
no part of the natural scale, and are produced by a modification 
of the embouchure. Beethoven frequently uses them, but they 
are no longer employed, the invention of valves having made it 
possible to obtain notes of the same pitch of better quality and 

Facture (Fr.). The make, construction of a piece of music. The 
scale of organ pipes. 

Fagott (Ger.). The bassoon. 

Fagottino (It.). A small sized bassoon a 5th higher than the ordinary 
instrument; a "tenoroon". cf. Basson quinte. 

FagOttist (Ger.). ( . v,a^c:onn nlav«-r 

Fagottista (It.). (^ bassoon player. 

Fagotto (It.). Bassoon. 

Fagottone (It.). A name for the double-bassoon. 

Fahnenmarsch (Ger.). March played at the lodging of the colours. 

Fahre sogleich fort (Ger.). Begin the next number (or movement) 

immediately, attacca. 
Faible (Fr.). Weak, faint, feeble. 
Faire (Fr.). To do, make. Often combined with other verbs. 

Faire ressortir le chant. Make the melody prominent, (i;. Rem. I.) 
Faites (Fr.). Make, do. 

Faites cuivrer. Make brassy, v. Cuivre. 

Faites sonner. Make resound. 

Falcon (Fr.). A name sometimes given to a voice resembling that 

of Mile. Falcon, who was a celebrated singer in Paris in 1832 to 1837. 

Fall (Ger.). Case, eventuality, instance. Im Falle . . . ., in case. . . . 

Falsch (Ger.). Erroneous, out of tune. Of intervals, imperfect or 


Falsche Note. A wrong note. 

Falsche Quinte. A diminished fifth. 

Falsch spielen. To play out of tune, or wrongly. 

— 8o — 

Falsetto (It.), (i) The head voice. (2) A singer, who practises the 
head voice almost exclusively, such as a male alto. 

Falsettstimme (Ger.). Falsetto. 

False bordone (It.), v. Faux bourdon. 

Fanatico (It.). Fanatical, enthusiastic, (subs.) A fanatic. 

Fandango (Sp.). A Uvely dance in ternary time, usually accompanied 
by castanets. 

Fanfare (Fr.). (i) A flourish on a horn or trumpet, corresponding to 
the old Eng. "tucket" and Ger. "Tusch". (2) A term used for 
brass instruments in general, and hence Orchestre de fanfare (usu- 
ally abbr. to fanfare) is a brass band. 

Fanfare (Ger.). A flourish on the horn or trumpet. 

Fanfare Supplementaire. Music for brass instruments on the stage. 

Fantaisie (Fr.). j Fantasia. Fancy, imagination, caprice. The name 

Fantasia (It.), j is given to pieces, in which no particular form is 
observed, and which may be simply founded on operatic, national 
airs, etc., or be an original composition having much the character 
of an extemporisation. 

Fantasie, etc. (Ger.). v. Phantasie, etc. 

Fantasticamente (It.). Fantastically. 

Fantastico (It.). \ Fantastic 

Fantastique (Fr.). ( fantastic. 

Farandola (It.). jA dance of the South of France and part of Italy, 

Farandole (Fr.). ( in Vs time. 

Farsa (It.). A farce. 

Farsa in musica. A musical farce, a species of comic opera. 

Fast (Ger.). Almost. 

Fast dasselbe Tempo. Almost the same tempo. 

Fastosamente (It.). Proudly, pompously. 

Fastoso (It.). Pompous, stately. 

Fattura (It.). The make, construction of a piece of music. 

Fausse (Fr.). Fem. of faux, false. Of intervals, diminished, imperfect. 
Fausse quinte. A diminished fifth. 
Fausse relation. False relation. 

Fausset (Voix de) (Fr.). Falsetto. 

Faux, Fausse (Fr.). False. 

Faux bourdon. A species of primitive counterpoint, originally 
consisting merely of a kind of drone bass. 

Feathering. On the violin, etc., a form of bowing for delicate, lightly 
detached rapid passages. 

Febrile (Fr.). Feverish. 

Feierlich (Ger.). Solemn, majestic, maestoso; festive. 

Feierlichkeit (Ger.). Solemnity, etc. 

Fein (Ger.). Fine, thin, delicate. 

Feld (Ger.). Field. In combination often used in the sense of "mili- 

Feldmusik. Military music. 

Feldtrompete. Military trumpet for calls and signals. 

Fermamente (It.). Firmly. 

Fermata (It.). A pause. 

Fermate (Ger.). A pause, ^. Die Fertnaten sehr lang und bedeutungs- 
voll, the pauses very long and significant. 

— 8i — 

Fermato, -a (It.). Fixed, firm. 

Fermezza (It.). Firmness. 

Fermo (It.). Firm, fast, fixed. 

Feme (Ger.). Distance. Wie aus der Feme, as from a distance; 

immer in der Feme, always at a distance. 
Fernwerk (Ger.). Same as Echowerk, the echo-work of an organ. 
Fercce (It.). Fierce, ferocious. 
Ferocia, Ferocita (It.). Ferocity, cruelty. 
Fertig (Ger.). Prepared, ready; skilful, dexterous. 
Fertigkeit (Ger.). Skill, dexterity, facility. 
Fervente (It.). Ardent, fervent. 

Ferventemente, Fervidamente (It.). With ardour, vehemently. 
Fervido (It.). Fervid, burning, ardent. 
Fervcre (It.). Warmth, ardour. 
Fes (Ger.). F flat. 
Feses (Ger.). F double-flat. 
Fest (Ger.). adj. Firm, fast, unwavering, strictly in time. 

Festes ZeitmaO. Strict tempo. 

Festgehalten. Held fast, ben tenuto. 

Festhalten. To hold fast, maintain. 
Fest (Ger.). subs. A festival, holiday. 

Festgesaiig. A festival song or hymn. 

Festmarsch. A festival march. 

Festmusik. Festival music. 

Festouverture. A festival overture. 

Festspiel. A festival play. 
Festa (It.). Holiday, festival, feast. 
Festevole (It.). Joyful, merry. 
Festevolmente (It.). Joyfully. 
Festivamente (It.). In a festive manner. 
Festivita (It.). Festivity, mirth. 
Festive (It.). Solemn, festival. 
Festlich (Ger.). Festive, pompous, festival. 
Festosissimo (It.). Sup. of festoso. 
Festoso (It.). Lively, merry, gay. 

Feu (Fr.). Fire, animation, spirit. Feux follets, wills-o'-the-wisp. 
Feuer (Ger.). Fire, animation, vehemence. 
Feu(e)rig (Ger.). Fiery, passionate. 

Feurig schwungvoll. With fiery impetuosity. 
ff. Abbr. of fortissimo. 
fff. Abbr. of forte fortissimo. 
ffff. Abbr. of fortissimo fortissimo. 
Fiaccamente (It.). Weakly, faintly. 
Fiacchezza (It.). Lassitude, feebleness. 
Fiacco (It.), subs. Ravage, ruin. adj. Weak, feeble 
Fiasco (It.). Literally a "flask". A failure. 
Fiata (It.). Sometimes used for volta, time (not in the sense of tempo). 

Una fiata, once; due fiate, twice. 
Fiducia (It.). Confidence, trust. 
Fiedel (Ger.). A fiddle. 

Fiedelbogen. A fiddle-stick. 

Fiedelmann, or Fiedeler. A iiddler. 

Wotton, Dictionary. 6 

— 82 — 

Fier, fidre (Fr.). Proud. 

Fieramente (It.)- ( pro„dlv 
Fierement (Fr.). j ^^^^^^y- 
Fiero (It.). Cruel, savage; proud, arrogant. 

Fife, (i) A primitive species of piccolo, used in conjunction with 
side-drums in military Drum and Fife Bands. Its compass was from 
d' to d"\ sounding an 8ve above, and it was made in a variety of 
keys. Its. modern representative in the British Army is a small 
flute in B|7. (2) An organ stop of 2 ft. 
Fifre (Fr.). A fife. 

Figur (Ger.). A figure (in music or dancing). 
Figurato (It.). ) 
Figure (Fr.). | Figured. 
Figuriert (Ger.). ) 
Filare (It.). Literally "to spin". 

Filar la voce, or un suono. Gradually to augment and then 
diminish the sound of a note, -==; r=— . 
Filer la voix, or un son (Fr.). v. Filare. 

Fin (Fr.). subs. End, termination, adj. Fine, slender, delicate ;f em. fine. 
Fin (It.). Abbr. of fino, to, as far as, till, and fine. 
Fin al segno. As far as the sign. 
Fin alia meta. Until the half. 
Fin qui. Until here; until this point. 
Finale (It.). The concluding number of the act of an opera. The 

last movement of a symphony, sonata, etc. 
Fine (Fr.). Fem. of fin. 

Fine (It.). The end, conclusion (sometimes shortened to fin). 
Finezza (It.). Fineness, perfection. 

Finger (Ger.). Finger. Erster Finger, or Zeige finger, forefinger; 
Zweiter Finger, or Mittel finger, second finger; Dritter Finger or 
Goldfinger, third finger; Kleiner Finger, little finger. 
Fingerbrett. A finger-board. 
Fingerfertig. Nimble-fingered. 
Fingerfertigkeit. Nimbleness; execution. 
Fingergelenke. The internodes, or spaces between the joints of 

the fingers. 
Fingerglied. Finger- joint. 

Finger liegen lassen. Let the finger remain (on the string). 
Fingersatz. Fingering. 
Fingersetzung. Fingering. 
Fingerspitze. The tip of the finger. 
Finger strecken. The stretching of the fingers. 
Fingerubung. Finger-exercise. 
Finger-board. The strip of wood attached to the neck of instruments 
of the violin or guitar class, over which the strings are strained, 
and against which they are pressed by the fingers to form the va- 
rious notes. 
Finite (It.). Finished. 
Fino (It.). To, as far as, until, v. Fin. 
Finto (It.). Feigned, hid, counterfeited. Cadenza finta, a deceptive 

Fiochetto (It.). Somewhat hoarse. 

- 83 - 

Fiochezza (It.). Hoarseness. 
Fioco (It.). Hoarse, weak, faint. 

Fioreggiando (It.). Ornamenting a passage with shakes, grace- 
notes, etc. 
Fioreggiante (It.). Flowery. 

Fioretto (It.). A vocal ornament of any description. 
Fioriture (It.). Florid melodic ornaments. 
Fis (Ger.). F sharp. 

Fis dur. F sharp major. 
Fis moll. F sharp minor. 
Fisis (Ger.). F double-sharp. 
Fistel (Ger.). Falsetto, head voice. 
Fistulieren (Ger.). To sing falsetto. 
Fl. Abbr. of flute, flute, Flote, f I auto. 

Flageolet. The sole survivor of the old flutes-d-hec, or flutes played 
with a whistle-head and held vertically. The instrument is fur- 
nished with from i to 7 keys, and has a compass of 2 octaves 
and 3 semitones from g'. It is made in several keys (B [?, D, E7, 
F, G), and is now only to be found in a few bands, which perform 
hght music. The name is also given to an organ pipe of 2 ft. 
Flageolet (Fr.). A flageolet. 
Flageolett (Ger.). A flageolet. 

Flageolett-Tone. Harmonics on the harp and the violin, etc. 
Flatter (Fr.). To caress. 

Flatter la corde. To bow gently and deUcately. 
Flatterzunge (Ger.). "Flutter-tonguing". It is used on the flute 
{Don Quixote, R. Strauss), and occasionally on the Trompe de chasse 
and other wind instruments , and consists in a rapid movement 
of the tongue while blowing the notes. It differs from double 
and triple tonguing, in that the tongue does not touch the lips 
at any time during its execution. 
Flautando (It.), j Expressions denoting a particular form of bowing 
Flautato (It.), j on the violin, etc., by means of which flute-like 
tones are produced. The point of the bow is used, and the string 
touched lightly close to the finger-board. 
Flautino (It.). A small flute; a name for the ottavino (piccolo). 
Flauto (It.). A flute. 

Flauto a becco. The flilte-d-bec. 

Flauto amabile. The name of an organ stop of sweet tone. 

Flauto dolce. Same as flauto a becco; also the name of a sweet 

toned organ stop. 
Flauto Giorgi. A flute held vertically, but played, not with a 
whistle-head, but with an embouchure like an ordinary flute. 
Flauto piccolo. The piccolo. This is the name found in the 
scores of composers (other than ItaUan), who employ ItaUan 
terms, but modern Italian composers almost invariably use 
Ottavino for the instrument. 
Flauto principale. An organ stop of 8 ft. 

Flauto traverso. The cross flute; the ordinary flute, as distin- 
guished from the old flauto a becco. The "traverso" is now 
always omitted, 
Flautone (It.). A large flute; the bass flute. 


- 84 - 

Flebile (It.). Mournful, sad. 
Flebilmente (It.). Dejectedly, mournfully. 
Flehend (Ger.). Supplicating, imploring. 

Flesh-hoop. The hoop of a drum, over which the head is stretched. 
Flessibile (It.). Flexible, pliable. 
Flessibilita (It.). Suppleness, flexibility. 

Flicorno (It.). Term corresponding to the Ger. Flugelhorn {q. v.). 
Flicorni of various sizes, all being virtually saxhorns of somewhat 
narrow bore, are employed in It. bands, under names which do 
not always accord. 

Flicorno in Do o Si/. The ordinary Flugelhorn, corresponding 

in pitch with the cornet-d-pistons. 
Flicorno in Fa o MiK The alto Flugelhorn or Althorn, called 

Flicorno contralto, or sometimes Flicorno tenore. 
Flicorno basso in Sib o La. The baritone Fliigelhorn, called 

Flicorno tenore, or sometimes Flicorno basso. 
Flicorno basso a tracolla. A circular bass Fliigelhorn. 
FlieBend (Ger.). Flowing, running smoothly. 

FlieBend, aber immer gemaBigt. Flowing smoothly, but always 
in moderate tempo. 
Flote (Ger.). The flute. 

Flote blasen. To play the flute. 
Floten (Ger.). Flutes. 

FlotenbaB. A bass flute. 

The flue or flute- work of an organ. 

Flotenwerk. ) 

Flotter (Fr.). To float, to undulate. En laissant flotter Varchet, 
allowing the bow to undulate (on the strings). 

Fliichtig (Ger.). Fleet, nimble. 

Fliichtigkeit (Ger.). Lightness, nimbleness. 

Fliigel (Ger.). A grand piano. 

Flugelhorn (Ger.). A valve brass instrument with a bore like that of 
the military bugle and corresponding to the Fr. Bugle en st?, with 
a compass the same as the cornet-d-pistons. The Altfliigelhorn, 
usually called the Althorn, is a similar instrument pitched in E[7. 

Fluidezza, Fluidita (It.). Fluidity, the quahty of flowing evenly and 

Fluido (It.). Fluid, fluent. 

Fliissig (Ger.). Fluid, flowing evenly and smoothly. Etwas fliissiger 
als zu Anfang, somewhat more flowing than at the commencement. 

Flute. The term now-a-days always implies the flauto traverso, or 
cross flute, the old fltites-d-bec, of which the flageolet is the sole 
descendant, being obsolete. The compass of the flute is from c' to 
c'"*, some modern instruments possessing the b and b\} below. 
Another variety of flute is the Third Flute, an instrument sounding 
a minor 3rd above the ordinary flute, and in regard to this 
there is a confusion of nomenclature. With all other transposing 
instruments, the pitch is calculated from C, and thus an instru- 
ment, which produces sounds a minor 3rd above or a major 6th 
below the written notes is said to be in Et?, and consequently the 
Third Flute is correctly speaking a flute in E!?. But since the lowest 

- 85 - 

note of the ordinary flute, when no keys are used, is d', that 
flute is sometimes said to be in D, and the Third Flute to be in F. 
On the same principle, another flute standing a semitone above 
the ordinary flute is often said to be in E|7, instead of being in 
Db, according to correct nomenclature. These last two varieties 
of flutes are now never used in the orchestra, although to be 
found in some military bands. For flutes sounding an octave 
above, v. Piccolo. For flutes sounding below the written notes, 
V. Bass Flute and Flute d'amour. 
Flute (Fr.). Flute. 

Flute-a-bec. A flute with a whistle-head. 

Flute allemande. The German or cross flute. 

Flute anglaise. A species of flute-d-bec. 

Flute a pavilion. An organ stop, sometimes called in Eng. bell 

Flute bouchee. A stopped diapason. 

Flute d'amour. (i) A flute sounding a minor 3rd below the 
written notes, and therefore standing in A, although often 
erroneously said to be in Bj^f {v. Flute). The instrument is 
no longer in use. (2) An organ stop of 4ft or 8ft. 

Imte d^tTcf *""1 A species of flute^-bec. 

Flute harmonique. Harmonic flute, an open metal organ stop 
of 4 or 8 ft pitch, with pipes of double the length, but with a 
hole bored in them midway between the foot and the top. 
Flute Guverte. An open diapason, on the organ. 
Flute pointee. An organ stop, with the pipes smaller at the top. 
Flute traversiere. The cross flute. 
Plut6 (Fr.). V. Flautato. 
Foco (It.). A poetical form of fuoco, fire. 
Focosamente (It.). Ardently, vehemently. 
Focosissimo (It.). Sup. of focoso. 
Focoso (It.). Fiery, ardent, hasty. 

Foglietto (It.). Literally "a small sheet of paper". The name is 
given to the first violin part, when it contains the entries of the 
other instruments and the voices. A conductor's part. 
Fois (Fr.). Time (not in the sense of tempo). PremUre {ire) fois, 

first time; deuxitme {2ieme) fois, second time. 
Folge (Ger.). Sequence, consecution. In einer Folge, without 

Folge der Tone. Succession of notes. 
Folgend (Ger. ). Following. Der Melodie folgend, following the melody ; 
dem Sanger folgend, following the singer ; i. e. in both cases, col parte. 
Folgt (Ger.). Follows. 

Folgt lange Pause. A long pause follows. 
Folias (Sp.). ) 

Folies d'Espagne (Fr.). J A Spanish dance. 
Follia (It.). ) 

Follemente (It.). Foolishly, extravagantly. 
Fond (Fr.). Back of a violin, etc. In a theatrical sense, the back 

of the stage. Au fond, at the back of the stage. 
Fends (Fr.). Used as an abbr. of jeux de fonds {q. v,). 

— 86 — 

Fonds de 8 P. (pieds). Open diapasons 8 ft. 
Forchetta (It.). A fork. A forchetta, cross-fingered (on a wood-wind 

Forl^e (Fr.). (^ lively Venetian dance, usually in 6/Z time. 

Format (Fr.). Size. Un tam-tam de petit format, a gong of 
small size. 

Fore (It.). A hole or ventage on a wood-wind instrument. 

Fort (Fr.). Strong, loud. 

Fort (Ger.). Onwards, further, constantly (when combined with 
immer). Hervortretend immer fort, constantly prominent. 

Forte (It.). Strong, loud. 

Fortement (Fr.). [q^.^ , , ,, 

Fortemente (It.). r^^^^S^^' l^^^l^' 

Fortepiano (It.), (i) The art of increasing and softening sounds. 
(2) A soft nuance immediately succeeding a loud one, usually 
written Fp. (3) An old name for the pianoforte. 

Fortfahrend (Ger.). Continuing, resuming. In derselhen Bewegung 
fortfahrend, continuing with the same movement. 

Fortissimo (It.). Sup. of forte: very loud, //. 

Fortissimo quanto possibile. With all possible loudness. 

Fortississimo (It.). An intensitive of fortissimo, fff. 

Fortschreitung (Ger.). Progression. 

Fortsetzung (Ger.). Continuation. 

Forza (It.). Force. Tutta forza, as loud as possible. 

Forzando (It.). Forcing (the sound); emphasising a note. 

Forzare (It.). To force. 

Forzar la voce. To force the voice. 

Forzato (It.). Forced, violent; emphasised, accented. 

Fougueux, -euse (Fr.). Ardent, fiery, impetuous. 

Fourchette (Fr.). A fork; the fork of a harp. 

Fourchu (Fr.). Forked. Doigte fourchu, cross fingering on wood- 
wind instruments. 

Fourniture (Fr.). One of the mixture stops on an organ. 

Fp. Abbr. of Fortepiano. 

Fra se (It.). To himself (herself ), aside. 

Franpais, -gaise (Fr.). French. Frangaise (subs.) is the name of a 
country dance. 

Fr^HchfsMFr.) >• l^ravery, frankness. 

Frappe (Fr.). Struck. 

Frapp6 avec la mailloche. Struck with the bass drumstick. 

Frapp6 avec le bois de Tarchet. Struck with the wood (back> 
of the bow, col legno. 

Frappe avec un marteau. Struck with a hammer. 
Prase (It.). Phrase. 

Frase larga. A broad phrase. 

Frasi musicali. Musical phrases. 
Fraseggiare (It.). To phrase. Fraseggiando, phrasing (exactly). 
Fratzenhaft (Ger.). Grotesque, baroque. 

Frauen (Ger.). Plur. of Frau (woman, female, lady) and used in 

- 87 - 

Frauenchor. Female chorus. 
Frauenstimme. Female voice. 
Freddamente (It.). Coldly, without animation. 
Freddezza (It.). Coldness, indifference. 
Freddo (It.). Cold, frigid. 

Fredonner (Fr.). To hum. Fredonnant, humming. 
Free reeds, v. Reeds. 
Frei (Ger.). Free. 

Freihangend. Freely suspended. (Direction found in cymbal 
parts, when one of the cymbals is to be struck with a 
drumstick. ) 
Freie Nachahmung. Free imitation. 
Freie Schreibart. Free style. 
French Horn. The ordinary orchestral horn. It is to be noted that 
the French occasionally call the instrument un cor allemand, a 
German horn. 
French Hunting Horn. v. Trompe de chasse. 

French violin clef. The G clef on the ist line, ^F, now obsolete. 

Frenetico (It.). Frantic, frenzied, mad. 
Frescamente (It.), (i) With freshness. (2) Recently. 
Fresco (It.). Coolness, freshness. 

Frets. Strips of wood, metal or ivory placed across the fingerboard 
of instruments of the guitar class, which allow of the notes being 
stopped with accuracy, but without the rapidity of execution 
possible on a fingerboard without frets. 
Fretta (It.). Haste. 
Frettolosamente (It.). Hastily, quickly. 
Freudig (Ger.). Joyful, glad, cheerful. 
Freundlich (Ger.). Friendly, kind, gracious. 
Freundschaftlich (Ger.). Friendly, amicable. 
Frisch (Ger.). Fresh, cool, lusty, brisk. 

Frisch bewegt. With brisk movement. 

Frisch und frohlich. Free and light-hearted. 

Frisch und kraftig. Lively and vigorous. 

Frisch und munter. Brisk and vivacious. 
Frohlich (Ger.). Light-hearted, joyous, merry. 
Froidement (Fr.). Coldly. 

Frosch (Ger.). Literally "a frog". The nut of the bow of a violin, etc. 
Am Frosch, near the nut. 

Froschschraube. The screw of the nut. 
Frottola (It.). Ballad. 
Fruher (Ger.). Earlier, previous, foregoing. Wie fruher, as before. 

Friiheres ZeitmaB. The previous tempo. 
Friihling (Ger.). Spring. 

Friihlingsgesang. A spring song. 
Fuga (It.). Fugue. 

Fuga del tuono. A tonal fugue. 

Fuga in consequenza. A canon. 

Fuga ric areata. A master fugue, one introducing all the resources 
of counterpoint: an artificial fugue. 

— 88 — 

Fuga sciolta. A free fugue. 

Fugato (It.). In the fugue style without being worked out in strict 
fugue form. 

Fuge (Ger.). Fugue. 

Fughetta (It.). A short fugue. 

Fugieren (Ger.). To compose in the style of a fugue. 

Fugiert (Ger.). v. Fugato. 

Fugue (Fr.). A fugue. 

Fiihrend (Ger.). -Leading. Die fiihrende Stimme, the leading voice 

Fiihrer der Fuge (Ger.). The Dux, or subject of a fugue. 

Fiihrung (Ger.). Guidance, leading, conduct. 
Fiihrung des Bogens. v. Bogenfuhrung. 

Fulgente (It.). Brilliant, shining. 

Full organ. Employing all, or most of the stops on an organ. 

Full score. A score, in which all the parts are written on separate 
staves, this being somewhat modified in orchestral scores, where 
often two or more instruments of a kind are on one stave, not only 
to save space, but for convenience in reading. Formerly there 
were many ways of arranging the instruments, but at the present 
day the almost universal method is to arrange them in groups, 
the Wood-wind being at the top of the page, the Brass next below, 
then the Percussion, and the Strings at the bottom. The voices 
are placed between the violoncellos and violas, and the harps imme- 
diately above the violins. 

Fiillstimme (Ger.). Additional {ripieno) parts. In an organ, the mix- 

Fulmine (It.). Lightning. 

Fundamentalbass (Ger.). Fundamental bass; a bass containing the 
roots of the chords. 

Fundamental note. The generator or foundation note of an Har- 
monic Series, v. Harmonics. 

Funebre (Fr.). (Fnneral 

Funebre. Funerale (It.), j^''''^'^^^- 

Fiinf (Ger.). Five. 

Fiinffach (5fach). Fivefold; in five parts; of organ pipes, five 

Fiinfstimmig. Five-part. 

Fiinf te (Ger.). Fifth; the interval of a fifth. 

Fuoco (It.). Fire, spirit. 

FUGCOSO (It.). V. Focoso. 

Fiir (Ger.). For. 

Fiir Gesang. For voice, 
Fiir Klavier. For piano. 

Furia (It.). Fury, rage. 

Furibondo (It.). Furious, raging. 

Furieusement (Fr.). (-r-^'^^^Ur 

Furiosamente (It.), furiously. 

Furiosissimo (It.). Sup. of furioso. 

Furioso (It.). Furious, mad, raging. 

Furlana (It.), v. Forlana. 

Furniture. Name of one of the mixture stops on an organ. 

- 89 - 

Furore (It.)- Fury, rage, passion, enthusiasm. 

Fiirst Pless'sches Jagdhorn (Ger.). A species of hunting horn, some- 
times provided with valves. 
Fus6e (Fr.). A rapid series of conjunct notes before the principal note. 
FuO (Ger.). Foot. 

-fiiBig. Used in combination: vierfufiig, of four feet, funffiifiig, 
of five feet, etc. i6fufiige Stimmen, i6ft stops. 
Fusto (It.), j The shell of a drum. The term is occasionally applied 
Fut (Fr.). ( to an organ case. 
Fz. Abbr. of forzando. 


G. The fifth note of the normal scale of C major. It is called in Fr. 
and It. sol. 

G. Abbr. of gauche. Also found in violin parts to indicate the 
use of the G string. 

G clef. The treble clef, fe. 

G.O. Abbr. of Great Organ, Grand Orgue, Grand' organo. 

G string. The 4th or lowest string of the violin. 
G (Ger. ). The fifth note of the normal scale of C major. G flat is Ges. 
G sharp is Gis. 

G dur. G major. 

G moll. G minor. 

G.P. Abbr. of Generalpause. 

G Saite. G string. 

G Schliissel. G clef. 
Gabel (Ger.). A fork. Stimmgabel, a tuning-fork. 

Gabelgriffe. Cross-fingering. 

Gabelklavier. A keyboard instrument, on which the notes are 
produced by a series of tuning-forks, v. Typophone. 
Gagliarda (It.). A dance of a vigorous character, danced by two 

Gagliardo, -a (It.). Sturdy, vigorous. 
Gai (Fr.). Gay, joyous. 

Gaiement, or Gaiment (Fr.). Gaily, merrily. 
Gaillarde (Fr.). v. Gagliarda. 
Gaite (Fr.). Gaiety. 
Gajamente (It.). Gaily, merrily. \ 

"^^ %\ GaTety'^* ''^- (Sometimes Gaio. Gaiamente, etc.) 

Gajo (It.). Gay, merry, joyful. / 

Galament (Fr.). Gallantly; tastefully; skilfully. 

Galant, -ante (Fr.). /^ ,, acrrppahlf' 

Galante (It.). ^> <^ailant, agreeable. 

Galantemente (It.). Gallantly; cleverly. 
Galliard (Fr.). Sturdy, vigorous. 

Galop, Galipade, Galopp, Galoppade. A lively dance in 2/4 time. 
Galoubet (Fr.). The tabor-pipe. A species of flute-d-bec, or flageolet, 
still used in the Basque provinces. It has a chromatic scale of a 

- 90 - 

1 2th or more from d'"\f upwards, the notes being written two 
octaves lower. The instrument is held in one hand, while the other 
beats the Tambourin {q. v.). In Beam, the galoubet or chirula is 
accompanied by the Tambourin du Beam {q. v.). In the orchestra, 
the effect of the galoubet is obtained by the piccolo, as in Bizet's 

Gamba (It.). An organ stop with a tone intended to imitate the 
viola da gamba {q. v.). 

Gambe (Ger.). The viola da gamba. 

Gang (Ger.). A passage. 

Ganz (Ger.). Whole, entire, quite, very. 

Ganz an der Spitze. Quite at the point (of the bow). 

Ganze Bogen. Whole bows. 

Ganze Note. A semibreve. 

Ganzer Bogen. Whole bow. 

Ganzer Takt. Whole bar. 

Ganze Starke. Full force, strength. 

Ganze Takte schlagen. Beat whole bars. 

Ganz leise. Quite soft. 

Ganz ruhige Achtel. Very tranquil quavers. 
Ganzlich (Ger.). Whole, entire, complete. 

Ganzlich verklingend. Completely dying away. 
Garbatamente (It.). Gracefully. 
Garbatezza (It.). Gracefulness. 
Garbatino (It.). Somewhat graceful. 
Garbatissimo (It.). Sup. of garbato 
Garbato (It.). Graceful, pleasing. 
Garbo (It.). Grace, elegance. 

Garder (Fr.). To keep, hold. Le ler F« solo garde la sourdine, the 
ist Vn solo retains the mute. 
__Jjarniture de cordes (Fr.). A set of strings. 
Garrendo (It.). Chattering, rustling, twittering, purling. 
Garrire (It.). To chatter, rustle, etc. 
Gauche (Fr.). Left. Main gauche, left hand. 

Gavotta (It.). jA gavotte; a moderately quick dance of a dignified 
Gavotte (Fr.). (character, in binary time. 
Gazouillant (Fr.). Twittering (of birds), purling or babbling (of 

streams), rustling (of leaves), etc. cf. Garrendo. 
Gebet (Ger.). Prayer. 

Gebieterisch (Ger.). Commanding, imperative, peremptory. 
Geblase (Ger.). The bellows of an organ. 
Geblumt (Ger.). Flowered, figured. 
Gebrochener Akkord (Ger.). Broken chord, arpeggio. 
Gebunden (Ger.). Slurred, tied. 

Gebundene Noten. Tied notes; notes played legato. 
Ged. Abbr. of ge damp ft. 
Gedakt (Ger.). Covered. 

Gedakte Orgelpfeife. A stopped organ pipe. 
Gedampft (Ger.). Muted (Strings, horns, etc.): muffled (Drums). 
Of voices, sotto voce. 

— 91 — 

Gedeckt (Ger.). Covered, cf. Gedakt. 

Gedeckte Stimmen. Stops with covered pipes. 
Gedehnt (Ger.). Drawn-out, protracted. 

Gedehnt und langsam. Drawn-out and slow. 
Gedicht (Ger.). Poem. 
Gefahrte (Ger.). A companion. The answer {cotnes) to a fugue 

Gefallig (Ger.). Agreeable, pleasant. 
Gefiihl (Ger,). Feeling, emotion, sensibility. 

Gefuhlvoll. Full of feeling, etc. 
Gegen (Ger.). Towards, to; about, near; against, contrary to. 

Gegenbewegung. Contrary motion. 

Gegensatz. Countersubject. 

Gegenstrich. v. Contr'arco. 

Gegenthema. Countersubject. 
Gehalten (Ger.). Sustained. 

Gehaucht (Ger.). Breathed, whispered. Wie gehaucht, like 3, vfhisY>^T. 
Geheimnisvoll (Ger.). Mysterious. 

Gehend (Ger.). Going. It is equivalent to Andante, and thus indi- 
cates a moderate speed, and like Andante, it is often combined 
with other words, which modify it. 
Gehor (Ger.). Hearing. Usually to be translated by "ear", as ein 
musikalisches Gehor, a musical ear; nach dem Gehor spielen, to 
play by ear. 
Gehorig (Ger.). Convenient, suitable. 
Geige (Ger.). Violin, fiddle, plur. Geigen, and in combination. 

Geigenbogen. Violin-bow. 

Geigenharz. Colophony, resin for the violin. 

Geigenkasten. Violin case. 

Geigensaite. Violin string. 

Geigensattel. The nut of a violin. 

Geigensteg. The bridge of a violin. 

Geigenwirbel. A violin peg. 
Geist (G^r.). Spirit, mind, intellect. 
Geistlich (Ger.). Spiritual. 

Geistliche Werke. Sacred works. 
Gelassen (Ger.). Calm, quiet, tranquil. 
Gelaufig (Ger.). Fluent, nimble. 
Geltung (Ger.). Value, duration (of a note). 
Gemachlich (Ger.). Convenient, leisurely, commodo. 
GemaBigt (Ger.). Moderate, moderato. 
Gemebondo (It.). Plaintive, doleful. 
Gemessen (Ger.). Measured, slow, precise. 
Gemshorn. The chamois horn. An organ stop generally of 8 ft, of a 

conical shape and with a clear light tone. 
Gemut(h) (Ger.). Feeling, soul. 
Gemut(h)lich (Ger.). Agreeable, pleasant; full of feeling. Im ge- 

miitlichen Menuettempo, in easy minuet tempo. 
Genannt (Ger.). Named, called (from w^wMew, to name). Symphonie in 
Cdur genannt I'Ours, symphony in C major, called I'Ours (the bear). 
General- (Ger.). General (used in combination). 

Generalbass. Thorough-bass. 

— 92 — 

Generalpause. A rest in all the parts. 
Generalprobe. A full rehearsal. 
G6nerateur (Fr.). The generator or fundamental note {q. v.) of an 

Harmonic Series: the root of a chord. 
Genere (It.). Kind, species, sort. 
Generoso (It.). Generous, noble. 
Genial (Ger.). A word usually (and peculiarly) translated as "genial", 

which, in its customary English signification means "good-natured, 

jovial, etc.", while the German genial means "full of genius, highly 

G6nie (Fr.). ) 
Genie (Ger.). J Genius. 
Genio (It.). ) 

Genis (It.). A brass instrument much the same as the tenorhorn. 
Genouillere (Fr.). The knee-swell in the harmonium or American 

Genre (Fr.). Genus, sort, style. Term used in painting, for pictures 

representing everyday objects, and hence employed in the same 

sense in music for certain small compositions, morceaux de genre. 

&n«li "A'^'^'-'- 1 Gentle, delicate, pretty. 

Gentile (It.). 

SSment ('Fr.')". { Gracefully, gently, courteously. " 

Gentilezza (It.). Nobleness, courtesy. 

Gerade (Ger.). Straight, even. 

Gerade Bewegung. Similar motion. 

Gerade Taktart. / -di^^^ . +«w,^^ 

Gerader Takt. (^'"^"^^ ^^'^^°- 
Geraubtes ZeitmaB (Ger.). Tempo ruhato. 
Gerecht (Ger.). Fit, suitable, just. 
German flute. The ordinary flute; a term seldom used at the 

present time. 
Ges (Ger.). G flat. 

Gesang (Ger.). Singing, song; vocal music. (In combination, some- 
times Gesangs-.) 

Gesangbuch. A song-book; a hymn-book. 

Gesanglehre. Singing method; theory of singing. 

Gesanglehrer. Singing master. 

Gesanglehrerin. Singing mistress. 

Gesangsgruppe. The second subject in first movement form. 

Gesangskunst. The art of singing. 

Gesangstimme. Vocal part. 

Gesangstunde. Singing lesson. 

Gesangverein. Choral society. 

Gesangvoll. Melodious, singingly. 

Gesangweise, subs. Melody, tune. adv. In the style of a song. 
Geschlecht (Ger.). Genus, species. 
Geschleift (Ger.). Slurred, legato. 
Geschlossen (Ger.). Closed, shut. 

Geschlossene Locher. Closed holes on a wood-wind instrument. 
Geschmack (Ger.). Taste. 

Geschmackvoll. In good taste, elegant; gustoso. 

— 93 — 

Geschmeidig (Ger.). Supple, flexible, flessibile. 
Geschwind (Ger.). Quick, fast. 

Geschwind, doch nicht zu sehr, und mit Entschlossenheit. Fast, 
but not too much so, and with decision. 

Geschwindmarsch. / /-w • i . • i v 

G«schwindschritt. | Q^'^kstep, a quick march. 

Geses (Ger.). G double-flat. 

Gesichtsprospektpfeife (Ger.). A "show" pipe of an organ; an organ- 
pipe in front of the case. 

Gesprochen (Ger.). Spoken. Direction found in opera scores, and 
meaning that certain words are to be spoken instead of sung {ge- 

Gestopft (Ger.). Closed, stopped. (Directions to horns.) Following 
Wagner's plan, single stopped notes are now usually indicated by 
a +, and it is to be noted that according to the directions in the 
Ring and Meister singer, notes marked with a + are not only to be 
stopped, but also to be stark anhlasen (made brassy), v. Cuivre. 

GestoBen (Ger.). Detached, staccato. 

Get(h). Abbr. of get{h)eilt. 

Get(h)eilt (Ger.). Divided, divisi. 

Geteilt pultweise. Divided "desk- wise", i. e. that the 2 per- 
formers at the same desk are to play different parts. 

Getragen (Ger.). Sustained, legato. 

Gewichtig (Ger.). Weighty, heavy, pesante. 

Gewidmet (Ger.). Dedicated to. 

Gewohnlich (Ger.). Usual, accustomed. Direction found in the parts 
of various instruments to indicate that they are to play in the 
ordinary way instead of am Steg, etc. (violins), mit Holzschldgel 
(cymbals), etc. 

Gewohnliche Schlagel. Ordinary drumsticks. 

Gezogen (Ger.). Drawn; the sound drawn from one note to another, 
con portamento. 

Ghiribizzo (It.). Whim, fancy. 

Ghiribizzoso (It.). W^himsical, capricious. 

Giga (It.). A jig, gigue. 

Gigelira (It.). A name for the zilofone (xylophone). 

Gigue (Fr.). A jig. 

Giochevole (It.). Pleasant, agreeable. 

Giochevolmente (It.). In jest, jocularly. 

Giocondamente (It.). Joyfully, gaily. 

Giocondevole (It.). Pleasing. 

Giocondezza, Giocondita (It.). Joy, mirth. 

Giocondo, Giocondoso (It.). Merry, blithe. 

Giocosamente (It.). Jocosely, facetiously. 

Giocoso (It.). Jocose, mirthful. 

Gioia, Gioja (It.). Pleasure, joy. 

Gioiante, Giojante (It.). Joyful, merry. 

Giojosamente (It.). Joyfully, gaily. 

Giojoso, Gioioso (It.). Joyful, glad. 

Gioviale (It.). Jovial. 

Gis (Ger.). G sharp. 

Gisis (Ger.). G double-sharp. 

— 94 — 

Gitarre (Ger.). The guitar v. Guitarre. 

Giubiloso (It.). Overjoyed, enraptured. 

Giulivamente (It.). Pleasantly, gaily. 

Giulivo (It.). Joyous, mirthful. Sup. Giulivissimo. 

Giuoco (It.). Play, sport, diversion. 

Giustamente (It.). Justly, precisely. 

Giustezza (It.). Justness, exactness, precision. 

Giusto (It.). Exact, precise. 

Glanzend (Ger.). Resplendent, gorgeous, sumptuous. 

Glatt (Ger.). Smooth. 

Glatte (Ger.). Smoothness. 

Gleich (Ger.). Equal, same. 

Gleichgiiltig Indifferent, unimportant. 

GleichmaBig. Equal. Mit gleichmd/^igem Strich, with equal 

stroke (of the bow). 
Gleichschwebende Temperatur. Equal temperament. 
Gleichstimmen. To tune to the same pitch. 
Gleichstimmung. A tuning to the same pitch. 
Gleichtonend. Unisonant; in unison. 
Gleichzeitig. Simultaneous. 
Gleichsam (Ger.). As it were, as though; almost. 
Gleiten (Ger.). To glide. 
Gli (It.). Plur. of lo, the (masc). 
Gliss. Abbr. of glissando. 
Glissade (Fr.). A glissando passage. 

Glissando (It.). An Italianised word from the Fr. glisser, to glide, 
sUde, the more correct It. words being sdrucciolando, or strisciando. 
Glissando however is generally used, even by Italians, and means: — 
(i) the portamento of the voice; (2) the sliding of the finger between 
notes on the same string of a violin, etc.; (3) rapidly sliding the 
fingers along the strings of a harp, or the keys of a piano. 

Glockchen (Ger.). A little bell. 

Glocke (Ger.). A bell. plur. Glocken. 
Glockengelaute. A peal of bells. 

Glockenspiel. A set of bells. The Glockenspiel used formerly to 
consist of a series of small bells, which were often played 
with a keyboard; now it is made with steel bars struck by 
two little hammers. Its compass is from {h^) c' to b"9 {c'")j 
the actual sounds being an octave higher. It is aJso the name 
of an organ stop. 

Gloria (Lat.). One of the divisions of the Mass. 

Gliihend (Ger.). Glowing, ardent, fervid. 

Gnaccare or Gnacchere (It.). Castanets. 

Gola (It.). The throat; a throaty voice. 

Goldfinger (Ger.). The third finger. 

Gondellied (Ger.). A barcarole. 

- 95 - 

Gong. An Eastern instrument of percussion made in various shape^ 
and sizes. The gong or tam-tam used in the modern orchestra is 
a circular shallow dish, made of metal, and with a diameter of from 
15" to 20". 

Gong drum. The bass drum with only one head, made in the shape 
of a gong or large tambourine. 

Gorgheggiamento (It.). Trilling, warbling. 

Gorgheggiare (It.). To trill, quaver, warble. 

Gorgheggio (It.). A trill, shake, florid passage. 

Grabgesang (Ger.). j . x„_„ai son? a dir^e 

Grablied (Ger.). (^ lunerai song, a airge. 

Grace (Fr.). Grace, charm. In the plur. it means grace-notes, and 

melodic ornamentation in general. 
Gracieux, gracieuse (Fr.). Graceful. 
Gracile (It.). Small, thin, delicate. 
Grad (Ger.). Degree, step. 
Gradazione (It.). Gradation. 
Gradevole (It.). Agreeable. 

Gradevolmente (It.). Agreeably, gracefully; willingly, with pleasure. 
Graditamente (It.). In a gracious, agreeable manner. 
Gradito (It.). Agreeable, grateful. 
Grado (It.). Degree, step. 

Grado ascendente. Ascending interval. 

Grado descendente. Descending interval. 
Graduale (Lat. and It.). Gradual (a part of the Mass). A book con- 
taining this portion. 
Graduellement (Fr.). Gradually. 
Gran (It.). For Grande (great), before a consonant. 

Gran cassa. The bass drum. 

Gran gusto. Great taste. 
Grand, grande (Fr.). Great. 

Grand barre. In guitar playing, stopping more than three 
strings with the forefinger of the left hand. 

Grand bourdon. Great or double bourdon; an organ stop of 32ft. 

Grand bugle. The saxhorn-contralto en si?, corresponding to the 
Fliigelhorn of Eng. bands. The instrument is usually called 
simply the bugle, grand being employed only to distinguish it 
from the petit bugle en mi'?. 

Grand choeur. Full choir. 

Grand detache. In the violin, etc., playing with a whole bow to 
every note. 

Grand jeu. The full power of an organ or harmonium. 

Grand orchestra. The full orchestra. 

Grand orgue. The great organ. 
Grande (It.). Great. 
Grandezza (It.). Grandeur, dignity. 
Grandioso (It.). Grand, pompous, magnificent. 

Grandioso e sonorissimo. Pompous and very resonant. 

Grandioso, ma non troppo lento. Pompous, but not too slow. 
Grandisonante (It.). Noisy, with much sound. 
Grand^o. Abbr.^of grandioso. 
Grappa (It.). A brace. 

- 96 - 

Grasseyer (Fr.). To pronounce thickly. 
Grausam (Ger.). Cruel. 

Grave (Fr.). j Heavy, weighty, (of sound) deep. It is also used to 
Grave (It.). ( express a tempo, which is slower than Adagio and 
faster than Largo. 

Sravemente'fl't'j.i^^^^^ly' ponderously, sedately. 

Gravezza (It.). Weight, heaviness, grief. 

Gravita (It.). Gravity, weight, dignity. 

Grazia (It.). Grace. 

Grazios (Ger.). Graceful, grazioso. 

Graziosamente (It.). Graciously, gracefully. 

Graziosissimo (It.). Sup. of grazioso. 

Grazioso (It.). Graceful. 

Graze. Abbr. of grazioso. 

Great octave. The octave from the C below the bass stave to the B 

(2nd line): C to B. 
Great organ. The principal portion of the organ, and that which 

as a rule contains the most powerful stops. 
Greifen (Ger.). To strike a note on the piano, etc., or harp; to stop 
a note on a violin, etc. ; to place the fingers for the various notes 
on a wood-wind instrument. 
Grell (Ger.). Shrill, harsh. 

Grell lachend. Laughing shrilly. 

Grell und unrein, zur Nachahmung eines rohen Instrumentes. 
Harsh and out-of-tune, in imitation of a rude instrument. 
Grelots (Fr.). Sleigh bells. They are occasionally used in the or- 
chestra for picturesque effects, and Charpentier in Impressions 
d' Italic has a pair tuned to g' and h'\^. 
Griff (Ger.). Literally, grasp, hold. The fingering of an instrument. 
Griffbrett. The fingerboard of a violin, guitar, etc. 
Griffloch. The key of a wood-wind instrument. 
Grifftabelle. Table of fingering of an instrument. 
Grob (Ger.). Rough, coarse. 
Groppetto, groppo. v. Gruppetto, gruppo. 
Gros, grosse (Fr.). Great, large. 
Grosse caisse. The bass drum. 

Gros tambour. A name (seldom used) for the bass drum. 
Gross, or GroQ (Ger.). Great, large, big. Applied to intervals, major. 
GroBartig. Grand, imposing. 
GroBe Flote. The ordinary flute, as opposed to the Kleine Flote 

GroBer Ton. Great (much) tone. A direction indicating great 

resonance in the instruments. 
GroBes Orchester. Full orchestra. 
GroBe Terz. Major third. 
GroBe Trommel. Bass drum. 
Grosso (It.). Big, thick, coarse, cf. Concerto grosso. 
Grosster (groBter) (Ger.). Greatest. Mit grdfitef Energie, with the 

greatest energy. 
Grottesco (It.). Grotesque, ridiculous. 
Grund (Ger.). Bottom, ground, foundation. 

— 97 — 

GnindbaB. Ground bass; a passage repeated again and again 
in the bass below the changing upper parts; basso ostinato. 

Grundstimme. The bass or fundamental part. 

Grundthema. The main or leading theme. 

Grundton. Fundamental note. 

Grundtonart. Fundamental key; main key of a movement. 
Gruppetto (It.)- A turn. 
Gruppo (It.). A group of notes. 

Guarnitura (It.). The fitting, mounting of an instrument. 
Guerrier, guerriere (Fr.). j^^^jij^ ^ ^^^^i^l 

Guerriero, -a (It.). | 

Guida (It.). A guide; subject of a fugue. 

Guida banda. A conductor's condensed score. 
Guide (Fr.). Guide; subject of a fugue. 
Guidon (Fr.). A direct; a sign at the end of a line showing what the 

next note is to be. 
Guitar. An instrument with six strings (tuned e, a, d', g", b', e'\ 
sounding an octave lower), consisting of a body, serving as a 
sound-board, and a neck forming a fingerboard, on which the notes 
are stopped by placing the fingers of the left hand between frets, 
the right hand plucking the strings. 
Guitars (Fr,). Guitar. 

Guitarra (It.). Guitar. The usual word is Chitarra. 
Guitarre (Ger.). Guitar. Now usually written Gitarre. 

Guitarre-Tone. Notes played on a harp near the sound-board, 
and somewhat resembling those of a guitar, cf. Sons d'ongles. 
Gusto (It.). Taste. 
Gustoso (It.). Pleasant, agreeable. 
Gut (Ger.). Good, well; very. 

Gut betont. Well emphasised. 

Guter Taktt(h)eil. The accented part of a bar. 

Gut gehalten. Well sustained. 

Gut gestoBen. Very staccato. 

Gut hervortretend. Well brought-out. 

Gut stimmen. To play well in tune. 


H. In Ger. the note B natural, B being the Eng. B flat. 

h. Abbr. of hoch. 

H.C. Abbr. of Haute-contre. 

H dur (Ger.). B major. 

H moll (Ger.). B minor. 
Haare (Ger,). The hair of the bow of a violin, etc. 
Hack(e)brett (Ger.). A dulcimer. 
Hagebiichen, or Hahnbiichen (Ger.). Coarse, clumsy. 
Halb (Ger.). Half. 

Halbe Lage. Half position. 

Halbe Note. v. Halbnote. 

Halber Ton. v. Halbton. 

Halbkadenz. Half close. 

Halbmond. The Turkish crescent. 

W o 1 1 o n , Dictionary. 7 

- 98 - 

Halbnote. A minim. 
Halbpause. A minim rest. 
Halbprinzipal. An organ stop of 4ft pitch. 
HalbschluB. Half close. 
Halbsopran. Mezzo-soprano. 
Halbstark. Mezzo-forte. 
Halbtenor. A term for a baritone. 
Halbton. A semitone. 
Halbe (Ger.). A half. 

Halbe schlagen! Va- Beat the half (of the bar). 2/2- 
Halfte (Ger.). A half. Die zwei Half ten der Becken schwingend gegen- 
einander geschlagen, the two halves of the cymbals to be clashed 
against one another, i. e. played in the ordinary manner. 
Hallen (Ger.). Resound, clang. 

Hallen lassen. Let resound, — (as a gong, for example). 
Hals (Ger.). The neck of a violin, etc. 
Halten (Ger.). To hold, sustain. 

Hammerklavier (Ger.). The piano. .fC/at^i^f is the term usually employed. 
Hand (Ger.). The hand. plur. Hdnde. Zu 2 Hdnden, for 2 hands; 
zu 4'Hdnden, for 4 hands. 
Handgelenk. The wrist. 
Handstucke. Technical exercises. 
Handtrommel. A name for the tambourine. 
Hand-Horn. v. Horn. 

-handig (Ger.). Used as a suffix, and meaning: — having (or being 

arranged for) a certain number of hands, as zweihdndig, for two 

hands, vierhdndig, for four hands. 

Handlung (Ger.). An action: the plot of a theatrical piece. Wagner 

uses the term as almost synonymous with the Eng. word 'drama'. 

Hardiment (Fr.). Boldly. 

Harfe (Ger.). Harp. Harfen- in combination, plur. Harfen. 
Harfe spielen. To play the harp. 
Harfenbass. An arpeggio (Albert!) bass. 
HarfenmaBig. In the style of harp music, i. e. playing the chords 

Harfenspiel, Harfenzug. Harp-playing. 
Harfenton, Harfenklang. The sound of the harp. 
Harm. Abbr. of Harmonic, Harmonique, Harmonie, etc. 
Harmonica. An instrument, in which the sounds are produced by 
pieces of glass (in strips or other forms) being vibrated by means 
of small hammers, moistened fingers, or pads. Strips of steel 
occasionally replace the glass strips, and the instrument sometimes 
possesses a key-board. 
Harmonics. The secondary sounds or overtones produced by a string 
or column of air when vibrating in aliquot parts of its entire length : 
that is to say, if a string or column of air, vibrating throughout 


its entire length, produces the note ^ , when it vibrates in two 


halves the note t/' i zr- is produced ; in three thirds, the note 2 

- 99 — 

and so on, until the following Harmonic Series or Natural Scale is 
obtained, which theoretically might be extended to infinity: — 

± ^ ^ -^^^^ '^ 


— 2 3 4 "^ 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 

(The notes marked with a + are out of tune according to our 
modern scale.) 

Almost every resonant body producing a musical note, at the 
same time produces certain of these harmonics, and the timbre or 
tone-quality of an instrument depends in a great measure on 
which of these are generated by the fundamental note. 

On the harp, the 2nd sound of the Series is produced artificially 
by lightly touching with the palm of the hand the centre of the 
string immediately after it has been plucked. 

On the violin, etc. what are termed natural harmonics are produced 
by lightly touching an open string at its 1/2, 1/3, etc. ; artificial 
harmonics, by stopping a string with one finger (and thus altering 
its length), and then with another finger lightly touching the 
shortened string at the required distance ; in both cases, the sound 
is usually produced by the bow on the string in the ordinary way, 
although solo performers have occasionally obtained the harmonics 
pizzicato. The Harmonic Series forms the basis of all wind-instru- 
ment playing, v. Brass Instruments, and Wood- Wind Instruments. 
Harmonic (Fr.). (i) Harmony. (2) As an abbr. of Musique d' har- 
monic, music for wood- wind and brass instruments, and thus 
meaning either a military band, or the collective "Wind" of an 

Harmonic consonantc. Consonant harmony. 
Harmonic dissonantc. Dissonant harmony. 
Harmonic (Ger.). (i) Harmony. Enge Harmonic, close harmony; 
weite Harmonie, extended harmony. (2) A term for wind-instru- 
ments in general. 

Harmonicfrcmd. Foreign to the harmony. 
Harmoniegesctzc. The rules of harmony. 

Harmonielehre. (i) Theory of harmony. (2) Treatise on har- 
Harmonicmusik. A wood-wind and brass band. For a military 
band, Militdrmusik is the usual term. 
Harmonieux, -cusc (Fr.). Harmonious. 
Harmonika (Ger.). The harmonica. 
Harmoniquc (Fr.). Harmonic. Sons harmoniques, or simply har- 

moniques, harmonics on a harp, violin, etc. 
Harmonisch (Ger.). Harmonious. 

Harmonischc Tone. Harmonics. For the harmonics of a violin, 

. etc., or harp, Flageolettdne, or simply Flageolett, is the ordinary 


Harmonium. A key-board free-reed instrument, in which the bellows 

are worked by means of pedals. Except in the smallest instruments, 

there are several reeds to each note, and from 6 to as many as 40 


— 100 — 

stops, large instruments often possessing two keyboards. Charac- 
teristic of the harmonium is the "Expression" stop, by means of 
which the air instead of entering the reservoir passes directly from 
the bellows to the reeds, and thus the various gradations of sound 
are under the immediate control of the feet. 
Harp. An instrument of 47 strings, tuned diatonically from C^ to 
%"'"?, and plucked by the thumb and first three fingers of each 
hand, — hence the chords of 5 notes for a single hand (which are 
found in the works even of composers who do not disdain to learn 
something of the instruments for which they write), are misplaced. 
By means of seven pedals, every note of this scale of Cj? may be 
raised either a tone or semitone, the pedal being retained in posi- 
tion by being inserted in a notch in the groove, in which it works. 
On the ordinary harp, chromatic passages, or even passages which 
require a rapid alteration of many of the strings, are impossible. 
On the other hand, rapid glissando passages in chords of the 7th 
are perfectly easy by the use of what are called homophones, i. e. 
two strings tuned to the same note, as for instance c^-d\;, at-V?^ 
etc. It is to be observed however that (a fact often forgotten by 
composers) there is no homophone of either d]^, gi} or aU, and that 
in no case in a chord of 4 notes can all the notes be doubled by 
means of homophones, for the simple reason that there are only 
7 notes in each octave. 

Harp. (The Chromatic.) An instrument like the above, but 
with no pedals, and with a separate string to every note of 
the chromatic scale. Opinions are divided as to its merits, its 
principal fault being a lack of resonance compared with the 
ordinary instrument. Naturally the use of homophones is 
impossible, and glissando passages, except purely chromatic 
ones, are equally so. 
Harpe (Fr.). Harp. 

Harpeggieren (Ger.). To play an arpeggio. 

Harpsichord. A stringed instrument with a keyboard, one of the 
predecessors of the piano. The strings were plucked by quills or 
pieces of hard leather. 
Hart (Ger.). Hard, harsh. Major 

Harte Tonart. Major key. 

Harter Dreiklang. Major triad. 
Hartnackige BaB (Ger.). v. Basso ostinato. 
Haupt (Ger.). Head, chief, principal. 

Hauptgesang. The principal melody. 

Hauptkanal. The principal canal (of an organ). 

Hauptmanual. The principal manual; the great organ. 

Hauptmelodie. The principal melody. 

Hauptnote. The principal note of a shake; an accented note» 

Hauptorgel. The great organ. 

Hauptpartie. The principal part. 

Hauptperiode. The principal period. 

Hauptprobe. Principal rehearsal; the dress rehearsal of an 
opera or play. 

— lOI — 

Hauptregister. A chief stop (on an organ). 
Hauptsatz. Principal subject. 
HauptschluB. Full close. 
Hauptstimme. Principal part or voice. 
Hauptthema. Chief theme or subject. 
Hauptton. v. Hauptnote. 

Haupttonart. Principal key (of a movement). 
Hauptwerk. The great organ. 
HauptzeitmaB. Principal tempo. 
Hausse (Fr.). The nut of a bow. 
Haut, haute (Fr.). High. 

Haut-dessus. The treble part. )Thp<;p tbr^e +Prm^ ar^ nh<;o 
Haute-contre. The alto part. ,^^^^^ ^^""^^ ^^^"^^ ^^® ^°^^' 

Haute-taille. The first tenor part.) ^ ^* 
Hautbois (Fr.). Hautboy, oboe. 

Hautbois barjrton. The baritone oboe; an instrument an octave 

lower than the ordinary oboe. It has been employed by Vidal 

{La Burgonde), and Strauss has employed a somewhat similar 

instrument, under the name of Heckelphon {q. v.) in Salome. 

Hautbois d'amour. v. Oboe d'amore. 

Hautboy, v. Oboe. 

Heckelclarind (Ger.). An instrument invented by Heckel, and some- 
what of the nature of a saxophone. It is played with a clarinet 
mouthpiece, and is made in B? and Eb (sounding a 3rd above the 
written notes). It has been used to replace the cor anglais at 
the end of Scene I, Act III, Tristan und Isolde, cf. Tarogato. 
Heckelphon (Ger.). A wood-wind instrument played with a double 
reed invented by Heckel, somewhat resembling the baritone oboe 
and standing an octave below the ordinary oboe. 
Heftig (Ger.). Violent, vehement, impetuous, intense. 
Heftig belebend. Becoming intensely animated. 
Heftig beschleunigend. Quickening intensely. 
Heftig, doch nie ubereilt. Vehemently, but not over-hurried. 
Heimlich (Ger.). Secret, stealthy. 
HeiB (Ger.). Ardent, burning. 
Heiter (G«r.). Serene, clear, bright. 
Held (Ger.). A hero. Helden- in combination. 

Heldenlein^g!^^^ ^^"°^^ P^^"' ^^ '°^S, an epic. 

HeldenmaBig. Heroic. 

Heldentenor. v. Tenore robusto. 
Helicon (Eng.). ( The bombardon, or contra-bass tuba, when in cir- 
Helikon (Ger.). ( cular form. 
Hell (Ger.). Clear, bright, sonorous. 
Herabstrich (Ger.). The downstroke in bowing. 
Herdenglocken (Ger.). Cow-bells. 

Hernach (Ger.). Afterwards, hereafter, subsequently. 
Heroisch (Ger.). Heroic. 

Herstrich (Ger.). The downbow on a violoncello or double-bass. 
Herunterstrich (Ger.). The downstroke on a violin or viola. 
Hervorgehoben (Ger.). Emphasised, made prominent. Den Rhythmus 
scharf hervorgehoben, the rhythm sharply emphasised. 

— 102 — 

Hervortretend (Ger.). Stepping forward, advancing; standing in 
relief. A term often marked against particular instruments in a 
score, that are to be brought out prominently. 
Herzhaft (Ger.). Brave, bold. 

Hes (Ger.). A term very occasionally used for Bj?. 
Heses (Ger.). B double-flat. 

Hier (Ger.). Here. Von hier an Alia Breve taktieren, from here beat 
two in a bar ; von hier ah fest im Zeitmap, from here strictly in the 

Hier geht der Vorhang auf. Here the curtain rises. 
Hif thorn (Ger.). v Jagerhorn. 
Hilfe (Ger.). Help. Hilfs- in combination. 
Hilfsnote. Auxiliary note. 

Hilfsstimmen. Mutation stops, cf. FuUstimmen and Neben- 
Hinaufstrich (Ger.). Upstroke in bowing. 
Hinaufziehen (Ger.). To draw upwards. Term used to express a 

portamento from one note to a higher one. 
Hinsterbend (Ger.). Dying away. 

Hinstrich (Ger.). The upstroke on the violoncello and double-bass. 
Hinunterziehen (Ger.). To draw down. Term used to express a 

portamento from one note to a lower one. 
Hirt (Ger.). Herdsman, shepherd. Hirten- in combination. 
Hirtenflote. Shepherd's pipe. 

HirtenHed!"^i Shepherd's song; a pastoral. 

HirtenmaBig. ShepherdUke, pastoral, rural. 
His (Ger.). B sharp. 
Hisis (Ger.). B double-sharp. 
Hlzbl. Abbr. of Holzhldser. 
Hoboe (Ger.). Oboe. 
Hoch (Ger.). High. 

Hochamt. High Mass. 
Hochst (Ger.). Sup. of hoch. Highest, extremely, most. 

Hochst langsam. Extremely slow. 

Hochst lebhaft. Extremely animated. 
Hochzeit (Ger.). Wedding. 

Hochzeitgedicht. Wedding poem. 

Hochzeitmarsch. Wedding march. 
Hof (Ger.). Court. 

Hofkapelle. Royal chapel. The royal private band. 

Hofkapellmeister. The director of the royal orchestra. 
Kobe (Ger.). Height. Pitch. Aus der hochsten Hohe, in the highest 
height; einen halben Ton in die Hohe gehen, to raise a semitone. 

Hohepunkt. The summit; the culminating point. 
Hohnend (Ger.). Scoffing, sneering. 
Holz (Ger.). Wood. 

Holzblaser. (sing and plur.) A player on a wood-wind instrument. 
Term used for the collective "Wood- wind" of an orchestra. 

Holzblasinstnunent. Wood-wind instrument. 

Holzharmonie. Music for wood-wind instruments. 

Holzharmonika. A xylophone. 

— 103 — 

Holzklapper. Wooden clapper (used by Mahler in his 5th and 
6th symphonies). 

Holzrand. The rope-hoop of a druni. 

Holzschlagel. Wooden drumstick. 

Holzstabchen. A wooden beater. Mit einem Holzsidbchen auf 
den Holzrand einer Trommel geschlagen, struck with a wooden 
beater on the rope-hoop of the drum. 

Holz- und Strohinstrnmente. Wood and straw instrument; a 
Homophone. On the harp, two strings tuned to the same pitch. 
Horae Canonicae (Lat.). The canonical hours, at which services are 

held in the CathoUc Church. 
Horn. The horn used by the classical masters is a natural instrument 
(v. Brass Instruments), on which, besides the notes of the Harmonic 
Series or open notes, the player is able to produce certain others, 
called closed or stopped notes. These latter are obtained by the 
more or less complete closing with the palm of the hand of the 
bell of the instrument (hence it is often known as the "Hand- 
horn"), which has the effect of lowering the pitch; by closing the 
bell from half to two-thirds of the distance usually left between 
the hand and the bell, any one of the open notes can be lowered 
a semitone, and by still further closing the bell, it is possible to 
lower the pitch about a tone. Naturally the more the bell is 
closed, the more the tone of the instrument becomes veiled and 
dull, and dissimilar to the tone of the open notes. The art of 
playing the hand-horn is in a great measure lost; judging by some 
of the music written for it, much of which would tax the ingenuity 
of a player on a valve instrument, the virtuosi must have assimilated 
the tone of the closed notes to that of the open ones in a manner 
now no longer attained. 

The Valve-horn, which is now the form of the instrument in uni- 
versal use, is the same as the above, but with the addition of 
valves. Naturally the use of closed notes for filling in the spaces 
between the open notes is unnecessary, but for special effects 
they are still used, and with the assistance of the valves any note 
of the chromatic scale can be produced as a closed note. Modern 
players also employ a mode of stopping the bell (apparently un- 
known to the old players), by means of which the pitch is raised 
a semitone, the tone then much resembling that produced by the 
use of the mute {q. v.). While the crooks {q. v.) for the natural 
horn were numerous, modern composers seldom use for the valve- 
horn other than those in E, E [? and F, many exclusively writing 
for the last named (the most favorable for the instrument). Most 
players, preferring the sole use of the F crook, transpose the parts 
written for all lower crooks, when necessary ; but they at times use 
shorter crooks, especially the A crook, if the music lies somewhat high. 

A pecuUarity of horn notation is that notes in the bass clef are 
written an octave lower than the note the performer is to play, 


and hence ^ is represented in the bass clef not by 

— 104 — 

t/' — but by ^' — . Several modern composers however 

now employ the bass clef simply as a continuation of the treble, 
without the jump of an octave. The compass of the horn varies 
according to the crook employed (the high harmonics being easier 
on a low crook, and vice versa) ; for a horn in F, it may be said to 
be from D to c" (actual notes). 

Horn (Ger.). Horn. plur. Horner. 

Hornmusik. Music for brass instruments. 

Horner (Ger.). Horns. 

Hosanna (Lat.). Part of the Sanctus of the Mass. 

Hr. Abbr. of Horner. 

Hrn. Abbr. of Horn. 

Htb. Abbr. of Hauthois. 

Hiibsch (Ger.). Charming, dainty, pretty. 

Hiibsch vortragen. To be performed in a dainty manner. 

Huit (Fr.). Eight. 

Huit-pieds. Eight feet. 

Huitieme. (Fr.). Eighth. 

Hiilfs- (Ger.). Used as a prefix, v. Hilfe. 

Humor (Ger.). Humour. 

Humoreske (Ger.), Humoresque. 

Hiipfend (Ger.). Springing. Practically the same as s^nwgew^ (5^. t;.), 
although a shght distinction is made by some authors. 
Hiipfender Bogen. Springing 'bows, spiccato. 

Hurtig (Ger.). Brisk, nimble, prompt. 

Hymnaire (Fr.). A hymnbook. 

Hymne (Fr.). Hymn, although not used in quite the sense of the 
Eng. "hymn", but meaning a religious song or canticle, not of 
necessity cut up into stanzas. 

H^nus^fGer.'). {'^^^''^ spiritual song. of. Hymne (Fr.). 

I (It.). Plur. of *7, the (masc). 

Idillio (It.). )An idyl or idyll; originally a short poem dealing with 
Idyll (Ger.). >pastoral life; a musical composition of a quiet simple 
Idylle (Fr.). ) nature. 
Idyllisch (Ger.). Idyllic. 

Jl (Fr.). He, it. // faut is used in the sense of: — it is necessary. 
II faut 3 timbaliers. 3 Kettledrummers are necessary. 
II faut un instrumentiste pour chaque partie de la batterie. A 
separate player is necessary for each of the percussion in- 

II (It.). The (masc). 

II basso ben marcato. The bass very marked. 

II canto sostenuto e legatissimo. The melody sustained and 

very smooth. 
II doppio movimento. Double the tempo. 
II piu forte possibile. As loud as possible. 

— 105 — 

Im (Ger.). Combination of z« and dem (in the). 

Im Anfang nicht zu rasch, nach und nach lebendiger. At the be- 
ginning not too fast, gradually more animated. 

Im Bedarfsfalle. When needed, in case of necessity. Vbernimmt 
im Bedarfsfalle die 3. grofie Flote, takes when necessary the 
3rd (large) flute. 

Im gemessenen Schritt. In precise tempo. 

Im klagenden Ton. In accents of mourning. 

Im maBigen Tempo. In moderate tempo. 

Im Notfalle. In case of need, if need be. 

Im Orchester. In the orchestra. 

Im ruhigen Tempo. In tranquil tempo. 

Im Takt. In the beat, i. e. in time, a tempo. 

Im Volkston. In the style of a Folk-song. 

Im ZeitmaB beruhigter. In the tempo, more tranquilly. 

Im Zeitmafi des Anfangs. In the tempo of the commencement. 
Imboccatura (It,), (i) The cup-shaped mouthpiece of brass-instru- 
ments, or the mouth-hole of a flute. (2) The embouchure; the 
position of the lips, etc. for the playing of wind-instruments. 
Imitando (It.). Imitating. 

Imitando il corno. Imitating the horn. 

Imitando la voce. Imitating the voice. 
Imitation (Fr.). Imitation. 
Imitazione (It.). Imitation. 

Imitazione all' Ottava. Imitation at the octave. 

Imitazione alia Quarta. Imitation at the fourth. 

Imitazione alia Quinta. Imitation at the fifth. 

Imitazione canonica. Strict imitation. 

Imitazione in moto eguale. Direct imitation. 

Imitazione in moto ineguale. \ -r •, .• u • 

Imitazione inversa. } I^^^ation by mversion. 

Imitazione legata. Strict imitation. 

Imitazione per augmentazione. Imitation by augmentation. 

Imitazione per diminuzione. Imitation by diminution. 

iS°on:Xe«a:h«ct invitation. 

Imitazione sciolta. Free imitation. 
Immer (Ger.). Always, continually, constantly ; throughout. {Immer 
often implies merely the continuance of an action and as such is 
almost untranslateable.) 

Immer ausgelassener und lebhafter. Always with more freedom 
and animation. 

Immer belebter. Always more animated. 

Immer bewegter bis zum Ende. With increasing passion until 
the end. 

Immer drangender. Always more hurried. 

Immer enger. Always more drawn together, sempre piii stretto. 

Immer entfernter. ^^ Continually growing fainter. 

Immer etwas bewegter. Always somewhat more agitated. 

Immer etwas drangend. Always somewhat hurried. 

Immer etwas gedehnt. Constantly slackened a little. 

Immer G-Saite. Always (on the) G string. 

— io6 — 

Immer gleichmaBig leicht. Uniformly light throughout. 

Immer langsamer. Continually slower. 

Immer lebendiger. Always with more life. 

Immer lebhafter. Always more animated. 

Immer mit gestopften scharfen Tonen. With the notes closed 
and brassy throughout. 

Immer noch drangend. Still hurrying. 

Immer nochetwasmehrzuriickhaltend. Still somewhat slackening. 

Immer p, aber deutlich. Always p, but distinct. 

Immer schwacher. Continually fainter. 

Immer sehr lebhaft. Always very animated. 

Immer sehr weich gebunden. Very softly sustained throughout. 

Immer sehr zart. Always very sweetly. 
Impair, -e (Fr.). Odd, as opposed to pair, even. Les pupitres im- 
pairs, the odd desks, v. Desk. 
Impaziente (It.). Impatient. 
Impazientemente (It.). Impatiently. 
Imperioso (It.). Imperious, haughty. 
Impeto (It.). Impetuosity. 
Impetuosamente (It.). Impetuously, violently. 
Impetuosita (It.). Impetuosity, fury, 
Imponente (It.). Imposing. 
Imponi(e)rend (Ger.). Imposing, majestic. 
Impresario (It.). A theatrical manager; director of a concert or 

operatic company. 
Impromptu (Fr.). An extemporised piece of music, or one written 

as an imitation of such a piece. 
Improvisateur, -trice (Fr.). An improviser. 
Improviser (Fr.). To improvise. 
Improvvisamente (It.). Extemporaneously. 
Improvvisamento (It.). An impromptu. 
Improwisare (It.). To improvise. 
Improwisatore, -trice (It.). An improviser. 
Improwisazione (It.). An improvisation, an impromptu. 
In (Ger.), In, at, into, to. 

In das maBige Zeitmafi zuriickkehrend. Returning to the mo- 
derate tempo. 

In gehender Bewegung. Literally "in going movement", i. e. 
a tempo, which is not dragged. 

In hochster Angst. In deepest anguish. 

In lebhafter Bewegung. j ^ • , . • 

In schneller Bewegung. ( ^^ ^^^^^ ^^"^®- 

In Vierteln. In crotchets. 

In zwei Abteilungen. In two parts. 
In (It.). In, into, at. 

In altissimo. All the notes above g'". 

In alto. In alt; the notes from g" to /"'. 

In battere. The accented part of the bar. 

In battuta. In exact time. 

In disparte. Aside, 

In distanza. In the distance. 

In fretta. Hastily. 

— 107 — 

In giu. In bowing, drawing the bow downwards. Areata in 
gill is the opposite of areata in su. 

In levare. The unaccented beat. 

In lontanza, in lontananza. v. In distanza. 

In palco. On the stage. 

In partite. In score. Canone in partito, an open canon. 

In su. In bowing, pushing the bow upwards, cf. In giu. 

In tempo, ma poco piu lento. In time, but a httle slower. 
Incalcando, Incalzando (It.). Hastening, pursuing. 
Incollando (It.). Striking the notes of a chord simultaneously. 
Incollato (It.). Literally, "glued together", ef. Incollando. 
Incominciando (It.). Commencing. 

Incominciando a decrescere. Commencing to decrease. 

Incominciando pianissimo per giungere al fortissimo. Commenc- 
ing pianissimo and proceeding to the fortissimo. 
Incordare (It.). To string an instrument. 
Incrociamento , Incrocicchiamento (It.). Crossing (the hands in 

Incrociato (It.). Crossed. 

Indebolendo (It.). Gro^ving weak, becoming faint. 
Indebolito (It.). Weakened. 
Indeciso (It.). Undecided. 
Indicato (It.). Indicated, pointed out, prominent. Ben indicator 

very prominent (as a particular instrument in the orchestra). 
Indifferente (It.). Careless, indifferent. 
Indifferentemente (It.). Indifferently, carelessly. 
Indifferenza (It.). Indifference. 
Infernale (It.). Infernal, heUish. 
Inferno (It.). Hell. 

Infiorendo (It.). Embellishing a part with grace-notes, etc. 
Infra (It.). Below. 
Inganno (It.). Deceit, trick; mistake. Cadenza d'inganno, a deceptive 

Inhalt (Ger.). Contents, index. 

Innig (Ger.). Heartfelt, fervent, intimate. Corresponding to the 
Fr. in time. 

Innig zu spielen. To be played with fervent expression. 
Innigkeit (Ger.). Fervour, devoutness, intimacy. 
Inno (It.) A hymn. 
Innocente (It.). Innocent. 
Innocentemente (It.). Innocently. 
Innocenza (It.). Innocence. 
Inquieto (It.). Restless, uneasy. 
Inquietudine (It.). Inquietude, trouble. 
Insegnamento (It.). Instruction. 
Insensibile (It.). Imperceptible. 
Insensibilmente (It.). Imperceptibly. 
Insieme (It.), v. Ensemble. Pezzo d'insieme, morceau d' ensemble. 

Tn^t^nfi^aV^r*^*! Urgent, pressing. 

Instante (It.). 

Instantemente (It.). Pressingly, urgently, earnestly. 

Instrument (Fr.). Instrument. 

— io8 — 

Instrument a archet. Bowed instrument. 
Instrument a cordes. Stringed instrument. 
Instrument a percussion. Percussion instrument. 
Instrument a vent. Wind instrument. 
Instrument de cuivre. Brass instrument. 
Instrument (Ger.). Instrument, plur. Instrumente. Blasinstrumente, 
wind instruments; Blechinstrumente, brass instruments; Holz- 
blasinstrumente, wood-wind instruments; Messinginstrumente, brass 
instruments ; Saiteninstrumente, stringed instruments ; Schlaginstru- 
mente, percussion instruments; Streichinstrumente, bowed instru- 
ments (the stringed instruments of the orchestra). 
Instrumental (Fr.). Instrumental. 
Instrumental (Ger.). Instrumental. 

Instrumentalbegleitung. Instrumental accompaniment. 
Instrumentalmusik. Instrumental music. 
Instrumentation. The art of writing for instruments, either singly 
or in combination. The term is often used as synonymous with 
"Orchestration" (the art of writing for an orchestra), but although 
the latter should connote a knowledge of the former, a glance at 
many modern scores is sufficient to reveal the fact that, whatever 
the general effect may be, the individual parts often display a 
profound ignorance on the part of the composer of the capalbil- 
ities and limitations of the several instruments. 
Instrumentation (Ger.). Instrumentation. In combination, Instru- 

Instrumentationslehre. A method (tutor) for instrumentation. 
Instrument! (e)ren (Ger.). To instrumentate. 
Instrumentierung (Ger.). Instrumentation. 
Instrumento (It.). Occasionally found for Istrumento. 
Intavolare (It.). To write down music; to set to music. 
Intavolatura (It.), (i) Tablature. (2) Figured bass. (3) Notation in 

general. (4) A diagram of fingering. 
Intense (Fr.). Intense, strong. // mats ires intense d' expression, 
ff but with the most intense expression. 

iSiu '(Fr.'i. I I°t--ty, strength. 

Intenso (It.). Intense. Sometimes applied to a sound, which vibrates 

Intermede (Fr.). An interlude. 
Intermedietto (It.). A small interlude. 

Inlirezt '(It.i ! A" -t-'"^- 

Interrotto (It.). Interrupted. 

Interruzione (It.). Interruption; pause. 

Intervall (Ger.). \ 

Intervalle. (Fr.).J An interval. 

Intervallo (It.). ) 

Intimamente (It.). Intimately, cf. Intimo. 

Intime (Fr.). Intimate, inmost, heartfelt. Avec un sentiment intime, 

with deep feeling, cf. Innig. 
Intimissimo (It.). Sup. of intimo. 
Intimo (It.). Intimate, inmost, heartfelt, cf. Intime, Innig. 

— 109 — 

Intonare (It.), (i) To intone. (2) To set to music. (3) To give the 

y . .. /-p \ \ Intonation, (i) The production of sounds by a 

intonation |rr.j. ^^.^^ ^^ instrument. (2) The pitch of a note. 

IntonazioL (iT) <3).In plain-song, the notes leading up to the 
'^ ''* ; reciting note. 

Intonieren (Ger.). To intone. 

Intonierung (Ger.). Intonation. 

Intrade (Ger.). (i) An introduction, prelude. (2) A flourish of 

Intrepidamente (It.). Intrepidly, boldly. 

Intrepidezza (It.). Intrepidity, fearlessness. 

Intrepido (It.). Intrepid, dauntless. 

Introduction (Fr.). ) An introduction; a preparatory movement 

Introduktion (Ger.). > leading up to one of the main movements of 

Introduzione (It.). ) the composition. 

Introit (Fr.). j An introit; an antiphon, sung while the 

Introito (It.). [ priest approaches the altar to celebrate 

Introitus (Ger. and Lat.).) Mass. 

Inventionshorn (Ger.). An improved horn devised by Hampe in 
Dresden about 1750, furnished with a tuning slide, which could be 
replaced by others of different lengths, thus serving as the crooks. 

Inventionstrompete (Ger.). A trumpet corresponding with the fore- 
going; also a trumpet (Stopftrompete) curved to enable closed notes 
to be obtained by introducing the hand into the bell, 

Inverzione (It.). Inversion. 

Invocation (Fr.). An invocation; a prayer or supplication addressed 
to a deity, saint, or some superior being, as opposed to an Evocation 
{q. v.), a summons addressed to inferior beings. The term is occa- 
sionally used for short pieces of a prayerful nature, as the In- 
vocation in Massenet's Les Erinnyes. 

Invocazione (It.). Invocation. 

Ira (It.). Rage, wTath. 

Iracondamente, Iratamente (It.). Angrily, passionately. 

Irato (It.). Angry, irritated. 

Irlandais, -aise (Fr.). ( j • , 

Irlandisch (Ger.). ( ^"^^• 

Ironicamente (It.). Ironically. 

Ironico (It.). Ironical. 

Irresoluto (It.). Irresolute, undetermined. 

-is (Ger.). Added to the designation of a note to signify "sharp". 
Thus A = A; Ats= A sharp; £ = E; Eis = E sharp, etc. 

-isis (Ger.). Added to the designation of a note to signify "double- 
sharp". Thus Fisis = F double-sharp. 

Island© (It.). Glow, enthusiasm, dash. cf. Elan. 

Istesso, -a (It.). Form of stesso, -a, same. v. L'istesso. 

Istrumentazione (It.). A form of strumentazioney instrumentation. 

Istrumento (It.), v. Strumento. 

Italiano, -a (It.). j x+aiian 
Italien, -ienne (Fr.). ( ^^^^^- 

— no — 

Jagd (Ger.). Chase, hunting, hunt. 

Jagdhorn. v. Trompe de chasse. cf. Waldhom. 
Jagdstiick. Hunting-piece; hunting-song. 
Jager (Ger.). A hunter. 

Jagerchor. A chorus of hunters; a hunting chorus. 
Jagerhorn. The hunting horn. 
Jaleo or Jallo (Sp.). A Spanish dance. 
Jammerlich (Ger.). Deplorable, lamentable. 
Jammernd (Ger.). Wailing, lamenting. 

Janitscharenmusik (Ger.). Janissary music; a band composed of 
wind-instruments together with all the noisy instruments of per- 
Jardin (Fr.). In theatrical terminology, the side of the stage to the 

left of the spectator. 
Je (Ger.). At any time, ever; (with numerals) each. 

Je drei Pauken. Three drums each. 
Jedoch (Ger.). However, still, yet. 

Jeu (Fr.). Play, diversion, game, and hence the execution or per- 
formance of a musician or actor. The term is often used in the 
sense of "a set of anything", such as organ-pipes, bells, etc. Grand 
jeu, or plein jeu, bringing all the stops of an organ or harmonium 
into play (full organ). 

Jeu a bouche. A flue-stop. 

Jeu celeste. A soft stop on the harmonium ; a stop of a tremulant 

character on the organ. 
Jeu d'anche. A reed stop on an organ. 
Jeu d'ange. The vox angelica stop. 
Jeu de flute. Flute stop. 
Jeu de timbres. Set of small bells, carillon. Plates or bars of 

metal are now usually substituted for the bells. 
Jeu de voix humaine. The vox humana stop. 
Jeu d'orgue. An organ stop. 

Jeu ordinaire. The ordinary method of playing an instrument; 
an indication contradicting a previous one, such as : — sur le 
chevalet, sons harmoniques, etc. 
Jeux (Fr.). Plur. of jeu. 

Jeux de fends. The foundation stops of an organ. 
Jeux doux. Soft stops. 
Jeux forts. Loud stops. 
Jingles. The little cymbals or plates, fixed in the wooden hoop of 

a tambourine. 
Jodeln (Ger.). To yodel: to sing in the peculiar style practised in 
some of the Alpine districts, of which the distinguishing feature 
is an abrupt change into falsetto. 
Jongleurs (Fr.). The old troubadours. 
Jota aragonesa (Sp.). A dance. 
Jouer (Fr.). To play. 

Jouer ces petites notes 4 defaut du saxophone. Play these small 
notes when there is no saxophone. 

— Ill — 

Joyeusement (Fr.). Joyously. 
Jubelnd (Ger.). Jubilant, triumphant. 
JudenbaB (Ger.). A very deep bass voice. 
Jugend (Ger.). Youth. 
Jusqu'a (Fr.). Until. 

Jusqu'd la fin. Until the end. 
Juste (Fr.). Just, exact, accurate. 
Justesse (Fr.). Exactness, accuracy. 

K. Abbr. of Kontra. 

K.B. Abbr. of Kontrabass. 
K.F. Abbr. of Kontrafagott. 
Kadenz (Ger.). Cadence. 
Kaisermarsch (Ger.). Imperial march. 
Kalamaika. A Hungarian dance. 
Kalkant (Ger.). An organ blower. 
Kann (Ger.). Can (from konnen, to be .able). 

Kann im Notfalle von einem Piston in B ubemommen werden. 
Can be undertaken if need be by a cornet in B^. 
Kammer (Ger.). Room, chamber; royal apartment. 
Kammerduett. Chamber duet. 

Kammerkantate. A chamber cantata, i. e. one of smaller dimen- 
sions and requiring less means for its performance than one 
intended for a concert-hall. 
Kammerkomponist. Chamber composer; a composer in the 

service of a prince. 
Kammerkonzert. A chamber concert. 
Kammermusiker, Kammermusikus. A musician in the service 

of a prince. 
Kammersanger. A singer in the service of a prince. 
Kammerstil. Style of chamber-music. 

Kammerton. In old Ger. music, the customary pitch used in 
secular music. It was approximately a tone lower than the 
Chorton {q. v.). 
Kammervirtuos. A virtuoso in the service of a prince. 
Kanon (Ger.). Canon. 
Kanzellen (Ger.). The channels or grooves of the wind-chest of an 

Kapelle (Ger.). {Kapell- in combination.) A chapel. The musical 
establishment of a prince or nobleman, and consisting of either 
singers or instrumentalists (or of both), who not only perform in 
the church, but also take part in the secular music (operas, con- 
certs, etc.), connected with the court. The term is now used for 
any permanent body of musicians. 

Kapellist. A bandsman, member of a Kapelle. 
Kapellknaben. Choir-boys attached to the Kapelle. 
Kapellmeister. The musical director, conductor and choir master 

of a Kapelle. 
Kapellmeistermusik. Term of derision applied to the occasionally 
uninspired compositions of Kapellmeisters. 

— 112 — 

Itapsel (Ger.). A clarinet cap. 

Kastagnetten (Ger.). Castanets. 

Kasten (Ger.). Case for a stringed instrument. 

Kaum (Ger.). Scarcely, hardly. 

Kaum horbar. Scarcely audible. 

Kaum merklich bewegter. Scarcely perceptibly faster. 
Kaum vernehmbar. Scarcely audible. 
Keck (Ger.). Bold, daring, audacious. 
Keckheit (Ger.). Boldness, audacity. 
Keif end (Ger.). Scolding, nagging, bickering. 
Keineswegs (Ger.). In nowise. 

Keineswegs schnell. In nowise fast. 
Kelle (Ger.). Term sometimes used for a reed of a broad spatula- 
like shape. 
Kenner (Ger.). A connoisseur. 
Kent bugle. A keyed bugle. 
Kenthorn (Ger.). Same as the Biigelhorn or Klappenhorn, the keyed 

Kenttrompete (Ger.). A keyed trumpet, corresponding to a keyed 

Keraulophon. An organ stop of a soft reedy tone. 
Kesselpauke (Ger.). The old name for a kettledrum, now always 

abbreviated to Pauke. 
Kettentriller (Ger.). A chain of shakes. 

Kettledrum. A percussion instrument, consisting of a hemispherical 
shell of metal, over which a membrane is stretched, capable of being 
tuned by means of screws surrounding the hoop which tightens 
the head. Kettledrums have always formed a part of the sym- 
phonic orchestra, the classical masters usually employing two (the 
larger with a compass from E to c, the smaller, from B\f to /), but 
in many modern works a third drum (with a compass from A to d) 
is necessary, and two pairs are not uncommon. Spohr uses 3 pairs 
in Calvary, Reicha (to depict the harmony of the spheres) 4 pairs, 
while Berlioz in his Requiem employs as many as 8 pairs. 

Chromatic drums are now required by some composers. In these, 
the tuning can be instantly altered by a single screw, usually turned 
by means of a pedal. The instruments are not entirely satis- 
factory, since tightening the membrane in one motion is not suffi- 
cient to ensure true intonation in delicate tunings, as the mem- 
brane does not stretch evenly, but requires to be adjusted to a 
different tension at different parts of its circumference. 
Kicks (Ger.). Fault, blunder. Applied to the couac {q. f.) on a reed 

Kind (Ger.). {Kinder- in combination.) A child. 
Kinderszenen. Scenes for children. 
Kindersymphonie. Toy symphony. 
Kindertrompeten. Children's trumpets; toy-trumpets. 
Kinderubungen. Exercises for children. 
Kinnhalter (Ger.). Chin-rest for a violin. 
Kirche (Ger.). {Kirchen- in combination.) A church. 
Kirchenarie. A church aria; a sacred aria. 
Kirchengesang. (i) A hymn, canticle. (2) Church-singing. 

— 113 — 

Kirchenkantate. A church (sacred) cantata. 

Kirchenkonzert. A church concert. 

Kirchenlied. Hymn, canticle, sacred song. 

Kirchenmusik. Church music. 

Kirchenstil. The church (ecclesiastical) style; alia capella, 

Kirchentone. The ecclesiastical modes. 

Kirchenweise. A church (sacred) melody. 
Kit. A small violin, formerly often used by dancing masters. 
Klagend (Ger.). Complaining, wailing. 
Klaglich (Ger.). Plaintive, wailing, mournful. 
Klammer (Ger,). A brace, bracket, accolade. 
Klang (Ger.). Tone, timbre. 

Klangboden. Sounding-board, sound-board. 

Klangfarbe. Tone-colour. 

Klanggeschlecht. Tone genus, which may be major, minor, 
diatonic, chromatic or enharmonic. 

Klanglehre. Theory of sound; acoustics. 
Klappe (Ger.). A key of a flute, clarinet, etc., or of an ophicleide, 

keyed bugle, etc. plur. Klappen. 
Klarinette (Ger.). {Klarinetten- in combination.) A clarinet, plur. 


^, . .. t, r A clarinet reed. 
Klarmettenrohr. ( 

Klarinettenschnabel. Clarinet mouthpiece, cf. Mundstiick. 

Klarinettenverband. Clarinet ligature. 
Klarinettist (Ger.). A clarinet-player. 
Klaviatur (Ger.). Keyboard. 
Klavier (Ger.). Piano. 

Klavierauszug. Piano score. 

Klavierbegleitung. Piano accompaniment. 

Klavierlehrer. Piano master. 

Klavierlehrerin. Piano mistress. 

Klavierspiel. Piano-playing. 

Klavierspieler, -in. Pianist. 

Klavierstiick. Piano piece. 

Klavierubungen. Piano exercises. 

Klavier vierhandig j p^^^^^ ^^^^ 

Klavier zu 4 Handen. \ 
Klein, -e (Ger.). Small. Applied to intervals, minor. 

Kleine Flote. The piccolo. 

KJeine Terz. Minor third. 

Kleine Trommel. The side or snare-drum. 
Klingen (Ger.). To sound, vibrate. 

Klingen eine Oktave hoher, als notiert. To sound an octave 
higher than written. 

Klingen lassen. Let vibrate, i. e. do not damp the sound. 
Klingend (Ger.). Resonant, sonorous, resounding. 
Knabe (Ger.). {Knaben- in combination.) A boy. 

Knabenstimme. A boy's voice. 
Knarre (Ger.). A rattle. 

Knee-swell. A lever in the harmonium and American organ worked 
by the knee, and corresponding to the swell-pedal of an organ. 

Wotton, Dictionary. g 

— 114 — 

Kneifend (Ger.). Plucking, pizzicando. 
Knopf (Ger.). A button; stud on an organ. 

Knopfchen. The button or tail-pin of a violin. 
Komisch (Ger.). Comic. 

Komische Oper. Comic opera. 
Komponi(e)ren (Ger.). To compose. 
Kompositionslehre (Ger.). The theory of composition; a treatise on 

Kontra ( Ger. ). Often used in the sense of the It. contra, or Eng. double. 

KonSabfB/i The double bass. 

Kontrabafiposaune. Double-bass trombone. 

KontrabaBtuba. Double-bass tuba. 

Kontrafagott. Double bassoon. 

Kontrafuge. Double fugue. 

Kontrapunkt. Counterpoint. 
Kontretanz (Ger.). A square dance, contre-danse. 
Konzert (Ger.). Concert, concerto. Until recently always spelt as 

Konzertfliigel. A concert grand-piano. 

Konzerthaus. A concert-house. 

Konzertmeister. Leader of an orchestra, the principal violin. 

Konzertsaal. Concert-hall (room). 

Konzertsanger (masc). { . ^^„^^.^4- ^i„„^^ 

Konzertsanierin (fem.). 1 ^ <=°"<=«'^t ^'"Ser. 

Konzertstiick. A concert-piece. 

Konzertton. Concert-pitch. 

Konzertzither. A zither of large size for concert use. 
Kopf (Ger.). A head. 

Kopfnote. Head-note. 

Kopfstimme. Head-voice. 
Koppel (Ger.). A coupler. 

Koppelzug. The draw-stop of a coupler. 
Kraftig (Ger.). Strong, powerful, vigorous. 

Kraftig, doch nicht zu schnell. Energetic, but not too fast. 

Kraftig gestoBen. Forcibly detached {staccato). 

Kraftig und bestimmt. Vigorous and decided. 

Kraftig und feurig. Vigorous and spirited. 
Krakowiak. A Polish dance in 2/4 time. 
Krebs (Ger.). A crab. 

Krebsgangig* Retrograde. 

Krebskanon. Canon by retrogression, canon cancricans. 
Kreischend (Ger.). Screeching, screaming. 
Kreuz (Ger.). The sharp sign (^). Doppel-Kreuz, the double sharp ( x ). 

Kreuzsaitig. Cross-stringed (as of a piano). 
Krieg (Ger.). (Kriegs- in combination.) War. 

• Kriegslied. War-song. 
Kriegerisch (Ger.). Warlike, martial. 
Krone (Ger.). Corona; the sign ^r^. 
Krumm (Ger.). Crooked. 

Krummbogen. The crook of a horn or trumpet, now always 
abbreviated to Bogen. 

— 115 - 

Krummhorn. The same as Cromorne {q. v.). 
Kuckuckinstrument (Ger.). An instrument for producing the notes 

of a cuckoo. 
Kuhhorn (Ger.). A cow-horn; horn for calUng the cattle. 
Kunst (Ger.). Art. Die schonen Kunste, the fine arts. 

Kunstfuge. A fugue exhibiting every scholastic device. 
Kunstkenner. A connoisseur. 
Kunstliebhaber. An amateur, a dilettante. 
Kunstwerk. Work of art, creation. 
Kunstwort. A technical art term. 
KurzJ(Ger.). Short. Used in the sense of secco for a sharp short 

Kurze Note. An acciaccatura. 
Kurz und bestimmt. Short and with decision. 
Kiirzung (Ger.). Shortening. Zur Kiirzung des Stiickes, for the 

shortening of the piece. 
Kustos (Ger.). A direct; a cue. 

Kyrie (Gk.). The first part of the Mass, commencing Kyrie eleison, 
**Lord have mercy upon us". 

L. Abbr. of Left, Link, Links. In stage directions, L. means in Eng. 
to the left of the actor; in Ger. to the left (Links) of the spectator, 
L.H. Abbr. of Left hand, Linke Hand. 
U (Fr.). Abbr. of La or Le before a word commencing with a vowel 

or h mute. 
L* (It.). Abbr. of Lo, La or Le before a word commencing with a 
vowel, but its use is not invariable. 

L'accompagnamento sempre leggierissimo. The accompaniment 

always very light. 
L'istesso moto. 

y ,'. • . ( The same movement, 

L istesso movimento. \ 

L'istesso tempo. The same time. 

NB. In these three expressions, the correct ItaUan is lo 

stessOy etc., and as such is used by all Italian composers : 

the l'istesso, etc., usually written by composers, other than 

Italian, are colloquialisms. 

La (Fr.). (i) The (fem.). (2) The note A. Ce La expressif, this A 

with expression. 

La bemol. A flat. 

La bemol mineur. A flat minor. 

La diese. A sharp. 

La majeur. A major. 

La 3e (troisieme) Flute prend la petite Flute. The 3rd flute takes 

the piccolo. 

La (It.). (I) The (fem.). (2) The note A. 

La bemolle. A flat. 

La bemolle maggiore. A flat major. 

La diesis. A sharp. 

La melodia ben marcata. The melody well emphasised. 

La minore. A minor. 


- ii6 - 

La prima parte senza ripetizione. The first part without repeat. 

La voce. The voice. 
Labial- (Ger.). Used in combination. 

Labialpfeife. A flue-pipe of an organ. 

Labialstimme. A stop of the flue-work. 

Labialwerk. Flue-work. 
Lacrimando (It.), v. Lagrimando. 

Lade (Ger.). For Windlade, the wind-chest of an organ. 
Lage (Ger.). Position (on a violin, etc.): register (of a voice or in- 
strument): position of the notes of a chord, as enge Lage, close 
position, weite Lage, extended position. 
Lagnevole (It.). Doleful, plaintive, 
Lagnosamente (It.). Dolefully, mournfully. 
Lagnoso, -a (It.). Plaintive, doleful. 
Lagrimando (It.). Weeping, deploring. 
Lagrimoso, -a (It.). Sad, full of tears. 
Laisser (Fr.). To let, to allow. 

Laisser vibrer. Allow to vibrate. 
Lame (Fr.). Blade; a small bar of metal. 

6 lames d'acier frappees avec 2 marteaux. 6 strips of steel, 
struck with 2 hammers. 
Lamentabile (It.), v. Lamentevole. 

lSS:;;S;idosi<"ll:). | La-nting, conxplaining. 

Lamentazione (It.). Lamentation, complaint. 

Lamentevole (It.). Plaintive, sad. 

Lamentevolmente (It.). Sadly. 

Lamento (It.). A lament, moan. 

Lamentoso (It.). Mournful. 

Lampo (It.). A flash of lightning. 

Lancio (It.). Spring, bound; glow, enthusiasm, elan. 

Landler (Ger.). A slow waltz; a "Tyrolienne". 

Lang (Ger.). Long. 

Lang ausklingen lassen. Let the sound be long in dying away. 

Langes Schweigen. Long silence. 
Langsam (Ger.). Slow. 

Langsam getragen. Slowly drawn-out (sustained). 

Langsam und mit Ausdruck spielen. To be played slowly and 
with expression. 

Langsam und schmachtend. Slow and languishing. 

Langsam und sehnsuchtsvoll. Slow and yearning. 
Langsamer (Ger.). Slower, 

Langsameres Viertel. The crotchet slower, 

Langsamer werdend. Becoming slower. 
Languendo, Languente (It.). Languishing; love-sick. 
Languette (Fr.). (i) The tongue of an organ reed-pipe. (2) The stem 
of the keys of wind-instruments, 

Languettes libres. Free reeds. 
Languidissimo (It.). Sup. of languido. 
Languido (It.). Faint, weak. 

- 117 - 

Largamente (It.). Largely, broadly. 

Large (Fr.). Broad. 

Largement (Fr.). Broadly; in a gran^ style. 

Largement chant6. Broadly sung. 
Largeur (Fr.). Breadth. Avec plus de largeur, with more breadth. 
Larghetto (It.). Diminutive of and indicating a tempo somewhat 
faster than largo. Somewhat slow and broad. 

Larghetto non troppo lento. Somewhat broad, but not too slow. 
Larghezza, or Largo (It.). Breadth, slowness. 
Larghissimo (It.). Sup. of largo. 

Largo (It.). Broad. Used of a broad slow tempo, which is slower 
than Adagio. 

Largo assai. Very slow. 

Largo di molto. Very slow indeed. 

Largo ma non troppo. Slow, but not too much so. 
Larigot (Fr.). An acute organ stop, sounding an octave above the 12th. 
Lasciate sonare (It.). Let vibrate. 

Lauda Sion (Lat.). One of the Sequences of the Catholic Church. 
Lauf (Ger.). A run, roulade. 

Laut (Ger.). Loud, distinct, resounding, subs. Sound, tone. 
Laute (Ger.). {Lauten- in combination.) A lute. 

Lautenmacher. A maker of violins, etc. 

Lautenspieler, Lautenist. A lute-player. 
Lavorare (It.). To work. 
Le (Fr.). The (masc). 

Le plus leger possible. As lightly as possible. 

Le Von solo avec les autres. The solo V^ with the rest. 
Le (It.). The (fem. plur.). 

Le voci. The voices. 
Lebendig (Ger.). Lively, animated. 

Lebhaft (Ger.). Lively, vivacious, quick. Corresponds to vivo, 

Lebhaft, aber nicht zu sehr. Lively, but not 00 much so. 

Lebhaft bewegt. With lively animation. 

Lebhaft doch gewichtig. Quickly but heavily. 

Lebhaft, doch kraftig und ohne eilen. Animated yet decided, 
and \vithout haste. 

Lebhaft, doch nicht zu schnell. Animated yet not too fast. 

Lebhaft mit Steigerung. Animated and with* exaltation. 

Lebhaft rasch. Very quickly. 
Lebhafter (Ger.). More animated, more vivacious, etc. 
Lebhaftigkeit (Ger.). Vivacity, animation, briskness. 
Le<;on (Fr.). A lesson. 
Leg. Abbr. of legato. 
Legando (It.). Slurring, tying, binding 
Legatissimo (It.). Sup. of legato 
Legare (It.). To bind, slur, tie. 
Legato (It.). Tied, bound, slurred, sustained, smooth. 

Legato e con espressione. Sustained and with expression. 
Legatura (It.). Ligature (of a clarinet). Legatura di voce, binding 

of the voice; singing of several notes in one breath. 
L6ger, legdre (Fr.). Light. 

— ii8 — 

Legerement (Fr.). Lightly; slightly. TrisUgirement retenu, very 

slightly slackened. 
Legeret6 (Fr.). Lightness. • 
Legg. Abbr. of leggiero. 
Leggeramente (It.). Lightly; slightly. 
Leggeranza (It.), j t i„htness 
Leggerezza (It.). ( ^ig^^ness. 
Leggermente (It.). Lightly, nimbly. 
Leggero (It.), v. Leggiero. 
Leggiadramente (It.). Gracefully, gallantly. 
Leggiadretto (It.). Agreeable. 
Leggiadro (It.). Nice, pretty, graceful. 
Leggieramente (It.). Lightly. 
Leggierezza (It.). Lightness, nimbleness. 
Leggierissimo (It.). Sup. of leggiero. 
Leggiermente (It.), v. Leggermente. 
Leggiero (It.). I^ght, nimble. 
Leggio (It.). A desk for holding music, etc. 

Legno (It.). Wood. Istrumenti in (or di) legno, wood-wind instru- 
ments; col legno, with the wood (back) of the bow. 
Leiche (Ger.). {Leichen- in combination.) A corpse, mortal remains. 

Leichengesang. Funeral song. 

Leichenmarsch. Funeral march. 

Leichenmusik. Funeral music. 
Leicht (Ger.). (i) Easy. (2) Light, slight. 

Leicht beschwingt. Slightly quickened 

Leicht beweglich. Somewhat animated. 

Leicht bewegt. Slightly animated. 
, Leicht gestoBen. Lightly detached. 

Leicht schwebend. Lightly gliding. 

Leicht und duftig. Light and vaporous 

Leicht und luftig. Light and aerial. 

Leicht und zart. Light and delicate. 
Leichtfertig (Ger.). Playful, Hght-hearted, mischievous. 
Leichtigkeit (Ger.). Ease, facility; suppleness, agility. 
Leichtweg (Ger.). v. Leicht. 

Leidenschaft (Ger.). Passion, emotion, affection. 
Leidenschaftlich (Ger.). Passionate, impassioned, enthusiastic 

Leidenschaftlich bewegt. Passionately animated. 
Leier (Ger.). (i) Lyre. (2) Hurdy-gurdy. (3) A hackneyed tune. 
Leise (Ger.). Soft, gentle, low (not loud). 

Leise bewegt. Gently animated. 

Leise und sehr egal zu spielen. To be played softly and very 
Leisten (Ger.). To perform, render, accomplish. 
Leistung (Ger.). A performance, rendering. 
Leit (Ger.). Used in combination. 

Leitakkord. A chord leading to another, an unresolved chord, 
especially the chord of the dominant. 

Leitmotiv. A leading motive; a short musical phrase intended 
by the composer to represent some character or idea in his 

— 119 — 

Leitton. The leading note. 
Leiter (Ger.). Usual abbreviation of Tonleiter, a scale. 

Leitereigen. Belonging to the scale. 

Leiterfremd. Foreign to the scale. 
Leno (It.). Weak, faint. 
Lent (Fr.). Slow. 

Lent et calme. Slow and tranquil. 
Lentamente (It.). Slowly, gently, softly. 
Lentando (It.). Slackening. 
Lentato (It.). Slackened, relaxed. 
Lentement (Fr.). Slowly. 
Lenteur (Fr.). Slowness. 5a«s /^w/ewr, without slowness, i. ^. without 

Lentezza (It.). Slowness. 
Lentissimo (It.). Sup. of lento. 
Lento (It.). Slow. 

Lento assai. \ 

Lento di molto. > Very slow. 

Lento lento. ) 

Lento ma non troppo. Slow, but not too much so. 
Les (Fr.). The (plur.). 

Les deux Cymbales. The two cymbals, i. e. clashing the two 
halves together in the ordinary way. 

Les pp. doivent etre pris brusquement. The pp. should be taken 
Lestamente (It.). Nimbly, quickly. 
Lesto (It.). Nimble, quick. 

Lesto lesto. Very quick. 
Leuto (It.). V. Liuto. 
Levare (It.). To raise, take off. 

Levare qualche registro dell* organo per far piii piano. Take off 
any stop to make the organ softer. 
Levate (It.). Raise, take off. 

Levate i mani. Raise the hands. 

Levate i sordini {or le sordine). Take off the mutes. 
Leve (Fr.). Raised, subs. The up-beat of the hand or foot. 
Levez (Fr.). Raise, take away. 

Levez les mains. Raise the hands. 
Levezza (It.). Lightness. 
Lezione (It.). A lesson. 
Liaison (Fr.). A bind, tie, slur. 
Liberamente (It.). Freely. 

Liberta (It.). Liberty. Con libertd, with freedom, freely. 
Librement (Fr.). Freely. 

Librement declame. Freely declaimed, i. e. sung without paying 
strict attention to the tempo. 
Libretto (It. ). Literally, — a little book. The book of words of an opera. 
Licenza (It.). Licence, freedom. Con alcuna licenza, with some 

(amount of) freedom. 
Liceo (It.). Lyceum, academy. 
Lie (Fr.). Tied. 
Liebe (C>er.). Love. (In combination often Liebes-.) 

— 120 — 

Liebegliihend. Glowing with love. 

Liebesflote. v. Flute d'amour. 

Liebesgeige. v. Viola d'amore. 

LiebevoU. Full of love. 
Lieblich (Ger.). Pleasing, graceful, melodious. 

Lieblich gedackt. A stopped diapason of sweet tone. 
Lied (Ger.). Song, ballad. (Usually Lieder-, in combination.) 

Liederartig. A lied or ballad style. 

Liedercyklus. A cycle of songs. 

Liederkre^?* j ^ garland or collection of songs. 

Liedersanger (masc). j . , „ , . 

Liedersangerin (fem.). ( ^ "^^^^^^ ^^^S^""- 

Liederspiel. A comedietta interspersed with songs. 

Liedform. Ballad-form. 
Lieder (Ger.). Plur. of Lied. Lieder ohne Worte, songs without words. 
Liegend (Ger.). Lying. 

Liegender Bogen. Legato bowing, the bow lying well on the strings. 
Lietezza (It.). Joyousness, light-heartedness. 
Lietissimo (It.). Sup. of lieto. 
Lieto, -a (It.). Joyous, blithe, merry. 
Lieve (It.). Light, easy. 
Lievemente (It.). Lightly, softly. 
Lievezza (It.), v. Leggerezza. 
Ligato (It.). V. Legato. 

Ligatur (Ger.). ) Two or more notes sung to one syllable. In the old 
Ligatura (It.). { mensurable music, these notes were often absolutely 

joined together. >. i ?.^p;|>-*1g.r^ 
Ligature, (i) The meaning as given above. (2) The band of metal, 
with which the reed of a clarinet or saxophone is attached to the 
Ligature (Fr.). Ligature, in both its meanings. 
Ligne (Fr.). j . ,. 
Linea (It.). ( ^ ^'''^• 

Lignes additionelles. Ledger lines. 
Lingua (It.). The tongue forming the reed in an organ or harmonium 
Linguetta (It.). A small reed. The reed of a clarinet, etc. 
Liniensystem (Ger.). The stave. 
Link (Ger.). Left. 
Links (Ger.). To the left. 
Lira (It.). Lyre. 
Lirico, -a (It.). Lyric. 
Liscio (It.). Smooth. 
L'istesso (It.). V. under L'. 
Litanei (Ger.). j 
Litanie (Fr.). ( Litany. 
Litanie (It.). ) 
Liturgia (It.). ) 
Liturgie (Fr.). | Liturgy. 
Liturgie (Ger.). ) 
Liturgique (Fr.). j j iturmcal 
Liturgisch (Ger.). ( ^'^"^S^^^*' 

— 121 — 

Liuto (It.). Lute. 

Lo. Abbr. of loco. 

Lo (It.). The (masc). 

Lobgesang (Ger.). Hymn of praise. 

Loch (Ger.). An opening; a hole in a wood- wind instrument, or in 

the belly of a stringed instrument, plur. Locher. 
Loco (It.). Place. Used to signify that the notes are to be played in 

their proper octave, instead of 8va, or 8va bassa as previously 

Lointain (Fr.). Distant. In an instrumental part it signifies an 

echo effect. 
Long Drum. A term occasionally applied to the bass-drum, but 

erroneously, since it is an evident translation of tambour long {q. v.), 

one of the Fr. names for a tenor drum. 
Long, longue (Fr.). Long. 
Lontano (It.). Distant, cf. Lointain. 
Los (Ger,). Free, unfettered, sciolto. Also used as an exclamation: — 

"Play up!", "Start!" 
Lourd (Fr.). Heavy. 
Lourdement (Fr.). Heavily. 
Loure (Fr.). (i) An ancient name for a species of bagpipe. (2) An 

old dance. 

Loure (Fr.). A species of bowing, indicated thus: . 

Luftig (Ger.). Aerial, vaporous. 

Lungo, -a (It.). Long. 

Lunga pausa. Long pause. 

Longo silenzio. Long silence. 
Luogo (It.). V. Loco. 
Lusingando (It.). ) 

Lusingante (It.). > Flattering, coaxing. 
Lusinghevole. (It.).) 
Lusinghevolmente (It.). Flatteringly, 
Lusinghiere (It.). Flattering, fawning. 
Lustig (Ger.). Merry, jocund, playful. 

Lustig und immer schneller und schmetternder. Merrily, and 
always faster and more resonant. 
Lustigkeit (Ger.). Mirth, cheerfulness. 
Lute. An obsolete instrument of the guitar clasg. 
Luth (Fr.). A lute. 
Luthier (Fr.). A maker of violins, etc. 
Lutto (It.). Mourning, grief, sorrow. 
Luttoso, Luttuoso (It.). Mournful, sad. 
Luttuosamente (It.). Mournfully, sadly. 

Lyre. An ancient instrument, consisting of a hollow sound-box, 
from which projected two uprights joined by a yoke, from which 
strings (usually seven) were stretched down to the body. 
Lyrique (Fr.). { t^-:„„i 
Lyrisch (Ger.). ( ^Y^^al. 

122 — 


M. Abbr. of Manual. 

M.D. Abbr. of Main droite, Mano destra. 

M.G. Abbr. of Main gauche. 

M. M. Abbr. of Malzel's Metronome. 

M.V. or m.v. Abbr. of mezza voce. 
Ma (It.). But, however. / ma dolce, f but sweetly. 

Ma molto marcato. But much accentuated. 

Ma non troppo. But not too much. 

Ma poco. But not much, but little. 
Macchina (It.). A machine. Tromba a macchina, a trumpet with 

valve mechanism. 
Madriale (It.), v. Madrigale. 

Madrigalesco (It.). In the style of a madrigal. 
Maesta (It.). j Maiestv 

Maestevoimente, Maestosamente (It.). Majestically, with dignity. 
Maestoso (It.). Majestic, noble, stately. The term is even applied 

to pieces in quick tempo, {e. g. Glazounoff, Sym. V. Finale.) 
Maestri (It.). Plur. of maestro. 

Maestri cantori. Mastersingers, Meisiersinger. 
Maestria (It.). Skill, art, cleverness. 
Maestro (It.). Master; one skilled in any art or science. 

Maestro del core. Choir-master. 

Maestro di capella. v. Kapellmeister. 

Maestro di musica. Music master. 
Maggiolata (It.). A May song. 
Maggiore (It.). Major. 
Magno (It.). Grand, great. 

Mailloche (Fr.). A mallet. -Term used for a bass-drumstick in 

orchestral scores since 1860/70, tampon having been the word in 

previous use. v. Tampon. Double mailloche, a bass-drumstick with 

two heads for the execution of rolls. 

Main (Fr.). Hand. A 4 {quatre) mains, for 4 hands. A quire of paper. 

Main droite. Right-hand. 

Main gauche. Left hand. 
Mais (Fr.). But, however. Dans la coulisse mais tris pris de la scene^ 
in the wings but very near the stage; p. mais bien marque, p. but 
well marked. 

Mais 16ger et tres detach6. But light and very detached (staccato). 

Mais sans lenteur. But without slowness, i. e. without dragging. 

Mais soutenu. But sustained. 
Maitre (Fr.). Master. 

Maitre de chapelle. v. Kapellmeister. 

Maitre de musique. Music master : a conductor, a musical director. 
Maitrise (Fr.). A school where choir boys are educated. 
Majestatisch (Ger.). Majestic, stately. 
Majeur (Fr.). Major. 

— 123 — 

Mai (Ger.). Time (not in the sense of tempo). Often employed as 

a suffix, as einmal, once, zweimal, twice, etc. 
Malinconia (It.). Melancholy, sadness. 
Malinconicamente (It.). Sorrowfully, sadly. 

Malinconioso!^Malinconoso (It.).} Melancholy, sad, dejected. 

Man (Ger.). One, they, men. Corresponding to the Fr. on. 

Mancando, Mancante (It.). Decreasing, diminishing (the sound). 

Mancanza (It.). Want, lack, default. In mancanza della fanfara, in 
the absence of the brass-band. 

Manche (Fr.). The neck of a violin, etc. 

Mand°. Abbr. of mancando. 

Mandela (It.). A species of mandoline, used in the 17th century, and 
the same as the Pandora; at the present time the name is used 
for an instrument bearing the same relation to the mandoline as 
the viola does to the violin. 

Mandoline. A stringed instrument with a neck furnished with frets, 
and a body somewhat the shape of a split almond. {Mandola, an 
almond.) The strings are struck by a plectrum of tortoise-shell, 
ivory, etc. The strings are double, usually four pairs in number, 
tuned g, d', a', e", though instruments are found with five pairs. 
Its compass extends to e'". It has been used by Mozart {Don Gio- 
vanni), Gretry {L'amant jaloux), and by Verdi in Otello, where it 
is combined with guitars and bagpipes. 

Mandoline (Fr.). \ . , ,. 

Mandoline (Ger.).| ^ mandoline. 

Mandoline (It.). A mandoline. / Mandolini potranno essere sostituite 
da due Arpe, the mandolines may be replaced by two harps. 

Mandera (It.), v. Mandola. 

Mani (It.). Plur. of mano, a hand. A 4 (quattro) mani, for 4 hands. 

Manica (It.). A shift on a violin, etc. 

Manice (It.). The neck of a violin, etc. 

A/Tan'fra (T^\ ' Mauucr, stylc, — either of the artist's execution, or 

Kert (Fr'i. j °* ^he composition itself. 

Maniere (Fr.). Affected, mannered. 

Manieren (Ger.). Grace-notes, ornaments. 

Mannercher (Ger.). Male chorus. 

Mannergesangverein (Ger.). A society for performing compositions 

for male voices. 
Mane (It.). Hand. 


Mane sinistra sepra. Left hand above (the right). 
Manritta (It.). The right hand. 
Mantici (dell* organe) (It.). Bellows (of the organ). 
Manual. The keyboard of an organ, which is played by the hands, 

as opposed to the keyboard (pedal-board), which is played by the 

Manual (Ger.). Manual. 

— 124 — 

Manualkoppel. A manual-coupler. 

Manualtaste. A key on a manual. 
Manuale (It.). Manual, plur. Manuali. 

Manual! accoppiati. The manuals coupled. 
Manualiter (Ger.). Only for the manuals, i. e. organ pieces in which 

the pedals are not required. 
Manualmente (It.), v. Manualiter. 
Marc. Abbr. of marcato. 
Marcando (It.). Marking, accentuating. 
Marcatissimo (It.). Sup. of marcato. 
Marcato, -a (It.). Marked, accentuated. 

Marcata la prima nota. The first note emphasised. 

Marcata la sinistra. The left hand accentuated. 

Marcato assai. Very marked. 

Marcato e legato il basso. The bass accentuated and smooth. 

Marcato il canto ma piano I'accompagnamento. The melody 
marked, but the accompaniment soft, 
Marche (Fr.). (i) March. (2) The progression of chords or parts. 

Marche funebre. Funeral march. 

Marches modulantes. A succession of modulatory chords. 

Marche triomphale. Triumphal march. 
Marcia (It.). March. 

Marcia D. S. (dal segno) al fine senza ripetizione. The march 
from the sign to the end without repeat. 

Marcia marciale. Military march. 

Marcia religiosa. Religious march. 
Marciale (It.). Martial, military. 
Markig (Ger.). Strong, vigorous. Immer markig gestrichen, always 

vigorously bowed. 
Markiert (Ger.). Marked, accentuated. 

Markiert und kraftig. Accentuated and vigorous. 
Marque (Fr.). Marked, accentuated. 
Marsch (Ger.). March. 

MarschmaBig. In the style of a march. 
Marteau (Fr.). A hammer. 

Martele (Fr.). Literally "hammered". A species of bowing (some- 
times called detache sec), in which short sharp blows are struck by 
the bow on the strings. The point of the bow is as a rule employed, 
but martele du talon (with the heel, or near the nut, of the bow) is 
sometimes found. The term is occasionally used for other instru- 
ments than bowed ones, and signifies a sharp staccato. 
Martellando (It.). "Hammering." J 
Martellare (It.). "To hammer." [ cf. Martel6. 
Martellato (It.). "Hammered." ) 
Martellement (Fr.). In harp music, the repetition of a note by means 

of homophones (two strings tuned to the same pitch). 
Martraza. A Spanish dance. 

Marziale (It.). Martial, warlike. . 

Mascherata (It.). A masquerade. 
Maschio (It.). Manly, virile. 

MaB (Ger.). Measure. Zeitmafi, time measure, tempo. 
MaBig (Ger.). Moderate. Die Horner-, Trompeien- und Posaunen- 

— 125 - 

Fanfaren md/iig, aber nicht roh, the flourishes on the horns, trumpets 
and trombones moderately loud, and not coarse, -md/iig as a suffix 
means: — (i) containing, (2) -like, suited for, as Heldenmdfiig, hero- 
like, heroic. 

MaBig bewegt. With moderate animation. 

MaBiges Marsch-Tempo. Moderate march-time. 

MaBig geschwind. Moderately quick. 

MaBig im HauptzeitmaB. Moderate, in the main tempo. 

MaBig langsam. Moderately slow. 

MaBig lebhaft. Moderately lively. 

MaBig schnell gehend. (Going) moderately fast. 

MaBig und ruhig. In moderate time and tranquilly. 
MaBigen (Ger.). To moderate (the tempo), to diminish (the loudness). 
MaBiger (Ger.). More moderate. 
Massimo, -a (It.). The greatest, supreme. 
Mastello (It.). The bottom of the pedestal of a harp. 
Masurk, Masurek, Masurka (Ger.). A mazurka. 
Matelotte (Fr.). A sailor's dance. 

Mazurka, Mazurek, Mazurk. A Polish dance in triple time. 
Mazza (It.). A bass-drumstick, cf. Mailloche. 
Mazzetta (It.). Diminutive of mazza. 
Mechanik (Ger.). The technique of a performer: the mechanism of 

a piano, organ or harmonium. 
Meche de crin(s) (Fr.). A "lock" of horse-hair; bow-hair. 
Medesimo (It.). Same. 

Medesimo movimento. / t-, ^ o^^^ 4-^^^ 

Medesimo tempo. ^^^ "^^^ ^^^^• 

Mediante (I^')^' j Mediant; the third degree of the scale. 
Mediator (Fr. and Ger.). The plectrum of a mandoline. It is occa- 
sionally used with a harp (Mahler, Symphonie VI). 
Mehr (Ger.). More. 

Mehrchorig. For many (several) choirs. 
Mehrfach. Manifold. 

Mehr langsam, oft zuriickhaltend. Slower, frequently slackening. 
Mehrstimmig. Polyphonic. 
Meister (Ger.). Master, 

Meisterfuge. A master-fugue ; a fugue exhibiting every possible 

device of counterpoint, etc. 
Meistersinger. A master-singer ; a member of one of the musical 
guilds, which flourished in Germany in the 14th, 15th and i6th 

Melancolia (It.). (Melancholv 
Melancolie (Pr.). j^^eiancnoiy. 

Melange (Fr.). A medley, a mixture. 
Melodia (It.). Melody. 
Melodico, -a (It.). Melodious. 
Melodic (Fr.). / Tt^ 1 j 
Melodiosamente (It.). Melodiously. 

Mrdisch Tc^'r,. {Melodious. 

— 126 — 

Melodium. A species of harmonium, 

Mllodrsme (Fr 1 (Melodrama; spoken dialogue, accompanied by 

Melodramma (It.), j "^"^i^- 

Meme (Fr.). Same. 

Meme mouvement. The same movement (tempo). 
Menestrel (Fr.). Minstrel. 
Meno (It.). Less. Sometimes abbreviated to men. 

Meno animate. Less animated. 

Meno forte. Less loud. 

Meno mosso. Less moved (animated). 

Meno piano. Less soft. 

Meno sonoro. Less sonorous. 

Meno tosto. Less quick. 
Mensur (Ger.). The measure or scale of an organ pipe. Time, measure. 
Mensuralgesang (Ger.). Mensurable music ; music in measure, as op- 
posed to the plain-song. 

Mescolanza (It.). Medley, mixture. 

Messa (It.). Mass. 

Messa di voce (It.). In singing, the art of commencing and ending 
softly on a long note, becoming loud midway, cf. Filar un suono. 

Messe (Fr.). j^ass. 

Messe (Ger.). ( 

Messinginstrumente (Ger.). Brass instruments, 

Mestizia (It.). Sadness, melancholy. 

Mesto (It.). Sad, gloomy. 

Mesure (Fr. ). Measure ; time ; a bar. La J = la ^' de mesure precedente, 
the J = the J of the preceding bar. Une mesure comme trois du 
mouvement precedent, one bar like three of the preceding movement. 

Mesure (Fr.). Measured, in precise rhjrthm 

Metall (Ger.). Metal. 

Metallsaite. A metal string. 

Metallstabchen. A metal beater (for a triangle). 

Metallo (It.). Metal. 

Metallo di voce. The resonant quality of a voice. 

Methode (Fr.). j 

Methode (Ger.). [Method. 

Metodo (It.). ) 

Metronom (Ger.). A metronome. 

Metronome. An instrument for mechanically beating time. It is 
worked by clockwork, and consists of a pendulum, of which the 
vibrations are regulated by a movable weight. On the pendulum 
is "a scale with various numbers, ranging from 40 to 208, and the 
metronome is correct when it beats seconds with the weight 
against 60. As by means of the metronome, the speed of a move- 
ment can be exactly denoted, it is a matter of regret that composers 
do not make more constant use of it. 

Metronome (Fr.). A metronome. 

— 127 — 

Metronomisches Zeichen (Ger.). Metronomic indication. 
Metronome (It.). A metronome. 
Metrum (Ger.). Metre. 
Mettete (It.). Place, put. 

Mettete i sordini. Put on the mutes. 

Mettete le pedali. Put down the pedals. 
Mezza (It.). Half (fem.). 

Mezza aria. Half the power of the voice or instrument, demi-jeu, 

Mezza battuta. A minim rest. 

Mezza manica. The half shift or second position on a violin, etc. 

Mezza orchestra. Half the orchestra. 

Mezza voce. With half the power of the voice. 
Mezzo (It.). Half (masc). 

Mezzo forte. Half loud, but nearer loud than soft; mf. 

Mezzo legato. Somewhat legato. 

Mezzo manico. In the middle of the fingerboard of a violin, etc. 

Mezzo piano. Half soft, but nearer soft than loud; mp. 

Mezzo-soprano. The female voice intermediate between the 
soprano and contralto. 

Mezzo staccato. Somewhat staccato. 

Mezzo tenore. A name for a baritone voice. 

Mezzo tuono. A semitone. 
Mf. Abbr. of mezzo-forte. 
Mi (Fr.). The note E. 

Mi bemol. E flat. 

Mi bemol mineur. E flat minor. 

Mi diese. E sharp. 

Mi majeur. E major. 
Mi (It.). The note E. 

Mi bemolle. E flat. 

Mi bemolle majore. E flat major. 

Mi diesis. E sharp. 

Mi minore. E minor. 
Middle C. The C lying between the bass and the treble clefs, and the 

note indicated by the C clef. 
Milieu (Fr.). Middle. 

Milieu de I'archet. Middle of the bow. 
Militair (Ger.). v. Militar. 

Militaire (Fr.). Military. Musique militaire, military music. 
Militar (Ger.). MiUtary. 

Militarflote. A fife. 

Militarmusik. MiUtary music. 

Militartrommel. The side-drum. 
Minaccevole (It.). Threatening, menacing. 
Minaccevolmente (It.). Threateningly, in a menacing manner. 
Minacciando (It.), v. Minaccevole. 
Minacciosamente (It.), v. Minaccevolmente, 
Minaccioso (It.). Full of threats. 
Minder (Ger.). Less. 

Minder schnell. Less fast. 
Mineur (Fr.). Minor. 
Minne (Ger.). An archaic word for "love". 

— 128 — 

Minnelied. A love-song composed by a Minnesinger. 
Minnesang. Love-poetry. 

Minnesanger. j A minnesinger ; one of the old German troubadours. 

Minnesinger, (who flourished in the 12th and 13th centuries, who 

were of noble birth (as opposed to the subsequent Meister- 

singey), and whose theme was mainly of love. 

Minore (It.). Minor. 

Minuetto (It.). A minuet; a graceful dance in ternary time, dating 

from the 17th century. 
Mirliton (Fr.). A mirliton ; sometimes called a "speaker" or "squeaker". 
A tube of wood or cardboard with the two ends covered with a 
membrane, and having a triangular hole cut in the tube a short 
distance from each end. By singing into one of the holes a sound 
is produced not unlike that obtained by singing against a comb 
enveloped in thin paper. In Tschaikovsky's Casse-noisette, one of 
the numbers is called Danse des Mirlitons, often peculiarly trans- 
lated as "Reed-pipe dance". Another toy instrument on the same 
principle is known as a Kazoo. 
Mise (Fr.). Setting, putting, placing. 
Mise de voix. v. Messa di voce. 

Mise en scene. The setting of a stage-play or opera. 
Missa (Lat.). The Mass. 

Missa pro defunctis. Mass for the dead, a requiem. 
Misteriosamente (It.). Mysteriously. 
Misterioso (It.). Mysterious. 
Misura (It.). A measure, a bar. 
Misurato (It.). Measured, in precise rhythm. 
Mit (Ger.). With. 

Mit Anmut(h). With charm, grace. 

Mit anmut(h)igem Vortrage. With graceful execution. 

Mit auBerst starker Empfindung. With intensely strong emotion. 

Mit Begeisterung. With animation, inspiration, exultation. 

Mit Begleitung. With accompaniment. 

Mit beiden Handen. With both hands. 

Mit Betriibnis. With sorrow. 

Mit Bewegung. With movement (animation). 

Mit breitem Strich. With the whole bow. 

Mit Dampfer. With the mute. 

Mit Dampfer stark anzublasen. To be muted, and strongly 

blown, i. e. made brassy. 
Mit Dampfern. With mutes. 
Mit dem Basse. With the bass. 
Mit dem Bogen geschlagen. Struck with the bow. 
Mit den Fagotten. With the bassoons. 
Mit den Instrumenten. With the instruments. 
Mit den Trompeten. With the trumpets. 
Mit der ganzen Kraft. With full strength, tutta forza. 
Mit der Hauptstimme. With the principal part or voice. 
Mit Eifer. With warmth. 

Mit Empfindung, With feeling, emotion. * 

Mit Feuer. With fire, spirit 
Mit FleiB. Diligently. 

— 129 — 

Mit frohlichem Ausdruck. With cheerful expression. 

Mit Gefiihl. With feeUng. 

Mit Geist. With soul. 

Mit Genauigkeit. With accuracy, 

Mit Geschmack. With taste. 

Mit gewohnlichen Paukenschlageln. With ordinary kettle- 

Mit Gravitat. With gravity, solemnity. 

Mit Grazie. With grace. 

Mit grossem {or groBem) Ausdruck. With great expression. 

Mit groBem Schwung. With great enthusiasm. 

Mit groBter Energie. With the greatest vigour. 

Mit gutem Humor. Good-humouredly. 

Mit halber Stimme. A mezza voce. 

Mit Holzschlageln. With kettle-drumsticks of wood. 

Mit hiipfendem Bogen. With springing bow. 

Mit innigem Ausdruck. With heartfelt expression. 

Mit inniger Empfindung. With deep emotion. 

Mit Leben. With life. 

Mit Lebhaftigkeit. With vivacity. 

Mit Lebhaftigkeit und durchaus mit Empfindung und Ausdruck. 
With animation, and with feeling and expression throughout. 

Mit Leichtigkeit. With lightness. 

Mit Leidenschaft. With passion. 

Mit leidenschaftlichem Vortrag. With passionate execution. 

Mit mehr Affekt. With more fervour. 

Mit mehr Bewegung. With more movement. 

Mit Mut(h). With spirit. 

Mit Paukenschlageln. With kettle-drumsticks. 

Mit Ruhe. Tranquilly. 

Mit sanften Stimmen. With soft stops (of an organ). 

Mit Schmerz. With pain. 

Mit Schwammschlageln. With sponge - headed (kettle- )drum- 

Mit Seele. With soul. 

Mit Sordin. With the mute. 

Mit Sorgfalt. With care. 

Mit springendem Bogen. With springing bow. 

Mit springendem Daumen. With springing thumb. (Direction 
to tambourine-player.) 

Mit starken Stimmen. With loud stops (of an organ). 

Mit Steigerung. With exaltation. 

Mit Tellern. With the two halves of the cymbals, i. e. clashing 
them in the ordinary manner. 

Mit unruhiger Bewegung. With restlessness. 

Mit voller Orgel. Full organ. 

Mit Warme. With warmth. 

Mit Wiirde. With dignity. 

Mit zartem Vortrag. With delicate execution. 

Mit Zartheit. With sweetness. 

Mit Zierlichkeit. With gracefulness, daintiness. 
Mitleidig (Ger.). Pitiful. 

W o 1 1 o n , Dictionary. q 

— 130 — 

Mitte (Ger.). subs. Middle, midst. In die Mitte den Sanger zu stellen, 

the singer to be placed in the midst. 
Mittel (Ger.). adj. Middle, central. 

Mittelfinger. The second finger. 

Mittelkadenz. The imperfect cadence, or half close. 

Mittelsatz. Formerly the term for the second subject. Seiten- 
satz is the term now usually employed. 

Mittelstimmen. The intermediate parts. 
Mixtur (Ger.). A mixture stop on an organ. 
Mobile (It.). Movable, fickle. 
Moderatamente (It.). Moderately. 

Moderatamente allegro. Moderately fast. 

Moderatamente forte. Moderately loud. 
Moderatissimo (It.). Sup. of moderato. 
Moderato (It.). Moderate. 

Moderato assai con molto sentimento. Very moderate (in tempo) 
with much feeling. 

Moderato cantabile. In moderate tempo and singingly. 

Moderato e con grazia. In moderate tempo and with grace. 
Modere (Fr.). Moderate. 
Moderement (Fr.). Moderately. 

Moderement anime. Moderately animated. 

Moderement lent. Moderately slow. 
Modo (It.). Mode. 
Modulare (It.). To modulate. 
Modulazione (It.). Modulation, 

Moduler (Fr.). j r^ modulate; to pass from one key to another. 

Moduh(e)ren (Ger.). \ » i' y 

Moglich (Ger.). Possible. 
Moglichst (Ger.). Sup. of moglich. 

Moglichst gebunden. As smooth as possible. 

Moglichst groB, schlaff gespannt. As large as possible, slackly 
braced. (Indication for tenor drum.) 

Moglichst zahlreich besetzt. Laid out for as large a number as 
Moins (Fr.). Less. 

Moins f. Less /. 

Moins long. Less long. 

Moins vite. Less fast. 
Moiti6 (Fr.). Half. La moitiS des lers violins. Half the ist violins. 
Moll (Ger.). Minor. 

Mollakkord. Minor chord. 

Molleiter. Minor scale. 

Molltonart. Minor key. 
MoUa (It.). A spring. 
Molle (It.). Gentle, tender. 
Mollemente (It.). Gently, softly. 
Molta (It.). Fem. of molto, much. 

Molta espressione. Much expression. 

Molta voce. Much voice. 
Moltissimo (It.). Sup. of molto. 
Molto (It.). Much (masc). As an adv., much, very. 

— 131 ~ 

Molto allegro. Very fast. 

Molto allegro con fuoco. Very fast and with spirit. 

Molto cantabile. Very singingly. 

Molto crescendo e animato. Increasing very much in loudness 

and animation. 
Molto espressivo. Very expressive. 
Molto largo. Very slow. 

Molto lento. Very slow, not so slow as molto largo. 
Molto marcato il basso. The bass very accentuated. 
Molto meno mosso. Much less animated. 
Molto piu mosso quasi doppio tempo. Much more animated, 

almost double the time. 
Molto portamento. Very smooth, v. Portamento. 
Molto ritenuto e crescendo. Much slackened and increasing in 

Molto vivace. Very quick. 
Monferina (It.). A dance in Vs time, of Piedmontese origin. 

Monodr^mMlt.). j^^onodrama; a play with only one character. 
Montatura (It.). Mounting, setting. 

Montatura di corde. Set of strings. 
Montez (Fr.). Raise. 

Montez la fa grave au la?. Raise the low F to A^. 
Montre (Fr.). The pipes of an organ which are in front of the case; 

mounted diapason. 
Monture (Fr.). v. Montatura. 
Mor. Abbr. of morendo. 

Morbidezza (It.). Softness, mellowness, dehcacy. 
Morbido (It.). Soft, tender. 
Morceau (Fr.). Piece, movement, composition. 

Morceau de fantaisie. A fantasia. 

Morceau d'ensemble. v. Ensemble. 

Morceau elegant. A drawing-room piece. 
Mordant (Fr. ). A mordent ; the rapid alternation of a harmony note 
with the note above ; an inverted mordent is with the note below, 
adj. In a sharp short staccato style. 

Morendo (It.). Dying away. 
Moresca (It.). A Morris dance. 
Mormorante (It.). Murmuring. 

Mormorevole (It.). |^r„,_^„ •„„ ^„ .• 

Mormoroso (It.). jMurmunng, purhng. 

Mosso (It.). Moved, impelled, stirred, animated. 

Motet (Fr.). 

Motette (Ger.). }A motet. 

Motetto (It.). ) 

Motif (Fr.). A motive, theme, phrase. 

Motiv (Ger.). v. Motif. Das Motif in den 2 Hornern gehunden und 

hervorragen, the motive in the 2 horns sustained and brought-out. 

cf. Leitmotiv. 
Motivo (It.). V. Motif. 


— 132 -^ 

Moto (It.). Motion, movement. Lo stesso moto, the same movement 

Moto contrario. Contrary motion. 

Moto obliquo. Oblique motion. 

Moto perpetuo. Perpetual motion. Term applied to a compo- 
sition, which'^^conveys the idea that it is going on for ever. 

Moto precedente. The preceding movement. 

Moto primo. The first movement (tempo). 

Moto retto. Similar motion. 
Motteggiando (It.). Bantering, quizzing. 
Mottetto (It.). V. Motetto. 

Mouthpiece. The portion of a wind-instrument, which is placed in 
or against the performer's mouth. In the brass and in certain 
obsolete wood instruments, such as the serpent, the mouthpiece is 
cup-shaped and on the form of this depends in a great measure 
the tone-quality. 
Mouvement (Fr.). (i) Motion, degree of speed, movement (tempo). 
(2) Movement (a number or portion of a suite, sonata, etc.). 

Mouvement contraire. Contrary motion. 

Mouvement de marche. March time. 

Mouvement de valse. Waltz time. 

Mouvement direct. Similar motion. 

Mouvement initial, v. Tempo primo. 
Mouvemente (Fr.). Moved, stirred. 
Movente (It.). Moving. 
Movimento (It.). Movement. 
Mp. Abbr. of mezzo-piano. 

Mue de voix (Fr.). The break in a boy's voice. 
Miihelos. (Ger.). Without effort. 
Mundstiick (Ger.). Mouthpiece. 
Munter (Ger.). Brisk, sprightly, vivacious. 

Munter und straff. Lively and precise. 
Murmelnd (Ger.). Murmuring, whispering, purling. 
Murmurando (It.), v. Mormorando. 

Musetta (It.), j A small species of oboe. A dance of a pastoral. 
Musette (Fr.). ( character on a drone bass. 
Musica (It.). Music. 

Musica da camera. Chamber-music. 

Musica da chiesa. Church (sacred) music. 

Musica da teatro. Music for the theatre. 

Musica istrumentale. Instrumental music. 
Musical, -e (Fr.).jj^ . , 
Musicale (It.). pusical. 
Musicalmente (It.). Musically. 
Musicare (It.). To play, perform. 

Musicare una canzone. To set a song to music. 
Musicien, -ienne (Fr.). A musician. 
Musicista, Musico (It.). A musician. 
Musico, -a (It.). Musical. 
Musik (Ger.). Music. 

Musikdirektor. A musical director. 

Musikfest. A musical festival. 

— 133 — 

Musikkenner. A connoisseur of music. 
Musikmeister. ]\Iusic master. 

Musikstunde. Music lesson. (Literally, "music-hour".) 
Musikzeichen. Musical signs. 
Musikalisch (Ger.). Musical. 
Musiker, Musikus (Ger.). A musician. 
Musi que (Fr.). Music. 

Muta (It.). Change (3rd pers. sing.), subs. A set. 
Muta di quattro ritorte. A set of four crooks. 
Muta in E. Change into E. 
Mutano (It.). Change (3rd pers. plur.). 

Mutano in F. Change into F. 
Mutation stops. Stops on an organ, which do not give the note 
corresponding to the key pressed, but the 12th, 17th or 19th above. 
Mutazione (It.). Mutation. 

Mute. An instrument for deadening the sound of a musical instru- 
ment, and incidentally giving it a different tone-colour. On the 
violin, etc., it is a kind of metal comb, which is fixed on to the 
bridge; in brass instruments, a cone of cardboard, wood, or metal, 
placed in the bell. 
Mut(h)ig (Ger.). Bold, daring. 


Nacaire (Fr.). An obsolete term for a kettledrum. 
Naccare (It.). A name for the castanets, cf. Gnacchere. 
Nach (Ger.). After, to, at, by, from. G nach E tief, G to low E. 
Nach Belieben. Ad libitum. 
Nach bestimmtem ZeitmaB. In exact time. 
Nach (Buchstaben) A, B, C, etc. To (letter) A, B, C, etc. Ral- 

lentando nach R, becoming slower till R. 
Nach dieser Nummer eine Pause von einigen Minuten. After this 

number an interval of several minutes. 
Nach Gef alien. Ad libitum. 
Nach Noten spielen. To play from notes. 
Nach und nach. Gradually, little by little, by degrees. 
Nach und nach belebter. Gradually more animated. 
Nach und nach immer bewegter. Gradually with increasing 

Nach und nach immer langsamer werdend. Becoming gradually 

Nach und nach lebendiger. Gradually more lively. 
Nach und nach mehrere Saiten. Gradually more strings, i. e. 
gradually taking off the soft pedal {una cor da) and playing 
on the 3 strings of the piano. 
Nach und nach wieder geschwinder. Again becoming faster by 
Nachahmung (Ger.). Imitation. 
Nachdruck (Ger.). Vigour, accent, emphasis. 
Nachdriicklich (Ger.). With emphasis, energetic. 
Nachgehend (Ger.). Following. Dem Cello nachgehend, following the 

cello ; der Melodie nachgehend, following the melody. 
Nachlassend (Ger.). Slackening. 

- 134 — 

Nachlassig (Ger.). Careless, inaccurate. 
Nachsatz (Ger.). Conclusion; concluding section. 
Nachschlag (Ger.). After beat. The two grace-notes at the end of 
a shake. Die Triller sind alle mit Nachschlag zu machen, the shakes 
are all to be played with an after-beat. 
Nachspiel (Ger.). A postlude. The concluding instrumental phrase 

of a song. 
Nacht (Ger.). Night. 

Nachtgesang, A nocturne. A serenade. 
Nachthorn. An organ pipe of 8 ft. 

Nachtmusik. A serenade, an instrumental piece for several in- 
Nachtstandchen. A serenade, a piece for one performer. 
Nachtstiick. A nocturne. 
Nachtanz (Ger.). After dance. The concluding dance of the old 

sets of dances. 
Nachtigall (Ger.). The nightingale. 

Nachtigallpfeife. A pipe for imitating the nightingale. 
Nachtlich (Ger.). Nightly, nocturnal. 
Nahe (Ger.). Near. 

Nahe dem Chor. Near the chorus. 

Naiv (Ger ) I I^^^ocent, simple-minded, artless. 

Naivement (Fr.). Simply, artlessly. 
Narquois (Fr.). Crafty, cunning, sly. 
Narrante (It.). Relating, recording; as if narrating. 
Nasard (Fr.). j An organ stop sounding a 12th above the written 
Nasat (Ger.). ( note. 
Nasetto (It.). The nut of a bow. 

Naso (It.). Nose. Occasionally used for the point of the bow. 
Natur- (Ger.). Used in combination in the sense of "natural". 
Naturhorn. Natural horn. 
Naturskala. Natural scale. 

Naturtone. Open notes on a brass instrument. Die mit he- 
zeichneten Tone f sind vom i. und 3. Horn als Naturtdne, d. h. 
als Ton 1 1- der Naturskala wiederzugehen, the F-s marked with 
an o are to be played by the i. and 3. horn as open notes, 
i. e. as the nth of the Natural Scale. 
Naturtrompete. Natural trumpet. 
Natural harmonic series, v. Harmonics. 
Natural horn. A horn without valves, v. Horn. 
Natural scale, v. Harmonics. 

Natural trumpet. A trumpet without valves, v. Trumpet. 
Naturale (It.). Natural. Do naturale, C natural. The sign for a 
natural is called bequadro. The term is found in scores to indicate 
that an instrument is to play in the ordinary manner, in contra- 
distinction to a previous direction, such as sul ponticello, etc. 
Naturalmente (It.). Naturally, in an unaffected manner. 
Natural, -elle (Fr.). Natural. Ut naturel, C natiu-al. The sign for 
a natural is called hicarre. Natural horns and trumpets are usually 
called ordinaires or simples. Son naturel, an open note on a brass 

— 135 — 

Natiirlich (Ger.). Natural. The term is found in scores to indicate 
that an instrument is to play in the ordinary way, and contradicting 
a previous am Steg, Flageolett, etc. 

Natiirlich drangend. Spontaneously hurrying. 
Natiirliche Tonleiter. The natural scale. 
Ne — pas (Fr.). Two words signifying a negative, the first being put 
before the verb, the latter after, except with the infinitive, when 
both are before the verb. Ne pas jouer (or Ne jouez pas) cette 
mesure, si on coupe les 4 mesures qui precHent, do not play this 
bar, if the 4 preceding bars are cut. {v. Remark I.) 
Neben (Ger.). By, by the side of, alongside; simultaneously. Neben- 
in combination usually means "accessory", "additional", etc. 
Nebenakkorde. Secondary chords. 
Nebendreiklange. Secondary triads. 

Nebengedanke. An accessory thought; a new theme introduced 
into a movement, which has no reference to the main 
Nebenlinien. Ledger lines. 
Nebennote. Auxiliary note. 
Nebenregister. The stops of an organ other than those which 

act directly on the pipes. 
Nebensatz. A subsidiary phrase. 
Nebenstimmen. Accessory parts. The term is applied to the 

mutation stops of an organ. 
Nebenthema. Subsidiary theme. 
Nebentonart. A relative key. 
Nebenwerke. v. Nebenregister. 

Nebenzug. An accessory draw-stop. cf. Nebenstimme. 
Necessario (It.). Necessary. 

Neck. That portion of a stringed instrument, which lies between 
the body and the peg-box, and on which the fingerboard is placed. 
Negli (It.). Combination of in, in, and gli, the (masc. plur.). 
Negligente (It.). Careless, listless. 
Negligentemente (It.). Negligently, heedlessly. 
Nehmen. To take. 

Nehmen ebenfalls Dampfer. Likewise take mutes. 
Nehmen wieder groBe Flote. Again take the (large) flute. 
Nel, neir, nella, nello, nei, nelle, negli (It.). Compounds of in, in. 
and various forms of the definite article. 
Nel battere. At the downbeat. 
Nel medesimo. In the same time. 
Nel stir antico. In the antique style. 
Nel tempo. In time. 
Nella orchestra. In the orchestra. 
Nelle scene lontano. In the wings, distant. 
Nello stesso tempo. In the same time. 
Nenia (It.). A funeral song. 
Nettamente (It.). Neatly. 
Netto (It.). Neat; spotless, pure. 
Neun (Ger.). Nine. 

Neuvieme (Fr.). Ninth; interval of a ninth. 
Nicht (Ger.). Not. 

— 136 -- 

Nicht als Fingeriibung abspielen. Not to be played as a finger 

exercise. (A sarcastic note of Liszt's against a harp passage 

in simple triplets.) 
Nicht anschwellen lassen. Without swelling (on the note). 
Nicht eilen. Without hurrying. 
Nicht gedampft. Not muted. 
Nicht gestoBen. Not detached (staccato). 
Nicht get(h)eilt. Not divided. 
Nicht harpeggiert. Not played in arpeggio. 
Nicht schleppen. Without dragging. 
Nicht schnell. Not fast. 
Nicht schnell und mit innigem Ausdruck. Not fast, and with 

heartfelt expression. 
Nicht sehr schnell. Not very fast. 
Nicht taktieren. Do not mark the beats, i. e. the bar or bars 

are to be played senza misura. 
Nicht t(h)eilen. Do not divide, non divisi. 
Nicht tremolieren. Not to be played as a tremolo, i. e. the proper 

number of notes to be played as written. 
Nicht zu geschwind und sehr singbar vortragen. Not too fast, 

and to be played very singingly. 
Nicht zu langsam. Not too slow. 
Nicht zu rasch. (xt^. .^^ x^^. 
Nicht zu schnell. T^^ *°^ ^^^- 
Nicht zu sehr. Not too much. 
Nicht zu stark. Not too loud. 
Nieder (Ger.). Low, nether; down. 

Niederschlag. Downbeat; accented beat. 
Niederstrich. Downstroke with the bow. 
Niente (It.). Nothing. Quasi niente, almost nothing, as soft as 

Nimmt (Ger.). Takes (3rd pers. sing, of nehmen). 
Nimmt 3 Fagott. Takes 3rd bassoon. 
Nimmt kl. Flote. Takes piccolo. 
Nobile (It.). Noble, lofty. 
Noch (Ger.). Still, yet. 

^ noch schneller als zuvor J^. The J still faster than the pre- 
vious ^'^. 
Noch auOen. Still without, or outside. (Of an instrument or 

character still in the wings, or away from the orchestra.) 
Noch bewegter, sehr leidenschaftlich. Still more animated, very 

Noch drangender. Hurrying still more. 
Noch etwas gemessener. Still somewhat more measured, i. e. 


Noch IZZ J^eUfbeVebendj Still somewhat more animated. 

Noch langsamer. Still slower. 

Noch leiser. Still more softly. 

Noch mehr nachlassend. / ci«^i,..«;«« r.^-i^\ ^^^.. 

Noch mehr zuriickhaltend. l^^^^^^^^^g ^^'^ "^°"^- 

Noch schneller. Still faster. 

— 137 — 

Noch starker. Still louder. 

Noch wuchtiger. Still more heavily. 
Nocturne (Fr.). A nocturne. A night-piece; a composition of a 

dreamy nature. 
Noel (Fr.). Christmas. A Christmas carol, in which the burden is 

often Noel. 
Noire (Fr.). Literally, — "a black"; a crotchet, as opposed to une 
blanche, a minim. Une noire du Lento vaut 3 7ioires du Tempo i, 
a crotchet of the Lento is equal to 3 crotchets of Tempo i . 
Non (It.). Not. 

Non accoppiato. Not coupled. 

Non assai. Not very much. 

Non divisi. Not divided. 

Non legato. Not slurred. 

Non molto. Not much. 

Non rallentando. Without becoming slower. 

Non troppo. Not too much. 
None (Ger.). The interval of a ninth. 
Nonenflote (Ger.). The piccolo in D^?. 

Nonett (Ger.). j A nonet; a composition for nine voices or instru- 
Nonetto (It.). ( ments. The French use the It. term. 
Nono, -a (It.). Ninth. Nona, the interval of the ninth. 
Normal. Standard. The term is applied to standard pitch, and to 
the two scales of C major and A minor, since they serve as the 
standard for all the other scales. 
Normal (Fr.). Normal, v. Diapason normal. 
Normal (Ger.). Normal. 

Normalstimmung. Normal pitch. 

Normalton. The note to which the orchestra tunes, the A. 

Normaltonart. Normal key. 

Normaltonleiter. Normal scale. 
Nota (It.). Note. 

Nota buona. An accented note. 

Nota cambiata. A changing note. 

Nota caratteristica. According to some authorities, the leading 
note; according to others, the minor 3rd or 6th, as being 
characteristic of the minor scale. 

Nota cattiva. An unaccented note. 

Nota coronata. A note with a corona (the sign ^ above it. 

Nota d'abbellimento. A grace-note. 

Nota di passaggio. A passing note. 

Nota txtt''^'^' K ^^^^■^^^^' ^ changing note. 

Nota legata. A tied or slurred note. 

Nota martellata. A "hammered" note. cf. Martele. 

Nota picchettata. A staccato note. cf. Pique. 

Nota portata. A note played or sung with portamento {q. v.). 

Nota principale. The principal note, i. e. the harmony note in 

a turn or shake. 
Nota sensibile. The leading note. 
Note (Fr.). 

Note bonne. An accented note. 

- 138 - 

Note caracteristique. v. Nota caratteristica. 
Note changee. A changing note. 

Note couronnee. A note with a corona (the sign ^ above it. 
Note d'agrement. A grace-note. 
Note irreguliere. A changing note. 
Note liee. A tied note. 

Note martelee. A "hammered" note. cf. Martele. 
Note piquee. A staccato note. v. Pique. 
Note portee. A note played or sung with portamento {q. v.). 
Note sensible. The leading note. 
Note syncopee. A syncopated note. 
Note (Ger.). {Noien- in combination). A note. Ganze Note, a semi- 
breve; halbe Note, a minim; doppelt ganze Note, a breve, plur. 

Notenbuch. A music book. 
Notenlinien. A stave. 
Notenpapier. Music paper. 
Notenpult. A music desk. 

Notenschrift. The writing of music; musical notation. 
Notensystem. A stave. 
Notturno (It.). A nocturne. 

Nourri (Fr.). Nourished. The French employ the term in the sense 
of "rich and full", as the inner parts of a score, or the quality of 
a voice. 
Novemole (Ger.). A nonuplet. A group of 9 notes in place of 6 or 8. 
Nuance (Fr.). Nuance, shade of colour, etc. The term is used gene- 
rally for any one of the signs used in musical nomenclature. La 
nuance hien indiquee, the nuance («'. e. the shade of expression) 
well marked. 
Nummer (Ger.). Number. 

Nuovo (It.). New. Di nuovo, again, once more. 
Nur (Ger.). Only. 

Nur die erste Halfte der Pulte. Only the first half of the desks. 
Nur halber Frauenchor. Only half of the female chorus. 
Nur im auBersten Notfalle ad libitum. Ad libitum only in the 
case of the greatest necessity. 
Nut. (i) The small bridge at the end of the fingerboard next the 
peg-box of stringed instruments. (2) The end of the bow opposed 
to the point; the heel of the bow. 
Nutrendo (It.). "Nourishing", i. e. sustaining the sounds. 
Nutrito (It.). Nourished, v. Nourri. 


O. Abbr. of Organo. 

O. C. Abbr. of organo corale. 
O. E. Abbr. of organo espressivo. 
Ob. Abbr. of Oboe. 
Obb. Abbr. of obbligaio. 

Obbligato (It.). Obliged, required. Applied to an instrumental part, 
it implies that the part is indispensable for the performance 01 the 
piece, and may at times be as important as the solo part. 

— 139 — 

Obbliquo (It.). Oblique. 

Oben (Ger.). At the top, above, on high. The term is found in piano 
duets, to indicate that one player has to cross his hand over that 
of the other player, in whose part U7iten (under) is marked. 
Ober (Ger.). Upper. 

Obermanual. The upper manual, i. e. the one next above that 

of the great organ. 
Obemote. Upper note. 
Oberstimme. Upper part. 
Obertone. Upper tones, i. e. harmonics. 
Oberwerk. The pipes controlled by the Obermanual. 
Oberw. Abbr. of Oberwerk. 
Obligat (Ger.). ) 
Obligate (It.). J V. Obbhgato. 
Oblige (Fr.). ) 

Oboe (It.). The hautboy, the It. term being usually employed in 
English. It is an instrument of conical bore played with a double 
reed, and has a compass from b (modern oboes usually possess 
the 67) to /"', or even 2 semitones higher. The term is also used 
for an 8 ft organ stop, slightly resembling the tone of the instrument. 
Oboe alto. The English horn. 

Oboe d'amore. An oboe with a compass from b to e"\ but 
sounding a minor 3rd lower. It was practically obsolete 
(though required for several of Bach's scores) until revived 
by R. Strauss in his Symphonia domestica. 
Oboe da caccia. One of the predecessors of the English horn. 
Oboe in Si?. An oboe sounding a tone below the wTitten notes, 
occasionally found in some continental military bands. 
Oboe (Ger.). Although Hoboe is the ordinary term, oboe is also some- 
times used in Ger. for the hautboy. 

Oboen in einem Klang mit den Violinen. Oboes in unison with 
the violins. 
Oboi (It.). Plur. of oboe. 
Oboista (It.). An oboe-player. 
Occhiali (It.). Spectacles, v. Brillenbasse. 

Octave, (i) An interval of an eighth. (2) Another name for the 
Principal on an organ, which is a 4 ft stop on the manual, and an 
8 ft on the pedals. 

Octave flute. An occasional term for the piccolo. 
Octave key. A key on wood-wind instruments of the oboe and 
clarinet families to enable the second register to "speak" with 
more facility. The oboe and its allies possess two octave 
keys, the second being reserved for the highest notes; on 
many modern instruments, the two keys are worked with 
the same mechanism, the ist shutting and the 2nd open- 
ing when the fingering is taken for the highest notes. The 
baritone oboe possesses three octave keys. The clarinet has a 
single key (known as the "speaker key") which vents all the 
natural twelfths. 
Octave (Ger.). v. Oktave 
Octavier (Fr.). v. Quintoyer. 
Octett (Ger.). v. Oktett, 

— 140 — 

Octobasse (Fr.). A large double-bass with three strings, tuned C, G, c, 
and sounding an octave lower. It is about 12 ft high, and the 
notes are stopped by means of levers and a pedal. It has been used 
in festival orchestras, and Gounod wrote a part for it in his St. Ce- 
cilia Mass. 
Octuor (Fr.). An octet. 

Oder (Ger.). Or. Harfe oder Piano, harp or piano. 
Oeuvre (Fr.). A work. 

Of fen (Ger.). Open, (i) Found in horn-parts, and meaning that the 

notes are no longer to be gestopft, closed. (2) Applied to open pipes 

on an organ. An open string on a violin, etc. is said to be leere, 


Offertoire (Fr.). Offertory. The music of the Mass, played during 

the offertory. 
Oficleide (It.). The ophicleide. 
Ogni (It.). Every, all. 
Ohne (Ger.). Without. 

Ohne Anstrengung. Without effort, easily. 
Ohne Ausdruck. Without expression. An indication implying 
that merely the notes have to be played, without any nuance 
beyond the dynamic one (/, p, mf, etc.). 
Ohne Begleitung. Without accompaniment. 
Ohne Dampfer. Without mutes. 
Ohne Eile. Without haste. 
Ohne Nachschlag. Without an after-beat, e. g. without the two 

grace-notes at the end of a shake. 
Ohne Pedal das ganze Stiick. Without pedal throughout the 

Ohne Sordine. Without mute. 
Ohne Wiederholung. Without repetition. 
Ohne zu schleppen. Without dragging. 
Oktave (Ger.). An octave. Oktav- in combination. 
Oktavenfolgen. Consecutive octaves. 

Oktavfldte^^"*!'^^® piccolo; usually called kleine Flote. 
Oktavkoppel. Octave coupler. 
Olivettes (Fr.). A dance in honour of the olive harvest. 
Omni toni que (Fr.). Having all the tones. Cor omnitonique, a horn 
invented by Sax which by means of a slide could be put 
into any pitch of the natural horn. 
On (Fr.). One, men, people, as on dit, one says, or it is said. 

On leve la toile. The curtain is raised. (One raises the curtain.) 
Ondeggiamento (It.). Undulation. 

8nduff fFn).*"'- 1 Undulating, tremulous. 

Ongarese (It.). Hungarian. 

Onzieme (Fr.). Eleventh; the interval of the eleventh. 

Op. Abbr. of opus, work (Lat.), and, added to a number, giving 

the order of a musician's works, thus: — Op. 12, his twelfth work. 

Unfortunately, in practice the numbers represent the order of 

publication, and not that of composition. 
Open. Used in the following English musical expressions. 

— 141 — 

Open diapason. The chief open foundation stop on the organ, 

usually of 8 ft on the manuals, and i6ft on the pedals. 
Open harmony. When the parts lie at approximately equal 
distances from one another, as opposed to close harmony, 
when there is a wide space between the bass and the upper 
Open notes, (i) On stringed instruments, the notes which are 
produced on the strings without their being stopped by the 
fingers. (2) On brass instruments, the notes produced on the 
tube without the assistance of the valves, i. e. the notes forming 
the Harmonic Series, {v. Harmonics.) 
Open pipes. Pipes, of which the upper end is open. 
Open score. A score, in which all the parts have a separate 

stave to themselves. 
Open strings. The strings on a stringed instrument according 
to its manner of tuning; thus, on a violin, the open strings 
are e" , a\ d\ g. 
Oper (Ger.). {Opern- in combination.) An opera. The term is also 
used for an opera-house. 

Opernphantasie. A fantasia on operatic melodies. 
Opernhaus. An opera-house. 
Opernsanger. An opera singer (masc). 
Opernsangerin. An opera singer (fem.). 
Operntext. The libretto (the words) of an opera. 
Opera (Fr.). An opera; an opera-house. 

Opera bouffe. An opera comique, but with a plot of a humorous 

or even farcical nature. 
Opera comique. An opera, not necessarily of a comedy nature, in 
which dialogue takes the place of the recitative of grand opera. 
Opera (It.). A work, action, deed, and as such is used by some It. 
composers instead of op. or opus, and thus a work is designated 
as opera 12. The specific use of the word is for a theatrical represen- 
tation, in which music forms the chief part. 

Ooerette (Fr \ {^ short opera, usually in one act. 

Ophicleide. The bass of the keyed bugle, with a compass from B 
to c". As the instrument is still advertised in the catalogues of 
Fr. musical instrument-makers, and is still used in some Fr. churches 
it can hardly be said to be obsolete, although now quite superseded 
in the orchestra by the tuba. For many reasons this may be an 
advantage, since the tuba blends better with the trombones and 
the rest of the brass ; but the tuba can never replace the ophicleide 
in the Midsummer Night's Dream overture, and the Amen chorus 
in Berlioz's Faust loses half its effect, when the two ophicleide -parts 
are played on trombones. Alto and tenor ophicleides were also 
formerly in use. 

Ophicleide (Fr.). An ophicleide. 

Opus (Lat.). A work. v. Op. 

Oratorio (It.). A chapel or oratory. The term is used for a devotional 
composition, in which sacred subjects are treated from a contempla- 
tive rather than from a dramatic point of view, although there 
may be a connected story running through the work. In some 

— 142 — 

oratorios however the dramatic element is so much insisted upon, 
that the composition is practically an opera without scenic effects 
or action. 

Oratorium (Ger.). An oratorio. 

Orchester (Ger.). Orchestra. 

Orchesterbegleitung. Orchestral accompaniment. 
Orchesterbesetzung. Orchestral disposition, i. e. the distribution 
or laying-out of the orchestra as regards the number of the 
instrumentalists, its strength in proportion to the size of the 
concert-room, etc. 
Orchester-Partitur. Full orchestral score, cf. Partitur. 

Orchestra (It.). Orchestra, (i) A band of instrumentalists, com- 
prising performers on (a) stringed {b) wood {c) brass {d) percussion 
instruments, as opposed to the military band (without a), and the 
brass band (without a and b). In a well constituted orchestra, 
the Strings should number at least two-thirds of the total number, 
although occasionally for special effects this balance may be 
disturbed. As regards the Wind, no rule, which would be of uni- 
versal modern application, can be given as to the proportion of 
its constituent parts, each composer making his own additions to 
the classic arrangement of 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 
2 trumpets, 2 (or 4) horns and 3 trombones. A piccolo (or 3rd 
flute), cor anglais, bass clarinet, double-bassoon (or 3rd bassoon), 
3rd trumpet, and tuba in addition to the above may now be consi- 
dered the rule rather than the exception, especially in operatic works, 
while these additional instruments added to the classic arrange- 
ment doubled (with the exception of the trombones), i. e. 4 clarinets, 
8 horns, etc., are found in the later scores of R. Strauss, Mahler, etc. 
Generally speaking a composer now-a-days no longer looks upon the 
orchestra as an instrument of stereotyped range and tone-colour, 
but as one that can be varied according to his fancy or to the 
nature of the subject illustrated. (2) The place where the instru- 
mentalists are collected. 

Orchestration. The art of writing for an orchestra, and one which 
should include a knowledge of Instrumentation {q. v.). Composers 
too often forget that the effect of a happy experiment in orchestra- 
tion will of necessity be enhanced if the instruments taking part 
in the combination have their parts written with due regard for 
their individual powers and characteristics. A composer, who 
writes "playable" parts, has a body of virtuosi to perform his work; 
one, who writes impossible passages or passages unsuited to the 
genus of the particular instrument, has merely a collection of 
students, willing no doubt to do their best, but who, engrossed 
with the difficulties of their part, have little attention to devote to 
the meaning of what they are playing. 

Orchestre (Fr.). v. Orchestra. 

Ordinaire (Fr.). Ordinary, usual. Sons ordinaires, ordinary sounds, 
an indication contradicting a previous direction, such as sur le 
chevalet, sons harmoniques, cuivr^, bouchS, etc. Cors ordinaireSj 
natural horns. 

Orecchio (It.). |t., ^ ^^^ 

Oreille (Fr.). > The ear. 

— 143 — 

Org. Abbr. of Organ, organo. 

Org. Esp. Abbr. of Organo espressivo. 
Organ. A wind-instrument consisting of six principal parts : — ( i ) A 
keyboard, or manual, (2) a keyboard for the feet, or pedals, (3) pipes 
of various sizes and tone-qualities, (4) stops or registers for bringing 
into play certain sets of pipes, (5) bellows, and (6) a wind-chest, 
in which the wind is stored. The number of the manuals may be 
as many as 5 in very large organs: — Great Organ, Swell, Choir, 
Solo and Echo ; and even the smallest organs are furnished with coup- 
lers, by means of which the manuals are connected with the pedals, 
or with one another. The pipes are of two kinds: — flute, or flue- 
pipes, some being open pipes, whilst others are closed (a closed 
pipe sounding an octave lower than an open pipe of the same 
length), and reed-pipes. Characteristic of the organ are: — (i) the 
mutation stops, which sound a 12th, 15th, 17th or 19th above the 
note, of which the key is pressed; (2) the mixture stops, which 
sound not only the note of which the key is pressed, but many 
of the harmonics (often as many as 5) of that particular note. 
Organetto (It.). A small organ. 
Organista (It.). An organist. 

Organo (It.). An organ. Grand' organo. Great organ. 
Organo corale. Choir organ. 
Organo di legno. The flue-work of an organ. 
Organo espressivo. The swell organ. 
Organo pieno. Full organ. 
Orgel (Ger.). An organ. 

Orgelbalg. Bellows of an organ. 

Orgelbalgetreter. An organ-blower; literally, — an organ 

Orgelchor. An organ loft. 
Orgelpunkt. An organ or pedal point. 
Orgelregister. An organ stop. 
Orgelspieler. An organ player. 
Orgelstimme. Organ part; an organ stop. 
Orgelzug. An organ draw-stop. 
Orgue (Fr.). An organ. 

Orgue expressif. A name for the harmonium. 
Oricalchi (It.). Brass instruments. 
Omamenti (It.). Ornaments, embellishments. 
Ornatamente (It.). Elegantly, gracefully. 
Ornate, -a (It.). Adorned, subs. An ornament. 
Orne (Fr.). Adorned, embellished. 
Ornements (Fr.). Ornaments. 
Orpheon (Fr.). A male choral society. 
Osservanza (It.). Care, attention. 
Osservato (It.). With care, with attention. 
Ossia (It.). Or. The indication is often found above an alternative 

Ostinato (It.). Obstinate, stubborn. The term is applied to a bass, 

in which a phrase persistently recurs, — a ground bass. 
6tez (Fr.), Take away, take off, deprive. 

Otez la tirasse. Take off the pedal coupler. 

— 144 — 

Otez le Hautbois et mettez la Voix celeste. Take off the hautboy 

and put on the Voix celeste. 
6tez les Jeux de Fends au Recit et mettez le Hautbois. Take off 
^ the diapasons from the swell and put on the hautboy. 
Otez les sourdines. Take off the mutes. 
Ottava (It.). An octave. Often written 8a, or Sva. 
Ottava alta. The octave above. 
Ottava bassa. The octave below. 
Ottava sopra. The upper octave. 
Ottava sotta. The lower octave. 
Ottavino (It.). The ordinary name for the piccolo. It is to be noted 
that composers of other nations, who use It. terms, invariably call 
the instrument "Flauto piccolo", a term seldom if ever used by It. 
Ottemole (Ger.). A group of eight equal notes in place of six. 
Ottetto (It.). An octet. 

Ottone (It.). Brass. Strumenti d'ottone, brass instruments. 
Ouvert, -te (Fr.). Open. Applied to open organ pipes, and to the 

open notes of a horn, trumpet, etc. 
Ouverture (Fr. and Ger.). An overture. 

Overtura (It.). An overture. Until recently, Sinfonia was the term 
used by Italians for an overture, but since It. composers have 
written symphonies, overtura has come into vogue, to avoid con- 

P. Abbr. of Piano, Pied, Pult, etc. 

P.P., Pf. Abbr. of Pianoforte. 
Paar (Ger.). A pair. Fiir jedes Paar ein Schldger, for each pair one 

Pacatamente (It.). Placidly, quietly, calmly. 
Pacato (It.). Placid, tranquil. 
Padiglione (It.). The bell of an instrument. II padiglione in aria, with 

upturned bell. (The term for a bell is now often campana.) 
Padiglione Chinese. The Turkish crescent. 
Padovana (It.). An old It. dance, the original of the Pavane. 
Palco (It.). The stage of a theatre. 
Pallets. The valves admitting the air from the wind-chest to the 

pipes of an organ. 
Pair, -e (Fr.). Even, as opposed to impair, odd. Les pupitres pairs, 

the even desks, v. Desk. 
Pandora (It.), v. Mandola. 

Pantalon (Fr.). The first figure of a quadrille. 
Parallelbewegung (Ger.). Similar motion. 
Paralleltonart (Ger.). Relative key. 
Parfait, -e (Fr.). Perfect. Cadence parfaite, a full close. 
Parlando (It. ). Speaking, talking. It is found marked against phrases 

in an opera, which are to be spoken instead of sung; and it is 

occasionally used for instrumental phrases or melodies which are 

to be declaimed. // basso parlando, the bass in a declamatory 


— 145 — 

Parlante (It.), adj. Speaking, v. Parlando. Used substantively, it 
means the spoken portion of an opera with dialogue, as opposed 
to that which is sung. 
Parlato (It.). Spoken, cf. Parlando. 
Parodia (It.). A parody. 
Parole (Fr.). Word. cf. Apres la parole. 

Part, (i) That portion of a musical or dramatic composition, which 
is performed by any one voice, instrument or character. (2) The 
book containing that portion, together with the necessary cues 
{q. V.) to ensure its entry at the proper moment. 
Parte (It.). Part. Divisi in 3 parti, divided into 3 parts. 
Parte cantante. The part having the melody. 
Parte principale. The principal part. 
Partial tones, v. Harmonics. 

Partie (Fr.). An instrumental or vocal part. The part of a character 
in an opera or play is a role. Cette partie peut etre jouee par V exe- 
cutant charge des Timbres, this part can be played by the performer 
entrusted with the carillon: but, le role de Lohengrin, Lohengrin's 
Partimento (It.). A bass for exercises in counterpoint, and not of 
necessity figured. The word means "division", and implies divid- 
ing up the notes of the various chords between the different parts. 
Partita (It.), (i) A species of Suite. (2) Variations. The term has 

not been much employed since Bach's time. 
Partition (Fr.). A score. 

Partition d'orchestre. Full orchestral score. 
Partition piano et chant. Vocal score. 
Partite (It.). Divided, shared: scored. 
Partitur (Ger.). Score. Usually employed in the sense of a full score. 

A vocal score is Klavierauszug mit Text. 
Partitura (It.). A score. Usually employed in the sense of a full score. 
A vocal score is called Riduzione (or spartito) canto e piano. 
Partitura d' orchestra. Full orchestral score. 
Partizione (It.). Sometimes used for partitura. 
Pas (Fr.). adv. Not; with verbs, combined with ne. v. Ne — pas. 
Pas long. Not long. 
Pas trop vitie. Not too fast. 
Pas (Fr.). subs. A step, a pace, a march. 
Pas de charge. A double quick march. 
Pas de trois. A step {i. e. a dance) by three performers. 
Pas redouble. A quick step (march). 
Passacaglia (It.). An ancient dance, constructed on a ground bass, 
rassage ( r.). / ^ phrase; a figure, as a scale passage; a run. 

Passamezzo (It.). An old dance, a species of quicker Pavane. 
Passecaille (Fr.). v. Passacaglia. 

Passend (Ger.). Fitting, suitable. Used in the sense of comodo. 
Passepied (Fr.). A Paspy. An old Fr. round dance in ternary time, 

often introduced into suites. 
Passionatamente (It.). Passionately. 
Passionatissimo (It.). Sup. of passionato. 
Passionate, -a (It.). Passionate; torn with emotions. 

Wotton, Dictionary. lO 

— 146 — 

Passione (It.). Passion, suffering. La passione di N. 5., our Lord's 

Passo (It.). A step in marching or dancing, cf. Pas (subs.). 
Passo a cinque. A dance for five performers. 
Passo di carica. A double quick march. 
Passo raddoppiato. A quick step (march). 

Pasticcio (It.). Literally, a pie. A botch; a copy, bad imitation. 
Applied to a work composed of fragments or single numbers 
gleaned from various sources. 

Pastiche (Fr.). A pasticcio {q. v.). 

Pastorale (It.). Pastoral, appertaining to rural scenes, subs. A 
pastoral, a poem dealing with rustic characters and situations. 

Pastorita (It.). A name for the Nachthom, a pipe found in old organs. 

Pastoso (It.). Soft, mellow. 

Pastourelle (Fr.). A shepherdess; a pastoral; one of the figures of the 

Pateticamente (It.). Pathetically. 

Patetico, -a (It.). Pathetic, moving. 

Pathetique (Fr.). Pathetic. 

Pathetiquement (Fr.). Pathetically. 

Pathetisch (Ger.). Pathetic. 

Patimento (It.). Suffering, pain. 

Pauke (Ger.). A kettledrum, plur. Pauken. Wenn die Pauke nicht 
genau auf die Hohe des oberen Fis zu bringen, dann die S telle ganz 
we gl as sen, if the kettledrum cannot be tuned accurately to the 
upper FJjl, omit the entire passage. 
Paukenschlagel. Kettle-drumstick. 
Paukenschlager. A kettle-drummer. 

Pausa (It.), j A pause, an organ point; specifically, a semibreve- 

Pause (Fr.). ( rest, and thus, since that rest is used conventionally 
for a bar in any time, a bar's rest. 

Pause (Ger.). A pause; a rest. Ganze Pause, a semibreve-rest ; sech- 
zehntel Pause, a semiquaver-rest. 

Pavana (It.). jA Pavan, a stately dance in binary time, supposed 

Pavane (Fr.). jto have originated in Padua. 

Paventato, Paventoso (It.). Afraid, terrified. 

Pavilion (Fr.). The bell of wind-instruments. 

Pavilions en Tair. With upturned bells, v. Bell. 

Pavilion chinois (Fr.). The Turkish crescent. 

Ped. Abbr. of Pedal, Pedale, etc. 

Pedal. ( I ) A lever for the foot, either acting as a key, as on an organ 
or pedal-piano, or for altering the pitch of notes, as on a harp, 
or for controlling the mechanism concerned with the expression 
of an instrument, as the pedal for the swell of an organ, the soft 
pedal and damper pedal on a piano. On this last, where "Ped." 
is indicated, it always refers to the damper pedal, the soft pedal 
being designated by ''una coy da" . (2) In harmony, a pedal, or 
pedal-point, or organ-point, is a note (usually the tonic or domi- 
nant) held on in one part, while harmonies, of which it does not 
form a part, are played by the other parts. It is called a pedal, 
because originally it was always in the bass, and therefore, on an 
organ, was played on the pedals. (3) The fundamental note on a 

— 147 — 

brass instrument, which in many cases it is impossible to produce. 
They are never used on the horn or trumpet, but they have been 
employed (principally by Berlioz) on the trombone. In instru- 
ments of the tuba family, a special feature is made of these low 
notes, thus giving the instruments an extended compass down- 

Pedal-board. The keyboard of an organ, which is played by the 

feet; the pedals of an organ. 

Pedal clarinet. An instrument an octave lower than the bass 

clarinet. It has been used by d'Indy with great effect in 

Fervaal, but cannot be said yet to form part of the orchestra. 

Pedal coupler. A mechanism for coupling one or more of the 

manuals of an organ with the pedals. 
Pedal piano. A piano, to which is attached a pedal-boaxd, 

similar to that of an organ. 
Pedal point, v. Pedal (2). 
Pedal (Ger.). A pedal, plur. Pedale. Pedal und Ddmpfer, both pedals. 
Pedalgebrauch. The use of the pedal. Immer mit Pedal gebrauch, 

with the use of the (damper) peflal throughout. 
Pedalklaviatur. The pedal-board. 
Pedalpauken. Chromatic kettledrums, in which the changing 

of tuning is effected by means of pedals. 
Pedalpfeife. A pedal pipe. 
Pedaltaste. A pedal key. 

Pedalton. A pedal note; a fundamental note on a brass in- 
Pedaltritt. / » ^., .^^ 
Pedalzug. (^ P^^^^ ^^°P- 
Pedale (Fr.). Pedal. 

Pedale d'accouplement. A manual coupler. 
Pedales de combinaison. The couplers, etc. in general. 
Pedale (It.). Pedal. 

Pedale accoppiato al O. E. Pedal coupled to swell. 
Pedale a ogni battuta. Pedal at every beat, i. e. with every 
change of harmony. 
Pedalier (Fr.). j pgdal-board 
Pedaliera (It.), j^^^^^ '^'^^'^^• 
Pelittone (It.). A bass brass instrument designed by PeUtti, of the 

bombardon or tuba species. It is made in C, Bj? and El?. 
Penna (It.). The plectrum of a mandoline. 
Pensif, -ive (Fr.). Thoughtful. 
Per (Lat.). By, through, by means of. 

Per augmentationem. By augmentation, i. e. a theme repeated 

in notes of a larger value than on its first presentation. 
Per diminutionem. By diminution, i. e. a theme repeated in 
notes of a smaller value than on its first presentation. 
Per (It.). For, by, through, in order to. 
Per augmentazione. By augmentation. 
Per diminuzione. By diminution. 
Per finire. In order to finish. 
Per pianoforte a 4 mani. For piano duet. 
Percussion Instruments. These are of two kinds : — those producing 

— 148 — 

a determinate note or notes, and those which produce merely a 
characteristic noise. To the first class belong the kettledrums, 
the xylophone, celesta, glockenspiel, typophone, harmonica, bells 
of various sizes, etc. ; to the second (and these are usually con- 
sidered as the "Percussion" in the orchestra), the snare-drum, 
tenor drum, tambourin, bass drum, cymbals, gong, triangle, tam- 
bourine, Rute (rod), castanets and wood or metal clappers, anvil 
(which is occasionally tuned and then belongs to the first class), etc. 

Percussione (It.). Percussion. 

Perd. Abbr. of perdendo. 

Perdendo (It.). Losing (strength or force), and hence used in the 
sense of dying away. Occasionally the term also implies a slackening 
of the speed. 

Perdendosi (It.). Losing itself, i. e. dying away. 

Perdendosi poco a poco. Dying away by degrees. 

Perfetto (It.). Perfect. 

Perigourdine (Fr.). A dance in triple time, which originated in 

Periodo lit / [Period; a complete musical phrase. 
Perpetuo (It.). Perpetual, cf. Moto perpetuo. 
Pesamment (Fr.). Heavily. 
Pesant, -te (Fr.).jjj 
Pesante (It.). j^^eavy. 
Petit, petite (Fr.). SmaU. 

Petit d^tache. A form of bowing used in rapid movements, the 
point of the bow being employed. 

Petit format. Small size. 

Petite bugle. The soprano saxhorn in E|7. 

Petite caisse. A term sometimes used for the snare-drum. 

Petite clarinette. A small clarinet in Ei?, D, F or Aj?. 

Petite flute. The piccolo. 

Petite trompette. The small trumpet; a name given to an in- 
strument standing in Bj? (the pitch of a Bj? cornet) or in some 
higher key, of which the tube is about half the length of the 
classic instrument. 
Petto (It.). The chest. Voce di petto, the chest voice. 
Peu a peu (Fr.). Gradually, little by little, by degrees. 
Pezza (It.). V. Pezzo. 
Pezzi (It.). Plur. of Pezzo, a piece. 

Pezzi concertanti. Concerted pieces. 
Pezzo (It.). A piece. 

Pezzo concertato. A concerted piece. 

Pezzo d'insieme. A piece for several voices in an opera, etc. 
V. Ensemble. 
Pfeife (Ger.). A whistle, pipe; an organ pipe. 
Pfiffig (Ger.). Cunning, artful, sly. 
Phantasie (Ger.). Imagination, fancy. A fantasia. 

Phantasiebilder. Pictures of the imagination. 

Phantasiestiicke. Fantasias. 
Physharmonika. An instrument with free reeds, one of the pre- 
cursors of the harmonium. 

— 149 — 

Piacere (It.)- To charm, please, subs. Pleasure. A piacere, at plea- 
Piacevole (It.). Pleasing, agreeable. 
Piacevolmente (It.). Pleasingly. 
Piacimento (It.). Pleasure. 
Pianamente (It.). Softly, gently. 
Pianette. A small upright piano. 
Piangendo (It.). Weeping, deploring. 
Piangevole (It.). Deplorable, sad. 
Piangevolmente (It.). Sadly. 

Pianino (It.). Diminutive of piano; a term applied to a small piano- 
forte; an upright piano. 
Pianissimo (It.). Sup. of piano, soft. 

Pianissimo quanto possible. As softly as possible. 
Pianissimo sempre senza sordini. Very soft and always without 
using the soft pedal, v. Sordino. 
Piano -a (It.). Soft. 

Piano ed egualmente. Soft and evenly (equally). 

Piano-forte. Usually abbr, to pf. Soft-loud ; commencing softly 

and immediately becoming loud; the reverse of fp. 
Piano piano. Very soft. 
Piano. Abbr. of Pianoforte in Eng., Fr., It. It. plur. piani. 
Piano a queue (Fr.). Grand piano. 
Piano droit (Fr,). Upright piano. 
Pianoforte (It.), subs. The stringed keyboard instrument, too well- 
known to need description. 

Pianoforte a coda. Grand piano. 
Piano verticale. Upright piano. 
Pianto (It.). Weeping, lamentation. 
Piatti (It.). Cymbals. 

Piatti squillanti suonati con due bacchette da timpani. Suspended 
cymbals played with two kettle-drumsticks. 
Pibroch. A wild piece of Scotch music, played on the bagpipes, half 

martial, half dirge-like in character. 
Picchiettando (It.). Detaching the notes, v. Picchiettato. 
Picchiettato (It.). Detached. A species of bowing indicated by a dot 

over each note and a slur extending over the entire group. 
Piccolino (It.). Diminutive of piccolo. 

Piccolo. A small flute sounding an octave higher than the ordinary 
flute. In the orchestra the piccolo in C is the only one now used, 
but in military bands instruments in D'7 and E> (sometimes im- 
properly designated as in Hi? and F, v. Flute) are still to be found. 
Piccolo, -a (It.). Small. Flauto piccolo, though found in scores to 
indicate the piccolo, is seldom used by the Italians themselves, 
ottavino being the ordinary name for the instrument. Violino 
piccolo, a small violin. 

Piccolo cornetto. The high cornet in D, E7 or Ab. 
Piccolo (Ger.). The It. word has become Germanised for certain 
expressions, as 

Piccolo Kornett. The cornet in E7, usually called in England the 
Soprano (cornet), the ordinary cornet being sometimes called 
in Germany Sopranokornett. 

— 150 - 

Pichettato (It.). Shaxply detached, spiccato. 
Pickelflote (Ger.). A name for the piccolo. 
Piece (Fr.). Piece. Used, as in Eng. for a play {pUce de thSatre). 

Piece, in the sense of a musical piece, is morceau. 
Pieno, -a (It.). Full, complete. 

Plena orchestra. Full orchestra. 
Pieno core. Full chorus. 
Pietosamente (It.). Compassionately, piteously. 
Pietoso, -a (It.). Pitiful, pitying. 

Pifferare (It.). To play upon the piffero, fife, flageolet, etc. 
Piffero (It.). A small kind of oboe, used by the It. mountaineers. 
For description of the pifferari, or players on the instrument, 
V. Berlioz, Memoires, Vol. I. The term is also used for a fife. 
Pince (Fr.). Plucked; corresponding to pizzicato. The term was 

formerly used for a form of grace-note. 
Pincer (Fr.). To pluck. 

Pincer la harpe. To play the harp. 
Pique (Fr.). A spike; the end pin of a violoncello. 
Pique (Fr.). Sharply detached, spiccato. 
Piquieren (Ger.). To play the notes spiccato. 
Pirolo (It.). A peg of a violin, etc. plur. piroli. 
Piston. A form of valve for producing the chromatic scale on brass 

instruments, v. Valve. 
Piston (Fr.). A piston. The ordinary term for the cornet-d-pistons 

in C, Bb or A. 
Piston (Ger.). A cornet-d-pistons. 

Pistonblaser. A cornet player. 
Pistone (It.). A piston. The term is often used for the high cornets 
(in 'Ep, F, etc.), the ordinary instrument being as a rule called 
cornetta or cornetto. 
Pistonino (It.). A small cornet. 

Pitch. The acuteness of a note, determined by the number of vibra- 
tions a second required to produce it. In England, there are 
unfortunately two standard pitches: — The new Philharmonic, 
which approaches, but by a serious error of judgment is not 
identical with, the Fr. Diapason normal (Ph. a' = 439; D.N. 
a' = 435), and the Kneller Hall pitch, which is used by military 
bands, and is almost a semitone higher. 
Pittoresco (It.). (p:^tnresone 
Pittoresque (Fr. ). ( Picturesque. 
Piii (It.). More. 

Piii agitato. More agitated. 

Pill allegro. Faster. 

Pit! animato. More animated. 

Pi\i dolce e rail. Softer and becoming slower. 

Piu f. ed espr. Louder and with expression. 

Pid forte ed animato. Louder and more animated. 

Pill lento e sotto voce. Slower and in an undertone. 

Piu moderate. More moderately. 

Pill mosso subito. Suddenly with more movement. 

Pill piano. Softer. 

Pill presto. Faster. 

— 151 — 

Piu ritenuto. Gradually becoming slower. 

Piu sensibile. More perceptible, i. e. the part or melody becoming 

more prominent. 
Piu stretto. More closely drawn together, i. e. quickening the 

Pivl tosto, {or piuttosto). More boldly; more quickly. 
Piva (It.). A bagpipe. 
Pizz. Abbr. of pizzicato. 

Pizzicando (It.). Plucking (the strings of a stringed instrument). 
Pizzicati (It.)., Plur. of pizzicato. 

Pizzicato (It.). Plucked. A term meaning that the fingers are to 
be used instead of the bow in bowed instruments. The word is 
also used substantively, as, the Pizzicato from Sylvia. 
Placabile (It.). Calm, peaceable. 
Placabilmente (It.). Peacefully. 
Placidamente (It.). Placidly, calmly. 
Placido (It.). Calm, peaceful. 
Plainte (Fr.). Complaint, lamentation. 
Plaisant (Fr.). Merry, sportive. 
Plaisanterie (Fr.). Pleasantry, joking. A term used formerly for 

pieces of a cheerful jocular character. 
Plaque (Fr.). Equivalent to acciaccato {q. v.) when applied to a chord 
played in very rapid arpeggio, for the sake of greater resonance. 
Plateaux (Fr.). Plates. The two halves of a pair of cymbals. 
Plaudernd (Ger.). Prattling, babbling. 

Plectrum. The piece of ivory or metal used for plucking the strings 
of a mandoline. A plectrum is occasionally used for special effects 
on the harp. 
Plein jeu (Fr.). The full power of the organ or harmonium. 
Plotzlich (Ger.). Suddenly. 

Plotzlich anhaltend. Suddenly restraining (the speed of a move- 
Plotzlich etwas breiter. Suddenly somewhat broader. 
Plotzlich schneller. Suddenly faster. 

Plotzlich wieder im ZeitmalB. Suddenly again in the tempo. 
Plus (Fr.). More. 

Plus anime. More animated. 
Plus de chaleur. With more warmth. 
Plus de largeur. With more breadth. 
Plus de mouvement. With more movement, i. e. faster. 
Plus large. Broader. 
Plus modere. More moderate. 

Plus vite qu'au debut. Faster than at the commencement. 
Pochette (Fr.). A kit {q. v.). 

PnrViAffiTai ^ subs. A very little, a very small (quantity). 

Pochetto (It. 

Pochissimo (It.). Very little, as little as possible. 

Poco (It.), adj. Little, few. adv. Little, not much, somewhat, rather. 

Poco agitato. Somewhat agitated. 

Poco allegro. Somewhat quick. 

Poco andante. Somewhat slow. 

Poco animando. Becoming somewhat animated. 

— 152 — 

Poco calando. Somewhat decreasing. 

Poco forte. Somewhat loud. 

Poco incalzando. Somewhat hastening. 

Poco lento. Somewhat slow. 

Poco meno mosso. Somewhat less moved (animated). 

Poco meno presto. A little less fast. 

Poco piii. A little more. 

Poco piu moderato ma non troppo. A little more moderate, but 
not too much so. 

Poco sfz. (sforzato). Somewhat accentuated. 

Poco sostenuto. Somewhat sustained. 

Poco stringendo. Somewhat hurrying. 
Poco a poco (It.). Little by little, gradually, by degrees. 

Poco a poco accelerando. Gradually quickening. 

Poco a poco animando. Gradually becoming animated. 

Poco a poco crescendo, e con piu di forza e di calore. Gradually 
increasing in loudness, and with more force and warmth. 

Poco a poco crescendo e stringendo. Gradually increasing in 
loudness and speed. 

Poco a poco diminuendo. Gradually decreasing in loudness. 

Poco a poco due ed allora tutte le corde. Gradually two and 
then all the strings. (Direction for gradually relinquishing 
the soft pedal in the piano.) 

Poco a poco piu calando sin al fine. Gradually becoming softer 
until the end. 

Poco a poco piu di fuoco. Gradually with more spirit. 
Poeme symphonique (Fr.). A symphonic poem. 
Poi (It.). Then, after. 

Poi la coda. Then the coda. 

Poi segue il rondo. Then follows the rondo. 
Point (Fr.). A point, dot. 

Point d* arret. The sign /-r^ placed over a rest. 

Point de repos. A rest. 

Point d'orgue. The sign ^^ placed over a note: a cadenza. 
Pointe (Fr.). A point. 

Pointe d'archet. The point of the bow. 
Pointe (Fr.). Dotted. Croche pointee, a dotted quaver. 
Polacco, -a (It.). Polish, subs. Polacca, a polonaise. 
Polifonico, -a (It.). Polyphonic. 
Polka. A dance in 2/4 time. 
Pollice (It.). The thumb. 
Polnisch (Ger.). Polish. 

Polonais, -aise (Fr.). Polish, subs. Polonaise, a dance in V4 time. 
Polster (Ger,). Pad for key of wood-wind instrument. 
Polyphonic (Fr.). Polyphony. 
Polyphonique (Fr.). Polyphonic. 

Pompa (It.). A double sliding tube in a brass instrument, used as 
a tuning-slide, and sometimes replaceable by a longer or shorter 
piece for the purpose of changing the pitch. It also permits the 
removal of the condensed breath. 

Pompa di cambio. A lengthening piece. 
Pompe (Fr.). v. Pompa. 

— 153 — 

Pomposamente (It.)- Pompously. 

Pomposo (It.). Pompous, majestic, lofty. 

Ponderoso (It.). Heavy, ponderous. 

Ponticello (It.). The bridge of a violin, violoncello, etc. 

Port de voix (Fr.). (i) An obsolete grace-note. (2) The same as 

portamento di voce. 
Portamento (It.). Carriage, bearing; manner, conduct. In music, 
the word used by itself is usually taken to be the abbr. of p. di 
voce {v. below). 

Portamento della mano. The proper use of the hands and fingers 
on any instrument, in order to produce the best qualities of 
tone, etc. 
Portamento de' piedi. The correct style of pedalling. 
Portamento (di voce). The direct contrary to staccato', the carry- 
ing the voice from one note to another in the strictest legato. 
The portamento is also employed on bowed and wind-instru- 
ments, and is sometimes indicated by a wavy line / from one 
note to another. ^ 

Portando la voce (It.). Carrying the voice, cf. Portamento di voce. 
Portatif (Fr.). (Portative; applied to a small organ, which can be 
Portativ (Ger.). (carried about. 

Portte^(Fr^?' 1^^^"^^' ^^- Po^^^^^eii^o- 

Portee (Fr.). subs. The staff or stave. 

Porter la voix (Fr.). To "carry" the voice; to employ the portamento. 

Portunal-flute. An organ stop of 4ft and 8 ft, the pipes being of wood. 
It is not often found. 

Pos. Abbr. of position, Posaune. 

Posaune (Ger.). (i) The trombone. (2) A powerful reed-stop on the 

Posement (Fr.). Steadily; sedately. 

Positif (Fr.). The choir organ. 

Position, (i) On brass instruments, the various elongations of the 
tube (either by means of a slide or by valves), necessary for pro- 
ducing the several series of the Harmonic Scale, which together 
make up the complete chromatic scale on the instrument. (2) On 
stringed instruments, the various changes of the hand on the finger- 
board necessary for obtaining the scale, each position being one 
tone higher: in actual practice the violinist usually proceeds by 
"shifts" {q. v.). (3) The place on the strings touched by the bow, 
and thus "ordinary position" means the bow touching the strings 
at the accustomed place, as opposed to playing near the bridge 
or finger-board. (4) In harmony, the relative position of the various 
parts of the harmony, close position being when the soprano and tenor 
are within an octave of one another, extended position when they 
are more than an octave apart. 

Position (Fr.). Position. "Shifting" is demanchement. 
Position espacee. Extended position. 

Position ordinaire. The bow in its normal position on the strings. 
Position serree. Close position. 

Positiv (Ger.). The choir organ. 

Posizione (It.). Position. 

- 154 — 

Posizione naturale. v. Position ordinaire. 

Possibile (It.). Possible. 

Posthorn. In England, a straight tube from 36" to 52" in length, 
with a scale consisting of the 2nd to the 8th harmonic inclusive 
{v. Harmonics). In Germany, the Posthorn is a tube turned on 
itself into either a horn or trumpet shape. The "Posthorn" of 
Mahler's 3rd symphony is a Fliigelhorn in Bj?. 

Pot-pourri (Fr.). A medley of various tunes. 

Pouce (Fr.). The thumb. 

Poule (Fr.). One of the figures of the quadrille. 

Pour (Fr.). For. 

Pour le concert. For concert use. 

Pousse (Fr.). Pushed. In violin, etc. playing, the movement of 
the bow from point to nut, the up-bow, designated by the sign V* 
Tire (drawn) is the reverse movement, represented by 1. 

pp. Abbr. of pianissimo. Used also as a subs., as: — Les pp. doivent 
etre pris hrusquement, the pp. should be taken suddenly. 

Prachtig (Ger.). Magnificent, superb. 

Pracis (Ger.). Exact, precise. Sehr prdcis im Rhythmus, the rhythm 
very exact. 

Pralltriller (Ger.). A mordent. 

Praludi(e)ren (Ger.). To prelude. 

Praludium (Ger.). A prelude. 

Prastant (Ger.). The open diapason of 8ft or 16 ft. 

Preambule (Fr.). Preamble, introduction. 

Precipitanto, Precipitandosi (It.). Hurrying, urging on. 

Precipitato (It-), j hurried 
Precipite (Fr.). (turned. 

Precipitosamente (It.). Hurriedly, precipitately. 
Precipitoso (It.). Overhasty, precipitate. 

Precision (Fr.). (precision exactness 
Precisione (It.). (Precision, exactness. 

Preciso (It.). Precise, exact, strict. 
Pregando (It.). Praying. 
Preghiera (It.). A prayer. 

Pr^lud'^ fit ) (Prelude; introduction to a musical work. 
Premier, premiere (Fr.). First; often abbr. to ler and idre» 

Premier dessus. First treble. 

Premiere fois. First time. 
Prendre (Fr.). To take. {v. Remark I.) 

Prendre le hautbois. Take the oboe. 

Prendre le Tam-tam. Take the gong. 
Prenez (Fr.). Take. 

Prenez le doigt6 un V2 ton au-dessus. Take the fingering a 
semitone above. (Direction to a horn-player, as to the pro- 
duction of closed notes.) 
Preparare (It.). To prepare, make ready. 

Preparare sordine. Make ready the mutes. 
Preparation (Fr.). / Preparation. A dissonance is said to be pre- 
Preparazione (It.). ( pared, when it has appeared in the preceding 
chord as a consonance. 

— 155 — 

Pr^parez (Fr.). Prepare. 

Preparez le ton de Mi^. Prepare the key of Ej?. (Direction in 
harp part.) 
Pres de (Fr.). Near to, 

Pres de la table. Near the sound-board (of a harp). 

Pres de la touche. Near the finger-board. 

Pres du chevalet. Near the bridge. 
Presa (It.). The Guida, or sign (usually §) indicating the entrance 

of the several parts in a closed canon. 
Pressant (Fr.). Hurrying. 
Pressante (It.). Pressing, urgent. 
Pressez (Fr.). Hurry, quicken. 

Pressez peu a peu jusqu'a . . . . Gradually quicken till .... 

Pressez toujours. Continually quicken. 
Prestamente (It.). Quickly, promptly. 
Prestant (Fr.). The open diapason. 
Prestezza (It.). Speed, haste. 
Prestissimamente (It.). Very quickly. 
Prestissimo (It.). Sup. of presto. 
Prestn^o. Abbr. of prestissimo. 

Presto (It.). Quick, nimble, prompt. Used for a tempo quicker than 

Presto assai. Very quick. 

Presto prestissimo. Excessively quick. 
Priere (Fr.). A prayer. 
Prima (It.). Fem. of primo, first. 

Prima donna. The leading lady in a play or opera. 

Prima parte. First part. 

Prima vista (a). At first sight. 

Prima volta. First time (not in the sense of tempo). 
Primo (It.). First (masc). 

Primo como. First horn. 

Primo flauto. First flute. 

Primo soprano. First soprano. 

Primo tempo. First time (tempo). 

Primo uomo. The leading man in a play or opera. 

Primo violino. First violin. 
Principal (Fr.). j The open diapason. In old German music, prin- 
Principale (It.). [• cipale is the name given to the lowest of a set of 
Prinzipal (Ger.). ) trumpet parts, {v. Clarino.) 
Probe (Ger.). A rehearsal. 
Procella (It.). Storm, tempest. 

Professore di musica (It.). Teacher (professor) of music. 
Programma (It.). Programme. 
Progressivamente (It.). Progressively. 
Progressivo (It.). Progressive, advancing. 
Promptement (Fr.). j Quicklv 

Prontamente (It.] 

Pronto (It.). Ready, speedy, hasty. 

Pronunziato, -a (It.). Pronounced, clearly accentuated. Ben pro- 

nunziata la melodia, the melody very accentuated. 
Proposta (It.). The subject of a fugue 

- 156 - 

Prose (Fr ). (^ species of hymn sung in the Roman Service. 

Prova (It.). A rehearsal. 

Psaume (Fr.). A psalm. 

Psautier (Fr.). Psalter. 

Pulsatile instruments. Instruments of percussion. 

Pult (Ger.). A desk. plur. Pulte. v. Desk. 

Pultweise. adv. formed from Pult; desk by desk. Die C.B. 
nehmen pultweise allmdhlich sordinen, the C.B., desk by desk, 
gradually put on mutes. 
Punkt (Ger.). A dot. 
Punkti(e)rte Noten (Ger.). Dotted notes. 

Punta (It.). Point. A punta d'arco, with the point of the bow. 
Puntando (It.). Playing the notes as though they had a dot above 

Puntato (It.). Dotted. 

Puntina (It.). A shank, or lengthening piece for a brass instrument. 
Punto (It.). A point, dot. 

Punto coronato. / » • a. .u • 

Punto d'organo. K^ ^^^^^ P°^^^' ^^^ ^^g^ ^' 
Pupitre (Fr.). A desk {q. v.). . 

Pupitres impairs. The odd desks (i, 3, 5, etc.). 

Pupitres pairs. The even desks (2, 4, 6, etc.). 
Putti (It.). Small boys, such as choir-boys. 

Pyramidon. An organ stop of i6ft or 32ft, of which the pipes have 
the shape of an inverted pyramid. 

Quadrat (Ger.). The sign for a natural (ij). 

Quadriglia (It.). (A dance in 5 or 6 parts or figures, each being a 

Quadrille (Fr.). (square dance (contre-danse). 

Quadruple croche (Fr.). A semi-demisemiquaver. 

Qual (Ger.). Intense pain, agony. 

Qualvoll. Agonised, ^fuU of torments. 
Quanto (It.). As far, as far as, as much as. 

Quanto possible. As much as possible. 
Quart (Fr.). A fourth, a quarter. A un quart de voix, with a quarter 
of the voice, i. e. sung as softly as possible, cf. A demi-voix. 

Quart de mesure. A crotchet-rest. 

Quart de soupir. A semiquaver-rest. 
Quarta (It.). A fourth, a quarter; the interval of a fourth. 

Quarta diminuita. A diminished fourth. 

Quarta eccedente. An augmented fourth. 
Quarte (Fr.). The interval of a fourth. 

Quarte augment6e. Augmented fourth. 

Quarte diminu6e. Diminished fourth. 
Quarte (Ger.). A fourth, a quarter; the interval of a fourth. Ver- 
minderte Quarte, a diminished fourth; iibermd/iige Quarte, an aug- 
mented fourth. Quart- in combination. 

QuartbaBposaune. A bass trombone in F, i. e. a 4th below the 
tenor trombone. 

— 157 — 

Quartfagott. An obsolete species of bassoon, with a compass 

of 3 octaves from S|7 but with the actual notes sounding a 

4th lower, cf. Basson Quinte (2). 

Quartett (Ger.). jA quartet; a composition for 4 voices or instru- 

Quartetto (It.), (ments, used specifically for a composition in sonata 

form for 2 violins, viola and violoncello. 
Quartino (It.). An Eb clarinet (a 4th above the one in B^). 
Quarto (It.). A, quarter. 

Quarto d'aspetto. A crotchet-rest. 
Quasi (It.). Almost, as if, like. 

Quasi allegretto. Almost allegretto. 

Quasi cindante. Like an Andante. 

Quasi cadenza. In the style of a cadenza. 

Quasi chitarra. Like a guitar. 

Quasi lontana. As though from a distance. 

Quasi niente. Almost nothing. 

Quasi parlato. As if spoken, almost spoken. 

Quasi recitative, ma in tempo. In the style of a recitative, but 
in strict time. 

Quasi satira. Like a satire. 

Quasi trombe. Like trumpets. 

Quasi una fantasia. In the style of a fantasia. 
Quatorzieme (Fr.). Fourteenth. 
Quatre (Fr.). Four. 

Quattricroma (It.). A semi-demisemiquaver 
Quattro (It.). Four. 
Quatuor (Fr.). A quartet. 
Quer (Ger.). Cross, traverse. 

Querflote. The cross or German flute, flauto iraverso. 

Querformat. Oblong shape (in music and books). 

Querstand. False relation. 

Querstrich. A cross stroke; a traverse line drawn across (say) a 
minim to denote its being played as four quavers,^. 
Questo, -a (It.). This. plur. questi, -e. 

Queste note ben marcate. These notes well accentuated. 
Queue (Fr.). A tail. The stem of a note. The tail-piece of a viohn, etc. 
Quietissimo (It.). Sup. of quieto. 
Quieto (It.). Calm, peaceful, tranquil. 
Quint- (Ger.). Used in combination in the sense of a fifth. 

QuintbaBposaune. A bass trombone in £[?, i. e. a 5th lower 
than a tenor trombone. 

Quintsaite. The E string of a violin. 
Quinta (It.), (i) A fifth. (2) A "wing" of a theatrical scene. 

Quinta diminuita. A diminished fifth. 
Quinte (Fr.). A fifth. Term sometimes used for the E string of a 

Quintes cach4es. Hidden fifths. 

Quintes consecutives. Consecutive fifths. 
Quinte (Ger.). (i) A fifth. (2) The E string of a violin. (3) An 
organ stop, in which the note sounds a 5th above the written note. 

Quinte aufsetzen. Stop the fifth, i. e. on the violin, stop two 
strings with one finger, thus forming a fifth. 

- 158 - 

Quintenfolgen. Consecutive fifths. 
Quintett ( ^^-z- ( A quintet: composition for 5 instruments or voices. 

Quintieren (Ger.). v. Quintoyer. 

Quintole (Ger.). A quintuplet; five equal notes in the place of 4 or 6. 

Quintoyer (Fr.). When a reed wind-instrument is blown harder, 
it produces the octave above, if it is of conical bore, and the 
fifth above the octave, if it is of cylindrical bore. In the first case 
(oboe, saxophone, etc.), it is said to octavier; in the second (clarinet, 
etc.), it is said to quintoyer. On the modern cylindrical flute, on 
the contrary, in the usual scale the upper octave is always produced, 
although it is possible also to quintoyer on certain notes, and 
thus (for example) c'" can be produced as the 12th of /'. 

Quintuor (Fr.). A quintet. 

Quinzieme (Fr.). A fifteenth. 

Quodlibet (Lat.). (i) A number of different tunes sung at the same 
time, sometimes degenerating into what is known as a "Dutch con- 
cert", but in the hands (or throats) of a Bach family capable of 
a certain amount of artistic finish. (2) A pot-pourri; a musical 
work in which a number of (usually) familiar airs are combined 


R. Abbr. of Right, recht, ripieno. In Eng. stage-directions, it means 

the side of the stage to the right of the player ; in Ger. to the right 

of the spectator. 
Rabbia (It.). Rage, fury, madness. 

Racier (Fr.). To scrape; to play on a violin indifferently. 
Raddol. Abbr. of raddolcendo. 
Raddolcendo, Raddolcente (It.). Becoming softer. 
Raddoppiamento (It.). The doubling of the parts of a composition. 
Raddoppiare le parti (It.). To double the parts. 
Raddoppiato (It.). Doubled; redoubled. Passo raddoppiato, a quick 

march, pas redouble. 
Raffrenando (It.). Checking, moderating the speed. 
Ralentir (Fr.). To slacken. 
Rail., Rallen,, Rallo. Abbr. of rallentando. 
Rallentamento (It.). A slackening. 

Rallentando (It.). Slackening, becoming gradually slower. 
Rallentando al fine. Slackening until the end. 
Rallentando e diminuendo. Becoming slower and softer. 
Rallentato (It.). Slackened. 

Rallonge (Fr.). A lengthening piece for a horn or trumpet. 
Ranz des vaches (Fr.). A melody sung, or played on an Alpenhorn, 

by the Swiss mountaineers to call the cattle home. 

Ra^idiu JFr.'i. I I^-P'<l'ty. swiftness. 

Rapido (It.). Rapid, swift. 

Rapido e brillante. Rapid and brilliant. 

- 159 - 

Rapsodie (Fr.). A rhapsody. 
Rasch (Ger.). Quick, fast, swift. 

Rasch bewegt. In rapid movement. 
Rasch, heftig. Quickly, hurriedly. 

Rasch, nicht zu hastig. Quick, not too much hurried. 
Rasch und wild. Quick and furious. 
Rasch wie zuvor. As quick as before. 
Rascher (Ger.). Quicker. 
Rasgado (Sp.). Sweeping the strings of a guitar with the thumb for 

full chords. 
Ratsche (Ger.). A rattle. 

Rattenendo (It.). Holding back the movement, becoming slower. 
Rattenuto (It.). Held back. 
Rauh (Ger.). Rough, harsh. 

Rausch (Ger.). Rushing, uproar, rustling; the sound of wind, waves, 
trees, etc. 

Rauschwerk, Rausch quint, Rauschpfeife. Names of mixture 
stops on some old organs. 
Rauschend (Ger.). RustUng, murmuring, rushing, cf. Rausch. 
Rauschender Beifall. Thundering applause. 
Rauschend und festlich. Dashing and festive. 
Rauscher ( Ger. ). An old expression for the rapid alternation of two notes. 
Rawivando (It.). Becoming more animated. 
Re (Fr.). The note D. 

Re bemol mineur. D flat minor. 
Re diese. D sharp. 
Re (It.). The note D. 
Re bemolle. D flat. 
Re maggiore. D major. 
Rechange (Fr.). Change. Ton de rechange, the crook of a horn or 

Recht (Ger.). Right. 

Rechte Hand. The right hand. 
Recht lustig. Right cheerfully. 
Recit. Abbr. of recitativo. 
Recit (Fr.). Recital. A vocal or instrumental solo, as opposed to 

a tutti. Clavier de recit, the swell manual. 
Recitando (It.). Reciting; in the style of a recitative. 
Recitant (Fr.). Reciting, subs. A reciter, a solo singer cf. Recit. 
Recitatif (Fr.). Recitative. 

Recitativo (It.). Recitative; musical declamation; a musical form 
midway between speaking and singing, somewhat free as regards 
tempo, and usually accompanied by simple chords. In modern 
music certain forms of recitative have quite died out. The term 
is used in instrumental music for passages, which are not to be 
played in strict time, and which are to be declaimed in the style 
of a vocal recitative. 

Recitativo accompagnato. j Accompanied recitative , i. e. ac- 
Recitativo obbligato. ( companied by more than the usual 

simple chords. 

i:SS«:o r^r^'-lu-ccompanied recitative. 

— i6o — 

Recitativo senza misura. A recitative, in which the tempo is 

even freer than in the ordinary recitative. 
Recitativo strumentato. Accompanied recitative. 
Reciter (Fr.). To recite, declaim. 
Redend (Ger.). Speaking, v. Parlando. 
Redoublement (Fr.). The doubhng of parts. 

Redowa. A Bohemian dance in triple time, something like a 

Reduzieren^Ger ) !^*^ reduce; to arrange a work for smaller means. 

Reed. A thin strip of metal or of the cane-Uke stem of a species 
of reed {Arundo donax) set in vibration by either bellows or the 
breath of the player. Reeds are divided into single and double 
reeds. A single reed, covering the opening of a pipe, is called a 
free reed when it is smaller than the orifice and can vibrate freely 
in two directions, and a striking or beating reed, when it is larger 
than the orifice and can vibrate freely in one direction only: to 
the former class belong the reeds of the harmonium and some few 
organ pipes, to the latter class, the reeds of the ordinary reed 
pipes of an organ and of the clarinet and saxophone families. In 
the double reed, two reeds are fastened together so that the vi- 
brating edges nearly touch; their lower ends are tied together 
and fit on to the staple or crook of the instrument ; such are the 
reeds of the oboe, bassoon, sarrusophone and the chanters of in- 
struments of the bagpipe class. 

Regel (Ger.). Rule. 

Regel der Oktave. Rule of the octave. 

Register, (i) A portion of the compass of a voice or instrument, 
such as the chest register, head register, high, .low or medium 
register. (2) An organ stop, in two senses: — the actual knob, on 
which the name of the pipe is written, and the set of pipes itself. 

Register (Ger.). Register, stop. 
Registergriff. A draw-stop. 
Registerknopf. The knob of a draw-stop. 
Registerpedal. A composition pedal. 
Registerstimme. Register. 
Registerzug. A draw-stop. 

Registration, or Registering. The art of choosing the stops, singly 
or in combination, in organ playing. 

Registri(e)ren (Ger.). To register. 

Registrierung (Ger.). Registration. 

Registro (It.), (i) The register of a voice or instrument. (2) An organ 
stop. plur. Registri. 

Registri di ripieno. The mixture stops. 
Registri dolci. Soft stops. 

Regie (Fr.). jj. , 

Regola (It.), i^"^^- 

Rein (Ger.). Pure, just, exact. 

Religieusement (Fr.). Religiously. 

Religieux, -euse (Fr.). Religious. 

Religiosamente (It.). Religiously. 

Religioso, -a (It.). Religious. 

— i6i - 

Remplissage (Fr.). The filling-in; the middle (accompanying) parts 

in an orchestra. 
Ren tree (Fr.). Reappearance, re-entrance. 
Renversement (Fr.). Inversion. 
Renvoi (Fr.). The sign of repetition. 
Repeter (Fr.). To repeat, to rehearse. 

Repetition (Fr ) /Repetition. A rehearsal. 

Repetizione (It.). ( ^ 

Repetitore (It.). A rehearser; a teacher. 

Replica (It.). A repeat; that portion of a composition enclosed in 

dotted double bars. 
Replicato (It.). Repeated; doubled. Suoni replicati, doubled parts. 
Replique (Fr.). An answer. A cue, in both a theatrical and musical 

sense. Dofiner la replique ^^ to give the cue. 
Repons (Fr.). A response (in the Liturgy). 
Reponse (Fr.). Answer of a fugue. 
Repos (Fr.). Repose, peace; rest (in music). 
Reprendre (Fr.). To retake, v. Remark I. 

Reprendre la grande flute. Retake the flute. 
Reprendre le Tamb. mil. (Tambour militaire). Resume the snare- 
Reprise (Fr.). (i) A repeat. (2) The revival of a work, which has 

been laid aside for some time. 
Requiem (Lat.). The Mass for the dead, so-called from the opening 

words. Requiem eternam dona eis, give to them eternal peace. 
Requinto (Sp.). The E^? clarinet. 
Resolument (Fr.). Resolutely, with decision. 
Resoluto (It.). V. Risoluto. 
Resonanz (Ger.). Resonance. 

Resonanzboden. A sounding-board. 
Resonanzloch. A sound hole. 
Respiro (It.). Breathing, breath. Occasionally marked in a vocal 

part to direct the singer where to take breath ; now-a-days, a comma 

is usually used. v. Signs. 
Ressort (Fr.). The spring of an instrument. 
Ressortir (Fr.). When combined with faire, to bring forward, to show 

off. Faites ressortir le chant, make the melody prominent. 
Restez (Fr.). Remain. Placed above notes, it indicates that they 

are to be slightly dwelt upon, and prolonged. 
Retardando (It.), v. Ritardando. 
Retenu (Fr.). Retained, slackened. 
Retraite (Fr.). The Tattoo, the beat of the drum recalling soldiers or 

sailors to their quarters or tents at night. 
Retrograde (It.). Retrograde, backward. 
Retto (It.). Right, straight. Moto retto, direct motion. 
Reunis (Fr.). Plur. of reuni, reunited: marked against violins, etc., 

after they have been divises, divided. 
Reveil (Fr.). The reveille, revelley; the call for soldiers to get up in 

the morning. 
Revenez (Fr.). From revenir, to return. 

Revenez peu a peu au premier mouvement. Gradually return 
to the first tempo. 

Wo t ton. Dictionary. II 

— l62 — 

Rezitativ (Ger.). Recitative. 

Rf., Rfz. Abbr. of Rinforzando. 

Rhapsodic (Fr. and Ger.). A rhaps(>dy. 

Rhythme (Fr.). Rhythm. 

Rh3rthmisch (Ger.). Rhythmical. 

Rhythmisch bestimmt. Rhythmically accented. 

Rh3rthmus (Ger.). Rhythm. Der Rhythmus scharf markiert, the 
rhythm strongly marked. 

Ribattute (It.). Repeated notes. 

Ricambio (It.). A crook of a brass instrument. 

Ricercare, Ricercata (It.). Originally a species of prelude, but later 
a fugue, in which all the cleverest devices of imitation, counter- 
point, etc. are freely displayed. 

Richiamota (It.). The call to arms, the assembly. 

Richtig (Ger.). Right, exact, accurate. Die Horner richtig auf 2teni 
Viertel des Taktes, synkopiert, einsetzen, the horns enter exactly on 
the 2nd crotchet of the bar, syncopated. Das C der Trompeten 
ist richtig, the C of the trumpets is correct. 

Rideau (Fr.). Curtain. Le rideau s'ouvre, the curtain opens. 

Ridendo (It.). Laughing. 

Ridotto (It.). Reduced, arranged, as a score arranged for piano, or 
f> military band. 

Ridurre (It.). To reduce, arrange. 

Riduzione (It.). A reduction, an arrangement. 

Rifacimento (It.). A recasting of a work, a new edition. 

Rifiorimenti (It.). Ornaments, embellishments. 

Riga (It.). One of the lines of the stave, cf. Rigo. 

Rigata (It.). The stave. 

Rigaudon (Fr.). An animated dance in duple time. 

Rigo (It.). The stave. 

Rigodon. v. Rigaudon. 

Rigore (It.). Strictness. * 

Rigoroso (It.). Strict, exact. Non ngoroso in tempo, not in strict 
time.^ i 

Rilasciando, Rilassando (It.). Relaxing; slackening the time. 

Rilassato (It.). Slackened. 

Rimettendosi (It.). Returning, restoring. 

Rimettendosi al Tempo I. Returning to Tempo I. 

Rinf. Abbr. of rinforzando. 

Rinforzamento (It.). Reinforcement, v. Rinforzando. 

Rinforzando (It.). Reinforcing (the sound). A stress laid on a group 
of notes as opposed to sforzando, a stress laid on a single note. 
This distinction however is not always strictly observed. 

Rinforzato, Rinforzo (It.). Reinforced; stressed, accentuated. 

Ripetere (It.). To repeat; to rehearse. 

Ripiano (Eng.).!^ corruption of ripieno. 

Ripiego d'arco (It.). Recovery of the bow, i. e. the normal method 

of bowing after a contr'arco. 
Ripieno (It.). Filling-in, auxiliary. An extra part only used in tutti 

passages. In military band scores the term (corrupted in Eng. 

to ripiano) is applied to various instruments, which are ad libitum ; 

- i63 - 

the harmony is complete without them, but they add to the effect 

either by strengthening the melody or by introducing another inner 

part. Registri di ripieno, mixture stops. 
Ripresa (It.). A repeat; the sign ^. 
Riscaldando (It.). Becoming warmer, more animated. 
Risentito (It.). Resentful, spiteful. 
Risolutissimo (It.). Sup. of risoluto. 
Risoluto (It.). Decided, resolute. 
Risoluzione (It.). Resolution. 
Risonanza (It.). Resonance. 
Risonare (It.). To resound. 
Risposta (It.). The answer of a fugue. 
Ristretto (It.). Compressed; the stretto in a fugue. 
Ristringendo (It.). Tightening-up ; quickening the tempo. 
Risvegliato (It.). Roused, excited. 
Rit. Abbr. of ritardando. 

Ritardando (It.). Slackening; gradually becoming slower. 
Ritardando al fine. Becoming slower until the end. 
Ritardare (It.). To retard, to keep back; to become slower. 
Ritardato (It.). Slackened, held back. 
Ritardo (It.). Delay, retarding. 
Riten. Abbr. of riienuto. 
Ritenendo (It.). Becoming slower. 
Ritenuto (It.). Held back; slackened, dragged. 

Ritenuto molto. Much slackened. 
Ritmo (It.). Rhythm. 

Ritmo di tre battute. Rhythm of three bars. 
Ritornare (It.). To return, repeat. 

Ritornelle (Fr.). j (i) A repeat. (2) The instrumental introduction 
Ritornello (It.), j to an air or cavatina, often in an opera musically 

depicting the character before his or her entrance. The term is 

occasionally used for similar instrumental passages in the middle 

of an air. 
Ritorno (It.). Return. 

Ritorno al i. tempo. Return to the first tempo. 
Ritorta, or Ritorto (It.). A crook for a brass instrument. 
RitterUch (Ger.). Knightly. 

Ritterlich und galant. Knightly and courteously. 
Riverso (It.). Reversed, v. Rovescio. 

Rivolgimento (It.). The reversal of the parts in double counterpoint. 
Rivoltato (It.). Inverted. 
Rivolto (It.). Inversion. 
Roco (It.). Hoarse, harsh. 
Rococo (Fr.). Old-fashioned, quaint; properly applied to a certain style 

of decorative art in architecture, etc. of a florid and debased character. 
Roh (Ger.). Rough, rude, coarse. 
Rohr (Ger.). Cane, reed. Spanisches Rohr, the Spanish reed {Arundo 


Rohrblatt. The reed of a wood-wind instrument. Doppeltes 
Rohrblatt, a double reed (oboe or bassoon) ; einf aches Rohrblatt, 
single reed (clarinet, etc.). A single reed is usually called 
Blatt, and a double one Rohr. 


— 164 — 

Rohrflote. A stop belonging to the flue-work of an organ. 
Rohrquinte. An organ stop usually S^/aft in the manual, and 

lo^/gft in the pedal. 
Rohrwerk. The reed-work of an organ. 
Role (Fr.). A part (character) in an opera or play. 
Rollando (It.), v. RuUando. 
Rollo (It.), (i) A roll on a drum. (2) Used in military band scores 

for a snare-drum. 
Rolltrommel (Ger.). The tenor drum, now usually called Riihrtrommel, 
Romance (Fr.). In instrumental music, a piece of a melodious song- 
like nature: in vocal music, almost any short song. 
Romances sans paroles. Songs without words. 
Romanesca (It.). An old dance. 
Romanesco, -a (It.). Romantic. 

Rombando (It.). Humming, droning, buzzing. 
Romischer Gesang (It.). Plain song. 
Ronde (Fr.). A semibreve. 
Rondeau (Fr.). v. Rondo. 

Rondinetto, Rondino, Rondoletto (It.). A short rondo. 
Rondo (It.). A piece, in which the principal theme recurs at least 
three times; it often forms the last movement of a sonata or 
Rope-hoop. The hoop which tightens the head of a drum: it is so 
called because the rope or cord (which is tightened by means of 
the "braces") passes through eyelets cut in its circumference. 
Rosalia (It.). The repetition of a phrase on several higher or lower 

degrees of the scale. 
Rotondo, -a (It.). Round. 

Roulade (Fr.). A series of quick notes sung on one syllable. 
Roulement (Fr.). A roll on a drum or tambourine. 

Roulement avec une double mailloche. Roll with a double-headed 
bass drumstick. 
Rovesciamento, Rovescio (It.). Inversion, either of parts, or of a theme. 
Rubando (It.). Robbing, stealing. 
Rubato, -a (It.). Robbed, v. A tempo rubato. 
Riickpositiv (Ger.). A choir organ, in which the pipes are placed at 

the back of the performer. 
Riicksicht (Ger.). Consideration, regard. Ohne Riicksicht auf den 

Takt, without regard to the rhythm, senza misura. 
Riickung (Ger.). Syncopation. 
Riickweiser (Ger.). A repeat. 
Rudement (Fr.). Roughly. 

Rudement accentu^. Roughly accented. 
Ruhepunkt, Ruhezeichen (Ger.). A pause, fermata. 
Ruhig (Ger.). Quiet, serene, tranquil. 
Ruhig bewegt. Quietly animated. 
Ruhige Achtel. The quavers tranquilly. 
Ruhige, nicht zu langsame Bewegung. A quiet, but not too 

slow a movement. 
Ruhig gehende Achtel. Gently moving quavers. 

- i65 - 

Ruhig gehend, nicht schleppend. With tranquil movement, but 

without dragging. 
Ruhig, nicht schnell. Tranquil, not fast. 
Ruhig und sanft. Quietly and softly. 
Riihrtrommel (Ger.). The tenor drum. 
Rullante (It.). Rolling. Tamburo rullante, a tenor drum. 
Russian horn. The Russian iiorn bands consisted of a number of 
performers (sometimes as many as lOo), each of whom played 
only a single note of the scale. The horns, which are of varying 
length, are straight conical tubes with a mouthpiece at almost 
right angles. 
Rustico (It.). Rustic, simple, rural. 

Rut(h)e (Ger.). A rod. A kind of small broom formerly used in 
conjunction with an ordinary bass-drumstick, the latter striking 
the accented beats, and the former the unaccented. An example 
is to be found in Mozart's // Seraglio. The Rute has been revived 
by Mahler, who has introduced it into several of his symphonies, 
using it as an effect apart, i. e. not as an accessory of the ordinary 
bass-drumstick. It is occasionally employed for striking a suspended 
cymbal, or even the rope-hoop of the bass-drum. 
Rutscher (Ger.). A name for a galop. 
Rythme (Fr.). Rhythm. 

Rythme binaire. Binary rhythm. 
Rythme ternaire.^Ternary rhythm. 


S. Abbr. of segno, senza, sinistra, solo, sotto, subito. . 

S-formiges Mundstiick. The crook of a bassoon. 

s. p. Abbr. of senza pedale. 

s. t. Abbr. of senza tempo. 

s. V. Abbr. of sotto voce. 
S' (Fr.). Abbr. of se or si before a vowel. 
S' (It.). Abbr. of si. 

S'alza subito il sipario. The curtain rises suddenly. 
Saccade (Fr.). A jerk; a sudden accent. In violin playing, a sudden 
pressure on one string for an accented note, or on three or four 
strings for producing the notes of a chord as simultaneously as 
Saccade (Fr.). Accented in a sharp spasmodic manner. 
Sackpfeife (Ger.). A bagpipe. 
Sainete (Sp.). An interlude of a burlesque nature, accompanied by 

music and dancing. 
Saite (Ger.). A string, plur. Saiten. 

Saitenbezug. A set of strings. 

Saitenhalter. Tail-piece of a stringed instrument. 

Saiteninstrumente. Stringed instruments. 

Saite von Seide. A silk string. 

Saite von Stahl. A steel string. 
Sali clonal, Salicet, Salcional. An open organ pipe of delicate tone, 

of i6ft in the pedal, and 8 ft (rarely 4ft) in the manual. 
Salmo (It.). A psalm. 

— i66 — 

Saltando (It.). Hopping, springing: a species of bowing, in which 
the bow hops or rebounds on the strings, used either for rapid 
reiterations of the same note, or for light staccato passages played 
with the middle of the bow. 
Saltarello (It.), (i ) A dance, usually in triple time, and distinguished 
by its "hopping" triplets. (2) A species of counterpoint, in which 
there are three quavers against one crotchet. 
Saltato (It.). Hopped, rebounded, cf. Saltando. 
Salteretto (It.). The figure ^f^j oi" J . J^ J- 

Salterio or Saltero (It. ). ( i ) The dulcimer. (2 ) A psalter, a hymn-book. 

Salterio tedesco. The dulcimer. The term, according to Lichten- 

thal, is the correct It. name of the instrument. Unfortunately, 

the Ger. term Cymbal has been Italianised into cembalo, which 

is also the usual It. abbr. of clavicembalo, and hence confusion 

has arisen between the two instruments. 

Salto (It.). A leap, a skip from one note to another. 

Salve Regina (Lat.). "Hail Queen!" The opening words of a hymn 

to the Virgin. 
Samisen. A species of Japanese harmonica, consisting of a series 
of inverted bells, shaped like flattened gourds, surmounted by 
strips of bronze, which are struck with a felt-headed beater. 
Its sounds are not dissimilar to the harmonics on a harp, and 
the instrument has been employed in Iris (Mascagni) and Madam a 
Butterfly (Puccini). 
Sammlung (Ger.). A collection. 

Sammlung verschiedener Musikstiicke. A collection of miscellane- 
ous pieces of music, an olio. 
Sampogna (It.). Bagpipe. 
Samtlich (Ger.). All, entire, the whole of. 
Samtliche Sonaten. Complete sonatas. 
Sanctus (Lat.). A part of the Mass, and of the Communion Service. 
Sanft (Ger.). Gentle, delicate, sweet, soft. Mit sanften Stimmen, 
with soft stops (of an organ). 
Sanft belebt. Gently animated. 
Sanft bewegt. With gentle motion. 
Sanftflote. Soft-toned flute (organ pipe). 
Sanft hervortretend. Softly brought out. 
Sanftgedackt. A soft-toned stopped organ pipe. 
Sanftklagend. Plaintive. 
Sanftmiitig. Meek, soft-mannered. 
Sfinftig (Ger.). Softly, sweetly, etc. 
Sanger (Ger.). A male singer. 
Sangerin (Ger.). A female singer. 
Sans (Fr.). Without. 

Sans accompagnement. Without accompaniment. 

Sans etouffer le son. Without damping the sound. 

Sans hate. Without haste. 

Sans lenteur. Without slowness. 

Sans nuance. Without nuance, i. e. holding on a note with 

even strength. 
Sans p6dale. Without the (damper) pedal. 

— 167 — 

Sans presser. Without hurrying. 
Sans ralentir. Without slackening. 
Sans reprise la 2e fois. Without repeat the 2nd time. 
Sans sourdine. Without mute. 
Sarabanda (It.). I A stately Spanish dance of Moorish origin, in ter- 
Sarabande (Fr.). j nary time. 

Sarrusophon (Ger.). I The sarrusophone. A brass instrument with 
Sarrusophone (Fr.). ( a conical bore, played with a double reed like 
the oboe. Although made in various sizes: — Soprano, alto, tenor, 
baritone, bass and contra-bass, the last named is now the only one 
used in the orchestra or military band, where it takes the place of 
the double-bassoon. 
Sattel (Ger.). A saddle. The nut of a violin, etc. 
Sattellage. The half position on a violin, etc. 
Sattel machen. In violoncello music, to make a nut with the 
thumb for the highest positions. 
Satz (Ger.). A composition; a movement; a period; a theme. In 

hunting phraseology, a blast on a horn. 
Saut (Fr.). A leap, skip from one note to another 
Sautille (Fr.). Hopped, jumped, v Saltato. 

Saxhorn (Fr.). A saxhorn. The saxhorns constitute a family of 
brass instruments with a conical bore and a bugle-like quality 
of tone. They are made in the following sizes: — i. Sopranino 
B7 (an octave above 3 ; this instrument sounding a 7th above the 
written notes is scarcely ever used), 2. So-prano 1^";^ {petit bugle), 

3. Contralto B7 (bugle), 4. Alto E7, 5. Baritone B7, 6. Bass B7 (of the 
same length as 5 , but with a wider bore and producing the lower 
notes with greater facility), 7. Contrabass E7, 8. Contrabass B7. 
The above is the Fr. nomenclature; in other countries, the ad- 
jective defining the pitch of the corresponding instrument is often 
different, and this, together with the various names bestowed 
by different makers, renders identification difficult. Thus, in Bel- 
gium, 3. is sometimes described as a, bugle tenor; in Italy, an in- 
strument practically the same as 4. is called a Flicorno basso, whilst 
in Germany 5. amongst other names is called a Tenorbass. The 
usual English names are: — (i. and 2. unused), 3. Fliigelhorn, 

4. Althorn, Tenorhorn or Saxhorn, 5. Baritone, 6. Euphonium, 
7. Bombardon, 8. Contrabass Bombardon; the two latter, when 
built in circular form, being called HeUcons. Nos 6, 7. and 8, are 
constructed to reach the fundamental note, and are usually furnish- 
ed with 4, sometimes 5 pistons; in the orchestra they are known 
under the name of tubas {q. v.). In a brass band, the saxhorns 
should number at least one half of the total number of instruments, 
and in a mihtary reed-band about one quarter. In the orchestra, 
except 6, 7. and 8. as mentioned above, the saxhorns are but rarely 
employed, i. has been used by Berlioz {Te Deum) and Saint-Saens 
{La Jeunesse d'Hercule), while d'Indy in Fervaal uses 2. 3. 4. and 

5. and Mahler and R. Strauss have used the Ger. equivalents of 
some of these. 

Saxophon (Ger.). i A saxophone. An instrument with a body of metal 

Saxophone (Fr.). j (but not on that account classed amongst the 

"Brass"), and played with a single reed like a clarinet. Unlike 

— i68 - 

a clarinet, it has a conical bore and therefore notes in the second 
register sound an octave and not a twelfth above those of the 
first register. There are 7 varieties: — Sopranino Ej?, Soprano B^, 
Alto ES?, Tenor B\?, Baritone Eb, Bass B7 and Contrabass El?, the 
first and last being seldom used. In most Fr. military bands 5 or 6 
saxophones are used, and they are gradually being introduced 
into those of other countries. In the orchestra, Bizet, Thomas, 
Massenet, etc. have employed them as solo instruments with ex- 
cellent effect, and Massenet and R. Strauss have each used a 
quartet of them. 

Saxotromba (Fr.). A saxotromba. A brass instrument invented 
by Sax, and made in the same varieties as the saxhorns. They had 
a narrower bore and a quality of tone somewhat resembling that 
of the horn. They are no longer employed, but the instruments 
variously known as the Ballad Horn or Vocal Horn, the corhorn 
{q. v.), the cornophone {q. v.), and the Wagner tubas {q. v.) all more 
or less closely resemble them. 

Saxtuba (Fr.). A saxtuba. A bass brass instrument invented by 
Sax. It is of powerful tone, and is found indicated in a few Fr. 
scores, but has been superseded by the contrabass saxhorn. 

Sayneter'(Fr.). v. Sainete. . .^^ , 

Sbalzo (it.). A leap, spring, rebound. 

Sbarra (It.). A bar-line. 

Sbarria doppia. A double bar-line. 

Scagnello (It.). The bridge of a violin, etc. Ponticello is the usual 

Scala (It.). The scale. 

Scala cromatica. Chromatic scale. 
Scala diatonica. Diatonic scale. ■ .' 

Scelta (It.). Choice, selection. A scelta del cantante, at the choice of 
the singer. 

Scemando (It.). Diminishing. 

Scena (It.). Scene, stage, theatre; a portion of an act of an opera, 
during which no character makes an entrance or exit; a part of 
an opera for a solo voice, which is a mixture of recitative and aria. 

Scenario (It.). The plot of a play or opera in a condensed form. 

Scendete (It.). Descend. A term used in violin playing for de- 
scending towards the nut of the violin. 

Scene (Fr.). Scene, stage, theatre, v. Scena Sur la scene, on the 

Schafer (Ger.). A shepherd. 

Schaferlied. A pastoral song. 
SchafermaBig. adj. Pastoral. 
Schaferpfeife. A shepherd's pipe. 
Schaferspiel. A pastoral play. 
Schafertanz. A shepherd's dance. 

Schale (Ger.). A cymbal, i. e. one half of a pair of cymbals, which 

together are called Becken. Beide Schalen , both halves of the 

cymbals, i. e. the cymbals clashed in the ordinary way, after an 

indication that one of them should be struck with a drumstick. 

I Schale, freihangend mit Paukenschlageln. i suspended cymbal, 

with kettle-drumsticks. 

— 169 — 

Schalkhaft (Ger.). Roguish, waggish. 
Schall (Ger.). Sound; tone; (of bells) peal, ringing. 
Schallbecher. The bell of wind-instruments. 
Schallbecken. Cymbals. Now always abbr. to Becken. 
Schallehre. Acoustics. 
Schallloch. Sound-hole of a violin, etc. 

Schallrohr. A speaking-trumpet: the tube of a brass instrument. 
Schalltrichter. The bell of wind-instruments. 
Schalltrichter auf. With up-turned bells, v. Bell. 
Schalmei (Ger.). An obsolete reed instrument, which in Fr. is called 
a Chalumeau, although the true chalumeau is not the same as the 
Schalmei, which was a form of oboe, while the Fr. instrument had 
a cylindrical bore, and was a precursor of the clarinet. The Schal- 
mei, in two sizes {kleine and discant), formed the treble of the 
Pommer, and Hke it had the two reeds covered over with a cap, 
in which was a hole through which the player blew. Schalmei is 
also the name of a reed-stop on the organ, and the term used 
for the chanter of a bagpipe. 
Scharf (Ger.). Harsh, penetrating, sharp. The name of a mixture- 
stop on the organ. 

Scharf gespannt. Tightly braced. (Indication used for a tenor 

drum, as opposed to tief gespannt, slackly braced.) 
Scharf gestoBen. Sharply detached, very staccato. 
Scharf und spitzig. Sarcastic and biting. 
Schattenhaft (Ger.). Shadowy, phantasmal. 
Schauerig (Ger.). Gruesome, fearsome, grisly. 

Schelle (Ger.). A little bell, grelot, jingle (of a tambourine), plur. 
Schellen, Sleigh-bells. 

Schellenbaum. The Turkish crescent. 
Schellengelaute. Sleigh-bells. 
Schelmisch (Ger.). Knavish, roguish. 
Scherz (Ger.). A joke, quip, jest. 

Scherzando (It.). Trifling, dallying, jesting. Indicating a light play- 
ful execution. 
Scherzante (It.). Playful, sportive. 
Scherzantissimo (It.). Sup. of scherzante. 
Scherzend (Ger.). v. Scherzando. 
Scherzettino, Scherzetto (It.). A little scherzo. 
Scherzevole (It.). Playful, facetious. 
Scherzevolmente (It.). Full of playfulness. 
Scherzhaft (Ger.). Playful, " merry, jocular. 
Scherzi (It.). Plur. of scherzo. 
Scherzino (It.). A little scherzo. 

Scherzo (It.). A joke, pleasantry, raillery. Although used for the 
name of a musical composition as far back as Monteverde, and 
employed by Bach, the true Scherzo may be said to have originated 
with Haydn and to have been perfected by Beethoven. Its form 
is founded on that of the minuet, the place of which it often takes 
in sonatas and symphonies. 
Scherzosamente (It.). Facetiously, in jest. 
Schiettamente (It.). Simply, plainly, unadorned. 
Schietto (It.). Pure, honest, sincere. 

— 170 — 

Schlacht (Ger.). Battle. 

Schlachthymne. Battle hymn. 

Schlachtlied. Battle song. 

Schlachtmusik. Battle (martial) music. 
Schlag (Ger.). A blow, knock. 

Schlag der Trommel. A beat of the drum. 

Schlag einer Kanone. A report of a canon. 

Schlagfeder. The plectrum of a mandoline, etc. 

Schlagfell. The batterhead, or striking end of a drum. 

Schlaginstrumente. Percussion instruments. 
Schlagel (Ger.). The drumstick of a kettledrum or snare-drum, that 

of a bass drum being called a Klopfel. plur. Schlagel. 
Schlager (Ger.). A drummer. 
Schleif- (Ger.). Used in combination, cf. Schleifen. 

Schleifbogen. A slur. 

Schleifnote. A slurred or tied note. 

Schleifstrich. A dash. 

Schleifzeichen. A slur. 
Schleifen (Ger.). To slur. subs. The slider of an organ. 
Schleif er (Ger.). A species of double appoggiatura : a rapid series 

of conjunct notes before the principal note. cf. Fusee. 
Schleppen (Ger.). To drag. 
Schleppend (Ger.). Dragging (the tempo). Nicht schleppend, without 

SchluB (Ger.). Conclusion, end. 

SchluBfall. A cadence. 

SchluBsatz. Concluding movement. 

SchluBzeichen. The double bar, usually with a ^ above, which 
marks the close of a movement (such as a scherzo), in which 
there are repeats. 
Schliissel (Ger.). A clef. 
Schmachtend (Ger.). Languishing, yearning. 
Schmeichelnd (Ger.). Coaxing, flattering. 
Schmelzend (Ger.). Languishing, mellow, melodious. 
Schmerz (Ger.). Pain, affliction. 

Schmetternd (Ger.). Shrill, ringing, clanging. In modern Ger. scores 
it is used (against the brass) as an equivalent of the Fr. cuivre. 
Schnabel (Ger.). A beak; the mouthpiece of a clarinet or saxophone 
cf. Bee. 

Schnabelflote. The flute-d-bec. 
Schnarre (Ger.). A rattle. Schnarr- in combination, cf. Knarre. 

Schnarrpfeife. A reed-pipe in an organ. 

Schnarrsaiten. The snare of a side-drum. 

Schnarrtrommel. A snare (side) drum. 

Schnarrwerk. The reed-work of an organ. 
Schnarren (Ger.). To rattle, buzz, vibrate; to sing falsetto. 
Schnecke (Ger.). The scroll of a violin, etc. 
Schnell (Ger.). Swift, rapid, nimble, quick. 

Schnell abdampfen. Quickly damp (the strings of a harp, vibra- 
ting cymbal, etc.). 

— 171 — 

Schnell und drangend. Quick and hurried. 

Schnell und schattenhaft. Fast and shadowy. 

Schnell und stiirmisch. Quick and stormy. 

Schnell und zart. Quickly and delicately. 

Schnell wie zuerst. As fast as at the commencement. 
Schneller (Ger.). Quicker, subs. An embellishment; an inverted 
mordent or passing shake. 

Schneller werdend. Becoming quicker. 
Schnelligkeit (Ger.). Speed, quickness, nimbleness. Nun wieder auf 
die Schnelligkeit des ersten Tempo zugehend, now returning to the 
speed of the first tempo. 
Schottisch, -e (Ger.). Scotch, subs. An ecossaise. 
Schrage Bewegung (Ger.). Oblique motion. 
Schreibart (Ger.). Style. 
Schreiend (Ger.). Screaming, shrieking. 
Schiichtern (Ger.). Shy, modest, retiring. 
Schusterfleck (Ger.). A rosalia {q. v.). 
Schiitteln (Ger.). To shake (a tambourine). 
Schwach (Ger.). Weak, feeble, delicate. 
Schwacher (Ger.). Fainter, weaker, 
Schwagel (Ger.), A tabor-pipe. v. Schwegel. 
Schwankend (Ger.). Faltering, swaying, wavering. 
Schwanz (Ger.). The tail or stem of a note. 
Schwarmer (Ger.). The rapid repetition of a series of notes, each 

being repeated four or more times. 
Schwebung (Ger.). A tremor, waving. In organ stops, tremulant, 
plur. Schwebungen, beats or pulsations between two notes nearly 
equivalent in pitch. 
Schwegel (Ger.). (i ) An organ pipe found in old organs. (2) The tabor- 
pipe or galoubet, a flute-d-hec with 2 ventages for the fingers and 
I for the thumb. Also written Schwiegel or Schwagel. 
Schweif (Ger.). Tail, coda. 
Schweigen, Schweigezeichen (Ger.). A pause. 
Schweigt (Ger.). Is silent, tacet. 
Schweizer (Ger.). Swiss. 

Schweizerpfeife. A cross-flute, flauto traverso. Also the name 
of a pipe found in old organs. 
Schwellen (Ger.). To swell, increase in loudness. Also used as a subs. 
Schweller (Ger.). The swell of an organ. Schwell- in combination. 

Schwellkasten. Swell box. 

Schwellton. A note swelled upon, 

Schwelltritt. Swell pedal. 

Schwellwerk. Swell organ. 
Schwer (Ger.). Heavy, weighty, pesante. Hard, difficult. 

Schwer und kraftig, nicht zu schnell. Ponderous and powerful, 
not too fast. 

Schwer und zuriickhaltend. Ponderous and slackening. 
Schwermiitig (Ger.). JMelancholv sad 
Schwermutsvoll (Ger.). 1^^^^^^'''^^^^^' ^^^• 
Schwindend (Ger.). Diminishing, vanishing, smorzando. 
Schwungvoll (Ger.). Full of fire and enthusiasm. 
Scialumo (It.), v. Chalumeau. 

— 172 — 

Scintillante (It.). Sparkling, bright. 
Scioltamente (It.). With freedom, freely, fluently. 
Scioltezza (It.). Freedom, liberty, nimbleness. 

Sciolto, -a (It.). Free, unshackled. Canone sciolto, free canon; contrap- 
punto sciolto, free counterpoint. In violin playing, the grand 
detache {q. v.). 
Scolare (It.). Scholar, pupil. 
Scordato (It.). Out-of-tune, mis-tuned. 

Scordatura (It.). The tuning of a violin etc., in other than its 
ordinary manner, e. g. the solo violin in the Danse Macabre, with 
the E string tuned to e"'^. 
Score. Term usually used in the sense of a full score {q. v.). 
A piano score is a full score arranged for piano solo ; a vocal score 
is the arrangement for piano or organ of the orchestral parts of a 
full score, which contains voice parts, these latter being left intact. 
Scorrendo (It.). Gliding. 
Scozzese (It.). Scotch. 
Scucito (It.). Unconnected, discursive. 
Scuola (It.). School, college. 
Sdegnante (It.). Disdainful, scornful. 
Sdegno (It.). Indignation, wrath, anger. 
Sdegnosamente (It.). Scornfully, indignantly. 
Sdegnoso, -a (It.). Scornful, angry. 
Sdrucciolando (It.). Sliding, gliding. 
Se (Fr.). Himself, herself, themselves. 

Se (It.), conj. If, in case, provided that. pron. Oneself, himself, etc. 
Sec, seche (Fr.). / Dry, hard, plain, unornamented. Often found 
Secco, -a (It.). \ indicated against chords, which are to be played 

in a sharp staccato manner. 
Sachs (Ger.). Six. 

Sechsachteltakt. Six-eight time. 

Sechsstimmig. For six voices or instruments. 

Sechsvierteltakt. Six-four time. 

Sechszehnfussig(fuBig). Of sixteen feet. 

Sechszehntelnote. A semiquaver. 

Sechszehntelpause. A semiquaver rest. 
Second, -nde (Fr.). Second. La seconde fiate prendre la petite fltite, 
the second flute to take the piccolo. 

Second dessus. Second treble. 

Seconde fois. Second time. 
Seconda (It.). The interval of a second. 

Seconda eccedente. Augmented second. 

Seconda maggiore. Major second. 

Seconda minore. Minor second. 
Secondando (It.). Seconding, supporting. Indication to the accom- 
panist to adapt himself to the soloist. 
Seconde (Fr.). The interval of a second. 

Seconde augment6e. Augmented second. 

Seconde majeure. Major second. 

Seconde mineure. Minor second. 
Secondo, -a (It.). Second. Trombone secondo, second trombone. 

Seconda volta. The 2nd time 

— 173 — 

Sedecima (It.). The interval of a sixteenth. 
Seele (Ger.). Soul, mind, feeling, plur. and in combination, Seelen. 

Seelenvoll. Full of soul, feeling. 
Seg. Abbr. of segno. 
Segno (It.). Sign. v. Al segno, Dal segno. 

Segno d'aspetto. Pause, rest. 
Segue (It.). Follows. E poi segue la coda, and then follows the coda, 
i. e. one proceeds to the coda without a break. The word is some- 
times used in the sense of simile, and means that the pattern set 
in the first bar as regards phrasing, bowing, etc., is to be followed 
in the subsequent bars. 
Seguendo (It.). Following. 

Seguente (It.). That which follows or comes after. 
Seguidilla (Sp.). A lively dance in V4 or Vs time. 
Seguito (It.). A suite. 
Sehnsucht (Ger.). Longing, yearning. 
Sehnsiichtig (Ger.). adj. Longing, yearning, anxious 
Sehr (Ger.). Very, much, extremely. 

Sehr allmahlich immer etwas langsamer. Becoming very gradually 

Sehr allmahlich immer starker bis . . . Becoming very gradually 
louder till . . . 

Sehr angenehm. Very pleasing. 

Sehr ausdrucksvoll. Very expressive. 

Sehr bestimmt. Very decided. 

Sehr bewegt. Very animated. 

Sehr breit und schwer. Very broad and ponderous. 

Sehr fest und rhythmisch. Very firmly and rhythmically. 

Sehr frisch. Very brightly. 

Sehr gebunden. Very smoothly. 

Sehr gehalten aber nicht gebunden. Very sustained but not 

Sehr gehalten und betont. Very sustained and accentuated. 

Sehr gemessen, fast langsam. Very slow, almost adagio. 

Sehr geschwind. Very fast. 

Sehr getragen. Very sustained; very portamento, 

Sehr heftig. Very vehemently. 

Sehr hervortretend. Very prominent. 

Sehr innig. Very heartfelt (with great emotion). 

Sehr kraftig. Very powerfully. 

Sehr kraftig gestoBen. Very strongly detached. 

Sehr kraftig und gut zu halten, doch ohne zu binden. Very 
powerful and well sustained, without being legato. 

Sehr kurz gestoBen. Very shortly detached. 

Sehr langsam, frei deklamierend, sentimental im Vortrag. Very 
slow, freely declaimed, and played with delicate feeling 

Sehr lebhaft. Very animated. 

Sehr leichtweg. Very lightly. 

Sehr leise. Very softly. 

Sehr lieblich. Very sweetly. 

— 174 -- 

Sehr markiert. Very marked. 

Sehr maBig bewegt. Very moderately animated. 

Sehr maBig und immer noch langsamer. Very moderate, and 

always becoming slower. 
Sehr sanft. Very softly. 

Sehr scharf und spitzig. Very sarcastic and bitter. 
Sehr schnell. Very fast. 
Sehr schnell und noch mehr beschleunigend. Very fast, and 

becoming still faster. 
Sehr schnell und schmetternd. Very fast and resonant. v. 

Sehr stark. Very loud. 

Sehr stark ausgehalten. Very strongly sustained. 
Sehr weich. Very tenderly. 

Sehr weich und klangvoll. Very soft and full (resonant) 
Sehr zart. Very sweetly. 

Sehr zuriickhaltend. Very much retarding the tempo. 
Sei (It.). Six. 

Seite (Ger.). Side; end of a drum. Auf heiden Seiten von 2 Spielern 
mit Paukenschwammschldgeln, at both ends, by 2 players with 
kettle-drumsticks of sponge, plur. and in combination, Seiten. 
Seitenbewegung. Oblique motion. 
Seitensatz. A second subject. 
Seizieme (Fr.). Sixteenth. 

Seizieme de soupir. A semi-demisemiquaver rest. 
Sekunde (Ger.). The interval of a second. Eine grope Sekunde, a 

major second; eine iibermdpige Sekunde, an augmented second. 
Sem. Abbr. of sempre. 

Semi- (It.). Used in combination, and meaning a half, or less than 
a whole. 

Semibiscroma. A semi-demisemiquaver. 

Semibreve. A semibreve. 

Semicadenza. A half close. 

Semiditono. A minor third. 

Semiminima. A crotchet. 

Semitrillo. A shake, in which the principal note alternates only 

once with the grace -note. 
Semituono. A semitone. 
Semplice (It.). Simple, pure. 
Semplicemente (It.). Simply, plainly. 
Semplicita (It.). Simplicity. 

Sempre (It.). Always, continually, {v. Remark under Immer.) 
Sempre accelerando. Continually becoming faster. 
Sempre a mezza voce. Always with half the power of the voice 

or instrument. 
Sempre col pedale ad ogni cambiamento d'armonia. With the 

pedal at every change of harmony. 
Sempre con gran dolcezza e grazia. Always with great sweet- 
ness and grace. 
Sempre con pedale e con sordino. Always with the pedal and 

the mute, i. e. using both the pedals. 
Sempre diminuendo e calmato. Always becoming softer and calmer. 

— 175 - 

Sempre non divisi. Always undivided. 

Sempre piu affrettando il tempo. Continually hurrying the time. 
Sempre piu di fuoco. Always with more spirit. 
Sempre pizzicato. Always pizzicato. 

Sempre rinforzando. Always laying stress (on the phrases). 
V. Rinforzando. 
Sensibile (It.). Sensible, perceptible. Nota sensibile, the leading note. 

Sensibilmente (It.). Sensibly, perceptibly. 

Sensible (Fr.). Sensible, perceptible; tenderhearted Note sensible^ 
the leading note. 

Senza (It.). Without. 

Senza accompagnamento. Without accompaniment. 

Senza fiori. Without embellishments. 

Senza glissare. Without gliding. 

Senza organo. Without organ. 

Senza passione, ma espressivo. Without passion, but with 

Senza replica. Without repeat. 

Senza rigore del tempo. Without strictness in the tempo. 
Senza ripetizione. Without repetition, without repeat. 
Senza ritardare. Without slackening. 
Senza sordini. Without mutes, v. Sordino. 
Senza tempo. Not in strict time. 
Septett (Ger.). yA septet; a composition for seven voices or in- 
Septetto (It.), jstruments. 
Septieme (Fr.). Seventh; the interval of a seventh. 

Septieme diminuee. Diminished seventh. 
Septime (Ger.). Interval of a seventh. 

Septimenakkord. Chord of the seventh. 
Septimole, Septole (Ger.). A septuplet; a group of 7 equal notes in 

place of 4 or 6. 
Septuor (Fr.). A septet. 

Sequenza (It.). A sequence, (i) The repetition of a melodic figure 
or harmonic progression at a different pitch. (2) A hymn sung 
on certain festivals at High Mass. 
Serenade (Fr.). / A serenade, (i) A composition intended to be sung 
Serenata (It.), (during the evening or night under the windows 
of a person (often a lady), whom the singer wishes to honour. 
(2) A vocal composition much like a cantata, or an instrumental 
one in several movements. The Ger. of (i) is Stdndchen, of (2) 
Sereno, -a (It.). Calm, tranquil. 
Serieux, -euse (Fr.). Serious, grave. 
Serio, -a (It.). Serious, grave. Opera seria, a serious (tragic) opera, 

as opposed to opera huffa, a comic opera. 
Serioso, -a (It.). The same as serio, and little used. 
Serpeggiando (It.). Winding, meandering, creeping. 
Serpent. An instrument in the shape of a large S made of wood 

— 176 — 

covered with leather, and played with a cup-shaped mouthpiece. 
Its compass is from Bi\? to 6' [7. Although used by Mendelssohn 
and Wagner, the instrument is practically obsolete: it has recently 
(1904) been revived by Klose in Das Leben ein Traum. The instru- 
ment was made in two forms, v. below. 
Serpent (Fr.). The serpent. 

Serpent d'eglise. The church serpent, the instrument of the 

shape usually found in churches. 

Serpent d'harmonie. / The military serpent, an instrument 

Serpent militaire. ( differing in shape from the above, in that 

the arm could be passed through it, and thus it was more 

adapted for marching purposes, and especially for use in 

cavalry bands. Berlioz has indicated a serpent of this shape 

in his early Mass (the Resurrexit of which is given in the 

Berlioz Edition, Vol. VII, where the part is marked for a tuba) 

perhaps because the ordinary church serpent would be at a 

different pitch from that of the usual orchestral instruments. 

Serpentone (It.). A serpent. 

Serrando (It.). Squeezing, compressing, i. e. bringing the notes 

closer together, and thus becoming faster. 
Serrant (Fr.). En servant, becoming faster, cf. Serrando. 
Serrato (It.). Compressed, tightened, cf. Serrando. 
Serre (Fr.). v. Serrato. 
Serrez (Fr.). Tighten, press. 

Serrez peu a peu le mouvement. Gradually quicken the move- 
Sesquialtera. An organ stop of from 3 to 6 ranks of open metal 

pipes, tuned in 3rds, 5ths and 8ths to the diapasons. 
Sesta (It.). The interval of a sixth. 
Sesta eccedente. Augmented sixth. 
Sesta maggiore. Major sixth. 
Sesta minora. Minor sixth. 
Sestetto (It.). A sextet; a composition for 6 instruments or voices 
Sestina (It.), (i ) A stanza of six lines. (2) A group of six notes. 
Settima (It.). The interval of a seventh. 
Settima diminuita. Diminished seventh. 
Settima maggiore. Major seventh. 
Settima minore. Minor seventh. 
Setzart (Ger.). The style of a composition. 
Setzkunst (Ger.). The art of composing, composition. 
Seufzend (Ger.). Moaning, sighing. 

Seul, seule (Fr.). Alone, solo. 3 violins seuls, 3 solo violins. 
Severamente (It.). Severely, rigidly. 

Sexte (Ger.). The interval of a sixth. Sext- in combination; plur. 
Sexten. Vbermdfiige Sexte, an augmented sixth. 
Sextakkord. The chord of the 6th. 
Sextenfolgen. A sequence of sixths. 
Sextett (Ger.). A sextet, a composition for six voices or instruments. 
Sextole (Ger.). A sextolet; a group of six equal notes. 
Sextuor (Fr.). A sextet. 

Sf. Abbr. of sforzando or sforzato. Used as a subs, as Das sf und pp 
nicht vernachldssigen, pay attention to the sf and pp. 

— 177 — 

Sfoggiando (It.). Pompous, splendid, extravagant. 
Sforzando (It.). Laying a stress or accent on a particular note, as 
opposed to rinforzando, laying a stress on a particular phrase, or 
group of notes. This distinction is however not always observed. 
Sforzar la voce (It.). To force the voice. 
Sfcrzatissimo (It.). Sup. of sforzato. 

Sforzato (It.). Accented, marked, cf. Sforzando. Used as a subs. 

as poco marc, gli sforzati, the sforzati with only slight accentuation. 

Sforzo (It.). Effort, strain; a defect of the voice, which proceeds 

from a violent contraction of the glottis. 
Sfuggito, -a (It.). Avoided. Cadenza sfugitta, an interrupted cadence. 
Sfz. Abbr. of sforzando, sforzato. 
Sgambato (It.). Tired, weary. 
Sganasciare (It.). To dislocate the jaws. To laugh or sing with 

wide-open jaws. 
Sgrisciare (It.). To "quack" on reed instruments. 
Shift. The movement of the hand on the fingerboard of a violin, etc., 
often used as synonymous with "position". The difference 
between the two is that the player proceeds by degrees of the scale 
in the positions, and by skips in shifts: thus, on the G (4th) string 
of the viohn, in the ist position the notes a, b, c' are stopped by the 
I St, 2nd and 3rd fingers, in the 2nd, the notes &, c' , d\ in the 3rd, 
the notes c', d\ e' and so on. On the other hand, one does not 
"shift" until the notes in the ist position are exhausted, e. g. having 
stopped a, h, c', the hand is moved sufficiently for the fingers to 
stop d', e', f\ 
Si (Fr.). (I) If. (2) The note B. 
Si b^mol. B flat. 
Si bemol mineur, B flat minor. 
Si diese. B sharp. 
Si (It.), (i) The note B. (2) Practically corresponding to the Fr. 
on or Ger. man (one, people, etc.) although strictly speaking it is 
the pronoun of the reflective verb. Si dice, one says (it is said). 
Si accorda in fa grave colla quinta do. One tunes (the kettle- 
drums) in low F with the fifth C. 
Si bemolle. B flat. 
Si bemolle maggiore. B flat major. 

Si deve suonare tutto questo pezzo delicatissimamente, e senza 
sordini. The whole of this piece must be played with the 
greatest delicacy and without the mutes. (For the two readings 
of this direction v. Sordino.) 
Si leva il sordino. Take off the mute. 
Si levano i sordini. Take off the mutes. 
Si piace. At pleasure, ad libitum. 
Si possono omettere le battute tra le due A. The bars between 

the two A-s can be omitted. 
Si pud, volendo, saltare le 12 battute da :«: a :{:. The 12 bars 

from jj: to :i: can be omitted at pleasure. 
Si replica. One repeats, i. e. the section is to be repeated. 
Si scriva. As written. 
Si tace. One is silent. 
Si volta. Turn over (one turns over). 

Wotton, Dictionary. 12 

— 178 — 

Si volti subito. (Please) turn over quickly. 
Sich (Ger.). Oneself; himself, herself, itself. Used with reflective 

Sich aufrichtend in hochster Demiitigung. Drawing herself up 

in extreme humiliation. {Si. Elisabeth, Liszt.) 
Sich verlierend. Disappearing, vanishing. 
Sich Zeit lassen. (To) allow oneself time. v. Remark I. 
Siciliana, Siciliano (It.). / Sicilian, subs. A dance of moderate 
Sicilienne (Fr.). ( movement in Vs or V12 time. 

Side drum. A drum made in various shapes, but always possessing 
the characteristic of a "snare", i. e. catgut strings stretched across 
the lower end, or "snarehead" of the instrument, and imparting 
to its tone that peculiar burring rattling. The upper end, or 
"batterhead" is played upon by two wooden drumsticks, and 
must always be so tight as to allow of the drumsticks freely 
rebounding. The idea that this head should ever be slackly braced 
is erroneous, although for special effects it may be more tightly 
braced than ordinarily. The instrument is at times directed to be 
"muffled": this is usually done by placing a handkerchief between 
the snare and the membrane of the drum; sometimes the snare is 
relaxed, or unhooked at one end; and occasionally the drum is 
played in its linen cover. Owing to the confusion which so often 
arises between this instrument and the Tenor drum {q. v.), it would 
be preferable if it were always called the "Snare-drum". 
Sieben (Ger.). Seven. 

Sieg (Ger.). Victory, triumph in battle, conquest. Sieges- in com- 

Siegesgesang. A song of victory. 
Siegeslied. A song or hymn of victory, a paean. 
Siegesmarsch. Triumphal march. 
Signalhorn (Ger.). v. Buglehorn. 

Signaturen (Ger.). The figures and signs used in figured bass. 
Signe (Fr.). A sign. Allez au signe -^, go to sign •^. 
Signs. The principal signs used in modern music are the following : — 
. Above or below a note, signifies that it is to be detached, and 

played staccato, or, more strictly speaking, spiccato. 
* Above or below a note, signifies that it is to be very detached. 
This is the true staccato on the piano. 

Above or below notes, signifies that they are to be detached, 
'but not so much as in either of the above cases. With 
stringed instruments, this is the true staccato, and consists in 
the bow advancing by a series of small jerks without ever 
leaving the strings. It is only found in solo playing, since 
it is difficult of execution. In piano playing, it is called 
mezzo staccato. 

Written. Played. Written. Played. 

I I » 

^ -iJjJ I Jj'-^-J^ijJjJ I /j^yi^ 

— 179 - 



h i J J ^ I j.^ j: '' j?^ ^ 

— Above or below a note, signifies that it is to be sustained for its 
full value, without however being tied to the following note, 
■s^ The note sustained and slightly accentuated. 
T - T T T The notes somewhat more sustained than with merely 
dots above. 
^ - -^ The slur or tie. It is called the latter, when it is placed 
above or below two notes of the same pitch, and indicates 
that they have to be played like one note equal in length to 
the two together. It is called a slur, when placed over or under 
two or more notes not of the same pitch, and then signifies 
that they are to be played or sung in the same bow or breath. 
Occasionally the length of the slur precludes this, and it must 
then be taken as a general indication that the whole passage 
must be as legato as possible. 
^=- or -< Rinforzando, laying particular stress on a note or group 
of notes. 
Aror V Sforzando or sforzato, laying stress on a particular note. 
■= d Crescendo, growing louder. 
X— I Decrescendo, growing softer. 

n I^Downbow. It is also used for pizzicato chords, in which the 
finger is drawn towards the player, e. g. from the 4th to the 
ist string in the violin. 
V Upbow, It is also used for pizzicato chords, in which the 
finger moves away from the player, e. g. from the ist to the 
4th string in the violin. 
O The thumb position in violoncello playing. 
O Placed above horn notes, indicates that they are to be open 
notes. In music for Strings, it signifies either an open string, 
or an harmonic. In harp music, it indicates an harmonic 
(the actual sound being an octave above the written note), 
and now-a-days is often discarded, the harp note being written 
with a square head instead, i. e. 




instead of 




Usually signifies a closed note on the horn. Wagner however 
occasionally uses it to indicate a note on the horn not only 
closed but also made brassy (cuivre). 

Sign for taking breath, used both for voices and wind instru- 
ments. It also found in string and other parts to indicate an 
almost imperceptible break in the continuity of the music. 
Signs of the portamento in old music and modern orchestral 

In piano music, means that two notes on different staves 
are to be played with the same hand: in string parts, it 
indicates the use of the double string. 


— i8o — 

TV Above a note or rest, signifies that its time-value is to be 
increased at the discretion of the player; above a bar-line^ 
it denotes a break in the continuity of the music. 

/ Sign of a glissando passage on a harp, the top and bottom 
notes being alone given. 

oc The sign for a turn (gruppetto). 

iunzfo'flt.): isil«°<=«! ^ '^^' P^"=«- 
Sillet (Fr.). The nut of violins, guitars, etc. 
Sim. Abbr. of simile. 

Simile (It.). Like, similar. An indication showing that the pattern 
set in a previous bar, as regards phrasing, etc., is to be still adhered to. 
Simili (It.). Plur. of simile, and used in the same sense. 
Simple (Fr.). Simple: natural. Contrepoint simple, simple counter- 
point; trompette simple, natural trumpet. 
Simplement (Fr.). Simply. Indication signifying an unaffected 

Simplice^ Simplicita (It.), v. Semplice, Semplicita. 
Sin* (It.). Contraction of sino (until). 

Sin* al fine. Until the end. 
Sincopa (It.). Syncopation. 
Sincopato, -a (It.). Syncopated. 

Sinfonia (It.). A symphony. The term used to be employed for an 
overture, but since symphonies have been performed and written 
in Italy sinfonia has been employed almost exclusively for a sym- 
phony, and an overture has been called overtura. 
Sinfonico, -a (It.). Symphonic. Poema sinfonico, symphonic poem. 
Sinfonie. A spelling of Symphonie occasionally found in ancient 

French and modern German. 
Sinfonietta (It.). A little symphony, e. g. Raff's sinfonietta for lo 

wind instruments. 
Sing- (Ger.). Used in combination, cf. Singen. 
Singakademie. Singing school. 
Singbar. Singable. 

SingbaB. A vocal (as opposed to an instrumental) bass. 
Singchor. Choir; chorus of singers. 
Singfuge. A vocal fugue. 
Singkunst. The art of singing. 
Singlehrer. A singing master. 
Singlehrerin. A singing mistress. 
Singmanieren. Vocal embroideries. 
Singmeister. A master of singing; a great singer. 
Singnoten. Vocal music. 
Singoper. An opera set to music throughout, without spoken 

Singschule. A school for singing. 
Singspiel. An operetta. 
Singstimme. (Singing) voice; vocal part. Lied fUr eine Sing- 

stimme, song for a single voice. 
Singstiick. A vocal piece. 
Singstunde. Singing lesson. 
Singtanz. A dance accompanied by singing. 

— i8i — 

Slngweise. ( i ) Way or manner of singing. (2) Air, melody, tune. 
Singen (Ger,). To sing. 

Singend (Ger.). Singing; singingly, cantabile. 
Singhiozzando (It.). Sobbing. 
Sinistro, -a (It.). Left. Mano sinistra, or simply sinistra, the left 

Sinn (Ger.). Sense; the sensitive faculties; soul, heart. 
Sino, Sin' (It.). Till, until. 
Sin' al fine. 1 
Sino alia fine. [Until the end. 
Sino fine. ) 

Sino al segno. Until the sign. 
Sipario (It.). The curtain of a theatre. 
Sistre (Fr.). A sistrum. 

Sistro (It.). Formerly a sistrum ; now the term used for a Glockenspiel. 
Sistrum (Lat.). A species of metal rattle dating back to the time 
of the ancient Egyptians. It has been used by Massenet and some 
other modern composers for picturesque effects. 
Sitz (Ger.). Seat. The degree of the scale on which a chord has 
its lowest note, thus, the ist inversion of the common chord of C 
has its Sitz on E. 
Sixieme (Fr.). Sixth; the interval of a sixth. 
Sixte (Fr.). The interval of a sixth. 

Skala (Ger.). Scale, gamut. Naturskala, the natural scale. 
Skizze (Ger.). A sketch, plur. Skizzen. 
Slancio (It.). Rush, dash, impetuosity. 
Slarg. Abbr. of slargando. 
Slargando (It.). Widening, enlarging. Slackening the time, rallen- 

Slargandosi (It.). The reflective form of slargando. 
Slegato (It.). Untied, loosed. The opposite to legato. 
Slentando (It.). Improperly used for lentando. 

Slide, (i) A vocal or instrumental ornament consisting of two grace 
notes before the principal note. The term is not now much employed 
in English. (2) A movable piece of tubing on brass instruments 
used for tuning purposes, and in the Slide Trombone and Trumpet, 
of sufficient length to admit of the various elongations of the tube 
necessary for producing the chromatic scale. 
Slide trombone, v. Trombone. 

Slide trumpet. An instrument employed almost exclusively in 
England, and now little used. By means of the slide the pitch 
can be lowered a tone or a semitone, and thus a complete 
chromatic scale from g upwards (with the exception of a, 
ab, c'ji) is obtained. An instrument is also made on which these 
missing notes are obtainable, but it is not often found. 
Sliders. Part of the mechanism of an organ, whereby the draw-stop 
places the pipes in a condition to speak when the keys are 
Smania (It.). Frenzy, rage. 
Smaniante (It.). Frenzied, furious, passionate. 
Smaniare (It.). To rave, to storm, to be in a fury. 
Smanicare (It.). To shift on a violin, guitar, etc. 

— l82 — 

Smanioso, -a (It.). Furious, rabid, eager. 

Sminuendo (It.). The same as diminuendo. 

Sminuito (It.). The same as diminuito. 

Smorendo (It.). Diminishing, smorzando. 

Smorfioso (It.). Affected, prim. 

Smorz. Abbr. of smorzando, smorzato. 

Smorzando (It.). Extinguishing, quenching (the sound). 

Snare-drum. The side-drum {q. v.) 

Smorzato (It.). Extinguished. 

Snello (It.). Nimble, agile, alert. 

So (Ger.). So, in this manner, as. 

1^ ^ren^^fmtliih.iAs fast as possible. 

So zahlreich wie moglich. As numerous as possible. 
Soave (It.). Gentle, soft, suave, tranquil. 
Soavemente. Gently, softly. 
Soavita (It.). Sweetness, gentleness. 
Societa (It.). Society, club. 

Societa del Quartetto. Quartet Society. 
Soffocando, Soffogando (It.). Damping the sounds of the harp with 

the hand. 
Soffocato, Soffogato (It.). Damped, v. above. 
Sofort (Ger.). Immediately, at once. 

Sofort abdampfen und nicht arpeggiert. Damp immediately and 
not in arpeggio. (Direction to harp.) 
Soggetto (It.). Subject. 
Sogleich (Ger.). The same as sofort. 

Sogleich das erste ZeitmaB. Immediately the first tempo. 
Sol (Fr.). The note G. 

Sol bemol. G flat. 

Sol diese. G sharp. 
Sol (It.). The note G. 

Sol bemolle. G flat. 

Sol diesis. G sharp. 
Sola (It.). Fem. of solo. Viola sola, solo viola. 
Solenne (It.). Solemn, grave, splendid. 
Solennely -elle (Fr.). Solemn. Solennellement, solemnly. 
Solennemente (It.). Solemnly. 
Sol(l)ennis, Sol(l)emnis (Lat.). Solemn. Missa solemnis, solemn Mass. 

Solfa (It.). Subs. The scale or gamut in the old system of naming 
the notes by the names do {ut), re, mi, fa, sol, la, si. The term is 
sometimes used to express music in general. In Eng. it is used as 
a verb, and to "solfa" is to sing the above or similar syllables. 
Battere la solfa, to beat time. 

Solf^ge (Fr.). A singing exercise on the syllables given in the previous 

Solfeggiare (It.). To solfa. 

Solfeggio (It.). V. Solfdge. 

- i83 - 

Soli (It.). Plur. of solo. When used substantively, "solos" is a per- 
fectly legitimate plural in Eng., since solo is now anglicised. 
Solito (It.). Accustomed, habituated. Al solito, as usual. 
Sollecitando (It.). Hastening. 
SoUecito (It.). Careful, anxious: eager, prompt. 
Solmizzare (It.). To solfa. 

Solo, -a (It.). Alone, only, solo. The word is also used as a subs, in 
most languages. In orchestral scores the term is marked against 
a particular passage which is to be made prominent, although 
in modern Ger. works it is now generally replaced by hervortretend, 
bestimtnty or some such expression. In concertos, the passages 
where the solo instrument enters are often marked "solo" in contra- 
distinction to the Tutti. 

Solo organ. One of the manuals of an organ, the stops of which 
are mainly more or less faithful imitations of orchestral instru- 
ments, and suited rather for solo work than for combination. 
Solo- (Ger.). Used in combination. 

Solosanger. A solo singer (masc). 
Solosangerin. A solo singer (fem.). 
Solospieler. A solo player. 
Soltanto (It.), adv. Only, solely, but. La tromha soltanto, trumpet 

Sombre (Fr.). Dull, melancholy, sombre. 
Sommo, -a (It.). Supreme, greatest, utmost. Con somma passione, 

with the utmost passion. 
Sommesso, -a (It.). Subdued, humbled. Con voce sommessa, in a 

low voice. 
Sommier (Fr.). The wind-chest of an organ. 
Son (Fr.). (i) His, her, its. (2) A sound, v. Sons. 
Sonabile (It.). Sounding, resonant. 
Sonagliare (It.). To tinkle, to ring smaU bells. 
Sonagliato, -a (It.). Tinkling. 

Sonagliera (It.). A collar of small bells such as is worn by sleigh horses. 
Sonaglio (It.). A Uttle bell. 
Sonamento (It.). A sounding, playing. 
Sonante (It.). Resonant. 
Sonare (It.). To sound: to play upon. 

Sonare a raccolta. To sound the "Assembly" (an army call). 
Sonare alia mente. To play extempore. 
Sonare il piano-forte. To play the piano. 
Sonare le campane. To ring (peal) the bells. 
Sonare un como. To play upon (blow) a horn. 
Sonata (It.). A composition played as opposed to one which is sung. 
The term is now used for a particular form of composition, con- 
sisting of several movements, which follow certain rules as 
regards their construction. 

Sonata da camera. A chamber sonata. A composition of 4 or 
5 movements, usually alternately quick and slow, and as a 
rule some form of dance music {Bourree, Sarabande, etc.). 
Sonata da chiesa. A church sonata. Like the above, consisting 
of several movements, but, as befitting their intended use, 
of a more dignified nature. 

— i84 — 

Neither of the above can be considered as a sonata in the 
modern sense, although the types are undoubtedly precursors 
of the later form. 
Sonata per il cembalo. Sonata for the piano. 
Senate (Fr.). Sonata. 
Senate (Ger.). Sonata, plur. Sonaten. 

Senaten fiir Klavier allein. Sonatas for piano solo. 
Sonatina (It.). U small sonata. 

Sonatme (Fr. and Ger.). ( 

Sonatore (It.). The player of an instrument (masc). 
Sonatrice (It.). The player of an instrument (fem,). 
Sonevole (It.). Sounding, resonant. 
Songeant (Fr.). Dreaming. 
Sono (It.). Sound, plur. soni. 

Soni alterati. Chromatically altered notes. 
Sonore (Fr.). Sonorous. 
Sonorita (It.). / o^„^ •. 
Sonority (Fr.). P°°0"*y- 
Sonoro, -a (It.). Sonorous, resounding. 
Sonora la melodia. /t^, \ a 

Sonoro il canto. \^^^ "^•°'J>' s°°°rous. 
Sons (Fr.). Sounds; notes. 

Sons bouches. Closed notes on a horn. 

Sons cuivres. "Brassy" notes on brass instruments, v. Cuivre. 
Sons d'echo. Sounds resembling an echo. A direction (more 
especially for wind-instruments) signifying a very soft distant 
effect. On many cornets, there is a special attachment for 
producing this effect. 
Sons d'ongles. Literally, nail sounds. A harp effect obtained 
by plucking the strings close to the sound-board (belly), the 
result much resembling the tone of a guitar. 
Sons etouffes. Damped sounds; notes on a harp produced by 
immediately stopping the vibrations with the palm of the hand. 
Sons harmoniques. Harmonics {q. v.) on the harp, violin, etc. 
Sons naturals. Natural sounds, i. e. sounds produced on an 
instrument in the ordinary manner; a direction contradicting 
some previous indication, such as sons harmoniques, sons 
bouches, sur le chevalet, etc. 
Sons ordinaires. v. Sons naturels. 
Sons ouverts. Open notes on a brass instrument. 
Sons pleins mais non stridents. The sounds full (resonant) but 
not blatant. 
Sopra (It.). Upon, on, above. A term used to signify the crossing 
of hands in piano playing. 

Sopra una corda. On one string (of a piano, or of a violin, etc.). 
Sopran (Ger.). Soprano. 

Sopransanger. Soprano singer (masc). 
Sopransangerin. Soprano singer (fem.). 
Sopranschliissel. Soprano clef. 
Sopranstimme. Soprano voice. 
Soprana (It.). Fem. of soprano, superior, upper. Corda soprana, 
the highest string on a violin, etc. 

- i85 - 

Sopranino (It.). The diminutive of soprano, and a term applied to 
an instrument of higher pitch than that defined as soprano. 

Sopranist (Ger.). A soprano singer (masc.). 

Soprano (It.). Superior, upper, highest. Used as a subs, for the 
highest voice in women and children, ranging from c' to g" in 
the latter, and from c' to c'" (or even to e'", f" and g'" in excep- 
tional cases) in the former. Male sopranos are either falsetti or 
castrati. In Eng. brass bands. Soprano usually means the soprano 

Soprano clef. The C clef on the ist line |, . now seldom used, 

though found in the scores of composers as recent as 
Berlioz and Mendelssohn. 
Soprano cornet. A high cornet in Ej?, sounding a minor 3rd above 

the written notes. 
Soprano drammatico. A dramatic soprano, a female singer 

possessing a voice of a full and powerful quality. 
Soprano leggiero. A light soprano, one possessing a voice of a 

lighter quality than the above. 
Soprano naturale. A male soprano, who sings in falsetto. 
Soprano primo. First soprano. 
Soprano sarrusophone. A member of the sarrusophone family, 

now never used. 
Soprano saxhorn. A brass instrument much the same as the 
soprano cornet, but with a larger bore. Fr. Petit bugle en mi\?; 
Ger. Piccolo FlUgelhorn in Es; It. Flicorno soprano. 
Soprano saxophone. A member of the saxophone family, 
found in most large Fr. military bands. It has been used in 
the orchestra by Charpentier [Impressions d^Italie). It is in Bj?. 
Soprano secondo. Second soprano. 
Soprajio sfogato. A very high soprano. 
Soprano solo. A soprano alone. 
Sordamente (It.). Dully, in a veiled manner. 

Sordina (It.). The modern It. for a mute. plur. sordine, cf. Sordino. 
Sordin(e) (Ger.). A mute, damper. 

Sordino (It.). Plur. sordini, (i) A mute of a violin, etc., or of a brass 
instrument. (2) The damper of a piano, now operated by the 
right hand pedal, but formerly controlled by a stop, as in the 
harpsichord. (3) In old pianos, a device for muting the sounds 
by interposing a strip of felt or leather between the hammer and 
the string; this was worked by a pedal and called "Celeste" or 
"Sordin". Afterwards this muting pedal gave place to the "shift- 
ing pedal", whereby softness was obtained by the hammer striking 
only one string {una corda) instead of three. In recent years, the 
muting pedal has been revived. Senza sordini is therefore an 
indication open to misconstruction in piano music of a certain 
date, since it may mean "without dampers", i. e. raising the dampers 
by means of the damper pedal, or it may mean "without using the 
mutes" (Celeste). 

Sordini levati. The mutes removed. 
Sordo, -a (It.). Dull, veiled. Said of an instrument with little 

— i86 — 

sonority, or of a hall or theatre, badly constructed as regards its 
acoustical properties. 

Sorgfaltig (Ger.). Careful, attentive. 

Sortita (It.). The first or entrance aria of a character in an opera. 

Sospensione (It,). Suspension. 

Sospirando, Sospirante (It.). Sighing, yearning. 

Sospirevole (It.). Sighing deeply, plaintive. 

Sospiro (It.). A sigh. A crotchet rest. 

Sospiroso (It.). Sighing, plaintive. 

Sost., Sosten. Abbr. of sostenuto. 

Sostenendo (It.). Sustaining. 

Sostenuto (It.). Sustained. 

Sostenuto legato. Sustained and slurred. 

Sotto (It.). Under, beneath, below. Found in piano duets, where 
the hand of one player has to cross under that of the other. 
Sotto dominante. Subdominant. 
Sotto mediante. Submediant. 

Sotto voce. Under the voice, softly. Like mezza voce, also used 
for instruments. 

Soubrette (Fr.). A singer or actress of what in Eng. are known as 
"chambermaid's" parts ; minor parts usually of a lively pert nature. 
The term is also used in Ger. as SouhrettenroUe, a soubrette's part. 

Soudainement (Fr.). Suddenly. 

Soufflerie (Fr.). The apparatus connected with the bellows of an 

Soufflet (Fr.). The sign -=; :>►. 

Soufflets (Fr.). Bellows. 

Souffleur (Fr.). A prompter. A blower. 
Souffleur d'orgues. An organ blower. 

Souffleur (Ger.). A prompter. 

Souffleurbuch. A prompt-book. 
Souffleurkasten. A prompter's box. 

Sound-board or Sounding-board. A piece of wood used for increasing 
the resonance of an instrument, such as the sounding-board of the 
piano or organ, the helly of the violin, harp, etc. The term is also 
used for a screen placed above or behind a speaker for reflecting 
and regulating the direction of his voice. 

Sound-holes, /-shaped holes cut in the belly of a violin, etc. 

Sound-post. A small post fixed within a violin, etc., near the bridge, 
on the treble side. On its position much of the tone of the instru- 
ment depends. The Fr. term is I'dme, the soul. 

Soupir (Fr.). A sigh. A crotchet-rest. 

Sourdine (Fr.). Mute, damper. 

Sous (Fr.). Under, beneath. 

Soutenu (Fr.). Sustained. 

Spagnoletta (It.). Serenade; a dance in the Spanish style. 

Spagnuolo, -a (It.). Spanish; a Spaniard, a Spanish woman. 

Spalla (It.). The shoulder. Viola da spalla, a shoulder viol, as 
opposed to the viola da gamba, a leg viol. 

Spandendo (It.). Dilating, becoming louder. 

Spartito (It.). A score, past part. Scored. 
Spartito canto e pianoforte. Vocal score. 

— i8y — 

Sparto (It.)- Scattered, diffuse. 
Spassapensiero (It.). A Jew's harp. 
Spasshaft (Ger,). Jocular. 
Spater (Ger.). Later. 

Spater 3 groBe Floten. Later 3 (large) flutes. 
Spazio (It.). A space. 
Spazzolino (It.). A mop, swab for cleaning the interior of wood-wind 

Speaker key. A term for the key used on the clarinet, and its allies 
for enabling them to "speak" better in their upper register, v. 
Octave key. 
Spediendo (It.). Hastening, hurrying. 
Spektakel (Ger.). A great noise, hubbub, uproar. 
Sperdendosi (It.). Fading away. 
Spianato (It.). Even, smooth. 

Spiccato (It.). Detached, separated. It is indicated by dots above 
the notes, and in viohn-playing is played with the point of the bow. 
V. Signs. 

Spiccato assai. Very detached. 
Spiegando (It.). Extending, becoming louder. 
Spiel (Ger,). Play, game. Playing, performance, execution. 

Spielart. ) 

Spielmanier. f Mode or manner of playing; execution, touch, 

Spielweise. ) rendering. 
Spielen (Ger.). To play. 

Spielen vom Blatt. To play at sight. 
Spielend (Ger.). Playing, adv. Easily. 
Spieler (Ger.). A player, performer. 

Spielerin. A female performer. 
Spinnen des Tons (Ger.). v. Filare la voce. 
Spirito (It.). Fire, spirit. Con spirito, with spirit, animation. 

IplrllosMItt '"•'• I T*^^ -•"« - ^"^ 'P'"'°- 
Spitze (Ger.). Point. 

Spitze des Bogens. Point of the bow. 

Spitzflote. Pointed flute; a soft organ stop, the pipes of which 
are pointed at the top. 
Spitzig (Ger.). Pointed, biting, cutting. 
Spottisch (Ger.). Mocking, malicious, scoffing. 
Sprachrohr (Ger.). A speaking trumpet. 
Spr. Bog. Abbr. of springender Bogen. 
Sprechend (Ger.). Speaking. 
Springend (Ger.). Springing. 

Springender Bogen. In violin, etc. playing, the springing bow. 

Springender Daumen, Springing thumb. (Direction to a tam- 
bourine player.) 
Springlade (Ger.). The spring-chest of an organ. 
Sprung (Ger.). A skip. Intervallensprung, skip of an interval. 

Sprunglauf. A quick series of notes, fusee. 
Squillo (It.). Sound, clang. A trumpet call. Suoni a squillo, the 
open notes on a brass instrument ; corno a squillo, a natural horn. 

Squillo dietro il sipario. Trumpet-call behind the curtain. 

— i88 — 

Stabat Mater (Lat.). A Sequence of the Roman Church, sung during 

Passion Week. 
Stabile (It.). Stable, durable, firm. 
Stabchen (Ger.). The beater of a triangle. Mit Holzstdbchen, with 

a wooden beater ; mit Metall stabchen, with a metal beater. 
Stacc. Abbr. of staccato. 
Staccati (It.). Plur. of staccato. 
Staccatissimo (It.). Sup. of staccato. 

Staccato (It.). Detached. Strictly speaking, notes with a dash 
above are to be played staccato, and with a dot above, spiccato 
(the first being sharper and shorter than the second), but this 
distinction is not always observed, v. Signs. Staccato is also used 
as a subs. 
Stachel (Ger.). The spike of a violoncello or double-bass. 
Stahl (Ger.). Steel. 

Stahlharmonika. An harmonica composed of little steel bars; 

the modern form of the Glockenspiel. 
Stahlsaiten. Steel strings. 
Stahlstabchen. Steel beater (of a triangle). 
Stamm (Ger.). Stem, root. 

Stammakkord. A fundamental chord. 
Stammleiter. Normal scale. 
Stampita (It.). Air, tune. 
Stance (Fr.). Stanza. 
Standhaft (Ger.). Firm, steady. 
Standchen (Ger.). A serenade, but not in the sense of a composition 

for several instruments in many movements. 
Stanghetta (It.). A bar-line. 
Stark (Ger.). Strong, loud. 

Stark anblasen. To blow strongly; with brass instruments, the 
equivalent of the Fr. cuivrer (to make "brassy"). In modern 
Ger. scores, schmettern is the term employed. 
Stark hervortretend. Strongly brought-out, very prominent. 
Stark und kraftig zu spielen. To be played loudly and vigorously. 
Starke (Ger.). Strength, vigour, loudness. 
Starker (Ger.). Stronger, etc. 
Statt (Ger.). Instead of; used in the sense of loco after ^va. 

Statt an. In place of, instead of. 
Steg (Ger.). The bridge of a violin, etc. Am Steg, on the bridge. 
Steigernd (Ger.). Enhancing, intensifying, working-up. 
Sten. Abbr. of stendendo. 
Stendendo (It.). Delaying, holding back. 
Stentato (It.). Meagre, poverty-stricken. 
Sterbend (Ger.). Dying away. 
Steso (It.). Extended, diffuse. 

Steso moto. Slow movement. 
Stesso, -a (It.). The same. Lo stesso tempo, the same time. v. L'istesso. 
Stets (Ger,). Always, invariably. Die Violinen und Bratschen stets pp., 
the violins and violas always pp. 

Stets das gleiche Tempo. Always the same tempo. 
Sticcato (It.). A term for a xylophone. 
Stiel (Ger.). The stem of a note. 

— i8g — 

Stierhorn (Ger.). A cow horn; an instrument giving only one note. 
It has been used by Wagner in his Ring, and for the celebrated /& 
of the Night-watchman in Die Meister singer 
Stil (Ger.). Style. 
Stile (It.). Style. 

Stile a cappella. In the style of church music. 
Stile serio, legato, rigoroso or tematico. Any one of these expres- 
sions refers to a style of composition, in which all the best 
qualities of music are combined. 
Still (Ger.). Calm, quiet, tranquil. 

Stillgedackt. A soft stopped organ pipe. 
Stimme (Ger.). (i) A voice. (2) An organ stop. (3) A vocal or 
instrumental part. (4) The sound-post of a violin, etc. plur. 
Siimmen; in combination Stimm-. 

Stimmbogen. A crook of a horn or trumpet. 
Stimmenkreuzung. Crossing of parts. 
Stimmfiihrer. Choir-master. 
Stimmfiihrung. Progression of parts. 
Stimmgabel. A tuning-fork. 
Stimmholz. Sound-post of a violin, etc. 
Stimmschliissel. A tuning-key. 
Stimmstock. A sound-post. 
Stimmumfang. Compass of a voice. 
Stimm werkzeuge. Vocal organs- 
Stimmzug. A tuning-slide. 
Stimmen (Ger.). To be in tune, to harmonise with: to tune. Zum 
Klaviere stimmen, to be tuned to the pitch of a piano; ein Instru- 
ment stimmen, to tune an instrument. 
Stimmung (Ger.). Tuning; pitch, key. 

Stinguendo (It.). Fading away. The same as estinguendo. 
Stiracchiando (It.). Holding back. 
Stiracchiato (It.). Held back. 
Stirando (It.). Drawing-out. 
Stirato (It.). Drawn-out, 
Stockend (Ger.). Slackening. 
Stonante (It.). Dissonant. 

Stop, (i) A set of pipes in an organ, a register. (2) The knob, r 
draw-stop, by which the stop or register is controlled. (3) verb. 
To press a string of a stringed instrument against the fingerboard. 
Stopfhorn (Ger.). The hand-horn. v. Horn. 

Stopped, (i) On a stringed instrument, a note is said to be stopped, 
when it is obtained on a string pressed against the fingerboard 
with one of the fingers of the left hand, as opposed to an open 
note, which is obtained from the unpressed string in its natural 
tuning. (2) On a horn, a note is said to be stopped or closed, when 
in obtaining it the hand is introduced into the bell of the in- 
strument. V. Horn. 
Storto, -a (It.). Twisted, crooked, perverse. Storta (subs.) is a term 

for the serpent. 
StoB (Ger.). A blow, knock; a blast, a tongue-stroke (on a horn or 

StoBen (Ger.). To push, to give a shock to. Term used for a species 

— 190 — 

of staccato bowing, which consists in a series of jerks, past part. 
gestofien, detached, staccato. Also, to attack a note with the tongue, 
hence to give a blast on a horn or trumpet. 
Str. Abbr. of Strings or Streichinstrumente. 
Stracciacalando (It.). Prattling, chattering. 
Straff (Ger.). Tightly stretched (of a drum); stiff, strict. 

Straffer im Tempo, allmahlich in Halbe iibergehen. In stricter 
tempo, gradually proceeding to (beat) minims. 
Strappando (It.). Plucking, snatching; playing in a violent manner. 
Strascicando, Strascinando (It.). Dragging. 
Strascicando Tarco. Dragging the bow. 
Strascicato, Strascinato (It.). Dragged, protracted. 
Stravagante (It.). Whimsical, fantastic, extravagant. 
Stravaganza (It.). Extravagance, eccentricity. 
Straziante (It.). Mocking. 

Streich (Ger.). A stroke (with a bow); in combination, applied to 
bowed instruments, cf. Strich. 

Streichinstrumente. Bowed instruments: the stringed instru- 
ments of the orchestra. 
Streichorchester. String-orchestra. 
Streich quartett. String-quartet. 
Streichzither. A zither played with a bow. 
Streichen (Ger.). To strike (with the bow), subs. Bowing. 
Streicher ( Ger. ). The stops in an organ, which imitate the string tone. 
Streng (Ger.). Strict, rigorous. 

Streng im Takte. / (^.-^.-i , • .1^^ 
StrenI im ZeitmaB. r^^'^^^^ '^ ^'"'^• 
Strepito (It.). Noise. 
Strepitosamente (It.). Noisily, loudly. 
Strepitoso (It.). Noisy, obstreperous. 
Stretta (It.). The final part of a musical composition, in which the 

time becomes more and more animated. 
Stretto (It.). Drawn closer together, hurried. The stretto of a fugue 
is where the parts follow one another at a shorter interval than on 
their first exposition. The word is occasionally used as an equi- 
valent to stringendo. 
Strich (Ger.). (i) The stroke of a bow, bowing. While Streich simply 
means the striking of the strings with the bow, Strich means the 
proper use of the bow on the strings, the Fr. coup d'archet. (2) A 

Strichart. Manner of bowing. 
Strichwechsel. Change of bowing. 

Stridenl'at'i. \^^'^^' t''^t^"t' «h""- 

Striking reed. v. Reed. 

String. Abbr. of stringendo. 

String. Prepared wire or catgut (often covered with silk or wire) 
for musical instruments. In combination, the word is used as an 
equivalent of the Ger. Streich, and is applied to instruments played 
with a bow. {v. Stringed Instruments.) It is to be noted however 
that "string-instrument" as a translation of Streichinsirument is 

— 191 - 

String-orchestra. An orchestra composed of stringed instruments 

String- quartet. A quartet for stringed instruments, and usually 

for 2 violins, viola and violoncello. 
String-register. The stops in an organ, of which the tone more 

or less resembles that of stringed instruments. 

String-trio. A trio for stringed instruments, and usually for 

violin, viola and violoncello. 

Stringed Instruments. Although in the strictest sense, the term 

includes instruments of which the strings are plucked (harp, 

guitar, etc.), and those of which the strings are struck (piano, 

dulcimer, etc.), it is usually taken to mean the four kinds of 

bowed instruments in general orchestral use, viz. violin, viola, 

violoncello and double-bass. These are known as the "Strings", 

as opposed to the "Brass" and "Wood", and in a well-constituted 

- orchestra should form at least two-thirds of the total number of 

Stringendo (It.). Drawing closer together; quickening the tempo. 

Stringendo poco a poco. Gradually quickening. 
Stringere (It.). To bind fast together, to draw close; to quicken the 

tempo, past part, stretto. 
Strisciando (It.). Gliding (from one note to another). 
Strisciato (It.). Glided; slurred. 
Strofa (It.), Strophe, stanza, couplet. 
Strohfiedel (Ger.). The xylophone. 

Strombettare (It.). To trumpet, to sound the trumpet. 
Strombettiere (It.). A trumpeter. 
Stromentato (It.). Instrumentated. 
Stromento (It.). An instrument. 
Strumentazione (It.). Instrumentation; also used in a general sense 

for instrumental music. 
Strumento (It.). An instrument, plur. strumenti. 
Strumenti a corda. Stringed instruments. 
Strumenti a fiato. Wind instruments. 
Strumenti a percossa. Percussion instruments. 
Strumenti a pizzico. Plucked instruments, i. e. the harp, guitar, etc. 
Strumenti da arco. Bowed instruments. 
Strumenti di legno. Wood instruments. 
Strumenti d'ottone. Brass instruments. 
Stiick (Ger.). A piece. 
Studien (Ger.). Studies. 

Stufe (Ger.). Step, degree. In combination, Stufen-. 
Stufe der Tonleiter. Degree of the scale. 
Stufenweise absteigend. Descending by degrees (steps). 
Stufenweise aufsteigend. Ascending by degrees. 
Stumm (Ger.). Dumb. 

Stummes Klavier. A dumb keyboard. 
Stummes Register. A silent stop on an organ. 
Stupore (It.). Stupor, amazement. 
Stiirmend (Ger.). \ c. , , 

Stiirmisch (Ger.). Ptormy, tempestuous. 

Stiirze (Ger.). The bell of a wind-instrument. 

— 192 — 

Stiirze in die Hohe. With upturned bells, v. Bell. 
Styl (Ger.). Style. 
Su (It.). Upon, on, above, over. Compounded with il= sul; with 

la = sulla. 
Suabe Flute. A 4ft organ stop of wood. 
Suave (Fr.), Gentle, soft. 
Suave, etc. (It.), v. Soave, etc. 
Subitamente (It.). Suddenly. 
Subito (It.). Sudden, quick. 

Sudrophone (Fr.). A brass instrument invented by Sudre, in which 
the tone can be made to resemble that of reed instruments, and 
even that of strings, besides producing new species of tone-colour. 
The effect is obtained by means of silk membranes. The instru- 
ment is made in various sizes, corresponding to the different 
forms of saxhorns. 
Suffocate (It.). Stifled, muffled. 

Sui (It.). Compound of su (on, above, etc.) and i (the, plur.). 
Suite (Fr.). A series; something which follows, a continuation; a 
series of instrumental movements, originally in dance measure, but 
now in almost any form. 
Suivez (Fr.). Follow. 

Suivez le chant. Follow the melody, colla parte. 
Sujet (Fr.). Subject. 

Sul, Suir, Sulla, Sui, Sugli, Sulle. Compounds of su (on, over, etc.) 
with various forms of the indefinite article. 

Sulla mezza corda. On the half (middle of) the string. 
Sulla pedaliera. On the pedal-board. 
Sulla 4a corda. On the 4th string. 
Sulla tastiera. On the keyboard (manual). 
Sul mezzo manico. On the middle of the fingerboard. 
Sul ponticello. On (near) the bridge. 
Summend (Ger.). Humming, 
Sunto (It.). An extract. 

Sunto dell' atto IV. Extract from Act IV. 
Sue loco (It.). In its proper place. 
Suonare (It.). To sound, v. Sonare. 
Suono (It.). A sound, plur. suoni. 
Suoni armonici. Harmonics. 

Suoni flautati. Flute-like tones produced on the violin, etc., 
by playing with the point of the bow near the fingerboard : the 
harmonics on a harp. 
Supertonique (Fr.). The supertonic; the note above the tonic. 
Supplichevole (It.). Suppliant, entreating. 
Supplichevolmente (It.). Humble, in a suppliant manner. 
Sur (Fr.). On, upon. 

Sur la scene. On the stage. 
Sur la touche. On the fingerboard. 
Sur le chevalet. On (near) the bridge. 
SiiB (Ger.). Sweet. 

Susurrando (It.). Murmuring, whispering. 
Svegliando (It.). Arousing, awakening. 
Svegliato (It.). Lively, alert. 

— 193 — 

Symphonic (Fr. and Ger.). A symphony. 
Symphonique (Fr.). Symphonic. 
Symphonisch (Ger.). Symphonic. 

Symphonische Dichtung. A symphonic poem. 
Syncopa (It.). J 
Syncope (Fr.). [Syncopation. 
Synkope (Ger.), ) 

Sjrnkopieren (Ger.). To syncopate. 
Synkopi(e)rt (Ger.). Syncopated. 
Systeme (Fr.). System; a number of staves connected in one brace. 

T. Abbr, of Tempo, Tenor, iiefy Tutti, etc. 
t. c. Abbr. of ire corde. 
T. S. Abbr. of Tasto solo. 

Taballo (It.). An obsolete term for timhallo. 

Tablature (Fr.). Tablature. An obsolete method of notation by 
means of letters, or numbers, v. Intavolatura. 

Table (Fr. ). Any smooth surface, such as the table of a clarinet mouth- 
piece, against which the reed is placed ; the belly of a harp. 
Table (d'harmonie). A sound-board. 

Tableau (Fr.). That portion of an act, in which there is a change of 

Tabor. An obsolete species of shallow drum resembling a tam- 
bourine without jingles. Like the tamhourin (q. v.), it was struck 
by a single drumstick, and was played in conjunction with a 
small pipe {cf. Galoubet). 

Taboret (Fr.). A term sometimes used for a tabor. 

Tabouret (Fr.). A music stool. 

Tabulatur (Ger.). (^ , , 

Tabulatura (It.), j tablature. 

Tacciono (It.). 3rd pers. plur. of tacere, to be silent. Violini tacciono, 
the violins are silent. 

Tace (It.). 3rd pers. sing, of tacere, to be silent. Arpa tace, the harp 
is silent. 

Tacent (Lat.). v. Tacciono. 

Tacet (Lat.). v. Tace. 

Taci (It.). Be silent. 

Tact (Ger.). v. Takt. 

Tafelmusik (Ger.). (i) Music intended to be sung or played at 
meal times. (2) Music so arranged that two persons seated at 
opposite sides of a table can sing from the same page. 

Tag(e)lied (Ger.). An aubade, a morning song. 

Taille (Fr.). Tenor. A term formerly used for both voices and 

Taille de hautbois. An oboe a fifth lower than the ordinary one. 

Tail-piece. In viohns, etc., the part (made of ebony) into which one 
end of the strings is fixed. 

Wotton, Dictionary. j. 

— 194 — 

Takt (Ger.). (i) A bar. (2) Time. Ein Takt fast so schnell als eben 
die Viertel, a bar almost as fast as the previous crotchets. 
Taktart. Species of time. 
Taktbezeichnung. The time indication, 
Taktfest. Steady in keeping time. 
Taktfiihrer. A conductor. 
Takthalten. To keep time. 

TaktmaBig. Measured, well-timed; rhythmical. 
Teiktmesser. Metronome. 
Taktnote. A semibreve. 
Taktpause. A bar's rest. 
Taktschlag. A beat. 
Taktschlagen. To beat time. 
Taktschlager. A beater of time, a conductor. 
Taktstock. A stick for beating time, a baton. 
Taktstrich. A bar-line. 

Taktt(h)eil. Part of a bar. Guter or schwerer Taktteil, the strong 
accented part of the bar; schlechfer or leichter Taktteil, the 
weak, unaccented part of the bar. 
Taktwechsel. Change of time. 
Taktzeichen. Time signature. 
Taktig (Ger.). Pertaining to a bar. 3 iaktig, 3 bar rhythm. 
Talon (Fr.). The heel, or nut of the bow of a violin, etc. 
Tambour (Fr.). (i) A drum, specifically the side or snare-drum. 
(2) A drummer. 

Tambour avec la corde lache derriere le theatre. Side-drum with 

the snare loose {i. e. a muffled drum) behind the scenes. 
Tambour de Basque. The tambourine. 

Tambour long. A name for the tenor drum (q. v.), so called 
because its shell is usually deeper than that of the snare-drum. 
cf. Long Drum. 
Tambour majeur. Drum-major. 
Tambour militaire. The snare-drum. 
Tambour roulant. v. Caisse roulante. 
Tambourin (Fr.). A name given to two very dissimilar instruments, 
and a term which has given rise to confusion, since it is one of 
the Ger. names for a tambourine. It is also the name of a dance. 
Tambourin de Provence. A long drum of small diameter, played 
with a single drumstick held in the right hand, while the 
left hand plays the galoubet or tabor-pipe. The instrument 
possesses as a rule no snare, and in the rare cases when this 
is present it is a single cord stretched across the upper end 
of the drum. Bizet has made effective use of this form of the 
Tambourin in L'Arlesienne, the galoubet being imitated by 
the piccolo, cf. Tabor. 
Tambourin du Beam. An instrument composed of a long rect- 
angular sound-box, across which are stretched seven strings, 
tuned c, g, c, g, c, g, c. These are beaten with a little stick and 
thus form a species of drone bass to the chirula or galoubet. 
This form of the instrument has never been used in the orchestra. 
Tambourin (Ger.). A tambourine, cf. Tambourin (Fr.), and Bas- 
kische Trommel. 

— 195 - 

Tambourinaire (Fr.). A player on the tamhourin (Fr.). 

Tambourine. A percussion instrument consisting of a membrane 

stretched over a wooden hoop, in which are fixed in pairs little 

cymbals or "jingles". These impart a characteristic tone to the 

instrument, when it is struck with the hand, or is shaken. 

Tambourineur (Fr.). A player on a tambourine, or tambour de 

Tambourstab (Ger.). A drum-major's staff. 
Tamburino (It.). The tambourine. 
Tamburo (It.). A drum. 

Tamburo grande. j ^ ^ ^^^^ 
Tamburo grosso. ( 

Tamburo militare. The military or snare-drum. 
Tamburo rullante. The tenor drum. 
Tamburone (It.). A large drum; the bass drum. 
Tampon (Fr.), (i) A bass-drumstick. This was the term used 
during three quarters of the last century and found in the works 
of BerHoz, the earher scores of Saint- Saens, etc. ; then mailloche 
became the usual term. In modern musical catalogues, hatte is 
the word generally employed. (2) A pad for a key of a wood- 
wind instrument, saxophone or ophicleide. 
Tam-tam (Fr., Ger. and It.). The Chinese gong. 

Tam-tam (petit format) (Fr.). Gong (small size). 
Tamtamschlag (Ger.). A stroke on the gong. Die Tamtam- 
schldge leise, aber vibrierend, the strokes on the gong soft, 
but resonant. 
Tandelnd (Ger.). Playing, toying; much the same as scherzando. 
Tantino (It.), subs. A very little bit; moment, instant. 
Tanto (It.). So much, as much; so many. 
Tanz (Ger.). A dance. 

Tanzmusik. Dance music. 
Tapada (Sp ). A stopped organ pipe. 

Tarantella (It.). (A lively Neapolitan dance now always written in 
Tarantelle (Fr.). (Vs time. 
Tardamente (It.). Slowly. 
Tardando (It.). Becoming slower. 
Tardantemente (It.), v. Tardamente. 
Tardo, -a (It.). Slow, lingering. 

Tarogato. An instrument which has been used in Paris and Brussels, 
etc., to take the cor anglais part at the end of Scene I, Act III, 
Tristan und Isolde. It is a wooden instrument of conical bore, 
played with a clarinet reed, and appears to be an improved form 
of a reed instrument of Transylvanian origin. 
TaroUe Gregoire (Fr.). A species of shallow side-drum. 
Tastatur (Ger.). |t^^ k««^^ 
Tastatura (It.):i^^y^^^^^- 
Taste (Ger.). A key on a piano, organ, etc. Schwarze Tasten, black 

keys (notes); wei^e Tasten, the white keys. 
Tastiera (It.). A keyboard, manual. Strumento a tastiera, a key- 
board instrument (piano, celesta, etc.). 
Tastiere unite. The manuals coupled. 
Tasto (It.). A key on an organ, piano, etc. plur. iasii, 


— 196 — 

Tasto solo. A direction in figured bass, meaning that the note 
alone is to be played without a chord above it. 
Tatto (It.). Touch. 
Tattoo. The beat of the drum recalling soldiers or sailors to their 

quarters or tents at night. 
Teatro (It.). Theatre. 
Technik (Ger.). Execution. 
Tedesco, -a (It.). German. 
Te Deum (Lat.). An ancient hymn of the Catholic Church attributed 

to St. Ambrose. 
Teil (Ger.). A part. 

Teiltone. Partial tones; harmonics. 
Teilung (Ger.). A division; subdivision of an interval. 
Tela (It.). A curtain. 
Teller (G^r.). Literally "a plate". Term used for one of the halves 

of a pair of cymbals. 
Tem. Abbr. of tempo. 
Tema (It.). Theme. 

TSJplr^eStVflt'i. (^"'"P"'^^'""'^'' *' "^'^''^""^ °* ''^^ °'=*^^^- 

Temperando (It.). Moderating. 

Temperatamente (It.). Moderately. 

Temperatur (Ger.). Temperament. 

Tempestosamente (It.). Tempestuously. 

Tempestoso, -a (It.). Tempestuous. 

Tempestueux, -euse (Fr.). Tempestuous, stormy. 

Tempete (Fr.). Tempest, storm. The name of a dance something 

like a quadrille. 
Tempo (It.). Time ; also used in the sense of movement, as il 3^ tempo 
delta sinfonia Patetica, the 3rd movement of the Pathetic sym- 
phony. The word is now incorporated into most languages, as 
Das Tempo bleibt immer dasselbe bei dem verschiedenen Taktwechsel, 
the tempo remains always the same throughout the various changes 
of time. The term has been used throughout this Dictionary to 
denote the rate of rhythm of a musical work. 

Tempo agitato, animato, etc., etc. For these and other compounds 
of adjectives with "tempo", not given below, v. Agitato, 
Animato, etc., etc., for the meaning. 
Tempo a cappella. v. A cappella. 
Tempo alia breve. V2 ^^ Vi time. v. Alia breve. 
Tempo alia semibreve. V4 time. 
Tempobezeichnung (Ger.). Indication of movement. 
Tempo binario. Binary time. 
Tempo com(m)odo. Convenient time, i. e. neither too fast nor 

too slow. 
Tempo da capo. The same tempo as at the commencement. 
Tempo debole. The weak (unaccented) portion of a bar. 
Tempo della tema. The tempo of the theme. 
Tempo di ballo. Dance time. 

Tempo di gavotta, di marcia, etc. v. Gavotta, Marcia, etc. 
Tempo doppio dello stesso movimento. Double the time of the 
same movement. 

— 197 — 

Tempo doppio, lo stesso movimento. Double the time, the same 

Tempo frettoloso. Hasty time. 

Tempo giusto. Appropriate (usually moderate) time. 
Tempo ordinario. Ordinary time, i. e. a tempo in which the beats 

have their full value, as opposed to alia breve. 
Tempo primo. The first (original) time. 
Tempo rubato. v. A tempo rubato. 
Tempo ternario. Ternary time; in triple measure. 
Tempo wie vorher (Ger.). The tempo as before; tempo primo. 
Temps (Fr.). Time, beat. 

Temps faible. The unaccented beat of a bar. 
Temps fort. The accented beat. 
Ten. Abbr. of tenuto. 
Tendrement (Fr.). Tenderly. 

Tenebrae (Lat.). "Darkness". A service of the Roman Church used 
during Passion Week to commemorate the darkness at the Crucifixion. 
Tenendo (It.). Holding, sustaining. 

Tenendo il canto. Sustaining the melody. 
Teneramente (It.). Tenderly. 
Tenerezza (It.). Tenderness. 
Tenero, -a (It.). Tender, soft, delicate. 
Tenete (It.). Hold, sustain. 

Tenete sino al fine del suono. Sustain the note until it dies away. 
Tenir (Fr.). To hold. 

Tenir la pedale. Hold on the pedal, v. Remark I. 
Tenor, (i) The highest natural male voice, with a compass from c 
to a' (fc', c"). (2) A name for the viola. (3) An adjective applied 
to many instruments which have the same compass as a tenor 
voice. It is to be noted however that most instruments designated 
as "tenor" in Eng. are called "alto" in other languages. 
Tenor Bassoon, v. Tenor oon. 

Tenor C. The note on the 2nd space of the bass clef ^ 
Tenor Clef. The C [clef on the 4th line, l l '^ 

Tenor Cor. An instrument resembling the real horn in appear- 
ance, and more or less in tone, but of the saxhorn or saxo- 
tromba class. It is also called the Ballad Horn or Vocal Horn. 

Tenor Drum. A drum made in various shapes and sizes and played 
in the same way as the ordinary side-drum, but distinguished 
from the latter in that it possesses no snare, and hence has 
a deeper duller tone. The Eng. Army Regulation size has 
a diameter of 18". The name in Ger. was formerly Wirhel- 
trommel or Rolltrommel till Wagner gave it its present name 
of Riihrtrommel. (In the concert room version of the Walkiiren- 
fitt for some unknown reason the instrument is marked in the 
score as a Kleine Trommel, which is the snare-drum and 
naturally does not produce the same effect.) Fr. Caisse 
roulante; It. Cassa rullante. 

Tenorhorn. The "Tenor" of miUtary bands, the same as the 
Fr. Alto en mi'?, v. Saxhorn. 

— 198 — 

Tenor Sarrusophone. v. Sarrusophone. 
Tenor Trombone, v. Trombone. 
Tenor (Ger.). Tenor. 

TenorbaB. A name for the Tenoriuba. 

TenorbaBposaune. A tenor trombone of the same length and 
compass as the ordinary tenor trombone, but with a wider 
bore and larger bell, and possessing increased resonance and 
a greater facility for producing the low notes. It is marked 
in many modern Ger. scores, and occasionally {e. g. in Die 
Walkiire) is evidently intended to be furnished with the 
Daumenventil (piston for the thumb, v. Trombone) for the 
production of notes between BiJ? and E. 
Tenorfagott. The tenor bassoon. It was also called a Quint- 

fagott. V. Tenoroon. 
Tenorgeige. The tenor violin, the viola. 
Tenorhorn. The tenorhorn. 
Tenorposaune. The tenor trombone. 
Tenorschliissel. Tenor clef. 
Tenortuba. The euphonium. For the Tenortuba found in Wagner's 

scores, f. Wagner Tubas. 
Tenorzeichen. The tenor clef. 
Tenore (It.). Tenor. 

Tenore acuto. A high tenor. 
Tenore buffo. A tenor, who takes comic parts. 
Tenore leggiero. A light tenor. 

Tenore robusto. A dramatic tenor with a full voice. 
Tenoroon. The familiar name for the tenor bassoon, a bassoon 
a 5th higher than the ordinary bassoon, and now obsolete. 
Tenu (Fr.). Held, sustained. 
Tenuta (It.). A holding-note, a fermata. 

Tenuta lunga. A long holding-note; a fermata well sustained 
throughout its duration. 
Tenuto, -a (It.). Held, sustained. 
Teoria (It.). Theory. 
Teorico (It.). Theoretical. 
Tepidamente (It.). Coldly. 

Ternaire (Fr.). j rern^vM 
Ternario (It.). ( ^^^^^ry. 

Terremoto (It.). An earthquake. A stop found in some old organs, 
and used for depicting the earthquake in settings of the Passion. 
Terz (Ger. ). A third. Grope Terz, a major 3rd ; kleine Terz, a minor3rd. 
Terzdecime. A thirteenth. 
Terzdecimole. A group of 13 equal notes. 
Terzflote. The Third Flute {q. v.). 
Terzquartakkord. The 2nd inversion of the dominant 7th> 

the V3 chord. 
Terzquintsextakkord. The ist inversion of the dominant 7th,. 
the 6/5 chord. 
Terza (It.). A third. 

Terzadecima. A thirteenth. 
Terza maggiore. A major 3rd. 
Terza minore. A minor 3rd. 

— 199 — 

Terzett (Ger.). A trio: a composition for 3 voices or instruments. 

Terzettino (It.). A short trio. 

Terzetto (It.). A trio. 

Terzina (It.). The Third Flute {q. v.). 

Tessitura (It.). Web, texture. That portion of a vocal compass 
mostly employed in composition, i. e. without the extreme notes, 
high or low. 

Tete de registre (Fr.). The initial notes of a fugue or theme. 

Theatre (Fr.). Theatre; the scenery of a theatre, as derrUre le ihedtre, 
behind the scenes. 

Theil (Ger.). v. TeU. 

Thema (Ger.). A theme, subject. 

Thematische Arbeit (Ger.). The working-out of themes. 

Theme (Fr.). Theme, subject. 

Theoretiker (Ger.).U ^j^^^^.^^ 

Theoncien (Fr.). \ 

Third Flute. A flute in Ej? (improperly called in F. — v. Flute), in 
which the sounds are a minor 3rd higher than the written notes. 
It was formerly employed in military bands, and in orchestras for 
parts which contained many sharps or flats in the signature. Now 
however, thanks to improvements in the fingering of the flute, 
and the skill of modern players, the Third Flute may be considered 

Tie. V. Signs. 

Tief (Ger.). Deep, low. E tief, low E. 

Tief gespannt. Slackly braced. (Indication used for a tenor 

drum, as opposed to scharf gespannt, tightly braced.) 
Tiefquart. The lower fourth. 
Tiefstimmig. Deep-voiced. 
Tieftonend. Deep-sounding. 

Tiepidamente (It.). Coldly, with indifference. 

Tiepidita (It.). Coldness, indifference. 

Tierce (Fr.). (i) A third. (2) An organ stop sounding a 17th above 
the diapasons. 

Tierce de Picardie. In old music, the major chord which often 
ends a composition in a minor key. 

Timb. Abbr. of Timbales. 

Timbales (Fr.). Kettle-drums. 

Timbales chromatiques. Kettle-drums, which can be instantly 
altered in pitch by means of a mgister screw, usually worked 
by a pedal. 

Timbalier (Fr.). A kettle-drummer. 

Timballo (It.). A name formerly used for the kettle-drum. 

Timbre (Fr.). (i) Tone-colour, clang-colour. (2) The snare of a 
side-drum, in which case it is an abbreviation of les cordes (or la 
corde) du timbre, the catgut strings on the lower end of the instru- 
ment, which give it its pecuUar tone. Sans timbre, without the 
snare, v. Side-drum. 

Timore (It.). Fear, apprehension. 

Timorosamente (It.). Fearfully, timorously. 

Timoroso, -a (It.). Timorous. 

Timpani (It.). Kettle-drums. 

— 200 — 

Tintamarre (Fr.). Hubbub, great noise. 

Tintement (Fr.). Tinkling; tolling of bells. 

Tintinnabulo (It.). A small bell. 

Tintinnando (It.). Tinkling. 

Tintinto (It.). Ding-dong, a term expressive of the sound of bells. 

Tira tutto (It.). A pedal acting on all the stops of an organ. 

Tirade (Fr. and Ger.). A run; a succession of rapid notes between 

the two notes of an interval. 
Tirando (It.). Drawing (the bow of a violin, etc., to oneself). 
Tirant (Fr.). A tag or strap, which braces the cords round the shell 

of a side, tenor or bass drum. 
Tirarsi (It.), v. Da tirarsi. 
Tirasse (Fr.). A pedal coupler. 
Tirato (It.). Drawn, (i) The down-bow. (2) Using the whole or 

greater part of the bow on the strings. 
Tire (Fr.). Drawn. The down-bow, r~i. cf. Pousse. 
Tirolese (It.). Tyrolese. 

Toccata (It.). "Touched", used substantively for a prelude-like com- 
position, which usually has a persistent flowing figure. 
Toccatina (It.). A short toccata. 
Toccato, -a (It.). Touched. 

Toccato appena. Scarcely touched (as for instance a gong). 
Tocsin (Fr.). Tocsin, alarm-bell; warning beat of a drum. 
Todten-, etc. v. Toten-. 
Togli (It.). Take, take away. 

Togli Taccoppiamento. Take off the coupler. 

Togli Ripieno e Tromba al G. O. Take off Mix. and Trpt. from Gt. 
Toile (Fr.). Curtain. DerrUre la toile, behind the curtain. 
Tombeau (Fr.). A tomb. A lament over a tomb; an elegiac song. 
Ton (Fr.). (i) Tone, pitch, key. (2) A crook, or a shank on a brass 

Ton de rechange. A crook. 

Ton g6nerateur. The fundamental tone. 

Ton majeur. A major key. 

Ton mineur. A minor key. 
Ton (Ger.). A tone; note; pitch; timbre, plur. Tone. Ganzer Ton 
or Ganzton^ a whole tone; halber Ton or Halbton, a semitone. 

Tonabstand. An inter^^al. 

Tonart. Key. 

Tonausweichung. Modulation. 

Tonbild. Tone-picture. 

Tonbildung. Tone -formation. 

Tondichter. Tone-poet, composer. 

Tondichtung. A tone-poem. 

Tonfall. Cadence. 

Tonfarbe. Tone-colour, timbre, clang-colour. 

Tonfigur. Tone-figure; group of notes. 

Tonfolge. A succession of notes. 

Tonfiihrung. Modulation. 

Tonftille. Volume of sound; melodiousness. 

— 201 — 

TonfuB. Musical foot. 

TonfuBig. Term used in describing the tonal pitch of organ 

pipes, as 8 Tonfii/iig, of 8 ft tone. 
Tongebung. Tonality. 
Tongeschlecht. Musical genus. The character of a mode, e. g. 

major or minor in modern music. 
Tonhohe. Pitch. Die gleiche Tonhohe, the same pitch, i. e. in 

Tonkunst. The musical art; music. 
Tonkiinstler. A musician. 
Tonlage. Compass. 
Tonleiter. Scale. 
Tonmalerei. Tone-painting. 
TonmaB. Time, measure. 
Tonreich. Rich and full in tone. 

Tonsatz. Musical composition; a musical composition. 
TonschluB. A cadence. 
Tonsetzen. To compose. 
Tonsetzer. A composer. 
Tonsetzkunst. Musical composition. 
Tonsinn. Musical talent. 
Tonstiick. A piece of music, a composition. 
Tonstufe. Degree of the scale. Pitch of a note. 

wTitr- 1 co-pass. 

Tonwissenschaft. Science of music. 

Tonzeichen. Signs used in music. 
Tonada (Sp.). Air, melody, song. 
Tonalita (It.). ) 
Tonalitat ( Ger. ). > Tonality. 
Tonalite (Fr.). ) 
Tone (Ger.). Plur. of Ton. 
Tonend (Ger.). Resounding, sonorous. 

Tonguing. On wind instruments, the action of the tongue necessary 
to produce the notes. On the reed instruments, single tonguing 
is alone possible, but on the flute, and on the acuter brass instru- 
ments, double and triple tonguing are frequently employed. 
Tonica (It.). ) 
Tonika (Ger,). \ The tonic. 
Tonique (Fr.). ) 
Tonisch (Ger.). Tonic. 
Tonnerre (Fr.) Thunder. 
Tons (Fr.). Plur. of ton. 

Tons d'eglise. Church modes. 

Tons de la trompette. Crooks of the trumpet. 

Tons du cor. Crooks of the horn. 
Tomando (It.). Returning. 
Tosto (It.). Quick, prompt. 

Toten- (Ger.). Used in combination, and usually signifying something 
connected with a funeral. 

Totenamt. Burial service; mass for the dead. 

Totenmarsch. A funeral march. 

— 202 — - 

Totenmesse. Mass for the dead, requiem. 
Totenmusik. Funeral music. 
Touche (Fr. ). The fingerboard of a violin, etc. The fret of a guitar, etc. 

The key of a piano, organ, etc. 
Toucher (Fr.). To touch; to play upon a keyboard instrument. In 
Fr. the verb "to play" varies greatly according to the instrument: 
Jouer le violin, pincer (or toucher) la harpe, toucher le piano or 
Vorgue, donner le cor, sonner la trompette, hlouser les timbales, battre 
le tambour. As a subs., toucher means touch. 
Toujours (Fr.). Always. 

Tou jours plus anime. Always more animated. 
Toujours unis. Always united, i. e. not divided. 
Tous, toutes (Fr.). Plur. of tout, ioute. 
Tout, toute (Fr.). All. 

Tout a coup. Suddenly. 
Tout a fait. Completely. 
Toute la force. As loud as possible. 
Tpt. Abbr. of trumpet. 

Tr, Abbr. of trillo, and used to indicate a shake, or a roll on a 
drum, tambourine, etc. In long shakes or rolls the tr. is usually 
followed by a wavy Hne -^^^-r^. 
Tradotto (It ). j Translated. 
Traduit (Fr.). i 
Traine (Fr.). Dragged. 

Trait (Fr.). A series of quick notes; a run, rapid passage. 
Trait de chant. A melodic phrase. 
Trait d'harmonie. A succession of chords. 
Traite (Fr.). A treatise. 

Traite d'instrumentation. A treatise on instrumentation. 
Tranche (Fr.). Cut off. Note tranchee, a note instantly damped. 
Tranquillamente (It.). Tranquilly. 
Tranquillita (It.). Tranquillity, quiet. 
Tranquillo, -a (It.). Tranquil, calm, peaceful. 
Transponieren (Ger.). To transpose. 

Transponierende Instrumente (Ger.). Transposing instruments. 
Transposing instruments. Instruments in which the written notes 
do not correspond to the actual sounds. Although for convenience 
of notation the piccolo is written an octave below the actual sounds, 
and the double-bass and double - bassoon an octave above, and 
they are therefore strictly speaking transposing instruments, the 
term is usually taken to mean those instruments which play in a 
different key from that of the piece, e. g. the cor anglais, of 
which the written part is a fifth higher than the actual notes, 
and therefore plays in A when the orchestra is in D, and so on. 
Trascinando (It.). Dragging. 
Trasporto (It.). Transport, passion. 
Trasposto (It.). Transposed. 
Trattato (It.). A treatise. 

Trattenuto (It.). Held back, detained; sustained. 
Trattimento (It.). A treatise. 
Tratto (It.). Dragged. 
Trauer (Ger.). Sorrow, grief. 

— 203 — 

Trauermarsch. Funeral march. 
Trauermusik. Funeral music. 
Trauern (Ger.). To grieve, mourn, subs. Mourning, lamentation. 
Traumend (Ger.). Dreaming. 
Traumerei (Ger.). Reverie. 
Traumerisch (Ger.). Dreamy. 
Traurig (Ger.), Sad, dejected. 

Traversiere (Fr.). j Oblique, cross. Term applied to the ordinary 
Traverse (It.). ( flute to distinguish it from the old flute-d-bec, 

which was held upright. 
Tre (It.). Three. 

Tre corde. Three strings. Term used in piano music to contra- 
dict a previous una corda. 
Treble. The highest voice, soprano; the highest part in a musical 
composition. In defining the pitch of instruments, soprano is nearly 
always used in preference to "treble". 
Treble C. The C above middle C; c". 
Treble clef. The G clef on the 2nd line, often called the violin 

clef, £ 

Treibend (Ger.). Hurrying. 

Trem. Abbr. of tremolo. 

Tremando (It.). ( t^^^ki;,,^ 

Tremante (It.)! ( Trembhng. 

Tremblant (Fr.). Trembling. 

Tremblement (Fr.). A shake. 

Tremendissimo (It.). Sup. of iremenao. 

Tremendo (It.). Dreadful, horrible. 

Tremolando (It.). Trembling. 

Tremolante (It.), v. Tremolo. 

Tremolieren (Ger.). To produce a tremolo. Nicht tremolieren, genau 

i6tel, do not make a tremolo, strictly semiquavers. 
Tremolo (It.). A rapid reiteration of one or more notes. On a bowed 
instrument this is obtained by a rapid motion of the bow; on a 
piano, by the alternation of two or more notes; on a harp, either 
by the rapid alternation of the two hands, or the alternation of 
two or more notes by means of homophones, {v. Bisbigliando. ) 
On wind instruments a tremolo effect can be obtained as on the 
piano, or (on the flute and certain of the acuter brass) it can be 
imitated by double or triple tonguing. The term is used for a stop 
on the organ and harmonium which produces a tremulous effect. 
Tremolo brise. j A tremolo on two notes (on a violin, etc.), 
Tremolo legato, j either on two strings or on the same string. 
Tremolo ondule. j A species of tremolo, now obsolete, produced 
Tremolo vibrato.) by an undulating movement of the bow. 
Trenise (Fr.). One of the figures of a quadrille. 
Tres (Fr.). Very; very much. 

Tres accentue. Very accentuated. 

Tres attaque. Vigorously attacked, v. Attack. 

Tres declam6. Very much declaimed. 

Tres eclatant. Very brilliant. 

— 204 — 

Tres elargi. Very much broadened. 
Tres expressif. Very expressive, 
Tres fort. Very loud. 

Tres fortement accentue. Very strongly accented. 
Tres leger. Very light. 
Tres long. Very long. 
Tres marque. Very marked, ben marcato. 
Tres modere. Very moderate, molto moderato. 
Tres ralenti. Very much slackened. 
Tres rhythme. The rhythm well marked. 
Tres saccade. Very jerkily, v. Saccade. 
Tres sec. Very abrupt. 
Tres simplement. Very simply. 
Tres sonore. Very sonorous. 

Tres soutenu et expressif. Very much sustained and with ex- 
Tres vif. Very lively. 
Tres vite. Very quickly. 
Triangel (Ger.). j . tHanfrie 
Triangle (Fr.). j ^ triangle. 

Triangle. An instrument formed of a steel bar bent into the shape 
of an isosceles triangle and giving a clear indeterminate sound 
when struck by a "beater". This latter is usually also of steel, 
but Weingartner in Das Gefilde der Seligen has for a special effect 
used one of wood. 
Triangolo (It.). A triangle. 

Trichter (Ger.). The bell of a wind-instrument; abbr. of Schalltrichter. 
Trille (Fr.). A trill, shake. 

Triller (Ger.). A trill, shake. Die Triller in den ersten Fldten lang, 
mit wenigstens 7 Noten, the shakes in the ist flute long, and con- 
taining at least 7 notes. 
Trillo (It.). A trill, shake. 

Trillo caprino. A bad shake on a single note, resembling the 

bleat of a goat. cf. Bockstriller. 
Trillo in maggiore. A major shake, i, e. with the note a tone above. 
Trillo in minore. A minor shake, i. e. with the note a semitone 
Trinklied (Ger.). A drinking song. 

Trio (It.), (i) A composition for 3 voices or instruments. (2) The 
middle portion of a minuet, scherzo, march, etc., so called from its 
having been originally written in three parts. 
Triole (Ger.). A group of 3 equal notes in place of 2, a triplet. Die 

Triolen rhythmisch markiert, the triplets rhythmically marked. 
Triomphal (Fr.). \ 
Trionfale (It.). > Triumphal. 
Trionfante. (It.). ) 

Tripel- (Ger.). Word used in combination and meaning "triple": 
as a simple word, dreifach = triple. 
Tripelconcert. v. Tripelkonzert. 
Tripelfuge. A triple fugue. 

Tripelkonzert. A concerto for three solo instruments. 
Tripeltakt. Triple time. 

— 205 — 

Tripelzunge. Triple tonguing. 
Triple (Fr.). Triple. 

Triple croche. A note with three hooks, a demi-semiquaver. 

?rist«/a 'at:!: hadness, melancholy. 

Triton (Fr.). / A tritone, an interval composed of 3 tones, forming 
Tritono (It.). ( an augmented 4th. 
Tritt (Ger.). A pedal, treadle. 

Trittbrett. The pedal of an organ ; treadle for blowing the organ. 
Trittharfe. Pedal harp. 
Triumphmarsch (Ger.). A triumphal march. 
Trois (Fr.). Three. 
Tromba (It.). Trumpet. 

Tromba a chiavi. A keyed trumpet (keyed bugle). 
Tromba a macchina. A valve-trumpet. 
Tromba a pistoni. A piston-trumpet. 
Tromba bassa. Bass trumpet. 
Tromba cromatica. Chromatic or valve -trumpet. 
Tromba marina, v. Trompette marine. 
Trombe (It.). Plur. of tromba. 
Trombetta (It.). A small trumpet. 
Trombettatore (It.). A trumpeter. 
Trombettino (It.). A very small trumpet. 

Trombone. A brass instrument, in which the chromatic scale is 
obtained either by means of a slide or by valves, the latter form 
being principally found in foreign military bands though used in 
many Fr. and It. orchestras. The instrument is made in various 
sizes: (a) The Soprano, now quite obsolete; (b) the Alto, in E|7, 
now seldom found in orchestras; (c) the Tenor, in Bj?, with a 
compass from E to 6'!? (c", d") and 4 pedal notes descending 
chromatically from Bij?; this form occasionally possesses a single 
piston worked by the thumb, which enables the player to bridge 
over the missing notes between the highest pedal, and the E {v. 
TenorbaBposaune) ; (d) the Bass, which is made in 3 keys (v. Bass 
Trombone) ; (e) the Contra-bass, an octave below the Tenor, but 
although found in Wagner's Ring, seldom used. In France, 3 tenor 
trombones are the rule; in England and Germany, 2 tenor and 
I bass. 
Trombone (Fr.). A trombone. 

Trombone a coulisse. Slide trombone. 
Trombone a pistons. Piston-trombone. 
Trombone basse. Bass trombone. 
Trombone (It.). A trombone. 

Trombone a cilindri. Trombone with cylinders. 
Trombone a tiro. / » .--.^ +^^r„K«r,^ 
Trombone duttile. ( ^ "^^^^ trombone. 
Trombonino (It.). A small trombone; the alto trombone. 
Trommel (Ger.). A drum, the term being applied to any drum other 
than a kettledrum. 

Trommelfell. A drum-head. 

Trommelkloppel. A drumstick for a bass-drum. 

Trommelleine. The cord of a drum for tightening the head. 

— 206 — 

Trommelreifen. The hoops of a drum. 
Trommelruf. A drum-call. 
Trommelsaiten. The snare of a side-drum. 
Trommelschlager. A drummer. 
Trommelschleife. A snare. 
Trommelstock. A drumstick for a side-drum. 
Trommelwirbel. A roll on a drum. 
Trommler (Ger.). A drummer. 

Trompe de chasse (Fr.). The Fr. hunting horn, and the immediate 
precursor of the orchestral horn. It has a somewhat larger mouth- 
piece tapering to a narrow throat, but otherwise does not differ 
in any essential particular. It is usually pitched in D, and pos- 
sesses no crooks, and since closed notes are not proper to it, 
its scale is merely the natural harmonic one. It is occasionally 
called cor de chasse, and is the Jagdhorn of the Germans. 
Trompete (Ger.). A trumpet. In plur. and in combination, Trom- 

Trompete blasen. To blow the trumpet. 
Trompetenblaser. A trumpeter. 
Trompetentusch. A flourish on a trumpet. 
Trompetenzug. The slide of a slide-trumpet. 
Trompeter (Ger.). A trumpeter. 
Trompette (Fr.). A trumpet. 

Trompette a clefs. A keyed bugle. 
Trompette a pistons. Piston-trumpet. 
Trompette chromatique. Valve-trumpet. 

Trompette marine. A stringed instrument, whose tone was 
supposed to bear a certain resemblance to that of the trumpet. 
It was composed of a triangular body with a neck, and had 
one string stretched over a bridge supported on feet, one of 
which did not touch the body, but was free to vibrate, and 
thus imparted a peculiar tremulous burring effect to the notes. 
It was played with a bow, the left hand producing the notes 
in harmonics, thus giving precisely the same series of notes 
as a trumpet. 
Tronco, -a (It.). Cut off. Nota tronca, a note suddenly damped. 

cf. Tranchee. 
Troppo (It.). Excess, more than enough (subs.). Too much (adj.). 
Trou (Fr.). A hole. A ventage on a wood-wind instrument. 
Trou ferme. A closed hole. 
Trou ouvert. An open hole. 
Trouble (Fr.). Troubled. 

Trugkadenz, TrugschluB (Ger.). An interrupted cadence. 
Trumpet. The modern orchestral trumpet is a valve instrument 
(piston or cylinder), the natural trumpet being now used only 
for cavalry calls, and the slide-trumpet being but seldom found, 
even in England, where alone it ever had any vogue. Unfortunately 
an instrument, of the length of a natural trumpet in D or C is 
unsatisfactory when furnished with valves; and for this reason 
and also for the easier production of the high notes, the valve- 
trumpet is often constructed in Bj?, or C, with a tube not much 
more than half the length of the trumpet employed by Beethoven, 

— 207 — 

Mozart, etc.; it is easier to play, but the tone, especially in the 
lower notes, loses much of its virility, and approaches that of 
the cornet. In some of the best orchestras of England and the 
Continent, a valve-trumpet in F is now used, and this is as good 
a substitute for the natural instrument as can be reasonably de- 
sired. As early as 1829, Berlioz (8 Scenes from Faust) used mutes 
for trumpets, but Wagner was the first to employ them systema- 
tically, to imitate the effect of toy-trumpets in Die Meistersinger 
and for comic effects in Siegfried ; since then they have been freely 
employed for a variety of effects. The compass of the modern 
trumpet may be said to be from /^ to c", the Fr. composers usu- 
ally wTiting them in C, and the Germans as a rule in Bi?. 
Trunscheit (Ger.). The Marine Trumpet. 
Tschung (Ger.). A name for a Chinese gong. 

Tuba. A generic name for bass brass instruments usually of the 
saxhorn type, with a wide bore, so that the fundamental note 
can be obtained, and the lowest register is full and resonant. 
The orchestral tuba in England and France is usually the Bom- 
bardon (bass saxhorn in F), and in Germany the corresponding 
instrument (with a somewhat smaller bore) originally designed 
by Wieprecht. The Euphonium in C or B7, and the Contrabass 
Bombardon (an octave lower) are sometimes employed in the 
orchestra. In fact the "Tuba" or "Bass Tuba" marked in modern 
scores may almost be considered to be more the name of a part 
rather than signifying any particular instrument, since the part is 
taken in different countries and at different times by almost any 
variety of deep brass instrument. The "Wagner tubas" {q. v.) 
are somewhat different instruments. 
Tumultuoso (It.). Tumultuous, riotous. 
Tuning. Adjusting an instrument to a particular pitch. 

Tuning cone. An instrument used for tuning the metal pipes 

of an organ. 
Tuning fork. A steel instrument with two prongs, which being 
put into vibration produces a note almost entirely free from 
harmonics, and thus is useful for serving as a standard of 
pitch. For orchestral purposes or for tuning a piano, it is 
tuned to a', for military bands, to by, and for vocal music 
to c'. 
Tuning-key. A key used for turning the pegs to which the 

strings of a harp or piano are attached. 
Tuning wire. A wire in a reed-pipe of an organ, by means of 
which it can be tuned. 
Tuoni (It.). Tones, modes, sounds. Plur. of tuono. 
Tuoni aperti. Open notes. 
Tuoni chiusi. Closed notes. 
Tuoni ecclesiastici. Church modes. 
Tuono (It.). A tone. Thunder. 
Turba (Lat.). A crowd. 

?"'u^ ^uir , \ Turkish. 
Turkisch (Ger.). \ 

Tusch (Ger.). A flourish of trumpets. 

Tutta (It.). Fem. of tutto, all, every. 

— 208 — 

Tutta (la) forza. With full force, as loud as possible. 
Tutte (It.). Fern. plur. of tutto. 

Tutte (le) corde. All the strings. In piano-music, the opposite 

to una corda, one string. 
Tutte viole. All the violas. 
Tutti (It.). Masc. plur. of tutto. Used in concertos for the passages 
played by the orchestra alone, in contradistinction to the solo 
passages. Used in scores to signify that all the instruments playing 
a particular part are to play. 
Tutto, -a (It.). All, every, adv. Wholly, entirely. 
Tutto arco. With the whole bow. 
Tutto legato. Entirely (very) legato. 
Tutto leggiero. Light throughout. 
Tuyau (Fr.). An organ pipe. 

Tuyau a anche. A reed-pipe. 
Tuyau bouche. A stopped pipe. 
Tuyau ouvert. Open pipe. 
Tympanist (Ger.). A kettledrum player. 

Typophone (Fr.). A keyboard instrument much the same as the 
Celesta, but in which the hammers strike tuning forks instead of 
steel bars. D'Indy has made an effective use of it in Le Chant 
de la Cloche. 
Tyrolien, -enne (Fr.). Tyrolese. Tyrolienne, a Tyrolese song, usually 
including the Jodel. 


u. (Ger.). Abbr. of und. 

U. C. Abbr. of una corda. 

u.s.f. Abbr. of und so fort. \ a j x xi. x 

U.S.W. Abbr. of und so weiter. \ ^^^ ^^ °"' ^^^ ^^ f^^^^' ^^^' 
Oben, Ueben (Ger.). To practise. 
Ober, Ueber (Ger.). Above, over, 
tjberall. Everywhere. 
tJberblasen. (i) To blow or sound a horn, trumpet, etc. (2) To 

Ubereilt. Over-hurried, 
tjfbereinstimmend. Consonant, harmonious. 
t)bergang. A passing-over: transition passage, modulation. 
Obergang zum Vorspiel des zweiten Bildes. Transition passage 

to the prelude of the second tableau. 
Obergehen. To proceed. 
Obergehend. Proceeding to, blending into. Allmdhlich bewegter, 

ins Tempo I. iihergehend. . . ., gradually more animated, merging 

into Tempo I. . . . 
Oberlegen. In piano playing, to pass the finger over the thumb. 
Oberleitung. An intermediate passage; the bridge passage 

connecting the subjects in a musical composition. 
ObermaBig. Excessive. Of intervals, augmented. Eine ilher- 

mdfiige Sekunde, an augmented second. 
Obermafiiger Sechstakkord. The Italian sixth. 
Obermiitig. Merry, gay. 

— 209 — 

Oberschlagen. In piano playing, to cross the hands. 

Ubersetzen. (i) To translate. (2) v. Uberlegen. 

tFbersetzung. A translation. 

ijberspringen. To skip a note or interval. 

Uberstimmen. To tune too high. 

Oberstiirzt. Hurried. Die Triole tmmer schnell, aber nicht uber- 
stilrzt, the triplets always fast, but not hurried. 

tJbertonend. Sounding above the rest, — an intensive form of 
Ubrigen (Die). (Ger.). The rest. 
Ubung, Uebung (Ger.). An exercise, plur. Vbungen. 

Ubungsstiick. An exercise-piece, an exercise. 
Uguaglianza (It.). Equality, uniformity. 
Uguale (It.). Equal. 
Ugualita (It.), v. Uguaglianza. 
Ultimo, -a (It.). Last, farthest, greatest. 

Ultima volta. The last time. 
Umfang (Ger.). Compass of a voice or instrument, cf. Tonumfang. 
Umkehrung (Ger.). Inversion. Kanon in der Umkehrung, canon in 

inversion, one in which the answer is the subject inverted. 
Umore (It.). Humour. 
Umoristico (It.). Humorous. 
Umstellen (Ger.). To invert. 
Umstellung (Ger.). Inversion. 

Umstimmen (Ger.). To alter the pitch, to retune. A in As umstim- 
men, change A into A'7. Es nach F umstimmen, tune the El? to jF. 
Un, une (Fr.). A, one. 
Un, un*, uno, una (It.). A, one. 
Un peu (Fr.). A little, somewhat. 

Un peu elargi. Somewhat broadened. 

Un peu en dehors. Somewhat prominent. 

Un peu largement. Somewhat broadly. 

Un peu marque. Somewhat accentuated. 

Un peu modere. Somewhat slackened. 

Un peu moins lent. A little less slow. 

Un peu moins vite. A little less fast. 

Un peu plus calme. Somewhat more tranquil. 

Un peu plus large. Somewhat broader. 

Un peu plus librement. Somewhat more freely. 

Un peu retenu. Somewhat restrained (slackened). 

Un peu vif et gaiment. Somewhat quickly and gaily. 
Un pochettino (It.), j . ,.. , 

Un pochissimo (It.). \^ ^^""^ ^'"^^• 

Un poco (It.). A little, somewhat. Sometimes written un po', as 
un po' largamente, somewhat broadly. 

Un poco allargando. Somewhat broadening. 

Un poco animando. Somewhat quickening. 

Un poco crescendo. Somewhat increasing in loudness. 

Un poco animato. Somewhat quickened. 

Un poco decrescendo. Somewhat decreasing in loudness. 

Un poco diminuendo. Somewhat diminishing in loudness, 

Un poco lento. Somewhat slow. 

Wotton, Dictionary. j^ 

— 210 — 

Un poco meno. A little less. 

Un poco meno moto. Somewhat less motion, i. e. somewhat 
slower than before. 

Un poco meno presto. A little less fast. 

Un poco pill animato. Somewhat more animated. 

Un poco pill forte. Somewhat louder. 

Un poco pill lento. Somewhat slower. 

Un poco piii piano. A little softer. 

Un poco rallentando. Gradually slackening a little. 

Un poco ritenuto. Somewhat held back (slackened). 
Una (It.). Fem. of uno, a, one. 

Una corda col pedale. One string, with pedal. Direction im- 
plying use of both the pedals of a piano. 

Una sola. One only, a single one. 
Unbedeckt (Ger.). Uncovered. 
Unbedeutend (Ger.). Insignificant, unimportant. 
Und (Ger.). And. 

Unda maris (Lat. ). An open 8 ft organ stop of an undulating character. 
Undecima (It.). Eleventh; the interval of an eleventh. 
Undecimenakkord (Ger.). Chord of the eleventh. 
Undecimole (Ger.). A group of ii equal notes. 
Ungarisch (Ger.). Hungarian. 
Ungebunden (Ger.). Free. 
Ungeduldig (Ger.). Impatient. 

Ungefahr (Ger.). About, nearly. J = 54 ungefdhr, J = about 54. 
Ungerader Takt (Ger.). Ternary time. 
Ungestiim (Ger.). Impetuous, wild. 
Ungleiche Taktart (Ger.). Ternary time. 

Ungleichschwebende Temperatur (Ger.). Unequal temperament. 
Unharmonischer Querstand (Ger.). False relation. 
Uni (Fr.). United; past part, of unir. 
Unione (It.). Union, connection; coupler. 

Unione al G. Org. Coupled to Gt. 

Unione del G. Org. coU* Esp. Gt. coupled to Sw. 
Unis. (i) Abbr. of Unisoni. (2) Plur. of uni. 

Unis. 8a. Abbr. of unisoni ottava, in unison with the octave. 
Unisono, -a (It.). In unison, unisonous, plur. unisoni, -e. 

Unisono al primo flauto. In unison with the first flute. 
Unisson (Fr.). Unison. 

Unitamente (It.). Conjointly with, together with. 
Unito, -a (It.). United, joined. Arpe unite, harps united. 

Unito air Esp. Coupled to Sw. 
Unmerklich (Ger.). adj. Imperceptible, adv. Insensibly. 

Unmerklich belebend. { T„o^r,o;Ki,, ^„;,.i.^«i«« 

Unmerklich drangend. ( Insensibly quickenmg. 

Unmerklich etwas bewegter. Very slightly more animated. 

Unmerklich zu Tempo I. Insensibly (returning) to Tempo I. 
Uno, -a (It.). One. 

Uno ad uno. One by one. 

Uno solo. Only one, a single one (masc). Una sola (fem.). 
UnregelmaBige Bewegung (Ger.). Irregular motion. 
Unrein (Ger.). Impure; out of tune. 

— 211 — 

Unreiner Ton. A false note. 
Unruhig (Ger.). Restless. 
Unschuldig (Ger.). Innocent, pure. 

Unter (Ger.). Under, beneath, among, between. Sometimes marked 
in piano duets, where the hand of one player crosses under that 
of the other, oben (above) being indicated in the other part. 

Unter der Stimme. Under the voice, sotto voce. 

Unterbrochene Kadenz. Interrupted cadence. 

Unterdecke. The back of a stringed instrument. 

Unterdominante. Sub-dominant. 

Untermediante. Sub-mediant. 

Untersatz, or UnterbaB. Sub-bass. 

Untersetzen. In piano playing, to pass the thumb under. 

Untersetzung. In piano playing, the passing-under of the thumb. 

Unterstimme. The lowest part. 

Untertasten. The lower {i. e. the white) keys on a keyboard. 

Unterwerk. The lowest manual on an organ. 
Unverziert (Ger.). Unadorned, unembellished. 
UnvoUkommen (Ger.). Imperfect. 

UnvoUkommene Kadenz. Imperfect cadence. 
Uomo (It.). A man. plur. Uomini. 
Upbeat. The unaccented part of the bar. 
Upbow. The movement of the bow from the point to the nut. 
Upper partials. v. Harmonics. 
Ut (Fr.). The note C. Cors en Ut, horns in C. 

Ut bemol majeur. C flat major. 

Ut diese mineur. C sharp minor. 

V. Abbr. of violino, vocej volti, etc. 

V. S. Abbr. of volti subito, turn over quickly. 

V. V. (Occasionally written as "W") Abbr. of violini, 
Va. Abbr. of Viola. 

Vacillando (It.). Vacillating, wavering. On stringed instruments, 
meaning the same as the Ger. Bebung, or Fr. Balancement {q. v.). 
Vacillant (Fr.). Wavering. 
Vaghezza (It.). Charm, grace. 
Vago (It.). Undefined, ambiguous. 

Valore (ft^^* I ^^^ Valour, bravery. (2) Value (of notes, etc.). 

Valse (Fr.).' Waltz. 

Valves. A mechanism appUed to brass instruments with a cup- 
shaped mouthpiece, which changes the length of the tube by 
diverting the air current through supplementary tubes of varying 
lengths, thus instantly altering the pitch. The two forms of valves 
now in general use are the piston and the cylinder, the former 
being found usually in England and France, the latter in Germany 
and Italy. There are usually three valves, the first lowering the 
pitch 2 semitones; the second i, and the third 3, occasionally 4. In 
some bass instruments a 4th valve is added, lowering the pitch 
5 semitones. Since the Harmonic Series {q. v.) can be obtained 

. 14* 

— 212 — 

with every difference of pitch, it follows that by means of the 
valves (either singly or in combination) every note of the chromatic 
scale can be obtained. For the easier production of the high notes, 
instruments are also made in which the third valve raises the 
pitch 2 semitones, the complete chromatic scale being obtained 
as before with the exception of d^. Sax invented instruments 
with 6 valves, each acting independently of one another: these, 
though giving truer intonation, have disadvantages, and have 
been never much employed; an example of their use may be 
found in d'Indy's Le chant de la Cloche. 

Vaporeux, -euse (Fr.). Vapoury, vaporous. Indication implying 
a very Ught delicate execution. 

Var. Abbr. of variation. 

Variamente (It.). Variously. 

Variantemente (It.). Differently; with variety. 

Variationen (Ger.). j Variations 

Variations (Fr.). ( Variations. 

Variato (It.). Varied. 

Variazioni (It.). Variations. 

Varie (Fr.). Varied. 

Vaterlandisches Lied (Ger.). A patriotic song. 

Vaut (Fr.). Is worth, is equal to. From valoiy, to be worth. La J 
vaut la J^ de la mesure precedente, the J equals the J^ of the preced- 
ing bar.' 

Vc. Velio, Abbr. of Violoncello. 

Veemente (It.). Vehement, impetuous. 

Veemenza (It.). Vehemence, passionate fervour. 

Vehemenz (Ger.). v. Veemenza, Heftigkeit. 

Velato (It.). Veiled, muffled. The term is applied to voices, and is 
used in the sense of coperto {q. v.) for drums 

Vellutato (It.). Velvety. 

Velo (It.). A cloth or veil; the cloth used for muffling a drum. 

Veloce (It.). Quick, rapid. 

Velocemente (It.). Quickly, rapidly. 

Velocissimamente (It.). Sup. of velocemente. 

Velocissimo (It.). Sup. of veloce. 

V^incli^ ilV; ! Velocity, rapidity. 

Velocity (Fr.). 

Velout^ (Fr.). Velvety. 

Ventil (Ger.). A valve. 

Ventilhorn. A valve horn. 

Ventilposaune. A valve trombone. 

Ventiltrompete. A valve trumpet. 
Venusto (It.). Graceful, charming. 
Vepres (Fr.). Vespers. 

Veranderungen (Ger.). Variations, alterations. 
Verbindung (Ger.), Connection, combination, union. 

Verbindungsakkord. Connecting chord. 

Verbindungszeichen. A tie, slur. Bogen is often used in^the 
same sense. 
Verdeckt (Ger.). Covered, hidden. 

Verdeckte Quinten. Hidden fifths. 

— 213 — 

Verdoppelt (Ger.). Doubled. 

Verdoppelung (Ger.). Doubling. 

VergroBern (Ger.). To increase. 

VergroBerung (Ger.). Augmentation. 

Verhallend (Ger.). Dying away. 

Verhaltnis (Ger.). Relation (of intervals, etc.). 

Verkehrung (Ger.). Inversion, cf. Umkehrung. 

Verkleinern (Ger.). To diminish. 

Verkleinerung (Ger.). Diminution. 

Verklingend (Ger.). Dying away. 

Verkiirzend (Ger.). Drawing closer together, stringendo. 

Verkiirzung (Ger.). A drawing closer together, stretto. 

Verlag (Ger.). Publication. 
Verlagsrecht. Copyright. 

Verlauf (Ger.). Course, progress. Im Anfang ruhiges, im Verlauf 
bewegtes Tempo, at the commencement, tranquil, in the course 
(of the movement) animated tempo. 

Verliebt (Ger.). Loving, tender. 

Verloschend (Ger.). Dying away. 

Vermindert (Ger.). Diminished. Eine verminderte Quinte, a dimi- 
nished fifth. 

Verminderung (Ger.). Diminution. 

Vemehmlich (Ger.). Distinct, clear. 

Vers (Fr. ). A verse, usually used in the strict sense of a line of a poem. 

Verschiebung (Ger.). A shifting. In piano music, "the shifting" or 
soft pedal. Mit Verschiebung, with the soft pedal; ohne Verschie- 
bung, without the soft pedal. 

Verschieden (Ger.). Several, various. Die verschiedenen Stimmen 
abwechselnd, various voices alternating. 

Verschmelzen (Ger.). To blend. Die Tone verschmelzen, to blend the 
notes, cf. Empater. 

Verschwindend (Ger.). Dying away. 

Versetzen (Ger.). To transpose. 

Versetzungszeichen (Ger.). Accidentals. 

Verstarkend (Ger.). Strengthening (the sound); rinforzando. 

Verstarkt (Ger,). Strengthened. 

Verstarkung (Ger.). A strengthening. 

Vertauschen (Ger.). To exchange. 

Vert(h)eilt (Ger.). Divided. 

Vertonen (Ger.). To compose. 

Vertonung (Ger.). Composition. 

Vertraumt (Ger.). Dreamy. 

Verwandte Tonarten (Ger.). Relative keys. 

Verwechs(e)lung (Ger.). Change, inversion. 

Verzierend (Ger.). Ornamental. Der verzierende Vorschlag, the 
ornamental appoggiatura. 

Verzierter Kontrapunkt (Ger.). Figurate counterpoint. 

Verzierung (Ger.). An ornament, embellishment, plur. Verzierungen, 
Verzierungsnote. A grace note. 

Verzogerungen (Ger.). Retardation. 

Verzweifelt (Ger.). Broken-hearted, despairing. 

VerzweiflungsvoU (Ger.). Despairingly, full of despair. 

— 214 — 

Vezzosamente (It.). Gracefully, prettily. 
Via (It.). Away, off. 

Via Tunione. The coupler off. 
Via sordine. The mutes off. 
Vibrante (It.). Vibrating, resounding. 
Vibratissimo (It.). Sup. of vibrato. 

Vibrato (It. ). Vibrated. Term applied to both voices and instruments, 
and signifying attacking the notes vigorously with a certain ringing 
tremulousness. cf. Balancement. 
Vibrazione (It.). Vibration. 

Vibrer (Fr.). To vibrate. Laisser vibrer, let vibrate. 
Vibrieren (Ger.). To vibrate. In dem Streichquartett mehr vibrieren 
lassen als iremolieren, in the string-quartet more a vibrato than a 
Vibrierend (Ger.). Vibrating. 
Vicendevolmente (It.). Alternately, reciprocally. 
Vicino (It.). Near. 

Vide (Fr.). Empty. Corde d vide, an open string. 
Viel (Ger.), Much, many. 

Viel bewegter. Much more animated. 

Viel Bogen (wechselnd). Many changes of bow. 

Viel gemessenere Bewegung als zu Anfang. Much more measured 

movement than at the commencement. 
Viel langsamer. Much more slowly. 
Viel ruhiger. Much more tranquil. 

Viel Ton ! Much tone ! Indication denoting a resonant vigorous 
Vielle (Fr.). A hurdy-gurdy. 
Vielstimmig (Ger.). Polyphonic. 

Vier (Ger.). Four. Die vier Taktschldge bedeutend schneller als vorher 
die Viertel, the four beats of the bar considerably faster than 
the previous crotchets. 

Vierfach. Fourfold. Often written 4fach. 
Vierhandig. For four hands. 

Vierklang. A chord of four notes, specifically a chord of the 7th. 
Vierstimmig. In four parts. 
Viertaktig. Four bar rhythm. 
Viertel (Ger.). A quarter. A crotchet. Das 3te Viertel immer kurz 
abgesto/ien, the 3rd crotchet always shortly detached; die Viertel 
langsamer als vorher die Achtel, the crotchets slower than the 
previous quavers. 

Viertel schlagen. Beat crotchets. 

Viertelnote. A crotchet, — usually abbreviated to Viertel. 
Viertelpause. A crotchet rest. 

Viertelschlag. A crotchet-beat. Die Viertelschldge etwas ruhiger 
als vorher^ the crotchet-beats somewhat more tranquil than 
Viervierteltakt (Ger.). V4 time. 
Vierzweiteltakt (Ger.). V2 time. 
Vif, vive (Fr.). Quick, lively. 
Vigore (It.). Vigour. 
Vigorosamente (It.). Vigorously. 

— 215 — 

Vigoroso, -a (It.). Vigorous. 
Vigueur (Fr.). Vigour. 

vill^elle (Fr.'ii ^ Pa^toral poem or song. 

Villareccio, Villereccio, Villesco (It.). Rustic, pastoral. 

Villota (It.). A Venetian folksong. 

Vinata (It.). A vintage song. 

Viola (It.). A bowed instrument with 4 strings tuned to c, g, d\ a\ 
and with an orchestral compass to about c'". It is written in the 
alto clef, the treble clef being used for the highest register. The 
tuning may be said to be invariable, although instances are found 
in Le Pre aux Chrcs (Herold) and Don Quixote (R. Strauss) where 
the 4th string (c) is lowered a semitone. In some modern Ger. 
scores the term Viola is now used instead of Bratsche, the plur. 
being Violen instead of the It. viole. 

Viola alta (It.). A viola designed by Hermann Ritter, who aimed 
at producing one, in which the length of the strings should bear 
the same proportion to the body as it does in a violin. It is larger 
than the ordinary viola, possesses a fuller and more resonant tone, 
and has a 5th string tuned to e", to enable the player to execute 
the high passages of modern scores with greater facility. Wagner 
introduced some of them into his Bayreuth orchestra, but, in spite 
of advantages, they are not in general use, since they require a 
performer endowed with exceptionally large hands. 

Viola d'amore (It.). An obsolete instrument of the viola type, with 
seven strings {d, f^, a, d', f'^, a\ d"), and with seven others tuned 
sympathetically, and running beneath the bridge. The obbligato 
to Raoul's Romance {Les Huguenots, Act I) is intended for this 
instrument, and illustrates its facihty in producing harmonics. In 
the score the part is merely indicated as '*Un Alto solo"; it was 
originally written as a violoncello solo, and is now usually played 
on an ordinary viola. The instrument has been recently revived. 

Viola da gamba (It.). Practically an obsolete instrument, although 
now being cultivated in some quarters. It resembles a violon- 
cello, and has 6 strings, D, G, c, e, a, d'. The instrument was 
made in different sizes, and occasionally with 7 strings. 

Viola- Streichzither (Ger.). An instrument of the zither type, but 
played with a bow. It has 4 strings tuned c, g, d', a'. 

Viole d'amour (Fr.). v. Viola d'amore. 

Violen (Ger.). Plur. of Viola, which is now the term found in modern 
Ger. scores instead of Bratsche. 

Violent (Fr.). Violent, impetuous. 

Violentamente (It.). Violently. 

Violent© (It.). Violent, impetuous. 

Violin. A bowed instrument with 4 strings tuned g, d\ a\ e". In 
orchestral music the compass extends to d"'\ or e"", and by the 
use of harmonics several notes higher. When it is used as a 
solo instrument, Paganini and others have altered the tuning for 
the sake of greater brilliancy, and Saint-Saens in his Danse Macabre 
directs the solo violin to tune the ist string to e'''^; in the orchestra, 
the tuning may be said to be invariable, although R. Strauss has 
on occasion altered the 4th string to ^[7 (/j(). 

— 2l6 — 

Violin clef. Now, the G clef on the 2nd line, the ordinary treble 
clef; the old French violin clef had the G clef on the ist line. 
Violin diapason. An organ stop of 8 ft. 
Violine (Ger.). A violin. Violin- in combination, plur. Violinen. 
Violinboden. The back of a violin. 
Violinbogen. A violin bow. 
Violinconcert. v. Violinkonzert. 
Violindecke. The belly of a violin. 
Violinhaare. Hair for a violin bow. 
Violinkasten. A violin case. 
Violinkonzert. A violin concerto. 
Violinschliissel. The violin clef. 
Violino (It.). A violin, plur. Violini. 
Violino primo. First violin. 

Violino principale. The leader of an orchestra ; the solo violinist 
in a concerto. 
Violon (Fr.). Violin. 

Violoncell (Ger.). A violoncello, plur. Violoncellen. 
Violoncelle (Fr.). A violoncello. 

Violoncello (It.). A bowed instrument with 4 strings tuned C, G, d, a, 
the 4th string (C) being very occasionally lowered a semitone, as 
at the commencement of Samson et Dalila ( Saint- Saens) and Also 
sprach Zarathustra (R. Strauss). In the orchestra its compass may 
be said to extend to e'\ although modern composers do not fear 
even the a" (5th symphony, Mahler). For the lower register the bass 
clef is used ; for the upper both the tenor and the treble, the latter 
often with the signification that the notes are an octave higher 
than the actual sounds. This peculiarity however is seldom found 
in modern music (and never unless the G clef immediately follows 
the F clef), yet Mahler is careful to add a note to the passage cited 
above: — NB. Nicht eine Oktave tiefer. (Not an octave lower.) 
Virtuos (Ger.). A virtuoso, a clever artist, great master. Used in 

compounds, e. g. Hornvirtuos, Violinvirtuos, etc. 
Virtuosita (It.). ) 

Virtuositat (Ger.). [ Virtuosity, consummate skill, artistic perfection. 
Virtuosite (Fr.). ) 
Virtuoso (Fr. and It.). A virtuoso. 
Vis (Fr.). A screw. 

Vista (It.). Sight. A prima vista, at first sight. 
Vistamente (It.). Quickly. 
Vite (Fr.). Quick. 

Vite (It.). A screw (such as one for the nut of a bow). 
Vitement (Fr.). Quickly. 
Vitesse (Fr.). Quickness, celerity. 

Vivace (It.). Lively, brisk, gay, vivacious. A term implying an 
execution faster than allegro. 

Vivace con grazia. With vivacity and grace. 
Vivace ma non troppo. Quick, but not too fast. 
Vivace scherzoso. Lively and playful. 
Vivacemente (It.). Hastily, with vivacity. 

Vivacetto (It.). Diminutive of vivace; lively, animated, gracious. 
Vivacissimo (It.). Sup. of vivace; very quick, brisk, etc. 

— 217 — 

vis (Fr ')•. I Vivacity, ardour, fire. 

Vivamente (It.)- Briskly, gaily. 

Vive (Fr.). Fern, of vif ; quick, lively. 

Vivement (Fr.). With animation, quickly, with spirit. 

Vivido (It.). V. Vivace, Vivo. 

Vivissimo (It.). Sup. of vivo. 

Vivo (It.). Full of life, animated; term indicating a performance 

faster than allegro. 
Vllo. Abbr. of violoncello. 
Vo. Abbr. of violino. 
Vocale (It.). Vocal. 

Vocalisation (Fr.). Vocalisation; the art of singing on vowels. 
Vocalise (Fr.). v. Vocalizzo. 
Vocalisieren (Ger.). I ^ vocalise 
Vocalizzare (It.). ( ^° vocalise. 
Vocalizzazione (It.). Vocalisation. 
Vocalizzo (It.). A singing exercise on vowels. 
Voce (It.). Voice. 

Voce buona. A good voice, which according to Lichtenthal may 
be chiara (clear), sonora o di metallo (sonorous or ringing), 
piena (full), intuonata (singing), agile (agile), flessibile (flexible), 
robusta (powerful), forte (strong), grata (pleasing), dolce (sweet), 
pastosa (mellow), ricca d'estensione (of an extensive compass), etc. 
Voce cattiva. A bad voice, which according to the same authority 
may be debole (weak), sottile (thin), strillante (screeching), 
gagliarda (stubborn), nasale (nasal), di gola (throaty), appannata 
(worn), velata (veiled), etc. 
Voce di media. The medium register of a voice. 
Voce di petto. The chest voice. 
Voce di testa. The head voice. 

Voce umana. At one time a name for the cor anglais. An 8 ft 
reed stop on the organ. 
Voci (It.). Plur. of voce. 

Voci miste. Mixed voices. 
Voicing. Regulating the tone of an organ pipe. 
Voil6 (Fr.). Veiled, muffled. Term applied to voices of a veiled 
quality of tone, and to drums when covered with a cloth or other- 
wise muffled. Charpentier in Impressions d' Italic directs his horns 
to be at times voiles. 
Voile (Fr.). A veil or cloth; the cloth placed over drums for the 
purpose of muffling them. Une voile sur le peau de la Timbale, a 
cloth on the skin (head) of the kettledrum. 
Voix (Fr.). Voice. 

Voix celestes. A stop of an undulating character in an organ, 
each note being sounded by two pipes, one of which is tuned 
a little sharper than the other. 
Voix de poitrine. The chest voice. 
Voix de tete. The head voice. 
Voix humaine. v. Vox humana. 
Voix voilee. A veiled voice. 
Vokalisieren (Ger.). To vocalise. 

— 2l8 — 

Vokalmusik (Ger.)- Vocal music. 

Vokalquartett (Ger.). Vocal quartet. 

Volante (It.). Flying. Term indicating a light, rapid, delicate 

Volata (It.). A flight; a roulade.^ 

Volk (G^r.). The people, the populace, the lower classes. Volks- in 

Volkslied. A song of the people. 
Volkst(h)umlich. Popular, national. 
Volkston. The fashion of the people. 
Volksweise. A melody of the people, a popular air. 
Vol! (Ger.). Full, whole, complete. -^ 5 voile Takte lang, y^ 5 complete 
bars long. Voll is also used as a suffix, like "-ful" in English; 
Gefiihlvoll, full of feeling, Klangvoll, full of sound (resonant). 
Voiles Orchester. Full orchestra. 
Voiles Werk. Full organ. 

Voiles ZeitmaB. The full time (of the movement). 
Vollkommen. Perfect. Vollkommene Kadenz, perfect cadence. 
Voll Riihrung. Full of emotion. 
Voll Sehnsucht. Full of yearning. 
VoUstimmig. Full-voiced, full-toned. Vollstimmiger Akkovd, i\x\\ 

chord; Vollstimmiger Chor, full-voiced choir. 
Vollstimmigkeit. Full tone; complete harmony. 
Volltonig. Full-toned, sonorous. Dieser Akkord sehr kurz und 
volltonig abgestofien, this chord very sharply staccato and 
Vollig (Ger.). Complete, perfect. In vdlliger Eniriickung, in perfect 

Volonte (Fr.). Will, wish. A volonte, at will, ad libitum. 
Volta (It.). Time (not in the sense of tempo). Prima (la) volta, first 

time; seconda (2a) volta, second time. 
Voltare (It.). To turn. 
Volteggiando (It.). Flying. Term implying a very light and rapid 

Volti (It.). Turn over, P. T. O. 

VoltiS: I Turn over quickly. 

Volubilmente (It.). Lightly, flippantly. 

Vom (Ger.). Compound of von and dem; of the, by the, from the, etc. 

Vom Anfang ohne Wiederholung bis zum SchluB. From the 
beginning to the end without repetition. 

Vom Blatte spielen. To play at sight. 

Vom Frosch. By the nut (of the bow). 

Vom Zeichen. From the sign. 
Von (Ger.). From, by, of, etc. 

Von Anfang. From the commencement. 

Von einem geschlagen. Struck by one (performer). 

Von hier ab im ZeitmaB. Henceforward in tempo. 

Von hier an nicht mehr schleppen! Do not slacken from here 

Von zwei Paukenschlagern auf beiden Seiten. By two kettle - 
drummers on both ends (of the bass drum). 

— 219 — 

Vorangehend (Ger.). Preceding. 

Vorausnahme (Ger.). Anticipation. 

Vorbereiten (Ger.). To prepare. Ces tind Fes vorbereitefiy prepare 

C7 and Fi7. (Direction in harp part.) 
Vorbereitet (Ger.). Prepared. 

Vorbereitete Dissonanz. A prepared discord. 
Vorbereitung (Ger.). Preparation. 
Vorgeiger (Ger.). Leader of an orchestra. 
Vorgreifung, Vorgriff (Ger.). Anticipation. 
Vorhalt (Ger.). Suspension, retardation. 
Vorhanden (Ger.). Existing, present, at one's disposal. Wenn vor- 

handen doppelt hesetzt, when possible the parts to be doubled. 
Vorhang (Ger.). Curtain. 

Vorhang (geht) auf. The curtain rises. 
Vorhang fallt. The curtain falls. 
Vorher (Ger.). Previously, formerly. 
Vorhergehend (Ger.). Preceding, previous. 
Vorherig (Ger.). Previous, preceding. 

Vorheriges ZeitmaQ. The preceding tempo. 
Vorig (Ger.). Preceding, previous. J = ^' des vorigen Zeitma^, J = ? 

of the preceding tempo. 
Vorsanger (Ger.). Leader of a choir, a precentor. 
Vorschlag (Ger.). Grace -note, appoggiatura. Die Vorschldge kurz 

und sehr deutlich, the grace-notes short and very distinct. 

Vorschlage so schnell als moglich. The grace-notes as quick as 
Vorspiel (Ger.). A prelude. The opening symphony of a song. 
Vorspieler (Ger.). Leader, principal performer. Die Vorspieler an 

den 3 ersten Pulten, the leaders of the first 3 desks. 
Vortanz (Ger.). The "fore-dance" ; the first dance in a series of dance 

Vortrag (Ger.). Execution. Vortrags- in combination. 

Vortragsbezeichnungen. Signs of execution ; marks of expression, 

Vortragsstiick. Executive piece, a "show piece", morceau de concert. 

Vorwarts (Ger.). Forwards, onwards. Term corresponding to 

Vorzeichnung (Ger.). Key signature. 
Vote (It.). V. Vuoto. 
Vox humana (Lat.). A soft 8 ft stop on the Swell or Choir organ, more 

or less resembUng the tone of the human voice. 
Vuoto, -a (It.). Empty. Corda vuota, an open string. Vuota is some- 
times marked when there is a rest for all the parts, cf. G, P. 


W. Abbr. of Violini. Sometimes written "W". 
Wachsend (Ger.). Increasing the sound, crescendo. 
Wachtel (Ger.). A quail. The indication is found in the Pastoral 
Symphony, where the oboe imitates the cry of the bird. 
Wachtelpfeife. An instrument used for imitating the note of 
the quail. The bird's call can also be imitated by chipping 
two clear-sounding pebbles together. 

— 220 — 

Wagner Tubas. These instruments are practically saxhorns (alto in 
E]? and bass in B|7), or more strictly speaking saxotrombas {q. v.), 
with certain modifications. As originally devised they were inten- 
ded to be played by horn-players, the pistons (3 or 4) being control- 
led by the left hand, as in a horn, and the bell, instead of being 
directed vertically upwards, being bent to the right of the player ; 
and, unlike the ordinary saxhorns, they were to be played with 
a horn mouthpiece. In practice, the original intentions have been 
departed from, and the parts are now usually played by a trombone 
or euphonium-player, with a trombone mouthpiece. In Das Rhein- 
gold and the Prologue to G otter ddmmerung, the 2 tenor tubas are 
written in Bb, and the 2 bass in F; for the remainder of the Ring, 
they are in Ej? and Bt? respectively, and in this latter case Wagner 
has used the bass clef with the same signification as in horn 
music, the notes being written an octave lower than their proper 
notation. It is to be observed that this alteration in the pitch 
of the tubas is only apparent, and affects merely the parts as 
given in the scores; in the separate parts, the instruments are 
Tenortuben in B (B[7) and Bafituhen in F throughout the whole 
of the Ring. Wagner altered their notation in the scores of Die 
Walkiire, Siegfried and the three acts of Gotter ddmmerung under 
the impression that he thereby made the parts easier to read. 
Bruckner, Nicode, etc. have also employed these instruments. 
Wahrend (Ger.). While. 

Wahrend der 3te Flotist die kleine Flote nimmt. While the 3rd 
flute takes the piccolo. 
Wald (Ger.). Wood, forest. 

Waldf lote. A Ger. organ stop of tin, metal or wood, of 2 ft. 
Waldflute. An Eng. organ stop of wood of 4 ft. 
Waldhorn. Originally a term for the hunting horn {trompe de 
chase), it then became the name of the orchestral natural 
horn. To prevent confusion of nomenclature, it is preferable 
to confine the term to the latter instrument, calling the 
hunting horn by its other name of Jagdhorn. 
Waldpfeife. v. Waldflote. 

Waldteufel. A "Wood-devil" ; an instrument of tin or cardboard 
used in comic fantasias to imitate the whistling of the wind. 
Wankend (Ger.). Undecided, wavering. 
Warme (Ger.). Warmth. 
Wechseln (Ger.). To change, alter. 
Wechseln in F. Change into F. 

Wechseln mit Klarinetten in A. Change to clarinets in A. 
Wechselnote (Ger.). A changing note. 
Weglassen (Ger.). Omit, leave out. 
Wehmut(h)ig (Ger.). Woeful, sorrowful. 

Weich (Ger.). Soft, tender, delicate, gentle. Mit einem weichen 
Kloppel geschlagen, struck with a soft bass-drumstick. 
Weiche Tonart. The minor key. 
Weich gestoBen. Lightly detached; light staccato. 
Weich gestrichen. Gently bowed. 
Weich und bewegt. Soft and animated. 
Weich und getragen. Soft and sustained. 

— 221 — 

Weichheit (Ger.). Tenderness. 

Weichherzig (Ger.). Kind-hearted, compassionate. 
Weinend (Ger.). Crying, weeping, lachrymose. 
Weite (Ger.). Wide, dispersed. 

Weite Harmonic. Extended harmony. 

Weite Lage. Extended position. 
Wenig, weniger, am wenigsten (Ger.). Little, less, least. 

Weniger abgemessen. Less measured (faster). 

Weniger breit. Less broad. 

Weniger lebhaft. Less animated. 

Weniger stark. Less powerfully. 
Wenn (Ger.). If, in case. 

Wenn ein Harmonium vorhanden ist. If an harmonium be 
Werden (Ger.). To become. Etwas breiter werden, become somewhat 

Werk (Ger.). Work. plur. Werke, 
Wesentlich (Ger.). Essential, real. 
Wie (Ger.). As, like. 

Wie am Anfang. As at the commencement. 

Wie ein Kondukt. Like a funeral procession. 

Wie friiher. As before. 

Wie gepeitscht. Like the crack of a whip. 

Wie oben. As above. 

Wie Orgeltone. Like organ tones. 

Wie traumend. Dreamily. 

Wie vorher. As previously. 

Wie vorhin. As before. 

Wie wiitend dreinfahren. As though angrily interposing. 

Wie zuvor. As before. 
Wieder (Ger.). Again, once more. 

Wieder belebend. Again becoming animated. 

Wieder belebter, wie zuvor. Again more animated, as before. 

Wieder beschleunigend. Again quickening. 

Wieder bewegter. Again more animated. 

Wieder das vorhergehende HauptzeitmaB. Again the previous 
principal tempo. 

Wieder etwas gedehnter. Again somewhat more drawn-out. 

Wieder etwas ruhigeres Tempo. Again a somewhat more tranquil 

Wieder etwas zuriickhaltend. Again somewhat slackening. 

Wieder friiheres ZeitmaB. Again the previous time. 

Wieder gedehnter. Again more drawn-out. 

Wieder gemessener. Again more measured. 

Wieder lebhafter werdend. Again becoming more animated. 

Wieder maBig. Again moderate. 

Wieder nachlassend. Again slackening. 

Wieder noch einmal so langsam. Once more as slow again 
(twice as slow). 

Wieder ruhiger, wie zuvor. Again more tranquilly, as before. 

Wieder schnell. Again fast. 

Wieder sehr lebhaft. Again very animated. 

— 222 — 

Wieder sehr maBig. Again very moderate. 
Wieder zogernd. Again lingering (slackening). 
Wieder zuriickhaltend. Again slackening. 
Wiederholen (Ger.). To repeat. 
Wiederholung (Ger.). Repetition. 

Wiederholungsstrich. The sign for the repetition of a phrase. 
Wiederholungszeichen. The sign for a repeat. 
Wiederkehr (Ger.). The re-entry of a part. 
Wiederschlag (Ger.). Repercussion; the reappearance of a subject 

in a fugue. 
Wiederum (Ger.). Again. 

Wiederum klaglich. Again mournfully. 
Wiegenlied (Ger.). A cradle song. 
Wild (Ger.). Furious, ferocious, feroce. 
Wind (Ger.). The wind. 

Windharfe. The ^olian harp. 
Windkasten. Wind-trunk. 
Windlade. Wind-chest. 

Windmaschine. A wind-machine. An instrument which is used 
in theatres to imitate the rising and falUng of the wind; 
R. Strauss has employed one in Don Quixote. 
Wind-band, (i) A military band, a band composed of wind-instru- 
ments. (2) The wind-instruments (the "Wind") of a symphonic 
orchestra, as opposed to the "Strings". 
Wind-chest. That portion of an organ in which is collected compressed 
air ready to be admitted into the pipes. Each manual possesses a 
separate wind-chest, and occasionally even a single stop may have 
one of its own. 
Wind-instruments. These, while strictly speaking including such 
instruments as the organ, harmonium, concertina, etc., are usually 
taken to be those in which the wind is supplied by the human 
lungs. They are divided into "Wood" and "Brass", — convenient, 
though inexact definitions. Whether the material, out of which 
a wind-instrument is constructed, affects the tone is a subject 
fiercely debated : some declaring that a trumpet of papiermache pro- 
duces a tone indistinguishable from that of the ordinary trumpet ; 
others being equally emphatic that an instrument of (say) alu- 
minium produces an indifferent tone. But in any case, the tone 
depends mainly on the shape and proportions of the instrument, 
and on the form and material of its mouthpiece. This in the Brass, 
is cup-shaped, while in the Wood, it may be merely an orifice, 
as in the flutes, a single reed (clarinet family), or a double reed 
• (oboe and bassoon families). In the Brass, the lips of the per- 
former may be said to act as reeds. 
Wind-trunk. That portion of an organ which conveys the wind from 

the bellows to the wind-chest. 
Wirbel (Ger.). (i) A peg of a stringed instrument. (2) A roll on a 
drum. Einen With el schlagen, to give a roll. 

Wirbeltrommel. The tenor drum, now generally called Ruhr- 
Wirbeln (Ger.). To roll on a drum. 
Wischer (Ger.). A swab or mop for cleaning wood-wind instruments. 

— 223 — 

Wohl (Ger.). Well. Word used in combination with many words. 
Wohlgefallig. Pleasing, agreeable. 
Wohlklang. Concord; harmony; melodiousness. 
Wohlklingend. Melodious, harmonious. 
Wohllaut. A concord. 
Wood-wind, or merely Wood. The instruments in a symphonic 
orchestra forming a group opposed to the "Strings" and "Brass". 
The tone of the horn being, except for special effects, more nearly 
allied to the Wood than the Brass, the instrument is frequently 
associated with the former, and is often placed between the 
clarinets and bassoons in the score. 
Wort (Ger.). A word. plur. Worte 6- Worter. 
Wuchtig (Ger.). Weighty, heavy, pesante. 

Wuchtig, jedoch nicht schleppend. Heavily, but not dragging. 
Wiirde (Ger.). Dignity, noble bearing. 

Wiirdevoll. Full of dignity, dignified. 
Wut(h)end (Ger.). { r> ■ * • 
Wiitlhjig (Ger.). 1 ^^§^^&' ^"^^°^^- 

Xylophon (Ger.). Xylophone. 

Xylophone. A species of harmonica composed of strips or cy- 
linders of wood, played upon by two little wooden hammers. 
It is made of various sizes, and possesses a compass of about 
3 octaves from e or g, its effective notes lying between c' and c'". 
The notes are sometimes written an octave lower than the actual 
sounds. It has been used by Saint-Saens {Danse Macabre), Humper- 
dinck {Hansel und Gretel), Holbrooke {Queen Mab), Mahler {6th 
Symphony), etc. 

Zampogna (It.). A bagpipe. 

Zankisch (Ger.). Quarrelsome, cantankerous. 

Zapateado. A wild Spanish dance, in which the performers strike 

their shoes with their hands. 
Zapfenstreich (Ger.). The tattoo, la retraitex in a wider sense, the 

public performance of a military band, 
Zart (Ger.). Tender, delicate, soft. 

Zart gesteigert. Gently worked-up. 

Zart gesungen. Dehcately sung. 

Zart hervortretend. Softly prominent. 

Zart und liebevoll. Tender and affectionate. 
Zartflote (Ger.). A 4ft stop on the organ, the flauto dolce. 
Zartlich (Ger.). Sweetly, tenderly. 

Zartlich bewegt. Gently stirred, with gentle movement. 

Zartlichkeit. Tenderness, affection. 
Zarzuela (Sp.). An opera with spoken dialogue; an operetta. 
Zeffiroso (It.). Like a zephyr. Term indicating a very light delicate 

— 224 — 

Zehn (Ger.). Ten. 
Zeichen (Ger.). Sign, indication. 
Zeigefinger (Ger.). The index or first finger. 
Zeit (Ger.). Time. 

Zeitdauer der Noten. The time-duration (value) of notes. 

Zeiteinteilung. The division of the time (movement). 

Zeit lassen. Allow time, do not hurry. 

Zeitmass, ZeitmaB. (Spelt in Wagner's works as "Zeitmaass".) 
Measure, time, tempo. Das Zeitmafi sehr allmdhlich beschleu- 
nigen, very gradually quicken the tempo. 

Zeitmass des ersten Sttickes. Time of the first piece. 

Zeitmesser. A metronome. 
Zelante (It.). Zealous, fervent, ardent. 

ido at.): \ Zeal, ardour. 

Zelosamente (It.). Zealously, ardently. 

Zeloso, -a (It.). Zealous, full of affection. 

ZerflieBend (Ger.). Melting away, dying away. 

Zergliederung (Ger.). Analysis, dissection (of a chord, etc.). 

Zerstreut (Ger.). Dispersed, scattered. 

Zerstreute Harmonic. Extended harmony. 
Ziehen (Ger.). To draw; to string a violin; to draw-out, sustain. 
Ziehharmonika (Ger.). The accordion. 
Ziemlich (Ger.). Moderately. 

Ziemlich bewegt. Moderately stirred, with moderate movement. 

Ziemlich geschwind, doch kraftig. Moderately quick, but power- 

Ziemlich langsam. Moderately slow. 

Ziemlich lebendig. Moderately animated. 

Ziemlich lebhaft. Moderately fast. 

Ziemlich rasch. Moderately rapid. 

Ziemlich schnell. Moderately fast. 
Zierlich (Ger.). Graceful, elegant, dainty. 

Zierlichkeit. Gracefulness, prettiness, daintiness. 
Zierat(h)en (Ger.). Ornaments. 
Zigeuner (Ger.). A gipsy. 

Zigeunerartig. In the gipsy style. 

Zigeunermarsch. A gipsy march. 

Zigeunermusik. Gipsy music. 
Zilafone (It.). A xylophone. 

Zingano, -a (It.). A gipsy. Zingana, a gipsy song or ballad. 
Zingara (It.). A gipsy (fem.). plur. Zingare. 
Zingaresca (It.). A gipsy song. 
Zingaro (It.). A gipsy (masc). plur. Zingari. 
Zinke (Ger.). (i) A cornet d bouquin {q. v.). (2) A reed organ stop. 

Both now obsolete. 
Zither. An instrument possessing some 30 or 40 strings, of which 
5 or 6 are used for the melody and plucked by a plectrum fastened 
on to the thumb, while the remainder are employed to form an 
accompaniment and are played by the four fingers. The melody 
strings are placed above a fingerboard with frets as in a guitar. 
For instruments with 36 strings the compass is from Bi to /". 

— 225 — 

Zittern (Gcr.). To quiver, tremble. When used as a noun, it is 
equivalent to Bebung {q. v.). 

Zittern der Stimme. Faltering. 
Zitternd (Ger.). Quivering, tremulous, tremolando. 
Zogernd (Ger.). Lingering, hesitating, ritardando. 
Zoppo, -a (It.). Lame, halting: syncopated. 
Zornig (Ger.). Incensed, irate. 
Zu (Ger.). To, at, by, for, in. 

Zu sehr. Too much, troppo. 

Zu zwei Handen. For two hands. 

Zu vier Handen. For four hands. 

Zu 2. Used in the sense of a 2, and meaning either that 2 instru- 
ments play the same part, or, less frequently, that a number 
of instruments playing one part divide into two. 
Zufallig (Ger.). Accidental, casual. 

Zufalligkeitszeichen. Accidentals. (Flats, sharps, naturals.) 
Zuf(f)olare (It.). To whistle; to play on a whistle or flute. 
Zuf(f)olino (It.). Whisthng; a small flute or fife. 
Zuf(f)olo (It.). A whistle, pipe, flageolet. 

Zug (Ger.). (i) A draw-stop on an organ or harmonium. (2) The 
slide of a trombone or trumpet. (3) The pedal of a piano. 

Zugknopfe. Composition studs or buttons. 

Zugposaune. Slide trombone. 

Zugtrompete. Slide trumpet. 

Zugwerk. The mechanism in general of the draw-stops. 
Zum (Ger.). Combination of zu and dem, to the, for the, etc. 

Zum Privatgebrauch. For private use. Term often found on 
full scores, and meaning that the copy must not be used for 
public performance. 
Zunehmend (Ger.). Increasing, crescendo. 

Zunehmende Bewegung. Increasing movement, becoming faster. 
Zunge (Ger.). A tongue. Of instruments, a reed. plur. and in 
combination, Zungen. 

Zungenblatt. The reed of a clarinet. 

Zungenpfeife. A reed pipe on an organ. 

Zungenschlag. On wind-instruments, tonguing. A lie in den 

Bldsern als ^ notierten Stellen sind mit Zungenschlag auszu- 
fiihren, all passages in the Wind marked ^ are to be tongued. 

Zungenstimmen. Reed pipes in an organ. 

ZungenstoB. The attack with the tongue (on a brass instrument). 
Zungenwerk. Reed-work in an organ. 
Zupfend (Ger.). Plucking, pizzicato. 

Zuriick (Ger.). Back, backwards, behind. A word often used in 

Zuruckfiihrend. Leading back. 

Zuriickgehend. Going back, returning. 

Zuriickhaltend. Holding back, restraining, slackening. 

Zuriickhaltung. A holding back. 

Zuriickkehrend. Returning. Wieder zurUckkehrend in das 
Hauptzeitmaji, again returning to the main tempo. 

W o 1 1 o n , Dictionary. I ^ 

— 226 — 

Zuriickstiinmen. To tune back, to retune. C nach H zuriick- 
stimmen, tune C back to B. 
Zus. Abbr. of Zusammen. 
Zusammen (Ger.). Together, at the same time, in all. 

Zusammen 3 Schlager. 3 drummers in all. 

Zusammengesetzt. Composed, made up of. 

Zusammensetzung. Something put together; a composition. 

Zusammenklang. Harmony, concord. 

Zusammenziehend. Drawing together, stringendo. 
Zwei (Ger.). Two. 

Zwei Bratschen allein (ites Pult). Two violas alone (ist desk). 

Zweichorig. For two choirs: on a piano, two strings to one note. 

Zweifach, 2fach. Two-fold. 

ZweifiiBig. Two foot (adj.). A term applied to 2ft organ pipes. 

Zweigesang. A duet. 

Zweigestrichene Oktave. Twice accented octave, c'" to fe". 

Zweihalbe Takt. V2 time. 

Zweihandig. For two hands. 

Zweimal. Twice. 

Zweistimmig. For two voices or parts. 

Zweitaktig. Two-bar rhythm. 

ZweiunddreiBigstel. A demisemiquaver. 

Zweivierteltakt. V4 time. 
Zweite, Zweites (Ger.). Second. 

Zweite Lage. Second position. 

Zweites Paar. Second pair. 
Zwischen (Ger.). Between. 

Zwischenakt. Between the acts, entr'acte. 

Zwischenaktmusik. Music played between the acts. 

Zwischenraum. Space between the lines of the stave. 

Zwischensatz. An episode. 

Zwischenschlag. The two grace notes at the end of a shake. 
V. Nachschlag. 

Zwischenspiel. Interlude. The symphony between the verses 
of a song. 

Zwischenton. An intermediate note. 
Zwolf (Ger.). Twelve. 

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